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3 1833 01125 8834 

M. L. 





































* Deceased. 













[The President, Vice-Presidents, Recording Secretary, 
Treasurer, and Librarian are members of the Executive 

The two volumes now issued form the Collections of 
The New York Historical Society for the years 1919 and 
1920, being volumes 52 and 53 of The John Watts de 
Peyster Publication Fund. They contain the continuation 
of the Cadwallader Golden Papers, being Volume III 
1743-1747, and Volume IV 1748-1754 each volume having 
an analytical index. 

The Golden Papers which cover the period 1714-1775 
came into the possession of the Society by gift on October 
5, 1852, from the late Ogden Hoffman, grandson of Gad- 
wallader Golden. 

January 23, 1922. 





From John Rutherfurd 

Albany Jan: 10*^ 1743 

I have by your Son the pleasure of yours & am glad 
to hear by him that Mrs. Golden & all your Family are 
well. I found your Conversation soe agreeable that I 
assure you the Correspondence you propose gives me the 
utmost Satisfaction as I shall undoubtedly reap both 
pleasure & profit from it, soe I desire you'l write me 
freely your thoughts on any subject you happen to be 
imployed on at the time & I shall endeavour to recall 
what I have read & thought upon the same, proposing 
to you any difficultys I may have upon other subjects. 
I have been thinking of writing to you ever since I left 
you but find no opportunitys but by York with the Post 
who comes here only once a Month & I fancy you have 
but few opportunitys of getting letters from York at 
this season soe pray let me know if there's any where 
on the road The Post could leave letters for you. I find 
my retirement here perfectly agreeable & for this reason, 
that 'tis compleat, divideing my time equally for Mathe- 
maticks, Philosphy, Politicks, &c without being inter- 
rupted in any Shape by Family cares of publick affairs 
as hitherto I have allways been, which has made me 
often wish for such a year intirely to myself. I find by 
most of my letters from London & Scotland that Factions 
& Partys are soe subdivided & exasperated against one 
another that there must surely be strange work in carry- 
ing on our Publick affairs this Sessions at London & I 
think myself very happy in being out of the Bustle, tho 
I shall long for our ships in the spring to See how mat- 
ters have gone there & the more as The affairs of The 
Empire & of Italy were by our last accounts in the most 
uncertain situation tis possible to Conceive, As the Em- 

2 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

perors fate must depend on the success of the Battel 
twixt His Forces & Marshall Maillebois on the one hand 
& The Duke of Tuscany & Austrians on the other who 
had left the siege of Prague in order to meet the French 
before they should reach Bohemia. Don Philip with 
French auxialiarys had penetrated into the heart of 
Savoy & was ready to pass the Mountains & The King 
of Sardinia obliged to leave the pursuit of Duke Monte- 
mar's army in order to defend his own Dominions. One 
can't help regretting however That while soe Great 
affairs & changes are carrying on that we tho at a greater 
expence in Military preparations than any Power in 
Europe should be doeing nothing at all for ourselves & 
very litle either in favour of our friends or in prejudice 
of our Enemies. I find they have no later acc*^ at Boston 
than we have here, As Govemour Shirley writes me noth- 
ing but what we had at the Same time from York. The 
French in Canada are oppressed with a scarsity amount- 
ing allmost to a Famine & have a good deal of difficulty 
in supplying their Out forts with provisions. I want 
much in case of a New treaty that they give us up 
Crown point which they've built upon Ground in this 
Province formerly patented & the Patent reduced as ex- 
travagant by the Assembly, I'm surprised after that how 
Governor Coseby came to allow them to fortify there, 
from whence in a Weeks time they can plunder Boston 
or Albany, without soe much as protesting against it or 
takeing measures to prevent it. I have wrote Gover- 
nour Clarke that I think we ought at least to make a 
formall demand of it from The French here & transmit 
it home after which The Ministry can't pretend ignor- 
ance of it, nor The French Prescription & uninterrupted 
possession. Govemour Clarke in his two last letters to 
me seems prodigiously anxious about Oswego & indeed 
if The French Should attack it, I don't see any possi- 
bility of Saveing it, Tho we've done what's possible at 
present by sending two Indians to remain there till the 
Traders goe up in the Spring & I have ordered Capt 
Clark immediately on being attacked to send one of them 


to the Senekas & the other by The High Germans & 
Mahocks here, The German & Mahock Militia haveing 
orders to march directly on receiveing the Message; but 
after all I can't think were in any danger of being at- 
tacked this winter. I delay comeing to any fixt resolu- 
tion about Land schemes till we see in the Spring what 
turn things are like to take when I hope I shall have the 
pleasure of meeting you at York. I want much to know 
a litle of The Situation of The Province as to their Bills; 
The yearly Value & amount of the Quitrents of The 
Customs &c. If you have any Notes of these things by 
you I beg you'l oblige me with them, if not, I reckon 
our Country Man Mr. Kennedy can & will upon your 
writeing to him Satisfy our Curiosity in them. Pray 
remember my respects to Mrs. Colden & all your Good 
Family & Believe me 
Dear Sir 

Your most obed* humble Servant 

John Rutherfurd 

From John Bartram 

January y« 16*^ 1742/3 
Dear Friend D"" Colden 

If I had not had some Aquaintance with thy person 
& disposition I should be apt to think thee Could hardly 
believe y^ pleasure I received in reading thy agreeable 
letter of december y^ 22"^ which I received yesterday, it 
put mee in mind of what our friend Collinson wrote to 
mee last fall desireing me to Call & see thee for I should 
find thee a man after my own heart, — I had before sent 
three letters to thee without receiving any answer which 
almost discouraged me from writing to thee, yet resolved 
to write once more, I am now prety well recovered from 
my Sickness since which I have been twice at egg har- 
bour once I gave thee An account of I think in my letter 
sent with y® wallnuts which I am glad to hear is under 
thy Sons Care but I had rather thay had been sent 

4 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

directly up to thee as soon as thay arived at York. I 
had taken Care to keep them in A moderate moist vige- 
tative Condition until y^ day that y^ sloop Sailed with 
them but if thay dry or mould in y*' box I doubt y^ vigi- 
tive life will be distroyed before thay are planted: — which 
I would have performed after this manner. After A 
spot of ground is diged or plowed then how or plow A 
furrow two inches deep & two foot between one furrow 
& another then drop y® nuts therein about six inches 
Asunder & cover them even with y® earth ; next summer 
if thay grow well thay will be six eight or ten inches high 
& fit to transplant y® spring following (where thee would 
have them to remain) for thay shoot down A long tap 
root & are dificult to remove so as to live if thay grow 
several years befor their removal; if thee plants them 
for standards for timber or bearing nuts then sixty foot 
will be near enough but if for hedges thay should be 
planted about three foot asunder & when thay are 
grown as thick as ones arm thay may be plashed in y* 
begining of March or Just before y'' sap interposeth 
between y'' bark & wood, Pray hath your river been frosen 
so hard this winter so as to hinder boats from passing 
Along from your parts to York our rivers hath been open 
all along & we have had warm weather for y® season, & 
I have now in my Garden y® Meserion, Black helebore, 
grounsel hen bit, Esula & Veronica in flower & many 
others is budding; But wee had A very sharp time of 
frost & snow y® beginning of November y^ first day of 
which it fell with us A foot deep but A bout half way 
betwixt us & y*" Sea it was near two feet deep, from 
which place it gradualy diminnished to y^ shore where 
there was little or none; I write of my own knowledge for 
Above A week after it fell I stood near y" head of Egg 
harbour river up to y^ knees in snow gathering pine 
Cones of A perticular sort to send to Europ ; & it rained 
fast from morning till night in which I was exposed all 
day at which time at my house it snowed, but from y^ 
midle of november we have as Afores*^ fine weather but 
rain once or twice A week. 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 5 

I am obliged to thee for Recommending me to Captain 
Rutherford I should Gladly embrace such an opertunity 
if I have health and Can leave my family so long espe- 
cialy if I have orders from London next spring to Con- 
tinue my Perigrinations Our friend Peter informs me 
that he is looking out for A new Subscriber in Lord 
Petres room, it would be A great pleasure to me to accom- 
pany A Gentleman of such learning & qualification & I 
suppose of A very Curious tast too that in his Circum- 
stance would have undertaken A Journey to Oswago or 
resolve to venture down Susquehana as far as Conestoge 
amongst y*" Indians pray what perticular Motives in- 
duceth y^ Captain to undertake such desolate difficulties 
is it for Animal mineral vigetable or Georgraphical dis- 
coveries thus to hasard his life & health, what attendance 
doth he intend to take with him what will he do for an 
interpreter amongst y® Indians or provisions between y* 
Christian settlements of your Government & ours, — these 
things ought to be considered where to meet & what 
course to take in order for our Journey & Communicate 
our resolutions to each other before wee fully conclude 
when to set out that we may not disapoint one another. 
I am obliged to thee for thy information of y® New Edi- 
tion of Lineus Characters Plantarum I design to send 
for it by y® first opertunity, — I have now under my Care 
A fine stone as Clear as Cristal but of A delicate purple 
in dimention two inches long one & half broad & one 
thick drawn to A Point wit six iregular angles y® basis 
seems to have been joyned to A whiteish spary flint 
A boy found it in A cart rout about 20 miles from my 
house this may give A hint that our province is not 
destitute of gems for our gould smiths takes it to be a 
fine Amethist it indures y^ fire; No doubt but your moun- 
tainous part of y® Country abounds with vairietys, if 
thay could be found might aford pleasure if not Profit, 
y^ 18th yesterday we had afternoon A storm of snow it 
cleared up last night with A.N.W. which Continueth 
exceeding Cold as commonly I have known it, — Now A 
little to manifest my regard I have for thy family, how 

6 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

doth thy dear spouse fare as to health, Part of y^ bounty 
Bhe was pleased to bestow upon me I enjoyed on y^ top 
of y^ Catts kill mountain & part I brought home for my 
wife to taste how dilicately you fared in y^ north Coun- 
trey ; How doth thy Son that liveth with the & thy other 
son & his wife that is settled by y^ rivers bank how doth 
thy Pretty daughters at home I shall be glad to hear of 
your wellfare : Pray write as often to me as conveniency 
will permit: A brisk lively & free Corispondence is very 
agreable to thy sincear friend 

John Bartram. 

Dr. Cadwalladkr Coldbn 
at Coldengham 

From John Rutherjurd 

Albany March 2^ 174 2/3 

About a fortnight agoe I had the favour of yours by 
Mr. Dunlop & as the river is now allmost quite open I 
expect to have an opportunity of sending you this in a 
day or two assuring you I was much intertained with 
your scheme of applying Fluxions to Physics, for tho I 
doubt of your being, by means of them, able to make 
any progress in things of that nature; yet I find it helps 
the imagination prodigiously, which is of great use in 
things where we are apt soe soon to lose ourselves. Alge- 
bra being the Analysis of Finites is a sure guide on all 
occasions but Fluxions or Analysis of Infinites I'm afraid 
will lead us to no truths but in Geometry being only a 
Method of finding an infinitely small quantity which 
taken an infinite number of times becomes equal to a 
finite quantity the use of which is, that these infinites 
haveing relations to one another, that the finite quan- 
titys of which they are parts have not, soe by working 
upon them, problems are resolved and Curves squared, 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 7 

which could not, or with difficulty be done without them, 
but when we talk of Physicks what we call infinite is 
then, indefinite, haveing no other Idea of it than addi- 
tion or multiplication of numbers which is properly none, 
likewise the uncertainty of all reasoning in Physicks in 
which our knowledge has hitherto been all obtained by 
observation, chance & experiments, not by reasoning, on 
the contrary our knowledge in Geometry we owe to reason 
alone. Your manner of reasoning is clear & distinct & 
I beg you'l goe on, for I long to see you apply this method 
to other parts of Natural philosophy as well as light, I 
can't help here taking notice of the dijBferent thoughts 
and opinions of our greatest Philosophers about Light & 
Vision, it haveing allwayes been disputed & as much 
now as ever, what light consist in. The Antients want- 
ing the advantage of later experiments I shan't mention 
their notions. Descartes makes Light as it exists in the 
Luminous body, only such a motion in its parts as to 
act upon the nerves in the eye by the vibrations of his 
Materia subtilis which you know he substitutes in place 
of the antient aether & with which he fills all space, soe 
Malebranche too explains Vision as he does Sound, & 
as sounds are communicate by the vibrations of the 
sonorous body acting upon the air, raiseing a sort of 
vibration or rather undalation therein felt by the im- 
pulses thereby made in the ear; So Light by the rapid 
motion of the parts of the Luminous body & their vibra- 
tions & quick pulses communicate to the subtile matter 
twixt the body & eye & felt by impulses on the nerves 
there. Sir Isaac Newton allows of a Subtile Spirit or 
Etherial Medium but in a different manner from Des- 
cartes, & makes no use of it in his doctrine of Light, 
Light being according to him real particles emitted with, 
as you call it, infinite force or motion, in infinite quan- 
titys &c from the Luminous body itself. Since him 
again The Great Boerhave has given us a different doc- 
trine of Light in his famous chimical Lectures & experi- 
ments upon fire, where he seems with some of our most 
antient Philosophers to make Fire a sort of Anima 

8 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Mundi, For he asserts its presence every where; attrib- 
uteing Motion, Action & all changes in the Universe to 
its effects. Fire propagate confusedly or quaquaversum 
is heat, Fire propagate in strait & parrallel lines is light. 
That fire is every where present & can be rendered vis- 
ible by attrition in all places in the coldest as well as 
warmest, That there is no such thing as absolute want of 
fire in nature is plain by observeing the different degrees 
of heat best measured by its effects on air in a Ther- 
mometer which we see is eternally expanding & con- 
tracting without one moments rest, as is indeed all other 
bodys in nature tho not soe visibly as being according 
to their density, tho plain by the experiment of heating 
rods of Metal, Glass, Stone &c. all which grows longer & 
dilates by heat & in proportion contracts again as they 
cool. The greatest degree of heat as marked on the Ther- 
mometers that Animals can live in is when the spirit of 
Wine is dilated to 94 degress that being the greatest heat 
of blood the moment it passes that every liveing thing 
dies, when tis reduced to 32 degrees which is the freeze- 
ing point for water & we may call cold, yet by a smaller 
& smaller Motion of fire viz: greater & greater cold tis 
brought down thro all the different degrees to one which 
is the greatest cold hitherto known in Nature haveing 
been brought there only 1709 in Iceland. Now tho Na- 
ture produces no greater rest of fire or cold than to 1- 
degree yet by art & Chimical preparations to no less 
than fourty degrees lower can the Spirit of wine be 
reduced & partly frozen with many other things not 
freezeable by nature. Haveing thus asserted fire to be 
every where present throughout the Universe, he allows 
of a power in the Sun either by his precipitate motion 
round his axis, or by some such power as the repulsion 
we observe in many natural bodys opposite to attraction 
as a speculum to repel, direct, or reflect that vague fire 
existing everywhere in right parallel lines, giveing now 
the Idea of light, tho befor by moveing confusedly & 
indeterminately it gave only the Idea of heat more or 
less according to the degree of motion in it. Gravesend 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174^-1747 9 

The great Explainer, Teacher & Defender of Su* Isaac 
Newton's Philosophy, agrees however with Boerhave in 
his doctrine of Light. You will observe as to Colours, 
reflexions, refractions &c. tis the same which of these 
doctrines we chuse, as we can allow the same propertys 
magnitudes &c. to the particles of fire, as to the particles 
Sir Isaac supposes thrown & emitted out of ignited 

I suppose you have a Copy of The propositions you 
have been soe good as to send me soe I keep them to 
compare at more leisure with what you shall send me 
further upon that subject. This Quarrel which hap- 
pened 'twixt our Indians & Virginia is a most unlucky 
affair, The six nations are now met together at Onon- 
dago & we have sent up our Interpreter along with The 
Mahocks to keep them from comeing to any resolution 
till we hear from the Governour which we ha'n't as yet, 
what puzles us most is a strong report of The Onondago's 
haveing sent to Canada to engage the Mahocks there to 
join them & to beg a supply of Ammunition from The 
Canada Governour, we have besides a letter from some 
people we keep as Smiths in the Seneka's Country, that 
A Seneka Sachem is sent to desire the Ottawa's & some 
other Nations to stay at home this Summer, who are the 
people you know that use to trade at Oswego & they 
have ordered all their young folks home from hunting. 
Should The French make a proper use of this opportu- 
nity to engage intirely The Seneka's & Onondago's 
among whom they have great Interest allready. There 
is an end at once of our possession of Oswego, of the Furr 
& Skin trade & of the friendship of all the Indians, for 
as The rest of the nations are very inconsiderable in com- 
parason of these two soe their resolutions must be fol- 
lowed by all the rest. I really think by all our last news- 
papers from England, which Mr Franks has been soe 
good as to send me up, There never appeared a more 
favourable opportunity of reduceing the power of The 
House of Bourbon. The British, Hanoverian & Hessian 
troops ready to attack Lorrain, The Kings of Poland & 

10 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Prussia's troops ready to join us The Czarina and Swe- 
den now in peace & ready to support The Queen of 
Hungary allready in a manner victorious in Germany. 
The people in power in Holland I see won't part with it, 
but I don't doubt but they'l soon be forced, the whole 
body of the people as all their troops being in the British 
& Orange Interest. It would be hard however upon us 
here should The French have the pleasure of affronting 
& plundering us from Crownpoint at the same time they 
are overpowered every where in Europe. My best re- 
spects to Mrs. Golden & all your good Family & believe 
me with great esteem Dear Sir 

Your most obed^ & most humble servant 

John Rutherfurd 

From Peter Collinson 

LoND March 2**: 174 2/3 
My Dear Friend 

Doc Golden 

You have loaded mee with many Favours how I shall 
make ample Returns I know not but if you will allow 
mee Time & have patience, I may in some measure tes- 
tifie my Gratitude, If I may judge of y'' Disposition I 
^swade myself you'l prove a merciful Creditor and then 
by Little & Little I may Discharge my Oblegations 

Butt att this Season is our greatest hurry of Business 
that I am afraid I shall be only able to acknowledge the 
Favour of yrs of May 5th April 9th and y® 13^^ with your 
printing and Botanic Scheme's Inclosed 

You will expect I should give you some account of y"" 
curious manuscript I cannot do it to my Likeing — Our 
people are so wretched Mercenary they are unworthy of 
it — It is now in the hands of I think an honest ingenious 
printer, (if I am not mistaken) In my next you will 
hear more from Mee, I am ^swaded it will meet with 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 11 

approbation from the publick, but the way to introduce 
it, is through such wretched narrow spirited Creatures 
who are wholly govem'd by Interest that it is really 
discourageing for an ingenious Man to sett pen to paper 
if the Common good did not counterballance all other 

I shall att my leisure consider your Botanic Essays 
as to your printing Scheme a printer that is esteem'd a 
knowing Man and of great business gives this answer to 
it for it is out of my province — He says your Scheme has 
been tryed long ago by good hands but was found to be 
expencive and inconvenient in very many respects & at 
no Rate will do for anything else but Bibles, prayer 
Books &c and even in them it is very difl&cult, for altera- 
tions are not safely made, tho' the author of the scheme 
thinks otherwise — 

and as to authors it would be a discouragement to 
them for this method would att least cost them as much 
as printing a thousand Copies in the common Way, for 
the composeing is the Cheif part of the expence the press 
work only coming to a trifle 

It would be Easie to convince any %on of the imprac- 
tibility of the thing and the vast expence that would 
attend it by a few Minutes Conversation 

Now my Dear Friend I confide in your Humane and 
candid disposition to excuse Mee from adding further 
but that I am your obliged & affectionate Fr*^ 


I have a Letter from J. Bartram who is full of gratitude 
for the kind reception att Coldenghem Your affabile & 
Generous Treatment He will never forgett and I indeed 
have a due sence of the Favours shown him being partly 
on my recommendation 

Doci" Cadwallader Golden 

New York. 

12 THE GOLDEN PAPERS-174a-1747 

Cadwallader Golden to Peter Collinson 

[Unaddressed and Undated Copy.] 

Dear S"" 

I have your kind letter of the 2*^ of March & think 
my self exceedingly obliged to you that you take time to 
write to me in the midst of so much business especially 
after I had been so imprudent as I have too much reason 
to fear to overload you with too much writing. As I 
am grown old & begin to be infirm I am desirous to make 
the most of a correspondence such as I have long wished 
for & I am in hopes that my intentions in writing of 
being in some measure usefull will with your temper 
excuse much how far soever I come short in the execution. 

As to the Indian History I can truely say that if it 
had not been to grant your desires I had never more put 
Pen to paper on that subject & if [it has] been accept- 
able by way of amusement or any how to you I have the 
reward proposed to my self in writing it. But as you 
thought that it might likewise be acceptable to the 
Publick & of some use I submitted the Publication to 
your Judgment & as in such case a profit may reasonably 
be expected from the Publication I own'd to you that 
the Circumstances of my Family were such as not to 
allow me to despise any reasonable share in that profit. 
If any thing of this kind happen it will be an extraordi- 
nary Profit which I did not propose to my self in the 
adventure & for which I shall think my self soley obliged 
to you & be it what it will I am confident it will be more 
than I could have obtain'd by my own Industry had I 
been upon the spot myself. 

It seems my misfortune to trouble you with Discov- 
eries which I thought my own have happen'd to have 
been tried by others before This is owing to my knowing 
so little of what passes in the World. I must own how- 
ever that a few years since I read in one of the London 
News papers that a New Method of Printing was dis- 
cover'd which it was thought would be of use to the 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 13 

advancement of Learning & a particular Benefit to 
Authors but of the Manner not the least hint was given 
This led me to think what possibly this Method of Print- 
ing might be on which occasion the Scheme which I sent 
you occurr'd to my Fancy And as my own appear'd to 
me feasible & I heard nothing further of that mention'd 
in the News paper I concluded they might be different 
& mine of use tho the other should have fail'd. 

Mr Grahams Arguments fully convinced me that the 
improvements I proposed for a Quadrant can not answer 
my expectations but I cannot say I am as much con- 
vinced that the method of printing can not succeed from 
the Objection the Printer has made to it. For the charge 
of composing & of the paper being the chief charge in 
printing when one composing may serve for an age or 
longer & for 100 Editions it seems to me a strong argu- 
ment in favour of the New Methodrather than an Objec- 
tion to it. But perhaps the prejudice one has in favour 
of his own conceits & a Jealousy that Printers may 
oppose what (torn) to their*own Interest may make me 
a less proper Judge. My situation in this Country 
puts it out of my Power to make any experiment of 
that Method of printing otherwise could I have pro- 
cured as many types of the fashion & Mettel which I 
propose as might be suflScient to compose one page I 
should have put the matter out of Dispute before I had 
sent my thoughts of it so far as England. But as the 
First Author is in England & has all the opportunities 
he can desire to recommend it it is needless for me to 
think further of it. Only if you be acquainted with him 
you may inform him that in case the charge of lead 
plates be thought too great that I think the impression 
from Types may be made on thin boards made of Lime 
tree or Poplar both which are of a smooth grain very 
soft while green & hard when dry & if any other thoughts 
I have had on the subject I shall be well pleas'd that he 
make what use of them he thinks proper can contribute 
to forward his designs. 

You told me that M"" Graham was pleas'd to express 

14 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

some satisfaction in the first Edition of the Indian His- 
tory I hope any Esteem he had of it will not be lessen'd 
by the 2^ Edition & therefore I must entreat you to offer 
him one Copy as the only acknowledgement I have at 
this time in my power for the favour he did me I shall 
think it a great Honour for me to have my name among 
the Authors of which so valued a Gentleman has any 

S"" what I formerly troubled you with was with design 
to furnish you with something of Amusement from this 
Country or in hopes that it might prove of more general 
use without any view to my private interest Now I shall 
presume to give you the trouble of a request in which I 
can use no other excuse but that it may prove of use to 
my self It is that you would please to send me a few 
ounces of good Sound Luseme seed for Experiment. 
From what I have read of that plant I intertain hopes 
that I have a proper soil for it & we have reason to think 
that our summers are more natural than those of Eng- 
land but there is much reason to doubt our Winters may 
be too cold as it seems to promise a great deal of Profit 
where it succeeds I am very desirous to make some 
experiment of it & I know not how to obtain any small 
quantity otherwise than by your favour. It would be 
most convenient for me to have it by the Fall ships in 
order to sow next spring for the Spring ships arive too 
late for that season. 

S'" If I could find it any way in my power to acknowl- 
edge the favours you have don me by any kind of service 
in this Country it would in some measure take off the 
uneasiness I am under from the trouble I have given you 
& therefor I hope you will imploy me without reserve 
in every thing wherein I can be of use to you or contrib- 
ute to your amusement 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 15 

Cadwallader Golden to Capt. John Rutherford 

[Unaddressed and Undated Copy] 

The uneasiness the Boatman was under with a fair 
wind (as I told you I expected I should) obliged to leave 
the Town before your return & deprived me of having 
the parting embrace All I can now say is that if in any 
manner I can serve you in your absence either by doing 
any thing for you in this Country or informing you from 
hence of any occurrencies that you may desire to know 
I will take your imploying me as a particular mark of 
your Friendship for which purpose I beg you will write 
to me as often as you have any opportunity & instruct 
me in what you desire & how to direct to you. Letters 
to me will come the more safely by being put under 
cover directed to M"" Richard NichoUs Post Master in 
New York. Pray make my complements to your Brother 
I wish both of you an agreable quick Voyage a Happy 
Sight of your Family & a Speedy return to us. 

I have lately fallen into a literary correspondence 
with a Gentleman who is curious in several branches of 
the natural History of America & I am told has an 
exceeding curious collection of that sort as well as the 
most compleat Garden of American Plants that is in 
Great Brittain. It is the more extraordinary by his 
being a Merchant (a Mercer) who seldom apply them- 
selves to any study that no way tends to advance their 
Cash. He seems to me to be a man of Generous prin- 
ciples & of universal Benevolence & as I expect for these 
reason that you will be very acceptable to each other I 
write the inclosed to give you an opportunity of seeing 
one another as he has a general correspondence over 
America & a considerable acquaintance with the Curious 
parfoT the Nobility & Gentry perhaps he may on some 
occasion be of use to you & therefore if you incline to 
see him you may deliver it otherwise burn it. M*" Alex"" 
& Bryant can tell you where he lives for I know not in 
what part of the town. 

16 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

It is probable you have some acquaintance with M"" 
Alderman Perry if you happen to meet with him pray 
offer my humble Service to him We were pretty inti- 
mate in some part of our youthfull days. My wife is 
exceedingly pleas'd with the hopes of seeing your Lady 
in this Country She desires you to tell her that she is 
confident she will neither dislike the Climate of this 
Country nor the Conversation of the Ladies. We both 
beg youl make our humble Service acceptable to her & 
to your Father S*" John whom I remember very well tho' 
I am confident he can remember very little of me I beg 
one line from you before you go that I may know what 
I am to do for you as to the land you mentioned & that 
I may have the pleasure of kissing your hand at parting. 
I give you the trouble of a letter to my Brother which 
please to send to the Post office at your arival in London. 

Pray don't forget me to M'' Ker How different are the 
Fates of mankind that I who was alwase a Grave fellow 
should live & dye among the Indians & the lively rake 
should gain the Virtuosa & live & dye a grave old man 
in his own Country I wish you could obtain some of 
his Memoirs which it seem he gives you hopes of My 
Service likewise to M'" Cleland I can remember his 
thoughts of young gerls were when he was young himself 
I should be glad to know from himself what they were 
at 60 when he married a gerl of sixteen. Pray my Duty 
to the Marquiss of Lothian if you see him I must not 
trouble you with every particular & [my service] in gen- 
eral to all them that remember me 

Cadwallader Colden to [Peter Collinson] 

[Unaddressed and Undated Copy.] 


I write this by Capt" Rutherford to give you & him 
an opportunity of meeting because I am persuaded you 
will both be pleas'd with each other. He is a Gentleman 
who besides a liberal Education has had the Advantage 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 17 

of seeing several of the Courts of Europe & of being 
Member of the British Parliament (so young as you see) 
upwards of seven years Tho he has been only about 12 
months in America many things may be learn'd from 
one of so universal knowlege that would in vain be 
enquired from another that may have spent as many 
years as he has don months in this Country. But had 
he none of these advantages I am persuaded there are 
some things natural to you both & which can never be 
acquired which will make you pleased with one another 
I have still another reason which tho a selfish one I will 
confess it is that I as I hope he will return to this Country 
may once in my life at least see the man who has seen 
you since I can not hope ever to see you myself & That 
we may see one another by Proxy 
I am 


yours much obliged & most humble servt. 

From John Rutherfurd 

Albany Aprile 19 1743 

I have now the favour of yours of the 2*^ inst & I own 
I begin now to think fluxions more founded in Nature 
than Ive done hitherto, not haveing befor thought of 
them in any other shape than in Sqareing curves in order 
to compare them & discover their propertys & there they 
are plainly Suppositions only, we takeing the Series to 
be equall to what we See by the figures befor us it is not, 
tho the difference being incomprehensibly Small we 
Suppose it vanished, yet I cant, as yet intirely agree 
with you, in our haveing any distinct Ideas of 'em tho I 
want much to have you goe on to apply that method of 
reasoning to Quantitys really existing, perhaps some new 
propertys or Connections may by that means appear to 
reward your Labour, tho if not, The Search of truths 

18 THE GOLDEN PAPER&-1743-1747 

has Something in it soe Soothing that I dare say you'l 
never repent your labour or time you bestow in it. You 
have a little mistaken my meaning in compareing the 
different thoughts of Descarts Newton &c. of Light for 
I meant there only Sir Isaac's Hipothesis laid down in 
one of his Quaeres at the end of His Opticks, & did not at 
all mean his Opticks viz : his experiments & observations 
on light in which his doctrine really consists in which he 
as you well observe lays down no Hipothesis how Light 
is produced but takes it as he finds it, divides it, proves 
it consisting of various particles capable of different de- 
grees of refraction, requireing different causes of reflec- 
tion, raising different Sensations of Colours &c. which 
is allowed now by all mankind to be one of the finest 
inventions & most delightfuU & intertaining of all the 
advantages Experiments has gained to Modern Phi- 
losophy by which it excells the antient. I can't conceive 
how it should make any difference, except in words, in 
your Philosophy to Suppose Light consisting of Particles 
constantly flowing out of the Sun, or to suppose, as I own 
I doe, that the Particles of Fire proven, as much as any 
thing in Physicks can be to exist every where & of dif- 
ferent uses propertys &c. as Sir Isaac proves them by 
which [they] are capable of affecting us with different 
Colours according [to the] difference of bodys acting dif- 
ferently on the different particles & haveing the appear- 
ance of Light only when reflected or rather constantly 
repelled by the Sun or other luminous body by Such a 
power as Sir Isaac has likewise proved existing in many 
bodys on earth acting it a distance viz: without contact 
on light: & when thus put in motion by Such a power 
in the Sun &c. are driven in Straight parrallel lines to all 
distances constituteing light while they keep Soe & heat 
alone with extreme, little light, when moveing irregu- 
larly I say, litle, because I can neither think there is any 
absolute Cold or Absolute darkness in the world. Fire 
as I observed above existing every where & more or less 
perceptible according to the various motions caused 
among its particles by the different bodys acting upon it. 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 19 

And I look upon this Fluid, (Medium, Fire, tis no mat- 
ter how 'tis named. Since tis plain what's meant, viz: 
what by the elasticity, variety, & motion of it particles 
is rendered Sensible to us in the different degrees of 
Heat, light &c. more or less according to the kind & 
degree of motion impressed on them.) as Sir Isaac in 
others of his Quaeres Supposes ^ther to be & even by his 
own account without this his imaginary emitted light 
Seems to be a meer nothing incapable of ever being per- 
ceived or indeed of any of those effects by which we 
mean light, happening to have his Opticks by me I'l give 
you his own words in his 23^ Quaere Is not Vision per- 
formed chiefly by the vibrations of this Medium excited 
in the bottom of the eye &c? And in his 18 Quaere after 
describeing an experiment to support his doctrine he 
says. Is not heat conveyed by the vibrations of a much 
Subtiler Medium than Air & is not this Medium the 
Same with that by which light is refracted & reflected & 
by whose Vibrations Light communicates heat to bodys 
& is put into fits of easy reflexion & easy Transmission? 
(& after) Is not this Medium exceedingly more rare & 
active more elastick & Subtile than air & is it not 
expanded thro' all the heavens? After his 28 Quaere he 
eays expressly. But how two ^Ethers can be diffused 
through all Space one of which acts upon the other & 
by Consequence is reacted upon, without retarding & con- 
founding one another's Motions is inconceivable You see 
then the Absurdity of his Hipothesis [of] light's being a 
Constantly emitted fluid & distinct from the other (torn) 
fills all the Universe the few Shadows of Planets Comets 
&c. being a point in regard of the whole & even there only 
a lesser degree of light, Soe that to Support this System 
we must Suppose three Such Mediums expanded thro 
Space acting upon one another Viz : Fire, Light, & ^Ether, 
which is plainly inconsistent with the simplicity of Na- 
ture & quite inconceiveable according to Sir Isaac's own 
opinion, & I have chosen to argue from him on account 
of the veneration you seem to have for him soe high, 
as to prefer him allmost infinitely to poor Boerhave, & 

20 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1745-1747 

11 allow you to prefer him to Boerhave & most people as 
a Mathematician, But I must prefer Boerhave & many 
others to him in Physicks, who haveing the advantage of 
his experiments and knowledge have at the same time 
added something of their own & I must therefor from 
Sir Isaac's own words above apply to him your worda 
speaking of Boerhave viz: that he was upon the right 
scent but had not gained a perfect & distinct Notion of 
the Subject on which he wrote. To humble you a litle 
further about Sir Isaac, tho no mortal can have more 
respect for his demonstrateing these laws of Nature he 
Soe wisely & wonderfully applys to the System of the 
world in his Principia & for his Optical discoverys Yet 
remember he differs 500 years in his Cronology from the 
rest of Mankind in which has not yet been followed by 
one Author at home or abroad nor can I ever envy a 
Man or call him truly Great who never enjoyed any 
pleasure in Society, dyed a Virgin, & wrote upon the 
Revelations. The Carterian fluids supposeing no Voids 
are now laid aside I See allmost every where for numer- 
ous reasons but I don't think Sir Isaac's argument of 
Lights not turning into the shadow alone sufficient to 
have destroyed their doctrine of Light, for I think they 
might answer thus waves of Water turns much in behind 
the obstacle, Air being rarer turns much less iEther infi- 
nitely rarer turns infinitely less viz Scarce at all & this 
on account of the immense difference of the Swiftness 
of the Motion in the Waves of these Three fluids as well 
as on the difference of their fineness elasticity &c. But 
as I readily give up all Fluids in that sense I shall add 
no more about 'em. I am firmly persuaded The Great 
Author of Nature at the Creation, of all possible Worlds 
chused the best or most perfect & allways maintains it 
soe, And as I reckon the Sun The heart or chief prin- 
ciple of Motion, Life &c., in our world I cant allow (torn) 
in the most infinitely small degree diminished in either 
bulk, Qualitys powers &c., for then the world must be 
better or worse at one time than another; But without 
goeing to any agruments of that nature which I own may 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174^-1747 21 

sometimes convince but can never be conclusive, I think 
an argument may be form'd in your own way thus, sup- 
pose each Strata of the Suns substance emitted as light 
as infinitely thin as you please Some thickness they must 
have & that taken an infinite number of times is equal 
to the Suns body, the difference of Infinitys won't answer 
it, for I can imagine the difference of the times as in- 
finitely small as you can the Stratums & much easier: 
the difference of emissions being apparently soe small as 
to give rather the idea of A constant stream than any 
succession at all & consequently attempt but to put the 
thickness of your Stratis in figures & the Sun will be 
very quickly exhausted. My Brother is arrived here 
from Philadelphia to pass a few weeks with me & joins 
with me in my respects to Mrs. Golden to you & all your 
young Folks. We have now letters from Governour 
Glarke The Governour of Virginia &c., anent makeing 
up the Virginia Quarrel with our Indians & I don't think 
we shall have much difficulty in it unless a War with 
France Happen immediately before we've time to finish 
the affair, For The Dutch you know are never in a 
hurry, & our Indian Commissioners are composed all- 
most wholly of them, but I shall quicken them as much 
as I can. I am 


Yours most obedient and 
most humble Servant 

John Rutherfurd 

From John Bar tram 

April ye 25*'^ 1743 
Dear friend 

I received thine of December ye 22*^ which I answered 
directly & sent by ye post according to direction: but 
have not received yet any answer from thee wheather thee 
receivd it; which I have A Considerable time expected: 

22 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

But ye Opinion I have entertained of thy good nature 
leads me to find several excuses for this Omision (I do 
not neglect) as ye difficult pasage from York to thy 
hands. For it may be thee waited to know more of ye 
Captains mind Concerning his tour down Susquehana in 
order to send me his answer; which may be A consider- 
able time in obtaining; or mine might miscary; 
I trust so much to thy generous disposition that thee will 
vouchsafe me an answer to my letters; tho thay con- 
tribute no way to thy instruction ; but are rather imperti- 
nent yet this insufficiency is for want of Capacity & not 
inclynation to oblige thee. 

I have this day received several letters from London 
which informs me of ye great Satisfaction I gave my 
Correspondents in what I sent last fall so that I ex- 
pect to travail A great way this summer & perhaps 
into your parts toward ye Mohocks Countery; therefore 
pray let me know how ye Captain is disposed for travail- 
ing this Spring; as soon as conveniency will permit; that 
I may know how to provide to accompany him; if our 
afairs & time will suite each other — at present I am 
waiting for Perticular orders by ye next ship from Lon- 
don which I expect soon will arive haveing not received 
any answer to my two last letters; I have no more to 
write to thee at present but to asure thee that I am thy 
loving & Sincear Friend 

John Bartram 

D^ Cadwalader Golden 
at Goldenham 
with speed 

From George Clarke 

New York June: 17^^ 1743 

You do me but Justice in supposing that I would 
acquaint you with any thing that might be injurious to 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 23 

you, did it come to ray knowledge, you judge rightly, it 
was a mistake committed by the Clerk and overlooked 
by M"" Moore, who is much concerned that it should 
happen, the Commission I have ordered to be sent for 
that it may be altered: As to the Letter the Council 
directed him to acquaint you with that Business, and he 
hopes that may in a great measure Excuse him: he 
showed me the Copy of his Letter to you, the Latter part 
whereof I think, and he is sensible of it, might have been 
otherways expressed, for instead of desiring you to write 
to him, he should have said the Board desired you to 
acquaint them &c.* But as there was I am persuaded 
no disrespect intended. I hope you will forgive Inadver- 
tencies: I am pleased that my thoughts correspond with 
yours, I asked if the Line was run by publick Authority, 
thinking that no other could be considered by us. I will 
lay your Letter before the Council: I wish you a good 
Journey and as little Trouble as may be in the Business 
you go upon being 


yours most obedient 
humble servant 

Geo. Clarke. 

Cadwallader Golden Esq*". 

From John Bartram 

June ye 26*^ 1743 
Esteemed friend 

I have received thy kind letter of May ye 13*** since 
which Captain Rutherford hath been at my house accom- 
panied with several Gentlemen of ye Chiefest distinc- 
tion in Philadelphia he appears to be A fine accomplished 
Gentleman — 

I am much surprised that thy neibour should tell thee 
that he left A letter at my house in March which Could 
not be else I should have heard of it or of him which I 
have not 

24 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

I have lately received orders from London to travail 
to gather ye seed of ye balm of Gilead cones & other 
species of ever greens; ye duke of Norfolk hath sub- 
scribed 20 Guineas ye duke of Richmond & another 
Gentleman fifteen more besides our Proprietor hath sent 

me orders to procure some Curiosities for him 1 am 

now providing for a Journey up Susquehana with our 
interpreter in order to introduce A Peacable understand- 
ing between ye Virginians & ye five nations we suppose 
ye meeting will be in ye Onondagues Countrey: I sup- 
pose not far from your fort Oswego we are to set out in 
A week or two : I do not yet know whether we shall ride 
up Susquehana any farther than ye great branch which 
runs westward (toward Alegeeny) where one of thair 
chiefs lives: whome we are to take with us to ye treaty 
& according to his advice we are to proceed either on 
horseback or by water up ye river as far as Navigable: 
thence by land to ye Onondagues river: this Journey I 
hope if wee have good success may afford us A find 
opertunity of many Curious observations ; & if thee pleas 
to be so kind as to write to ye Captain of your fort or ye 
minister in ye Mohocks Countrey in my favour; it may 
do me a Kindness in A strange Land ; if I should return 
home that way; & thorow Albany which I dont yet 
know; however thee may be assured of ye real friend- 
ship of they Sincear friend 

John Bartram 
I sent A letter in may by one of my 
acquaintance who promised to leave it 
at thy house or deliver it to thee 

Doctor Cadwallader Golden 
at Coldenham 

Recommended to the Gare of M^" Nichols 
^ yr Serv*^ 

Free L Evans 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 25 

Cadwallader C olden to John Bartram 

I was in Connecticut in the Execution of a Comiss" 
on an affair of Consequence to that Colony when I 
receiv'd yours of the 26^^ of June & stay'd there till 
towards the end of August by which I was deprived of 
the pleasure of writing as you desired of me So far as 
I can learn you retum'd without being in the Mohawks 
Country if you had I believe Mr Barclay the Minister 
there would have shown all the Civility in his Power 
on what I formerly wrote to him when you designed for 
that part of the Country I hope you have returned 
with ample Satisfaction to your own Curiosity by a 
Discovery of many New things in Natural History & 
that you will likewise take the Pleasure of Communicat- 
ing your Discoveries to the Inquisitive part of the World. 

These Avocations by Publick Business have entirely 
taken my thoughts from any subject in your Way I 
have been taken off from viewing the agreable Pheno- 
mina of the beautiful varieties in Nature to the Dis- 
agreable phenomina of mens perverse Actions But as 
this can give you no pleasure no more of it However 
that this summer may not be entirely lost to our Corre- 
spondence I shall acquaint you with something which 1 
though worth taking note of. As we past through the 
Country we were with much Civility entertain'd a few 
hours at their Governor'd house (M"" Laws) & had the 
Pleasure to see himself & his Children cloathed in a good 
handsom Silk of their own making & he told me that 
this year there would be above a hundred yards made 
in that litle Toun (Milford) They make silk Hand- 
kerchefs & stockens as well as Stuffs He takes a great 
deal of pains in being informed himself in the Mystery of 
the Silk Manufacture & in instructing his Neighbours 
If I be not mistaken this litle Town has done more with- 
out any publick incouragment than all the Colony of 

26 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174^-1747 

Georgia with the incouragement of I dont know how 
many thousand pounds of the Publick Money & by this 
we may see how in any shape publick Spirit is more 
useful than money 

I believe you may have often heard a complaint of 
the Expenciveness of Lawsuits that Justice must in a 
manner be bought at a Dear rate They have no reason 
for complaint of this sort in Connecticut for I believe 
no where are lawyers fees & other Court charges lower 
than there but such is the misfortune of all human affairs 
that the avoiding of one evil generally occasions twice 
as many. As in no place a law suit can be carried on so 
cheap so in no other place do they abound in them so 
much, they assured me that in the County Court of the 
place where we were, above 600 Actions were then de- 
pending. This occasions a litigeous humour among the 
People a perpetual caballing & attendance on their Courts 
An Avocation of their Minds from their Business & the 
Interest of their Families & a great Defect in their Indus- 
try. Besides tho' every man allmost in that Colony 
thinks himself a Lawyer yet perhaps hardly one man in it 
thoroughly Understand the Principle of the Law We 
may learn from this that nothing more prevents the 
advancement of any Art or Science than that of making 
it cheap & mean. We might observe the same as to their 
Religeous Notions no where more talk of Religeon or a 
greater pretence to skill in Theology to Sanctity among 
Indeviduals & no where are the Principles of Religeon 
less understood. 

In digging a well about a mile from my house at 
about 9 foot depth we came to Water In some places 
between the points of a Slaty rock the Water came out 
as black as ink & upon examining the joint we found 
in it a black fluid of the consistencie of a Syrup & in the 
same joint we found several small irregularly shaped 
clear white flinty stones or Spar It had nothing remark- 
able either as to smell or taste. Please to let me know 
if you have at any time met with such & your thoughts 
of what this black Fluid may be. The Oar or Veins of 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 27 

Minerals are observ'd to grow & to have their sperm or 
embryo (if I be not mistaken) in a Fluid State If they 
grow like other Vegetives they must in time come to a 
State of Maturity & after that decay & at last dye & 
come to Corruption So that this may likewise be the 
Mineral in a Corrupted State. Perhaps you can give me 
some light into this for I have no knowledge of the 
nature of Minerals 

As my son carries this I can have no doubt of its 
coming safe to your hands & gives me the pleasure of 
hoping that I cannot fail of having a full sheet at least 
from you after so long an Intermission in our Corre- 
spondence I am very affectionately 


From Peter Collinson 

LoND Sep-- 4^^ 1743 
My Dear Friend 

Pray make no apologys about the Length of y'" Letters 

they are very Entertaining If I have not time to 

write it is a pleasure to mee to Read — 

I never See your Indian History, the Fruits of great 
pains & Industry) but I am sensible of the great favour 
Shown Mee and of the many obligations I am under for 
It — a very Worthy & Ingenious Man Cap^ Middleton who 
Went to Hudsons Bay to find out the North west pasage 
haveing been 14 Voyages into that Bay In the Companys 
Service, had from time to Time collected Such Observa- 
tions as gave good reason to hope it was practicable He 
Laid them before The Admiralty Board, and he was 
Sent in the year I think 1741 and Winterd there & made 
all the Essays practicable but returnd fully convinced 
there was no passage — as He was a Good Naturallist He 
had Collected variety of Materials well worth the knowl- 
edge of the Curious, I happend to show Him y*" History 
He was delighted with It & said this will do very Well 

28 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174^-1747 

to publish with mine; & you shall Share iii the proflfits — I 
thought this a Luckky Incident Butt Some Malicious 
people have opposed Cap^ Middleton and rendred his 
Journals Suspicions att y^ admiralty Board — w''*' for the 
present has obliged the Cap* to Lay aside his first De- 
signe and now turns Author to Vindicate Himself — 

My Dr Fr^ as you yett ^sist in the opinion that your 
scheme for printing is very practicable as well as advan- 
tageous, but as I was no Judge of It, I engaged M"" 
Straham a printer to answer yours, He is Esteemd an 
Ingenious knowing Man So Shall referr you to his 
Letter here Inclosed 

You can't Imagine how I was surprised to See the 
great progress you have made in the Linnean Systeme 
and with what Accuracy you had Drawn up the Two 
Botanic Enigmas. I profess myself no Botanist neither 
am I fond of Novelties — the Science of Botany is too 
much perplex'd already our Country Man Ray I like 
best as my Skill is Slender, and I have not time to make 
any proficiency in the New Method, you will I hope 
Excuse Mee if I mistake the Mark — If I say the one 
Seems to be a plant, that my Botanic friends as a Mark 
of their Respect have called by my Name, the other 
Seems to be a Hellebore or Helleborine of which you 
have variety but the ^ticular plant I cant say — pray Send 
Mee a Specimen Dry'd between two papers — that I may 
have the pleasure to See the Plant that you have So 
Dextriously Investigated — I have several in my Garden, 
they are Easily Sent over by takeing them up when the 
Flower Fades with a Lump of mould about the Roots 
& putt into a Box of Earth and Nail'd up Close only 
boreing a few holes for Air & then Sent on board A 
Ship — my Indefatigable Friend J. Bartram is very know- 
ing & SuccessfuU in these operations — my Great Delight 
is in Cultivateing & Nurseing these Rare plants & Seeing 
them Come to Maturity this does not Engage the Mind 
so atentively as Botanic Knowledge Especially If I am 
to be master of the Several Systems of Toumfort, Ray & 
Linnaeus — as I have a good Esteem for the Last and 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 29 

^sonally know Him and annually Correspond with Him 
I dont know but I may Send Him y'' 2 Enigmas I know 
it will give Him vast pleasure to See the progress of his 
Science in So remote a Quarter 
my Dear S"" 

I Salute you with 
Cordial Respects & am y" affectionate fr^ 


I Send you under the Conveyance of my Worthy 
friend J. Alexander the History of the 
Polypus for a Winter Evenings Entertainment you 
may Depend all is Literally True most of the 
Experiments have been Try'd here & Succeed Exactly. 

Doer Golden 

From James Golden 
D: B; 

I had yours in which you gave me Some hopes of Seeing 
Captain Rutherford in this country, this caused me 
ride to White banks an Old Acquaintance of mine who 
maried Cap* Rutherford's Sister from whom I hoped to 
have got Some account of him but I was most unlucky 
for M""^ Rutherford had been there Some days and he and 
his Lady were gone with her to Edgerton the day before 
I came his mother told me they were once in hopes he 
was come the Length of London, but that they were 
then affrayd he would not come off till September but 
I am purswaded M"" Rutherford hkes your country and 
has wrot favourably of it to his Lady, for she is not only 
resolved to come over with him, but I am informed that 
it was with Some difficulty her friends disswadded her 
from coming to him. the account you give of your 
familie gives us the greatest delight Long Long may 
you enjoy them and Still may your comfort in them 
encrease I did not write last Spring but the reason was 

30 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

that I was in a very bad State of health most of last 
winter which increased on me the whole Spring so as I 
began to fear it might at last cut me down and as I know 
that giving you an account of the State I was then in 
would trouble you I rather delayed till I Saw what turn 
the Distemper would take I wrot in June last by one 
going to London who promised to put it into the coffee 
house him Self in which I gave you an account of the 
death of my Son James which with the Circumstances 
both I and my wife were in at the time was very heavy 
on me I have reason to bless God, the gravil cholicks 
which for some time have terribly Distressed me are very 
much abated and the excessive vomitting hath for Some 
tim quite left me So that I am at present in a tollerable 
State of health my wife is in very good health and pretty 
far gone with Child, the Children are all very well and 
give us no Smale comfort Cad is I hope neer free of his 
distemper and Seems to have a very good cappacity. If 
a war with franco will give you any unwealcome visits 
from thair collonies you are like not to want them Long, 
for it is thought we are on the very brink of a war with 
franco we all Joyn in desireing to be affectionatly remem- 
bered to you my Sister and your Children and offer our 
duty to my Aunt if she be yet alive, may God bless you 
and them and make you long happy in the enjoyment 
of them I am 

D B 
Your most tenderly Affectionate Brother 

James Colden 

Whitsom 9'^ Sep^-- 


Cadwallader Golden Esq"" at New york to be Left at the Sun 
Go£fee house behind the Royal Exchange London to be forwarded by 
the first Ship for New York Boston or Phyladelphia 
Rd Feb-- 2lst 1743/4 

Answer 'd the 19^^ of June 1744 with an account of my Aunts will 
as to him. [Note by Gadwallader Golden] 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174^1747 31 

From Joh. Fred Gronovius 

The 29 of July I was favoured with your kind letter of 
the 28^^ of March 1743, which came to my hand (by the 
care of Doctor du' Bois) by the Reverend Mr Dorsius, 
who told me that in short time he was resolved to go 
back to pensilvania, wherefore I shal answer to your 
letter, as much the time will permit. 
M'" Clififord, one of the richest merchants at Amsterdam 
hath printed his Hortus at his own expenses, and doth 
not sell any Copye, but is very liberall in making a pres- 
ent of it. So that if you can collect Some seeds for Him, 
I don't doubt, he will present you with a copy of it. 
Sometimes it is to be met in a public Auction, where it 
commonly go's for about 25 gilders. 
The second part of the Flora virg. is printed ; of which I 
take the liberty to send to you a copy, besides a copy of 
the First part. But as you make no mention in Your 
letter of some other books of Linnaeus, besides his char- 
acters, I take the liberty to present you with some other 
books, which you will find of a great use to You viz. 
with a New Edition of his Fundamenta Botanica, in 
which you will find a great thesary of learned observa- 
tions; but this book must be read over and over: and 
then you will easily perceive the Laws which must be 
observed in making the Characters particularly about 
the partes fructificationis, where the numerus, figura, 
proportio et situs always must be observed. 
I am infinitely obliged to You for the plants and Char- 
acters, You are so kind to communicate to me At present 
I am very much taken up with the public affaires, and 
the short staying of the Reverend Mr. Dorseus is the 
cause that I can not examine You'r Characters, what I 
hope to do when our 20,000 men for assistance of the 
queen of Hungary are marching, being about these af- 
faires not only the 7 provinces, but the towns her self 
divided in their opinions: however there is great hope to 
a generall agreement. 

32 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

However in reading now en than for a moment Your 
Characters I am (without any flatery) surprised, how 
you in such a Short time could have such ideas of Lin- 
naeus way in making up the rotas characteristicas. 
Linnaeus hath promised to give out one time or another 
His philosophia Botanica, which should only consist of 
an explication upon the aphorisms of his Fundamenta, 
so that this book should be as a Standard. A part of it is 
printed in this Critica Botanica, wherein certainly you 
shall find exceeding good remarks, where for I take the 
liberty to present to you my own copy of that book which 
I have more than 50 times read over and over. 
I dont doubt, you shall find by Reading nicely the Fun- 
damenta, the preface to the Characteres, that this Critica 
Botanica, You may easily make Your selv Master of 
Linnaeus his way. For my selv I assure you I can not 
give to You better Directions. But if it is that You have 
still some scrupuls, I shall always be ready answer them 
as much I can. 

Dr. Linnaeus is not only content with his Botany, but 
he extend his industry to all part of naturall History, and 
has braugt me over to it, particularly persuaded by the 
power of my family, and I my selv to, in the government 
of this town, and by that way Now and than depute's 
to the States of Holland & others colledges, I get by our 
men a war an immense collection of natural things, of 
which my chiefst deligt are in the Lapides, and Testacka, 
that is, the conchse et cochleae. 

I hath tryed Juxta Linnaei Fundamenta Botanica to give 
names to all these things, and printed a catalogue of it 
the year 1740, since which time my collection increased 
once larger. You shall infinitely oblige me if You meet 
some of these things, to communicate them to me. par- 
ticularly the the cochleas and Conchse of you'r country. 
I dont doubt there is in your Country a good variety of 
Snails (as wel at Land as in the rivers) whose Cockle 
Shells are different in shape and Colours. 
Now Sir once more, I acknowledge my selv very much 
obliged to You for You' letter and Characters, assuring 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 33 

that I shall always be glad to See your Letters, to which 

I shall always answer upon spot: direct only to Mr. Sadel- 

hof, Merchand at Amsterdam, or to Mr. John papin, 

Junior, Merchand at Rotterdam, with a direction to D"" 

John Frederic Gronovius, Senateur de la Ville de Leyden 

in Holland. 

I am Dear Sir, wishing You all health and prosperity 

Your most obediant Servant 

T J ^ A X i^^o JoH. Fred Gronovius. 

Leyden 6 August 1743 


The before mentioned Mr. Dorsius hath told me, that 
he was resolved in short time to go over to pensilvania, 
and promised me that he should cal upon me and spend 
a night, where upon I write these preceding lines, and 
made a paked of things mention there. To my great 
sorrow I did not heard any thing of that Gentelman. In 
the mean time I resolved to Fixe daily some hours, to 
consider Your Characters. Once for all You must know 
that I such one who never will flatter any one: but with 
Father plinnius agnoscere per quem profeceriam Indeed 
I must confess, I hath a great deal light in your Char- 
acters about somme plants, mentioned in the flora 

I take the Liberty to send you my remarks, which have 
been ready a month ago, when I hath made this packed 
ready, that at the approach of Dorsius I could give it 
immediately in his hand: but helas! the fellow did 
not come: so that I was a whole month disappointed: 
having been very sorrow that I going to bed, I sa the 
packed lying in my room, and the next morning coming 
in my room, I sa it still lying there, till it happened, 
that Mr. Otto a Gentleman from [blank in MS] advised 
me of his going to England, who promised me to give it 
there in good hands. 
I remain Dear Sir 

Your most obediant Servant 

Leyden 3 Octob. 1743. •'°^- ^^° Gronoviws. 

34 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

From Benjamin Franklin 

Philad^ Nov. 4 1743 

I received the Favour of yours, with the Proposal 
for a new Method of Printing, which I am much pleased 
with and since you express some Confidence in my Opin- 
ion, I shall consider it very attentively and particularly, 
and in a Post or two send you some Observations on 
every Article. 

My long Absence from home in the Summer, put my 
Business so much behind-hand, that I have been in a 
continual Hurry ever since my Return, and had no Leis- 
ure to forward the Scheme of the Society: But that 
Hurry being now near over, I purpose to proceed in the 
affair very soon, your Approbation being no small 
Encouragement to me. 

I cannot but be fond of engaging in a Correspondence 
so advantageous to me as yours must be: I shall always 
[receive] your Favours as such, and with great Pleas- 

I wish I could by any Means have made your Son's 
longer Stay here as agreable to him, as it would have 
been to those who began to be acquainted, with him. I 
am, Sir, with much Respect. 

your most hum' Serv* 

B. Franklin. 

From James Alexander 

New York Nov"- 27^^ 1743 
D'^ Sir 

Bryant arrived on Wednesday last & I got home from 
Jersey on Thursday last, with some Difficulty haveing the 
Gout in both my feet — in a trunk from Collinsons was 
the inclosed Letter to you & book from CoUinson, it opens 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 35 

a very Extraordinary Scene of Nature — it has been 
observed here that upon a Lobsters Losing a whole Claw 
that a new one grows in the place of it, & that thats the 
occasion that very often the one Claw in much bigger 
than the other corresponding Claw in the Same Lobster, 
which new Grouth of a whole Claw Seems Something 
like to that of the Polypus in the book, but whether any 
part will produce all the others parts de novo is what I 
don't know & much doubt. 

I beg you would Send me a Coppy of what Collinson 
& Grahame wrote Concerning the quadrant & particu- 
lary the price, I thought I had taken a Coppy but cant 
find it, if I have; I think now by Bryant's return of 
Sending for Such a Quadrant, & to have it made under 
the care & Direction of M"" Grahame, & to have it care- 
fully Examined by him after its made, to Discover & 
Certify the Errors if any be. 

If you can think of any particular method of Exami- 
nation & what points are most carefully to be examined 
and Certified, I should be glad you would favour me with 
it, to recommend to Collinson (to whom I am to remitt 
the charge of the instruments) to recommend to Graham 

My best respects to M" Colden to all your family I am 
Your most humble Servant 

Ja: Alexander 


To Cadwalladek Golden Esq*" 


Cadwallader Colden to James Alexander 


About 2 years since I receiv'd by M'" Grahams con- 
veyance an Acct of an Instrument you make for taking 
of Latitudes which you say will be sufficient to determine 
it to a minute but as you gave no description of that 

i -1. r>':^ .n ^. 

36 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Instrument & from the lenth of the Telescope I con- 
cluded it could not much exceed 20 Inches Radius I could 
not conceive how the latitude could be deteimin'd with 
sufficient certainty to a minute by an Instrument of so 
small a Radius. & for that reason I wish you had taken 
the trouble of giving a more particular account of the 
Contrivance of that Instrument for if by any contrivance 
a small Instrument can perform all that a larger can such 
Instrument must on many accounts be preferable to the 
larger. However as I believe that you will at this time 
receive directions for making a Quadrant I take this 
opportunity of desiring you to send an Exact Common 
compass or Circumferentor for my son who is a practical 
Surveyor Tho' this Instrument be as little complicated 
as most yet not one of a hundred which come from Eng- 
land are free of Errors. These errors seldom happen in 
the Graduation but in placeing of the sights whereby 
the sights are not placed exactly in the plain of the 
Meridian of the Compass & the upper & lower sights 
not exactly in the same plain which you know must in 
all operations by such Instruments produce sensible errors 
& for that reason I must desire you to take particular 
care as to that for this error is very difficultly corrected. 
As Errors of this kind may be contracted by an accidental 
twisting of the Arms of the compass on which the sights 
are placed please therefor to make these Arms of sufficient 
thickness not to yeld to a small force & for the same 
reason that the sights be not placed above 2i/2 inches 
beyond the graduated ring of the Compass, for the longer 
the Arms are the more easily by an accident they may be 
bent. The sights must be join'd to the Arms with such 
exactness that after their being taken oif they may be 
replaced with all requisite exactness without declining 
any way & be secured in that Scituation by a Screw 
These Compasses sometimes contract faults by the hole 
in the cap of the Needle which plays on the top of the 
center pin not being sufficiently smooth & by uneveness 
which it contracts by continued rubbing on the Pin for 
which reason the inside of the Cap to be well pollished 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 37 

& case hardned I can see no reason why an Iron cap may 
not do better than brass, if Iron can be made both 
smoother & harder without being subject to rust but as 
to these you can judge better than I can. 

I believe it may be proper to send some kind of 
punch shaped to the hole of the needle Cap & a little 
Emery or Something perhaps more proper to polish 
the inside of the Cap & to remove any Scratches it 
may contract from the Center pin or otherwise. The 
graduated ring should be thin that the Center pin be no 
longer than for the needle to play freely upon it for the 
longer the center pin the greater the errors occasion'd by 
the Compass not being placed exactly horizontal every 
time an observation is made. We likewise choose to have 
the center pin of Steel because Brass wears blunt too soon 
& to have a screw on the lower end by which it is fixed 
in the box that it may be rais'd or lower'd to our liking 
& must allow to be bent so as to reduce the point exactly 
to the center. The needles must be made as thin & light 
as possible to lessen the friction on the center pin & their 
ends must allow of bending to reduce them precisely into 
the same line with the center of the needle. The Diame- 
ter of the Compass within the Ring or lenth of the Needle 
to be about 4^ inches. 

Cadwallader C olden to William Strahan 

As I think my self much obliged to you for the trouble 
you have taken to answer a paper I formerly wrote to 
M*" CoUinson I take the first Opportunity to acknowledge 
it. I am fully convinced that your reasonings are just & 
as they have been likewise confirmed by Experience they 
leave no room to doubt. But at the same time I must 
inform you that you have not entirely taken my view I 
easily & at first perceiv'd that this Method would not 
succeed for common books which generally bear but one 

38 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Edition & are chiefly calculated for the present times & 
with a view to a speedy profit while the present taste & 
humour lasts I had confin'd my view to particular cases & 
to a narrow compass to books in the Sciences and to such 
only which have an intrinsick value independent of the 
Governing humour or taste the Value of which are known 
to few & will allwise be esteem'd & sought after by some: 
Of Such sort is Euclid's Elements which has continued in 
the Esteem of the world above 2000 years such likewise 
are S"" Isaac Newton's optics & his Principia, which will 
for all ages be called for by the few that understand them. 
Such likewise are Trigonometrical Tables &c which never 
can be out of Fashion or out of use & which may be 
affixed to & are convenient for many different books & 
yet all these books & others of the kind have but a slow 
Sale The composing of them for the press must likewise 
be more difficult & expensive because the Composer can- 
not be assisted by the sense & a mistake on one letter or 
figure frequently disturbs [the whole] sense. Some of 
these have been often cut on copper plates (with profit I 
suppose to the owners) & yet certainly they might with 
much less expence by impressed on printing metal by types 
en creuse in the Method I propose than by engraving & 
by the rolling press. I accidentally last summer fell into 
Comp^ with a Printer (the most ingenious in his way 
without question of any in America upon my mentioning 
my thoughts which I wrote to M*" CoUinson) he told me 
of the Method which had been used in Holland which 
you likewise mention but he thought the method by types 
en creuse to be an improvement of that Method & as he 
is a man very lucky in improving every hint he has done 
something on this foundation & which I have seen which 
has puzled all the printers in this country to conceive by 
what method it is done As printing is this mans trade & 
he makes a Benefite of it I do not think my self at liberty 
to communicate it without his consent tho' as to my own 
part I have no interest in keeping the secret nor had I or 
have I any other view in what I formerly wrote than to 
communicate a thought which I fancied might be of use 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 39 

to others What I have wrote perhaps may occasion some 
reflections to you that may not prove of loss to you in 
your way. If I can make you any return to your civility 
by any Service in this Country you will oblige me by 
giving me an opportunity to do it I am & shall be glad of 
any occasion worth your while to continue a correspond- 
ence I am If you think proper to inform me of the com- 
mon charge of Printing & the price of common printing 
paper perhaps It may give me an Opportunity some time 
or other of serving you. 


Answer to M^" Strahan 
Nov 1743. 

From Samuel Johnson 

Stratford Nov. 21 1743 

This waits upon you by M*" Watkins concerning whom 
I need say nothing father than I said to you when I had 
the hon'" of your Conversation — -As he is a Serious honest 
Man I hope he may be acceptable among the people of 
your Country, being, I am sure, heartily disposed to do 
all the Good he can, & I believe well qualified to answer 
all the Ends necessary, in Such a Situation as that is — By 
him, according to my promise I sent you Bp. Berkeleys 
pieces — The Theory of Vision indeed I could not recover 
where I had lent it Soon enought to Send it you. But M'" 
Watkins having the Minute philospher of his own, at 
the End of which there is the last Edition of it, he will 
supply you with them both himself, the principles & 
Dialogues I Send you. — The Bp. always wished his pieces 
to be read in the Order in which he published them, which 
is — P* The Theory of Vision — 2 the principles of Human 
Knowledge. — 3. The Dialogues, which are the same thing 
in another shape — 4. The Minute Philospher. — To which 
I have added the pieces he has Since published, viz 5 — 
His Defence of his Theory — 6. The Analyst. — 7 — His 

40 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Defense of it. — This is the order in which they were 
wrote & Should be read but, I believe before any thing 
else it would be best to read the Introduction to the prin- 
ciples of Human Knowledge, the d'sign of which is to 
banish Scholasticism & abstract Ideas which have been 
the Bane of all Science of every kind. — I doubt not but 
that you will read them with Candor & with that atten- 
tion they deserve, & I shall be thankful for your Opinion 
of them, especially of the Mathematical Controversy, in 
which you are doubtless a more competent Judge than 
any we have among us. — meantime I remain, 


y"" most abedient 
humble Servant 
Sa. Johnson. 
S"" I make bold to 
Send you a little piece 
of mine lately published by our College. 


Cadwallader Golden Esq'" 

Ulster Gounty. 

From Peter Bours 

Newport Dec.^'" 8'*" 1743 

I was honoured with yours of 7'^ Nov^""- and do assure 
you that I esteem it a Singular Happiness to have any 
opportunity whereby our acquaintance may be continued, 
indeed your Scituation in the Country at some consider- 
able Distance from New York has prevented my writing 
oftner to you than I have and I am loth to trouble you by 
the Post. 

I am mightily pleased with yours attempts in raising 
these curious grasses. I wish you success therein. He 
deserves great Encomiums who endeavours to promote 
the Interest of Succeding Generations in undertakings 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 41 

of this Nature, that I may have a Hand therein shall take 
care to provide some red Clover Seed as Soon as it is 
thrash'd from the Hay and forward the same to M^ 
Moore the Dep^. Secretary for your Son's Use, a Friend of 
mine in the Country has promised to furnish me with 
what I shall have Occasion for I have sent to M"". Moore 
eight heavy Pistoles and twelve pounds this Currency to 
satisfy all Parties concerned in procuring those Plans for 
this Colony, he would have had it some months ago had 
not Cap\ Griffith who promised to call on me for it been 
worse than his word, since which I have been to Boston 
and in the Country and so miss'd of him when he was 
here, I hope y® Delay will be excused when y® Circum- 
stances attending it are known. 

We expect this Winter to have a Confirmation of the 
Judgment you gave at Providence, it is thought by Some 
that the Massachusetts Government will Submit the 
Point. Our Council at Home who are the famous Murray 
and M" Paris applaud your Judgment. 

Whenever you think that I can be of any Service to 
you I beg of you to let me know it that I may have it in 
my Power to manifest my Regards for your Person and to 
demonstrate how Sincerely I am, D*". S''. 

Your most Obed.* Se'^v'^ 

Peter Bours 

Cadwallader Golden to Peter Bours 

CoLDiNGHAM Jan'' 25*^ 1743/4 

I am exceedingly obliged to you the kind expressions 
of Fr[iendshi]p in yours of the 8* of Dec^ & you may 
assure yourself I shall embrace every opportunity of 
showing my sense of it by serving you when ever in my 
power It will give me much pleasure to engage you into 
a correspondence by any means or subject that can be 
entertaining to you. 

42 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

I (& I believe the Gent" joined with me) had that 
pleasure which allwise attends an upright Judgem* ac- 
cording to our own Consciences & tho we ought to pro- 
pose nothing more to our selves yet certainly it gives an 
additional Satisfaction when we hear that our Judge- 
ment receives the approbation of those men whose Judge- 
m* has an universal approbation. I never knew the rea- 
son of your wanting a Copy of the Plan I was affraid yt 
it was occasion'd by a miscarriage of the Copy I sent 

M'" Moore paid me six pounds for my son soon after 
I wrote my former to you. If you'l be so kind as to send 
some red Clover seed about a 100 weight & direct it to the 
Care of Peter De Lancey or Richard Nicholls Postmaster 
in New York I shall take care to pay the money or 
remit it in what manner you shall please to direct as 
soon as I shall receive your orders for that purpose. I 
mention both these names because M'" De Lancey is 
sometimes out of Town at his Country seat & shall be 
glad to have it at New York before the P* of April that 
it may be sow'd next Spring. I am S"" 


Peteb Boubs 

Cadwallader Golden to Peter Collinson 

You have obliged me exceedingly by your kind ex- 
pressions of the 4*^ of Sept'" whereby you incourage me to 
think that my correspondence is not disagreeable to you. 
What you mention of Cap'' Midleton adds to any conceit 
I may have had of my performance in the Indian History 
by his not being affray'd of having his work clogg'd & 
bom doun with the weight of Mine I am sorry that it so 
often happens that the most generous Undertakings for 
the Benefite of the Nation are discouraged by the Male- 
volent & envious Tempers & that frequently even great 
Virtue is oppressed under such Influence as Cap* Midle- 
ton's case seems in some measure to be. In such case it is 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 43 

every honest man's Duty according to his Station to sup- 
port the Innocent. You take, I am affray'd too much 
trouble in endeavouring to make my performance of some 
profit to me. Tho' as I formerly said my circumstances 
are not such as to despise any thing of that kind yet I can 
with great Sincerity say that I have gain'd the chief end 
of my writing it by its being in any measure acceptable 
to you & I will have ample Satisfaction if it should any 
way prove usefull to the publick I thought it more likely 
to be so about this time because some Treaty of Peace 
& Commerce must in all probability soon ensue with 
France & if that book could in any measure draw the at- 
tention of the Ministry or of the Parliament to regard the 
Interest of North America in respect to the Fur trade & 
the Incroachments which the French on our Trade & 
Settlements I should hope that I have been of some use 
to my Country. For this purpose you may perhaps not 
think it amiss to add by way of appendix what I formerly 
wrote of the Natural advantages which the People of 
New York have in carying on the Fur Trade beyond what 
the French of Canada have & which was sent to you by 
M"" Alexander with some other printed papers. You 
need not be affray'd (as you formerly hinted) that the 
French may thereby learn any thing in that Trade which 
they do not allready understand They know all that 
affair better than we do Their Ministers are well inform'd 
which I doubt ours are not They take much pains to 
be inform'd & never fail to incourage such as can give in- 
formation or any way improve their Trade & Interest & 
they constantly employ men of sufl&cient abilities for 
that purpose while we take no pains & know httle else 
besides what we learn from their books. As to matters of 
Fact asserted in my book I can sufficiently justify them 
either from our own publick Registers or from French 
Authors where our Registers are silent All that I am 
concern'd for is that the publication of that book be of 
advantage to the publick otherwise I think it would be a 
fault to trouble the pubhck with it & tempt people to 
throw away their time & money uselessly & as to this I 

44 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

must trust to your Judgement for few men are indif- 
ferent enough Judges of their own performances. In 
case you continue to think that the publication may be 
useful! be not uneasy in order to make it profitable to me ; 
if you employ an honest printer who will be willing to 
let another Share with him in a profit to which the other 
has contributed & has so much honesty as to be unwilling 
to defraud the other of his reasonable proportion I would 
trust him so far as not to be willing by any contract to 
increase his loss in case of a disapointment in his expec- 
tations 500 copies of the New York Edition were sold so 
that not one copy now for several years past can any 
where be obtain'd & this may give the Printer some en- 
couragement For his advantage to the following purpose 
may be put on the Title page. Wherein is shown how 
advantageous the Friendship oj those Nations is to the 
Settlement cfe Trade oj the British Subjects all over north 
America & what pains the French have taken to with- 
draw their affection jrom the English A matter which 
may deserve attention at a time when a Treaty oj Peace 
& Commerce may be expected between Great Britain 
& France This I propose for the Benefite of the Printer 
for otherwise I dislike promising Title pages. But as to 
every thing relating to this book I submit entirely to you 
You must do with it as you think proper for it is really 

I was truly surprised with Linnaeus's progress in 
Botany who I am inform'd is a young man He must 
be of prodigeous Application His Characteres Plantarum 
will be of use what ever System is foUow'd I never saw 
any thing done with that Accuracy. But in a Work of 
such extent some mistakes unavoidably happen one of 
which I have observ'd & have corrected in the inclosed 
paper. He makes the Actcea & Christ ophoriana bacdjera 
to be of the same Genus which by their Characters in that 
paper you will perceive they are not. As you tell me that 
you correspond with him you may if you please send it to 
him with my Thanks for his useful labour the Benefit of 
which has reached North America & I doubt not reaches 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 45 

to most parts of the World You may offer him my Serv- 
ice in any thing wherein I can assist him. I hear that D'" 
Gronovius has published a Description of North American 
plants such a book is much wanted Please to let me know 
what reputation it has for if it has gain'd your esteem 
I shall be desirous of having it. 

I shall next summer get some of that Kind of Helle- 
borine for you which you desire tho' it be very probable 
that you have it already for it is to be found in many 
places in this Country. However as I do not find several 
common plants in this Country described in Linnaeus it 
is possible you may not have that for I think it is not to 
be reduced to any of his Genera tho it certainly belongs 
to that class which he calls Gyneudria 

I thank you S'' for the Hystory of the Polypus It is 
very surprising & shows how much of the Natural History 
of things every day obvious to our sight is wanting. It is 
a notable instance of the Chain between Vegetables & 
Animals & which probably extends through the Whole 
Creation from the lowest degree of Vegetation in Min- 
erals to the most perfect animal This perhaps may like- 
wise assist an accurate observer in discovering something 
of the nature of Vegetation of which our Ideas (or mine 
at least) are very faint. It is now time to think that I 
am writing to a man of Business 


Answer to M^" Collinson 
Deer 1743. 

From James Alexander 

New York Jan^^ 22-^ 1743/4 
D"- Sir 

I have yours of the 12^^ instant, — that method of 
Mortgageing has been Sometime in use here in order to 
prevent the charge of a bill in Chancery so foreclose the 
Equity of Redemption, by Doing what a Court of Chan- 
cery would order to be done viz Sell, pay debt interests & 

46 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174^-1747 

Costs, & give overplus to Mortgager & if bona fide done, 
we take it there's no need of foreclosure — if you Send 
the money by a Safehand I shall receive it & remitt it to 
Judge Burnet which Mr Brown has requested me to do as 
to all the money that comes in for Lands. 

Parker has printed the English part of your paper 
very well, as to the Latin he has indeed blundered but 
that is not of so much moment — the paper I believe & 
hope has had the Effect desired to witt to Convince a Ma- 
jority of our Magistrates of the necessity, of removing 
Skinners Tanners &c to fresh water & of Either cleaning 
or filling up the Slips before Summer and measures are 
takeing for doing those things & putting their former 
Laws as to the keeping clean the Streets & docks in better 
Execution — All whom I have talkt to on this head think 
themselves & the City very much obliged to you for that 
paper than which nothing would be more necessary nor 

The Comet was Seen at Philadelphia before Christ- 
mas — I heard nothing of it till the 2'^ of January when D"" 
Spencer told me that he was told a blazeing Star was Seen 
by the people. I had askt him & M*" Kennedy to Spend 
the Evening, but was kept from them by Alderman John- 
son Mr Murray & Mr Smith consulting on the form of a 
bylaw for removeing the Skinners &c, when they de- 
parted casting up my Eyes to the Stars at first sight I saw 
the Comet & went in & told Mr Kennedy & D'' Spencer 
I had Seen it & it was very visible — as I had their Com- 
pany I Did not Attempt to make any observation of it 
that night. But on the next I Did but found the Cold So 
Sharp & my Eys So bad, that I could not bring any two 
Stars by a threed in a Line with it nor could I See the 
threed well as I heretofore did. 

Last night is the first that I could take an observa- 
tion with a threed chuseing a white threed and a Candle 
at Some distance behind me to Shine on it by which helps 
as the weather was moderate I made the two observations 
here with, which if just fixes its place last night 

I have got Flamsteds works which contain I believe 

TELE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174a-1747 47 

all the Catalogue of Starrs & his own Britannick Cata- 
logue with the maps Suitable published by his Executors, 
but still these are not apparatus Enough to Observe well 
nor Even readyly to find what Starr it is that you find on 
a Line, a Globe would be much certainer. 

I think this year of making Some Observations of the 
variation of the Compass, to begin about the End of April 
when the Star in Coxis of Cassiopea is on the meridian 
with & below the polar Star about or before ten in the 
Evening & its distance from the pole being about 31° its 
height of about 9° is perfectly Convenient to observe the 
variation — Alioth or the first in the tail of the great bear 
being on the Meridian at the Same time above the polar 
Star, is of use to be Sure of the other Star, for the per- 
pendicular Threed from Alioth to the polar Star must 
hit in Coxis, I should be glad you would make Some 
Observations at the Same time in order to See what var- 
iation of the variation is betwixt your place and this, and 
to be the more certain of that, it would not be asmiss that 
we Exchanged Compasses in July in order to observe the 
variation by alioth when he comes under the pole in the 
fore part of the night which will not be till October — I 
should be glad that you would put Mr Clinton upon 
doing the Same & that you would Exchange Compasses 
with him. I think of directing [the] Deputies in Jer- 
sey all to do it & to Send their Observations, and also 
those nearest to Exchange Compasses with one another. 

Since writing the above I have made another Obser- 
vation of the Comet which I have indorsed on the former 
I wish I had a Micrometer to See how near it past to S 
pegasi which it will, very near two or three days hence. 

I have given you at bottom of first Observation whats 
in Flamsteads to this far — AUoth, in Coxis, & polaris by 
which youll See that Polaris & in Coxis have the Same 
right assension in 1746, & all 3 are so near the Same that 
the Difference of coming upon the meridian is Lfess than 
the numbers in the Tables I am yours 

Ja. Alexander 

48 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

I find your paper is reprinting in the Pensilvania Gazette, 
first part of it I received by this post, 
pray favour me w^ your 
Observations as freely 

Cadwallader Golden Esq^ 
att Goldingham 

From James Alexander 

New York Febry 15th 

As to W™ Smith I take it as he pays so much that the 
Common Security may do instead of the method I use — 
the only Difference is, that in the Method proposed, the 
Expense of a Chancery Sent to foreclose is saved, which 
in the Common way is necessary — I have wrote to M"" 
Brown by this post of your Sons proposal to pay upon 
rebate of the Common interest, that he may direct in it. 

You'll be Disappointed as I was when you See the 
addition promised in Parkers paper. I asked Mr Pem- 
berton who he conceived to be the author but as our 
witts could not fix in any body that was likely, we 
thought of Mr Noble, but upon better thoughts, for as 
Stupid as it is, yet its beyond his sphere, as, his thoughts 
are Confined to the Scripture and the Sellings of Goods, 
& has no notion what an atmosphere & other words there 
used do mean 

I have observed the Comet every night that it was 
visible 11*'' was the Last time I saw it it has been dark 
weather till Last night, this morning I hear it was Seen in 
the East before Sunrise, which I believe because of its 
considerable North Latitude & from its So Soon appear- 
ance there, we may be well assured that it has past be- 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 49 

tween the Earth & the Sun, & that its not yet arrived at 
its perihelion which must be to the Southward of the 
Ecliptick— As I find your thoughts are more usefully im- 
ployed I shall not trouble you with any of these Observa- 
tions but two, which were of the nearest Stars it past by 

Thursday 26*'^ janry at 7^ 30' the Comet was on the 
right hand of the Star markt S of Pegasus wing & Exact- 
ly of the Same Altitude or on a Levell with it to the Eye it 
did not Seem half a Degree from it but it was more, be- 
cause my Ten foot Telescope just takes in the moon, but 
it Could not take in the Comet & S at the Same time, 
but as one vanished the other immediately appeared in 
the opposite Side I guess they were about 40' distant I 
think not more. 

Tuesday Febry 7'*^ at 6h 0' Markab Pegasi & the 
Comet appeared in my 6 foot glass, distant about 2/3 
of the aperture or about 20' Comet was on the Left Be- 
low & to the Southwards of Markab the Line between 
them by my judgment makeing nearly an angle of 45° 
with a perpendicular, — this Last Observation Shows the 
want we are in of a Micrometer for had I one its place 
might then have been fixed to one minute with Certainty. 

I should be Sorry that you Should be persuaded to Lay 
aside your thoughts of those Discoveries So much hereto- 
fore wished for by others & hitherto Endeavoured with- 
out Sucess, tho it should take you off a little from other 
affairs which might possibly bring a more immediat 
gain to your family, Yet we ought to Consider that 
we are not here for our Selves & familys only, & tho' it be 
our duty to mind those in the first place, yet whats pos- 
sible to be Spared from them, ought to be bestowed upon 
the good of Mankind, of which they will partake a part 

The Discovery of the cause of Gravity is what I did 
not So much as hope for in my days, & to stiffle that Dis- 
covery with the other things you mention in Consequence 
of it would be Cruel to your Self your family & man- 
kind, & as you hope to be able to Demonstrate it, I hope 
you'll by no perswasions neglect doing it I shall Continue 

50 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

anctious to hear of your progress in that matter and when 
you have reduced your thoughts to writting, to See them 
I am 


Yours most humble Servt 
Ja. Alexander 


To Cadwallader Golden Esq'" 

^Favour of M^" Alsop 

From Peter Collinson 

London March 9 1743/4 
Dear M"" Golden 

You cannot be more Surprised att the progress of 
Botany in Dotf" Linnaeus than I am to See what a pro- 
ficient you are in his Scheme I could not have Imagind 
It had reach 'd in so Short a Time to the remote parts of 
North America for I hear He has made Several proselites 
— in Different places on y'" Contenent But your Fame 
reach'd Mee Long before yr Letter my Valuable Fr*^ Doc 
Gronovius Lett Mee know what a fine present you have 
made Him the Good Man is in Raptures I doubt not but 
Doc"" Linnaeus has heard of it Long before this — it is a 
remarkable Instance what Leisure & Application assisted 
with a Great Genius can attain too. I shall Soone Send 
your Curious Observations to Doc Linnaeus y'" Criticisms 
are ^fectly just you have done Mee a Pleasure in Circu- 
lateing It Through my Hands because it Setts Mee Right 
who have not Leisure for Such Nice observations & to 
the Doc'" I know it wiU give him the greatest Delight any 
omissions in Him is not owing to his Judgement but 
want of Growing Subjects whose Minute parts are more 
Distinct — which are Lost in Dry'd Specimens So that 
att the Same Time that you are Improving your own 
knowledge you are Greatly obligeing y"" Friend and if all 
his Pupils was Equally as Communicative as you are His 

THE GOLDEN PAPERB— 1743-1747 51 

Works would be more perfect & Compleat It is no 
Little Disadvantage to Him to be Setled as in the fagg 
End of y^ World In His Letter to Mee he Envies Our 
Happyness who have a free & frequent Intercourse with 
ye World and our Gardens abound with its productions 
and then Wee have Annually Seeds & Specimens which 
produces Something New & proper to exercise the Talents 
of So Learned & Curious a Botanist 

But a Gentleman of Y'" Benevolent Disposition may 
in Some Degree Soften the Severities of the North and 
Flora may in Some Little Disguise by y'" Assistance for 
once appear amidst Ice & Snow — a few Specimens pre- 
served & Dry'd in paper, & a few Seeds, Sent him as op- 
pertunity offers, with your Curious Remarks — would be 
to Him all that I have allegoricaUy Hinted and I will take 
care they shall be Safely convey'd to Him. 

I am Glad to find the Polypus gave you Some Enter- 
tainmt the Searching after this has been a Means of 
Makeing New Discoveries in the Minute Creation one is 
called the Bell animal and is found und" the Lenticula 
palurtris — it takes its Name from its Figure being Like 
a Bell of the Size of a Silver Penny and from its Center 
it putts forth Fibrils from Ten to fifteen in Number 
which on any Motion or Touch Shrinks in & then pro- 
ject out and are presumed to be as so many Hands to 
Collect its Nourishment to give you a Little Idea of It 
I here inclose a Scetch — 

another Strange Surprising animal I saw by the help of 
a microscope very Distinct Like a Small Smooth Cater- 
piller which is called the Wheel animal from haveing in 
its Snout or Head Two Wheels one att Each Corner 
Exactly Like the wheel of a Watch, these seeme to Turn 
on pivets or on a Center with Such a Velocity that one 
can Scarsly See their Teeth — both Wheels going to- 
gether is one of the Wonderful pretty Phenomenas I ever 
Saw, it is an acquatic animal & this Motion in the Water 
is Wee apprehend Intended to Draw all the Little ani- 
malcule for its Support within its reach. 
Poor Cap* Middleton meets with Renew'd attacks on his 

52 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Character so your Curious Treatise for the present Lies 
Dormant It is att this Juncture under Cap Rutherfords 
perusal who Seems a very obligeing agreeable Gent™ 

I am entirely of y"" mind that It Deserves the perusal 
of the Legislature but att this Juncture Wee are greatly 
Embarressed with an Intended Invation from Dunkirk 
with the pretenders Son att the Head — and there is 
Reason to Suspect Some ploting att Home from whome 
the French hoped to Reap great advantage Butt Wee 
have confidence in the Good hand of providence to Frus- 
trate all their Designs, By the Vigilance of the Govern- 
ment att Home & Our Fleet In the Channel The Rear 
Admiral Mathews after 3 Days Terrible Hott Engage- 
ments has obtained a Compleat Victory over the French 
& Spanish Fleet that saild from Toulouse The French 
Scheme by the Great Bluster that they make to Invade 
us is to Distress our Alliance with the Queen of Hungary, 
By preventing the Kings going abroad & ObUgeing us to 
Recall Our Troops from thence 

In a Boxe of Instruments to M'' Alexander I refer 
you to an answer to y'' Letter to M"" Sissons 
I am with much Respect 

y affectionate Fr*^ 


M'" Strahan Intends you a favour Soone 


Doc^ Golden 
New York 

From Alexander Golden to Gilbert Livingston 

Newburgh March 19'^ 1743 

M*" Livingstone 

Leonard Cole is now with me and offers me some 
Creatures for his debt which I have refused He has 
beged of me to give him time to make the money that 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174^-1747 53 

I also refuse to do for I leave it intirely to you to get me 
the money as soon as possible its that I want & the 
Sooner I have it the better. I Have not seen nor hear'd 
from Capf Campbell this winter I am 


Very humble Serv* 

Alex'' Golden 


To Gilbert Livingstonb Esq^ 

From James Golden 

D. B. 

I would have wrot to you the beginning of last month, 
but when I waited on Cap*" Rutherford he promised to 
write me before he went of, and I trusting to that delayed 
writing till I should hear from him, I now hear he went 
for London Some time Since So I shall lose the opor- 
tunity, of writting by him, but I hope this may come 
time enought because it is probable that Since France 
hath declared war agt us, the ships will not Sayl before 
convoy can be got ready for them. I have been in a very 
bad State of health the most of this winter, with a gravel 
Cholick and violent vomiting which reduced me So low 
that I could hardly walk. I bless God I have had Some 
respite for Some weeks past, and have recovered Some 
more Strength my wife was delivered of a daughter 
October last whom I named Lilias after her She is a very 
pleasant thriving Child; my other Children thrive very 
well and as yet Seem to be aboundantly towardly poor 
Cad is not quite free of his Distemper; but is much bet- 
ter than he was and Seems blessed with a very fine 
Genious, I durst not let him go from me and therefore 
his brother taught him Several parts of the mathematicks 
and book keeping which he learns better than could be 
expected. George makes a very good Cabbinet maker: 

64 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

John is a strong lively boy but as yet too young to go to 
any employment and my youngest Son Will appears one 
of the livelyest boys can be but Speaks or yet very ill 
tho he be about three years and an half old I was at 
Ed"" the week before last and left my Eldest daughter 
Kate at a boarding Schole Jean thrives very well and 
doth betty and their mother is beginning to learn them 
to Sow there hath been a batle fought lately betwixt 
the English fleet and the combined fleets of France and 
Spain by the Admirals letter to the Admirality it appears 
that what advantage was fell to our Share tho it was but 
lite and it is a wonder it was any Seeing Admiral Lestock 
with 17 Ships fell more than 5 miles a Stern of the rest 
of the fleet and never came up till the action was over 
we all Joyn in offering our tenderest love to you our 
Sister and your Children I offer my duty to my Aunt if 
she be yet alive and am D. B. 

Your most affectionate Brother 

James Golden 
Whitsom S'" Aprile 

Cadwallader Golden Esq'' at New York 
to be forwarded by the first Ship 
either for New York or Boston 

R-d Novr 17 1744 
Answer'd the 8th of Dec*" 
1744 with a 2<i Ac't of my 
Aunt's will so far as 
respects him 
[Note by Gadwalladke Coldetn.] 

From J oh. Fred. Gronovius 

April 3^ 
Dear Sir 

A month ago I hath the pleasure, that my particular 
Friend Mr. Can wan from S\ Christopher, going to Lon- 
don, did me the favour to take a smal pakket with Him, 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS-174a-1747 65 

directed to You, in order to look there for an occasion 

to send it to You. In the same packet You will find an 

answer to Your characters, the Fundamenta Botanica of 

Linnaeus, and his Critica, with the second part of the 

Flora virg. and my Index Supellectilis. 

Since I have found that Your character, of which you 

send me a specimen under num-19 is responding to the 

Diesvilla: but I believe a quite different species. 

In the mean time I had an occasion to write to my good 

friend Linnaeus and to get an answer from Him, of which 

I communicate to you some particulars. 

Literas 17 Sept. datas accepi: ex iis percepi placuisse 
summo Arbitro novum creare in America Botanicum si 
Ille tam multa praestet per Te ac Claytonus, erint plantae 
Americanae certiores quam Europae; et nulla rerum 
vicissitudo plantas et hos Botanicos unquam obliterabit. 
Videtur certe CI. Coldenus vir acumenatus & oculatis- 
simus: hoc tamen video, quod si ipsas plantas non com- 
municat nobiscum minus utilis erit. hoc vero si fecerit, 
erit systema sexuale, et plantarum characteres, &c dif- 
ferentiae tales, quales tota Germania ne quidem Europa 
unquam proculcabit. Incundissimae mihi fuerunt obser- 
vationes ejus, quas mecum communicasti. Ego ad Sin- 
gula respondeo. In Iride n. 9 non videt fannam genitalem 
faecundare stigma ^ nullibi evidentius fit, si a tergo 
stigmatis fissuras per foliola stigmatis decurrentes in- 
spiciet. Num. IL de fructu cephalanthi op time scribit, 
quem ego non videram sed ex vaillantio in Act. Paris, 
assumseram et ille forte ex horto malal. Coldeni de- 
scriptio videtur magis naturae conveniens, cum cephalan- 
thus sit scabiosis afiinus quibus semina semper nuda. 
Num. 17. Quod vocat Involucrum est Gemma, quam 
describis in hoc genere esse petiolatum. Nectaria egregie 
describit, quae videre nequivisti. Fructus a te missus 
docit esse capsulam duram, nee nucem. 
Num. 30 Celastrus hoc anno ex semine tuo in horto nostro 
academico floruit, et fructum protulit vidi et obstupui. 
Est profecto novi generis planta characteres dedi actis 
Societatis regiae inserendum 

56 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

N. 65 Est paris catesb. p. 50, tab. 50. sive paris flore 
peduculato nutante fl. virg. p. 48. 

N. 75. in Hac specie observai tecum olim pistillum ad 
Styli basin fere divisum in tres partes. 
N. 77. describit optime glandulas nectarii, quas si non 
haberet non esset Lauriis. 

N. 82. de Staminibus X. idem in characteribus inter ob- 
servanda, numerus proportionatus non dividet genera 
naturalia. Idem ti' habes in fi. virg. 
N. 94. Circulus hie rubens est receptaculum floris. color 
nil facit ad res. 

N. 95. stamina 15. bene ideog. ad Icosandram spectat si 
stamina a 12 ad 100 calyci inserta. vix plura in nostris 

N. 110. clematis semper mal. Vella hoc ipse videre, quo- 
modo se tum propagaret. Dabit dies feminam huic 
clematitidi, et marem aliquando tuo melanthio, quem a 
Claytono quam primum debes expostulare. 
N. 123. CaXyx coloratus. corolla herbacei coloris est egre- 
gia observatio. 

N. 138. Character est satis perfectus: proin affinis cereis 
aut Sophorae. Sed dantur Indigophorae staminibus dis- 
tinctis, adcog. vereor quod eo pertineat. Debimus dare 
Coldeno novum Genus a se inventum et distinctissimum, 
quod aliquando numquam cum alio genere conjungi pos- 
set. Si liceret videre omnes ejus characteres aliquando 
eligerem te consentiente inter eos genus maxime con- 

N. 175. &c. Orchides, Limodora et aflfinia copiosa in 
America. Multae depictae a plumeno in Manuscriptis. 
Sed partes fructificationis in fere nuUis satis descriptae. 
Has species ad genera nullus referre potest, nisi qui videt 
vivas. Siccae cum deturpatus plura genera constitui 
debent ex Americanis. 

N. 177. Sisyrinchium ad Syngenesia refert: sic et ego 
primum cogitabam ; sed dein centus examinavi flores, nee 
dubium est de Gynandria. 

N. 195. Sagittaria Diaecia. Utinam accurate describeret 
hanc: forte esset destincti generis. An alismatis an 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 57 

Sagittariae? an novi generis? certe nescio. Dum potes 
quaeso mitte ad me omnia quae a Coldeno accepisti, 
eaque mecum communica. Utinam ad te plantas mit- 
teret, uti Claytonus. 

These are the remarks which Dr. Linnaeus hath made 
upon somme heads of Your Characters, about which I 
hath write to Him. To satisfy Him more I lett copy for 
Him ai Your character. 

At the next occasion You shall see The oratio Linnaei de 
Telluris habitabilis incrementis, and Celsi oratio de 
mutationibus generationibus quae in superficie corporum 
caelestium contingunt. In boath of which You shall find 
curious observations. 

I hath kept this letter with me with intention as soon 
the winter is gone to send it to you. It is now the 26 of 
february, when our public Trek boats went the first time 
to Amsterdam in this winter, having had a mighty pleas- 
ant frost, only two days very severe, but no snow at all. 
In the meantime I discovered that my friend who hath 
the care of the before mentioned pakkeds, hath not done 
right with some other pakkeds, I suspect the same acci- 
dent may happened to the pakket directed to You, where 
fore I send to You another copy of Linnaei his characters, 
of the flora virginica, of the fundamenta Botanica and 
my Index. Besides another copy of my remarks upon 
your characters. There was in the before mentioned pak- 
ked a Letter to You, but having no copy of it, I hope 
you shall excuse me to write another. The summa sum- 
marum was, that I always shall be glad with your Let- 
ters and sincerely answer to them: the second part of 
my letter was that I thinking and meditating for a natu- 
rall systema of the cochleae and conchae so that I beg 
you will be so kind to send to me the Testae of the Land 
and zea-snails which are common in your country, and 
if there are to be met some shells and oysters, you shall 
oblige me with a coppal of eachs species. 
If you have any thing for me, pray direct it to Mess. 
Dan. & Bar'^. Van Zadelhoff merchands at Amsterdam, 

58 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

by whose care You^ get this packed. I shall be glad to 

hear from You as soon you have received these things. 

If I can be more of any use to You pray command freely. 

