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Full text of "The college-bred negro; a report of a social study made under the direction of Atlanta University in 1900"

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ATLANTA UJ^IVERSITY PUBLIC ATIOlSrS 

JSTo. 5. 



THE COLLEGE-BRED NEGRO 



A Social Study made under the Direction 

of Atlanta University 

by the Fifth Atlanta Confei-euQe. 

A'' \ 






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Price, 25 Cents. 



Second Abridged Edition. 

University Press. 

1902. 



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THE 



COLLEGE- BRED NEGRO 



Report of a Social Study made under the Direction 
OF Atlanta University in 1900. 



Edited by 

W. E. BuRCHARDT DuBois. Ph. D. 

Corresponding Secretary of 

the Conference. 



Set-ond Aljrid^ied Edition. 

LJni\'fi-«it_v 1 'rt?s>i. 

A.XUA.>n A, (rtCOROIA. 

190i2. 



t 

.M 









**/Hlie very best and most advanced 
♦■ work on the sociological condi- 
tions of the Neirro is l)einir done by At- 
lanta I'liiversity. throui:ii tiie conrses of 
study, through its teaching corps, through 
its puldications, and througii its stiniulup 
to the Negro Conference that meets in 
tliat city." 

[Publications of tlie* Smith, m Jlixirirn A.<.<iii'nition, 
March, 1901.1 



CONTENTS.* 



— ■ ilOii "• — 

Intkoditotiox 

[Pul)lications of Atlanta I'liiversity J 

[Bureau of Information] ... 

[Select Biblioo-raphy of the American Nefri'o] 
The Coi.lege-Bkep Negro.— By the Editor 

[1. Scope of tlie Inquiry] 

2. The Neo^ro College .... 

'^. Curricula in Neg:ro College.s 

4. Negroes in Other Colleges 

5. The Numl)er of Negro Graduates . 

6. Birthplace of College-Bred Negi'oes 
[7. Age of Graduates] .... 
[8. Early Training] .... 
9. Education of "Women 

[10. The J^amily] 

11. Occupations 

12. Chang'e in Occupation 
[18. (Graduates of a Single Typical College] 
[14. The Work of Teachers] . 
[15. Other Professions] .... 
16. Group Leadership .... 
IT. Political Activity .... 
18. Ownershii) of Property 
[19. The Future of the Negro] 
[20. Mortality of (Traduates] 

[21. Bil)liogra.phy] 

22. The Future of tlie Negro College 

[Pkooeedtngs of the Fifth Atlant.v Coxferkxce] 



PAGE 

5 



6 

9 
11 
18 
14 



15 

If) 
19 



22 
22 
23 



24 



-Sirtions in I irackets appeared in the first edition iMit are not rei>eated here. ."Sonie of the other 
sections are abridi;ed. 



^ HE work of the Atlanta Confer- 
ence, like the other work of Atlanta 
University, depends mainly upon vol- 
untary contributions. « ♦ . ♦ 



^HE first duty of the Social Re- 
fornier is to know. The accurate 
gathering of social statistics costs 
money. This investigation cost $2jo. 
Twice this aviount would have made 
it twice as valuable. May lue not 
hope for larger resources next year? 



1Intro^uction. 



ATliAXTA I'xiVEKSTTV is ail institution for tiie liigher education of 
Kegro youth. It seeks, by maintaining- a liigii standard of scliolarsiiip 
and deiiortnient. to sift out and train thoroughly talented members of tills 
i'aee to l)e leaders of tliouglit and missionaries of culture among tlie 
masses. 

Furtiiermore, Atlanta University recognizes that it is its duty as a seat 
of learning to throw as much light as possible upon the intricate social 
problems alFectiiig these masses, for tlie enliglitenment of its g-raduates 
and of the g-eneral public. It has. tlierefore, for the last five years, sought 
to unite its own graduates, the graduates of similar institutions, and edu- 
cated Negroes in general, throughout tlie Soutli, in an effort to stuily 
carefully and thoroughly certain definite aspects of the Negro problems. 

Graduates of Fisk University, Berea College, Lincoln University, Spel- 
man Seminary, ("lark University, Wilberforce University. Howard Uni- 
versity, the Meharry Medical College, Hampton and Tuskegee Institutes, 
and several other institutions have kindly joined in this movement and 
added their efforts to those of the graduates of Atlanta, and havt'. in tlie 
last five years, helped to conduct five investigations: One in ISlKi into 
tlie "Mortality of Negroes in Cities;" another in 1H9T into the -'Ueneral 
Social and Physical Condition" of 5,(X)0 Negroes living in selected iiarts of 
certain Southern cities; a third in 1898 on "Some Efforts of American 
Negroes For Their Own Social liettermeiit ;" a fourth in 1891) into the 
number of Negroes in Ijusiness and their success. Unally in 190i> inquiry 
has been made into the number, distril)ution, occupations, and success of 
College-bred Negroes. 

The results of this last investigatiim arc presented in this pamijlih-t. 
Next year some other phases of the economic situation of the Negro will 
be studied. It is hoped tliat tliese studies will have the active aid and 
co-operation of all those who are interested in this method of making 
easier the solution of the Negro proldeins. 



KoTE— The demand for tbe original edition of the t ollege-bred Negro having e.xhixusted tlie 
copies at baud, the preseut iibridged edition has been isksued for further distribution. It eontaiii.^ 
most of the ess>ential fnets of the original edition, omitting many of the stati^tieaI taljlesand nuieh 
of the personal testimony. 



6 THE CULLEG£-BRFn ^FXiTHY 

2. The Neyra CoUcije. Oiiiittiiij>- all institutiuns wiiich luive not aftuallv 
graduated fstudents from a college course, there are t(^-da.v in the United: 
States tiiirty-four institutions .s?ivin<; colleo-iate training to Negroes and 
designed especially for this race. These institutions, fall into five main-- 
groups : 

(jRorp T. Aiik'-Beflvm Schooln, 'ii. 

Lincoln University, Cliester county, Feun., IHbi. 
■\Vilberforce University. G-reene county, Ohio, 1856. 
^Berea College, Berea. Ky..) 1855. 
These .schools were essablished be-fore the war and represent the Aboli- 
?ion movemtMit. Lincoln was established by Pennsylvania Pre.sbyterians 
as Ashnuin Institute in the early fifties. The Cinfiniiati Conference of the 
white Methodists and the Ohio Conference of the African Methodists- 
made early moven>ents to establish a sehoo'l in the west. Wilberforce was 
founded by the whites for Negro education in ISof) and finally purchased 
by the African Cliurch in ISfiH. Berea was establislnHl by a Kentucky 
abolitionist, John G. Fee. aided by the American Missionary Association. 
Group II. Fi-trdmaiif linremi Schools, IH. 

Howard University. \Vashington^ D. C. 1867. 

Fisk l^uiversity, Nashville. Tenn., 18S6. 

Atlanta University. Atlanta, (^a.. 18fi7. 

Biddle University, Charlotte, N. C.. 1867. 

Southland College, Helena. Ark.. 1864. 

Central Tenne.«isee College, Nashrille, Tenn., 1868, 

Rust University, Holly Springs, Miss.. 1868. 

Sttaiglit University. New Orleans, La.. 1869. 

Claflin University. Orangeburg. S. C, 1869. 

Talladega College, 1'alladega, Ala., 1867. 

Lincoln Institute, Jefferson City, ]Sro., 1866. 

Atlanta Baptist College, Atlanta, Ga., 1867. 

Roger Williams University, Nashville, Tenn.. 1S64. 
This gronj) of schools was established directly after the war by Mission- 
ary and Freednien's Aid Societies under the protection and for tlie most 
part under the direct patronage of the Freednien's Bureau. The earliest 
of these schools. Southland, grew out of an orphan asylum established by 
Indiana PViends before the war was hardly closed, and Roger ^Yilliams 
out of a group of Baptist teacheis in Nashville. Fisk and Atlanta were 
the great pioneers of tlie movement for thorougii Negro education after 
the war and were established by the American Missionary Association 
aided by the Freednien's Bureau. Biddle and Tallailega were founded by 
missionary societies in conjunction with tiie same bureau, while Howard 
was founded by the bureau alone and iiaini(] after its chief. Lincoln 
Institute had perhaps the most romantic Ix'giniiing-of all. When in Janu- 



*This incliicles Berea, where the majority of students are wliiio, bvu wliidi was designed for 
Negroes as well, and still has colored students. 



Tmu A"SNrAl, CONFKHKXrK 7 

ary, 186r>, tlip ()2(1 and r,M it'<!:iine)its of T. S Colored Infantry wero dis- 
charsit'd from service, tln-y coiitriWutcd joint ly a fnnd of .<?»;. :<79 for the estab- 
lishment of a school foj- Ne<;ro<'s in t he State <if Missouri. In iSTiJ State 
aid was obtained and it now is suppoi^ted wiioliy i)y the State. Sooieties, 
churches and benevolent individuals maile possible the establisiiinent <»f 
the other schools, tot»ethe.r witii t^ciiei-.-il hid fruni tlie Fr<'e(hnfn"- Tiiire;ni 
•and its ollicials. 

GR(»U1' III. ChiinJi &7<ooAv. 9. 

Leland University. New ( >rieans, l^a.. IhTD. 

New Orleans T'niversity, ^'ew (Orleans. La.. IhTH 

Sliaw University, Raleiiili. N. (.'., 1S74. 

Knoxvill*? CoUeye, Knoxville, Teim., IST.MV 

Clark University, Atlanta, Oa., 1H7(». 

AViley University, Marshall, Tex.. 1H7H. 

Paiiu' Institute, Augusta, (ta.. 1SS2. 

Philander Smitii Coileo-e, Little Rock. Ark.. 1M7(>. 

Benedict College, Columbia, S. C., 187ii. 

