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COLLIER'S 

NEW 

ENCYCLOPEDIA 

A LOOSE-LEAF AND SELF- REVISING 
REFERENCE WORK 



IN TEN VOLUMES W ITH 515 ILLUSTRATIONS 
AND NINETY- SIX MAPS 



iiV/ ^ 




VOLUME FOUR 



P. F. COLLIER Gf SON COMPANY 

New York 



Copyright 1921 
By P. F. CoLUEB & Son Company 

MANUFACTURED IN U. S. A. 



GENERAL EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD AND 
CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

DR. WILLIAM A. NEILSON, Chairman 

PRESIDENT SMITH COLLEGE, NORTHAMPTON, MASS. 

REAR ADMIRAL AUSTIN' M. KNIGHT 

FORMER PRESIDENT OF NAVAL WAR COLLEGE, NEWPORT, R. I. 

DR. JOSEPH H. ODELL 

DIRECTOR, SERVICE CITIZENS OF DELAWARE, VVIL.M INGTO.'i, DEL. 

DR. KENNETH C. M. SILLS 

PRESIDENT BOWDOIN COLLEGE, BRUNSWICK, ME. 

DR. HENRY S. CANBY 

EDITOR LITERARY REVIEW, NEW YORK, .\. V. 

DR. W. T. COUNCILMAN 

DEPARTMENT OF P.\THOLOGY, HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL, BOSTON, MASS. 

DR. CH.VRLES F. THWING 

PRESIDENT WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY, CLEVELAND, OHIO 

DR. EDWIN GREENLAW 

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA, CHAPEL HILL, N. C. 

DR. J. H. KIRKLAND 

CHANCELLOR VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY, NASHVILLE, TENN. 

PROFESSOR IRVING FISHER 

YALE UNIVERSITY, NEW H.WEN. CONN 

EDITOR IN CHIEF 
FILANCIS J. REYNOLDS 

FORMER REFERENCE LIBRARIAN, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS 

MANAGING EDITOR 
ALLEN L. CHURCHILL 

ASSOCIATE EDITOR THE NEW INTERNATIONAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 
J. W. DUFFIELD 

EDITORIAL STAFF OF THE NEW YORK TIMES 

ALBERT SONNICHSEN 

ECONOMIST, W.\R CORRESPONDENT 

T. C. SHAFFER 

PROFESSOR OF HISTORY 

B. H. GOLDSMITH 

EDITOR, ECONOMIST 

BENEDICT FITZP.VTRICK 

FORMERLY LITERARY EDITOR OF THE LONDON MAIL 

C. E. MELOY SMITH 

DREXEL INSTITUTE, CONSULTING ENGINEER 

E. D. PIERSON 

EDITOR, CORRESPONDENT LONDON TIMES 

J. B. GIBSON 

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY 

J. L. FRENCH 

EDITOR, AUTHOR 



653195 



List of Illustrations 



Paris — Colored Frontispiece 



Opposite page 52 
Buckingham Palace, England 
King George Going to Parliament 
Windsor Castle, England 
Esquimau With Harpoon 
Esquimaux With Sled 
Douglas Fir 
Fjord, Norway 
FiuME, on the Adriatic 

Opposite page 1U8 
Seal Fishery 
Boston Fishing Boat 
Tuna Fishing 
Sardine Fishery 
A Catch of Herring 
Oyster Schooners 
Flammenwerfer 
Flax Spinning 
Florida 
Rheims Cathedral, France 

Opposite page 260 
Battlefield in France 
Fur Industry 
Galveston Sea Wall 
Atlanta, Georgia 
Genoa, Italy 
Berlin, Germany 
Hamburg, Germany 
Geneva, Switzerland 



Opposite page 308 
Geyser in Eruption 
Mammoth Hot Springs 
Hot Springs, New Zealand 
Castle Geyser 
Bathtub Geyser 
Glass Making 
Glass Blowing 
Greenland 

Opposite page JtOJt 
Granada, from Alhambra 
Grand Canon 
Grapefruit 
Athens, Greece 
Parthenon, Athens 
Cleveland, Great Lakes Port 
Fort William, Great Lakes Port 
Construction on Welland Canal, 
Great Lakes 

Opposite page 468 
President Harding 
Palace at The Hague 
Port au Prince, Haiti 
Baled Hay, California 
Hemp, Philippines 
Surf Riding, Hawaii 
Heidelberg, Germany 
Harbor of Havana 



List of Maps 



England and Wales 
Europe, Eastern Half 
Europe, Western Half 
Florida 

France, North 
FjiANCB, South 



French Indo-China — See Burma, 
SiAM, French Indo-China 

Georgia 

Germany 

Greece — See Balkan States 

Hawaii 



*^ELKINS — HERPES" 



Ul 



ELKINS 



ELKS 



ELKINS, a city of West Virginia, the 
county-seat of Randolph co. It is on 
the Western Maryland and the Coal and 
Coke railroads. The chief industries 
are tanning, locomotive and car repair- 
ing, and the manufacture of boxes and 
extracts. The city is the seat of Davis 
and Elkins College, and has an Odd Fel- 
lows' home, hospitals, and other public 
institutions. Pop. (1910) 5,260; (1920) 
6,788. 

ELKINS, STEPHEN BENTON, an 
American capitalist and public official, 
born in Perry co., O., in 1841. He grad- 
uated from the University of Missouri in 
1860 and after studying law was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1864. In the same 



ELK, MOOSE, or MOOSE DEER, the 
largest of the deer family, a native of 
northern Europe, Asia, and America. The 
American form (to which the name moose 
is usually given), is sometimes separated 
from the European, but most naturalists 
find no specific difference between them. 
The elk or moose has a short, compact 
body, standing about 6 feet in height at 
the shoulders, a thick neck, large, clumsy 
head, and horns which flatten out almost 
from the base into a bi'oad, palmate form 
with numerous snags. In color the elk is 
grayish brown, the limbs, sides of head, 
and coarse mane being, however, of a 
lighter hue. The moose has a wide 
range in Canada, extending from the 




AMERICAN ELK 



year he removed to New Mexico and was 
elected to the Territorial Legislature. He 
became in succession district attorney, 
Attorney-General of the Territory and 
United States District Attorney. He 
was a delegate to Congress from New 
Mexico from 1873 to 1877. He later re- 
moved to West Virginia and married the 
daughter of Henry Gassaway Davis, thus 
acquiring large business interests, par- 
ticularly in the coal business and rail- 
ways. From 1891 to 1893 he was Secre- 
tary of War in President Harrison's cab- 
inet, and in 1894 he was elected to the 
Senate. He was twice re-elected. He 
was the author of Elkins' Railway Law 
Of 1903. He died in 1911. 



Arctic Ocean, and British Columbia, to 
New Brunswick and Nova Scotia; it is 
found also in Maine. It feeds largely on 
the shoots of trees or shrubs. In Sweden 
its destruction is illegal, and in Norway 
there are many restrictions. 

ELKS, BENEVOLENT AND PRO- 
TECTIVE ORDER OF, a fraternal so- 
ciety organized in New York, 1868, by 
members of the Jolly Corks theatrical 
club. The Grand Lodge was incorpo- 
rated in 1871, the first members being 
the past officers of N. Y. Lodge No. 1. 
Lodges were formed successively in Phil- 
adelphia, San Francisco, Chicago, Cincin- 
nati, Sacramento, Baltimore, Louisville, 



ELL 



ELLIOTT 



St. Louis and other cities. The number 
of lodges has now grown to between 1,200 
and 1,400, and they are found in places 
as distant as Honolulu and Alaska. The 
order, in addition to the help given its 
members, has liberally contributed to 
outside causes, with over $3,000,000 hav- 
ing been so donated. Citizens over 21 
are eligible and lodges are confined to 
cities with a population of at least 5,000. 
The property and cash of the order 
amount to over $11,000,000, its member- 
ship is nearly 500,000, and its annual dis- 
bursement close to $600,000. 

ELL, a measure originally taken in 
some vague way from the arm, and 
which has been used to denote very dif- 
ferent lengths. The English ell, as a 
measure of cloth, is equal to IV4 yard, 
the Flemish % yard, and the French 
to 1% yard. 

ELLENBOROUGH, EDWARD LAW, 
1st EARL OF, son of Lord Chief -Justice 
Ellenborough ; born in 1790. He was 
educated at Eton and Cambridge, and in 
1818, having succeeded his father as sec- 
ond baron, he entered the House of 
Lords. He took office in 1828 as lord 
privy-seal, and became president of the 
board of control in 1828-1830, and again 
in 1834. In 1841 he accepted the gover- 
nor-generalship of India, and arrived in 
Calcutta in 1842, in time to bring the 
Afghan war to a successful issue; but 
he was recalled early in 1844. On his 
return, however, he was defended by 
Wellington, and received the thanks of 
Parliament, an earldom, and the Grand 
Cross of the Bath. He then held the 
post of first lord of the admiralty (1845- 
1846), and was president of the board of 
control from February to June, 1858. 
His dispatch censuring the policy of 
Lord Canning as governor-general of 
India led to his resignation, and he never 
resumed office. He died in 1871. 

ELLESMERE LAND, the southern 
body of land W. of north Greenland, and 
N. of Jones Sound, forming the extreme 
N. extension of the Arctic archipelago 
of North America. It has no inhabit- 
ants and is a region of perpetual ice. 
Baffin noted it early in the 17th century, 
but Otto Sverdrup's explorations (1898- 
1902) have added most to our knowledge. 

ELLICE ISLANDS, a group in the 
Pacific, discovered in 1819, situated in 
lat. 8° 30' S., and Ion. 179° 13' E. They 
form, with the Marshall and the Gilbert 
group, a continuation of the Carolines, 
and these three archipelagoes, in fact, 
have sometimes been called the Eastern 
Carolines. Their discovery, their settle- 
ment, and their history, however, all 
shov/ that they should be considered dis- 



tinct from the Carolines, the Gilberts, or 
the Pelews. In 1892 they were annexed 
by Great Britain, though they are of no 
great strategic importance. 

ELLIOTT, HOWARD, an American 
railway president, born in New York in 
1860. He was educated at Cambridge 
High School and the Lawrence Scientific 
School. After serving in various capac- 
ities for several railroads in the West, 
he became general manager of the Chi- 
cago, Burlington and Kansas City, and 
other roads in 1896, serving until 1902. 
He was in succession 2d vice-president 
of the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy; 
president of the Northern Pacific; and 
president of the New York, New Haven 
and Hartford railroads. He served in 
the latter capacity until 1917, when he 
resigned to become chairman of the board 
of directors of the New Haven system. 
He was president of the Northern Pacific 
railway until 1920, and was chairman of 
the board of directors of that railroad 
from that date. He was a member of 
many engineering societies. During the 
World War he acted as a member of the 
special committee on national defense of 
the American Railway Association. 

ELLIOTT, JOHN, an American artist, 
born in England in 1858. He was pri- 
vately educated and studied art in Paris. 
His art work was chiefly portraits and 
mural decorations. Among the latter 
were ceiling decorations in the Boston 
Public Library, and a mural painting in 
the National Museum of Washington. In 
1908 he served with the American Red 
Cross in the relief of the sufferers of the 
Messina earthquake, and was architect 
of the American village constructed for 
the sufferers of that catastrophe. _ He re- 
ceived decorations from the Italian and 
Spanish Governments. 

ELLIOTT, MAUD HOWE, an Ameri- 
can writer, the daughter of Julia Ward 
Howe, born in Boston in 1854. She was 
privately educated in America and Eu- 
rope. In 1887 she married John Elliott. 
She wrote many books, including: "Roma 
Beata" (1904) ; "Two in Italy" (1905) 
"Sun and Shadow in Spain" (1908) 
"Life and Letters of Julia Ward Howe' 
(1915). In 1917 she was awarded the 
Joseph Pulitzer prize for the best Amer- 
ican biography teaching patriotism. Dur- 
ing the World War she was a member of 
the executive committee of the N. E. 
Italian War Relief Fund, and was also 
a member of the Rhode Island Food Con- 
servation Commission. 

ELLIOTT, MAXINE, an American 
actress. Her real name was Jessie Der- 
mot. She was born in Rockland, Me., in 
1873. She made her first appearance on 



ELLIPSIS 



ELMIRA 



the stage with E. S. Willard in 1890, and 
afterward played as leading woman in 
Shakespearean and other plays. In 1898 
she married Nathaniel C. Goodwin, but 
later secured a divorce from him. From 
1908 she was owner and manager of the 
Maxine Elliott Theater in New York 
City. She appeared as star in many 
successful plays, including "When We 
Were Twenty-One," "Her Own Way," 
"Under the Greenwood Tree," "The 
Chaperon," and "Deborah of Tods." 

ELLIPSIS, a term used in grammar 
and rhetoric, to signify the omission of a 
word necessary to complete the ex- 
pression or sentence in its usual form. 
The object of ellipsis is shortness and 
impressiveness; accordingly, it prevails 
in proverbs. Ellipses are used in all 
languages, but the same form of ellipses 
are not common to all. 