Your most obediant servant 

JoH. Fred. Gronovius 
Leyden April 3, 1744 

P.S. As you have seen that Dr. Linnaeus hath desired a 
copy of all Your characters, I have send them to Him. 
I hope by my next letter to You, to have more of his con- 
siderations upon them, which I shall faithfully commu- 
nicate to You. 

From Will Strahan 

London May 9 1744 

I was favoured with yours of the S"^ Dec'', last in 
answer to a Line I sent you by M'' Collinson's Direction. 
The Desire you have of promoting any useful Discovery 
is very laudable; but in the present Case I own I do not 
think it can be of the Benefit you seem to imagine. For 
as to the Books you mention, tho' they are of great and 
lasting Utility, their Sale is very insignificant besides, 
that they are the Properties of particular Persons, who 
have always a Number by them Sufficient to supply the 
Market, and therefore would not easily if at all, be in- 
duced to try any other Method of printing than what 
they have been used to. In the mean time I make no 
doubt but what you propose might be useful in some 
Sorts of Tables, such as Tables of Interest, Logarathims, 
&c provided the first Expence was not too great. At 
present the Printers here keep several Things which are 
often wanted, continually Standing, such as the Psalms 
in Metre in all Sizes, the Proverbs of Solomon, Several 
School Books, and Classick Authors, the Childs Guide, 
the Catchisms &c &c till the Types are quite worn out, 
which you know answers the very same End as the 
Method you propose. As to what you mention of some 
Sorts of Wood, I own I do not know any thing of the 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743^747 59 

Way you would use them, and therefor can form no 
Judgment of their Usefuhiess, nor do I desire or expect 
you Should discover any thing of it to me, without the 
Consent of the Person you mention, who has already tried 
it, and whose Business it is to profit by any Discovery his 
uncommon abilities may enable him to make From the 
Character you give of him, I am sure it must be M*" 
Franklin you mean, whose Fame has long ago reached 
this Part of the World, for a most ingenious Man in his 
Way. I have had the Pleasure of corresponding with 
him lately, and have Sent him by the Mercurey Captain 
Hargrave, one of my Journe5niien, to whom he intends 
to give the Management of one of his Printing houses. 
His Name is David Hall. If he is Settled near you, as 
is probable, or if you should chance to meet with him 
any where else, I should be extremely obliged to you, if 
you would Show him any Civility in your Power, as he 
is a Stranger, and a most deserving young Man. He can 
inform you fully how Printing affairs Stand here. 

I am greatly indebted to you for your kind offer of 
serving me. The Prices of Paper and Printing here are 
now very reasonable. Good Printing Demy Paper — 
(which is the Size commonly used) may be had at 10, 
11 or 12 Shillings a Ream, and other Sizes in proportion, 
viz Crown Paper at 7 or 8 Shillings, and Pot Paper at 
5 or 6 Shillings a Ream Printing 1000 Copies of a Sheet 
on a Pica Letter costs a Guinea, and one Shilling for 
every 100 over that Number; and so in proportion, ac- 
cording to the Size of the Type and Page — Note a Pica 
gvo Page contains 38 Lines. 

I likewise sell all Sorts of Books; so that if any of your 
Acquaintance want any, I shall be obliged to you, if you'll 
direct them to me in Wine Office Court in Fleet Street. I 
shall be very well pleased if, in Return for your Kind- 
ness, I could be of any Service to you in this Place. Mean 
while I shall be extremely glad to keep a friendly Corre- 
spondence with you, and am Sir 

Yours most obedient Servant 
Will: Strahan 

60 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Cadwallader Golden to Peter Collinson 

June 1744 

J)ear gr 

I cannot take the Compliments you make me on the 
subject of Botany in yours of the 9th of March otherwise 
than as an incitement to pursue that Study with more 
Accuracy for I am very sensible how deficient I am in 
that knowledge. It gives me however a good deal of 
pleasure to learn from you that what I sent to D' 
Gronovius was acceptable to him for till I receiv'd yours 
I did not know so much as that it had reached his hands. 
I think that all Lovers of Botany & the People of America 
in General are obliged to that Gentleman & ought to 
assist him as they can it was chiefly with this view & to 
give him my share of the general thanks that I presumed 
to trouble him with any thing from my self. If he'l 
think proper to give me any particular Directions I wiU 
cheerfully serve him as far as my Skill can & time will 
permit I have no secrets in Knowledge but rather a 
strong inclination to communicate whatever I think may 
be useful & this perhaps may have made me troublesome 
to you & may make me appear vain to others but you 
have receiv'd every thing with so much partiality in my 
favour that I persuade my self you intertain some such 
favourable opinion of my Intention. 

It is probable my application to Botany may be inter- 
rupted not only by business but by my thoughts being 
turn'd to another Subject The attempt I am now upon 
is so bold that I dare not trouble you with it or even to 
mention the subject till it has undergone the examina- 
tion of some Friends here. No doubt you will hear of 
a Phiiosophicall Society now forming at Philadelphia 
They have given an invitation to several in the neigh- 
bouring Colonies to join with them & have done me the 
honour to take me into their Society, tho I be not in any 
manner acquainted with any of them except M"" Bartram 
who has undertaken the Botanical part. He is naturally 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174^-1747 61 

a wonderful observer but when I saw him had not ac- 
quired sufl&cient knowledge of the Principles of Botany 
as a Science. No doubt he is every day improveing 
The want of the latin tongue is a great loss to him, & 
yet he can tollerably understand a Botanical Description 
in latin which surprised me when I saw him last at my 
house. I have not as yet seen any thing from the Phila- 
delphia Society & its probable that the members of the 
other Colonies will wait for an example from those of 
Philadelphia before they'l offer any thing so that I can- 
not tell what expectations to give you of that undertak- 
ing. We have in America for some time past made great 
progress in Aping the Luxury of our Mother Country 
I am glad that some now indeavour to imitate some of 
its Excellencies. You see S"" that I have little to intertaiij 
you from hence but I hope by the next fall to have some 
Botanical Observations for your friends & something 
else to amuse you or them especially if what I am now 
upon please them to who's Judgement I have submitted 
it & I could not let these ships go without acknowledging 
the favour of yours & praying the continuance of your 
favours. M"" Alexander was from home when the Ship 
arriv'd & I have not heard from him Since 


From James Alexander 

New York June 10'^ 1744 
D'^ Sir 

I have the favour of yours of the 2^, with the map 
desired and for which I am much obliged to you and I 
believe it will be of good Service to Spratt & me in that 

by my last wrote a few days after I returned from 
Amboy I sent you Coppy of the Contents of Sissons box 
of instruments 

I am glad you have made Experiments of the Differ- 

62 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1745-1747 

ent variations of the needle by bending it but am at Loss 
what Shape its bent to, & not to varie the variation in 
the Least 

It was my Compass that James Livingston had at 
the mannor of Livingston, made by Scott, And with Mr 
Rowley the then most noted instrument maker, when I 
came to America & my Compass which showed the varia- 
tion to be between 7° 20' & 7°30' at the Mannor of Liv- 
ingston must probably show it to be nearly 7° at your 
house, for we See the Variation Encreases to the North- 
ward so as to be 25° or 30° & even to 45° in Davis's 
Straits & Hudsons bay & decreases to the Southwards 
Seing its very Litle in the west India Island. 

the Surveyors of Pensilvania & Maryland in 1739 
agreed it was (15 miles South of Philadelphia) only 5° 
30' after many observations & so run the temporary line 

the two Jersey Surveyors who were at Livingstons 
tryal, have told me they have Since that tryal frequently 
observed the variation by Cassiopeias hip at their houses 
in Monmouth County, & all their Observations are under 
6° & they Esteem it between 5°30' & 6° & allowing for 
the Distance that the mannor oi Livingston is North of 
your house, I believe the variation must be about 20^ 
more there than at your house & Consequently your 
Compass & mine must agree but all Mr Clintons Com- 
passes on the view differed about a Degree from mine 
there & consequently showed the variation there but 
6°20' which makes it Look odd they Should agree with 
yours which from the reasons before would Seem to agree 
with mine & show the variation at the mannor of Livings- 
ton the Same as mine did 

I am Extremly pleased with your introduction to the 
Doctrine of fluxions for its put in Such a clear light as 
I never Saw it before, & I think the world will be much 
obliged to you for it if you'll favour them with it, I have 
Examined it with all the care in my power in order that 
there might be no room to Cavill with it upon the publi- 
cation, & I have Endeavoured to do as I would be done 
by, that is not to find Objections only but also to show 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 63 

which way I think it can be mended, which I hope may 
assist you to find more Suitable amendments to the places 
which I think want it — these amendments are here in- 
closed with the introduction of both which I have taken 
Coppies which if you do not approve of, I will Send to 
you as I had not Express Leave So to Do 

I have been much hurried ever Since my comeing 
from jersey So that I have not been able to apply 
heartyly to the Examining your Theory of Gravitation, 
and am afraid I shall not get time to do it till Bryant 
has Sailed which I hope may be about ten days hence 

The map & account I shall Send to M"" Brown, by the 
first good opportunity saving postage, also your Letter 
to him 

Mr CoUinson's Letter I shall also inclose w*" mine to 
him — I am 

Yours most Humble Servt 

Ja. Alexander 
I Condole the Loss 
of your Aunt 

P. S. June 12'^ my wife Sends you a present of I/2 doz 
brandy i/^ doz french white V2 doz french claret & 1 Doz 
Madera — I hope it may come Safe — I have packt it as 
well as I can the key of the hamper is inclosed 

The Land at Esopus's my wife has a great opinion 
of as it has Come by her — She thanks yow for the map 
we have Engaged Some persons at Esopus to procure us 
information concerning it, one part was to get a map 
with the pretentions of all Sides Laid down on it & for 
that purpose to traverse in the most privat manner to 
the Corners of the Several pretentions which is done in 
part, & tho' stopt in doing it, its promised to be Done — 
I am Sorry to find that the Paltz has much Encreased on 
us — & not by mistake, but knowlingly, if the information 
we have be true 

Cadwallader Golden Esq'" 

64 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

From Evan Jones 

July 17**' 1744 
Much Esteemed 

Frd Golden when thee left my house I promisd if 
business did not hinder to come & see thee before thee 
set out on thy Journey, but I think it is Generally my 
fortune to be Impeded in those very things w°^ I have 
y® greatest mind to perform, & it is the cares of this life 
& Hurry of business w*^^ hinders at this time, & hope 
thee'U take my good will in lieu of the deed but as to y® 
other part of my promise & readily will Gomply w*'^, & 
w'^'' is fully Exprest in the Inclosed. It is my Opinion 
y* every Gandid & upright man will (agreeable to the 
Sundry Stations of Life they are plac'd in) not only think 
it their duty, but also Endeavour to Advance & promote 
the GeneraU good of his fellow Greatures; humanity, & 
benevolence of mind tho' never so variously Diversified, 
will ever be a throwing in of their mites into y® Gommon 
Stock, for y® Improvem* of publick wellfare, nor indeed 
can any art or science prevail nor thrive much in any 
place or Gountry where men's Inclinations are rather 
now bent to self Interest; cramp'd up to mean & narrow 
veines; serving themselves without Limitation; this 
being their Gheifest aim, the promotion of self Interest, 
haveing little or no notion, nor regard for y^ good of the 
common wellfare; & from hence woud be understood 
y^ every honest thinking member of any Gomunitie ought 
in some measure to Postpone some parts of self Interest 
as well as self Ends when y® publick welfare lyes at stake, 
it is very true & not strange y* every member in all sort 
of societies may not be Equally Qualifi'd for this in all 
sorts of improvement, some are qualifi'd for this & others 
for y* & none Exempted (or but very few) who are will- 
ing & Sincere, to Employ their minds in the best manner 
their severall, & variously Different Gapacities will admit 
of, there is no doubt nor scruple on these reasonable 
supossistions every member would be usefull in their 
proper places & Stations wherein nature & providence 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 65 

has allotted y"" too — this sort of Discourse naturally leads 
me to Confess very frankly to afrd. y* I myself have been 
less usefull for the publick service then I might have 
otherwise been, had I Employd my one Talent in the 
best manner : yet I woud not accuse myself, nor dare not, 
to do my self Justice charge myself w**" Concealing of 
any publick good for the common wellfare from any 
principles of self Interest or private views. No I assure 
thee it was not y\ my mind has not been much pester'd 
^th ym . |-,y^ j|. ^^g rather oweing to a Timerous & unac- 
tive habit I had got into & by Long Continuance was the 
Cheifest reasons of even forgetting the most materiale 
matter w°^ I mostly admir'd — I need not Inform thee, 
were I ever so capable, nor to tell thee how absolutely 
necessary it is to be Constantly Improveing the little 
space of time allotted to us in the pursuit of useful 
knowledge, this method would be of more substantial! 
& reale service to y® world then y® greatest affluence of 
Riches & Wealth, w'^'' at best is but perishing & uncer- 
tain ; the other a permanent & lasting monument of good 
to all future posperity. I have a few more things to say 
on my own acc\ w''^ I hope will not be any additional! 
tresspass & y'^ is to Confess I have often blushd & been 
Confus'd at thy Sundry Solicitations, requesting me to 
give some acc*^ of the Experim* I made on the bite of the 
rattle snake & never till now made any attemp't to grati- 
fie thy Inclination, & tho' I was convinc'd as if I had it by 
Demonstration y* thee had no other views in it farther 
then a Generous principle of makeing it publick for the 
benefitt of mankind, & more Especially to many hun- 
dreds of poor people far Distant from any help or assist- 
ance from men in practice, therefore now I most willingly 
Comunicate the Tryall & Experiments I made & is sett 
apart in the Inclosed & thee may freely put it into what 
other Dress thee pleases & then Communicate y^ same 
for the aprobation of y"" Gentlemen in Philad*^ who have 
formd y™selves into a societie for the propogation of 
useful knowledge please to make my kind regard accept- 
able to Docf Thomas Bond also to our honest Frd James 

66 THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 

the Botanist & to all y^ Gentlemen of y''. societie tho am 
personially unacquainted &c. I am w^^ sincerity thy lo. 
& respected Fr*^. 

Evan Jones. 

Docf COLDBN at 

his house 

Colden's Observations on the bite of a rattle snake. 

(Written on back of the above letter) 

In the Beginning of August 1743 a Steer belonging to 
D*" Jones was brought home in the evening with his Milch 
Cows to the Penn nothing was observ'd to ail it at that 
time In the morning the Head was swelFd to an exces- 
sive bigness & the eyes so much that the Beast was be- 
come quite blind The whole body was apparently swell'd 
but more the nearer to the head as the neck & shoulders. 
A constant stream of seizy fluid issued from his mouth 
not unlike that which flows from the Mouth in a very 
high Salivation rais'd by Mercury. The Head was so 
swell'd that the beast could not raise it from the ground 
but stood stupid & senseless The Doctor did not doubt 
of its being bit by a Rattle snake & having no oyl at his 
house he heated a pint of hogs lard so as to make it thin, 
pour'd one half of the Pint down the steers throat & 
rub'd the other half well into the nose & other parts of 
the head In half an hour he observ'd the beast grow much 
better the flux from his mouth lessen'd he was able to 
raise his head up & began to walk. About an hour & a 
half after the first potion he gave the same quantity a 
second time & in two hours after this 2^ potion the flux 
from the mouth entirely ceased & the steer began to eat 
grass For further Security the Doctor gave him a 3*^ 
dose & by the next morning the beast seem'd as well as 
ever & continued so afterwards. 

About 14 days after this the Doctor's Aprentice Wil- 
liam Allison having catch'd a Ratle snake a live was 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 67 

desirous to make further trial of the efficacy of the Hogs 
lard. He took a dunghill Cock & having pluckt the 
feathers from one of his thighs he exposed it to the Rattle 
Snake & he was sure the Rattle Snake bit the Cock twice 
or thrice on that thigh. He kept the Cock without apply- 
ing any thing till he saw the thigh very much swell'd & 
a thin Ichor issued from the Orifices made by the Snakes 
bite which run doun his leg & dropt of at his toes, & 
setting the Cock doun on the ground found him so stupid 
that he could not walk He then melted half a spoonful 
of hogs lard pour'd the greatest part of it doun his throat 
& rub'd the rest into the thigh that was bit. He applied 
the Hogs lard by pouring part doun the Cocks throat 
& rubbing it into the thigh two several times more at 
about 3 hours interval between the applications In the 
morning the Cock seemed perfectly well except that the 
thigh kept for some time discoloured which by degrees 
wore off They purposely observ'd him for several days 
& found him as brisk among the rest of the Fowls as ever. 

I shall only add that I have heard it observ'd by the 
Farmers long before the use of oyl on the Bite of the 
Viper was published That Hogs were never hurt by the 
bite of any Snake tho' they have frequently been seen to 
seize snakes & to tear them to pieces or eat them. This 
I think may well be attributed to the Defence which a 
hog naturally has by the fat under the Skin which covers 
all the fleshy parts of his body & is a further proof of 
the Benefit of Fat & oyly things in the Cure of the Bite 
of Vipers. 

How happy is it for Mankind that one scarcely can 
at any time be destitute of an effectual remedy against 
the mischievous effects of this Poyson The snake himself 
carries the Antidote along with him in his Fat if the snake 
escape that the Fat cannot be procured there can hardly 
be a house found without oyl or Lard or some kind of 
greese Perhaps fresh Butter or Cream may be effectual 
or at the worst it may be procured by the Death of some 

From this we may learn likewise not to despise Reme- 

68 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174S-1747 

dies because common & which for that reason appear 
mean What Disease appears with more terrible symp- 
toms & is more dangerous that the bite of y® poisonous 
Snake or Viper & what Remedy appears more effectual 
tho brought from the farthest corner of the earth in any 
Desease than this common fat & oyl in the cure of this 
pernicous malady the Bite of the Rattle Snake. I shall 
in the last place observe that Fat & Oyl are found like- 
wise to be effectual in the cure of several poisons taken 
by the Mouth if the Fat or oyl be timely exhibited espe- 
cially of such poisons which have any acrimony which 
corrodes and inflames the Stomach as most poisons com- 
menly do. I have several times cured sheep after eating 
a common poisonous plant growing in moist grounds 
called in this part of the Country the Dwarf Laurel by 
putting a lump of Hogs Lard or Butter doun their 

From Peter Collinson 

LoND'^ Aug 23'* 1744 
My DearFr<^:— 

I was glad to find you had made such proficiency in 
Botanic Inquiries, you have a Large Field before you 
which will afford you a Lasting fund of Amusem^ — I 
Intended you no complements because your skill in that 
Science was Self Evident I again felicitate you on It for 
you Tast a pleasure but few know & have it, were Ever 
you go, the Wasts & Wilds which to Others appear Dis- 
mal to one of y'" Tast efford a Delightful Entertainm* 
you have a Secret to beguile a Lonesome Way and 
Shorten a Long Journey which only Botanists know 
Every Step as it were Introduces new objects by these 
the Mind is highly Delighted Its Ideas Inlarged the Great 
Creator admir'd & adored, these are Sensations better 
felt than Express'd and the more you Gratifie y"" self in 
these Inquiries, the higher will be y*" Sensations. 

This year my Ingenious Fr*^ J. Bartram Sent Mee 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1745-1747 69 

Two Curiosities, a Lychnidea which produces a wonderful 
Spike of flowers but the Greatest is a Species of Martagon 
in its appearance untill it flower'd & then its flowers did 
not reflex like the Martagons but hung down Like the 
Crown Imperial they was of a deep Gold Colour on the 
Out Side & finely Spotted with purple within. 

I can't enough commend the Authors & promoters 
of a Society for Improvem'' of Natural knowledge Be- 
cause it will be a Means of uniteing Ingenious Men of 
all Societies together and a Mutual Harmony be got 
which will be Dayly produceing Acts of Love & Friend- 
ship and will ware away by Degrees any Harsh opinions, 
parties may have Conceived of Each other, the Fruits 
of Wisdome & knowledge are Excellent, besides the Mind 
being Enlarged the Understanding Improved, the Won- 
ders in the Creation Explored, and Ingenious & Good 
people will know one another & Rejoice in the Friend- 
ship of those Like minded as themselves, and as there 
will be a Laudable Emulation to Excell in the Several 
Branches of Science the Same good Desposition will 
Influence them to Benevolence & Good will to Each other 
in Every Capacity. 

I Shall wait with Some Impatience for their Memoirs I 
expect Something New from your New World, our Old 
World as it were Exhaused tho I really Mett with the 
other Day a very Singular odd Phenomenon in its Kind, 
w*"^ I will briefly relate 

This year I took a Tour with my family to See a Rela- 
tion In the Isle of Wight I happend to go to a place 
Calld Crab Nighton famous for the Breeding of this ani- 
mal — Inquireing of the Fishermen into the Nature of 
this Creature, I was told that if its Leggs was broke or 
Bruised and it could not (through weakness voluntaryly) 
throw or break it off, it would bleed to Death, I wanted 
Faith Like S'^ Thomas to Convince Mee a Large Crab 
was brought & Laid it on its back & then with a pair of 
Iron pinchers Wee Crack the shell on the thickest & 
Fleshyest part of its Legg — it bleed much, but in Less 
than a Minute it cast off its legg and there was Seen a 

70 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

thick Gelly like Substance w*'*' Stop'd the Bleeding 
w'''' is wonderfully provided for that purpose All Its 
Leggs Suffer'd the Same Operation, thus in a few Min- 
utes the Creature was Legless — Now it is wonderfull to 
Consider by what Innate power It can crack & Break the 
Solid Shell (not in a Joynt) but in the Smooth p* Its 
Flesh and Muscells, and all the Blood Vessells — as if 
Cut w^^ a Knife, I never was more astonish'd att so 
amazeing a Sight & to reflect how the operation was 
^formed but as these Creatures are very Quarrelsome 
and what ever they catch hold off with their Great Claws 
they will break it, & hold it fast a Long while So to Save 
their Lives & gett Clear of their Adversary they break 
off a Legg & Leave it as a Trophy of Victory. 

You will reasonably Expect to hear Some News of 
yr Manuscript^ — I have Lent to Mr Scroop who is pretty 
well Acquainted att the Helm & has not yett Retum'd it 

I am my Dear Fr*^ very much y" 

Doc^ Golden 


1744 M"" CoUinson To Jonathan Sisson— D"" 

£ s. d. 

Aug* 30 For 2 Circumferenters with sights 
& a staff head made Strong with ad- 
justing Screw & Circular Spirit level 
all made after a new method in the 

Compleatest manner IL IL 

For 2 Wainscoat Caps with locks 

Hinges 0. 16. 

For 2 Spare Needles & 2 spare Cen- 
ter pins 0" 10" 

For Maupertins degree of the Merid- 
ian from Paris & Amiens 0" 7' 6 

Returned For a Deal packing Case for D° 0" 2" 6 

paid Aug* 29*^ 1744 £13" 7" 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 71 

Copy of J. A.'s order to Sisson 

P. S. June 22** Since writing the within I have the in- 
closed Letter to you From Doctor Golden — you'll make 
for Doctor Golden the Gircumferenter he desires, and at 
the same time be pleased to make one exactly like it for 
me in every thing, & send both to M"" CoUinson whom 
I request to pay for them I am 

Your humble Serv*. 

Ja. Alexander. 

From Jonathan Sisson 

I have fixed to the under side of the Gircumferenter a 
Staff head consisting of 2 Plates of brass, on the uper 
one the Gircumferenter has an easy horizontal Motion 
and may be fixed by the Milld head Screw any where as 
desired, the under plate as 3 Screws fixt in it which by 
Screwing or unscrewing either of them as required the 
Gircumferenter may be brought truly level (till the 
bubble is in the middle) so by this means the Sights will 
be always perpendicular where as in the Gommon Sort 
there is no way to Sett them level but by the Eye & 
hand & then the horizontal Motion of the Socket is so 
bad that you cannot sett the Sights to intersect any 
object to no degree of Exactness, this method is some- 
thing after the manner of adjusting my best Theodolite 
and makes the instrument very perfect, likewise under 
the plates are fixt a Socket & a loose ferril which fits it, 
which you must fix on your Staff head by taking of the 
Old ferril if it does not fit the new Socket & so fix the new 
ferril on by putting 2 rivets a Gross, if so be the wood 
should be to small you may put a little Stiff brown paper 
round to make it fit the ferril; there was no possibiUty 
of my making a socket to fit your ball & Socket and as 
that is so bad a way of Setting the Gircumferenter Level 

72 THE CX)LDEN PAPERS-174a-1747 

I thought it best to make it in the manner 

I have and 

to desire you to lay the ball & Socket's aside. 

Y"^ Hum^^« Serv* 



London Aug^* 31. 1744 



Doctor COLDBW 

Observations of Cadwallader Colden concerning the erec- 

timi of a Fort at Oswego as proposed at a 

Conference, Sept. 5, 17 /j./).. 

The Council having seen the Narrative of the Free Con- 
ference on the fifth Instant, between them & the Gen- 
eral Assembly published on their printed Votes of that 
day think it necessary to demand an Explication of some 
Facts & transactions in that Narrative First it is said that 
the reasons given by that Honble House seem'd Satisfac- 
tory to the Council why a Fort at the place recommended 
by the Council will be far from answering the end pro- 
posed by the Council. 

On which the Council observe that the Council by no 
words declared that seeming Satisfaction 
Council reasons given for building a Fort at that place 
were in substance as follows 

1 That place is a pass of great consequence which it is 
necessary to keep open to preserve the Communication 
between this Province and other places of great Impor- 
tance to secure the sending & receiving Intelligence Pro- 
visions Ammunition & supplies to secure the March of 
Forces and their retreat on any emergency & that if a 
Fort was not built that pass may be in danger of falling 
into the Enemies hands. These reasons for building a 
Fort at that place were then urged by the Council be- 
sides Some others which the Council does not think 
proper to repeat on this occasion 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 73 

In answer to This one of the Managers of the Assembly 
said the Assembly had come to a Resolution that People 
niight pass from this province to the other places men- 
tioned in the Conference without going through that pass 
& that an escort of 25 men would on all occasions serve 
the purpose proposed by the Council But as it was not 
denied that the place proposed by the Council is the 
Conmion pass & that any other way is at a greater Cir- 
cuit & more difficult & is well known to be so the Council 
leaves it to be Judged whether these answers of the As- 
sembly to the reasons of the Council can seem to be Sat- 

It is true that the Council gave no reply to the An- 
swers of the Assembly because the one of the Managers 
declared that the Assembly had come to resolution on 
that point & tho this expression was palliated after it 
had been taken notice of from the Council as extraor- 
dinary for that House to come to a Resolution on any 
point while the Conference subsisted & before the Council 
had any opportunity to reply to the Answers made by the 
Assembly to their reasons Yet the printed Votes will now 
justify the Council in their forbearing to urge a point 
which the council judged could be to no purpose how- 
ever reasonable it (torn) the Council & when the dis- 
puting the assembly's reasons might only retard or pre- 
vent other Resolutions of that House which the Council 
thought necessary to be taken without delay. 

In the next place the Council observes that in the 
printed Votes & Proceedings of that House of the 5^** 
Instant it is said That the Council did allow no more 
could be expected to be done at present upon this occor 
sion than what the Assembly has resolv'd as proper to 
be done whereas in truth the Council made no such Dec- 
laration but on the Contrary after these Resolutions were 
communicated to the Council The Council Recommended 
that part of his Excellency's Speech to be consider'd at 
this time wherein his Exce'^ recommended it to the as- 
sembly to enable him to send Commiss" to treat with 
Commiss"^^ from the Neighbouring Colonies, for the mu-- 

74 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

tual Defence of each other & the joint annoyance of the 
Ennemy & the Council particularly set forth that it was 
the opinion of the Council that as oswego was of great 
Importance for the safety of the Neighbouring Colonies 
as well as this by its being of the Greatest use in preserv- 
ing the Six Nations in their Fidelity & from the Influ- 
ences of French Artifices & Deceit the neighbouring Colo- 
nies would join with us in the support of that place & 
assist us with both money & men for that purpose To 
which proposal the Council could not obtain any answer 
from the Assembly such a Narrative has been published 
in the Votes & proceedings of the Assembly & since 
the Council presumes without the approbation of the 
House to publish an account of their proceedings at that 
Conference that the assembly will order the Narrative 
of that Conference to be amended so as to make it con- 
formable to Truth. 

Cadwallader C olden to Mrs. C olden 

New York Sept'' 8'^ 1744 
My Dear 

I have the pleasure of yours by Mr Hansen who added 
to it by assuring us that you are all well but both you & 
I meet with a disapointment in our Meeting for Busi- 
ness stands still in such a state that I know it to be need- 
less to ask leave to be gon All I can say is that I shall 
not easily be prevailed on to put my self in their power 
again But the present Circumstances of the War lays 
me under a necessity of staying unless I had an excuse 
that would take off all gain saying My friends here 
endeavour to make it easy to me by diversion for I am 
askt to all the publick Intertainments besides frequently 
to private houses. We have heard that the French of 
Canada are endeavouring to set the Indians upon us & 
are preparing for some attempt. There is likewise a con- 
siderable Naval force at Cape Breton while we spend all 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 75 

our time in Consultations & Debates without doing any 
thing in earnest But I hope it will not continue long so 
The Taxes & personal services are like to be heavy on 
the Country this year which happens ill while the Coun- 
try produce is so low. We expect News by the Post this 
evening having heard that Ships are arri'ed at Boston 
from England, 

I have not heard from Betty this Week her husband 
was in town this day Week & said she intended to be in 
Toun sometime this Week to clean & I have expected 
her every day but I suppose the bad Weather has pre- 
vented her. Nancy had get perfectly well again & they 
were all well. I had a line from Alice by him. I am in 
hopes to see you by Nacks return & you cannot be more 
disapointed than I shall be if I do not. The Gov*" has 
got the Gout I never long'd more to be with you than I 
do now Johny & I are in perfect health Remember me 
affectionately to the Children 
My Dear 

You please me exceedingly by your taking some diver- 
sion in my absence & while you have so much care upon 
your hands & desire you would continue to do it that 
we may be both in the more cheerfull Disposition when 
we meet Were it not that I am frequently both forenoon 
& afternoon in Council & frequently in Company to 
divert the uneasiness I have by my absence it would be 
intollerable You may assure your self I will not delay 
one Moment after I can come to you 

Your most affectionate 

Cadwallader Colden 
Johny is very usefuU to me 
& more carefuU than expected 

Mrs Colden at 

76 THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 

From Samuel Johnson 

Stratford Oct^ y" 20'^ 1744. 

After receiving your kind Letter of April 30 I was a 
long while at Boston & when I came back it was again 
a Long while before I found it, it having been Some how 
mislaid: I must therefore beg you to consider these Cir- 
cumstances as an Apology for my having not before now 
made any Acknowledgments to you for it. — I represented 
the affair you mentioned about the 500 Acres of Land, 
to the Society with all the Advantage I was able & hope 
it may take effect especialey if M'" Vesey has gone before 
me in it. 

I thank you for your Kindness to M"" Watkins, & par- 
ticularly in procuring him a passage: I hear he was Safe 
arrivd, & hope he is near returning. 

Your Agreeing with the Bp about abstract Ideas will, 
I apprehend, if pursued into it's Consequences, go a great 
way, if not throughout, into the main principles which 
he contends for. — I am particularly obliged to you for 
the kind offer you make of favouring me with your peice 
upon Fluxions: This would be so much the greater Obli- 
gation at this Juncture as here is an ingenious Gentle- 
man, one m'" prince, who is much more of a Mathema- 
tician than I am, & who having read the Bp's Analyst, 
has a great Curiosity to compare your System with his, 
& would be useful in assisting my Understanding on this 

This Gentleman is very well acquainted with almost 
all parts of Learning, & especially the Classics, the Math- 
ematics & the Newtonian philosophy, having been a 
Fellow & Tutor of Cambridge College above 15 years, 
but having differed with the Govern'^^ of that College 
about some Affairs in the Government of it, he has been 
obliged to quit it, & would willingly Set up a Classical 
& mathematical School at Jamaica on Long Island for 
Gentlemens Sons at New York, to which Sundry Gen- 

THE GOLDEN PAPER&-1743-1747 77 

tlemen have encouraged him : & as the means of Learning 
are So much wanted in that Government I think it would 
be a great pity it should drop through. & Should be much 
obliged to you if it should lie in your way to influence 
by undertaking — I shall be very proud of your. Correspon- 
dence being truly, S' 

y"" most obliged, obedient 
humble Serv^ 

Sa. Johnson 

Cadwallader Golden Elsq^ 

Coldeaham on 
Hudsons River. 

From Benjamin Franklin 

I communicated your Piece on Fluxions to M"" Logan, 
and being at his House a few Days after, he told me, he 
had read it cursorily, that he thought you had not fully 
hit the Matter, and (/ think) that Berkley's Objections 
were well founded ; but said he would read it over more 
attentively. Since that, he tells me there are several 
Mistakes in it, two of which he has mark'd in Page 10. 
He say X X is by no Means = X + X nor is the Sq 
of 10 + 1 = 10:2:01 but = 100 + 20+1 and that the 
Method of Shewing what Fluxions are, by squaring them 
is entirely wrong. I suppose the Mistakes he mention'd 
if they are such, may have been Slips of the Pen in 
transcribing. — The other Piece, of the Several Species 
of Matter, he gave me his Opinion of in these words, "It 
"must necessarily have some further Meaning in it than 
"the Language itself imports, otherwise I can by no 
"means conceive the Service of it." — At the same time 
he express'd a high regard for you, as the ablest Thinker 
(so he express'd it) in this part of the World, — I purpose 
to wrote to you from N York next Week, and till then 
must defer saying any further on the last mentioned 
Piece. Enclosed I send you a Piece of D'' Mitch els' (of 

78 THE GOLDEN PAPER&-1743-1747 

Virginia) which I caus'd to be transcrib'd while he was 
here. He desires your Sentiments of it and to be fa- 
vour'd with any other Observations you have made on 
the same Distemper (the Yellow Fever). When you 
have perus'd it, please to return it. I am. Sir 
Your most hum^^ Serv* 

B. Franklin 

Philad^ Oct 25. 1744 

Note by Golden 

Suppose x= 10 & x*=.l one tenth not equal to unite 

as M^ Logan has it then (10 +.1)^ = 100 + 2 +.01 I do 

not say any where that xx^ = x + x* for on the contrary 

X x^ I say is infinitely less than x + x^ or than x for 

X + X* = X the difference being infinitely small 

From John Bartram 

November y" 2^ 1744 
Dear Respected Friend 

this day our Good natured friend Benjamin Franklin 
brought thy Letter of October y® 24*^^ which I have read 
& read with pleasure & am well Satisfied that my en- 
deavours to Gratifie thy former Civilities & present merit 
had y'' much desired efect I am sorry thee mist of pro- 
curing y'' seeds of y® Arbor Vita I long to have that grow- 
ing in my Garden but such disapointments often hapens. 
I am obliged to thee for thy kind advice & offers to 
assist me in publishing A discription of our American 
plants which I have thought of Many times but am not 
yet very hasty in entering upon a Performance that re^ 
quires mature consideration I have had several years 
past A specimen of A performance of this kind from y® 
medical Society at Boston with an account that Doctor 
Douglas had described (according to that specimen 
which was done well according to Tumforts method) 
eleven hundred plants growing round & adjacent to Bos- 
ton — allso ye Ingenious Doctor Mitchel hath discribed 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 79 

curiously many of y® plants in Virginia & hath promised 
me A book as soon as possible he hath sent it to london to 
be printed when I am furnished with these materials 
than I shall be better enabled to proceed warily in so 
difficult an affair but I cant well pass by Giving thee 
some account of my friend Mitchel who is A Member of 
our Society he did me y*" honour of Calling at my house 
& staid all night. & I next morning to demonstrate the 
kindness & esteem I had for his Company went with 
him to town & he being an intire stranger I introduced 
him into y*" company of our friend Benjamin to whose 
Care I left him for y"" present, he staid in town near thre 
weeks so that I had y" favour of his Company many times 
at my house in y'' fields & in y^ woods which I was well 
pleased with he is an excelent Phisition & Botanist & 
hath dipped in y'' Mathematicks which inclined A Gentle- 
man in Town well known to us to say to me that our 
docters was but novices to him. but another person more 
volatil & more extravangantly expressed his value for 
him tould me thay had not y" Milioneth part of his 
knowledge — But notwithstanding y*" satisfaction I re- 
ceived in y® Doctors Company I could not help mention- 
ing my friend Golden to him & set thy abilities & Char- 
acter in such A clear light before him which together with 
some specimens of thy performance so inflamed y*" doc- 
tors mind (that tho his Constitution is miserably racked) 
he said that if he was sure he could See thee at York he 
would venture so far for y"^ sake of A Little of thy Com- 

Sir Hans Sloan hath ordered me A fine parcel of books 
some is come in & more I expect every day I wish thee 
would please to put 10 or 12 good seeds of y^ bush squash 
in y"" next letter thee sends me I think to send by this 
opertunity som seed of y"" Liberian Rubarb pray hath 
thee seen y^ snough box or Bitter gourd if not. I can send 
thee some seed this in hast from thine 

John Bartram 

Dr Cadwaladeb Golden 

80 THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 

From James Alexander 

New York Nov"- 12^^ 1744 
Dear Sir 

I have yours of Ocf 24*^ & Nov'^ 9'\ If the Chief 
Justice has Said he will yield to no reference but to the 
Chancellor of England, I believe he will not be Easyly 
perswaded to alter those his Sentiments, and I am very 
far from thinking that any application or reasoning of 
mine with him can in the Least move him to alter them. 
— I thought you had proposed the method to him of 
Leaveing the matter to Mr Murrary before you went 
from hence — for my part I think the method you pro- 
pose to be very proper, to witt first to Leave it to M'" 
Murray on bill answers & proofs, & then (if the parties 
or any be Dissatisfied) to the Chancellor of England, but 
if M'" Chief justice approves not of it, you must be Satis- 
fied with the way he proposes or whats I think worse a 
Real Chancery Suit here, had I any hopes of prevailing 
with the Chief justice to accept of the way you propose 
I should very willingly wait upon him at his house in 
the Bowree to propose it, but as I have not the Least 
hopes I cannot Say I am willing to do it, and its a great 
chance if I see him any where Else than at his house till 
January term. If yow have not proposed this method 
to him your Self as I thought yow had done, I think the 
better way of proposeing it will be by a Letter from yow 
wherin yow can point out the reasonableness of what 
yow propose in Such a Light as that, if not on first read- 
ing, yet on 2*^ or 3*^ it may possibly have weight with 
him but I believe if the Same things were Spoke to him 
they would be of no weight, by reason of the quickness 
of his resolutions on what he hears. 

If the father gave the house to him as his Eldest Son 
& as what he designed him over his other children & he 
accepted it on those terms and if that deed he dated 
after the will and after purchases of real Estate made 
posterior to the will, It would Seem to me that theres a 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 81 

great deal of Equity that the Chief justice Should Con- 
vey Such after purchases according to his fathers intent 
at that time, tho unquestionably Such after purchases 
do not pass by the will notwithstanding Such intent So 
Declared. But as to any Lands purchased after that 
deed, even tho the intent had been Expressed as you 
mention. It would Seem to me that Such after purchases 
could no way be affected therewith — for tho he Designed 
him no more at the time of that Deed, yet it noway fol- 
lows that he did not Design him more afterwards and 
both Law & Equity will Say he did Design for him what- 
ever he afterwards purchased, by not Disposeing of it 
by his will as he might have done, and I Shall even Sup- 
pose that after Such purchases he had Twenty times 
verbally Declared that his Eldest Son Should have no 
more of them than the rest of his children, yet, tho at 
those twenty times he might have so intended, he might 
at other times & afterwards intended otherwise & both 
Law & Equity must Say he intended otherwise at his 
Death by Leaving them undevised and Consequently to 
Descend to his Eldest Son 

I take it the Chief justice may be obliged to Discover 
in Chancery the terms on which that deed was given & 
accepted, and that it may be of use as to purchases made 
between the dates of the will & deed, and if Expressed to 
be in order that all his other Lands & Estates that he 
should die Siezed & possest of should be equally divided 
amongst his children, I conceive it might even in that 
case affect the purchases made after that Deed, as a mu- 
tual agreement, for the performance whereof the father 
gave that Consideration 

I remember a Late case of a will where a man in the 
most Express and plain words Devised to his wife all 
the Lands & real Estate that he then was Seized of or 
Should afterwards purchase or be Seized of at the time 
of his Death but notwithstanding there was no gain 
saying the intent of the Testator yet it was adjudged 
that Lands after purchased did Descend to the heir & 
did not pass by the will, and this Judgment was Con- 

82 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

firmed by the house of Lords, I have often read the case 
in which there are many arguments, but none weighed 
with me but one viz Lands were not Deviseable at Com- 
monlaw — it was the Statute of wills of Henry 8 that 
made them deviseable, and So the Common Law was 
altered just so far as that Statute directed and no far- 
ther. And that Statute Says a man being Seized &c may 
Devise what he is So Seized of — but of what he purchases 
after the will, he was not Seized at the will & therefore 
not authorized by that Statute to Devise it, at the time 
he did Devise it. 

But tho an intent Expressed So in a will would no 
way have affected the after purchased Lands, yet I think 
a Deed made & accepted on Such terms may be binding 
in Equity to Compell him who accepted on those terms, 
to perform those terms which he accepted it upon 

I Shall always be ready to give the best assistance 
& advice to Peter in my power, he has not been for any 
Since I had yours, if he comes I shall advise his waiting 
for your Letter to the Chief justice which I have before 
proposed, if which does not weigh with him I am Confi- 
dent nothing else will, and that theres nothing Else to 
be done but accept his proposal 

I Do not know that our publick affairs as to Defense 
are in a better State than you left them or like to be 
while this assembly has a being 

As to the affair of William Smith, as that is a matter 
principally under your care for Mr Brown its your agree- 
ment to any matter concerning it & not mine than can 
be of any force — M"" Nichols haveing made a like pro- 
poseal for your Son I communicated it to Mr Brown, his 
answer thereto dated Ocf 5^^ is in these words — would 
now say on Af Coldens proposeal by his father in Lav)^ 
M"^ Nichols that whenever you have an oppertunity to 
remitt his money to judge Burnet that yow accept of this 

I am much of your mind that Mr Franklins proposeal 
of a Society will prove very usefull — at our last Court 
M"" Chief justice M' Horsmanden M"" Murray M"" Smith 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 83 

& Several others sent their names as members of the 
Society, his piece about his new invented Stove chimneys 
is very much approved of here & Shows him to be a man 
of Sense & of a good Stile — your Son tells me theres one 
of these pieces for you — I shall be very glad to See him 
here at New York, & shall give him all the Encourage- 
ment in my power to proceed in the affairs of the Society 
& other useful undertakings — its no wonder if M"" Logans 
memory fails him or does want attention, considering his 
age, & that distemper of the palsy which too close atten- 
tion is apt to bring upon him I am 
D'- Sir 

Your most humble Servt 

Ja. Allexander. 


D^ Golden 

Cadwallader C olden to J oh. Fred. Gronovius 

[Undated and Unaddressed] 

[December, 1744] 
Dear S^ 

Your favour of the 3*^ of April which I did not receive 
till the 15**" of Nov'" has so far exceeded the fondest of my 
hopes that you have thereby laid me under the strongest 
obligations I was & still am so conscious of my want of 
Knowledge in Botany that I with good reason appre- 
hended that it was not in my power to be of any use to 
you or D"" Linneas both of you consummate in that Sci- 
ence I cannot cease to admire the unwearied diligence 
& surprising accuracy of D'^ Linneas in forming his Char- 
acters of such a vast number of Plants. But it is to you 
more immediatly that we in America are indebted & it 
was meerly in gratitude for the Benefit we in America 
have receiv'd from your labours that I offer'd any litle as- 
sistance that is in my power & which you have now laid 
me under the strongest obligations to perform. I must 
therefor previously excuse an imputation of negligence 

84 THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 

which I am affray'd I shall hardly avoid in not complying 
with all that you may justly expect from me. For as I 
am in publick Employments I am frequently during the 
summer season obliged to attend them in the City where 
I have neither leisure nor opportunity to examine plants 
so it has happen'd to me these two last summers & it was 
accedental that in the summer before them I had so much 
leisure as to examine the plants growing near my house in 
the Country & to make the observation which I sent to 
you I shall next Summer indeavour to collect for you all 
the Specimen's which you desire & when I meet with any 
other plants which I think deserve your observation I 
shall send you Specimens of them together with my own 
observation of them. I thank you likewise for your 
Present of Linnsei Characteres his Fundamenta Botanica, 
his Oratio de Telluris habitabilis incremento, Celsi Ora- 
tio & your Flora Virginica Index supellectiUs all which I 
have receive'd safe But those by M"" Cannan I have heard 
nothing of 

When you write to D'" Linnaeus pray offer my hum- 
ble Service to him & assure him that I shall be very proud 
of receiving his commands If in any thing I can serve 
him in this part of the World. Last summer I sent the 
Characters of the Actaea & Christophoriana Baccifera to 
my good friend M"" Collinson of London which I believe 
he will communicate to D" Linnaeus It was from M*" 
Collinson this Spring that I learn'd with pleasure that 
you had receiv'd my letter for I began to suspect that it 
was either lost or not worth your notice 

Since you have given me so much incouragement to 
propose my Doubts on the Linnean System I shall take 
the Liberty to make them as they occur without further 
ceremony trusting to the Indulgence which you have all- 
ready so fully shown me, tho what I now presume to 
make goes to the General Distribution of his System into 
Hermaphroditi Monoecia Dioecia & Polygamia for if 
there be species of plants which are evidently of the same 
Genus and yet according to this system must be referr'd 
to different classes you must certainly allow it to be a 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 85 

fault in the System What has given occasion to me for 
this doubt is what I wrote to you before that I had ob- 
serv'd some particular plants of the Clematitis that car- 
ried only male flowers while others of the same species 
bore all hermophrodite flowers There is no doubt of 
these plants being of the same species because they agreed 
in every thing in the leaf in the stem in that manner &c 
so that not the least distinction could be observ'd except 
that the flowers in one were all male in the other all 
Hermaphrodite neither did I observe any other plant 
of the same Genus that had female flowers. The next is 
what I likewise observ'd to you before of the Sagittaria 
that the Species which I observ'd was evidently distin- 
guished into Male & Female plants You may assure your 
self it is not an alisma according to Linnseus's character 
of this Genus nor no new Genus for it has but that in 
every thing It agrees with the Character of the Sagit- 
taria excepting that the flowers are male & female in dif- 
ferent plants of the same Species Now I shall mention 
a third plant a Specimen of which I sent you tho' with- 
out the flowers N° 198 & which you tell me is the Myrica 
foliis oblongis altematim sinnatis flor. Virg. p. 192. Ac- 
cording to Linnaeus's Character of the Myrica it is of the 
Dioecia Class I can assure you that this Species is of the 
Monoecia & carries Male & female Catkins on the same 
plant I shall send you next year some Specimens with 
the flowers and I cannot think that I have accidentally 
fallen upon all the exceptions of this kind that are to be 

The wisdom of Nature has made a remarkable Dis- 
tinction between Animals & Vegetables in the care taken 
for continueing their Species the accidents of life from 
the different propensities of the Male & females & the 
occasion that the Males generally make the smallest num- 
ber that in the Animal Kingdom the Species may be well 
continued by the females being in greater number than 
the males but in Vegetables it is necessary that the Males 
be in greater number than the Females in order to make 
sure of their being impregnated & therefor I do not think 

86 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

it against nature to have in the same species one plant 
with all male flowers & another with Hermophrodite 

One reason of D"" Linnaeus's his Establishing so many- 
Classes (I suppose) is to avoid as much as possible any 
of them from being too much crowded this I think may be 
don by dividing as M'' Ray & others have don Plants into 
Tree & herbs This is a obvious distinction that all Man- 
kind make & therefor I cannot doubt of its being a natu- 
ral distinction & certainly an obvious natural Distinc- 
tion is to be preferr'd to one more obscure As to my part 
if two plants one a Tree & the other an Herb should 
happen to agree in every part of the Fructification yet I 
could not perswade my self to think them of the same 
kind there is something so very Different in the whole 
formation & constitution between a tree & an herb. I 
knew that it is objected that there is not any certain 
Criterion to distinguish a tree from an Herb that any 
Criterion hitherto given by Botanists to distinguish a 
Tree from an Herb will agree to some Herbs but this 
objection I do not think sufficient for it may be only a 
proof of our want of Knowledge in giving the Proper 
Criterion not that the Distinction is not reall in which 
all nations have agreed & all Languages. If this objec- 
tion should hold it may go further even to destroy all 
Distinction between Vegetables & Animals because I 
know no Criterion to distinguish animals from vege- 
tables but what leaves room to doubt to which of them 
some Species belong witness the Polypus which has been 
the Subject of late observation Indeed my opinion is 
that the Natural Gradation from the lowest Class to the 
highest is by such small & imperceptible steps that it is 
very diflacult to distinguish every the next step either 
upwards or downwards tho' at some Distince the Distinc- 
tion be very remarkable For this reason any System 
in Botany would give me a strong prejudice in its favour 
where there appears such a Gradation from one Class to 
another & from one Genus to another through the several 
species that the step from one to the other becomes all- 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 87 

most imperceptible When ever this System shall be dis- 
cover'd I shall conclude it to be the natural System. 
So far you see I am from thinking that there is any 
weight in this argument against the Distinction of Plants 
into Trees & Herbs 

Give me leave to make another objection to the Doc- 
tors System for it is not with any View to deprecieat so 
worthy & great a performance but that I wish to have 
it as perfect as possible & I hope he will live to make it 
such as I know no man so capable of doing it It is this 
that the Distinction of the Syngenesia Class according to 
the male female hermaphrodite & neutral flowers is so 
very nice & requires in many cases such a clear sight & 
is apt to run the observers into Confusion which by com- 
paring the first & 2^ Edition of his Characters the D"" 
himself has not been able to avoid in some instances add 
to this what I before observ'd of the Clematitis Sagittaria 
& Myrica we may have room to suspect that it does not 
truely & naturally distinguish the Genera but that the 
same Species are subject to Variations with respect to 
these But it is time for me to stop Ne Sutor ultra Crepi- 

However I must again mention what I before hinted 
to you of the Gynandria Diandria that I still think that 
one Distinguishing part of this natural Class among 
other parts of their Character is that the Stamina & an- 
therae are afl&xed to the Nectarium in some shape or other 
This I have observ'd in all the Species that I have had an 
opportunity to examin which are indeed so very few that 
I can rely no more upon them than to recommend it to 
your examination for I could not after carefully reading 
Linneus's Description of this kind of flower discover 
any other stamina than what I take to be such Since I 
wrote my former I examined the Cyprepedium there in 
the hollow of the Nectarium this Down or fine hairs ap- 
pear & if I be not mistaken the antherae are affixed not 
on their summit or top as usual but to the sides of the 
filament below their summits. Two Stamina seem not 
sufficient to me to impregnat the great quantity of seed 

88 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

contain'd in the Capsula. Nature every where else seems 
to be more carefull to make sure work even by profusion. 
You who have the advantage of Botanical Gardens may 
soon be satisfied whether there be any real ground for 
my Conjecture 

I have long wished to see D'' Linnaeus's Philosophia 
Botanica that is ever since I saw the name of it men- 
tioned & was a litle acquainted with his Works but when 
you wish in vain it is needless for me to add my wishes 
The reasons the D'" gives you for suppressing that book 
in my opinion should not prevail with a good man in 
depriving mankind of a general Benefite If I who 
understand so very little of Botany were permitted to 
advise I should propose the plants to be collected into 
their natural order or Classes without regard to any 
system after which I would make a System according 
to which same plants should be disposed according to 
the rules of that system with this view only to assist 
learners or the Ignorant to discover the proper name 
or place of each plant & in this I would have no regard to 
the Natural system but even divide & seperate the Spe- 
cies of the same Genus into different Classes if the rules 
of my System required it for I would have this System to 
be iook't on as nothing else but as an Index to dis- 
cover the plant one desires to find in its proper place & 
therefor I should prefer a System that serves best to this 
purpose tho' it should no way agree with the natural 
system By this means many disputes would be avoided 
among Botanists & the System would be more Beneficial 
to learners for thereby they would have a double Method 
of Discovering any unknown plant first from its natural 
conformity to some other known plant and Secondly from 
some remarkable part of its character by which they are 
in the artificial System led to it I cannot forbear to wish 
that you would try this Method in a New Edition of your 
American Plants for my own sake & other unskillful 
Philo-Botanists in America. And this Leads me to his 
oratia de telluris habitabilis Incrementa I doubt of the 
truth of his observation in his preface on the Vermiculi 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 89 

in Genitura that they have no motion in themselves I 
have observed it otherwise what I mean is that tho I 
doubt not that it was really so in the case he observ'd yet 
I doubt of its being allwise so 

The benefit of oyl in the cure of the Bite of the Rattle 
Snake has been confirmed in several instances in this 
Country & even that Hogs lard is effectual & of conse- 
quence it is probable that all oyly things are. I has been 
long observ'd in this Country that hogs were never hurt 
by the Rattle Snake or by any Viper tho all our other 
cattle at sometime or other have been this I attribute to 
the natural defence they have by their fat through which 
the teeth of the Viper cannot penetrate without giving 
the remedy at the same time it injects the poison You 
know how dangerous it is to trust to experiments unless 
they be perform'd with all requesite precaution but I can 
assure that I would rather trust to oyl or hogs lard than 
to the famous Polygala or Rattle snake root or to any 
other Medecine that I have heard of because the bene- 
ficial use of this comes better confirmed to me than that 
of the Rattle Snake root or any other we cheefly trust 
to the warm external application 

As you seem to be pleas'd with my communicating 
the use of any plants discover'd in this Country I shall tell 
you what I learn'd of the use of the Hamamelis from a 
Minister of the Church of England who officiats among 
the Mohawk Indians He saw an allmost total blindness 
occasioned by a blow cur'd by receiving the Warm Steam 
of a Decortion of the Bark of this Shrub through a Funnel 
upon the place this was don by direction of a Mohawk 
Indian after other means had for a considerable time 
prov'd ineffectual. I have since experiencd the benefit 
of it used in the same manner in an Inflammation of the 
eye from a blow D'" Linneus is in the right in observing 
that I had mistaken the Gemma of this shrub for the 
Involucrum in the Description I gave of it 

The Indians likewise cure all sorts of wounds with- 
out digestion by the Inner bark of the Pinus N° 192 of the 
collection I sent you They soak it so long in Water as 

90 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174^-1747 

to make it soft & then apply it If I be not misinform'd 
it is effectual even in Gun shot wounds The Wound 
keeps of a fresh & ruddy colour till it unites without 

I have not as yet been able to see the fruit of N° 131 
but I cannot doubt of its belonging to the Class of the 
Tetradynamia for besides its agreeing in all its parts of 
the Flower with the Characters of that Class it agrees 
likewise in Test having nearly the same with that of the 
Nasturtium The Mohawk Indians told me that when 
they were quite faint with travel & fasting if they can 
come at the roots of this plant to eat they are refreshed 
& their spirits restored wonderfully, add to the Discrip- 
tion I gave what follows. Radix longa teres repens prom- 
inentis plurimis angulosis I hardly doubt that the Lysi- 
machia Galericulata Claytoni has four Stamina other- 
wise I think I had not fail'd to take notice of it I shall 
examine it again next summer 

What I wrote to you of the Species of the Zea semine 
nudo I believe is entirely a mistake for having sown some 
of these seeds the plants which came from them produced 
seeds cover'd with a hard Skin as the other sorts are I 
suspect some artifice was used to deceive me Whatever 
Toumefort may say I cannot doubt of there being distinct 
Species of the Maiz notwithstanding that they cannot 
be distinguished either from the leaf or flower but we that 
are well acquainted with the seed can distinguish the 
species tho it be very difficult to convey that distinc- 
tion by words only to others. Sow the several species 
in the same soil & at the same time they will come to 
ripeness at very different seasons in the year & this 
property they never change unless when sown together 
that they bastardise The planters who live in the north- 
ern colonies are obliged to be careful in observing this 
distinction of species otherwise they would often loose 
their whole crops. I can hardly doubt that the same 
nicety of Distinction of species may be necessary in some 
other Genera This brings to my Memory a thought 
which I have intertain'd viz that we have in America 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 91 

very few if any Species of plants or animals entirely the 
same with those in Europe except such as have been 
brought from thence, tho some Species are so nearly alike 
that it is difficult to describe the Difference by words tho 
it be manefest to a curious observer. 

I shall be obliged to you if you'l please to inform me 
of any new valuable books in Medecine published with 
you. I have not the good fortune to have seen any thing 
in the Materia Medica that entirely pleases me 

You cannot expect much new in Literature from this 
part of the world I send with this a curious & new Inven- 
tion for warming a room with a small fire more effectually 
than can be done by a large fire in the common method 
& is free of the inconveniencies which attend the Dutch 
& German Stoves; because by this contrivance there is a 
continual supply of fresh warm air. It may be particu- 
larly usefull to you & D"" Linneus, by preserving your 
health while it keeps you warm at you studies It is 
the Invention of M'^ Benjamin Franklin of Philadelphia 
the Printer of it, a very Ingenious man. Experience con- 
firms the benefit of it. 

I send likewise some few observations of plants made 
since I sent my former & few seeds of the Manarda & 
Helxine Volubilis but as these were taken from the With- 
erd Stalks after the winter was begun may not be come 
to perfection but since I cannot otherwise send them till 
next fall you may if you please take the chance of these 

Descriptions to be sent to Gronovius 

N° 2 Veronica foliis quaternis quenisve 

198 Myrica Sweat fern 

199 Polygala 

I design to give our friend M"" CoUinson of London the 
trouble of conveying this to you because we have not any 
ship at this time design'd from this to Holland He does 
me commonly the pleasure of writing to me twice in the 

92 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Year at the Seasons our Ships commonly leave London 
viz In the end of February & beginning of September. 
When any ships from Amsterdam either go to New York 
or to Philadelphia if your friends at Amsterdam please to 
direct your letters for me by the New York Ships to the 
Care of M'" Richard Nicholls Post Master in New York or 
by the Philadelphia ships to the care of M"" Benj" Frank- 
lin Post Master in Philadelphia they will come safe to 
my hands. 

Cadwallader Golden to Benjamin Franklin 


Dec" 1744 
The season of the year advancing in which our Cor- 
respondence from this place with New York becomes 
more uncertain & my eldest son going now to New York 
where he proposes to stay 8 or 10 days I hope you will 
excuse my interrupting you in your Business which I 
know aUows you little time for trifles or amusements. 
In your last you gave me hopes that you would soon be 
able to inform me of what sentiment M'" Logan intertains 
of the Introduction to Fluxions which was submitted to 
his perusal By my last I transmitted to you some 
thoughts of the Different Species of Matter. As these 
thoughts are entirely new & out of the common road of 
thinking I have reason not only to be apprehensive that 
others may not easily receive the Conceptions but that I 
may have imposed on my self & it is for this reason that 
I have submitted them to M'" Logan & your Examination. 
I have allready shown it to M'" Alexander & some steps I 
have made in applying these thoughts to the explanation 
of some phenomina in which Philosophers have hitherto 
not been able to give Satisfaction. He has taken much 
more pains in the Examination than could have been ex- 
pected in one so deeply engaged in Business & however 
pleasing his Sentiments may be to me I have reason to 
suspect that he may be biassed by favour to a very long <fe 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174a-l 747 93 

intimate acquaintance. You may assure your self that I 
think & I hope M"" Logan will believe me in good earnest 
when I say that there cannot be a stronger & surer mark of 
Friendship than showing to me the mistakes I may have 
fallen into as it may prevent my exposing my weakness & 
Ignerance to others Men often impose sophisms upon 
themselves which they cannot detect without the assist- 
ance of others If the general reasonings be found right I 
flatter my self you will take more pleasure in examining 
the application of them to particular phenomena As the 
Winter is the only time that I have leisure to apply my 
self to speculations I should be glad to know your Senti- 
ments & M"" Logans As soon as may be either to prevent 
my throwing away time uselessly or to encourage me to 
go on in the pursuit of a study which requires much 
time & leisure more than I can hope for in my life. I 
know none besides M"" Logan M"" Alexander & your self 
in this part of the world to whos judgement I can 
refer any thing of this kind. 

I long likewise to know what progress you make in 
forming your Society. If it meet with obstruction from 
the want of proper incouragement or otherwise I would 
have you attempt some other Method of proceeding in 
your Design for I shall be very sorry to have it entirely 
dropt. May you not as Printer propose to Print at cer- 
tain times a Collection of such pieces on the subject of 
your former proposals which any shall think proper to 
send you & by way of Speciemen to print such papers as 
your friends may have communicated to you on your for- 
mer proposal. For this purpose you may desire a Sub- 
scription by all persons indifferently for your Incourage- 
ment. I do not propose that every thing be printed that 
shall be sent You may communicate them to the best 
judges with you of the several subjects on which these 
papers shall happen to be wrote where you are not will- 
ing entirely to trust to your own Judgement & if they be 
found not fit for the press you may return them with re- 
marks or make some excuse for not publishing them. 
This I expect will in time produce a Society as proposed 

94 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

by giving men of Learning or Genius some knowledge of 
one another & will avoid some difficulties that allwise 
attend the forming of Societies in their Beginning Three 
hundred copies may be sufficient at first till it be dis- 
cover'd what incouragement the undertaking meets with 
& such a number I cannot doubt will sell. I shall only 
add that as men naturally have as great a fondness for 
the Productions of their Mind as for those of their bodies 
however ill favour'd they be & bear with as much uneasi- 
ness to be deprived of the honour of such Productions as 
to have another assume to be the father of their Children 
you must be careful to acknowledge the receipt of every 
paper so as that the author may think himself secure from 
pyratical attempts of others 

To M" John Bartram at the same time. 

[Dec'- 1744] 

I was so much longer at New York than I expected 
that I have been much longer deprived of the pleasure of 
continueing my Correspondence with you than I thought 
would happen for my private affairs since my return 
home have necessarly employ'd my thoughts. In the 
first place I must thank you for the Civilities I receiv'd 
while I was at Philadelphia I am very sensible of them 
And next I must excuse my not procuring the seed of the 
Arbor Vitse as you desired the cones were all open before 
I return'd & the seed fallen But I shall have the greatest 
pleasure if I can be a means of persuading you to make 
your knowledge more publick & of consequence more 
usefuU & I perswade my self it will not be difficult for me 
to perswade you to it for the greatest pleasure a good man 
can have is in being usefuU to the community & in what 
I am about to propose I likewise hope that you'l find a 
private advantage in it. It is to communicate your 
knowlege of our American plants to the publick This I 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 95 

believe may be done with most advantage to your self by 
publishing it by Subscription in monthly papers of about 
one shilling Value & to take Gronovius's Flora Virginica 
for the Foundation of your work & method. It will be 
necessary for you to have at least six months papers ready 
before you begin to publish that the work may be con- 
tinued with sufficient care & without Interruption. I 
make no doubt you'l find severall forward to incourage & 
assist you where it may be necessary especially in such 
parts where you may be under difficulties by your not 
having had in your youth the advantages of Learning. I 
will very cheerfully contribute whatever shall be in my 
power & give you my thoughts as to the Method of 
prosecuting your design after I shall know that you are 
resolved to undertake it 

To Alderman Johnson at y" same time. 

[Dec'- 1744] 

You may remember that while I was last at New 
York you gave me hopes that you would inform me of 
what had been don by the Magistrates to remove the 
Nusances & draining the stagnating Waters & other 
Methods taken by them in order to keep the City clean & 
healthy And likewise to give me some account of the 
State of health of the City so far as it may be reasonably 
thought to be the consequence of their care but I suppose 
more urgent Business prevented you. I now take the 
Liberty to put you in mind of what you promised me & 
when I tell you for what purpose I do it I believe you will 
not be displeased that I press you to it. If it be found 
from Experience that the Care of the Magistrats has 
produced in any measure the good effects that were pro- 
posed it will in the first place be of means to encourage 
them to continue their care & to carry it further where 
either the want of time to do all that was requesite or 

96 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

other obstructions prevented them. & 2*^'^ it will induce 
the people more cheerfully to submit to their orders and 
regulations even in cases where their private profit or ease 
may seem to suffer 3*^''' It will be of use to this City & to 
other places hereafter when the shall fall under the mis- 
forturne of such like Epidemical Distempers in taking the 
proper Methods to remove them & to prevent them & 
lastly that such of the Magistrats of New York who have 
distinguished themselves in so beneficial & benevolent an 
undertaking may receive a publick & honourable Testi- 
mony of their care & Vigilance in performing the Duty of 
good Magistrats as may be due to their merit. While we 
were engaged in party disputes many pretended to a great 
concern for the publick now when the publick benefite 
may be pursued without the inconvenencies which neces- 
sarly attend party Disputes it seems to be a matter of no 
concern & this gives room to think that the publick Bene- 
fite was not really the Motive to those who formerly 
made so great a bustle about it. 

Cadvxdlader Golden to Dr. Joh. Fred Gronovius 

CoLDiNGHAM in New York 1745 
Dear S'" 

I answer 'd yours of the 3*^ of April 1744 (which is the 
only one I have receiv'd from you) near twelve months 
since I directed to the care of our friend M"" Collinson of 
London which he tells me he had carefully transmitted 
to you This is design'd to be sent likewise to his care 
since he is pleas'd with having this trouble put upon him. 
I am so litle acquainted with the Merchants in this place 
who trade directly to holland that the ships are commonly 
gon before I hear any thing of their going besides most of 
these Merchants & Masters of Vessels are very careless 
of any thing of which they have no prospect of any Profit. 
With this I send the Characters of some more plants 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 97 

which I observ'd this year & some corrections or addi- 
tions to what I had before observed some dry'd specimens 
likewise & some seeds. Upon the same paper I have pre- 
sumed with that freedom which I think is allow'd in all 
philosophical enquiries to mention some further difficul- 
ties which arise to me in the Linnean System & tho' you 
may perhaps easily solve them by showing my ignorance 
in Botany as a Science yet as probably the same diffi- 
culties may occur to others it may be of some use by 
giving you an oppertunity of clearing up this matter to 
[torn] others less versant in that science 

It is no thing new & extraordinary in Literature from 
this part of the world is to be expected but as we are im- 
proving this Wilderness & have in some measure in some 
places given it the appearance of the Cultivated grounds 
in Europe so we make some small attempts for improve- 
ment in Learning And as you may be desirous of disr- 
covering our taste in the Medical Art I send you two small 
Essays lately published the one here in New York, the 
other at Philadelphia. The distemper call'd the Dry 
Gripes, Endemial to the West Indies is a most stubborn 
distemper & has often baffled the attempts of allmost all 
the Skillfull Physiceans who have undertaken the cure 
of it till a Method of cure was discover'd by an old woman 
which was afterwards kept as a secret for about 50 years 
among 2 or 3 practitioners till lately that it became more 
generally known at Philadelphia The old woman used 
only crude Rhenish Tartar given in small quantities 
every two hours The Doctor to whom she communi- 
cated her Method of practise substituted Cremor Tartari 
without any other addition & so did the others till lately 
without using any opiats or any purgatives in the treatise 
I now send you This account I had from one who has 
had the secret about twenty years & tells me that he has 
used it with success in above 300 patients. He is abso- 
lutely against useing any stimulating purgatives in the 
beginning for he says if the Cremor Tartari work too 
soon as it will in some constitutions so as to give Watery 
Stools before the hard excrements pass it never produces 

98 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

any good effect It must work at first rather as an alter- 
ant before it evacuat with success. The first appearance 
of its good effects is by making great quantity of Wind 
pass downwards which is succeeded by hard excrements 
in a globular shape & then Clement purgatives may 
safely be used like Tartar & the use of it is still to be 
continued as an alterant for some time or he has used 
successfully in place of it Floris sulphuris It would be of 
use to have a history of the Discovery of any method of 
cure or of specifick Medecines perhaps it would then 
be found that more has been often owing to chance than 
to art especially in the Discovery of Specific Medecines. 
The other paper was occasion'd by Tar Water's be- 
coming the subject of common conversation here in 
America as well as in England & the Practitioners com- 
monly speaking of it with contempt By many experi- 
ments it has been found beneficial in Scorbutic & hysteric 
cases & one of my acquaintance is in hopes of being cured 
of the Gout by it he has recover'd a better state of health 
than he had in many years before but it requires more 
time than he has as yet had to be assur'd of the cure of 
his Gout. We have some instances of the cure of the 
Yaws by it after the cure could not be effected by Mer- 
cury & the common methods in the French Pox & of one 
in this distemper who was given over as incurable by the 
physicians. You know that D*" Sydenham thinks the 
Yaws to be the same distemper with the Lues Venerea 
& I believe they are generally taken to be the same in 
Europe but they are of very different Originals the one 
being a Native of Africa & the other of America & make 
two distinct species of diseases tho' in many symtems 
they agree & both be contracted by infection But it is 
time for me to give over I am affray'd that I may tire 
your patience I am 

To Dr Gronovius of Leyden 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 99 

From James Alexander 

Copy of Sissons Letter about 
price of Sectors for observing 
Stars in or near the Zenith to 
two Seconds 
I have Sent you a book wherein is an Exact draught & 
Description of the 9 foot Sector that M"" Graham made for 
the French Gentlemen that went into the North to meas- 
ure a Degree of the Meridian which I thought might be 
better than what I could send you, which book may be of 
Service to you the price of one of 9 foot Radius in the 
Same Manner as in the book would be £100 I made one 
of the Sectors of 5 foot Radius in the Same manner as 
in the book for M"" Campbell which he carried to Jamaica 
which comes to £60 — I likewise have made one of 12 foot 
without the triangular frame to fix in a perpendicular 
Chimney or to the Side of a wall for M*" Celsius professor 
at Upsal in Swedeland which Comes to £ 100 — one of 9 
feet to fix to the Side of a wall will be about £ 80 One of 6 
feet radius to fix to the Side of a wall will be about £ 50 
London Aug' 31 1744 

New York janry 13'"^ 1744/5 

D^ Sir 

I had yours of the 4*^ by M'" Harrison with 4 Moiders 
& 2 guineas — I am of your opinion we must rest Satis- 
fied with M'^ Sissons demand I shall Send up one of the 
Instruments by the first Sloop in the Spring as you Desire 

finding in the Philosophical transactions that the in- 
strument by which M"" Bradley discovered the aberration 
of the fixed Starrs was, a Small arc of a Circle graduated 
about a Degree only on Each Side of the Zenith, in your 
Last I requested Sisson to Describe the instrument & the 
price thereof, a Coppy of his answer I send you before & 
if I can get the bearer of this to bring you the book he 

100 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

mentions I will Send you that also, which with a 
great deal of pleasure I have perused 

In another Letter Sisson tells me that M"" Graham 
recommends the Observing the Latitude by the Stars near 
our Zenith as much better than by the Sun, for 3 reasons 
1 heat of Sun may alter shape 2 Limit of Sun can't be So 
Exactly observed as a Starr 3 refraction is different at 
different times in the Same place Says M'" Graham has 
promised to procure from the Eaiie of Maclesfield & D"" 
Bradley the altitude of Several Stars near our Zenith 
observed by them with the Largest & most Exact quad- 
rants & also their observations at Different times of the 
year caused by the Motion of the Earth haveing a Sensi- 
ble velocity Compared with the motion of Light 

I shall be obliged to you for your thoughts on the tarr 

I hope the plan you have found may be the best kind 
of it which cures the Stone which will be one of the most 
usefull discoveries to Mankind 

Since I had yours Peter Delancey was with me with a 
Draught of award for M'' Murray concerning the £ 100 
he had paid for the mills Since his fathers decease which 
it Seems has been referred to Mr Murray & he is of opin- 
ion that the father would have paid it & Consequently 
his Estate & that therfore Peter ought to be reimbursed 
Peter askt me also what Should be done on the General 
affair, I told him I thought it best to refer it also to M"" 
Murray but if they could not be brought to that then to 
Comply with what the Chief justice proposed viz to 
Leave it to the Chancellor of England for as to a Real 
Suit I could by no means advise it, while there was a 
possibility any way of an amicable Determination, that 
so far as advice, I should be ready to Serve him as far as 
in my power 

As to your money at Philadelphia I think the best 
way would be for Mr Armit to get it changed into jersey 
money & Send it by the post to Mr Nichols who for six 
weeks after the 25*^^ of March will probably get 2/ or 
2/6 pr" advance on the proclam" I have often applica- 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 101 

tion to me for borrowing money So its very probable he 
may Soon find persons to borrow it 

Capt Rutherford has favoured me with the peruseal of 
Sundry pamphlets which by no means show our publick 
affairs to be in a better Condition than they appear by 
the news papers 

We Lately got a Coppy here of the bill brought into 
the house of Commons last Session of parliament, to 
prevent all paper bills in the plantations to be issued 
hereafter from being tenders, & to our great Surprize 
found two clauses foisted in at the End of it, makeing 
the instructions of the King or of any by his authority 
ObUgatory on Gov" Councils & assemblys in the planta- 
tions & all Laws orders &c by them to the Contrary to be 
void — which if past would Subject the plantations to the 
Kings absolute will 

never was there so nearly an union in any place 
as there was in this agt these clauses, a meeting 
was had of the principal inhabitants without Distinction 
of parties it was agreed to remitt £ 150 Sterling to Mess™ 
Bakers to Employ an agent & Council & to join with the 
Gent of West India Islands & Virginia in opposition to 
those clauses, before house of Commons & house of Lords, 
& Each agreed to write to their Correspondents in London 
to Countenance this application to the utmost of their 
power, the money was immediately raised & remitted for 
that purpose by Stephen Delancey & Co : with orders if 
more be necessary to advance it — with orders also to 
promote the passing of the bill So far as Concerned paper 
money which was Excellently weU drawn & proper to 
prevent in time the mischiefs ariseing by paper money 
being a tender Leaveing it Still in the power of the Gov- 
ernments to issue Securitys for money on an Exigency 
takeing care of good funds & to pay the interest to those 
who will please to accept them — I am 


Ja. Alexander 

102 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

From James Alexander 

Newyork Febry 10'^ 1744/5 

I had yours of the 19*^ of Jan'^''. I am of your opinion 
that a quadrant will give more general satisfaction & 
therefore, a Quadrant of 30 inches radius price £ 42 Sterl- 
ing is what I chose & Expect to have by the return of the 

I read your reflections on Tar water twice over with a 
great deal of pleasure and care & found only a few 
Literal mistakes of the transcriber which I corrected & 
then Sent for Parker the printer who agreed to print it 
according to your Directions & to print a quire of each for 
your use in the manner you Desire paying 2/pr quire for 
the paper, but Said he could not begin it for three weeks, 
there being news by the Boston & Philadelphia Ships 
which would fill his papers for that time. 

I asked Parker what he would have pr sheet for 100 
coppies of the piece yow propose further to print in the 
Same Letter as his news paper he answered 40/ pr sheet, 
which I think is reasonable enough considering that one 
sheet in that Letter will Contain more than two sheets of 
the Letter in which the Common printing is which is 
25/ pr sheet 

David Ogden of Newark haveing found in one of the 
Magazines from London an account of tar water, and he 
having been much afilicted with the Rheumatism for two 
years, which had Setled in his Knees and Swelled them, 
he resolved to trye the tar water at once, and in one 
month he was restored to perfect health, the Swelling in 
his knees, the flying pains in his body & Legs and arms 
entirely removed his Languid & Sickly pale colour which 
he has had these two years yeilded to a fresh healthy 
colour — he came to town this week & not knowing any 
thing of this medicine taken by him, I accosted him 
at once that I was glad to See him Look So well, and 
needed not to ask how he did, upon this he immediately 

THE GOLDEN PAPER&-1743-1747 103 

told me whats before, and further that the fame of his 
being So Soon & So well cured of So long an indisposi- 
tion had Spread thro all Newark, & So far as Amboy 
where people were takeing Tar Water for all Distempers, 
& it cures but everything, — he told me that a Daughter of 
Stephen Courtlands of about 30 years of age who has not 
had an hours health for a dozen years past being plagued 
with Tooth ack histericks & many other indispositions, 
told him the week before that the tarr water had cured 
her tooth ake & all her ailments & that she found her 
Self then as brisk and lively as at fifteen — it has cured 
Severall of histericks, cholicks &c If all this be true it bids 
fair to be the universal medicine David Ogden told me 
that for the first fourtnight the Tar water purged him 
downwards, which I dont find that the Bishop remarks 
any such Effect 

Newyork Febry 28^'^ 1744/5 
S'- Sir 

Whats before was wrote at its date but no opportunity 
has Since offered to Send it — Mr Kennedy & Mr. Lodge 
tell me there's now an opportunity which they Embrace 
to write to yow, in order to get a Deed from Mrs. Mils- 
man upon which the title to the house which M'" Kennedy 
has bargained for does absolutely Depend, as M'^ Mils- 
man herself had not the Estate in her as I was told at 
their Last Sending to yow on this account but when 
they brought me the title to view I found She had only 
a bare authority to Sell for her former husbands will & 
that was Limited too to the time of her being his widow 
— So that that deed none wrote for must Either be had or 
proved in Chancery that Such deed Existed, its Sus- 
pected that John Bayard has got it into his hands by the 
opportunity he has of viewing his mothers papers & if he 
has, and has Destroyed it, both he & his mother must 
Swear thro Stitch in Chancery to make it of any benefite 
to them I am j^r g^ 

[Indorsed] Your most humble Servant 

Cadwalladeb Golden Esq^ Ja. ALEXANDER 

att Coldenham 

104 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

From Peter ColUnson 

I can only now acquaint my Dear Friend — That his 
Secon'd part of his principle of action is come Safe on the 
6**^ Instant & immediately Sent to Doc'" Bevis — from 
whom I can gett no answer to the first. 

I am in hast Thine 


Feby^ 21 

I have Gott a fine Sett of 

Tournfort & . . . 

plant Shall Send next Month 

in M*" Alexander's trunk 




New York. 

From Samuel Johnson 

Stratford Feb. 25 1745 
[torn] Opportunity by the Rev*^ M'" Watkins [torn] 
atulate your people upon his having [torn] a Mission 
for them & his safe return to them, which I hope may be 
of great Advantage to your Country. — I perceive by him 
that what we wrote in behalf of the 500 acres of land is 
likely to obtain the desired Effect 

On this Occasion I give you may Hearty thanks for 
your Kind Letter, & the Singular Favour you have done 
me in Sending that very ingenious performance on Flux- 
ions, which I confess has set them in a more Advan- 
tageous Light to me than any thing I had before Seen. — 
Indeed I have as yet given it but a very hasty perusal, be- 
cause I was minded as Soon as I could to Send it to M" 
prince whose Judgm^ In Such subjects I value much 
beyond my own: but he is at the Distance of 20 miles 
teaching a Country School which he complains is Such an 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 105 

Interruption to his Time & thoughts that he must beg 
a little forbearance before he can give it that Attention 
it deserves, especially with relation to the Dispute be- 
tween you & the Bp. — In the mean time he [torn] me to 
give you his thanks for the Kind Disposition you express 
of being useful to him in whatever may be in your 
power. It would, I believe, be of very good use to the 
promoting of learning in your Government if He could 
get a Classical & Mathematical School Some where in 
it. — This was attempted by M'" Clowey at Jamaica but it 
is a Surprising Malice wherewith his Enemies of Harvard 
College persecute him, for they or Somebody influenced 
by them have not only endeavored to blast his Reputa- 
tion in y"" Government but even with the Society in Eng- 
land, as appears by a Letter I had now from the Secre- 

As to your Inquiry about poke root &c. It was not 
the juice of the root but the Leaves that was inspissated 
in the Sun that did the Cure. I have Sent to an in- 
genious Physician, at N Haven, D"" Hubbard who has 
promised to give me the best light he can get about it, but 
he is yet dubious, there being Some danger of its break- 
ing out again — When I have got his full Intelligence on 
this Subject, & M'" prince & I have had opportunity to 
lay our Heads together upon the Business of Fluxions you 
shall hear from me again Mean time I remain 

your most obliged 

& very humble Serv*^ 

[Indorsed] Sa. JoHNSON 

C'adwaliadeb Golden Esq*" 


From John Rutherfurd 

S" [Undated] 

I had the pleasure of receiving your letter at New 
York where I went to attend the Council a while this 

106 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Spring in hopes of promoteing Some vigorous resolutions 
for the defence of our own frontiers & regarding our in- 
terest with the Six Nations which has been dwindleing 
for so many years & Seems now quite lost, but my hopes 
were vain & I found myself reckoned as odd & singular 
at New York for insisting upon a proper defence for 
Albany, as I was last Fall at Albany when I alone insisted 
upon assisting New England with our Indians; Some of 
whom were willing to fight for us then who are alike un- 
willing with the rest now fearing the French & despiseing 
us. I left New York yesterday where The Torrington 
Man of War of 40 Guns Commanded by Capt Hardy ar- 
rived on thursday night, he is to Cruize towards Virginia 
for a fortnight & than Convoy the three Companys of 
Fullers Regiment at New York from thence to Louis- 
bourg which place you'l be surprised to hear must cer- 
tainly have fallen into french hands, had they arrived 
there with any force either from Canada or Eurpoe, for 
when the Transports arrived from Virginia they had not 
three hundred Men left in the Garrison, the Sickness 
there must have been worse than most plagues we've 
heard of altho 'tis all attributed to the Men's feeding 
allwayes on Salt provisions & want of Cloathing. I 
won't pretend to write you any Albany news untill I ar- 
rive there, whats past I suppose you've heard allready, 
nor indeed has any thing happened but what I dare Say 
you as well as I expected, it being plainly the Interest of 
Canada to reduce our Setlements & gain our Indians & 
consequently they will bend most of their force against 
Albany it being there we interfere most with them, but 
as to Lands & trade; Our allowing all our Indians to goe 
to Canada to treat with A French Governour last Sum- 
mer, without useing all means & artifices in owr power to 
hinder them was an irreparable fault, tho none in me 
since I wrote again & again to the Governour at the time 
& in vain press'd The Commissioners to exert themselves 
with whom I have done no business Since, but to allow 
them to goe to Canada now as the Sachems are mostly 
designing & without so much as Sending persons of inter- 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174S-1747 107 

est amongst them to endeavour at least to stop them 
seems to me the Strongest instance of Infatuation I've 
ever met with, for I don't see why we majoi't expect they 
may return with the hatchet in their hands against us. I 
have left my Wife & Children at New York untill I see a 
litle how things goes, & I propose some time this Summer 
to meet her at Your house & have the pleasure of passing 
a few days with you agreeably, by that time M" Parker 
will have finish'd printing your treatise or Essay & if we 
can't entertain ourselves with the particular affairs of 
the World here, we allways can with the General (Econ- 
omy of it. I Saw IVf Peter Delancy a day or two befor 
I left New York when he told me, that part of your fam- 
ily now with him were all well I hope to hear the same of 
Mrs. Golden & the rest of Your Young Family from 
you soon, pray remember my respects to them all, being 
with all regard & sincerity 

Yours most obed* &.c.&.c 

John Rutherfurd 
Hudson's River 
Saturday 10 oclock 

From James Alexander 

New York March 18 
D-^ Sir 

I have yours of Febry 23'^ — about Ten days agoe I be- 
gan to use Tar water as a preventive for the Gout & 
Gravell, the first time I took it in the morning & it made 
me qualmish all day I took it again going to bed, & Slept 
well & found no Such Effect in the morning wherfore I 
Resolved to take it only before going to bed, & have Con- 
tinued it ever Since — Tho' I expected no visible & speedy 
good effect of it as intended only as a preventive of what 
was not then upon me, the Gout & Gravell yet it Soon 
had an unexpected Effect, & that Contrary to what it had 

108 THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 

upon M"" Ogden to witt For two years past & more I had 
almost Continually a Looseness, with wind in the Stom- 
ack & Gutts which often Swelled me up, and mostly if I 
eat any roots or Greens, which had obliged me to disuse 
them, much against my inclination, to my surprize after 
three or four days useing the tarr water, I found that my 
Looseness was gone, was not troubld with wind as before 
I got a keen appetite Such as I remember not to have 
had these twenty years, and Do venture upon roots & 
Greens again without finding the Like Consequences 
from them as before — as it has had this unexpected effect 
I intend to Continue it in hopes it may have the effect I 

Tho Parker prints your piece on tar water differently 
from what you proposed, yet he has promised to form the 
number of Coppies you proposed in the manner you men- 
tioned in your Letter. 

Inclosed is the key of the Box of the Circumferentor, 
which tomorrow I intend to Send to M"" Nuals with this 
to go by the first opportunity 

I shall be very glad to See what you have done on the 
animal (Economy, & on the Theory of Gravitation — I am 
afraid I shall not have the happyness of Seeing M'"^ 
Colden because I intend to go for Jersey the End of this 
week where I Shall be detained near a month at our 
Supream Court & Council of proprietors 

I shall observe what you desire as to M'" Browns Lott 

I hear that writs are out in jersey for chuseing a new 
assembly to meet at Amboy the End of this month. If it 
Should then Sitt for business I am afraid I shall be 
Longer Detained there 

The Boston Expedition against Cape Breton Seems a 
Bold undertakeing I heartyly wish it may Succeed, but 
I am afraid of it for the want of warriors & Engineers 
which I Look upon to be as much an art as any manual 
Occupation, Their Generallissimo I hear is a new light 
man that never Saw a Shot fired in anger — the being an 
Enthusiast I take it to be no ill property in a warrior, but 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-17''.7 109 

the Defect of Experience I Doubt if that good property 
will Supply — Its said they have three good Engineers but 
assured not one of them was ever at a Siege. I Doubt 
much if Theory will Supply that Defect — the number of 
men proposed for the Expedition viz 7 or 8000 Seems 
fully Sufficient were the half of them but veterans. If 
it Succeeds it will be the most glorious thing that has 
been done this warr, & the most useful! if the Con- 
quest can be kept for its the only place of Rendezvous 
that the french have to annoy the Northern plantations 
with from the Sea I am 

Your most humble Serv* 

Ja. Alexander 


Cadwallader Golden Esq'" 

W*^ a box 

From Peter Collinson 

LoND'^ March 30*^ 1745 
My Dear Friend 

It gives Mee Concern that I am Deprived the pleas- 
ure of yrs by the Unfortunate Loss of Cap* Bryant, I com- 
mend your prudence in Directing your Seeds for the Paris 
Garden the proffesors are Mess*^^ Jussieu — without that 
precaution a hundred to one but that they had been 
thrown into the Sea^ — but if you had Improved that pre- 
caution & Divided the Seeds into Two ^cells & Sent by 
Two ships, then in all probability I should have had the 
Delight of shareing in the pains that you had taken to 
oblige Your Friends — whilst these perilous Times Last I 
recommend it to you for the future 

As this may I think very Justly be Stiled an age of 
Wonders, It may not ^haps be Disagreeable to Just hint 
them to you 

the Surpriseing Phenomena of the Polypus Enter- 
tain'd the Curious for a year or Two past but Now the 

110 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Vertuosi of Europe are taken up In Electrical Ex- 
periments, and what can be more Astonishing than that 
the Base rubing of a Glass Tube Should Investigate a 
^son with Electric Fire He is not Touched by the Tube 
but the Subtile Effluvia that Flies from it pervades 
Every pore and renders him what Wee call Electrified 
for then Lett him touch Spirits of Wine & the Spark of 
fire that flies from his finger on the touch will Sett the 
Spirits In flame This is a Common Experiment, but I 
have Seen oyle of Sevil-oriangs — & Camphire [Camphor] 
Sett on fire & Gun powder mixt with oyl of Lemmons will 
take Fire — but what would you say to see Fire come out 
of a Piece of thick Ice & Sett the Spirits In flame or Elec- 
trical Fire drawn through Water & ^forme the Same — ■ 
these are some few of a great Number of Surprising things 
that are formed by the Electrical power which you will 
find Difficult to Comprehend but are all facts 

Electricity Seems to furnish an Inexhaustable fund 
for Enquirey, & Sure & Certain Phenomenas so Various 
and So wonderful! that can only arise from Causes very- 
General & Extensive and Such as must have been de- 
signed by the Almighty Author of Nature for the pro- 
duction of very great Effects & Such as are of very Great 
Moment no Doubt to the System of the Universe — 
which by Degrees may lead to Higher Truths, in ^ticu- 
lar to Discover the Nature of that Subtile Elastic & 
Etherial Medium, which S'" Isaac Newton Queries on, at 
the End of His opticks — Had these Discoveries happened 
in that Great Mans Time, His Illuminated Mind would 
have apply'd them to wonderfull purposes 

The Walcans have discover'd Some very unaccount- 
able properties in unealed or untempered Glass, you must 
know that Glass Immediately after it is Blown in what 
Fashion you please and Exposed to the air to Cool, is 
called unnealed, whereas all the Glass in use is by De- 
grees Harden'd or Temperd but take a Cruit of this un- 
eal'd Glass that is made of the Size of an Oyle or Vine- 
gar Cruit but thicker and Stronger to Appearance, Take 
a Wooden Mallet and beat it, on its Bottome as hard as 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 111 

one could drive a Nail & it will not break, — Drop a mus- 
ket Bullet or an Ivory ball into It, — it has the Same 
effect; but take a Shiver or small piece of Flint that 
weights no more than three Grains & Drop it into the 
Cruit as gently as you Can & in a Moment it flies into 
a Thousand peices This I saw tryed over & over & it 
never Fails nay I Saw a Grain & half of flint Drop'd into 
a Cruit & it did not Instantly break — but laying it aside 
& in about 2 or 3 Minutes it flew all to peices — these are 
Notorious Facts — No one pretends to offer any account 
for them but had they been Shown in the Dark Ages of 
the 7^^ & 8*^ Century nothing could have saved the opera- 
tor from the flames the Devil or his Imps must have 
been concemd in Both operations to produce Such Sur- 
priseing Effects beyond Human Comprehension 

But I verily think the next wonderfull operation 
could not in the Deadest times be apply'd to such a Sa- 
tenical power 

Wee have Large Sea Crabs that Weigh 3 & 4 to 7 or 8 
pound — this Creature by a Wonderful faculty has ia 
power in it self voluntarily to Crack & Break of his Great 
& Small Leggs, nothwithstanding his flesh is cover'd with 
so hard a Shell, it breaks readily & the Fleshy Muscles & 
Ligaments Divide and the Limb Drops of, I have seen in 
a few minutes Two Large Crabbs Leggless — I fancy you 
may try the Experiment, which is no more then Laying 
a Crab on its back then take a pair of Iron Pincers, and 
break the Extremities of its Leggs & bruise its Flesh, that 
it may feel pain and if it is of the Same Nature with ours 
it will presently cast of its Legg off in the Middle of the 
Second Joynt from its Body — as It is to Long & I have 
not Leisure to assigne the cause the fact is Certain you 
will now Dismiss Mee & will Candor Excuse the Inac- 
curacy of these hints. Such as they are you may thank the 
Leisure of Easter Day Evening for them 
I am with much Respect 

¥"■ affectionate fr*^ 


112 THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 

No Doubt but our Worthy Fr*^ M*" Alexander 
will show you the plan of the Moons New 


Pray did you ever make any observations on the 
oppossam I shall be obliged to you for them 

From John Rutherjurd 

J)ear gir 

I had the favour of A letter from you returned me 
from Albany again to New York where I had the pleasure 
of Seeing M""^ Golden. My Wife was much baulked in 
not being able to enjoy more the pleasure of Mrs. Cold- 
en's Company there, haveing been so Constantly plagued 
with Meagrum Headacks, which she has allways been 
subject to less or more, that 'twas very seldom she could 
be in Company at all either at home or abroad dureing 
Mrs. Colden's stay there. I tired not a litle at New York 
being allways in A Hurry yet nothing done especially in 
The Assembly where they had a great deal of Bustle yet 
in the end seems resolved to leave all affairs as they found 
them showing no less indifference about provideing for 
their own defence than in assisting their Neibours; Nay 
they wont so much as Consult with, or act in Concert 
with The other Provinces refuseing I find to empower 
His Excellency to name Commissioners for that purpose. 
We have four Forts here Garrisoned by these two Com- 
panys besides Oswego & neither powder or any other 
Ammunition or a days provisions in one of them or in any 
repair; This & Salitoga [sic] remaining still but half fin- 
ished tho if they were would they be good for much. I 
can't imagine what hinders The French from takeing 
Oswego & raiseing Contributions at Albany they must be 
in great Straits for provisions or Something we have not 
yet learned. The Patron is now looked upon as certainly 
dying, Dominie Schuyler hasbrought up Doctor M'^Gra to 
attend him. I long much to See you. Pray come up as 
soon as you can, I have A Bed ready for you, 'Tis impos- 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 113 

sible for me at present to pay my respects to you at Cold- 
ingham, not haveing One Lieutennant here belonging to 
my Company being each at an Out Garrison & only Old 
Capt Blood belonging to The Govemours who is often 
sick, & you know we are but four days March from 
Crownpoint. My Wife begs to Join me in our best re- 
spects to You Mrs. Golden & all Your Good Family, If 
we can't have possibly the Happyness to see Mrs. Golden 
herself here I beg you'd bring One of The Young Ladys 
with you & am 

Yours most obed'^ humble Servant 

John Rutherfurd 
Albany 22*^ Aprile 1745 

From Peter Collinson 

LoND Aprill 2d 1745 
My Dear Fr** 

I hope the Trunk of Goods out 181: 6: 6 Ship'' on 
Board Cap* Come are Come Safe to hand & prove Agree- 
able Since that both Silk & Wollen Goods are Consider- 
ably Advanced 

I am now so prodegiously Hurryed I can add no More 

but that I am 

,^ J J, Your affectionate Fr'* 

[Indorsed] t^ ^ 


Cadwalladee Golden Esq^ 

New York 
^Gapt. Bryant 

From Peter Collinson 

LoND Aprile 26: 1745 
My Dear Fr'* 

I did not Expect that I should have found any Leisur© 
to answer y^ kind Letter of the 8*^ Decem Last but I will 

114 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

find time to thank you for the perusal of y'" papers to D*" 
Gronovius w'^^ I read over & over & was much pleased 
with your Reasons & Objections are of Such Weight as 
must Effect the Linnean System & prevent its being uni- 
versally Received — Toumfort & Ray in my Judgmen* are 
much perferrable — take this in general I wish I could be 
more ^ticular I really wonder att y'' proficiency in so 
Short a Time I transmitted those papers by a safe hand 
to Doc*" Gronovius who writes directed to J. Bertram by 
(Hargrave) a many Curious Remarks on the things Sent 
by J. Bertram in Distinct pages^ — could you See them 
they would I am sure give you Entertainmt and putt you 
in a Regular methode for future Inquiries — in Some mat- 
ters I really don't know such ano/ knowing Indefatigable 
Man as Doc Gronovius 

Yours Bro*" Sent Mee a Letter for you complaining 
He had not heard from you which I inclosed Early in the 
Spring to J. Bartram by Cap Bream who I Desir'd to for- 
ward It to you — I am glad to hear of the Philadelphia 
Society, I certainly think cannot Labour Long when 
Such wonders are all round them Ready brought forth to 
their hands and to Which Wee are great Strangers Butt 
because you See them Every Day they are thought Com- 
mon & not worth Notice. 

Hither to I have wrote only to blot paper but now 
I tell you Some thing new Doc'" night a Physition has 
found the Art of Giveing Such a magnetic power to Steel 
that the poor old Loadstone is putt quite out of Counte- 
nance, His Steel Magnets act on the Needle & transmit 
their power to Knives &c. as the Loadstone — Butt He has 
also shown a Secret on the Loadstone not Known before 
— by Increasing its attractive power to a great Degree — & 
can att pleasure Change the poles how he pleases — take 
these examples — a Loadstone of a parelle pipepid Form 
he made the opposite Ends South poles & the Midle 
quite round all North poles; In another flat Stone he 
made the opposite Ends North poles & the opposite 
Sides South poles In another load Stone of an Irregu- 
lar flat Shape he made half of Each of the flat Surfaces 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1 743-1747 115 

a North pole & the other half a South Pole — So as that 
the Two half Surfaces opposite Each other, Should be 
of a Contrary Denomination with many other Changes 
& Varieties Showing He had the power to Impress the 
faculty of Either pole in any part of the Load Stone with 
as much ease — as a Load stone will Influence a Needlee 

I am y^ 


D Gronovius hopes you'l continue y'^ Remarks & Send 
him seeds of any of yr Vegi table production. 