These schools were established mr.inly byciiurch societies after the 
•closinu- up of the Ureedman's Bureau. Shaw and lien^edict are Baptist 
institutions, and Knoxville, I'resbyterian. Leland was endowed by one 
aiian. The rest are Metluxlist. Paine Institute is supported by the white 
jSIethodist Church, South. 

Group IV. ScMools of N^egro CJi^o^h Bridies, 5. 

Allen University. Coluniliia. S, ("., 1881. 

Livingstone Colieye, Salisi)ury. N. ('.. ISSO. 

Morris Brown College, Atlanta, Ca., ISHo. 

Arkansas Baptist College, Little Rock. Ark.. 1W4. 

Paul Quinit College. Waco. Tex., IftS.'). 
The first forward rush of tiie freedmen after emaiU'ii)ation culminated 
in the eighties and led to a movement to found sclu)ols among the Negro 
ciiurches. The A. M. E. Cliurch was especially active and stj.rteil four 
colleges and some other schools. Tlie Baptists also founded several 
institutions. All of these are small and their collegiate work of com]>ara- 
tively minor importance. 

Group "V. Slate Colleges. 4. 

Branch Normal College, etc.. Pine Blutf, Ark.. 187.') 
Virginia N. and C. Institute, Petersl)iirg. Va., 18M;i. 
Georgia State Industrial College. Savannah, (iji., l>>iMi 
Delaware State College, etc., Dover, Del.. 1R9U 
The establishment of these colleges was due almost •ntirely to tlie 
United States' statutes of lSfi2 and 18'JO. donating puldic lands to the sev- 
eral States for endowing agricultural colleges. The Virginia Institute wa- 
foutuled in the time of the Readjusters. The Negroes' share of tlie land 
script in Georgia supjiorts the Georgia State Industrial ( 'olietre at .Sa- 
vannah. 



THE COLLE(iE-BRED XEGRO 



In nearly all cases the coUepre departments of these institutfons were 
established considerably later than the other departments. The date of 
establishment, number of <rradnates and som-ce of support follow: 

Necro Coi.i.kues in Okdek ok Kstabi>ishment. with CJkaduates. 
(Not Ixceudixc; the Class of 1899.) 



NAME. 


3 - 




4 

Founded l>y 


Lincoln University 

Will)erforce University 

Howai'd Universitv 


(515 

180 

96 

29 


1864 
1866 
1868 
1869 


Presbyteiians. 

Afiicjui Methodists. 

Freedman's Bureau, U 

American Missionary 

Mr. H. Chamberlain. 

Baptists. 

American Missionary 

American Missionary 

Presbyterians. 

Friends. 

Baptists. 

Methodists. 

Methodists. 

Baptists. 

Methodists. 

American Missionary 

State. 

Methodists. 

Presbyterians. 

Methodists. 

State. 

Methodists. 

Southern Methodists. 

African Methodists. 

jZion Methodists. 

Methodists. 

American Missionary 

State. 

African Metliodists. 

Colored Soldiers and 

African Methodists. 

Baptists. 

State. 

IState. 


. S. Gov'm't. 


fTlereM ('ollecel 


Association. 


T. eland TTniversitV 


l(i 1870 




Beneflict Colleofe 


.8 


1870 




Fisk University 

Atlanta University 

Biddle I'niversity ;... 

Southland Collejre 

Roger Williams University.. 
Central Tennessee Colle.ize... 

New Orleans University 

Shaw University 

li ii^t T' n i vers! t V 


180 
85 

140 
19 
7(i 
4;: 
80 

101 
80 


1871 
1872 
1872 
1872 
1878 
1S74 
1874 
1874 
1874 


Association. 
Association. 


Ktra ii)-!! t Un i versi t V 


11 1874 
9 1878 
46 1878 
44 1879 
21 1879 
98 1880 
9 1880 
11 1882 
24 1888 
88 1888 
29 1884 

5 1885 
27 1885 
18 1885 

6 1890 
6 1890 


Association. 


Branch Ctjllege, Ark 

(^"Inflni Universitv 




Ivnoxville ("olleire 




Clark University 

Alcorn University-"- 

W'ilev Univei'sitv. 




Paine Institute 

Allen I'niversitv 




T.i vi no'stone Col le ire 




Philander Smith College 

'r;illM(le"'n ( 'olletie 


Association. 


Va. Normal and Col. Inst.... 
T'miiI Oninii (!olle£re 




Lincoln Institute 


State. 


Morris Hrown Colletre 




Atlanta Baptist College 

(Jeorgia Stat<> Industrial Col. 
Delaware State College. 


1 


1898 

1894 

! 1894 





*Tlns State insiitiuioii <-onfers the degree of B. S., but is rather an agrieultural high school than 
a college. 

In most cases the college departments of these institutions are but 
adjuncts, and sometimes nninii>ortant adjuncts, to other departments de- 
voted to secondary ami primary work. A comparison of colleges for this 
purpose will be of interest. Let us take the single sciiool year 1898-99: 



TrpTii a"n:nual co>s'"fkke"xc>: 
Propoktion ok ('(Hj,kc;k Sti'dknts to Total Exkomm i;n r in 

NK({Ko CoiJ.iKJKS. 1898-99. 



COI.L?](^KS. 




No. C'ollegf 
■vStlMlents. 


Secdiidar.v 
Students" 


Primary 
Student's. 


.liiiu'oln 




135 
69 
51 
4a 
37 

m 

81 

28 

20 

20 

20 

19 

18 

18 

17 

16 

15 

15 

14 

12 

10 

9 

9 

9 

9 

8 

8 

7 

5 

2 








Biddle , 






1.85 

180 

825 

22.5 

280 

159 

188 

84 

52 

82 

111 

21 

94 

109 

108 

69 

99 

87 

72 

1811 

7ti 
25 
82 
181 
57 
()6 
49 
57 




Fisk 




IK^ 


.Howard 




•Siiaw , 






Atlanta 




22 
59 

162 
:w 

1.5!) 


Wi ll)t>r force 




"Virginia Normal and ( 'ull('<iiate 

Lelaiui 





Livinsistone 




P<!ul Quinii .' 






1'''7 


Allen „ 


14') 


State College, Delaware 




Knoxville 

■Clatlin (■97-'98) 

•Clark 


' 


145 
558 


Philander Smith 

Rouei' A\'illiams, 




2:'.8 
74 




•-'75 


CTeorgia State 


140 




8<* 


'railadeya 


1 •".» 




1 "^5 


Atlanta Baptist 


..s. 


142 


Straight. 

Southern 




882 

70 

841 


Wilev . 


288 


Branch, Arkansas* 





129 



* From tlu- others no data could he oht-jui'od: tht-y liaVu Vvry few in «)llev<-'. 



We find here 726 Negro c«)llegians in the colleges specially ilesigneti for 
them; or adding the few others not counted here, we lusve possibly 7-7> 
such stu<lents. If tliese students are all of college graiie according to a 
fair standard, we haA'e here apparently work for |)erhaps ten Negro col- 
leges, now being done by thirty (^r more institutions. It is not, however, 
by any means certain that all these students are n-ally of college grade. 
A st.udy of the curricula will throw some light on ilii.< iiu.stion. 

8. Curricula in Negro Volkycs. If, for convenience, we take only those 
colleges that have twenty or more students and consiiler them as repre- 
sentative, we find that for admission to the Freshman class they re(iuire 
the following course of study, above the common Fnglish itranehes: 



I'd THE" COLLEGE-BftED STMHO 

Requikemexts kok Admission to Negro Colleges'. 



Ninnber of Years Study R«quii-ed at 











, ^ 


IB 










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ce 


1 c 


2 


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■? 




s 


S 


^ 


X. 


'f 


— 


.k2 


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SJ 


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t: 


<3 


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a> 



Total leiif^tli of preparatory 
course : (yrs.) , 

Rtndies: fyrs.) 

Latin..., , 

Greek ..,, ,. 

Mathematics 

Eng-lisli.-^ ,, 

Other studies of importance.. 
Weeks of study pei- year., 



0? 




0; 



2 .^ 

1 

2 a 

1 2 



i 
2 



^%\ 2K 2J^ 
1, ' 1%. 



K! i: 2%' 



321 35 37j 36 



1 
2 
2 
2 
32 



3 


3 2 


4 


1 
3 


3 2 


3 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 1% 


•i% 


1 


1 1% 


>2 


3 


IK IK 


1>2 


34 


39 33 

1 


31 






3. 

3 
2: 



2 3 

1 

5 2 
28l 36 



From tills it would seem that these colleges ranked in the severity of 
their entrance reciuireni.ents a Wont as follows; 

1. HoWard-=-N early ecpial to smaller New Kngland colleges. 

( Fisk. 1 

Atlanta, | 

2. I Wili)errorce. J- From t to 2 years l>ehind the smaller N. E. colleges. 
I Leland. 
1 Paul (^uinn. 

I Hiddle, 

^' ') Va'^X and (' f ^ I'^^i 2 to 8 years behind tlie smaller N. E. colleges. 
I Livingstone. I 

4. Lincoln-"A little above cUi ordinary New England High School. 

Most of the other twenty-three schools fall into groups 3 and 4. with 
possibly one or two exceptions. So tiiat of the 7od students nt>t more than 
35C) are of colfege rank according to New Enghind standards. 

After admission the course of study is laid down in the catalogues* of 
these eleven colleges as follows: 



* These courses are taken from the cut!il<Jgiies of 1897- '«». 

The "elnssical" course is here given. In several institutions a "sdentific" course, omitting 
Greek and inehxlint,' other sul)ject.s, is offered. 



Trnil ANM'AL COM-'KUKNCK 



i'l 



AT 



Stiidifsuf Fuiir ( 'oIli-L'^c 'S'lai^. 



