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the collector's jazz 

KEYSTONEjBooks in Music 


Traditional and Swing 
by John S, Wilson 

by John S. Wilson 

by Nathan Broder 

by C. G, Burke 


by Harold C. Schonberg 



by John Briggs 




by Arthur Cohn 


by Max de Schauensee 




John S. Wilson 


Philadelphia $ New York 

Copyright 1959 by John S. Wilson 

Copyright 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959 
"by Audicom, Inc. 

Copyright 1959 by Ziff -Davis 

Publishing Company 

First Edition 

Printed in the United States o America 

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 





INDEX 309 


LIKE ALMOST every other other attempt to pin a label 
on some aspect of jazz, the term "modern jazz" is 
loose and indefinite. Although it has positive mean- 
ing only in the sense of "current," it is widely used 
to identify the jazz styles developed during and since 
World War II. It is applied in this broad sense in 
this book. It should be held in mind, however, that 
modernity is a relative matter. The modern jazz of 
the late Forties is, in reality, no longer modern in re- 
lation to the jazz of the Fifties although it is more 
modern than the Swing Era performances of Benny 
Goodman's orchestra or Louis Armstrong's work 
with his Hot Five which, in their own days, were 
modern, too (although at that time modernity per 
se was not deemed a matter of importance). 

This book deals with the jazz styles of the post- 
World War II period, taking up where a previous 
volume, The Collector's Jazz: Traditional and 
Swing, left off. A few musicians who were promi- 
nent in both pre- and post-war jazz and who might 
have been considered in either volume have been 
somewhat arbitrarily assigned to one or the other. 
Thus Count Basie, Coleman Hawkins, Duke Elling- 
ton and Mary Lou Williams were covered in the 
first volume but Charlie Barnet will be found in 
the present one. On the other hand to show that 



the author is no narrow conformist the careers of 
Woody Herman and Red Norvo have been split 
into swing and modern periods and the appropriate 
portions of each of their careers is discussed in both 

All the recordings discussed are twelve-inch long- 
playing disks which are currently available unless 
otherwise noted. Under the individual headings in 
Part II will be found discussions of recordings on 
which the musician in question is listed as leader 
or on which his presence is of prime importance. 
Reference to performances by sidemen and quon- 
dam leaders in the role of sidemen can be checked 
in the index. 

A book such as this is the result of the coopera- 
tion of a great many people. It would not have been 
possible without the helpful assistance of Richard 
E. Ward of ABC-Paramount Records, Dave Usher 
of Argo Records, Gary Kramer of Atlantic Records, 
Alfred W. Lion of Blue Note Records, Bill Muster 
of Capitol Records, Deborah Ishlon of Columbia 
Records, David Stuart of Contemporary Records, 
Lillian Tookman of Decca Records, Robert Koester 
of Delmar Records, Abbot Lutz of Design Records, 
Walter S. Heebner of GNP Records, C. F. Gale- 
house of Golden Crest Records, Howard Caro of 
Jubilee Records, Beverly Cherner of Kapp Records, 
Andy Gibson of King Records, Jack Tracy and 
Sidney Shaffer of Mercury Records, Sol Handwerger 
of MGM Records, David Martindell of Modernage 
Records, William Avar of Period Records, Esmond 
Edwards of Prestige Records, Orrin Keepnews of 
Riverside Records, Dick Gersh of Rondo-lette Rec- 
ords, Bud Katzell of Roulette Records, Herman 
Lubinsky of Savoy Records, D. D. Montgomery of 
Specialty Records, Norman W. Forgue of Stepheny 
Records, Charles J. Bourgeois of Storyville Records, 
Fred Glickman of Superior Records, Bernie Silver- 
man of Verve Records, Herb Helman and Jack 

Foreword 9 

Dunn of RCA Victor Records and Richard Bock 
of World Pacific Records. 

I am especially grateful to the Ziff-Davis Publish- 
ing Company for their courtesy in granting per- 
mission to use in Part I portions of an article pub- 
lished in Hi Fi Review and to Audiocom, Inc., for 
allowing me to use in Part II material previously 
published in High Fidelity magazine since this has 
enabled me to complete a project that might other- 
wise have been more than one listening writer could 

J. S. W. 

Part I 

the background 

THE CHANGE from jazz as it had been to jazz as it 
was to be came during World War II, a bit of tim- 
ing which made the cleavage between proponents 
of the old and the new a great deal deeper than it 
might have been otherwise. There had been schisms 
in jazz before this. Followers of archaic ensemble 
jazz were dismayed at the eminence given to the 
soloist in the Twenties by that radical innovator, 
Louis Armstrong, and later there was a good deal 
of outraged sneering at the presumptuousness of 
the swing bands in calling their arranged dance 
music "jazz." 

But this bickering was as nothing compared to 
the gulf that separated the adherents of bop and 
those the boppers derisively referred to as "moldy 
figs" (a term to which the unreconstructed "figs" 
have now adjusted so completely that they apply it 
to themselves with pride). Early in the Forties Cab 
Galloway was warning a young and none too cele- 
brated member of his trumpet section named Dizzy 
Gillespie to "quit playing that Chinese music." 
Fats Waller, sitting in at Minton's Playhouse in 
Harlem when the musicians who hung out there 
were formulating what was eventually called bop, 



has been credited with giving it its name when he 
shouted in exasperation at the Mintonites, "Stop 
that crazy boppin' and a-stoppin' and play that jive 
like the rest of us guys!" 

The jazz fan who went into service in World War 
II was scarcely aware of what was happening at 
Minton's. When he picked up his civilian life again 
in the middle Forties he was, more often than not, 
puzzled and confused to find that something was 
being played as "jazz" that seemed to have little 
relation to the jazz that he knew. This puzzlement 
often led to resentment of the new music (especially 
since its advocates often appeared to consider them- 
selves a superior and elite group), making the 
break between the old and the new sharper and 
deeper than it might have been if the birth and 
early development of the new jazz had not, in 
effect, taken place behind their backs. 

Not that there had been any lack of advance 
signs of things to come before the draft boards be- 
gan interfering with jazz appreciation at first hand. 
Even in the late Thirties, while Swing was still the 
thing, the direction that jazz was to take could be 
discerned in that ultimate of swing bands led by 
Count Basic. 

The most important trail blazer among the Basie- 
ites was tenor saxophonist Lester Young whose 
light, flowing playing flew squarely in the face of 
the accepted tenor style of the day Coleman 
Hawkins' robust, swaggering, charging attack. 
(When Hawkins left Fletcher Henderson's band in 
1934, Henderson's choice for a replacement was 
Young but he was blackballed by Henderson's side- 
men who said he sounded as though he was playing 

Young's musical antecedents were Bud Freeman 
of the Chicagoans and Frankie Trumbauer who 
played C-melody saxophone in the Jean Goldkette 
and Paul Whiteman bands and appeared on many 

The Background 13 

of Bix Beiderbecke's small group recordings. Young 
has attributed his relatively light sound to his 
efforts to get the sound of Trumbauer's C-melody 
saxophone. From both Trumbauer and Freeman 
he picked up suggestions for the leaps and swoops 
and sudden flights that were part of his style, a 
style that was marked by a shift in rhythmic pat- 
terns so that the strong beats are not always ac- 

Behind him in the Basic band drummer Jo Jones 
was also working changes in rhythmic emphasis. 
Most big band drummers in those days emphasized 
the four beats in each measure by hitting out each 
beat on the bass drum with his foot pedal. In the 
Basie rhythm section, however, the bass and guitar 
stroked out the steady four beats, accented here and 
there by chords from the piano, while the drummer 
shifted his steady four-beat activities to a cymbal. 
With his bass drum foot freed of a timekeeper's 
shackles, Jones was able to use it as a prod or accent 
which subtly and sometimes not so subtly altered 
the rhythmic direction of a soloist. 

This device was expanded by Kenny Clarke, the 
house drummer at Minton's. His after-hours col- 
leagues there in the early 1940s included Dizzy 
Gillespie, pianist Thelonious Monk, alto saxophon- 
ist Charlie Parker and the guitarist in Benny Good- 
man's band, Charlie Christian. These were the 
musical adventurers who created bop. 

These men at Minton's found a common core 
around which to build in their mutual curiosity 
about harmonic concepts that were new to jazz 
(Monk contributed some of the most alarmingly 
unorthodox) and in their leaning toward shifting 
accents. Parker and Gillespie both found themselves 
at home in this atmosphere. Parker's seemingly 
erratic stops and starts, his furious dives into long, 
overflowing passages were the outward expression 
of his own arrival at the same conclusions that had 


been brewing in other minds. Parker had reached 
his conclusions through dogged instinct. Gillespie, 
a much more articulate man, theorized his way to 
much the same point and then helped to synthesize 
the ferment that came out of Minton's. 

The new music was further nurtured in the Earl 
Hines band of 1943, a band which included both 
Parker and Gillespie. Because of a recording ban 
in effect that year there are no disks to document 
this stage in the growth of bop. Later Billy Eck- 
stine, who had been the vocalist in this band (along 
with Sarah Vaughan), formed a big bop band of 
his own, again with Parker and Gillespie, which 
he managed to hold together from 1944 to 1947. A 
subsequent effort by Gillespie to head a big bop 
band also fell on barren ground but by then bop 
was losing momentum and big bands of all kinds 
were finding the going hard. 

Bop's halcyon days occurred in the middle Forties 
on New York's 52nd Street. There it excited almost 
all the younger and would-be musicians and an 
occasional older one. Coleman Hawkins, saxophon- 
ist Benny Carter, pianist Mary Lou Williams, vibra- 
phonist Red Norvo and drummer Dave Tough 
were among the few stars of earlier jazz who found 
fresh inspiration in the new music. A wider public 
began to perk up its ears when publicity was given 
to such fringe phenomena as Gillespie's capers and 
the ubiquitousness of goatees, berets and dark 
glasses among bop fanciers. But this public never 
took to the music itself in any depth and, as an 
increasing number of inept musicians passed off 
their fumbling efforts as bop, the music lost what 
small audience it had acquired. 

In its wake bop left a shaken if not exactly re- 
vitalized jazz picture. It had planted the seeds of 
revitalization, however. They first became evident 
in the Woody Herman band of 1944 and 1945 
which is now identified as Herman's First Herd. 

The Background 15 

The tone for this band was set by arrangements 
provided by trumpeter Neal Hef ti, an early admirer 
of Parker and Gillespie, and it was amplified and 
carried forward by Ralph Burns, one of the new 
crop of conservatory trained musicians whose pres- 
ence in jazz was to be felt more and more strongly 
during the coming years. Herman's First Herd was 
a virtuoso ensemble which was completely at home 
in the new directions provided by bop and it 
breezed through arrangements that would have 
choked any other band of that day. 

With its brilliant assimilation of bop, the Her- 
man Herd became one of the two big bands which 
managed to be in the ascendant when most of the 
established big bands were going down the skids, 
skids which had been greased by their own tired, 
uncreative repetitiveness and by an economic situa- 
tion which left no operating margin for a big band. 
The other ascendant band of this moment, Stan 
Kenton's, started out in a promising flurry of ad- 
venturousness but soon bogged down in a swamp 
of blaring pretention. 

Another aftermath of bop was "cool" jazz which, 
to a degree, was a reaction to the extreme frenetic- 
ism of bop (legend has it that the early boppers 
deliberately played extremely difficult ideas at vio- 
lently fast tempos to discourage musicians outside 
their clique from sitting in). Cool jazz was an intro- 
verted, understated style which brought into jazz 
several instruments which had never found a proper 
place there before the French horn, the flute 
and which reinstated such a long-forgotten jazz 
instrument as the tuba. 

The two instrumentalists whose playing bears the 
particular hallmarks of cool jazz are the tenor saxo- 
phonist Stan Getz and trumpeter Miles Davis. It 
was Davis who led a short-lived group in 1948 
which is held to be the keystone of cool jazz. This 
group, playing arrangements by Gil Evans, John 


Lewis, Gerry Mulligan and Davis, was made up of 
trumpet, trombone, French horn, tuba, alto saxo- 
phone, baritone saxophone, piano, bass and drums. 
Its sonorous quality, its dreamy legato attack had a 
slightly familiar ring to those who had heard 
Claude ThornhiU's orchestra a few years before. 
And well it might for it was in Thornhill's essen- 
tially sweet dance band that the rudiments of cool 
jazz were worked out through the arrangements of 
Evans and Mulligan and in the relaxed, vibratoless 
alto saxophone of Lee Konitz. Getz applied this 
same tone to the tenor, exemplified in his perform- 
ance of Early Autumn with Woody Herman in 
which it becomes apparent that the cool idea goes 
back well beyond the Thornhill band to Lester 
Young and, through Young, to Trumbauer and 

The cool approach caught on quickly on the 
West Coast where a Davis-tempered trumpeter, 
Chet Baker, acquired swift fame as a member of 
Gerry Mulligan's Quartet (Mulligan himself, by 
this time, had passed out of his cool period to a 
guttier, earthier style). As the cool elements on the 
West Coast mingled with the tightly voiced bop- 
based ideas of Shorty Rogers, a onetime Herman 
trumpeter who became a school in himself in the 
Los Angeles area, there appeared in California a 
succession of slick, emotionless jazzmen who could 
rattle off an endless line of glittering, machine- 
made performances. 

What might be termed "a warm school of cool" 
a cool surface with inner heat has been devised 
by pianist John Lewis for his Modern Jazz Quartet, 
a highly proper group with a strong feeling for 
form, tempered by the equally strong blues roots of 
Lewis and vibraphonist Milt Jackson. Much the 
same effect is achieved by Paul Desmond, the alto 
saxophonist in Dave Brubeck's Quartet, who is 
basically a follower of Lee Konitz's limpid style 

The Background 17 

even while he beefs it up in the course of perform- 
ance to a temperature that is straight out of the hot 
jazz era. 

Inevitably, cool jazz produced a reaction of its 
own two reactions, in fact. One was the redis- 
covery of (or, at least, the revival of interest in) the 
vital roots of jazz which had been largely scorned 
by the boppers. This rediscovery took two direc- 
tions the passionate, blues-drenched earthiness of 
the so-called "funky" school exemplified in the 
minor-keyed ideas of pianist Horace Silver and the 
more academicized examination of the folk roots 
of jazz in the work of Jimmy Giuffre. 

The other reaction, "hard bop," a fierce, at times 
overpowering extension of bop lines, lodged most 
firmly in Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers and in the 
bursting-at-the-seams saxophone styles of John Col- 
trane and Johnny Griffin. For a while saxophonist 
Sonny Rollins could be counted among the hard 
boppers but this proved to be merely a step in his 
development into one of the most individual jazz 
musicians of the Fifties. Rollins soon left the harsh 
qualities of hard bop behind to work in a warmer, 
more melodic fashion that projected such strong 
implications of a swinging accompaniment that he 
has been able to make effective use of what had 
previously been only a novelty gimmick the un- 
accompanied saxophone solo. 

Rollins' emergence as a musician of importance 
was a significant milestone in the development of 
jazz for he was the first tenor saxophonist of conse- 
quence in twenty years to have been obviously in- 
fluenced by Coleman Hawkins rather than Lester 
Young. His arrival suggests that jazz has reached 
what amounts to a self-reviving cycle in which each 
turn of the wheel brings back worthwhile elements 
of the old to be blended with worthier parts of the 

At the same time jazz has become so established 


as a listening music rather than the dancing music 
it once was that the concept of extended "jazz com- 
position" has ceased to be a novelty. Much of this 
"composition" has been little more than trivial 
sketching, particularly when it has been produced 
on commission for a jazz festival. Even more of it 
draws on European musical tradition rather than 
on jazz and is, in effect, a latter-day extension of 
those misconceptions of the Twenties which threat- 
ened to make jazz "respectable." No extended com- 
position has yet established a firm place in the gen- 
eral jazz repertory largely because jazz is still so 
much a performer's art that extended works have 
only received more than one performance when 
they are created for an organized group Duke 
Ellington's orchestra, for example, or the Modern 
Jazz Quartet which can make them a part of their 
active library. 

All of these styles, influences and musicians have 
contributed to that jazz which is generally identified 
as modern. Its actual modernity, of course, is sub- 
ject to change. The early modern jazz of the Nine- 
teen Forties has already gone through a winnowing 
process and elements of it have taken their places 
in the mainstream of jazz. Within the next decade 
the jazz of this moment, today's modern jazz, will 
doubtless also have been put into perspective. 

Jazz, it is becoming increasingly evident, is sim- 
ply jazz without qualifying adjectives a music 
which flows in a steady and constantly reinvigorat- 
ing stream, a music which still flourishes most bril- 
liantly in the extemporaneous interplay of a small 
ensemble, as it did in the beginning, and which 
finds the deep well of the blues just as vital a 
source of inspiration today as it was when Buddy 
Bolden's cornet was rocking the rafters of Tin Type 
Hall in New Orleans sixty years ago. 

Part II 

the records 

Pepper Adams. A leading contributor to the mod- 
ern loosening up of the once lead-bottomed bari- 
tone saxophone has been Adams, one of the cluster 
of young jazzmen who sprang out of Detroit in the 
Fifties. There is a lean, sinewy quality in his play- 
ing that, at his best, is brimming with vitality and 
assurance. He can be heard at his intense best on 
Critics' Choice, World Pacific 407 (one selection is 
repeated on The Hard Swing, World Pacific JWC 
508), and 10 to 4 at the 5 Spot, Riverside 12-265, 
but in both cases he is spelled for long periods by 
musicians of far less interest. In the company of 
some fellow Detroiters on Jazzmen: Detroit, Savoy 
12083, he runs an erratic course from merely pleas- 
ant to disjointed efforts to jam too many notes into 
his lines, and he manages to emerge successfully 
from time to time from the competition of a 
euphonium, a tiresome solo instrument, on The 
Cool Sound of Pepper Adams, Regent 6066. 

Julian Adderley. The sheer flamboyance of Adder- 
ley's Parker-based playing on alto saxophone rocked 
the New York jazz world when he arrived there 
unheralded from Florida in the summer of 1955 



and it has, to a large degree, sustained him since. 
He pours out his music with much the same surging 
flow that one hears in Sidney Bechet, although their 
inner styles are totally different. Adderley's enor- 
mous gusto is expressed in long, looping, tremen- 
dously forceful lines but, despite his aggressive 
precision, they often seem to sail back and forth 
emptily over the same ground because they lack 
the shading which might convey a sense of move- 
ment or development. Portrait of Cannonball, 
Riverside 12-269, has the merit of including two 
gently paced selections which reveal a deeper, 
warmer Adderley with a sensitivity for dynamics 
and timing, suggesting the rewarding performer he 
might be if he could transfer these qualities to his 
faster work. His first disk, Julian "Cannonball" 
Adderley, EmArcy 36043, reveals the provocative, 
relatively varied but highly inconsistent performer 
who first reached New York. On In the Land of 
Hi-Fi, EmArcy 36077, Sophisticated Swing, EmArcy 
36110, and Presenting Cannonball, Savoy 12018, 
there are evidences of increasing sensitivity to com- 
plement his basic raw vitality. Somethin* Else, Blue 
Note 1595, is an oddity in that Miles Davis, in 
whose group Adderley was playing at the time, 
completely dominates the disk while Adderley, al- 
though he manages to achieve some needed emo- 
tional warmth, gets involved in more tasteless 
banality than one normally expects from him. He 
shows his ability to play with a beautiful, full 
sound in an otherwise barren disk, Julian "Cannon* 
ball" Adderley with Strings, EmArcy 36063. Adder- 
ley has two selections in For Jazz Lovers, EmArcy 

Nat Adderley. The cornet, once the brass staple of 
the early jazzmen but now abandoned in favor of 
the more brilliant trumpet even by most tradition- 
alists, has been introduced to modern jazz by Nat 

The Records 21 

Adderley (younger brother of Julian Adderley) who 
remains its only exponent. Originally a trumpeter, 
Adderley switched to cornet in 1951 because he 
felt he had more facility on it. He gets a swaggering, 
raucous, at times uncertain sound from his horn 
which is particularly effective when contrasted to 
the smooth, toothpaste tone of his brother (he is 
heard on many of Julian's records). Thafs Nat, 
Savoy 12021 (without Julian), To the Ivy League, 
EmArcy 36100 (with Julian) and Introducing Nat 
Adderley, EmArcy 36091 (also with Julian), are 
mixed assortments since Nat can be chargingly 
effective at faster tempos but turns drab on ballads. 
He has two selections in The Young Ones of Jazz, 
EmArcy 36085. 

Toshiko Akiyoshi. Toshiko, as she is often billed, 
is a Japanese girl who came to Oscar Peterson's at- 
tention during a Jazz at the Philharmonic tour of 
Japan. She came to the United States to study in 
1956, seemingly bent on following the musical path 
of Bud Powell, an influence which began to fade 
after she had been in the States two years. There 
is assurance in her linear attack and her sense of 
form on Toshiko Akiyoshi, Storyville 918, on which 
alto saxophonist Boots Mussulli plays brilliantly. 
Two later recordings, The Many Sides of Toshiko, 
Verve 8273, and United Notions, Metrojazz 1001, 
suggest that she has reached a plateau in her de- 
velopment at which she can ring the surface 
changes with professional proficiency but with little 
emotional communication. Some of her earlier work 
is heard on Toshiko and Leon Sash at Newport, 
Verve 8236, The Toshiko Trio, Storyville 912, and 
The Women in Jazz, Storyville 916. 

Manny Albam. After serving an apprenticeship as 
a baritone saxophonist in various big bands in the 
Forties, Albam began writing late in the decade 


for Charlie Barnet, Count Basic, Woody Herman 
and others. During Jack Lewis' two-year tenure as 
A & R man at Victor, Albam produced the bulk of 
the arrangements for Lewis' recording sessions. 
When Lewis left Victor, Albam moved his locus to 
Coral where he did similar behind the scenes chores 
until he was given his own recording sessions with 
a top-notch studio band billed as his "Jazz Greats," 

Albam is at his best writing for a large group for 
he has the ability to orchestrate in terms that can 
be translated into a loose, swinging performance as 
well as the willingness to create strong-lined en- 
sembles and sturdy supporting framework for his 
soloists rather than sketchy outlines which merely 
serve as springboards for a succession of solo per- 

His big studio band made its bow on The Jazz 
Greats of Our Time, Coral 57173, which has some 
notable playing by Art Farmer, trumpet, Bob 
Brookmeyer, valve trombone, and Phil Woods, alto 
saxophone. The Jazz Greats of Our Time, VoL 2, 
Coral 57142, draws on West Coast studio men 
(Harry Edison, Richie Kamuca, Lou Levy, Shelly 
Manne and others) who dive with apparent pleas- 
ure into the meaty, imaginative arrangements Al- 
bam has given them. Levy, in particular, shows 
evidence of a return to the relaxation and warmth 
that have been missing from much of his work since 
the Forties. 

The East Coast Jazz Greats produced one of the 
few valid jazz attacks on a show score, West Side 
Story, Coral 57207. Albam's arrangements extend 
the jazz-touched spirit of the original music so that 
the mixture of agitation and tenderness in Leonard 
Bernstein's music is pointed up by the surging big 
band performances. Albam's soloists, notably Bob 
Brookmeyer and alto saxophonist Gene Quill, rise 
strikingly to their opportunities. Jazz New York, 
Dot 9004, made up of more well filled out big band 

The Records 23 

performances, includes an indication of Albam's 
exploratory turn of mind, a lovely and unusual big 
band arrangement of Bix Biederbecke's piano solo, 
In a Mist, which Albam turns into a gentle jazz 
tone poem. The Jazz Greats also swing with ready 
warmth on two selections in Down Beat Jazz Con- 
cert, Dot 9003. 

The exploratory aspect of Albam led him to try 
to write an extended piece based on the root influ- 
ence of the blues, The Blues Is Everybody's Busi- 
ness, Coral 591 OL Although it is well constructed, 
Albam is handicapped both by the use of a string 
section and by his attempt to stretch a small piece 
of material too far. Another ambitious project that 
comes off more successfully is The Drum Suite, 
Victor LPM 1279, on which Ernie Wilkins is joint 
composer and conductor. Although it is built 
around four drummers Osie Johnson, Gus John- 
son, Teddy Sommer and Don Lamond Albam and 
Wilkins have made it a series of instrumental pieces 
written around various uses of the drums rather 
than simply a set of drum exchanges. The pieces 
are rapped out with driving eloquence by a band 
of top-drawer studio men (roughly the same as the 
Jazz Greats although this disk preceded the forma- 
tion of the Greats). 

In a more routine vein are Steve's Songs, Dot 
9008, wherein Albam and a big band do a credit- 
able job with the not particularly inspiring songs 
of Steve Allen; Sophisticated Lady, Coral 57231, on 
which Albam makes inventive use of the usually 
glutinous mixture of voices, orchestra and ballads; 
and With All My Love, Mercury 20325, quite 
ordinary mood music. Two selections by the Jazz 
Greats are included in Jazz Cornucopia, Coral 

Joe Albany. Albany is the modern jazz equivalent 
of Peck Kelly, the shy pianist of an earlier day who 


never recorded and refused to leave his home 
ground in Texas despite widespread reports of his 
unusual prowess. Albany rarely plays in public and, 
until 1957, he had apparently only been recorded 
on six selections made in 1945 and 1946. His repu- 
tation stems largely from the high opinion that 
Charlie Parker had of his work (much as Kelly's 
fame was primarily based on Jack Teagarden's 
praise). The Right Combination, Riverside 12-270, 
catches Albany during a living-room rehearsal ses- 
sion in 1957 so that the fidelity is only about 
medium and there is some fading in and out to 
eliminate false starts and conversation. But despite 
this and the intrusion of Warne Marsh's vague, un- 
formed tenor saxophone lines, the disk shows that 
Albany is as stimulating as the legend had implied. 
He is a pianistic link between pre-war and post-war 
styles, working much of the time in the linear, 
right-handed manner of the bop-grounded pianist 
but veering constantly toward, a swinging, strutting 
two-handed brilliance that comes straight out of 
Earl Hines. In his ballad playing, which is refresh- 
ingly virile and rhythmic, there are suggestions of 
another Hines-influenced middleground pianist, 
Erroll Garner. 

Tony Aless. On Long Island Suite, Roost 2202, 
Aless, a pianist of the swing days who took post 
graduate work with Woody Herman's 1945 Herd, 
leads a ten-piece band through a series of straight- 
forward, unpretentious but swinging performances 
based on a propulsive, Basie-like rhythm and featur- 
ing soloists with a middle to slightly modern tinge. 

Lorez Alexandria. A potentially good jazz singer 
may be lurking behind the various influences Miss 
Alexandria reveals on disks. Her most noticeable 
sources are EUa Fitzgerald and Sarah Vaughan with 

The Records 25 

Billie Holiday less strongly in evidence. But she 
has not yet found her own means of expression on 
Lorez Sings Pres, King 565, or This Is Lorez, King 

Mose Allison. Allison is one of the first jazz musi- 
cians to be intimately acquainted with both the 
primitive aspects of the blues and its more recent 
extensions and to be frankly pleased with both 
(Ray Charles also falls into this category). On the 
surface he is a modernist whose piano style is 
colored by strong reflections of Horace Silver's 
"funky" school but he also claims roots in basic 
country blues (he grew up in Tippo, Miss.). This 
fore and aft knowledge has an interesting condi- 
tioning effect: His straight-out back-country blues 
are a shade more sophisticated than they might 
otherwise be while his modern playing is strength- 
ened by a guttiness which refuses to be denied. 

The title piece of his first record, Back Country 
Suite, Prestige 7091, is a collection of very brief 
musical impressions which lack focus or unity. The 
individual sections show off some of the more ap- 
pealing aspects of his playing but they leave the 
feeling that he is only nibbling at what could be a 
very broad and sturdy foundation. On Local Color, 
Prestige 7121, he shows a bit more substance in 
both his composition and piano work and, in addi- 
tion, sings in a slight but idiomatically accurate 
voice and plays a muted trumpet which suggests a 
tentative Harry Edison. He applies himself to mid- 
dleground material standard pop tunes on 
Young Man Mose, Prestige 7137, which responds 
most readily to his modern side. Taking these three 
disks as a group, one has the feeling that Allison 
has something relatively unique to offer but that 
he has not yet solved the problem of expressing 
himself adequately. 


Laurindo Almeida. Almeida, a Brazilian, is pri- 
marily a classical guitarist but, after working with 
Stan Kenton's band, he turned out a set of beauti- 
fully polished jazz cameos on Laurindo Almeida 
Quartet, World Pacific 1204. Selections from this 
disk are repeated on both Jazz West Coast, World 
Pacific JWC 500, and Ballads for Background, 
World Pacific JWC 503. 

Trigger Alpert. A bassist who won a considerable 
following for his work with Glenn Miller's service 
band, Alpert leads an accurately billed "Absolutely 
All-Star Seven" (Joe Wilder, Urbie Green, Tony 
Scott, Zoot Sims, Al Cohn, Ed Shaugnessy) on 
Trigger Happy, Riverside 12-225, a set of light, 
swinging and pleasantly unpretentious perform- 
ances. The dominant personality in the group is 
Scott who covers a lot of territory, playing clarinet 
in styles that range from a Goodman-like melodi- 
ousness to his own very personalized Laocoonesque 
runs. The Seven is also heard once on Riverside 
Drive, Riverside 12-267. 

Gene Ammons. A second-generation jazz star (his 
father was the boogie woogie pianist, Albert Am- 
mons), Gene Ammons was in the Forties and 
early Fifties a strong-voiced, warm and fluent 
tenor saxophonist who derived primarily from Les- 
ter Young. In the middle Forties he played with 
Billy Eckstine's big band and with Woody Herman. 
Latterly he has had his own small groups and his 
dalliance with the thin line between rhythm and 
blues and rock V roll has shown up in his playing. 
All Star Sessions, Prestige 7050, shows him in 1950 
playing with relatively consistent taste in some well 
behaved tenor battles with Sonny Stitt and in 1955 
in a session in which he is overshadowed by Art 

The Records 27 

Fanner on trumpet, Lou Donaldson, alto saxo- 
phone, and Freddie Redd, piano. He is also rela- 
tively consistent and coherent on Hi Fidelity Jam 
Session, Prestige 7039. The downward curve in 
Ammons' taste and creative ability can be traced 
through Jammin* with Gene, Prestige 7060, Funky, 
Prestige 7083, Jammin* in Hi Fi with Gene Am- 
mons, Prestige 7110, and The Big Sound, Prestige 
7132, as he falls back on cliches and spars emptily 
for time on long, vapid solos. Two selections re- 
corded by Ammons in 1949 with a plodding small 
group are included in Advance Guard of the 
Forties, EmArcy 36016. 

The Amram-Barrow Quartet. David Amram, who 
plays a rough-grained French horn, a dour, angular, 
Monk-derived piano and, inexplicably, the tuben, 
is well matched musically with George Barrow, a 
tenor saxophonist with a strong, hard but flexible 
tone which sometimes rises to a glowing cry. Most 
of their voicings on Jazz. Studio No. 6, Decca 8558, 
have a dry, dark quality which proves very effective 
in blues-derived themes and the slow, moody de- 
velopment of such popular tunes as Darn That 
Dream. But it can trip them up, too, and when the 
balance is not exactly right the effect turns stodgy. 

Ernestine Anderson. Miss Anderson is a singer who 
disdains mannerisms, who respects both tune and 
lyrics and who seems to feel that a melody should 
fall pleasingly on the ear. Although she had been 
heard in this country with several jazz groups 
the bands of Lionel Hampton, Eddie Heywood 
and Russell Jacquet she went relatively unnoticed 
until she took a trip to Sweden in 1956 with an 
American jazz group. There she found such an 
appreciative audience that she stayed on by herself 
after the musicians had returned home. American 


audiences were made aware of her through Hot 
Cargo, Mercury 20354 an utterly inappropriate 
and misleading title recorded in Sweden with 
Harry Arnold's excellent Swedish band providing 
perceptive and imaginative accompaniment. 

Andre's Cuban All-Stars. This rough, swinging 
sextet mixes mild bop and Afro-Cuban rhythms on 
one side of Afro-Cubano, Verve 8157 (shared with 
Jack Costanzo). The group has a strong, striking 
pianist, Bebo Valdes, and while the trumpet and 
tenor saxophone are no more than serviceable that's 
all they really have to be with this Cuban rhythm 
section roaring in back of them. 

Buddy Arnold. Arnold's able but scarcely distinc- 
tive tenor saxophone is featured on Wailing, ABC- 
Paramount 114, with a septet which gains most of 
its interest from the dependably provocative pian- 
ist, John Williams. 

Harry Arnold. Big band jazz is not quite as dead 
as the work of some American bands might lead 
one to believe. It still shows signs of life in the 
Swedish band led by Arnold on The Jazztone Mys- 
tery Band, Concert Hall 1270, and Big Band plus 
Quincy Jones Equals Jazz, EmArcy 26139. Arnold's 
band, which includes several of Sweden's best jazz- 
men Arne Domnerus, Bengt Hallberg, Ake 
Persson among others has the sheen and power 
that are Ted Heath's hallmarks but it has a much 
stronger jazz sense than Heath's band. The Arnold 
men storm through the Concert Hall disk with de- 
servedly swaggering assurance, swinging with a 
stimulatingly suave power. Quincy Jones' arrange- 
ments on the EmArcy disk do not allow for such 
blithe treatment they lean to the heavy character- 
istics of the present Count Basie band but 
Arnold's band gives them a glistening polish. 

The Records 29 

Dorothy Ashby. Caspar Reardon managed to entice 
some effective jazz out of a harp in the Thirties (a 
prime example is his work on Jack Teagarden's 
Junk Man) but since then there has not been a 
harpist who could swing properly until Miss Ashby 
came along in the latter Fifties. On The Jazz Harp- 
ist, Regent 6039, and Hip Harp, Prestige 7140, on 
both of which she is assisted by Frank Wess, flute, 
and a rhythm section, she has moments when she 
matches Reardon but there are at least as many 
when she finds the harp as obstinate as other 
would-be jazz harpists. One thing she does manage 
to do consistently is to provide a light, moving 
background which helps to cut the starch in Wess' 
flute solos. 

Georgie Auld. Auld has come into the age of mod- 
ern jazz as a relict of the Swing Era. In those days 
his Hawkins-derived tenor saxophone added a driv- 
ing surge to such bands as Artie Shaw's and Benny 
Goodman's. Since the war he has played in various 
dilutions of the Hawkins vein. On three selections 
on Jazz Concert, Grand Award 33-316, he is stacked 
up against the two masters of the heavy-toned tenor 
school, Hawkins and Ben Webster, and he manages 
to hold up his end, playing in a lighter, smoother 
style than the other two. The disk also includes 
some big band selections in which Auld plays in 
muffled, drab fashion. An Auld big band of the 
middle Fifties generates a gruff, rocking feeling, 
tinged with Billy May-like slurs on George Auld in 
the Land of Hi-Fi, EmArcy 36060, and Dancing in 
the Land of Hi-Fi, EmArcy 36090. 

Much of Auld's recording in the Fifties has been 
dismally routine and formula-bound. There is a 
little gaiety in the Latin beat he uses on Sax Gone 
Latin, Capitol T 1045, but he coats almost every- 
thing with syrup on That's Auld, Brunswick 54034; 
I've Got You Under My Skin, Coral 57009; Lullaby 


of Broadway, Coral 57029; and Misty, Coral 57032. 
He contributes two selections to Under One Roof, 
EmArcy 36088, and single pieces to Roost Fifth 
Anniversary Album, Roost 1201, and Bargain Day, 
EmArcy 36087. 

Australian Jazz Quartet/Quintet. Originally the 
Australian Jazz Quartet was made up of three Aus- 
tralians (Bryce Rohde, piano; Errol Buddie, tenor 
saxophone, bassoon; Jack Brokensha, drums, vibes) 
and a versatile American, Dick Healey, a sort of 
musical Christmas tree who draped himself with 
tenor and alto saxophones, piccolo, flute and clari- 
net while a string bass nestled against him. Their 
earliest recordings, The Australian Jazz Quartet/ 
Quintet, Bethlehem 6002, have some novelty inter- 
est in the odd pairing of flute and bassoon, but even 
with the addition of a full-time bass and drums on 
some of these selections and on Australian Jazz 
Quartet, Bethlehem 6003, The Australian Jazz 
Quartet at the Varsity Drag, Bethlehem 6012, Aus- 
tralian Jazz Quartet Plus One, Bethlehem 6015, and 
Selections of Rodgers and Hammerstein, Bethlehem 
6022, the group keeps tripping over its basic gentil- 
ity. With the help of some Teddy Charles arrange- 
ments, the Australians loosen up at times on The 
AJQ in Free Style, Bethlehem 6029. 

Harry Babasin. Like Oscar Pettiford, Babasin is a 
bassist who also plays pizzicato cello. He has led a 
group of varying personnel, The Jazzpickers, which 
has as its nucleus Babasin's cello plus guitar, bass 
and drums, an instrumentation which has a dry, 
dim quality. To offset this, Babasin usually adds 
another instrument on his recordings. Red Norvo 
is the guest on Command Performance, EmArcy 
36123, but his task is thankless since no matter how 
much he may enliven the performances The Jazz- 
pickers are always on hand to drab things up when 

The Records 31 

the guest takes a breather. The additional horn on 
The Jazzpickers, EmArcy 36111, is Buddy Collette's 
flute which simply adds to the nervous monotony of 
the basic group. 

Don Bagley. Although Bagley is a bassist, the trio 
he leads on Basically Bagley, Dot 3070, (Jimmy 
Rowles, piano; Shelly Manne, drums; and Bagley) 
is neither simply a background for Bagley's solos 
nor a piano-plus-accompaniment group. It pro- 
duces ensemble musical performances rather than 
hooks for virtuoso trickery. Bagley and Manne are 
admirable foils for each other since Bagley's man- 
ner of drawing a wide range of tones and colors 
from his bass is much like Manne's more widely 
known use of the drums. He is less inventive on 
Jazz on the Rocks, Regent 6061, although Eddie 
Costa's piano adds a pleasantly pungent quality. 

Chet Baker. Baker is certainly one of the strangest 
"stars" to appear on the surface of the recent jazz 
tide. Although he can occasionally muster up a 
sufficiently firm tone and attack on his trumpet to 
inn off attractively lyrical bits and pieces that seem 
to have their roots in Bix Beiderbecke, most of his 
playing is so vaporous that it seems to be drifting 
aimlessly in a void. He played a functional role in 
Gerry Mulligan's original quartet in 1952 but the 
small, wistful sound that proved serviceable there 
has found little direction since he left Mulligan. 
Possibly his most consistently coherent playing is 
the calm placidity he shows on Pretty /Groovy, 
World Pacific 1249. 

At times he responds favorably to a rhythmic 
stimulus such as Russ Freeman provides for him on 
The Trumpet Artistry of Chet Baker, World 
Pacific 1206, and Russ Freeman and Chet Baker 
Quartet, World Pacific 1232. The presence of Stan 
Getz on Stan Meets Chet, Verve 8263, holds him up 


part of the way and the firm guiding lines of com- 
positions by Benny Golson, Owen Marshall and 
Miles Davis help to steer him on Chet Baker in 
New York, Riverside 12-281. During a European 
trip in the winter of 1955-56 he replaced his usual 
misty diffusion with some evidence of control and 
definition, reported on Chet Baker in Europe, 
World Pacific 1218. But even these disks are 
streaked with his languid and disengaged playing. 

Chet Baker and His Crew, World Pacific 1224, 
rises above this pallidity at times, not because of 
Baker but through the supple, flowing tone of Phil 
Urso's tenor saxophone. Similarly Art Pepper's pre- 
cise alto saxophone induces what lively moments 
there are on Playboys, World Pacific 1234. But not 
even the presence of the prodding Russ Freeman 
can disperse the soporific effects of Jazz at Ann 
Arbor, World Pacific 1203, nor do the surroundings 
of nine and ten-piece bands improve Baker's color- 
less work on Chet Baker Big Band, World Pacific 
1229. Chet Baker and Strings, Columbia CL 549, is 
largely leaden mood music, brightened here and 
there by the tenor saxophone of Zoot Sims. Baker is 
largely lost in a crowd of good jazzmen on Theme 
Music from "The James Dean Story/' World 
Pacific 2005. 

The worst, however, is yet to come. For Baker 
also sings in a flat, dead voice that is even more 
despondently formless than his trumpet work. The 
incredible evidence can be found on Chet Baker 
Sings, World Pacific 1222, Chet Baker Sings and 
Plays, World Pacific 1202, and Chet Baker Sings, 
Riverside 12-278. 

Baker has three selections in Jazz West Coast, 
World Pacific JWC 500, two each in Rodgers and 
Hart Gems, World Pacific JWC 504, and Jazz West 
Coast, Vol. 3, World Pacific JWC 507, and one in 
Jazz West Coast, Vol. 2, World Pacific JWC 501, 
Ballads for Background, World Pacific JWC 503, 

The Records S3 

Solo Flight, World Pacific JWC 505, The Hard 
Swing, World Pacific JWC 508, Have Blues, Will 
Travel, World Pacific JWC 509, Jazz West Coast, 
Vol. 4, World Pacific JWC 510, and The Playboy 
Jazz Allstars, Playboy 1957. 

Ronnie Ball. One of several English pianists who 
have emigrated to the United States, Ball has been 
biding his time since his arrival, apparently intent 
on getting his musical bearings (mostly through 
study with Lennie Tristano) instead of plunging 
into active performance. The fruit of this fore- 
bearance is splendidly displayed on All About 
Ronnie, Savoy 12045, on which he reveals an un- 
usually attractive blues-rooted style (out of latter- 
day Tristano) and leads an equally Tristano-con- 
scious quartet. 

Charlie Barnet. Barnet had a frustrating twenty- 
year career as the leader of a big band that always 
seemed to be within reach of the top rung but never 
quite made it. He came closest in 1949 with a 
power-packed band that seemed destined to take 
up where Woody Herman and Stan Kenton had 
left off but the economics of the music business 
were against him and the band broke up. Perform- 
ances by this band, a frequently brilliant group, 
make up Classics in Jazz, Capitol T 624. 

Barnet was a bandleader in the pre-swing days 
of the early Thirties although his bands did not 
really begin to swing until the late Thirties and 
early Forties when he came strongly under the in- 
fluence of Duke Ellington and Count Basie. 
Charlie's Choice, Camden 389, reports the Barnet 
band of 1939-41, a gutty, jumping outfit spurred by 
Barnet's slashing, digging tenor saxophone and his 
sweeping soprano saxophone. The disk includes 
such Barnet classics as the riotous Murder at Pay ton 
Hall and his adaptation of The Habanera from 


Carmen (retitled Spanish Kick), along with vocals 
by Lena Horne and Mary Ann McCall. 

His band of the war years, which included 
Howard McGhee and Dodo Marmarosa, is heard in 
Hop on the Skyliner, Decca 8098. It is a band in 
transition, still working in the Swing .Era vein, still 
bowing to Ellington but starting to move toward 
modern big band jazz. Dance Bash, Verve 2007, 
Dancing Party, Verve 2027, and For Dancing 
Lovers, Verve 2031, are products of the middle 
Forties, brightly swinging performances of remark- 
ably consistent quality. 

After the financial failure of his 1949 band, Bar- 
net became relatively inactive. A band organized 
in 1956 has the customary Barnet punch and blast 
on four numbers on Lonely Street, Verve 2040, but 
the rest are diluted by a string section. Barnet, play- 
ing soprano saxophone all the way, shares the 
featured solo role with the expressive bass trumpet 
of Dave Wells. Two years later Barnet flew to New 
York from California to re-record some of his old 
hits with a band made up of able New York studio 
musicians on Cherokee, Everest 5008. Barnet's saxo- 
phones remain as perkily and pulsingly impudent 
as ever but the band, as might be expected of a 
pick-up group, lacks the casual, garrulous ease of 
the real Barnet bands. 

Billy Bauer. After making his mark in the Forties 
with a powerhouse big band (Woody Herman's) 
and an experimental small group (Lennie Tris- 
tano's), Bauer's guitar has been heard only occasion- 
ally and not always in a particularly favorable light. 
On his own disk, Billy Bauer, Plectrist, Verve 8172, 
he ambles amiably in low voltage style through 
some pretty and lightly swinging selections. 

Billy Bean. Bean, a guitarist, has played impres- 
sively with some Charlie Ventura groups but on 

The Records 35 

Makin' Friends, Decca 9206, he and Chico Hamil- 
ton's guitarist, Johnny Pisano, are hemmed in by 
stolid backgrounds. 

Aaron Bell. In the late Fifties Bell, a bassist, has 
been leading a capable trio built around the lean 
and swinging piano of Charlie Bateman. For After 
the Party's Over, Victor LPM 1876, this trio is pres- 
ent on four numbers but on the rest Bateman is 
replaced by Hank Jones who, for some reason, plays 
in an obviously Enroll Garner manner. It is a pleas- 
ant disk for background music. 

Al Belletto. The Belletto Sextet plays and sings in 
a slick, highly professional but bland manner. 
Fred Crane, a gutty pianist, scratches away the 
routine surface polish whenever he gets a chance 
on Whisper Not, Capitol T 901. Belletto, an alto 
saxophonist, plays a discreetly faceless role. 

Louis Bellson. Bellson's ability to drive a big band 
with his drumming was made quite evident during 
his tenure with Tommy Dorsey in the late Forties 
and with Harry James and Duke Ellington in the 
early Fifties. Since then, as a leader of his own 
groups, he has continued to show this lifting, rhyth- 
mic pulse but he has also allowed himself far too 
much leeway in taking long drum solos. One disk 
on which he restrains this impulse, At the Fla- 
mingo, Verve 8256, is made unfortunately drab by 
trumpeter Harry Edison's lack of inspiration except 
for one tightly played, sparkling piece, Flamingo 
Blues. Trumpeter Charlie Shavers, with whom 
Bellson and vibraphonist Terry Gibbs once jointly 
led a sextet, sparks four of the selections on The 
Driving Louis Bellson, Verve 8186, with some bril- 
liantly fiery, crisp playing that is pure virtuoso 
work but his fire dwindles to exhibitionism on The 
Louis Bellson Quintet, Verve 8016. Bellson scatters 


this last disk liberally with drum solos and devotes 
far too much time to them on Skin Deep, Verve 
8137, and Drumorama, Verve 8193. He clatters his 
way through one selection on Hi-Fi Drums, Capitol 

Sonny Berman. The promising trumpet star of the 
Woody Herman band who died in 1947 at the age 
of 23 is heard in relaxed, subdued form in some 
early morning jam session recordings made in 1946 
with a portable disk recorder in a New York apart- 
ment on Sonny Berman Jam Session, Esoteric 532. 
The disk is of more historical than musical interest. 

Eddie Bert. A graduate of the Kenton trombone 
brouhaha, Bert's personal style is a rather heavy, 
often stolid mixture of the fragmented J. J. John- 
son approach and the Swing Era lift of Jack Tea- 
garden. He is an effective ensemble man but over a 
distance his solos pall. He has some interesting 
ensemble possibilities with tenor saxophonist Jack 
Montrose on Montage, Savoy 12029, and on one 
side of Encore, Savoy 12019, but their solos are dis- 
appointing. On the remainder of Encore, Joe 
Puma's guitar gives Bert some needed light-toned 
relief but on Musician of the Year, Savoy 12015, he 
works alone with a guitar-less rhythm section and 
monotony waits just beyond the first few grooves. 
Let's Dig Bert, Transworld 208, is a relatively 
placid group of pieces enlivened by the fat-toned, 
Hawkinsish tenor saxophone of Davy Schildkraut 
who is known best as an alto man. 

Art Blakey. Blakey is a drummer of enormous 
ferocity who can (and has) carried utterly drab 
groups on the virile strength of his drumming 
alone. He is not, it should be noted, a show-off 
soloist but is primarily the creator of a foundation 
pulse which can drive ahead like a jet-propelled 

The Records 37 

steamroller or settle neatly into place under a 
delicate ballad. It is strange to think of as complete 
a product of modern jazz as Blakey as a veteran of 
Fletcher Henderson's band but he just made it 
(1939). He was also the drummer in Billy Eckstine's 
band for the three years that it existed. In the 
Forties he led his own big band, the Jazz Messen- 
gers, a name he revived in the Fifties for the 
quintets he has been leading through most of that 

For much of this time Blakey's Jazz Messengers 
was the loudest and possibly the emptiest group in 
jazz with nothing to recommed it aside from 
Blakey's virtuoso drumming. Even that was not as 
consistent as it might have been since he was in 
the unfortunate position of carrying the group. 
The Messengers were spawned at a Horace Silver 
session for Blue Note, Horace Silver and the Jazz 
Messengers, Blue Note 1518, (Kenny Dorham, trum- 
pet, Hank Mobley, tenor saxophone, Silver, Curly 
Russell, bass, and Blakey) but the true progenitor 
of the Messengers was an earlier Art Blakey Quintet 
heard on A Night at Birdland, VoL 1 and Vol. 2, 
Blue Note 1521 and 1522. This group, with Clifford 
Brown and Lou Donaldson in place of Dorham 
and Mobley, played with a leaping, crisp, crackling 
fire that Blakey's Messengers were never able to 
match until a 1958 change in personnel which 
brought Lee Morgan, Benny Golson and pianist 
Bobby Timmons into the band. This last group 
made its recording debut on Art Blakey and the 
Jazz Messengers, Blue Note 4003, an exhilarating 
jazz experience which includes Golson's fascinating 
composition, Blues March. 

In between these two high points, Blakey held 
together groups which ranged from fair to awful. 
The best of these in-between Messengers was the 
earliest the Dorham-Mobley group which re- 
corded The Jazz Messengers at the Cafe Bohemia, 


Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, Blue Note 1507 and 1508. Volume 
1 is particularly effective for Dorham captures 
some of the crisp fluency that might be expected 
of Clifford Brown while Mobley shows an easy 
warmth in developing a ballad. The downward 
path of the Messengers began when Donald Byrd 
replaced Dorham, leaving to Horace Silver the task 
of providing what slight interest there is on The 
Jazz Messengers, Columbia CL 897. Next the 
Parkerized alto saxophonist, Jackie McLean, re- 
placed Mobley and Bill Hardman, an immature 
and undeveloped trumpeter, went in for Byrd to 
produce the empty chaos of A Midnight Session 
with the Jazz Messengers, Elektra 120, Ritual, 
World Pacific 402, and Hard Bop, Columbia CL 

The zooming if often uncontrolled enthusiasm 
of tenor saxophonist Johnny Griffin, who followed 
into McLean's slot, gave the Messengers a little 
solo life but not even the presence of Thelonious 
Monk, with whom Blakey had frequently recorded 
in the past, could rouse the revised Messengers to 
much coherence on Art Blakey' s Jazz Messengers 
with Thelonious Monk, Atlantic 1278, although 
those moments when Monk and Blakey are able to 
rub caustically against each other give off a glowing 
jazz heat. Cu-Bop, Jubilee 1049, is more dispiriting 
Messengerial work but, with Junior Mance in on 
piano, the group does a sudden turnabout on Hard 
Drive, Bethlehem 6023, abandoning its blatant, 
sloppy, hard-muscled, unimaginative ways to play 
in an unfurious, clean manner marked by a feeling 
for variety and shading. The next step up from 
here was the advent of Morgan, Golson and Tim- 

Blakey's interest in African drumming and its 
Afro-Cuban offshoot resulted in Orgy in Rhythm, 
Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, Blue Note 1554 and 1555, on 
which Blakey and three other American drummers 

The Records 39 

join five Afro-Cuban drummers (plus flute, piano 
and bass) in some fascinating explorations of the 
melodic possibilities inherent in the mixture created 
by the two drumming styles. This is drumming 
that is definitely for listening. Blakey's inventive 
use of the shading potential of drums even in a 
roaring up-tempo comes out strongly in two drum 
pieces included on Horace Silver Trio, Blue Note 
1520, but the title piece on Drum Suite, Columbia 
CL 1002, by the Art Blakey Percussion Ensemble 
is more likely to appeal primarily to drum devotees. 
Blakey has made one big band disk, Art Blakey's 
Big Band, Bethlehem 6027, an adequate but in no 
way distinctive session. He plays on two selections 
in support of Tony Bennett on The Beat of My 
Hearty Columbia CL 1079, and contributes single 
pieces to Jazz Omnibus, Columbia CL 1020, Drums 
on Fire, World Pacific 1247, The Jazz Giants, Vol. 
8, EmArcy 36071, and The Hard Swing, World 
Pacific JWC 508. 

Paul Bley. On Solemn Meditation, GNP 31, Bley 
shows himself to be an unusually articulate pianist 
with a dark, tweedy vigor who moves in a direction 
that is decidedly his own. An earlier disk, Paul 
Bley, EmArcy 36092, is simply amiable swing with 
no suggestion that anything out of the ordinary 
may be just around the corner. 

Blue Stars. This unusual French vocal group is 
headed by an American, Blossom Dearie, and in- 
cludes some prominent jazz-musicians-turned-sing- 
ers Fats Sadi, Roger Guerin, Christian Chevalier. 
They sing with a refreshing lack of mannerisms on 
Blue Stars of France, EmAxcy 36067, Pardon My 
English, Mercury 20329, and in one selection on 
Bargain Day, EmArcy 36087, although little of it 
is couched in jazz terms. 


Bess Bonnier. Miss Bonnier plays lean, swinging, 
unflorid piano, often digging in firmly with both 
hands on Theme for the Tall One, Argo 632. 

Evans Bradshaw. Bradshaw, a Detroit pianist, is a 
disciplined performer with a good touch and great 
facility. On Look Out for Evans Bradshaw, River- 
side-263, the surface elements of his playing are 
impressive but there seems to be relatively little 
under this surface. On the brief occasions when 
he dismisses his concern for technique there are 
suggestions that he can be capable of emotional 

Brandeis Jazz Festival. The question of whether 
the six compositions on Modern Jazz Concert, 
Columbia WL 127, which were commissioned by 
the 1957 Brandeis University Festival of Arts, are 
in fact jazz is craftily avoided in the liner annota- 
tion by Gunther Schuller, who conducts them. At 
best they are a mixture of jazz and non-jazz ele- 
ments, a mixture Schuller deliberately exploits in 
his Transformation which is constructed as a transi- 
tion from non-jazz to jazz. Of the five other com- 
posers represented, two Harold Shapero and Mil- 
ton Babbitt are from the longhair side of the 
fence, three George Russell, Jimmy Giuffre and 
Charlie Mingus are primarily associated with jazz. 

What jazz there is in these works appears most 
effectively and not unnaturally in the solo im- 
provisations, most notably in a stirring piano solo 
by Bill Evans in Russell's bright, occasionally 
affecting All About Rosie. Evans is followed in this 
same piece by an almost equally compelling saxo- 
phone solo by John LaPorta who, with trumpeter 
Art Farmer, helps stir Shapero's On Green Moun- 
tain out of the doldrums. 

The one piece which is most completely oriented 
toward jazz is Giuffre's Suspensions despite the fact 

The Records 41 

that it allows for no improvisation. This is one 
more of Giuffre's explorations of root jazz forms 
but there is much more sinew here than in most of 
his works and certainly the orchestra under Schuller 
provides a fuller realization of what Giuffre seems 
to be after than Giuffre's own groups do. Charlie 
Mingus' Revelations (First Movement) is practically 
pure Mingus and good Mingus, at that. It manages 
to be ominous, adventurous, shouting and startling 
in the customary Mingus manner but without 
drowning in its own devices as so many of Mingus' 
headlong creations are apt to. There are implica- 
tions of jazz at the outset of Milton Babbitt's All 
Set but it never gets going in jazz terms or, so far 
as I could hear, in any terms. 

If, by the usual standards, most of the music on 
this disk is not jazz, that seems to be a minor point 
in the face of the fact that much of it is exploratory 
and, considering this, a surprising amount of it is 
provocative. Schuller suggests that "perhaps it is a 
new kind of music not yet named which became 
possible only in America." Some such amalgama- 
tion may be in the making and the most positive 
evidence of it on this disk is Mingus' Revelations 
which is rarely really jazz but is quite indigenously 

The Brass Ensemble of the Jazz and Classical Mu- 
sic Society. Beneath this awesome title lurks an or- 
ganization which, on one disk, Music for Brass, 
Columbia CL 941, undertakes a composition in the 
traditional formal vein (Gunther Schuller's Sym- 
phony for Brass and Percussion, conducted by Di- 
mitri Mitropoulos) and three works by jazzmen 
(J. J. Johnson's Poeme for Brass, John Lewis' Three 
Little Feelings and Jimmy GiufEre's Pharaoh, all 
conducted by Gunther Schuller). 

All three of the jazz composers make knowing 
use of the tools and approach of the serious com- 


poser and, in the Johnson and Lewis works, they 
have been worked in so skillfully that the pieces 
are filled with an undeniable jazz sense. There is 
no "shoe-horning" the jazz sections in, as Rolf 
Lieberman did in his Concerto for Jazz Band and 
Symphony Orchestra (see Sauter-Finegan). This is 
"serious" (i.e., learned) writing that swings readily 
in the hands of the musicians to whom it has been 

Johnson's Poeme for Brass, the most outwardly 
swinging of the three, is highlighted by contrasting 
trumpet solos by Miles Davis and Joe Wilder 
Davis in his close, breathy style; Wilder lithe, clear 
and pure-toned. Davis is heard to even better 
advantage in the second section of Lewis' Three 
Little Feelings, a gentler, darker and more grace- 
fully melodic composition than Johnson's. Davis' 
chief contribution is a quiet, lazily reminiscent solo 
worked out over the superb supporting tuba of Bill 
Barber. Giuffire's Pharaoh is a stately, picture-mak- 
ing piece which lacks the development and interest 
of the other two. It also has the least jazz feeling 
which may or may not be related to the fact that 
Giuffre is the only one of the three who has studied 
composition extensively. Schuller's Symphony is 
beyond the context of this book but there are 
moments in its jagged and soaring second movement 
and in the nervous excitement of the final section 
that seem to draw on Schuller's experience with 

Ronnell Bright. The twilight world between out- 
right jazz and facile cocktail piano appears to be 
Blight's habitat. His playing is precise and clean 
and he occasionally achieves a sort of surface tension 
but his lack of warmth gives it a bland, impersonal 
quality on Bright Flight, Vanguard 8512, Bright's 
Spot, Regent 6041, and one selection in After Hours 
Jazz, Epic 3339. 

The Records 43 

Herbie Brock. Art Tatum and Bud Powell are the 
influences that one hears most clearly in the work 
of this blind pianist. There is a warm, sinewy 
quality in his playing on Brock's Tops, Savoy 
12069, but on Solo, Savoy 12066, and Herbie' s 
Room, Criteria 2, he is closer to being a genial but 
eventually tiresome cocktail pianist. 

Bob Brookmeyer. A latter day product of an earlier 
seedbed of jazz talent, Kansas City, Brookmeyer 
has a much broader jazz perspective than most of 
the jazz musicians of his age (born 1929). Having 
absorbed the feeling of Kansas City jazz as a teen- 
ager, he came up the old fashioned way through 
big bands (he played piano with Tex Beneke, 
trombone and second piano with Claude Thorn- 
hill) and, since 1953, has worked in a succession of 
increasingly sophisticated small groups Terry 
Gibbs', Stan Getz's, Gerry Mulligan's and Jimmy 

His main instrument is valve trombone which 
he blows with a tweedy, stomping gruffness that 
incorporates a strong beat and a hearty humor 
drawn from pre-modern jazz. Mulligan has much of 
this same feeling and the two complemented and 
stimulated each other extremely well when they 
were the two horns in the Mulligan Quartet. The 
move from this outgoing atmosphere to the tight, 
static mumbo-jumbo of the Jimmy Giuffre Three 
drained Brookmeyer's playing of its forthright 
charm even though Giuffre was ostensibly working 
with the basic jazz roots to which Brookmeyer, of 
all modern jazzmen, should have responded most 

Strangely enough, when Brookmeyer overtly goes 
back to those earlier jazz forms which are normally 
strikingly present in his playing, he misses the boat 
completely. Traditionalism Revisited, World Pacific 
1233, is a case in point. Here Brookmeyer's Quintet, 


which includes Giuffre on reeds and Jim Hall, 
guitar, gives such tunes as Jada, Santa Glaus Blues, 
Some Sweet Day, Honeysuckle Rose and Truckin' 
an easily swinging modern treatment but it is all 
rather meaningless since, after an initial statement 
of the melody (often drained of its inherent char- 
acter) they take off on their customary personal 
solos. In themselves, these are pleasant, finger- 
snapping performances but it is the kind of spiritual 
depradation of traditional jazz that Freddie Martin 
used to commit on defenseless concertos. In a some- 
what different glance at the past, Kansas City Re- 
visited, United Artists 4008, six of the members of 
Brookmeyer's tired and bedraggled KG Seven show 
none of the drive or spirit that is usually associated 
with Kansas City jazz. Only Bostonian Nat Pierce 
escapes the pall and is a swinging miracle in a 
group which has a fatal failing for the grotesque. 

On the other hand, Brookmeyer can assemble a 
group very much like the one he led on Tradition- 
alism Revisited and, on The Street Swingers, World 
Pacific 1239, turn out a stimulating collection of 
freshly voiced, no-school jazz built around the de- 
pendable pulsation of his lilting, stomping ap- 
proach to both the trombone and piano. Similarly, 
when he shares the leadership of a quintet with 
tenor saxophonist Zoot Sims on Whooeeee, Story- 
ville 914, and Tonight's Jazz Today, Storyville 907, 
he plays with a delightfully forceful attack and 
dexterity at uptempos and, on ballads, develops his 
lines with an imaginative continuity that is one of 
the roots of jazz excitement. Teamed with Gerry 
Mulligan to play Phil Sunkel's Jazz Concerto 
Grosso, ABC-Paramount 225, neither Brookmeyer 
nor Mulligan find much to do and are over- 
shadowed in the solo portions by Sunkel's sensitive 
cornet work. 

The Dual Role of Bob Brookmeyer, Prestige 

The Records 45 

7066, is split between piano solos which have 
shades of the down-home, stomping quality o his 
trombone work, and pieces on which he plays 
trombone backed by a rhythm section. The trom- 
bone texture becomes monotonous when it is with- 
out contrast for so long, a failing that is even more 
apparent when the trombone goes all the way on 
both sides of The Modernity of Bob Brookmeyer, 
Verve 8111. He contributes single selections to The 
Playboy Jazz Allstars, Playboy 1957, Jazz West 
Coast, World Pacific JWC 500, Ballads for Back- 
ground, World Pacific JWC 504, Solo Flight, 
World Pacific JWC 505, and Jazz West Coast, Vol. 
4, World Pacific JWC 510. 

John Benson Brooks. Since the late Forties, Brooks, 
a pianist and arranger whose past connections have 
included the bands of Les Brown, Tommy Dorsey 
and Randy Brooks, has been mulling over folk 
song in relation to both popular music and jazz. 
He has written successfully in a folk-pop idiom 
(You Came a Long Way from St. Louis) and, on an 
LP that is no longer available, Folk Jazz, U.S.A., 
Vik 1083, produced a collection of jazz interpreta- 
tions of folk tunes based on developments of their 
chord changes which manages to reflect the haunt- 
ing, recollective quality of folk music and yet still 
be strong jazz performances. 

His most ambitious work so far is Alabama Con- 
certo, Riverside 12-276, an outgrowth of an assign- 
ment he had several years ago to transcribe for a 
book some folk recordings made in Alabama by 
Harold Courlander. He was struck then, he says, 
by the light this material cast on jazz origins "a 
different taste from New Orleans' urban finery.*' 
Working from several rural folk themes, he de- 
velops his Concerto through ensembles, written 
solos and improvised solos played by a quartet 


made up o Julian Adderley, alto saxophone, Art 
Farmer, trumpet, Barry Galbraith, guitar, and Milt 
Hinton, bass. 

As an exploration of jazz origins it is a rather 
peculiar work for there is very little in it that can 
be identified as jazz. The only really effective jazz 
moments are in some warm, firmly expressed solos 
by Adderley. Farmer's playing in general is sure 
and clean but his solos are inclined to a static cool- 
ness that is much more drily urbane than the 
"urban finery" of New Orleans. Aside from the 
question of whether the concerto has any relation- 
ship to jazz, it lacks movement and explicit de- 
velopment. One gets the feeling that a single little 
jigging riff is being bandied about over and over 
again and the work becomes lost in monotony long 
before the two full LP sides have been completed. 

Clifford Brown. Just when he was fairly launched 
on what promised to be a rewarding career, trum- 
peter Clifford Brown was killed in an automobile 
accident in 1956 at the age of 25. He had by then 
established himself as the strongest and most in- 
dividual trumpeter to come out of a bop back- 
ground since Dizzy Gillespie and Fats Navarro and 
had become, in effect, the progenitor of the then 
rising school of hard bop. After working around 
his native Philadelphia and with Tadd Dameron's 
group at Cafe Society, Brown spent a year with 
Lionel Hampton's band in 1953 and the following 
year formed, with Max Roach, the group with 
which he was working when he was killed. 

Brown was an extremely fluent trumpeter who 
could phrase cleanly and crisply at almost ridicu- 
lously fast tempos. Yet, unlike most of his fluent, 
hard-driving contemporaries, he could also develop 
a ballad with warmth and feeling. On Clifford 
Brown Memorial Album, Blue Note 1526, he plays 
a slow ballad in which one hears suggestions of 

The Records 47 

both Louis Armstrong and Bunny Berigan along 
with the modern trumpet fashions. The disk in- 
cludes his first recording made in 1953 with a 
relatively routine group as well as selections from 
a much better session later in the same year on 
which he shows off his dazzling speed, his firm, 
strong middle register tone and his ballad style. 
While he was abroad with the Hampton band in 
this same year, he made some recordings with a 
Swedish group, collected in Clifford Brown Memo- 
rial, Prestige 7055, in which he is less impressive 
than his Swedish colleagues, Lars Gullin, Bengt 
Hallberg and Ake Persson. 

A visit to the West Coast in 1954 produced a disk, 
Clifford Brown All Stars, EmArcy 36102, on which 
he shows what a thoughtful performer he could 
be as he works out an easygoing but long, long, 
long version of Autumn in New York which oc- 
cupies one entire side of the disk. It also produced 
a long, long, long and tedious blowing session, 
Best Coast Jazz, EmArcy 36039 (one number per 
side), and some adequate but not particularly 
memorable performances with Zoot Sims and Bob 
Gordon on one side of Arranged by Montr ose, 
World Pacific 1214. 

The disks made by the Brown-Roach group are 
very much of a piece, with Brown a matured, 
balanced performer much of the way but almost 
always throwing in something for flash. The disks 
are Brown and Roach, Inc., EmArcy 36008, Clifford 
Brown and Max Roach, EmArcy 36036 (which in- 
cludes Daahoud, Joy Spring and Jprdu), Study in 
Brown, EmArcy 36037, Clifford Brown and Max 
Roach at Basin Street, EmArcy 36070, and The 
Best of Max Roach and Clifford Brown in Concert, 
GNP 18. On Clifford Brown with Strings, EmArcy 
36005, he battles the customary glut of gut with 
the help of the Brown-Roach rhythm section. He 
moves easily through this program of ballads but 


his harsh, edgy tone is out of keeping with the 
mood setting in which he is placed. Brown has 
single selections on Jazz West Coast, World Pacific 
JWC 500, The Young Ones of Jazz, EmArcy 36085, 
For Jazz Lovers, EmArcy 36085, and Bargain Day, 
EmArcy 36087. 

Les Brown. The Brown band has evolved over a 
period of years from a good dance band to an ex- 
tremely slick and often swinging dance band with 
a thin jazz veneer. Its strongest jazz voice for many 
years has been trombonist Ray Sims who has gotten 
occasional support from Ronnie Lang, alto saxo- 
phone, Don Fagerquist, trumpet, and Dave Pell, 
tenor saxophone. It plays a cleanly scrubbed, dis- 
infected type of big band jazz with a monotony of 
tonal color that frequently produces an assembly 
line effect. 

The best showcasing of the Brown band as a 
jazz band is Concert at the Palladium, Coral CX-1, 
while the reason why it has never been a particu- 
larly good jazz band is summed up on The Les 
Brown All Stars, Capitol T 659, devoted to per- 
formances by four small, ostensibly jazz groups 
drawn from the band, all of them playing a bland 
form of swing. The band's hollow slickness meets 
its match in the hollow and slick originals pro- 
vided for it by nine Hollywood arrangers on Com- 
poser's Holiday, Capitol T 886. 

The Brown band is at its most engaging when it 
is playing unprepossessing swing on Dance with Les 
Brown, Columbia CL 539, Les Brown's In Town, 
Capitol T 746, More from Les, Coral 57058, That 
Sound of Renown, Coral 57030, and The Greatest, 
Harmony 7100. For strictly dance sets, there are 
Sentimental Journey, Columbia CL 649, College 
Classics, Capitol T 659, Dancer's Choice, Capitol 
T 812, Dance to South Pacific, Capitol T 1060, 
Love Letters in the Sand, Coral 57165, and Les 

The Records 49 

Dance, Vocalion 3618. The band's innocuous versa- 
tility is shown off in its slightly swung versions of 
Rhapsody in Blue, The Nutcracker Suite and so 
forth on Concert Modern, Capitol T 959, and it 
serves as accompaniment to a grab-bag of pop 
vocalists on Open House, Coral 57051. The band 
plays two selections on Dance to the Bands, Vol. 2, 
Capitol T 978, and one each on Dance to the Bands, 
Vol. 1, Capitol T 977, Dance Craze, Capitol T 927, 
and The Encyclopedia of Jazz on Records, Vol. 4, 
Decca 8401. 

Ray Brown. One of the most consistent and pro- 
pulsive bassists in post-bop jazz and a member of 
the Oscar Peterson trio in recent years, Brown 
makes some adept front-line uses of his bass on Bass 
Hit, Verve 8022. He manages to work his bass into 
a logically prominent position in most selections, 
avoiding the appearance of soloing simply for solo- 
ing's sake, as he leads a large group from which 
Harry Edison's trumpet emerges from time to time 
with wry, biting statements. He has one selection in 
The Playboy Jazz Allstars, Playboy 1957. 

Ted Brown. Brown, a tenor saxophonist who has 
been indoctrinated by Lennie Tristano, is joined 
by two other Tristano alumni, tenor saxophonist 
Warne Marsh and pianist Ronnie Ball on Free 
Wheeling, Vanguard 8515. Both Brown and Marsh 
and a third saxophonist, the non-Tristanoite alto, 
Art Pepper, sound uncertain and tentative. It's 
almost worth sitting through them, however, to 
hear Ball's lean, sinewy and rhythmically insistent 

Dave Brubeck. As is usually the case when a jazz 
musician becomes extremely popular with a mass 
audience, Brubeck's wide acclaim has almost noth- 
ing to do with his jazz talents (Louis Armstrong, 


for example, is not as popular as he is because he 
is a brilliant jazz musician but because he is an 
extremely good showman). Brubeck is, in what 
seems to be his most natural and least pretentious 
state, an amiably swinging cocktail pianist and a 
composer of pleasant cameos (The Duke, for in- 
stance). He has, however, a strong appeal to people 
who "never liked jazz before" and to those who 
feel that modern jazz is a good social topic but 
have not previously been able to hear anything in 
modern jazz that they could hang onto. 

He has done this by appearing to be injecting a 
familiar cultural note in jazz through references to 
Bach and climaxes of Wagnerian thunder. At the 
same time he has carried in his quartet one very 
valid and highly creative jazz musician, alto saxo- 
phonist Paul Desmond. Thus he could satisfy both 
the jazz audience, through Desmond, and the mass 
audience through his pseudo-culture. 

Starting from this basis, it is all too easy to dis- 
miss Brubeck as a musician of little consequence in 
jazz. But, as is often pointed out by those who 
admire Brubeck personally even though they do 
not hold him in high esteem as a jazz musician, 
because of his popularity he has been a great in- 
fluence in the spread of interest in jazz since he 
plays a great many colleges, attracts large audiences 
and, by at least introducing them to Desmond, 
brings many people in favorable contact with jazz 
who otherwise would know nothing about it. By 
the same token, of course, he misleads a great many 
people who believe that his thumping and pompous 
finger exercises are really jazz. 