ELLSWORTH, EPHRAIM ELMER, 

an American military officer; born in 
Mechanicsville, N. Y., April 23, 1837. He 
removed to Chicago before he was of age, 
and studied law. He organized about 
1859 a zouave corps which became noted 
for the excellence of its discipline. In 
March, 1861, he accompanied President 
Lincoln to Washington, and in April he 
went to New York City, where he organ- 
ized a zouave regiment of firemen, of 
which he became colonel. Ordered to 
Alexandria, he lowered a Confederate 
flag floating over a hotel, for which act 
the hotelkeeper shot him dead, May 24, 
1861. 

ELM, a genus of trees, consisting of 
13 species, all natives of the N. temper- 
ate zone. Two species are common in 
Great Britain (U. campestris and U. 
montand), with many varieties. The U. 
campestris, or common elm, is a fine 
tree, of rapid and erect growth, and 
yielding a tall stem, remarkable for the 
uniformity of its diameter throughout. 
The average height of a mature tree is 
70 or 80 feet, but some reach 150 feet. 
The wood is brown, hard, of fine grain, 
and not apt to crack. The tree generally 
attains maturity in 70 or 80 years. U. 
montdna (the mountain or wych elm), 
a native of Scotland, grows to a less 
height than the English elm, is of slower 
grovvth, and yields a much shorter bole, 
but it is far bolder in its ramification and 
more hardy. It usually attains to the 
height of about 50 feet. The timber is 
strong and elastic, and the tree often 
yields large protuberances of gnarled 
wood, finely knotted and veined, and 
much esteemed for veneering, U. glabra, 
the smooth-leaved elm, is a species com- 
mon in some parts of Great Britain. The 
most ornamental tree of the genus is U. 



pendula, the weeping elm. The Auier- 
ican or white elm {U. ameHcaiia) is 
abundant in the Western States, attain- 
ing its loftiest stature between lat. 42" 
and 46°; here it reaches the height of 100 
feet, with a trunk 4 or 5 feet in diameter, 
rising sometimes 60 or 70 feet before it 
separates into a few primary limbs. The 
red or slippery elm {U. fulva) is found 
over a great extent of country in Canada, 
Missouri, and as far S. as lat. 31"; it 
attains the height of 50 or 60 feet, with 
a trunk 15 or 20 inches in diameter; the 
wood is of better quality than that of the 
white elm. The leaves and bark yield 
an abundant mucilage. The wahoo {U. 
alata), inhabiting from lat. 37° to Flor- 
ida, Louisiana, and Arkansas, is a small 
tree, 30 feet high. 

ELMAN, MISCHA, a violinist, bom 
at Stalnoje, Russia, in 1891. He played 
violin in public at the age of five. He 
studied with Fidelmann, at Odessa, five 
years and accepted the invitation of Pro- 
fessor Auer, of St. Petersburg, to study 
with him in 1902. In 1904, when he 
was 13, he was looked upon as an artist 
of great promise in St. Petersburg. He 
then began to make a tour of the capitals 
of Europe, and finally crossed to the 
United States. He made his debut in 
New York with the Russian Symphony 
Orchestra, in 1908, and from that year 
has toured America a great many times, 
always receiving much applause. He 
has also shown talent as a composer and 
has a number of songs and violin pieces 
to his credit. 

ELMINA (el-me'na) , a British settle* 
ment and fortified seaport on the Gold 
Coast, a few miles W. of Cape Coast 
Castle. It was first settled by merchants 
of Dieppe, came into the hands of the 
Portuguese in 1471, of the Dutch in 1637, 
and in 1872 was ceded to the British, 
who destroyed the native town during 
the Ashanti war. Pop. about 4,000. 

ELMIRA, a city and county-seat of 
Chemung co., N. Y., on both sides of the 
Chemung river, and on the Lackawanna, 
the Lehigh Valley, the Northern Central, 
and the Erie railroads, and the Chemung 
canal; 46 miles S. W. of Ithaca. It is 
the largest city in that part of the State ; 
is beautifully laid out; has a fine water 
supply; is lighted by gas and electricity; 
and besides its river and railroad facili- 
ties has a valuable commercial outlet in 
the Chemung canal, which connects it 
with Seneca lake. The chief industries 
are the large shops of the Erie and the 
Northern Central railroads, rolling-mills 
and blast furnace, boot and shoe fac- 
tories, iron foundries, the manufacturing 
and repairing shops of the Pullman Car 
Company, woolen mills, a steam fire en- 



ELMIRA COLLEGE 



EL BENO 



gine manufactory, tanneries, flour mills, 
and carriage factories. The proximity 
of the iron and coal fields of Pennsylva- 
nia to Elniira, with its numerous facili- 
ties for manufactures, gives the city a 
prominent position among the industrial 
centers of the country. There are large 
coal mines 20 miles S. of Elmira, and 
the Blossburg soft coal field about the 
same distance S. W. Just beyond the 
city limits are several quarries of excel- 
lent stone. Elmira is the seat of the 
State Reformatory, Elmira College, El- 
mira Industrial School, the Arnot-Ogden 
Hospital, and Elmira Free Academy. It 
has a public high school, the Steele Me- 
morial Library, several parks, electric 
lights and street railways, daily, weekly, 
monthly, and quarterly periodicals, 2 
National and several savings banks. Pop. 
(1910) 37,176; (1920) 45,305. 

ELMIRA COLLEGE, an educational 
institution in Elmira, N. Y., for women; 
founded in 1855 under the auspices of 
the Presbyterian Church; reported at 
the close of 1919: Professors and in- 
structors, 32; students, 323; president, 
Frederick Lent, Ph. D. 

ELMO, or ERMO, a corrupted Italian- 
ized form of Erasmus, Bishop of For- 
miae, a town of ancient Italy, who suf- 
fered martyrdom under Diocletian, in 
A. D. 303. He is invoked by Italian sail- 
ors during storms. 

ELOCUTION, the art of correct speak- 
ing or reading in public, including the 
appropriate use of gestures. Great at- 
tention was paid by the ancients to this 
art as a branch of oratory. The rhetors 
in Greece had schools in which young 
men were trained in the correct use of 
the voice. Many of the Romans were 
sent to Greece to study and afterward 
there were similav teachers of elocution 
and oratory in Rome. In modern times, 
the^ stage has fostered the study of elo- 
cution and special attention has been 
given to it in the Paris Conservatoire, 
where the strictest canons of the art 
have been maintained. Many colleges 
have established professorships of elo- 
cution. Perhaps the most successful 
teacher of this century was Gustave 
Delsarte, whose theories and practice 
worked a revolution both in France and 
other countries. Notable schools of elo- 
cution have been established in this coun- 
try by Charles Wesley Emerson, Frank- 
lin H. Sargent, and others. The list of 
distinguished elocutionists includes the 
names of Burbank, Frobisher, Riddle, 
Riley, Powers, and Mackaye. 

ELOHIM (e-16-hem'), the ordinary 
name of God in the Hebrew Scriptures. 
There is the grammatical anomaly that 



this plural stands as the nominative to 
a singular verb. This has been held to 
imply that in the Divine nature there is 
a certain plurality and a certain unity. 
The plural has been called also the plu- 
ral of majesty. It is generally used of 
the true God, but Jehovah is deemed by 
far the more sacred name. 

ELOI (a-lwa'), or ELIGIUS (e-1/ 
jius), SAINT, Bishop of Noyon and 
apostle of Flanders; born in 588. Orig- 
inally a goldsmith, he became patron of 
goldsmiths and hammermen. He died 
in 658. 

EL PASO, a city, port of entry, and 
county-seat of El Paso co., Tex.; on the 
Rio Grande, and on the Atchison, To- 
peka and Santa Fe, the Texas and Pa- 
cific, El Paso and Southwestern, and 
the Mexican Central railroads; 712 
miles N. W. of Austin. The pass El 
Paso del Norte, the principal thorough- 
fare between Mexico and New Mexico 
through the mountains, is near the city, 
which is a customs port. It is opposite 
Ciudad Juarez, the N. terminus of the 
Mexican Central railroad in Mexico, 
across the Rio Grande. Among the 
notable public buildings are the high 
school, County Court House, and the 
Federal Building. The State School of 
Mines is located here. El Paso has 3 
National banks, daily and weekly news- 
papers, ore smelting establishments, and 
varied manufactures, and carries on an 
extensive grain trade. It is a noted 
health resort for victims of lung trouble. 
Pop. (1910) 39,279; (1920) 77^60. 

ELPHINSTONE, WILLIAM, a Scot- 
tish prelate, founder of King's College 
and University, Aberdeen; born in Glas- 
gow, in 1431. He was educated at Glas- 
gow College, and served four years as 
priest of St. Michael's in that city. He 
then went to France and became Pro- 
fessor of Law, first at Paris and subse- 
quently at Orleans, but about 1471-1474 
he returned home at the request of Muir- 
head. Bishop of Glasgow, who made him 
commissary of the diocese. In 1478 he 
was made commissary of the Lothians, 
and in 1479 Archdeacon of Argyle. Soon 
after he was made Bishop of Ross; and 
in 1483 was transferred to the see of 
Aberdeen. In 1484 and 1486 he was 
commissioned to negotiate truces with 
England, and in 1488 was lord high- 
chancellor of the kingdom for several 
months. He was next sent on a mission 
to Germany, and after his return held 
the office of lord privy-seal till his death, 
in 1514. 

EL RENO, a city of Oklahoma, the 
county-seat of Canadian co. It is on the 
Rock Island, and the St. Louis, El Reno 



ELSINOBE 



EMANCIPATION 



and Western railroads, and on the Cana- 
dian river. Its industries include cotton 
gins, machine shops, brick plants, and 
manufactories of brooms, cement stone, 
"washing machines, etc. It has repair 
shops and division offices of the Rock 
Island system. Pop. (1910) 7,872 (1920) 
7,737. 

ELSINOBE, a aeaport of Denmark on 
the island of Seeland, at the narrowest 
part of the Sound (here only 3% miles 
broad), 24 miles N. by E. of Copenhagen, 
and opposite Helsingborg in Sweden. 
Saxo Grammaticus, a famous writer of 
the 12th century, was born in Elsinore, 
and here too Shakespeare lays the scene 
of "Hamlet." Elsinore was raised to 
the rank of a town in 1416; it was sev- 
eral times destroyed by the Hanseatic 
League, and in 1658 was taken by the 
Swedes, but restored to Denmark two 
years later. Pop. about 14,000. 

ELSSLEB, FANNY, a celebrated 
dancer; born in Vienna, June 23, 1810. 
She was the daughter of Johann Elssler, 
Haydn's factotum, and was educated at 
Naples for the ballet, with her elder sis- 
ter Theresa, who in 1851 became the 
wife of Prince Adalbert of Prussia, and 
was ennobled. Fanny helped to raise 
money for the Bunker Hill Monument. 
She died in Vienna, Nov. 27, 1884. 

ELSWICK, a township on the W. out- 
skirts of Newcastle, England. Here are 
located the gun-founding works of the 
firm of Sir W. G. Armstrong, Mitchell 
& Co., "which are among the largest of 
the kind in Europe. The frontage toward 
the river is about one mile, the entire 
area occupied is about 125 acres, and in 
busy times about 14,000 work-people are 
employed. Elswick Park, including Els- 
"wick Hall, was opened as a recreation 
ground in 1878. Pop. about 60,000. 

ELVAS (al'vas), the strongest forti- 
fied city of Portugal, in the province of 
Alemtejo, near the Spanish frontier; 10 
miles W. of Badajoz. Standing on a hill, 
it is defended by seven large bastions 
and two isolated forts. 

ELWOOD. a city of Indiana in Madi- 
son CO. It is on the Lake Erie and West- 
ern, and the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chi- 
cago, and St. Louis railroads. There is 
an important trade in live stock, grain 
and produce, and the industries include 
tin-plate mills, iron works, canning fac- 
tories, plate glass factories, etc. The 
city has a public library. Pop. (1910) 
11,028; (1920) 10,790. 

ELY, an episcopal city of England, in 
the county of Cambridge. The ecclesi- 
astical structures comprise the cathedral 
and the churches of St. Mary, and the 



Holy Trinity, the last belonging to the 
time of Edward II., and one of the most 
perfect buildings of that age. The su- 
perb cathedral occupies the site of a 
monastery founded about the year 673 
by Etheldreda, daughter of the King of 
East Anglia. Its entire length, E. to W. 
is 537 feet, and its W. tower is 170 feet 
high. The whole structure comprises 
an almost unbroken series of the vari- 
ous styles of architecture which pre- 
vailed in England from the Conquest to 
the Reformation, yet with no loss of 
impressiveness as a whole. It has under- 
gone of late years extensive additions 
and restoration. Most of the inhabitants 
are engaged in agricultural labor. Pon. 
8,000. 