C- 1. 
Z. 'J. 



a; 



Howard — — ' 4 years 

Fisk..., ; 8 " 

Athiiita 

Wilhertoree 

Leland 

Paul Quinn _ 

Middle 

Shaw,„ , 

Virainia Nor. and Collegiate 

Livingstone I 8 

liineoln |... 






it 



V. 

Tt 





w — ■^« 


■"* 


« «^ — 


v: 






^™ i^ '/ 






ct 


w -^ -— 














*- 


" — 


._ 


^ 


1 





1- 8 


1-u; 


1-4 


1-80 1- 6 


1-8 


1-1 H 


1-18 


1-8 


1-18 




1-2 


1-15 




1-8 


1-20 


l-2() 


1-8 


1-12 


1-12 


1-8 


1- 6 


1- 8 


1-5 


1-15 


1- 8 


1-8 


1-10 




1-2 
2-5 


1-7 





1-8 


1-4 


l-o 


1-6 


1-fi 


1-4 


1-5 


1-9 


1-4 


1-5 


1-5 


1-5 


1-6 


1-7 


1-5 


1-6 


1-9 


1-7 


1-9 


l-io 


1-9 


1-9 



1-lH 
1- 8 
1^ 7 
1- 7 
1- 7 
1- 7 
1- 6 
1- 8 
1- 5 
1- 6 
1- 5 



i. e , at Atlanta University students, after a three years preparatory course, taloe a wlleue course 
■of 136 weeks <of. p. 10). Of this time onesixteeutli or 8'.^ weeks i.s devoted to Eiifilish. one-lhireenth 
or 1(1'., weeks to Modern laiifruasjes one-third of 45 weeks to Ancient langna.!;es. one-sixth <.r a< week-s 
ito Natural Science, onetiuarter or :u weeks to Tolitical Science and I'hilosophy. «nd one-seventh or 
JH'-o weeks to Mathematics. 

Of the equipment of these eollege.s there are tew data for comparison. 
.Some, like Howard, Fisk, Atlanta and Liiu-oln. are very well lioiispti. ;inil 
nearly all have fairly comfortable (juarters. Few, if any, iuive teachers 
who devote themselves to college work exclusively^ some have hihorato- 
ries for natural science work ; the iilunry facilities are reported «is foK 

lows; , 

Lincoln '. 15,750 volume.-;. 

Howard 18 iHMi 

Atlanta H.oimi 

Riddle I'MMXt 

Fisk <5-<582 

Wilberforce 5,5(to 

Paul Quinn loot) 

4. .V«</)o<.v In Other Colleges. Negroes have attended Nortliern cullegeji 
for many years. As early as 1S26, one was graduated from Bowdoin Col- 
lege and from that time till to-day nearly every year has seen «>ther sucli 
graduates. They have, of course, met mucli color jirejudice. Fifty years 
ago very few colleges Mould admit them at all. Even to-day no Negro 
lias ever been admitted to Princeton, and at Yale and some other leading 
institutions, they are rather endured tliaii encouraged. At Harvard and 
most of the Western institutions black men have for many years been 
made welcome, received in the social life of the college to .some extent. 



12 fllK I'OLLEfiE-HKEl) SEWRO' 

and in jreneral t f^atod as in. mi. Olx-rlin was the grreat pioneer in the worlr 
of blotting out the color line iii colleges, and lias more Negro graduates by- 
far than any other Northern college. The colleges in the order of the num>- 
Her of Negroes gi'aduaf PI 1 are as folloM's: 

Annnuj (he Ijinujcr Vaivirsitiesf. 

Harvard 11 Vah^ TO 

I^niversity of Michigan lo Cornell... 8 

("olunibia 4 University of PennsyiS-ania.. 4 

Catholic University 3 Univei-siiiy of Chicago 2 (?> 

J^^land t^tanford ..- " 2 — 

Total 54 

AiiKiiKj CiiUi'ijei*- fpf Second Bank. 

Oberlin . 12S iTnivers-ity of Kansas— 16 

15a tes College .15 Colgrte University 9 

I'.rowii S Dartinoutli - 7 

Amherst 7 Ohio State I'niversity 7 

Bucknell University 7 U'lllianis 4 

Boston T'niversity..... - o University of Minnesota 3 

Jndiana University 3 Adelbert College 3 

Heloit College ! ■. 3 Colb^- University 3 

State Universitv of lowM... 2 University of Nebraska 2 

Wesleyan Univ! (Conn.)..... 2 Hadclitfe College 2 

^Vellesley College 2 Noitlnvestern University... 1 

Rutgers "College! 1 Bowdoin College 1 

H;imilton College I New York University 1 

University of Rochester..,.. 1 T^'niversity of Denver f 

i)e Panw Univeisity 1 Mount HolytU^e College 1 

Vassnr College.., 1 

Total -246 

AmoiKj Other Colleges. 

Univ, of South Carolina 10? Geneva College 9 

Hillsd;ile College 7 LaFayette College (> 

Iowa Wesleyan. 4 Dennison University 4 

Baldwin T'liiversity 4 Western T^niv. of Benna 3 

Jlir;!in College .' 3 \Vittenl)erg College 3 

Butler's College 3 Westminster College 3 

St. Stephen's College 3 Antioch College 3 

Tabor College 2 Knox College 2 

Washburn College 2 Adrian College 2 

Washington cV:.I<-tferson Col. 2 Ohio Wesleyan University.. 2 

[joiiibard Collegia 1 Otterbein College 1 

S. W. Kansas College 1 Alleghany College 1 

Olivet College I Albion College I 

University <)f Idaho 1 Iowa College 1 

Upper Iowa University 1 University of Omaha 1 

McKendree College.....' I Illinois College 1 

Ohio University 1 — 

Total 90 . 

Grand total 3J)0 

If we divide these graduates among the sections of the country, we have; 

Middle AVest 25t) NeAV England 7cS 

Middle Atlantic States 44 South 10 

Border States 3 Pacific States 5 



PIFTII ANNUAL CONFKRENCK 



i:^ 



To sum up tluMi : Negroes have "graduated linin N<>rtlii-iii institutions. 
In most of the larjier universities they are welcome and have on tlie 
whole ma(h> ffood records. Tn nearly all the Western colleyre*; tlu-y arc 
admitted freely and have done well in some cases, and i^oorly in others. 
In one or two larger institutions, and in many of tlie latue wnnien's i-ol- 
leges, Negroes, while not exactly refused admission, are strongly advised 
not to aiiply. The summer schools at Harvard, Clai-k and tlu- rniveisity 
•of ('hicago have several Negro students. 

5. The Number of Negro Gradvaics. According to tiie l>est infuiination 
the Conference has heen ahle to gather, the total luuntn'r of Negro grad- 
aiates has heen as follows: 

Nkcko ('oi.i.K(;k CtRadiatks. 



1826 . 


1 


INU) 


1828 


. r 


1861 


1844 


1 


1862 


l>s45 


1 


1868 


1847 . 


1 


I8<i4 


1849 . 


. 1 


1865 


1850 


1 


1866 


1851 . ... 


I 


1867 


185H 


3 


1868 


1855 


.. .. 1 


1869 


1856 


. 5 


1870 


1857 


1 


1871 


1858 


I 


1872 


1859 


I 


1873 



() 


1874 

1875 .. 


27 
25 


ill 


.. 87 


6 


85 


3 


187<; 

1S77 

1S78 

1879 

1880 .... 

1881 

1882 . 

1888 

1884 

1885 

1886 

1887 


87 

4:^ 

88 
4^ 
. 50 
o4 
:^9 
74 
64 
1(10 

94 

9<) 
('las> 


>M5 


1 
2 


1891 ... . 

1892 

1898 

1894 

l8SJo 


99 
... 7(« 


5 
I 


...137 
i:i<> 


4 


180 


9 


189() 

1897 

1898 . ... 
1899 


104 


11 


128 


. 26 


...l-t-l 


15 


57 


2() 
"■' .i' 29 


Total.. 
; not givei 




2,209 
...122 



(irand Total. .2,381 
One hundred graduates of colleges of doul>tful rank are not inclu<le<l 

here; these and unknown omissions may bring the true total up to 2.5(Hi. 
Leaving out '99, for which we have hut i.artial reports, it is plain tiiat 

there is a steady increase of college-bred Negroes from decade to de.-ade. 

but not a large increase. There is to-day al)out one college-trained person 

in every 3,()(X) Negroes. 

The following table shows Ik.w the increase has been divided between 

tlie Negro and white colleges: 



Number of Negro Graduates From : 

Negro College^!. WAHe CollejeK. 

Before '76 l^^T 

'75-80 143 

'80-85 250 

'85-90 418 

'90-95 465 

'95-99 475 

Class Unknown 58 



75 
22 
31 
43 

m 

88 
64 



Total 1,941 



390 



* Partial Report. 



u 



THE cOLi.f:(iK-rmEr> xegro 



6. Rirth-piac.e of College-bred Negroes. — ^The most interesting^ question 
Connected \vith birth-place is that of the migration of colored graduates — 
that is, where these men finally settle and work. If we arrange these 600 
graduates according to sections where they were born and wliere they 
ftow live, we liave tliis table: 

Migration of Coi^i..ege Graduates. 



Persons Born in : 








Ai 


•e X 


ow 


Living in: 




A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G 


H 


J 


K 


L 


M 


A Xpw Flti""!;! nd 


2 
? 

4 
3 


1 
10 

18 

8 
2 


3 
5 

148 

35 

7 


1 
1 

39 

159 
4 

4 

1 


1 
1 

12 

6 
9 

4 














B— N. Y., Pa.. X. J 

C— Del..Md.,Va .W.Va., 

Kv.,Tenn., N.C., Mo.. 
D C 


4 

1 

1 

5 

1 


5 

26 

26 
6 

2 

5 


1 
1 




1 


1 






1 




D— S. C.,Ga..Fla., Miss., 
La , Ala 


1 


E Midi \Yis III O 










1 


F— N. and S. Dak., Minn., 
^eh Iowa, Ivan... 