But possibly the most instructive side of Brubeck 
as a jazz influence (and this reflects strongly on 
Brubeck as a person) is the course he has followed 
in the years since he suddenly shot to very great 
fame and success. It almost always follows in such 

The Records 51 

circumstances that the widely heralded star be- 
comes even more of a star, that the spotlight focuses 
ever more intently on him and the group around 
him becomes less and less important (as in the case 
of Louis Armstrong). Brubeck, however, has done 
almost exactly the opposite. He has slowly and 
very carefully changed the personnel of his quartet 
until, with the arrival of Joe Morello on drums and 
Gene Wright on bass, what had once been a stolid 
and drab group enlivened only by Desmond is now 
an extremely good jazz combo in which Brubeck 
is the point of least interest. I can think of no 
other leader of a jazz group who has deliberately 
put himself in this position. But then, of course, 
no other leader of a jazz group has been quite as 
highly regarded for as little reason as has Brubeck. 

The best of the Brubeck Quartet performances, 
as one might suspect, are those by the current 
group, or at least since Morello joined up. The 
arrival of Morello not only brought to the quartet 
one of the best drummers in jazz today a man 
with an alert, brimming rhythmic sense who en- 
genders a constant air of excitement without leav- 
ing his proper place in the group as a whole but, 
by relieving Brubeck of any need to provide the 
driving pulse for the group, Morello has permitted 
him to relax into something closer to the amiable, 
often felicitously melodic pianist that he has shown 
he can be in his solo work. 

On the Quartet's first disk with Morello, Jazz 
Impressions of the U.S.A., Columbia CL 984, Bru- 
beck sheds many of the cliches of his earlier work, 
Desmond responds to the stimulation of Morello's 
presence by playing with soaring brilliance and 
Morello himself is a constant joy. The follow-up, 
Jazz Goes to Junior College, Columbia CL 1034, is 
far less satisfying except for one unusually good 
selection, One Moment Worth Years, which brings 


out the best in every member of the group. A still 
later disk by this group, Dave Digs Disney, Colum- 
bia, CL 1059, deals with cloying material. 

An overseas tour in the winter of 1957-58 brought 
in Gene Wright on bass to further strengthen the 
group's swinging foundation and produced Dave 
Brubeck Quartet in Europe, Columbia CL 1168, 
and Jazz Impressions of Eurasia, Columbia CL 
1251. The European disk was recorded at a concert 
in Copenhagen and is, in general, pleasantly light 
and airy even though Desmond sounds somewhat 
tired and Morello spends one track showing that 
not even as inventive a drummer as he can always 
make a drum solo entertaining. The Eurasian im- 
pressions (with Joe Benjamin temporarily in place 
of Wright) are generally ingratiating except for 
Burbeck's humorless and prissy piano passages. 

Of the Quartet's pre-Morello work, Jazz Goes to 
College, Columbia CL 566, is kept boiling by Des- 
mond in brilliant form and on Brubeck Time, 
Columbia CL 622, the pianist's Gothic side is 
quiescent as he engages in several charming bits of 
interplay with Desmond. Other disks from this 
period include Jazz: Red Hot and Cool, Columbia 
CL 699, Dave Brubeck and Jay and Kai at New- 
port, Columbia CL 932. Dave Brubeck at Story- 
ville: 1954, Columbia CL 590, The Dave Brubeck 
Trio and Quartet, Fantasy 3240, Dave Brubeck at 
Wilshire-Ebell, Fantasy 3249, Brubeck-Desmond, 
Fantasy 3229, Dave Brubeck Quartet, Fantasy 3230, 
Jazz at the Blackhawk, Fantasy 3210, Jazz at the 
College of the Pacific, Fantasy 3223, Jazz at Oberlin, 
Fantasy 3245. 

Removed from his Quartet, Brubeck leaves 
thumping ostentation behind to play in the man- 
ner of an artful small room pianist on Dave Bru- 
beck Plays, Fantasy 3259, and Brubeck Plays Bru- 
beck, Columbia CL 878, both made up of unaccom- 
panied piano solos. In these performances he is 

The Records 53 

reflective, with a leaning toward romanticism and 
a greater sense of interior swing than he usually 
shows with his Quartet. 

Reunion, Fantasy 3268, is played by the Brubeck 
Quintet, created by the addition of tenor saxo- 
phonist Dave Van Kriedt, an early associate of Bru- 
beck who wrote and arranged an attractive group 
of melodic, occasionally piquantly quirksome and 
lightly rhythmic pieces for their reunion. In many 
ways these soundly constructed, unpretentious quin- 
tet performances are more rewarding than the gen- 
eral run of the Quartet's work. 

Brubeck's early disks include Dave Brubeck Oc- 
tet, Fantasy 3239, Dave Brubeck Trio, Fantasy 3204, 
and Dave Brubeck Trio, Fantasy 3205. His Quartet 
is heard in single selections on The Playboy Jazz 
Allstars, Playboy 1957, $64,000 Jazz, Columbia CL 
777, and Jazz Omnibus, Columbia CL 1020. 

Max Bruel. A Danish architect who also plays jazz, 
Bruel is capable of a smoothly viscous style on bari- 
tone saxophone when he is cushioned on a lithe 
section. He gets this needed support on the major- 
ity of the selections on Max Bruel Quartet, Em- 
Arcy 36062, but on three numbers the quartet's able 
pianist, Bent Axen, drops out in favor of trumpeter 
Jorgen Ryg who constantly over-reaches his capabil- 
ities while Bruel plods doggedly through his solos. 

Ray Bryant. Bryant is a facile pianist who occasion- 
ally indicates that he can dig into his material with 
some strength of feeling on Ray Bryant Trio, Pres- 
tige 7098, and Ray Bryant with Betty Carter, Epic 
3202. Ray Bryant Trio, Epic 3279, on which he has 
to contend with a conga drummer, is largely surface 
stuff. He has one number in After Hours Jazz, Epic 

Rusty Bryant. After establishing some reputation 
as a tenor saxophonist in rock 'n' roll territory, 


Bryant switched to jazz with moderate success on 
Rusty Bryant Plays Jazz, Dot 3079. He is refresh- 
ingly free of mannerisms, has the flexibility to 
range from a coarse, grainy tone to a light, almost 
altoish sound, from a cool, suave approach to a 
sharp, slicing attack. However, the repetitive simil- 
arity of his ideas eventually drains them of interest. 
He is also heard on Carolyn Club Band, Dot 3006. 

Milt Buckner. Buckner had been lending a stolid 
pianistic thud to Lionel Hampton's band for 
several years when Doug Duke, who had been play- 
ing organ with Hampton, left and Buckner was 
asked to shift instruments. Since then he has been 
one of the most successful of the new and spreading 
school of jazz organists. Buckner works from a 
widely varied pallette, ranging from a dogged rock 
that borders on rock 'n' roll to svelte, swoon-shaped 
mood music languor. He has an unusually good 
light, moving modern jazz style which shares both 
Rockin' with Milt, Capitol T 642, and Rockin' 
Hammond, Capitol T 722, with examples of his 
heavy beat style. Send Me Softly, Capitol T 938, 
does precisely that with Buckner's organ velvet sup- 
plemented by purple-tinged Hodges-like scoops on 
alto saxophone by Earl Warren, the onetime 

Bob Burgess. Burgess plays a rough-toned, swing- 
ing trombone in stabbing, jagged phrases on a 
single selection in Jazz West Coast, Vol. 3, World 
Pacific JWC 507. 

Vinnie Burke. Burke is a neat, consistent bassist 
who phrases melodically and does not carry soloing 
too far on Vinnie Burke All-Stars, ABC-Paramount 
139, and Costa-Burke Trio, Jubilee 1025, both of 
which are enlivened by roaring, spitting piano 
solos by Eddie Costa. Vinnie Burke's String Jazz 

The Records 55 

Quartet, ABC-Paramount 170, is a highly provoca- 
tive disk on which Burke, Dick Wetmore, violin, 
Calo Scott, cello, and Bobby Grillo, guitar, manage 
to avoid the salon gentility that this instrumenta- 
tion would usually bring on by using a hard, strong 
attack. Wetmore is particularly interesting. He uses 
a dark, misterioso tone that is very helpful in turn- 
ing the usually obdurate violin in jazz directions. 

Ralph Burns. Burns' arrangements were one of the 
strong points of the Woody Herman band of 1945 
which skyrocketed to the top of the big band heap 
and he gave the band one of its most memorable 
pieces in the extended Summer Sequence. Since 
then he has been active as an arranger who leans 
as much out of jazz as he does into it. On the "in" 
side is Ralph Burns Among the JATPs, Verve 8121, 
on which he provides settings in which members 
of Norman Granz's frequently gauche JATP troupe 
can remind listeners that they are still capable of 
sensitivity, inspiration and electrifying sparks of 
brilliance. Flip Phillips, Roy Eldridge and Bill 
Harris are among the resuscitated. And one side of 
Swinging Seasons, MGM 3613, is made up of 
Burnsian frames for some fine soloists Kai Wind- 
ing, Joe Wilder are the standouts. On Jazz Studio 
5, Decca 8235, Burns leads a ten-piece band through 
some surprisingly routine arrangements. 

Less jazz-imbued is the Burns who turns up on 
one side of Jazz Recital, Verve 8098 (shared with 
Billie Holiday), weaving strings, woodwinds and 
Lee Konitz's alto saxophone into pleasantly rhyth- 
mic chamber music. Very Warm for Jazz, Decca 
9207, is in much the same vein but with a more 
normal jazz instrumentation (Zoot Sims and Urbie 
Green are both on hand). The Masters Revisited, 
Decca 8555, is a misguided attempt to rewrite 
Moussorgsky and Lecuona in swing terms. Burns 
has one selection in Forty-Eight Stars of American 


Jazz, MGM 3611, and The Encyclopedia of Jazz on 
Records, Vol. 4, Decca 8401. 

Kenny Burrell. Burrell is a loose, loping guitarist 
who manages to swing along on almost consistently 
interesting lines even though he is almost always 
involved in long blowing sessions with uninspired 
company. There are, fortunately, a few exceptions: 
Introducing Kenny Burrell, Blue Note 1523, on 
which he teams up with pianist Tommy Flanagan 
and an unusually swinging rhythm section; Earthy, 
Prestige 7102, with a vastly superior jamming group 
which includes Art Fanner, Al Cohn, Hal Mc- 
Kusick and, particularly, Mai Waldron; and Jazz- 
men: Detroit, Savoy 12083, a modest set at easy 
tempos with no long solos, some lean Burrell guitar 
and strongly rhythmic Tommy Flanagan. 

Burrell is the sole saving grace on All Night 
Long, Prestige 7073; All Day Long, Prestige 7081; 
Jazz for Playboys, Savoy 12095; Blue Lights, Blue 
Note 1596; Two Guitars, Prestige 7119; Kenny 
Burrell, Blue Note 1543; and Kenny Burrell, Pres- 
tige 7088. 

Joe Burton. Burton is an amiable addition to that 
school of fetching, rhythmic pianists of which Er- 
roll Garner is the dean. His playing is delightfully 
quirksome and toe-tapping on Here I Am in Love 
Again, Coral 57175, effectively simple and direct on 
Joe Burton Session, Coral 57098, but he becomes a 
bit too wrapped up in prettiness in Jazz Pretty, 
Regent 6036. 

Don Byas. A very warm, smooth, dark-toned tenor 
out of Coleman Hawkins, Byas is an extroverted, 
assured and purposeful purveyor of craftily con- 
structed ballads and fluent, airy swingers on Jazz 
. . . Free and Easy, Regent 6044, but is a little 
less free and a little less easy on one side of Jazz 
from St. Germain des Pres, Verve 8119 (shared with 

The Records 57 

Bernard Peiffer). He has two poorly recorded selec- 
tions in Tenor Sax, Concorde 3012. 

Billy Byers. Byers, an able, big-voiced trombonist, 
is buried in Jazz on the Left Bank, Epic 3387, a pale 
collection of low-keyed performances recorded in 
France which also stifle the excellent French pian- 
ist, Martial Solal. 

Charlie Byrd. There are a few jazzmen who dabble 
in serious music and several who are determined 
to improve jazz by dressing it in formal clothes. 
Charlie Byrd stands practically alone in the fre- 
quency and ease with which he moves between the 
two musical worlds. With Byrd it is not simply a 
matter of being able to play good jazz guitar and 
good classical guitar. In the course of a normal 
evening's performance he moves readily back and 
forth between the two. He avoids cross-breeding in 
performance and on records he has kept his two 
sides separated. His classical side will be found in 
an engrossing Anthology of Guitar Music The 
Sixteenth Century, Washington WR 411. He plucks 
a Spanish guitar on this disk and he uses the same 
delightfully unamplified instrument on many of 
his jazz performances. The depths of his creative 
resources and his well of melodic invention are 
strikingly illustrated in the title selection on Blues 
for Night People, Savoy 12116, a three-part suite 
which takes up one side of the disk. For a guitarist 
to extemporize at this length accompanied only 
by bass (Keter Betts) and drums (Gus Johnson) 
without the slightest let-down in interest is an ear- 
opening display of virtuosity. Byrd carries this off 
with no sense of strain, forcing or searching as he 
lines out a probing series of blues variations com- 
pounded of root ideas and highly sophisticated 
technique. His versatility is highlighted on Jazz at 
the Showboat, Offbeat 3001, on which he appears 


in a variety of settings, ranging from sextet to duo 
(bass and guitar) and plays both Spanish guitar 
and the more customary electric guitar. He makes 
swingingly economical use of the latter instrument 
but his real brilliance comes through when he 
takes the plug out of the guitar and fingers his way 
through Satin Doll. He uses both guitars as part of 
a quartet on Jazz Recital, Savoy 12099, a varied set 
with some interesting blending o Spanish guitar 
and flute. 

Donald Byrd. For a trumpeter who has been re- 
corded very often and at great, great length, Byrd 
has remarkably little to say as an improvising 
soloist. Part of his trouble may lie in the fact that 
he is constantly cast in barren blowing sessions for 
when he is given direction and guidance by the 
requirements of Modern Jazz Perspective, Columbia 
CL 1058, which is an attempt to trace the develop- 
ment of some modern jazz styles, his playing is at 
least neat and to the point. This disk was made by 
the Jazz Lab Quintet which Byrd has jointly led 
for some time with alto saxophonist Gigi Gryce. 
They have concocted some interesting ensemble 
leaping off points on Gigi Gryces, Riverside 12-229, 
Jazz Lab, Columbia CL 998, and Gigi Gryce, Donald 
Byrd and Cecil Taylor at Newport, Verve 98238, but 
on all three disks they move from intriguing group 
openings to long, wearing solos which are often 
out of character emotionally with the introductory 
matter. In the wide open spaces of a blowing session, 
Byrd becomes a dreary mumbler: Byrd's Word, 
Savoy, 12032, The Young Blood, Prestige 7080, All 
Day Long, Prestige 708, All Night Long, Prestige 
77073, Two Trumpets, Prestige 7062, The Jazz 
Message, Savoy 12064, and in single elections on 
Montage, Savoy 12029, and Know Your Jazz, Vol. 
1, ABC-Paramount 115. The Jazz Lab Quintet plays 
one selection in Jazz Omnibus, Columbia CL 1020. 

The Records 59 

Jackie Cain and Roy Krai. This husband-and- 
wife team, forged when he was pianist with 
Charlie Ventura's fine late Forties group and she 
was the band's vocalist, has created one of the 
most valid means of jazz singing in their wordless 
duets and their brightly propelled, swinging ap- 
proach to worded lyrics. All their best qualities 
(which include Krai's lithe, moving piano work) 
come through on Sing! Baby, Sing! Storyville 915, 
Jackie and Roy, Storyville 904, and Bits and Pieces, 
ABC-Paramount 163. On this last disk they are 
accompanied by a big band, an arrangement that 
is less satisfactory on Free and Easy, ABC-Para- 
mount 207. The emphasis on The Glory of Love, 
ABC-Paramount 120, is on non-jazz. In the Spot- 
light, ABC-Paramount 267, the least satisfactory of 
their disks, puts the spotlight on Miss Cain singing 
ballads in an unbecomingly shrill and strident 
manner. Four selections made at a reunion with 
Ventura in the early Fifties on Jackie Cain and Roy 
Krai, Brunswick 54026, are of interest but the re- 
mainder of the disk is routine. 

Al Caiola. Essentially a New York studio guitarist, 
Caiola leads three groups of only minor interest 
on Deep in a Dream, Savoy 12033, and Serenade in 
Blue, Savoy 12057. Pianist Ronnie Ball has a few 
good moments on the latter and Bernie Privin, 
playing both trumpet and fluegelhorn, gives a 
warm, Swing Era touch to both disks. 

Candido. Since the death of Chano Pozo, who first 
gave the conga drum an individual jazz voice dur- 
ing the Afro-Cuban invasion of the late 1940s, his 
most worthy successor has been Candido. Playing 
with The Billy Taylor Trio, Prestige 7051, and 
with Al Cohn on Candido, ABC-Paramount 125, 
he takes full advantage of excellent opportunities 
to show how well the conga can be used as an 


improvisatory solo instrument rather than an en- 
semble percussive element. He takes part in a 
successful tour de force a duet with drummer 
Kenny Clarke on Introducing Kenny Burrell, Blue 
Note 1523. He has less freedom on Candida the 
Volcanic, ABC-Paramount 180, and he is little more 
than a section hand on The Beat of My Heart, 
Columbia CL 1079. He sings and drums on Calypso 
Dance Party, ABC-Paramount 178, but this is 
calypso, not jazz. 

Pete and Conte Candoli. The trumpeting Candoli 
brothers, both veterans of modern big band jazz 
(Herman, Kenton), pair off on The Brothers 
Candoli, Dot 3062, in brilliantly brassy duets and 
chases, interspersed by short solos. Pete's arrange- 
ments keep the group (two trumpets, three rhythm) 
working together all the time, avoiding long, lone- 
some solos. 

Conte Candoli. Candoli is a trumpeter who can, 
in his better moments, bite out clipped, crisp 
phrases but they mean very little since he has little 
conception of construction. He is, consequently, an 
occasionally prodding but eventually tiresome per- 
former on West Coast Waiters, Atlantic 1268, Conte 
Candoli, Bethlehem 30, Mucho Color, Andex 3003, 
and in his three selections on Rhythm Plus One, 
Epic 3297, and his single entry on After Hours 
Jazz, Epic 3339. 

Barbara Carroll. Miss Carroll is inclined to be a 
glib, surface pianist who spars gracefully and in- 
nocuously over a lightly swinging rhythm section. 
At times, however, she takes off her polite gloves 
and shows signs of a strong Powell-derived style. 
There is something of this on one side of Ladies 
of Jazz Atlantic 1271 (shared with Mary Lou 
Williams), and in her sparkling, imaginative devel- 

The Records 61 

opment of that intrinsic dog, The Trolley Song, 
on Barbara, Verve 2095. The rest of the latter disk 
is, however, devoted to the placid front that also 
dominates The Best of George and Ira Gershwin, 
Verve 2092, Ifs a Wonderful World, Victor LPM 
1396, Funny Face, Verve 2063, We Just Couldn't 
Say Goodbye, Victor LPM 1296, and her portion 
of The Wide, Wide World of Jazz, Victor LPM 

Joe Carroll. Carroll is a relatively engaging bop 
singer who joined Dizzy Gillespie's band in 1949 
and for the next four years worked with Gillespie 
to good advantage. On Joe Carroll, Epic 3272, he 
is on his own and while he is fun in small doses, 
his nonsense syllable songs become monotonous 
and when he resorts to words he is a rather strident 

Betty Carter. Miss Carter is an unformed singer 
who has listened to Sarah Vaughan. On Out There, 
Peacock 90, she labors through arrangements at- 
tributed to Gigi Gryce, Benny Golson, Melba Lis- 
ton, Ray Copeland and Tommy Gryce. They all 
must have been out of town at the time. 

Joe Castro. A suave, innocuous, middleground 
pianist, Castro is occasionally cushioned by an 
unobtrusive string section on Mood Jazz, Atlantic 
1264, but on other occasions he is hounded by a 
more vehement vocal group. 

Bob Centano. Centano's 21-piece band on First 
Time Out, Stepheny 4006, might be dismissed as a 
rather fuzzily rehearsed Kenton derivative if one's 
judgment were not tempered by the fact that, at 
the time of recording, Centano was 20, his chief 
arranger, Bob Ojeda, was 17, and the average age 
of the band was 22. From this point of view, this is 


a tantalizing view of an obviously promising group 
of young musicians in the process of finding them- 

Serge Chaloff. Chaloff's baritone saxophone was 
one of the booting elements in Woody Herman's 
high flying mid-Forties Herd although he was a 
limited soloist. His limitations are marked in four 
selections on Lestorian Mode, Savoy 12105, on 
which he plays with a group in which Red Rod- 
ney's biting trumpet is the major voice. Returning 
in 1955 from several years of retirement caused by 
illness (from which he died in 1957) , he put to- 
gether a well organized, cleanly directed group on 
Boston Blow-Up, Capitol T 6510, notable primarily 
for the swinging alto of Boots Mussulli. The fol- 
lowing year, working with only a rhythm section, 
he produced a group of quiet, neatly turned per- 
formances on Blue Serge, Capitol T 742, which re- 
vealed a polish and dexterity that had never been 
particularly noticeable in his earlier work. 

Chamber Jazz Sextet. "The Chamber Jazz Sextet 
was formed and organized," its leader, Allyn Fergu- 
son, advises us in the liner notes on Chamber Jazz 
Sextet, Cadence 1020, "with this basic purpose in 
mind: the synthesis of jazz and 'serious' music." 
Neither jazz nor "serious" music is particularly well 
served by the cuteness and the sonic abandon in 
which the group indulges on this disk (just from 
the point of view of sound the sextet gets some 
amusing voicings through an astounding versatil- 
ity). On Pal Joey, Cadence 3015, however, with 
something as sturdy as the Rodgers and Hart score 
on which to build, the group becomes lively and 
loose-jointed, especially in the work of Modesto 
Brisano, a superior baritone saxophonist, and 
Frank Leal, an alto saxophonist who swoops and 
soars in the graceful Paul Desmond manner. 

The Records 63 

Paul Chambers. Chambers is a bassist who almost 
always manages to snag a long solo for himself, 
either plucked or bowed. This tendency makes 
Bass on Top, Blue Note 1569, and Paul Chambers 
Quintet, Blue Note 1564, heavy going. Whims of 
Chambers, Blue Note 1534, is lightened by Kenny 
Burrell's brightly swinging guitar but in addition 
to Chambers' inevitable solos it also has tenor saxo- 
phonist John Coltrane lunging around, thick-toned 
and directionless. 

Eddie Chamblee. Chamblee leads a compact, 
tightly voiced little band with a bouncing beat and 
no stylistic excesses which often accompanies Dinah 
Washington, to whom Chamblee is married. On 
both Chamblee Music, EmArcy 36124, and Dood- 
lin', EmArcy 36131, the group plays a type of un- 
pretentious ensemble jazz which was fairly common 
in the Thirties but has almost died out since then. 
Chamblee, a tenor saxophonist, ranges from a 
light, easy ballad projection to a shrill insistence 
that borders on rock 'n' roll. 

Teddy Charles. Charles, a vibraphonist who caught 
onto the tag end of the Swing Era as a member of 
Benny Goodman's band in the late Forties and 
Artie Shaw's last big band (1950), is one of the 
more adamant explorers in modern jazz. He has 
said that he believes jazz has exhausted most of its 
harmonic resources and he feels that by emphasiz- 
ing improvisation in unfamiliar harmonies good 
jazz musicians can and will find fresh melodic pat- 
terns. Possibly because of his swing band orienta- 
tion, Charles puts great emphasis on melody in his 
work no matter how far off the beaten track he may 
go harmonically and he is, as a result, one of the 
most accessible and communicative of the jazz ex- 


An excellent demonstration of the fresh, swing- 
ing quality he brings to his jazz adventures is 
Collaboration: West, Prestige 7028, an unusually 
exciting and rewarding disk made in 1953 on which 
Charles plays with two West Coast groups, one 
made up of Shorty Rogers, Curtis Counce and 
Shelly Manne, the other with Jimmy Giuffre added. 
Charles himself plays with a fascinatingly direct 
rhythmic drive and Shorty Rogers really plays in- 
stead of running through the cliches that have 
made up too much of his work in the later Fifties. 
The rhythm section is superb and Giuffre, on one 
selection, contrives a stomping hot baritone saxo- 
phone solo that seems much closer to the real, 
earthy quality of jazz than his more recent efforts 
in that direction with his trio. A less satisfying 
piece from this date turns up on Evolution, Pres- 
tige 7078, which is otherwise devoted to some 1955 
recordings which are enlivened by Charlie Mingus' 
big, walloping bass and Charles' sensitive vibes. 
Mingus and drummer Ed Shaughnessy set up a 
driving momentum for the Charles Quartet which 
coasts blithely through part of Word -from Bird, 
Atlantic 1274. Shaughnessy also spurs a ten-piece 
group which plays the rest of the disk including 
the title selection which, after slogging through an 
overly contrived start, becomes a swinging, straight- 
forward evolvement that seems to barrel along on 
its own steam as though it were just happening 
instead of being deliberately played. The piece, 
composed by Charles, has more body and direction 
than normally occurs in jazz writing. Charles also 
uses ten pieces on The Teddy Charles Tentet, 
Atlantic 1229, an uneven but frequently interesting 
disk which covers a broad range from George Rus- 
sell's use of "the lydian concept of tonal organiza- 
tion" in Lydian M-l, a ruggedly rhythmic piece, to 
the relatively straightforward, melodic playing of 
Jimmy Giuffre's graceful The Quiet Time and Gil 

The Records 65 

Evans' cohesive, flowing arrangement of You Go to 
My Head. 

Most Charles sessions require a good deal of writ- 
ten preparation and he does not often get away 
from the paper atmosphere to the relaxation of 
simply blowing. When he does, on Vibe-Rant, 
Elektra 136, he retains the control and sense of 
rational structure that color his arranged work and 
consequently he avoids the blatant emptiness of so 
many blowing sessions. There are times when, ar- 
rangements or no, Charles' musical vitality fails to 
generate much steam. This occurs on Olio, Prestige 
7084, and Prestige Jazz Quartet, Prestige 7108. On 
Three for the Duke, Jubilee 1047, Charles, pianist 
Hall Overton and bassist Oscar Pettiford tackle 
four familiar and two lesser known pieces by Duke 
Ellington without improving on the originals. On 
a pair of 1954 performances attributed to the 
Teddy Charles Quartet on The Dual Role of Bob 
Brookmeyer, Prestige 7066, Charles plays only a 
supporting role. 

Charlie Christian. Christian's total career on the 
bigtime jazz scene covered less than two years 
(1939-41) yet in that time he established the elec- 
tric guitar as a jazz instrument and made important 
contributions to the groundwork on which post- 
swing jazz has been built. Christian's two influen- 
tial years were spent with Benny Goodman's orches- 
tra and though he had ample opportunity to show 
his ability in Goodman's small groups, he found 
them confining, an inadequate means of expression 
for the long, lean, flowing lines he wanted to play. 
His most typical work was done in the relaxed 
atmosphere of after hours clubs. A few samples of 
this, taken down on a portable recording machine, 
are reproduced on The Harlem Jazz Scene: 1941, 
Esoteric 548. The fidelity is only medium but Chris- 


tian's guitar cuts through cleanly and crisply, 
swinging with superbly controlled ease. 

Charlie Christian with the Benny Goodman Sex- 
tet and Orchestra, Columbia CL 652, offers two 
more instances of Christian unfettered, recordings 
made while members of the Goodman groups were 
warming up in preparation for a session. The 
limitations against which Christian chafed in the 
Goodman sextet are illustrated vividly by the 
cheek-by-jowl juxtaposition here of one of these ad 
lib sessions, Waitin' for Benny, in which Christian 
develops a theme which later provided the basis 
for the sextet's A Smo-o-o-oth One, and the sextet's 
comparatively stiff, formal and flat performance of 
that piece. 

Keith Christie. This English trombonist, onetime 
co-leader of the Christie Brothers Stompers, a 
"trad" band, has effectively adapted his gruff, 
pseudo-New Orleans style to a lustily forceful 
modern manner on Third Festival of British Jazz, 
London LL 1639. 

June Christy. When June Christy joined the Stan 
Kenton band in the middle Forties as the replace- 
ment for Anita O'Day, she also picked up a few of 
the vocal characteristics of Miss O'Day, who can 
rationally be considered a jazz singer. Miss Christy, 
however, only mastered the surface of the O'Day 
style and later abandoned even that when she 
found the commercial possibilities of singing in a 
flat, hoarse monotone. She is, at her best, a good 
singer of pop ballads but she has scarcely any jazz 
qualities. Her records are Duet, Capitol T 656, Fair 
and Warmer, Capitol T 833, Gone for the Day, 
Capitol T 902, June's Got Rhythm, Capitol T 1076, 
The Misty Miss Christy, Capitol T 725, Something 
Cool, Capitol T 516, and This Is June Christy, 
Capitol T 1006. 

The Records 67 

Alan Clare. With its leader at the piano, the Eng- 
lish Alan Clare Quartet picks its way deliberately 
through a pair of easygoing, uneventful pieces on 
Third Festival of British Jazz, London LL 1639. 

Kenny Clarke. With Jo Jones of the Basie band, 
Clarke is generally credited with pioneering the 
new conception of the drummer's role in postwar 
jazz through the transferral of the steady beat from 
the bass drum to the cymbal, reserving the bass 
drum for sudden plunging accents. He was the 
original drummer of the Modern Jazz Quartet but 
left the group in 1955 when it became evident that 
he was moving in a different direction from the 
rest of the group. Since then he has spent most of 
his time abroad. 

Clarke is a steady, firmly propulsive drummer 
who lends strength to any rhythm section in which 
he plays. He sets a delightfully light, urging beat 
on Klook's Clique, Savoy 12065, over which John 
LaPorta's alto saxophone sings out in strong, soar- 
ing lines and Ronnie Ball digs contentedly into the 
deeper emotional recesses of the piano. Clarke's 
presence also provides a good foundation for a mix- 
ture of neat, concise swingers and dark, heavy blues- 
bearing pieces on Kenny Clarke, Savoy 12006, high- 
lighted by probing, one-note piano playing by Milt 
Jackson. On Bohemia After Dark, Savoy 12017, 
Clarke's front-line include Nat and Julian Adder- 
ley, both freshly arrived in New York from Florida 
at the time and sounding relatively subdued. 

For some time Clarke, Hank Jones and Wendell 
Marshall made up the house rhythm section for 
Savoy Records. When they got a disk of their own, 
The Trio, Savoy 12023, Clarke put down a firm 
foundation with (as the bra ads say) good uplift 
but Jones' faceless piano playing wears thin before 
long. The Trio with Guests, Savoy 12053, adds Joe 
Wilder and Jerome Richardson, among others, and 


it is Wilder who makes the disk really worthwhile. 

From Clarke's French period comes Kenny 
Clarke Plays Andre Hodeir, Epic 3376, on which 
he leads a French sextet through Hodeir's arrange- 
ments of well known pieces by Thelonious Monk, 
Gerry Mulligan, Tadd Dameron, Miles Davis and 
others. The success of the re-cast pieces is generally 
in reverse ratio to the amount of writing that 
Hodeir has done. Pianist Martial Solal, who has the 
major share of the solo work, plays vividly and 
fluently in a variety of veins. 

An unaccompanied solo by Clarke is included in 
Clarke-Wilkins Septet, Savoy 12007, and a drum 
and conga duet with Candido in Introducing 
Kenny Burrell, Blue Note 1523. He leads a group 
in one number on Know Your Jazz, Vol. 1, ABC- 
Paramount 115. 

Sonny Clark. After serving ably with Buddy De 
Franco's group for several years during the Fifties, 
Clark settled down in New York to become what 
amounted to house pianist for Blue Note Records. 
His churning, flowing playing was often a welcome 
oasis in some of the rather drab ensembles he re- 
corded with but those sessions on which he has 
been the leader have not been particularly success- 
ful. Art Farmer contributes some crackling solos to 
Dial S for Sonny, Blue Note 1570, but he has to 
fight a chomp-chomp rhythm section, while even 
Farmer's crisp trumpet cannot hold up Cool 
Strutting Blue Note 1588. The slick execution of 
the soloists Donald Byrd, Curtis Fuller, John 
Coltrane and Clark on Sonny's Crib, Blue Note 
1576, fails to turn over-familiar exercises into com- 
municative statements. Asked to cover two sides of 
an LP by himself on Sonny Clark Trio, Blue Note 
1579, the distance proves to be too much for Clark. 

The Records 69 

James Clay. Clay plays tenor saxophone with a big 
tone out of Ben Webster but with a harder surface 
in a single selection on Solo Flight, World Pacific 
JWC 505. 

Jimmy Cleveland. The nervous, jabbing trombone 
exercises from which Cleveland usually builds his 
solos are largely absent from Introducing Jimmy 
Cleveland, EmArcy 36066, as he loosens up and un- 
leashes a big, rough tone from time to time. Even 
so, his inclination to insert pointless stutters makes 
his solos needlessly officious. He has a few good 
solos on Cleveland Style, EmArcy 36126, and so do 
Art Farmer and tenor saxophonist Benny Golson 
but the disk as a whole has a heavy, phlegmatic 
quality. Cleveland has three selections on Rhythm 
Plus One, Epic 3297, and one each on The Young 
Ones of Jazz, EmArcy 36085, After Hours Jazz, 
Epic 3339, and Know Your Jazz, Vol 1, ABC- 
Paramount 115. 

Johnny Coates, Jr. This 18-year-old pianist, son of 
the piano man in a Trenton, N.J., Dixieland group, 
moves with glib assurance among several modern 
jazz piano styles on Portrait, Savoy 12082, but does 
not yet have anything positive of his own. 

Al Cohn. After ten years as a big band sideman, 
most notably with Woody Herman in 1948 when 
he became one of the Four Brothers after Herbie 
Steward left, Cohn settled into free lance arranging 
and playing in 1952. At his best as a performer, he 
is one of the most freely flowing of those tenor 
saxophonists who bear the markings of Lester 
Young and he has a facility for arranging and com- 
posing pieces which lend themselves to a Basie-like 
But he is an erratic performer and is just as apt 


to tramp around in a muffled din as to step out 
with a bright and breezy statement. On The 
Brothers, Prestige 7022, made up of sessions re- 
corded in 1949 and 1952, Cohn trails along dimly 
behind Brew Moore, Allen Eager and Zoot Sims. 
In the middle Fifties he teamed with Sims again 
with light and swinging results on Al and Zoot, 
Coral 57171, but the team could not make the 
sparks fly a second time on From A to Z, Victor 
LPM 1282. Cohn finds an even more impressive 
team-mate in valve trombonist Bob Brookmeyer on 
Al Cohn Quintet, Coral 57118, a disk which is com- 
pletely dominated by Brookmeyer even though 
Cohn is in his best airily rhythmic form. 

Writing for three different groups on The Sax 
Section, Epic 3278, two of them centered on tradi- 
tional saxophone sections, one on a woodwind 
group, Cohn draws delightfully clean, precise, puls- 
ing ensembles from the saxophones which de- 
velop some of the lusty zest that these sections had 
in the days of big bands. Cohn's free and easy 
strength as a performer flows warmly through Cohn 
on the Saxophone, Dawn 1110, Cohn's Tones, 
Savoy 12048, and Candido, ABC-Paramount 125. 
He makes some good contributions to a superior 
blowing session, Earthy, Prestige 7102, but he goes 
down along with three other saxophonists under 
the weight of the four long, tiresome pieces which 
make up Tenor Conclave, Prestige 7074. Cohn has 
single selections in Know Your Jazz, Vol. 1, ABC- 
Paramount 115 (playing baritone saxophone), Jazz 
Cornucopia, Coral 57149, and Critics' Choice, 
Dawn 1128. 

Jerry Coker. Known primarily for service in Woody 
Herman's saxophone section, Coker has put to- 
gether a group which is essentially a saxophone en- 
semble for Modern Music from Indiana University, 
Fantasy 3214. His saxophones are smooth, swinging 

The Records 71 

and unpretentious, a shade on the polite and re- 
served side but working a worthwhile, none-too- 
traveled middle road. 

Cy Coleman. After being something of a prodigy 
on the cocktail piano circuit, Coleman is giving 
evidence of increasing sensitivity as a jazz musician. 
He plays selections from the score of Jamaica, 
Jubilee 1062, in a spare, rhythmic style, trimmed of 
nonessentials (he sings occasionally, too, and it 
doesn't hurt a bit). His work on Cy Coleman, Seeco 
402, shows more evidence of his cocktail back- 
ground a form of "pop jazz" that stays close to 
the melody but is swinging and inventive. He has 
two selections in Night Out Music for Stay-at- 
Homes, Coral 57040. 

Ornette Coleman. Coleman's recording of Some- 
thing Else!, Contemporary 3551, represents his first 
break in a long series of rejections he has experi- 
enced during his search for what he calls "as free 
and natural a music as possible." His ideas seem 
related to some extent to another generally re- 
jected but intriguing musician, Cecil Taylor, and, 
by the same token, lead back to Thelonious Monk. 
Coleman has assembled a surprisingly cohesive 
group to project what, to most musicians, might 
be strangely difficult lines and accents. He is 
essentially a hard swinging alto saxophonist who 
states his ideas in a series of smears, slashes and 
murmurs. His trumpeter, Don Cherry, uses im- 
pressionistic blasts and swipes very effectively while 
in Walter Norris he has a fluent pianist who gives 
indications that he can go beneath the fleet surface 
he shows most of the time. Many of the group's 
ensembles are voiced and accented in an early bop 
manner but the soloists take off on tangents of their 
own. Despite their strangeness, Coleman's pieces 
hang together well. 


Buddy Collette. Versatility can often be a deceptive 
cover for a musician with several minor talents. 
Buddy Collette is a rarity a jazz musician who 
stands out on at least three instruments. He is one 
of the very few flutists who can project with some 
strength in the jazz idiom. He is a clarinetist of 
warmth and skill and on the alto saxophone his 
playing is precise, polished and very flowing. Tenor 
saxophone is his least satisfying horn. 

He first came to notice as one of the original 
members of Chico Hamilton's Quintet. As a leader 
on his own, he tends to dominate whatever group 
he heads and the performances generally rise or fall 
on his work alone. Thus on Calm, Cool and Col- 
lette, ABC-Paramount 179, with only a rhythm sec- 
tion accompanying him, Undecided is brightly pro- 
jected by his alto, Flute in D gains a delightfully 
deliberate air from his flute while his clarinet pro- 
pels The Continental in a warm, mellow manner. 
But // She Had Stayed, on which he plays tenor, is 
rather moribund. The presence of Shelly Manne 
on drums adds a second strong personality to Nice 
Day, Contemporary 3531, and Collette seems to re- 
spond to his presence by getting a slightly keener 
edge on his playing. The performances on Man of 
Many Parts, Contemporary 3522, lean toward the 
neat and well mannered but an unaccustomed 
lustiness creeps into Buddy's Best, Dooto 245. 
Swinging Shepherds, EmArcy 36 133, is the final 
straw in the fluting fad four flutists (Collette, Bud 
Shank, Paul Horn and Harry Klee) manage to 
create some pleasant, lilting ensembles but after 
the ensembles are gone the steady piping of one 
flute solo after another produces the same effect 
as the Chinese water torture. 

John Coltrane. Although he has been in jazz since 
the middle Forties, Coltrane suddenly lurched into 
the throes of attempting to find his own personal 

The Records 73 

jazz voice in the latter Fifties. The search has ap- 
parently been a tortured and frustrating one, judg- 
ing by the garish performances Coltrane has given. 
As of this writing, it is still unresolved. He often 
plays his tenor saxophone as though he were deter- 
mined to blow it apart but his desperate attacks al- 
most invariably lead nowhere. He has moments 
when he adjusts to a wanner, more communicative 
style, as in his unusual treatment of a ballad, While 
My Lady Sleeps, on Coltrane, Prestige 7105. But 
even though his hard, fierce tone slashes through a 
disk like an urgent hacksaw, he constantly finds 
himself overshadowed by others by Lee Morgan's 
fantastic trumpet excursions on Blue Train, Blue 
Note 1577, by Red Garland's lean, swinging piano 
on With the Red Garland Trio, Prestige 7123, and 
John Coltrane, Prestige 7142. Neither Coltrane nor 
three other tenors (Al Cohn, Zoot Sims, Hank 
Mobley) can make anything of the wide open blow- 
ing spaces on Tenor Conclave, Prestige 7074. 

Chris Connor. Miss Connor followed June Christy 
into the Stan Kenton vocal spot, her apparent 
recommendation being that she, too, could sing in 
Miss Christy's flat, hoarse manner. To this Miss 
Connor added a set of gruesome grimaces which 
made her work in person seem even more tortured. 
The listener to records is spared this sight although, 
once seen, it can color the strained, mannered, 
quivering work she does on Chris Connor, Atlantic 
1228, He Loves Me, He Loves Me Not, Atlantic 
1240, and A Jazz Date with Chris Connor, Atlantic 
1286 (a patent case of mis-labeling). She is less man- 
nered but is burdened with a slow, clumpy beat 
and a vocal group on / Miss You So, Atlantic 8014. 
Miss Connor does herself less than justice on 
these disks, however, because when she is not forc- 
ing herself or being self-consciously hip she can be 
a pleasant pop singer as she shows on This Is Chris, 


Bethlehem 20, and in four selections in Bethle- 
hem's Girlfriends, Bethlehem 6006, and to a lesser 
degree on The George Gershwin Almanac of Song, 
Atlantic 2-601, and Chris Connor Sings Lullabys of 
Birdland, Bethlehem 6004. She even manages to 
swing a little on Chris Craft, Atlantic 1290. 

Bob Cooper. A longtime member of the Stan Ken- 
ton saxophone section, Cooper has settled into a 
comfortable spot at the Lighthouse in Hermosa 
Beach, Calif., during the Fifties. His work on tenor 
saxophone draws to a degree from the Lester Young 
school in its fullness and flow but he is less be- 
holden than most of the Young followers. Both in 
his playing and his writing he has a sure sense of 
balance and structure, a sense which outs in Shift- 
ing Winds, Capitol T 6513, on which he uses a 
group of multi-instrumentalists to play a very 
varied set of octet jazz which runs from a relatively 
simple, bright swing to tightly wrought woodwind 
ensembles. He is not one to put himself in a strait- 
jacket, however, for his Jazz Theme and Four Vari- 
ations, which takes up one side of The Music of 
Bob Cooper, Contemporary 3544, is little more 
than a group of loosely connected, thoroughly un- 
pretentious pieces which have a lot of healthy 
fresh air blowing through them. His saxophone, 
sometimes light and glancing, at other times in- 
tensely but smoothly hot, is more assertive and 
personal here than in most of his recorded work. 
He goes even farther in this direction on the other 
side as he roars through a bright version of Some- 
body Loves Me in a grandly exuberant manner. 

Cooper is also the leading (and practically only) 
exponent of the jazz oboe. On both Flute 'n' Oboe, 
World Pacific 1226, and The Swings to TV, World 
Pacific 411, his oboe is teamed with Bud Shank's 
flute, a bland jazz pairing at best which is made 
even more pap-like in these two instances by back- 

The Records 75 

ing them with strings. The Shank-Cooper team (us- 
ing saxophones as well as flute and oboe) contrib- 
utes four selections of merit to Jazz Swings Broad- 
way, World Pacific 404, and one selection each to 
Jazz West Coast, Vol. 3, World Pacific JWC 507, 
Have Blues, Will Travel, World Pacific JWC 509, 
and Jazz West Coast, Vol. 4, World Pacific JWC 

Bob Corwin. Corwin works out some pleasantly 
melodic ideas on two selections on The Bob Cor- 
win Quartet, Riverside 12-220, on which the quartet 
is reduced to a trio by the absence of Don Elliott's 
trumpet. The rest of the way Corwin plays second 
banana to Elliott's rather routine blowing. 

Eddie Costa. A welcome antidote to the glib, light- 
fingered, right-handed tendencies of modern jazz 
pianists was provided when Eddie Costa began to 
be heard in the middle Fifties. He has a dark, driv- 
ing, earthy style in which the notes are seemingly 
hammered out and bent downward. He is also a 
capable vibraphonist but he is not the distinctive 
performer on this instrument that he is on piano. 
Eddie Costa-Vinnie Burke Trio, Jubilee 1025, gives 
his cocky, strutting piano a good showcase, allow- 
ing him to stretch out and flex his lithe piano 
muscles in freedom. On Guys and Dolls Like Vibes, 
Coral 57230, he concentrates on vibes (Bill Evans, 
who has many characteristics in common with 
Costa, is on piano). In contrast to the stirring forays 
into the lower register that he is fond of making on 
piano, Costa's vibraphone style is light and danc- 
ing, closer to the Red Norvo manner than most 
current vibists. Unfortunately the work of both 
Evans and Costa is diluted on the Coral disk by 
selections that are too long to be sustained by only 
two soloists. Costa teams with John Mehegan on A 
Pair of Pianos, Savoy 12049, for occasionally stimu- 


lating results and he is heard fleetingly on piano 
on Eddie Costa, Mat Mathews and Don Elliott at 
Newport, Verve 8237, recorded at the 1957 festival. 

Johnny Costa. Costa's technical skill as a pianist is 
quite evident on The Amazing Johnny Costa, 
Savoy 12052, but so is his almost total debt to Art 
Tatum. He leaves Tatum (and jazz) fairly well be- 
hind to play a bouncy, melodious piano on The 
Most Beautiful Girl in the World, Coral 57117, 
while Johnny Costa, Coral 57020, is made up of 
facile performances which glide easily past ear and 
mind without leaving a mark. 

Jack Costanzo. As a bongo flailer (a graduate of the 
Kenton kollege), Costanzo holds a tenuous, back- 
ground position in jazz. It is de rigeur that any 
group he leads should take the Latin-American or 
Afro-Cuban approach to jazz. His Afro-Cuban 
Band does this extremely well on Mr. Bongo, GNP 
19, playing with a very free, lively feeling much in 
the manner of Machito. On Afro-Cubano, Verve 
8157, he mixes the Afro-Cuban influence with 
straight-out modern jazz and fails to generate steam 
either way while Mr. Bongo Has Brass, Zephyr 
12003, takes a swing and mood music approach to 
Latin-American ideas. Costanzo has a single selec- 
tion in Afro-Drum Carnival, GNP 25. 

Curtis Counce. One of the most able and sensitive 
bassists working the West Coast sector, Counce 
leads a pleasantly relaxed group with a warm en- 
semble feeling on The Curtis Counce Group, Vol. 
1 and Vol. 2, Contemporary 3526 and 3539. Trum- 
peter Jack Sheldon, who often has a tendency to 
whimper in Bakerish fashion, rears back and takes 
off with exhilarating effect on several occasions 
and there is strong, warm playing by tenor saxo- 
phonist Harold Land. Counce swings the group 

The Records 77 

along with his firm bass. Rolf Ericson replaces Shel- 
don on trumpet on the group's Exploring the Fu- 
ture, Dooto 247, an unfortunate change since his 
flat, vague playing destroys the homogeneous qual- 
ity the group shows on the Contemporary disks. 

The Courtley-Seymour Orchestra. Led by Bert 
Courtley, trumpet, and Jack Seymour, bass, this 
English band is lithe and swinging in its single ap- 
pearance on Third Festival of British Jazz, London 
LL 1639. 

Tony Crombie. This English drummer leads a bop- 
pish band distinguished by the pungent trumpet of 
Dizzy Reece on four selections in Modern Jazz at 
Royal Festival Hall, London LL 1185. 

Ron Grotty. Once a Brubeck bassist, Grotty leads a 
trio in three selections on Modern Music in San 
Francisco, Fantasy 3213, which is less notable for 
his presence than that of the sprightly pianist, 
Vince Guaraldi, and Eddie Duran, a sensitive gui- 

Cuban Jam Session. Cuban Jam Session, Panart 
CLP 8000, is assertedly a casual come-one, come-all 
drop-in jam session in Havana. It develops an ap- 
propriate feeling of abandon, spurred on by an 
efficient rhythm section and the hot, piping flute of 
Juan Pablo Miranda. 

Mike Cuozzo. Within a limited area, Cuozzo is a 
capable, assertive tenor saxophonist who has based 
his style on the Lester Young school but has added 
nothing distinctively personal. He is fortunate in 
having with him on Mike Cuozzo, Jubilee 1027, 
Eddie Costa whose dancing piano peeps through 
from time to time and, on Mighty Mike Cuozzo, 
Savoy 12051, both Costa (playing vibes this time) 


and pianist Ronnie Ball who team up to give the 
disk some zooming excitement. 

Jomar Dagron Quartet. Those, if any, who have 
been demanding the admittance of the organo to 
jazz circles will welcome Rocky Mountain Jazz, 
Golden Crest 3018, by Denver's Jomar Dagron 
Quartet (there is no Mr. Dagron the name is com- 
pounded of syllables from the names of the mem- 
bers of the quartet). Using tenor and baritone saxo- 
phones, organo and drums, this crude but lusty 
group has some kinship to the old ragged but 
rugged Harlem jump bands but the limited voicing 
of the group (the organo is strictly a cushion) soon 
becomes monotonous. 

Bert Dahlander. Dahlander is a Swedish drummer 
(sometimes known as Bert Dale or Nils-Bertil 
Dahlander) who has worked in the United States 
frequently since 1954 (notably with Terry Gibbs 
and Teddy Wilson). He seems to believe in pro- 
pulsion rather than flash or flurry. Leading a quar- 
tet on Skal, Verve 8253, he teams with bassist 
Curtis Counce to set up a lithe, swinging founda- 
tion for solos by Howard Roberts, guitar, and Vic- 
tor Feldman, vibraphone, which are completely in 
the Dahlander mode, i.e., light and rhythmic but 
never ostentatious. 

Tadd Dameron. Dameron is a pianist but he is 
better known as an arranger and composer, dating 
back to the 1930s when he was writing for Harlan 
Leonard's Kansas City band. He was an active part 
of the bop furor of the mid-Forties and was the 
leader of the first modern group to be recorded by 
Blue Note Records (reissued on The Fabulous Fats 
Navarro, Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, Blue Note 1531 and 
1532). The two LPs released under his own name 
are the products of the Fifties when he was being 
heard from relatively infrequently. He proves to be 

The Records 79 

his own best interpreter on Fontainebleau, Prestige 
7037, on which five of his compositions are played 
by an eight-piece band. His playing is warm and 
explicit, a welcome contrast to the heavy-handed 
work of most of the men in the group. The focal 
point of a quintet led by Dameron on Mating Call, 
Prestige 7070, is tenor saxophonist John Coltrane 
whose hard-toned, leaping playing is a balancing 
contrast to Dameron's very simple, economical 

Hank D'Amico. We Brought Our Axes, Bethlehem 
7 (shared with the Aaron Sachs Sextet), shows the 
modern surface that has been acquired by D'Amico, 
a clarinetist spawned in swing who still retains a 
full-toned, flowing Goodman style. But 24 Short 
Dances for the Tired Businessman, Golden Crest 
3031, although couched in the older style, gives 
D'Amico little chance to get going. 

Johnny Dankworth. Although Dankworth is one 
of the handful of really distinguished jazz mu- 
sicians who have developed in England a brilliant 
alto saxophonist who has absorbed Benny Carter's 
soaring fluency he has been strangely neglected on 
LP imports to this country. On Five Steps to Dank- 
worth, Verve 20006, he is heard with his big band 
and with two quintets drawn from the band. The 
band plays written arrangements cleanly but is in- 
clined to mumble on head arrangements while the 
quintets are primarily showcases for the group's 
major soloists Dankworth, playing with his cus- 
tomary easy sweep; an amiable pianist named 
Dave Lee and Dickie Hawdon, an erratic trumpeter 
who, at his best, wraps a modern jazz surface 
around an attack that goes back to young Louis 
Armstrong. Dankworth, disguised as King John I, 
also has a pair of immaculate solos on Cool Europe, 
MGM 3157. 


Bob Davis. Davis is a dexterous, flowing pianist, 
based in Minneapolis, who plays in a handful-of- 
keys manner that is modern in conception but car- 
ries shades of Art Tatum and particularly Earl 
Hines. He seems to have instinctive taste no matter 
what atrocities are going on around him. The 
atrocities occur occasionally on Jazz in Orbit, 
Stepheny 4000, contributed by saxophonist Dave 
Karr who can play pleasantly but lacks Davis' self- 
control. Davis' saxophonist on Jazz from the North 
Coast, Zephyr 12001, is Bob Grea who is warmly ex- 
pressive on alto but rather routine when he 
switches to tenor or baritone. 

Eddie Davis. This Davis is a sturdy, strong-toned 
tenor saxophonist with an urgent, bursting attack 
which often verges over into outright honking. He 
tempers his ferocity somewhat on The Eddie Lock- 
jaw" Davis Cookbook, Prestige 7141, as organist 
Shirley Scott backs him up with jabbing accent 
chords. Miss Scott is the main point of interest on 
both Eddie Davis Trio, Roost 2227, and Eddie 
Davis Trio, Roulette 52019, although she is kept in 
the background on all but two selections on each 
disk. A similarly set up trio, with Bill Doggett on 
organ, plays one selection on Roost Fifth Anni- 
versary Album, Roost 1201. Davis tangles, not too 
roughly but at great length, with Sonny Stitt on 
Battle of Birdland, Roost 1203. He can also be 
heard on Big Beat Jazz, King 599, Eddie Davis 
Uptown, King 606, Jazz with a Beat, King 566, Jazz 
with a Horn, King 526, and Modern Jazz Expres- 
sion, King 506. 

Jackie Davis. Most of Jackie Davis' Hammond 
organ performances are background ballads with 
suggestions of a swinging beat (The Jackie Davis 
Trio, Kapp 1030; Hi-Fi Hammond, Capitol T 686; 
Chasing Shadows, Capitol T 815). There is less 

The Records 81 

lushness, more lean swing on Jumpin* Jackie, 
Capitol T 974, and Most Happy Hammond, Capi- 
tol T 1046. 

Miles Davis. Although Davis has been regarded 
as an important trumpet voice in modern jazz since 
the middle Forties, he gained and held this reputa- 
tion despite the fact that his work was extremely 
erratic during much of this time. His earliest re- 
cordings with Charlie Parker show him fumbling, 
none too successfully, in the direction of Dizzy 
Gillespie and Fats Navarro, a style which he was 
not equipped technically to handle at that time 
and which has proven, subsequently, not to be his 
metier at all. 

Davis* first significant move toward uncovering 
his own musical personality can be heard in the 
work of the nine-piece group that he led briefly in 
1948 and which, with a few variations in personnel, 
plays on Birth of the Cool, Capitol T 762 (three 
selections from this disk are repeated on Cool and 
Quiet, Capitol T 371). The arrangements con- 
tributed to this set by Gil Evans, Gerry Mulligan 
and John Lewis brought back the art of ensemble 
jazz which had been all but forgotten in the solo- 
ists' debauch that Parker had induced. From 
Claude Thornhill's band, for which Evans had 
been arranging and in which Lee Konitz (a mem- 
ber of the nonet) had been playing, came the in- 
spiration for including tuba and French horn in 
the instrumentation along with vestiges of the calm 
placidity that characterized much of Thornhill's 
playing. In these surroundings Davis emerged as a 
trumpeter who operated sotto voce, playing with 
serene deliberation. This was cool jazz, the reaction 
to the driving, intransigent fury of the boppers. 

But Davis' group was quite shortlived and during 
the first half of the Fifties Davis followed an inde- 
terminate path, sometimes attempting to rediscover 


that serenity which had cropped up in his playing 
with the nonet, at other times venturing out into a 
strong, hard blowing style. Davis has admitted, in 
retrospect, that he is dissatisfied with most of his 
work during this period. It is, by any standards, 

On a 1951 session with Sonny Rollins, Benny 
Green and John Lewis, included on Miles Davis 
with Horns, Prestige 7025, Davis moves sleekly at a 
fast tempo but flounders listlessly through a pair of 
ballads. On the remainder of the disk, Davis, along 
with Al Cohn, Zoot Sims, Lewis and others, plods 
vaguely through several pieces by Cohn. Davis' 
playing is more assured but not particularly il- 
luminating on another 1951 session, Dig, Prestige 
7012, with Rollins and 19-year-old Jackie McLean. 
Rollins, playing in a light, smooth rolling style, is 
even more aimless than Davis here and, surpris- 
ingly, it is McLean who provides the most direction 
and vitality. Two more undistinguished selections 
from this same date are included in Conception, 
Prestige 7013. 

The following year Davis recorded some flat, 
soggy performances with a flaccid group which in- 
cluded McLean and J. J. Johnson. They provide 
the low points on both Volume 1 and Volume 2 of 
Miles Davis, Blue Note 1501 and 1502. Volume 1 is 
saved by a 1953 session on which Davis plays a 
clean, firm, driving horn, so much so that he alone 
(Johnson and Jimmy Heath, tenor saxophone, are 
the other horns) is able to outshout the boiling 
drumming of Art Blakey. Volume 2 is filled out 
with a 1954 quartet set (with Blakey, Horace Silver 
and Percy Heath) on which Davis runs a wide 
gamut from an outgoing, hard driving swing 
through roughly sketched, rather uncertain playing 
down to painfully poor. 

Early in 1953 Davis was reunited in a recording 
studio with Charlie Parker who played relatively 

The Records 83 

undistinguished tenor saxophone on this occasion. 
The results, included in Miles Davis Collectors 
Items, Prestige 7044, again stress Davis' unpredict- 
ably erratic playing. Suggestions of the sparse, 
briefly ejaculated phrasing that was to become one 
of the hallmarks of his work within the next few 
years can be heard on these performances which are 
highlighted by the storming backing with which 
bassist Percy Heath urges on the soloists. This disk 
also offers a view of Davis in 1956 with Sonny 
Rollins and a rhythm section which further empha- 
sizes his development of a sketchy, spitballing at- 

Two quartets, a 1953 group with John Lewis, 
Percy Heath and Max Roach, and the 1954 set-up 
with Silver, Heath and Blakey mentioned above, 
are featured on Blue Haze, Prestige 7054, on which 
Davis flows with lyrical ease at a fast tempo with 
the '53 foursome, manages to be clean and positive 
on a slow blues with the '54 group but then, turn- 
ing to a ballad, becomes drab and dismal. There is 
also one selection on this disk by a 1954 group with 
Dave Schildkraut on alto saxophone and a rhythm 
section made up of Silver, Heath and Clarke which 
swings with joyous exuberance, a quality which is 
carried over to selections from the same session on 
Walking Prestige 7076, reaching a high point on 
Love Me or Leave Me on which Davis hits fast and 
hard, making everything cleanly, and Silver roars 
through a furious solo. Davis' playing is equally 
certain and well directed on the remaining pieces 
on this disk, played in 1954 by a group which in- 
cludes J. J. Johnson and Lucky Thompson, whose 
tenor saxophone is uncharacteristically static. An- 
other 1954 session with Rollins, Silver, Heath and 
Clarke makes up one side of Bags' Groove, Prestige 
7109, with Rollins swinging aggressively and 
warmly while Davis is relatively empty. The other 
side, made in the same year, is devoted to two long 


takes of Bags' Groove on which Milt Jackson is 
working home territory, Thelonious Monk digs in 
hard at the piano and Davis' playing is firm and 
direct. Jackson is also present on Miles Davis All 
Star Sextet/Quintet, Prestige 7034, and his domi- 
nance of the disk is challenged only occasionally, 
not by Davis, but by pianist Ray Bryant. 

The Musings of Miles, Prestige 7007, introduces 
a precursor of the group with which Davis played 
during the latter Fifties. At this stage it was a 
quartet with Red Garland, piano, Philly Joe Jones, 
drums and, on the disk, Oscar Pettiford, bass (who 
was replaced by Paul Chambers when the quartet 
actually came into being). This disk is an inaus- 
picious prelude to the long-delayed flowering of 
Davis' equally long heralded talents. By 1956 the 
quartet had expanded to a quintet with the addition 
of John Coltrane's tenor saxophone. It made its re- 
cording debut on The New Miles Davis Quintet, 
Prestige 7014, with Davis in alert, sensitive form and 
Garland sprucing up the ballads with his light, rid- 
ing attack. On Cookin', Prestige 7094, Davis moves 
from his earlier coolness to a hard, fierce drive with 
Coltrane charging ruggedly at his side but Relaxing 
Prestige 7129, is far less interesting for Davis* play- 
ing is comparatively empty and Coltrane has en- 
tered his period of wrestling with his horn, seeming 
to gag on his own lines. Only the rhythm section 
sustains the earlier level. 'Round About Midnight, 
Columbia CL 949, is more of the same but Mile- 
stones, Columbia CL 1193, raises the personnel to 
sextet size with the accumulation of Julian Adder- 
ley on alto saxophone and presents a more assured 
and directly communicative Davis, minus the dif- 
fidence that obscured much of his earlier work. 

He had, at this point, returned to an association 
with Gil Evans, one result of which was Miles 
Ahead, Columbia CL 1041, for which Evans wrote 
arrangements for Davis (on fluegelhorn) and a big 

The Records 85 

band in the calm, richly harmonic cool idiom that 
had been suggested on some of the 1948 nonet 
pieces. Evans' orchestrations are a constant delight 
on this disk, a sinuous kaleidoscope of shifting 
colors and accents over which Davis plays with 
much more certainty and direction than he had 
been showing in less firmly guided circumstances. 
The beneficial effect of a definite framework on 
Davis' playing can also be heard in his solos on 
Music for Brass, Columbia CL 941, on which he is 
the soloist in arrangements by John Lewis and J. J. 
Johnson. There is more than a suggestion in his 
playing on Milestones that he had found a new 
perspective in his playing as a result of his work 
with these two large groups. 

One selection by Davis is included in Jazz Omni- 
bus, Columbia CL 1020. 

Shelby Davis. Miss Davis has all sorts of impressive 
jazz backing for her singing of three selections on 
Singin' and Swinging Regent 6031 Bill Russo, Art 
Pepper, Bob Cooper, Shelly Manne and others 
but despite this support she is less a jazz singer 
than, potentially, a pleasant voice for an intimate 
night club. 

Wild Bill Davis. One of the pioneers in spreading 
the use of the electric organ in the Fifties, Davis 
flails away in an exuberant, hard swinging style 
that borders on rock 'n' roll on Wild Bill Davis at 
Birdland, Epic 3118, and switches to a rather bland 
style that is scarcely any more appealing on Eve- 
ning Concerto, Epic 3308. 

Rusty Dedrick. Although he comes out of a swing 
background and has something of the big, dark, 
trumpet tone of Bunny Berigan, Dedrick has ac- 
quired a modern surface that leaves him neither 
fish nor fowl. His feeling for the Berigan style 


shows in his playing of 1 Can't Get Started on 
Salute to Bunny, Counterpoint 552, but the rest 
of the tribute stumbles in the modernized treat- 
ment that Dedrick gives to tunes associated with 
Berigan. Jack Keller, a light fingered pianist, and 
John LaPorta, playing an enthusiastically virile 
baritone saxophone, are much more to the point. 
Dedrick does much better in a situation in which 
there are no odious comparisons to be made, 
Counterpoint for Six Valves, Riverside 12-218, on 
which he romps through some bright, humorous 
two trumpet pieces with Don Elliott. He has one 
solo number in Jazz for Lovers, Riverside 12-244. 

Buddy De Franco. The theory that technical fa- 
cility results in good jazz a theory that has been 
disproved by quite a few pianists is also equally 
inapplicable to the clarinet as Buddy De Franco 
has been demonstrating for more than fifteen years. 
When he was playing with the bands of Gene 
Krupa, Charlie Barnet, Tommy Dorsey and Boyd 
Raeburn in the Forties, he was working in a setting 
and in a tradition in which his lack of real jazz 
warmth was not particularly noticeable for in the 
short solo stretches that were customary for side- 
men in such bands De Franco's clean, full tone 
and his precise fluency on his clarinet, coupled with 
the momentum of a big band, could mask his fail- 
ure to kindle a jazz feeling. Separated from this 
protective cocoon, however, and laid bare in long, 
long solos with little more than a rhythm section 
to support him, his chilly strictness and inability 
to communicate in jazz terms reduced his work to 
tiresome exhibitions of technique. Possibly his 
closest approach to a relaxed, unstarched jazz style 
occurs on Buddy De Franco and the Oscar Peterson 
Quartet, Verve 8210, in three selections on Cool 
and Quiet, Capitol T 371, and a pair of ballads on 
Cooking the Blues, Verve 8221. But there is a de- 

The Records 87 

pressing and tedious similarity about almost all 
his other disks Buddy De Franco, MGM 3396; 
Buddy De Franco Quartet, Verve 8159; Autumn 
Leaves, Verve 8183; The Buddy De Franco Wallers, 
Verve 8175; and In a Mellow Mood, Verve 8169. 
Nor does the presence of a technically fluent musi- 
cian who can swing with feeling, Art Tatum, 
stimulate De Franco to follow his example on 
Tatum-De Franco Quartet, Verve 8229. On one 
side of Odalisque, Verve 8182, he is returned to 
the big band setting to no avail for the band plods 
listlessly through heavy-handed arrangements. A 
different big band setting, Cross Country Suite, Dot 
9006, is an attempt by Nelson Riddle to catch the 
flavor of various sections of the United States, mix- 
ing folkish themes, jazz and a Hollywood sym- 
phonic concept. It is a suitable showcase for De 
Franco's virtuosity but the writing is so derivative 
that it tastes like warmed-over stew. 

On Buddy De Franco Plays Artie Shaw, Verve 
2090, and Buddy De Franco Plays Benny Goodman, 
Verve 2089, the clarinetist casts a hopeful backward 
glance at two of his worthy predecessors. He makes 
no overt attempt to imitate either one but he fits 
most readily into the context of the Shaw pieces 
which hang together well. The Goodman selections 
lose their essential unity by being reduced to the 
role of undercarriage for a series of extended solos 
which might have come out of any blowing session. 

De Franco makes less ostensible efforts to be a 
jazz musician in the soft lushness of Sweet and 
Lovely, Verve 8224, in deliberate, string-backed per- 
formances on The George Gershwin Song Book, 
Verve 2022, and in Russell Garcia's slick, routine 
big band arrangements on Broadway Showcase, 
Verve 2033. He is buried under a vocal group on 
his contributions to Baker, Mulligan, De Franco, 
GNP 26, and behind the drumming of Art Blakey 
and Sabu in one selection of Afro-Drum Carnival, 


GNP 25. He has one selection in Forty-Eight Stars 
of American Jazz, MGM 3611, and The Anatomy 
of Improvisation, Verve 8230. 

Angelo De Pippo. An accordionist who has an easy, 
gracious approach to modern jazz lines, De Pippo 
cushions them on the soft tones of the lower register 
of his instrument. On The Jazz Accordion, Apollo 
478, he and flutist Sam Most spice what might be 
simply pleasant background quartet performances 
into a smooth-textured form of jazz. 

Paul Desmond. Desmond, a charter and seemingly 
life member of the Dave Brubeck Quartet, was 
often the saving grace of that group in the days 
before Joe Morello and Gene Wright joined up. 
Almost all of his recorded work has been with the 
Brubeck group with two notable exceptions: The 
Paul Desmond Quartet, Fantasy 3235, on which he 
repeatedly shows his rare talent for working out a 
really valid solo at some length (he is one of the 
very few jazzmen who can do this consistently), and 
Gerry Mulligan-Paul Desmond Quartet, Verve 8246, 
a furiously swinging affair in which Desmond, 
seemingly responding to Mulligan's strong solos, 
plays with a much more leathery attack than usual 
and manages to cut Mulligan through most of the 
disk. He and Mulligan also appear on Paul Des- 
mond Quintet, Fantasy 3220, but on separate sides. 

Jimmy Deuchar. This able but scarcely exceptional 
Scottish trumpeter leads a small group through 
a blowing session, Pub Crawling with Jimmy 
Deuchar, Contemporary 3529, which is interesting 
mainly for the amiably burr-toned trombone of 
Ken Wray. 

Jerry Dodgion. Even though he is an alto saxo- 
phonist who has obviously heard Charlie Parker, 

The Records 89 

Dodgion manages to phrase in a swinging fashion 
that is not a slavish succession of Parkerisms. He 
is brightly himself in two quartet selections on 
Modern Music from San Francisco, Fantasy 3213, 
but a sextet which he leads jointly with fellow 
altoist Charlie Mariano gets trapped in some 
strange material songs of the World War I period 
treated in a modern jazz vein on Beauties of 1918, 
World Pacific 1245. Single selections from this ses- 
sion also appear on Have Blues, Will Travel, 
World Pacific JWC 509, and Jazz West Coast, Vol. 
4, World Pacific JWC 510. 

Arne Donmerus. Domnerus is one of the hard-core 
veterans of Swedish modern jazz. He began his 
career on alto saxophone as a reflection of Benny 
Carter, then turned to Charlie Parker and latterly 
has returned to a well assimilated Carter style. 
Some of the best examples of Domnerus' suavely 
exciting alto playing are on Swedish Modern Jazz, 
Camden 417, on which he also plays an intriguing 
clarinet. He is heard in a modest but helpful 
role on Swedes from Jazzville, Epic 3309. 

Lou Donaldson. At a time when the jazz woods 
are full of well publicized alto saxophonists whose 
talents are only fair to middling, it is surprising 
that as polished and creative a performer as Donald- 
son should remain relatively obscure. He mixes a 
warm, full tone, remarkable dexterity and a roaring 
sense of swing but has little resort to stylistic 
crutches. He soars off at amazingly fast tempos with 
casual fluency, precise execution and neatly laid 
out ideas and, unlike most other neo-Parkerites, he 
can project a ballad with deeply felt expression. He 
is usually head and shoulders above the other horns 
with whom he records but on Lou Takes Off, Blue 
Note 1591, he has the cogent support of pianist 
Sonny Clark and bassist George Joyner while he is 


joined by the driving piano of Horace Silver on 
Quartet, Quintet, Sextet, Blue Note 1537. He 
blithely overpowers an earthbound rhythm section 
on Wailing with Lou, Blue Note 1545, but a group 
of unrewarding selections finally slow him down 
on Swing and Soul, Blue Note 1566. 

Kenny Dorham. A trumpeter in the Dizzy Gillespie- 
Fats Navarro line, Dorham played with Gillespie's 
band in the Forties as well as those led by Billy 
Eckstine, Lionel Hampton and Mercer Ellington. 
From 1948 to 1950 he was a member of Charlie 
Parker's Quintet. He was one of the original mem- 
bers of the Jazz Messengers and pulled out of that 
group to form his own shortlived Jazz Prophets. 
He is capable of rough-toned, biting phrasing but 
his lines rarely go anywhere. The two recorded 
legacies of the Jazz Prophets Kenny Dorham and 
the Jazz Prophets, ABC-Paramount 122, and 'Round 
About Midnight at the Cafe Bohemia, Blue Note 
1524 show Dorham as a routine performer leading 
a group which has no particular individuality. The 
same qualities characterize his other disks, none of 
them of any special interest Afro-Cuban, Blue 
Note 1535; Jazz Contrasts, Riverside 12-239; and 
Two Horns, Two Rhythm, Riverside 12-255. He 
has single selections in Jazz for Lovers, Riverside 
12-244, and Riverside Drive, Riverside 12-267. 

Ray Draper. Born in 1940, Draper was making a 
name as a tuba player in jazz circles by the time 
he was sixteen. Possibly this was a mistake for it 
has resulted in placing the tuba in pointless promi- 
nence on Tuba Sound, Prestige 7096. Despite his 
best efforts, Draper's solos have no more jazz 
qualities than Tubby the Tuba does (and Tubby 
has other merits of his own). 