From John Rutherfurd 

Albany 20'^ June 1745 

The Old Members were re-elected here by Mr Living- 
ston's giveing up his Son & he & All the Commissioners 
Justices &.C. Joining their Interests against Lidius who 
I'm told would have caryed it against 'em all, had Mr 
Johnstown & others who were against the Old Members 
come to toun, but he & many others despairing too soon 
did not come down and gave over acting for Lidius. I 
hope this will find you at New York where I have directed 
it for you & where I'm certain your presence will be ex- 
tremely wanted & Your Knowledge & experience in af- 
fairs will be thoroughly tryed in getting things done with 
Such spirit as is necessary in so Critical a Juncture of 
affairs both at home and abroad At home from the 
Encroachments of The Assembly, Abroad in Assisting 
against The Common Enemy. I see by A plan in last 
Newspaper That The Fortifications of Loiusbourg are 
quite different from what we imagined when you was 
here & so strong that I don't imagine The New England 
Forces would ever have taken it by themselves other- 
wise than by starveing them & now that they have the 
assistance of A Number of Men of war & 400 Marines 
doe I think they will be able to make themselves Mas- 

116 THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 

ters of the Place without great assistance from This Prov- 
ince, For Boston is exhausted allready & Britain too dis- 
tant. As we ought to lay our accounts that Our Enemys 
will do what is properest for them to do, should they 
send A small Army of French & Indians from Quebec 
to harrass our Forces from the Woods & throw in a supply 
of Men & Provisions to the toun 'twill render it A very 
tedious siege & I hear of no Lines thrown up by our peo- 
ple to defend themselves and Trenches from such At- 
tacks nor do I believe 'its easy to do it The soil being 
rocky; Soe unless this Province raise a SuflBicient number 
of Men & Provisions Cape Breton will remain in French 
hands & they'l soon repent their ill timed saveing be 
blamed by all at home & abroad & instead of thanks the 
curses of their Posterity. Twould not be worth while to 
Send fewer than 1600 & the 4 Companys, in all 2000 Men, 
the 1600 could be raised by Detachments from the Mi- 
litia viz so many out of each 100 delivered by the Capts of 
Militia to The Capts appointed for the Service & this 
done as soon as The Vessels at New York & Albany sloops 
could be fitted to transport them which I should be of 
opinion could be done in a fortnight if Gentlemen of 
Familys Interest & Character resolve to goe on the expe- 
dition & set about it with Spirit. Govemour Clintoun 
has allready done every thing in his power to promote 
the honour & Interest of His Majesty & The Province, 
how ill he has been supported in so laudable designs 
hitherto we have seen to the sorrow of all Men of sense 
or honour in The Province, And indeed I have Some fears 
at seeing so many of Last Assembly reelected that it 
may prove difficult to make them understand their true 
interest & proper way of Serveing themselves The Pub- 
lick & their posterity by doeing what is necessary for sup- 
porting the honour & Interest of This Province & annoy- 
ing our Enemys whom we'l find ten times the expence of 
defending ourselves against when attacked here, than in 
preventing that, by attacking them when so fair an op- 
portunity offers of doeing it to good purpose. Should 
This Assembly happen to follow the example of the last I 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 117 

hope, I dare say The Council will, take the most vigor- 
ous measures, by exerting their own power here & proper 
applications at home, to oblige the Assembly to confine 
themselves to their own proper business of levying what 
money is judged necessary upon the people by the proper- 
est & least oppressive methods & no longer pretend to 
name Treasurer Collectors &. C. when whoever men- 
tioned such a thing at home would be used as A stirrer up 
of Sedition & rebellion, I own I'm much surprised how 
any Former Governour could give up His Majesty's & 
their own power & Authority in so many different things 
intrusted with them, & now lost proves soe prejudicial to 
The Present Governour & to the Publick. As I had 
the pleasure of talking these affairs all over with you 
when you did me the honour of a Visit here. You know 
my way of thinking on these matters & if my comeing 
down, tho' 'twould be very inconvenient, can be of the 
smallest Service I am ready at a minutes warning. I beg 
your thoughts of affairs as soon as you receive this for I 
know by that time you'l can form Some Judgement of 
them. How does Your Lady & Your Children keep their 
healths? Has My Wife any chance of Seeing One of the 
Young Ladys here? She has been out of order ever 
since you left & like to lose her but allmost only Com- 
panion here Widow Schuyler who seems just a dying. I 
am D S"^ Sincerely yours &. c. &. C. 

John Rutherfurd 

Cadwallader Colden to Peter Collinson. 

New York June 20th 1745 

In my last to you by Bryant which I suspect you have 
not receiv'd because he was to deliver it with his own 
hands I told you that I had pleas'd my self with the 
conceit of my being able to explain the Cause of Gravi- 

llg THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

tation a point which has hitherto puzled the ablest 
Philosophers My speculations have so far pleas'd my 
self & appear to me to be founded upon such evident 
principles that I have adventur'd to put them to the 
press in order to have a sufficient number of copies to 
submit it to the examination of the Learned and for this 
purpose I now send nine copies to you that you may give 
them to such of your friends as you shall think proper 
Judges. As a meer point of Speculation I think it will 
be acceptable to the curious if it in any manner approach 
to the opinion I have of it but besides this I think that 
the uses it can be applied to are more considerable for 
in my opinion it opens a Method for improvement in 
Astromony & all the Sciences which depend upon it as 
Navigation and Geography which exceeds any thing 
hitherto don. Before I fell upon these thoughts I did 
not suspect that the Theory & that the best Tables of 
Equations for the Earths Motion were defective at least 
not in the degree which I now think they are after many 
calculations which I have made and if an Astronomer err 
in the place of the Earth this error will more or less affect 
every observation which he makes of any of the heavenly 
bodies & will occasion some degree of error in all the 
Deductions which he draws from his observations. I 
propose to give an entire Theory of the Earths motion 
from the Principles in this treatise which I have now 
published which in several parts will be entirely new I 
propose to explain the Phenomena from those principles 
& some of which tho principal Phenomena in the earths 
motion not so much as attempted by S"" Is. New* & show 
that they necessarly follow from them & then to remove 
all doubts I hope to show that it agrees with all the 
observations made by Mr. Flamstead in his Historia 
Coelestis to a greater accuracy than can be obtain'd by any 
thing hitherto published 

The Parliament as I am inform'd has proposed a 
great reward for the Discovering a Method to find Longi- 
tude at Sea I do not at present pretend to any thing 
of this kind, but I'l presume to say that the assertaining 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 119 

the Motion of the Earth at all times & discovering its 
true place with sufficient preciseness is the first step nec- 
essary without which all the others will fail & if I be able 
to fix this one step it will make the future discovery more 
easy. It is from motives which this opinion of the Accu- 
racy of my Theory suggests that I so earnestly desire to 
be enabled to apply more of the litle part of life which 
remains to me then my present circumstances will allow 
me in bringing my thoughts into order & in forming 
Tables which I hope will exceed any thing which has 
yet appear'd I all along mean so far as my knowlege of 
Books extends. I have several times heard that the 
Duke of Argyle & Earl of Macclesfield have acquired a 
knowledge in all the Parts of Philosophy far exceeding 
what could be expected from men in their high Stations 
& for that reason if you think proper I should be glad 
that each of them had a copy sent them 

We are all now in great hurry in preparing to attack 
the French Settlements in Canada & I am affray'd the 
times are very improper for the speculations in which I 
employ my thoughts. I am not acquainted with the 
Master of this Vessel but I have got a friend to engage 
him to take care of the Packet in which the nine copies of 
my piece are inclosed directed to you & that he will keep 
it by him till you send for it The title of the treatise is 
An Explanation of the first causes of Action in Matter 
and of the Cause of Gravitation. The Masters name is 
Ferdinando Clark commander of the Snow Sally of 
New York. 

I long'd to hear whether the Papers which your 
favour to me made you put in M"" Scroopes hand gave 
him any kind of Satisfaction your Silence on that head 
in your last I am affray'd proceeded from your unwil- 
lingness to say anything that you thought could not be 
agreable to me One design in those papers was to show 
some inconveniences & Disapointments which have 
happen'd to the Nation by putting men at this distance 
at the head of affairs what were not thought capable of 
meaner employments at home & I heartily wish that 

120 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

it may appear there is now no occasion for such obser- 

Governor Shirley & the People whom he Governs 
have remarkably distinguished themselves & have very 
desen^edly obtained the applause of the world while some 
of their neighbours of whom no notice is taken deserve 
to be distinguished in a very different manner 

Now Dear S"" I hope I need not make any apology for 
the trouble I give if I had not thought that your heart 
would approve of the presumption I should not have 
attempted it & otherwise I am sure no apology can be 

made by 

To Mr. Peteb Colunson 

From Samuel Johnson 

Stratford Jun 26 1745 

I am obliged to you for your's of y*" 16^^ & have de- 
layed now till the last Moment of M'^ Watkin's Continu- 
ance here, in hopes I should receive the Intelligence I 
have been promised & have now again call'd for upon 
the Subject of your Letter — As to M'" Prince he had 
almost finished his Letter when he was hurried away 
to Boston upon Some Affairs of his Brother in which 
he could not do without his Assistance & is but lately 
returned, & Since his Return has been ever Since M"" 
Watkins was here, a dozen Miles out of town till last 
night & I much question whether he can be ready with 
the transcript of it before M"" Watkins must go. — Nor 
Shall I have D'" Hubbards account of the Case At New 
Haven before to morrow So that I beleive I must Send 
them at last by the way of M'" NichoUs of New York. — 
We are intirely well pleased with your Introduction, as 
being the Clearest Method of teaching that Curious 
Science that we have Seen, but it is not So clear to us 
that you really differ from the Bishop: — I am persuaded 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 121 

could you converse together & explain your Selves to 
each other you would find the Difference would come to 
little or nothing. However I can not yet pretend to be 
a fit Judge, having never thoroughly examined your 
peice — for no Sooner did I receive it of M*" Prince, but 
I immediately Sent it away to one D'" Osbom an ingen- 
ious physician & good Mathematician At Middletown, 
who having read the Bishops peices had a great Curi- 
osity to see Yours, & has not yet returned it. I hope 
e'er long to Send you his Sense of it. 

As far as I can find here has been another Cure per- 
formed with the Inspissated Juice of Pokeweed greater 
than that at New Haven which I hope to Send you, 
having desired M"" Watkins to call for it, having the 
promise of the woman's Brother that he would write all 
that he knows of the matter. The Woman had what was 
called a Cancer in her Breast which had eat it to a very 
great degree, & She was told by another Woman, whose 
Breast had been eat off to her bare ribbs, if I remember 
right how She was cured by this Medicine, upon which 
She used it & it perfectly cured her, but the Operation 
was at first exceeding painful. But I refer you her 
Brothers Account which if M"" Watkins does not get 
now I will Shortly Send. 

I See by parker's News paper that you, as I imagine, 
have indeed had Several Thoughts upon Tar-water, & 
as I apprehend, to very good purpose, And I Should be 
glad you will publish any thing further y*^ occurs to you 
on that or any other Subject, for I like your way of writ- 
ing, very much: — I was thinking of Sending those papers 
to y^ Bp. — The'"® have been Several scorbutic Disorders 
in these parts which have found much benefit from the 
use of Tar-water, but I never knew a Cure made by that 
or Scarce any other Medicine equal to that you desire an 
Account of from me : M"" Beach is a Wealthy Shopkeeper 
in this Town; he had a Negro Boy about 12 years old 
he was very fond of, who proved to have the yaws. He 
was Seemingly cured by one D'" Russel here in the mer- 
curial way: but in about half a year it broke out again 

122 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

as the D"" apprehended it would: upon this M'^ Beach 
Sent him to D*^ Dupey of New- York who had him sev- 
eral Months & he can tell you his Case better than I 
but he at length Sent him home for an Incurable: & he 
Soon grew so Loathsom that they could not endure him 
in the House, & Shut him up in an out-house, & So kept 
him Some months; only making him as comfortable as 
his Case would admit & began to expect he would Soon 
die. — When Tar water came in Vogue, His Mistress 
obliged him to drink a pint & a half of it ever day, hardly 
hoping it would do any good but in a week or fortnight 
he was Sensibly mended & went on growing better; till 
in about 3 months he became perfectly Sound & well, 
& So has continued to this day which is about 6 months 
from the time he began to drink & there appears not the 
least reason to doubt but he may hold So & he grows 
fleshy. And there is no imaginable means to ascribe it 
to but Tar water, with y® advantage of his youth This 
is as exact an Account of what may be depended upon 
for certain fact, as I can give M"" Beach y* Minister of 
y^ Chh of England at Newtown & Reading Seems to have 
had exactly the Same Disorder which y^ Bishop himself 
had, which I think he calls a Nervous Collie, & Tar 
Water has had exactly the same happy Effect upon him 
as it had on y^ Bp. I see in the Magazine for last De- 
cember, the famous D'" Hales (Author of y® vegetable 
Statics) has lately published Some Experiments & ob- 
servations on Tar water w"" is doubtless very well worth 
reading. — I am 

S'" y'" most obliged humble Serv* 

Sa. Johnson. 
I was obliged to write 
in y^ utmost hast which I 
hope you'l be so good as to excuse. 

Cadwallader Golden Esq"" 


THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174^-1747 123 

John Hubbard to Dr. Samuel Johnson 

Rev**: & Honoured Sir 

I am ashamed you should take so much Pains, thro' 
my Neglect, to serve the Publick. I have Nothing to 
apologize for myself but a Multiplicity of Affairs con- 
tinually solliciting my Attendance My Disposition to 
render Mankind easy & happy is, I hope, as great as any 
man's, of my Capacity: but however y^ be, my Obligation 
to you would have been abundantly sufficient to have 
engaged me in the Service you desired of me. I Sundry- 
Times endeavoured to wait upon Cap* Dickerman to get 
a compleat History of his Cure when some Thing or other 
disappointed me. Yesterday I went into the Field to 
him, and got as particular an Account from him, as his 
memory, which I believe is very good, would furnish me 
with, which I choose to give in his own Words, as I took 
them from his Mouth. The Account of Isaac Dickerman 
Esq'" concerning his Cancer. 
About the 50**" Year of my Age, there appeared on my 
Face near my Eye, a small Scab about the Bigness of 
an ordinary Pin's Head, but a Little differently coloured 
from the Skin, only a little darker: It continued about 
Six Weeks encreasing, and then came off, and the Skin 
smooth. In three or four Days it began again and so 
encreased and came off as before, tho' something sooner; 
and so it continued coming on and going off, for some 
Time, tho' something sooner every Time, till it would 
come on, and go off in a Week's Time : and as the Time 
of it's coming on was shorter it encreased proportion- 
ably, and would be as big when it came off in a Week, 
as it used to be when it was longer a growing, and not 
only so, but it's Sieze encreased 'till it was as big as half 
an Hazel Nut : it grew gradually darker. After a while 
it was wet under the scab, and in three or four Year's 
Time, there was Corruption under it. It was attended 
generally with a Burning, and sometimes an Iching, as 
if a Flie had lightten on my Face, upon a small brush 

124 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

"it ceased. My Cheek was sometimes attended with a 
"smart Pain, as if a Thread was drawn thro it. Blisters 
"generally abated the Symptoms, and I felt the same 
"Pain in the Blisters Sundry Sort of Means I used 
"seemed for a while to do good, but yet in the general 
"it grew, till it got to the sieze before mentioned. I 
"consulted the best Physicians and Syrgeons in the 
"Country, who all agreed it was a Cancer, but not of 
"the worst sort. They were of Opinion that Nothing 
"would cure it but either hot or cold Iron, but it being 
"so near my Eye, the Consequence was feared, other- 
"wise I should have submitted to the operation. Wait- 
"ing upon Providence till I was about Sixty Years of 
"Age, in the latter End of the Summer, I was informed 
"that the Poke Weed Juice would cure Cancers, upon 
"which I tried it in the following Manner. I applied a 
"new Plaister, generally once in Twelve Hours: The 
"fiirst Plaister fetched the Scab off without much Pain, 
"the next began to draw, and upon every new Applica- 
"tion the Drawing and Pain encreased. I continued it 
"three Weeks. After the use of it for sometime, upon 
"the first putting on a new Plaister, the Pain was as 
"great for a few minutes as if hot Embers had been put 
"on. It made three Holes about as big as a Pin's Head, 
"out of which issued Matter like what comes out of a 
"Boil. At the three Weeks End I was discouraged with 
"it, and left it off. Upon leaving it off the Cancer pres- 
"ently grew much better & seemed almost well. About 
"a Month after I applied it again and followed it five 
"Weeks, at the End of which I seemed perfectly cured, 
"and the Plaister would stick no longer. In about three 
"years it appeared again, and I used as before, and have 
"supposed ever since I had a pefect Cure, till this Spring. 
"I now and then feel the Symptoms of it near my Nose, 
"at some Distance from the original Scab. I am now 
"Sixty Six I made the Ointment in the following Man- 
"ner. I took the Leaves, Stalk and Berries & pounded 
"them, & Squeezed out the Juice, and set it in the Sun, 
"in a Pewter Dish, till it came to the Thickness of an 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 125 

"Ointment I took Care that the Juice should be about 
"three Quarters of an Inch deep in the Platter, for I 
"observed if it was shallower it did not make so good 

The above is exactly as the Cap^ related his Cure &c. 
to me. He inform'd me, which I believe may be worth 
inquiring after, that a Daughter of Madam Winthrop 
of New London came to him a year or two agoe, with a 
Cancer, he advised her to use the Poke Weed, and y*^ he 
has heard it has cured her I shall probably have Oppor- 
tunity next Week to inform myself, and if the important 
Affair of Cape Breton dos not croud it out of my Mind 
I will improve it and transmit you the Account. My 
best Regard to Madam Johnson I am hon*^ Sir with all 
possible Respect your most obliged Friend & very humble 

John Hubbard. 


The Reverend 

Dr SamI'I' Johnson 



From Joh. Fred. Gronovius. 
Dear Sir 

Few weeks ago I hath the favour by the good care of 
Mr. Collinson to get Your Letter dated the 8 Dec. 1744. 
with some other papers &c. for which I am very much 
obliged to you. 

In the new Characteres you hath so many curious ob- 
servations, that I immediatly resolved to communicate 
them with D*" Linneus, having just that time a good 
occasion to send a box to Him by sea: 
As soon I have the answer of the Doctor, I shall com- 
municate it to You. And to you querries in the Letter 
I shal endeavour to find time. However in the Examen 
Epicriseos Sigesbekiancae by Browallius You may find 
some dilucidations. I don't remember that there is in 
3 years time printed a book of any value, except the 

126 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

two volumes of Dr. Van Sweetens commentary's upon 
the Aphorisms of Boerhave, the rest he shall perform 
when he is settled at Vienna. 

Mr, Geogfroy at paris hath printed lately a materia med- 
ica in an exceeding good way, but this book is not to be 
get in Holland. I heard only by a gentleman that 
showed me the book, that he maketh frequent mention 
of the flora virg. 

There is also printed at paris a new edition of the Sys- 
tema of Linneus with severall emendations about the 
quadrupedia, and insecta; but I have not yet seen it. 
I am very much obliged to You for Mr. Franklin's book, 
which I don't doubt the next letter shall bring it to you 
translated into dutch. 

Pray my service to Dr. du Bois, to whom Dr Ens send 
this dissertation. I wish to know how my old acquaint- 
ance D'" Johnston from Albania doth. My Neighbour 
Mr. Heak going in few hours to Helvoet, I am obliged 
to finish these and wish you all health and prosperity, 

Your most obediant servant 

John feed. Gronovius 
Layden July 9 1745 

Dear Friend y® 5 of novem"" 

this day I received this open but 
sealled within A packet of mine so 
I tooke y^ freedom to read it. As 
well as to scribble on it — I wish 
I could have understood y^ books 
but as little as I can understand 
lattin I perceive it is a curious per- 

I hope I have some prety matter 
come from our friend Gronovius 
but not yet opened. If I find any 
thing worth communicating none 
will do it more readily than they 
friend John Bartram 


THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174^-1747 127 

From Samuel Johnson 

Stratford July 10 1745 

As I conclude what passes thro' M"" Nichols's hands 
to you goes Frank, I take this Opportunity to Send those 
things by the post, which, (tho' I endeavoured hard for 
it,) I could not get together time enough to Send them 
by M"" Watkins. & indeed that Case of the Woman I 
could not get before this Day. I doubt not but you may 
depend on these to be true Representations of Fact, being 
taken from y® persons mouths verbatim, but I doubt 
whether they are exact enough to answer your Expecta- 
tion. — As to M'" Prince's Letter I leave it to speak for it 
Self, without making any Remarks on that Subject, for 
which I do not think my Self well qualified, especially 
Since I have not yet received your peice from D'" Osburn, 
whose Opinion of the matter I hope I shall have Oppor- 
tunity e'er long to Send you. — I should be glad to know 
what you think of M"" Princes performance I wish for 
the sake of those that incline to Study Fluxions, your 
peice could be printed in these parts, & the rather because 
I should be glad to Send the Bp a Copy of it. But I 
conclude there are no Types for Such a purpose. If in 
any thing I can be further useful to you, please to com- 

y'" most obedient 
humble Servant 

Samuel Johnson. 
P. S. 

After writing this Letter I reviewed your Introduction 
in M*" Princes Copy, & do think you have gone as far as 
possible, (& in the most advanageous methods that could 
be devised,) in assisting the Imagination upon that difBi- 
cult subject. But after all I confess I am lost in the Sup- 
position of there being actually an infinite Number of 
parts in a finite Quantity & a Supposition that I cannot 

128 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

see to be at all necessary to enter into the Doctrine of 
Fluxions, which are not to be supposed the less useful, 
by what the Bp objects against the method that some 
take in hadling them. The Case seems to be only this, 
that we substitute small finite Quantities, such as the 
Imagination can easily conceive of, to represent Quan- 
tities vastly & indefinitely large & such as Scarce come 
within the reach of our Imagination : But thence to con- 
clude that there are infinite parts in those finite Quanti- 
ties, because they bear no proportion to those they are 
put to represent. Seems hardly a just conclusion. — The 
hundred milionth part of the Orbis magnus is some 
thing considerable, can be conceived of, but does it there- 
fore follow that there are actually 100000000 parts much 
less an infinite number of parts in a line an inch long 
which is put to represent it? Nor can I be clear in it 
that the supposition of Actual Infinites is necessary in 
order to treat of Incommensurables, Such as Curves with 
regard to right Lines &c. — However, I am clear in this, 
that I am not qualified (as I said) to write on this Sub- 
ject, & therefore shall add no more, nor shall I think 
hardly of it if you consider what I have here hastily said 
as being but little to y^ purpose. 

r^ s. J. 


C'adwallader Golden Esq"" 


The province of New York 
to the Gare of M^" Nichols post Master. 

Stratford July 12**^ A: D: 1745 
The account of Hannah Murray Concerning her Cancer 
About y'' 23*^ year of my age there appeared on y^ Side 
of my breast a Blue Speck about y^ bigness of a Com 
of powder, w''^ Continued about Seven years without any 
knot, but attended once in a while with Sharp pain, after 
which term, came a knot as big as a Large pins head, 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 129 

after y^ knot Came it Seem''*^ as if a String was fastened 
to my breast bone from y^ Speck, in a few days after 
y® knot grew as big as an hazel nut, & in a months time 
encreased to y"" bigness of an Egg immediately after y* 
y^ Blue Speck Came off, & there Came Clear water from 
under y^ Speck, then taking y^ advice of y*" most Skillfull 
Chirugeons who Concluded y^ it was a Cancer of y*" worst 
Sort, I was Directed to a Gentlewoman y^ had been Cured 
of a Cancer, whose Directions I followed & with a bless- 
ing on y*" means I obtained a Cure — She directed me to 
take y^ Leaves & Small Branches of Poke weed pound 
them together Squeeze out y^ Juice, put it into Earthen 
pots & Set in y^ Sun until it came to y^ thickness of an 
ointment then Spread a plaister on y"" Leaf no bigger 
y" y* knot (whilest y*" Leaf was green to be used, in y® 
winter black Silk,) and to apply a new plaister four or 
five times in 24 hours if I could endure y*" pain, which 
was Exceeding Sharp, she told me it would make it ap- 
parently worse, for it would draw it to y*" out Side from 
y* bottom which I found to be true, for in a Small time 
after I used y® means it opened five holes in my Breast 
y^ biggest where y^ Speck was, which was so big as to 
put in y^ end of my thumb, She told me to take no 
physick, nor use any strong drink. Except in case of 
faintness, which means I used from august to march, 
and then it healed of a Sudden, & hath been well now 
twelve years 

the above account taken from her mouth 
per me 

John Patterson. 

From John Bartram 

July y^ 15^^ 1745 
dear friend 

I have received thy kind letter of June y^ 30*^^ I am sorry 
y® Plumb apricot or Nectarin stones is not come up which 

130 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

I sent thee, no more is any of mine yet I have some 
hopes thay may come up next year. I intend to send y* 
seeds of y^ Saururus & starroot when it is ripe in y^ fall 
y^ roots of y® first is commonly called Brest root from 
it excelent vertues in curing sore brests being made into 
A poultise I allso knowed A man that had been long 
affected with A grievous pain of his back & brest with 
great weakness & could not find any relife from medi- 
cines until A Palatine man gave him y^ leaves of this 
herb in powder which he called Oister Lacie or in our 
terms Aristo Lochia I suppose from y^ Likeness of its 
leaves to that plant, this gave him immediate relief & 
as he tould me cured him in A few times takeing it. ye 
star root is chiefly used by several for y^ pain of y^ stom- 
ack thay boil y* root in water & drink y^ decoction after 
y* method of our Indians from whome thay learned y^ 
use of it, I should be mightily pleased with thy good 
Company (which I value very much) and Captain 
Ruth erf ords at y® Katskill mountains; If I durst venture 
on such A journey this season I would rejoyce in y® 
favour of your Company but at present I am poorly & 
support my acking head on my hand & ellboo leaning on 
y^ table while I scrible over this paper I hardly know 
how, my neibouring town ships is sorely distressed with 
Fluxes & fevers in y^ City many children dieth & in y" 
Countrey many lusty young men so that I think it not 
convenient to leave my family of little helpless children 
so far from home in so sickly A time I doubt our society 
will be so long A brooding that some of y® chickings will 
be starved if thay dont seek out themselves in y^ fields 
for food 

relating to y^ vertue which I ascribed to oil of turpentine 
I think thee takes my expression after A different sence 
to what I intended it. indeed I wrote that letter in A 
hurry & had not time to take A coppy of it or scarsly 
look it over after I had wrote it. but as I remember I 
intended onely to let thee know how much it refreshed 
mee & helped my inward bruise & I thought might hin- 
der y^ blood from coagulating but I hope thee did not find 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 131 

any place in my letter wherein I ascribed y^ reduction 
of y® dislocated rib to y® oil as thee seems to question my 
ribs being dislocated I shall freely tell thee my reasons 
for believing thay was eleven O'Clock Ant. merid y^ 
horse gave mee A kick with all his force by y® spine on my 
short ribs I stood y^ stroke but could not fetch my breath 
until I laid down on y® ground & roled about. & then I 
both felt & heard y^ end of one or more of my ribs slip 
in & out of y^ socket of my back bone as I drawed A full 
breath then I got up & walked about A 100 yards to my 
house & was helped of with my cloathes & put to bed in 
great pain & very fainty I presently took 8 drops of y^ 
oil which as I believe refreshed mee exceedingly then 
my wife looked at my back & where y'' blow was given 
was turned black & sweled & my pain was very sharp in 
my left side from y® Sternum to y® spine & on y® least 
motion my Diaphragma would be so contracted that I 
could harly draw breath until it relaxed again & when 
I drawed A full breath my wife could hear my rib snap 
into its place again tho she was several yards of — she 
soon got some rum & salt & bathed my back which soon 
tooke away y^ blackness & swelling & eased y® pain she 
bathed it often with y^ rum & salt for 2 days & nights 
& I took y^ oil every 6 hours this method I tooke in order 
to hinder y^ blood from stagnating presently after y® 
first application of y® salt the pain & blackness was re- 
moved but upon y*" least motion my brest & under my 
short ribs would be pained & contracted so that I could 
hardly get breth I suppose y^ blow drove y® lowermost 
ribs foreward & strained y^ midrif for there y® pain & 
cramp seemed y^ worst which engaged me to ly as still 
as A log by which y^ rib kept it place so well that we never 
heard it snap in after y® first day — y® reduction of my 
rib I ascribe to taking A full breath & keeping it in its 
right place to stillness & lying quiet 
After I had passed 48 hours after this manner & per- 
ceiving no sighn of any blood stagnating in my brest 
(for I was very free from A fever) I ordered A strengh- 
ening plaster to my back & A discutient one to my brest 

132 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

which I kept on 3 weeks now dear friend I have Candidly- 
laid before thee y® symptoms & method of Cure & leave 
thee to Judge whether there was not a dislocation & 
whether I did not consider these symptoms reasonably 
& endeavour to apply proper means for their Cure 
some persons advised me to flebotomy but I trusted to 
y^ oil to answer that article — I have not room to take 
perticular observations of thy curious letter must defer 
it to another time — y® seed which y® sent me for y® bush 
squash groweth finely but all runs about strongly yet I 
believe thee sent y^ right sort for most of them growed 
upright at first but our heat drawed them out such A 
length that thay leaned to y*" ground & now runns in long 
vines like others but very large y*" leaves near 18 inches 
diameter: if paper did not confine me I should wear out 
thy patience but I hope thy generosity will excuse thy 

John Bartram 

For dr 
Cadwalader Golden 
B. S. 

From John Rutherfurd 
Dear Sir 

I'm sorry to find by yours of the 15**" Instant & by 
One befor from New York that there's nothing now to 
be expected from this Province either for their own 
honour or His Majestys Service so I shan't trouble you 
with one word more of Politicks; but have Sent you 
down Leibnitz's Systems explained & defended & Popes 
E thick Epistles now admired in all Languages & for 
as General & Moderate as they are, yet Criticised & 
found fault with in Most languages & allways by wrong 
Translation & his meaning taken wrong when you've 
done with that I'l Send you some more of his Works & 
when you've finished this of Leibnitz I'l Send you his 
Theodicee. Takeing Cape Breton surprised me as much 
as if I had never heard of the Attack for I never Imagined 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 133 

The French would allow A Place of that Consequence to 
be so ill provided of Powder which it seems obliged them 
to Surrender haveing only left 44 Barrels scarce enough 
for one days fireing. Tis a Plaguey affair to See the 
Indians now tradeing here one day & goeing to War 
against New England next; Our Sachems are not yet 
returned from Canada tho they've been expected for 
Some time ; We hear of no more Murthers since the first 
two in England, their Scouts with the Assistance of their 
line of Forts frightens the Indians from attempts, which 
I find they allways make by Stealth dareing nothing 
openly. Pray does Our Philadelphia Bottanist come to 
Catskill or not, I'm resolved to goe in Search of Tree & 
Shrub Seeds soe if you meet with any you think worth 
while in the mean time cause gather & dry 'em for me, 
If I dare leave this place soe long in the present situation 
of affairs, viz: No ofl&cers, & it chance of need for them 
here, I'l Venture then on A day or two with you at 
Coldingham, In the mean time my best respects to all 
Your good Family & believe me 
Your Most obed* Humble 

Servant John Rutherford 
Albany 30th July 


The Honourable 
Cadwallader Golden Esq'' 


Observations of Cadwallader Golden upon the plan 

against Louisburgh 1745. 


The Plan in general seems from the knowlege I have 
of the Geography of the Country to be exceedingly weU 
concerted yet some difiiculties occur to me in the Exe- 
cution which do not appear to be sufficiently obviated. 

134 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

By any Information which I have had vessels of the 
Burthen mentioned in the plan may pass from Quebec 
to Montreal but then it is to be consider'd that 30 
leagues above Quebec there is no tide but allwise a strong 
fresh Water Stream which frequently makes the passage 
from Quebec to Montreal very tedious if the Winds prove 
contrary. That the River in many places is full of Islands 
& consequently may require good pilots which it will be 
difficult for us to obtain & there is the more reason to 
guard against this if the Information which I have be 
true that the French themselves after they pass Trois 
rivieres in their way from Quebec to Montreal never sail 
in the night tho' the wind be fair & they be in such dan- 
ger of a tedious passage in case the wind fail. It may 
likewise be Questioned whether vessels of Burthen can 
be carried by the force of oars alone against the Stream 
of S* Lawrence river 

As to any hopes of the Cagnawaga Indians leaving 
the French or accepting of a Neutrality litle stress ought 
to be laid upon it because I believe these poor ignorant 
people are entirely influenced by the French Priests tho' 
their morals might make one think they were influenced 
by no religeon yet every days experience Shows strong 
enthusiasts without any morality especially among the 
papists. I doubt much that the numbers of the six 
Nations that will join with us together with the Virginia 
Indians and others will amount to 1500 men for I ques- 
tion very much if we shall be able to draw 500 from all 
the six nations & my reason for it is this that the French 
Politics of making those Neutrals of whom they have 
no hopes of ingaging on their side has prevail'd very 
much among our Indians The French have been very 
industrious in propogating this maxim or piece of Policy 
among all our Indians & Perhaps the moravians are their 
tools for this purpose while we have taken no pains to 
guard against this artifice & if I be not mistaken the 
Traders at Albany have been so far from opposing the 
French designs in this Step that they have rather pro- 
moted them in hopes of being themselves comprehended 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 135 

in the Neutrality & tho now they may see their folly in 
this step it may not be in our power to make the Indians 
alter their measures What others may do I cannot say 
but I am perswaded that the trading part of the City 
of Albany have lost all influence over our Indians 

To trust entirely to two or 3 Indians to carry the ad- 
vice of the arival of the fleet in the River St Laurence 
by way of the other Kill seems to me to be too precarious 
it must be sent in my opinion different ways & not en- 
tirely trusted to Indians since upon this advice all the 
operations of that part of the Army which goes by land 
must depend 

The alteration proposed to be made in the scheme 
form'd at homes seems to me to be on very cogent rea- 
sons & I shall add another which weighs with my self. 
The Levies in the Southern parts of this Government 
will chiefly consist of Irish servants lately freed from 
their Servitude & I believe those of the more southern 
Colonies will be generally such likewise & who have not 
been accustomed to the Woods or to the use of firearms 
as the inhabitants on the Frontiers generally are. These 
servants are likewise generally papists & for that reason 
great numbers & in this case perhaps they may be the 
greater number cannot with safety be trusted in an 
undisciplined Army whose oflacers have had no expe- 
rience in command going against an Ennemy of their own 
Religeon as the army to go by land must certainly be 
But if they be sent with the regular troops & with the 
fleet there may be no danger from them in this respect. 
And tho there arival at Louisburgh may be too late for 
the fleet to wait for them a small convoy may be suffi- 
cient to carry them after the fleet 

But as to that part of the Scheme which purposes 
that the part of the Army which is to march by land 
should pass by Crown point without attempting to reduce 
that Garrison strong objections occur to me First it is 
against the General maxims of War to leave any Forti- 
fications of the Ennemy behind & if the general & fixed 
rules be neglected in case of any misfortune the Conduct 

136 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

of the Generals or of the Council which advises will be 
liable to exceptions that cannot be easily got over. The 
Wisest Men cannot foresee every accedent that may 
defeat the best concerted measures & therefor unforeseen 
accidents must be guarded against by observing the gen- 
eral rules as well as those that are foreseen by special 

Cadwallader C olden to 


COLDINGHAM Aug 7*** 1745 

As I receive no manner of benefit since the War with 
France by the Surv"" Gen^ ofiice & that I at this time have 
been at more than my common expence by my son 
Cadwallader's Marriage & settling besides the more than 
usual constant expence now in time of War of a large 
family it is necessary for me to mind my private business 
more carefully to avoid all the extraordinary expence I 
can & therefor I must desire of you from our friendship 
to my family to make my excuse to the Gentlemen of the 
Council in case they incline to require my attendance 
next Session since as I conceive there can be no necessity 
for it for the whole time of y® Session in going through the 
formalities of passing bills The attendance on the Coun- 
cil puts the Gentlemen who live in town to no extraor- 
dinary expence & there number is sufiicient We in the 
country may therefor hope to be excused when there is 
no necessity but if it be thought requesite that some of 
us who live in the Country attend as M'' Livingstone did 
not attend last Session & has not in general given his 
attendance so often as I have & has not the same excuse 
which I have I hope my excuse may be preferr'd to his. 
I suppose that the Business of the Session is concerted 
before the meeting & when that is don as I take it the 
business of tlie Council is litle else besides formality 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 137 

because we have no parties or disputes among us When 
ever my attendance shall be thought to be of real use I 
shall very cheerfully give it but when it is not so I hope 
it will not be insisted on or that M"" Livingstone & I be 
so far indulged as to give our attendance by turns As 
I am no way upon the reserve in giving any assistance 
at this time I shall freely tell you one thing which in 
my opinion ought to be thought of before the meeting 
of the assembly & measures concerted concerning it 
There is no doubt but that the taking of Cape Breton 
will give uneasy apprehensions to Canada & that they'l 
expect to be attacked next. They must of course think 
of every thing to prevent this I know of nothing in their 
power likely to be so effectual as inciting our own Indians 
to revolt against us which with the assistance of the 
French & French Indians would give us work enough at 
home And that the French are actually upon this pro- 
ject I think appears plainly enough by the conduct of 
our own Indians at this time. Our Indians the Mohawks 
in particular by all accounts are very much dissatisfied 
& have been so many years & several of them gon this 
summer to Canada under this ill disposition When I 
was among them above seven years since they were so 
& by all the Information I can obtain it has not lessen'd 
but increased It seems to me likewise certain that the 
Indians are so far from having any Confidence in the 
men who have the Commission for Indian affairs that 
they have an absolute diffidence of y™ Neither have the 
People of the County of Albany any confidence in them 
it is impossible then that the Indian affairs can be weU 
managed in their hands It is not difficult to discover 
from what this arises but be it from what ever cause 
This Diffidence of it self makes it necessary to put 
the management into other hands & in my opinion the 
Indian affairs will be better managed by one or two than 
by such a number as now are in commission especially 
in time of War which requires in all urgent cases at least 
the greatest secrecy & greatest dispatch. There is no 
doubt it will be easier to find one or two men fit to be 

138 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

intrusted then twenty as the case now is. Perhaps this 
may occasion a greater expence because when people 
serve the publick without any private view they'l expect 
a different pay from what will satisfy those who make up 
of publick imployment only to their private profit but 
be that expence what ever since it is necessary it must 
be provided for In my opinion it is more necessary for 
the defence of the province than the Fortifications about 
the City of New York It will be of immediat & certain 
use in securing the agriculture & trade whereas the use 
of those Fortifications can only be casual. I am likewise 
of opinion that his Excellency's Meeting with the In- 
dians will not be of that use which is expected unless 
the present Disposition of the Indians be first taken off 
by a continued & assiduous application of such means 
as may be necessary for that purpose neither can he till 
this is don have such information as may be necessary to 
treat with them effectually 

Now S'' if such an expence be so necessary as it ap- 
pears to me it must be provided for what ever it be but 
I believe that if the money usually given to the Com*"^ 
of Indian affairs for that Service & the Duties on the 
Indian Trade were put under proper regulation the ex- 
traordinary expence wiU not be so great as at first may 
be imagined. 

Before I conclude I think it proper to inform you of 
some particulars with in my own knowlege which makes 
what I now propose seem absolutely necessary to me 
When I was in the Mohawks country I carried some men 
with me who were thought to have & pretended to have 
the greatest influence on the Indians & who stiU pretend 
to that influence & yet were so far from having any such 
influence that the Indians abhorr'd them & I found when 
I travell'd through the County of Albany in may last 
that every man with whom I conversed (not an Indian 
trader) have at this time the same opinion. I had Uke- 
wise an opportunity to observe that the Indians natu- 
rally are not diflSdent of those who have not abused 
their confidence for the Indians trusted me on several 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 139 

occasions in which the people of Albany then with me 
said it was rediculous to desire it of them & which they 
afterwards confess'd had never been allow'd to any of 
them & for these reasons I think that if the management 
of the Indian affairs were put into proper persons hands 
we will soon find a good effect from it 

Now S"" if there be any resolution to take the Indian 
affairs under consideration next Session to any purpose 
like what I propose I will if desir'd cheerfully go to toun 
to give my assistance if my assistance shall be thought 
usefuU from my formerly having taken as much pains 
to be informed of the Indian affairs & treaties both with 
the English & French but if nothing more is likely to 
pass the Council than the necessary money bills & the 
common affairs I hope for the reasons I have given I 
may be excused & for this purpose I beg of you (if you 
think it proper) to communicat what I now write to the 
Gentlemen of the Council 

From Benjamin Franklin 

Philad" Aug* 15 1745 

I receiv'd your Favour of the 20*^ past, with your 
medical Piece enclos'd the Reading of which gave me a 
great deal of Pleasure. I show'd it to our Friend M"" 
Bertram, who carried it home, and, as he since tells me, 
is taking a Copy of it; His Keeping of it for that End 
has prevented my Showing it to any other Gentlemen 
as you desired; and hither to prevented my Writing to 
you upon it as I intended. But lest you should conclude 
me the very worst Correspondent in the World I shall 
delay no longer giving you some Thoughts that occurr'd 
to me in Reading of it; chusing rather to be blam'd for 
not writing to the Purpose, than for not Writing at all. 

I am extreamly pleas'd with your Doctrine of the 
Absorbent Vessels intermix'd with the perspiratory Ducts 

140 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

both on the external and internal Superficies of the Body. 
After I had read Sanitorius, I imagined a constant Stream 
of the perspirable Matter issuing at Every Pore in the 
Skin: But then I was puzzled to account for the Effects 
of mercurial Unctions, for the Strangury sometimes oc- 
casion'd by an outward Application to the Flies, and the 
like, since whatever Virtue or Quality might be in a 
Medicine laid upon the Skin, if it would enter the Body 
it must go against Wind and Tide, (as one may say). 
D"" Hales help'd me a little, when he inform'd me, (in 
his Vegetable Statics) that the Body is not always in 
a perspirable but Sometimes in an imbibing State, as 
he expresses it; & will at Times actually grow heavier 
by being expos'd to a moist Air. But this did not quite 
remove my Difficulty, Since, as these Fits of Imbibing 
did not appear to be regular or frequent, a Blistering 
Plaister might lie on the Skin a Week, or a mercurial 
Ungent be us'd a Month, to no purpose, if the Body 
should so long continue in a perspirable State. Your 
Doctrine, which was quite new to me, makes all easy, 
since the Body may perspire and absorb at the same 
Time, thro' the different Ducts destin'd to those different 

I must own, however, that I have one Objection to 
the Explanation you give of the Operation of These Ab- 
sorbents. That They should communicate with the 
Veins, and the Perspirants with the Arteries only, seems 
natural enough; but as all Fluids by the hydrostatical 
Law press equally in all Directions, I question whether 
the mere Direction of one of those minute Vessels (where 
it joins with a Vein or Artery) with or against the Stream 
of Blood in the larger Vessel, would be sufficient to pro- 
duce such contrary Effects as perspiring and absorbing. 
If it would, both Perspirants and Absorbents might pro- 
ceed from the Arteries only, or from the Veins only, or 
from both indifferently; as by the figure in the Margin, 
whether the Vessel a bis a Vein or an Artery, if the Stream 
moves from a to b, the minute communicating Vessel c 
shall be a Perspirant, and d an Absorbent, and contrary if 

THE GOLDEN PAPER&-174a-1747 141 

c ^ 

it moves from h to a. — Yet I cannot say, I am certain the 
mere Direction of the Vessels will have no Effect; I only- 
suspect it, and am making a little Machine to try an 
Experiment with for Satisfaction Tis a Syphon made of 
two large Joints of Carolina Cane united at e, into which 
two small glass Tubes j ^ g are to be inserted one on the 
descending and the other on the ascending Side. I pro- 
pose to fill the Syphon and the two glass Tubes with 
Water, and, when 'tis playing unstop at the same Instant 
the Tops of both glass Tubes, observing in which the 
Water sinks fastest. You Shall know the Success. — 
I conceive the Pressure of the Atmosphere on the Aper- 
tures of the two glass Tubes to be no way different from 
the Pressure of the same on the Mouths of the Perspirants 
and Absorbents; &c if the Water sinks equally in the 
two Tubes, nowwithstanding the Direction of one 
against and the other with the Stream, I shall be ready 
to think we must look out for another Solution. — You 
will say, perhaps, that 'twill then be time enough, when 
the Experiment is try'd and Succeeds as I suspect; yet 
I cannot forbear attempting at one before hand, while 
some thoughts are present in my Mind. If a new Solu- 
tion should be found necessary, this may be ready for 

I do not remember that any Anatomist that has 
fallen in my Way, has assign'd any other Cause of the 
Motion of the Blood, thro' its whole Circle, than the 
contractile Force of the Heart, by which that Fluid is 
driven with Violence into the Arteries, and so continu- 
ally propell'd by Repetitions of the same Force, till it 
arrives at the Heart again. May we, for our present 

142 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Purpose, Suppose another Cause, producing half the 
Effect; and say, that the Ventricles of the Heart, like 
Syringes, draw when they dilate, as well as jorce when 
they contract? That this is not unlikely, may be judg'd 
from the Valves Nature has plac'd in these Arteries to 
prevent the Drawing back of the Blood in those Vessels 
when the Heart dilates, while no Such Obstacles pre- 
vent its Sucking (to use the vulgar Expression) from the 
Veins. If this be allow'd, and the Insertion of the Ab- 
sorbents into the Veins, and of the Perspirants into the 
Arteries, be agreed to, it will be of no Importance in 
what Direction they are inserted: For, as the Branches 
of the Arteries are continually lessening in their Diam- 
eters, and the Motion of the Blood decreasing, by means 
of the encreas'd Resistance, there must, as more is con- 
tinually press'd on behind, arise a kind of Crouding in 
the Extremities of those Vessels which will naturally 
force out what is contain'd in the Perspirants that com- 
municate with them. This lessens the Quantity of Blood, 
so that the Heart cannot receive again by the Veins all 
it had discharged into the Arteries, which occasions it to 
draw strongly upon the Absorbents that communicate 
with them. And thus the Body is continually perspir- 
ing and imbibing. — Hence, after long Fasting, the Body 
is more liable to receive Infection from bad Air; and 
Food, before 'tis sufficiently chylified, is drawn crude into 
the Blood, by the Absorbents that open into the Bowels. 
— To confirm this position, that the Heart draws as well 
as drives the Blood, let me add this Particular. If you 
sit or lean long in such a Manner as to compress the 
principal Artery that Supplys a Limb with Blood, so 
that it does not furnish a due Quantity, you will be sen- 
sible of a pricking Pain in the Extremities like that of a 
thousand Needles; and the Veins, that us'd to raise your 
Skin in Ridges, will be (with the Skin) sunk into Chan- 
nels; the Blood being drawn out of them, and their Sides 
press'd so closely together, that 'tis with Difficulty and 
slowly that the Blood afterwards enters them when the 
compress'd artery is reliev'd. If the Blood was not 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 143 

drawn by the Heart, the Compression of an Artery could 
not empty a Vein; and I conjecture that the pricking 
Pain is occasioned by the Sides of the Small Vessels being 
press' d together. 

I am not without Apprehensions, that this Hypothe- 
sis is either not new, or, if it is new, not good for any 
Thing. It may however, in this Letter, (with the en- 
clos'd Paper on a kindred Subject) serve to show the great 
Confidence I place in your Candour, since to you I so 
freely hazard myself (ultra crepidam) in Medling with 
Matters directly pertaining to your Profession, & entirely 
out of the way of my own. If you give yourself the 
Trouble of Reading them, 'tis all I can modestly expect. 
Your Silence about them afterwards will be Sufiicient to 
convince me, that I am in the wrong; and that I ought 
to study the Sciences I dabble in, before I presume to 
Set Pen to Paper. I will endeavour however to make 
you Some Amends, by procuring you from better Judges 
some better Remarks on the Rest of your Piece; and 
shall observe your Caution not to let them know from 
whom I had it. 

The Piece on Fluxions I purpose shortly to read 
again, and that on the several Species of Matter, when 
you shall have what little I shall be able to say about 

The Members of our Society here are very idle Gen- 
tlemen ; they will take no Pains. I must, I believe, alter 
the Scheme, and proceed with the Papers I have and 
may receive, in the Manner you advise in one of your 
former Letters. The mention of your former Letters 
puts me in mind how much I am in Arrear with you: 
Like some honest insolvent Debtors, I must resolve to 
pay ready Money for what I have hereafter, and dis- 
charge the old Debt by little and little as I am able. 

The Impertinence of these Moskito's to me, (now I 
am in the Humour of Writing) prevents a great deal of 
mine to you, so that for once they are of some use in the 
World. I am Sir Your most hum*''® Serv* 

B. Franklin 

144 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

From Hannah Lithgow 

Philad^ Aug' y^ 30'^ 1745 

I am sorry to hear, by M' Armit, that you think I used 
you rudely in my last. If you can remember & will cooly 
consider y^ contents of your several letters, especially y^ 
last, you must needs be sensible, that the harsh expres- 
sions which you were offended at, where only direct an- 
swers to your unkind, & positive assertions of things, 
which on your part were only surmises, but which had I 
taken your word for, & complied with your consequent 
demand had a manifest tendency to my ruin. 
I am very willing to let M'' Armit see the deeds, & papers, 
relating to the Lands in question which as I told you be- 
fore are all in my hands, M'' Lawrence is no way directly 
concerned in the thing, my intent in acquainting you, 
that the money which I payd y*" Wid"^ Henderson was 
borrowed of him, by a friend on my behalf, was only to 
make you sensible, that my Husband selling the Lands to 
y® Docf, & my rebying it of his Widow, was not a pre- 
meditated contrivance, to secure the Lands to me, to the 
prejudice of the right Heir, (as I can easily make appear,) 
but a real, lawful sale, from my Husband, & after his 
death, an accidental & unintended purchase of mine after 
advising with my Husbands Master M"" Murray and M'" 
Smith of New York, who were well acquainted with y® 
state of y^ case, & told me, I might do it with safety, 
& which since your writing to me, has been confirmed by 
our most able counsellor at Law here, who on my laying 
the case, and deed before him, told me, my title was 
good I remain 

Sir Your humble Servant 

Hannah Lithgow 


Mr Cadr Golden 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 145 

From James Alexcmder 

Newyork Sep' V 1745 

on the 29*^ past Bryant arrived, he brought the en- 
closed to you from Collinson 

he brings also the quadrant for the proprietors of 
East Jersey, in which they are Served pretty much as 
we were with the Circumferenters £30 Sterling was the 
price first proposed at, but Sissons ace* comes to £47 
odd shillings, & insurance & freight make it amount to 
£60 Sterling 

But to make up for this, Colhnson assures me that 
the Earle of Maclesfield & many other Curious men have 
Seen it & Say its the best piece of work that ever was 
done of its bigness, that its cheap at Sissons price & 
Sisson Says he would not make Such another for the 
same sum, & that by M"" Grahams directions concerning 
it which have been thro the whole followed it proves 
good beyond Expectation — With it comes a Certificate 
Signed by J Bevis & Ja. Short that they observed many 
Starrs with it, & took down the results of the observa- 
tions Severally that they Seldon disagreed upon Com- 
paring above 10 Seconds oftenist not above 5 Seconds 
& often Exactly agreed, & Say that any person but 
tolerably skilled in takeing observations can depend upon 
an altitude by it within half a minute^ — Under that M"" 
Graham approves of what they certify & Says it can be 
Depended upon within Less than half a minute; and if 
all this be true as I hope it is then is the instrument as 
good again as was Expected viz one to observe within 
one minute, but instead of it this is one, that observes 
with in half that 

I have also with it about 9 pages of Directions for 
Setting it & Observing with it Signed by J. Bevis who 
Desires the favour of what Observations are made with 
it, & promises to Send them back with all the proper 
allowances Computed 

146 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

I have also a List of 44 Stars near the zenith of 41 
with their right ascension & Declination to the year 1744 
with the annual variations greatest aberrations & Longi- 
tude of the Sun when the aberration is nothing, & rule 
to find it in all places, As Observed by Ja. Bradley with 
a Quadrant of Eight feet radius, Bradley is now the Kings 
Astronomer at Greenwich & Succeeds HaUey 

This of the aberration of the fixed Starrs which was 
first Discovered by Bradley, will occasion two new col- 
umns hereafter in all Catalogues of the Starrs viz a col- 
umn of the Longitude of the Sun when the Aberration is 
nothing, & another column of the greatest aberration of 
the Starr, the first hint that I ever mett with of this was 
in Gardners Surveying which you have, & afterwards I 
mett with. Bradleys account of it in the Philosophical 
transactions, how by accident he discovered it by a Sector 
made by Graham which was to be Depended on within 
two Seconds, & as he was so Lucky as first to Discover 
it So he accounted for the reason of it viz the Earths 
velocity in its orbit compared with the velocity of Light 
— I am 


Your most humble Servt 

Jas. Alexander. 

Cadwallader Colden to Samuel Johnson 

Sept^ 3-^ 1745 

I am much obliged to you for the trouble you have 
taken in examining the Introduction to Fluxions By the 
Method you have taken you show that you perfectly 
understand my sense of the matter and as you can 
observe no falsehood in the Principles or error in the 
deduction I may conclude it is right & that without 
assuming much to my self when every mathematical! 
before me since the invention of the method has agreed 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 147 

in the same thing On the contrary it might look like 
presumption to say that the greatest men have all con- 
tinued blundering in their own science & that these blun- 
ders should allwise discover the truth Your only objec- 
tion is that the Doctrine of Fluxions cannot subsist with 
D*^ Berkely's principles that therefore the one or the 
other must be false If it be really inconsistent with his 
principles (which I know not that it is for I do not 
understand them) this inconsistency will give a strong 
prejudice to his Doctrine & what you observe that while 
you read his books you know not where to fix for a fal- 
lacy in his reasonings but after you have laid his books 
aside all his notions seem to be mere Chimera's gives a 
strong suspicion of a sophism for it is just in this manner 
that the mind is affected by sophisms. As to what you 
observe that all our Ideas must be finite & must bear 
some proportion to each other it may be necessary to 
observe the different senses that word idea is taken in 
for sometimes it is taken for the picture or representa- 
tion of any thing which we have receiv'd from our senses 
& in this sense certainly all our Ideas are finite at other 
times it is taken in a more large sense for any kind of 
Conception we form or perception we have of anything 
or proposition & I think that an infinite difference must 
necessarily be suppos'd in these conceptions For exam- 
ple From the conception we have of God & of a creature 
we necessarily conclude there must be an infinite differ- 
ence so Likewise between the Conceptions we have of time 
& eternity Perhaps this Distinction between Ideas in 
the Strict sense & conceptions or perceptions of the mind 
in the large sense may lead to discover the Bishops Step 
in his Deduction for if I remember right he does not 
distinguish them tho they be essentially different & the 
effects of essentially different agents Whether the Bishop 
thinks that God & eternity exists only in the mind as he 
supposes that time & all his creatures do I know not or 
whether we can conceive the mind otherwise than infinite 
when we suppose there is no space without it I dare not 
suppose because this would lead to a kind of spinosism & 

148 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

therefor as I said before I do not understand what the 
Bishop would prove I shall detain you no longer than to 
repeat my thanks for the trouble you have taken & to as- 
sure you that when I know how to serve you I will cheer- 
fully do it & in the mean time would gladly continue a 
correspondence with you 

Cadwallader Golden to Samuel Johnson 

Sepf 3"^ 1745 

I thank you heartily for the trouble you have taken 
to procure me the accounts of the cure of a Cancer by 
the Pokeweed & of the Yaws by Tar Water. My design 
in desiring it was to make the knowledge of such bene- 
fical medecines more general as well as for my own pri- 
vate benefite & for this reason I have thoughts of pub- 
lishing them in some shape or other But as inducement 
for further trial of their Virtue can only depend on the 
opinion y® readers have of the Veracity & Judgement 
of the Relator's it may seem necessary to give the names 
of the persons through whose hands the Account passes 
for according to their Characters the evidence will 
appear stronger or Weaker And when one advises an- 
other to trust his health or his life to any method it 
seems incumbent to give him all the evidence you can 
for such confidence for in a Cancer for example by fol- 
lowing any method that proves unsuccessfull the dis- 
temper advances in the mean time so fast that another 
method of cure which might have been successfuU comes 
too late Please then to tell me whether I may mention 
your name & your opinion of the Veracity of the persons 
who relate the Facts It would be an advantage to have 
some more Histories to confirm the evidence of the Vir- 
tue of these Medecines & it seems more may be got. 

I give you the trouble of my letter to M'" Prince in 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 149 

return to his favour & leave it open to you that you may 
see the only answer I can give to the single objection he 
made to the Introduction to Fluxions As to what you 
observe of the method of Proximation I must allow there 
is some similitude to that of Fluxions but then there is 
this difference that in approximation the mind observes 
that the solution after all that can be don is not perfect 
tho it come nearer & nearer to the truth it is never per- 
fectly true After a 1000 corrections it will still admit of 
an amendment but by the method of Fluxions it is 
brought the nearest the truth possible at one Operation 
& the minds clearly sees that no further correction is 
possible. As to the Publishing of the Introduction to 
Fluxions I am willing to contribute every thing in my 
power for the publick benefit as the advancement of 
every kind of knowlege certainly is And I believe there 
would be no difficulty from the want of Types because 
the printers can make them but I am affray'd whatever 
you or two or three more may think of the use of printing 
it it would not prove beneficial to the printer but other- 
wise for I doubt if 20 copies would sell I sent you the 
Reflections on Tar Water printed by them 

Proclamation of Gov. George Clinton 

By his Excellency The Honb"" George Clinton Esq"" 
Capf General and Governour in Chief of the province 
of New York and Territories thereon depending in Amer- 
ica Vice Admiral of the Same and Vice Admiral of the 

Red Squadron of his Majesties fleet 


Prohibiting all Traffick and Correspondence between his 

Majesties Subjects of this province and all Indians in 

League with the French. 

Whereas it has been Credibly Represented to me that 

the Indians of Canada under Colour and pretence of a 

Treaty of Neutrality Concluded between them and the 

150 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174^1747 

Nations of Indians in the British Interest have hither- 
to during the present Warr with the French had frequent 
Traffick Intercourse and Correspondence with his Mat'^' 
Subjects of the County of Albany whereby the Enemy 
are not only Supplyed with several Species of Goods and 
Merchandizes which (as things are Circumstanced at 
Present) they Could not otherwise procure But by their 
Indians haveing free Access to the City of Albany and 
by their passing and Repassing throught our Frontiers 
into the Heart of the Country without Control or Inter- 
ruption, they have thereby also frequent and Constant 
Opportunitys of Viewing our Scituation and Actions and 
of Conveying Intelligence to the Enemy when at the 
Same time Such Indians as the French suppose to be 
Attached to the British Interest are not Suffered to 
Travel farther Towards Canada Then to the Fort at 
Crown point (And whereas it has Likewise been Repre- 
sented that the French Indians have Lately been pre- 
vailed upon by the Governour of Canada to take up the 
Hatchet against his Majesties Subjects Their form of a 
Declaration of Warr) and have Accordingly Commenced 
Hostilitys and Committed Several Murders and Bar- 
baritys upon the Frontiers of New England which is a 
Notorious Breach of Faith and Violation of the Treaty 
of Neutrality they have Speciouly pretented to engage 
themselves in, by the Tenor whereof it was Stipulated 
that none of the Tribes in the British or French Interest 
Sho'd Intermeddle in the present Warr Between the Two 

I have therefore thought fitt by and With the Advice 
of his Majesties Council to Issue this proclamation hereby 
Strictly enjoyning all his Mat'^^ Subjects within this 
province from Carrying on any kind of Traffick or deal- 
ings or holding any Sort of Correspondence with the In- 
dians of Canada or any Indians in League with the 
French or Attached to their Interest and Likewise fore- 
warning and prohibiting them from Harbouring enter- 
taining or giving any Countenance or protection to their 
persons as they will Answer the Contrary at their peril 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 161 

by Incurring his Mat'^^ highest displeasure and Resent- 
ment and be prosecuted with the Utmost Rigour of the 

Given &c* under my hand & Seal at Arms in New 
York This 5 day of Sep* in the 19 year of His Majestys 
Reign and in The Year of our Lord 1745 
By his Exc^ Command 

John Mitchell to Benjamin Franklin 

I was surprised to see yours of Jun. 15*^ come to my 
hands only by last Post. What I then received by it 
from D"" Golden, I suppose I owe to you ; for which I am 
sorry I can make no other acknowledgement but thanks. 
I perceive likewise, that you are desirous (if I am not 
mistaken), that the small Paper I left with you on the 
yellow fever should come forth. I was highly delighted 
to see so good an opportunity any one might have to 
oblige the publick, & promote the arts of Sciences, as 
your Press affords; better than I expected to have found 
in our new world. I look upon myself obliged, thro' 
gratitude to you, as well as the justice due to your laud- 
able industry & improvements in that way, to encourage 
your press as much as I can. The Debt likewise which 
we all owe to the publick; would make me do what I 
could to discharge it. But for many very good reasons, 
I can do neither at present. My health is so impaired 
by this summer & fall, that I am not able to follow my 
own necessary calling. Since the last of June I have 
been afflicted with a Diarrhea several times, a slow hectic, 
with spitting of Blood, & troublesome Piles: I had no 
sooner got over these, (When our weather began to 
break in y^ fall, w* Rains & Easterly winds) than I was 
seized with an Intermittent fever, the origin & source 
of all my disorders. — with this I was afflicted, when I 
received yours, & as I kept the house, I have been more 

152 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

prolix in what I have wrote, having nothing else to amuse 
me, which is the reason, why I have said so little in so 
many words; which I hope D*" Golden & you will excuse. 

I am so farr from bemg able to come to Philadelphia 
this fall again, as you kindly invite me, that I was not 
able to go to the upper parts of our own Countrey, as I 
had appointed & firmly resolved, to avoid what I ex- 
pected in the fall, & have accordingly met with. But my 
bad state of health puts me under a necessity of going to 
England very soon, or of loosing my life. I shall let you 
hear from me before I go ; which I am afraid will not be 
before next Spring, but it must be before Summer or 
never. What I shall do there or afterwards, I am not de- 
termined, nor can I be, 'till I see what my bad State of 
health is likely to come to. 

As for the small piece on the Yellow fever in your 
hands, you know I left it to be transmitted to D"" Golden, 
since we were disappointed of seeing him. But lest I 
might seem to refuse others any benefit that might be 
reaped from it (if there is any) I consented, that your 
Physicians might see it. But it is by no means fit to 
be printed by itself, nor never was intended to be. It 
contains only a brief account of some things that I 
thought might be improvements on this Disease, or at 
least more clearly shown than is common to be met with, 
Especially the Dissection of the bodies that dyed of it, 
for which alone it was wrote, as that is not any where to 
be met with, as far as I know. It was wrote to a master 
of the art (like compendious Institutes, extracted from 
a much longer account) to whom I thought Explna- 
tions might be as impertinent, as they are necessary for 
others, Especially among us. Had I wrote it for (the 
generality at least of) your Readers, what I have herein 
left out, would be most necessary to have insisted upon, 
& what is herein contained ought to be more fully ex- 
plained. You know very well, this would be necessary 
all over America, as far as I can perceive at least — My 
friends in Scotland (to whom I first sent it) desired me 
to let them print it by itself; but M*" Monro & D'" Glarke 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 153 

at Edin'" were of opinion, that in that manner it could 
not miss to perish (which they were pleased to say it 
was a pity it should) among the many other little pieces 
of that sort, which daily come out. They desired me to 
preserve it by a fuller account of the other things relat- 
ing to the Disease. But I laid down all thoughts of that, 
when I first extracted these observations from the others 
I had made, not out of any discommendable design I 
hope. My views then were to inform myself as well as 
to qualify myself to inform others (if any desired such 
information, which very few, too few among us so much 
as do) of the nature & Cure of our other popular Mala- 
dies, as well as this; as well as of the nature & effects of 
our Climate, minerals, vegetables & animals &c. With 
these pursuits I was busied at some times, when this 
yellow fever came in my way; And I thought it much 
better to go on with them, than suffer myself to be inter- 
rupted with this; hoping I might preserve my account 
of it in a Natural & Medical History of my Countrey; 
for which I have kept Journals of observations for many 
years, but left them all off, the beginning of this monthe, 
& when or if ever, I shall be able to begin them again, 
He only knows who disposes of all things — But still I 
should be glad of your information about any of these 
things, for which reason I mention them to you & D*" 
Colden; & in return you may command any thing from 
me, hoping you will use it as a friend, as you see I take 
you to be, by being so very plain with you. I am fond 
and ambitious of corresponding w^ all candid & inge- 
nious Persons about these things I here mention, as I 
find their Information to be necessary, and am as willing 
& ready to give them the best accounts of things I can, 
in return. But you must excuse my not publishing any 
thing yet a while. I think this world is pestered with 
this Itch of many to appear in print, which makes many 
so little regarded that do. Authors ought to be Masters 
not only of the particular subject, but of the whole art, 
they undertake to instruct the world in, & when they are 
— Nonum prematur in annum, sales Horace. 

154 THE GOLDEN PAPERS-174a-1747 

What is enclosed suppose wrote equally to yourself 
as to D'" Golden, for whom it is directed, & persist to 

your very humble Serv" 

John Mitchell 
Urbanna, Sept^ 12^^ 1745 
P. S. 

I wrote for my baggs by M*" 

Miron, the first opportunity I The enclosed &c. are 
had to send for them, if you only for your perusal 
have any pray send them, & D*" Colden's as well 
they are not of great value. as any thing else I 
I enclosed one to M"" Bartram. write to you 

J: M: 



Mr B: Fbankun 

From James Alexander 

Newyork Sep'- 22"^ 1745 

I returned from Amboy on Wednesday Last where I 
had been for ten days & Since have rec** two from you 
the one of 13*^^ instant the other without date. 

Your Letters therin to M*" Brown I shall by the post 
tomorrow Send to him 

M'' Brown by his Last wrote me that his wife died of 
a Consumption on the first of August Last, which I am 
heartyly Sorry to hear, & by Letter now Condole him on 
that occasion. 

Its certainly very melancholy to think of the Sick- 
ness here & the more So to be in the midle of it & to see 
your neighbours well one day & in a few days after carried 
to the grave — Tadd was well & at Stephen Delanceys 
funeral, & was yesterday buried 

My Daughter Bettie was on the 6*^^ instant taken with 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174S-1747 155 

a pain in her head, Sore throat & Stiffness in her neck 
which we attributed to Cold, She had got. Doctor Dubois 
gave her Some Medicines, which abated these pains 
removed her fever as he thought & she Sat up again on 
the 9*^ when I went to Amboy, but two days after she 
was taken very ill & my wife desired Doctor Dubois to 
call another Phisitian to his assistance & he chose D' 
Fisher who together have attended her ever since. They 
agreed that it was the distemper reigning in town. She 
was brought Extremely Low with it So that Litle hopes 
was Left of her Life. She being delirious for many days 
on Monday last her fever abated & they began to have 
hopes of her She seems to mend but Slowly one day a 
litle better & another day worse & Delirious, So that it 
Seems to be comeing to an intermitting fever On Tues- 
day last I rec*^ a Letter from my wife by the post of 
Betsies condition, what the Doctor's Said & that all the 
family were going out & into her room, which made me 
resolve to come the next day without haveing finished the 
business I went upon fearing many of the rest of the 
family would be Seized with the Same Distemper, but 
thank God we have hitherto Escaped, whether Tarr 
water has preserved us I cannot Say, but every one of 
the family drinks it plentifully every night before going 
to bed 

possibly had we done So before Betsie was taken ill, 
it might have prevented it. But while I was at Amboy 
in August the family had disused it by reason, that after 
the water had Stood on the tarr for 48 hours they found 
it Sour & not drinkable & being so served three or four 
times they gave it over, upon my return, I had water Set 
on tarr again with a Clean new pott, & that time it was 
pretty good, the next time Sour, the next time also Sour, 
believing the fault must have been in the tarr, which till 
then we had only bought by the quart at a litle Shop 
nearby, about that time Betsie was taken iU, I then Sent 
to find a barrell of Albany tarr, & bought one, on view- 
ing the top of it I found a good deal of water & other 
nasty Stuff part of which I powered off — & tapped it 

156 THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 

at the head about 1/3 of the head from the bottom, be- 
lieveing that what was heavier than the tarr had Sunk 
to the bottom & what nastyness was Lighter Swam a top, 
& So drew the tarr from the place tapped & Sett it & had 
Excellent tarr water with a full fine flavour, & the water 
Scarcely discoloured & So have had Excellent tarr water 
ever Since & So agreeable that my children Say they 
Like it better than Tea, & every night we Drink a Gallon 
of it 

I Suppose from the childrens talking of the goodness 
of this tarr water, Betsie would have Some of it I asked 
Doctor Dubois, if I might Comply with her desire. See- 
ing She even dreamt of it & talkt of it in her delirum, he 
Consented Last night & she had a tea Cup full a litle 
warmer than milk, She Says She is better this morning 
than she has been once & Slept well Last night 

I Enquired into the way of Selling the tarr by the 
quart & hear they take out the head of the barrell & 
Set it on End & always take it out of the top which with 
the foulness of the top of the barrell I bought Explains 
fully how our tarr water came to be sour which was 
bought by the quart, as part of that Sour nasty Stuff 
probably was mixt with it when the tarr water was Sour 

possibley other persons haveing their tarr water Sour 
& ill Coloured as I so often had, has discouraged them 
from the use of it, 

herewithe as you desire I Send you your papers on 
Gravitation, & shall be glad to See them again with the 
Difficulties Cleared up 

I am obliged to you for the other hints in yours, I 
shall be glad to See you publish your thoughts on the 
pokeweed, I shall make Enquiry for Habs Expirements 
on Tarr water — I hope speedyly to have Some time to 
think of the Lands at Newburgh — with my best respects 
to M''^ Colden & all your family I remain 

[Indorsed] Your most humble Servt 

^. To J A. Alexander 

Cadwauladbr Coldbn Esq!" 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 157 

Scientific Note in Colden's Handwriting on back of 
Alexander's Letter. 

What distinguishes this agent from all others is this that 
it receives the manner of Acting of any other material 
agent & in its reaction exerts its force in the same manner 
that the agent does & continues the Action to a distance 
in the same direction as a medium but likewise in the 
contrary direction to that in which it receiv'd the action 
from which it receives the impression or action Now 
this Power must be that of an Agent essentially different 
from the resisting Agent for the Power of the resisting 
agent is exerted in opposing or resisting the Action of 
every other agent but every part of this power no wise 
lessens reaction of the other receives (of every other 
power) & communicates the Action to all its contiguous 
parts in a manner which shall hereafter be more fully 
explain'd It must likewise be different from the moving 
power for the moving power acts only in one direction & 
opposes the Action of the other powers in one direction 
more than another but this receives the Action of the 
other powers equally in all directions & reacts equally in 
all directions & that of receiving the Action & reacting or 
reflecting in the opposite direction is what chiefly dis- 
tinguishes. Every power receives the Action of any other 
Power the receiving is common to all The resisting power 
lessens the motion in the moving & the moving communi- 
cats a degree of Motion to the resisting but neither of 
them react or communicat the Action which they receiv'd 
equally in all directions in a contrary direction as well as 
in a direct. The peculiar Power of this Agent consists in 
its power of receiving & reacting or reflecting any kind of 
Action & in this its agency chiefly consists & as the man- 
ner of its receiving the Action & reacting in continueing 
the action to die by the same manner cannot be con- 
ceiv'd but by conceiving it as a reacting of parts every 
one of which exerts its reactive force as it were in lines 
tending every way from the center of every part towards 
the surface. It 

158 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174S-1747 

From John Bartram 

October y^ 4*^ 1745 
Dear & esteemed friend 

I received thy kind letter of September y® 13*" since 
which I have received many letters from London Holland 
& Petersburgh some containing Matters of friendship 
other orders for seeds & curiosities others curious remarks 
& usefull instructions of which those of Doctor Grono- 
vius is very curious I wish thee could see them ; I would 
send thee a Coppy of them ; if I could write it over exact : 
but as it is so mixed with Latin I cant read many of his 
words, altho I can understand his English prety well : if I 
could meet with safe conveyance I should be ready to 
send thee y^ Original which I value much — Doctor Foth- 
ergill hath sent me A booke of y® enquiries of Lincom 
Spaw with large & curious directions & A box of spirits, 
oils shyrops & Solutions for y^ tryal of all medicinal 
springs that comes under my observation in my travels & 
to know what mineral thay are most empregnated with 
he is pleased to say that he believes, from an observation 
that I sent him, upon his request, above A year ago, that 
I am y^ most capable to manage such an undertaking of 
any; he uses many arguments to engage me to enter into 
it & to make dilligent inquiry therein. But y^ main 
spring of motion stil hath not its proper temper but he 
saith he is not without hopes that he can engage some to 
assist him to remedy that defect, for thee may easily be- 
lieve that it will take upp A deal of time to make all those 
tryals that is requisit to come to A compleat judgment of 
y® different qualities of many mineral waters; 
I received many letters that came with Captain Bream 
But I saw none directed to thee nor thy name mentioned 
in any of them. If I had I should given thee an account 
of it by y® first Post; I find thy name mentioned in Gron- 
ovius letter after this manner — in April Last year I hath 
send for Dr Golden an answer to his characters, & besides 
send y® fundamenta Botanica: florum Virginica, & index 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 159 

lapidum: and in November of y® year 1743 I hath send 
y® same things, but to my great sorrow I suspect that by 
y* uncarefuhiess of A friend of mine y® last mentioned is 
lost However y® first I hope is come to his hand being by 
the favour of Mr. Van Ingen, the principal Comchanler 
in this town recommended to Mr. Hope at Rotterdam, 
Two or three pages following I find this Paragraph Pray 
you will so good at an occation to acquaint Dr. Golden 
of what I wrote before & that Mr. Collinson wrote to me 
in A letter dated y® 24'^*' of March that he send to me by 
Mr. Hawkins A packed from Dr. Golden which as soon 
as I have received I shall [torn] as speedy an answer as 

I am obliged to thee for y® account of doctor Knights 
extrordinary discovery of y® magnetick power of steel & 
improvment upon y® loadstone in return of which kind- 
ness I here send A coppy of A Paragraph or two out of A 
letter from Dr. Ginelin Petersburg October y*' 13*^ 1744 
I cant tel for what reason y® Government does not Pub- 
lish y® expedition from Kamshatka to discover ye Eastern 
Goast of America. Notwithstanding all my endeavours I 
cant learn y^ Perticulars of this voyage neither can learn 
in what latitude where it was they landed on y® american 
shore but I know for certain is that our ships discovered 
America two weeks after thay Left Kamshatka toward 
y^ east & landed on A Goast unknown to other Euro- 
pians thay searched this Gontinent for A few days after 
that they returned to Kamshatka y" expedition is kept 
secret by y® order of y^ senate, — Have we not some rea- 
son to think from this account that this Surprising & 
Politick people who hath conquered & fortified y^ chief 
passages from Petersburg to y^ eastern sea hath an inten- 
tion to engross to them selves y^ trade of y® northwest 
part of america & perhaps y® Spanish coast of y^ south Sea 
But suppose thay have discovered y^ supposed straights 
of Anian will not our Britans be too late — suppose thay 
should find A passage from Button Bay thro to that 
Straight — I find by my corespondents in Europe that 
thay have been informed of our Phylosophycal Society & 

160 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174^-1747 

have great expectation of fine accounts therefrom tho I 
durst not so much as mention it to my correspondents for 
fear it should turn out but poorly; but I find the men- 
tioned to Collinson. hee to Catesby, & hee to Gronovius, 
which was to him from Claton. these accounts I showed 
to franklin & he layeth y^ blame on us ; & Dr Bond Saith 
Ben. Franklin is in fault; however wee three talks of 
carrying it on with more dilligence then ever which we 
may very easily do if we could but exchange y^ time that 
is spent in y® Club, Chess & Coffee House for y^ Curious 
amusements of natural observations — I inclose seeds of 
y^ sawrurus & star grass; I want some good seed of y^ 
arborvita I long to have it in my garden & y^ paper birch 
which grows on y^ katts kill mountains whose seed is shed 
6 weeks ago. 

Dear friend with Salutes of kind love to thee & family I 
rest thy Real friend 

John Bartram 


Db Cadwalladeb Coldbn 


From Samuel Johnson 

Stratford Octob'' 5 1745 

Having this convenient Opportunity I make my Ac- 
knowledgments to you for your two kind Letters of July 
12, & Sept^ 3. inclosing one to M"" Prince. Your Reflex- 
ions on the Bp^ Tract of Tar Water, for which I also 
thank you, I purpose to Send him, & with it, (if I can find 
time to transcribe it,) your Introduction to Fluxions, if I 
receive it time enough from D"" Osbom, who has not yet 
returned it to me. — I am pleased with your Reflexions on 
Tar water : There are many Instances of its having done 
Service in these parts: I have the promise of Some Facts 
to Send you — I think I told you of the Cure of a Negro 
boy, who Still continues perfectly well, & of the Rev*^ M"" 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 161 

Beach whose Case Seems to be exactly the Same with 
that of the Bp himself. — As to the Veracity of those 
Histories of the Cure of y^ Cancer &c. Your Observa- 
tions are very just, — & I give you liberty very freely to 
mention my name in attestation to the Characters of 

those that relate them. Capt Dickerman I knew to 

be a very honest Man having many years ago lived a year 
at his House, & D"^ Hubbard who took the Relation from 
his mouth, is an ingenious, Gentlman with whom I have 
a particular Friendship, & a person of undoubted Truth 
& Hon"". — As to the woman I never knew her, but often 
heard of the Case: Her brother who took the Account is 
a near Neighbour whose veracity was nev."" called in Ques- 
tion. — If I can Send any other well attested Instances I 
shall gladly gratifie your laudable & benevolent Dispo- 
sition to be useful to mankind by procuruing & Sending 


As to M"" Prince he is not here to answer for himself, 
(being, gone to Cape Bretton, recommended to Commo- 
dore Warren, & will probably go from thence to England 
for Orders, but I shall Send your Letter to him.) nor am I 
well qualified to answer for him, — I would only beg leave 
to make a Short Remark on the Distinction between an 
Idea & a notion or Conception of y® mind which is very 
Just & made by y*" Bp himself ; your not observing which 
convinces me that you did not, (as the Case was with me 
at first,) give so exact an attention to what he Says, as to 
enter thoroughly into his Meaning. — M'" Lock defines <fe 
uses the term Idea for any immediate Object of the Mind 
in Thinking; The Bp more justly confines it only to the 
Objects of Sense & Imagination, & ever uses the term 
Notion or Conception when he speaks of things purely In- 
tellectual, & therefore allows that we have properly 
Speaking no Idea of God or of any Intelligent Beings tho 
we may be Said to have a Notion or Conception of them. 
— nor does the Bp define the Term Idea in his Sense as 
you do, viz a Picture or Representation of anything we 
receive from our Senses. On the Contrary he takes what 
you call pictures of things to be the very things them- 

162 THE GOLDEN PAPERS-174a-1747 

selves, & that we do vainly & without any ground im- 
agine any things intervening between the Divine Mind & 
ours, whereof our Ideas, of Sense & imagination, are the 
supposed pictures. — The Ideas of Imagination may in- 
deed be called pictures of the Ideas of Sense, but he can 
have no notion of any Original whereof that idea or 
objects or of Sense, (for Instance which we call a Rose) 
can be Said to be a picture. — You allow in this Sense all 
our Ideas are finite. — Quaere, How then can they consist 
of infinite parts? — & Whether the Object the Mind is Em- 
ployed about in the Arithmetic of Infinities be not an 
object of Sense or Imagination, & not of pure Intellect? 
The Objects of pure Intellect, Spirit, God, Mind, Soul, 
Reflexion, Volition, Liberty, Virtue, &c. are in his Sense, 
toto Coelo, different things from Ideas of Sense or Imagi- 
nation, whereof however he allows we may have clear & 
distinct Conceptions or Notions tho' not Ideas? — It there- 
fore never entered into the Bp's Tho'ts to imagine if God 
or created Spirits existed only in our Minds as Ideas do, 
as your quere imports, or that our Minds are infinite ; nor 
can any Such deductions be made from any thing he 
Says. — The Being of God i. e. a Being of Infinite Intelli- 
gence & Activity existing without our Minds & independ- 
ent of them or any thing else, we infer by necessary De- 
duction of Reason from the Objects of Sense & our own 
Existence & powers but we have no other Way of Con- 
ceiving of him but by Substitution of powers & proper- 
ties we are conscious of in our Selves, & removing from 
them all Tho'ts of any dependence Limitation or Imper- 
fection — & so proportionably of other inferiour Minds. 

pardon me S"" my pen has been running at a Strange 
Rate much further than I intended when I begun. — How- 
ever, perhaps these hasty hints pursued closely may a 
little Serve to clear up the Difference between you & y* 
Bp which I imagine is in a great measure owing to your 
using the same words in different Senses & not attending 
to each others meaning. 

I shall be very glad to See your attempt to improve 
upon S'^ Isaac's Principia & proud of the Favour; not 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 163 

that I am qualified to examine it, but Shall hope to learn 
Something from it. — I doubt not but Improvements may 
be made from the noble Foundations he has laid, as has 
lately been done by one Lowman upon the Key he has 
given y^ world for understanding the prophesies & to 
how much better purpose have chronology & antiquity 
been studied since he has turned the thoughts of men 
of Leisure & Learning that way? & I believe in Several 
things he has been corrected as well as improved upon. 
— One M"" Hutchinsons a Lay Gentleman has of late Sur- 
prized y® world with a new System of Philosophy & 
Theology in which he is said to have amended & even 
confuted Some things in S"" Isaac's System. — The Titles 
of his Books are, 1 Moses principia, 2 — And Essay towards 
a Natural History of the Bible. — 3 Moses Sine principio. 
— 4, A New Account of the Confusion of Tongues & the 
names & attributes of the Trinity of the Gentiles. — 5, a 
Treatise of power essential & mechanical. — These peices 
I have not read, but I have read an Abridgm* of his Doc- 
trine published lately by my L** Forbes, L*^ president of 
Scotland intitled That's on Religion Natural & ReveaVd 
wherein he has Set them in an agreeable Light & earnestly 
recommended the Study of them to all Gentlemen of 
Leisure Capacity & Learning. — His Book is a Small 
pocket Volume — I doubt I have very much tired your 
patience already: However what if I should venture a 
little further, & for once in a way tire it quite down? 

M'^ Hutchinson undertakes to demonstrate the fol- 
lowing principles, as I have memoriter taken a Sketch of 
them from Lord Forbes. 

1. That besides the gross Bodies of the planets, & 
their Contents & Inhabitants, God created a vast infin- 
itely suhtil Fluid, whereof the Sun is the grand Reservoir 
& Sourse, where it is in the Condition of Fire: from 
whence it proceeds in a perpetual Emanation to the ut- 
most Bounds of this System in the Condition of Light; 
& from thence it returns condensed in the Condition of 
Air or Spirit & being melted down at the Sun is again re- 
turned in Light &c. 

164 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

2. That from this perpetual Circulation of this vast 
Fluid, in the Several Conditions of Fire Light & Air, the 
Rotation of the Orbs, both Annual and Diurnal may be 
accounted for, with all the Phaenomina in each Globe, 
without having recourse to S"" Isaac's Gravity or Attrac- 
tion, projection &c. — and this he makes appear both from 
the Letter of Moses & from Experimental Philosophy. 

3. That this Glorious System or Machine was de- 
signed, not only for our Subsistence & Comfort, but more- 
over for a Grand Theatre wherein we should behold the 
DEITY displaying his Infinite Wisdom; power & 
Goodness & thence deduce our Duty to him, our selves & 
one another. — But however, That Mankind in their first 
Condition, must necessarily have needed Instruction in 
Order to Understand these things, which were indeed of 
the utmost Importance to them : & accordingly, that they 
were taught Language, philosophy & Religion by imme- 
diate Conversation with the Deity in a visible Form, 
whose Goodness was Such that it could not fail to in- 
struct them in what so nearly concerned their Happi- 

4. That as Things, Spiritual & Intellectual can no 
otherwise be taught us or known by us in our present 
Condition than by Emblems taken from Sensible Things, 
it must Reasonably be thought that this method was 
used by the Deity in teaching our first parents; and that 
the Garden of Eden it self by the Range of it; Trees & 
the properties of the Creatures in it, might be designed 
for such an Emblem or means of instruction ; & the above 
mentioned infinite Fluid [balance of letter missing] 

From James Alexander 

Newyork October 6*^ 

Dear Sir 

I have yours of September 27*^^: — the Distemper in 
this place I thank God is much abated, few being taken 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 165 

with it Since the cool weather came in & these favour- 
ably — I was in hopes that Tarrwater would have pre- 
served the rest of my family from the Distemper, but I 
was mistaken, for on Wednesday the 25**" of September 
my Daughter Katharine (who had till then attended my 
Daughter Bettie) was taken ill, upon it She drank tarr 
water warmed very plentifully but the fever continued to 
Encrease, the Doctor recommended tarr water Sack whey 
or sage tea Warm, but everything was nauseous to her but 
tarr water, on Thursday night She drank near four quarts 
of it, on Fryday morning I found the fever very high & 
she Complained grievously of her head, the Doctor then 
proposed to Let Some blood which I thought was proper, 
he bled her & which bleeding She Said She found her 
head grow easyer & Easyer, but a fainting fitt came on 
her, & he Stopt the bleeding having taken from her about 
a pint & a half, her head afterwards was much Easyer 
her fever Lower, but she complained of Sickness at her 
Stomack more than before — On Saturday she was Easyer 
everyway on Sunday night She bled at the nose & on 
Monday the pain in the head & Stomack almost gone & 
Litle fever but She then Complained of a pain in her 
belly more than before but got a little Stomack to Eat, by 
Degrees the pain of her belly Decreased, & she has got a 
good Stomack & Sits up in her room all day, & is already 
Stronger than Betty, who mends fast too, but Betty was 
so weakened that She can Scarcely walk alone as yet. 

Tho Tarr water did not prevent Kittie from takeing 
the Distemper, yet possibly it has been a means of her 
so Speedy getting over it — her bleeding at the nose after 
haveing bled so plentifully before. Shows also that when 
the fever is high bleeding is proper — Betty's fever was 
never near So high as Kitties wherefore she was not 
bled — I thank God the rest of the family have Escaped 
the Distemper — we all Continue to use tarr water plenti- 

I have the London Magazines, which are Esteemed 
better than the Gentlemans, in the London Magazine 
for June 1744 theres a Letter concerning tarr water in 

166 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

what he Says — "In acute cases as fevers of all kinds it 
"must be Drunk warm in bed in great quantity, perhaps a 
"pint every hour, till the patient be relieved, which I 
"have known to work Surprizeing cures" 

my Daughter Kittie came near up to this prescrip- 
tion, & yet the fever continued to Encrease till she was 

I shall with a great deal of pleasure take all the pains 
in my power to advise M"" Delancey if he applyes to me — 
I am D"- Sir 

[Indorsed] Your most humble Servant 

To Ja: Alexander 

Cadwallader Golden, Esqr 

PROPOSITIONS made by his 
Excellency the Hono^'^ George 
Clinton Esq'' Captain General and 
Governor in Chief of the province 
of New York &c^ to five of the six 
united Nations of Indians viz* The 
Maquas Oneydes Onondages Cay- 
ouges & Tuscaroroes. 
At Albany the 10'*' day of October 1745 

His Excellency 
Philip Livingston 
Daniel Horsmanden 
Joseph Murray 
John Rutherford 
Esq''^ of the Council 
The Comiss'^^ from the Governments of the Masschusets 

bay and Connecticut 
The Commissioners for Indian Affairs 
The Mayor and Corporation of Albany And Several Gen- 
tlemen attending his Excellency & the severall Com- 
miss""^ upon this Occasion 
His Excellency addressed himself to the Indians as 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 167 


Here are present upon the Occasion of this Interview 
Commissioners from the Governments of the Massachu- 
sets bay <fe Connecticut, convened with me on the same 
Righteous Intention of renewing, brightening, and 
Strengthening the Covenant Chain, which has tyed You 
and His Britanick Majesty's several Colonies on this 
Continent, in the firmest Engagements to each other, for 
supporting, and maintaining our Common Cause. 

We are glad to See so many of our Brethren, and we 
bid you wellcome here, at the same time that Wee heart- 
ily Condole the Absence of our Brethren the Seneckes, 
and their Calamitys, which have Occasioned it, may the 
Almighty comfort them under their grievious Afflictions 
and soon wipe off all Tears from their Eyes. 

We do with you our Brethren and with you as their 
Representatives, Ratifye, confirm and establish all for- 
mer Engagements — entered into by us, and our Brethren 
of the six united Nations, and assure you, that We shall 
ever hold them inviolable, and we doubt not of the same 

for you A Belt 


The Rumour which the last Winter gave an Alarm 
to our Brethren the maquas, and was from thence spread 
to the other Nations, now appears to have been without 
foundation, And I cannot help observing on this Occa- 
sion, that you ought not for the future to Suffer any such 
idle Tales to be raised or propagated among you, as they 
not only tend to Separate your and our Affections each 
from the other, but also to make us Jealous of our own 
people without sufficient grounds for it. 

A String of Wampum 

It must be further observed to you, that we hear sev- 
eral of the Chiefs and other of our Brethren of the six 
Nations, have Contrary to our Inclinations, and against 
our Express advice had an Interview with the Governor 
of Canada this Summer at Montreal. 

And that your pretence for holding this Correspond- 

168 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

ence with our declared Enemys was for the publick Good, 
and the preservaton of the House at Oswego. 

To tell the Governor of Canada, that they must not 
make any attack or attempt upon that place, for that our 
Brethren are resolved to defend it, and that it should 
remain a place of peace and Trade. 

You declared that your Intent was good, and that 
the Governor of Canada should never prevail upon you 
in any thing hurtfull to your Brethren the English, who, 
you said, You knew did not like your going thither; 
that yet upon your return from thence, your Brother the 
Governor of New York, should know all that passed be- 
tween you and the Governor of Canada. 

We will tell our Brethren what we hear was done, 
whilst they were with the Governor of Canada, and we 
Expect the whole truth from them according to their 
promise, and whether what we hear is true or not. 

We hear that whilst our Brethren were with the Gov- 
ernor of Canada, the French Indians took up the Hatchet 
against the English, which we believe to be true, for rea- 
sons You shall hear by and by, and thereby the Treaty 
of Neutrality concluded between you and them is become 

We hear likewise that our Brethren of the six united 
Nations there present so far prevailed upon by our 
Enemys the french, as to accept of the Hatchet upon 
Condition to carry it home to their Castles to deliberate 
upon, and then to return the Governor of Canada their 
answer ; which we cannot believe to be true, till we have 
it from our Brethrens own Mouth. 

We expect a full and plain Answer from our Brethren 
Concerning these matters, that the way may be cleared 
for wiping of all Stains from the Covenant Chain, and 
that we may preserve it bright firm and Inviolable as 

long as the Sun shall shine. A Belt 


We must now acquaint you of something relating to 
the War, the Success of his Majesty's Arms against the 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 169 

french in this part of the World, and the Rise and occa- 
sion of our Attacks upon the Enemy in this Quarter. 

When you were here Last Summer you were told that 
War was declared between the Crowns of Great Britain 
and france ; the Events that have since happened are too 
numerous to relate particularly. 

His Majesty s Subjects in this Country, lay still the 
last summer without attempting any thing against the 
French Settlements, but the French first Attacked and 
destroyed a Small place belonging to us Called Cansa 
about twenty five Leagues from Cape Breton. 

Afterwards they laid seige to Annapolis Royal; but 
therein they proved Unsuccessfull. 

They then agreed to make another Tryal for that 
place the next Spring, and in the mean time they sent to 
France hoping to Obtain some of the Kings Ships to 
facilitate the Reduction of it. 

They having proceeded thus far M"" Shirley Gover- 
nor of Massachusets bay thought it high time to do 
something to curb the Insolence of that haughty peo- 
ple, and did therefore raise a Small Army which was 
Joined by a Number of Men from the Goverments of 
Connecticutt and new Hampshire, and sent them early 
Last Spring against Louisburg. 

They were likewise Joined by a number of His 
Majesty s Ships of War, and after about seven weeks 
Seige, that Important, and Strong fortifyed place was 
through the Goodness of Divine providence delivered 
up to our Forces. 

Whereupon the Rest of the Inhabitants of the Island 
of Cape Breton, together with those that were Settled in 
parts adjacent surrendered themselves Prisoners to the 

And during the Seige, and since, many French Ships 
were taken and Divers of them of great Value, and the 
design of the French against Annapolis was frustrated. 

We have in this part of the Country Lain stil, both 
the Last Summer and this, hoping that our Neighbours 

170 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

in Canada would either be quiet, or carry on the War 
in a Manly and Christian like manner. 

And to induce them thereto, a Message was sent from 
this place to the Governor of Canada the Last Summer, 
by which he was assured that if he should revive their 
former Vile practice of treating His Majesty's Subjects 
Inhumanly, the Several Governours together with the six 
Nations, would Join and make reprisals on them. 

And at the same time you publickly declared "That if 
any of his Majestys Subjects in any of His Govern- 
ments should be killed by any Indians, You would im- 
mediately Join in the War against them and the French." 

You likewise sent your delegates last summer to the 
Eastern Indians to warn them not to engage in the War 
against the English, threatning them in Case they should 
do so. 

Notwithstanding these things divers hostilities have 
been Committed. 

Some Months ago the Eastern Indians who had for- 
merly Acknowledged their Subjection to the Crown of 
Great Britain Entered into Solemn Engagements with 
the Kings Subjects, and had been since treated by them 
with Great kindness. 

But at the Instigation of the French they have lately 
killed One English man, and also great Numbers of 
Horses and Catle, burnt a Saw MiU and many Dwelling 
Houses, and attacked an English Garrison. 

Notwithstanding such Outrageous Insults the Gov- 
ernor of Massachusets bay was so tender of them, that he 
resented it no further then to send a Message to them 
demanding the delivery of the Murderers as they would 
avoid the Consequences of their Neglect. 

This proposal was rejected by them, and since that 
time they have killed two or three others, whereupon 
the Governor of the Massachusets bay declared War 
against them. 

And We are Informed the English have lately killed 
two of them and taken another prisoner. 

About three Months since some of the Canada In- 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 171 

dians killed two English men near Connecticut River, 
the body of one of them was treated in a most Barberous 
manner, by which they left a Hatchet of War, therby dar- 
ing us to take it up, and Return it. 

There has likewise been several other party's that 
have attempted to destroy his Majestys Subjects of New 
England, but have been hitherto prevented. 

These facts plainly Shew, that the French are still 
acted by the same Spirit, that they were formerly Gov- 
erned by, and they seem never pleased but when they 
are at War, either with the English or some of the Tribes 
of Indians, and if they had it in their power they would 
doubtless destroy all about them. 

It is likewise Evident that the most Solemn and 
Sacred Engagements are broken through by those Indians 
that have Committed the late Murders. 

That Belts of Wampum will not bind them to the 
performance of their promises. 

That We are Slighted and you Condemned, as though 
they thought You not Worthy to be Regarded. 

The Six nations were formerly esteemed powerfuU, 
and your Neighbouring Tribes stood in fear of you. 

But now, the French and their Indians by the Little 
Regard they have to your Threatnings, or to the Cove- 
nants they have rnade with you, do Declare that they 
think you do not Intend to perform what you have 
threatned, or that they do not fear your Displeasure both 
which do reflect equal dishonour upon you. 

It is high time for us and You to exert ourselves, and 
Vindicate our Honour, and although it is well known, 
that we delight not in the Distruction of our Fellow 
Creatures, But have Chosen Rather to Suffer ourselves to 
be abused, yet we Cannot think ourselves obliged any 
longer to bear their Insults and evil Treatment. 