G— Okl., Tex.,Ark., Ind. 
Ter 






3 
2 












TT — ('finada 


















•T — Africa . 






2 

2 


















K — West Indies 




3 


3 






2| 




2 






L — Cal 'Nev Wash .Ore 










M — N Mev Ari'/. . 

































This means that of 254 college-bred Negroes born in the border States 
(i. e., Delaware, Maryland. Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, North Caro- 
lina, Missouri and District of Columbia,) 148 or 58 per cent stayed and 
Worked there ; ;^9 or 15 per cent went furtlier South ; 26 or 10 per cent went 
Soutliwest ; 12 or 5 per cent went to the middle West, etc. Or again : 

Of 73 college graduates born North, 35 staid there and 38 went South. 

Of 607 college graduates born South, 443 staid there and 62 went North. 

These statistics cover only about onc-fourtli of the total number of 
graduates, biit they represent pretty accurately the general tendpucies so 
far as our observation has gone. It is, therefore, probably quite within 
the truth to say that 50 per cent of Northern born college men come South 
to work among the masses of their people, at a personal sacrifice and bit- 
ter ctjst which fewi)eople realize; that nearly 90 per cent of the Soutiiern 
born graduates instead of seeking that personal freedom and broader intel- 
lectual atmosphere which their training has led them in some degree to 
conceive, stay and labor and wait in the midst of their black neighbors 
and relatives. 



FIFTH ANNUAL COXFEUKNCE 



15 



9. Education of Women. From the first the institutions of iiijiiier train- 
in.U" fonntlod in the South were, Avitii few exceptions, open to f?irls jis well 
as l)oys. Naturally fewer j^irls entered, but, nevertlieless, a considerahle 
number— over 250-rthrouj>hout the country have finished a collef?e course. 
Of the larger Negro colleges only liiiicolu ami P.iddl.' do nm iidniit girls. 
The women graduates are as follows: 

Women Graduatks from Collkcjes. 

(Not Including Graduates of '99.) 



01)erlin 55 

Shaw....'.".' ."" 21 

Paul (iuinn IH 



Atlanta 

Southland 

Rust 

Claflin 

Philander Smith. 
Iowa Wesleyan... 
Univ. of Kansas... 

Cornell 

Geneva 

Leland 

U. Iowa U 

Idaho 

Bates 

Clarke 

Straight 

Branch. Ark 

Mt. Holyoke 

Total women. 



8 
8 
7 
(5 
5 
4 



Fisk HI 

Wilbertorce 19 

Knoxville 10 

Howard 8 

Ontral Tennessee.. 7 

Livingstone 6 

New Orh-ans 5 

Roger Williams 5 

Berea 4 



H Univ. of Michigan 

.-5 Wittenberg 

2 Welleslev 

1 Butler 

1 Adrian 

1 McKendree 

1 Va. Nor. and Coll.. 

1 Allen 

1 Paine Institute 

1 N'assar 

1 



3 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 



Total men 2.079 



If we arrange tliem according to the years of graduation we have; 
College-Bkei) Womkx. hv Ykar of Gkadfation. 



1850 


I 


18.51 


1 


1858.. 

1<S55 

1856 


2 

"l 

2 


1860 


.8 


1861 


1 


1862 . 
1864 


1 
2 


1865 


2 


1868 


. 1 


1869 1 


1870 . 


4 


1871. 


1 




Total 



1872. 

1873.. 

1874 . 

1875 

1876., 

1877., 

1878., 

1879. 

1880. 

1881. 

1882. 

1888 

1884. 

1885. 



2 
8 
2 
.5 
4 
8 
8 
9 
18 
4 
2 
6 
7 
8 



1B86 ... 


7 


1887 


10 


1888 ... 


9 


1889 


10 


1890 


14 


1891 


15 


1892 


.. 12J 


1898 


. . 13 


1894 .... 


9 


1895 


14 


1896 ... 


16 


1897 


12 


1898 


14 



Class Unk. 8 
252 



16 



THE COLLtGE-BREl) NEGHO 



Before the war ten women irraduated. as far as we have been able to 
ascertain; from 18HI to 1809. thirty-six; from l.s«u to 1889, seventy-six ; 
I89<) to 1898, one hundred and nineteen. 

The rapid increase of colle«re-bred women in later years is noticeable, 
and the present tendency is toward a still larg-er proj)ortion of women. 
Twenty-tliree per cent of the coIle<^e students of Howard, Atlanta. Fisk 
and Shaw were women in the sch<x»T year of 1898-9^. The economic stress 
will probably forc^' more of the young men into work before they get 
through college and leave a greater chance for the training of daughters. 
A tendency in this direction is noticeable in all tiie colleges and if it results 
in more higlily trained mothers it will result in great good. Of UK) college- 
bred women reporting their conjugal condition, one-half had l>een married ^ 
against nearly seventy per cent of tlie men. 

It. Oroipaiioits. The most interesting question, and in niany respects 
the crucial question to l)e asked concerning college-bred Xegroes. is: Do- 
they earn a living? It lias been intimated inore than once that the higher 
training of Xegroes has resulted in sending into the world of workmen 
who can find nothing to do .suital)le to their talents. Now and then there 
comes a rumor of a colored college man woi'king at menial service, etc. 
Fortunately the returns as to occupations of college-bred Negroes are 
quite full — nearly sixty per cent of the total number of graduates. 

This enables us to reach fairly probable conclusions as to the occupa- 
tions of college-bred Negroes. Of 1,812 persons reporting, there were: 



Teachers ^.^{} 

Clergymen lfi-8^,i 

Physicians, etc ' 6.8%: 

Students o.6% 

Lawyers 4.7% l 

In Government service -i.O%j — 

In Business.., 8.(5% — 

Farmers and Artisans., 2.7%' — 
Editors, Secretaries 

and Clerks 2.4% — 

Miscellaneous ! -■'^"-^ 



Over half are teachers, a sixth are preachers, another sixth are students 
and professional men; over 6 per cent are farmers, artisans and mer- 
chants, and 4 per cent are in government service. In detail the occupa- 
tions are as follows: 

Occupations ok C^oi^LEtiE-BREi) Men. 

Teachers: 

19 



Presidents and Deans... 

Teachers of Music 7 

Professors, Principals and 
Teachers 675 



Total... 701 



FIFTH ANNUAL CONFERENCK 17 

Ci.ergymkn: 

Bisliop 1 

CliMplains. U. S. Army 2 

Missi(iii;iri(^s 9 

Prisidiiiii' Killers 12 

J^reaclRTs litT rntal...2L'l 

Phystctans, etc.: 

Doctors of Medicine 7(i 

Dnitriiists 4 

D.Mitists 8 Total... 83 

Students 74 

Lawyers H2 

Civiii Service : 

IT. S. Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary 1 

U. S. ('onsul 1 

U. S. Deputy Collector 1 

U. S. Gauffer 1 

I'. S Postmaster 2 

r. S. Clerks 44 

State Ciyil Service 2 

City Civil Service 1 Total... 58 

BusiNE-ss Mex: 

Merchants, etc 30 

Maiiauers 13 

Real Estate Dealers 4 Total... 47 

• Farmers 2«i 

Ci-ERKs AND Secretaries: 
Secretaries of National 

Societies 7 

Clerks, etc 15 Total... 22 

Artisans 9 

Kditors 9 

Miscellaneous 5 

These figures illustrate vividly the function of the coUege-hred Kegro. 
He is, as he ought to he, the group leader, the man who sets the ideals of 
the community where lie lives, directs its tliought and heads its social 
movements. It need liardly he argued that the Negro people need social 
leadership more than most groups; they have no traditions to fall hack 
upon, no long estaV)lished customs, no strong family ties, no well defined 
social classes. All these thin.irs must he slowly and painfully evolved. 
The preacher was even hefore the war the group leader of the Negroes 
and the church their greatest social institution.* Naturally tiiis preacher 
was ignorant and often immoral, and the prol)lem of replacing the older 
type hy hetter educated men has heen a difficult one. Hoth l)y direct work 
and hy indirect influence on other preachers and on congregations, the 
college-hred preacher has an opportunity for reformatory work and moral 
inspiration, the value of which cannot he overestimated. The report of 

*Cf. The A'eu) World, December, IttuO. article on -Keligion of American Negro." 



18 



THE COLLKGE-BRED NEGRO 



the Atlanta Conference oil ''Some Efforts of American Neprroes for their 
own Social Betterment" shows the character of some of this work. 

It has, however, been in the furnishing of teachers that the Negro col- 
lege has found its peculiar function. Few persons realize how vast a work, 
how mighty a revolution has been thus accomplished. To furnish five 
millions and more of ignorant people with teachers of their own race and 
blood, in one generation, was not only a very difficult undertaking, but a 
very important one, in that it placed before the eyes of almost every 
Negro child an attainable ideal. It brought the masses of the blacks in 
contact with modern civilization, made black men the leaders of their 
communities and trainers of the new generation. In this work college- 
bred Negroes were first teachers and then teachers of teachers. And here 
it is that the broad culture of college work has been of peculiar value. 
Knowledge of life and its wider meaning, has been the point of the Negro's 
deepest ignorance, and the sending out of teachers whose training has not 
been merely for bread winning l)nt also for human culture has been of 
inestimable value in the training of these men. 

In earlier years the two occupations of preacher and teacher were prac- 
tically the only ones open to the black college graduate. Of later years a 
larger diversity of life among his people has opened new avenues of 
employment. The following statistics of occupations, according to the 
year of graduation, illustrate this partially: 



Occupation. 


Before 
1870 


1870- "79 


'80-'8I 


'85-'89 


'90-'94 

• 


'95-'98 


Total. 