Kenny Drew. Drew is a swirling, lean pianist who 
phrases in consistently swinging fashion although 

The Records 91 

his ideas are rather monotonous on The Kenny 
Drew Trio, Riverside 12-224. The addition of 
trumpeter Donald Byrd and tenor saxophonist 
Hank Mobley to his group on This Is New, River- 
side 12-236, fails to break the sameness of sound 
that dogs the first disk since all three become in- 
volved in tiresomely long solos which they cannot 
sustain. A suggestion that Drew's forte may be some- 
what beyond jazz is contained in The Modernity 
of Kenny Drew, Verve 8156, on which, playing 
with bass and drums, he varies his light, looping 
swingers with some pretty out-of-tempo pieces. Jazz 
Impressions of Pal Joey, Riverside 12-249, takes 
advantage of this aspect as Drew plays neat, orderly 
versions of the Rodgers and Hart tunes which stem 
logically from the originals. A Harry Warren Show- 
case, Judson 3004, A Harold Arlen Showcase, Jud- 
son 3005, and I Love Jerome Kern, Riverside 12-811, 
are done in a pleasant, straightforward pop vein 
with no special jazz flavor. Drew has single selec- 
tions in Jazz for Lovers, Riverside 12-244, and 
Riverside Drive, Riverside 12-267. 

Doug Duke. One of the first to try to make a jazz 
career on the organ, Duke has served with Lionel 
Hampton's band and has led his own trios. He 
moves between organ and piano on The Jazz Or- 
ganist, Regent 6013, but what ever jazz qualities 
he may have are thinly diluted on this disk. 

Dorothy Dunn. An undigested Sarah Vaughan in- 
fluence, some borrowings from Anita O'Day and a 
seemingly greater interest in doing vocal tricks than 
in singing a song effectively mark this singer's four 
contributions to Singin' and Swingin', Regent 6031. 

Eddie Duran. Duran can be a charmingly effective 
guitarist in a light, reflective manner (as he is as a 
part of The Vince Guaraldi Trio, Fantasy 3225) 


but he is not quite strong enough to carry his own 
album, Jazz Guitarist, Fantasy 3247, in the face of 
heavy drumming and a hard-toned, static tenor 

Billy Eckstine. Between his career as a vocalist with 
the Earl Hines band of the early Forties which 
turned out to be an all-star bop school and his later 
career as a gaudily inflected crooner, Eckstine led 
one of the first big bop bands. His sidemen included 
Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Parker, Fats Navarro, Gene 
Ammons, Dexter Gordon and Art Blakey. This 
was a rough, enthusiastic band with much the same 
battering, lumbering attack that Gillespie's first big 
band had. Four poorly recorded pieces by the 
Eckstine band are on LP two on Boning Up on 
'Bones, EmArcy 36083, both featuring hoarse valve 
trombone solos by Eckstine, and two more on Ad- 
vance Guard of the Forties, EmArcy 36016. 

Kurt Edelhagen. The highly polished, versatile and 
explosive German band molded by Edelhagen on 
the Ted Heath pattern is sparkingly crisp and 
swinging when it manages to avoid getting lost in 
its own high decibel count on Jazz from Germany, 
Decca 8231. 

Harry Edison. The biting, astringent trumpet of 
Harry Edison was a vital part of Count Basic's brass 
section in the glory days of the original Basic band. 
During the Fifties he has freelanced, mostly on the 
West Coast, and has made several recordings in 
company with other well-rooted jazzmen. On Sweets, 
Verve 8097, and Gee, Baby, Ain't I Good To You, 
Verve 8211, he is joined and all but outclassed by 
the eminent tenor saxophonist, Ben Webster, while 
on Buddy and Sweets, Verve 8129, Buddy Rich sets 
up a surging support for his crackling trumpet. 

The Records 93 

Edison, who is particularly adept with mutes, plays 
with dark intensity on all three disks and further 
shows his skill with a mute on Tour De Force, 
Verve 8212, an unusual blowing session in that it 
is devoted to three trumpeters (Edison, Dizzy Gil- 
lespie and Roy Eldridge) all playing with mutes in 
a subdued, tight manner over swinging rhythm sup- 
port. A reunion between Edison and his old Basie- 
mate, Lester Young, on Pres and Sweets, Verve 8134, 
proves to be mutually depressing. He plays one 
selection on Solo Flight, World Pacific JWC 505. 

Don Elliott. Elliott's versatility is inclined to get in 
the way of his not inconsiderable abilities as a 
swinging, modern-surfaced jazz musician. He plays 
trumpet, mellophone, vibraphone, bongos, sings 
and does vocal take-offs. With all these possibilities 
at his beck and call, he often gets tied up in gim- 
micky ideas. For jazz, his best instrument is the 
mellophone although he is also a capable vibra- 
phonist and, at times, a more than serviceable 
trumpeter. He shows up well on all three instru- 
ments on one side of Doubles in Jazz, Vanguard 
8522 (shared with Sam Most), on which he has the 
lifting help of Ellis Larkins' light, swinging piano. 
He is more erratic as a triple-threat on Vib-Rations, 
Savoy 12054. 

For several years during the middle Fifties Elliott 
led a quartet which was usually made up of Bob 
Corwin, piano, Ernie Furtado, bass, and Jimmy 
Campbell, drums. It was a cohesive group which 
has a light and airy way on Don Elliott at the 
Modern Jazz Room, ABC-Paramount 142, but Bob 
Corwin Quartet (actually the Elliott quartet), River- 
side 12-220, is less successful because Elliott plays 
trumpet throughout and is constantly outswung 
by Corwin. The Quartet is in fine fettle on a couple 
of selections on The Voice of Marty Bell, The 
Quartet of Don Elliott, Riverside 12-206, but most 


of the time it is buried behind Bell, a shallow, 
straining singer who sounds somewhat like Jackie 
Paris. The Quartet's appearance at Newport in 
1957 is reported on Eddie Costa, Mat Mat hews and 
Don Elliott at Newport, Verve 8287. 

Elliott's mellophone is neatly showcased in well 
organized, rhythmic arrangements by Quincy Jones 
on A Musical Offering, ABC-Paramount 106, and 
on Don Elliott, Bethlehem 12, although the latter 
is largely in the mood music vein. 

He plays an amusing and invigorating group of 
trumpet duets with Rusty Dedrick on Counter- 
point for Six Valves, Riverside 12-218, and, shift- 
ing to a different kind of gimmick, is multi-taped 
into a choral group and a band on The Voices of 
Don Elliott, ABC-Paramount 190. The choral group 
is for real on The Mello Sound, Decca 9208, but 
the soothing music that Elliott creates with these 
singers has scarcely a shred of jazz in it. Music of 
the Sensational Sixties, Design 69, announced on 
the liner as "a step beyond progressive jazz" may 
be precisely that (who knows?) but if it is then the 
step beyond "progressive" jazz is a mixture of 
adolescent-voiced crooning a la Elliott set in quiet, 
conservative arrangements. 

Like almost everyone else, Elliott has taken a 
whack at a show score. His Jamaica Jazz, ABC- 
Paramount 228, is one of the more rational transla- 
tions of Broadway to jazz. Harold Arlen's blues 
and calypso accented music for Jamaica has been 
thoughtfully and modestly arranged by Gil Evans, 
using a small woodwind group and the conga drum 
of Candido to form an effective setting for Elliott's 
full arsenal of instruments mellophone, vibra- 
phone, marimba, trumpet and bongos. As usual, 
he comes out best on mellophone. Elliott has single 
selections in Jazz for Lovers, Riverside 12-244, 
Riverside Drive, Riverside 12-267, and Concert 
Jazz, Brunswick 54027. 

The Records 95 

Herb Ellis. In the guitar slot which he held for 
many years with the Oscar Peterson trio, Ellis has 
often affected a rackety, tinny style that suggested 
a call to arms to the hill people. Yet the two LPs 
which have appeared under his name, Ellis in 
Wonderland, Verve 8171, and Nothing But the 
Blues, Verve 8252, are both remarkably warm, well 
directed disks. On the first assisted by Harry Edison 
and Jimmy Giuffre, his guitar is cushioned on a 
relatively rich ensemble. Most of the selections are 
in a quiet, swinging vein, pleasantly unpretentious 
and enlivened by sly ensemble and solo ideas. On 
the second disk his front line companions are Roy 
Eldridge and Stan Getz. The selections range from 
'way back, low down blues riffs to light, lilting 
swingers. Ellis is a consistently bright and driving 
element on his own and when he is supporting 
Getz's modest but wonderfully pulsant solos. 

Frans Elsen. This Dutch pianist, a man of ap- 
parently limited intentions, paws listlessly through 
several surface pieces on Jazz Behind the Dikes, 
Epic 3270. 

Rolf Ericson. For most of the past decade Sweden's 
Rolf Ericson has been an international commuter 
and has worked with several big American bands 
(Charlie Barnet, Woody Herman, Harry James, Les 
Brown). He can be a forceful big band trumpet 
man but he is a fuzzy, incoherent element in the 
otherwise interesting American small group he leads 
on Rolf Ericson and His American All-Stars, Em- 
Arcy 36106. 

Bill Evans. One of the most effective members of 
the growing school of pianists who work in a dark, 
minor, folk-rooted manner, Evans resorts to a glib 
chomp-chomping surface on much of his only solo 
disk, New Jazz Conceptions, Riverside 12-223, mak- 


ing it less distinctive than his work on other oc- 
casions would lead one to expect. 

Gil Evans. The seemingly unlikely background of 
apprenticeship with Skinnay Ennis and Claude 
Thornhill has brought to modern jazz one of its 
most provocative arrangers Gil Evans. Evans began 
moving from the dance band field to jazz while he 
was arranging for Thornhill in the late Forties 
when he contributed some Charlie Parker pieces to 
the Thornhill library (The Thornhill Sound, Har- 
mony 7088). His contributions to the Miles Davis 
nonet (The Birth of the Cool, Capitol T 762) with 
their floating, shifting panels of tonal colors, a 
heritage from the Thornhill band, focused atten- 
tion on him as a jazz influence, an influence which 
has grown through the years even though Evans 
himself chose to withdraw from jazz during the 
first half of the Fifties. When he returned, he 
again worked with Davis, writing arrangements in 
his calm, richly harmonic style for a big band which 
forms the framework for Davis* fluegelhorn solos 
on Miles Ahead, Columbia CL 1041. He provided 
a sinuous kaleidoscope of shifting colors and accents 
over which Davis plays with a certainty and direc- 
tion that are not always present in less firmly 
guided circumstances. In his debut as a leader, Gil 
Evans and Ten, Prestige 7120, Evans shows a 
stronger sense of overt swing than one finds in his 
earlier work in a varied group of arrangements 
played by an alert, responsive group which includes 
among its more notable soloists soprano saxophon- 
ist Steve Lacy, trumpeter Jake Koven and Evans 
himself who plays a very high, plinking, single note 
piano style. 

Evans' most brilliant display as both arranger 
and leader, however, is New Bottle Old Wine, 
World Pacific 1246, a disk which might be consid- 
ered a summation of jazz seen through the personal 

The Records 97 

perspective of Evans. He has orchestrated for a big 
band tunes representative of both the old and the 
new eras of jazz St. Louis Blues, King Porter 
Stomp, Fats Waller's lovely Willow Tree, Struttin' 
with Some Barbecue, Lester Leaps In, Round 
About Midnight, Manteca and Charlie Parker's 
Bird Feathers skillfully fusing the original spirit 
of each piece with his own distinctive style. In the 
process he has drawn from his featured soloist, 
alto saxophonist Julian Adderley, some of his most 
consistently expressive playing playing that is 
more concerned with solid meat and less with 
floridity than Adderley's sometimes is. 

Tal Farlow. Farlow's early indication that he had 
a more adventurous attitude toward the electric 
guitar than most of his fellow guitarists (he includes 
echoes of Django Reinhardt along with the in- 
evitable Charlie Christian) are demonstrated in the 
varied program that makes up The Tal Farlow 
Album, Verve 8138. Since then, however, he seems 
to have been content to grind out one album after 
another with piano, bass and drums, mostly done 
in uptempos. The lack of variety in tone, texture 
and tempo makes The Interpretations of Tal Far- 
low, Verve 8011, and The Artistry of Tal Farlow, 
Verve 8184, needlessly dull while The Swinging 
Guitar, Verve 8201, and Tal, Verve 8021, are bright- 
ened by occasional refreshingly sunny break- 
throughs by Eddie Costa's hot-blooded, wallopingly 
percussive piano. It is also refreshing to find Far- 
low working with an ensemble (trombone and two 
saxophones) on A Recital by Tal Farlow, Verve 
8123, but the pleasure is only momentary for these 
soon turn into a trudging set of performances. 

Art Farmer* In the past year Farmer has stepped 
out from the rut of sheltered, pigeon-holed, one- 
style trumpeters to become that rarity a jazz musi- 


cian almost without school ties. He has reached a 
level of assurance, skill and flexibility which make 
him capable of playing practically anything unusu- 
ally well, with thoughtfulness and sensitivity. His 
very flexibility, however, has its drawbacks for he 
tends to play within the context of whatever group 
or situation he finds himself in. Thus in such 
routine blowing sessions as Two Trumpets, Prestige 
7062, (Donald Byrd being the other trumpet), Three 
Trumpets, Prestige 7092, (add Idrees Sulieman) and 
The Art Farmer Quintet, Prestige 7017, he settles 
for the least common denominator. If there is to 
be any rising above this, it is not done by Farmer 
(pianist Duke Jordan brightens parts of The Art 
Farmer Quintet). Even when he is with a distinctly 
superior jamming group on Earthy, Prestige 7102, 
his playing is only routine while guitarist Kenny 
Burrell and pianist Mai Waldron show what can 
be done positively within the limitations of such 

Farmer showed flashes of promise on some of his 
earliest recordings, made with some men from 
Lionel Hampton's band in which he was resident 
in 1953. They are included in The Art Farmer 
Septet, Prestige 7031, a disk which is filled out by 
an uneven 1954 group which is of interest primarily 
for Horace Silver's pungent piano work. In sessions 
recorded in 1954 and 1955 on When Farmer Met 
Gryce, Prestige 7085, the promising flashes continue 
as Fanner reaches out but does not yet seem en- 
tirely certain of his direction. 

It is on his most recent disks that Farmer gives 
evidence of coming firmly into his own although 
he is not always fortunate in his surroundings. 
Leading a quartet on Portrait of Art Farmer, Con- 
temporary 3554, for example, he has moments when 
he rears back and lets fly with full-throated vitality 
but he spends a great deal of time probing around 
as though he were waiting for something to happen. 

The Records 99 

Except for some ballads, his work stays on a more 
consistent level on Modern Art, United Artists 4007, 
but the record as a whole is an in-and-out affair, 
marred by Benny Golson's newly acquired lean- 
ing toward the many noted, flamboyant school 
of hard bop tenor saxophonists. Farmer's Market, 
Prestige 8203, provides further evidence of Farmer's 
forceful assurance and his sure sense of construction 
but Hank Mobley's tenor saxophone is tiresomely 

An attempt to put Farmer in a setting something 
like that provided for Bobby Racket by Jackie 
Gleason's string groups, Last Night When We Were 
Young, ABC-Paramount 200, allows Farmer to show 
a bigger, darker sound than one normally associates 
with him but this soggy approach to ballads is not 
his forte. 

Victor Feldman. An Englishman of many talents 
(vibes, piano and drums are his principal outlets) 
Feldman was introduced to the United States as 
a vibist with Woody Herman's band in the middle 
Fifties. He has since settled in California and can 
be heard as a sideman on numerous recordings 
made there. He plays all three of his main instru- 
ments on Suite Sixteen, Contemporary 3541, re- 
corded while he was still in England, as he leads a 
shouting, boiling big band, a subdued, reflective 
quartet, and a septet. His deliberately precise way of 
playing vibes is well framed by the quartet on this 
disk but on The Arrival of Victor Feldman, Con- 
temporary 3549, his first American LP, he shows up 
best as a hard hitting, forceful pianist. Much of 
his work on vibes on this disk is overshadowed by 
Scott LaFaro, a bassist whose strong firm lines be- 
come overbearing in this context. 

Maynard Ferguson. Ferguson's ability to blast his 
way around the upper reaches of the trumpet 


helped him gain attention when he came to the 
United States in 1948 after leading his own band in 
Canada. But spearing high notes for Stan Kenton, 
Charlie Barnet and Jimmy Dorsey did not help 
him to develop as a jazz musician. Recordings made 
with his own large and small groups since 1954 
show he has been slowly moving in this direction. 
He still has difficulty resolving a trumpet solo 
without reaching for dogs 1 ears but in the naturally 
lower tones of valve trombone, bass trumpet and 
even muted trumpet he is becoming a balanced 
and pleasantly earthy jazz performer. 

At best, Ferguson is erratic inconsistent but full 
of fire on Around the Horn, EmArcy 36076, May- 
nard Ferguson Octet, EmArcy 36021, and Boy with 
Lots of Brass, EmArcy 36114. His big band, which 
shares most of Ferguson's merits and demerits, gives 
an indication of being able to do more than merely 
erupt on A Message from Newport, Roulette 52012. 
Ferguson is the empty high-noter on Jam Session, 
EmArcy 36002, Jam Session, EmArcy 36009, Dimen- 
sions, EmArcy 36044, and Hollywood Party, Em- 
Arcy 36046. He contributes one undistinguished 
selection to Bargain Day, EmArcy 36087. 

Jerry Fielding. An arranger and band leader who 
works the West Coast TV and recording studio 
circuit, Fielding leads a crisp, polished and lightly 
swinging band on Jerry Fielding Plays a Dance 
Concert, Kapp 1026, Fielding s Formula, Decca 
8450, and Sweet with a Beat, Decca 8100. Although 
Swingin f in Hi-Fi, Decca 8371, is subtitled "Rock 
'n' Roll Matriculates" it actually consists of pleas- 
ant, unostentatious big band pieces played with a 
definite beat but not beaten to death. The oc- 
casional quirks of imaginative arranging which 
peek through Fielding's big band work takes com- 
mand on Hollywoodwind Jazztet, Decca 8669, an 
unusual and interesting use of a woodwind group 

The Records 101 

which is not strongly touched by jazz but is very 
attractive dancing chamber music. 

Herbie Fields. A capable jazzman on all the reeds, 
Fields had some of Charlie Barnet's fire and drive, 
some of Flip Phillips' swinging flow but, to offset 
these merits, a deplorable lack of taste. This lack 
reduces A Night at Kitty's, RKO-Unique 124, to 
utter banality and makes his side of Blow Hot, 
Blow Cool, Decca 8130, much less bearable than it 
could have been. 

The First Modern Piano Quartet. The Quartet is 
made up of pianists who are known primarily as 
jazzmen (Dick Marx, Eddie Costa, Hank Jones and 
Johnny Costa). On A Gallery of Gershwin, Coral 
59102, they are working within orchestral arrange- 
ments written and conducted by another jazz- 
oriented musician, Manny Albam, but the result is 
only peripherally jazz. Except when one of the 
pianists moves out from the quartet as a soloist, 
this might be classified as mood music or light con- 
cert music, although a superior brand of either. 

Tommy Flanagan. Flanagan, a pianist, is one of 
the multitude of prominent jazzmen of the Fifties 
who grew up and began his career in Detroit. He 
shifted to New York in 1956 and, since then, has 
provided some refreshing piano interludes on nu- 
merous recorded blowing sessions. Like most of his 
American recordings, Jazz . . . It's Magic, Regent 
6055, Jazzmen: Detroit, Savoy 12083, and All Day 
Long, Prestige 7081, show him to be a pleasant 
pianist who swings along easily within a limited 
area. In view of this, The Tommy Flanagan Trio 
Overseas, Prestige 7134, is something of a revela- 
tion. On this recording, made in Stockholm in 1957 
with Wilbur Ware, bass, and Elvin Jones, drums, 


Flanagan reveals previously unsuspected strength 
and vitality, a warm, full, punching attack that 
suggests he should be released from the bondage of 
horn surroundings more often. 

Med Flory. In both Jazz Wave, Jubilee 1066, and 
four selections in Modern Jazz Gallery, Kapp KXL 
5001, Flory's big band jumps with signs of rugged 
enthusiasm but leans more on blast than swing. 

Frank Foster- One of the two Franks who have had 
long tenure in the reed section of the current Basic 
band (Frank Wess is the other), Foster is a less 
consistent performer than Wess. His playing on 
tenor saxophone on a single selection on Montage, 
Savoy 12029, is rounded and gracious, projected 
with vitality and vigor. But he is pushing and 
strident through most of Wail, Frank, Wail, Pres- 
tige 7021, while on Jazz Studio 2, Decca 8058, he 
contributes to the undistinguished series of solos 
which make up the two very long selections to 
which the disk is devoted. He has one number on 
Jazz Is Busting Out All Over, Savoy 12123. 

Stan Free. Chris Connor's able piano accompanist 
plays a glib set of familiar sounding "originals" on 
Free for All, King 524. They barely suggest the 
warmer, deeper work of which he is capable. 

Russ Freeman. Freeman is one of the founding 
fathers of the West Coast school of glassy-eyed, ball- 
bearing piano men but when he gets away from 
fast tempos he plays with a good show of sensi- 
tivity. Some examples of his early mechanical sheen 
are found on one side of Richard Twardzik Trio, 
World Pacific 1212, (shared with Twardzik, of 
course) but on Russ Freeman and Chet Baker 
Quartet, World Pacific 1232, he digs into the 
earthier regions of jazz. On Double Play!, Con- 

The Records 103 

temporary 3537, he joins with Andre Previn in a 
set of duets rolled out in long, dark-toned lines 
which gallop Curiously at fast tempos and produce 
blues with a sophisticated veneer. Freeman trips 
lightly through two selections on Jazz Swings Broad- 
way, World Pacific 404; he has two entries on Jazz 
West Coast, Vol. 3, World Pacific JWC 507, and 
one each in Jazz West Coast, Vol. 2, World Pacific 
JWC 501, The Blues, World Pacific JWC 502, Pian- 
ists Galore, World Pacific JWC 506, Solo Flight, 
World Pacific JWC 505, and Have Blues, Will 
Travel, World Pacific JWC 509. 

Stan Freeman. Although primarily a slick pianist- 
entertainer, Freeman gives two Broadway show 
scores a light jazz veneer on The Music Man, 
Columbia CL 1120, and Oh, Captain!, Columbia 
CL 1126. He works his more customary vein on 
Manhattan, Epic 3114, Stan Freeman at the Blue 
Angel, Epic 3224, and Thirty All-Time Hits, Har- 
mony 7067. 

John Frigo. Once a member of a lightly swinging 
group called The Soft Winds (which, earlier, had 
been the rhythm section of Jimmy Dorsey's or- 
chestra), Frigo is primarily a bassist but he is also 
a violinist of unusual warmth and quirksome in- 
ventiveness. On I Love John Frigo . . . He Swings, 
Mercury 20285, his playing is a constant delight 
urgently rhythmic, subtle, melodic and with none 
of the harshness that Stuff Smith has associated 
with jazz violin. He plays a little fiddle (and only 
second fiddle to pianist Dick Marx) on Dick Marx 
and Johnny Frigo, Coral 57088. 

Tony Fruscella. The wan, withdrawn uncertain 
quality of Chet Baker's trumpet is used to even less 
effect by Fruscella on Tony Fruscella, Atlantic 
1220, on which he is faced with the striking con- 


trast of Allen Eager's strong, assured tenor saxo- 

Curtis Fuller. A Detroit product, Fuller has gradu- 
ally been unfreezing his trombone style in the course 
of a brief recording career in the latter Fifties. The 
fiat, rough tone and labored, staccato style he 
showed on his first disks The Opener, Blue Note 
1567, and New Trombone, Prestige 7107 give way 
to a smoother, breezier approach on Bone and Bart, 
Blue Note 1572, and positive evidence of outgoing 
vitality on Monday Night at Birdland, Roulette 
52015. If he keeps on developing, it might be only 
polite to overlook all these early disks. 

Barry Galbraith. Galbraith's clean-lined, precise 
and propulsive guitar is supported on Guitar and 
the Wind, Decca 9200, by three different groups 
one dominated by four trombones, one with four 
reeds, and a third made up of guitar, flute and 
rhythm. The two latter groups lean toward a lan- 
guid preciosity that Galbraith is not always able 
to overcome but he is thoroughly at home in the 
forthright, bouncing company of the trombones. 
He has single entries in The Mellow Moods of Jazz, 
Victor LPM 1365, and After Hours Jazz, Epic 3339. 

Freddie Gambrell. Introducing Freddie Gambrell, 
World Pacific 1242, is attributed to the Chico 
Hamilton Trio but this is mere window dressing 
which serves to launch this impressive young blind 
pianist. Supported by Hamilton on drums and Ben 
Tucker, bass, Gambrell has the disk to himself, 
showing a very rhythmic, percussive style with an 
appealingly dark, blues-bred texture and good 
structural sense. He swings powerfully at moder- 
ately fast tempos and on ballads reveals his deriva- 
tions most clearly for he has a fondness for stating 
a melody with a wry, Monkian twist, for occasional 

The Records 105 

splashes of Garner's ripe orchestral explosions and 
for excursions into Tatum-like displays of facility. 

Dick Garcia. Garcia's guitar is relatively unimpres- 
sive on A Message from Garcia, Dawn 1106, espe- 
cially when it is at close quarter with Tony Scott's 
lithe clarinet, and he wanders through four empty 
duets with guitarist Joe Puma on The Four Most 
Guitars, ABC-Paramount 109. 

Russ Garcia. A West Coast jack-of-all-arrangements, 
Garcia leads a shouting big band which strings ade- 
quate solos on a sketchy framework on four selec- 
tions in Modern Jazz Gallery, Kapp KXL 5001. 

Ralph Gari. Gari plays alto saxophone, clarinet, 
oboe, and flute on Ralph Gari, EmArcy 36019, 
emerging as a musician with a legitimate sound 
who can swing nicely on alto in the clean, sweeping 
Benny Carter manner. But he also plays all those 
other instruments and he has chosen rather pre- 
tentious small group settings in which to do it. 

Red Garland. In a quiet, unobtrusive way, Garland 
has carved out a niche for himself as a pianist 
whose imagination, taste and swinging strength are 
extremely consistent. Much of his playing time has 
been spent buried behind the fireworks of Miles 
Davis' group but when he works on disks with only 
bass and drums he comes into his own. He has 
some of the broad appeal of Enroll Garner, though 
none of Garner's stylistic devices, on A Garland of 
Red, Prestige 7064, Red Garland's Piano, Prestige 
7086, Groovy, Prestige 7113, and Manteca, Prestige 
7139. On the latter his trio is implemented by the 
invigorating accents of Ray Barretto's conga drum. 
John Coltrane with the Red Garland Trio, Pres- 
tige 7123, and All Mornin' Long, Prestige 7130, 
intersperse several exceptionally worthwhile Gar- 


land passages with Coltrane's strident tenor saxo- 
phone solos. One drawback that runs through all of 
Garland's disks is the inordinate length of the selec- 

Enroll Garner. A self-taught pianist who cannot 
read music, Garner has worked a magpie's collec- 
tion of ideas, habits and devices into an overall 
style that has proven enormously appealing to both 
jazz and non-jazz audiences alike. His approach, 
like that of most basic jazz pianists, is orchestral. 
He is fond of big, splashy, voluminous chords, sud- 
den and dramatic contrasts in texture and tempo, 
and a silky romanticism straight out of Debussy. 
Within this framework and bouyed on a rhythmic 
projection that is one of the most compelling in 
any jazz era, he works out developments of popular 
tunes and his own Debussy-touched compositions 
with percussive single-note phrases, the bright, 
strutting chords brought to jazz by Earl Hines, and, 
at times, an exaggeration of the jazzman's technique 
of playing behind the beat which typifies his strong 
sense of the theatrical. 

Since the middle Forties he has poured out more 
solo records than any other jazz pianist, maintain- 
ing a surprisingly consistent level of performance 
although many of his earlier disks are atrocious 
examples of the recordings engineer's craft. His best 
work will be found on Columbia, starting with a 
disk that has stood up for several years as the 
definitive example of Garner's playing, Concert by 
the Sea, Columbia CL 883. The program for this 
concert is varied and representative of Garner, the 
recording is excellent and Garner is at the top of 
his form gay, romantic, pulsating, quirksome and 
completely winning. 

Erroll Garner, Columbia CL 535, marked his 
release from the 78 rpm three-minute straitjacket 
and he made the most of it with six brilliantly 
realized performances while The Most Happy Pi- 

The Records 107 

ano, Columbia CL 939, is still another serving of 
topnotch Garner capped by a magnificent ballad 
performance of Time on My Hands. Paris Impres- 
sions, Columbia C2L-9, a two-disk set, might have 
been edited down into a single satisfying LP but 
as it is there are too many soft spots when Garner 
is wrestling futilely with songs which have ap- 
parently been included only because they have 
French references in their lyrics and when he in- 
vestigates a harpsichord with clangorous results. 
Simply satisfactory and generally well recorded are 
Erroll Garner Gems, Columbia CL 583, Gone 
Garner Gonest, Columbia CL 617, Erroll Garner 
Plays for Dancing, Columbia CL 667, Contrasts, 
EmArcy 36001, Garnering, EmArcy 36026. Since 
Mambo Moves Garner, Mercury 20055, is devoted 
to mambos it is of less jazz interest. 

On all of these disks he is accompanied by bass 
and drums which give him a freedom that is miss- 
ing from his unaccompanied solos on Soliloquy, 
Columbia CL 1060, Erroll Garner, EmArcy 36069, 
Afternoon of an Elf. Mercury 20090, and Solitaire, 
Mercury 20063. 

Another venture away from his customary trio 
set-up, Other Voices, Columbia CL 1014, involves 
the pianist with a large orchestra conducted by 
Mitch Miller playing arrangements written by 
Garner (written? well, he played out each part on 
the piano and Nat Pierce took it all down and 
assembled the pieces). The effect, at best, is that of 
the usual solo Garner surrounded by a wall of 
luminous sound which melts the sharp, clean edge 
of his playing. Garner-on-the-rocks is definitely a 
more stimulating experience than this frothy Pink 
Lady. On Music for Tired Lovers, Columbia CL 
651, Garner's trio backs Woody Herman's lazy-daisy 
vocals on a set of ballads. 

The Greatest Garner, Atlantic 1227, Penthouse 
Serenade, Savoy 12002, Serenade to Laura, Savoy 
12003, Back to Back, Savoy 12002 (shared with 


Billy Taylor), Giants of the Piano, Roost 2213 
(shared with Art Tatum), Err oil Garner, Rondo- 
lette 15, three selections in Night Music for Stay at 
Homes, Coral 57040, two selections in Modern Jazz 
Piano, Camden 384, four selections in Piano Varia- 
tions, King 540, and one each in Great Jazz Pian- 
ists, Camden 328, Encyclopedia of Jazz on Records, 
Vol. 4, Decca 8401, and Operation Jazz, Roost OJ1, 
are LP repressings of his earlier work, adequately 
recorded. Jazz Piano, Grand Award 33-321 (shared 
with Pete Johnson) is a good example of the dread- 
ful recording Garner has sometimes been subjected 
to. Early Err oil, Concert Hall 1269, is taken from 
informally made tapes and, in general, sounds like 

Selections by Garner are also included in $64,000 
Jazz, Columbia CL 777, Jazz Omnibus, Columbia 
CL 1020, For Jazz Lovers, EmArcy 38086, Bargain 
Day, EmArcy 36087, and Giants of Jazz, Vol. 2, 
EmArcy 36049. 

Morris Garner. Jokes are perpetrated so infre- 
quently in current jazz that possibly one should 
not quibble when one comes along. The Worst of 
Morris Garner, Thunderbird 1958, is a perceptive 
collection of Enroll Garner's self-made cliches per- 
formed with a casually skillful clumsiness that sug- 
gests this is the work of an expert pair of hands. 
There are some funny moments but the joke is too 
slim and repetitious to be spread over a twelve- 
inch LP. 

Matthew Gee. Gee's serviceable if undistinguished 
trombone is heard with a pair of neat, rhythmically 
churning groups on Jazz by Gee!, Riverside 12-221, 
which is worth hearing for the excellent rhythm 
section driven by bassist John Simmons. 

Herb Geller. Geller is a heated, moving alto saxo- 
phonist with a sound sense of structure and a good 

The Records 109 

range of moods. He is far above his associates on 
Herb Geller Plays, EmArcy 36045, The Herb Geller 
Sextette, EmArcy 36040, and Fire in the West, 
Jubilee 1044. In somewhat sturdier company on 
Jazz Studio 2, Decca 8079, he plays with suave inven- 
tion. A long blowing session, Best Coast Jazz, Em- 
Arcy 36039, buries any form or ideas he may have 
intended to offer. 

Eddie Getz. Getz is an alto saxophonist who has 
found that it is possible to play modern jazz with- 
out bowing too deeply to Charlie Parker. He swings 
along gracefully in a light, easy, sweeping style but 
on Eddie Getz Quintette, MGM 3462, he has to 
carry a desultory group and a lot of dull material. 

Stan Getz. Getz has done something that is almost 
unique in modern jazz: Starting with the tenor 
saxophone style of Lester Young, he absorbed it 
and adapted it (partly by cross-breeding it with 
the feathery Lee Konitz alto approach) to create 
an individual style which, in turn, became enor- 
mously influential on succeeding tenor men. Starting 
in his middle teens, he spent five years with a 
number of big bands (Bob Chester, Stan Kenton, 
Benny Goodman) before he came through as an 
individual with Woody Herman's band in 1947. 
By then he had developed his drifting, cool sound 
which, in the next few years, often became so lan- 
guid that it bogged down from lack of momentum. 
During much of the Fifties Getz was an erratic 
performer as he went through a period of unkempt 
personal problems but by the latter part of the 
decade he was reasserting himself as a strong, swing- 
ing voice in jazz. 

One of his most completely satisfying disks is 
West Coast Jazz, Verve 8028, made by a group 
which existed for a week in the summer of 1955 
(Conte Candoli, trumpet, Lou Levy, piano, Leroy 


Vinnegar, bass, Shelly Manne, drums). Getz is at 
the very peak of his abilities on Shine, a perform- 
ance that is freshly inventive, lustily swinging and 
developed with polish and drive. The opposite side 
of Getz's coin the calmer, lyric side is beautifully 
expressed on Suddenly It's Spring. Two years later, 
teamed with trombonist J. J. Johnson on a Jazz at 
the Philharmonic tour, they both play with un- 
expectedly irresistible gusto on Stan Getz and J. J. 
Johnson at the Opera House, Verve 8265, while on 
Cal Tjader-Stan Getz Sextet, Fantasy 3266, he leads 
a giddy headlong chase through a glorious nine- 
minute set-to, Ginza. 

Of his earlier records, the best selections will be 
found in The Stan Getz Quintet at Storyville, 
Roost 2209, and Stan Getz at Storyville, Vol. 2, 
Roost 2225, both played by the same light and 
airy group. Getz's playing has strength and cohe- 
siveness as he is spurred on by the challenge of 
guitarist Jimmy Raney and pianist Al Haig and 
given sound support by Tiny Kahn on drums and 
Teddy Kotick, bass. Getz's trips to Sweden have 
inspired at least two good sets of recordings. In 
Stockholm, Verve 8213, catches him playing effort- 
lessly, with spirit and with a suaveness of tone that 
is not marred by the fudginess that often dims his 
playing, and one side of The Sound, Roost 2207, is, 
thanks to the presence of the Swedish pianist, Bengt 
Hallberg (who plays on both disks) generally satis- 
factory. This last disk is filled out with work by 
two inconsequential Getz quartets. 

Of his other early disks, Getz is fuzzy to the point 
of incoherence on Stan Getz Quartets, Prestige 7002 
two more selections from this same period are 
included on Conception, Prestige 7013 and he is 
cleaner and firmer but lacking in invention in four 
selections on both Opus de Bop, Savoy 12114, and 
Lestorion Mode, Savoy 12105, as well as in two 
selections in Tenor Sax, Concord 3012. S tan Getz 

The Records 111 

and the Cool Sounds, Verve 8200, is a miscellany of 
1950 recordings by three different but equally dis- 
mal and dragging groups. 

A quintet which featured valve trombonist Bob 
Brookmeyer runs from undistinguished to good, 
with both Getz and Brookmeyer contributing a 
fair share to each quality, on More West Coast Jazz, 
Verve 8177, Interpretations by the Stan Getz Quin- 
tet, Verve 8122, and Stan Getz at the Shrine, Verve 

Teaming with Dizzy Gillespie on Diz and Getz, 
Verve 8141, Getz is in brisk and spirited form and 
manages to hold his own with Gillespie except at 
very fast tempos but he is much less successful 
when Sonny Stitt joins them on For Musicians 
Only, Verve 8198. In this sharply cutting company, 
Getz retires to lifeless runs. On the other hand, on 
Sittin' In, Verve 8225, with the challenges coming 
from Gillespie, Coleman Hawkins and Paul Gon- 
salves, Getz dances lightly and easily in contrast to 
the pressing, shrill playing of Hawkins and the 
pushing strain of Gonsalves. Facing a very different 
type of trumpeter, Chet Baker, on Stan Meets Chet, 
Verve 8263, Getz plays with easy lyricism although 
a great deal of space is wasted on a ballad medley. 
On one side of Getz Meets Mulligan in Hi-Fi, 
Verve 8249, he switches saxophones with Gerry 
Mulligan, a pointless bit of nonsense, but on the 
other side, getting back to business on his tenor, 
Getz soars through a long and magnificent solo on 
This Can't Be Love. In still another meeting, Stan 
Getz and the Oscar Peterson Trio, Verve 8251, he 
has some thoughtfully lyrical moments but much of 
this disk is pap. Getz contributes four perfunctory 
pieces to Tenors, Anyone?, Dawn 1126, and one 
each to The Playboy Jazz Allstars, Playboy 1957, 
Verve Compendium of Jazz $1, Verve 8194, Roost 
Fifth Anniversary Album, Roost 1201, and Opera- 
tion Jazz, Roost OJ1. 


Terry Gibbs. Gibbs is one of the blithest, most out- 
going performers in current jazz, a vibraphonist 
whose basis is a driving beat, who phrases in a 
rollicking, spirited manner and who can, when 
called on," settle into a rationally rhythmic ballad 
groove. For a short time in the Fifties he headed an 
excellent quartet made up of Terry Pollard, piano, 
Herman Wright, bass, and Bert Dahlander, drums, 
a group which plays a superb set on Terry Gibbs, 
EmArcy 36047, and Mallets A-Plenty, EmArcy 
36075 (with Jerry Segal replacing Dahlander). 
Gibbs shows an imagination that bubbles along 
without getting entangled in fripperies but it is 
Miss Pollard, an incisive pianist who generates 
tremendous excitement as she builds her solos, who 
raises both disks to exceptional heights. On Terry 
Gibbs Plays the Duke, EmArcy 36128, Gibbs finds 
another excellent foil in Pete Jolly, playing ac- 
cordion, who lays down a long, soft carpet for 
Gibbs, prods and punches through every apparent 
opening in Gibbs' faster lines and swings out in 
warm and striking fashion on his own. For Swingin' 
with Terry Gibbs, EmArcy 36103, he is surrounded 
by a big band that plays with the kind of hungry, 
driving shout that rarely comes out of a well-fed 
studio band. 

There is evidence of Gibbs' tremendous drive on 
Newport '58, EmArcy 36141, but it leads nowhere 
and although he teams with mellophonist Don 
Elliott on one roaring swinger on Jazztime, U.S.A., 
Vol. 1, Brunswick 54000, his other two selections on 
this disk are trivial and so are his three offerings on 
Jazztime, U.SA., Vol. 2, Brunswick 54002. A mish- 
mash of groups make up Terry, Brunswick 54007 
a quartet with some rolling Terry Pollard piano, 
a savagely swinging sextet piece with Zoot Sims, 
and some lump, thumpy big band selections. Vibes 
on Velvet, EmArcy 36064, is Gibbs in an unbe- 
coming mood music setting. His two selections in 

The Records 113 

Swing . . . Not Spring, Savoy 12062, are burdened 
by a leaden rhythm section. Gibbs has single pieces 
in The Encyclopedia of Jazz on Records, Vol. 4, 
Decca 8401, For Jazz Lovers, EmArcy 36086, and 
Bargain Day, EmArcy 36086. 

Dizzy Gillespie. If Charlie Parker can be identified 
as the theorizer who spurred modern jazz into be- 
ing, Gillespie was the organizer and arranger who 
brought order to Parker's ideas. Like Parker, Gil- 
lespie's musical career goes back to the heart of 
the Swing Era when he was with Teddy Hill's band 
(Kenny Clarke was the drummer) and with Cab 
Galloway. Starting with a style based on that of 
Roy Eldridge, Gillespie gradually forged an attack 
that was his own but which stemmed from Eldridge 
in the same way that Eldridge drew on Louis Arm- 
strong. There are some shadowy samples of Gilles- 
pie's playing in this formative stage on Harlem 
Jazz Scene: 1941, Esoteric 548, but his influential 
playing at the height of the development of bop is 
best summed up on Groovin' High, Savoy 12020, 
which includes Blue 'n f Boogie from his first small 
group session, five now classic pieces with Charlie 
Parker, a pair with Milt Jackson and five selections 
by his early big band (Dizzy Gillespie, Rondolette 
11, duplicates this disk with two changes Salt 
Peanuts and Emanon are on the Savoy but not on 
the Rondolette which replaces them with two less 
interesting pieces, Good Dues Blues and He 
Beeped When He Shoulda Bopped). Gillespie, 
Parker and Jackson are consistently good but the 
stodginess of the big band's ensembles is increased 
by muffled recording. The same is true of a 1949 
recording of St. Louis Blues by this same band, in- 
cluded in Fourteen Blue Roads to St. Louis, Victor 
LPM 1714. A later and much more flexible big 
band which Gillespie led during 1956 and 1957 
has at least one tie to the earlier band the heavy, 


muffled recording which coats its work on World 
Statesman, Verve 8174, Dizzy in Greece, Verve 
8017, Birks Works, Verve 8222, and Dizzy Gillespie 
at Newport, Verve 8242. The most representative 
of these disks is the Newport recording for the band 
plays with raucous zest a little uncouth at times 
but, as mehitabel was wont to say, "wotthehell, 
wotthehell." World Statesman is rooted in a rock- 
ing, swinging beat although occasionally there is a 
shift to a more legato rhythm on which the band 
creates a rich, smooth sauce for Gillespie's tart 
trumpet and while there is a furious excitement 
about much of Dizzy in Greece, it is touched with 
traces of the banal side of Gillespie's humor. Birks 
Works is apparently a collection of leftover odds 
and ends which makes a spotty program. So is Jazz 
Recital, Verve 8173, half of which is devoted to 
vocals by Gillespie, Toni Harper and Herb Lance. 

In a different big band situation, Gillespie is the 
soloist on Manteca, Verve 8208, in arrangements by 
Chico O'Fairill. One side is devoted to OTarrill's 
Manteca Suite, an overblown series of variations on 
Gillespie's Manteca which provides him with a 
field day. The original piece as played by Gillespie's 
own band is included in Afro-Drum Carnival, GNP 
25, a shrill recording. 

Like most other modern jazz stars, Gillespie has 
been backed with vast arrays of strings to practi- 
cally no avail. Johnny Richards adds brass to the 
strings on Diz Big Band, Verve 8178, and on eight 
selections in The Dizzy Gillespie Story, Savoy 
12110 (the rest of this disk is made up of poorly 
recorded but swinging pieces by the Be Bop Boys 
Gillespie, Milt Jackson, James Moody and other 
members of Gillespie's big band in the late For- 
ties). The best that can be said of these stringed 
works is that Gillespie penetrates the strings. In 
Paris he made an inexplicable conjunction with 
the Paris Opera-Comique Orchestra on one side of 

The Records 115 

Jazz from Paris, Verve 8015 (shared with Django 
Reinhardt). Gillespie is relaxed, unharried and 
stirringly creative and the orchestra supplies him 
with a surprisingly virile background but it is, to 
all practical purposes, in vain since the engineers 
were apparently incapable of bringing Gillespie 
and the orchestra into focus at the same time one 
or the other is always out of perspective. A Concert 
in Paris, Roost 2214, puts him with a small group 
of Americans who play with a fresh, spontaneous 
quality. Gillespie is brilliantly melodic and inven- 
tive throughout the disk while he is in equally 
good form on the portion of Dizzy at Home and 
Abroad, Atlantic 1257, which was recorded in Paris. 
Don By as is with him on this set, playing a warm 
version of Blue and Sentimental, and Gillespie 
shouts out an exuberantly brash blues that can 
stand comparison with the work of the best of the 
blues singers. The remainder of this disk, recorded 
in New York, is superior as recording and retains 
some of the offhand feeling of the Paris pieces. 

After breaking up his big band in 1950, Gillespie 
worked with various small groups, most of which 
included bop singer Joe Carroll. Carroll is present 
through most of School Days, Regent 6043, an un- 
inspired collection. He turns up again, along with 
Milt Jackson and violinist Stuff Smith on The 
Champ, Savoy 12047, a very erratic collection which 
runs a gamut from dreadful to brilliant. A later 
meeting between Smith and Gillespie, Dizzy Gilles- 
pie and Stuff Smith, Verve 8214, produced a pair of 
long, churning, savagely swinging performances 
which overshadow three less distinguished efforts. 
One of them Rio Pakistan is a magnificently 
sardonic, electrically charged mood piece that is 
built to weirdly haunting heights by Smith's slash- 
ing, leaping cat-like attack. 

During much of the Fifties Gillespie was at loose 
ends and recorded with several other individualistic 


jazz stars, as a rule in loosely organized blowing 
session. Tour de Force, Verve 8212, on which he 
plays with two other trumpeters, Roy Eldridge and 
Harry Edison, is unusual in that all three play with 
mutes in a subdued, tight, chamberish fashion over 
a swinging rhythm, an approach which keeps the 
extremist tendencies of all three within bounds. 
This is not the case on two disks featuring Gillespie 
and Eldridge, Trumpet Battle, Verve 8109, and 
The Trumpet Kings, Verve 8110, both of which 
have some bright moments which are lost in taste- 
less, squealing exchanges in pieces which are 
dragged out to tedious lengths. 

Gillespie has also tangled with several saxo- 
phones. He plays with both spirit and sensitivity 
with Stan Getz on Diz and Getz, Verve 8141; sum- 
mons all his virtuosity to meet the challenge of 
Getz and Sonny Stitt on For Musicians Only, Verve 
8198; is neat but empty in the company of Getz, 
Coleman Hawkins and Paul Gonsalves on Sittin' 
In, Verve 8225; and on one side of Dizzy Gillespie 
Duets with Sonny Rollins and Sonny Stitt, Verve 
8260, joins with Stitt and pianist Ray Bryant to 
play with imaginative fluency and a happy scorn 
for cliches on two overlong slow pieces. On the 
other side of this disk neither Gillespie nor Rollins 
can find anything of interest to do. 

For a battle between two different schools of jazz, 
Hot vs Cool, MGM 3286, Gillespie was called on to 
lead the cool forces against Jimmy McPartland's 
hot men. The ham in Gillespie (he, George Shear- 
ing, Gerry Mulligan and Stan Kenton are unique 
among modern jazzmen in that they have a definite, 
if sometimes misguided, feeling for showmanship) 
responds readily to such gimmicked situations and 
he pleads the cool cause with great eloquence. 

Single selections by Gillespie's early groups are 
included in Jazz, Vol. 11, Folkways 2811, Modern 
Jazz Hall of Fame, Design 29, The Jazz Makers, 

The Records 117 

Columbia CL 1036, Roost Fifth Anniversary 
Album, Roost 1201 (the identical selection is in the 
Columbia collection), and Operation Jazz, Roost 
OJ1. Three selections by his mid-Fifties big band 
are in Here Come the Swingin* Big Bands, Verve 
8207, one in The Playboy Jazz Allstars, Playboy 
1957, and one in The Anatomy of Improvisation, 
Verve 8230, along with a Gillespie-Eldridge chal- 
lenge piece. A selection from the Hot vs Cool bat- 
tle is in Forty-Eight Stars of American Jazz, MGM 

John Gilmore, A young tenor saxophonist from 
Chicago with an economical style and a relatively 
good tone but little distinctiveness pairs off with 
another adequate tenor, Cliff Jordan, on Blowing 
in From Chicago, Blue Note 1549. 

Jimmy Giuffre. Giuffre's jazz career in the decade 
from the late Forties to the late Fifties has followed 
an unusual pattern. He first came to more than 
casual notice when he wrote Four Brothers which, 
when it was picked up by Woody Herman's band 
(which subsequently picked up Giuffre, too), estab- 
lished a saxophone voicing that became extremely 
popular. Although Giuffre has never been a partic- 
ularly exciting saxophonist (he plays tenor and 
baritone), he had a lithe, swinging manner on tenor 
in the early Fifties when he was free-lancing on the 
West Coast and playing at the Lighthouse at 
Hermosa Beach. 

As the years have gone by, however, Giuffre's 
composing and playing have become steadily more 
introverted his writing drawing farther and far- 
ther away from jazz and his playing growing stiff 
and muffled. As he withdrew, he found himself the 
subject of enthusiastic avant garde acclaim but as 
he continued to secede farther and farther from 
the jazz world even this acclaim began to fade. 


There are suggestions of the earlier, outgoing 
Giuffre in his writing and playing on Jazz Com- 
poser's Workshop, Savoy 12045, and even in two of 
his earlier experimental disks, Jimmy Giuffre, Capi- 
tol T 549, and Tangents in Jazz, Capitol T 634. On 
the latter he explores his theory of the non-pulsat- 
ing beat the avoidance of the steady pounding of 
a rhythm section by getting rid of the sounded 
beat. In this case, the lack of an explicit beat proves 
to be no deterrent to soundly swinging perform- 
ances (he uses a drummer as an ensemble rather 
than a rhythm performer) but in his next phase it 
contributed to a lack of movement that was often 
deadening. The phase opens with Giuffre's con- 
centration on the lower register of the clarinet in a 
breathy manner that is explored thoroughly on 
The Jimmy Giuffre Clarinet, Atlantic 1238, from 
an unaccompanied solo to support by a nine-piece 
group. The first of two trios Giuffre, Jim Hall, 
guitar, Ralph Pena, bass is heard in The Jimmy 
Giuffre Three, Atlantic 1254, in which there are 
what might be termed jazz breaks in the selections 
although there is little jazz feeling about them in 
general. Trat/lin* Light, Atlantic 1282, is by a later 
version of the trio in which Bob Brookmeyer's 
valve trombone replaces Pena's bass. There are 
times on this disk when Brookmeyer's basic, rugged 
style and Giuffre's apparent fancy for the basic folk 
roots of jazz join promisingly but much of their 
playing boils down to monotonous, tuneless jigs. 
This same brooding drone is much in evidence in 
Giuffre's arrangements, for a nine-piece group, of 
the score of The Music Man, Atlantic 1276. 

Betty Glamann. Miss Glamann is a harpist who 
can trip along lightly and pleasantly. But the jazz 
qualities of Swinging on a Harp, Mercury 20169, 
are contributed mainly by Eddie Costa's vibes and 
on The Smith-Glamann Quintet Bethlehem 22, by 
Barry Galbraith's guitar. 

The Records 119 

Johnny Glasel. A promising young trumpeter who 
shifted from traditional to modern jazz between the 
late Forties and early Fifties is disappointingly un- 
imaginative and slapdash on Jazz Session, ABC- 
Paramount 165, on which he hits a sort of middle 

Tyree Glenn. The first inheritor of Tricky Sam 
Nanton's wah-wah trombone chores in the Elling- 
ton band has subsequently become one of the 
pioneers on the polite jazz circuit. Glenn's plunger 
mute tricks can quickly be carried too far (and too 
often). He is more effective when he is playing his 
light and lissome vibraphone. Tyree Glenn at the 
Embers, Roulette 25009, is raised from the routine 
by the presence of trumpeter Shorty Baker, playing 
delicate muted figures. Tyree Glenn at the Round 
Table, Roulette 25050, is emptier because of 
Baker's absence. Neither disk makes any use at all 
of the presence of Mary Osborne, an excellent 

Sanford Gold. Some pleasant exercises in simplified 
Tatum make up pianist Gold's Piano d'Or, Prestige 

Lex Golden. Golden is a Hollywood studio trum- 
peter, capable if undistinctive, who has put to- 
gether a light, brightly played set by an effortlessly 
swinging octet on Lex Golden Octet in Hi-Fi, Su- 
perior 101. 

Benny Golson. Golson first began to attract atten- 
tion when he was in the saxophone section of 
Dizzy Gillespie's mid-Fifties band, less for his play- 
ing than for his writing. He quickly joined the 
small group of modern jazzmen who have shown 
themselves capable of striking and memorable mel- 
odic creation (Thelonious Monk, Horace Silver, 


John Lewis, Randy Weston and Golson) and many 
of his pieces have quickly achieved the status of 
jazz standards I Remember Clifford, Whisper Not, 
Stablemates and, most recently, Blues March. Once 
he became known as a composer it also became ap- 
parent that he was a performer of great charm, 
playing with much of the soft, warm tone of Lucky 
Thompson and spinning out lithe, elastic lines 
sprinkled with lifting quirks and stabs which 
create an intense feeling of movement. During 
1958 he began to be attracted away from this to a 
hard, busy style that draws on both Johnny Griffin 
and John Coltrane. 

Both The Modern Touch, Riverside 12-256, and 
New York Scene, Contemporary 3552, were, for- 
tunately, made before he began to tamper with his 
style. The first disk includes three of his composi- 
tions, at least one of which (Out of the Past) ranks 
with his best work. On the Contemporary disk there 
are four of his pieces, including Whisper Not. He 
plays with a quintet and a nine-piece band on the 
last disk. In both groups it is Golson and trum- 
peter Art Farmer who create the interest Farmer 
playing with broad authority no matter what the 
fare at hand while Golson's warm, dark lines flare 
and glide through all the pieces. 

Paul Gonsalves. After brief spells with Count 
Basic's and Dizzy Gillespie's big bands, Gonsalves, 
a tenor saxophonist, joined Duke Ellington in 1950 
and since then has been one of Ellington's most 
consistently featured and least interesting soloists. 
With Ellington his solos are inclined to be pale 
and formless and (since his 27 choruses on Diminu- 
endo and Crescendo in Blue at Newport coincided 
with an outbreak of dancing in the aisles) tediously 
long. On his own and surrounded by a quartet that 
is largely from the Ellington band (including trum- 
peter Clark Terry in excellent form) on Cooking 

The Records 121 

Argo 626, Gonsalves is freer, less strained than in 
his Ellington appearances but on Sittin' In, Verve 
8225, in the vaunted company of Dizzy Gillespie, 
Stan Getz and Coleman Hawkins, he pushes too 

Bob Gordon. An unusually limber and swinging 
baritone saxophonist who was killed in an auto- 
mobile accident in 1955 at the age of 27, Gordon 
has a single propulsive selection in Jazz West 
Coast, World Pacific JWC 500. 

Dexter Gordon. One of the most direct followers 
of Lester Young, Gordon played his tenor saxo- 
phone in Lionel Hampton's and Billy Eckstine's 
bands in the early and mid-Forties and had his own 
groups later in that decade. During the Fifties he 
has been on the West Coast, playing sporadically. 
Dexter Rides Again, Savoy 12130, drawn from 
his period as a leader of small groups in the late 
Forties, places him with three groups a crisp, 
punching bop team which includes Bud Powell 
and Max Roach, a slogging group with baritone 
saxophonist Leo Parker, and a quartet in which 
Gordon is backed by only a rhythm section. 
Throughout the disk, Gordon mixes a smooth ver- 
sion of the Young style with a yearning to honk. On 
a much later disk, Dexter Blows Hot and Cool, 
Dootone 207, this same erratic quality again turns 
up although there are moments when he sails off 
with soaring freedom. On Daddy Plays the Horn> 
Bethlehem 36, he is banal and plodding while West 
Coast Jazz Concert, Regent 6049, is a badly re- 
corded, dull battle with Wardell Gray. 

Joe Gordon. Although Gordon has traces of Dizzy 
Gillespie's fleetness and Roy Eldridge's crackling 
attack, he lacks their singing qualities and, 
stretched out over both sides of Introducing Joe 


Gordon, EmArcy 36025, he reveals himself as a 
grating, limited trumpeter. 

John Graas. After training for symphony work on 
the French horn, Graas was weaned to jazz, first 
through Claude ThornhiU's band and finally with 
Stan Kenton. He has done studio work in Cali- 
fornia during the Fifties and has recorded as the 
leader of a variety of small groups. His arrange- 
ments have much of the texture of the Miles Davis 
nine-piece group of 1948 but they are couched in 
terms that reflect the arranging style of Shorty 
Rogers. His writing tends to be very much of a 
piece a heavy foundation with a frou-frou surface 
and while there is occasionally a gruff charm 
about his French horn solos, what interest there is 
in his performances usually comes from the solos 
of his sidemen. Jazz Lab I, Decca 8343, Jazz Lab 2, 
Decca 8478, and John Graas French Horn, Kapp 
1046, are relatively unrelieved sampling of Graas' 
approach. The saxophones of Art Pepper and Bob 
Cooper help to enliven Jazzmantics, Decca 8677, 
Pepper saves Coup de Graas, EmArcy 36117, from 
bumbling into straight monotony, Gerry Mulligan 
makes three selections on Jazz Studio 3, Decca 8104, 
worth hearing, and Herb Getter's alto saxophone 
helps to lift Jazz Studio 2, Decca 8079. One selec- 
tion by Graas is included in The Encyclopedia of 
Jazz on Records, Vol. 4, Decca 8401. 

Bob Graf. Grafs approach to the tenor saxophone 
has something of Lester Young's early willowiness 
mixed with an overly relaxed, noncommittal quality 
which dilutes his basic warmth. The four far too 
long selections on The Bob Graf Sessions, Delmar 
401, tend to drool off to vague fuzziness. 

Kenny Graham. Graham is an individualistic Eng- 
lish arranger who is fond of blending his tenor 

The Records 123 

saxophone with flute and xylophone, a device he 
uses with interesting and sometimes eerie effects in 
transcribing the slithery rhythms of the New York 
street musician, Moondog, on Moondog and Suncat 
Suites, MGM 3544. It is much less effective on the 
routine material his Afro-Cubists play on two selec- 
tions on Jazz Brittania, MGM 3472. 

Norman Granz. Granz is included here not, of 
course, as an instrumentalist he is the impresario 
of the Jazz at the Philharmonic troupes which have 
been touring since the middle Forties but rather 
as the instigator of a form of stereotyped jam ses- 
sion featured at his concerts and concocted for his 
records. Although Granz consistently uses good 
jazzmen on these sessions, their playing is usually 
trivial, distorted by showboating and the fanning 
of false flames. Add to this the inordinate length 
of each performance (one LP side is a minimum 
Stompin' at the Savoy on Jam Session #6, Verve 
8054, goes on for two grinding sides) and, despite 
occasional good moments, this becomes an exceed- 
ingly tiresome and frustrating (considering the po- 
tential of the musicians involved) series of disks. 

Looking first on the brighter side: Jam Session 
#2, Verve 8050, offers a slow and sinuous Funky 
Blues with Johnny Hodges, Charlie Parker and 
Benny Carter which holds up well (another Funky 
Blues by a different group on Jam Session Jfr9, 
Verve 8196, is interminable) and The Slow Blues 
on The JATP All-Stars at the Opera House, Verve 
8267, is consistently warm and throbbing until 
Illinois Jacquet goes into his windup. Otherwise 
this generally unedifying set of disks is made up of 
Jam Session #1, Verve 8049 (bright spots of 
Hodges and Carter), Jam Session #3, Verve 8051 
(good for a large part of the way but it eventually 
palls), Jam Session #4, Verve 8052 (again almost a 
success but drowned in its length), Jam Session 


Verve 8053, Jam Session #7, Verve 8062, Jam Ses- 
sion $8, Verve 8094, and Midnight at Carnegie 
Hall, Verve 8189-2, a particularly horrible example. 
There are samples of the same by Granz's troupe in 
Jazz at the Hollywood Bowl, Verve 8231-2, and A 
Potpourri of Jazz, Verve 2032. 

Wardell Gray. Among the numerous followers of 
Lester Young in the Forties, Gray was one who used 
the style with particular grace and ease. Toward the 
end of the 1940s traces of Charlie Parker's influence 
crept into his playing but Young remained the 
dominant strain. During the Forties Gray was with 
the bands of Earl Hines, Billy Eckstine, Benny 
Carter, Count Basic and Benny Goodman. In the 
Fifties, when he concentrated on small group work 
and was frequently featured in tenor battles with 
Sonny Stitt and Dexter Gordon, his tone hardened 
and coarsened. He was shot to death under mysteri- 
ous circumstances near Las Vegas in 1957. 

Two disks, Wardell Gray Memorial, Vol. 1 and 
Vol. 2, Prestige 7008 and 7009, preserve the best 
period of Gray's playing. In some 1949 selections 
on Vol. 1 he plays in an outgoing, smoothly swing- 
ing style that is more reminiscent of Benny Carter 
than it is of either Young or Parker. This supple- 
ness is still present in some 1950 pieces but by 
1953, playing in rather constricting circumstances 
with a group which includes Teddy Charles, his 
tone is turning harsh and his lines have lost their 
litheness. Vol. 2 includes some 1951 performances 
in which Gray plays with handsome assurance, tech- 
nique and style but the group with him contains 
too many undeveloped talents one is trumpeter 
Art Farmer, playing his first record date. The disk 
also includes a spotty 1950 session recorded in a 
night club. Both West Coast Jazz Concert, Regent 
6049, and Jazz Concert West Coast, Savoy 12012, 
are badly recorded, tediously lengthy transcriptions 

The Records 125 

as indicated. Gray makes three minor contributions 
to Tenors, Anyone?, Dawn 1126. 

Bennie Green. In a day when jazz trombonists are 
apt to be either fidgety runners o scales or mooing 
products of the Kenton mill, Green stands out as a 
lusty-voiced swinger who can also make his horn 
sing with warmth and sweetness. He was with Earl 
Hines' band and Charlie Ventura's small group in 
the Forties, returned to Hines in the early Fifties 
and has since had groups of his own. 

Six selections made by Green in 1953 and 1954 
make up one side of Blow Your Horn, Decca 8176 
(shared with Paul Quinichette). With both groups 
Green's trombone is fluently soaring but the 1954 
group (with Billy Root playing a roaring tenor 
saxophone) is more rhythmically alert than its 1953 
counterpart. A group which Green led in 1955, 
with Charlie Rouse in place of Root, plays a superb 
set on Bennie Green Blows His Horn, Prestige 
7052, as Green shows off all his facets and Rouse, 
digging into his solos with sinew and strength, and 
Cliff Smalls, a vigorous, two-handed pianist who 
has been associated with Green on most of his 
records, complement the trombonist's moods ex- 
cellently. A more recent disk, Back on the Scene, 
Blue Note 1587, teams him once more with Rouse 
in some interestingly edgy ensembles and solos 
which run from a slow, flamboyant ballad to a 
swirling, shouting fast blues. Billy Root returns on 
Soul Stirrin', Blue Note 1599, a disk which is high- 
lighted by a furiously swinging We Wanna Cook 
(a variant of an earlier Green opus, We Wanna 
Blow) on which Green punches out a long, stirring 
solo that is a model of neat, compact playing which 
generates tremendous force. When he descends into 
some impressively dark explorations of the nether 
regions of the blues, he shifts to a rough-edged, 
sweeping style that is extremely effective. 


Green is in good but not exceptional form on 
Walking Prestige 7049, but the point of interest on 
this disk is the quartet which accompanies him 
an excellent but almost completely neglected group 
led by drummer Bill English with Eric Dixon, 
tenor saxophone, Lloyd Mayers, piano, and Sonny 
Wellesley, bass. On Bennie Green, Prestige 7041, 
his once light and fluid tone has turned heavy and 
he sounds tired in his long solos. He does nothing 
to raise the undistinguished level of Jazz Studio 1, 
Decca 8058. Backed by the inevitable strings in a 
1952 session which takes up one side of Benny 
Green and Jay and Kai Quintet, Prestige 7030, he 
plays four ballads with a big, fat, mocking tone 
that makes the strings sound even more pale than 
they normally would. Green has one selection in 
The Encyclopedia of Jazz on Records, Vol. 4, Decca 

Urbie Green. Although Urbie Green's trombone 
first made itself widely felt in the two years (1950- 
52) that he spent in the modishly modern surround- 
ings of Woody Herman's band, his earlier training 
had been in the Swing Era styles of the bands of 
Tommy Reynolds, Jan Savitt, Frankie Carle and 
Gene Krupa. After leaving Herman, he has gravi- 
tated back to that more traditional side of jazz. He 
is, however, an unusually flexible jazzman who can 
play well in almost any style. He is smooth and 
urbane on Blues and Other Shades of Green, ABC- 
Paramount 101, a very relaxed set with crisp piano 
work by Dave McKenna. With trumpet, two wood- 
winds and rhythm, Green is subdued, moody and 
a shade cool on Urbie, Bethlehem 14. All About 
Urbie Green and His Big Band, ABC-Paramount 
137, is much less preposterous than its title agree- 
ably unpretentious and danceable big band ar- 
rangements by Johnny Carisi. Let's Face the Music 
and Dance, Victor LPM 1667, and Jimmy McHugh 

The Records 127 

in Hi-Fi, Victor LPM 1741, are further Green big 
band sets in a smooth, traditional swing style. 
Green duets with Lou McGarity and with Billy 
Butterfield in two selections on The Mellow Moods 
of Jazz, Victor LPM 1365. 

Max Gregor. Gregor's easygoing little German 
jump group features a saxophonist in the prelimin- 
ary stages of honkery in a single selection on "Das" 
Is Jazz!, Decca 8229. 

Johnny Griffin. Schooled in the Lionel Hampton 
Fly in' Home seminary of tenor saxophonery, Griffin 
has developed a billowing, persistently impatient 
manner of playing since getting away from Hamp- 
ton, adding a bursting urgency to a Lester Young 
foundation. He has two prime faults a high pres- 
sure lack of shading and the urge to stay on too 
long which make Chicago Calling, Blue Note 
1533, A Blowing Session, Blue Note 1559, and The 
Congregation, Blue Note 1580, monotonous. 
Johnny Griffin Quartet, Argo 624, his first record- 
ings on his own, show his style already taking defi- 
nite shape. Way Out, Riverside 12-274, gives him 
an opportunity to show a less volatile side which is 
not especially stimulating. 

Gigi Gryce, An alto saxophonist and composer- 
arranger, Gryce's recorded work has centered 
largely around his Jazz Lab Quintet, a group which 
he led jointly with trumpeter Donald Byrd in the 
Middle Fifties. Before this Gryce had led a group 
with Art Farmer and had spent half a year with 
Lionel Hampton's band although his career as a 
band leader goes back to 1946 when he led a 23- 
piece group in his native Hartford, a band in which 
Horace Silver played piano. Gryce and Byrd have 
developed quite a few interesting starting points 
for performances by their Quintet but the pieces 


almost always fall apart in the chilly or perfunctory 
soloing. This is the basis of the failure of Gigi 
Gryce, Riverside 12-229, Jazz Lab, Jubilee 1059, 
and the Quintet's portion of Gigi Gryce, Donald 
Byrd and Cecil Taylor at Newport, Verve 8238. On 
several selections on Jazz Lab, Columbia CL 998, 
the quintet is expanded to an orchestra and there 
is some attempt to provide the soloists with sup- 
port. This helps a bit but not enough to remove the 
cold, stone-faced quality from the solos of Gryce 
and Byrd. The Quintet has its best moments on 
Modern Jazz Perspective, Columbia CL 1058, an 
attempt to trace the development of some modern 
jazz styles. It swings more explicitly and infec- 
tiously than it has at other times and Gryce's alto 
has a positive projection that is missing in other 
performances. Gryce plays a single selection on 
Know Your Jazz, Vol. 1, ABC-Paramount 115, and 
the group plays single pieces on Blues for Tomor- 
row, Riverside 12-243, Riverside Drive, Riverside 
12-267, and Jazz Omnibus, Columbia CL 1020. 

Vince Guaraldi. Guaraldi is a remarkable pianist 
who can, among other worthy abilities, play in a 
seemingly ethereal style that still conveys a rugged, 
down-to-earth feeling. On other occasions he shows 
a coaxingly swinging manner or mulls broodingly 
through a ballad. There is a warm, imaginative 
mixture of sophistication, basic blues, romanticism 
and a stimulating touch of wry in Vince Guaraldi 
Trio, Fantasy 3225, and A Flower Is a Lovesome 
Thing, Fantasy 3257, on which he has the practi- 
cally peerless support of Eddie Duran's light-toned, 
delicately rhythmic guitar and Dean Reilly's bass. 
Guaraldi is the digging, rough-hewn pianist in two 
selections on Modern Music from San Francisco, 
Fantasy 3213, as he leads a quartet to which Jerry 
Dodgion contributes some effortless, driving alto 
saxophone solos. 

The Records 129 

Lars Gullin. Gullin is the only foreign jazz mu- 
sician who has ever won one of Down Beat's popu- 
larity polls. He shot up meteorically during the 
mid-Fifties but even as he was gaining international 
fame his baritone saxophone work began to lose 
the firmness and muscularity that had brought him 
to attention. His tone is heavy but fluent on Lars 
Gullin, EmArcy 36012, but on two later disks, Bari- 
tone Sax, Atlantic 1246, and Lars Gullin Swings, 
East-West 4003, much of his playing has an almost 
leaden quality. Lars Gullin with the Moretone 
Singers, EmArcy 36059, is a tiresome trifle with a 
singing group. 

Al Haig. Haig was one of the most ubiquitous 
pianists of the emergent bop period of the middle 
and late Forties and was, in effect, the house pianist 
for the leading boppers. In the Fifties, however, he 
has chosen to stay away from the jazz limelight and 
has recorded very infrequently. One of these rare 
occasions produced Jazz Will o' the Wisp, Counter- 
point 551, on which he shows his characteristic 
delicacy, lyricism and clean, unembellished attack. 
A single sample of his style is included on Pianists 
Galore, World Pacific JWC 506. 

Corky Hale. Miss Hale plays flute, harp and piano 
which means she has two strikes on her in a jazz 
context. She plays a pleasant piano, swings gently 
on the harp, particularly when she is backing an- 
other soloist, but has the common jazz trouble with 
the flute. All this happens on Corky Hale, GNP 17, 
and there are a few more samples on Escape, GNP 

Jim Hall. First heard playing a flowing, Charlie 
Christian-influenced guitar as part of the original 
Chico Hamilton Quintet and later going folksy 
with the Jimmy GiuflEre Three, Hall plays a low- 


keyed, pleasant but scarcely memorable set of solos 
with a rhythm section on Jazz Guitar, World 
Pacific 1227. He has one selection in Jazz West 
Coast, Vol. 3, World Pacific JWC 507. 

Bengt Hallberg. This young Swedish pianist has 
evolved from a Teddy Wilson style to a crisp, flow- 
ing version of the modern linear manner. On his 
only American LP solo collection, Bengt Hallberg, 
Epic 3375, he leans toward the Wilsonian influence 
but he exhibits warm flashes of his more modern 
side on his contributions to Swedes from Jazzville, 
Epic 3309. 

Lenny Hambro. Hambro is known best as the 
leader of the saxophone section of the late Fifties 
reincarnation of the Glenn Miller band led by Ray 
McKinley. He plays his alto with a light, sweeping 
style that moves along gracefully and, on ballads, 
has a sweet, singing tone that is, in essence, a 
trimmed down version of Johnny Hodges* ballad 
technique. On The Nature of Things, Epic 3361, 
he is backed by a quintet which includes the de- 
lightfully down-to-earth pianist, Eddie Costa. 

Chico Hamilton* Hamilton, an unostentatious but 
firmly swinging drummer, is the very opposite of 
those flamboyant gymnasts who have made the 
drum solo one of the deadliest bores in jazz. When 
he does solo, the effect is usually hush-inducing as 
he carefully builds a series of subdued patterns 
which, without resorting to obvious devices, can 
achieve a powerful cumulative effect. Similarly his 
quintet has a subdued sound, almost a salon ap- 
proach, but Hamilton propels it with a compel- 
lingly airy rhythm. 