Therefore since nither our peaceable Disposition, nor 
Examples nor any methods we have been able to Use, 
have been Sufficient to prevail upon them to forbear 
their barberous Treatment of us, but they will force 
our Resentments In the Name of God we are resolved 

172 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174^-1747 

not only to Defend ourselves, but by all proper ways and 
methods to endeavour to put it out of their power to mis- 
use & Evil entreat us, as they have heretofore Done. 

And we doubt not of your Ready and ChearfuU Con- 
currence with us agreeable to your Solemn promise made 
in this place last Summer in Joining with us against our 
Enemies the French, and such Indians as are or shall be 
Instigated by them, for we esteem them Enemies to God 
as well as to all there Fellow Creatures, who dwell Round 
about them. 

A Large Belt with a figure of a 

Hatchet hung to it 


The publick Affairs of my Government have pre- 
vented my Meeting you Sooner. 

I was Apprehensive I should not have been able to 
meet you this Fall and it was determined upon on a Sud- 
den so that there could not be timely Notice sent to the 
rest of His Majestys Governments or I doubt not they 
would likewise sent Commissioners to be present at this 

We are all subject to the same prince United in the 
same Bands of Duty, and Allegiance to the Great King 
our Common Father, and in Friendship and Affection to 
Each Other, and in this Union Consists that Strength, 
that makes us formidable to our Enemies, and them fear- 
full of our Resentment. 

We are all United with You in the same Convenant 
Chain, which as Long as We preserve it free from Rust 
must Remain impregnable, and You on Your parts have 
Declared "that You will preserve it so "strong & bright, 
that it shall not be in the power of the Devil himself 
with all his Wiles and Arts to break or dirty it. 

You are also united with all the far Nations of Indians 
in league with our great King, with whom we Recom- 
mend to You to preserve Strict Friendship and hold Fre- 
quent Corrispondence. 

That you yourselves (who many of you live Scattered 

THE GOLDEN PAPER&-1743-1747 173 

and Dispersed) should dwell in bodys closer together as 
you have heretofore promised to do. 

And We advise you to keep your young men at home 
and within call, excepting Such as may be sent from time 
to time a Hunting or against our Enemies, and you may 
Depend upon the Most ready & effectual Assistance from 

us in all times of Danger. A Belt 

Answer of the Six Nations (ex- 
cept the Sennekes who are ab- 
sent) To His Excellency George 
Clinton Esq'" Governour in Chief 
of the province of New York &c^ 
Commissioners and the Colonys of 
the Massachusets Bay and Con- 
necticut at Albany the 12 day of 
October 1745. 
BROTHER CORLAER and Brethren of the Massachu- 
sets Bay Pensylvania and Connecticut. 
Two days agoe Our Brother Corlaer and our Brethren of 
the Massachusets Bay and Connecticut Spake to us And 
now We are come to give Our Answer. You must not 
Expect that We can answer Exactly to the several Heads 
you mentioned to us but only to the principal Articles 
You have Renewed the Old Covenant Chain, And We 
do now Renew the same on our parts It is Impossible 
that it can ever Rust for we daily Wipe off the Dirt and 
keep it Clean which we will ever Continue to do 

A Belt of Wampum 
BRETHREN. You thought of it to mention to us that 
there had been an uproar among us last Winter and told 
us that We ought not to Entertain such Notions of you 
our Brethren Especially as We had no Grounds for any 
such Belief. It is true Brethren such a Rumour was 
among us. But it was immediately Buried and forgot 
And We did not Expect that our Brethren would have 
mentioned any thing Concerning that affair to us at this 
Interview, and We desire you to think no more of it. 
We are always mindfull of the Covenants between us and 

174 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Our Brethren and here is a Certificate [a] to prove that 
we are in Covenant with our Brethren of Boston 

A String of Wampum 
[a] A Certificate dated P* August 1744 delivered by 
Hendrick with The String of Wampum upon this Article 
under the Hand of Governour Shirley and the Seal of 
the province of the Massachusets Bay — Signifying that 
Hendrick Sachem of the Maquas and Kajonmarygoa 
Sachem of the Onondages Deligates from the Eight Na- 
tions accompanied by the Commiss*"® appointed by that 
Government to treat with the Eight Nations Arrived 
at Boston 28 June 1744 had at several Conferrences with 
Governour Council and Assembly confirmed the Treatys 
made with that Government and particularly the last 
Summer at Albany and had proceeded on a Voyage and 
had an Interview with the Eastern Indians and faith- 
fully Acquited themselves in Enjoining them to Main- 
tain peace with the English and Warning them of the 
Consequences of their Violating the same]. 
BROTHER CORLAER and Brethren of the Massachu- 
sets Bay and Connecticut. 

You Spoke to us Concerning Our going to Canada 
this Summer and told us. That the Commissioners of 
Indian affairs had last Winter enjoined us not to go then 
but some of us Went As to what you tell us that We had 
taken a Belt from the Governour of Canada whereby he 
desired us to take up the Hatchet against You our Breth- 
ren And that We promised Him to Consider of it at Home 
It is not so All that passed. These the Mohawks and 
Tuskaroroes have given the Commissioners on Indian 
affairs an Account of at their Return & We are Convinced 
that Account is True. 

A Belt of Wampum. 

You have thought fit to Relate to us Several particu- 
lars Concerning the War between You and the French 
and what Reasons you had for taking up the Hatchet 
against the French and their Indians We thank You for 
giving us a particular Account of the provocation and 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 175 

inducements You had for declaring War Against them 
You also mentioned to us that We are one Body and one 
Flesh and that if one of us is touched or Hurt then the 
other is so likewise and you have informed us that you are 
Molested and Attacked by the Enemy and had therefore 
taken up the Hatchet against them and disired As We 
are one flesh with you that we would also take up the 
Hatchet against the French and those Indians under their 
Influence in Conjunction with you. We the Six Nations 
accept of the Hatchet and will keep it in Our Bosom. 
We are in Alliance with a great Number of far Indians 
and if We should so Suddenly lift up the Hatchet with- 
out acquainting Our Allies with it they would perhaps 
take offence at it We will therefore before we make use 
of the Hatchet against the French or their Indians send 
four of our People (who are now Ready to go) to Canada 
to demand Satisfaction for the Wrongs they have done 
Our Brethren and if they Refuse to make Satisfaction 
then We shall be Ready to use the Hatchet against them 
Whenever Our Brother the Govemour of New York 
Orders us to it. A Belt of Wampum. 

His Excellency Asked them what time they thought 
Necessary to try whether the French Indians would make 

The Indians Answered two Months. 
His Excellency Asked them that if in case the Enemy 
should committ any further Hostility's in the meantime 
whether they would then upon His Excellencys Com- 
mands immediately make use of the Hatchet 

They Answered yes. 
Here the Indians Requested his Excellency that as they 
had given the War Shout upon delivering the Hatchet 
to them that their Brethren would now Signifye their 
Approbation of this Article in their usual method — 
Whereupon his Excellency and most of the Company 
joined in Shouts with Three Huzzas [Excepting the 
Massachusets Commissioners] 

You desired us that we should gather together our 

176 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

People that are Scattered and Settle in a Body Especially 
as it is very uncertain how soon we may have occasion 
for them Your request is very Reasonable and we will 
use our Endeavours for that End. 

A Belt of Wampum 
BRETHREN We have now finished our Answer and 
have nothing further to Say but only one Request to 
make to You all Which is that You Our Brethren should 
be aU united in Your Councils and let this Belt of Wam- 
pum serve to bind You all together. And if any of you 
have any thing of Importance to Communicate to us this 
is the place when it should be done. 

A Belt of Wampum 
[Here a Note of Approbation was given by the Interpre- 
ter by his Excellencys Directions for New York Connec- 
ticut and Pensylvania] 

BRETHREN Trade was the first Occasion of Our En- 
tering into Alliance together and from time to time Goods 
have been Sold dearer to us and We have several times 
desired that the price of Goods should be Lower and 
more Moderate but never could get a Satisfactory An- 
swer And now We take this oppertunity to desire Our 
Brother Corlaer himself and the Commissioners of the 
several provinces to take it into their Consideration that 
Goods may be Sold Cheaper to us for how Shall We do 
now We have taken up the Hatchet We have no Powder 
Ball nor Cloaths People that go to War ought to be well 
provided with Ammunition this is the last time We shall 
Speak upon this Head if We do not succeed now. 

A Belt 
His Excellency Answered them That he would do his 
utmost that Goods should be sold them as Cheap as they 
could be afforded but that the price of Goods depends 
upon the Scarcity or Plenty of them and as it is now 
War Goods are Scarce and Consequently dear and that 
they shall be furnished with powder and Ammunition 
upon Occasion. His Excellencys further Speech to the 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 177 


I have some presents which shall be Ready to de- 
liver you at this place an hour hence. 

Since there is none of our Brethren the Sennekes here 
I doubt not but you will be so just to them in the Distri- 
bution as to set apart and Reserve their Share for them 
and take care it be delivered to them. 
It gives me much pleasure to see so many of Our Breth- 
ren at this meeting And I have taken care hitherto for 
your Refreshment and Hospitable Entertainment I hope 
you have Wanted for Nothing And I doubt not but the 
Commissioners of the other Governments will now do 
their parts towards you till your Return home. I shall 
provide all Necessarys for your Journey from hence to 

I have been detained here several days longer than I 
should have been had not Commiss'' from several other 
Governments attended at this Interview which of course 
will make the presents fall so much Shorter 

I Recommend to you that you take care there is no 
mischief done in your Way home. 

I Recommend it to Our Brethren the Maquas to en- 
quire into Certain Complaints of some Injuries done to 
Farmers living at Canajoharie and to see that Justice 
be done and no Mischief Committed for the future. 

Cadwallader C olden to John Armit 

COLDENGHAM Nov'" 4*'' 1745 

M"" Armit 

I have yours of the 22*^ of last month with the assign- 
ment of the Mortgage enclosed, but I can hear of none 
going from this to Phila'^ Please to write to me whether 
my executing it before other Witnesses will do My hand 
is so well known in Phila''' & your evidence from my let- 
ters seem to me to make that nicety not very necessary 

178 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174S-1747 

If any witnesses offer before I hear from you I shall make 
use of them & afterwards do as you shall advise As the 
consideration mentioned in the assignment is only for the 
Principal I suppose you'l take care to receive the Interest 
due I wrote to you by M"" Lewis Evans in which I told 
you that the high price of Bills was unexpected to me but 
if it cannot be helped by delaying to the Spring that is 
that you have some assurance of the rate of Excha falling 
that you purchase a bill as soon as you are in Cash suffi- 
cient for it & make it payable to M'' Alexander Couts 
Merchant in London & Please to send one Bill to M'' 
Couts with a letter signifying to him that by my direc- 
tions you had sent that bill to him & that it is in full of 
a Legacy of £ 200 Pensilvania money left to my B"" M*" 
James Golden Minister at Whitsome near Berwick in 
Scotland by my Aunt Elizabeth Hill late of Philad** 
Please at the same time form an account of the Excha 
& charges to show that it amounts to that sum And 
please to send me a copy of what you write & one of 
the bills that I may as soon as possible write to M"" 
Couts & send the Copy Desire M'' Couts to inform me 
by directing to New York or you at Philadelphia or both 
of us of the receipt of the Bill of its acceptance & pay- 

November y" 26'** 1745 

From John Bartram 
Dear esteemed Friend 

two days ago I received thy agreeable letter of November 
ye yth ^j^jj ye gg^^ ^^ ye ^rbor Vita which seemed to be 
very good it was A fine parcel & very acceptable I sowed 
it carefully yesterday I am obliged to thee for endeavour- 
ing to procure more for my correspondents but I dont 
know yet whether thay want any of it; thay have not 
wrote to mee for it; but I believe if my affairs falls out 
prety well next year, I must go to y® Katts kill Moun- 
tains. I desighn to lett thee know before I set out. thy 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 179 

accounts of y^ mineral springs in your countrey is very 
acceptable. I am allways glad to meet with any materialls 
to enlarg my knowledg withall, pray which side of Hud- 
sons river is y® purgative spring. I never heard before 
that there was A bituminous spring at Onondaga but in 
y^ Senecas Country, but am well informed there is one at 
Alegany: doth thee believe it is realy brimstone that y* 
spring up y® mohawks river lets fall, if so it must be of 
great virtue 

in y® same ridge with your highlands in Pensilvania & 
Virginia is great quantities of iron oar & often mixt with 
copper Sometimes Vitriol & Sometimes Sulpher. that 
mixed wth copper or Sulpher Some people thinks will 
make very good pots it runs easy. Some Says thay 
will be too brittle I have been lately at A Copper mine 
mixed with iron ye earth or stones there about yealded 
fine Coperas & y® water proceeding therefrom would turn 
Iron into copper as y® owner afiBrmed to mee who Shewed 
me his knife handle that seemed to be good Copper, which 
he said had been Iron, y® water is so corrosive as to Corode 
y® Iron that is put into it which being put into fusion 
by fire is transmuted into copper y® mineral stones ex- 
posed to y*' air falls to powder like slaked lime 
I received A letter & A booke from Dr. Gronovius directed 
to thee & A letter from thy brother which I forwarded 
y® same day I received them : which I hope is before now 
come safe to thy hand, there was in Jersey A well dug 
about 14 foot deep in A stifi" marly clay which supply y*" 
house with water for 40 years but these two dry falls it 
failed, this fall y^ owner had y*' wall taken up & dug 14 
foot deeper (through A black stinking sulphurous earth: 
interspersed with lumps of hard shining sulphur) but 
found no water, then he bored 12 foot deeper still found 
no water then left off : its pitty but he had dug or bored 
10 feet deeper to try what difference he might have 
found ; 

I have sent thee some of Gronovius observations on some 
things that I sent him: if thee thinks it is worth while 
keeping y^ original, I wish thee would be so kind as to 

180 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174^-1747 

coppy it over in English which I can better understand 
& send it me by y" first opportunity — & I will try if Lewia 
Evans who is under obligations to thee will coppy over 
Dr. Mitchells history or treaties of y® pines in Virginia 
which he left with me; but since hath sent for them if 
Lewis will coppy it I or hee shall send it to thee: I have 
not yet received y® parcel from Gronovius I suppose 
it is coming in y"" next ship which I hope will not be long 
if y® french dont intercept 

If I can do thee any further service thee art fully entitled 
to it & needs onely to let me know wherein I can serve 
thee which will exceedingly pleas thy Sincear friend who 
wisheth thee & thine prosperity & content 
[indoreed] John Bartram 


Dr. Cadwallader Golden 


B. Frankun 

From Benjamin Franklin 

Philad^ Nov. 28, 1745 

I shall be very willing and ready, when you think 
proper to publish your Piece on Gravitation, &c., to print 
it at my own Expence and Risque. If I can be a means 
of Communicating anything valuable to the world, I do 
not always think of Gaining, nor even of Saving by my 
Business; But a Piece of that kind, as it must excite the 
Curiosity of all the Learned, can hardly fail of bearing 
its own Expence 

I must not pretend to dispute with you on any Part of 
the animal Oeconomy: You are quite too Strong for me. 
I shall just mention two or three little Things that I am 
not quite clear in. — If there is no Contrivance in the 
Frame of the Auricles or Ventricles of the Heart, by which 
they dilate themselves, I cannot conceive how they are 
dilated. It is Said, By the Force of the Venal Blood rush- 
ing into them. But if that Blood has no Force which was 
not first given it by the Contraction of the Heart, how can 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 181 

it (diminish'd as it must be by the Resisting Friction of 
the Vessels it has pass'd thro') be Strong enought to over- 
come that Contraction? Your Doctrine of Fermentation 
in the Capillaries helps me a little; for if the returning 
Blood be rarified by the Fermentation, its Motion must 
be encreas'd: but as it Seems to me, that it must by its 
Expansion resist the Arterial Blood behind it, as much 
as it accelerates the Venal Blood before it, I am still some- 
what unsatisfied. I have heard or read Somewhere too, 
that the Hearts of Some Animals continue to contract 
and dilate, or to beat, as 'tis commonly express'd after 
they are separated from the other Vessels and taken out 
of the Body. If this be true, their Dilatation is not caus'd 
by the Force of the returning Blood. 

I should be glad to satisfy myself too, whether the 
Blood is always quicker in Motion when the Pulse beats 
quicker. Perhaps more Blood is driven forward by one 
Strong deep Stroke, than by two that are weak and light: 
As a Man may breathe the more Air by one long common 
Respiration when in Health, than by two quick short 
ones in a Fever, 

I apply'd the Syphon I mention'd to you in a former 
Letter to the Pipe of a Water Engine. E is the Engine; 
A its Pipe b b b the 
Syphon; c & d the 
two glass Pipes 
commu nicating 
with the Syphon. 
Upon working the 
Engine, the Water 
flow'd thro' the Sy- 
phon, and the Glass 
Tube c; but none 

was discharg'd thro' d. When I stop'd with my Finger 
the End of the Syphon ; the Water issu'd at both Glass 
Tubes with equal Force; and on only half Stopping the 
End of the Syphon it did the Same. I imagined the Sud- 
den Bending of the Syphon gives such a Resistance to 
the Stream, as to occasion its Issuing out of the Glass 

182 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Tube c: But I intend to try a farther Experiment, of 
which I shall give you an Account. 

I am now determin'd to publish an American Philo- 
sophical Miscellany, Monthly or Quarterly. I shall begin 
with next January, and proceed as I find Encouragement 
and Assistance. As I purpose to take the Compiling 
wholly upon my self, the Reputation of no Gentleman or 
Society will be affected by what I insert of anothers; and 
that perhaps will make them more free to communicate. 
Their Names shall be publish'd or conceal'd as they think 
proper ; and Care taken to do exact Justice in Matters of 
Invention, &c. I shall be glad of your Advice in any 
Particulars that occur'd to you in thinking of this 
Scheme; for as you first propos'd it to me, I doubt not 
but you have well consider'd it. 

I have not the Original of D"" Mitchel's Tract on the 
Yellow Fever. Mine is a Copy I had taken with his 
Leave when here. M"" Evans will make a Copy of it 
for you. 

I hope it will be confirmed by future Experiments 
that the Yaws are to be cured by Tar Water. The Case 
you relate to D*" Mitchel gives great Hopes of it, and 
should be publish'd to induce People to make Trials: for 
tho' it should not always Succeed, I suppose there is no 
Danger of its doing any Harm. 

As to your Pieces on Fluxions and the different Spe- 
cies of Matter, it is not owing to Reservedness that I 
have not yet Sent you my Thoughts ; but because I can- 
not please my Self with them, having had no Leisure 
yet to digest them. If I was clear that you are anywhere 
mistaken, I would tell you So, and give my Reasons, with 
all Freedom, as believing nothing I could do would be 
more obliging to you. I am persuaded you think as I do, 
that he who removes a Prejudice or an Error from 
our Minds, contributes to their Beauty, as he would do 
to that of our Faces, who should clear them of a Wart or 
a Wen. 

I have A Friend gone to New York with View of 
Settling there if he can meet with Encouragement. It is 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 183 

D"" Jn.° Bard, whom I esteem an ingenious Physician and 
Surgeon, and a discreet, worthy and honest Man. If upon 
Conversation with him, you find this Character just, I 
doubt not but you will afford him your Advice and Coun- 
tenance, which will be of great Service to him in a Place 
where he is entirely a Stranger, and very much oblige, 

Your most hum' Serv'^ 

B. Franklin 
I shall forward your 
Letter to D"" Mitchel. 
thank you for Leaving it open 
for my Perusal , . ;' 

Memoranda in the handwriting of Cadwallader Golden 

The Assembly's neglecting the care of ye frontiers 
order'd building batteries disposed of the publick powder 
&c. Min. of Council May 14, 1745. 

Advice by Committee July 29, 1745. 

By the min. of Council Sepf 3 1745 a Treaty of New- 
trality seems to have been concluded w* y^ French In- 
dians. The supream Court adjourn'd the 12th of Sepf 
that 2 of y*" Judges might attend his Excy to Albany. 

IP*" of Dec'" 1745 His Excelly Communicated a letter 
from Counseller Colden dated the 7th instant to his Ex- 
celly containing several recommendations for the service 
of the Province together with some information concern- 
ing the Intention of the Ennemy 

The Com''^ for Indian affairs decline to send his Ex- 
celFs message to the six nations to induce them to make 
war on y*" French Dec*" 24 1745 

1745 Jan'" 15 a letter from c c dated Dec'" 16 represent- 
ing several matters for y'' security of the province 

Ocf 22 1746 Report of y^ Comittee relating to provi- 
sions refus'd by Com'"^ at Albany &c & recommitted. 

Advice upon y^ Exp" being laid aside Aug 22 & Aug 28 

Instructions to Com'"^ y^ last paragr. of them 

184 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

The command of y^ Militia & Batteries &c Sepf 29 
Oct'- 1^' 1746 

Min. of Council June 17^^ 1746 The Assembly desir'd 
the Council to appoint a Committee a join a committee 
of their house for to consider the means for execution 
of that part which this Colony is to take in the intended 
Expedition ag* Canada To which the Council agreed A; 
apointed Mr Horsmanden & four others to meat next 
day & with liberty to adjourn from time to time 

July 12 1746 The Gov"" refused to join in the address 
to his Majesty from Council & assemb^ because the as- 
sembly had return'd no answer to his message of the 8th 

The 4^^ of Dec'' a misrepresentation of what passed 

Dec'- 6th 

Whereas M"- Colden is put as present before the ad- 
journment to his Excellency's residence M'- Colden was 
not present till they met at his Excellency's residence. 

From Benjamin Franklin 


I receiv'd yours with others enclos'd for M'" Bertram 
& M"- Armit, to which I suppose the enclos'd are An- 
swers. The Person who brought yours said he would 
call for Answers, but did not ; or if he did, I did not see 

I understand Parker has begun upon your Piece. A 
long Sitting of our Assembly has hitherto hinder'd me 
from beginning the Miscellany. I shall write to D*" 
Gronovius as you desire. 

I wish I had Mathematics enough to satisfy my self, 
Whether the much Shorter Voyages made by Ships bound 
hence to England, than by those from England hither, 
are not in some Degree owing to the Diurnal Motion of 
the Earth; and if so, in what Degree? 'Tis a Notion 
that has lately entred my Mind ; I know not if ever any 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174^-1747 185 

other's. — Ships in a Cahn at the Equator move with 
the Sea 15 Miles ^ minute; at our Capes suppose 12 
Miles ^ Minute; in the British Channel suppose 10 
Miles ^ Minute: There is a Difference of 2 Miles Ve- 
locity ^ Minute between Cape Hinlopen & the Lizard! 
no small Matter in so weighty a Body as a laden Ship 
swimming in a Fluid! How is this Velocity lost in the 
Voyage thither, if not by the Resistance of the Water? 
and if so, then the Water, which resisted in part, must 
have given way in part to the Ship, from time to time 
as she proceeded continually out of Parallels of Latitude 
where the Earths Motion or Rotation was quicker into 
others where it was slower. And thus as her Velocity 
tends eastward with the Earth's Motion, She perhaps 
makes her Easting sooner. — Suppose a Vessel lying still 
in a Calm at our Cape, could be taken up and the Same 
Instant set down in an equal Calm in the English Chan- 
nel, would not the Difference of Velocity between her 
and the Sea she was plac'd in, appear plainly by a violent 
Motion of the Ship thro' the Water eastward? I have 
not Time to explain my self farther, the Post waiting, 
but believe have said enough for you to comprehend my 
Meaning. If the Reasons hinted at should encline you 
to think there is any Thing in this Notion, I should be 
glad of an Answer to this Question, (if it be capable of 
a precise Answer) viz 

Suppose a Ship sails on a N. East Line from Lat. 39 
to Lat 52 in 30 days, how long will she be returning on 
the Same Line, Winds, Currents, &c being equal? 

Just so much as the East Motion of the Earth helps 
her Easting, I suppose it will hinder her Westing. 

Perhaps the Weight and Dimensions or Shape of the 
Vessel should be taken into the Consideration, as the 
Water resists Bodies of different Shapes differently. 

I must beg you to excuse the incorrectness of the 
Scrawl as I have not time to transcribe. 

I am Sir 
Your most humb^^ Serv* 

B. Franklin. 

186 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Written on the back of the above letter, in Colden's 
handwriting is the following: 

There is no Question but in the case you mention of 
a ships being taken up in a Southern latitude & let down 
in one some degrees more northerly the same moment 
she would have a degree of Motion Eastward but that it 
would shorten a Voyage from America to Europe I can- 
not think because as the alteration is made by insensibly 
small steps it can only be so much as an aleration of the 
Velocity in the least conceivable part of a degree of Lati- 
tude is greater than the resistance of the Water which in 
all cases remains the same & equally resists the smallest 
alteration of Velocity as the greatest Suppose for ex- 
ample in the Alteration of one second of latitude how 
much greater will the Velocity be in the Southward than 
northward If it be 60 miles at the Equator what will it 
be at 1 second on either side of the Equator The Differ- 
ence is the force which the ship can acquire from the 
diurnal rotation of the earth in this second Now it may 
be asked whether this Difference will be sufl&cient to over- 
come the resistance of the Water in any degree whatso- 
ever that is whether it be not infinitely small in respect 
to the resistance of the body of Water which resists the 
motion of a ship & if so it can neither add to nor dimin- 
ish the ships way in the time she alters her latitude one 
second & if this be the case it cannot either forward or 
stop her way in a greater change of latitude because it is 
done by a continual addition of these seconds or rather 
of less than thirds or of any imaginable quantity so that 
according to my way of computation to answer to your 
question the difference of time in the going & return 
will be = 

The shorter Voyages to Europe without doubt are 
chiefly owing to the more frequent westerly winds but 
this does not account for the reason why in going to 
Europe a ship is generally a head of the reckoning or 
you meet with the land sooner than by the computation 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 187 

of the ships way if it be well kept whereas in coming to 
America the reckoning is generally a head of the ship 
The true reason I think is from the Tides The High 
Water every day is nearly three quarters of any hour 
more easterly on the globe than the day before or follow- 
ing the course of the moon advances daily about twelve 
degrees eastward & therefor they every day in sailing 
Westerly meet with the contrary current of the Water 
sooner than they do in sailing easterly as in a river in 
going down the river you meet the flood sooner than you 
do the ebb in going up the river where the flood & ebb 
are nearly equal for the difference of the force & length 
of the ebb more than the flood in rivers from the force of 
the accumulated fresh water cannot take place at sea 
If you think proper to give this in your Miscellany as the 
reason of the shorter voyages from America to Europe 
than from Europe to America other things being alike 
I'l undertake to support it against any objection. There 
are some mistakes that I would be so far from being 
ashamed of them after I knew them to be such that I 
would be vain of them because none but those of a lively 
& quick & piercing Imagination can fall into them a 
Blockhead is uncapable of making such mistakes. There 
is even a pleasure in telling it after the mistake is dis- 
cover'd & the person to whom it is told values the inge- 
nuity which occasion'd the mistake & on reflection is con- 
scious to himself that he would have valued himself for 
that very thought. There is a use likewise in mention- 
ing these mistakes to others to guard them against these 
conceptions which please & flatter the imagination most 
Suppose the difference between the lands end & the 
coast of America to be 72 degr. of longitude (I choose 
this number to avoid fractions) then the same high 
Water on the coast of America will happen six hours 
later at the lands end & therefor a ship will meet with 
one whole tide of flood against her there which would be 
an ebb on her favor on the east of America & supposing 
her voyage perform'd in 30 days every day equally ap- 
proaching to America she would every day have that tide 

188 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174^-1747 

lessen'd 1/30 of the time as she approaches I once had 
thoughts to calculate an Equation to rectify a ships 
easting & westing but upon reflecting that a general 
equation cannot serve for every ship but must be different 
for every ship according to the several molds by which 
the ship is built & her being loaded or in ballast I believe 
it will be of little use for according to the different molds 
of a ship & her being deep or light tides have greater or 
less force on her way The heavy dull ships must make 
much larger allowances than the best saylors & accord- 
ingly we generally find these heavy saylors most out in 
their reckoning. 

From John Armit 

Philad. y^ 4*^ 11 mo 1745/6 
Esteemed Friend 

By thine of 30*^ of 10 mo past I understand the deed 
is sent down to Richard NichoUs but as yet have heard 
nothing of it from him, As to the News you have of the 
Disturbance in Scotland I believe it is too true and doubt 
not but Confusion and ruin to abundance will be the 
issue thereof and am of thy Opinion it may not be so 
prudent to Send the Bills at this time, I have upwards of 
Eighty pounds of Jersey bills by me and if should receive 
the Mony for the abovesaid deed please to Inform me 
what I shall do therewith I am glad to hear you are all 
well as we are at present and conclude with due respects 
thy assured friend 

John Armitt 
Bills are at 85 ^ C here 

Cadwalladee Golden 
to the care 


in New York. 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 189 

From John Bartram 

ye iQth of y« ir*^ month 1744/5 
Esteemed Friend 

I have lately received thy kind letter of I dont know 
when it being without date I am obliged to thee for y® 
bush squash seed. & am glad to hear of thy correspond- 
ence with Gronovius & Linneus. I expect dayly to re- 
ceive letters from Gronovius by A ship or two from Lon- 
don but it is so long Since thay left that port that I am 
under uneasy apprehention for them: I am obliged to 
thee for thy information of y^ virtues of y'^ Uva ursi I 
am afraid thay have not made sufficient experiments of 
it yet — I have seen y® berries as large as cherries & when 
verry rip near y^ color of claret tho thay continue green 
till late in y^ fall. I have eat of them on our mountains; 
our Indian interpreter tould me that he had lived of 
them several days & reconed them wholsome some of 
our people saith thay are poisonous & others that y 
berries is very good to moderate A burning fevour; I 
cannot find that y** CoUinnsonia groweth in Maryland 
or Virginia on y® south of y" mountains or else Clayton or 
Mitchel would have found it; when y^ latter was at my 
house last fall he tooke seed & specimens from mee. he 
had never seen it before that Journey to Philadelphia; 
indeed Miller in his second part of his Gardeners dic- 
tionary saith it came from Maryland which is y® place 
of its natural growth ; but this is a shamefull error for I 
sent y^ seed of it first to Peter CoUinson with y® first seeds 
I sent to him; & when it growed & seeded with him it 
was observed to be A new Genus & in honnour to its 
first propagator in Europ thay called it CoUinnsonia; & 
if I had not sent it out of Pensilvania I suppose Miller 
would not have known that there had been such A plant 
upon y® earth 

Sir Hans sloan hath sent me this fall all Petivers works 
Hermans Parradisus Battavus. Sellii Historia Naturalis 

190 THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 

teredinis. Etmulerius on all diseases & y® natural his- 
tory of Ireland which is prety amusements for this win- 

y® 25**" of January 
I have sent thee some of y® stones of y^ best Plumbs in 
England as our friend Peter informs me thay are y^ 
Orleans and Green Gage & apricots one nutmeg peach 
stone. I have Just received them, pray plant them as soon 
as possible if thay was soaked in bran & water A week 
it may accelerate thair vigetation — I am apt to believe 
thay would prosper finely in your countrey — have you 
any of y® little bitter gourd like Colocynthus I have some 
if thee wants I can send thee some seed doth any of y^ 
Laururus grow near thy house it is A wonderful specifick 
for y*" cure of sore brests 

I have some thought of comeing into your parts & to y® 
katts kill mountains next august & should be glad of thy 
company there If it would suite with thy interest or 
satisfaction but Alas we dont know what disapointments 
we may meet with before that time. However in y® 
mean time if I can do thee any service pray let me know 
wherein which will much oblige thy Sincear friend 

John Bartram 


For Doctor Cadwallader Golden 

B Fbankun 

From James Alexander 

New York Janry 20'^^ 1745/6 

Yesternight I received yours of the 12*^ your Letter 
which you mention of the 3P* Dec"" to have Sent by one 
Wilson has not come to hand & probably he has Carried 
it with him to Philadelphia so that I have not Seen the 
postcript which you mention is to be added to the End 
of the first Chapter, & things Lye just as they were for 
want of that your Letter, I Submitt it to you whether you 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 191 

Should not take that my Letter to which that was an 
answer & answer it de novo, for its uncertain whether 
your Letter of 3P* will ever come to hand 

Our Assembly Sits now at Greenwich Phillip Liv- 
ingston attends it & designs to Stay on purpose while it 
Sits, he is in hopes you'll also be here & supposes you 
had a Summons at the Same time when he had 

The jersey assembly was Dissolved, & wrnts for a 
new one I hear are returnable the End of this month, its 
supposed that most of the Same men will be returned, & 
Gov'" Morris must much alter his Conduct (I think) if 
he makes any thing of them 

I am glad to hear your family is in health mine are 
all so I thank God for it — the town is also very healthy 
except as to the small pox, which I am afraid will hang 
about it this year to come & that for not inoculateing, 
which some of the Doctors & many of the people are 
averse to, its Said there have five dyed already of inocu- 
lation, & that about 100 have been inoculated, those who 
favor inoculation Say that 4 of these five did not die of 
the inoculation but by other causes, & particularly that 
on two of them the small pox came out, the third day 
after the inoculation, of the Confluent kind, 30 that the 
infection must have been taken before — other two had 
a Distinct kind, finely come out but by carelessness catcht 
Cold, which Struck them in again so that of the 100 
theres but one, that can justly be said to have died by the 
inoculation & most of those who have inoculated have 
had them Extremely favourable few needing to keep 
their beds — Peter Livingston inoculated his two children, 
& they had scarcely thirty between them, and are well & 
abroad again 

There's a rumour here that the English forces are 
arrived at Cape Breton, I hope it may prove true — I am 

D^ Sir 
[Indorsed] Your most humble Servt 

Cadwallader Golden Esqr '^^' ALEXANDER. 


192 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

From John Rutherjurd 

As This place grows duller every day & my head at 
present wholly taken up with the Dismal Consequences 
of the Rebellion in Scotland you can expect but litle 
intertainment in A letter from me, besides I'm quite 
tired of this inactive life in which His Majesty's few 
Forces here are in A Situation where they can be of so 
little Service We haveing no Forts capable of any de- 
fence worth Speaking of & little prospect now Consider- 
ing how things are Circumstanced at home of takeing 
the field against Canada, Yet I can't help haveing Still 
some trust in New England from whence they have now 
Sent for Lidius upon express business. We Ofiicers live 
all together in the Fort in the merryest and most agree- 
able manner you can imagine considering what I've Said 
above altho we are very Idle for The care of The Fron- 
tiers & orders to observe The Motions of The Enemy is 
give to Coir Schuyler so 'tis now The affair of The Militia 
He haveing now The Same orders from Governour Clin- 
toun that I had, when last here, from Governour Clark, 
Had I had the same orders now and The Militia orders 
as then to follow me I could easily have come up with 
the French after their plundering Saraghtoga before they 
got two days from The Carrying place for they & espe- 
cially their Indians drunk hard & travelled very slowly 
with their Loads of Plunder & Prisoners. I could divert 
you with the odd management of things here our Out 
Schouts Indians &c. but the most ridiculous thing is 
building A Fort upon the Burnt ruins of The Old One 
which they suffered to rot thro want of repairs before 
ever they half finished it & it stands in the midle of Low 
Lands where it can be of no use towards Covering the 
Country, nor do they pretend they design to make any 
use of it after this Spring, so by the time they have fin- 
ished the Job of building it 'twill be time to begin build- 
ing one in a properer place, The Indians makes a great 
Joke of this Fort & tells them 'twiU be as small a hin- 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 193 

drance to The French comeing to Albany as 'tis to their 
comeing to The Mohack River. We hear of nothing done 
as yet at New York either for the Security of The Prov- 
ince or annoying our Enemys, talking however of great 
things, Lines of Forts & nameing Commissioners with 
great powers to treat with the neibouring Provinces, I 
wish 'twere done. The last letter I had from you Doctor 
Colhoun brought me from New York when the Companyg 
came up & can't help being vexed to think of my letter 
to you about our Indians treaty &c., for I'm Certain it 
must have been opened & if 'tis carryed to some people 
they'l never forgive me. I'l leave t'other side for Doctor 
Colhoun to try if he can fall upon something intertaining 
to you & so conclude with my best respects to Mrs. Col- 
den & all your Good Family being with great esteem 

Your most obed^ & very humble 

John Rutherfurd 
Albany 25^'* Jany 1745/6 

From Alexander Colhoun 

As Cap* Rutherfurd has in the two proceeding pages 
given you an Ace" of the most remarkable occurrences 
from our Indian Gazette &c I can only inform you of a 
disappointment happened to me on my leaving of N. 
York the Gov"" gave me a Verbal order to Co" Schuyler 
& the Mayor to provide such a Warm, & convenient 
house for an Hospital, as I should approve of, when he 
would order every thing necessary for said Hospitall. 
On my application to them seemed convinced of the 
necessity of it, & made many promises from time to time 
which they have at this hour not comply ed with. 

The market houses were fitted up for our men to free 
the burghers from having them billeted in their houses 
but are so very insufficient & cold, the men so crowded 

194 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

together that the Sick will probably perish (in spite of 
Art) for want of warm lodging &c, the Burghers refusing 
to take them into their houses. This is encouragement 
to serve the people, a Race of Men void of gratitude & 
humanity &c but better known to you than I can describe 
them. Cap* Rutherfurd & I are much together, tho no 
time for Study, on ace" of the numerous familly in this 
small house hope we may move in the Spring, if with any 
prospect of Success towardes Canada otherwise to my 
Station at N. York, if so, If possible 

I shall endeavour to pay you a Visit meantime 
pray make my complim*^ to M""^ Colden & Familly & am 
with great regard 

Your most obedient 

& most humble Serv^ 

Alex"" Colhoun 
Albany Jan^^ 25, 1745/6 

From James Alexander 

New York Jan'"^ 30 1745/6 

Yours of Dec'" 3P* came to hand with the postscript 
the Latter end of last week when I imediatly Send to 
Parker for the Coppy of your papers which I wrote to 
you I had given him before & acquainted him with what 
you wrote as to Size &c 

on Sunday I perused the first Chapter & made the 
enclosed notes in peruseing, (S*"on Monday Sent Parker 
the first Chapter to proceed in Setting it — he had begun 
the Elizabeth town bell & done one Sheet, whereof the 
proof when Sent me was So correct that I found only 
one Comma, (which was put at the End instead of the 
beginning of a word) to alter 

our Supream Court Ended on Tuesday last & the Ship 
London is Sailed today for Ireland which hindered my 
writting to you till now 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 195 

M"" Nichols spoke to me lately about the Globe at 
Newburgh, I promised the first Spare moment to think 
of it, which I have done today & have drawn my opinion, 
which I intend to send him with this tomorrow morning, 
I think the facts in the State of the Case found by an 
inquisition upon a Mandamus or Commission out of 
Chancery will vest the Crown with the Lands & Enable 
the makeing a new Grant, & I have pointed out the ma- 
terial facts for that purpose that should be found — viz 
death of trustees & no new Election in Life of Survivor 
by which the Corporation was Dissolved I have just 
now received yours of the 21^*^ I am Sorry to hear of the 
want of regard to Disapline in your parts, its a threaten- 
ing prospect & yet it falls Short of the Disregard in 
jersey where all Law is Disposed as I doubt not you have 
heard by the two Newark riots 

I have not opened the Quadrant as yet & doubt if 
I can get time till my return from jersey in Aprile next, 
& if you were down the next Spring I should be glad of 
your help in the Setting it up, for which Several sheets 
of Directions came with the quadrant, from those who 
had observed with it & Certified the goodness of it 

The facilitating the method of forming Equations of 
the two Luminaries & planets will be of vast use & I 
am glad you are Set about it — I believe that Flamsteads 
historia Celestis will be of great use to you in that which 
I have & Cost me £9 Sterling, & if you desire it I will 
Send it to you by the first Sloops 

If you can show from what natural principle the 
Degree of motion which the planets have is impressed & 
is always changeing, I believe it's absolutely new and 
your own Discovery, & I think must tend much to the 
perfection of Astronomy 

I must own that many things do & may Exist whereof 
their form or modus of operation, we cannot form a just 
idea of But yet, because your first papers to my think- 
ing gave So intelligable an idea of the modus of the oper- 
ation of the other, to cause all the Phenomena, attributed 
to attraction, its with reluctancy that I am induced to 

196 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174S-1747 

believe that first idea not just by your Leaving it out — 
And yet (if I think it so faulty as not to rely on it) I 
think it might be preserved at Least as an answer to the 
Objection that you must Suppose some virtue Emitted 
by the resisting matter 

I Say that in answer to that objection this would 
show one way how it were possible for the Resisting 
matter to be the cause of an Effect at a Distance from 
it without Emitting any virtue, not that you Say you are 
of opinion that thats the way of the agency of the resist- 
ing matter — I Submitt it to you whether it should not 
be preserved at least for that use 

When Parker Sends me the proof of the first Sheet 
I shall order 300 Coppies as you desire 

I have not forwarded your Letter to M'' Franklin, 
shall I Do it? as you don't send him your papers to print 
— I am 

D^ Sir 
[Indorsed] Your most humble Servt 

Cadwalladee Golden Esq"" J A. ALEXANDER 

att Goldingham 

From James Alexander 

New York Feb 23d 1745/6 
D^ Sir 

About 3 days agoe I had yours of 7^^ & 8*"^ instant — 
as to haveing any number of your Theory printed on 
fine paper, the Direction is come too late as Several 
Sheets were printed before I had your Letter — I shall 
Send to Parker tomorrow morning for one coppy of 
whats printed & enclose it to you — I hope he will finish 
the whole before the third Tuesday of March when I go 
to Amboy, & were it not for the assembly votes I believe 
he would finish it Sooner, — if he cannot finish it before 
that time, I should be glad that by your next you'll Say 
whether he Shall Stop for 3 weeks till I return, or whether 
youll trust to Parkers own Examination, or any others 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1745-1747 197 

Flamsteds Historia Coelestis will give you observa- 
tions of Sun moon & Stars almost Dayly Continued from 
1668 to 1720, its by the help of these that Sir Isaac New- 
ton Examined his Theory of them & by these Flamsted 
Shows some Errors to be Corrected in his own tables, J 
think a Considerable one in the places of the aphelion & 
perihelion, these will be of infinitely more use to you in 
Seeing if your theory agrees with fact & observation than 
any Observations that can be made here 

As to Flamstead's talks joined with his Doctrine of 
the Sphere they were printed in 1680 & whether there 
has been any new Edition of them I have not heard 

I Do not remember to have heard it Stated before that 
the axis of the Earth is not always parallell to it Self — 
Some Such thing I have heard as to the moon I believe 
& that what was called its rotations were owing to that 
but I think I have mett with it Since that those rotations 
are accounted for by its North & South Latitude in re- 
spect to the Ecliptick which Shows us Different parts of 
the moon, <fe also by its excentricity in its orbit keeping 
StiU its axis always parallell to it Self 

If I remember right Bradleys instrument was a Sector 
with a very small arch made chiefly for observing a Sin- 
gle Star that past thro his Zenith & in order to find the 
parallax of the fixed Stars, the Sector was made by M'" 
Graham with Such Exquisite nicety as to observe to a 
Second, & while the Earth was tending to the Southern 
tropick had fixed the Sector So as that Star should appear 
in it every night as it past the Zenith, but instead of any 
motion appearing northward, which (if any parallax had 
been) it would have had, he perceived a motion South- 
ward to the great Surprise of himself & all whom he called 
to See this with their own Eyes — Now the meridians 
could have no Effect I think at the Zenith to cause that 
Star to appear more or Less Southward — and this motion 
at the pole of the Ecliptick is about 44'' in all, & its less 
in other Stars according to their distance from that pole, 
& it seems the observation of the Stars according to his 
Theory agrees with all observations, & by the book called 

198 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

the degree of the meridian which I lent you, if you ob- 
served it its now as much a thing used to be added or 
Subtracted as refraction or parallax — ^how you account 
for it that the meridians Should differ so much as 5 or 6 
minutes I am utterly at a Loss to See — I can plainly See 
that the Suns & much more the moons greatest altitudes 
are not upon the Meridian Exactly Except at their Sol- 
stices, because of their continual Motion at other times 
to the Northward or Southward & Consequently at other 
times their greatest altitudes while going Northward will 
be after they pass the meridian & while going Southward 
before they reach it, but what the quantity of the Differ- 
ence is I know not but believe it very small, So Small 
as not to be worth notice because I never mett with it 
taken notice of in any observations that I remember, — 
and Suppose the point of greatest altitude were 5' of 
degrees west or East of the meridian that would be but 
20" of time, & the Difference of Declination in 20" of 
time, I believe is much Less than 1" & so not worth 
notice — But this Consideration I think shows that a me- 
ridian Line formed by Equal altitudes of Sun or moon & 
after they come to the meridian Except at their Solstices 
is Lyable to Error 

I have found it Difficult to Direct myself of the Com- 
mon manner of thinking that action must be accom- 
panied with motion, & begin to see its an Error — I don't 
know that that Difficulty has arisen from any improper 
Expressions used by you, nor that any words of yours 
imply an Emanation of virtue otherwise than the Diffi- 
culty of receiving a thing to act at a Distance from it 
Self without Something moveing from it to that Distance. 
You See by what I Send you that Parker has done with 
the postscript So nothing can be added to it but if he 
had not, I Do assure you I should have not adventured 
to add anything to it, unless you had given me the Exact 
words for I own I am not master of the thing as yet 
but have faith that the thing is right, & I am everyday 
more & more reconciled to it — the Consequences that 
two bodies of resisting matter placed at any Distance 

THE GOLDEN PAPER&-1743-1747 199 

from one another in the ether would there remain at 
rest, were there no other matter besides the Elastick & 
resisting, I Say the consequences of that at first Startled 
me for if So then one pound in one Scale will equipon- 
derate 1000 in the other Scale tho the beam hang by the 
midle, which at first Sight Seems odd, but its plain if 
neither have motion they must remain at rest & So Equi- 

I Shall be Extremely glad to See your Equation table 
of the Earths motion & shall trye it with Flamsteds Ob- 
servations which are infinitely more to be Depended on 
than any I ever took or I believe will take because he 
had Exquisite Instruments made under his own Eye & 
by his Direction & had a 52 years Experience as Kings 
Astronomer besides what Experience he had acquired 
before he was found the most fitt person to be preferred 
to that office 

I have not the Least knowledge or notion of any 
Second cause used by the Almighty to give the progres- 
sive motion or projectile force to bodies of resisting mat- 
ter thats a thing that being once done wants not to be 
done again & therefore his fiat should Seem to be the 
Easiest Cause for frustra fit per plura is a Certain rule of 
his actions, but yet if by causes which retain those bodies 
in their orbits, that motion first given is impaired & So 
wants reparation then indeed I Doubt not but that the 
almighty provided the Second cause to make that repara- 
tion & if that cause was Sufficient to give the first pro- 
gressive motion, Then was that the Easiest way for that 
motion to arise & so within the Said rule 

I am still in hopes that you may be down here this 
Spring that we may together open the Quadrant — Set it 
up & observe with it first together — 
I am D*^ Sir 

Your most humble Servant 

[Indorsed] Ja. ALEXANDER. 


Cadwallader Golden Esq'" 

200 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Cadvmllader Golden to James Alexander 


March 7^^ 1745/6 

I have yours of the 23"^ of Feb^'^ with three half sheets 
from Parker I have not observ'd any error of the press 
worth noticeing except page 17 line 9 The Machine of 
Aggregate should be Machine or aggregate On Tuesday 
last I sent by Tenbrook an Albany Skipper a copy of my 
Tables of Equation of the Earths mean motion & of her 
orbit which I hope you have receiv'd by this time as he 
went by land what you write to me of Flamsteds His- 
toria Coelestis gives me hopes of having my Theory put 
to the full proof & that you will take the trouble to 
examine it in all the principal points which are chiefly 
at & near the Equinox & Solstices & about 46 degr 30 
from the Equinox. For which purpose if you please to 
calculate the suns place by my Tables near about the 
times when the sun is in those parts of the ecliptic & 
the suns Declination according to the Variations which 
I suppose of the obliquity of the Ecliptic & if in all these 
cases Flamsted Meridian altitudes give at the observatory 
the same altitude of the Equator I shall presume that 
my Tables are true And for this purpose I must now tell 
you the Method which I take to find the sun's Declina- 
tion at every degree of the Ecliptic Suppose the suns 
place were 15° from the Equinox I first find what Decli- 
nation the obliquity of 22° 30' gives at 15° from the 
Equinox which being found I go to the table of the Equa- 
tions of the Earth's orbit & find in the right hand column 
of that table 06' 04" which being added to the Declina- 
tion before found gives the suns true Declination when 
at that Distance from the Equinox The Equation for 
the minutes & seconds is to be found in the same manner 
as in the Equation of the Earths mean motion from the 
midle column but you must observe that after the sun 
passes 46° 30° from the Equinox till it reach the Equi- 
nox the same Equation of 58' 13" is every where to be 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 201 

added to the Declination found from the obliquity of 
22° 30' & the same equation while the sun moves from 
the Solstice till it come to 46° 30' of the Equinox but at 
all places between the Equinox & 46' from it the Equa- 
tion of the Earths orbit in that right hand column corre- 
sponding to the suns distance in the Ecliptic from the 
Equinox added to the Declination found by the common 
trigonometrical calculation of the obliquity of 22° & 30' 
gives the suns true Declination You will oblige me 
exceedingly by making these calculations & trials before 
you go to Amboy & then send me Flamsteds Historia 
Coelestis with the result of your Calculations 

It is impossible for me to explain to you the reasons 
on which I form this process without explaining the prin- 
ciples of my Theory & which could not be don within 
the compass of a letter if I had digested my thoughts into 
order but as I told you before I have not put one line 
in writing on that subject nor shall I do it till I have 
an opportunity of comparing my thoughts with Flam- 
steds observations What first set me upon this work was 
my observing from the first view that Flamsteds equation 
table of the Earths orbit in no manner agreed with the 
figure that I had form'd to my self of it. The sun's place 
by my Calculations differ most at about 40' 30' from the 
Equinox where I sometimes differ above half a degree 
from the place according to Flamsteds tables 

Pray can you tell me the reason why S'" Isaac New- 
ton struck M"" Flamsted's name entirely out of the 2*^ & 
S^ Editions of his Principia notwithstanding that in the 
first Edition he had in several places confirm'd his The- 
ory from Flamsted observations 

I am in hopes that Parker may have finished the 
printing of what remains before you go to Jersey if not 
it must stop till you return unless he can suffer the letters 
to stand till he sends up the proof sheet to me to examine 
because what remains where numbers or algebraical 
characters are used require the greatest correctness & I 
know of none capable of supplying your place where these 
are used. 

202 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Cadwallader Golden to the Rev^ D" Samuel Johnson 


COLDENGHAM Ap : 12 1746 

Tho I be now so long in answering your favour of Oc- 
tober last it is not from any want of esteem for your 
Correspondence but from the want of proper opport"®^ to 
write & of a subject which I thought might be intertain- 
ing to you I am much oblidged to you for the informa- 
tion you give me of the learned Speculations of the Gen- 
tleman you mention but of this perhaps more some other 
time I shall only now say that in all the cases which 
I have examined & where I suspected S"" Isaac Newtone 
to be mistaken I found he had been exceedingly carefull 
& that the mistakes were all on my side from my not 
understanding the Subject & therefor you must allow 
me to suspect the like of that Gentleman where he differs 
from S*" Isaac on any point that he has positively deter- 

I have lately received by M"" Watkins your printed 
letter on the sovereignty & Promises of God. It is so 
much according to my manner of thinking that I am 
surprised that any thinking & good Man should differ 
from you, but more that they should for that reason en- 
tertain harsh thoughts of you & still more that they dare 
to propagate these harsh thoughts among their neigh- 
bours This gives too much reason to suspect their 
charity (The grand Characterestick of the Christian 
Religion) if not their Probity. Men without Charity give 
ground to doubt of their being Christians that is to doubt 
their understanding the principles of the Christian Reli- 
gion, & without morality of their belief of any Religion 
From what I know of the principles assiduously propa- 
gated in this part of the Country I think your letter very 
seasonable & I wish people had more oppertunities of 
informing themselves on subjects of such like nature & 
then ArtfuU Men would not have it in their powers to put 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS-174a-1747 203 

such constructions on Gods revealed Will as sets it in 
opposition to his Will declared in every man's heart or 
which sets Rehgeon in opposition to Reason & Morality 

These principles are the invention & imposture of 
Popery & can only be defended on popish priniples 
(however averse some defenders of them may think 
themselves to it) & if these principles be allowed they 
cannot defend themselves from Popery The Papists 
must allwise have the advantage against men of such 
principles in support of their most absurd Doctrines & 
the defenders of these principles (without knowing it) 
lead the people back as fast as they can to Rome It is 
for this reason that the Popish Emissaries have direc- 
tions to join with & to promote all the Enthusiastic Sects 
& principles among the Protestants The truth of this 
has appeared from several remarkable & uncontested 
pieces of History 

The difficulties which puzle some or most men in 
Speculation on these Subjects arise from their not having 
proper notions & Distinctions of the nature of things 
Praescience, for example, in no manner opperates as a 
cause in producing any effect. I may with great cer- 
tainty foretell an Eclipse, & its possible, all the Eclipses 
that shall happen to the end of the world yet it is very 
certain that I in no manner concur in producing these 
events by my Praescience of them more than the most 
ignorant man in Astronomy does 

Another mistaken notion is that we think liberty con- 
sists in an indifference in our choice or will to either side 
of the Question, to assent or to deny, to act in one way 
or in the contrary Now after I understand a Proposi- 
tion in Euclid I cannot refuse my assent & yet I give my 
Assent with full liberty Suppose a perfectly good Man 
we may Safely say he cannot do a wicked act & yet he 
does good with great freedom This kind of liberty which 
they suppose, can only exist in Imperfect beings & arises 
from a defect or want of sufficient knowledge to deter- 
mine the Will But truely speaking every intelligent be- 
ing is truely free however necessarly it acts while it acts 

204 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

only from principles within itself with out compulsion 
from any efficient cause without it If this be not ad- 
mited God cannot be said to be a free Agent who neces- 
sarly acts for the best is never misinformed or in doubt 
& can never be indetermined To understand my con- 
ceptions on this Subject, it is necessary for me to tell you 
wherein I think the essential difference between a Mate- 
rial & an intelligent being consists 

All beings of which we have any conceptions are 
agents or acting Principles (simple or compounded) for 
we have no Idea's but of our own Actions & of the things 
which strike our senses Or all Ideas are the effect of 
some action in or on our minds, otherwise an effect may 
be produced without a cause, & nothing without action 
can produce anything These Agents I suppose to be 
divided into two essentially different kinds of Beings 
The one Material whose mode & degree of action is de- 
termined by the efficient causes or agents surrounding it 
with out its perceiving any thing of them or being con- 
scious of its own actions Such is a Clock which regu- 
larly divides times, the motion of its hands are deter- 
mined by the Weight hung at one of the Wheels & by the 
shape & form of the wheels &c That is its actions are 
determined by efficient causes 

The other kind of acting Beings are intelligent Beings 
who are conscious of their own actions & perceive the 
Actions of all other beings which any way reach or affect 
them & which alters & determines its own actions accord- 
ing to the perceptions it has of its own & of the other 
beings which surround it whose actions reach it & this 
allwise for some purpose or end, & therefor is of itself 
properly moved or determined only by final causes And 
this I take to be the essential difference between Matter 
& Spirit That Matter has its action regulated & deter- 
mined only by efficient causes but Spirit or Intelligent 
Beings by final causes. This gives a real positive & 
essential difference Whereas the Definitions commonly 
met with consisting of Negatives are no Definitions or 
Definitions of nothing 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174^-1747 205 

I am now printing something on the Subject of Mate- 
rial Agents which I hope may be of use to inlarge our 
knowledge in natural Philosophy I print only so many 
copies as may submit it to the examination of the learned 
As soon as it shall be printed it will kiss your hands 
for that purpose. 

From Samuel Johnson 

Stratford Ap. 22 1746. 

I am very much obliged to you for yours of y® 12th 
& exceeding glad that any thing I can write Should 
meet with the approbation of a Gentleman of your pene- 
tration. — You must at least be sensible what a prodigi- 
ous Tryal of patience it must be to be obliged to defend 
what is only the Cause of Common Sense against such 
amazing Absurdities as are read about among us for the 
Oracles of God. — But in Truth I would rather, if it were 
possible, believe there is no God, than to believe him to 
be such a Being as these Teachers, not only represent 
him, but insist he is, & that you must believe so too, upon 
the pain of Damnation. — You are very right in observ- 
ing that popery is of piece, & doubtless at the Bottom 
of these late mad doctrines & proceedings I verily be- 
lieve that the late Emissaries who have made so much 
Confusion among us are but Dupes to the Jesuits, tho' 
perhaps not sensible that they are so, & that the man- 
agement of those vagrants that have been rambling with 
their nonsense all over those Kingdoms & the planta- 
tions, have been but a part of the great Scheme that has 
been long patching & is now come out in the present 
Rebellion; it appearing that the Seceeders, (as the Meth- 
odists are called in Scotland,) have many of them joynd 
with the papists & Jacobites. — And indeed if they can 
persuade mankind to believe in such a Deity as they 
describe, I should not wonder if they should induce them 
to believe Transubstantiation which Doctrine, as mon- 

206 THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 

strously absurd as it is, I should, if it were possible, much 
rather beleive than their barbarous & unnatural Notions 
of the Deity. 

Your Notions of Prescience & Liberty are very agree- 
able to the apprehensions I have of those matters. — And 
I agree with you, that no Authority, without good Rea- 
sons, Should influence our Decisions. — Nullius In Verba, 
D"" Turner's Motto, is very good one, & for the Same 
Reason, tho' I have a profound Veneration for M'* Locke, 
S'' Isaac Newton & Bp Berkely, yet I would not be de- 
termined meerly by their Authority in a matter of 
Opinion, nor by their Reasons neither, any further than 
I can See for my Self. S"" Isaac was doubtless very exact, 
especially in his Experiments & the mathematical Rea- 
sonings, but in meerly physical Conjectures or metaphy- 
sical matters it is no wonder if he should Sometimes be 
mistaken, (with relation to which it is that he has been 
faulted chiefly by Berkely & Hutchinson,) nor is it to be 
wondered at if they also in their turn be Sometimes mis- 
taken; tho' I confess I can't but think Bp Berkely is 
one of the first men of this Age 

I have lately read his Siris, & shall desire M'" Nichols 
to Send it you if he can, consistent with his Engagements 
to M'' Franklin, of whom he was so obliging as to borrow 
it for me. Be it so that there may be some things that 
may be tho't futilous; yet I can't but wish I had your 
Opinion upon the Philosophical part of it. — He imagines 
that all the sensible Qualities in Bodies are to be ac- 
counted for from Light or Fire, derived from the Sun as 
the Sourse ; & that as S' Isaac has accounted for Colours 
by the different Refrangibility of the Rays of Light all 
Colours being originally blended in each Ray : So he Sup- 
poses that all Sapors, odours & medicinal virtues, are 
originally blended in the Rays of Light, & diversified in 
different Bodies according to their Texture as Colours 
are from the Different Texture of their Surfaces, which 
Seems a pretty Thought &c. but I shall not enlarge be- 
cause I hope you will see it. 

I shall be very glad to see what you have wrote on 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 207 

the subjects you mention, which are of much Importance, 
& I am persuaded, were they rightly explained the cheif 
Difficulties that divided Learned men would of course 
vanish; for I doubt whether we do not many times 
delude our Selves with Sounds, & I apprehend particu- 
larly that if a just Definition of those terms were settled, 
truly thinking men would not differ in their Apprehen- 
sions. I do not doubt your Notion of the Difference be- 
tween Intelligent & Material Beings, (which to avoid 
ambiguity I should rather call Sensible Beings,) is, at 
bottom, the Same with mine: yet I must confess, (& I 
hope you will forgive me in Saying So,) that I Should 
not have expressed myself exactly in the same manner 
as you do. — To me it Seems that the words material 
Agents, are really a Contradiction in Terms, & that we 
cannot use the Term Agent when we speak of material 
Things, (unless it be vulgarly & catachristically, as we 
Say the Sun rises, moves &c.) because the Term Agent, 
to me in strict philosophic verity, always imports a 
Being that has a principle of Activity within it self & 
acts upon a Design whereof it is conscious: — whereas 
Matter, in any Sense, I take to mean a meet passive 
thing, & to be so far from being capable of consciousness, 
that it has not the least Glymps of any principle of Self 
Activity, & therefore, that it is so far from being an 
Agent, properly speaking, that in all it's motions it is 
ever passively acted by that intelligent self-active Being 
who is the Cause of Gravity, Attraction, Repulsion &c 
in every thing that occurs to our Senses or Imaginations. 
— Consequently I apprehend there are no such things 
as Efficient Causes in Nature beside Spirits or Intelligent 
Beings, (either Supreme or Subordinate,) who as such, 
ever Act from a principle of Consciousness Design & Self 

Whereas, therefore, you express your Definitions in 
these Terms, And this I take to be the Essential Differ- 
ence between Matter & Spirit, that matter has it's 
Action regulated & determined by Efficient Causes, but 
Spirits by final Causes: I should have chose to express 

208 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

them thus, Thxit matter has properly Speaking no Action, 
hut in all it's Motions is meerly passively acted & deter- 
mined by Spirits which alone can be efficient Causes, — { 
whereas Spirits or Intelligent Beings are such as act from 
a principle of Consciousness & Design & of Self Exertion 
& Self determination, under the influence or with a view 
at what we call final causes, i. e. some End which they 
aim at Accomplishing. 

But I fear I grow Impertinent & therefore will add no 
more than to ask your pardon for this Liberty I have 
presumed to take, & to assure you that I remain, S"" 

your most obliged 
humble Servant 
Samuel Johnson. 

Governor William Shirley to the Six Nations. 

Boston May 29'^ 1746. 
Good Friends & Brethren, 

I think it to be conformable to the Agreement made 
between us, that I should acquaint you with all Matters, 
of Importance that mutually concern us, and therefore 
I send you this early account (which I receiv'd last night 
by one of the Kings Vessels sent Express to me from 
England) that King George has ordered a large Body of 
Land Forces to be forthwith imbark'd in Great Britain, 
and a great Fleet or barge men of War for an Expedition 
against Canada, to go to Quebec by Sea ; and has ordered 
the Governours of Virginia, Maryland, Pensilvania, New 
Jersey, New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massa- 
chusetts Bay & New Hampshire to raise a great Body of 
Troops, to march into Canada by the Way of Albany, 
And his Majesty (whose Predecessors for above a Cen- 
tury of Years have treated your Tribes as good Subjects 
& Friends) has great Confidence that you will heartily 
engage with us in prosecuting this Expedition against a 
treacherous & false hearted Nation, that have always been 
guilty of Breach of their Treaties with their peaceable 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 200 

Neighbours; And as God has remarkably favour'd our 
righteous Cause in delivering up into our hands Cape 
Breton & the Country in those Parts, so we trust in his 
Power & Goodness for giving us Success in this important 
Enterprize, & thereby shewing that he is a God of Justice 
to punish the wicked & perfidious. And as you did in the 
last Treaty Governour Clinton and our Commissioners 
had with you at Albany, upon full Perswasion of the 
Wrong done us by our Enemies, and your Obligation by 
Treaty to join with us for obtaining Justice, firmly prom- 
ise within a few Months to draw the Sword against those 
Our Enemies, so we trust that upon this singular & ex- 
traordinary Occasion we shall have your utmost Assist- 
ance by raising as large Body of Men out of your Tribes 
as possible to prosecute this Expedition jointly with us; 
and in return you may depend upon all the Protection 
and Friendship which his Majesty King George & his 
Subjects within these Northern Colonies can shew you — 
Admiral Warren, your hearty Friend, is by the Kings 
Order to have the Command of the Squadron of Ships 
upon this Expedition. 

I am with great Truth & Friendship 
Yours faithful Brother 

W. Shirley 
To the Chiefs of the Six Nations of India & their Tribes 
in Alliance with his Majesty King George 

[Indorsed] Govemo"' Shirley's Intended letter to ye Indians which I 
would not suffer to be presented to them at our last meeting of them 
at Albany, August 1746. 

Cadwallader Golden to Joh. Fred. Gronovms 

Province of New York 
^r Coldengham May 30th 1746. 

The enclosed sheets are a copy of what I sent to you 
in the beginning of last winter directed to the Care of 
M'" Collinson but as we have since heard that the ship 
was taken betwixt Portsmouth & the Douns & carried 

210 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

into Dieppe these papers must be lost As such misfor- 
tune was to be expected there was an outside direction 
on the Packet in French desiring the Captors in such case 
to send them to the Gentlemen of the Royal Garden at 
Paris tho' I then thought & still think that such creatures 
as privateers commonly are, will very litle mind any- 
thing of that kind, but I mention this to you that in case 
the Capt" of the privateer be a man of some taste for 
learning you may take some opportunity of inquiring 
after them I sent along with the Papers the Specimens 
which you desir'd & some others together with the seeds 
of several plants & the loss of them I cannot at present 
repair. Pray God these Wars may soon cease for they 
are destructive to Learning After I had wrote that letter 
I receiv'd yours of the ninth of July 1745 & likewise the 
Packet which had been so long missing dated the 
6*^ of August 1743 with Linnaeus Fundamenta Botanica 
[one word missing] Botanica together with your Flora 
Virgin & Index Lapidum The first came by M'' Collin- 
sons care but how the packet so long on its way came I 
know not there was a direction on it by some hand that 
knows me as You oblige me exceedingly I shall en- 
deavour to make what returns I can. It is so rare a 
thing for a merchant (who generally make Profit & loss 
the Rule for all their actions) to apply themselves to any 
thing of Literature where no gain can be expected that 
I would with pleasure assist M"" Clifford in sending him 
seeds but he has allready so great a collection that I 
cannot expect to be otherwise than troublesome in send- 
ing things which He has seen over & over again but if 
he'l please to mention any particulars that he wants I 
shall indeavour to procure them for him for I shall have 
my reward in the pleasure I take in serving such men 
However I hope he will send a Copy of his Hortus at 
least to every Province of America that the effects of his 
Benevolence to man kind may become as general as 
possible. Our Friend D'^ Du Bois died last winter of a 
malignant coruptive fever accompanied with ulcerations 
in the throat which has been epidemical several years in 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 211 

several parts of America D"" Johnstone lives in New 
Jersey at a considerable distance from my house & I 
believe does not at present apply his thought to any kind 
of Literature I hear often from our Friend M"" Bartram 
the good man was obliged to send to me your letters to 
him to translate the latin parts of them. It is very 
extraordinary that a man of the lowest Education with- 
out the advantage of any kind of learning should have 
such a taste for knowledge & acquires so great a share of 
it. I send another Copy of the treatise published at New 
York on Tar Water I have no other Copy of the other on 
the West India Dry Bellyach The Author proposes to 
make a new Edition partly occasion'd by some remarks I 
procured to him on the first Edition. 

I design to order three copies of a small piece to be 
put up in this packet which I intend to submit to the 
examination of the Learned the printing of which I hope 
will be finished before this goes. It is on a subject which 
has puzled philosophers in all ages the Solution of which 
I fancy that I have hit on & that it may be of use in the 
improvement of knowledge in every part of Physics. I 
know not whether your taste be in this [one word miss- 
ing] kind of learning but whether or not I must beg the 
favour of you to desire some of your Mathematicans 
those chiefly versant in the Newtonean & Leibnitzean 
Systems to peruse it of which no doubt you have some 
of distinguished Characters in your University & that 
you will favour me with your own & their opinion of it 
as soon as your conveniency permits for I trust you will 
earnestly beg you to do it without complement and with 
the sincerity & freedon of a friend and Philosopher as 
you see I indeavour to write to you This country is now 
engaged in a most barbarous war with Indians, Popish 
converts, set on by accursed Priests to murder innocent 
People in their beds or at their daily labour Good God 
what a Religeon must that be that incites men to such 
cruelties & yet from what we learn from the Publick 
News Your country seems not sufficiently apprehensive 
of being again subjects of such a bloody cruel tyranny. 

212 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Cadwallader Colden to Samuel Johnson 

■P^r Or CoLDENGHAM June 2^ 1746. 

I now desire M*" Nicholls to send you a copy of the 
treatise which I mentioned to you in my last In it you 
will find my thoughts on somethings which were the 
subject of your last to me by the Rev*^ M'' Watkins. One 
thing I am desirous of being more fully inform'd from 
you how consciousness & Intelligence become essential 
to all agents that act from a power within themselves 
as to my own part I do not perceive the necessary con- 
nexion between Power or Force & Intelligence or Con- 
sciousness We may certainly in a thousand objects of 
our senses discover power & force without perceiving 
any intelligence in them And tho this Power & Force 
should be only apparent & the consequence or effect of 
some other primary cause yet I am certainly to be ex- 
cused for my thinking it real till it appear otherwise to 
me as I believe every man is to be excused who does not 
understand astronomy & thinks that the Sun Moves & 
this opinion in him cannot in any proper sense be called 
an absurdity in him. 

In the next place I beg you'l give me a Definition of 
Matter or any other being meerly passive without any 
Power or Force Such a being I cannot conceive & there- 
for as to me does not exist 

You will oblige me exceedingly by giving me your 
opinion of the Printed treatise or of any part of it with- 
out reserve For my Design only is to discover & to be 
assured of the Truth. You will find by some parts of 
that piece that tho' I have the greatest esteem of S'" Isaac 
Newtons knowledge & performances I take the liberty to 
differ in opinion from him in some points. That man 
never existed who never err'd As I have a great esteem 
of your Judgement I am very desirous to have your 
opinion of what I send as soon as may be with your 
conveniency. -p 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174^-1747 213 

Cadwallader Golden to Mrs. Golden. 

My Dear 

I had sent for my horse to be with you this night but 
before they could be brought up it is so late that I am 
affray'd of riding in the night after having been exceed- 
ing hot by being on the Water in a Sultry day I left 
New York yesterday morning I am sorry that I cannot 
give you all the pleasure you expected by my coming up 
Since your Daughters have not come with me Alsie has 
the Measles but you may be sure I would not have left 
her if I had apprehended the least Danger & in further 
confirmation of it tho' great numbers have had that 
Distemper none have been in Danger. I know all the 
care will be taken of her than can be taken. She is at 
M"" NichoUs's I cannot express the cordial Friendship 
that all of that family have shown on many occasions 
Jenny was in good health but would not leave her sister 
& I did not desire it They were both desirous that I 
should come up to you for otherwise they thought you 
would be more uneasy. I am contented that you receive 
this account before I see you that the pleasure of our 
meeting may be as little allay'd as possible. Pray my 
Dear Be not uneasy or as little as possible for I assure 
you I have no apprehensions of any ill effects from the 
Measles as none have happen'd to any one in the place 
Both Jenny & Alsie had wrote to you by Nan but he 
told me this morning in passing that he forgot the letter 
at New York & this no doubt adds to your concern. I 
shall be with you tomorrow morning The Gov"" is going 
to Albany but I am not to go with him, Cadwallader 
must be ready to meet him here next Saturday I am in 
perfect good health Alexander will come up with me 

tomorrow morning. ^ _, i. ly x- ^ 

^ Your most anectionate 

,y , ,T loriT^^i Cadwallader Colden. 
Newburgh June 18 [1747] 

Thursday evening 

Indorsed To 

M'"^ Golden At Goldengham 

[This letter is one year out of place] 

214 THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 

Cadwallader C olden to Mrs. Golden 

My Dear 

I got to this place next day after I left you about 
eleven before noon after a very pleasant passage I can 
give you the pleasure to assure you that I continue in 
very good health & if this will add to the pleasure that 
I have so much lost all relish for the Toun that I allready 
begin to wish to be at home again with you 

As Mr Alexander is now in the Jerseys & is to be at 
home next Saturday night & to return again to the Jer- 
seys next Munday I am obliged to put off my visit to 
Betty longer than I design'd otherwise I may not have 
an opportunity to see him while I am in toun. There 
is little publick News more than what is in the Prints 
I hear that Tebout the Carpenter has allready got a 
100 men to go on the Expedition M*" Intosh about 50 men 
& Langden about 30 I am sorry to hear that some indis- 
cret behaviour has open'd some peoples mouths against 
M° Intosh 

Some person from Jamaica says that Coll Beckford 
told them He had a letter from M"" Clark informing him 
of M"" Clark's safe arival at London & I am likewise told 
that M'"^ Bradley has a letter from London which men- 
tions M"" Clark's safe arival. I know not what to say 
to M'" Markhams design The raising a Company is made 
a condition of the Commiss" This will be attended with 
a great expence & if it should fail may ruin a man of 
small stock But if he can be sure of making up the num- 
ber I hardly Question but that he may obtain the Com- 
mission tho' as I am told there is allready a promise made 
to fifteen some of them men of very odd Characters I 
am told that Honeyman has no success & Axtel as litle, 
M'" Murray & M" Murray have been both with me on 
M"" Markhams Acc^ but it was before I had seen the Gov'" 
or any of the Council I expect to see him (M*" Murray) 
again before the sloop goes & then if requesite I shall add 
further. M"" Murray has been with me again & I have 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 215 

told him that I make no doubt of obtaining a 
warrant to inlist men with a promise of a Capt"' 
Comms" if a 100 be made up but whether it may be 
advisable for M"" Markham to run all the risques that 
may attend a matter of this nature I must leave to his 
own reflection Most part of the expence will be reim- 
bursed if things go on as expected but at first there must 
be an advance of money Now I have no more news to 
write In one respect I can with great ease to my mind 
be absent from my private business that I know it is 
taken care off by you with all possible diligence & yet 
notwithstanding of this I shall endeavour to return as 
soon as I can for I shall really have but litle pleasure 
here the whole manner of living is so different from 
my taste. M" Kennedy keeps alltogether on the other 
side & comes only for an hour when business calls. Re- 
member me affectionately to all our Children. And pray 
take care of your own health for nothing can give me 
more pleasure than to know that you injoy it with pleas- 
ure & I shall endeavour all in my power to your ease & 
satisfaction both absent & present I am 
My Dear 

Your most affectionate 
New York Cadwallader Colden 

June 19*^ 1746 

Mrs. Murray goes up with Cortes 

M" Golden at 


Observations on the Plan of Operations Communicated 

by Gov'' Shirley to Gov'' Clinton. 

(In the handwriting of Cadwallader Colden.) 

we ought not to be too sanguine in our hopes of Success 
in war for too many instances are to be found of the Want 
of Success where there was the least doubt of it especially 
where the casualties of the Sea are added to all the other 

216 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

accidents of War All Intelligence between the Army <fe 
the Colonies can only be carried on this way with that 
dispatch which the necessity of affairs may require & 
therefor this road must be kept open & safe which can- 
not be while the Ennemies Garison remains at Croun 
Point For these reasons I should think it advisable that 
the party which marches by land should make sure of 
Croun Point in the first place which according to the plan 
of operations that the Army by sea shall be in St. Laurence 
river before this party move it may be reasonably ex- 
pected will not make any considerable defence when they 
can expect no relief If battering cannon can be carried 
to Croun Point as I am inform'd they may, that Fort 
cannot in any case make a defence of six days after the 
Batteries shall begin to play. The acquisition of this 
Fort in case of the greatest misfortunes that can happen 
to the other parts of the Expedition will in a good meas- 
ure recompence the northern Colonies for their trouble 
& expence & wiU give up a prodigious influence over aU 
the Indians & which the French have in a great measure 
obtain'd by the reputation of that Fort among the In- 

I am of Opinion likewise that it is a mistake in the 
Scheme from Boston that Provisions and other neces- 
saries can be more easily & more speedily & with less ex- 
pence be carried round by Cape Breton into St Laurence 
river then by the common passage from Albany For in 
my opinion such carriage will be with less expence more 
speedily & with greater safety after Croun point shall be 
taken. The land Carriage to the wood Creek from Al- 
bany is only about sixty miles and all the Way a good 
Waggon road or without any diflaculty or loss of time may 
be made such & from the Wood Creek to Chambly the 
Carriage is alltogether by water & not near so far as be- 
tween Cape Breton & Quebec & will be very safe after 
Croun point shall be taken for it can be exposed to none 
of the accidents which the navigation in St. Laurence's 
Bay is exposed to From Chambly to Montreal the 
distance is only sixteen miles After Croun point shall 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 217 

be taken small deckt vessels may be built in a very litle 
time for transporting any thing with the greatest safety 
The Plank in my opinion may be carried from Albany 
if none is to be got nearer or at the worst may be saw'd 
by hand there & the timbers every body knows can be got 
any where So that in case there be a necessity of the 
Armies continueing all winter as it is probable it will be 
necessary if they have any Success this passage will be- 
come absolutely necessary for the Passage by St. Law- 
rence will be shut up by the Sea & if they want success & 
the army or any part of it be obliged to return that way 
while that fact remains in the Enemies hands they must 
come within the sight of Croun Point & may be put to 
difficulties thereby which we cannot at present imagine 
for a retiring undisciplin'd army is easily discomposed & 
put out of Countenance. 

It seems most prudent that the part of the Army that 
is to go by land should rendezvous near Albany or at 
farthest at the Wood Creek otherwise every party may 
be under uncertainties while the communication between 
them will certainly be cut off or exceedingly obstructed by 
the French & their Indians & every party more ex- 
posed to ambuscades & surprises or even to a superior 
force before they unite While the Army is thus sep- 
arated into far distant parties it will be impossible for 
the general who commands to concert any certain plan 
or to know whether his orders are obey'd or can be obey'd 
I likewise am of opinion that the plan concerted at home 
should be entirely follow'd except where the reasons for 
altering are very evident & no apparent objections can 
be made to the alteration 

I would propose that the Levies to be rais'd on this 
Province & in Connecticut which are design'd to go by 
land should as soon as possible begin to rendezvous near 
Albany & for that purpose they should begin to en- 
camp some where above that city as soon as possible & 
that one or two of the independent companies of regular 
troops encamp with them Huts made of Bark which 
people used to the woods know how to make will serve 

218 THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 

in place of tents & will secure the men from weather even 
better than tents can do A Hut that will contain ten or a 
dozen men may be made in two or three hours time by a 
smaller number of men then are to lodge in it As I have 
often seen don & have lodged in them My reasons for this 
are that by this means the men may by degrees be re- 
duced to some kind of discipline & the regular troops will 
not only help to discipline the others but prevent the 
disorders which usually attend new levies which are most 
usually composed of the most diorderly people in the 
Country. Besides this as the small Pox is in the City 
of Albany it seems absolutely necessary that the men 
be kept as much as possible from that place & if it should 
at any time appear in the Camp that the infected be im- 
mediately removed to a proper distance. As one design 
of the Marching by land is to draw the attention of the 
Ennemy from Quebec & Montreal where the principal 
attaks are design'd & may occasion a reuniting of their 
force there the sooner this is don & the greater show is 
made the more it will serve this purpose & for this pur- 
pose likewise it may not be improper to give out that the 
chief Design is against Croun Point. 
New York June 2P* 

From John Rutherfurd 

Albany 26*^ June 1746 

I have the favour of yours of the S^ Inst and your Es- 
say, which I expect great pleasure from & when I have 
perused it you may depend on my thoughts of it in the 
freest manner but now the Beating of Drums for the new 
Levys the attention to news from Canada, Europe & 
Cape Breton & how preparations are goeing on at New 
York & the neibouring Provinces for our Grand Enter- 
prize against Canada, makes me write you in a very differ- 
ent Strain & beg your opinion of the manner that affair 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 219 

is proposed to be carry'd on & what information you 
can give me of the above articles; As you are I hear 
now at New York, pray get notice as soon as possible 
how The new Battilions raised are to be commanded 
& how the four Companys here are to be disposed of, my 
present view & ambition being to endeavour to get the 
Rank of Liet Coir by means of these new Levys & at 
the same time keep my Company in order to have some- 
thing certain, how I'm to bring this about I have no no- 
tion of at present so pray* say nothing of my design to 
any person whatever, only make the necessary enquirys 
that I may know how to apply by being amongst the 
first to know how things are to be managed, if you have 
any Correspondent at Philadelphia or wherever Gen' 
Gooch may have occasion to explain himself on that 
head before he arrives at New York, I beg would write 
to them about it, as we may by that means have some 
time to apply, befor things are publickly known here. 
Pray let me know if any of your Sons are to go & who of 
those proposeing to raise Companys are likelyest to Suc- 
ceed. I must insist on your being present here with the 
Governour when he comes to treat with the Indians for 
many reasons most of which you can easily guess the rest 
I'l tell you at meeting & only assure you at present that 
'tis necessary for the publick good, & as I depend upon 
your being my Guest here II take care you shall be 
free from all the noise & hubbub in town, for my house 
stands in a quite place opposite to the Recorders. Pray 
be so good as let me hear from you as soon as you re- 
ceive this to satisfy my Curiosity as to what's allready 
known relateing to the manner & management of this 
Expedition, I'm obliged to you for the kind manner in 
which you invite Mrs. Rutherford & I to your house, but 
The Scenes changed you see & Instead of our seeing 
you at Coldingham, we hope & depend upon seeing you 
at Albany where you may assure yourself of the sincerest 
Wellcome from sir 

Your most obed^ humble Servant 

John Rutherford 

220 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Cadwallader Golden to Mrs. Colden 

[end of June 1746] 
My Dear 

I have yours of the 22^ & 25'*' the last of which I re- 
ceiv'd first. It must give me the greatest concern to hear 
of any illness you have & more in my absence but it 
would give me a perpetual anxiety if I thought any 
thing of that kind were kept from my knowlege As I 
have been long from the publick business I cannot with 
any countenance ask leave to return home at this time 
& it would not be easily granted by the Gov'" unless 
there were a very evident reason for it but not withstand- 
ing of this I wish very heartily to be with you for my 
being in toun at this time has occasioned a great deal of 
Jealousy among some folks. To remove it in some meas- 
sure I design to go tomorrow to Westchester & to be 
absent 2 or 3 days where I hope to spend the hours with 
some degree of that pleasure which I enjoy at home The 
Gov*" desir'd me with some concern to go with him to 
Albany but I with a great deal of earnestness declin'd it 
& I hope to hear no more of it. We have no news as yet 
but every moment in expectation. Now my dear pray 
give me the pleasure to be assured that you do not in any 
respect neglect your self that we may have a joy full 
meeting which shall be as soon as I can & 1 know you 
would not desire my leaving this place in such a manner 
as might prove prejudical to my self & family I shall 
write of the Farm affairs on the other side to John Re- 
member me affectionately to aU our Children I wrote to 
Alexander by Naeks. I left finishing the letter till the 
Posts came in No News & this evening I received Alex- 
and""^ letter about the Ferry which I have not time to 
answer but I do not suspect that any thing will be moved 
in it at this time I am 

My Dear 

Your most affectionate 
Cadwallader Colden 
Saturday night 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174^-1747 221 

Cadwullader Colden to Mrs. Golden 

My Dear 

I came yesterday from West Chester where I left 
Betty in good health & all the Children except that 
Nancy & Peter had something of the fever and ague. 
I staid longer there than I would otherwise don in order 
to have got soon home that I might avoid what other 
people generally are fond off that is that I might be 
as litle concem'd in the conduct of affairs as possible but 
I know not how all things are at a stand & I am affray'd 
it will not be in my power to keep so much unconcern'd 
as I wish to be without laying aside all concern for the 
success of the Expedition & for the success of which I 
think no man living in this Country can be indifferent. 
You'l find by what I now write that the time of my re- 
turn must be very uncertain at this time but tho' I can- 
not say any thing now as to the time yet in a few days 
more we must come to something of certainty. 

Oliver DeLancey is retum'd home He left the Ad- 
miral & his Lady at Boston. They are expected soon 
here So far as I can learn the Admiral is not to go upon 
the Expedition but designs to return soon to England 

We have now certain Accounts several ways that the 
Rebels are entirely defeated The Duke of Perth & 
allmost all the Gentlemen kill'd The Pretender's son 
was not in the battle being sick at Inverness two miles 
from the place of Battle & that he fled with only two 
gentlemen in company as soon as he heard of the suc- 
cess of the Kings troops under the Duke of Cumberland. 
And that they were in pursuit of him Porter from Ire- 
land says he heard the Fleet was saild for Cape Breton 
before he left Bellfast so that we may expect every mo- 
ment to hear of their arival This ship belongs to M"" 
Alexander & they have thoughts of sending her speedily 
to London I would write by her before I leave this 
place & for that purpose I want my Brothers direc- 
tion for his letters to whose care they are to be directed 

222 THE GOLDEN PAPER&-1743-1747 

at Berwick And I would have you likewise look into the 
Bundle of Papers & letters from M"" Collinson which youl 
find in the row of nests next the Chimney in my Closet 
& there you'l find a letter from Strahan a Printer in 
which he tells me how to direct for him send me a Copy 
of this direction likewise I have forgot his Christian 
name It will be necessary to send these as soon as pos- 
sible that they may reach me before I return home 

The Council is call'd at nine this morning & I write 
this expecting M'' Clinton every moment to call for it 
before I go into Council & I think of nothing more to 
add at this time but to intreat you to take care of your- 
self that we may have a cheerful meeting which I shall 
indeavour to have as soon as possible Remember me 
affectionately to all our dear Children I am 

My dear 

Your most affectionate 
Cadwallader Colden 
New York 
Thursday Morning 
July S^ 1746 

Friday morning Yesterday we had a strong debate in 
Council who should go to Albany with the Gov'" every 
one were for my going not withstanding all the opposi- 
tion I could make to it & I am affray'd it will fall to my 
lot tho' I still use all my endeavours to avoid it. If I 
must go I shall return home sooner than otherwise 

Cadwallader Colden to Peter Collinson 

New York July 8*^ 1746 

My Brother James has a Legacy left him of two hun- 
dred pounds Pensylvania money by my Aunt Eliz^^ Hill 
who a widow formerly liv'd at Philadelphia but for the 
last years of her life with me & dy'd at my house above 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 223 

two years since I acquainted him of this by the first 
opportunity after her Death He desir'd me to remit it to 
London by any method I should think best there to be 
paid to M'' James Couts Merchant in London But as he is 
not acquainted with Mercantile affairs in any shape 
his directions to me were very defective & lame I wrote 
to him for more express orders Since which time I have 
not heard from him which I attribute to his letters not 
being properly taken care of at London & as this money 
has lain dead now above twelvemonths for his orders I 
at least resolv'd to remit it to you & having purchased 
a Bill of Excha at Philadelphia I have order'd Mr John 
Armit my Correspondent there to make the Bill payable 
to you The reason of my doing so you will find in the 
inclosed to my Brother in Scotland which I beg the favour 
of you to take the trouble to read & which I leave open 
for that purpose afterwards please to close it & for- 
ward it to him I beg of you to write to him after you 
have offerd it for acceptance & inform him of the ac- 
ceptance of the Bill & of the time that it may be paid 
& likewise for what sum he may draw on you after com- 
missions & other charges are paid As my Brother has a 
pretty numerous family I know the money will be use- 
full to him & I should be sorry he should in any manner 
suffer by his unskillfullness in Business But at the same 
time I must take care that my own family do not suffer 
by my desire to serve him & therefor I write to him to 
acknowledge in the letter of advice to you that this 
money is in full for a Legacy of two hundred pounds 
Pensylvania Money left him by his & my Aunt Eliz*^ 
Hill late of Philadelphia widow & that he likewise in- 
close to you a discharge of the said Legacy to be trans- 
mitted to me & that this advice & discharge are the con- 
ditions on which the money is to be paid to him or his 
order Dear Sir I am sorry that my want of acquaintance 
in London obliges me to give you this trouble but there 
is a pleasure which good men feel in doing good that I 
hope will recompence it. I am now obliged to attend our 
Governor to Albany & the Frontiers of the Province till 

224 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1745-1747 

our Army shall March from thence on the Expedition 
against Canada & am therefor obliged to write this letter 
before I receive the Bills from Philadelphia & to leave it 
with our friend M"" Alexander to inclose the Bill least the 
ship should sail before I can have an other opportunity of 
writing I have receiv'd yours of the 30*'' of March for 
which I am much obliged but my thoughts are so much 
engaged in the publick affairs at this time that I must 
delay writing on Philosophical subjects to another Op- 
portunity I sent by the snow Sally nine Copies of a little 
treatise I have printed which is entitled an Explication of 
the First Causes of Action in matter & of the Cause 
of Gravitation & shall if I have time send some more by 
this ship. I am 

& I must beg of you to Your most obliged 

send 3 copies or two to humble servant 

D'' Gronovius or to any I wrote this letter as I was 
other of your foreign leaving this place at which time 
Correspondents you M'' Alexander proposed to send 
shall think proper a ship in a fortnights time for 

London but he has alter'd his 
mind & as I hear of no ship to 
go from hence till the fall I 
send this to Philad*^ to be for- 
warded from thence 

Cadwallader Colden to James Golden 
Dear Brother 

I have waited with impatience to hear from you in 
answer to my last letters in which I imform'd you of 
the particular directions I expected for remitting the 
money left you by our Aunt but as I suspect that your 
letters have met with the same misfortune that many of 
yours formerly have in not coming to my hands and 
as that money as I wrote before was ready for your 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS-174a-1747 225 

order & has now lain above twelvemonths useless to you 
or me in my Correspondents hands at Philad'^ I have at 
last upon the general order you sent me of transmitting 
it as I should think proper to London made the Bill pay- 
able to M"" Peter Collinson Merchant in London to whom 
enclose this letter & have desir'd to forward to you & 
to signify to you the acceptance of the Bill & for what 
sum you may draw on him I did not think it proper to 
order the money to be paid to M"" Couts as you proposed 
to me because of the Rebellion which broke out in 
Scotland since the writing of your last for as he deals 
chiefly with Scotland I am suspicious how his affairs may 
stand at present & I am very confident that I now trans- 
mit it to a safe hand & a very honest gentleman There 
are allwise people in Scotland who want money at Lon- 
don & therefor upon showing this Gentlemans letter to 
you signifying his having receiv'd the money you will 
have no difficulty of getting the money on your Bill on 
this Gentleman But at the same time I must inform 
you that I have made it a condition of your receiving 
the money that you write a letter to him in which you 
shall acknowledge that the sum you draw for is in full 
for a Legacy of two Hundred pounds Pensylvania Money 
left you by the last will and Testament of Elizabeth Hill 
& that you likewise inclose a discharge to me as execu- 
tor of her Estate to be transmitted by him to me & 
without this the money will not be paid My Correspond- 
ent Mr John Armit at Philadelphia writes to me that he 
pays at the rate of 180 Pensylvania money for £ 100 ster- 
ine & I believe is as low as any Bills of good Credit were 
got at that time I have directed him to send a particular 
account with the charge of paying the money & procuring 
the Bills which I don't doubt will be just but as I am 
obliged to attend our Governor to the Frontiers of this 
Province & probably must stay with him till our army 
march from thence against Canada I leave this letter to 
be forwarded for London by a friend in this place before 
I receive the Bills & account from Philad'^ for it is prob- 
able before I return the opportunity may be lost. I 

22B THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174^-1747 

am now much hurried with the Publick affairs upon this 
extraordinary occasion & therefor you must excuse my 
not giving you a particular account of my family It is 
now three weeks since I left them My Daughter De 
Lancey & my son Cadwallader have each a daughter 
since I last wrote both of them named Ahce after my 
wife. I hope they are all in good health as I am Re- 
member me affectionately to my Sister & your Chil- 

Cadwallader Colden to John Armit. 

M"" Armit I am now in much hurry by the publick busi- 
ness just upon my setting out from this place in my way 
to Albany & therefor can only refer you to the inclosed 
in placing of writing particularly to your self Please 
to send one of the Bills which you purchased for me by 
the first opportunity together with these letters to M"" 
Peter Collinson I am 

Your humble servant 
New York July 19*^ 1746 

From Benjamin Franklin 

I have your Favours of June 2'^ and the 7^^ Instant. 
I thank you for your little Treatise. I have interleav'd 
it, and am Reading it and Making Remarks as Time per- 
mits. I deliver'd one, as you directed, to M'" Evans; 
another to M'' Bertram. The former declares he cannot 
understand it ; the latter told me the other Day, that he 
could not read it with the necessary Attention, till after 
Harvest, but he apprehended he should find it out of his 
Reach. I have not Seen M"" Logan since I sent him 
one. Two other Gentlemen to whom I gave each one, 
have not yet given me their Opinions; and in Truth I 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174S-1 747 227 

think you are somewhat too hasty in your Expectations 
from your Readers in this Affair. There are so many 
Things quite new in your Piece, and so different from 
our former Conceptions and Apprehensions, that I be- 
lieve the closest and Strongest Thinker we have amongst 
us, will require much longer Time than you seem will- 
ing to allow before he is so much a Master of your 
Scheme, as to be able to Speak pertinently of it. Indeed 
those whose Judgment is of Value, are apt to be cautious 
of hazarding it: But for my Part, I shall, without Re- 
serve, give you my Thoughts as they rose, knowing by 
Experience that you make large candid Allowances to 
your Friends. In a Post or two more I shall send 
them, with M'" Logan's Sentiments, if he will give them 
me, as I intend to see him in a few Days. D'" Mitchel 
(as you will see by the enclos'd, which please to return 
me) is gone to England. I have sent one of your Pieces 
to M-- Rose 

I wish our Governor would go to Albany, for I im- 
agine the Indians have some Esteem for him. But he 
is very infirm of late; and perhaps your Governor has 
not invited him in such a Manner as to make him 
think his Company would be really acceptable. Of this, 
however, I know nothing. If you go, I heartily wish you 
a safe and pleasant Journey, with Success in your Nego- 
ciations. I am, with much Respect, Sir 

Your most hum" Serv* 
Philad^ July 10, 1746 B Franklin 


The Hon" Cadwallader Golden Esq^ 
Free ^^^ York 

B Fkankun 

Cadwallader Golden to James Alexander 

j)Q^ gr Albany July 23-^ 1746 

I have yours of the 14*^ by M"" Livingston I am 
much obliged to you for your care of my litle affairs. I 

228 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174a-1747 

think it may be proper to send one of the Bills, by your 
ship way of Jamaica & for that purpose I give you the 
trouble of a line to M"" CoUinson The Gov'" came ashoar 
at this place yesterday & in the afternoon was presented 
with two Scalps of French men killed in the sight of the 
French Fort at Croun Point & the Scalp taken off one 
of them at noon day within a hundred paces of the Gate 
The party consisted only of two Onondagas & one 
Oneydo Their Capf" on this occasion made a speech to 
His ExcelF wherein he set forth his grief at hearing of the 
Bloodshed of his Brethren by the French Indians. That 
he was in hopes from the great Professions of Friendship 
by the Mohawks that they would have revenged this 
Injury but as he found their friendship was more in 
their lips than in their hearts his heart could bear no 
longer & therfor he was resolved to open the Path for 
revenge which he had now don by taking these two 
Scalps at noon day in sight of the French Garison at 
Croun point His ExceU^ has rewarded them to their 
Satisfaction & bestow'd the name of the Opener of the 
Path on the Capt'' which to him is equal to a Knighthood 
We have now several parties of Indians out against the 
French so that I hope the Indian affairs may go better 
than was expected I am 


Cadwallader Golden 


James Alexander Esq 

New York 

From Samuel Johnson 

Stratford July 24, 1746 

I now fulfill my promise to you in sending Bp Berk- 
ely De Motis which I doubt not but you will read & 
consider with that Care & exactness with which it appears 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 229 

you wrote your self, & then I shall be glad of your 
opinion of it when you have throughly canvassed it, for 
it appears to me to be a Curious piece & to deserve 
two or three readings, it being wrote in a very close & 
concise Stile. — I hope to have given a better ace* of your 
piece by this time, but I have lent it to two or 3 think- 
ing men in these parts & have not had opportunity to 
give it a second reading. As soon as it is returned to 
me, I have engaged it to the president of y^ College. — I 
herewith Send you a Copy of my late peice of Morals, 
Such as it is, & shall be thankful to you to Suggest any 
Corrections that it stands in need of (which doubtless are 
many) there being some discourse at Boston, I hear of a 
Second Impression. — I am 

S"" y'" most humble Serv* 

Sa. Johnson. 