Teachei's 


11) 

O 1 

1 
2 
1 

1 
1 

1 


65 . 
38 

2 

5 


74 

26 

1 

11 


159 

56 

3 

14 


179 
56 

1 
23 


214 
31 

1 
7 


701 


Clerii'vmen 


212 


Kditors 


9 


TjHWvers 


62 


I^T n ti iTiM 1^ pi*<^ 


1 


Miners 

Merchants 








1 


1 

8 
2 

1 

1 

12 

2 

1 
1 
1 
1 


11 
18 


9 
16 


13 
31 

2 

4 


5 

7 


43 


I'll V sic ians 


76 


I )rnp"i>'ists 


4 


Clerks and Secretar's 


"" 


1 


5 


11 


22 


T^. locii t ion ists 





1 


IJ. S Civil Service... 




8 
5 


15 

7 
2 


13 
(5 


2 
6 

1 


50 


Farmers 




26 


Rpal Estate Dealers 




4 


IVTjiti'ons 






1 



9 


Dentists 




1 


1 


1 


3 








1 


M issionai'ies 




1 '^ 
: 3 

! 1 

] 




1 
14 


2 
53 

!.... 


9 


S t n (1 p M t s 




4 


74 


T*ri !i \ i*v< 






3 


(^\t\' (Mvil Kppviop 






1 




• 1 


Kfjif*' (Mvil Sprviop 






2 
1 





2 


liihrMi'in.im 


1 


i 






1 


Tailors 




....... 1 




1 
1 
1 
1 


1 


l^i'ji n<>"h t smell 




1 


1 


1 


1 


y\ otpl-work 


1 


1 


' 


I 1 


Carpenters 


1 


."".. ."..J 




: 1 



FIFTH ANNI'AL COXFKRENCE 19 

Tilt' Idi.uth (if sorvico in tlif various occ-upatioiis siuiws soiiietliiii^: <>t" tlu' 
character i)f these workers: 

Length of Servkk at Prksext Oocitpatiox. 

Under I year 22 

1 year, less than 2 (iH 

'' ;5 HI 

" 4 m 

•• 5 56 

" 6 o4 

" 7 H3 

" 8 48 

'' 9 23 

" 10 25 

'' 12 49 

'^ 15 m 

" 20 35 

'' 25 24 

" 30 9 

" 40 4 

1 



2 years 


b I 

1 


3 


(fc 


fci 


4 


ik 




6 


a 


V • 


6 


t,i 


LI, 


7 


ic 


lb 


8 


ii 


ii 


9 


i b 


ib 


10 


il 


bb 


12 


ib 


11 


15 


a 


a 


20 


ih 


b( 


25 


iC 


bb 


30 


u 


bb 


50 


and 


over 



Total reporting 623 

12. Cluinye in Occupation. A study of present and previous occupation 
gives a still deeper insight into the pi'ohlem of work. For instance, the 
following number of persons have had but one occupation: they 
began as teachers and are still teaching, or as preachers and are still 
preaching: 

Persons who Have IS'kvkk Changed Occupations. 

Teachers 315 In Business T 

Clergymen lOfi Editors 3 

Lawyers 26 Artisans 3 

Physicians 24 U. S. Civil Service 3 

Students 15 Clerks and Secretaries.. 3 

Farmers 7 Dentists 3 

Hotel-work 1 

Let us now add to tliese such persons as have changed occupations once. 
In the following table the period of study necessary in preparing fdr a 
profession is not considered a different occupation : 



20 



THE COLLEGE-BRED NEGRO 






< 

a* 















p:^ 


iJ-i 


^N 


K 






s 


-?^ 


;? 


5 


■/. 




y. 


c 










-J. 


^ 
^ 


•X, 


X 


c^ 


k'. 


, 


o 


^" 


T 


^ 


se 


•f 


s 


^ 


h— 1 


/-^ 




M 


c 


C^ 


■1 






<; 


^1 




< 


D 


r"- 



f, 



H 
a? 



o 



,ainj.iocla}j 


-ft;;— :^: ?^ 'M — 


t- 
X 






t^ 




* 


1 


o 

a. 
c 

X 

> 


•>IJOAV 


— 





— 






— 


— 






• — ■ 


--= — 


t- 


•uo.i:jHj^ 




— 


























— 




— 


•SUUS14.IY 




^1 ! 




— : 


— : 












1- 


i:^ 




-/. ^ 


--C 


•s;si4U9a 






c5^ 




;-: 


-: 




n 


oi 


•.Cm. IV 

■s a 




- 














- 


•saojipa 




n 








- 










•.; 




KCC 


?s 


•sae^AVB^ 






M — : 
















I- tc 


^ 


SUBTO 
-isA'qj 


- 
























— z*" 


^ 


•aoiAjas 
T!-MO-sa 


"ZL 













M T? : 






t~-TC 


o 
5<l 




c<ic: P 




- 




: 








- : 


-t- t- 


T^ 


•SA'.Odg 
pUB 


— t- 




5 





— 






jqrc 


O 


■S.I8LU.lUj^ 




•^ 














h i 




t~ 1- 

1 


-t> 


•s^iiapniS 








: - 


: — 




— 




:|£ 


- 


— : 


»T k* 




'uaui 
-AJr^.oi.) 




':x 


: is 








•M — : 




?55 


- 




•s.TaqoBt\L 


""'::: 


1- 


j'^-^^^'- 


:i- ^> :• 


— re 


1 

t-i- 
zc — 




2 

Oi 

3 

o 

o: 

X 

P4 


■J 

is 


• ;/ 


: -t 

• ri 

■ 4 


■J 


: '{ 

'• > 

: 1 




: i 

> 
i 

I 


: Of 

: a 
: i 
:< 


X 

/ 


r 


X 

[ ~ 


> 


> 


: X 
/- = 

£ X 

5< 


• o 


3 


' t 


: 





FIFTH AXNIAL (OXFEREN'CE '21 

Many interesting: tliinizs may In- not<'(l in t lit' aitovi' tal>l"- : Fur instance. 
48 lawyers report ; of tiiese 2(5 started on a law citursH jniiiu'djjittjly aftt-r 
graduation, finished it, went to prat-ticiiifi: and are still engaL'-'-d in tiiat 
work. Eleven tanirlit hefoiv readiny: law, two were in l>nsin<-ss, and I'onr 
in other employments, from wliicli tiiey turned to law. Tliere are reser- 
vations to he made, of conrse, in intcrpiftint? these figures: some persons 
report a few inontlis of teaehing as a "previous nceupation." widle others 
ignore it; some have not ehanged occui)ations, ht-eausc heing yi>ung 
urad nates thev have not iiiven tiieir present vocation a suttieient trial. 
Nev.'rthelcss. with care in using, the table has niucli to tt-acii. We find 
that the profession of teaciiing is a stepping-stone to orlier work; 87 per- 
sons were at first teachers, and then changed, 11 l)ecoming lawyers,? 
going into business, 2(i entering the ministry, 12 entering the United States 
civil service, etc. Seven have at various times engaged in menial work, 
usually as porters, waiters, and the like, l)ut all but one man working in a 
hotel have done this only temporarily. It is quite possiiile tiiat others 
who are engaged in such work have on this account sent in no rnp^rts. 
We see in this way that of 7(K) college-bred men over o(M) have immediately 
on graduation found work at which they are still employed. Less than 
2ti0 have turned from a first occupation to a second before finding appar- 
ently permanent employment. 

There are still others who have tried two or three employments. The 
reports of the.se are naturally not as full as the others, through forgetful- 
ness and ti)e natural d-sire not to advertise past failures One college 
man is known to have tried nine different occupations in ten years— but 
tliis is very exceptional. Specimens of the records of some who iiave 
tried several occupations follow: 

Persons who H.wi-; h.vd Skvkr.\l OcorPATioN's SixvRssi vfi.v, 
Pre.sent Occupation. Previous Occupations. 

U. S. Civil Service. Teacher. Merchant, 

U. S. Civil Service. Teacher. Merchant. 

U. S. Civil Service. Lawyer, Teacher. 

U. S. Civil Service. Teacher. Editor. 

Lawyer. Teacher.U.S, Civil Service. 

In Business. Teacher, Clerk. 

In Business. Teacher, Porter, Clerk. 

In Business. Editor, Teacher. 

Dentist. Clerk. Teacher. 

Secretary. Teacher, Clergyman. 

Farmer. Teacher, Carpenter. 

Clergyman. Lawyer,U.S. Civil Service. 

Physician. Teacher, Farmer. 

Artisan. Teacher, Engraver. 



22 THE COLLEaE-BKED XEORO 

16. Group Lei(dersln'p.—Be>iide the regular occupations indicated above, 
college-bred Negroes have been active in literary and pliilanthropic work 
of various kinds. The following cases are especially reported : 

Active work in religious societies 101 

Investing in business enterprises conducted by Negroes .... 48 

Conti ibiiting to Neiiio and otlier newspapers 105 

p^diting anti pulilishing newspapeis 40 

Lectureis 21 

College and student aid 20 

Benevolent club work 9 

Fanning and truck gardening 10 

Nurseries, ori^lianages and homes 12 

Slum, prison and tenii)eranee work 16 

Organized charity lf> 

Kindergarteiis and mothers' nieetings 7 

Buildiniz- associations " 

Hospitals U) 

Savings banks 4 

C'ontrii)Uting to magazines U 

Papers before learned societies 9 

The above represent the principal activities of 450 persons in philan- 
thropic and social lines outside their regular occupations. Mucli of the 
work thus done has been of great benefit, especially in the establishment 
of refuges and hospitals and liusiness enterprises of various sorts. The 
cliaracter of the work done may be gained from some of the following 
reports of social and benevolent activities: 

"One of the founders of the Provident Hospital. Cliicago." 

"Member of the advisory hoard of the St. Louis Orphans" Home." 

"Mem])er of the i)oard of managers of the Home for Aged and Infirm 
Colored Persons. Phihuielphia." 

