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For the Years 1889-91. 







Objects of Collection 5 

Rules and By-Lawg 7 

Introductory 9 

List of Officers 13 

" " Members 14 

Vinland 17 

Notes on Census of 1767 . . . .- 45 

Early History of St. George's Church (Part 2.) 73 

Papers relating to Eai-ly History of Church of England in Nova Scotia . 89 

Deportation of Negroes from Nova Scotia to Sierra Leone 129 

Papers Published in Vol. VI 155 

" Read since issue of Vol. V . 156 


1. Manuscript statements and narratives of pioneer settlers, old 
letters and journals relative to the earl}' history and settlement of 
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Prince Edward 
Island, and the wars of 1776 and 1812; biographical notes of our 
pioneers and of eminent citizens deceased, and facts illustrative of our 
Indian tribes, their history, characteristics, sketches of their prominent 
chiefs, orators and warriors, together with contributions of Indian 
implements, dress, ornaments and curiosities. 

2. Diaries, narratives and documents relative to the Loyalists, 
their expulsion from the old colonies and their settlement in the 
Maritime Provinces. 

3. Files of newspapers, books, pamphlets, college catalogues, 
minutes of ecclesiastical conventions, associations, conferences and 
synods, and all other publications, relating to this Province, New 
Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland. 

4. Drawings and descriptions of our ancient mounds and fortifi- 
cations, their size, representation and locality. 

5. Information respecting articles of Pre-historic Antiquities, 
especially implements of copper, stone, or ancient coin or other 
curiosities found in any of the Maritime Provinces, together with the 
locality and condition of their discovery. The contribution of all 
such articles to the cabinet of the society is most earnestly desired. 

6. Indian geographical names of streams and localities, with their 
signification and all information generally, respecting the condition, 
language and history of the Micinac, Malicetes and Bethucks. 

7. Books of all kinds, especially such as relate to Canadian history, 
travels, and biography in general, and Lower Canada or Quebec in 
particular, family genealogies, old magazines, pamphlets, files of news- 
papers, maps, historical manuscripts, autographs of distinguished 
persons, coins, medals, paintings, portraits, statuary and engravings. 


8. We solicit from Historical Societies and other learned bodies 
that interchange of books and other materials by which the usefulness 
of institutions of this nature is so essentially enhanced, pledging cur- 
selves to i-epay such contributions by acts in kind to the best of our 

9. The Society particularly begs the favor and compliments of 
authors and publishers, to present, with their autographs, copies of 
their respective works for its library. 

10. Editors and publishers, of newspapers, magazines and reviews, 
will confer a lasting favor on the Society by contributing their publi- 
cations regularly for its library, where they may be expected to be 
found always on a file and carefully preserved. We aim to obtain and 
preserve for those who shall come after us a perfect copy of every book, 
pamphlet or paper ever printed in or about Nova Scotis, New Bruns- 
wick, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland. 

11. Nova Scotians residing abroad have it in their power to 
render their native province great service by making donations to our 
library of books, pamphlets, manuscript, &c., bearing on any of the 
Provinces of the Dominion or Newfoundland. To the relatives 
descendants, etc., of our colonial governors, judges and military officers, 
we especially appeal on behalf of our Society for all papers, books 
pamphlets, letters, etc., which may throw light on the history of any 
of the Province* of the Dominion. 



1. This Society shall be called The Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

2. The objects of the Society shall be the collection and preserva- 
tion of all documents, papers and other objects of interest which may 
serve to throw light upon and illustrate the history of this country ; 
the reading at the meetings of the Society, of papers on historical 
subjects ; the publication, so far as the funds of the Society will allow, 
of all such documents and papers as it may be deemed desirable to 
publish ; and the formation of a library of books, papers, and manu- 
scripts, affording information, and illustrating Historical subjects. 

3. Each member shall pay towards the funds of the Society, Five 
"Dollars at the time of his admission, and two dollars on the second 
day of January in each succeeding year, but any member shall be 
exempted from the annual payment of Two Dollars and shall become a 
Life Member, provided he shall at any time after six months from his 
admission pay to the Treasurer the sum of Forty Dollars in addition 
to what he had paid before. The sums received for Life Memberships 
to be invested, and the interest only used for ordinary purposes. 
Persons not resident within fifteen miles of Halifax may become 
members on payment of Two Dollars at the time of admission, and 
One Dollar annually thereafter. 

No person shall be considered a member nntil his first fee is paid, 
and if any member shall allow his dues to remain unpaid for two 
years, his name shall be struck from the roll 

4. Candidates for membership shaU be proposed at a regular 
meeting of the Society by a member ; the proposition shall remain on 
the table for one month, or until the next regular meeting, when a 
ballot shall be taken ; one black ball in five excluding. 

5. The regular meetings of the Society shall be held on the second 
Tuesday of every month, at 8 p. m. And special meetings shall be 
convened, if necessary, on due notification of the President, or in case 
of his absence, by the Vice-President, or on the application of any 
five members. 


6. The annual meeting of the Society shall be held on the second 
Tuesday of February of each year, at 8 p. m., at which meeting there 
shall be chosen a President, three Vice-Presidents, a Corresponding 
Secretary, Recording Secretary and Treasurer. At the same meeting 
four members shall be chosen, who, with the foregoing, shall constitute 
the Council of the Society. 

The election of members to serve on the N". S. Library Commission, 
under the provisions of Chapter 17, N. S. Acts of 1880, shall take 
place each year at the annual meeting, immediately after the election 
of Officers and Council. 

7. All communications which are thought worthy of preservation 
shall be minuted down on the books of the Society, and the original 
kept on file. 

8. Seven members shall be a quorum for all purposes at ordinary 
meetings, but at the Annual Meeting in February, when ten members 
shall form a quorum. Xo article of the constitution nor any by-law 
shall be altered at any meeting when less than ten members are 
present, nor unless the subject has either been discussed at a previous 
meeting, or reported on by a committee appointed for that purpose. 

9. The President and Council shall hava power to elect Corres- 
ponding and Honorary Members, who shall be exempt from dues ; and 
the duties of the Officers and Council shall be the same as those 
performed generally in other Societies. 

10. The Publication Committee shall consist of three, and shall be 
nominated by the Council. To them shall be referred all manuscripts, 
etc., for publication, and their decision shall be linal. 


A memorandum of the President read to the Historical Society, 
dealing with the work of the Society up to the opening of the session 
of 1890-91, and with other matters appertaining thereto, appears to the 
publication committee to form a suitable introduction to the volume of 
proceedings : 

Thirteen years nearly have passed away since our society was 
instituted. The first meeting, with this object, was held on the 2nd 
January, 1878. After deliberation, it was decided that a society 
should be organized forthwith. In April of that year officers were 
chosen, and the society went into operation under the presidency of 
the Hon. J. W. Eitchie, at that time judge in equity, who had taken 
a lively interest in the movement, and who continued his cordial 
support of it till laid aside from active duty by failure of health. 

The society was formally inaugurated in June, 1875, at a meeting 
held in the assembly room of this building, when the Rev. Dr. Hill 
presided in the absence of the president, who, owing to illness, was 
unable to attend. 

Since then a regular session of the society has been held during 
the winter of each year. Papers have been read beaing on subjects 
within the scope of the society's work. Some 75 papers have been con- 
tributed, dealing with matters connected with the early history of the 
province. In this way a very considerable amount of valuable material 
has been put into a .shape for preservation. Six volumes of our trans- 
actions have been published, and a seventh is ready for publication. 
The volumes already published have found their way to the libraries of 
very many persons interested in pursuits analogous to our own. There 
are few of the larger libraries on this continent, on whose shelves they 
are not to be found. 

We have gone on quietly. With the exception of the inaugural 
meeting, we have made no effort to assemble a large number of persons. 
Our aim has been to go on unobtrusively with our work, averse to 
display and content with success. I am glad to be able to say that 
the number of our members increases annually, and at this moment 
is larger than it has ever been, 


Our neighbors to the south of us attach great value to these 
societies. Almost every state has at least one such society some have 
several a few of the leading States a great many. Massachusetts 
alone has 39 historical societies, New York has 32, Pennsylvania has 
27. In all there arc over 200 in the United States all engaged in 
work similiar to ours. 

It would appear, therefore, that the cause in which we are engaged 
appeals to the instinct very widely diffused, to an innate desire to 
preserve the incidents of early history in the home, in the town, in the 
province and in the country, with which our lives are associated. 

In 1886 a great national society was formed in the United States. 
It is called the American Historical Association, and includes in its 
membership the most distinguished literary men of the United States, 
and a fair sprinkling of the same class of Canadians. 

The time is at hand when a similar Society for the Dominion of 
Canada would seem to be required ; whose objects should be Canadian, 
as those of the United States are national. 

It was thought when our Society was first started that we should 
soon exhaust the subjects connected with a province so small as ours. 
But experience has shown thus far, at least that the supply of sub- 
jects has not failed, Not only is there no failure, but just as the 
attention of our people is more and more turned to matters of this 
nature, new material is being constantly unearthed. There is little 
danger of our work stopping because there is no more work to do. It 
would be easy to point ont many subjects, as yet untouched, which 
might well occupy the attention of inquirers. I am glad to be able to 
inform the Society that we have already had intimation from numbers 
of gentlemen who propose to contribute papers, stating the subjects 
with which they propose to deal, and if they carry out their present 
intention their contributions will furnish valuable addition to our work. 

The scope of our Society admits of almost every subject which has 
local color, either that of the individual, of the home, of the town, the 
county, or the province. 

We have already had reproduced to us the aspect of this city in its 
early days. We have had its extent and progress depicted to us ; we 
have had the nomenclature of its streets described and accounted for. 
We have had a history of the construction of our public buildings, 
together with many curious incidents connected therewith, which were 
unknown to the present generation of Nova Scotians. We have had 
various papers read in connection with the aboriginal inhabitants of 
this province. Their stone age has been the subject of one article. 
Their historic galleries inscribed on the slate rocks of one of our lakes 
have been exhibited and interpreted. An article on Vinland takes us 
back to an earlier age, and goes to show that the first European settle- 
ment on this continent, that of the Icelandic rovers of the eleventh 
century was on the shores of British America. We have had a 
valuable paper on early journalism in Nova Scotia. We have had a 


history of the French Acadians, detailing their sad fate, and the causes 
which led to it. We have had the Ashburton treaty discussed, shewing 
the damage to Nova Scotia and to Canada, arising from the ignorance 
of British negotiators as to the geography of the country and the extent 
and value of the tenitoiy they gave away. These are samples of the 
work already done, and indications of what we may expect in the 

As regards the present session, our arrangements are complete. Our 
list of lectures is full, and I congratulate the society on the prospect of 
an interesting and instructive session." 


Elected lOth February, 1891. 











(Under Chap. 17, N. S. Acts, 1880.) 








ALLEN, T. C., 
ALMON, T. R., 
ALMON, C. M., 

ALMON, REV. H. L. A. (Yarmouth) 
BAKER, HON. L. E., (Yarmouth), 
BELL, F. H., 
BOWES, F. W., 
BROWN, W. L., 
CAHAN, C. H., 
CURRY. A. M., 

DESBRISAY, Hon. M. B., (Bridge- 


DOANE, ARNOLD, (Barrington) 
EATON, B. H., 
FOSTER, E. V. B., 



FRASER, HON. D. C., (N. Glasgow) 


FRYE, HON. W. G , 



GOUDGE, M. H., (Windsor) 

GRAHAM, Hon. W., 

GREEN, F. W., 

HART, GERALD E , (Montreal) 


HILL, P. C., Jit., 

HILL, W. H., 

HIND, H. Y., (Windsor) 



HUBBARD, J. M., (Boston) 


JAMES, N. C., 



KING. D. A., 


LAVERS, G. E., (Yarmouth) 



LEWIS, W. J., 



LYONS, W. A., 





McSHANE, IiT.-COL., J. R., 






McKAY, A. H., 





MORSE, HON. W. D., (Amherst) 





NICHOLS, REV. DR., (Liverpool) 

NUTTING, C. M., (Truro) 




PATTERSON, REV. D., (N. Glasgow) 






PYKE, J. G., (Liverpool) 

READ, H. H., 

RlCHEY, M. H., 

ROBERTS, S. G. D., (Windsor) 


Ross, W. B., 


SAVARY, HON. A. W., (Annapolis) 






SHEWEN, E. T. P., 
STERNS, R. S., (Liverpool) 
STORY, J. D., 
THORN E, E. L., 

TROOP, A. G., 
TROOP, W. H., 
WHITE, N. W., (Shelburne) 

COGSWELL, C. C., M.D.,London,G. B. 


WARD, ROBERT, Bermuda. 

Charlottetown, P. E. I. 

HILL, REV. G. W., D. C. L., England. 
PARKMAN, F. L.LD., Boston, Mass. 
TOBIN, W. B., London, G. B. 



(Read before I In; tiocicly, January 14, 1887.) 

Vinland or Wine-laud is, as is now somewhat generally known, the 
name given by the Norsemen of Iceland to a region lying southwardly 
and westwardly of Greenland, accidentally discovered about the close of 
the tenth century, by a ship's company who had sailed to Greenland, 
then recently colonized by Erik the Red. 

I do not propose to discuss or to repeat at length the history of that 
accidental discovery and of the more deliberate expeditions which 
succeeded it. The story, as told in the Sagas of Erik the Red and of 
Thorfinn Karlsefne, is short and simple, though indefinite enough to 
involve the subject in the same historical haze which surrounds the early 
days of most countries of the eastein continents. Outside of the two 
sagas just named, the former of which is said to have been written in 
Greenland and the latter in Iceland, and a few scattered passages in 
other old writings, chiefly Icelandic, we know nothing of Vinland ; and 
there is no more direct information accessible to readers unacquainted 
with the Norse language to-day than there was immediately after the 
appearance of Professor Rafn's great volume of American Antiquities 
some fifty years ago. The portions of this work supposed to bear upon 
the pre-Columbian discovery of America were translated into English 
shortly after the publication of the original at Copenhagen ; and com- 
mentaries and translations in various tongues are comparatively 
numerous. Two admirable papers, embodying all that was known of 
Greenland ami Vinland, were read before the old Literary and Histori- 
cal Society of Halifax more than twenty years ago by the late Robert 
Morrow. They were characterized by the accuracy, ingenuity, careful 
research and completeness which were found in all the literary and 
scientific work of their lamented author. They secured his election a:-, 
a member of the Copenhagen Society of Northern Antiquarians ; and, 


unless 1 have been misinformed, a distinguished Briton showed his 
appreciation of their value by publishing the substance of one or both 
as his own production. Some two years ago Mr. Peter Jack read before 
this Society a translation of the sagas of Erik and Thorfinn, made by 
Mr. Ove Lauge, a Norwegian gentleman, which differs only in a very 
few particulars from those previously made from the Icelandic into 
English. This translation I have, through Mr. Jack's kindness, had 
ample opportunity to read with care It will be seen that the subject 
of this paper is not altogether unfamiliar to Halifax audiences, and that 
I cannot even claim the credit of being the first to introduce it to the 
notice of my fellow-citizens. 

I do not propose to consider the question of the reliability of the 
sagas ; that has been fully discussed and settled. That there are 
inaccuracies of detail is true, but their general truthfulness is now 
hardly doubted. That the Norsemen made discoveries in America is 
denied by few ; but very considerable differences of opinion exist as to 
the localities of those discoveries, as to where Helluland, Markland, and 
more especially Vinland were. The prevalent opinion in comparatively 
early days seems to have been that the Vinland of the old Norsemen 
was either Newfoundland or a portion of Labrador. Torfason, or, as 
he is generally called, Torfaeus, who lived from 1636 to 1719, and whose 
History of Ancient Vinland was published at Copenhagen in 1705 ? 
adopted and sustained this opinion, which was concurred in among 
others by Pinkerton, who published an important work on geography 
about the year 1810. 

Professor Rafn, author of the American Antiquities, published at 
Copenhagen in 1837, expressed his conviction that Helluland was 
identical with Labrador and Newfoundland ; that Markland was the 
name given to Nova Scotia, and that Vinland was situated in Rhode 
Island and the portion of Massachusetts lying to the eastward of Rhode 
Island. There was a positiveness, a precision and a minuteness of 
detail about Rafn's development of his theory which secured for it early 
and general acceptation. The Norse tower at Newport, the Norse 
inscription on the Dighton Rock, and the identification of Mount Hope 
with the Hop of the Northern voyagers, seemed to most people to remove 
the locality of the Vinland settlement once for all from tho region of 
speculation. There were always, we may be sure, some dissatisfied 
ones, but their voices were not very distinctly heard arnid the general 
chorus of assent with which the publication of Rafn's views was 


received. For nearly forty years those views were generally accepted ; 
but of late expressions of dissent have made themselves heard, and a 
tendency to revert to the theories entertained before 1837 has shown 
itself. 1 had read with much interest Mr. Morrow's papers already 
referred to, as well as one written by Dr. J. G. Kohl for the Maine 
Historical Society, and had become convinced that Rafn, with whose con- 
clusions these gentlemen concurred, had placed Vinland too far south ; 
and in 1882 I proposed to read a paper before the Historical Society 
expressing my convictions upon this point. 

In Harper's Magazine for September of that year I found an 
article by T. W. Higginson, entitled " The Visit of th Vikings, " in 
which most of what I had proposed to say was set forth by that acute 
and graceful writer in a more taking and telling way than could have 
been done by me. With some inclination to bestow upon Colonel 
Higginson the malediction pronounced long ago by the Latin writer 
upon those who had said his good things before him, I gave up the 
intention of bringing my views before this Society. But when, at the 
invitation of our President, 1 undertook a few weeks ago to read a paper 
this winter, I decided to sacrifice originality to ease, and to fall back 
upon Vinland. 

Amongst other works which I have had an opportunity to consult 
is the Discoveries of America to the Year 1525, (published in 1884) 
by Arthur James Weise, of Troy, New York, kindly loaned me by the 
Reverend Principal Forrest, of Dalhousie College, who is the owner of 
what I believe to be the only copy of this valuable book to be found in 
Nova Scotia. Mr. Weise has evidently studied most carefully the 
authorities bearing upon the subject matter of his work ; and, upon the 
question of the Northmen's voyages, there is much valuable information 
in a small space. In this book we find the reaction against Rafn's 
theory carried to an extreme ; for Mr. Weise holds, as did Murray the 
author of Discoveries and Travels in North America, published at London 
in 1829 that Vinland was situate on the great peninsula of Greenland, 
and not elsewhere. In my humble opinion the view of Weise as to the 
location of Vinland, is not more correct than that of Rafn and his 
followers. As in so many cases, the truth probably lies in the middle. 

Having said so much by way of introduction, the best course will be 
to read those portions of the Sagas of Erik the Red, and of Thorfinn 
Karlsefne, which are calculated to throw light upon the whereabouts 


of Vinland. Having read those, we shall be in a better position to 
judge of the values of various theories as to that moot point 

My quotations are taken from The Discovery of America, by the North- 
men, by North Ludlow Beamish, of Cork, Ireland, published at London 
in 1841. All except those relating to Thorfinn's Voyage, are taken 
from the Saga of Erik the Red. 


" Herjulf was the son of Bard Herjulfson ; he was kinsman to the colonist 
Ingolf. To Herjulf gave Ingolf land between Vog and Reykjaness. Herjulf 
lived first at Drepstock; Thorgerd hight his wife, and Biarni was their son, 
a very hopeful man. He conceived, when yet young, a desire to travel 
abroad, and soon earned for himself both riches and respect, and he was 
every second winter abroad, every other at home with his father. Soon 
possessed Biarni his own ship, and the last winter he was in Norway, 
Herjulf prepared for a voyage to Greenland with Erik. In the ship with 
Herjulf was a Christian from the Hebrides, who made a hymn respecting 
the whirlpool, in which was the following verse : 

O thou who triest holy men ! 
Now guide me on my way, 
Lord of the earth's wide vault, extend 
Thy gracious hand to me ! 

" Herjulf lived at Herjulfsness ; he was a very respectable man. Erik 
the Red lived at Brattahlid ; he was the most looked up to, and everyone 
regulated themselves by him. These were Erik's children ; Leif, Thorvald 
and Thorstein, but Freydis hight his daughter ; she was married to a man 
who Thorvard hight ; they lived in Garde, where is now the Bishop's seat ; 
she was very haughty, but Thorvard was narrow-minded ; she was married 
to him chiefly on account of his money. Heathen were the people in 
Greenland at this time. Biarni came to Eyrar with his ship the summer 
of the same year in which his father had sailed away in spring. These 
tidings appeared serious to Biarni, and he was unwilling to unload his ship. 
Then his seamen asked him what he would do ; he answered that he 
intended to continue his custom, and pass the winter with his father : ' and 
I will,' said he, ' bear for Greenland if ye will give me your company.' 
All said that they would follow his counsel. Then said Biarni : ' Imprudent 
will appear our voyage since none of us has been in the Greenland ocean.' 
However, they put to sea so soon as they were ready, and sailed for three 
days, until the land was out of sight under the water ; but then the fair 
wind fell, and there arose north winds and fogs, and they knew not where 
they were, and thus it continued for many days. After that they saw the 
sun again, and could discover the sky; they now made sail, and sailed for 
that day, before they saw land, and counselled with each other about what 
land that could be, and Biarni said that he thought it could not be Green- 
land. They asked whether he wished to sail to this land or not. ' My 
advice is,' said he, ' to sail close to the land ;' and so they did, and soon 
saw that the land was without mountains, and covered with wood, and had 
small heights. Then left they the land on their larboard side, and let the 
stern turn from the land. Afterwards they sailed two days before they saw 
another land. They asked if Biarni thought that this was Greenland, but 
he said that he as little believed this to be Greenland as the other : 
' because in Greenland are said to be very high ice hills.' They soon 


approached the land, and saw that it was a flat land covered with wood. 
Then the fair wind fell, and the sailors said that it seemed to them most 
advisable to land there ; but Biarni was unwilling to do so. They 
pretended that they were in want of both wood and water. ' Ye have no 
want of either of the two,' said Biarni ; for this, however, he met with some 
reproaches from the sailors. He bade them make sail, and so was done ; 
they turned the prow from the land, and, sailing out into the open sea for 
three days, with a south-west wind, saw then the third land ; and this land 
was high, and covered with mountains and ice-hills. Then asked they 
whether Biarni would land there, but he said that he would not : ' for to 
me this land appears little inviting.' Therefore did they not lower the 
sails, but held on along this land, and saw that it was an island ; again 
turned they the stern from the land, and sailed out into the sea with the 
same fair wind ; but the breeze freshened, and Biarni then told them to 
shorten sail, and not sail faster than their ship and ship's gear could hold 
out. They sailed now four days, when they saw the fourth land. Then 
asked they Biarni whether he thought that this was Greenland or not. 
Biarni answered : ' This is the most like Greenland, according to what I 
have been told about it, and here will we steer for land.' So did they, and 
landed in the evening under a ness ; and there was a boat by the ness, and 
just here lived Biarni's father, and from him has the ness taken its name, 
and is since called Herjulfness." 


" There was now much talk about voyages of discovery. Leif, the son of 
Erik the Red, of Brattahlid, went to Biarni Herjulfson, and bought the ship 
of him, and engaged men for it, so that there were thirty-five men in all. 
Leif asked his father Erik to be the leader on the voyage, but Erik excused 
bimself, saying that he was now pretty well stricken in years, and could not 
now, as formerly, hold out all the hardships of the sea. Leif said that still 
he was the one of the family whom good fortune would soonest attend ; and 
Erik gave in to Leif's request, and rode from home so soon as they were 
ready : and it was but a short way to the ship. The horse stumbled that 
Erik rode, and he fell off, and bruised his foot. Then said Erik : ' It is not 
ordained that I should discover more countries than that which we now 
inhabit, and we should make no further attempt in company.' Erik went 
home to Brattahlid, but Leif repaired to the ship, and his comrades with 
him, thirty-five men. There was a southern on the voyage, who Tyrker 
hight. Now prepared they their ship, and sailed out into the sea when 
they were ready, and then found that land first which Biarni had found 
last. There sailed they to the land, and cast anchor, and put off boats and 
went ashore, and saw there no grass. Great icebergs were over all up the 
country, but like a plain of flat stones was all from the sea to the mountains, 
and it appeared to them that this land had no good qualities. Then said 
Leif : ' We have not done like Biarni about this land, that we have not been 
upon it ; now will I give the land a name, and call it Helluland.' Then went 
they on board, and alter that sailed out to sea, and found another land ; they 
sailed again to the land, and cast anchor, then put off boats and went on 
shore. This land was flat, and covered with wood and white sands were far 
around where they went, and the shore was low. Then said Leif: 'This 
land shall be named after its qualities, and called Markland (woodland).' 
They then immediately returned to the ship. Now sailed they thence into 
the open sea with a north-east wind, and were two days at sea before they 
saw land, and they sailed thither and camo to an island which lay to the 
eastward of the land, and went up there, and looked round them in good 
weather, and observed that there was dew upon the grass; and it so 


happened that they touched the dew with their hands, and raised the 
fingers to the mouth, and they thought that they had never before tasted 
any thing so sweet. 

After that they went to the ship, and sailed into a sound, which lay 
between the island and a ness (promontory), which ran out to the eastward 
of the land ; and then steered westward past the ness. It was very shallow 
at ebb tide, and their ship stood up, so that it was far to see from the ship 
to the water. 

But so much did they desire to land, that they did not give themselves 
time to wait until the water again rose under their ship, but ran at once on 
shore, at a place where a river flows out of a lake ; but so soon as the 
waters rose up under the ship, then took they boats, and rowed To the ship, 
and floated it up to the river, and thence into the lake, and there cast 
anchor, and brought up from the ship their skin cots, and made there 

After this took they counsel, and formed the resolution of remaining 
there for the winter, and built there large houses. There was no want of 
salmon either in the river or in the lake, and larger salmon than they had 
before seen. The nature of the country was, as they thought, so good, that 
cattle would not require house feeding in winter, for there came no frost in 
winter, and little did the grass wither there. Day and night were more 
equal than in Greenland or Iceland, for on the shortest day, was the sun 
above the horizon from half-past seven in the forenoon till half-past four in 
the afternoon. 

But when they had done with the house building, Leif said to his 
comrades : ' Now will I divide our men into two parts, and have the land 
explored, and the half of the men shall remain at home at the house, while 
the other half explore the land ; but however not go further than that they 
can come home in the evening, and they should not separate.' Now they 
did so for a time, and Leif changed about, so that the one day he went 
with them, and the other remained at home in the house. Leif was a 
great and strong man, grave and well favored, therewith sensible and 
moderate in all things. 

It happened one evening that a man of the party was missing, and this 
was Tyrker the German. This took Leif much to heart, for Tyrker had been 
long with his father and him, and loved Leif much in his childhood. Leif 
now took his people severely to task, and prepared to seek for Tyrker, and 
took twelve men with him. But when they had gotten a short way from 
the house, then came Tyrker towards them, and was joyfully received. 
Leif soon saw that his foster-father was not in his right senses. Tyrker 
had a high forehead, and unsteady eyes, was freckled in the face, small 
and mean in stature, but excellent in "all kinds of artifice. Then said Leif 
to him : ' Why wert thou so late, my fosterer, and separated from the 
party ?' He now spoke first, for a long time, in German, and rolled his 
eyes about to different sides, and twisted his mouth, but they did not 
understand what he said. After a time he spoke Norsk. ' I have not been 
much further off, but still have I something new to tell of; I found vines 
and grapes.' ' But is that true, my fosterer?' quoth Leif. 'Surely is it 
true,' replied he, ' for I was bred up in a land where there is no want of 
either vines or grapes.' They slept now for the night, but in the morning, 
Leif said to his sailors : ' We will now set about two things, in that the one 
day we gather grapes, and the other day cut vines and fell trees, so from 
thence will be a loading for my ship,' and that was the counsel taken, and 
it is said their long boat was filled with grapes. Now was a cargo cut down 
for the ship, and when the spring came, they got ready, and sailed away, 
and Leif gave the land a name after its qualities, and called it Vinland, 


They sailed now into the open sea, and had a fair wind until they saw 
Greenland, and the mountains below the joklers." 


" Now Thorvald made ready for this voyage with 30 men, and took counsel 
thereon with Leif his brother. Then made they their ship ready, and put 
to sea, and nothing is told of their voyage until they came to Leif s booths 
in Vinland. There they laid up their ship, and spent a pleasant winter, 
and caught fish for their support. But in the spring, said Thorvald, that 
they should make ready their ship, and that some of the men should take 
the ship's long boat round the western part of the land, and explore there 
during the summer. To them appeared the land fair and woody, and but 
a short distance between the wood and the sea, and white sands ; there 
were many islands, and much shallow water. They found neither dwell- 
ings of men or beasts, except upon an island, to the westward, where they 
found a corn-shed of wood, but many works of men they found not ; and 
they then went back and came to Leif s booths in the autumn. But the next 
summer, went Thorvald eastward with the ship, and round the land to the 
northward. Here came a heavy storm upon tnem when off a ness, so that 
they were driven on shore, and the keel broke off from the ship, and they 
remained here a long time, and repaired their ship. Then said Thorvald 
to his companions : " Now will I that we fix up the keel here upon the 
ness, and call it Keelness (Kialarness), and so did they. After that they 
sailed away round the eastern shores of the land, and into the mouths of 
the friths, which lay nearest thereto, and to a point of land which stretched 
out, and was covered all over with wood. There they came to, with their 
ship, and shoved out a plank to the land, and Thorvald went up the country, 
with all his companions. He then said: 'Here is beautiful, and here 
would I like to raise my dwelling.' Then went they to the ship, and saw, 
upon the sands within the promontory, three elevations, and went thither 
and saw there three skin boats (canoes) and three men under each. Then 
divided they their people, and caught them all, except one, who got away 
with his boat. They killed the other eight, and then went back to the 
cape, and looked round them, and saw some heights inside of the frith, and 
supposed that these were dwellings. After that, so great a drowsiness came 
upon them, that they could not keep awake, ahd they all fell asleep. Then 
came a shout over them, so that they all awoke. Thus said the shout : 
' Wake thou ! Thorvald ! and all thy companions, if thou wilt preserve life, 
and return thou to thy ship, with all thy men, and leave the land without 
delay.' Then rushed out from the interior of the frith, an innumerable 
crowd of skin boats, and made towards them. Thorvald said then: 'We 
will put out the battle-skreen, and defend ourselves as well as we can, but 
fight little against them.' So did they, and the Skrselings shot at them for 
a time, but afterwards ran away, each as fast as he could. Then asked 
Thorvald his men if they had gotten any wounds ; they answered that no 
one was wounded. ' I have gotten a wound under the arm,' said he, 'for 
an arrow fled between the edge of the ship and the shield, in under my 
arm, and here is the arrow, and it will prove a mortal wound to me. Now 
counsel I you, that ye get ready instantly to depart, but ye shall bear me to 
that cape, where I thought it best to dwell ; it may be that a true word fel! 
from my mouth, that I should dwell there for a time; there shall ye bury 
me, and set up crosses at my head and feet, and call the place Krossaness 
for ever in all time to come.'' Greenland was then Christianized, but P>ik 
the Red died before Christianity was introduced. Now Thorvald died, but 
they did all things according to his directions, and then went away, and 
returned to their companions, and told to each other the tidings which they 


knew, and dwelt there for the winter, and gathered grapes and vines to load 
the ship. But in the spring they made ready to sail to Greenland, and 
came with their ship in Eriksfjord, and could now tell great tidings to Leif." 


"Now Thorstein Erikson conceived a desire to go to Vinland after the 
body of Thorvald his brother, and he made ready the same ship, and chose 
great and strong men for the crew, and had with him 25 men, and Gudrid 
his wife. They sailed away so soon as they were ready, and came out of 
sight of the land. They drove about in the sea the whole summer, and 
knew not where they were ; and when the first week of winter was past, 
then landed they in Lysefjord in Greenland, in the western settlement." 


" In Brattahlid began people to talk much about, that Vinland the Good 
should be explored, and it was said that a voyage thither would be 
particularly profitable by reason of the fertility of the land ; and it went so 
far that Karlsefne and bnorri made ready their ship to explore the land in 
the spring. With them went also the before-named men night Biarni and 
Thorhall, with their ship. There was a man hight Thorvard ; he married 
Freydis, a natural daughter of Erik the Red ; he went also with them, and 
Thorvald the son of Erik, and Thorhall who was called the hunter ; he 
had long been with Erik, and served him as huntsman in summer, and 
steward in winter ; he was a large man, and strong, black, and like a giant, 
silent and foul-mouthed in his speech, and always egged on Erik to the 
worst ; he was a bad Christian ; he was well acquainted with uninhabited 
parts, he was in the ship with Thorvald and Thorvard. They had the ship 
which Thorbjorn had brought out [from Iceland]. They had in all 160 
men, when they sailed to the western settlement, and from thence to 
Bjanney. Then sailed they two days to the south ; then saw they land, and 
put off boats, and explored the land, and found there great flat stones, many 
of which were 12 ells broad; foxes were there. They gave the land a 
name, and called it Helluland. Then sailed they two days, and turned 
from the south to the south-east, and found a land covered with wood, and 
many wild beasts upon it ; an island lay there out from the land to the 
south-east ; there killed they a bear, and called the place afterwards Bear 
Island, but the land Markland. Thence sailed they far to the southward 
along the land, and came to a ness ; the land lay upon the right ; there 
were long and sandy strands. They rowed to land, and found there upon 
the ness, the keel of a ship, and called the place Kjalarness, and the strands 
they called Furdustrands, for it was long to sail by them. Then became 
the land indented with coves ; they ran the ship into a cove. King Olaf 
Tryggvason had given Leif two Scotch people, a man hight Haki, and a 
woman hight Hekja; they were swifter than beasts. These people were in 
the ship with Karlsefne ; but when they had sailed past Furdustrands, then 
set they the Scots on shore, and bade them run to the southward of the 
land, and explore its qualities, and come back again within three days. 
They had a sort of clothing which they called kjafal, which was so made 
that a hat was on the top, and it was open at the sides, and no arms to it ; 
fastened together between the legs, with buttons and clasps, but in other 
places it was open. They staid away the appointed time, but when they 
came back, the one had in the hand a bunch of grapes, and the other, 
a new sowen ear of wheat; these went on board the ship, and after that 
sailed they farther. They sailed into a frith ; there lay an island before 
it, round which there were strong currents, therefore called they it Stream 
Island. There were so many eider ducks on the island, that one could 


scarcely walk in consequence of the eggs. They called the place Stream- 
frith. They took their cargo from the ship, and prepared to remain there. 
They had with them all sorts of cattle. The country there was very beau- 
tiful. They undertook nothing but lo explore the land. They were there 
for the winter without having provided food beforehand. In the summer 
the fishing declined, and they were badly off for provisions ; then disap- 
peared Thorhall the huntsman. They had previously made prayers to God 
for food, but it did not come so quick as they thought their necessities 
required. They searched after Thorhall for three days, and found him on 
the top of a rock ; there he lay, and looked up in the sky, and gaped with 
both nose and mouth, aud murmured something ; they asked him why he 
had gone there ; he said it was no business of theirs; they bade him come 
home with them, and he did so. Soon after, came there a whale, and they 
went thither, and cut it up, and no one knew what sort of whale it was ; and 
when the cook dressed it, they ate it, and all became ill in consequence. 
Then said Thorhall : ' The red bearded was more helpful than your Christ ; 
this have I got now for my verses that I sung of Thor, my protector ; seldom 
has he deserted me.' But when they came to know this, they cast the 
whole whale into the sea, and resigned their case to God. "Then the 
weather improved, and it was possible to row out fishing, and they were 
not then in want of provisions, for wild beasts were caught on the land, and 
fish in the sea, and eggs collected on the island. 

So is said, that Thorhall would go to the northward along Furdustrands, 
to explore Yinland, but Karlsefne would go southwards along the coast. 
Thorhall got ready, out under the island, and there were no more together 
than nine men; but all the others went with Karlsefne. Now when 
Thorhall bore water to his ship, and drank, then sung he this song : 

People told me when I came 
Hither, all would be so fine ; 
The good Vinland. known to fame,- 
Rich in fruits, and choicest wine ; 
Now the water pail they send ; 
To the fountain I must bend, 
Nor from out this land divine 
Have I quaffed one drop of wine. 

And when they were ready, and hoisted sail, then channted Thorhall : 

Let our trusty band 
Haste to Fatherland ; 
Let our vessel brave. 
Plough the angry wave ; 
While those few who love 
Vinland, here may rove, 
Or, with idle toil, 
Fetid whales may boil, 
Here on Furdustrand 
Far from Fatherland. 

After that, sailed they northwards past Furdustrands, and Kjalarness, 
and would cruise to the westward ; then came against them a strong west 
wind, and they were driven away to Ireland, and were there beaten, and 
made slaves, according to what the merchants have said. 

Now is to be told about Karlsefne, that he went to the southward along 
the coast, and Snorri and Biarni, with their people. They sailed a long 
time, and until they came to a river, which ran out from the land, and 
through a lake, out into the sea. It was very shallow, and one could not 
enter the river without high water. Karlsefne sailed, with his people, into 
the mouth, and they called the place Hop. They found there upon the 
land self-sown fields of wheat, there where the ground was low, but vinea 


there where it rose somewhat. Every stream there was full of fish. They 
made holes there where the land commenced, and the waters rose highest ; 
and when the tide fell, there were sacred fish in the holes. There were a 
great number of all kinds of wild beasts in the woods. They remained 
there a half month, and amused themselves, and did not perceive any 
thing [new] : they had their cattle with them. And one morning early, 
when they looked round, saw they a great many canoes, and poles were 
swung upon them, and it sounded like the wind in a strawstack, and the 
swinging was with the sun. Then said Karlsefne : ' What may this 
denote ? ' Snorri T horbrandson answered him : ' It may be that this is a 
sign of peace, so let us take a white shield, and hold it towards them ;' and 
so did they. Upon this the others rowed towards them, and looked with 
wonder upon those that they met, and went up upon the land. These 
people were black, and ill favored, and had coarse hair on the head ; they 
had large eyes and bioad cheeks. They remained there for a time, and 
gazed upon those that they met, and rowed, afterwards, away to the south- 
ward, round the ness. 

Karlsefne and his people had made their dwellings above the lake, and 
some of the houses were near the water, others more distant. Now were 
they there for the winter ; there came no snow, and all their cattle fed 
themselves on the grass. But when spring approached, saw they one 
morning early, that a number of canoes rowed from the south round the 
ness ; so many, as if the sea was sowen \vith coal: poles were also swung 
on each boat. Karlsefne and his people then raised up the shield, and 
when they came together, they began to barter ; and these people would 
rather have red cloth [than any thing else] ; for this they had to offer 
skins and real furs. They would, also, purchase swords and spears, but 
this Karlsefne and Snorri forbad. For an entire fur skin the Skrselings 
took a piece of red cloth, a span long, and bound it round their heads. 
Thus went on their traffic for a time ; then the cloth began to fall short 
among Karlsefne and his people, and they cut it asunder into small pieces, 
which were not wider than the breadth of a finger, and still the Skrselings 
gave just as much for that as before, and more. 

It happened that a bull, which Karlsefne had, ran out from the wood, 
and roared aloud ; this frightened the Skrselings, and they rushed to their 
canoes, and rowed away to the southward, round the coast ; after that they 
were not seen for three entire weeks. But at the end of that time, a great 
number of Sknelings' ships were seen coming from the south like a rushing 
torrent ; all the poles were turned from the sun, and they all howled very 
loud. Then took Karlsefne's people a red shield, and held it towards them. 
The Skrselings jumped out of their ships, and after this, went they against 
each other, and fought. There was a sharp shower of weapons, for the 
Skreelings had slings. Karlsefne's people saw that they raised up on a pole, 
an enormous large ball, something like a sheep's paunch, and of a blue 
colour ; this swung they from the pole over Karlsefne's men, upon the 
ground, and it made a frightful crash as it fell down. This caused great 
alarm to Karlsefne and all his people, so that they thought of nothing but 
running away, and they fell back along the river, for it appeared to them 
that the Skra-lings pressed upon them from all sides ; and they did not 
stop until they came to some rocks, where they made a stout resistance. 
Freydis came out and saw that Karlsefne's people fell back, and she cried 
out : ' Why do ye run, stout men as ye are, before these miserable wret- 
ches, whom I thought ye would knock down like cattle ? and if I had 
weapons, inethinks I could fight better than any of ye.' They gave no 
heed to her words. Freydis would go with them, but she was slower, 
because she was pregnant ; however she followed after them into the wood. 


The Skrselings pursued her ; she found a dead man before her ; it was 
Thorbrand Snorrason, and there stood a flat stone stuck in his head ; the 
sword lay naked by his side ; this took she up, and prepared to defend 
herself. Then came the Skrselings towards her ; she drew out her breasts 
from under her clothes, and dashed them against the naked sword ; by this 
the Skrselings became frightened, and ran off to their ships and rowed 
away. Karlsefne and his people then came up, and praised her courage. 
Two men fell on Karlsefne's side, but a number of the Skrselings. Karl- 
sefne'sband was overmatched, and they now drew home to their dwellings, 
and bound their wounds ; and they thought over what crowd that could 
have been, which had pressed upon them from the land side, and it now 
appeared to them that it could scarcely have been real people from the 
ships, but that these must have been optical illusions. The Skrselings found 
also a dead man, and an axe lay by him ; one of them took up the axe, 
and cut wood with it, and now one after another did the same, and thought 
it was an excellent thing, and bit well : after that, one took it, and cut at a 
stone, so that the axe broke, and then thought they it was of no use, because 
it would not cut stone, and they threw it away. 

Karlsefne and his people now thought they saw, that although the land 
had many good qualities, still would they be always exposed there to the 
fear of hostilities from the earlier inhabitants. They proposed, therefore, 
to depart, and return to their own country. They sailed northwards along 
the coast, and found five Skraelings clothed in skins, sleeping near the sea. 
They had with them vessels containing animal marrow mixed with blood. 
Karlsefne's people thought they understood that these men had been 
banished from the land : they killed them. After that came they to a 
ness, and many wild beasts were there, and the ness was covered all over 
with dung, from the beasts which had lain there during the night. Now 
came they back to Straumfjord, and there was abundance of every thing 
that they wanted to have. It is some men's say, that Biarni and Gudrid 
remained behind, and 100 men with them, and did not go further ; but 
that Karlsefne and Snorri went southwards, and 40 men with them, and 
were not longer in Hop than barely two months, and, the same summer, 
came back. Karlsefne went then with one ship to seek after Thorhall the 
Hunter, but the rest remained behind ; and they sailed northwards past 
Kjalarness, and thence westwards, and the land was upon their larboard 
hand ; there were wild woods over all, as far as they could see, and scarcely 
any open places. And when they had long sailed, a river fell out of the 
land from east to west ; they put into the mouth of the river, and lay by 
its southern bank. 

It happened one morning that Karlsefne and his people saw, opposite an 
open place in the wood, a speck which glistened in their sight, and they 
shouted out towards it, and it was a uniped, which thereupon hurried down 
the bank of the river, where they lay. Thorvald Erikson stood at the 
helm, and the uniped shot an arrow into his bowels. Thorvald drew out 
the arrow and said : 'It has killed me ! to a fruitful land have we come, 
but hardly shall we enjoy any benefit from it.' Thorvald soon after died 
of this wound. Upon this the uniped ran away to the northward ; Karlsefne 
and his people went after him, and saw him now and then, and the last 
time they saw him he ran out into a bay. Then turned they back, and a 
man chaunted these verses : 

The people chased 
A Uniped 
Down to the beach, 
But lo ! he ran 
Straight o'er the sea 
Hear thou, Thorflnn ! 


They drew off then, and to the northward, and thought they saw the 
country of the Unipeds; they would not then expose their people any 
longer. They looked upon the mountain range that was at Hop, and that 
which they now found, as all one, and it also appeared to be equal length 
from Straumfjord to both places. The third winter were they in Straum- 
fjord. They now became much divided by party feeling, and the women 
were the cause of it, for those who were unmarried would injure those that 
were married, and hence arose great disturbance. There was born the 
first autumn, Snorri, Karlsefne's son, and he was three years old when they 
went away. When they sailed from Vinland they had a south wind, and 
came then to Markland, and found there five Skrselings, and one was 
bearded ; two w r ere females, and two boys ; they took the boys, but the 
others escaped, and the Sknelings sank down in the ground. These two 
boys took they with them ; they taught them the language, and they were 
baptized. They called their mother Vathelldi, and their father tlvaege. 
They said that two kings ruled over the Skrselings, and that one of them 
was hight Avalldania, but the other Valldidida. They said that no houses 
were there ; people lay in caves or in holes. They said there w-as a land 
on the other side, just opposite their country, where people lived who wore 
white clothes, and carried poles before them, and to these were fastened 
flags, and they shouted loud; and people think that this was White-man's- 
Land, or Great Ireland. 

Biarni Grimolfson was driven with his ship, into the Irish ocean, and 
they came into a worm-sea, and straightway began the ship to sink under 
them. They had a boat which was smeared with seal-oil, for the sea-worms 
do not attack that ; they went into the boat, and then saw that it could not 
hold them all ; then said Biarni : ' Since the boat cannot give room to more 
than the half of our men, it is my counsel that lots should be drawn, for 
those to go in the boat, for it shall not be according to rank.' This thought 
they all so high-minded an offer, that no one would spea,k against it; they 
then did so that lots were drawu, and it feel upon Biarni to go in the boat, 
and the half of the men with him, for the boat had not room for more. 
But when they had gotten into the boat, then said an Icelandic man, who 
was in the ship, and had come with Biarni from Iceland : 'Dost thou 
intend, Biarni, to separate from me here ?' Biarni answered : ' So it turns 
out.' Then said the other : ' Very different was thy promise to my father, 
when I went with tliee from Iceland, than thus to abandon me, for thou 
said'st that we should both share the same fate.' Biarni replied : ' It shall 
not be thus ; go thou down into the boat, and I will go up into the ship, 
since I see that thou art so desirous to live.' Then went Biarni up into 
the ship, but this man down into the boat, and after that continued they 
their voyage, until they came to Dublin in Ireland, and told there they 
these things ; but it is most people's belief that Biarni and his companions 
were lost in the worm-sea, for nothing was heard of them since that time." 

I do not think that much argument is needed to show that the theory 
of Murray put forward again after the lapse of fifty-five years by 
Weise that Vinland was a portion of Greenland, is untenable. This 
theory was defensible when Murray wrote ; because at that time 
the explorations in Greenland, conducted under the auspices of the 
Danibh government and otherwise, had not established the fact, now 
almost universally admitted, that the Estribygd and Vestribygd the 
eastern and western settlements were both on the western coast of 

VlNLAKb. 29 

Greenland, and received those names simply to indicate their positions 
relatively to one another. But in the case of Mr. Weise the adoption 
of that theory seems altogether indefensible. The Norsemen were 
comparatively familiar with the eastern coast of Greenland from the 
latitude of Iceland in 65 N. to Cape Farewell in 60, the southern 
extremity of the peninsula On the western coast were hundreds of 
settlements extending from Heriulfsness in the neighborhood of Cape 
Farewell to a point north of Disko Island, which is in latitude 70 
north ; and a Runic inscription found on a stone at Kingiktorsoak, in 
72 55' north shows that they had penetrated to that point in 1135 ; 
and it would appear that in 1266 an expedition reached a point in 
Barrow's Strait, in latitude 75 4' north. We know from the best 
authority that Gardar on the western coast, the modern Igaliko, was 
the see of a bishop for three hundred years, and that there was for at 
least that length of time continual intercourse between Greenland nnd 
Iceland. To say that such intelligent, skilful and daring navigators as 
those old Norsemen should, under these circumstances, mistake a com- 
paratively mild and fertile portion of the peninsula of Greenland for a 
distinct territory separated from the peninsula by a comparatively wide 
expanse of water, would seem unreasonable in the extreme. The 
descriptions of the voyages between Vinland and Greenland given in the 
Sagas are altogether inconsistent with the theory that the former region 
was a portion of the peninsula. This point will be further developed 
later on. It is also clear from ancient documentary evidence, cited by 
Weise himself, and outside the Sagas quoted from, that Vinland was 
situated at a considerable distance from Greenland, This also will be 
referred to hereafter. 

Then there is the statement of the Saga of Erik that " Day and night 
were more equal than in Greenland or Iceland," which would be simply 
nonsensical if Vinland were, as Weise seems to believe, on the eastern 
coast of Greenland, between the 63rd and 64th parallels of north lati- 

Weise, it may be remarked, seems to base his theory largely on the 
Icelandic map of Sigurd Stephanius. He says, at page 41, " On a map 
made by Sigurd Stephanius, an Icelander, in 1570, Helluland, Mark- 
land, Skraeling's land, and the promontory of Vinland are represented 
as parts of the country now called Greenland." Through the kindness 
of Mr. Murphy, the Provincial Engineer, I am enabled to place before 
the Society a copy of this map, which is to be found opposite page 22 of 


Weise's book ; and I am satisfied that any unbiassed person looking at 
it will conclude that it does not justify Weise's observation, but convicts 
him either of great ignorance of the geography of Greenland or of 
remarkable obliquity of vision. Upon comparing this map "the only 
one constructed upon purely Icelandic materials," as Murray says, with 
a modern map of North America, it will strike most people that the 
promontory of Vinland is identical with Cape Chidley, the north-east- 
ern point of Labrador. Murray and Weise both lay great stress on the 
fact that this map " gives Vinland, as forming one continuous continent 
with Greenland, and separated only by a deep gulf," (Murray p. 21). 
When we remember that Hudson's strait was only discovered by 
Hudson in 1610, and Smith's Sound, at the northern extremity of 
Baffin's Bay, by Baffin and Bylot in 1616, and when we know that the 
admiralty instructions to Captain Ross in 1818, speak of Baffin's Bay 
as being represented on the charts in ordinary use as bounded on the 
northward by land, we cannot be surprised that a map made in 1570 
does not show either of the two water-ways just named. As to 
Lancaster Sound which was visited by the Norsemen, it is to be pre- 
sumed that it was looked upon as only an inlet or bay. It is true that 
both the peninsula of Greenland and the promontory of Vinland incline 
more to the eastward than they should, but relatively to one another 
they occupy about the same positions as the Greenland of to-day and 
Cape Chidley. To any one moderately familiar with the maps of the 
sixteenth century the remarkable things about the map of Stephanius 
are its comparative clearness and accuracy. 

Two almost insuperable objections to the adoption of Professor Rafn's 
theory, that Vinland was in Southern New England, naturally suggest 
themselves ; the description of the voyage between the newly-discovered 
region and Greenland, and the presence of the Eskimo in Vinland. 
Thorfinn seems to have made the trip from Disko Island to Markland, 
or Nova Scotia, in four days' sailing. As the distance is nearly two 
thousand miles, the impossibility of this performance is at once evident. 
The voyage from Markland to Vinland seems to have been performed 
in two days as a matter of course. The distance from Cape Sable to 
Buzzard's Bay is about three hundred miles, and the small Icelandic 
vessels could not cover that in the time mentioned at any rate of speed 
attributed to them. The large and fast sailing vessels of the present 
day take three weeks to go from New England to Greenland, and is it 

ViNLANb. 31 

to be supposed that the shallops of the Northmen made the same voyage 
in less than one-half the time 1 

In Charles Francis Hall's Life with tiie Esquimaux we are told that 
the voyage from New London close by the supposed site of the Norse 
settlement in New England to Holsteinborg, on the western coast of 
Greenland, south of Disko, took the whaling ship George Henry forty 
days, but Captain Hall adds : " Had it not been for head winds and 
calms, we might have made the passage in twenty-five to thirty days. 
Captain Buddington has made it in thirty-four ; he says it generally 
takes about thirty." Into the question of distances it does not seem 
necessary to go any further, but it may be well to mention one of the 
courses sailed. From Helluland Newfoundland Thortinn is said to 
have sailed two days and turned from the south to the south-east to 
Markland Nova Scotia. This is not the usual course from Newfound- 
land to Nova Scotia. 

The highest rate of sailing attributed to the vessels of the Icelanders 
cannot be made to exceed 150 miles in twenty -four hours, while the 
writers who locate Vinland in New England make it only from 27 to 
30 geographical, or between 108 and 120 English miles. Perhaps 
the most correct impression as to to the speed of those old-time vessels 
may be got from the duration of certain well-known voyages. It 
was reckoned seven days' sailing from Norway to Iceland, the 
distance being 600 miles. From the southern point of Greenland to 
Cape Bauld, the northern point of Newfoundland, or Cape Chidley, 
the north-eastern point of Labrador, is 600 miles, and therefore a week's 
voyage ; while according to the sagas the distance from Greenland to 
Helluland was accomplished in from two to four days. Leaving out of 
sight the mere matter of the impossibility of covering the distance from 
Greenland to Narragansett Bay in the time mentioned in the sagas, it 
is undoubted that, as Colonel Higginson points out following Mr. J. 
Elliot Cabot " the repeated voyages from Greenland to Vinland, and 
the perfect facility with which successive explorers found the newly- 
discovered region, indicate some spot much nearer Greenland than 
Mount Hope Bay, which would have required 600 (? 1600) miles of 
intricate and dangerous coast navigation, without chart or compass, in 
order to reach it." 

The descriptions of the natives given by those early explorers apply 
exactly to the Eskimo, and do not apply at all to the Indians. 
Their maritime dwelling-places, their skin canoes and clothing, their 


weapons, their physical appearance, their coming openly by water in 
crowds with loud shouts to meet the strangers are all characteristic of 
the Eskimo, and not one of them of the Indians. Now the Eskimo 
are an essentially Arctic people ; and there is no reason to believe 
that they ever dwelt further south than the northern shore of the Gulf 
of Saint Lawrence. The presence of Eskimo in Vinland is by itself 
almost conclusive evidence of a more northern site than Southern New 

There are several minor points in the narrative of the Norse expedi- 
tions that tell most strongly against the theory of Rafn and his 
followers. Helluland is described as having high ice-hills in the interior 
and large flat stones on the shore. This description does not suit either 
Labrador or Newfoundland. There have been in historical times no 
glaciers in either country, and according to Professor Hind the evidence 
of glacial action on the Labrador in pre-historic ages is by no means 
general. On the other hand, the Newfoundland Pilot, published by the 
English admiralty, shows that the coast of neither Labrador nor the great 
island lying southward of it is characterized by large flat stones. Where 
the coast is not high and bold, as it generally is, there are beaches of 
sand, gravel or mud. 

Then again the eider duck is reported as very abundant in Vinland, 
and that bird was never common in New England, nor I fancy in any 
place south of the St. Lawrence. It, or the Labrador duck, which 
much resembles the eider, was at one time abundant on the Labrador. 
We find in the ancient narrative quoted that, after rounding from east 
to west a cape lying some distance north of Leif's Booths, a river was 
found running into the sea from east to west ; but no such river is to 
be found west of Cape Cod. Cape Sable Island can hardly be said to 
lie out from the land to the south-east nor is it a place where explorers 
would be particularly likely to meet with a bear. Modern astronom- 
ical inquiry has shown that even the latitude of a nine hours day in the 
eleventh century was a degree north of Mount Hope. Then it seems 
improbable in the extreme that if the Norsemen had so often coasted 
Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, as they must have done in the voyages 
between Greenland and Vinland, if the latter was in southern New 
England there would have been no further mention made of those two 
provinces than is to be found either in the Sagas or in any other 
authority referring to the Vinland voyages. In order to make geogra- 
phy square with the theory under consideration, Helluland has been 


made to include all Labrador and Newfoundland about twelve hundred 
miles of coast ;but there is nothing in the language of the Sagas to 
justify any such construction. As to the immediate locality selected by 
Professor Rafn and other European gentlemen as the site of Keif's 
Booths I cannot do better than quote a few words from Colonel Hig- 
ginson's admirable paper. At page 526 of the 65th volume of Harpefs 
Magazine, he says : " It suffices to say that the whole interpretation, 
which seemed so easy to transatlantic writers, is utterly rejected by 
Professor Diman, who was born and bred in Bristol, and lived all his life 
within easy reach of it. Having myself lived for fourteen years in that 
region, I may venture modestly to endorse his conclusions ; and they have 
the weightier indorsement of Professor Henry Mitchell, of the Coast 
Survey, in a manuscript report which lies before me." 

As is well known, the writing on the Dighton Rocks is now admitted 
to be the work of Indians, and the Norse tower at Newport to have 
been a mill owned by Governor Benedict Arnold, almost the counterpart 
of a mill at Chesterton, in. the part of England from which Arnold 
had corae. The account of Biarni's drift would not seem to imply that 
he had got so far south and west as to be in the neighborhood of Cape 
Cod. We are told that after leaving Eyi'ar, in Iceland, they " made sail 
three days, until the land passed out of their sight from the water. 
But then the bearing winds ceased to blow, and northern breezes and a 
fog succeeded. Then they were drifted about for many days and 
nights, not knowing whither they tended. After this the light of the 
sun was seen, and they were able to survey the regions of the sky. 
Now they carried sail, and steered this day before they beheld land." 

One who attempts to show that certain existing views on any doubtful 
point are incorrect is supposed to be prepared with views of his own to 
take their place, and as a general rule is so prepared. I regret to say 
that, in the present case, I am without any precise or definite theory as 
to the exact locality of the settlement in Vinland. Speaking somewhat 
generally, i may say that in my humble opinion the view of TorfVeus 
that Vinland was in Labrador or Newfoundland is probably correct, 
the probabilities being, for reasons which may appear hereafter, in 
favor of the mainland. 

Let us take the extracts from the sagas, already quoted, and laying 
aside all preconceived ideas, try to give them a fair and reasonable 
interpretation. I shall make the story of Thorfinn's voyage, which 
goes most into detail, the foundation upon which to base the search 


after the route of those Norse discoverers, making use of information 
to be found in the saga of Erik the Red to supplement or correct the 
statements of the later story. It is to be presumed that Thorfinn, in 
undertaking his voyage, availed himself of all the experience gained by 
Biarni, Leif and the companions of Thorvald, who was killed by the 
Eskimo. Thorfinn spent the winter of 1006-7 with Leif Erikson 
at Brattahlid, in the eastern settlement. He set out on his voyage, 
accompanied by Biarni Grimolfson, Thorhall the Hunter, Thorvald, a 
son-in-law of Erik the Red, and apparently another Thorvald. Instead 
of sailing southwardly or due we.vt, as might have been expected, Thorfinn 
sailed at first northwardly along the coast to the western settlement, 
and thence to Bjanney, or Disko Island, in latitude 70 north "Then 
sailed they two days to the south ; then saw they land, and put off 
boats, and explored the land, and found there great flat stones, many of 
which were 12 ells broad. Foxes were there. They gave the land a 
name, and called it Helluland." If, as the Noi semen supposed, ' 
Helluland was the last land seen by Biarni before reaching Greenland, 
it is described in the account of his voyage as being " high and covered 
with mountains and ice-hills." In the account of Leif's voyage we are 
told that in this land they saw no grass, and that " great icebergs were 
over all up the country, but like a plain of flat stones was all from the 
sea to the mountains ; and it appeared to them that this land had no 
good qualities." Now if one take a map and measure 200 miles, which 
would be about two days' sail, almost due south from Disko, he will 
find himself near Cape Dyer, the northern or north-eastern promontory 
af Cumberland peninsula, on the western side of Baffin's Bay, and 
nearly opposite tne modern Danish settlement of Holsteinborg. I have 
not been able to find a satisfactory description of the appearance of 
this coast by any modern voyager ; but in July, 1860, Charles Francis 
Hall, an American explorer, who afterwards perished in the far North, 
crossed Baffin's Bay from Holsteinborg. The ship experienced very 
heavy weather, and took two days and a half to cross Davis Straits, 
when Hall saw " the mountains covered with snow." In the translation 
loaned me by Mr. Jack it is said that this land had snow-clad moun- 
tains lying back from the sea, and flat land covered with snow between 
the mountains and the sea. I have no information which would go to 
show that the land called Helluland was not the Cumberlard peninsula. 
That it took Biarni four days to cross from Helluland to Greenland 
is accounted for by the fact that he sailed across the bay on a south- 


eastwardly course directly to Heriulfsness, near the present Cape 
Farewell ; and there would be nothing remarkable in his mistaking 
Cumberland peninsula for an island. The abundance of foxes is evidence 
of a high northern latitude. 

Continuing the account of Thorfinn's voyage, we are told that after 
touching at Helluland " sailed they two days, and turned from the south 
to the south-east, and found a land covered with wood and many wild 
beasts upon it ; an island lay there out from the land to tho south-east ; 
there killed they a bear, and called the place afterwards Bear Island) 
but the land Markland." In the account of Biarni's voyage we are 
told that " they sailed out into the open sea for three days " after leaving 
Markland if the "flat land covered with wood" was Markland 
before reaching Helluland. Two hundred miles from Cape Dyer would 
bring one to the southern side of the entrance of Cumberland Inlet, a 
short distance north of the entrance of Frobisher Bay. If Thorfinn 
after sailing for two days entered Frobisher Bay and then sailed out 
from it, he would sail south-east, and would find Resolution Island lying 
out from the land to the south-east, or he might have sailed out of 
Grinnell's Bay and found Lok's Island off the land to the south-east. 
Hall describes some of the land in the neighborhood of Frobisher Bay 
as being low and level and covered with luxuriint vegetation ; although, 
it is only fair to say, that much of the land which he saw during his 
two years residence among the Eskimo of this region corresponds 
more nearly to the description of Helluland given in the sagas. Nor 
did he find any wood, as one would expect to find in Markland. Fires 
and the change of climate might, however, account for this latter fact. 

Greater familiarity than I possess with the coast between Resolution 
Island and Cape Dyer would be necessary to enable one to trace with 
any attempt at accuracy the course of Thorfinn's voyage from Disko to 
Bear Island. 

Biarni found Markland " a flat land covered with wood " and it 
took him three days to sail from it to Helluland. The account of Leifs 
expedition, speaking of Markland, describes it as being "flat and 
covered with wood." and says " that white sands were far around where 


they went, and the shore was low." 

After leaving Markland, the narrative of Thorfinn's expedition goes 
on to say : " Thence sailed they far to the southward along the 
land, and came to a ness ; the land lay upon the right ; there were long 
and sandy strands. They rowed to laud, and found there upon the ness 


the keel of a ship, and called the place Kialai-ness, and the strands they 
called Furdustrands, for it was Jong to sail by them. Then became 
the land indented with coves; they ran the ship into a cove." They 
were then in Finland, although not yet at Leif's Booths. The state- 
ment that from Markland they sailed far to the southward along the 
land, would seem to be an error or a mistranslation ; because it would 
give Markland and Vinland a continuous coast line, and would con- 
tradict the accounts to be found in the earlier saga. If we read that 
after leaving Markland they came to to a ness, and thence sailed south- 
ward along the land, we shall do little violence to the text and shall 
make it harmonize with that of the earlier narrative. At the same time 
it is only fair to say that doubts seem to have existed among the Norse 
geographers as to whether Markland was separated from Vinland by 
the sea or not. In a fragment of an Icelandic codex, supposed to have 
been written about the end of the fourteenth century, we find the 
following 'language : "South of Greenland is Helluland ; next lies 
Markland ; thence it is not far to Vinland the Good, which some think 
goes out from Africa ; and if it be so the sea must lun in between Vin- 
land and Markland." 

We are told of two Scots whom Thorh'nn sent out to explore the land 
in advance, after whose return the ship sailed further south to Stream 
Frith, where the vessel was unloaded and where there were innumerable 
eider ducks. 

The Vinland of Biarni "was without mountains and covered with 
wood, and had small heights," and after leaving it he sailed two days 
before arriving at Markland. 

After Leif's men left Markland, we are told that " sailed they thence 
into the open sea, with a north-east wind, and were two days at sea 
before they saw land, and they sailed thither and came to an island 
which lay to the eastward of the land." " After that went they to the 
ship and sailed into a sound, which lay between the island and a ness> 
which ran out to the eastward of the land, and then steered westward 
past the ness. It was very shallow at ebb tide, and their ship stood 
up, so that it was far to see from the ship to the water." 

This place became the site of Leif's Booths, and the party wintered 
there, " where a river flows out of a lake." 

On his return Leif seems to have adopted a different course, for we 
are told that " they sailed now into the open sea until they saw Green- 
land and the mountains below the joklers." I do not pretend to 


identify the site of Leif 's Booths ; but at page 448 of the Newfoundland 
Pilot, which Captain Scott has been good enough to lend me, I find it 
stated, amongst other things, about Aillik Bay, some distance south of 
Hopedale, on the Labrador coast, that it " is fringed by boulders on the 
south side, where is a lagoon, dry at low water," and that " water may 
be procured in abundance from a lake behind the houses, and the boats 
lay at the smooth beach of gravel, "where a hose may be let into them. 
Wood may also be obtained." 

Hamilton Inlet, considerably to the south of Aillik Bay, answers in 
some respects to the description which we get of the site of Leif's 
Booths. There also a large river the Hamilton runs through Lake 
Melville a short distance above the inlet. The climate about Lake 
Melville is also much milder and the soil more productive than close to 
the sea-coast. 

Kialarness is a very conspicuous feature, more particularly in the 
narratives of the voyages of Thorvald and Thorfinn. We are told of 
Thorvald : " The next summer went Thorvald eastward with the ship, 
and round the land to the northward. Here came a heavy storm upon 
them when off a ness, so that they were driven on shore, and the keel 
broke off from the ship, and they remained here a long time, and 
repaired their ship. Then said Thorvald to his companions : " Now 
will I that we fix up the keel here upon the ness, and call it ' Keelness,' 
(Kialarness) and so did they." 

Of Thorhall the Hunter and his companions, we are told in the 
Saga of Thorfinn that, after leaving Thorfinn's winter-quarters, " sailed 
they northwards past Furdustrands and Kialarness, and would cruise to 
the westward ; then came against them a strong west wind, and they 
were driven away to Ireland, and were there beaten and made slaves, 
according to what the iterchants have said." 

Afterwards Karlsefne went " with one ship to seek after Thorhall 
the Hunter, but the rest remained behind, and they (Thorfinn and 
his crew) sailed northwards past Kialarness, and thence westwards, and 
the land was upon their leeward hand ; there were wild woods over all, 
as far as they could see, and scarcely any open places. And when they 
had long sailed, a river fell out of the land from east to west ; they put 
into the mouth of the river, and lay by its southern bank." 

If we take Kialarness to have been Cape Chidley, both these incidents 
will be intelligible. When Thorhall rounded the cape, and would cruise 
to the westward, he was met by a strong west wind, such as often 


blows through Hudson's Strait, and was driven far to the eastward, 
and made his way to Ireland. Such a thing would be much less likely 
to happen after rounding Cape Cod the Kialarness of Rafn and those 
who adopt his theory. It maybe mentioned here, that in 1611, Hud- 
sons' mutinous crew, sailing from Hudson's Strait, reached Galway, 
in Ireland. 

If Kialarness was Cape Chidley, Karlsefne, after rounding it from 
the southward, sailed into Ungava Bay, the shores of which are even 
yet, as I am informed, fairly well wooded, and where is found, what 
cannot be found to the westward of Cape Cod, a river (the George) in 
the mouth of which a vessel could lie, and which runs into the sea from 
the eastward. 

It would appear from the Saga of Karlsefne that he did not spend 
the first winter at Leif's Booths, but that Straumfirth was some 
distance north of that point, for we find him sailing south on an 
exploring expedition to Hop, where a river ran " through a lake out 
into the sea. It was very shallow, and one could not enter the river 
without high water." It may be mentioned that on the southern shore 
of Labrador, fish are even now caught by digging holes in the beach 
when the tide is out, in which the fish which enter them at the flood 
remain after the tide falls again, as Thorfinn's men are said to have 
caught them. 

At the present time, the Labrador coast is a great habitat of the 
Eskimo, and Hamilton Inlet is a place to which they resort in large 
numbers ; and of course they are found on both sides of Hudson's 
Straits and thence north to latitude 78. The eider ducks mentioned 
as being so abundant were formerly found on the Labrador, as were also 
Labrador ducks, which bear a very strong resemblance to the eider. 

On Karlsefne's return, Biarni Grimolfson was driven with his ship 
into the Irish ocean, where the vessel sank, and where occurred the 
touching episode the account of which is quoted in an earlier portion of 
this paper. 

Want of time to write, combined with some regard to the patience of 
my hearers, induces me to omit many incidents and descriptions to be 
found in the sagas, and which might serve to throw light on the subject 
under consideration ; but I do not care to close my remarks on them 
without dealing with the principal objections to the theory which I am, 
not without hesitation, disposed to believe the true one that Leif's 
Booths were on the Labrador, 

VlNLANb. 39 

First is the statement in the sagas of Erik with respect to the length 
of the day at Leif's Booths. It is said that " the days are moie equal 
there than in Greenland or Iceland ; there the sun sets at eykt time 
and rises at day-meal time, on the shortest day." By giving their own 
interpretation to these terms and making eykt 4 p. in. and dagmal 
7 J a. m., Rafn and his followers made the length of the day on the 1 7th 
October, the beginning of winter in Iceland, nine hours, which they 
thought would make the latitude 41 24' 10", being that of Mount Hope 
Bay. 1 have already intimated that, granting the length of the day to 
have been nine hours, later calculations would make the latitude 
different, the exact figures being 42 21'. In the Arkiv Jur Nmdisk 
Filologi for November, 1885, Professor Gustav Storm, of the University 
of Christiania, with the aid of the Norwegian astronomer, Hans 
Geelmuyden, demonstrates conclusively, according to the New York 
Nation of 30th September, 1886, that the evidence as to the time of 
sunset on the shortest winter day contained in the sagas, is not sufficient 
to indicate the exact latitude, the only deduction tenable being that the 
location was not further north than 49 55'. 

Mr. Weise, whose translation of the passage in the saga I have 
quoted, gives as the reasonable interpretation of eyklar-siad 3.30 p. m., 
and of dagmala-stad 8.30 a. m., giving a day of seven hours instead of 
nine. He discusses this whole question with much learning and 
apparent accuracy, and comes to the conclusion that the language used 
is so indefinite as to make it possible for Leif's Booths to have been in 
any latitude from 41 to 61. Doctor William Everett, of Boston, 
quoted by Colonel Higginson, says that the statement is "about as 
definite as if the sagas had told us that in Vinland daylight lasted from 
breakfast-time till the middle of the after-noon." It may be remarked 
before parting with this very indefinite information, that Torfaeus made 
the day's length six hours, which would place Leif's Booths somewhere 
between the 58th and 61st parallels of north latitude. Hamilton 
Inlet, on the Labrador, which I have spoken of as possibly the site of 
Leif's Booths, is in latitude 54 33', and Aillik Bay, mentioned in the 
same connection, is a few miles further north, while Cape Chidley is in 
61 10'. I think I am safe in concluding that the latitude is not a 
serious objection to the theory, which seems to me the most reasonable. 
The other apparently serious objection is based on the description of 
the climate and productions of Vinland given in the sagas. In reading 
those descriptions we have to look at the homes of the explorers. An 


Icelander or Greenlander would find a climate mild and a soil fertile to 
which a Nova Scotian would hardly apply those terms ; and we would 
naturally expect to find not a little exaggeration in the accounts given 
by discoverers of the land which they had found. We are told that, 
when Erik the Red returned to Iceland, " he called the land Greenland, 
because, quoth he, ' people will be attracted thither if the land has a good 
name.' " It will be seen that the earliest discoverer of the western 
world did not much more resemble Nathanael than do the keenest of 
the modern dwellers in the continent which the stumbling of Erik's 
horse at Brattahlid hindered him from seeing. Floki, the second Norse 
visitor to Iceland, ''described the new country as volcanic and sterile, 
glacial and cold, and appropriately called it Island (Iceland). His 
companions, however, reported that they had found it to have a 
delightful climate and a fertile soil. One, wishing to describe its 
general fruitfnlness in a more attractive way, averred that ' milk 
dropped from every plant, and butter from every twig.'" It would 
appear then, probable that the voyagers from whom the information 
contained in the sagas was got were not all George Washington's, and 
that their accounts of the climate and soil of Vinland are to be accepted 
subject to reasonable deductions. 

And there is little doubt that a change for the worse has come over 
those northern regions, since the days of the Vinland discovery, caused 
chiefly by the descent in increasing quantities of Arctic ice. The 
Icelandic writers themselves tell how the track over which they origin- 
ally sailed in going from Iceland to Greenland had to be abandoned 
owing to the descent of northern ice along the eastern coast of the 
peninsula ; and we find no mention in the sagas of icebergs or floating 
ice of any kind having been met in Davis' Straits, whereas in reading 
accounts of modern voyages, we almost always find that ice is encoun- 
tered in large quantities. Recent explorers in the far north have 
discovered the reason ot this increase. Much more ice makes every 
year than is melted or removed by local causes, and a large portion of 
the surplus is carried southwardly by the strong cut-rent running in 
that direction. Owing apparently to the intensification of the cold in 
the region of what is called the Palaeocrystic sea, the quantity of what 
I have just called surplus ice which is carried off by this polar current 
seems to grow continually larger. Any one who reads accounts of th e 
recent investigations into the remains of the old Greenland settlements 
must be satisfied that such settlements could not exist in the present 

VlNLAND. 41 

climate of that peninsula. There is little doubt, then, but that the 
climate of all the eastern coast of America, from the Strait of Belleisle 
northwards at any rate, is much more severe now than it was eight or 
nine hundred years ago. Even now, when one gets far enough inland 
to be sheltered from the chill easterly winds that blow from the Arctic 
current, the climate of some portions of the Labrador is by no means 
severe, while the soil is comparatively fertile. In Hind's Explorations 
in Labrador we find the valley of the Hamilton River spoken of as 
follows : " It is well timbered, and some of the trees are of large size ; 
intermixed with the spruce is a considerable quantity of white birch, 
and a few poplar are also to be seen ; a light loamy soil is also frequently 
to be found on the points of the river. There is a difference of twenty 
days in favor of this valley in the spring and fall of the year ; this 
difference of climate is to be attributed, in a great degree, to its favour- 
able aspect to the south and west, aud also in some measure to the 
warmth of the (river) water coming from the westward. The head of 
Hamilton Inlet may be termed the garden of the Atlantic coast of 
Labrador. At the Hudson Bay company's post at Rigolelte there are 
about seven acres under crop, and the farm boasts of twelve cows, a 
bull, some sheep, pigs and hens." The probabilities are that the climate 
at Rigolette is not very different from that of Quebec, and yet we find 
that in September, 1535, Jacques Cartier found " vines laden as full of 
grapes as could be all along the river (St. Lawrence) which rather 
seemed to have been planted by man's hand than otherwise." It is 
not unreasonable to suppose that, 500 years before Car tier's time, when 
the chilling process had not gone nearly so far as it had then, those same 
grapes, which I think are not very plentiful on the Lower St. Lawrence 
now, might be found on Hamilton Inlet. Mr. Weise takes the ground 
that Tyrker's grapes were not true grapes at all, but berries which 
resembled grapes, and that, no doubt, is a tenable hypothesis. At the 
same time, I think enough has been said to show that for the purpose of 
my argument it is unnecessary to question the accuracy of Tyrker's 
impressions. Professor Hind also points out that in not very remote times 
Labrador was a comparatively well-wooded country. The change is due 
largely to forest fires, backed up by the increased severity of the'cliraate, 
which causes would also account for the disappearance of the wood 
from the lands lying north of Hudson's Strait, amongst which I brlieve 
that we should look for Markland. What the effect of the destruction of 
the forest may be upon the appearance of a coast can be gathered from 


a comparison between Point Pleasant Park or McNab's Island and the 
land lying along shore to the westward of Ferguson's Cove. 

One minor objection may be noted here, in conclusion, that the land 
was without mountains and had small heights To men like Biarni 
and his crew, accustomed to the lofty mountains of Norway and 
Iceland, the hills of the Labrador coast would present themselves as 
small heights. In Mr. Jack's translation this region is described as 
being hilly inland, which would be a fairly good description of the 
country near Hamilton Inlet. 

I have arrived, as already stated, at no definite conclusion as to the 
whereabouts of Vinland. The place whei'e Leif's men landed, and 
where the tide apparently rose and fell a considerable height, may have 
been in Hudson's Strait, or Leif's Booths may have been on the 
Labrador coast, southward of the Strait of Belleisle ; and only that there 
is no evidence that Eskimo were ever to be found in large numbers 
in Newfoundland, I should say that the Booths might possibly have 
been on the Newfoundland shore ; but on the whole the probabilities 
seem to be in favor of the Atlantic coast of Labrador. 

Before finally asking my hearers to make up their minds as to the 
value of my somewhat uncertain conclusions, I shall read an extract 
from Gripla, a geographical work written in Greenland or Iceland, as is 
supposed, before the time of Columbus : 

" Now is to be told what lies opposite Greenland, out from the bay 
which was before named : Furdustrandir hight a land ; there are so strong 
frosts that it is not habitable, so far as one knows ; south from thence 
is Helluland, which is called Skreelingsland ; from thence it is not far 
to Vinland the Good, which some think goes out from Africa ; between 
Vinland and Greenland is Ginnungagap, which Hows from the sea called 
Mare Oceanum, and surrounds the whole earth." Having heard what 
is to be said in favor of believing Kialarness to be identical with Cape 
Chidley, which plays so conspicuous a part in the voyages of modern 
explorers, and considering that the people of Iceland amongst whom 
this treatise and the map of Sigurd Stephanius were produced had 
better means of knowing all about the Vinland voyages than we, I 
think that any one who reads the sagas and the extract from Gfripla, 
and consults the map all pre-Columbian authorities or based on such 
whatever his belief as to the exact site of the Vinland settlement will 
be led to believe that Cape Chidley is almost without doubt the 
promontory of Vinland. 


1 submit uiy speculations ou the interesting topic which I have 
chosen as the subject of this paper, with a keen sense ot my want of the 
qualifications essential to a successful inquirer. Such an inquirer 
should have a thorough and accurate knowledge of the coast of Labrador 
and of the country west of Baffin's Bay from Cape Chidley to the 
latitude of Disko Island, and he should have carefully studied in the 
original not only the two sagas of Erik and Thorfinn, but everything 
written in the old Norse tongue and bearing even indirectly upon 
Vinland. Professor Storm, of the University of Chiistiania, whom I 
believe to possess those qualifications, has, it seems probable, undertaken 
the inquiry ; and it may be that his work when published will enable 
us with reasonable certainty to say where Vinland was. 

NOTE. Since the foregoing paper was read, Professor Storm's " Studies of 
the Vinland Voyages" have been given to the world, having been 
published in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Northern Antiquar- 
ians for the year 1888. Professor Storm locates Vinland in Nova Scotia ; 
but his paper, although probably the most important contribution made to 
the literature of the subject since the publication of Rafn's work in 1837, 
has failed to change the writer's opinion as to where Vinland was. 

>WNSHV 47 


on " A General Return of the Several Townships iu the Province of 
Nova Scotia for the first day of January, 1767." 


(A Paper read January ZQth, 1888.) 


" One of the first objects of an enquirer who wishes to form a correct 
notion of a country at a given time, must be to ascertain of how 
many persons that community then consisted/'* Another object, often 
of equal importance to an historical investigator, is to obtain accurate 
information concerning the sources from which the national life has 
derived its chief and controlling elements. On both grounds, and on 
others which readily suggest themselves, the statistical return to which 
I am directing attention can claim to be considered an important 
document. The decade immediately following the Expulsion of the 
Acadians was one of the most formative epochs in our Provincial 
history. The problem devolving on the rulers of that period was how 
most quickly and wisely to " repair the waste places " and re-people a 
depopulated land. This General Return enables us at a glance to see 
how much had been accomplished towards the solution of that problem 
within the space of the ensuing ten or twelve years. P.esides supplying 
us with valuable information respecting the earlier English settlement 
of Nova Scotia and of surrounding regions no longer known as Nova 
Scotia, it sheds some light on the interesting question of Acadian 
repatriation, and enables us to distinguish and locate the various 
primitive stocks that up to its date had taken root in our soil. Its 
disclosures relative to the infant agriculture and commerce of the colony 

" Macaulay. 


and the religious faiths of the early settlers, give it additional interest 
and value. On the whole it deserves to rank among the most important 
records rescued from oblivion and ultimate destruction by the research 
of our indefatigable archivist, Dr. Akins. 

None of the professed writers of Nova Scotian history seem to have 
been aware of its existence. As far as the earlier historians, such as 
Haliburton and Murdoch, were concerned, this ignorance was perfectly 
natural, as they compiled their narratives before the paper had been 
sifted from the vast mass of miscellaneous manuscripts stored away in 
the garrets and !>ins of the Province Building. The first writer named, 
whose handling of statistics by no means corresponds to his literary 
skill, takes as his basis a purely conjectural estimate prepared a few 
years'earlier (1764) at the request of the Historical Society of Massa- 
chusetts. The latter, in one of his numerous appendices, published a 
" Statement of the English population and settlements in 1763." The 
contents of this " statement " correspond in looseness with its title. 
Like the compilation for the Massachusetts Historical Society, it is 
obviously little more than an " estimate," without much pretension to 
exactness of detail. Though dated in successive years, and belonging 
to a period characterized by no important movements of population, 
they differ widely, and that particularly on points regarding which 
accurate information would seem to have been most easily obtainable. 
The inquiries instituted were confined to a very narrow field, so 
that in breadth as well as precision . these "round number" esti- 
mates take rank far below this general return. Strange as it 
may appear, the latter document has never been published in com- 
plete form. Its contents, however, were used, and in some sense 
abused, by the compilers of the Dominion Census Series of 1871. As 
will be seen, the statistics in the return itself are given by townships, a 
term clearly of somewhat elastic application in this case. But in Vol. 
IV. of the above series they are completely broken up and re-arranged 
in attempted correspondence with modern County and Provincial lines. 
While this method of publication appreciably reduces the practical 
value of the information tabulated, the processes of analysis and 
re-grouping are marked by several blunders.* The return is certainly 
worthy of publication in exact form. As to the particular document 

* E. fir. By a strange anachronism, the County of Pictou is credited with the returns 
of the township of Hopewell (now in Albert Co., X. B.) Capo Sable is made a part of 
New Brunswick. 


preserved in the Archives, the fact that Governor Francklin's signature 
is in the same handwriting as the main matter indicates that this is 
a copy of an original return which had no doubt been forwarded to the 
Lords of Trade and Plantations in London. 

None of the " township " lists or abstracts from which the general 
return was made up have been preserved. This is a serious loss, for if 
these survived, we should know the name and residence of every 
householder or head of a family at that time living in the Province, 
information that would be not merely of antiquarian interest, but in 
some cases of positive historical value. Fortunately, however, Dr. 
Akins has discovered and preserved a number of local or " township" 
lists, analagous in all respects to those from which the general return 
of 1767 was compiled. Most of these are for the year 1770, though a 
few are for one or other of the succeeding years, 1771, 1772, 1773 and 
1774. Somewhat strangely, no corresponding complete abstract or 
digest for any of these years has been found, or is mentioned by any 
writer on Provincial affairs, though Haliburton gives a " reported " 
population of 19,120 for the Province in 1772. As will be seen 
hereafter, the township lists are valuable as furnishing a key for the 
interpretation of points in the general return which would otherwise 
be obscure. They are also of importance because they give the names 
of actual residents in the several townships at the time indicated. As 
is \\-<>ll known, the lusts of names of grantees are often quoted as of 
authority when really little or no dependence can be placed on them- 
Many grants were taken out on speculation that were never taken up by 
actual settlement. In many ot the townships the partition of lands did 
not take place till some years after the arrival of the pioneer settlers, 
and so the lists of persons obtaining lands and validating their titles by 
actual settlement differ widely from the lists of the original grantees, 
which contained the names of many who never set foot in Nova Scotia. 
As an illustration of the interpretative value of the township lists that 
have been preserved, I may refer to the fact that without thm we 
should be at a loss to detect the principle or principles on which the 
columns in the general return headed " country " were filled up. They 
show which is not at all clear from the general return that while as 
a general rule country means place, of birth, not this principle but that 
of race or descent is followed in the case of the Acadian and German 
inhabitants. The children of either of these parentages are ranked 
according to the nationality of their parents, while those of English, 


Irish or Scotch settlers, if born in Nova Scotia, or any of the other 
American colonies, are put down as Americans. A knowledge of this 
fact will be found useful as we proceed. 

The present population of Nova Scotia is not the development of a 
single primitive nucleus or germ. Neither has it resulted from a 
gradual and almost imperceptible sifting in of promiscuous elements. 
It is mainly the product of certain weli-defined immigrations of 
considerable size, capable of being more easily traced because, as a rule, 
they have occurred consecutively rather than simultaneously. Some of 
them, including several of great importance, took place at periods 
subsequent to the date of the return before us, and therefore, as lying 
outside of the plane of our inquiry, can be dismissed with a bare 
mention. Here belong such events as the settlement of a large part of 
the present County of Cumberland and the surrounding Chignecto 
region by a colony of Yorkshire immigrants in 1774, and the vastly 
greater access of population which occurred in 1783-4, when large 
numbers of " loyalists " from the revolted Provinces not only diffused 
themselves quite generally among the older settlers, but also laid the 
foundations of new townships in widely-scattered parts of the Province.* 

Shortly after this important influx had taken place, there began to 
flow to our shores that great stream of Scotch immigration, predomin- 
antly but by no means exclusively Celtic, which has rendered the 
Eastern half of this Province a veritable New Scotland. In like 
manner at the date of the return that other Celtic wave of almost 
equal volume which has brought us so many valuable settlers from 
the South and West of Ireland, had scarcely made itself felt beyond 
the town of Halifax, whose Irish Catholic population had even then 
attained very considerable proportions. 

It is my object to base on this general return of 1767, a few notes on 
the distribution and earlier development of the race-stocks found rooted 
in our soil at that date. It is proper to point out that the Nova Scotia 
of the return was the Nova Scotia growing out of the provisions of the 
Treaty of Paris in 1763, territorially corresponding to the present 
Maritime Provinces of the Dominion of Canada and the older New 
Scotland of Sir William Alexander, save that the latter readied the 
lower St. Lawrence and included the Peninsula of Gaspe. 

* As at Digby, Parrsboro, Wallace. Baddcck, Guysboro, Rawdon, Kempt (Hants Co.), 
and other places. 


Arranged in chronological order the race-stocks to which I have 
referred are : 

1. Acadian French, dating back to the Bretagne Colonists under 

De Kazilly in 1 632. 

2. English, as somewhat uncertainly and feebly planted by the settlers 

at Chebucto in 1749. 

3. German, coming, with a small admixture of French-speaking 

Protestants, from the Palatinate in 1751-3. 

4. New England Puritan, colonizing a number of townships in 


5. Scotch-Irish, brought out in considerable force in 1761-3, through 

the agency of Alexander McNutt, to whom further reference 
will be made. 


This element numbered only 1,265, about equally divided between 
the Peninsula and the outlying parts of the larger Nova Scotia. An 
inquiry into the reliability and historical significance of these figures 
seems to demand a brief retrospective survey. 

The cession of Acadia to Great Britain by the Treaty of Utrecht in 
1713 effected little more than a nominal transfer of political allegiance. 
English sovereignty was not followed for nearly forty years by any 
attempt at English settlement. Indeed, the founding of Halifax in 
1749 was but the planting of a garrison, a military movement rather 
than an intelligent scheme of colonization. The motley group of 
so-called settlers was joined by a few New Englanders, most of whom 
had been at Louisburg during its recent occupation by the English. 
Small bands of European Protestants, chiefly Germans from the 
Palatinate, with a few of Swiss or Alsatian birth, were brought over at 
Government expense, and after a short stay at Chebucto, were lodged 
in a new settlement on Merliguesh Bay. But outside of the palisades 
of Halifax no signs of colonization appeared, and this process the 
founding of that city ultimately furthered only by rendering still more 
strained the relations between the French people and their rulers, and 
thus precipitating a crisis, which having passed, all the cultivated parts of 
the country were left free for new races of settlers. 

In 1755 the storm broke. The descendants of the European 
colonizers of Acadia were torn from their homes, and deported over the 
seas. I am not called upon to apportion the responsibility for this dire 


catastrophe between the parties concerned in it those who inflicted 
the terrible vengeance and those on whom it fell. I am simply 
pursuing a few statistical inquiries. 

But the extermination of the Acadians, though apparently complete, 
was not absolutely so. The race survived the shock, and its continuity 
as an element of our Provincial population was never wholly broken. 
Even in the Peninsula, to which the expulsion had been practically 
limited, bands of fugitives in the forests or of prisoners in the block- 
houses kept the Acadian name from being altogether blotted out. 
Larger bodies found safety in the islands or in the vast and inaccessible 
forests of northern Acadia, where in subsequent years they aided in laying 
the foundations of flourishing settlements in which their national speech 
and customs are still perpetuated. Even those who, unable to escape 
the iron grip of Winslow and Murray, were obliged to wander hither 
and thither among peoples of alien creed and a " strange tongue," 
gave up their hope of dying in Acadia only with their lives. As to the 
proportion of the exiles who were able to accomplish this hope, some- 
thing will be said a little further on. 

For several years after the Expulsion, indeed until the French rule in 
America was brought to a definite end by the Treaty of Paris in 1763, 
all Acadians within t'le Province stood on the footing oi public 
enemies. In the peninsula and contiguous districts " the escaped 
remnant" was too small to cause much account to be taken of it, 
especially after the blow of 1755 had been followed up by one or two 
minor deportations of an almost equally summary character. Further 
north, the refugees fiom Chigtiecto gave some trouble. They strength- 
ened the hands of the wily French General Boishebert, who glided 
through the forests with a conglomerate force, Canadian, Acadian and 
Indian, and through the operation of the well-known ornne iijnoium pro 
mac/ni/ico principle, inspired terror out of all proportion to his real 
power to injure. But this state of affairs could not last long. The 
final and total eclipse of French power in America was fast drawing on. 
Grave exigencies at home obliged the Canadian Government to recall 
its troops, who were accompanied on their return by numbers of their 
Acadian allies. Others of the latter fled to St. Pierre and the Magdalen 
Islands, while still larger bodies tendered their submission to the 
authorities at Halifax, whence many of them drifted off to various parts 
of the world. Then events developed with great rapidity. Louisburg 
and Quebec, the French strongholds of the East, fell in swift succession, 


and a few years later the Treaty of Paris, while proclaiming the final 
triumph of English arms, opened up the way for the complete recon- 
ciliation of the rival races. 

The Acadians residing on the eve of the expulsion in the territories 
now comprising the Provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and 
Prince Edward Island, certainly did not exceed 10,000, while several 
authorities who have subjected the facts to careful analysis place the 
figures from 1,000 to 2,000 lower. A fair interpretation of Governor 
Lawrence's estimates would not make his view of the number go beyond 
9,000. Governor Hopson, writing to the Board of Trade in 1753, 
puts the population of the peninsula at between 5,000 and 6,000, while 
Parkman, relying on French authorities, estimates it to have been a 
year earlier not far short of 9,000.* Mr. Hannay contands that "there 
could not possibly have been more than 8,000 Acadians (in the whole 
country) descendants of those who acquired rights under the Treaty of 
Utrecht," and with this view Sir Adams Archibald substantially agrees."!" 
Volume IV. of the Dominion Census Series of 1871 contains as part of 
its general introduction a table professing to give the successive 
Sowings and ebbings of the entire Acadian population from 1749 to 
1771. In this palpably unreliable compilation, the population is put 
down as 18,500 just prior to tho Expulsion. It is not necessary to shite 
in detail the grounds on which this calculation is rejected. The least 
exaggerated item is the peninsular population, which is reckoned at 
8,200. Elsewhere there is little save over-estimating and blundeiing, 
mixed in about equal proportions. Gedaic (Sbediac) has nearly half 
the population of the Peninsula. That of Isle Royale (Cape Breton)> 
a French possession, colonized directly from Old France, and with few 
or no Aeadian inhabitants, is put down as totally Acadian. 

Let us then assume the entire Acadian people in 1755 to have 
numbered 9,000 a fair average of the more reliable estimates. The 
relative distribution of this number between the peninsula and the 
cutside territories is a point relevant to our enquiries. Hannay allots 
to the former only three-eighths of the entire population, but I strongly 
suspect that a direct reversal of the proportion would more nearly 
correspond to the facts of the case. In common with several other 
writers, he appears to me to unduly magnify the northward migration 
from the peninsula which the solicitations and threatenings of 

' Nova Scotia Archives, page 198-9. Montcalm and Wolf, page 94, 
t History o/Acadia, page 407. 


Le Loutre and other Canadian agents had brought to pass during the 
few preceding years. That an extensive and in fact a universal move- 
ment of that character had been planned is beyond all question. In 
the year 1749 two circumstances combined to inspire the French in 
Canada with fresh hopes cf continental supremacy. One was the 
reversal to France under the general provisions of the Treaty of 
Aix la Chapelle of Cape Breton and its famous fortress. The other was 
the recent arrival at Quebec of a Governor-General of marked intellectual 
ability and of great administrative vigor. This new Governor, the 
Count de la Galisonniere, had scarcely landed from his ship when he 
saw that the salvation of the French power in America depended on 
boldne?s and promptitude of action. His plan for the East was formed 
with tho eye of a true strategist. The islands since known as Cape 
Breton and Prince Edward already belonged to France. France had 
always theoretically held that the Acadia of the Treaty of Utrecht was 
bounded northwardly by the Isthmus of Chignecto. La Galisonniere's 
scheme contemplated the immediate and practical assertion of this 
claim by placing an armed force on the frontier line, constructing forts 
at Chignecto and other points from the St. John River on the West to 
Bay Verte on the East, and more than all, by removing the French- 
Acadians from the peninsula in a body and settling them north of the 
isthmus, thus forming a living barrier for the protection of South- 
Eastern Canada, or rather building up a solid Canada from the Bay of 
Fundy to the St. Lawrence. With such an extended and consolidated 
Canada, flanked by the important islands in tte Gult, Newfoundland 
and the Acadian peninsula would have been practically worthless pos- 
sessions to England. But the supposed exigencies of the naval service, 
to which he belonged, led to De la Galisonniere's recall in 1749 before 
his scheme had been put upon fair trial while the French Govern- 
ment, with its usual fatuity, appointed in his place a man heavily 
weighed down by the infirmities of age. It is idle to speculate on 
what might have happened had De la Galisonniere remained in the 
country, and had he been properly backed up by his Government.* 

* De la Galisonniere is indirectly connected with a somewhat notable event in 
British history. Some years after his return to France, he commanded the French 
fleet in tho Mediterranean, for alleged failure to grapple vigorously with which oft' 
Minorca the English Admiral Byng was court-mart ialled and shot in 1757, De la G., 
like some other Frenchmen who have gained distinction, was deformed and very dwar- 
fish in stature ; in these respects the very opposite of his aged successor Jonquiere, 
whowas noted for his fine physical proportions. 

NOTE. An interesting outline of De la Galisonniere's career will be found in the 
rather singular Parallcle historique entre le comte de la Galisonniere (1747-9) at lecomte 
de le Dufferin (1872-8.) 

J. M. Le Moine. (Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., 1889.) D. A. 1890. 


The carrying out of that feature of the plan which contemplated the 
abandonment of their homes by the peninsular Acadians was entrusted 
to Le Loutre and the other missionaries in Acadia, who were of course 
aided by the large French force which, though peace still prevailed 
between the countries, had been posted on the north side of the isthmus. 
The efforts put forth in response to this commission are among the best- 
known events of Acadian history, but as to the extent to which they 
were successful I think much misconception prevails. If we accept 
some accounts, the peninsula was virtually depopulated before the edict 
of expulsion was communicated to Winslow and Murray. But I cannot 
find that apart from the evacuation by its inhabitants of the isthmian 
village of Beaubassin in 1750 under quite special circumstances,* 
Southern Acadia suffered any extensive denudation of its inhabitants. 
Undoubtedly the urgent appeals of Le Loutre drew some settlers north- 
ward, but these were chiefly from Cobequid and other nearer points. 
Those who were induced to come from the more southerly villages were 
mainly single men, attracted by offers of service in the army or in 
Le Loutre's grand scheme for the reclamation of the Tantramar Marsh. t 
It is true that numerous petitions were sent to the Government at 
Halifax from various bodies of Acadians, asking permission to withdraw 
beyond the border, but there is no evidence to shew thit these were the 
free and sincere expressions of those who signed them. On the contrary, 
Le Loutre himself admits that from first to last the project of leaving 
their fertile fields and blooming orchards encountered the stoutest 
resistance from the home-loving settlers of the peninsula. Garneau's 
isolated statement, seemingly endorsed by Mr. Hannay, that Le Loutre 
succeeded in inducing not less than 3.000 to move across the Missequash, 
is entirely out of harmony with his own admissions elsewhere and the 
general tenor of his narrative. It is altogether incredible that within 
the years 1749-51 the settlements south of Chignecto suffered a loss 
amounting to nearly half their population. I ought to admit that in a 
despatch to the Secretary of State (Nova Scotia Archives, page 284), 
Governor Lawrence cautiously estimates that just before the expulsion 

* This was after the English troops had landed in the settlement. 

t As numbers increased, and especially after the evacuation of Beaubassin, the 
settlements north of the isthmus at Tantramar. Chepody, &c., which had already to 
provide for the necessities of a large armed force, were greatly distressed. As for those 
who had deserted their homes, they bitterly cursed their stars for the folly that induced 
them to listen to Le Loutre. Those who could wandered off to Isle St. Jean and a few 
to Capo Breton, whence they were glad when opportunity offered to return to Nova 
Scotia. Vid. inter alia, Nova Scotia Archives, page S). 


there had been north of the Missequash 1,400 Acadians capable of 
bearing arms. Hannay infers that " this estimate, if correct, would 
raise the number of French inhabitants driven from their homes south 
of the Missequash by the orders of the French Government to nearly 
seven thousand souls."* Lawrence, who with all his merits, was not 
very careful as to his figures, when using them for argument, probably 
confounded with native-born Acadians the large number of Canadians 
and regulars then in the country with La Corne. However this may 
be, Mr. Hannay 's inference seems to rest on two quite untenable 
assumptions ; first, that all the able-bodied Acadians then found north 
of the Missequash had been driven there from the south of that river, 
and secondly, that on an average each of the refugees had brought with 
him at least four other persons. If seven thousand persons were 
removed in the method described, the agents of the expulsion certainly 
had a very limited amount of material on which to operate. The fact 
would seem to te that while Beaubassin and the smaller villages just 
south of it had been and remained practically deserted, the great 
southern parishes Annapolis, Canard, Mines, Pisiquid and Cobequid 
the centres of Ac-idian life, had suffered no appreciable loss of popula- 
tion when the summer sun of 1755 shone on their ripening harvests. I 
hold it to be clear that the peninsula still retained considerably more 
than half of the entire Acadian population. 

The number of Acadians actually deported has been variously 
estimated. If we look at localities rather than conjecture numbers, we 
find the facts to be about as follows : A small allowance being made 
for stray fugitives, the inhabitants of Mines, Canard, Pisiquid and 
(eventually) Annapolis, were seized, put on shipboard, and transported 
to the various colonies from Massachusetts to Georgia. The majority 
of the people of Cobequid, fleeing to the woods of the neighboring 
mountains, effected a hazardous escape to the French islands of Royale 
and St. Jean. From Chignecto a few hundreds! were added to the 
total mass of the deported, but in that region the attempts at seizure 
generally miscarried through the facilities for escape afforded by the 
trackless forests in the back ground. The inhabitants of the sin aller 
and remoter settlements of the peninsula were immediately proscribed, 
and soon most of them had left the country by flight or actual seizure 

* History of Acadia, page 388. 

t Including the prisoners taken at Bcausejour. 


and transportation. So late as 1759, one hundred and tifty Acadians 
f the Cape Sable district,* who had lingered in the vicinity of their 
former homes in a state of outlawry, surrendered to the Government, 
and were sent to England, some of them wandering thence to F ranee, 
a few eventually retu ruing to Nova .Scotia. 

To recur to the question of numerical estimates, Haliburton in his 
Historical and Statistical Account of Nova Scotia (Vol. 1, page 182,) 
states that " seven thousand were collected and dispersed among the- 
British Provinces." With this Abbe Casgrain substantially agrees.! 
Sir Adams Archibald puts the number of exiles at 6,000. Hannay's 
estimate that " the total number removed from Acadia was somewhat 
less than 3,000 souls "J is in keeping with his view of the reduced 
population of the peninsula at the time of the expulsion. Probably the 
largest estimate quoted is not far above the truth, if taken to include 
with the actually deported those who exiled themselves by flight. 

As to the number or proportion of the exiles who ultimately returned 
to their native land only conjectures can be hazar.led. Most writers 
content themselves with such indefinite estimates as '' a few," " some." 
a ''considerable number." Mr. Hannay seems alone in the opinion 
that "the great bulk of the Acadians finally succeeded in returning to 
the land of their birth." In another reference to the question, he 
substitutes " at least two-thirds " for the larger and more indefinite " the 
great bulk."|| Possibly as many Acadians as the more moderate of these 
statements would involve, if the calculation were made on the basis of 
Mr. Hannay's own low estimate of the entire peninsular population, did 
succeed in effecting a return, though even this is doubtful, but as 
proportional estimates neither of them can be accepted. 

At the real date of our return (December, 1766,) just eleven years 
had passed since the expulsion, and at that date not a single Acadian 
exile had resumed the legal possession of land in Nova Scotia, nor, so 
far as 1 can learn, had a single one subscribed to the required oath of 
allegiance. In the list there does not appear the name of a s-olitary one 
of the places which are now the Acadian centres of the peninsula. 
Apart altogether from a consideration of the limited Acadian population 

* Cape Sable was a name applied to an extended line of the coast of south-western 
Nova Scotia, stretching as far north as Argylc or Abuptic Bay. 

t "Le nombre total des deportes Acadions depassait !e chiffre de six mille." Un 

;></() inni/r (I u JMI/H i/'KruHf/flinc. Trims. Roy. Soc. of Can., Vol. 4. 

{ History of Acadia, page 406. Ibid, page 406. i Ibid, page 408. 


disclosed by the return itself, these facts sufficiently indicate the slowness 
of the repatriating process. The story of the wanderings and hardships 
of the Acadian refugees during these eleven years has never been fully 
told. By English writers generally a page or two at most has been 
deemed sufficient. L'Abb^ Gasgrain's " Les Acadiens apres leur 
dispersion"* deals more fully with the subject, and though not without 
imaginative elements is a valuable and interesting supplement to the 
meagre records of our professed historians. But from the most meagre 
of those records we can gather enough to lead us to doubt Mr. Hannay's 
estimate as to the proportion of the unfortunate exiles who found their 
way back to Acadia. When, after twelve years of weary wandering 
and waiting, the time at length came in which such of them as survived 
and were in a position to claim the privilege, were allowed to settle 
peaceably, if not on the site of their ancestral homes, at least in some 
other part of their beloved Acadia, it may well be doubted if " the 
great bulk " of the original exiles were living, to say nothing of the 
large proportion of the survivors who had become permanently 
domiciled in other lands. f The decimating effects of such a career, 
involving as it did shipwreck, pestilence, and famine, on a simple 
pastoral people like the proscribed Acadians, can scarcely be over- 

It only remains to consider brieflv, in the light of the foregoing 
considerations, the accuracy and significance of the Acadian figures in 
the return. The following is a rough comparison of them with the 
Census returns of 1881 : 

1767. 1881. 

Peninsula of Nova Scotia 626 28.729J 

Cape Breton 271 12,430J 

Prince Edward Island 197 10,751 

New Brunswick 171 56,635 

In the comparative table of Vol. IV. of the Dominion Census Series 
of 1871, to which previous reference has been made, the total Acadian 
population of this territory is given as 10,150 for the year 1765. 
Though this is undoubtedly a gross exaggeration, there is reason for 
believing that the population was considerably larger in 1765 than it 

* Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, Vol. 5. 

t For interesting details of Acadian Colonies thus founded, and which to a largo 
extent still maintain an integral existence in France, Louisiana, Lower Canada and 
elsewhere, sec Casgrain's article just referred to. 