He had been around for quite a while before the 
spotlight finally found him drumming with the 
original Gerry Mulligan Quartet in 1952. He was 

The Records 131 

with Lionel Hampton briefly in 1940 and from 
then until 1948 he shuttled among various groups. 
In 1948 he joined Lena Home's entourage and 
stayed with her until he took up with Mulligan and 
the prominent phase of his career began. He re- 
turned to Miss Home in 1954 and part of 1955. 
This was the year when he formed his quintet with 
Carson Smith, bass, Jim Hall, guitar, Fred Katz, 
cello, and Buddy Collette on flute and various 
reeds. The group's first disk, Chico Hamilton Quin- 
tet, World Pacific 1209, was a provocative and 
promising debut which flowered on its next re- 
lease, The Chico Hamilton Quintet in Hi-Fi, 
World Pacific 1216 a varied bag of bits and pieces 
which often have a delicate charm even when they 
do not swing much but which, more often than not, 
develop a light, fleeting pulse that easily covers a 
slight tendency to be precious. Katz's cello is more 
definitely a part of the jazz passages on this disk 
than it was on the first one but his presence is 
valuable largely for the tonal colorations of his 
instrument rather than for his jazz contributions. 
Hall's guitar is unusually rhythmic and flowing and 
the best pieces in the set are those on which he cuts 

In 1957 Collette and Hall were replaced by Paul 
Horn and John Pisano, respectively, and the new 
quintet promptly reached a peak toward which the 
earlier group had been building. This occurs on 
Sweet Smell of Success, Decca 8614, one side of 
which is made up of pieces played by the Quintet 
on the sound track of the film, Sweet Smell of Suc- 
cess; the other, a long extemporized "concerto" de- 
veloped from these same themes. The particular 
high point is one of these themes, Goodbye Baby, 
a beautifully polished work in which Katz gives a 
fascinating demonstration of the moving way in 
which the natural mournfulness of the cello's tone 
can evoke the blues. Another set by the same group, 


Chico Hamilton, World Pacific 1225, is less satis- 
fying although Pisano, Smith and Hamilton hold 
up their ends well. On South Pacific in Hi-Fi, 
World Pacific 1238, the Quintet turns frightfully 
genteel and decorous and it is buried under a string 
section on With Strings Attached, Warner Brothers 

Before organizing his Quintet, Hamilton made 
some unusual recordings with a trio (himself, 
George Duvivier, a magnificent bassist, and either 
Howard Roberts or Jim Hall, guitar) Chico 
Hamilton Trio, World Pacific 1220 which fre- 
quently develops absorbing interplay between the 
three instruments. Another disk attributed to a 
Chico Hamilton Trio Introducing Freddie Gam- 
brell is actually a showcase for Gambrell, a pian- 
ist (q.v.)- 

The Quintet has two selections in Jazz Swings 
Broadway, World Pacific 404, the Quintet and the 
trio each have one number in The Blues, World 
Pacific JWC 502, the Quintet turns up once in 
Jazz West Coast, Vol. 2, World Pacific JWC 501, 
and is heard behind John Carradine's reading of a 
Lawrence Lipton poem in Jazz Canto, World 
Pacific 1244. Hamilton drums behind Tony Ben- 
nett on three numbers in The Beat of My Heart, 
Columbia CL 1079, has a single selection in Drums 
on Fire, World Pacific 1247, and introduces one 
Freddie Gambrell selection in Jazz West Coast, VoL 
4, World Pacific JWC 510. 

Jimmy Hamilton. When Jimmy Hamilton joined 
Duke Ellington's band to take over Barney Bigard's 
clarinet chair, he replaced Bigard's lush, blue-tinted 
tone with a style based on cool propriety and for- 
mality. Hamilton's air of legitimacy has never ade- 
quately filled the gap in the overall Ellington 
sound left by Bigard (Russell Procope comes closest 
to doing this when he is given a clarinet solo). Re- 

The Records 133 

moved from the Ellington band, however, Hamil- 
ton shows greater range and warmth in playing 
with various small groups on Accent on Clarinet, 
Urania 1204, and Clarinet in Hi-Fi, Urania 1208. 
In a pair of selections on the latter he is with an 
exceptionally good group (which includes Lucky 
Thompson and Ernie Royal) and shows himself to 
be an imaginative writer. 

Johnny Hamlin. Hamlin, an accordionist, leads a 
gentle, monotoned group which rarely raises its 
collective voice as it pads discreetly through Polka 
Dots, Victor LPM 1379, and Powder Puff, Victor 
LPM 1565. 

Ken Hanna. Hanna, a onetime Stan Kenton ar- 
ranger and trumpeter, leads a slick, clean, big 
studio band through routine arrangements on Jazz 
for Dancers, Capitol T 6512. 

Bob Hardaway. Hardaway plays a light, bouncing 
tenor saxophone with a slightly Getzian sound on 
ballads as well as a crisp, well-formed uptempo 
style with a sinuous West Coast group on Bob 
Hardaway, Rep 202. 

Jo Harnell. On Piano Inventions, Jubilee 1015, 
Harnell neatly skirts the false lures of classical bor- 
rowings and cocktail fluff in a program of percep- 
tive, well-tempered performances that seem more 
concerned with swinging lightly than with "raising 
the level" of jazz. 

Joe Harriott. This English alto saxophonist fol- 
lows a simplified version of the Charlie Parker path 
without adding anything of his own in two selec- 
tions by his quartet on Jazz Erittania, MGM 3472. 


Art Harris. As a solo pianist on Jazz Goes to Post- 
graduate School, Kapp 1015, Harris mixes a me- 
lange of classical influences, some Tatum emulation 
and a strong, striding beat which somehow comes 
out as stiff-rhythmed clangor. But as co-leader with 
bassoonist Mitch Leigh of the Harris-Leigh Baro- 
que Band and Brass Choir on Jazz 1755, Kapp 
1011, he produces amusing interpretations of the 
18th Century in jazz terms. 

Bill Harris (guitar). From the anonymity of accom- 
panist to a rhythm and blues vocal group, the 
Clovers, Harris unexpectedly turned up early in 
1957 on Bill Harris, EmArcy 36097, finger-plucking 
jazz on an unamplified Spanish guitar and without 
accompaniment. At the time, this was quite a shock 
(Charlie Byrd had not yet made his recording debut 
then) because all jazz guitarists had been playing 
amplified guitars, using a plectrum and a single 
string style, since Charlie Christian set the modern 
pattern some 17 years earlier. Although he leans 
toward too much "prettiness" on this disk, it in- 
cludes several selections which suggest that Harris 
has a well-based jazz talent, a suggestion that is not 
amplified by The Harris Touch, EmArcy 36113, on 
which he is burdened with a clomping rhythm sec- 
tion and uses an electric guitar in an undistin- 
guished fashion on many selections. 

Bill Harris (trombone). Harris* fat, blowsy, raucous 
trombone tone ranges with great effectiveness from 
soul-searing blues to breathless excitement and even 
lusty humor. He was featured with Woody Her- 
man's various bands through the middle and late 
Forties and sporadically during the Fifties. The 
various shades of Harris are spotlighted on Bill 
Harris and Friends, Fantasy 3263, which includes 
deadpan comedy (Just One More Chance) and a 
romping uptempo attack on Crazy Rhythm on 

The Records 135 

which Harris projects an itchy excitement and 
tenor saxophonist Ben Webster prods and jabs "with 
furious abandon. On the other hand there are some 
slow ballads through which Harris gasps his way to- 
ward imminent expiration. His humorous smears 
help to brighten the generally flat performances 
that make up Saturday Night Swing Session, Coun- 
terpoint 549. He is backed by woodwinds on a 
single slow ballad on Cool and Quiet* Capitol 
T 371, and turns to the valve trombone, which he 
plays in a much smoother fashion than he nor- 
mally uses on slide trombone, in single selections in 
Advance Guard of the Forties, EmArcy 36016, and 
Boning Up on Bones, EmArcy 36083. 

Gene Harris. Our Love Is Here to Stay, Jubilee 
1005, is made up of routine performances by a 
pianist who shows more technical skill than feeling. 

Hampton Hawes. Hawes has become a facile pian- 
ist who jigs along in crisp, glib fashion at fast 
tempos and knows the path down into the blues. 
But there is a cool, impersonal surface on his work 
which seals off any suggestions of emotional in- 
volvement and makes one fast number sound like 
any other, the next blues like the last one. He seems 
to emerge from this shell most successfully when he 
is in stimulating company. Larry Bunker, swinging 
hard on vibraphone, provides this stimulation on 
Hawes' side of Piano: East/West, Prestige 7067 
(shared with Freddie Redd) and Hawes responds by 
digging in in strong, two-handed fashion. Hawes 
shows he can do it again in his two selections on 
Lighthouse at Laguna, Contemporary 3509, when 
Shelly Manne is at the drums to propel him, while 
on Mingus Three, Jubilee 1054, bassist Charlie 
Mingus pins Hawes down to some of the soundest, 
wannest playing he has recorded. 
Working with his own trio, however, Hawes is 


apt to be what Whitney Balliett has aptly termed 
a "chrome eater" a pianist who is clipped, hard, 
consistent, initially impressive but tiresome in 
quantity. This is the impression that is left by The 
Trio, Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, Contemporary 3505 and 
3515, Everybody Likes Hampton Hawes, Contem- 
porary 3523, by three disks produced at one sitting, 
All Night Session, Vol. 1-3, Contemporary 3545, 
3546 and 3547, and in his three selections on I Just 
Love Jazz Piano, Savoy 12100. Hawes has a single 
selection (the same one) in both Jazz West Coast, 
Vol. 2, World Pacific JWC 501, and Pianists 
Galore!, World Pacific JWC 506. 

Tubby Hayes. A rough-toned English tenor saxo- 
phonist who uses long, flowing lines, Hayes and his 
Quintet linger far too long over each piece on their 
side of Changing the Jazz at Buckingham Palace, 
Savoy 12111 (shared with Dizzy Reece), although 
pianist Harry South manages to sustain an earthy 
solo fairly well. 

Roy Haynes. Haynes' crisply rhythmic drumming for 
a long time brightened the accompaniment to 
Sarah Vaughan and was heard more recently in 
Thelonious Monk's Quintet but in his only LP ap- 
pearance as a leader, on half of Jazz Abroad, Em- 
Arcy 36083 (shared with Quincy Jones), the mo- 
mentum is provided largely by a pair of saxophon- 
ists, the American Sahib Shihab and Sweden's 
Bjarne Norem. Haynes is heard in one selection 
with Miss Vaughan on The Jazz Giants: Drum 
Role, EmArcy 36071. 

J. C. Heard. A late product of the Swing Era, 
drummer J. C. Heard has played with Teddy Wil- 
son, Count Basie, Duke Ellington, Benny Good- 
man, Woody Herman, Cab Galloway and has 
toured with Jazz at the Philharmonic. After a 

The Records 137 

three-year stay from 1953 to 1956 in Japan and 
Australia, he returned to the United States and 
recorded This Is Me, J. C. Heard, Argo 633, with 
an octet built around four horns from the Basic 
band (Joe Newman, Benny Powell, Frank Wess, 
Charlie Fowlkes). What slight interest the disk has 
revolves around the shouting horns of the Basic 
men. Heard does his own cause little good by sing- 
ing some pieces. 

Neal Hefti. The swinging sense of the Basic band 
of the late Thirties has been carried into the Fifties 
most successfully in Neal Hefti's arrangements 
(significantly many of the latter-day Basie band's 
best pieces are Hefti creations). Hefti worked his 
way upstream as a trumpeter through a variety of 
big bands (Charlie Barnet, Charlie Spivak, Horace 
Heidt, Bobby Byrne) to a coming-of-musical-age 
with Woody Herman's hot and heady Herd of 
1944. During the Fifties he has devoted most of his 
time to free-lance arranging although occasionally 
he has put a band together for a brief run. 

The band he leads on Hefti Hot 'n' Hearty, Epic 
3187, has a smooth, uncluttered and moving 
rhythmic pulse over which Hefti has laid out a 
variety of pleasant lines. It amounts to big band 
jazz which is soundly rooted in the early Basie 
theory and expressed in terms which take advan- 
tage of newer jazz ideas without making a fetish of 
them. The Band with Young Ideas, Coral 57077, is 
in much the same light, bright, riff-studded vein 
although the repetitious similarity of many of 
Hefti's pieces builds some monotony. Hefti has 
frequently made use of vocal groups in combina- 
tion with a swinging band, a parlay that reaches its 
peak in Singin' Instrumental, Epic 3440, in which 
Hefti's band includes Charlie JBarnet, Billy Butter- 
field, Lou McGarity and Jimmie Crawford, and 
the material is some of the classics of the Swing Era. 


Pardon My Doo-Wah, Epic 3481, applies the same 
treatment to some Hefti originals created for Count 

Ernie Henry. When Henry died in 1957 at the age 
of 31 he was one of the more widely heralded mem- 
bers of Dizzy Gillespie's big band and was just 
coming into his own as an alto saxophonist of the 
hard-toned post-Parker school. His playing on Pre- 
senting Ernie Henry, Riverside 12-222, is forceful 
but monotonous. He warms up a bit on one side of 
Last Chorus, Riverside 12-266 (the other side is 
made up of excerpts from other Riverside records 
on which he played), but the melodic ballads which 
make up most of Seven Standards and a Blues, 
Riverside 12-248, are not particularly useful 
vehicles for his astringent attack. Henry has one 
selection in Jazz for Lovers, Riverside 12-244. 

Mort Herbert. A versatile bassist who has played 
under such varied leaders as Louis Armstrong, Don 
Elliott and Lester Lanin, Herbert leads a pair of 
adequate groups through some uneventful pieces 
on Night People, Savoy 12073. 

Woody Herman has led his band along a long and 
winding path for more than twenty years. The re- 
cordings he made between the middle Thirties and 
1944 are discussed in The Collector's Jazz: Tradi- 
tional and Swing. 1944 begins his shift into modern 
jazz when he moved out of his earlier status as the 
leader of a pretty good band to become the leader 
of one of the greatest big bands that jazz has 

During the fifteen years since he hit the heights 
with his First Herd, he has been the most consis- 
tently creative and capable band leader in jazz. 
His versatility, variety and excellent judgment have 
kept his bands on a generally consistent level while 

The Records 139 

such of his peers as Duke Ellington, Count Basie 
and Stan Kenton have fumbled, stumbled and 
clung desperately to withering formulas. The depth 
of Herman's resources is indicated by the fact that 
in the late Forties, when his contemporary of the 
Swing Era Benny Goodman had reached the ap- 
parent end of his creative career in jazz, Herman 
was just discovering new possibilities for himself 
as an alto saxophonist (like Goodman, he had been 
playing clarinet all through his earlier bandleading 

One of the greatest single disk collections of big 
band jazz is Herman's Bijou, Harmony 7013, 
played by his 1945 First Herd, a vital, zestful and 
colorful young band, enormously talented and 
brimming with new ideas. A 1946 Carnegie Hall 
concert which established the jazz supremacy of this 
band is reproduced on Carnegie Hall, 1946, MGM 
3043, but unfortunately inadequate recording robs 
the band of much of its brilliance. 

One of the earliest efforts at extended composi- 
tion in the newer jazz manner and one of the 
most successful is Ralph Burns' Summer Se- 
quence, the principle work in Summer Sequence, 
Harmony 7093, from which Herman evolved a jazz 
ballad style exemplified by Early Autumn. Both 
this selection and Four Brothers, one of Herman's 
greatest recordings, created by the Second Herd, 
are included in an excellent summation of the 
work of the three bands Herman led in the Forties 
and early Fifties, The Three Herds, Columbia CL 
592. Early Autumn turns up again in a set which is 
representative of the crisp vitality of the Herman 
band in 1948 and 1949, Woody Herman, Capitol 
T 324, and it is done for a third time, embellished 
with one of Herman's precise yet casual vocals, on 
Early Autumn, Verve 2030. This disk is one of 
three collections of recordings made by Herman in 
the early Fifties for his own record company, Mars. 


Early Autumn features Herman as a vocalist in 
such varied surroundings as a roaring calypso, bal- 
lads, a sort of hillbilly blues and a clever mono- 
logue based on cool jazz argot. Of the other two, 
Jazz the Utmost, Verve 8014, mixes full-bodied jazz 
and smooth ballads while Men from Mars, Verve 
8216, changes the formula to driving big band jazz, 
both reasonably pure and tinged with rock 'n' roll. 
One of the least exciting of Herman's bands, which 
comes chronologically just before the Mars edition, 
is heard on Hi Fi-ing Herd, MGM 3385. It shows 
touches of the expected crisp aggressiveness but 
sounds under wraps most of the time. 

By 1954 and 1955 Herman was back on a power 
drive much like that of his First Herd. The jazz 
imaginations of the mid-Fifties, however, do not 
spark as brilliantly as they did in the middle 
Forties on The Woody Herman Band!, Capitol T 
560, or Road Band!, Capitol T 658. Late in 1955 
Herman took an eight-piece group to Las Vegas. 
On Jackpot!^, Capitol T 478, this octet swings with 
the forthright vigor of a big band and gives Her- 
man an opportunity to play his clarinet with 
warmth and meaning instead of the brief, shrill 
passages he had normally been having with his full 
band. The 1957 edition of the Herd is adequate but 
unexciting on Featuring the Preacher, Verve 8255, 
despite the presence of Herman's veteran trom- 
bonist, Bill Harris. A band which he took to South 
America in 1958 is much more in the Herman mode 
on Herman's Heat and Puente's Beat, Everest 5010, 
but the New York studio band which plays on some 
selections on this disk and on all of The Herd Rides 
Again, Everest 5003, is not up to the classic Herman 
material it attempts to revive while the new ar- 
rangements provided for it are tired and routine. 

In addition to Early Autumn, Verve 2030, there 
are several other disks which feature Herman as a 
vocalist, usually without his band. Herman is an 

The Records 141 

old hand at giving a blues an ingratiating projec- 
tion and he is equally adept at ballads which he 
approaches not as a crooner but as a vocalist who 
feels most readily at home in the blues yet is 
cognizant of the difference between a blues and a 
ballad. This sensitivity and some good jazz backing 
by Ben Webster, Bill Harris, Jimmie Rowles and 
others make Songs for Hip Lovers, Verve 2069, one 
of the better sets of pop love songs. With Frank De 
Vol's orchestra backing him, Herman is smoother 
but still swinging on Love Is the Sweetest Thing 
Sometimes, Verve 2096, but he and Enroll Garner 
tend to go their separate ways in what is intended 
to be a joint effort, Music for Tired Lovers, Colum- 
bia CL 65 L His best vocal vein, the blues, is ex- 
plored with skill on Blues Groove, Capitol T 784. 

The Herman band is heard in three selections on 
Here Come the Swinging Bands, Verve 8207, twice 
on Hi-Fi Drums, Capitol T 926, and Dance to the 
Bands, Vol. 1, Capitol T 977, and once each in 
Dance to the Bands, Vol. 2, Capitol T 978, Forty- 
Eight Stars of American Jazz, MGM 3611, and 
$64,000 Jazz, Columbia CL 777. 

A group of Hermanites toss off a few loose head 
arrangements with shaky, shallow recording on The 
Herdsmen Play Paris, Fantasy 3201. 

Milt Hinton. Hinton's versatility and swinging 
strength have made him the busiest recording bassist 
in New York in the middle and late Fifties. He is 
at home with almost any type of jazz from tradi- 
tional (he has worked with Louis Armstrong) to 
experimental modernist. After a five year associa- 
tion with violinist Eddie South in the early Thirties, 
Hinton joined Cab Galloway's band in 1936 and 
stayed for fifteen years. On Milt Hinton, Bethle- 
hem 10, he works with a relaxed, lightly swinging 
quartet which includes Tony Scott, clarinet, Dick 
Katz, piano, and Osie Johnson, drums. With Scott 


and Katz to vary the proceedings, this is a more 
balanced set than is produced by most bassists. 
Hinton is also heard in a single showcase selection 
for himself on After Hours Jazz, Epic 3339, and he 
leads a group in a showcase piece for trombonist 
Tyree Glenn on Boning Up on Bones, EmArcy 

Jutta Hipp. Once one of Germany's best known 
pianists, Miss Hipp underwent an attack of in- 
defimtion after coming to the United States in 
1956. Her German recordings on "Das" Is Jazz! 
Decca 8229, with Hans Roller's group and on Cool 
Europe, MGM 3157, with her own group which is 
made up largely of Kollerites show her as a gently 
but propulsively flowing pianist working with en- 
sembles of a definitely Tristano texture. Her solo 
recordings since reaching this country Jutta Hipp 
at the Hickory House, Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, Blue Note 
1515 and 1516 lack her earlier conviction and 
direction. She is more at ease in the less demanding 
surroundings of Jutta Hipp with Zoot Sims, Blue 
Note 1530, as saxophonist Sims capably carries 
most of the burden. 

Bill Hitz. Music for This Swingin' Age, Decca 8392, 
attributed to Bill Hitz and his orchestra, is a big 
band display of the twelve-tone system devised by 
Lyle Murphy. Hitz, a skillful clarinetist who is one 
of Murphy's pupils, is only moderately interesting 
as a soloist but the band's performances are soundly 
based and pulsing. Murphy's ideas provide a fresh 
flavor without getting in the way of the essential 

Andre Hodeir. A series of "essais" written by 
Hodeir, a French composer and critic, are per- 
formed on American Jazzmen Play Andre Hodeir's 
Essais, Savoy 12104, by a group which includes 

The Records 143 

Eddie Costa (playing earthy, blues-bred vibra- 
phone), Idrees Sulieman, Donald Byrd, Frank 
Rehak, Hal McKusick and Bobby Jaspar. Hodeir 
hits a happy middle ground between the outright 
blowing session and the cramped quarters of the 
too tightly written work. He centers his attention 
on the ensemble, weaving his soloists in and out of 
a background written in skillfully idiomatic jazz 
terms. This, admittedly, is one of the older forms 
of jazz but it has been largely neglected by modern- 
ists. However, what is fresh and pulsing on this 
disk turns to arid over-intellectualization in an- 
other collection of Hodeir arrangements, The Paris 
Scene, Savoy 12113, played by the Jazz Group of 
Paris. Only the vibraphonist, Fats Sadi, manages 
to shake loose occasionally for a freshening romp. 
Still another set of Hodeir arrangements, brightly 
played in general, will be found on Kenny Clarke 
Plays Andre Hodeir, Epic 3376. 

Jean Hoffman. Miss Hoffman is an unostentatious, 
small-voiced singer and a pleasantly prodding, 
rhythmic pianist who is supported by bass and 
drums on Jean Hoffman Sings and Swings, Fantasy 

Joe Holiday. A tenor saxophonist who has bor- 
rowed extensively from a variety of postwar sources 
leads some small group performances that are 
fundamentally swing with a bop surface on Holi- 
day for Jazz, Decca 8487. 

Bill Holman. Holman contributed many arrange* 
ments to Stan Ken ton's book between 1952 and 
1956 and sat in his saxophone section for some of 
that time. Since then he has been a free lance 
arranger and part-time performer. On The Fabulous 
Bill Holman, Coral 57188, he appears in both 
capacities, leading and playing with a big band in 


a set of his own arrangements. He plays tenor 
saxophone in a warm-voiced manner that is essen- 
tially out of Lester Young although there are sur- 
face suggestions of Sonny Rollins. His writing, for 
the most part, is bright and serviceable. The disk 
includes one inexcusably long piece which is par- 
tially redeemed by a pleasantly kindling middle 

Elmo Hope. Hope, a pianist who follows the Bud 
Powell style, catches some of the surface of the 
master but misses the meat on Meditations, Prestige 
7010. He is buried in the dreary expanses of a six- 
man blowing session on Informal Jazz, Prestige 
7043, but he leads a cleanly designed quintet in 
capably played single selections on The Hard Swing, 
World Pacific JWC 508, and Have Blues, Will 
Travel, World Pacific JWC 509. 

Kenyon Hopkins. Hopkins, a composer for the 
films, uses an occasional jazz device in his ballet 
score, Rooms, Cadence 1019, but the work exists 
for the most part in a twilit world of its own. The 
performers include Teo Macero, Wendell Marshall 
and Clem Da Rosa. 

Paul Horn. Horn inherited the general utility 
chair in the Chico Hamilton Quintet from Buddy 
Collette, adding the piccolo to the already impres- 
sive arsenal of instruments that Collette had brought 
to the group. His first venture on his own, sup- 
ported by the Quintet plus a string quartet, piano 
and vibes, The House of Horn, Dot 3091, is more 
like salon music than jazz as Horn moves nimbly 
from flute to piccolo to clarinet to alto saxophone 
to alto flute. Only a darting, flaring piece for 
clarinet and string quartet and an amusingly slinky, 
blues-touched march on which Horn plays a re- 

The Records 145 

markably jazz-rooted piccolo get away from the 
overall pastoral, subdued feeling. On Plenty of 
Horn, Dot 9002, Horn is surrounded by more 
legitimately jazzworthy instruments and shows a 
smooth flowing style on alto saxophone in some 
small group selections although there is still a sense 
of preciosity about much of his playing and in his 
selection of material. 

Dick Hyman. Hyman is an unusually able pianist 
who has been producing in whatever style a situa- 
tion calls for for so long that he himself has become 
lost in the shuffle. He can play almost any kind of 
jazz at least reasonably well, often very well, but 
his versatility has made him a repository rather 
than a creator. He keeps the styles and mannerisms 
of others alive but he has developed no distinctive 
musical personality himself. 

Supported by bass and drums he plays both piano 
and organ with flowing competence and occasional 
sly witticisms on one side of The Swingin' Seasons, 
MGM 3613, and produces a varied and readily 
identifiable version of the score of Gigi, MGM 3642. 
With larger groups, he plays the amusingly descrip- 
tive set of selections Feedback Fugue, Flutter 
Waltz, Tweeter, Woofer, etc. which make up The 
Hi-Fi Suite, MGM 3493, while in giving a jazz 
treatment to the score of Oh Captain!, MGM 3650, 
he has the expert assistance of Coleman Hawkins, 
caught in an unusually mellow and relaxed mood, 
and a romping Tony Scott. Despite all their good 
efforts, however, Oh Captain! is not prime jazz 
material. Hyman has also made a number of 
deliberately dreary pop sets for MGM which have 
served their sole purpose they have sold well. 

Wes Ildten. Ilcken, a Dutch drummer who died 
in 1957, led a combo which was notable primarily 
for a trumpeter-saxophonist, Jerry van Rooyan. It 


plays a thin, watery version of modern jazz on 
Jazz Behind the Dikes, Epic 3270. 

International Youth Band. Marshall Brown, who 
came to notice when he put together the remark- 
able Farmingdale High School band, formed the 
International Youth Band with jazzmen gathered 
from all over Europe specifically for the Newport 
Jazz Festival of 1958. Newport 1958, Columbia CL 
1246, is a recorded report of the rather lumpy, un- 
formed performances the band gave at Newport, 
hindered by heavy-handed arrangements but bright- 
ened occasionally by such things as the stately blues 
written by Bill Russo for his Newport Suite. 

Chubby Jackson. The boisterous bassist who en- 
livened the Herman Herd of the middle Forties 
was out of jazz during much of the Fifties but, 
scenting an upbeat on the scene in 1957, he re- 
turned leading studio big bands studded with such 
familiar names as Bill Harris, Don Lamond and 
Cy Touff which seemed to be aiming at a revival 
of the old Herman fervor. It comes off pretty well 
on Chubby's Back, Argo 614, and in some sections 
of Chubby Takes Over, Everest 5009. This last disk 
is very spotty, however, and carries a numbing load 
of dead wood as does I'm Entitled to You, Argo 
625. Two samples of the mid-Forties Jackson will 
be found on Advance Guard of the Forties, Em- 
Arcy 36016, on which he leads a quietly swinging 
little group. A deplorable instance of his ill-ad- 
vised humor is preserved on Dixieland and New 
Orleans Jazz, Camden 446. 

Milt Jackson. The vibraphone was brought into 
jazz by Lionel Hampton who used it at walloping 
uptempos and for pretty, mood-setting effects. Later 
Red Norvo shifted to it from xylophone, playing it 
with swinging delicacy. But it was Milt Jackson 

The Records 147 

who first gave the vibes the earthy feeling that is 
expected of a true jazz instrument. He is a driving 
and well organized performer at fast tempos but his 
prime metier is in the slower speeds of blues and 
ballads. Jackson is, in fact, one of the merest hand- 
ful of modern jazzmen who can maintain the 
essentially balladic sense of a ballad while inter- 
preting it with a jazz quality. This ability is shown 
off extremely well on Ballads and Blues, Atlantic 
1242, on parts of which Lucky Thompson's very 
complementary tenor saxophone slithers through 
some equally adept solos (Thompson is one of that 
handful who can play ballads). There is more good 
Jackson-Thompson balladry on The Jazz Skyline, 
Savoy 12070, Jacksonville, Savoy 12080, and on 
Roll 'Em Bags, Savoy 12042 (which also includes 
some lumbering pieces by another less edifying 
Jackson group) as well as on Meet Milt, Savoy 
12061, on which the Jackson-Thompson works share 
space with a selection on which Jackson plays, a 
firm, gutty piano, one on which he sings dismally 
and a pair of half-baked works by a fourth Jackson 

Jackson's versatility is given a much better show- 
case on Soul Brothers, Atlantic 1279, on which he 
plays both piano and guitar as well as vibes. But 
this disk gets its cachet from the joining of Jackson 
with Ray Charles, two fellow conjurors in the 
darker, more basic shades of blue. They produce a 
minor masterpiece on How Long Blues which starts 
off way, way down and sustains this mood miracu- 
lously for nine minutes. There are more of Jack- 
son's primal blues on Plenty, Plenty Soul, Atlantic 
1269, on which he has the valuable assistance of 
Horace Silver and Art Blakey, among others. He is 
heard with variants of the Modern Jazz Quartet, 
the group with which he has been associated since 
1952, on Milt Jackson Quartet, Prestige 7003, on 
which Horace Silver takes John Lewis' customary 


piano chair in the quartet, a change which tilts 
the scales strongly in the direction of funk, while 
on The Modern Jazz Quartet, Savoy 12046, Lewis 
is present (the sitter-in is Ray Brown on bass) and 
there is a loose but recognizably MJQ feeling about 
the performances. This feeling is also apparent on 
one side of Milt Jackson, Blue Note 1509, in per- 
formances by the original quartet plus alto saxo- 
phonist Lou Donaldson. 

Jackson's ballad and blues side comes through 
warmly on Opus de Jazz, Savoy 12036, but his bal- 
ance wheel here is Frank Wes' flute. He joins 
trumpeter Howard McGhee on Howard McGhee 
and Milt Jackson, Savoy 12026, in some shallowly 
recorded and rather unimpressive pieces, while he 
hits one of his rare low points on records leading 
a quintet which has as its main point of interest 
the big, fat tone of an obscure trumpeter, Henry 
Boozier, on MJQ, Prestige 7059, a disk which also 
includes the earliest recordings by the Modern Jazz 

Illinois Jacquet. One of the earliest of the show- 
boating tenor saxophonists, Jacquet has a tendency 
to drown his definite talents (he is a smoothly flow- 
ing swinger deriving from Lester Young) in out- 
breaks of gross honkery. It was his misfortune to 
originate the Flyin' Home fandango in Lionel 
Hampton's band and even a later spell with Basie 
could not completely erase the notion which seemed 
fixed in his mind that if he played loudly, weirdly 
and speedily enough he could be a great attraction. 
Fortunately most of his excesses have been culled 
from the recordings which have survived on LP 
from his earlier days. Lately he seems to have 
calmed down at least in recording studios. 

Some recordings he made in the middle Forties 
turn up on one side of Rex Stewart Plays Duke 
Ellington, Grand Award 33-315 (Stewart does as 

The Records 149 

indicated on the other side), most of them in 
Jacquet's rich ballad style and somewhat fuzzily 
recorded. The calming influence of an organ 
played by Count Basie on some numbers, by Hank 
Jones on others helps him to level off on Port of 
Rico, Verve 8085, while another organist, Gerald 
Wiggins, guides him to smooth, controlled swing- 
ing on Illinois Jacquet and His Orchestra, Verve 
8061. With more conventional small group instru- 
mentation he makes a determined and frequently 
successful effort to play with taste on Swings the 
Thing, Verve 8023, and maintains this pace on 
Grooving Verve 8086. He turns lumpy and dull in 
an effort at mood music on Jazz Moods, Verve 8084, 
and although he is joined by Ben Webster on The 
Kid and the Brute, Verve 8065, an association which 
might have inspired Jacquet to rise to Webster's 
level, the influence is the other way around for 
Webster has rarely played as inadequately. Jacquet 
contributes one selection to Verve Compendium of 
Jazz #1, Verve 8194. 

Ahmad Jamal. A Pittsburgher who has apparently 
given the piano style of his fellow Pittsburgher, 
Erroll Garner, a lot of thought, Jamal arrived at 
a trio formula in 1958 which seemed to have a 
broadness of appeal unmatched by anyone since 
Garner became widely known. He shares with 
Garner a melodiousness and a rhythmic drive that 
are readily communicative and, like Garner, there 
are surprises and twists and turns in his playing 
which can be appreciated by almost anyone. He 
does not, however, copy any of Garner's mannerisms 
or devices but has developed a spare, highly ab- 
breviated way of playing (he gains some of his best 
effects by not playing at all) while the melodic line 
and pulse are carried on sturdily by his excellent 
bass and drum team, Israel Crosby and Vernell 


Jamal spent the better part of a decade arriving 
at this combination of instrumentation and ap- 
proach. After a spell with George Hudson's band 
in St. Louis in the Forties (when he was known as 
Fritz Jones), Jamal formed the Three Strings in 
Chicago in 1950 and has been evolving from that 
start in the years between. His earliest work on 
LP is The Ahmad Jamal Trio, Epic 3212, some 
1956 recordings with Crosby and a guitarist, Ray 
Crawford, which mixes some moments of genuine 
emotion with slickly contrived novelties. On Cham- 
ber Music of the New Jazz, Argo 602, Crawford 
is still present but he is occasionally banging his 
guitar for a bongo effect (a la Herb Ellis) which 
has since been picked up by Jamal's drummer. 
Count 'Em 88, Argo 610, marks the switch from 
guitar to drum (Walter Perkins is the drummer on 
this disk) and, in his version of Easy to Remember, 
the emergence of the drum and bass as front line 
voices in the trio. Fournier has taken over the 
drum chair on Ahmad Jamal at the Pershing, Argo 
628, and this disk along with a slightly later one 
Ahmad Jamal, Argo 636 (both recorded in night 
dubs) represent the finished, polished Jamal style 
as of 1958. 

Bobby Jaspar. A Belgian tenor saxophonist and 
flutist who made his jazz reputation in Paris and 
subsequently came to the United States where he 
has been a member of J. J. Johnson's group, Jaspar 
sometimes gets a stronger jazz flavor from the 
flute than other members of the piping set but he 
is far better when he is rolling out the soft, pliant 
saxophone lines he produces on Interplay for Two 
Trumpets and Two Tenors, Prestige 7112. On a 
recording made in France, Bobby Jaspar and His 
All Stars, EmArcy 36105, his saxophoning slips to 
aimless noodling at times and his flute work is too 
fragile to carry him through Flute Souffle, Prestige 

The Records 151 

7101, or Flute Flight, Prestige 7124. He is also 
heard on Tenor and Flute, Riverside 12-240, and in 
a single selection on Blues for Tomorrow, River- 
side 12-243. 

The Jazz Exponents. A quartet from Upper Michi- 
gan featuring two versatile musicians, Jack Gridley 
on vibes, piano and trombone, and Bob Elliott on 
trombonium and piano, varies between a rough- 
hewn approximation of the J. J. Johnson-Kai Wind- 
ing treatment and some rhythmic but derivative 
pieces on The Jazz Exponents, Argo 622. 

The Jazz Group of Paris (see Andre Hodeir). 

Les Jazz Modes. Julius Watkins is practically the 
only jazz French horn performer who has been 
able to shake the instrument out of its haunting 
hunting sound and make it swing. Even he is not 
always successful at this (nor does he scorn the 
effective use that can be made of the more normal 
French horn style on a ballad) but he pulls the 
trick off frequently enough on the disks he has 
made with Les Jazz Modes, a quintet jointly led 
by him and tenor saxophonist Charlie Rouse, to 
set them apart from the general run of jazz record- 
ings. The group's freest, most unencumbered set of 
performances are on one side of Jazzville '56, Vol. 
1, Dawn 1101 (shared with the Gene Quill-Dick 
Sherman Quintet) as Watkins shakes off the usual 
French horn shackles and soars with brilliant ex- 
hilaration. There is an abandon on this disk that is 
gradually stifled on their succeeding records. Les 
Jazz Modes, Dawn 1108, includes a wordless soprano 
voice, used much in the Duke Ellington manner 
although without Ellington's judiciousness. Mood 
in Scarlet, Dawn 1117, leans self-consciously toward 
the exotic while The Most Happy Fella, Atlantic 
1280, traps the group in a show score that produces 


no sparks. A single selection by the Modes is in- 
cluded in Critics' Choice, Dawn 1123, and Jazz for 
Hi-Fi Lovers, Dawn 1124. 

John Jenkins. One of the many alto saxophonists 
derived from Charlie Parker, Jenkins is not quite 
as strident as some of his contemporaries and even 
displays a certain amount of warmth at slow tempos 
on John Jenkins, Blue Note 1573. On a long-winded 
blowing session, Jazz Eyes, Regent 6056, he shows 
more assurance and sense of direction than his fel- 
low soloists, Donald Byrd and Curtis Fuller, but 
Alto Madness, Prestige 7114, boils down to a re- 
lentless series of shrill, empty solos by Jenkins and 
a similarly derived altoist, Jackie McLean. 

Dick Johnson. Within a small area and in limited 
doses, Johnson is a light, bright and engaging alto 
saxophonist. There is an appealingly airy spirit 
and fluency in much of his playing on Music for 
Swinging Moderns, EmArcy 36081, although he 
fumbles a bit in the slow tempos of ballads. His 
conception becomes repetitious over the length of 
Most Likely . . . , Riverside 12-253, but fortunately 
he has the edgy, charging pianist, Dave McKenna, 
in his rhythm section to keep things moving. A 
brief but swinging appearance by Johnson at New- 
port in 1957 is reported on Eddie Costa, Mat 
Mathews and Don Elliott at Newport, Verve 8237. 

J. J. Johnson. The trombone was brought into the 
modern jazz line, as set by Charlie Parker and 
Dizzy Gillespie, by Johnson, a technically brilliant 
musician with the ability to project great quantities 
of basic jazz feeling when is so moved. A prime 
problem of Johnson's as a communicator is that 
he is very frequently not so moved, preferring to 
mutter his way through long, dry, staccato exercises. 
He was greatly admired during the height o the 

The Records 153 

bop period but found work so scarce during the 
early Fifties that he dropped out of music for a 
couple of years. He returned to form a briefly 
interesting alliance with trombonist Kai Winding 
and latterly has led various groups of his own. 

On his recordings from the pre-Winding period, 
Johnson is almost always a lesser light in the groups 
with which he plays. On four 1949 pieces on Trom- 
bone by Three, Prestige 7023, Johnson is vague and 
muffled but trumpeter Kenny Dorham speaks out 
crisply and pianist John Lewis shows the lithe, 
swinging strength that is at the root of his later 
work. Of the three ensembles heard on /. /. 
Johnson's Jazz Quintets, Savoy 12106, one is given 
vitality by Lewis* suave lightness at the piano and 
shows off a young Sonny Rollins, unformed but 
forceful; a second is lifted from its rut by Bud 
Powell; and the third simply bogs down except 
on one selection in which Johnson permits him- 
self a suggestion of a shout. 

The Eminent J. J. Johnson, Vol. 1, Blue Note 
1505, offers some electric trumpeting by Clifford 
Brown and unusually hard-driving playing by John 
Lewis, while Horace Silver almost saves The Emi- 
nent J. J. Johnson, Vol. 2, Blue Note 1506, but is 
buried under Johnson's monotonous dryness. John- 
son is also one of the principals, with Howard 
McGhee and Oscar Pettiford, in a mish-mash badly 
recorded on Guam, Jazz: South Pacific, Regent 

The mating of the trombones of Winding and 
Johnson produced a majestic exuberance, ex- 
pressed in big, rich tones and sweeping melodic lines 
which lifted them out of their dry, mechanistic 
habits (Winding was afflicted by this almost as 
much as Johnson). Jay and Kai, Savoy 12010, catches 
them early in their ducting career when they were 
still depending largely on solos to carry their pieces 
but on Jai and Kay, Prestige 7030 (shared with 


Benny Green), and Kai Winding and J. J. Johnson, 
Bethlehem 13, there is less soloing and what there 
is is moving in a direction more consistent with 
their duet style than it had been earlier. Together, 
they project a strong, brash, moving quality. Their 
main problem was finding tonal variety and they 
tried a variety of means to reach this on Trombone 
for Two, Columbia CL 742 mutes, breaks, unison, 
harmony, key changes. It was evident by this fourth 
disk, however, that there was a limit to the possi- 
bilities of a two-trombone front line and Jay and 
Kai Plus Six, Columbia CL 892, set them at the 
head of an eight-trombone ensemble which gave 
them greater range and flexibility. In the duo's 
final appearance together, at Newport in 1956, 
caught on Dave Brubeck and Jay and Kai at New- 
port, Columbia CL 932, they have slick, rhythmic 
but unemotional, qualities that are carried out on 
the odds and ends gathered on Jay and Kai, Colum- 
bia CL 973, which pads out some duo pieces with 
selections by groups led by each of the trombonists. 

The experience with Winding was apparently 
invigorating for Johnson, however, for his playing 
with the groups he has led since then has been less 
introverted than it was before. His first post-Wind- 
ing group, with Bobby Jaspar on tenor saxophone 
and flute, plays with some measure of depth and 
variety on /. 7$ for Jazz, Columbia CL 935, and 
Dial J. J. 5, Columbia CL 1084. With only a rhythm 
section behind him on First Place, Columbia CL 
1030, he reverts to his tightly corseted, staccato 
style. A later group, involving Nat Adderley's 
cornet, brings out his more buoyant side again in 
a concert performance on /. /. in Person!, Columbia 
CL 1161. 

A tempting sample of what Johnson can really 
do when he is in the mood occurs on Stan Getz 
and J. /. Johnson at the Opera House, Verve 8265, 
as he puts aside his fidgety exercises and lets fly 

The Records 155 

in a lusty, virile fashion. His group featuring Jaspar 
contributes one excellent selection to The Playboy 
Jazz Alls tars, Playboy 1957. One selection by John- 
son is included in Jazz Omnibus, Columbia CL 1020, 
and single pieces by the Johnson-Winding combina- 
tion are in Operation Jazz, Roost OJ1, Great Jazz 
Brass, Camden 383, and $64,000 Jazz, Columbia CL 

Osie Johnson. A steady and imaginative small group 
drummer, Johnson heads three such groups on The 
Happy Jazz of Osie Johnson, Bethlehem 66. They 
are drawn mostly from Count Basic's band and 
their performances are highlighted by Frank Wess' 
rapier-like tenor saxophone and Dick Katz's charg- 
ing piano. Johnson also has a single selection in 
After Hours Jazz, Epic 3339. 

Pete Jolly. Jolly stems from the glib, skee-daddling 
style common to West Coast pianists but he manages 
to invest When Lights Are Low, Victor LPM 1367, 
with a little change of pace and some suggestion of 
emotion. One of his more meaty solos turns up in 
Pianists Galore!, World Pacific JWC 506. 

Hank Jones has become an all-around professional, 
somewhat like Dick Hyman, which is good for the 
pocketbook but it leaves a bland musical per- 
sonality. He once showed a very strong Art Tatum 
influence on Urbanity, Verve 8091 and traces of 
a softened version of Teddy Wilson Have you 
Met Hank Jones, Savoy 12084, The Rhythm Section, 
Epic 3271, and one selection in After Hours Jazz, 
Epic 3339. But he gave these up for a faceless 
slickness which produces satisfactory but unexciting 
background music on Hank Jones Quartet, Savoy 
12087, Hank Jones Quartet and Quintet, Savoy 
12037, The Talented Touch, Capitol T 1044, and 


Hank Jones Swings Songs -from "Gigi," Golden 
Crest 3042. 

Jimmy Jones. This Jones, one of the more ad- 
mirable piano accompanists, steps out in reflective 
style at the head of his own trio in four selections 
that lean toward mood style on Escape, GNP 27. 
He is the 'unobtrusive leader of a group of Basieites 
who spur singer Beverly Kenney to a closer contact 
with jazz than she has shown on any other record- 
ings on Beverly Kenney, Roost 2218. 

Jo Jones is one of the bridges from swing to bop. 
He was the drummer in the great Count Basic band 
of the Thirties and was one of the first to start 
breaking up the bass rhythm as a contribution to 
modern jazz. The Jo Jones Special, Vanguard 8053, 
has the light, loose driving quality that was char- 
acteristic of Basie-based small groups. Jones is one 
of the more crafty, craftsmanlike, discreet and hu- 
morous drum soloists and although he is given 
opportunities to show off he spends most of his time 
on this disk judiciously propelling the Basie rhythm 
team (Walter Page, Freddie Green) while tenor 
saxophonist Lucky Thompson dominates the solo 
sections. Also present: Basie, Emmett Berry, Benny 
Green, Lawrence Brown. Jones also plies his art 
behind Tony Bennett on three selections on The 
Beat of My Heart, Columbia CL 1079. 

Philly Joe Jones, The problem of having two suc- 
cessful drummers named Jo Jones and Joe Jones 
has been brilliantly solved by leaving Jo alone and 
identifying Joe by his home town. Two other 
identifying characteristics of Philly Joe are his 
cacophonic, battering drumming style and his abil- 
ity to take off Bela Lugosi. Both are given work- 
outs during Blues for Dracula, Riverside 12-282, 

The Records 157 

on which PJ leads a group which does well at 
furious uptempos and slow blues but plods list- 
lessly the rest of the way. 

Quincy Jones. Once a Lionel Hampton trumpeter, 
Jones is now known primarily as an arranger. His 
writing at its best is bright and swinging, as in Go 
West, Young Man!, ABC-Paramount 186, on which 
he works with groups built around four altos, four 
tenors and four trumpets. This Is How I Feel About 
Jazz, ABC-Paramount 149, is made up of pleasant, 
well organized big band performances highlighted 
by the solos of Phil Woods and Lucky Thompson, 
but a Swedish session on Jazz Abroad, EmArcy 
36083 (shared with Roy Haynes) fails to jell. 

Thad Jones. More or less buried in Count Basic's 
trumpet section for several years, Jones (brother to 
pianist Hank and drummer Elvin) reveals a warm, 
rich, full-toned style when he gets away from Basic. 
His development of ballads is particularly sensitive 
and lyrical on The Magnificent Thad Jones, Blue 
Note 1527, and Thad Jones, Blue Note 1546. De- 
troit-New York Junction, Blue Note 1513, puts him 
at the head of a proficiently swinging group of 
Detroiters (Billy Mitchell, Kenny Burrell, Tommy 
Flanagan) and Swing . . . Not Spring, Savoy 12062, 
sets up the same situation (with Mitchell, Terry 
Pollard, Alvin Jackson and brother Elvin) but in 
this case everyone else is shaded by the incisive 
Miss Pollard (playing both vibes and piano). Mad 
Thad, Period 1208, is a relaxed romp for Jones in 
the company of another Basie sideman, tenor saxo- 
phonist Frank Foster, but gimmickry stifles The 
Jones Boys, Period 1210, on which he is backed by 
Jimmy, Eddie, Jo, Reunald and Quincy Jones, all 
unrelated. On one selection in Modern Jazz Hall 
of Fame, Design 29, Thad plays a pretty open horn 
over a sawing, disjointed background. 


Cliff Jordan. A tenor saxophonist of the hard-toned, 
driving school, Jordan's recordings are all burdened 
with needlessly long solos. He gets some variety 
into Cliff Craft, Blue Note 1582, and has the able 
assistance of trumpeter Lee Morgan on Cliff Jordan, 
Blue Note 1565, but both disks wear out their 
welcome. Blowing In From Chicago, Blue Note 
1549, his first recording, is an undistinguished 
introduction shared with John Gilmore. 

Knud Jorgenssen. This Swedish pianist contributes 
a pair of percussive, agitated but undistinguished 
solos to Swedes from Jazzville, Epic 3309. 

Richie Kamuca. Kamuca is a tenor saxophonist of 
the Lester Young school smooth-toned, ingratiat- 
ing but rarely compelling. On Just Friends, World 
Pacific 401, teamed with the virile tenor of Bill 
Perkins, Kamuca sounds almost shy. He is more 
forthright and fluent on a misleadingly titled disk, 
Jazz Erotica, HiFi Record R-604, which, despite 
its title and a cover portrait of a yawning, bed-ready 
nude, has nothing to offer lip lickers. Kamuca con- 
tributes one pleasant solo to Solo Flight, World 
Pacific JWC 505. 

Dick Katz. Katz is an able, self-effacing pianist who 
has worked extensively with Tony Scott. His three 
selections in Jazz Piano International, Atlantic 1287, 
are light and graceful with occasional suggestions of 
something more compelling than the bland surface 
he shows much of the time. 

Fred Katz. By his own account, Katz's interest in 
jazz is peripheral and his recordings pay it only 
glancing attention. He was the original cellist in 
the Chico Hamilton Quintet which is possibly why 
his recordings since leaving Hamilton continue to 
be released as jazz despite his disclaimers. He can 

The Records 159 

play a strong, muscular cello which by its very 
guttiness sometimes has a jazz implication (see his 
encounter with Granada on Zen: The Music of Fred 
Katz, World Pacific 1231) but the provocative as- 
pects of his playing usually lie in directions other 
than jazz. He offers some piquant ideas in Soul-o 
Cello, Decca 9202, and 4-5-6 Trio, Decca 9213, but 
the overall menu on these "mood jazz" releases is 
bland. He plays one strong-lined tune on Ballads 
for Backgrounds, World Pacific JWC 503. 

Johnny Keating. Known primarily as one of Ted 
Heath's more gifted arrangers, Keating leads twenty 
hot Scots (who are some of Britain's best jazzmen) 
through lustily jaunty paces on Swingin' Scots, Dot 
3068, but his aim and his results are much lower on 
Johnny Keatings Favorite American Dances, ABC- 
Paramount 144. 

Wynton Kelly. Kelly, the pianist in Dizzy Gillespie's 
big band of the middle Fifties, has provided wel- 
comes oases in the bleaker stretches of several re- 
corded blowing sessions. On his own disk, Wynton 
Kelly, Riverside 12-254, heading a quartet on one 
side and a trio on the other, he plays with that 
direct, strongly rhythmic, communicative quality 
that is one of the great merits of Erroll Garner. The 
mixture of vitality and delicacy in Kelly's work 
shows up best in the trio selections on which he 
does not have to compete with Philly Joe Jones' 

Stan Kenton's erratic career in jazz has run from 
the invigorating creativity of his early years to a 
climax of headlong extremist posturing, followed 
by a full scale retreat which has taken him down 
from his cloudland past the routine jazz fashions 
of the moment, past the most valid aspects of his 
own work to an ultra-conservatism that is just this 


side of Kostelanetz. Starting as the organizer of an 
excellent and distinctive big jazz band in the swing 
vein its earliest, fumbling but promising efforts 
are collected on The Formative Years, Decca 8259 
his interests soon moved so far away from jazz 
that even when he consciously tried to go back to 
it his band was, at best, simply imitative of others 
and, on less auspicious occasions, so musically mus- 
cle-bound as to be almost paralyzed. 

It is typical of Kenton's wholehearted, unquali- 
fied devotion to any idea that he undertakes that 
he insisted that he was playing jazz even when 
almost all pretense of jazz qualities had been re- 
moved from a work. Yet to call City of Glass; This 
Modern World, Capitol T 738, "jazz" involves ac- 
ceptance of George Orwell's "newspeak." If words 
are to be used correctly it might be more accurate 
to call these pieces attempts at serious composition 
with occasional interludes in a jazz vein. 

The Kenton who has something to say in jazz 
terms will be found in excellent form on Artistry 
in Rhythm, Capitol T 167, and Stan Kenton's 
Milestones, Capitol T 190, and in varied form on 
Stan Kenton Classics, Capitol T 358, and Encores, 
Capitol T 155. Kenton's early efforts to bring new 
elements into the usual jazz forms were quite 
promising and there are several interesting pieces 
from this period (along with several dreadful things) 
on A Presentation of Progressive Jazz, Capitol T 
172, but Innovations in Modern Music, Capitol 
T 189, is too self-conscious to be effective. 

As he began to climb back from the end of the 
limb where what he calls his "highly experimental" 
work had left him, Kenton fell into a relatively 
anonymous modern jazz big band style (repre- 
sented by New Concepts of Artistry and Rhythm, 
Capitol T 383, and Contemporary Concepts, Capi- 
tol T 666) and a reversion to something comparable 
to the Swing Era approach to standard tunes 

The Records 161 

(Sketches on Standards, Capitol T 426, Portraits on 
Standards, Capitol T 462, and Popular Favorites, 
Capitol T 421). However, by this time the Kenton 
band no longer swung it heaved. There is a sug- 
gestion of a revitalization of some of the early 
Kenton creativity and fire (as distinguished from 
empty blast) on a pair of mid-Fifties disks, Kenton 
Showcase, Capitol T 524, to which Bill Russo 
contributed some compositions with a distinctively 
individual character, and Cuban Fire, Capitol T 
731, the ultimate in Kentonian bravura given con- 
tent and form by composer-arranger Johnny Rich- 

Since then Kenton has devoted himself largely to 
diluting the best works of his early days. Stan 
Kenton in Hi-Fi, Capitol W 724, is a re-recording as 
indicated of some of his best arrangements but it 
might have been better to leave well enough alone. 
Ten years after it had created these pieces, the 
Kenton band could move only in heavy, logy 
fashion and the decorative frills that have been 
added to a once directly stated number such as 
The Peanut Vendor are not improvements. He re- 
visits some of the same selections once again on 
Lush Interlude, Capitol T 1130, draining their 
vitality even more by substituting a string section 
for the original trumpets which, though they may 
often have been overblown, could not be charged 
with generating the squashy tedium that the strings 

Possibly in an effort to recapture the spark that 
had obvionsly been lost over the years, Kenton 
went back in 1957 to the Rendezvous Ballroom in 
Balboa, Calif., where his band had originated in 
1941. Rendezvous with Kenton, Capitol T 932, and 
Back to Balboa, Capitol T 995, are the ponderous, 
lumbering products of this attempt to become a 
dance band once more. 

From this Kenton has descended to the pure 


mood music of The Ballad Style of Stan Kenton, 
Capitol T 1068, on which he doodles out some one- 
finger piano meditations against lush ensembles 
with more show of taste and sensitivity than had 
come from him in a long time. He has also dabbled 
in the vocal field on Kenton with Voices, Capitol 
T 810, the Modern Men and Ann Richards get 
involved in some pretty precious attempts to take 
the place of the Kenton trombones, while his con- 
certo-type piano accompaniment is not quite strong 
enough to sustain June Christy on Duet, Capitol 
T 656. 

The Kenton saga from his early, loose-jointed 
punching band with the rich reeds through the 
Kenton of the mid-Fifties is chronicled extremely 
well in a four-disk set, The Kenton Era, Capitol 
WDX 569. A thinly recorded selection from a 
broadcast by the Kenton band of the early Forties 
is included in The Playboy Jazz Allstars, Playboy 
1957, another with better sound is in The Encyclo- 
pedia of Jazz on Records, Vol. 3, Decca 8400, and 
there are single, relatively uninteresting selections 
by later versions of the band in Dance Craze, 
Capitol T 927, and Dance to the Bands, Vol. 1, and 
Vol. 2, Capitol T 977 and T 978. 

Barney Kessel. Among the multitude of guitarists 
who have been inspired by Charlie Christian, Kessel 
has picked up more of the meat of Christian's lithe, 
swinging style than most. He is, in addition, a 
sensitive investigator of ballad lines. In fact, his 
only failing is a fondness for hillbilly twanging out 
of context, a failing which he is more inclined to 
show on recordings made by others, rarely on his 
own. He has produced an interesting and varied 
series of disks for Contemporary. Barney Kessel, 
Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, Contemporary 3511 and 3512, 
place him with flute (Bud Shank or Buddy Col- 
lette) on the first disk and oboe (Bob Cooper) 

The Records 163 

on the second, plus a rhythm section in both cases. 
Both disks glitter with unhackneyed ideas ex- 
pressed with excellent taste and impeccable musi- 
cianship. Kessel uses a Basic-influenced septet (with 
Harry Edison and either Bill Perkins or Georgie 
Auld) on To Swing or Not to Swing, Contemporary 
3513, for crisp, flowing results while The Poll 
Winners, Contemporary 3535, and The Poll Win- 
ners Ride Again, Contemporary 3556, are by a ne 
plus ultra trio made up of Kessel, Ray Brown, bass, 
and Shelly Manne, drums, which is imaginative, 
suave and delightfully easygoing. The closest Kessel 
has come to a miscue is Music to Listen to Barney 
Kessel By, Contemporary 3521, on which his lithe, 
gentle guitar is framed in the owlish solemnity of 
a woodwind group. He contributes one mood piece 
to The Playboy Jazz Allstars, Playboy 1957. 

Tony Kinsey. An English quintet led by drummer 
Kinsey has a light attack which gets much of its 
floating power from the pulsing ease of tenor 
saxophonist Don Rendell on Kinsey Comes On, 
London LL 1672. 

Al Klink. A veteran of the Glenn Miller band who 
has been buried in studio bands since then, Klink 
shows himself to be a graceful and forceful tenor 
saxophone soloist with a tone of amazing purity on 
Progressive Jazz, Grand Award 33-325. The quintet 
he leads (Dick Hyman, Mundell Lowe, Trigger 
Alpert, Ed Shaughnessy) is swingingly modern, 
which may be what "progressive" means. 

Jimmy Knepper. Knepper is a thoroughly individ- 
ual trombonist who mixes a blues-tinged suaveness 
that recalls Jack Teagarden with an exotic, singing 
urgency that is unlike the playing of any other 
jazz instrumentalist. His provocative and imagina- 
tive playing highlights several Charlie Mingus disks 


and his own A Swinging Introduction, Bethlehem 


Moe Koffman. Koffman is a Canadian alto saxo- 
phonist who doubles on flute. Flute happened to 
be the instrument he was playing when he recorded 
The Swinging Shepherd Blues with his septet on 
Cool and Hot Sax, Jubilee 1037. Koffman plays a 
hard hitting saxophone through most of this disk 
and his guitarist, Ed Bickert, has an appealingly 
lowdown tone but the rest of the group is faceless. 
Spurred by the success of Swinging Shepherd, Koff- 
man followed up with The "Shepherd" Swings 
Again, Jubilee 1074, which is almost completely de- 
voted to piping, static flute work. 

Hans Koller, Koller epitomizes the cool tenor saxo- 
phone in Germany, playing with appropriately 
meandering wispiness. He leads a drone-toned group 
on "Das" Is Jazz!, Decca 8229, which is brightened 
by the presence of pianist Jutta Hipp, and heads 
a completely different group on Hans Across the 
Sea, Vanguard 8509, which has no one to relieve 
his soft, squashy sound. 

Lee Konitz. Konitz emerged from the cool, calm 
serenity of Claude Thornhill's band to the gliding, 
rolling manner evolved by Lennie Tristano in the 
late Forties to become the pace-setter among cool 
alto saxophonists. As happened with Charlie Parker, 
his least effective work has seemed to have a hyp- 
notic effect on those altoists who have been in- 
fluenced by him and produced, during the early 
Fifties, a school of wispy, meandering saxophonists 
who were all but inarticulate. Konitz himself has 
followed an erratic path along a career that has 
never flowered as might have been expected largely 
because his playing has been inconsistent. His early 
work with Tristano and with fellow Tristanoites 

The Records 165 

had muscle and spirit and, as a rule, form. A 
collection of recordings made in 1949 and 1950, 
Lee Konitz, Prestige 7004, catches Konitz at the 
crest of this period while his side of Conception, 
Prestige 7013, made a year later, puts him in 
company with Miles Davis and a Tristano rhythm 
section on pieces in which Konitz's playing is well 
developed, Davis' merely serviceable. 

By 1954, when he recorded Jazz at Storyville, 
Storyville 901, he seemed to be reaching out toward 
a wider audience, paying more attention to melody, 
depending less on technique. A reunion with tenor 
saxophonist Warne Marsh, with whom he played 
in the Tristano sextet, Lee Konitz with Warne 
Marsh, Atlantic 1217, is a reasonably complete 
report on their solo and ensemble habits with 
special emphasis on the aural whipped cream to 
which the Tristano loops had been reduced by then. 
Konitz's apparent inability either to settle on the 
best aspects of what he had developed or to move 
positively in any new direction shows up in Very 
Cool, Verve 8209, as he frequently bogs down in 
cliches. The Real Lee Konitz, Atlantic 1273, is 
interesting as a laboratory piece for Konitz taped 
these selections himself when he was playing at a 
night club in Pittsburgh and he has preserved only 
the best of what he recorded whether it was com- 
pleted or not. It illustrates, one presumes, what he 
wants to be doing. 

A suggestion of one avenue that might be worth 
exploring is found on Lee Konitz Inside Hi-Fi, 
Atlantic 1258, for he plays tenor on one side, show- 
ing a rough tone and a driving attack that have a 
great deal of unpolished charm. Lee Konitz with 
Gerry Mulligan, World Pacific 406, adds Konitz to 
the early Mulligan Quartet but it is not a very good 
fit. Single selections from this disk are on Jazz West 
Coast, World Pacific JWC 500, and Solo Flight, 
World Pacific JWC 505. A rambling Konitz ballad 


is in Roost Fifth Anniversary Album, Roost 1201, 
and a meandering piece in Modern Jazz Hall of 
Fame, Design 29. 

Paul Kuhn. This German pianist plays in percus- 
sive, Garner-derived fashion in one selection with 
his quartet on "Das" Is Jazz!, Decca 8229, but is 
much more effective as a charging, swinging side- 
man in Rolf Kuhn's group on the same disk. 

Rolf Kuhn. A Benny Goodman-styled clarinetist, 
Kuhn sparkles with his German All Stars on "Das" 
Is Jazz!, Decca 8229. In his first recording after 
coming to the United States in 1956, Streamline, 
Vanguard 8510, he retains much of the Goodman 
spirit but a mechanized chill seemed to settle on 
him when he faced a Newport audience in 1957 as 
reported on Eddie Costa, Mat Mathews and Don 
Elliott at Newport, Verve 8237. 

Steve Lacy. The first soprano saxophonist in the 
modern jazz idiom, Lacy plays in a smooth, mocha- 
toned style that carries suggestions of Sidney 
Bechet's soaring quality on this instrument but 
without Bechet's over-ripe vibrato. Lacy's lithe, 
flowing lines are frequently effective on Soprano 
Sax, Prestige 7125, but it is asking a lot for this 
relatively limited instrument to carry two sides 
of an LP almost by itself (pianist Wynton Kelly 
steps in for an occasional ruminative solo). 

Harold Land. Land, a tenor saxophonist with a 
pleasant if undistinguished musical personality, is 
trapped with a flat, mechanical group on In the 
Land of Jazz, Contemporary 3550, and he is equally 
hemmed in by a set of roaring, long-playing col- 
leagues on Jam Session, EmArcy 36002. 

The Records 167 

Ronnie Lang. Lang is one of the slick, precise, 
gentle and largely uninteresting products of the 
Les Brown band. On Modern Jazz, Tops 1521, his 
bland alto saxophone leads a sextet through some 
churning, surface exercises that develop swinging 
strength only when pianist Marty Paich cuts loose. 

John LaPorta. Of all those in the avante garde wing 
of jazz, LaPorta shows more inclination than most 
of his colleagues to come to understandable terms 
with the average, or non-avante garde, listener. His 
Conceptions, Fantasy 3228, are, in most cases, 
melodic and rhythmic and are played with clarity 
and directness. La Porta is a clarinetist with a firm 
control of his instrument who plays with a rugged, 
swinging drive, possibly a reflection of his early 
years with dance bands in the 1940s (Bob Chester, 
Ray McKinley, Woody Herman). As an alto saxo- 
phonist he lacks the clean definition he shows on 
clarinet but retains the same surging lift. Concep- 
tions is a varied and interesting program which 
manages to explore and to swing with equal in- 
tensity. On The Jazz Message, Savoy 12064, he 
brings an unaccustomed feeling of easy warmth to 
one of the standard blowing groups. 

The breadth of LaPorta's talent is highlighted on 
The Clarinet Artistry of John LaPorta, Fantasy 
3248, on which he leads a trio in something equiva- 
lent to the Benny Goodman vein on one side and, 
on the other, sprouts long hair to play Brahms* 
Sonata in F Minor for Clarinet and Piano. 

A guest appearance by LaPorta at a jazz concert 
in Caracas, Venezuela, in 1956 is reported on South 
American Brothers, Fantasy 3237. LaPorta played 
with the Charlie Nagy Quintet, led by an emigr6 
Hungarian pianist, and contributed five arrange- 
ments to the fifteen-piece Orquestra Casablanca. 
This band, working on a broad, catholic base that 
combines the rhythmic feeling of the big swing 


bands with modernisms in the Woody Herman 
manner, glistens with excellent soloists. A third 
group, the Walter Albrecht Sextet, a Bavarian 
group recently arrived in Venezuela at that time, 
is also heard but its soft, cloudy playing is only of 
peripheral interest. LaPorta's contributions are 
consistently stimulating and thoroughly in keeping 
with the varied approaches his Venezuelan hosts 
were interested in trying. 

Yusef Lateef. During the 1940s Lateef was known 
as Bill Evans (not to be confused with the pianist, 
Bill Evans) and could be found in the saxophone 
sections of the bands of Lucky Millinder and Dizzy 
Gillespie. Under his new name, he settled in De- 
troit in the Fifties and began exploring the poten- 
tials of Middle Eastern sounds in relation to jazz, 
using such instruments as the one-stringed rabat, 
the flute-like argol and the earthboard as well as 
the more familiar bottle and balloon. On his first 
LP, Jazz for Thinkers, Savoy 12109, he keeps both 
his leaning toward exoticism and his strange instru- 
ments under wraps, depending instead on his dark- 
toned, smooth-flowing tenor saxophone to carry 
his group. Subsequently on Jazz Mood, Savoy 12103, 
he exploits his odd sounds as accents and mood- 
setters, leaving the bulk of the development to his 
tenor, his visceral flute and the trombone of Curtis 
Fuller. On Prayer to the East, Savoy 12117, he 
found a natural outlet for his wails, buzzes and 
clanks in Night in Tunisia, a piece on which 
fluegelhornist Wilbur Harden all but overshadows 

But Lateef's most triumphant tour de force oc- 
curs on The Sounds of Yusef, Prestige 7122, in a 
piece called Love and Humor which is concocted 
largely of bird cries produced by the manipulation 
of two balloons (one balloonist works in a gusty 
George Brunis style) while under this a Seven-Up 

The Records 169 

bottle huffs out the earth-root sound of the primi- 
tive jug bands. Lateef's flute floats through this 
controlled pandemonium with fey fluency. Strangely 
enough, it all seems to swing. 

On Jazz and the Sounds of Nature, Savoy 12120, 
the sounds are beginning to run thin and Before 
Dawn, Verve 8217, shows what he can do with his 
intense, muscular attack without depending on odd- 
ities. Yusef Lateef at Cranbrook, Argo 634, is by a 
completely revamped group with the odd instru- 
ments still in evidence but, much more important, 
with Terry Pollard strongly present on piano. In 
contrast to her driving jumpiness with Terry Gibbs' 
group, Miss Pollard's playing here is very relaxed, 
easily flowing and thoroughly refreshing. Lateef 
has one selection in Jazz Is Busting Out All Over, 
Savoy 12123. 

Elliot Lawrence. When Elliot Lawrence was the 
boy wonder of the name band business in the middle 
Forties, he followed Claude Thornhill's dreamy 
style. And when, under the influence of Gil Evans, 
Thornhill began adding modern jazz touches to 
his book, so did Lawrence. During most of the 
Fifties Lawrence has led a weekend band made up 
of some of the best big band musicians around New 
York, men who like Lawrence himself are busy 
in television and recording studios during the week 
but don't mind doing one-nighters on weekends. 
With this band, Lawrence has kept alive both the 
jazz and dream sides of his book. 

One of his earliest contributors of jazz arrange- 
ments was Gerry Mulligan. These were fledgling 
efforts on Mulligan's part and while they are not 
especially distinguished and are no heralds of the 
Mulligan small groups to come, they provide in 
their mid-Fifties re-enactment on The Elliot Law- 
rence Band Plays Gerry Mulligan, Fantasy 3206, a 
serviceable foundation for such soloists as Al Cohn, 


Eddie Bert and Nick Travis. Zoot Sims and Urbie 
Green are added starters in the band that is heard 
on Elliot Lawrence Plays Tiny Kahn and Johnny 
Mandel Arrangements, Fantasy 3219. Kahn had a 
direct, uncomplicated and swinging approach in 
his writing and the Lawrence band plays his ar- 
rangements with gutty zest. Mandel's selections 
have less heart, more lace around the edges and 
are at their best in pretty passages by Lawrence 
and Green. Sideman Al Cohn has his day in the 
limelight on Swinging at the Steel Pier, Fantasy 
3236, for which he has provided a capable set of 
finger-snapping arrangements. 

Dreamy dance music dominates the rest of Law- 
rence's recordings. There are a few swinging touches 
on Elliot Lawrence Plays for Swinging Dancers, 
Fantasy 3246, but the dancers just dream on Dream, 
Fantasy 3226, Dream On, Dance On, Fantasy 3261, 
and Prom Night, Decca 8338. 

Stan Levey. Bred in the heart of the bop period, 
Levey has gone on to become an unusually steady 
and lifting drummer. He combines with pianist 
Lou Levy and bassist Leory Vinnegar to form a 
stirring, stimulating rhythm section which, on This 
Time the Drums on Me, Bethlehem 37, carries 
along some relatively desultory soloists. Levy is re- 
placed by Sonny Clark on Grand Stan, Bethlehem 
71, which cuts down the ensemble jab and punch 
although Clark puts some meat on his solos. But 
for all Levey's pulsation, this disk falls apart on 
dull pieces and, aside from Clark, vague solos. 

Alonzo Levister. Levister is a young conservatory 
trained pianist and composer who classifies himself 
as neither a jazz nor a classical musician. His music, 
he says, is the result of "a mixture of equal love o 
Blues, Bartok, Bach and Baptist shouting." He 
writes in a mixed jazz and classical idiom for a 

The Records 171 

mixed group of jazz and classical musicians. Six 
short pieces on Manhattan Monodrama, Debut 125, 
are most successful when his writing is least formal, 
when he allows his musicians to collaborate with 
him rather than forcing them down a narrow alley. 
His most convincing selections are a slow, lyrical 
Black Swan, a musical impression of Miles Davis, 
a warmly evocative portrait built around lovely 
clarinet and trumpet interplay; and Slow Dance 
which provides a framework for languorous, con- 
trolled improvisations by Teddy Charles and Louis 
Mucci. The disk's long title piece, originally written 
for a ballet, becomes mired in the background music 
requirements of the assignment. 

Lou Levy. Levy, a pianist of such swinging pro- 
pensities when he was with Woody Herman in the 
late Forties that he was known as "Count," dropped 
out of jazz for a while in the Fifties and then re- 
turned a changed and seemingly introverted per- 
former. Playing with Conte Candoli and Bill Hoi- 
man on West Coast Waiters > Atlantic 1268, he varies 
between moments of dark, penetrating stomping 
and periods of surface romping, while his cool and 
generally colorless playing on A Most Musical Fella, 
Victor LPM 1491, suggests that he is concentrating 
on the inner mechanics of his performances at the 
expense of the ultimate aural interest. 