''Meml)er of tlie l)oard of managers of the Eureka Kducational antl 
Charitable Association of Baltinnne. Md." 

'•One of the founders of McKane Hospital, Savannah, (ia."" Etc., etc. 

17. Politicul Aciicitij. The question of Negro suffrage is bound to call 
for the attention of the Nation for many years to come. The suffrage was 
bestowed upon the freedmen as a measure of defence as well as of justice. 
This action has l)een severely criticized on the ground tliat enfranchised 
ignorance could not and ought not to rule in any community, and that 
Negro suffrage means nothing less than tliis. This is without doubt a 
strong argument— so strong that the Nation is to-day apathetic in the 
(luestional)le legal expedients designed to suppress the Negro vote iii the 
South. Whatever may be said as to the larger aspects of this question, 
certainly in the study of this group of Negroes we have a ciiance to throw 
an interesting side-light on the problem. Here at least we iiave a gro\ip 
that cannot be called ignorant. They are well-trained men. and in the 
testimony of their neighl)ors, teachers and friends, usually honest and 
industrious. Most of these men vote: 



FIFTH ANNTAL ('((NFKHEXUE '2^ 

Number who usually vote '^^X or 7(» \)^^l■ c'-ut. 

Those who usually do not vot<- 2\n or :i() " 

Total "-' 

Of these 45."., or HH per c-ent of thos.- reportiii};, lliink th.'ir vot.'s mi- 

counted. 

If we confine ourselves to the South, wr find : 

Persons wlu. vote H61 or (59 per cut. 

Pei'sons wlio do not vote 159 or M 

Total 52() 

In the North HI per cent vote usually. 

18. Ownership of Proper t;/. It is very ditticult to collect reliable statis- 
tics of property which are not based on actual records. It was not advisa- 
ble, therefore," to ask those to whom reports were sent the am. unit of 
property they were worth, for with the best of motives on the part of those 
answering the resulting figures \v«)uld he largely estimates and personal 
opinion. One kind of property, however, is least of all liable to be 
unknown to persons, or to be ex^^g■gerated in honest reports, and that is 
real estate. Each college-bred Negro was asked, therefore, to state the 
assessed value of the real estate owned by him ; the following table was 
the result of .557 answers: 

Ass?JSSKD Vauf. of Real Estatk. 

Number. Actual Am"t. 

Under $U)() H * lf''>-50 

.§ 1()()-2(K) '^ "^l"- 

2(X)-3(K) 15 •^.»H5. 

H()()-4(X) 10 •I'-'^l^^- 

'' 4Ul)-.5()() 5 IJVI't. 

500-7.50 58 H1.4()0. 

750-1,000 2S 28.H75. 

- l.(H)()-2.0(M) 129 lfi2.2::J(). 

" 2,ltOO-:5,(KM( 73 1.58. 4(K). 

'■'■ 8,000-4.LM)() 42 289,887. 

'' 4,aX»-5,0t)0 18 82.n(M). 

'' 5.(M «)-().(« to 3H 182.275. 

'■ 6.0tK>-7.U)(» 13 75..540. 

" 7,000-8,(MH) 7 .5«..5(K). 

" 8,000-10.()<H) 9 79.H75. 

''10.(HHI-15.O(H) 17 1()1.(HM). 

•• 15,0<Ml-2O.OOO 5 71..550. 

"20,tM)0-25,0<M) 1 21.7(H). 

Own no real estate.. 85 '^• 



,5,57 ii;l.H42.8(>2.5() 

Average per individual 2.411. 



24 THK COLLEGE-BRED NEGRO 

With regard to the 85 who are tabulated as owning no real estate, it is 
not certain tiiat in all eases tiiis is a fact, or tliat some of them may not 
iiavf had property wiiieh thf-y did not wish to ivport. There is no way of 
knowing, of course, how far these six liuiidn-d persons are representative 
of tiie 2.3."51 Xegro graduates. All tilings considered, iiowever, this is 
probably an understatement of the property held, for while many of tiiose 
not i>'porting iield no property, yet most of tliose wiio did r«'port represent 
tin' more recent graduates wlio lia\ c just begun to accumulate, while 
numl)ers of the other graduates witli considerable pioperty could not l)e 
reached. Some who are known to own pro[)erty did not report it. It is, 
therefore, a conservative statement to say tiiat college-bred Negroes in 
the I'nited States own on an average .$2,40(i worth of real estate, assessed 
value. If the assessed value is two-thirds of the I'eal value in most cases 
this represents $3,600 worth of property, market value. To this must be 
added tlie worth of all personal property, so that the average accumula- 
tions of this class may average $5,000 each, or $10.000. (KM) for tiie group. 
Such figures are. of course, mere estimates, but in the light of the testi- 
mony they are plausii)le. 

22. The Future of the Negro College. l^eX us now gather up the scattered 
threads of this social study and seek the lesson whicli the accumulated 
facts liave to teach. We have leai'ned tliat there are in tlie Uniied States 
thirty-four institutions designed especially for Negroes, which give colle- 
giate instruction leading to the bachelor's degree. Beside these, 73 other 
colleges of the land have Negro graduates, so tluit in ;ill we have a record 
of 2.331 Negro graduates of college courses. We iiave studied these 
graduates caiefuily so far as the reports sulnnitted have en;!l)h'd us to. 
They are mostly freedmeu's sons and grandsons wlio have gained this 
training by self-denial and striving. They usually marry lietween the 
ages of 25 and 35, go to work in tlie Soutli at teaching, i)reaching, practic- 
ing tlic professions, or in the civil service or busim^ss life. Here they 
have accumulated property and usually made good citizens and ifuders. 

Several (luestions may in>w be asked: First, Is tlie college tiaining of 
Negroes necessafy? Secondly, If so, how large a proportion of the total 
expenditure for education ought to be devoted to this tniining? Thirdly, 
What curriculum of studies is best suited to yonng Negroes? 

A. Is the college training of Negi'oes necessary? A few opinions of 
prominent men in answer to this query are subjoinetl. They are partly in 
answer to a circular letter sent to a few college presidents. President 
(Tilninn of Johns Hopkins answered that he was too busy to wiite any- 
thing. The Chancellor of the I'niversity of Cieorgia i)roniised to send 
some matter which has not yet reached us. The other letters follow: 



FIFTH ANMAL (OMKKKNi K 25 

"I have never lived South ami my oi)inioii on the ((uestion you ask is noi very valu- 
able. It is. in a wortl, thi«!, that Mr. Warner's i.;oiitention is rit^hl for inost incmhers 
of the race, hut that the way should be ke|>t as wide open as possible for trifled men 
like * * * *_ IJooker \Va9liin£:toii, and many nthers to liave every op|)orlunity 
that any of the N'ortliern or other colles:es can afford. 

I am. very truly yours," J. Sta.m.kv IIm.i,, 

Dec. 10, )900. (President of ("lark Iniversity.) 

"I believe not oidy in common school and industrial eihication for the Nes^roe-s of 
the South, but also in their higher education. The hiijher education is necessary ta 
maintain the standards of the lower. 

Yours truly," GEom;E K. MmLkan. 

Dec. 11, litOO. (President of the State I'niversity of Iowa.) 

"I believe fully in the hisrher education of every man and womati whose character 
and ability is such as to make such training jjossible. There are relatively fewer of 
such persons among the Negroes than among the Anglo-Saxons, but for all of ihc-f 
the higher training is just as necessary and just as etfectlve as for any one else. 

For the great body of the Negroes the industrial and moral tr:iining already so well 
given in certain .schools seems to me to offer the greatest hope for the future. 

Very truly yours," D.wm S. .Toruan. 

Dec. 14, UKK). (President of Leland Stanford .lunior I'liiversity.) 



"Your circular of December .stli comes duly to hand. In response I would say that 
in my judgment no race or color is entitled to mono])olize the benefits of the higher 
education. If any race is entitled to be specially favored in this respect I should say 
it is the one that has by the agency of others been longest deprived thereof. 

The above you are at liberty to jiresent as my sentiments. 

Yours cordially," William F. Waiuje.v, 

Dec. 13, li)(X). (President of Boston University.) 



"In rei)ly to your request of December ath, I would say that it seems to me that the 
collegiate or higher education is not a special favor to be granted to men on the 
ground of race, family, or any sueii minor consideration. The only condition for the 
receiving of a college education should be the ability to a|)preciate and to use it. 
Human nature is substantially the same everywhere. It should be the glory of our 
country to afford to all her young men and women who crave the broadest culture 
and who have the spirit and ability to ac(iuire it, the ami)lest oij]>orlunity for devel- 
opment. L(ioking ;u it more specifically, I can see that the general uplifting of our 
Negro population requires a prober percentage of college-bred Negro leaders. 

Yours sincerely," (Jkohuk ('. ("hase, 

Dec. IT. 1900. (President of Bates College. ) 

"You ask for my opinion in regard to the desirableness of higher training for the 
Negroes, het me begin my statement by saying that I have the utmost faith in the 
management of the Atlanta I'niversity and several other institutions for the training 
of the Negro in the South. I will. however, candidly say that in my judgment there are 
a great many of the Negroes whom it is not worth while to guide through a course of 
university training. I think that is true also of the white race, but in the present 
condition it is i)eculiarly true with regard to colored people. My idea wouUl be that 
all the training that the colored man is capable of thoroutrhly mastering should be 
given him. but that in the higher departments of learning, like political economy and 
history, the ancient classics and the natural sciences, only selected men should be 



26 THE COLLEGE-r.KED XEGRO 

given the fullest opportunities. I have the highest confidence that such training as 
is given at Hampton and at Tuskegee. largely manual and industrial, is of the greatest 
imi)()rtance for the Negroes and is to be tlie means of fitting the race a generation or 
two hence, to enter more fully into the more abstract and jjhilosophical studies. I do 
not know that I have matle myself perfectly clear, but in a general way I should say 
the multiplication of universities of the higher sort is not desirable in comparison 
with the multiplication of training schools for all the trades and manual activities. 
With best wishes, very sincerely yours," Fkanklix Carter. 