J These numbers are considerably too large, as they include several thousands of 
French extraction, but not of Acadian descent. 


was two years later. The prospects of settlement in Acadia opened up 
by the Treaty of Paris in 1763 had naturally led to the return from 
various quarters and by various routes of considerable bands of exiles. 
These found, however, that the obstacles in the way of their repossessing 
themselves of Acadian soil had not been entirely removed, and that 
they were still practically under the ban of outlawry. It thus happened 
that a large proportion of them drifted away.* It seems probable that 
the Acadian population had just about reached its minimum at the date 
of this return, which was the vanishing point between the old and the > 
new. Michael Francklin, to whose good offices the Acadians were 
chiefly indebted for their re-settlement in Nova Scotia, had assumed the 
Governorship only a few months before. As I have pointed out, the 
" township " lists do not contain the name of a single one of our now 
flourishing Acadian settlements. Not a single Acadian had received a 
grant of land, or taken the oath which was the essential preliminary 

But negotiations were in progress between the Governor and repre- 
sentatives of the long-proscribed race, and relations of mutual confidence 
\ were being established. Within a year from the date of our return, 
the Acadian families which it reports as at Annapolis and Windsor, or 
/ most of them, had received allotments of land on the beautiful shores of 

St. Mary's Bay, and laid the foundations of the picturesque and pros- * 
perous township of Clare. Almost at the same time, another company 
of exiles located temporarily at Halifax at the date of the return 
resumed, through the kindly intervention of Governor Francklin, 
possession of their ancestral properties at Pubnico and Tusket, and 
perpetuated in Acadia the historical name of D'Entremont and the 
lineage of De La Tour. These happy events were naturally followed in 
the few succeeding years by the return of considerable numbers of other 
exiled Acadians. Most of these, however, settled north of the Isthmus 
tot Chignecto. 

As to the figures themselves, I know of no reason why the substantial 
accuracy of those for the peninsula should be called in question. At 
the recognized rate of expansion of a fertile race not given to emigration, 
they are nearly if not quite sufficient to account for our present Acadian 
population on the Nova Scotian mainland, all of whose French settle- 

*In 1764 there were no less than 1,056 Acadian* in the environs of Halifax (.Y<-" 
Scot in . I rrli /rc.s.p. 348). But before the year ended nearly 700 of these were allowed to 
sail away to^thc French West Indies, where most of them perished miserably of fevi r. 


merits are known to have sprung from very small beginnings. And at 
the same time, it is certain that but few of the comparatively large number 
of Acadians who landed on the Eastern shores of Nova Scotia during 
the years 1767 and 1768 took up lands in the peninsula. 

The reported population of Cape Breton, small as it seems, cannot, I 
think, be seriously discredited. With such additions as it is known to 
have received during the two or three following years, it is altogether 
adequate to be assumed as the nucleus of the existing Acadian population 
of that island. 

According to Garneau, at the time of the expulsion the Acadians had 
in Isle St. Jean (Prince Edward Island) only " a few petty settlements " 
formed by parties whom the French rulers of the island had induced to 
migrate thither from Nova Scotia. During the period immediately 
following the expulsion a large number of Acadian refugees sought 
safety in the island, and down to the wholesale granting of its lands to 
English proprietors in 1763, it had a very considerable Acadian popu- 
lation. The latter event had the practical effect of a general sentence of 
eviction, many, if not a majority, of the inhabitants fleeing to Canada, ( 
the Magdalen Islands, Northern Nova Scotia, Cape Breton, where they 
founded the prosperous settlement of Cheticamp, or wherever they 
could find a foothold. The island shared to but a small extent in the. 
returning wave of exiles (1767-79), so that its present rather limited 
Acadian population can be assumed to have mainly, if not entirely, 
sprung from ancestors inhabiting it when the return under discussion 
was prepared. 

The figures for the territory now constituting the Province of New 
Brunswick are undoubtedly much too low. It is, of course, not to be 
forgotten that during the years 1759-64, northern Acadia had been 
largely emptied of the population poured into it by the expulsion and 
the events which immediately preceded it. Large numbers had with- 
drawn to Canada, while more than a thousand had surrendered to th^ 
authorities at Halifax, from which point they had been dispersed to 
various quarters. It is to be noted that few, if any, of the now existing 
French settlements north of Chignecto had then been founded, and that 
these, like the corresponding ones in the peninsula, have grown from 
very small beginnings.* Still it is evident that there are very serious 

* For a striking proof that the chief growth of the Acadian settlements hasbeeninthe 
present century, see report of Rev. Mr. Desjardins to the Archbishop of Quebec on the 
state of the Acadian Missions of New Brunswick in 1796, published by L'Abbe Casgrain 
in his Les Acadiens apres leur dispersion. 


omissions in this part of the return, as large districts which must have 
contained in their retired coves and dark forestal recesses an appreciable 
Acadian population, are entirely unrecognized. 


The returns for Halifax are not without interest, both on general 
grounds and from a racial point of view. Long before the discovery 
of the document under consideration, Dr. (then Mr.) Akins wrote that 
" from the close of the French War to the commencement ol the 
American Revolution, Halifax continued to decline, until its population 
did not exceed 3,000."* The Return gives the population as 3,022, 
exclusive of the army and navy, at a point roughly midway between 
these dates. Whether a still lower figure was subsequently reached, 
before the revival of business consequent on the breaking out of the 
American Revolution, made its influence felt on the population is some- 
what uncertain. One thing is clear, that, even including the Acadians 
temporarily sojourning in the environs, Halifax in its seventeenth year 
scarcely numbered as many people as were encamped amid the stumps 
on its hillside in 1749. An analysis of the details leads irresistibly to 
the further conclusion that the population in 1749 was but in small 
part composed of those who had crossed with Cornwallis under the 
convoy of the " Sphynx." This does not rest simply on the ground tha^ 
only 302 persons but a tenth of the whole are reported as of 
English birth, for it must be admitted that, while nominally English, 
the original company embraced representatives of almost every nation 
under heaven. But there is the important fact that no less than 1,351 
or more than one-half of the English-speaking population in 1767 
are returned as born in America. According to the recognized principle 
of compilation, the children of English, Scotch, and Irish settlers, born 
in Nova Scotia or any other American Colony, were included in this 
category, but the largeness of the number points unmistakably to a very 
considerable native New England element in the population. A few 
weeks after Cornwallis landed at Chebucto, Louisburg was evacuated 
in accordance with the provisions of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. 
Several influential New England families who had settled there during 
the English "cnpation accompanied or closely followed the departing 
British tro Vt'ax. Other settlers came directly from the older 

> Prize ' Jf the Settlement of Halifax, (read 1839, published 1847.) 


Colonies. Among them they soon drew into their hands a large part 
of the business of the place, and tilled many of the most important 
positions in the Colony. 

While Cornwallis' transports brought over a limited number of 
persons of means, energy, and character, the great bulk of their passen- 
gers were just such people as a rosy-colored advertisement in the 
" London Gazette " would be likely to attract in a time of great 
business dulness.* They were in no proper sense of the term settlers. 
As " birds of passage " they did not propose to continue long in one 
place. A large proportion were men without families. Over five 
hundred had been men-of-war sailors. They were in great part the very 
kind of persons to whom the novelty of such an enterprise would be 
attractive and its practical hardships distasteful. So long as govern- 
ment rations were the order of the day they remained. When these 
were suspended and men were expected to work for a living, the place 
knew most of them no more. 

Next in point of size to the American element stands the Irish, 
numbering no less than 835. As the total number of Catholics is 
reported as 667 including, of course, the 200 Acadians it would 
seem that about one-half of the residents of Irish birth were Protestants 
of Ulster origin. At this date the " canny Scot " was chiefly 
conspicuous for his absence, as only 52 citizens registered themselves as 
born in the land of the heather. 


Under this head is included a total population of 1,946. 

The particulars of the settlement in Nova Scotia, chiefly during the 
years 1750-2, of a large number of German families, in connection with 
a much smaller contingent of French-speaking Protestants from the 
Upper Rhine, generally spoken of as " Swiss," can be learned from the 
ordinary histories. As the Return affords no means of distinguishing 
between these elements, in the remarks following they will be referred 
to collectively as Germans. In 1753 the great body of these immigrants 
removed from Halifax, where they had landed, to the shores of 
Merleguish Bay. The site of the new settlement called Lunenburg 

* " A great number of disbanded soldiers, discharged sailors, poor artificers, 
laborers, &c., who have accepted of His Majesty's grant of lands in Nova Scotia, 
attended at the Plantation Office in Whitehall, and received orders for admission, with 
their families and effects, on board the transports." London Cazcttc, 1749. 


was well chosen, comprising the only fertile di; hole 

Atlantic frontier, favorably situated for fishing pu? .-us ; ' I J-VP from 
danger of unpleasant collision with the French ,'ever- 

theless, the earlier years of its history were markeil i leal of 

friction and strife, and the growth was consequently slow. By the date 
of the Return, however, these initial difficulties seem to have been 
fairly surmounted, and in agricultural products the township compared 
not unfavorably with those whose soil had been under cultivation for 
more than a century. Its population was almost wholly German, and 
numbered 1,417, considerably more than two-thirds of the German 
population of the whole Province. A few families had moved out into 
the adjacent townships of J)ublin and Chester, places where now the 
German element largely predominates, but which were originally settled 
under other auspices. In the course of the ensuing quarter of a 
century, this element had entered on quite an extensiva migration 
along the Atlantic shore in both easterly and westerly directions. Our 
return gives the German population of Halifax as 264, while smaller 
groups of the stock are found at other points, such as Windsor, 
Falinouth, and Annapolis. 

In two townships situated beyond the Isthmus of Chignecto, about 
an hundred Germans are reported, who were of an entirely different 
line of descent from those in Lunenburg and Halifax. These townships 
are Hopewell and Monckton, both on the Petitcodiac river, and within 
the limits of the present County of Albert, New Brunswick. Monckton 
(a name revived in our day with a slightly altered spelling, and given to 
a neighboring locality) seems to have been practically the district 
known as Hillsboro, containing the shire town of the county just 
named. These German settlers, who came to Nova Scotia from Penn- 
sylvania, constituted one of the numerous groups brought in tore-people 
the vacant lands of Acadia through the agency of Alexander McNutt. 

In the Dominion Census returns of 1881, that part of the population 
of Nova Scotia claiming German descent is given as 40,065, just half 
being included in the County of Lunenburg. But this total embraces 
several thousands not sprung from the German settlers of Halifax and 


tlement during the years 1759-61 of a large part of Nova 
1 that as a rule the more fertile part, by groups of colonists 


from New Ei gland, is one of the most important events in the history 
of our Province. In such a paper as this the historical connections 
cannot be treated at length, but a few words may not be out of place. 
Until recently, this event has unquestionably not received the atten- 
tion due to its importance. As a movement of population from west 
to east it was a reversal of the usual order, and has quite generally 
been confounded with the Loyalist migration to the Provinces, which 
it preceded nearly a quarter of a century, and which in influence on 
on the political and industrial development of what is now Nova 
Scotia it undoubtedly surpassed. This misconception is sometimes 
found affecting the minds even of direct descendants of the early New 
England settlers themselves. Another somewhat prevalent illusion has 
been that the stay of most of the latter in Nova Scotia was brief, and 
that but little in the way of a permanent settlement was effected. 
Nothing could be farther from the truth. One or two townships on, or 
near, the Chignecto Isthmus were somewhat affected in the matter 
of population by the events of the Revolutionary War, but as a rule 
this element has been the most tenacious ot all our English-speaking 

The removal by force of the Acadian French from the territory 
which that race had occupied for nearly a century and a half left, 
as we have seen, the Province with a European population practically 
limited to the Town of Halifax and the German settlement of I.unen- 
burg. This state of things is brought into bold relief in the long 
and earnest correspondence between Governor Lawrence and the Lords 
of Trade and Plantations on the question of organizing a Legislative 
Assembly, and is particularly emphasized by the expedient ultimately 
resorted to in 1758, of electing sixteen (out of a total of twenty-two) 
members from the Province at large. This was simply the result of a 
scarcity of constituencies. A proposal to dignify by that name the 
blockhouses at Annapolis and Chignecto, and two or three insignifi- 
cant hamlets in the neighborhood of Halifax, was entertained for a 
time, but was finally ]aid aside. As the six members assigned to 
definite constituencies were divided between Halifax and Lunenburg 
in the proportion of four to two, the former place had really the honor 
of supplying ten-elevenths of the first Nova Scotia Assembly. 

The organization of representative government, whatever anomalies 
it involved, had an undoubted effect in promoting the success of 
certain negotiations which Lawrence had had for some time on foot 


looking to the re-settlement of the vacated Ac? I onists 

from New England. It is well known that th . lement 

at Halifax chafed under the irresponsible r J the Governor and 
Council (though it does not appear that the rule itself v. HS i\s> : ally harsh 
or inequitable), and originated the agitation for a duly con&i: ' ted legisla- 
ture, which finally proved irresistible. Is it somewhat surprising that 
Lawrence, who opposed the establishment of the Legislature as long and 
as stoutly as he could, did not himself see that che triumph of his own 
views would effectually preclude any extensive immigration from the 
westward. His voice of invitation became potential only when he was 
able to give definite assurances that the settlers would find in the new 
colony political institutions substantially similar to their own. 

On the 2nd of October, 1758, the first Assembly met, and on the 
12th of that mouth, the Council issued the well-known proclamation 
which invited immigration to Nova Scotia by the alluring assurances 
that " one hundred thousand acres of intervale plow lands, producing 
wheat, rye, barley, oats, hemp, flax, etc., which have been cultivated 
for more than a hundred years past and never fail of crops nor need 
manuring," and "also more than one hundred thousand acres of upland, 
cleared and stocked with English Grass, planted with orchards, 
gardens, etc," and " situated about the Bay of Fundi upon rivers 
navigable for ships of burthen," were awaiting the choice of settlers. 
There was undoubtedly an element of exaggeration in these representa- 
tions. All the marsh lands on the Bay of Fundy and its tributaries do 
not, taken together, amount to 100,000 acres, and certainly not more 
than one-half of them had been reclaimed and cultivated by the 
Acadians. Still more hyperbolical is the reference to " 100,000 acres 
of upland, cleared and stocked with English grass." It is well known 
that the inroads of the French on the forests were exceedingly limited. 
The great bulk of their crops was raised on the alluvial bottoms which 
had been cleared for them by the potent forces of nature. Who ever 
examined the site of one of the old Acadian villages that did not find it 
situated on the margin of the dyke lands on which the people depended 
for their means of living, or of an old Acadian road which did not run 
close by the same 1 In this particular affirmation the Proclamation at 
least adrupled the actual fact.* But we must remember that to thus 

.ng iuljoHivi's generally regarded as incompatible, refers to tho 
i In- i *roclaination as " flattering but faithful," 


day, immigration agencies do not aim at absolute accuracy of statement. 
Figurative amplification is considered one of their most natural and 
proper characteristics. Nor does there appear to have been anything 
intentionally misleading in the arithmetical exaggerations of the Pro- 
clamation. Good land there was, and an abundance of it, a fact to 
which many a New Englander who had served at Louisburg or Beau- 
Sejour or who had -*un trading ventures up the Chiganois or the 
Pisiquid, could positive 1 } 7 testify, in answer to any inquiry from fellow- 
colonists into whose hands the Proclamation might fall. 

A second proclamation, issued under date of January llth, 1759, 
supplied information regarding points of importance on which the 
former one had failed to utter a voice sufficiently clear. Persons 
thinking of settlement were fully informed as to the conditions on 
which lands might be taken up and a permanent title to them acquired 
The political and judicial institutions of the Colony were described, and 
to all dissenters from the Church of England, except Roman Catholics,* 
the amplest assurances of religious liberty were given on the faith of 
legislative enactments and " His Majesty's royal instructions.'' 

The assurances of this second proclamation naturally tended to 
inspire confidence, and the persistent efforts of Lawrence to re-people 
Acadia with settlers from the American Colonies at length began to 
bear fruit. On the 27th May, 1759, a com \y of substantial yeomen 
from Connecticut, including, with t' s, several hundred per- 

sons, received grants of large trt. the Basin of Minas. 

From that date Mines and Canard. of the most flourish- 

ing of the old Acadian settlements, , \ced by Horton and 

Cornwallis. A few mouths later, a U, ancient Pisiquid, 

embracing districts on both sides of t r estuary of the 

same namCi passed, under the designati h, to a body of 

Rhode Island grantees. Within a year o. .iient, the township 

was divided, the part lying on the eastern ~uik of the Pisiquid (now 

* Considering the date of this proclamation, the exception noted is not surprising. 
Great Britain and most of her colonies were under the shadow of the penal laws. 
It is, however, a fact deserving of record that those who had insisted on guarantees of 
religious liberty for themselves showed no disposition to enslave the consciences of 
others. From the earliest organization of government in Nova Scotia, Roman 
Catholics, though laboring under certain civil disabilities, seem to have enjoyed as 
free an exercise of their religion as others. The public opinion which would not 
tolerate any other state of things received a great accession of strength from (he spirit 
of the early settlers from New England. The Legislature of 1827, which passed the 
earliest Catholic Emancipation Act, was largely composed of their grandsons and other 
descendants. Thomas C. Haliburton, whose famous speech in favor of the admission 
of Mr. Kavanagh, is historical, was grandson of one of the original Rhode Island 
grantees of Newport. 



the Avon) receiving the name of Newport/ 
supposed, from former association of the inh. 
but at the suggestion of Mr. Morris, Sun 
to honor Lord Newport, a particular frit 

Settlers rapidly poured in from IV ia achusi.- 

shire as well as from the Colonies already and organized 

townships were eoon founded or j the ln e incipal 

Acadian settlements. Nor did th/ bT.rean .- a tion nd at those 

points. So early as the autumn ^f 1 76 1 it h 
places, now important centre' 
influence had never made itsel' 

At the date of our Return 
townships wholly or chiefly se' 
ing from Cape Sable (BarrW 
below the present City of j 
into two classes, the oJ 
agricultural districts, m-J 
cultivation the other, / 
for fishing and for mavif 
on, and north of, the 1st 

port, R. I., 
:'.e Province, 
e Belcher.* 

jached/a number of 
the Acadian 

jn gmnd townships, i. e., 
n gl a nd, are found extend- 
tne & t. John River not far 
'ghly they may be divided 
settlev nents in the central 
e basis O f previous Acadian 

e'ally. The three towiiM,. r 

England, belonged x>-^ 
land, Sackville, and 5 
respectively of~334, 3 
case. A small part 
Cumberland is in t 7 
to the south of ' 
various coloni* / 
time of the R/' 
descendants of 
in 1761 by a < 
total nuuiibft 
emigrated t} . 

Mason. A > 
returned ' 
man just 
the Leg-' 

c , which were settled from New 
f.r group. These were Cumber- 
, return gives them a population 
ilmost wholly American in each 
now known as Fort Lawrence) of 
i&/ of Nova Scotia, lying as it does 
.Aver. This township, settled from 
c of its American population at the 
Its present inhabitants are largely 
ttlers of 1772-4. Sackville was settled 
ie Island, supplemented in 1768 by the 
Japtist Church in Swansea, Mass., which 
eadership of its pastor, the Rev. Nathaniel 
3ars' sojourn most of the latter element 
Benjamin Mason, brother of the clergy- 
11 irst member for the township of Sackville in 
icotia. He resided in Sackville at the date of 

of F<W 

n the authority of a letter from Morris to Isaac Dcschamps, 
.) The letter, which is dated March 31st, 1761, is in the 
53. in the possession of Dr. Akins. 


/the Ret . , like Cumberland, received a large accession of 

( populatic the Yorkshire immigration which occurred a few 

y^ars g,^ ugerville (pronounced Majorville) and Sheffield, 

are now tw .nous parishes in the County of Sunbury, N. B. The 

latter is the , ; . '-aiiy given to the settlement which was founded 

in 1761 b" a c : '" Rowley, Massachusetts. The name Mauger- 

ville. here ippi le settlement, was no doubt derived from 

that 'of Joshua 1. ' 'inent merchant of Halifax, who probably 

received gran\o ' cinity f Sheffield> * 

The following t ? peninsula belonged to the first class, 

as being of distinctt 1;md ori S in and colonized for a g ricu1 ' 

tural purposes allW t* occupying territory cultivated by the 
Acadian French : _A>'^' ' : allis, Falmouth, Gi-anville, Horton, 
and Newport. At **>.- ite oX our Return, none of these places had 
received any appreciate "> of relation from other sources, and 

even now the great) *>*' abitailts can trace back their 

ancestry to the firf ,- ^ ' w England.! Several other 

townshiniv-*^ ^S^not so> led by immigrants trom the 

.ver colonies, nevertheless b- ,- considerable New England 

element in their population. < i has good reason to claim a 

place in the list just given, a^ ; -ity-fitfits inhabitants are 

put down as of American origh.\ 1 grantees of this town- 

ship were almost wholly resided, England, trut for various 

reasons many of these neveiNsettlod i;> ''" Pi-'ince, and their lands 
were re-granted to immigrantsVfroMi th? Nort;> of Ireland, whose 
descendants now undoubtedly constitute th' larger part of the inhabi- 
tants. An appreciable, if not a controlling, I 'land element, was 
also found in Amherst, Windsor, anitj T> original grantees 
and settlers of the first named place W . N orth of Ireland, 
and at the date of our Return this elen<enr w-is ;- i; T : ie ascendancy. 
But families from the neighboring New E s of Cumber- 
land and Sackville had already begun to nu r years later 

* For a biographical sketch of Mauger, see Nova Sooth The pro- 
nunciation of this surname is somewhat doubtful. \ Ct ' common 
derivatives Maugervillc and Manger's Beach. Sheffield, men who 
have played an important part in the history of Canada rson, of 
Ontario ; Dr. Pickard, of Sackville ; and I. Burpee, M. P., c nelsons 
of original settlers. 

tAn examination of those local lists for the year 1770, win -veil, 
shows that in some of the townships scarcely a family name ! 
dred and twenty years. 


were followed by a still larger number connected with the Yorkshire 
immigration of 1772-4. Windsor, embracing that part of the Acadian 
"district of Pisiquid, not included in the townships of Falmouth and 
Newport, was not organized as a township until 17G4, and then, accord- 
ing to the historians, was made a part of the County of Halifax, not of the 
County of Kings, to which the adjacent townships belonged.* Most of 
its soil which was of any value was conveyed in large grants to gentle- 
men prominent in the military or civil service of the day. No body of 
New England colonists received grants within its limits. In 1767 its 
population was still small (nearly half being Acadians) and had received 
but few accessions from the surrounding country, of which, however, 
it had become the business centre. As for Truro, there is a palpable 
error in the nationality of the inhabitants as given in the Return, the 
whole population being put down as of Irish birth. The local returns 
of 1770, from which I copy as follows, 

English. Scotch. Irish. American. Total. 

11 41 288 321 

enables us to supply the correction needed. The original settlers 
of Truro, who landed in 1760, embraced the Archibalds and several 
other influential families from Londonderry, New Hampshire, the elder 
members of which had came to that place from Ireland some years 
previously.! From the local abstract for 1770 we learn that the 
large American element which it reports consisted in good part of 
children of Irish parents, born either in New Hampshire or Nova 
Scotia. But it also shows that included among the settlers were 
several families of pure New England blood. 

The peninsular townships constituting the second group, in the 
founding of which little or no advantage was taken of former Acadian 
occupation, Vere all situated on the south-western coast of the Province* 
and embraced Yarmouth, Barrington, Liverpool and Chester and Dublin. 
The settlers of these townships came with scarcely any exceptions from 

A letter (preserved in the Deschamps collection) written by the widow of Colonel 

river to the neighboring township of Falniouth. Hants was separated from 
Kings in 1784. 

tThe Londonderry referred to was founded in 1738 by Rev. James McGregor and a 
Company of immigrants from Colerainc and adjacent regions. 1-Vw phu-rs of its sj/e 
have contributed to I'nitcd Slates history so many distinguished names. For Interest- 
Ing particulars respecting the early settlement and set tiers ef Truro. see Longworth's 
biography of S. G. \V. Archibald, and Miller's History of the original grantws of Tniro. 


the Nan tucket and Cape Cod districts of the Colony of Massachusetts, 
and, save Chester and Dublin, they are still mainly peopled by descend- 
ants of the original families. Interesting particulars of the settlement of 
Yarmouth can be learned from the comprehensive and valuable history 
of Yarmouth County, written by the Rev. J. Roy Campbell. Though 
Yarmouth has for many years ranked as second only to Halifax in 
population and business, for nearly three quarters of a century after 
the settlement of the country, that position was held by Liverpool) 
which even at the date of the Return was a town of considerable size. 
Both these places, as well as Barrington, are marked by the tenacity 
with which the family names associated with their primary settlement 
have perpetuated themselves. With Chester (originally Shoreham) the 
case has been quite different. A number of the New England families 
at a comparatively early period withdrew to other parts of the Province. 
Their place was taken by a substantial contingent of Loyalists in 1784, 
and the township has since been impregnated with a large German 
element from the neighboring settlement of Lunenburg. 

In the same class with Chester may be placed the contiguous town- 
ship of (New) Dublin. It was granted in 1760 to a number of persons 
in Connecticut, but few of whom actually settled on their lands, and 
of these few the greater part remained but for a short time.* At the 
date of our Return, the process of re-granting the lands to Germans from 
the neighboring township of Lunenburg had fairly commenced. From 
the latter the present population of the district, which is one of the 
most prosperous and thickly peopled in the Province, is almost wholly 


In his efforts to obtain inhabitants for Nova Scotia, Governor 
Lawrence did not confine his attention solely to the American Colonies. 
The negotiations which led to the settlement of Truro had brought him 
into contact with Alexander McNutt, a native of Ireland, but who for 
some years previously had been in America, dividing his time apparently 
between Pennsylvania, where large bodies of his countrymen had 
settled, and Londonderry, New Hampshire, to which place I have 

Murdock, (Vol. II. Page 423) says that on the 3rd May, 1762, McNutt arrived with 
170 settlers from the North of Ireland, who were to go to the township of Dublin. Few 
if any of them actually settled there, but the name (when given is uncertain) seems 
associated with the idea of the place being settled from Ireland. 


already referred.* From this source came the suggestion of looking to 
the Province of Ulster for an additional supply of settlers on whose 
thrift and loyalty the government could confidently rely. Lawrence's 
untimely death did not permit him to see the success with which the 
project was ultimately crowned. McNutt undertook a personal visit 
to Ireland as an accredited agent of the government, and on October 
9th, 1761, landed at Halifax with upwards of 300 settlers, for whom 
temporary quarters were provided on what is now McNab's Island. 
A few of these remained in Halifax, but by the following spring the 
great majority had obtained grants of land in various parts of the 
Province. Our return enables us to trace the distribution of this 
element six years after its arrival in the country. The largest body 
settling in one place had founded the important township of London- 
derry the rural parts of which are still almost exclusively peopled by 
their descendants. Considerable numbers joined their countrymen from 
New Hampshire and other New England points who had already 
settled in Truro and Onslow. Small bands laid the foundations of the 
townships of Amherst and Wilmot, while the new township of Windsor 
owed most of its English-speaking inhabitants to this source. The 
immigration from Ulster, which took place in 1761, was followed by 
several others of smaller proportions during the succeeding decade. 

The only places in the Peninsula not included under one or other of 
the foregoing heads are : Blandford, Canso, Dartmouth, and Lawrence- 
town. A few years previous to the date of the Return, a small com- 
pany of " west country " fishermen had been induced to settle on the 
shores of St. Margaret's Bay. Few, if any, of these original settlers 
remained permanently in Nova Scotia, and the present inhabitants of 
the district of Blandford, are with scarcely an exception, of German 

* With the exception of Lawrence no single individual played so conspicuous a part 
in the re-settlement of Nova Scotia as MrNutt. and what he accomplished was but 
insignificant compared with his plans, perhaps I should say. his dreamt. In these the 
elements of speculation and personal aggrandizement were not wanting. In connec- 
tion with all his projected colonies he secured large grants of lands, no less than a 
million acres passing to him under the Seal of the Province in a single day. His 
for! lines were clouded over by the War of the American Revolution, during the 
greater part of which he was absent from the Province. His sympathies were buwved 
to he with the revolutionary party, with several of whose leaders he was on terms of 
quite intimate acquaintance. Ultimately most of his lands were escheated. Hi- tinal 
home in Nova Scotia was on MeNutt's Island, Shelburne Harbor, which still per- 
petuates his name, and in crossing from which to the ad.jarrn! mainland he is reported 
to have been drowned. His nephew, Ihe Rev. Arthur McNutt, was for many \ 
prominent Methodist minister of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. W. B. McNutt, Esq., 
of Halifax, is his grand-nephew. 


stock. Canso, as the side-note informs us, was a summer fishing station 
rather than a settlement. Dartmouth and Lawrencetown, with only 
39 and 15 inhabitants respectively, were "deserted villages." The 
former lost its popularity as a residential suburb by the terrible massacre 
of 1756, and did not recover it for three-fourths of a century. Lawrence- 
town had been founded with a great flourish of trmpets early in the 
" fifties," but the utmost efforts of Governor Lawrence to promote 
the interests of the borough named in his honor could not avert its 

Small as was the entire population of Nova Scotia in 1767, it is 
interesting to note that settlements were reported at some point or 
points in all the (present) counties of the Peninsula except Antigonish, 
Pictou, and Digby. It is perhaps well, however, to remind ourselves 
that, even where settled, our country wore a very different face from 
that which it presents to-day. More than one historian of his native 
land has felt it necessary to put his readers on guard against the persis- 
tent illusion which confounds the scenes of which they read with those 
which are daily passing before their eyes. Most needed when history 
stretches back over many centuries, such a caution is not altogether 
needless in the case of a country comparatively young like ours. We 
have little to show, it is true, in comparison with the marvellous 
phenomena of expansion and progress exhibited in other parts of our 
continent ; and yet the contrast between 1758 and 1888 is so great 
that a distinct and prolonged effort of mind is required to grasp its full 
breadth and significance. In great natural features no country is less 
liable to change than Nova Scotia. These presented themselves to our 
forefathers as they do to us, the long wall of rock stretching with scarce 
a break from Canso to Sable ; the broad alluviums and rushing tides of 
Fundy ; Porcupine mantled in changeless green and throwing dark 
shadows across the silvery strait ; Aspatogen " rock-ribbed and ancient 

as the sun "; " away to the northward Blomidon and the 

forests old, and aloft on the mountains sea-fogs pitching their tents and 
mists from the mighty Atlantic," all these our ancestors saw just as we 
see them. But it is the abiding monuments of nature alone that could 
enable one of the settlers of 1760, were he to rise from the dead, to 
recognize the country to which he came. Our own goodly city was a 
little palisaded hamlet, included chiefly within the limits of what are 
now the Third and Fourth Wards. Five-sixths or more of the penin- 


sula which is now traversed by streets and covered with houses and 
gardens was a jungle in which the treacherous Micmac lurked for 
human game. The country at large was a forest. The vacated 
Acadian settlements which had proved so potent a spell for immigra- 
tion purposes were but insignificant patches on the margin of a trackless 
wilderness. Houses and barns had mostly disappeared, while over the 
once wheat-bearing dyke lands Neptune had resumed full sway. 

Our Return in its industrial statistics, which are minute and 
well worthy of study, shows what progress had been made in six 
years for this was about the average age of the settlements in 
recovering what had been lost and in the initial development of 
resources which constitute Nova Scotia one of the richest Provinces of 
the Dominion. 







(Read before the Nova Scotia Historical Society, March 3rd, 1887.) 

It is worthy of notice that the venerable Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel at a very early period determined to provide for the 
education and spiritual ministration of the newly-formed Nova Scotian 
settlements. By request of the Lords Commissioners for Trade and 
Plantations, the Society pledged itself to send out six clergymen and 
six schoolmasters as soon as their services should be needed. Accord- 
ingly the first missionaries sent out, who accompanied the expedition of 
Governor Cornwallis, were the Rev. Messrs. Anwell and J. Baptiste 
Moreau ; who were followed in the summer of the same year by Rev. 
William Tutty. Mr. Anwell was soon recalled. But Mr. Tutty is 
honorably connected with the German settlers, by the fact that he 
ministered to them in their own tongue, and administered the sacra- 
ment of the Lord's supper to a large congregation. In fact the only 
ministrations ever given to the German settlers by ordained clergymen 
were those of the Church of England. In two years after the settle- 
ment of Halifax, i. e., in the year 1752, one-half the population 
professed themselves members of the Church of England, and when the 
Rev. John Breynton was appointed assistant to Mr. Tutty in 1752, the 
number of communicants was about 600. Nor can it be wondered at 
that the German Evangelical Lutherans of the confession of Augsburg 
who settled in Halifax, should have conformed to the Church of Eng- 
land. Their own church took no care to send a minister with them ; 


and it was a very natural thing that they should desire to conform to 
the only church which shewed the least interest in their spiritual wel- 
fare. It has been insinuated by Rev. D. Luther Roth, a Lutheran 
minister, who recently wrote a series of letters in one of our city papers, 
that undue influence was brought to bear upon the German settlers to 
induce them to conform to the Church of England. Of this there is 
not the slightest evidence. Everything shows the liveliest feelings of 
gratitude and affection entertained by the Germans for those truly 
evangelical clergymen, who, though of alien tongue and another nation, 
performed the part of fathers in God to those for whom their own 
church had showed no solicitude. 

Rev. Jean Baptiste Moreau, formerly a Priest of the Church of 
Rome, and an Abbe who had been at one time living in that capacity 
at Brest, in France, came to this country in charge of French and Swiss 
Protestant settlers, and received the usual grant of .70 a year for his 
services. Both Mr. Tutty and Mr. Moreau appear to have been good 
linguists. The former reports in 1749 that he had, in addition to his 
own duties as the clergyman to the English inhabitants, administered 
to the Germans, and the latter afterwards included them among his 

But the first missionary employed directly in charge of the Germans 
was Mr. Burger, a German-Swiss minister who had long been desirous 
of Episcopal ordination. This worthy gentleman translated the 
Communion Service of the Church of England into German, and used 
his best endeavours to promote peace and concord. He went to 
England as a candidate for Holy Orders in 1752, carrying with him 
the strong recommendation of the Governor and of Mr. Tutty and Mr. 
Moreau. Having received ordination from the Bishop of London, he 
returned, bringing with him a goodly supply of Bibles and Prayer 
Books in the German language, for the use of the settlers. Mr. Burger 
probably only received deacon's orders. Hence Mr. Tutty still continued 
to administer the Holy Eucharist to the German congregation, for 
which purpose alone he appears to have studied German, and mention 
is made in the S. P. G.'s report for 1753 of his having converted and 
baptized a German Jew, who communicated with his brethren on the 
following Sunday. Mr. Tutty died in 1754. These services were 
held in the school house at the corner of Gerrish and Brunswick Sts., 
long before its dedication as a church. Mr. Moreau followed the 
Germans and French-Swiss to Lunenburg in 1753. He tells the 

fARIStt OP St. GEORGE. 75 

Society in his report of 1759, that a great mortality had visited his 
people in 1753, in which three-fourths of them died, and that fifty-six 
families, consisting of Lutherans, Calvinists, Presbyterians and 
Anabaptists, had, under his labours and the blessing of God, become 
worthy members of the Church. Mr. Moreau died at Lunenburg in 
1780. He was a most accomplished man, being able to minister in 
three languages, and even becoming acquainted with the language of the 
Indians, several of whose children he baptized. That he was a man of 
extraordinary firmness and personal influence, is evidenced by the 
following episode, which occurred during his pastorate at Lunenburg. 
One of his congregation having been detected as one of the leaders in a 
treasonable conspiracy against the government, Mr. Moreau, in spite of 
the offender's rank and station, publicly excommunicated him. After 
a time, the offender being desirous of re-admission to his lost privileges, 
humbly prostrated himself in the church, then rose up and humbly 
asked pardon of God, the King, and his Christian brethren, whom he 
had offended by his ill-conduct and disobedience. He then received an 
exhortation from the pulpit to a sincere repentance and amendment, 
and was afterwards admitted to communion. 

The pious example and lofty integrity of such men as Mr. Tutty, 
Mr. Moreau, Mr. Breynton and Mr. Wood, could not fail to produce a 
deep impression upon the Germans, and to conciliate their good opinion 
towards the church of which these gentlemen were ministers. It is to 
such qualities in the clergy of the early settlement, rather than to any 
less worthy pressure, that we must look to account for the gradual 
conformity of the Germans to the Church of England. 

But the absorption was the work of many years. The Germans were 
obstinate by nature, not to be driven or coerced. With all the legiti- 
mate and laudable influences which drew them to the church, they still 
maintained a sturdy adherence to their own manners and customs, some 
of which were retained until a comparatively recent date and within the 
memory of persons now living. 

The earliest document in existence among the records of the old St. 
George's church, is a bequest from John Samuel Gross of a piece of 
land to the Evangelic Lutheran Church, which bears date October 12, 
1752, and is discolored with age. I transcribe it for its quaintnesa: 

Whereas I, in my present sickness, being taken dangerously ill, not 
knowing how long I may live, as after my death having no heirs in this 
country, to leave unto tnem what I may have, I have resolved to give unto 


the Evangelic Lutheran Church, further use and own property, a lott with 
a barrack or hut on it, (containg50 feet in the front and 250 feet in the rear) 
standing in the north suburbs of Halifax, in the upper street, between the 
house of George Stork and Michael Clausner ; and that ye aforesaid 
Lutheran Church is to have and hold the aforesaid lott and barrack to their 
own sole use and property forever, butt if it should be God's will, that I 
should recover of this sickness, nevertheless the aforesaid lott and barrack 
is to be to the use of the aforesaid Lutheran Church as above, only granting 
rne the barrack to live in this winter. 

Humbly petitioning His Excellency Governor Hopson to grant that this 
my will may be granted unto ye aforesaid church, in confirmation of the 
above, have signed with my own hand. 

Halifax, October 12, 1752. JOHN SAMUEL GKOSS. 

Witness : 




The need of rules and regulations for the guidance of the church 
officers and the government of the church began by this time to be felt, 
and from henceforth we find that at intervals the congregation of the 
German church supplied them. On October 19, 1761, a quarterly 
meeting was held in the church, when the following resolutions were 
drawn up and passed : 

I. That at the Holy Communion common bread be used and no wafers. 

II. That those who attend the Lord's Supper shall have their names 
written down by the Schoolmaster or the Sexton, or by any one else who is 
appointed thereto. 

III. That as long as we have no minister, printed sermons are to be read 
aloud by the school-master, or any one else who is appointed thereto. 

IV. That funerals which happen on a Sunday, shall not take place 
before four o'clock, or when the ordinary services, whether English or 
German, shall be concluded. 

V. That the Schoolmaster, or some one else, shall register the name of 
the deceased in a book appointed for the purpose, with the date. 

VI. If any of the officials should die while in office, he is to have the 
pall gratis. 

To these rules the following names are subscribed : Peter Bergman, 
Otto Wm. Schwartz, Gottlieb Shermiller, Friedrich Kohl, George Hohl. 

On the 9th of December in the same year, the German colony 
experienced a heavy loss in the death of their pious and excellent school- 
master, John Gottfried Turpel, who entered into his rest after a short 
illness, aged 55. He had been appointed to his responsible office on 
July 29th, 1760, and had discharged his duties with exemplary fidelity. 
The following notice is extracted from the Church records : 

" We insert as a memorial in our Church book, that our much loved 
school-master, John Gottfried Turpel, died on 9th December, 1761. He 
attended to his duties with all his heart. 


To his credit be it said that he was beloved by everybody on account of 
his integrity, and is generally lamented, but especially by his young 
scholars, who have shed tears at his departure. May the Lord cause his 
sou! to rejoice throughout eternity." 

With reference to the rules above quoted, Mr. Hoth, the writer 
whom I have before alluded to, observes that No. 1, concerning no 
" wafers " being used at the Sacrament, must have been made on 
account of the tendency of the very high church clergy of Halifax at 
the time, and shows the sturdy Protestantism of the German settlers. 
I believe this to be solely evolved from Mr. Roth's ingenious brain. It 
has not been the custom of any clergyman of the Church of England to 
use wafers for a period long anterior to that we are treating of. And 
Dr. Breynton and Mr. Wood were as sturdily Evangelical as the Ger- 
mans themselves, in some respects more so. In fact it may \te 
questioned whether they would have used the pious expression of the 
German record in reference to the soul of the deceased schoolmaster. 
Whatever then may have been the reason of the regulation, it could 
not have been the one alleged by Mr. Roth. It may have been that 
the French and Swiss, to whom the wafers were more familiar, had 
desired their use, but of this we cannot be sure. But Mr. Roth has a 
brief and a great spleen against the Church of England. 

In the year 1760 Mr. Breynton reports the death of Governor 
Laurence, which event, he says, was a great loss to the colony, to the 
Church and to Mr. Breynton himself ; the Governor, according to him, 
being possessed of every natural endowment and acquired accomplish- 
ment that could adorn the seat of Government ; and to his other 
laudable qualities was added that of sincerity in religion, and of a 
zealous regard to the Established Church. He further relates the 
strenuous efforts made by Governor Laurence, upon the representations 
made to him by the General Assembly of the Province of Nova Scotia, 
who addressed him on January 5th, 1760, to secure a clergyman and 
schoolmaster from England who should understand both German and 
English. The Governor's idea was that they should itinerate ; residing 
chiefly at Lunenburg, but coming at certain seasons to Halifax. Such 
a clergyman was found in the person of Rev. Mr. Vincent ; who, how- 
ever, appears to have found his duties at Lunenburg quite heavy 
enough, for he made no appearance at Halifax. 

In February, 1763, the number of parishioners in Halifax is returned 
by Mr. Breynton as being about 1300, of whom 250 were Germans and 


French, who continued to worship in the German Church in the north 
suburbs. These are now under the sole charge of Mr. Breynton, as 
Mr. Wood is removing this year to Annapolis. The fostering care 
exhibited by Governor Laurence is no less shewn by Jonathan Belcher, 
President of the Council and Chief Justice, who with the Governor and 
the Secretary, formed a Corresponding Committee, which regularly 
transmitted to the Society their minutes, together with suggestions 
oftentimes most valuable. 

The history of the German Church of St. George continues with 
uneventful smoothness during the years 1762 to 1784. The school- 
master officiated on Sundays when no clergyman was present, and good 
and energetic Mr. Breynton gave what services he could, baptizing, 
marrying and burying their dead. The German congregation, however, 
did not consider themselves a part of St. Paul's Parish, as will be seen 
by the following additional regulations passed in 1761. The rulers of 
the congregation are Elders, two or three in number, corresponding to 
our Church Wardens. To assist these there is a Council of what are 
called in the records Church Wardens, but whose position was rather 
that of modern Vestrymen. 

The minute referred to reads thus : 

" It is thought desirable that each year at Christmas new Church 
Wardens should be chosen from among the congregation. This choice is 
not to be obligatory, and is to be quietly made. Each one is to hand in a 
ticket with all the names upon it of those who are to be proposed. The 
Elders and Church Wardens are to be present, also the members of the 
Church may be present, that it may not be said that any deception has 
been practised. Half of those to be chosen shall be from the Town and 
south suburb, the other half from the north suburb, all to be members of 
this congregation. 

Only men of good report are to be chosen. 

Also we approve that William Schwartz shall for certain reasons retain 
the office of Elder as long as it may please him." 

(The reason of this is plain. Mr. Schwartz was not only a man of 
strict integrity, but appears from the account of expense incurred in 
building or fitting up the church, to have provided a good deal of the 
funds. He was evidently the most important person among their 

After denning the duties of the Elders, and prescribing how the 
accounts are to be kept and the school maintained, the rule is laid down 
that the Elder shall preside, even thouyh a minister be present, and that 
even if there should be a minister, he shall undertake nothing of 


himself without the concurrence of the Elder and Church Wardens. It 
closes with the reminder that the congregation are not to suppose that 
the Elder and Church Wardens are bound to enter into all manner of 
disputes. They may do so as a friend or neighbour, but not in their 
official capacity. But with regard to the Church and what belongs 
thereto, they are in duty bound, as parents and guardians, to care for 
the same with all propriety. 

After this the register gives the dates of Dr. Breynton's ministrations, 
and especially of his administrations of the Holy Communion, which 
appears to have taken place about once a quarter, and the account book 
(kept in German) always notes that a present was made to the Herr 
Prediger. The texts of the sermons are frequently given, and if the 
sermon was preached in English it is always noted. That Mr. Breynton 
could and did preach sometimes in both languages is testified to by an 
old resident of the city now living, who says that his grandmother 
related how she plodded up along the cart road at the dedication of 
St. George's Church in 1761, when Dr. Breynton preached first in 
English and afterwards in German. 

In 1774 an order was passed that if any one is to be interred in the 
graveyard, the schoolmaster is to be paid for his trouble in unlocking 
the gate and pointing out the place ; for each funeral, 2s. 6d. ; for 
children, 2s. 

In 1771 the name of Anthony H finery first appears on the Church 
books. He had come to Halifax after the fall of Louisburg, where he 
had carried a fife in one of the King's regiments. He was a printer by 
trade, and for many years was King's Printer, and published the 
Royal Gazette. He died in 1800, and his tombstone is one of the few 
in good preservation in the Dutch Churchyard. 

The salary of the schoolmaster, Carl Hagelsieb, at this time, was 
50s. a quarter for ringing the bell, reading, and leading the singing ; 
and in 1778 Christian Metzler was appointed organist at 17s. 6d. a 
quarter. What sort of an organ is not mentioned, nor the style of 
playing which only brought so small a salary. 

From this time to the year 1807 there is nothing on the old register 
of St. George's Church, with two exceptions, save the record of the 
annual meeting, with the names of the Church Wardens chosen. Of 
these two exceptions, the first is the dispute with St. Paul's in regard 
to the Melchior property. This arose from the bequest of a certain 
Melchior of his estate to " the parish," meaning, as is probable, the 


German Churchi But St. Paul's Parish, being the only legal Parish 
Church in Halifax, claimed the property in question. The dispute was 
arranged by arbitration. The entry on the minutes of St. George's is 
short, but to the point. It is, word for word, as follows : 

"January 1st, 1779. Church meeting was held, and it was agreed upon 
that some of the Church Wardens of St. George's should go to those of St. 
Paul, and let the so-called estate of Melchior for a certain term of some 
years. The Church of St. Paul is to receive 20 Spanish dollars according to 
agreement, and the remaining profits should be given to St. George's." 

St. George's appointed Richard Jacob and the Church Wardens to 
look after this particular property. He is ordered to give an account, 
at the annual meeting, of the income and expenditure of the estate. 

An instance of the " canny " disposition of the Germans is shewn in 
the fact that he is, by the terms of his appointment, to resign his office 
if requested by the meeting, and he is also to discharge his duties 
without expense to the church. 

It may be stated here that this was not the only cause of contention 
between the German Church of St. George and the Parish Church of 
St. Paul. Later on in the history of both churches a piece of property 
at the east end of the Dutch churchyard, bequeathed to the German 
Church, was seized upon by St. Paul's Church, on the plea that it alone 
represented " the Church." This property was retained, in spite of the 
efforts of St. George's, by the authorities of St. Paul's Church, as being 
the only representative of the Established Church in Halifax. The 
Rev. Dr. Breynton had officiated, as has been shewn, for many years in 
the Dutch Church, and had administered the Holy Communion not less 
than half-yearly, and probably every quarter. The frequency and 
regularity of these celebrations denote the attachment of the Germans 
to the Established Church, and their appreciation of the kind ministra- 
tions of its Rector. It was probably a troublesome thing for the Rector 
of St. Paul's to carry with him the holy vessels every time he went to 
St. George's to celebrate the Holy Mysteries. He probably suggested 
to the German Elders that as they had some cash in hand, they should 
provide themselves with all things necessary to the due celebration of 
the Eucharistic office. Accordingly we find that at a meeting held May 
27, 1779 : 

", It was agreed upon that their should be, as their was as much in the 
fund of the ( lerman congregation, a Silver Communion Plate bought, and 
that Mr. Richard Jacobs should sent for it." 


The ]>late was sent from England. It is curious that upon it is an 
inscription in English, and that the Royal Arms should be found 
engraven upon the front of it. This may have been either because the 
order was forwarded through the Government, of which Mr. Richard 
Jacobs may have been an official ; or because the silversmiths in Eng- 
land, being ignorant of anything beyond an Established Church, thought 
that the Royal Arms, surmounting so many pieces of communion plate 
of a pi'evious period, were the only suitable emblems for engraving 
upon these. 

This plate, duly arriving from the old country, was used for the first 
time by Rev. Dr. Breynton on October 8th, 1779. It is described as 
consisting of a " silver can, a silver cup, one large and one small plate, 
in all four pieces." The cost was 57 2s. Id. The plate, which I here 
exhibit to you, was massive and suitable, and has been used continuously 
from that time to this. It was further ordered that the " said silver 
plate should alwais be kept in one of the Wardens' houses." The 
amount of the cost of the plate was paid to Mr. Jacob from the funds 
on January 1st, 1780, and an entry to that effect was duly made in the 
account books of the Parish. 

A violent and absurd letter appears among those before mentioned 
as having been written by Rev. D. Luther Roth, a Lutheran minister, 
formerly of Lunenburg, and at present (1887) residing in the United, 
States. He draws a picture highly creditable to his imaginative powers 
but to nothing else, representing the perjured and abandoned Christians 
of St. George's receiving the Sacred Food from plate stolen from the 
Germans and handed down from generation to generation of sacrilegious 
thieves. The man must be little better than a fool. This plate was 
purchased by the German congregation for use in the Communion 
Service of the Church of England. It was never used for any other 
service. It was never handled by any one save an ordained Priest of 
the Church of England. At the time when the old Church of St. George 
became too small for the increasing population, and the new St George 
was erected, it passed from the dying hands of the first German minister 
(of whom more anon) to the first regularly-appointed English minister, 
to be used by him and no one else. The congregation was by this time 
(1800) more than half English, and those who still retained their 
German predilections were inclined to the English Church, which alone 
had cared for their souls during a period of half-a-century. And when 
at last the congregation of St. George's, Germans and all, became 


conformed to the English Church and fully constituted of their own 
free will and accord, after its model, the plate was handed over to the 
Rev. Robert Fitzgerald Uniacke, honoured name in this city, and has 
passed from him to his successors. The uncalled for and cruel attempt 
of this truly Christian minister, Mr. D. L. Roth, to stir up strife and 
create bitter feeling about the communion plate used in the holy 
mysteries of the Prince of Peace for one hundred and eight years, can 
only recoil on its pugnacious, untruthful author. The plate is conse- 
crated by the hallowed use of more than a century, and one cannot 
envy the pious pretensions of one who would create ill-feeling and 
un-Christian controversy over the sacred remains of the sainted dead. 
It cannot be too strongly emphasized that from the earliest coming of 
the Germans to the present, no ordained minister has ever officiated in 
the German Church, or its offshoot, the present St. George's, save a 
true and regular priest of the Church of England. It is true, of course, 
to admit that of late years servicee have been held by a German 
Lutheran minister, Rev. Theodore Cossman, D. D., in the Dutch 
Church, to German Lutherans in Halifax. But such services have been 
allowed solely by the Christian courtesy of the Rectors of St. George's 
in a building once occupied by German Lutherans, but for a century 
past the property of the Church of England. The communion plate 
here exhibited has never been used by other than Church of England 
priests, not even in the occasional services of the Dutch Church by 
Lutheran ministers. 

Nothing occurs in any of the annals of St. George's Church to which 
general attention may be profitably drawn, until the arrival of the 
refugees, from the revolted colonies, afterwards designated the United 
States. About the year 1783 and 1784 large numbers of gentlemen 
who could not take the onth of allegiance to the newly-constituted 
Government, came to New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Among these 
was an aristocratic German minister, with his family, who had occupied 
a distinguished position in New York, and who now sought a home in 
the new colony of Nova Scotia. Many of his congregation followed 
him from New York. 

The Reverend Bernard Michael Houseal was born at Heilbronn, 
Wurtemberg, in the year 1727. His father was a clergyman of the 
Lutheran Church. Nothing is now known of his early years. But he 
inherited a vigorous constitution, a commanding presence, and a manner 
that carried him through the most aristocratic society, and proclaimed 


beyond doubt his good birth. His early years were spent in study, his 
education being received, it is probable, in the University of Tubingen, 
in Wurtemburg. His diligence in study and powers of mind gave him 
at an early age, an erudition which stood him in good stead all his life. 
During his college career he fell in love with the daughter of a man of 
considerable standing and influence in the town of Ulm, viz., Christopher 
B. Mayer, descendant of a well-born and useful family of that name, 
whose members had been public men in Ulm since 1545, when the 
founder of the family was Stadthauptman, or Stipendiary Magistrate. 
We can fancy the handsome student going during his vacations, and 
perhaps oftener, the forty miles that separated him from the scene of 
his studies and the residence of his beloved. We may picture to 
ourselves the stimulus given to his midnight researches by the prospect 
of an early marriage. But his enterprise did not at this period lead his 
mind beyond the confines of his native Province. But other forces were 
at work, which led him finally to these shores. 

In the earlier part of the 18th century, more than 30,000 persecuted 
Salzburgers, expelled by the wicked Prince, Archbishop Leopold 
Anthony, because they would not abjure their faith, fled to Russia, 
Holland and England. Of those who went to England, 78 selected 
men, women and children were sent to America free of cost by the 
trustees of the young colony of Georgia. They formed the nucleus of 
the ecclesiastical settlement of Ebenezer, Georgia. In 1752 this town 
was in the full tide of successful promise. Persons who had emigrated 
there sent home letters lull of enthusiasm, which kindled the hearts of 
many to seek such a "land of pure delight." The settlement, appar- 
ently, was a pure theocratic Lutheran settlement of Germans, simple in 
life and law, but rigid in religious discipline. This town is long since 
dead, destroyed by war. But at the period of which we are writing it 
was prosperous. 

There were many in over-crowded Germany who believed that their 
lot might be improved by an emigration to a virgin soil in a new 
country. Thus it happened that Christopher Bartholomew Mayer, 
father of the wife of the first German minister of St. George's, made up 
his mind to seek his fortune in the Southern American province of 
Georgia. Early in the year he left his paternal home in Ulm and 
started on his journey from Ulm to Ebenezer, Georgia. Among those 
who accompanied him (it reads like a romance) was of course his 
daughter, Sybilla Margaretha, before this betrothed to the young 


student, Bernard Michael Houseal. This gentleman had now completed 
his college course and had received his degree of M. A. Vows of 
eternal affection had doubtless been exchanged between the two young 
people, when the design of the lady's father to emigrate to America 
became known. With tears and sighs the daughter had made it known 
to her lover that she must depart to alien shores, and that separation, 
dark, dreary and unknown, lay before them both. The young man now 
informed the object of his affections that having been ordained to the 
sacred ministry, he had made up his mind to engage in missionary 
work, and that nothing would please him better than to proceed to the 
North American Colonies, there to win his spurs as a missionary, and 
to gather a rich harvest of souls into his heavenly Master's fold. 

Then it came to pass that early in 1752, Christopher Bartholomew 
Mayer, of Ulm, his wife and four children, stood on the wharf in 
Rotterdam, with their faces set towards the new world. The marriage 
of Sybilla Margaretha Mayer with Rev. Bernard Michael Houseal had 
just been celebrated, and the two young people, so lately made one, 
were going hand in hand on the voyage of life. 

But from some unexplained cause, they were detained in Holland for 
a whole year before setting sail for the land of their adoption. During 
this year the ecclesiastical influence of young Houseal, brilliant, ener- 
getic and learned as he was, and in communication with the authorities 
of the Consistory of Stuttgart, under whose auspices he was going to 
labour in America, caused a change in Christopher Mayer's intentions. 
Instead of proceeding to Georgia, as he at first intended, he with his 
family took his passage to Annapolis, Mainland. On their arrival 
there in safety, they were met by a certain Daniel Dulany, a large 
landowner, who induced the thrifty Germans to look at his land in and 
about Fredericktown, in that State. This conjecture is strengthened 
by the fact that the ground for the church subsequently begun at that 
village by Mr. Houseal was given to him for that purpose by Dulany. 
No doubt the fertile soil of Maryland compared most favorably with 
the swamps of Savannah. And with equal probability the ecclesiastical 
aspirations of young Houseal led him in the direction of the c onverging 
valleys of the Shenandoah and Potomac rivers, where a community 
from the Fatherland, speaking a common language and devoted to 
Lutheranism as a common faith, was already established to welcome the 
new-comers. And so, in spite of the frontier of their home being 
thronged with savages, and bordering on the wildest parts of the State> 


the immigrant family of Mayer and Houseal planted themselves on the 
ground rich in soil and healthy in climate, which within three years 
beheld Braddock's defeat. Thus bravely did the first German minister 
in Halifax begin his career. 

Here Mr. Houseal, at the age of 25, began his work as a minister of 
the Evangelical Lutheran Church. The deed of the land on which the 
church was begun by Houseal was given by Daniel Dulany to B. M. 
Houseal, as pastor. But the work, zealously begun, was stopped by 
the outbreak of hostilities between the English, French and Indians. 
Mr. Houseal's father-in-law only survived his emigration from his 
native land six months, dying in November, 1752. His widow, sons 
and daughter removed to Pennsylvania, principally to Philadelphia. 
Mr. Houseal, however, did not leave his flock in Fredericktown until 
the year 1759, when he took charge of a congregation in Reading town, 
Pennsylvania. There he remained until 1768. From thence he went 
as clergyman to Easton, Pa., and occasionally, while there, officiated in 
Philadelphia. For a short time he was in South Carolina, but as his 
brother had lately emigrated there, it may have been only on a visit 
In the year 1770 he was transferred to New York, then the leading 
province in America. His talents and industry procured him here the 
high position of Senior Minister of the ancient Lutheran Church in 
that city. Here his sphere of influence continually increased, and his 
ability and address gave him an eminent position among the people. 
He appears to have been a man of much culture and scholarship. He 
was one of the Governors of New York College, and one of the 
corporators of the New York Hospital. 

When the Revolutionary troubles began, Houseal warmly espoused 
the cause of the King. There was a common bond of lineage between 
him and his Sovereign. This, added to his naturally aristocratic 
temperament, made him an ardent defender of the rights of the 
monarchy. From the Historical Records of New York, we find him 
to have been loud in his declarations of loyalty to England, as one of 
the addressers of Lord Howe and Sir William Howe after the occupation 
of New York in 1770. 

When the British took possession of that capital in that year, 
Houseal's house and church were burnt, in all probability by the 
retreating rebels, who did not forget that the Tory preacher had, with 
his customary boldness, denounced the revolutionists in no measured 


The coming of Mr. Houseal was a great boon, as may well be 
supposed, to the German congregation of St. George's. Their church 
had been completed now for 22 years. They had bravely and steadily 
kept up their services in their mother tongue, depending on occasional 
help from the Rector of St. Paul's, or any minister whom he might 
send. Not once during 34 years had their hearts been gladdened by 
the sound of a native, speaking their own language. Dr. Breynton had 
with great kindness, which we are bound to say was duly appreciated, 
done for them all that lay in his power. 

Now there had come to Halifax one born and educated in Fatherland, 
one who was not only an accomplished gentleman, but who could 
minister to them in their own beloved tongue. But here was the 
difficulty. Their schoolmaster had been assisted by the English Church 
as the foster-mother of the German Mission. The Germans had, many 
of them, become warmly attached to that Church which had befriended 
them in the day of their loneliness. They were a poor and struggling 
community, though they had a few men of means among them. The 
congregation, in short, was no longer Lutheran, though still German. 

Mr. Houseal had had many opportunities during his sojourn in New 
York of intercourse with the Episcopal clergy. He had seen their 
honest and manly support of the King's cause, and had sympathized 
with it. He, equally with them, had suffered for his loyalty the loss 
of all his possessions. He had known Charles Inglis, Rector of Trinity 
Church, had seen and admired the noble stand made by him against 
rebellion and bloodshed. He had stood by his side when the troops of 
the Continentals had over run New York, and came in to intimidate 
the staunch Royalist from praying for his King. A common danger 
cements an extraordinary friendship, and common sympathies, especially 
political sympathies, are apt to sway the whole man. So when Houseal 
come to Halifax, a Loyalist refugee, who had left all for his adherence 
to the cause of the King, and was received as a brother and friend by 
the loyal population of this city, where he found a congregation to his 
hand, German in nationality, yet English by adoption, Lutheran by 
birth, yet drawn to the Cburch of England by the strong and inevitable 
cords of love, he soon began to seriously consider whether he could not 
conform to the Church to which his German compatriots were so power- 
fully attracted. It was no unimportant step he was called upon to 
take. It involved his whole ecclesiastical status. If he conformed to 
the Church of England, he must admit the invalidity of his previous 


ordination, and submit to the imposition of Episcopal hands He must, 
after au expatriation, from the land of his maturer years, again cross 
the stormy ocean, not in a palatial steamship, but in a small sailing 
vessel, and risk the greater dangers of the return voyage. On the 
whole, it was a great sacrifice of life-long training and of personal 
comfort and ease which he was called upon to make. 

From what is known of Mr. Houseal's previous career, of his 
erudition, accomplishments and personal character, we may rest assured 
that any step taken by him would only be dictated by the purest 
motives, and carried out by a self-sacrificing integrity. 

In the course of a year he sailed for England, no doubt furnished 
with letters from the highest circles in Halifax. There he was one of 
the heroes of the Revolution. Preaching in a popular London chapel, 
he was heard, it is said, by a member of the royal family, probably 
Prince Edward, father of our present beloved Queen. Soon after this 
he applied to the Bishop of London for Deacon's orders in the Church 
of England. He then received the chaplaincy of a regiment which was 
a favorite of the Duke of Kent. With this regiment he returned to 
Halifax, and there began his services to the Germans, leaving his 
regimental chaplaincy. He is described as a man of commanding 
stature, stately manners and dignified address, thoroughly educated in 
ancient and modern languages, as well as theology, and speaking Latin 
especially with remarkable fluency. In the British Provinces which 
revolted from England he served for thirty-one years as a minister of 
the Lutheran Church, preaching in New York for fourteen years in 
English, German, French and Dutch. The sixteen years of his after 
life in Nova Scotia were devoted to God as a clergyman of the Church 
of England. 

I add the obituary notice of Mr. Houseal in the Gazette of 1799. 
His body lies in a vault underneath the old Dutch Church. It is 
probable that Mr. Houseal had been a student of medicine in his early 
life, and that he took the degree of Bachelor of Medicine before leaving 
Germany. Of this it is impossible to be quite sure, but the balance of 
evidence points that way. 




[Copied by permission from, originals in the possession of the Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, London, G. B.] 


It having been thought necessary to have a Chaplain in Annapolis 
Royal, the Council of War have thought fit, upon the recommendation 
of Mr. Commodore Martin, to appoint John Harrison, Clerk, to the 
station, and a commission is ordered him accordingly. 

At a Council of War at Annapolis Royal, October lltb, 1710. 



We, under subscribers, the Governor, Lieut. -Governor, and others, 
the Commissioned Officers of Her Majesty's Garrison of Annapolis 
Royal, in Nova Scotia, in America, think ourselves in justice bound to 
certifie to all whom it may concern, that the Rev. Mr. John Harrison, 
Chaplain to this Her Majesty's Garrison, for above these three years, 
last past, hath performed his office and duty as Chaplain of this 
Garrison with all possible care, diligence and application. 

SAM: VETCH, Gov'r. 



L. ARMSTRONG, V Captains. 





JNO: JEPHSON, \- Lieuts. 





THOS: BOLTON, }- Eng'eers. 



FRANK SPELMAN, Fort Master. 

GEO: VANE, Engineer. 

PETER , Commissioner. 

WM: SHEEN, Surgeon. 

[On the above certificate, leave of absence was granted Mr. Harrison " to 
go to Boston on his own affairs," the document being signed by Lieut- 
Governor Caulfield, and dated 7th November, 1713.] 



To His Excellency Francis Nicholson, Esqr., etc. : 



' That whereas, Your Memorialist has been Chaplain to Her Majesty's 
Garrison, of Annapolis Royal, since that place has been reduced to the 
English Government by your successful conduct, he thinks it his duty 
to acquaint Your Excellency with the state of the church there, and to 
beg Your Excelencies favor in asserting the rights of it. The Most 
Christian King having built a handsome chappell in the Fort of Port 
Royal whilst it was in the possession of the French, and having endowed 
it with two acres and an half of glebe land, situated in the Lower 
Town, for the benefit of the Missionary of the Order of St. Francis, as 
appears by an authentic deed for that purpose, I humbly conceive that 
tho' the property be altered, yet both the church and the land belong- 
ing to it should still be applied to pious uses. Its my humble request 
to Your Excellency that you would be pleased to order the Barracks to 
be removed out of the chappell, which has been encumbered with them 
during the late war, by reason of the want of room and other con- 
veniencies for the soldiers' lodgings. Upon this occasion likewise I 


cannot omit informing Your Excellency of a house that was lately 
built upon the church land by Capt. John Adams, Sir Charles Hobby's 
Agent, contrary to an express warning given him by me before two 
witnesses. The house is now in Sir Charles Hobby's possession, and a 
considerable quantity cf the land has suffered much damage by digging 
of clay to make bricks for building and other uses, by the said Mr. 
Adams. Your Excellency being no less eminent for your piety and 
love of religion than for your prudent administration of civil affairs, I 
don't doubt but that you will take care to do justice in this matter, and 
I beg leave to subscribe myself with humility, etc. 

BOSTON, Nov. 23rd, 1713. 

[Accompanying the above Memorial are two title-deeds, purporting to be 
executed before " John Chrysostome Loppinot, Councillor, King's Attor- 
ney, and Notary Royal of Acadia." The first bears date 25th November, 
1699, and is from " Anthony Hebert, inhabitant of Port Royal " to " M. 
Claude LeBastien de Villet, Knight, Lord of the Manor of Anbinettes " 
and captain of a company of marines, etc. The second is dated 3rd of 
December, 1704, and is from M. Claude LeBastien de Villet, Knight, 
Lord of the Manor of Anbinettes, etc., formerly Major-General of 
Acadia, and Judith Henrietta, his spouse, to M. James Francis 
DeBrouilliant, Lord of the Manor of Brouilliant and other places, 
Knight of the Military Order of Saint Louis, Governor of the Province 
of Acady, named for Syndick of the Mission of the Order of Recollects 
of Acady by the Father Patrick Rene, Superior of the Missionaries 
Recollect in Acady and Vicar-General of the said country." The descrip- 
tion which is given with great particularity is the same in both deeds.] 


LONDON, April, 1746. 
Solicitor and Clerk to the 

Rt. Hon. the Lords Commissioners 
of Trade and Plantations. 

SIR, In the absence of Dr. Bancroft, who is now at the Bath, 1 am 
directed by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts to acquaint you that they received with much pleasure the 
account contained in your letter of the 6th instant, wrote by order of 
the Lords Commissions for Trade and Plantations, that His Majesty 


had given directions that a number of persons shall be sent to the 
Province of Nova Scotia, North America, and heartily offer their best 
wishes and prayers for the happy progress and complete success of that 
great and useful undertaking. It afforded the Society much satisfaction 
to observe that the Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations 
showed so just and necessary a regard for introducing and supporting 
true religion among the people to be settled there j at the same time 
that they were consulting in so great a degree the civil and commercial 
interests of that Colony and of Great Britain. 

To accomplish as far as lay in the Society the pious and laudable 
intention of ye Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations, a 
special meeting was immediately called which consisted of a larger 
number than usual of their members, who unanimously concurred in 
the following resolutions : 

That six clergymen and six schoolmasters of the Church of England 
shall be provided by the Society and sent to Nova Scotia as the settle- 
ments are made, and the occasions of the colony require. That the 
salary to each Missionary by 70 a year, which is the highest salary 
allowed to any missionary employed by the Society, and that 50 be 
given to each missionary as a gratuity to facilitate the first settlement, 
which is more than has been ever given by the Society upon any such 

That the salary to each schoolmaster be 15 per annum, which is 
the highest salary allowed to any schoolmaster employed by the Society, 
and that 10 be given to each schoolmaster as a gratuity to faciliate 
the first settlement, which is the greatest sum ever given by the 
Society to any schoolmaster upon any occasion. 

* * * -x- # * * 

The Society will use their best endeavors to appoint some mission- 
aries and schoolmasters who can speak the French language. 

****** * * 

The Society observes that there is a chaplain settled already at 
Annapolis Royal, who it is taken for granted is resident and con- 
stantly performs his duty there. * * * 




To the Venerable Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 


That the said William Tutty was ordained deacon in the year of 
our Lord, 1737, by the Rt. Rev. Dr. Butts, then Bishop of Norwich, 
and priest by the present Rt. Rev. the Lord Bp. of Lincoln, and 
that he hath officiated as lecturer and curate in the Parish of All 
Saints, in Hertford, for the space of five years, last past, and that he 
is desirous of being accepted by this Honorable Society as one of their 
missionaries, and therefore humbly presumes to offer himself a candi- 
date for that trust. 


April ye llth, 1749. 


To the Right Reverend the Lord Bishop af Lincoln in Great Afarlborough 
Street : 

MY LORD, The Rev. Mr. Tutty, the bearer of this letter, curate 
and lecturer of All Saints' Parish, in the Town of Hertford, of your 
Lordship's diocese, is very desirous to be recommended to the Society 
for Propagation of the Gospel, for one of their missionaries to the new 
settlement of Nova Scotia, through your Lordship's means. At his 
request I take the liberty to certify to your Lordship that I have 
known Mr. Tutty during my residence at Hertford for some years, and 
do believe him very well qualified for that mission. 

I am, my Lord, 

Your obedient humble servant, 

NORFOLK STREET, April 10th, 1749. 


SIR, The Rev. Mr. Tutty, lecturer of All Saints, Hertford, being 
desirous of settling in Nova Scotia, has applied to me this morning for 
a letter of recommendation, but as I have not a list by me of ye mem- 
bers of Society, I hope youl excuse my making an address to you in 
his behalf. I dare say you are not a stranger to his qualifications or 
caracter, and therefore twill be needless to say anything on that head. 
I imagine he will have a good many letters on same subject, and, if 
you sir, shall think him deserving your friendship in this affair 
will oblige, 

Your most obedient Servant, 


HOXFORD, 12th April 1749. 

To the Rev. Doctor Nichols, in Norfolk Street in the Strand. 

SIR, Mr. Tutty having a great desire to go to Nova Scotia, and 
hearing that the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel will send 
some clergymen thither, has requested me to use my interest with you 
to recommend him to the Society. Tho" I shall part with him with 
reluctance, yet I cannot in justice to his merit refuse him any assist- 
ance in my power in return for his careful and creditable discharge of 
his office as my curate for five years past. My parishioners, too, will 
meet with some difficulty in the choice of an afternoon lecturer to 
succeed him, worthy as himself. But, Sir, great as the loss of him may 
be, both to my parishioners and myself, we are ready to submit to it 
for the interest of one we so much regard. I must therefore earnestly 
request you to recommend him to the Society as a very fit and proper 
person to go abroad to preach the gospel, and to do everything else 
that belongs to the duty and office of a clergyman. 

As 'tis needless to add more to enforce this request with one who is 
ever ready to do good and friendly offices : shall only subscribe myself. 

Your Affectionate Brother and 

Most Obedient Humble Servant, 

HERTFORD, April ye 10th, 1749, 



To the Honorable and Revd. Society for Propagating tJw Gospel in 
Foreign Parts : 

The Revd. William Anwyl, A. B., who was as appears by the here- 
with letters of orders, ordained priest and deacon by the Right Revd. 
Doctor Peploe, Lord Bishop of Chester, begs leave to offer himself a 
candidate for a mission in Nova Scotia, and as there are several 
hundreds of the inhabitants of Wales who embark for that new 
intended settlement, he humbly presumes he may be useful in not only 
officiating in the English tongue, but in the Welsh also, as occasion 
shall require. The favor of being appointed to this mission will greatly 
oblige the Hon'ble and Revd. Society's most dutiful and obedient 
humble servant. 

WM. ANWYL, Clerk. 

To the Honble. and Revd. the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel : 

I do certify that the Rev. Mr. Anwyl behaved well and agreeable to 
the character of a clergyman while under my command on board the 



(Similar certificate signed " E. Hawke.") 

We, the underwritten, beg leave to recommend the Rev. Mr. Anwyl 
as a person qualified for any mission this Honorable Society may be 

pleased to appoint him to. 

(Sgd.) Louis. 


* Admiral Warren was in command of the Naval Squadron at tho taking of Louis- 
burg in 1745. 



From on board ye Beaufort in ye 
Harbour ofChebucto, September 
ye 29th, 1749. 

SIR, To give the Venerable Society a particular account of the 
various occurences I met with during my voyage to Nova Scotia, 
would be tedious to them and irksome to myself. It may be sufficient 
to observe that on ye 21st of June I arrived safe in the Harbour of 
Chebucto, where I still continue with the Governor on board the 
Beaufort ; an happiness for which I stand indebted to the unasked 
and unexpected recommendation of the Bp. of Lincoln. I call it an 
happiness, not because the Governor is the greatest man here, but 
because he is the most agreeable man. It is impossible to describe his 
conduct in his present situation ; that affibility, candour, mildness and 
moderation which distinguished him in England is still more con- 
spicuous in Nova Scotia. It is no difficult matter to preserve these 
virtues when a man has nothing to discompose or ruffle him ; but to 
maintain them in the midst of idleness, obstinacy and perverseness, as 
he has done, requires great judgment, and such an absolute command 
over one's self as is attained by very few. I must own I am undesign- 
edly drawn into a very pleasing subject, but must be obliged to drop 
it instantly for fear I should disparage it, and therefore I shall say no 
more of ye governor because I cannot say so much as he deserves. 

The Secretary (Hugh Davidson, Esq.) and the Aid-de-Oamp (Richd. 
Bulkley, Esqr.) as they are very well qualified for their present under- 
taking, so are they indefatigable in the execution of it. I cannot help 
calling the Governor and these two gentlemen the Triumvirate of Nova 
Scotia; not like those among the Romans which were calculated to 
serve private views, and to aggrandize a few at the expense of the 
liberties and fortunes of their fellow-subjects. This is a Triumvirate 
of a quite different nature, directing all its actions and endeavors to one 
single point the establishment of this colony, and by that means 
contributing to the happiness of numbers who would be miserable 
without it. They have indeed met with many obstacles arising chiefly 
from the perverseness of the present settlers, who are in general a 
thoughtless set of people. But notwithstanding this, by this assiduous 
application all difficulties are in. a great measure surmounted, and the 


colony so far advanced that I believe neither French treachery nor 
Indian cruelty ; nay, what is more than both, not even the perverseness 
of the settlers themselves will be able to prevail against it. 

And here, as this is my first letter to the Society, I am naturally led 
to give them an account both of the old inhabitants, and of ye new 
settlers in this colony ; after this done I hope I shall be thought 
excusable if I add my own observations thereupon. 

As to the old inhabitants, they both, French and Indians, are 
bigotted Papists and under the absolute dominion of their priests ; and 
if we add hereto the little commerce that has subsisted between them and 
the English, we shall be but little surprised to find them more attached 
to the French King than the mild administration of His Britannic 
Majesty. The French, indeed, acknowledge the right of the latter to 
their obedience, but it is a mere verbal acknowledgment unsupported 
by any action demonstrative of true loyalty, and if we may judge of 
their disposition by their present prevarication and their past behavour, 
we may positively pronounce that this acknowledgment is rather the 
effect of fear than the consequence af love and true conviction. The 
Indians of this Peninsula when we first arrived came frequently 
amongst us with their wives and children, traded with us and seemed 
not in the least dissatisfied with our settling here. But they vanished 
all at once, summoned as we learned afterwards by their priest at 
Chignecto, who is endeavoring to stir them up to arms, and has himself 
now, as he did in the last war, appeared about Minas at the head of 
some of them. But as an officer is posted there with an hundred men, 
and is so fortified as to be a match for all the Indians of the Peninsula 
there is no danger to be apprehended on that side. As to the Town of 
Halifax, the number of its inhabitants, even if it was not fortified at 
all, would be its certain safeguard against any attempts of Indian 
cowardice, for unless ten times ye number they never appear openly 
like men in arms, but skulk behind a tree and kill in ambuscade ; to 
see them is to rout them. But, however, as ye present settlement by 
the care and vigilance of the Governor is fortified with five redouts, they 
will never venture to approach us, were their numbers ten times larger 
than they are. Some thoughtless stragglers they possibly may and 
probably will cut off, but the main body of the settlement may bid 
defiance to their rage, however inflamed by the implacable malice of a 
DeLoutre, and the fiery zeal of popish bigotry. 

Unhappy wretches ! from my soul I pity the poor Indians. They 


seemed inclined to peace, but their religion, it seems, will not suffer 
them to be at peace. Savage, indeed, they are by nature, but nature 
never taught them cruelty. No, that lesson was reserved for the pre- 
tended teachers of the true religion, if it be not an impious prostitution 
of that sacred name, to apply it to any doctrine which inspires a cause- 
less rage, a vindictive temper, and a thirst for blood. Good God ! 
what can such pastors think who thus misguide their flock 1 Whence 
do they fetch arguments to palliate such pernicious doctrines'? Do 
they fetch them from humanity ? No, humanity, to say no more, will 
teach them at least to be kind and courteous to their fellow creatures 
without meditating their destruction, who design no injury to them. 
Do they fetch them from Christianity ? I tremble when I ask the 
question. Christianity teaches us to love as brethren, to be tender- 
hearted, forgiving one another, even as God for Christ's sake hath 
forgiven us. But I forget to whom I am writing ; the Society, I hope, 
will forgive this trespass of an honest zeal ; tho' I cannot help observing 
that such disciples (by whatever name they call themselves, whether of 
the Catholic, the Apostolic, the Primitive, the true, the only church of 
Christ, it matters not at all) such disciples are a scandal to that Master 
who came to preach on earth, good will towards men ; and notwith- 
standing their pretensions, I will be bold to say. that that body of men 
is the best members of the body of Christ which breathes the purest 

As to the new settlers, they may be divided into some late inhabitants 
from Old and New England ; the lower sort among the former are in 
general a set of most abandoned wretches, and are so deeply sunk into 
almost all kinds of immorality that they scarce retain the shadow of 
religion. There are, indeed, a few good men amongst them, and here it 
would be great injustice to the officers that accepted His Majesty's bounty 
not to declare that they behave with great decency, in general, and seldom 
fail to join in our religious assemblies, where their behaviour is such as 
argues a true sense of their duty and an awful reverence to that gracious 
and tremendous Being who presides at them, 'Tis to be hoped that 
their example, joined to that of other good men, and enforced by press, 
ing and pathetic exhortations, will in time, have a proper influence on 
the minds and morals of the lower people, wear them gradually from 
habitual sins and convince them that the beauty of holiness is not an 
abstracted notion, but a real good, and is not only the ornament of life, 
but the true happiness of man. 


As to those who come from New England to settle or transact 
any business here they make great pretensions to religion and having 
ye form of godliness would be thought not to contradict ye power of it 
in their actions. But men of open and undisguised sincerity can easily 
see thro' the falsehood of their pretensions ; and tho' they are scandal- 
ized and justly scandalized at the barefaced immorality of too many 
among the settlers from the mother country, yet 'tis to be feared that 
ye externals of religion are more prevalent among them than the 
essence of it ; their notorious prevarication, to mention no other instance, 
which appear in all their commercial dealings is an evident proof of 
this melancholy truth. A great deal of their original leaven still 
ferments amongst them, and I cannot help saying that the more atten- 
tively I consider them the more reason have I to say that tho' they 
seek the Lord often (to use an expression very common and familiar 
with them) yet they seek him in such a manner as makes it very 
difficult to find him. 

What is here said may seem a harsh and severe censure ; but let it 
appear in what light it will, I cannot yet retract it ; for tho' there are 
doubtless many good men amongst them, some of which I know, men 
of honest and ingenuous dispositions, and whose actions are comformable 
thereto ; yet, this in general, is their true character. In order to carry 
their point they will prevaricate above measure, and speak even truth 
with an intention to deceive. I could mention other instances of 
immorality, but these are sufficient to justify what I have said alone, 
and therefore let them make never so great professions to religion 
while they act in this manner their religion is built upon no better 
foundation than the sand which the least observation overthrows. 
He that would convince me of his piety to God must first give me 
proof that he has moral honesty at least in his intercourse with men. 

In this light appears the disposition of the colony of Nova Scotia; I 
should be glad to be mistaken, but fear I am not, for I have taken 
unusual pains to get the best information I was able; have observed 
their actions and professions carefully by comparing the one with the 
other ; have been forced (in which I am far from being singular) to form 
the above judgment of their disposition. The question is then, how to 
mend it ? And here (to begin with the old inhabitants) it ought not to 
be forgot that the nearest of the French settlements lie at the distance 
of about 40 miles from the Town of Halifax, so that 'tis very difficult 
to have any communication with them, at least such communication as 


might convince them of the errors of their faith. And yet this seems 
to be absolutely necessary, if it was only to make them good subjects; 
for true religion and a due submission to just and legal government are 
inseparable, whereas the contrary is often attended with anarchy and 
confusion as might easily be exemplified in many instances. But how 
shall they be convinced of the errors of their faith 1 That sure, is no 
difficult task, since in order to be rejected they want only to be seen. 
But how shall they see them 1 Give them an opportunity to look into 
the foundations of Christianity ; the foundations of Christianity once 
opened to their view will plainly show them that their faith is not 
built upon Christ the Rock of Truth, but upon pride the parent of 
errors, and carried up by the intrigues of an ambitious priesthood in 
order to exercise a spiritual I should have said a diabolical domina" 
tion over the consciences of mankind. What, therefore, I humbly 
apprehend is necessary on this occasion is to supply them with 
some French bibles, or testaments at least, together with an easy 
paraphrase or some plain comments thereupon, explaining those expres- 
sions which allude, either to the Jewish or the heathen customs and 
their several forms of speech. I am satisfied they would embrace joy- 
fully if not prevented by their priests an opportunity to read them, 
and if a few French protestants were induced to settle among them, 
with an able missionary of the same nation, I doubt not but a few 
years would make a great alteration both in their loyalty and 
religion and wean them by degrees from their attachment to the 
Popish faith, which is calculated rather to serve the ambitious views of 
a few than to promote the spiritual good and religious welfare of all. 
If the venerable Society should approve of this, or such like scheme, I 
hope I shall be excusable if I take the liberty to recommend to them 
a person for this mission. The person I mean (Mr. Moreau) is a native 
of France, was a parochial minister there, and consequently a papist; 
but as our blessed Saviour has promised that if any man will do the 
will of God he shall know of the doctrine whether it was of God, or 
whether he spoke of himself, he was guided to the knowledge of the 
true doctrine of Jesus Christ, and as there was no room to expect 
protection after this in that kingdom, he quitted his preferment for the 
sake of conscience, came to England, where he staid some time, and 
married and embarked afterwards with his wife for Nova Scotia, where 
he intends to settle, and I humbly hope that the Divine Providence 
who watches over those who suffer for righteousness sake will bless his, 


honest undertakings in a mercantile way, with that decent competency 
which his conscience would not suffer him to enjoy in his ministerial 
capacity. If the venerable Society should think fit to employ him in 
this mission, I will be bold to answer that he shall faithfully discharge 
it, and I am well assured that my Lord Dupplio, Mr. Mellish, in Lessel 
Street, Lienster Fields, and Mr. Turner in Warwick Street, will do the 
same. As to my own part I must say I never was more deceived in 
my life if he is not a good man, a good member of society, and a 
good Christian. 

As to the Indians I shall say little of them, misguided by their Priests 
and French at Louisbourg, they unhappy men, are running blindly upon 
their own destruction, for since I began this letter, they have commenced 
hostilities against us in a base and barbarous manner ; to enumerate the 
particulars is foreign to my present purpose and therefore I shall only say 
that as they will never venture to approach the body of the settlement, 
so 'tis to be feared they will be ever lurking to destroy the unwary, the 
helpless and unarmed. On which account the Governor, by and with 
the advice of His Majesty's Council is obliged to raise two companies to 
scour the woods, with a premium of ten guineas for every Indian, 
whether taken or destroyed. This may seem to civilized people an 
extraordinary way of making war, but is the only effectual way of 
fighting such an enemy with the prospect of success. To offer premiums 
for the destruction of whole bodies of men sounds harsh to humanity, 
and it was not without difficulty the Governor assented to it; but such 
is the cruelty and cowardice (always inseparable companions) of these 
savages, that there is no safety without their extirpation. The last 
word shocks me when I wish success to such an enterprise, but self- 
preservation, in spite of humanity, extorts it from us here. But to the 
settlers and the savages be the consequences of this war what they will, 
upon the French of Louisbourg, upon the savages themselves and their 
distructive Priests are they chargeable : the blood spilt must be 
accounted for them ; the colony is guiltless. 

Thus much of the old inhabitants : return we to the new, which I 
divide into settlers from old and new England. I have attempted the 
characters of both. As to the truth of what is said concerning the first 
I am sorry to be so undesirably convinced of that, and I fear I am not 
mistaken with regard to the latter. What is to be done with them ? 
Something must be attempted, not only with regard to eternity, but for 
the present benefit of this colony, for tho' righteousness exalteth a 


nation, yet sin is a reproaeh to any people. As to this point much, very 
much will depend upon the conduct of the clergy and upon the Society 
who send them. 

As to my own part I am determined by God's assistance to oppose 
myself with all my might to stop that torrent of immorality which 
prevails amongst us. Little has or can indeed be done at present in our 
unsettled state towards promoting this good end. But when their 
habitations are built neither private nor publick administrations shall 
be wanting, and in order to add the greater weight to them I trust in 
God, my own example shall constantly attend them. 

As to those who seem to retain the form without the power of god- 
liness, hei-e likewise, very much will depend upon the clergy. When in 
England I associated with sects of all denominations, and after intimacy 
contracted with some of the best and most intelligent among them have 
taken the liberty to discourse freely with them about the doctrine of 
the Church of England, and asked their reasons for dissenting from it. 
I have been often shocked at their answer : "That they had no objection 
to the doctrines of the Church of England, and that the cause of their 
separation was the immoral lives of their ministers." An heavy load of 
guilt have those to whom this dreadful truth is applicable ! It would 
lead me too far to say anything of the reasonableness or unreasonable- 
ness of separation on the above account, and therefore I shall only 
observe, if immorality among the clergy has driven many from the 
Church of England it doubtless will keep those at a greater distance 
from it who were never within its pale. I have been informed some 
members of the Church of England, from the Province of Massachusetts, 
say that the bad lives of the present settlers will certainly deter numbers 
in that Province from coming here ; and if the clergy should add to this 
objection their own bad example, the scandal will be insuperable. 
Besides the inhabitants of that Province are very rigid in their profes- 
sion, and are constant attendants upon Divine service ; and therefore 
as they have no meetings at present, possibly, nay probably, they may 
be brought into ye bosom of our church by which means we shall 
become one fold, under one shepherd, Jesus Christ, the righteous. 

This, I humbly apprehend, is a very desirable thing on more accounts 
than one. For I have observed that differences in religious sentiments, 
from the weakness of human nature, are frequently attended with dis- 
sentions in civil life, while an intemperate zeal for each other's opinions 
betray men into such a frame of mind as neither reason or religion 


justifies. Besides religious sentiments have no inconsiderable influence 
on the tempers of mankind ; they will be either affable or morose 
according to the tenets they embrace, and as the Church of England 
entertains the most amiable notions of the Divine Being, and breathes 
nothing but charity both to bodies and the souls of men ; the profes- 
sors of it, if they act agreeably to their profession must not only be 
inoffensive in behaviour, but affable in expression, and benevolent in 
heart. On the contrary, to entertain unworthy conceptions of the 
Diety, to consider Him as an angry and vindictive being, as partial in 
the distribution of His favors or a respecter of persons without any 
regard to the goodness or badness of their actions, such notions (and 
notions like these are entertained by man}') will either raise a man into 
spiritual pride or sink him into the lowest desperation. They are, 
indeed, both fatal and destructive errors ; but I shall say nothing of 
the last, as 'tis less pernicious to society, and as to the former, I shall 
only observe that when a man has once imbibed the gross effluvias of 
spiritual pride, they will necessarily give a tincture to his life and con- 
versation ; such a man, however he may disguise himself from secular 
views and sinister designs, will easily be seen through by a discerning 
eye and discover himself to be morose, contemptuous, insolent, sly in 
his very countenance, artful in his dealings, and double in his discourse. 
If this be the case with men who entertain such unworthy notions of 
the Divine Majesty, contrary notions cannot fail to have a different 
effect upon the tempers of mankind. Those doubtless (if their lives 
are influenced by the tenets they embrace) will be in all respects the 
best men, whether as members of society or as members of Christ's 
body who consider God, not as arbitrary, partial or capricious, but 
as he really is the father of mercies and the God of all comforts. Men 
of this complexion will be undisguised and open in their dealings, kind 
in their expressions, courteous in behaviour, and charitable, both in 
hand and heart ; that they may be like unto their Heavenly Father who 
maketh His sun to rise on the evil and on the good. In a word, as 
the essence of all true religion consists in an imitation of the Diety, 
those conceptions, be they good or bad, cannot fail to influence their 
tempers and their conversations, and will become the principal spring 
of all their actions in religious, civil and commercial life. 

If this be the case, if differences in religious sentiments are frequently 
attended with dissentions in civil life, if the tempers and the conduct 
of men to one another are conformable to the notions which they frame 


of God, and if the Church of England does (as it certainly does) enter- 
tain the most amiable arid endearing notions of the Divine Being it 
follows hence in my humble opinion that 'tis a very desirable thing to 
bring as many as we possibly can within its pale. She, I am satisfied, 
after the blessed example of her meek and glorious Master with open 
arms is ready to receive them ; she forces none, indeed, copying herein 
the same example of the same Master, who drew believers to him with 
the cords of a man by meekness and charity by the force of rational 
conviction and not the unjustifiable methods of tormenting coercion. 
But tho' we disclaim all violent proceedings, which are arguments of a 
bad cause and can never work conviction, yet notwithstanding, let us 
endeavor by all honest means to bring them gently to us, that in the 
next generation there may be in this colony but one Lord, one Faith and 
one Baptism. To carry this desirable end into execution it is necessary, 
absolutely necessary, that those who are appointed to minister in the 
church of Christ should be men of meekness and affability ; should be 
modest, consistent, discreet and sober, and not only able to give a reason 
of the hope that is in them, but to convince all gainsayers of the truth 
of that hope, by showing that it has a proper influence on their lives in 
purging their conscience from dead works, to serve the living God. In 
short piety to God and that charity to man in general which the apostle 
styles the fulfilling of the law, is absolutely necessary in all who 
presume to call themselves ministers of the gospel of Christ. It is not, 
cannot be expected that every minister should be endued with the same 
extensive genius, but every minister may lead a righteous and godly life. 
A deficiency in the first may not be charged to his account ; a deficiency 
in the latter is inexcusable before God and man. 

Hypocrisy is an odious and abominable sin, while it endeavors to 
impose upon mankind in order to accomplish some little low design, 
is a sort of tacit negation of the Divine Omniscence ; but yet 'tis not so 
dangerous in its consequences as undisguised and open immorality. The 
first like an inward fever preys indeed, but preys only upon him who is 
so low and little as to practice it ; the latter like a pestilential disease 
infects whole multitudes and distroys without distinction. 

Should any clergyman act in such a barefaced manner how can he 
answer it to God, his hearers, or himself? Can he convince the infidel, 
reclaim the sinner or bring those into the church who are dissafected 
to it ? By no means would he do good by preaching ; his life must be a 
standing comment unon his discourses; without this he will harden the 


infidel, embolden the sinner in his evil ways and strengthen the 
dissafection of our dissenting brethern. It is therefore at all times and 
at all places, particularily in infant colonies, absolutely necessary that 
the clergy sent there should be distinguished not only for the soundness 
of their doctrine, but the purity of their lives. Their lamps should 
always burn clear and their light so shine before men that they may 
see their good works and glorify their Father which is in heaven. 

The Society will, I hope, pardon this freedom of speech: it would 
concern me much to have said anything unbecoming the relation 
I stand in with respect to them. If I have it \\ill be some sort 
of apology to say (as probably more settlements will be made next 
year) that the governor ordered me when I wrote to the Society 
to beg in his name, the favor of them to send some more clergy- 
men into this Province, to which he added he hoped they would 
be men of sober lives and conversation. I am very sorry there should 
be any occasion for him to add that expression, or for me to write in 
this manner. The venerable Society, I am satisfied uses all possible 
caution in choosing their missionaries, but as they must in great 
measure depend upon the information of others with regard to their 
characters, it is heartily to be wished that others would be as conscien- 
tious in their recommendations. The Society conscious of "the 
" absolute necessity there is that those clergymen who shall be sent 
" abroad should be duly qualified for the work to which they are 
" appointed desire that all persons who shall recommend any to that 
" purpose will testify their knowledge as to the following particulars : 
" 1. The age of the person. 2. His condition in life, whether single 
" or married. 3. His temper. 4. His prudence. 5. His learning. 
" 6. His sober and pious conversation. 7. His zeal for the Christian 
" religion and diligence in his holy calling. 8. His affection to the 
" present government. 9. His conformity to the doctrine and 
" discipline of the church of England. And the Society do request and 
" earnestly beseech all persons concerned that they recommend no man 
" out of favor or affection or any other worldly consideration; but with 
" a sincere regard for the honour of Almighty God and our Blessed 
" Saviour as they tender the interest of the Christian religion and the 
"good of men's sotils." An excellent caution this, worthy of the 
venerable Society and the pious designs of its institution ! Would all 
before they presume to recommend seriously, attend to it and conscienti- 
ously regard it, the good intention of the Society would not be frustrated 


so often, the Church of England would gather strength, religion in 
general would flourish more abroad, and our dissenting brethern won 
by the pious conversation of the clergy might be brought to join in out- 
religious assemblies, that we may with one mind and one mouth glorify 
God even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. 

I cannot help considering this, if possibly it may be attained as a 
very desirable and happy thing, for I must own that I am strongly 
attached to the doctrine and discipline of the Church of England, not 
from the prejudices of education but from rational conviction. I have 
examined the doctrines of all churches, if I do not deceive myself, with 
the strictest impartiality, and from an impartial examination of all, I 
think she is the best and purest of all, and therefore I cannot but wish 
that all aliens were united to her. 

But as I heartily wish prosperity to ye Church of England, so am I 
very much concerned for the interest of this colony ; I should rejoice 
to see them thrive together that the purity of men's professions and 
the piety of their lives in this place might equal the fertility of the 
soil and the healthfulness of the climate. I can say very little with 
regard to the general piety of the settlers' lives at present ; but 'tis to 
be hoped that ye young ones among them, if properly educated, will 
grow in goodness as they increase in years, by which means the next 
generation may be as eminent for distinguished piety as the present is 
notorious for its abandoned practices. In order to the attainment of 
this happy end good schoolmasters are much wanted, for tho' the Society 
chose some, none yet are arrived. I humbly hope, therefore, that if 
those elected think not proper to come over, others will be chosen and 
sent in their rooms, that the youth may be instructed early in the 
principles of Christianity, and true piety, which will be the best method 
to prevent the propagation of the present immorality to future ages. 

I have a great deal more to say, but fear there may be reason to 
apologize for having said so much already. I shall conclude this 
tedious epistle therefore with my sincere and hearty prayers to God 
that the venerable Society may never be drawn into improper elections 
by false recommendations, that their missionaries may be distinguished, 
not only for the soundness of their doctrine, but the piety of their 
lives, preaching the sincere word of God, and living agreeably to the 
word they preach, that the earth may be filled with the knowledge of 


the glory of the Lord as the waters cover the sea. I am, after first 
paying niy duty to the venerable Society. 

Your most obedient servant, 


N. B. This is the duplicate of one sent by the Rockampton which 
sailed the 2nd of November ; I could not obtain a certificate of the 
master tho' I importuned him greatly. 

P. S. As to the notitia parochialis required by the Society, it is 
impossible in our present hurry and confusion to be exact in that. I 
can only say in general that the number of inhabitants in the Town of 
Halifax exceeds 1,500, among which are many dissenters. I have 
baptized about 20 infants, but the blessed sacrament has not yet been 
administered here, because Divine service has hitherto been performed 
in the open air ; but as soon as the Governor's dining-room is finished, 
it is proposed to make use of that till a church can be erected which is 
now framing at Boston, and capable of holding 900 persons. The 
parsonage house, and division of land for glebe must be the work of 
next year. 

If 1 have forgot anything which the Society requires an acconnt of, I 
hope the anguish in my side will be a sufficient apology. That has 
been extremely painful for some time past, and continues to afflict me 
violently at present, so that I have been frequently obliged to leave off 
before I could finish one single sentence, and as it distracts my thoughts 
'tis no wonder if it should disturb my recollection. 

As soon as the ship which brings this is ready to sail I shall draw 
upon Mr. Bethel according to the Society's directions for 35, the half 
year salary due the date of the date hereof, and to be paid Mr. John 
Archer, of Hertford, or order. 

Before I seal up this letter I have one request to make which I hope 
the venerable Society will not deny me, i.e., for leave to come to England 
for a short time : if they be pleased to grant me a discretionary power 
they may depend upon it that I will choose such a season for my voyage 
as will not be prejudical to the purposes of my mission. The reason 
of this petition is an honorable engagement to a deserving young 
woman whom I tenderly regard, and as I am satisfied our affections 
are reciprocal, I should rejoice were we but one family. If the Society 
thinks proper to grant this favor, I will not abuse it, but return to my 
mission as soon as possible. Tho' I must own, no consideration should 


prevail upon rne to leave it at present, for I am willing to sacrifice my 
own ease for the good of those who are religiously disposed, and as 
many of the best and most worthy inhabitants have desired me to stay 
among them, I can neither answer it to God or my own conscience to 
forsake them unless among the missionaries to be sent over next year 
there should be one whose prudence, exemplary life, and sound doctrine 
would recommend him to their approbation in my absence, one that 
would be solicitous to promote above all things the glory of God and 
the edification of men, that he might both save himself and those 
that hear him. 

I have made a mistake in this duplicate by putting the N. B. before 
the postcnpt ; the Society, I hope, will pardon it : as in all oth erthings 
this is a true copy of the original letter sent by the Rochampton. 



MY LORD, December ye 5th, 1749. 

I did myself the honour of writing to your Lordship by the London, 
but must beg pardon for omitting ye Governor's compliments, which he 
then desired me to present as he now does to your Lordship. He is 
in good health and great cheerfulness, notwithstanding his unwearied 
application to the great business of settling this great colony upon firm 
and lasting foundaions : and it is indeed surprising (when I look back 
upon the 21st of June, the day of our arrival) to see with what 
prodigious rapidity it is carried on under his auspices : if it goes on 
as it has begun it must infallibly in a very few years eclipse all 
the other colonies in North America. 

I doubt not but your Lordship has seen my letter to the Society : 
I am very much concerned for its reception, least they should be 
offended at my freedom of speech which, however, was well intended, 
and this consideration (if it has given offence) will, I hope, be some 
sort of an apology for the offence given. There is one thing, indeed, 
omitted in that letter, which perhaps, will be a matter of surprise to 
the venerable Society, i. e., my not having mentioned my colleague 
therein. I own, I purposely omitted it, because I could say no good of 
him : but upon recollection, I think myself to blame for that omission : 
as the secular advantage of individuals must and ought to give place 


to the spiritual welfare of a whole community. I am sorry to say, my 
Lord, that not one single part of his conduct shows the clergyman. 
His whole conversation both his actions and his expressions bespeak 
rather the boatswain of a man-of-war, than the minister of the Gospel 
of Christ. Many complaints have been made to the Governor of him, 
who has often said at table that he must send him out of the colony : 
but he sent for him, however, and reprimanded him very severely, 
which was soon succeeded by a fit of sickness occasioned by excessive 
drinking : so that he has done no duty for above these two months 
past. He has, indeed, been abroad since, and if the Governor's repri- 
mand had had a proper influence upon his conduct, I should have 
continued silent still : but as there is all the reason imaginable to 
think that he will proceed in the same manner, for he has begun 
already, I cannot help saying that he appears to me unworthy the 
Society's favor. Nor am I singular in this opinion : almost the whole 
colony with one voice exclaims against him as a clergyman; and the 
dissenters, in particular, are greatly offended at him, which instead of 
closing up the wound of separation must infallibly enlarge it. He that 
would convince gainsayers of the purity of his profession must enforce 
his arguments by the purity of his life. 

Since I wrote by the London, the pain in my side has been extremely 
violent, and yet tho' the whole duty in this numerous colony (on 
account of his illness) lay solely upon me, I have been enabled through 
Divine assistance to go thro' the whole, tho' not without great difficulty 
and excessive pain. My side, indeed, is better at present, and con- 
tinues daily to amend, and I am in hopes that time and this climate 
will effectually cure it. 

The obligations I am under to your Lordship, I shall always remem- 
ber with gratitude and own with satisfaction : your recommendation 
to the Governor is not the least of them : it has been of signal service 
to me already : and I dare say will be of still greater when opportuni- 
ties shall offer : as I have constantly endeavored to maintain the 
honour of that recommendation, as the only means that can give me 
any title, either to your Lordship's favor or the Governor's esteem. 
I have the honour to be, 

My Lord, 
Your Lordship's most obedient 

and dutiful son, 




In my last, sent by Capt. Williams, of the Rochampton, and dated ye 
29th of September, 1749, and in the duplicate sent by the Chavlton, in 
the Governor's packet, I endeavored to give you the best account I was 
able of the disposition of ye old and new inhabitants of ye province- 
I am sorry I see little cause to retract what was then said : but to me 
(whatever sentiments may be entertained by others) nothing appears 
more evident than that the old inhabitants want love and loyalty the 
new religion. The Indians more than once have avowed their enmity by 
overt acts, and in their last outrage committed upon a small party of 
Phillip's regin:ent, were joined by some of the French. The last, 
indeed, in general, are very peaceable and often come in numbers to 
Halifax, allured by interest and the love of money. For here they 
have a good market for the produce of their lands : here they have 
constant employment and an high price for labor. But notwithstanding 
these advantages they want that cordiality which ought to subsist 
between fellow subjects and members of the same community. Their 
peaceable behaviour may probably have deceived many into an opinion 
that they are good subjects to His Britannic Majesty and friends to 
the present settlement, and it is indeed their interest to be so ; but 
interest itself, which too frequently prevails in other cases, is unable to 
withstand the prejudices of a Popish education and the power of 
bigotry : for while they enjoy advantages superior to any other of His 
Majesty's subjects in this province, and yet continue reluctant to the 
oath of allegiance while they know the enemy's designs without 
detecting them while they refuse to give intelligence of their motives 
by pretending to know nothing of them, which is as ridiculous as it's 
false; nay, while the only man among them from whom any intelligence 
did come is discovered by them to, carried off and kept prisoner by the 
Indians while things are thus circumstanced no wonder if I entertain 
a low opinion both of their love and loyalty : or rather consider them 
as men who want not an inclination had they power to do us hurt, or 
resolution to attempt it. 

Those who embarked from England to people this colony were, its 
well known, in general a set of profligate wretches : and as to their 
religious conduct they continue much the same. In their civil 
capacity they are somewhat bettered ; intemperance has distroyed 


many of the worst, and the wise regulations and prudent conduct of 
the Governor have greatly contributed to the amendment of the rest : 
they are now less refractory and less tumultuous : and perhaps another 
year may teach them the difference between liberty and licentiousness, 
and convince them that the last is the grossest depravation of the first, 
which consists not so much in an exemption from all manner of restraint 
as in circumscription within such bounds as are marked out by the 
rational nature of man, and his own proper interest as connected with 
the public good. 

When they see what is their interest as members of society : and are 
brought to act consistently therewith, who knows but that they may 
direct their views to nobler objects and become good members of the 
body of Christ, awakened by pathetic exhortations and animated by 
the example of the better sort? The Governor seeing with concern 
the prevalence of sin gave the grand jury a particular charge to use 
their utmost efforts to suppress the pernicious vice of excessive drinking, 
that inexhaustablo source of evils : they heard it with pleasure and 
obey it with alacrity : and I am not without hopes, as they are good 
men themselves, that they will greatly contribute to make others good, 
at least prevent their growing worse by putting a stop to that com- 
plicated vice. This once happily effected, they may be brought to cool 
and sober recollection : and then suitable admonition, seasonably applied 
and frequently repeated, may awaken them to weigh and consider 
seriously those important truths which concern futurity. 