John Lewis. Lewis is usually heard with the Modern 
Jazz Quartet for which he is musical director and 
pianist but occasionally, on records, he moves into 
other contexts. It appears that one of his favorite 
reasons for making this move is to have the op- 
portunity to have his compositions, originally 
created for the Quartet in most instances, played 
by larger groups or to write for a more varied 
instrumentation. He wrote three pieces Midsom- 
mer, Sun Dance and Little David's Fugue for a 


nine-piece group, predominantly woodwinds, heard 
on The Modern Jazz Society Presents a Concert of 
Contemporary Music, Verve 8131 (recorded in an- 
ticipation of a concert that was never held). The 
disk also includes expansions of two pieces written 
for the Quartet Django and The Queen's Fancy. 
The arrangements by Lewis and Gunther Schuller 
tend to bog down in the woodwinds but the soloists 
Stan Getz, J. J. Johnson, Tony Scott and Lucky 
Thompson give new perspective to the familiar 
pieces. Getz and Johnson make The Queen's Fancy 
swing warmly while Scott contributes a fervent solo 
to Django and Thompson rolls out some of his 
lovely, flowing lines on the same piece. 

In the winter of 1958 Lewis had an opportunity 
to try the same thing again but this time on a much 
larger scale, using a 34-piece orchestra drawn from 
the Stuttgart Symphony on European Windows, 
Victor LPM 1742. The Queen's Fancy and Mid- 
sommer are present once once more, along with 
two selections from Lewis' score for the film, No 
Sun in Venice, plus Two Degrees East Three De- 
grees West and a variation on God Rest Thee 
Merry, Gentlemen. The enlarged orchestrations 
emphasize Lewis' melodiousness as a composer (it 
has been said that he has the unusual ability to 
create tunes that immediately sound familiar) but 
they often tend to diminish the jazz qualities the 
pieces had in their Quartet versions. Still this is a 
striking jazz disk because of the presence, as one of 
the two principal soloists, of the English baritone 
saxophonist, Ronnie Ross (Czech flutist Gerry 
Weinkopf is the other soloist). Ross has a full-toned, 
smoothly projected fluency, a feeling for shading 
and a singing quality that are unique among bari- 
tone men. He also has an innate rhythmic flow that 
is never pointedly pronounced but is an integrated 
part of everything he plays. His solos, fascinating 
examples of mature, thoughtful and emotionally 

The Records 173 

vigorous jazz, are such a dominant and enlivening 
force that one is apt to lose sight of the relatively 
pale orchestrations. 

One of Lewis' most fruitful trips away from the 
Quartet occurred when he and the Quartet's bassist, 
Percy Heath, joined drummer Chico Hamilton, 
Hamilton's guitarist, Jim Hall, and tenor saxo- 
phonist Bill Perkins on Grand Encounter, World 
Pacific 1217. Lewis' persuasive hand is apparent in 
the tone and tempos of the three ensemble selec- 
tions on the disk (there are also three solo show- 
cases, one for Lewis) and he seems to have had an 
almost hypnotic effect on Hall and Perkins. Love 
Me or Leave Me, in particular, is a masterpiece of 
subtle, swinging jazz in which everything falls 
wondrously into place. 

Afternoon in Paris, Atlantic 1267, takes Lewis 
to Paris and the company of guitarist Sacha Distel 
and tenor saxophonist Barney Wilen. The overall 
style of this group might be identified as uncorseted 
Modern Jazz Quartet flowing but contained, free 
but controlled with solos that are strongly stated 
but never overstated. Wilen, then 19, is especially 
worth hearing. 

Lewis' austere but kindling piano takes the solo 
spotlight on The John Lewis Piano, Atlantic 1272. 
He is at his most inviting on those pieces in which 
he works in his MJQ vein, building simple single 
note passages through increasing degrees of singing 
fervor to an ultimate level that can be gently but 
insistently overpowering. He also indulges himself 
in some trivial romanticism during this rather 
studied program. His most provocative piece is 
Harlequin, an odd and extremely effective develop- 
ment of a theme through a broken, stabbing series 
of suggestions by Lewis' piano, held together by 
Connie Kay's sensitively brush-beaten cymbal. 

Two Degrees East Three Degrees West, as played 
in Grand Encounter, is repeated in The Blues, 


World Pacific JWC 502, while Lewis' piano solo 
from the same disk, I Can't Get Started, turns up 
on both Ballads for Background, World Pacific JWC 
503, and Pianists Galore!, World Pacific JWC 506. 

Ramsey Lewis. Lewis is a relatively sophisticated 
blues pianist with an interest in frilly decorations 
which send him to the verge of cocktail piano. He 
plays with a trio on Ramsey Lewis and His Gentle- 
men of Swing, Argo 611, and Ramsey Lewis and 
the Gentlemen of Jazz, Argo 627. The hairs that 
are split in these titles do not show up in the music. 

Abbey Lincoln. Miss Lincoln's voice has strong sug- 
gestions of the texture of the young voice of Billie 
Holiday but despite the presence of a good cabal 
of jazzmen on That's Him, Riverside 12-251, and 
It's Magic, Riverside 12-277, she is less a jazz singer 
than a ballad singer with a tendency to turn hard 
and shallow. 

Mundell Lowe. Lowe is a guitarist who has crammed 
a remarkably broad background into a relatively 
short period of playing. As a teen-ager, he was 
working on Bourbon Street in New Orleans, had 
a brief taste of hillbilly music with Grand OF 
Opry, turned to the swing band style with Jan 
Savitt and was a member of one of the best modern 
big jazz bands, Ray McKinley's ill-fated postwar 
group. In the past decade he has become a highly 
polished studio musician, capable not only of turn- 
ing his hand to almost any kind of music but and 
this is the trick of shucking off the slick, casual 
surface of the versatile pro whenever he wants to. 
He has a leaning toward reflective, non-jazz ex- 
plorations of ideas but he can, when the situation 
warrants, ride out in gloriously swinging style. 

This is the side he shows in The Mundell Lowe 
Quartet, Riverside 12-204. His playing is spare, 

The Records 175 

clean, to the point and delightfully adventurous, 
running from the merriment of Yes, Sir, That's My 
Baby to the modernism of Far From Vanilla. With 
saxophonist Gene Quill and pianist Billy Taylor 
as associates, he also concentrates on the full- 
blooded, earthy aspect of his work on A Grand 
Night for Swinging, Riverside 12-238. 

The compact, neatly turned little essays by Alec 
Wilder that make up The New Music of Alec 
Wilder, Riverside 12-219, are not all played as jazz 
but even the least jazz-like shows the strong effect 
that jazz has had on Wilder's work. They are, in a 
general way, much like Wilder's earlier octet pieces 
except that these are made meatier by the use of 
more jazz elements. Lowe has orchestrated them 
largely for a full ensemble leaving occasional op- 
portunities for discreet solo work by trumpeter Joe 
Wilder and himself. This is, in a sense, mood music 
but it is totally unlike the things which are usually 
labeled mood music and which are apparently in- 
tended for someone who is about to expire. This is 
music for people who are alert, alive and capable 
of a stimulating variety of moods. 

For Guitar Moods, Riverside 12-208, Lowe uses 
a woodwind accompaniment in a skillfully played 
recital of non-jazz works and continues in this 
vein in the four selections he has on This Could 
Lead to Love, Riverside 12-808, and a single entry 
on Jazz for Lovers, Riverside 12-244. He swings 
brightly on one piece in Know Your Jazz, Vol. 1, 
ABC-Paramount 115, and draws some dark blue 
lines in one number on Blues for Tomorrow, River- 
side 12-243, 

Howard Lucraft. Although Lucraft was an ar- 
ranger and orchestra leader in England before com- 
ing to this country in 1950, he serves only as im- 
presario for Showcase for Modern Jazz, Decca 8679, 
an erratic collection of pieces with the standard 


West Coast names of the Fifties (Shank, Collette, 
Rosolino, Cooper, Pepper, Manne, etc.). 

Mary Ann McCall. Miss McCall earned her swing- 
ing credentials as a singer with several bands in the 
Forties, principally those of Charlie Barnet and 
Woody Herman, and she shows them on Easy Liv- 
ing, Regent 6040, a representative collection in 
which her absorption of the Billie Holiday feeling 
(which she does without imitating Miss Holiday's 
mannerisms) is shown off well. In contrast, Detour 
to the Moon, Jubilee 1078, is an unqualified detour, 
a pedestrian collection in which nothing swings and 
Miss McCall seems forced into strained imitations of 
girls who cannot sing in the same league with her. 
Somewhere in between these two disks lies An 
Evening with Mary Ann McCall and Charlie Ven- 
tura, Verve 8143, in which she resorts to talk-sing 
to make up for a lack of depth in her singing voice. 

Howard McGhee. A featured trumpeter with Andy 
Kirk, Charlie Barnet and Lionel Hampton in the 
Forties and an active figure in the bridge from 
swing to bop, McGhee has not been heard from 
much during the Fifties. He has a brisk, crackling 
style that energizes most of the selections on which 
he plays even briefly. Possibly the most representa- 
tive collection of his work is The Return of Howard 
McGhee, Bethlehem 42, on which he has the sup- 
port of a strong rhythm section (Duke Jordan, Percy 
Heath and Philly Joe Jones). He is one of the few 
saving graces of a misguided attempt at a "history 
of jazz" recorded on Guam, Jazz: South Pacific, 
Regent 6001, and he plays with edgy deliberation 
to hold his own with Milt Jackson in an adequate 
but unmomentous set, Howard McGhee and Milt 
Jackson, Savoy 12026. Life Is Just a Bowl of Cher- 
ries, Bethlehem 61, allies him with woodwinds in 

The Records 177 

some pleasant background music through which 
McGhee occasionally bursts with a cutting solo. 

Dave McKenna. Though he is superficially a single- 
note pianist, McKenna remembers he has a left 
hand and he romps with delightful effervescence 
through Solo Piano, ABC-Paramount 104. 

Ray McKinley, McKinley is not often mentioned 
in the same sentence with Coleman Hawkins or 
Mary Lou Williams but he is one of that rare 
handful of jazz musicians whose scope ranges from 
relatively traditional to very modern. He has run 
a gamut from the two-beat of the Dorsey Brothers 
orchestra, the boogie-woogie basis of the band he 
led with Will Bradley and his various Glenn Miller 
associations to the adventurous exploratory band 
he led in the late Forties. It is only the latter group 
that fits in the context of this volume but it is a 
band that should not be forgotten. Playing ar- 
rangements by Eddie Sauter which were generally 
more cogent than the ones Sauter later wrote for 
his own Sauter-Finegan Orchestra, it can be heard 
on Borderline, Savoy 12024, and on one side of 
One Band, Two Styles, Camden 295. The perform- 
ances are crisp and stimulating, many of them 
spurred by Mundell Lowe's driving guitar. The 
other side of Camden 295 is made up of the routine 
dance music that the McKinley band was playing 
in its last days before it gave up. 

Hal M cKusick. It would be normal to identify Hal 
McKusick as an alto saxophonist since that is the 
instrument that he usually plays (he occasionally 
switches to clarinet or bass clarinet). But by and 
large he is such a chilly, precise performer on alto, 
limiting himself to a steady emission of unin- 
flected, spitballed notes, that one might seem to 


slight him by identifying him with the alto when 
his playing is so much warmer and more attractive 
on his other instruments. The difference is pointed 
up on Cross Section Saxes, Decca 9209, on which 
he plays bass clarinet in some selections, and Triple 
Exposure, Prestige 7135, on which clarinet is his 
alternate instrument. Both are worthwhile disks 
Decca 9209 because of the presence of pianist Bill 
Evans, trumpeter Art Farmer and drummer Connie 
Kay and arrangements by George Russell, George 
Handy and Ernie Wilkins, while Prestige 7135 is 
enlivened by Billy Byers' tweedy trombone and the 
rashly exultant piano of Eddie Costa. 

McKusick shows that he can cut loose even on 
alto on Earthy, Prestige 7102, as he joins a superior 
jamming group that is prodded by Kenny BurrelFs 
insistent guitar and Mai Waldron's provocatively 
probing piano. And he manages to loosen up, too, 
within the framework of relatively formal compo- 
sitions by Russell, Gil Evans, Johnny Mandel, 
Manny Albam and others on Jazz Workshop, Vic- 
tor LPM 1366. 

But his alto is inordinately sanitary on Hal Mc- 
Kusick Quartet, Coral 57131, to which Eddie Costa 
and Art Farmer contribute some guts; on Jazz at 
the Academy, Coral 57116, a neutral, colorless col- 
lection; and on Hal McKusick Quartet, Bethlehem 
16. One McKusick piece, with Costa and Farmer, is 
included in Jazz Cornucopia, Coral 57149, and he 
plays a ballad in The Mellow Moods, Victor LPM 

Jackie McLean. McLean is one of the more strident 
and empty followers of Charlie Parker. Several of 
his records are worth hearing, however, because of 
the presence of Mai Waldron, a consistently inter- 
esting and inventive pianist, who apparently can 
create fresh and provocative ideas even in the midst 
of a shrilling bedlam. Waldron can be heard on 

The Records 179 

Jackie McLean Quintet, Jubilee 1064, 4, 5, and 6, 
Prestige 7048, Jackie's Pal, Prestige 7068 (the pal is 
not Waldron but Bill Hardman, a static, graceless 
trumpeter), and Jackie McLean and Co., Prestige 
7087. Other McLean disks are Jackie McLean and 
John Jenkins, Prestige 7114, and Lights Out, Pres- 
tige 7035, in which McLean suggests that he may 
have the capability to develop some semblance of 
tone and form. 

Marian McPartlancL A wartime uxorial trophy 
brought back to the United States from England 
by cornetist Jimmy McPartland, Mrs. McPartland 
is an assured and knowing pianist in almost any 
style although she favors a modified form of mod- 
ern. Her attractively lean, sometimes swirling play- 
ing is heard best on In Concert, Savoy 12004, Great 
Britains, Savoy 12016, The Jazz Keyboards, Savoy 
12043, and Looking for a Boy, Savoy 12097. She 
even manages to be bright and pulsing with string 
backing on With You in Mind, Capitol T 895, but 
she turns fuguey when harp and cello are added to 
her basic trio on Piano Variations, King 540. She 
is relatively routine on Marian McPartland Trio, 
Capitol T 785, After Dark, Capitol T 699, and At 
the Hickory House, Capitol T 574. Whatever 
merits she might have on Lullaby of Birdland, 
Savoy 12005, are buried under dreadful recording. 
Her trio accompanies Hot Lips Page on four selec- 
tions on Jazztime US. A., Vol. 3, Brunswick 54002, 
and does one piece on its own on Popular Jazz 
Gold Album, Capitol T 1034. 

Carmen McRae. Miss McRae has jazz connections 
she is the daughter of the Chick Webb saxo- 
phonist, Teddy McRae; was once married to drum- 
mer Kenny Clarke; has sung with the bands of 
Benny Carter and Mercer Ellington; and has 
worked as a solo pianist. This is set forth as a possi- 


ble explanation for her attempt to become a jazz 
singer when she branched out from solo piano per- 
formances because time has proved her to be not 
so much at singing in jazz terms although she has 
potential as a ballad singer. The closest she comes 
to a good jazz quality is in an early collection, By 
Special Request, Decca 8173, on which she is mod- 
est and rhythmic, and After Glow, Decca 8583, on 
which she plays piano on several selections. Her 
ballad approach is often marred by a cold stridency 
although she is relatively warm and outgoing on 
Mad About the Man, Decca 8662, Carmen for Cool 
Ones, Decca 8738, Torchy, Decca 8267, and Book 
of Ballads, Kapp 1117. She can also be heard on 
Boy Meets Girl, Decca 8490, Blue Moon, Decca 
8347, and in four selections on Bethlehem's Girl- 
friends, Bethlehem 6006. 

Teo Macero. An adamantly experimental composer 
in that area where the outer reaches of jazz and 
serious music touch, however glancingly, Macero is 
also a gruffly engaging tenor saxophonist. On Teo, 
Prestige 7104, he achieves more than his usual 
aplomb in performance but the disk's essential in- 
terest lies in his accompanying group which in- 
cludes the highly effective Teddy Charles on vibes 
and the practically infallible Mai Waldron at the 

Machito. Frank Grillo is a singer known as Machito 
who fronts a band which is primarily the creation 
of trumpeter Mario Bauza, a veteran of Cab Callo- 
way's orchestra. On the foundation of a magnifi- 
cently complex and rocking Afro-Cuban rhythm 
section, Bauza has built a band with brilliantly bit- 
ing brass and languorous reeds that has produced 
the most potent mixtures of Afro-Cuban rhythm 
and jazz. Saxophonists Charlie Parker, Brew Moore 
and Flip Phillips are featured with the band in 

The Records 181 

some particularly effective numbers on Potpourri 
of Jazz, Verve 2032, Roost Fifth Anniversary Al- 
bum, Roost 1201, The Jazz. Scene, Verve 8060, and 
in a group of Chico OTarrill compositions, Ma- 
chito Afro-Cuban Jazz, Verve 8073. The band's 
rhythm section provides a pulsing background for 
saxophonist Frank Morgan, trumpeter Conte Can- 
doli and organist Wild Bill Davis in one selection 
on Afro-Drum Carnival, GNP 25. The full band 
achieves an oddly elegant guttiness on Kenya, 
Roulette 52006, and roars through some pop tunes 
on Machito Plays Mambo and Cha Cha Cha, Seeco 
9075, Mambo Caravan, Tico 1007, and Mambo 
Holiday, Harmony 7040. Most of Si-Si, No-No, 
Tico 1033, Cha Cha at the Palladium, Tico 1002, 
Asia Minor, Tico 1029, Machito Inspired, Tico 
1045, and Let's Dance the Cha-Cha-Cha, Seeco 
9054, are devoted to Machito's bread-and-butter 
side relatively staid Cuban dance music but even 
these burst into occasional flame. The band ac- 
companies Harry Belafonte on one of his earliest 
recordings on Operation Jazz, Roost OJL 

Rob Madna. A Dutch pianist, heading a trio made 
up of the rhythm section of what was once the Wes 
Ilcken Combo, churns out several samples of lightly 
modern swing on Jazz Behind the Dikes, Epic 

Henry Mandni. Mancini was one of the first to 
give jazz a reasonably steady niche on television. 
The tone of his Music -from Peter Gunn, Victor 
LPM 1956, might be identified as mainstream 
modern. Its core is blues and swing, modestly 
coated with modern jazz touches. On this disk 
Mancini leads an excellent West Coast band which 
makes the most of the earthier passages he has given 
them and does as well as it can with the bland 


Gus Mancuso. Mancuso plays the baritone horn, 
which is his privilege and, occasionally, our pleas- 
ure on Introducing Gus Mancuso, Fantasy 3233. 
His disarmingly casual approach gives his heavy- 
toned instrument a pleasantly light and airy quality 
on the faster selections but, Lordy, it can be 
lugubrious on a slow ballad, 

Johnny Mandel. Mandel is a trumpeter, once with 
Basie, who retired to arranging in the middle 
Fifties and struck paydirt as a composer with his 
score for the film, / Want to Live. This was the 
first full length background written for a film in 
jazz terms by a jazz musician and played by a jazz 
group. Part of the soundtrack is reproduced on 7 
Want to Live, United Artists 4005, on which Man- 
del leads a big band (the remainder is played by a 
small group featuring Gerry Mulligan, who see). 
Mandel has developed several memorable themes in 
interesting fashion but his big band collection is, 
by force of circumstances, a series of snippets of 
suggestive passages which -are highly effective in 
the film and, by themselves on the disk, provoca- 
tive and stimulating. But still only snippets. 

Manhattan Jazz Septette. This compact, well con- 
tained studio group plays closely knit arrangements 
on Manhattan Jazz Septette, Coral 57090, which 
putter along pleasantly and sputter into liveliness 
when Eddie Costa's piano or Urbie Green's trom- 
bone reach rudely out of the aura of politeness. 

Herbie Mann. Mann has the distinction of being 
the only musician who is trying to make it in jazz 
by putting his best flute forward. He is, by choice, 
a flutist who doubles on tenor saxophone and bass 
clarinet, whereas the flute is normally a doubling 
instrument for one who is primarily a saxophonist. 

The Records 183 

Since the flute, even in the hands of someone who 
has been bred to swing on another instrument, is 
an obdurately piping, non-pulsing vehicle, this 
might seem to be a dubious and self-limiting act 
on Mann's part. His recordings bear this out. 

He fares best when he has a reasonably large 
group to provide varieties of texture Salute to the 
Flute, Epic 3395, and Magic Flute, Verve 8247. On 
Great Ideas of Western Mann, Riverside 12-245, he 
switches to bass clarinet, an instrument which has 
a shade more fluidity than the flute but not enough 
to go on at the length demanded when there are 
only three selections on each side of the disk. To 
show what he can do with a more suitable instru- 
ment, he plays a few choruses of romping tenor 
saxophone with an adequate Dutch group on 
Herbie Mann with the Wessell lichen Trio, Epic 
3499. He also trots out his tenor occasionally on 
Mann in the Morning, Prestige 7136, but he is over- 
shadowed by the Swedish group with which he 
plays, particularly by the lusty trombonist, A3ce 

Mann's flute, relatively straight and with scarcely 
any chaser, is heard on Herbie Mann Plays, Bethle- 
hem 58, Herbie Mann Quartet, Bethlehem 24, Love 
and the Weather, Bethlehem 63, Sultry Serenade, 
Riverside 12-234, Mann Alone, Savoy 12107, and 
Yardbird Suite, Savoy 12108. His basic problem is 
compounded when he engages in flute duets with 
Bobby Jaspar on Flute Souffle, Prestige 7101, and 
Flute Flight, Prestige 7124, and with Sam Most on 
Herbie Mann-Sam Most Quintet, Bethlehem 40. He 
has one selection, with flute, on Jazz for Lovers, 
Riverside 12-244, and one on bass clarinet on Blues 
for Tomorrow, Riverside 12-243. 

Shelly Manne. In his twenty-year career as a jazz 
drummer, Shelly Manne has sat in the midst of the 
oval bar of the Hickory House in New York back- 


ing up clarinetist Joe Marsala and he has, on sev- 
eral different occasions, driven the Stan Kenton 
juggernaut. And while Manne has shown obvious 
merits at these times, his unique talents as a jazz 
drummer did not become overtly evident until the 
middle Fifties when he was leading his own small 
groups on the West Coast. More than any other 
drummer, Manne has succeeded in giving the 
drums a valid place within an ensemble, in devel- 
oping a melodic approach to the drums that is not 
simply a novelty. He is, beyond this, one of the 
very few present-day drummers who can pull a 
group together even while he is driving it with a 
surging, lifting attack (Art Blakey, Ed Shaughnessy, 
Joe Morello and, at times, Max Roach can be 
counted on for this, too). 

Some of Manne's most interesting uses of drums 
occur on a ten-inch LP, The Three, Contemporary 
2516, on which he joins Shorty Rogers and Jimmy 
Giuffre in some unusual and provocative essays. A 
series of recordings he has made at the head of a 
group of varying personnel, identified as His Men, 
has shown steady improvement since its inaugura- 
tion in 1953. Shelly Manne and His Men, Vol. 1, 
Contemporary 3507, contains two sessions made in 
1953, one in 1955. Bill Russo contributes some ar- 
rangements to one 1953 session that are smooth, 
flowing swing under a strong Lennie Tristano in- 
fluence but Shorty Rogers' writing for these dates 
strains for effects. The '55 date, however, with ar- 
rangements by Bill Holman and Marty Paich, is a 
much more directly swinging affair in general. 

Shelly Manne and, His Men, Vol. 4, Contempo- 
rary 3516 (Vol. 2 is a ten-inch 1954 LP of rather 
overambitious compositions, Vol. 3 is The Three 
mentioned above) is a sensitively propelled 1956 
session involving Stu Williamson, trumpet, Charlie 
Mariano, alto saxophone, and Russ Freeman, a 
trio who remain with Manne throughout the re- 

The Records 185 

mainder of the His Men series. These three side- 
men come brilliantly into focus on Shelly Manne 
and His Men, Vol 5, Contemporary 3519, a disk 
which is highlighted by Bill Holman's long, four- 
part Quartet. Mariano and Williamson reach un- 
expected maturity in holding together Holman's 
loosely organized piece. Shelly Manne and His 
Men, Vol. 6, Contemporary 3536, splits one side 
between an excellent 1957 session and a relatively 
dull 1955 date (on which Bill Holman replaces 
Mariano). The second side carries a long work by 
clarinetist Bill Smith, Concerto -for Clarinet and 
Combo, which is primarily a highly satisfactory 
showcase for Smith, a polished clarinetist who 
moves in timeless fashion his Swing Era roots are 
coated with a modern point of view but he has not 
picked up any obstreperous mannerisms. 

Manne has also made a series of disks with His 
Friends (Andre Previn, piano, Leroy Vinnegar, 
bass). Previn is the dominating influence on all 
their disks. On Volume One, Contemporary 3533, 
Previn alternates between a glib, West Coast scam- 
per and some vague fustion in working over a 
standard set of tunes. Volume Two, Contemporary 
3527, is his reworking of the score of My Fair Lady, 
a phenomenally successful disk commercially but 
nonetheless a relatively pointless exercise which 
triggered the long succession of even more point- 
less jazz versions of Broadway scores that have fol- 
lowed. One followup is Volume Three, Contempo- 
rary 3533, the score in this case being L'il Abner, 
an inconsequential work which induces Previn to 
swing more validly than he does on My Fair Lady. 

Manne sings two selections in a genial, unpre- 
tentious manner on Jazz Composers Workshop, 
Savoy 12045 (this is what composers workshops are 
for?), and he is represented by single selections in 
The Jazz Giants: Drum Role, EmArcy 36071, and 
The Playboy Jazz Alhtars, Playboy 1957. 


Charlie Mariano. Among the alto saxophonists 
who are directly descended from Charlie Parker, 
Mariano has a flowing, aggressive guttiness that dis- 
tinguishes him from most other members of this 
huge family. His swinging vitality is quite evident 
on Charlie Mariano, Bethlehem 25, on which he is 
backed by a rhythm section enlivened by John 
Williams' tweedy, chomping piano, and on Beau- 
ties of 1918, World Pacific 1245, where he is paired 
with another somewhat shriller Parkerite altoist, 
Jerry Dodgion. Their material on this disk, songs 
of World War I vintage, is occasionally felicitously 
amusing but by and large it ends up as novelty 
material in the hands of two such modernists. 
Mariano can also be heard on one side of Charlie 
Mariano Sextet, Fantasy 3224, while the Mariano- 
Dodgion sextet plays one number on both Have 
Blues, Will Travel, World Pacific JWC 509, and 
Jazz West Coast, Vol. 4, World Pacific JWC 510. 

Reese Markewich. Markewich's Quintet, a rough 
but spirited group from Cornell, made a good im- 
pression at its introductory showing at the New 
York Jazz Festival in 1957. Much of the zest and 
dash of the group is transferred to New Designs in 
Jazz, Modernage 134. Its rousing spirit comes pri- 
marily from Nick Brignola's intense drive on bari- 
tone saxophone and the jabbing fury of Marke- 
wich's piano accompaniment. Occasionally they 
lunge too hard and overplay their hands but this is, 
on the whole, an unusually good debut recording 
and a decided relief from the drained, automatic 
blowing of many more experienced groups. 

Warne Marsh. In the late Forties Marsh shared the 
saxophone chores in the Lennie Tristano Sextet 
with Lee Konitz. Since then he seems to have wan- 
dered around in some musical never-never land 
muttering the old Tristano runs over and over to 

The Records 187 

himself. He conjures up some of the Tristano glide 
and swoop with a group of fellow Tristanoites on 
four selections in Modern Jazz Gallery, Kapp KXL 
5001, which draw most of their strength from 
Ronnie Ball's dark, nudging piano. But Marsh's 
vague, shapeless meanderings on Warne Marsh, At- 
lantic 1291, carry inarticulateness beyond all rea- 

Dick Marx. A clean, precise and rather strait-laced 
pianist, Marx swings easily at medium tempos. Too 
Much Piano, Brunswick 54006, and Piano Solos, 
Coral 57088, are weighed down by unpropulsive, 
rococo designs but he trims the frills effectively on 
Delicate Savagery, Coral 57151. 

The Mastersounds. Using the same instrumenta- 
tion as the Modern Jazz Quartet (piano, vibes, bass, 
drums), this quartet gave promising indications 
that it could avoid a similarity of sound on its first 
disk, Jazz Showcase, World Pacific 403, showing 
imagination and some lithe musical muscles which 
keep everything moving along convincingly. Since 
then, however, their efforts have been devoted to 
somewhat self-conscious and decidedly non-swing- 
ing versions of show scores: The King and I, World 
Pacific 405; Kismet, World Pacific 1243; The 
Flower Drum Song, World Pacific 1247. One of the 
group's non-showtunes is included on Have Blues, 
Will Travel, World Pacific JWC 509. 

Mat Mathews. Since his arrival in the United 
States from the Netherlands in 1952, Mathews has 
concocted a fairly personal brand of jazz mood 
music using a specially prepared accordion which 
produces lush, languorous tones. He works this 
pitch very effectively on Four French Horns, Elek- 
tra 134, The Modern Art of Jazz, Vol. 2, Dawn 
1104, and The Gentle Art of Love, Dawn 1111. He 


can also move easily through bright-tempoed mod- 
ern lines Mat Mathews, Brunswick 54013, and 
Eddie Costa, Mat Mathews and Don Elliott at New- 
port, Verve 8237. But The New York Jazz Quartet, 
Elektra 115, and The New York Jazz Quartet Goes 
Native, Elektra 118, fall ineffectively between his 
two main veins while Music for Suburban Living, 
Coral 57136, is very watery cocktail jazz. He has 
one selection in Critics' Choice, Dawn 1123, and in 
Jazz for Hi-Fi Lovers, Dawn 1124. 

John Mehegan. Mehegan functions as pianist, 
teacher and critic, thus giving himself several 
avenues of retreat and an equal number of posi- 
tions from which to attack. His position as a pian- 
ist is only mildly fortified for he is inclined to affect 
a rather casual, "comping" style which reduces al- 
most everything to an amiable rolling variant of 
something close to Tea for Two. This is quite 
pleasant the first few times but it becomes a little 
tiresome. His mulling, cudchewing attack has over- 
tones of Mose Allison's country-bred piano on Re- 
flections, Savoy 12028, while on I Just Love Jazz 
Piano, Savoy 12100, he is prodded to spurts of 
energy by the assertive presence of bassist Charlie 
Mingus. Mingus, however, is inclined to walk all 
over him. On two selections in Montage, Savoy 
12029, Mehegan has difficulty coming to grips with 
his tunes while his two-piano exercises with Eddie 
Costa on A Pair of Pianos, Savoy 12049, produce 
moments of warm jazz feeling but most of them 
turn into the usual scampering sound of piano 

Gil Melle. Melle, a baritone saxophonist who plays 
with a great deal of Gerry Mulligan's delightfully 
swampy, stomping quality, seems to have a yearning 
for a more dignified, higher existence which comes 
out, fortunately, in his liner notes rather than in 

The Records 189 

his music. He has covered the back liner of Primi- 
tive Modern, Prestige 7040, with a forbidding mass 
of technicalities but the music his quartet plays is 
essentially swinging and earthy, sparked by Joe 
Cinderella's buoyant guitar. Trombonist Eddie 
Bert is added to the Quartet for a pleasantly gal- 
lumphing set that steers clear of routine blowing, 
Patterns in Jazz, Blue Note 1517, but Melle's ac- 
companying ensemble on Quadrama, Prestige 7097, 
is hollowly recorded. His pretentions get the better 
of him on Gil's Guests, Prestige 7063, as Art 
Farmer, Hal McKusick, Don Butterfield and Kenny 
Dorham join him in determined readings of several 
of his experimental compositions. 

Melrose Avenue Conservatory Chamber Music So- 
ciety. No relation to the earlier Chamber Music 
Society of Lower Basin Street, this group is made 
up of familiar West Coast modernists (Marty Paich, 
John Graas, Stu Williamson, Jack Montrose, Bob 
Gordon, Chico Hamilton) playing four moderately 
interesting pieces on one side of Blow Hot, Blow 
Cool, Decca 8130 (Herbie Fields has the other side), 
highlighted by Hamilton's bright, clean drumming, 
some excellent muted trumpet by Williamson and 
Gordon's customary smoothly outgoing baritone 

Helen Merrill. Of all those who are often listed as 
jazz singers but are actually pop singers who some- 
times use jazz backgrounds, Miss Merrill has shown 
enough evidence of sensitivity and taste to imply 
that she could be a much better pop singer than 
most of her pseudo-jazz colleagues. She has had to 
overcome an early tendency to sing hoarsely and to 
doctor melodies pointlessly she weakens her per- 
formances in this manner on Helen Merrill, Em- 
Arcy 36006, Dream of You, EmArcy 36078 (with 
arrangements by Gil Evans), and Helen Merrill 


with Strings, EmArcy 36057 but she is pleasantly 
open and outgoing on Merrill at Midnight, Em- 
Arcy 36107, and The Nearness of You, EmArcy 
36134. She sings two selections in For Jazz Lovers, 
EmArcy 36086. 

Metronome All Stars. Since 1939 Metronome maga- 
zine has, sporadically, made its readers' annual 
popularity polls come alive by holding recording 
sessions with as many of the poll winners as possi- 
ble. The recording dates have been infrequent of 
late years and the results have not been compara- 
ble to some of the surprisingly zestful products of 
the earlier days. Two collections, The Metronome 
All Star Bands, Camden 426, and Metronome All 
Stars, Harmony 7044, cover the fertile years of the 
Forties. The Camden disk includes the very first, 
none-too-memorable session by the 1938 all-stars, 
runs through a magnificently driving session by the 
1940 choices, an adequate accounting by the 1945 
all-stars all these were dominated by swing mu- 
sicians and ends with the triumph of the boppers 
in 1948 with Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Miles 
Davis, Fats Navarro and Lennie Tristano among 
those present. The Harmony disk covers the win- 
ners of 1939, 1941, 1946 (with vocals by Nat Cole, 
June Christy and Frank Sinatra) and 1949. The 
1953 stars do an unimpressive selection in Forty- 
Eight Stars of American Jazz, MGM 3611, while the 
1956 winners commit a JATP-style jam session on 
Metronome All Stars 1956, Verve 8030. 

Metropolitan Jazz Quartet. Polite, subdued, un- 
ostentatious and unexciting swing by a group of 
New York studio men on Great Themes from the 
Classics, MGM 3730, Great Themes from TV 
Shows, MGM 3729, Great Themes from Great 
American Movies, MGM 3727, Great Themes from 

The Records 191 

Foreign Movies, MGM 3731, and Great Themes 
from Broadway Shows, MGM 3728. 

Jack Millman. Millman's strong, gutty-toned trum- 
pet provides a direct and forceful lead for his quar- 
tet in the dozen tunes that make up Blowing Up a 
Storm, ERA 20005, but when he calls in a dozen 
reputable jazz arrangers (Jimmy Giuffre, Shorty 
Rogers, Bill Holman, Pete Rugolo, Johnny Mandel 
and others) and assembles a band made up of top 
West Coast men to play their writing on Jazz 
Studio 4, Decca 8156, he is able to produce only a 
mediocre set. 

Charlie Mingus. The extremely personal musical 
turmoil that roars and sputters inside bassist 
Charlie Mingus has frequently wound up as little 
more than shock-implemented chaos, as when he 
tries to weave yowls, street noises and foghorns 
into some communicative form on Pithecanthropus 
Erectus, Atlantic 1237. But as he has slowly learned 
how to control and direct his unusual ideas, he has 
begun to create a style that owes nothing to anyone 
but Mingus, that is purely jazz rather than wanned 
over Europeanisms and that can be both quietly 
moving and intensely exciting. So far his best effort 
to make things come together on records is East 
Coasting, Bethlehem 6019. The trumpet and saxo- 
phone work in this disk leave a lot to be desired 
but still the flavor and spirit of Mingus comes 
through more strongly than on any other group of 
recordings and he has the invaluable help of trom- 
bonist Jimmy Knepper, the most deeply jazz-rooted 
of the modern trombonists who has a unique way 
of moaning with agonized soulfulness behind a 
soloist and then soaring off into his own solos with 
beautiful lyricism. A piece called Reincarnation 
of a Love Bird, included on The Clown, Atlantic 


1260, is another of Mingus' more successful efforts 
but this disk's title piece is a long, occasionally 
melodic work built on a remarkably banal, sup- 
posedly ad lib spoken part. 

Some of Mingus' earlier, less intensely different 
adventures are collected on Jazz Composers Work- 
shop, No. 2, Savoy 12059, which includes notably 
warm alto saxophone playing by John LaPorta, 
and The Jazz Experiments of Charlie Mingus, 
Bethlehem 65, on which trumpeter Thad Jones 
opens up in singing, soaring lyrical style. Mingus' 
Quintet (billed as "The Horace Parian Quintet" in 
honor of his pianist of the moment) accompanies 
Langston Hughes' readings of his poems on one 
side of Weary Blues, MGM 3697 (Red Allen's 
totally different group serves up the backing on the 
other side), making effective accenting use of the 
sudden squirts of sound that Mingus relishes and 
occasionally dashing off on short, astringent ex- 
cursions of its own. 

Mingus Three, Jubilee 1054, places him in a trio 
setting in support of pianist Hampton Hawes but 
Mingus seems to be holding a sensitive rein on the 
pianist, steering him away from his glib, slippery 
style to some of the most sensitive playing he has 
recorded. Mingus' main concession to himself is a 
setting for Summertime involving a Night in 
Tunisia obligate, strummed piano wires, Chinese 
cymbals and strange wailing cries from his bass. 

Blue Mitchell. Mitchell has a clean, singing trum- 
pet tone and a feeling for building solos along lyric 
lines but these talents are largely kept on the side- 
lines on Big Six, Riverside 12-273, a blowing session 
on which he makes way for the routine solos of 
saxophonist Johnny Griffin and trombonist Curtis 

The Records 193 

Red Mitchell, Simply because Red Mitchell is a 
strong, steady, perceptive bassist is no special reason 
for putting him at the helm of a recording session. 
In fact, the reverse would seem to be true but cur- 
rent fashion decrees that everybody is a star soloist 
and must have a few albums to his credit. The con- 
stant problem with most bass-led albums is that 
they produce endless bass solos which is part of the 
downfall of Presenting Red Mitchell, Contempo- 
rary 3538 (the rest is accomplished by teaming him 
with a dull trio of performers). The problem is 
solved to a degree on Red Mitchell, Bethlehem 38, 
by supplementing the Hampton Hawes Trio, in 
which Mitchell happened to be playing bass, with 
trumpeter Conte Candoli and alto saxophonist Joe 
Maini and then having the horns sit it out most of 
the time so that the Hawes Trio can play some 
pleasingly rhythmic pieces. 

Whitey Mitchell. Red Mitchell's younger brother, 
also a bassist, takes his leader's due in solos on 
Whitey Mitchell Sextette, ABC-Paramount 126, in 
what are otherwise unpretentious performances of 
genial, propulsive Neal Hefti arrangements. The 
Sextette includes a pair of ofl>beat instruments, 
Tom Stewart's tenor horn and Steve Lacy's soprano 

Mitchell-Ruff. Willie Ruff, who doubles between 
bass and French horn, and pianist Dwike Mitchell 
are of that school of jazz elevation which feels com- 
pelled to dress up some of its performances with 
references and effects that have nothing to do with 
jazz. The rest of the time they go whole hog into 
the impressionist school of non-jazz. They produce 
some pleasant background music which has only a 
glancing relationship to jazz on Mitchell-Ruff Duo, 


Epic 3221, Campus Concert, Epic 3318, and Ap- 
pearing Nightly, Roulette 52002. 

Hank Mobley. Mobley is a faceless tenor saxo- 
phonist who has worked with Max Roach, Dizzy 
Gillespie and the Jazz Messengers. He has been 
recorded at great length to very little purpose. At 
relatively slow, meditative tempos he is sometimes 
capable of warm, relaxed playing there are ex- 
amples on Mobley' s Second Message, Prestige 7082, 
The Jazz Message, Savoy 12064, and Hank Mobley 
Quintet, Blue Note 1550. Most of his time, how- 
ever, is devoted to bland, aimless noodling. He is 
not helped by the fact that he is usually recorded in 
long, shapeless blowing sessions which only empha- 
size the emptiness of his playing. Some of his disks 
are given point by the other performers on them 
trumpeter Lee Morgan and pianist Barry Harris 
raise the level of The Jazz Message #2, Savoy 
12092, Morgan and trombonist Curtis Fuller turn 
one side of Monday Night at Birdland, Roulette 
52015, into a really bright, swinging session, Milt 
Jackson makes Hank Mobley and His All Stars, 
Blue Note 1544, worth hearing and pianist Mai 
Waldron and guitarist Kenny Burrell do what they 
can to salvage All Night Long, Prestige 7073. But 
there are no rescuers on Mob ley's Message, Prestige 
7061, Tenor Conclave, Prestige 7074, Hank Mo- 
bley's Sextet, Blue Note 1540, Hank, Blue Note 
1560, or Hank Mobley, Blue Note 1568. 

Modern Jazz Quartet. If it does nothing else, the 
task of listening and re-listening to all the record- 
ings that preparation of this book required helps 
to put things in perspective. There were re-evalua- 
tions, discoveries, downgradings. But possibly the 
most impressive revelation was that no other body 
of recorded work since World War II holds up as 
well as that of the Modern Jazz Quartet. The 

The Records 195 

group was formed in 1952 by four members of 
Dizzy Gillespie's band John Lewis, piano, Milt 
Jackson, vibraphone, Percy Heath, bass, and Kenny 
Clarke, drums (Clarke was replaced in 1955 by 
Connie Kay). Although Lewis is the dominant 
musical personality in the quartet he composes 
the bulk of its original pieces he is not, as is 
widely believed, the group's leader. It is a coopera- 
tive quartet and Lewis' position is musical direc- 

In its early stages, the MJQ was a relatively free 
swinging group given to extensive individual solo- 
ing in a manner common to most modern jazz 
groups although the fact that the soloists were 
Lewis and Jackson set them apart from the com- 
mon run. The Quartet's first recordings, originally 
issued as by the Milt Jackson Quartet, are on The 
Quartet, Savoy 12046, two ballads and two blues in 
which Jackson plays a leading and strongly swing- 
ing role. The first of Lewis* fuguing originals, 
Vendome, is one of the four selections in their first 
recording session as the Modern Jazz Quartet 
which are included on MJQ, Prestige 7059, and the 
steady growth of Lewis' integrating influence can 
be traced on Django, Prestige 7057, a disk made up 
of recordings made in 1953, 1954 and early 1955 
which includes two Lewis compositions which have 
since become jazz standards Django and The 
Queen's Fancy. 

At this point Clarke, who favored a more loosely 
organized, individualistic approach, was replaced 
by Kay and the group settled into a period of some- 
what consciously finding itself as a unit and then, 
having achieved this unity, of taking it for granted 
and removing the traces of the conscious mold 
within which it has been working. This process 
can be seen in the quartet's increasing ability to 
achieve a sinewy delicacy which mixes control and 
precision with a loose and vigorously swinging at- 


tack. These were qualities that had always been 
apparent in Jackson's work but it took a little 
while for Lewis' playing, with its firm roots in the 
stomps and shouts of an earlier day, to make itself 
properly felt in both his solos and his buoyant, 
urging accompaniments. Concorde, Prestige 7005, 
and Fontessa, Atlantic 1231, are steps leading to 
the most satisfying of the group's disks, The Mod- 
ern Jazz Quartet, Atlantic 1265, which shows off the 
group's approach to ballads, modern jazz standards 
and some hard-swinging pieces. 

The Modern Jazz Quartet at Music Inn, Atlantic 
1247, is a mixed package with three selections on 
which Jimmy Giuffre adds his lower register clari- 
net to the Quartet, some brilliantly direct jazz play- 
ing by the Quartet and a few things which are not 
jazz at all but which Lewis plays because he likes 
them. Selections from the score written by Lewis 
for a French film, No Sun in Venice, make up One 
Never Knows, Atlantic 1284 (the apparent discrep- 
ancy in titles is due to the fact that the French title 
of the film was On Sait Jamais). They are melodic, 
fugue-fringed pieces which often seem on the verge 
of withdrawing completely from jazz. A relaxed 
and pulsing memento of the Quartet's travels with 
the JATP troupe makes up one side of The Mod- 
ern Jazz Quartet and the Oscar Peterson Trio at 
the Opera House, Verve 8269. 

Modern Jazz Sextet. Two members of the MJQ 
(John Lewis, Percy Heath) are added to two high- 
flying soloists (Dizzy Gillespie, Sonny Stitt) and 
sound rhythm support (Skeeter Best, Charlie Per- 
sip) to produce an exuberantly swinging blowing 
session on Modern Jazz Sextet, Verve 8166. Lewis, 
in an atmosphere decidedly different from that of 
the Modern Jazz Quartet, turns in some fascinat- 
ingly free wheeling solos. 

The Records 197 

MJT Plus 3. This brash, driving, boppish group, 
which includes Paul Serrano on trumpet and Nicky 
Hill, tenor saxophone, produces well articulated 
solos and clean, balanced ensembles on MJT Plus 
3, Argo 621, but nothing memorable results. 

Thelonious Monk. Monk is a spare, gnawing, wor- 
risome pianist whose reflective poking around be- 
tween the keys is not at all accommodating to the 
casual listener although his ideas are often haunt- 
ing. He was present at Minton's in the early Forties 
when bop was being forged but he was not a part 
of the bop movement. He is, like Jelly Roll Morton 
and Duke Ellington, an individualist who has 
carved his own somewhat thorny and perverse way 
through jazz. 

He was so little a part of bop in the Forties that 
an aura of mystery grew up around him and iso- 
lated him from the main body of jazz. It was not 
until well into the Fifties that he began to find a 
steadily widening audience and to have a notice- 
able influence on newer musicians (pianist Randy 
Weston was the first Monk-descended pianist to 
make a splash). Monk is also a prolific composer 
with an unusual talent for creating eccentric melo- 
dies which are, nonetheless, relatively easy to as- 

The delay in recognition of Monk's abilities as 
composer and performer was caused not because it 
took him a long time to shape his style but be- 
cause he presented himself as he was, undiluted by 
any condescension to current taste. How firmly the 
Monk mold was established in the Forties can be 
seen on his earliest recordings, products of the mid- 
dle and late Forties, on Genius of Modern Music, 
Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, Blue Note 1510 and 1511, which 
provide a good cross-section of Monk as a soloist, 
composer and organizer. These disks include the 


original recordings of such Monk classics as 'Round 
About Midnight, Off Minor, Ruby My Dear, Mis- 
terioso, Well You Needn't and several examples of 
his fascinating, off-center approach to standard pop 

Monk's work between 1952 and 1954 is found on 
three Prestige disks. Thelonious Monk, Prestige 
7027, is made up of two trio sessions, one in 1952 
and one in 1954, both full-blooded, wrily accented 
Monk and particularly notable for his extended 
development of Blue Monk on the 1954 session. 
Sessions from 1953 and 1954 make up Featuring 
Thelonious Monk, Prestige 7053, this time placing 
him at the head of two quintets, one of which in- 
cludes the still developing Sonny Rollins. A catch- 
all collection, Thelonious Monk, Prestige 7075, in- 
cludes the 1953 Rollins group, a fine 1954 trio in 
which Monk is supported by Percy Heath and Art 
Elakey and a 1954 quartet in which Rollins, a year 
after his relatively routine playing with the quintet, 
reveals a sudden expansion of his talents. In this 
quartet Rollins provides the meat while Monk 
spreads the seasoning. 

When Riverside Records began recording Monk 
in 1956, they undertook to bring him into touch 
with a wider audience than he had had before. The 
way to do this, they reasoned, was to put him to 
work on familiar tunes rather than his own rela- 
tively recondite compositions. Their first effort, 
Thelonious Monk Plays Duke Ellington, Riverside 
12-201, backfired largely because Ellington himself 
had already set the pattern for his own tunes and 
Monk's pattern proved to be too drastically differ- 
ent to rest easily on a queasy ear. Next time out, 
however, he was set to work on a varied set of ever- 
greens Memories of You, Honeysuckle Rose, Tea 
for Two, etc. which have no set standard against 
which Monk's treatment had to be balanced. Sup- 
ported by Oscar Pettiford, bass, and Art Blakey, 

The Records 199 

drums, he holds to an interesting blend of the fa- 
miliar and the Monkish that manages to be steadily 
provocative. In somewhat the same vein he plays 
without accompaniment a mixture of popular bal- 
lads and his own pieces on Thelonious Himself, 
Riverside 12-235, but here he shows that no matter 
how engaging his variations on others' tunes may 
be, he is on more productive ground when he is 
mulling through his own creations. 

Monk's ability to dominate any group of musi- 
cians, to impose a Monk sound on them much as 
Jelly Roll Morton imposed a Morton sound on 
whatever group of strays might make up his Red 
Hot Peppers, is strikingly illustrated on Brilliant 
Corners, Riverside 12-223, and Monk's Music, 
Riverside 12-242. The first, played by a quintet 
made up of Ernie Henry, Sonny Rollins, Oscar 
Pettiford, Max Roach and Monk, includes what 
annotator-producer Orrin Keepnews rightly calls 
"a near-ballad with guts," Pannonica, which is as 
haunting as a Chas. Addams cartoon while the title 
selection is a fascinating mixture of lugubrious 
harmonies and flighty rhythms. Monk's Music re- 
prises some of his earlier works Epistrophy, Off 
Minor, Well You Needn't and adds to his reper- 
tory a lovely, evocative piece, Crepuscule with 
Nellie. Even on the two least successful tracks (both 
long, loose blowing sessions), the glorious fire that 
radiates from Monk's playing seems to be stirred to 
a more intense heat as things threaten to fall apart 
around him and he prods and herds his soloists 
(Coleman Hawkins, John Coltrane, Gigi Gryce, 
Ray Copeland, Art Blakey) into position. And 
when things are going as he would have them as 
composer, arranger and pianist, he shines mag- 
nificently. It is a fair measure of Monk's musical 
personality that so strongly individual a jazz voice 
as Hawkins' is completely overshadowed in Monk's 


A quartet which Monk led in 1958 is recorded in 
performance on Thelonious in Action, Riverside 
12-262, and Misterioso, Riverside 12-279. These 
disks present Monk in more lightly swinging focus 
than most of his studio sessions. Much of this comes 
from a very able rhythm team Roy Haynes, a 
drummer who keeps the rhythm going with in- 
sistent vitality, and Ahmed Abdul-Malik, a big- 
toned, steady bassist. The fourth man is tenor saxo- 
phonist Johnny Griffin whose seam-bursting attack 
seems to be subject to some Monkish discipline on 
Thelonious in Action but on Misterioso he becomes 
tied up in long barren solos* 

A reunion of Monk and Art Blakey, who 
drummed on most of his early records, takes place 
on Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers with Thelonious 
Monk, Atlantic 1278. It is too bad that the frame- 
work for the meeting is the blatant pre-Benny Gol- 
son and Lee Morgan Messengers since the invigor- 
ating flights and crafty sparring of Monk and 
Blakey are constantly interrupted by the earth- 
bound trumpet of Bill Hardman and Johnny Grif- 
fin's routine saxophone. Another crossing of 
strains, Thelonious Monk and Gerry Mulligan, 
Riverside 12-247, takes place over four Monk stand- 
ards, a Mulligan variation of Undecided and the 
mellow standard, Sweet and Lovely. It is the last 
selection that provides the most happy common 
ground as Monk evolves his lovely dissonances and 
Mulligan swaggers at an easy, loping pace. But on 
the other pieces Mulligan seems lost in Monk's 
company. A Monk trio selection is included in 
Riverside Drive, Riverside 12-267. 

J. R. Monterose. Inspired originally by Tex 
Beneke, Monterose is a tenor saxophonist who has 
worked his way up through as unlikely a band as 
Henry Busse's as well as the more likely Buddy 
Rich and Claude Thornhill orchestras. He uses a 

The Records 201 

staccato style known as "pecking'* which, combined 
with suggestions of a Sonny Rollins influence, pro- 
duces some vigorous, driving pieces on /. R. Monte- 
rose, Blue Note 1536. 

Montgomery Brothers. The three Montgomery 
brothers, two of whom (Monk and Buddy) com- 
prise half of the quartet known as the Master- 
sounds, are joined on The Montgomery Brothers 
Plus Five, World Pacific 1240, by a quintet of 
musicians from their home town, Indianapolis. 
The home town guests play capably in the modern 
idiom but it is vibist Buddy Montgomery who 
dominates the loosely swinging performances. Like 
Red Norvo, Buddy manages to imply rhythmic 
strength with a light touch, dancing bright rings 
around the more earthbound work of the other 
members of the group. 

Wes Montgomery. Wes is the third of the Mont- 
gomery brothers (see above), a guitarist who swings 
strongly with a mixture of single string and 
chorded playing on one selection in Have Blues, 
Will Travel, World Pacific JWC 509. 

Jack Montrose. A tenor saxophonist and writer 
whose habitat is the West Coast, Montrose is not 
to be confused with the East Coast's J. R. Monte- 
rose. On the basis of their records, there should be 
no confusion. West Coast Montrose is a flat toned, 
grinding saxophonist whose disks have bright mo- 
ments solely because of the efforts of baritone saxo- 
phonist Bob Gordon (Arranged by Montrose, 
World Pacific 1214; Jack Montrose Sextet, World 
Pacific 1208; and Jack Montrose with Bob Gordon, 
Atlantic 1223) or Red Norvo (Blues and Vanilla, 
Victor LPM 1451; The Horn Is Full, Victor LPM 


James Moody. Moody is a far more accomplished 
saxophonist (tenor and alto) than most of those 
who have achieved the status of "names" during 
the Fifties yet he has remained in relative obscurity. 
This may be attributed partly to his decision to 
remain in Europe from 1948 to 1951 after making 
a strong impression with Dizzy Gillespie's band in 
1947. And undoubtedly his unsettled personality 
problems which led to voluntary commitment to a 
New Jersey mental institution, Overbrook, in 
April, 1958, had something to do with it. 

Between his return to the United States and his 
journey to Overbrook he led a rough, romping 
band which was just this side of being a rhythm 
and blues group. It was a swinging band and al- 
though Moody's was the most polished solo voice 
in the group, trumpeter Dave Burns could turn in 
an occasional well shaped solo and baritone saxo- 
phonist Pee Wee Moore brought a strong attack to 
his solo lines. This band's first recordings The 
Moody Story , EmArcy 36031 are shallow, tasteless 
and exhibitionistic but on its later disks James 
Moody's Hi Fi Party, Prestige 7011; Wail, Moody, 
Wail, Prestige 7036; James Moody's Moods, Pres- 
tige 7056; and Moody, Prestige 7072 Moody 
moves skillfully through a complex variety of styles. 
His tenor may be relatively hardtoned and biting 
at one moment, floating in the Lester Young man- 
ner or dark, warm and breathy a la Ben Webster; 
on alto he is almost always smooth but he may soar 
gently or ride like a demon. The Moody band has 
two selections in Giants of Jazz, Vol. 3, Part 1, Em- 
Arcy 36050. 

Shortly before making his decision to go to Over- 
brook, Moody heeded fashion and took up the flute. 
He plays it as well as any other jazzman but it is a 
futile and tiresome jazz instrument so that Moody's 
Mood for Love, Argo 613, on which he plays flute 
on almost every number, is one of his least effective 

The Records 203 

disks. However, both this collection and Flute 'n' 
the Blues, Argo 603, are brightened when Moody 's 
pianist, Jimmy Boyd, blows some elegantly gutty 
solos on the peck horn. And while a balance is be- 
ing cast, one should include the fact that all of 
these Moody disks include an occasional vocal by 
Eddie Jefferson, a simpering, grating singer who 
devises very banal lyrics to instrumental solos in 
the manner, but without the style, of King Pleasure 
and Jon Hendricks. 

After five months of recuperation at Overbrook, 
Moody emerged to make Last Train from Over- 
brook, Argo 637, with a 14-piece band especially 
assembled for the occasion. There is a gratifying 
tranquility and assurance in his playing here, par- 
ticularly in the singing force with which he con- 
jures up a strong, earthy feeling on alto. 

Joe Mooney. Although he has a very small voice, 
Mooney's disciplined and knowledgeable phrasing 
gives his singing a jazz quality that cannot be found 
in most so-called jazz singers. He shows both this 
deft skill and an equally perceptive use of the or- 
gan in an astutely chosen program on Lush Life, 
Atlantic 1255. There is a bit too much emphasis 
on novelty material in On the Rocks, Decca 8486, 
although it shows what he can do with an accordion 
and offers the only recorded glimpses of the excel- 
lent little group he led in the late Forties. 

Brew Moore. Moore is one of the truest followers 
of Lester Young's soft, floating style on tenor saxo- 
phone but he has not been treated particularly well 
on records. The best evidence of his ability will be 
found on Brew Moore, Fantasy 3264, on which he 
teams up with a hard-toned tenor, Harold Wylie, 
in a manner which seems mutually inspiring. These 
are mid-Fifties recordings but in another set from 
the same period, The Brew Moore Quartet and 


Quintet, Fantasy 3222, Moore's playing seems self- 
effacing and negative, overshadowed by the grace- 
ful force of John Marabuto's lively, note-filled 
piano work. Moore's other disks are poorly re- 
corded mementos of his life among the boppers in 
New York in the late Forties. On Lestorian Mode, 
Savoy 12105, he provides the only real spark of life 
in four selections as he emerges from a dull shuffle 
which passes for an ensemble (these pieces include 
some very unformed Gerry Mulligan baritone saxo- 
phone work) but even Moore can save only one of 
the four otherwise static pieces included in In the 
Beginning . . . Bebop!, Savoy 12119. 

Marilyn Moore. By singing through her nose, Miss 
Moore gets something of Billie Holiday's nasal 
quality but not much else on Moody Marilyn 
Moore, Bethlehem 73. Her singing is all surface 
with little depth or projection. 

Pat Moran, Miss Moran, an able if not yet distinc- 
tive pianist, plays with swinging force and an obvi- 
ous appreciation of the business at hand on This 
Is Pat Moran, Audio Fidelity 1875. 

Lee Morgan. Morgan zoomed to attention in 1957 
when he was the teen-age marvel of Dizzy Gilles- 
pie's big band. The fact that an 18-year-old could 
successfully challenge Gillespie on one of his major 
showpieces, Night in Tunisia, was undoubtedly 
worthy of comment but the most interesting thing 
about Morgan is the rapidity with which he has 
matured from an impressively fluent trumpeter to 
one who has great sensitivity and an almost in- 
fallible instinct for form. At 20 he stands as one of 
the most brilliant jazz trumpeters with his greatest 
potential still ahead of him. Along with Benny 
Golson's discerning musical direction, Morgan's 
playing late in 1958 and 1959 completely trans- 

The Records 205 

formed Art Blakey's previously ragged Jazz Messen- 
gers to a crackling, electrifying group. 

Morgan's own recordings are, on the whole, il- 
luminating examples of the mixture of fire, control 
and insight which marks most of his playing. Possi- 
bly one of his most revealing disks is Candy, Blue 
Note 1590, on which he concentrates on gently 
paced ballads. The inability of jazz modernists to 
play a ballad with any evidence of appreciation of 
the melody is one of their most common failings. 
Their tendency is to state the melody in the most 
banal and arid terms and then, to the relief of per- 
former and listener alike, abandon it. Morgan, on 
the other hand, seems to hear and understand these 
tunes and he develops them with an appreciative 
inventiveness that is unique among his contempo- 
raries. In totally different circumstances, a rugged 
blowing session on Monday Night at Birdland, 
Roulette 52015, he takes prompt charge and sets a 
rip-roaring, challenging pace that rouses previously 
undiscovered resources in trombonist Curtis Fuller 
and even inspires the generally somnolent tenor 
saxophonist, Hank Mobley. 

He is the spur again with some keyed-up Gilles- 
pie men on Dizzy Atmosphere, Specialty 5001, but 
he becomes the dominating force on Presenting Lee 
Morgan, Blue Note 1538, and on The Cooker, Blue 
Note 1578, on which baritone saxophonist Pepper 
Adams is completely overshadowed by Morgan's 
electrifying virtuosity. He is hampered somewhat 
by static accompaniment on City Lights, Blue Note 

Morgan has his fallible moments, too, when he 
finds himself playing second fiddle. This happens 
on Lee Morgan Sextet, Blue Note 1541, when an 
otherwise unheralded alto saxophonist, Kenny 
Rodgers, steps out with an assurance that makes 
Morgan seem limp by contrast and again on Lee 
Morgan, Blue Note 1557, on which the major point 


of interest is the writing and playing of tenor saxo- 
phonist Benny Golson. Morgan's only really inade- 
quate disk is Introducing Lee Morgan, Savoy 12091, 
on which, despite a live, crackling attack, his ideas 
come haltingly. 

Sandy Mosse. A Chicagoan, veteran of the Woody 
Herman band of 1953, Mosse is a capable but un- 
distinguished product of the Lester- Young-through- 
Herman vein of tenor saxophone. He is heard with 
alto saxophonist Ira Shulman on Chicago Scene, 
Argo 609. 

Sam Most. Doubling between flute and clarinet, 
Most is a rather unemotional musician although 
he occasionally swings reasonably well on clarinet 
despite a somewhat legitimate tone. He plays both 
instruments on one side of Doubles in Jazz, Van- 
guard 8522 (shared with Don Elliott), and Musi- 
cally Yours, Sam Most, Bethlehem 6008; clarinet 
only on a single selection in Modern Jazz Hall of 
Fame, Design 29, and pipes out flute duets with 
Herbie Mann on Herbie Mann-Sam Most Quintet, 
Bethlehem 40. 

Ken Moule. This broad minded English arranger 
and pianist can be boppish, swinging or moody. He 
is all three in competent performances with his 
Seven on Modern Jazz at Royal Festival Hall, 
London LL 1185, but there is less reaching for 
effects and more meat in a very pleasant set, Ken 
Moule Arranges For . . . , London LL 1673, played 
by an unusually good group which includes saxo- 
phonists Don Rendell, Ronnie Ross and Dougie 

Gerry Mulligan. Although he seems to be perma- 
nently branded as a representative of "cool" jazz, 
Mulligan is actually one of the rare jazzmen prac- 

The Records 207 

ticing in the modern Idiom who carries the stigmata 
of "hot" jazz. He plays his baritone saxophone with 
a stomping, galumphing, melodic urgency that 
comes straight out of the gruff and giddy joys of 
Kansas City and Jelly Roll Morton's interpretation 
of New Orleans. He has, however, moved at some 
length in cool surroundings. He was part of that 
Miles Davis combo which existed briefly in 1948 
and recorded in 1949 those pieces (in The Birth of 
the Cool, Capitol T 762) which are felt to epito- 
mize cool jazz. As an arranger for Claude Thorn- 
hill's band and the Thornhill-influenced Elliot 
Lawrence band, he worked in the pastel style which 
contributed to the Davis cool effect and later, when 
he formed his first Quartet in 1952, he chose as his 
trumpeter a practitioner of diluted Davis, Chet 

In the late Forties, when Mulligan was still in his 
early twenties (he was born in 1927) he was known 
primarily as an arranger and quite secondarily as 
a performer for his playing did not begin to take 
firm shape until he had formed his Quartet. There 
are two awkward samples of Mulligan's playing in 
1950 on Conception, Prestige 7013, while Mulligan 
Plays Mulligan, Prestige 7006, recorded in 1951, 
shows him at the head of an unwieldy ten-piece 
group in which Allen Eager's tenor saxophone is 
the one really swinging horn. 

Mulligan the Jazz Personality properly dates 
from the formation of his 1952 pianoless quartet, 
a radical idea at the time, made up of Baker, 
Carson Smith, bass, and Chico Hamilton, drums. 
The texture and tonal colors achieved by this 
group were particularly refreshing in a period when 
jazz was wandering in the limbo left in the wake 
of the disintegration of bop. The subtle charms of 
this quartet are reported on Mulligan Quartet, 
Fantasy 3220. Larry Bunker replaces Hamilton on 
drums on the remainder of the recordings by this 


first version of the Mulligan Quartet which shows 
a warm, swinging forthright attack on Baker-Mulli- 
gan-De Franco, GNP 26, and on those portions of 
Lee Konitz Plays with the Gerry Mulligan Quartet, 
World Pacific 406, on which Konitz lets the Quartet 
go its own merry way. The Gerry Mulligan Quar- 
tet, World Pacific 1207, is less satisfying because 
the unity of the group gives way to a trading off of 
solos. A 1958 effort to recapture some of the group's 
youthful elan on Reunion with Chet Baker, World 
Pacific 1241, is less a demonstration of the maturity 
and assurance that Mulligan has acquired since 
then than it is a somewhat painful display of 
Baker's failure to improve on what was even in the 
beginning a very tentative talent. 

An attempt by Mulligan to expand his quartet 
style to a ten-piece group in 1953 on one side of 
Modern Sounds, Capitol T 691 (shared with Shorty 
Rogers), turns out instead to be a dilution of things 
that the quartet did more effectively and more to 
the point. Two pieces by this so-called Tentette 
(and there's a tea shoppe wordde) included in Cool 
and Quiet, Capitol T 371, are of special interest 
because Mulligan plays a delightfully raw, thump- 
ing, lazy piano instead of saxophone. 

A later version of the Mulligan Quartet with 
Hamilton back on drums, Jon Eardley, trumpet, and 
Red Mitchell, bass, is heard in concert performances 
along with a Mulligan sextet, created by the addi- 
tion of Zoot Sims, tenor saxophone, and- Bob 
Brookmeyer, valve trombone, on California Con- 
certs, World Pacific 1201. Mulligan dominates both 
groups and turns in some more gloriously thump- 
ing piano on Piano Blues (which crops up again as 
a pointedly effective background for an excellent 
reading of Philip Whalen's poem, Big High Song 
for Somebody, by Roy Glenn in Jazz Canto, World 
Pacific 1244). More or less the same group, with 
Eardley, Sims and Brookmeyer all present, deliver 

The Records 209 

the by-now expected rugged stomping quality of a 
proper Mulligan performance with suave stylish- 
ness on Mainstream, EmArcy 36101, and The Gerry 
Mulligan Sextet, EmArcy 36056, on which the direct, 
singing, bittersweet quality of Eardley's trumpet on 
ballads is especially interesting. 

Mulligan's next move was back to the quartet 
format, this time with Brookmeyer's valve trombone 
as his horn. Brookmeyer was a happy choice since, 
when he is involved in a strongly pulsing setting 
(as opposed to the spongy framework he found him- 
self in as part of the Jimmy Giuffre Three) he has 
much the same rough, stomping zest that Mulligan 
has. On Paris Concert, World Pacific 1210, this 
Mulligan foursome shows rare style and vitality. 
They purr, they bite and they swing from the heels. 
Even Laura, taken at a slow ballad pace, is prodded 
so by Mulligan, urged by Brookmeyer and pushed 
along by Red Mitchell and drummer Frank Isola 
that it never drags its heels. Even better is a set 
recorded at Storyville in Boston, Gerry Mulligan 
Quartet, World Pacific 1228. Here the Quartet 
produces the very essence of discerning, unmyopic 
jazz jazz that flows out of both the old and new 
streams without being ostentatiously a part of either 
camp. Once more we get a flash of Mulligan the 
pianist as he evolves a wriggling, earthy, itchy 
clutch of notes on Storyville Story reflecting the 
gutty quality of his horn. 

No recordings by Mulligan's most recent quartet, 
with Art Farmer playing trumpet in place of Brook- 
meyer's trombone, had been released when this 
was written but a product of this teaming can be 
found on The Jazz Combo from "I Want to Live," 
United Artists 4006, in which Mulligan heads a 
group, including Farmer, Bud Shank, Shelly Manne, 
Frank Rosolino, Pete Jolly and Red Mitchell, 
which plays themes written by Johnny Mandel for 
a motion picture. They deliver some stirring jazz> 


by turns agitated and jabbing or dreamily exotic, 
making excellent use of the sturdily melodic mate- 
rial that Mandel provided. 

Between times with his quartets and sextets, 
Mulligan has been kept busy on records as a 
visitor. These have not always been particularly 
happy occasions for him, although his appearance 
with Teddy Wilson at Newport in 1957, reported 
on Teddy Wilson and Gerry Mulligan at Newport, 
Verve 8235, inspired him to some prodigies of 
rugged swinging (but his own quartet the Brook- 
meyer one turned rather tepid; it is on the same 
disk). Gerry Mulligan-Paul Desmond Quartet,VeTve 
8246, is a fascinating display of sparring and inter- 
play between two highly cultivated jazz minds, a 
furiously swinging affair for both saxophonists even 
in their slow, squirming evolution of Body and 
Soul Mulligan produces some typically strong solos 
but it is Desmond, playing with a more definitely 
leathery attack than usual, who consistently comes 
out on top. A joint effort with Stan Getz, Getz 
Meets Mulligan in Hi-Fi, Verve 8249, is less produc- 
tive because on one side of the disk they trade horns. 
Mulligan playing tenor, Getz baritone. Once this 
largely pointless nonsense is out of the way and 
they get down to their proper business, Getz 
produces some soaring solos and Mulligan gives a 
slow Ballad a few good digs but the disk as a whole 
adds up to a wasted opportunity. Still another 
visit, Mulligan Meets Monk, Riverside 12-247, finds 
Mulligan seemingly at a loss, staggering lumpily 
much of the time. 

Both Mulligan and Brookmeyer were called in 
to dress up trumpeter Phil Sunkel's Jazz Concerto 
Grosso, ABC-Paramount 225, an overlong work 
(fifteen minutes) which is brightened not by Mulli- 
gan or Brookmeyer but by Sunkel's light, sensitive 
playing. And to dress up a group of Mulligan's 

The Records 211 

compositions on The Gerry Mulligan Songbook, 
Vol. 1, World Pacific 1237, he has been granted 
a non-pareil saxophone section Zoot Sims, Al 
Cohn, Lee Konitz, Allen Eager and himself 
which, despite its spirit and polish, is constantly 
outclassed by the composer as he stomps and roars 
through his pieces. 

There are single selections by a Mulligan Quartet 
on The Blues, World Pacific JWC 502 (with Jon 
Eardley), Drums on Fire, World Pacific 1247 (with 
Chico Hamilton), Jazz West Coast, Vol. 4, World 
Pacific JWC 510 (the Chet Baker reunion), The 
Playboy Jazz Allstars, Playboy 1957 (Brookmeyer), 
Jazz West Coast, Vol. 2, World Pacific JWC 501 
(Brookmeyer), and two Quartet selections in Ballads 
for Background, World Pacific JWC 503 (Brook- 
meyer and Baker), Jazz West Coast, World Pacific 
JWC 500 (Eardley and Baker; also the Baker quar- 
tet plus Konitz), and Rodgers and Hart Gems, 
World Pacific JWC 504 (Eardley and Brookmeyer). 
A pair of Mulligan sextet selections are in Under 
One Roof, EmArcy 36088, and one sextet item in 
both Jazz West Coast, Vol. 3, World Pacific JWC 
507, and Bargain Day, EmArcy 36087. 

Lyle Murphy. Since the Thirties, when he was 
known as Spud Murphy and was one of Benny 
Goodman's top arrangers, Murphy has reverted to 
his square handle and has developed a twelve-tone 
system of his own. Gone with the Woodwinds, Con- 
temporary 3506, uses this twelve-tone system but 
the listener should not be scared off either by this 
or by the woodwinds for Murphy's Swing Era 
training is apparently too strong to allow him to 
leave his audience out on a limb. He has created 
lovely warm harmonies over pulsing supporting 
rhythm in this set of freshly swinging, melodic 


Morris Nanton, A pleasant but routine pianist 
wades through a dull score on Flower Drum Song, 
Warner Brothers 1256. 