To C. Golden Esq"- 

Cadwallader C olden to Mrs. C olden 

Albany July 24*^ 1746 
My Dear 

We did not get to this place till Monday afternoon 
& did not go a shoar till tuesday morning. I am now at 
Capt'' Rutherfords but their house is not very convenient 
& I am affray'd it may be troublesome to them M''^ Ruth- 
erford has had a violent headack ever since I came but 
was better last night The Indians are not arived to meet 
the Gov'" nor no accounts from them. His Excelly in the 
afternoon of the day he came a shoar was presented with 
two French men's Scalps taken in sight of the Gate of 
Croun point Fort by three of our Indians so that we now 
begin to make reprisals & [severa] 1 of our Indians are 
out against the French I am [told] near 30 in number in 
3 or 4 parties. Now you have all the [ne]ws since my 
arival. I have my health perfectly well [since] I can 
frequently hear of your health & the Childrens [I can] 

230 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

pass the time with less regrett at a distance from you 
[than I] expected because I am likely to get my thoughts 
constantly imploy'd Remember me affectionately to the 
Children You tell me that you do not love short letters 
but you must excuse me at this time for both my time & 
thoughts are imploy'd so as to take theni off from all 
those subjects that are most agreable to my taste I am 

Your most affectionate 
Cadwallader Golden 


M''^ Golden at 


24 July 1746 — The ComT' of Indian Affairs Answer 
to his Ex^' Order in Council 23 July 1746. 
Read in Council 24 July 1746. 

Present Att a Meeting of the Commission- 

Myndert Schuyler ers of Indian Affairs the 24^^ Day 
Hendrick Ten Eyck of July 1746 
John Depeyster 
John Lansingh Ju*" 
Dirck Tenbroeck 
Cornelis Cuyler 
Esq" Com'-" 

In Answer to the Order of his Excellency and Coun- 
cil of the 23*^ Instant By what appears to us the Indians 
are Unwilling to engage in the War Carrying on against 
the French in Canada as we have acquainted his Ex- 
cellency from time to time according to the Information 
we received as may appear by our Minutes 

That the four Block Houses which were burnt down 
at Saratoga are rebuilt New Stockadoes sett up, New 
Gates made A Large House built in the middle of the 
Fort the length of three Boards for the Indians, A Good 
Large Oven to bake Bread in, But no Well we know off, 
No particular Place made for keeping Gun Power free 
from Danger, Only one of the Chimneys is carried up to 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 231 

a proper height, No Bricks being to be gott in the Winter 
Season when the fort was rebuilt We know not of any 
Surgeon appointed to take Care of the Sick in Saratoga 

By Order of the Com" 
of Indian Affairs 
Ja. Stevenson D S 
of Ind" Aff-" 

The Examination of an Indian 


Cadwallader Colden 
The Hon''^ 4 P. Livingston 

Jno Rutherfurd 


an Indian who came from Saraghtoga being called in 
was examined as followeth viz^ 

he was asked how long he was going to Crown Point, 
he answered 7 days 

ab^ 6 early in the morning 3 Indians out of 7 went 
near the Fort at Crown Point That this Indian went to 
drink & returnd ag" whereupon another with him went 
to drink ag" & then they heard a Gun fir*^ & that a French 
man was killed, but cou'd not be scalp'd upon Ace* of a 
number of People sallying from the Fort. 

He was asked if he saw any Tents or any appearance 
of an Army near the Fort or ab^ the River, to w'^^ he an- 
swered he saw no Tents or Wigwams, but fires 

That there was a great many Indians at Crown point 
& that a 1000 more were expected & when they arrived 
they woud take Council w^ to do. 

He was asked how came it to pass that his Comrade 
was allow'd to escape from the French after he was taken 

232 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174S-1747 

he answered that some Indians were for killing him, 
but the Casnawaja Indians prevented his Death & ob- 
tained his Releasement. 

he was asked why one was kept a prisoner & the other 
let go 

he answered that the one who gott free had a Bro"" 
among the French, who interceded for his Liberty. 

he was asked if he saw any Trail of Indians going 
or coming from Crown point, he answered not any. 

he was asked where the other Indians were gone, he 
sayd to protect a Farmers harvest on the Flats. 

He was asked if he w'^ go & range the woods as out 
Scouts with the white People he answered he was willing 
if his Brethren woud go 

That he went of himself to Crown point & when he 
declared he woud go the People of the Country advised 
him to it. 

If he thinks his Comrades will go a Scouting 

Cadwallader C olden to Mrs. Golden 

Albany July 29*^ 1746 
My Dear 

I wrote to you last week You must excuse me if my 
letters be shorter than you expect for there is something 
allmost every hour to take up my time because I find 
it necessary to think of more than what properly belongs 
to me. The Com'^ from Boston are ariv'd with whom 
we are obliged to be in frequent conference & we meet 
with more difficulties from the Indians than was expected 
& we are told of an Army of the Ennemy at Croun point. 
This place is very sickly with the Small Pox M'^^ Ruther- 
ford has been unwell ever since I came but I hope is now 
better. The Indian Sachems are not yet come to Albany 
nor are we certain when they will arive. In short there is 
litle business done yet but a great deal to do Remember 
me affectionately to the Children. They all must excuse 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 233 

my writing to them at this time I am in perfect good 
health & have as much spirit as ever I had in my 
youth I am 

Your most affectionate 
Cadwallader Colden 
I have receiv'd our 
son Alexanders of the 24* 
of July I hope he'l write as 
frequently as he can 

M^'s Golden at 

To be left at Newburgh with 
M"" Alexander Colden or To 
the care of Richard Nich- 
olls Esq Post Master at 
New York 
R - d 13 August 2nd 

Aaron's Examination before y^ Commissions^ 

Present Att A Meeting of the Commission- 

Myndert Schuyler ers of Indian Affairs the 19* of 
NicoLAES Bleeker July 1746 
Reyer Gerritse 
John depeyster 
Dirk TenBroeck 


John Lansingh Junr 
Hend^ Ten Eyck 

Aaron a Mohawk Indian who had been at Canada 
with many other Indians of the Six Nations, being Re- 
turned Appeared before this board and After bidding him 
Wellcome was asked what he went to do at Canada and 
what observations he had made there Said after he and 
his Company Arrived at Canassadaga, and were Intro- 
duced amongst the Indians with their usual formalities 
They told the french Indians they were come to Speek 
with them upon the Invitation they had received from 

234 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

them They Answered they had not Invited them, But 
their priest had Sent a message to them without their 

Aaron Said he Expected the french Indians would 
Speek to them first, but when they perceived they would 
not, They told what was their business That they were 
come to see what they meant to Engage in the War, for 
they were at peace and in Strict Alliance with one an- 
other not only as Allies but Brethren of the same flesh 
and Blood, and that none of one Nation but of all the Six 
nations together. They told them they were ashamed 
that they had been so foolish to shed one another's Blood 
in former times that the same body ought not to prey on 
it Self, That this was a war Entered into by the Two 
Kings of England and franco and that their Nations 
were to Stand neuter. Therefore they desired them to 
Consider what they were about, for It might return on 
their own heads, For they must Expect It would oblidge 
them to begin and If once the Indians Engage in war 
amongst themselves they will never leave off but Con- 
tinue the war while one of the six Nations are alive, 
Altho' the white people Should make peace Amongst 
themselves and this they repeated Three times, and de- 
sired they would return to their Sences for they Spoake 
in name of all the Six Nations Then they threw down a 
Belt and Told them they would say the same to all the 

Next day the french Indians Answered 

It is All true you have said, we are in Alliance with 
one another, we acknowledge our forefathers have been 
asleep or drunk and what you have said three times over 
is All True, But It Cannot be helped now, For your 
Father the King of England took Cape Breton last year 
and then our Father the Governour of Canada putt the 
Hatchet into our hands, and we Could not refuse It For 
if we Should sit still, till he be killed then we would 
all be dead men, so we Choose to die with him, for he has 
Always Carried us under his Arm. 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 235 

As soon as we received this Answer we proceeded to 
Caghnawage and on our Way thither mett with some 
Orondax Indians who had Two Scalps which they had 
gott from some mahikanders which the Mahikanders had 
gott At Green Bush, The Orondax themselves had been 
out butt gott neither prisoners nor scalps. When we 
Came to Caghnawage and the usual formalities past We 
Intended to Speak first but they prevented us and for- 
bid us to Speak Saying We will not hear you before 
the Governour has heard what you have to Say So you 
must Speak to him first. 

We were altogether in One house They in one End and 
we in the other we Called to one of the french Indians 
and Shewed them the Wampum we had received from the 
gray head, and asked them whether that was not the 
Wampum they Sent to Invite us to Speak with 
them They Answered no, but it was the Wampum they 
had Sent to Lett us know they had Entered in the 
War. from Caghnawage we went to montreal where we 
were told the Governour would be in five days But we 
waited Twenty five days before he came and then it was 
Two days more before we spoake with him 

First we Condoled the death of Severall great persons 
According to Custom, but we had resolved to Speak of 
no message sent to us, but only of our Old Treaties which 
we did with Eight Belts of Wampum we said we are 
Come once more to pay what we Have so often said 
before, we were here last year but since that much mis- 
chief is done to Our Brethren and the path Stopt, There- 
fore we come to See If It Cannot yet be laid aside, and 
the path kept open and Clear, for If Butt one of our 
people be killed then the War can never Stop while one of 
us Live, and this is the Last time we will Treat about it, 
here they gave a Belt. 

The Governour Answered Next day 
I have heard what you Say concerning the Treaties be- 
tween me & you. You Always Said that Ossweego must 
remain and that the path must be kept open; on your 

236 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Account, I have let Osweego house remain till now, never- 
theless I will do as I think proper for the future. 

What you say of keeping the Path open, That your 
Governour has Stopt, for when I sent Ambassadors to 
Boston they were not suffered to go through, and were 
not permitted to sell their own Beaver which was Con- 
trary to the Treaties Subsisting, there they sitt you may 
ask them, your Request cannot be granted I will hear no 
more on that Subject, what do you mean by Sending 
your people To Saratoga I will not Suffer you to do It, 
do you think to Encroach on my Country by degrees, I 
tell you, you must withdraw your people from thence, for 
I am determined to fight to the Last, Therefore take 
away your People from Saratoga that they be not killed 
there. Upon the Governour of Canada's telling us this 
we perceived nothing was to be done so we made ready 
and came away as fast as we could. The Orondax took 
up their Bundles and told the governour they would go 
Ly on the Rifts and see to gett Prisoners. So they think 
they narrowly Escaped. 

Aaron Says further that a Caghnawage Indian who was 
friend and not Inclined to Enter into the War told him 
in private That Montreal Was Full of far Indians and 
That An Expedition was Intended against Albany, That 
as soon as they (That is Aaron and his Company) were 
gone An Army would Sett out with All Speed, That they 
were still Expecting More Indians, but That none would 
be sent out a scalping Till the Expedition was Ready 

A True Copy Examined 

and Compared by 

Ja. Stevenson D S of Ind° Aff'"' 

From Peter Collinson 

My Dear S' ^'">'' ^"S' ^' '^^ 

I was Delighted to read y'^ of 20"" June Ult° and hope 
in a few Days to Receive y'^ packett w°^ I shall communi- 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 237 

cate only to those that are able to comprehend your 
Scheme & I hope to give you their Sentiments 

At the Surpriseing phenomenon of Electricity En- 
gages the Vertuosi in All Europe I here Send you for the 
%ent what has been done in France & with us, I have 
marked those Experiments that I have felt & can vouch 
for the Facts — but there is a great Variety of others too 
Long to tell you in a Letter 

Doc"" Mitchell Is here & finds great amendment — I 
heartyly wish Success may attend your Expedition Some 
Short acco^ of It will be very acceptable — By the Death 
of the King of Spain Wee hope for some favourable Turn 
in our publick affairs a Battle in Flanders is Dayly Ex- 
pected which will ^adventure Determine the Fate of 
Europe as to peace or Warr But Wee hope Good provi- 
dence will Influene the First Which Wee all Desire — Our 
Legislator at ^sent is very Busie in Doing Justice to the 
Rebel Lords & Commons by the takeing Secretary Many 
a Large Laid deep Designe is Discover'd to overthrow 
our present happy Establishment I with many others 
are much concern'd that Some provinces has Such poor 
Mercenary Creaturs appointed ov'" them Gov*" Shir- 
ley is Deservedly Admired whose name will ever be Dear 
to posterity M'" Scroope is So much Engaged that I 
never could Learn his Sentiments y"" Curious papers are 
under the perusal & M'" Rockcliff Merc* who resided some 
Time ago in Philadelphia when I have them from Him 
My Lord Lonsdale is Desirous to peruse them who is a 
Nobleman of uncommon Genius & Devotes his Time to 
all Sorts of Natural Inquiries, your Tract of Gravity may 
not be unacceptable & to, the Earl of Macclesfield & our 
president & to the Ingenious M'' Grayham as Vegitables 
happen in y*" way gather Seeds by way of amusement I 
hope the French at least will not be behind hand in their 
Complements for y'' Favors 

After our Worthy friend M"" Alexander has perused 
the Electrical papers I have desired to oblige you with the 
perusal of them I am Truly y'^ _^ ^ 

[Indorsed] P COLLINSON 

Doer Golden 


238 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Cadwallader Golden to Mrs. Golden 

Albany Aug 4*'^ 1746 
My Dear 

I have yours of the 26''' of July John's of the 27*^ & 
Alex'"'' of the 28*'' This is the third I have wrote to you 
since I came to this place & goes by way of Esopus. John 
in his tells me that a letter was thrown a shore from me 
Yours gives me the greatest pleasure to learn that you are 
all in health & is the greatest Satisfaction I have had 
since I came to the place We are constantly imploy'd 
about something or other but it will be hard to say what 
we have don. The Indians are not yet arived but I hear 
they are now very near & that we may expect them to- 
morrow if they be not stopt by the Interpreters sickness 
who we hear is very ill. By John's Account of the Farm 
work we must expect to meet with many disapointments 
this year but we must live in hopes that the future will 
be better. I have not time to write to him nor to any 
else & I must leave every concern of my family to you 
& indeed I have no uneasiness about it from the long ex- 
perience I have had of your care. I am as well in every 
respect as I can be in this place my time is divided allmost 
between the Gov''^ house & Capf" Rutherfords & I can 
assure you that I have all the diversion that the time & 
place will allow & that I have not in many years been 
more cheerfull nor my health better tho' the place be a 
litle sickly no doubt it is magnified by reports but none 
of our acquaintance have had any uneasiness except M''^ 
Rutherford who still continues ill of a slow nervous fever 
The troops are now drawing together here so that in a 
litle time we shall have great numbers of men christians 
& Indians about this place. Gen' Gouch has been taken ill 
& does not come we know not who is to command in 
his place M"" Thomas Gov'" of Pensylvania is talkt of but 
I know of no foundation for it. Capt" Rutherford & his 
Lady make their complements to you all & so does D"" 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174^-1747 239 

Colhoun Remember me affectionately to Alex'" & Cad & 
their wives Jane Alice John David & Katy I shall be 
pleas'd to hear from them seperately tho I cannot prom- 
ise to answer their letters. Coll Gaasbeek & M'" Crook 
are here to make interest the one for his son the other 
for his brother to be Lieutenants under Broadhead & I 
suppose they have succeeded. Pray take care of your 

self as you love ^;r j. cc 4.- ^ 

•^ Your most anectionate 

Cadwallader Golden 

Cadwallader C olden to Mrs. Golden 

My Dear ^■'^^^^ ^"^ 1«* "^^ 

My last to you was by way of Esopus I have only 
one from you of the 26*^ of last month. I have con- 
tinued in perfect good health ever since I left you & 
now the long expected Indians are at last come but the 
Gov'" has not as yet spoke to them But the greatest 
uneasiness is from our not knowing who is to be General 
since Gouch cannot come & from our hearing nothing 
of the Fleet One day as the Gov'" complain'd of the 
trouble he had with the Provisions & that he did not 
know who to trust I took the opportunity to recommend 
my son to be Commissary for Provisions. This as I take 
it will be more profitable then a Capt"^ Commiss" as it 
usually has a good Sallary annexed to it but the Commis- 
sion cannot be made certain till the General arive be- 
cause perhaps he may have the nomination but tho' it 
should be so the Gov""^ Interest with Capt" Rutherfords 
& my own my obtain it if he do not bring one with him 
For this purpose I would have had Cadwallader to come 
to this place under pretence to visit me but in reality 
to be in readiness to receive the Commiss" & enter on the 
duty at the Gen^^ arival But upon reflection that the 
small Pox is all over this toun I cannot wish to see him 
here for if he get the small pox & he can hardly hope to 
escape it, that will disable him from receiving the Com- 

240 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

miss" besides the danger of his life. I cannot tell that 
Alex'" would receive such a Commiss" because they must 
go along with the Army but I could more freely recom- 
mend him to it than Cad because he is more used to busi- 
ness & will require much writing & exactness of Accounts. 
I leave it to you & them to do as you shall think proper 
because I cannot advise any further it is attended with so 
many uncertainties only I would not let such an offer pass 
without giving my children an oppertunity of using it if 
they think fit. The sloop is going & obliges me to break 
off & write in a hurry M""^ Rutherford is much better. 
Remember me affectionately to all the Children A 
Party of Capt" Macintosh's men suffer'd themselves to be 
foolishly surprised by the French Indians & have lost nine 
men kill'd. This will keep all more upon their Guard. 
Pray take care of your self Keep your self from un- 
easy thoughts about me for I am in every respect safe & 
as well as I can be from my own family I am 

Your most affectionate 

[Indorsed] CadWALLADER CoLDEN 


M" Golden at 

To be left with M^" Alexander 
Golden at Newburgh 
or R,ich<^ NichoUs Esq at 
New York. 
4 Rd August 19 

Cadwullader Colden to Mrs. Colden 
yr -pj Albany Aug IT^ Munday 1746 

I was exceedingly pleas'd to have yours by Frank 
Beatty for I was desirous of a safe hand to send the 
inclosed which I had wrote yesterday. Open that di- 
rected to Alex'' & you'l find one within it for your self. 
I am obliged to be at a Conference with the Boston 
Com*"^ by nine this morning & we are now in the heighth 
of our Business with the Indians & therefor I must still 
make a short letter. I cannot think that any report 
of my going to Crown point would forward the Levies 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 241 

if I had any inclination to it perhaps I might propose to 
my self what some others would be very desirous off 
but my desires at present are confined to my own family 
& I wish soon with you but when that shall be I cannot 
tell. However you'l find by the inclosed that one of your 
son's may have an opportunity of seeing Crown point & 
perhaps Canada too if they will therefore I must desire 
an answer to the inclosed as to either of their inclinations 
to accept of being Commissary for Provisions as soon as 
possible & if they like it either of them they had best 
come immediately up under pretence to see me for I 
think we cannot be much longer under the uncertainties 
we now are. The small Pox only lays me under difficul- 
ties as to Cad for if he should get that it will entirely 
disapoint all But notwithstanding that I make no doubt 
of the Gov" Disposition to serve me in this It may 
entirely depend on the General & we still know not 
who will be General We think probably one from Eng- 
land who comes with the fleet & we have no certainty of 
the Arival of the Fleet as yet. The Quarter of the 
Meadow should be now sown as soon as may be & I wish 
the other could be plowd so as to sow this fall but the 
summer fallow must not be neglected Put two plows 
in if you can & get what assistance of hands you can if 
necessary to thrash & clean the seed. I have yours of the 
26*^ of last & 2*^ of this month, I have wrote several 
w'''' I find are not come to hand Remember me affection- 
ately to all the Children I long much to be with you & 
them I am 

Your most affectionate 
Cadwallader Colden 
M'"^ Rutherford is much 
better & I believe would be soon well if she 
could hear of a Peace I wrote one letter to you 
by M"" Crook way of Esopus 


M" Golden at 

5 R - d Aug. 19 

242 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Information of the State of Canada Taken at Albany 

[Memoranda of Cadwallader Golden] 

Aug. 1746 
M"" Hansen was at Chambly in 1738 and at Montreal 1736 
M"" J Cuyler at Quebec in the Winter 1726 
The River as he is inform'd that the River never freezes 
fast at Quebec but the River full of Ice 
At a 100 foot from the Wall of Quebec any vessel may 
ride the Water rise 8 or 9 foot upon the Wall & at low 
Water may fall 50 foot 

In the Bay below the toun the tide leaves the bay dry 
sand & the Creek may be passed but within musket shot of 
the Toun 

In the land the Creek is deep & Intrenchments on the 
South side of the Creek 

It is impossible to land above Quebec on the Northside 
from Quebec to 12 leagues above it at a place called Pla- 
ton the Banks being a high precipice 
Vessels as big as the Albany sloops go up to Montreal of 
about 40 foot keel go up to Montreal & they have seen 
small vessels from the West Indies there 
The Lake above Trois rivieres is shallow 
They seldom sail in the night in loaded Vessels 
A Loaded Vessel cannot by force of oars be carried up to 
Montreal without Wind 

The strong stream is from Montreal to sorel 15 leagues 
sometimes a Vessel may be a Month from Quebec to 

Montreal surrounded with a Wall & Bastions The Wall 
every where made thick with earth fill'd in upon the 
back of it No Ditch without the Wall 
Twice as many men at Montreal than at Quebec 
The length of Montreal 2200 paces towards the land & 
about a quarter of that on the opposite side 
Not above 350 houses in Montreal 
30 companies in Canada each of 30 or 28 & these are 
dispersed some of them in all the Indian County 
The Island of Montreal full of People 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 243 

About 150 men at La prairie the finest land in Canada 
More people between Trois rivieres and Montreal than 
between Trois rivieres & Quebec 

About 200 Cachnuaga 100 Kanessedaga & about 300 of 
other including wenaquuga 
About 2 or 3000 men on the Island 
Trois rivieres a small place not so big as Schenectady 
more people under the Gov* of Montreal than in the Gov* 
of Qubec 

M'' Hanson thinks that the French & Indians may make 
10000 men & he does not think they can make 15000 
No settlement above 2 leagues from the River He com- 
putes that there are more men in the Province of New 
York than in all Canada 

One privateer with 150 men may destroy all to Quebec 
The mouth of the river at Crown point between 3 & 400 
yds wide 

An exceeding bad road between Chambly & La prairie 12 
miles a bad road miry & full of roots of trees. 

An intended speech to be made at our last conference 
w^^ ye Indians in August 1746 

It is at the desire of His Excellency Governour Clin- 
ton, whom our Father the King has appointed to repre- 
sent him in this His Majesty's Colony of New York, That 
we the Com'"^ of the Province of the Massachusets Bay 
are here at this time, and it is with his Consent that we 
speak to you now in this plan: We were very desirous 
to have join'd together, and that His Excellency should 
have spoken to you in our Name, as well as for himself 
and this People, as His Majesty's Governour here; but 
the Kings Service makes a longer stay necessary for the 
Governour, than is requisite for us, by which as he will 
have opportunity to speak to more of You, than he can 
now, so he will also be able to speak more fully about 
some Particulars, than he can at this time; We assure 
you, it is not because we have different tho'ts or Views; 
for we act in concert, and there is a perfect Harmony 

244 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

between this Government & the Massachusetts *Bay, 
which we represent, 

We do therefore now express our great joy, that we 
see so many of our Antient and unfailing Friends & Breth- 
ren met together, and we heartily bid you welcome. 

We do also, in behalf of his Majesty's good Subjects 
of the Province of the Massachusetts Bay, Ratify con- 
firm & establish all former Treaties, covenants & en- 
gagments with You, for yourselves and for the Six united 
Nations, assuring You that we shall ever hold the same 
Sacred and inviolable and that we depend upon the 
same from you 

A Belt of Wampum. 

We meet you in this interview in consequence of our 
former Alliance & Covenants, to consult and mutually 
assist each other in carrying on an Expedition against the 
French our inveterate Enemies in Canada; This Enter- 
prize our Gracious Father the King has engaged in, to 
deliver you & us his Children from the Murders and 
other Cruelties, Our Old and Constant Enemies the 
French in Canada, have always been bringing & en- 
deavoring to bring upon us, You and we too, have at one 
time or other tasted deeply of their cruel & inhuman 
Dispositions, and we must expect always to do it, when 
it is any way in their Power, for it is their avowed and 
sworn principal to destroy all Hereticks, that is, all that 
use their Reason, will believe only the Truth, & reject and 
Despise Lyes & Ridiculous Falshoods, of which their 
Religion is in a great Measure made up. You and we are 
all Witnessess How glad we should have been to have 
lived in Peace with the eastern & Cagnawago Indians, 
but these our restless Enemies the French, never left till 
they constrained those Indians to do mischiefs & com- 
mit Murderous Cruelties upon us contrary to the most 
solemn Covenants ratify'd, Establisht & Sealed by Belts 
of Wampum in the most Publick manner, & with all other 
the most Sacred & binding Ceremonies possible Our 
Gracious Father the King has determined, by the help 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 245 

of God, to deliver you and us from these French: this 
Thorn in our sides, & he calls for your help as well as 
ours, & particularly expresses his Confidence & Expecta- 
tions of your whole weight in this Expedition ; Think of 
your Country which the French have ravag'd & plundred, 
Remember your Fathers whom these Merciless Enemies 
Murdered at Mount Royal in cold Blood, and put to the 
most exquisite Torments. Our Father the King feels 
our Soverings for us, and can no longer bear them, but 
is resolved to revenge our Wrongs; Let us not be want- 
ing to our selves: let us consider the prospect we have 
of Success, a great Number of Ships and Forces already 
arrived and waiting at Cape Breton, a much greater 
Number of both hourly expected from England, where 
we have certain advice they lay ready for Sealing above 
two Months ago: The united force of this Government 
of New York, The Jerseys Pensylvania, Maryland and 
Virginia by Land : The Massachusetts Bay, New Hamp- 
shire, Connecticut and Rhode Island by Sea, Each Sin- 
gle Government except two, superior in Number to all 
Canada; & taken together at least twenty to one: and 
what are their Indians compared with you, & your Allies. 
Be the true Successors of your Fathers. Let their Bravery 
animate You, they never had an Enemy that rose against 
or abused you, but they made them repent, or destroyed 
them ; The Blood of Your and our Father calls for Ven- 
gance: God has heard it and opened a Door, Let us 
follow providence and never leave till wee have brought 
the French in Canada to repentance & an incapacity to 
renew their Old Crimes, or have destroy'd them, God 
has owned our Kings righteous cause. The French King 
pretended great Friendship while the War was carry- 
ing on against Spain, but all at onct declared war. Yet our 
King has had great Success; He has taken a vast Num- 
ber of the French Ships, ruined their Trade, broke their 
Merchants taken Cape Breton their Strongest Fortress 
in America, can starve Canada by keeping out all Sup- 
plies at his Pleasure, This Year the French pretended 
to invade great Britain & sent a Poor Beggar from 

246 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Rome a biggotted Papist to be our King, but what has 
become of this Project, the French are all taken Prison- 
ers, The Poor Rebels cut to Pieces or in chains except 
a few miserable wretches that are Sculking about in Holes 
to avoid our Kings Son the Duke of Cumberland who 
beat and distroyed them. 

Consider what you will get if you lie still & do noth- 
ing the French can neither supply You nor themselves 
but at the Pleasure of our King, a Number of the Kings 
Ships will be always about Cape Breton, these can easily 
stop the Mouth of Canada River, & no Supplies can 
come any other way, if it should be said, that the 
French King will take Cape Breton back again, any 
body may reply he must first look our Fleet in the 
Face, which he has not been able to do these fifty 
Years, nor have the French and Spaniards both together 
dared to do it all this War the French can do nothing 
against Cape Breton, but by a Superior Force at Sea, 
which they are very far from having Our Father the 
King treats you and us as his Subjects & his Children, 
& offers to fit us out with Arms Ammunition Clothing 
& every thing we want to be his Soldiers Let us like Men 
take up the Hatchet fight his Battles & Pray and not 
doubt but the God of Armies will be with us & prosper 
us. This is what you promist in the last Treaty as well 
as before. This is to Act like your selves, Men of Bravery 
& Honour. 

A Belt with a Wampum Hatchet. 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 247 


Propositions made by his Excel- 
lency The Honourable George 
Clinton Esq"" Captain Generaland 
Governour in Chief in an over the 
Province of New York &c. 
At Albany the 19: Aug* 1746 

His Excellency 

Cadwallad'' Colden 
Philip Livingston 
John Rutherford 
Esq'"" of the Council 
The Commissioners from the Govemm* of the Mass- 

achusets Bay 
The Commissioners for Indian Affairs 
The Mayor & Corporation of Albany 
And Several Gentlemen attending his Excellency 

and the 
Commissioners upon this occasion 
His Excellency addressed himself to the Indians as 

I am glad to see so many of our Ancient Friends here 
& I heartily bid you wellcome. 
Three Strings of Wampum 
I have calFd you to this place for two great ends, in which 
the Province of the Massachusets Bay have sent Com- 
missioners to concur with me, who are here present. 

The first is to renew the Covenant Chain with You, 
and I now by this Belt in your Father the King of Great 
Britains Name, in behalf of all his Majestys Subjects in 
North America, renew & confirm the Covenant Chain, 

248 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 - 

& all former Treaties & engagements entered into with 
you. This Chain has from the beginning remained so 
firm and strong, that it has never once broke or slipt since 
it was first made, & we, on our parts, shall endeavour that 
it remain so, unshaken, as long as the Sun & Moon shall 

Chain Belt 

Last fall I told you that his Majesty's Subjects in this 
Country, had the Summer before lain still without at- 
tempting anything against the French Settlements; but 
that the French had by Surprize Attacked & destroyed 
a small place near Cape Breton belonging to us. 

That they afterwards laid Siege to Annapolis Royal 
and were beat off. 

I likewise told you that the Governour of the Mass- 
achusets Bay, in Conjunction with Connecticut, & New 
Hampshire had, in Revenge to these Injuries, sent an 
Army against Louisbourg in the Island of Cape Breton, 
that this Army was Joined by a Number of his Majestys 
Ships of War, under the Command of Your Friend Ad- 
miral Warren. I told you that the Town of Louisbourg, 
which is the strongest the French have in America, was 
reduced by this Force, & that the French there, had sur- 
rend*^ themselves, and their Country to the English. 

I likewise told you, how we, in this part of y^ Coun- 
try, had lain still, hopeing that the French in Canada 
would either be quiet or carry on the War in a manly 
manner, & after the manner of Christians, & to induce 
them thereto, a Message had been sent from this place, to 
the Governour of Canada, to tell him that if he should 
revive the inhumane Custom of Murdering private Peo- 
ple, by Sculking Indians, that the several Governours of 
His Majesties Colonies together with You our Brethren 
of the Six Nations wou'd join, and make reprisals on 
them in the like manner, at which time You Publickly 
declared, that if any of his Majestys Subjects in any 
of his Governments should be Killed by any Indians, you 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 249 

would immediately join in the War, against them and the 

And last fall when I delivered the Hatchet into your 
Hands, you told me and confirm'd it with a Belt, that you 
would send some of your People (who were then ready) 
to Canada to demand satisfaction and that if Satisfaction 
were refused you would use the Hatchet against them 
when ever I should Order it, & you further promis'd that 
if the Enemy shou'd commit any further hostilities you 
wou'd then (upon my commands) immediately maJke 
use of the Hatchet. 

I need not tell You how far the French have been 
from giving any Satisfaction, on the contrary, you are 
all well informed of the Cruel & barbarous murders that 
have been committed, since that time, by the French 
& Indians at Saraghtoga and in the Neighbourhoods 
of this place & on the Frontiers of New England. And 
as you have not hitherto Fullfill'd your promises, I sus- 
pect that they did not come from your hearts; I therefore 
by this Belt demand an immediate performance of your 
promises to show that they come from the bottom of your 
hearts, as all the promises I make come from mine & ever 


I shall next inform you of some other particulars 
Before this War broke out, between your Father the King 
of Great Britain & the French King, The French pre- 
tended great Friendships to our King, and that they were 
very desirous to make up all differences between our 
King, and the King of Spain who were then at War to- 
gether; when on a sudden The French declared War 
against the King Your Father, in hopes to catch him 
unprepared ; but as he well knew how little trust was to 
be put in French professions of Friendship, they did not 
find him unprepared, as they hoped: On the Contrary 
they found the Seas almost covered with his Majesties 
ships of War, and great numbers of the French ships 

250 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

were every Where taken, and their Merchants thereby- 

Last fall the French by artfull insinuations, and flat- 
tering promises, perswaded a considerable Number of his 
Majesties Subjects who lived in remote Parts of the 
Country, at a great distance from his Majesties residence, 
to rise in Rebellion. The French giving them hopes of 
great Assistance in Men Money & Arms but (tho' the 
French sent them what assistance they could) these de- 
luded people were this Spring, attacked by our Kings 
Troops under the command of one of our Kings Sons, and 
they and the French were all cut to pieces or made 
Prisoners, except a few who escaped into the Moun- 
tains, and who have nothing now remaining of life, but to 
bewail the Misery they have brought upon themselves, 
their Wives, & Children, by trusting to such deceitfuU 
people as the French are. This may serve as a memorial 
to them who trust to French promises, and Know not to 
put a sufficient value on the Friendship & Protection of 
the King Your Father. 

I now come to the Second and Principal design of our 
present meeting In w"^ I hope & expect to find you hearty 
& United in Your Councils & Opinions A Belt. The 
King Your Father having been informed of the unmanly 
Murders committed on the Frontiers of New England, 
and of this Province, is resolved to Subdue the Coun- 
try of Canada, and thereby to put an end to all y^ mis- 
chievous designs of the French in these parts, and for 
this purpose, he has ordered his Governours of Virginia, 
Maryland, Pensylvania, & New Jersey, to join their 
Forces, to the Forces of this Province, to Attack Canada 
by Land. They are all now upon their March, & you 
will soon see them meet here. 

At the same time the Forces of the Massachusets Bay, 
Connecticot, Rhode Island, & New Hampshire, are to 
go in ships to Cape Breton, and their join with his 
Majesty s Ships of War, and a great Army of experi- 
enced Soldiers from Great Britain. Many Ships of War, 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 251 

are already arrived there, & some Thousands of Soldiers, 
many more Ships, & Thousands of Soldiers are following, 
and I expect every hour to hear of their Arrival, after 
which, the Attack upon Canada, will be made on all 
sides, both by Sea & Land. 

You may percieve that the King has ordered a 
strength sufficient of itself to subdue Canada, but at the 
same time, the King your Father, expects & Orders you 
his Children, to Join with your whole Force in this Enter- 
prize, & thereby gives the Six Nations, a glorious oppor- 
tunity, of Establishing their Fame & Renown over all the 
Indian Nations in America, in the conquest of Your In- 
veterate Enemies the French, who, however they may 
desemble, and profess Friendship, can never forget the 
Slaughter which your Fathers made of them, and for that 
purpose, caress those Nations, who have always been your 
most Inhumane Enemies, & who desire nothing so much 
as to see the Name of the Six Nations become decay'd, & 
forgot forever. 

The French, on all occasions, shew, that they Act 
against your Brethren the English like Men that know 
they dare not look them in the Face, in Day light, and 
therefore like Thieves steal upon poor People, who do 
not expect them in the Night, & consequently are not 
prepared for them; Your Brethren, in their Revenge, 
have acted like Men of Courage, they do not attack poor 
Farmers at their Labour; but boldly attempted the Re- 
duction of Louisbourg, the strongest Town the French 
had in America, in the Fortifying of which, they had 
spent above Twenty years, it was surrounded with strong 
walls, and Forts, in which they had planted their largest 
Cannon in every place, where, they thought the English 
could come near them, & Notwithstanding of all these 
precautions, and Advantages, they were forced to Sub- 
mit to the English Valour [Now we invite our Brethren 
to share with us, in the Glory of the Conquest, of your 
Cruel and Cowardly Enemies the French, in Canada] 
You must have heard from your Fathers, and I doubt 

252 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

not several of your Old Men still remember What the 
French did at Onondaga, How they Surprized your 
Countrymen, at Cadarackue. How they invaded the 
Sennekas, and what Mischief they did to the Mohawks. 
How many of Your Country Men have suffered by the 
fire at Montreal. Before they entered upon these cruel 
& mischievous Designs, they sent Priests among you to 
delude you & lull you asleep while they were preparing 
to knock you in the Head ; and I hear they are attempt- 
ing to do the same now. BELT I need not put you in 
mind what revenge Your Fathers took for these Injuries, 
when they put all the Island of Montreal, and a great 
part of Canada to Fire & Sword. Can you think that 
the French forget this. No they have the Ax privately in 
their hands ag^ you & use these deceitfull Arts, by which 
only, they have been able to gain advantage over you that 
by trusting to them, they may at some time or other, at 
one blow, remove from the Face of the Earth, the Re- 
membrance of a People, that have so often put them to 
shame & flight. If Your Fathers cou'd rise now out of 
their Graves, how would their hearts leap with joy to 
see this day, when so glorious an Opportunity is put into 
their Hands, to revenge all the Injuries their Country 
has receiv'd from the French, and to be never more ex- 
posed to their Treachery & deceit. I make no doubt 
you are the true Sons of such renowned & Brave Ances- 
tors, Animated with the same Spirit: for your Countrys 
Glory, and in revenge of the Injuries Your Fathers re- 
ceiv'd, incapable of being deluded by the Flattering 
Speeches of them, who always have been, & always must 
be, in their hearts, your Enemies, and who desire nothing 
more, than the Destruction of your Nations. I therefore 
invite you Brethren, by this Belt, to Join with us, and 
to share with us, in the honour of the Conquest of our, 
and your DeceitfuU Enemies, and that you not only Join 
aU the Force of the Six Nations with us, but, likewise 
invite all the Nations depending on you, to take a share, 
in this Glorious Enterprize. And I will Furnish your 
Fighting Men, with Arms, Ammunition, Cloathing, Pro- 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 253 

visions, and every thing Necessary for the War, and in 
their Absence shall take care of their Wives & Children 



You have seen how daring & insulting on you as well 
as us The French Indians have been in cruelly murdering 
several of our People since You have come to this Place 
and therefore for the many reasons now laid before you 
I make no doubt but your answer will clearly manifest 
your Duty to the King Your Father and your Love to 
your Brethren, and by this Belt I do assure you that our 
Intent is to live & die together, 


Propositions made by His Ex- 
celP^ The Honourable George 
Clinton Captain General & Gov- 
emour in Chief in and over the 
Province of New York &c^ to the 
River Indians, 
at Albany the 2P* August 1746. 

His Excellency 

Cadwallader Colden 
Philip Livingston 
John Rutherford 

Esq""^ of the Council 
The Commissioners from the Government of the 
Massachusets Bay 

The Commissioners for Indians Affairs 
The Mayor & Corporation of Albany 
And Several Gent" Attending his Excellency & the 
Commissioners upon this Occasion 
His Excellency address'd himself to y® Indians as 

254 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 


I am glad to meet you at this time as do likewise Com- 
missioners From the Massachusets Bay, who are come 
hither to concurr with me upon the present occasion, 
and I take this opportunity, to renew the ancient Cove- 
nant Chain with you, in behalf of this, and all his 
Majesty's Governments in America, which you know has 
always been kept bright, & clean, without any the least 
stain, or rust, and which by this Belt I strengthen 



My meeting you here, besides renewing the covenant 
chain, is with Intention, that you shou'd Join your Force, 
with ours, by taking up the Hatchet against our & your 
common Enemy's the French, & their Indians, who have 
in a very unmanly manner, by Sculking party's, mur- 
der'd in Cold Blood, many of your Brethren, in this & 
the Province of the Massachusets Bay. 

This behaviour lays us under a necessity of making 
Reprisals on them in the like manner, in w''^ I make no 
doubt of Your Assistance and we are resolved to take a 
thorough revenge of our, and your, perpetual Enemies, 
by reducing the Country of Canada, that it may never 
hereafter be in the power of these perfidious deceitfuU, 
and Cruel People, to do you, or us, any injury for the 
future. For which purpose, all the Neighbouring Colo- 
nies, together with many Ships of War, & Soldiers from 
Great Britain, are resolved to unite their Force & to 
Attack Canada in all parts, both by Sea & Land, & I 
make no doubt you will on this Occasion shew yourselves 
dutyfull Children, in joining heartily with us & the Six 
Nations in this glorious Enterprize, by which you will not 
only gain honour & Renown, but also Safety, & pros- 
perity, to yourselves Your Wives and Children for ever 
afterwards and for w°^ ends I will Furnish Your Fighting 
Men with Arms, Ammunition, cloathing. Provisions & 
everything necessary for the War. 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS-174a-1747 255 


Answer of the Six Nations to His 
Excellency the Honourable George 
Clinton Captain General and 
Govemour in Chief in and over 
the Province of New York &c &c* 
and to the Commissioners of the 
Massachusets Bay at Albany the 
23 Aug* 1746 


His Excellency The Hon^'^ George Clinton &c 
Cadwallader Colden 
Philip Livingston 
John Rutherford 

Jacob Wendell 
Sslid} Wills 

Esq""^ of his Majesty's Council 
for the province of New York 

Esq*"^ Commissioners for the 
Province of the Massachusets 
The Commissioners of Indian Affairs 
The Corporation 

The Officers of the Independent Company's 
The Officers of the New Levy's & 
Several other Gentlemen 
of the Massachusets Bay 
We the Six Nations are now assembled together as 
one, Man, & we take in the Messissagas for the seventh 
Nation, & what is now to be Spoken by one Mouth are 
the Joint & sincere thoughts of every heart 

We are pleas'd that you follow the Steps of our fore- 
fathers in wiping of the Sorrowfull Tears from our Eyes, 
by which the Stoppage of our throats is opened & the 
blody bed wash'd Cleane. 

256 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 



The first time we met together, we only Saluted each 
other by shaking of Hands, we afterwards made a Cove- 
nant Chain of Silver, which we mutually have held fast, 
to this day, shou'd it now Slip from either of our hands, 
it would prove destructive to both sides since our Ene- 
mies have drawn the Sword. 



Last Year you gave us the Hatchet to be made use of, 
against your Enemies, the French which we accepted & 
promised to make use of, if they should commit any far- 
ther Hostilities upon the English ; which they have now 
done, by destroying Saraghtoga & shedding a great deal 
of Blood, hitherto we have made no use of the Hatchet, 
but as you now call upon us, we are ready and do declare 
from the bottom of our hearts that we will from this day 
make use of it against the French and their Children 
(meaning their Indians) 

N. B. The question was Asked them by His Excel- 
lency whether (by the words their Children they meant 
all the Indians in Alliance with the French to which they 
answered yes) 

At the end of the foregoing Paragraph they threw 
down a war Belt of Wampum on the Ground it being 
the Indian custom to deliver War Belts or make decla- 
rations of War in that manner This they did with re- 
markable Indignation intending thereby to Express their 
resentment ag^* the French, & their Allies, & their Zeal 
for the English. 



According to your Exhortation in your Speech to us 
we are firmly united together & from this time to Act 
as having one Heart. The Messessagas are in the same 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 257 

manner Joined and united with us, likewise the Southern 
Nations bordering upon us, & we hope that you & the 
other Governours on the Continent will be in the same 
manner joined and united together. 

gave a belt 
They repeated over his Excellencys Speech in relation to 
the Conquest of Cape Breton, and hoped that our Fleet 
& Army may be also Victorious in the present Expedition 
against Canada, adding, that the French were a mis- 
chievous People, 

gave a Belt 

As to your Suspicions of our admitting French Priests 
among us they are become groundless, since we have now 
declared War against them, The admitting of Priests 
would only tend to lull us asleep, on the Contrary, shou'd 
any now dare to come, we know no use for him or them 
but to Roast them & the thoughts of the Treatment we 
formerly receiv'd from the French thro' the means of 
their Priests, & which you have now reasonably brought 
to our remembrance makes our Blood to Boile. 

This is the Second time you have put the Hatchet 
into our Hands, which we hereby accept and are ready 
to go upon Service, You may see that we have but a 
HandfuU of Fighting Men here at present, however 
some of them from each Nation, shall be left behind us, 
to follow your Orders : When we arrive at our Respective 
Castles, we shall send down a greater number of our 
Warriors, and of those of the Nations in Alliance with 
us, as soon as possible. 

This we assure you of from the truth & Sincerity of 
our Hearts & we receive & shall preserve this large Belt 
(holding it up at the sametime) which you have now 
given us, as a War Hatchett. 

This is the Belt (at the same time giving one of 
Union) with which we are to go hand in hand to the 
Gates of our Enemies and by it we declare our intention 
to Conquer or to Dye together in the Common Cause. 

258 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

There is a nation called the Messessagas whose 
delagates are here present they consist of Five Castles 
containing Eight hundred Men, who are all determined 
and do agree to Join us in this Common Cause against 
our Enemies the French & their Indians & we hope you 
& the Commissioners from Boston, will use them in such 
a manner that they will go home contented and Satisfied. 
Gave a Belt of Friendship 

Answer of the River Indians to 
His Ex°^ The Honble Geo: Clinton 
Cap* Gen. & Governour in Chief 
in and Over the Province of New 
York &c and to the Commission- 
ers of the Massachusets Bay at 
Albany y^ 26 August 1746. 
Cadwallader Colden 
Philip Livingston 
John Rutherford 

Esq*"^ of the Council 
The Commissioners for the Province of the Massa- 
chusets Bay 
The Commissioners of Indian Affairs 
The Corporation 

The Officers of the Independent Companys 
The Officers of the New raised Levys & Several other 

We are glad to see you, & we come to renew the Cove- 
nant Chain, and make it fast, and bright as ever and 
free from Rust, and as a Token thereof we give this belt. 

Gave a Belt. 

You have told us what mischief of the French have 
done, and what murders they have committed upon the 
Christians therefore we declare From our hearts & not 
From our Lips, that as you have ordered us to Shed the 
Enemys Blood in return for what they have done, we are 
resolved to do it & will hve and dye with you in the 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 259 

Comon Cause. When you Christians are at War, you 
make peace with one another, but it is not so with us, 
therefore we depend upon you to take care of us, in 
Confidence of which, we now take up the Hatchet, & will 
make use of it, against the French & their Indians. 
Gave a Belt with a Hatchet. 

Cadwallader Golden to Mrs. Golden. 

Albany Aug 20'^^ 1746 
My Dear 

I wrote to you this day by a sloop going down but 
having an opportunity of writing to M"" Hardenbergh I 
inclose this that you may know that I continue in per- 
fect health & as easy as I can be from my family & you. 
& under all the uncertainties we still remain of knowing 
nothing of the Fleet or who is to be General. However 
I must think that the Fleet is ariv'd by this time other- 
wise if any stop had been put to the Fleet we must have 
had express ships to give us an Account of it The Gov- 
emour has been ill but is recover'd. M*^^ Rutherford 
keeps brave & well but has not recover'd her strength 
They are waiting for this & I must break off with my 
affectionate remembrance of our children Only pray 
take care of your self that you may have a joyfuU meet- 
ing with 

Your most affectionate 


Mrs Golden at 

6th R - d Aug 30 

Gadwcdlader Golden to Mrs. Golden 

Aug. 20*^ past 10 at night 
My Dear 

I have yours of the 17*^ wherein you accuse me of 
negligence to your commands. If another fault of the 

260 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174^-1747 

same kind will excuse it by forgetfullness yesterday I 
made the Gov"" loose his Dinner to day. 
Curtise went away soon after the arival of the man of 
War from England when our heads were full of News 
The Express is arriv'd this night from Boston & I must 
go early tomorrow morning to Greenwich after having 
been in Council today both forenoon & afternoon till 
night. And to be in Council again tomorrow forenoon 
I therefor write this least I should not be able to do it 
tomorrow when the man who brought the letter left 
word he would call for an answer. All I can tell you at 
present is that I am in perfect health & if I see the man 
to morrow I will endeavour to send what I should have 
sent before & if I have time may write what news we 
have from Boston at present I know none I have got the 
Commiss"'' Alex'^ desir'd. 

Your most afifectionate 

Cadwallader Colden. 
Aug 22 This was design'd by Terwilligen but I did not 
see him I send up the Check & the Sadie lace I am so 
hurried that I must refer you to Alex"" for any News I 
can write I am this instant going into Council & from 
thence to Greenwich where I am to be all night. 


M''^ Golden at 


Cadwallader Colden to Mrs Colden 

Albany Aug 20'^ 1746 
My Dear 

I cannot recollect how often I have wrote to you being 
hurried with people coming often to me this day But I 
must not let this sloop go without assuring you that I 
have had my health perfectly well ever since I came to 
this place & continue so The Governour has been indis- 
posed but is now recover'd tho it is not thought proper 
for him to go abroad in this rainy weather & for that 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 261 

reason I spoke to the Indians in his name yesterday It 
seem'd well receiv'd But we have not their answer at this 
time No news of the Fleet or of a General but every 
moment expected Remember me affectionately to all 
the Children Take care of your self as I do of ray self 

we may have a joy full meeting 

Cadwallader Golden. 
Dumbar is very well 
& very carefull. 


M" Golden at 

To be left at M^" Alexander Goldbn's 

at Newburgh 
or with Richard Nicholls Esq 

New York. 
2 R - d Sept^ 3d 

GoMMissioN Issued to Gadwallader Golden, Jr. as 
GoMMissARY of Musters, August 24, 1746 

Gaptain Generall and Governor in Ghief of the 
province of New York, and the Territories 
thereon Depending in America, and Vice 
Admirall of the Same and Vice Admirall of the 
Red Squadron of his Majesties Fleet. 

REPOSING Especiall Trust and Gonfidence as well in 
the Gare, Diligence and Gircumspection as in the Loyalty 
fidelity, and Readiness of you, to do his Majesty Good 
and Faithfull Service, HAVE Nominated, Constituted 
and Appointed and I DO by Virtue of the powers and 
Authorities to me Given by his Majesty Under the Broad 
Seal of Great Brittian hereby Nominate, Constitute and 
Appoint you the Said GadwaUader Golden Jun"" to be 

262 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Commissary of the Musters of all the Forces Levied by 
his Majesties Orders on an Expedition Intended against 
the French in Canada which now are or at any time 
hereafter Shall be in the Said province and Territories, 
And Judge Advocate for the Said Forces to Execute the 
Said offices According to the Rules and discipline of the 
Army, YOU are therefore to Observe and Obey Such 
Rules and Orders as you Shall from time to time Receive 
from me or the Generall of the Said Forces or from the 
Commissary Generall of the Musters of his Majesties 
Armies in pursuance of the trust Reposed in you, and 
for so doing this shall be your Commissions 

GIVEN Under my hand and seal at Arms in New 
York the twenty fourth day of August in the Twentieth 
year of His Majesties Reign, And in the year of our Lord 
One Thousand Seven hundred and forty Six 

Jn° Ayscough Secretary. G. Clinton. 

Opinion of the Council at Albany. 
[In Colden's handwriting] 

To His Excellency &c. 

In obedience to your Excellency's commands to us 
to give our opinions of what may be proper to be don in 
consequence of the Intelligence & advise your Excell^ 
has receiv'd from Gov'' Shirley & Admiral Warren by 
their letters of the & 19^^ instant 

We are humbly of opinion that it is absolutely neces- 
sary to attempt the Reduction of the French Fort at 
Crown Point by the joint Forces of all the Colonies now 
rais'd for the Expedition against Canada & that this be 
done without delay & with all the dispatch that the 
present circumstances of Affairs will admit of for the 
following reasons 

As your Excellency has by an unwearied application 
& influence gain'd the six Nations to join with us in the 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 263 

most solemn & hearty manner in the War against the 
French of Canada & their Indian allies & to promise not 
only to join their whole force to ours but the force of all 
the Indian Nations over whom they have any Influence 
& who are very numerous We are of opinion that the 
best use is to be made of so happy an event of your 
Negociation with the six Nations by entering them im- 
mediatly upon Action against the French & their Indians 
as your Excellency in order to engage the six Nations 
in the War was obliged to communicat to them the 
Design of attacking Canada by Sea and Land if every 
part of that Expedition be now laid aside The six Na- 
tions will apprehend that they have been deceiv'd & in 
consequence of such opinion the English Colonies may 
loose entirely the Friendship & Esteem not only of the 
six Nations but of all the Indian Nations in North 
America & the French thereby gain so great an influence 
over them as may enable them to put their grand Design 
in Execution of setting all the Indian Nations in North 
America upon us & harassing the Frontiers of the Eng- 
lish colonies on all sides from Annapolis royal to Georgia 
By which means the English Colonies would be so far 
from being in a Condition as they now are of making 
any attempt upon Canada that their whole force must 
be employ'd & would not be suflacient to defend their 
Settlements from the incursions of the Indians on all 

By the best information we can obtain in this toun 
we do not think there can be above 12000 men in Canada 
including their Indians & regular troops & therefor we 
are of opinion the Forces now Levied in the several Colo- 
nies will be suflScient to reduce the French Fort at 
Crown Point if care be taken at the same time to harass 
their Settlements every where by incursions of the In- 
dians which we think it wiU not be difficult for your 
Excellency to effect in the present disposition of the 
Indians and the City of Quebec at the same time be kept 
in Continual apprehensions by the appearance of as 
great a number of Shipping in the River of St. Lawrence 

264 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

as can be spared from Louisbourg while the forces may 
be supposed to be before Crown point. We are inform'd 
that a single forty gun ship will be sufficient to plunder 
& destroy all the French settlements below Quebec 

We are likewise of Opinion That whether the at- 
tempt on Crown point be made or not all the Forces now 
levied must be kept on foot paid cloathed & supported 
with provisions & placed on the frontiers towards Canada 
so that the reduction of Crown point can occasion a very 
small additional expence to what is now become abso- 
lutely necessary without making any such attempt. We 
even doubt whether it will occasion a greater expence 
than will become necessary otherwise for the defence 
of the several Colonies by building of Forts &c That 
if Crown point be reduced this Fall as we hope it may 
then next Spring We think Montreal may with much 
more ease be attempted & carried by land forces to be 
sent against it by two different roads viz by Chambly 
& Oswego doun Cadarackni & St. Lawrence river & that 
in the Winter Season small Vessels may be built for 
transporting the troops & artillery &c to Chambly & 
that these vessels being made large enough to carry small 
cannon will cover the men while they are landing near 

As the season of the year is allready so far advanced 
that there is no time left to consult the several Govern- 
ments we humbly advise your Excellency to encamp the 
Forces now at this place & to order them to March with 
all the Expedition may be towards the carrying place 
that under their cover the roads may be repair'd & new 
roads where necessary made & Blockhouses or Forts be 
built where ever it shall be thought necessary or con- 
venient for securing the Transportation of all neces- 
saries for the Army & preserving the communication be- 
tween the Army & this place & to prevent the incursions 
of the Ennemy That a party of Indians with a suffi- 
cient number of Christians be sent to harass the Settle- 
ments of Canada at as many different & distant places 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 265 

as possible to keep the inhabitants every where in allarm 
& to prevent their sending succours to Crown point. 

We very gratefully thank your Excellency for your 
communicating to us your Design of leaving the Nomi- 
nation to Gov'" Shirley & Admiral Waren of the Person 
to command the Army in chief on the Expedition 
against Crown point as it shows your Excellency's Dis- 
position to remove every difficulty which you apprehend 
may obstruct this Enterprise & that you will consent to 
any Form of a Commission or Commissions which they 
shall think necessary or proper for that purpose 

As the officers & soldiers now rais'd are supposed to 
be in the Kings pay it becomes highly necessary that 
Gov'" Shirley & admiral Waren think of some method 
by which they may receive their pay from time to time 
without delay and that the rate of their pay according 
to the several currencies of money in which they shall 
be paid be determined otherwise we apprehend that 
mutinies & other disorders may arise in the Army 

The immediat Reduction of the French Fort at Crown 
point appears to us to be of such consequence to the 
safety of all his Majesties Colonies in North America 
that we can make no doubt if the several Governments 
readily agreeing to bear their respective shares of the 
necessary expence & for that purpose we have in conjunc- 
tion with the Commiss'"^ from the Massachusets Bay 
made an Estimate of the extraordinary charge which we 
think may arise & of what we & they imagine may be 
a reasonable Quota for each. 

We are very sensible how litle it would have become 
us to have advised by our selves on matters of so great 
consequence had it been possible to have got the advice 
& consent of the other Gentlemen of the Council without 
Hazarding the loss of the whole Interprise by the delay 
which would become necessary for that purpose & we 
hope that the present Exigency of affairs will not only 
exuse us with your Excellency but with all persons that 
have any right to Judge in this affair 
Albany August 25'^ 1746. 

266 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Cadwalldder Golden to Mrs Colden 

My Dear 

I have yours of the 19*** & since that one from Alex"" 
wherein he tells me that he is resolv'd to stay at home. 
I wrote to him the beginning of this week wherein I 
inform'd him that we had succeeded to our wish in our 
Treaty with the Indians If the Fleet had ariv'd in time 
I doubt not every thing had succeeded in like manner. 
The uncertainties we are under wiU certainly keep us 
longer in this place than was imagined An express was 
sent to Boston last night at the return of which we shall 
take our final resolutions Cap" Rutherfords youngest 
Daughter except the last has the small Pox & tho pretty 
full no ill circumstances. I keep my health still perfectly 
well & my spirits without the least hip Remember me to 
all our children TeU Jenny & Alice & John that they 
please me much by their letters but I have such variety of 
things to think on & so seldom alone that they must 
excuse my writing as I am forced to deny my self the 
pleasure I would have in doing it. I have a letter like- 
wise from Betty & no time to answer it but I had wrote 
to her before I receiv'd She complains of not hearing 
from any of us. Cap" Rutherford & his Lady make their 
Complements to you 

I am 

Your most affectionate 

Cadwallader Colden 
Albany Aug 28'^ 1746 

Mrs Golden at Goldengham 
To be left with M"" Alexander Golden 

at Newburgh or 
with RicHAKD NiCHOLLS Esq at gt^i R - d AuffUSt 29 

New York ® 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 267 

From Samuel Welles 

Boston 12^^ Sepf 1746. 

Your concern for the public, & for that reason, zeal 
for the Expedition to Crown point & great capacity to 
promote it, brings you the trouble of this. There is such 
a zeal in the Court here, they seem'd to be so ready for 
it in Connecticot as I came along home, that I cannot 
but hope, if the Southern Governments exert themselves 
in any tolerable manner, that there is a great prospect 
of success in it. 

I look up on it, to be of as great consequence as almost 
anything, that there be a great number of Indians with 
the forces, & prudently treated, this will strike a vast 
damp into the french & their Indians too, and greatly 
tend to Establish them firmly in our Interest, if there 
should be any action, as if we go on there doubtless will, 
I hope there will be of every sort at least fifteen hundred 
Indians & of as many nations as possible, they will 
mightily secure the main body of the Army both on their 
march & when they come to the siege, & being engaged 
& successful in this expedition, will next Spring bring 
every Indian within five or six hundred miles Westward 
& Southward of Albany to go against Canada that can 
well carry a gun & it is very probable, if we succeed, 
that our men will go to Montroyal & Quebec before they 
return to Boston, & I cannot think but that a fleet to 
keep out Succours from France, will give an addition 
the Plantations can easily make, to this army next spring, 
an opportunity with the assistance of these Indians to 
drive Canada where they please; as to this expedition 
against Crown point, we pretty much apprehend it may 
require winter work & we are providing for it, we make 
many of our tents large & to be open on one side like 
the bank[?] of an house where against the open 
upright side a fire may be made to keep all warm & dry 
& on some other side of the fire as the wind may be, 
another Tent may be fixt. 

268 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

I have a great satisfaction that you have so large a 
part in directing on this Enterprize, In which you have 
the greater advantage to be Serviceable from the large 
those of favour & confidence you have from Excellency 
Gov"" Clinton, who is & must be at the head of it I was 
at some loss whether I should thrust myself forward, & 
intermeddle in this manner, but when the whole is in 
danger, & general destruction threatened, which is the 
case if Crown Point & Canada remain to the french, I 
think every member ought to do their utmost & in every 
manner lend a hand to Save their Country, I must pray 
you to give my very sincere regards to Capt. Rutherford 
& Lady as well as well as accept them your self from 

Your very Hum^'® Serv*' 

Samuel Welles. 

Hon.^'e Cadwalladeb Golden Esq^ 

Cadwallader C olden to Mrs. C olden 

Albany Sepf 19'^ 1746 
My Dear 

I have delay'd writing for some time in hopes our un- 
certainties would at last be at an end An express we 
sent to Boston was detain'd there so long that it was 3 
weeks before we receiv'd an answer. The General is now 
every day expected One Waldo from Boston & our 
Forces here are all making ready to March So that I 
hope we may be able to leave this place sometime next 
week But as our express says the day before he Left 
Boston a Vessel from Cape Breton came in which in 
her passage saw 30 ships whether French or English she 
cannot tell an other express may alter all our measures 
Cap" Roberts & Marshall are apointed Lieutenant CoUo- 
nels & Capt. Clark & Rutherford Majors of the New 
York Forces You may assure your self nothing will 
prevent my returning to you as soon as possible that I 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1 743-1 747 269 

may again return to the pleasures of my own Family 
Remember me affectionately to all our children 
I am in perfect health Your most affectionate 

Cadwallader Golden 


M'-s Golden at 9^*^ R - d Sep^"" 25^^ 


Cadwallader Colden to Mrs. Colden 

Albany Sepf 23 1746 
My Dear 

The last I have from any of my family is John's of 
the 10th instant & I have I believe received all that he 
mentions before that except one which you wrote since 
you sent the bundle. I wrote by Egberts since any John 
has mentioned to be receiv'd & last friday night by an 
express battoe going to New York This goes by M"" 
Hardenbergh by whom I receiv'd Johns. In my last I 
wrote what news we have here & nothing new has oc- 
curr'd The General is not ariv'd One half of The New 
York Forces with Col Roberts's Battalion have receiv'd 
orders to be in readiness to march what the other Bat- 
taUon is to do I know not. The Gov"" is making ready 
to return which gives me a great deal of pleasure by the 
hopes of being soon with you He I am satisfied cannot 
leave this place this week & therefor I would be glad 
to have leave to go before him but I must not swallow 
the Cow & stick on the tail. The Company rais'd in 
our County is to have officers to their own liking. I 
continue in perfect good health but not [torn] 

270 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

From John Bartram 

October y" 6'"^ 1746 
Dear esteemed friend 

I received thy kind letter of may y® 9*^ & am much 
obliged to thee for translating part of Gronovius letter 
It is not for want of respect to thee that I did not answer 
it sooner, but for want of entertaining subjects to work 
upon: I may still add another reason as great or 
greater : y*" genererall distress of our provinces yours with 
y® invations of y* barbarous Indians and ours with four 
different kinds of mortal distempers viz y® small pox 
which now begins to be very malignant y® bloody flux 
grievous lingring feavours commonly Called y® dumb 
ague & y*' sore throat all these is generaly thorow y* 
countrey very few families escapes some or other of them 
& abundans dies both men women & children as it is 
y^ dryest Summer that ever was known since y® English 
setled here so it is y*" Sickliest so that we are daly prest 
by naturall affection or y^ ingagements of humanity to 
condole our near relations & friends afflictions instead 
of amuseing or diverting our selves with curious specu- 
lattions — A few days past arivd Captain Mesnard from 
London who brought me severall pacquets of letters from 
several of my Corespondents as our friend Collinson, 
Sir Hans sloan, M. Catesby & A Parcel of books & let- 
ters from our worthy friends Gronovius in one of which 
he mentions Docter Colden with great respect & desired 
me to transcribe part of it & send it to him which runs 
thus, "you must know that with y^ assistance of Linneus 
& other friends we discovered several new genera quite 
different from these which are known & so there is made 
one Bartramia & another Coldenia. I cant Say posi- 
tively in what book thay with several new characters are 
printed, but I am sure that thay will be found in Fauna 
suevica or deta Suevica which books where in april send 
from Stockholm by sea so that thay are expected here 
every day: when I shall send to you that booke. if there 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 271 

are send duplicates of it. However that you should 

know what plant it is I send to you y^ Characters; 

Bartramia & its char then COLDENIA, Teucrii facie 

Bisnagarica tetracoccos rostra pitis scaten foliis pro 

funde venosis plukn aim p. 363. tab. 64. fig. 6. 

CAL. perianthium tetraphyllum. foliolis Canceolatis 


COR. monopetala infundibuli formis longitudine calycis. 

Limbo patalo obtuso sequali quadrifido 

STAM Filamenta quatuor. tubo corolla inserta Anthera 

subrotundo Pist germina quatuor ovata Styli totidem 

capillares Longitudine stamen stigmata simplicia per- 


PERIC nullum Fructus ovatus scabe compressus rostria 


SEM quatuor acuminata hinc convega inde angulata 

Facies Neurada sed diversissima planta 
"Pray when you write to that Learned Gentleman send 
to him A Copy of this Character & acquaint him that 
I with great pleasure perceived by your Letter that my 
paket is come to his hands but that I am extreamly sorry 
that his things for me where taken by the privateers; 
this my dear friend I have transcribed out of his letter 
to me, for thy sattisfaction but as I don't understand 
Lattin any thing like well I may have mist several letters 
for want of understanding y® sence of many that was 
blotted but I hope thy mature Judgment may assist that 

Now I have one favour to request of thee which is to 
send me A few growing trees of y® arbor vita after this 
manner make A little box about A foot square lay about 
two inches thick of earth at y^ bottom then dig up some 
young trees about 10 inches high of y® arbor vita if thay 
have A sod in which y^ fibrous roots are fixed it would 
be better plant these on y® mould as close as possible 
then fill y® box half full of mould & press it hard about 
y® roots then put more earth in y^ box about y® stems 
pressing it prety close then fill y^ box with mould to y* 
top letting y* tops of y^ branches be just above y^ mould 

272 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

then nail y^ lid fast on this way I believe will preserve 
them alive A month or two in this cool season when 
y^ vigetive Juices is at rest & y^ box being full it may 
be tumbled about like other goods without much damage, 
tho it will be better to write upon y^ lid keep this side 
uppermost: if thee would be so kind as to direct it to 
D"^ John Bard in new york for me & send it thither for 
me I believe he will send it to Philadelphia y^ first oper- 
tunity that seed thee sent me did not come up tho it 
seemed very good indeed y^ dry Sommer might be a great 
hindrance If I can do thee any service in our way pray 
use y^ freedom to accept it which will be cherefuUy per- 
formed according to the best of y^ understanding of thy 
well wisher 

John Bartram 


Doctor Cadwalader Golden 

Free B. Fbanklin 

From John Rutherjurd 

Albany 10*^ Oct 1746 

I received your Note for the Cagg of Rum which was 
put on board of Capt Tenbrook & directed as you desired. 
There has nothing of any Consequence happened here 
since you left us, no news of any Forces comeing this way 
from New England, I'm afraid they'l be so much alarmed 
with these Accounts of The French Fleet that they'l 
think of nothing but to defend themselves. I hope this 
will find you at New York for the sake of the publick 
& for my own Sake, as I'm perswaded The Kings Com- 
missions will arrive this Fall, if ever: Secure these two 
we talked of at parting & send them up by One of your 
Sons or some hand you can intirely trust. I don't care 
to be too particular as there's no depending upon letters 
goeing unopened, if at all. We are makeing every thing 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 273 

ready to March, whevever the Batoe ColP Roberts Sent 

down to His Excelly returns. I shall expect every day 

heaps of news from you & am with the greatest regard 

Most Sincerely yours & c. & c. 

John Rutherfurd 
P. S. 

When we March from Albany, I leave 
Bills & full powers with Mrs. Ruther- 
furd to transact any business of mine 


The Honourable 
Cadwallader Golden Esq*" 
To be left at Mr. Alexander Golden's 
house at Newburgh or at the Post house 
at New York 

From Benjamin Franklin 

Philad^ Oct. 16, 1746 

I have received your Favour of the 13*^ Instant, and 
am glad to hear you are retum'd well from Albany, which 
I understand has been a very sickly Place this Fall. I 
did not imagine you would have been detain'd there so 
long, or I should have done my Self the Pleasure of 
writing to you by my Son. Our Interpreter M"" Weiser 
is return'd. He tells me that as soon as he came to Al- 
bany he went to the Fort and waited on the Secretary, 
that his being there might be made known to the Gov- 
ernor, in Case he should have any Commands for him; 
and that 2 Days after being told by Major Rutherfurd 
that the Governor wonder'd he had not Seen him, he 
immediately waited on his Excellency. 

I am sorry I have so little to tell you relating to your 
Treatise, that may a^ord you any Satisfaction. Seven 
or eight of our Gentlemen, have, within my Knowledge, 
read more or less of it, viz. M*" Hopkinson our Judge 
of the Admiralty ; M"" Taylor, Collector of the Kings Cus- 
toms; M"" Francis our Attorney General, (who is a pretty 

274 THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 

close attentive Thinker) M"" Coleman & M*" Graydon, 
& M"" Tober, Merchants and ingenious Men; with some 
others. And all I can learn of their Sentiments con- 
cerning it is, that they say they cannot understand it, it 
is above their Comprehension. M'" Logan, from whom 
I expected most, when I desired his Opinion, said just 
the same; only added, that The Doctrine of Gravity's 
being the Effect of Elasticity was originally Bernouilli's, 
but he believ'd you had not Seen Bernoulli, M"" Norris, 
his Son in law, lately one of our Commissioners at the 
Treaty of Albany, was present. He had been reading 
of it too, and Said he was not able to make anything of 
it. Thus, tho' you should get no Praise among us, you 
are like to escape Censure, since our People do not seem 
to Suppose that you write unintelligibly, but charge all 
to the Abstruseness of the Subject, and their own Want 
of Capacity 

For my own Part I have read no more than I send 
you enclos'd. What little Leisure I have is so broken 
& interrupted, and it requiring methinks a steady con- 
tinued Consideration for some Time to become a Mas- 
ter of your Doctrine in all its Parts, I am almost ready 
to join with the rest, and give it up as beyond my reach. 
Yet I imagine, that if I had an Opportunity of reading 
it with you, and proposing to you my Difficulties for 
Explanation as they rise, I might possibly soon Succeed. 
The Notes I have made were only for my own Considera- 
tion; they are Queries which I put down that I might 
remember to look out for Answers to them, which I 
suppos'd I might find as I read further. From the whole 
I intended to draw the Observations I should commu- 
nicate to you, after due Consideration, and rejecting 
what was not to the purpose. But since I am not like 
to compleat the Reading Soon, being embarras'd in much 
Business, and obliged to take a Journey to Boston in a 
Week or two, I send them as they are. I have shown 
them to no one. If you would have me continue them, 
you will please after Perusal to return them. They will 
at least Show you that I have been endeavouring to read 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 275 

and understand your Piece; and perhaps either your 
Approbation or Opposition of something I have Said, 
may Spirit me up to return to it with fresh Vigour. 

Some of our Gentlemen to render themselves more 
capable of comprehending your Doctrine, have been 
mustering up and reading whatever else they could find 
on Subjects, anyway akin to yours. Among other Pieces, 
they got a Book not long since publish 'd, said to be wrote 
by an ingenious Man in Scotland, one Baxter, on the 
human Soul: This was handed about an extoU'd as the 
plainest and clearest Thing that ever was wrote on Such 
a dark Subject. At length it came to my Hands, and I 
was desired to read it. The Author lays down the Vis 
Inertise of Matter as a Foundation on which all Philos- 
ophy & even Religion are to be built. In Company one 
Night, I express'd my Dissatisfaction with his Demon- 
strations, to the Surprise of Some who desired me to give 
my Reasons in Writing, that they might examine them 
at better Leisure. I did so the next Morning. And as 
I imagine they may give you former Amusement, I will 
send you the Book and my Remarks, if I can get them 
home time enough for the Post. 

M"" Bertram acquaints you with the contents of a 
Lretter he has just received from Gronovius. I congratu- 
late you on the Immortality conferr'd on you by the 
learned Naturalists of Europe. No Species or Genus of 
Plants was ever lost, or ever will be while the World 
Continues; and therefore your Name, now annext to 
one of them, will last forever 

I see my Ace* of the Fireplaces translated into Dutch 
is printed at Leiden. M"" Bertram has two of them come 

D"" Mitchel was taken in his Passage home, and plun- 
dered of all his learned Observations. He got to London 
from France some time in May last, bravely recover'd 
in his Health 

It will not be long after my Return from Boston be- 
fore you will see the first Number of the Miscellany. 
I have new Materials by me for 5 or 6. The want of a 

276 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

good Engraver is a great Difficulty with me. The Men- 
tion of Engraving puts me in mind, that M*" Evans told 
me you would permit me to take off some Copies from a 
Plate you have of the N American Coast. I shall be 
obliged to you for that favour 

When Capt. Honeyman was here, I gave him at his 
Request, a Paper containing some Acc*^ of Experiments 
relating to wooden Cannon. Enclos'd is a Copy of it, 
which please to return with your Sentiments, when you 
have read it. I sent a Copy (without a Name) to Gov. 

Having Sufficiently tired your Patience, I will not add 
to the Trespass by an Apology, but conclude 

Your most humle Serv* 

B. Franklin 


Cadwalader Golden Esq^ 

Cadwallader Golden to Mrs. Golden 

New York Nov" 3-^ 1746 
My Dear 

I shall soon long to hear of your safe arival at home 
& meeting your Children with pleasure Tell John that 
I am well pleas'd with his letter There was one from 
Jenny to you which I took the pleasure of reading. We 
have nothing new here besides what is in the prints. 
It is certain the French fleet is gon & we are freed from 
all fears of them & the accounts of the miserable con- 
dition they were in as related in the prints is true & 
worse than there related I saw a letter from the Cap" 
of The flag of truce that left them after they had sail'd 
from Cheboucta harbour. We hear nothing of our fleet 
& we still remain under the same uncertainties we did 
as to all publick affairs The Representation the Assem- 
bly is to make has not as yet appear'd after we shall 
have seen it we shall be able to Judge better of the 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 277 

Affairs in this Province. I continue in very good health 
& as easy as when you saw me here & indeed as easy as 
I can be in the absence from my own family & the com- 
pany where I place my delight Remember me affection- 
ately to all our Children I wish much to be with you & 
shall as soon as I can in the mean time I shall endeavour 
to keep myself as easy as any one can in a place where 
he would not choose to be if he could obtain all his wish. 
I am 

Your most affectionate 

Cadwallader Golden 
Send me the Direction for my letters to my Brother 
I left the Company I was with when you went away 
between four & five in the afternoon & by that means 
came off well The Gov"" kept his promise in not stopping 
or desiring me to stay Nov"" 4^^ I have just now tuesday 
morning receiv'd John's by James M*" Neal & am sorry 
that he can tell me nothing of you 


M'^ Golden 
at Goldengham 

Cadwallader Colden to Mrs. Colden 

New York Nov"" T*'^ 1746 
My Dear 

I have had my thoughts engaged for these two or 
three days on some matters of consequence & now at last 
I am call'd upon unexpectedly for my letters The assem- 
bly have made a representation to the Governor which 
you will see in Print I hope the Generality of People 
will be better pleas'd with his answer than with their 
Representation. I am in as good health & Spirit as ever 
& I am not uneasy at any thing but in being from you 
& my Family Remember me affectionately to all of 
them. I have no time to write in answer to Cad's he 
should learn more patience otherwise he never can be 

278 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

easy in this world He may trust to my assisting of him 
in his necessities if he behave as he ought I am 

Your most affectionate 

Cadwallader Golden 


Mrs. Golden At 


Cadwallader C olden to Mrs C olden 

New York Nov^ 9^^ 1746 
My Dear 

I wrote the day before yesterday by Ja M'' Neal 
Faulkener being so kind as to call this morning I repeat 
what I told you before that I am (I think) in better 
health & spirits than for many years before But you 
will perhaps hear somethings as to publick affairs A 
Base Lye printed of me in the Votes But be no way 
concem'd All this will turn out to my advantage & I 
hope at last to the Benefite of my Family My Ennemies 
will do more for me than my friends could without them 
& my Ennemies ought to make me amends for I have 
given no Provocation to any man. The only thing that 
troubles me is that I am affray'd I must stay in this 
place till the time the Ships go for England The Gov' 
has not spoke to me on this head but I suspect it must 
be Pray take care of your self as I shall do of my self 
that we may meet with pleasure My tender love to all 
our Ghildren 

Your most affectionate 

Gadwallader Golden 


Mrs Golden at 


THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 279 

Cadwallader Golden to Mrs Golden 

New York Nov'" 11*^ 1746 
My Dear 

Yours of the 3*^ of this month gave me the greatest 
pleasure by the accounts I receiv'd in it. I have received 
the bedding & I suppose M'^ Nicholls has taken care of 
the Basket Your pillow case & a box is come from West- 
chester Help Cadwallader with his Winter Provision 
You have Cows & steers sufficient for that purpose I 
have no time to write to him as the Weather is grown 
cold what Cattle are to be kill'd must be fed at night. 
If what work I directed be don let the servants clear the 
swamp between the midle field & the east field if it be 
dry enough for that purpose beginning at the lower or 
north end If that be wet let them clear the east field for 
sowing next summer I mean that field on the east 
meadow & to the Northward of the field reapt this year 
Since I wrote so far M"^^ Nicholls tells me that the Basket 
is not on board Courts It may come time enough 1 
believe next trip for I know not as yet when I shall 
return Perhaps you may meet with somethings in the 
Prints which may give you uneasiness but I assure they 
give me none & what ever trouble I at present meet with 
I hope my family will have the Benefite of it & I think 
I would do them an injury if I neglected what is offer'd 
me. You must expect no news from me Only this by the 
last papers from England We hope for a Peace with 
Spain & that the War with France will be continued 
I am in perfect health & as cheerfuU as ever Remember 
me tenderly to my dear children My Service to M"" 
Markham & other friends I am 

Your most affectionate 

Cadwallader Colden 


Mrs Golden at 


280 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Cadwallader Colden to Mrs Golden 

New York Nov'" 18*^ 1746 
My Dear 

I have yours of the 10^'' & 11^** of this month but 
have not receiv'd your proceeding letter which you was 
apprehensive would give me so much uneasiness So that 
I had not that check to my cheerfullness which you ap- 
prehended I believe you'l think I have had some other 
checks to it from what no doubt you must hear It is 
impossible to act in the Station I am in without meet- 
ing with ill natur'd returns for actions which perhaps 
are most deserving. I now can assure you that the malice 
shown me at this time is so far from being hurtfull that 
thereby they give an opportunity of laying open the 
good services don which otherwise might have been 
thought vain & indecent & in that respect will be of use 
& they no way lessen any cheerfullness which you ob- 
serv'd. I cannot at this time write to Cadwallader my 
breast is too full when I think of him & my head too 
much imploy'd in other things. In my last I proposed 
something for him with which or with what you propose 
I shall be pleas'd. I must be continually imploy'd till 
the ships go for England We hear that Admiral Waren 
has taken a sudden resolution of going from Boston to 
England & that he was to sail in the Chester man of 
War Sunday last The Post from Boston is not ariv'd. 
I am in perfect good health Remember me affectionately 
to our dear children I sent letters from Betty by Courts. 
They were all well last week Peter call'd on me as he 
went home last Saturday. We have some remarkable 
pieces of News since I wrote so far which I write to 
Alexander & you may open the letter directed to him if 
it come first to your hands. I intend to send the News 
papers & the Treaty with the Indians published here 
My poor old Landlord dy'd yesterday & is to be buried 
on thursday. 
Nov'" 21^* I continue in perfect health The Assembly 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 281 

adjourned for 8 days which has lenthen'd business un- 
expectedly I shall make all the haste I can to be with 
you & I told the Gov'" so yesterday but I can say no time 
as yet Dispatches are every day expected from England 
& I wish they may come before I leave this place I am 

Your most affectionate 

Cadwallader Golden 


Mrs Golden 
at Coldengham. 

Cadwallader Golden to Dr. Samuel Johnson 

New York Nov"" 19'^ 1746 
D S^ 

You oblige me much with the freedom with which 
you are pleas'd to correspond with me. The mathemati- 
cal part of my essay you tell me is most out of your 
reach as not having a sufficient foundation for It I am 
the least concern'd about that part It is only wrote for 
those that are versant in that kind of learning & in 
astronomy for it would have made a large volum to have 
explain'd what I suppose to be known as allready suffi- 
ciently don by others. Notwithstanding that most of 
my correspondents write to me of the difficulties they are 
under to conceive what I would be at yet this must either 
be in the uncommonness & newness of the Ideas or in my 
inability to explain my notions properly or in both for 
after reflecting again & again on the subject & consider- 
ing every objection that has been made I remain as fully 
perswaded of the truth of it as of day light after the sun 
is up & that it is more than an Hypothesis I am per- 
swaded that what ever reception this piece may have 
in my life time the Doctrine I deliver will be receiv'd 
when I shall be dead & rotten & perhaps forgot The 
whole difficulty is in this whether there can be different 
species of Matter whether we can conceive matter with- 

282 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

out some property essential to it whether we can con- 
ceive any property in matter without action or is not 
every property the effect of some Action whether con- 
tradictory properties or actions or such which are nega- 
tive to each other can subsist in the same species 

I find all puzled to conceive that resistance is really 
an action in the resisting matter & yet it must certainly 
be so or it can have no force for I can have no conception 
of force without action or of what some call a dead Force 
that is a Force that can have no effect for if it produce 
any effect it must do something or it must have acted 
The Difficulty of our conceiving the action of resisting 
matter arises from this that our common Ideas of action 
include motion in them & for that reason imagine that 
some kind of motion must accompany every Action but as 
I observed in my Treatis all allow that thinking is a kind 
of Action yet nothing of motion is included in the con- 
ception we have of the Action of Thinking I am per- 
swaded the more you think the more you will be 
perswaded that there are more than one kind of action 
in which motion cannot be conceiv'd as any part of the 

I am sorry to find by yours that one of the Fellows of 
your College is apprehensive of some tendency in my 
System towards Atheism This is a misfortune which has 
happen'd to all new Discoveries in Philosophy So 
Copernicus So Galilio Des Cartes Leibnitz &c have all 
been branded. They must have very weak minds who 
think they can do service to Religeon by aspersions of 
this kind on such like men Men who have giv'n any 
ground to be suspected of Atheism have at the same time 
given proof of their ignorance in natural Philosophy. 
And I do not remember of any one man that has made 
any considerable discovery in natural Philosophy that 
has given any real Ground to suspect him an Ennemy to 
true Religeon but the Contrary 

I shall add something on this occasion in defence of 
my System that from it a certain proof may be given 
of the existence of Spirits or immaterial beings For as in 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 283 

the Idea of all material beings Quantity or shape or Form 
is included & their actions are divisable into degrees or 
quantities of Action The Being from whence the Action 
of thinking proceeds can not be material because no kind 
of Quantity enters our Perception thereof neither can 
any kind of measure or Division be applied to it so much 
as in Imagination 

All allow that when God created matter he gave it 
some essential Properties otherwise there can be no 
essential difference between matter & spirit & why may 
I not say in my way of speaking that God gave at the 
Creation to different kinds of matter different & distinct 
kinds of Action As to my own part I can discover no kind 
of ill consequence from the one more than the other 
In answer to your demand of my opinion of D'" Berkely's 
book de Motis I shall give it with the Freedom requisite 
to Philosophy I think that the D"" has made the greatest 
Collection in this & his other writings of indistinct & 
indegested conceptions from the writings of both the 
Ancients & moderns that I ever met with in any one 
mans performances that he has the art of puzling & 
confounding his readers in an elegant stile not common 
to such kind of writers & that he is as great an abuser 
of the use of words as any one of those he blames most 
for that fault. I hope you'l pardon me for writing so 
freely of your friend & of so great a man I do it with 
the less concern in hopes thereby to provoke you to use 
the same freedom with me Complements without sin- 
cerity spoil all Philosophy. I am so often interrupted at 
this time with Business that I wish I could avoid that 
you must excuse the incoherence of this scraul & likewise 
that I say nothing on the subject of your Treatise I will 
do it when I can apply my thoughts to it in the manner 
you desire I must stay I am affray'd in this place 8 or 
10 days on Business which deprives me of that pleasure 
which I had hoped to obtain in old age that is free 
thoughts & conversation with my friends in Philosophy. 
To Dr S. Johnson 
at Stratford. 

284 THE GOLDEN PAPER&-1 743-1747 

From John Rutherjurd 


We are now quiet in Winter Quarters & nothing Stir- 
ing worth writeing but what you'l hear particularly from 
Coir Johnstoun & Capt. FirreU, All Indian Storys from 
the One & Our March &.c. from the other. Mrs Ruther- 
furd returns you thanks for your last letter but cant 
write to you as She designed by this opportunity being a 
good deal out of order these two days by a severe cold 
as is likewise Doctor Colhoun who is really very bad. 
Shall we never hear more from England? I'm more & 
more Surprized every day & am afraid now these New 
York Ships will be gone befor the Letters arrive that were, 
sent by The Fleet which will be a great baulk to me, as 
there will be no opportunity after that to answer any 
letters for some time, Pray write me your thoughts 
about Expedition affairs now. I reckon you'l be able to 
learn a good deal when Admiral Warren arrives. I was 
much surprized, after so great expectations raised about 
it, to See the Representation from the Assembly so very 
poor a performance, silly, trifleing & no sort of spirit in it. 
The Governours Speech I was perfectly pleased with 
which is saying all I can ; only I wish this Representation 
may have such an answer as it deserves. I am Sir 

Most sincerely yours &c.&c. 

John Rutherfurd 
Albany 19'^ Nov"" 1746 

Draft of Message of Governor George Clinton [in 
THE Handwriting of Cadwallader Colden] to the 
General Assembly of New York November 24, 
1746. Printed in part in "Journal of the General As- 
sembly of New York" Volume II, pages 137-138 

I find my self under a necessity from your Resolves of 
the 8**" instant communicated to me by order of the house 
to say some things to you which otherwise I should not 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 285 

have thought prudent to have don in so publick a manner 
The opinion that the good People of this Province & all 
the Colonies in North America shall intertain of my 
Conduct this summer at Albany while I was under a 
necessity of transacting matters of the greatest conse- 
quence to the well being of not only this Province but 
likewise of all the neighbouring colonies as it may affect 
not only my own reputation & the reputation of him who 
assisted me in the general conduct of affairs but likewise 
the good success of any Interprise that shall hereafter be 
undertaken either for the Preservation of the British colo- 
nies in North America from the Attack of open ennemies 
or the secret machinations of disaffected persons or for 
the Annoyance of the Ennemy or reducing of Canada 
I hope his Majesty & his ministers and all well wishers 
to their Country will excuse me if I speak out some- 
things which I desir'd to have kept silent & which other- 
wise ought not to have been made so publick as I am now 
forced to do. 

I agreed with M"" Shirley & M"" Waren the only two 
persons in America who had power to concert a plan for 
the operations in the Expedition against Canada where- 
of the greatest part remain as yet to be executed & for 
that reason would be inconsistant with my Duty to make 
pubhck but this occasion obliges me to tell you that 
the Forces of this & the neighbouring Colonies whose ren- 
dezvous was at Albany were to march from thence 

This being premised I shall now acquaint you with 
some of the reasons that induced me to grant the War- 
rant for Provisions for the Independant companies of reg- 
ular troops of this Province & they were among others 
First I was very sensible of the many disadvantages 
Disorders & hazards new levied troops are exposed to 
who could not be well disciplin'd & where few if any of 
the officers or Soldiers had been used to command or 
experienced in the Arts or Discipline of War I conceiv'd 
it would greatly tend to remedy these disadvantages to 
join with them so many of the four indepenent com- 
panies as could be spared from Garrisons And as these 

286 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Independent companies are regular troops which the 
Croun without any charge to this Province has kept here 
for the security thereof about 50 years and as I found 
that about 200 of them could be spared from the Gari- 
sons I hoped that the joining of them to the new levied 
forces would tend to the speedy training of the new levies 
& prevent the disorders which too frequently happen 
among new levied forces 

Next As the new levied companies of this Province 
amounted to 1600 men besides commission ofl&cers whom 
you have engaged to furnish with Provisions during the 
Expedition but so great a diminution of them having 
happened as that the remainder did not amount to above 
1400 men officers included I hoped it would be agreable 
to you to supply in part that defect in the manner I have 
don without putting the Province to the charge of £ 8 
per man & a Blanket which was engaged for every new 
levied man 

For these amongst other reasons it was that I resolv'd 
to join the 200 regular troops to the new levied forces 
& upon this resolution taken there was an absolute 
necessity of supplying them with Provisions in like man- 
ner with the new levies & for the reasons above set forth 
I hoped for your approbation in doing it out of the Pro- 
visions made for the new levied forces Notwithstanding 
of these reasons I sent Majer Clarke to the Com''^ for 
Provisions at Albany before I granted my Warrant to as- 
sure them in case you would allow Provisions to these 
regular troops that I would either pay or replace the 

After that assurance it was that I made the s*^ war- 
rant wherefor if you upon mature deliberation disaprove 
of the reasons I have given it will lye upon me to pay 
or replace all the Provisions issued to these Independent 
companies by virtue of that warrant which I shall be 
ready to do hoping from his Majesty's goodness he will 
not let me suffer for what I conceiv'd best for his Service 
the good of this Province & the publick cause 

As to the Warrant set forth in your Resolves to have 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 287 

been granted by me to Henry Holland dated the 24*^ of 
July last it was granted in the Form of the Warrant to 
Mess'^ Bayard & Holland in this place which Form was 
advised & approved off by a full Council here before I 
went to Albany. 

As to the remainder of your resolves I shall now ac- 
quaint you that when in pursuance of the plan of opera- 
tions agreed on as before I was about to give orders for 
the marching of the Forces from Albany I sent M'" 
Golden to the Com"^^ for Provisions at Albany to acquaint 
them with that my Intention & of the necessity that 
the Provisions should go with the Forces & that as by 
the Act for raising these Provisions they were intrusted 
with the care of them I was desirous that they would 
take the care of the Transportation of them either by 
themselves or such persons as they should think proper 
to agree with that the Provisions might be deliver'd out 
to the Captains from time to time pursuant to the direc- 
tions of the Act M"" Colden having acquainted the Com" 
with my desire they made some objection thereto & to 
which I requested him to give for answer that in case 
you would not agree to pay for transportation (which 
happen'd not to be expressly provided for by the Act) 
I would pay it And that if they refused this necessary 
care I should thereby be laid under an absolute necessity 
of appointing some other persons to take this care upon 

M"" Colden thereon reported to me that these reasons 
had proved Satisfactory to the Com''*' & that they had con- 
sented to take care of the Provisions as I had desir'd on 
the condition proposed & M" Cuyler one of the Com" 
came afterwards to me & confirmed M'" Colden 's report 
& only desir'd that the agreem* they had come into should 
be confirm'd in Council & enter'd on the minutes thereof 
This I consented to & call'd a Council on purpose but was 
exceedingly surprized when M'^ Cuyler being called into 
the Council room deliver'd a written paper of a very 
different tenor & refused absolutely to comply with what 
he had before consented to. 

288 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Afterwards pursuant to the Plan of operations I gave 
orders for the marchmg of the Forces from Albany upon 
which I must observe that if I was in my duty for doing 
so as I think I was and of which his Majesty I conceive 
is the only Judge then the Com" could not be in their 
Duty in withholding the Provisions without which it 
was impossible to put my orders in Execution I must 
further observe to you if my orders for marching were 
good & to be obey'd which I think they were then were 
the Council of War in their Duty in advising & Coll 
Roberts in his Duty in issueing the Warrant set forth in 
your resolves & in like manner was M*" Holland in Exe- 
cuting of that Warrant And as I differ in opinion from 
you on this head I cannot comply with your request to 
order his Majesty's attorney Gen^ to prosecute these 
Gentlemen whom I conceive to have been acting accord- 
ing to their Duty but shall humbly submit the matter 
to his Majesty & to his Ministers & shall punctually 
put in execution the orders I shall receive from them on 
that head. 

Tho in the points submitted to his Majesty I think I 
may rely on the preceeding facts yet if I be rightly in- 
form'd the contrary to some facts recited in your re- 
solves will appear to be true but as these things have 
been transacted since I left Albany & I have not as yet 
sufficient information I shall pass them over at present 
I assure you Gent" that if any Sinister dealing or any im- 
bezlement of the Provisions have been or shall be I shall 
do my utmost to discover them & heartily join with you 
in all rational measures for obtaining Justice to the Prov- 
ince concerning them & in punishing the Dilinquents I 
further assure you that whatever Provisions have been 
or shall be impressed shall be no less liable to be ac- 
counted for to you than if they had remain'd in the Com""^ 
hands And therefor I hope that the further Provisions 
you are to furnish may be put into the hands of such 
persons as will not render such proceeding (as lately 
have been) necessary to obtain them out of their hands 
for the use of the army. 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 289 

Gentlemen there is something in your resolves with 
respect to M'" Golden which I know not by what name 
to call it with publick decency to you because I believe 
few of you were sensible of the tendency of what you then 
did but for this reason I think my self obliged to say 
something more particularly with respect to him Some- 
time before I set out from this Place for Albany I in 
council desir'd as many of the Gentlemen of the Council 
as were willing or could go with me to assist in the pub- 
lick affairs which were to be transacted there & which all 
allow'd to be of great weight They all at that time 
named M'" Golden (who was not then present) as a proper 
person for that purpose & all the others declined the 
Service except M"^ Livingston And tho' M'" Golden on his 
return to toun convinced me of the disservice it might be 
of to his private interest I prevail'd on him to go When 
we came to Albany that place was afflicted with a con- 
tageous Distemper of which many dy'd more perhaps in 
proportion to the number of people during our residence 
there of near three months on the publick Service than 
perhaps has happened in this age in North America. Now 
Gentlemen I shall ask you that supposing some slip had 
happen'd in M"" Golden's Gonduct while such variety 
of matters came under consideration & incidents which 
disconcerted I believe well laid Schemes for the Service of 
this Gountry & which I believe were not foreseen by the 
wisest men in it & he for so long a time exposed himself 
to sickness & Death was it not your Duty to have excused 
such slip when it might well be supposed to flow from the 
weakness of human understanding & a zeal at the same 
time for the publick Service Gommon gratitude I think 
in this case requires it But if on the other hand it appear 
as I think it must to all indifferent Judges that M"" Golden 
as to the transaction relating to the Provisions really did 
his Duty & a Duty from which he could not excuse him- 
self what construction shall I put upon your proceedings 
whereby you indeavour to render him odious to the 
people of this Province & every other officer who acted 
in obedience to my orders in the prosecution of their Duty 

290 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

But there is something more than all this when I & he are 
considered in our present Stations as I am Governor of 
this Province & he the person on whom the Administra- 
tion devolves which may make the Tendency of these 
resolves deserve your most serious consideration 

Cadwallader Golden to George Glarke 

New York Nov'- 26*^^ 1746 

I was exceedingly glad when I learn'd from your self 
that you & the Ladies were after all your misfortunes safe 
in London & I hope you have now a full recompence by 
the pleasures you enjoy with your Children & friends 
The affairs of this Gov* have taken such an unexpected 
turn since you left it that I find myself under some diffi- 
culty to give you such an acct of them as you desire of me 
You know that I kept my self retired from publick Busi- 
ness since our present Gov''^ arival When his Majesty's 
orders for the Expedition ag* Canada came I was sent 
for to Toun I was surprised to find that all the Gov*"^ 
friends had left him & were indeavouring at this critical 
conjuncture to distress him to that degree that his friends 
in England should think it proper to recall him He was 
under a necessity to apply himself to me for advice The 
Station in which you know I am made it my Duty more 
especially at this time when the Success of that Expedi- 
tion might in a great measure depend on the conduct of 
affairs here to assist to the best of my Capacity tho' I 
was sensible enough of the hazard I run from the resent- 
ment of others but I was in hopes to behave in such 
manner as to give them no real cause by showing as 
much as possible a respectful! behaviour to them without 
any attempt to gain a personal power But as the Gov"" 
has extricated himself beyond all their expectations from 
Difficulties which they imagined he could never sur- 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 291 

mount & especially by the unexpected success in his 
Treaty with the Six Nations the resentment seems now 
to be levell'd at me & they are desirous again to make 
their Court to the Gov"" tho in a very odd manner What 
may be the event of all this I know not His ExcelF I 
think remains sensible of the Services I have don him 
but however it be I have the Satisfaction of having acted 
to the best of my understanding in what I thought my 
Duty & I do not doubt of your friendship & Justice if in 
any thing personal to me you have an opportunity to be 
usefull Pray S'^ make my Complements to M" Hyde & 
the Young Ladies your Daughters I shall allwise have 
a particular pleasure in hearing of the Prosperity of your 
family Mine are all well 

To the Hon*^'^ George Glarke Esq 

To the Gare of Messrs Samuel & William 

Baker Merchants in London 

Cadwallader Colden to Mrs Colden 

My Dear 

Josiah Reeder came this moment between nine & ten 
a clock at night to tell me that he is to go with Hennion 
this night & I have no longer time to write than while he 
stays I have three from you with my Bedding & am glad 
Sandy & Betty are safe home. I am resolv'd to return by 
Bogardus (who will sail about beginning of next week) 
if Ellison's boat do not come doun & Business do not 
oblige me to stay to go by his boat You cannot be more 
desirous of my returning than I am & nothing but some- 
thing which I do not foresee will prevent me from return- 
ing by Ellison's boat at farthest I am as much tired of 
this place as I can be of any thing tho I hope my time 
has been spent to some purpose Tell Sandy that M"" 
Moore says he is supplied with flax seed & that it falls by 
reason of the great quantity ten thousand hogshead from 
Philadelphia & five thousand allready from this place I 
am in perfect good health & have nothing to make me un- 

292 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174S-1747 

easy but my absence from you Remember me to my 
Aunt & the Children I hope to leave the place before 
the Assembly rises w""*" I think cannot be in a fortnight 
yet I am 

Your most affectionate 
Cadwallader Golden 
Nov^ 28*^ 

Munday night 


Mrs COLDEN at 


From Eleanor Rutherfurd 


I am Sure you must think it very odd I have been soe 
long in acknowledgeing the Honour you did me in write- 
ing me soe long a Letter but the last Opportunity we 
had to York I was very ill of the Cold. 