ELY, BICHABD THEODOBE, an 
American educator; born in Ripley, N. 
Y., April 13, 1854; was graduated at 
Columbia University in 1876; api>ointed 
head of the department of Political 
Economy at Johns Hopkins (1881-1892) ; 
and professor of Political Economy at 
University of Wisconsin since 1892. His 
publications incluae "French and German 
Socialism in Modern Times" (1883) ; 
"The Past and Present of Political Econ- 
omy" (1884); "The Labor Movement in 
America" (1886); "Problems of Today" 
(1888) ; "Political Economy" (1889) ; 
"Social Aspects of Christianity" (1889); 
"Studies in the Evolution of Industrial 
Society" (1903); "Property and Con- 
tract" (1914). He edited Macmillan's 
"Citizens' Library of Economics" and 
several sociological text-books. 

ELYBIA, a city of Ohio, the county- 
seat of Lorain co. It is on the Lake 
Shore and Michigan Southern, and the 
Baltimore and Ohio railroads, and on 
the Black river. There are important 
manufactures of automobiles, telephones, 
flour, canned goods, concrete blocks, iron 
pipe, steel, etc. The public buildings 
include a library and a hospital. There 
is also a fine natural park. Pop. (1910) 
14,825; (1920) 20,474. 

EMANCIPATION, the act by which 
in the Roman law, the paternal authority 
was dissolved in the lifetime of the 
father. It took place in the fonn of a 
sale by the father of the son to a third 
party, who manumitted him. The Twelve 
Tables required that this ceremony should 
be gone through three times, and it was 
only after the third sale that the son 
came under his own law. In general, 
the son was at last resold to the father, 
who manumitted him, and thus acquired 
the rights of a patron which would 
otherwise have belonged to the alien pur- 
chaser who finally manumitted him. In 
the case of daughters and grandchildren 
one sale was sufficient. In the law of 



EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION 6 



EMBARGO ACT 



Scotland, emancipation is called foris- 
familiation. The Roman Catholic Eman- 
cipation Act was the act, signed April 
13, 1829, which removed the most gall- 
ing of the Roman Catholic disabilities in 
England. 

EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION, 

a proclamation providing for the eman- 
cipation of the slaves in certain parts of 
the Confederate States, issued as a war 
measure by President Lincoln, Jan. 1, 
1863. The number of slaves emancipated 
by this proclamation was, taking the 
census of 1860 as a basis, as follows: 

Alabama 435,080 

Arkansas 111,115 

Florida 61,745 

Georgia 462,198 

Louisiana 247,715 

Mississippi 436,631 

North Carolina 331,059 

South Carolina 402,046 

Texas 182,566 

Virginia 450.000 

Total 3,120,155 

The number of slaves not affected by 
its provisions was about 832,000. The 
full text of the proclamation is as fol- 
lows: 

"Whereas, on the twenty-second day of Sep- 
tember, one thousand eight hundred and sixty- 
two, a proclamation was issued by the President 
of the United States, containing, among other 
things, the following to wit : 

That, on the first day of January, in the year 
of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and 
sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within 
any State, or designated part of State, the 
people whereof shall be in rebellion against the 
United States, shall be then, thenceforth and 
forever free, and the Executive Government of 
the United States, Including the military and 
naval officers thereof, will recognize and main- 
tain the freedom of such persons, and will do 
no act or acts to repress such persons, or any 
of them, in any efforts they may make for their 
actual freedom. 

That the Executive will, on the first day of 
January aforesaid, by proclamation, designate 
the States and parts of States, if any, in which 
the people thereof shall be in rebellion against 
the United States, and the fact that any State, 
or the people thereof, shall, on that day, be, in 
good faith, represented in the Congress of the 
United States by members chosen thereto at 
elections wherein a majority of the qualified 
voters of such State shall have participated, 
shall, in the absence of strong countervailing 
testimony be deemed conclusive evidence that 
such State and the people thereof are not then 
in rebellion against the United States. 

Now, therefore, I, Abraham Lincoln, President 
of the United States, by virtue of the power in 
me vested as Commander-in-chief of the Army 
and Navy of the United States in time of actual 
armed rebellion against the authority and Gov- 
erment of the United States, and as a fit and 
necessary war measure for suppressing said re- 
bellion, do, on this first day of January, in the 
year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred 
and sixty-three, and in accordance with my 
purpose so to do, publicly proclaim for the full 
period of one hundred days from the day of the 
first above-mentioned order, and designate, as 
the States and parts of States wherein the 
people thereof respectively are this day in re- 
bellion against the United States, the following, 
to wit : Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana (except the 
parishes of St. Bernard, Plaquemines, Jefferson, 
St. John, St. Charles, St. James, Ascension, As- 



sumption, Terre Bonne, Lafourche, St. Mary, 
St. Martin, and Orleans, including the city of 
New Orleans), Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, 
Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and 
Virginia (except the forty-eight counties desig- 
nated as West Virginia, and also the counties 
of Berkeley, Accomac, Northampton, Elizabeth 
City, York, Princess Ann, and Norfolk, includ- 
ing the cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth), and 
which excepted parts are, for the present, left 
precisely as if this proclamation were not issued. 

And by virtue of the power and for the pur- 
pose aforesaid, I do order and declare that all 
persons held as slaves within said designated 
States and parts of States are, and hencefor- 
ward shall be, free ; and that the Executive 
Government of the United States, including the 
military and naval authorities thereof, will 
recognize and maintain the freedom of said 
persons. 

And I hereby enjoin upon the people so de- 
clared to be free to abstain from all violence, 
unless In necessary self-defense, and I recom- 
mend to them that, in all cases, when allowed, 
they labor faithfully for reasonable wages. 

And I further declare and make known, that 
such persons, of suitable conditions, will be re- 
ceived into the armed service of the United 
States, to garrison forts, positions, stations, and 
other places, and to man vessels of all sorts in 
said service. 

And upon this act, sincerely believed to be an 'y, 
act of justice, warranted by the Constitution, ^ 
upon military necessity, I invoke the considerate 
judgment of mankind and the gracious favor of 
Almighty God. 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my 
name, and caused the seal of the United States 
to be afllxed. 

[L. S.] Done at the city of Washington, this 
first day of January, In the year of our Lord, one 
thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, and of 
the Independence of the United States the 
eighty-seventh. 
By the President Abraham Lincoln. 

William H. Sewakd, 
Secretary of State. 

EMANUEL THE GREAT, King of ^ 
Portugal; born May 3, 1469. He suc- 
ceeded his cousin John II. in 1495; and 
aided the expeditions of Vasco da Gama, 
Cabral, Cortereal, and Albuquerque. He 
died in Lisbon, Dec. 13, 1521. 

EMBARGO ACT, an act passed by the 
American Congress, Dec. 22, 1807, pro- 
hibiting exportations from the United 
States. The act was a measure of re- 
taliation against England and France 
for their interference with American 
commerce in 1806-1807, and aimed at 
forcing them to recede from their posi- 
tion by showing the importance of our 
comi.iercial relations. It had some effect 
on these nations, but a far more ruinous 
result on our own commerce. It was a 
measure of the Democratic party, and 
was approved by the agricultural por- 
tions of the United States. The New 
England States, deeply interested in for- 
eign commerce, and the Federalists loudly 
condemned it. Its opponents, spelling 
the name backward, called it the "O grab 
me" Act, and threats of secession were 
heard from New England. As a result, 
Congress fixed March 4, 1809, for the 
termination of the embargo. The first 
embargo in our history was laid in 1794 
for a period of 60 days, and other minor 



EMBEB DAYS 



EMEBAXD 



acts of a similar nature were passed 
during the War of 1812. The plan of 
limiting commercial intercourse by em- 
bargo, non-importation and non-inter- 
course acts was called the "restrictive 
system." In the course of the World 
War (1914-1918) attempts were made 
by pro-Germans, pacifists, and well- 
meaning humanitarians to place an em- 
bargo on the shipment of arms to En- 
tente nations, but the attempt failed. 

EMBER DAYS, certain days set apart 
for prayer and fasting, one special theme 
of supplication being that the blessing 
of God may descend on the crops, and 
consequently that there may be plenty in 
the land. Stated days of this character 
began to be observed in the 3d century, 
but at first there was no unity over the 
Christian world as to the precise days. 
In A. D. 1095 the Council of Placentia 
diffused them over the year. 

EMBROIDERY, the art of producing 
ornamentation by means of needlework 
on textile fabrics, leather and other ma- 
terials. Embroidery is closely allied to 
lace-work, which is the direct develop- 
ment of the cut, drawn, and embroidered 
linen of the classic and early Christian 
periods. Embroidery pure and simple 
does not admit of applique, which, in 
conjunction with embroidery, forms a 
separate art in itself; nor should it be 
confused with tapestry work, which is 
to weaving what lace-work is to embroid- 
ery. Embroidery has had many schools 
and styles, but it may be classed under 
six general heads : 

1. Linen embroidery, embracing all 
work done on linen or cotton in threads 
of the same color as the textile, and 
where the ornamentation is dependent 
wholly on the fineness of the needlework 
and the form nf the design for its beauty. 
This work includes cut work and drawn 
work, to the point where netlike inter- 
weaving of the embroidery threads be- 
comes lace. 

2. Linen embroidery in color. — Linen 
and cottons are embroidered in colors 
with either silk, cotton, or wool. This 
work includes most of the Oriental work, 
where the colored design produces the 
ornament, and fine needlework and for 
more secondary considerations to the 
disposition of color. This work in fine 
wool reaches its highest excellence in the 
India shawls, which are the nearest bond 
between embroidery and weaving. 

3. Gold and silver embroidery, in which 
threads and spangles are sometimes used 
in addition to the metal threads. The 
Italians and Spanish of the 16th cen- 
tury, and the Orientals (notably the 
Japanese), have done much in this class 
of work. . 



4. Silk, gold and wool. — This sty!'. 
reached its highest excellence in the ec- 
clesiastical embroideries of Europe in 
the 15th and 16th centuries. 

5. Silk and wool embroidery on coarse 
canvas, where the foundation textile is 
entirely hidden by the regular inter- 
woven stitches. This work often so nearly 
resembles certain tapestries as to cause 
confusion in distinguishing them. 

6. Modern imitations in coarse mate- 
rials of the fine work of the past, and 
the development of those imitations 
known variously as crewel work, tapestry 
work, etc. 

EMBRYO, an unborn young animal, 
or the rudimentary young plant, espe- 
cially when within the seed. The term 
foetus is equivalent to embryo, but is re- 
stricted to mammalian development. The 
term larva is also applied to a young 
animal which is more or less markedly 
different from the adult form. 

EMBRYOLOGY, that department of 
biology which traces the development of 
the individual organism before birth. It 
gives the history of the organism from 
its earliest individual appearance till it 
is born or hatched, properly including 
all the anatomical and physiological 
changes that take place in the embryo, 
whether in the uterus or the Q?:^. The 
investigation necessarily takes two 
forms; a description of the successive 
structural stages, and an analysis of the 
vital processes associated with each step. 
The development of the chick was watched 
in Greece 2,000 years ago by Aristotle 
and Galen; and in 1651 Harvey sought 
to establish two main propositions: (1) 
that every animal was produced from 
an ovum, and (2) that the organs arose 
by new formation (epigenesis) , not from 
the expansion of some invisible prefor- 
mation. But as a systematic science 
embryology dates from the 19th century. 
Wolff in 1759 reasserted Harvey's epi- 
genesis, and showed that the germ con- 
sisted of almost structureless material, 
and that the process of development was 
a gradual organization. In 1817 Pander 
took up Wolff's work virtually where he 
left it. He was immediately re-enforced 
and soon left behind by Von Baer, whose 
investigations laid a firm foundation for 
modern embryology. Since the estab- 
lishment of the cell-theory in 1838-1839. 
and the now well-known facts that the 
organism starts from a fusion of two 
sex-cells, and that development consists 
in the division of the fertilized ovum and 
differentiation of the results, progress 
has been rapid. 

EMERALD, a variety of beryl, dis- 
tinguished from the latter by being 
emerald-green in place of pale green. 



EMERALD ISLE 



8 



EMERSON 



light blue, yellow or white, the colors of 
the beryl. The finest emeralds are found 
in Peru, but they occur in various other 
places. In heraldry, the term designates 
the green tincture in coat-armor; vert. 

EMERALD ISLE, an epithet applied 
to Ireland, from the freshness and bright 
color of the verdure, produced by the 
abundant heat and moisture continually 
reaching it from the Atlantic. This epi- 
thet was first used by Dr. W. Drennan 
(1754-1820), in his poem entitled "Erin." 

EMERALD MOTH, the name given to 
the genus HipjMrchus; the large emer- 
ald moth is the Hipparchus papilio- 
narius. The wings are 2 or 2% inches 
icross their surface, grass-green, with 
■:wo rows of whitish spots, and a green- 
ish-yellow fringe. Its antennae are red- 
dish-brown. The caterpillar feeds on the 
leaves of the elm, the alder, the beech, 
the lime, etc. The moth is principally 
found in England and in southern Scotland. 