The prospect, indeed, is not very pleasing or very promising at 
present : but yet I do not totally dispair of seeing an end of that 
corruption which is so luxuriant here. I humbly trust in God that 
nothing shall be wanting on my part : and as the Governor is equally 
solicitous in this point I am not without hopes that seasonable admoni- 
tion and compassionate exhortations, enforced by his example and 
authority, will have in time their proper influence even upon the 
worst amongst us, and turn them from their present evil ways into the 
paths of soberness, of faith and virtue. 

From this account of things thus circumstanced it cannot be expected 
that I should speak of numerous conversions : that I fear must be the 
work of longer time, less hurry, more frequent opportunities and a 
better knowledge of the people. I can only say that I have had the 
satisfaction to comfort and help the weak-hearted who were sinking 
oppressed by the weight of superstition and dispair. 


Since I came on shore I received, of Captain Forster from on board 
the Fair Lady, 5 boxes of books, 4 for the use of the colony, and one 
for my own private use. I have distributed some of the first to those 
whom I thought most wanted them, and would make a proper use of 
them, and as to the last I shall take great care of them, and when an 
house is built for me will provide a press for their reception 
where they shall remain for the use of those who shall succeed me in 
this mission. For both sorts, those designed for the colony and those 
designed for myself/^be pleased, sir, to thank the venerable Society in 
my name. I am very much obliged to them for both, being satisfied, 
they must have a beneficial influence on all who shall carefully peruse 
and conscientiously observe them. 

As to the French Bibles and Common Prayer Books, I have dis- 
tributed but very few : learning among the French in this province 
being at so low an ebb that very few of them can read at all, and there- 
fore as they live at a great distance from this settlement there are 
little hopes of their conversion unless the Society shall think fit 
to appoint an able and discreet missionary to reside among them. An 
Englishman, however conversant in the French language, I humbly 
apprehend, would not be so eligible as a French Protestant : the place 
of his nativity will recommend him to their esteem : and if he was to 
continue (excuse ye freedom I take in speaking my own sentiments) 
among them for 2 or 3 yeai-s as a merchant, he might probably be of 
more service than if he was to appear under the character of a Protes- 
tant minister ; for this would awake the jealousy of the suspicious 
priests, whose unchristian power and influence is built on the ignorance 
of their people : who are obliged to walk in darkness for fear, forsooth, 
the light should be hurtful to their eyes. The priests, I am satisfied, 
in these parts, from their notorious bigotry to the Papal chair and their 
strong attachment to ye Grand Monarque would endeavor as much as 
possible to prevent all intercourse between them : and would undoubt- 
edly effect it, not so much by the force of reason or of truth as by the 
dreadful terrors of their unwarranted anathemas. On the contrary, 
was a French minister of known abilities and of great integrity, who 
has had courage to examine into things, and conscience to embrace the 
truth at the expense of his preferment, his friends, his fortune, and his 
country : was such an one to reside for some time among them as a 
merchant, it very probably would have its desired effect on many, as it 
would give him more opportunities of conversing freely with them and 


that with less suspicion : and if lie should be so happy as to succeed in 
the good work of their conversion, it would I humbly apprehend, be 
time enough to appear in his proper character when he had gained a 
congregation. As to my own part, I must confess, I have this thing 
very much at heart : there is something terrible to reason in perpetual 
darkness : and the pure gospel of Christ, I am sure stands in no need 
of it for its support : it has irresistible charms in every point of view : 
and the more attentively it is examined the more religiously will it be 
admired. On this account I wish ye eyes of the French inhabitants 
may be opened to behold its beauties : and for this purpose the vener- 
able Society will pardon me if I persevere in recommending the same 
gentleman I did in my last letter. (I erred with regard to this 
gentleman (Mr. Moreau) in rny last letter, in that, if I remember right, 
I said he was a parochial ministar, whereas he was Prior of the Abbey 
of St. Matthew, near Brest.) The more I knew him the more I am 
convinced that he is fit for the undertaking : as he quitted everything 
that is held valuable in life from a conscientious regard to truth, I 
doubt not but that he will be industrious to communicate the truth to 
others : and as his temper is mild, his address agreeable, and both his 
integrity and his abilities indisputable, there is all imaginable reason 
to expect that he will turn many fiom darkness to light by discovering 
to them the beauty of holiness in the Gospel of Christ. 

Mr. Aynwell departed this life on the 9th of February : :md one 
great misfortune that attends his death is the neglect or loss of his 
register. As soon as he died, I desired the Governor to authorize some 
proper person to search for it, as the want of it might probably be 
attended with many inconveniences not forseen at present. He sent 
immediately a Justice of Peace and myself who after the strictest search 
imaginable could not find an account of above three baptisms and three 
weddings: and those upon small bits of paper dispersed in different 
places ; tho' from a declaration of his own, some time before he died, he 
must have baptized and married above ten times that number. The 
best method I could think of, to supply this defect, was to desire the 
Governor to put out a proclamation, that all those who were married 
&c , by him should come to me with proper evidence, who, with the 
parties themselves were to declare upon oath that their nuptuals were 
solemnized according to the rites of the Church of England. This 
done, they were registered : very few indeed have come at present : and 


therefore if a more proper method is suggested I shall be glad to put 
it into execution. 

It begins to thaw apace and as soon as the frost is quite gone the 
foundation will be laid and I hope finished for the church by the time 
it can arrive from Boston : it is exactly the model of Mary'bone Chapel. 
I shall rejoice to see it up : the want of it is a great inconvenience, as 
the Governor's dining room, where divine service is performed at 
present, is not large enough to contain one-fifth part of those who 
would be glad to assemble themselves together. The Sacrament of the 
Lord's Supper was administered here on Christmas Day to about 30 
communicants. I hope to have many more at Easter : and intend 
when the church is finished to administer it every month. The 
parsonage house will be begun and finished this summer, and as much 
glebe laid out near the town as conveniently may be : the rest will be 
at some distance from it. 

We have neither communion plate nor a proper book for a parochial 
register, and as the late Mr. Aynwell assured me that my Lord Halifax 
promised to send one, together with surplices, etc., I wish he could be 
reminded of it in order to their being sent by the next embarkation. 

The number of inhabitants amount at present to 1900 persons : this 
number will shortly be increased by a fresh accession from New 
England. But in all probability (as the number of lots is determined 
with regard to Halifax) a great part of these will be obliged to found a 
town and settle themselvrs on the opposite shore of the bay. 

The Governor and Council intend to fix the surplice fees very 
shortly : for hitherto, I have buried, married, etc., gratis. Since my 
arrival in this province I have joined together 19 couples in holy 
matrimony, and have baptized 48 children as appears by the scheme 
annexed. What Mr. Aynwell has done in these cases I know not, as 
he either kept no register or has lost it, tho' I believe he has married 
at least, if not baptized, as many as myself. 

(Two pages missing : other three pages unimportant, being occupied 
with general remarks, conclusion, etc.) 

(Sgd.) WM. TUTTY. 

March 17th, 1749. f 


(Indorsed; lec'd Uth June, 1750.) 



Juiy 18, 1750. 

SIR, On the 26 of June, from on board the Rochampton, which 
had a very tedious voyage, I received yours with two enclosures, one 
of which I delivered to Mr. Moreau ; and kept the other, as the 
person to whom it was directed has been dead several months, which 
you cannot be unacquainted with, if you have either received my letter 
from the Fair Lady or thn Duplicate of it from Captain Periman of the 

It is no small encouragement to me to find that the Venerable Society 
approves my conduct. It has been and shall continue to be my con- 
stant labors to discharge with Diligence and Fidelity the Trust reposed 
in me. As soon as we had a convenient place to assemble in fo*r Divine 
Service, I gave public Notice of Prayer every Wednesday, Friday and 
Holiday which I have not failed to perform accorningly, though to a 
very thin congregation, and indeed except on Sundays a large one 
cannot well be expected, all things considered, in the infancy of any 

Mr. Moreau is very thankful to the Society for his appointment, 
and I dare say, when the French Protestants arrive, who are to be 
settled at Chignecto, will be of great service to the Protestant Cause. 
He has not been idle at all in his private capacity, but as he has had 
frequent opportunities to converse with many of the French who come 
to work at Halifax, he had endeavored to open their eyes, and, I am 
satisfied, with regard to some, has convinced them that Light is far 
superior to Darkness, which they would gladly enjoy, were they not 
overawed by fear, which will gradually decrease, when they behold the 
burning zeal of the French Protestants, who are not so fond of th e 
Grand Monarque as to prostitute their conscience to his pride. If the 
Venerable Society think proper to do it, it may not be amiss to send 
some tracts in French, together with a large Common Prayer Book and 
Bible in the same language for the use of the Church to be built at 

Before I conclude I must inform you that one Mr. Halhead came to 
me on tho 28th of April last and said he was appointed by the Society 
School Master here. Upon enquiry I found that he arrived in Sep- 


tember, and expressing my surprise that he had not been with me before, 
he said he had acquainted the Governour with it upon the beach at 
landing, but he remembers nothing of it. That he had applied himself to 
the late Mr. Aynwell, who promised to represent it to the Governour, 
but took no notice of it, and that he was confined all winter by sickness, 
which prevented his application to me. I acquainted instantly the 
Governour therewith, after having first asked him for his credentials, 
and as he has none, the affair has rested here. Nor knows His 
Excellency what methods to pursue, till he is recognized, or some other 
sent from home. He is, I think, a very good sort of man, very sober 
and very regular in his conduct, and from what I can judge of him at 
present, would discharge his duty faithfully, tho' one schoolmaster 
could never teach half the children of Halifax, there being above 3,000 
souls, exclusive of soldiery in this place, and their numbers are daily 
increasing from the other Provinces. 

The frame of the church is now erecting, and I am in hopes that we 
may be able to assemble in it in about 2 month's time, which will be a 
great happiness, as the present place will not contain one 3rd of the 
inhabitants. I shall add no more at present, but only beg the favor of 
you to present my duty to the venerable Society, and am 

Your most ob't. serv't., 




October 29, 1750. 

On ye second of September, I preached for the first time in the new 
church, which, when completely fitted up, will be a very handsome 
structure. Mr. Moreau preached likewise in ye afternoon to the 
French and Swiss settlers, as he did the Sunday following; but as they 
were not well acquainted with our liturgy, some mistakes arose in 
making the responses, and therefore I have persuaded him to comply 
with their request of having Divine service by themselves for some 
time, till they become perfect in the use of our liturgy. 

Another inconvenience we labor under is the want of our liturgy in 
French ; for the Lords of Trade and Plantations have led the Venerable 
Society into a mistake by informing them (as you were pleased to 


acquaint me in your letter of ye 28th of March, which came to me on 
the 26th of July following) that they had sent over a large parcel of 
Bibles and Common Prayer in that language; Bibles, indeed, they have 
sent in great numbers, but with the Geneva form of prayer annexed, 
for which I do not thank them, which had very nearly prevented 
that union, which is necessary to the gloryfying of God with one 
mind and one mouth. For some persons ill-affected to the Church of 
England, taking advantage of the mistakes and want above-mentioned, 
slyly insinuated to the Swiss and French settlers, the utter impropriety 
of joining regularly and devoutly in the use of our liturgy, as they 
were not acquainted with it and had but few books to direct them ; 
whereas the Lords of Trade and Plantations agreeably to their known 
candor and humanity had sent over a large parcel of Bibles with the 
Geneva Form of Prayer, on purpose for their use; and as no just 
exception could be made to that form 'twas absurd and cruel to desire 
them to leave what they were accustomed to for that which they knew 
nothing of ; and, therefore, if they would represent their case in this 
light to the Governour, no doubt but he would consent with pleasure 
to what could not be denied consistently with moderation. 

These things, and the like, were so slyly insinuated among the lower 
people, and with so much caution that it nearly had succeeded before I 
knew anything about it ; as soon as I did know it (for I cannot but be 
pursuaded that uniformity in Divine Worship, when it can be obtained 
without violence to the Truth and Purity of the Gospel to the con- 
sciences of men or Christian Moderation, is on all accounts more 
eligible than the contrary) and therefore, as soon as I did know of it, I 
went to Mr. Moreau and desired him to ask the gentlemen (for there 
are several among the Swiss, who are such, of the best families of good 
education and no bad circumstances) what they thought of this matter> 
and how they stood affected with regard to our liturgy. They 
replied that they knew nothing of the intended petition to the 
Governour, but would use their utmost efforts to prevent it: because 
with regard to our liturgy as they had examined it seriously without 
prejudice, with due attention, they thought it in all respects preferable 
to any Human Composition, and as such were determined constantly 
to use it. That sinster influences upon weak minds ought not to 
influence them, but on the contrary, that they were ready, with his 
assistance, to endeavour to remove the prejudices occasioned by such 
insinuations, and to convince their weak brethren that ye Beauty of 


Holiness was conspicuous in our liturgy, which was of all others the 
most excellent in the world. What they promised in conjunction with 
Mr. Moreau they instantly set about, and happily accomplished to the 
satisfaction of all but those whose malevolent insinuations were dis- 
appointed by it. They have ever since constantly and regularly 
attended Divine Service at Mr. Moreau's house, and behaving always 
with great devotion, strict decency and due attention. Their number, 
compared with the inhabitants of Halifax, is but very small ; but small 
as it is, 18 of them received the sacraments at Mr. Moreau's last 
month, and several others intend to communicate at Christmas. As 
soon as the season will permit, they are to remove either to Pisiquid or 
Chignecto, where, by the evacuation of the French settlers, there is 
a great deal of clear land, excellent of its kind, and fit either for the 
plow or pasture. 

If the Venerable Society would please to send over a large Bible and 
Common Prayer Book in French, it would be of great use to Mr. 
Moreau, as the letter is but small in what we have at present. The 
business of this place to a man of the strongest constitution would be 
laborious enough, was it always to remain the same. There is indeed 
no proportion betwesn the baptisms and burials ; the latter exceed 
prodigiously, occasioned by an inviolable attachm't to New Fngland 
rum, ye most destructive of all destructive spirits. For these 5 months 
past, I have had little time to do anything, but visit the sick and 
administer the Sacrament to many who most earnestly desire it : my 
constitution is but bad at best, and yet I have all the reason in the 
world to think that were it not for a great and almost uninterraitted 
fatigue, this climate would have perfectly recovered it. But bad as it 
is, through that Gracious Being whose strength is made perfect in 
weakness, I have, praying and hoping, often even against hope, been 
enabled, tho' frequently not without excessive pain, to perform not only 
what is my immediate duty as a clergyman, but also the additional 
charge of the widows and orphans of this place, which at the 
Governour's request I have undertaken, and I humbly trust that the 
same Gracious Providence, which has hitherto supported me, will 
continue still to do it till more labourers are sent into an Harvest 
which is so very plenteous. 



As to the Notitia, Parochialis I cannot pretend to great exactness. 
Ye best acco'nt which I am able to give is that which follows : 

I. No. of inhabitants. 
IT. No. of Baptisms. 

III. No. of Adult pessons Bap- 

tised ye past year. 

IV. No. of Adults commun'ts of 

ye Church of England. 
Y. No. of 'ose who profess 'em- 
selves of ye Church. 
VI. No. of Dissenters of all sorts 

par'ly Papists. 

VII. No. of Heathens and In- 

VIII. No. of Converts from a 
prophane, disorderly and 
unchristian course, to a 
life of X'tian Purity, 
&c., &c. 

4000 besides ye soldiery. 


50 Communicated last year. 

Vid below. 

Vid below. 

Of ye first none ; of ye second are 
many Jews and 1 Deist. 

Vid below. 

As to articles the 5th and 6th, I can give no certain account. I 
believe the members of the Church of England, and the whole body of 
dissenters including Papists are pretty equal. And as to article the 
8th, all I can say at present is that I cannot particularise many who 
come up to the strictness required in that article, tho' it may be justly 
said that in general they behave much better ; God grant that they 
may go from strength to strength, and from ceasing to do scarce 
anything but evil, may learn to abhor all manner of evil and cleave to 
that which is good. 

I must not forget to acquaint you sirs, that the English Settlers who 
came over in the two last transports are fixed on the eastern shore of 
Chebucto Harbor, where a town is laid out for them, and where they 
have already built many houses. I intended (as I had began) to have 
preached every Sunday in the afternoon to them, while it was practic- 
able to cross the Harbour. But the Governour considering the smallness 
of their number, when compared with the vast multitudes in Halifax, 
thought I should rather preach both morning and afternoon in the 
latter, which accordingly I have done, offering at the same time to 
perform Divine Service on any other day and at any hour that they 
should fix, to the inhabitants on the other side. They have come to 
no resolution about it yet, and in a fortnight hence, as I must officiate 


there in the open air, the severity of the season will render it impractic- 
able. I hope therefore the Venerable Society will take their case into 
consideration ; for though they, like the generality of the first English 
settlers here, have no great appetite for Spiritual Food at present, yet 
I should be sorry to see them entirely without it, as repeated applications 
may correct and fortify their stomach and fit them to digest it. Besides 
tho' the number of them be comparatively small at present, yet I 
doubt not that it will increase prodigiously. The beautifulness of the 
situation, the nearness of Halifax, and the convenience for carrying 
on the fishery cannot fail of inviting many others, tho' the present 
inhabitants if assembled all together would make no considerable 

'Tis among the standing orders of the Society that no missionary, &c., 
should draw above twice a year for his salary, viz., at Lady Day and 
Michaelmass. As Mr. Moreau has officiated ever since the month of 
September ; be pleased to inform him or me whether he may draw for 
3 q'rs salary at once, w'h according to the Society's appointment will 
be due him at Lady Day. 

I have had no account, s'r whether my letter sent to you by Captain 
Foster of the Fair Play, or the duplicate by Capt. Periman of the 
Beaufort, are come to hand. If you have received them and sent an 
account thereof, or any instructions from the Society by the Two 
Friends, I should be obliged to you to repeat them, as it is much to be 
feared that vessel is cast away. 

All the Bibles with the Common Prayer, bound up with them, are 
come safe and seasonably to hand, as did likewise another considerable 
box of very useful books a present from the Reverend Stephen 
Hales, D. D., to which he added 7 vols. in 2 of the Philosophical 
Transections, abridged by Mott, etc. The Governour and myself 
acknowledge our obligations to ye gentleman, and as I have prevailed 
with His Excellency to appropriate that part of the gallery, which is 
immediately over the vestry, for a Parochial Library, the Philosophical 
Transactions will be deposited there as the first beginning of it, which 
I hope will receive constant accessions from the generous donations of 
other gentlemen. 

With regard to the 6th article of the Notitia, I forgot to mention one 
circumstance : That among the small number of Palatines w'h were sent 
by the two last transports, there were found upon examination to be no 
less than 40 Papists. 'Tis to be feared that the persons employed by 


Lords of Trade and Plantations about this business are more solicitous to 
complete the number stipulated for their own private interest, than yo 
public gocd. Otherwise they would not, in the first place, be so easily 
imposed on with respect to their religious tenets; nor in ye next would 
they have sent over such as age and infirmities have rendered almost 
useless. 'Tis true, indeed, they had a long and tedious voyage in a 
crowded ship, and this inconvenience might occasion those infirmities, 
of which many of them since they came on shore have died. Otherwise 
age, attended by temperance, by health and industry, might not be 
useless ; and thus far, perhaps, the persons employed may plead in 
their excuse. But an accumulation of Papists in a country whose 
inland and most cultivated parts are already overrun with Papists, 
Papists nationally attached to our greatest enemy ; such an accumula- 
tion is by no means eligible : it will always be impolitic, because it is 
dangerous and may be fatal. 'Tis to be hop'd, therefore, that the 
persons employed about this business, will for ye future, be either less 
negligent or more conscientious. 

I should be glad if I could obtain the Homilies according to the 
Society's standing order ; and Autervald's Catechism for the persons 
mentioned in my last. If Mr. Moreau should, as probably he will> 
remove to Chignecto or Pisiquit next spring, he cannot fail of having 
frequent intercourse with the French inhabitants, and therefore a few 
small tracts in French might not be useless. I must not forget to 
acquaint you that I have drawn upon Mr. Bethell according to the 
form prescribed for the half year's salary, due at Michaelmas last, and 
having (no ?) more to add but my earnest prayer to God for a blessing 
upon the pious undertakings of the Venerable Society, humbly beseech- 
ing the Author and Giver of all Good Things, that through their 
means, the Glory of His People, Israel may become a Light to Lighten 
the Gentiles, till (their fullness being accomplished and the natural 
branches grafted into their own Olive Tree again) all Mankind shall 
become One Fold under Shepherd, Jesus Christ the Righteous. 

Be pleased to pay my duty to the Venerable Society and you will 
greatly oblige, 

P*evd. Sr., 

Y'r most obed't, <fc 

most humble serv't 





July the 5th, 1751. 

It has been matter of great concern to me that I have not had the 
honour of a letter from you since that of ye 28th of March, 1750. I 
have duly and constantly sent the best account I was able of the state 
of religion in this colony, and have now the satisfaction to assure you 
that there is a perfect harmony at present between the Church of 
England and the Dissenters. None of those disputes, which but too 
frequently arise among them in the other colonies, have as yet broken 
out in this, and I have ye satisfaction to believe, that the moderation, 
gentleness and affability, with which I have always treated them, have 
in a great measure contributed to this friendly intercourse. Even the 
most bigoted among them seldom fail to come to church every Sunday 
morning, and by that means the prejudices which they had conceived 
against the Church of England are not only less violent than heretofore 
but seem rather to be softened into a kind of liking which may possibly 
and I hope will terminate at last in a perfect approbation of and a 
happy union with her. 

The savages, instigated by French treachery, have committed many 
outrages, and most unnatural barbarities at Dartmouth, the last of 
which (ye 13 of May) have so intimidated the inhabitants that they 
have now totally deserted it. Till that time I used constantly to 
preach there in the afternoon. But as preparations are making to 
palisade the town, the old inhabitants seem determined to return to 
their former situation, and I dare say will be accompanied by many 
others. When this happens I shall renew my former practice and 
dedicate the afternoon to their service in spiritual things. 

The church in Halifax is very warm and comfortable, but cannot be 
finished this twelve month. There is a very large and handsome frame 
erected for the parsonage house, and half of it will be completely 
finished this season. I know of no glebe laid out at present ; nor 
would it be of any consequence if there was, unless the Indians were 
more pacific, the French, less treacherous, and the expense of clearing 



As to the Notitia Parochialis, the best account I am able to give is 
as follows : 

1. No. of Inhabitants. 

2. No. of Baptised, 

3. No. of adult persons Baptized. 

4. No. of actual Communicants of 

ye Church of England. 

5. No. of those who profess them- 

selves of that Church. 

6. No. of dissenters of all sorts, 

particularly papists. 

7. No. of Heathen and Infidels. 

8. No. of converts from a pro- 

phane, disorderly and un- 
christian course to a life of 

About 6000. 

Upwards of 300 have communi- 
cated at different times. 30 invert 
the 3rd and 4th Articles and 
pardon the mistake. 

About 3000. 

About 2000 of all sorts, and 
many too many Irish Papists. 

No Heathen but several Jews. 

As to this article I can only say 
that ye Colony in general is much 
amended, and ye behaviour of ye 

worst among them is less profligate 
and abandoned. 

Christian purity, meekness 
and charity. 

I have administered the Holy Sacrament in High Dutch to the Pala- 
tines, 3 several times ; the first time to 45, the second to 47 and the 
third to 63. *Mr. Burger (who comes over in the Osborne Galley, t o 
offer himself a candidate for Holy Orders) was of great help to me in 
this. He translated the Common Service for me, and taught me to 
pronounce it, not only intelligently but as well, considering the short- 
ness of the time, as a tongue long used to the comparative smoothness 
of the English tongue, can be supposed to fall into the gutteral roughness 
of the German. That in my opinion is the only objection against it, 
in all other respects it is a fine language, and I am determined when I 
can get a Dictionary and a proper Grammar to apply myself closely to 
it, till I obtain a complete knowledge of it, as it will be of great service 
to me in this colony. 

The Liturgy of the Church of England in the German language could 
not fail of being very useful here j and Bibles in the same language are 
much wanted ; the people are poor and not able to purchase them. 

I have long flattered myself with hopes of coming to England for a 
little time, for reasons which ye Society are well acquainted with, and 

* This Mr. Burger is spoken of in the report of the annual meeting of the Society, 
February 1752, as " a German Swiss Minister who was desirous of Episcopal ordi- 
nation." It was further said of him " Mr. Burger, upon the recommendation of the 
Governor, and of Mr. Tutty and of Mr. Morcau, the Society's missionaries hath como 
over to England to offer himself a candidate for holy orders of our church and to bo 
appointed missionary to the Germans, who arc already grown nuim-rims in Nova 
Scotia ; and he hath succeeded and hath been ordained and appointed missionary to 
the Germans and is now upon his return to Nova Scotia." In 1753 it was reported that 
Mr. Burger had not arrived in Nova Scotia "at the dato of the last letters from 
thence. No further mention is made of him. 


in consequence of which permission was granted me about a year and a 
half ago ; but as no other clergyman is come over to supply my place, 
I am bound in conscience to continue here. I hope it will ever be the 
utmost of my ambition, as it is my constant prayer, that I may obtain 
the character of a good officer under Jesus Christ the Captain of our 
Salvation, and therefore whatever uneasiness of mind or bodily pains I 
labor tinder I cannot think of quitting my post until properly relieved ; 
when that will happen God only knows, and His will be done. 
According to the Society's instruction I have drawn upon Hingsby 
Bethel, Esq., for the half-year's salary due at Lady Day last. The bill 
is payable to Francis Ingraham, or order. 


[There is another long letter from Mr. Tutty, dated Nov. 4th, 1751. In 
this he thanks the Society for a gratuity sent him. He administered the 
Sacrament once more in High Dutch to the new comers, then engaged 
in palisading Dartmouth. In a fortnight lie will administer the Sacra- 
ment to previous German settlers now residing about a naile from 
Halfax, after which he will do the same to some late arrivals who " for 
the present farm two little villages on the isthmus of this peninsula, 
about five or six miles from the town." The books sent are not yet 
arrived. Mr. Hallhead is a sober and conscientious man, but whether 
he is a good teacher does not appear, since the Governor, who is much 
pressed with providing homes for the immigrants and withstanding 
Indian attacks, has not been able to get the School in operation ; thougn 
quarters are in part prepared in a building intended for this and other 
public services. The church is still unfinished, but 80 acres of land are 
laid out for part of a glebe, about 3 miles from the town. It is heavily 
timbered, from which it is assumed to be good land. The Notitia says 
there are about 6000 inhabitants, that one adult was baptized during the 
year, and that between 390 and 400 have communicated at different 
times. This completes Mr. Tutty's correspondence as found on file in 
the archives of the Society, and the published reports of the Society 
show that Mr. Tntty returned to England during the year 1752, and 
died during the year 1753.] 


HALIFAX, 16th July, 1750. 
SIR, [Translation.] 

I received on the 6th June, by the hands of Mr. Tutty, the letter 
with which you honoured me, dated 28th March last. I assure you that 
I received it with all the gladness and satisfaction possible, not only 
because of the honour which the Venerable Society has done me in 
admitting me to the number of its missionaries, but because it has 


placed me in a position to fulfil the functions of my ministry with 
greater dignity. I trust that through the favor of Divine Providence 
the very Venerable Society will never have reason to repent the 
confidence which it has reposed in me, and that I may render a good 
account of the department that has been placed in my hands. As I 
have been convinced of the truth of the doctrines of the Church of 
England, by which I desire to live and die, and as by a long examina- 
tion of those of the Church of Rome, God has given me grace to 
understand its errors and its corruptions, I find myself in a better 
condition to represent and to communicate to others the light with 
which it has pleased Divine Providence to illuminate me. I will 
endeavor by assiduous toil, as soon as the French Protestants, for whom 
we wait here shall arrive, to recall to the truth a great number of 
people who are suffering here under the weight of error and ignorance. 
I have no doubt that the example of these will greatly assist * * * 
(illegible) * * * I have hitherto engaged two of the principal 
people of the place to help on Sundays in prayers with all the rest of 
the people. They have stated that they desired much to enlighten 
them, and have said that AS soon as the church for the French shall be 
established, they and their families will not withhold their assistance. 

Your humble and obt. servt., 


[The above is a translation, the letter being written in French, as were 
most of Mr. Moreau's letters for several years. 


LOUISBOURG, 3rd June 1749. 

This is to certify that Mr. Thomas Wood, late Surgeon of the Regi- 
ment of Poot, commanded by Capt. William Shirley, during his 
residence in this place, which was for the space of two years and 
upwards, hath lived a sober, regular and blameless life, nor hath he 
written or maintained as far as we know or believe anything contrary 
to the doctrine and discipline of the Church of England. 

Deputy Chaplain to tlie Garrison. 


NEW BRUNSWICK, (N. J.,) April 28th, 1749. 

Some years ago, we with others of the Church Communion in this 
place petitioned the honorable Society for the P. of G. that they wd. 
send us a Missionary, since which they acquainted us that as soon as 
we should have provided an house, with seven acres of land, according 
to the standing rules of the society, in addition to the .40 engaged for 
the support of a missionary they would send one to be resident with us. 
To comply therewith, we have with the utmost difficulty raised about 
300, and are now about providing an house and some acres of land. 
We are credibly informed that the Society appoint those for missionary 
who produce full testimonials of a good life and come well recommended 
from the people themselves, but in this we humbly submit Mr. Wood, 
the bearer hereof, is a gentleman of known candour and reputation, 
and from the short personal knowledge we have of him we really 
believe him to be truly religious. He signified to us his intentions of 
entering into Holy Orders, and desired of us if we approved of him for 
our missionary to reccommend him to the Society, and that he made 
no doubt but he would give them ample satisfaction of his exemplary 
life and conversation. .We therefore humbly beseech the honorable 
society that they would be pleased speedily to ordain and appoint him 
our missionary, if they judge him qualified for that sacred office, we 
being at present in a deplorable state, having no one to perform Divine 
service or adminster the Sacrements. We are with due respects } 
Rev. Sir. 

Your most obedient and humble servants, 

(Signed by 17 citizens.) 

LONDON, July ye 22nd, 1749, 

The bearer, Mr. Thomas Wood, being strongly recommended to me 
for a mission, and that of Elizabeth Town in the Jerseys being now 
vacant I shall be obliged to you, if you will be pleased to move the 
Society in his favor for that place, and as I presume they will not like 
to increase their expense by appointing a new missionary for New 
Brunswick, agreeable to ye application on that head, I conceive some 
small addition to the mission of Elizabeth Town would enable Mr. 


Wood to officiate at Brunswick once a fortnight or three weeks, the 
difference being but 20 miles and good road. I have the honor to be 
with great regard, R.evd. Sir, your most obdt. humble servant. 


I humbly beg you will lett Mr. Wood be dispatched As soon as 

(Endorsed Sir Peter Warren, in favor of Mr. Wood. Read 11, 
Sept. 1749.) 

[Among " letters sent " is a letter from the Society to the Vestry and Church 
Wardens of New Brunswick, in New Jersey, dated Octr. 3rd, 1749, saying 
that Mr. Wood has been ordained and appointed their missionary as 
requested by them. Mr. Wood also carried a letter of introduction to 
Governor Geo. Clinton of New York, and a letter appointing Thomas 
Bradbury Chandler, Catechist, at Elizabeth Town. He continued in New 
Jersey until 1752, when he agreed with Mr. Moreau for an exchange, and 
both gentlemen joined in a request to the Society to ratify the agree- 
ment. In pursusnce of this he came to Halifax, in the autumn of 1752, 
whereupon Governor Cornwallis concluded that owing to the return 
of Mr. Tutty to England, the services of both Mr. Wood and Mr. Moreau 
were required in Nova Scotia, and he accordingly remained. He died 
at Annapolis, Dec. 14th, 1778.] 




12th March, 1885. 

A society, aiming at the collection and preservation of documents 
illustrative of early history, ought to flourish in Nova Scotia. If, as a 
Province, we may not possess the wealth of material belonging to old 
Canada if our history does not glitter with events such as have made 
the plains of Abraham, and the names of Wolfe and Montcalui, house- 
hold words in every country in the world if our Province has not been 
the theatre of such exploits as have rendered classic the whole ground 
between Lake George and the banks of the St. Lawrence, there is still 
no lack of warlike adventure on a smaller scale ; no want of incidents of 
a character, unique in the history of the world, to make the study of our 
past interesting. 

The first settlement in the Province was itself an extraordinary event. 
Not only was it the earliest attempt at colonization on the norther 11 
part of the continent, but it was attended by unusual and exceptional 
ciicumstances. Fifteen French gentlemen, well born and well bred? 
some of them members of the French noblesse, others men of the long 
robe, spent the first winter after their arrival, the winter of 1606, 
on the Banks of what is now the Annapclis River, in a spirit of genial 
and literary joviality and intellectual enjoyment, in marked contrast 
with the first year's experience of any other colony we know of. 
Champlain the great French explorer, the father, it may be said, of that 
New France which afterwards occupied so prominent a place in the 
history of North America, was there. The Baron dePoutrincourt, 
grantee of the first private estate in Nova Scotia, proprietor of the soil 
on which stands the present town of Annapolis, was one of the 


number. L'Escavbot, to whom we owe the best and the earliest 
history of the first settlements in America, was there, poet as well as 
lawyer, and historian. The other members of the party were all men 
of some distinction. Champlain devised for the use of the company 
what he called the order of Bon Temps, the first institution of a 
quasi local nobility, created on the continent. It comprised the whole 
fifteen of the party. Each in turn became grand master for a day, and 
was entrusted with the preparation of the festivites and amusements of 
his day of office. Each grand master, in his turn, did his best to outdo 
his predecessor. The delicacies within reach of the party, were by no 
means despicable. The table was loaded with luxuries, such as the 
flesh of moose, carriboo, deer, beaver, hare and bears, with ducks, 
geese and plover, trout, cod, sturgeons, hallibut and an endless variety 
of other fish, to say nothing of a copious supply of the best of French 
wines which the thoughtful generosity of DeMonts had provided for 
the settlers. The evenings were spent in lively talk, in the discussion 
of literary topics, in the recital of French and Latin verses, to which 
each of the party had to contribute in turn, though the main burden 
of the poetry seems to have fallen to the lot of L'Escarbot. What this 
interesting settlement might have become, if had been let alone, must be 
left to the imagination to conceive. But it was not let alone. Pierre 
Guast, Sieur deMonts, the governor and feudal lord of a region as large 
as Europe, would have been himself one of the winter party, but that he 
was obliged to go to France to look after his interests in the new world 
which were threatened by enemies and rivals. He did his best, but 
failed. The monopoly of the fur trade, on which the enterprise 
rested, was revoked by the sovereign as capriciously as it had been 
granted. The inducements ceased to exist which had brought together 
so unusual a class of colonists. Poutrincourt alone, the owner of the 
soil around Port Royal, stuck by the colony. It however died out, after 
a series of struggles, which form an interesting chapter of provincial 
history. Between the date of this, the first French settlement on the 
continent, and the time when the flag of France ceased to float over 
any part of Canada, there was a period, in all, of about 150 years in 
the course of which Nova Scotia was three times English and three 
times French. 

The curious adventures and complications arising from repeated 
changes of allegiance and from grants and patents issued by sovereigns 
of the different nations, now of England, now of France, gave birth to 


numberless interesting incidents, which when they shall have become 
mellowed by age, will furnish unlimited material for the creations of the 
poet, the dramatist and the novelist of the future. 

A flood of light has been poured on the early history of the whole 
country now comprised within the limits of the Dominion by the labors 
and researches of Francis Parkman, of Boston. He has gone for his 
authorities to the most authentic sources. He has sought them in places 
widely separated in the archives of Washington and Paris, of London, 
Quebec and Madrid ; and some he has found in that excellent collection 
of old documents, contained in the volume of archives printed by the 
government of Nova Scotia, at the instance and earnest solicitation of 
our worthy Vice President Dr. Akins. Parkman's books cover nearly 
the whole period of French dominion in Canada. 

When the great battle on the plains of Abraham was fought, for great 
it must be called, if not in the European sense, from the number of com- 
batants engaged, or the number of the slain, it was at all events great in 
its consequences to the civilized world. Till then the English colonists 
on the Atlantic coast were confined to a mere strip that intervening 
between the Alleghanies and the sea shore. All behind was French. 
From the mouth of the St. Lawrence to its source all the country around 
the great lakes, the immense valleys of the Ohio, the Illinois, and the 
Missouri, and the great plain of the Mississippi from the source of the 
river to its outlet in the Gulf of Mexico, in a word, all the great west, 
as well as Canada, was an appendage of France. With the fall of 
Quebec, and under the treaty which followed, this immense domain 
passed to England. The seaboard colonists were no longer cribbed and 
confined by the Alleghanies. They now had, within their old limits, 
and beyond them, the materials of a boundless empire. The possession 
of so vast a domain following the extinction of the French power, with 
which the colonies had had to contend so long and so fiercely, rendered 
no longer necessary the aid they had been accustomed to ask and receive 
from the parent country. Besides it bred in the colonists themselves 
sentiments of ambibition, and aspirations for independence, which soon 
took a material shape. It may therefore be said that the battle before 
the walls of Quebec was the cause, and a not remote cause, of the war 
of independence. Wolfe, when dying on the field of battle, was told 
the enemy was running. He had just sufficient strength to give an order 
to cut off their retreat, and then turning on his side, he muttered, "Now, 
God be praised I will die in peace." Well was it for the comfort of the 


dying hero that he could not foresee what was soon to result from a 
victory so glorious to himself and to the British arms. If the Peace of 
Paris, which followed this great victory, added half a continent to the 
British domain, another Peace of Paris, only 21 years later, severed from 
the crown, if not a greater, at least, a better territory than that which 
the heroism of Wolfe had won. Our part in the great drama extending 
through 150 years, was not inconsiderable. I cannot dwell on it now, 
but there is one point on which I may be allowed to detain you for a 

Up to a recent date, every Nova Scotian has had his doubts as to the 
necessity of the cruel act which drove 6000 Acadian French from the 
Province some four years before the fall of Quebec, and scattered them 
along the Atlantic shores from Maine to Florida. He might be quite 
sure that the Government of the day were firmly convinced of the neces- 
sity of that step, and that the evidence they had must have been over- 
whelming, but from the nature of the case it must have been, in a large 
measure, circumstantial. It remained for Mr. Parkman to discover, 
buried in the dust and mould of a century and a half, original docu- 
ments in the hand writing of the actors themselves, damning proof- 
clear and unmistakeable, that our ancestors were not deceived as to the 
facts. We have the evidence of this in letters of French governors 
of Quebec and Louisburg, in letters of bishops and priests, in letters of 
military, naval and civil servants of the French crown, written with a 
callous shamelessness, and a frank avowal of baseness, utterly revolt- 
ing to modern ideas. We should be grateful to an author who has 
enabled us to listen without a blush to the story of the events that 
occurred in 1755 in our western counties. He has removed what 
seemed to be a stain alike on the local government and on the British 

One striking peculiarity in our history, in which it differs from that 
of any other colony, arises from the number of times we have been 
obliged to part with large bodies of our population. Besidesthe 6,000 
Acadian French, to whom we have referred, we have deported, at subse- 
quent periods of our history, two other large bodies of men of a different 
race, and creed, and color. The first in order of these deportations 
occurred towards the close of the last century. Of the incidents con- 
nected with it a copious record exists in a manuscript volume, of some 450 
pages, which I hold in my hand, and of which only two copies exist, one 
of these having been made at the expense and for the use of this Society. 


Slavery seems to have existed in the world from a time earlier than the 
deluge. Noah, in the curses he pronounces on Ham and Canaan uses 
words which imply that the condition of a slave was well understood 
even then. It has continued in some form to the present day, but, as 
regards white races, the conscience of Christian nations, and the precepts 
of Christian teachers, have led to its suppression almost imperceptibly in 
every civilized country. The slavery of the colored race has lasted 
longer. It has had its advocates and defenders among teachers and 
preachers of bodies of Christians, claiming to be among the purest and 
most devout in the religious world. At length, however some- 
what over 100 years ago it began to dawn on the minds of English- 
men that the system was wrong; that negroes were human beings ; 
that they had souls to be saved, and that they, as well as whites, were 
inheritors of an eternal life beyond the grave ; in short that they were 
entitled here to the rights which belong to our common humanity. An 
agitation on the subject soon arose, originating with the Society of 
Friends. From them it spread to others. Men of standing began to take 
part in the new movement, and before twenty years had gone by the 
subject was brought before the House of Commons by Mr. Wilberforce, 
then member for Hull. Mr. Pitt, the Premier of the day, was a personal, 
friend of Mr. Wilberforce, and his expression of favor towards the new 
movement gave it a valuable impulse. The promoters of the agitation 
did not dare at first to go to the full extent of their convictions. They 
made war, for the moment, not on slavery as a condition, but upon the 
trade of importing slaves. The hoirors attending the seizure of the 
poor blacks in Africa, and those connected with the middle passage 
these were the topics on which they dwelt most, leaving the abstract 
question of slavery to a future day. Of the men who took a leading 
part in the movement, three of the most conspicuous were Wilberforce 
Thomas Clavkson and Zachary Macaulay, the first named being active in 
parliament, the two latter in outside organizations. Mr. Clarkson was 
the son of a clergyman and was educated at St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge. While a student there, the Vice-Chancel lor of the University 
offered a prize for the best Latin dissertation on the question, " whether 
it was right to make slaves of others against their will." Mr. Clarkson 
contested for the prize, and won it. His dissertation, read before the 
Senate of the University, elicited great applause. In preparing the 
essay, he had taken great pains to collect materials from every quarter. 
The case he made appalled himself. His imagination having been 


inflamed, and his conscience aroused, he determined to devote the rest 
of his life to the work of abolishing the abominable traffic. A 
society for the suppression of the trade was formed the year next 
after the essay was read. Clarkson was one of the most active of its 
members. During the war of the revolution, numbers of negro slaves, 
that had escaped from America, found their way to England. They 
were living there in great destitution. The sad fate of these poor 
creatures natnrally interested the anti-slavery people, who formed 
a plan to provide for them by sending them out to form a settlement 
on the west coast of Africa. It was supposed that they would find 
there a climate better suited than that of England to their constitutions. 
A settlement of free Christian negroes, on the west coast of Africa, 
would be a centre from which Christianity and civilizationwould radiate 
to the surrounding negro tribes. The spot selected was the Peninsula 
of Sierra Leone. It is about 18 miles long by 12 wide and contains some 
200 square miles. It is situated about 600 miles north of the equator, 
and has an average temperature throughout the year of 82 Fahrenheit 
the extreme heat of a Nova Scotia summer day. The peninsula is 
rugged and mountainous, rising in some places in conical hills to the 
height of 2,000 or 3,000 feet. The site selected for a town was a side 
hill, on the north of the peninsula sloping towards the waters of a 
land-locked bay, which formed the harbour. The society does not seem 
to have made sufficient inquiries as to other particulars essential to the 
success of a colony. The climate is most unfavorable. The wet season 
lasts from May to November, during which the hills are wrapped in 
impenetrable fog. In a single year rain to the extent of 314 inches 
has been knoAvn to fall. In two days of that year ruore rain fell at 
Sierra Leone, than during the whole year in Great Britain. The climate 
is most unhealthy even for blacks. To Europeans it is deadly. The 
acceptance of an office there is almost a species of suicide. Had the 
society known that every soldier sent to the colony would, on the 
average, have to go into hospital three times each year, they would 
probably have hesitated before deciding on such a spot for a humane 
experiment. However, that may be, they sent out in 1787 a lot of the 
negroes who were wandering about London. But they soon found that 
the number sent was not sufficient to give strength and stability to the 
colony. They found also that as a voluntary association they were not 
a proper governing body. They accordingly applied to parliament and 
obtained an Act of Incorporation as the Sierra Leone company, confer- 


ing large powers of government. It now became the first duty of the 
new company to send out out more settlers. 

All the negroes that had esaped from the revolted colonies, did not 
find their way to England. Many came here after the peace, and settled 
in what at that time was Nova Scotia, which then included the present 
Provinces of New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island. In what we 
have to say we shall use the term Nova Scotia as applying to the 
country in its original dimensions. It seems, that among the negroes 
resident in the province, was one Thomas Peters, who had been a 
sergeant in the regiment of guides and pioneers serving under the 
command of Sir Henry Clinton in the revolutionary war. Peters 
was a man of some intelligence, and seems to have been selected by his 
fellow negroes to go to England, to lay the complaints of himself and 
other blacks similarity situated before the king. Shortly after his arrival 
he presented a memorial to the Secretary of State then the Hon. Mr. 
Grenville, setting forth the grievances of himself and his friends. He 
stated that they had been promised the same grants of land as other 
sergeants and soldiers in the same regiment; and that they had come 
into Nova Scotia on the faith of these promises ; that they had applied 
in vain for the lands and provisions they were entitled to, and that they 
were in various ways, ill-used by the local authorities. He further stated 
that some of the negroes would prefer to take their allotments and 
remain in the province. But others, and among them himself, would 
rather go to a warmer climate one better suited to their constitutions. 
This last clause of the memorial is suggestive. It looks as if the docu- 
ment had been inspired by the Sierra Leone company. Peters on 
his arrival would naturally seek the aid of the friends of the blacks and 
would get into communication with them. The Sierra Leone company 
had a country in want of a population of Christian negroes. Nothing 
could suit them better than to find a population of Christian negroes in 
want of a country. It requires no great stretch of fancy, therefore, to 
suppose that some members of the company either wrote or suggested 
this clause of the memorial. The company, as we have seen, was in 
close alliance with Wilberforce, who was one of its members. That 
gentleman was intimately connected with Mr. Pitt. The Secretary of 
State, Mr. Grenville, was not only a colleague but a relative of Mr. Pitt. 
We need not be surprised therefore that the memorial was dealt with 
promptly. In a dispatch to Mr. Parr, then governor of Nova Scotia, 
dated the 3rd August, 1791, Mr. Grenville reprehends him vehemently 


for the neglect complained of, orders an immediate inquiry into the 
facts, and directs him, if he finds them as stated, to issue the promised 
grants in places so favorable as to make some atonement for the 
injustice done to the negroes. He then goes on to state what Peters 
had brought to his notice, in reference to the wish of some of the blacks 
to be sent to a warmer climate, and orders him to despatch messengers 
to the different places where the negroes were settled, and then to make 
them an offer to carry them free of expense to Siena Leone, if they 
preferred that to staying where they were but they would be made to 
understand that government took no part in the matter further than to 
gratify such of them as choose to go. And now comes on the scene for 
the first time Mr. John Clarkson, a brother of Thomas, and engaged by 
the company in forwarding its objects. Some discreet person was 
wanted to go out to Nova Scotia to confer with the negroes and make 
arrangements for the removal of such as should be found willing to 
go. Mr. John Clarkson offered his services. His offer, which was 
evidently solicited, was eagerly accepted. A commission was given to 
him under date of August 12th, and within the following week he was off 
on his voyage to Halifax. From the 6tn of August, when he volunteered 
till the 15th March following, he kept a journal of his proceedings, in 
which he entered every event of importance and some events of not much 
importance, which occurred in connection with the business. The 
original journal is still in existence. Of the two copies made of it, one 
belongs to Mrs. Dickenson, a relative of the Clarksons, an elderly lady, 
still alive, and residing at Leamington, England. 

Mr. Clarkson was authorized to offer to each negro settler producing 
a certificate signed by himself, or by Lawrence Hartshorne, of Halifax, 
who was associated with him in the business, vouching the honesty, 
sobriety and industry of the bearer, a grant of land at Sierra Leone, of 
twenty acres for himself, ten for his wife and five for every child, 
subject only to such conditions as should be imposed on all settlers 
black or white, for the good of the colony. Mr. Clarkson sailed from 
Gravesend in the Ark, on the 19th of August. But the ship met with 
adverse winds and was driven into Portland Roads, where she remained 
till the 8th of September. Mr. Clarkson rode into the neighbouring 
town of Weymouth, returning to his ship in the evening. The same 
day his bi-other Thomas happened to be passing through Weymouth on 
a journey to Devonshire, and fancied he heard John's voice as he passed 
the yard of an inn at Weymouth. So strongly was he convinced 


that his ears had not deceived him, that after searching for his 
brother all through Weymouth without success, he came on next 
day to Portland, where he found the ship. The brothers had a long 
parting interview on the 5th, to which subsequent circumstances gave 
considerable importance. 

The wind coming fair, the ship left Portland on the 14th. We need 
not dwell on the details of the voyage which terminated in the ship's safe 
arrival in the harbour of Halifax, on the 7th of October, 51 days after 
the first departure from Gravesend. 

An extract or two from the journal will, however, be useful, as giv- 
ing the key to the character and principles of the good man to whom 
the mission, was intrusted. He writes under date of the 1st of 
October, shortly before his arrival : 

" During the voyage my mind has been constantly occupied with the im- 
portance of my mission. I see in it a different point of view to what 1 did 
when I first offered my services, for then I was influenced by the feelings 
of the moment, in consequence of the affecting story I had heard Peters 
relate and the difficulties the directors seemed to have in finding a suitable 
person to conduct it; but when I got to sea and had time for reflection, the 
case was altered. I had then leisure to perceive the magnitude of the 
undertaking, and although I felt an equal desire to assist these unfortunate 
people, yet I almost shrunk from the responsibility I had imposed upon 
myself. But having embarked in it I had no alternative but to go on. 
Before I reached Halifax it was necessary for me to come to some kind of 
determination as to the line of conduct I should pursue upon my arrival 
there, and having carefully perused the letters I had received from my 
friend Mr. Wilberforce, and having duly reflected upon their contents, and 
also upon the various conversations I had with many of the directors on 
the subject of my mission, I decided upon not soliciting any person to go 
with me, but to explain to all, the views of the Sierra Leone company, and 
His Majesty's Government, and to leave them to their own choice, for I 
considered them as men, having the same feelings as myself, and, therefore, 
I did not dare to sport with their destiny." 

So much does he seem to have been absorbed in reflections such as 
these that for six days following he makes not a single entry in his 
journal. On the 7th when entering the harbor, he gives his first 
impression of Halifax, as follows : 

" The prospect of the town is extremely beautiful, situate upon a declivity 
on the left hand side of the river, going up, and has a pretty appearance 
from the sea. Went on shore at half-past 4 and waited upon the Governor 
with my despatches ; was received with every mark of civility and atten- 
tion, and was invited to stay to dinner." 

He accepted the invitation and remained to dinnei', but as it was 
after half-past four before he was invited, and only eight when he left, 
we may infer that the Halifax dinner hour in 1791, though late in the 
afternoon, must either have been considerably earlier than at present 


or else, (and this is contrary to Halifax traditions) gentlemen did not 
tarry over their wine so long then as they do now. On retiring from 
Government House he went to his hotel, or, as he calls it, the coffee- 
house. There he says he " found some gentlemen of the Swedenbnrgh 
persuasion, supposing him to be the same, wishing to congratulate him 
on his arrival." Next day he dined again at Government House with 
a large party. He says : 

"I met Mr. Hammond, and his Secretary, Mr. Thornton, who had just 
arrived in the packet from England on his embassy to the United States. 
The captain of the packet informed the Governor and his company that on 
the day he left Falmouth, a vessel arrived from Sierra Leone, giving an 
account that the few settlers sent out in the year 1787, had been cut off by 
King Jemmy, and that he feared we should find some difficulty in landing 
in the river. This conversation gave the Governor an opportunity of start- 
ing difficulties, as to the accomplishment of the plan, which I was obliged 
to cut short by saying that it should not prevent me from exerting myself 
to forward the business, as I was confident that neither government nor the 
company would suffer me to sail from hence if they thought there was any 
danger from the natives ; and that we should have sufficient time to know 
the particulars before we could possibly be ready to sail. The conversation 
dropped by the Governor's pushing about the bottle. I could plainly see 
that the Governor would rather I should not succeed in my business than 
otherwise, probably from an idea that if the people were averse to leaving 
the Province, it would be a good argument to prove that they were content, 
and that their complaints were groundless." 

But Mr. Clarkson soon discovered that there were other reasons for 
the hesitancy of the Governor. In a private letter to Mr. Wilberforce, 
dated the 27th November, he makes an extraordinary statement. He 
says : " To my certain knowledge Governor Parr received a letter by 
the same conveyance which brought the despatches relative to our 
business, desiring him to do all in his power to retard it. I will pledge 
myself to you to prove that at any time, but shall leave you to guess 
the author of it." He well asks his correspondent " Is not this 
abominable T It certainly goes far to exculpate the Governor, that he 
had two opposite sets of instructions, and really did not know which 
to obey. Indeed it appears by an entry in the journal that in remon- 
strating with the Governor for his irresolution and improper orders, 
Mr. Parr in the midst of his distress produced the contradictory letter 
which came from the office of the Secretary of State. Mr. Clarkson 
says the letter was from E. N., giving only the initials, but he had left 
Mr. Wilberforce to guess who was the writer, without giving him the 
aid which these initials would afford. It is a curious incident in the 
history of responsible Government, and still more curious that it occurred 
in the case of an admistration presided over by so masterful and imperi- 


ous a chief as the younger Pitt. Who was E. N., and why was he or 
any body else allowed to thwart the policy which Pitt favored ? 

On the llth he made acquaintance with a Mr. Miller, a recruiting 
officer who had just arrived from the West Indies, to engage such of 
the negroes as preferred to enlist for service there in the army to either 
staying in Nova Scotia or going to Sierra Leone. On the 1 2th he paid 
a visit to Dartmouth. This is the record he gives of his impressions on 
the occasion : 

" This morning went over to Dartmouth, which is about a mile across the 
river from Halifax, with Messrs. Hartshorne and JPutman, to visit some of 
the free blacks who were settled at a place called Preston, about four miles 
from Dartmouth. At 10 in the morning we mounted our horses and rode 
through the woods till we reached Preston, called at the huts of several of 
the inhabitants and stated to them the offer ol the Sierra Leone Company. 
Their situation seemed extremely bad from the poorness of the soil and 
from their having nothing to subsist upon but the produce of it. On our 
ride towards home we called upon an honest gardener who showed me some 
of the maple sugar as well as the trees in his neighbourhood, and also a 
specimen he had refined, equal to any I had seen in England. This man 
is an excellent botanist and lays out part of his garden for experiments. 
About two in the afternoon reached Mr. Hartshorne's farm house, distant 
about two miles from Dartmouth, where we dined. This farm appears to 
me in higher cultivation than any I have yet seen in the province." 

I dare say the older inhabitants of Dartmouth will be able to identify 
the worthy gardener whose good qualities are referred to in this extract. 
On the 14th he received a letter, which in its way is a curiosity, from 
Colonel Black, of Birch Town, Shelburne. It appears that the writer 
was not only a Colonel Black, but a black Colonel. The latter fact 
might have been inferred from intrinsic evidence. The writer, with 
true negro pomposity, asks "for information concerning the adopted 
mode to be pursued for the subsistence, and for the conditions respect- 
ing the provisions and transportation furnished by the directors for the 
encouragement of the adventurers." 

On the 18th arrived at Halifax, Dr. Taylor, who had been appointed 
by the company to take medical charge of the immigrants, but who had 
not been able to get ready to come out with Mr. Clarkson in the Ark. 
On the 19th Mr. Clarkson wrote a long letter to Mr. Thornton, the 
chairman of the company, detailing his proceedings up to that date. 
In it he adverts to the obstacles he met with from the local authorities 
in the following language : 

" In the first place I was given to understand from those with whom I 
conversed (many of whom are friends of the plan and have offered Mr. 
Hartshorne and myself every assistance) that if I did not accept indiscri- 
minately every one that offered I should meet with great opposition from 


the principal gentlemen in Halifax, and that they would have it in their 
power to prevent the greatest part of the black people from accepting the 
offers of the company from their influence with them. My answers to 
every one, as well as at the governor's table and at other places, has been 
that I should not solicit one individual to accompany me, and that I was 
likewise determined to withhold the certificate which was intended as a 
reward to virtue and industry from those who should appear to me not to 
deserve it. 

If Mr. Clarkson had not been carried away somewhat by his zeal for 
the service in which he was engaged, he might have seen that there 
was a good deal to be said in favor of the objections made by his 
Halifax friends. If he had proposed to remove the negroes in a body, 
very few probably would have cared to oppose him. But as his plan was 
to select only " the honest, the sobar and the industrious of the blacks," 
he ought not to have been surprised that our people did not care to let 
him take away all the least objectionable of the race, leaving behind 
only a residuum of the idle, the drunken and the dishonest. Mr. 
Clarkson impliedly admits that he felt the force of the objections strongly, 
for at the same time that he announced his determination to act on 
the principle of selection, he added : " I said I did not intend to con- 
fine myself to honesty, sobriety and industry in the strict sense of the 
words." He meant therefore to use these words in a Sierra Leone sense. 
In another part of his letter he goes into details of the incident which 
took place at the Governor's table the day after his arrival and already 
alluded to. He says : 

" In the course of conversation after dinner the captain of the packet 
said : Mr. Clarkson I hear you are going to conduct the black people to 
Sierra Leone, and therefore I wish to inform you of a report which prevailed 
at Falmouth on the day we sailed, in consequence of a vessel having arrived 
in Mount's Bay from the coast of Africa. He then mentioned what I have 
stated before, respecting King Jemmy, and told me that he was informed 
of it by one of Mr. Fox's clerks at Falmouth, that my brother was at Mr. 
Fox's at the time, and that the people belonging to the vessel had waited 
upon him with the account. I replied that he had convinced me from what 
he had said respecting my brother that he must have been misinformed for 
I was certain he never would have suffered the packet to have sailed for 
Halifax without writing two lines to put me upon my guard, and that so far 
from the vessel having brought bad news, I had every reason to believe she 
had arrived with the most favorable accounts, that I had seen my brother 
at Weymouth four days before he went to Falmouth and that he told me 
then that a vessel answering to the description of the one mentioned by the 
captain to have arrived at Mont's Bay, was hourly expected to confirm the 
most pleasing accounts received by two vessels wh ch had lately come from 
Africa to Bristol. Mr. Hammond agreed with me, and said he was sure my 
brother would have written to me had there been any foundation for such 
a rumor, as the packet did not sail till some time after the captain had heard 
the story. After all this I find the Governor is not convinced, for Mr. 
Hartshorne and myself waited upon him two days ago to talk with him 


on business, when he said that the people could not go he thought with 
safety, after the accounts received of the savages having murdered the 
settlers. I said I thought it abominable for any person to cherish such an 
opinion, as it might influence many people not to go, who would be 
miserable if they remained here ; that it was wrong to meet difficulties half 
way, and that he might be sure if such a thing had happened that he 
would have received official accounts long enough before the people could 
possibly embark." 

The journal affords no information about King Jemmy's raid, nor does 
it explain why no word about it was sent to Mr. Clarkson. In point 
of fact, it would seem that from the time he left Portland Roads, in 
August, till that of his departure from Halifax in January, he never 
received a single line from England on that subject. Yet it was quite 
true that there had been a raid of the kind, and the rumors referred to 
were no great exaggeration of the facts. The grounds on which Mr. 
Clarkson undertook to deny these rumours, were certainly sufficient. 
But it is incomprehensible why his brother, or some other member of 
the company, did not inform him of the true state of the facts. 
Towards the close of his letter he expresses his hope that Mr. Dalrymple, 
who was to be the governor of the new colony should be on the spot 
before his arrival and make preparation for the reception and protection 
of the emigrants. It will be seen by-and-by how far these hopes were 
realized. Meanwhile he is busy with his work in the city. He visits 
many persons whose names are familiar to Halifax ears. He has 
intercourse with Mr. Blowers, the Attorney General of the clay ; Mr. 
Uniacke the Speaker of the Asssembly, grandfather of Mr. RobieUniacke 
of our city; with Bishop Inglis, the first of the name; with Mr. 
Bulkeley, the Provincial Secretary ; with Dr. Almon, the grandfather of 
Senator Almon ; and Dr. Haliburton, and Mr. Cochran, each a grand- 
father of the late Clerk of the Legislative Council ; with the Brinleys, 
grandparents of our Mrs. Wm. Lawson ; with Mr. Belcher, the father 
of the late Admiral Belcher ; with Mr. Tremaine ; with Mr. Sterns 
and Mr. Boggs, the ancestors of our present families of those names ; 
with Mr. DeBlois; with the Newtons, and a host of other persons 
whose names are well known in this city. The journal gives us very 
pleasant glimpses of all these people, and of social life generally, which 
will make it specialty interesting to many now resident in Halifax, who 
derive their descent from one or other of these persons, or are connected 
with them by kinship. 

A large portion of the negroes who were disposed to become, in the 
language of Col. Black, ' adventurers,' belonged to his place, Birchtown, 


and thither Mr. Clarkson set out with Dr. Taylor and Mr. Miller the 
recruiting officer on the 22nd October, in the schooner Dolphin. We 
need not dwell on the details of the voyage nor on the conference 
which took place atBirchtown with three or foisr hundred colored persons, 
in the meeting house of that place, nor with the address of Mr. Clark- 
son, which was a model of good sense and plain speaking, creditable alike 
to his head and his heart. Colonel Black may not have admired the style 
of it. There were not polysyllables enough in it to suit his taste. But 
we must not omit an incident which occurred on the voyage to Shel- 
burne. It deserves mention for several reasons. First because it shews 
that much as our journalist was engrossed in the business of his 
mission, he had still some room for other thoughts. Secondly, because 
he pays to a Nova Scotia damsel of 100 years ago, compliments, which 
as Nova Scotians, we should not wish to be lost to history ; and thirdly 
because the mention of the subject on this occasion may lead to personal 
inquiries that may interest the people of a western county. When the 
Dolphin came near the Eagged Islands it was well on to nightfall, and 
the captain was afraid to pass them in the dark. He therefore ran 
into Port Hebert, and anchored three miles up the river. Now let the 
journalist tell his own tale : 

" The aspect of this part of the country is uncommonly wild, an illimitable 
wood presenting itself in every point of view. There are a few wretched 
inhabitants on the eastern side of the river, widely scattered and surrounded 
with a few acres of half cleared land, overrun with large naked rocks of 
granite ; here during the summer season, they plant potatoes and sow a 
little corn. The wealthiest of them possess a few sheep or a cow. By 
these means they, with some difficulty, contrive to glean a scanty sub- 
sistence. During the winter season they traverse the woods with their dogs 
and gun, properly accoutred with snow shoes, in search of wild fowl, moose, 
deer, carriboo, etc.,'etc. Mr. Taylor accompanied me on shore. On entering 
one of their huts we met with the most agreeable reception from a young 
girl about 15 years of age, entrusted with the care of the house, and two 
small children, her brothers, during the absence of her parents, who had 
for several days been gathering in their winter stock of potatoes, on the 
contrary side of the river. Her behaviour and polite attention would have 
done crdit to a person of the first rank and education, and might have 
reflected disgrace upon the inferior race of people in Great Britain. Her 
manner so simple, mild and unaffected, her general deportment so modest 
and respectful, left me at a loss for language to express the esteem I felt 
for this little girl. Having tasted no food since the preceding day we were 
rejoiced at the prospect of getting something to eat. Upon enquiry we 
found the whole stock of provisons consisted only of potatoes and butter- 
milk, with a few dried salt fish. We made a hearty supper on this fare 
and after due acknowledgment for our feat we quitted the hut and made an 
attempt to reach our schooner. We soon found however that the creeks (ve 
had passed in our way to the house, were now filled up by the tide and 
rendered totally impassible, and it rained extremely hard, being at the 
same time very dark, we determined to return to the house, which we had 


some difficulty in finding. On our knocking at the door, our little hostess 
received us with her own peculiar grace and sweetness, made an appology 
for the inconveniences of her little hut, said that she was well convinced 
that it was ill calculated for the accommodation of gentlemen, particularly 
as her mother being absent had locked up many things, which might have 
added to our comfort, yet that she should be happy during our stay to pay 
us every attention that lay in her power. Finding all our persuasions 
ineffectual to induce her to take her usual repose, Ave laid down upon the 
bed, which contained a small infant, while our yoting friend during the 
whole night employed herself in recruiting the fire in order to render us 
less sensible of the inclemency of the weather. The wind and rain were 
beating in at several parts of the house." 

Next morning the wind was still ahead and he and Mr. Taylor 
visited the people along the river. He says : 

" Upon our return we were gratified in having the opportunity of acknow- 
ledging the civility and attention of our little friend to her parents who had 
just paid her a visit for a few hours from the opposite side of the water. 
Upon enquiring into the circumstances of the father I found he possessed 
100 acres of land which he had purchased for one guinea. He begged us 
to accept of his house during our stay in this port and after giving us in 
charge of his daughter, returned with his wife in the evening, leaving us 
every comfort his house could afford ?" 

On the 24th, finding that the wind was fair. He says : 

" We took leave of our charming litle friend, regretting the little proba- 
bility there was of seeing her at any future time, and pained to think that 
so valuable a mind should be entombed in this wilderness and forever 
secluded from the social comforts of mankind in a state of society." 

All this time the reader is left in suspense. He feels much as mem- 
bers of parliament do when they cry out ' name, name.' At last the 
secret is revealed and our author tells us, though only in parenthesis, 
the name of the peerless lady of the lonely hut on the river edge 
at Port Hebert so lavish of her potatoes and buttermilk. We have 
reserved for a position more prominent than an enclosure within a 
parenthesis the name of ' Jenny Lavender.' What became of this pride 
of the forest whether her future was such as became the object of so 
reruarakble an eulogium, we have no means of knowing but we presume 
inquiry in the country would elicit some information on this point. 

The business in Shelburne occupied several days. On the 6th Nov. 
Mr. Clarkson embarked on board the Deborah, for Halifax. The same 
vessel brought up Mr. Miller with 14 black recruits enlisted at Birch- 
town. Of course the Deborah had to pass Port Hebert, which our 
journalist says recalled once more the place where we had received such 
hospitality from his little friend Jenny Lavender 

Mr. Clarkson was much embarrassed by the unresolute behaviour of 
Governor Parr, whom in a letter to Mr. Thornton, he describes as " a 
man of inferior abilities and in his opinion, not calculated for the 


situation." Indeed Mr. Clarkson indulges in some general remarks as to 
the unfitness of a military man for the position of Governor. He says: 
" They are generally speaking debauched men, and mind their bottle 
more than their duty." He says : ' That until now he never knew 
how much the prosperity of a place depended on a Governor,' and with 
great lack of the prophetic gift, adds ' upon my honor I should be as 
scrupulous of accepting such a post as I should of a bishopric.' 

From the time of his return to Halifax business pressed hard on 
him. He was engaged every hour of the day and far into the night in 
seeing the negroes as they arrived in town, answering endless questions 
and settling all manner of disputes, arranging for the housing, the 
provisioning, the clothing, and transport of his blacks, fighting with 
merchants who tried to palm off on him ships unsuited to the service, 
or demanded outrageous freights ; in settling knotty questions of negro 
precedence; in listening to deputations; in answering applications of 
aspiring negroes asking him to ordain them preachers of the gospel ; in 
distributing his people in their places in storehouses and in the ships ; and 
in preparing a code of regulations for the passage ; and a code of signals 
for the use of the captains of the fleet. All this left him little time for 
rest or sleep and in point of fact he was so exhausted by his labors that 
when the ships were ready to sail he had not strength to climb on deck 
and had to be hoisted up in a basket. At length all was ready. The 
fleet consisted of 15 vessels, and had on board 1,190 blacks. It ig 
impossible to read Mr. Clarkson's journal without sympathizing with 
him. One incident distressed him beyond measure. This was the 
misconduct of his lieutenant, Peters, the causa causans of the whole 
expedition. What was his exact offence, does not clearly appear. The 
journalist evidently had not the heart to write it down. All he 
says is : 

' I was extremely mortified and distressed at the behaviour of Peters this 
evening. I can only attribute it to his ignorance. I could not possibly 
make him comprehend how uecessary it was for regularity and subordina- 
tion on board the ship. He still persisted in his obstinacy, he vexed me 
extremely and I went to bed, much indisposed." 

Whatever the offence may have been, it seems to have been condoned 
after a little while. There is frequent mention of Peters afterwards, 
but, if there are no words of commendation, there are none of reproach. 

With the departure of the ships our interest as Neva Scotians largely 
ceases, but we naturally desire to know how the adventure ended. 
The ships left here on the loth January, 1792, and on the 6th March, 


arrived off the coast of Africa. Mr. Clarkson was the first to discern 
the outline of Cape Sierra Leone. In the meantime he had been a great 
sufferer. When he left Halifax he was worn out with his labors. Six 
days afterwards he was prostrated by fever, which was attended by 
delirium, and lasted four weeks. In the midst of his illness a violent 
storm came on which stove in the cabin dead-lights. Fortunate it was 
for him that this accident occured, for it was the cause of the captain 
visiting the cabin. What he found there we shall take from the journal 
itself : 

" My poor servant who from great attention to me during the days that I 
was delirous is supposed to have caught the fever of me. His death affects 
me greatly. I was this day brought upon deck on a mattrass as I was not 
able to walk or to be moved in any other way. My friend Wickham kindly 
assisted in doing this and in otherwise making me comfortable. This was 
the first time I had been on deck since the 21st of January. Had my cabin 
and bed place cleaned out and washed with vinegar as well as fumigated 
with tar and gunpowder balls. From my poor servant's illness as well as 
Captain Coffin's, I experienced great neglect in the latter part of my illness, 
as previous to the latter being taken ill, all the crew were sick on board 
except himself and the mate, and I certainly should have been killed 
during the gale of wind on the 29th January, when the vessel was pooped, if 
it had not been for that accident which providentially obliged the captain to 
come down into the cabin to secure the deadlights which had been stove 
in, when he found me rolling from side to side quite exhausted covered 
with blood and water and very much bruised, for I had at that time four 
blisters upon me. I have but a iaint, if any, recollection of this dreadful 
situation, and indeed what I have already mentioned is more from the 
account of the mate of the vessel than from any recollection of my own, but 
it was evident to those on board that the disorder took a turn after the 29th 
January, the day on which I was so mercifully preserved." 

On the voyage two of the ship-captains died and over sixty of the 
negroes. After the fever left Mr. Clarkson, his health gradually 
improved, but he was very weak. As he approached the African coast 
his anxiety became intense. What about King Jemmy 1 Was it true 
that he had invaded the colony and murdered or dispersed the settlers 1 
If so what had the Company done since ? Not a line had been received 
from them, or even from his brother for the seven long months since he 
left Portland Roads. With all his indignant repudiation at Governor 
Parr's table, a lurking suspicion must have pressed on him that the 
rumour was true. And now that he had brought his 1,200 negroes to 
the promised land, to the land flowing with milk and honey, was their first 
experience to be a fight with savages'? But even if there were no oppo- 
sition from a hostile force, had the Company kept their engagement to 
send out supplies and tents for the provisioning and shelter of the poor 
creatures who had put their fate in his hands? Was Mr. Dalrymple 


there 1 ? How could he be sure that a Company that could fail for months 
to write him a letter would observe their promise to equip a ship, load it 
with provisions and supplies, and despatch it in due time to the African 
coast / He had with him only seven of his fleet ; other seven had 
parted company with him soaie days before, one no longer ago than 
within the last 24 hours. What was to become of them and their 
living freight 1 We cannot wonder that these anxieties, pressing upon 
him in his state of weakness, drove him almost to distraction. But at 
length his suspense was ended. As he approached the mouth of the 
estuary, h saw the masts of several ships. This convinced him that he 
was safe from King Jemmy. Soon he recognized some ships of his own 
fleet. Two larger ships were also to be seen. These were probably the 
ships that had come out with Dalrymple with provisions and supplies. 
The sudden revulsion was more than he could bear, and he quite broke 
down under it. Soon a boat was seen in the distance, with a number 
of persons on board, having the appearance of gentlemen. They came 
alongside, then on board, and gave the news. After all Dalrymple had 
not come. He had declined at the last moment, and the Company 
had introduced a new form of government. They had appointed a 
council of seven. The gentlemen in the boat were members of the 
council. Mr. Clarkson was to be the president, with a casting vote. 
He was distressed at the news. He had no wish to remain in Africa. 
His health was broken and he needed rest. He had declared before he 
left England that nothing would induce him to remain in the colony 
longer than to see his immigrants safely landed. He had told the same 
thing to his negroes and now what was he to do? He took time to 
consider. Meanwhile the missing ships made their appearance and the 
whole fleet was safe in harbor. 

And now he began to find out what was the style of Councillors 
over whom he was to preside. One of them, a Dr. Bell, had been 
so drunk for the week following Clarkson's arrival that he had never 
been seen. Most of the councillors lived on board the Daisy, Dr. 
Bell with them. One evening Mr. Clarkson dined on board. Bell 
was not able to appear, but the guests heard him raving in an adjoining 
stateroom. Suddenly the noise ceased, when a servant came in to 
announce that Dr. Bell was dead of delirum tremens. Next day 
the council proposed that the deceased should be buried with naval 
and military honors. Clarkson was shocked beyond measure, but 
it was hinted to him that he had only a casting vote ; he found there 


was no use in resisting. Not only had he to yield the point, but he felt 
it necessary in the interest of the colony, sick as he was, to attend the 
funeral, but here his strength failed him and he was obliged to leave the 
procession before it readied the cemetery. And here closes the journal 
of Mr. Clarkson. 

For subsequent events we must resort to other sources. It appears 
that on his arrival, he set himself vigorously to work, and with success, 
in repressing the disorders that prevailed. He had the ground cleared 
for a settlement and founded the town of Freetown, the capital of the 
colony, built huts for his people, and managed the business entrusted to 
him so satifactorily that the Directors of the Company shortly after- 
wards appointed him Governor of the Colony, an office what notwith- 
standing his nolo episcopari, he was induced to accept. 

He remained as Governor for upwards of a year, when he returned 
to England. The rest of his life, which lasted till 1828, he spent in 
connection with various philanthrophic organizations. His whole time 
was devoted to the good of his fellow men. 

Mr. Wentworth succeeded Mr. Parr, as Lieut. Governor of Nova 
Scotia, in August, 1792. He had been governor of New Hampshire 
when it was a Province, and had also held the post of Commissioner 
of Woods and Forests for British North America. The rebellion drove 
him from his Governorship, and abridged his jurisdiction of Woods 
and Forests, by reducing it to the residue of territory remaining to Great 
Britain after the peace of 1783. 

The events we have narrated, and these which remain to be narrated, 
occurred during the long administration of the younger Pitt, in the 
latter part of which, Mr. Dundas (afterwards Lord Melville) was a 
Secretary of State. 

It was about the time of Mr. Pitt's accession to office that the 
public conscience of England began, as already meutioned, to be 
excited on the question of Slavery. The leaders in this movement all 
belonged to the middle class, but were men of high character, remarkable 
alike for energy, integrity and perseverance. They included among 
their number such men as Thornton, the eminent London Banker of that 
day; Wilberforce, father of the future Bishop of Oxford; Granville, 
Sharp, the Clarksons, Thomas and John, and notably Zachary Macaulay, 
father of the future Lord Macaulay, the graat British historian, states- 
man and orator. 


Of these men, Zachary Macaulay, if not the most prominent, was 
the most laborious and the most indefatigable. He devoted his whole 
life to the work of abolition, and had the satisfaction before he died to 
witness its complete success. 

As a boy of sixteen he had been sent out to Jamaica as book-keeper 
on a plantation, and had thus been brought into contact with Slavery 
as it existed in the West Indies. He saw the frightful evils which 
attended the institution, even when these were mitigated by the best 
efforts of the slave owners. He gave up his post and returned to 
England, his mind filled with an absolute horror of Slavery in all its 
forms. He soon became associated with the gentlemen whose names 
we have mentioned above, and others of the same style of thought, and 
thenceforth took an active part in their schemes, including that of the 
settlement at Sierra Leone. 

Mr. John Clarkson's health having given way, he was obliged to 
return to Europe. But independently of the state of his health, the 
circumstances of the Colony required at its head a man of stronger 

An eminent British statesman, in referring to the settlement of Sierra 
Leone, says that ' an aggregation of negroes from London, Jamaica and 
Nova Scotia, with no language, except an acquired jargon, and no asso- 
ciations beyond the recollections of a common servitude, were very poor 
apostles for western culture and the Christian faith.' 

The writer of this pithy sentence, though himself a grandson of Zachary 
Macaulay, is not exactly accurate in including the Jamaica contingent 
among the apostles of civilization on the spot, when his ancestor became 
Governor. They did not arrive till some years later. 

There was comparatively little trouble at Sierra Leone, so long as the 
provisions and other supplies furnished by the Company held out. A 
negro with plenty to eat and to drink, with clothing and shelter, has 
little care for anything else. He has no ambitition. To him labor is 
only a last resort. But when the company's supplies were exhausted, 
trouble began. 

The management of the colony required not only a man in sound 
health capable of continuous labor, fearless, determined, indefatigable, 
yet kind and gentle, and devoted to the elevation of the negro race. 
Zachary Maucaulay was just the man for such a crisis. He went out in 
1793, as Governor, and in the course of the following year, succeeded 
in bringing the affairs of the colony into a fairly good condition. 


His staff, to be sure, was misserably insufficient. He was, says his 
relative already alluded to, " his own secretary, his own paymaster, his 
own envoy, he posted ledgers, he decided causes, he conducted corres- 
pondence with the directors at home, and visited neighbouring poten- 
tates on diplomatic missions, which made up in danger what they 
wanted in dignity. In the absence of properly qualified clergy he 
preached sermons, and performed marriages." 

Under such a vigorous Governor the colony soon began to show signs 
of prosperity. The town was built, the ground cleared and tilled, 
schools established, and everything was working well, when all of a 
sudden a disaster which befell the colony, shook it to its foundation. 
The invasion of King Jemmy in 1791, was a serions blow, but it was a 
trifle to that which was at hand. The town was now to be laid waste 
by a party more barbarous than African savages. It was during the 
Reign of Terror in France, when the apostles of liberty and fraternity 
were propagating their gospel of Iniman brotherhood by pillage, robbery 
and murder. If any population could claim immunity from these mis- 
sionaries of liberty, surely one of slaves restored to freedom might 
expect it, but they failed to receive it. 

On a Sunday in September 1791, when Mr. Macaulay was just 
beginning to rejoice in the improved prospects of his people, a fleet of 
French ships, eight in number appeared off the coast of Sierra Leone, and 
came to anchor within a musket shot of the shore. They opened fire at 
once, and deliberately swept the streets with bullet and grape for two 
hours. Then a party of sailors landed, burst into the houses, ransacked 
them thoroughly, seized everything they considered of any value, 
destroyed what they could not use, demolished and broke to pieces 
printing presses, telescopes, hygrometers, barometers, thermometers, 
electrical machines, and all other similar articles ; scattered and tore to 
pieces all the books they could discover, taking particular care to 
completely destroy all that had the appearance of bibles ; finally they 
killed all the live stock, and then set tire to the houses. They remained 
on the coast till October, and then left the town a complete wreck, 
the people having nothing but the clothes on their backs, and some 
flour and a small quantity of brandy which had been hidden away. 

But the Governor never flinched from his post The moment the 
Frenchmen had gone he set to work to rebuild the town. An arrival 
of fresh supplies from England came opportunely to his relief, and in 
the course of another year the place resumed it former appearance. 


Mr. Macaulay's health, however, gave way under imparalleled 
exertions and he was obliged to return to England to recruit. Soon, 
however, after he had left, a formidable outbreak took place and the 
Directors found it necessary to send him back to quell it. He had 
great difficulty in getting the blacks, of whom their ministers, of 
different religious persuasions, were the ringleaders, into subordination, 
but eventually succeeded by tact and firmness in restoring order in the 

Still the elements of dissension remained, and after Mr. Macaulay's 
final departure for Europe, developed into insurrection. By a curious 
charm of circumstances, it was reserved for a new batch of negroes, not 
Christians, but heathens, coming also from Nova Scotia, to teach the 
Christians of the same race at Sierra Leone the duty of obedience to 
constituted authority. 

On the 22nd July, 1796, all of a sudden a body of negroes, number- 
ing from five to six hundred were dumped on the shores of Nova 
Scotia. These were the Maroons, who had infested the hill country of 
Jamaica for generations. 

That Island discovered in 1494, remained in possession of the 
Spaniards for over a century and a half. In 1655 it was conquered 
by the British, and has remained theirs ever since. On the capture, 
the bulk of the Spanish inhabitants removed to Cuba, but a consider- 
able body of their negro slaves escaped and fled to the hills in the 
interior. After the conquest the numbers of the runaways were 
recruited from time to time by other slaves escaping from British 
masters. Thus a formidable body of negroes was established in the 
heart of the Island. They enjoyed a kind of rude independence. 
They conducted wars, and made treaties with the whites. They were 
allowed to reside in certain parts of the. Island, exempt from the 
jurisdiction of the Jamaica Government. But their predatory habits 
brought them constantly into conflict with the authorities of Jamaica, 
and the government at last determined to root them out at any cost. 
The Maroons were a brave race and had no objection to fighting so 
long as they had only to fight men. But the Jamaica authorities 
had procured from Cuba a number of blood-honnds, and with these 
auxiliaries, were about to hunt the negroes in their fastnesses. The 
Maroons hearing of the new foes they had to encounter, solicited terms, 
and eventually laid down their arms and surrendered as prisonei's of 
war. But before doing so, they demanded certain conditions, which 


were granted by General Walpole, who was in command of the British 
forces. One of these conditions was that the prisoners should not be 
sent out of the Island. They required a guarantee that these conditions 
would be observed, and before they gave up their arms, the general was 
obliged to bind himself by oath to fulfil them. But the Legislature of 
Jamaica would not allow the Maroons to remain in the Island, and voted 
that they should be sent into exile. This proceeding was very offensive 
to General Walpole. So indignant was he at it, that he refused to 
accept a sword, valued at 500 guineas, which the Legislature wished to 
present him as a mark of their sense of his services. 

Eventually the Government of Jamaica, with the consent of the Im- 
perial authorities, decided to deport the Maroons to Nova Scootia. Mr. 
Wentworth, (who was now Sir John), was instructed from England to 
make provision for their settlement in this province. 

Two Commissioners were sent from the Island of Jamaica to superin- 
tend the arrangements. The sum of .25,000 Jamaica currency, was 
placed to their credit by the Island Government to meet the present 
emergency. Unhapily there was no definite arrangement for anything 
beyond the present, a circumstance which gave rise to some serious 
difficulties later on. 

The Jamaica Government acquired the title of a tract of land of 5000 
acres in the neighbourhood of Preston, on which they erected buildings. 
They spent .3,000 inland and buildings. In the course of the autumn 
the Maroons were comfortably housed, and. for a time, seemed contented. 
The Governor's opinion of them was at first very favorable. He described 
them as ' healthy, peaceful and orderly, inoffensive and highly delighted 
with the country.' He interested himself very much in their welfare. 
He had many interviews with them, in which he gave them the best 
of advice. He applied to the British Government and obtained an 
allowance of 240 a year to support a school, and to provide instruction 
for them in the principles of religion. His object was, according to his 
own account, to ' reclaim them to the Church of England, and to 
disseminate piety, morality and loyalty among them.' Before their 
houses were built, the Maroons were provided with temporary shelter 
wherever it could be had. Fifty of them were lodged in an outhouse on 
the Governors farm. He says " he was often without a sentry and 
without a door or a window locked, still they did no mischief." He 
sent to England for clothing for them and exerted himself in every 
possible way to make them comfortable. Soon however his opinion of 


their character and conduct underwent a change. He found what might 
reasonably have been expected under the circumstances. These people 
had led a wild and savage life in their old home. In the climate of 
Jamaica they required little either of clothing or shelter. Food was 
largely the spontaneous growth of the soil. Negroes like an idle and lazy 
life, and have no aim or ambition for anything beyond mere animal 
existence. These men had no experience of the steady industry required 
in a climate like ours where shelter and clothing are actual necessities, 
and where food can not be had without toil or preserved without 
forethought. After Sir John had had a year's experience of them he 
still thought they might be useful in the Province as a corps to resist 
invasion. He did not think they could do much harm, but it is evident 
from expressions he used in his correspondence with his official superiors 
that his faith in them had gone. He says in one of his letters, " In fact 
they do not wish to live by industry, they prefer war and mutiny." On 
another occasion he says, " they wish to be sent to India or somewhere 
in the east, to be landed with arms in some country with a climate 
like that they left, where they might take possession with a strong hand, 
and murder and plunder at pleasure." It is quite clear that the 
governor's specific for " reclaiming these people to the church, and 
diffusing piety, morality and religion among them" had not been a 

Year by year they became more and more turbulent and troublesome. 
They began to complain of the treachery which had been practised upon 
them at the time of their surrender. There was too much ground for 
this complaint, and no doubt the uneasy spirits among them used it 
with great effect to increase their discontent. Sir John had raised a 
Regiment in Nova Scotia for the service of the crown, and now he 
found use for it at home. He was obliged to send a detachment of 
fifty men to Preston to put down a serious disturbance, that had 
occurred there and to restore order. 

It soon became evident that these people could not remain here, and 
shortly afterwards negotiations, at the instance of the Nova Scotia 
government were opened between the Imperial authorities and the 
Sierra Leone Company, which led to an arrangement to send the 
Maroons to join their predecessors from this Province on the coast of 
Africa. They were sent off in 1800, arriving at Sierra Leoue in the 
month of October in that year. 


Zachary Macaulay had before that time resigned his position and had 
returned to England. No sooner had his strong hand ceased to be felt 
at Siera Leone than the negroes broke out into open insurrection. The 
opportune arrival of the Maroons enabled the Governor to suppress 
it. They were faithful to the authorities and fought bravely on their 

Some time, almost two years later, their behavior and character were 
the subject of a report made by a committee of the Honse of Com- 
mons in England. Their conduct was much applauded, and their 
character spoken of in the highest terms. They are represented " as 
active and intrepid, as prodigal of their lives, confident of their strength, 
proud of the character of their body, and fond, though not jealous of their 
independence." These qualities were probably the result of a cer.tury 
and a half of quasi independence in the mountains of Jamaica, while the 
other negroes had only just emerged from a state of slavery, and had 
all the weaknesses and vices of that condition, without any of the virtues 
and self restraint that belong to the descendants of a free race. We have 
given this appreciation of the Maroons in the light of subsequent facts, 
as a counterpoise to the very unfavorable opinion of them expressed by 
the governor of Nova Scotia at the time of their deportation. 

There were however, some serious drawbacks in the case of the 
Maroons. They were not Christians. They had little idea of any kind 
of religion. They believed in Acompang, whom they called the God of 
Heaven. They had no marriage ceremony. A man had as many wives 
as he chose to support, limited only by the obligation imposed by usage, 
that whatever presents lie made to one he was obliged to make to all. 

The report quoted above goes on to say that " the suppression of 
Polygamy among them has been hitherto deemed an experiment too 
hazardous to be tried, and no fair opportunity has yet occurred of 
ascertaining how far they would submit quietly to such restraints of the 
civil power as are repugnant to their inclinations or their taste.' 

A belief in Acompang, and the practice of Polygamy seem but poor 
qualifications for missionaries of civilization in the dark continent, and 
it is difficult to conceive upon what principle the friends of the Sierra 
Leone Colony consented to receive the Maroons. In the interests of 
African civilization it is not perhaps to be regretted, that the new settlers 
never abandoned the idea of a return to their old home. They seemed 
to have longed, as did the native Acadian French that we drove 
from our shores, for a return to the land of their birth and early 


associations. They spent in the African colony about the same period 
of time that the Israelites passed in the wilderness, and forty years 
after their arrival, the great bulk of them returned to Jamaica. To-day 
only an inconsiderable number of their descendants remain in the 
African settlement. 

The subsequent history of Sierra Leone, and also that of the Maroons, 
have no special interest to us as Nova Scotians. 


The following Papers included in list given in Vol. V. were Published 

in Vol. VI. 






Nov. 13 

King's College and the Episcopate in) 
Nova Scotia. / 

T. B. Akins, Esq., 

Vol. vi. p. 123 

May 7 

Early History of St. George's Church, \ 
(part 1.) / 

Rev. Dr. Partridge, 

ii ii ii 137 

Mch. 16 

The Acadian Boundary Disputes and \ 
the Ashburton Treaty. / 

Hon. R. L.Wcatherbc. 

i ii 17 

Read before the Nova Scotia Historical Society 

Since the List Published in Vol. 5 of the Collections. 






Nov. 10 

A Study of " Sam Slick." 

F. B.,Crofton, Esq. 

Doc. 8 

1 OOD 

Early Journalism in Nova Scotia. 

J. J. Stewart, Esq. 

Vol. vi. p. 91. 


Jan. 20 

Statement with rcfereuce to " French \ 

John E. Orpcn, Esq. 

Cross " at Aylesford. / 

n ii 

The settlement of the early Townships, \ 
Illustrated by an old census. / 

D.Allison, Esq.,LL.D. 

Vol. vii. p. 45 

Feb. 21 

" T. C. Haliburton, Writer and Thinker." 

F. B._Crofton, Esq. 

" 29 

The Aroostook War. 

C. G. D. Roberts, Esq. 

Mch. 27 

Howe and his cotemporaries. 

Hon. J. W. Longlcy. 

Apl. TO 

The Loyalists at Shelburne. 

Rev. T. W. Smith. 

Vol vi. p. 53. 

Nov. 13 

Pictographs on Rocks at Fairy Lake. 

Geo. Creed, Esq. 

Dec. 20 

North West Territory and Red '.River) 

Expedition. f 

Col. Wainwright. 


Jan. 15 

The Early Settlers of Sunbury County, 

James Hanney, Esq., 
St. John, N. B. 

Mch. 42 

Memoir of Governor Paul Mascarcnc. 

J. MascarencIIubbard 

Apl. 9 

Legends of the Micmac Indians. 

Rev. S. T, Rand. 

Nov. 12 

United Empire Loyalists. 

C. F. Fraser, Esq. ; 

Dec. 10 

Inquiries into the History of the Acadian [ 
District of Pisiqiiid. j 

H. Y. Hind, Esq. 


Feb. 13 

History of Beaubassin. 

Mr. Justice Morse, 

Nov. 18 

Early Reminiscences of Halifax. 

P. Lynch, Esq. 

Dec. 8 

An Historical Note on " John Crowne." 

Prof. A. McMechan. 


Jan. 15 

Richard John Uniackc. 

Hon. L. G. Power. 

" 20 

The Portuguese on the North EastCoast") 

of America, and the first European J- 

Rev. Gco. Patterson, 

settlcment there. 


Mch. 20 

Facts and enquiries concerning the ) 

origin and early history of Agricul- ; 

Prof. Geo. Lawson, 

ture in Nova Scotia. ) 

LL. D. 


Born at Annapolis, 26th March, 1808; Died at Halifax, 13th Dec., 189O. 

Since the publication of the last volume of its proceedings the Society 
has been called upon to mourn the death of the Honorable John 
William Ritchie, its first President, who passed away peacefully at his 
historic home of Belmont, in December last. 

On the paternal side Judge Ritchie was of Scottish extraction. His 
father, Thomas Ritchie, was for several years a member of the Nova 
Scotia House of Assembly, and afterwards a Judge of the Court of 
Common Pleas. His mother was a sister of the late Honorable James 
W. Johnston. The subject of this notice was educated at the Academy 
in Pictou, which has sent forth so many men who liave distinguished 
themselves in after life. Mr. Ritchie was admitted to the Bar in 1832, 
and devoted the leisure time, of which through lack of clients he had 
not a little during the earlier years of his professional career, to patient 
and thorough study of the law. The result of this quiet work, combined 
with great business capacity and a most upright and honorable 
character, was that, when practice came, it found him admirably pre- 
pared, and increased rapidly, so that in a comparatively short time he 
took his place amongst the leaders of the profession. More eloquent 
advocates our province has known, but it can hardly be said that she 
has produced any greater lawyer, and it certainly cannot be said of any 
other lawyer that he was more thoroughly trusted and respected than 
was Mr. Ritchie. He was for many years Law Clerk of the Legislative 
Council, and in this capacity was associated with the late Sir William 
Young, the late Judge McCully and the late Joseph Whidden, Clerk of 
the House cf Assembly, in the preparation of the First Series of the 
Revised Statutes, a masterpiece of its kind. From 18G4 to 1867 he was 
a member of the Legislative Council and Solicitor-General. As Law- 
Clerk, and afterwards as Solicitor-General, he is to be credited with the 
enacting of much legislation of a useful but unobtrusive character. In 
1867 he was appointed to the Senate of Canada; in 1870 became a Judge 
of our Supreme Court, and in 1873 was chosen to succeed his uncle, the 
Honorable James W. Johnston, as Judge in Equity. Finding his mental 
powers failing he resigned this office in 1882. In abandoning his high 
position, because he thought that he should give his country none but 
the best of his intellectual work, he set an admirable example for 
succeeding judges. As to the manner in which he discharged the 
important duties of his office there is abundant and explicit evidence, 
some of which may be fitly quoted. In the preface to the volume 
containing his decisions as Judge in Equity, the learned reporter, Mr. 
Russell, describes the court during his term of office as, in the language 
of Chancellor Kent, "presenting the image of the sanctity of a temple 
where truth and justice seemed to be enthroned and to be personified 
in their decrees "; and in the resolution of the Nova Scotia Barristers' 
Society, unanimously adopted just after Judge Ritchie's death, the 
following eloquent language is used with respect to the Equity Court : 

" To the discharge of its duties he brought faculties and attainments of the highest 
order, and those judicial virtues without which even faculties and attainments of 
the highest order are no sure guarantee of success. Patient to listen and weigh, 

keen to detect fallacy, merciless in the exposure of fraud, severe and exacting 
with seniors, but gracious and condescending to juniors, he discharged for eight 
years the duties of his high judicial office with an unbending integrity, which is 
happily not exceptional, but also with an unquestioned authority, which is almost 
without a parallel in the judicial annals of the Province. After a long and busy 
career, crowded with the most useful and most fruitful activities through many 
years, in which he wore the white flower of a blameless life, he has gone from our 
midst, leaving to the generation that follows him a noble example of high devotion 
to professional and public duty, and to those that were privileged to know liini 
intimately the memory of his many endearing qualities of head and heart." 

Having said so much, there is space only to add that in all the other 
relations of life, domestic, social, religious and political, .fudge Ritchie 
did not fall below his professional record, and that, in the language of 
one who knew him thoroughly, he was, in the best sense of the words, a 
Christian and a gentleman. 


Born February 1, 1809; Died May 6, 1891. 

While this volume has been going through the press, an irreparable 
loss has befallen the Nova Scotia Historical Society in the death of Dr. 
Akins, one of the committee of publication, and for the last two years 
Vice-President of the Society, of which he was President for the year 

Thomas Beamish Akins was descended from Thomas Akin, one of the 
original Xew England settlers of the township of Falmouth. His father 
Thomas Akins, (who added a letter to his surname) was a merchant in 
Liverpool, N. S. His mother was a daughter of Thomas Beamish, for 
many years warden of this port. He was born in Liverpool, February 
1st, 1809. His mother dying when he was but ten days old, his early 
life was spent in Halifax with his mother's people. He studied law 
with the late Beamish Murdoch, and was called to the bar in 1831. His 
practice, which was principally that of a solicitor, was a fairly lucrative 
one, and was marked by the same ability, prudence and uprightness 
that distinguished him in all the relations of life. At an early age, 
happily, he became interested in our provincial history. When only a 
lad he assisted Haliburton in the collection of materials for his history 
of Nova Scotia ; and in his middle age he furnished a large portion of 
the materials for Murdoch's more elaborate work on the same subject. 
As early as 1857 he was recognized as the best authority in the province 
on matters pertaining to our provincial history, and was selected by the 
government of that date to be Commissioner of Public Records for the 
Province. This appointment, which Dr. Akins continued to hold until 
his death, was made in pursuance of the following resolution, which was 
moved by Hon. Joseph Howe, seconded by Hon. J. W. Johnston, and 
adopted by the House of Assembly on the 30th day of April, 1857 : 

"That His Excellency theGovernor be respectfully requested to cause the ancient 
records and documents illustrative of the history and progress of society in this 
province to be examined, preserved and arranged, either for reference or publica- 
tion, as the Legislature may hereafter determine, and that this House will make 
provision for this service." 

The difficulties in the way of the new Record Commissioner, and his 
earnest and intelligent method of grappling with them, may be gathered 
from his most interesting Report in the Journals of the Assembly for 

His skill and industry in arranging and cataloguing the documents in 
his keeping, and the important additions which he made to them with 
very inadequate grants, have won the approval of many historians. 
He has sho\yn admirable judgment in his selection of manuscripts for 
publication in the single volume which he was authorized to print, a 
volume whose value he has largely enhanced by his excellent explana- 
tory notes. Parkman, who has quoted frequently from it, pronounces 
it in his "Montcalm and Wolfe" to be "a government publication of 
great value." Numerous extracts from it, as well as several tributes to 
its excellence, may be found in the " Narrative and Critical History of 
America," edited by Justin Winsor. In the fifth volume of this elaborate 
work, in an essay on the sources of information concerning the final 
struggle of France and England in Acadia (pp. 418-419) Dr. Akins' com- 
pilation is classed as the first in importance. 

The best known of the works of Dr. Akins is his "Selections 
from the Public Documents of Nova Scotia" (Halifax, 1869). Dr. 
Akins desired and proposed to publish three volumes of selections, 
but his wishes were overruled. His other works were a " Brief Account 
of the Origin, Endowment and Progress of the University of King's 
College, AVindsor, N. S." (Halifax, 1865); and two pamphlets entitled 
"Prize Essay on the History of the Settlement of Halifax" (Halifax, 
1847), and " A Sketch of the Kise and P ogress of the Church of England 
in the British North American Provinces" (Halifax, 1849). All of these 
publications are, unfortunately, out of print. Two or three papers by 
Dr. Akins are printed in the collections of this Society. 

Dr. Akins was an honorary or corresponding member of the American 
Historical Society, the Massachusetts Historical Society, the Quebec 
Literary and Historical Society, the Maryland Historical Society, the 
Historical Society of Texas, and several others. In 1865 he received the 
honorary degree of D. C. L. from King's College, Windsor. 

Perhaps the finest and fullest private collection extant of works relat- 
ing to British North America has been bequeathed by Dr. Akins to this 
Society, on condition that suitable and secure accommodation be provid- 
ed for it, and that it be kept apart from the other effects of the Society. 
All his miscellaneous books and pamphlets he has willed to the Library 
of King's College. These include a collection of rare and old volumes, 
so important that, before it was impaired by his previous donations to 
the last-named library, it contained more specimens of the 15th century 
than the entire exhibit made some years ago by the Caxton Society at 

He died on the 6th of May, 1891. He was buried on the 9th, in the 
cemetery of St. John's Church, in the suburbs of Halifax, his funeral 
being attended by many of the most distinguished citizens. On the 
day after his death a resolution regretting his loss and acknowledging 
his services was adopted unanimously by the House of Assembly. 

His memory was a store-house, not only of historic and antiquarian 
lore, but also of charming miscellaneous anecdotes. He was a kind 
friend, a genial companion, a doer of unobtrusive charities, a lover of 
truth, and a most thorough gentleman. "Shunning, almost abhorring, 
popular notice or applause," writes an editor who knew him well, "he 
did for Nova Scotia a work that well entitles him to rank with her most 
illustrious sons. Thinking only of 'the lightning of the deed' and 
caring nothing for ' the thunders of applause that follow at its heels, 

that men call fame,' his name will live deservedly and honorably in 
the annals of his country, long after many apparently greater names are 
wholly forgotten." 


The Society has yet another loss to regret in the death of Mr. Albert 
Peters, who Avas the Kecording Secretary from 1888 to 1890. He was 
born in 1859, admitted to the Bar in 1880, appointed Clerk of the 
Legislative Council in 1887, and died in September, 1891, after a lingering 
illness. Careful, courteous and industrious, he discharged his duties to 
the complete satisfaction of the Society, of his clients, and of the Legis- 
lative Council. 



cp ' q 

ia Ifbfomal 

FOR THE YEARS 1892-94. 





1. Manuscript statements and narratives of pioneer settlers, old 
letters and journals relative to the early history and settlement of 
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Prince Edward 
Island, and the wars of 1776 and 1812; biographical notes of our 
Indian tribes, their history, characteristics, sketches of their promi- 
nent chiefs, orators and warriors, together with contributions of 
Indian implements, dress, ornaments and curiosities. 

2. Diaries, narratives and documents relative to the Loyalists, 
their expulsion from the old colonies and their settlement in the 
Maritime Provinces. 

3. Files of newspapers, books, pamphlets, college catalogues, 
minutes of ecclesiastical conventions, associations, conferences and 
synods, and all other publications, relating to this Province, New 
Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland. 

4. Drawing and descriptions of our ancient mounds and fortifi- 
cations, their size, representation and locality. 

5. Information respecting articles of Pre-historic Antiquities, 
especially implements of copper, stone, or ancient coin or other 
curiosities found in any of the Maritime Provinces, together with the 
locality and condition of their discovery. The contribution of all 
such articles to the cabinet of the society is most earnestly desired. 

6. Indian geographical names of streams and localities, with their 
signification and all information generally, respecting the condition, 
language and history of the Micmac, Malicetes and Bethucks. 

7. Books of all kinds, especially such as relate to Canadian 
history, travels, and biography in general, and Lower Canada or 
Quebec in particular, family genealogies, old magazines, pamphlets, 
files of newspapers, maps, historical manuscripts, autographs of 
distinguished persons, coins, medals, paintings, portraits, statuary 
and engravings. 

iv Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

8. We solicit from Historical Societies and other learned bodies 
that interchange of books and other materials by which the useful- 
ness of institutions of this nature is so essentially enhanced, 
pledging ourselves to repay such contributions by acts in kind to 
the best of our ability. 

8. The Society particularly begs the favor and compliments of 
authors and publishers, to present, with their autographs, copies of 
their respective works for its library. 

10. Editors and publishers of newspapers, magazines and 
reviews, will confer a lasting favor on the Society by contributing 
their publications regularly for its library, where they may be 
expected to be found always on a file and carefully preserved. We 
aim to obtain and preserve for those who shall come after us a 
perfect copy of every book, pamphlet or paper ever printed in or 
about Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and 

11. Nova Scotians residing abroad have it in their power to 
render their native province great service by making donations to 
our library of books, pamphlets, manuscript, &c., bearing on any of 
the Provinces of the Dominion or Newfoundland. To the relatives, 
descendants, etc., of our colonial governors, judges and military 
officers, we especially appeal on behalf of our Society for all papers, 
books, pamphlets, letters, etc., which may throw light on the history 
of any of the Provinces of the Dominion. 


1. This Society shall be called The Nova Scotia Historical 

2. The objects of the Society shall be the collection and preserva- 
tion of all documents, papers and other objects of interest which 
may serve to throw light upon and illustrate the history of this 
country ; the reading at the meetings of the Society, of papers on 
historical subjects ; the publication, so far as the funds of the 
Society will allow, of all such documents and papers as it may be 
deemed desirable to publish ; and the formation of a library of books, 
papers, and manuscripts, affording information, and illustrating 
Historical subjects. 

3. Each member shall pay towards the funds of the Society, Five 
Dollars at tbe time of his admission, and two dollars on the second 
day of January in each succeeding year, but any member shall be 
exempted from the annual payment of two dollars and shall become 
a Life Member, provided he shall at any time after six mouths 
from his admission pay to the Treasurer the sum of Forty Dollars 
in addition to what he had paid before. The sums received for Life 
Memberships to be invested, and the interest only used for ordinary 
purposes. Persons not resident within fifteen miles of Halifax 
may become members on payment of Two Dollars at the time of 
admission, and One Dollar annually thereafter. 

No person shall be considered a member until his first fee is paid, 
and if any member shall allow his dues to remain unpaid for two 
years, his name shall be struck from the roll. 

4. Candidates for membership shall be proposed at a regular 
meeting of the Society by a member ; the proposition shall remain 
on the table for one mouth, or until the next regular meeting, when 
a ballot shall be taken ; one black ball in five excluding. 