Fats Navarro. Navarro graduated from the Andy 
Kirk and Billy Ecksrine bands in the mid-Forties 
(he took Dizzy Gillespie's place with Eckstine) to 
become one of the cleanest, most resolved executors 
of the Gillespie trumpet style in the bop period. A 
cross section of his better recorded work makes up 
The Fabulous Fats Navarro, Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, 
Blue Note 1531 and 1532. On these disks, which 
include alternate masters as well as original re- 
leases, he is heard with the Bud Powell Quintet 
(with a very young Sonny Rollins), an easily swing- 
ing group with a rugged ensemble punch; with the 
McGhee-Navarro Boptet which showcases crisp 
trumpet interplay between Navarro and Howard 
McGhee and some strong, flowing piano playing 
by Milt Jackson; and with the Tadd Dameron 
Sextet, a stodgy group compared to the other two, 
lightened by Navarro's precise, clarion solos. On 
Fats Navarro Memorial Album No. 1, Savoy 12011, 
Navarro is to a large extent a voice crying in the 
wilderness as he plays with a pair of fumbling 
groups that rarely pull together. He is in warmer 
company and he himself is at his crackling best in 
four selections on In the Beginning . . . Bebop!, 
Savoy 12119, on which tenor saxophonist Eddie 
Davis adds an enticingly sharp edge to a strongly 
Lester Young attack. Navarro, as ever, is bright and 
fluent in his own playing on four selections on 
Opus de Bop, Savoy 12114, even though his sur- 
roundings are heavy but even his own steadiness 
seems to desert him in the arid surroundings of 
one side of Saturday Night Swing Session, Counter- 
point 549. 

The Records 213 

Mike Nevard. Nevard is an English counterpart of 
Leonard Feather primarily a writer who also or- 
ganizes recording sessions. One he held at Feather's 
requests makes up one side of Cool Europe, MGM 
3157 (shared with Jutta Hipp), which is worthy of 
notice because of a soaring alto solo in strong 
Benny Carter terms by Johnny Dankworth. 

Phineas Newborn, Jr. The jazz saga of Phineas 
Newborn is, so far, a rather sad one. He burst into 
prominence in 1956 heralded as having the greatest 
technique since Tatum. Technique Newborn cer- 
tainly has and he shows on the cleanly played Here 
Is Phineas, Atlantic 1235, that he has some notion 
of how to apply it to jazz. Despite a disturbingly 
static quality, this was a promising debut recording. 
But instead of growing and absorbing more of the 
jazz feeling that was his most noticeable lack, his 
recordings have become steadily more arid. Phineas' 
Rainbow, Victor LPM 1421, is less promising than 
his first disk; on While My Lady Sleeps, Victor 
LPM 1474, he is drowned in glistening strings; and 
on Phineas Newborn, Jr., Plays Harold Arlen's 
Music from "Jamaica," Victor LPM 1589, he seems 
to have given up even bothering to try to play jazz. 
Finally, in an apparent attempt to resuscitate his 
jazz side, he has been cast in a pointless Enroll 
Garner mold on Fabulous Phineas, Victor LPM 

Joe Newman. A fixture in the Basie trumpet sec- 
tion for many years, Newman, like most Basie side- 
men in the present band, is rarely heard to much 
advantage with the band. On outside recordings, 
his playing is inclined to be neatly turned but 
bland. He is bright and breezy on The Happy Cats, 
Coral 57121, on which he has the inventive sup- 
port of his Basiemate, tenor saxophonist Frank 


Wess, turns crisply pungent in some relaxed pieces 
with Zoot Sims on Locking Horns, Roulette 52009, 
and plays with a good show of vitality and warmth 
on one side of Swing Lightly, Concert Hall 1265 
(shared with Ruby Braff). He has moments of crack- 
ling spirit on a generally lackadaisical disk, / Feel 
Like a Newman, Storyville 905 (there is an amusing 
passage in which John Lewis can be heard doing a 
bit of Basie piano), but he is overshadowed by 
Shirley Scott's warm organ on Soft Swingin' Jazz, 
Coral 57208. 

Much of his playing on these disks is done with 
a mute but on Salute to Satch, Victor LPM 1324, 
he shows how well he can play in an open-belled, 
full-voiced style. The arrangements in this set are 
adaptations in modern jazz terms of Louis Arm- 
strong's originals which, despite a tendency to turn 
glib, frequently maintain the Armstrong spirit re- 
markably well. Newman contributes nothing of in- 
terest to Jazz for Playboys, Savoy 12095, and he is 
wasted on the pair of unending blowing session 
which make up Jazz Studio One, Decca 8058. He 
plays one easygoing, down-to-earth blues on Jazz 
Cornucopia, Coral 57149. 

New York Jazz Quartet (see Mat Mathews) 

Herbie Nichols. For a pianist with a strongly in- 
dividual quality, there are an unusual number of 
derivative lines to be discerned in Nichols' playing. 
He is fond of the thematic line that trickles con- 
stantly downward in the Horace Silver manner 
so fond that he is apt to overdo it and at the same 
time, on Herbie Nichols Trio, Blue Note 1519, 
there are suggestions of Monk and a line that leads 
to a Monk-influenced pianist, Cecil Taylor. Yet 
with all this, Nichols plays a stomping, swinging 
piano in this set. The mixture on Love, Gloom, 
Cash, Love, Bethlehem 81, is slightly different 

The Records 215 

Monk and Erroll Garner, this time, blended to 
swing and sing in a bittersweet fashion. And on 
three selections in / Just Love Jazz Piano, Savoy 
12100, there is no evidence of Monk but instead 
suggestions of the brisk, bright swing of Earl Hines 
crop up. Nichols is an almost consistently interest- 
ing pianist, one who communicates directly, clearly 
and melodically. Why he has languished in practical 
obscurity all through the Fifties is a mystery. 

Lennie Niehaus. Niehaus, an alto saxophonist, is 
one of those jazzmen who has shot to sudden promi- 
nence and, in effect having arrived before he even 
knew he was there, has stood still seemingly won- 
dering what to do next. He started his professional 
career when he was discharged from the Army in 
June, 1954, and within a month he had made his 
first LP as a leader, The Quintets, Contemporary 
3518. This is a good showcase for his virtuosity (he 
is a Parker descendant with a cool overlay) but 
having established this he has found little room 
for further expansion. He has spent much of the 
intervening time as a member of Stan Kenton's 
band, turning out a series of rather monotonous, 
unexciting records The Octet, No. 2, Contem- 
porary 3503, Zounds! The Octet!, Contemporary 
3540 until he reached that inevitable deadend, a 
string section, on The Quintet and Strings, Con- 
temporary 3510. There is a suggestion of growing 
warmth in his work on The Sextet, Contemporary 
3524, and / Swing for You, EmArcy 36118, is en- 
couraging in that it shows him working with a nine- 
piece band which is just as interested in ensemble 
work as solos. 

Phil Nimmons. On The Canadian Scene, Verve 
8025, clarinetist Nimmons leads an alert rehearsal 
band through some imaginative arrangements which 
show to best advantage in the ensembles. 


Lon Norman. Miami is the source of Lon Norman's 
Gold Coast Jazz, Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, Criteria 1 and 
3. He is a rather static trombonist of the J. J. 
Johnson school whose groups on both disks are 
run-of-the-mill. Interest perks up slightly in Volume 
2 because of the rolling piano of John Williams, a 
refugee from New York. 

Red Norvo. Norvo's evergreen career goes back to 
the days of vaudeville when xylophonists wore white 
silk shirts and cummerbunds and tap-danced while 
they played. He was a novelty element in Paul 
Whiteman's massive organization in the early Thir- 
ties, later leader of his own swing band (with wife 
Mildred Bailey as vocalist). He was one of the 
first of the Swing Era musicians to join hands with 
the upstart boppers in the early Forties he led a 
significant recording date in 1945 which brought 
both elements together (Dizzy Gillespie and Charlie 
Parker for bop, Teddy Wilson and Flip Phillips 
for swing, Norvo for Norvo). These records, first 
released on the Comet label, have been reissued on 
a Dial LP which is no longer available. Four ex- 
cellent performances from this period (1944) with a 
sextet and septet are included in Giants of Jazz, Vol. 
1, EmArcy 36048. Since then he has worked much of 
the time as part of a trio, playing vibraphone as a 
rule, an instrument he took up in the early Forties. 
All but one of his available LP collections come 
from this later period. The exception is a group of 
his 1933-35 works, Red Norvo and His All Stars, 
Epic 3128, which is discussed in The Collector's 
Jazz: Traditional and Swing. 

Norvo's various trios have two things in common: 
The guitarists and bassists are of top caliber and 
the performances are light, airy, extremely neat 
and pulsingly swinging. But even as consistent a 
performer as Norvo is not infallible. Possibly the 
best of the trios was one in which he was joined by 

The Records 217 

Tal Farlow, guitar, and Charlie Mingus, bass. They 
show themselves well on Move, Savoy 12088, but in 
four selections on Midnight on Cloud 69, Savoy 
12093, their playing is relatively fuzzy. A slight 
variant of this group Red Mitchell in place of 
Mingus lilts its way with easy aplomb through 
Red Norvo with Strings (the "strings" are, fortu- 
nately, simply the bass and guitar), Fantasy 3218, 
and that same swinging aplomb is also present on 
The Red Norvo Trio, Fantasy 319, on which Jimmy 
Raney is the guitarist and Mitchell the bassist. Red 
Norvo, Rondolette 28, is a poorly recorded and, 
for a Norvo trio, rather plodding set of works. His 
colleagues are not identified. His Farlow-Mitchell 
trio of 1953 can be heard in a single selection on 
The Encyclopedia of Jazz on Records, VoL 4, Decca 

While the trio has been the staple setup for 
Norvo's personal appearances, he has also recorded 
with various larger groups during the latter Fifties. 
One of his most brilliant sessions produced four 
superbly relaxed selections by a sextet which in- 
cluded Ben Webster, Harry Edison and Jimmy 
Rowles, piano, one of them a stunning re-improvisa- 
tion of a recorded classic of the Thirties in which 
Norvo took part, Just a Mood. First issued by 
Victor on a grab-bag disk as a Dave Garroway 
presentation, the pieces have since been transferred 
to Red Plays the Blues, Victor LPM 1729, which 
is filled out with three selections by a big band led 
by Norvo. The band works from routine arrange- 
ments but it frames rich, polished solos by Norvo, 
Rowles and alto saxophonist Willie Smith and 
brings back the flexible, vibrant blues shouting of 
Helen Humes, who sang with Count Basic's band in 
the Thirties. 

On HI-FIve, Victor LPM 1420, Norvo is, as might 
be suspected, involved with a quintet and, in the 
best Norvo tradition, the beat is light and lilting, 


the tone subdued and confidential, the lines closely 
woven. The only disturbing element is a flute, 
played by Bob Drasnin, who is much more interest- 
ing on clarinet. There is a flute again, this time 
played by Buddy Collette, on Music to Listen to 
Red Norvo By, Contemporary 3534, along with a 
superb rhythm section Barney Kessel, Red Mitch- 
ell, Shelly Manne in a group of imaginatively 
devised short pieces and a long, overambitious work 
by (and featuring) clarinetist Bill Smith, Diverti- 
mento, which comes alive only spasmodically. In 
attempting to make something of the score for the 
film, Windjammer, Norvo seems at a loss on Wind- 
jammer City Style, Dot 3126. 

Anita O'Day. In the early Forties Miss O'Day was 
one of the really valid swinging singers with a style 
based on Billie Holiday with a kicking beat added. 
She brightened the Gene Krupa and Stan Kenton 
bands of those days and was, in her turn, the 
inspiration for a school of singers (June Christy, 
Chris Connor and on down) who diluted, distorted 
and eventually lost all sight of what she was doing. 
In the late Forties and early Fifties her career was 
sidetracked by personal problems from which she 
has been making a slow and, for a while, uncertain 
comeback. She was not aided in the early stages of 
this comeback by an apparent feeling that she had 
to imitate her imitators, thus compounding an 
already nerve-wracking tendency, but by 1958 she 
had regained sufficient assurance to project her 
songs warmly, easily and confidently and in her own 
musical image. 

On Anita O'Day Sings the Winners, Verve 8283, 
she returns to the outgoing, swinging ways that once 
came naturally to her. Half of the arrangements are 
by Marty Paich, the rest by Russell Garcia, a 
division which illuminates what is good for the 
latter day O'Day and what isn't. Paich gives her 

The Records 219 

the strong beat she needs, a beat that drives her 
along and allows her little time for the simpering 
and agonized twists that have made some of her 
other recordings choked and stumbling affairs, 
whereas Garcias' more heavy-handed orchestrations 
let her drag down into affectation on slow ballads. 
Pick Yourself Up, Verve 2043, also has some swing- 
ing imaginativeness while her singing on Anita , 
Verve 2000, is at least unstrained if not swinging. 
Anita Swings the Most, Verve 8259, is, however, a 
sample of the forced, mannered and coy approach 
in which she was hung for a while. She sings three 
songs in Here Come the Girls, Verve 2036. 

Chico OTarrill. O'Farrill is a Cuban arranger and 
band leader who is familiar with the American big 
band idiom (he has written for Goodman, Kenton 
and Gillespie) as well as his native Cuban styles. 
Most of his recordings are tempered versions of 
one or the other, aimed primarily at the dancer. 
Jazz North and South of the Border, Verve 8083, 
is a capable demonstration of both his sides. Chico' s 
Cha-Cha-Cha, Panart, 3013, Mambo-Latino Dances, 
Verve 2003, and Music from South America, Verve 
2024, are smoothly voiced and lightly jazz-touched 
Latin dance music. One sample of his crossing of 
North and South American strains is included in 
Verve Compendium of Jazz #1, Verve 8194. 

Anthony Ortega. Although Ortega's most personal 
characteristic as an alto saxophonist is a felicitous 
use of a lunging, searing approach to a phrase, he 
shows no evidence of his personality on two pretty 
but soupy ballads with string backing on Jazz 
Cornucopia, Coral 57149. 

Marty Paich. Paich does a bit of everything pian- 
ist, arranger, accompanist (to Peggy Lee), big band 
sideman, combo sideman, leader and almost all 


of it is refreshingly free from whatever may be the 
cliches of the moment. He is at the head of a happy 
combo that is driven by an exuberant, splashy 
rhythm section (Paich, Curtis Counce, bass, Frankie 
Capp, drums, Jack Costanzo, bongos) on Jazz City 
Workshop, Bethlehem 44, highlighted by some wal- 
loping vibes work by Larry Bunker and Herbie 
Harper's rugged, chortling trombone. Marty Paich, 
Cadence 3010, puts him at the helm of a big band 
which plays arrangements that are in the Paich tra- 
dition imaginative and off-the-beaten-track with- 
out being in any way esoteric. There are a few 
good spots for Paich's casual, leathery piano but, 
as arranger, he repeats some devices to such an 
extent that the disk, taken at one dose, becomes 
tiresome. He contributes one well developed or- 
chestral piece featuring Costanzo's bongos to Afro- 
Drum Carnival, GNP 25, but although his four 
big band selections in Modern Jazz Gallery, Kapp 
KXL 5001, use a variety of approaches they result 
in little really meaty playing. He is also heard on 
Jazz Studio 2, Decca 8079. 

Jackie Paris. Paris is a guitarist who is often referred 
to as a neglected jazz singer. This is a rather in- 
explicable attitude for his mincing manner of 
crooning has no jazz implications. His disks are 
Skylark, Brunswick 54019, and The Jackie Paris 
Sound, East- West 4002. He sings two numbers on 
Jazztime, U.S.A., Vol. 3, Brunswick 54002, and one 
on Advance Guard of the Forties, EmArcy 36016. 

Charlie Parker. The sound of jazz in the years 
since the end of World War II has been colored 
indelibly by the musical personality of Charlie 
Parker. The major problem of most alto saxo- 
phonists since his day has been getting out of Park- 
er's shadow, to avoid sounding like derivation. For 
other instrumentalists, the problem at first was to 

The Records 221 

adapt what Parker was doing on alto (and Gillespie 
on trumpet) to the other jazz instruments. During 
the Fifties the novelty of Parker's approach had 
worn off and jazzmen began to take a less awed, 
more inventive approach to the heritage Parker had 
left them. 

Parker came out of Kansas City with the Jay 
McShann band in the late Thirties. His first records, 
made with McShann (on a cut-out ten-inch LP, 
Kansas City Memories, Decca 5503) show him as 
a soloist seemingly influenced to some extent by 
Lester Young but already exhibiting rudimentary 
signs of those qualities which became the hallmark 
on his playing: a light, vibratoless tone; running 
phrases, perkily turned; complex rhythmic and 
harmonic structure. He moved to Earl Hines' band 
early in 1942, a Hines band which also included 
Dizzy Gillespie, Billy Eckstine and Sarah Vaughan. 
Parker played tenor saxophone during the ten 
months that he spent with Hines but because of a 
recording ban the band left no disks. 

In 1944 he started making the small group re- 
cordings on which his fame now rests. Except for 
a group made for the Dial label (some of which 
were transferred to a pair of Dial LPs which are 
now out of circulation), most of these are available 
in two series on Savoy and Verve which include not 
only the original releases but alternate takes and, 
in the Savoy series, interrupted takes and false 

The meat of Parker will be found on five Savoy 
disks, recorded between 1944 and 1948. Because four 
of the five include repeated takes and snatches of 
each selection, the best of the group for normal 
listening purposes is The Genius of Charlie Parker, 
Savoy 12014, which has fourteen complete selections 
showing Parker with five different groups. It includes 
one of his most brilliant solos, Koko, puts him in 
groups which include young Miles Davis, Dizzy 


Gillespie, John Lewis and Max Roach and gives 
him a part in the lighthearted and swinging musical 
mayhem committed by Slim Gaillard. 

The Charlie Parker Story, Savoy 12079, subtitled 
"The Greatest Recording Session Made in Modern 
Jazz History in Its Entirety!", is the session of 
November 26, 1945, on which Parker, Davis, Bud 
Powell, Curly Russell, bass, and Roach produced 
Billie's Bounce, Now's the Time, Warming Up a 
Riff, Thriving from a Riff, the incomplete and 
previously unissued Meandering and (once more) 
Koko. It is apparently, as advertised, "in its en- 
tirety" for there are five takes of Billie's Bounce, 
four of Now's the Time, including a pair of false 
starts that last approximately half a minute, and 
so forth. John Mehegan has written a running com- 
mentary that is acidulous but apt. This and the 
three remaining Savoys are primarily for those 
who want the opportunity to analyze the differ- 
ences that take place in Parker's approach to a 
theme even within a matter of minutes. 

Charlie Parker Memorial, Vol. 1, Savoy 12000, 
The Immortal Charlie Parker, Savoy 12001, and 
Charlie Parker Memorial, Vol. 2, Savoy 12009, are 
a jumble of original takes, new takes and short 
takes, assembled in no apparent order and scat- 
tered around in such fashion as to make comparison 
of various versions of a single piece somewhat of a 
chore. Savoy 12000 includes the lovely Bluebird 
which has a very relaxed Parker solo and a sur- 
prisingly good appearance by Miles Davis (Davis* 
playing throughout this series is generally lacklustre 
and clumsy) along with a new take of the moving 
blues, Parker's Mood. On three selections on Savoy 
12001 Parker is heard playing tenor in a manner 
that sounds today, at least not particularly dis- 
tinguished in view of his facility on alto. This disk 
also includes Tiny's Tempo and Red Cross from 
Parker's earliest small group session, the Tiny 

The Records 223 

Grimes date in 1944. The original release of Park- 
efs Mood as well as the originals of Billie's Bounce 
and Thriving from a Riff (both of which are in- 
cluded in Savoy 12079) are high spots of Savoy 

From this same period (1947) comes Charlie 
Parker All Star Sextet, Roost 2210, with Davis and 
J. J. Johnson, trombone, joining Parker in the 
front line. Although Parker gives a masterful dem- 
onstration of how to play a slow ballad with jazz 
sense on Don't Blame Me and swings with roaring 
frenzy through Crazeology, there is a heavy, tired 
feeling about most of these pieces. 

Parker's Verve series is made up of recordings 
from the late Forties and early Fifties when Norman 
Granz was trying to make him a more saleable 
commodity. Thus we frequently find him sur- 
rounded by strings and vocal groups or belaboring 
ballads that are scarcely worth his attention. It was 
also a period when Parker was dropping deeper 
and deeper into the personal torture and confusion 
that culminated in his death in March, 1955. 

The series opens with a set of three disks, The 
Charlie Parker Story #1, #2, and #3, Verve 8000, 
8001 and 8002. Number One is a valid cross-section 
of Parker's recordings for Granz the oozy mood 
music of Charlie Parker with Strings, a wild big 
band setting from which Parker erupts, three small 
group settings, a worthwhile visit as a soloist with 
Machito's band, and a pair of atrocities in which 
he battles both woodwinds and a choral group. 

The second disk in the set is less varied and 
infinitely better. One side is lifted partly from The 
Jazz Scene, Verve 8060, partly from Midnight Jazz 
at Carnegie Hall, Verve 8189-2. The latter section 
again pits Parker against strings but this time he 
occasionally blows them out of the way and, despite 
the strings, What Is This Thing Called Love really 
jumps. On the reverse he is backed by three good 


rhythm sections and in this free atmosphere plays 
warmly, melodically, at times becoming almost 
fierce in his attack. On NOUJ'S the Time, for in- 
stance, supported by Al Haig, Percy Heath and 
Max Roach, he is extremely aggressive, quite dif- 
ferent from his earlier, more relaxed version on 

Number Three in this set has flashes of good 
Parker in the quintet selections that make up one 
side (there's also some good Thelonious Monk 
along with weak Miles Davis and surprisingly feeble 
Dizzy Gillespie). The second side is a mish-mash of 
snippets from concerts and jam sessions drawn from 
Jam Session #1 and #2, Verve 8049 and 8050. 

The remaining Verve disks assemble what must 
be all the rest of the Parker material to which Verve 
has access. There are repeats of performances in- 
cluded in the first three disks and sometimes several 
takes of one number. On Night and Day, Verve 
8003, and April in Paris, Verve 8004, Parker once 
more gets the string treatment lush dance versions 
of ballads which are completely at odds with the 
basic Parker idiom. 

Now's the Time, Verve 8005, returns him to a 
proper setting with only Haig, Heath and Roach 
as accompanists. This is generally top grade Parker 
but the repeated takes become tiresome. A session 
that might have been expected to bloom, Bird and 
Diz, Verve 8006, on which Parker and Gillespie are 
joined by Thelonious Monk, Curly Russell and 
Buddy Rich, drums, is dry and uninspired. The 
Parker of Charlie Parker Plays Cole Porter, Verve 
8007, sounds tired, prone to uncommunicative, 
clumsy, flat playing. Fiesta, Verve 8008, is polite 
south of the border stuff with bongo and conga. 
Parker plays adequately but there seems no point 
in using him on such material unless it is in context 
with a strong rhythm section. Charlie Parker Jazz 
Perennial, Verve 8009, glues him up with ballads 

The Records 225 

and a deadly vocal group although he shows signs 
of life when he escapes into a blues. All things con- 
sidered, the final disk in the series, Swedish 
Schnapps, Verve 8010, is the best of the lot, despite 
several repeated takes. He plays warmly and sensi- 
tively with two congenial groups, one made up of 
Red Rodney, trumpet, John Lewis, Ray Brown and 
Kenny Clarke, the other of Miles Davis, Walter 
Bishop, Jr., Teddy Kotick, bass, and Max Roach. 
It includes his deeply moving Lover Man. 

Single selections by Parker are included in Opera- 
tion jazz, Roost OJ1, and The Anatomy of Improvi- 
sation, Verve 8230. 

Johnnie Pate. Pate is a Chicago-based bassist who 
seems to have an ear carefully attuned to what's 
hot. Flutes are the thing? On Jazz Goes Ivy League, 
King 561, he has an intimately voiced group in 
which flute, vibes and guitar are the principal 
voices. They swing lightly without demanding at- 
tention. Or maybe the Ahamd Jamal bit is popular. 
Pate does a good Jamal derivation with pianist 
Floyd Morris carrying the Jamalities on Johnny 
Pate at the Blue Note, Stepheny 4005, and A Date 
with Johnny Pate, King 611. In Morris' hands, 
however, there is more of a suggestion of Enroll 
Garner's attention to melody and beat than to 
JamaTs selective highlights. 

Cecil Payne. Payne is a baritone saxophonist who 
has a smooth, soft tone but he is not much of an 
idea man. Cecil Payne, Signal 1203, is of interest 
primarily for the few brief glimpses it affords of 
the drily swinging piano of Duke Jordan. 

Bernard Peiffer. This Frenchman who immigrated 
to the United States in 1955 is that rarity among 
jazz pianists a legitimately schooled musician with 
brilliant technique who can transfer much of this 


brilliance to jazz performances without necessarily 
falling into the trap of believing that technique is 
all. He has spent several years trying to comb the 
influences out of his playing. One side of Jazz from 
St. German des Pres, Verve 8119 (shared with Don 
Byas) is the Peiffer of a few years ago borrowing 
prodigally from Enroll Garner and leaping into 
unaccountable splurges of Tatumesque lacery. By 
the time he made his first American recording, 
Bernie's Tunes, EmArcy 36080, he had shucked off 
Garner and was winnowing his Tatum leanings and 
his playing surged with lightness and vitality. His 
best work so far is on Bernard Peiffer Trio, Decca 
8626, at those times when he is holding to direct, 
straightforward exposition and is not losing the 
continuity of his ideas while trying to swing a 
variety of virtuoso lines. Even so, the mere dare- 
deviltry of some of these efforts has its interesting 
aspects. Piano a la Mood, Decca 9203, is neatly 
turned, low-gear Peiffer. 

Dave Pell. Pell's octet, drawn for the most part from 
the Les Brown band, has contrived an approach 
so bland that it can drain the life from even the 
most vigorous tune. The group's polite, emotion- 
less pitter patter might be classified as tea jazz. 
The only suggestion of a warm voice in this cold 
group comes occasionally from trombonist Ray 
Sims. The wan evidence is on / Had the Craziest 
Dream, Capitol T 925, Swingin' in the Ol' Corral, 
Victor LPM 1394, A Pell of a Time, Victor LPM 
1524, Campus Hop, Victor LPM 1662, Plays Rodg- 
ers and Hart, Kapp 1025, Plays Burke and Van 
Heusen, Kapp 1034, Plays Irving Berlin, Kapp 1036, 
Jazz and Romantic Places, Atlantic 1216, Love 
Story, Atlantic 1249. 

Ralph Pena. A bassist who was part of Jimmy 
Giuffre's trio for a while leads a quintet which 

The Records 227 

provides serviceable accompaniment to a reading of 
a William Carlos Williams poem on Jazz Canto, 
World Pacific 1244. 

Art Pepper. Pepper is one of the most airy and 
fluent of the post-Parker alto saxophonists. His 
playing, which crosses elements of both Lester 
Young and Parker, is, as a rule, cleanly articulated 
even at very fast tempos although he is not notably 
consistent. Surf Ride, Savoy 12089, serves as a use- 
ful Pepper cross-section. With two of the three 
groups on the disk he is in excellent form loop- 
ing out fresh, imaginative idea with a dancing 
gaiety. With the third group, however, he is quite 
lackadaisical despite some inspiringly earthy piano 
by Hampton Hawes. Dealing with a group of 
ballads, Pepper's virtuosity takes a secondary posi- 
tion to a light, feathery and extremely rhythmic 
style that comes from the Lennie Tristano school 
on Art Pepper, Sonny Redd, Regent 6069. Pepper 
works in this vein with great skill, managing to in- 
vest the tunes with a strong jazz feeling without 
cutting out their balladic hearts. Teaming with 
tenor saxophonist Bill Perkins on one side of Just 
Friends, World Pacific 401, Pepper adds a delicacy 
to Perkins* rugged tone that gives their playing an 
interesting harmonic depth. 

For Mucho Color, Andex 3002, a group of bongo- 
based gavottes, he provided several of the more 
useful arrangements and practically all of the 
enlivening playing. Leading a gentle, bouncing 
group in conjunction with Chet Baker on Playboys, 
World Pacific 1234, Pepper is neat and precise but 
scarcely exciting enough to keep the disk from 
turning tired and uninspired in the face of Baker's 
drab work, while his matter-of-fact playing on Art 
Pepper Meets the Rhythm Section, Contemporary 
3532, is not particularly communicative. He plays 
single selections on Solo Flight, World Pacific JWC 


15, Jazz West Coast, Vol. 3, World Pacific JWC 
>7, and Jazz West Coast, Vol. 4, World Pacific 
ATC 510, and joins Chet Baker in one number on 
'ave Blues, Will Travel, World Pacific JWC 509. 

ill Perkins. A tenor saxophonist who has fused a 
>undation of Lester Young's light flow with a sug- 
istion of Coleman Hawkins' ruggedness, Perkins 
is spent most of the 1950s in the Woody Herman 
id Stan Kenton bands. His mixture of Young and 
iawkins is very evident on Just Friends, World 
acific 401, a balanced and thoughtful program of 
jiet jazz played by two different groups. One group 
lirs Perkins with another Young-bred tenor, Richie 
amuca, the other with the altoist, Art Pepper, 
ho is in brilliant form on this disk. Perkins does 
une of his finest recorded work on Love Me or 
eave Me in Grand Encounter, World Pacific 1217, 
i which he plays with two members of the Modern 
tzz Quartet (John Lewis and Percy Heath) and 
TO representatives of the Chico Hamilton Quintet 
lamilton and Jim Hall). On Stage, World Pacific 
121, is bogged down by pallid writing which is 
jhtened somewhat by Perkins' carefully developed 
los and a couple of saxophone ensembles tran- 
tibed from Lester Young solos. 
There are a pair of Perkins selections on Jazz 
'est Coast, Vol. 2, World Pacific 501, and single 
eces on Jazz West Coast, World Pacific JWC 500, 
he Blues, World Pacific JWC 502, Ballads for 
ickgrounds, World Pacific JWC 503, Solo Flight, 
orld Pacific JWC 505, Jazz West Coast, Vol. 3, 
orld Pacific JWC 507, and Jazz West Coast, Vol. 4, 
orld Pacific JWC 510, 

rl Perkins. A soundly based, briskly swinging 
mist with an odd way of addressing the piano 
; sometimes played with his entire left forearm 
Dve and parallel to the keyboard), Perkins died 

The Records 229 

in March, 1958, at the age of 30. His only complete 
LP, Introducing Carl Perkins, Dootone 211, is a fine 
sampling of his weaving, bobbing style. He also 
plays one selection in Pianists Galore!, World 
Pacific JWC 506, 

Oscar Peterson. Peterson is one of the more puzzling 
musical personalities in current jazz. Starting with 
a tradition-based, sledge hammer drive (exhibited 
in one of his early Canadian recordings on Great 
Jazz Pianists, Camden 328), he has developed 
since moving to the United States in 1949 into 
a musician of great range, potential resource and 
superb technique. His playing, however, has a glib, 
chilly quality which no amount of foot pounding, 
grunting or furious fingering seems able to trans- 
mute to warm-blooded jazz. As house pianist for 
Verve Records, accompanying Lionel Hampton, 
Ben Webster, Ella Fitzgerald, Harry Edison, Stuff 
Smith, Lester Young and others, and leading his 
own trio, he is one of the most frequently recorded 
of today's jazz musicians yet he has produced 
hardly anything that either catches or lingers in the 

Of the disks on which he is featured, Peterson 
communicates most readily on Recital, Verve 2044, 
and Oscar Peterson Quartet, Verve 8072. Oscar 
Peterson Plays Count Basie, Verve 8092, Keyboard, 
Verve 2047, An Evening with Oscar Peterson, Verve 
2048, and his portions of Jazz at the Hollywood 
Bowl, Verve 8231-2, and Peterson, Eldridge, Stitt, 
Jo Jones at Newport, Verve 8239, are diluted by 
his blandly glib surface, while Oscar Peterson Trio 
at the Stratford Shakespearean Festival, Verve 8024, 
and Oscar Peterson and the Modern Jazz Quartet 
at the Opera House, Verve 8269, are dominated by 
Peterson's keening and foot flailing. He turns to 
straight interpretations of ballads on In a Romantic 
Mood, Verve 2002, Pastel Moods, Verve 2004, No* 


talgic Memories, Verve 2045, Tenderly, Verve 2046, 
and Soft Sand, Verve 2079. On this last disk and on 
Romance, Verve 2012, he sings in a manner that is, 
superficially, like that of Nat "King" Cole but 
-without the strength of Cole's projection. 

Peterson plays two selections in A Potpourri of 
Jazz, Verve 2032, and Midnight Jazz at Carnegie 
Hall, Verve 8189-2, and one in Verve Compendium 
of Jazz #1, Verve 8194. 

Oscar Pettiford. Besides being an unusually stalwart 
and sensitive bassist, Oscar Pettiford brought the 
pizzicato cello into jazz. He was co-leader with 
Dizzy Gillespie of the first bop band to play on 
52nd Street in New York and later spent three years 
with Duke Ellington's orchestra. He has made two 
attractive disks with a big band, The Oscar Petti- 
ford Orchestra in Hi-Fi, ABC-Paramount 135, and 
The Oscar Pettiford Orchestra in Hi-Fi, Vol. 2, 
ABC-Paramount 227. 

Pettiford's rather unusual approach to the use 
of such instruments as the French horn, the flute, 
the harp and his own plucked cello is that they are 
as useful in their own ways as the trumpets, trom- 
bones or saxophones in contributing to the en- 
sembles and to spots of solo color. He disdains the 
show-off, Look-Ma-No-Hands attitude of trying to 
make these instruments do things for which they 
are not suited. He has a reasonably full comple- 
ment of other instruments to take on the routine 
chores on these two disks. The foundation on which 
Pettiford's band works is soundly swinging jazz, 
accented by many fine solos by Lucky Thompson 
on Volume 1. The second volume suffers from 
diffuse recording. One selection by Pettiford, play- 
ing cello, is included in Operation Jazz, Roost OJ1. 

Flip Phillips. Phillips' reputation as a firebrand 
with Woody Herman's first Herd and particularly 

The Records 231 

during his long service with Jazz at the Philhar- 
monic has often obscured the fact that he can be 
a warmly flowing tenor saxophonist who constructs 
his solos with immaculate care. He has been push- 
ing the audience frenzy button with his wild honk- 
ing for so long, however, that he sometimes in- 
stinctively presses it by mistake (one hopes) after 
he has taken the trouble to build a hard swinging 
solo with taste. On Flip Phillips Quintet, Verve 
8116, he is backed by Oscar Peterson, Herb Ellis, 
Ray Brown and Buddy Rich in a varied program 
that ranges from gentle balladry to furious, churn- 
ing swing while his jumpy, itchy blowing, just this 
side of honkery, is set amidst a fine group of old 
pros (Bill Harris, Harry Edison and Rich again) 
on Flip Wails, Verve 8075. He is in an easy-going 
mood on Flip, Verve 8077, which contains some 
crisp if unexciting trumpet by Howard McGhee, but 
an undistinguished calm settles over Swinging with 
Flip, Verve 8076. His energetic contributions to 
Saturday Night Swing Session, Counterpoint 549, 
are nullified by a sloppy, plodding ensemble. 

Stu Phillips. An arranger, conductor and pianist 
known for lush mood music, Phillips' first venture 
into jazz is A Touch of Modern, MGM 3391. Al- 
though the instrumentation of his sextet (piano, 
vibes, French horn, English horn, bass, drums) 
makes these occasionally bright and bouncy per- 
formances a little precious for jazz, Jim Buffington 
gets in a few rugged licks on his French horn. Music 
from Out of Space,, MGM 3287, is Phillips' mood 
music side. 

Nat Pierce. It may well be that Nat Pierce has 
played on more records that feature a Basic-type 
piano than has Count Basic himself. Whenever the 
Basic style is to be conjured up in a recording 
studio (a device in high favor during the middle 


Fifties) Pierce is almost invariably the pianist on 
hand. He has, however, a sound and solid musical 
personality of his own, swinging and unpretentious, 
both as pianist and arranger which is aptly illus- 
trated on one side of Easy Swing, Vanguard 8519 
(shared with Mel Powell), as he leads a meaty little 
band which swings airily over the groundwork set 
up by the old Basic rhythm section (Freddie Green, 
Walter Page, Jo Jones). Pierce is in entirely dif- 
ferent territory on Chamber Music for Moderns, 
Coral 57128, a highly successful group of pieces 
pairing Dick Wetmore's violin and Anthony Or- 
tega's volatile alto saxophone, plus a rhythm sec- 
tion. Wetmore has the range and warmth to give 
the violin a place in modern jazz if anyone will 
listen. Ortega constructs his solos out of a fascinating 
mixture of leaps, lay-backs, asides, scatter shot and 
sudden splurges of sound. For one as immersed in 
Basieana as Pierce is, his Kansas City Memories, 
Coral 57091, is a surprisingly tepid and inap- 
propriate celebration of a lusty jazz town. 

Herb Pilhofer. Pilhofer is a pianist whose playing 
is attractively dark in texture, lean in form and 
strong in beat. His arrangements for his octet 
(trumpet, trombone, French horn, two reeds and 
rhythm) on Jazz from the North Coast, Vol. 2, 
Zephyr 12013, are tight and smooth with an oc- 
casional glimpse of a Lennie Tristano influence. 

Johnny Pisano. The guitarist in one of the later 
versions of the Chico Hamilton Quintet, Pisano 
and another guitarist, Billy Bean, are backed in 
rather stolid fashion by several different groups 
built around the basic personnel of the Hamilton 
Quintet on Makin* It, Decca 9206. The perform- 
ances range from a slow brood to a plinkety jig. 

The Records 233 

King Pleasure. Pleasure (born Clarence Beeks) pio- 
neered the notion of writing and singing lyrics to 
well-known modern jazz solos. On King Pleasure 
Sings, Prestige 7128, he gets around without the 
strain of those who have followed in this idiom 
but his lyrics are much less imaginative than those 
created by Jon Hendricks. 

John Plonsky. The fluent, blithe trumpet attack of 
Plonsky shows up well on Cool Man Cool, Golden 
Crest 3014, on which his lighthearted quintet 
trumpet, accordion, baritone saxophone, bass, drums 
gets an appealingly dark, earthy sound which 
avoids the dangers of ponderousness or over-sobri- 
ety. But on Dixieland Goes Progressive, Golden 
Crest 3024, both Plonsky and the highly capable 
Dick Gary are trapped in a gimmicky idea. The 
only valid moments occur when Dixieland or the 
blues is being left alone, unprogressed. 

Herb Pomeroy. After serving time with Stan Kenton, 
trumpeter Herb Pomeroy returned to his home 
town, Boston, organized a small group and gradually 
amplified it until he had a big band on call when- 
ever he had dates for it. Because many of its mem- 
bers hold daytime jobs, the full band has rarely 
been heard very far from Boston. On Life Is a Many 
Splendored Gig, Roulette 52001, it shows itself 
capable of both a fierce, exultant drive and delicately 
blended section ensembles. There is an independent 
imagination at work in the arrangements which 
skirt the easy stereotypes yet build consistently on 
a swinging basis. The performances are crisp, pol- 
ished and almost completely without stylistic excesses 
or the leaden, lumpy quality common to big bands 
in the Fifties. 

Tommy Potter. One of the most ubiquitous bassists 
of the bop period, Potter had to wait until he made 


a trip to Sweden in the late Fifties before he got a 
date under his own name. The sextet he leads on 
Hard Funk, East-West 4001, half Swedish and half 
American, produces three routine performances and 
three which reveal that there is nothing wrong with 
hard bop that a little skill and direction can't fix. 
The key man is Swedish tenor saxophonist Woody 
Birch, who rides through his solos like a steel- 
plated banshee without losing sight of tone or form. 

Bud Powell. Just as Earl Hines transferred Louis 
Armstrong's jazz ideas to the piano, Bud Powell 
adapted the revolutionary style of Charlie Parker. 
An erratic, introspective person, Powell matured 
steadily as a performer in the late Forties and early 
Fifties even while combatting a mental illness which 
kept him in hospitals half of that time. At his best 
Powell has a crisp tone, an excellent sense of tim- 
ing and phrasing and a ready flow of ideas. He is 
one of the few jazz pianists who can be compared 
with Art Tatum in technical fluency but his state- 
ments are generally more strongly set out than the 
frill-fond Tatum's. He is a busy weaver of a compact 
musical web, his single note lines tightly inter- 
laced, prodded and supported by interior rhythms 
and colored by his brooding harmonic inventions. 
His solo recordings fall into three distinct periods. 
His early work is marked by a fiery attack in which 
his virtuosity is teamed with a vigorous rhythmic 
sense and striking sensitivity. The Amazing Bud 
Powell, Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, Blue Note 1503 and 1504, 
make a good display of both the vigor (Ornithology 
and I Want to Be Happy) and the sensitivity (an 
exquisite performance of 72 Could Happen to You 
in which he shows how a slow ballad can be kept 
alive and alert). The pieces by Powell's Quintet 
(with young Sonny Rollins and Fats Navarro) in 
The Fabulous Fats Navarro, Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, 
Blue Note 1531 and 1532, swing easily and have a 

The Records 235 

strong ensemble punch. The Genius of Bud Powell, 
Verve 8115, a generally good disk, includes a 
fantastic version of Just One of Those Things, a 
marvel of driving, Tatumesque virtuoso playing. He 
is the dominating voice on four selections in Opus 
de Bop, Savoy 12114, which include some shrill 
Sonny Stitt and uncertain Kenny Dorham, and he 
is equally exhilarating in four more selections on 
Fats Navarro Memorial Album, No. 1, Savoy 1201 1, 
on which Stitt redeems himself. The Bud Powell 
Trio, Roost 2224, is quite bland most of the way 
although Powell occasionally lights up and takes 
off. A single selection in Modern Jazz Hall of Fame, 
Design 29, is badly recorded and ineptly performed. 

Of his recordings during the first half of the 
Fifties, Jazz Giant, Verve 8153, is, on the whole, a 
satisfactory collection but Jazz Original, Verve 8185, 
Bud Powell's Moods, Verve 8154, Piano Interpreta- 
tions by Bud Powell, Verve 8167, and his three 
selections in Piano Interpretations, Verve 8127, find 
him turning pretty and unimaginative and his good 
points go by the board. 

Past the mid-Fifties on Bud!, Blue Note 1571, he 
produces one side of practically flawless, flowing, 
unstrained and direct solos. The combination of 
ease, assurance, swinging strength and inevitable 
logic in his playing on half of this disk has rarely 
been matched on records and almost certainly not 
with his steady consistency. Unfortunately trombon- 
ist Curtis Fuller, still in his limited and uninspired 
period, joins Powell on the second side and succeeds 
in reducing these performances to tired routines. 
Again on Blues in the Closet, Verve 8218, one side 
of firmly played, neatly stacked solos is offset by a 
side marked by sloppy recording and sloppy per- 
formances. Strictly Powell, Victor LPM 1423, shows 
vestiges of his vital drive but they are conveyed in 
relaxed fashion while his formation of ballads has 
a pleasant mixture of grace and passion. Swingin* 


with Bud, Victor LPM 1507, however, is so casual 
that it gives the impression of having been knocked 
off without much thought to balance or variety. 

Powell can also be heard in single selections in 
The Jazz Scene, Verve 8060, Roost Fifth Anniversary 
Album, Roost 1201, Operation Jazz, Roost OJ1, and 
The Anatomy of Improvisation, Verve 8230. 

Seldon Powell. Starting with the basic Lester Young 
approach to the tenor saxophone, Powell has hard- 
ened the tone and strengthened the attack while 
maintaining the grace and fluency. On both Seldon 
Powell, Roost 2295, and Seldon Powell Sextet, 
Roost 2220, he moves easily and creatively at fast 
tempos while his ballads have a cool elegance, 
never descending to sentimentality or turning over- 
ripe. He is also featured on three selections in 
Rhythm Plus One, Epic 3297. 

Specs Powell. A drummer for CBS through most of 
the Forties and Fifties, Powell gained his prime 
jazz experience with several swing groups in the 
late Thirties Edgar Hayes, Red Norvo, Benny 
Goodman. He is not a self-indulgent leader on 
Movin' In, Roulette 52004, contenting himself with 
providing crisp rhythmic support for some excellent 
arrangements by Ray Copeland which are given 
bright, swinging performances. 

Perez Prado. The "Ughh!" man gets a peripheral 
jazz quality into his band's performances in his use 
of solo instruments (usually a trumpet) and, to 
some degree, through his rhythm section. His ad- 
herence to the mambo imposes a monotonous stiff- 
ness on much of his work (relieved at times by 
raucous humor) and his ventures into material 
from the American jazz repertory are invariably 
clumsy Prez, Victor LPM 1556, Mambo for Cats, 
Victor LPM 1063, and half of Voodoo Suite, Victor 

The Records 237 

LPM 1101. The title half of this last disk develops 
slowly into a boiling bit of Afro-Cubana, his best 
effort in this line. Prado's saving grace is his humor 
which turns a collection of pop pap, Mambo Mania, 
Victor LPM 1075, into a very funny disk. On his 
home musical territory, Prado is essentially a Latin 
dance band but a swinging one on Mambo by the 
King, Victor LPM 1196, Havana 3 AM., Victor 
LPM 1257, Latin Satin, Victor LPM 1459, Mambo 
Happy, Camden 409, and Dilo, Victor LPM 1883. 

Prestige Jazz Quartet. Using the same instrumenta- 
tion as the Modern Jazz Quartet Teddy Charles, 
vibraphone; Mai Waldron, piano; Addison Fanner, 
bass; Jerry Segal, drums this group works in a 
looser format than the MJQ and leans more toward 
solo blowing. On Prestige Jazz Quartet, Prestige 
7108, it is a surprisingly colorless group consider- 
ing its make-up except when Waldron moves into 
the spotlight bringing much needed warmth and 
incisiveness. The merits of the disk are almost en- 
tirely his. 

Andre Previn. A classical musician who has fought 
his way up from film backgrounds to a learned form 
of cocktail piano (Andre Previn Plays Gershwin, 
Victor LPM 1011, Let's Get Away from It All, 
Decca 8131, Three Little Words, Victor LPM 1356, 
Mad About the Boy, Camden 406, Hollywood at 
Midnight, Decca 8341, and Secret Songs for Young 
Lovers, MGM 3716) and eventually to jazz, Previn 
shows an understanding absorption of the blues- 
rooted swing idiom on Andre Previn Plays Fats 
Waller, Tops 1593. His proper jazz metier, how- 
ever, is a relatively catholic modern vein which he 
has applied with great commercial success to a 
group of show scores My Fair Lady, Contem- 
porary 3527, a fantastically successful disk ^ which 
set the pattern for the long line of jazz versions of 


scores which have followed despite the fact that 
it removes most of the charm from a delightful 
score; L'il Abner, Contemporary 3533, a more ac- 
ceptable effort possibly because the score of L'il 
Abner is more susceptible to improvement than 
My Fair Lady; Pal Joey, Contemporary 3543, a still 
further improvement because the Rodgers-Hart 
music lends itself readily to a jazz interpretation 
and Previn often does little more than put a shim- 
mering, hoppity-skippity surface on what Rodgers 
has provided; and Gigi, Contemporary 3548, on 
which he stays within some semblance of the spirit 
of the tunes and gets magnificent drum support 
from Shelly Manne who is in back of him on all 
the other show scores but never so effectively as 

Previn joins Russ Freeman in a series of impro- 
vised piano duets on Double Play!, Contemporary 
3537. Using basically similar styles, they pour out 
long, rolling dark-toned lines that gallop furiously 
at fast tempos and give their blues a sophisticated 
veneer. Collaboration, Victor LPM 1334, is a gim- 
mick in which Previn and Shorty Rogers alternately 
arrange a standard tune and an original based on 
the same chords. The infallible Shelly Manne is a 
driving force throughout the disk, the soloists 
(Rogers, Previn, Bud Shank, Bob Cooper, Milt 
Bernhart, Jimmy Giuffre) are generally brisk if 
rarely exciting, but the arrangements tend to be 

Vito Price. Price, a tenor saxophonist who is a 
warm, unaffected and uncomplicated descendant of 
Lester Young, is heard on one side of Swinging the 
Loop, Argo 631, with a light but lusty big band and 
on the other with a rhythm section. His easy, high- 
spirited playing is framed best by the big band. 
There is no ostentation here no extended blowing, 

The Records 239 

no "advanced" writing. Just pleasant, unpretentious 
jazz o a kind that was not recorded very often in 
the Fifties. 

Robert Prince. Prince is a vibraphonist and com- 
poser who shot to international attention in 1958 
when his ballet, N.Y. Export: Op. Jazz, was intro- 
duced in Italy by Jerome Robbins to great acclaim, 
a success that was later repeated in New York. He 
conducts this score, along with some of Leonard 
Bernstein's ballet music for West Side Story on Jazz 
Ballets from Broadway, Warner Brothers 1240. His 
ballet is a thoroughgoing jazz conception even to 
the use of a striking jazz approach to what might 
have been simply a prettily melodic accompaniment 
for a pas de deux. His music often swings with in- 
tensity in the strong, disciplined performance given 
by an orchestra apparently well salted with experi- 
enced jazzmen. Portions of Bernstein's ballet music 
are jazz-influenced to the extent of having a jazz 
surface. But there is none of the depth or full emo- 
tional expression that appear in the writing of 
Prince who thinks from inside jazz instead of ap- 
proaching it from the outside, as Bernstein must. 

Tito Puente. Puente's usual metier is the mambo, 
the cha cha and any other step that comes steam- 
ing up from Cuba. Unlike Machito, whose band 
works this same territory, Puente rarely verges over 
to jazz but on the explicitly titled Puente Goes 
Jazz, Victor LPM 1312, he takes just such a fling. 
There are several surprisingly good big band per- 
formances here direct, forceful, often genuinely 
hot when the band digs into uptempo material 
using its Latin rhythms simply as accents to what 
are predominantly jazz pieces. But the bulk of the 
disk is quite routine and sounds like any big studio 
band cutting originals at sight. 


Joe Puma. Persuasive gentleness is the hallmark of 
Puma's guitar when all is going well. He is heard 
to perfection on one side of Joe Puma Quartet and 
Trio, Jubilee 1070, on which with Eddie Costa, 
vibes, and Oscar Pettiford, bass, he plays beauti- 
fully articulated jazz which runs from light-footed 
merriment to polished stateliness. The quartet with 
which he plays on the other side is a more routine 
affair although Puma's gently insistent solos remain 
on a high level. The idea of teaming his guitar 
with Mat Mathew's accordion and a bass on Wild 
Kitten, Dawn 1118, produces a combination that 
brings forth diffuse, throbbing helpings of un- 
seasoned mush. Puma and Dick Garcia play four 
rather empty guitar duets on The Four Most Gui- 
tars, ABC-Paramount 109, and he contributes one 
solo selection to Critics' Choice, Dawn 1123. 

Gene Quill. Quill is an alto saxophonist who has 
all of the Parker mannerisms down pat but he has 
not been able to find much to do with them. His 
work is inclined to be shrill and almost desperately 
active. He is overshadowed by three trombonists 
(Jimmy Cleveland, Frank Rehak and Jim Dahl) on 
Three Bones and a Quill, Roost 2229, and is a tire- 
some dominating influence on one side of Jazzville 
'56, Vol. 1, Dawn 1101 (shared with the Jazz 
Modes). Two disks on which Quill is paired with 
another (but more creative) Parkerish alto, Phil 
Woods, Phil and Quill with Prestige, Prestige 7115, 
and Phil and Quill, Victor LPM 1284, bog down in 
an overdose of alto saxophoning. The problem be- 
comes almost twice as bad on Four Altos, Prestige 
7116 (that "almost" is for Hal Stein who has some 
individuality the other altos are Quill, Woods, 
and Sahib Shihab). The problems Quill's Parker 
mannerisms get him into on a ballad are illustrated 
on one of his three selections in Rhythm Plus One, 
Epic 3297. He can he heard in single pieces on 

The Records 241 

Concert Jazz, Brunswick 54027, After Hours Jazz, 
Epic 3330, and Critics' Choice, Dawn 1123. 

Paul Quinichette. Quinichette's position as "Vice- 
Pres" was established in the Forties when he 
brought to the Basic band the closest thing to the 
Lester Young tenor saxophone style that it had 
had since Young left the band. However, in his 
playing since then Quinichette has inclined to a 
coarseness of tone and ideas and an attack that 
stems as much from the less palatable side of 
Illinois Jacquet as it does from Young. He makes 
the best of his derivative talents, surrounded by a 
group of Basieites, on The Vice-Pres, EmArcy 
36027, and in two selections in both Giants of Jazz, 
Vol. 3, Part 1 and Part 2, EmArcy 36050 and 36051. 
He is subdued, heavy- toned but not harsh on one 
side of Blow Your Horn, Decca 8176 (shared with 
Bennie Green) and even more subdued in a lush, 
mood set, Moods, EmArcy 36003. 

Both his warm lyricism and his empty flatulence 
can be found on On the Sunny Side, Prestige 7103, 
For Count, Prestige 7127, and The Kid from Den- 
ver, Dawn 1109. He finds little to say in his two 
selections on Tenors, Anyonef, Dawn 1126; he is 
done in by the inordinate length of the pieces (one 
per side) on Jazz Studio 1, Decca 8058; while on 
Wheelin' and Dealin', Prestige 7131, his contribu- 
tions are awkward and tasteless. He can also be 
heard in single selections on Critics' Choice, Dawn 
1123, and Jazz for Hi-Fi Lovers, Dawn 1124. 

Boyd Raeburn. Raeburn led one of the earliest big 
bands in the modern idiom but it never got off the 
ground. Man with Horns, Savoy 12025, and Boyd 
Meets Stravinsky, Savoy 12040, made up of reissues 
from the Jewel label, feature arrangements by 
George Handy, Johnny Richards, Ed Finckel and, 
of all people, Ralph Flanagan. Today they sound 


surprisingly matter-of-fact for a band that was once 
considered mad as a hatter. Through the late For- 
ties and early Fifties Raeburn was in the interior 
decoration business but he returned to music in the 
mid-Fifties with a weekend dance band heard on 
Teen Rock, Columbia CL 1073, playing arrange- 
ments featuring richly voiced reeds and brass over a 
stolid, lunging beat. 

Jimmy Raney. Amidst the jabbering clatter of 
guitarists in the Fifties, Raney has emerged as one 
of the very few with an identity of his own. His 
most characteristic playing is highly lyrical, gentle 
and relaxed although by the slightest shading of 
these elements he can turn into a strongly swinging 
performer. Some of his best work has been done 
with a group made up of John Wilson, trumpet, 
Hall Overton, piano, Teddy Kotick, bass, and Nick 
Stabulas, drums, on Jimmy Raney A, Prestige 7089, 
and in four selections on The Four Most Guitars, 
ABC-Paramount 109. 

Jimmy Raney in Three Attitudes, ABC-Para- 
mount 167, places him in three different settings 
with the aimiable valve trombone of Bob Brook- 
meyer, with Al Cohn's sweepingly swinging tenor 
saxophone and with a rhythm section an imagina- 
tive and rewarding bit of programming. But on 
Jimmy Raney, Featuring Bob Brookmeyer, ABC- 
Parainount 129, Raney is overshadowed by the 
stronger, more visceral playing of Brookmeyer and 
pianist Dick Katz while his sidemen treat him 
equally unkindly on two disks recorded abroad 
Jimmy Raney Visits Paris, Dawn 1120, wherein 
Maurice Vandair's churning, driving piano and 
Bobby Jaspar's soft yet forceful tenor saxophone 
lines are the focal points, and Swingin' in Sweden, 
EmArcy 36121, on one side of which Raney leads a 
Swedish group in which the dominant voice is the 
suave, rich tenor saxophone of Goesta Theselius 

The Records 243 

(George Wallington has the other side). On Two 
Guitars, Prestige 7119, Raney is joined by guitarist 
Kenny Burrell but except for two ballads on which 
they are left alone to play with some sense of form 
and development, this disk is simply more of the 
overly familiar long, meandering solos by Donald 
Byrd, Jackie McLean and the two guitarists. 

Freddie Redd. Redd follows in the Bud Powell 
tradition of jazz piano, churning out a steady flow 
of single notes. He can play forceful, clean-lined 
piano that goes straight to the heart of jazz matters 
but he has a weakness for pretentiousness that can 
be fatal. This weakness reduces his ambitious San 
Francisco Suite, which takes up one side of San 
Francisco Suite, Riverside 12-250, to little more 
than an expanded movie background stereotype, 
vitalized by spots of valid jazz. On the shorter se- 
lections on this disk and on his side of Piano: 
East/West, Prestige 7067 (shared with Hampton 
Hawes), he has moments of vitality but most of his 
work is undisturbing- and unstimulating, 

Sonny Redd, A collection of cliches for alto saxo- 
phone make up Redd's contribution to the pair of 
long selections he leads on Art Pepper-Sonny Redd, 
Regent 6069. He also has one selection in Jazz Is 
Busting Out All Over, Savoy 12123. 

Dizzy Reece. Born in the British West Indies, 
Reece has built his jazz career in England. As his 
nickname suggests, he is a trumpeter who derives 
from Dizzy Gillespie. His side of Changing the 
Jazz at Buckingham Palace, Savoy 12111 (shared 
with Tubby Hayes), shows him as alternately shrill 
or plodding although there are hints that he might 
be capable of a singing tone. A point of interest is 
the piano work of Terry Shannon who has a light, 
riding style much like that of Al Haig or John Wil- 


Johannes Rediske. Rediske's German quintet fol- 
lows the early Shearing mold ably but uninven- 
tively (except that Rediske, who is featured, is a 
guitarist instead of a pianist) in one selection on 
"Das" Is Jazz!, Decca 8229. 

Frank Rehak. Rehak is one of the rare trombon- 
ists who manage to be modern without losing the 
rough, rugged qualities that made many of the 
earlier trombonists so delightful. On one side of 
Jazzville, Vol. 2, Dawn 1107 (shared with Alex 
Smith), he leads a sextet of lusty swingers high- 
lighted by some unusually fluent, firm-toned bari- 
tone saxophone playing by Marty Flax. 

Don Rendell. An English representative of the 
Lester Young school of tenor saxophone, Rendell's 
personal development of the style is somewhat ob- 
scured by his chattering sextet on Modern Jazz at 
Royal Festival Hall, London LL 1185, but it is 
properly showcased in a pair of quartet selections 
on Jazz. Britannia, MGM 3472, and with a small 
group on Cool Europe, MGM 3157. 

Rita Reys. Miss Reys is a Dutch singer, influenced 
by Sarah Vaughan's more noticeable mannerisms, 
who occasionally sings ballads with outgoing assur- 
ance but no suggestion of jazz on Her Name Is Rita 
Reys, Epic 3522, and on four selections in New 
Voices, Dawn 1125. 

Buddy Rich. If there is such a thing as a natural 
drummer, Buddy Rich is that thing. He can infuse 
a group with a lifting, roaring excitement that 
often makes it play away over its collective heads 
or, at the very least, colors its work with an aura of 
excitement. Like Art Blakey, you know when Rich 
is pushing an ensemble. Unlike Blakey, who breaks 
up his rhythms with various startling effects, Rich 

The Records 245 

produces an omnipresent steadiness, an intensity 
of rhythm moving constantly in one direction. He 
has served with great purpose in the big bands of 
Artie Shaw and Tommy Dorsey and he works equal 
wonders in the small groups he has led on records 
during the Fifties. 

An excellent example of Rich's ability to lay 
down a steadily exciting beat is Buddy Rich in 
Miami, Verve 8285, on which he leads a brilliantly 
swinging quartet made up of Flip Phillips, tenor 
saxophone, Ronnie Ball, piano, and Peter Ind, 
bass. He holds his exhibitionistic tendencies in rein 
on this disk but on Buddy and Sweets, Verve 8129, 
which offers some crackling Harry Edison trumpet, 
and The Wailing Buddy Rich, Verve 8168, he in- 
dulges in long solos which vitiate what other inter- 
ests the disks may have. His soloing tendency and 
his lack of sensitivity are not very helpful to This 
One's for Basie, Verve 8176, but, his own lapses 
aside, arranger Marty Paich and Rich's band 
(Harry Edison, Jimmy Rowles, Frank Rosolino, 
Bob Cooper, Buddy Collette and others) have 
caught the Basie crispness the brass tight and pre- 
cise, the reeds hoarse but soft and the rhythm rid- 
ing with a steady flow. He gives vivid support to a 
revived Lester Young on The Lester Young-Buddy 
Rich Trio, Verve 8164, but despite the presence on 
The Swinging Buddy Rich, Verve 8142, of Benny 
Carter, Georgie Auld, Milt Bernhart and Harry 
Edison, the result is quite routine swing blowing. 
Krupa and Rich, Verve 8069, a double serving, is 
for drum fanatics only. 

Rich also sings in a strongly Sinatra-influenced 
manner but with unexpected modesty on Buddy 
Rich Sings Johnny Mercer* Verve 2009, and at- 
tempts a more swinging set, Buddy Rich Just Sings, 
Verve 2075, which shows that he does swing vocally 
with ease. As a drummer, he contributes two num- 
bers to The Jazz Giants: Drum Role, EmArcy 


36071, and one to Midnight Jazz at Carnegie Hall, 
Verve 8189-2. 

Johnny Richards. A childhood in vaudeville and a 
late adolescence as a film scorer is the somewhat out 
of the ordinary background which made a jazzman 
out of Johnny Richards. He was 30 before he 
moved overtly into jazz at the head of his own 
dance band. Since the middle Forties he has been 
known as an "advanced" arranger for Stan Kenton, 
Charlie Barnet and Dizzy Gillespie. One might 
debate how much his arrangements had to do with 
forming the concept of the Kenton clamor but 
there is no doubt that Richards liked it for when 
he organized a band of his own in the middle 
Fifties the book he wrote for it, in the beginning, 
was strongly flavored with the screaming brass 
which typified a period of Kenton with which 
Richards was closely associated. This relatively 
direct transfer of Kentonisms may be sampled in 
Something Else, Bethlehem 6011, but two later 
disks by his band, Wide Range, Capitol T 885, and 
Experiments in Sound (a title with a Kentonian 
ring), Capitol T 981, provide a more varied exhibit 
of Richards' writing, allowing his feeling for mel- 
ody and his sensitive ensemble writing to peep 
through. What might have been an unusually inter- 
esting disk, The Rites of Diablo, Roulette 52008, 
a long work mixing Bantu rhythms and jazz in 
wild and savage fashion, is made to seem more 
monotonous than it actually is by the steady thump 
of drums underneath the entire work. Richards has 
one piece in Operation Jazz, Roost OJ1. 

Jerome Richardson. Versatility is Richardson's 
forte he plays all the saxophones and flute and 
it might be added that he manages to do more with 
the flute than most other jazz musicians. All Night 
Long, Prestige 7073, is the kind of blowing de- 
signed to make everyone seem tiresome and Rich- 

The Records 247 

ardson settles into the mood. One selection by The 
New Yorkers, a quartet made up of Hank Jones, 
piano, Wendell Marshall, bass, and Shadow Wilson, 
drums, with which Richardson played at Minton's 
long after bop was birthed there, plays one bland 
selection on Concert Jazz, Brunswick 54027. 

Max Roach. Roach's career as a drummer began in 
the earliest days of bop when he was playing with 
Charlie Parker and was a regular visitor at Min- 
ton's in Harlem. He has become one of the more 
brilliant technicians on drums, a stimulating en- 
semble drummer and a great flailer of everything in 
sight when he solos. But in both roles he is apt to 
throw a group out of balance by giving the drums 
undue prominence. The group that he led jointly 
with trumpeter Clifford Brown was developing 
some balance and unity when Brown was killed in 
an automobile accident in 1956. Brown and Roach, 
Inc., EmArcy 36008, is cluttered by some very long 
drum solos by Roach but he is more temperate on 
Clifford Brown and Max Roach, EmArcy 36036, 
Study in Brown, EmArcy 36037, Clifford Brown 
and Max Roach at Basin Street, EmArcy 36070, 
and The Best of Max Roach and Clifford Brown 
in Concert, GNP 18. 

Max Roach Plus Four, EmArcy 36098, and Jazz 
in 94 Time, EmArcy 36108, are of interest because 
of the presence of tenor saxophonist Sonny Rollins 
while Max, Argo 623, includes some of Kenny Dor- 
ham's more fully realized trumpet work. Roach 
produces a great deal of sound and fury but not 
much communication on On the Chicago Scene, 
EmArcy 36132, and Deeds Not Words, Riverside 
12-280. He contributes two selections, one a badly 
recorded drum solo, to Modern Jazz Hall of Fame, 
Design 29, two more to The Jazz Giants, Vol. 8, 
EmArcy 36071, and one to Bargain Day, EmArcy 


Howard Roberts. A guitarist of wide range, 
Roberts runs a gamut on Mr. Roberts Plays Guitar, 
Verve 8192, from a long-haired Serenata Burlesca 
to a driving Indiana, using varied, unbilled groups, 
one of which includes a tenor saxophonist who cuts 
Roberts every time he gets the spotlight. 

Betty Roch6. Once a Duke Ellington vocalist, Miss 
Roch sings three songs in a blues tinged pop vein 
on Dinah Washington Sings the Blues, Grand 
Award 33-318, but she covers Take the "A" Train, 
Bethlehem 64, with a frightful display of tasteless 
scoops, twists and oobie-doobie scat. 

Red Rodney. In the middle Forties young Red 
Rodney was one of the bright and hopeful trum- 
peters of bop. The bite and assurance he shows on 
two 1947 recordings included in Advance Guard 
of the Forties, EmArcy 36016, compare favorably 
with a later, brilliant and equally young trumpet 
man from Rodney's home town, Philadelphia Lee 
Morgan. Personal problems kept Rodney out of 
jazz through much of the Fifties but when he re- 
turned, first on Modern Music -from Chicago, Fan- 
tasy 3208, and later on Red Rodney: 1957, Signal 
1206, he was a vastly matured trumpet player, a 
richer, warmer performer who was digging in and 
talking with a full, authoritative voice instead of 
frisking through surface figures. On each of these 
last two disks he receives excellent support from 
Ira Sullivan on both trumpet and tenor saxophone, 
and on the Fantasy disk Norman Simmons' piano 
is a fascinating reflection of the Eddie Costa-John 
Williams school. 

Shorty Rogers. When Shorty Rogers discovered 
California in the early Fifties, it was the jazz 
equivalent of the discovery of Sutter's Mills. In the 
Forties Rogers had been recognized as a crisp, de- 

The Records 249 

pendable trumpet man with Woody Herman and 
Stan Kenton and an arranger with a better than 
average ability to produce orchestrations that al- 
most forced a band to swing. Settled in California 
in 1951, he continued to show these traits, was re- 
garded as a founding father of the West Coast 
school of jazz, but soon spread his talents so thin 
that much of his work was reduced to a set of 
dreary cliches. 

Aside from his work with Herman and Kenton, 
some of his best playing can be found in his small 
group recordings of the earlier Fifties. His side of 
Modern Sounds, Capitol T 691 (shared with Gerry 
Mulligan), is made up of loose, swinging pieces, 
pace setters for the West Coast style which, in gen- 
eral, rarely caught the Basic-based feeling of 
Rogers' best work. On Jazz Composers Workshop, 
Savoy 12045, Rogers contributes a rolling piece 
with a tenor saxophone solo by Jimmy Giuffire 
which is so strong and outgoing as to be almost 
unbelievable to those who know Giuffre's later with- 
drawn playing. Collaboration: West, Prestige 7028, 
is an extremely exciting and rewarding meeting 
between Teddy Charles and Rogers in which 
Rogers plays with light, skittering skill and Giuffre 
again, in one number, plays a baritone solo that is 
a rarity of hot, stomping expression. Teamed with 
a remarkably gutty Bud Shank on one side of Bud 
Shank-Shorty Rogers-Bill Perkins, World Pacific 
1205, Rogers' playing is crisp and lean. 

His talents as a writer are brought into excellent 
play on four big band selections on The Big Shorty 
Rogers Express, Victor LPM 1350 Blues Express, 
Pink Squirrel^ Pay the Piper and Home with Sweets 
recorded in 1957 to fill out an earlier big band 
ten-inch LP to twelve-inch proportions. On these 
selections he harks back to the swirling, gutty drive 
of Woody Herman's first Herd. The solos that 
burst or sneak out of the ensembles are strong and 


assertive, particularly when they are by Rogers or 
an unbilled alto saxophonist. At roughly this time 
Rogers was leading a regularly working group 
called his Giants which shows the sharply-honed, 
shaken-down familiarity that comes from steady 
work as a group on Wherever the Five Winds Blow, 
Victor LPM 1326, despite the fact that the five 
selections on the disk are overlong. 

The rest of Rogers' recordings are relatively pale. 
On Way Up There, Atlantic 1270, he works with a 
variety of small groups which play with a loose 
ease that is pleasantly propulsive in a Basie-like 
fashion but one is left with the feeling that the 
listening foot has been induced to tap in a vacuum. 
Portrait of Shorty, Victor LPM 1561, is a big band 
disk with a faceless quality, played by a seemingly 
listless group of men, while on Martians Come 
Back, Atlantic 1232, Rogers is consistently over- 
shadowed by such sidemen as Harry Edison, Lou 
Levy and Jimmy Giuffire. The Swinging Mr. 
Rogers, Atlantic 1212, is a disillusioning display of 
the heartless, gutless tripe that Rogers seems able 
to turn out by the yard while Afro-Cuban Influ- 
ence, Victor LPM 1763, is a long, phony bit of 
Africana with blaring brass, congas and bongos 
rampant and the Hollywood studio natives wailing 
their strange African cries. 

In a special category of utter triviality are Shorty 
Rogers Plays Richard Rodgers, Victor LPM 1428 
(obviously something with a lot of thought behind 
it), a lifeless "Gigi" in Jazz, Victor LPM 1696, and 
an incredibly tasteless conjunction with Eartha 
Kitt (in which Rogers is credited as leading a 
Dixieland band which is actually the standard 
West Coast Matty Matlock group), St. Louis Blues, 
Victor LPM 1661. 

Rogers plays a single selection on The Playboy 
Jazz Allstars, Playboy 1857, and another with Bud 
Shank on Jazz West Coast, World Pacific JWC 500. 

The Records 251 

Gene Roland. Roland was one of Stan Ken ton's 
busier arrangers in the middle Forties but the writ- 
ing he has provided for the octet and sextet he 
leads on one side of Jazzuille, Vol. 4, Dawn 1122, 
has more of the lightness and rhythmic brightness 
of Count Basic's band. Roland plays trumpet, pour- 
ing out several crisp, strong-voiced solos. 

Joe Roland. Roland's approach to the vibraphone 
is fluent but not forceful, somewhat like the glib, 
surface piano work found in many West Coast 
groups in the middle Fifties. He is heard with three 
different groups on Joltin' Joe Roland, Savoy 
12039, in one of which he is overshadowed by pian- 
ist Freddie Redd and bassist Oscar Pettiford while 
a second group is interesting as a curiosity in that 
it is primarily a string group trying to play bop. 
Redd is once more Roland's pianist on Joe Roland, 
Bethlehem 17, but he is less dominant in these 
gentle, unpretentious pieces. Roland plays one se- 
lection on Know Your Jazz, Vol. 1, ABC-Paramount 

Sonny Rollins. It is not often that a jazz musician 
goes through quite as public a development as Rol- 
lins has during the 1950s. It is one thing (and quite 
usual) to see a musician gradually polish and de- 
velop his particular metier over the years but it is 
something else again to watch a musician start out 
on this path, then switch his style violently and 
later shift once more to something that is an out- 
growth of both his earlier styles but far better than 
either, and produce, in the bargain, an approach 
that is completely personal. 

Originally an alto saxophonist, Rollins switched 
to tenor when he was 19 (1948). For the next few 
years he appeared to be practically the only young 
tenor man who owed primary allegiance to the rela- 
tively heavy-toned attack of Coleman Hawkins 


rather than the prevailing light Lester Young in- 
fluence. The warm, sculptured lines of his early 
work can be heard in some 1951 recordings on 
Sonny Rollins, Prestige 7129. The same disk also 
includes several 1953 performances on which he 
still has a melodious approach to a ballad but is 
beginning to acquire a fiery aggressiveness at up- 
tempos, an aggressiveness that is further developed 
in the 1954 recordings which make up Movin* Out, 
Prestige 7058. 