EMERITUS (e-mer'i-tus), a name 
given to Roman soldiers who had ful- 
filled the legal term of military service. 
It is now applied in colleges and univer- 
sities to professors who, after meritori- 
ous services, are honorably discharged on 
account of age, etc. 

EMERSON, RALPH WALDO, an 

American essayist, poet, and philosopher, 
born in Boston, May 25, 1803. Seven 
generations of his ancestors had been 
clergymen; he inherited a tradition of 
scholarship and heroic living, and was 
himself trained to continue the tradition. 
He knew few pleasures in boyhood; he 
was quiet and studious, though not bril- 
liant; he worked his way through Har- 
vard. In 1829 he was ordained minister 
of the Second Church of Boston, mar- 
ried, and settled down, apparently, to the 
life of his ancestors. After three years, 
however, he resigned, being unable to 
follow the forms and ceremonies of the 
church. He spent a time in Europe, 
where he was more interested in person- 
alities than in the sort of thing usually 
looked for by tourists. He met Carlyle, 
then unknown, who exerted a profound 
influence upon him. He brought out 
Carlyle's books in America, where they 
had a greater sale than in England, and 
a lifelong correspondence was carried 
on by the two friends. 

In 1835 he returned to Concord, to the 
Old Manse, where he studied and wrote. 
For the anniversary of Lexington, April 
19, 1836, he composed the hymn which 
has become famous. He did a little lec- 
turing, was interested in gardening, 
bought several tracts of land, studied 
Nature rather than books. At length 
he published (1836) his first important 



book, a slender volume entitled "Nature,'* 
which, with his oration on the American 
Scholar (1837) and an address delivered 
at Dartmouth in 1838, forms an intro- 
duction to his philosophy. In the first 
of these he urged the divinity of the 
soul and its capacity to attain all knowl- 
edge; the conception of Nature as a gi- 
gantic shadow of God, able to unlock 
powers of the soul either as energy or 
as knowledge; and the idea that God, by 
these means, teaches the soul directly. 
Thus each man may build his own world, 
casting aside external authority and all 
tradition. In the Harvard address on 
the American Scholar he puts Nature 
a3 first of the influences on the scholar's 




RALPH WALDO EMERSON 

development; the second influence is the 
mind of the past, able to inspire and to 
call forth latent powers, though not to 
dominate the active soul; the third is 
action, since the idea that scholarship 
means seclusion from the world is wrong. 
The scholar must guide men by showing 
them realities underneath appearances; 
he must be free and brave; so shall he 
help to make a nation of men. The Dart- 
mouth College address supplements these 
ideas, especially the belief that the chief 
duty of the educated man is to project 
his own soul into the universe — the past, 
the realm of external nature, the realm 



EMERSON 



ZMMET 



cf active life — and so realize his own 
divine personality. 

With the publication of the first series 
€f "Essays," 1841, Emerson's leading 
ideas were almost completely stated. 
"Self -Reliance" is a development of what 
had already had briefer statement, espe- 
cially in the Harvard address. The 
theme is the direct relation between man 
and divinity, cutting away dependence 
upon party, creed, travel, books, worldly 
ideas of success. In "The Oversoul" we 
have an amplification of a paragraph in 
"Self-Reliance," of which the kernel is 
to the effect that "we lie in the lap of 
immense intelligence, which makes us 
organs of its activity and receivers of 
its truth." The doctrine is Platonic, 
and is developed on Platonic lines. We 
live only partially; at times of inspira- 
tion the soul of the whole comes to life 
in us, the wise silence, the universal 
beauty. This universal beauty belongs 
to the ages; spirit may incarnate itself 
at any time. Other essays, such as 
"Circles," "Spiritual Laws," and the 
like, contain a similar message, always 
phrased so suggestively as to seem to be 
said for the first time. Essays on politi- 
cal relations, such as "History," "Poli- 
tics," "Experience," teach that all the 
past, as well as all that Nature gives, 
meet in the Now of the Soul. Personal- 
ity is thus the concentration of experi- 
ence in moments of illumination. Be- 
cause of his emphagis on personality he 
seems to neglect the state, oi the con- 
ception of organized society. He is not 
sympathetic toward reform; a law is 
but a memorandum; not riches or terri- 
tories, but men form the highest end of 
government; there is danger in "under- 
taking for another;" only man and the 
world spirit remain, and their union is 
the sole value in life. 

These ideas, and others related to 
them, were developed in a series of es- 
says unique for their inspiring idealism. 
The second series of essays appeared in 
1844, followed in 1847 by a volume of 
poems. His poetry, like his prose, is 
distinguished for its compactness, its 
oracular quality, and for its beauty. 
Many of the poems are miniatures of 
the essays, and may be attached to them. 
His chief source of inspiration is Nature, 
though he also wrote a series of patriotic 
and anniversary poems that have become 
justly famous. A volume entitled "Na- 
ture, Addresses, and Lectures" appeared 
in 1849, and another collection of lec- 
tures. "Representative Men," in 1850. 
He published "English Traits" in 1856; 
"The Conduct of Life" in 1860. Other 
collected works, such as "The Natural 
History of Intellect," the "Journals," 
and the correspondence with Carlyle, 



appeared after his death, which toolc 
place on April 27, 1882. 

EMERY, HENRY CROSBY, an Amer- 
ican economist, born at Ellsworth, Me., 
in 1872. He graduated from Bowdoin 
College in 1892 and took post-graduate 
courses at Columbia and the University 
of Berlin. He was instructor and pro- 
fessor of political economy at Bowdoin 
from 1894 to 1900, and from 1900 to 
1915 was Professor of Political Economy 
at Yale. From 1909 to 1913 he was 
chairman of the United States Tariff 
Board. He was foreign representative 
of the Guaranty Trust Company of New 
York from 1916. During the World 
War he was arrested while traveling in 
Russia and for some time held prisoner. 
He wrote "Speculation on the Stock and 
Produce Exchanges of the United States" 
(1896); "Politician, Party, and People" 
(1913). He also contributed many ar- 
ticles on economic and political questions 
to various magazines. 

EMEU. See Emu. 
EMIGRATION. See Immigration. 

EMILIA, a compartimento of central 
Italy, comprising the provinces of Bo- 
logna, Ferrara, Forli, Modena, Parma, 
Piacenza, Ravenna and Reggio Emilia. 
The name is derived from the ancient 
Via .(Emilia (a continuation of the Via 
Flaminia) which passed through these 
territories. 

EMINENT DOMAIN, the power to 
take private property for public use. It 
is well settled that such power exists 
only in cases where the public exigency 
demands its exercise. 

EMIN PASHA. See ScHNiTZER, Ed- 
ward. 

EMIR, or AMIR, a sovereign, a 
prince. The title was instituted in a. d. 
650 by Fatima, the daughter of Moham- 
med, and was applied to the descendants 
of the "Prophet." They alone were per- 
mitted to wear the green turban. In the 
forms, amir and ameer, it is known in 
English-speaking countries chiefly in 
connection with the Ameers of Scinde 
vanquished by Sir Charles Napier at the 
battle of Meanee, Feb. 17, 1843, their 
territory being subsequently annexed to 
the Anglo-Indian empire. 

EMMET, ROBERT, an Irish patriot; 
born in Dublin, in 1778. He was ex- 
pelled from Trinity College, Dublin, in 
1798, on the ground of exciting disaffec- 
tion and rebellion, and having become an 
object of suspicion to the government, 
quitted Ireland. He returned there on 
the repeal of the suspension of the 
Habeas Corpus Act, and became a mem- 



EMMICH 10 

jer of the Society of United Irishmen 
for the establishment of the independ- 
3nce of Ireland. In July, 1803, he was 
the ringleader in the rebellion in which 
Lord Kilwarden and others perished. He 
was arrested a few days afterward, 
tried, and executed. His fate excited 



EMPLOYEES' LIABILITY 




ROBERT EMMET 

special interest from his attachment to 
Miss Sarah Curran, daughter of the 
celebrated barrister. 

EMMICH, GENERAL VON, a Ger- 
man army officer. He was in command of 
the Tenth Hanoverian Army Corps when 
the World War broke out, in 1914, but 
was detached from his command to di- 
rect the operations of the troops which 
began hostilities on the western front 
by attacking Liege, in Belgium. So 
heavy were the casualties inflicted by the 
Belgians on Von Emmich's shock battal- 
ions that the German advance was held 
up for almost a week, giving the French 
and British forces in France time to pre- 
pare a partial defense, 

EMPLOYERS' ASSOCIATIONS. With 
the growth of labor organizations it 
is only natural that there should have 
developed associations of similar na- 
ture and aims among those to whom 
the labor unions are opposed, the em- 



ployers. Employers', or masters', as- 
sociations, were formed in Great Britain 
as far back as the beginning of last 
century, for the purpose of combating 
the power of the trades unions. For a 
while both were of the nature of secret 
organizations, and both sides were 
equally unscrupulous in the methods they 
employed in harming each other. 

In this country the first employers' 
association was the Stove Founders' Na- 
tional Defense Association, founded in 
1868. In 1913 a Congressional Commis- 
sion, appointed to investigate the alleged 
evil influence of manufacturers' combines 
in procuring legislation favorable to em- 
ployers, reported the existence of two 
hundred employers' associations, most of 
which were frankly arrayed against the 
labor unions, to combat them by either 
economic or legislative action. Most im- 
portant of these, in regard to size, scope 
of activity and general significance, was 
the National Association of Manufac- 
turers, founded in Cincinnati, O., in 
1895. The openly avowed object of this 
organization is to increase the volume of 
export trade, by means of disseminating 
a knowledge of conditions in foreign 
countries and their needs in the way of 
commodities of American manufacture; 
to oppose "harmful" labor legislation and 
to exert influence in favor of "beneficial" 
legislation; and to arbitrate labor dis- 
putes. The Association of Manufac- 
turers is a thoroughly "class conscious" 
organization, and devotes a great deal 
of energy, both directly and indirectly, 
in promoting the interests of manufac- 
turers in general and in fighting the de- 
mands of the labor unions where they 
extend to the closed shop, minimum 
wages and, in some cases, recognition 
through their national organizations. In 
the famous litigation brought against 
the American Federation of Labor for 
its boycott of the Bucks Stove and Range 
Co., lasting over a period of many years, 
the Manufacturers' Association was the 
backbone of the forces opposed to the 
labor body. Within more recent years, 
however, and especially since the close 
of the World War, it has turned its 
attention more in the direction of radi- 
cal labor organizations, and especially 
against the I. W. W. The movements of 
the members of this revolutionary order 
are closely watched, and reported to 
those members of the Association 
threatened by encroachment by agitators 
for the Red doctrine. 

EMPLOYERS' LIABILITY, the re- 
sponsibility of the master for the safety 
of his workmen which the law implies 
in certain contracts between capital and 
labor. In most of the United States this 
liability is not statutory, but is de- 



EMPOBIA 



11 



ENDIVE 



termined by a suit for damages under 
the law of negligence. If the employer 
can show contributory negligence on the 
part of the workmen, he is exempt from 
liability in a damage suit. In 1897, 1900, 
and 1913 laws were passed that insured 
an employee agahist injury. Many of 
the States have compensation laws that 
apply to public as well as private con- 
cerns. Compensation or insurance is 
provided generally; either law may be 
elective or compulsory. In England em- 
ployers' liability is recognized and regu- 
lated by act of Parliament in which the 
element of contributory negligence is 
largely ignored. 

EMPORIA, a city and county-seat of 
Lyon CO., Kan.; on the Neosho and Cot- 
tonwood rivers, and on the Atchison, 
Topeka and Santa Fe, and the Missouri, 
Kansas and Texas railroads; 60 miles 
S. W. of Topeka. It is the farming and 
stock-raising center of the district, and 
has a Court House, State Normal School, 
College of Emporia, foundries, woolen 
and flour mills, canning and carriage 
factories, gas and electric lights, con- 
servatory of music, daily and weekly 
newspapers, and 2 National banks. Pop. 
(1910) 9,053; (1920) 11,273. 




V^iwf*: 



EMU 



EMU, a large bird, native of Aus- 
tralia. Its color is a dull brown, mottled 
with dingy gray; the young are striped 
with black. When assailed it strikes 



backward and obliquely with its feet, and 
it is so powerful that a stroke of its foot 
is said to be sufficient to break a man's 
leg. Well-trained dogs run in before it 
and spring at its neck. It cannot fly, 
but runs very fleetly. The eggs are 
highly esteemed as food. As much as 
six or seven quarts of oil have been ob- 
tained from the skin of a single bird. 
The food of the emu consists chiefly of 
roots, fruit, and herbage. 

ENAREA (e-na'ra-a), or LIMMU 
(le'mo), a region of Abyssinia, S. W. 
of Shoa, with an area of over 1,100 
square miles, and about 40,000 inhabit- 
ants. It is a land of forest-clad hills, 
rising beyond 8.000 feet, with their slopes 
covered with the wild coffee plant. Its 
people, belonging to a stem of the Gallas, 
are mostly Mohammedans. The chief 
town is Saka, near the Gibbe river. 