5. The regular meetings of the Society shall be held on the 
second Tuesday of every month, at 8 p. m. And special meetings 

vi Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

shall be convened, if necessary, on due notification of the President, 
or in case of his absence, by the Vice-President, or on the applica- 
tion of any five members. 

6. The annual meeting of the Society shall be held on the second 
Tuesday of Februai'y of each year, at 8 p. m., at which meeting there 
shall be chosen a President, three Vice-Presidents, a Corresponding 
Secretary, Recording Secretary and Treasurer. At the same meet- 
ing four members shall be chosen, who, with the foregoing, shall 
constitute the Council of the Society. 

The election of members to serve on the N. S. Library Commission, 
under the provisions of Chapter 17, N. S., Acts of 1880, shall take 
place each year at the annual meeting, immediately after the election 
of Officers and Council. 

7. All communications which are thought worthy of preservation 
shall be minuted down on the books of the Society, and the original 
kept on file. 

8. Seven members shall be a quorum for all purposes at ordinary 
meetings, but at the Annual Meeting in February, when ten members 
shall form a quorum. No article of the constitution nor any by-law 
shall be altered at any meeting when less than ten members are 
present, nor unless the subject has either been discussed at a previous 
meeting, or reported on by a commiitee appointed for that purpose. 

9. The President and Council shall have power to elect Corres- 
ponding and Honorary Members, who shall be exempt from dues ; 
and the duties of the Officers and Council shall be the same as those 
performed generally in other Societies. 

10. The Publication Committee shall consist of three, and shall 
be nominated by the Council. To them shall be referred all manu- 
scripts, etc., for publication, and their decision shall be final. 


Nova Scotia Historical Society. 












(Under Chap. 17, N. S. Acts, 1880.) 




A. A. MACKAY, ESQ. A. H. McKAY, ESQ. Li*D., Rec. 



Nova Scotia Historical Society. 


ALLEN, T. C., 
ALMON, T. R., 
ALMON, C. M., 

ALMON, REV. H. L. A. (Pictou) 
BAKER, HON. L. E. (Yarmouth) 
BELL, F. H., 
BOWES, F. W., 
BROWN, W. L., 
CAHAN, C. H., 
COREY, C. D., 

DESBRISAY, HON. M. B. (Bridge- 


DOANE, ARNOLD, (Barrington) 

DODD, HON. MURRAY, (Sydney) 




EATON, B. H., 

EDWARDS, J. P., (Londonderry) 


FOSTER, E. V. B., 
FRASER, HON. D. C., (New 

GOUDGE, M. H., (Windsor) 
GREEN, F. W., 
HALL, C. F., 
HILL, W. H., 
HIND, H. Y., (Windsor) 

HOWE, SYDENHAM, (Middleton) 
HUBBARD, J. M., (Boston) 
JACK, REV. T. C., (Maitland) 
JAMES, N. C., 
KENNY, T. E., 
KING, D. A., 
L AVERS, G. E., (Yarmouth) 


LYONS, W. A., 


Nova Scotia Historical Society. 


McGiLLivRAY, HON. A., (Anti- 

McSHANE, LT.-COL., J. R., 

MCKAY, A. H., 
MADER, DR. A. I., 


MORSE, HON. W. A. D., 

NUTTING, C. M., (Truro) 

OlTUAM, F. P., 

PARTRIDGE, REV. DR., (Frederic- 


PATTERSON, G., JR., (X. Glas- 

PAY/ANT, Mrs. J. A. 


PAY/ANT, J. A., 




PYKE, J. G., (Liverpool) 

Ki AD, H. H., 



ROBERTS, C. G. D., (Windsor) 

ROBERTSON, THOS., (Barrington) 


ROGERS, MRS. "W. H., (Amherst) 

Ross, W. B., 

SAVARY, HON. A. W., (Annap- 


SHEWEN, E. T. P., 
STERNS, R. S., (Liverpool) 
STORY, J. D., 
TROOP, A. G., 
TROOP, W. H., 
WHITE, N. W., (Shelburne) 
AVuiTMAN, HENRY, (Boston) 
WYLDE, J. T., 

Nova Scotia Historical Society. 





HANNAY, JAMES, St. John, N. B. 

WARD, ROBERT, Bermuda. 
LEY, D. D., Boston, Mass. 


HILL, REV. G. W., D. C. L., England. 
TOBIN, W. B., London, G. B. 
ALMON, HON. W. J., Halifax, N. S. 


The late Dr. Akins, on the 18th of April, 18;j9, read a paper 
before the Halifax Mechanic's Institute on the "History of the 
Settlement of Halifax." In 1847 this paper was published in the 
form of a small-sized pamphlet, with notes prepared by the author. 
Subsequently, from time to time he added thereto, correcting and in 
some cases rewriting until a few years before his death, when it had 
reached the size of the present volume. After his decease the 
Society decided on publishing the History as he left it, in considera- 
tion of the historical value of the added matter. That determination 
has been carried out in the work as now presented. The reader 
will please bear that fact in mind, as it explains much that might 
otherwise be regarded as author's mistakes. Instead of being 
written at one time, its compilation covers a period of probably half 
a century, and events are referred to and facts are stated as they 
appeared to the author's mind at the time he wrote. The Society, 
however, felt that it was better that the work should appear with 
these trifling defects, than that any reconstruction of it by other 
hands should be permitted. 



Halifax, the metropolis of Nova Scotia, and the chief City of the 
Acadian or Lower Provinces, was founded in the year 1749, at the 
expense of Government, under the direction of the Lords of Trade 
and Plantations, and was named in compliment to George Montague, 
Earl of Halifax, then at the head of the Board, under whose im- 
mediate auspices the settlement was undertaken. 
1 From the Treaty of Utrecht, in 1713, when Acadia was ceded to 
/the Crown of Great Britain, to the year 1749, no progress had been 
I made by the British in colonizing the country. The inhabitants 
consisted of a few thousand Acadian peasants, scattered around 
the shores of the Basin of Minas, Chignecto and the Valley of 
Annapolis. The Governor resided at Annapolis Royal, a small for- 
tified port, with a garrison of two or three hundred regular troops, and 
was, in a great measure, dependent on New England for his neces- 
sary supplies. This was the only British port within the Province, 
with the exception of that of Canso, where, during the fishing season, 
a number of French, with a few Indians and New England fisher- 
men, assembled, and where a captain's guard was usually stationed 
to preserve order and protect the rights of property. The French 
population, though professing to be neutral, had refused to take the 
Oath of Allegiance to the Crown of Great Britain, and were continu- 
ally in a state of hostility to the British authorities in the country. 
Their poverty and ignorance placed them completely under the 
control of a few designing emissaries of the French Governor at 
Quebec, who incited the people to resent British rule, and frequently 
put all law at defiance, by assuming to themselves the sole manage- 
ment of municipal affairs in the settlements most remote from the 
seat of Government. The Governors of Canada had undertaken to 
claim all the country from the River St. Lawrence to the Bay of 
Fundy, as comprehended within their jurisdiction, confining the 

4 Nova Scotia Historical /Society. 

territory of Acadia as ceded under the Treaty of Utrecht, to the 
Peninsula alone, and had actually commenced to erect forts on the 
River St. John and the Isthmus while the nations were at peace. 

The necessity of a permanent British settlement and Military 
Station on the Atlantic Coast of the Peninsula, had long been con- 
sidered the only effectual means of preserving British authority, as 
well as for the protection of the coast fishing, which, at this time, 
was deemed of paramount importance to British interests. But 
lately the continual breaches of neutrality on the part of the French, 
together with the loss of Louisburg, under the Treaty of Aix-la- 
Chappelle, in October, 1748, rendered such an establishment indis- 
pensibly necessary to the support of the British Crown in Nova 

The scheme for settlement at Chebucto is said to have originated 
with the people of Massachusetts,* who, in calling the attention of 
Government to the claims and encroachments of the French, suggest- 
ed the necessity for, as well as the great commercial advantages to 
be derived from such an undertaking ; and it has also been asserted 
that a committee of influential citizens had been formed in Boston 
for the purpose of more effectually advocating the design. No 
authentic information on the subject, however, has been found 
beyond the suggestions contained in Governor Shirley's letters to 
the Secretary of State, in 1747 and 8, in which one extensive plan 
of British colonization throughout Nova Scotia is proposed and 
details suggested, many of which, however, did not receive the 
approval of Government, f 

A plan for carrying into effect this long-cherished design was, 
however, matured by the Board of Trade and Plantations, in the 
year 1748, and submitted to Government in the autumn of that 
year, and being warmly supported by Lord Halifax, the President of 
the Board, advertisements soon appeared under the sanction of His 
Majesty's authority, "holding out proper encouragement to officers 
and private men lately discharged from the Army and Navy, to 

* One Thomas Coram, whose name appears frequently in the history of the state of 
Maine, is said to have suggested a scheme for building a town at Chebucto in 1718, and 
applied to Government for a grant of land, but was prevented by the agents of the 
Government of Massachusetts Bay, who supposed that such project might interfere 
with their fishing privileges, and he was compelled to abandon his enterprise. This, 
however, has not the weight of much authority. 

t Copies of several of Shirley's letters were furnished Governor Cornwallis on 
leaving England, as part of his instructions. 

History of Halifax City. 


settle iu Nova Scotia." Among other inducements was the offer to 
convey the settlers to their destination, maintain them for twelve 
months at the public expense, and to supply them with arms and 
ammunition for defence, and with materials and articles for clearing 
the laud, erecting dwellings and prosecuting the fishery. The en- 
couragements appeared so inviting, that in a short time 1176 settlers, 
with their families, were found to volunteer, and the sum of 40,000 
being appropriated by Parliament for the service, the expedition 
was placed under the command of Col. the Houble. Edward Corn- 
wallis, M. P., as Captain General and Governor of Nova Scotia, 
and set sail for Chebucto Bay, the place of destination, in May, 

The fleet consisted of 13 Transports and a Sloop of War. The 
following is a list of the vessels, with the number of settlers. f 

Sphinx Sloop of War, with Gov. Cornwallis and Suite. 


Number of 



Charlton Fri <r ate .... 

Richard Ladd 





Thomas Cornish 


Thomas Adams 

Merry Jacks 

" Grander 


Samuel Harris 


Elias Brennan 
Samuel Williamson 

('annon Frigate 

Andrew Dewar 


S. Dutchman 





Snow Fair Lady 

The total number of males, exclusive of children, was 1546 ; of 
this number above aOO were man-of-war sailors. \ 

The names of the principal settlers, with the rank and calling as 
they iippi'ar in the register, are as follows : 

' Cornwallis \v;i ; gazetted 9th May, 1719. 

tStnollct's History mentions 4,000 settlers with their families; this probably was 
intended to include the Germans and other settlers who arrived between 1749 and 1753. 

jBut one death, a child, occurred during the voyage. This was attributed to the 
care of the Hoard of Trade and Plantations in providing ventilators and air pipes for 
the Transports, a new invention then lately introduced. 

6 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

Leonard Lockman and Ezekiel Gilman, Majors in the Army ; 
John Lemon, Foot Major and Commissary ; Otis Little, Edward 
Amherst, Thomas Lewis, Benjamin Ives, Frederick Albert Stras- 
burger, and Francis Bartelo, Captains in the Army ; David Lewis, 
George Burners, George Colly, Richard Partridge, Thomas Newton, 
John Collier, Robert Ewer, John Creighton, Thomas Voughan, John 
Galland, Richard Reves, William Joice, Joseph Wakefield, Augustus 
Graham, Alexander Callendar, David Haldame, Robert Campbell, 
William Bryan, and T. Vaughan, Lieutenants in the Army ; James 
Warren, Thos. Reynolds, and Henry Wendell, Ensigns ; John Ham- 
ilton, Adam Cockburu, and Wm. Williams, Lieutenants in the Navy ; 
John Steinfort, Dennis Clarke, William Neil, Gustavus Mugden, and 
John Twinehoe, Lieutenants of Privateers ; Chas. Mason, Robert 
Beatie, Charles Covy, Samuel Budd, John Ferguson, Nicholas Pux- 
ley, William Watson, Joseph Tomwell, Henry Chambers, Nicholas 
Todd, Roger Lowden, Joseph Gunn, John Thompson, Robert Young, 
Thomas Burnside, Timothy Pearce, Richard Drake, Newbegin 
Harris, William Vickers, Richard Cooper, Richard Maunering, 
Thomas Dumster, and Robert Cockburn, Midshipmen in the Royal 
Navy ; John Jenkins, Cadet ; Rene Gillet, Artificer ; John Grant, 
John Henderson, Edward Gibson, William Hamilton, and William 
Smith, Volunteers ; Lewis Hayes, Purser ; John Bruce, Engineer ; 
William Grant, Robert White, Patrick Hay, Mathew Jones, Thomas 
Wilson, M. Rush, James Handeside, H. Pitt, George Philip Bru- 
scowitz, Cochran Dickson, Joshua Sacheveral, Thomas Inman, John 
Wildman, David Carnegie, and John Willis, Surgeons ; John Steele, 
Lieutenant and Surgeon ; William Lascells, Augustus Carsar Harbin, 
Archibald Campbell, John Wallis, John Grant, Daniel Brown, 
Timothy Griffith, Henry Martin, Robert Grant, and Alexander Hay, 
Surgeon's Mates and Assistants ; Robert Thorckmorton, Surgeon's 
Pupil; Mr. An well, Clergyman, John Baptiste Morean, GentlniKtit 
and Schoolmaster; William Jeffery, Commissary ; William Steele, 
Brewer and Merchant ; Daniel Wood, Attorney ; Thomas Cannon, 
Esquire ; John Duport, and Lewis Piers, Gentlemen ; Archibald 
Hinshelwood, John Kerr, William Nisbett, and Thomas Gray, Gov- 
ernor's Clerks ; David Floyd, Clerk of the Stores.* 

* Governor Cornwallis, in his letter to the Lords of Trade, dated Chebucto, 24th 
July. 1749, says: "The number of settlers men, women and children is 1,400, but I beg 
leave to observe to your Lordships that amongst them the number of industrious. 

History of Halifax City. 7 

On the 21st June, 1749, old style, the Sloop of War, "Sphinx," 
arrived in the Harbor of Chebucto, having on board, the Honourable 
Edward Cornwallis, Captain General and Governor-in-Chief of 
the Province of Nova Scotia, and his suite. They had a long and 
boisterous passage, and did not make the coast of Acadia until 14th. 
They had no one on board acquainted with the coast, and did not 
meet with a pilot until the 20th, when they fell in with a Sloop 
from Boston, bound to Louisburg, with two pilots for the Govern- 
ment of that place. Governor Cornwallis' intention was first to pro- 
ceed to Annapolis, but the wind not serving for the Bay of Fundy, 
and the officers assuring him that in case of foggy weather setting in 
they might be a long time in getting to Annapolis, he concluded on 
proceeding at once to Chebucto, rather than risk the possibility of 
being separated for any length of time from the fleet. He also felt, 
that by so doing, he would save the Governor of Louisburg the bad 
and long navigation to Annapolis, and accordingly, he dispatched a 
letter to Governor Hopson, by the Sloop, apprising him of his inten- 
tion and desiring him to transport his garrison to Chebucto as soon 
as possible. The " Sphinx," before making Chebucto, first came to 
anchor in Malagash Bay, where they found several French families, 
comfortably settled, who professed themselves British subjects, and 
had grants of land from Governor Mascarine ; they had tolerably 
good wooden houses covered with bark, and many cattle, and ex- 
pressed themselves greatly pleased on hearing of the proposed new 
settlement. It happened that the same day on which Cornwallis 
arrived in the Harbor of Chebucto, a sloop came in from Louisburg 
with a letter from Hopson in expectation of meeting him. Hopson 
was in great perplexity, the French having arrived to take possession 
under the terms of the treaty, and there were no vessels to embark 
his troops. It appeared he was fully under the expectation that the 
ships which were to bring out the settlers would arrive in time to be 
sent down to him for that purpose, and he had made no other 

active men proper to undertake and carry on a new settlement, is very small. Of 
soldiers there are only 100, of tradesmen, sailors and others able and willing to work, 
not above 200." The rest he reports as idle and worthless, persons who embraced the 
opportunity to get provisions for a year without labour, or sailors who only wante 
lias<;i!{e to New England, and that many were sick and unfit for settlers, and many 
without sufficient clothing. He describes the few Swiss who wore among the settl 
as "regular, honest and industrious men," and observes that there are " Indeed, m:ni> 
come over of the better sort, who, though they do not work themselves, an- m 
managing the rest." "I have," he says, "appointed two or three of them us ovcrse< 
of each snip's company." 

8 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

arrangements. On receiving this letter, Governor Cornwallis im- 
mediately dispatched the Sloop to Boston, with letters to Apthorp 
& Handerik, whom Hopson recommended for the purpose, to hire 
vessels with all expedition to transport the garrison of Louisburg 
to Chebucto ; also a letter directed to Governor Mascarine in case 
they should meet at sea with a vessel bound to Annapolis. At the 
same time, a Frenchman, acquainted with the country, was dispatched 
overland by Minas to Annapolis, with orders to Mascarine to come 
down with a quorum of his Council as soon as possible, that the 
new commission might be opened and another Council appointed in , 
accordance with the Royal Instructions.* 

Governor Cornwallis' first dispatch to England, after arriving 
at Chebucto, was sent via Boston, and bears date 22nd June, the 
day after his arrival. In this letter he says: "The coasts are as 
rich as ever they have been represented ; we caught fish every day 
since we came, within 50 leagues of the coast. The harbour itself 
is full of fish of all kinds. All the officers agree the harbour is the 
finest they have ever seen. The country is one continued wood ; no 
clear spot is to be seen or heard of. I have been on shore in several 
places. The underwood is only young trees, so that with difficulty 
one is able to make his way anywhere." " De Auvilles' Fleet have 
only cut wood for present use ; they cleared no ground, but en- 
camped their men on the beach. I have seen but few brooks, nor as 
yet have found the navigable river that has been talked of. There 
are a few French families on the east side of the bay, about three 
leagues off. Some have been on board." 

Governor Mascarine having received Cornwallis' letter on the 26th, 
on the following day, ordered Captain Davis to make ready his 
galley and go round to Chebucto with fresh provisions. Mascarine 
was waiting the arrival of the new Governor at Annapolis, as 
appears by his letters to Governor Hopson on the 14th and 26th 
.June, in which he says : "Get ready supplies for the new Captain 
General who will be here, but the fleet will be at Chebncto." The 
"Snow Fair Lady" arrived shortly after the Sphinx, and was 
dispatched to Annapolis to afford Mr. Mascarine the means of 
transporting his council and part of his garrison to Chebucto. On 

"This messenger arrived on the fourth day, at Annapolis. " It is,"says the Governor 
in his letter, "25 leagues over to Minas, (now Horton), and the French have made a 
path for driving their cattle over," 

History of Halifax City. 

the 26th, the " Fair Lady" was in the harbour of Annapolis ready to 
receive Governor Mascarine and suite. On the 27th, the transport 
began to make their appearance off the harbour of Chebucto, and 
by the 1st July, they had all arrived. As their passage had been 
extremely good, and none of them had in the least suffered, the 
Governor found himself in a position to afford vessels to Colonel 
Hopson the moment the settlers should be put on shore.* Accord- 
ingly having countermanded the order to Boston for transports, he 
dispatched to Louisburg the ship "Brotherhood" on the 1st July, 
and on the J3th, the " Lo.ndon," "Wilmington," Winchelsea," and 
"Merry Jacks." On the 8th he received from Louisburg, copies 
of letters from Governor Shirley of Boston, to Governor Mascarine, 
giving an account of the French having commenced a fort at the 
mouth of the River St. John, and on the following day sent Captain 
Rouse in the "Albany" and a small sloop to attend her, witli 
orders to the commanding officer at Annapolis to furnish him with 
troops if required, and to proceed immediately to the River St. 
John, Governor Shirley having previously sent the ship "Boston" 
to Annapolis for the same service, there to await orders. It appears 
that the French had fitted out an expedition, under M. Ramey, for 
this purpose, a short time before the arrival of Cornwallis, and the 
vessel with ammunition, arms and provisions, bound to St. John 
River, had passed Malagash Bay a few days before the arrival of the 
" Sphinx " there ; but having put into Port Mouton on her way, the 
information of their designs was communicated to the authorities of 

Governor Mascariue having arrived with several of his Council on 
the 12th, the following day Governor Cornwallis opened his com- 
mission and took the oaths of office in their presence, and on Friday, 
the 14th July, the Civil Government was organized, and Colonel 
Paul Mascarine, Captain Edward How, Captain John Gorham, 
Benjamin Green, John Salsbury and Hugh Davidson were sworn in 
Councillors! on board the "Beaufort" Transport, and the Commis- 
sion and Royal Instructions were then read. " The formation of the 
Board was announced to the people by a general salute from the 

*Thc settlors who came out in the transport, afterwards sent to Louisburg, were 
first, landed on George's Island. 

tThe table around which this Council assembled is now in the small Council 
Chamber in the Province Building. 

10 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

ships in the harbour and the day was devoted to festivity and amuse- 
ment." The four first gentlemen named in the Council were officers 
from Annapolis ; Mr. Green was from Massachusetts, and had been 
with General Hopson at Louisburg, and the two latter were of His 
Exellency's suite ; Mr. Davidson acted as Secretary. 

Early in the month of July, a spot for the settlement was pitched 
upon near Point Pleasant,* then called Sandwich Point, and people 
were employed in cutting down the trees ; but the want of sufficient 
depth of water in front, its great exposure to south-east gales and 
other inconveniences being discovered, it was abandoned for a more 
eligible situation to the northward, commanding a prospect of the 
whole harbour and on an easy ascent with bold anchorage close 
to the shore. Here Mr. Bruce the engineer, and Captain Morris the 
surveyor, were ordered to lay out the town, which was surveyed, the 
plan completed and the lots appropriated to their respective owners 
by the 14th September. The town was laid out in squares or blocks 
of 320 by 120 feet deep, the streets being 55 feetf in width. Each 
block contained 16 town lots, forty feet front by sixty deep, and the 
whole was afterwards divided into five divisions or wards, called 
Callendar's, Gallaud's, Ewer's, Collier's and Foreman's divisions, 
after the names of the persons who were appointed Captains of 
Militia, each ward being large enough to supply one company. 

Buckingham Street was the north and Salter Street the south limit, 
and the whole was surrounded by a strong palisade of pickets with 
block houses or log forts at convenient distances. Foreman's new 
division was afterwards added as far as the present Jacob Street. 
The north and south suburbs were surveyed about the same time, but 
the German lots in the north were not laid off till the year following. 

Great difficulty was at first experienced in the erection of dwell- 
ings ; the European settlers being totally unacquainted with the 
method of constructing wooden buildings. Frames and other mater- 
ials for building were, however, soon brought from Massachusetts, 
and before the cold weather set in a number of comfortable dwel- 

*"From seeing the place only, one would be apt to choose Sandwich Point as the 
best situation for a town, being very defensible and having the advantage of Sandwich 
River, (now known as the North West Arm), navigable a great way. This was the 
general opinion at first, and they began to clear there, the first day they worked, but 
upon examination we found the strongest objections against it." Governor Cornwallis' 
letter to Board of Trade. 

tThe streets are supposed to be 60 feet broad, but none of them are found to exceed 
55 feet in width. 

History of Halifax Cit //. 1 1 

lings were erected. Provisions and other necessary supplies were 
regularly served out in the camp, and every exertion on the part of 
the Governor made to render the settlers comfortable before the 
approach of winter. Several transports were detained and housed 
over to accommodate those settlers whose houses were not complete, 
and the canvas tent and log hut were soon abandoned for more 
convenient and comfortable accommodations. 

I have, says Governor Cornwallis, in his letter of the 20th August, 
contracted for frames and materials for barracks and officers' lodg- 
ings from Boston. Boards are very high owing to the drought. I 
have got none under 4 per thousand, and shall be obliged to 
furnish a vast number to help the people to get under cover, and 
have sent an officer on purpose to Boston to obtain them at a fair 
price. Many houses are begun and huts and log houses already up 
for more than half a mile on each side the town. 

Tradition says that on clearing the ground for settlement a 
number of dead bodies were discovered among the trees, partly 
covered by the underwood, supposed to have been soldiers of the 
Duke D'Anville's expedition which put into Chebucto Harbor in 
1740,* but the Governor in his letter does not mention the facts. 

During the winter months the people were kept actively employed 
in cutting pickets for fences and wood for fuel, and for erecting new 
buildings. Mechanics were placed at the head of working parties to 
direct their labours, and by a judicious division of the people into 
small parties the more laborious portion of the work was executed 
with uncommon dispatch. Mills were also erected at the expense of 
Government for sawing lumber, and a mill master appointed with a 
salary, and every facility held out to enable those settlers, who had 
not yet been accommodated, to complete their dwellings on the 
approach of spring. The Governor in his letter of 27th July, 
describes the site of the Town as very advantageous. He says : "It 

*The remnant of this formidable fleet which was destined for the destruction of the 
British settlements of Acadia and New England, put into Chebucto Harbor in distress 
in September, 1746. The troops it is said were encamped on the western side of the 
Hiisin, near the small Cove about 4 miles from town, which still bears the name of the 
French Landing. The Duke died of grief at the failure of the expedition, and the Vice 
Admiral Destourville, ran himself through the body, and was buried on George's 
Island. His remains, or what was supposed to have been, were afterwards removed 
to France by his family. Several of the ships of war were sunk on the eastern side of 
the Basin. The hulls of these vessels were visible in calm weather about 50 years 
ago, but they have long since disappeared. M. Jonquiare, afterwards Governor of 
Canada, was also in this expedition. 

12 Xot'u &i'oti, Historical Society. 

has all the conveniences I could wish except a fresh water river.* 
Nothing is easier than to build wharves ; one is already finished 
for ships of 200 tons. I have constantly employed all the carpen- 
ters I could get from Annapolis and the ships here to build log 
houses for stores. I have likewise offered the French at Miuas 
considerable wages to work, and they have promised to send fifty 
men to remain until October. As there was not one yard of clear 
ground you will imagine our difficulty and what we have here to do ; 
however, they have already cleared about 12 acres, and I hope to 
begin my house in two days ; I have a small frame and pickets 

The following extracts from a letter dated 25th July, 1749, 
written by a settler,! affords several interesting facts relative to the 
state of the settlement at this time : " On our arrival we found the 
Sphinx, of 20 guns, which had come into harbor a few days before 
us ; as I write the transports are entering the harbor with the two 
regiments of Hopson and Warberton on board from Louisburg. 
The assistance, as well as, the security we shall receive from them, 
will greatly forward our settlement ; the officers have brought all 
their furniture, a great number of milch cows, and other stock, 
besides military stores. We have already cleared about 20 acres, 
and every one has a hut by his tent. Our work goes on briskly, 
and the method of employing the people in ships' companies has a 
good effect, and as the Governor is preparing to lay out the lots of 
land, we shall soon have a very convenient and pleasant town built, 
which is to be called Halifax. There are already several wharves 
built, and one gentleman is erecting a saw mill ; public store houses 
are also building, and grain of various sorts have been sown. We 
have received constant supplies of plank and timber for building, 
and fresh stock and rum in great quantities, 20 schooners frequently 
coming in in one day. We have also a hundred cows and some 
sheep, brought down to us by land, by the French at Miuas, which 
is about 30 miles distant from the bottom of the bay, and to which 
we purpose to cut a road. The French Deputies who came to make 

*At this period when the settlement was confined to such narrow limits the brook 
known to us as Fresh Water River, in the south suburbs, was considered to be at a 
distance too far from the pickets to be of much value as a means of supply to tho 


tThis letter appeared in one of the British periodicals for October, 1749. 

History of Halifax City. 13 

submission have promised to send us oO men for the purpose, and 
to assist us as far as they are able ; \ve have received the like 
promise, and friendship and assistance from the Indians, the chief 
having been with the Governor for that purpose. In short, every 
thing is in a very prosperous way. But I should be equally unjust 
and ungrateful, were I to conclude without paying the tribute which 
is due to our Governor. He seems to have nothing in view but the 
interest and happiness of all ; his zeal and prudent conduct in the 
difficult task assigned him cannot be too much admired." 

The plan of the town having been completed and the building lots 
marked out, in order to prevent dispute and discontent among the 
settlers, it was deemed best that they should draw for the lots. 
Accordingly, at a Council held on the 1st of August, it was resolved 
that on Tuesday following, the 8th August, all heads of families who 
were settlers, should assemble at seven o'clock with the overseers, 
and single men should form themselves into families, four to each 
family, and each family choose one to draw for them. Mr. Bruce 
the engineer, being present on the occasion, assisted in distributing 
the lots according to the arrangement, and the whole were entered in 
a book of registry which was to be kept for the purpose and to con- 
stitute evidence of title and possession.* 

The next object of importance was the erection of proper defences 
for the protection of the settlement. After they had taken posses- 
sion of the lots, and commenced to build, the Governor endeavoured 
to induce the people to work for a few days in throwing up a line of 
defence around their new abode ; " but," says he, "there was no 
persuading them to do it." It was not until the 13th August when 
the Council voted Is. 6d. per day to each man employed, that this 
necessary work was commenced by the settlers. The harbour being 
broad and easy of access, the difficulty of selecting proper positions 
for fortifications, which would command the entrance, was at first 
seriously felt. This had been the great objection on the part of the 
French to making any settlement at Chebucto, La Have having 
been chosen by them for the principal post on the Atlantic Coast, 
In-ill*:, from its narrow entrance, more easy of defence. In Admiral 
Dmvll's plan of Chebucto, the two points that Hanked the entrance 

"This allotment book still remains entire in the office of the Provincial Secretary, 
in Halifax. It was repaired in 186J by the Record Commission, and a fac-similc copy 
made for use, and the original placed out of the reach of injury. 

14 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

to Bedford Basin were marked as the places proper to fortify. Mr. 
Cornwallis says, their view must have been to have the settlement 
within that Bay (the Basin) ; this would have been subject to great 
inconvenience. In the first place, it would have been too far up for 
the fishermen, it being about five leagues from the entrance of the 
Harbour to those points, and the beach all along as well adapted 
for curing their fish as can possibly be imagined ; no fisherman 
would ever have thought of going within these forts. Indeed no 
ship would choose to go so far, as no finer harbour can be than that 
of Chebucto, which reaches from these points to Sandwich River ; so 
that notwithstanding any forts upon these points, an enemy's fleet 
might be secure and indeed block up all ships within the bay. He 
accordingly fixed upon Sandwich Point and the high lands opposite, 
(now called York Redoubt), and George's Island as the most proper 
positions for the erection of the necessary defences. On the latter 
he immediately placed a guard, landed his stores and planned and 
proposed to build thereon his magazine for powder. 

The first act of Government, after the organization of the Council 
on the 14th, was an audience of the three French Deputies, who had 
come down to meet the New Governor. They were Jean Melanson, 
from Canard River ; Claude le Blance, from Grand Pre, and Philip 
Melanson from Pisiquid. Colonel Mascarine read to the Council 
the oath which the French inhabitants had before taken. Being 
asked if they had anything to offer from their several departments, 
they answered that they were sent only to pay their respects to His 
Excellency and to know what was to be their condition henceforth, 
and whether they would be allowed their priests. They were assured 
that their religion should be protected, but that, as heretofore, no 
priest should be permitted to officiate within the Province, without 
having first obtained a license from the Governor. They were 
furnished with copies of the Royal Declaration, a proclamation 
issued by Governor Cornwallis, and the oath which had been cus- 
tomary, with directions to return within a fortnight, to report to the 
Council the views of the inhabitants of the respective districts, and 
also to notify the other settlements to send deputies as soon as 
possible. The second meeting of the Council took place on the 17th> 
when Mr. Wm. Steele was sworn in a member of the Board, and on 
the following day the Governor's proclamation was read in the camp, 

History of Hl(f<i.r ('it if. 15 

prohibiting all persons from leaving the Province without permission, 
and against the retail of spirituous liquors without license. 

On the 18th, Mr. Bruce the Engineer, Lieutenants Ewer, Collier 
and Mr. John Duport were appointed Justices of the peace, and all 
the settlers having assembled in separate companies with their 
respective overseers, each company chose its constables. 

The Governor designed opening more perfect means of communi- 
cation with Minas by constructing a road, which he described as 
being 30 miles only, in a direct line, and to build a Block House 
half way, but having only two companies of soldiers with him, one 
of Hopson's and one of Warberton's regiment, together with about 
60 of Goreham's Indian Rangers, and the 50 French, who promised 
to assist in the work, having disappointed him, he was compelled to 
postpone the object until after the arrival of the army from Louis- 
burg. Proper access to the interior, by the construction of a good 
road to Minas, was deemed of paramount importance to the settle- 
ment of the country. The inhabitants of the rural districts were so 
insulated as to be in a great measure independent of all authority. 
Colonel Mascarine, on returning to Annapolis, received directions to 
send a Captain, 3 Subalterns and 100 men to Minas, and to erect a 
Block-house and Battery there, the troops to be first quartered at 
Grande Pre, where the Block-house was to be built, and the French 
people were to be hired at fair wages to assist in the work.* 

Capt. How, who had been sent to St. John River in the Albany 
with Capt. Rouse, having returned overland with thirteen Indians, 
three deputies from the tribes at St. John, the Chief of the Chinecto 
Indians, and nine others of their tribes. They received an audience 
on the 14th ; they consisted of Francis de Salle, Chief from 
Octfragli ; the Chief Noellobig, from Medochig ; the Chief Neptune 
Albodouallilla from the Chignecto tribe, for himself and tribe. The 
negotiation was carried on through Martin, the Indian, and Andre, 
the interpreter from Minas. They stated to the Council that they 
had come to confirm the treaty of 1726, and that several of them 
had been present at that treaty. Terms were drawn up by Mr. 
Secretary Davidson, and signed by the Chiefs on the 15th August,* 

*Note. These Indians are described in a letter from one of the Settlers, to 
England, dated 19th August, as quite different from the Indians of the peninsula, their 
faees all rubbed over with vermillion and across their nose and forehead are regularly 
drawn black lines. Their ears are bored full of holes and adorned with tobacco pipes 
and ribbons of different colours; their clothes are of the light homespun grey but (ntol- 

16 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

1749, and Capt. How was ordered to carry it to St. John to be rati- 
fied, and to take with him presents to the Chiefs. It was accord- 
ingly ratified on the 4th day of September following, and signed by 
all the Chiefs and Captains at the River St. John, six in number, in 
the presence of Mr. How and seven other witnesses ; Madame De 
Uellisle acting as interpreter by request of the Indians. This docu- 
ment is still in existence ; also a copy of that of 1726, sent to 
Governor Cornwallis by the Governor of Massachusetts Bay. This 
treaty appears to have been little regarded, for in the beginning of 
October following, news arrived from Annapolis and Canso of 
further incursions on the part of the Indians, and Government was 
compelled to raise two new independent companies of Volunteers for 
that service, which were placed under the command of Major Gilman 
and Capt. Clapham, on the same footing with the Rangers under 
G or ham. 

After the evacuation of Louisburg the population received a 
considerable accession ; a number of the English inhabitants came 
with Governor Hobson and became settlers, and many from New 
England were daily arriving, and upwards of 1000 more from the 
old provinces had expressed themselves desirous of joining the 
Settlement before winter. The Governor therefore gave orders to 
all vessels in the Government service to give them a free passage. 
The New England people soon formed the basis of the resident 
population, and are the ancestors of many of the present inhab- 
itants. They were better settlers than the old discharged soldiers 
and sailors who came on the fleet ; most of whom died or left the 
country during the first three or four years, leaving, however, the 
most industrious and respectable among them as permanent settlers. 
Many settlers and traders came out for the purpose of making 
money ; these people infested the Settlement in great numbers, and 
gave Mr. Cornwallis and his successors much trouble and annoy- 
ance, in demoralizing the people by the illicit sale of bad liquors, and 
in other ways retarding the progress of the country. 

crably ragged. The French supply them with those articles Their squaws or women 
dress equally as gay as the men. They are entire drunkards, and never cease drinking 
spirituous liquors as long as they can get it. They came on board to the Governor in 
great form. After the treaty was ratified they received presents and went on board the 
man-of-war, where they solaced themselves with singing and dancing. As to the songs 
it is one continued bellowing and noise. Upon their coming off, the man-of-war gave 
them a s ilute of 17 guns, as likewise they did on going aboard. They expressed a great 
deal of satisfaction at the honors done them ; so they were discharged and sent in one 
Of Colonel Goreham's sloops to St. John River with presents to the rest of their tribe. 

Jli*tnnj <>f Halifax City. 1 7 

A proposition was made about this time by a French merchant 
from the West Indies to Governor Cornwallis to bring to Halifax 
some Protestant families from Martinique with their effects, if he 
would give them protection and grant them lands, and the Governor 
was furnished with a list of their names, with what each of them 
was worth, which approached in all nearly 50,000. This gentle- 
man proceeded to Louisburg to obtain for them a passport, and 
proposed to have his people on before winter ; but it does not 
appear as far as any information on the subject can be gathered 
from the public records that any of these French Protestants ever 

The Government found it necessary to check the indiscriminate 
sale of spirituous liquors by a license duty. On the 28th August 
an ordinance passed for that purpose, and all such licensed houses 
were to be closed at 9 p. m. under penalty. On the 31st August 
the Governor and Council for the first time sat as a Court of Law. 
This was named the General Court, all authority legislative, 
executive and judicial being vested in the Board. They met on this 
day for the trial of Abram Goodside, the Boatswain's mate of the 
Beaufort, who stabbed and wounded two men. A grand jury was 
summoned who found a bill of indictment ; he was tried and found 
guilty by a petit jury, and hanged under the* Governor's warrant on 
2nd September, 1749. On 31st August, another Court was held for 
the trial of one Peter Cartal, for murder. The Acadian Deputies 
having returned from the country, they were called before the 
Governor and Council on September 6th, when they presented a 
letter signed by 1000 inhabitants claiming to take only a qualified 
Oath of Allegiance. 

On the 30th August, a sloop from Liverpool, Great Britain, with 
116 settlers, arrived after a passage of nine weeks. They were, how- 
ever, all quite healthy, not one person being sick on board at the time 
of their arrival. Two streets were then added to the Town and lots 
assigned to these people. This was Forman's new division. We 
have no names of these settlers or the name of the sloop. 

Information having reached the Government that the Indians of 
Acadia and St. John's Island, designed to molest the settlement at 
Halifax on the approach of winter,* it was deemed advisable to erect 

* Governor Cornwallis' letter to Secretary of State. 

18 Nova /Scotia Historical /Society, 

outworks for its defence ; accordingly the troops and inhabitants 
were immediately employed to construct a line of palisades around 
the town in connection with square log forts which were to be placed 
at convenient distances. A space of thirty feet was cleared without 
the lines, and the trees thrown up by way of a barricade, which 
constituted a complete defence against any attempt on the part of 
the Indians. Those settlers who had built their houses without the 
town had arms given them, and their dwellings being built of logs 
were musket proof ; also the Ordnance Artificers, those from New 
England and such of the settlers as had been in the army, and such 
others as could be trusted with arms within the town, also received 
them, and an order was sent to Boston for a supply of lamps to 
light the streets during the winter nights. Col. G-oreham was sent 
to the head of the Basin with his company of Rangers for the winter, 
with an armed sloop to assist him, and every preparation possible 
was made for the protection of the people during the ensuing winter. 

The Indians had appeared in the neighbourhood of the town for 
several weeks, but intelligence had been received that they had com- 
menced hostilities, by the capture of twenty persons at Canso under 
frivolous pretences, and of two vessels having been attacked by them 
at Chignecto, when three English and seven Indians were killed. 
In consequence of thffi information it was resolved in Council to 
send a letter to M. Desherbiers, Governor of Louisburg, to recall 
LeLoutre. On the last day of September they made an attack on the 
sawmill at Dartmouth, then under the charge of Major Oilman. 
Six of his men had been sent out to cut wood without arms. The 
Indians laid in ambush, killed four and carried off one, and the 
other escaped and gave the alarm, and a detachment of rangers was 
sent after the savages, who having overtaken them, cut off the heads 
of two Indians and scalped one.* 

These proceedings compelled the government to take more active 
measures, and orders were given to the commanding officers at the 
out stations, to destroy the Indians wherever they met them, and 
a premium of ten guineas was offered for every Indian killed or 

* This affair is mentioned in a letter from a gentleman in Halifax to Boston, dated 
October 2nd. as follows: "About i-even o'clock on Saturday morning before, as several 
of Major Oilman's workmen with one soldier, unarmed, were hewing sticks of timber 
about 200 yards from his house and mills on the east side of the harbour, they were sur- 
prised by about 40 Indians, who first fired two shots and then a volley upon them 
which killed four, two of whom they scalped, and cut olf the heads of the others, the 
fifth is missing and is supposed to have been carried off." 

History of Halifax City. 1'.) 

taken prisoner, this offer was in consequence of the large rewards I 
offered by the French to the Indians for English scalps. Orders 
were given for raising two independent companies of rangers, one of 
one hundred men by Major Oilman, who was sent to Piscataqua for 
that purpose,* the other a company of volunteers by Captain Win. 
Clapham, who with Goreham's Indian Rangers, now returned from 
their stations at the head of the Basin with a company of Philips' 
Regiment, were to scour the whole country around the Bay. The 
St. John Indians having kept the treaty, received from Governor 
Cornwallis a present of 1000 bushels of corn, and an order Avas also 
given to purchase at Minas 500 bushels of wheat, to be baked into 
biscuit for the same purpose. Captain How was intrusted with 
these and other presents, and was directed to bring back with him, if 
possible, some of the tribe to go against the Mic-Macs. The 
preparation necessary to the protection of the town against 
French- Indian hostilities tended to expedite the progress of the 
settlement ; before the middle of October, about three hundred and 
fifty houses had been completed, two of the square forts finished 
and the barricade carried all around. A number of store houses 
and barrack buildings for the accommodation of the troops had been 
also erected and the Governor's residence completed. The Council 
met there on the 14th October. About 30 of the French inhabitants 
were employed on the Public Works, and in cutting a road from the 
town to the Basin of Minas. A number of influential and 
industrious families from New England and other places had 
already become settlers, and Halifax Harbor was the resort of a 
large number of fishing vessels. 

About this time a destructive epidemic made its appearance in the 
town, and it is said nearly 1000 persons fell victims during the 
autumn and the following winter. On the 14th day of October, the 
Government found it necessary to publish an ordinance, command- 
ing all Justices of the Peace, upon the death of the settlers, to name 
so many of the neighbourhood or quarter (not exceeding 12) to 
which the deceased belonged, to attend at the burial and carry the 
corpse to the grave, and whoever refused to attend without sufficient 
reason should have his name struck off the Mess Book and Register 
of Settlers as unworthy of His Majesty's bounty ; and again in 

^These men were supplied with hatchets and snow shoes for winter warfare. 

20 Nova /Scotia Historical /Society. 

December, another order was made commanding all householders to 
report their dead to a clergyman within twenty-four hours. 

Owing to the frequent alarms of invasion from the Indians and 
French stragglers during the winter, it was resolved in Council to 
organize a militia force for the protection of the settlement, and on 
the Sunday following the 6th day of December, after divine service, 
all the male settlers, between the age of sixteen and sixty, were 
assembled on the parade, and drawn up in the following order : 
" Those of Mr. Ewer's and Mr. Collier's divisions to face the harbor, 
those of the quarters of Mr. Galland and Mr. Foreman toj^ace the 
^Citadel, and those of Mr. Callendar's division at one end of the 
parade." The proclamation bears date the 7th day of December, 
1749. On the 16th, information arrived that a French force had 
been dispatched overland from Canada, to attack Halifax, and that 
the Indians' were to co-operate with them, also, that two vessels 
with six hundred men were in the Bay Verte under LeCorne, and 
with ammunition and stores of all kinds for a winter expedition. 
The people having been again assembled on the parade after divine 
service, the proclamation was read and the settlers commanded to 
fell all the trees around the town without the forts and barricades. 
No attempt was, however, made upon the town, either by the Indians 
or French during the winter. These hostilities were being carried 
on by the Government of Canada, while the two Crowns were 
nominally at peace, under pretence that the Treaty of Utrecht only 
ceded to the Crown of Great Britain the peninsula of Nova Scotia 

The Governor deeming it expedient that some permanent system of 
judicial proceedings to answer the immediate exigencies of the 
Colony should be established, a committee of Council was accord- 
ingly appointed to examine the various systems in force in the old 
Colonies. On 13th December, Mr. Green reported that after a 
careful investigation, the laws of Virginia were found to be most 
applicable to the present situation of the province. The report was 
adopted. It referred principally to the judicial proceedings in the 
General Courts, the County Courts, and other tribunals. 

Before concluding this chapter, which comprehends all that can 
be collected relative to the affairs of the settlement during the first 
year of its existence, it will be proper to observe that in founding 

History of Halifax fYty. 21 

the City, the spiritual wants of the settlers were not lost sight of by 
the British Government. Preparatory to the embarkation of the 
settlers, a letter was addressed by the Lords of Trade and Planta- 
tions to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts, dated Whitehall, April 6th, 1749, recommending to the 
Society to appoint ministers and school-masters for the new 
settlement at Chebncto, and for such other townships or settlements 
as should from time to time be formed in Nova Scotia, and request- 
ing the Society to make some provisions for them until arrangements 
should be made for their sufficient support, by grants of land, etc.* 
The Society resolved immediately to act on this recommendation, 
and undertook to send six clergymen and six school-masters, when the 
settlements should be formed. The first missionaries appointed 
under this arrangement, were the Rev. William Tutty, of Emmanuel 
College, Cambridge, and the Rev. Mr. Auwell, who both came out 
with the settlers in June, 1749. Mr. Tutty officiated in the open 
air until the necessary church accommodation could be obtained. On 
laying out the town, a spot was assigned by Government for the 
church. The site was first selected at the north end of the Grand 
Parade, where Dalhousie College now stands, but it was changed 
Immediately after for the present site of St. Paul's Church, which 
was erected at the expense of Government and ready for the recep- 
tion of the missionary, who preached his first sermon there on the 
2nd day of September, 1 750. The pews and inside finish were not 
completed for several years after. The name of Mr. Tutty does not- 
appear among those of the settlers who came with Cornwallis. He 
probably, however, accompanied him. Mr. Anwell came with the 
expedition, but his name does not again appear; lie died shortly 
after his arrival. Mr. Tutty spoke German and administered the 
Lord's Supper to the German settlers in their own language. The 
other missionary, J. liaptiste Moreau, who came out as school-master, 
and afliTwards went to England for ordination, returned to the settle- 
ment and went down to Maligash with the Germans, 1752. Mr. 
Halstead was the school-master in charge of the Society's schools at 
Halifax during the first two or three years. 

Governor Cornwallis in 1749, assigned the lot at the south-west 
corner of Prince and Hollis streets for a Protestant Dissenting 

A copy of this letter will be found in the appendix. 

22 Norn Scotia Hixtoricnl Society. 

Meeting house. The old building known as Mather's, or as it was 
afterwards called St. Matthew's Church (destroyed by fire in 1859,) 
was soon after erected on this site. It was appropriated originally 
to the Congregationalists, many of whom came from New England to 
settle in Halifax. Jt was called Mather's Church after the cele- 
brated Cotton Mather, one of the leading divines of that denomina- 
tion at Boston, in early days. The Presbyterians, and all who did 
not belong to the Established Church, attended divine service in this 
building. The Rev. Mr. Cleveland, who came from one of the old 
colonies, was the first minister who officiated in this building. It 
afterwards fell into the hands of the Presbyterians and became the 
property of the Church of Scotland, and the name of Mather's was 
changed to that of St. Matthew. This old Church was destroyed 
by fire, which consumed a large portion of the buildings in Hollis 
Street, in 1859. The lot of ground on which it stood was after- 
wards sold to Mr. Doull, who erected the fine stone store thereon, 
now known as Doull and Miller's building. 

Hist ivy of IftiJifux City. 23 


The winter of 1 749-50, as has been before mentioned, was spent 
in continual apprehension of Indian and French invasion, and in 
preparations to receive the enemy. On the 7th .January, 17f)0, a 
number of the inhabitants petitioned that Martial Law should be 
declared, but the Governor and Council did not consider the danger 
so great or imminent as to make it necessary. However, stringent 
regulations with regard to the militia were enacted, and an ordinance 
was issued compelling all settlers able to bear arms between 1(5 and 
00, to be formed into 10 companies of 70 men each,* and a guard 
of ollicers and 30 men to assemble every evening near the parade 
to keep guard until sunrise, and all militia men called upon to labour 
at the fortifications, were to be allowed Is. per day. Labourers 
were constantly employed in raising a barricade and continuing it to 
the water side, and block houses were erected between the forts. 

During the winter intelligence frequently arrived from Minns, 
Pisiquid, and the eastern shore, of attacks being made by the Indians 
upon stragglers, and several young Acadians were brought from 
Minas to Halifax for trial, having been found in arms with the 
Indians. A large reward was offered for the apprehension of 
LeLoutre, the Indian missionary, and also 10 sterling for every 
Indian scalp or Indian prisoner. Capt. Sylvanus Cobb, nn active 
and bold sea captain from Massachusetts, was taken into Govern- 
ment employ, and sent to Chigueeto with his armed sloop for the 
purpose of surprising LeLoutre and his gang, and afterwards to 
search the harbors along the coast for Indians, and bring with him 
all he captured as prisoners to Halifax. Troops under Capt. Uartilo 
and others were sent into the interior and other active proceedings 
taken by the Governor and Council during the months of .January 
and February for the peace of the province. A courier having l>een 
stopped at Cobequid, Priest Gourard and the French Deputies, 
were all brought to Halifax, by Capt. liartilo, for examination 
before the Governor and Council ; Gourard was detained at Govern- 
ment House until the courier returned, hut the deputies were 

'The Artificers formed one company by themselves, and the whole militia amounted 
to about 840 men. The Officers behaved well, but, says the Governor in his dispatch, " 1 
cannot say so of the men." 

24 JVo'W Scotia Historical Society. 

dismissed. He disclosed the fact to the Council that the Mic-Mac 
Indians of Nova Scotia went every year to Quebec, to receive 
clothing from the French Government, and that LeCorn had made 
the French of Acadia take the Oath of Allegiance to the French 
King. Gourard on this occasion took the Oath of Allegiance to the 
Crown of Great Britain, and thereupon received a licence to officiate 
as Priest to the Acadians, and promised not to leave the province 
without special leave from the Governor. 

Among the municipal regulations this winter, <vas an ordinance 
that all persons found breaking the liquor license law, should be 
put one hour in the public stocks, and for the second offence receive 
twenty lashes. These severe regulations were found to be absolutely 
necessary, in consequence of the demoralized state of the settlement 
from settlers and others who infested the town and who were not 

On the 2nd February, 1750, an ordinance was passed in Council, 
prohibiting the recovery of any debt contracted in England or else- 
where, prior to the establishment of the settlement or to the debtor's 
arrival in Halifax, in any Court of Law within the province, except 
for goods imported into the Colonies. There appears to have been 
some difference of opinion at the Board on the subject ; the Council 
divided, and the ordinance was carried by a small majority. 

It was proposed in Council about this time, to build a quay along 
the shore in front of the town, but several merchants Mr. Saul, 
Mr. Joshua Mauger and others, having applied for water lots, and 
liberty to build wharves on the beach, the subject was referred to 
Mr. Morris the surveyor, and Mr. Bruce the engineer. They 
thought the quay was a work of time and required means from 
England. Licences to build wharves were therefore granted, with a 
reservation of the right of the Crown in case the quay should be 
resolved on or the frontage required for government purposes. This 
scheme was afterwaixls abandoned by Government, and the licences 
remained unrepealed. At this period the line of the shore was so 
irregular, as in some places to afford only a footpath between the 
base line of the lots, which now form the upper side of Water Street 
and high water mark;* at the Market the tide flowed up nearly to 

"According to the original plan of the Town published in October, 1749, a space 
appears to have been reserved between the line of the lots and the shore, but no Water 

History of Halifax Cit>/. 25 

where the [old] City Court House stood, forming a cove, the outlet 
of a brook which came down north of George Street. Near the 
Ordnance Yard another cove made in, and this part of the shore 
was low and swampy many years after the batteries were built.* 

The winter passed without any attack on the settlement, and the 
people were all quite healthy. The number of settlers was daily 
augmented by almost every vessel which arrived from New England 
and elsewhere ; every thing required was provided for them, that 
they should be tolerably comfortable before the cold weather set in. 
The winter was very fine, very few extreme bad days, no heavy 
snow storms, the navigation never stopped in the slightest degree. 
More fine days and fewer bad ones (says the Governor) than I ever 
saw in winter. Spring opened early with fine warm days and thaw, 
and the fishing schooners began early in March to go upon the 
IJank.f The snow lay all the winter, from the middle of .January; 
it was, however, only three feet deep in the woods. The healthy 
condition of the settlers may be inferred from there never being 
more than 25 in the hospital ship at any one time. 

By the IDth March, a place had been erected for a public 
Hospital, and a school building commenced for the orphan children. 
The French from the interior engaged freely for money to square 
timber for the erection of the blockhouses, and preparations were in 
progress for the completion of the Church. 

A meeting of the Governor and Council took place on 19th April, 
when the French Deputies again appeared with a petition to be 
permitted to sell their lauds and leave the country. The names of 

Street was laid out the uppor side of the present Bedford Row being the western limit. 
There were five forts, having each four quadrangular blockhouses, with a barrack in 
the centre ; these were connected by wooden palisades or pickets. 

A number of licences to erect wharves and buildings along the beach had been 
granted by Government to individuals engaged in trade and the fishery, before the idea 
of a general Government breastwork had been abandoned. These titles continued to be 
held good ; a number of wharf proprietors, however, obtained conformation grants from 
time to time as they required water extension. Mr. Charles Morris, the Surveyor- 
General, who had the sole management of the land office, in his reports to the Govern- 
ment, advised small spaces to be reserved on both sides in making these conformation 
grants as well as in subsequent water grants in fee, which have been found of much 
inconvenience to trade, and a drawback on the progress of the City. No reservation of 
water was originally mnde at the foot of the cross streets or hills. At the close of the 
last and the commencement of the present century, when conformation or extension 
water grants were asked for, he marked on his plans narrow strips or reservations on 
the sides of many of these water grants, which for there being in many instances 
inaccessible, have since proved of no value to the public and a great injury to the 
proprietors of water property. 

t Cornwallis' letter of 19th March. 

26 Nova ticotia Historical Society. 

these deputies were Jaques Teriot from Grand Pre, Francois 
Granger from River cle Canard, Battiste Galerne and Jean Andre. 

Mr. Cornwallis was continually embarassed by letters from the 
Board of Trade, finding fault with the expenses incurred in planting 
the settlement. 40,000 had been voted by Parliament, and 3(>,- 
000 of excess had been demanded as a further vote ; this could 
not be considered so great an expenditure under all the circum- 
stances, as it included the pay and equipment of two regiments of 
infantry. In his replies, he says, " Not a pound shall be expended 
" by me unnecessarily, but without money you could have had no 
" town, no settlement, and indeed no settlers. 'T is very certain that 
"the public money cleared the ground, built the town, secured it, 
" kept both soldiers and settlers from starving with cold, and has 
" brought down above 1000 settlers from the other Colonies. Lots 
"in Halifax are now worth 50 guineas. If there was no public 
" money circulating, lots would be given for a gallon of rum. The 
"money is laid out in building forts, barracks, store houses, 
"hospitals, churches, wharves, etc., public works all that seem 
" absolutely necessary. According to your Lordship's directions, j 
' ' have discharged the two Government Apothecaries and shall dis- 
" charge some of the Surgeons' Mates that may be spared. As for 
" the saw mill, we never had one board from it it has been a constant 
" plague from the beginning. Thirty men have been constantly kept 
" there ever since the affair of the Indians. Gilman has behaved so 
" ill I shall have to discharge him from all service. I have laid in a 
" quantity of lumber in the King's yard this spring at a reasonable 
"price. For want of stock I have been sometimes obliged to pay 
" 5 per M. The settlers have paid 6. I have got them lately at 
" 3 10s., 3 and 2 15s. No new boards are given to settlers." 

The salaries to the public officers of Cornwallis' Government 
appear exceedingly small in comparison with the arduous duties 
which devolved upon them in organizing the settlement. His Aides- 
de-Camp, Capt. Bulkely and Mr. Gates,* had no allowance except 
some trifling commission on the issue of molasses and spirits. 

In .lime, 1750, the Governor and Council assigned as a site the 
spot on which the [old] City Court House stands, for a market 
for black cattle, sheep, etc., and made market regulations. In 

- This was the well-known Horatio Gates, afterwards a Revolutionary General 

History of Halifax City. 27 

July, the settlers were ordered to clear the streets in front of their 
respective lots to the centre. They had begun to clear George's 
Island and to erect block-houses. Seven 32-pounders had been 
i mounted upon it, and a palisade carried all around the works. The 
; frame of the Church, which had been brought from Boston, was 
^erected and was being covered in, the estimated cost of finishing 
the edih'ce being 1000 sterling. The temporary barricades were 
removed, and the palisades carried completely round the town. 
30,000 bricks had been manufactured in the neighbourhood and 
found very good. The meeting house for Dissenters had not yet 
been commenced. The town was increasing every day in settlers 
and the number of its houses, but no improvement of the lands in 
the neighbourhood had been made beyond a few small gardens. 
The fishery was prosperous and produced 25,000 quintals the first 

In the mouth of August, 1750, three hundred and fifty-three 
settlers arrived in the ship Alderaey ; and in September following, 
three hundred German Protestants, from the Palatinate, in the ship 
Ann. The Governor and Council were embarrassed in providing 
for their support, and found it necessary to enter into pecuniary 
arrangements with the merchants of the town, who at this early 
period had formed themselves into an association for the benefit of 
trade. Those who came ill the ship Alderney, were sent to the 
opposite side of the harbour, and commenced the town of Dartmouth, 
which was laid out in the autumn of that year. In December 
following, the first ferry was established, and John Connor 
appointed ferryman by order in Council. 

In the spring of the following year the Indians surprised Dart- 
mouth at night, scalped a number of settlers and carried off 
several prisoners. The inhabitants, fearing an attack, had cut 
down the spruce trees around their settlement, which, instead of a 
protection, as was intended, served as a cover for the enemy. 
Captain Clapham and his company of Rangers were stationed on 
Block-house hill, and it is said remained within his block-house 
firing from the loop-holes, during the whole affair. The Indians 
were said to have destroyed several dwellings, sparing neither 
women nor children. The light of the torches and the discharge of 
musketry alarmed the inhabitants of Halifax, some of whom put off 

28 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

to their assistance, but did not arrive in any force till after the 
Indians had retired. The night was calm, and the cries of the 
settlers, and whoop of the Indians were distinctly heard on the 
western side of the harbour. On the following morning, several 
bodies were brought over the Indians having carried off the 
scalps.* Mr. Pyke, father of the late John George Fyke, Esq., 
many years police magistrate of Halifax, lost his life on this 
occasion. Those who fled to the woods were all taken prisoners but 
one. A court martial was called on the 14th May, to inquire into 
the conduct of the different commanding officers, both commissioned 
and non-commissioned, in permitting the village to be plundered 
when there were about 60 men posted there for its protection. 

There was a guard house and small military post at Dartmouth 
from the first settlement, and a gun mounted on the point near the 
saw mill (in the cove) in 1749. One or two transports, which had 
been housed over during winter and store ships were anchored in the 
cove, under the cover of this gun, and the ice kept broke around them 
to prevent the approach of the Indians. The attempt to plant a 
settlement at Dartmouth, does not appear to have been at first very 
successful. Governor Hobson in his . letter to the Board of Trade, 
dated 1st October, 1753, says, "At Dartmouth there is a small town 
well picketed in, and a detachment of troops to protect it, but there are 
not above five families residing in it, as there is no trade or fishing 
to maintain any inhabitants, and they apprehend danger from the 
Indians in cultivating any laud on the outer side of the pickets." 

There is no record of any concerted attack having been made by 
the Indians or French on the town of Halifax. Many stragglers 
were cut off during the first years of the settlement, particularly 
along the western side of the Basin, where the best firewood was to 
be obtained. It was at length found necessary to send out an 
armed body when fuel or lumber was required. The enemy usually 
retired before a regular organized force. The Ranger companies 
under Goreham and Bartelo, were most efficient for this purpose ; 
they were usually recruited in New England, where men for that 
service were more readily found. 

*The Governor in his letter to England mentions 4 men killed, 6 soldiers prisoners 
who were not upon guard, and our people killed 3 Indians, and had they done their duty 
well, might have killed many more. 

of Halifax City. 29 

The German settlers who came in the ship Ann, were employed 
in the public works at 2s. per day, besides a supply of beer and 
other liquors to each. It was decided that all settlers who came in 
the previous year, should cease to draw provisions after the 15th 
September, 17oO. This order was afterwards repealed on 20th, and it 
was determined that all settlers already in the town or who should 
come before 1st December, should be entitled to one year's pro- 
visions from the time of their names being; entered on the victualling 

It was the intention of Government that the Germans should bo 
sent into the interior of the province ; but they having arrived so late 
in the season, and the want of a sufficient supply of provisions then 
in store to sustain them through the winter rendered it impossible, 
and they were retained in the town. They were very sickly, many 
of them old and unfit for settlers, and their passages not being paid, 
and there being no person to purchase them, they were employed on 
the public works to work out their passage money. 

About this period a gloom was cast over the settlement by the 
news of the murder of the Hon. Edward How, one of the Council at 
Chignecto. "Captain How was employed on the expedition to 
" Chignecto as knowing the country well and being acquainted both 
"with the Indians and the inhabitants, and furthermore he knew 
" personally their leaders, LeCorne and LeLoutre. His whole 
" aim and study was to obtain a peace with the Indians, and 
" get the English prisoners out of their hands, for which purpose he 
"often had conferences with the French officers under a Hag of 
" truce. LeCorne one day sent a flag of truce by a French officer 
" to the water side, a small river which parts his people from the 
" British troops. Capt. How and the officers held a parley for some 
"time across the river. How had no sooner taken leave of the 
"officers than a party that lay in ambush fired a volley at him and 
"shot him through the heart, an instance of treacherous brutality 
" not to be paralleled in history, and a violation of a flag of truce, 
"which had ever been held sacred, and without which all faith is at 
"an end, and all transactions with an enemy." [Cornwallis* letter 
27th November.] 

* Sec victualling list in the appendix. 

30 Nora Scotia Historical Society. 

The spring of 17f>l the five acre lots on the Peninsula were laid 
out ; the people engaged in clearing the land. The uncertainty from 
surprise by Indians, however, much retarded the work ; a large space, 
however, was cleared around the town before winter set in. 

Another vessel having arrived on the 10th June, with German 
Palatine settlers, they were directed to be employed at Dartmouth in 
picketing in the back of the town. In July, the arrival of 200 more 
was reported, and they were ordered to be placed at the head of the 
N. W. Arm and mouth of the Basin ; and those who owed work for 
their passage, were directed to picket in their stations. Monsieur 
Dupacquir, who had engaged to bring out 800 Swiss, brought but 
twenty this year, but more were expected in the following spring. 

Ninth July, a proclamation issued to forfeit all lots of the town 
settlers who only put up slight frames of houses, unless they 
immediately proceeded to board them in and finish them as 

On the 18th June, Jas. Stephens and Win. Harris were hanged for 
house-breaking ; this was the second public execution which took 
place in the town. 

William Piggot had a license granted him to open a coffee house 
on the 8th April the same j r ear. 

In January of this year the Council passed a series of regulations 
for the General Court and County Courts, and ordered them to be 
published by the Provost Marshal by reading the same after the 
beat of drum through the settlement, and on the first day of the 
next sitting of the General Court and County Courts. 

The only matters further recorded worthy of notice during the 
year 1751, was the dismissal of Mr. Otis Little, the Commissary of 
Stores, for remissness in his office, and the resolution of the 
Governor and Council to pay a draft for 882, sent from Quebec, 
for the ransom of English prisoners taken by the Indians and 
carried to Canada. It appeared that Lt. Hamilton and upwards of 
sixty officers, soldiers and settlers had fallen into the hands of the 
savages, and Priest LeLoutre had agreed to ransom them for the siini 
above mentioned, 

of Halifax City. 31 

It may here be mentioned that several batteries have already been 
erected on George's Island,* and expensive earth works had been 
thrown up. 

Towards the close of the year Mr. Joshua Manger, a gentleman 
from England, who came out at the commencement of the settlement 
to trade and distil rum for the soldiers, was charged by government 
with having attempted to make Halifax the repository for Louisburg 
merchandize, brought up secretly and to be carrying on an illicit 
traffic, he being at the time agent victualler to Government. 
Governor Cornwallis, upon information, caused Mr. Manger's stores 
to be searched for contraband articles brought from Louisburg. 
Much discussion ensued, and the settlement was for some time 
thrown into commotion, by what Mr. Manger called in his letter to 
England, the high-handed proceedings of the Governor. 

"This Island is called in the old French maps Isle Racket or the Snow Shoe Island, 
being in the shape of a snow shoe. 

32 Nora Scotia IliatoricaJ Society. 


In January, 1752, Mr. Collier, who had been acting as Chief 
Justice, and Captain Frotheringham, were called to the Council in 
place of Mr. Salisbury and Col. Horseman, who had returned to 
England. On 3rd February, a public ferry was established between 
Halifax and Dartmouth and John Connors appointed ferryman for 
three years, with the exclusive privilege, and ferry regulations were 
also established. At the same sitting of the Council, an order was 
passed for the recording of deeds and mortgages, making all papers 
unrecorded void against those which had been registered. Col. 
Horseman's stone building was purchased for a prison in place of 
that before used. 

April 29th, Charles Morris, James Monk, John Duport, Robert 
Ewer, Joseph Scott, John Win. Hoffeman and Leonard Christopher 
Redolf were appointed Justices of the Peace. It was resolved in 
Council at their sitting on 12th June, that a lottery should be held 
for building a Light House near Cape Sambro, to raise 450. 
One thousand tickets at 3 each. Prizes from one of 500 to 7 
the lowest. Two hundred prizes, in all amounting to 3000, 15 per 
cent, to be deducted from the prizes, to be drawn publicly in the 
Town House at Halifax, under the direction of managers to be 
appointed by Government. 

The winter of 1751-2 had been severe, but the harbour had not 
been frozen or at all impeded by ice, and the spring opened early, 
and preparations for prosecuting the fishery were soon in active 

The Goverment mills at Dartmouth, under charge of Captain 
Clapham, were sold at auction in June. They were purchased by 
Major Gilman for 310. 

16th July An order passed to strike off the victualling lists all 
the German and Swiss settlers, who had arrived in the Speedwell. 

In the spring of 1752, a number of settlers arrived in the Nancy, 
under the charge of Lt. Young. About the same time the Marquis 
DeConte, a Sicilian nobleman, and a number of other foreign 
settlers, came to Halifax from the island of Tercera, one of the 
Azores, and settled in the town. 

History of Halifax City. 33 

Governor Cornwallis having obtained permission to resign the 
Government, the Hon. Peregrine T. Hopson, was appointed his 
successor, and was sworn into office before the Council on Monday, 
3rd August. Mr. Cornwallis, however, did not leave the province 
until after the 10th of October, as he appears to have attended the 
Council held on that day.* 

In September, 1752, John Baptist Cope, commonly called Major 
Cope, a Mic-Mac chief, head of the Slmbeuacadie Indians, came in 
with terms of peace, which were agreed to. This bears date the loth 
September, in that year. Immediately after this document was 
signed, Cope left town in a vessel, having requested Capt. W. 
Piggot should be sent to Indian Harbour, to meet the Indians there, 
to ratify the Treaty. Mr. Piggot was accordingly dispatched, and 
brought up with him two or three Indians, who appeared before the 
Council, after which they were sent back to Beaver Harbour, under 
the conduct of Mr. Piggot, with blankets, provisions, etc. The 
terms of the Treaty were agreed to and confirmed in Council, and 
the whole was engrossed on parchment and ratified on 22nd 
November, 1752. The names of the Indian delegates on this 
occasion were, Andrew Hodley Martin, Gabriel Martin and Francis 
Jeremiah. Mr. Saul received directions to issue provisions, accord- 
ing to the allowance of the troops for six months, for 90 Indians, 
that being the number of the tribe under Cope, occupying the 
eastern part of the province. 

This treaty does not appear to have been respected by the Indian 
Chief, who we find, not more than eight months after its ratification, 
refusing to respect the pass of Governor Hopson to one Anthony 
Cartel, who had been captured by the Indians, in one of the harbours 
eastward of Halifax, and carried through the country to Shuben- 
ticadie, the head-quarters of Major Cope, from whom he was 
ransomed by a French inhabitant. It would appear that the terms 
of amity, entered into by Cope and his men with the Government at 
Halifax, had been in some manner without the sanction of Abbe 
LeLoutre, who, when Anthony Cartel was brought before Count 

*0n September 29th, 1752, the first, fire regulations were published at Halifax, 
among which are found the following : Two or three Magistrates may order a house to 
be pulled down or blown up to stop a flre, the owner to be indemnified by the house 
owners of the Town. The flre wards to be appointed by the Justices of the Peace, each 
to wvrry a red staff 6 feet long, with a bright brass spear 6 inches long on it : and other 
regulations. This custom is still kept up in the City, or was until very lately. 

34 Nova /Scotia Historical Society. 

Raymond at Louisburg, was present, and as Cartel expresses it, 
inveighed bitterly against Governor Cornwallis, and said if he 
wanted peace he ought to have written to him, and not to have 
treated with the tribe of Indians. That he, Cartel, might depart, 
having been ransomed, but that the first Englishman he caught 
should be retained until he, LeLoutre, had full satisfaction for him- 
self and his Indians. 

In April following, two men named John Connor and James 
Grace, arrived at Halifax in an Indian canoe, bringing with them 
six Indian scalps. They informed the Council that they and two 
others, having put into a place between Tor Bay and Country 
Harbour, in a schooner, were captured by the Indians, and carried 
ten miles into the country, where their two companions were 
murdered ; that they had surprised the Indians at night, killed 
several, whose scalps they secured , and having escaped to the 
seaside, seized a canoe, and made their way to Halifax. Along the 
coast, both east and west from Halifax, Indian massacres had been 
frequent. Those persons engaged in the fishery, who were com- 
pelled to land for wood and water, were chiefly the sufferers. 

Much had been said and written in Europe at the time, relative to 
the aggressions of the French, during the suspension of hostilities 
between the two nations. The Indians, from their religion and 
trading intercourse, more favourable to the French in Canada and 
Acadia, were made use of to harass the British settlers, who 
(though the two nations were then at peace) were looked upon with 
a jealous eye by the resident French population. A French writer, 
(I refer to a little work, now a scarce book, published during the 
second siege of Louisburg), states that the English neglected to 
cultivate an acquaintance with the manners and customs of the 
Indians, and it was therefore not surprising at the time, that they 
should show less affection towards them than towards the French, 
who had great regard to their humours and inclinations. 

"So strong is their aversion to despotic power," says the author, 
"that force will never do ; they will yield to nothing but persuasion. 
Though they know nothing of precepts or subordination, yet they 
enjoy almost every advantage derived from well-regulated authority. 
Their laws and customs appear impressed on their hearts. In order 
to gain an ascendancy over them, you must gain their esteem, for 

History of Halifax City. 35 

they never confide in a person whom they do not value, and this 
esteem is very difficult to obtain." 

The savages were exasperated against the English by a speech 
delivered by Count Raymond, at a meeting of the chiefs, in which, to 
suit his own purposes, he depicted the most frightful cruelties perpe- 
trated by the English. 

During the Indian hostilities, opposition on the part of the 
Colonists was altogether of a defensive nature. The regular troops, 
as well as the undisciplined militia, proving unfit for such warfare, 
it was found necessary to employ the New England Rangers. These 
were volunteers from the New England provinces, accustomed to 
Indian warfare, many of them Indians and half-bloods. They 
ascended the rivers, penetrated into the heart of the province, and 
attacked the enemy in their strongholds. The Indians finding they 
were opposed by men equally accustomed to the forest with them- 
selves, soon found it their interest to make peace with the British.* 

In 1758, it was found necessary to procure the services of 250 of 
these Rangers from New England, by promises of high pay and 
other advantages. Long accustomed to the border war with the 
Indians and French of Canada, they had become well disciplined, 
and accustomed to hardships and fatigue, and were perhaps at this 
time superior to all other provincial troops in America. The 
Provincials were troops raised in the Colonies at the expense of the 
Provincial Government, and were distinct from the Rangers, who 
were independent companies paid by the British Government. They 
served at Havaunah, at Louisburg in the first siege under Pepperell, 
and with Wolfe at Louisburg and Quebec, and afterwards served to 
form the groundwork of Washington's army in 1775. 

After the fall of Fort William Henry in 1758, it was said that the 
Marquis de Montcalm sent a number of prisoners taken at that 
place, in a vessel to Halifax. They were Provincial soldiers, 
chiefly from the New England provinces. This was said to have 
been an attempt to introduce the small pox into Halifax, many of the 
men being ill of the disorder on their embarkation. Providence, 
however, frustrated this benevolent design. The prisoners being 
kept on low diet, half starved, and exposed to the cold, soon 

* Governor Cornwallib reduced the Rangers. He thought Goreham very incom- 
petent to command them. 

36 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

recovered, while the French in charge of the vessel, having indulged 
in the use of wine and strong fare, were thrown down with the 
disease, and nearly all perished. The vessel was brought into port 
by the prisoners.* 

In the spring of 1751, nine hundred and fifty-eight Protestant 
German settlers arrived, and in the following year 1000 more.f 
The latter were from Montbeliard, of the Confession of Augsburgh, 
and were placed under the spiritual charge of the Rev. J. B. 
Moreau. They had been induced to emigrate by promises from 
King George II, which it is said were never realized. Considerable 
difficulty appears to have been experienced by the Government in 
providing a suitable situation for settling so large a number of 
persons. The original design with regard to the foreign Protestants 
was to place them in the interior of the country, on the lands 
unoccupied by the French Acadiaus, it being supposed that their 
proximity to and intercourse with the French, would be the means 
of lessening the bad feeling which had been fostered by emissaries 
from Canada. The project was unfavorably received by the 
Acadians. There were, however, other difficulties in the way of its 
accomplishment, of a particular nature, which compelled the Govern- 
ment to abandon the object. The want of sufficient provisions to 
maintain so many settlers through the winter, the lateness of the 
season, and the helplessness of a large portion of the Germans, who 
were unfit for labour, induced the Government to place them in the 
neighbourhood of Halifax. It was at first proposed in Council to 
send them to the opposite side of the harbour over against George's 
Island, and Captain Morris was sent to survey the grounds. The 
mouth of Musquodoboit River was also suggested, and a survey of 
that part of the country ordered, but the distance from Halifax and 
the danger of the Indians, rendered the scheme impracticable. " All 
I could do," says the Governor, "was to build boarded barracks 
for them. They must be sustained by Government until they are 
capable of raising something of their own ; most of them are poor 
and wretched, and have scarce a farthing of money among them." 

These people had been collected together by a Mr. Dick, the 
Government agent for that purpose. He had persuaded these who 

* This story was related by the late Titus Smith, who received it from his father, 
t The names of the settlers who arrived after June and July, 1749, are not to bo 
found among the records of the country. 

History nj Halifax City, 37 

came out this year to sell everything tlvey possessed even to their 
bedding, before going on board ; and they stated that owing to the 
want of bedding and other conveniences, many of them died on the 
passage and since their arrival. Many of these people are repre- 
sented as very old, and as objects fitter to be kept in almshouses, 
several of them above 80 years of age. The Governor in his letter 
to the Board of Trade, says, "On the 2Gth September last, when 
the last of these settlers were landed, there were 30 of them who 
could not stir off the beach, and among the children there were 8 
orphans, who in twelve days increased to 14 by the death of their 
parents. These had to be removed to the public orphan house, and 
had the best care taken of them." Many of these settlers became 
discontented with their condition, and went off to the Island of St. 
John, where they endeavoured to settle themselves. The difficulty 
of procuring provisions was very great. The Government appears 
to have been altogether dependent on the contracts of Althorp and 
Hancock of Boston, and Delaney and Watts of New York, for the 
necessary supplies for the settlement. 

In June, 1733, about 1500 of these German settlers embarked 
for Malagash Harbour, west of Mahoiie Bay, where they afterwards 
built the town of Lunenburg. They were accompanied by a 
company of Rangers under Major Goreham. The expedition was 
placed under the command of Col. Charles Lawrence. There were 
also some regular troops, under Major Patrick Sutherland, who took 
a very active part in planting the settlement. Lieutenant John 
Creighton, of Warburton's Regiment, also accompanied the German 
settlers, and also the Rev. .1. B. Moreau, who officiated as their 

The Lunenburg settlers were placed under similar regulations 
with those at Halifax, and received Government allowance for 
several years after their arrival at Malagash. 

After the removal of the Germans from Halifax to Lnnenbmg, 
there were but 1T> German families left in the north suburbs. \<>i 
knowing any Knglish, they formed themselves into a separate 
congregation for religious worship, and built themselves a small 
house upon the German burial ground on Brunswick street, in which 
they had prayers every Sunday. Jn 17<>0, a steeple was built on 
this house, and the next year the Rev. Dr. Breyntou, Rector of St. 

38 Noivi Scotia Historical Society. 

Paul's, preached there for the first time, and it was on that occasion 
dedicated by the name of St. George's Church. The congregation 
followed the English Church rules of doctrine and appointed their 
Elders and Vestry. This old building still remains in its primitive 
state, the only monument now remaining of the old German settle- 
ment, called Dutchtown. 

In October, 1752, Mr. Cotterall was appointed to the Council, 
and John Duport sworn in Clerk of the Council. An order in 
Council and proclamation appeared on the 14th of November, 
forbidding persons from assembling or carrying about effigies on the 
anniversary of the holiday, called Gunpowder Treason, being the 
16th of November, according to the alteration of the style. 

At the Council held on the 22nd December, 1752, the Justices 
were ordered to look out for a proper place for a bridewell or work- 
house, and to form a plan for the building of a block-house for that 
purpose, and to obtain an estimate of the probable expense, and to 
report rules and regulations for the government of the same. The 
Constables were to go about the streets on Sundays to prevent 
disorders, and to make a report to the Justices in the evening after 
divine service, and to apprehend disorderly persons during the 
night. Proprietors of land were obliged to fence their quota ; on 
failure, to be liable to an action for the recovery of the charges for 
fencing the same. 

All proprietors of land upon the peninsula of Halifax were 
directed to clear half their lots by 1st May, 1753, to clear the 
remainder and fence the whole by 1st May, 1754, otherwise the lots 
would be forfeited and be disposed of to others who would improve 
them. And an order was made for permission to John Connors, to 
assign the Dartmouth Ferry to Henry Wynne and William 

Among the local events recorded this year, was a robbery in one 
of the King's storehouses, which was broken open on the night of 
the 26th October. There was also a cartel published by Governor 
Hopson, for the exchange of prisoners with the French Government 
in Canada. 

The most important circumstance of the year, however, was a 
charge against the Justices of the Inferior Court of Common Pleas, 
sent in to the Council by a number of the most influential inhabi- 

Ifixtory of Halifax C*!ti/. 

tauts, charging them with partiality, and praying for a public 
hearing. This document was presented to the Council in December, 
and was signed by Joshua Mauger, Joseph Rundel, Isaac Kuott, John 
Grant, Francis Martin, Edward Crawley, Richard Catlierwood, 
Robert Campbell, William Nesbitt, John Webb, William McGee, 
Sebastian Zouberbuhler, Samuel Sellon and Isaac Deschamps. 
These charges came on for hearing before the Council on 3rd 
January 'following ; they consisted of ten distinct charges against 
Charles Morris, James Monk, John Duport, Robert Ewer and 
William Bourn, Esquires, Justices of the Inferior Court of Common 
Pleas, for- the Town and County of Halifax, and were signed by the 
following inhabitants : 

Joshua Mauger. 
S. Zonberbnhler, 
Samuel Sellon, 
Edward Buckleton, 
James Porter, 
Daniel Wood, 
Jonathan (iifford, 
William Schwartz, 
Edward Crawley, 
William Jeff ray, 
Vere Rons, 
Francis Martin, 
John Brooks, 
Henry Wilkinson, 
William Nesbitt, 
John Woodin, 
James Ford, 
George Featherstone, 
Thos. Mattison, 
Joseph Antony, 
Alex. Kedy, 
James Fullon, 
William Murray, 

Louis Triqnet, 
William Clapham, 
John Webb, 
Robert Catlierwood, 
John Walker, 
Geo. Peter DeBreg, 
Richard Hollis, 
Henry Sibley, 
Edward O'Brien, 
Henry O'Brien, 
Thos. Wynne, 
John (4 rant, 
William Vanselson, 
Cheyne Bro-vnjohn, 
Richard Tritton, * 
Edward Lukey, 
Cyrus Jannin, 
John Willis, 
Roger Hill, 
Js. Deschamps, 
Robert Grant, 
William McGee, 
Joseph Rundel. 

This affair arose from a dispute which occurred between the 
Government, and Captain Enhraim Cook, who had been discharged 

40 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

from the Commission of the Peace by Governor Cornwallis for bad 
behaviour, and appears to have been the result of party feeling. 

It resulted in additional numbers being added to the bench of 
Magistrates, and the Governor and Council availed themselves of 
this affair to urge upon the Government the necessity of having a 
Chief Justice. 

The necessity of a properly organized Militia force being kept up, 
had become apparent, in consequence of the continual threats of 
hostility on the part of the Indians and native French ; it was there- 
fore resolved on 22nd March, 1753, that a Militia should be raised 
and established for the security of the Province, and a proclamation 
was accordingly issued, compelling all persons (except foreigners, 
who were to be placed elsewhere) between the ages of 16 and 60, to 
serve in the Militia. 

On the first day of June, another proclamation was issued for a 
muster of the Militia. Those of the south suburbs to assemble 
within the pickets opposite the end of Harrington Street, near 
Horseman's Fort. Those of the north suburbs, between the Grena- 
dier Fort and LutteraFs Fort, and those of the town on the 
esplanade, near the Citadel Hill. 

On the 12th of April, 1753, Glaude Gisigash, an Indian who 
styled himself Governor of LaHave, appeared before the Council, 
and having declared his intention of making peace, terms of amity 
were drawn up and signed by the Governor and the Indian Chief, on 
the part of himself and his people. The terms were the same as 
those made with Major Cope, and it was arranged that some of his 
tribe should come up and ratify the treaty. 

Governor Hopson went home on leave in the autumn of 1753, and 
the government was administered by Col. Lawrence. In one of his 
last letters to the Hoard of Trade, in reference to the disturbed state 
of the country, Governor Hopson says, "Your Lordships ma}' 
imagine how disagreeable it is to me to see His Majesty's rights 
encroached upon, and those encroachments openly avowed and 
supported by the Governors of Canada and Louisburg, when it is 
not in my power to prevent it. I have barely a sufficient force to 
protect the settlers from the insults of an Indian war, under 
pretence of which the French take an opportunity to commit 
hostilities upon His Majesty's subjects. I am informed that the 

History of Halifax Cit>/. 41 

French have often been mixed among them in the expeditions, 
and am convinced past doubt that they are fed and protected from 
our pursuit, and are encouraged to disturb us as openly and in as 
great a degree as in time of war." 

There were three still houses in Halifax in 1753. Mr. Best the 
master mason, and Mr. Clewley the master carpenter, having been 
ordered to inspect them. The return was as follows : 

Mr. Richard Bowers, 2 stills in Granville Street. 

AVm. Murray, 1 still in Graf ton Street, reported not safe. 

Jonathan Gifford, 1 still in Barrington Street. 

October 16th, Mr. John Greenwood presented a petition to the 
Council, stating that he had paid passage for 12 men, 1 woman and 
2 children, foreign settlers, with the Governor's leave. They 
engaged to serve him for a year, but having been removed to 
Lunenburg by the Governor's orders, he lost their services ; he was 
allowed 79 5s., the labour of 12 men for 96 days. 

Governor Hopson took leave of the Council on 26th October, and 
received an address on his departure. He sailed for England on the 
2nd November following. 

On the 16th November, two Indians appeared before the Council, 
who had been sent from Lunenburg by Col. Sutherland. They stated 
they were of the tribe of Cape Sable Indians, which consisted of 
about 60 people with two chiefs ; that Baptiste Thomas, one of 
their priests, was one of their chiefs, and the other Francis Jean de 
Perisse was not a chief, but deputed by the other chief. They 
stated that they had never joined with the other Indians to molest 
the English ; that on the contrary they had always exhibited a 
friendly spirit, in consequence of which they had never received any 
assistance from the French. The Council gave them 2000 pounds 
of bread, 3 barrels of pork, 20 blankets, 30 pounds powder, some 
shot, tobacco and other articles, also two gold-laced hats for their 
chiefs, and one silver-laced for the deputy. 

The close of this year was occupied by the Governor and Council, 
in investigation of the riots which occurred at Lunenburg, known as 
the Hoffman Rebellion. It was found necessary to send Col. 
Monkton with a body of regular troops to suppress the riots. Mr. 
Hoffman, the supposed ringleader, was brought to Halifax and 

42 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

imprisoned on George's Island. He was afterwards tried and 
sentenced to a fine of 100 or two years imprisonment. 

It may be proper to advert to the religious condition of the settle- 
ment at this period. The greater portion of the inhabitants were 
at this time of the Church of England. The Protestant Germans had 
nearly all united themselves to that Church, and sought mission- 
aries from the S. P. G. Society. 

The Rev. John Breynton succeeded Mr. Tutty in St. Paul's. In 
1752, he reported that half of the population had professed them- 
selves members of the Church, and that the actual communicants 
were between 500 and 600. 

Mr. Breynton established an Orphan House, and the Orphan 
School was under his superintendence. In 1753, fifty poor children 
were diligently instructed. Ralph Sharrock was the school-master. 
In 1753, the Rev. Thomas Wood from the Province of New Jersey, 
was appointed to assist Mr. Breynton, and he remained jointly in 
/charge with Mr. Breynton until 1763, when he was removed to 

It may here be observed, that on the establishment of Repre- 
sentative Government at Halifax, in 1758, among the first acts of 
the Assembly, was that for the support of Religious Worship, which 
contained a clause for the free toleration of all Protestant dissenters, 
whether Lutherans, Calvinists, etc., completely exempting them 
from all charges for the support of the Established Churoh. By 
this act, the right of the parishioners of St. Paul's and all future 
parishes, to present their own minister to the ordinary for induction 
was declared, and immediately after its publication, the parishioners 
of the parish of St. Paul's, in the Town of Halifax, presented the 
Reverend John Breynton and the Reverend Thomas Wood as joint 
Rectors, or " Rector and Vicar," as they were called, to the 
Governor, who immediately went through the form of induction, a 
ceremony thought necessary in order to entitle them to privileges of 
incumbents. The record of this fact will be found in the correspon- 
dence of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel at that 

During the winter of 1753-4, there had been no disturbance from 
the Indians, and the Government availed themselves of the oppor- 
tunity of sending out proper persons to make a survey of the 

History of Halifax City. 43 

country around. The winter was mild and the frost not so severe 
as usual or of so long continuance. The valley of the Shuben- 
acadie had been examined, but it was not found available for 
settlement, being the principal resort of the Indians tinder Cope. 
The Township of Lawrencetown including Chezzetcook, had also 
been undertaken, and further grants of land in that quarter of the 
country were sought for in the following spring. 

The desertion of many of the lower orders of the German settlers 
at Lunenburg is mentioned ; they appear to have gone over to the 
French. Governor Lawrence in his letter to the Board of Trade, 
August 1st. 1754, speaking of the French, says, " Thay have not 
for a long time brought anything to our markets, but on the other 
hand have carried everything to the French and Indians." 

At this time the land was being cleared for the Battery at the east 
side of the harbour, the site probably of the present eastern battery. 
A fort was also in progress of erection at Lawrencetown when the 
settlement was progressing, not having been disturbed by the 
Indians. This settlement had been formed by Governor Lawrence 
in consequence of the good meadow lauds at the head of the 
harbour, and he granted the township to 20 proprietors and built a 
blockhouse for their protection. But the undertaking was not 
prosperous, and finally failed to answer the object intended, owing 
to its exposed situation and the distance from Halifax. 

The arrival of the Vulture, sloop-of-war, Capt. Keuzey, from the 
Bay of Fundy, produced much excitement in the Town ; she brought 
several prisoners charged with murder, who were lodged in jail to 
take their trial before the General Court.* 

Benjamin Street, Samuel Thornton and John Pastree, were placed 
on their trial for the murder of one of the midshipmen and a sailor 
of the Vulcan. It appeared on the trial that a schooner, of which 
the parties charged were part of the crew, commanded by one 
Hovey, belonging to Boston or some part of New England, was 
found trading in the Bay of Fundy and supplying the French with 
provisions, etc. Capt. Keuzey sent a boat aboard Hovey's shallop, 
under the idea that he had contraband goods on board. The crew 
refused to allow the man-of-war boat to come alongside, and fired 

* Mr. Nisbett was Attorney General at the time. Ho had been acting in that office 
since the Spring of 1752. 

44 ifova /Scotia Historical Society. 

into her, killing Mr. Jolly and wounding several others. Hovcy, 
the master, appears to have gone below and hid himself during the 
whole affair. He was discovered in his berth by the officer in com- 
mand of the man-of-war boat, after the sloop had been captured. 
This affair occurred in July, 1754, and the trial took place before 
the Chief Justice in Michaelmas Term of that year. This was the 
first sitting at which Chief Justice Belcher presided. The three 
prisoners were acquitted of the murder, but it would appear they 
were found guilty of the minor offence, as they were sentenced to 
six months imprisonment, and afterwards placed on board a man- 
of-war (1755). Joseph Hovey, the master, was discharged, the 
grand jury refusing to find a bill of indictment against him. 

The following appointments were made by the grand jury in 
Michaelmas Term, 1754 : Gaugers of Casks, Paul Pritchard and 
Lewis Piers ; Surveyors of Pickled Fish, Henry Ferguson and Daniel 
Hills ; Cullers of Dry Fish, Charles King and E. Gerrott ; Cullers 
of Hoops and Staves, Dennis Heffernan and Benoni Bartlett ; 
Surveyors of Lumber, etc., Joseph Scott and Joseph Marshall; 
Surveyors of Cordwood, Samuel McClure, Josiah Milliken and 
Joseph Wakefield. 

On Monday 14th October, 1754, Jonathan Belcher, Esq., was 
sworn in Chief Justice. The Court then adjourned to the Court 
House, where His Majesty's Commission was read, appointing Lt. 
Governor Lawrence, Governor General of the province. Mr. 
Belcher's appointment bears date in July. At the commencement 
of Michaelmas Term, the following ceremonies and procession were 
observed, the first of the kind ever seen in Nova Scotia. On the 
first day of Michaelmas Term, the Chief Justice walked from the 
Governor's house honoured by the presence of His Excellency 
Charles Lawrence, Esq., Lieutenant Governor, and accompanied by 
the Honourable the Members of H. M. Council, proceeded by the 
Provost Marshal, the Judge's tipstaff, and other civil officers, the 
gentlemen of the Bar attending in their gowns, and walking in 
procession to the long room at Pontach's, where an elegant break- 
fast was provided, where the Chief Justice in his scarlet robes, was 
received and complimented in the politest manner, by a great 
number of gentlemen and ladies, and officers of the Army. Break- 
fast being over, they proceeded with the commission before them, to 

History of Halifax City. 45 

church, where an excellent sermon was preached by the Rev. Mr. 
Breyuton, from these words : "I am one of them that are peaceable 
and faithful in Israel." A suitable anthem was sung, after which 
they proceeded to the Court House, which upon this occasion was 
very handsomely fitted up, where the Chief Justice being seated 
with his Excellency the Lieutenant Governor on his right hand 
under a canopy, the clerk of the Crown presented His Majesty's 
commission to the Chief Justice, appointing him to be Chief Justice 
within the province, which being returned, and proclamation for 
silence being made, the same was read, and directions were given 
by the Chief Justice for the conduct of the practitioners, and the 
grand jury appearing in Court upon the return of the precept, were 
sworn and charged by the Chief Justice, and the business of the day 
being finished, the Court adjourned. His Honor the Chief Justice, 
accompanied and attended as before, returned to the Governor's 
house. A few days after Mr. Chief Justice Belcher, the Provost 
Marshal, the gentlemen of the Bar, and other officers of H. M. 
Supreme Court, and the gentlemen of the grand jury, waited on his 
Exellency the Lieutenant Governor, when the Chief Justice, in his 
robes of office, addressed his Excellency in the name of the whole, 
as follows : 

" SIR, We esteem it our indispensable duty to testify our zeal, 
" as Chief Justice, provost marshal, grand jurors, practitioners and 
" officers of H. M. Supreme Court of judicature, for the interest of 
" this province, and the protection of its laws, our attachment to your 
' person, and our respect and gratitude for your eminent services, 
" by expressing our joy in His Majesty appointing you to the chief 
" command of this his dominion of Nova Scotia. We shall ever 
" consider it as essential to our fidelity in the execution of the laws, 
" to exert our most vigilant endeavors for the ease and success of 
" your administrations, and not only to suppress any measures 
t' subversive of your consultations for the public good, but at all 
u times affectuate the means prescribed by you for the prosperity of 
" the province. Our solicitude for the advancement of justice 
" under the laws, cannot be more fervently expressed, than by tho 
" tender of our ardent wishes for your being and happy continuance 
" in the chief chair of this Government," 

46 Nova Scot fa Historical Society. 

To which his Excellency the Lieutenant Governor was pleased lo 
make the following answer : 

" Mr. Chief Justice and gentlemen of the Supreme Court and 
" grand jury : 

" I have the highest sense of this testimony of your zeal for the 
" public welfare and your esteem for me. I should be much 
" wanting in my duty if I did not embrace this opportunity of return - 
" ing my thauks for the late pious, learned and eloquent charge from 
" the Bench, and I doubt not, gentlemen, but your vigilance and 
" fidelity in the service of your country will have its desired effect. 

" While I have the power to sit in the chair, be assured the 
" authority of Government shall be ready to support the law, for 
" the law, gentlemen, is the firm and solid basis of civil society,, the 
" guardian of liberty, the protection of the innocent, the terror of 
" the guilty, and the scourge of the wicked. 


Governor Lawrence in his letter of 12th January, 1755, says, " I 
am now preparing to build three batteries of 10 guns each in front 
of the town, and contemplate finishing them in good time. These 
batteries were erected along the line of the shore. The middle or 
King's battery stood where the Queen's wharf now is, there was 
another at the present Ordnance Yard, another near the site of 
Fairbanks wharf, and a fourth at the present Lumber Yard, which 
latter still remains." 

The batteries along the front of the town were completed during 
the summer of 1755, and a plan of them sent to England in June of 
that year, They were twelve feet in height above high water mark, 
two hundred and forty feet in length, and sixty-five in breadth. 
The parapet raised on these was seven feet high, and the materials 
consisted of logs and timber framed and filled up with gravel, 
stones, earth and sand. The materials consisted of 9500 logs of 25 
feet, 1280 tons of square timber and 25,000 tons weight of gravel 
and earth, the whole expense about 5,300. The work was com- 
menced in January, 1755, and completed late in the summer. 20 
guns were mounted on these three batteries in July of that year 
the other batteries were afterwards added. 

An attempt was made this year to involve the Government in a 
dispute with the Indian tribes. Paul Laurant, an Indian Chief of the 

History of HnUfar- City. 47 

Mic-Mac tribe, appeared before the Council oil 12th February, 1755, 
and informed them that he and another Indian Chief named 
Algamud, had set out from Beausejour for Halifax in order to treat 
of peace, but that the Chief had fallen sick at Cobequid and had 
intrusted him with the proposals. They demanded the whole 
eastern section of the Province, from Cobequid to Canso, to be set 
apart for them as feeding and hunting grounds. Being asked what 
security he could give that the Indians would keep the peace, he said 
he could say nothing to that, being only desired to bring in the 
terms. The Council dismissed him with a promise of an answer in 
writing. An answer in writing was drawn up and signed by the 
Governor on 13th February, 1755, which expressed a willingness on 
the part of the Governor and Council to allow them such lands as 
would be sufficient for their purposes. It mentioned the perfidious 
breaches of all former treaties on the part of the Indians, and where 
their conduct was complained of that the Tribes themselves had 
disallowed all authority on the part of their Chiefs to make such 
treaties, and that the Governor and Council demanded a full attend- 
ance of Chiefs before them, with full power to treat, before any 
further proceedings could be taken. 

On the 3rd and 4th July, the Council was engaged with the 
French Deputies, again on 14th, 15th and 28th same month. 

The defence of the settlement was the next subject of delibera- 
tion and the protection from the incursions of the French along the 
Bay of Fundy and from Louisburg, both nations being at the time 
arrayed against each other in open warfare. 

On the 18th February, 1755, Mrs. Green, wife of Hon. Benj. 
Green, and her family. Captain Horatio Gates and Mrs. Gates, with 
Captain Hale and their servants and baggage, were received on 
board Captain Rogers' sloop for Boston. Captain Gates had been 
one of the Aides-de-Camp of Governor Cornwallis, he was after- 
wards a General in the American Revolutionary Army.* 

The loss of the Mars, a 70 gun ship, occurred off the harbour in 
May, 1755. It was in an easterly gale and supposed to be the fault 
of the pilot. Guns and crew were all saved. The Mars rock at 
the western entrance of the bay marks the spot. The guns and 
stores were brought to Halifax. Admiral Holborn's letter announc- 

fsee Biographical note in the last Chapter. 

48 Nora Scotia Historical Society. 

ing the loss of the ship bears date the 28th May, off Halifax 

30th December, 1755, Montague AVilmot and Charles Morris, 
having been appointed to the Council, were sworn in. The other 
members were John Collier, Mr. Cotterell, Robert Monkton and 
Captain Rons. 

A number of French prizes, taken by the fleet under Admiral 
Boscawen, were this summer brought into Halifax. There were in 
these 19,998 gallons of rum and brandy. 

A Mr. Ellis had for several years held the office of Governor of 
Nova Scotia, and received the emoluments, but never came out. Lt. 
Governor Lawrence received the appointment of Governor-in-Chief 
on the resignation of Mr. Ellis, and Colonel Monkton became Lt- 
Governor ; their commissions were read and they sworn into office 
on 23rd July, this year. 

The following census of the town appears to have been taken 
about 1755 or 175G : 

Masters of families paying poor tax . . . 256 
Male children between 12 and 21 years of age 182 

Male children under 12 291 

Transient persons who pay no taxes . . . 108 


Married women , .... 241 

Girls unmarried above 12 years old. . . . 261 

Girls under 12 years of age 345 

Women servants 71 


The only other event of this year worthy of notice was the 
following melancholy affair detailed in Col. Sutherland's letter from 
Lunenburg, dated 12th September. "Yesterday," he says, "1 
received the melancholy account of Mr. Payzant's house being burned 
in Mahone Bay, and that he himself and other people who were with 
him, were killed by the Indians. I immediately sent out an officer 
and party, which returned this morning, by whom I am informed 
that on Payzant's Island the house is burned, he with another young 

History of llalijax City. 49 

man killed and scalped, a woman servant and child also killed and 
scalped near the water side. His wife and four children missing. 
The young man was son to a family which lived on Captain Rons's 
Island. As his hands were tied the gentlemen immediately con- 
jectured some further mischief was done there, and on their arrival 
they found the man thereto belonging, likewise scalped. It appears 
that Captain Rous's is the most advanced settlement, that they 
first came there and took the boy to conduct them to Payzaut's.'' 
Mr. Payzant caane to this country with a strong recommendation 
from Mr. Pownall, secretary to the Board of Trade. The death of 
James Payzant, Esquire, a clerk in the office of the Secretary of 
State, of the age of 100 years is announced in the London Gazette 
for 1757. This was probably the father of the gentleman who came 
out to Halifax, to whom Mr. Secretary Pownall's recommendation 

1756. January 26th, the term of Henry Wynne and William 
Manthorn's licences of the Dartmouth and Halifax ferry having 
expired, John Rock petitioned and obtained the same on the terms 
of his predecessors. 

On the 30th June, 1757, Lord London arrived at Halifax with 
the troops from New York, destined for the invasion of Cape 

Saturday, 16th July, 1757, His Excellency acquainted the Council 
that the Earl of London had this day represented to him that a 
fever had broken out among the troops, under His Lordship's 
command, occasioned by the great quantities of rum that were sold to 
the soldiers by unlicensed retailers, and if continued must prove of 
fatal consequences to the service ; and unless steps were immediately 
taken to effectually stop the same, he would feel himself justified in 
ordering all liquors found in the possession of such unlicensed 
retailers to be destroyed. The Council empowered the Provost 
Marshal and his deputies to enter such houses, seize the liquors and 
place them in the King's store until the army and navy departed. 

On the 1st November, 1757, the grand jury of the County of 
Halifax petitioned the Governor and Council on behalf of the 
inhabitants of the town, that the town should be put into some state 
of defence " for the preservation of the place, the inhabitants, their 
families and effects." They stated that the property, etc., was 

50 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

insecure from the want of proper defences ; that the people were 
willing to assist in the work, and intimated that if their prayer 
could not be heard, humbly beg that they " may immediately know 
it in order to take the first opportunity of conveying themselves, 
their families and effects, to a place of safety in some of the neigh- 
bouring Colonies." A previous petition had been presented to 
the Governor, to which no answer had been returned. The names 
attached to the petition were, Robert Saunderson, Joseph Rundell, 
John Anderson, Paul Pritchard, Hugh McCoy, Joseph Fairbanks, 
William Schwartz, Robert Campbell, William Pantree, John Killick, 
John Brooks, Henry Wilkinson, Walter Manning, John Slayter, 
Richard Catherwood, Joseph Pierce, Alexander Cunningham, 
Richard Tritson, Jonathan Gifford and Benjamin Leigh. 

The boundaries of the Township of Halifax were settled by order 
in Council 20th May, 1758, as follows: That until said township 
can be more particularly described, the limit thereof shall be deemed 
to be as follows : 

To comprehend all the lands lying southerly of a line extending 
from the westernmost head of Bedford Basin, across the northerly 
head of St. Margaret's Bay, with all the Islands near to said land, 
together with the Islands called Coruwallis Island,* Webb's and 
Rous' Island. f 

Minutes of Council 21st June, 1758: Mr. Josiah Marshall 
proposed to build a workhouse, 50 feet long, 20 feet wide and 8 
feet high, in the town. The timber to be laid close, with a roof 
double boarded and shingled ; to have 4 windows on each side, each 
window to have nine panes of glass and three iron grates ; to have a 
staircase in the entry and a whipping post. The building to be 
placed on a good dry wall. Mr. Marshall's tender for 200 sterling, 
finding materials and labour, was accepted. 

To Charles Morris, Joshua Mauger and Charles Proctor, 
Esquires. " Whereas, it has been thought proper to convert to the 
" use of the piiblic, a piece of laud called Goreham's Point and the 
"lands next ajaceut, lying in the north suburbs of Halifax, 
"formerly allotted to sundry persons, who have cleared and 
" improved the same and erected some buildings upon them; they 

* Now McNab's. 

t Now known as Lawlor's and Devil's Islands. 

History of Halifax Gity. 51 

" were directed to value the lands and proportion each owner's 
" extent therein, and report to His Excellency. Dec. 9th, 1758." 

This is the site of the Commissioners' House in the present 

December 9th, 1758. Peter Marquis de Conte and Gravina, 
convicted for intent to commit rape on a child under the age of ten 
years, was sentenced by the Court to walk between the hours of 11 
and 12 this day from the north to the south side of the Parade, and 
from thence to the jail with a paper placed on his breast with his 
crime inscribed thereon, and to be confined for three months and 
fined thirty pounds ; to remain in jail till the same be paid. 
Governor Lawrence remitted the first part of this sentence. The 
Marquis de Conte was a Sicilian nobleman ; he had been an officer in 
Goreham's Rangers. 

December 29th. 1758. It appears by an advertisement of this 
date, that Governor Lawrence had wells sunk and pumps erected as 
reservoirs against fires, and that they had been damaged by some I/ 
unknown person. His Excellency caused them to be put in repair. 