In 1955 Rollins went into retreat in Chicago, ap- 
parently to mull over the direction of his playing. 
He emerged from this with some vestiges of his 
richness of tone still present but in general using a 
harsh, violent style which associated him with the 
then emerging hard bop school. His return to pub- 
lic activity was with the Max Roach-Clifford Brown 
group and it is with them that he plays on Sonny 
Rollins Plus Four, Prestige 7038, with a warmth 
that scarcely suggests the harshness that was still to 
come. With a later version of the Roach Quintet, 
after the deaths of Clifford Brown and Richie 
Powell, Sonny Rollins Plays for Bird, Prestige 7095, 
there are still suggestions of the enlivening, melodic 
Rollins but his tone is thinning out, his lines be- 
coming more jagged. 

In a series of recordings on which he is supported 
only by a rhythm section, Rollins' increasingly 
eccentric jabs and digs and his banal treatment of 
ballads becomes more and more depressing al- 
though on one such disk, Way Out West, Con- 
temporary 3530, with only Ray Brown, bass, and 
Shelly Manne, drums, he shows off the strongly de- 
veloped sense of structure which was to mark his 
later work. Compared to his disjointed statements 
on A Night at the Village Vanguard, Blue Note 
1581, and the utter emptiness of Tour de Farce, 
Prestige 7126, it is some form of mild praise to say 
that his unrelieved harshness is simply tiresome on 

The Records 253 

Tenor Madness, Prestige 7047, Sonny Rollins Quar- 
tet, Prestige 7020, Saxophone Colossus, Prestige 
7079, and The Sound of Sonny, Riverside 12-241. 
The addition of a trumpet (Donald Byrd) on 
Sonny Rollins, Blue Note 1542, and a trombone 
(J. J. Johnson) on Sonny Rollins, Vol. 2, Blue Note 
1558, provides some relief from Rollins' stridency 
but an encounter with Dizzy Gillespie on one side 
of Dizzy Gillespie Duets with Sonny Rollins and 
Sonny Stitt, Verve 8260, is a wearing experience. 

Through all of these disks Rollins is an erratic 
performer, showing flashes here and there of a 
sense of direction and style which he almost in- 
variably quickly abandons in favor of a flat ugli- 
ness. The conjunction of this aspect of Rollins and 
of his more considered, mature playing can be 
heard on Freedom Suite, Riverside 12-258. The 
title piece is, on its face, a forbidding prospect a 
nineteen-minute piece played by Rollins, Oscar 
Pettiford, and Max Roach. In its early stages it is 
saved only by the virtuoso talents of Pettiford and 
Roach who play with particular skill and inven- 
tiveness while Rollins plunges and dodges through 
some harsh, jagged lines. But as the basic theme 
continues to reappear it acquires more and more 
strength and as the theme becomes stronger Rollins 
gets better. He rolls through the latter half in fas- 
cinating fashion. Here he is playing in a strong, 
outgoing manner, discarding eccentricities for a 
direct, well constructed performance. Yet on the 
other side Rollins reverts to his least attractive 
side, stripping four ballads of much of their natural 
grace to replace it with grinding, spastic move- 

What would seem to be the fully developed Rol- 
lins style is heard on Sonny Rollins and the Big 
Brass, Metrojazz 1002. One side, devoted to Rollins 
with a big band which has no reed section, illus- 
trates the difficulty of writing big band arrange- 


ments around as headstrong and individual a solo- 
ist as Rollins since, almost inevitably, once he gets 
started everyone clears out of the way and he might 
as well be playing with his bassist and drummer. 
There is some surging, strong-lined Rollins in these 
big band pieces but his best work is in the trio 
selections on the other side. In these numbers a 
long-absent warmth returns to his tone. Added to 
his strong attack and his quick wittedness, this may 
prove to be the rounding out of the tenor saxo- 
phonist of the Fifties. 

Rollins plays one selection in Blues for Tomor- 
row, Riverside 12-243. 

Frank Rosolino. A veteran of Stan Kenton's trom- 
bone section, Rosolino often spices the fashionable 
staccato exercises common to modern trombonists 
with a frisky ruggedness from earlier jazz. His four 
selections on Swing . , . Not Spring, Savoy 12062, 
capture this quality and provide some views of 
Detroit pianist Barry Harris 7 driving, two-handed 
work. But Rosolino's playing on Frank Rosolino, 
Capitol T 6507, boils down to jigging blandness, a 
failing that crops up again on Frankly Speaking, 
Capitol T 6509, except for his solo on Moonlight in 
Vermont which gives some range to the potential 
of his rough-toned slipperiness. / Play Trombone, 
Bethlehem 26, backs Rosolino with only a rhythm 
section on six selections, a long drag for one horn 
playing mostly in muted and subdued tones. 

Annie Ross. Now a member of the successful Hen- 
dricks-Lambert-Ross trio which specializes in put- 
ting lyrics to familiar instrumental jazz solos, Miss 
Ross first came to attention doing this very thing 
to Wardell Gray's Twisted. It is included among 
the four selections she sings on King Pleasure Sings, 
Prestige 7128, and in retrospect it is a rather feeble 
effort. She shows herself a good scat singer on this 

The Records 255 

disk but she has a dreadful time with standard pop 
ballads both here and in four selections in Swingin' 
and Singing Regent 603 L 

Charlie Rouse. Rouse, co-leader with Julius Wat- 
kins of The Jazz Modes, takes off on a tenor saxo- 
phone solo on his own in Know Your Jazz, Vol. 1, 
ABC-Paramount 115, playing with a strong, asser- 
tive tone and a pecking attack. 

Jimmie Rowles. Rowles shows the delightfully 
rhythmic warmth that is typical of much of his 
piano work in one selection on Pianists Galore!, 
World Pacific JWC 506, but a second entry on this 
disk is a somnolent ballad which he prods with 
mere suggestions of the greater skills that are at his 

Ernie Royal, Although Royal's reputation has been 
made as a high-note specialist with the Hampton, 
Basie, Barnet and Kenton bands, he shows a much 
more interesting and relaxed side of his talent on 
Accent on Trumpet, Urania 1203. With either open 
horn or mutes, his playing is polished and imagina- 
tive and he has a special affinity for prettily melodic 

Pete Rugolo. After serving with great success as 
Stan Kenton's alter ego in the late Forties, Rugolo 
has been writing and arranging in a controlled 
and pointed extension of the work he did for Ken- 
ton, utilizing the rich voicing of his Kenton period 
but without the blatancy of the finished Kenton 
product. A short-lived band that Rugolo formed in 
the middle Fifties plays in this manner, alternating 
spurts of swinging with moments of lead-bottomed 
lumbering on New Sounds, Harmony 7003. This 
heaviness is also present in the work of a studio 
band he leads on Music for Hi-Fi Bugs, EmArcy 


36082, although it turns out some worthy big band 
jazz. The spottiness of the jazz content of this disk 
and most of the others that Rugolo has conducted 
is not a matter of his inability to give his bands 
serviceable jazz arrangements but is due largely to 
his peripheral interest in jazz. He is, as he points 
out in some of his liner notes, seeking "interesting 
sounds" or "colorful music." He achieves both 
goals, throwing in a few splashes of jazz en route, 
on Out on a Limb, EmArcy 36115, Reeds in Hi-Fi, 
Mercury 20260, Brass in Hi-Fi, Mercury 20261, and 
Percussion at Work, EmArcy 36122. He contributes 
two pieces to Under One Roof, EmArcy 36088, and 
one to $64,000 Jazz, Columbia CL 777. 

Marty Rubenstein. Some of the themes devised by 
Chicago pianist Marty Rubenstein in the jazz score 
for The Song of Songs, Audio Fidelity 1888, are 
attractive and they are developed in interesting 
fashion by his group. Unfortunately their work is 
simply background for a frantically hot-breathed 
and hammy reading of the great poem. 

Howard Rtunsey. In 1949 onetime Kenton bassist 
Howard Rumsey took a jazz group into The Light- 
house at Hermosa Beach, Calif., and although the 
personnel of his Lighthouse All-Stars has gone 
through a slow but steady change over the years, 
Rumsey has been there ever since. Recordings by 
his groups, starting in 1952, reflect changing tastes 
in jazz on the West Coast. The 1952 All-Stars, heard 
on Howard Rumsey's Lighthouse All-Stars, Vol. 3, 
Contemporary 3508, have great verve (Viva 
Zapata!), a light but pushing beat and a sense of 
fun that leads Jimmy Giuffre to do an amusing 
take-off on a rock 'n' roll tenor in Big Girl. The 
disk is somewhat of a catchall for there are also 
some slick, surface works by a 1953 delegation and 
some drab 1955 representation. Sunday Jazz a la 

The Records 257 

Lighthouse, Contemporary 3501, is from 1953 
easygoing and amiable, notable for a touching 
ballad solo by Shorty Rogers and some warm, clean 
tenor saxophone work by Giuffre which is a far 
cry from his later muffled playing. Bud Shank and 
Bob Cooper were groundbreakers when they played 
a set of flute and oboe duets with the All-Stars in 
1954. They are collected on Oboe/Flute, Con- 
temporary 3520, along with a few 1956 duets in- 
volving Buddy Collette and Cooper. What was an 
interesting novelty in 1954 has since been so over- 
done that it now sounds tedious and ordinary. 

In 1955 and 1956 the group developed a business- 
like matter-of-fact tone. It was polished, competent 
but glib and unexciting. These two years are re- 
ported on Howard Rumsey's Lighthouse All-Stars, 
Vol. 6, Contemporary 3504, Lighthouse at Laguna, 
Contemporary 3509, and Music for Lighthouse- 
keeping) Contemporary 3528. Spotlighting the solo- 
ists in the 1954 and 1957 groups proves to be a rela- 
tively futile formula on In the Solo Spotlight, Con- 
temporary 3517, for aside from Cooper, '54, and 
Richie Kamuca, '57, the Lighthousers are not 
strong enough as soloists to carry a disk. 

For Jazz Rolls Royce, Lighthouse 300, Rumsey 
has surrounded his All-Stars with a big band in six 
arrangements by Cooper. This results in an over- 
dressed, sometimes stuffy atmosphere that Is re- 
lieved when members of the small group particu- 
larly Cooper on tenor saxophone, Victor Feldman 
on piano, and Frank Rosolino, trombone take 
over. Seemingly the small group might have done 
better on its own. 

George Russell. Russell is primarily a composer 
with a highly personal style and a puckish sense of 
humor. On The RCA Victor Workshop, Victor 
LPM 1372, played by his Smalltet (that's what it 
says), he has a habit of getting so intricately in- 


volved in some carefully cerebrated works that they 
refuse to swing readily. But there are moments 
when his tightly knit writing boils up into virile, 
exciting performances and these moments are good 
enough to be worth waiting around for. 

Bill Russo. A refugee from the Kenton trombone 
section, Russo has become known latterly as a com- 
poser and teacher. There are strong evidences of 
his studies with Lennie Tristano in the pieces he 
contributes to Jazz Composers Workshop, Savoy 
12045, but his later The World of Alcina, Atlantic 
1241, seems to reflect his own musical personality 
more accurately. On one side he leads a septet and 
a quintet through six low-keyed, rhythmic, tightly 
written pieces, but the title work, taking all of the 
other side, is a composition for an unchoreographed 
ballet which, by its very nature, is a sort of Music- 
Minus-One experience. It appears to have little 
relationship to jazz. 

Jorgen Ryg. Ryg is a strong-voiced, aggressive Dan- 
ish trumpeter whose flowing, logical lines have 
something of Bobby Hackett's controlled push and 
tone even though his ideas lean more to the modern 
school. And since Ryg has an eminently swinging 
pianist in Jorgen Lausen with his quartet on Jor- 
gen Ryg Quartet, EmArcy 36099, the group almost 
always swings brightly. However, it might have had 
more staying power if there had been another horn 
to provide a contrasting soft texture to Ryg's hard 

Aaron Sachs. Sachs has a sort of anonymous post- 
Goodman clarinet style light, pleasant but not 
memorable and his work on tenor saxophone is 
much the same. The sextet he leads on one side of 
We Brought Our Axes, Bethlehem 7 (shared with 
Hank D'Amico) is neat and compact, brightened by 

The Records 259 

occasional splashes of Urbie Green's warm trom- 
bone, but another sextet on one side of Jazzville, 
Vol. 3, Dawn 114 (shared with Charlie Smith), 
never gets up steam. 

Eddie Safranski. After making a name as Stan Ken- 
ton's bassist in the late Forties, Safranski retired 
from the one-nighter scramble to the comfort of 
New York studio work. Since then on the rare oc- 
casions when he appears on records as a leader, he 
is more inclined to stay in place in the rhythm sec- 
tion than to give himself solo space. Thus, on three 
selections in Concert Jazz, Brinswick 54027, the 
focal point is the strong, stark guitar work of Mun- 
dell Lowe while the Safranski group's contributions 
to Loaded, Savoy 12074, are taken up largely by 
Vido Musso's strident, Swing Era tenor saxophone. 

A. K. Salim. An arranger who works in the mode of 
the latter-day Basic band, Salim does a reasonable 
job of providing a propelling setting for a pair of 
flutes on Flute Suite, Savoy 12102, but he serves up 
only the vaguest sketches for a long blowing session, 
Pretty for the People, Savoy 12118, marked by 
ragged ensembles and dull solos except for those by 
pianist Wynton Kelly and, occasionally, trombonist 
Buster Cooper. He has one selection in Jazz Is Bust- 
ing Out All Over, Savoy 12123. 

Sal Salvador. When he is leaning into a fast tempo, 
Salvador plays a shrill, nagging type of guitar that 
gives his work a thin, surface quality. This is the 
dominant note of Frivolous Sal, Bethlehem 59, de- 
spite some dark and gutty piano forays by Eddie 
Costa. Costa again is the saving grace of Kenton 
Presents Jazz, Capitol T 6505, but on Shades of Sal 
Salvador, Bethlehem 39, he acquires several help- 
mates Phil Woods, Joe Morello, Eddie Bert, John 
Williams and Costa who enable him to relax into 


a light and airy form which makes for more con- 
sistently stimulating listening. On Colors in Sound, 
Decca 9210, he leads a big band which uses his 
guitar and Ray Starling's mellophone as its main 
voices. However, George Roumanis' arrangements 
hold to a similarity of texture and neither Salvador 
not Starling are soloists of sufficient distinction to 
penetrate the haze that settles over the perform- 

Dennis and Adolph Sandole. The arrangements 
written by the Sandole brothers for Modern Music 
from Philadelphia, Fantasy 3209, are serviceable 
settings with touches of brooding blues for the solo- 
ists in a seven-piece group. These include John La- 
Porta, sailing smoothly on alto saxophone, and 
some crisp, to-the-point trumpet by Art Fanner. 

Leon Sash. Sash is one of several musicians who are 
pulling the accordion well into the jazz orbit (Joe 
Mooney, Pete Jolly and Mat Mathews are others). 
He leans toward a strongly swinging, uncompli- 
cated attack, using rich tonality and flowing phras- 
ing. But equally important to the effectiveness of 
the Sash Quartet on This Is the Jazz Accordion, 
Storyville 917, and its portion of Toshiko and Leon 
Sash at Newport, Verve 8236, is Ted Robinson who 
plays tenor saxophone, clarinet and flute. The 
teaming of tenor saxophone and accordion in both 
unison and contrapuntal passages gives the group 
a unique and appealing sound. When Robinson 
takes off on his own he shows himself to be a soloist 
whose ideas parallel the light, mellow flow of Sash's. 
Both men solo skillfully but it is their teamwork 
that makes the quartet of more than passing inter- 

The Sauter-Finegan Orchestra. Eddie Sauter and 
Bill Finegan had distinguished careers behind them 

The Records 261 

as arrangers for some of the leading swing bands 
when they joined forces to create their own band in 
1952. Sauter first came to attention with the deli- 
cately provocative writing he did for the Red 
Norvo-Mildred Bailey band in the late Thirties. In 
the next decade he was turning out arrangements 
for Benny Goodman which, by dint of ingenuity 
and resourcefulness, managed to be both commer- 
cial and unhackneyed, and right after the war he 
provided much of the material for the excellent but 
too far-out Ray McKinley band. Finegan had been 
a top arranger first for Glenn Miller and later for 
Tommy Dorsey. 

When Sauter and Finegan went into business for 
themselves they produced arrangements that were 
just a shade different yet still readily assimilable. 
They wrote with the then newly developing high 
fidelity fad in mind, making imaginative use of ex- 
tremes of sound range with tuba, glockenspiel, toy 
trumpet, xylophone, tambourine, sleigh bells, tri- 
angles and even tuned water glasses. Their earliest 
works, gathered in New Directions in Music, Victor 
LPM 1227, are lively, provocative and full of 
rhythm, a combination which suggested that inter- 
est might be aroused once more in the moribund 
big band field. The band, which was started as a 
studio creation, soon went out on the road riding 
a crest of enthusiastic interest, 

As it turned out, that crest of interest was to be 
the band's high point. The records that followed 
after the first one are, except for occasional spots, of 
steadily decreasing interest. On The Sound of the 
Sauter-Finegan Orchestra, Victor LPM 1009, the 
gamut of peeps and grunts, of penny whistle, tuba, 
triangle, recorder and wounded French horn which 
were previously the means to an apt interpretation 
of a piece of music became, to a large extent, the 
end itself. Vocals appear on several selections (some 
sung by the excellent Joe Mooney are worthwhile 


additions) and there is a general feeling that an 
attempt is being made to make S-F more commer- 
cially acceptable. 

The band got back on the track with its next 
disk, Inside Sauter-Finegan, Victor LJM 1003, but 
this disk unfortunately is no longer in the active cat- 
alogue. The rest of the road runs downhill. Concert 
Jazz, Victor LPM 1051, has some good moments in 
Joe Venuto's marimba work but much of this dibk 
bogs down in pretention and ponderousness. Ad- 
venture in Time, Victor LPM 1240, "an album of 
percussion music," is involved with things which 
can be whacked, tongued wind instruments and a 
stricken voice reading a poem. 

This was the bottom. Sauter took off for Ger- 
many with a three-year radio contract there leaving 
the band, which existed only on weekends when it 
existed at all, in Finegan's hands. Two disks come 
from this period: Under Analysis, Victor LPM 
1341, a collection of fine old tunes, most of them 
associated with big bands of the past, rewritten in a 
fashion that blows many of them up into pompous 
nonsense; and Memories of Goodman and Miller, 
Victor LPM 1634, a much more valid effort, based 
on arrangements Sauter and Finegan had done for 
Goodman and Miller. The Goodman pieces, which 
include Benny Rides Again, Superman and Clari- 
net a la King (with Walt Levinsky doing the Good- 
man parts cleanly) are crisp and pulsing. The S-F 
versions of Miller are often an improvement on the 
originals but most of the selections lean toward 
Miller's platitudinous side. 

The high esteem in which the Sauter-Finegan 
orchestra was held in 1954 may be judged by the 
fact that it was selected to perform Rolf Lieber- 
mann's briefly sensational Concerto for Jazz Band 
and Symphony Orchestra, Victor LM 1888, with 
Fritz Reiner and the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. 
The sensation was brief because Liebermann's con- 

The Records 263 

certo grosso puts both the symphony orchestra and 
the jazz orchestra under wraps although it has a few 
gracious and effective moments. The jazz sections 
are of only moderate interest as jazz and the non- 
jazz sections are the merest bow in the direction of 
symphonic composition. 

Joe Saye. This Scottish pianist, now in the United 
States, is colorless, unobtrusive and generally dull 
on Scotch on the Rocks, EmArcy 36072, and A Wee 
Bit of Jazz, EmArcy 36112. He plays two selections 
on The Young Ones of Jazz, EmArcy 36085. 

Hal Schaefer. Schaefer produces a slow, brooding, 
angular piano version of St. Louis Blues with 
flourishes on 14 Blue Roads to St. Louis, Victor 
LPM 1714. 

Herman Schoonderwalt. Driven by its leader's 
jubilant baritone saxophone, the Herman Schoon- 
derwalt Septet steams lustily through a pair of 
selections on Jazz Behind the Dikes, Epic 3270. 

Bobby Scott. Scott is a young (born 1937) pianist 
and composer who has reached an apparent ma- 
turity very quickly although he has not received 
much recognition. His writing shows a feeling for 
basic, earthy jazz with touches of the Ellington 
influence although he is quite definitely of the 
modern school. His solos intensify certain aspects 
of his writing. They are stark, sometimes dissonant 
but almost always heavily brooding. He achieves a 
dark, roaring quality with a striking use of bass 
figures on Scott Free, ABC-Paramount 102, a disk 
on which he also plays vibraphone, probing 
around with a firm line of attack which is rarely 
waylaid by frills. Bobby Scott and Two Horns, 
ABC-Paramount 148, is an effective showcase for his 
writing, using a group built around tenor and 


baritone saxophones which sounds very much like 
those Gerry Mulligan groups which have included 
Zoot Sims. A less successful effort in somewhat the 
same vein is The Compositions of Bobby Scott, 
Bethlehem 8, on which he leads two groups, one of 
which reflects his ideas much better than the other. 
Three readily swinging, sensitive solos by Scott are 
included in The Jazz Keyboard, Savoy 12043. 

Shirley Scott. Miss Scott is one of the pleasanter 
additions to the growing school of Hammond or- 
ganists who dally with some variant of jazz. She 
ranges capably from a subdued pop-jazz style to 
something akin to the desperate frenzy of Jimmy 
Smith on Great Scott!, Prestige 7143. As one who 
strikes a middle ground between Smith and the 
rocking thud of, say, Wild Bill Davis, she may have 
a wider appeal to jazz listeners than either of them 
but to my ear the monotonous stridency of the 
electric organ when it gets beyond the soft, snuffling 
cushion of moody balladry keeps it from being a 
satisfactory jazz instrument. 

Tony Scott. Few musicians of any generation have 
fought as insistently and persistently for their view 
of jazz as has Scott. His devotion to Charlie Parker 
is such that he once reached a bursting point of dis- 
traught emotion when he failed to get a meeting of 
jazz writers to agree with him that Parker was the 
greatest man who had lived during the past hun- 
dred years (not simply the greatest musician). Scott 
spent the latter part of the Forties trying to evolve 
a clarinet style which departed completely from the 
Goodman concept of the Thirties and which car- 
ried out the Parkerian ideas without simply copy- 
ing Parker's phrasing. The result was a feathery, 
long-lined, boneless style which, until the Fifties, 
seemed to frustrate him by constantly escaping 
from his clutches. During the Fifties, however, he 

The Records 265 

mastered it to such a degree that he could range 
freely from the most idly drifting impressionism to 
a ferocity and intensity that made some of the 
"hot" clarinetists of old seem relatively frigid. De- 
spite this, Scott's recorded performances have been 

The most consistent collection of Scott in a warm 
and swinging vein, playing in a firm, solid tone and 
with little concession to featheriness or breathiness, 
is one side of Tony Scott in Hi-Fi, Brunswick 
54021, on which he is backed by Dick Katz, who 
plays some brilliant piano, Milt Hinton, bass, and 
Philly Joe Jones, drums. The other side, featuring 
a slightly different Scott group, is adequate but far 
less exciting. Both Sides of Tony Scott, Victor LPM 
1268, is more representative of the inconsistency of 
Scott's work during the Fifties. There are two long 
ad lib performances, Counterpoint Pleasant and 
East Coast, West Side, that are excellent fulfillments 
of the potential of the jazz clarinet, thanks to the 
combination of Scott's technique, his sense of basic 
swinging phrasing and his mature development of 
his ideas. But when he turns to ballads even his 
technical skill cannot counteract the deadly tedium 
of the tempos. On The Touch of Tony Scott, Victor 
LPM 1353, he is heard with a quartet, a ten-piece 
group and a big band, and while he injects some 
of his own particular excitement in the selections 
by the larger groups, it is only the quartet pieces, 
on which he is least hindered by pretentious ar- 
rangements, that are really successful. High point 
of the disk is a blazing virtuoso performance by 
Scott, Aeolian Drinking Song. 

In the late Fifties Scott began playing baritone 
saxophone in a brash, driving style that was almost 
poles apart from the delicacy of much of his 
clarinet work. He uses both instruments in a light- 
hearted and engaging attack on the Rodgers and 
Hammerstein score on South Pacific Jazz, ABC- 


Paramount 235, and on a comparatively indifferent 
set, The Modern Art of Jazz, Seeco 425. 

He plays single selections on clarinet on The 
Mellow Moods of Jazz, Victor LPM 1365, Know 
your Jazz, Vol. 1, ABC-Paramount 115, and The 
Encyclopedia of Jazz on Records, Vol. 4, Decca 

Phil Seaman. Seaman's British quintet manages to 
hone down Dizzy Gillespie's yawp-filled Manteca 
to a modest swing piece on Third Festival of British 
Jazz, London LL 1639. 

Hal Serra. Serra is a pianist with a spare, throbbing 
style that is occasionally stimulating but the general 
impact of the group he leads on one side of Jazz- 
ville, Vol. 4, Dawn 1122 (shared with Gene Roland) 
is mild. 

Bud Shank. As much as anyone, Shank has helped 
to create the type of music that is sometimes identi- 
fied as West Coast Jazz. He has been based in 
California since 1947 and served a pair of seasons 
with both Charlie Barnet and Stan Kenton. Since 
1952 he has spent much of his time with Howard 
Rumsey's Lighthouse group at Hermosa Beach. It 
was while he was with Rumsey that he began 
doubling from his regular instrument, alto saxo- 
phone, to flute and, with Bob Cooper, created some 
unusual flute and oboe duets. Shank's work on alto 
has always been facile, characterized by long, loop- 
ing lines, but as the years have gone by a virility 
that could once be found in his attack has given way 
to a sort of chattering glibness, in keeping with 
the most typical of West Coast jazz sounds. 

The hard swinging, outgoing Shank can be heard 
in Bud Shank-Shorty Rogers-Bill Perkins, World 
Pacific 1205, particularly on those numbers on 

The Records 267 

which he has the competition and support of some 
crisp, lean trumpeting by Rogers. Bob Brookmeyer's 
gutty valve trombone also prompts Shank to the 
guttier side of his instrument on The Saxophone 
Artistry of Bud Shank, World Pacific 1213. His best 
flute-and-oboe duets with Bob Cooper will be found 
on a Howard Rumsey disk (Contemporary 3520). 
On both Flute *ri Oboe, World Pacific 1226, and 
The Swings to TV, World Pacific 411, the natural 
disinclination of their instruments to be used in 
jazz terms is heightened by the use of string ac- 

What has come to be the expected Shank per- 
formances glibly noodling alto and determinedly 
peeping flute make up Jazz at Cal Tech, World 
Pacific 1219, The Bud Shank Quartet, World Pacific 
1215, and Bud Shank Quartet, World Pacific 1230. 
He turns to pure syrup on a set recorded in Italy 
with a local string section, I'll Take Romance, 
World Pacific 1251. He is heard in a big band con- 
text with an orchestra led by Johnny Mandel on 
Theme Music from "The James Dean Story" World 
Pacific 2005, a mixture of mood music and bongo- 
paced swing in which the arrangements and themes 
are of more interest than the solos. 

Three selections by Shank are included in Jazz 
West Coast, World Pacific JWC 500, two in Ballads 
for Background, World Pacific JWC 503, one each 
in Jazz West Coast, Vol. 2, World Pacific JWC 501, 
The Blues, World Pacific JWC 502, Solo Flight, 
World Pacific JWC 505, and The Playboy Jazz All- 
stars, Playboy 1957. Four pieces by Shank and 
Cooper are in Jazz Swings Broadway, World Pacific 
404, and there is one Shank-Cooper selection as well 
as one by Shank in Jazz West Coast, Vol. 3, World 
Pacific JWC 507, Have Blues, Will Travel, World 
Pacific JWC 509, and Jazz West Coast, Vol. 4, 
World Pacific JWC 510. 


Ralph Sharon, This British pianist, now in the 
United States, shows few marked personal char- 
acteristics in his playing and is not very consistent. 
He can be unostentatiously swinging leading an 
excellent American group in his own compositions 
on Around the World in Jazz, Rama 1001, and Mr. 
and Mrs. Jazz, Bethlehem 13, or pleasant but anon- 
ymous in Autumn Leaves and Spring Fever, Lon- 
don LL 1339, as well as downright dull in Easy 
Jazz, London LL 1488, and Ralph Sharon Trio, 
Bethlehem 41. He sets a fine, earthy tone on a blues 
on 2:38 AM., Argo 635, but the rest of the disk is 
anemic and undistinguished. He has contrived some 
effective arrangements to spotlight various drum- 
mers in groups backing up singer Tony Bennett on 
The Beat of My Heart, Columbia CL 1079. 

George Shearing. Shearing has run practically the 
entire jazz piano gamut from boogie-woogie and a 
brilliant Hines-like strut while he was still in Eng- 
land to Erroll Garner and Bud Powel devices in 
his early days in this country, on through the locked 
hands block chords and canons of his Quintet's first 
success to the mature and largely personal pianist 
who can occasionally be heard today. 

There is a good, spirited summation of the pre- 
success Shearing, encumbered by poor recording 
and surface hiss, on Shearing By Request, London 
LL 1343, and less consistent but similar collections 
on Midnight on Cloud 69, Savoy 12093, and Great 
Bri tains, Savoy 12016. His excellent first quintet 
with Margie Hyams on vibes and Chuck Wayne, 
guitar, brightens Touch of Genius, MGM 3265, / 
Hear Music, MGM 3266, and You're Hearing 
George Shearing, MGM 3216. A Shearing Caravan, 
MGM 3175, and Shearing in Hi-Fi, MGM 3293, 
feature the best group he has had since, one in 
which Cal Tjader's playing on vibes is almost al- 
ways brilliantly sensitive. An Evening with Shear- 

The Records 269 

ing, MGM 3122, and When Lights Are Low, MGM 
3264, are drab odds and ends but not nearly as 
drab as the sugar-coated dreariness that he later 
produced for Capitol on The Shearing Spell, Capi- 
tol T 648, Velvet Carpet, Capitol T 720, Latin 
Escapade, Capitol T 737, Black Satin, Capitol T 
858, The Shearing Piano, Capitol T 909, Night 
Mist, Capitol T 943, Burnished Brass, Capitol T 
1038, Latin Lace, Capitol T 1082, and Blue Chifion, 
Capitol T 1124. Practically the only jazz that Shear- 
ing has recorded in recent years is on In the Night, 
Capitol T 1003, on which he plays with such pleas- 
ant strength and spareness that it is all the more 
disappointing to find him wasting almost all of his 
recording time on dreary trash. 

The Shearing Quintet appears in the role of 
accompanist to Teddi King, Billy Eckstine and the 
Ray Charles Singers on Cool Caravan, MGM 3393. 
It plays a single selection on Forty-Eight Stars of 
American Jazz, MGM 3611, and Popular Jazz Gold 
Album, Capitol T 1034. 

Jack Sheldon. A trumpeter in the Chet Baker vein, 
Sheldon's playing is subdued, muffled and shows 
little sense of structure in single selections on The 
Hard Swing, World Pacific JWC 508, The Blues, 
World Pacific JWC 502, and Jazz West Coast, VoL 
2, World Pacific JWC 501. 

Tommy Shepard. Shepard is a trombonist in the 
Tommy Dorsey manner but the men with him on 
Shepard 's Flock, Coral 57110, include such modern- 
ists as Barry Galbraith, Nick Travis, Hal McKusick 
and Nat Pierce. The arrangements are quite bland 
but the soloists make things perk up occasionally. 

Dick Sherman. Sherman's trumpet is completely 
overshadowed by Gene Quill's doggedly Parkerish 
alto saxophone in the quintet they jointly lead 


on one side of Jazzville '56, Vol. 1, Dawn 1101 
(shared with The Jazz Modes). The Quintet also 
has a selection in Critics' Choice, Dawn 1123. 

Sahib Shihab. Shihab is heard as a rule on baritone 
saxophone, less frequently on alto, which is un- 
fortunate for he plays alto with form, a sense of 
direction and an enlivening lift whereas his bari- 
tone is monotoned and limited. However, although 
he plays alto on Four Altos, Prestige 7116, the 
multiplicity of alto saxophones provides a poor 
setting for his own. He splits himself in his prevail- 
ing baritone and alto proportions on Jazz Sahib, 
Savoy 12124. He has two selections in After Hours 
Jazz, Epic 3339. 

Don Shirley. In the liner notations on some of his 
records Shirley is referred to as a pianist who plays 
jazz, among other things. This is sheer nonsense. 
Occasionally he seems to make a stab at jazz but it 
is clumsy and quite unswinging. Most of his work 
is overblown pseudo classicism. His records: Tonal 
Expressions, Cadence 1001; Piano Perspectives, 
Cadence 1004; Orpheus in the Underworld, Cadence 
1009; Don Shirley Duo, Cadence 1015; Solos, Ca- 
dence 3007; Don Shirley with Two Basses, Cadence 

Eddie Shu. Shu has been heard as a master of many 
reed instruments plus the harmonica during a long 
association with Gene Krupa. Fortunately he omits 
the harmonica on Eddie Shu, Rep 202, playing 
tenor and alto saxophones with a pleasantly light, 
tip-toeing attack. He heads a good rhythm section 
which includes the dry, needling piano of Bobby 

Ira Shulman. Shulman, a Chicago tenor saxophonist 
with something of the precise, stepping-stones style 

The Records 271 

of Hal McKusick's alto, plays in a muffled and not 
particularly distinguished fashion on Chicago Scene, 
Argo 609. 

Horace Silver. In the early Fifties, when jazz no 
longer seemed to know where it came from, much 
less where it was going, pianist Horace Silver 
brought the rich earthiness of the blues back to 
proper attention. His probing, emotional explora- 
tion of minor themes affected jazz so strongly that a 
word "funk" came into use to describe it. At 
faster tempos, Silver also drew from basic roots, 
building his pieces with a gospel-like fervor. And 
after a long period when jazz "originals" were al- 
most invariably technical exercises based on the 
chord structure of some favored popular tune, Sil- 
ver wrote originals that were not only actually origi- 
nal but memorably melodic, presaging a gradual re- 
turn to melodic creativity among writing jazzmen. 

Three trio sessions held in 1952 and 1953, on all 
of which Art Blakey is the drummer, provide an 
early view of Silver on Horace Silver Trio, Blue 
Note 1520, showing his lively talent as a composer, 
his pianistic wit and a lusty meeting of exuberant 
jazz minds in the collaborations between Silver and 
Blakey. The Jazz Messengers, a group which Blakey 
led through numerous personnel changes for several 
years, was first put together for a Horace Silver re- 
cording date, Horace Silver and the Jazz Messen- 
gers, Blue Note 1518. These original Messengers 
included Kenny Dorham, trumpet, and Hank 
Mobley, tenor saxophone. Silver contributed two 
of his best pieces to the session The Preacher and 
Doodlin' but the group is strident and empty and 
Silver's piano talents are largely wasted amidst all 
the pointless blowing. 

Silver soon broke away from the Messengers and 
formed his own Quintet. Like the Messengers, it has 
gone through many changes in personnel with con- 


sequent variations in quality. Silver has almost al- 
ways managed to imbue his group with a furious 
drive and to maintain a high level in his own solos. 
But he likes to develop pieces at great length and 
he has often had trumpeters and saxophonists who 
have not been able to improvise for long in an 
interesting fashion. Six Pieces of Silver, Blue Note 
1539, includes his classic Senor Blues, a piece which 
draws from trumpeter Donald Byrd some flashes 
of bright, charging strength that are not always ap- 
parent through the rest of the disk. Byrd is replaced 
by the infinitely superior Art Farmer on The Styl- 
ings of Silver, Blue Note 1562, and Further Ex- 
plorations, Blue Note 1589, but several provocative 
Silver creations are run into the ground on these 
disks by overlong, uneventful solos. The best 
touches come from Silver's piano on a minor blues, 
Soulville, and an amusingly shrugging version of 
III Wind. The Silver Quintet, in which Byrd plays, 
drags through a drab, tired set on Silver's Blue, 
Epic 3326. 

Norman Simmons. Simmons plays a rhythmic piano 
with a strong beat and an emphasis on melody on 
Norman Simmons Trio, Argo 607. His drummer 
on the session was Vernell Fournier who has since 
gone on to greater glory with Ahmad Jamal. 

Zoot Sims. Sims came up through the big band ranks 
in the Forties he was with Bobby Sherwood, Bob 
Astor, Sonny Dunham, Benny Goodman polish- 
ing his tenor saxophone conception constantly so 
that when he joined Woody Herman in the late 
Forties as a member of the reed section which be- 
came identified as the Four Brothers (Stan Getz, 
Herb Steward, Serge Chaloff and Sims) he was the 
most directly swinging man in the group. He has 
since become one of the most consistent of saxo- 
phonists (in the mid-Fifties he began to use the 

The Records 273 

alto frequently in addition to tenor) who focuses 
his attention on long, lean, swinging lines with 
almost no side comments or excursions. 

Sims' development from a highly serviceable big 
band musician to a mature and independent jazz 
performer can be heard on The Brothers, Prestige 
7022, which includes some 1949 pieces on which 
Sims is joined by Getz, Al Cohn, Allen Eager and 
Brew Moore (Eager and Moore overshadow the 
others) as well as several 1952 selections featuring 
Sims, Cohn and trombonist Kai Winding. During 
the three year interval Sims' attack had become as- 
sured and aggressive but without any sense of push- 
ing or elbowing, a characteristic he has retained 
ever since. 1952 would seem to have been the crucial 
year in which Sims reached musical maturity for 
the 1950 and 1951 works which make up Zoot Sims, 
Prestige 7026, are pleasant but, for Sims, tame and 
quite unadventurous. 

Sims frequently records in tandem with other 
jazz stars to get needed contrast to his smoothly 
swinging tone over the length of an LP. One of the 
most fruitful of these collaborations was with the 
muscular valve trombonist, Bob Brookmeyer. Sims 
swaggers his way through Tonight's Jazz Today, 
Storyville 907, with his typically alert sense of phras- 
ing while Brookmeyer plays a thoughtful and brood- 
ing foil and they collaborate happily again on The 
Modern Art of Jazz, Dawn 1102, but on Whooeeee, 
Storyville 914, Brookmeyer takes over in no un- 
certain terms and has a virtuoso's field day while 
Sims, playing with his expected strength and fluidity 
on fast numbers, bogs down on ballads. He also 
sings in a rather disheveled manner on both Story- 
ville disks. 

A meeting with one of the old Four Brothers, Al 
Cohn (who replaced Steward in the original group), 
on From A to Z y Victor LPM 1282, found neither 
saxophonist in particularly inspired form but plan- 


1st Dave McKenna, rollicking along like an un- 
daunted horse in blinders, doesn't even seem to 
realize that everybody else is merely grinding out 
mechanical performances. On Down East, Prestige 
7033, Sims is matched with alto saxophonist Phil 
Woods but it is trumpeter Jon Eardley's crisp, 
clean, singing playing that keeps the disk moving. 
Getting away from the company of saxophonists, 
Sims returns to the gracefully steaming lines which 
often all but obscure the intensely jumping quality 
of his playing on Zoot Sims Goes to Jazzuille, Dawn 
1115. The other horn on this disk, trumpeter Jerry 
Lloyd, makes up in enthusiasm for some lapses 
into uncertain blowing. Nick Travis is a more 
steady trumpet helpmate for some good Sims solo- 
ing on Zoot!, Riverside 12-228, but these long per- 
formances might have been edited down to advan- 

In the final analysis, Sims has proved to be his 
own best team-mate the evidence is a pair of multi- 
taped disks, Zoot Sims, ABC-Paramount 155, and 
Zoot Sims Plays Four Altos, ABC-Paramount 198. 
On the first he works his way skillfully through a 
multi-track jigsaw puzzle on alto, tenor and bari- 
tone in some pleasantly shaped compositions by 
George Handy. But it is on the second, again in- 
volving Handy compositions, that Sims really shows 
his mettle as he turns himself into a complete sec- 
tion of altos. After Sims had recorded an original 
improvisation with a rhythm section, Handy wrote 
parts for the three additional altos around this basic 
line. Sims preserves a remarkable spontaneity in 
dubbing in the three parts so that the ensembles 
swing with a gorgeous lift and manages to vary his 
solo style just enough in the course of successive 
appearances in one selection so that it does not 
sound like one man taking all the solos. Despite 
the trickery involved, it is an unusually satisfying 
collection of polished, pulsing jazz, much more so 

The Records 275 

than a disk on which there are four different saxo- 
phonists (Sims, Cohn, John Coltrane, Hank Mobley) 
Tenor Conclave, Prestige 7074 a long blowing 
session which buries all four saxophones in mo- 
notony. Its sole merit is Ira Gitler's excellent essay 
on modern tenor saxophonists on the liner. Sims, 
with only a rhythm section, is smooth and suave 
on Zoot, Argo 608. He contributes two pieces to 
Tenors, Anyone?, Dawn 1126, and single selections 
to Jazz West Coast, World Pacific JWC 500, Jazz 
for Lovers, Riverside 12-244, Jazz for Hi-Fi Lovers, 
Dawn 1124, and Critics' Choice, Dawn 1123. 

The Six. The key to The Six is its leader, Bob 
Wilber, teen-age prodigy with the Scarsdale High 
School band in the middle Forties who became 
Sidney Bechet's protg and carbon copy on clarinet 
and later, when traditional jazz palled, studied 
with Lennie Tristano. Having sampled both ex- 
tremes of jazz, Wilber, in the Fifties, settled some- 
where in between with a form of swing that was 
cognizant of jazz developments since the Thirties. 
Thus The Six on The View from Jazzbo's Head, 
Rep 210, swings, explores, follows nobody's beaten 
path and produces a mixture of provocative jazz 
and unfulfilled ideas. 

Alex Smith. Placidity is the vein of Alex Smith's 
Quintet on one side of Jazzuille, Vol. 2, Dawn 1107 
(shared with Frank Rehak). Smith is a pianist who 
is both placid and assured; his quintet is also 
placid but its placidity leads to uncertain ensembles 
and rough solos. Smith plays one selection on Jazz, 
for Hi-Fi Lovers, Dawn 1124. 

Charlie Smith. When a drummer forms a trio filled 
out by Hank Jones, piano, and Oscar Pettiford, 
bass, the least it can be is good. That's what Charlie 
Smith's trio is on one side of Jazzville, Vol. 3, Dawn 


1114 (shared with Aaron Sachs). The trio has one 
number on Critics' Choice, Dawn 1123. 

Derek Smith. Sponsored by John Lewis in a collec- 
tion of piano solos. Jazz Piano International, At- 
lantic 1287, Smith plays the blues with strength, 
firmness and a sense of direction. But the longer 
he plays the more he indicates that he has listened 
closely to John Lewis. He is somewhat more inde- 
pendent, in a less interesting vein, in two selections 
on Jazz Britannia, MGM S472. 

Jimmy Smith. Smith is credited, if that is the proper 
term, with being the first organist to translate the 
Parker idiom to that instrument. He has done this 
through an ability to maintain a jabbing, multi- 
noted style at a very fast pace. On slower selections 
he attempts to convey a jazz beat by breaking up 
what might normally be sustained notes to produce 
an insistent, prodding beat or by going completely 
"mighty Wurlitzer" on ballads. Almost all of his 
performances are too long, too repetitious and too 
dull. His playing has been compared to Morse code. 
One LP side of his work can produce the same 
result as a jumping sinus. 

He normally works as part of a trio (guitar and 
drums) and that is the group that is heard on A 
New Star, Vol. 1, Vol. 2, and Vol. 3, Blue Note 1512, 
1514 and 1525; Jimmy Smith at the Club Baby 
Grand, Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, Blue Note 1528 and 1529, 
and Groovin* at Small's Paradise, Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, 
Blue Note 1585 and 1586, the latter four recorded 
in night clubs; and Jimmy Smith Plays Pretty Just 
for You, Blue Note 1563. On A Date with Jimmy 
Smith, Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, Blue Note 1547 and 1548, 
and The Incredible Jimmy Smith, Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, 
Blue Note 1551 and 1552, he is joined by several 
visitors of whom only alto saxophonist Lou Donald- 

The Records 277 

son and guitarist Kenny Burrell manage to play 
with interest despite Smith's sputtering accompani- 

Johnny Smith. Smith is given to finicky guitar 
pickings at pallid ballads which become awfully 
tiresome in unrelieved doses. He is, however, an 
exceptionally good, light-fingered and swinging 
guitarist when he wants to be and for this reason 
The Johnny Smith Quartet, Roost 2203, is easily 
the best of his collections. It is a cross section which 
includes a few tired ballads along with several 
brightly swinging pieces plus evidence that he can 
explore a ballad in a lively and imaginative manner 
and an interesting reworking of John Lewis' com- 
position, Django. Smith's inclination to be bland 
is tempered on Moonlight in Vermont, Roost 2211, 
by the presence of one of three enlivening tenor 
saxophonists on all the pieces Stan Getz, Zoot 
Sims or Paul Quinichette. 

Smith is simply, and somewhat tiresomely, bland 
on Johnny Smith Plays Jimmy Van Heusen, Roost 
2201, but he manages to stir up a little tedium- 
breaking variety on Moods, Roost 2215, Johnny 
Smith Foursome, Roost 2223, and Johnny Smith 
Foursome, Vol. 2, Roost 2228. This foursome, made 
up of Smith's guitar plus piano, bass and drums, is 
varied on Johnny Smith and His New Quartet, 
Roost 2216, which introduces Johnny Rae, vibra- 
phonist, in place of the piano and produces a sug- 
gestion of the Modern Jazz Quartet in some pieces. 
This same quartet backs up a strident singer on 
Ruth Price, Roost 2217, while the quartet-with- 
piano supports a moody singer on Jeri Southern 
Meets Johnny Smith, Roulette 52016. Smith con- 
tributes one selection to both Roost Fifth Anni- 
versary Album, Roost 1201, and Operation Jazz, 
Roost OJ1. 


Louis Smith. Smith is a trumpeter whose influences 
are primarily modern with strong evidence of a 
deep basic jazz foundation. On his debut disk, Here 
Comes Louis Smith, Blue Note 1584, he weaves a 
melodic and fresh development of Star Dust, works 
out thoughtfully accented lines at fast tempos and 
digs warmly into the blues. But the follow-up, 
Smithville, Blue Note 1594, buries his talents in 
long, tiresome solos. 

Frank Socolow. A capable and swinging tenor saxo- 
phonist who has buoyed up many big band reed 
sections (Boyd Raeburn, Chubby Jackson, Buddy 
Rich, Artie Shaw), Socolow and his sextet flow 
easily through ten low-keyed selections on Sounds 
by Socolow, Bethlehem 70, with a grace and lilt 
that are unpretentious and quite winning. 

Larry Sonn. An almost completely self-effacing big 
band leader, Sonn has turned out several pleasant 
but unremarkable dance sets (Sound of Sonn, Coral 
57057; It's Sonn Again, Coral 57104; and Smooth 
One, Coral 57123) plus one which has some jazz 
interest, Jazz Band Having a Ball, Dot 9005, be- 
cause the arrangements are by Manny Albam, Bob 
Brookmeyer and Al Cohn and the basic New York 
studio band which Sonn fronts is buoyed by the 
presence of Tony Scott and Georgie Auld as well 
as Brookmeyer and Cohn. 

Earle Spencer. When Sten Kenton was in his 
Artistry in Rhythm phase, Earle Spencer was run- 
ning a roadshow version of the same thing. The 
evidence, not bad of its sort, is on Concert in Jazz, 
Tops 1532, dimmed by relatively inadequate record- 

Hal Stein. Stein is an alto saxophonist out of 
Parker but with more warmth, greater lyricism and 

The Records 279 

a less frantic attitude than most of the other 
descendants. On Four Altos, Prestige 7116, he is on 
a blowing session in the company of three more 
celebrated Parkerites (Phil Woods, Gene Quill, 
Sahib Shihab) and is the only one of the four who 
does not pall. 

Tom Stewart. Stewart plays the tenor horn, an 
instrument otherwise unheralded in jazz, with gruff 
agility and in an easy swinging style on Tom 
Stewart Sextette, Quintette, ABC-Paramount 117. 
The tunes are mostly worthy veterans of jazz at- 
tacks Rosetta, Out of Nowhere, Fidgety Feet, etc. 
and, along with Steve Lacy's soprano saxophone, 
Stewart has the dependable support of Dave Mc- 
Kenna on piano. 

Sonny Stitt. Of the multitude of alto saxophonists 
who have built their playing firmly on that of 
Charlie Parker, Stitt and Julian Adderley are easily 
the most interesting because they have added some- 
thing positive of their own to the, by now, clich6 
Parker runs. It has been an extended battle for 
Stitt to get away from Parker for several years he 
switched to tenor to try to break the apparent 
chains and there are still times when even his 
energy and vitality can produce nothing more than 
warmed over Parker. In Stitt's favor are a heat and 
depth that most other modern altos lack; but this 
is sometimes overbalanced by an inordinate fond- 
ness for quoting at random and an unvarying 
texture of sound which becomes monotonous. The 
roaring strength that is at the heart of Stitt's playing 
can be heard ^ven in his earliest recordings on 
tenor Sonny Stitt, Prestige 7024, made up of 1949 
and 1950 sessions in which he teams brilliantly with 
Bud Powell and John Lewis. Stitt's Bits, Prestige 
7133, is also of 1950 vintage but it consists largely 
of plodding, uninspired ballads while Sonny Stitt 


Kaleidoscope, Prestige 7077, is mixed in several ways 
four different sessions are represented (from 1950, 
1951 and 1952); Stitt plays alto, tenor and baritone; 
and he ranges from his exuberant best to heavy 

Since then Stitt has been recorded, usually on 
alto, as an outgoing, uncomplicated, hard-driving 
swinger with an occasional side excursion into the 
blues. One of his most brilliant sets is New York 
Jazz, Verve 8219, which permits him to show off 
more varied aspects of his playing than are nor- 
mally caught on a single disk. The storming, slash- 
ing, uptempo Stitt is present on Norman's Blues 
and then, on / Know That You Know, he takes on 
some of the light, floating quality that Jimmie 
Noone brought to the same tune on clarinet; on 
a slow version of // / Had You he displays the 
deep-rooted cry that is the hallmark of the valid 
jazzman; on Alone Together he rides as lightly as 
a dandelion puff in Spring; and on Twelfth Street 
Rag he unpretentiously turns a trick that has 
baffled several modernists how to reassess a tradi- 
tional jazz tune so that it is really revitalized. 

On Sonny Stitt, Roost 2204, and Sonny Stitt, Argo 
629, he works a more modest range very fast and 
melodically slow with skill but on Only the Blues, 
Verve 8250, despite the assistance of Roy Eldridge 
and Oscar Peterson, Stitt becomes trapped in the 
steady sameness of his sound. This problem also 
plagues him on Sonny Stitt Plays, Roost 2208, but 
he achieves an airiness that provides some relief on 
37 Minutes and 48 Seconds, Roost 2219, and Sonny 
Stitt with the New Yorkers, Roost 2226. Stitt's 
amazing fleetness is highlighted on For Musicians 
Only, Verve 8198, a blowing session with Dizzy 
Gillespie and Stan Getz but neither Stitt nor Gilles- 
pie get off the ground on Dizzy Gillespie Duets, 
Verve 8260. Battle of Birdland, Roost 1203, which 
pits Stitt against tenor saxophonist Eddie Davis, is 

The Records 281 

not as disorderly as the title would suggest but it 
is not very compelling, either. A really fierce blow- 
ing session at Newport in 1957, highlighted by 
rough, tough, crackling performances by Stitt and 
Eldridge, is caught on Peterson, Eldridge, Jo Jones 
and Stitt at Newport, Verve 8239. Stitt is repre- 
sented by a single selection on Roost Fifth Anni- 
versary Album, Roost 1201. 

Les Strand. There is a light, swinging sense in 
Strand's approach to the organ none of the mighty 
Wurlitzering that Jimmy Smith falls into nor the 
heavy, elementary thud of a Wild Bill Davis. 
Strand's playing is, rather, an updated version of 
the graceful, lilting organ work of Fats Waller and 
Count Basic, His Basie relationship is reflected in 
his apt use of suggestive shorthand phrases. He can 
and does evolve well-constructed rapid-fire runs 
but these are merely decorative frills for he is not 
primarily a many-noted player. His excellent rhyth- 
mic sense is constantly evident, particularly on slow 
ballads which he plays with a lithe, controlled 
power that makes them flow smoothly but never 

Les Strand at the Baldwin Organ, Fantasy 3231, 
is built around hardy show tunes and is an able 
demonstration of his ability to maintain his balance 
on the tightrope between cocktailism and jazz even 
while listing heavily toward the jazz side. Les Strand 
Plays Jazz Classics, Fantasy 3242, is more satisfying 
in strict jazz terms since it is jazz without qualifica- 
tions. The guitar and drums which accompany 
Strand are sometimes more of a hindrance than a 
help but he himself is a consistent and subtle de- 

Don Stratton. A bow in the direction of un- 
schismitized jazz is made by Stratton, a trumpet 
player, on Modern Jazz with Dixieland Roots, ABC- 


Paramount 118. The roots appear to be largely in 
a few of the titles Royal Garden Blues, Black 
Bottom, Charleston for the pieces are played at a 
bright bounce by musicians who are quite modern 
in attack and who, except for pianist Dave Mc- 
Kenna, produce nothing especially memorable. 

Idrees Sulieman. A trumpeter who has spells of 
glowing lyricism balanced by times when all is 
flat emptiness, Sulieman has sporadic moments of 
quality in the long stretches of Interplay for Two 
Trumpets and Two Tenors, Prestige 7112, and 
Three Trumpets, Prestige 7092. 

Ira Sullivan. Sullivan is primarily a tenor saxo- 
phonist, secondarily a trumpeter, who has shown 
himself a crisp and capable performer on both 
instruments. On Billy Taylor Introduces Ira Sulli- 
van, ABC-Paramount 162, however, his work is 
relatively misty and unformed. 

Phil Sunkel. Sunkel's strong, outgoing open trumpet 
helps to swing the heavy-textured arrangements on 
Phil Sunkel's Jazz Band, ABC-Paramount 136, but 
his solos lack the shape and grace of those of one 
of his sidemen, alto saxophonist Dick Meldonian. 
It was apparently deemed necessary to enlist some 
big name support for Sunkel's Jazz Concerto Grosso, 
ABC-Paramount 225, a long work in which Sunkel 
shifts to cornet and Gerry Mulligan and Bob 
Brookmeyer join in on baritone saxophone and 
valve trombone. The work has a pleasant basic 
theme but there seems little reason for carrying it 
on for fifteen minutes. Sunkel's light, sensitive play- 
ing completely overshadows his two guests in the 
solo sections. 

Thomas Talbert. Talbert's arrangements on Bix, 
Duke, Fats, Atlantic 1250, produce rather incon- 

The Records 283 

gruous results by clothing the compositions of 
three lithe and sinewy writers (Beiderbecke, Elling- 
ton, Waller) in unbecoming preciosity. 

Duane Tatro. Tatro's Jazz for Moderns, Contem- 
porary 3514, enlists several top West Coast musi- 
cians (Jimmy Giuffre, Shelly Manne, Bill Holman, 
Lennie Niehaus and others) in cleanly executed 
performances of some foggy attempts by arranger- 
composer Tatro to (quoting the liner notes) "move 
jazz into new areas by removing some of the 
harmonic limitations which have kept it ... in 
the 19th Century." It's a good plug for the 19th 

Arthur Taylor. Taylor, one of the more ubiquitous 
drummers on modern jazz recordings, is nominal 
leader on Taylor's Wallers, Prestige 7117, a blow- 
ing session that is more cohesive than most of the 
breed because it gains form from the use of com- 
positions by Telonious Monk, Ray Bryant and Lee 
Sears. Trumpeter Donald Byrd sustains his solos 
more fully than he often does, tenor saxophonist 
Charlie Rouse adds a thoughtful element and 
Bryant's piano lays down a helpfully strong founda- 

Billy Taylor. One of the ablest and most widely 
informed of today's jazz musicians, Taylor's once 
virile, firmly rooted playing has gradually petered 
down to a slick surface which only occasionally lets 
out the fire that is apparently still simmering under- 
neath. The contrast between the current Taylor and 
the Taylor of even the middle Fifties can be found 
on The Billy Taylor Touch, Atlantic 1277, which 
includes four pale, lifeless 1958 performances and 
seven earlier pieces which are much warmer and 
Two examples of Taylor in the process of growth 


make up one side of Back to Back, Savoy 12008 
some 1943 trio performances in which the markings 
of Teddy Wilson and particularly Art Tatum are 
all over Taylor's playing, and a 1949 quintet in 
which Taylor shows a much less derivative style 
but is overshadowed by the strong Webster-like 
tenor saxophone of John Hardee. 

Since then the faceless quality of Taylor's play- 
ing has increased steadily. There are glimpses of 
the swinging strength and inventiveness of which 
he is capable on A Touch of Taylor, Prestige 7001, 
and Billy Taylor Trio, Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, Prestige 
7015 and 7016. Playing a subordinate role on Billy 
Taylor Introduces Ira Sullivan, ABC-Paramount 
162, he displays a lithe muscularity that cannot be 
found on many of his own later disks. A switch in 
drummers, creating The New Billy Taylor Trio, 
ABC-Paramount 226, seemingly stimulated him to 
rise above the colorless broth he serves up on Ever- 
greens, ABC-Paramount 112, Billy Taylor at the 
London House, ABC-Paramount 134, Taylor Made 
Piano, Roost 2222, and Cross-Section, Prestige 7071. 
The addition of Candido's conga drum on The 
Billy Taylor Trio with Candido, Prestige 7051, 
serves little purpose but Taylor manages to swing 
with some airiness on a 1954 concert recording, 
Billy Taylor Trio at Town Hall, Prestige 7093, at 
which Candido was also present. 

Accompanied by an orchestra under Quincy 
Jones, the Taylor trio gives considerate treatment 
to the score of My Fair Lady on My Fair Lady Loves 
Jazz, ABC-Paramount 177, and provides some pleas- 
ant interludes between Johnny Ray's quavering 
vocals on 'Til Morning, Columbia CL 1225. Taylor 
also contributes two selections to Night Out Music 
for Stay-at-Homes, Coral 57040, and single pieces to 
Know Jour Jazz, Vol. 1, ABC-Paramount 155, Jazz- 
time U.S.A., Brunswick 54000, and Roost Fifth 
Anniversary Album, Roost 1201. 

The Records 285 

Cecil Taylor. Taylor is among the advance guards 
of the new jazz piano. He has ties to Thelonious 
Monk and, through Monk, to Duke Ellington's 
feeling for tonal color. He works his ideas out in 
a series of intense, impressionistic chords and single- 
note lines which ride with striking strength over a 
swinging beat. His execution is stunningly dean 
even in very demanding passages. His first disk, 
Jazz Advance, Transition 19, is no longer available 
but it gives a more comprehensive idea of the 
capabilities both of Taylor and of his quartet 
(which then featured Steve Lacy on soprano saxo- 
phone) than the three pieces the group played at 
Newport in 1957, reported on Gigi Gryce, Donald 
Byrd and Cecil Taylor at Newport, Verve 8238. 

Clark Terry. Of all the men who have joined Duke 
Ellington's orchestra since the great turnover in 
the Forties, Terry is the only one who can be con- 
sidered on a level with the great Ellingtonians of 
the past. His spare, witty, melodic, pulsing playing 
on trumpet and fluegelhorn is to some degree a 
distillation of the style of Rex Stewart but there 
are also reflections of Buck Clayton here and there. 
Terry, in his turn, was one of the early influences 
on Miles Davis. 

A full dress display of the various aspects of 
Terry's trumpet work his lusty swing, his relaxed 
singing tone, the little bleeps of sound with which 
he often builds his solos, and his exuberant high 
spirits occurs on Out on a Limb, Argo 620. On In 
Orbit, Riverside 12-271, the airy, dancing quality 
of his musical thinking gives the normally solemn 
sounding fluegelhorn a twinkling dignity. The disk 
is also notable for the presence of Thelonious Monk 
who gallops glibly along with Terry, filling out 
phrases with unexpected generosity and joining 
freely in the spirit of sly merriment that Terry 
engenders. With a group of current Ellingtonians 


(Johnny Hodges, Paul Gonsalves, Quentin Jackson, 
Britt Woodman and others), Terry creates a sort 
of horn chamber jazz on Duke with a Difference, 
Riverside 12-246, which not only puts a new color 
on some familiar Ellington tunes but allows Gon- 
salves and Hodges to get away from the type of 
playing with which they are usually pegged in the 
Ellington band. Terry, one of those rare musicians 
whose playing almost never descends beyond the 
palatably adequate, is in more or less that form on 
Serenade to a Busy Seat, Riverside 12-237, and 
Clark Terry, EmArcy 36007. He is buried in the 
turgid blowing expanses of Jam Session, EmArcy 
36002. There are single selections by him on Jazz 
for Lovers, Riverside 12-244, and Riverside Drive, 
Riverside 12-267. 

Jean Thielemans. The harmonica may be a shade 
better than the flute as an instrument for modern 
jazz (it has a firm and honorable place in the more 
primitive areas of the blues) but this is cold comfort 
to anyone contemplating a full LP of jazz har- 
monica. Thielemans, a Belgian guitarist who has 
spent much of the Fifties in George Shearing's 
Quintet, doubles occasionally on harmonica with 
that group but all of Time Out for Toots, Decca 
9204, and most of Man Bites Harmonica!, River- 
side 120257, is focused on his harmonica work. It 
is to his credit that both records can be listened to 
with some pleasure. The Decca disk is light and in 
the mood music vein while the Riverside is high- 
lighted by the excellent, cleanly articulated bass 
playing of Wilbur Ware. 

Joe Theimer, Theimer, a drummer, led a modern 
styled Washington, D.C., big band called The 
Orchestra, sponsored by Willis Conover, the jazz 
voice of The Voice of America. The band plays 
cleanly and industriously enough on Willis Cono- 

The Records 287 

v er*s House of Sounds, Brunswick 54003, to be con- 
fused with any top-ranking modern big jazz band. 

Hugh Thompson. Enroll Garner hovers over almost 
everything Thompson plays on / Cover the Water- 
front, Proscenium 6, a set that is just across the 
jazz line from the cocktail crowd. 

Lucky Thompson. Since the middle Forties Thomp- 
son has been an unusually capable tenor saxo- 
phonist but he has been recorded much less fre- 
quently than many other saxophonists who cannot 
approach his talent. His style, unobtrusive as such 
but still an individual and personal manner, is 
almost a summation of the history of the tenor 
saxophone in jazz. One hears reflections of Coleman 
Hawkins* rich, intense attack, of Lester Young's 
lyricism, even of Stan Getz's light, floating drive. 
He is, in the best sense, a "hot" jazzman who de- 
velops his ideas with compelling logic. 

He is given a good showcase on Lucky Thomp- 
son, Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, ABC-Paramount 111 and 171, 
on both of which he is heard with a trio and a 
quintet. Accent on Tenor, Urania 1206, offers a 
great deal of his warm, virile playing but the over- 
all quality of the set is brought down by an over- 
long and eventually tiresome piece which takes up 
most of one side. Backed by Gerard Pochonet's 
French quartet on Lucky Thompson, Dawn 1113, 
he is restricted to ballads which are good as long 
as he is padding softly and sinuously through his 
well constructed solos. 

Claude ThornhilL The Thornhill band of the late 
Forties was the seed-bed for what became known 
as "cool" jazz. Arranger Gil Evans laced the es- 
sentially sweet dance book of the Thornhill band 
with adaptations of Anthropology, Donna Lee, 
Yardbird Suite, Lover Man and Robbins Nest, all 


of which are included in The Thornhill Sound, 
Harmony 7088. Some of the swing-based men in the 
band seem to be straining to try to catch the idiom 
but Lee Konitz is right at home. Two Sides of 
Claude Thornhill, Kapp 1058, is by one of Thorn- 
hill's later groups (Gene Quill is a sideman), a 
band that seems torn between slick, driving modern 
jazz and Thornhill's passive dream world. One side 
is played in his cloud-heavy dance band manner, 
the other in something resembling modern jazz 
although even here the ensembles have the heavy, 
fudgy quality of Thornhill's ballads. 

Bobby Timmons. Timmons has shown himself to 
be a strong and effective pianist with Art Blakey's 
Jazz Messengers but all he offers on Pianists Galore!, 
World Pacific JWC 506, is a single, very brief and 
almost unnoticeable ballad. 

Cal Tjader. Tjader, who plays vibraphone most of 
the time and drums, bongos and piano some of 
the time, was a member of the early Dave Brubeck 
groups and helped to give the George Shearing 
Quintet a new lease on life during the two years 
(1953-54) that he spent with it. His recording 
career has been split between a zestfully swinging 
quartet and an equally swinging variant of Latin- 
American rhythms. On vibes he has a light touch 
and a propulsive approach. He is not inclined to 
be especially adventurous nor, on the other hand, 
does he become bogged in cliches. 

His quartet runs the danger of comparison with 
the Modern Jazz Quartet because of the similarity 
of instrumentation but the groups are basically 
quite different. The Tjader quartet is less interested 
in long, detailed development of a theme, more in- 
terested in getting directly to a forthright rhythmic 
projection of a melody. Despite personnel changes, 
the quality remains relatively consistent on Vib- 

The Records 289 

Rations, Savoy 12054; Cal Tjader Quartet, Fantasy 
3227; Cal Tjader, Fantasy 3253; and Jazz at the 
Blackhawk, Fantasy 3241. Teaming with tenor 
saxophonist Stan Getz and adding guitarist Eddie 
Duran, the quartet becomes the Cal Tjader-Stan 
Getz Sextet, Fantasy 3266, delivering a glorious nine- 
minute session of gliding, darting, larruping swing 
on Ginza which makes up for the surprisingly 
ordinary quality of the rest of the disk. Tjader's 
lusty south-of-the-border style is heard on Ritmo 
Caliente, Fantasy 3216; Mas Ritmo Caliente, Fan- 
tasy 3262; Mambo with Tjader, Fantasy 3202; Cal 
Tjader Plays Mambo, Fantasy 3221; Cal Tjader's 
Latin Concert, Fantasy 3275; The Cal Tjader Quin- 
tet, Fantasy 3232; and Cal Tjader's Latin Kick, 
Fantasy 3250, the last of which includes a few er- 
ratic solo appearances by tenor saxophonist Brew 
Moore. Tjader can also be heard on Cal Tjader 
Plays Tjazz, Fantasy 3211. 

Reno Tondelli. Tondelli heads a quintet which 
uses a smooth clarinet-accordion voicing and falls, 
in jazz terms, in between the swinging Leon Sash 
and the background music of Art Van Damme. On 
Reno Plays Nevada, Stepheny 4005, the clarinet 
helps to cut the lushness inherent in Tondelli's 
warm, rich tone and gives the group's work a bright 

Cy Touff. Touff is the first jazz musician who has 
had the audacity to tie his career to the bass 
trumpet. For several years during the Fifties he 
was one of the more forceful factors in Woody 
Herman's band. The easy, ingratiating, swinging 
style that is characteristic of ToufFs playing is 
caught by both an octet and a quintet with which 
he works in Cy Touff, World Pacific 1211. There 
are occasional routine moments when the larger 
group is playing en masse but Touff, Richie Kamuca 


and Harry Edison are out front most of the time 
riding brightly over excellent rhythm support. 
Virtually the same program has been reissued as 
Havin' a Ball, World Pacific 410, and an excerpt 
from it will be found in Jazz West Coast, Vol. 2, 
World Pacific JWC 501. Touff shows an unexpected 
affinity for Dixieland on one side of Doorway to 
Dixie, Argo 606 (shared with Miff Mole), making 
the bass trumpet take the trombone's customary 
role in some rather lackadaisical performances. 

John Towner (John T. Williams). Towner skirts 
lightly into jazz on parts of his four selections in 
The Modern Jazz Gallery, Kapp KXL 5001, but 
he has a leaning to cocktail pastels which takes 
over completely on The John Towner Touch, Kapp 

Lennie Tristano. The swooping, gliding flow of 
Lennie Tristano's sextet in the late Forties estab- 
lished a sound which is still being emulated to 
some degree by his disciples (notably Lee Konitz 
and Warne Marsh) and which left its mark, even 
if only briefly, on several jazz writers. The swing- 
ing relaxation of the Tristano group as it was in 
1949 is caught on three selections in Cool and 
Quiet, Capitol T 371, a much better representation 
of Tristano's work of that period than his tinnily 
recorded piano solos (with guitarist Billy Bauer) in 
the four selections he contributes to The Jazz Key- 
board, Savoy 12043, or the two slightly more co- 
herently reproduced solos (again with Bauer) on 
Advance Guard of the Forties, EmArcy 36016. 

The only really valid display of Tristano's work 
currently available is Lennie Tristano, Atlantic 
1224, which marked his return to recording after he 
had been away from the studios for several years. He 
is heard here both as soloist and with a group (in- 
cluding Konitz) in night club performances. His so- 

The Records 291 

los are absorbing and compelling, with strong, fresh 
rhythmic and melodic accents. The fact that they in- 
volve tape manipulation is of little importance in 
the face of the fascinating and stimulating piano 
jazz his manipulations produce. Tristano has one 
solo piece in Modern Jazz Piano: Four Views, Cam- 
den 384. 

Richard Twardzik. Twardzik, who died in 1955 at 
the age of 24, was an original mind whose approach 
to the jazz piano was imaginative and witty. He 
was not hamstrung by cliches of any period but, 
as he shows on one side of Richard Twardzik, 
World Pacific 1212 (Russ Freeman has the other 
side), his sardonic imagination seized on whatever 
means of expression suited his ends. His version of 
I'll Remember April is a hard, driving, two-handed 
adaptation of the most familiar modern piano style 
while his slily needling and carefully developed 
Albuquerque Social Swim is practically devoid of 
the modernist's urgent linear leanings. Yellow 
Tango, the most successful of these generally ex- 
cellent performances, is a delightful melange of ap- 
pealingly melodic passages and varied interplays of 
rhythms which give both bass and drums an equal 
position with the piano. He has one selection in 
Pianists Galore!, World Pacific JWC 506. 

Phil Urso. One of the tenor saxophonists descended 
from Lester Young, Urso can swing amiably in the 
proper company but needs both prodding and help. 
On The Philosophy of Urso, Savoy 12056, both his 
strong and weak points are displayed as he plays 
several well worked out selections in the stimulat- 
ing company of valve trombonist Bob Brookmeyer, 
then stumbles through some long solos with only a 
rhythm section behind him and bogs into languid 
background music with nothing but an organ to 
lift him. Sentimental Journey, Regent 6003, places 


him in the company of an organ all the way and he 
becomes even more moodily backgroundish. He 
swings a little more freely in single selections on 
Solo Flight, World Pacific JWC 505, and Jazz West 
Coast, Vol. 3, World Pacific JWC 507. 

Rene Urtreger. This French pianist plays three 
selections in a pleasantly angular manner that is a 
bit too bland to be of more than passing interest 
on Jazz Piano International, Atlantic 1287. 

Billy Usselton. A product of the Claude Thornhill, 
Ray Anthony and Les Brown bands, Usselton has a 
lithe, graceful style on tenor saxophone and a 
fondness for bland arrangements that reflects his 
big band experience. His First Album, Kapp 1051, 
played by a small contingent drawn largely from 
the Brown band, is sporadically light and bounc- 
ing, sporadically pretentious. It is of interest mainly 
for the unusual "bottom" sound given to ensem- 
bles by Abe Aaron's bass clarinet. The four selec- 
tions played by Usselton's Sextet in Modern Jazz 
Gallery, Kapp KCL 5001, are occasionally amiable 
in the ensembles but almost always listless in the 

Jerry Valentine. Valentine, a onetime arranger for 
the Earl Hines and Billy Eckstine big bands of the 
Forties, has assembled on Outskirts of Town, Pres- 
tige 7145, a rocking, shouting ten-piece band made 
up of top-flight modernists (Art Farmer, Pepper 
Adams, Jerome Richardson, Ray Bryant, Buster 
Cooper, etc.). It struts through a variety of blues 
with the driving swagger that once could be found 
in the Harlem jump bands. The shift to pulsing 
earthiness throws a new and heartening light on 
some of the modernists involved who often sound 
glib in their normal habitat notably the positive 
punch that Adams achieves on baritone saxophone 

The Records 293 

and Jerome Richardson's exquisite cry on alto. This 
is real meat-and-potatoes big band jazz. 