ENCAUSTIC, a mode of painting in 
which the colors are laid on or fixed by 
heat. 

ENCAUSTIC BRICK, a brick orna- 
ment with various colors baked and 
glazed. 

ENCYCLICAL (-sik'li-kal) , a letter 
addressed by the Pope to all his bishops, 
condemning current errors or advising 
the Christian people how to act in re- 
gard to great public questions. It dif- 
fers from a "bull'' mainly in that the 
latter is usually more special in its des- 
tination. The famous encyclical issued 
Dec. 8, 1864, by Pius IX., was accom- 
panied by a "Syllabus" condemning 
specifically 80 principles in religion, 
philosophy, and politics. 

ENCYCLOP-ffiDIA. See CYCLOPAEDIA. 

ENDICOTT, JOHN, a colonial gov- 
ernor of Massachusetts ; born in Dorches- 
ter, England, in 1589. He landed as 
manager of the plantation of Naumkeag 
(Salem) in 1628. Giving place in 1630 
to John Winthrop, he headed a sangui- 
nary expedition against the Indians in 
1636, was deputy-governor in 1641-1644, 
1650, and 1654, and govenior in 1644- 
1649, 1650-1653, and 1655-1665. Endicott 
was an austere Puritan, choleric, benevo- 
lent, and brave. He died in Boston, 
March 15, 1665. 

ENDIVE, a composite plant, a native 
of Asia ; early cultivated in Egypt, used 
by the Greeks and Romans, and intro- 
duced into Great Britain some time be- 
fore A. D. 1548. It has a head of pale- 
blue flowers. There are two leading 
varieties, one with broad, ragged leaves, 
the other with leaves narrower and 
curled. The leaves, after being blanched 
to diminish their bitterness, are used in 
salads and stews. 



ENDOR 



ENDOB, a village of Palestine, 4 
miles S. of Tabor; a poor mud hamlet. 
It was the place which Saul visited (I 
Sam. xxviii : 7), to consult the "woman 
with a familiar spirit" previous to his 
fatal engagement with the Philistines. 

ENDYMION (-diml-on), a shepherd, 
son of uEthlios and Calyce. It is stated 
that he asked Jupiter to grant him to be 
always young, and to sleep as much as 
he would; whence came the proverb, "to 
sleep the sleep of Endymion." Diana, or 
the moon, saw him unclothed as he slept 
on Mount Latmos, and became enamored 
of his great beauty, coming down from 
heaven every night to visit him. 

ENEMY, one who is unfriendly or 
hostile to another; one who hates or dis- 
likes; a hostile army or force; the great 
adversary of mankind, the devil. 

According to ancient military usage, 
the utmost cruelty was lawful toward 
enemies. In modern times more humane 
principles prevail, and men recognize 
that, by taking up arms against one an- 
other in public war, they do not cease on 
this account to be moral beings, and re- 
sponsible to one another and to God. 
Warfare is now carried on subject to 
certain general rules, which are intended 
to abridge the calamities of war, and to 
protect the rights of individuals. An ad- 
mirable summary of these rules may be 
found in the "Instructions for United 
States Armies," issued in 1863. In 1874 
an International Conference, held in 
Brussels, devoted much time to the elab- 
oration of rules for military warfare. 
The Institute of International Law, at 
its meeting at Oxford, in 1880, prepared 
and adopted a "Manual of the Laws of 
War on Land," in which minute rules for 
the conduct of hostilities are set forth. 

Military necessity admits of all direct 
destruction of life or limb of armed ene- 
mies, and of other persons where destruc- 
tion is unavoidable; it allows of all de- 
struction of property, and obstruction of 
the way^ and channels of traffic, and of 
all withholding of sustenance or means 
of life from the enemy. Such military 
necessity does not, however, admit of 
cruelty, nor of maiming or wounding ex- 
cept in fight, nor of the use of poison in 
any way, nor of the wanton devastation 
of a district. It admits of deception, but 
disclaims all acts of perfidy. In the case 
of the occupation of a country by the en- 
emy, the persons of the inhabitants, es- 
pecially of women, are respected, and the 
maxims of religion and morality are ac- 
knowledged. Private property, unless 
forfeited by crimes, can be seized only on 
the ground of military necessity; if the 
proprietor has not fled receipts are usu- 
ally given, which enable the spoliated 
Vol. IV — Cyc— A 



12 ENFIELD 

owner to obtain indemnity. Trade between 
the subjects of two hostile powers is abso- 
lutely suspended during hostilities unless 
permitted by express sanction, and the 
importation of articles particularly use- 
ful in war is contraband. All such mate- 
rial, whether supplied by subjects of the 
enemy or of another state, is seized and 
confiscated. In the World War (1914- 
1918) the English courts held that an 
enemy alien residing in England could 
defend an action brought against him, 
but an interned enemy subject could not. 
The Germans allowed an enemy alien 
residing in the Empire access to the Ger- 
man courts, but not those living in 
other countries. In France some of the 
lower courts allowed enemy aliens to take 
action and some did not. In April, 1916, 
the French Court of Appeal upheld this 
right. In the United States alien en- 
emies had access to the courts as freely 
as citizens. 

ENERGETICS, that branch of science 
which investigates the laws relating to 
physical or mechanical forces, as opposed 
to vital. It thus comprehends the con- 
sideration of the whole range of physical 
phenomena. 

ENERGY, the power that a body or 
system possesses of doing work; a term 
in physics. There is no manifestation of 
energy apart from matter. There are 
two main types of energy: Energy of 
motion (kinetic energy), and energy of 
position (potential energy). Currents of 
air or of water possess kinetic energ:y; a 
stone resting on the brow of a cliff, and 
water at the edge of a fall, possess poten- 
tial energy. There is energy of visible 
motion and energy of position in visible 
arrangements of bodies, as in the bullet 
moving upward or downward, or at rest 
at its highest position. A bullet project- 
ed vertically upward possesses a great 
amount of energy. The higher it rises 
the less resistance can it overcome; and 
having reached the highest it can attain, 
it seems incapable of doing work, yet it 
will gradually acquire speed in the down- 
ward direction, and will finally (the re- 
sistance of the air being neglected) reach 
the ground with the same speed it had at 
first, and is thus capable of doing the 
same amount of work. When at its 
highest position and seemingly incapable 
of doing work, it really possesses energy 
as at first. A bent spring possesses po- 
tential energy. 

ENFIELD, a town of Connecticut, in 
Hartford co. It is on the Connecticut 
river, and on the New York, New Haven 
and Hartford railroad. Its industries 
include carpet factories, brick works, and 
the manufacture of filter presses, under- 



ENGHIiiN 13 

takers' supplies, etc. It is the center of 
an important tobacco-growing industry. 
Within the town limits is a settlement of 
Shakers. There is a public library. Pop. 
(1910) 9,719; (1920) 11,719. 

ENGHIEN (on-gyon'), LOUIS AN- 
TOINE HENRI DE BOURBON, DUKE 
OF; born in Chantilly, Aug. 2, 1772; 
son of Louis Henry Joseph Conde, Duke 
of Bourbon. On the outbreak of the 
Revolution he quitted France, traveled 
through various parts of Europe, and 
went in 1792 to Flanders to join his 
grandfather, the Prince of Conde, in the 
campaign against France. From 1796 to 
1799 he commanded the vanguard of 
Conde's army, which was disbanded at 
the Peace of Luneville (1801). He then 
took up residence as a private citizen at 
Ettenheim, in Baden, where he married 
the Princess Charlotte de Rohan Roche- 
fort. He was genera^y looked on as the 
leader of the French Emigres. An armed 
force was sent to seize him in Baden in 
violation of all territorial rights, and he 
was brought to Vincennes, March 20, 
1804. A mock trial was held the same 
night; and on the follovsring morning he 
was shot in the ditch outside the walls. 

ENGINEERING, the branch of science 
dealing with the design, construction 
and operation of various machines, struc- 
tures, and engines used in the arts, 
trades, and everyday life. Engineering 
is divided into many branches, the most 
important being civil, mechanical, elec- 
trical, mining, military, marine, and san- 
itary engineering. 

Civil Engineering is the most exten- 
sive and embraces the arts of architec- 
ture, surveying, bridge, railroad, harbor, 
and canal construction, and the building 
trades. 

Mechanical Engineering comprises the 
design, construction, and operation of 
machinery, the design of manufacturing 
plants, and all branches of industrial 
production. 

Electrical Engineering is a branch of 
mechanical engineering and includes the 
application of electricity to mechanical 
and industrial pursuits, as derived from 
some other source of energy. 

Mining Engineering is a combination 
of the three preceding branches as ap- 
plied to the discovery and operation of 
mines, the building of mineral working 
plants, and treatment of ores. 

Military Engineering deals entirely 
with the arts of war, the design, con- 
struction and maintenance of fortifica- 
tions, machines of defense and attack, 
ordnance, and the surveying of country 
in preparation for military operations. 

Marine Engineermg is partly military 

Vol. IV— Cyc — B 



ENGLAND 

and partly civil, embracing naval archi- 
tecture, building and operating of ships 
and naval accessories. In the military 
sense, it comprises the construction of war 
vessels and the construction and plac- 
ing of torpedoes, submarine mines, etc, 

Sanitary Engineering consists of the 
construction of sewers and drains, pro- 
viding for the cleaning of city streets 
and the disposal of garbage and sewage, 
reclaiming of swamps, and overcoming 
of all sources tending to interfere with 
public health. 

The education and training of the en- 
gineer in modern times have called for 
the establishment of technical schools 
and courses in engineering in the large 
colleges and universities. These schools 
provide the student with the theories of 
mathematics, mechanics, and engineer- 
ing, and by means of extensive labora- 
tory and outside work provide him with 
practice in the desigii, construction, and 
use of modern engineering appliances. 
Among the most noted technical schools 
are the University of Glasgow, Ecole 
Polytechnique, in Paris; Stevens Insti- 
tute of Technology, in Hoboken, N. J.; 
the Massachusetts Institute of Technol- 
ogy, in Boston; and Cornell and Colum- 
bia Universities. 

ENGINEERS, ROYAL, a corps in the 
British army intrusted with the con- 
struction of all military works, plans, 
surveys, etc. In 1772 the first company 
of "sappers and miners" was organized 
at Gibraltar. In 1783 the engineers were 
raised to be a royal corps, and in 1812 
several companies of artificers were con- 
verted into "sappers and miners." This 
name was abolished and that of royal 
engineers substituted in 1857. The corps 
usually numbers from 5,000 to 6,000 offi- 
cers and men. The privates, who are 
generally skilled artisans, receive a much 
higher rate of pay than ordinary infan- 
try soldiers. 

ENGLAND, including WALES, the 
S. and larger portion of the island of 
Great Britain, is situated between 50" 
and 55° 46' N. lat., and 1° 46' E. and 
5° 42' W. Ion. On the N. it is bounded 
by Scotland; on all other sides it is 
washed by the sea; on the E. by the 
North Sea or German Ocean; on the S. 
by the English Channel; and on the W. 
by St. George's Channel and the Irish 
Sea. Its figure is, roughly speaking, tri- 
angular, but with many windings and 
indentations, the coast-line measuring 
not less than 2,765 miles. The length of 
the country, measured on a meridian 
from Berwick nearly to St. Alban's 
Head, is 365 miles. Its breadth, measured 
on a parallel of latitude, attains its maxi- 



ENGLAND 

mum between St. David's Head, in South 
Wales, and the Naze, in Essex, where it 
amounts to 280 miles. 

Area and Population. — The area of 
England and Wales is 58,311 square 
miles and the population (estimated 
1919), England, 34,045,290; Wales. 2,- 
026,202; or a total of 36,070,492. 

The population of the principal cities in 
England in 1919 is estimated as follows: 
London (Greater), 7,258,263; Birming- 
ham, 861,585; Liverpool, 772,665; Man- 
chester, 741,068; Sheffield, 473,695; 
Leeds, 430,834; Bristol, 361,247; Brad- 
ford, 282,714. 

Physical Features.^The chief indenta- 
tions are: On the E., the Humber, the 
Wash, and the Thames estuary; on the 
W., the Solway Firth, Morecambe Bay, 
Cardigan Bay, and the Bristol Channel; 
those on the S. are less prominent, 
though including some useful harbors. 
The greater part of the coast consists 
of cliffs, in some places clayey, in others 
rocky, and sometimes jutting out, as at 
Whitby and Flamborough Head on the 
E., Beachy Head, the Isle of Portland, 
the Lizard and Land's End on the S. 
and S. W., St. David's Head and St. 
Bees Head on the W., into bold, lofty, 
and precipitous headlands. The most ex- 
tensive stretches of flat coast are on the 
E., in the county of Lincoln, and from 
the S. part of Suffolk to South Foreland 
in Kent, and in Sussex and Hants on the 
S. coast. The chief islands are: Holy 
Island, the Fame Islands, Sheppy, and 
Thanet on the E. coast; the Isle of Wight 
on the S.; the Scilly Isles at the S. W, 
extremity; and Lundy Island, Anglesey, 
Holyhead, and Walney on the W. 