Governor Lawrence, in his letter to the Board of Trade, 3rd 
November, 1759, mentions that the masonry of Sambro Light House 
had been some time finished, and that the lantern was then in 
progress of erection. That a chart of the harbour was also in 
progress, as also proper directions for piloting in ships with safety. 
Copies of these directions were enclosed in his letter. 

It appears that in the year 1758, the Governor appropriated out 
of the old crown duty money for the Light House 1,000, for the 
Work House 500, for the Church 400, and for the Meeting 
House 100. 

Again in 1760, for the Light House 987 5s. 5d. 

" 452 10 10 

" 635 6 8 

2075 2s. lid. 

For the Work House 5,456, for the Church 350 18s. 6., 
Meeting House 174 Os. 4d., Jail 208 11s. 9d. 

Captain Rons was placed in charge of the Light House, a post 
which he occupied for many years. This was not Captain John 
Rons, the member of Council, but a relative of his from New 

52 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

21st December, 1758. The Governor and Council appropriated 
the sum of 400, raised by duties on liquors, towards the church in 
Halifax, under the direction of Benjamin Green, John Collier, 
Charles Morris, Robert Sauuderson and Henry Newton, commis- 
sioners for that purpose. 

[Extract of letter from Louisburg, June 9th.] 

"Admiral Saunders, with the squadron under his command, 
" arrived in good condition on the 21st April off Louisburg, but on 
" account of ice blockading the harbour, was obliged to bear away 
" on the 26th for Halifax, whence he arrived on the first of May." 

June 16th, 1759. Peter Marquis de Coute and Gravini, was 
released from his imprisonment, he having paid his fine. This 
gentleman died at Halifax. His will is recorded in the probate 

Thursday 16th August, 1759, William Cotteral, Robert Grant and 
Montague Wilmot, Esquires, Councillors, being absent from the 
Province, the Governor appointed Richard Bulkeley, Thomas Saul 
and Joseph Gerrish, who were this day sworn in and took their 

February, 1760, two Indian Chiefs attended the Council, and 
were presented with laced blankets, laced hats, etc. They were 
informed that the same would be sent to the Chief of the St. John's 
Indians, and that the treaty of peace would be ready to be signed 
to-morrow, and if the wind was favourable they should embark on 

In Council llth March, 1760, the Governor appointed the Hon. 
Jonathan Belcher, Benjamin Green, John Collier, Charles Morris, 
Richard Bulkeley, Thomas Saul and Joseph Gerrish, Esquires, and 
William Nesbitt, John Duport, Joseph Scott, John Creightou, 
Sebastian Zouberbuhler, Edward Crawley, Charles Proctor and 
Benjamin Gerrish, Esquires, to be justices of the peace for the town 
and county of Halifax. Charles Morris, John Duport, Joseph 
Scott, Joseph Gerrish and Edward Crawley, Esquires, to be justices 
of the Inferior Court of Common Pleas for the county of Halifax, 
to the several of whom His Excellency then administered the oath 

History of Halifax City. 53 


Notwithstanding the advantages held out by Government to the 
settlers at Halifax, and the repeated large grants of money by 
Parliament, the people were rapidly removing to the old Colonies. 
Little progress had been made in clearing the country. The fishery, 
one of the main inducements of the settlement, was almost alto- 
gether neglected, and the population was reduced to much less than 
half its original number. They subsisted chiefly on the money 
expended by the Army and Navy, and were dependent on Boston 
for their provisions and many other necessary supplies. 

In 1755, Dr. Breyntou, the minister at St. Paul's, estimated the 
inhabitants of Halifax at 1,300, eight hundred of whom professed 
themselves members of the Church of England ; and again in 1763, 
eight years later, according to the Doctor's returns to the Propaga- 
tion Society, the number was still found not to exceed one thousand 
and three hundred souls ; nine hundred and fifty of them being of 
the Church of England, and three hundred and fifty Protestant 
Dissenters and Roman Catholics. 

Up to the year 1757, the enormous sum of 560,000 sterling had 
been expended on the settlements, and though in some respects the 
Colony had been considered a failure, yet in a military point of view- 
it was of incalculable importance to Great Britain, and to its 
position as a naval and military depot may be ascribed in a great 
measure the downfall of the French power in America. 

On 30th June, 1757, Lord London with his transports and 12,000 
regulars and provincials arrived at Halifax, and on July following, 
Admiral Holborn arrived with his fleet. This armament, which 
was destined for an attack on Louisburg, left Halifax early in 
August, but having proved a failure the fleet returned to England in 
September, but London returned with his army to New York ; they 
both left Halifax on the same day, I6th August. Holborn arrived 
at Louisburg on 20th, where finding the French fleet superior to his 
own, lie continued to cruise off Louisburg harbour until 24th 
September, when he encountered a severe gale of wind which 
scattered his fleet, several ships were lost, eight sail got safe to 

54 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

Portsmouth, and the rest got to New York. This powerful 
armament consisted of 13 sail of the line the Newark 80 guns, 
Invincible 74, Grafton 68, Terrible 74, Northumberland 68, 
Captain 68, Bedford 64, Orford 68, Nassau 64, Sunderland 64, 
Defiance 64, Tilbury 64, Kingston 60, Windsor 54, and the 
Sutherland 50, with several others which afterwards joined them, 
and 16 smaller vessels of war. The naval forces amounted 10,000 
men, and the land forces to 12,000, six thousand of whom were 
provincial troops. London left three regiments at Halifax, and 
several of the vessels remained to winter here. 

In May of this year the Governor and Council offered a bounty 
for sowing laud with grass on the peninsula of Halifax, also for 
the erection of stone fences around the lots, and for raising grain 
and potatoes. 

London was succeeded in the supreme command by Abercrombie, 
another incompetent a debilitated old man who remained in com- 
mand for a short time. He was succeeded by Sir Jeffrey Amherst. 

In the following spring about 12,000 troops arrived at Halifax, 
under the command of General Amherst. They were soon followed 
by Admiral Boscawen from England with a large fleet consisting of 
23 ships of the line and 18 frigates. This great fleet arrived in 
Halifax harbour in May, 1758, accompanied by 120 transports. 
The land forces amounted to 12,260 men. On Sunday, 28th May, 
they set sail from Halifax, 157 vessels in all. They were met by 
General Amherst, with part of the force, as they went out of the 
harbour. Governor Lawrence accompanied the army and took 
command of one of the Brigades, Colonel Monkton being left in 
command during his absence. 

After the siege, which was protracted for two months, part of the 
fleet and army returned to Halifax, and some of the vessels 
remained to refit. The colony was sacked for provisions and the 
town turned into a camp for the troops. A number of the 
provincial soldiers and others, having enriched themselves with the 
spoils at Louisburg, became settlers in the town. All the ammuni- 
tion and stores, with a quantity of private property, were removed 
to Halifax, and the town once again began to assume a prosperous 

History of Halifax City. ;jf> 

This year was also memorable as the one in which Repre- 
sentative Government was establised in Nova Scotia. The subject 
of calling a Legislative Assembly had undergone much discussion. 
It had been represented by the Governor and Council, to the 
authorities in England, that such a step at that particular time 
would be fraught with much danger to the peace of the colony. 
Chief Justice Belcher, however, having given his opinion that the 
Governor and Council possessed no authority to levy taxes, and 
their opinion being confirmed in England, it was resolved in Council 
on 3rd January, 1757, that a representative system should be 
established and that twelve members should be elected by the 
province at large, until it could be conveniently divided into 
counties, and that the township of Halifax should send four 
members, Luuenburg two, Dartmouth one, Lawrencetowu one, 
Aunapolis Royal one, and Cumberland one, making in all twenty 
two members, and the necessary regulations were also made for 
carrying into effect the object intended. 

Much discontent prevailed in the town, and also in other parts of 
the province, in consequence of the opposition of Governor 
Lawrence to the calling of a Representative Assembly. Hitherto 
the Government had been carried on solely by the Governor and 
Council, who possessed both Legislative and Executive authority, 
ruder the Royal instructions the Governor was directed to call a 
Representative Assembly as soon as the circumstances of the 
country would permit, but the Governor was of opinion that it 
would be injudicious to proceed to a popular election until the 
country was better prepared for it. After repeated remonstrances 
from the people of Halifax and some pressure from his Council, 
it was on the 7th January resolved in Council that an assembly 
should be called, and a plan was drawn up and submitted to the 
Board of Trade for the sanction of the home government. "We find, 
however, that in February following it was resolved by the inhabi- 
tants of Halifax to petition the Crown against the conduct of 
Governor Lawrence, not only as regards his unwillingness to 
establish a representative government, but his oppressive and 
overbearing conduct in other respects to many of the leading 
inhabitants. This petition was entrusted to one Ferdinando Paris, 
a gentleman in London, accompanied by affidavits and a power of 

56 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

attorney, conferring on him authority to represent the subscribers 
before the Privy Council and the Board of Trade and Plantations. 
A subscriptoii was set on foot, and about 120 sterling subscribed, 
to meet the expenses of the application to Government. These 
documents were certified by Chief Justice Belcher as authentic, on 
14th March. As these proceedings bear date in February, 1757, it 
is probable that the resolution of the Council of the 7th January 
had not been made known. The petition and power were signed by 
the following residents of the town who reputed themselves as a 
committee appointed by the people for the purpose of forwarding 
their views : Robert Saunderson, William Pautree, Malachi Salter, 
Jonathan Binney, Otto Wm. Schwartz, Robert Campbell, Henry 
Ferguson and John Grant. These papers were also accompanied by 
a copy of an address from the people of Halifax to Lt. Governor 
Robert Monkton, praying that certain sums of money, collected as 
rum duties, etc., might be expended on the fortifications of the town 
as a protection to the inhabitants, and offering to contribute both 
labour and money for the purpose. It also complains of the 
" miserable management of those who have had the direction of the 
defences." This petition bears date 19th October, in the same 
year. The language of one of the letters addressed to Mr. Paris, 
the request on the subject of the Halifax grievances and the over- 
bearing military rule of Governor Lawrence, bespeak much 
excitement to have existed in the town on the subject. The feeling 
appears to have prevailed principally among the leading inhabitants. 
We find that the list above referred to was signed by Mr. Binney, 
Mr. Salter, Mr. Pantree, Mr. Schwartz, Dr. Grant, Mr. Saunderson, 
Mr. Fairbanks, Mr. Robt. Campbell, Mr. Butler, Mr. Suckling, 
Mr. Vanput, Mr. G. Gerrish, Mr. Gibbon, Mr. Wiswell, Mr. Mason, 
and many others. 

On the first of November following, the Grand Jury of Halifax 
petitioned Governor Lawrence that some immediate steps may be 
taken to fortify the town so that the inhabitants might be placed in 
a more secure position in case of invasion. They refer to a petition 
presented to Lt. Governor Monkton on the same subject, to which 
no reply had been made, and concluded by asking that they might 
know without further delay what they were to expect ; that if no 
further security is to be provided for the settlement they may have 

7//,s7o/7/ f Halifax City. 

an opportunity of conveying themselves, their families and effects to 
a place of greater safety in some of the neighbouring Colonies. 
The names of the Grand Jury were Robert Saunderson, Joseph 
Rundell, John Anderson, Paul Pritchard, Hugh McKay, Joseph 
Fairbanks, William Schwartz, Robert Campbell, William Pautree, 
John Killick, John Brooks, Henry Wilkinson, Walter Manning, 
John Slayter, Richard Catherwood, Joseph Pierce, Alexander 
Cunningham, Richard Tritton, Jonathan Gifford and Benjamin 

On Monday, the 2nd of October, 1758, the newly elected members 
met in the Court House in Halifax, pursuant to summons from the 
Provost Marshall ; their names were as follows : 

Joseph Gerrish, 
Robert Sauudersou 
Henry Newton, 
William Foy, 
William Nesbitt, 
Joseph Rundell. 



William Best, 
Alexr. Kedie, 
Jonathan Biuney, 
Henry Ferguson, 
George Suckling, 
Robert Campbell, 
Willm. Pan tree, 
Joseph Fairbanks, 
Philip Hammond, 
John Fillis, 
Lambert Folkers, 
Phijip Knout. 

>K (V^*- 

They sent Messrs. Nesbitt, Newton and Rundell, to wait on the 
Governor, who sent Messrs. Morris and Green from the Council to 
swear them in. They then chose Robert Saundersou their speaker, 
which was confirmed by the Governor, who addressed them as 
follows : ' ' Gentlemen of the Council and House of Represent- 
atives : His Majesty having been most graciously pleased by his 
royal instructions to his Governors of this Province to direct the 
calling an assembly of the freeholders to act in conjunction with his 
Governor and Council as the Legislative Authority, when such a 
measure should be fonud essential to his service ; I am to assure 
you that it is with particular pleasure 1 now meet you convened in 
that capacity, in consequence of a plan some time since formed here 
for that purpose, with the advice and assistance of His Majesty's 

5 Nova /Scotia Historical /Society. 

Council, and by me transmitted to the Lord Commissioner for 

Trade and Plantations to be laid before His Majesty for his 


" Gentlemen of the House of Representatives : 

" I entertain the most sanguine hopes that yon are come together 
" unanimously disposed to promote the service of the Crown, or in 
" other words, the real welfare and prosperity of the people whom 
" you have the honour to represent, in every point to the utmost of 
" your authority and capacity. 

" This, I presume, you will conceive is justly to be expected, not 
" only from the immediate regard due to the Civil Rights and 
" Interests of your constituents, but likewise from the unspeakable 
" obligations you are under to demonstrate in their behalf your 
" dutiful sense of His Majesty's paternal concern for the prosperity 
" and security of those his subjects in those distinguishing marks 
" of his royal favour and protection which we have from time to 
" time so happily experienced in the fleets and armies sent out for 
" our immediate preservation when we were under the most imminent 
" danger of being swallowed up by a merciless enemy; also in the 
" ample supplies of money for so many years annually granted for 
" the support and encouragement of this infant colony ; and more- 
" over still, in the continuance of His Majesty's royal bounty for 
" that purpose, when from the seeming inclination of the inhabitants 
" to have an assembly convened some time since, it might have 
"been presumed, and indeed by an article of His Majesty's 
" Instructions, which I shall order to be laid before you, it has been 
" judged that the Colony has become capable of providing for the 
" necessary support of government here, as has been usual in all 
" His Majesty's other American Dominions. 

" Gentlemen of both Houses : 

" As my Military occupation requires my attendance as early as 
" possible upon the Commander-in-Chief of the Forces to the West- 
" ward, and as the Lieutenant Governor is now necessarily employed, 
" and will be for some time to come, upon an enterprise of 
" importance in a distant part of the province, there is not at 
" present an opportunity of entering upon such particulars as might 
' ' otherwise call for your attention ; I am therefore earnestly to 
" recommend to your serious consideration the expediency, or rather 

History of Halijax City. 59 

"' the necessity of unanimity and dispatch in the confirmation of 
" such Acts or resolutions of a legislative nature, as the Governor 
" and Council under His Majesty's Royal Instructions have found 
" expedient, before the forming of an assembly and indispensably 
' necessary for promoting the welfare and peaceable Government of 
" this people. 

" You may depend upon it, Gentlemen, on my return to the 
" Government you will find me perfectly disposed to concur with 
" you in enacting such further laws, making such amendments to 
" the present ones, and establishing such other regulations as shall 
" appear upon more mature deliberations to be consistent with the 
" honour and dignity of the Crown and conducive to the lasting 
" happiness of His Majesty's subjects where I have the honour to 
" preside. 


The House then resolved that the members should all serve with- 
out pay for the session. The calling of the Legislature had been 
delayed till the autumn in consequence of both the Governor and 
Lt. Governor being absent with the Army at Louisburg. Governor 
Lawrence came up to Halifax from Louisburg specially to meet the 

The Governor in his letter to the Board of Trade about this time 
noticed particularly the serious effects on the settlement of the 
enormous importation and retail of spirituous liquors, and expressed 
a hope that the Legislature would check it. 

On 2nd July, 1761 (second session) the House voted 50 for a 
public clock in the Town. 

The following year (1759) Halifax was again the rendezvous for 
part of the fleet and army both before and after the siege of Quebec ; 
not a few of the more enterprising settlers followed the camp and 
enriched themselves during the war. Admiral Darell with 4 ships 
of the line arrived in Halifax Harbor in April and left for the St. 
Lawrence on 5th May. 

At the news of the victory, the town was illuminated, and fire 
works, bonfires and other public entertainments lasted several days. 

Between the years 1759 and 1763 the harbor had been the 
constant resort of the squadrons under Lord Colville and others ; 

60 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

the place was enlivened by the presence of a large army and navy, 
and at the close of the war several gentlemen of condition were 
induced to become settlers. 

Peace having been proclaimed in 1763, the 28th day of December 
of that year was solemnized at Halifax as a day of thanksgiving on 
account of the termination of the war. Though the town possessed 
all the advantages to be derived from the presence of the naval and 
military forces, the resident population did not increase. From the 
notitia parochials of the Rev. Dr. Breynton, the Rector of St. Paul's, 
the number of inhabitants in the town did not exceed 1300 souls. 
However, in 1769, six years after, the Doctor makes the following 
return : Inhabitants in and about Halifax including Garrison , 
Acadian French and fishermen, by the late public survey 5000 souls, 
of which 200 are Acadiaus and 55 protestaut dissenters. The number 
of births that year was 200 and the deaths 190. 

Among the local occurrences of the year 1759, was the trial of 
Thomas Lathum, baker, for the murder of Lieutenant Collins of the 
Royal Navy. It appeared that Mr. Collins, Captain Sweeney, 
Doctor Johns, Mr. Fulton and others of the Navy, had been sipping 
at the house of one John Field, and late in the evening proposed to 
go out in search of some women with whom one of them had made 
an engagement. They knocked at the door of one Hewitt, and 
inquired for Polly. On being refused admission, it appeared that 
Thomas Lathum, the brother-in-law of Hewitt, who lived in the 
neighbourhood, hearing the noise, came to his own door and 
demanded of the gentlemen in the street whether they intended to 
rob Mr. Hewitt. They replied that they were gentlemen and not 
robbers. Some further words provoked a scuffle, in which Fulton 
was dragged by Lathum into his house. The affair terminated in 
Lathum discharging a gun after the party, and mortally wounding 
Collins. Captain Sweeny had previously called the guard, who 
shortly after the affair arrived and took Lathum into custody. 
Lathum was tried on the 24th April, 1759. 

The names of the grand jury, who found the bill of indictment, 
w-ere Michael Francklin, foreman, Charles Proctor, Abraham 
Bowyer, Walter Manning, James Quinu, Nathan Nathans, J. 
Peruette, John Craig, Terrence Fitzpatrick, John Kerby, Jonathan 

History of Halifax City. 61 

Pierce, James Porter, Henry Sibley, J. Flanagan, Michael Moloney, 
Robert Cowie, Charles Terlaven, Jonathan Gifford and James 

On the llth March, 1760, the following gentlemen were appointed 
Justices of the Peace for the county of Halifax, viz. : The Hon. 
Jonathan Belcher, Hon, Benjamin Green, Hon. John Collier, Hon. 
Charles Morris, Hon. Richard Bulkeley, Hon. Thomas Saul, Hon. 
Joseph Gerrish, William Nesbitt, John Duport, Joseph Scott, John 
Creighton, Sebastine Zouberbuhler, Edward Crawley, Charles 
Proctor and Benjamin Gerrish, and on 30th December following, 
Malachi Salter, Alexander Grant, Jonathan Binney and John 
Burbidge were added to the number. Messrs. Morris, Duport, 
Scott, Gerrish and Crawley were appointed Justices of the Inferior 
Court of Common Pleas. 

Governor Lawrence, who had been for 7 days ill, died of inflamma- 
tion of the lungs on the morning of the 19th October, 1760. The 
Council were immediately summoned, and Chief Justice Belcher 
sworn in to administer the Government. A question had arisen on 
a previous occasion, between Mr. Belcher and Mr. Green, as to the 
eligibility of the Chief Justice to the office of administrator of the 
Government, which was decided in favour of the Chief Justice, but 
some years after, the question was determined by the British 
Government declaring that the two offices of administrator of the 
Government and Chief Justice, should never be held by the same 

It was resolved in Council, that the funeral of the late Governor 
should be at the public expense, and a monument to his memory 
was afterwards voted by the Assembly to be placed in St. Paul's 

The funeral of Governor Lawrence took place on the Thursday 
following, 24th October, at 4 p. m. The procession began from 
Government House as follows : 

The Troops in Garrison, the Military Officers, two field pieces G 
pounders, the Physicians, the ministers, the corpse in a coffin 
covered with black velvet, and the pall, to which were affixed 

"The inscription to be placed on this monument is given at full length in the 
Gazette of that day, but it was not to be found among those which cover the walls of 
old St. Paul's. There is, however, an escutcheon with the arms of Lawrence on the 
east gallery. 

G2 Nova ficotia Historical Society. 

escutcheons of His Excellency's arms, supported by the President 
and the rest of His Majesty's Council. 

The Mourners, the Provost Marshall, the House of Assembly, the 
Magistrates, the Civil Officers, the Freemasons and a number of the 
inhabitants. The Bearers, Clergy, Physicians and all Officers, Civil 
and Military had linen and cambric hat-bauds. 

The corpse was preceded near the church by the orphans singing 
an anthem. The pulpit, reading desk and the Governor's pew, were 
covered with black and escutcheons, and a most pathetic Funeral 
Sermon was preached by the Reverend Mr. Breynton, Rector of the 
Parish, after which the corpse was interred on the right side of the 
Communion Table. 

Minute guns were fired from one of the batteries, from the time 
the procession began, until the interment, when the whole was 
concluded with thi'ee volleys from the troops under arms. 

The Supreme Court, which began on Tuesday following, was 
hung in mourning and escutcheons. 

The following fulsome eulogium, to the late lamented Governor, 
appeared in the newspapers of the day : ' ' The Lieutenant Governor 
"was possessed of every natural endowment and acquired, accom- 
" plishment necessary to adorn the most exalted station, and every 
' ' amiable quality that could promote the sweets of friendship and 
" social intercourse of human life. 

"As Governor, he exerted his uncommon abilities with unwearied 
" application, and the most disinterested zeal in projecting and 
" executing every useful design that might render this Province and 
" its rising settlements flourishing and happy. He encouraged the 
" industrious, rewarded the deserving, excited the indolent, protected 
" the oppressed and relieved the needy. His affability and masterly 
" address endeared him to all ranks of people, and a peculiar great - 
" ness of soul made him superior to vanity, envy, avarice or 
" I'evenge. 

" In him we have lost the guide and guardian of our interests, 
" the reflection on the good he has done, the anticipation of great 
" things still expected from such merits, and circumstances which, 
" while they redound to his honour, aggravate the sense of our 
" irreparable misfortune," 

History of Halifax C'fh/. 03 

About the end of October, Commodore Lord Colville arrived in 
the harbor with the Northumberland and three other ships of the 
line and several frigates from Quebec. The Sloop-oMVar England 
also arrived from England with dispatches and next day sailed for 
Louisburg and Quebec. Several transports also came in about the 
same time with Col. Montgomery's Highlanders to relieve the two 
battalions of the 60th Royal Americans. 

Among the advertisements in the Halifax Gazette of 1st November, 
17(50, is the following : 

" To be sold at public auction, on Monday the 3rd of November, 
at the house of Mr. John Rider, two Slaves, viz. : a boy and girl, 
about eleven years old ; likewise, a puncheon of choice old cherry 
brandy, with sundry other articles." 

1759. Among the town officers nominated by the Grand Jury 
this year were, John Fillis, Richd. Weuman, Richd. Gibbon and 
"Win. Schwartz as Commissioners of the poor for the town. 

Surveyors of Highways, Chas. Morris, Esq., Chas Proctor, Esq., 
Mr. Wm. Prescott and Mr. John Rider. 

This year an Act of the Legislature was passed to regulate the 
Sambro Light House at the entrance of Halifax Harbor, which had 
been erected the previous year at the expense of 1000. The Work 
House was also erected this year. Firing guns within the town 
and peninsula was forbidden in 1758 under a penalty. 

The accession of King George the Third was proclaimed at 
Halifax on the llth February, 1701, with great ceremony. The 
proclamation was first read at the Court House door,* then at the 
north gate of the town,f at Government House, at the south gate,J 
and lastly on the Parade, where the troops were drawn up and a 
salute fired by the artillery. Lord Colville's fleet being in the 
harbour at the time, "each ship fired a Royal Salute, beginning 
with his Lordship's flagship the Northumberland." 

The order of the procession on this occasion was as follows : 
1st, A Company of Grenadiers; 2nd, Constables of the Town ; 3rd, 

' Now Northnp's corner, Buckingham and Argyle Streets. 

t At this period there was a fence on the north side of what is now called Jacob St. 
and a gate near the opening of Brunswick St., in front of the North Barrack old 
parade, some say further north . 

J The situation of the south gate is uncertain ; there were several south gates, it 
was along Salter Street, probably in a line with the old forts known as LnttraTfl um! 
Jiorsenwn's Forts. 

G4 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

Magistrates ; 4th, Civil Officers of Government ; 5th, Constables ; 
6th, The Provost Marshall with two deputies on horseback ; 7th, a 
Band of Music ; 8th, Constables ; 9th, The Commander-in-Chief of 
the Province, the Honorable Jonathan Belcher, with Admiral Lord 
Colville and Colonel Foster, commandant of the Garrison, and the 
members of His Majesty's Council; 10th, the Speaker and the 
members of the House of Assembly, followed by the principal 
inhabitants. At three o'clock the company waited on the Com- 
mander-in-Chief at Governor Lawrence's head tavern, where a very 
elegant entertainment was provided for them, and after dinner His 
Majesty's health was drunk under Royal Salute from the Batteries, 
also other toasts, and the evening concluded with great rejoicings 
and illuminations, bon-fires and artificial fire works, played off by 
the Royal Artillery. A sermon was afterwards ordered to be 
preached (13th February, 1761) in St. Paul's Church, on account of 
the decease of the late King, and all public amusements were 
ordered to cease for one month from that day. The 17th was / 
accordingly set apart and the sermon preached by the Rev. T. "^ 
Wood, the Curate. Part of St. Paul's church was hung in black, 
and minute guns were fired for an hour and a half, and the flags on 
the Citadel and George's Island were half-mast during the day. 

On the llth day of February, 1760, two Indian Chiefs of the 
Passamaquoddy and St. John River tribes, came to Halifax with 
Colonel Arbuthnot and appeared before the Council, and by their 
interpreter, settled with the Governor terms of peace, renewing the 
Treaty of 1725 and giving hostages for their good behaviour. At 
their request truck houses were established at Fort Frederick. 
Benjamin Gerrish, John Collier and Thomas Saul were appointed a 
Committee to prepare the Treaty in French and English, which was 
to be taken back with them to be ratified by their tribes. It was 
arranged that Colonel Arbuthnot should accompany them, and that 
they should be sent back at the public expense, after which His 
Majesty's health was drunk and the Chiefs returned to the quarters 
assigned them by the Governor. On the 13th the Treaty was 
ratified in Council and the Indians and the Governor and Council 
settled the table of the prices to be established at the track houses. 
The Indians stated that the number of their tribes, men, women and 
children, was about 500, During the sitting of the Council on the 

History of Halifax City. 65 

13th, Roger Morris, oiie of the Mic-Mac Indians, appeared and 
brought with him three Frenchmen who were lately arrived from 
Picton, and another Indian called Claude Renie, who said he was 
Chief of the Tribe of Cheboudie Indians. He stated that he had left 
70 of his people at Jeddore ; the men were out killing moose and 
their families were in want of provisions. It was arranged that 
provisions should be sent to them and that the men should forthwith 
come up and conclude a peace. 

Treaties of peace were afterwards concluded on 10th March 
following with three Mic-Mac Chiefs, viz., Paul Laurent, chief of 
the Tribe of LaHave, Michael Augustine, chief of the Tribe of 
Richibucto, and the before-mentioned Claude Renie, chief of the 
Cheboudie and Musquodoboit Indians ; the treaty was signed in 
Council on that day and they received their annual presents. Another 
treaty of peace was signed in Council on 15th October, 1761, with 
Jannesvil Peitougawash, Chief of the Indians of the Tribe of 
Pictock and Malogomish, and the merchants and traders were 
notified that the Indian trade to the eastward would be thrown open 
under regulations in the following spring. The following summer 
Joseph Argunault, Chief of the Mongwash Indians, with a number 
of followers, appeared before the Council and executed a final 
Treaty of peace. The members of Council and Legislature, with 
the Magistrates and public officers, attended on the occasion. 

The Abbe Mallaird being introduced, interpreted the treaty to the 
Chief, who was then addressed by the Hon. Mr. Belcher, the Com- 
mauder-in-Chief. The treaty was respectively signed by the 
Commander-in-Chief and the Indian Chief, and witnessed by the 
members of the Council present, the Speaker of the Assembly and 
Mr. Mallaird.* The Chief then addressed Mr. Belcher in the 
following manner : That he had formerly paid obedience to another 
King, but that he now acknowledged King George 3rd for his only 
lawful Sovereign, and vowed eternal fidelity and submission to him ; 
that his submission was not by compulsion, but that it was free and 
voluntary with his whole heart, and that he should always esteem 
King George 3rd as his good father and protector. That he now 
buried the hatchet in behalf of himself and his whole tribe, in token 

*NOTE. This document is not to be found among the papers preserved In the 
Secretary's office at Halifax. 

66 Nuca /Scotia Historical Society. 

of their submission, and of their having made a peace which should 
never be broken upon any consideration whatever. The Chief then 
laid the hatchet on the earth, and the same being buried the Indians 
went through the ceremony of washing the paint from their bodies, 
in token of hostilities being ended, and then partook of a repast set 
out for them on the ground, and the whole ceremony was concluded 
by all present drinking the King's health and their Haggas. This 
ceremony is said to have been performed in the Governor's garden, 
westward of the old English burial ground, where the Court House 
now stands. Benjamin Gerrish, Esquire, was appointed Commis- 
sioner of Indian Affairs, and additional truck houses were built and 
other arrangements made throughout the Province for more 
effectually carrying on the Indian trade. 

On the 30th December, 1760, Malachi Salter, Alexander Grant, 
Jonathan Binney and John Burbidge were appointed Justices of the 
Peace for the Town of Halifax. Mr. Burbidge was a member of 
Assembly ; he afterwards removed to the country and settled in 
Cornwallis township, where his descendants now remain. 

The French having invaded the British settlements in Newfound- 
land, and captured the fort of St. John, a council-of-war was called 
at Halifax, for the purpose of consulting on means of the defence 
of the town in case of an attack. This Council was composed of 
Lt. Governor Belcher, Col. Richard Bulkely, Halifax Militia, Major 
General Bastead of the Engineers, Col. William Foster, Lt. Col. 
Hamilton, Lt. Col. Job Winslow, and the Right Honorable Lord 
Colville, commander-iu-chief of the squadron. They met on the 
10th July, 1762, and continued their sittings until 17th August. 
They recommended to Government the embodying a portion of the 
militia force, and that the Batteries on George's Island, Fort George, 
Point Pleasant and East Battery should be put in repair and guns 
mounted, and the erection of such works around the town and at the 
Dockyard as might be considered necessary for the protection of the 
place. The whole to be placed under the superintendence of 
General Bastead of the Engineers. Some of the old works were 
put in repair and others added on this occasion, but the cause of 
alarm having subsided, further expense was deemed unnecessary. 

At the first settlement it had been found necessary to occupy not 
only every elevated position in the vicinity, but also large spaces 

History of Halifax City. 67 

around the town as at first laid out, for the purposes of defence and 
other military objects. After the necessity for those defences had 
ceased, it frequently occurred that the military commanders would 
lay claim to the grounds as military property, and in this way 
obstacles had continually arisen to the extension of the town, a 
grievance which has continued to be felt until the present time. 
Those whose duty it was to plan and lay out the town appear to 
have been guided more with a view to the construction of a military 
encampment than that of a town for the accommodation of an 
increasing population. The narrow blocks and small dimensions of 
the building lots have been found to be a continual drawback on the 
comfort, the health and the convenience of the inhabitants, and of 
late years these inconveniences have been severely felt in the business 
parts of the city. This, however, was not the case in laying out 
the north and south suburbs ; here the lots were of ample dimensions, 
and though the streets were not of the width frequently met with in 
modern cities, yet of sufficient dimensions to ensure comfort. It is 
to be regretted that the town and city authorities, during the last 35 
years, have not, as in other places, exerted their authority in the 
arrangement and laying off of building lots, and by wholesome 
regulations, prevented the crowding of buildings on pieces of land 
not sufficiently deep to admit of proper ventilation. It is also a 
matter of the utmost importance to the future welfare of the city 
that those lands now in the hands of the military and naval boards 
in various directions around the city which are not immediately 
required for military woiks should be handed over to the Civil 
Government for public promenades and other useful purposes. 

July 18th, 1768. The Chiefs of the tribes of Indians of St. 
John's River, named Pierre Thomas and Ambroise St. Aubon, 
appeared before the Council with the following requests : They 
said the use of rum and spirituous liquors was too common among 
them, and requested that a remedy might be thought of to prevent 
it. They also required lands for cultivation, and that they should 
not be required to bear arms in case of war with any of the 
European powers. That some further regulations of prices in their 
traffic should be made, and several other matters, all of which 
appear to have been granted them. They desired to return home as 
soon as possible, that their people might not be debauched with 
liquor in the town. 

68 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

This year (1768) Mr. Joshua Mauger retired from the office of 
Agent of the Province in London. Mr. Mauger came up from 
Louisburg with the army and resided in the town as a distiller of 
rum, and followed the camp for several years. He received grants 
of land from the government in various parts of the province. The 
beach at the south-west extremity of Cornwallis Island, now known 
as McNab's Island, was named after him. Mr. Mauger was 
afterwards elected a member of the British Parliament. 

In the month of May of this year was presented to the Legislature 
the celebrated revolutionary document known as the Massachusetts 
or Boston Letter. This was a letter addressed by Speaker Cushin 
of the House of Representatives at Boston, to the Speaker of the 
Assembly in Nova Scotia. It bears date February 11, 1768, and 
was on the subject of the differences existing between the British 
Government and the American Colonies, then on the eve of revolt. 
This letter is couched in very moderate but firm language ; it 
appears to have been received, however, with great indignation by 
the House, who declined to have it read. A memorial was presented 
to the Governor and Council in March, 1767, by Colonel Dalrymple, 
then commander of His Majesty's troops at Halifax, complaining of 
the undue occupation of grounds about the town, on which there had 
been palisaded forts and lines of defence. It appeared that 
Governor Lawrence had granted certain small tracts of land on 
which a palisaded line of defence had formerly been, and that such 
tracts of land could not be supposed to come into use on any future 
occasion for fortifications. That Colonel McKellan of the Engineers 
had advised the situation of the Work House with an enclosure, in 
the front of said line, and that a whole bastion of two curtains of 
LutterelFs fort were covered by it, and that Governor Lawrence had 
further laid out more of such grounds on which part of the 
palisading of Horseman's Fort formerly stood, all of which it 
appeared he did by an undoubted right of the power given him by 
the King's Commission, to erect and demolish fortifications, and 
therefore to convert the ground to other uses, it being no more 
serviceable for the former purposes. But it also appeared that none 
of the Barracks were ever granted or admitted into private occupation. 
That Governor Lawrence had admitted the occupation of some of 
the ground reserved for fortification, on condition it should be 

History of Halifax City. 69 

surrendered when the King's service should again require it, by 
which it was evident that the King's rights in their lands had been 
sufficiently secured. Horseman's fort occupied the ground in the 
vicinity of the present Roman Catholic Cathedral. Lutterell's 
fort stood where the old Poor House and County Jail formerly 
stood. In June, 1763, the Council recommended the Governor to 
make a grant of the Common for the Town of Halifax to trustees 
for the benefit of the inhabitants. The Trustees were John Collier, 
Charles Morris, Richard Bulkeley, William Nesbitt, Charles Proctor 
V and Richard Best. Some question having arisen as to the limits of 
the common, the Council were unanimously of the opinion that the 
lands which had been granted without the town were not within the 
limits of the Common as appeared by the plan thereof laid before 
the Lords of Trade, and which had not been disapproved of by their 
Lordships. No copy of this plan is now to be found. 

The number of families residing in and around the town in 1763 
was estimated at 500, which would make the population about 2500 
souls. There was also supposed to be, at this time, about one 
thousand Acadian French in and about the town. 

In June, 1763, the Hon. Montague Wilmot was sworn in Lieut. 
Governor in place of Mr. Belcher. In the following year he 
received the appointment of Governor-in-Chief . 

On the 29th day of September, 1766, the Germans, who had been 
located to the west of the peninsula, the settlement now known as 
the Dutch Village, petitioned the Government that a convenient 
road should be laid out for them to their settlement. The Surveyor 
was ordered to report on the petition. He reported that he found 
the road from the north German lots to the southward of George 
Bayers' stone wall, now laid out, in the most convenient place, and 
that the road should be at least four rods wide. That from George 
Bayers' stone wall the road should be on the south side of said wall 
and thence to run until it meets the public road leading to the town. 

About this time, at the request of the Magistrates, the Hospital 
was granted for an alms house. This hospital was established very 
early for the use of the settlers, and stood on part of the land now 
occupied by the Government House, to the north of that building. 

The church of St. Paul's had now been for some years finished, 
and the Town and vicinity had been, by an Act of Legislature, 

70 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

constituted into a parish with corporate powers in the church 
wardens and vestry. After the death of Mr. Tutty, the Reverend 
Thomas Wood, from the Province of New Jersey, was appointed to 
assist Dr. Breynton, and he and the doctor were jointly inducted 
into the parish in 1758 ; Dr. Breynton as rector, and Mr. Wood as 
vicar or curate, to assist. Mr. W. continued at St. Paul's until 1763, 
when he was removed to Annapolis Eoyal with the consent of the 
Governor and the church wardens and vestry, when the whole duties 
of the Mission at Halifax devolved upon Mr. Breynton. Mr. B. was 
in the habit of officiating to the Germans in their own language. 
In 1761, he preached in German and English to the small congrega- 
tion in the old Dutch church in Brunswick Street, on occasion of its 
being dedicated as the church of St. George. In 1770, at the 
solicitation of the Governor and Council, the Chief Justice and the 
congregation of St. Paul's, he received from the University of 
Cambridge the degree of D. D., to which he was entitled from his 
standing in the University. Early in his ministry the Doctor 
established in the Town an orphan school, and provided for the 
tuition of 50 poor children, through the assistance afforded him by 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. Mr. Ralph 
Sharrock, a discharged soldier, was his first schoolmaster. In 
1776, Dr. Breynton mentions in his report to the Society, having 
administered the Lord's Supper to 500 men of the Baron de Seiltz's 
German regiment in their own language "whose exemplary and 
regular behaviour" he says, "did them great honour." The 
following extract from a document, in reference to Dr. Breynton, 
said to have been written by a Dissenter, is given by Mr. Hawkins, 
from the records of the Propagation Society: " As a person who, 
during a residence of upwards of twenty years in this Province, has 
deservedly gained the good will and esteem of men of all ranks and 
persuasions. He preaches the Gospel of peace and purity, with an 
eloquence of language and delivery, far beyond anything I ever 
heard in America." He lived to a good old age, preserving the 
esteem of his fellow townsmen to the last. He appears to have 
lived on terms of Christian fellowship with the clergy of other 
denominations, as we find that at the annual meeting of the Church 
Society, which took place in St. Paul's in 1770, the dissenting 
ministers all attended at the Church to hear the doctor preach his 

History of Halifax City. 71 

Visitation Sermon. One of the last acts of his ministry was the 
establishment of a Sunday School in the city. This was about 
1783, perhaps a little later, and was the first Sunday School 
instituted in Nova Scotia. 

In the month of July, 1769, a large number of Indians, many 
of whom at this time appear to have been Protestants, attended 
divine service in St. Paul's Church, when prayers were read by the 
Reverend Thomas Wood, in the Mic-Mac language, the Governor 
and many of the principal inhabitants being present. The Indians 
sang an anthem both before and after the service. Before the 
service began a Chief came forward, and kneeling down, prayed for 
the prosperity of the Province and the blessing of Almighty God on 
King George, the Royal family and the Governor of the Province. 
He then rose up, and Mr. Wood, who understood the language, at 
his desire explained the prayer in English to the whole congrega- 
tion. When service was ended the Indians returned thanksgivings 
for the opportunity they had of hearing prayers in their own 
language. In the following year Mr. Wood again performed divine 
service at Halifax in the Mic-Mac language at the residence of 
Colonel Joseph Gorham, where a number of Indians were 
assembled. He had obtained great influence with the Indians 
through his friendship with the Abbe Maillard, and particularly 
from his behaviour to him a little before his death. He was in 
consequence frequently called on both by the Indians and French to 
baptize their children and visit the sick in the absence of a priest of 
their own church. In one of his letters to the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel, in 1762, he mentions having attended 
the Abbe Maillard during his illness of several weeks, and at his 
request, the day before his death read to him the office of visitation 
of the sick in presence of many of the French, and having per- 
formed the funeral service of the Church of England, in French, on 
his remains in the presence of the principal inhabitants of Halifax 
and a number of French and Indians. The Governor and all the 
public functionaries attended the funeral of M. Maillard, who was 
highly esteemed and beloved in the community, and the members of 
His Majesty's Council were the pall bearers.* 

It must be understood that M. Maillard did not leave the Roman Catholic 
Church, but there being no priest of his own persuasion in Halifax at the time, he 
availed himself of the pious offices of his friend, Mr. Wood, whom he no doubt esteemed 
as a good Christian, 

72 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

Mr. Wood was shortly after removed to Annapolis Royal, where 
he died in the year 1778. While there he applied himself to a 
closer study of the Mic-Mac language, and by assistance of papers 
left him by M. Maillard was enabled to prepare a Mic-Mac 
grammar and dictionary. He sent the first volume of his grammar, 
and a Mic-Mac translation of the Creed and Lord's Prayer to 
England in 1776. He continued occasionally to minister to the 
Indians in their own language until his death. 

February 26th, 1769. Halifax harbour was so full of ice that 
vessels could not come in, which had not been the case for (says the 
Gazette for that day) ten years. The cold was intense, snow 
between four and five feet deep in the woods and on the peninsula, 
an instance of which had not been known for several years. 

May 9th, 1769. Major Leonard Lockman died after a lingering 
illness in the 73rd year of his age ; he was interred under the old 
German church in Brunswick Street, and a monument to his 
memory, with coat of arms, is yet to be seen in that church. Major 
Lockman was one of the leading settlers among the Germans. The 
street running between the German lots and Water Street in the 
north suburbs bears his name. 

In the fall of this year the town was visited by a severe gale of 
wind from the S. W., which caused the destruction of much 
property and some loss of life. 

Among the principal merchants in Halifax in 1769, the Hon. 
John Butler, uncle to the late Hon. J. Butler Dight, Robert 
Campbell on the Beach, John Grant, Alexander Brymer, Gerrish 
and Gray appear most prominent. Among the shopkeepers and 
tradesmen who advertized during the year were, Robert Fletcher on 
the Parade, Bookseller and Stationer, Andrew Cunod, Grocer, 
Hammond and Brown, Auctioneers, Robert Millwood, Blockmaker, 
who advertized best Spanish River Coal at 30s. per chaldron. 

The period between 1770 and 1776 was one of great public 
excitement, emissaries from the revolted colonies were numerous, 
and the Governor and Council deemed it expedient as early as 
1770, to prohibit all public meetings of a political nature.* The 

' Among the various exhibitions of public feeling at this period was the erection of 
a gallows, on the Common, with a boot suspended from it as a token of disapprobation 
of Ix>rd Bute's Government- 

History of Halijax City. 73 

same spring the general election took place, after which the House 
sat for fourteen years without being dissolved. 

In 1771, Governor Lord William Campbell issued a proclamation 
forbidding horse races as tending to gambling and idleness. 

October 8th, 1773. Governor Legge was sworn into office. 

The subject of fortifying the town came under the consideration 
of the Council in the following year. It was considered that the 
ground being rocky in many places around the town, it would not 
admit of entrenchments being made, and that the only practical 
fortifications would be temporary blockhouses and palisades, and it 
was resolved that the Engineers under Col. Spry do immediately 
proceed to fortify the Navy Yard in that manner, which may be 
defended by the people of the town, and afford a retreat for them. 
Any attempt at fortifying the Citadel Hill this season was thought 
to be out of the question, the season being too late, the scarcity of 
workmen very great, and there being no troops for its defence. 

The Governor proposed and it was agreed in Council to collect a 
force of 1000 men with pay and provisions, and that four com- 
panies of light infantry now forming at Lunenburg be ordered up, 
and that 100 Acadians from Clare and Yarmouth, and two light 
companies from Kings County do march immediately to Halifax. 
The public authorities appear to have been kept in a constant state 
of apprehension of invasion, while a continued suspicion of many of 
the leading inhabitants being favourable to the revolt, seemed to 
have taken possession of the mind of Governor Legge, who, having 
differences of opinion with some of his officials, attributed their 
disagreement with him on subjects of finance, etc., as marks of 
disloyalty. He at length became so obnoxious to those in 
authority, that it was deemed advisable to remove him from the 
Government. His quarrels with Jonathan Binney, Governor 
Francklin and other leading men of the town, are disclosed in the 
official letters and minutes of Council of that day. 

It was found necessary to remove the Military Stores to George's 
Island for safety, and additional batteries were erected there. The 
officers of the Town Regiment of Militia were called on to subscribe 
the Oath of Allegiance before going on duty. Those who sub- 
scribed were Col. Butler, Major Smith, Captains Vanput, Brown, 
Fiuney and Millet, Lieutenants Pyke, Piers, Solomon, Clarke and 

74 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

^Fletcher, Second Lieutenants Tritton, Jacobs, Schwartz and Kerby, 
and Adjutant Peters. Among them we recognize several family 
names, the grandsires of some of our present citizens. 

Among the magistrates appointed in 1771 were Joseph Gray, 
John Amiel and Captain Thompson of His Majesty's Ship Mermaid. 

The bureau of Governor Legge, at the Government House, was 
broken open in 1744, and a reward of 100 was offered for the 
detection of the thief. 

The condition of the Orphan House, and the children therein, 
was considered bad, and an order was issued for immediate steps to 
be taken for its being put on a better footing. 

During the winter of 1774, Sambro Light House was without 
light for five successive nights in consequence of Mr. Woodmass, 
the contractor, not having sent down a supply of oil, for which he 
was dismissed by Order of Council. 

The following year William Nesbitt, speaker of the House of 
Assembly, was appointed Gustos of Halifax County, and the names 
of Thomas Bridge and Thomas Proctor added to the Commission of 
the Peace. 

Col. Butler, commanding the militia force, reported that the 
sickness in the town, together with the daily labour of the inhabitants, 
rendered it difficult to make up the number of men ordered for the 
town guard, which duty the people considered a hardship. The 
guard was accordingly ordered by the Council to be discontinued. 

The scarcity of provisions in the town was at this time so great 
that the government found it necessary to dispatch the Snow 
Elizabeth to Quebec for flour for the inhabitants. 

The impressment of men for the Navy had been a great grievance ; 
the trade of the country was not only injured, but the town was 
becoming deprived of fish and fuel in consequence of the scarcity of 
fishermen and labourers. The merchants petitioned the Governor 
and Council on the subject. The memorial was sent to the naval 
commander of the station ; it does not appear, however, that any 
further attention was paid to the remonstrance. 

In September, 1775, it was proposed to throw up some temporary 
works in addition to the old works on Citadel Hill, and to entrench 
about the naval yard. On consideration, it was thought too late in 
this season to do any earth work on Citadel Hill. Col. Spry, 

1/iNlory of Halifax City. 75 

however, proposed the erection of Blockhouses in the neighbourhood 
of the town. It is probable the old Blockhouses at Fort Needham 
and Three Mile House, the remains of which are within the 
recollection of many of our citizens, may have been originally 
constructed about this time. They were in full repair during the 
war of 1812. 

A continual influx of strangers from the old colonies caused 
Martial Law to be proclaimed on the 30th of November of this year, 
and it was deemed necessary by the Council that a proclamation 
should be issued requiring all persons not being settled inhabitants 
of the town, who had arrived since September, to give notice of their 
arrival and names to two Magistrates, and all inn and tavein 
keepers were required to report arrivals at their houses, and vessels 
were forbidden entering the North West Arm without license. One 
thousand militiamen were ordered for the defence of the town. The 
constant arrival of loyalist refugees from the revolted colonies, 
during this and the subsequent years, rendered provisions scarce, 
and in addition to these troubles, the small-pox broke out in the 
town about the middle of July. The King's troops had all been 
removed from Nova Scotia to the revolted provinces, and the 
Governor was informed by the home authorities that no troops 
could be spared, and that the inhabitants themselves must defend the 
town. The town guard was accordingly again composed of militia. 

1775. The fifth General Assembly held this year its seventh 
session from 12th June to 20th July. Mr. Nesbitt was Speaker. 
Chief Justice Belcher presided at the quarter sessions this summer, 
and gave a very loyal address to the Magistrates and public 
functionaries present ; all Magistrates and town officers took the 
Oath of Allegiance. The general feeling throughout the town 
appeared to have been eminently loyal ; some of the leading citizens, 
however, though firm in their allegiance to the British Crown, yet 
thought that self government in the Colonies in fiscal matters was 
the correct policy. This throw several under suspicion ; Mr. John 
Fillis, Mr. Malaohi Salter and Mr. Smith, who were natives of 
Boston, were among the number. 

Mr. Legge, the Governor, proposed to raise a regiment in Halifax, 
to be commanded by himself, but was unsuccessful owing to his 

76 JVbwt Scotia Historical Society. 

In the autumn of the previous year, a difficulty had arisen 
regarding the importation of some tea, in which Mr. Smith and Mr. 
Fillis were concerned ; and it having been understood that Fillis had 
said the measures of Government were oppressive, these two 
gentlemen were ordered to be removed from all offices under 
Government. The year previous a quantity of hay belonging to 
Joseph Fairbanks, intended for the King's service, had been 
burned. Some one in Halifax sent to Boston a statement charging 
Fillis and Smith as being privy to the act. They complained to the 
House of Assembly, then in session, when the following resolution 
was passed : That this House do esteem Mr. Fillis and Mr. Smith to 
be dutiful and lawful subjects to the King, etc., and that the 
" House is unanimously of opinion that the said reports are base, 
infamous and false, and that the authors thereof merit punishment." 
The garrison having been reinforced by King's troops, the Governor 
concluded on bringing no further drafts of militia to the town. 

1776. This was a memorable year for Halifax. The British 
forces under General Howe having evacuated Boston, a fleet of 
three men-of-war and 47 transports arrived in the harbour on 30th 
March, with troops and a number of inhabitants of Boston. These 
were followed on 1st April by many more transports, nearly 100 in 
number, with the remainder of Howe's army and a number of Loyalist 
refugees. Howe demanded accommodation for 200 officers and 
3000 men, and about 1500 loyalists with their families, with supplies 
of fresh provisions, etc. Rents of houses in the town were conse- 
quently doubled and the town soon presented the appearance of a 
military camp.* Many complaints appear against the soldiers for 
pulling down the fences and demolishing the stone walls on the 
peninsula. One Christopher Schlegall had been killed in one of the 
numerous affrays with the soldiers. Three soldiers were arrested 
and tried for murder, but no convictions occurred. Several persons 
were called on to give security for their good behaviour in the town. 

Among the events of this year was the appearance in one of the 
Halifax newspapers of copies of treasonable articles from the Rhode 
Island and Boston papers. The printer was brought before the 

' ; The engravings of the town published in 1777 show the Common, west of 
the Citadel, and Camp Hill covered with tents, where a large part of the troops appear 
to have been encamped. 

History of Halifax City. 77 

Council and reprimanded and cautioned against permitting any such 
publications again to appear in his paper. 

The names of the Members of Assembly for Halifax County and 
Town in 1776 were Win. Nesbitt and Henry Smith, and Thomas 
Bridge and Joseph Fairbanks. Mr. Fenton was still Provost 
Marshall with jurisdiction throughout the province, there being then 
no County Sheriffs at this time. Henry Newton was Collector of 
Customs at Halifax, James Burrows, Comptroller, Lewis Piers, 
Ganger of Liquors, etc. 

The Magistrates of the town were John Creighton,<<Tohn Bur-' 
bidgo, Malachi Salter, Benjamin Green, John Cunningham, George 
Cotnam, John Newton, "NVinkworth Tonge, Jos. Dosbarres, Charles 
Morris, Junior, George Smith, J. Gray, Giles Tidmarsh, George 
Deschamps, Dan. Cunningham, Thomas Proctor and Thomas Bridge. 

The death of Chief Justice Belcher occurred this year. Mr. 
Morris, one of the assistant judges, was appointed to fill the office 
of Chief Justice until another should be appointed. 

1777. The jail at Halifax was at this time in a very insecure 
condition. Criminals were continually escaping from it, several of 
whom had been found guilty of being in arms against the King. 
The jailor was infirm and his wife took charge. There were no 
regulations enforced for visiting the prisoners at night, and the 
shackles on the prisoners were found not to be sufficient. The 
Provost Marshall was suspended and Mr. Bridge appointed to act 
in his place. 

Malcolm Mclntyre, Thomas Crow, John Chalk. John Sewlock, 
Samuel Miller, Robert McMullen, Tulley McKilley, Cornelius 
O'Brien, Thomas AVhitteny, John Cribben and John Mclntyre, all 
fishermen of Herring Cove, were this year rewarded for attacking 
and taking a shallop and apprehending seven persons, being part of 
the crew of an American privateer which had been driven on shore 
and destroyed by the armed brig Hope, off Canso, from which they 
had made their escape in the shallop. 

177#. The names of John Hosterman, Thomas Stevens and 
Edmund Phelan appear as Commissioners of the Poor. John Woodin. 
Keeper of the Poor House, and Thomas Brown, Schoolmaster at 

78 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

On the 13th July, 1779, the Revenge, privateer, Capt. Sheppard 
of Halifax, was taken and destroyed by two American armed 
vessels. In December following, H. M. Sloop-of-War North and 
the armed sloop St. Helena, in coming into the harbour from 
Spanish River, Cape Breton, the night being very dark and a south- 
Cast storm, were driven on shore about a league from the light 
house ; both were lost and 170 persons perished. 

1780. This year the following gentlemen were in the Commission 
of the Peace at Halifax : AVilliam Nesbitt, Winkworth Tonge, 
John Burbidge, Benjamin Green, John Cunningham, John Newton, 
Isaac Deschamps, William Russell, W. Phipps, J. F. W. Desbarres, 
Charles Morris, junior, George Smith, Enoch Rust, Joseph Gray, 
Giles Tidmarsh, John Fillis, George Deschamps, Daniel Cunningham, 
Thomas Proctor, Thomas Bridge, George W. Sherlock and John 
George Pyke. 

A public slaughter house was erected this year in the town and 
John Woodin, senior, made keeper. 

March 12th, 1780. John O'Brien advertizes as keeper of the 
tavern known as the Golden Ball, formerly kept by Edward Phelau. 
The Golden Ball was situate at the corner of Hollis and Sackville 
Streets, opposite the building now called Variety Hall, occupied by 
W. Harrington. The hotel called the Pontac, at the corner of 
Duke and Water Streets (now Roger Cunningham's corner) was at 
this time kept by one Willis. It was here the Town Assemblies, 
Public Balls and Entertainments were held. 

The Court House stood at the north-east corner of Buckingham 
and Argyle Streets, where the store of Messrs. Northup & Sons 
now is. Chief Justice Belcher presided here when first appointed. 
This building was, some years after, burned down and the lot on 
which it stood, sold. 

On the loth January, this year, the town was illuminated and 
there were great rejoicings throughout the day for the success of the 
British troops in Georgia. 

The Governor being informed from England that a large arma- 
ment was fitting out at Brest, it was resolved in Council that the 
town militia should be called out for duty and a portion of the 
country militia got ready to march to Halifax if required. General 
McLean, then in command of the Garrison, was directed to put the 

IHxtory of Halifax City. 79 

fortifications in working order. The Halifax militia was employed 
in the erection of bomb batteries. Drafts of militia from the 
country came down and were employed for three weeks on the 

At this period the means of communication between this country 
and England had been very uncertain. The intercourse of Halifax 
with the old colonies having been cut off, Governor Sir Richard 
Hughes urged on the British Government the necessity of a line of 
packets being established between Halifax and England. Several 
privateers, during this and the following years, were fitted out at 
Halifax to cruise in American waters. The Revenge, Capt. James 
Gandy, and the Liverpool, Capt. Young, the former mounting 30 
and the latter 8 guns, sailed for Halifax early this spring. They 
were accompanied by the Halifax, Robert E. Foster, master, owned 
and fitted out by Alexander Brymer, one of the principal merchants 
of the town. 

The 18th January being the Queen's birthday the citizens and 
militia had a Ball at Willis' rooms in the Pontac. 

In May, the Revenge brought in a richly laden Snow, bound from 
Cadiz to Chesapeake Bay. The Blond Frigate and an armed sloop 
both brought in American prizes. 

For several years two large ships, the Adamant and St. Lawrence, 
were regular traders between Halifax and Great Britain. They 
were regular in their trips, spring and fall, and the merchants of 
Halifax depended chiefiy on them for their supplies of British 

A government armed vessel called the Loyal Nova Scotian, and 
several other small vessels, were kept to cruise off the mouth of the 
harbour to prevent surprise from the pirates and privateer cruisers 
which infested the coast. Several were captured and brought into 
Halifax during this and the two following years. 

In May. 1779, an election for the County took place in Halifax. 
John George Pyke and Francis Boyd were the candidates. Pyke 
was returned. 

General McLean left Halifax in June with a force for the 
reduction of Penobscot. In August, a squadron, consisting of 
si'vt'ral men-of-war and some merchant vessels, among which were 
tin- Adamant and St. Lawrence, sailed from Halifax for his relief, 

80 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

The town continued to be infested with Press Gangs for the ships 
of war. The inhabitants complained to the Governor and Council. 
Several riots on the wharves having occurred in consequence of the 
press, proclamation was issued demolishing all impressments except 
under the sanction of the Governor and Council. 

October 26th, 1780. The committee of the House of Assembly, 
at this date, reported the sum of 1500 to be granted for the 
erection of a " proper and convenient building in the town for a 
public school, and a sum not exceeding 100 per annum for a 
master, and 50 for an usher when the number of scholars shall 
exceed forty." The ti'ustees were to be five in number, to be 
appointed annually by the government, and the 1500 was to be 
raised by lottery. This lottery was carried into effect, but the 
building does not appear to have been erected. How the proceeds 
of the lottery were disposed of is not mentioned. The Halifax 
Grammar School had its origin from this proceeding. It was 
established in the old building at the corner of Barrington and 
Sackville Streets, from which it has only lately been removed to the 
private residence of the Rev. Doctor Gilpin, the Head Master. This 
building was originally occupied as a place for the meeting of the 
Legislature, and was previously at one time used as a Guard House. 
It appears to have undergone very little alteration since 1780, until 
sold a year or two ago. It is one of, if not the oldest building in 
the city, except St. Paul's Church, and the old Dutch Church on 
Brunswick Street. The Rev. William Cochran, afterwards Vice- 
President of King's College, was the first head master. He was 
succeeded by the Rev. George Wright, who was Garrison Chaplain 
and minister of St. George's. On his death, in 1819, the Rev. John 
Thomas Twining received the appointment. He retired from the 
school in 1848, when the Rev. Edwin Gilpin, succeeded him. 

History of Halijax City. 8 1 


At the commencement of the year 1781 many of the Loyalist 
refugees who came to Halifax after the evacuation of Boston by the 
British Army, had left the town, and the price of provisions was 
beginning to come clown. The constant influx of strangers, how- 
ever, from the revolted colonies, with the prisoners taken in the 
prizes brought into the port by the privateers and ships of war, 
tended again to augment the population. Captains of men-of-war, 
when vessels were in port, in order to fill up their complements of 
men, undertook to impress in the streets of the town without authority 
from the civil magistrate. On the 6th January an armed party of 
sailors and marines assisted by soldiers and commanded by naval 
officers, seized in the streets of the town, some of the inhabitants 
and several coasters belonging to Lunenburg, who had cbme up in 
their vessels to sell their produce ; bound their hands behind their 
backs, carried them through the streets and lodged them in the 
guard houses, from which they were conveyed on board the ships of 
war in the harbour. The Grand Jury were in session at the time 
and presented the outrage to the Sessions, who requested the 
Governor, Sir Richard Hughes, to interfere. The Governor issued 
his proclamation declaring all such impressments, without the 
sanction of the civil authority, to be illegal and an outrageous 
breach of the civil law, and calling upon all magistrates, etc., to 
resist such proceedings and to bring the offenders to justice. It 
does not appear, however, that the proclamation was sufficient to 
procure the release of the unfortunate coasters. The names of the 
Grand Jury on this occasion were William Meaney, William Graham, 
Robert Kitts, Peter McNab, John Boyd, William Mott, William X" 
Millett, junior, John Moore, AVilliam Carter, James Creighton, 
John Cleary, Richard Jacobs and Charles Hill. 

On the 13th January, this year, died Malachi Salter, Esq., aged 
65 years. He was one of the fii'st members of Assembly for the 
town. His colleague in the representation was Joseph Fairbanks. 
Mr. Salter came from Boston to Halifax, very soon after the town 

82 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

was commenced, and carried on business as merchant. He is said 
to have visited Chebucto Harbour while engaged in the fishery, 
several years before the arrival of Coruwallis in 1749. The old 
building at the corner of Salter and Barrington Streets, formerly the 
residence of the late Hon. William Lawson. afterwards owned by 
John Esson, was originally built by Mr. Salter, and was his residence 
for many years. This is one of the oldest houses now remaining in 
Halifax. It received improvements, and was enlarged by Mr. 
Lawson, about 60 years ago. 

The School Lottery, before mentioned, was carried on this year. 
It was divided into two classes. The first to consist of 5000 tickets, 
at 20s. each, was advertised on the 25th September. The highest 
prize was $2000. The prizes in all came to 4,250, leaving a 
balance of 750 for the purposes of the school. 

The most exciting occurence of the year was the arrival of the 
Charleston Frigate, the sloop Vulture, and the armed ship Vulcan, 
in July, after a sharp conflict with a French Squadron. The 
Charleston had left the harbour a short time before in convoy of some 
transports, and while out had taken several prizes, which had been 
sent in a few days previously. On the 10th July, the Charleston 
discovered near Spanish River, Cape Breton, two French Frigates, 
of 40 guns each. Captain Francis Evans, of the Charleston, having 
thrown out signals for the transports to make for a port, bore 
down upon the enemy. The Little Jack, convoy to the Quebec fleet, 
being in company, supported the Charleston and the Vulture. 
Some time after the action began, Capt. Evans being killed by a 
cannon shot, Lt. McKay, the succeeding officer of the Charleston, 
under the direction of Capt Dennis George,* of the Vulture, 
continued the action with the greatest coolness and bravery. Nor 
was the Vulcan, armed ship, in the least deficient in giving signal 
proof of the resolute determination of the troops on board, under 
command of Capt. Ewatt, of the 70th Regiment. But notwith- 
standing the superiority of the French, after an obstinate resistance 
they were enabled to sheer off and bear away, and Capt. George 
conducted his much-shattered little squadron into Halifax Harbour. 

* Afterwards Sir Dennis George, Baronet. He was father of the late Sir Rupert D. 
George, Secretary of the Province for many years, and of Sir Samuel Hood George, 
who was for a short time member of Assembly for the County of Halifax. Capt. George 
married Miss Cochran, of Halifax. 

History of Halifax City. 83 

The Little Jack stuck to one of the French Frigates of 42 guns, but 
was afterwards recaptured. On the 31st, the remains of Captain 
Evans, were interred with military honors, under St. Paul's Church, 
where his monument is still to be seen on the east side of the chancel. 
He was a young man of great promise, and his premature death 
was a loss to the service, and shed a gloom over the town, in which 
he had made many friends. 

This year (1781), Lord Charles Montague, who had been 
Governor of one of the West India Islands, arrived at Halifax, with 
200 of his disbanded corps from Jamaica. This nobleman died at 
Halifax, from the effects of fatigue, in travelling over land from 
Quebec to Halifax, in winter. He was buried under St. Paul's 
Church, where a monument to his memory is to be seen near that 
of Capt. Evans. He was a younger son of Robert, Duke of 

1782. The continual intercourse at this time carried on with the 
revolted colonies, rendered it necessary that a more strict system of 
inspection should be adopted with respect to vessels and passengers 
entering and leaving the port ; accordingly Capt. Thomas Beamish 
was appointed Port Warden. His duty was to grant passes to all 
vessels and boats leaving, and to visit all those entering the harbour. 
No vessel or boat was allowed to pass George's Island, in the night 
time, or leave the harbour without sending a boat to the island, and 
also producing a pass from the Port Warden ; and all vessels coining 
in were to be hailed from the island, and ordered to send their boat 
on shore to the Market Slip, or public lauding, to be examined by 
the Port Warden before lauding in any other part of the town. 
The Port Warden's office was in the old building which formerly 
stood at the corner now known as Laidlaw's Corner on Water 
Street, just above the Steamboat Wharf. At this time the water 
came up as far as the spot on the wharf, where Bauld and Gibson's 
store or shop now stands. 

The Governor, Sir Andrew Siiape Hammond, went to England 
this year, and was succeeded by Governor Parr. He received a 
very flattering address from the inhabitants of the town. Ham- 
mond was esteemed a good Governor, and had gained the good will 
of the people by his courteous manners and desire to meet, as far as 
possible, the wishes of the inhabitants in all municipal matters. 

84 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

This summer 57 transports with troops, and the Renown, a fifty 
gun ship, put into Halifax on their way to New York and Canada. 
In October the Renown sent in a prize, laden with a rich cargo of 
silks, etc. The annual ships Adamant and St. Lawrence made 
their trips this season in 35 daj's. 

Among the occurences this year was the conviction and sentence 
of a man named William McLean, for street robbery, and the 
murder of a Mrs. Ann Dunbrack in July, by persons unknown. 
The grand Jury recommended McLean to mercy, but the 
Governor and Council saw no reason to grant a reprieve, and he 
was executed. Street robberies were at the time of frequent occur- 
euce in the town. 

Articles of peace between Great Britain and the United States of 
America were signed in November of this year, and with France in 
January following. 

The principal public amusements in the town during the year 
were subscription assemblies, held at the Pontac, and at Mrs. 
Sutherland's Coffee House, every fortnight. The latter establish- 
ment was in Bedford Row, opposite the Commissary offices. The 
national societies dined together, and levees were held and parties 
given at Government House on all public holidays. The Garrison 
consisted of the 70th, 82nd and 84th Regiments, with Baron de 
Seitz's* Germans. Night riots were frequent, and continual 
complaints appear to have been made before the Sessions, of signs 
being removed from shops, and windows broken. 

The views of the town and suburbs at this time show the fortifi- 
cations at Citadel Hill, Fort Needham and Point Pleasant. They 
were supposed to have been taken by one Colonel Hicks, and were 
engraved and published in London. These views were mere 
outlines. Copies of them are to be seen at the Provincial Museum, 
where there are also a series of views, very neatly executed in 
copper plate, of the Government House, St. Paul's Church and 
other parts of the town. These latter were published about 1776, 
some six or seven years before those of Colonel Hicks. 

* Baron de Seitz died at Halifax in the following year. He was buried under St. 
Paul's Church with military honors, with his full uniform, sword and spurs, according 
to the ancient custom in Germany when the last Baron of the race dies. His monu- 
ment, a quaint old German performance, may be seen in the east gallery of St. Paul's, 
with his armorial bearings, etc. Among his effects advertized for sale was his dia- 
mond ring and coach with 3 horses. 

History of Halifax City. 85 

Governor Parr and family came out in the ship St. Lawrence, 
and assumed the government in October. 

Benjamin Green, Esq., son of the Hon. B. Green, one of the 
first members of Council, was elected member of Assembly for the 
town in February, without opposition. Mr. William Shaw was at 
the time Sheriff of the County. " 

In December, 1782, a large quantity of heavy ordnance was 
brought to Halifax from Charleston, South Carolina ; also 500 
refugees, men, women and children, arrived about the same date. 

In August, 1783, a number of Negro refugees arrived from New 
York. It was resolved that they should be settled in different parts 
of the Province ; however, not a few remained in Halifax, and 
became servants and labourers. 

The Loyalists continued to come from the old Colonies, many of 
them in a destitute and helpless condition, until the population of 
the town was increased to three times its former number, and much 
temporary suffering in consequence prevailed. Yet many intelli- 
gent and enterprising settlers were at this period added to our 
population, giving new life and spirit to the town. Many spacious 
and commodious buildings began to be erected, taking the place of 
the low gamble-roofed and picketed buildings of an early day. It is 
very remarkable, however, that in the year 1791, only seven years 
after this great influx, the population had again so decreased as 
scarcely to exceed 5,000. In 1783, Governor Parr estimated the 
population at only 1,200. This was before the Loyalist emigration 
from New York. In 1784, one hundred and ninety-four Negro 
men, women and children arrived in Halifax from St. Augustin's, 
in a destitute condition ; they did not remain in the town, but were 
distributed by the Government throughout the interior parts of the 

Governor Parr in his letter to England of November 20th, 1783, 
says, " upwards of 25,000 Loyalists have already arrived in the 
Province, most of whom, with the exception of those who went to 
Shelburne, came to Halifax before they became distributed 
throughout the Province." 

Again in his letter of 15th January, 1784, he says, "In conse- 
quence of the final evacuation of New York,* a considerable 

* New York was finally evacuated by the British Troops on the 25th November, 1783. 

86 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

number of refugee families have come to Halifax, who must be 
provided for at the public expense. They are in a most wretched 
condition, destitute of almost everything chiefly women and 
children, all still on board the vessels, and I have not been able 
to find as yet any place for them, and the cold is setting in very 

On the 20th October, 1784, an advertizement appeared in a 
Halifax paper, for sale, "All that land near the entrance of the 
harbour and opposite to CornwalnV Island, called Mauger's 
Beach, containing by particular grant 5 acres according to the 
plan attached to the grant." This beach had been formerly 
occupied for curing fish, and had buildings erected thereon for that 

The Penal Statutes had been repealed in 1783. The Roman 
Catholics in the town, chiefly emigrants from Ireland, having 
become numerous, purchased a piece of ground in Barrington 
fjtreet, where they built a Chapel, which was dedicated to St. Peter. 
The frame was erected on 19th July, 1784, and many of the 
inhabitants, both Protestants and Roman Catholics, attended the 
ceremony. This building stood in from the street, directly opposite 
the head of Salter Street. It was painted red, with a steeple at the 
western end. It was removed in or shortly after Bishop Burke's 
time, on the completion of the new stone church, now St. Mary's. 
The Rev. Mr. Jones was the first officiating priest. The Rev. 
Edmund Burke, who came from Canada, officiated at St. Peter's for 
many years before he was appointed Bishop. 

A number of emigrants arrived in Halifax this year from 
England. Three hundred passengers came in the Sally transport, 
in a great measure destitute of clothing and provisions. Fresh 
provisions became very dear, and the merchants of Halifax had flour 
up to 3 10s. per cwt. The Governor and Council, in consequence, 
ordered the admission of provisions from the United States to afford 
relief to the inhabitants. 

* NOTE. Tradition says that the town was then so crowded by refugees and 
soldiers, that the cabooses from the transports were removed from the vessels, and 
ranged along Granville Street in rear of Government House, for the accommodation of 
of the people. 

t The tower now on Mauger's Beach was not built until about the commencement 
of the present century. 

History of Halifax City. 87 

The House of . Assembly was dissolved this year; it had sat 
fourteen years without beiug dissolved, in consequence of the 
American troubles. The only alteration in the Halifax representa- 
tion was the return of Capt. William Abbott for the County. Mr- 
Francis Green, second son of old Councillor Green, was again 
chosen Sheriff of Halifax in 1784. 

1785. January 3rd, Mr. Sampson Salter Blowers, a barrister 
from Boston who came among the Loyalists, was appointed Attorney 
General in the place of Mr. Gibbons, who had received the appoint- 
ment of Chief Justice for the Island of Cape Breton, then a separate 

The Orphan house being no longer in use, was ordered to be let 
on a lease for one year.* 

In September, 1785, a number of whalers from Nautucket came 
to Halifax ; three brigantines and one schooner, with crews and 
everything necessary for prosecuting the whale fishery, which they 
proposed to do under the British flag. Their families were to 
follow. A short time after they were joined by three brigantines 
and a sloop from the same place. 

On the twentieth of October following, the Chief Land Surveyor 
was directed to make return of such lands as were vacant at 
Dartmouth to be granted to Samuel Starbuck, Timothy Folger, and 
others, from Nantucket, to make settlement for the whalers. The 
Town of Dartmouth had been many years previously laid out in lots 
which had been granted or appropriated to individuals, some of 
whom had built houses, and others though then vacant, had been 
held and sold from time to time by their respective owners. Most 
of these lots were reported vacant by Mr. Morris, the surveyor, and 
seized upon by the Government, as it is said, without any proceed- 
ing of escheat, and re-granted to the Quakers from Nantucket, 
which caused much discontent, and questions of title arose and 
remained open for many years after. 

At a Court of Admiralty held on Friday, the 27th August, 1785, 
for the trial of piracies committed upon the high seas, M. Buckley 
and Belitham Taylor were tried, committed and sentenced to death 
for running away with the schooner John Miller of Chedabucto and 

* The locality of this orphan house is uncertain. 

88 Nora Scotia Historical Society. 

her cargo. Two men were also hanged this year for robbery 
committed to the eastward of Halifax. 

The death of the Chief Justice, Bryan Finucane, having occurred 
this year, Judge Isaac Deschamps filled the office until the appoint- 
ment of Chief Justice Pemberton. Judge Finucaue was buried 
under St. Paul's Church. His escutcheon is in the gallery. 

A general election occurred iu 1785, when Mr. S. S. Blowers, 
John George Pyke, Richard John Uniacke and Michael Wallace 
were returned for the County, and John Fillis and William Cochrau 
for the town. 

The whale fishery was the chief subject which engaged the 
attention of the public during the year. Much advantage was 
expected to accrue to the commerce of the place from the Quakers 
from Nantucket having undertaken to settle in Dartmouth. They 
went on prosperously for a short time, until they found the com- 
mercial regulations established in England for the Colonies were 
hostile to their interests, and they eventually removed, some of them, 
it is said, to Wales and other parts of Great Britain, where they 
carried on their fishery to more advantage. 

A petition was presented this autumn to the Governor and 
Council from a number of merchants, tradesmen and other inhabi- 
tants, praying for a Charter of Incorporation for the Town. This 
was the first occasion on which the subject was brought prominently 
before the public. It was, however, not deemed by the government 
" expedient or necessary " to comply with the prayer of the petition. 
The reasons are not given in the Minute of Council, which bears 
date 17th November, 1785. The names of the Councillors present 
were Richard Bulkeley, Henry Newton, Jonathan Binney, Arthur 
Goold, Alexander Brymer, Thomas Cochran and Charles Morris. 
The functions of His Majesty's Council at this period of our history 
embraced all departments of executive authority in the Colony. 
They were equally supreme in the control of town affairs as those 
of the province at large. The magistrates, though nominally the 
executive of the town, never acted in any matter of moment without 
consulting the Governor and Council. The existence of a corporate 
body having the sole control of town affairs would in a great 
measure deprive them of that supervision, which they no doubt 

History of Halijax C%. 89 

deemed, for the interest of the community, should remain in the 
Governor and Council. 

1786. It was customary at this period to celebrate the Royal birth- 
days and almost all public holidays by a levee at Government House, 
a review of the troops in garrison on the Common, and occasionally 
a public ball, either by the Governor at Government House or by 
the inhabitants of the town at the public assembly room. This 
custom continued in Halifax until about the year 1844 or 1845, when 
it was broken through by Governor Falkland. On the 18th June, 
1786, Queen Charlotte's birthday was celebrated in the town by a 
levee and review, and in the evening by a ball in the old Pontac 
building. The confectionery on this occasion was very superb. It 
was prepared by one Signer Lenzi. The ball commenced at half- 
past eight, supper was announced by the elevation of a curtain that 
separated the two rooms. In the middle of the table there arose an 
artificial fountain, with the temples of Health and Venus at the top 
and bottom, all constructed of sugar. The Gazette of the time 
says, they " did not go home till morning." 

A regular post communication was opened this summer with 
Annapolis ; a courier was engaged, who went through once a 
fortnight with the mail between Halifax and Annapolis. John 
Howe, who had lately come to Halifax from Boston and had 
established a newspaper, was at this time postmaster ; he succeeded 
Mr. Stevens. The following spring (1786) the town was so 
enveloped in smoke for many days as almost to impede business, 
caused by a great fire which raged in the woods in the neighbourhood. 

On 10th October, 1786, arrived His Majesty's Ship Pegasus, 
commanded by His Royal Highness Prince William Henry. He 
was received at the King's Slip by Governor Parr and Major General 
Campbell, then in command of the Garrison, and conducted to the 
Government House, which stood in the square now occupied by the 
Province Building, where he was waited upon by the military and 
the principal inhabitants. The Prince expressed a desire that all 
display should be laid aside, but the people illuminated their 
dwellings, and by 8 o'clock the whole town was lighted and the 
streets crowded with people. 

In the Gazette of the 9th February, 1786, appears a resolution 
and engagement entered into by the merchants and others at a 

90 Noca Scotia Historical Society. 

public meeting lately held in Halifax, wherein they pledged them- 
selves neither to buy nor sell articles imported from the United 
States, prohibited by the Governor's proclamation. The document 
is signed by 75 persons. 

On 28th February, a German Society was formed in Halifax, 
when John W. Schwartz was chosen President, Doctor F. 
Gschwint, (pronounced Swint) Vice-President, Godfrey Schwartz 
Treasurer, Henry Uthoff Secretary. In 1790 Adolphus Veith was 
secretary of this Society. 

On 4th March, the jail was broken open and the prisoners, six in 
in number, all escaped, of whom five were re- taken. Mr. Green 
was then Sheriff. Inquiries were instituted, but no information 
obtained. The delapidated and insecure state of the jail at the time 
was the subject of public comment. 

The money collected for Liquor Licences in the town, between 
31st May, 1784, and 31st May, 1785, amounted to 531. Mr. 
Francis Shipton was Clerk of Licences. 

Three vessels were fitted out during the summer of 1786 for the 
whale fishery, the schooners Parr and Lively, and the ship 

This year the merchants and shipowners formed themselves into a 
society called the Halifax Marine Association, for the benefit of 
trade. The following year Nova Scotia was erected into a Bishop's 
See. The Right Reverend Charles Inglis was appointed Bishop. 
He arrived from England on 16th October, and made Halifax his 

On the 3rd July, 1787, the Pegasus, frigate, commanded by Prince 
William Henry, arrived again at Halifax, 15 days from Jamaica. 
On Friday, at half-past two o'clock, the troops were drawn up in 
double line from the wharf to Government House. The Prince 
landed at the slip under a salute from the artillery on the King's 
Wharf. He was accompanied to Government House by the 
Governor and Council, where he received an address from the 
inhabitants. There was a dinner and ball at Government House in 
the evening, and a brilliant illumination of the town. 

This month two whalers returned bringing 1,060 barrels oil and 
72 cwt. whalebone. It is not mentioned whether these vessels 
belonged to the Quakers or to some of the merchants of the town. 

History of Halifax City. 91 

On the 24th June, the Freemasons had a grand procession. They 
walked to St. Paul's Church, where they heard a sermon from the 
Kev. Mr. Weeks. The Prince reviewed the troops in garrison on 
30th July, consisting of the 57th and 37th Regiments, and the first 
Battalion of the 60th Regiment. 

On the 7th July the fleet, consisting of the Leander, Commodore 
Sawyer Pegasus, Prince William Henry Ariadne, Capt. Osborne, 
the Resource, and the Brig Weazel, Commander Hood, fell down to 
the beach, intending to proceed to Quebec the first fair wind. They 
sailed on the 14th. The Pegasus, with the Prince, returned to 
Halifax early in November. He received an address on the 6th, 
from the House of Assembly then in Session. At two o'clock on 
that day, the barge of the Pegasus with the Royal Standard flying, 
preceded by the Commodore in his barge, with his pendant, and the 
Captains of the other ships of war in their barges, proceeded slowly 
in procession from their ships to the King's Wharf, where the party 
landed under a salute of 21 guns. They were received at the stairs 
by the Governor, Council and Assembly, and the troops, under 
General Ogilvie, being ordered up, they proceeded to Government 
House, where a number of members of the Legislature were presented 
to him. They then proceeded through the lines of troops to the 
Golden Ball,* where a handsome dinner TO as prepared, and where 
the Prince dined with the members of t Assembly and the principal 
otticers of Government. He retired at 6 o'clock, after which a ball 
was given in the evening at Marchingtou's new building in Water 
Street, adjoining the Ordnance Yard, called the British Coffee 
House. The Prince entered the ball room a little after 8 o'clock, 
and at 12 the company were conducted into the supper room. The 
table was handsomely decorated and contained places for 200 
people. The Prince is said to have displayed great affability in 
conversation on the occasion. 

An Act was passed this Session authorizing the sale of the 
Orphan House, the Court House, the Public Slaughter House, and 
the Old Jail, and to erect a Jail, and also to erect on the Lower 
Parade a Public Hall, a Province House of Brick or Stone for the 
setting of the Legislature and Public Offices. The Commissioners 

' S. W. corner of Sackvillc and Hollis Streets. 

t The House afterwards voted 700 for the cost of the day's entertainments. 

92 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

appointed for this purpose were John Newton, Richard John 
Uniacke, John George Pyke and Mr. Taylor. Such parts of this 
Act as have been executed were afterwards repealed by Act of 1797. 

1788. An Election for Members for the Town took place this 
winter, which was attended with extraordinary excitement. On the 
20th February the poll opened, at the Court House, in Halifax ; the 
candidates were Mr. Charles Morris and Jonathan Sterns. It closed 
on the Friday following, when it stood : Morris, 415 ; Sterns, 274. 
Majority for Morris, 141. Mr. Morris was carried through the 
Town and then taken home to his father's house. Hand-bills had 
been posted up reflecting on the government. Serious riots at the 
election occurred and many persons were hurt, some of whom 
received fractures of the skull and other severe injuries. Armed 
persons paraded the Town assaulting individuals. As this was a 
very remarkable election, and resulted in more turbulence and riot 
than had ever before occurred in the town on such occasions, we 
here copy the following extract from Anthony Henry's Gazette of 
25th February : ' ' The unwearied and spirited exertions of a num- 
" ber of respectable gentlemen in a great measure calmed the minds 
" of the people, and prevented their violence being carried to any 
"very great length; nevertheless it was utterly impossible, in such 
"confusion, to prevent many persons from being wounded and 
"hurt, two of whom, we are sorry to inform the public, remain 
" in a dangerous state ; one having his skull fractured by some 
"persons who rushed out of Laycock's house on the beach, and 
' ' the other having been dangerously wounded by a shot from a 
"window in the same house. We are likewise sorry to inform 
"the public, that Mr. Benjamin Mulberry Holmes and his son, 
" have been much beaten and abused by the populace on Friday 
" night, and were it not for the very fortunate and timely inter- 
" position of Mr. Tobiu's man and some others, it is probable 
" they would have fallen a sacrifice to an enraged multitude." 

The excitement had been caused partly by certain proceedings on 
the part of the judges of the Supreme Court against Mr. Sterns and 
Mr. Taylor, two practising lawyers in the town, whose names had 
been struck off the roll by Chief Justice Descharnps. One of the 
gentlemen. Mr. Sterns, was the defeated candidate at the election. 

On the 3rd June, Bishop Inglis held his primary visitation of his 

History of Halifax City. 93 

Clergy, when he delivered a charge, received an address, and held a 
confirmation in the afternoon at St. Paul's, when one hundred and 
twenty young persons went through the ceremony of confirmation. 

A heavy rain-storm occurred on Saturday, 5th July, when the 
streets of the town were very much injured by the torrents of water 
which poured down the hills. It was estimated that the rainfall was 
upwards of 186 tons of water to an acre, which, allowing the rain to 
have fallen equally on the whole peninsula, would make the fall of 
water on that small space equal to 345,000 tons, in four hours. . 

July 30. Arrived five sail of whalers, having on board the follow- 
ing valuable cargoes : 

Sloop " Watson," Danl. Ray, Master, 150 bbls. sperm, 

50 do. headrnatter. 
Brigt. " Lucretia," J. Coffin, Master, 250 bbls sperm, 

300 bbls. black oil, and 3000 cut bone. 
Brigt. "Somerset," S. Gardner, Master, 230 bbls. sperm. 
Brigt. " Sally," P. Worth, Master, 200 bbls. do. 
Brigt. "Industry," W. Chadwick, Master, 84 bbls do. 
26 bbls. headmatter, and 300 do. black oil, also 
3000 cut bone. 

The " Andromeda," frigate, commanded by Prince William Henry, 
from England, arrived on 17th August, 1788 ; he was again received 
with the usual honours and the town was illuminated. The Prince 
attended a sham-fight on the Common, on 10th September, in which, 
the 4th, 37th, and 57th Regiments took part. Three soldiers were 
wounded by bursting of their muskets during the performance. 

On 21st October, the new Chief Justice Jeremiah Pemberton, took, 
the oaths and his seat on the bench, and his patent was then read in 
open Court. 

Wednesday, Oct. 22nd, was launched at the south end of the 
town, a handsome brig, the property of Messrs. Gouge & Pryor ; 
she was the first vessel of the size ever built in the town. 

The following gentlemen composed the Magistracy of the town this 
year, viz: Benj. Green, John Cunningham, John Newton, Charles 
Morris, George Smith, William Sherlock, John George Pyke, Thos. 
Cochran, Anthony Stewart,* W. Taylor, Stephen X. Biuney, J. M. 

*Anthony Stewart was a gentleman from the province of Maryland : he was the fat her 
of the Into Judge James Stewart, who married a sister of the late Chief Justice Sir B. 
Haliburtpn and who died in 183u, and was succeeded on the Supremo Court Bench bi- 
ll. J. Uniacke, junior. 

94 JVom Scotia Historical Society. 

F. Bulkeley, Kevd. Michael Houseal, James Gautier, William 
Morris, Charles Morris, junior, Daniel Wood, junior ; Matthew Cahill 
was High Sheriff. 

It appears that the rank of Esquire was not applied to any person, 
at this or any previous period, except Magistrates and high public 
functionaries, and persons to whom it was accorded in couseqiience 
of their personal wealth and rank in society. Being a member of 
the House of Assembly did not confer the title. 

There was then no regular police establishment in the town, the 
Magistrates, by turns, attended to police duties with the aid of the 
town constables, who were annually appointed. All special matters 
were discussed and settled at the special sessions, which was 
generally a private meeting of Magistrates in the back office in 
conjunction with the Clerk of the Peace. Criminal charges of a 
delicate nature, or when private character was likely to be affected, 
were usually investigated with closed doors, and no information 
made public until found to be necessary for the ends of justice. 
This system continued until Mr. John George Pyke received the 
appointment of Police Magistrate, about 60 years since. His duties 
were merely to relieve the Magistrates from the more onerous duties 
of attending daily at the Police office. Colonel Pyke became 
incapacitated by age about the year 1825 or 6, when Mr. John 
Liddell was appointed, who had to his aid three or four Police Con- 
stables, two of whom had attended his predecessor, and the valuable 
assistance of David Shaw Clarke, the clerk of the peace. Such was 
the arrangement until the Act of Incorporation in 1848. 

The "Royal Gazette" was published by Anthony Henry, until 
about 1801, when it fell into the hands of Mr. John Howe, from 

The " Weekly Chronicle," another paper, was at this time estab- 
lished by Mr. William Minns, stationer, in Barrington Street, 
opposite the north-end of the Grand Parade. It was commenced in 
1787, and continued to exist until about 1828 or 9. 

Among the merchants who advertized in these papers we find the 
names of James Vetch, opposite the woodyard ; David Hall & Co., 
in Hollis Street, opposite Government House, (Crown Prince Build- 
ing) ; and George Bell, Granville St. The shops appear to have 
contained both groceries and dry-goods, like the country stores of 

History of Halifax City. 95 

the present day. A. & R. Leslie were at the corner of Duke and 
Water Streets, near the Pontac. Lawrence Hartshorne, Hardware, 
corner of Granville and George streets, between the market house 
and the parade. This old corner, so many years known as 
Hartshorne & Boggs' corner, had a gun at the corner of the platform 
which extended down the hill to the lower corner, occupied by one 
Hart, a Jew, afterwards known as Martin Gay Black's, and now 
occupied by the new building of the Merchant's Bank ; this walk 
was the resort of the merchants in the morning, and the fashionable 

and idle in the afternoons. 


1789. On the night of Friday, the 23rd January, Cochran's 
buildings, a range of three-storey buildings in the market square, 
were totally consumed by fire. Firewards were John Fillis, J. G. 
Pyke, R. J. Uniacke, Michael AVallace, Geo. Bell, Lawrence 
Hartshorue, William Lawlor, Charles Hill. 

On 9th February, an advertisement appeared in the "Gazette," 
as follows: "I am directed by His Excellency the Governor, to 
" acquaint the several gentlemen called upon on Friday last to form 
" a Fire Company, that he desires their attendance at the ' Golden 
" Ball" on Thui'sday next, at twelve o'clock, to agree to rules and 
"regulations. (Signed) Jas. Gautier." 

On 15th August, the jail was broken open, and a prisoner for debt, 
one Livesay, who had been imprisoned at the suit of William Stairs, 
escaped, for which Sheriff Green was prosecuted ; Green stated 
that he had repeatedly represented to the Council the insecure state 
of the jail. Mr. James Clarke succeeded Mr. Green as Sheriff of 
Halifax, this year. 

The Dockyard at this period was in full operation. The 
Commissioner in charge was the Honorable Henry Duncan, who 
was also a member of His Majesty's Council. Doctor John 
Haliburton, father of the late Chief Justice Sir Brenton Haliburton, 
was Surgeon of the Xaval Hospital, Mr. Provo Wallis was Master 
Superintendent, Elias Marshall, foreman of shipwrights, William Lee 
foreman of carpenters, Alexander Anderson and Provo F. Wallis, 
Chief Clerks. 

A great scarcity of bread was felt in the town this summer. 
Vessels sent to Canada for wheat, returned empty. On the 9th July, 
the Governor received a letter from the Governor of Canada, stating 

96 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

the great scarcity of provisions in the Province of Lower Canada or 
Quebec, that a famine was dreaded, and requesting him not to 
obstruct the exportation of corn and flour from Halifax to Quebec. 
But the Justices of the Quarter Sessions presented a memorial which 
had been laid before them by the bakers of Halifax, setting forth 
that there is not more of flour in the town than sufficient to provide 
bread for three or four days, whereupon it was ordered by the 
Council that no vessel be permitted to clear out with bread or flour 
to Quebec, except the brigantine " Ceres," until further consider- 

There were amateur theatrical performances this winter at the 
Pontac. It would appear that the old theatre in Argyle Street, in 
the recollection possibly of some of the oldest inhabitants, was in 
operation this year. We find plays advertized to take place there 
in February and March. This building stood on the spot on which 
the present Acadian School was afterwards erected. It was the 
only theatre in the town during the time of the Duke of Kent. It 
was afterwards occupied by Walter Bromley as a public school upon 
the Lancaster plan, until removed to make way for the present 
building, in the year 1816. 

The first Agricultural Society was formed in Halifax in the year 
1789 ; the Hon. Richard Bulkeley was the first president, and Mr. 
James Clarke,* (afterwards Sheriff Clarke,) was the first secretary. 

The old Block House on the Citadel Hill being in a ruinous con- 
dition, was taken down this year, but the flag and signal staffs 
which were on it, were preserved. 

June 1, 1789. The old gaol and garden were offered for sale at 
auction. This old building was in Hollis Street, nearly opposite the 
present Halifax Hotel, and was formerly the property of the late 
Mr. Robert M. Brown. 

On the 16th June, in comforrnity with the Act of the Legislature 
formerly passed, the Governor was pleased to nominate Hon. Henry 
Newton, Hon. Thos. Cochrau, James Brenton, John Newton and R. 
J. Uniacke, Trustees of a Grammar School forthwith to be erected 
in the town. "These gentlemen chose Mr. William Cochran, of 
"Trinity College, Dublin, and lately Professor of the Greek and 

"Sheriff Clarke was father of the late David Shaw Clarke, for many years Clerk of 
the Peace, and one of the Police Magistrates of the town. 

History of Halifax City. 97 

"Latin languages in Columbia College, New York, to be master. 
" Mr. George Gleunie, who was regularly educated in the University 
" of Aberdeen, to be usher, and Mr. Thomas Brown, already well 
"known in this town, to be teacher of writing, arithmetic and 
" mathematics. It is thought proper to give this early notification 
"to the public, but until a suitable building can be provided, the 
"school will be opened without delay in the room where the 
" Assembly of the Province meets." 

The Legislature after this met in the building known as Cochrau's 
building, which was erected at the Market Square after the fire 
before mentioned, and the old building appropriated permanently 
for the Grammar school, which remained so until lately, when the 
school was removed to the private residence of Mr. Gilpiu, the head 
master, and the old building sold. 

The following advertizement appeared in the "Royal Gazette:" 
" Information for Masters of \ r essels. The Block House on Citadel 
" Hill, which was a conspicuous object, is removed, having been in 
"a ruinous condition. The flag and signal staffs remain." "The 
" hulk of the large ship, sometime since stranded at the back of 
" Thrum Cap, was beaten to pieces in the last gale." 

On the 15th October, Charles Hill advertized for sale at auction, 
the ground where the Court House stood, now known as Northup's 
Corner ; measuring on Buckingham Street, 94 feet, and on Argyle 
Street 43 feet. On the 17th July previous, the old Court House, 
and the building adjoining, known as Kirby's soap-house, and other 
buildings, were destroyed by fire. 

1790. In the mouth of July, this year, the whaling fleet arrived, 
after a successful voyage. The brig Prince William Henry, Capt. 
Pinkharn, with 110 barrels of sperm oil; brig "Hibernian," Capt. 
Worth, 100 ban-els sperm and 32 black oil; ship " Parr," Capt. 
Chase, 480 sperm and 100 black oil, and brig " Harvest," Capt. 
Kelly, with 200 sperm. In August following arrived the "Romulus," 
with 170 bbls. sperm oil. 

Among the chief merchants of the town at this time were Wil- 
liam Forsyth, Philip Marchingtou,* Brymer & Belcher, Hardware 

Mr. Marchington was a Loyalist from New York. He commenced business in 
Halifax soon after his arrival, and accumulated a large landed property in the town. 
He owned all the land on the north side of the lane known by his name, leading from 
the ordnance into Argyle Street, since called Bell's Lane, alo the wharf adjoining the 

98 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

merchants, successors to Thomas Robie ; Michael Wallace, retail 
store-keeper; James Moody, Hollis Street; Sabatier, Stewart & Co., 
Chas. Geddes, dry goods, lower side of the Parade ; Richard Kid- 
ston, general merchandize ; George Deblois, William Millet, Charles 
Hill, Hugh Kelley, all auctioneers. John W. Schwartz kept store at 
the corner of Granville and Buckingham Streets ; Lawrence 
Hartshorne, at his corner, had a general assortment of cutlery, etc., 
D. Hall & Co., in Hollis Street, opposite Government House; Ann 
Bremner kept a dry goods shop at the north-west corner of the par- 
ade ; Peter Lynch kept a hat store at the sign of the "King's Arms ;" 
C. C. Hall & Co. was the chief dry goods store in the town ; Benja- 
min Salter, Ship Chandlery, Water St. ; John Fillis & Sou and G. & 
J. Thirlock were among the wholesale dealers ; Linnard & Young 
were the fashionable tailors ; Richard Courtney had a shop at the 
lower side of the parade, William Sellou in Granville Street, King 
& Story in Marchington's buildings, John Butler Dight, wholesale 
store in Marchington's buildings ; C. C. Hall & Co. had this year 
removed to Marchiugtou building ; Winkworth Allen, general 
dealer, in Cochran's new building. Mr. Wm. Millet the auctioneer, 
on the 9th Sept. advertized for sale, " a negro man and sundry 
" other articles." In the following year, James Forinau & Co. occu- 
pied a store on Copeland's wharf, also Benjamin Salter. The 
British Coffee house was kept by John Gallagher at the head of 
Marchingtou's wharf. Mrs. Sutherland's coffee house, was at this 
time, one of the chief places of resort for Public Committees and 
Societies, as well as for Public entertainments ; concerts were held 
here throughout the winter, commencing in September. The 
Halifax Marine Society, which had been established in Halifax for 
several years, held their quarterly meetings at this house. There 
was a house of entertainment then kept on McNab's Island by one 
Mary Roubalet, for tea parties in the summer. It was called the 
Mansion House. 

On the 12th day of January, 1790, James Clarke and George 
Geddes, Church Wardens of St. Paul's, advertized that in conse- 
quence of the inclemency of the weather on Sunday there was so 
small an attendance in church, that the contributions towards the 

Crdnance yard, long known as Marchington's wharf, afterwards the property of Tim. 
Oonnors. He died at Halifax ; he was the grandfather of Major Welsford, killed in the 
Crimean War, whose monument is to be seen in the old English burial ground. 

f Ilntfjlix City. 9'j 

clothing of the children in the Sunday Schools in the town, were so 
small, that they desired to invite contributions from the inhabitants 
for the relief of the orphans and others attending the schools. In 
February following, the church wardens again advertized the distri- 
bution of clothing to the poor children of the Sunday Schools : 15 
great coats, 64 shirts and shifts, 70 pairs stockings and 35 pairs 
strong shoes, which cost 30. 7s. 2d. The St. Paul's school had 
nineteen boys and sixteen girls in attendance. 

On the same day, there Avas a visitation of the Halifax Grammar 
School by the Governor, the Bishop, the Trustees and others. The 
attendance during the winter was usually about 60. The school was 
addressed on this occasion, by one of the elder boys, and after the 
examinations in the Latin classes, writing and arithmetic, several 
scholars repeated pieces and dialogues. Mr. Cochran was the head- 
master ; he shortly afterwards accepted the charge of the Academy 
at Windsor ; and the Rev. George Wright was appointed in his place. 
His salary was 150 per annum from the Legislature, with what he 
could get from the pupils. The number of scholars was 68. He 
states his loss in the shape of discount on his Treasury warrants 
amounted to from 15 to 20 per cent, in consequence of the delay in 

The winter was very severe ; The harbour was frozen over, and 
the destitute condition of the poor very great. The gentlemen 
amateurs of the theatre, sent 25 to the Rev. Mr. Weeks, of St. 
Paul's, Dr. Andrew Brown, of the Presbyterian meeting house, and 
Mr. Houseal of St. George's in Dutchtowu, for the poor of their 
respective parishes. The overseers of the poor, Jonathan Tremain, 
James Gautier, James Kerby and Andrew Belcher, met at the 
"Golden Ball," to assess the inhabitants of the town for the poor 

The Court House having been destroyed by fire, the (Quarter 
Sessions held their sittings on the 19th February, in the long room 
of the "Golden Ball," for the trial of offenders. The "Golden 
Ball" was kept by Edward Phelau this winter, who occupied the 
north end of the building as a store for general merchandise. 

An Act of the Legislature had been passed this year, and was 
published early in May, reciting that the destruction of the Court 
House by tire, and the inconvenient situation of the present Asseni- 

100 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

bly House, made it necessary that a more suitable place should be 
provided, and the state of the Province finances not being such as to 
admit of the expense of erecting a proper and suitable building, it 
was therefore enacted, that Commissioners be appointed to treat 
with Thomas James and William Cochran, for their building opposite 
Government House, for 200 per annum, and to expend 100 in 
furniture for the purposes of the meeting of this Legislature and 
the Courts of Law. This building lately erected after the fire, stood 
on the spot now occupied by the new Dominion Public building, and 
continued to be the place of holding the General Assembly, the 
Courts of Law, etc., until the Province Building was completed for 
their reception in 1820. The building in Avhich the Legislature for- 
merly held its sittings, and which was now appropriated for the 
Grammar School, was this year repaired at the public expense. 

In June, the Grand Jury addressed Chief Justice Strange on 
his arrival from England. The names of the Jury were : Richard 
Kidstou, foreman, William Millet, Lawrence Hartshorne, Godfrey 
Schwartz, Winkworth Allen, John Davis, J. Forbes, James Lewis, 
Benjamin Salter, James Strachan, William Lawlor, Martin Shier, 
John Boyd and Alexander Copeland. 

In the autumn, the Secretary of the Province announced to the 
people of the town, that in the event of a war <vith Spain, and the 
withdrawal of the troops from the Province, it would be necessary 
to call out the Militia for the defence of the town, and the Colonels 
of regiments were called upon to hold themselves in readiness, 
and to make returns of the state and condition of their respective 

About this time, Captain Stack was a regular trader between this 
port and Ireland, and sold his cargoes of beef, salt pork, lard, etc., 
at auction, at Charles Hill & Co.'s rooms. 

The Halifax Bar addressed Chief Justice Strange, on his leaving 
for England on a visit, this autumn. The address was signed by 
8. S. Blowers, R. J. Uniacke, James Sterns, E. B. Breutou, James 
Stewart, Daniel Wood, Foster Hutchinson, J. Prout and W. H. 0. 

At a Court of Quarter Sessions, held at Halifax, in June term of 
this year, the Sheriff, pursuant to law and by virtue of a warrant 
directed to him by the Justices of the Sessions, to lay out a road 

History of Halijax City. 101 

in the north suburbs of the town, reported that he had laid out the 
road by a jury, in the manner following, viz : Beginning at the 
north-east corner or angle of Lot No. 2. on the road leading from 
the Dockyard to the Naval Hospital ; thence to run north 28 west, 
40 feet ; thence north, 59 east, 238 feet, which leaves a road of 40 
feet wide, between Allbright's ground and the Hospital fence ; 
thence north, 28 west, 660 feet; thence north 20 west, 664 feet to 
the road leading to Fort Needham, leaving the road 50 feet wide 
between the shore at the Narrows at high-water mark, and the Lots 
Nos. 3 and 4. This notice was published, that all persons who 
might think themselves aggrieved by the laying out of the road 
might have an opportunity of being heard before the sessions, on 
Tuesday, the 5th September, 1790. It was signed by Thomas \, 
Wood, Clerk of the Peace. 

This road was intended as a continuation of Water Street north- 
ward, to meet the road which leads up from the water to Fort 
Needham, but it does not appear to have been on the line of the 
present road, but to have gone through the northern end of the 
Hospital grounds, along the water side, below the site of the old 

At the session of the House of Assembly in 1790, several articles 
of impeachment against the Judges of the Supreme Court, as before 
mentioned, passed the House, which were laid before the Executive 
Council by the Governor, on 7th April. It was proposed to sus- 
pend Chief Justice Deschamps and Judge James Brenton, in 
conformity with the request of the Assembly. 

1791. Governor Parr died on 25th November this year, in the 
66th year of his age, and the ninth of his government. He was 
buried with military honours, under St. Paul's Church, on the 29th 
of the month. The procession moved from Government House to St. 
Paul's Church, in the following order : All the Lodges of the Free- 
masons, (His Excellency having been the Grand Master,) the 20th 
regiment as the firing party, the Church Wardens, the Physicians of 
deceased, the Clergy, the Bishop, the body covered by a pall adorned 
by eight escutcheons, Pall-bearers, Hon. A. Brymer, Major Boyd, 
the Commissioner of the Dockyard, the Admiral, the Hon. S. S. 
Blowers, Hon. Thomas Cochran, Major Rawliusou, the General, the 
relatives and servants of deceased, particular friends, the Sheriff of 

102 Xora Scotia Tli'stnricrtl 

the county, members of Council, viz., Morris, Bulkeley and Newton, 
Judges Brenton and Hutchinsou, the treasurer of the province, the 
Speaker of the House of Assembly, Gustos of the county and Jus- 
tice Binney, Magistrates of the town, the bar, staff of the army, 
officers of the navy and army, officers of militia, gentlemen of the 
town, and the whole garrison all under arms, lining the streets. 
Minute guns were fired by the men-of-war in the harbor and by the 
Royal Artillery, during the procession. The service was performed 
by the bishop, Dr. Charles Inglis, and the body was buried under the 
middle aisle. 