Art Van Damme. Although Van Damme, an ac- 
cordionist, wins jazz polls with great consistency, he 
is closer to slick cocktail music than he is to jazz. 
His group (usually accordion, vibes, bass, guitar 
and drums) plays with a smooth, gentle swing on 
most numbers but in today's jazz terms this is pop 
music. His disks are all cut from the same mold: 
The Art of Van Damme, Columbia CL 876, Man- 
hattan Time, Columbia CL 801, Martini Time, 
Columbia CL 630, They're Playing Our Song, 
Columbia C2L-7, The Van Damme Sound, Colum- 
bia CL 544, Cocktail Capers, Capitol T 178, More 
Cocktail Capers, Capitol T 300. 

Sarah Vaughan. Although she has one of the rich- 
est, least restricted and most compelling voices ever 
applied to jazz, Miss Vaughan has spent so much of 
her career wringing the chord changes with such 
grim determination that her true jazz potential has 
rarely been realized. She has the flexibility, range 
and knowledge to do almost anything with her 
voice that she wants to and as she has matured as 
an artist it has become increasingly evident that 
her prime forte is the ballad. She has been doing 
these songs with steadily diminishing emphasis on 
eccentric mannerisms, allowing her excellent voice 
to be heard in more or less unadorned beauty. 

From the point of view of jazz, Miss Vaughan 
reached a recorded peak on Sarah Vaughan in the 
Land of Hi-Fi, EmArcy 36058, a disk on which she 
is in excellent voice on both ballads and rhythm 
numbers. It includes two of her most blithe jazz 
performances, Cherokee and How High the Moon, 
both of which are embellished with driving alto 
saxophone solos by Julian Adderley. She is in re- 
laxed good humor on Swingin' Easy, EmArcy 


36109, and in portions of Sarah Vaughan, EmArcy 

She is the superior ballad singer on After Hours, 
Columbia CL 660, Sassy, EmArcy 36089, Sarah 
Vaughan at the Blue Note, Mercury 20094, Won- 
derful Sarah, Mercury 20219, In a Romantic Mood, 
Mercury 20223, Sarah Vaughan Sings Great Songs 
from Hit Shows, Vol. 1 and Vol. 2, Mercury 20244 
and 20245, Sarah Vaughan at Mr. Kelly's, Mercury 
20236, Sarah Vaughan Sings George Gershwin, Vol. 
1 and Vol. 2, Mercury 20310 and 20311. Some of 
her earlier, more mannered ballads, originally is- 
sued on the Musicraft label, are collected in My 
Kinda Love, MGM 3274, Concert, Concord 3018, 
and Sarah Vaughan, Rondo 102 (these three disks 
are full of duplications). 

She is wasted on trivialities on After Hours at the 
London House, Mercury 20283, allows her coyness 
to show too much on Sarah Vaughan in Hi-Fi, 
Columbia CL 745, and is buried by a big orchestra 
and a chorus on Linger Awhile, Columbia CL 914. 

She sings two selections in For Jazz Lovers, Em- 
Arcy 36086, and Under One Roof, EmArcy 36088, 
and one each in $64,000 Jazz, Columbia CL 777, 
Bargain Day, EmArcy 36087, and The Jazz Giants, 
Vol. 8, EmArcy 36071. 

Charlie Ventura. Ventura plays every type of saxo- 
phone so far devised and can be one of the most 
exhilaratingly swinging performers on the tenor 
saxophone that jazz has known. However, he con- 
stantly mars his performances by descending to the 
coarsest type of blatency. His most consistent period 
after leaving Gene Krupa's band in the middle 
Forties was during the remainder of that decade 
when he led several small groups which not only 
had unusual merit but, in a period when most 
small groups were bop-bred stereotypes of each 
^ther, had character of their own. 

The Records 295 

Two representative collections by these groups 
are East of Suez, Regent 6064, and Jumping with 
Ventura, EmArcy 36015. The Regent disk includes 
several examples of Buddy Stewart's very swinging 
bop singing with a group of Woody Herman side- 
men and with the Ventura group which included 
Kai Winding on trombone. Both of these groups 
also turn up on the EmArcy disk, along with Ven- 
tura's excellent 1949 group which included Bennie 
Green, trombone, and Boots Mussulli, alto saxo- 
phone, with vocals by Jackie Cain and Roy Krai 
(as well as by Stewart). On the minus side of the 
EmArcy disk are four badly recorded selections by a 
big band Ventura led in 1946 and 1947. The 1949 
group is also heard in a set that shows off its cleanly 
executed, wild drive, Charlie Ventura in Concert, 
GNP 1, and on A Charlie Ventura Concert* Decca 
8046, recorded two weeks before the group dis- 
banded. The last disk, an inadequate display of the 
group, is saved only by the amusing singing of Cain 
and Krai (their classic I'm Forever Blowing Bub- 
bles is included). A later, brief teaming between 
Cain and Krai and Ventura (1953) is part of the 
cross-section of Ventura swinging, stomping, lyri- 
cal that makes up Here's Charlie, Brunswick 
54025. The Ventura of the Fifties, getting excellent 
support from pianist Dave McKenna and Kai 
Winding, takes up one side of. An Evening with 
Mary Ann McCall and Charlie Ventura, Verve 

Through all these disks Ventura plays with vigor 
and, for the most part, with reasonable taste. But 
now Dr. Jekyll begins to turn into Mr. Hyde. As a 
starting point, there is Charlie Ventura Plays Hi-Fi 
Jazz, Tops 1528, on which an excellent group made 
up of Dave McKenna, piano, Bill Bean, guitar, 
Richard Davis, bass, and Mousie Alexander, drums, 
plays what would have been an unusually good set 
if Ventura had not been on hand to flaw it with his 


over-broad playing. On In a Jazz Mood, Verve 8163, 
Ventura manages to stay in context, whether on 
ballads or flag-wavers, but his playing is vacant 
while on Blue Saxophones, Verve 8165, he runs a 
gamut from lacy delicacy to gross blats. Charlie 
Ventura's Carnegie Hall Concert, Verve 8132, a 
1947 performance, is very badly recorded and 
Ventura and most of the other soloists (Charlie 
Shavers in particular) devote themselves to tasteless 
exhibitionism, a tendency Ventura repeats on 
Saturday Night Swing Session, Counterpoint 549. 

Ventura has two selections on Tenor Sax, Con- 
cord 3012, one in Battle of the Saxes, EmArcy 
36023, The Playboy Jazz Allstars, Playboy 1957, 
Verve Compendium of Jazz $1, Verve 8194, and 
The Encyclopedia of Jazz on Records, VoL 4, 
Decca 8401. 

Billy Ver Planck. Ver Planck has served time as a 
trombonist with the bands of Tommy Dorsey, 
Charlie Spivak and Neal Hefti but his main con- 
tribution to recorded jazz is as an arranger. He 
writes in what is essentially a solid, swing band 
style tempered to frame modern jazz soloists. There 
are times on Dancing Jazz, Savoy 12101, when he 
uses some Sauter-Finegan peeps and cheeps but by 
and large his arrangements are loose frames on 
which to hang solos. In this case Joe Wilder is on 
hand to play some beautifully shaded trumpet but 
Ver Planck really cashes in on his formula of pro- 
viding a swinging basis for swinging soloists on 
Jazz for Play Girls, Savoy 12121, on which Bill Har- 
ris blows his trombone with a zest and force that 
date back to his Herman Herd days in the Forties, 
Phil Woods' alto saxophone has a fierce vitality and 
iWilder, Eddie Costa and Seldon Powell all chip 
in on the driving, loose-but-intense performances. 
This is hot jazz, up to date and straight down the 

The Records 297 

middle. Ver Planck has two selections in Jazz Is 
Busting Out All Over, Savoy 12123. 

Leroy Vionegar. Vinnegar has gained a reputation 
as one of the steadiest bassists on the West Coast. 
He lives up to it on Leroy Walks!, Contemporary 
3542, as his bass stalks ominously through a group 
of otherwise static selections which are fired at 
times by the dark brown thoughts of Carl Perkins 
at the piano. 

Tony Vos. Vos' quartet forms a frame for the Dutch 
saxophonist's willowy and graceful alto saxophone 
lines on Jazz Behind the Dikes, Epic 3270. 

Mai Waldron. After a two-year association with 
Charlie Mingus, from 1954 to 1956, Waldron has 
worked regularly as Billie Holiday's accompanist, 
a task in which he has been a patient and steadying 
influence. It is not, however, a situation which al- 
lows Waldron's own musical personality to come 
across very clearly. For that he has resorted to 
recordings and he has expressed himself there with 
great clarity even though much of his disk work has 
been on banal blowing sessions. He is a fascinat- 
ingly suggestive pianist who conveys a jumping, 
swinging feeling with an economy of actual move- 
ment. And beyond this he is an original and quite 
personal writer with a flair for melody and an in- 
terest in exploring textures and accents. 

He has had his best opportunities to express him- 
self on a series of disks on which he has been the 
leader. On Mal-1, Prestige 7090, his two principal 
soloists, Idrees Sulieman, trumpet, and Gigi Gryce, 
alto saxophone, play unusually well while Waldron 
contributes several provocative compositions and 
arrangements (especially a version of Yesterdays 
that is a remarkably interesting rewriting of a real 


warhorse) and plays with typically dark, warm 
charm. Mal-2, Prestige 7111, contains several inter- 
esting ideas that are stretched out through empty 
solos that drain them of interest but Mal-3 /Sounds, 
Prestige 8201, finds him back in the groove, provid- 
ing contexts for his soloists which are tremendously 
helpful to Eric Dixon, flute, and Calo Scott, cello, 
and which guide trumpeter Art Farmer to some im- 
pressively positive solos. On a trio of blowing ses- 
sions, All Night Long, Prestige 7073, After Hours, 
Prestige 7118, and Wheelin' and Dealing Prestige 
7131, Waldron is an oasis of rationality in what is 
otherwise (except for Kenny Burrell's guitar work 
on All Night Long) a desert of empty solos. 

Jimmy Walker. Normally a tenor saxophonist, this 
English jazzman plays a very tentative soprano 
saxophone as he leads a quartet in a single selection 
on Third Festival of British Jazz, London LL 1444. 

George Wallington. Wallington was playing piano 
on New York's 52nd Street in its earliest bop days 
and has continued to churn out his quiet, single 
note performances ever since without establishing 
a particularly positive musical personality. His 
work is suave and neat, technical and intellectual 
rather than emotionally communicative. Some in- 
differently recorded performances from the late 
Forties in which Wallington is heard in a pair of 
trio formats and with a small group which includes 
Brew Moore's Young-bred tenor saxophone and 
Buddy Stewart on vocals make up George Walling- 
ton Trio and Septets, Savoy 12081. In a much later 
trio recording, Knight Music, Atlantic 1275, Wal- 
lington receives much better recording but his play- 
ing is still business-like and matter-of-fact in a pro- 
gram or originals and sophisticated ballads. 

Working with a quintet which includes Phil 
Woods, alto saxophone, and Donald Byrd, trumpet, 

The Records 299 

Wallington warms up somewhat on Jazz at Hotch- 
kiss, Savoy 12122, only to have some of his best 
work shattered by Nick Stabulas' bomb-bedeviled 
drumming. The same group is heard on Jazz for 
the Carriage Trade, Prestige 7032. A different quin- 
tet on The Prestidigitator, East-West 4004, tackles 
some of the down-home flavored compositions of 
Mose Allison but Wallington's sophisticated piano 
has little meaning in this context and neither J. R. 
Monterose's harsh tenor saxophone nor Jerry 
Lloyd's gruff bass trumpet catches Allison's back 
country feeling. During a trip to Sweden, Walling- 
ton recorded with a Swedish group on one side of 
Swingin' in Sweden, EmArcy 36131 (shared with 
Jimmy Raney) but his piano proves to be no match 
for the warmth and rhythmic lift of his Swedish 
colleagues Arne Domnerus on alto saxophone and 
Ake Persson, trombone. George Wallington with 
Strings, Verve 2017, is mood music with traces of 
Erroll Garner in Wallington's piano. Wallington 
contributes single selections to A Potpourri of Jazz, 
Verve 2032, and Metronome All Stars 1956, Verve 

Wilbur Ware. Ware is one of the most sensitively 
swinging bassists to reach records during the latter 
Fifties. He is so cognizant of the bassist's primary 
pulsant role that even when he is the nominal 
leader of a quintet on The Chicago Sound, River- 
side 12-252, he refuses to be a tiresome solo virtuoso. 
And when he does step out alone, his cleanly ex- 
pressed solo lines are closely integrated with the 
rest of his group. The disk is of secondary interest 
in that it shows that the hard bop school, which 
usually depends on overwhelming the listener with 
an inescapable barrage of sound, is capable of im- 
aginative development and shaded projection when 
a perceptive mind is at the helm. Both tenor saxo- 
phonist Johnny Griffin and alto saxophonist John 


Jenkins, the only horns in the group, play with un- 
accustomed grace and warmth. Ware has a single 
selection in Riverside Drive, Riverside 12-267. 

Jimmy Watson. Watson's dark-toned, expressive 
trumpet is featured with his English orchestra in an 
expansive and brooding version of Body and Soul 
on Jazz Britannia, MGM 3472. 

Chuck Wayne. Wayne served as a propulsive force 
in Woody Herman's powerhouse band of the mid- 
Forties and, in gentler circumstances, with the 
original George Shearing Quintet. His relaxed, 
unforced and unostentatious playing were excel- 
lently highlighted on String Fever, Vik 1098, a disk 
which disappeared when Victor abandoned the en- 
tire Vik catalogue. His light, swinging touch is ap- 
parent on his four selections in The Four Most 
Guitars, ABC-Paramount 109, although the settings 
here are much less imaginative than those Wayne 
contrived for his Vik disk. 

Frank Wess. Since 1953 Wess has given Count 
Basic's band one of its few strong solo voices. With 
Basic he practically always plays a rugged, surging 
tenor saxophone but in a recording studio he is 
featured more often than not on flute which he 
plays with some suggestion of zest and virility. He 
is, however, a much more valid jazz musician on 
tenor and it should be noted that on No Count, 
Savoy 12078, he turns to the flute on only one num- 
ber. He plays this disk with a group of Basic men 
who also predominate on Trombones, Savoy 12086, 
which has a particularly Basie-like sound, North, 
South, East Wess, Savoy 12072, and Opus in 
Swing, Savoy 12085, which is notable for some dark 
blue Kenny Burrell guitar solos. Burrell is also the 
saving factor on Jazz for Playboys, Savoy 12095, 
while Wess' piping flute is completely overshad- 

The Records 301 

owed by Milt Jackson's vibes on Opus de Jazz, 
Savoy 12-36. Wess plays one selection on Jazz Is 
Busting Out All Over, Savoy 12123. 

Richard Wess. Wess leads a moderate-sized orches- 
tra from his piano on Music She Digs the Most, 
MGM 3491 smooth, jazz-tinged arrangements 
through which his piano roams with calm assur- 
ance. He also appears once on Forty-Eight Stars of 
American Jazz, MGM 3611. 

Westlake College Quintet. An ingratiating, tightly- 
knit little group sparked by the range and assur- 
ance of Sam Firmature's tenor saxophone and the 
gentle leatheriness of Luther MacDonald's valve 
trombone represents a California music school on 
Westlake College Quintet, Decca 8393. 

Randy Weston. Weston's markedly melodic and 
rhythmic piano work has been strongly influenced 
by Thelonious Monk (Weston was the first striking 
evidence that Monk was beginning to be an influ- 
ence) but he is a more directly swinging pianist 
than Monk. During the late Fifties Weston has 
shown an increasing fondness for jazz waltzes, most 
of them revolving around children or childhood 
scenes. They manage to be evocative, tender and 
remarkably good jazz. And Weston is his own best 
interpreter for his compositions are a very direct 
extension of his performing personality. When, for 
instance, Melba Liston attempts to arrange some of 
Weston's more charming pieces for a sextet on 
Little Niles, United Artists 4011, the spirit of the 
selections is dissipated and is retrieved only when 
Weston has a piano solo spot. 

He has free rein in trio performances on Get 
Happy, Riverside 12-203, a swinging, bubbling set; 
Trio and Solo, Riverside 12-227, on which Art 
Blakey, a frequent colleague of Monk's, teams very 


capably with Weston; and Piano a la Mode, Jubilee 
1060, an impressively varied collection which in- 
cludes a pair of highly charged, driving selections 
on which Weston ingeniously ties together ideas 
from both the basic jazz pianists and the Monk 
wing of pianism to punch his points home. There 
is also some lithe, looping Weston piano on The 
Modern Art of Jazz, Vol. 3, Dawn 1116, Randy 
Weston Trio Plus Cecil Payne, Riverside 12-214, 
and Jazz a la Bohemia, Riverside 12-232, but on all 
three Cecil Payne's drab, watery baritone saxo- 
phone intrudes in lumbering fashion. 

Weston has single selections on Riverside Drive, 
Riverside 12-267, Critics' Choice, Dawn 1123, and 
Jazz for Hi-Fi Lovers, Dawn 1124. 

Gerald Wiggins. A onetime sideman with Louis 
Armstrong, Benny Carter and Jerry Fielding, and 
accompanist to Lena Home, Wiggins has a strongly 
rhythmic piano style, a sensitive touch and a good 
sense of construction. He gives a quick witted, sly 
treatment to the score of Around the World in 
Eighty Days, Specialty 2101. 

Bob Wilber (see The Six). 

Joe Wilder. One of the most lyrical of jazz trum- 
peters runs from serene brilliance to sloppiness and 
shakiness in the course of Wilder 'n' Wilder, Savoy 

Ernie Wilkins. Since he left Count Basic's reed 
section in 1955, Wilkins has been in constant de- 
mand as an arranger, primarily for Basic, for 
Tommy Dorsey and for Harry James. On his own 
record dates he has built two sessions around a pair 
of powerhouse trumpet sections Trumpets All 
Out, Savoy 12096, uses Art Farmer, Emmett Berry, 
Charlie Shavers, Ernie Royal and Shorty Baker; 

The Records 303 

Top Brass, Savoy 12044, has Joe Wilder, Ernie 
Royal, Ray Copeland, Idrees Sulieman and Donald 
Byrd. The first group makes up a muscular brass 
ensemble which has a great shouting spirit without 
being simply noisy. Shorty Baker (of the Ellington 
band) and Emmett Berry are particularly refresh- 
ing. On the other disk none of the soloists is as 
creative as Wilkins has been in writing his helpful 
frameworks. Wilkins splits arranging and conduct- 
ing chores with Manny Albam on Drum Suite, 
Victor LPM 1279, a series of imaginative pieces 
played by a big band with driving eloquence. 

Wilkins is both arranger and performer on 
Flutes and Reeds, Savoy 12022, and Clarke-Wilkins 
Septet, Savoy 12007. The first, which features both 
Frank Wess and Jerome Richardson on flute and 
tenor saxophone, is badly recorded but the group 
swings when the flutes are set aside. Wilkins shows 
a dark, gravelly singing tone on alto saxophone on 
a ballad on this disk. He is much better on this 
type of material than in a swinging improvisation, 
a point which he makes on both disks. The Septet 
disk is burdened with dull soloists. 

John Williams. Although his lively, vital, churning 
piano work often improves records on which he ap- 
pears as a sideman, Williams does himself little 
justice with his fussily constructed work on The 
John Williams Trio, EmArcy 36061. He is heard 
once on The Young Ones of Jazz, EmArcy 36085. 

John T. Williams (see John Towner). 

Claude Williamson. There is a mechanical, emo- 
tionless quality in Williamson's glib, slick, single- 
noted piano playing on Keys West, Capitol 6511, 
'Round Midnight, Bethlehem 69, and Williamson 
Mulls the Mulligan Scene , Criterion 601. 


Stu Williamson. A capable but relatively routine 
trumpet player who is much better on valve trom- 
bone, Williamson is heard on trumpet only on Stu 
Williamson, Bethlehem 55, and on four selections 
in Jazz Swings Broadway, World Pacific 404. 

Kai Winding. The brash, blowsy trombone heard 
in Stan Kenton's band in 1947 served notice of the 
arrival of Kai Winding (although he had been a 
sideman in several bands since the early Forties, in- 
cluding that of Benny Goodman). Since a brief 
stay with Charlie Ventura in 1948, Winding has 
led his own groups except for a two-year period in 
the Fifties when he joined forces with trombonist 
J. J. Johnson. Winding has a wide range as a per- 
former. He can play with rough and rugged enthu- 
siasm but is more inclined to a flowing version of 
the brisk, staccato manner which is typical of John- 

The Winding of the late Forties rough, slashing 
and nervously jabbing can be heard in four 
mildly boppish selections in In the Beginning . . . 
Bebop!, Savoy 12119, and on Loaded, Savoy 12074, 
a collaboration with Shorty Rogers and Stan Getz 
which looks back to the swing days with lively en- 
thusiasm. Single selections from this same period, 
both featuring Gerry Mulligan, are included on 
Roost Fifth Anniversary Album, Roost 1201, and 
Operation Jazz, Roost OJ1. 

The recordings made by the Winding Johnson 
team are discussed under J. J. Johnson. After the 
two trombonists went their separate ways, Winding 
led a septet built around four trombones which, on 
The Trombone Sound, Columbia CL 936, proves 
that even a good sound can be run into the ground. 
But the group gets more variety in Trombone 
Panorama, Columbia CL 999, moving from lusty 
shouting on The Preacher to gracefully shaded 
delicacy on Come Rain or Come Shine. The disk 

The Records 305 

contains two long production numbers, one a nos- 
talgic rundown of popular trombone styles which 
is done with a surprising amount of good humor, 
the other a rewrite in cool jargon of Frankie and 
Johnny which is loaded with appropriately wailing 
trombones but staggers under an agonizingly arch 

Winding's trombone group supports a busy and 
glassily aggressive vocal group on The Axidentals, 
ABC-Paramount 232. He contributes single selec- 
tions to The Playboy Jazz Allstars, Playboy 1957, 
Modern Jazz Hall of Fame, Design 29, and Forty- 
Eight Stars of American Jazz, MGM 3611. 

Pinky Winters. There are some reflections of Lee 
Wiley and Ella Fitzgerald in the work of a gener- 
ally sensitive pop singer on Lonely One, Argo 604. 
She is accompanied by a quartet which includes 
Chico Hamilton and Gerald Wiggins. 

Jimmy Woode. Duke Ellington's bassist has the 
good sense not to turn The Colorful Strings of 
Jimmy Woode, Argo 630, into a bassist's holiday. 
But although he keeps his bass in its place and 
seems to have tried to build each piece on an idea, 
the ideas are not developed into strong perform- 
ances. Clark Terry is present but to no avail. 

Phil Woods. Woods came to notice in 1954 bearing 
all the stigmata of the lesser Parker-aping alto saxo- 
phonists shrill tone, empty, clichd runs and a 
doggedly fierce attack. In the years since then he 
has gained in assurance and breadth and has ac- 
quired some warmth but he remains a highly de- 
rivative performer. 

He shows his growing sense of structure and im- 
proved tone on The Young Bloods, Prestige 7080, 
and, on Down East, Prestige 7033, he manages to 
float with such ease and smoothness that he makes 


one of his colleagues, Zoot Sims, sound muscle- 
bound in comparison. His playing is strong but 
harsh on Four Altos, Prestige 7116, and Woodlore, 
Prestige 7018. The last disk is notable for some 
warm, personal piano playing by John Williams 
which contrasts sharply with Woods' insensitive 
slugging. An apparent attempt to move Woods into 
the mild graces of ballads and easy tempos on 
Warm Woods, Epic 3426, misses the mark because, 
whatever the drawbacks of his uptempo playing, it 
at least allows him to unleash the rousing spirit 
which is his greatest asset. He is still too strident for 

A Night at the Five Spot, Signal 1204, a memo- 
rial concert dedicated "to the music of Charlie 
Parker," gives him a legitimate reason for returning 
to his source but, aside from a pair of reflective, 
probing solos by pianist Duke Jordan, the disk 
settles into a monotonous sameness. On three disks 
Woods pairs off with another Parker-descended 
alto, Gene Quill, who has had even less success in 
loosening the silver cord than Woods has. Woods 
is easily the most impressive of the two on Phil and 
Quill, Victor LPM 1284, and Phil and Quill with 
Prestige, Prestige 7115, but on both there is much 
too much very similar alto playing. On Pairing Off, 
Prestige 7046, which brings the two together again, 
they plod their ways through four very long blow- 
ing pieces. 

John Young. A Chicago pianist in the Jamal vein 
spins filigrees around a solid rhythm core on Young 
John Young, Argo 612. 

Lester Young. One of the most effective and invit- 
ing bridges from swing to modern jazz was built by 
Lester Young during the late Thirties and early 
Forties. For much of this time he was with Count 
Basic's band, his tenor saxophone hoisted at an 

The Records 307 

alarming angle and pouring out smooth-edged, 
floating lines that swung with an airiness that was 
in complete contrast to the lunging, dark-toned 
school of tenor which had been accepted as the way 
to play the instrument since Coleman Hawkins had 
devised it in the late Twenties. Young's influence 
was so pervasive that by 1940 the Hawkins sound 
could rarely be heard in the work of any of the 
young tenor men. The full, mellow, singing playing 
of Young with the Basie band in the late Thirties 
is the focus of both Lester Leaps In, Epic 3107, and 
Let's Go to Prez, Epic 3168. Two light and lusty 
products of a 1943 session which preserve the Basie 
atmosphere (with Johnny Guarnieri sitting in for 
Basie) are included in Giants of Jazz, Vol. 3, Part 2, 
EmArcy 36051. Two lesser efforts from the same 
session are on Giants of Jazz, Vol. 3, Part 1, Em- 
Arcy 36050. 

A cross-section of Young's work in the middle 
Forties makes up Blue Lester, Savoy 12068, con- 
sisting of first "takes" from four different sessions, 
and The Master's Touch, Savoy 12071, alternate 
"takes" from the same sessions. Young is extremely 
inconsistent in these performances. He is dark and 
moving on the title piece of Blue Lester, for in- 
stance, and brilliantly rhythmic on Exercise in 
Swing (which has some superb Billy Butterfield 
trumpet) and Crazy Over Jazz (originally known as 
Crazy Over /-Z) but he is just as apt to be empty, 
static or strained, foreshadowing the steady dwin- 
dling of his creative powers in the years ahead. 

From this later period the middle Forties until 
his death in 1959 one of his happiest sessions was 
Lester Young-Buddy Rich Trio, Verve 8164, on 
which some vital rhythm support seems to spur 
Young to efforts that recall his happier days. Rich 
prods him effectively again in one of the three 
groups heard on Pres, Verve 8162. Under Rich's 
impetus, Young could still swing but his ballads 


had become swollen and fuzzy. On Lester Young, 
Verve 8187, badly recorded with a dull group, his 
lines have hardened and there is a noticeable lack 
of ideas or development in his playing, character- 
istics which make Lester's Here, Verve 8161, The 
President, Lester Young, Verve 8181, The President 
Plays, Verve 8144, and Pres and Sweets, Verve 8134, 
depressing listening experiences. Young is heard in 
single selections on The Anatomy of Improvisation, 
Verve 8230, and Verve Compendium of Jazz #1, 
Verve 8194. 

Webster Young. Young plays a cool, fumbling 
cornet, trudging breathily through a set of ballads 
and blues associated with Billie Holiday on For 
Lady, Prestige 7106, with scarcely a flicker of emo- 
tion. He also takes part in a long blowing session, 
Interplay for Two Trumpets and Two Tenors, 
Prestige 7112. 


Numbers in italics refer to pages where the musician's work as a 
leader is discussed. 

Aaron, Abe. 292 

Abdul-Malik, Ahmed, 200 

Adams, Pepper, 19, 205, 292 

Addams, Chas., 199 

Adderley. Julian, 19-20, 21, 46, 

67, 84\ 97, 279, 293 
Adderley, Nat, 20-21, 67, 154 
Aldyoshi, Toshiko, 21, 260 
Albam, Manny, 21-23. 101. 178, 

278, 303 

Albany, Joe, 23-24 
Albrecht, Walter, 168 
Aless, Tony, 24 
Alexander, Mousie, 295 
Alexandria, Lorez, 24-25 
AUen, Red, 192 
Allen, Steve, 23 
Allison, Mose, 25, 188, 299 
Almeida, Laurindo, 26 
Alpert, Trigger, 26, 163 
Ammons, Albert, 26 

Anderson, rnene, - 
Andre's Cuban All Stars, 28 
Anthony, Ray, 292 
Armstrong, Louis, 7, 11, 47, 49, 

51, 79. 113, 138, 141, 214, 

234, 302 
Arnold, Buddy, 28 
Arnold, Harry, 28 
Ashby, Dorothy, 29 
Astor, Bob, 272 
Auld, Georgie, 29-30, 163, 245, 

Australian Jazz Quartet/Quintet, 


Axen, Bent, 53 
Axidentals, The, 305 

Babasin, Harry, 30-31 
Babbitt, Milton, 40-41 
Bach, J. S., 50, 170 

, . ., , 
Bagley, Don, SI 

, , 

aey, Mildred, 216, 261 
Baker, Chet, 16, 31-33, 76, 87, 

I0i 103, 111, 207-^08, 211, 

227, 269 

Baker, Shorty, 119, 302-303 
Ball, Ronnie, 33, 49, 59, 67, 78, 

187, 245 

Balliett, Whitney, 136 
Barber, Bill, 42 


Barnet, Charlie, 7, 22, 33-34, 86, 
95, 100, 101, 137, 176, 246, 
255, 261 

Barretto, Ray, 105 

Barrow, George, 27 

Bartok, Bela, 170 

Basic, Count, 7, 12-13, 22, 24, 
28, 33, 54, 67, 69, 92, 93, 
102, 120, 124, 136-138, 139, 
149, 155, 156, 157, 163, 182, 
213-214, 217, 229, 231-232, 
241, 245, 24^-250, 251, 255, 
259, 281, 300, 302, 306-307 

Basin t., 47 , 247 

Bateman, Charlie, 35 

Bauer, Billy, 34, 290 

Bauza, Mario, 180 

Bean, Billy, 34^35, 232, 295 

Be Bop Boys, 114 

Bechet, Sidney, 20, 166, 275 

Beeks, Clarence, 233 

Beiderbecke, Bix, 13, 16, 23, 31, 

Belafonte, Harry, 181 

Bell, Aaron, 35 

Bell, Marty, 93-94 

BeUetto, Al, 35 

Bellson, Louis, 35-36 

Beneke, Tex, 43, 200 

Benjamin, Joe, 52 

Bennett, Tony, 39, 132, 156, 268 

Berigan, Bunny, 47, 85 

Berman, Sonny, 36 

Bernhart, Milt, 238, 245 

Bernstein, Leonard, 22, 239 

Berry, Emmett, 156, 302-303 

Bert, Eddie, 36, 170, 189, 259 

Best, Skeeter, 196 

Betts, Keter, 57 

Bickert, Ed, 164 

Bigard, Barney, 132 

Birch, Woody, 234 

Bishop, Walter, Jr., 225 

Blackhawk, The, 52 

Blakey, Art, 17, 36-39, 82-83, 
87, 92, 147, 184, 198-200, 
205, 244, 27l, 288, 301 

Bley, Paul, 39 

Blue Note, The, 294 

Blue Stars, The, 39 

Bolden, Buddy, 15 

Bonnier, Bess, 40 



Boozier, Henry, 148 
Boyd, Jimmy, 203 
Bradley, Will, 177 
Bradshow, Evans, 40 
Braff, Ruby, 214 
Brahms, Johannes, 167 
Brandeis Jazz Festival, 40-41 
Brass Ensemble of the Jazz and 

Classical Music Society, 41 
Bright, Ronnell, 42 
Brignola, Nick, 186 
Brisano, Modesto, 62 
Brock, Herbie, 43 
Brokensha, Jack, 30 
Brookmeyer, Bob, 22, 43-45, 65, 

70, 111, 118, 208-211, 242, 

267, 273, 278, 282, 291 
Brooks, John Benson, 45-46 
Brooks, Randy, 45 
Brown, Clifford, 37-38, 46-47, 

153, 247, 252 
Brown, Lawrence, 156 
Brown, Les, 45, 48-49, 95, 167, 

226, 292 

Brown, Marshall, 146 
Brown, Ray, 49, 148, 163, 225, 

231, 252 
Brown, Ted, 49 
Brubeck, Dave, 16, 49-53, 77, 

88, 154, 288 
Bruel, Max, 53 
Brunis, George, 168 
Bryant, Ray, 53, 84, 116, 283, 


Bryant, Rusty, 53-54 
Buckner, Milt, 54 
Buddie, Errol, 30 
Buffington, Jim, 231 
Bunker, Larry, 135, 207, 220 
Burgess, Bob, 54 
Burke, Vinnie, 54-55, 75 
Burns, Dave, 202 
Burns, Ralph, 15, 55-56, 139 
Burrell, Kenny, 56, 60. 63, 68, 

98, 157, 178, 194, i43, 276, 

298, 300 
Burton, Joe, 56 
Busse, Henry, 200 
Butterfield, Billy, 127, 137, 307 
Butterfield, Don. 189 
Byas, Don, 56-5V. 115, 226 
Byers, Billy, 57, 178 
Byrd, Charlie, 57-58, 134 
Byrd, Donald, 38, 58, 68, 91, 

98, 127-128, 143, 152. 243, 

253, 272, 2&, 285, 29, 303 
Byrne, Bobby, 137 

Cafe Bohemia, 37, 90 

Cafe Society, 46 

Cain, Jackie, 59, 295 

Caiola, Al, 59 

CaUoway, Cab, 11, 113, 136, 

Campbell, Jimmy, 93 

Candido, 59-60, 68, 70, 94, 284 

Candoli, Conte, 60, 109, 171, 

181. 193 
Candoli, Pete, 60 

Capp, Frankie, 220 

Carisi, Johnny, 126 

Carle, Frankie, 126 

Carradine, John, 132 

Carroll, Barbara, 60-61 

Carroll, Joe, 61, 115 

Carter, Benny, 14, 79, 89, 105, 

123, 124, 179, 213, 24(5, 30^ 
Carter, Betty. 53, 61 
Gary, Dick, 233 
Castro, Joe, 61 
Centano, Bob, 61-62 
Chaloff, Serge, 62, 272 
Chamber Jazz Sextet, 62 
Chamber Music Society of Lower 

Basin Street, 189 
Chambers, Paul, 63, 84 
Chamblee, Eddie, 63 
Charles, Ray, 25, 147 
Charles Singers, Ray, 269 
"' * - " 30, 63-65, 124, 

Charles, u^y, * 

171, 180, 237, !___ 
Cherry, Don, 71 
Chester, Bob, 109, 167 
Chevalier, Christian, 39 
Chicago Symphony Orchestra, 

Christian, Charlie, 13, 65-66, 

97, 129, 134, 162 
Christie Brother Stompers, 66 
Christie, Keith, 66 
Christy, June, 66, 73, 162, 190, 


Cinderella, Joe, 189 
Clare, Alan, 67 
Clark, Sonny, 68, 89, 170 
Clarke, Kenny, 13, 60, 67-68, 

83, 113, 143, 179, 195, 225, 


Clay, James, 69 
Clayton, Buck, 285 
Cleveland, Jimmy, 69, 240 
Clovers, The, 134 
Club Baby Grand, 276 
Coates, Johnnv, Jr., 69 
Cohn, AL 26," 56, 59, 69-70, 73, 

82, 169-170, 211, 242, 273, 

27&, 278 
Coker, Jerry, 70-71 
Cole, Nat, 190, 230 
Coleman, Cy, 7 1 
Coleman, Ornette, 71 
Collette, Buddy, 31, 72, 131, 

144, 162, 176, 218, 245, 257 
Coltrane, John, 17, 63, 68, 72- 

73, 79, 84, 105-106, 120, 199, 


Connor, Chris, 73-74, 102, 218 
Conover, Willis, 286 
Cooper, Bob, 74-75, 85, 122, 

162, 176, &38, 24^ 257, 266- 


Cooper, Buster, 259, 292 
Copeland, Ray, 61, 199, 236, 


Corwin, Bob, 75, 93 
Costa, Eddie, 31, 54, 75-76, 77, 

94, 97. 101, 118, 130, 143, 

152, 1^6, 178, 18&, 18& 240, 

248, 259, 296 



Costa, Johnny, 76, 101 
Costanzo, Jack, 28, 76, 220 
Counce, Curtis, 64, 76-77, 78, 


Courlander, Harold, 45 
Courtley, Bert, 77 
Courtley-Seymour Orchestra, 77 
Crane, Fred, 35 
Crawford, Jimmie, 137 
Crawford, Ray, 150 
Crea, Bob, 80 
Crombie. Tony, 77 
Crosby, Israel, 149 
Grotty, Ron, 77 
Cuozzo, Mike, 77-78 

D'Amico, Hank, 79, 258 

Dagron, Jomar, Quartet, 78 

Dahl, Jim, 240 

Dahlander, Bert, 78, 112 

Dahlander, Nils-Bertil, 78 

Dale, Bert, 78 

Dameron, Tadd, 46, 68, 78-79, 


Dankworth, Johnny, 79, 213 
Da Rosa, Clem, 144 
Davis, Bob, 80 
Davis, Eddie, 80, 212, 280 
Davis, Jackie, 80-81 
Davis, Miles, 15-16, 20, 32, 42, 

68, 81-85, 96, 1(55, 122. 165 

171, 190, 207. 221-22^ 285 
Davis, Richard, 295 
Davis, Shelby, 85 
Davis. Wild Bill, 85, 181, 264, 


Dearie, Blossom, 39 
Debussy, Claude, 106 
Dedrick, Rusty, $5-86, 94 
De Franco, Buddy, 68, 86-88, 


De Pippo, Angelo, 88 
Desmond, Paul, 16, 50-52, 62, 

88, 210 

Deuchar, Jimmy, 88 
De Vol, Frank, 141 
Disney, Walt, &2 
Distel, Sacha, 173 
Dixon, Eric, 126, 298 
Dodgion, Jerry, 88-89, 128, 186 
Doggett, Bill, 80 
Domnerus, Arne, 28, 89, 299 
Donaldson. Lou, 26, 37, 89-90, 

148, 27 ? 6 
Dorham, Kenny, 37-38, 90, 153, 

189, &35, 24-f, 271 
Dorsey Brothers, Orchestra, 177 
Dorsey, Jimmy, 100, 103 
Dorsey, Tommy, 35, 45, 86, 244, 

261, 269, 296, 302 
Draper, Ray, 90 
Drasnin, Bob, 218 
Drew, Kenny, 90-91, 
Duke, Doug, 54, 91 
Dunham, Sonny, 272 
Dunn, Dorothy, 91 
Duran, Eddie, 77, 91-92, 128, 

Duvivier, George, 132 

Eager, Allen, 70, 104, 207, 211, 


Eardley, Jon, 208-209, 211, 274 
Eckstine, Billy, 13, 26, 3f, 90, 

92, 121, 124, 212, 221, 269, 


Edelhagen, Kurt, 92 
Edison, Harry, 22, 25, 35, 49, 

95-93, 95, 116. 163, 217, 

229, 231, 245, 250, 290 
Eldridge, Roy, 55, 93, 95, 113, 

116-117, 121, 229, 280-281 
Ellington, Duke, 7, 18, 33-34, 

35, 65, 119. 120-121, 132- 

133, 136, 139, 148, 151, 197- 

198, 230, 248, 263, 283, 285- 

286, 303, 305 
Ellington, Mercer, 90, 179 
Elliott, Bob, 151 
Elliott, Don, 75-76, 86, 93-94. 

112, 138, 152, 166, f88, 20^ 
Ellis, Herb, 95, 150, 231 
Elsen, Frans, 95 
English, Bill, 126 
Ennis, Skinnay, 96 
Ericson, Rolf. 77, 95 
Evans, Bill (piano), 40, 75, 95- 

96, 178 

Evans, Bill (saxophone), 168 
Evans, Gil, 15-16, 65, 81, 84, 

94, 96-97, 169, 178, 189, 287 

Fagerquist, Don, 48 

Farlow, Tal, 97, 217 

Farmer, Art, 22, 27, 40, 46, 56, 
68, 69, 97-99, 120, 124, 127, 
178, 189, 209, 237, 260, 272, 
292, 298, 302 

Feather, Leonard, 213 

Feldman, Victor, 78, 99, 257 

Ferguson, Allyn, 62 

Ferguson, Maynard, 99-100 

Fielding, Jerry, 100-101, 302 

Fields, Herbie, 101, 189 

Finckel, Ed, 241 

Finegan, Bill, 260-263 

Firmature, Sam, 301 

First Modern Piano Quartet, 101 

Fitzgerald, Ella, 24, 229, 305 

Flanagan, Ralph, 241 

Flanagan, Tommy, 56, 101-102, 

Flax, Marty, 244 
Flory, Med, 102 
Foster, Frank, 102, 157 
Founder, Vernell, 149-150, 272 
Fowlkes, Charlie, 137 
Free, Stan, 102 
Freeman, Bud, 12-13 
Freeman, Russ, 31-32, 102-103, 
184, 238, 291 

a, ony, 103-104 
Fuller, Curtis, 68, 104, 152, 168, 

192, 194, 205, 235 
Furtado, Ernie, 93 

6, 104, 118, 




Gambrell, Freddie, 104-105, 132 

Garcia, Dick, 105, 240 

Garcia, Russell, 87, 105, 218- 

Gari, Ralph, 105 

Garland, Red, 73, 84, 105-106 

Garner, Erroll, 24, 35, 56, 105, 
106-108, 141, 149, 159, 213, 
215, 225, 226, 268, 287, 299 

Garner, Morris, 108 

Garroway, Dave, 217 

Gee, Matthew, 1 08 

Geller, Herb, 108-109, 122 

Getz, Eddie, 109 

Getz, Stan, 15-16, 31, 43, 95, 
109-111, 116, 121, 133, 154, 
172, 210, 272-273, 277, 280, 
287, 289, 304 

Gibbs, Terry, 35, 43, 78, 112- 
113, 169 

GiUespie, Dizzy, 11, 13-15, 46, 
61, 81, 90, 92, 93, 111, 115- 
117, 119, 120-121, 138. 152, 
159, 168, 190, 194, 19^ 196, 
202, 204, 212, 216, 219, 221- 
222, 224, 230, 243, 246, 253, 
266, 280 

Gilmore, John, 117, 158 

Gitler, Ira, 275 

Giuffire, Jimmy, 17, 40-42, 43- 
44, 64, 95, 117-118, 129, 184, 
191, 196, 209, 226, 238, 249- 
250, 256-257, 283 

Glamann, Betty, 118 

Glasel, Johnny, 119 

Gleason, Jackie, 99 

Glenn, Roy, 208 

Glenn, Tyree, 119, 142 

Gold, Sanfori Il3 

Golden, Lex, 119 

Goldkette, Jean, 12 

Golson, Benny, 32, 37-38, 61, 
69, 99, 11&-120, 200, 204, 

Gonsalves. Paul, 111, 116, 120- 

Goodman, Benny, 7, 13, 26, 29, 
63, 65-66, 79, 87, 109, 124, 
136, 139, 166, 167, 211, 219, 
236, 258, 261-262, 264, 272, 

Gordon, Bob, 47. 121, 189, 201 

Gordon, Dexter, 92, 121, 124 

Gordon, Joe, 121-122 

Graas, John, 122, 189 

Graf, Bob, 122 

Graham, Kenny, 122-123 

Grand Ol' Opry, 174 

Granz, Norman, 55, 123-124, 

Gray, Wardell, 121, 124-125, 

Green, Bennie, 82, 125-126, 154, 

156, 241, 295 
Green, Freddie, 156, 232 
Green, Urbie, 26, 55, 126-127, 

170, 182, 259 
Gregor, Max, 127 
Gridiey, Jack, 151 

Grille, Bobby, 55 
Grille, Frank, 180 
Grimes, Tiny, 223 
Gryce, Gigi, 58, 61, 98, 127- 

128, 199, 285. 297 
Gryce, Tommy, 61 
Guarnieri, Johnny, 307 
Guerin, Roger, 39 
Gullin, Lars, 47, 129 

Hackett, Bobby, 99, 258 
Haig, Al, 110, 129, 224, 243 
Hale, Corky, 129 
Hall, Jim, 44, 118, 159-130, 131- 

132, 173, 228 

HaUberg, Bengt, 28, 47, 110, 130 
Hambro, Lenny, 130 
Hamilton, Chico, 35, 72, 104, 

129, 130-132, 144, 158, 173 
189, 207-208, 211, 228, 232 

Hamilton, Jimmy, 132-133 
Hamlin, Johnny, 133 
Hampton, Lionel, 27, 46-47, 54, 
90, 9l. 98, 121, 127, 131 
146, 1^8, 157, 176, 229, 255 
Handy, George, 178, 241, 274 
Hanna, Ken, 133 
Hardaway, Bob, 133 
Hardman, Bill, 38, 179, 200 
Hardee, John, 284 
Harden, Wilbur, 168 
Harnell, Jo, 133 
Harper, Herbie, 220 
Harper, Toni, 114 
Harriott, Joe, 133 
Harris, Art, 134 
Harris, Barry, 194, 254 
Harris, Bill (guitar), 134 
Harris, Bill (trombone), 55, 134- 
135, 140-141, 146, 231, 296 
Harris, Gene, 135 
Harris-Leigh Baroque Band and 

Brass Choir, 134 
Hawdon, Dickie, 79 
Hawes, Hampton, 135-136, 192, 

193, 227, 243 

Hawkins, Coleman, 7, 12, 14, 17, 
29, 36. 46, 111, 116, 121, 
145, 177, 199, 228, 251, 287, 

Hayes, Edgar, 236 
Hayes, Tubby, 136, 243 
Hayes, Roy, 136, 157, 200 
Healey, Dick, 30 
Heard, J. C., 136-137 
Heath, Jimmy, 82 
Heath. Percy, 82-83, 173, 176, 

195, 196, 198, 224, 225 
Heath, Ted, 28, 92, 159 
Hefti, NeaX 15, 137-138, 193, 


Heidt, Horace, 137 
Henderson, Fletcher, 12, 37 
Hendricks, Jon, 203, 23$, 254 
Henry, Ernie, 138, 199 
Herbert, Mort, 138 



Herman, Woody, 8, 14-16, 22, 
24, 26, 33, 34, 36, 55, 60, 62, 
69, 70| 95 99, 107, 109^ 117 
126, 134, 136, 137, 138-141, 
146, 167-168, 171, 176, 206^ 

296;3 2 00' 249 ' 272>289>295: 
Heywood, Eddie, 27 
Hickory House, 183 
Hill, Nicky, 197 
Hill, Teddy, 113 
Hines, EarL 14, 24, 80, 92, 106, 

124, 125, 215, 221, 234, 268^ 

Hinton, Milt, 46, 241-145, 265 
Hipp, Jutta, 242, 164, 213 
Hitz, Bill, 242 

Hodier, Andre, 68, 242-243, 151 
Hodges, Johnny, 54, 123, 130, 

Hoffman, Jean, 243 

Holiday, Billie, 25, 55, 174, 176, 

204, 218, 297, &)8 
Holiday, Joe, 243 
Holman, Bill, 243-244, 171, 184- 

185, 191, 283 
Hope, Elmo, 144 
Hopkins, Kenyon, 244 
Horn, Paul, 72, 131, 244-245 
Home, Lena, 34, 131, 302 
Hot Five, 7 
Hudson, George, 150 
Hughes, Langston, 192 
Humes, Helen, 217 
Hyams, Margie, 268 
Hyman, Dick, 245, 155, 163 

Hcken, Wes, 245-246, 181, 183 
Ind, Peter, ^45 

International Youth Band, 246 
Isola, Frank, 209 

Jackson, Alvin. 157 
Jackson, Chubby, 246, 278 
Fackson, Milt, 16, 67, 84, 113- 

114, 246-248, 176, 194, 195- 

196, 212, 301 
Jackson, Quentin, 286 
Facquet, Illinois, 123, 148-149, 


Jacquet, Russell, 27 
famal, Ahmad, 249-250, 225, 

272, 306 

James, Harry, 35, 95, 302 
Jaspar, Bobby, 143, 150-151, 

154-155, 183, 242 
Jay and Kai, 52, 126, 153-154 
Jazz at the Philharmonic, 21, 55, 

110. 123, 136, 196, 230 

Jazz Exponents, The, 252 
azz Group of Paris, The, 252 
azz Lab Quintet, 58, 127-128 
azz Messengers, The, 17, 37-38, 
90, 194, 200, 205, 271, 288 
Jazz Modes, The, 15l~152, 240, 


Jazzpickers, The, 30 
Jazz Prophets, The, 90 
Jefferson, Eddie, 203 

Jenkins, John, 152, 179, 300 
Johnson, Dick, 152 
Johnson, Gus, 23, 57 
Johnson, J. J., 36, 41-42, 82-83, 
85, 110, 150, 151, 152-155, 
172, 216, 223, 253, 304 
ohnson, Pete, 108 
ohnson, Osie, 23, 141, 155 
oily, Pete, 112, 155, 209, 260 
ones, Eddie, 157 
ones, Elvin, 101, 157 
ones, Fritz. 150 
ones, Hank, 35, 67, 101, 149, 

155-156, 157, 247, 275 
Jones, Jimmy, 156+ 157 
Jones, Jo, 13, 67, 156, 157, 229, 

Jones, Philly Joe, 84, 156-157, 

159, 176, 265 
Jones, Quincy, 28, 94, 136, 157, 


Jones, Reunald, 157 
T ones, Thad, 157, 192 
ordan, Cliff, 117, 158 
brdan, Duke, 98, 176, 225, 306 
'orgenssen, Knud, 158 
oyner, George, 89 

Kahn, Tiny, 110, 170 

Kamuca, Richie, 22, 1 58, 228, 

Karr, Dave, 80 

Katz, Dick, 141-142, 155, 158, 
242, 265 

Katz, Fred, 131. 158-159 

Kay, Connie, 1/3, 178, 195 

Keating, Johnny, 159 

Keepnews, Orrin, 199 

Keller, Jack, 86 

Kelly, Peck, 23 

Kelly, Wynton, 159, 166, 259 

Kenney, Beverly, 156 

Kenton, Stan, 15, 26, 33, 36, 60, 
61, 66, 73, 74, 76, 100, 109, 
116, 122, 125, 133, 139, 143, 
159-162, 184, 215, 218, 219, 
228, 233, 246, 249, 251, 254, 
255, 256, 258, 259, 266, 278, 

Kessel, Barney, 162-163, 218 

King John I, 79 

King, Teddi, 269 

Kinsey, Tony, 163 

Kirk, Andy, 176, 212 

Kitt, Eartha, 250 

Klee, Harry, 72 

Klink, Al, 163 

Knepper, Jimmy, 163-164, 191 

Koffman, Moe, 164 

Roller, Hans, 142, 164 

EConitz, Lee, 16, 55, 81, 109, 
164-166, 186, 208, 211, 288, 

Kostelanetz, Andre, 160 

Kotick, Teddy, 110, 225, 24 

Koven, Jake, 96 

Krupa, Gene, 86, 126, 218, 270, 



Kuhn, Paul, 266 
Kuhn, Rolf, 266 

Lacy, Steve, 96, 266, 193, 279, 


La Faro, Scott, 99 
Lambert, Dave, 254 
Lamond, Don, 23, 146 
Lance, Herb, 114 
Land, Harold, 76, 266 
Lang, Ronnie, 48, 267 
Lanin, Lester, 138 
Laocoon, 26 
La Porta, John, 40, 67, 86, 267- 

268, 192, 260 
Larkins, Ellis, 93 
Lateef, Yusef, 168-169 
Lausen, Jorgen, 258 
Lawrence, Elliot, 269-270, 207 
Leal, Frank, 62 
Lecuona, Ernesto, 55 
Lee, Dave, 79 
Lee, Peggy, 219 
Leigh, Mitch, 134 
Leonard, Harlan, 78 
Levey, Stan, 270 
Levinsky, Walt, 262 
Levister, Alonzo, 170-171 
Levy, Lou, 22, 109, 170, 272, 


Lewis, Jack, 22 
Lewis, John, 16, 41-42, 81-83, 

85, 120, 147, 153, 272-274, 

195-196, 214, 222, 225, 228, 

276, 277, 279 
Lewis, Ramsey, 274 
Lieberman, Rolf, 42, 262 
Lighthouse, 74, 117, 256, 266 
Lighthouse All Stars, 256 
Lincoln, Abbey, 274 
Lipton, Lawrence, 132 
Listen, Melba, 61, 301 
Lloyd, Jerry, 274, 299 
London House, 284, 294 
Lowe, Mundell, 163, 274-275, 


Lucraft, Howard, 174-175 
Lugosi, Bela, 156 

MacDonald, Luther, 301 
McCall, Mary Ann, 34, 276, 295 
McGarity, Lou, 127, 137 
McGhee, Howard, 34, 148, 153, 

McKenna, Dave, 126, 152, 277, 

274, 279, 282, 295 
McKinley, Ray, 130, 167, 174, 

McKusick, Hal, 56, 143, 277- 

278, 189, 269, 271 
McLean, Jackie, 38, 82, 152, 

278-279, 243 

McPartland, Jimmy, 116, 179 
McPartland, Marian, 279 
McRae, Carmen, 179-180 
McRae, Teddy, 179 
McShann, Jay, 221 
Macero, Teo, 144, 280 
Machito, 76, 280-282, 223, 239 

Madna, Rob, 181 

Maini, Joe, 193 

Mance, Junior, 38 

Mancini, Henry, 181 

Mancuso, Gus, 182 

Mandel, Johnny, 170, 178, 282, 

191, 209-210, 267 
Manhattan Septette, 182 
Mann, Herbie, 182-183, 206 
Marine, Shelly, 22, 31, 64, 72, 
85, 110, 135, 163, 176, 283- 
185, 209, 218, 23&, 252, 283 
Marabuto, John, 204 
Mariano, Charlie, 89, 184-185, 


Markewich, Reese, 186 
Marmarosa, Dodo, 34 
Marsala, Joe, 184 
Marsh, Warne, 24, 49, 165, 286- 

187, 290 

Marshall, Owen, 32 
MarshalLWendell, 67, 144, 247 
Martin, Freddie, 44 
Marx, Dick, 101, 103. 187 
Mastersounds, The, 187 
Mathews, Mat, 76, 94, 152, 166, 

187-188, 214, 240, 260 
Matiock, Matty, 250 
May, Billy, 29 
Mayers, Lloyd, 126 
Mehegan, John, 75, 188, 222 
Meldonian, Dick, 282 
Melle, Gil, 188-189 
Melrose Avenue Conservatory 

Chamber Music Society, 189 
Merrill, Helen, 189-190 
Metronome All Stars, 198 
Metropolitan Jazz Quartet, 290- 

Miller, Glenn, 26, 130, 163, 177, 


Miller, Mitch, 107 
Millinder, Lucky, 168 
Millman, Jack, 191 
Mingus, Charlie, 40-41, 64, 135, 

163, 188, 191-192, 2r/, 297 
Minton's Playhouse, 11, 13-14, 

197, 247 

Miranda, Juan Pablo, 77 
Mr. Kelly's, 294 
Mitchell, Billy, 157 
Mitchell, Blue, 192 
Mitchell, Dwike, 193 
Mitchell, Red, 193, 208-209, 


Mitchell-Ruff, 193-294, 
Mitchell, Whitey, 293 
Mitropoulous, Dimitri, 41 
Mobley, Hank, 37-3$, 73, 91, 

99, 294, 205, 271, 275 
Modern Jazz Quartet, 16, 17, 67, 

147-148 171, 173, 187, 294- 

296, 228, 229, 237, 277, 288 
Modern Men, The, 162 
Modern Jazz Sextet, 296 
MJT Plus 3, 297 
Mole, Miff, 290 
Monk, Thelonious, 13, 27, 38, 

68, 71, 84, 104, 119, 136, 



197-200, 210, 214-215, 224, 

283, 285, 301-302 
Monterose, J. R., 200-201, 299 
Montgomery Brothers, 501 
Montgomery, Buddy, 201 
Montgomery, Monk, 201 
Montgomery, Wes, 201 
Montrose, Jack, 36, 189, 201 
Moody, James, 114, 202-203 
Mooney, Joe, 203, 260, 261 
Moondog, 123 
Moore, Brew, 70, 180, 203-204, 

273, 289, 298 
Moore, Marilyn, 204 
Moore, Pee Wee, 202 
Moran, Pat, 204 
Morello, Joe, 51-52, 88, 184, 

Morgan, Frank, 181 

Morton, J< 
Mosse, Sa_ 
Most, Sam, 
Moule, Ken, 

158, P&, 

197, 199, 207 
93, 183, 206 

Moussorgsky, Modeste, 55 

Mucci, Louis, 171 

Mulligan, Gerry. 16, 31, 43-44, 
68, 81, 87, 8$, 111, 116, 122, 
130-131, 165, 169, 182, 188, 

200, 204, 206-211, 249, 264, 
282, 304 

Murphy, Lyle, 142, 211 
Murphy, Spud, 211 
Musso, Vito, 259 
Mussulli, Boots, 21, 62, 295 

Nagy, Charlie, 167 
Nanton, Morris, 213 
Nanton, Tricky Sam, 119 
Navarro, Fats, 46, 78, 81, 90, 

92, 190, 212, 234-235 
Nevard, Mike, 213 
Newborn, Phineas, Jr., 213 
Newman, Joe, 137, 213-214 
New Yorkers, The, 247 
New York Jazz Quartet, 188, 214 
Nichols, Herbie, 214-215 
Niehaus, Lennie, 215, 283 
Nimmons, Phil, 215 
Noone, Jimmie, 280 
Norem, Biarne, 136 
Norman. Lon, 216 
Norris, Walter, 71 
Norvo, Red, 8, 14, 30, 75, 146, 

201, 216-218, 236, 261 

O'Day, Anita, 66, 91, 218-219 
OTarriU, Chico, 114, 180, 219 
Ojeda, Bob, 61 
Orquestra Casablanca, 167 
Ortega, Anthony, 219, 232 
Orwell, George, 160 
Osborne, Mary, 119 
Overbrook, 202 
Overton,Hall, 65,242 

Page, Hot Lips, 179 

Page, Walter, 156, 232 

Paich, Marty, 167, 184, 189, 

218, 219-220, 245 
Palladium. 48 
Paris, Jackie, 94, 220 
Paris Opera Comique Orchestra, 

Parian, Horace, 192 

Parker, Charlie, 13-15, 19, 24, 

38, 81-82, 88-89, 90, 92, 96, 

97, 109, 113, 123, 124, 133, 

138, 152, 164, 178, 180, 186, 

190, 215, 216, 220-225, 227, 

234, 240, 247, 264, 269, 276, 

278-279, 305-306 
Parker, Leo, 121 
Pate, Johnnie, 225 
Payne, Cecil, 225, 302 
Peiffer, Bernard, 57, 225-226 
PeU, Dave, 48, 226 
Pena, Ralph, 118, 226-227 
Pepper, Art, 32, 49, 85, 122, 

176, 227-228, 243 
Perkins, Bill, 158, 163, 173, 227, 

228, 249, 266 
Perkins, Carl, 528-229, 297 
Perkins, Walter, 150 
Persip, Charlie, 196 
Persson, Ake, 28, 47, 183, 299 
Peterson, Oscar, 21, 49, 86, 95, 

111, 196, 229-230, 231, 280- 

Pettiford. Oscar, 30, 65, 84, 153, 

198-199, 230, 240, 251, 253, 

Phillips, Flip, 55, 101, 180, 216, 

230-231, 245 
Phillips, Stu, 231 
Pierce, Nat, 44, 107, 231-232, 


Pilhofer, Herb, 232 
Pisano, Jonny, 35, 131-132, 232 
Pleasure, King, 203, 233, 254 
Plonsky, John, 233 
Pochonet, Gerard, 287 
Pollard, Terry, 112, 157, 169 
Pomeroy, Herb, 233 
Potter, Tommy, 233-254 
Powell, Benny, 137 
Powell, Bud, 21, 43, 60, 121, 

144, 153, 212, 222, 234-236, 

243, 268, 279 
Powell, Mel, 232 
Powell, Richie, 252 
Powell, Seldon, 236, 296 
Powell, Specs, 236 
Pozo, Chano, 59 
Prado, Perez, 236-237 
Prestige Jazz Quartet, 237 
Previn, Ajidre, 103, 185, 237- 


Price, Ruth, 277 
Price, Vito, 238-239 
Prince, Robert, 239 
Privin, Bernie, 59 
Procope, Russell, 132 
Puente, Tito, 140, 239 
Puma, Joe, 36, 105, 240 



Quill, Gene, 22, 151, 175, 240- 

241, 269, 279, 288, 306 
Quinichette, Paul, 124, 241, 277 

Rae, Johnny, 277 

Raebum, Boyd, 86, 241-242, 278 

Raney, Jimmy, 110, 217, 242- 

243, 299 
Ray, Johnny, 284 
Reardon, Caspar, 29 
Redd, Freddie, 26, 135, 243, 


Redd, Sonny, 227, 243 
Red Hot Peppers, 199 
Rediske, Johannes, 244 
Reece, Dizzy, 77, 136, 243 
Rehafc, Frank, 143, 240, 244, 


Reilly, Dean, 128 
Reiner, Fritz, 262 
Reinhardt, Django, 97, 115 
Rendell, Don, 163, 206, 244 
Rendezvous Ballroom, 161 
Reynolds, Tommy, 126 
Reys, Rita, 344 
Rich, Buddy, 92, 200, 224, 231, 

244-246, 278, 307 
Richards, Ann, 162 
Richards, Johnny, 114, 161, 241, 

Richardson, Jerome, 67, 546-247, 

292-293, 303 
Riddle, Nelson, 87 
Roach, Mas, 46-47, 83, 121, 184, 

194, 222, 224-225, 247, 252- 


Robbins, Jerome, 239 
Roberts, Howard, 78, 132, 248 
Robinson, Dougie, 206 
Robinson, Ted, 260 
Roche, Betty, 248 
Rodgers, Kenny, 205 
Rodney, Red, 62, 225, 248 
Rogers, Shorty, 16, 64, 122, 184, 

191, 208, 238, 24^-250, 256, 

266-267, 304 
Rohde, Bryce, 30 
Roland, Gene, 251, 266 
Roland, Joe, 251 
Rollins, Sonny, 17, 82-83, 116, 

144, 153, 198-199. 201, 212, 

234, 247, 251-254 
Root, Billy, 125 
Rosolino, Frank, 176, 209, 245, 

254, 257 

Ross, Annie, 254-255 
Ross, Ronnie, 172, 206 
Roumanis, George, 260 
Rouse, Charlie, 125, 151, 255, 

Rowles, Jimmy, 31, 141, 217, 

245, 255 

Royal, Ernie, 133, 255, 302-303 
Rubenstein, Marty, 256 
Rugolo, Pete, 191, 255-256 
Ruff, Willie, 193 
Rumsey, Howard, 256-257, 266, 

Russell, Curly, 37, 222, 224 

RujseU George, 40, 64, 178, 
Russo, Bill, 85, 146, 161, 184, 
Ryg, Jorgen, 53, 258 

Sabu, 87 

Sachs, Aaron, 79, 258-259, 276 
Sadi, Fats, 39, l4s 
Safranski, Eddie, 259 
Salim, A, K., 259 
Salvador, Sal, 259-260 
Sandole, Dennis and Adolph, 260 
Sash, Leon, 21, 260, 289 
Sauter, Eddie, 177, 260-263 
Sauter-Finegan Orchestra, 42 

177, 260-263, 296 
Savitt, Jan, 126, 174 
Saye, Joe, 203 
Schaefer, Hal, 263 
Schildkraut, Davy, 36, 83 
Schoonderwalt, Herman, 263 
SchuUer, Gunther, 40-41, 172 
Scott, Bobby, 263-264, 270 
Scott, Calo, 55, 298 
Scott, Shirley, 80, 214, 264 
Scott, Tony, 26, 105, 141, 145, 

158, 172, 264-266, 278 
Seaman, Phil, 266 
Sears, Lee, 283 
Segal, Jerry, 122, 237 
Serra, Hal, 266 
Serrano, Paul, 197 
Seymour, Jack, 77 
Shank, Bud, 72, 74-75, 162, 176, 

209, 238, 244, 257, 266-267 
Shannon, Terry, 243 
Shapero, Harold, 40 
Sharon, Ralph, 268 
Shaughnessy, Ed, 26, 64, 163, 

Shavers, Charlie, 35, 296, 302 
Shaw, Artie, 29, 63, 87, 244, 

Shearing, George, 116, 244, 265- 

269, 286, 288, 300 
Sheldon, Jack, 76-77, 269 
Shepard, Tommy, 269 
Sherman, Dick, 151, 269 
Sherwood, Bobby, 272 
Shihab, Sahib, 136, 240, 270, 


Shirley, Don, 270 
Shu, Eddie, 270 
Shulman, Ira, 206, 270-271 
Silver, Horace, 17, 25, 37-39, 

82-83, 90, 98, 119, 127, 147, 

153, 214, 271-272 
Simmons, John, 108 
Simmons, Norman, 248, 272 
Sims, Ray, 48, 226 
Sims, Zoot, 26, 32, 44, 47, 55, 

70, 73, 82, 112, 142, 170, 

208, 211, 214, 264, 272-275, 

277, 305 

Sinatra, Frank, 190, 245 
Six, The, 275, 302 
Smalls, Cliff 125 
Small's Paradise, 276 



Smith, Alex, 244, 275 

Smith, Bill, 185, 218 

Smith, Carson, 131-132, 207 

Smith, Charlie, 259, 275-276 

Smith, Derek, 276 

Smith, Jimmy, 264, 276, 281 

Smith, Johnny, 277 

Smith, Louis, 278 

Smith, Stuff, 103, 115, 229 

Smith, Willie, 217 

Socolow, Frank, 275 

Soft Winds, 103 

Solal, Martial, 57, 68 

Sommer, Teddy, 22 

Sonn, Larry, 278 

South, Eddie, 141 

South, Harry, 136 

Southern, Jeri, 277 

Spencer, Earle, 278 

Spivak, Charlie, 137, 296 

Stabulas, Nick, 242, 299 

Starling, Hay, 260 

Stein, Hal, 240, 278-279 

Steward, Herbie, 69, 272-273 

Stewart, Buddy, 295, 298 

Stewart, Rex, 148, 285 

Stewart, Tom, 193, 279 

Stitt, Sonny, 26, 80, 111, 116, 

124, 196, 229, 235, 253, 279- 


StoryviUe, 52, 165, 209 
Strand, Les, 281 
Stratton, Don, 281-282 
Stuttgart Symphony, 172 
Sulieman, Idrees, 98, 143, 282, 

297, 303 

Sullivan, Ira, 248, 282, 284 
Sunkel, Phil, 44, 210, 282 
Suttees Mills, 248 

Talbert, Thomas, 282-283 

Tatro, Duane, 283 

Tatum, Art, 43, 76, 80, 87, 

105, 108, 119, 134, 155, 213, 

226, 234-235, 284 
Taylor, Art, 283 
Taylor, Billy, 59, 108, 175, 282, 

Taylor, Cecil, 58, 71, 128, 214, 

Teagarden, Jack, 24, 29, 36, 


Terry, Clark, 120, 285-286, 305 
THE Orchestra, 286 
Theselius, Gosta, 242 
Thielemans, Jean, 286 
Thiemer, Joe, 286 

Thompson! Lucky, 83, 120, 133, 
147, I5b, 157, 172, 230, 287 

ThornhiU, Claude, 16, 43, 81, 
96, 122, 164, 169, 200, 207, 
287-288, 292 

Three Strings, The, 150 

Timmons, Bobby, 37-38, 288 

Tin Type Hall, 18 

Tjader, Cal, 110, 268, 288-289 

Touff, Cy, 146, 289-290 

Tough, Dave, 14 

Tondelli, Reno, 289 

Towner, John, 290, 303 

Travis, Nick, 170, 269, 274 

Tristano, Lennie, 33, 34, 49, 
142, 164-165, 184, 186-187 
190, 227, 232, 258, 275, 290- 

Trumbauer, Frankie, 12-13, 16 

Tubby the Tuba, 90 

Tucker, Ben, 104 

Twardzifc, Richard, 102, 291 

Urso, Phil, 32, 297-292 
Urtreger, Rene, 292 
Usselton, Billy, 292 

Valdes, Bebo, 28 

Valentine, Jerry, 292-293 

Vandair, Maurice, 242 

Van Damme, Art, 289, 293 

Van Kriedt, Dave, 53 

Van Rooyan, Jerry, 145 

Vaughan, Sarah, 14, 24, 61, 91, 

136, 221, 244, 293-294 
Ventura, Charlie, 34, 59, 124, 

176, 294-296, 304 
Venuto, Joe, 262 
Ver Planck, Billy, 296-297 
Vinnegar, Leroy, 11, 170, 185, 

Vos, Tony, 297 

Wagner, Richard, 50 

Waldron, Mai, 56, 98, 178, 180, 

194, 237, 297-298 
Walker, Jimmy, 298 
Waller, Fats, 11, 97, 237, 281, 

Wellington, George, 243, 298- 

Ware, Wilbur, 101, 286, 290- 


Warren, Earl, 54 
Washington, Dinah, 63, 248 
Watkins, Julius, 151, 255 
Watson, Jimmy, 300 
Wayne, Chuck, 268, 300 
Webb, Chick, 179 
Webster, Ben, 29, 69, 92, 135, 

141, 149, i02, 217, 225, 284 
Weinkopf, Gerry, 172 
Wellesley, Sonny, 126 
Wells, Dave, 34 
Wess ' Frank, 29. 102, 137, 148, 

15k, 214, SOd-301, 303 
Wess, Richard, 301 
Westiake College Quintet, 301 
Weston, Randy, 120, 197, 301- 


Wetmore, Dick, 55, 232 
Whalen, Philip, 208 
Whiteman, Paul, 12, 216 
Wiggins, Gerald, 149, 302, 305 
WilberT Bob, 275, 302 
Wilder, Alec, 175 
Wilder, Joe, 26, 42, 55, 67-68, 

296, 302, 303 
Wilen, Barney, 173 
Wiley, Lee, 305 



WuMns, Ernie, 23, 68, 178, 302- 

Williams, John, 28, 188, 216, 

243, 248, 259, 303, 305 
Williams, John T., 290, 303 
Williams, Mary Lou, 7, 14, 60, 

Williams, William Carlos, 227 
Williamson, Claude, 303 
Williamson, Stu, 184-185, 189, 


Wilshire-Ebell, 52 
Wilson, John, 242 
Wilson, Shadow, 247 
Wilson, Teddy, 78, 130, 134, 

155, 210, 216. 284 
Winding, Kai, 55, 151, 153-155, 

273, 295, 304-305 

Winters, Pinky, 305 
Woode, Jimmy, 305 
Woodman, Britt, 286 
Woods, Phil, 22, 157, 240, 259, 
274, 279, 296, 298, 305-306 
Wray, Ken, 88 
Wright, Gene, 51-52, 88 
Wright, Herman, 112 
Wylie, Harold, 203 

Young, John, 306 

Young, Lester, 12-13, 16, 17, 
26, 69, 74, 77, 93, 109, 121, 
122, 124, 127, 144, 148 15s! 
202, 203, 206, 212, 221, 227, 
228, 229, 236, 238, 241, 244! 
245, 252, 287, 291, 306-308 

Young, Webster, SOS