The loftiest heights of England and 
Wales are situated at no great distance 
from its W. shores, and consist of a suc- 
cession of mountains and hills, stretch- 
ing, with some interruptions, from N. to 
S., and throwing out numerous branches 
on both sides, but particularly to the 
W., where all the culminating summits 
are found. The N. portion of this range 
has received the name of the Pennine 
chain. It is properly a continuation of 
the Cheviot Hills, and, commencing at 
the Scottish border, proceeds S. for about 
270 miles, till, in the counties of Derby 
and Stafford, it assumes the form of an 
elevated moorland plateau. In Derby- 
shire The Peak rises to the height of 
2,080 feet. By far the most important of 
its offsets are those of the W., more 
especially if we include in them the lofty 
mountain masses in northwestern Eng- 
land sometimes classed separately as the 
Cumbrian range. Amid these mountains 
lie the celebrated English lakes, of which 
the most important are Windermere, 



14 ENGLAND 

Derwent Water, Coniston Lake and Ulls- 
water. Here also is the highest summit 
of northern England, Scawfell (3,210 
feet). The Pennine chain, with its ap- 
pended Cumbrian range, is succeeded by 
one which surpasses both these in lofti- 
ness and extent, but has its great nucleus 
much farther to the W., where it covers 
the greater part of Wales, deriving from 
this its name, the Cambrian range. Itfj 
principal ridge stretches through Car- 
narvonshire from N. N. E. to S. S. W., 
with Snowdon (3,571 feet) as the cul- 
minating point of south Great Britain. 
Across the Bristol channel from Wales 
is the Devonian range. It may be con- 
sidered as commencing in the Mendip 
Hills of Somerset, and then pursuing a 
S. W. direction through that county and 
the counties of Devon and Cornwall to 
the Land's End, the wild and desolate 
tract of Dartmoor forming one of its 
most remarkable features (highest sum- 
mit, Yes Tor, 2,050 feet). Other ranges 
are the Cotswold Hills, proceeding in a 
N. E. direction from near the Mendip 
Hills; the Chiltern Hills taking a similar 
direction farther to the E.; and the 
North and South Downs running E., 
the latter reaching the S. coast near 
Beachy Head, the former reaching the 
S. E. coast at Folkestone. 

A large part of the surface of Eng- 
land consists of wide valleys and plains. 
Beginning in the N., the first valleys on 
the E. side are those of the Soquet, Tyne, 
and Tees; on the W. the beautiful valley 
of the Eden, which, at first hemmed in 
between the Cumbrian range and Pen- 
nine chain, gradually widens out into a 
plain of about 470 square miles, with the 
town of Carlisle in its center. The most 
important of the N. plains is the Vale of 
York, which has an area of nearly 1,000 
square miles. Properly speaking, it is 
still the same plain which stretches, with 
scarcely a single interruption, across the 
counties of Lincoln, Suffolk, and Essex, 
to the mouth of the Thames, and to a 
considerable distance inland, comprising 
the central plain and the region of the 
fens. On the W. side of the island, in 
South Lancashire and Cheshire, is the 
fertile Cheshire plain. In Wales there 
are no extensive plains, the valleys gen- 
erally having a narrow, rugged form 
favorable to romantic beauty, but not 
compatible with great fertility. Wales, 
however, by giving rise to the Severn, 
can justly claim part in the vale, or 
series of almost unrivaled vales, along 
which it pursues its romantic course 
through the counties of Montgomery, 
Salop, Worcester, and Gloucester. S. E. 
of the Cotswold Hills is Salisbury plain, 
a large elevated plateau, of an oval 



ENGLAND 



15 



ENGLAND 



shape, with a thin, chalky soil only suit- 
able for pasture. In the S. W. the only 
vales deserving of notice are those of 
Taunton in Somerset and Exeter in 
Devon. A large portion of the S. E. may 
be regarded as a continuous plain, con- 
sisting of the Wealds of Sussex, Surrey, 
and Kent, between the North and South 
Downs, and containing an area of about 
1,000 square miles. The S. E. angle of 
this district is occupied by the Romney 
marsh, an extensive level tract composed 
for the most part of a rich marine de- 
posit. Extensive tracts of a similar 
nature are situated on the E. coast, in 
Yorkshire and Lincoln, where they are 
washed by the Humber; and in the 
counties which either border the Wash, 
or, like Northampton, Bedford, Hunting- 
don, and Cambridge, send their drainage 
into it by the Nen and the Ouse. Many 
of these lands are nj^turally the richest 
in the kingdom; but have only been 
utilized by means of drainage. 

England is well supplied with rivers, 
many of them of great importance to in- 
dustry and commerce. Most of them 
carry their waters to the North Sea. If 
we consider the drainage as a whole, four 
principal river basins may be distin- 
guished, those of the Thames, Wash, and 
Humber belonging to the German Ocean ; 
and the Severn belonging to the Atlantic. 
The basin of the Thames has its greatest 
length from E. to W., 130 miles, and its 
average breadth about 50 miles, area 
6,160 square miles. The river itself, 
which is the chief of English rivers, has 
a length of 215 miles. The basin of the 
Wash consists of the subordinate basins 
of the Great Ouse, Nen, Welland, and 
Witham, which all empty themselves into 
that estuary, and has an area computed 
at 5,850 square miles. The basin of the 
Severn consists of two distinct portions, 
that on the right bank, of an irregularly 
Dval shape, and having for its principal 
tributaries the Teme and the Wye; and 
that on the left, of which the Upper 
Avon is the principal tributary stream. 
The area of the whole basin is 8,580 
square miles. The next basin, that of the 
Humber, the largest of all, consists of 
the three basins of the Humber proper, 
the Ouse, and the Trent, and its area 
is 9,550 square miles, being about one- 
sixth of the whole area of England and 
Wales. Other rivers unconnected with 
these systems are the Tyne, Wear, and 
Tees, in the N. E.; the Eden, Ribble, 
Mersey, and Dee, in the N. W. The S. 
coast streams are very unimportant ex- 
cept for their estuaries. 

CivilHistory. — The history of England 
proper begins when it ceased to be a Ro- 
man possession. On the withdrawal of 
the Roman forces, about the beginning of 



the 5th century a. d., the South Britons, 
or inhabitants of what is now called Eng- 
land, were no longer able to withstand 
the attacks of their ferocious N. neigh- 
bors, the Scots and Picts. They applied 
for assistance to Aetius, but the Roman 
general was too much occupied to attend 
to their petition. In their distress they 
appear to have sought the aid of the Sax- 
ons; and according to the Anglo-Saxon 
narratives three ships, containing 1,600 
men, were dispatched to their help under 
the command of the brothers Hengest 
and Horsa. Marching against the N. 
foe, they obtained a complete victory. The 
date assigned to these events is A. d. 449, 
the narratives asserting further that the 
Saxons, finding the land desirable, turned 
their arms against the Britons, and re- 
inforced by new bands, conquered first 
Kent and ultimately the larger part of 
the island. It is certain that in the 
middle of the 5th century the occasional 
Teutonic incursions gave place to per- 
sistent invasion with a view to settlement. 
These Teutonic invaders were Low Ger- 
man tribes from the country about the 
mouths of the Elbe and the Weser, the 
three most prominent being the Angles, 
the Saxons, and the Jutes. Of these the 
Jutes were the first to form a settlement, 
taking possession of part of Kent, the 
Isle of Wight, etc., but the larger con- 
quests of the Saxons in the S. and the 
Angles in the N. gave to these tribes 
the leading place in the kingdom. The 
struggle continued 150 years, and at the 
end of that period the whole S. part 
of Great Britain, with the exception of 
Strathclyde, Wales, and West Wales 
(Cornwall) , was in the hands of the Teu- 
tonic tribes. This conquered territory was 
divided among a number of small states, 
seven of the most conspicuous of which 
are often spoken of as the Heptarchy. 
These wei'e: (1) The kingdom of Kent; 
founded by Hengest in 455; ended in 823. 
(2) Kingdom of South Saxons, con- 
taining Sussex and Surrey; founded by 
Ella in 477; ended in 689. (3) Kingdom 
of East Angles containing Norfolk, 
Suffolk, Cambridge, Ely (Isle of) ; 
founded by Uffa in 571 or 575 ; ended 
in 792. (4) Kingdom of West Saxons, 
containing Devon, Dorset, Somerset, 
Wilts, Hants, Berks, and part of Corn- 
wall; founded by Cerdic 519; swallowed 
up the rest in 827. (5) Kingdom of 
Northumbria, containing York, Durham, 
Cumberland, Westmoreland, Northumber- 
land, and the E. coast of Scotland to the 
Firth of Forth; founded by Ida 547; ( 
absorbed by Wessex in 827. (6) King- 
dom of East Saxons, containing Essex, 
Middlesex, Hertford (part) ; founded by 
Erchew in 527; ended in 823. (7) King- 
dom of Mercia, containing Gloucester, 



ENGLAND 



16 



ENGLAND 



Hereford, Worcester, Warwick, Leicester, 
Rutland, Northampton Lincoln, Hunting- 
don. Bedford, Buckingham, Oxford, Staf- 
ford, Derby, Salop, Nottingham, Chester, 
Hertford (part) ; founded by Cridda 
about 584; absorbed by Wessex in 827. 
Each state was, in its turn, annexed to 
more powerful neighbors; and at length, 
in 827, Egbert, by his valor and superior 
capacity, united in his own person the 
sovereigTity of what had formerly been 
seven kingdoms, and the whole came to 
be called England, that is Angle-land. 

Meanwhile certain important changes 
had occurred. The conquest had been 
the slow expulsion of a Christian race by 
a purely heathen race, and the country 
had returned to something of its old iso- 
lation with regard to the rest of Europe. 
But before the close of the 6th century 
Christianity had secured a footing in the 
S. E. of the island. Ethelbert, King of 
Kent and suzerain over the kingdoms S. 
of the Humber, married a Christian wife, 
Bertha, daughter of Charibert of Sois- 
sons, and this event led indirectly to the 
coming of St. Augustine. The conversion 
of Kent, Essex, and East Anglia was 
followed by that of Northumberland and 
then by that of Mercia, of Wessex, of 
Sussex, and lastly of Wight, the contest 
between the two religions being at its 
height in the 7th century. The legal and 
political changes immediately consequent 
on the adoption of Christianity were not 
great, but there resulted a more intimate 
delation with Europe and the older civili- 
zations, the introduction of new learning 
and culture, the formation of a written 
literature, and the fusion of the tribes 
and petty kingdoms into a closer and 
more lasting unity than that which could 
have been otherwise secured. 

The kingdom, however, was still kept 
in a state of disturbance by the attacks 
of the Danes, who had made repeated 
incursions during the whole of the Saxon 
period, and about half a century after 
the unification of the kingdom became 
for the moment masters of nearly the 
whole of England. But Alfred the Great, 
who had ascended the throne in 871, de- 
feated the Danes at Ethan dune (887). 
Guthrum, their king, embraced Chris- 
tianity, became the vassal of the Saxon 
king, and retired to a strip of land on the 
E. coast including Northumbria and 
called the Danelagh. The two imme- 
diate successors of Alfred, Edward (901- 
925) and Athelstan (925-940), the son 
and grandson of Alfred, had each to 
direct his arms against these settlers of 
the Danelagh. The reigns of the next 
five kings, Edmund, Edred, Edwy, Edgar, 
and Edward the Martyr, are chiefly re- 
markable on account of the conspicuous 
place occupied in them by Dunstan, who 



was counsellor to Edmund, minister of 
Edred, treasurer under Edwy, and su- 
preme during the reigns of Edgar and 
his successor. It was possibly due to his 
policy that from the time of Athelstan 
till after the death of Edward the 
Martyr (978 or 979), the country had 
comparative rest from the Danes. Dur- 
ing the 10th century many changes had 
taken place in the Teutonic constitution. 
Feudalism was already taking root; the 
king's authority had increased; the folk- 
land was being taken over as the king's 
personal property; the nobles by birth, or 
earldormen, were becoming of less im- 
portance in administration than the 
nobility of thegns, the officers of the 
king's court. Ethelred (978-1016), who 
succeeded Edward, was a minor, the gov- 
ernment was feebly conducted, and the 
incursions of the Danes became more 
frequent and destructive. A general 
massacre of them took place in 1002. 
The following year Sweyn invaded the 
kingdom with a powerful army and as- 
sumed the crown of England. Ethelred 
was compelled to take refuge in Nor- 
mandy; and though he afterward re- 
turned, he found in Canute an adversary 
no less formidable than Sweyn. Ethelred 
left his kingdom in 1016 to his son Ed- 
mund, who displayed great valor, but 
was compelled to divide his kingdom 
with Canute; when he was assassinated 
in 1017, the Danes succeeded to the 
sovereignty of the whole. 