Dec. 12. mn ( President of Williams College. ) 



"Teachers and leaders need more than a common school education. This is as true 
of Xegroes as of whites. 

Where shall they obtain a liberal education? With few exceittions. I tliiiik it should 
be in the Southern colleges. The color line is so sharply drawn in Xorthern colleges 
(unfortunately) that a Negro is at great disadvantage, not in studies, but socially. 
************** 

Very truly yours," George Harris, 

Dec. 12. 19(X). (President of Amherst College.) 



"I believe in the Southern Negro college and the higher education of Negroes. 
*«#****♦***** 

Very truly yours," .Joseph Swaix. 

Dec. 10, 19(X). (President University of Indiana.) 

"The problem is such a difficult one that I have been compelled largely to rely on 
the judgment of my friends. My opinions are chiefly taken from the experience of 
Mr.William H. Baldwin, now president of the Long Island Railroad, and are. therefore, 
hardly such as I ought to put in a form for quotation. 

Sincerely yours," Aktihh T. Hadi.kv, 

Dec. 10. 1900. (President of Yale University.) 



"I am like many others greatly interested in the question of education of the Ne- 
groes. There seems to me to be a place for the college properly so-called which shall 
teach a certain number, who may be leaders of their race in the South, as preachers 
and advanced teachers. At the same time I have much symi)athy with Mr. Booker T. 
Washington's idea, that a large proportion of them should be educated for industrial 
pursuits. Yours truly." .Tames B. Ax<vei.i.. 

Dec. 10. l'J09. (President of the T'niversity of Miohisan.) 



"How, then, are the teachers, the preachers, the physicians for the colored race of 
the South to be provided, unless the South has institutions of the hisrher education, 
servins: the Negro, fitting him for these higher positions? We know very well that the 
Negro, as he rises in the social scale, will live in better houses and follow better trades, 
and, in general, be industrially and financially elevated: and we should not for a mo- 
ment criticize tlie work which is going on throughout the South, in several institu- 
tions which Boston interest and sympathy have furthered. 

'•But there is another essential thins: — namely, that the teachers, preachers, physi- 
cians, lawyers, engineers, and superior mechanics, the leaders of industry, throughout 
the Negro communities of the South, should be trained in suiterior institutions. If 
any expect that the Negro teachers of the South can be adeijuately educated in pri. 
mary schools or grammar schools or industrial schools pure and simple. I can only 
say in reply that that is more than we can do at the North with the white race. The 



FIFTH ANNUAL fONFERENCK '2, 

only way to liave good primary schools and s;raminar scliouls in Massaitluisells is 
lo have liigli and normal schools and colleges, in which thf liiirhcr icachcrs are 
trained. It must be so throut?liont the Sonih : the Xesjcro race need al).-<oliitely these 
higher facilities of education." Cuaui.ks W. Ki.iot, 

(President of Harvard ('ulict^'e. ) 
(In a speech at Trinity Church, Uoston, I'Y'li. "JH, l.SiKJ.) 



"The liigher education is the last tiling that the indiviilual jiuijil reaches: it is 
what he looks toward as the end. Hut from the point of view nf the teachers, from 
the point of view of the educational system, the higher education is the very source 
and center and beginning of it all; and if tliis is wanting, the whole must collapse. 
Take away the higher education, and you cannot maintain the level of the lower; 
it degenerates, it becomes corrui)t, and you get nothing but pretentiousness and 
superficiality as the residuum. In order to maintain the lower education which 
must be given to the South,;you must have a few well-equipj>ed institutions of higher 
learning." \Vii,i.i.\m I), HvnE. 

(President of Howdoin College. ) 

(In a speech at Trinity Church. Boston, Feb. 28. 1896." 



"It gives me great pleasure to meet you. I have heard of the great work that this 
school has done in the higher education of the colored peojjle. I am glad to .see you, 
and congratulate you on the fad of getting higher education. It is sjood for you to 
get lower education, and then still better to get higher education. Your people have 
lived for two or three hundred years in this country, and have learned the methods 
of white people, and, as I said in Washington, while speaking on this subject, you 
haN-e tjie same mind tliat the white peojjle have. Now, as it is very necessary for 
white people to study Latin and (Jreek, so it is very necessary for you. If you lived 
in Egypt, Abyssinia, or Aral)ia. it would not be so necessary to study Latin and 
Greek, but people who live in tiie United States, France, England, Italy, or (Jermany. 
are greatly helped by these studies. 

There are a great many people who think colored people should not have "the 
higher education. Xow, 1 would not discourage the study of mechanics and indus- 
trial education, but it is very im])ortant to study Greek and Latin. Some people say 
it is better to know how to work than to study Greek and Latin, because work is 
practical ; but nothing is more practical than getting an insight into the civilization 
of which we form a part, and into the motives of the peojile among whom we live. 

Now, it is a very neces.sary thins that the hisrher education should be opened to 
every part of the whole community. For the coloi-ed peojile to be -self-ilirecting. they 
must have higher education. They will be appreciated for the good they can do, and 
will be respected because they are helping the common civilization. We shonid 
understand also the art of invention. That is what this Atlanta E.xposition is show- 
ing. The colored man is not always g(jinsr to be the person who draws water and 
cuts wood; he is going to help on with civilization. He is going to be up on all the 
difficult (piestions. He is going to study mathematics, sciences and the languages. 

And you must not be misled by the opposition to the higher education. But yoa 
should uphold it in your homes and among your people until many more are seeking 
it." Wii.i.i \M T. H AKiiis. 

(V. S. Commissioner of Education.) 

(In an addre.ss to the studeius of Atlanta I'niversity. Oct. '2(», 1M95.) 



28 THE COLT.EOE-P.RED NECRO 

It seems fair to assume from these and other letters that the conserva- 
tive public opinion of the liest classes in America believe that there is a 
distinct place for the Negro college designed to give higher training to the 
more gifted meml>ers of the race; that leaders thus trained ai-e a great 
necessity in any community and in any group. On the other hand, there 
is considerable difference of opinion probably as to how large this "Tal- 
ented Tenth" is — some speaking as thougli it were a negligible quantity, 
others as though it might be a very lai-ge and important body. 

The opinions of some other persons ought perhaps to be added to the 
above. First, there is the ahnost unbroken line of testimony of the heads 
of Negro colleges; this is. of course, interested testimony, and yet it is of 
some value as evidence. A man who left a chair in the Inivt-rsity of 
Michigan to go South and teach Negroes before the war eiidid, wrote after 
twenty-five years' experience in college work: 

'■By this experiment certainly one thing has been settled: the ability of 
a goodly number of those of the colored race to receive what is called a 
liberal education. A person who denies that sliows a lack of intelligence 
on tlie suliject. 

•'But the possibility granted, the utility of tliis education is doubted 
both as to individual and race. First, then, as to tlie individual, aside 
from the mere mercantile advantage derived from education, does not the 
hunger of the Negro mind for knowledge i)rove its right to know, its 
capacity siiow that it should be filled, its longing that it should be satis- 
fied? And as to the race at large, does it not need within it men antl 
women of education? How would it be with us of the white race if we 
had none such with us — no educated ministers, doctors, lawyers, teachers, 
professors, writers, thinkers? All the preaching to eight millions of col- 
ored people in the United States is done by colored preachers, with the 
merest exceptions here and tliere. Do these Negroes not need preparation 
for their vastly responsible calling? 

"The entire work of instruction in tlie colored pul)lic schools of the 
Soutii is done l»y colored teachers. These teachers cannot be prepared in 
tlie white scliools and colleges of the South. Where, tlien. shall they be 
prepared if not in special higiier institutiims of learning open to tliem? 
Wiiat is to become of the millions of "colored people in the United States? 
Who are to be their leaders? Doubtless persons of their own race. Do 
they need less preparation for their calling than do members of the white 
race for theirs? Is not tlieir task even more tiitficult? Have they not 
questions of greater intricacy to solve? Did not Moses when leading ex- 
slaves out of Egypt need special wisdom? Are not tlie colored pe<iple of 
to-day 'perishing for lack of knowledge?' 

"But the objector will say, Wliy have these long courses, these colleges 
for colored people? AVoukl not shorter courses be as well or even better? 
The following is my belief on this point, after twenty-five years of thought 
and experience: If the Negro is equal to the white num in lieredity and 
environment, he needs an ecjual chance in education; if he is superior, he 
can get on witli less; if he is inferior, lu> irmhIs more. Tlie education 



FIFTH ANN! "AL ('ONFKKKXCK 29 

reqiiirfcl is not simi)ly tli:it of hooks. Imt of life in ("liristian lioinns. such 
asaiv supplied in nt'aiiy all our niissionaiy schools for that people and 
of relijiion tlirouiih the Christian churcii and its inthuMicM's."" 

The President of another Ne<j:ro colle^^e said in lsi>H: 

"To ima^nne that the Nejrro can safely do without any of the institutions 
or instrumentalities which were essential to our own advancement is to 
assume that the Neuro is superior to the white man in mental capacity. 
To deprive Iiini of jiuy of these advantajres, which he is capahle of usin^i 
would be to tlefraud ourselves, as a nation and a Christian chureh. <>f all 
the added power which his developed manhood should i)rin;r to us. It 
does not seen) to be necessary in this audience to discuss the proposition 
that intelligence is powt-r.and that the only road to intelligence is through 
mental discipline conducted under moral influences. 