During the autumn and winter, a number of black people from 
different parts of the province were brought to Halifax, to be 
removed to Sierra Leone. Michael Wallace was agent, who on 5th 
December, advertised for 1000 tons of shipping, for the purpose. 
Ships "Venus," "Parr," "Eleanor;" Brigs "Betsy," "Beaver," 
"Mary," "Morning Star," "Catherine," "P. AY. Henry;" Schrs. 
" Liberty," and "Two Brothers," the whole commanded by Lieut- 
enant Clarkson, having on board the colored people, all sailed for 
Sierra Leone on 15th January, 1792. The hire and damages 
amounted to 3965 8s. Od. sterling. This expense was borne by the 
Sierra Leone Company. These colored people were chiefly those 
who came from the old provinces with the Loyalists. They formed 
a colony in Africa, called the " Nova Scotia colony,"* which still 
exists, and about 15 years since several old negroes were living who 
recollected the removal from Halifax, when children. The fleet 
arrived at their destination after a passage of 40 days. The num- 
ber embarked was 1139. The day of arrival was 28th March, and 
the 28th March in every year is still kept up by the adherents of 
the Lady Huntingdon Congregation at Sierra Leone, as the 
anniversary of the arrival of their fathers in the colony. 

Until these Nova Scotian adherents of Lady Huntingdon's connec- 
tion could erect a chapel for themselves in their new home, they united 
with the other coloured congregations of Methodists and Baptists. 
Mr. Zachary Macaulay, who was at one time Governor of this colony, 
says : "There were five or six black preachers among the Nova Scotians 

'Among these negroes was a coloured preacher, the Rev. John Marrant, who had 
been ordained in London in 1785, as a minister of Lady Huntingdon's connection. He 
laboured among the people of his own colour while in Nova Scotia, and having accom- 
panied them to'iSierra Leone, officiated among them there for several years. He 
returned to England, and died in 1791. 

JTtafwy of Halifax City. 10,, 

" raised up from their own body, who are not without a considerable 
" influence." Among these, was John Ellis, who was Superintend- 
ent of the churches ; he was succeeded by Anthony Elliot, a young 
Nova Scotian negro ; he acquired several of the native dialects and 
became an active Christian missionary in Africa. He died in 1854 
at the advanced age of 80. Elliot followed the avocations of a fish- 
erman and pilot as the means of livelihood, and on the Sundays he 
preached to the people the Word of Life. 

The population of the city and suburbs, in 1791, had fallen to 

The returns on the census this year, are as follows ; 
1301 males over 16 years of age. 

935 " under " " 
2209 females. 
422 black people. 

The Agricultural Society of Halifax, offered premiums this year, 
and published a volume on husbandry. 

A gold medal and 10 guineas was offered for the best essay on 
the natural history of the Hessian fly, and the method of stopping its 
progress in the wheat crop. A volume of the Society's proceedings, 
was this year published at Halifax by John Howe. 

1792. On the 17th April news arrived of the appointment of Mr. 
John Wentworth as Governor. He had resided in Halifax for seven 
or eight years, having held the office of Ranger of woods and forests, 
and had been Governor of New Hampshire. On 12th May, the 
"Hussar," frigate, Capt. Rupert Denis George, arrived, having on 
board Governor "Wentworth, etc. He landed at the King's wharf 
under a salute fired from the parade and a guard of honour from 
21st regiment. On the 14th he was sworn into office. In the even- 
ing the town was brilliantly illuminated. 

On 17th August a fire broke out in the property of John Welner, 
soap-maker in Granville Street. Six tenements and the Ordnance 
laboratory were consumed ; "Welner and his wife, two aged persons, 
were burnt to death. The sum of 140 was raised by subscription 
for the sufferers at the fire. The principal sufferers, however, de- 
clined to receive any aid, and a committee was appointed to 
examine the claims and distribute the fund. 

Folger and Starlmck, the Quaker whalers, who settled at Dart- 

104 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

mouth a year or two since, left Halifax this year, for Milford 
Haven, in Great Britain, where they expected to carry on their 
whale fishery with greater facilities than at Dartmouth. 

Died at Halifax, on 27th September, 1792, Mrs. Hester Godfrey, 
aged 101 years. 

The Grand Jury at Halifax, for 1792, were as follows, viz: 
George Smith, foreman, Andrew Liddell, John Masters, Philip 
Marchington, Benjamin Mulberry Holmes, Rufus Fairbanks, Peter 
Smith, Michael Wallace, John Steeling, Richard Jacobs, John Kir- 
by, Thomas Filles, Charles Hill, J. W. Schwartz, William Cochran, 
John Butler Dight,* Thomas Russell, Alexander Bryraer, George 
Grant, William Williams and George Deblois. 

Several petitions were presented this year to the Governor and 
Council, from the merchants and others of Halifax, on the subject 
of trade regulations and the collection of debts. Among the sig- 
natures to these petitions, we find the names of James Forman & Co., 
James Moody, William Veitch, George Grant, Winkworth Allen, ' 
William Kidston, Samuel Rudolph, Benjamin M. Holmes, James and 
Alexander Kidston, Chas. Geddes, Wm. Forsyth & Co., Thomas 
Russell, Hall, Bremner & Bottomry, William Taylor, Burnes, 
Liddell & Co., P. Smith, Jonathan Masters, Williams & Lyons, 
Geo. Deblois, John Moody, and S. Hall & Co. 

Again 1793 : Brymer & Belcher, Forman & Grassie, John Steeling, 
Jonathan Tremain, P. Marchiugton, Andrew Liddell, George Sher- 
locke, Francis Stevens, Geo. Bell, Geo. Moren, Edward Butler, 
Nathan Hatfield, Thomas Watson, Peter McNab, Benjamin Salter, 
Frederick Major and John Brown. 

The town Assemblies were held this winter in Mrs. Sutherland's 
rooms in Bedford Row, opposite the Commissary offices. 

On Thursday evening, Dec. 20th, 1792, Governor and Mrs. 
Wentworth gave a grand ball. The decorations in the supper room 
were very elegant. The ladies sat down and the gentlemen waited 
on them. Among the decorations were the exact representations of 

*John Butler Dight was the nephew and heir of the Hon. John Butler, one of the 
early councillor.-). Under the will or his uncle, he assumed the name of Butler only and 
was afterwards known as John Butler Butler. He first was engaged in keeping a shop 
in the town; having acquired a fortune by the death of his uncle, he became a member 
of council and obtained a situation in the Commissariat department, after which he was 
removed to the seat of war with the army under Lord Wellington and others. Being 
owner of a large property near Windsor, he came back to Halifax in about 1833, and 
died at Windsor. He was the father of Colonel Edward S. K. Butler of 35th regiment, 
who afterwards settled and died a,t Windsor. 

History of Halifax City. 105 

Mr. Jonathan Treinain's new flour mill at Dartmouth, of the wind- 
mill on Halifax Common. A model of the red light house at 
Shelburue, and the tract of new road from Pictou, was delineated in 
the most ingenious and surprising manner, as was also the repre. 
sentation of our fisheries. 

To all these inimitable ornaments, corresponding mottoes were 
attached, so that not only taste and elegance were conspicuous, but 
encouragement and genius were displayed. Such was the description 
of this affair as it appeared in the newspapers of the day. 

Cochran's buildings were again on fire, 30th January, 1793, but 
the fire was extinguished without much damage. 

War with France was announced by letters from the Secretary of 
State to the Governor, dated 9th February, 1793. Orders were also 
received to raise a provincial regiment. This regiment was to be 
called the Nova Scotia Fensibles ; they were to be raised in Halifax, 
but were not to have half pay, and the Commissions were to be given 
to half pay officers. Young Haligonians were thus excluded. It 
was about the same time decided on embodying a part of the Militia 
force for the defence of the town. 1050 effective men were accord- 
ingly marched into the town from the country, who were to receive 
pay from the British Government while on duty. The Governor 
published his thanks to the militia on 2nd November, for the alacrity 
with which they obeyed his orders in marching to Halifax. By the 
month of May the number of men enlisted for the Nova Scotia 
regiment, amounted to 100, the enlistments were afterwards in- 
creased to 600 men. 

Apprehensions appear to have been entertained of an attack on 
the town by the French fleet. Every precaution appears to have 
been taken by Governor Wentworth for the protection of the 
Capital. In his letter to the Secretary of State of 23rd July, the 
Governor says, " In twenty minutes I could put under the command 
" of General Ogilvie, 900 militia men, and in a few hours a second 
" battalion of 600, who reside in the neighbourhood of the town." 

The Halifax Militia Artillery, commanded by Capt. J. Tremain 
was a most effective body of men. It had been this year formed 
and consisted of sixty freeholders of the town. The Town Regi- 
ment of Infantry was commanded by Col, John George Pyke. 
550 men of the Town Militia assisted the Garrison in repairing 

106 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

and mounting the batteries on Citadel Hill and elsewhere. On the 
2nd April, two French Prizes were brought into the harbour by 
H. M. Ship Alligator, with cargoes valued at 40,000. 

Among the events of the "War -was an expedition fitted out at 
Halifax to attack the Island of St. Pierre, in NeAvfoimdland. It 
consisted of the Alligator and Hussar, men-of-war, with a body of 
troops under General Ogilvie. Before leaving, the two ships of war 
received permissions from the Governor and Council to press 
through the town and complete their crews. The place surrendered 
without lighting, and the Governor, M. Dauseville, with several 
hundred prisoners and stores were brought to Halifax. They 
lauded on the 20th of June. Governor Danseville was placed on 
parole, and resided at Dartmouth for many years in the house known 
as Brook House, now or lately the residence of the Hon. Michael 
Tobin, junr., about a couple of miles or more from Dartmouth 
town. The old gentleman displayed some taste in beautifying the 
grounds at Brook House. He built a fish pond and laid out walks 
among the beech and white birch groves near the house. The 
pond still remains, but the walks and most of the trees have long 
since disappeared. He remained a prisoner with an allowance from 
Government until the peace of 1814, when he returned to his own 
country a zealous royalist. Mr. Mizauseau was his aide-de-camp ; 
he married a farmer's daughter in the South East Passage, and left a 
family who bear his name in that neighbourhood. 

Governor "Wentworth proposed to place the French prisoners who 
had been brought to Halifax from time to time, on an Island in the 
North West Arm, afterwards known as Melville Island, but the 
General preferred the Coruwallis *Barracks. The Island was not 
the property of the Government at this time, but hired by Governor 
"Wentworth for this purpose of a prison. It afterwards became 
Admiralty property. 

A poll tax existed at this time. It had been imposed by Act of 
the Legislature in 1791. One shilling per head was imposed on all 
males above 21 years of age. The law also contained a tax on 
cattle, with an extra tax on certain trades and occupations. It was 
ostensibly for the purpose of reducing the provincial debt. It does 
not appear, however, to have been regularly collected in the town. 

NOTE." Uncertain as to where the Cormvallis Barracks were situated. 

History of Halifax City. 107 

1794. On the 10th May, His Royal Highness Prince Edward 
arrived at Halifax in the Blanche Frigate, twelve days from St. 
Kitts. He landed immediately under a salute of 21 guns. 

A levee took place on the 14th and an address was presented to 
him couched in the most fulsome and ridiculous language. On the 
24th there was a garrison revieAv under the command of General 

On the 22ud January, the following year, he set out by land for 
Quebec. He was at Boston on 5th February, where he remained 10 
days and then embarked for the West Indies. It appears, however, 
that he was in Halifax on 25th February. 

1794. This year a number of merchants of the town agreed to 
underwrite policies of insurance on vessels and goods, and appointed / 
Benjamin Salter the broker, who, on the 10th May, advertised 
attendance every day during " change " hours at the " Coffee Rooms." 

The town was again harassed by press gangs from Admiral 
Murray's ship. The Admiral had persuaded the Governor and 
Council to allow him twenty-four hours power over the inhabitants 
to man his fleet though Capt. Home had been previously refused 
the privilege in January. 

In December the Marine Society, which had been established by 
the merchants of Halifax several years previously, was re-modeled 
and extended in its operations. About this time a project had been 
formed by Governor "VVeutworth for uniting the waters of Halifax 
Harbor with the Bay of Fundy by a canal from the River 
Shubeuacadie, and rendering the river navigable. Suggestions on 
the subject had been made to Governor Wentworth by persons whom 
he supposed competent to judge of the feasibility of the project, and 
was very sanguine of success in the work if not interrupted by 
hostilities. It does not appear, however, that any attempt was 
made this year towards effecting the object, but three years after 
(1797) the sum of 250 was voted for a survey of the projected 

All public lands in the town were this year granted to trustees. 
A grant of part of the King's Stores for a fishmarket was made, 
also the Province Building ground and the Grand Parade. The old 
English burial ground opposite the present Government House on 
Pleasant Street had been originally set apart, in 1749, as a genera 

10K Nova Scotia Historical Society* 

burial place for the inhabitants of the town. It consisted of two 
acres and a quarter, but the title had not passed out of the Crown. 
It was this year granted to the Church Wardens and Vestry of 
St. Paul's Parish. They have been considered to hold it in trust 
for the original purpose for which it was dedicated. The old poor 
house burial ground was also included in this grant. 

The French prisoners brought from St. Pierre and Miquelon, who 
had been lodged in the town with others who had been taken in 
prizes, were sent, in the month of July, to the Island of Guernsey. 

We find Captain George of the Hussar receiving permission from 
the Council to fill up the complement of his men by impressment. 
In July following a similar application from Capt. Knowles of the 
ship Daedalus was refused. Admiral Murray, it appears, obtained 
another license in September to press through the town for seven 

Commodore George informed the Governor that intelligence of 
the state of the defences of the town had been, or was likely to be, 
communicated by the French prisoners, through persons from the 
United States, to the French ambassador at Washington, and 
suggested an embargo on all vessels going to the United States for 
the present until he should receive intelligence from Admiral 
Murray. The Collector of the Customs at Halifax was accordingly 
ordered not to clear any vessels to the United States until further 

The following gentlemen were added to the Magistracy of the 
town: Michael Head, M. D., George Sherlock, Francis Green, 
J. M. F. Bulkeley, J. B. Dight, John Phillips, M. D., Jonathan 
Tremaine. James Clarke was Sheriff. Among the advertisements 
which appeared in the newspaper this and the previous year was a 
notice that sedan chairs would stand for hire in Barrington Street, 
also at the Court House, for the convenience of the public. The 
principal merchants and ship owners in the town between 1787 and 
1795 were Geo. Bell, Hardware and Glass Store in Granville Street, 
near the town guard, then kept in the old house behind Masons' 
Hall ; Peter Smith, Wines & Groceries ; James Veitch, Groceries 
and General Store, shop opposite the wood yard ; David Hall & Co. 
Dry Goods Store in Hollis Street, opposite old Government House ; 
Charles Handesayde, Boot & Shoe Maker in Granville Street; Alex. 

History of Halifax City. 109 

and Robert Leslie, Dry Goods Store at the corner of Duke & Hollis 
Streets, near the Pontac ; Lawrence Hartshorne, Hardware Store at 
corner of Granville Street, between the Market House and the 
Parade; Wm. Forsyth & Co., Importing Merchants; Linnard & 
Young, Tailors, in Marchington's Buildings, Upper "Water Street ; 
George DeBloise, General Dealer ; John Butler Dight, Importing 
Merchant, and Wink worth Allen and the Messrs. Cochran. William 
Minns, Stationer, Benj. Salter, Importing Merchant, Chas. Geddis, 
Watch Maker & Jeweller, lower side the Parade ; John Hill, Cutter, 
Hollis Street; Edmond Phelan, "Golden Ball" tavern, Hollis 
Street; Wm. Brindley, Wines, etc., Fonnan, Grassie & Co., 
Importing Merchants, store on the Long Wharf (late Copelaud's) ; 
Hall, Bremner & Bottomley, Dry Goods, etc. 

Between '95 and '99. James Romans, Boot & Shoe Maker, 
corner of Duke & Grauville Streets ; Win Dickie, Dry Goods, Phebe 
Moody, Dry Goods, Matthew Richardson, General Store, Robert 
Chrisley, Dry Goods, John McMasters, Dry Goods, Edward King, 
Livery Stable, John Kidston, General Dealer. 

In 1798 the firm of L. Hartshorne & Co. was changed to 
Hartshorne & Boggs. 

Moody & Tidmarsh, Dry Goods, Thos. Wallace, Dry Goods, etc. 
opposite wood yard ; J. Hemmiongton, Grocer, near the Navy Yard ; 
Lyon & Butler, General Dealers, Saml. Leddiet, Soap Boiler from 
Liverpool, kept the London Porter House above the Grand Parade ; 
Philip Garrell, Tailor, Fraser, Thorn & Co., Importing Merchants, 
Marchiugton's Wharf; Robert Scaiff, successor to Wm. & Thos. 
Williams, Hardware, Jewellery, etc., Forsyth, Smith & Co., Import- 
ing Merchants, James Leaver, Lower Water Street, Dry Goods, 
David Seabury, Auctioneer, Joseph Davis, Dry Goods, Michael 
Head, Apothecary, Saml. Hart, Dry Goods, D. Marshall and D. 
Fraser, both Importing Merchants, Wm. Annand, Groceries, etc., 
Saml. Greenwood, Mast Maker, Ed. Bartlett, Dry Goods, March- 
ington's Wharf; Jacob Miller & Son and Philis, Boyd & Philis, 
Importing Merchants, Tremain & Boggs, opposite the fuel yard, 
Hardware, etc., Thomas Roby, Merchant, Granville Street, Brymer 
& Belcher, John Grant, Wm. Forsyth & Co., Jonathan Tremain, 
Merchants, James Moody, Grocery & General Store keeper, Hollis 
Street, Michael Wallace, Wines, Groceries, etc. C. C. Hall & Co. 

110 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

appear to have been the leading dry goods shop keepers ; their store 
was in Marchington's "buildings near the Ordnance. Charles Hill, 
Auctioneer, James Forbes, Wine, Groceries, etc., Water Street, 
near Fairbanks' Wharf. Andrew Gallagher kept the British Tavern 
opposite Marchington's Wharf. Sabatier, Stewart & Co., General 
Merchants; their fh-m was dissolved in 1790. William Millett, 
Auctioneer, King & Stoe, Shop-keeper, No. 6 Marchington's build- 
ings, near the British Tavern ; Thomas Russel, shop-keeper, store 
near the Coffee House ; Alex. Morrison, Bookseller, Thos. Donald- 
son, Confectioner, Etter & Tidmarsh, corner of the Parade, British 
Merchandise, D. Curry & Co., Dry Goods, James Frame, Cabinet 
Maker, Jonathan & John Tremain, Hardware, etc., David Rudolph, 
near the Golden Ball, Dry Goods & Groceries, Richd. Woodroffe, 
Furrier, near the South Barracks. 

1795. At the request of Prince Edward, the men of the Militia 
were employed on the fortifications in the neighborhood of the town 
during the summer. At this time the French prisoners in the town 
became very riotous ; they were oi'dered to be removed to a place of 
confinement and none to be permitted at large. Several French 
prizes were brought in during the summer by Capts. Cochran and 
Beresford, of the Hussar and the Thetis, Sloops-of-War. An 
armed Snow named the Earl of Moira was kept by the Provincial 
Government for the protection of the coast. The most stirring 
event of the year was the arrival of the Hussar and Thetis after a 
long cruise bringing with them two French ships-of-war which they 
had captured ; part of the enemy's squadron bound from the West 
Indies to Virginia. 

Several Halifax ship masters lost their vessels and were made 
prisoners by French privateers in 1795. The names of Capts. 
Jacobs, Lloyd, Ewing and John Pryor appear among them. They 
suffered much hard usage at Guadaloupe where they were detained. 
A project for building a bridge across the Narrows was contemplated 
about this time. A petition was presented to the House of Assembly 
dated llth March, 1796, from a number of persons praying for an 
Act to authorize the building of a bridge across the Narrows. 

Between January, 1795, and January, 1796, the Halifax markets 
appear to have been well supplied. The newspapers of the day 
mention that 786 head of fat cattle, 30 cows and calves, besides 
sheep and swine had been brought into the town, 

History of Halifax City, 111 

1796. St. George's day was celebrated with much festivity by 
the English Society. They had a dinner in the evening at which 
Governor Wentworth and Prince Edward were present. Among 
the decorations were sixty variegated lamps. Genl. Ogilvie and 
Chief Justice Strange were among the guests. The Prince arrived 
and departed under a royal salute and, during the dinner, sat under 
a canopy of white satin and gold lace. 

During the spring of 1796 Halifax suffered from a scarcity of 
provisions. The inhabitants were indebted to Messrs. Hartshorne 
and Tremain, whose mills at Dartmouth enabled them, through the 
summer, to obtain flour at a reduced price and to afford a sufficient 
supply for the fishei'y. 

The 4th June, old King George's birthday, was celebrated this 
year with the usual ceremonies. There was a levee and a review of 
the troops, and Sir John Wentworth entertained the Prince and a 
number of the principal inhabitants at a Ball, when the old Govern- 
ment House was brilliantly illuminated. There was a dinner the 
same afternoon among the merchants at the British Tavern, March- 
ington's buildings. 

St. Patrick's day, this year, was also celebrated by a levee at the 
Government House and a dinner at Gallagher's hotel. The society 
sat down to dinner at five o'clock. His Royal Highness Prince 
Edward, Governor Sir John Wentworth, several members of 
Council, the Speaker and a number of members of the House 
of Assembly attended. The Prince and the Governor retired early, 
but the society kept up their festivities to a late hour. 

On July 21st, vessels arrived in the harbor with five hundred 
Maroon negroes from Jamaica. The Maroons were the descendants 
of a number of African slaves, who, when Jamaica was conquered 
from the Spaniards, took refuge in the Island, They continued in 
a state of insubordination, but occasionally made treaties with the 
English. At this time they were in open hostility, but had been 
conquered, and it was arranged that a number of them should be 
sent as settlers to Canada. They put into Halifax on their way. 
They were under the superintendence of Colonel Quarrell of Jamaica, 
who had letters from the Governor of Jamaica to Sir John Went- 
worth. Prince Edward was commander of the garrison at the time, 
and on inspecting the people was so much pleased with the athletic 

112 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

proportions of the young mulatto men that he proposed to detain 
them to work on the fortifications of the town, which were then in 
progress under his direction. The French squadron under Admiral 
Richery was then off the coast, and it *vas expected that he would 
visit Halifax. The fortifications at the mouth of the harbor having 
fallen into decay were under repair, but not sufficiently forward to 
afford protection in case of an attack. The proposal was accepted 
by the Maroons ; some were accordingly accommodated with sheds, 
and others placed in barns and such places of shelter as could be 
found in the town for their temporary accommodation. A number 
were sent to work on Citadel Hill, and one of the bastions there 
was called the Maroon Battery. The assent of the Secretary of 
State having been obtained for their settlement in Nova Scotia, laud 
was assigned them in the Township of Preston. Col. Quarrel 1 did 
not like the treatment they received. Many of the Maroons were 
permitted to come to town and seek work among the inhabitants. 
It was about this time that Sir John Weutworth proposed, as has 
been before mentioned, to open communication between Halifax 
and the River Shubeuacadie which was to be performed by Maroon 
labor. This was the first proposal to be met with in reference to 
the Shubenacadie Canal which, in after years, caused so much loss 
and suffering by its failure. Differences arose between Col. Quarrell 
and the Governor, the Maroons refused to work, and discontent 
increased. Sir John and Prince Edward had a project of forming 
them into a corps of militia, and bestowed militia commissions on 
several of the young men among the Maroons, and two of their 
leading men, Montagu and Johnson, were appointed Colonels. 
Jarret, Bailey, Mayers and others were made Majors and Captains, 
which gratified their vanity. 

The winter of 1796-7 was very severe, the want of provisions 
was felt, and the scarcity of flour threatened a famine in the town. 
The expenses of supplying these people had hitherto been borne by 
the Jamaica Government. Land had been purchased at Preston 
and the large building known as Maroon Hall, afterwards the 
property of Lieut. Katzmanu, was erected as a residence for the 
superintendent. Some difficulties arose with the Jamaica Legislature. 
Quarrell left Halifax in the spring of 1797, leaving the Maroons 
discontented and refractory. It was finally arranged that they 

History of Halifax City. 113 

should be sent to Sierra Leone. Eight years previously a number 
of negroes had been sent there from Halifax. The Maroons were 
to be united with them in the hope that the union would be a check 
on the turbulent conduct of the Nova Scotia colony, which at that 
time had been the source of some trouble to the Sierra Leone 
Company. They were accordingly embarked in the autumn of 1800, 
and arrived on the coast of Africa in October. 

Sir John Wentworth had received intelligence in September which 
led him to apprehend some attempt on Halifax by the French forces 
now in Newfoundland. At the close of the year the harbor 
defences were brought into good condition, and capable of affording 
a tolerable defence in case of invasion. Two press warrants were 
issued this year by the Council; one on 31st January to Admiral 
Murray for twenty-four hours in the town, and another in October 
to Admiral Vandiput for two mouths through the province. 

On the night of the 21st March a fire broke out in the range of 
houses opposite St. Paul's Church, in Harrington Street, which 
consumed the property of Dr. Greaves. The trees around the 
Church escaped uninjured. 

The sudden death of James Michael Freke Bulkeley, the Secretary 
of the province, on the 12th November, threw a gloom over the 
community. He was a young man of pleasing address and highly 
esteemed. He had been for some time member for the county, 
which he held in conjunction with that of Provincial Secretary. He 
had succeeded his father, Richard Bulkeley, in the office but a short 
time before his death. 

In November, the fleet, under Vice Admiral Vandiput, sailed 
from Halifax on a cruise. It consisted of the Resolution, 74, 
bearing the Admiral's flag, Capt. Ledmore ; Assistance, 50 guns, 
Capt. Mowatt; Andromeda, 32 guns, Capt. Taylor; Ceres, 32, 
Capt. Otway ; Lynx, 18, Capt. Hall, and the Hunter, 18, Capt. 

1797. During this summer the town was enlivened by the 
presence of four or five hundred embodied militia who did garrison 
duty. Several battalions were enrolled in the country with the 
intention of their being removed to Halifax for the protection of the 
town in the absence of the regular troops. They were, however, 
not required, and were discharged in the latter part of October by 
order of the Governor. 

114 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

At this time Dr. Robert Stanser was rector of St. Paul's, Dr. 
Archibald Gray, minister of St. Matthew's, at the corner, Mr. 
Michael Bernard Houseal, missionary to the Germans and minister 
of St. George's, north suburbs. Chief Justice Strange resigned this 
year and was succeeded in the office by Mr. Sampson Salter Blowers, 
who remained Chief Justice until 1835, when he was succeeded by 
Sir Brenton Halliburton. Chief Justice Blowers died in 1842, at the 
age of 100 years. His monument is in the south-east comer of the 
east aisle of St. Paul's. He built the house at the corner of 
Barriugton and Blowers Streets, lately occupied by Mr. Romans as 
a hotel, and known as the Waverley House, where he resided for 
about thirty-five years. 

Mr. Shaw was Sheriff of Halifax this year ; he was succeeded by 
Lewis M. Wilkius, afterwards a Judge of the Supreme Court, and 
father of the late Judge Wilkins of that Court. 

Prince Edward, who was Commandant of the garrison, appears 
to have patronized almost all the public entertainments in the town. 
He dined with the national societies, and honored the balls given by 
Governor Wentworth with his presence. His manners were affable, 
and he was, in consequence, quite popular with all classes in the 
town. He was very much affected by the sudden death of Lieuten- 
ant Charles Thomas of his own regiment, the 7th Fusiliers, who 
was accidentally shot by a brother officer while on a hunting 
expedition in August of this year. Lieut. Thomas was the son of 
Nathaniel Ray Thomas, a magistrate and collector of the customs 
of Windsor, and a cousin of Governor Wentworth. He was a 
favourite and protege* of Prince Edward, who attended his funeral 
and erected a monument at his own expense over his grave. 

On the 23rd November, this year, -H. M. Ship La Tribune, Capt. 
Baker, was lost in coming into the harbor. The following authentic 
account of this disaster is from the newspaper of the day : 

" La Tribune was one of the finest frigates in His Majesty's service, 
mounted 44 guns and had been lately captured by Captain Williams in the 
Unicorn frigate. She was commanded by Captain S. Barker, and sailed 
from Torbay the 22nd September, as convoy to the Quebec and Newfound- 
land fleets. In Lat. 49 14' Long. 17 J 29' she fell in with and spoke His 
Majesty's ship Experiment from this place, out 12 days. She lost sight of 
all her convoy October 19th, in Lat. 40 J 16' Long. 32 11'. On Thursday 
morning last, they discovered this Harbour about 8 o'clock. The wind oeing 
E. 8. E they approached it very fast, when Captain Barker proposed to the 
master that they should lay the ship to till they could obtain a pilot; the 

History of Halifax City. 115 

master replied, 'he had beat a 44 gun ship into the harbour that he had 
been frequently here and that there was no occasion for a pilot, as the 
wind was fair.' Confiding in these assurances Captain Barker went below 
and was for a time employed in arranging some papers he wished to take 
on shore with him. The master in the meantime taking upon himself the 
pilotage of the ship, and placing great dependence upon the judgment of a 
negro man by the name of John Casey, (who had formerly belonged here) 
whom he had placed forward to con the ship. About 12 o'clock the 
ship had approached so near the Thrum Cap Shoals, that the master 
became alarmed and sent for Mr Galvin the master's mate, who was sick 
below. On his coming on deck he heard the man in the chains sing out 
' by the mark five,' the black man forward at the same time singing out 
'steady.' Galvin got on one of the carronades to observe the situation of 
the ship, the master in much agitation at the same time taking the wheel 
from the man who was steering with an intent to wear ship, but before 
this could be effected or Galvin able to give an opinion, she struck. 
Captain Barker instantly came on deck and reproached the master with 
having lost the ship. Seeing Galvin also on deck, he addressed him and 
said (as he knew he had formerly sailed out of this harbour) that he was 
much surprised that he could stand by and see the master run the ship on 
shore. Galvin informed the Captain he had not been on deck long enough 
to give an opinion. Signals of distress were instantly made and answered 
by the military posts and the ships in the harbour. Boats from all the 
military posts, 1'rom His Majesty's ships and from the Dockyard, proceeded 
to the relief of La Tribune. The military boats and one of the boats from 
the Dockyard, with Mr. Raekum, boatswain of the Ordinary, reached the 
ship; but the other boats, though making the greatest exertions, were not 
able, the wind being so much against them, to get on board. The ship was 
immediately lightened by throwing all her guns, except one retained for 
signals, overboard, and every other heavy article, so that at about half-past 
eight o'clock in the evening the ship began to heave and about nine she got 
off from the shoals. She had before at about five or six o'clock lost her 
rudder, and on examination it was now found that she had seven feet of 
water in the hold. The chain pumps were immediately manned and such 
exertions made that they seemed to gain on the leaks, and by advice of Mr. 
Rack um the ( ap'ain ordered to let go the best bower anchor. This was 
done but it did not bring her up. The Captain then ordered them to cut the 
cable, and the jib and fore topmast stay sail were hoisted to .steer by. All 
this time the violent gale, which had come on from the south east, kep; 
increasing and carrying them to the western shore. In a short time the 
small bower anchor was let go, at which time they found themselves in about 
thirteen fathoms water. The mizzen mast was then cut away. It was now 
about ten o'clock, the water gaining fast on the ship, little hope remained 
of saving the ship or their lives. At this critical period Lieut Campbell 
quitted the ship. Lieut. Nooth was taken into the boat out of one of the 
ports. Lieut. James of the Royal Nova Scotia Regiment, not being to be 
found was so unfortunate as to rejiain, and to the great distress of his 
worthy parents and friends shared the general fate. From the period 
when Lieut. Campbell quitted the ship all hopes of safety had vanished, 
the ship was sinking fast, the storm was increasing with redoubled 
violence, the rocky shore to which they were approaching resounding with 
the tremendous noise of the billows which rolled toward it, presented 
nothing to those who might survive the sinking of tbe ship, but the 
expectation of a more painful death from being dashed against those 
tremendous precipices, which even in the calmest day it is almost impos- 
sible to ascend. 

116 Nova, "Scotia Historical Society. 

Dunlap, one of the survivors, informs us that at about half-past ten, as 
nearly as he could conjecture, one of the men who had been below came to 
him on the forecastle and told him the ship was sinking ; in a few minutes 
after, the ship took a lurch as a boat will do when nearly filled with water 
and going down ; immediately on which Dunlap began to ascend the fore 
shroud, and at the same moment casting his eyes towards the quarter deck 
saw Capt Barker standing by the gangway and looking into the water, and 
directly after heard him call for the jolly-boat. At the same time he saw the 
Lieutenant of Marines running towards the taffrail, he supposed to look for 
the jolly-boat, as she had previously been let down with four men in her 
but instantly the ship took a second lurch and sank to the bottom; after 
which neither the captai; 1 . nor any other of the officers was seen. The 
scene, sufficiently distressing before, became now peculiarly awful more 
than 240 men, besides several women and children were floating on the 
waves making their last efforts to preserve their existence. Dunlap, 
whom we have before mentioned, gained the fore top. Mr. Galvin, the 
master's mate, after incredible difficulty, got into the main top he was 
below when the ship sank, directing the men at the chain pump. He was 
washed up the hatchway, thrown into the waist and from thence into the 
water, and his feet as he plunged, struck a rock. On ascending, he swam 
to gain the main shrouds when he was suddenly seized hold of by three 
men he was now afraid he was lost. To disengage himself from them he 
made a dive into the water which induced them to quit their hold. On 
rising again he swam to the shrouds and arrived at the main top and 
seated himself on an arm-chest which was lashed to the mast. 

From the observations of Mr. Galvin from the main-top and Mr. 
Dunlap in the fore-top, it appears that near one hundred persons were for 
a considerable time hanging to the shrouds, the tops and other parts of the 
wreck ; but from the extreme length of the night and the ferocity of the 
storm nature became exhausted, and they kept at all periods of the night 
dropping off and disappearing. The cries and groans of the unhappy 
sufferers, from the bruises many of them had received and as their hopes 
of deliverance began to fail them, were continued through the night; 
though as morning appeared from the few that then survived they became 
feeble indeed. The whole number saved from the wreck amounted to 
eight persons and several of them so exhausted as to be indifferent 
whether they were taken off or not. Mr. Galvin mentions that about 
twelve o'clock the mainmast gave way ; at that time he supposes there 
were on the main-top and on the shrouds upwards of forty persons. By 
the fall of the mast the whole were again plunged into the water, and of 
that number only nine besides himself regained the top. The top rested 
upon the main yard, and the whole remained fast to the ship by some of 
the rigging. Of the ten persons who regained the main-top four only 
were alive when morning appeared. Ten were at that time alive on the 
fore-top, but three of them had got so exhausted and had become so unable to 
help themselves that before any relief came they were finally washed 
away ; three others perished, and four only were also finally left alive in 
the fore-top. The place where the ship went down was only about three 
times her length to the southward of the entrance into Herring Cove. The 
people came down in the night to the point opposite to which the ship 
sunk and kept large fires, and were so near as to converse with the people 
on the wreck. 

The first exertion that was made for their relief was by a boy, thirteen 
years old, from Herring Cove, who ventured oft' in a small skiff by himself 
about eleven o'clock the next day ; and this truly deserving young lad 
with great exertions and at extreme risk to himself, ventured to approach the 
wreck and backed in bis little boat so near to the fore-top as to take off 

History of Halifax Cily. 117 

two of the men, for the boat could not with safety hold any more ; and here 
a trait of generous magnanimity occurred which deserves to be noticed. 
Dunlap and Munroe had, throughout this disastrous night providentially 
preserved their strength and spirits beyond their unfortunate companions, 
and had endeavoured to cheer and encourage them as they found their 
spirits sinking ; they were now both of the*n able to have stepped into the 
boat and put an end to their own sufferings, but their other two com- 
panions, though alive, were unab'e to help themselves. They lay exhausted 
on the top, wished not to be disturbed, and seemed desirous to perish as they 
lay. These generous fellows hesitated not a moment to remain themselves 
on the wreck and to save, though against their will, their unfortunate 
companions. They lifted them up and by the greatest exertions got them 
into the little skiff, and the manly boy rowed them triumphantly to the 
Cove and instantly had them conveyed to a comfortable habitation. 
After shaming, by his example, older persons who had larger boats, he put 
off again in his little skiff, but with all his efforts he could not then approach 
the wreck. His example, however, was soon followed by the men in the 
Tribune's jolly-boat and by some of the boa's of the Cove, and by their 
joint exertions the eight men were preserved, who, with four that escaped 
in the jolly-boat make the whole number of survivors of this fine ship's 

Some have been disposed to blame Capt Barker as exhibiting too 
much obstinacy in not abandoning the ship and preserving his crew, as a 
violent storm was evidently approaching, but on examining the men who 
have survived we find (though other officers in the same situation might have 
formed a different judgment) that the conduc of Capt. Barker was through- 
out the trying scene completely cool and collected. Though from the 
manner in which the ship had been run ashore, no blame could attach to 
him, yet he could not reconcile it to himself to lose so fine a ship without 
making every exertion to save her. Having by the greatest efforts con- 
siderably lightened her, he had reason to suppose she might get off before 
high w r ater. She made no water while she lay aground, there was therefore 
great hopes, if she could not that night have been got up the harbour that 
she might with safety have been brought to anchor and have rode out the 
gale. When she finally got off, universal joy was d if! used throughout the 
ship every man thought the object of their joint efforts was attained but 
the rapid manner in which the water poured into her, soon damped their 
joy and plunged them into despair. Had the ship been finally saved by 
the great exertions which were made to effect it, every man would have 
praised Capt Barker, and, notwithstanding those exertions failed, we 
think we may justly say, in the language of Mr. Addison, 

" 'Tis not in mortals to command success 
Birkcr did more ; he did deserve it " 

To his memory therefore and that of his brave fellow-sufferers, the con- 
miseration of their countrymen is justly due. From every generous heart 
they will receive that commiseration ; and while the mind runs over the 
whole trying scene the tears which must involuntarily flow will embalm 
their memory. 

Having closed the general spene, we think it will not be unacceptable 
to our reade;s if we notice the conduct of some individuals. A q^iarter- 
master belonging to the ship, by the name of McGregor, had his wife on 
board ; they were a respectable couple and greatly attached to each other. 
McGregor from his affectionate solicitations for her safety, endeavored to 
persuade her, while the ship lav on the shoals, to go ashore in o>ne of the- 
boats which came off from the Island, as his mind would be more at ease, 
could he put her in a place of safety. To his solicitations she replied, 
' that she never would abandon him ; if it was his lot to perish, she wished 

118 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

not to survive him.' Finding it in vain to urge her further, he desisted 
from the attempt and she afterwards shared the common fate. A consid- 
erable time after the ship had foundered a man was discovered swimming 
towards the wreck. On his pproaching near it was found to be McGregor; 
he informed his comrades who were hanging by the wreck, that lie had 
swain towards the shore; that he had ventured as far as he could with 
safety into the surf, and found if he went further he should be dashed to 
pieces, and he cautioned them all to avoid making a like attempt, but if 
possible to hold by the wreck. He himself gained the main shrouds and 
remained (here till the mast gave way, and then met the same fate as his 
unfortunate consort, whose death he was continually deploring while on 
the shrouds. 

Dunlap relates another instance which occurred, which though it 
may appear ludicrous after the distressing scenes we have noticed, is so 
descriptive of that cool thoughtlessness of danger which so often dist n- 
guishes our British tars that it would be inexcusable to omit it. Daniel 
Munroe, one of the survivors had as well as Dunlap got into the fore-top. 
After a while he disappeared and it was concluded that he had been 
washed away with many others; after an absence from the top of about 
two hours, he suddenly popped his head up through the lubber hole to the 
surprise of Dunlap, who enquired where he had been; he said he had been 
cruising about for a better berth; and it appeared that, after swimming 
about the wreck for a considerable time, he had returned to the fore shrouds, 
and crawled in on the cat-harping and had actually been to sleep there 
more than an hour, and he said he was and really appeared to be greatly 

Mr. Brennan of the Dockyard, who had gone aboard with Mr. Rackum, 
after the sinking of the ship, had got on the maintop and remained there 
till the mainmast gave way and was never after seen. 

"While noticing the immediate disasters of the ship, we forebore to 
mention the fate of one of the boats which had gone from George's 
Island. About nine o'clock as the ship went off, the boat got under the 
ship's bow and was upset ; by this circumstance a part of the men, consisting 
of two sergeants and four privates of the Royal Nova Scotia Regiment were 
unfortunately drowned ; the remainder were taken up by the boat belong- 
ing to the Eastern Battery. Too much praise cannot be given to the men 
who manned these boats, and particularly to Sergt. Bourke, and the boat's 
crew who persevered in following the ship, and finally brought off Lieuts. 
Campbell and Nooth of the Royal Fusiliers. 

Great praise is also due to the dock-yard boat which carried Mr. 
Rackum on board. They followed the ship at a short distance till she 
foundered, and with extreme difficulty at, length reached Herring Cove. 
We are sorry to mention that Mr. Rackum, whose exertions on board 
La Tribune to preserve the ship were gratefully acknowledged, perished 
with the unl'appy ship's company. 

Having mentioned all the disastrous circumstances which have 
attended this distressing scene, it is with pleasure we now notice the 
attention which has been paid to the widows and children of the unfor- 
tunate sufferers His Royal Highness Prince Edwanl with that uniform 
generosity which has distinguished his Royal Highness durii g his 
residence in this province, directed immediate provision to be made for the 
bereaved families, and there is reason to hope through his Royal Highness' 
representations, that provision will be made as permanent as their 
sufferings. Actions like these dignify even kings and add splendour to the 
highest rank. 

History of Halifax City. 119 

Besides the attention shown by his Royal Highness a liberal subscrip- 
tion lias been made by the garrison and gentlemen of the town lor the 
widows of the soldiers who were drowned and for the men who manned 
the boats. 

There is another instance of generosity, which the occasion seems to 
require, and it seems to be the earnest wish of the men who were saved 
from the wreck ; it is that some reward may be bestowed on the boy who 
first came off to them. They attribute in a great measure their deliver- 
ance to him, and they mention with the warmest gratitude, not only his 
exertions to save them from the wreck, but his kind and hospitable 
attention to relieve them alter they had reached the Cove. Surely if a 
subscription were set on foot, there is not a man in the country who would 
not give something to reward and encourage so young an instance of 
humane and heroic magnanimity. 

Mr. Club, the master of La Tribune, was master of the Active, frigate, 
when she was run ashore on the Island of Anticosti. 

Mr. Fennel, first lieutenant, and Mr. Galvin, the master's mate, were 
both formerly prisoners at Guadeloupe with Colonel Wetherall, and were 
all for a considerable time chained by the legs together. Lieut. 
Fennell declared to Lieut Campbell that his only motive in coming out in 
La Tribune was to have the pleasure of seeing Colonel U'etherall ; and 
such appears to have been the attachment of Galvin to Lieut. Fennel that, 
though he speaks with becoming feeling of the fate of the ship's company, 
the loss of Lieut. Fennell seems peculiarly to affect him. On enquiring of 
him if he saw Lieut. Fennel after the ship sunk, he replied, he did not, for 
if he had, though he was himself in a place of apparent security, he would 
again have risked his life to preserve him, and would have effected it or 
perished with him. A similiar attachment to each other appears among 
the men who have survived the wreck, and these circumstances unite to 
prove that the virtues which render human being the most pleasing are 
those they are taught in the trying school of adversity. 

List of the officers lost in La Tribune : Captain, Scory Barker : First 
Lieutenant, Thomas Fennel; Second do., Thomas Clarke; Third do , Thomas 
Sheirp ; Master, James Clubb ; Lieutenant Marines, James Cregg ; Surgeon, 

Jones ; Purser, Stanford ; Carpenter, James Jurd ; Boatswain, John 

Franklin; Master's Mate, William Stacey ; Midshipmen, John Dennington, 

Charles Belcher, John Clowdsley, William C'rofton, Nops ; Captain's 

Clerk, William Foley; Surgeon's Mate, James Mulquinney; Gunner, William 

List of officers and men saved from La Tribune -.John Galvin, 
Master's Mate; Seamen, Abraham Wanhill, James Crawford, Robert 
Parker, Daniel Monroe, E Knowles, Richard Best, James Green, Henry 
Husley, Chris. Dow ling, Robert Dunlap and John White. 

We have been favored with the following extract of General Orders, 
dated Halifax, November 20, 1797 : 

Lieutenant General, His Royal Highness Prince Edward thinks it his 
duty to return his particular thanks to Lieutenants Halibnr on, Campbell 
and Nooth of the Royal Fusiliers, also to the several non-commissioned 
ollicers and privates of ths Royal Nova Scotia Regiment, who manned the 
boats sent to give assistance on Thursday last to His Majesty's frigate 
Tribune, unfortunately wrecked by getting on shore at the mouth of thig 

120 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

His Royal Highness most sincerely laments the loss of Lieut. James 
and two non-commissioned officers with four privates of the Royal N. S. 
Regiment, who were unfortunately drowned in executing the first of all 
duties, that of giving succor to brother officers and men in distress. 

His Royal Highness directs that the Commissary-General will serve 
free rations to the widows of the non-commissioned officers and privates 
lost, as follows : 

To the wife of Sergt. Baker, and two children, two rations. 

To Sergt Mullen's wife, one ration. 

To the wife of John Bush and two children, two rations. 

Tuesday last the body of Lieut. James was found and brought up to 
town to his disconsolate parents and Wednesday was interred with 
military honors." 

Michael Wallace was appointed Treasurer of the Province in 
October of this year on the resignation of Benning Wentworth. 
Mr. Wallace remained treasurer until 1827 or 1828, when he was 
succeeded by his son. Mr. Wallace administered the government 
as senior councillor several times during the absence of the 
Governor, Sir James Kempt. 

The old playhouse lot in Argyle Street was granted, about this 
time, to James Putnam, from whom it came into possession of the 
trustees of the Acadian School. The grant from the Crown of part 
of the King's Stores for a fishmarket, before referred to, was, on 
29th August, signed by the Governor and the Prince as commander 
in chief of the troops. This is what was called the new fishmarket. 
The old market had formerly been private property, and the rents of 
stalls at this time were received by Mr. Cochran, but it was subject 
to town regulations. Commissioners were about the same time 
appointed to purchase land and to erect buildings for the accommo- 
dation of the Legislature and Courts of Justice as soon as peace 
should occur and the price of labor should be lower. The Act 
formerly passed for erecting buildings for this purpose on the 
"lower parade" was repealed, and that of 1797 was amended in 
1799 and the Commissioners were directed to purchase land in the 
south suburbs, and build a Government House. 

The winter of 1797-8 was again very severe. The heavy falls of 
snow rendered the road from Halifax to Windsor impassable. The 
Prince ordered the troops to clear the road between the town and 
his residence on the Basin. The supply of fat cattle from the 
country for the troops was retarded for a long time by the state of 
the roads. 

History of Halifax City. 121 

It was proposed to raise a fund in the town to be at the disposal 
of Government for the purposes of war. The inhabitants subscribed 
a sum approaching 4000 towards this fund ; the officers of the 
Royal Nova Scotia Feucible Regiment, 200. The boys of the 
Grammar School contributed about 24, and the regiment in garrison 
and the officers in the public departments, including the contri- 
butions of the Nova Scotia Regiment, amounted to 2097. Much 
enthusiasm on the subject prevailed, and great loyalty was displayed 
by the people. 

A general fast was proclaimed on 21st May, which was kept at 
Halifax with much solemnity. 

A commission was issued in July to William Forsyth, Andrew 
Belcher, William Cochran, Lawrence Hartshorne, Charles Hill, 
Richard Kidston, John Bremner, William Sabatier and Michael 
Wallace, as directors for the Shubenacadie Canal. A survey and 
report was made by this committee which was printed and published. 

There were several regular traders at this time between Halifax 
and Boston. The principal and most regular one was the Schooner 
Nancy, Captain Tufton. 

In the month of January, 1798, a boat arrived in the harbor with 
Capt. Wyatt and several passengers of the Brig Princess Amelia, 
bound to Halifax, which had been wrecked on the south side of 
Sable Island on 9th November. The wreck had been reported by 
an American schooner, who saw signals of distress on the Island. 
Sir John Wentworth immediately sent a vessel to the Island with 
clothing and provisions for the relief of the sufferers. Capt. Wyatt 
equipped his long boat and, having got over to the north side 'of 
the Island, embarked with four of his crew and Lieut. Cochran of the 
Fusiliers, one of the passengers, intending to seek relief. He 
arrived safe in one of the harbors to the eastward of Halifax, where 
he obtained a pilot who brought him to Halifax. Capt. Parker, 
who had charge of the vessel sent to the Island, brought off the 
remainder of the crew and passengers in safety. 

1798. On the 8th August, this year, Prince Edward received an 
injury by a fall from his horse while riding on one of the streets in 
the town. The horse broke through a defective wooden bridge over 
one of the street gutters. The horse rolled over him hurting one of 
his legs ; it did not, however, prevent him from attending to his 

122 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

military duties. He was recommended by the physicians to go to 
England for further advice. An address subscribed by about four 
hundred of the inhabitants was presented to him on his departure, 
which took place on the 21st October, when he embarked in H. M. 
Ship Topaz, Captain Church. The House of Assembly had previ- 
ously voted five hundred guineas to purchase a star of the order of 
the Garter to be presented to His Royal Highness. 

Among the events of the year was the arrival in the harbor, in 
November, of the United States Squadron, consisting of the Sloop- 
of-War Herald, Capt. Stevens, and the Pickering, Capt. Chapman, 
with the Brig Commerce, Capt. Chilcls. Salutes were exchanged, 
and the captains landed and paid their respects to the Governor, 
Admiral and General, and were hospitably entertained. The United 
States was at this time at war with France. 

On the 25th November news of Nelson's victory at the Nile 
arrived in Halifax. The town was illuminated in the evening. 
Salutes were fired and other demonstrations of joy occurred through- 
out the day. A number of prizes were brought into the port during 
this autumn. 

Mr. James Stewart, afterwards Solicitor-General, was this year 
elected without opposition for the county. 

On the 25th September a tremendous hurricane visited Halifax 
and continued through part of the night. Nearly all the wharves in 
the town were swept away, and most of the shipping in the harbor 
damaged. The tide rose to an unprecedented height, overflowed 
Water Street and did much damage to property. The water came 
up to the old market house where the city brick building now stands. 
The market wharf and King's wharf were partially destroyed, and 
the market slip or public landing swept away. The loss of property 
in the town, including the shipping, was estimated at above 

Among the names of persons engaged in business in the town 
this year we find, James Kidston, AVholesale and Retail Dealer, 
Matthew Richardson, at the foot of Prince Street, James Moody 
and James Tidmarsh just entered into co-partnership ; Forman & 
Grassie, Fraser, Thorn & Co., Shipping Merchants, Lyon & Butler, 
Shopkeepers, near the market house ; Thomas Moody, Dry Goods, 
etc., corner of Marchington's wharf; James Leaver, opposite the 

History of Halifax City. 123 

Dartmouth Mill Flour Store, in Water Street; John McMasters, 
Benjamin Etter, Watchmaker and Hardware Store at the corner of 
George and Barrington Streets, lower side of Grand Parade 
(CrosskilFs corner) ; Phoebe Moody, Dry Goods, opposite the 
Parade, in Barrington Street. In the following year the names of 
Jonathan and John Tremain, Samuel Hart, Tremain & Boggs and 
William Annand appear. 

The members of Assembly for the county were : Michael Wallace, 
Jonathan Sterns, Lawrence Hartshorne and Charles Morris. Mr. 
Sterns was .replaced by James Stewart.* William Cochran and 
J. G. Pyke were still members for the town. Mr. Benning 
Wentworth was Provincial Secretary. The Hon. Richard Bulkeley, 
the senior councillor, was Grand Master of the Masons. 

The papers of the day are filled with long advertisements about 
the Government Lottery. 

1709. The chief event which occupied the attention of the good 
people of Halifax during the autumn of this year was the arrival 
and movements of His Royal Highness Prince Edward, who had 
now been created Duke of Kent. Having received the appointment 
of commauder-in-chief of the troops in British North America on 
6th September, he arrived in H. M. Ship Arethusa, Capt. Wooley, 
forty-three days from England. The Prince landed in state. A 
procession of boats was formed from the frigate to the King's Wharf 
under a royal salute from the ships, and on reaching the wharf, by 
a salute from the Citadel. A double line of soldiers, including the 
militia, lined the street from the King's Wharf to Government House, 
through which the procession passed. The Governor and Council, 
Admiral Yandiput, General Ogilvie, the officers of the staff and 
public departments and a number of the principal citizens, attended. 
On his arrival at Government House the bells of St. Paul's and the 
old Mather Meeting House rang out a merry peal, and a large 
number of the inhabitants crowded around to bid him welcome 
again to Halifax. In the evening, bonfires were lit on the Grand 
Parade in honor of his arrival. The Duke soon after removed to 

*NOTE. Mr. Stewart was the son of Anthony Stewart, before mentioned, a Loyalist 
gentleman from M-.ryland. He was Solicitor General and afterwards a Judge of the 
Supremo Court. He married a sister of fhc late Chief Justice, Sir H. Halilnirton. 
Jud^c - s i cxvart 's residence was the yellow brick house at the corner of Pleasant Street 
and Morris Street, afterwards the residence of Mr. Alexander Stewart, Master of the 
Rolls, but not related to Judge James Stewart. The late Hevcrend James Stewart, of 
Dartmouth, was his grandson. 

124 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

his villa on the Basin, six miles from town. This beautiful little 
retreat had been erected by Prince Edward on the land of the 
Governor, Sir John Wentworth. The grounds were laid out and 
improved at considerable expense under his direction. The 
Rotunda, or music room, on the opposite side of the road, next the 
water, surrounded by the rich foliage of the beech groves, and 
surmounted by a large gilded ball, flashing in the sunlight, 
presented a beautiful and picturesque appearance on the approach 
to the Lodge. The villa was built altogether of wood, consisting of 
a centre of two stories containing the hall and staircase, with a flat 
roof. There were two wings containing the Duke's apartments. 
In the rear was a narrow wooden building with pointed gothic 
windows, resembling a chapel, containing the kitchen and offices, 
which extended some distance southward beyond the main building. 
The grouping of the beech and birch trees in the lawn and around 
the house was well arranged. They were the original forest trees, 
selected and permitted to stand in clearing away the space for the 
buildings. The rooms were not spacious, and the ceilings low, 
which appears to have been the fashion of building in Halifax at 
the time. The woods around were very beautiful. They were 
traversed by walks, and in several places by a carriage road with 
vistas and resting places where little wooden seats and several 
imitation Chinese temples were erected. Several of these small 
summer houses were in existence in 1828, and probably later, and 
portions of them could be seen through the openings in the trees on 
passing the main road. The Duke erected a range of low buildings 
on the edge of the Basin, a little to the north of the Rotunda, which 
were occupied by two companies of his regiment, and contained the 
guard room and a mess room for the officers. This building was 
afterwards known as the Rockingham Inn, a fvaourite resort in 
summer, when tea and ginger beer were to be had under the piazza 
which ran along the edge of the water. This hotel acquired the 
name of the " Rockingham," having been for a long time after the 
Prince's departure the place of meeting of the Rockingham Club. 
This club was established either while the Duke was resident here, 
or very soon after his leaving for Canada. It was composed of 
Governor Wentworth, the members of His Majesty's Council, the 
Admiral of the station, several of the principal military officers, and 

History of Halifax City. 125 

a number of the leading citizens of Halifax. Dr. Stanser, rector 
of St. Paul's, was one of its members ; also the Hon. Andrew 
Belcher, both of whom had villas on the Basin, the former at 
Sherwood, afterwards the property of the late Mr. Thos. Kenny, 
and the latter at Birch Cove, now in the occupation of the family of 
the late Peter Donaldson. 

The Rockingham Club was partly literary and partly social. 
The members dined together at the hotel, which was styled the 
Rockingham House, in compliment to Sir John Wentworth, the 
head of whose family, the Marquis of Rockingham, was about that 
time in, or at the head of the British Ministry. The large room 
which extended along the south wing of the building, east and west, 
with the end to the water, was hung with the portraits of many of 
the members of the club painted by Field, a portrait painter of 
considerable talent who, at that time and for several years after, 
resided in Halifax, and from whose brush the portraits of many of 
the then principal citizens and their ladies still remain.* 

In 1799 the prices of provisions in Halifax markets were as 
follows: Beef, by the quarter, from 4d. to 5d. per pound; pork, 
6d., mutton, 7d. to 8d., veal, 8d. to 9d., fowls, from 3s. to 4s., 
oats, 2s. 6d. and 3s., butter, Is. 3d. and Is. 6d. 

In 1798 the number of illegitimate children in the Halifax Poor 
House was fourteen, in 1799, seventeen, and in 1800, fifteen. The 
total cost of the establishment during the three years was 570 16s. 
Id. Fines received at Halifax, 1798, 60 ; 1799 and 1800, 82 10s. 
Fresh Water Bridge was renewed and completed in 1798. 

In 1799 the Legislature made some amendments to the Act for 
the erection of public buildings. The Commissioners appointed 
by the Governor and Council were authorized to purchase land 
for the site of a new Government House. The old House to 

Among Field's portraits remaining in Halifax, are those of the Hon. Michael 
Wallace, hon Wm. Lawson, Hon. Andrew Belcher and Mrs. Belcher, Bishop Charles 
Inglis, Rev. Dr. Archibald Gray and Mrs Gray, the late Andrew Wright, of the firm of 
Belcher & Wright, and his sister Mary, the late Dr. W. J. Almon, and others. That of 
Sir John Wentworth. a fxill half length, the best performance of Field in this country, 
was removed from the Rockingham to Government, House by Sir John after the club 
had been dissolved, and became Government property. It was afterwards removed to 
the Province Building, whence it was taken some years ago, and is said to have fallen 
into private hands, having been cither lent or given away by order of one of the 
gentlemen who, some years ago, occupied the office of Provincial Secretary. It is to 
be hoped that ere long it will nnd its way back to its place in the Building. 

That of Commissioner Inglefleld, also a member of the club, hung for many years 
over the mantle piece of the committee room of the Legislative Council Chamber, but 
was afterwards presented to the late Admiral lagleficld, lather of Sir Edward Inglctleld, 
lately Admiral on this station. 

126 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

be appropriated to the House of Assembly and Courts of Law. 
The Commissioners were Messrs. Wallace, Cochran, Hartshorne, 
and John Beckwith. The House of Assembly -voted 10,500 for 
the building, etc. The old Government House having been found 
unfit for the accommodation of the Legislature, was sold and the 
block of buildings known as Cochran's, before mentioned, was 
leased this year for 300 per annum for the accommodation of the 
Law Courts, the Legislature, and the public offices connected with 
the Provincial Government. Commissioners were also appointed to 
build a new market house for the butchers and for a vegetable 
market. This was the wooden building which was removed during 
the administration of Governor LeMarchant, to make way for the 
present brick structure. A clerk of the market was appointed. 
There being then no convenient accommodation for the vegetable 
market, the country people were permitted to sell in the streets and 
the square in front of the market house. 

This has once more become the custom ; the portion of the new 
market appropriated to the country people having been lately taken 
for city offices. The want of sufficient space in the central parts of 
the town for the convenience of markets and the erection of public 
buildings, has been always an impediment to the improvement and 
embellishment of the city. The small dimensions of the lots as 
originally laid out, being only forty feet by sixty, and the short 
space between the streets, the narrow spaces allowed for the public 
landings, and the small size of the water grants for the erection of 
wharves in the old town, have been a continual drawback to the 
convenience of trade and the progress of improvement in front of 
the town. And it is a subject of regret that at the present day so 
little attention is paid by the public authorities to the future welfare 
of the city in respect to laying off building lots and streets by 
private owners and speculators. 

The regular packet between Halifax and Boston, the Schooner 
Nancy, usually occupied three days in her trips. She was 
commanded by Capt. J. Huxford. He was afterwards known in 
Halifax as Crazy Huxford. He was on board the Shannon, frigate, 
in the engagement with the American ship Chesapeake, and had been 
wounded in the head, from which he never fully recovered. He was 
one of the best pilots on.. the coast and was, until his death, a naval 

History of Halifax City. 127 

branch pilot attached to the Dockyard. When under the influence 
of liquor he became frantic and was continually shouting through 
tihe streets of the town without hat or coat. This poor old man 
died about twenty-five or thirty years ago at a very advanced age. 

In May the small pox made its appearance in the town and strict 
quarantine regulations were enforced. Dr. Gschwint (pronounced 
Swint) was appointed health officer. 

The elections took place this autumn. Messrs. William Cochrau 
and John George Pyke were again returned. The former polled 
104 votes and the latter 346. At this time the electors were 
confined to freeholders only. The franchise was not altered till 
about the year 1836. Mr. Cotnam Tonge, Edward Mortimer, 
Messrs. Fulton and Morris were elected for the county. Only two 
resident in the town succeeded, Tonge and Morris ; Wallace, 
Stewart and Hartshorne were rejected by the Pictou votes. 

On Saturday, the llth August, attempts were made by persons 
unknown to set fire to the Dockyard, Government house and the 
engine house. The Governor and Council offered a large reward 
for discovery. A night patrol of militia and inhabitants was 
ordered out under the superintendence of the magistrates. 

The Rev. Bernard Michael Houseal, minister of St. George's, in 
the north suburbs, died on the l)th March, this year, in the seventy- 
second year of his age. He was a native of the Duchy of Wurtem- 
berg, was educated at one of the German universities, and was 
esteemed a good scholar and a pious minister of religion. He had 
been chosen by the learned consistory of Stuttgart for the ministry 
of ihe Lutheran Church, and embarked for America in 1752. After 
oeing several years in the ministry he took charge of a congregation 
of Germans in New York, and came with the Loyalists to Halifax 
in 1783. He was buried in the old German burial ground attached 
to his church in Brunswick Street, and his tombstone remains there. 
Mr. Houseal was succeeded in the Church of St. George by the 
Rev. George Wright, who was also principal of the Halifax Grammar 
School and chaplain to the garrison. The Round Church, in 
Brunswick Street, was at this time only in process of erection and 
was not finished until the year 1811, or thereabouts. 

On the 30th October, H. M. Ship Porcupine, Capt. Evans, 
arrived from New Providence, having on board the Duke of Orleans 

128 Noca Scotia Historical Society. 

and his two brothers, the Duke of Montpensier and Count Beaujoile, 
attended by Count Moutjoye. They had been waiting for a passage 
to England and had proceeded here in the Porcupine in hope of 
meeting with an opportunity of going to Europe. Finding no 
immediate opportunity to England, they both took their passage in 
a merchant ship for New York. Though considered as prisoners 
on parole, they dined with the Governor, and paid a visit to the 
Duke of Kent at the Lodge. They also attended a public ball at 
Government House on the 1 7th November. The Duke of Orleans 
was afterwards elected to the French throne as Louis Philippe, King 
of the French, and eventually died in exile in England. After he 
became king, on meeting with several persons from Nova Scotia, 
he very kindly enquired after several gentlemen of Halifax by name 
and spoke with much feeling of the kindness he experienced while 
in Halifax. On arrival he was found to be in very straitened 
circumstances and the Duke of Kent was believed to have given 
him pecuniary assistance to enable the party to proceed on their 

History of Halifax City. 129 


1800. At the commencement of the century Halifax presented 
a prosperous condition. The population now approached 9,000. 
Trade was brisk, and the place was enlivened by a large garrison 
and the presence of a Prince of the Blood Royal. The harbor was 
the resort of the fleet and was the principal station of the naval 
commander. The war was at its height and the Prize Court in full 
operation. Several privateers had been fitted out by the merchants 
of the town and captures of French vessels were frequent, though 
the trade of the port occasionally suffered from the French cruisers 
on the coast. Among the captures from the enemy at the time, the 
most remarkable was that of two prizes, one French and one Danish, 
brought in by Captain William Pryor, commander of the Privateer 
Nymph, of Halifax. 

Several public buildings were commenced this spring. On the 
5th June the Prince laid the corner stone of the Masonic Hall. His 
Royal Highness was Grand Master of the Masons of Lower Canada, 
and acted for the Hon. Richard Bulkeley, Grand Master of Nova 
Scotia, when age and infirmities prevented him from attending. A 
masonic procession was formed and the ceremony is said to have 
been one of the finest which Halifax ever witnessed. The band of 
the Prince's own regiment, the 7th Fusiliers, performed under the 
direction of Mr Selby, organist of St. Paul's, one of the craft. 

On the 10th April, Sir John Wentworth laid the corner stone of 
the Round Church (St. George's) in Brunswick Street. The 
Legislature this session voted 500 towards its completion. The 
land on which the church was erected had been purchased some time 
previously by the Committee of Superintendence. The design is 
said to have been the work of the late John Merrick and Mr. J. 
Fliegar of the Surveyor General's department, and for some years 
surveyor to Governor Wentworth while Surveyor General of Woods 
and Forests in Nova Scotia. St. George's old church, then known 
as the Dutch Church, was at this time occupied by the congregation 

130 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

of the north suburbs, many of whom were the descendants of the 
first German settlers. Though always an independent congregation, 
it had been considered part of the parish of St. Paul's, the whole 
Township of Halifax having been originally included in that parish, 
and it continued so until legally erected into a separate parish by 
the name of St. George's parish, under the Act of the Legislature 
passed for that purpose in 1827. The Rev. George Wright was at 
this time minister of St. George's congregation. He had lately 
succeeded Mr. Houseal, who was styled Missionary to the Germans. 

A sum of money, as we have seen, had been voted by the 
Legislature for the erection of a Government House. Much 
discussion had arisen in the House of Assembly and with the 
Executive authorities, regarding the funds to be appropriated for 
this purpose, and some difference of opinion existed regarding the 
site for the building. It was finally arranged that it should be 
placed in the field between Hollis and Pleasant Streets, to include 
the site of the old hospital. The corner stone of this edifice was 
laid by the Duke of Kent on the llth of September. A procession 
was formed which proceeded from the old Government House, 
accompanied by a band of music, and the ceremony was concluded 
by a prayer by the Rev. Doctor Robert Stanser, Rector of St. 
Paul's. Isaac Hildrith was the architect, and John Henderson chief 
mason. No building since erected in Halifax exceeds Government 
House in neatness of design and solidity of workmanship. Some 
of the old brick buildings now remaining in the city were erected by 
Mr. Henderson. 

The old market house was taken down this year and the new one 
commenced. This old market occupied the site of the recent City 
Court House. The new one was erected in the open space opposite 
the King's wharf, where the new brick market house now stands. 
It was a flat-roofed wooden building intended to accommodate the 
butchers only. A pitched roof was afterwards put on this building. 
There was a small green market built at the same time next the 
north line of the fuel yard, which was afterwards removed. These 
buildings were erected at the expense of Government, the sum of 
2,252 having been granted by the House of Assembly to be 
appropriated to the erection of this new meat market, also to the 
repair and extension of the market slip or public landing, and for 

History of Halifax City. 131 

the fish-market, and, at the same time, 250 was voted to the heirs 
of the late Joseph Gerrish who claimed some interest in a portion 
of the old market house lot. A small piece of ground at the corner 
of the military fuel yard, next to the new market house, was about 
the same time purchased from Mr. Kidston who then occupied it for 
weigh scales and other purposes. The Grand Jury refused to 
accept the grant from the Crown of the old market house lot in the 
way it had been drawn by the Secretary of the province. The 
Council declined to make the alterations in the grant required, and 
concluded that the old building and the lot should remain under the 
control of the Commissioners of Public Markets, and ordered the 
old buildings to be taken down and the ground leased. 

In March the House of Assembly was in session. The elections 
of Mr. Tonge for the County and Mr. Pyke for the Town were 
declared void by the House in consequence of some defect in their 
qualifications. On the 9th April following, the new election for the 
town took place, and on the 14th, Andrew Belcher was returned by 
a majority of 65 votes. Mr. Michael Wallace was returned for the 
County. Mr. Tonge, having been also chosen by a country 
constituency, fell back on the double return and retained his seat. 
On the 12th March, the House attended at St. Paul's church in a 
body, when the Rev. Dr. Stanser, then chaplain, preached before 

This summer His Royal Highness the Duke of Kent took his final 
departure from Halifax. The usual addresses were presented by 
the House of Assembly, His Majesty's Council and the people of 
the Town. He embarked in H. M. Ship Assistance on the 3rd 
August, and sailed on the 4th. His embarkation was attended with 
full military ceremony, the troops lining the streets. His Royal 
Highness, accompanied by the Governor and Council and the 
principal Naval and Military Officers, proceeded on foot through the 
avenue formed by the troops to the King's Wharf, whence he 
reached the ship under salutes from the batteries, the artillery corps 
and the ships of war. Several of the old inhabitants not many 
years since recollected the scene, and could describe the feelings 
evinced by the townspeople on the occasion. His tall command- 
ing figure in full military uniform, his hat surmounted by the lofty 
white plume, then worn by the fusiliers, could be seen above the 

132 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

heads of t:ie surrounding crowd as he walked down the line with a 
smile of recognition for his friends, on passing them, amidst the 
plaudits of the crowd.* Though the Duke exhibited on all occasions 
the most kind temper in civil life, and his manner and conversation 
with those he liked almost amounted to familiarity, yet his sternness 
in military affairs never forsook him. Eleven soldiers had been 
sentenced to death for mutiny and desertion, and had been left by 
the Duke for execution, which was carried into effect under his 
orders a few days after he left our shores. On the 7th August, 
those unfortunates were brought out on the Common, dressed in 
white, with their coffins, accompanied by the Revd. George Wright, 
the Garrison Chaplain, and Doctor Burke, the Roman Catholic 
clergyman, in the presence of the whole garrison. Eight of them 
were reprieved under the gallows, and the three who belonged to 
the Newfoundland Regiment were hanged. Public feeling was 
against the Duke in this affair. It was thought that on the eve of 
his departure he should have granted a remission of the death 
sentence, which, as General Commanding, he had power to do, 
until the King's pleasure should be known. Three executions only 
a day or two after his departure, produced a disagreeable impres- 
sion of His Royal Highness in the minds of the people of Halifax, 
who had just taken leave of him with so much kind feeling. 

The Quarter Sessions having authorized the establishment of a 
military exercising ground on the north end of the Common, an act 
for which they had no authority, laid the groundwork of much 
dispute and controversy with subsequent military commanders, who 
on several occasions later undertook to interfere with the City 
authorities in beautifying and improving the Common. 

The death of the Hon. Richard Bulkeley, late Secretary of the 
Province, occurred this year ; he was inhis 83rd year. Mr. Bulkeley 
came to Halifax as Aide-de-Camp to Governor Cornwallis in 1749, 
and had twice administered the Government as Senior Councillor. 
Also that of Anthony Henry, the King's printer. He published the 
Royal Gazette at Halifax for about 40 years. John Howe was his 
successor in the office of King's printer. 

*NOTE. -After the Prince's departure Governor Wentworth occupied the Lodge on 
the Basin, which had been built on his land. He resided there for some time after 
retiring from the Government. 

History of Halifax City. 133 

1801. Early this year it was proposed to establish a bank in 
Halifax by means of a joint stock company whose capital was to be 
50,000 in shares of 100 each. A committee of management was 
named consisting of Edward B. Brenton, William Forsyth, Foster 
Hutchinson, Lawrence Hartshorne, James Forman, James Eraser 
and Captain John Beckwith. They required a monopoly, which was 
refused them by the House of Assembly, and the project fell through. 

The winter of 1800-1801 had been very sickly. Smallpox had 
made its appearance in town early in the autumn, and 182 persons 
had died of it between September, 1800, and the month of February 

Several fires occurred during the winter. Sir John Wentworth's 
stables at the lodge were burned down. The most disastrous fire 
which had occurred in the town for many years took place on the 
5th February, when the block fronting the old Government House 
on Hollis Street was partially destroyed. 

On the 13th February this year, the society known as the Sun 
Fire Company was established at Halifax. It was, perhaps, the 
first Eire Company ever instituted in the town. Those known as 
the Phoenix Fire Company, the Hand and Hand and the Heart and 
Hand were of a subsequent date. The Sun Fire Company in the 
year 1810, included most of the principal inhabitants of the town. 
Their names will be found in the Appendix. 

1802. A considerable outlay of money appears to have been 
made on the streets of the town about this time. The commis- 
sioners appointed for this purpose were Charles Morris, J. G. Fyke, 
Lawrence Hartshorne, Michael Wallace and William Lyons. The 
expenditure this year on the streets amounted to 930, and in the 
two succeeding years to 606 and 808. The sum of 500 had 
been granted in 1801 towards the expense of paving some of the 
streets ; the remainder probably was raised by assessment. 

The names of the town magistrates in 1802, were John Newton, 
Gustos, Jonathan Binney, Geo. W. Sherlock, J. G. Pyke, Dr. 
Michael Head, W. Taylor, Stephen II. Binuey, Jas. Gantier, Wm. 
Cochran, Charles Morris, Junior, Daniel Wood, William Thompson, 
Michael Wallace, Charles Hill, Richard Kidston, P. Marchiugton, 
Jonathan Tremain, James Clarke, William Schwartz, Hibbert N. 
Binuey and John Bremuer. These are the Magistrates for the 

134 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

County of Halifax. They all appear to have been residents in the 
town. Lewis M. Wilkins was Sheriff ; John Newton and H. N. 
Binney were joint Collectors of the Customs ; Daniel Wood, 
Inspector; John Cleveland, Collector of light duties; and John H. 
Fliegar, Ganger. The Firewards of the town were Mr. Pyke, Mr. 
Wallace, Mr. Hill, Mr. Cleveland, Mr. Clarke, William Millet, 
Klias Marshall, Thomas Fillis, Andrew Liddell, John Fillis, Wm. 
Lyons, Thomas Boggs, John Howe and Garret Miller. 

The Royal Nova Scotia Regiment on being disbanded this year, 
presented an address to Sir John Weutworth, their Colonel, in 
August. The names of the officers of this Regiment were Lt. Cols. 
Francis Kearney and Samuel V. Bayard,* Major Geo. Thesigcr, 
Capts. John Solomon, Jones Fawson, Alexander Howe,J John 
Allen, William Cox and Joshua W. Weeks, Capt. Lieutenant John 
G. Degreben ; Lieutenants Thomas Morris, Otto W. Schwartz, 
Philip Kearney, Eric Sutherland, 'George H. Monk, Michael 
Peruette, Charles Rudolf, John C. Ritchie. John Emerson, Timothy 
Ruggles, Richard Green, Isaac Glennie, Hebbert Newton, Thomas 
A. C. Winslow, Alexander Hamilton, Charles W. Solomon and 
John Fraser ; Ensigns James Moore, Robert Bayard, Henry Green, 
Thomas Wright, Richard Gibbons ; Paymaster Benning Wentworth, 
Surgeon John Fraser. 

Governor Wentworth directed his reply to this address from 
"the Lodge." 

The population of Halifax had again decreased towards the end 
of the year 1802. The returns of the number of inhabitants in the 
town and on the peninsula were as follows : 

Men. Women. Boys. Girls. Total. 

Whites 1924 2489 1790 1669 7872 

Blacks 96 166 81 108 451 

In Naval Yard 25 36 27 27 115 

Dutch Village 15 16 30 33 94 

Total . . . . 8532 

*Col. Bayard retired from active service and settled in Annapolis County. He was 
the father of the late Dr, Bayard of St. John, and grandfather of the present Doctor 
William Bayard of that city. 

I Capt. Howo was a descendant of the Hon. Ed. Howe, one of Cornwallis' first 

History of Halifax City. 135 

There were 1000 dwelling houses in the town and peninsula. In 
taking the census, the wards of the town were distinguished as 
follows : North Barracks Ward, Poutac Ward, Market House Ward, 
Governor's Ward, Meeting House Ward, South Barracks Ward, 
South Suburbs and North Suburbs. 

The sum of 8,900 had been expended by the Commissioners on 
the building of Government House, and but the first story had been 
completed. Much dissatisfaction was expressed in the House of 
Assembly with the course pursued by the Commissioners. Belcher, 
Hutchinson, Cochran and Beckwith had kept no minutes of their 
proceedings. AVallace appears to have had the principal super- 
vision. He was censured by the House for having acted without 
the concurrence of those associated with him, and for exceeding the 
limits prescribed him by law. But his zeal and ability were 
commended and no corrupt motives were attributed to him. In 
1804 an additional sum of "2,500 was voted to complete the 
building, a considerable sum having been voted and expended the 
previous year.* 

Several fires occurred in June which were supposed to be the 
work of incendiaries. It had been proved beyond all doubt that 
buildings in several parts of the town had been set on fire. A 
patrol of militia under Colonel Pyke was ordered to patrol the 
streets from sunset to sunrise, and all suspected persons who could 
not give a good account of themselves at night were ordered to be 
arrested. A reward of 100 was offered for discovery, and several 
arrests were made. A boy who confessed to having attempted to 
set fire to the Dockyard was sent out of the province. 

On the 2nd September the 97th regiment arrived in the harbor 
and landed immediately at the King's Wharf. On the 14th the fleet 
arrived from Jamaica under the command of Commodore Baynton, 
consisting of the Cumberland, 74, Bellerophou, 74, Gauges, 74, 
Vanguard, 74, Goliah, 74, Thesis, 74, Elephant, 74 and the 
Pelican, Brig. The 7th regiment embarked shortly after, and the 
town people presented a farewell address to Col. Layard and Lieut. - 
Col. Edwards. In April the Governor and Council were prevailed 
on to grant a press warrant to Capt. Bradley of the Cambrian for 

* The building cost about 18,000. 

136 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

ten days in the town to enable him to fill up the number of his crew, 
it being 50 short of its complement. 

The Rev. Dr. Burke was at this time Roman Catholic Vicar 
General of Nova Scotia under the Bishop of Quebec ; he afterwards 
administered the Episcopal office in Halifax as Bishop of Zion. 
Dr. Burke was a gentleman of education and highly esteemed in the 

The death of a very aged inhabitant, John Murphy, occurred this 
year. He was 90 years of age, and had been one of the first settlers 
of the town. He had acquired a large property in fields in the south 
suburbs, where he kept a large number of cows, and for a great 
many years supplied the principal inhabitants with milk and butter. 
The fields extending northward from Smith's tan yard to the corner 
house formerly occupied by the late Sheriff Sawyer, were known 
formerly as Murphy's fields. 

1803. The following is an account of the butchers' meat sold in 
the Halifax market for six mouths commencing July 1st and ending 
December 31st, 1802. 

Julv . 





Aus . . 























Total 5986 665 1919 1196 

The above is exclusive of the meat issued under contract for the 
Navy, but it is to be assumed it included the Army contract. 

1804. This spring the House of Assembly recommended that 
the old market house should be taken down and a new building 
erected on the ground for the purpose of a County Court House and 
police office. This was the brick building lately used for city 
purposes. An Act was passed in 1804 with that object. 

The trade of the port was much depressed this season by the 
number of captures made by the enemy, and from the low prices 
obtained for fish in the West India market, where the merchants of 
Halifax were undersold by U. S. fishermen. 

History nf Halifax City. 137 

Among the events of the year was the arrival of several 
distinguished prisoners, among whom was General Brunet and 
suite, who put into Halifax on their way to England, having been 
made prisoners at St. Domingo. Governor Wentworth assigned^, 
them the old Rockiugham Inn, near the Prince's Lodge on the 
Basin, as a place of abode while here. They were shortly after 
removed to England. 

In the autumn General Boyer, commandant of the garrison, 
undertook to try the metal of the Haligonians by causing a false 
alarm of invasion. The report was spread early in the morning 
that the French were off the harbor. Before 10 o'clock, A.M., 
about 1,000 militia men were embodied and at their respective 
posts. Two hundred of them were artillery men. The dress 
companies were all in uniform and fully equipped. Among the first 
who appeared on the parade ground with their guns were Parson 
Wright, head master of the grammar school, and the Solicitor 
General, James Stewart, better known as Judge Stewart. 

1805. Press warrants were granted by the Council on the 6th 
May to Vice Admiral Sir Andrew Mitchell, then in command of the 
station, for fourteen days. He afterwards demanded an extension 
of his warrant for six months, which was refused by the Council at 
their meeting on the 18th. In their reply to the Admiral they 
mention that the number of seamen engaged in the West India 
trade, etc., had been so reduced by captures, imprisonment and 
other causes that there were not sufficient in the port to man the 
vessels, and that all the seamen to be found in the town would not 
now be enough to meet half the demand for one sloop-of-war in the 
fleet. Moreover, that there were many at the time in French prisons 
whose families were supported by charity in the town. This, 
together with the high rate of wages in the United States, had 
reduced the commerce of the port to the greatest necessity. 
Finally, that the execution of impress warrants on shore were 
attended with much disturbance and annoyance to the laboring 
poor and others not fit for service, and the Council were of opinion 
that it should only be resorted to on the most urgent occasions 
and when advantage from it was to be reasonably looked for. 

Mitchell, finding he could not prevail on the Council, undertook, 
in the following October, to send press gangs through the town 

138 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

without warrant. An armed party of sailors and marines from the 
Cleopatra, frigate, under the command of one or more officers, were 
sent out. The citizens resisted and a riot ensued, which resulted in 
4he death of one person and the wounding of several others. One 
of these encounters occurred in the store of Messrs. Forsyth & Co., 
where a number of merchant sailors had secreted themselves. 
General Wentworth called a meeting of the Council on 23rd 
November, and it was ordered that the Solicitor-General should 
proceed to prosecute all persons belonging to the ships of war who 
had been engaged in impressments. The Attorney General, R. J. 
Uniacke, Mitchell's father-in-law, was in England at the time, on 
leave of absence. The Admiral's gang had broken open the store 
of Forsyth & Co. under the pretense of looking for deserters, and 
Sir Andrew defended his conduct under the authority of a warrant 
from the Admiralty, but he was condemned in heavy damages for 
his illegal proceedings. 

The town artillery at this time consisted of three companies 
commanded by Captains Charles Morris, Bremner and Fillis, and 
there was another under Capt. Mclntosh of Spryfield, which did 
duty at York Redoubt, composed principally of market fisherman 
who were regularly trained to battery exercises. Governor Went- 
worth appears to have been assiduous in his efforts to keep up the 
local defences of the town, and to have placed much reliance on the 
volunteer companies for that purpose. 

There was a plentiful harvest this year throughout the whole 
province. Provisions of all sorts were plentiful in the town, so 
much so that the arrival of the fleet and a large export to Bermuda 
and Newfoundland did not augment the prices. The importations 
of flour from the United States, both this and the following year, 
were very extensive. 

In October an unfortunate French prisoner named Pierre Paulin 
was executed on the common for the murder of a fellow prisoner. 
The Governor and Council refused to reprieve him. 

In December the town was illuminated and other joyful demon- 
strations made by the inhabitants on the news of the Battle of 

1806. In the month of February, Lieut. -General Gardner, the 
commandant of the garrison, died at Halifax ; his funeral was 

History of Halifax City. 139 

attended with much military pomp and ceremony. He was buried 
under old St. Paul's Church. 

A general election occurred in 1806, when Edward Mortimer 
of Pictou, Simon B. Robie, S. G. W. Archibald and William 
Lawson were returned for the county, and John George Pyke and 
Foster Hutchinson for the town. Cochran, the old member, 
petitioned against Lawson on the ground of qualification. 

The Government House remained still unfinished. The sum of 
4,292 had been expended on the building since the last session, 
which was 2,000 more than had been voted. 

On the 29th April Halifax was thrown into alarm by the appear- 
ance of a number of large vessels in the offing. Signal guns were 
fired from the alarm posts in the harbor, and the military and militia 
were under arms. There was another alarm of French invasion 
on or about the 20th May, when several large vessels were again 
reported oft* the harbor. The militia of the town were again 
assembled, but the greater part of them were without arms. 
Governor Wentworth had previously made several applications to 
the Imperial Government for arms for the Halifax Militia, but it 
does not appear that much attention was paid to his solicitations. 

Among the advertisements which appeared in the the Gazette this 
year was notice of a periodical publication to be called the " Nova 
Scotia and New Brunswick Magazine or Historical Library," which 
was offered for sale at the book stores of Messrs. Morrison, Bennet, 
Edmund Ward und William Minns. Morrison kept his book and 
stationer's shop at the corner of Duke and Granville Streets, after- 
wards known as Joseph Robinson's hat store, now owned by Mr. 
Kiezer. He was succeeded in his business by George Eaton, who 
was the principal book seller and stationer in the town for several 
years. This old building, with others along the upper side of Gran- 
ville Street was destroyed by fire about 1827. At this time there was 
a law in existence to prevent persons building wooden houses in the 
town above a certain height. The present wooden building at the 
corner was then erected under this law and did not exceed what by 
measurement was deemed one story and a half. Several stone and 
brick buildings were erected in consequence of this law. That to 
the south of Kiezer's corner occupied by Mr. Simonds and others, 
another in the same block built by the late William Macara, 

140 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

druggist, and the large double three story stone building in 
Barrington Street, nearly opposite St. Paul's, were all erected about 
this time by Mr. Matthew Richardson on the site of the late 
Andrew Belcher's garden. Several old gamble roofed houses, the 
remnant of the first settlement, were destroyed by the above- 
mentioned fire. 

On 22nd December, the American Government laid an embargo 
on all vessels within American ports bound to any foreign places, 
and the officers of the Customs throughout the States were directed 
to refuse clearances to all such vessels. This was a great check to 
trade, and Halifax felt the result in the scarcity of provisions and 
particularly of flour, which went up immediately to 5 per bbl., 
the inhabitants having been in a great measure dependent on the 
States for that article. 

A sailor named John Wilson had been taken from the American 
Frigate Chesapeake on charges of mutiny and desertion. He was 
tried in Halifax by Court Martial on board the Flag Ship Belleisle 
on 26th August, condemned and executed on 31st. Two other 
seamen were in October following executed on board the Jason, 
Capt. Cochran, for mutiny. 

The following list of town officers appointed by the Grand Jury 
for the Town in 1806, will be found interesting : 

Halifax, Nova Scotia, ) r < 


March Term. j 

The Grand Jury present to the Worshipful Court the following as 
proper persons to serve as Town Officers for the ensuing year, in 
the different offices to which they are named, viz : 

William Lyon, County Treasurer ; Henry Yeomans, Town Clerk ; 
Samuel Muirhead, Stephen Oxley, Clerks of the Market ; Richard 
Woodin, Michael Denny, William Hogg, Enoch Wiswell, Surveyors 
of Lumber and Fence Viewers ; Joseph Hamilton, James Romans, 
Sealers of Leather ; Nicholas Vass, Thomas Adams, Patrick Ryan, 
William Ford, John Knowdie, Frederick Stormy, Surveyors of 
Pickled Fish ; Thomas Adams, William Ford, Cullers of Dry Fish ; 
Nicholas Vass, William Ford, Frederick Stormy, Gaugers of Oil ; 
John H. Fleigher, Ganger ; Henry Shiers, Richard Woodin, William 
Graham, Measurers of Wood ; Francis Le'Guire, Measurer of Wood 
and Coals for the Fuel Yard; Richard Woodin, Henry Shiers, 

History of Halifax City. 141 

William Graham, Measurers of Grain ; Richard Woodin, Henry 
Shiers, William Graham, William Hogg, Measurers of Salt and 
Coal ; John Brown, William Ford, Cullers of Hoops and Staves ; 
James King, Edward King, Weighers of Hay ; John Metchler, Sur- 
veyor of Bricks and Lime; W. G. Forsyth, Lawrence Hartshorne, 
John Sullivan, John William Morris, Hogreaves ; John Phelan, 
Pound Keeper ; Thomas Stone, John Atkins, John Mansfield, David 
Fletcher, William Shea, George Isles, Peter Laffen, Edward 
Herbert, John Clarke, Richard Munday, Henry Wright, Hugh 
Chisholm, Andrew Bowers, Francis Wade, Alexander Cummings, 
Patrick Tobin, Constables ; Jacob Michael, Constable for Dutch 
Town ; Peter Shaffro, Constable for Dutch Village ; John Mc'Alpin, 
Overseer of Highways for Dutch Village and Pen. ; Jacob Bower, 
George M'Intosh, Overseers for Harriot and Spryfields ; William 
Adams, Constable for Harriot and Spryfields ; Peter Vambolt, John 
Duffeuey, Constables for Margaret's Bay ; Christopher Boutteleer, 
Overseer of Highways for Margaret's Bay ; Frederick Boutteleer, 
Measurer of Cordwood for Margaret's Bay ; George Duffeney, 
Fence Viewer for Margaret's Bay ; George Mc'Intosh, Overseer of 
Highways from Spryfield to Catch Harbour ; William Keys, Over- 
seer of Highways from Windsor Road to Gay's River ; Robert 
Fletcher, Terence Canty, Constables for the Shubeuacadie Fisheries ; 
Edmund Bambrick, Jonathan Shelling, George Hiltz, Overseers of 
Roads from Sackville Bridge to the extremity of the County ; Jacob 
Haverstock, Overseer of Roads from Nine Mile River to Ham- 
mond's Plain ; George Dunn, George Hiltz, Surveyors of Lumber 
for Nine Mile River to Hammond's Plain and Windsor Road ; Colin 
Grant, Christopher Shultz, Robert Anderson, Fence Viewers; 
Christopher Haverstock, Joseph Fielding, Jacob Pentz, Constables 
for Windsor Road and Hammond Plains ; Henry Bambrick, George 
Fultz, Hogreaves ; John Shultz, George Hershman, Hugh Bambrick, 
Assessors of the County Rates; Henry Miller, Pound Keeper; 
Edward Foster, Surveyor of Highways from Dartmouth Town Plot 
to the Basin ; Samuel Hamilton, Constable from Dartmouth Town 
Plot to the Basin ; Jon. Tremain, Sr., William Penny, Surveyors of 
Highways, Dartmouth Town Plot ; David Laniard, Constable, 
Dartmouth Town Plot ; James Muun, Pound Keeper, Dartmouth 
Town Plot ; Henry Wisdom, Surveyor of Highways from the Ferry 

142 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

up the Preston Road to Tanyard ; Mark Jones, Constable ; John 
Wisdom, Hogreave ; Mark Jones, Pound Keeper; George Simpson, 
Surveyor of Highways and Fence Viewer from Tanyard to 
Simpson's ; Hugh Ross, Constable ; Thomas Settle, Surveyor of 
Highways and Fence Viewer from Simpson's eastward to the new 
bridge ; Philip Molyneux, Constable ; Timothy Crane, Surveyor of 
Highways for all Preston, and Fence Viewer; John Richardson, 
Constable ; Thomas Settle, Surveyor of Lumber and Bark ; George 
Horn, Hogreave ; John Stewart, Surveyor of Highways from Cole 
Harbour to Turner's ; Robert Collins, Surveyor of Highways from 
Turner's to Jones' ; Robert Turner, Constable ; Peter Mc'Nabb, 
Surveyor of Highways, Eastern Passage ; Benjamin Horn, Con- 
stable ; Adam Archibald, Musquodoboit, Surveyor of Roads ; 
William Gould, Constable ; George M'Leod, Robert Nelson, Fence 
Viewers; Hugh Archibald, Pound Keeper; Archibald Crawford, 
Overseer of Roads for Meagher's Grant ; Alex. Grant, Constable 
for Meagher's Grant ; Peter Ogilvie, Overseer of Roads from 
Meagher's Grant to George Anderson's ; Peter Gordon, Constable 
for Meagher's Grant to George Anderson's ; Jacob Bayer, Overseer 
of Roads from Musquodoboit Harbour ; John Ttirple, Constable for 
Musquodoboit Harbour ; George Bayer, Overseer of Roads for 
Pitpiswick ; George Baker, Constable for Pitpiswick. 

March 5, 1806. WILLIAM LYON, Foreman. 

On llth May, 1807, it having been reported to His Majesty's 
Council that the Grand Jury and Sessions had refused to accept a 
grant of the piece of land on which the old Market House stood, 
upon the conditions which had been inserted in the grant, (probably 
on it being vested in Commissioners) the Governor and Council 
refused to alter the grant, and if not accepted by the Session it was 
ordered that the old building be taken down and the ground cleared 
and remain under the control of the Commissioners of Public 
Markets. This was the site on which the late City Court House was 
afterwards erected. 

1808. In the month of April, 1808, the new Governor, Sir 
George Provost, arrived to take the place of Sir John Wentworth, 
who was allowed a retiring pension of 500 per annum. He 

History of Halifax City. 143 

brought with him the 7th, the 8th and the 23rd Regiments, con- 
sisting of about 3000 men, with Brigadier General Houghton. The 
Governor came in H. M. Ship Penelope. At six o'clock on the 
same evening of his arrival, he lauded at the King's Wharf under a 
salute from the Batteries. Sir John "VVentworth was at his villa on 
the Basin the Prince's Lodge as it was called when his 
successor arrived, and did not receive the official letter announcing 
his appointment until 18 days after the arrival of Sir George 
Provost. On the 13th April, Sir John came to town and the new 
Governor was sworn into office. 

It was deemed advisable that some trusty person should be sent 
to the United States to obtain information as to warlike prepara- 
tions then progressing in that country. Mr. John Howe, the 
postmaster at Halifax, was chosen. He proceeded to Boston and 
afterwards visited other parts of the Union. Mr. Howe was again 
dispatched on a second mission late in the fall, and on his return 
made a report to the Lieutenant Governor. 

Mr. Samuel Hood George, afterwards Sir Samuel, came out with 
Sir George Provost. He was appointed Provincial Secretary, and 
afterwards represented the County of Halifax in General Assembly. 
He was the eldest son of Commodore Sir Denis George, who married 
Miss Cochrau of Halifax, and succeeded his father in the Baronetcy. 
This young man died early of consumption, and was succeeded both 
in the Baronetcy and the office of Secretary by his youngest brother 
Sir Rupert D. George, who remained in office until responsible 
government was established in the province. 

The ships Milan, Observateur and Centuriau were stationed at 
Halifax during the winter. The Centurian was the ship in which 
Lord Anson circumnavigated the globe. She remained in the 
harbour as a receiving and store ship for many years, and was 
broken up at the Dockyard somewhere between the years 1820 
and 1823. 

Among the visitors to Halifax this year was the notorious Aaron 
Burr, late Vice-President of the United States. He passed under 
an assumed name. 

1809. The winter of 1808-9 was remarkably severe. During 
the month of February the cold continued so long that the great 
expenditure of fuel was felt by all classes of the community. Much 

144 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

distress prevailed among the poor, and large sums of money were 
raised by subscription for their relief. 

An expedition had been fitted out at Halifax, under the command 
of Sir George Provost, for the capture of the French Island of 
Martinique. It was composed of the 7th, 8th and 23rd Regiments 
with a Brigade of Artillery. Having succeeded in this enterprise 
they returned to Hailfax on the loth April. The gentlemen of the 
town gave a ball at Mason Hall in honor of their return. Three 
soldiers of the 7th Fusiliers were the only men killed in the expedi- 
tion, the place having surrendered immediately on the attack being 
made. A tablet to the memory of these three soldiers may be seen 
in the gallery of the Round Church in Brunswick Street. 

The Harbour was again this year the scene of another of those 
Naval executions, which were performed with so much severity 
during the time of war. A mutiny had occurred, or was supposed 
to have occurred, on board the Columbine on the 1st August, off 
St. Andrews. Four seamen and two marines were found guilty and 
executed on the 18th September. They were afterwards hung in 
chains on Meagher's Beach. 

One of the most atrocious cases of piracy and murder on record 
occurred this autumn on the coast to the eastward of Halifax. The 
vessel was the Three Sisters, of Halifax, owned by Jonathan and 
John Tremain, merchants of the town, commanded by Captain John 
Stairs, brother of the late Honorable William Stairs, formerly 
president of the Union Bank. She was on her way from Gaspe 
Bay to Halifax with a cargo of fish. Edward Jordan, who had 
been formerly owner of this vessel or in some way concerned with 
her, took passage for himself and wife and four children with Capt- 
Stairs for Halifax. The following account is taken from a Halifax 
newspaper of 16th October, 1809 : 

" MONDAY, OCTOBER 16, 1809. The following are the particulars~received 
from Capt. Stairs, of the piracy and murder that took place on board the 
schooner Three Sisters, belonging to this place, some account of which we 
gave in our last. 

" This most atrocious act of piracy and murder, of which none could be 
guilty but the most diabolical incendiaries in human shape, took place, as 
has been stated, on the 13th ult. oft" Cape Canso, on the coast of this 
province, on board the schooner Three Sisters, bound and belonging to this 
place from the Bay Cheleaur. Edward Jordan, who has been represented 
as a passenger, and who had some interest in the vessel, appears to have 
been the exciter of this act of barbarity. Jordan having corrupted the 
mate, Kelly, who joined him in effecting his wicked intention, they secured 

History of Halifax City. 145 

the arms, and availing themselves of that moment most likely to assist 
their horrid design, which was when Capt. Stairs was below with one of 
his men,* shot the other man who was on deck, and taking aim at Capt. 
Stairs through the sky-light with a pistol, wounded him in the face and 
shot the man who was near him in the breast. Capt. Stairs immediately 
ran on deck, where he met Jordan with a pistol in one hand and an ax in 
the other. Capt. Stairs then retreated into cabin and searched for his 
pistols but found them taken from his chest with a sword ; finding himself 
destitute of arms he again ascended the deck and saw Jordan giving the 
fatal blow to the man who was on the deck, when he turned from him 
and presented another pistol at Capt. Stairs, which flashed when they 
closed and the pistol in the struggle was thrown overboard. The man 
who had received the wound below having reached the deck, made an 
effort to assist his captain, but in his attempt, from weakness, fell on his 
face, where he was shortly after dispatched with an ax by Jordan. In the 
scuffle Capt. Stairs called upon his mate (Kelly) for assistance, whom he 
perceived was in the act of loading another pistol, but who made him no 
answer. At which time Jordan's wife, a fit companion for so base a 
monster, attacked him with a boat hook which he parried with his arm, 
and after much exertion disengaged himself, and seizing one of the 
hatches, jumped into the sea. The wind blowing a strong breeze, the 
vessel soon left him to his precarious fate, where he remained about three 
hours, when he was taken up by the schooner Eliza Stoddard, of Hingham, 
in an almost lifeless condition from wet and cold." 

The vessel was captured and brought into Halifax, and Jordan 
and his wife placed on their trial before a special commission for 
the trial of piracies on the high seas on loth November. The 
Commission or Judges who sat on this occasion were Lieut. -Gen'l 
Sir Geo. Provost, Vice Admiral Sir John Borlase Warren, Chief 
Justice Blowers ; Councillors, Butler, Wallace, Brenton, Hill, 
Uniacke and Morris; Capt. Lloyd, R. N., Capt. Lord James 
Townshend, R. N. and Capt. Simpson, R. N., Sir Samuel Hood 
George, Provincial Secretary, T. N. Jeffery, the Collector of 
Customs. Doctor Cooke, the Admiralty Judge, refused to attend 
because the Commissioners would not allow him precedence of the 
Governor with a veto on the proceedings of the Court. No jury 
was called under this commission. Jordan was found guilty and 
sentenced to be hanged, which sentence was carried into execution 
on the beach some distance below Fresh Water Bridge, and the 
body was afterwards gibbeted on the shore some distance further 
down. The wife was acquitted, and a subscription was raised in the 
town to send her to Ireland. Dr. Burke, the Roman Catholic 
clergyman, Dr. Archd. Gray, minister of St. Matthew's, and Dr. 
Stanser, Rector of St. Paul's, acted as a committee for the purpose. 

* Thpnms Heath, who left a wife and two children ip this towp, 


146 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

The court assembled again a short time after, for the trial of the 
mate, Kelly, who was convicted, but afterwards pardoned.* 

This being the 50th year of the reign of King George III, a jubilee 
was celebrated at Halifax on the 23rd October, with great ceremony. 

The market slip, the new fish market and meat market were all 
repaired and improved this year at the cost of 571, 500 of which 
had been voted by the Assembly for the purpose. The taxes 
gathered in the town for liquor licenses in 1809 amounted to 1400. 

The Fire Insurance Association of Halifax was established on 
24th April, 1809. The first directors were Andrew Belcher, Charles 
Hill, Lawrence Hartshorne, Foster Hutchinson, James Fraser, 
George Grassie and H. H. Cogswell. Mr. J. H. Fliegar was 
secretary and the office was kept in his house in Hollis Street, where 
it continued to be kept for a great many years. He was succeeded 
by Mr. William Newton, at whose death Mr. Tremaiu was ap- 

Meetings of the Committee on Trade were held during the 
autumn. The Halifax Marine Insurance Company first opened 
their office for business in Water Street, opposite the fuel yard, this 
year. The committee of management were George Grassie, Jesse 
Woodward, Garret Miller, James Kerby, Lawrence Doyle, Lewis E. 
Piers, John Osborne, Thomas Deblois and John Albro'. 

Among the merchants of Halifax at this time we find, in addition 
to the above, the names of Wm. Stairs, Wm. Bremner, Hartshorne 
& Boggs, at the old corner of George and Granville Streets, 
Kidston, Dobson & Co., Richard Kenefick, who had lately brought 
out Irish linen goods, Forman & Grassie, Shipping Merchants ; 
William Bowie, afterwards a partner of Stephen W. Deblois. and 
who lost his life in a duel with the late Judge Richard Uniacke, 
Alexander Izat, Dry Goods, at corner opposite two pumps, corner 
of Hollis and Duke Streets, now occupied by the People's Bank ; 
Martin Gay Black, Dry Goods ; Geo. N. Russell, afterwards 
Wallace & Russell, Hardware Merchant, corner of Hollis and 
Prince Streets, now occupied by the Union Bank building ; Temple 
and Lewis E. Piers, Ship Chandlery. This firm several years later 

* A report of these trials was published in 1810 by Mr. Bagnall at the office of the 
newspaper called the " Novator," taken from the notes of two students at law, Charles 
R. Fairbanks, afterwards Master of the Rolls, and Andrew W. Cochran, who for many 
years was Secretary of the Province of Lower Canada a.nd member of Council. 

H i 'story of tialijax City. 14? 

purchased the irregular shaped lot adjoining the City Court House 
lately occupied by Stairs, Son & Morrow, removed a range of one 
story buildings or sheds known as the Ratstail, and erected a building 
in which they carried on the ship chandlery business until the estab- 
lishment was purchased by Mr. William Stairs. Henry Austin, 
afterwards a partner with William Stairs in ship chandlery, Water 
Street, south of the fuel yard, and John Owen, shop keeper and 
shipping merchant. 

There was a small newspaper, quarto size, called the "Novator" 
established or published at Halifax in 1809 by one James Bagnall 
in Sackville Street. It was not of long continuance. 

Jones Fawson was Sheriff of Halifax this year. 

From the commencement of the year 1810 until the month of 
April, 1812, there was a constant apprehension of a rupture with 
the United States. The garrison and navy enlivened the town by 
their frequent balls and festivities. The Rockingham Club, before 
mentioned, continued to have their weekly dining on Saturday at 
the old Rockingham Hotel on the Basin. It was then customarj 7 
for the merchants and other principal inhabitants, occasionally to 
give public dinners to the generals, admirals and principal officers 
of both army and navy. These dinners, as well as those of the 
National Societies, were held at the old Mason Hall, that building 
then containing the most spacious and convenient room in the city. 

In January, 1811, the merchants of Halifax petitioned the 
King, through the Lieutenant-Governor, to permit the coal mines 
in Nova Scotia to be opened and worked under regulations. A 
proposal was made this year for the formation of a Joint Stock 
Bank. The books for subscription were opened at the office of 
Henry Yeomans, insurance broker, and were first signed on 13th 
February by the Committee of Trade, consisting of William Sabatier, 
Andrew Belcher, John Black, James Fraser, George Grassie, Charles 
R. Prescott and John Pryor. No further proceeding appears to 
have been taken towards this object. 