I was very glad to hear of your being at York that 
you might put a Stop to all the folly that was going on 
there which you have now done effectually you have 
made the Governour make such a figure in all his Speeches 
as must make hime admired at Home as well as over all 
this Continent; let me tell you Sir you have a great dell 
to Answer for, for haveing Burried soe long in the Coun- 
try thos Tallents you are soe Happily possest of, if you 
return to your Farm as Coll^ Johnston Says you are talk- 
ing of, it will not be Acting that disinterested Part you 
have don hither to when ever you goe Home things will 
go as they used to doe and you'l have the Trouble of com- 
ing back to doe all over again : you see my Spirit of 
Prophisy has not left me yet; soe take warning and stay 
where you are lest a worse thing befalls you. 
We are all in great Expecttations just now of news as we 
hear the Mermaid is come to Boston the Captains here 
long much for a Sight of there Commissions and Pay & 
Mr. Ruth, longs much to here of the theme we had at 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 293 

Parting he says he would give more then he Spock of to 

here of one being tou and he in the G part I beg my 

Compliments to Mrs Golden and the rest of your Fam- 
ily when you write Mr. Ruth: jons with me in his com- 
pliments I am 


Your aff Frd 
Ob, and Humble Ser 
Eleanor Rutherfxjrd 
P. S. Albany Dec'" 9 1746 
Pray writt us news what can G St. Clare 
be doeing at Cork we are all in the 
Dark here 

Cadwallader Golden to 


New York Dec'" 10'^ 1746 

Tho' I have given you the trouble of two letters by 
the two ships that sail from hence about this time My 
friend Capt" Catherwood Secretary to his ExcelF our 
Governor going in one of them with design to return 
Speedily In hopes that he will take the trouble to deliver 
this with his own hand His ExcelF has been so kind as 
to propose something in my favour to the Duke of New 
Castle of which Capt" Catherwood will inform you & 
I presume on your Friendship if by your acquaintance 
you can be of any use to me in what is proposed or other- 
wise I am 


Your most obedient 
humble Servant 

294 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Representation to Clinton oj seven members of the Coun- 
cil in reference to C olden' s pamphlet on the Treaty 
with the Six Nations 

To his Excellency the honourable George 
Clinton Esq. Captain Generall And Gover- 
nour in Chief of the Province of New York 
And the Territories thereon Depending in 
America Vice Admirall of the Same and 
Vice Admirall of the Red Squadron of his 
Majestys fleet 
The Humble Representation of the Underwritten 
Members of his Majestys Council for the Said Prov- 
May it Please your Excellency. 

We his Majestys most DutifuU and Loyall Subjects 
the Underwritten Members of his Majestys Council for 
the Province of New York, beg Leave to Acquaint your 
Excellency, That it is with Real Concern we find Our- 
selves Under the Necessity of Laying before you Our 
Sentiments in this Manner. 

When We observe the Harmony, which has Subsis- 
ted between the Severall Branches of the Legislature 
Industriously Attempted to be Interrupted, We should 
look upon Ourselves as Deficient in Our Duty to his 
Majesty, Our Regard for your Excellency, And the peace 
And Wellfare of the Province, And also Wanting in point 
of Justice to Our Selves, Should We Remain Silent Upon 
So Urgent an Occasion, 

We Shall therefore State to your Excellency Some 
facts and Make a few Observations and Reflections there- 
upon. Such, as do Naturally Arise from them We be- 
gin with a Pamphlet Lately Printed in this City En- 
tituled "a Treaty Between Your Excellency and the Six 
United Indian Nations And other Indian Nations De- 
pending on the Province of New York," the Originall of 
Which M'' Colden Confessed in Councill he had Delivered 
to the Printer with Directions to Print and also Owned 
himself the Author of it. 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 295 

We were Greatly Surprized to find therein a Para- 
graph Containing a Misrepresentation of facts and an 
Invidious Reflection Levelled at Such of the Members 
of his Majestys Council as did not Attend your Excellency 
to Albany. 

It is Observable from Some Little Instances of Vanity 
Interspersed in this performance, that M*" Colden Seems 
to have Calculated it principally with a View to Raise a 
Character, or Some Reputation to himself and to Lessen, 
that of Others. 

But We Shall at this time only Take Notice of What 
is Contained in the Page Number'd 3 as follows. 

"His Excellency the Governour of New York having 
Received his Majesties Commands to Engage the Indian 
Nations depending on his Government to Join in the Ex- 
pedition then Intended Against Canada, And to make 
them the Usuall presents on that Occasion; and being 
Sensible of the Great Use these Nations may be to the 
Success of this Enterprize and likewise of the Difficultys 
that probably might attend his Endeavours at this time 
was Desirous to have had the Assistance of as many of 
the Members of his Majestys Council as the Circum- 
stances of Affairs would permitt, But they all Declined 
to Give their Attandance Except M'" Colden and M"" 
Livingston, His Excellency was therefore obliged to Act 
with the Smallest Number of Members Which by his 
Majestys Commission Can form a Councill Vizt three, 
the above Two Gentlemen and Cap^ Rutherfurd who was 
then at his Post in Albany." 

We Appeall to your Excellency whether any one upon 
Reading this, would not Naturally Conclude (and 
Whether the Author does not Evidently Design by In- 
sinuation to have his Readers believe) that the Rest of 
the Councill did Refuse that Service out of Disregard to 
Your Excellency, and without Good Reason, and that Mr 
Colden did Voluntarily offer to Give his Attendance As 
well as Mr Livingston. 

We beg Leave to Remind Your Excellency of the real 
truth of the Matter 

296 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Some time before Your Excellencys departure for 
Albany, You were pleased to Mention in Councill that 
You had appointed to Meet the Indians there on the 20*^ 
of July and Desired to know which of the Councill would 
Attend you thither, Whereupon there Was Discourse in 
Councill who Should Attend your Excellency at that 

M"" Livingston Made No hesitation but ChearfuUy 
Offered to go, which the Council Approved of. As he has 
Long been one of his Majestys Council, one of the Com- 
missioners And Secretary for Indian Affairs And as he 
is a Gentleman who had Generally Resided in that Coun- 
ty, and has a large Estate in it, the Councill thought that 
his Opinion would be of Considerable Service and could 
not fail of having Great Weight with your Excellency. 

M"" Colden So far from Voluntarily offering to Give 
his Attendance, Refused to go, in the Strongest Manner, 
And Amongst the Severall Excuses he made, that Which 
he Seemed to Lay the Greatest Stress upon Was, that 
the Last time he was up. It Cost him £ 30 But the 
Councill were of opinion that As he had Not Attended 
that Service for Severall years, and as he Resided In the 
next County to Albany, he ought to Take his Turn at 
this Time. 

From hence Your Excellency May perceive that what 
is Insinuated in that pamphlett as to himself, Cannot 
be true 

M"" Kennedy and M'" Moore (Two others of his Maj- 
estys Councill) were to attend Generall Gooch, to Al- 
bany Who had Wrote your Excellency that he Sould Set 
Out from Virginia for this place, About the time Your 
Excellency was to Embarge for Albany and therefore Was 
Expected in a few days, 

So that as Matters Were Setled Your Excellency 
had as Many Members to Attend you at Albany, As had 
heretofore Usually Attended Upon Indian Treatys, and 
as the Circumstances of Affairs would permitt, And had 
M'' Gooch Arrived at the Ex-pected time, and those Gen- 
tlemen Attended him to Albany Your Excellency would 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 297 

then have had five of the Councill with you there — And 
there would have been but five Left here to Take Care 
in your Absence of the peace and Safety of this City, and 
the Lower parts of the Province According to Your Ex- 
cellencys Recommendation in Councill 

There Was Great Reason to Apprehend that' these 
Lower parts of the Province were Endangered by the 
Great Draughts of Men Taken from hence, to go upon 
the Expedition, As it was Suspected that the Brest Squad- 
ron Was Intended to pay a Visit in these parts and it 
was Naturall to Suppose that the Enemy would make an 
Attack along the Sea Coast. It therefore became Neces- 
sary for the Councill here to Send Directions for Draw- 
ing in the Strength of the Adjoining Counties to Defend 
this City in Case of an Attack, to Desire the Assistance 
of our Neighbours; to forward the Compleating the for- 
tifications in and about this City, to form a plan for the 
Disposition of the City Militia, and to Expedite the New 
Levies to Albany, all Which was Carefully attended to. 
And Shews the Expediency of having a Number of the 
Councill here Especially of Such who Constantly Reside 
in this City, to Give Weight and Authority to their Di- 

These Sir, are Generall Reasons; besides Which, there 
Were Some particular Reasons, which the other Mem- 
bers present had for Detaining them here. 

The Indisposition of the family of M"" Chief Justice 
DeLancey It was Well known. Could not admitt of his 
Absence, M"" Horsmanden had attended Your Excellency 
twice at Indian Treatys; Neither was he at the time in A 
Good State of health, And Moreover the presence of those 
two Gentlemen, was Required as Judges of the Supream 
Court, which was then Shortly to be held in this City, 
And your Excellency was pleased afterwards upon M'" 
Horsmandens Mentioning his Indisposition Readily to 
Excuse him. 

M"" Murray by the Engagements his Drofession Laid 
him Under, was also obliged to Attend the Ensueing 

298 THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 

Court and he had also Waited upon your Excellency at 
the two Treatys before. 

M"" Bayard was Appointed by your Excellency one of 
the Commissarys for Building Battoes And furnishing 
other Necessarys for the Expedition therefore his Ab- 
sence from hence Could not be Dispensed with. 

M'" Courtlandt was not then present, Nor had he 
been for Some Councills before. 

This pamphlett having been published while the 
Council Were Sitting as a part of the Legislature, the 
Councill thought it Necessary to pass a Censure upon 
it — "That the aforesaid paragraph Contains a Misrepre- 
sentation of facts and an Invidious Reflection Upon the 
Members of his Majestys Councill who Remained at 
the City of New York during your Excellencys Absence 
at the Late Treaty at Albany." 

And as this Pamphlett had been Dispersed in print 
the Councill also thought it Equally Necessary to have 
their Censure put in print And Ordered it Accordingly. 

It is with Extream Uneasiness, that in Vindication 
of Ourselves, We are obliged to Take Notice of this 
pamphlett And We cannot omit observing that M'^ Colden 
had Delivered it to the Printer with Directions to Print 
it, a Considerable time before Your Excellencys propo- 
sitions to the Indians And their Answers were Delivered 
in to the Clerk of the Councill Which Cannot be thought 
a Decent Treatment of his Majestys Councill of the 

From hence your Excellency may Perceive the Coun- 
cills Moderation in the Censure they have Passed Some 
days after your Excellency Returned hither You Were 
pleased to Say in Councill that the Minutes of the pro- 
ceedings at Albany Should be Laid before the Councill 
here, But that your Excellencys Secretary had been In- 
disposed, and had not had time to Draw them out, Mr. 
Colden soon after came down, and We Cannot but Im- 
pute it to his Advice, that those proceedings Were not 
Laid before the Councill According to your Excellencys 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 299 

Sometime afterwards Your Excellency (being Indis- 
posed) Sent a Message to the Councill in Writing Dated 
the IS''^ of October in the following Words Viz* "the Com- 
missioners for Delivering the provisions at Albany having 
Refused to Deliver provisions, otherwise than Accord- 
ing to the Words of the Act of Assembly to Every Cap- 
tain, and at Albany, it became Impracticable for Colonell 
Roberts to put the orders in Execution Which I left with 
him and upon this I must observe to you, that if the pro- 
visions for the Army be put into persons hands Indepen- 
dant of the Generall And Commanding officer, all his De- 
signs may at any time be frustrated And his Authority, 
and Command become Ineffectual, I therefore Desire 
Your Advice On this head and Likewise on the particu- 
lars of Which Colonell Roberts, and Whether it be not 
proper And Necessary to Establish Court Martialls for the 
punishment of Mutiny and Desertions &c The Councill 
having Mett Immediately thereupon Went into a Com- 
mittee, and it being objected, that as Some part of the 
Message, upon which their Advice Was Desired, Related 
to the Transactions at Albany Which had not been Com- 
municated the Committee Could not proceed upon the 
Consideration of that part of the Message, for Want of 
the Materials Necessary for their Information, Mr. 
Colden Replied: "Put that Down as a Reason, but I do 
not know that it is usuall Or that the Councill here have 
a Right to See them for We at Albany were as Much a 
Councill as you but" put that Down as a Reason, and 
Yet your Excellency may Remember that When a Report 
Was afterwards made, and this Was assigned as a Reason 
Why the Committe Could not Give their Advice M*" 
Colden Objected to that part of the Report (this was 
On the Saturday) On the Monday following the Consid- 
eration of this Message was Resumed when the same ob- 
jection being made and M'' Colden (the only Counsellor 
present who had Advised your Excellency at Albany) 
being asked, why the Orders Left by your Excellency with 
Colonell Roberts Mentioned in the Said Message of Ref- 
erence were not Laid before the Councill" he said, he did 

300 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

not know whether the" Councill had a Right to see them 
or not; And being Asked whether he had seen them, 
he Replyed he did not think he was obliged to Answer 
that Question, However the Committe being Desirous 
to Answer your Excellencys Message, so far as they could 
from the faint Light Afforded them, they on the 21^^ of 
October Made the following Report, "In obedience to 
your Excellencys Message to us of the 18*^ Instant, the 
Committe having duly Weighed and Considered of the 
Same, beg Leave to Report thereon 

"First, That the Commissioners at Albany Could 
Not be Warranted in Delivering the provisions in their 
possession, otherwise, that according to the Act of the 
Legislature, And the Committe are of opinion, that if 
there be any Defect in the Act the Same Should be 
pointed Out to the Generall Assembly that they may con- 
sider of it, in order to have it Rectified, 

"2'^'^ With Respect to the Bounty Money and Blan- 
ketts, we find the same by the Act for the Encourageing 
Voluntiers to Inlist is to be Given to all Such as Shall 
Inlist and not to the first Twelve hundred Only, and We 
Conceive that Two Thousand four hundred pounds and 
No More, having been Lodged in the Commissioners 
hands at Albany, was done upon a Supposition that No' 
More than Twelve hundred Men would be brought to the 
place of Rendevouz And We make No Question, but 
that the Assembly Will make good the Additionall Boun- 
ty to the other 100 Men (Mentioned in M'" Roberts Let- 
ter to be Unprovided for) when they are Apprized of it 

"Thirdly that As your Excellency has Not been 
pleased to Communicate to the Members of his Majes- 
ties Councill in this place, the Transactions Which have 
passed at Albany, and which has been usually done here- 
tofore, the Committee humbly Conceives that they are 
not Enabled to Give your Excellency their Advice on 
the other particulars of M'" Roberts Letter for Want of 
Sufficient Materialls for their Information however, they 
Cannot but think that a Winter Camp in that Northern 
Country May probably Endanger the Lives of Many of 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174^-1747 301 

the Soldiers, more Especially as the Small pox is got 
Among Some of them And Many more have not yet 
had it, And thereby be of Great Prejudice to his Majestys 
Service in Case the Expedition Against Canada Should 
be Carried on next Year. 

«^thiy rpj^g Committe are of opinion that to prevent the 
frequent Desertions of the Men, it may be proper for your 
Excellency to Hold Courts Martiall, if your Excellency be 
Empowered So to do According to the Act of parliament 
for punishing Mutiny and Desertion, But We Cannot 
Give Any farther opinion On this head, Untill your Ex- 
cellency Shall have been pleased to Lay before us, the 
Powers you have Received from his Majesty in Relation 
to this particular 

Upon Reading this Report to your Excellency in 
Council M'" Colden after Making some objections to the 
third paragraph, proposed the Report Should be Recon- 
sidered and Said "That all the proceedings at Albany 
Should be Laid before the Committee in Order to Enable 
them to form a Right Judgment Upon them." Where- 
upon the Councill (in Expectation that What he Under- 
took in your Excellencys presence And hearing would 
have been preformed) Readily Agreed the Report Should 
be Referred back And Although the Rough heads of the 
Minutes Taken at Albany Referring to the principall 
papers were Delivered into the hands of the Gierke Yet 
as the principall papers themselves (without Which it 
was Impossible to form a Judgment) Were not De- 
livered (nor have they to this time been Laid before 
the Committe) they have Not been Enabled to Give 
any further Opinion. 

Is not. Sir, this Conduct of M*" Coldens very Surpris- 
ing, What Reflections must this Naturally Excite in the 
Minds of the Rest of his Majestys Councill 

We beg Leave also to Mention to your Excellency 
Some few Instances Wherein we Conceive your Excel- 
lency has not been well Advised. 

The Manner in which your Excellencys Speech of the 

302 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

ly**" of October Last was Delivered Viz* by M"" Golden to 
the Councill And by the Speaker to the Assembly. 

Your Excellencys Recommending a perfect Harmony 
between the Severall Branches of the Legislature with this 
Observation. "That Differences often Arise from Im- 
aginary Evills and the Weakness of Human Nature is 
Such, that Mankind are Seldon free from Real Causes 
of Mistrust, But these Likewise Are often Aggravated 
by the private Views of artfull And Designing Men." 
When We may Safely affirm that there never was a 
Greater Harmony Subsisting between the Severall 
Branches of the Legislature that when Your Excellency 
made your Pathetick Speech to the Gouncil and Assem- 
bly on the 6'^ of June Last Goncerning the Intended Ex- 
pedition, Which Will appear by Reviewing and Gon- 
sidering Your Excellencys Said Speech wherein You Say, 
"I am perfectly Satisfied that it is Needless for me to 
Recommend the Cultivating an Union And Harmony 
Amongst You, upon a Subject So Agreable to all your 

The Zeal and Ghearfullness Expressed in the Ad- 
dresses of the Gouncill And Assembly to your Excellency 
thereupon And your Excellencys Answers thereto, all of 
the Same day And by the Resolutions and Steps imme- 
diately after And before M'' Golden Game down, who 
During those Transactions was Attending his ordinary 
Domestick affairs in the Country. 

How this Good Understanding Game to be Inter- 
rupted And by what means in so Short a time as from 
the 6th of June to the 17th of October, Your Excellency 
was So far Induced to Change Your Sentiments, As to 
Imagine there Were Differences Subsisting between the 
Severall Branches of the Legislature, We Cannot Ac- 
count for. 

We know not of any "Differences Arising from Imag- 
inary Evills" And We beg Leave to Assure Your Excel- 
lency that We are not of the Number of "Artful And 
Designing Men who by private Views Aggravate Real 
Causes of Mistrust." 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 303 

And here in Justice to the Province We think Our 
Selves Obhged to Take Notice, that they have been at 
a Greater Expence towards this Expedition than Any- 
other of the Governments to the Westward of us, and 
that the Charge of finding the Troops Raised in this 
Province with provisions is More, than that of New 
Jersey, Pensilvania, Maryland and Virginia Altogether, 
And though your Excellency Was not advised to Recom- 
mend by your Last Speech to the Assembly, the Sup- 
port of Govermnent for the Current Year, nor the Mak- 
ing further provision for Victualhng the New Levies 
(which Latter Considering the Season of the year was 
Absolutely Necessary to be done Immediately) how- 
ever notwithstanding that omission the Assembly Read- 
ily Voted it and passed also the Bill for the Support of 

On the Twenty third of October your Excellency Sent 
a Message to the Assembly, upon which and your Ex- 
cellencys Speech, the Assembly made a Representation 
Which was Dehvered by your Excellencys appointment 
on the 5*^ of November to which your Excellency gave 
An Answer on the 10'^ of the Same Month 

On the 8*^ of November the Assembly upon the Let- 
ters of Mess" Tenbrook And Cuyler and the Examina- 
tion of the Said Cuyler Came to Severall Resolutions 
Communicated to your Excellency In Answer to which. 
Your Excellency Sent a Message to the house on the 24'^'' 
of November 

The 26^*" of November the house Came to Some other 
Resolutions And your Excellency on the 28**" Sent them 
a Message as an Answer 

These things we Gather from the Printed Votes and 
proceedings of the Assembly and Were Transacted With- 
out your Excellencys ever asking the Councill their Ad- 
vice and opinion upon them, all the observation that We 
shall make upon them is that We Impute them to the 
Advice and Influence of Mr Colden, and perhaps had 
your Excellency been pleased to have Consulted his 

304 THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 

Majesties Councill of the Province, Matters Might not 
have been Carried to So great Lengths. 

Your Excellency did not Consult with the Councill 
As to the Late prorogation and We cannot Recollect any 
Instance Wherein that Step has been Omitted, Neither 
did your Excellency Enquire of the Councill the Reasons 
Which Induced them to pass the two Bills which your 
Excellency was pleased to Reject, the one Entituled "and 
Act for appointing Commissioners to Take, Examine 
And State the Publick Accounts of the Colony from the 
year 1713"— the other Entitiled "An Act for the More 
Effectuall Cancelling the Bills of Credit of this Colony" 
to the former of Which M*" Colden made Some objection 
Which the Rest of the Council did not think Materiall 
And to the Latter there was no objection at all that we 
know, or have heard of Both Which Bills We Conceive 
were of publick Utility. 

Your Excellency did not think proper to Communi- 
cate to the Councill (we are at a loss for what Rea- 
son) the Minutes of Indian Affairs before the Com- 
missioners at Albany Giving an Account of Hendrick, 
the Indians Transactions in Canada Which is thing of 
Importance and proper to be known by the Councill, and 
Which We are Informed, had been sent to your Excel- 
lency by Express 

These Instances Which We have but barely Touched 
upon (Among many others We Chuse to Omitt) Can- 
not be Considered otherwise than As Slights upon the 
Councill All Which We apprehend We have Reason to 
Impute to the Advice and Influence of M"" Colden and We 
Take the Liberty to agree in opinion with your Excel- 
lency, that from the time you have been pleased to Rely 
Solely upon his Advice your Excellency "has Gone thro 
more Difficultys And has had Less Assistance than (We 
believe) any Governour of New York before you" 

Mr Colden has Told the World in Print of his being 
the Next person to your Excellency in the Administra- 
tion We shall Not Make Any Reflections on this Cir- 
cumstance But Leave your Excellency to Consider, 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 305 

Whether it may Not be his Interest to Embroil your Ex- 
eellencys Affairs And Distract your Administration, the 
Consequence of Which may be his getting the Reins of 
Government into his own hands, And here perhaps Your 
Excellency May find that. Which Was Intended As a 
Reflection Upon others One of those "Artfull and De- 
signing Men who have" private Views 

We Must Take the Liberty to Remind Your Excel- 
lency that We, as yet, have the honour to be of his 
Majestys Councill for this Province, and as Such Ought 
to be Consulted, And We do assure Your Excellency 
that We are Not Conscious we have been, Nor shall We 
On Any occasion be Wanting in Our Duty to his Majesty 
in any point, Nor in Giving his Governour here, the best 
advice and all the assistance in Our power to Make his 
Administration Easy And We think We Cannot Dis- 
charge that Duty More Effectually, that We now do 
(Constrained by the present Scituation of Affairs) by 
humbly Laying before Your Excellency Our Sentiments 
in this Manner, Which we Earnestly Entreat your Excel- 
lency Calmly, and Seriously to Consider. 
We are 

Your Excellencys 
Most obedient Humble Servants 
Ph Livingston 
James DeLancey 
Phillip Cortlandt 
Dan Horsmanden 
Jos. Murray 
John Moore 
Stephen Bayard. 
City of New York 
16 December 1746 

306 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Memorandum in Golden' s Handunriting 

It may be necessary to take notice of a Publication 
made by the Council in a common Newspaper call'd the 
New York Postboy of the 8**" of December 1746 I re- 
member that day M*" Golden being with me about the 
time of day the Council was to meet told me that he 
would then go to Council because for some time before 
so few attended that it was with difficulty a sufficient 
number could be made up to do Business & that he was 
desirous as much as possible to avoid giving any occa- 
sion of their blaming him Since this publication was 
made he tells me that he was surprised upon his coming 
into the Council room to see every member present 
which he thinks could not have happen'd at that time had 
there not been a previous application to them separately 
He further tells me that M'" Chief Justice did as set 
forth produce the printed paper called a Treaty &c & 
moved that the printer should be sent for in order to 
know who had given him the Copy On which M*" Colden 
answer'd that it was needless to take that trouble for 
he had giv'n the Copy M*" Chief Justice further insisted 
to know whether M*" Colden had order'd it to be printed 
The whole of this proceeding have been a surprise on M'" 
Colden & his seeing most of the Council prepared three 
Lawyers Present & two of them Judges & all these three 
prepared with formed speeches he hesitated a litle in 
answering to that Question but in less than half a min- 
ute own'd that he had desir'd the printer to publish it 
Then M'" Horsmanden mov'd that the paragraph read by 
the Chief Justice should be censur'd as an invideous 
Maliceous & false representation of Facts Upon which 
M'" Colden observ'd that the Word Declining might be 
with a lawfull excuse as well as without it & thought they 
would not dispute the matter of Fact To which M"" 
Horsmanden answer'd it was a Sophistical way of argue- 
ing & was going on Warmly when M'" Colden desir'd him 
to have regard to the Decency of proceedings in the Coun- 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS-174^1747 307 

cil & the regard that was due to him while he had the 
honour to be in the Chair And further told them that 
if they took any thing amiss in this publication it would 
be more proper to take notice of it when they acted as a 
privy Council than in this place where the Council acted 
only as a part of the Legislature Upon which Mr Chief 
Justice dropping M"" Horsmanden's Motion Mov'd to 
have that paragraph censured as an invideous misrepre- 
sentation On which M*" Colden said he believ'd this para- 
graph could be clear'd from the Envy that they charged 
on him but that he did not say the words set forth in 
the publication how that he had no intention to reflect 
they insisted on having the Question put & it was 
accordingly carried So far I am informed by M"" Colden 
I shall only observe that as it seems to me the publica- 
tion of this without any manner of application to me 
plainly shows the Spirit by which they intend to Act 
viz By moving up a popular Faction Otherwise if any 
of the Council had been guilty of any misdemeanour of 
this kind where I must know the truth it would have 
[been] proper to have apply 'd to me for redress which in 
this case they have in no manner don Applications to the 
People from the House of Representatives has some 
colour of excuse but when the Council endeavour to set 
up a popular power & neglect any application in the 
proper way & make themselves both parties & Judges 
it seems to have a Tendency destructive of all good 
Government This with several other Instances to be 
given of the late proceedings of the Council & Assembly 
of this Province I think evidently show how necessary- 
it is to curb this spirit otherwise I know not to what 
lenths it may go It will plainly appear from several 
instances that there is an indeavour in a Faction to run 
M"" Colden doun & they may think that if they can 
succeed in this considering his Station all others will be 
under dread to oppose them But notwithstanding of 
all their endeavours to move the people in their favor I 
have reason to believe that they no way succeed in that 
point but the contrary 

308 THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 

From Governor George Clinton 

New York 17 Dec" 1746 

Since You left me I have receiv'd a Letter from the 
Lords of Trade with some Querys for me to Answer, 
part of which I am unacquainted with; but as your 
long Experience here, may enable You to give Answers 
to them I've enclosed them for that end, excepting that 
of the Acts w"^ I've done, and have order'd the Number 
of Inhabitants to be made out some time ago. 

I have advices from Gov'" Shirley that the New 
England Troops are ab^ marching towards the Fron- 
tiers of the Province for the Reduction of Crown point, 
unless the small pox &c prevents them, w*"*" I have ac- 
quainted Gov"" Shirley stil prevails among our Troops 
I hope You gott safe Home and am 
no time is limited for these You will receive from M"" 
operations nor no Plan sent Nicols a Copy of a repre- 
me sentation delivered me last 

Tuesday by y^ Council 
which is to be laid before 
his Grace of Newcastle and 
I very readerly joyned in the thing & told them it was 
what I approved off, y*^ I have no occasion to make any 
answer to it, I have made some proper remarks on it, very 
busey time for Catherwood goes away to morrow morn- 

M""^ Clinton joyns with me desiring y® Compliments of 
the Season to you M*"^ Colden & Family & do assure you 
I am with great Scincerity 


Your faithfuU humble 

G: Clinton 
N. York 22-* X^''^ 

Cadwaluader Golden Esq. 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 309 

Board of Trade to the Hon' George 
Clinton Esq"" Governor of New 
York, for his answer thereunto as 
soon as conveniently may be 

1 What is the Situation of the Province under your 
Government; the Nature of the Country Soil and 
Climate, the Latitudes and Longitudes of the most 
considerable Places in it, or the neighbouring French 
or Spanish Settlements? Have those Latitudes & 
Longitudes being settled by good observation, or 
only by common Computations & from whence are 
the Longitudes computed? 

2 What are the reputed Boundaries, and are any Parts 
thereof disputed, what Parts, & by whom? 

3 What is the Constitution of the Government? 

4th What is the Trade of the Province, the Number of 
Shipping their Tonnage, & the Number of seafaring 
Men, with the respective Increase or Diminution 
within ten years past? 

5 What Quantity & sorts of British Manufactures do 
the Inhabitants annually take from hence? 

6 What Trade has the Province under your Govern- 
ment, with any foreign Plantations or any Part of 
Europe, besides Great Britain? How is that Trade 
carried on What Commodities do the People under 
your Government Sent to, or receive from foreign 

7 What Methods are there used to prevent illegal 
Trade, and are the same effectual? 

8 What is the Natural Produce of the Country, Staple 
Commodities & Manufactures and what Value there- 
of in Sterling money may you annually export? 

9 What Mines are there? 

10 What is the Number of Inhabitants Whites & 

11 Are the Inhabitants increased or decreased within 

310 THE GOLDEN PAPERS-174a-1747 

the late ten years how much and for what Reasons 

12 What is the Number of the Militia? 

13 What Forts and Places of Defence are there within 
your Government? and in what Condition? 

14th '^T^hat Number of Indians have you & how are they 

15 What is the Strength of the Neighbouring Indians 

16 What is the Strength of your Neighbouring Euro- 
peans, French or Spaniards 

17 What Effect have the French or Spanish Settle- 
ments on the Continent of America upon His 
Majestys Plantations especially on your Province 

18 What is the Revenue arising within your Govern- 
ment, & how is it appropriated 

19 What are the Ordinary & Extraordinary Expences 
of your Government 

20 What are the Establishments Civil & Military with- 
in your Government and by what Authority do the 
officers hold their Places 

It is desired that an Annual Return may be made of 
these Queries, that the Board may from time to time be 
apprized of any Alterations that may happen in the 
Circumstances of your Government. 

From Archibald Kennedy 

22^ Dec"- 1746. 
Dear Sir 

So soon as I heard of the representation, which was 
not till after they had been with the Gov'", I desired M^" 
Catherwood that our frind might have the peruseal of 
it, who thought the best way woud be for the Gov"" at 
present to take no notice of it either to them, or at home, 
at least till he had your observations upon it, which it is 
possible may still reach M'" Catherwood, Waddel being 
at a loss for hands, He thinks it one of their best per- 
formances, designed chiefly to prevent the consequences 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 311 

of His Excelly^ resentment at home. We have had but 
one Council since you left us, upon an express from G. 
Shirley desireing conveniencys may be made at Sarah- 
toga for their troops who were ready to March, and to 
know how to preserve them from the smal pox. What 
other newes there is you will have in the papers, so that 
I have only to add that w*^ our compliments to the fam- 
ily, I am Dear Doctor 

Your very humble Servant 

Abch'^ Kennedy 
This thing is not to be printed 
where it was hatched you may 
guess, but it was licked into 
Shape at the Cart & horse where I 
hear they had many meetings. 


Cadwallader Golden 

Cadwallader Colden to [John Rutherjurdf] 
[Copy Undated] 

Having this Opportunity by my son Cadwallader I 
can write more freely to you than I thought prudent to 
do by the common conveyances. You must perceive from 
the publick papers that the Opposition continues as vio- 
lent as ever but I believe they have been exceedingly 
disapointed in two material points One is in the Gov- 
ernors Steadiness to his first resolutions & measure the 
other in Admiral Waren's neglect of them None hav- 
ing so much as a letter from him & I am inform'd that 
in case there had been any occasion for it he would 
have appeared in Vindication of my Character. There 
are no publick letters from any of the Ministry but the 
Governors friends assure him that he will receive In- 
structions that will make him entirely easy. His Excell'' 
seems to be well pleas'd with Capt" Wraxall and Capt° 
Campbell I have don all in my power to make him so 

312 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

& I hope you will be pleas'd with his behaviour towards 
you & I must intreat you to advise him freely & pass 
over some oddities which some times perhaps you may 
observe M" Rutherfurd tells me that you are desirous 
to be at New York I have reason to think it will 
not be refused you if you desire it because I have 
mentioned it to the Governor Your being at New York 
will give me a great deal of pleasure because I believe I 
must return to New York when the Gov"" returns from 
Albany & it will of great advantage to me to have 
your assistance My son is appointed Commissary of 
the Musters for the New Levies I must beg that 
you will assist him with your friendly advice he 
goes full of the hopes of it as he will stand much in 
need of it by his being litle acquainted with the world 
In one letter which I receiv'd from London any Expe- 
dition agt Canada was thought to be laid aside at this 
time for this reason that the making conquests abroad 
can be of litle use while the French remain superior in 
Europe because in such case they will make what terms 
of Peace they shall think proper but that it was hoped 
the case would alter this summer & then if the Allies 
gain the Superiority in Flanders we may hope to re- 
tain what ever conquests can afterwards be made in 
America in the mean time it was thought proper to 
make an attempt on Crown point or on Oniagara 

Address to The Freeholders & Freemen of the Cities & 
Counties of the Province of New York On Occasion of 
the ensueing Elections for Representatives in General 
Assembly by 

A Freeholder in the 
same Province 

[In handwriting of Cadwallader Golden] 

It is with much grief that I have seen the publick des- 
sensions which have subsisted so long in the province of 
New York at this time of greatest danger from two the 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 313 

most dreadfull Ennemies this Country can have viz. the 
French & Indians The French the powerful! ennemies 
of the common Liberty of Europe & the Indians by 
whose barbarous cruelty a considerable part of this Prov- 
ince has been laid waste many of the inhabitants have 
lost their lives in the most inhuman manner & others 
carried into captivity among savages whilest the Peo- 
ple of this Province were threatned with & exposed to 
such Calamities every impartial looker on & observer 
wished that our Representatives in Assembly & had 
rather exerted their Bowels and compassion for the suf- 
ferings of the innocent than to have their whole thoughts 
& all their passions employ'd in Dissentions & conten- 
tion with their Governor. This I must confess made me 
hear of the dissolution of the last assembly with some 
kind of pleasure in hopes that thereby an end may be 
put to those most unreasonable contentions in this time 
of danger That thereby the heats & passions which 
have too long prevail'd might have some time to cool & 

But alas I was sorry to find by a publication in the 
News papers that a firm resolution seem'd to be taken 
to continue them in the next assembly The late represen- 
tatives of the City of New York & who are known to 
have had the chief influence in our party disputes like 
true Game Cocks are no sooner with drawn from the 
Battle but they Clap their Wings & Crow We are ready 
to enter the field of battle again with whomever dare to 
dispute with us 

I am much more pleas'd with the sense of Modesty 
which still remains in a neighbouring colony where it is 
said nothing can so effectually defeat any ambitious views 
of this kind as for any man thus audaciously to set him- 
self up. The true roman virtue was allmost totally ex- 
tinguished before their great or rich men went about to 
court the common people for their votes The Roman, 
people had lost all those generous & noble Sentiments of 
honour & Liberty before the lower rank of them be came 
so low & weak as to take it as favour to be call'd by their 

314 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

names by their rich men & to be shook by the hand and 
They were become slaves in their minds before they could 
sell their Liberty to the highest bidder To the man 
that would fill their Bellies with wine & good cheer or 
their hands with silver But as I hope we in this country 
are far from being in such state I think that I may 
freely address myself to my Country men of the Prov- 
ince of New York to think for themselves & not to 
suffer themselves to be deluded with any pretences how- 
ever fair & taking of either of the contending parties 

In examining the pretences of either side I can- 
not enter into the secrets of their hearts or pretend to be 
in the secrets of their more hidden views I can only 
judge of what either side has thought fit to declare to the 
world and as both sides have submitted what they have 
published as the tests by which the people of this Prov- 
ince are to Judge of them neither of them I hope will 
take it amiss that I make some reflections on what they 
themselves have given us for the foundation of our 
Judgement of their conduct 

In the first place I shall begin with what the Gov"" 
has said & keep to such part of it as so far as I know has 
not been denyed by his adversaries & for that reason I 
think must be admitted for truth. 

The Gov'' says that he has risqued the whole of his 
Estate in drawing Bills for the payment of the forces 
at Albany after the Assembly had refused to advance 
money for that purpose & when not only the Frontiers 
were indanger of being exposed to the ennemy by the 
forces posted there deserting but when they likewise 
threatned to mutiny & to take their pay by plundering 
of the Country The dangers that we but more especially 
the farmers in the northern parts of the Country were 
in seem to have been no otherwise consider'd by our 
representatives than that the Frontiers may be deserted 
the Country may be plunder'd The County of Albany 
may be destroy'd & the inhabitants murder'd if the Gov- 
ernor will not assist them at the risque of his private 
fortune From all that I can observe in the publick pa- 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 315 

pers our representatives declare that they will have no 
other regard to them Can any opposition be carried to 
a more dangerous heighth than this has been Is it in 
Order to make this want of compassion pass the more 
easily among the people that they boldly asserted that 
the Gov'' had orders to pay these troops but that he re- 
fused it He deny'd that he had such orders They never 
could show any orders that he had & no man of common 
sense can imagine that the Gov"" durst have refused to 
pay if he had receiv'd orders for that purpose nor can 
any reason be assign'd why he should refuse And now 
lately by the Demand that the King has made on all the 
northern colonies it is out of Question that the Gov'^ had 
no orders to make the payments which he has made & 
consequently that they are made at the risque of his own 
fortune. Notwithstanding of this the assembly remains 
obstinate let the consequences be as mischievous as can 
be imagined to their fellow subjects they are resolv'd no 
way to prevent them. I can see nothing from the pub- 
lick papers to put this in a better light I think then 
that this condescension of the Gov"" shews that he is at 
least a compassionate man when he would rather risque 
his whole fortune than expose the lives & Estates of the 
Inhabitants of this Province even after their representa- 
tives by their conduct seem to disregard them And this 
compassion in the Gov"" one would think might deserve 
thanks at least but so far from this that this generous 
Action has had no return but scurrilous & obusive lan- 
guage. I wish some person were able to reconcile this 
with common candour for I can observe nothing in the 
assembly's publications that can clear them on this head 
Some people perhaps may be perswaded to hope that by 
this obstinacy in the Assembly the Province at least hag 
saved so much money If they thought that their prevail- 
ing on the Gov"" could have this good effect one would 
think that it should likewise draw at least good words 
from them after they had prevail'd on him But I am 
affray'd it may not have this effect Perhaps this Prov- 
ince may be forced to pay this money with Interest & 

316 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

their ungratefull & undutyfull behaviour to the King in 
the Character of his Govemour be one reason why they 
may not be consider'd so graciously as otherwise they 
might hope to be If this should happen to be the case 
we who have been most averse from these dissensions & 
contentions may suffer equally if not more than they who 
are most guilty 

In the next place the Gov'^ has told us That in the 
Fall of the year 1746 he design'd to have erected some 
kind of Fortification at the canying place which leads to- 
wards Crown point & to have lodged about 500 men there 
but that by the assembly's commissioners withholding the 
Provisions & other obstructions he was forced to take up 
with the Fort at Sarahtoga He says that if he had been 
at liberty to prosecute his Designs at the Carrying place 
the Country would have been much better defended than 
otherwise it was in his power to do That in that case 
with the assistance of the New England forces which were 
offer'd for that purpose Crown point might have been 
attacked in the Winter Season or early in the Spring with 
the greatest probability of Success when the People of 
Canada could not send relief to it Great part of last 
summer past over in the expectation of orders from 
Court after the season of the year was so far advanced 
that nothing could be expected from thence the Gov'" 
with the Assistance of the Council of this Province con- 
certed a plan for attacking Crown Point in conjunction 
with new England & made an estimate of the charge of 
the whole expedition over & above what the Gov'^ was 
willing to undertake at the charge of the Crown The 
whole of this Estimate the charge of which was to be bom 
by the Colonies of Massachusets bay Connecticut & this 
jointly amounted to no more than 14000 pounds a small 
part of the whole charge that must have attended this 
enterprise yet the assembly refused to come into any part 
of this charge unless the whole plan were communicated 
to them. This demand I believe will appear only an 
evasive denyall to all considerate men who shall con- 
sider that no plan of Military Operations ever was com- 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 317 

municated to Parliament nor ever was desir'd to be com- 
municated to them by either house of Parliament & in 
the present case that in a few hours after the plan had 
been thus communicated it must become part of the 
common conversation of the people of New York & that 
in a few days after it must become part of the common 
conversation at Albany & from thence it could not take 
above a week to be the common conversation in Canada 
Could the greatest friends to the French desire a more 
effectual method to defeat any design against them 

After this the Colonies of Massachusets Bay & Con- 
necticut sent Commissioners to New York to concert 
measures with us for our mutual defence & annoyance 
of the ennemy & accordingly Articles of Agreement were 
enter'd into for that purpose which receiv'd the assem- 
bly's approbation. Before I go on further I must observe 
that these Articles were in Substance the same which 
the Gov"^ (as he tells us) had concerted at Albany with 
the members of the Council of this province & the 
Comss'^^ from Boston who attended him there & which 
the assembly had formerly endeavour'd to expose in a 
bad light but now they approve of. But for what pur- 
pose this approbation was now given I doubt will not be 
easy to say after it has been observ'd tho' the assembly 
sat many weeks after this approbation without any kind 
of Interruption not one step was taken by them towards 
carrying this agreement into execution Whey they were 
going on matters foreign to this grand affair of our 
mutual defence & of small importance of themselves the 
Gov'" indeavour'd to fix their attention to what imme- 
diately concern'd the safety of the People they represent 
telling them that they may have time enough to con- 
sider these matters of less consequence after they had 
don what was incumbent on them to preserve the lives 
& estates of the inhabitants from the incursions of a 
cruel & merciless ennemy What an allarm was sounded 
on the receipt of this Message as if the Gov'^ by this one 
message had indeavour'd to deprive the People of this 
Province of all their rights & Privileges I must own 

318 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

that this rediculous farce (as the Gov*" I think properly- 
enough calls it) serv'd more than any thing to open my 
eyes & to let me see that these men who absolutely 
ruled in the Assembly had in no sense the good of this 
Province before their eyes That they had nothing so 
much at heart as to find out methods to lessen the Peo- 
ples esteem of their Gov'" & that he had too good grounds 
to charge them with Malice & resentment & that their 
whole conduct was guided by those Passions otherwise 
no man of the least candour or who had the least spark 
of honour I must think could have endeavour'd to put an 
action not only innocent of it self but truely usefull on so 
horrid a light. 

The Forces rais'd on the expedition intended against 
Canada being now to be disbanded the Gov'' inform'd the 
Assembly how any number of those posted at Albany 
might be retain'd for the defence of the Frontiers. Tho' 
any man may easily conceive that the Gov'' had better 
means of being well inform'd of the Disposition & incli- 
nation of both officers & men than it was possible the 
Assembly could be yet they would not pay any regard 
to his proposal & went on a Method of their own which 
on a fair calculation as the Governor assures us must 
put the Province to 4000 pounds more expence than the 
method proposed by the Gov"" & which they do not deny 
Their method has proved ineffectual whereas the Gov'"^ 
method he was well assured could not have fail'd 

While the assembly was thus delatory & changeing 
their measures the Gov'" thought it his Duty to take all 
the care in his power of the lives & estates of the inhabi- 
tants daily exposed to a cruel & merciless ennemy And 
as he could not longer depend on any number of the New 
levies at Albany he thought it incumbent on him to put 
the Militia in the best posture for the defence of the 
Province on all events And so far as I have been able to 
judge no man in his sober senses can blame the Gov"" 
in any part of his conduct on this occasion yet the (I can- 
not avoid calling it) perverse humour of the assembly 
at this time did not only occasion disobedience to these 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 319 

orders by the resolves which they published but it is 
likewise well known that several of their members went 
privately about to instigate the passions of the lowest 
rank of people to the most wicked purposes. 

When this notorious desobedience was told in a neigh- 
bouring Colony to a person of distinction there & who 
is well known to be no friend to despotic principles he 
Openly exclaim'd that he did not imagine there had been 
any such disloyal subjects in America [On this occasion 
I cannot forbear mentioning a piece of Insolence that I 
am affray'd cannot be believe'd in any other part of the 
world yet it has been told me by such persons that I 
cannot doubt of having it sufficiently attested if it should 
be disputed. As the Companies of Militia were marching 
past the Gov''^ house towards the commons he stood in 
the window with his youngest daughter a child As one 
of the companies passed at the head of which an assembly 
man marched a fellow in one of the ranks turn'd round 
on his heel faced the window took his gun from his shoul- 
der presented it towards the Window & fired On which 
occasion the Captain was observ'd to look round and 
laugh with out giving the least reproof for such an impu- 
den insult 

Now from what Principle can this behaviour of the 
representatives of a People proceed Can such a be- 
haviour either gain reputation or produce any benefite to 
the Country they represent Can it entitle them to any 
favour with the King or Parliament or esteem with any 
man of honour or that has the least sense of good man- 

As to my past I am perswaded that the Solemnity of 
Locking their door & laying the Key on the Table to- 
gether with this brutal & — behaviour on this occasion 
of the Militia will with any man that makes the least 
reflection remove every doubt that could remain of the 
characters & principles of the heads & directors in the 
party Dissentions in this Province, 

I shall next consider what the Assembly has laid to 
the Governor's charge I cannot discover that in any in- 

320 THE GOLDEN PAPER&-1 743-1 747 

stance they have charged him with the least attempt on 
the Liberty or Property of any one individual or that 
the law since he has had the administration has been 
under any kind of restraint so that every man has en- 
joy'd the full benefite of it in all cases whether publick 
or private wherein he may think himself aggrieved A 
Happiness which the People have formerly thought they 
did not so fully enjoy & which upon serious reflection 
must pass with sober men as one strong proof of an up- 
right administration 

But the heavy charge against him is the converting 
to his own use the publick money of this Province with 
which he was intrusted I must confess that after I had 
seen in what terms this charge was insinuated & when 
I consider'd that very large sums had been granted by 
the Assembly of this Province for publick services since 
the arival of the present Govemour I could not doubt 
but that very large sums had been put in his power at 
least And therefor I must own that I receiv'd his answer 
with some surprise when I found from it that he had 
not since his arival been trusted with litle more than 
1800 pounds & that only for the charge which usually 
attends his meeting with & treating with the Indians 
whoever considers the expence which unavoidably at- 
tends every such meeting must be perswaded that a very 
small sum if any could by any means be saved out of 
what was allow'd by the Assembly for those expences. 
Such as can be called no other than a meer trifle when 
compared with the noise & clamour which has been in- 
dustriously rais'd. For this reason I believe impartial 
judges will suspect that the Slander thrown on the Gov'' 
under this Pretence must have been for some other pur- 
pose than saving of money to the Province This will 
appear more evident when it is considered that the Gov'' 
to remove as much as in his power all prejudices on this 
head declared more than once that he was ready to give 
his assent to any Bill or clauses to prevent any imbezle- 
ment of the publick money or publick stores This seems 
to me all that could in reason be expected but perhaps the 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174^-1747 321 

doing of this would have defeated one principal part 
of their scheme whereby they engage some men by their 
Interest to serve as Drums & Trumpets to propagate 
Slander of their Superiours in order to establish their own 
power over a deluded People 

A very few obvious observations will be sufficient to 
set this in a proper light Since the Expedition ag*" Can- 
ada was set on foot about 70000 pounds has been issued 
in Bills of Credit Out of this the Assembly allows their 
Commiss*"^ 50/ in every hundred by which they have or 
are to receive since that time 1750 pounds for their own 
trouble only a Sum very near as great as what the Govr 
was entrusted with in above four years & out of which 
only it was in his power to convert any part of the pub- 
lick money to his private use 

May I be allow'd to ask these great men the leaders 
of an assembly whether several men of as good Credit 
& reputation as those they have employ'd would not 
have gladly don all the services required of their Com- 
miss'^^ for 300 pounds by which near 1500 pounds in this 
one article would have been saved to the Country I may 
adventure to say this because every man the least ac- 
quainted with trade must know that the benefites other- 
wise arising in the way of Trade by this office would at 
least amount to 1500 pounds more. A Pretty perquesite 
for a Drum & a Trumpet However despicable the name 
of a Drum or a Trumpet may be with some Gent'' yet 
it is well known that other sorts of Gent" understand 
their Interest better than to loose so beneficial employ- 
ment for the sake of a name And what Gentleman of 
that sort would not as things now stand rather be a Drum 
or a Trumpet for an assembly than for a Gov'" who can 
give neither fee nor perquesite 

On this Occasion every one must remember that 
Rumour & Report was a fine engine to throw dirt upon 
a Governour But we who are not assembly men may 
think it as proper an implement against assembly men 
Commiss'^ If rumour & report be a sufficient round to 

322 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

charge a Gov"" why has it not some force to charge others 
when rumour & report is as strongly against them 

There has been a rumour & report that considerable 
quantities of Beef & Pork was so bad that it was con- 
demn'd as unfit to be eat Yet this cost the Country the 
same price with good Rumour & Report afiirms that sev- 
eral barrels of Bread had good bread at both ends & in the 
midle what was only fit for hogs & yet the midle cost the 
same price to the Country with the best Rumour & report 
told us that the men were cheated out of one quarter 
of the rum allow'd them & paid for by the Country. And 
Rumour & report positively affirms that very consider- 
able quantities of the Countries Provision has been sold 
at Albany & converted to private use 

May I ask how it comes that Rumour & Report should 
be of such Credit against a Gov*" & deserves no notice 
or regard when it is as positive an evidence against assem- 
bly men & their Creatures 

After this he must be a meer Simple David indeed 
who can believe that the abusive language which has 
been vented against Gov*" Clinton was only to prevent 
his imbezling the publick Treasure What other purpose 
it was to serve the assembly has not thought proper to 
own But as it does not require any extraordinary Sagac- 
ity to discover it I shall leave it to the enquiry of the 
Electors of New Assembly men 

They must be but litle acquainted with mankind who 
can think there could be any great danger from the power 
of a Governour when they who are subject to his power 
dare treat him in the manner Gov*" Clinton has been 
treated If this be the case may not the Inhabitants of 
the Province of New York be affray'd of an assembly's 
obtaining too great a power. The nature of our constitu- 
tion certainly supposes it possible when the whole Beauty 
of it consists in the due Ballance between the several 
branches of the Legislature Our constitution may as 
certainly be destroyed by an over great power in the as- 
sembly as in the Gov"" There has been too strong an 
instance of it in our Mother Country But I shall at this 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 323 

time only make some observations on the Power which 
this assembly assumes of nominating the officers who are 
to have the issueing of the publick money independently 
of the Gov"" and which he tells them is contrary to his 
commission the only authority by which they sit & have 
a share in making Laws There may be such a clashing 
between these independent powers in cases where it is 
impossible the publick service can be perform'd without 
an entire Union that the necessary Service may suffer 
or it may be impossible for a Governour to do his Duty 
But to pass this over the assembly by their assuming this 
power to themselves (which a House of Commons of 
Great Brittain does not claim) they appoint some of their 
own Members or near Relations or Special Friends Is it 
likely that an assembly will be so fond to call these men 
to an exact account as they would others appointed by 
the Gov'" & Council who have no relation to them. The 
present state of affairs shows it to be quite otherwise All 
the Rumours & Reports of Imbezlement by persons en- 
trusted by the assembly has never been able at produce 
any enquiry into their Conduct tho' from what has been 
observ'd according to these rumours & reports these men 
intrusted by the assembly may have converted ten times 
the sums of the publick money to their use that it was 
possible for the Gov'' to do because all the money that he 
was intrusted with by this Province does not amount to 
the value of the imbezlements if there be any Credit on 
the rumours & reports above mentioned And as if these 
rumours & reports could not be hid from the Assembly 
they cannot be supposed to be ignorant of them & yet 
they have never made the least enquiry to find out the 
truth of them This observation therefore of their being 
willing to favour themselves or their relations or friends 
at the expence of their constituents cannot be said to be 
without foundation 

All deviations from our constitution must either pro- 
ceed from the ignorance of the Beauty of it or from a 
desire to destroy it But in all attempts of this kind the 
people of this Province have something more to fear 

324 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

than independant states have Every indeavour to wrest 
the Kings Authority out of the hands of his Govemour 
may draw on the Resentment not only of the King but 
likewise of a Brittish Parliament who allready seem to 
have become Jealous of the Dependance of their Colo- 
nies Witness a Bill not long since prepared for Parlia- 
ment which allarmed all the Colonies 

If this should be the case that the Parliament should 
think that we abuse the Privileges with which we are in- 
dulged & should think it necessary to put us under a 
more absolute authority We the common midling people 
are most likely to suffer These very men who by their 
grasping after undue power endanger our greatest privi- 
leges may escape the punishment while the Innocent 
suffer nay they may be gainers by it for they who are 
fondest of power are the most Ikely to become the tools 
of it in any shape & are most likely to freely offer them- 
selves that they may be able to domineer over us 

Besides what has been observ'd as the probable conse- 
quences of our publick dissensions & which some may 
fancy to be remote (I wish they be not nearer than many 
apprehend) there is another obvious ill consequence from 
our publick Dissentions which no man can tell how sud- 
denly & unexpectedly we may feel the dismall & fatal 
effects by the advantages the enenmy may take of them 
I shall be far from supposing that any of the assembly 
hold the least correspondence with the Ennemy or have 
any inclination to favour them but at the same time it 
can hardly be doubted but that the Ennemy has spyes & 
Emmissaries among us The French never neglected 
so great an advantage at any price Such cunning emis- 
saries as they constantly employ know how to sow the 
seeds of Dissention to blow up the coals of discontent & 
to set mens passions to work so as to make us serve their 
purposes without knowing that we do it & as effectually 
as we could had we been devoted to their Service. In the 
time of the Negro piott ail men seem'd to be affray'd of 
such designs Now we seem to have lost all appre- 
hensions of them Can it with any prudence be supposed 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 325 

that a cunning & indefatigable ennemy can have laid 
aside the thought of such like artifices which may turn 
so exceedingly to his advantage No! they have only 
changed their measures They may have taken more 
secret & less suspected measures & against which we are 
less upon our guard & therefor more likely to produce the 
mischievous effects which they hope from them 

We may see then my Dear Country men into what 
evident & great dangers we run our selves into by our 
Publick Dissentions Let me conjure you then by all 
means in our power to avoid the continuance of them & 
to use our best Indeavours to heal the Breach which 
threatens us with an Inundation of evils The Gov"" has 
given us one opportunity of doing it by a new Election of 

Let us seriously consider with out partiality & affec- 
tion whether it be most for the Interest of the Country to 
choose the same men again who have had their pas- 
sions heated with the past Disputes & their spirits exas- 
perated & inflamed with their resentments or others who 
have been cool observers of all the inconveniencies which 
have arisen from them Are not the calm judgements of 
these last most likely to fore see the Dangers we are 
running into heal our breaches & unite us heartily when 
Union & publick spirit must be allow'd by all never to 
have been more necessary than it is at this time 

Some perhaps may say that these men have been 
fighting the Country's cause against the incroachments 
of a Governour and therfore ought not to be deserted but 
supported by their Country But if what has been before 
observ'd be well consider'd I suspect strongly it will ap- 
pear that these violent opposers of a Governour have had 
their own private views more at heart than the good of 
the Country Consider seriously my Dear Countrymen 
whether in the late publick Dissentions Love of worldly 
power Profitable imployments in the Disposing of the 
Country's money Foolish & mischievous contentions for 
litle paltry posts & Distinctions do not too evidently ap- 
pear to have been the principle motives to all this publick 

326 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

contention which has distracted this Country Does not 
Envy seem to have taken Possession of the hearts & to 
have destroy'd every generous noble publick spirited 
Sentiment or rather that Rage at the Disapointment of 
their litle schemes for power gnaws their Souls & fills 
them with such cordial hatred to their Apponents that 
every proposal however be refused to the Country & by 
the execution of which those whom they oppose may 
receive benefite or reputation as well as themselves is 
rejected with indignation. Till of late I could not believe 
the story of him who refused to pump in a sinking ship 
because one on board whom he hated would be saved 
by it as well as himself But such it seems is the unhap- 
piness of human nature that our passions when violent 
are too hard for the united force of Reason Duty & Re- 

The next argument which I have heard insisted on 
for the Reelection of our last representatives in the City 
especially is that they are all of them men of the best 
estates in the Country & consequently must be firmly 
attached to the Interest of the Country where there Es- 
tates ly To this I answer we have others of as good es- 
tates as they have & who have not had their Judge- 
ments byassed or their Passions exasperated by having 
been personally engaged in our wofuU dissensions & 
therefor on this occasion they can pretend to no prefer- 
ence to others who have the same advantage to plead 
& are free from the objections which they are too evi- 
dently liable to 

But I must further observe that riches are not allwise 
acquired by the honestest means nor are they allwise ac- 
companied with the greatest integrity of mind with the 
most knowledge or with the most generous sentiments 
& publick spirit The Contrary to these has been so often 
observ'd in rich men that a celebrated Author has ob- 
serv'd that the all wise God has often bestowed the Great- 
est riches on the most worthless of mortals to shew of how 
litle esteem riches are in his sight 

Besides all this the rich have many opportunities 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 327 

to screen themselves in publick Calamities which the 
midling rank of mankind can not have But especially 
rich Merchants. The means of speedy flight are ready 
in their hands and with some previous care to lodge 
money & effects in distant & secure places tho' they 
should loose much yet enough may be left them & to 
spare But most unhappily indeed circumstanced are the 
Midling people. The Farmers Shopkeepers & Tradesmen 
They cannot all fly with their families & if they could 
how could they Subsist 

No they & what litle they have gained by hard labour 
& industry must bear the Brunt The weight of Contri- 
butions which may be exported by the Ennemy in case 
the ennemy should prevail as well as all the military 
hardships & dangers in defence of the Country (as it is 
of the present taxes among our selves) must be surely & 
heavily born by them 

The rich while they abound in plenty pass their time 
in endulgeing their appetites & thereby enflame their 
Passions while they think of nothing but of Jollity & 
mirth have litle time to think of the Dangers there Coun- 
try is in or of the Misfortunes of their Neighbours. 

The midling rank of mankind in all Countries & in all 
ages have justly obtain'd the Character to be generally 
the most honest The rich men I am perswaded were they 
in distress would sooner trust their purses & the honour 
of their wives & daughters with their neighbours of the 
midling rank then with any of their rich jolly or swag- 
gering companions And I am likewise fully perswaded 
that we may much more safely trust our Liberty & Prop- 
erty wth our neighbours of a midling rank than with 
those of the greatest riches who are thereby tempted to 
Lord it over their neighbours The estate of the midling 
rank are as dear to them as the Estates of the richest 
are to them They are no less fond & desirous of the well- 
fair & safety of their children And have as great a regard 
to the honour of their wives & Daughters Our richest 
men among us cannot pretend to any degree of Knowl- 
edge in any kind of publick affairs more than several of 

328 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

those of a midling rank evidently have or to more Resolu- 
tion for their King & Country's Service than what those 
of a midling rank upon every proper occasion have dis- 
covered At the same time they of a midling rank must 
allwise be more cautious of making an ill use of any 
good qualities they may be possess than some rich men 
who know the force of money & powerfull or rich rela- 
tions to Screen them from publick enquires into their 

Now my Dear Countrymen never was there a time 
wherein we ought to be more careful & more disinterested 
in the choice of Representatives than now when this 
Country as I at first observ'd is exposed to the two most 
dangerous Ennemies that any Country can be exposed to 
The I'rench & merciless Indians And when we may be 
likewise exposed to the resentment of our King & a 
Brittish Parliament by the Indiscreet & passionate be- 
haviour of our late representatives in a manner which I 
am sorry to say may be thought disrespectfull of all 
Authority & of our dependance on great Brittain This I 
think highly concerns us to remove every Jealousy of this 
kind from our Superiors because we can have no defence 
against it but by removing it Which I doubt not may 
be easily don by the prudent behaviour of our next as- 
sembly For which purpose let us unite heartily & sin- 
cerely in the choice of such as we are perswaded know 
the Interest of our Country & are most resolute to pur- 
sue it without prejudice or view of party Interest or to 
the Satisfying their private views Passions or resentments 

Cadwullader C olden to Governor George Clinton 

CoLDENGHAM Jau""^ 5'*^ 1746/7 

I was at last lucky in the time that I left New York by 
my getting that night to my sons If I had not gon at the 
time I did probably I could not have got home to this 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 329 

time by the roads being impassable by a flood which car- 
ried away the Bridges in many places. Tho' I be resolv'd 
to think as litle as possible at this time on the disagreable 
things which employ'd our thoughts at New York yet I 
have not been able to drive them entirely out of my 
head. — I suspect that one reason of the Publication made 
by the Council in the Post Boy of the S^^ of Dec"" was to 
discredit the whole Narrative of your Excellys Treaty 
with the Indians as the success in that affair had disap- 
pointed those who intended to perplex affairs & thought 
that the bad Disposition of the Indians at that time 
was such as nothing in your power could remove & now 
they envy your ExcelF the honour which our Success 
in that Treaty has acquired. Your Excell^ knows the 
truth of that Paragraph & I dare say that not one of the 
Council (except the Mayor who was employ'd by your 
ExcelF in Matters w'''' required his stay at New York) 
can deny that he excused himself from going with you 
And none of them can singly deny (what ever they may 
do in a body) that both your ExcelP & I pressed them to 
go & that a greater number should at least attend & that 
both you & I urged several reasons for that purpose The 
Chief Justice positively refused M"" Murray excused him- 
self in the Strongest terms from his Business in the Law 
M"" Horsmanden refuse'd unless he was paid not only for 
his going at that time but for his going formerly with 
the Governor to Albany All of them gave some ex- 
cuse or other If the case be so (and your ExcelF certain- 
ly knows whether it be so or not) it may be left to any 
indifferent Judge to determine whether that Paragraph 
in the printed Treaty or the publication of the 8*^ of Dec"" 
deserve the appellation of an invideous misrepresentation 
of Facts. I mention this again to your ExcelF as I think 
it of some consequence to your affairs that the Credit of 
that Treaty be not lessen'd with the Kings Ministers. I 
think proper like wise to observe to your ExcelF that 
when your ExcelP' in answer to the Resolves of the 8"" 
of Nov"" said that as you differ'd from them in opinion 
you would referr the Matter to his Majesty & his Minis- 

330 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

ters & punctually put in Execution what orders you 
shall receive oh that head The assembly in their Replica- 
tion resolv'd that who ever advised that answer are 
ennemies to the constitution of this Government which 
seems to imply that by the Constitution of this Govern- 
ment the King has no authority to interpose in Differ- 
ences between a Governor & an assembly of this Prov- 
ince & seems to be a claim of Independency 

I am likewise of opinion that if the King shall think 
proper to declare his disallowance of the last Act for 
furnishing of Provisions to the Forces levied in this Prov- 
ince it cannot be of any ill consequence since it will have 
taken its effect as to the supply of the Forces before the 
repeal can reach this place & his Majesty's disapproba- 
tion may have a good effect on some peoples minds. I 
long for the pleasure of hearing that your Excell^ has 
some good news from England to make amends for the 
Chagrine you have met with & I heartily wish you & your 
Lady & family a Happy New Year with Success & much 
pleasure I am 


Your Excellency^ 
most obedient & 
most humble servant 
Cadwallader Golden. 

From Samuel Johnson 

Stratford Jan*^' 12, 1746/7 

I Thank you for your's of Nov'" 19. All the Objections 
I had to your System were contained in a Letter I wrote 
you Sometime last Summer which your attendance on 
public affairs has not given you leave to Consider I doubt 
not of the justness of your Mathematical Reasonings. 
Nor do I doubt of your having advanced something ex- 
tremely ingenious & I believe advantageous in physical 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 331 

Speculation. Your making Resistance an Action, I 
thought very just. But my doubts were only with re- 
gard to the justness of your Metaphysical Thoughts, par- 
ticularly in Ascribing Action to Matter, which I ever 
took to be a meer passive thing & that the same which is 
the principle of action must also be the principle of Con- 
scious Design & wise contrivance, & therefore that the 
Actions which you ascribe to matter must be the Actions 
of Mind which alone can be the Agent to whom each 
species of matter can be no more than a mere passive 
tool of Instrum^ 

What you answer to the objections of our College of 
the Danger of Atheism are to me very Satisfactory, & 
when you have explained your self on the subject of 
Spirit, or immaterial intelligent Active Beings, whether 
God or Creatures, I trust our Thoughts will not much 
differ, however our Language may Something vary. What 
was objected was not meant at all under the notion of 
aspersion, but it was tho't something like Epicurus's No- 
tion of self moving or self-exerting Atoms must be im- 
plied in your System — And the president Says, ''he can't 
understand your Solution of Gravity: for two Balls in 
your (Ether, will certainly be press'd as much by it on 
the Sides between them, as on the opposite Sides, unless 
it has some Laws of Motion that we have never yet been 
acquainted with." 

You need not ask pardon for the Freedom of your 
Censure on Bp Berkley's Tract de Motu As I Said once in 
a Letter to you, Nullius in verba is my principle: I am 
for an intire Liberty in philosophizing. I have a few 
certain principles which to me are either Self-evident, 
or clearly desmonstrable, beyond which I both freely give 
& take all the Liberty that can be reasonable or desireable 
to any one, within the eternal Boundaries of Right & 
wrong. But your agreeing with the Bp in saying "you 
can have no Conception of Force without Action, or of 
what some call a dead force," makes me believe you really 
agree with him a good deal further than you apprehend 
you do. It is true I have a great, & I believe just value 

332 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

for that Gentleman, but I trust a greater for Truth wher- 
ever it can be come at, & not so great, as to be in the least 
shock'd at any free Censure nor his Notions much less. 
So as to abate in the least Degree of Friendship for any 
Gentleman that Differs from him, Accordingly I remain 
y Sincere friend & 
Very humble Servant 

S Johnson 
P. S. 

I ask pardon for inclosing this Letter to 
M'' Watkins, having no other way to send it near 
him, & I humbly hope you will excuse it. 

From Governor George Clinton 

New York W^ Janry 1747 

I have Yours of the 10 Inst, in answer to mine of the 
2d w""^ I am glad You acknowledged, as I was apprehen- 
sive from your last letter to M"" Catherwood, it might 
have been still detain'd on this side of the River. 

You have herewith an annonymous Letter thrown 
into M"" Catherwoods Lodgings, W''^ I think shou'd be 
answered, as You can easily Judge who the author is, 
I have also inclosed the purpert of the Articles in the 
agreement w"^*" the Gen' Court at Boston has amended; 
and I join in Opinion with You, that matter shou'd only 
be touched upon in Gen' Terms. & seem warm for it 

Your address will be printed next Monday w'''' comes 
apropos after this Letter, and altho' they have been 
extremely artfull to conceal it, 'til the evening after 
Hilton sailed, it does not in the least move me, but rather 
makes me more stedfast in my Resolutions. 

I am glad that some change is like to happen in the 
Country, and whatever promises You make for that end, 
in relation to Militia Commissions shall be fullfilled. The 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 333 

Election for this City comes on the 2P*; but the late 
Candidates soUicit like sturdy Beggars without any oppo- 

There is an absolute necessity for the Commissary 
coming down immediately upon Account of the Jersey 
Troops, as several of the Officers belonging to them are 
going for England, Therefore I must desire you'l send 
him hither as soon as possible, and as he is the properest 
hand to be intrusted with my Speech, let him bring it 
with him, if You have prepared it, otherwise it must be 
referred to another safe opportunity. Notice must be 
taken in it to provide Rent for the C. Justices House to 
May next, to w'^^ time I am engaged to pay it. 

Brunx & Salisburys Petition has been presented to 
me in Council & the prayer thereof will be granted, pro- 
vided it is not for the same Lands for W" M"" Henry 
Lane has petitioned for. 

Hicks sent me word that he dispairs of succeeding in 
Queens County, from the Great Opposition made agt 
him on Acc*^ of the Militia orders of w'''' great advantages 
is made among the Vulgar. 

As I conceive there will be a necessity of calling the 
Assembly as soon as possible, I hope M""^ Coldens Health 
will permit you to attend, being sorry to hear she contin- 
ues ill, as I am to tell You That Peter Delancey is much 
out of order 

M'^'' Clinton Miss Capt" & all friends joyn in Compli- 
ments to your family, Not one word of News yet from 
England Morris has sent me a Message he is determind 
to be a mediator, I am at a very great loss on many ac- 
counts not having either you or Allexander in Town, I 
don't doubt Rutherfurds Sincerity tho' I believe nothing 
is left untried by both My wife & perticular invited them 
on twelvt night with ye DeLanceys &c & I am almost 
blind of writing by Hilton & besides have had my old 
friend y*" Ague to pay me a visitt, y^ Night before Hilton 
Saild there was a meeting at y® Jacobati House & he 
Sign'd something to send home. I am told both Council 
& Assembly joyned in it wheither ag^ me or you I cant 

334 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

learn or Both, but one thing I can tell them I dont doubt 
but carry my point even to turn out y^ C. J. tho' he 
fancys himself so great a Man, I am just agoing to sup 
at Rutherfurds with some friends where you are sure 
your good health will be screwed Adieu with great 


Your very humble Ser* 

The Honbie Cadw. Golden G CliNTON 

From John Rutherfurd 

Albany 18"" January 1746 7 
Dear Sir 

As Mr Mathews A Neibour of yours tells me he setts 
out to morrow I give him the trouble of this, & whatever 
you & I may think of Albany I assure you, 'twould sur- 
prize you how chearfuUy we pass our time, ColP Roberts 
is gone to New York but we've still Mess" Wrexall, 
Honeyman, Colhoun & Capt Campbel Commd* of three 
Maryland Companys who is a very good sort of Man. 
Yours of the 10^^ Inst I was favoured with by Ensign 
McClaghry & I really think there has happened nothing 
at New York to give you the least uneasiness imagine- 
able, for when A Man's Character is unjustly aspersed, 
'tis the Slanderer only Suffers in the opinion of every Man 
whose opinion is worth regarding. I have letters of the 
25"" October from London & which is odd not a word of 
our Expedition, We have been amused likewise all win- 
ter with Mr Walldo & his forces comeing from New Eng- 
land but not a word of them, how matters will turn out 
God knows however I wish you were at New York as soon 
as you possibly can with any Convenience to yourself, as 
there's often no forseeing Changes, & as you've now put 
your hand to the plow you must keep it goeing, besides 
'tis allways dangerous to do business by halfs & allways 
safest to go thro with it with spirit. As to my own affairs 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 335 

I continue of the same mind as we talked at parting 'tis 
certainly the best Scheme. I think His Excellency after 
all thats past now, can't refuse you a favour, tho' twill 
be aUwayes doubtfull if you're not present when 'tis in 
his power. Mrs. Rutherfurd joins me heartily in our 
repects to Mrs Golden & all your good Family I am 
&. c. &. c. 

John Rutherfurd 

Cadwallader Colden to Archibald Kennedy 

Dear S' J^''" l^" l^*"/? 

I have your kind favour of the 22d of last month 
which by reason of the rivers having become impassable 
did not come to me till the 15*^'' of this month at night 
Since which time I have been so much hurried in drawing 
an answer to the representation so as that it may reach 
his Excellency before Shatfords Snow goes & to make fair 
copies that I am affray'd of some omissions or inaccu- 
racies as well as from the Warmth it may be supposed 
that performance must give me & therefore I beg of you 
to wait immediately on his Excell^' & tell him that I 
desire you may have the perusal of it & to show it to 
our friend After which I submit to his Excellency & 
your opinions what use is to be made of it I am per- 
swaded they will send it the Representation home from 
themselves with perhaps something more than they now 
discover & therefor I think we ought to be as much as 
possible upon our Guard for I am far from thinking that 
their view is only defensive 

Please to tell M"" Alexander that I have receiv'd the 
letter from M"" Gollinson with the printed letter from 
Paris I send this by express & I hope you will not omit 
writing to me by the return of it & by every opportunity 
We all join in our Gompliments to you M*"^ Kennedy & 
your family on the New Year 
To Mb. Kennedy 

336 THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 

Cadwallader Colden to the Hon^^^ George Clarke Esq" 


CoLDENGHAM Jan"^ 18'^ 1746/7 

I wrote to you before I left New York last month by 
one of the ships that were then going for England M"" 
Nicholls tells me that you have been pleas'd to remember 
me in a letter which he receiv'd from you since I came 
home & that you tell him that it was expected in England 
that Crown point was taken before that time. While I 
attended the Gov'" at Albany measures were concerted 
there for that purpose but the arrival of the Brest Squad- 
ron on the coast of Nova Scotia disconcerted all our 
Measures by reason the Gov* of Boston thought it neces- 
sary to call in all their Forces for the Defence of that 
place & the Season of the Year has since that render'd 
Military enterprises impracticable but at the same time 
I must observe to you that the unhappy differences which 
have arisen in this Gov* have disabled the Governor from 
making the preparations which he had order'd for facili- 
tating any future attempt which may be thought proper 
& this will occasion both delay & much greater expence 
than otherwise could have happen'd had he not been 
disabled from pursueing the Scheme which he had laid 
& given orders for the execution hereof. No doubt you 
remember the Measures which his ExcelF was advised 
to take on his first arival in his Government & the con- 
sequences which you observ'd must ensue naturally from 
them He is now convinced of the justness of your Judge- 
ment but his being too late in discovering this has given 
him a vast deal of uneasiness & from thence truely have 
arisen all the Difficulties he has lately met with in his 
Majesty's service Under these difficulties he thought 
proper to apply to me for advice & tho' I foresaw the 
resentment it would draw from some spirits the present 
exigency of the publick affairs made me think it my Duty 
to give what assistance I was capable of And tho your 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 337 

knowledge of men may prevent your being surprised 
were I to tell you the particulars which it is impossible 
for me to do within any compass of a letter & at this 
time when I am obliged to write in a hurry by the con- 
veyance which carries this from my house I can only tell 
you that the resentment has gon to a greater lenth than 
I imagined it could. I believe it therefor probable that 
you may have occasion to give your sentiments of both 
men & things on this province & it is no litle comfort to 
me that I can with pleasure rely on both your Judgement 
& Justice I can add but very litle by any assurances 
I can give of the pleasure I shall receive by every oppor- 
tunity of serving you in any thing that is in the power of 

To the Honbie 
George Clarke Esq 

Cadwallader Colden to Governor George Clinton 

Jan'^ 19'^ 1746/7 

Your Excellency will perceive from the inclosed what 
trouble your goodness in communicating to me the rep- 
resentation of some of the Gentlemen of the Council has 
drawn upon you but as I believe your justice & natural 
compassion would lead you to defend & support any 
stranger attacked in the manner I am by these gentle- 
men yet I presume on something more in this case from 
your Excellency's Generosity Your Excellency knows 
how far it was from being by my own desire to medle 
more with the publick affairs at this time than I had for- 
merly don during the preceeding part of your Excellency's 
administration but that I entirely undertook the part 
you was pleas'd to put upon me at your own earnest 
desire tho at the same time the sense I had of my Duty 
made me more easily comply when I saw your Excellency 
necessarily ingaged in a multiplicity of unexpected affairs 
of great consequence to his Majesty's service & so far 

338 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174a-1747 

deprived of the assistance of others who's Duty it was to 
assist you that their indeavours seem'd to be calculated 
to perplex you in your administration & to make use of 
these difficulties to wrest the reigns of Government out 
of your hands & with this view did all in their power 
to expose your reputation & to lessen you in the eyes of 
the People Many instances of which cannot at this 
time have escaped your Excellency's Memory. Your 
Excellency may remember that I was apprehensive 
enough of the haughty & insolent spirit of some men but 
indeed I did not apprehend that Pride & resentment 
would have made some of them descend to attack inno- 
cence with the neglect or rather subverson of every thing 
that is accounted honourable among Gentlemen But 
upon recollection of what has passed in former times I 
am convinced that I had not then that precaution which 
I ought to have had. For these very same men (I mean 
the leaders) formerly attempted the same thing of sup- 
porting Malice & Falshood by meer Power & Numbers 
in opposition to all the evidence that truth could bring 
but the bad success of their attempts at that time & the 
mischiefs that had like to have ensued thereon I was in 
hopes would have deterr'd them from the like attempts 
for the future I am now convinced that what is in nature 
can never be driven out nor amended & of this more are 
affray'd than I alone & of the consequences that may 
arise from such Dispositions For this reason I must 
put your ExcelF in mind to guard against the unfair 
practices that may be used in England especially with 
any SoUicitor that you shall employ because I believe 
money will not be wanting for such purposes. Your 
Excellency no doubt perceives what reason I have to wish 
that I had continued in the innocent amusements I 
enjoy in my retirement. I had just retum'd to them 
when I had them again interrupted by the receipt of this 
extraordinary representation I shall endeavour as soon 
as possible to free my thoughts from this disagreeable 
subject & return to my usual conversation with men 
whose indeavours all their life was to discover & estab- 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 339 

lish truth In the mean while I shall rely on your Excel- 
lency's Protection & favour so far as I am innocent & 
you think I deserve. I hope your ExcelF before this has 
had the pleasure of seeing your son in good health & of 
being easy in the Company of Gentlemen that will not 
disturb your pleasure by Disagreable Subjects as I am 
now forced to do Nothing will give me more pleasure 
than to hear that your past pains are made up by variety 
of uninterrupted pleasures & I hope your ExcelF will do 
me the honour to allow me to partake with you in them 
by giving some account of the good news you shall receive 
as I have in some measure shared with you in the Sha- 
green that ill nature has endeavour'd to throw liberally 
upon you 

My wife joins with me in returning our humble thanks 
to your Excellency to your Lady for your kind wishes 
on this season and all my Children join with us in our 
most hearty wishes that this may prove a happy year 
to your ExcelF your Lady & all your family & that you 
may all have the Pleasure of many such 

I send this by express that if possible it may reach 
your Excellency's hands before Shatfords snow sails & 
I send two copies of the answer to the reputation to save 
the trouble of having it copied if your Excellency shall 
think proper to make further use of it I beg of your 
Excellency to let me know by the return of the express 
that you have received this safe I am 

Cadwallader Golden to Gov. George Clinton 

Jan^ 19*^ 1746/7 
My it please your Excellency 

I heartily thank your Excellency, for doing me the 
Justice to send me a Copy of a Representation made to 
your Excellency, by some of the Members of his Majesties 
Council for this Province, dated the IG**" of last Month, 
which, by reason of the severity of the season which had 

340 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

rendered the River impassable and the Distance of my 
House from New York, did not come to my hands till the 
fifteenth of this month at night. 

I am sorry that any thing personally relating to me 
should be the occasion of so much trouble to you, but as 
all the matters, which are the subject of that representa- 
tion, are better known to your Excellency than to any 
other person, even many of them better known to you 
than it is possible they can be to the Gentlemen them- 
selves who make the Representation, I shall chearfuUy 
submit to your Judgement, after that I have brought 
back to your Remembrance some circumstances of Facts 
mentioned in that Representation, which these Gentle- 
men think proper to pass over, especially as to that para- 
graph in the printed Narrative of your Excellency's 
Treaty with the Indians at Albany, which they censure. 

It is true, as these Gentlemen say, that your Excel- 
lency in Council desired to know what number of the 
Gentlemen of the Council would attend you to Albany, 
and who would. But these Gentlemen omit two material 
circumstances; One is that I was not present at that time 
in Council, being then gon out of town to visit my 
Daughter in the Country ; The other is, that they named 
me as a proper person to attend your Excellency on 
this occasion. If I should repeat the reasons which I 
was told they give for nameing of me for this service, 
it would become one of the observable little instances of 
Vanity calculated principally with a view to raise a 
Character with which these Gentlemen charge me, and 
therefor I shall leave it to them to tell what the reason 
were for naming me rather than another: But I must 
observe, that it could not be true that I refused to go, 
when I was not present, and could not know that I was 
named. It is true, that afterwards in converation among 
ourselves (not in Council) I did object to it as a par- 
ticular hardship on me to be singled out (for as to M'" 
Livingston his office as Secretary for Indians affairs made 
it his Duty to attend) and I think it ungenerous in them 
to repeat any casual words which I used in Conversation 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 341 

at that time. I am sure should I repeat what some of 
them said at the same time I could not escape blame. 

The truth of the matter is this, that as I was not 
present in Council when your Excellency desired to know 
who would attend you to Albany, I cannot of my own 
knowledge say what passed that day in Council : but your 
Excellency afterwards, when you desired me to attend 
you to Albany, told me that the others (except M"" 
Livingston) had declined that service: and for the truth 
of this I must appeal to your Excellency. 

However Sir it is confessed in their own Representa- 
tion, that they all desired to be excused (except M"" 
Cortlandt who was absent as well as myself) and that I 
likewise afterwards desired to be excused, or rather as 
they express it that I refused to go, and they desired to 
be excused from going: but that I afterwards was pre- 
vailed on to go (for I did go) and they insisted on their 
excuse, for they did not go. This is the state of the 
Question confessed on all sides and I must leave to your 
Excellency to determine which of us declined going. 

Your Excellency knows, that the printed Narative 
of your Excellency's Treaty was published several Weeks 
before the time that the Council were pleased to censure 
this Paragraph mentioned in their Representation. From 
the time it was published till that day I was frequently 
in conversation with these Gentlemen, and tho, I believe 
none of them doubted of my being privy to that publica- 
tion, yet none of them at any time took notice to me of 
any injury that they thought was done to them by it till 
that day! When coming into Council while the Council 
met in their Legislative Capacity (at which time your 
Excellency is not present) I was surprised to see all the 
Gentlemen of the Council met; for before that time sev- 
eral of them seldom attended, as will appear by the min- 
ites of Council, and adjournments were frequently made 
for want of a sufficient number. M"" Chief Justice took 
the Printed Narative out of his Pocket, and spoke to the 
purpose as set forth in the Censure printed in the New 
York Post Boy of the 8"^ of Dec^ M^ Horsmanden and 

342 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

M" Murray made set Speeches. As these were all Law- 
yers and prepared, and the whole a Surprise upon me, I 
was not ready to make such proper answers as perhaps I 
should otherways have done. But I observed, that I 
thought it would be more proper to inquire into this mat- 
ter in the Privy Council, when your Excellency must be 
present, than now when we are met by ourselves. To 
which the Cheif Justice answered something, as to the 
Power of the House of Lords, with respect to Privy Coun- 
cillors at the same time Members of their house, which 
as I did not understand how he applied it to the present 
case I cannot repeat. But my reason for saying this 
enquiry was more proper for the Privy Council was. 
That in the present case we are all parties, but in the 
Privy Council your Excellency could judge between us: 
Your Excellency from your own knowledge could judge 
of the Truth or Falsity of it, as you are indiffirent be- 
tween us. I likewise told them, that if they thought that 
there was anything in that Paragraph, that by Mistake 
or unguarded expression, threw any unjust Reflection 
on the Council, I would join freely with them in doing 
justice to every one, if the proper steps were taken for 
that purpose: but I did neither confess nor acknowledge 
in the manner set forth in that publication, and that 
minute was drawn up and published without being com- 
municated to me. I think it not fair to repeat in so 
solemn a manner as that of a Representation from the 
Council, any extempore and unpremeditated expressions, 
that any person may use without giving him an opor- 
tunity to explain them or excuse them; yet, from their 
example, I think I may on this occasion be allowed to tel 
your excellency, that the Cheif Justice in this Debate 
said, That some of the Council of this Province, and 
named M"" Phillipse, had been removed from the Council 
by a false representation made of his being a Jacobite. 
This Gentleman was removed in the first year of M'' 
Burnets Administration, and tho I then lived in this 
Province, and have been in it ever since, this is the first 
time I ever heard of this reason for that Gentlemans 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 343 

removal. I do not know what Representation M"" 
Burnet made to the King, which occasioned that Gentle- 
man removal; but, I have heard, and I believe it to be 
true, that it was for a misdemeanor of which proof was 
made, and which then was not doubted to be true, and 
which perhaps can at this time be proved to be true, it 
was known to so many persons at that time : and I believe 
the truth of what I now say may appear from Papers in 
the Office of the Lords Commissioners for trade, or in the 
Secretary of States Office. How the Cheif Justice came 
to make the assertion he then made I know not, but if I 
be allowed to follow these Gentlemens example, in form- 
ing conjectures of other peopels intentions, it might have 
been with intention to raise a jealousy among the Mem- 
bers of his Majesties Council, of some such base design 
at this time: and it is well known, that insinuations of 
this kind will influence weak minds, that are not capable 
of judging of the merits of the Matter in debate, and may 
prejudice those who are more capable What other 
motive could induce the Cheif Justice to speak in this 
manner at this time, I must confess that I cannot imag- 
ine, and I must leave it to your Excellency to judge, 
whether this Surmise that I make be with or without 
Sufficient ground. I think it the more necessary to take 
notice of this in the Cheif Justice, because I believe, that 
this and such like false suggestions have been the prin- 
cipal means, by which Many, in both the Council and 
Assembly, have been latly prevailed upon on several 
occasions. In the last place I must observe to your 
Excellency, that the method, which these Gentlemen 
have taken to censure this Paragraph, cannot be 
justified by any precedents in Parliament (unless it 
were in the worst of times when there was a settled 
design to distroy the Constitution of Government) 
thus to apply to the People by publication, with- 
out any address or application to your Excellency, or to 
any other superior Authority, who have a right to judge 
in matters of this kind : and after they had thus endeav- 
oured to prejudice the minds of the People then to apply 

344 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

to your Excellency. Such Methods are at all times 
(except where open resistence becomes necessary) lookt 
on as dangerous to and destructive of good Government, 
and are less excuseable in those employed in the Admin- 
istration then in others. 

I am truely Surprised with the next charge against 
me, in the representation made by these Gentlemen, that 
I advised your Excellency not to lay the Proceedings of 
Council at Albany before the Council at New York, ac- 
cording to your Excellencys Declaration. What your 
Excellency's Declaration was I know not, being absent, 
but I must appeal to your Excellency whither I ever at 
any time give such advice as these Gentlemen insinuate, 
or have given the least ground for this assertion ; neither 
can I imagine to what purpose such advice could be given, 
since these minutes were afterwards, as I believe, lodged 
in the Secretarys office as usual. 

While your Excellency was at Albany you had vari- 
ous affairs, and you was oblidged to employ your Secre- 
tary in much writing, who was deprived of the assistance 
of a Clerk, whome your Excellency carried to Albany for 
the purpose, by the Clerks being taken sick and returning 
to New York. For this reason your Secretary had not 
time to fill up the Minutes with the Copies of some 
papers, which were referred to in them, but left blanks 
for their being inserted afterwards. These Papers were 
in your Excellency's Custody. You told me after my 
return to New York, that, in the hurry of puting up your 
papers when you left Albany, you had misplaced one 
material paper which was to be inserted in the Minutes, 
and that you had been searching for it, but could not find 
it : and I knew no other reason for the delay in depositing 
the Minutes of Council at Albany in the Secretarys office 
but this. Your Excellency had been absent about three 
Months from your family, The Assembly was to meet 
in a few days after your return, and you had aU the 
matters to prepare which were to be laid before them, 
Before your Excellency could do this you was taken dan- 
gerously ill, and by these means you could not look over 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 345 

the numerous papers you had brought with you from 
Albany, in quest of that paper which was misplaced ; but 
as I informed your Excellency that the Gentlemen of the 
Council intertained some Jealousy of the reason why the 
papers were not lodged in the Secretarys ofl&ce, your 
Excellency was prevailed on, before you was well recov- 
ered, to search for that paper; and as soon as it was 
found, so far as I know, all the papers were deposited in 
the Secretarys OflEice. 

I come now to a very memorable transaction of a 
Committee of Council in which I own I differed much in 
opinion from the other Gentlemen of the Council, which 
occasioned some debate between them and me: but I 
think it an unusual hardship put upon me, by the Rep- 
resentation of these Gentlemen, to be put to answer for 
extempore words, used in the heat of debate, when the 
words were not taken down in writing, and excepted to 
at the time; but at two Months time afterwards they are 
excepted to, when it may be impossible for me to recollect 
the occasion of my speaking them: and I must charge 
this method of proceeding as both unusuall and unfair, 
and tho I be at present under a very great disadvantage, 
by my being in the Country here by myself, without any 
assistance to recollect things past so long since, now above 
3 months, and to answer the studied and premeditated 
charge of two Judges and a noted Attorney, assisted with 
the memories of others, who perhaps do not understand 
for what purpose their memories are made use of, I trust 
to the force of truth, and to your Excellencys candour 
in judgeing. For this purpose I must give your Excel- 
lency an account of several facts, which these Gentlemen 
have thought fit to omit, I even perswade myself that 
when your Excellency observes, at what pains these 
Gentlemen are to recollect every casual word that I have 
any time Spoke, and the artificial turns given to my 
words, that you will think they are at some loss to find 
real causes of complaint against me, and this observation, 
so obvious thro' the whole of their charge, gives me a 
good deal of confidence in making my defence. 

346 THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 

But to return to matters of fact. The Committee of 
Council (for a Council of state when your Excellency is 
not present I do not understand) taking into considera- 
tion your Excellency's reference to them for advice (more 
properly than message) since your indisposition rendered 
you uncapable of being present. It was objected, that 
they could not give an opinion, without previously know- 
ing what orders your Excellency had given to Coll: 
Roberts the commanding Ofl&cer of the New levied forces 
in this Province. To this I answered, that I did not 
know; that we had the right to demand a particular 
account of your Excellency's orders to the Army, and of 
every Military interprise that your Excellency should 
think proper to undertake : and from the nature of things 
it is impossible, and would be highly inconvenient that 
every enterprise of the Army should be first debated in 
a Council of State, by men who have no pretensions to 
Military knowledge, at a 100 or 200 miles distance from 
the Army: at least these were my sentiments at that 
time, and these Gent" give no reason to make me alter 
my opinion. I said that whatever the orders were, tho 
never so necessary, it was plain from his Excellency's 
references and Coll: Roberts letter; they could not be 
executed while the Commissioners withheld the provi- 
sions. But as they insisted, that the orders to Coll: 
Roberts must be previously known, and that they could 
not give an opinion without knowing these orders, I had 
nothing more to say, than to desire them to put this 
down as a reason why they could not give an opinion. 
I do not remember anything as to the minutes of Council, 
that their not being communicated came into debate, 
but as it is usual for men, who design to perplix to bring 
in Matters foreign to the debate, it is not improbable 
that something of that kind might then be talkt of, tho 
at present I do no remember it. And as it had been 
insisted on that the Gentlemen of the Council, who 
attended your Excellency at Albany, were only a Com- 
mittee of Council, probably I have denyed it : for in the 
case your Excellency could have no advice of Council, 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 347 

till the opinion of this Committee of approved of in 
Council, Upon this Supposition, a Majority of the Mem- 
bers of Council may refuse at any time to attend your 
Excellency, and set up an independent Authority, and 
say, that your Excellency and the Members who attend 
you have no right to proceed on any business, but what 
is referred to your Excellency by the Majority. And I 
must continue in this opinion, while I think the other 
opinion directly contrary to our Constitution, and till 
they give me reason to alter it which as yet they have 
not attempted. But however this be, it appears by their 
own representation, that what they thought your Excel- 
lency ought to have communicated to them, and was 
properly under debate, was your Excellencys orders to 
Coll Roberts. I remember very well that the Question 
mentioned in the Representation, respecting these orders, 
were askt me, and that they were askt by M'' Murray 
and the Questions were put by him personally to me, 
and his words were not directed to the Chairman, and in 
that case, I was in the right to say I would not answer 
his Questions, even tho his Questions had been pertinent, 
and otherwise ought to have been answered, which in this 
case I am humbly of opinion they were not. For, as by 
the Constitution of this Govmment in case of accidents, 
the command of these forces might devolve on me, your 
Excellency may have very cogent reasons to communi- 
cate to me, matters relating to the Army, which you may 
not think proper to communicate to others: but even 
supposing the case otherwise, and that your Excellency 
thought proper to communicate any thing to me, which 
you did not think proper to communicate to the others, it 
was certainly my Duty to keep the Secret; and if they 
think they have a right to know it, they ought to demand 
it of your Excellency, which was all that I insisted on. 
After the Committee of the Council had gon through 
all the heads of their report, except the third Paragraph, 
M"" Cheif Justice, who happened to set next me, entered 
into conversation with me, while the Clerk was taking 
doun the heads agreed on for a report about the Winter 

348 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Camp, an expression in your Excellency's Speech to the 
Assembly. On this I said, he could form no Judgement 
of it till he was informed of the nature of that Camp, 
and the purpose for which it was designed : and after a 
few words the conversation ceased, but it is probable 
the others overheard what passed between the Chief 
Justice and me. After this the Clerk read over the heads 
which, he had taken doun, and it was ordered that M'" 
Horsmanden, the Chairman of the Committee, should 
draw up the report in form from these heads, and send 
his report next day to all the Members present, and if 
they severally aproved of it to sign it, and deliver it to 
your Excellency. Now in the heads read over by the 
Clerk, there was not one word relating to any thing in 
the s*^ 3*^ Paragraph and when the Clerk brought the re- 
port to me next day for my perusal I objected to that 
third paragraph as no part of the heads agreed to by the 
Committee for their report, to which he answered, / told 
M^ Horsmanden that I believed you would object to that 
part, and then I bid him carry it back to M'" Horsman- 
den, and tell him that I object to that part as no part 
agreed to by the Committee, and I expected that M'' 
Horsmanden, as Chairman would have desired the Com- 
mittee to meet again to put the Question out of Dispute, 
but he without calling the Committee signed the report 
and delivered it to your Excellency. Your Excellency 
may remember, that when this report was read in Coun- 
cil, I objected to this Paragraph for the reasons I have 
already set forth, and appealed to the Clerk for the 
truth, who I suppose had the heads agreed to then to 
produce in evidence of what I asserted. But the Gentle- 
men then present thought proper to rise up one after 
another; and positively to assert that this Paragraph was 
agreed to in the Committee, and said that the Clerk was 
not to be heard in Contradiction to them. But not with- 
standing of this, I positively affirm the Fact to be as I 
have related it. And I shall add one reason more for con- 
firming it, That as in your Excellency's written referrence 
and in Coll: Roberts his letters, and in any paper re- 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 349 

ferred to that Committee, there was not one word of a 
Winter Camp, or of the disposition intended to be made 
of the Forces, that Paragraph could not in any propriety- 
be made a part of the Report, The dispute here related 
only to the truth of a Matter of Fact, and justice requires 
Truth to be sacred in all public enqueries, and therefore, 
when the publick Character of the person concerned in 
this debate is considered, it very much concerns his 
Majesties justice, and the safety of every man in this 
province, that people do not put their Confidence only 
in power and number, without any regard to truth, and 
I earnestly desire that this matter may be strictly en- 
quired into, for I doubt not before impartial judges, the 
force of truth in this case will be greater than that of 
power or numbers. 