Canute (Knut), who espoused the 
vddow of Ethelred, obtained the name of 
Great, not only on account of his per- 
sonal qualities but from the extent of 
his dominions, being master of Denmark 
and Norway as well as England. In 1035 
he died, and in England was followed by 
the other two Danish kings, Harold and 
Hardicanute, whose joint reigns lasted 
till 1042, after which the English line was 
again restored in the person of Edward 
the Confessor. Edward was a weak 
prince, and in the latter years of his 
reign had far less real power than his 
brother-in-law Harold, son of the great 
earl Godwin. On Edward's death in 
1066 Harold accordingly obtained the 
crown. He found a formidable opponent 
in the second cousin of Edward, William 
of Normandy, who instigated the Danes 
to invade the N. countries, while he, with 
60,000 men, landed in the S. Harold 
vanquished the Danes, and hastening 
southward met the Normans near Has- 
tings, at Senlac, afterward called Battle. 
Harold and his two brothers fell (Oct. 
14, 1066), and William (1066-1087) im- 
mediately claimed the government as 
lawful King of England, being subse- 
quently known as William I., the Con- 
queror. For some time he conducted the 



ENGLAND 



17 



ENGLAND 



government with great moderation; but 
being obliged to reward those who had 
assisted him, he bestowed the chief offices 
of government on Normans, and divided 
among them a great part of the country. 
The revolts of the native English which 
followed were quickly crushed, conti- 
nental feudalism in a modified form was 
established, and the English Church re- 
organized under Lanfranc as Archbishop 
of Canterbury. 

At his death, in 1087, William II., 
tommonly known by the name of Rufus, 
the conqueror's second son, obtained the 
crown, Robert, the eldest son, receiving 
the Duchy of Normandy. In 1100, when 
William II. was accidentally killed in the 
New Forest, Robert was again cheated 
of his throne by his younger brother 
Henry (Henry I.), v/ho in 1106 even 
wrested from him the Duchy of Nor- 
niandy. Henry's power being secured, he 
entered into a dispute with Anselm the 
primate, and with the Pope, concerning 
the right of granting investiture to the 
clergy. He supported his quarrel with 
firmness, and brought it to a favorable 
issue. His reign was also marked by 
the suppression of the greater Norman 
nobles in England. In 1135 he died in 
Normandy, leaving behind him only a 
daughter, Matilda. 

By the will of Henry I. his daughter 
Maud or Matilda, wife of Geoffrey Plan- 
tagenet. Count of Anjou, who had first 
been married to Henry V., Emperor of 
Germany, was declared his successor. 
But Stephen, son of the Count of Blois, 
and of Adela, daughter of William the 
Conqueror, raised an army in Normandy, 
landed in England, and declared himself 
king. After years of civil war and blood- 
shed it was agreed that Stephen should 
continue to reign during the remainder 
of his life, but that he should be suc- 
ceeded by Henry, son of Matilda and the 
Count of Anjou. Stephen died in 1154, 
and Henry Plantagenet ascended the 
throne with the title of Henry II., being 
the first of the Plantagenet or Angevin 
kings. A larger dominion was united 
under his sway than had been held by 
any previous sovereign of England, for 
at the time when he became King of 
England he was already in the posses- 
sion of Anjou, Normandy, and Aquitaine. 

Henry II. found far less difficulty in 
restraining the license of his barons than 
in abridging the exorbitant privileges of 
the clergy, who were supported by the 
primate Becket. The king's wishes wei'e 
formulated in the Constitutions of Clar- 
endon (1164), which were at first ac- 
cepted and then repudiated by the pri- 
mate. The assassination of Becket, how- 
ever, placed the king at a disadvantage 
in the struggle, and after his conquest 



of Ireland (1171) he submitted to the 
Church and did penance at Becket's 
tomb. Henry was the first who placed 
the common people of England in a situa- 
tion which led to their having a share 
in the government. The system of frank- 
pledge was revived, trial by jury was 
instituted by the Assize of Clarendon, 
and the Eyre courts were made perma- 
nent by the Assize of Nottingham. To 
curb the power of the nobles he granted 
charters to towns, thus laying the foun- 
dation of a new order in society. 

Richard I., called Cceur de Lion, who in 
1189 succeeded his father, Henry II., 
spent most of his reign away from Eng- 
land. Having gone to Palestine to join in 
the third crusade he proved himself an 
intrepid soldier. Returning homeward in 
disguise through Germany, he was made 
prisoner by Leopold, Duke of Austria, 
but was ransomed by his subjects. In the 
meantime John, his brother, had aspired 
to the crown, and hoped, by the assistance 
of the French, to exclude Richard from 
his right. Richard's presence for a time 
restored matters to some appearance of 
order; but having undertaken an ex- 
pedition against France, he received a 
mortal wound at the siege of Chalons, in 
1199. 

John was at once recognized as King 
of England, and secured possession of 
Normandy; but Anjou, Maine, and Tou- 
raine acknowledged the claim of Arthur, 
son of Geoffrey, second son of Henry II. 
On the death of Arthur, while in John's 
power, these four French provinces were 
at once lost to England. John's opposi- 
tion to the Pope in electing a successor 
to the see of Canterbury in 1205 led to 
the kingdom being placed under an inter- 
dict; and the nation being in a disturbed 
condition, he was at last compelled to re- 
ceive Stephen Langton as archbishop, 
and to accept his kingdom as a fief of 
the papacy (1213). His exactions and 
misgovernment had equally embroiled 
him with the nobles. In 1213 they re- 
fused to follow him to France, and on 
his return defeated, they at once took 
measures to secui'e their own privileges 
and abridge the prerogatives of the 
crown. King and barons met at Runny- 
mede, and on June 15, 1215, the Great 
Charter (Magna Charta) was signed. It 
was speedily declared null and void by 
the Pope, and war broke out between 
John and the barons, who were aided by 
the French king. In 1216, however, John 
died, and his turbulent reign was suc- 
ceeded by the almost equally turbulent 
reign of Henry III. 

During the first years of the reign of 
Henry III. the abilities of the Earl of 
Pembroke, who was regent until 1219, 
kept the kingdom in tranquillity; but 



ENGLAND 



■when, in 1227, Henry assumed the reins 
of government he showed himself in- 
capable of managing them. The Charter 
was three times reissued in a modified 
form, and new privileges were added to 
it, but the king took no pains to observe 
its provisions. The struggle, long main- 
tained in the great council (hencefor- 
ward called Parliament), reached an 
acute stage in 1263, when civil war broke 
out. Simon de Montfort, who had laid 
the foundations of the House of Com- 
mons by summoning representatives of 
the shire communities to the Mad Parlia- 
ment of 1258, had by this time engrossed 
the sole power. He defeated the king and 
his son Edward at Lewes in 1264, and 
in his famous Parliament of 1265 still 
further widened the privileges of the 
people by summoning to it burgesses as 
well as knights of the shire. The escape 
of Prince Edward, however, was followed 
by the battle of Evesham (1265), at 
which Earl Simon was defeated and 
slain, and the rest of the reign was un- 
disturbed. 

On the death of Henry III., in 1272, 
Edward I. succeeded without opposition. 
From 1276 to 1284 he was largely oc- 
cupied in the conquest and annexation of 
Wales. When, in 1294, war broke out 
with France, Scotland also declared war. 
The Scots were defeated at Dunbar 
(1296), and the country placed under an 
English regent; but the revolt under 
Wallace (1297), was followed by that of 
Bruce (1306), and the Scots remained 
unsubdued. The reign of Edward was 
distinguished by many legal and legisla- 
tive reforms, such as the separation of 
the old King's Court into the Court of 
Exchequer, Court of King's Bench, and 
Court of Common Pleas, the passage of 
the Statute of Mortmain, etc. In 1295 
the first perfect Parliament was sum- 
moned. Two years later the imposition 
of taxation without consent of Parlia- 
ment was forbidden by special act. The 
great aim of Edward, however, to in- 
clude England, Scotland, and Wales in 
one kingdom proved a failure, and he 
died in 1307 marching against Robert 
Bruce. 

The reign of his son Edward II. was un- 
fortunate to himself and to his kingdom. 
At Bannockburn (1314), the English re- 
ceived a defeat from Robert Bruce which 
insured the independence of Scotland. 
The king soon proved incapable of regu- 
lating the lawless conduct of his barons; 
and his wife, a woman of bold, intriguing 
disposition, joined in the confederacy 
against him, which resulted in his im- 
prisonment and death in 1327. 

The reign of Edward III. was as bril- 
liant as that of his father had been the 
reverse. The main projects of the third 



18 ENGLAND 

Edward were directed against France, 
the crown of which he claimed in 1328, 
in virtue of his mother, the daughter of 
King Philip. The victory won by the 
Black Prince at Crecy (1346), the cap- 
ture of Calais (1347), and the victory 
of Poitiers (1356), ultimately led to the 
Peace of Bretigny in 1360, by which Ed- 
ward III. received all the W. of France 
en condition of renouncing his claim to 
the French throne. Before the close of 
his reign, however, these advantages 
were all lost again, save a few principal 
towns on the coast. 

Edward III. was succeeded in 1377 by 
his grandson Richard II., son of Edward 
the Black Prince. In 1380 an unjust 
and oppressive poll-tax brought their 
popular grievances to a head, and 100,- 
000 men under Wat Tyler, marched to- 
ward London (1381). Wat Tyler was 
killed while conferring with the king, and 
the prudence and courage of Richard 
appeased the insurgents. In 1398 he ban- 
ished his cousin, Henry Bolingbroke ; and 
on the death of the latter's father, the 
Duke of Lancaster, unjustly appropri- 
ated his cousin's patrimony. To avenge 
the injustice Bolingbroke landed in Eng- 
land during the king's absence in Ireland, 
and at the head of 60,000 malcontents 
compelled Richard to surrender. He was 
confined in the Tower, and despite the 
superior claims of Edmund Mortimer, 
Earl of March, Henry was appointed 
king (1399), the first of the House of 
Lancaster. Richard was, in all prob- 
ability, murdered early in 1400. 

The manner in which the Duke of Lan- 
caster, now Henry IV., acquired the 
crown rendered his reign extremely tur- 
bulent, but the vigor of his administra- 
tion quelled every insurrection. The most 
important — that of the Percies of North- 
umberland, Owen Glendower, and Doug- 
las of Scotland — was crushe.d by the 
battle of Shrewsbury (1403). During the 
reign of Henry IV. the clergy of Eng- 
land first began the practice of burning 
heretics. The act under which this was 
done was directed chiefly against the Lol- 
lards, as the followers of Wyclif now 
came to be called. Henry died in 1413, 
leaving his crown to his son, Henry V., 
who revived the claim of Edward III. 
to the throne of France in 1415, and in- 
vaded that country at the head of 30,000 
men. The disjointed councils of the 
French rendered their country an easy 
prey; the victory of Agincourt was 
gained in 1415; and after a second cam- 
paign a peace was concluded at Troyes 
in 1420, by which Henry received the 
hand of Catherine, daughter of Charles 
VI., was appointed regent of France 
during the reign of his father-in-law, and 
declared heir to the throne on his death. 



ENGLAND 



19 



ENGLAND 



The two kings, however, died within a 
few weeks of each other in 1422, and 
the infant son of Henry thus became 
King of England (as Henry VI.) and 
France at the age of nine months. 

England during the reign of Henry 
VI., was subjected to all the confusion in- 
cident to a long minority, and afterward 
to a civil war. Henry allowed himself 
to be managed by anyone who had the 
courage to assume the conduct of his af- 
fairs, and the influence of his wife Mar- 
garet of Anjou, was of no advantage 
either to himself or the realm. In France 
(1422-1453) the English forces lost 
ground, and were finally expelled by the 
celebrated Joan of Arc, Calais alone 
being retained. The rebellion of Jack 
Cade in 1450 was suppressed, only to be 
succeeded by more serious trouble. In 
that year Richard, Duke of York, the 
father of Edward, afterward Edward 
IV., began to advance his pretensions to 
the throne. His claim was founded on 
his descent from the third son of Edward 
III., who was his great-great-grand- 
father on the mother's side, while Henry 
was the great-grandson on the father's 
side of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lan- 
caster, the fourth son of Edward III. 
Richard of York was also grandson on 
the father's side of Edmund, fifth son of 
Edward III. The wars which resulted, 
called the Wars of the Roses, from the 
fact that a red rose was the badge of the 
House of Lancaster and a white one that 
of the House of York, lasted for 30 
years, from the first battle of St. Albans, 
May 22, 1455, to the battle of Bosworth, 
Aug. 22, 1485. Henry VI. was twice 
driven from the throne (in 1461 and 
1471) by Edward of York, whose father 
had previously been killed in battle in 
1460. Edward of York reigned as Ed- 
ward IV. from 1461 till his death in 
1483, with a brief interval in 1471; and 
was succeeded by two other sovereigns 
of the House of York, first his son Ed- 
ward v., who reigned for 11 weeks in 
1483; and then by his brother Richard 
III., who reigned from 1483 till 1485, 
when he was defeated and slain on Bos- 
worth field by Henry Tudor, of the House 
of Lancaster, who then became Henry 
VII. 