"Wiiat liave we been doing for our brotiier in black to iielp liim in hi.s 
life struggle? The work began somewhat as in the days of our fathers. 
The John Harvards and the Elihu Yales of Pilgrim history found their 
counterparts in Gen.'fal Fisk, Dr. Phillips, Seymour Straight and Hol- 
brookCliamberlain. who founded colleges, even before it was possil)le for 
many to enter upon the college course, but with a wise forecast for the 
nei'd tliat would eventually come and is now actually upon us." 

These two extracts sufficiently represent the almost unanimous opinion 
of the presidents and teachers in Negro colleges that this training is a 
success and necessity. 

From a careful consideration of the facts, and of such testimony as has 
been given, the following pi'opositions seem clear: 

1. The great mass of the Negroes need common school and manual 
training. 

2. There is a large and growing demand for industrial and tech ideal 
training, and trade schools. 

•6. There is a distinct demand for the higher training of persons 
selected for talent and character to be leaders of thought and 
missionaries of culture among the masses. 
4. To supply this demand for a higher training there ought to be 

maintained several Negro colleges in the South. 
."). The aim of these colleges should »)e to supply thoroughly trained 
teaciiers. preachers, professional men, and captains of industry. 
We come, therefore, to the second (juery: 

B. How large a proportion of the total expenditure for Negro education 
should go to college training? 

This resolves itself into the practical (juestion : How many colleges are 
needed? And here it is certain, first of all, that 34 Negro colleges are 
entirely too many. Tliere are about 750 students in these colleges. Perhaps 
400 of these should under strict requirements continue a college course. 
All these could easily be accommodated in eight, or at the nn)si. ten col- 
leges, and then leave ample room for growth. The ideal of c(. liege train- 
ing in the South should V)e the small local college with 60 to 100 student*, 
who can come directly in contact with teachers and receive all the bene- 



30 THE COLLEGE-BRED NEGRO 

fits of iiistnu'tiDii and fulhii'«> whicli the snialK-ollHue afTords. Accoi'dinp: 
to this it would be well tu iiavc Neuro coneires distributed somewhat as 
follows: 

1 in Washington, D. C (Howard). 

1 in Virtrinia (I'nion). 

1 in the Caroliiias (Siiaw or Biddle). 

1 in the Eastern Gulf States (Atlanta). 

1 ill the Central (»ulf States (Talladega or Rust). 

1 in Louisiana (Straitiht, Lelaiid or New Orh'ans). 

1 in Texas (Paul Quinn or Wiley). 

1 in Tennessee (Fisk). 

1 in Missouri (Lincoln). 
It seems certain that tliese colleges (with possilily one additional insti- 
tution), together with the two Northern schools. Lincoln and \Vill)erforce, 
would amply supply the legitimate demand for the higher training of 
Negroes for a generation or more. This would nu'an that the college de- 
partments of 22 institutions l)e closed and that the college work be con- 
centrated. This would entail Jnxt little change, for the ten largest colleges 
already have nearly two-thirds of the students, while tiic other third is 
scattered among 24 institutions. The smaller colleges would thus be left 
to develop as normal and industrial schools, as indeed most of them are 
already, the college departments lieing unimportant adjuncts. It is only 
in some such way that Negro college training can be placed on a firm 
basis and escape some of the deserved criticisms tiiat have been aimed at 
it. This criticism is in reality a criticism of poor ecjuipment, low standards 
and lack of thorough work rather than of higher training properly con- 
ducted. Concentration of effort will remove most of these blots. Tlie 
great hindrance to a movement towards conctMitration is sectarianism in 
schools. The different (U.Miominations have unfoi'tunately iilanted schools 
in clo.se proximity to one another, regardless of the logic or ethics of the 
situation. Only conference and a large-minded .'■pirit of co-operation can 
now bring about the proper division of labor among these institutions. 

The cost of college training should also l)e considered here. Tlie income 
and expenditures of the Atlanta University. wliich is simply a high school 
and college, is perhaps as typical an instance as can l)e f<tuiul : 

Income ok Atlanta Univeksity. 

Year. Total Income. Receipts from Students* 

lSfl4-y5 $ 38.i»ia 99 § (i.9S(i 00 

1S9.J-96 UMS>< ■in S.9T2 ti-') 

1896-97 41,089 12 9.4M7 SI 

1897-9H 38.719 93 9,4(X) 32 

1S9H-99 3(5.770 .S3 • 9.54.', 37 

1899-1 9(H) 39,989 96 9.(586 92 



Total, 6 years, .$235.17196 $54,078 2t) 



'■'This includes rash receipts and receipts from extra work, .\bout f<.5 per cent to !ti) per I'ent of 
this is in casli. Receipts from regular work are not included. They iimoiint to Sl.cuo to $].-2W per 
vear. 



FIFTH ANM AI, COXFKREXCE 



31 



Tilt' total fXpt'iisr (>r sciidinii- a Imy 1 liioii^^li t lie wliolf courso of Atlanta 
University is about $i(;{:{':,, or tlifonj;!! tlif colleffe course alone .t.",H:ii^. This 
is littl<', if any. more expensive t iian edueat in pa boy for a trade, iven if tbf' 
longt.-r time is taken into account, forthe industrial training;- is nat urally very 
expensive. Hampton, wit li (iix) students, spends about $170,(MMi a year, or 
.t28() per student. Atlanta, with 8(Ki students, spends !|!4o,(HK) per year, or 
.$138':, I)er student. When the diirerence in time recpiiretl is adjusted the 
cost of the two sorts of train inij: is i\ot nuiteriall.v difVerent. A very con- 
siderable part of this expense, however, is i)orne by the students them- 
selves.* 



Institution. 



Atlanta 

Hampton 

Harvard 

University of Pennsyivaiiia. 

Williams 

Univ(>rsitv of Chicatro 

Univeisity of Vii\u-inia 

Ohio State University 

Adelhert ("olleye ." 

Amherst College 

University of Georgia 

Mercer University, Ga 



pjxptMise, ! C'ontril)Ute(.l by Stuilents. 

1 899-1 9(X). 



In Cash. 



•t 89.98!) 96 
\".2m 10 
1,887. 878 <K) 
789,751 48 
108,81.") 89 
7.')0,()00 (M) 
141.2(U 01 
21)7.178 18 



104.(H)() 00 
47,094 (53 
20,000 00 



$ 8,212 4 7 

""B78',99.5"iKV' 

8()8.49() 17 

h9.299 8() 

300.0(10 00 

72.()2.") ;".:< 

84.884 79 

2.^% of Kxp. 

4.").0(MI 00 

2,7()r) 00 

10.000 (K) 



In Work. 

^ 2.(574 4.5 
.'>3,.507 80 



It thus seems clear tiiat Negro students in both colleges and industrial 
schools pay nearly a third of their expenses in work and cash and thus are 
not charity scholars to a much larger extent than the stuiieuts in most 
white institutions. 

Finally we come to the (jtiery : 

C. What curriculiun of college stiulies is best suited to young Negroes? 

Little careful work has l)een done in the direction of ascertaining what 
improvements in the Negro college course are needed. Nor is this strange. 
So much time and energy is consumed in collecting funds and defending 
principles that there is little leisure left presidents for internal adjust- 
ment and development Tlie exposition and comi)arison of college courses, 
made on pages 10 to 11. sliow ol)vious faults. The older New England 
college curriculum of forty years ago still holds in the Southern institu- 
tions with little change. This should be remedied. A large place should 
be made for English, History and Natural Science in most curricula at 
the expense of some other studies. Various other changes might obviously 
be made. All this work can easily be done when the existence problem of 
these struggling institutions is nearer solution. 



- From reiM)rt.s .sent from the various institutions. Tlie income and t'xpen-- u>r ImnihI i« indiKled 
at Ilanipion and .Vtlanta, and possiiily at other ini-titwiions. 



32 THE COLLEGE-BRED NEGRO 

The central nutli whicJi tliis study teaches to the candid mind is the 
success of hijrher education under the limitations and difficulties of the 
past. To be sure that training can be criticized justly on many points: 
its curriculum was not the best; many persons of slight ability wei'e 
urged to study Algel»ra before they had mastered Arithmetic, or German 
before they knew English ; quantity rather than quality was in some 
eases sought in the graduates, and above all.thei-e \yas a tendency to urge 
men into the professions, particularly the ministry, and .to overlook busi- 
ness' and the mechanical trades. All these charges brought against the 
higher training of Negroes in the past, have much (jf truth in them. The 
defects, however, lay in the application of the principle, not in the prin- 
ciple; in poor teaching and studying rather than in lack of need for col- 
lege-trained men. Courses need to be changed and improved, teachers 
need to be better equipped, students need more careful sifting. With sucli 
reform there can be no reasonable doubt of the continued and growing 
need for a training of Negro youth, the chief aim of which is culture 
rather than bread-winning. Nor does this plain demand have anything 
in it of opposition or antagonism to industrial training — to those sclu)ols 
which aim directly at teaching the Negro to work with his own hands. 
Quite the contrary is the case, and it is indeed unfortunate that the often 
intemperate and exaggerated utterances of some advocates of Negro edu- 
cation have led the public mind to conceive of the two kinds of education 
as opposed to each other. They are rather sui)plementary and mutually 
helpful in the great end of solving the Negro problem. We need thrift 
and skill among the masses, we need thought and culture among the 
leaders. As the editor has had occasion to say before: 

"In a scheme such as I have outlined, providing the rudiments of an 
education for all, industrial training for the numy, and a college course 
for the talented few, I fail to see anything contradictoiy or antagonistic. 
I yield to no one in advocacy of the recently popularized notion of Negro 
industrial training, nor in admii'ation for the earnest men who emphasize 
it. At tiie same time, 1 insist that its widest realization will l)ut increase 
the demand for college-bred men — for thinkers to guide the workers. 
Indeed, all who are working for the uplifting of the American Negro have 
little need of disagreement if they but remember this fundamental and 
unchangeable truth : tite object of all true edncution is not to make moi carpen- 
ters — it is to make carpenters men." 



5 27 



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