Your Excellency in answer to that part of the report, 
which reflected on your Excellency's not communicating 
to them the Transactions at Albany, took notice, that 
the Gentlemen of the Council at New York had taken 
upon themselves the administration both civil and mili- 
tary, that tho you had been so long returned to this place, 
they had made no report to you of their proceedings, and 
that two days after they knew you was returned, the 
Ofl&cers of the Militia had been served with their orders, 
and which had never been communicated to you. On 
which you made some observations, and directed that 
what you then said should be entered on the minutes. 
On which some of the Gentlemen acknowledged their 
error, and prayed that your Excellency would not order 
any entry to be made. On which I moved that the Coun- 
cil would likewise take back their report, which had given 
occasion to those remarks on their conduct made by 
your Excellency which being agreed to your Excellency 
then told them how desirous you was to have a good 
understanding with them, and that you would at all times 
be pleased with their giving their advice freely either 
jointly as a Council or seperately as they should think 
best. Upon which I was in hopes all things would have 
been restored to a harmony but how differently things 

350 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

turned out is too well known to your Excellency for to 
make it necessary for me to repeat But I do not remem- 
ber, and I positively deny, that I made any promise that 
any Papers of any kind should be laid before the Com- 
mittee, neither can I imagine what could induce me to 
make such promise, if I had, since no public papers were 
in my hands, nor did I at any time concern myself as 
to what papers your Excellency should think proper to 
lay before the Council, neither do I at this time know^ 
what papers your Excellency has put into the Secretary's 

As to your Excellencys Speech, Messages and Proro- 
gation of the Gen^ Assembly, I shall only say, that your 
Excellency told me that you had advised with the Cheif 
Justice and the Speaker of the Assembly, both as to the 
Speech it self, and as to the manner of sending it by rea- 
son of your indisposition, and I must leave it to your 
Excellency to say what advice they give you. I have 
been for a longer time in the Council than any in it, I do 
not remember thay any Governor advised with the Coun- 
cil as to his Speech and Messages or as to Prorogations. 
This is a part of the Prorogative lodged with the Gov- 
ernor solely and I believe these Gentlemen can give no 
instances to the Contrary, except very lately, when de- 
signs, as I apprehend, were on foot prejudicial to the 
Constitution as established by his Majesties Commission 
to the Governors in Cheif of this Province. 

As to the reason why your Excellency did not com- 
municat to the Council the Minutes of the Commission- 
ers for Indian affairs, giving an account of Hendrick 
the Indians's transactions in Canada, I can truely say, I 
know as little of this matter as any of them can pretend 
to, and I believe much less than some of them: because 
they know them to be of importance, which I do not. 
But I am at no loss to discover the reason why your 
Excellency could not take that affair under your con- 
sideration at that time. Your Excellency had drawn 
Bills for very large Sums, for engaging the friendship of 
the Indians, and for defraying the expences of the expe- 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1745-1747 351 

dition intended against Canada, which the Assembly of 
this Province had refused to undertake, You was then 
making up your Accounts, and writing your letters, when 
the Ships for England were to Sail in a few days, And 
this is so obvious and well known that these Gentlemen 
may be ashamed to say they are at a loss to discover it 
and at the same time it too evidently shows how desir- 
ous they are to throw blame on me 

May it please your Excellency 

It is impossible for me to give any answer to the 
general allegations made by these Gentlemen, without 
the least proof, that all the differences which have lately 
happened have been occasioned by my ill advice, and that 
there was a perfect harmony between your Excellency the 
Council and the Assembly till that time, which they 
imagine that I intermedled in the publick affairs. I must 
submit to your Excellency's own knowledge as to this 
& I make no doubt your Excellency will at least give me 
this testimony, that I was very sensible of the difficulties 
that would arise in consequences of the measures which 
your Excellency enclined to follow, and that I took upon 
me to give no advice but what was at your Excellencys 
repeated desire, in such manner as I could not refuse 
consistently with my Duty. Your Excellency can best 
tell, whether I had any hand, or was so much as privy to 
the real cause of all the differences, which have lately 
happened in this province. Whether every remarkable 
differences had not arisen before I came to town, while 
I was as these Gentlemen say attending my ordinary 
Domestick affairs in the Country, Whether before that 
time a Stop was not put to the zeal which the Assembly 
had expressed for contributing liberally towards the 
Expences of the Expedition. Your Excellency can best 
tell (since these Gentlemen own that I was then only 
minding my privit affairs) Who and what measures were 
the principal occasions of this, and of several other great 
difficulties your Excellency was unexpectedly thrown 
into in the publick administration of affairs, when you 
was engaged in matters of the greatest importance, and 

352 THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 

that these things had happened before your Excellency 
required my attendance in Council, and when it is not 
presumed I had any share in them. I have only given 
my assistance to extricate your Excellency from the diffi- 
culties, which were laid in your way, in order to perplex 
the publick affairs, and my having had some success in 
this, and preventing the Slur which was designed to be 
thrown on your Excellencys reputation, I am convinced, 
you are well satisfied is the real cause of all the resent- 
ment which has fallen upon me. 

And on this occasion I hope your Excellency will par- 
don me, if I remind you of what you seemed lately very 
sensible, that all the difficulties you have met with are 
owing to the advice your Excellency received, at your 
first coming to this place, by which you give up those 
powers in Government, by which former Governors pre- 
served the Authority and Dignity of their office, and 
thereby give some designing men the hopes of making 
your Excellency, and all future Governors meer depend- 
ents on a Faction. Your Excellency is now sensible how 
dangerous these concessions have proved to his Majesties 
Authority in the hands of his Governors, and may here- 
after prove to the dependency of this Province on the 
Crown, and it is truely the struggle for power in a Fac- 
tion that is the real cause of all the uneasiness which has 
happend to your Excellency and of this the generality 
of the People in this Province are truely sensible. Your 
Excellency will perceive from some things, which I have 
been obliged on this occasion to write in my own defence, 
that I have been so far from giving your Excellency an 
ill impression of these Gentlemen, that I have concealed 
things from you that might greatly have served for that 
purpose had it been my design. 

I shall not attempt to give any return to the wit, with 
which that performance is imbellished because the wit 
only serves to shew the true disposition of mind and the 
rancour with which the Author writes: neither do I envy 
him, this pecuharity, by which he allwise distinguishes 
and makes himself known, in putting the worst and most 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 353 

unnatural construction on words that it is possible they 
can bear. 

On the whole I think I may be allowed to say, that 
it is an invidious Misrepresentation of Facts, and how- 
ever the Author may have endeavoured to cover his Envy 
it at last breaks openly forth in the last Paragraph save 
one In the following words. 

Af'" Golden has told the world in print of his bein^ 
the next person to your Excellency in the Administration, 
We shall not make any rejections on this circumstance , 
But leave your Excellency to consider, Whether it may\ 
not he his Interest to embroil your Excellencys affairs, 
and Distract your Administration, the consequence of 
which may be his getting the Reins of Government into 
his own Iiands, and here perhaps your Excellency rnm^ 
find that which was intended to be a reflection on others: 
One of those artfull and designing Men who have privit 

What M'* Golden, as they say, has told the world in 
print, I suppose must referr, to page 9*^ of your Excel- 
lency's Treaty with the Indians, when last at Albany, 
which in the printed account thereof is said to be intro- 
duced as follows 

His Excellency our Governor having been taken ill, 
and as yet not so well recovered as that he can safely 
come broad, has ordered me (being the next person to 
him in the Administration) to speak to you in his name, 
which I shall do in the same words which he designed tO" 
have spoke had he not been prevented by sickriess. 

Tho I cannot clear myself from my share of vanity, 
a Weed which is observed to grow luxuriantly in an 
American soil, yet any one with a moderate share of 
condour would put a favourable construction on M*" 
Golden teUing the Indians on the occasion of his speak- 
ing to them in a publick Treaty, that he was the next 
person to the Governor in the Administration, as it 
shewed his Excellency's respect to the Indians, and like- 
wise give the greater Gredit to what was said. It seemed 
reasonable to tell the Indians why your Excellency had 

354 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

made choice of Mr. Golden, rather than an other, & I 
must leave it to this Author of Wit and Penetration to 
give a better reason for the choice, because I cannot give 
any other; and I believe it was the true reason. Why 
this come to be printed I can give no other reason, but 
things were to be told truely as they were, and if it be 
considered, that every man in this Province knew that 
I am the first in the Council, or the next in the Adminis- 
tration as certainly before this publication as afterwards, 
I could not have my vanity much encreased by it. But 
what follows in the Paragraph appears too openly invid- 
eous, when in the whole Representation they have not 
been able to give one instance of my stirring up Dissces- 
sions and Diffirences among the Branches of the Legisla- 
ture to lay so heavy a charge without one proof is some- 
thing very extraordinary in men of their Publick Charac- 
ter, and then likewise to insinuate to your Excellency, 
that I design to Supplant you, without the least colour to 
support it, I know not how anything like this could be 
defended among Gentlemen in common conversation, 
much less in so solemn a representation, wherein they 
value themselves for their moderation in their censure 
of me. 

For, as to all the instances given in this Representa- 
tion, they only relate to differences between these Gen- 
tlemen and myself, and no wise concern your Excellency 
and the other Branches of the Legislature. Have I not 
then much reason from this representation to charge some 
of them, with a design to Supplant me, in any expectation 
I may have of the Administration devolving into my 
hands after 29 years Service in his Majesties Council 

I have one comfort under all these heavy charges, 
that as your Excellency knows well all the publick 
Transactions, and knows better than any other what 
advice I have presumed at any time to give you, your 
Excellency can be a true and indisputable Witness be- 
tween these Gentlemen and me. And as I have reason to 
apprehend, that tho this representation was made to 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 355 

your Excellency, it is designed to take effect (if possible) 
in some other place, where the truth of Facts cannot be so 
well known, and where they hope their number will be 
reckoned as a number of Witnesses in evidence of the 
truth I must appeal to your Excellency in my own vindi- 
cation, and I doubt not you will do the justice of telling 
the truth. That this is the view of these Gentlemen in 
their representation, I think is evident from the time in 
which they have chosen to make it. I was above two 
Months at New York, during which time I was as they 
say sowing Dissention between your Excellency and the 
other Branches of the Legislature, I was misleading your 
Excellency with design to Supplant you, I stayed ten 
days after the Prorogation of the Assembly, yet in all 
that time they did not warn your Excellency against 
these, as they pretend, mischeivous designs; but chose 
to give in their representation, after I was gon into the 
Country at above Sixty miles from New York, and when 
all communication was cut off between my house and 
the Town. 

But notwithstanding of all this, the confidence I have 
in the Penetration of his Majesties Ministers, if they can 
have time only to read over the publick transactions since 
the 6^ of June, the time since which they say that your 
Excellency received advice from me, What your Excel- 
lency has don for his Majesties service since that time. 
Your Excellency's Speech & Message, the Representa- 
tions of Assembly and of these Members of Council, and 
the Resolves of Assembly in answer to your Messages I 
am persuaded no doubt can remain with them from 
whence all these publick differences arise. A Scene will 
open to them not only of opressing the Innocent by meer 
power and number, but likewise of blasting the Reputa- 
tion of his Majesties Servents, in the highest Station in 
this Province in the faithfull performance of their Duty. 
And I hope his Majesties Ministers will think it incum- 
bent on them, to give an effectual check to such designs of 
a Faction, as have a natural Tendency to distroy the pub- 
lick safety and security of the Province, and the private 

356 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174^-1747 

safety of every person in it, and I will take the liberty 
to say, that if something be not at this time don to give 
the power of this Faction a check, few if any in this 
Province will after this run the hazard of giving them 
any opposition. 

On this occasion I think it my duty to take notice to 
your Excellency of several scandelous papers, published 
by the publick Printer, who is in the pay of this Govern- 
ment, reflecting in such manner on your Excellency's 
Administration, that Strangers may be apt to imagine, 
that the course of the law is at present shut up, and the 
Province is subject to Military Law and execution, than 
which nothing can be more false and nothing more effec- 
tual to alienate the minds of the People from their Duty. 
I believe it will be difficult to assign any reason for this 
Printer depending on the Government, thus daring to 
publish in open defiance of the Administration, but the 
confidence he has in the power of a Faction. Pleas to 
see the New York weekly Post Boy published since I 
left the town of the 15'^ and 29*^ of Dec" for proof of 
what I now say 

Being informed that the last Vissel, which is to go in 
this Season for England is ready to sail about this time, 
I am oblidg^ to hurry myself in makeing this answer; 
that if possible it may reach your Excellency's hands 
before that Vissel sail. And therefore I must beg of your 
Excellency to excuse any inaccuracy, or other defect, 
which may appear in it, and which perhaps I might have 
avoided, had more time been allowed me. With confi- 
dence therefore in your Excellency's Candour and Jus- 
tice, this my Defence is humbly submitted to your Excel- 
lency's judgement by 

From Governor George Clinton 

j)g^ g^ New York 22 Jan" 1746/7 

I had y® favour of yours this Evining together w*^ 
your answer to y^ Council Representation, which I shall 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 357 

send home by Capt" Hilton who is a going directly away 
in a ship to Belfast Cathenvood has been gone this 22 
days & am in hopes he is by this time pritty nigh Eng- 
land, by whome I have given all caution I could to Guard 
against unfair practices, and as to their representation 
it will fling them on their own backs, I must refer you to 
M'" Kenedy for news having been very much out of order 
ever since I think you left us, & don't believe I have 
shown out but once Since. 

I can only assure you as you entered voUontarly with 
me & took my part against a Haughty Insolent sett of 
people you may be assurd I will niver drop you, which 
I have given good proofs of by my letter I have sent 
home for your Interest & some of y^ Friends, I have just 
received some letters from Coir Johnson but my head 
ackes so much I am not able to read them. 

Our Compliments wait on you & your family being 
very Sencerely 


Your faithfuU 

& Obedient Servant 

Geo Clinton 

From Archibald Kennedy 

Jan^ 23'^ 1746/7 
Dear Sir 

I received yours of the 28*^, and did as you bid me. 
Your answer was thought a little too warm, and that 
about the Gover^ giving up too much of his power fitter 
for a private advice, than to appear in publick. How- 
ever as there was an opportunity of sending it this day 
By Capt Hilton bound to London via Belfast I was of 
opinion it shoud goe to M"" Catherwood but not to goe 
out of his hands and only to use such extracts as may be 
thought necessary, you will I believe have time enough 
by Shatford to soften things, and leave that part out, 

358 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

the Govemour is not very well and I believe has not read 
it, the ship being to sail at 2 o'clock. We have no man- 
ner of newes besides that the Bostoneers seem to press the 
expedition against Crown point, which is absolutely im- 
practicable this winter. I hope we shall see the 3"^ of 
March. In the mean time we wish you and yours all 
happiness being sincerely Dear Sir 

very much Yours 

Arch^ Kennedy 


Cadwalladee Golden 

at Goldingham. 

From Archibald Kennedy 

9*^ Feb: 1746/7 
Dear Sir 

I had your favour of the 27th of Jan'^. I am glad we 
hitt upon the proper use of your answer, as the Govemour 
never read it, being at that time much out of order, and 
Hilton just upon goeing I should think a copy for him 
to make what use he pleased of it (by Shatford it can- 
not goe, for he will certainly sail in a day or two) would 
not be amiss. We have had but one Council I think 
since you left us, the subject at least of our meetings has 
only been about sending off the french prisoners and 
attacking Crown point, which we have reported, accord- 
ing to our Opinion, impracticable this winter, at one of 
those committees M'^ H" made a discovery of which he 
was not a little fond, vizt. In the minutes it was incerted. 

This day His Excelly laid before the Council the 
transactions at albany read, and ordered to be entered 
upon the Minutes and a few days agoe after makeing our 
report M*" M^ moved for a committee to enquire upon 
oath how that minut came there, they imagine I supose, 
it was either you, or the Cover ordered it. parturiunt 
montes. You see the spirit still subsists, But as you 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1 743-1747 359 

have put your hand to the plough give me leave to add 
two or three more latin words tu ne cede malis, sed contra 
audentior ito. I hope we shall see some time before 
the assembly Sitts. M"" Shirley it is said is agoeing home. 
M"^ Murray very sick from cold catched at an assembly 
where Miss and M'" Clinton mett with indifferent treat- 
ment. Upon which account, I hear Cap* Scot is out at 
court, His affair with Miss Montgomerie amuses the 
young folks, and further this — saith not, only I am to 
assure you we are with truth D*^ Doctor 


[Indorsed] ArCH*^ KENNEDY. 


Cadwallader Golden Esq"" 
of Goldingham 

From Governor George Clinton 

I have been so hurried about Crown point, furnish- 
ing ye Troops at Albany, and my dispatch by a vessell to 
England, y*^ I really had not time to answer y® favour 
of yours by a person y*^ came from your parts, as the 
time draws nigh for business your friends would be glad 
to see you In town perticulary myself <fe should be glad 
you would come as soon as you can convenently, standing 
much in need of y'" assistance, I have had several hints 
given me how easie things might go if I did so & so, but 
I have rejected it with disdain, but I was always brought 
up in the Principill of Honour & you may depend on it 
Sir I niver premiss but I keep my word, I hope M""^ 
Colden will excuse my drawing you from her, but Neces- 
sity has no Law M*^^ Clinton & I joyn In compliments 
to self & family & I beg you will beleive me to be with 
great Sincerity Sir 

Your faithfull friend 
& Servant 

G Clinton 
New York 20'^ Feb^ 

360 THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 

Cadwallader Golden to Governor George Clinton 


Feb^^ 23-^ 1746/7 

I am sorry that the season at this time renders it im- 
practicable to travil either by land or Water otherwise 
I should have shown what regard I have to your Excel- 
lency's Commands by the most speedy obedience All 
the Brooks have been so high by the last thaw when 
there was a great quantity of snow upon the Ground 
that the Bridges in most places are carried away & at 
the same time the hollowness of the Ground from the 
frost makes travelling on horseback exceedingly danger- 
ous till the ground Settles. The river is not as yet pass- 
able from the ice But both these obstructions I hope 
will soon be removed & I expect it will be as soon prac- 
ticable to go by Water as by land. So that I hope in ten 
days or a fortnights time of doing my Duty at New York. 

I am of Opinion that it may be advisable to prorogue 
the Assembly further for a fortnight because I believe 
business will go heavily till we have some news relating 
to this province affairs from England neither can a suffi- 
cient number be expected to meet at this time & if letters 
be sent to the several counties requiring the Representa- 
tives to meet punctually at the day to which your ExcelF 
shall think proper neither to prorogue the Assembly I 
believe they will be as soon able to go upon Business as 
by their meeting at the time to which the Assembly is 
at present prorogued But this opinion is only founded 
upon what knowledge I have of the present state of 
affairs & from an opinion that there is no use for the 
meeting of the assembly but to make further supply of 
provisions for the new levies after the first of May If 
your ExcelF have other reasons for meeting them early 
I can give no opinion but I doubt not of your Excellencys 
forming a proper Judgement if you place no confidence 
where you have all the reason in the world not to do it 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 361 

Thay have a very erroneous opinion of your Excellency's 
understanding who think they can perswade you to trust 
them who have abused your confidence in the most gross 
manner & after the strongest obligations that could be 
laid on men & even to condescend to such an abject con- 
fidence in those people as to put it out of your own power 
afterwards to receive in any cause assistance from any 
other person. The attempt to perswade your Excellency 
to this can only proceed from the weakness of their 
Judgement accompanied with an excessive vanity in 
their opinion of themselves. 

Your Excellency need not doubt of my entire confi- 
dence in your Honour I have good reason for such con- 
fidence since I know not that upon any occasion you have 
given ground to any person to suspect it Your errors 
have proceeded from an opinion that others were acted 
by the came principle of Honor The reputation of your 
noble family the most signal reputation of your Brother 
in point of Honour & your Conversation all your life till 
you came to this Country with men of honour give the 
strongest assurances that can be given I desire your 
Excellency's favour no longer than you perceive that 
I act with the utmost sincerity & truth if at any time I 
mistake by an error in my Judgement I hope for your 
Excellency's pardon when I readily acknowledge it & 
do all in my power to rectify the mistake. My wife I 
believe cannot avoid intertaining some uneasiness at my 
leaving my family so early in the spring after so long 
an absence last Summer & fall but the reason of it I hope 
will make her submit contentedly She and all of my 
family desire to have their Duty to your Excellency & 
your Lady acceptable & we beg your Excellency to make 
our Compliments to Capt" Clinton & Miss Clinton. I 
shall wait on your Excellency as soon as travilling to New 
York becomes practicable I am 

To His Excellency &c Your Excellency's 

362 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

From John Bartram 

March y« Q'"" 1746/7 
Dear & esteemed Friend Golden 

I have several! times read thy agreable letter of 
January y^ 27"" with A deal of pleasures & notwithstand- 
ing I love to hear often from thee; yet was so far from 
harbouring any censure that I was very much Concerned 
for thee & thy dear spouse & children on y® account of 
y® apprehention of y® near approach of y^ Canadians; 
& y* damage thay did in y® neighbourhood of Albany 
which as often as I heard of I was uneasy perticularly 
for thee & thine. 

thy relation of y® good effect of Madera wine in y^ fever 
at Albany puts me in mind of y^ imediate reliefe I found 
by it when I was seised with A fever & painful loosness 
with suddain prostration of strength; by Susquehana at 
a house of plenty of either food or Phisick & other neces- 
saries y"" good woman would needs give me A dram of 
what she called A Cordial which I suppose might be good 
of its kind but very disagreeable to me after which she 
urged me to take some Madera wine I tould her to put 
two spoonful in A pint of cold water & thro A hot burn- 
ing crust into it; I sipped most of it leasurly with A 
spoon but before I had quite finished it I found A cessa- 
tion of that turbulent motion in my bowels & such an 
universal quiet that I could hardly hold my eys open I 
desired to go to bed where I sweat freely & slept quiet 
for several hours & then arose & walked about y® planta- 
tion, at night rested well next day being prety hearty I 
eat two freely at dinner on roast & boiled flesh ; then set 
out & rode 10 mile to another house, but my feavour & 
painfull looseness returned upon me grievously; before 
night, & next morning was stil worse when I set out for 
directly home y^ fever thirst & painfull looseness stil 
Continuing; this day I travailed near 40 miles & called 
at y® taverns to get some madera wine but they said 
they had none; at my lodgings I asked for some thay 
brought me some black berry wine but it seemed very 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 363 

disagreeable & instead of uniting friendly with my spirits 
as y^ Madera wine had done it raised A Pertubation. 
this was y^ first time I knowed y® material difference 
betwixt our home made wines & y* Madera Next day I 
reached home & soon got some Madera which seemed 
to refresh me. 

I have received but one letter from Gronovius since I 
sent the account of those plants that is to bear our 
names: & that contained y^ names of several kinds of 
fosils which I sent him 

Peter CoUinson sent in my packet A pamphlet treating 
of y® northern lights; & A paper of y* changing of 
y^ poles of y^ loadstone ; & y* steel magnets which I left 
to y^ care of our friend franklin to send to thee directly 
I should esteem it as an extraordinary pleasure to be 
with thee on y^ Cats kill mountains but these troublesome 
times is A great interuption to such agreeable amuse- 
ments: if I should determine to go to them I shall surely 
send thee my intentions 

I suppose thee hath allready heard of y^ Electrical ex- 
periments which thay can so efectualy apply to A man as 
well as to many other objects as to 1511 him so full of fire 
that if another man doth but put his finger to y^ electri- 
fied person y^ fire will fly out & strike that part which 
approacheth nearest I take this to be y^ most Surprise- 
ing Phoenomena that we have met with & is wholy in- 
comprehensible to thy friend 

John Bartram. 


Doctor Cadwaladeb Golden 

Free B Franklin 

From Governor George Clinton 

New York 11*^ March 1747 

I am favoured with your letters of y^ 19 Feb*^ & 2* 

Ins^ which I have been thinking how to answer to your 

364 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

satisfaction. I am perfectly Satisfied that you have 
endeavoured to serve His Maj^ & me with Zeal & Sin- 
cerity, & y* none but Partys in opposition to all good 
Government cou'd find fault with the measures y* were 
taken by your advice, But you see by y® inclosed extract 
of S*" P Warrens letter to me by y® last Ship, how far thos 
measures have been confined at home, and to what 
lengths he carrys it, Can this proceed from any thing 
but a misrepresentation of Facts whereby the unexpected 
change has happened, & I have reason to believe that 
my letters have been intercepted on misconstroud to His 
Grace by S"" Peter who I find stiks at nothing for y® sake 
of his own Interest & Friends, however prejudicial to 
mine. Therefor I am of opinion it highly behoves you 
to clear up this Point to His Grace either by Memorial 
or letter in order to blacken your evil accusers, the ship 
will sail in ab* a Month & what ever you may think proper 
to represent by y* oppertunity, I shall take care to for- 
ward, I think some remarks woud be proper to be made 
upon S"" Peters letter in answer which letter I intend to 
send to the Duke & friends to show his Insolence. You 
may be assurd of all my Interest at this distance to sup- 
port you with my Friends, But it is a great misfortune to 
me y^ my agent continues indisposed, & so active a one 
as S*" Peter to be on y^ Spot, & have some reason to be- 
lieve others I depended on are bribed by S'' Peter who 
had intirely my Nephews ear by my desire & pritty much 
follows their advice, Nevertheless this advantage shall 
niver induce me to restore the Scribler to any part of 
his Employments let y® Consequences be what it will. 
I shoud be glad if you woud explain what power I have 
by my Commission & what you infer therefrom in case 
of my leaving the Province, or if I have a power either 
by my Commission or Instructions to lay aside y® ap- 
pointment, I may have directions to do it before I go, 
M"" Allexander has promised to give me his Sentiments 
thereon, at y"" same time it will require very strong rea- 
sons to Support an act of this nature. 

M*" Nicolls informs me y* he sends me y^ votes of y® 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 365 

present assembly whereby you will see how matters go, 
but I am determined not to pass any of their bill without 
being duly & properly considered & when I can discover 
y** Event of their Proceedings, I shall have recourse to y^ 
opinion thereon, in y*" Examining account bill they have 
altered y® Commision'"^ so far as to be y^ Members of y^ 
City for y*' time being, & sent to me to know if I had 
any objection to those Gentlemen being sent as well a 
y® others y* be appointed for cancelling y^ bills of Credit 
and as I did not care a farthing I sent them word I had 
none to show every body (as woud see) y^ I mett them 
intirely as New Members, I hear by all accounts there 
is a good deal of uneasiness amongst y® Faction, but I 
have been up till seven this morning with Kennedy 
Rutherfurd &c &c and my Family & Dancing at Roberts 
without even a blind Fidler, when we drank your health 
with pleasure & joyn in Compliments to you & family 
& am 


Your friend & servant 

G. Clinton 

From John Rutherfurd 

Albany 17"^ March 1747 
Dear Sir 

I'm glad to see by yours of the 11*^ Inst I have now 
the favour of that you are returned to New York, I wish 
you had passed the winter there, for among many other 
things relating to our Forces here I think The Governour 
has been very ill advised in not allowing us to assist The 
New England troops against Crown point. The Winter 
proved extremely favourable for such an attempt & The 
Troops very healthy & in good Spirits & wanting nothing 
but Indian shoes & stockings & some of them Wastcoats 
which could have been all got here in two or three days 
time. I'm in great hopes by the first Sloops now to hear 
from you the Contents of The Boston Packet which no 

366 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

doubt will a little clear up the darkness we're now in- 
volved in. Mrs Rutherfurd will be in New York in 3 
or 4 weeks however should anything occur relateing to 
me before She arrives try to fix matters as we proposed 
at parting. I don't wirte to His Excellency for leave to 
come down, as I could not be in New York without being 
in Council & if he inclined to have me there, to be sure 
he would let me know it; I did not trouble him with 
any letters this winter, there being nothing worth while 
but what 'twas the duty of His Lt Coll'^ to inform him 
of & by what's past I know well he would have more 
regard to their Accounts of things than mine. I wonder 
you say nothing of The Governour's comeing up as he 
wrote to Mess'"® Marshall & Collins, I fancy he has laid 
aside thoughts of it again at least untill he hears from 
England. Pray what's to be done with the Pensilvania 
Maryland & Virginia Companys not yet Regimented, 
who do you think will be impowered to name their Field 
Officers, If Gov"" Clinton could be prevailed on, upon 
your Account to annex my Company to them I would 
push hard for The ColP Commission as I'm assured by 
Governour Shirley & Govemour Thomas that they'l doe 
me what Service they can & I think I can depend on their 
friendship if 'tis either in their power to do or to recom- 
mend. I send this by Capt Richards which makes me 
write with the more freedom, so if you find anything can 
be done in the above or in our former project that re- 
quires my being at New York as well as Mrs Rutherfurd, 
'tis easy for you to desire the Governour to send me a 
line, to attend him at New York. I don't like this scheme 
of the Bostoners sending 1200 men more to Annapolis 
Royal especially as they send Coll' Twights Regiment 
with Coir Waldo's which Regiments would have been 
properest of any they have to assist us against Crown- 
point. I'm sorry we shan't have the benefit of Mr Lidius 
for A Guide & to assist in manageing the Indians that 
may go along with us in case we should march, as he'l 
be oblidged to follow his Regiment being A Major & 
Capt in Mr. Waldo's Regiment, he is only sent back now 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS-174S-1747 367 

from Boston to assist Mr. Johnstoun in sending out 
scalping partys &.c. Hopeing soon the pleasure of an- 
other letter from you I am D"" Sir most sincerely Yours 
&. c. &c. 

John Rutherfurd. 

From William Douglass 

Boston March 19*^ 1746/7 
Cadwallader Golden Esq'" 

S'' With this I send you two Nos or pamphlets, the nature 
of the thing you may observe: it will be published in par- 
cels as leasure time allows, and shall be remitted to you 
from time to time 

Please to contribute by some hints concerning the 
legislature. Taxes, Quitrents, Exports of Furs, Skins, 
Flower Copper-oar; and boundaris of New York & Jer- 
sies as also wherein consists the dispute between Maryl* 
and Pensylvania, and what has been done in it I am 


Your most humble Ser' 

WiL. Douglass 


Cadwallader Golden Esq^ 

New York 
pr Gapt Brenham Q D C 
with 2 pamphlets 

From Peter Collinson 

LoND March 27: 1746/7 
My Dear Friend 

Although I have taken notice of y*"^ of June 20*'' 1746 
— yett I have now run it over afresh am struck with the 
Greatness of y"" Designs. 

368 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Your Essay on the Causes of Gravitation & to Inves- 
tigate it, is the Work for a Mans Life — I have distributed 
the Books to our Greatest People on these Studies both 
at Home and Abroad In Holland, Germany, Paris, 
Sweden, Scotland, Dantzick &c For the Case was This 
on Delivering out those you First sent mee, amongst 
people of the First Rank in Mathematical Studies the 
Curiosity of the Subject Soone Gott Wind and so Much 
inquirey was made after It that Brindley the Princes 
Bookseller without my Leave or Licence published It in 
the Manner you See by the Specimen Inclosed 
So that all the Town was Fumish'd Long before your 
2 ^cels of Coppys Came — So that I had nothing more 
to Do but to Communicate y'' Systeme to my Ingeneous 
Fr*^^ Abroad — If you had informed Mee In your First 
Letter of yr Intention of Sending Such a number of 
Coppys, I would not have deliver'd the first Nine untill 
the others arrived, — I wish it had been otherwise, for you 
might as Well have putt Five pounds in your pocket as a 

I have besides made a ^sent of a Book to the Royal 
Society, it is well Esteem'd & admire'd. Some knowing 
people have gave mee Expectation of some Observa- 
tions on It, but Wether I shall be able to procure them 

by these ships I cannot Saye Both y'"^ of July 8*^ 

Last came safe to my hands with John Armitts 
Draught for £105 15s lOd on Truman & Douglas, which 
is paid & your Good Bro'" has sent mee, a General Re- 
lease & Discharge for you for the Legacy of 200 Pens^ 
money Left by Eliz^*" Hill which I for the ^sent shall defer 
sending these precarious Times Untill I have y^ further 
orders This Intercourse with y'' Bro"" has Induced Him 
to request my assistance to Settle his Son in London 
The young Man came up & good providence with a Little 
of my assistance He is now Setled as a Clerk to a prin- 
cipal Brewer, upon his beeing So very Well provided for, 
he has Sent his Second Son a Good Likely young Man 
who is a Cabinet Maker & I doubt not but he will find 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 369 

And I have now the pleasure to acquaint you that 
your Indian History is now in the press M"" Osboum 
Bookseller has undertaken It at his own Expence I 
shall Send you some Coppys when Finish'd, Our Fr*^ Docf 
Mitchell assisted in Drawing up the Title page, I have 
spared no thought or pains to Introduce it into the World 
at this Juncture when it was of Such Importance to be pe- 
rused by Every True Lover of his Country the last 
Treaty came very opertunely to be Inserted the Gov- 
ern'"^ Conduct in the Treaty the year before has been 
represented here in no favourable Light But now you are 
thought fitt to be admitted into his Councils wee are 
^swaded if he will Submitt to your Advice It will give 
A favourable Turn to His Future Administration. 

I wish I was sufficiently Skilld in Mathematical Stud- 
ies to be Some Judge of y*" System of Gravitation &c to 
mee it seems Rational but I hope some Men of Skill will 
give you theer thoughts on it Doc'" Bevis has promised 
mee & some others I am Sorry to tell you I have one of 
the Bundles Left by mee what shall I do with It 

In y'"^ of Decem"" 3*^ You Hint the Extraordinary 
Trouble & Expence you have been at in attending the 
Govern'' & publick Business — to be sure you ought to be 
Consider'd. If there is any Vacant place in y^ Governm'^ 
Deserving you or your Sons Acceptance Your Govern''^ 
Recommending you to the Duke of Newcastle may be a 
Service but if you are recommended to the Duke for Him 
to do Something for you, without telling Him what & 
your Fr"^^, Here, what it is, Such recommendation is only 
a thing of Course & will all come to Nothing If your 
Gover'" is not a Courtier he is a Kin to those that are, — 
and Expectation of something but no body knows what, 
is the Extraordinary recompence they bestow on those 
that Serve Them 

I shall not be awanting when you have Really Some- 
thing to ask that is Vacant that Will be of Service to you 
& your Family in giving you all Mine & my P"*^^ Interest 

vale my Dear F^^ P Collinson 

370 THE GOLDEN PAPERS-174a-1747 

P S. Your Indian Treaty s & History will Come bound 
to a five shilling Book — do you think of a proper ^son 
to Send of them too, In N York or Boston for M"" Os- 
boum has a mind to Send some abroad 
I have a person in Philadelphia that I shall recommend 
Him too but I don't know proper ^sons in New York or 
Boston or Charles Town in South Carolina 


Cadwallader Golden 'Esq' 
New York. 

FroTn John Rutherfurd 

Albany 9^ Aprile 1747 
Dear Sir 

I'm sorry to see by Yours which I had lately the 
favour of that no certain Accounts are yet arrived relat- 
ing to our proceedings in this Part of the world, but I 
don't expect The Governour will come here until he has 
directions from home, tho we have daily Accounts of 
his setting out Soon. You'll have all the particulars from 
His Excellency relateing to the Attack made by 30 In- 
dians & 30 Soldiers detached from the Garrison at Crown 
point under the Command of Mr Sherbine, upon Cap* 
Trent L* Proctor & 40 Men being A Party returning 
from an Escort to Sarahtoga, The Officers & Men by all 
Accounts behaved well, retireing below A Bank, behind 
some trees, & defended themselves keeping The Enemy 
at a distance untill their Cartridges were expended & had 
their retreat covered by L* Bratt with A party from the 
Fort which was A Mile & % distant, we had 9 kill'd 
as many Wounded & 6 taken. L* Johnstoun Sent out 
with A Party from The Fort luckily fell upon The 
Enemys Camp 2 Miles from where they attacked our 
Party which surprized so much that they march'd off in 
disorder leaveing part of their litle baggage behind them 
& A French Soldier so wounded that he could not get off. 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 371 

They took amongst Capt Trent's Baggage all the letters 
from Saragtoga full of complaints of the unhealthy place 
they are in, not above a third of the Men fit for duty 
&.C., which was allways the case & will be so while A 
Garrison is kept there which I hope won't be long, being 
neither fit for defending the Country nor A fort of Com- 
munication. This foolish scheme of Albany Bush loupers 
will make room for more Jobs, I long to hear from you 
what we're to expect. Mrs Rutherfurd will be down 
in a fortnight I am D'" Sir Sincerely Yours &. c. &. c. 

John Rutherfurd 

Peter Collinson to Benjamin Franklin 

LoND Aprill 12^^ 1747 
My Dear F^ 

The Inclosed Account came from a very Ingenious 
P"^ of Mine & being the first that I have heard, In which 
Electricity has proved of Benefit to mankind I believe 
it would be Entertaining to you — but before Wee can 
rely on the Experiment It must be confirm'd ^many 
Successively — It is amazing to what a pitch the Electrical 
power is carried, I am well Informed that In Germany 
they knock'd down an Ox Several Men have been 
Struck down at London, one was an Irish Bishop a Lusty 
Strong Man & yett could not Surmount the Shock — I pre- 
sume by this Time the aparatus is got into the Colonies 
for there is no discribeing the Electrical power unless 
a ^son feels it himself 

You will Expect to hear Some thing of Doc Coldens 
Ingenious ^formance It is much admired by Some and 
those of most abilities have told mee that it was no 
trifleing affair but required great Consideration but one 
was so meane Spirited as to Say He did not believe it 
was Doc Coldens Work but that the Ship wrack papers of 
Some Ingenious European had fell into his hands, as this 
was So very Meane I would not Hint it to Doc'" Colden & 

372 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1745-1747 

indeed I am much ashamed for the ^son that wrote it — 
Several have promised mee some observations on his 
Scheme but none is yett Come to hand — but I have sent 
his Books to my Correspondants in Sweeden, Russia, 
Paris, Holland, Nurembergh Scotland, &c 
So no doubt but Wee shall hear from some of them & 
our Curious people In England have been Supplyed, the 
Demand was so great It was reprinted Here, before his 
Bundles Came this comes from behind the Counter you 
know what a shop Is to write under no Interruption but I 
am used to It & my frds are so good to Excuse all my 
Blunders I am truly y''^ 


FroTn Samuel Johnson 

Stratford April 15 1747 


I have been so much taken up of late in riding several 
Journeys & various other affairs, that this must be my 
Apology for not Sooner answering your kind Letter of 
Jan''^ 27. Your beautiful little Draught of the First prin- 
ciples of Morality, is what I have been very much pleased 
with. I have read it with attention three times, & each 
time with a fresh Increase of Pleasure, & I now at 
length return you my hearty thanks for it, & for the 
Candour you express towards the Small peice I had the 
presumption to publish. — You have in this little Tract 
of yours made Such an easy gradual & natural progress 
from Physics to Metaphysics; & from thence to Moral- 
ity as is very pleasing to the mind ; & I think, if I rightly 
apprehend you, you have now so explained your self that 
we do much differ, & what difference yet remains I im- 
agine is but meerly verbal. My chief Objection was 
against your using the Term Action, as expressing any 
thing in Matter, which I take to be a meer passive thing, 
& therefore that Action cannot in any strict propriety of 
Speaking be attributed to it. — For which reason that Ex- 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 373 

pression Still grated upon my mind till I came to your 7^*" 
Section, in which, when you come to explain the differ- 
ence between Spirit & Body, you say, "The Actions of the 
latter are altered by efficient Causes always external to 
themselves." — This seems evidently to conclude what I 
would be at, & that at the Bottom we really think alike, 
& that when we Speak of the Action of matter, we use 
that word for want of a better, in a Sense rather figura- 
tive than literal, & must understand it in a vulgar Sense 
rather than a Sense that is Strictly philosophical (like the 
motion or Attraction of the Sun) as we may call writing 
the Action of the pen, when it is only meerly acted; & 
consequently I apprehend that by the Action of matter 
you do not mean any Exertion of it's own, much less a 
designed conscious Self-Exertion, which always enters 
into my Notion of Efficient Causes, & that, therefore, 
when you Say the Action of Bodies is altered, & conse- 
quently determined by (the Exertion, I would say, of) 
Efficient Causes always external to themselves, those Effi- 
cient Causes must always be self-exerting & intelligent 
Beings, i. e. Spirits, which therefore, only can be properly 
Agents. — I would therefore understand you to mean, 
That all the Actions in all Nature that affect our Senses 
& excite Ideas in our Minds, are really & in truth the Ac- 
tions of that Great Supreme & Almighty Being or Spirit, 
whom you call (25) The Soul of the Universe. — I do 
not with S"" Isa/ic in his Schol. gen. quite like that Ex- 
pression — It may however be admitted if it only means 
that he animates & governs the Sensible World as the 
Soul does the Body which is meerly passive to it ; so far it 
is right: In this Sense He is the Natural Governour of 
the world, or rather of the Natural World, — But this 
seems not Sufficient unless, at the Same time you con- 
ceive of Him as being the Moral Governour of the Intel- 
ligent or Moral World, rewarding or punishing them, (i. e. 
making them to feel pleasure of pain,) according as they 
behave well or ill: (it being the sole End of all the pains 
he inflicts to cure moral evil, & bring them at length to an 
intire obedience to the great & universal Law of Nature 

374 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

i. e. to be governed by Reason & Right:) which is what I 
would understand you to mean by the following words, 
The Supreme Governour of his Creatures. 

You Say very truly, S. 9. We have no Idea of Matter: 
by which it is plain that by matter, you mean something 
that is not the object either of our Senses Imaginations 
or Intellects, or what use then is it in Philosophy? Why 
may we not wholly drop it & do as well without it, per- 
haps much better? & why may we not suppose, (or in- 
deed how can we avoid it?) that what you call the Ac- 
tion of matter, is really, & only, the Action of that Al- 
mighty Spirit in whom we live move & have our Being & 
whose offspring we are, & consider all Nature as being the 
glorious system of his incessant Exertions & Operations, 
with which (without the Intervention of any Stupid in- 
significant thing y* we have no idea of) he does, by his 
own Action, Governed by fixed. Stable Rules of his own 
most wise establishment, called the Laws of Nature, per- 
petually affect our senses & minds with an endless va- 
riety of Sensible Objects, This will Sufficiently account 
for every thing; whereas matter whereof we can have no 
Idea can account for nothing. 

You use the Expression, §20.21. during the time of 
our Existance, which sounds as tho' it was to have a 
period with this vain life. This I cannot Suppose to be 
your meaning, (& therefore perhaps might be better left 
out, or in the whole of our existence or some such word, 
put in it's stead.) because I apprehend you must think it 
evident from the wisdom, justice & Goodness of God, 
compared with that excellent Nature He has given us, 
that we must be designed for nobler Ends than can be 
answered by our Existance only in this Short, dark, un- 
certain & troublesome Life. — Thus S'^ I have used the 
Freedom you desire, & which I doubt not you will take 
in the Same good part, <fe with the same pleasure I do 
yours, & always Shall. — I am glad to find by your Gazetts, 
that you are at length resolved to have a College in your 
Government. This is what I doubt not, you have much 
at heart, & I heartily wish Success to is, & shall willingly 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 375 

correspond with you in any thing in my little power that 
may tend to promote it, & I wish it may take Effect 
Speedily that you may not suffer the Jersey College, 
(which will be a fountain of Nonsense,) so get a head of 
it.— I am S"" 

Your most obliged 
humble Servant 
To Dr Golden. SamuEL JohnSON 

From William Douglass 

Boston W April 1747 
Cadwallader Golden Esq"" 

Dated 19*^ March last, I sent 2 No" of an Essay to- 
wards the History of British Settlements in North Amer- 
ica, according to promise I now send N° 3 As this re- 
quires good help, besides what I desired in my last, please 
favour me with some accounts of the two Governments 
of Pensylvania, you are well acquainted in this affair 

My good friend M"" Gray from Glascow the bearer, I 
recommend to your countenance and advice in his Mer- 
cantile affairs. I am 

Your most humble Ser* 
To WiL. Douglass. 

Cadwallader Golden Esq. 
in New York 

w* a pamphlet 

Gov. Clinton to Gov. Shirley? 

[In handwriting of Cadwallader Golden.] 

[April 1747] 

I sometime since sent you a copy of my Speech to the 
Assembly of this Province I now inclose with this a Copy 
of their resolves in answer to it by which you may per- 

376 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

ceive what is to expected from this Province & I have no 
reason to hope for more as things stand at present If 
any alterations happen in their Sentiments it must be the 
effect of the Orders we shall receive from Court. The 
season this spring is more favourable than usual & if it 
were in my power I would not loose one moment in im- 
ploying the New Levies in forwarding the purposes for 
which they were raised & that his Majesty be in no man- 
ner disapointed in any expectations he may have of our 
being in readiness to act on the Enterprise for which the 
levies were intended & of our having don every thing 
that can be expected to be don without his special Order. 
For this reason I think it may be proper to march som.e 
part at least of the troops of New England as well as those 
in this Province as soon as possible to the carrying place 
above Sarahtoga, between Hudson's River & wood Creek 
& there to erect two Forts one at each end of the Carrying 
place sufficient to protect the Magazines & stores from 
any sudden surprise as was proposed by Coll. Roberts 
at Boston to which by your letter of the 10th of last 
month you agreed & that the Magazines & stores be 
transported thither as soon as may be that we may be in a 
condition to put in execution what ever orders we may 
receive with all the dispatch that may be expected from 
us I have the doing of this the more at heart because I 
think it at the same time the most effectual method we 
can take for security of our Frontiers & preventing the 
Incurious of the Ennemy upon the Inhabitants. But the 
great difficulty, which remains with me, is the pay of the 
troops and of the charges which must necessarly attend 
their march. For I am of opinion that it may be hazard- 
ous even to propose their marching till they have at 
least some part of their pay due to them for in case they 
should refuse to march without it disobedience & mutiny 
may be introduced of which it may not be easy either to 
foresee or prevent the bad consequences. It seems to me 
likewise necessary that what ever be don with respect to 
the pay of any of the New Levies of any of the Colonies be 
equally don to all & that the rates of exchange be fixed 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 377 

in such manner that no one have reason to think that he 
is better or worse used than another. These seem to me 
matters of such consequence that they are absolutely nec- 
essary to be fixed & ascertain'd before any particular 
orders be given for putting the forces in action & therefor 
I must desire your Sentiments and advice on these par- 
ticulars & on what else you may think proper on this oc- 
casion that we may act uniformly & in concurrence with 
each other. As it seems reasonable that Connecticut join 
with us in erecting the Forts at the Carrying place & in 
marching their forces thither I think it proper for me to 
write to the Gov'" of that Colony to know his sentiments 
And as you know I suppose that the Forces of Connecti- 
cut are under my Commission being apointed Capt" Gen' 
of Connecticut as well as of New York I must desire 
your opinion & advice as to the pay of the levies & Com- 
missions to the ofiicers in that Colony at what rate the 
Exchange is to be in their money in case they shall in- 
sist on having any part of their pay & what method is to 
be taken for their pay & for giving them commissions 
for so far as I am informed the officers have receiv'd no 
kind of Commission more than their Governors Warrant 
to enlist men Now to enable you to give your Sentiments 
on the several points which I desire upon others which 
you may think requisite on this or any future occa- 
sion I must inform you that from what I can observe 
The assembly of this Province will endeavour to avoid 
all kind of expence that they can with any colour or pre- 
tence throw upon the Croun And that some of great in- 
fluence are desirous if they can to bring this Province 
into a kind of Newtrality as it was in Queen Anne's War. 
It was I believe with this view that the Gov'" of Canada 
sent the message to the six Nations after my treaty with 
them wherein he told them that he took pity of the 
People of Albany & would after that turn the Indians 
against their Inveterate Ennemies of New England 

I send this by express that I may have your thoughts 
upon every thing which you think can be of use with all 
the distinctness possible & as soon as may be for you 

378 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

must be sensible that the disposition of many of this 
province together with our Scituation lays me under diffi- 
culties from which you & other Governors are freed. 

Cadimillader C olden to Mrs C olden 

New York May 2" 1747 
My dear 

I am at this time so deeply engaged in publick affairs 
by the news of a Mutiny among the Forces at Albany 
that I have scarce a moment to my self The Gov"" had re- 
solv'd yesterday before we were inform'd of the heighth 
this Mutiny is got to to apoint one of my son's Muster 
Master I design it for Cadwallader & he must be ready 
to go to Albany as soon as his Commiss" & orders shall 
come to his hands For this purpose I send him up a ps 
of Linnen stockings & a New hat He will want Money 
for his Expences I expect M"" Ellison will assist him in 
that till he get his pay which I expect will be the same 
with that of a Captain Perhaps a sloop may be order'd 
to stop to take him in but I hope to have time to write 
again before this can happen I shall after this write more 
fully & on every thing you may expect In the mean time 
I assure you that I ami in perfect health & I intreat you 
as the greatest pleasure you can do me to take care of 
your own health 

Your most affectionate 
Cadwallader Colden 
The Children will inform 
you of several things I have 
not time to write 


Mrs Golden at 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 379 

Part of Mr Hamilton's Speech to the Assembly of the 
Jerseys at Perth Amboy May 6th, llJfl 

[In Colden's handwriting] 

The distracted state of the Province occasioned by 
the many great Riots obliges me again to call on you to 
take some vigorous measures to punish these daring dis- 
turbers of the publick peace These people have grown 
strong & numerous by passing so long with inpunity for 
besides those two great Riots at Newark which happen'd 
in the late Governors life time & which were recommended 
to you by him there have been since so many bold daring 
attempts made to throw of his Majesty's Authority & 
their dependence in the Brittish throne that they call 
loudly for the severe resentment of the Legislature. 

These bold people have in a publick manner denyed 
his Majesty's Title to New Jersey, they have refused to 
pay obedience to his laws & have publickly contemned his 
Authority. They have broke open his Goals beat & 
abused his officers & Ministers of Justice Turned people 
out of the Quiet Possession of their lands & put others 
into their places They have associated themselves to- 
gether in defyance of the Gov^ have frequently met in 
great numbers & marched from one part of the Province 
to another insolently giving out that they are so strong 
& numerous as not to be affray'd of any force the Gov"" 
are able to bring agt them All the steps that it was pru- 
dent & in the Power of the Gov"" have been taken to bring 
the Criminals to Justice & put a stop to so dangerous & 
growing an evil but these measures have all proved inef- 
fectual & have only occasioned fresh riots & contempts 
of his Majesty's Authority in consequence of which the 
course of common Justice has been for some time at a 
stand. These matters are all so publickly known that 
particular proofs are needless However I have order'd 
the several letters & Papers relating to these disturbances 
to be laid before you for your perusal 

I must observe to you that it is impossible to suppose 
Great Brittain will part with so valuable a Colony as 

380 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

New Jersey or that his Majesty will suffer his Authority 
& Laws to be trampled under foot in any part of his Do- 
minions tho ever so remote from his royal person & the 
attempt to do it is certainly as vain as it is weak & 
wicked If the People of New Jersey wiU not be Gov- 
erned by the mildest of Laws they themselves will thereby 
render it necessary to govern them by force for we can- 
not suppose that a Brittish Parliament will suffer these 
things long to pass with impunity. 

Cadwallader Golden to Mrs Golden 

My Dear 

I am so exceedingly hurried by preparing things for 
an express that is to go up to Albany this evening that 
I have no time to say any thing more to you Then to 
tell you that as the Mutiny continues & encreases at Al- 
bany & they threaten to March home & perhaps some of 
them are gon by this time And as you are now on the 
road that they may take I think it advisable & must 
insist on your going to your Son Alexander's house with 
the Children. There you will be more out of the Way 
of their parties & you can if you think proper if you ap- 
prehend any danger there come doun with the Children to 
this Toun The rest we must leave to Providence This I 
only say least you may be at a loss whether I would be 
pleas'd with it tho' I do not at present apprehend any 
danger & I know you are not of that timerous temper to 
take what I write in such manner as to do any thing 
without an appearance of its being proper I wrote to our 
Son Alexander by an Express that went up two days ago 
That it was resolv'd that his Brother should not go up till 
the Mutiny is Quell'd so that he need not at present be in 
any hurry. Jenny & Alice went yesterday morning to 
West Chester I rec'^ a letter from Alexander of the 4"* 
Instant but I have not time to answer it 

Your most affectionate 
New York May 6"* Cadwallader Colden 


THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174^-1747 381 

Draft of letter from Gov. Clinton to Duke of Newcastle 

[In handwriting of Cadwallader Golden. Subject matter 
in Documents relating to . . . New York Vol VI. p. 
340 dated May 11, 1747] 

By what I could learn from your Grace's letter to me of 

the of 1746 directing & ordering me to make 

levies in this Governmt for an Expedition which is 
Majesty intended against Ganada it did not appear to me 
that the paying these levies was any part of the Duty 
which his Majesty had laid on me on that Occasion But 
by General's St Glair's not coming to America & Mr 
Gooch's declining the command of those Forces & the 
Governors of the other Golonies refusing to have any 
concern in the Forces levied in their respective Govern- 
ments after they had marched to the place of Rendezvous 
in my Government the whole Weight of every thing relat- 
ing to these troops falls upon me 

As I expected his Majesties Orders relating to these 
Forces after all hopes of the arival of the fleet were given 
up till the severity of the Winter came on I still delay'd 
taking any method for payment of them during the Win- 
ter as by their being in Winter Quarters & supplied with 
Provisions I hoped they would remain contented till the 
Spring when I did not doubt to know his Majesty's 
pleasure with respect to their pay as early as the Sea- 
son of the year would permit This made me delay from 
day to day (being every day in hopes or receiving orders 
on this head) taking any method for the paying of them 
tho' at the same time their oflScers were under a neces- 
sity of giving them hopes that they would receive their 
pay before this time to prevent the ill effects of the mur- 
murings which began to appear among them by the 

want of their pay till at last about the day of April 

several of the companies refused to do any duty & after- 
wards several of them left the places where they were 
posted for security of the Frontiers & the Mutiny began 
to be general through the New Levies of all the several 

382 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Colonies which now are in this Province & several of 
them left their Posts in whos companies I thereupon im- 
mediately acquainted the Governours of the Massachu- 
sets bay & of Connecticut with what had happened & de- 
sir'd them to send detachments of the Forces in their 
Governments to support the Garison at Sarahtoga where 
a train of Artillery & other ammunition of War were 
lodged & which is most exposed to the Ennemy At the 
same time I desir'd them to march what force they could 
to their own Frontiers towards Albany to support me on 
this Emergency & to prevent the ill effects that may 
happen from any Intelligence the Ennemy might re- 
ceive of these disorders among the Forces on the Fron- 
tiers of this Province & which are the nearest to Can- 
ada & at a small distance from the French Garison at 
Croun point. 

At the same time I was advised by his Majesty's 
Council of this Province to pay each man of the New 
levies including those of the other Colonies which now 
are on this Province as well as those levied in it forty 
shillings current money of New York & to promise to pay 
twenty shillings monthly till such time as I shall re- 
ceive his Majesty's orders with respect to the pay of these 
forces As they were of opinion that there is an absolute 
necessity for this at present & that there is no method for 
obtaining the money but by Bills of Exchange on the 

Pay I have accordingly drawn Bills of Excha for 

pounds Sterline on the pay oflBce at ninety days 

sight As the assembly had absolutely refused again this 
Session to contribute any thing towards this expence I 
was under a necessity of complying with this advice 
of Council because ther is no other method in any shape 
to obtain the money necessary on this occasion & if the 
New levies should continue to mutiny this & the other 
Colonies must be in danger not only from the Ennemy 
but exposed to the ravages & other disorders of mutinous 
soldiers As I have now engaged my own Fortune for the 
payment of these Bills merely for his Majesty's service 
without possibility of private benefit to my self thereby 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 383 

I must intreat your Grace to lay the case in such manner 
before his Majesty that my family may not suffer by it 
& that proper orders be given to the Pay office for the 
payment of these Bills I must likewise beg of your Grace 
that as I must be at considerable charge for receiving 
Carriage of & paying this money at the far distant places 
at which the several companies are Posted some method 
may be taken out of the fund made by the one shilling in 
the Pound or otherwise for paying these & other contin- 
gent charges. 

That the pay of the officers & men may be bona fide 
made & all deceits as much as in my power prevented 
I have followed the Directions of the Act of Parlia- 
ment in apointing a Commissary of the Musters in whose 
ability & integrity I have reason to confide & thereby to 
take Cadwallader Colden Jun'' Commissary of the Mus- 
ters & I shall take all methods that the circumstances of 
affairs will permit for procuring & sending proper Vouch- 
ers of the payment of the Money for the Service for which 
it is destin'd in the manner directed by Act of ParP I 
must intreat your grace to procure his Majestys orders 
for the paying of this Officer since I must advance for 
his pay in the same manner as for the other officers And 
I send along with this to M"" Guerin such papers as I 
think may serve for your Graces further information on 
this head As I have no account of the Arival of the 
money sent to Albany for the payment of the New levies 
I cannot tell what the Success may be as to quieting the 
minds of the Soldiers & bringing them back to their Duty 
But several doubt of the Success and as I believe that 
these disorders among the soldiers have been much for- 
warded by sinister views of several in this Province I like- 
wise send some papers relating to the present state of this 
Province even my speech & Message to the Assembly of 
the Province which I must earnestly recommend to your 
Grace's consideration & that you would be pleas'd to rec- 
ommend to his Majesty those alterations in the Council 
of this Province and apointment of a Lt Governor which 
in my letters last Winter I proposed as being in my 

384 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

opinion necessary for his Majesty's Service & supporting 
me in my administration of the Gov*- And on this occa- 
sion I must inform your Grace that M"" Golden continues 
to assist me cheerfully against a most unreasonable as 
well as ungrateful opposition notwithstanding that his 
assistance is with considerable prejudice to his own pri- 
vate affairs & therefor I must heartily recommend him to 
his Majesty's favour in some shape or other & I must beg 
your Grace to allow me to say that if those who distin- 
guish themselves in support of his Majesty's Authority 
in this Province be not distinguished by his Majesty's 
favour it will be impracticable for those in the administra- 
tion to support it perhaps in any of the Colonies against 
the power of a Faction that may be form'd to the preju- 
dice of it. 

Cadwallader C olden to Mrs C olden 

My Dear 

Andrew M*" Dowal telling that he is this moment 
going up I have only time to tell you that the huriy we 
have been in writing to England by a ship that sails this 
day & the affair of the Mutiny has taken up so much 
time that we have had none to think of Cadwalladers 
affairs but I hope we shall soon be able tho' writing by 
2 other ships that are to go from Boston & Philad*^ will 
keep the Gov"" very busy. I assure you cannot desire 
more than I do to be with you for more than one night 
I hope it cannot be long now before I shall see you tho' 
not one word of News from England yet & Perhaps we 
may all return together as soon as we can learn that the 
Mutiny is pacified at Albany. I am in perfect health & 
Expect the children this day from West Chester. Pray 
continue to take care of your self The last express we had 
from Albany gives us hopes that things will be pacified 
^^^^^ Your most affectionate 

New York Cadwallader Golden. 

May 12*^ 1747 


To Mrs Golden at Goldengham 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 385 

From Peter Wraxall 

A Party of above 100 of the Pensylvania Troops were 
marcht off two days before our arrival here, the remainder 
of them & most of the other Forces about Albany, had 
thrown off all Discipline & obedience to their Ofi&cers. I 
shall not trouble you with particulars of the Methods 
since pursued, as I make no doubt Col Roberts will be 
sufficiently full on that head to the Gov'" 

Most of the Pensylva^ Troops received their Quota' 
yesterday, & the Forces in general appear calmer than 
some days ago, but I suspect it is but a flattering Inter- 
lude. Col Schuylers paying the Jerseys Troops their 
whole pay (w''^ was done on our arrival) has sown seeds 
of great discontent, & will I fear produce ill consequences, 
unless some News from Europe speedily comes. I have 
collected several proofs that the late behaviour of the 
Pensylvania Troops has been chiefly Owing to false & 
Malicious reports spread amongst them by the Albany 
people, & w'''' their officers & several of their Men have 
publickly asserted & complained off, & I have taken the 
particulars in writing, & will produce when I have the 
pleasure of seeing you And tis all the Officers Opinion in 
general, that their ill influence has been the chief founda- 
tion of the late & present Discord. I have endeavoured 
to get names, but the Answers were, did not know them. 
Facts however I have got, & I woud propose a written 
Memorial signed by officers setting forth these matters 
with their Fatal consequences, but I am not a proper per- 
son to do it, as I have particularly distinguished myself 
by my aversion to those Wretches. 

As there are several Companys in distant Garrisons, 
& that the Distribution of the money takes up a good deal 
of time, this Affair cannot possibly be ended time enough 
for Vouchers to go by Gayton I judge 6 weeks will be 
the least it can be done in and as I am yet more con- 
firmd by matters w*"^ have occurd since my arrival here, 
in Opinion that a full & proper representation should be 

386 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

personally made at home of all proceedings in relation to 
this Expedition, & that without delay, least prior misrep- 
resentations should raise prejudices w'^*' it may be after- 
wards difficult to remove, & bring on Consequences w""*" it 
will be certainly prudence timely to avert. And there- 
fore I would wish you may think it proper, that I receive 
orders to deliver up my Charge to the Gov'"^ or Col Rob- 
ert's appointment, & that I be ordered down when I will 
communicate my observations & what particulars I have 

I do not trouble the Gov'" with a Letter, & beg youl 
please to assure him of my Sincere & warm dispositions 
to serve him, & whenever in my power depend I am no 
less towards your self, as I am with real Esteem 

Dear Sir 
Your faithful & obed^ 
Albany 15**" May hum Serv* 

1747 Peter Wraxall 

To the Honi'ie Cadwalladeb Golden Esq*" 

Cadwallader Colden to Mrs Colden 

New York May 20*^^ 1747 
My Dear 

As I expected Cadwallader would be uneasy about 
his disapointments in not hearing from me I wrote to him 
& had not time to write to you but I take it that there is 
no great odds who I write to since I expect that you see 
every thing We were in hopes that we had got free of 
Assembly affairs till we should hear from England but 
we are disapointed in this as well as in many others I 
had wrote so far when I was interrupted & must go out 
so that what ever desire I have to write often to you I 
cannot I have mention'd my design of going home next 
week to the Gov*" He appear'd uneasy at it because of 
expecting every day to hear from England however if 
I can I will keep my resolution I must leave to the 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 387 

children to write every thing that you may desire to 
know We have not heard from Albany since the money 
went up to pay the men & till then nothing can be de- 
termined about Cadwallader's going up Remember me 
affectionately to all our Children 

Your most affectionate 


M^'s Golden at 

From John Rutherjurd 
J. g. Albany 27'^^ May 1747 

I'm heartily glad I have now found out A certain New 
Acquaintance's designs, while I looked on him as my 
friend & as I'm but too apt to trust, I own he Humbled 
me a litle, tho I never could believe half his Insinua- 
tions of Your Character, your expressions of me & of your 
designs of keeping me & others at a distance from the 
Governour in order to have his whole ear. I hope & ex- 
pect You'l now have as litle regard to what he says 
on one side as I have on the other for 'tis plain his only 
design has been to create a difference instead of which I 
dare say 'twill have the quite contrary Effect. I have to 
day wrote to the Governour desireing he'd order the Chief 
Justice & c. to examine the Indians who attacked Capt 
Tibout's Man. Capt Honneyman goes Express to day 
about pay; I wrote you in my last that Discipline was 
at least as much wanted, but now unless we get Com- 
manding officers from home 'tis in vain to think of it, but 
while I write this perhaps the affairs all over I long im- 
patiently to hear from you & am with great Sincerity 
& regard for you & all your Good Family 

[Indorsed] Intirely Yours & c & c 

The Honourable JOHN RuTHEHFURD 

Cadwallader Golden Esq'" 

New York. 

388 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Cadwallader Golden to Mrs C olden 

My Dear 

I do not wonder to find by yours of the 23d instant 
that you begin to be uneasy Your remaining so long 
otherwise was a great ease to me There is nothing in 
the publick affairs that has given me any uneasiness of 
mind All my concern is for you that you keep your 
Spirits while you are so solitary & are obliged to have 
the whole care of the family upon you If you keep your 
health & take care of your self happen what will as to the 
publick disputes I don't doubt but we shall meet with 
pleasure I was resolv'd to have return'd this week but 
Alsies relapse makes it impracticable at this time I shall 
not venture her upon the water while there can be any 
danger to her health It is the slow lingring fever that 
she is taken with The least stirring or being exposed 
to the air disorders her much But even under this mis- 
fortune it is some comfort to see what regard some 
friends show Mrs Waren Mrs Watts Mrs Moore & all 
our Acquaintance in general have been to visit her & 
express a good deal of affection for her But indeed 
the concern which M"" Nichol's family have shown & the 
trouble they have taken is beyond what can be well ex- 
pressed Mr Alexanders family likewise on all occasions 
show their concern for us I forgot to mention that Mrs 
Chief Justice made her a visit last Sunday. I suppose 
Jenny will write particularly to you & as our Daughter 
Golden returns at this time she can inform you of every 
particular you desire to know You cannot doubt of my 
care & concern & pray keep me from any doubt of your 
care for your self. If any thing should ail you it will be 
too hard for me to bear. Assure Johny that I am fully 
satisfied of his care & I am sure of not being dis- 
pleased with any thing I shall see at my return I am so 
fully satisfied in your care that I can have no suspicion 
of any thing being amiss by my absence if you keep your 
health & keep your spirits up I cannot help again & 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 389 

again to repeat to take care of your self It is surprising 
that not one word should at this time be heard from the 
Ministry but as this is not in our power to help we must 
bear it with patience but it lays us under great diffi- 
culties how to act & Cadwallader must have patience 
as to his commission when ever it can be of use he will 
have it but till the Mutinies are over at Albany it can 
be of no use 

I had wrote so far yesterday now I have the pleasure 
to assure that Alice is bravely to day & I hope she will 
soon be able to go abroad There has been a good deal of 
Hysteria in her case that produced some symtoms which 
made me more uneasy than I had real cause for & I hope 
you will not be uneasy that I keep her here till I think 
there can be no danger in her travilling for you know that 
where there is any thing Hysterical any fatigue is very 
apt to give disorder Mrs Watts has very kindly ojffered 
her coach to her to take the air There is another mali- 
cious paper printing from the Assembly but do not 
trouble your self about it It can neither hurt the Gov"" 
nor me with any considerate person but evidently dis- 
covers what sort of men the Authors of it are & will con- 
tribute to bring all our Disputes to a more speedy con- 
clusion At the same time it makes me more desirous to 
be here when the News comes from England which we 
have all the reason in the World to expect cannot be long 
Nothing shall make me uneasy happen what will if you 
& the children keep your healths & remain cheerfull. My 
Love to the children 

Your most affectionate 
Cadwallader Golden. 

May 28th 1747 


Mrs Golden at 

390 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

Gov. Clinton to Duke of New Castle 

[In Colden's handwriting. See N.Y. Col. Doc's Vol. 6 p. 350] 

[May 30, 1747] 
I am under a necessity of giving your Grace the trou- 
ble of the inclosed representation from the Assembly of 
this Province from whence your Grace will easily per- 
ceive without any comment upon it that his Majesty is 
reduced to this Alternative either to Support his Author- 
ity in the hands of his Governor or to give it up to a Fac- 
tion who are attempting to rule by meer popular influ- 
ence Tho' I be perswaded that your Grace or any for 
you need only read it over to discover the views of pur- 
poses which the contrivers have yet it is not easy to con- 
ceive that so much malice could arise not only without 
kind of just provacation but with all the aggravations of 
the highest ungratitude or that such a paper could be 
penn'd without any truth to support if by men who bear 
the least Character of Gent" yet in truth so it is & As 
things are at present scituated in this Province it is 
hardly possible to find a legal method for evincing of this 
or for the proof of Facts & forming a Judgement upon 
them because there is no person in Authority here that 
can in the present publick disputes be thought so in- 
different that a showing at least reasonable exception 
may not be taken to him by one side or the other neither 
can it seem prudent or decent in a Gov'" in chief to sub- 
ject his administration to the enquiry of those that are 
subject to his Authority If his Majesty from any thing 
on this representation shall think it of consequence suffi- 
cient to sending over a Commission to any persons he 
shall think proper not of this Province to make enquiry 
into my conduct since I have had the Administration of 
the Government it would give me much pleasure for 
thereby I would have it in my power which I cannot 
otherwise in a legal manner have to show that I have 
been so far from deserving the gross reflections which 
have been thrown upon me that I have with unwearied 

THE GOLDEN PAPER&-1 74^-1747 391 

diligence persueed every thing that occurr'd to me or was 
communicated to me by others for his Majesty's service 
& the Benefite of this & indeed of all the Brittish Colo- 
nies on North America & this under such difficulties & 
obstructions as no Governor of this or of any other of the 
Colonies ever underwent from a most ungrateful & 
maliceous opposition This my Lord I think may in a 
great measure appear from the representation it self 
wherein they endeavour to throw heavey Slanders upon 
my Character from no other evidence but that of common 
report or rumour without the least enquiry to know the 
truth of any Fact on which such report or rumour was 
placed whereas I think it may & hope to make it appear 
that these reports & rumours were first rais'd & indus- 
triously spread by the compilers of this representation 
& afterwards given as the reason of making it But be- 
sides this several Falshoods are boldly asserted of which 
there can be no doubt that they themselves knew to be 
such one instance of which comes within Your Grace's 
knowledge They say That his Majesty was graciously 
pleas'd to direct that the Presents to be made to the 
Indians in order to engage them in the War against the 
French should be done at the charge of the Crown & with- 
out any charge to this Colony Your Grace's letter was 
communicated to the Council & an extract of it laid be- 
fore the assembly Your Grace knows there are no such 
words of any such import in your Grace's letter to me of 
the 9th of April 1746 & that it contains all the Direc- 
tions which I have at any time receiv'd on that head 
Your Grace only directed that I should make the usual 
presents on that occasion by any words without express- 
ing whether at the expence of the Croun or of this Prov- 
ince And tho the most usual presents to the Indians 
have been allwise at the Expence of the Province I was 
laid under a necessity of making them at the expence of 
the Croun when the assembly refus'd to bear that ex- 
pence Now your Grace may observe how bold they are 
in their assertions when they are so litle upon their Guard 
in a matter within your Grace's own knowledge Your 

392 THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 

Grace must allow me to say that such impudent Fals- 
hoods & such bare faced Slander was never perhaps so 
publickly & openly made which I make no doubt of prov- 
ing when a proper opportunity shall be given me for that 

But the Malicieous intent of the Authors of this Libel 
I think appears so evidently from its self & from the 
spirit which appears through it every where that I can- 
not make any doubt that from the Evidence this papers 
gives of it self your Grace will represent this matter in 
such manner to his Majesty that such orders & Instruc- 
tions be made thereon as shall enable me effectually to 
suppress this dangerous & virulent Faction & to en- 
courage those who have assisted me in withstanding the 
torrent of their violent passions If this be not don I am 
with humble submission of opinion that the Administra- 
tion must hereafter remain in the hands of this or some 
other popular Faction that from time to time may arise & 
no man in this place will after this attempt to support 
his Majesty's authority in the hands of his Gov'" against 
the power & malice of such like Factions. 

For this reason I must again earnestly recommend 
it to your Grace that Cadwallader Golden who is now the 
first in his Majesty's Council be apointed L^ Gov'" & y^ 
such encouragement be given to him as I formerly de- 
sir'd He has under all the difiiculties which have been 
most inperiously thrown upon me assisted me with his 
advice & tho he has been 25 years in the Council & en- 
joy'd the personal friendship of all the proceeding Gov™ 
(M'' Cosby only excepted) since he came into this prov- 
ince this verulent party are not able to fix any one definite 
charge against him notwithstanding they evidently show 

how desirous they are of doing it if they could & J A 

restored to his place at the Council board which he for- 
merly had & which was that next to M"" Golden What 
ever were the reasons for suspending & removing this 
Gentleman from the Council I believe they have long 
since ceased He is possest of one of the best Estates in 
this Country has great natural & acquired abilities & 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 393 

known to be well skilled in the law & well acquainted 
with all the publick affairs of this & the neighbouring 
Gov*^ whereby He will be of great Service to his Majesty 
on every occasion where such knowledge is requisite. By 
his Influence chiefly the Gov* of New Jersey where he 
is of his Majesty's Council did in a much more generous 
manner provide for their part of the Expedition intended 
against Canada than was don in this Province & on all 
occasions he has shown himself a zealous & Loyal Sub- 
ject to his Majesty & the present royal family 

If these things be only done at this time & I be sup- 
ported & incouraged by his Majesty's more general In- 
structions I make no doubt not only of suppressing this 
virulent opposition by the measures I shall after this take 
but preventing the like for the future Their only hopes 
are from the great clamours they think they have rais'd 
& from the influence they have gain'd in the Council <fe 
the assembly who are generally a low & ignorant set of 
mankind but their conduct in their opposition at this time 
has contrary to their expectation produced an evident 
disapprobation among the people of sense of which the 
Faction began to be sensible as in some measure appears 
from the last paragraph in the representation & the ap- 
prehension of this produced this violent & as it were last 
effort of a strugling party Men in this place are affray'd 
openly to discover their Sentiment whereby they may be 
exposed to the resentment of an evidently maliceous 
Faction headed by a man known to be of violent pas- 
sions & chief Justice of this Province for life When 
they shall think themselves in any safety from such re- 
sentments I make no doubt the sentiments of the people 
will appear very different from what they may seem now 
to be 

The only reason for my not having exerted my Au- 
thority in a different manner from what I have don for 
suppression of this Faction is from the present circum- 
stances of the publick affairs while we are engaged in 
War & an Expedition at this time by his Majesty's orders 
preparing against Canada least from any thing don by me 

394 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

it should be supposed that any obstruction had been put 
to that service & it is from the sense they have of this 
that those in the opposition have been incouraged in their 
audacious proceedings If any doubt remain with your 
Grace on any point the Papers which I formerly sent to 
M"^ Guerin I expect will sufficiently remove it. 

From Peter Collinson 

My Dear Fr<^ 

Having So Safe a Conveyance ^the Warwick Man. 
of Warr ^ the hands of Gov"" Belcher — I send you your 
Brothers Discharge Your Book of Indian affairs is in the 


I have but a few minutes to Add that I am yr 

Affect'' ir^ 
P Collinson 


June 1 

Pray my Reap to our Worthy 
F^ M"" Alexander 


Cadwallader Golden Esq^ 
New York. 

Cadwallader Colden to Mrs Colden 

New York June 2^ 1747 

My Dear 

I have now the pleasure to tell you that Alsie is 
bravely recovered. She was at Church last Sunday & goes 
abroad again a visiting but there is something unlucky 
in our pubhc affairs to prevent my returning home The 
Gov"" is not well in his health & the troops are again 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 395 

mutinying at Albany even so far as to threaten to plun- 
der the Country if they have not their whole pay Till 
these things are settled it is so far from being proper for 
me to return that I am resolv'd if I do not see that things 
are like to be put into a better state at Albany to send 
for you & the Children to this place As to this I hope to 
be determin'd in two or three days at furthest either by 
the resolutions the Assembly shall take or by News from 
England for we hear that a Packet lay ready at Ports- 
mouth for Boston & waited only for the Dispatches to be 
sent from Court. The assembly's last representation does 
them no service in this place people are generally dissatis- 
fied with it & I believe the Assembly will see that the Peo- 
ple are so before it be long. The mutiny continueing at 
Albany has occasioned the assembly to meet again upon 
Business. I think I cannot be now long from you I am in 
good health & as cheerful as at any time The Assembly's 
scolding has not the least effect upon my mind. I can- 
not write particularly to Cadwallader but he must not 
lay aside his thoughts of going to Albany I expect to 
be able to inform him fully by the return of the express 
which came last from Albany. Remember me affection- 
ately to all our Children & I must allwise repeat to you 
to take care of your self as being the only thing I am 
affray'd you'l neglect 

Your most affectionate 
Cadwallader Colden 


Mrs Colden 

at Coldengham 

Cadwallader Colden to Mrs Colden 

New York June 3"^ 1747 
My Dear 

I wrote to you yesterday by M"" Ellison's sloop since 
which I reed yours which you wrote after our Daughter 
Colden's return home but Alsie or Jenny having it & 

396 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174^-1747 

being gon out this afternoon to Greenwich with M""" War- 
ren I cannot tell the date. This I hope will satisfy you of 
Alsie's perfect recovery She is as cheerful as ever & noth- 
ing of her former illness appears but that she is a litle 
thinner. Her complexion is fresh & clear as ever. I can 
assure you My Dear nothing gives me any kind of un- 
easiness but my concern for you All the litle malice 
which has appear'd does not in the least affect me. I am 
as cheerful as ever As I know that events are not in my 
power I hope to submit to them with a cheerful mind 
what ever they be. This day a letter came from M"" Hari- 
son at Philad'^ that the Capt" of a privateer who was 
sent out to cruize on the coast writes that he had spoke 
with a ship boun in to Virginia who said he had parted 
with Admiral Waren on the banks of Newfoundland with 
6 men of war & 40 transports. I am called away & only 
time to subscribe 

Your most affectionate 
Cadwallader Golden 
M"" Harison's letter was wrote 
on Munday last & came by an 
express the Gov"" had sent to 


Mrs CoLDEN at Coldengham 

From Benjamin Franklin 

Philad^ June 5, 1747. 

M*" Harrison tell me you are still in New York, as 
deeply engaged in Publick Affairs, I suppose, as ever. 
When I consider your present Disposition to Retirement & 
Philosophical Meditation, I pity you: But I hope that 
Success will attend your Cares for the Publick Good ; and 
the Satisfaction arising thence will make you Some 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 397 

The Deserters who are come hither from the Forces 
on your Frontiers, are 'tis said, unanimous in hating & 
Cursing the People of Albany. I wonder at it: For I 
should have imagin'd that a People to be defended, would, 
from mere Views of Self Interest, have treated Strangers 
that came to defend them, with Such Kindness and Hos- 
pitality as entirely to gain their Affections. Our Governor 
is gone, and no Measures are taken to send the Deserters 
back to their Colours, nor perhaps will be, unless the Ex- 
pedition goes on; which I am sorry to hear from Bos- 
ton, is thought to be laid aside, at least for this Sum- 
mer. If this comes to be known among the Troops, I am 
afraid the Desertion wiU become yet more general; un- 
less the Attempt on Crown Point, or something else to 
employ them, is enter'd upon ; Men without Action gene- 
rally growing uneasy and mutinous. 

My Son, who will wait upon you with this, is return- 
ing to the Army, his military Inclinations, (which I hoped 
would have been cool'd with the last Winter) continuing 
as warm as ever. If the Forces are to remain in your 
Government, it may Sometimes fall in your Way to assist 
him with your Advice or Countenance, in which you 
would exceedingly oblige me 

I send you by him, a Glass Tube ; and enclose you the 
first Part of my Electrical Journal, which, rough as it is, 
may afford you some Amusement when you have a Lei- 
sure Hour. You will find in it, my Manner of Rubbing the 
Tube; to which I need only add, That it should be kept 
perfectly clean, and never suUy'd by Handling &c. — By 
the time you have read & return'd this, I shall have a 
Second Part ready to send you, containing a great Num- 
ber of Experiments, and more curious. — It is now discov- 
ered and demonstrated, both here and in Europe, that the 
Electrical Fire is a real Elemnt, or Species of Matter, not 
created by the Friction, but collected only. In this Dis- 
covery, they were beforehand with us in England ; but we 

had hit on it before we heard it from them. What 

relates to the wonderful Effect of Points, the Difference 

398 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

between Candle Light & Sun Light, and several other 
things in these Papers, the Philosophers at home, are still, 
as far as we know, ignorant of. 

I am, Sir, with great Respect 
Your obliged & most humble 
B. Franklin 


The Hon^ie Cadwalladek Golden Esq*" 
New York. 

From Samuel Johnson 

Stratford June y® 6^*" 1747. 

I give you many thanks for your's of May 8 which was 
very agreeable to me. I know your hands are full of pub- 
lic Affairs, So that it cannot be expected you Should 
have much Leisure for either thinking or writing on these 
Philosophical Subjects. — And could you be sensible of 
the manner of Life I am obliged to live I should have 
little occasion to make any apology for my being so long 
before I answer your obliging Letters, nor for my incor- 
rectness of Expression when I do write, which is also 
doubtless the chief occasion of my not being clearly un- 
derstood, as well as of my not thoroughly entering into 
your meaning: for my Case is not altogether dissimilar 
to that of St Paul, particularly in my being in Joumy- 
ings often — & in perils among false Brethren, as you will 
see by the inclosed, a Copy of w'' I beg your candid accept- 
ance, & that you will convey the other Copy with my 
Service to M"" Watkins. 

I am intirely satisfied with the Amendments you allow 
me to make in the ingenious Draught you was so good 
as to Send me of your Notion of the first principles of 
Morality, — with which it now runs clearly to my Mind, 
& is equally pleasing to my Friends here to whom I have 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174S-1747 399 

communicated it. — As for the incidental Turn I made 
upon an Expression of yours in favour of Bp Berkelys 
System, I was little more than jocular on that occasion; 
being not dogmatically tenacious of his peculiar Senti- 
ments, much less zealous of making you a proselyte to 
them. — I must however observe that you have made a 
considerable approach towards them, at least so far as I 
am concerned to wish you to do, particularly in allowing 
that all our Ideas of Sensible things are the Effects of 
the Actions of Something on our Minds external to them, 
& that Resistance is an Action. — You Suppose indeed an 
Active Medium which you call matter intervening be- 
tween the Deity & our Minds perceiving, to the Action of 
which in perceiving they are passive; which, (tho' I am 
not clear in it,) does not affect me, so long as you allow 
all action throughout All sensible Nature to derive 
originally from Him. 

I doubt I expressed my Self Some how very care- 
lessly, otherwise you could not have Inferred from what 
I wrote that I "attribute all Action immediately to the 
Almighty Spirit." I meant only all the Actions in Sen- 
sible Nature or the Actions external to us which pro- 
duce in our Minds the Ideas of Sense & Imagination : but 
I was far from meaning that there are no other Actions 
besides those of the Deity: For this would be in effect 
to deny the moral Agency & Consequently the Existence 
of Created Spirits. This would sap the Foundation of 
Morality sure enough, & would be at least as bad as Spin- 
osism. — Bp Berkeley, any more than I, never doubted, 
but strongly established the Existence & Agency not only 
of the Deity, but of other inferiour created Spirits, free 
Agents, capable of, & subject to Moral Government.— 
all he contends for is, That there are no other than two 
sorts of Beings the One intelligent & self- Active; the 
other meerly sensless & passive. That the Spirits, viz 
The Deity & created Intelligences alone are the Active 
Beings, & the Objects of Sense alone are meerly passive. 
And that there is no medium either Active or passive in- 
tervening between the Deity & our minds or their Ideas, 

400 THE GOLDEN PAPER&-1743-1747 

which he takes to be Impressions or perceptions imme- 
diately produced by him on our minds, but not so as at 
all to necessitate their choice or Actions, which he leaves 
intirely Free. — These I take to be the first principles of his 
System. — But however at a loss you may be about his 
peculiar Notions, there is a very pretty Book pub- 
lished in England in 1745 Called Dialogues concerning 
Education, being a plan for training up the Youth of 
both Sexes in Learning & Virtue, which I have lately seen 
& long to have you read it, & in which I dont doubt we 
should perfectly agree. — I have recommended it to M'" 
Statford of N. York to procure Several Copies of it to 
dispose of in the Country, for I do not think we could put 
a better thing into the hands of our Children. — It is the 
prettyest thing in its kind, & the best System — both in 
physical Metaphysical & moral philosophy as well as the 
Conduct of Life that I have ever Seen. I remain 


your most obliged 
humble Servant 

Samuel Johnson. 

Cadwallader Golden to Mrs Golden 

My Dear 

I was fully resolv'd to have come home with our chil- 
dren at this time with Curtise & they have been these two 
or three days taking leave of their friends for this pur- 
pose But when I mentioned my Design of my Daugh- 
ters going home to the Gov"" without saying any thing 
with respect to myself he immediately answer'd that He 
thought it very wrong in me to send them in the way of 
the Mutineers at this time till we were assured of the 
mutiny's being over And as I thought this may increase 
both your & my concern & uneasiness I have at last re- 
solv'd to wait the return of an express which set out yes- 
terday for Albany & is to return with all speed after hav- 
ing made the Gov'"^ resolution known of paying the whole 

THE GOLDEN PAPER&-1743-1747 401 

pay on certain conditions which if comply'd with must 
put an end to all the Disorders there & quiet the Country 
for the future. I was before so uneasy as to the mutiny 
that I had thoughts of sending for you & the Children 
to toun & therefor you will not wonder that I so sud- 
denly changed my resolution of the time Jenny Alsie ex- 
pected to go on board And you must keep your self & 
the Children in readiness to come away for this place 
in case you have any account of the Mutineers marching 
dounwards from Albany for they have openly threatened 
to take their pay in plunder wherever they go & if once 
they begin such kind of work none can tell what other 
outrages they may be guilty off. The only doubt which 
now remains is whether they will entirely comply with 
the conditions proposed for if they do not the Gov"" can 
not justify his paying them any thing & certainly he 
will not whatever be the consequence. I send Cadwalla- 
der his Commission along with this & he must hold him- 
self in readiness to go up about a week hence at which 
time he will receive his Instructions & I expect to bring 
them my self & give him what further private advice may 
be necessary. The Gov'" has receiv'd an address from 
the Corporation of New York with complements to him 
on his administration an account of which I expect will be 
in the Newspapers & has made a good deal of talk in this 
Toun being so very different from what comes from the 
assembly. What is remarkable in this address is that 
it comes from the Magistrates chosen by the People an- 
nually & the Mayor who is apointed by the Gov'" went 
out of toun & did not attend & they in the opposition 
made the Deputy Mayor Drunk that he could not attend 
the common council at the time they had agreed to de- 
liver their address 

I have been the more easy in the sudden resolution 
of not suffering Jenny & Alsie to go up at this time be- 
cause I could by no means go with them the affair of the 
Mutiny making my stay at this time absolutely necessary 
& they must have gon up without any company in the 
sloop & by their stay I have good reason to hope to go 

402 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

with them Besides that I think it hardly possible but the 
Dispatches from England must reach us in a few days & 
you must be sensible of what consequence it may be to 
my self to be here at that time. You must not talk any 
where of the apprehensions I am under from the Mutiny. 
Jenny & Alsie are both abroad & since I told Curtise 
that they are not to go with him & the wind being fair 
he will not stay for their writing which I hitherto trusted 
to & therefor you must excuse your not being informed 
of all that perhaps you expected from them. I cannot for- 
bear repeating to you to take care of your self that noth- 
ing may allay our pleasure at meeting I am 

Your most affectionate 
Cadwallader Golden 
New York June 7"^ 

What is don with respect to the Soldiers at Albany is 
with the Unanimous consent of the Council & perhaps 
the only thing that has been don so for some time 


Mrs Golden at 


From Thomas Osborne 


My very good friend M"" Peter Collinson, was so kind 
as to give me the Offer of the History of the five Indian 
Nations, And knowing Your great good Character In- 
duced me to print it, And I do not doubt, but with Your 
Assistance I shall meet with Success in it, I have by M'" 
CoUinson's recommendation, sent fifty of them to M*" 
James Read at Philadelphia, with some other Book's 
which I should take as a favour if you would recommend, 
And If I shou'd find Encouragement, I should be glad if 
you would putt me in a way of Trading in Your Part of 
the World. 

If you have any Thoughts of making any further Edi- 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 403 

tion to the Five Indian Nation's, I should be glad to have 
it as soon as possible, and I shall be very ready to give 
you Encouragement, in Proportion I shall receive from 
the former volume, but should be glad if you would bring 
it as low as possible, and add some of your Neighbouring 
Nations to it. 

Generall Oglethorpe has promised to give me great 
help for the other Indian Nation's, and he was so kind 
as to over look your Manuscript, and Approved it very 
much, I am 

Y"" most obed^: Humble Serv^ 
Tho: Osborne 
June 12^ 1747 

From Peter Collinson on Same Letter as Above '■ 

M'" Osborn has presented you with Twelve Coppys which 
I shall send ^ first ship 

y* P Collinson 


The Honourable Cadwallader Golden Esq^ 

at New York 
m Gapt Tiffin 
via Pensilvania 

From Governor George Clinton 

Fort Frederick 8*^ July 1747 

I have had y'' devil & aU to pay here with the new 
Levyes & Indians as to y^ first it was but last Monday y* 
I could get y** Captains into any manner of agreement 
Severall insisting y^ I had received orders from home to 
pay them y^ first two Months Musters was their due 
according to y^ rules of y^ Army & abundance more, 

404 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174^-1747 

Honyman at the head, they are at last convinced & are 
preparing their Muster Rolls for payment but when I 
sett out is uncertain but intend as soon as possible I can 
in order to meet y® Assembly in order engage our neigh- 
bours to drive y® French back & if possible to take or de- 
molish Crown Point. 

Coir Johnson came down last Thursday & with him 
Lucas, Moses & about 20 more Indians, who spoke to 
me & next day cheafly insisting to know y® meaning why 
the Army is not arrived as I assured them last meeting, 
that I had drawn them into an Indian War & they did 
not see any Force I had to Saive them from being dis- 
troyed by their inveterate Enimie y® French & their In- 
dians & a great deal more, which I was to answer on 
Saterday but hearing Henrick was coming doun I deferr'd 
it to hear what he had to say & answer them at Once, 
finding Henrick did not come, I sent an order to Capf* 
Mackintosh to send a Guard with him & on Monday in 
y® afternoon he came with about 20 More, and Yesterday 
morning I had about 30 of them in my little parlour just 
over y® Kitchen & a Monstrous hot day, they came about 
^ past nine & did not leave me till nigh One, Coll' John- 
son told me over night that Henrick proposed to be very 
loud & Speak very plainly to me as if I had deceived 
them, upon Johnson & Stevens telling him it would 
not be proper before the others he promised not, but to 
tell me my own in privitt, but after I deliver'd my an- 
swer, notwithstanding his promise he began and was 
exceeding angry indeed & very impertinant y* I was 
hardly able to bear him, he call'd upon y® Mohawks & 
told them I had drawn them & him into y® War & y* he 
was come down to see y^ Army, instead of seeing y'^ 
He found they were betrayed, y*" the French no sooner 
proposed anything but they Set about it & then hit 
me in y® Teeth of Sarahtoga & severall other things 
& our not making any head against this Army, As 
for his part he would leave his Castle & take all his 
people with him & so we parted in a sort of a pett, I told 
him I was come up to settle the Army & to give him all 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 405 

y^ assistance I could & would have assistance from my 
Neighbours if I found there was occasion for it but all 
did not signifie, about six a Clock in y® Evining Aaron 
Stevens came up to me to tell me Henrick wanted to 
Speak with me in privitt I told him as he had Said in 
publick what he was to say to me in privitt, I would have 
nothing to say to him but at last I thought it as well to 
hear what he had to Say, but y*^ Scene was greatly 
changed for he was all goodness & we parted the best 
friends y" ever was, and did everything but hug & kiss 
& he was quite sober as do them justice they every one 
was, I was forced to fill y® dogs pockitts, They all leave 
me God be praised this afternoon, & then I shall sett to 
my other affairs, I have given orders to Johnson to go 
directly to work to build a Fort at Conojohare & this I 
ordered before Henrick asked it. 

I am glad to hear Miss Golden is quite recovered at 
York & hope Mrs Golden & family are well We all here 
joyn in Gomplm*^ and am 

Your very humble Ser^ 

G Glinton 
I have just received an Acct y*" Connecticut Governm*- 
has Marched 400 men to this Frontier & New Hampshire 
to 700, & Mr Shirley has ordered his Troops to assist us 
in case the Stroke should come this way, expecting y* 
Same in return & perticulary to assist y^ Mohawks with 
Men & build Forts for them at y^ Same time is endeav- 
ouring to fling all this upon me, something must be done 
soon & it is absolutely Necessary for me to meet y^ As- 
sembly to recommend tho' I dont expect much, tho it is 
absolutely necessary for them to do something now or 
niver, for we durst not pretend to send out any party 
unless a very strong one and we have not been able to 
get any intelligence from Sarahtoga since these people 
went & most people are of an opinion that they are build- 
ing a Magazine for stores & provisions for their Sculking 
Partyes at Carrying place That what I have to say must 

406 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

require your assistance & I desire you will be at your Sons 
House by the 16th In^*^ when I shall call to take you in, 
it is unavoidable I therefore desire you will not faile, 


C'onwal" Golden Esq^ 
To be left at his Sons. 

Gov. Clinton's Meeting With the Indians 

July 16 1747 

ATT A MEETING of the Mohawks with his Ecel?'^ 
BROTHER we come down as a Guard to our good friend 
ColP Johnson, and finding you here were very glad of the 
Opportunity, of seeing, & speaking to you. for there 
has been a time, & not long since that we Were afraid 
of Seeing, or Speaking to our Brethren. & that Occasioned 
by the doings of some Vile people as we are now sensible, 
but their fears are all vanished, & drove away by the 
strong Assurances You have given us Last Summer, & 
ever since of your good Meaning towards us 

BROTHER you told us Last Fall that you Were at 
War with a Cruel Enemy the French, who daily mur- 
dered Your people round about. Upon which we heart- 
ily renewed the old Covenant, or Agreement between you, 
& us, in so much that whatever Good or Evil happens, 
to the one. Happens to the other. You gave us then the 
Ax, to use against your Enemies & told us, you Expected 
soon to destroy Canada with your Army, we took up the 
Ax, & promised to use it against your Enemies, in Con- 
junction w"" you 

BROTHER we have since sent out by Coll° John- 
son to Canada, to Annoy the Enemy. & get Prisoners, 
to give us News of all their Motions, while your Army 
might be getting ready. All this we have done to shew 
our heartiness to Join & assist you, even with the loss of 
Severall of our Chief & Principle Warriours, who dyed 
lately for their Broth" Cause Wherefore BROTHER we 
expect you will not make peace upon any terms Until 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 407 

we fully Revenge the deaths of all our Brethren which 
we are ready, & Have been this long time to do had we 
but your Assistance. 

But BROTHER we are afraid you are not in Earnest, 
for no other reason, then that we dont see you do any- 
thing with your Army as we Expected, & hop'd for 

BROTHER we are at present oblig'd to Acquaint 
You, that our Brethren the Conajoharees are much Ex- 
posed to the Enemy, wherefore desire earnestly that you 
would Immediately fortifie them, & when that is done 
thy nor We cannot possible do, without a Number of 
Brisk Men, to be ready always to Jump out, & Join Us 
in pursueing & destroying the Enemy, whenever thy In- 
vade you or Us for which purpose if You allow us but 
Men to be ready at a Call, we will engage to perform. 