Much suffering as usual among the poor prevailed this winter. A 
society for the relief of the poor had been formed, which distributed 
during the year ending 9th February, 1811 : 

148 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

285 cords wood which cost 994 

860 Ibs. sugar 49 15 6 

111 " tea 

702 " rice 

236 " flour 

1560 loaves bread to 255 persons 36 

1079 15 6 

Eighty-four persons in distress, with their families, and others, 
in Halifax, Preston, Dartmouth, Chezzetcook, Windsor Road and 
Lawrencetown, with several families in Digby and Shelburne, were 
relieved at the time from the same funds. 

Subscriptions raised for the above purposes 255 

Donations from individuals, &c 384 


The committee in charge of this fund and its distribution were 
Edwd. 13. Brenton, Revd. Robert Stanser, Revd. Archibald Gray, 
W. J. Almon, M. D., Hibbert N. Binuey, John Lawson, Treasurer. 

On Wednesday the 19th February, a public fast was proclaimed 
throughout the Province, which was observed at Halifax with due 

Two fires occurred this year, one at Commissary Buildings on 
Hollis Street, the spot on which the Bank of Nova Scotia stands, on 
18th April, and the other at Bellemont, Mr. John Howe's residence 
at the North West Arm, on 6th May. Both buildings were saved. 

The office of the Nova Scotia Marine Insurance Company was 
kept by Henry Yeomans, broker, of the Company. A new Marine 
Insurance Office had been started in February ; George Grassie was 
Chairman of the Committee of Management, and John Bonnett was 


Decisive measures were adopted this session by the Legislature for 
the erection of a building for the accommodation of the legislative 
bodies, the courts of law and the public offices, on the site of 
the old Government House on Hollis Street. Commissioners 
were appointed and plans and elevations prepared or procured by 
Mr. John Merrick. Chief Justice Blowers, Mr. Speaker Wilkins 
and Judge Hutchinson had the planning of the interior arrangements, 

History of Halifax City. 149 

and George Grassie, Winkworth Allen and John Merrick were the 
commissioners to" erect the building. Mr. Richard Scott was 
the builder employed to conduct the work. The building was fully 
completed and finished, ready for the sittings of the Courts and 
Legislature, in 1820, at the cost of 52,000. 

A new steeple and an addition of 16 feet to the northern end was 
added to old St. Paul's Church this year, at the cost of 1000, 
granted by Government, 500 from a fund known as the Militia 
Arms Fund, and the remainder from funds arising out of the forfeited 
estate of one Jonathan Clarke. Hibbert N. Binney and H. H 
Cogswell were the churchwardens. Their advertizement for tenders 
for the work appears in the Gazette. The sum of 500 from the Arms 
Fund was at the same time granted to St. George's Church towards 
finishing the interior of that building. These works were commenced 
this year, but were not finished until late in 1812. But one capital 
criminal conviction is recorded in 1811, that of one Sarah Wilson 
for burglary. She was sentenced to death, but afterwards reprieved. 

On the 27th May the sloop of war, Little Belt, Capt. Bingham, 
arrived from a cruise. She reported having fallen in with the 
United States frigate, President, by whom she was fired into, and 
had sixteen men killed and twenty-one wounded, and the rigging of 
the ship much cut up. The two nations being at peace at the time, 
the affair caused much excitement in Halifax. Explanations were 
offered on the part of the Captain and Officers of the U. S. frigate, 
which only tended to show the bitterness of feeling which shortly 
afterwards manifested itself in open hostilities. Early this season 
non-intercourse was established between the United States and Great 

Sir George Provost was now appointed to the chief command in 
Canada. The inhabitants of Halifax presented a congratulatory 
address on his promotion on the 19th August. He sailed for 
Quebec on the 25th, and Sir John Cope Sherbroke, his successor, 
arrived with his family from England on 16th October following in 
the ship Manilla. 

On 26th September a poll was opened by Capt. Jones Fawson, 
then Sheriff, for the election of two members for the town and four 
for the county. John Pryor, John Geo. Pyke and William H. 
Taylor were nominated ; the latter retired and the two first were 

150 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

declared elected. The four old members for the county were 
returned. Mr. William Sabatier was nominated but afterwards 
retired from the contest. 

The merchants of Halifax, on 20th July, petitioned the Governor 
respecting the state of trade, etc., stating that they were agreed to 
take gold and silver coins at the following values, viz : A Guinea, 
1 3 4, Halifax currency ; a Johannes, at 4 ; a Doubloon, at 
3 17 6 ; an Eagle, at 2 10 ; the old French Guinea, at 1 2, and 
and all the other decimal parts of the same coins at a proportional 
value ; English and old French Crowns, at 5s. 6d. ; Spanish Dollars, 
(including those which heretofore passed current at 4s.) at the rate 
of 5s. At this time British silver was unknown at Halifax 
Spanish silver was the current coin. It came up from the West 
Indies and Spanish America in the course of trade, and the British 
Government found it more convenient for various reasons to pay 
their troops stationed here in Spanish silver than to import British 
coin for that purpose. 

The names attached to this petition were William Bowie, Garret 
Miller, Starr & Shannon, Charles Loveland, Moody & Sinclair, 
Alexander McDonald, William A. Black, Martin Gay Black, John 
Albro, Charles Boggs, Henry Ford & Co., Henry 'Austin, Michael 
Forrestall, Jonathan and John Tremaine, John W. Pyke, Matthew 
Richardson, Richard Tremain, Samuel Head, M. D., Kidston, 
Dobson & Telford, H. Taylor, John Liddell & Co., Capel Hines, 
las. Ewing, George W. Mitchell, Prescott Lawson & Co., James 
Fraser, Winkworth Allen, Smith & Thorn, Scaiffe & Baine, R. Lyon, 
Sr., Andrew Belcher, Forsyth, Black & Co., Lawrence Hartshorne, 
Charles Hill, Forman Grassie & Co., John Lawson, James Leaver, 
William Minns, John Osborne and John Owen. 

A proposition concerning some alteration in Water Street, near 
the Ordnance Yard, was made by Captain Gustavos Nichols of the 
Royal Engineers. It was understood that the town would not agree 
to the proposal unless the Military authorities surrendered a road 
in continuation of Hollis Street, southward. The subject had been 
mooted for a long period previous to this time, but no arrangement 
could be agreed on between the military and the town authorities. 
Captain Nichols' letter makes an offer according to the plans therein 
enclosed. This letter and plans are not now forthcoming among 

History of Halifax City. 151 

the City or Provincial Records, and therefore the particulars of the 
proposition made by the Engineer Department cannot now be 
understood. Copies of these plans may possibly exist at the 
Lumber Yard and Engineers' office. 

On the 17th March, the Irish Society celebrated the anniversary 
of St. Patrick this year by a dinner at Mason Hall, which was 
attended by the Governor, General Balfour, Commissioner Ingle- 
field, Judge Croke, the Captains of the Navy in port and the Staff 
of the Garrison, etc. The Hon. Charles Morris was President, 
and Samuel Hood George, afterwards Sir Samuel, was Vice. The 
dinner was at five o'clock, the fashionable hour in those days. The 
Governor and principal guests retired at nine. The rest of the 
company sat late, but the utmost harmony and good feeling 
prevailed. These national festivals were better attended in those 
days, when no political animosities existed to disturb the harmony of 
the good people of Halifax. 

On the llth May, there was a public examination of the Halifax 
Grammar School under old parson Wright a ceremony in which 
the inhabitants at this period took much interest. On this occasion 
Mr. Edward Monk, son of Judge Monk, took the first prize ; Lewis 
M. Wilkins, the late Judge, won the second, and the third was 
given to James Bailey, and the fourth to Edward Fairbanks, a 
brother of S. P. Fairbanks, Esq., and of the late Judge Charles R. 
Fairbanks, Master of the Rolls. 

A Company was formed this year, in Halifax, for prosecuting the 
codfishery. The managers were John Lawson, Henry H. Cogswell, 
William Pryor, Garret Miller, John Brown, John William Morris 
and Charles Loveland. A large capital was raised in shares of 
50 each. 

On the 20th November, the fleet sailed for Bermuda, consisting 
of the Flag Ship of Admiral Sawyer, the Spartan and Melampus, 
Frigates ; the Atalauta, Ratler and Indian, Sloops-of-War. 

At the commencement of the year the following Ships of AVar, 
under the command of Sir John Borlase Warren, were on this 
station, viz. : Swiftsure, 74 ; Guerriere, 40 ; Melampus, 36 ; 
JEolus, 39 ; Cleopatra, 32 ; Euridice, 24 : Little Belt, 22 ; Halifax, 
18* ; Indian, 18 ; Emulous, 18 ; Atalanta, 18 ; Colibre, 18 ; La 

*This brif? was the only vessel of war ever built at the Halifax Dockyard. 

1,52 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

Fantome, 18 ; Plumper, 12 and the schooners Vesta, Juniper, Holly, 
Barbare, Bream, Cuttle and Chub. The old Ceuturian was the 
receiving ship ; she remained for many years off the dockyard. The 
Pyramus was afterwards used as a receiving ship for the fleet lately 
sold and broken up ; she was an old-class 50 taken from the Danes 
at the capture of Copenhagen. 

The Eighth and Ninety-eighth British regiments, the Nova Scotia 
Fencible Infantry, with a battery of Artillery and a company of 
Engineers composed the Garrison of Halifax. Captain Philip Van 
Cortlandt was Town Major, and Stephen Hall Binney, Barrack- 
master. The former was succeeded by Lieutenant John McColla as 
Town Major, who resided in Halifax for a number of years, and 
was Adjutant General of the Provincial Militia. Major-General 
Balfour* commanded the Garrison. Captain J. N. Inglefield, 
R. N.,f was Commissioner of the Dockyard, and Mr. P. F. Wallis, 
first clerk. Mr. W. was father of Admiral Sir Provo Wallis, who 
distinguished himself in the action of the Shannon and Chesapeake. 

A Marine Humane Society existed at Halifax in 1811. Their 
drags, for the recovery of drowned persons, were . advertised as 
being lodged in the respective stores of Hon. And. Belcher, John 
Pryor, John Brown, Samuel Muirhead and John Starr. 

The 30th September was marked by a severe gale of wind from 
the S. E., by which many of the wharves in the town were ripped 
up and much damage done to the shipping in the harbour and along 
the coast. 

The year terminated by a proclamation opening the Port of 
Halifax to vessels of neutrals. The proclamation bears date the 
24th December. . 

Among the deaths recorded this year was that of James Gautier, 
Esq., for many years clerk of His Majesty's Council and keeper of 
the public records in the Secretary's office. He died poor. The 
Legislature voted 30 to defray the expenses of his funeral. He 
left no family. 

The principal retail merchants in the town at this time were 
Martin Gay Black, Smith & Thorn, Carret & Alfort at the corner 

*Gcneral Balfour was this year removed to New Brunswick, where he died Lieu- 
tenant Governor of that Province. 

t Commissioner Inglefleld was grandfather of Vicn Admiral Sir Edward A.. Ingle- 
field, lately in command of the Squadron at Halifax. 

History of Halifax City. 153 

lately occupied by Messrs. Duffus ; John Licldell & Co., H. Ford, 
McDonald & Co., Robert Lyon, W. Bremner, John Lawson, 
Kidston, Dobson & Telford, Scaiffe & Bain, Thomas Heaviside, 
James Fraser, Arthur Brymer, all Dry Goods Moody & Sinclair, 
C. & R. Hill & Co., Red store, road leading to Dockyard, Thomas 
Leaver and William Remmingtou, all Auctioneers ; William Minns 
and Geo. Eaton, Stationers. Mr. Minns occupied the old building 
in Barriugton Street below the Parade, opposite Dalhousie College, 
where he died about 1825. He conducted a paper called the 
Weekly Chronicle for above 20 years. Wiudham Madden and 
William Conroy kept Livery Stables. 

1812. Orders had been issued early this season to put the Forts 
in repair ; the works on the Citadel Hill having again fallen into a 
dilapidated condition. Captain Nichols, commanding the Royal 
Engineers, made an elaborate report, and operations were com- 
menced forthwith under his superintendence. The United States 
had now declared war. Commodore Rogers, in command of an 
American Squadron, had fallen in with the British Frigate Belvidere, 
36 guns. She sustained the attack for two or three hours and at 
length got off with the loss of several of her crew killed, the Captain 
and 22 wounded. The Belvidere came into the harbor on the 27th 
June, and on the following evening a special dispatch arrived from 
the Governor of New Brunswick with intelligence of the Declaration 
of War. Sir John immediately made the necessary arrangements 
for calling out the militia. All able-bodied men between 18 and 50 
were to be ballotted for service and a portion of them to be imme- 
diately embodied. This was arranged by Order in Council dated 
28th June. The Belvidere, after she had escaped from the 
American Squadron, captured three American merchant vessels 
which she brought in with her. Halifax being the headquarters of 
the Naval force under Admiral Warren, who had upwards of 60 
pendants under his command, prizes now began to be brought into 
port. The Court of Admiralty under Judge Croke was in active 
operation, and the newspapers of the day appear filled with adver- 
tizements of sales of prizes and prize goods. Cartels frequently 
came and went between Halifax and the American ports for the 
exchange of prisoners. With all this bustle of business money 
became plenty, and the foundations of small fortunes began to be 

154 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

laid by the Crown lawyers and the prize agents. The presence of a 
large army and navy caused much dissipation in the town. Festiv- 
ities of all kinds prevailed. Subscription assemblies at Mason Hall 
were kept up during the winter under the management of Mr. 
Jeffery, Collector of the Customs, Capt. Brenton, of the navy, and 
Lieut. -Col. Robertson, of the garrison. Dinner parties at Govern- 
ment House, and balls and levies on state days, with the frequent 
rejoicings on the news from time to time of the success of the 
British Armies, both in Europe and America, completed the round 
of Halifax festivities. 

The capture of the British ship Guerriere, a first class frigate 
commanded by Capt. Dacres, belonging to the Halifax squadron, 
by the Americans, in August, caused much talk and excitement 
throughout the community. Capt. Dacres, a young and inexperi- 
enced officer, it was thought had surrendered too early to the enemy. 
He had only left the harbor a short time when he lost his ship. 

In July, a press warrant was granted to Rear Admiral Sawyer 
for 48 hours. Desertions from the navy were frequent and large 
offers were reported to have been made by the enemy for such 
able seamen as would come over to the American navy. The 
Commander-in-Chief, in consequence, found it necessary to publish 
a proclamation at Halifax offering the King's pardon to all who had 
deserted, on their returning to their duty. Letters of Marque 
against the Americans were ordered in Council on 31st July, and 
all vessels were prohibited from leaving the port without special 
license, for the space of one month. 

The old Halifax Artillery Company was at this time a very 
popular corps, and included many of the young merchants as well as 
tradesmen of the town. It was at one time supposed that the 
property owned by those whose names were on its roll comprised no 
small part of the wealth of our town. 

An Act of the Legislature was passed this year regarding that 
part of the public road or highway which leads from Fort Massey 
to the exercising ground on the Commons. His Majesty's service 
required that this piece of road should be enclosed for the purpose 
of enlarging the Artillery Park. It was therefore enacted that 
when the officers of His Majesty's Ordnance should have laid out a 
new road agreeable to the plan submitted to His Excellency Sir 

History of Halifax City. 155 

John Cope Sherbrooke, and filed in the Surveyor General's office, 
measuring fifty feet in breadth, through the field of John George 
Pyke, and shall have procured a release from Mr. Pyke, and shall 
have completed said new road, that the Engineer should take in 310 
feet in length of that part of said road which now leads from Fort 
Massey to the exercising ground on the Common, forever for the 
Ordnance Department at Halifax. The new road to be substituted 

1813. The arrival of DeWatteville's regiment of Germans in 
May on their way to reinforce the army at Quebec, and of the 
American ship Volante with a valuable cargo and mounting 21 guns 
taken by H. M. Brig Curlew, Capt. Michael Head,* and the 
accession of the 64th Regiment to the strength of the garrison were 
the chief events during the spring of 1813. 

On Sunday morning, the 6th June, the inhabitants of Halifax 
were surprised by the arrival of His Majesty's Ship Shannon, Capt. 
Broke, with her prize the United States Frigate Chesapeak, Capt. 
Lawrence. The engagement which was said to be the result of a 
challenge on the part of Capt. Broke, took place off Boston Harbor 
a very short time after the Shannon left Halifax. The enemy 
surrendered after about 20 minutes fighting. Capt. Broke ran his 
ship in upon the Chesapeak, and captured her with his boarding 
party who, " rushing upon the enemy's deck, carried away every- 
thing before them with irresistible fury." Capt. Lawrence, and 
his First Lieutenant, Ludlow, were killed ; the latter died at Halifax 
on the 13th June. The engagement was one of the most bloody on 
record. The Shannon had 30 men killed and 57 wounded, and the 
Chesepeak 74 killed and above 100 wounded, all within the short 
space of little more than fifteen minutes. When the ships came up 
the harbor the decks were being swabbed and the scuppers ran quite 
red. Numbers of the inhabitants of the town put off in boats and 
visited the ships. Though the bodies of the slain had been nearly 
all removed from sight, yet the marks of the slaughter were terribly 
conspicuous. Mr. Provo Wallis, a Halifax man, one of the Lieu- 
tenants of the Shannon, brought in the prize. He received his 
promotion as Commander soon after, and later became a full 
Admiral and Knight Grand Cross of the Bath. On the 8th, the 

* Brother of the late Dr. Samuel Head of Halifax. 


156 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

funeral of Capt. Lawrence took place. The body was landed under 
minute guns from the ships and the procession proceeded from the 
King's Wharf to the old English Burial Ground attended by an 
immense concourse of people. The coffin was covered by the 
U. S. colours and six British Post Captains bore the pall. The 
34th Regiment formed the firing party. The officers of the garrison, 
His Majesty's Council, the principal civil officers and heads of 
departments, and all the officers of the navy in port followed in 
procession, the American officers walking next the coffin. 

On the 10th August, following, an American Brig with a flag of 
truce arrived for the bodies of Capt. Lawrence and Lieutenant 
Ludlow, which were taken up and carried to their native country. 
That of Capt. Lawrence lies in the yard of Trinity Church, Broad- 
way, New York, where his tomb is to be seen on the left of the 

A memorial of the merchants of Halifax, numerously signed, was 
presented to the Colonial Secretary through the Governor, com- 
plaining of the permission of American vessels to resort to the 
British West Indies, and of the right of fishery conceded to the 
Americans by the Treaty of 1783, and praying that the interests of 
Nova Scotia might be considered in any future negotiations. Among 
the principal signers were William Sabatier, John Black, John 
Pryor, Geo. Grassie and Enos Collins. At this time the English 
Government was very jealous of British Colonial rights, and was 
ready to fight in their defence. 

The town and its vicinity had for the last two years abounded 
with French prisoners of war. Those taken from American prizes 
now increased the throng. A prison had been erected at Melville 
Island, at the head of the North West Arm, for their accommo- 
dation, and soon became crowded. Many of the French sailors 
were ingenious workers in wood and bone, and made articles of use 
as well as ornament, which they sold to the numerous visitors who 
were freely permitted access to Melville Island. It was the favorite 
resort of the young people on Sundays and holidays, where a 
pleasant .hour could be passed in conversing with the French prisoners 
and examining their toys. The French naval officers were on 
parole of honor, and resided in Dartmouth and Preston. They 
spent their time chiefly in field sports, occasionally visiting Halifax, 

History of Halifax City. 157 

where they mixed freely in society. M. Danseville, the Governor 
of St. Pierre and Miquelon, resided in the house near Preston lately 
owned by the Hon. Michael Tobin, known as the Brook House, 
where he entertained his friends with great politeness and hospital- 
ity. Many of the French prisoners were permitted to come to town 
and work for the inhabitants. A number of onr own Halifax 
people were at this time languishing in French prisons. The sum 
of 130 sterling was subscribed in Halifax for their relief, and 
remitted to England in the month of July of this year. 

Great quantities of prize goods were sold at auction this year, 
taken principally from American vessels. The American trade was 
terribly cut up by the British cruisers. On one occasion we find 
advertised for sale at public auction by order of the Court of Vice- 
Admiralty, dated 19th March, twelve full-rigged ships, eight brigs, 
seven schooners and ten or twelve small vessels, with their cargoes. 

On 7th September, the merchants of Halifax petitioned the 
Governor and Council for permission to export to the States 
portions of the prize goods as being particularly adapted to the 
American market. The following names, among others, appear 
attached to this petition : John Lawson, Temple F. & Lewis E. 
Piers,* Jas. Forman, Samuel Head, M. D., Hartshorne, Boggs & 
Co., James and Michael Tobin, James Hamilton, Roy Leslie & Co., 
Carrett & Alport, Scaiffe & Bain, G. Grassie^ James Ewing, 
William Annand, Matthew Richardson, William Phillips, James 
Russell, Miles W. White, Smith & Thorn, John Brown, W. H. 
Reynolds & Co., Harding & Hill, A. McDonald, Henry Ford, 
Stephen W. DeBlois & Co., Wm. Bremner, John Moody & Co., 
Collins & Allison,{ Henry Austin, William Stairs, Richard Tremain 
& Co., G. N. Russell, Jonathan & John Tremain. 

On the 7th September, Sir Borlase Warren with his fleet arrived 
in Halifax Harbor in eight days from the Chesapeake. The fleet 
consisted of the St. Domingo, 74 guns, Diadem, 64, Diomede, 50, 
Junon, 38, Romulus, 36, Success, 32, Fox, 32, Nemesis, 28, 
Loupcervier, 18, Mariner, 15, Highflyer, 10, and several transports. 

* Messrs. Piers were the grandsons of Mr. L. Piers, who came with Co'rnwallis in 
1749. Descendants of Temple F. Piers still reside in Halifax. 

J This firm was Hon. Knos Collins and Joseph Allison, both of whom became members 
of His Majesty's Council. They succeeded, to the business of Prescott & Lawson on 
the wharf afterwards known as Collins' wharf, where Mr. Collins, in 1823, built the 
range of stone stores, a part of which is occupied by the Halifax Banking Company. 

158 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

The following passage from Murdoch's history affords a lively 
picture of the condition and aspect of Halifax at this period, drawn 
no doubt, in some measure from his personal recollection : 

"The effects of the war upon the people of Halifax were very marked* 
1 Our harbor had become the temporary home of the ships of war, and 
'the place where their prizes were brought and disposed of. Our youths 
' were eager to participate in the path that seemed to lead by a few steps 
' to honor, glory, and fortune ; and indeed when it is borne in mind 
' that several Halifax lads rose to be admirals, we can hardly wonder at 
'the school-boys' desire to wear the white stripe on his collar, and the 
1 ivory-handled dirk that indicated his authority to command men. The 
' little capital, then occupying a restricted space, became crowded. Trade 
'was active, prices rose. The fleet increasing, provisions were in great 
' demand, and this acted as a large bounty in fayor of the agriculturist 
'and the fisherman. Rents of houses and buildings in the town were 
'doubled and trebled. A constant bustle existed in our chief streets, 
' cannon were forever noisy ; it was a salute of a man-of-war entering or 
'leaving, practising with guns or celebrating something or somebody. 
'There is another side to this picture which must not be omitted. The 
'moral condition of the town had become dreadful in the extreme. Eight 
' or ten thousand soldiers, sailors, and prisoners of war let loose in a little 
'town of less than 10,000 inhabitants can well be imagined." 

The upper streets were full of brothels ; grog shops and dancing 
houses were to be seen in almost every part of the town. A 
portion of Grafton Street was known under the appellation of Hogg 
Street from a house of ill- fame kept by a person of that name. 
The upper street along the base of Citadel Hill between the north 
and south barracks was known as " Knock him Down" Street in 
consequence of the number of affrays and even murders committed 
there. No person of any character ventured to reside there, nearly 
all the buildings being occupied as brothels for the soldiers and 
sailors. The streets of this part of the town presented continually 
the disgusting sight of abandoned females of the lowest class in a 
state of drunkenness, bare headed, without shoes, and in the most 
filthy and abominable condition. 

The Acadian School was this year established by Walter Bromley, 
Esq., on the Lancaster system. It was intended chiefly for the 
instruction of the poor. Mr. Bromley had been paymaster of the 
23rd Fusiliers, and having retired from the army while that regiment 
was in garrison at Halifax, devoted all the energy of his philan- 
thropic mind to the amelioration of the condition of the poor. He 
first opened his school on 13th January, 1814 in the old building in 
Argyle Street, then lately used as a theatre for amateur performers, 
where he held Sunday school for poor children of all denominations 

History of Halifax City. 159 

and had a large class of blacks, both children and adults, to whom 
he devoted particular attention. Many colored men and women 
who afterwards became valuable servants, and some of whom 
entered into business in Halifax, owed their success and subsequent 
Christian life to the exertions of Mr. Bromley. His labors to 
improve the condition of the Mic-mac Indians will be remembered 
by not a few individuals now living. His house was open to them 
at all times, where those who were not addicted to the habitual use 
of spirits were hospitably treated, clothed and furnished with means 
of following their hunting and other occupations. This continued 
until he left the country. The old play house having fallen into 
decay, the present stone building was erected on its site in 1816 
and apartments for Mr. Bromley were therein provided. A print- 
ing press which had been established by him at the Acadian School 
became the means of disseminating his views regarding education 
throughout the province, and his little pamphlets, entitled Appeals 
to the People of Great Britain on behalf of the Indians of Nova 
Scotia, were very forcible and touching. The first edition of 
T. C. Halliburton's history of Nova Scotia was issued from 
Bromley's press in 1824. When Bromley left Halifax in 1828, the 
poor lost a true friend and the Indians their chief patron. 

Halifax was visited by a great gale of wind in the autumn of 
1813. The Gazette of the 19th November says : 

" On Friday evening last, a most tremendous gale, or rather hurricane 
11 from the south-east, rushed up the harbor with such destructive violence 
" as has not been witnessed since the tornado which happened in Septem- 
"ber, 1798. The lapse of little more than one short hour left but few 
" vessels at their anchors and of those scarcely one that had not sustained 
11 material injury. Its utmost fury being felt about dead low water, less 
" damage was sustained by the wharves and stores than might otherwise 
" have been expected, but several shallops and small craft were sunk, and 
' many others wrecked and torn by the sea. H. M. Ships St. Domingo, 
'Hogue, Maidstone, two brigs and a schooner were driven on shore. 
' Fourteen other men of war, including small ones, suffered by vessels 
' being driven against them. The Barossa, Diadem and the old Centurian 
' suffered least. There were forty-six merchant vessels, transports and 
' prizes, all large vessels except about seventeen, stranded ; most of them 
" having been got off again. Twenty-four, including store ships and trans- 
' ports, suffered more or less injury, and a brig, a transport and one or two 
' sloops sank and were totally lost. Several schooners were sunk at 
1 Prospect, and two la*ge vessels were repor'.ed overset off the harbor. A 
' number of lives were lost during the gale, and many seamen badly hurt 
' on board the ships of war." 

160 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

Among the deaths recorded this year was that of James Creighton, 
Esq.,* in his 81st year. He was the son of one of the settlers who 
came with Governor Cornwallis in 1749, and had acquired a large 
property in the neighborhood of the town which was inherited by 
his son who was the ancestor of the family of that name now in the 
city. The fields in the north suburbs adjoining the common were 
for many years known as Creighton's fields ; long since laid off into 
building lots, including the streets known as Maynard Street, 
Creighton Street and Bauer Street, etc. 

The death of Sir Samuel Hood George, Provincial Secretary of 
the Province, took place this year in England, where he went for 
the benefit of his health. He died of consumption in the 24th year 
of his age. 

In the month of January, 1813, a murder was committed on the 
Market Wharf, which caused considerable excitement in the town. 
About 7 o'clock on Monday evening, January 25th, five soldiers, 
having had some dispute with the shallop men on the wharf, 
attacked them with their bayonets and badly wounded four men, 
Frederick and Henry Publicover, Cornelius Uhlman and George 
Teele. The main guard from the King's Wharf being called out, 
three of the soldiers were secured. Henry Publicover died of his 
wounds and the Coroner's Jury brought in a verdict of wilful 
murder against some persons unknown. One of those who had 
been apprehended, a young soldier named Oliver Hart, was tried 
and convicted of the murder at the Easter term of the Supreme 
Court, but was afterwards pardoned by the Governor. Much 
dissatisfaction existed in i;he community in consequence of the 
termination of this affair. 

In the month of March the crew of a Spanish schooner, the 
Serifina, was brought into Halifax. They had killed six of their 
fellow-sufferers upon the alleged necessity of saving their own lives 
by subsisting on the flesh of those they killed. Investigations were 
entered into, the result of which does not appear. 

The Commissioners of Streets for the town were appointed on the 
12th May. They consisted of James Forman, John Albro, Michael 

* Mr. Creighton was not related to Lieutenant Creighton, who afterwards settled 
in Lunenburg and was known as Col. Creighton. He came out, however, in company 
with him in the same vessel, being friends ; they were both from the same part of 

History of Halifax City. 161 

Tobin, Frederick Major, James Fraser and John Allen. The three 
former remained in office until about 1829 or 1830, when a new 
system was inaugurated under the management of H. H. Cogswell 
and others. Matthew Forrester was the Overseer and Superinten- 
dent of Streets under the Commissioners for many years. The old 
Commissioners, a short time before their retirement, undertook to 
remove all obstructions to side paths ; many old houses stood on 
banks with cellar doors projecting into what was supposed to be 
part of the street. Others again were approached by flights of 
seeps, all of which were removed to the detriment of many buildings 
in the suburbs. At this time the town was adorned in many places 
by ranges of trees in the sides of the streets. St. Paul's Church 
was surrounded by large old willow trees ; a range of fine old 
willows extended from William Pry or' s corner down the eastern 
side of Hollis Street past the Lumber Yard Gate. A fine range of 
willows of less dimensions also ran along that part of Argyle Street 
between the late H. H. Cogswell's stone house and the residence of 
the late R. J. Uuiacke, since sold for a country market. Again in 
Poplar Grove, and the old Grenadier fort house which stood on the 
site of the present Trinity Chapel in Jacob Street, on both sides of 
Brunswick Street, particularly on the east side, there were several 
fine clusters of Lombardy poplar trees of gigantic size, several 
being in front of the residence of James Kirby. There were also 
some fine trees in other parts of the town. These were all cut 
down without mercy by Mr. Forrester, under the directions of the 
Commissioners before the year 1830, and the lower stairs of a number 
of buildings were buried in levelling the streets. Albermarle and 
Graf ton Streets were at this time in a very rough condition, partic- 
ularly the former, where banks of earth and stones were to be seen 
in the centre of the street, sufficient in some places to obstruct 
carriages. These were removed by the new Commissioners. 

The town was at this time supplied with water by public wells 
and pumps in various parts of the town. A pump stood at the 
north end of the Province Building Square, in George Street, known 
as Black's pump ; another at the south end of the square ; another, 
known as the White pump, stood in the centre of Prince Street, 
where it is crossed by Albermarle Street ; this was one of the last 
to be removed. There were two known as the Sisters at the corner 

162 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

of Duke and Hollis Streets, near the site of the building occupied by 
the People's Bank. There were four or five along the east side of 
Brunswick Street, one at the foot of Cornwallis Street, and a 
number in the south suburbs and other parts of the town ; also two 
in Barrington Street in front of the Parade. 

1814. During the winter of 1813-14 some distress existed 
among the poor in the upper streets. This part of the town was 
chiefly occupied by people of the lower order, and in consequence of 
the war had become a resort for soldiers and sailors. Barrack 
Street, before mentioned, was known as " The Hill " and was as 
well known through His Majesty's dominions for its evil reputation 
as the worst haunts of Plymouth or Portsmouth in England. 

On the 25th February a public fast was proclaimed by the 
Governor, after which we do not find any further proclamations of 
this kind for many years. 

A press warrant was granted to Rear Admiral Griffiths on 28th 
February, when many of the idle and worthless vagabonds of the 
town were happily secured for His Majesty's service, where they 
would be brought under wholesome restraint. 

It had been arranged this spring that a residence for the. Admiral 
of the station should be erected. The British Parliament had 
granted the sum of 3000 for this purpose, which being found 
insufficient, the House of Assembly of this province voted 1500 
towards its completion. A site was selected in the field between 
the Naval Hospital grounds and Gottingen Street, and the present 
building known as Admiralty House was commenced this year, but 
not finished until some time after. Why the local funds of the 
province should have been devoted to this purpose does not clearly 

The arrival of the English packet on 21st May furnished news of 
the fall of Napoleon Bonaparte and the entry of the allied armies 
into Paris. It being Sunday, the event was celebrated on Monday 
by a military review with salutes, and the whole town was illumin- 
ated in the evening. A military band performed during the evening 
on the flat roof of the old market house, long since removed to 
make way for the present brick structure, and the streets were 
crowded to a very late hour. The merchants and many of the 
principal inhabitants met at the Exchange Coffee House and other 

History of Halifax City. 163 

places, where hot suppers were consumed in honor of the occasion. 

Among the captures this year was that of the American privateer. 
Snap Dragon, six guns and 70 men, brought in by H. M. Sloop, 
Martin on 5th July, taken off Sambro Light, and on the 13th, the 
United States Sloop Rattlesnake, 18 guns, by the Leander frigate, 
taken near Shelburue Harbor. About the same time 340 British 
prisoners were brought to Halifax in Cartels from Salem in Massa- 
chusetts. The Rattlesnake was afterwards sold and fitted out as a 
privateer by merchants in Liverpool, Queens County. 

The British forces having captured Washington in August, 1814, 
a large number of black slaves, of both sexes, from the plantations 
along the Potomac and Chesapeake Rivers, who had deserted their 
masters, took refuge on board the British men-of-war while they 
laid in Chesapeake Bay. Sir George Cochran, the naval commander, 
sent them on to Halifax, where many of them arrived in September, 
following in a transport ship and the Brig Jasper. They were 
afterwards located at Preston and Hammond's Plains. Many of 
the domestic slaves remained in the town as servants, attaching 
themselves to the inhabitants. Those who went to the country, 
being unused to cold and hard labor, were unable even with the 
assistance of the Government allowance to make their living ; soon 
became paupers and a burden to the community, a condition in 
which their children and grand-children largely remain. At the 
close of the war a quantity of American soldiers' uniforms, taken at 
Castiue, in Maine, were served out to the Chesapeake negroes. 
Their grotesque appearance in the blue and yellow coats, occasionally 
intermixed with the green and red facings of the corps called the 
York Rangers, (at the peace disbanded in Halifax,) must be within 
the recollection of many of our old inhabitants. 

The grand event of this year for Halifax was the fitting out of 
the expedition for the invasion of the State of Maine. This 
expedition consisted of the 29th, 60th, 62ud and 98th British 
Regiments, with artillery and some militia. The two brigades were 
commanded by Major Goslin and Colonel Douglas ; the whole being 
under the command of Lieuteuaut-General Sir John Cope Sher- 
brooke. Rear Admiral Griffiths commanded the squadron, which 
was composed of 3 seventy-four gun ships, the Bulwark, Dragon 
and the Spencer, with two brigs, a schooner and ten transports. 

164 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

Castine was taken on 1st September, and the town of Michias by 
Lieut. -Col. Pilkiugtou, on the llth. Thus all the State or District 
of Maine fell into the hands of the British as far west as the old 
bounds of Acadia. This territory was originally part of Nova 
Scotia, and at the peace of 1783 had been conceded to the Americans 
through the ignorance and imbecility of Lord Gambler, who had 
been Intrusted by the British Ministry with the settlement of out- 
lines. The British Government was erroneously induced to relin- 
quish this conquest at the close of the war, a policy which has 
deprived this Dominion of the fairest timber lauds of New Bruns- 
wick, and caused the loss of the most direct line of communication 
between the Canadian provinces through British territory, a loss 
which the whole expense incurred by the British Government during 
the war could not now repay. Sir John, having left a garrison to 
take care of his conquest, soon returned with his little army to 
Halifax. Several Halifax merchants availed themselves of thei 
opening afforded- -to make money, sent agents with supplies of goods/ 
to establish shops at Castine, etc. The British authorities collected 
the Revenue of Maine while in occupation, which amounted to a 
considerable sum of money. This fund was placed by the colonial 
minister in the hands of the Lieutenant-Governor of Nova Scotia, 
who appropriated it in various ways as he thought most for the 
benefit of the country. It was from this fund that Dalhousie 
College was afterwards built and endowed by the Earl of Dalhousie, 
who succeeded Sir John Cope Sherbrooke in the government, the 
Legislature of the Province having been induced to vote the sum of 
5,000 currency towards the same object. 

In the autumn the small pox made its appearance in Dartmouth 
and Preston and was very fatal among the Chesapeake negroes. 

The old Rockingham Club, which in the days of Prince Edward 
and Sir John Wentworth dined periodically at the Rockingham 
Hotel on the Basin, had ceased to exist, but it appears to have 
revived about this time under the name of the Wellington Club. A 
dinner at the Rockingham by the Wellington Club was announced in 
the papers of 26th August to take place on the 30th instant at half 
past four o'clock. Five o'clock was the fashionable dinner hour. 
The Governor's dinner cards of this date were all for that hour. 

History of Halifax City. 165 

The old Rockingham was destroyed by fire nearly half a century 
ago. It stood on the shore of the Basin, a short distance north of 
the Rotunda. After the departure of the Prince it became a house 
of entertainment, kept successively by Graves, Paine and others. 
It was a favorite resort being a convenient distance from town. 
The approach from the post road was by a carriage drive next to 
the Rotunda, between two beech trees, from which hung suspended 
a sign with the Wentworth Arms. When destroyed it was the 
property of the estate of David Muirhead. 

In September the body of General Ross, who had been killed 
before Baltimore, was brought to Halifax for interment. He was 
buried in the old English burial ground with all military honors. 
No monument to his memory appears in St. Paul's Church. 

On the 24th November, the Man-of-War Brig Fantome, 18 guns, 
went on shore at Prospect. She soon went to pieces, as also a 
schooner which accompanied her. No lives were lost. 

The merchants presented several petitions to the Governor this 
year relative to the trade of the port. The following names appeal- 
appended to these petitions, among which we will find those of 
many of our principal citizens whose faces were once familiar to 
many now living : 

James Forman, 1 Belcher & Wright, 2 John Clarke, William 
Rudolf, John Stayner, Rufus G. Taylor, William Strachan, William 
Young, Jr., Austin & Stairs, 3 Jessie Woodward, Richard Kidston, 
Lawrence Doyle, John Carrol, Henry Yeomaus, Francis Stevens, 
Benjamin Etter, John Merrick, W. C. Wilkie, Charles Boggs, And. 
Smith, William Duffus, James Kerby, Charles Tropolet. Again, 
Thomas Wallace, Bowie & DeBlois, 4 Hosterman & Etter, John & 
David Howe, 5 W. A. & S. Black, 6 James Baine, Martin Gay 
Black, Duncan McColl, Thomas Cleary, Robert Phelon, Levi Moses 
& Co., and John A. Barry. 7 

The Province Building and the Admiralty House were both slowly I / 
progressing during the summer and autumn. I / 

NOTE. 1. For many years Gustos of the County. 2. Hon. Andrew Belcher, son 
of the first Chief Justice and member of Council. Hi* partner. William Wrieht, was 
son of old Parson Wright of the Grammar School. Neither left male descendants in 
Nova Scotia. 3. Hon. Wm. Stairs, Sr., afterwards in Council. 4. William Bowie 
killed in a duel with II. J. I'niacke. o. Both brothers of the late Hon. Joseph Howe 
Provincial Secretary, etc. 6. Hon. William A. Black of the Legislative Council. "' 
Mr. Barry was afterwards in the House of Assembly for Shelburne ; died at LaHavc 
aged 80 years. 

166 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

Halifax did a brisk trade during the period of the American 
War. The following list of exports for the year 1813 is given by 
Murdoch in one of his notes: Vessels, 412; Tons, 54,457; men, 
2,868; Boards and Plank, 1,881,722 feet; Staves, 232,562; Dry 
Fish, 82,059 quintals ; Pickled Fish in tierces, 408 ; Barrels, 
29,829; Smoked Herring in barrels, 142; Boxes, 6,425; Fish Oil, 
49,668 gallons. 

1815. The winter of 1814-15 was more severe than the previous 
one. The small pox had broken out in the town and many persons 
died of it. A number of the black refugee negroes had been, about 
the mouth of May, after the removal of the prisoners, placed on 
Melville Island. They were all vaccinated to prevent the spread of 
the disease among them. They remained here for a short time until 
they could be located in the country. 

The treaty of peace between Great Britain and the United States 
was ratified in February 1815, and executed at Ghent on the 24th 
December following. An immediate exchange of prisoners took 
place after the ratification, and many seaf earing men belonging to 
Halifax, who had been confined in American prisons, were restored 
to their homes. Peace was proclaimed at Halifax on 3rd March. 
This spring an Act of the Legislature passed for establishing a 
Bridewell or House of Correction in Halifax. It was placed under 
the control of the sessions, and the old gamble-roofed building 
formerly used as a poor house, then situated at the western end of 
the space known as the old poor house grounds, was taken for 
the purpose and fitted up with cells, etc., for the prisoners. This 
building was taken down, having ceased to be used after the 
erection of Rock Head Prison and the Provincial Penitentiary on the 
North West Arm. It was one of the oldest buildings in the town 
afterwards, and was in early days the residence of Mr. Wenman, the 
keeper of the Asylum. When it was first built is uncertain, but 
being situate within the lines of the old foits, was probably a 
militai'y residence of some sort during the first five or six years of 
the settlement. 

A regular police court was this summer established in the brick 
Court House. John George Pyke, John Howe and John Liddell 
were appointed police magistrates. Mr. Pyke had long been custos 
of the county, and he and subsequently Mr. Liddell gave regular 

History of Halifax City. 167 

attendance at the office. Mr. Fyke was allowed eleven shillings 
and eight pence per day, and had three police constables at his 
command, with the additional assistance of Hawkins, a colored 
gentleman, who dressed in an old military uniform with cap and 
feathers, usually escorted the criminals to and from the workhouse, 
and when occasion required inflicted his 39 lashes on juvenile 
offenders at the old whipping post, which stood at the south-west 
corner of the building opposite Messrs. Stairs' office a system 
of punishment less expensive than paying their board and lodging 
for eight or ten weeks from the taxes of the citizens. 

The Spring of 1815 was very backward. The Basin had been 
frozen up all winter, and was not free from ice until the month of 
June. On the first of June the harbor was full of ice so as for 
an hour or two to impede the progress of the ferry boats. It was 
partially collected from loose ice which came down the Narrows from 
the Basin, and some drift ice which was brought in in the night 
previously from the sea by the tide and southerly wind. 

There were two ferries at this time. The upper ferry was 
conducted by John Skerry, whose memory is still cherished by many, 
both iu Dartmouth and Halifax, as one of the most obliging and 
civil men of his day. Skerry's wharf in Dartmouth was a short 
distance south of the steam boat wharf. The other ferry was the 
property of Mr. James Creighton, known as the Lower Ferry, 
situate to the south of Mott's Factor} 7 . It was conducted for Mr. 
Creighton by deputy and was afterwards held under lease by Joseph 
Findlay, the last man who ran a ferry boat with sails and oars in 
Halifax Harbor. These ferry boats were furnished with a lug sail 
and two and sometimes four oars. They were large clumsy boats, 
and occupied some thirty or forty minutes in making the passage 
across the harbor. There were no regular trips at appointed hours. 
When the boat arrived at either side the ferryman blew his horn 
(a conch shell) and would not start again until he had a full freight 
of passengers. The sound of the conch and the cry of "Over! 
Over ! " was the signal to go on board. The boats for both ferries 
landed at the Market Slip at Halifax. An act of the Legislature 
had been obtained this session to incorporate a Steamboat Company | 
with an exclusive privilege of the ferry between Halifax and I 
Partmouth for 25 years. They could not succeed in getting up a 

108 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

company, steam navigation being then in its infancy, and in the 
following year had the act amended to permit them to run a boat by 
horses to be called the Teamboat. This boat consisted of two 
boats or hulls united by a platform with a paddle between the boats. 
The deck was surmounted by a round house which contained a large 
cogwheel, arranged horizontally inside the round house, to which 
were attached 8 or 9 horses harnessed to iron stanchions coming 
down from the wheel. As the horses moved round, the wheel 
turned a crank which moved the paddle. It required about twenty 
minutes for this boat to reach Dartmouth from Halifax. It was 
considered an immense improvement on the old ferry boat arrange- 
ment, and the additional accommodation for cattle, carriages and 
horses was a great boon to the country people as well as to the 
citizens of Halifax, who heretofore had been compelled to employ 
Skerry's scow when it was found necessary to carry cattle or 
carriages from one side of the harbor to the other. The first trip of 
the Teamboat was made on the 8th November, 1816. The 
following year an outrage was committed which caused much excite- 
ment and feeling in the town. All the eight horses in the boat were 
stabbed by a young man named Hurst. No motive for this cruel 
act could be assigned, drunkenness alone appearing to be the cause. 
The culprit was tried for the offence and suffered a lengthy 
imprisonment. Mr. Skerry kept up a contest with the Company 
for several years, until all differences were arranged by his becoming 
united with the Company, and after a short time old age and a small 
fortune, accumulated by honest industry, removed him from the 
scene of his labors. The teamboat after a year or two received an 
addition to her speed by the erection of a mast in the centre of the 
round house, on which was hoisted a square sail when the wind was 
fair, and afterwards a topsail above, which gave her a most 
picturesque appearance on the water. This addition considerably 
facilitated her motion and relieved the horses from their hard labor. 
As traffic increased several small paddle boats were added by the 
Company, which received the appellation of Grinders. They had 
paddles at the sides like a steamboat, which were moved by a crank 
turned by two men. In 1818 the proprietors of the old ferries 
petitioned the House of Assembly against the Teamboat Company 
suing these small boats as contrary to the privilege given them by 

History of Halifax City. 160 

the Act of Incorporation. It afterwards became a subject of 
litigation until the question was put an end to by Mr. Skerry 
becoming connected with the Company. Jos. Fiudlay continued to 
run his old boats from the south or lower ferry until about the 
year 1835. 

On the 3rd August, the Man-of-\V r ar Brig Vesta arrived from 
England with the news of the Battle of Waterloo. The town was 
illuminated in honor of the victory, and the inhabitants kept up their 
rejoicings till a late hour in the evening. Preparations were made 
for a public dinner on the occasion, which look place at Mason Hall 
on the 15th. The Attorney General, R. J. Uniacke, took the chair 
and James Forman was Vice-President . The committee of manage- 
ment were Doctor William B. Almou, John Pyke, eldest sou of old 
John Geo. Pyke, the custos. David Shaw Clarke, G. Lewis and 
John Howe, junior, John Albro, Thomas Heaviside, Edward 
Alport, Joseph Allison and William Bowie were the Stewards. 
Subscriptions had been opened throughout Great Britain and the 
Colonies for the . families of those soldiers who were killed and 
wounded in the action. The Town of Halifax including the 
garrison and public officers contributed the large sum of 3,800. 

This year an Act of the Legislature passed for regulating the 
appointment of Trustees and Master for the Grammar School of 
Halifax. The first Act establishing this school bears date 1780. 

The refugee Negroes brought to Halifax by Admiral Cockburu had 
been in a great measure a burden upon the community. A 
proposition was made this year by the British Government to 
remove them to a warmer climate, but no steps appear to have been 
taken to effect the object. Had this suggestion been carried out at 
the time much suffering would have been spared to these poor 
people, and the inhabitants of Halifax relieved from a burden. 

On 26th February a resolution passed the House of Assembly 
directing the commissioners of the poor to cause an account to be 
taken of the number of black persons in the Town and the environs, 
who were brought to this country from the United States of 
America. The following return, dated March 6th, was signed by 
Richard Tremaine, Chairman of the Committee : 

170 Nooa Scotia Historical Society. 

Men. Women. Children. Total. 

In the Town of Halifax 179 56 101 336 

Windsor Road 11 14 26 51 

Dartmouth and Preston ... . . ... 270 

Mr. Fairbanks' Estate 

at Lake Porter ... . . ... 27 


The men and women with families were generally in need ; none 
appear to have been located at Hammonds Plains at this time. 

James Archibald was tried for the murder of Captain Benjamin 
Ellenwood of Liverpool, N. S., before Chief Justice Blowers, in 
Easter term of the Supreme Court at Halifax this year. He was 
convicted and executed soon after on the Common. 

Another attempt to incorporate Halifax was now made. It 
will be seen that in 1785 the merchants of the town suggested the 
subject for the consideration of the Governor and Council, but they 
disapproved of the measure; again in 1790, the Speaker of the 
House of Assembly, in consequence of complaints regarding the 
settlement of the poor and the necessity of a police force, etc., drew 
up the following resolution, which was passed : " Resolved, that it 
" be recommended to this House to present a humble address to His 
" Excellency the Lieutenant Governor, to request that he will be 
"pleased to grant a charter to the Town of Halifax for iucorpor- 
" ating the same, and enabling the inhabitants thereof to make such 
" by-laws as shall be sufficient to regulate the police of said town." 
No step, however, was taken by the Governor and Council relative 
to this resolution. 

The merchants of the town had a meeting on the subject in 1816, 
which resulted in a definite proposition being made, in which all the 
details of the proposed charter were fully set out in a pamphlet of 
some length. 

The following preface or introduction to this pamphlet affords a 
sketch of the plan proposed : 


The following plan for regulating the municipal affairs of this town has 
been drawn up in the form of a charter, as the clearest and best method to 
express the extent of the proposed improvements. The objects have been 
pointed out by a thorough investigation into the various modes of con- 

-y of Halifax City. 171 

ducting the public business ; which was entered into in consequence of a 
presentment made by the Grand Jury to the Court of Quarter Sessions in 
the December Term of 1812. The Court having appointed six different 
investigating committees of the Magistrates to meet the various objects 
contemplated by the grand Jury, their several reports combined clearly 
prove the necessity of some reform ; but as it would now become an 
invidious as well as a useless task, to point out the prevailing errors of the 
present practice, which are but too evident to admit of a doubt, the gentle- 
men who have undertaken the task of sketching out the means of improve- 
ment, have left it to the Public to compare the one with the other. 

It will be perceived by a perusal of the following sheets, that the Charter 
has but two leading objects to establish regularity in business, and to 
define and extend the powers of the Magistrates and Grand Jury (acting as 
a Common Council) to the same limits as (and not a step beyond) the 
powers granted to all corporations within the King's Dominions. 

The only novelty introduced is that of preserving a gradual change of 
the ruling members of the corporation, without incurring the unpleasant 
duty of the electing system. This is done by the appointment of ten 
magistrates to act as trustees, two of whom will go out and two others 
come in annually, and the appointment of the Grand Jury of the existing 
year, (or if it is preferred that of the last year, or a draft from the whole 
list until it is gone through), to act as a Common Council. 

By these means the whole of the leading members of the community 
(likely to take an active part in the affairs of the town) will, in .turn, 
partake of the duties of a respectable office, and become intimate, and 
thereby feel interested in its affairs. The various articles of consumption 
and of commerce will be better inspected than they are at present ; the 
revenues will be regularly attended to, and every desirable improvement 
in possession of other similar communities in His Majesty's Dominions 
will in time, no doubt be adopted. 

The provisions of the Charter have been selected and drawn up with the 
utmost care to avoid objections by an attentive reference to the London, 
Philadelphia, New York and New Brunswick Charters, and the East Com- 
pany's by-laws ; and the whole is arranged and worded agreeably to the 
most approved forms, in order to obviate any difficulties on the part of 
Government, or from local partialities. 

In debating the merits of the following pages, these three queries will 
naturally occur to and guide every reflecting mind : 

1st. Whether the present management requires any improvement? 
2nd. If so is this an effectual plan ? 
3rd. If not what is better ? 

N. B. When the terms <>f the Charter are agreed on and assented to by 
His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor, it is proposed to apply to His 
Excellency to grant it for a term of three or five years by way of trial ; 
during which period sucli amendments may be made to it as experience 
shall point out to be necessary ; after which, if it proves acceptable to the 
inhabitants, application may be made to renew it foi another term of a few 
years, for the purpose of improving it still further, as its deficiencies may 
appear; then the Charter may be made perpetual if the inhabitants 
approve of it. It will be necessary to have an Act of the General 
Assembly to confirm the Charter when first granted, and on every renewal 
of it. 

172 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

Mr. Sabatier and a few others were principally concerned in 
endeavoring to forward the object, but the Governor and Council 
appear to have been still influenced by the belief that their own 
supervision of local affairs was preferable and better suited to the 
circumstances of the town at that time. 

It will be seen that in the plan proposed the idea of a popular 
election of members of the corporation was not even thought of 
either by the Government or the people of the town. 

History of Hal (fax City. 173 


1816. Soon after the peace the prosperity of Halifax began to 
wane. The price of provisions and all the necessaries of life, the 
value of real estate and the high rents of houses in the town all 
became more or less affected by the scarcity of money arising from 
the withdrawal of the troops and navy and the sudden alterations in 
trade. The reaction was not fully realized until about two years 
after peace was proclaimed, when the rapid fall off in the value of 
real estate and the sudden check given to commercial pursuits was 
found to have reduced many speculators to poverty. 

Sir John Cope Sherbrooke having been appointed Governor 
General of Canada, the principal inhabitants of the town gave him 
a farewell dinner on 2;">th June. It was presided over by Chief 
Justice Blowers and the vice chair was occupied by Michael Wallace, 
the treasurer of the province. An address, largely signed by the 
inhabitants, was presented to the. Governor on his departure. Sir 
John had rendered himself very popular in Halifax by his affable 
manners and his prompt and decisive way of treating all matters 
brought to his notice by the citizens. He embarked at the King's 
wharf on Thursday, 27th June, under a salute from the batteries 
and the cheers of the inhabitants. 

The rough condition of the streets of the town at this period 
rendered immediate extensive improvements necessary. Those 
in the least fr~ iiiented parts of the town had been so much 
neglected that in many places they were impassable from the 
accumulation of rubbish and the broken condition of the wooden 
platforms or bridges at the gutters and crossings. In many places 
the streets were overgrown with grass except in the centre. 
Brunswick Street, though one of the principal highways of the 
town, was overgrown at each side with grass. Many of the old 
Dutch houses then still remaining in this street stood on banks a 
few feet above the sidewalk and where there were no buildings rough 

174 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

stone walls or fences marked the line of the street. Water Street, 
from the continual traffic and wear during the period of the war, 
had been worn into holes and was in wet weather almost impassable 
from the accumulation of mud, particularly between the Ordnance 
Yard and the foot of Prince Street. The market square at this 
time, as also that portion of Water Street between Collins' Wharf 
and the King's Wharf, was much lower than at present. It was 
found necessary to pave this portion of Water Street, which was 
accordingly accomplished during the years 1816 and 1817. The 
pavement, which was with round stones, extended from the 
Ordnance to Black and Forsyth's Wharf, (later Mitchell's) at 
the foot of Prince Street. The Provincial Legislature contributed 
the sum of 1,200 towards the work, and the expense of flagging the 
sidewalks was charged to the owners of property fronting on 
the street. About the year 183o this pavement had so sunk down 
as to be no protection from the accumulation of mud. The lower 
part of the market square bordering on Water Street and the way 
leading to the market slip or public landing were raised about five 
feet. Between 1820 and 1824 new Street Commissioners were 
appointed. The Macadamizing system began to be introduced and 
extensive improvements in the way of levelling the streets and 
filling up hollow places were proceeded with. 

The Acadian School, conducted by Walter Bromley, had now 
been under way for about three years. It was inspected on 31st 
July. There were 400 children in attendance. On this occasion 
Mr. Bromley stated that since the opening of the school in 1813, 
eight hundred and ninety-three children had received instruction 
there, and about one hundred apprentices and colored children in 
the Sunday schools. The latter were under the special superintend- 
ence of Mr. Bromley himself, who devoted all his leisure to the 
instruction of the black children and others who could not attend 
school throughout the week. The small sum of 200 was voted 
annually by the Legislature in aid of this school. Subsequently a 
grant of money was made by the Assembly to the National School, 
which was about this time set on foot on the Madras system, under 
the auspices of the Bishop and members of the Church of England 
in Halifax, who had lately erected the large three-story building in 
Argyle Street, opposite the parade, for the purpose. In 1818 this 

History of Halifax City. 175 

school had 117 children in attendance. The daily attendance at 
these two schools exceeded 500, which was a large number consider- 
ing the extent of the population at this period. 

The appointment of Dr. Robert Stanser, Rector of St. Paul's, to 
the Bishopric of Nova Scotia, vacant by the death of Bishop 
Charles Inglis, took place in 1817. Interest had been made with 
Lord Bathurst, the Colonial Secretary, and the Archbishop of 
Canterbury to have Dr. John Inglis, son of the late Bishop, 
appointed to the See. The appointment was said to have been 
arranged in favor of Dr. Inglis, but a recommendation from both 
branches of the Legislature then in session in favor of Dr. Stanser, 
their Chaplain, prevailed, and Dr. Inglis was appointed Rector of 
St. Paul's, vacant by the elevation of Stanser to to the Bishopric. 
Dr. John Inglis proved a highly popular Rector ; his bland manners 
and kind disposition rendered him a favorite with all classes and 
denominations, and when he afterwards, in 1825, obtained the 
Bishopric he carried with him to England addresses in his favor not 
only from his own parishioners, but largely signed by his friends 
among other denominations. 

The remains of the old Bishop were brought to town from 
Aylesford, where he died, and buried under St. Paul's Church on 
the 29th February. The funeral was attended by the Governor, Sir 
J. C. Sherbroke, Sir John "NVentworth, the retired Governor, His 
Majesty's Council and a lai-ge assemblage of the citizens. A 
monument to his memory is on the west side of the chancel of 
the church. 

On the morning of the 18th April great excitement prevailed 
throughout the town in consequence of a murder which had been 
committed in one of the streets during the pi-evious night. Capt. 
Westmacott of the Royal Engineers who, as officer of the night, 
was going his rounds on horseback to visit the guards, met 
two men in Sackville Street whom he challenged in consequence of 
their suspicious appearance. They immediately attacked him and 
by a sudden effort threw him from his horse, having first wounded 
him fatally with a bayonet. He lingered until the 4th day of May, 
when he died. The murderers were soon after discovered and 
proved to be two soldiers, deserters from one of the regiments in 
garrison. They had been stealing fish through the night from a. 

17G Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

store on one of the wharves. They were identified by the Captain 
and, being tried and convicted of the murder, were executed on the 

The Nova Scotia Fensible Regiment, after the close of the war, 
remained in Canada for some time. Early in June of this year they 
embarked at Quebec for Halifax. The transport in approaching 
Halifax ran upon a reef of rocks known as Jeddore ledges, which 
lies off the harbour of that name eastward from Halifax. The 
weather was calm and the troops were landed in safety, with the 
exception of four private soldiers, two women and several children, 
but with the loss of considerable part of the baggage. It was found 
on landing the men that the tide was rising, and that in all 
probability the greater part of the ledge would be covered at high 
water. It was proposed that the women and children should be 
first landed and placed on the higher part of the rock. But on the 
soldiers perceiving that Colonel Darling, who commanded the 
Regiment, and several of the officers were intending to avail 
themselves of the higher parts of the ledge, immediately declared 
that all officers should be compelled to remain with their respective 
companies and share the fate of their men. One officer, a captain', is 
said to have shown symptoms of impatience or something worse on 
the occasion, and abandoned his wife and family and his men, 
seeking shelter for himself on the rocks amidst the reproaches and 
jeers of his comrades. The Regiment was, however, successfully 
landed on the ledges, chiefly through the heroic exertions of the 
Adjutant-Lieutenant Stewart, who volunteered to carry a cable from 
the bowsprit of the ship to the rock, when having there made it fast 
the sailors were enabled to construct means for landing the men in 
safety. Part of the Regiment was brought to Halifax in coasting- 
vessels about the first July, and others found their way by land, 
having been brought on shore from the rocks by the fishermen of 
the neighbourhood. Col. Darling and some others being displeased 
at all the credit of the exploit being attached to Lt. Stewart, who 
was probably not a favorite of the Colonel, brought him to a Court- 
Martial for some trifling offence supposed to have been a breach of 
orders, and it is said he was compelled to leave the Regiment. 

Two very extensive fires occurred at Halifax this year. One on 
the 8th October, remembered as the " Hal,iburton " fire in conse- 

Wstury of Halifax City. 177 

queuce of the brick building at the corner of Hollis and Sackville 
Streets owned by Mr. George Haliburton, having been the first 
house consumed. The fire destroyed nearly the whole block from 
Haliburton's corner to where Mrs. Howard's new stone building 
stands, on the east or lower side of Hollis street. All the 
buildings on Sackville Street down to the corner known as 
Reynolds' corner, and the whole of the buildings on the upper or 
Western side of Bedford Row were consumed. The fire commenced 
at ten o'clock in the evening and continued to rage until six o'clock 
next morning. It was considered the most disastrous fire that had 
ever occurred in Halifax. The old buildings were all of wood 
except Haliburton's corner house. The block was soon rebuilt 
with a better description of buildings. Mr. W. K. Reynolds 
erected a fine stone store at the corner of Sackville Street and 
Bedford Row, which still remains ; this was far the finest store in 
Halifax at the time. A range of brick buildings along Bedford 
Row were at the same time erected by the late Nicholas Vass. 
Haliburton's corner was also rebuilt of brick, and the buildings on 
Hollis street, the property of Mr. LeNoir and others, were built 
about the same time by the late Judge "William Hill and his brother 
T. T. Hill, then both at the Halifax Bar. Several old wooden 
houses were pulled down during the fire by order of the firewards to 
prevent the spread of the fire. The town was assessed to pay the 
damage. The other fire was on Water Street at Creighton and 
Grassie's wharf. It occurred in the night of 17th December, 
during very cold weather. All the stores at and near the head of 
the wharf were consumed, and the fire extended to buildings on the 
opposite side of the street. Mr. Grassie rebuilt with brick and 
stone, and afterwards lined the shutters of his new store with sheet 

The Earl of Dalhousie, a Scotch nobleman, who had distinguished 
himself in the Spanish campaign as a general of Division under 
Lord Wellington, had been appointed to succeed Sir J. Cope 
Sherbrooke in the Government. He arrived in Halifax on 24th 
October, 1816, in the Frigate Forthe. Lord and Lady Dalhousie, 
immediately after their arrival, lauded in state and proceeded to the 
Council Chamber under a salute from the Citadel attended by the 
heads of Departments, civil and military, when the Earl was sworn 

178 Nooa ticutia Historical Society. 

into ollice in presence of His Majesty's Council. The troops lined 
the way from the King's wharf to Cochrau's building where the 
Council Chamber was then situated. 

There had been no theatrical performances worthy of mention in 
the town since the Duke of Kent's old theatre in Argyle Street had 
been appropriated to the school under Mr. Bromley. In the autumn 
of this year a company of players, Messrs. Price, Chamock, 
Placide, etc., fitted up an old store on Fairbank's wharf as a theatre. 
Placide, Price and Mrs. Young were considered good performers 
and attracted large audiences. At the close of their career the 
manager got into jail for debt, when Placide, the best comic aetor 
of the company, distinguished himself by escaping from prison and 
passing the sentry at the jail gate in the night, who supposed it 
was a Newfoundland dog, Mr. Placide being famous for imitating 
the bark and whine of the canine species. 

1817. The winter of 1816-17 was much more severe than that 
of the preceding year. The south-east passage was closed with ice 
all winter, and the ice remained until late in April. Great distress 
prevailed in the town as usual among the laboring classes during 
this winter, which was also the case throughout the whole Province. 
The sum of 600 was contributed this winter by the inhabitants of 
Halifax for the support of destitute emigrants who had been 
brought up from Newfoundland. 

An attempt was made by the Legislature in their session of 1817 
to relieve the pressing necessities of the county by an Act authoriz- 
ing the Governor and Council to procure copper coin to the value of 
2,000 to be issued from the provincial treasury. The Act was 
disallowed by the Colonial Secretary in England. No good reason 
appears to have been assigned for its rejection. The circulating 
medium at this time in the town and throughout the country was 
Spanish doubloons, old Spanish dollars, pistareens and other 
small Spanish coins, with a mixed collection of copper coinage, 
English and Spanish, with all kinds of half-penny tokens issued by 
private individuals in the town. No British coinage ever reached 
Halifax except the old English Guinea. The troops were paid in 
old Spanish money, which was brought from South America and the 
West Indies by the merchants in exchange for their cargoes of fish 
with occasional importations of Spanish silver by the British 

of Halifax City. l7'J 

Government for the troops, etc. An issue of paper money was at 
this time made under an Act of the province. 

It was in the year 1817 that the project was first broached for 
the establishment and erection of a college on the Grand Parade. 

The sum of 'J,750 was then remaining in the hands of the 
Governor from the revenues collected at Castine while the State of 
Maine was in the hands of the British troops. This sum Lord 
Dalhousie obtained the permission of the Colonial Secretary to 
appropriate towards the erection of a college in Halifax on the 
model of the Scotch Universities. The professors were to receive 
moderate salaries. The students were not to reside in the college 
building, but only to attend courses of lectures which were to be 
open to all students and all else who might feel disposed to purchase 
tickets for the courses. 

This winter the theatre on Fairbanks' wharf was again in 
operation and as attractive as ever. Miss Powell was at this time 
giving lessons in dancing. She gave her spring ball at Mason Hall 
on 21st May. This lady, who was patronized by the fashionable 
part of the community, was the daughter of Mr. Powell who 
conducted the theatre in Argyle Street when under the patronage of 
the Duke of Kent. She lived many years in Halifax and died 
at an advanced age, having been dependent on the charity of her 
friends for several years before her death. 

The naval force on the station had now been reduced to a few ships 
under the command of Rear Admiral Sir David Milne, father of 
Vice-Admiral Sir Alexander Milne, who some time since commanded 
on the North American Station. Sir David's flagship was the 
Leopard, Frigate. 

It may here be noticed that the British and Foreign Bible Society 
had lately organized a branch in Halifax. The second annual 
meeting of the branch society took place on the 5th May. It was 
attended by the Earl of Dalhousie, who occupied the chair, and u 
number of officials. The chief speakers on the occasion were Judge 
James Stewart, the Rev. Dr. Archibald Gray, of St. Matthew's, and 
Judge Wilkius. Martin Gay Black was treasurer and Walter 
Bromley, secretary. Mr. Black continued to act as treasurer of 
this society to the year of his death. The Speaker of the House of 

180 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

Assembly and a number of the members of the House were also 
present on this occasion. 

The great destitution of the laboring part of the population 
during the winter, as usual, rendered it necessary on behalf of the 
Commissioners of the Poor for the town to call on the inhabitants 
for contributions in addition to the annual poor rate assessed. The 
poor house at Halifax was then, as has been the case frequently 
since, the receptacle for transient paupers from the country, and the 
sum of 300 was voted this year by the House of Assembly towards 
the expenses of the establishment. 

The charitable societies of St. Patrick and St. Andrew dined 
together on the respective anniversaries of their patron saints. 
Richard J. Uniacke, the Attorney General, occupied the chair at 
the St. Patrick's dinner, and Dr. Samuel Head the Vice. The 
Governor, Mr. Philip "Woodhouhe, the Commissioner of the Dock- 
yard, the Bishop of Nova Scotia, the Commanding Officers of the 
Garrison and other distinguished guests were present at both 

A fire occurred in the southern part of Grauville Street this winter, 
which destroyed the chocolate manufactory of Mr. John Ferguson 
and his dwelling house. The fire companies of Halifax at this time 
were, perhaps, the most useful institutions in the community. 
These companies consisted of several hundred gentlemen each, who 
formed themselves into a company for the purpose of rendering 
assistance at fires. Each member provided himself with a leather 
cap, two or three buckets, canvas bags, etc., on which were 
painted the name of the owner and device of the company. The 
members were elected by ballot. They held quarterly meetings and 
occasionally dined together, and gave annual balls at Mason Hall. 
The Heart and Hand and the Hand in Hand Companies were the 
oldest, but the Sunfire Company was the most exclusive. The 
Phoenix Company was also very efficient, being composed chiefly of 
young tradesmen of the town. The Engine Company was a very 
ancient institution, and tolerably efficient, considering the kind of 
machinery they had to work with. The Axe Company, as now, 
was composed of carpenters and others suitable for such work at 
fires. It was customary for the soldiers in garrison to turn out at 
fires and form lines with the inhabitants for the conveyance of 

History of Halifax Cihj. 181 

water by buckets, handed through the lines from the harbor or the 
wells and tanks of the town. One feature which is now never seen 
at fires was the guard which was furnished by the military to take 
charge of the property removed to the streets from the burning 
houses. Scarcely a pile of furniture or goods could be observed 
without a sentry over it with fixed bayonet pacing up and down. 
The supply of water was principally drawn from the wells and 
pumps which were kept in order by the Magistrates of the town. 
These pumps have been before noticed. The inhabitants of the 
suburbs, however, depended for good water on their private wells. 
Almost every house in Brunswick and Lockmau Streets had a good 
well in the garden or near the house. The north suburb lots were 
of very large dimensions ; fruit gardens were numerous ; the plum, 
the Dutch cherry and red and black currants were raised in 
abundance. The caterpillar and other vermin which now infest 
the fruit gardens had then not been imported. 

Among the names of merchants who were carrying on business 
this year in Halifax we notice those of John Pryor, father of 
the late City Judge, Henry Pryor, William Strachan, White, 
Creightou & Co., Ironware Merchants, Wallace & Russell, Hard- 
ware and Wines, at the corner of Hollis and Prince Streets, now 
occupied by the Union Bank; Prescott & Calkin, Fruits, etc., in 
Granville Street ; James Leishman & Co., Woolen Ware, lately from 
Glasgow; Hartshorne, Boggs & Co., Hardware, etc., at the old 
stand, corner of Granville and George Streets, and S. & W. DeBlois 
at the opposite corner. The firm of Hartshorne & Boggs existed 
for many years. The head of the firm, the Hon. Lawrence Harts- 
horne, retiring from business, the name was altered to Boggs & 
Hartshorne; the late Thomas Boggs became head of the business 
and Lawrence Hartshorne, Jr., afterwards County Treasurer, was 
junior partner. The business continued until the old corner build- 
ing was taken down, about the year 184-, and replaced by the fine 
stone edifice erected by Mr. George E. Morton on the site. 

Scarff & Bain, afterwards James Bain* & Co., carried on an 
extensive importing business at the corner now occupied by W. & 
C. Silver. James Romans, Boots and Shoes, who succeeded Mr. 

Mr. Bain married a daughter of the late Benjamin Salter and grand daughter of 
ATalachi Salter, one of the first Members of Assembly for Halifax, the ancestor of Mr. 
Benjamin Baiter of this city. 

182 Nora Scotia Historical Society. 

McNab at the old corner of Granville and Prince Streets, lately 
owned by Mr. Robert Romans, who succeeded his father in the 
business ; John Witham and Thomas Donaldson, the former 
Groceries and Wines, the latter Confectionery, were fashionable 
resorts on the lower side of Granville Street. Mrs. Jane Donaldson 
carried on the business after the death of her husband and finally 
retired to her residence at Birch Cove on the Basin, which had been 
purchased from the late Andrew Belcher on his leaving the province 
for England. Sherwood, which was built by Bishop Stanser, was 
also the property of Mrs. Donaldson. The late William Donaldson 
afterwards sold it to Thomas Kenny, Esq. James Donaldson, the 
brother of Donaldson of Granville Street, was also a Confectioner 
and carried on business at the corner of George and Barrington 
Streets, now occupied by Cragg Bros., opposite the Parade, 
and was afterwards succeeded by the late Adaj -Essen. The 
pi'incipal auctioneers were Bowie & DeBlois, Moody & Boyle, Fillis 
& Perkins, and Charles Hill & Co. The latter carried on business 
in Bedford Row near the corner of Sackville Street. Among the 
dry goods stores were Israel Allison & Co., Carnot & Alport, 
where Mr. Duffus afterwards erected his stone building ; Thomas 
Cleary, M. G. Black, Winkworth Allen & Co., in Cochran's Build- 
ings near the market. Among the importing and West India 
merchants, Abram Cunard & Co., Lawrence Doyle, Collins & 
Allison, Collins' Wharf; James Forman, Sr., James and Michael 
Tobin, Tobin's Wharf; Thorn, Salter & Co., Ship Chandlery. 

A court for the summary trial of actions in the town was estab- 
lished this year. The Commissioners named by the Governor and 
Council were James Forman, Richard Tremain, William Minns, 
Charles Boggs and James Tobin. The Commission bears date in 
April of this year. 

In addition to the public schools before mentioned, Mr. Thomas 
Crosskill kept a good school for young men in rear of the Acadian 
School, entrance from Barrington Street ; his classes were more 
advanced than those of Mr. Bromley. Mr. Addison kept his 
classical academy in Marchington's Lane. There were several 
schools for young girls. Miss Wenman kept a school for small 
children in Granville Street ; she was one of those who were burned 
out in the great fire before mentioned. Mrs. Henry in Barrington 

History of Hoi (fax City. 183 

Street and Mrs. McCagc, for young ladies, also in Harrington 
Street, in the brick house lately the property of Mrs. Doctor 

On the 25th April, 1818, a public meeting was called to petition 
the British Government to make Halifax a free port so that 
foreigners might have access and take cargoes of the produce of the 
country or merchandise imported into it ; accordingly, on the 27th 
May, an order of the Prince Regent in Council was obtained 
making Halifax and St. John, New Brunswick, free ports. Halifax 
was declared by proclamation of the Governor bearing date 
August 13th. 

At the request of the inhabitants of the town an Act of the 
Legislature was obtained this year authorizing the leasing of 25 
acres of the Common for a period of 999 years at a small ground 
rent. The lots were each 60 feet in front by 330 feet deep. These 
lots were gradually disposed of and the broad street known as 
Spring Garden Road was laid out with the lots fronting on it. 
Very few of these lots were built on at first, and not until many 
years after was there any appearance of improvement in this part 
of the town. The only residence westward of the General's 
quarters was the house of old Colonel Pyke, the Police Magistrate, 
which stood in the field next his brewery. 

About this time the late John Staj T ner, of Water Street, 
commenced to erect the building known as Brookside, after- 
wards the residence of the late Hon. Joseph Allison. Many years 
afterwards John Spry Morris, the Surveyor General, erected the 
building, and planted the trees, lately occupied by D. Cronan. The 
fields on the west side of Queen Street, opposite the General's 
quarters, known as Pedley's Fields, or Smidtville, were not then 
built upon and the whole space from the present line of Queen 
Street to the Tower Road was occupied as pasture for cattle. 
Queen Street led up to Fort Massey military burial ground ; it was 
covered with grass and seldom used except for military funerals. 

Owing to the frequent alarms of fire and other disturbances in 
the town this winter, the Magistrates made application to the 
Legislature for an Act to establish a night watch, and accordingly, 
on the 5th May, a nightly watch was established by order of the 
Governor and Council for three months. 

184 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

During the spring of 1818 and the previous autumn, several 
vessels arrived in this port with emigrants from Europe, many of 
whom were found to be in a most destitute condition. They could 
not be permitted to remain a burden on the town and the Governor 
and Council advanced funds to assist their removal to the country, 
and Mr. Samuel Cunard and Mr. Michael Tobin were intrusted with 
the funds for the purpose. 

" On the 9th February there remained of these emigrants in 
" town only 20 families and 30 single men. Their distress and 
" that of the humbler classes in the town this winter induced 
" the Governor to place 100 more in the hands of Messrs. Tobin 
" and Cunard to be used by them to mitigate the suffering of the 
" poor in general. They, in consequence, established for a time 
" a public soup house, beginning with 50 gallons of soup a day; 
" but in three days they were obliged to double the quantity, 
" finding that 50 pounds beef and vegetables, producing 100 
" gallons a day, did not more than answer the demand. The 
" fitting up of the place and eight days' issue cost over 50, and 
" they supposed the money would be all gone in a fortnight more. 
" They attended constantly in person at the daily issues and say 
" that 500 daily partook of the gift. They estimated that 200 
" more would be required to keep up the establishment until the 
" pressure of want should be alleviated in some other way. The 
" first 50 was paid out of the Arms Fund, 100 from the Treasury, 
" and the House voted 200 on 10th February for temporary relief 
" of the poor at Halifax." [Murdoch.] 

Eight armed fishing vessels were seized this summer by the ships 
of war on the station, and brought into the Harbor of Halifax. 
Five were released and three condemned in the Court of Vice- 

A general election occurred this year, The poll for the County 
and Town of Halifax was opened at the County Court House on 
Monday, 15th June, and continued until Wednesday, when one of 
the candidates, Mr. Richard Kidston, having withdrawn, the other 
two, Mr. John Albro' and Mr. H. H. Cogswell were returned. 
Capt. Thomas Maynard, R. N., was Sheriff this year. He resided 
in the old house in Jacob Street formerly known as the Grenadier 

History of Halifax CV/.y. 185 

Fort, which stood on the spot where the Trinity Church has since 
been erected. 

Among the events of the year worthy of notice was the appear- 
ance of Anthony H. Holland, proprietor of the Acadian Recorder 
newspaper, (which had been established in 1813) at the Bar of the 
Assembly to answer charges of having published severe animad- 
versions on public affairs, particularly from some remarks relative 
to Edward Mortimer, one of the County members, for which Mr. 
Holland suffered a short imprisonment. This affair, with the 
letters of Agricola, which now began to appear in the same paper 
brought that paper into public notice. 

A Bill was introduced into the House of Assembly this session 
by Mr. Shaw, who resided near the Three Mile House, for lighting 
Water Street, but it does not appear that the object was effected. 

Paper money, issued from the Provincial Treasury, had been for 
some time in circulation and had to some extent taken the place of 
the Spanish Silver, which had been, heretofore, the only circulating 
medium in the town. 

During the month of February this year, the harbor was blocked 
up with float ice as far down as George's Island. Between 13th 
and 20th, persons crossed from Dartmouth on the ice at the Narrows. 

In the "good old days when George the Third was king," his 
birthday, the 4th June, was celebrated with great enthusiasm at 
Halifax. A levy at Government House, a review of the troops, and 
sometimes the militia on the common, and a royal salute from the 
Battery and shipping in harbor, terminating with a ball in the 

This year the officers of the 3rd Halifax militia regiment gave a 
dinner at the Exchange Coffee House in the large room lately occu- 
pied by the Corporation as a Council Chamber. The North British 
Society also dined together on St. Andrew's day at Masons' hall. 
Lord Dalhousie, and all the heads of departments, civil and military, 
and Bishop Burke attended. Judge Brentou Halliburton was 
President, and Geo. Mitchell Vice-president. 

Dr. Burke had been officiating priest at St. Peter's, the old Roman 
Catholic church which stood on the present St. Mary's grounds at 
the head of Salter Street. He was this year appointed Bishop for 
this province under the title of Bishop of Zkm. He was consecrated 

186 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

at Quebec ou the 5th July. Dr. Burke was a very popular clergy- 
man, was highly thought of in the town and was very remarkable 
for his hospitality, great benevolence, and Christian self-denial and 
care for the poor. Though on several occasions engaged in theo- 
logical controversies with Dr. McCulloch of Pictou and others, he 
never permitted those differences of opinion to interfere with that 
kindly and gentlemanly intercourse with his friends for which he 
was so remarkable. 

On the loth December this year the Agricultural Society of Nova 
Scotia was inaugurated at a public meeting held at Masons' Hall. 
The Earl of Dalhousie presided, the Hon. S. B. Robie, Judge 
Brenton Halliburton, Rev. Dr. Inglis, afterwards Bishop, and S. G. 
W. Archibald addressed the meeting. Resolutions were passed for 
the organization of the society, Lord Dalhousie appointed President, 
and John Young, the author of the letters of Agricola, was 
appointed Secretary with a good salary. Chief Justice Blowers 
was named as Vice-president, and a Committee of twenty named 
to manage the business. 

Mr. Placide's theatre at Fairbanks' wharf was again in full 
operation this winter ; Mrs. Young was the favorite actress, and 
young Mr. William Blake, a native of the town who joined the 
Company, acquired much popularity. Mr. Blake afterwards visited 
Halifax as manager of a company of play actors, about 1830 or '31. 

Mr. John Black* and James Fraser, two wealthy Halifax mer- 
chants, were this year appointed to His Majesty's Council. Mr. 
Black was senior member of the firm of Black, Forsythe & Co., 
afterwards known as Ficldis, May & Robinson. This business was 
carried on for many years on the wharf at the foot of Prince Street, 
lately the property of George Mitchell. Mr. Frasert carried ou 
business near Commercial wharf. His residence was on the upper 
side of Water Street nearly opposite his place of business. His 

*Mr. Black's daughter was the wife of the late Hon. Jas. B. Uniackc. Mr. B. built 
the handsome stone mansion near Government House in Hollis Street, afterwards the 
residence of Bishop Binney. The granite with which this house was built was 
brought from Aberdeenshire. Mr. William Black, his son, removed to Scotland. 

tThe Hon. James Fraser married a daughter of Mr. DcWolf of Windsor, his eldest 
son James U. Fraser. was for many years member of Assembly for Windsor, and his 
second son was Dr. Benjamin D. Fraser. of Windsor. His eldest daughter married 
Hon. Chas. Gore, afterwards Gen. Sir Chas. Gore, G. C. B., and her daughter married 
the Earl of Errol, a Scotch peer. Another daughter became the wife of the Right 
Rev. Dr. Suthcr, Bishop of Aoerdeen. 

History of Halifax City. 187 

garden extended into Argyle Street, and occupied the space on 
which the Salem Chapel stood. 

Men, 3114, males under 16 years of age, 2120, Total males 5234 
Females, total 5177 

Colored population, males 391, females 324 745 

Total population of the town 11156 

MEMO : Population in 1752, 4249. 
" " 1791, 4897. 

In the spring of 1819 the excavations at the north end of the 
Grand Parade were commenced for the erection of Dalhousie College. 
A grant under the great seal of the province, of a part of the parade 
ground had been made to Trustees as a site for the college in Aug- 
ust 1818. The Legislature at their sitting in February, voted 
2000 towards the erection of the building and a sum of 3000, 
part of the Castiue fund before mentioned, was also appropriated to 
the building, the balance together with an additional vote of 2000 
from the province being invested for the support of the college. 

The space known as the Grand Parade had been reserved for 
military and other necessary purposes on laying out the town in 
1749. It had never been military property or claimed by the 
military authorities, but was originally reserved as a place of muster 
for the militia of the town, though used also by the King's troops 
for mounting guard. An old building originally erected on the 
upper side of the space next Argyle Street for an Artillery barrack, 
was remaining there as late as 1777, and ranges of cannon appear 
in front of it in the old pictures of the town about that date. 
Prince Edward when General Commanding at Halifax had the 
parade ground walled up and a new rail or fence erected. The 
surface was levelled and the wall built at the north end bringing the 
surface high above Duke and Barriugton streets ; ice houses were 
built under this wall which were occupied by Mrs. Jane Donaldson, 
Confectioner of Giauville street. This wall was removed to make 
way for the foundation of the college building. It had always been 
asserted as a right on the part of the inhabitants of the town, that a 
free, unobstructed way for foot passengers should be kept open 

188 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

across the centre of the old parade from oue part of George street 
to the other, and wooden steps had been provided soon after the 
wall along the upper side had been erected and a gate and turn stile 
at the town side for the accommodation of the public.* There was 
a high wooden rail around the parade painted red. 

The Province Building being now finished, the Courts of Justice 
and the Public Offices were removed from Cochrau's building, and 
the Legislature, which met on the llth February, took possession 
of the chambers appropriated to the Council and Assembly with all 
due ceremony. 

The reduction of the Dockyard establishment this year was a great 
loss to the town. A large force of workmen were discharged, many 
of whom were thrown out of employ without any provision from 

The project for the removal of the Dockyard to Bermuda was 
found in many respects not to have realized the advantages contem- 
plated by the change. It was removed at the time that one of the 
Admirals on the Station had taken offence at some occurrences in 
the town and had used his influence to effect the change. 

A few years afterwards the Shears, a gigantic apparatus at the 
Dockyard, for throwing down vessels, was demolished. The Shears 

; The Grand Parade as it is called, like other spaces reserved in 1749 for 
public purpose, such as the old burial ground, public landing, the common, 
etc., had been used for the purpose to which it was originally appropriated but the 
title had been supposed not to have passed out of the Crown. Towards the close of 
the last century it was thought advisable to vest all the public property in Trustees 
under several grants from the Crown for that purpose; accordingly a grant was made 
of the parade ground to certain public officials and their successors in office, to be held 
by them for the public purposes for which it had been originally reserved. This grant 
with all the others had been constructed under the supervision of old Attorney General 
Uniacke and of Chief Justice Blowers, but it having been afterwards discovered that 
none of the public officials to whom it was granted possessed the corporate powers find 
therefore had no succession in law, and the original incumbents at the time of the grant 
being all dead, it was concluded that the title had lapsed to the Crown. Lord Dal- 
housie, Mr. Wallace and a few others, in their exuberant zeal for the erection of a 
college on the Scotch model, undertook to have another grant from the Crown 
passed of the whole or part of the parade ground to the Governors of the College, 
reserving, it is understood, certain privileges over a portion of the ground to the public. 

The Governors of Dalhousie College claimed under this grant. Tnc City contends 
that the old grant was not forfeited and that this space among other public property 
appertaining to the town was under the Act of Incorporation turned over to the city. 
That in order to create a legal forfeiture there must be process of Escheat gone through, 
and further, that though the public functionaries to whom it was granted were not 
possessed of corporate rights or had any succession of their offices in law, yet the fact 
of their havin been by Royal patent constituted trustees of the property, by inference 
of law the Crown intended to make them a corporation for that particular purpose, and 
that their successors in the various offices they held, or the successor of any one of 
them, would possess the power of supporting the grant. Otherwise the object of the 
Crown in making the grant would be defeated, and as Crown grants are always con- 
stituted in law most favorably for the Crown, it might be inferred that the Crown 
intended to support its grant by constituting those public -fficera and their successors 
in office a corporation with succession for that special purpose. Later the dispute 
was settled by private arrangement. 

History of Halifax City. 189 

was a very conspicuous object, and stood so high that it could be 
seen from most parts of the town. It is still in the recollection of 
many of our older citizens. The Royal Standard floated from the 
staff which surmounted the Shears on the King's and Queen's birth- 
days and other public holidays. The Dockyard of Halifax, as 
mentioned in a previous chapter, was first established in the year 
1758. The present wall was first erected in 1769 and bears the date 
of 1770 over the gate, but it has been improved and some portions 
rebuilt since that time. 

Anthony H. Holland, built a paper mill at the head of the Basin this 
year, on the stream near the opening of the Hammonds Plains Road. 
The paper made here was used for his newspaper, and the 
various pamphlets which issued from Holland's press and occasion- 
ally by other newspapers. It was of a very inferior quality. The 
brown paper, however, used for shop purposes, was of a tolerably 
good description. It was the first paper manufactory set on foot in 
Nova Scotia. It was kept up for many years after the death of 

On the night of the llth of November a fire broke out in 
the Naval Hospital adjoining the Dockyard, which destroyed several 
buildings. In consequence of the removal of the Naval Station the 
space remained unbuilt on for many years. 

The Magistrates of the town, in session in December, voted a 
portrait of Chief Justice Blowers. It was painted by a Mr. Drake 
in full dress, wig, and scarlet gown. This picture occupies a place 
in the Legislative Chamber, with that of Chief Justice Sir Thomas 
Strange, by Benjamin West, late President of the Royal Academy. 

Among the promotions which appeared in the Royal Gazette this 
year we find the appointment of Mr. Hibbert N. Binney* to His 
Majesty's Council. 

An event occurred in the month of July which cast a gloom over 
the whole community. Mr. Richard J. Uniacke, junior sou of the 
Attorney-General of that name, a member of the Bar, in his address 
to the jury at a trial before the Supreme Court, made some observa- 
tions offensive to Mr. William Bowie, of the firm of Bowie and 

-Mr. Binney was a native of the town. He was the father of the late Edward 
Binney and Grandfather of the late Bishop of Nova Scotia. His residence was at 
the corner of Hollis and Salter Streets, opposite that of the late Honorahle William 
Lawson. The old house was removed some years since 10 make way for a ranee of 
wooden three-story ImiUlinKs, erected by Henry G. Hill, along the east side of Hollis 
Street. Mr. Binney was many years Collector of Imports and Excise at Halifax. 

190 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

DeBlois ; a challenge from Mr. Bowie was the consequence, and on 
the morning of Wednesday, following the 21st July, the community 
was startled by the announcement that Mr. Bowie had been mortally 
wounded. The duel was fought in the grove at the Governor's 
north farm, near the Lady Hammond Road. Mr. Bowie was carried 
to the house at the corner, then or afterwards occupied by Mrs. 
McNeil as a tea house, where he died in a few hours, the bullet 
having entered his right side below the rib. Mr. Uniacke and the 
two seconds, Stephen "W. DeBlois and Edward McSweeny, were 
indicted for murder and tried the same term, and were acquitted by 
the jury of the capital offence. This was the first criminal trial of 
i mportance which took place in the Province Building. The Court 
Room at the time, now the Legislative Library, comprised the three 
rooms overhead, lately used by the keeper of the building. A large 
gallery then surrounded the Court Room on three sides. This 
gallery was removed in 1827 or 1828, the height of the Court Room 
reduced, and the upper space made into three room, which were 
appropriated to the Law Library, Admirality Records, etc. This 
unfortunate duel excited much feeling in the town, and some blame 
was attached to the seconds who promoted or advised the parties to 
fire a second time, when a reconciliation might have been effected. 
The combatants were both gentlemen highly esteemed for their 
amiable qualities. Bowie was a handsome young man and very 
popular for his social qualities. He was buried from his lodgings 
in town, and his funeral was said to have been more numerously 
attended than any within the recollection of the oldest inhabitants. 
Mr. Uniacke afterwards became a Judge of the Supreme Court. 
The recollection of the sad event is supposed to have shortened 
his life. He died at the early age of 45. Judge Uniacke was one 
of the handsomest men Halifax ever produced, and was more popular 
than any other of his family, several of whom were in public posi- 

1820. On 7th April, King George IV. was proclaimed at Halifax. 
The ceremony was performed by the Governor, Council, and such 
Members of the House of Assembly as remained in town, together 
with the Magistrates, the Grand Jury, and a number of private 
citizens, proceeding to the Council Chamber, where the proclamation 
was signed by the Governor, Councillors, and others. David Shaw 

History of Halifax City. 191 

Clarke, the Clerk of the Peace, acted as Herald, accompanied by 
the High Sheriff in a carriage, escorted by a body of troops. The 
proclamation was read by the Herald in the Market Square, at St. 
Paul's Church, and on the Military Parade in Brunswick Street in 
front of the officers' old barracks. A royal salute was fired and the 
procession then returned to the Province Building, where the pro- 
clamation was again read. The Royal Standard, which had ^)een 
flying on the citadel, was then lowered to half-mast and minute guns 
fired from George's Island, there being none mounted on the hill at 
the time on account of the decease of the late King George III. 
Sermons were preached in all the places of worship and the 
inhabitants of the town went into mourning. 

The House of Assembly^beiug dissolved by_ the death of the 
Sovereign, a public meeting of the freeholders of the Township was 
held at the Exchange* Coffee House on the 3rd May for the nomina- 
tion of the candidates to represent the town. Richard Tremaiue, 
Esq., was called to the chair. Mr. Stephen W. DeBlois nominated 
John Pryor and George Grassie. Mr. Cogswell, the former member, 
retired, as also Mr.] James Form an and Mr. John Young, both of 
whom had been suggested. John Albro', one of the former members, 
led the poll at the close of^the election, Pryor and Grassie stood 
even. Captain Maynard, the Sheriff, made a special return of the 
facts. It was said that the last vote polled was that of the Sheriff, 
who first declared the poll closed and then voted for Mr. Grassie, 
which placed the [candidates even. On the validity of his vote 
rested the question of the majority. The election lasted three days 
and closed on Saturday evening. At the close the poll stood, 
Albro, 453 ;^Grassie and Pryor, each 395. Freeholders or owners 
of real estate only had the privilege of voting at this period. The 
new House met on 12th November following, and Mr. Pryor having 
died in the interim the House ordered the return of Mr. Grassie. 

William^Lawson, Simon^B. Robie, Samuel G. W. Archibald, and 
George Smith were" returned for the County. Mr. Robie was 
elected Speaker of the new House. Mr. Smith resided in Pictou, 
the other three in Halifax. Pictou and Colchester then formed part 
of the County of Halifax. 

'The building afterwards used as the City Hall was then called the Exchange. 

192 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

The walls of the new College had now been built up even with the 
surface of the parade ground, and it was arranged that the corner 
stone should be laid with proper ceremony by Lord Dalhousie, the 
patron and originator of the scheme. Accordingly, on the 22nd 
May, 1820, the troops in the garrison were turned out and formed 
a double line from the Province Building to the Grand Parade. 
Th^s Freemasons, under the Grand Master, John George Pyke, 
proceeded from Mason Hall along Barrington Street and formed a 
square on the Parade. About 2 o'clock, Governor Dalhousie, the 
Admiral, the officers of the Governor's Staff, with the Members of 
His Majesty's Council, the Magistrates of the town, and a number 
of leading inhabitants, proceeded through the line of troops to the 
south-east corner of the building. Dr. J. T. Twining, the Grand 
Chaplain, offered a prayer, after which a brass plate containing the 
necessary inscriptions and a quantity of coins, were placed under the 
stone, after which the Earl addressed the meeting and explained 
the objects contemplated in erecting the college. The stone was 
then laid with all due Masonic ceremony. A royal salute was fired 
from the forts and the whole was concluded by a ball and supper at 
Government House. 

On the 24th May, the corner stone of St. Mary's Roman Catholic 
Church was laid with full religious ceremonies by Bishop Burke. 
The old church of St. Peter, usually known as " the chapel " was a 
small wooden building painted red. It stood opposite the head of 
Salter Street, inside a rail, and was approached by a gate and turn 
stile. This old building was the first Roman Catholic place of 
worship in Halifax. It was built some time between 1785 and 
1790. It was removed soon after the new building was ready for 
occupation . 

On the 29th November, Bishop Burke died in the 78th year of 
his age. He was laid out in state in his Episcopal robes and mitre 
for several days. Bishop Burke was succeeded by Dr. Eraser, Bishop 
of Tanen in partibus. He resided at Autigonish. Mr. Miuiot was 
parish priest at this time ; he was succeeded by Mr. O'Brien and 
afterwards by Mr. Lochnan, etc., until the appointment of Bishop 
Walsh. The St. Mary's Cathedral crept on slowly for many years 
for want of funds, but was finished according to the original plan 
about the time of the appointment of Bishop Walsh, 

History of Halifax City. 193 

The Earl of Dalhousie having been appointed Governor General 
of Canada on the death of the Duke of Richmond, a farewell ball 
was given to him and his Countess by the officers of the garrison 
on 28th May, and on 31st the inhabitants presented him with an 
address. On the first of June, his successor in the Government, 
Sir James Kempt, arrived at Halifax in the Phibtou, frigate, Capt. 
Montague, 42 days from England. He lauded at the King's 
Wharf, and was driven to Government House. At 3 o'clock the 
same day he went to the Council Chamber, where he was sworn into 

On the 5th, Lord Dalhousie embarked for Canada. The flank 
companies of the First Halifax Regiment of Militia, under the 
command of Capts. John Liddell and John Pyke, attended on the 
wharf as a guard of honor. Sir James Kempt brought with him as 
A. D. C., Major Charles Gore, afterwards General Sir C. Gore, 
G. C. B., Lord Frederick Lenox, a younger son of the Duke of 
Richmond, wiio lately died in Canada, and Major Couper, after- 
wards Sir George Couper, Comptroller of the Household of the 
Duchess of Kent, the Queen's mother. Sir James Kempt was one 
of Lord "Wellington's Officers in the peninsular war. He com- 
manded a brigade at the Battle of Waterloo, and after the death of 
Sir Thomas Picton, the General of Division, who was killed early 
in the action, the command of the division fell to him. 

The only other occurences worthy of notice during this year were 
the dinner given to Governor Dalhousie by the inhabitants of the 
town, which took place at Masons' Hall on 17th June, the Hon. 
Michael Wallace in the chair, and John George Pyke, Vice. Sir 
John Weutworth, Baronet, the former Governor, died this year at 
his residence, Mrs. Flieger's, Hollis Street. His death took place 
on 8th April. He was in his 84th year. He was succeeded in his 
Baronetcy by his son, Charles Mary Wentworth, a native of 
Halifax, who had retired to England, where he held some subordi- 
nate office under Government. At his death, unmarried, the title 
became extinct. By his will, he gave the old villa and grounds on 
the Basin, built by the Duke of Kent, to Mrs. Gore, the novelist, 
who was a distant relative of his family. 

A Fair and Cattle show was held by the Agricultural Society on 
6th September on Camp Hill. The Governor distributed the prizes, 

194 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

John Young,* John Albro', William Young, John Starr, Peter 
McNab and Frederick Major, Esquires, were Judges of the cattle. 

1820-21. This winter was, if anything, more severe than the 
three preceding. Early in January the harbor became frozen over, 
and by the 20th the ice extended to Meagher's Beach and was 
sufficiently strong to bear sleighs. By the 27th the ice formed a 
firm bridge between Halifax and Dartmouth, over which a contin- 
uous line of sleighs, teams and foot passengers might be seen 
on market days. Skating and sleighing parties were numerous. 
The Governor, Sir James Kempt, drove tandem almost to McNab's 
Island, and the double sleigh of Judge Brenton Halliburton, in 
passing over a weak spot in the ice, fell through but was rescued 
without damage to the horses or the ladies in the sleigh. The 
navigation was completely stopped for several weeks. A passage 
was, however, cut from Cunard's wharf to the mouth of the harbor 
with much labor and expense, to permit the Government Brig 
Chebucto to proceed on her cruise. This little brig was owned by 
A. Cunard & Sons, and was employed by the Imperial Government 
in cruising along the shores of the province to protect the fishery, 
and at the same time to enable the officers of Government to visit 
the outposts, and was occasionally employed on special service to 
proceed to Quebec and other places with despatches, etc. The 
channel through the ice by which this vessel was taken out, and 
which ran along close to the wharves, was afterwards kept open 
while the ice remained, and a boat and two rafts were used to 
convey over passengers and sleighs. 

On the 17th September, a fire occurred in the town, which 
destroyed nearly all the buildings on the eastern side of Barriugton 
Street, between Sackville Street and Blowers Street and extended 
back into Granville Street, where several houses were consumed. 
Most of the buildings destroyed were old and delapidaated except 
those at the corner of Granville and Sackville Streets occupied by 
Mr. LiswelPs Bakery, etc. There were in all about 24 houses 
consumed. A large portion of the burned district remained for 
many years after unbuilt upon. 

It was customary at this time for the dress companies of the 
militia to give balls. On 23rd January the Grenadier and Light 
Companies of the 1st Halifax Regiment gave a ball at Mason Hall 

<i of /f<ilifx City. 195 

at which 300 persons were present. The regiment was commanded 
by Hou. T. X. Jeffery, the Collector of the Customs, who had only 
lately succeeded old Col. J. G. Fyke in the command. John 
Liddell commanded the Grenadiers and Brevet Major John Pyke, 
the Light Company. Lieut. -Col. Richard Trcmain commanded the 
Town Artillery. 

The condition of the transient poor of the- town was very sad this 
winter. An organized system of relief known as the Poor Man's 
Friend Society, was instituted. The town was divided into wards, 
and three or four gentlemen volunteered in each ward to visit the 
poor throughout the winter months. A soup house was established, 
and other arrangements made to meet the objects intended. This 
society continued for about six or seven years. In 1824 Beamish 
Murdoch was its secretary. The following year "William Young 
(the late Chief Justice) was acting secretary. 

A large issue of paper money by the province took place in 1820. 
Silver change was almost driven out of circulation by the issue of 
small notes, many at one dollar, at 2s. 6d., and even at Is. 3d. 
These notes were issued by private individuals upon their own 
credit and responsibility. Those of William Lawson and Adam 
Esson were the most numerous. The doubloon was at this 
time established at 4 currency, and the Spanish dollar at five 
shillings. The price of flour had fallen to twenty-seven shillings 
and six pence per barrel. 

An anonymous pamphlet was published from the press of A. H. 
Holland, charging the magistrates of the town with malpractices, 
which caused much excitement. It was discovered to have been 
written by Mr. William Wilkie, of Halifax. He was indicted 
for libel, tried at the Easter term of the Supreme Court, found 
guilty and sentenced to two years imprisonment with hard labor in 
the House of Correction. This was esteemed a mosi tyrannical and 
cruel proceeding on the part of the government. The pamphlet 
was a very paltry offence, such as at the present day would be 
passed over with contempt. Wilkie, though not a person of much 
esteem, yet being a member of a respectable family in the com- 
munity, should have been spared the indignities thrown upon him 
by Chief Justice Blowers and the other .Judges of the Supreme 

196 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

Court. After the sentence was known, the sympathy in his favor 
was very general throughout the town. 

The reaction after the peace had reduced the price of agricultural 
produce, not only in Halifax but throughout the province. The 
West India trade, then the chief branch of commerce, had begun 
again to be prosperous, and the merchants were looking forward to 
profitable voyages. But the value of real estate had so fallen that 
sales were made in the body of the town for much less than half the 
cost of the buildings. This state of things continued for several 
years, and very few new buildings were erected between 1819 and 
1823. The population was about 15,000, but the number of houses 
did not exceed 1,600. 

The market square at this period presented a very different 
appearance from what it does at present. A low wooden building 
stood on the site of the present brick market house. The roof was 
originally flat and afterwards a pitched roof was added. The 
butchers' stalls in this old building were very convenient, perhaps 
more so than those in the new market house. The cellars of this 
building fronting on Water Street were let for the benefit of the 
town, and the south end was, some time after this, occupied by 
Mr. Alexander McLeod as a liquor store and grocery for many 
years. The ground in front of the market wharf and market 
slip was much lower than at present, and also that part of Water 
Street between the old City Court House and Stayner's Wharf, 
all which was filled up about 1830 or, perhaps, a year or two later. 
A range of shops under the Court House before this alteration in 
the streets afforded a large revenue to the town, but their value as 
places of business was destroyed when the street was raised, and 
though partially occupied afterwards, they proved damp and unfit 
for storage of goods. The truckmen, who were then very num- 
erous, ranged their trucks and carts in lines in the square fronting 
the meat market (there being no other stand allowed) and in 
cold weather they might be seen, in the afternoons, when not 
engaged in trucking, amusing themselves with the game of football. 
Two liquor stores, one at the head of the market, on Beamish's 
Wharf, and the other at the opposite corner, now known as 
Laidlaw's corner, kept by Samuel and David Muirhead, were the 
chief places where spirits and beer were retailed to the truckmen 

History of Halifax City. 197 

and fishermen. In front of these shops were ranges of apple and 
cake stalls kept by old women, where also gull eggs and lobsters 
boiled hard could be had by the fishermen and shallop men from the 
wharves. The red woollen night cap was generally worn in those 
days by the market fishermen and the people from the coasting 

The sidewalks throughout the town with the exception of part of 
Water Street, were all of wood. The old platform on George 
Street, between Granville and Hollis Streets, was known as Harts- 
horne's platform. Messrs. Hartshorne & Boggs occupied a range 
of wooden buildings at the corner of Granville Street, since replaced 
by the stone building erected by George E. Morton and now 
occupied by Knowles' Bookstore. On the lower corner, known as 
Martin Gay Black's corner, there stood an old gamble-roofed house 
on a high green bank occupied by Mrs. Hart as a dry goods store, 
and afterwards by T. & S. Greenwood, watchmakers. This old 
building was about this time replaced by another which afterwards 
made way for the handsome free stone building erected by the late 
Martin Gay Black.* This platform was the resort of merchants 
and others who congregated there in the mornings for a short walk 
and to talk over the news. A large ship gun did duty as a post at 
Hartshorne & Boggs' corner, and another at Black's, and formed a 
neucleus for loungers not smokers, for smoking was strictly pro- 
hibited in the streets of Halifax at this time by the Magistrates of 
the town. Opposite, near the Province Building rail, was the old 
town pump mentioned above, known as Black's pump, remarkable 
for its good water, where dozens of boys and girls might be seen 
towards evening getting water for tea. The old wooden range 
known as Cochran's building, which occupied the site of the present 
Dominion building, had been only lately evacuated by the Legisla- 
tive Assemblies and the Courts of Law, and was now being fitted 
up for shops. Among those who first occupied shops in this 
building were Winkworth Allen, who afterwards went to England, 
Mr. David Hare, who afterwards became the purchaser of the 
property ; W. A. Mackinlay, on the north side, and Clement H. 
Belcher, at the north-west corner, both well known stationers and 

" This fine stone building has been since pulled down and a new building. for the 
accommodation of the Merchants' Bank now occupies the corner. 