BROTHER that will be the only best means to Satis- 
fie all our friends, & AlUes, the far distant Nations (who 
daily flock to us, & offer their Service when we Call upon 
them) that we are Capable of defending ourselves & An- 
noying our Enemy in some Measure, Untill the Army 
may be ready to March, which is what we most Earnestly 
wish for 

BRETHREN I am pleas'd with your Gratitude of CoU° 
Johnson in Conducting him to Albany, & thank God who 
has preserved our Lives to this day, & given us an Op- 
portunity of Speaking face to face: 'tis true I did not 
expect to Meet you here, but am glad of the Occasion 
to Commend your Fidelity, & good Service since you 
Joyn'd us against our Enemies; Your fears are now 
over, & you may be for ever assur'd of my Good inten- 
tions towards you, do you but Proceed Briskly as you 
have began, & you may depend upon all the Encourage- 
ment, & Protection in my Power; I am now Come to 
put Our People in as good Orders as I can, either to 
Receive or March Out against the Enemy, & as I pro- 
pose never to deny you assistance, in Return I expect 
you will be harty to go out With us When call'd upon. — I 
am much Concern'd at the Loss of some of your Principle 
Men, & hope by our Mutuall Assistance we Shall get Sat- 

408 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

isfaction for them before we bury the Hatchet — Our 
Brethren the Conajoharees you say are Expos'd, I have 
Given Orders to Coll° Johnson to fortefie their Castle 
as soon as Possible, & shall order a sufficient Number of 
Men for their defence, which may Convince you & all 
our Friends, & Allies, that I am in Earnest, & you may be 
Assur'd your Safety shall be my Particular Study. Breth- 
ren my Resolution is stedfast, & am Now bringing my 
People to be ready to Join yours, & act as one Body, and 
Expect you will use your Endeavours to the same Effect 
among your People, of whatever Nation, that we may 
live & dye together — I most earnestly recommend to you, 
not to Listen to any Reports or any thing said to you, 
beside what you Hear from ColP Johnson, whom you 
may depend shall repeat to You all the Intelligence I 
can give him in Return I expect you Will make report 
to him, of every thing you hear as Well what Relates 
to your own Affairs, as concerning the Enemy & their 
Motions, that he may Inform me. Thus it is to live & 
act Like Brothers, & Convince the World we are insep- 


BROTHER as to your desireing us to listen to Our 
Good friend Coll° Johnson, we are oblig'd to You for it, 
& in Answer thereto, must tell you that for these twelve 
Months past, & better we have Minded nor listned to no 
Body Else; neither do we intend it; And BROTHER you 
may depend upon it, that whatever News we have among 
Us, shall be immediately brought to him. In order that He 
may Acquaint you of it. In Return we Expect you will 
continue to do the same. As You have don this year 
past. & then the World shall be Convinced that we are 
one Body, & inseperable. 

Copy of the Chief Justice Plan July 29 171^1 

[In Colden's handwriting] 

If the Fort at Croun Point be to be attacked this 
season The Forces intended for that Enterprise should 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174S-1747 409 

be on their March thither on or before the 1st of Sept" 

It should be given out that the Design is against Mon- 
treal & to be carried on by the way of the lake Champlain 
& by the way of the lake Ontario & so doun St Lawrence 
of The Massachusets bay the 1500 men & of Connecticut 
the 1000 with a body of 6 or 700 Indians to go against 
Crown point this it is thought will be a force suficient 
for this purpose The New York Levies with 2 or 300 
Indians to proceed to Oswego & to attack the French 
Forts on the lake Ontario The Advantages of this 
Method are evident as it will oblige the French to divide 
their Forces or constrain them to stay at Montreal & 
thereby greatly facilitate the reduction of Croun point 

Taking Croun point will drive the Ennemy farther 
from our Borders & incourage the Indians to act more 
vigorously agt the French & their Indian dependents 

Destroying the French Forts on the lake Ontario will 
break the Course of their trade & be a means to bring the 
far nations of Indians into a dependance on the Brittish 
Interest & by proper managem^ into a war against the 
French The consequence of which would be the driving 
the French into their Touns & destroying most of their 

The Expence of each of their levies to be bom by the 
respective Colonies 

Cadwallader Colden to Benjamin Franklin 

■ New York Aug 3^ 1747 

Baxt-ers [book?] was gon so much out of my memory 
that I could not for some time recollect any thing of it 
I cannot now recollect whether I sent back your observa- 
tions on it if I have not they are among my papers which 
I carried to the Country & are now there I can remem- 
ber that when I look*- into that book I thought that he 

410 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

did not understand the subject on which he treated as 
appear'd to me from several passages in the book. As 
soon as I return home I shall look carefully for the 
papers you sent but what they were I do not at present 
remember please therefor to assist my memory. 

Some Gent" here are desirous to go on Electrical ex- 
periments We hear that you have the whole apparatus 
sent over from England They would purchase the like 
if they can be made at Philadelphia from what you have 
sent to you. Please to let me know whether any of your 
Artists can do it & what may be the price. I am 
S'' Your most obliged humble servant 

Cadwallader Golden. 

From Peter Collinson 

LoND Aug: 3:1747. 
My Dear Friend 

I have taken the first opportunity to Send you a 
Sample of your Indian History the Dedication was made 
without my Leave or consent w''^ makes mee uneasie, I 
was out of Town &, M"" Osbourn was in hast to publish 
& so it happen'd or Else the ^son I should have Ghoosen 
would have been Lord Lonsdale 

Pray does M"" Barclay continue amongst the Indians, 
would he not be a proper ^son to give us some account 
of Their notions of y" Diety & Futurity ; who can enough 
admire his Ghristian Resolution the Almighty power 
that has Kindled such a Noble Ardour on his Soul, no 
doubt will Bless his Pious Endeavours Some Hints of 
his proceedings & Success of his Mission will be very 
Acceptable to Mee the progress of Piety & Vertue fills 
my Mind with Joye unspeakable 

I was agreeably delighted with thine of may the 11"" 
& I hope Bryants arrival will Establish my Gredit — I am 
not yett able to Send any remarks on Thy Gause of 
Gravitation in Short I find the more it is Examined the 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174S-1747 411 

more they are at a Loss what too offer & so in Short Say 
nothing — but tho Wee are Silent yett the oppertunities 
I have Lately had of Sending it to most of the Capital 
places & universities in Europe — I ^swade my Self Some 
or other will at Last Saye Something for it or against 
It I communicated thy Last Scheme to our Principle 
People in that Branch of Science & from one of them 
I Receed the Enclosed — but it is now with M"" Jones, 
what I hear further I will Report with Candour 

Butt I omitted giveing a hint of the Malevolent Tem- 
per of a Certain great Mathemati'' amongst us on Read- 
ing thy Tract on Gravitation — He Sayes — 

I am amazed how this Book got to New York, for I 
am satisfied it came originally from Hence and was once 
under a Cover with other things — & the pacquet has 
been Gutted — 

This poor Man is a Little touched in his pericranium 
So That, I hope will Excuse Him 

Our people at the Helm are so taken up with Raiseing 
Supples for the Warr & Choosing a New Parliam^ that 
they hav't time to Think of you 

As I told you before — your Gov" recommending you 
to his Majesties Favour I take to be Meer Amusement 
When any place becomes Vacant in y"" Govern^ or any 
other Government or in the Customes, that is fitt for you 
or y'" Son then Try y'' Great Man & See the Effect of his 
promises — He finds He cannot do without you & now he 
carresses you with Fair Speeches, but pray remember his 
first behaviour then you was not worthy his Least Notice 
— This you may Excuse but cannot forget So you will 
keep in with Him as He does with you for Interest, & 
this is the faith that is to be Kept with Courtiers — untill 
they appear of a Different Cast of Mind & then Wee will 
receive them into our Bossoms. 

Your Good Broth"" has two Sons HopefuU men now 
in Town, He reserves a Little Money in my Hands to 
Supply them if they Want as I had a very Safe opper- 
tunity as I thought by Cover" Balcher in his pacquet I 

412 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

sent you your Brothers Discharge which I hope will 
come Safe 

If you write by bitts & starts so must I or Else not 
write at all, as Such you have the Sincere Endeavours 

of y"" Affectionate fr^ 


M*" Jones Sends mee this Short Observation 

M'' Golden is Mistaken in every part of his Conjectures, 
He mistakes Doc"" Bradley as to the principle 


Cadwalladek Golden Esq^ 

New York. 

[Copy of same letter as the one above but with an 
additional P. S. as follows.] 

From another Person I received this — 
I am thankfull for M'" Coldens Paper, but to consider it 
thro' out will take more Time than I can conveniently 
spare, I shall only observe to you that I think he has 
mistaken Doc^ Bradley, and therefore charged him with 
an Error in the first Foundation of his Theory, and which 
it appears to me that M*" Golden has fallen into, from 
his not considering, that the Parallax is either insensible 
or very inconsiderable in different Parts of the Earths 
Orbit, his whole Objection and which he calls Doc"" 
Bradleys Slip is entirely founded on this — 

Oct^ 20th 1747 
I rece*^ your Last with the Queries which I shall answer 
in Due Time I have yours of July 24*^ under Gonsidera- 
tion I wish you could Garry the point you Wish but the 
Secretarys of State are to taken up with the Embaras- 
ments of our ^sent uncertain Situation that Little notice 
can be taken of Golony affairs 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174^-1747 413 

Cadwallader Golden to Mrs. Golden 

New York Aug 3*^ 1747 
My Dear 

Tho' you have not wrote to me I cannot let this op- 
portunity slip without a line to you & tho' I cannot give 
you any particular information either of my stay or 
return We have had several meetings in Council but I 
cannot say that we have made any great advance in our 
resolutions nor what is like to be the event but we can- 
not continue long under uncertainties but must resolve 
something In the mean time I can assure you that I 
am in perfect health Many Children dye at this time 
but I hear of nothing unusual among elderly people or 
those grown up We have no kind of News from any 
part They seem to be more quiet at Albany than for 
some time past. D'" Bard's son is very ill of a lingering 
fever. Pray my Dear take care of your self & let me have 
frequently or as often as you can the pleasure to hear 
that you are in health & cheerfull I am pleas'd with 
what you have order'd for Alice If that do not remove 
the uneasiness at her Stomack I would have her try the 
Tar Water at night & to ride out daily before noon while 
it is cool. James Monel carried up what I directed for 
James McNeal five pills are to be made of every half 
dram & he is to take at first two every night & increase 
the number till they keep his body open If they purge 
above 3 times in the 24 hours he must stop & lessen the 
number of pills He is to drink a Decoction of Pine tops 
after them All our acquaintance are well 

Your most affectionate 
Cadwallader Colden. 


Mrs. Golden 


414 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

From Benjamin Franklin 

Philad^ Aug' 6 1747. 

The Observations I sent you on Baxter's Book were 
wrote on a Sheet or two of Paper in Folio. He builds 
his whole Argument on the Vis Inertias of Matter: I 
boldly deny'd the Being of such a Property, and endeav- 
our'd to demonstrate the contrary. If I succeeded, all 
his Edifice falls of course, unless some other way Sup- 
ported. I desir'd your Sentiments of my Argument. 
You left the Book for me at N York, with a few Lines 
containing a short Censure of the Author; and that your 
Time had been much taken up in Town with Business, 
but you was now about to retire into the Country, where 
you should have Leisure to peruse my Papers; since 
which I have heard nothing from you relating to them. 
I hope you will easily find them, because I have lost my 
rough Draft; but don't give yourself much Trouble about 
them; for if they are lost, 'tis really no great Matter. 

I am glad to hear that some Gentlemen with you are 
enclin'd to go on Electrical Experiments. I am satisfy'd 
we have Workmen here, who can make the Apparatus 
as well to the full as that from London; and they will 
do it reasonably. By the next Post I will send you their 
Computation of the Expence: If you shall conclude to 
have it done here, I will oversee the Work, and take 
Care that every Part be done to perfection, as far as the 
Nature of the Thing admits. 

Instead of the Remainder of my Rough Minutes on 
Electricity, (which are indeed too rough for your View) 
I send you enclos'd Copies of two Letters I lately wrote 
to M'' CoUinson on that Subject. When you have perus'd 
them, please to leave them with M"" Nichols, who I shall 
desire to forward them ^ next Post to a Friend in Con- 

I am glad your Philosophical Treatise meets with so 
good Reception in England. M'' Collinson writes the 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 415 

same Things to M'' Logan ; and M"" Rose of Virginia writes 
me, that he had receiv'd Accounts from his Correspond- 
ents to the same Purpose. I long to see some of their 
Observations on it. I perceive by the Papers, that they 
have also lately reprinted in London, your History of 
the Five Nations in 8^° If 'tis come to your Hands, I 
should be glad to have a Sight of it. 

M'" Logan, on a Second Reading of your Piece on 
Fluxions, lately, is satisfied, that some of the Faults he 
formerly objected to it, were his own, and owing to his 
too little Attention at that Time; he desires me to tell 
you so, and that he ask your Pardon. Upon what M" 
Collinson wrote, he again undertook to read and consider 
your Philosophical Treatise : I have not seen him Since, 
but I shall soon, and will send you his Sentiments. I 
am, Sir, with great Respect, 

Your most humble Serv* 

B Franklin 

The Answer from the River Indians to the Five Nations, 
to a Message Deliver' d to Them Aug^^ 10 17/f.7 

UNCLE, I went some time ago to acquaint you of the 
loss of one of the Principal of our Young Men, Kill'd 
by the Enemy ; & in answer you inform'd me by a string 
of Wampum, that you had lost by the Enemy fourteen 
of your People, where of four were of your Chiefs. I 
thank you for this Information. . . . 

UNCLE You further tell me, that you remember 
about three years ago, I came to treat w"" you, at your 
Castle, & y" desired, that I would think of the old Agree- 
ment made by our Forefathers; which was that if any 
thing happened to the One, it happened to the other, 
& that we might live & dye together; now I thank you 
for this Information. . . . 

UNCLE You also tell me, that as we are now Joined 
in the War with our Brethren the English, & having 

416 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

lost Severall of our people on both sides, You are fully- 
resolved & determined to fall on the Enemy with all your 
might now I thank you for this Information. . . . 

UNCLE, again you tell me, that having considered 
Seriously of my Message & also acquainted me w"" your 
loss you desire me to go on with all my Force against y® 
Enemy & by a Belt of Wampum you assure me that you 
will always keep up to the old Agreement made by our 
Forefathers, & that we are inseparable, till death ; I thank 
you for this Information. . . . 

UNCLE, You tell me, you desire me for fear of a 
mischance to wear a rid string, tyed to the Crown of my 
Head that we may know one another in the Wood Now 
I thank you for this Information. . . . 

Answer to Another Lately Rec^ 

UNCLE, you tell me you sent your regards to me 
certifying me of the Old Agreement entered into by our 
Forefathers & that the Messages from each other per- 
fectly harmonise & are one: I thank you that you tell 
me so: 

UNCLE, you tell me your Town is full of evil : & all 
besmear'd with Blood: you have done kindly to inform 
me of this 

UNCLE, you tell me that wherever you see y^ French- 
mans Son, [meaning French Indians in general] you 
make War upon him ; & wherever you see y^ French man 
himself, you make War upon him. I thank you for this 

UNCLE, You tell me, wherever I see the French 
Mans Son I must make War upon him ; & that wherever 
I meet w"" the Frenchman I must make War upon him 
I thank you for this Message. 

UNCLE, In answer to my enquiry how we should 
prevent Mistakes in our Wars, You tell me, if I see any 
Body I must ask Who are you & if he presently Answers 
I am from Conajoharee then you must Smoke together: 
but if Shall say I am a Frenchman, then you must imme- 
diately fight him. I thank you for this. 

You tell me you have already sent this Message to 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 417 

Our Friends as farr as to the Shouwunnooes, & that you 
Now send it to me here at Wunnuhhqtuhook. I tliank 
you for this Information 

Cadmallader Colden to Mrs Golden 
My Dear New York Aug 12* 1747 

I was at West Chester when yours came to my lodg- 
ing whither I went on Munday morning & return'd yes- 
terday. Betty & the Children are all very well She 
poor Woeman is very big but as well otherwise as can 
be expected. I have not time to write largely Only I 
must tell you that my return home cannot be so soon as 
I expected last time I wrote & now I cannot set any 
time for it The Gov'" has sent an express to Boston after 
the arival of the Man of War from England When that 
express returns perhaps we may have more News than 
now is publick Catherwood may be soon expected by 
a ship which was to go to Cape Breton soon after this 
man of War sail'd which is come in. Next time I write 
probably I can tell you more News Remember me af- 
fectionately to our Children I am in perfect health tho 
the Weather is extremely hot 

Your most affectionate 
Cadwallader Colden. 
I hear of nothing that need give me any reason to be 
uneasy but rather otherwise 


Mrs Colden at 


Clinton to the Corporation of the City of New York 

[In the handwriting of Cadwallader Colden] 

As the ease & safety of the people of this Province has 
been my constant care you may be assured that I would 
have cheerfully complied with your request at this time 
without delay but the present Disposition of the Forces 

418 THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 

at Albany requires some time to consider in what manner 
it can be don without prejudice to his Majesty's Service 
As soon as it can be you may assure your selves it shall 
be complied with. 

Gent" You know what difficulties I have had to strugle 
with for twelve months past the manner therefor wherein 
you express your Sentiments of my administration can- 
not but be very acceptable to me at this time as you are 
the representatives of the Metropolis of this Province 
& the seat of Government & annually chosen by the Peo- 
ple I have reason to think that you truely represent them 
in your Sentiments & since your doing it at this time 
cannot fail of being of some use to his Majesty's service 
I return you my thanks for this address. 

From Benjamin Franklin 

I am glad the electrical Observations please you. I 
leave them in your hands another Week. Our Workmen 
have undertaken the Electrical Apparatus, and I believe 
will do it extremely well: It being a new Job they can- 
not Say exactly what their Work will come to, but they 
will charge reasonably when done, and they find what 
Time it has taken. I suppose the whole will not exceed 
ten or twelve Pounds. — 

I send you Enclos'd the Advertisement of the History 
of the 5 Nations — 

We are told here, that Gov. Belcher has brought 
Orders to disband the Forces raised for the Expedition 
against Canada; you know before this Time whether 
this is true, and whether the Expedition is postpon'd 
only, or the Thoughts of it entirely laid aside. 

I am, Sir, with great Respect 

Your most hum^ Serv* 
Philad^ Aug\ 13. 1747 B Franklin 


The honbie. Cad* Coldbn Esq'" New York 
Free B Franklin 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 419 

BY the Commrs for executing the OflSce 
of Lord High admiral of 
Great Britain and Ireland & c^. 

TO The President of the Council of New York for the 
Time being. 

By Virtue of the Power and Authority to us given by 
Act of Parliament made in the first Year of the Reign 
of King William and Queen Mary, entitled an Act for 
abrogating the oaths of Supremacy, and Allegiance, and 
appointing other Oaths; We do hereby empower, and 
depute you, to administer the Oaths and Test appointed 
by Act of Parliament to the Honble George Clinton Esq'' 
before you deliver to him the Commission herewith sent 
you, appointing him admiral of the White Squadron of 
His Majesty's Fleet; and you are to return to this Board 
his Subscription of the said Test, together with a Cer- 
tificate under your hand of his having taken the said 
Oaths. Given under our hands and the seal of the Office 
of admiralty this 14^^ Day of August 1747. 

Verb Beauclerk 
[George] Anson 
W[elbore] Ellis 

By Command of their Lordships. 
E. J. Clbvland. 

From John Bartram 

August y" 16*^ 1747. 
Esteemed Friend 

I have received thy kind letter of July y® 27 by y* 
hands of our worthy friend B. F. I have nothing new to 
acquaint thee with I have received two letters from 
Gronovius concerning several Curiosities which I sent 
to him he mentions A Curious book which he hath sent 
me which he calls y'' Fauna medica wrote by Lineus but 
I have not received it yet — y^ worm seed y^ Docter Bard 

420 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

tould thee of is what is called chenopodium Botris or 
oak of Jerusalem it grows very naturaly to y^ southward ; 
if thee hath it not I can easily put A vew seeds in A 
letter whereby thee may soon raise enough I want some 
seeds of y^ arbor Vita & y^ paper birch which grow on 
y'' katts kill mountains y^ seeds of both is ripe near y® 
same time — I have delayed longer writeing to thee in 
hopes of A ship coming from London whereby I might 
perhaps have picked out some curious observations from 
some of my letters that might have rendered this letter 
more agreeable: however I hope thee will believe that 
I am thy Sincear 

Friend John Bartram 



Cadwalader Golden 

Committee of Council Report, August 26, 174-7 
At a Committee of Council 

Mr. Livingston 
M'- Chief Justice 
M*" Horsmanden 
M"" Murray 
M"" Moore. 

May it please Your Exellency 

Your Exellency was pleased on Saturday last to de- 
liver some Particulars in Writing to the Council, for their 
Consideration, Which were referred to a Committee of 
the whole Council or any five of them. The Council met 
the same Evening, & not having had Copies, were of 
Opinion they should be made out next Morning & de- 
liver'd to the Members, that they might consider of the 
several matters contained therein, against their next 
meeting; which was appointed for the night following, 
when the Committee again met, but as most of the Com- 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 421 

mittee did not receive their Copies till the meeting, They 
had not a sufficient time for Consideration, but however 
the Committee entered into the Matters referred to 
them; & were all of Opinion (at least no Opposition was 
made) that it would be necessary before they could form 
a Judgment, to beg some further information of your 
Exellency, as to the three first points, & accordingly 
directed M'' Horsmanden their Chairman, to apply to 
your Excellency for it, who return*^ us for Answer, That 
"You have sufficient Authority for what you said in that 
Paper, & that you are only accountable to his Majesty 
for what you do. And that whatever your Exellency 
thinks proper to communicate to the Council, The Coun- 
cil are to take it upon your Word." 

Upon this Answer, We humbly beg leave to observe 
to your Exellency how widely you have mistaken the 
Intention of the Committee, into whose Thoughts it 
never entered to call your Exellency to account, We 
knew your Exellency is accountable to his Majesty, 
& as our Duty is to his Majesty we leave it. But surely 
S"" if the Council, or the Committee of the whole Council 
conceive, that there is any obscurity in what your Ex- 
ellency delivers, or that you are able to furnish them 
with further Helps, to inform their Judgements, upon 
things referred to them, it is proper for them to apply to 
your Exellency; & this application, as the Committee 
conceives, can in no sense be misconstrued, or misrep- 
resented as a Calling your Exellency to account: & to 
clear our Selves from any misrepresentation of that kind. 
We take the Liberty to let your Exellency know the rea- 
son on which we proceed. 

Your Exellency says "You likewise must observe to 
the Council, that you can not any longer find provisions 
for the Forces at Albany, either of the Independent Com- 
panies, nor New Levies, nor continue the Expence the 
Crown has been put to, for securing the Fidelity of the 
Indians, or for sending out parties of them, either as 
Out-Scouts or to annoy the Enemy." 

As your Exellency has for a considerable time past 

422 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174^-1747 

found Provisions for some of the New Levies at Albany, 
not raised in this Province, & put the Crown to a great 
Expence, for securing the Fidelity of the Indians, it was 
natural for the Committee to desire to be informed by 
your Exellency, whether you had Orders from his Majesty 
to decline it now; for if your Exellency has not 
been disavowed in what you have done, the same Rea- 
sons which at first prevailed with you to undertake it, 
might be of Weight with you to continue it, which we 
humbly conceive was a good Reason for the Committee, 
to pray for some further Light, to guide their Judgments, 
& without which, it is hardly possible for the Committee 
to form any Opinion. 

Upon the whole, the Committee are humbly of Opin- 
ion as to the first point, that as M*" Shirley & M"" Knowles 
are to meet together, to advise as to the Disposition of 
the Forces levied on the Expedition against Canada, It 
would be advisable for your Excellency to write to them 
in the most pressing terms representing the danger that 
would attend the removal of all the Levies, from this 
Province, & we make no doubt but that on a full Rep- 
resentation it will plainly appear to them, to be so evi- 
dently for his Majesty's Service, to continue at least 
the Levies raised in this Province, that we cannot doubt 
from those Gentlemens Capacity, & Knowledge, they 
will be of Opinion to continue them in this Province, & 
dispose of them in such Manner as is of most advantage 
to his Majesty's Service. 

As to the second & third Points, your ExeUency 
may observe the Committee cannot come to an Opinion 
without further Light. 

As to the fourth, your Exellency says, "you expect 
that great Numbers of the distant Indians, are now with 
Coll Johnson, their meeting with a dissapointment in 
their Expectations at this time may be of the most fatal 

The Committee beg leave to observe, that as your 
Exellency must have expected those Indians to be now 
with Co" Johnson, They can not but think your Exel- 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 423 

lency had before made suitable provisions for that Event, 
& that therefore they cannot meet with or dissapoint- 
ment of their Expectations. 

As to the fifth & last point, respecting the State of 
the Garrison at Saraghtoga, the Committee are at a loss 
what to advise, they being altogether strangers to any 
thing relating to it. Your Excellency not having vouch- 
safed to communicate to the Council any particulars 
upon that Head. 

Before we conclude, we are under a necessity to ob- 
serve to your Exellency, that this Day at 10 o'Clock in 
the Morning, was appointed to prepare a Report upon 
the several particulars referred to us; The Gentlemen 
who have the Honour to be most in your Excellency's 
Confidence, & from whom we might have expected some 
Light, did not attend, upon which the Committee were 
obliged to adjourn 'till this afternoon at 4 of the Clock, 
with directions that the absent Members should be sum- 
moned, who were accordingly summoned, & one still 
absent; The committee therefore humbly submit this 
their Report to your Exellency, as the best they are able 
to make under their present disadvantages 

By order of the Council 
Dan: Horsmanden. Chairman 
Council Chamber 
City of New York 
26 August 1747. 

Cadwallader C olden to Mrs C olden 

New York Munday Aug 24 1747 
My Dear 

Inclosed is a letter from Betty which gives me a good 
deal of concern Lady Waren goes out to morrow to 
see her & I have sent out a letter to Greenwich to go 
by her I heartily wish one of the Girls were with her 
but I have wrote to her of Johny's being ill & of the 

424 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

danger of the Measles getting into the family & the dis- 
tress in that case you must be under at this time when 
it is hardly possible I can be at home or out of toun 
the publick affairs are become so pressing I have my 
health perfectly well I send up the check linnen & 
sadle lace & have sent out for Sole leather If it can 
be got it will go up I have a letter from Cad by an 
express & one to his Brother which I shall send up I 
am much hurried if I can get a litle more time before 
the sloop goes I may enlarge further The sole leather is 
got & goes up 131/2 pound at Is ^ lb. marked c c ISy^ in 
chalk I shall be very uneasy to hear from you on ac- 
count of the Measles M"" Tucker M""" Hanson M""" Tucker 
go up with this & propose to stay till M*" & M""^ NichoUs 
go next trip with Courtse You know we are obliged to 
take all the notice we can of that family & as I believe 
you will do it with pleasure I hope it will give you some 
diversion in my absence. Affairs draw to a Crisis they 
cannot continue long in the state they are in but I can- 
not be more particular I write some News to Alex"" 
which I have no time to write to you 
My Love to all the Children 

Your most affectionate 
Cadwallader Colden. 


Mrs Golden at 


From Benjamin Franklin 

Philad* Sept. 24, 1747. 

I have one of your Histories come in among some 
Books Sent me -'^M'' Strahan. But Osborne I understand 
has sent 50 to M'^ Read ^ Recommendation of M*" CoUin- 
son. I should sell them more readily than he can, I 
imagine; and he talks of putting them into my hands. 
Are any of them arriv'd in N York? 

THE GOLDEN PAPER&-1743-1747 425 

Enclos'd are two Letters for you. No others are yet 
come to hand ; but perhaps we shall find more when the 
Ship is unloaded; for M"" CoUinsons Letters are often in 
Trunks among Goods, &c. — I should be glad to know if 
M'^ Darling, by whom I wrote a Line to you, had my 
Paper on Electricity, I am 


Your most hum' Serv* 

B. Franklin 

I Indorsed] 

The hon^ie Cadwalader Golden Esq 

New York 
B Franklin 

Cadwallader Colden to Sir Peter Warren 

New York Sept' 26 1747 

I hope you believe that none has with more pleasure 
heard the Accounts of your repeated Successes in the 
Service of your King & Country than I have & of the 
honours you have receiv'd from both as due to your 
Merit I heartily congratulate with you on this subject 
& in the many opportunities you are like to have of dis- 
covering your abilities & thereby of fixing the Love of 
your Country & the esteem of your King on the surest 
foundation that of true heroic Merit. 

I am sorry that I cannot send you accounts from this 
part of the World that can in any manner correspond 
with the Actions with which you have fiU'd all our news 
papers It is to be fear'd that every thing from America 
will appear too much otherwise except what has been 
done by your Nephew Col Johnson who by his Negocia- 
tions & Interest with the Indians has exceeded all our 
Expectations & has with indefatigable labour & pains don 
as much for the safety of the Brittish Colonies in north 

426 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

America as any one man in them It is with pleasure 
I think that I have been of some use to him but other- 
wise as to my own part I am heartily sorry that I have 
been obliged to have any share in the publick affairs at 
this time & which I pray youl give me leave to tell you 
was far from being by my own choice My thoughts were 
entirely form'd upon another plan as you know I had 
retired to the Country & were to be executed in Solitude 
of which the publick has receiv'd some instances When 
the orders came to make preparations for an Expedition 
to Canada The Gov"" sent me a formal summons to at- 
tend the Council which in my Station I could not refuse 
neither could I refuse to give my advice when demanded 
according to my Judgement of things which however I 
must confess has so far fail'd that many things have hap- 
pen 'd which I did not expect & I must likewise acknowl- 
edge that tho I have lived to very near sixty years com- 
pleat & a considerable part of that time in public business 
yet till very lately I was unacquainted with some Char- 
acters of men. You know S'" the men & manners of this 
country I am in some measure known to you let me beg 
of you not to loose any esteem you had for me till you 
are assured I deserve that punishment either by acting 
contrary to his Majesties Interest or the rules observ'd 
by men of honour & while I do so I hope to have your 
favour continued It is with much reluctancy that I 
give you the trouble of the latter part of this letter & 
therefore I shall only add that you will give me the 
greatest pleasure by furnishing me with any means of 
serving you or of contributing in any manner to your 
amusement or that of your friends for that I am much 
otherwise & more than in the usual stile 


Your most obedient 

& most humble servt 
To S"- P Wabbn 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 427 

From Benjamin Franklin 

Philad* Oct. 1, 1747 

I send you herewith the History of the Five Nations. 
You will perceive that Osborne, to puff up the Book, has 
inserted the Charters &c. of this Province, all under the 
Title of History of the Five Nations, which I think was 
not fair, but 'tis a common Trick of Booksellers. 

M'" James Read, to whom M'' Osborne has sent a Parcel 
of Books by Recommendation of M'' CoUinson, being 
engaged in Business of another kind, talks of declining to 
act in Disposing of them, and perhaps may put them into 
my Hands. If he should, I will endeavour to do M*" 
Osborne Justice in disposing of them to the best Advan- 
tage, as also of any other Parcel he may send me from 
your Recommendation. 

M"" Armit is return'd well from N England; As he 
has your Power of Attorney, and some what more Leisure 
at present than I have, I think to put your Letter to J. 
Hughes into his Hands, and desire him to manage the 
Affair of your Servant. I shall write a Line besides to 
Hughes, that he would assist in obliging the Serv*^ to do 
you Justice, which may be of some Service, as he owns 
himself oblig'd to me for recovering a Servant for him 
that had been gone above a 12 month. 

I am, Sir 
Your most humb' Serv*- 

B. Franklin 

Draft of the Speech of Governor George Clinton (in 
the handwriting of Cadwallader Colden) to the General 
Assembly of New York, October 13, 17If.7. This speech 
is omitted here for the reason that it is printed in\ 
"Journal of the General Assembly of New York," Volume 
II, pages 181-187. 

428 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 

From Peter Collinson 

My Dear fr^ 

haveing an unexpected opportunity by M' John 
Sandin a Sweedish Clergyman y* Bearer I Send the In- 
closed w''** I believe you'l be pleased to See I have had 
no Answer to y'" Queries 

I am in hast much yrs 
Novem"": 1: 1747 P Collinson 

From the Flora Zeylanica lately published by Doc^ Lin- 
naeus in Sweden 

I find Coldenia Fol: 25: N°— 69 to be the 
Teucrij facie bisnagarica tetracoccus Rostrata of 
Pluknet. ahn. 363 t. 64. f. 6 
the Hansape of Hermannus 

the Descr" Herba procumbens, Ramis Altemis con- 
fertis, Pilosis, Spithamaeis, diffusis 

Folia altema, petiolata ovalia, latere anteriore versus 
caulem angustiora repando serrata, Lobis XI circiter 
Plicata Subvillosa Ex alis flores aut Fructus Solitarij vel 
cum ramulo enati, Sessiles, 

Coldenia pag 28 N** 69. 1043 
Cal. Perianthum Tetraphyllum : foliolis lanceolatis, 

erectis, longetudine Corollae 
Cor. Monopetala, infundibuliformis: Limbo patulo 

Stam Filamenta quatuor, tuba Inserta Antherae subro- 

Pist Germina quatuor, ovata. Styli totidem capillares, 
longitudine Staminum Stigmata Simplicia, persis- 
Per Nullum fructus ovatus, compressus. Scaber acu- 

minatus, terminatus rostris quatuor. 
Sem Quatuor, hinc convexa Scabra inde angulata, 


The Description of the Coldenia 

CoHinson Nov 1st 1747 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1743-1747 429 

From Mrs. Cadwallader Golden 

My Dear Coldengham Nov"" 22"^ 1747 

You again give me new Spirits with the hopes you 
give me (in yours by Mr Harrison) of seing you about 
the end of this week. that I may not again be dissa- 
pointed. Our son Alex'" writes to me that he had given 
you an account of the uneasiness we all had last week 
by the information some officers had given him of what 
the new Levies had threatened they wou'd do in their 
marching through the Countrey 

I have not been under such apprehentions of suffering 
by them at any time as at this knowing they have rea- 
son to be exasperated. I knew not what was best to do 
to go doun with Courte it was imposible unless he had 
agreed to wait two or three days which he refus'd to do 
haveing severall passengers on board Then I thought 
you might posiblely be by the way & I might miss seing 
you which I could not bear. However we reckond it 
best to send such of our Valueablest things as we cou'd 
be without and to be in what readyness we cou'd to go our 
selves with first opportunity if there was necessity for it. 
I could not posibly write when I sent the 4 Trunks & 2 
Chists haveing the notice only after noon and was 
oblidged to be up most part of the night puting up the 
things least Courte shou'd be gon before the Waggon 
got doun next day What we have sent we can make 
shift to do without this Winter but I'm afraid my dear 
there may be some things in your Chist that you may 
want. Every thing is in it which you know is always 
there I have put it in it besides, your 2 count books, that 
which is call'd the Money box with the bonds &c in it, 
Most part of our Plate and some other od things. If you 
think any thing in it may be much wanted You can bring 
the Chist up with you, Coud I have known of any cer- 
tain hand that woud reach you before you come away I 
woud have sent the Keys to you but I know not whom 
this may go by. 

430 THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 174^-1747 

The papers relateing to Mr Bumets Estate are in 
Your Chist likeways. 

Katty has been very uneasy these three days with 
the sore throat it was much sweld & a great deall of white 
specks upon the Almonds she is now better & I think 
the worst is over, all the rest of the family are well. I 
had sent a letter to go by Courte before I coud have any 
thoughts of sending the Trunks, with it I sent a Basket 
with some things for your use in comeing up, Likeways 
a Jug & the Mail. The Children all offer their duty 
James M*" Neal's wife is not got up yet but hourly ex- 

My Dear 

Your most affectionat 

Alice Colden 

Memorandum on back of letter of Alice Colden datedi 
Nov. 22, 1747, in handwriting of Cadwallader Colden 

Tho' all Pleasures arise from the perception the mind 
has of the benefite arising from the Actions which give 
pleasure yet these Pleasures may become vicious from 
an erroneous Judgement of the mind but they become 
most frequently so from a habit contracted by repeated 
Actions Habits as before observ'd arise from the fre- 
quent repetitions of the same actions & the experience 
the mind has of their use so far that it is determined 
to a repetition of the same Action without any particular 
reflexion on the Use So from the Benefite which the 
mind perceives in the daily use of food & of drink the 
mind may contract a vicious habit of Gluttony or Drunk- 
enness Thus from the reflections the mind has on the 
benefite it receives from the use of wine in cheering & 
enlivening the Spirits it is incited to repeated uses of 
the same. And if the mind will not reflect with suflacient 
attention or force on the pain & injury by the abuse of 
these repeated Actions it must contract a vicious habit 
of Tipling or of Drunkenness 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 431 

For this reason to prevent Vicious habits it becomes 
necessary to reflect frequently on the true use of all those 
Actions which give us pleasure & on the hurt they pro- 
duce when they are immoderately pursued since without 
such frequent reflection which is a Voluntary act of the 
mind we are in danger of Vicious Habits. 

Draft of the Speech of Governor George Clinton (in, 
handwriting of Cadwallader Golden) dissolving the Gen- 
eral Assembly of N. Y. November 25, 171^7. This speech 
is omitted here for the reason that it is printed irif 
"Journal of the General Assembly of New York" Volume 
II, pages 202-205. 

From Benjamin Franklin 

Philad^ Nov. 27, 1747. 

The violent Party Spirit that appears in all the Votes 
&c of your Assembly, seems to me extreamly unseason- 
able as well as unjust, and to threaten Mischief not only 
to your selves but to your Neighbours. It begins to be 
plain, that the French may reap great Advantages from 
your Divisions : God grant they may be as blind to their 
own Interest, & as negligent of it, as the English are of 
theirs. It must be inconvenient to you to remove your 
Family, but more so to you & them, to Uve under con- 
tinual Apprehensions & Alarms. I shall be glad to hear 
you are all in a Place of Safety. 

Tho' Plain Truth bore somewhat hard on both Par- 
ties here, it has had the Happiness not to give much 
offence to either. It has wonderfully spirited us up to 
defend ourselves & Country, to which End great Num- 
bers are entring into our Association, of which I send 
you a Copy enclos'd. We are likewise setting on foot a 

432 THE GOLDEN PAPERS-1 745-1747 

Lottery to raise 3000 £ for erecting a Battery fo Cannon 
below the City, — We have petition'd the Proprietor to 
send us some from England, and have order'd our Corre- 
spondents to send us over a Parcel, if the Application to 
the Proprietor fails. But lest by any Accident they 
should miscarry, I am desired to write to you, & desire 
your Opinion whether if our Government should apply to 
Govern*^ Clinton, to borrow a few of your spare Cannon, 
till we could be supply'd & such application might prob- 
ably meet with Success. Pray excuse the Effects of 
Haste in this Letter. I am, Sir, with the greatest Respect, 
Your most obliged humble Serv* 
B Franklin 


The hon^Je Cadwalladeh Golden Esq 

New York 
B Franklin 

Extract of S'' Peter Warren's letter to Governor George 
Clinton December, 1747. 

I am extreamly concerned to hear how uneasy you have 
been made, and I do assure you all y^ letters y*^ mentoin 
the unhappy Situation of New York from y^ Rage of 
Party agree, that not you but y^ Influence of others have 
occasioned y^ confusion & almost ruin of y^ once Floroush- 
ing Colonie, I have both Tyes of Interest & Friendship 
to induce to wish it well & I hope what the Ministry have 
lately done in the appointment of M"" DeLancey Leu* 
Gover^ will contribute to y^ settling all y^ uneasiness 
y* have so unhappily subsisted for some time past & 
y* every thing will be setled between him & your Ex- 
celP^ to both your Satisfactions, & when you arive here 
you may depend on my doing every thing on my part for 
y* Service & Ease & you will find when here y* I have done 
you every good office in my power with the Ministry tho 
you didnt want any with them. 

THE GOLDEN PAPERS— 1743-1747 433 

[Memorandum in Colden's handwriting] 

The general view of the late proceedings of the Coun- 
cil & Assembly is to make it appear in England that M'" 
Golden is a person disagreable to both the Council & 
Assembly In answer to this it may be asked is there or 
can any thing be shown in his conduct that deserves their 
Displeasure if the real Service of the King & country be 
made the rule by which our Judgement is directed If 
no such thing appear the whole must arise from the 
Power of a Faction that is influenced otherwise than by 
the Public Service Is it not then necessary to suppress 
such views as evidently tend to public Prejudice. If the 
small number of the Council & Assembly be consider'd 
& the low condition of life & ignorance of the Greatest 
number of them it may be in the power of one man of 
a superior fortune & numerous relations if he once get 
the greatest numbers of such as depend on him or have 
personal friendships or are otherwise influenced by him 
into the Council & assembly & into all the offices of Gov* 
to influence the whole in such manner as he shall think 
fit But then the Sense of the People in General may be 
very different from what is express'd by their repre- 
sentatives It is certain great numbers think differently 
from them & perhaps when a proper Oppertunity offers 
the people will show that they generally dislike the late 
proceedings in the assembly 


Aaron, Mohawk Indian examina- 
tion of, 233-36. 

Address to the Freeholders on the 
Election of Representatvies to 
the General Assembly, 312-28. 

Albany, N. Y., mentioned, 1, 2, 6, 
17, 24, 106, 112, 115, 166, 174, 
193, 194, 209, 213, 216, 217, 218, 
219, 220, 222, 223, 226, 227, 229, 
232, 238, 239, 240, 242, 247, 253, 
258, 259, 260, 262, 267, 268, 269, 
272, 273, 284, 285, 293, 294-305, 
334, 336, 344, 359, 362, 365, 370, 
377, 378, 380, 382, 386, 387, 395, 
418, 421, 422; expedition against, 
intended, 236; mutiny of troops 
at, 377-386, 395, 397, 400-1. 

Alexander, Elizabeth, 154; her ill- 
ness, 155, 156, 165. 

Alexander, James, letters of, to 
Golden, 34-35, 45^7, 48-50, 61- 
63, 80-83, 99-101, 102-103, 107-9, 
145-6, 154-156, 164-166, 190-191, 
194-196, 196-199; letters of Col- 
den to, 35, 200-201, 227-228; 
describes the differences in com- 
passes, 62; orders two circum- 
ferenters, 71 ; tells Golden of a 
bill in Parliament to prevent all 
paper bills in the plantations to 
be issued as tenders, 101 ; relates 
some tar water cures, 102-103, 
107; his opinion of the Expedi- 
tion against Gape Breton, 108-9; 
his daughter's illness and the use 
of tar water by his family, 154-6, 
165; observation on Astronomy, 
195, 197-99; mentioned, 29, 43, 
52, 61, 92, 93, 112, 214, 221, 224, 
237, 333, 335, 364, 388, 392, 394. 

Alexander, Katharine, 165, 166. 

Alexander, Mr., 15. 

Allison, William, 66. 

Alsop, Mr., 50. 

Amboy, N. J., 103, 108, 154, 155, 

American Philosophical Society. 
See Philosophical Society. 

Amethyst, found, 5. 

Amsterdam, Holland, 31, 33, 57, 92. 

Anatomy, Franklin's describes the 
circulation of the blood, 140-143, 

Anian, supposed straits of — men- 
tioned, 159. 

Annapolis, N. S., 169. 

Annapolis Royal, 263, 366. 

Anson, George, 419. 

Argyle, Duke of, 119. 

Armit, John, Golden's letter to — 
177-178, 188, 226; mentioned, 100, 
144, 177, 184, 223, 225, 226, 368, 

Astronomy, 46-47, 48-9, 99-100, 
184-5, 186-8, 195, 197-199, 200- 
201 ; new quadrant described, 

Axtel, Mr., 214. 

Ayscough, John, 262. 

Baker, Samuel, 291. 

Baker, William, 291. 

Barclay, Rev. Mr., 25, 410. 

Bard, Dr. John, goes to New York 
a stranger, recommended to 
Golden by Franklin, 182-3 ; men- 
tioned, 272, 413, 419. 

Bartram, John, letter of — to Gol- 
den, 3-6; describes how to plant 
walnuts, 4; mentions the plants 
in his garden, 4; finds an ame- 
thyst, 5 ; his orders for plants, 24 ; 
letters of, to Golden, 21-22, 23- 
24, 78-79, 129-132, 159-160, 178- 
180, 189-190, 270-272, 362-3, 419- 
20; Golden's letters to, 25-27, 
94-95; is urged to publish his 
knowledge of American plants, 
94-5; describes his injury from 
a horse kick, 130-132; his obser- 
vations on the geology of high- 
lands of Penna. and Virginia, 
179; remarks upon a well in New 
Jersey, 179; requests Golden to 
send him a small Arbor Vita 
tree, 271-2; tells of four mortal 
distempers, 270; plant named 
after, 270-1 ; his remarks on the 




use of Madeira Wine for fevers, 
362-3 ; electrical experiments 
commented upon by, 363; men- 
tioned, 3, 11, 21, 23, 25, 28, 60, 
65, 68, 78, 94, 114, 126, 139, 159, 
178, 184, 189, 211, 226, 270, 275, 
363, 419. 

Baxton, Mr., 275. 

Bayard & Holland, 287. 

Bayard, John, 103. 

Bayard, Stephen, 298, 305. 

Beach, Mr., 121, 122, 161. 

Beatty, Frank, 240. 

Beauclerk, Vere, 419. 

Beckford, Col., 214. 

Belcher, Gov., 394, 411, 418. 

Belfast, Ireland, 221, 357. 

Bernouilli, Mr., 274. 

Berkeley, Bishop, 39; his publica- 
tions, 39-40; his "De Motis" 
sent to Golden, 228, 331; his 
book de Motis criticized, 283; 
mentioned, 147, 206, 399. 

Berwick, Scotland, 221. 

Bevis, Dr., 104, 369. 

Bevis, J., 145. 

Bleeker, Nicolaes, 233. 

Blood, Gapt., 113. 

Board of Trade, Queries from the, 
to Gov. Clinton, 309-10. 

Boerhave, Dr. Herman, mentioned, 
7, 9, 19, 20, 126. 

Bogardus, Gapt., 291. 

Bond, Dr. Thomas, 65, 160. 

Books, "Dialogues Concerning 
Education," 400. 

Books, titles of Bishop Berkeley's, 

Boston, Mass., description of 
eleven hundred plants about, 
mentioned, 7, 8. 

Boston, Mass., mentioned, 2, 30, 
41, 54, 75, 76, 102, 116, 120, 208, 
216, 221, 229, 232, 236, 260, 266, 
267, 268, 274 275, 292, 293, 332, 
336, 358, 365, 367, 370, 395, 397, 

Botany, John Bartram writes Col- 
den of his plants in flower, 4; 
Colden's comments on Lucerne 
seed, 14; Bartram's orders for 
plants, 24; Colden's progress in, 
28, 31-32, 50; curious grasses 
raised by Golden, 40-41; Lin- 
nseus progress in, 44; Gronovius 
description of North American 
plants mentioned, 45; Colden's 
characters commented upon by 
Linnaeus, 55-57; GoUinson's in- 

terest in, 68-9; description of 
eleven hundred plants about 
Boston, mentioned, 78; Virginia 
plants, 79; Colden's work in, 
83-92; Golden urges Bartram to 
publish his knowledge of, 94-95; 
Gronovius comments upon books 
on, 125-126; seed of Arbor Vita 
mentioned, 178; Bartram's ob- 
servations, 189-190; new plants 
named, 270-271, 275; Bartram 
directs sending of small Arbor 
Vita trees, 271-2. 

Bours, Peter, letter of, to Golden, 
40-41 ; Colden's letter to, 41-42. 

Bowery, Chief Justice's house in 
the, 80. 

Bradley, Doctor, 412. 

Bradley, James, King's astronomer, 

Bradley, Mr., 99, 100. 

Bradley, Mrs., 214. 

Bratt, Lt., 370. 

Bream, Gapt., 114, 158. 

Brenham, Gapt., 367. 

Broadhead, Gapt., 239. 

Brown, Mr., 46, 48, 63, 82, 108, 154. 

Bryant, Gapt., 109, 113, 117, 145, 

Bryant, Mr., 15, 34, 35, 63. 

Baker, Messrs., 101. 

Burnet, Gov., 430. 

Burnet, Judge, 46, 82. 

Burnet, Mr., 342, 343. 

Button Bay, 159. 

Cadarackni, 264. 

Gadarackue, 252. 

Caghnawage, 235. 

Campbell, Gapt., 53, 311, 334. 

Campbell, Mr., 99. 

Canada, Expedition against. Gov. 
Clinton's menage relative to 
the, 284-290; discussed in the at- 
tack of the Council on Colden's 
pamphlet on the treaty with the 
six nations, 294-305; expedition 
against, discussed in an address 
to the Freeholders, 312-28; expe- 
dition against, to be abandoned, 
418; discussed, 421-23; French in, 
oppressed with famine, 2; men- 
tioned, 9, 102; Governor of, his 
desire to secure the friendship 
of the Indians against the Eng- 
lish discussed, 168; French In- 
dians, their intention to fight for 
Canada, 234; attack on, men- 
tioned, 250, 251; Indians to join 



in the attack on, 262-5, 267-8; 
information of the state of, 
taken at Albany in 1746, 242- 
243; observations on the plan 
of operations against, 215-218; 
expedition against, mentioned, 
224, 225; plans for the expedi- 
tion against, 376-8, 381-4. 

Canajoharie, N. Y., a fort ordered 
built at, 405; mentioned, 177. 

Canassadaga, Canada, 233. 

Cannan, Mr., 84. 

Cansa, attack on, mentioned, 169. 

Canwan, Mr., 54. 

Cape Breton, expedition against, 
108-9, 115-116; mentioned, 125, 
268; its capture commented 
upon, 132-133, 137; mentioned, 
74, 161, 169, 191, 216, 218, 221, 
234, 245, 246, 248, 250, 257, 417. 

Cart & Horse tavern, 311. 

Catesby, Mr., 160, 270. 

Catherwood, Capt., 293, 308, 310. 

Catherwood, Mr., 332, 357, 417. 

Catskill, N. Y., 133, 363. 

Catskill Mts., 6, 363. 

Cayouges Indians, 166. 

Celsius, Mr., 99. 

Chambly, Canada, 216, 242, 243, 

Charlestown, S. C, 370. 

Cheboucta, Canada, 276. 

Chester, man-of-war, 280. 

Circumferenter, made for Colden, 
71-2, 145. 

Clark, Capt., at Oswego, 2. 

Clark, Fernando, 119. 

Clark, Major, 268, 286. 

Clark, Mr., arrives at London, 214. 

Clarke, Dr., 152. 

Clarke, Gov. George, mentioned, 
2, 21. 

Clarke, George, letters of, to Col- 
den, 22-23 ; letter of Cadwallader 
Colden to, 290-1, 336-7; men- 
tioned, 22, 290, 336. 

Claton, Mr., 160, 189. 

Cleland, Mr., 16. 

Cleveland, E. J., 419. 

Clifford, Mr., 31, 210. 

Clinton, Capt., 359, 361. 

Clinton, Gov. George, proclama- 
tion prohibiting all traffic with 
all subjects and Indians in 
league with the French, 149-151 ; 
Colden's observations on the 
plan of operations communi- 
cated by Gov. Shirley to, 215- 
218; propositions made by, to 

five of the six nations of Indians, 
166-173; his explanation to the 
Indians of the war against the 
French in Canada, 169-172; 
answer of the Six Nations to 
the propositions of, 173-177; his 
speech and proposition to the 
Six Nations, Aug., 1746, and 
their answer, 247-259; commis- 
sions Cadwallader Colden, Jr., 
Commissary of Musters, 261-2; 
mentioned, 268; his message to 
the Assembly, Nov. 24, 1746, 
in Colden's handwriting, 284- 
290; Colden credited with the 
speeches of, 292; protest of the 
Council sent to, in reference to 
Colden's pamphlet on the Treaty 
with the Six Nations, 294-305; 
letter of, to Cadwallader Col- 
den. 308; queries from the Board 
of Trade referred to Colden by, 
308-10; defense of his admin- 
istration in an address to the 
Freeholders, 312-28 ; Colden's 
letters to, 328-330, 337-9, 339- 
356, 360-1; letter of, to Cad- 
wallader Colden, 332-334, 356-7, 
359, 363-365, 403-406; takes Col- 
den's side in controversy, 356-7; 
letter to Gov. Shirley, 375-8; 
plans for the expedition against 
Canada, 376-8, 381-4; letter of, 
to the Duke of Newcastle, 381-4, 
390-4; letter of, to Colden, 403- 
406; his conference with the 
Indians, 406-408; thanks the 
Corporation of the City of New 
York for their support, 417-18; 
appointed Admiral of His Maj- 
esty's Fleet, 419; communication 
of Council to, 420-23; draft of 
his speech of Oct. 13, 1747, re- 
ferred to, 427 ; draft of his speech 
of Nov. 25, 1747, referred to, 
431 ; extract of a letter of Sir 
Peter Warren to, concerning the 
affairs at New York, 432; men- 
tioned, 116, 222, 308, 332, 356, 
359, 363, 366, 403, 432. 

Clinton, Miss, 359, 361. 

Clinton, Mrs. George, 308, 359. 

Clinton, Mr., 47, 62. 

Clowey, Mr., 105. 

Colden, Alexander, letter of, to 
Gilbert Livingston, 52-53; men- 
tioned, 220, 233, 238, 239, 240, 
260, 261, 266, 273, 280, 291, 380, 
424, 429. 



Golden, Alice, mentioned, 75, 239, 
266, 380, 388, 389, 394, 395, 396. 
401, 402, 405, 413. 

Golden, Alice, daughter of Gad- 
wallader, Jr., 226. 

Golden, Gadwallader, his new 
method of printing not prac- 
ticable, 11, 28, 58-9; his Indian 
History, 12, 14, 27, 42-44; the 
new method printing previously 
tried, 12-13; thinks it is prac- 
ticable, 13; desires to experiment 
with Lucerne seed, 14; gives 
Gapt. Rutherfurd a letter of in- 
troduction to Peter CoUinson, 
15; in Gonnecticut on public 
affairs, 25; tells of silk manu- 
facture in Milford, Conn., 25; 
finds law suits abundant in Con- 
necticut, 26; asks Bartram about 
the nature of minerals, 26-27; 
his progress in Botany, 28, 31-32; 
Franklin to consider his new 
method of printing, 34 ; describes 
the errors of the compasses made 
in England, 36; explains the 
purpose of his new method of 
printing, 37-39; engaged in rais- 
ing grasses, 40-41 ; his remarks 
printed by Parker has the effect 
of removing skinners, tanners, 
etc., to Fresh Water and of 
cleaning docks and streets, 46; 
his remarks reprinted in Peniv- 
sylvania Gazette, 48; is asked 
to demonstrate the discovery of 
the cause of gravity, 49; Lin- 
naeus' remarks upon Golden's 
Botanical characters, 55-57; his 
interest in Botany, 60, 68 ; in the 
Philosophical Society, 60-61 ; 
Alexander describes to, the dif- 
ferences of the compasses, 62; 
his theory of gravity mentioned, 
63, 108; observations on the bite 
of a cattle snake, 66-68, 89; 
Jonathan Sisson to make a cir- 
cumferenter for, 71; circum- 
ferenter described, 71-2; his ob- 
servations concerning a Fort at 
Oswego, 72-74; is invited to all 
public entertainments, 74; his 
piece on Fluxions disputed, 77; 
his work in Botany, 81-92; his 
comment upon Franklin's stove 
invention, 91 ; his piece on 
Fluxions, 92-93; hopes Franklin 
will go on with the Philosophical 
Society, 93-4; urges Bartram to 

publish his knowledge of Amer- 
ican plants, 94-95; writes to 
Alderman Johnson about keep- 
ing New York City clean and 
draining stagnating water, 95-6; 
relates a cure of the distemper 
called Dry Gripes, 97-8; tar 
water cures, 98, 102; his treatise 
on tar water to be printed, 102, 
108; CoUinson relates to, the 
wonders of the age, 109-111; his 
treatise on gravitation printed, 
117-119; his treatise on Fluxions 
commented upon, 127-128, 146-8, 
149, 182; his observations upon 
the plan against Louisburgh, 133- 
136; his reasons for not attend- 
ing the Council, 136-7; discusses 
Indian affairs, 138-9; Franklin 
reviews his medical piece, 139- 
143; mentioned, 151-154; scien- 
tific note by, 157 ; his philosophy 
discussed, 161-163; his account 
of mineral springs mentioned, 
179; Dr. John Bard recom- 
mended to, by Franklin, 182-3; 
memoranda of political and mili- 
tary events, 1745-6, 183-4; obser- 
vations on Astronomy, 186-188, 
200-201; letter of Gov. Wm. 
Shirley to the Six Nations which 
Golden would not permit to be 
presented, 208-9; his treatise on 
tar water mentioned as pub- 
lished, 211; asks Johnson's opin- 
ion of his Treatise, 212; writes 
to Mrs. Golden about various 
regiments being raised for an 
expedition, 214-215; his observa- 
tions on the plan of operations 
communicated by Gov. Shirley 
to Gov. Clinton, 215-218; is in- 
vited as the guest of John 
Rutherfurd to Albany, 219; de- 
clines the Governor's invitation 
to go to Albany with him, 220, 
222; sends the legacy of his 
Aunt Elizabeth Hill to his 
brother, James Golden, 222-225; 
at Albany with the Governor to 
meet the Indians, 229; writes to 
Mrs. Golden on Indian affairs 
and preparations for war, 238- 
241 ; one of his sons to be Com- 
missary of Provisions, 241; 
memoranda of the State of 
Canada taken at Albany, 1746, 
242-243; speaks to the Indians 
in the Governor's behalf, 261; 



opinion of the Council written 
by, in reference to the attack 
on Crown Point, 262-5; is raen- 
tioned as directing the attack 
on Crown Point, 268 ; his treatise 
on gravitation discussed, 273-5; 
Gronovius names plant after, 
270, 275; at New York, 276-81; 
defends his treatise, 281-283; his 
opinion of Dr. Berkeley's book, 
"De Motis," 283; Gov. Clinton's 
message to the Assembly, Nov. 
24, 1746, in the handwriting of, 
284-290; writes Gov. Clarke of 
political enemies, 290-1 ; is 
credited with Gov. Clinton's 
speeches, 292; is recommended 
favorably to the Duke of New 
Castle, 293 ; his pamphlet on the 
treaty with the Six Nations at- 
tacked by the Governor's Coun- 
cil in their representation to 
Governor Clinton, 294-305; is 
charged with designing dissen- 
tion to secure the Governorship, 
304-5; his memorandum of the 
dispute in Council, 306-7; the 
Council's representation to be 
sent to the Duke of Newcastle, 
308; queries from the Board of 
Trade refen-ed to, 308-310; his 
address to the Freeholders on 
the election of representatives 
for the General Assembly, 312- 
328; re-afhrms the truth of his 
statements in the Indian Treaty, 
329-30; Bishop Berkeley's re- 
marks upon Colden's treatise on 
Gravity, 330-2; discusses the 
intended attack on Crown Point, 
336; defends his conduct in a 
letter to Gov. Clinton, 337-9; 
his defense against the attack of 
the Council Members, 336-356; 
is defended by Gov. Clinton, 
356-7 ; cannot go to New York on 
account of traveling conditions, 
360; his confidence in Gov. 
Clinton, 361 ; is asked to con- 
tribute to a magazine, 367; his 
essay on gravitation distributed 
abroad by Collinson, 368, 372; 
his Indian History being printed 
in England, 369, 370; his essay 
on gravitation admired in Eu- 
rope, 371-2; commented upon 
by Johnson, 372-5, 398-400; 
suggests his son, Cadwallader, 
as Muster Master, 378; advises 

Mrs. Colden to go to her son 
Alexander's house owing to a 
mutiny at Albany among the 
troops, 380; his daughter's ill- 
ness, 388-9; Clinton's defense of 
his administration recommend- 
ing, as Lt.-Governor, 390-4; his 
book on Indian affairs in press, 
394; his affairs at New York, 
394-6; his Indian History prmted 
in England, 402-3; asks Franklin 
if his electrical apparatus can be 
made at Philadelphia, 410; Col- 
linson explains the dedication 
leaf in the Indian History, 410; 
cannot get expressions on his 
essay on gravitation, 410-12; Mr. 
Logan finds Colden is correct in 
his piece on Fluxions, 415; 
Franklin to sell his History oj 
the Five Nations, 424 ; his praise 
of Col. Johnson, 425-6; writes 
Sir Peter Warren of his public 
affairs, 426; the insertion of the 
charters of the province in Col- 
den's Five Nations called a book- 
seller's trick by Franklin, 427; 
defends his conduct in public 
affairs, 433. 
Letters written by Colden to 
James Alexander, 35, 200, 227. 
John Armit, 177, 226. 
John Bartram, 25, 94. 
Peter Bours, 41. 
George Clarke, 290, 336. 
Governor George Clinton, 328, 

337, 339, 360. 
Mrs. Cadwallader Colden, 74, 
213, 214, 220, 221, 229, 232, 
238, 239, 240, 259, 260, 266, 
268, 269, 276, 277, 278, 279, 
280, 291, 378, 380, 384, 386, 
388, 394, 395, 400, 413, 417, 
James Colden, 224. 
Peter Collinson, 12, 16, 42, 60, 

117, 222. 
Benjamin Franklin, 92, 409. 
Joh. Fred. Gronovius, 83, 96, 

Alderman Johnson, 95. 
Samuel Johnson, 146, 148, 202, 

212, 281. 
Archibald Kennedy, 335. 
Capt. John Rutherfurd, 15, 

William Strahan, 37. 
Unaddressed, 136, 293. 
Sir Peter Warren, 425. 



Golden, Cadwallader, letters writ- 
ten to, by 
James Alexander, 34, 45, 48, 61, 

80, 99, 102, 107, 145, 154, 164, 

190, 194, 196. 
John Armit, 188. 
Peter Bours, 40. 
John Bartram, 3, 21, 23, 78, 129, 

158, 178, 189, 270, 362, 419. 
George Clarke, 22. 
Gov. George Clinton, 308, 332, 

356, 359, 363, 403. 
Mrs. Cadwallader Colden, 429. 
James Colden, 29, 53. 
Alexander Colhoun, 193. 
Peter Collinson, 10, 27, 50, 68, 

104, 109, 113, 236, 367, 394, 403, 

410, 412, 428. 
William Douglas, 367, 375. 
Benjamin Franklin, 34, 77, 139, 

180, 184, 226, 273, 396, 414, 

418, 424, 427, 431. 
Joh. Fred. Gronovius, 31, 54, 125. 
Samuel Johnson, 39, 76, 104, 120, 

127, 160, 205, 228, 330, 372, 

Evan Jones, 64. 
Archibald Kennedy, 310, 357, 

Hannah Lithgow, 144. 
Thomas Osborne, 402. 
Eleanor Rutherfurd, 292. 
John Rutherfurd, 1, 6, 17, 105, 

112, 115, 132, 192, 218, 272, 

284, 334, 365, 370, 387. 
Jonathan Sisson, 71. 
William Strahan, 58. 
Samuel Welles, 267. 
Peter Wraxall, 385. 
Colden, Cadwallader, son of James 

Colden, 53. 
Colden, Cadwallader, Jr., his com- 
mission as Commissary of Mus- 
ters, 261-262; suggested as Mus- 
ter Master, 378, 383, 384, 386, 
387, 389, 395; his marriage men- 
tioned, 136; mentioned, 213, 226, 
239, 240, 241, 277, 279, 280, 311, 
401, 424. 
Colden, Mrs. Cadwallader, letters 
of Cadwallader Colden to, 74-75, 
213, 214-15, 220, 221-222, 229- 
230, 232-233, 238-241, 259-261, 
266, 268-9, 276-281, 291-292, 378, 
380, 381, 386-7, 388-9, 394-6, 
400-2, 413, 417, 423-4; letter of, 
to Cadwallader Colden, 429-30; 
mentioned, 1, 3, 10, 21, 35, 74, 
107, 108, 112, 156, 193, 194, 213, 

214, 220, 221 229, 232, 238, 239, 

240, 259, 260, 268, 268, 269, 276, 
277, 278, 279, 280, 291, 308, 333, 
335, 359, 378, 380, 381, 386, 388, 
394, 395, 400, 405, 413, 417, 423, 

Colden, Catharine, 239, 430. 

Colden, David, 239. 

Colden, Elizabeth, 54. 

Colden, George, 53. 

Colden, James, letters of, to his 
brother, Cadwallader Colden, 29- 
30, 53-4; his legacy from his 
aunt, Elizabeth Hill, 222-225; 
letter of Cadwallader Colden to, 

Colden, James, 29, 53, 178, 224. 

Colden, James, Jr., death of, 30. 

Colden, Jane, 239, 266, 276. 

Colden, Jean, 54. 

Colden, Jenny, 213, 380, 395, 401, 

Colden, John, 54, 75, 238, 239, 266, 
269, 276, 277, 388, 423. 

Colden, Kate, 54. 

Colden, Lilias, daughter of James 
Colden, 53. 

Colden, William, 54. 

Coldenham, N. Y., mentioned, 6, 
11, 22, 24, 29, 35, 41, 48, 50, 52, 
63, 70, 75, 77, 96, 103, 104, 105, 
109, 113, 122, 128, 133, 136, 156, 
166, 177, 191, 196, 199, 202, 209, 
212, 213, 215, 219, 230, 233, 240, 

241, 259-61, 266, 269, 277, 278, 279, 
281, 292, 328, 336, 358, 359, 378, 
381, 387, 389, 394, 395, 396, 402, 
412, 413, 417, 424, 429. 

Cole, Leonard, 52. 

Coleman, Mr., 274. 

Colhoun, Dr. Alexander, letter of, 
to Colden, 193-194. 

Colhoun, Dr., 284, 239. 

Colhoun, Mr., 334. 

Collect Pond. See Fresh Water. 

Collinson, Peter, letters of, to 
Colden, 10-11, 27-29, 50-52, 68- 
70, 104, 109-111, 113-115, 236-7, 
367-370, 394, 403, 410-12, 428; 
Colden's letters to, 12-14, 16-17, 
42-54, 60-61, 117-120, 222-225; 
Capt. Rutherfurd introduced to, 
15-16; observations on the na- 
ture of a crab, 69-70, HI; hda 
account with Jonathan Sisson, 
70, 71; observations on electrical 
experiments, 110-111, 237; on 
magnetic steel, 114-15; letter of, 
to Franklin, 371-2; sends Col- 



den his Indian History and ex- 
plains the dedication leaf. 410; 
mentioned, 3, 5, 10, 12, 16, 27, 
34, 35, 37, 38, 42, 50, 58, 60, 63, 
68, 84, 91, 96, 104, 109, 113, 117, 
125, 145, 189, 209, 222, 225, 226, 
236, 270, 335, 363, 367, 394, 402, 
410, 414, 415, 424, 425, 427, 428. 

Comet, seen at Philadelphia, 46, 
47, 48-49. 

Compass, errors of the, made in 
England, 36, 62. 

Conestoge, mentioned, 5. 

Connecticut, 25, 26; law suits 
abundant in, 26. 

Connecticut, Commissioners of, 
present at Indian Conference, 

Come, Capt., 113. 

Cortes, Mr., 215. 

Cosby, Gov., mentioned, 2, 392. 

Courts, Mr., 279, 280. 

Courtse, Mr., 424, 429, 430. 

Couts, Alexander, merchant, 178. 

Couts, James, 223, 225. 

Crab, its nature observed, 69-70, 

Crook, Mr., 239-241. 

Crown Point, N. Y., plan of attack 
on, 216-218; opinion of the 
Council of New York in refer- 
ence to the attack on, 262-5; 
letter of Samuel Welles about 
the attack on, 267-8 ; mentioned, 
2, 10, 113, 150, 228, 229, 231, 232, 
240, 241, 243, 308, 312, 316, 336, 
358, 359, 365, 366, 370, 382, 397, 

Cumberland, Duke of, 221. 

Curtise, Mr., 400, 402. 

Cuyler, Cornelius, 230, 233. 

Cuyler, J., 242. 

Cuyler, Mr., 287, 303. 

Darling, Mr., 425. 
DeLancey, Alice, 226. 
DeLancey, Elizabeth, 75, 214, 221, 

226, 266, 280, 291, 417, 423. 
DeLancey, James, appointed Lt.- 

Gov. of New York, 432. 
DeLancey, James, 297, 305, 329, 

DeLancey, Mr., 166. 
LeDancey, Oliver, 221. 
DeLancey, Peter, 42, 100, 107, 221, 

DeLancey & Co., Stephen, 101. 
DeLancey, Stephen, his funeral 

mentioned, 154. 

DePeyster, John, 230, 233. 
Descartes, Rene, mentioned. 7, 18. 
Dickerman, Capt. Isaac, 123; his 

cure of cancer described, 123- 

125, 161. 
Dieppe, France, 210. 
Dorsius, Rev., 31, 33. 
Douglas, Dr., 78. 
Douglas, William, letter of, to 

Golden, 367, 375; his history of 

British settlements in North 

America, 375; mentioned, 78, 

367. 375. 
DuBois, Dr., 31, 126, 155, 156; his 

death mentioned, 210. 
Dunlop, Mr., mentioned, 6. 
Dupey, Dr., 122. 

Edgerton, Eng., 29. 

Edinburgh, Scotland, 153. 

Egberts, Mr., 269. 

Egg Harbor, mentioned, 3, 4. 

Election of Representatives to the 
General Assembly — address to 
the Freeholders concerning, 312- 

Electrical Wonders related by Col- 
linson, 110-111, 371; by Bartram, 
363; by Franklin, 397-8; Glass, 
unaccountable properties in, 110- 

Ellis, Welbore, 419. 

Ellison, Capt., 291. 

Ellison, Mr., 378, 395. 

Esopus, N. Y., 63, 238, 239, 241. 

European affairs, 1, 2, 9, 10, 30, 
31, 52, 53, 54, 159, 237, 246. 

Evans, Lewis, 24, 178, 180, 226. 

Evans, Mr., 276. 

Farrell, Capt., 284. 

Faulkener, Mr., 278. 

Fisher, Dr., 155. 

Five Nations of Indians, proposi- 
tions made by Gov. George 
Clinton to, 166, 173; answer to 
the propositions, 173-177; the 
answer of the River Indians to 
the, to a message delivered them 
in 1747, 415-7. 

Flamsteed, John, 118, 197, 199, 200, 

Forbes, Lord, his book. Thoughts 
on Religion, 163. 

Fort Frederick, 403. 

Ft. Oswego, N. Y., 24. See Os- 
wego, N. Y. 

Fothergill, Dr., 158. 

Francis, Mr., 273. 



Franklin, Benjamin, letters of, to 
Golden, 34, 77-78, 139-143, 180- 
183, 184-185, 226-227, 273-276, 
396-8, 418, 424-5, 427, 431-2; 
David Hall sent to, by William 
Strahan, 59; sends Golden some 
criticisms of his piece on 
Fluxions, 77-8; his piece on 
stove chimneys approved, 83; 
his stove invention sent to 
Europe by Golden, 91 ; reviews 
Golden's medical treatise, 139- 
143; Golden's letters to, 92-94, 
409-10; letter of John Mitchell 
to, 151-154; offers to print Gol- 
den's piece on gravitation, 180; 
describes the circulation of the 
blood, 140-3, 180-183; will pub- 
lish an American Philosophical 
Miscellany, 182, 275; comments 
on Golden's piece on Fluxions, 
182; asks Golden's consideration 
of Dr. John Bard, 182-3; obser- 
vations on Astronomy, 184-5; is 
gathering opinions on Golden's 
treatise on gravitation, 226-27, 
273-5; his account of fireplaces 
translated into Dutch, 275; has 
need for a good engraver, 276; 
his experiments on a wooden 
canon mentioned, 276; sends his 
son to Golden, 397; relates elec- 
trical experiments, 397-8; can 
have electrical apparatus made 
at Philadelphia for Golden, 414, 
418; desires to see a copy of 
Golden's Five Nations, 415; to 
sell Golden's History of Five 
Nations, 424; calls the insertion 
of the charters, etc., of the prov- 
ince in Golden's history a book- 
seller's trick, 427; writes of 
securing canon for the city of 
Philadelphia, 432 ; mentioned, 34, 
77, 78, 79, 82, 92, 126, 139, 160, 
180, 184, 190, 196, 206, 226, 272, 
273, 363, 396, 409, 414, 418, 424, 
427, 431. 

Franks, Mr., 9. 

French in Ganada, 2, 74; preparing 
to attack the, 115-115, 119; proc- 
lamation prohibiting all traffic 
with the, 149-151. 

Fresh Water, N. Y. City, skinners 
and tanners to be removed to, 

Frontier affairs, 1, 6, 17, 105, 112, 
192-3, 194. 

Fuller's Regiment at New York, 106. 

Fur trade, 43. 

Gaasbeek, GoL, 239. 

Gentleman's Magazine, mentioned, 

Geogfroy, Mr., 126. 

Geology, observations of Bartram 
on, in Penna. and Virginia, 179. 

Georgia, 26. 

Gerritse, Reyer, 233. 

Ginelin, Dr., 159. 

Glasgow, Scotland, 375. 

Goldsmiths, mentioned, 5. 

Gooch, General, 219, 238, 239, 296, 

Graham, George, mentioned, 13, 

Graham, Mr., 99, 100, 145, 146, 237. 

Gravesande, Willem Jacob van, 
mentioned, S. 

Gravitation, cause of. Golden is 
asked to demonstrate the dis- 
covery of the, 49; Golden's the- 
or>' of, mentioned, 63, 108; 
printed, 118-119. 

Gray, Mr., 375. 

Graydon, Mr., 274. 

Grayham, Mr., 237. 

Greenwich, N. Y. Gity, 260, 396, 
423; assembly at, 191. 

Griffith, Gapt., 41. 

Gronovius, Joh. Fred., letters of, 
to Golden, 31-33, 54-58, 125-126; 
his description of North Amer- 
ican plants mentioned, 45; Gol- 
den's letter to, 83-91, 96-98, 209- 
211; mentioned, 31, 50, 54, 60, 
83, 96, 114, 115, 125, 158, 160, 
179, 180, 184, 189, 209-211, 270, 
363, 419. 

Guerin, Mr., 383, 394. 

Hale, Dr., 122, 140. 

Hall, David, sent to B. Franklin 

by Strahan, 59. 
Hamilton, Mr., his speech to the 

New Jersey assembly, 379-380. 
Hansen, Mr., 74, 242, 243, 424. 
Hardenbergh, Mr., 259, 269. 
Hardy, Gapt., 106. 
Hargrave, Gapt., 59. 
Harrison, Mr., 99, 396, 429. 
Harvard College, 105. 
Hawkins, Mr., 159. 
Heak, Mr., 126. 
Henderson, Mrs., 144. 
Hennion, Mr., 291. 
Hill, Elizabeth, 178, 222, 223, 225, 




HUton, Capt, 332, 357, 358. 
Holland, Henry, 287, 288. 
Honeyman, Capt., 276, 387, 404. 
Honeyman, Mr., 214, 334. 
Hope, Mr., 159. 
Hopkins, Mr., 273. 
Horsmanden, Daniel, 82, 166, 297, 

305, 306, 307, 329, 341, 348, 420, 

421, 423. 
Hubbard, Dr. John, letter of, to 

Dr. Samuel Johnson, 123-125; 

mentioned, 105, 120, 161. 
Hudsons Bay and the Northwest 

passage, 27, 28. 
Hughes, J., 427. 
Hutchinson, Mr., his new system 

of philosophy and theology, 163- 


Indian Affairs, Commissioners of, 
answer to the Governor's order 
in reference to, 230-31 ; Commis- 
sioner of, present at Indian Con- 
ference, 166, 247, 253, 255, 258. 

Indians, two sent to Oswego, 2; 
quarrel between the, and Vir- 
ginia, — ; their affairs not well 
handled, 137-9; their cure of 
wounds, 89-90; in expedition 
against Cape Breton, 116; Clin- 
ton's proclamation against all, 
in league with the French, 149- 
151; propositions made by Gov- 
ernor George Clinton to five of 
the six nations, 166-173; their 
answer to the propositions, 173- 
177; unwilling to engage in war 
against the French, 230-231 ; 
examination of an Indian at Mr. 
Livingston's house, 231 ; exam- 
ination of Aaron, a Mohawk 
Indian, 233-236; an intended 
speech to the, in 1746, 243-6; 
Gov. Clinton's speech to the Six 
Nations, Aug. 19, 1746, 247-252; 
Gov. Clinton's propositions and 
their answer, 253-259; to join in 
the attack on Canada, 262-5; 
Colden's pamphlet on the treaty 
with the Six Nations attacked, 
294-305; referred to Duke of 
New Castle, 308; Golden re- 
aflBrms the truth of his state- 
ments in the treaty pamphlet, 
329-30; Gov. Shirley's letter to 
the Six Nations, 208-9; Gov. 
Clinton relates to Colden his 
interview with the, 403-6; his 
conference with the, 406-8; an- 

swer of the River, to the Five 
Nations to a message delivered 
them in 1747, 415-7; mentioned, 
5, 9, 21, 24, 74, 89, 106, 130, 133, 
134-5, 137, 192, 193, 228, 229, 261, 
266, 270, 403-6. 
Isle of Wight, 69. 

Jacobati House, 333. 

Jamaica, L, I., school at, 76. 

Jamaica, L. I., 105. 

Jamaica, W. I., 99, 214, 228. 

Johnson, Alderman, Colden's letter 
to, 95; mentioned, 46. 

Johnson, Col., 357, 404, 406, 407, 
422, 425. 

Johnson, Mrs., 125. 

Johnson, Samuel, letters of Colden 
to, 146-149, 160-164, 202-205, 212, 
281-284, 398-400; sends Bishop 
Berkeley's "De Motis" to Col- 
den, 228-9 ; letters of, to Colden, 
39-40, 76-77, 104-105, 120-122, 
127-8, 205-208, 228-229, 330-332, 
372-5, 398-400; relates cures by 
tar water and juice of poke- 
weed, 120-122; letter of John 
Hubbard to, 123-125; mentioned, 
39, 76, 104, 120, 127, 146, 148, 
160, 202, 205, 212, 228, 281, 330, 
372, 398. 

Johnston, Col., 284, 292. 

Johnston, Mr., 367. 

Johnston [William], 115. 

Johnstone, Dr., of New Jersey, 
126, 211. 

Johnstown, Lt., 370. 

Jones, Evan, letter of, to Colden, 
64-66; mentioned, 64, 411, 412. 

Jussieu, Messrs., 109. 

Kamshatka, expedition from, men- 
tioned, 159. 

Katskill Mts., 130, 178. 

Kennedy, Archibald, letter of 
Colden to, 335; letter of, to 
Cadwallader Colden, 310-11, 357- 
8, 358-9. 

Kennedy, Archibald, mentioned, 
46, 103, 215, 296, 366. 

Kennedy, Mrs., 335. 

Ker, Mr., 16. 

King's prerogative over the Col- 
onies opposed, 101. 

Kingston, N. Y., 53. 

Knight, Dr., 114, 159. 

Knowles, Mr., 422. 

Lake Champlain, 409. 



Lake Ontario, 409. 

Lane, Henry, 333. 

Lan^don, Capt., to go on expe- 
dition, 214. 

Lansing, John, Jr., 230, 233. 

Law, Gov. Jonathan, 25. 

Lawrence, Mr., 144. 

Lestock, Admiral, 54. 

Leyden, Holland, 33, 58. 

Lidius, John H., 115, 192, 366. 

Linnaeus' Characters Planiarum, 
new edition of, 5. 

Linnasus [Carolus], 28, 31, 32, 44, 
50, 55, 57, 58, 83, 84, 86, 89, 114, 
125, 189, 419. 

Lithgow, Hannah, letter of, to Col- 
den, 144. 

Livingston, James, 62. 

Livingston, manor of, 62. 

Livingston, Mr., 136, 137, 289. 

Livingston, Peter, 191. 

Livingston, Philip, examination of 
an Indian at the house of, 231 ; 
mentioned, 166. 191, 227, 231, 

247, 253, 255, 258, 295, 296, 305, 
340, 341, 420. 

Lock, Mr., 161, 206. 

Lodge, Mr., 103. 

London, Eng., mentioned, 1, 5, 10, 
22, 24, 27, 29, 30, 50, 53, 54, 58, 
72, 91, 92. 96. 99, 101, 109, 113, 
178, 189, 214, 221, 223, 224, 236, 
270, 291, 367, 371, 410, 420. 

London Magazine mentioned, 165. 

Logan [James], 77, 78, 83, 92, 93, 
226, 227, 274 ; agrees with Golden 
in his treatise on fluxions, 415. 

Lonsdale, Lord, 237, 410. 

Lothian, Marquiss, 16. 

Louisbourg, 106; strength of forti- 
fications at, 115-116; Golden's 
observations upon the plan 
against, 133-6; mentioned, 169, 

248, 264. 
Lowman, Mr., 163. 

Lydius, John H., 115, 192, 366. 

Macclesfield, Earl of, 100, 119, 145, 

McGlaghry, Ensign, 334. 

McDowal, Andrew, 384. 

McGra, Dr., 112. 

Mcintosh, Capt., to go on expe- 
dition, 214 ; surprised by Indians, 

McNeal, James, 277, 278, 413, 430. 

Magnetic steel, observations on 
the art of, 114-115, 159. 

Mahikander Indians, 235. 

Maillebois, Marshall, mentioned, 

Malebranche, Nicolas, mentioned, 

Maquas Indians, 166. 

Markham, Mr., 214, 215, 279. 

Marshall. Capt., promoted to Lt.- 
Gol., 268. 

Marshall & Collins, 366. 

Massachusetts, Commissioners of, 
present at Indian Conference, 

Mathews, Admiral, 52. 

Mathews, Mr., 334. 

Medicine, cure of the distemper 
called Dry Gripes, 97-98; tar 
water cures, 98, 102, 107-8, 121- 
122; cure of stone, mentioned, 
100; cancer, cured by pokeweed 
juice, 121, 123-125, 128-9, 148; 
star root cures, 130; cure of an 
injury from a horse kick, 130- 
132; Franklin reviews Golden's 
medical piece, 139-43; illness of 
Betty Alexander and the use of 
tar water, 154-6; medicinal 
springs to be analyzed by Bar- 
tram, 158; tar water cures, 160- 
161, 165, 166, 182; remarks on 
inoculation and smallpox, 191 ; 
four mortal distempers men- 
tioned, 270; the use of Madeira 
wine for fevers, 362-3. 

Mercury, ship, 59. 

Mesnard, Capt., 270. 

Messessagas Indians, 256, 258. 

Middleton, Capt., 27, 42, 51. 

Middletown, Conn., 121. 

Milford, Conn., 25. 

Militia, German & Mahock, to 
march to Oswego if necessary, 3. 

Milsman, Mrs., 103. 

Minerals, nature of, 26-27. 

Miron, Mr., 154. 

Mitchell. Dr., 77, 78, 79, 180, 182, 
183, 189, 227, 275, 369. 

Mitchell, John, letter of, to Frank- 
lin, 151-154. 

Mohawk Indians, 9, 22, 24, 25, 89, 
90, 137, 228, 233. 

Monel, James. 413. 

Monro, Mr., 152. 

Montgomerie, Miss, 359. 

Montreal, Canada, observations of 
the plan of operations against, 

Montreal, Canada, 134, 167, 235, 
242, 243, 264, 267, 409. 

Moore, John, 296, 420. 



Moore, Mr., 23, 41, 42, 291. 

Moore, Mrs., 388. 

Morris, Lewis, Gov. of N. J., 191. 

Morris, Mr., 333. 

Mount Royal, 245. 

Murray, Joseph, 166, 297, 305, 329, 
342, 347, 420. 

Murray, Hannah, her cure of can- 
cer, 128. 

Murray, Mr., 41, 46, 80, 82, 100, 
144, 214. 

Murray, Mrs., 214, 215, 359. 

Natural History, observations upon 
a lobster losing a claw, 35; ob- 
servation on the crab, 69-70, 110- 
111; observations by Bartram, 
419-20; description of the Col- 
denia, 428. 

Newark, N. J., 102, 103; riots 
mentioned, 195, 379. 

Newburgh, N. Y., 52, 156, 195, 
213, 240, 266, 273. 

New Castle, Duke of, Golden is 
recommended to, 293, 308; letter 
of Gov. Clinton to the, 381-4, 
390-4; mentioned, 369. 

New Haven, Conn., 105, 120, 121. 

New Jersey, disturbances in, 379- 

Newport, R. I., 40. 

Newton, Sir Isaac, mentioned, 7, 
9, 18, 20, 38, 110, 118, 163, 164, 
197, 201, 202, 206, 212. 

New York Council at Albany, 
opinion of, in reference to the 
attack on Crown Point, 262-5. 

New York City, Committee of 
Council meeting, 420-423. 

New York General Assembly, 
Gov. Clinton's message to, Nov. 
24, 1746, 284-290; Governor's 
Council attack Colden's pam- 
phlet on the treaty with the 
Six Nations, 294-305; Colden's 
memorandum of the dispute in 
Council, 306-7; address to the 
Freeholders on the election of 
Representatives to the, 312-28. 

New York, Franklin's request for 
a few canon from, for Phila- 
delphia, 432; the unhappy situa- 
tion at, 432; Post Master at, 15, 
92; Fresh Water Pond, 46; 
draining stagnating water and 
keeping the city clean, 95-96. 

New York City, corporation of, 
thanked by Clinton, 417-18; 
mentioned, 1, 3, 4, 22, 30, 34, 40, 

80, 92, 94, 
106, 107, 
138, 145, 
226, 261, 
293, 308, 
375, 378, 
409, 413, 

212, 213, 

127, 128, 
308, 336, 

41, 45, 48, 54, 61, 74, 79, 

95, 96, 99, 102, 103, 105, 

112, 115, 117, 119, 120, 

151, 154, 164, 219, 222, 

266, 276-280. 281, 290, 

332, 356, 359, 363, 370, 

380, 386, 394, 395, 402, 

417, 423, 425. 
Niagara, N. Y., 312. 
Nichols, Mr., 82, 195, 206, 

388, 424. 
Nichols, Mrs., 279, 424. 
Nichols, Richard, Post 

15, 24, 42, 92, 100, 120, 

188, 233, 240, 261, 266, 

Noble, Mr., 48. 
Norfolk, Duke of, 24. 
Norris, Mr., 274. 
Nuals, Mr., 108. 

Ogden, David, his cure with tar 
water, 102-103, 108. 

Oglethorpe, Gen., 403. 

Oneida Indians, 166, 228. 

Onondaga, N. Y., mentioned, 9, 
166, 252; Indians, 9, 24, 228. 

Orondax Indians, 235. 

Osborn, Dr., 121, 127, 160. 

Osborne, Thomas, letter of, to 
Golden, 402-403; mentioned, 402, 
410, 424, 427. 

Osbourn, Mr., bookseller, under- 
takes to print Colden's Indian 
History, 369, 370. 

Oswego, N. Y., Gov. Clarke is 
anxious about, 2; German «fe 
Mahock Militia to march to the 
assistance of, if necessary, 3; 
concerning the erection of Fort 
at, 72-5; mentioned, 5, 9, 112, 
168, 235, 236, 264, 409. 

Ottawa Indians, 9. 

Otto, Mr., 33. 

Paper, cost of, in England, 59. 

Papin, John, Jr., 33. 

Paris, France, 126. 

Paris Garden, 109. 

Paris, Mr., 41. 

Parker, James, to print Colden's 
treatise on tar water, 102, 108, 
121; mentioned, 184, 194, 196, 
198, 201. 

Patterson, John, 129. 

Pemberton, Mr., 48. 

Pennsylvania, 31, 33. 

Pennsylvania Gazette, 48. 

Pennsylvania troops' mutiny, 385. 

Perry, Micajah, 16. 



Petersburgh, Russia, 158, 159. 

Perth Amboy, N. J., 379. 

Perth, Duke of, 221. 

Petres, Lord, mentioned, 5. 

Philadelphia, Pa., 21, 23, 30, 34, 
46, 60, 62, 78, 91, 92, 94, 96, 100, 
102, 114, 126, 139, 144, 152, 177, 
178, 189, 190, 219, 223, 224, 225, 
227, 237, 273, 291, 396, 410, 418, 
424, 429, 431. 

Philadelphia, raising money for a 
battery of canon below the city, 

Phillipse, Mr., 342. 

Philosophical Society, 34, 60, 61, 
69, 82, 93, 114, 143, 159-160, 180, 
182, 188. 

Philosophy, of an idea or concep- 
tion of things, 161-163, 202-205, 
205-8, 430-1. 

Portsmouth, Eng., 209. 

Post, the, comes to Albany only 
once a month in 1743, 1. 

Post Master at New York, 15. 

Prague, seige of, mentioned, 2. 

Precious stone, found, 5. 

Prince, Mr., 104, 105, 120, 121, 127, 
148, 160, 161. 

Printing, cost of, in England, 59. 

Proctor, Lt., 370, 

Quadrant, mentioned, 35-36; de- 
scribed, 145-6. 

Quebec, Canada, 116, 134, 242, 243, 
263, 264, 267; observations of 
the plan of operations against, 

Rattlesnake, bite of, observations 

on, 66-68, 89. 
Ray, Mr., 28, 86, 114. 
Read, James, 402, 424, 427. 
Reeder, Josiah, 291. 
Richards, Capt., 366. 
Richmond, Duke of, 24. 
Roberts, Capt., promoted to Lt.- 

Col., 268, 269, 273. 
Roberts, Col., 288, 299, 300, 334, 

346, 347, 348, 365, 376, 385, 

Rockcliff, Mr., 237. 
Rose, Mr., 227, 415. 
Rotterdam, Holland, 33, 159. 
Rowley, Mr., 62. 
Russel, Dr., 121. 
Rutherfurd, Eleanor (Mrs. John), 

letter of, to Cadwallader Golden, 

Rutherfurd, Mrs., 29, 366. 

Rutherfurd, Capt. John, 15, 23, 29, 
52, 53, 101, 130, 311. 

Rutherfurd, Sir John, 16. 

Rutherfurd, John, letters of, to 
Colden, 1-3, 6-10, 17-21, 105-7, 
112-113, 115, 132-133, 192-193, 
218-219, 272-3, 284, 334-5, 365-7, 
370-1 ; mentioned, 5, 16, 193, 229, 
231, 238, 239, 247, 253, 255, 258, 
266, 273, 292, 293, 333, 334, 387; 
Colden 's letters to, 15-16, 311-12; 
frontier affairs, 1, 6, 17, 105, 112, 
192-3, 284, 334, 365-7, 370-1 ; ob- 
servations on Louisbourgh and 
Cape Breton expedition, 115- 
116; asks Colden how he may be 
made Lt.-Col. in the expedition 
against Canada, 218-219; pro- 
moted Major of New York 
forces, 268; seeks a Colonel's 
commission, 366; mentioned, 115, 
132, 166 192, 218, 272, 284, 334, 
365, 370, 371, 387. 

Rutherfurd, Mrs. John, 229, 232, 
238, 240, 241, 259, 273, 284, 312, 

Sadelhof, Mr., 33. 

St. Christopher, W. I., 54. 

St. Clair, Gen., 381. 

St. Lawrence River, 263, 264. 

Salisbury, B. J., 332. 

Sally, ship, 119, 224. 

Sandin, John, 428. 

Saratoga, N. Y., condition of the 
garrison at, 230-31; mentioned, 
192, 249, 256, 311, 316, 370, 376, 
382, 404, 405, 423. 

Schuyler, Col., 192, 193, 385. 

Schuyler, Myndert, 230, 233. 

Schuyler, Mrs. 117. 

Scot, Capt., 359. 

Scott, Mr., 62. 

Scotland, mentioned, 1. 

Scroope, Mr., 70, 119, 237. 

Seneca Indians, not at Conferences 
with Five Nations, 167, 177; 
mentioned, 3, 9. 

Shahan, Mr., 424. 

Shatford, Capt., 335, 339, 357, 358. 

Sherbine, Mr., 370. 

Shirley, Gov. William, letter of, 
to the Six Nations, urging them 
to join an expedition against 
Canada, 208-209 ; observations 
on the plan of operations against 
Quebec and Montreal communi- 
cated by, to Gov. Clinton, 215- 
218; mentioned, 2, 120, 169, 174, 



262, 265, 276, 285, 308, 311, 359, 
366, 422. 
Short, J., 145. 
Silk Manufacture, 25. 
Sisson, Jonathan, letter of, to Col- 
den, 71-72; describes the circum- 
ferenter he made for Golden, 71 ; 
his letter to Alexander about 
Sectors, 99; cost of circumfer- 
enter, 145 ; mentioned, 52, 61 ; 
his account with Collinson, 70, 
Six Nations, answer of, to the 
propositions of Gov. Clinton, 
173-177; Gov. William Shirley's 
letter to the, urging them to join 
an expedition against Canada, 
208-9; efforts to keep them at 
peace, 233-6; Gov. Clinton's 
speech and propositions to, Aug., 
1746, and their answer, 247-259; 
to join in the attack on Canada, 
262-5; Colden's pamphlet on the 
treaty with the, attacked by the 
Council, 294-305; referred to the 
Duke of New Castle, 308; 
Colden reaffirms the truth of 
his statements concerning the, 
treaty, 329-30. 
Skinners to remove to Fresh 

Water, 46. 
Sloan, Sir Hans, 79, 189, 270. 
Smith, William, 46, 48, 82. 
Smith, Mr., 144. 
Spencer, Dr., 46. 
Spratt, Mr., 61. 
Steel, art of giving magnetic power 

to, 114-115, 159. 
Stereotype, called new method of 
printing: see under Cadwallader 
Stevens, Aaron, 404, 405. 
Stevenson, Jo., 231, 236. 
Stove Chimneys, approved, 83, 91 ; 
Franklin's invention of, sent to 
Europe by Colden, 91. 
Strahan, William, letters of, to 
Colden, 58-59; Colden's letters 
to, 37-39; does not think Col- 
den's new method of printing is 
practicable, 58-9; sends his 
journeyman to Franklin, 59; 
mentioned, 28, 37, 52, 58, 222. 
Stratford, Conn., 39, 76, 104, 120, 
125, 127-128, 160, 228, 283, 330, 
372 398 
Stratford, Mr., 400. 
Susquehanna River, 5, 22, 24. 
Sydenham, Dr., 98. 

Tanners, to remove to Fresh 
Water, 46. 

Taylor, Mr., 273. 

Ten Brook, Capt., an Albany 
skipper, 200, 272. 

Ten Broeck, Dirck, 230, 233. 

Ten Brook, Mr., 303. 

Ten Eyck, Hendrick, 230, 233. 

Thomas, Sir George, Lt.-Gov., of 
Pa., 238, 366. 

Tiebout, Capt., to go on expedi- 
tion, 214; mentioned, 387. 

Tiffen, Capt., 403. 

Tober, Mr., 274. 

Torrington, man-of-war, 106. 

Tournfort, Mr., 28, 78, 114. 

Trent, Capt., 370, 371. 

Trois Rivieres, 242, 243. 

Truman & Douglas, 368. 

Tucker, Mr., 424. 

Tucker, Mrs., 424. 

Tuscany, Duke of, mentioned, 2. 

Tuscaroroes, Indians, 166. 

Twight, Col., 366. 

Van Cortlandt, Philip, 298, 305. 

Van Ingen, Mr., 159. 

Van Sweeten, Dr., 126. 

Van Zadelhoff, Bard, 57. 

Van Zadelhoff, Dan, 57. 

Vesey, Mr., 76. 

Virginia, quarrel with the Indians, 

9, 21, 24; mentioned, 78, 79, 

101, 106. 

Waddel, Capt., 310. 

Waldo, Col., 268, 334, 366. 

Walnuts, mentioned, 3; how to 
plant them, 4. 

Warren, Lady, 388, 396, 423. 

Warren, Sir Peter, letter of Colden 
to, concerning the Canadian ex- 
pedition, 425-6. 

Warren, Sir Peter, 161, 248, 262, 
265, 280, 284, 285, 311, 364, 396, 
425; extract of a letter to Gov. 
Clinton, 432. 

Watkins, Rev. Mr., 39, 76, 104, 
120, 121, 127, 202, 212, 332, 398. 

Watts, Mrs., 388, 389. 

Weiser, Mr., 273. 

Welles, Samuel, letter of, to Cad- 
wallader Colden, the attack on 
Crown Point, 267-8; mentioned, 

Wendell, Jacob, 255. 

Westchester, N. Y., 220, 221, 417. 

West Indies, 97, 101, 242. 

Whitsom, Scotland, 30, 54, 178. 

448 INDEX 

Wills, Samuel, 255. Wood Creek, 216, 217, 376. 

Wilson, Mr., 190. Wraxall, Peter, letter of, to Golden, 

Winthrop, Mrs., 125. 3S5-6; mentioned, 311, 334, 385.