198 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

booksellers, occupied their respective shops a long time, the latter 
for more than twenty years. At the opposite corner, to the south, 
on Hollis Street, stood a large three story building erected by the 
late James Hamilton, who carried on an extensive dry goods 
business. It was afterwards sold to Burns & Murray, who erected 
the present handsome freestone edifice on the corner. Mr. William 
A. Black kept his watchmaker's establishment at the corner beloAV, 
now occupied by the P. Walsh Hardware Co. The old Halifax 
Journal office occupied a wooden building at the corner of 
George and Granville Streets, where the stone store of T. & E. 
Kenny now is. Mr. Benjamin Etter had his watchmaker's shop at 
the corner of George and Barrington Streets, now known as 
CrosskilFs corner, in the same old wooden building which has since 
undergone extensive alterations. Mrs. Donaldson carried on the 
/confectionery business at the corner opposite and was succeeded by 

V Adam Esson. There were two Donaldsons, both confectioners, 
whose wives carried on the business after the death of their husbands 
and accumulated large properties, usually known as upper and 
lower Donaldson's ; the latter was in Granville Street and was the 
most fashionable, being patronized by the military and navy officers 
during the war. The parade ground was surrounded by a high 
wooden rail painted red and had a gate and two turn stiles opposite 
George Street ; the latter for foot passengers who claimed the right 
to pass across the ground to the steps which led up into Argyle 
Street, and which still remain. John Howe kept the Post Office in 
the old building opposite the parade later occupied by Mr. Brander, 
Cabinet Maker. The late Matthew Richardson a year or two later 
erected the three story stone building next to Mrs. Donaldson on 
the site of the Hon. Andrew Belcher's garden, which occupied an 
open space south of Donaldson's or Essou's corner. Mr. Belcher 

V had, a few years before this, left Halifax to reside in England. 
His residence was in Granville Street, the same building formerly 
owned and occupied by the late Doctor Hoffman a short distance 
south of Kenny's buildings, and his garden extended in rear front- 
ing on Barrington Street. Xo part of the city has undergone 
greater changes since this time than Granville Street. From 
George Street northward all the old houses on both sides have been 
replaced by lofty buildings with some rare exceptions. Between 

History of Halifax City. 199 

Romans' corner and the Ordnance Square, the street at this time 
was elevated about 20 or 25 feet above the present level. It was 
cut down about the year 1830 or 31, (perhaps a little earlier) and 
the old shabby buildings on the upper side removed, and those on 
the lower side had an additional story added to them below in conse- 
quence of the street being lowered. The whole of this part of 
Granvillc Street has been since twice destroyed by fire and replaced 
by the present buildings, at a cost and in a style far beyond the 
requirements of the city. Proceeding southward along Hollis Street 
from the Province Building, both sides as far as Sackville Street 
were occupied by a range of small low buildings. At the corner 
now occupied by the Queen stone building, there stood an old 
gamble roofed house of one story with a little shop at the corner 
occupied by a worthy old man, James Smith, who held the office of 
Deacon of St. Matthew's Presbyterian Church, opposite. The 
other deacon was James Dechman, senior, who was for many years 
keeper of the town clock, and resided in the clock building. These 
two old worthies have long since gone to their rest. The latter was 
father of the late James Dechmau, of Halifax, master carpenter, 
who died at an advanced age some years ago at his residence in 
Bishop Street. The Rev. Dr. Archibald Gray* was minister of 
St. Matthew's at this time. His place of residence was the old 
house in Granville Street, opposite the Province Building, now 
known as the Acadian Hotel. Several buildings both in Hollis and 
Granville Streets, remnants of the first settlement, stood on high 
grassy banks with porches and steps outside and cellar doors on 
the side of the bank with plank platforms over the gutters; the 
porches and steps frequently projecting out on the side path. 

The Hon. John Black, a short time previous to the year 1821, 
built the fine granite building iu Ilollis Street north of Government! 
House, afterwards the property of his son-in-law. Hon. James B.( 
Uniacke, since the residence of the Bishop of Nova Scotia. The old 
house within the railing at the upper corner of Hollis & Salter 
Streets, lately owned by Mr. Esson, was then the residence of Hon. 
William Lawson. It was originally built by Malachi Salter about 
17(50, perhaps before. At the opposite corner stood the residence 

Dr. Gray married a daughter of Dr. Michael Head nnd was father of the late 
James F. Gray, of the Halifax Bar. many years Clerk of the House of Assembly. 

200 Nova Scotm Historical Society. 

of the Hon. Hibbert N. Binney, since removed. At the other corner 
Mr. Charles R. Fairbanks, some time Solicitor-General, afterwards 
Master of the Rolls in Chancery, son-in-law of Mr. Lawson, had 
just erected the fine brick building since occupied as a boarding 
school for young ladies. The late Samuel Lydiard Brewer built the 
iron stone house of three stories south of Mr. Biuney's residence 
about the same time. The residence of the Hon. Michael Wallace, 
Treasurer of the Province, was in Hollis Street immediately opposite 
the Government House. It was a wooden building and considered 
a first class residence in its time ; now altered into two separate 
dwelling houses. Trees were common in the streets of Halifax at 
this period as has been before mentioned. The stone building in 
Morris Street, the residence of Chief Justice Sir Brenton Halliburton, 
then Judge Halliburton, had been erected some years before this. 
Judge Stewart, his brother-in-law, built the yellow brick building 
at the north-west corner of Hollis & Morris Streets, now the 
residence of a gentleman of the same name, son of Hon. Alexander 
Stewart, late Master of the Rolls and Judge of Admiralty. The 
Hon. Thos. N. Jeffery, Collector of the Customs, built and resided 
in the building later occupied by Mrs. James Donaldson. The late 
Bishop Inglis, then Rector of St. Paul's, owned and occupied the 
low wooden building nearly opposite Mr. Jeffery's, since the residence 
of Mr. Hagarty. At the corner, opposite Judge Stewart's, was the 
old gamble roofed house, the residence of James B. Franklin, son 
of Governor Franklin. This old fashioned house still remains as 
one of the few relics of the early town. The Hon. Charles Morris 
built a handsome wooden dwelling house on the south side of 
Morris Street, between Hollis and Water Streets, afterwards the 
property of Hon. S. G. W. Archibald, Attorney-General and 
Speaker of the House of Assembly ; since his death occupied as a 
boarding house. The late John Trider aoout the same time built 
his rough stone house at Freshwater Bridge. The late John 
Tremain had a Ropewalk adjoining his residence on the south side 
of the road leading up from Freshwater Bridge, now known as 
Inglis Street. This property was afterwards purchased by James 
Forman, Junior, and the old ropewalk building removed. The 
residence of Major Bazelgette at the head of this street had been 
originally constructed by John Trider from the materials of the old 

History of Halijax City. 201 

Government House which had been removed and the materials sold 
to make way for the foundation of the Province Building. It after- 
wards became the property of the late John Moody, a merchant in 
the town, who sold it to Major Bazelgette about the year 1817 or 
1818, who added to the building and improved the grounds. Mr. 
Moody purchased the adjoining grounds and erected a new house ; 
after his failure his residence was purchased by Hon. Enos Collins, 
who improved the property and beautified the surrounding grounds. 

Old Fresh Water Bridge, so well known in former times, crossed 
the stream from Smith's Tanyard nearly in the same place as the 
present abutment. It was a rickety old wooden structure with a 
rough curb or rail. It was a favorite resort of the young of both 
sexes on Sundays and summer evenings, and the old wooden rail 
was covered with names and initial letters carved with the pen knife 
by visitors. The walk down Pleasant Street and up the road now 
known as Inglis Street and round the new road, as the Tower Road 
was then called to Pyke's Bridge, and thence down Spring Garden 
Road to Government House, was the fashionable promenade for all 
classes on Sundays and holidays. The old English Burial ground 
was then surrounded by a high, rough stone wall, built without mor- 
tar, which was removed some years after the new cemetery on Camp 
Hill was consecrated. The Governor's garden up Spring Garden 
Road adjoining the burial ground extended as far as the General's 
quarters. A portion of this field was taken for the site of the 
new Court House and County Jail. The new Poor House in the 
opposite space, then lately erected, was a rough stone building 
whitewashed on the outside, but the Work House or House of Cor- 
rection was the old gamble roof building probably originally erected 
as a soldiers' barracks in the days of the forts, and afterwards used 
as a Poor House. All these buildings have been since removed and 
the ground sold to private speculators, a step much to be regretted, 
as the space was very extensive and the most eligible situation for 
a public building in the whole city. 

The Poor House Burial Ground, at the corner opposite the 
present new Court House, was at this time a standing nuisance in 
consequence of the want of drainage and the careless manner in 
which bodies of paupers were interred. After the law for closing 
all places of burial in the city had been carried into operation, this 

202 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

open space was planted with trees and ground carted in to fill up 
hollow places, and a substantial wall built around it. The old tan 
Yard of Andrew and John Smith was then one of the most 
picturesque and secluded spots in the neighborhood of the town. 
The stream which turned their mill passed down from the south 
common through Smith's Fields, where it formed a pond near tin- 
town road, known as the mill dam, for many years the resort of 
skaters in winter, continuing south-eastward to Freshwater Bridge 
and passing through a range of willow trees, some of which m:iy 
still be seen above the present bridge. Southward from old bridge 
the road was at this time but a footpath winding along the shore to 
Steele's Pond, beyond which it was passable for carriages. At a 
very early period, however, there had been a broad carriage road all 
along the shore to Point Pleasant, but the earth had fallen in or 
been washed away by the tide. Black Rock, a point running out 
south from Trider's old lime kiln, was then, and for many years 
after, the resort of bathers. There was a fine gravel beach outside 
the old Freshwater Bridge leaving a large expanse of gravel when 
the tide was out. It was customary for gentlemen's servants, 
truckmen and others who came morning and evening to water their 
horses in the stream above the bridge to ride their horses in the surf 
at low water. 

That part of the city known as Schmidtvillc, or Pedhry's Fields. 
west from Queen Street and the General's quarters, was not laid 
out into building lots until many years after the period we are now 

The stone house at the corner of Prince and Argyle Streets, 
opposite the south-west angle of St. Paul's Church, was originally 
the mansion of the Hon. Richard Bulkeley, and is, perhaps, now the 
oldest stone building in Halifax ; it was purchased about 1818 by 
H. II. Cogswell, who improved the old house and resided there until 
his death in 1854. The stone house at the opposite corner was 
built after the close of the war by Dr. William J. Almou. Jf 
afterwards became the residence of his sou, Matthew Byles Almou, ^ 
who sold it to Dr. Daniel McX. Parker. Proceeding southward 
along Argyle Street at the next corner was the handsome residence 
of Hon. Richard John ruiacke, who held the office of Attorney 
General for a great number of years. This was a wooden building 

History of Halifax Ci(>/. 203 

of three stories originally with :i Hat roof ami a parapet all around 
with ornaments in the shape of urns at the corners and in the 
centre. A roof was put on this building about the time of the 
death of old Mr. Uniacke, and the parapet removed. At the south 
termination of Argyle Street stood the residence of Mr. Alexander 
Creighton, a small low house, and along Blowers Street, to the west, 
was a low range of wooden buildings which had been a soldiers' 
barracks or guard house. The late Chief Justice Blowers, about 
the commencement of the present century, erected the large wooden 
building at the corner of Barringtou Street, adjoining the Roman 
Catholic property, as a residence. After his death it was sold and 
became a hotel under the name of the Waverley House. It has 
since been purchased and attached to the Roman Catholic church 

In the year 1821 there were no houses in Gottiiigeii Street, north 
suburbs, except the stone house at the corner of the lane leading 
westward, some years before built by Major McCola, Town Major 
of Halifax, since owned by Mr. R. Duport. A wooden house, a 
short distance north of it, built by Peter Hay, Mason, and the old 
hipped roofed building at the corner of Gerrish Street, known as 
the North Pole, still standing. Mr. Lewis Demolitor had then 
lately built a large house at the northern extremity of Brunswick 
Street, which at that time was considered a very wild speculation. 
This is the same house lately the residence of the Hou. Senator 
Northup. The late Benjamin Etter also, about this time, built 
himself a residence at the corner of North Street, afterwards the 
mansion of the late Hon. William A. Black. Captain Michael 
Head, R. N., occupied the two story house to the westward of W. 
A. Black's property, which a few years before had been built by the 
late William Rudolf, of Halifax, and was afterwards the residence 
of Commissary General, W. H. Snelling, and afterwards by John 
Northup ; now or lately known as Belle- Air. Lockmau Street 
then could boast of very few buildings and was so grown up 
with grass as in some places only to afford a narrow path in 
the centre for pedestrians and occasionally a stray carriage. The 
original Lockman Street extended only from North Street to 
Gerrish Street, in the rear of what was called the Dutch Lots ; it was 
afterwards continued southward by consent of the north suburb 

204 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

lots, as far as Cornwallis Street. The old house, formerly the 
residence of Major Leonard Lockmau, a German officer, one of the 
original settlers, for whom the street was called, stood on the 
western side near the northern extremity of the street. It became 
very delapidated and was removed some years ago. 

In the year 1818, or perhaps as late as 1820, that part of the 
north common known as Camp Hill, since appropriated as a public 
cemetery, as also all the swampy space westward of the drill 
ground, was in a state of nature, covered with cradle hills, laurel 
bushes and ground juniper. The butchers' boys kept their sheep 
there, and in autumn the swampy portions afforded to the sports- 
men good ground for snipe, plover and curlew. An old building, 
known as the St. Andrew's Cross, stood on the hill at the corner 
where Quinpool Road, so-called, now meets the common. On the 
opposite side an old two story house called Quinpool, which had been 
the residence of a Mr. O'Brien, stood in a field to the north of the 
road. This old house became uninhabited and was afterward taken 
down by Dr. Cogswell, the proprietor of the property, when he 
divided the fields into building lots. There were two main roads 
leading from town to the Basin, both meeting at what was called 
the Three Mile House, a building erected by Mr. Shaw, a member 
of Assembly, as a hotel, afterwards known as Increase Ward's 
country house. The Wistermont Road was known as the Blue 
Bell Road from a very old house with a swinging sign which stood 
at the corner before you arrive at the Willow Park property. Mr. 
John Young, known as the author of the letters of Agricola, had 
then lately purchased this latter place, had improved the house and 
gardens, and was commencing to work it as a model farm. Further 
north were the old Dutch farms of Philip Bayer and Jacob Shefforth 
on either side of the road, surrounded by groups of old willow trees. 
The Bayer's house has disappeared, but that of the Shefforth family 
fell to the late Mr. Henry Vieth, who repaired the old buildings. 
The other road, known as the Fort Needharn or Lady Hammond 
Road, was a prolongation of Gottingen Street. After passing the 
farms of the late John and James Merkel, it turned to the westward 
down the hill to the shore of the Basin at the Three Mile House. 
The Kempt Road had not yet been opened though for some time in 
contemplation. Two block houses, the remnant of the old fortifi- 

History of Halifax City. 205 

cations of Halifax, overlooked these roads. The first or nearest 
blockhouse, was at Fort Needham on the hill south of the Governor's 
north farm. The other surmounted the hill just above the cottage 
of the late John Steel, called Three Mile Cottage, at the termination 
of the Blue Bell Road, near the present Three Mile Church. The 
old house at the Governor's north farm known as Lady Hammond's 
house was then in good repair, since fallen down. This house was 
erected by Lieut. Governor Hammond as a country residence for 
his family. The north farm, as it was called, extended eastward to 
the shores of the narrows and included the beech grove near the 
old railway station. This beautiful grove has been lately cut 
up by one of the Government Railway Superintendents who caused 
building lots to be laid off and sold in the grove. This fine 
collection of trees had been carefully preserved for nearly a century, 
and had been the scene of many festivities, and was associated with 
very many pleasing events in the minds of the older citizens. 

The common was the usual resort of a large portion of the 
inhabitants on a Sunday afternoon during the summer months. It 
had been the custom for many years, and had continued to be so 
until discontinued by Governor Maitland, for the whole garrison, 
which usually consisted of service companies of three regiments, a 
part of artillery, and a company of sappers and marines, to parade 
on the common every Sunday afternoon at three o'clock during the 
summer season. The Governor and his staff attended and the 
whole brigade, with their regimental colors, and the artillery, with 
their field pieces, formed a line and were inspected by the Governor 
or Commander-in-chief, after which they marched around the drill 
ground, passing before him at slow time, saluting him in open 
column of companies. No booths, however, were allowed on the 
common for the sale of refreshments except on the King's and 
Queen's birthdays, when grand reviews came off. 

Sunday presented a gay scene at Halifax in those days. There 
being then no garrison chapel for the troops, the regiments in 
garrison, preceded by their brass bauds playing, marched in full 
dress to St. Paul's and St. George's churches amid the ringing of 
bells and the sound of martial music. The carriage of the 
Governor (who was then always a general officer) in full military 
costume, with his aids-de-camp, drove up to the south door of 

206 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

St. Paul's, the whole staff having first asssembled under the portico 
which then ran along the southern end of the church. His 
Excellency, followed by a brilliant display of gold lace and feathers, 
the clank of sabres and spurs, and the shaking of plumed hats of 
so many officers, many of whom were accompanied by their ladies, 
on entering the church, presented a most brilliant spectacle. All 
this was followed by the old Chief Justice Blowers in his coach and 
livery, the carriage of the Admiral, and those of several members 
of Council. All being seated and the body of the church full of 
fashion and dress, the peal of the organ began to be heard and the 
clergy in surplice and hood (he who was about to preach, however, 
always in the black gown) proceeded from the vestry up the east 
side aisle to the pulpit, preceded by a beadle in drab and gold lace, 
carrying a large silver headed mace, who, after the clergy had taken 
their seats, deliberately walked down the aisle again to the vestry 
with his mace over his shoulder. The Rector, Dr. John Inglis, 
usually preached in the morning, and the Curate, Mr. J. T- 
Twining, performed the service. They were frequently accompanied 
by other church clergymen on a visit to town, and in Lord 
Dalhousie's time, his Chaplain, the Rev. Isaac Temple, always took 
part in the service, frequently preaching in the afternoon at o 
o'clock. On the sermon in the morning being concluded, the troops 
marched back to barracks and the general and staff returned to 
Government House, where they partook of luncheon, and were 
again in requisition by 3 o'clock for the grand review of the troops 
on the common. There were no evening services in the churches 
and meeting houses in those days, except with the Methodists, who 
were quietly doing their work in the old Argyle Street meeting 
house, under tin: Rev. "Win. Black. 

The police of the town were conducted by one paid magistrate 
and one unpaid assistant, together with the clerk of the peace and 
three police constables, afterwards increased to four. Old Colonel 
Pyke presided as Chief Magistrate for many years, and was usually 
to l)e seen sitting in the little police office in drab knee breeches 
with gray yarn stockings and snuff colored coat. Age and infirmity 
having at last compelled him to retire, Mr. John Liddell, the second 
in command, was appointed Chief Police Magistrate by Sir James 

History oj Halifax City. 207 

Kempt.* David Shaw Clarke had been for some years Clerk of the 
Peace. He was a member of the Bar and particularly well qualified 
for the office he held, the duties of which he performed with much 
satisfaction to the public. He was very remarkable as being the 
most corpulent man in town. The late Samuel Muirhead, who kept 
a liquor shop at the head of the Market Wharf, was next in size 
to Mr. Clarke. Muirhead died in 1820, and Clarke, from that 
time to the day of his death, had no competitor. No man was 
better known or more popular for about thirty years in Halifax 
than David Shaw Clarke. He was succeeded in his office by his 
son James Stewart Clarke. 

Drunken people were frequently to be seen in the streets in those 
days, yet the peace of the town was tolerably well preserved by the 
three or four police constables. Old Jock Henderson was very 
corpulent, but his great knowledge of his profession rendered him 
an exceedingly useful officer. Jack Mahar was celebrated as a 
detective, but king alcohol at last put an end to his usefulness. 
The practice of publicly whipping thieves had almost altogether 
gone out of fashion by this time, though occasionally resorted to at 
the work house. Among the town oddities was Constable Hawkins. 
He was a negro, one of those who were brought from the Chesapeake 
by Admiral Cockburn. He had been for some years employed at the 
work house to do the whipping. He was usually dressed in an old 
military green uniform, epaulets, plumed cap, with red sash, and on 
state occasions, a sword. With constable's staff in hand, this 
worthy might be seen in the morning at the opening of the police 
office, escorting prisoners down George Street to the office for 
examination, accompanied by a mob of boys. Among the other 
curiosities of the town was old Hen Myers, usually known as Major 
Ben. This old fellow, an idiot, was dressed in a long tailed red 
coat of a fashion then long obsolete, a cocked hat and long white 
feathers hanging over his shoulder, and on particular occasions, a 
star on his breast and a sword and sash. He was the messenger of 
the poor house and Bridewell and came down to the market every 
morning with his wheelbarrow in which he brought back supplies 
for the establishments. 

Governors had a voice in all appointments at this time. 

208 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

The troops mounted guard every morning on the Grand Parade 
and went through the salute and troop before relieving guard. This 
formed a great attraction to strangers and people from the country. 
The band usually played for half an hour before the ceremony of 
inspecting the guards commenced. At sunset and at gun fir, at 
eight o'clock in the evening, the drum and fife proceeded from the 
town clock, in Barrack Street, to Government House or the 
General's quarters, and back again to the barracks. This had been 
an ancient custom in the Halifax garrison and was partly kept up 
until about the year 1845. Guard mounting on the parade at 10 
o'clock in the morning during summer continued until Governor 
Le Marchant left Halifax in 1856. 

One feature of the town which frequently afforded amusement to 
visitors must not be omitted. The negro population of Hammonds 
Plains and Preston, the latter particularly, had been, after the 
peace, supplied with the American uniform coats taken at Castine 
or somewhere in Maine in the year 1813. The sky blue coats with 
red and sometimes yellow facings, in conjunction with old torn and 
patched trousers of every description, presented the most grotesque 
appearance. A short time before this a fensible regiment known as 
the York Rangers, having been disbanded in the town, their old 
green uniforms, faced red, and the sugar loaf shaped caps, were 
given to the negroes, who presented the most ridiculous appearance 
on market days. 

M. Geneni kept dancing school at Mason Hall and gave many 
pleasant school balls in the winter season to the great delight of the 
young people. M. Perro, a polite old French, naval officer, was 
most popular as a teacher of French and was much esteemed in the 
community. M. Chenalette was the most famous confectioner ever 
known in Halifax. In his latter days he kept his establishment in 
Sackville Street, opposite Bedford Row, and was celebrated for his 
French cordials and fancy confectionery. Such was Halifax in 
1821 and thereabouts. 

History of Halifax City. 209 



From the year 1749 to '54 or '5, the defences of the town 
consisted of palisades or pickets placed upright, with block houses 
built of logs at convenient distances. This fence extended from 
where the Roman Catholic Cathedral now stands to the beach south 
of Fairbanks' wharf, and on the north along the line of Jacob Street 
to the harbor. These palisades were in existence in 1753, but were 
removed at a very early period, not being within the recollection of 
the oldest natives of the town living in the year 1825. 

A large portion of the front of the present Citadel Hill was 
originally private property ; a small redoubt stood near the summit 
with a flag staff and guard house, but no traces of any regular or 
permanent fortification appear until the commencement of the 
American Revolution. There were several block houses south of 
the town at Point Pleasant, Fort Massey and other places. A line 
of block houses was built at a very early period of the settlement, 
extending from the head of the North West Arm to the Basin, as a 
defence against the Indians. The foundation of the centre block 
house was still to be seen in 1848 in the hollow below Philip Bayers' 
pasture. During Governor Lawrence's time, the Indians made an 
attack upon the saw mills at the head of the North West Arm, 
which stood near the site of the present mills, and murdered three 
men ; their bodies were buried by the soldiers near one of the block 
houses, and were three times dug up by the Indians in defiance of the 
guard, for the purpose of securing the scalps. These block houses 
were built of square timber, with loop-holes for musketry, they 
were of great thickness, and had parapets around the top and a 
platform at the base, with a well for the use of the guard. 

210 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

lu 1755, four batteries were erected along the beach the centre 
one, called the middle or Governor's Battery, stood where the 
Queen's Wharf UOAV is, being then directly in front of Government 
House; another where the Ordnance Yard was afterwards built, 
called the Five or Nine-gun Battery ; the third was situated north of 
the present Fairbanks' wharf ; and the fourth called the South or 
Grand Battery, still in existence at the Lumber Yard. They were 
composed of stone and gravel, supported by cross logs, covered 
with earth and planted with grass, having battlements in front and 
the two ends, elevated about twenty or twenty-five feet above the 
water. These fortifications were removed about the year 1783, and 
the grounds appropriated to their present purposes. The Ordnance 
Yard, then a swamp around the battery, and the King's Wharf, 
were both filled up and levelled by stone and rubbish removed from 
the five-acre lots of the peninsula which were beginning to be 
cleared about this time. 

There were block houses along the beach, near the Dock Yard 
wall, built by Col. Spry about 1775. The drawings of the town, 
published about the year 1774 or '6, show a strong fortification on 
George's Island.* It was not until the commencement of the 
revolutionary war that regular works appear to have been con- 
structed for the defence of the town and harbor. About the year 
1778, the Citadel Hill appears to have been, for the first time, 
regularly fortified ; the summit was then about eighty feet higher 
than at present ; the works consisted of an octangular tower of 
wood of the block-house kind, having a parapet and small tower on 
top with port holes for cannon the whole encompassed by a ditch 
and ramparts of earth and wood, with pickets placed close together, 
slanting outwards. Below this there were several outworks of the 
same description extending down the sides of the hill a considerable 

Fort Massey, George's Island and the East Battery exhibit the 
same kind of fortifications in the pictures of the town made about 
1780. At the latter place there was a barrack, afterwards rebuilt 
by the Duke of Kent about 1800. 

* We have seen that Governor Cornwallis, at the very commencement of the 
settlement, selected George's Island as the most eligible position for fortification. 
Prisoners were sent here at a very early period. 

History of Halifax City. , '211 

During the American Revolutionary War, Colonel Spry, the chief 
engineer, erected a battery and several small block houses near the 
old Dutch Church in Brunswick Street. Several iields on the north 
and east sides of the Citadel were then taken by government and 
equivalents given to the owners. There was another block house 
at the extremity of Brunswick Street, in the iield adjoining the 
present Admiralty grounds ; the first were demolished about 1783, 
and part of the land granted by the Crown as a parsonage lot for 
the minister of the Germans, but the latter remained many years 
after till it fell into decay. 

The Lumber Yard, Ordnance Yard and King's Wharf were all 
commenced about the same time, (1784 or '5) but the present 
buildings were put up at a much later date. The north barracks 
were built soon after the settlement. The buildings known as the 
south barracks were erected under the directions of the Duke of 
Kent, as also the north barracks, destined by fire some years ago. 

During the revolutionary war the main guard house stood on the 
spot now occupied by the Mason Hall. It was used as a military 
post at a very early period, as the French prisoners from Annapolis, 
etc., were lodged there. The guard house was removed over ninety 
years ago, and the present building afterwards erected. 

A building called the Military Office stood at the south corner of 
the market wharf, near where the main guard house uow is. It 
was used as a military office until 1790, or perhaps later. At this 
time a guard was kept at the Prince's old playhouse, where the 
Acadian School now stands. 

The house lately owned by Capt. Mayuard, where the Trinity 
Chapel now stands, in Jacob Street, was a barrack as early as 
1769. It was the site of one of the old block-house forts erected at 
the first settlement. It continued to bear the name of the Grenadier 
Fort until removed to make room for the present brick edifice 
known as Trinity Church. 

The old wooodeu fortifications were removed from Citadel Hill 
about the time Prince Edward was Commauder-iu-Chief . 

The hill had been cut down and ramparts of earth constructed 
mounting five or six guns at each angle, with a deep ditch. There 
-were also covered ways and passages leading into the fort ; willow 
trees were planted round the ramparts, and the whole was surrounded 

212 Nova, Scotia Historical Society. 

by a picket fence. The remains of this work were removed at the 
commencement of the present fortifications. Much of the old work 
was performed by the militia drafts from the country, embodied at 
Halifax at the close of the last century, particularly in 1793, during 
Sir John Weutworth's administration, and at subsequent periods. 
The Maroon negroes from Jamaica were for a short time engaged 
on these works. 

The towers on George's Island,* Point Pleasant, the East Battery, 
Meager's Beach and York Redoubt were built at the commencement 


of the present century. The Prince established signal stations 
between Halifax and Annapolis, the first post being on the hill 
behind his residence on Bedford Basin. He levelled the ground 
called the Grand Parade, and it is said, built the walls at the 
north-east and south-west angles. The Chain Battery at Point 
Pleasant was first constructed, it is said, by Lord Colville, in or 
about 1761. The present ring bolts were put down the war of 
1812-15. The old block house at Fort Needham and that on 
the hill above Philip Bayers' farm on the road leading to the Basin, 
called the Blue Bell Road, were built during the American Revo- 
lution, and re-constructed during the Prince's time. They were 
there in 1820, but soon after fell into decay, being composed of 
square timber only. All the other block houses had disappeared 
many years previous to that date. The building used as an army 
hospital, which stood on the north slope of Citadel Hill, in rear of 
the north barracks, since destroyed by fire, was erected as the town 
residence of Edward, Duke of Kent, when commander of the forces. 
The low range of buildings since used as barrack stores and as a 
military library, were his stables and offices. His residence was a 
very elegant building with a portico supported by Corinthian pillars 
in front, all which remained for many years after it became an 
hospital. About the same time he built his villa on the Basin, the 
ruins of which were to be seen a few years ago. The Rotunda, or 
band room, still remains. The lauds where the buildings stood 
were the property of Sir John Wentworch, the Governor, to whom 
he left it on his removal from the garrison. The old Rockiugham 
Inn was his guard house, since burned down. 

* Lately removed. 

History of Halifax City. 218 

In the year 1765 there were two hospitals in the north suburbs, 
near the beach at the foot of Cornwallis Street, called the Red and 
Green Hospitals. They were there in 1785. One stood on the site 
of the present North Country or Keating's Market, the other on 
property now owned by the heirs of late H. H. Cogswell. 

Until the year 1780 the streets of the town were in a very rough 
condition, and some of them least frequented were impassable for 
carriages, from stumps of trees and rocks. As early as 1761, thei'e 
was a good road to Point Pleasant ; it was a continuation of 
Water Street, and said to have passed through or near the present 
Lumber Yard grounds, following the shore of the harbor. 

In 1764 the people of the north suburbs applied to the Governor 
and Council to call their settlement Gottiugeu. The name soon fell 
into disuse ; the main street obtained the name of Brunswick Street, 
the rear street only retaining that of Gottiugen. 

The first Government House was erected soon after the town was 
laid out ; the frame and materials were brought from Boston, and 
the apartments prepared for the reception of the Governor early in 
October. He held a council there on the 14th of that month. It 
was a small low building of one story, surrounded by hogsheads of 
gravel and sand, on which small pieces of ordnance were mounted 
for its defence. It stood in the centre of the square now occupied 
by the Province Building. About the year 1757 or '8, this little 
cottage was removed to give place to a more spacious and con- 
venient residence. It was sold and drawn down to the corner of 
George Street and Bedford Row, opposite the south-west angle of 
the City Court House, and again, about 1775, removed to the beach 
and placed at the corner of the street leading to the steam boat 
landing, where it remained until 1832, when the present building, 
occupied lately by Thomas Laidlaw, was erected on the site. The 
new Government House was built during the time of Governor 
Lawrence. Lord William Campbell built a ball room at one end, 
and several other improvements were made to the building by 
subsequent governors. It was surrounded by a terrace neatly 
sodded and ornamented. The building was of wood, two stories 
high. The office of Capt. Bulkeley, the Secretary, stood at the 
north-east angle of the square inside the rails. Prince Edward 
resided in this house with Governor Wentworth in 1798. This old 

214 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

house was pulled down about the commencement of the present 
century and the materials sold to Mr. John Trider, Sr., who used 
them in the construction of the building on the road leading to the 
tower at the head of Inglis Street, formerly owned by Colonel 
Bazelgette, and afterwards the residence of the late Mr. George 

St. Paul's Church is now, perhaps, the oldest building remaining 
in Halifax. It was erected at the expense of government in the 
year 1749, and was esteemed one of the best constructed wooden 
buildings in America. The oak frame and materials were brought 
from Boston, and the building was ready for divine service by the 
autumn of 1750. It received an addition to the north end with a 
new steeple somewhat similiar to the old one in the year 1812. 
The first sermon was preached in this building by the Rev. Mr. 
Tutty* on 2nd September, 1750. It remained in nearly all respects 
as at its first erection until certain late alterations have changed its 
appearance, particularly an addition to the south end from which 
the fine old altar window, with its^Dorie pillars and small panes has 
been removed to make way for a large Gothic window full of 
painted glass, altogether incompatible with the architecture of the 
building itself. The old escutcheons in the galleries have been 
permitted to remain. The walls below are covered with monuments 
and tablets recording the deaths of governors, military commanders, 
who fell during the old American and French wars, and not a feAv 
of our leading citizens. The most conspicuous are those of 
Governors Sir John Wentworth, Wilmot, Lawrence, and Sir 
John Harvey, Capt. Evans of the ship Charleston, who was killed 
off the coast of Cape Breton in defence of a convoy against a 
superior French force, Lord Charles Montague, late Governor of 
Georgia, who died of fatigue after a journey in winter from Quebec 
to Halifax by land, the Right Rev. Charles Inglis, first Bishop of 
Nova Scotia, and his son Dr. John Inglis, third Bishop of the 
Diocese, Baron De Seitz, who commanded the Hessian troops in 
the old war, General McLean, the Hon. Richard Bulkeley, Attorney 
General Uniacke, with a number of others of lesser note. The first 
organ was purchased, partly by private subscription, during the 

* Mr. Tutty usually officiated on the parade in the open air until the church wag 
sufficiently advanced to enable him to hold service in it. 

History of Halifax City. 215 

incumbency of Dr. Breynton, about 1765. It was replaced by a 
new one about 1829, but the old case of Spanish walnut was 

The old German church of St. George, in Brunswick Street, 
bears the date 1760 on its spire. It was originally erected by 
private subscription among the German settlers of the north suburbs 
in or about the year 1752 or '3. After the removal of the Germans 
to Lunenburg there were but fifteen families of Germans remaining 
in the north suburbs. This small congregation, not knowing any 
English, erected the building on the German burial ground as a 
school house and chapel. The present steeple was erected in 1760, 
and the following year the building was dedicated as a church by 
Dr. Breynton of St. Paul's, after which the congregation followed 
the forms of the Church of England. Dr. Breyuton on that 
occasion preached in German and in French, after which he 
addressed the congregation in English. In 1783 Rev. Bernard 
Houzeal, a Lutheran minister, came to Halifax among the Loyalists 
from Xew York and, having been ordained a minister of the Church 
of England by the Bishop of London, became the minister of St. 
George's, receiving a stipend from the Society for the Propagation 
of the (lospel in Foreign parts. He died about the close of the last 
century, a few years after the present round church, known as St. 
George's, was erected, and Mr. Gray was appointed to the charge, 
after which service in the old church was discontinued. It was then 
appropriated as a school house. About the year 1833 or '4 it 
underwent a thorough repair which was superintended by several 
persons in the parish who were descendants of the original German 

Old St. Matthew's was coeval with the first settlement of Halifax. 
(Jovernor Cormvallis assigned a lot at the south-west corner of 
Prince and Hollis Streets for a dissenting meeting house in 1749. 
It was built soon after at the expense of government, and was 
called Mather's Church in compliment to the memory of Dr. Cotton 
Mather, the celebrated New England Congregationalist divine, by 
the dissenters then in the town, who were principally from New 
England and of that denomination. The Rev. Aaron Cleveland, 
from New England, was the first minister who officiated in this 

* This organ has been lately removed to Trinit y Chapel, in Jacob Street.. 

216 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

building. The Presbyterians from Scotland and the North of 
Ireland, having become numerous in the town, soon amalgamated 
with the American dissenters, and gradually obtained exclusive 
possession of the building, after which it received the appellation of 
St. Matthew's Church. The late Rev. Mr. Russell, father of the late 
George N. Russell, of Halifax, officiated there for some time after 
it became Presbyterian. Dr. Archibald Gray was the officiating 
minister there for about twenty years ; he was succeeded by Rev. 
Ebenezer Renuy, Rev. Mr. Knox. and finally by Rev. John Scott, 
the last minister who preached in the old building which was burned 
in the great fire which destroyed a considerable portion of Hollis 
Street, on New Year's day, 1859. The lot of land on which it 
stood was, some years after, sold to Doull & Miller, who erecteed 
there a large stone warehouse, which is one of the neatest and 
most substantial buildings in the city. 

The first market house occupied the site of the brick building 
lately used for the City Courts and offices. It was built soon 
after the settlement. A balcony ran along the lower side which 
was used by merchants, etc., as a public promenade. About the 
commencement of the present century the remains of this old 
building were removed to make way for the brick edifice. The 
upper portion of the new building was let as a public coffee house ; 
the large room now used as a City Council Chamber was appro- 
priated for public meetings, festivals, etc., and the south end, 
above' the police office, was occupied for many years as the 
Exchange or Merchants' Reading Room. 

The first court house in Halifax, as before mentioned, stood at 
the corner of Buckingham and Argyle Streets, where Northup's 
store and country market stood later. Chief Justice Belcher held his 
court there in 1755, and the first Representative Assembly held 
their session there in 1758. It was destroyed by fire about the 
year 1783. Chief Justice Belcher resided in the old house in 
Argyle Street to the north of the old Methodist meeting house, 
formerly owned by the Rev. William Black, Methodist minister. 
This building, at the time of its removal, was one of the very few 
old buildings then remaining in the town. It was taken down 
some years ago and a range of shops and a market house now 

History of Halifax City. 217 

occupy its site. The old Zoar chapel, the cradle of Methodism 
in Halifax, has been lately turned into shops. 

The stone house at the corner of Prince and Argyle Streets, 
opposite the south-west angle of St. Paul's Church, was originally 
built by the Hon. Richard Bulkeley, the .first Provincial Secretary, 
and was his residence for many years. It was purchased by the 
Hon. H. H. Cogswell about 1818, and since his death has under- 
gone extensive alterations to render it suitable for a public hotel. 
It is now known as the Carlton House. There is an old house still 

standing on the western side of Graftou Street, in Letter , 

Forman's Division, which was the residence of William Nesbitt, the 
Attorney General of Nova Scotia and Speaker of the Assembly, in 
1760. After the death of Mr. Nesbitt, towards the end of the last 
century, it fell to his daughter, Mrs. Swann. This old lady died 
there nearly 80 years ago and the property was afterwards sold. 
The street was cut down about 50 years since and a story or breast 
work was erected on the street under this little old cottage which 
may yet be seen projecting from the main building, presenting the 
appearance of a balcony. The residence of Richard Gibbons, 
formerly Attorney General, stood at the corner of Buckingham and 
Graftou Streets, formerly known as George Isles' corner ; it was 
lately taken down and replaced by a range of brick buildings now 
owned by Mr. Malouey. This was also one of the remnants of the 
first settlement of the town. The building at the corner of 
Barriugtou and Sackville Streets, formerly occupied as the Halifax 
Grammar School, is also a very old building. The House of 
Assembly held its sittings there in 1765, perhaps earlier. After 
the court house was burned down the Supreme Court met there for 
several years. It was also used at one time for a guard house. It 
was devoted to the purpose of a school on the establishment of the 
Halifax Grammar School in 1785. 

Houses of entertainment were numerous and well kept at an early 
period. The Great Poutack was a large three-story building, 
erected by the Hon. John Butler, uncle to the late John Butler 
Dight, previous to 1757, at the corner of Duke and Water Streets, 
afterwards known as Michael Bennett's corner, now Cunningham's 
corner. It was the principal hotel in 1764. In 1769 it was kept 

218 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

by John Willis. The town assemblies and other public entertain- 
ments were held at the Pontack in 1758.* 

The Crown Coffee House, frequented by country people, was 
kept by William ?'ury in 1760 on the beach near the Dockyard. 
Jerusalem Coffee House occupied the northern extremity of the 
block near the Ordnance Yard, opposite Collins' wharf, between 
Hollis Street and Collins' stone stores. It was built by the Hon. 
Thomas Saul as a private residence about 1753 and afterwards 
occupied by the Hon. Alexander Brymer ; some of the rooms were 
highly finished and ornamented with carved work, and the whole 
establishment was on a scale beyond any other private residence in 
the place. It was let out for a coffee house about 1789, or perhaps 
earlier. This old building was destroyed by fire in 1837. The 
present stone stork known as the Jerusalem Warehouse occupies 
the site of the old mansion. 

Public Gardens were much in fashion between 1753 and '80. 
Adlam's garden was an extensive enclosure south of the Citadel, 
near the present Artillery Park and south barracks. It was opened 
to the public, contained a pavilion and a great variety of fruit trees 
and shrubs. The Artillery Park was then kept on the Grand 
Parade ; the Artillery Barracks stood in a line with the late engine 
house ; the Parade was not levelled at that time ; a foot path from 
George Street passed through the centre, and the descent at the 
north-east corner was very abrupt. t Spring Garden was another 
place of public resort in 1768. At this time there was a Provincial 
Gardener, who received an allowance of 32 10s. per annum. j 
About 1764, Mr. Joseph Gerrish, of His Majesty's Dockyard, laid 
out an extensive garden in the north suburbs and imported fruit 

* Among the annual festivals of the old times, now lost sight of, was the celebration 
of St Aspinquid's Lay, known as the Indian Saint. St. Aspinquid appeared in the 
Nova Scotia almanacks from 1774 to 1786. The festival was celebrated on or imme- 
diately after the last quarter of the moon in the month of May. The tide being low at 
that time, many of the principal inhabitants of the town, on these occasions, assembled 
on the shore of the North West Arm and partook of a dish of clam soup, the clams' 
being collected on the spot at low water. There is a tradition that during the 
American troubles when agents of the revolted colonies were active to gain over the 
good people of Halifax, in the year 1786, were celebrating St. Aspinquid, the wine 
having been circulated freely, the Union Jack was suddenly hauled down and 
replaced by the. Stars and Stripes. This was soon reversed, but all those persons who 
held public offices immediately left the grounds, and St. Aspinquid was never after 
celebrated at Halifax. 

t Whether there was a passage for carriages across the Parade does not appear ; 
probably not, as it was used for a public parade ground in 1749. 

t Probably employed at the Governor's gardens. 

History of Halifax Oity. 219 

trees at great expense. This was a private enclosure, extending 
from Lockman Street to the beach, south of the Dockyard ; his 
dwelling house stood in the centre and faced the harbor. Part of 
the old wall, a year or two since, was to be seen in Lockman Street. 
The old Governor's gardens, west of the English burying ground, 
were well kept up for about 30 years. There was a large summer 
house in the centre. 

Mr. Grant, the victualling agent, had a large fruit garden south 
of Government House, where St. Matthew's Manse now stands, 
extending from Hollis to Pleasant Streets. It was surrounded 
by a stone wall. Ornamental trees were, at an early period, 
very numerous in the suburbs, particularly in the south, and 
tended much to the beauty and comfort of the town. The poplar 
trees which stood in front of the residence of the late James Kerby 
and others, in Brunswick Street, and the willows on the eastern 
side of the street, near the round church, are within the recollection 
of many of the old inhabitants. The fine old willow trees which 
occupied both sides of Argyle Street near the residence of the late 
Attorney General Uniacke, those at the south end of Hollis Street, 
near the Lumber Yard, and those around St. Paul's Church, are 
also still within the recollection of many. These trees were all cut 
down by the Commissioners of Streets in 1829 and 1830, because 
they grew on the side paths and were therefore deemed an encroach- 
ment on the public highway. Halifax was thus denuded of its 
shady walks by the gentlemen of taste who constituted the Com- 
missioners of Streets at that period. Within the last few years 
several attempts have been made to re-produce trees on the side- 
walks, but with partial success, there being no protection afforded 
to them by the city authorities. 

Before the year 1760, the houses were generally built of square 
and round timber, some with small pickets placed upright between 
the stubs of the frame, and the whole covered over with clap 
boards ; they were usually of one story with a hipped roof, the 
shops and half doors with no glass, swinging signs, and wooden 
shutters opening downwards, on which goods were exposed for 
sale. Several of these old houses were in existence in 1850, 
windows and doors being altered. 

220 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

In 1768 and '77, there were lamp posts at all the principal 
corners, the town being then lighted at the public expense. 

The Dutch in the north suburbs usually built with the ends of 
their houses to the street ; those of the better sort had ornamental 
windows and heavy cornices with weathercocks. One or two of 
these old houses were to be seen in Brunswick Street about thirty- 
five years ago. Among the old houses which have now disappeared 
was one which stood in the field opposite the tower wharf, near 
Point Pleasant ; it was built about 1770, and occupied by General 
Fanning about 1783. 

A year or two after the settlement Mr. Gerrish built several 
small stone houses near the tower ; the clearance east of the pine 
woods is still to be seen ; they were occupied for a short time by the 
settlers from the north of Ireland who went to Cobequid. 

A large wooden building stood in the centre of the enclosure now 
occupied by Government House, built before the American Revo- 
lution, and used as a residence for field officers and other military 
purposes. The public hospital stood on part of the land now 
occupied by Government House to the north of the present house ; 
it was afterwards sold ; probably the spot on which St. Matthew's 
church now stands. 

The first jail stood where the late Mr. Robert Brown's house in 
Hollis Street stood, opposite the Halifax Hotel ; the jail was kept 
there till 1787, or thereabouts. In 1777, the Provost Marshal was 
suspended from his office in consequence of the repeated escape of 
prisoners from this building. 

In 1752, government purchased a small stone house built by Col. 
Horseman for a prison, probably a military one ; this was near 
where St. Mary's Cathedral now stands. 

One remnant of the first settlement, now forgotten, was an old 
hardwood tree which stood on the beach, just above high water 
mark, at the corner of the Market Slip ; this tree was used as a 
public gallows from 1749, and was there within the recollection of 
one or two aged persons living in 1825 ; it was cut down about 
1763, but the stump remained until 1784 or '5. 

The progress of crime between 1749 and '54, was perhaps less 
rapid than might have been expected among a population of 5,000 
or 6,000, composed of such materials. During the first five years 

History of Halifax City. 221 

there were fifty criminal trials on record, many convictions for 
grand larceny, which was then the subject of capital punishment. 
After the appointment of Chief Justice Belcher, convictions were 
less frequent ; most of the executions, as in the time of the general 
court, were for stealing or receiving stolen goods. 

The Dockyard was first established at Halifax in 1758. It was 
extended and improved in 1769. The date over the gate is 1770. 
The walls have since undergone several renewals. 

The Town Clock was erected early in the present century jointly 
by the garrison and the town. The merchants of Halifax raised a 
subscription towards the object. It was placed at the head of 
George Street for the convenience of the inhabitants. It was 
managed by the garrison. The late James Dechmau, senior, was 
keeper, and resided in the clock for many years ; he died about 1829 
or 1830. 

According to the plan of the town made by Col. Desbarres in 
1779 or '80, and published in his nautical charts in 1781, there was 
a nine-gun battery about where the Ordnance wharf now is, and the 
five-gun battery a little to the north, but on an angle with the 
other. Gerrish's wharf, since known as Marchingtou's wharf, was 
immediately north of the five-gun battery, and Joshua Mauger's 
wharf at the foot of Jacob Street. Proctor's wharf appears to have 
been situated near where Cuuard's old wharf now is. The old 
market wharf, known as Fredericks' wharf, and afterwards as 
Beamish's wharf, was as at present. Fillis' wharf appears to 
have been that now known as Mitchell's, south of the Queen's 
Wharf. Terrance Fitzpatrick's wharf was situated about the spot 
now occupied by Essou & Boak's wharf. Crawley's was to the 
south of the latter, and Collier'b about where Pry or' s wharf now is. 

There was a battery at the Commissioners' point at the south end 
of the Dockyard, and the storekeeper's wharf ran out to the south 
of the Commissioners' point somewhere, apparently, in the vacant 
space between the Dockyard and West's property. Joshua Manger's 
Distillery was situated between the Dockyard and the present 
hospital grounds. Guns were mounted on the careening wharf. 
Three batteries with ditches and enclosures were formed by Col. 
Spry, Chief Engineer, on the lower side of Brunswick Street ; one 
on the corner of Brunswick and North Streets, one on the south 

222 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

corner of Dockyard Lane, and the other down Gerrish Street below 
the Dutch burial ground. It was generally understood that these 
works were on the opposite or western side of Brunswick Street, 
but Desbarres' plan places them on the east side. The works on 
Citadel Hill appear to consist of a small enclosure, but no regular 
fortifications appear. 


In 1751 printing was first introduced into Nova Scotia. The 
first press was established at Halifax, and there was not a second in 
the province until 1766. Bartholomew Green, Jr., was the grand- 
son of Samuel Green, of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and was of 
the firm of Green, Bu shell & Allen, of Boston. He removed to 
Halifax with a press and type in August, 1751. He died about six 
weeks after his arrival, 52 years of age. 

John Bushell, who had been the partner of Green in Boston, 
immediately succeeded him in Halifax. He printed for the govern- 
ment, and in March, 1752,* published the first newspaper printed 
in Nova Scotia. The work for government was inconsiderable, but 
was the chief support of Bushell. He was a good workman but 
had not the art of acquiring property, nor did he make the most 
economical use of the little which fell into his hands. Bushell 
died in February, 1761. The proclamation published by Governor 
Lawrence in 1758 for the settlement of the French lands on the 
Basin of Minas was printed by John Bushell. Anthony Henry 
succeeded Bushell as a printer at Halifax. He was a German, and 
had lived some time with a printer, but had left his master and 
became a fifer in one of the provincial regiments. With this 
regiment he came to Nova Scotia, but some time after obtained his 
discharge. There was then no printer in the province, and his 
pretentious to skill in this art greatly facilitated his release from 
the army. There appears, however, to have been a printing office 
at Halifax in March, 1756, conducted by one Isaac Gurry. Henry 
began business with the press and type which had been used by 
Bushell. He published the Gazette. The government, through 
necessity, gave him some work which was badly executed. This 
paper was edited for some time by the Hon. Richard Bulkeley, 
Secretary of the Province. 

* See Thomas' History of Printing in America. 

History of Halifax City. 223 

In 1766 a printer with a new and good apparatus came from 
London and opened another printing house. He published a news- 
paper and was employed by government. Henry, who had been 
inattentive to his affairs, did not despond at the prospects of a rival, 
but, much to his credit, exerted himself and did better than before. 
After a few years' trial, his rival, not finding the business so 
profitable, nor place agreeable, sold out his paper, and Henry 
was again the only printer in the province. He procured new type 
and a workman better skilled than himself. His printing from this 
time was executed in a more workmanlike manner. He remained 
without another rival until the British army evacuated Boston, in 
March, 1776, when the printers in that town who adhered to the 
Royal cause were obliged to leave that place, and they, with other 
refugees, came to Halifax. Henry continued printing until his 
donth. He possessed a fund of good nature, and was of a very 
cheerful disposition. He died December, 1800, aged 66 } T ears. 

Robert Fletcher arrived at Halifax from London in 1760, with 
new printing materials and a valuable collection of books and 
stationer}'. He opened a book store and printing house near the 
parade, published a newspaper and printed for the government. 
Until this time there had been no book store in the province. 
Fletcher executed his printing with neatness, and raised the repu- 
tation of the art in Nova Scotia. He remained in Halifax until 
1770, then sent his printing materials to Boston for sale and 
went into other business. 

Alexander and James Robertson, who had been printers in New 
York, Norwich and Albany, went to Shelburne, in Nova Scotia, in 
1783, where they printed a newspaper. John Howe began printing 
in Halifax in 1776, and was publisher of the Gazette in 1801. 
Howe commenced the Halifax Journal in 1780. In 1790 his office 
was at the corner of Sackville and Barringtou Streets. This paper 
was afterwards purchased and carried on by John Munro ; his office 
was where Mr Kenny's new stone building now is, at the corner of 
George and Granville Streets. The weekly Chronicle was set on 
foot by William Minus, a Loyalist settler, in 1786, and was 
continued until 1828. Mr. Minus kept a stationer's shop in 
Barringtou Street, below the parade. This paper had the Star and 
Garter at its heading. 

224 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

Henry's printing office was in Graf ton Street, in rear of the 
residence of the late Attorney General Richard John Uniacke, 
where his descendants resided for many years. There was another 
printing office in the same street, further north, which is represented 
in the engraving of the town in 1776 with a steeple surmounted by 
a hand holding a pen. 

After the peace of 1784, printing found its way into the Province 
of New Brunswick. 

History of Halifax City. 225 


The following short sketch of some of the persons who took a 
lead in establishing the Colony, has been compiled chiefly from 
public records : 

The Honorable Edward Cornwallis, the first Governor and Com- 
mander-in-Chief, was a younger son of Charles, third Baron 
Cornwallis by Lady Charlotte Butler, daughter of Richard, Earl of 
Arran and uncle to the celebrated Duke of Ormonde. He was born 
in 1713, was member of Parliament for the borough of Eye in 1749, 
and was elected member for the city of "Westminster in 1753, shortly 
after he returned from Halifax. He married the same year, a 
daughter of the late Lord Townshend, but left no children. He was 
afterwards raised to the rank of Major General and appointed 
Governor of Gibraltar. General Cornwallis was twin brother of 
Dr. Frederick Cornwallis, Archbishop of Canterbury. 

The gentlemen who composed the first Council were Paul Mas- 
carene, Edward How, John Gorham, Benjamin Green, John 
Salisbury and Hugh Davidson. 

Col. Mascarene was a native of Castras in the south of France, 
was born in the year 1684. His parents were Huguenots and were 
compelled to fly from their native country on the revocation of the 
Edict of Nantes when all Protestants were driven from France. He 
made his way to Geneva at the age of 12, were he received his 
education. He afterwards went to England, where he received a 
commission in the British army in 1708. He was appointed Captain 
in 1710 and ordered to America, where he joined the regiment raised 
in New England for the taking of Port Royal. He was at the 
capture of Annapolis Royal that year, and was for some time com- 
mander of the garrison as senior major of the regiment. On the 
death of Colonel Armstrong he became Lieutenant-Colonel of the 
regiment under General Phillips, and was third on the list of coun- 
cillors in 1 720 , when the first Council was organized in Nova 

226 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

Scotia. In 1740 he was appointed Lieut. -Governor of the fort, and 
administrated the government of the Province until the arrival of 
Cornwallis in 1749. He remained in command at Annapolis after 
the settlement at Halifax, and was subsequently engaged as agent 
of the British Government in arranging treaties with the Indians of 
New England and Acadia in 1751. He retired from active duties 
and died a Major General in the British army at Boston, on 20th 
January 1760. He left a son and daughter. His son was said to 
be living in New England in 1835, at a very advanced age. The late 
Judge Foster Hutchiuson, of the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia and 
the late Deputy Commissary General William Handfield Snelling, 
were his grandsons. His great-grandson, Mr. W. Snelling Stirling, 
has his portrait, painted by Smybert of Boston about 1725. 

Benjamin Green was a native of the province of Massachusetts, 
born in 1713, youngest son of the Rev. Joseph Green, minister of 
Salem, Mass., and graduate of Harvard College. He was brought 
up as a merchant under his elder brother Joseph in Boston. In 
1737 he married a daughter of the Honorable Joseph Pierce of Ports- 
mouth. He accompanied General Pepperal to Louisburg in 1745, 
as Secretary to the expedition. After the capture of that place by 
the Provincial army, he remained there as Government Secretary and 
manager of the finances until Cape Breton was restored to the 
French, when he removed with his family to Halifax, and was 
appointed to the Council by Governor Cornwallis in July 1749. 
After the removal of Mr. Davidson he acted as Secretary of the 
province. He held several other important public offices, among 
which were those of Treasurer and Judge of the Court of Vice- 
Admiralty. On the death of Governor Wilmot in 1766, Mr. Green 
being then senior councillor, was appointed Administrator of the 
Government. He died at Halifax in 1772, in the 59th year of 
his . age. His eldest son Benjamin succeeded him as Treasurer of 
the province. Benjamin Green, Junior, was father of Lieutenant 
William Green of the Navy, and Joseph Green and Henry Green of 
Lawrencetown, the latter left descendants at Lawrencetown. The 
second son of Governor Green was many years sheriff of Halifax, 
and having married a Boston lady, afterwards removed to that 
place. His daughter was married to Mr. Stephen H. Blimey, sou 
of Jonathan Binney of Halifax, whose descendants are numerous. 

History of Halifax . City. '2 2 1 

.Toliii Salisbury was brother to Dr. Thomas Salisbury, the eminent 
civil lawyer in London. Lord Halifax was his friend and patron, 
and sent him out with Governor Coruwallis as one of his suite. He 
does not appear to have taken any active part in the settlement. 
He married a Miss Cotton, who brought him a fortune of 10,000, 
which he spent in extravagance and dissipation. He returned to 
England in 1753, and died at Oflley, the country seat of his relative 
Sir Thomas Salisbury in 1762. His only daughter was the cele- 
brated Mrs. Thrale, the friend of Dr. Johnson, afterwards married 
to a Mr. Piozzi. 

Hugh Davidson also came out with Governor Cornwallis. He 
was the lirst Provincial Secretary; he returned to England in 1750 
under charges of trading in the supplies and stores for the settlers. 
Governor Coruwallis in his letters to the Board of Trade, thought 
him innocent of the main charges made against him. 

Captain Edward How was a member of His Majesty's Council at 
Annapolis in 1744. He was with Col. Noble at the affair at Minas 
and Grand Pre in 1747, where he was severely wounded and taken 
prisoner by the French under DeCorue. He came down from Anna- 
polis with Governor Mascarene in June 1749, and was sworn in a 
member of Cornwallis' first Council. He was well acquainted with 
the language of the Indians and their manners, and was sent on a 
negotiation to the French and Indians at Beaubasin in 1751, where 
he was treacherously murdered by the enemy, though acting under a 
flag of truce, having been shot through the back from the bush. 
The French officers denied having anything to do with this disgrace- 
ful affair, and charged it on Mr. LeLutre, the Indian missionary, 
who it was said was jealous of Mr. How's influence with the Mic- 
macs. His widow afterwards petitioned the government for 
pecuniary aid, in consequence of her husband's services, and for 
money advanced by him for public service. The late Richard W. 
How, captain in the 81st regiment, formerly of Halifax, was his 

Colonel John Goreham was a native of Massachusetts ; he was 
with General Pepperal at the siege of Louisburg in 1745, as 
Lieutenant-Colonel of his father's regiment raised in Massachusetts. 
He afterwards had command of a company of Rangers at Annapolis 
aud came down to Chebucto with his rangers to meet Governor 

228 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

Cornwallis in 1749. He took precedence next to Governor 
Mascarene at the council board. He is styled Captain Goreham by 
Mascarene and by Cornwallis in his commissions and correspondence. 
That of Lieutenant-Colonel was probably militia rank only. It is 
probable he returned to Boston soon after the settlement was formed 
us his name does not appear on the Council books after 1752. He 
had a brother, Joseph Goreham, who was also a member of Council 
in 1766; he afterwards attained the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel in 
the British army. He was engaged in the border skirmishes on the 
isthmus from 1754 to about 1758, and was afterwards appointed 
Commandant at Newfoundland. 

Lieutenant-Colonels Horseman, Ellison and Merser, who were 
afterwards appointed to the Council, were the officers in command 
of the regiments which came from Louisburg. They all retired soon 
after to England. 

Charles Lawrence was a Major in Warburton's Regiment of 
Infantry. He came up with the army and was engaged during 1749 
and '50 in the French wars at Cobequid. He acted as Brigadier 
General under Amherst at Louisburg ; he was a member of the 
Council and sworn in Governor of the Province on the death of 
Governor Hobsoii ; the first assembly was convened during his 
administration, (2nd October, 1758) ; he died unmarried on llth 
October, 1759, it is said of an inflammation, caused by overheating 
himself at a ball at Government House ; he was deeply respected by 
the whole community, and the Legislative Assembly caused a monu- 
ment to be erected to his memory in St. Paul's church " from a 
grateful sense of the many important sendees which the Province 
had received from him during a continued course of zealous and 
indefatigable endeavors for the public good, and a wise, upright, and 
disinterested administration." This monument has now disappeared 
from St. Paul's Church. His escutcheon remains in the East 
Gallery. Lawrence, though an active and zealous governor, by his 
desire to favor the officers of Government with a partiality for his 
military friends, brought on himself an organized opposition from 
the leading inhabitants of the town, who petitioned the Home 
Government for redress of their grievances, which they in a great 
measure attributed to the Governor and his Lieutenant Colonel 
Monckton. His resistance to the desire to call a Legislative 

History of Halifax City. 229 

Assembly was among the chief charges against him. His death 
shortly after the petition put an end to the difficulties. He was 
succeeded by Judge Belcher as Administrator of the Government. 

Charles Morris was a native of England ; he was Captain of 
Provincials under General Pepperal at the seige of Louisburg in 
1745. He had been engaged by Governor Shirley of Boston in a 
survey of the interior parts of Nova Scotia with a view to British 
colonization, in 1745. He also commanded one of the Provincial 
Companies sent to Minas under Colonel Noble in 1747. He was in 
Halifax in 1749, and in company with Mr. Bruce the Military 
Engineer laid out the town and peninsula. He was appointed to the 
Council in 1755. Though Surveyor General of the Province he 
acted for some time a Judge of the Supreme Court during the time 
of Chief Justice Belcher, which offices were both afterwards filled by 
his eldest son Charles. Captain Morris died in 1781, and was 
succeeded in the office of Surveyor General by his son Charles, 
whose son, the Hon. Charles Morris, also filled the same office and 
was a Member of Council in 1808. He was the father of John 
Spry Morris, Esq., afterwards Surveyor General, who was the fourth 
in succession who had charge of the Surveying Department in Nova 
Scotia. There are numerous descendants of Captain Morris in 

Jonathan Belcher, the first Chief Justice, was a native of Massa- 
chusetts, son of the Governor of that province, of an eminent 
colonial family ; he was appointed Chief Justice of Nova Scotia in 
1754, when a young man, and administered the government on the 
death of Governor Lawrence ; Chief Justice Belcher arranged and 
revised the laws as they appear on our first Statute Book, and 
rendered good assistance to Governor Lawrence in founding the 
settlements at Horton, Cornwallis, Falmouth, &c., in 1758, '9, and 
1760. Judge Belcher died poor; the Legislature voted a provision 
to his only daughter. His son, the Honorable Andrew Belcher, was\ 
for many years a resident in Halifax and member of Council. 

Captain Wm. Cotterell was the first Provost Marshal or Sheriff, 
(there being no county divisions at this time). He was succeeded 
in that office in 1750 by Captain Foy, who held that situation many 
years, and received a small pension on his retirement. Mr. Cotterel 
afterwards acted as assistant Provincial Secretary. 

230 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

William Nisbett came out with Cornwallis in 1749 as one of the 
Governor's clerks. He practised as an attorney and solicitor. He 
was appointed Attorney General on the resignation of Mr. Little, 
which office he held for 25 years. He was one of the first represent- 
atives in the General Assembly of 1758, and was elected speaker on 
4th December 1759. He continued in the Chair of the House (with 
the intermission of one session when sick) until 1783, when ho 
retired on a small pension and died the following year aged 83. In 
1763 he declined a seat in the Council. During the period of his 
being Speaker, the House sat for 14 years without being dissolved. 
The old house in which Mr. Nisbett resided situated in Grafton 
Street, Block letter E, Collins' division, mentioned in a former 
chapter, still remains, though much changed by the cutting down of 
the street many years ago. He left no -male descendants. His 
daughter, Mrs. Swann, died in the old Grafton street house about 
GO years ago. 

Archibald Hinshelwood was one of Governor Cornwallis' clerks, 
and performed the duties of Deputy Secretary with Mr. Cotterell 
and others for many years. Most of the drafts of the letters sent 
to England by the first three Governors are in his handwriting. He 
was elected a member of Assembly for Lunenburg in 1759 and again 
in 1765. Lord William Campbell the Governor appointed him to 
the Council in 1773, but he died before taking his seat. His 
property on Argyle Street after occupied by the City Water office 
fell to his nephew, (he having no children) , who left two sons in the 
navy, both of whom died young. The old property was sold about 
60 years since and purchased by Mr. W. A. Black, who resided 
there many years. 

Otis Little was Captain of one of the New England Independent 
Companies. He was probably a native of England. Being in 
England in 1749, he came out with Governor Cornwallis, who 
appointed him Commissary of Stores, from which office he was 
dismissed on suspicion of having traded in the supplies for the 
settlers. He acted as first Attorney General of the Colony, and 
was probably a lawyer by profession. He was the author of a well- 
written pamphlet on the resources of Nova Scotia, written in 1748, 

History of Halifax City. 231 

with a view to encouraging British emigration to the province. 
Capt. Little left a daughter, who died unmarried at Halifax early in 
the present century. 

John Baptiste Moreau, designated gentleman and schoolmaster 
in the book of the settlers, had been original^ a Roman Catholic 
priest, and Prior of the Abbe of St. Matthew at Breste. He joined 
the expedition under Cornwallis in 1749, and went to Lunenburg 
with the settlers in 1752. He received ordination as a clergyman 
of the Church of England in 1750, and officiated to his countrymen 
and the Germans in the County of Lnnenbnrg, where he died much 
esteemed and regretted in the year 1770. He left a son, Cornwallis 
Moreau, who was the first male child born in Halifax, and was 
called Cornwallis after the Governor. This old man was living at 
La Have, in Lunenburg County, in the year 1848, being nearly 100 
years of age. He received pecuniary assistance from the Nova 
Scotia Philanthropic Society in that year. 

Doctor John Breynton came up from Louisbnrg with the army, 
where he had been acting Chaplain to the Forces. He succeeded 
Mr. Tutty at St. Paul's in 1751 or 1752, in conjunction with Rev. 
Thomas Wood. Mr. Breyuton was inducted Rector in 1758 or '9, 
under the provisions of the Statutes of the Province, and Mr. Wood 
acted as Curate or Vicar. After Mr. Wood's removal to Annapolis 
in 1763, Mr. Joshua Wingate Weeks, from New England, became 
assistant minister at St. Paul's. Dr. Breynton received his degree 
of D. D. in 1770. He died in 17 , and was succeeded at St. 
Paul's, as rector, by the Rev. Doctor Robert Stanser, afterwards 
Lord Bishop of the Diocese. Dr. Breynton was esteemed an 
eloquent preacher, and was in the habit of addressing the settlers 
in English, French and German. 

John Creighton was an officer in the army. He served in the 
Dragoons at the Battle of Fontenoy. Having been discharged at 
the peace of Aix la Chappelle, he was placed on half pay as 
Lieutenant of Warburton's Regiment of Infantry, and came out with 
tin- expedition in 1749. Mr. Creighton was sent to Midigash with 
Col. Lawrence in 1752 to assist in forming the settlement at 
Lunenburg, where he continued to reside until his death, which 
took place in 1807. He was Colonel of the Militia, Judge of the 
Common Pleas, and for some time a member of His Majesty's 

282 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

Council, to which he was appointed in 1776. Col. Creightou was a 
native of the South of England. He left numerous descendants in 
this country. His youngest son, Col. Joseph Creighton, half pay 
of 56th Regiment of foot, died at Halifax about 185 1. His grand- 
son, the Hon. John Creighton, of Lunenburg. was a member of the 
Legislative Council. Mr. James Creighton, the ancestor of the 
family of that name now in Halifax, came out with Col. Creighton. 
It does not appear there was any relationship between them. Mr. 
James Creighton became one of the most thriving and influential 
settlers in the town, and was the ancestor of one of our most 
numerous and estimable families. Col. 'Creighton's daughters 
married, one to the late Judge Wilkins and another to Hon. 
Hibbert N. Binney, both of whom have left numerous descendants. 

Perigrin Thomas Hopson, the second Governor at Halifax, was 
Comrnander-in-Chief at Louisburg when that place was delivered up 
to the French after the Treaty of Aix la Chappelle. He came up 
with the army and was sworn in a member of Council in August, 
1749. He succeeded to the government on the resignation of 
Governor Cornwallis in August, 1753. He did not remain long at 
Halifax. In 1757 he was gazetted a Major General, and in the 
following year was appointed to the command of the forces destined 
for the West Indies. He died before Guadaloupe a short time 
before the Island was captured. 

John Collier was a Captain in the army and Member of Council in 
1752. He was appointed by Governor Cornwallis one of the 
magistrates of the town, and had command of a section of the 
militia ; one of the divisions of the town being named after him. 
He died at Halifax in 1769. It is uncertain whether he left any 

Richard Bulkeley accompanied Governor Cornwallis to Nova 
Scotia as one of his A. D. C. in 1749. He was appointed Secretary 
of the Province in or about 1759, which office he held until 1793 
when, on his retirement, he was succeeded by his son, Michael 
Freke Bulkeley, who died a few years after his appointment, 1796. 
Capt. Bulkeley was called to His Majesty's Council in 1759, and as 
Senior Councillor, he administered the government on the death of 
Governor Parr, in 1791. He held, at various times, the offices of 
Judge of Admiralty, Brigadier General of Militia, and Grand Master 

History of Halifax C>t>/. '233 

of the Masons. He died December 7th, 1800, at the age of 83, 
beloved and respected by all classes throughout the province. He 
was justly esteemed the father of the settlement, being the only 
person of consideration then living who came in 1749. He had 
been twice married. His first wife was a daughter of Cape. Rouse, 
R. X. ; she died in 1775. He had three sons, all of whom died 
before him. His residence was at the corner of Prince and Argylc 
Streets, opposite the south-west corner of St. Paul's Church. The 
old stone house built by him still remains ; it was for many years 
the residence of the late Hon. H. H. Cogswell, and is now known 
us the Carltou House. Mr. Bulkeley was buried under St. Paul's 
Church. His escutcheon, with the bull's head crest, hangs in the 
west gallery. The Hon. Richard Bulkeley was the only person who 
ever held the rank of General of Militia in this country. 

Capt. Horatio Gates was A. D. C. to Governor Cornwallis with 
Capt. Bulkeley. He had been in command of an independent 
company of provincials in New York in the year 1737. After his 
arrival in Halifax he was employed for a short time in the country 
against the Indians and French. In 1762 he was appointed A. D. 
C. to General Monckton, with the rank of Major, and accompanied 
him in the expedition against Martinique. Gates was afterwards 
better known as a General in the American Revolutionary Army. 
Sir Robert Walpole, in a letter dated 1778, says Gates was the son of 
a housekeeper of the Duke of Leeds. Sir Robert was his God-father. 

Jonathan Biuney was a native of Hull, a small village near 
Boston. He came to Halifax shortly after the settlement was 
formed, and was engaged in business. He was elected a Member 
of Assembly for the town in 1761, and in 1764 was elevated to the 
Council. In 1768 he was sent to the Island of St. John (now 
Prince Edward Island) as Second Judge of the Local Court, and 
afterwards held the offices of Collector of the Revenue at Canso and 
Collector of Imports and Excise at St. John Island. He was 
charged with errors in his accounts by Mr. Legge, the Governor of 
the province, under which he went to England in 1776, where he 
completely refuted the charges made against him. Mr. Binuey 
married Hannah, daughter of Mr. Henry Newton, a Member of 
Council, and is the ancestor of the whole Binuey family now in 
Nova Scotia. 

234 Nova Scotia Historical -Society. 

Joseph Fairbanks was from Massachusetts. He was one of the 
representatives in the iirst House of Assembly, summoned in 1758. 
Mr. Fairbanks left no children. His nephew, the late Rufus Fair- 
banks, became heir to all his property in Halifax, which at the time 
of his death was very considerable. Mr. Rufus Fairbanks was for 
many years one of the magistrates of Halifax ; he married a 
daughter of Charles Prescott, sister to the Hon. Charles Prescott, 
of Cornwallis, and was the father of the Hon. John E. Fairbanks, 
of the firm of Fairbanks & McNab ; of Hon. Charles R. Fairbanks, 
many years a Member of Assembly for Halifax and Judge of 
Admiralty and Master of the Rolls, and of Samuel P. Fairbanks, 
formerly Member for Queens County, with other children. 

Benjamin and Joseph Gerrish were both from New England. 
The former was a member of His Majesty's Council, appointed in 
1768, and Agent for Indian Affairs in 1760. The latter was many 
years Naval Storkkeeper at Halifax. He was also a Member of 
Council. His appointment to the Board bears date August 16th, 
1659, from which he was suspended in 1762 for non-attendance. 
He died at Halifax in 1774. Mr. Joseph Gerrish built a residence 
in the north suburbs, south of the Dockyard, between Lockman and 
Water Streets, and had a fruit garden, the old stone wall of which 
remained on the east side of Lockman Street until about 1835. 
One of these gentlemen carried on business for some years in 
company with Mr. Gray, who was connected with him by marriage. 
Mr. Gray was father of the late Rev. Dr. Benjamin Gerrish Gray, 
minister of St. George's, and afterwards Rector of Trinity, St. 
John, New Brunswick, who was succeeded by his sou, the Rev. Dr. 
William Gray, lately deceased. He was also the ancestor of Mr. 
Charles Gray, British Consul at Virginia. The Hon. John Gray, 
of St. John, New Brunswick, and Benjamin Gerrish Gray, Esq., 
barrister at law, of Halifax, are their descendants ; one the son of 
Mr. Charles Gray, the other of Dr. William Gray. A Mr. John 
Gray came out with Governor Cornwallis in 1749 as a Deputy 
Secretary ; probably Mr. Gray who was in partnership with Gerrish 
was the same person. 

R, Major Leonard Lochman, (spelt wrongfully Lockman) was a 
German doctor and practised his profession in early life. He came 
out with the settlers in 1749 and resided in the north suburbs, 

History of Halifax City. 235 

where he built a residence for himself and had a large garden. 
This old house was lately pulled down. It stood on the upper side 
of Lockman Street and was built with a hipped or gamble roof. He 
received the rank of Major in the army for services performed to 
the British Government. He died at Halifax, and was buried 
under the little old Dutch Church, in Brunswick Street, where his 
escutcheon and monument with armorial bearings are still to be 
seen. The street between Brunswick Street and the water, which 
was laid out between the German lots, was named Lockman Street 
in compliment to the Major, who was for many years a leading man 
in Dutchtown. It is not known whether he left any descendants in 
the province. 

The names of Jonathan Prescott, Malachi Salter, Richard Gibbons, 
Lewis Piers and Otto William Schwartz appear among the principal 
inhabitants of the town in 1750. Mr. Salter was from New 
England, had been extensively engaged in the fishery, and had 
visited Chebucto Harbor in 1744, five years before the settlement, 
while on a fishing voyage along the coast. Chebucto was the 
frequent resort of Cape Cod and Marblehead fishermen previous to 
the settlement. He was a Member of Assembly and Justice of the 
Peace for the town in 1759. The old house at the corner of Salter 
and Hollis Streets, afterwards the residence of the Hon. \V. Lawsou, 
and later of Mr. Esson, was built by Mr. Salter and was his place 
of residence for many years. During the American revolt, Mr. 
Salter, with several other gentlemen of the town, became suspected 
of treasonable correspondence. He was twice under prosecution, 
but on a full investigation nothing appeared to have been said or 
written by him of sufficient moment to warrant the charges. Mr. 
Salter was the ancestor of the family of that name now remaining 
in Halifax. He died at Halifax, in January, 1781, aged 65. 

Mr. Gibbons was acting Attorney General for several years, and 
a leading practitioner at the Bar of Halifax. His son, Richard 
Gibbons, died at Sydney, Cape Breton, at an advanced age, where 
his descendants are numerous. The old gamble-roofed house at 
the corner of Buckingham and Graf ton Streets, known as Isles' 
corner, lately pulled down, was the residence of Mr. Gibbons. 

John Duport was the English Attorney. He came out with the 
settlers in June, 1749, and in July following was appointed a 

236 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

Justice of the Peace. In 1752 he was made Judge of the Inferior 
Court of Common Pleas. He performed the duties of Secretary of 
Council for many years. He was sent as a Judge to St. John's 
Island in 1770, and was afterwards Chief Justice of the Island. 
Mr. Duport left a daughter married to Mr. P. Skey, of Falmouth, 
and a son who was in the army and was father of Mr. Robert 
Duport, later an officer in the Purveyor's department of the British 
Army. Judge Duport was much esteemed, and appears to have 
been an active public servant during the first twenty years of the 

Joshua Mauger was an English trader, who had been connected 
with the government contracts at Louisburg, and appears to have 
resided in Halifax for the purpose of commerce only. In 1751 he 
held the office of Agent Victualler for the navy at Halifax. In 
1754 he had shops established at Pisiquid, (Windsor) Miiias, 
(Horton) and other places, where he sold goods and spirits to the 
French and Indians. He had still houses in Halifax where he made 
rum which he supplied to the troops and the navy. Mr. Mauger 
had some difficulties with Governor Cornwallis regarding illicit 
dealing. He went back to England about 1761, and was appointed 
Agent of the Province in London, which he resigned in the following 
year, having secured a seat in the British Parliament. He owned 
much property in and about Halifax. The beach at the entrance of 
the harbor, extending westerly from Cornwallis, now McNab's 
Island, was originally granted to Mr. Mauger, and still bears his 

Michael Franklin was a merchant from England who settled in 
Halifax about 1752 or 1753. He was elected a Member of 
Assembly in 1759, and appointed to His Majesty's Council in 1762. 
In 1766 he received the appointment of Lieut. -Governor of the 
Province, which he held until 1776, when he again took his seat at 
the Council Board. Governor Franklin was a most active and 
esteemed public officer. His name appears connected with almost 
all the transactions of importance which occurred in the town from 
1763 to 1780. During the American Revolt, his exertions in 
support of British authority while administering the government, 
were in a great measure instrumental in preserving the tranquility of 
the province. He married a daughter of Mr. Boteneau, of Boston, 

History oj Halifax City. 237 

whose wife was a daughter of Peter Faneuil of that city. He left 
several children. The late James Boteneau Franklin, for many 
years Clerk of the House of Assembly, was his eldest son. Mrs. 
Fitzgerald Uniacke was his grand-daughter. 

Lewis Piers was a grand-son of Sir Henry Piers, 1st Bart, of 
Tristernagh Abbey, Ireland. 

The Hon. Thomas Saul was the wealthiest and most enterprising 
merchant from 1749 to 1760. 

The names of Benjamin Gerrish, Charles King, Henry Ferguson, 
Joseph Fairbanks, William Piggot, William Fury, James Grant, 
Jacob Hurd, Daniel Shatford, Samuel Sellon, Carles Mason, Lewis 
Piers and Robert Campbell appear on the lists of the Grand Jury 
between 1751 and 1754. 

The following names appear on the register of early settlers : 
Richard Wenman, Thomas Keys, John Edes, John Gosbee, Ralph 
Coulston, Edward Orpen, John Christopher Laurilliard, Philip 
Knaut, Peter Burgman, Otto William Schwartz, John Jacob Preper, 
John Woodin, Andrew Wellner, Christopher Preper, Simon 

History of Halifax City. 239 



The following is a copy of the advertisement which appeared in 
the London Gazette, March, 1749 : 

WHITEHALL, 7th March, 1749. 

A proposal having been presented unto His Majesty for the 
establishing a civil government in the Province of Nova Scotia, in 
North America, as also for the better peopling and settling the said 
province, and extending and improving the fishery thereof by 
granting lands within the same, and giving other encouragement to 
such of the officers and private men lately dismissed His Majesty's 
land and sea service, as shall be willing to settle in said province. 
And His Majesty having signed his royal approbation of the report 
of the said proposals, the Right Honorable the Lords Commissioners 
for Trade and Plantations do, by His Majesty's command, give 
notice that proper encouragement will be given to such of the 
officers and private men lately dismissed His Majesty's land and sea 
service as are willing to accept of grants of land, aud to settle with 
or without families, in Nova Scotia. That 50 acres of laud will be 
granted in fee simple to every private soldier or seaman, free from 
the payment of any quit rents or taxes for the term of ten years ; 
at the expiration whereof no person to pay more than one shilling 
per annum for every 50 acres so granted. 

That a grant of ten acres over and above the 50 will be made to 
each private soldier or seamen having a family for every person 
including women and children of which his family shall consist, and 
from the grants made to them on the like conditions as their families 
shall increase, or in proportion to their abilities to cultivate the 

That eighty acres on like conditions will be granted to every 
officer under the rank of Ensign in the land service, and that of 
Lieutenant in the sea service, and to such as have families, fifteen 
acres over and above the said eighty acres, for every person of 
which their family shall consist. 

That two hundred acres on like conditions will be granted to 
every Ensign, three hundred to every Lieutenant, four hundred to 
every Captain, and six hundred to every officer above the rank of 
Captain. And to such of the above mentioned officers as have 
families, a further grant of thirty acres will be made over and above 
their respective quotas for every person of which their family shall 

240 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

That the lands will be parcelled out to the settlers as soon as 
possible after their arrival, and a civil government established, 
whereby they will enjoy all the liberties, privileges and immunities 
enjoyed by His Majesty's subjects in any other of the Colonies and 
Plantations in America, under His Majesty's Government, and proper 
measures will also be taken for their security and protection. 

That all such as are willing to accept of the above proposals shall, 
with their families, be subsisted during the passage, also for the 
space of twelve months after their arrival. 

That they shall be furnished with arms and ammunition as far as 
will be judged necessary for their defence, with a proper quantity of 
materials and utensils for husbandry, clearing and cultivating the 
lands, erecting habitations, carrying on the fishery, and such other 
purposes as shall be deemed necessary for their support. 

That all such persons as are desirous of engaging in the above 
settlement do transmit by letter, or personally give in their names 
signifying in what regiment or company, or on board what ship they 
last served, and if they have families they intend to carry with them, 
distinguishing the age and quality of such person to any of the 
following officers appointed to receive and enter the same in the 
books opened for that purpose, viz : John Pownell, Esq., Solicitor 
and Clerk of the Repts. of the Lords Comrs. of Trade and Planta- 
tions, at their office at Whitehall ; John Ressell, Esq., Comr. of His 
Majesty's Navy at Portsmouth; Philip Vanburgh, Esq., Comr. of 
His Majesty's Navy at Plymouth. 

And the proper notice will be given of the said books being closed 
as soon as the intended number shall be completed, or at least on 
the 7th day of April. .- 

It is proposed that the Transports shall be ready to receive such 
persons on board on the 10th April, and be ready to sail on the 
20th, and that timely notice will be given of the place or places to 
which such persons are to repair in order to embark. 

That for the benefit of the settlement, the same conditions which 
are proposed to private soldiers and seamen shall likewise be granted 
to Carpenters, Shipwrights, Smiths, Masons, Joiners, Brickmakers, 
Bricklayers, and all other artificers necessary in building or hus- 
bandry, not being private soldiers or seamen. 

That the same conditions as are proposed to those who have 
served in the capacity of Ensign shall extend to all Surgeons, 
whether they have been in His Majesty's service or not, upon their 
producing proper certificates of their being duly qualified. 

By order of the Right Hon. the Lords Comrs. of Trade and 

(Signed) THOMAS HILL, Secretary. 

History of Halifax City. 241 


The following notices appear in the Gazettes and Magazines of 
the clay : 

LONDON, Saturday, July 1, 1749. 

Three vessels came up the river with about 300 German Protes- 
tants, who were ordered to remain at Lambeth and Vauxhall till 
they can be conveniently shipped to Nova Scotia. 

Friday 21st July, 1749. 

A great number of German Protestants from the Palatinate 
attended the Baron Munchausen, Chief Secretary for Hanover, with 
a petition soliciting a passage to Nova Scotia. 

"Wednesday, 12th April, 1749. 

A great number of disbanded soldiers, discharged sailors, poor 
artificers, laborers, etc., who have accepted of His Majesty's grant 
of lands in Nova Scotia, attended at the Plantation Office in White- 
hall, and received orders for admission, with their families and 
effects, on board the transports. 

WHITEHALL, April 18, 1749. 

Lieut. -Col. Cornwallis made Colonel and Commander of the 
Forces destined for Nova Scotia, with a salary of 1000 per 

May 9, 1749. 

Hon. Edward Cornwallis to be Captain General and Governor-in- 
Chief in and over the Province of Nova Scotia or Acadia. 


Extract from a letter in the Gentleman's Magazine for 1 749 : 

BOSTON, 10th July, 1749. 

We have advice that two French men-of-war of 80 guns, and 20 
transports, with a Governor and troops for a garrison, have 
arrived at Louisburg. The French Government offered Governor 
Hobson to transport his garrison to Chebucto, which was accepted, 
and orders came to discharge the vessels taken up here for that 
service. Col. Cornwallis, Governor of Nova Scotia, arrived at 

242 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

Chebucto on 21st June* in the Sphinx, and Capt. Rouse in a sloop 
of war, and fifteen transports with 2000 adventurers on board, 
whose first settlement will be at or near Chebucto, where the 
Governor I intended to keep the transports till next year for the 
convenience of^the people, especially the women and children, until 
houses are built. The same encouragement that has been given to 
the British disbanded soldiers is given to Governor Sherley's and 
Col. Pepperell's regiments. Rum was sold at Louisburg for 9d. per 
gallon, and molasses extremely cheap. The French lost a great 
number of men in their passage to Louisburg by the small pox, 
yellow fever, etc., but the transports at Chebucto lost only one 


The following account of the expenditure on the settlement for 
the year 1749, was submitted to Parliament by the Lords Commis- 
sioners of Trade and Plantations : 

Blankets, Woolens and Shoes for the settlers, and presents for 

the Indians 1,325 4 8 

Lines, Nets and Hooks for Fishery, Stationery, Surveyors' 

Instruments, Bricks and Garden Seeds 2,729 12 9 

Lighterage and Shipping off the settlers, package and charges of 
Hospital Stores, a Surgeon with medicines by the Transport 

from Liverpool, and the Union Snow 336 3 

Medicines, Sugar, Live Stock, for the voyage, and Drugs, 

Instruments and necessaries for the Hospital 680 14 8 

French Bibles 102 17 10 

Cash paid for victualling for settlers 12,068 5 6 

Treasurer of the Navy's account for Bedding and Victualling 

during voyage 7,354 19 

Ditto, on account of the Sarah, Transport, from Liverpool 67 18 8 

Treasurer of the Ordnance account for field pieces, swivel guns, 

small arms and powder . . . 3,592 4 4 

Printing and incidental expenses by directions of Lords Com- 
missioners of Trade 445 19 10 

Ventilators for six Transports 102 1 1 6 

2 Fire Engines 72 16 

Pay of Sm-geons, Apothecaries, Midwife, exclusive of what they 

received at Halifax 860 

Silver and Gold carried out by the Governor 3,922 8 

Bills of Exchange drawn by the Governor, the account of the 

expenditure not yet received 11,452 13 4 

Bill to Capt. Ives for a boat 40 

The Treasurer for Scales and Weights 21 7 

Bills drawn by Delancey & Watt, of New York, for Silver sent 

to the Province 5,523 5 9 

* The memorandum on the first page of the register of settlers makes the date of 
Cornwallis's arrival the 8th June the writer of this letter may have been misinformed. 

History of Halifax City. 


Thomas Handcock, Esq., for Boards, Plank, 2 Schooners, Salt 

and Money shipped to purchase materials for mills 1,528 15 

Bills drawn by S. Martin, from Boston 576 8 6 

52,804 2 7 
To the Transport Service for conveying the Settlers to Nova 

Scotia, etc 23,672 1 3 

To Governor Cornwallis for personal outfit 

76,476 3 10 

76,976 3 10 

Account submitted to Parliament by the Lords Commissioners 
the following year : 

Blankets, Woolens and Shoes for settlers, and presents for 

Indians 1,325 4 8 

Supplies for Fishery, Surveyor's Instruments, Bricks and Garden 

Seeds 2,729 12 9 

Lighterage and Shipping Settlers, package and charges of Hos- 
pital Stores, etc 336 3 

Medicines, Sugar, Live Stock, Drugs, Instruments, etc., for 

Hospital 680 14 8 

French Bibles 102 17 10 

Cash paid for Victualling Settlers 12,068 5 6 

Treasurer of the Navy's account for Bedding and Victualling 

during voyage 7,354 19 

Ditto on account of Sarah, Transport, from Liverpool 67 18 8 

Treasurer of the Ordnance account for field pieces, swivel guns, 

small arms and powder 3,592 4 4 

Printing and incidental expenses by directions of the Lords of 

Trade 445 19 10 

Ventilators for 6 Transports 102 1 1 

Two Fire Engines 72 16 

Bill to Capt. Ives for a Boat 40 O 

The Treasurer for Weights and Scales 21 7 

Thomas Handcock, Esq 1,528 15 6 

Pay of Surgeons, Apothecaries and Midwife, exclusive of \\ hat 

they received at Halifax 860 

To Transport Service for conveying settlers to Nova Scotia .... 23,672 1 3 

Fees thereon 147 19 9 

Fees on money received from the Exchequer, exclusive of the 

sums charged on the foregoing articles 473 4 6 

To Freight, Bed, Bedding and Cabins for 514 passengers on 
board the Alderney, Nancy, Fair Lady and Two Friends, 
Transports, and incidental expenses attending embarkation, 

etc., etc 3,144 4 4 

To expenses repairing and fitting Sloop, New Casco 833 19 6 

Gratuities 322 Foreign Protestants from Holland 338 2 

Cash paid on account d Victualling settlers 4,500 U 

Cash to Treasurer of Ordnance for Bills drawn by Governor .... 1,000 
To Governor Cornwallis for the purchase of stores, payment of 
officers, package of stores, artificers and laborers, and con- 
tingent expenses, exclusive of 2,500 paid to his regiment 
for the four pence stopped for provisions to llth Sept., 1750 35,268 2 
Lieut. Martin's disbursements at Boston, for materials, vessels 

and stores 6,503 18 2 


Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

To Apthorp & Handcock, disbursements at Boston, for materials, 

vessels and stores 6,924 14 6 

Thos. Gunter's Bills remitted him at Boston, on account of 

Expedition to Chignecto 2,600 

Benj. Green, Treasurer, by his account from Sept. 20, 1750, to 

Nov. 30, 1750 3,621 14 

Richard Bulkley, Paymaster of Works, from 1st August, 1750, 

to Nov. 30 4,073 16 3 

To hire of Transports retained in the service and not paid by 

the Navy 4,002 -2 4 

To Foreign Settlers employed in public works at 12d. per day, 

till the money advanced is thereby reimbursed 1,005 

To Col. Phillips' (now Cornwallis') Regt., to return deductions 

for provisions to Christmas, 1750 3,919 5 8 

To provisions supplied Cols. Warberton's and Lascelles' Regts. , 

Artillery Company, Independent Companies, seamen in 

vessels, laborers and artificers 17,832 3 8 

Victual and transporting Lascelles' Regt. from Ireland 8,581 3 9 

To Office of Ordnance for Timber, Materials and Tools sent from 

Annapolis, hire of ve sels, magazine of powder and payment 

of officers and artificers employed by the Board 10,417 15 3 

173,838 2 3 

By account of Money granted by Parliament for Nova Scotia 
Colony Regiment, March 23, 1748, granted upon account 
towards the charge of transporting to His Majesty's Colony 
of Nova Scotia, and supporting and maintaining there such 
reduced officers, etc., etc 40,000 

1749. Granted upon account for defraying the charges incurred 
by transporting to H. M. Colony of Nova Scotia, and sup- 
porting and maintaining settlers not provided for by Par- 
liament 36,476 3 10 

1749. Granted on account for supporting, maintaining and 

employing the settlers, March 19, 1750 39,778 17 2 

Exceedings 57,682 19 3 

173,938 2 3 

The charge for contingencies, and the last charge of 10,417 15. 3., probably 
embrace the expenditure on Government buildings the two churches of England, 
St. Paul's and St. Matthew's ; also the fortifications and other government 
works then in progress. 

WHITEHAU,, February 20, 1750. 

Estimate for 1756 61,657 

1757 40,068 

1758 15,753 

Estimate for 1751 74,970 

1752 96,639 

1753 58,559 

1754 47,741 

1755 55,799 

1759 13,081 

History of Halifax City. 245 


The following extracts are from the letters of a French officer 
after the siege of Louisburg : 

" The eyes of all Europe are fixed on this formidable armament; 
they have assembled an army of 22,000 men, 1600 brought from 
Europe, the remainder provincial militia, with a large train of 
artillery and munitions of war, 22 line of battle-ships and 200 
transports. Yet Admiral Holburu, who appeared off Louisburg 
with 22 sail of men-of-war, took it into his head that our numbers 
were equal to his own, and has made his way back to Halifax. They 
will ask him there, why did you run away? Oh! says he, a 
superior force venit, vedit, fugit. It is vexatious that the first 
squadron which France has equipped since 1703 should be shackled 
with orders only to keep a look out. If ever there was a certainty 
of firing gunpowder to the renown of the white flag, it was on the 
19th August, when Hoi burn appeared off Louisburg." 

In some of his subsequent letters he appears to give a very 
accurate account of the seige, and some facts relative to the war 
not to be found in any history of that period. In speaking of the 
landing of Wolfe at the head of the Highlanders and the American 
Light Troops 

" It is the interest of the conquered not to diminish the glory of 
the victor, and besides it is our duty to do justice even to our 
mortal enemy, for which reason I confess that the English on this 
occasion behaved with such valor as before the event must have 
appeased temerity. Yet it must be allowed that at the same time 
the difficulty of the enterprise does them infinite honor, it saves 
ours ; who would have forseen that they would have ventured to 
have climbed rocks till then rendered inaccessible, under a heavy 
fire from our batteries, notwithstanding their boats were every 
moment knocked to pieces in the surf, which drowned great 

In speaking of the capitulation he says : 

" Though reduced to the last extremity we demanded far more 
advantageous terms than we had reason to expect. After a 
consultation between Admiral Boscawen and General Amherst, an 
unconditional surrender was demanded. Dracourt, the Governor, 
extremely exasperated at those terms, resolved to hold out, but was 
compelled to give in on receiving a most peremptory petition on the 
part of the inhabitants, presented by M. Prevost. The capitulation 
was signed on 15th July, 1758, after a bloody siege of two months. 
On the day following, our troops were drawn up, and the colors 
and arms surrendered to General Whitmore, who took command of 
the town. The evening before the English took possession of the 


Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

town, we suffered our soldiers to plunder the magazines, and the 
priests spent the whole night in marrying all the girls of the city to 
the first who would have them. No one here can perceive, at least 
by any personal inconvenience, that we are in a conquered town. 
The garrison has embarked with as much tranquility as if it had 
been going on a voyage of pleasure. Every soldier has taken away 
whatever belongs to him without suffering the least injustice. M. 
De Dracourt has received all the ho.nors which a person of his rank 
deserved ; Admiral Boscawen has shown all the respect to Madam 
De Dracourt as were due to her merits. This lady has performed 
such exploits during the siege as must entitle her to rank among the 
most illustrious of her sex, for she fired three cannon every day in 
order to animate the gunners. After the surrender she interested 
herself in behalf of all the unfortunates ; in this number M. Maillet 
de Grandville was a striking instance of the instability of fortune. 
He left France at the age of 17, arrived at Quebec in indifferent 
circumstances ; by his industry and application to business, he 
accumulated a vast fortune which enabled him to purchase the 
Lordship of St. Louis, which cost him 80,000 livres ; but now, by 
the taking of Louisburg, he is left quite destitute with a numerous 

HALIFAX, July, 1752. 

A list of the families of English, Swiss, etc., which have been 
settled in Nova Scotia since the year 1749, and who now are 
settlers in the places hereafter mentioned. 



above 16. 

above 16. 

under 16. 

under 16. 



John Scutt , . , . 




Edmund Dwight 






Benjamin Brown 



William Gindler 






Samuel Shipton 





Charles Procter 





Jonathan Hoar 



Gerchon Tuffs 





Preserved Cun liable 





William Bourn 




Matthew Barnard 




William Rundal 



Anthony Caverly 



Charles Hay 




Nathaniel Henderson . . 




History of Halifax City. 



above 16. 

above 16. 

under 16. 

under 16. 



Henry Chadwick 





Samuel Lyne . 






Thomas Fitzpatrick 





Judah Riger . . 




Ezekiel Gilman 




John Kinselagh 




Benjamin Ives . ... 



Mrs. Decorot . 





Josiah Crossby 






William Harris 




Benjamin Phippeny 




George Gerrish 





Robert Norman 


John Cox 


Edward Bowden . 




John Tongue 




Samuel Tanner . . . 



Samuel Chandler 



George Sanders 





John Christian Mulhlhe 






Ernst Preper 




Christopher Harness 





Charles Robins . . . 





Ezekiel Wildman 





Walter Motley 





Charles Christ 






Peter Schahlan 



Peter Mozar 






John Hoffens 





Peter Wayte 





Thomas Hay 



Jacob Cheney 






John Jones 




Mary Birin 






Charles King 






John Porter 





Joseph Pratt 





Daniel Brewer 




William Hunstable 





Benjamin Storer 





Jasper Battel . 





Ulrich Dithoe 




Hans. Geo. Kohl 




Joseph Chadwick 




Christopher Warner 





John Christopher Rodoph . . ... 



John Burger Erad 




John A. Le Mand 





Ludovick Schnerr 










248 Nova Scotia Historical Society. 



above 16. 

above 16. 

under 16. 

under 16. 



Chs. Ludk. Hagelsieb 





John Peter Tahn 





Michael Brier , 






La renz Busgler 






Leonhard Urich 





Jacob Craft 





Wendal Ramjer 






George Storch 





Peter Klattenburger 






Michael Clouser 



Michael Morash 





Jacob Schmidt 




Joseph Ley 




Barthel Hans 





Jacob Moser 






Conrad Hall 





Jacob Hall 





Joseph Bley 





Michael Ley 





E izabeth Werner 




Magdalen Orell 



Benedict Mayhofer 




Andreas Kalb 





Adam Rundl 




U rich Seeger 




Daniel Schumaker 



John Jacob Schmidt 




Adam Luty 




Conrad Mucher 




Godfried Knotz 





Peter Lawner 





Godfried Torpel ... 





Jacob Tanner 






Johannus Buhofer 




George Nagel 





Rudolph Pense 






Adam Wambolt 




Peter Wambolt 




Ruchart Schup 






M ichael Hagg 



Michael Gimber 





Adam Buhler 




Andreas Young . 








Casper Hickman 





Henrick Oxner 






Jean Mange 





Casper Lehry 




Peter Estmann 





Johannus Lonus 





Loui Eouton 





History of Halifax City. 




above 16. 

above 16. 

under 16. 

under 16. 


Casper Trillian ....... ...... 




Augustin Wolf 






Anton Halton 





Matthias Nagel 



Franciska Schnider 




Ludwig Xoenig 





Nicholas \Volf . . .... 





Johannes Schroeder 



Johannes Loesten 



Utrick Klett . . . . . ...... 




Maria Schlitter 




Johannus Miller 





Johanues Hoaif 




George Vogler 





Jacob Paulus 






Oonrade Werner 






Matheus Finer 





Andreas Sronnagel 





Jacob H < i >1 1 





George Polleber 




Christian Finis 





Gotleib Schermuller 





Adam Schmidt 






Christian Perfek 





Christian Ernst , 




Frederick Aurenburg 






Nicholas Eggly .. .... 




Henrick Kuhn 




Ulrick Schenekill 






Jacob Shaffhouser 




Johannes Simon 






Asmus Diel , 




Jacob Sperry 




Adam Jung 





Johann Jung 












Scotia Historical Society. 




00 i-l 


CO > 

5 o 



above 1(5. 

under 16. 

under 16. 






Thomas Latham 




Jonathan Prescott * 









Edmund Crawley "f 










Wil'iam Trefoy . 




Darby Cavanaugh 






Edward Lush 




Alice Twyny 



James Ridder . . 



John Crooks . 





James Hickens .... 





James Pierpont 





John Shippey ... 





Peter a negro 





John Call 





Ruth Wheeler .... 




Joseph Harris 



Richard Peirie . .... 




Francis Coburne 






Charles Terlaven 





Darby Sullivan .... . . . 



John Jackson . . 





Gregory Ives ... . . 




Samuel Sellon 



Isaac Underdunk 






George Featherstone 






Maurice Welsh 





Andrew Shepperd 





William Mallus 






Phillip Hammond 





Solomon Reed 





Joseph Evans 



John Wa'ker 






Thomas Nunan 




George Knox 




Joseph Gullison 





Jason Chapman 





Rebecca Baldwin 






Richard Manning 




James Cane 



Dennis Hieffernon 






William Wickham 




John Rider 





Josiah Marshall 





Joseph Pierce 




John Steel . . 




* Father of the late Hon. Charles Prescott. 
t Afterwards Member of Council. 

History of Halifax City. 




above 16. 

above 16. 




under 16. 


Malachy Salter 






Charles Kanier 



Jeremiah Rogers 





* Peter, Marquis D'Conti and Gravina 



Samuel Cleveland 






Richard Graham 




William Nesbitt 




Isaac Knott 






Daniel Tappoon .... 




Hannah Hutchinson 



Isaac Basset 




Thomas Clarke 






Robert Davis 






William Lawson 






John Kustace 



John Miller 






James Grimes 




John Griffin 






Joseph Mehany 




Josiah Cleveland 







Josiah Nottage 





Mathew Mullens 






Henry Ferguson 





Jean Campbell 



Kzekiah Averil 






Thomas Hardin 





Thomas Maggee 






Robert Brooks 



James Jordan 





John Poor 




Thomas Lamb 






Thomas Collicut 




John Barry 




Maurice Driscoll 





John McCuller 




Benjamin Child 






William Wallace 





John Murphy .... 




Henry Rigby 






William Peters 



David Carmer 




Patrick Malioney 




Samuel Fulton 




Dennis Sullivan 




Stephen Wisdoms 











Bartholomew Calahan . . 





* A Sicilian Nobleman, who came with a number of settlers from the West Indies. 
He was afterwards a Lieutenant of one of the companies of Rangers 


Nova Scotia Historical Society. 



above 16. 

above 16. 

under 16. 

under 16. 



Cornelius Crowley 





Nathaniel Millett 





Peter Wallace 



John Slayter 



Martin Ludovig 



John \Visdom . 





George Cheshire 




George Featherstone 





Richard Sparks 




Jacob Hurd 



William Williams 





Jedediah Harris 






Abraham Slayter 





Richard Winter 




John Arbuckle 






Perfect Miller 




Mary Miller 




Samuel Greenfield 




Moses Clarke 







William Matthews 





William Christopher 





Thomas Walker 





Daniel Hills 




Richard Williams 




Daniel Farrel 






James Fullerton 





Nathaniel Mason 



Aaron Porter 



Jacobus Derkindrekin 




William Se ward 




Joshua Orne 



Elias Girott 





Richard Wenman 



Daniel Shatford 





Charles Henderson 




Jonathan Harris 




Patrick Cambell 




Aaron Cleveland 






James Monk 






Samuel Crafts 




William Russel 




Ann Wenmen, in Orphan House 





Joseph Palmer, in Hospital 



2 9 

Michael Naddow 



Joseph Gerrish 




Dennis Mehaney 




John Conway 






Mrs. Taylor 



Michael Lawler 




History of Halifax City. 





"3 > 
S o 

above 16 

under 16 

under 16 



Peter Murpil 





John Gallant 






Nicholas Nagler 





1 Swiss 





Josiah Bracket 







above 16. 

above 16. 

under 16. 

under 16. 




Thomas Power 






Joshua Mauger 






William Steele, Esq 




Benjamin Gerrisli 




Robert Cowey 






Abigail Ward