Henry VII. was at this time the repre- 
sentative of the House of Lancaster, and 
in order at once to strengthen his own 
title, and to put an end to the rivalry 
between the Houses of York and Lan- 
caster, he married in 1486 Elizabeth, 
the sister of Edward V. and heiress of 
the House of York. His reign was dis- 
turbed by insurrections attending the im- 
postures of Lambert Simnel (1487) and 
Perkin Warbeck (1488) ; but neither of 
these attained any magnitude. "The king's 



worst fault was avarice. His adminis- 
tration throughout did much to increase 
the royal power and to establish order 
and prosperity. He died in 1509. 

The authority of the English crown, 
which had been so much extended by 
Henry VII., was by his son Henry VIII. 
exerted in a tyrannical and capricious 
manner. The most important event of 
the reign was undoubtedly the Reforma- 
tion; though it had its origin rather in 
Henry's caprice and in the casual situa- 
tion of his private affairs than in his 
conviction of the necessity of a reforma- 
tion in religion, or in the solidity of rea- 
soning employed by the reformers. Henry 
had been espoused to Catherine of Spain, 
who was first married to his elder 
brother Arthur, who died young. Henry 
became enamored of one of her maids of 
honor, Anne Boleyn. He had recourse to 
the Pope to dissolve his marriage; but 
failing in his desires he broke away 
entirely from the Holy See, and in 1534 
got himself recognized by act of Parlia- 
ment as the head of the English Church. 
He died in 1547. He was married six 
times, and left three children, each of 
whom reigned in turn. These were: 
Mary, by his first wife, Catherine of 
Aragon; Elizabeth, by his second vfite, 
Anne Boleyn; and Edward by his third 
wife, Jane Seymour. 

Edward, who reigned first with the 
title of Edward VI., was nine years of 
age at the time of his succession, and 
died in 1553, when he was only 16. His 
short reign, or rather the reign of the 
Earl of Hertford, afterward Duke of 
Somerset, who was appointed regent, was 
distinguished chiefly by the success which 
attended the measures of the reformers, 
who acquired great part of the power- 
formerly engrossed by the Catholics. The 
intrigues of Dudley, Duke of North- 
umberland, during the reign of Edward, 
caused Lady Jane Grey to be declared 
his successor; but her reign, if it could 
be called such, lasted only a few days. 
Mary, daughter of Henry VIII. was 
placed on the throne, and Lady Jane 
Grey and her husband were both ex- 
ecuted. Mary seems to have wished for 
the crown only for the purpose of re- 
establishing the Roman Catholic faith. 
Political motives had induced Philip of 
Spain to accept of her as a spouse; but 
she could never prevail on her subjects 
to allow him any share of power. She 
died in 1558. 

Elizabeth, who succeeded her sister 
Mary, was attached to the Protestant 
faith, and found little difficulty in estab- 
lishing it in England. Having concluded 
peace with France (1559), Elizabeth set 
herself to promote the confusion which 
prevailed in Scotland, to which hef 



ENGLAND 



20 



ENGLAND 



cousin Mary had returned from France 
as queen in 1561. In this she was so far 
Buccessful that Mary placed herself in 
her power (1568), and after many years' 
imprisonment was sent to the scaffold 
(1587). As the most powerful Protes- 
tant nation, and as a rival to Spain in 
the New World, it was natural that Eng- 
laiid should become involved in difficulties 
with that country. The dispersion of the 
Armada by the English fleet under 
Howard, Drake, and Hawkins was the 
most brilliant event of a struggle which 
abounded in feats of valor. In Eliza- 
beth's reign London became the center of 
the world's trade, the extension of Brit- 
ish commercial enterprise being coin- 
cident with the ruin of Antwerp in 1585. 
The Parliament was increased, and its 
members were exempted from arrest. In 
literature not less than in politics and 
in commerce the same full life displayed 
itself, and England began definitely to 
assume the characteristics which dis- 
tinguish her from the other European 
nations of to-day. 

To Elizabeth succeeded (in 1603) 
James VI. of Scotland and I. of England, 
son of Mary Queen of Scots and Darn- 
ley. His accession to the crown of Eng- 
land in addition to that of Scotland 
did much to unite the two nations, 
though a certain smoldering animosity 
Still lingered. His dissimulation, how- 
ever, ended in his satisfying neither of 
the contending ecclesiastical parties — the 
Puritans or the Catholics; and his 
absurd insistence on his divine right 
made his reign a continuous struggle 
between the prerogative of the crown 
and the freedom of the people. His 
extravagance kept him in constant dis- 
putes with the Parliament, and compelled 
him to resort to monopolies, loans, be- 
nevolences, and other illegal methods. 
The nation at large, however, continued 
to prosper. His son, Charles I., who suc- 
ceeded him in 1625, inherited the same 
exalted ideas of royal prerogative, and 
his marriage with a Catholic, his arbi- 
trary rule, and illegal methods of rais- 
ing money, provoked bitter hostility. 
Civil war broke out in 1642, between the 
king's party and that of the Parliament, 
and the latter proving victorious, in 
1649 the king was beheaded. 

A commonwealth or republican gov- 
ernment was now established, in which 
the most prominent figure was Oliver 
Cromwell. Mutinies in the army among 
Pifth-monarchists and Levellers were 
subdued by Cromwell and Fairfax, and 
Cromwell in a series of masterly move- 
ments subjugated Ireland and gained 
the important battles of Dunbar and 
Worcester. At sea Blake had destroyed 
the Royalist fleet under Rupert, and was 



engaged in an honorable struggle with the 
Dutch under Van Tromp. But within the 
governing matters had come to a dead- 
lock. A dissolution was necessary, yet 
Parliament shrank from dissolving itself 
and in the meantime the reform of the 
law, a settlement with regard to the 
Church, and other important matters re- 
mained untouched. In April, 1653, Crom- 
well cut the knot by forcibly ejecting the 
members and putting the keys in his 
pocket. From this time he was practi- 
cally head of the government, which was 
vested in a council of 13. A Parliament 
— ^the Little or Barebones Parliament — 
was summoned and in December of the 
same year Cromwell was installed Lord 
Protector of the Commonwealth of Eng- 
land, Scotland, and Ireland. With more 
than the power of a king, he succeeded 
in dominating the confusion at home and 
made the country feared thoughout the 
whole of Europe. Cromwell died in 1658, 
and the brief and feeble protectorate of 
his son Richard followed. 

There was now a wide-spread feeling 
that the country would be better under 
the old form of government, and Charles 
II., son of Charles I., was called to the 
throne by the Restoration of 1660. He 
took complete advantage of the popular 
reaction from the narrowness and in- 
tolerance of Puritanism, and even latter- 
ly endeavored to re-establish the Cath- 
olic religion. The promises of religious 
freedom made by him before the Res- 
toration in the Declaration of Breda 
were broken by the Test and Corpora- 
tion Acts, and by the Act of Unifor- 
mity, which drove 2,000 clergymen from 
the Church and created the great dis- 
senting movement of modem times. The 
Conventicle and Five-Mile Acts followed, 
and the "Drunken Parliament" restored 
Episcopacy in Scotland. At one time 
even civil war seemed again imminent. 
The abolition of the censorship of the 
press (1679) and the reaffirmation of 
the Habeas Corpus principle are the 
most praiseworthy incidents of the 
reign. 

As Charles II. left no legitimate issue, 
his brother, the Duke of York, succeeded 
him as James IL (1685-1688). An in- 
vasion by an illegitimate son of Charles, 
the Duke of Monmouth, who claimed the 
throne, was suppressed, and the king's 
arbitrary rule was supported by the 
wholesale butcheries of Kirke and Jef- 
freys. The king's zealous countenance 
of Roman Catholicism and his attempts 
to force the Church and the universities 
to submission provoked a storm of op- 
position. The whole nation was prepared 
to welcome any deliverance, and in 1688 
William of Orange, husband of James' 
daughter Mary, landed in Torbay. JameF 



ENGLAND 



21 



ENGLAND 



fiid to France, and a convention sum- 
riioned by William settled the crown on 
him, he thus becoming William III. An- 
nexed to this settlement was a Declara- 
tion of Rights, circumscribing the royal 
prerogative. This placed henceforward 
the right of the British sovereign to the 
throne on a purely statutory basis. A 
toleration act, passed in 1689, released 
dissent from many penalties. 

In 1692 originated the national debt, 
the exchequer having been drained by 
the heavy military expenditure. A bill 
for triennial Parliaments was passed in 
1694, the year in which Queen Mary 
died. For a moment after her death 
William's popularity was in danger, but 
his successes at Namur and elsewhere, 
and the obvious exhaustion of France, 
once more confirmed his power. The 
treaty of Ryswick followed in 1697, and 
the death of James II. in exile in 1701 
removed a not unimportant source of 
danger. Early in the following year 
William also died, and by the act of 
settlement Anne succeeded him. 

The closing act of William's reign had 
been the formation of the grand alliance 
between England, Holland, and the Ger- 
man Empire, and the new queen's rule 
opened with the brilliant successes of 
Marlborough at Blenheim (1704) and Ra- 
millies (1706). Throughout the earlier 
part of her reign the Marlboroughs 
practically ruled the kingdom, the duke's 
■wife, Sarah Jennings, being the queen's 
most intimate friend and adviser. In 
1707 the history of England becomes 
the history of Great Britain, the Act 
of Union passed in that year binding the 
Parliaments and realms of England and 
Scotland into a single and more power- 
ful whole. On the death of Anne, the 
House of Brunswick came to the throne 
in the person of George I. (1714-1727). 
The principal events of the reign were 
abortive Jacobite risings, the divorce of 
the queen, and the ''South Sea bubble." 
George II. ascended the throne in 1727. 
His reign was prosperous, but not very 
eventful, except for the rebellion under 
the young pretender. George III. be- 
came king in 1760. Under his rule, the 
British Empire in India was founded, 
the American colonies established their 
independence, and the French Revolu- 
tion burst forth. England was for a 
time on the verge of ruin. The national 
debt reached enormous pi'oportions. But 
the genius of Chatham, Pitt, Fox, Nel- 
son, Olive and Wellington rescued the 
country, after the failure of George 
III.'s plan of personal government had 
been demonstrated. During this reign 
the legislative union of Great Britain 
and Ireland was effected. The king died 
in 1820, and was succeeded by George 



IV. His reign of 10 years witnessed' 
Roman Oatholic emancipation, the first 
development of England as a colonial 
power in the sense of to-day, and marked 
industrial expansion. William IV. ruled 
seven years (1830-1837). During this 
period the great Reform Bill, extending 
the suffrage, marked the dawn of the 
democratic era in English politics. 

Victoria became Queen of England 
in 1837, and died Jan. 22, 1901, her re ign 
being the longest in the country's his- 
tory. Her sway covered the period which 
embraces the revolutions of 1848 
throughout Europe, the wars of Prussia 
against Austria and France, the Orim- 
ean war, the Oivil War in the United 
States, the struggle for Egypt and the 
control of Afghanistan, the problem of 
Ohina and the conflict with the Boers 
which ended with the absorption of the 
Transvaal and the South African Re- 
public into the British Empire. The 
matters of purely domestic concern were 
the corn-law agitation, the condition of 
the working classes, trade-union regula- 
tion, free trade and popular education. 
During these years, the naval supremacy 
of England was maintained, the colonial 
empire of Great Britain was cemented 
and strengthened, and home rule, in the 
face of persistent agitation, was refused 
to Ireland. There was a very democratic 
extension of the suffrage during one of 
the Gladstone administrations. The In- 
dian Empire did not, on the whole, pros- 
per during the period from 1890 to 
1900, but the occupation of Egypt, dat- 
ing from 1882, was successful. The 
British North American Act of 1867 
and the Oommonwealth of Australia Act 
of 1900 indicated the tendency to im- 
perial federation, of which England's 
commanding position makes her the cen- 
ter. The royal power meanwhile waned 
to an extent which, with the extension of 
suffrage, left the country practically a 
democracy at the end of the 19th cen- 
tury. Edward VII. became king in 1901. 

In 1902 the New Education Bill was 
enacted and in the following year a 
Land Act for Ireland was passed, which 
provided for the distribution of £100,- 
000,000 to tenants for the purpose of 
enabling them to acquire ownership of 
land. The distribution was made in the 
form of long-term loans. In the same 
year Joseph Ohamberlain introduced a 
proposal for the modification of the fiscal 
arangements of the country which was 
equivalent to the abandonment of free 
trade. He proposed that the United 
Kingdom should enforce a duty on food 
imports from foreign countries and ad- 
mit products from the colonies free. This 
question was agitated both within and 
without Parliament for several years, 



ENGLAND 



22 



ENGLAND 



bnt with no political results. The Bal- 
four cabinet resigned in 1905. A Liberal 
Ministry was organized by Sir Henry 
Campbell-Bannerman. In foreign politics 
British prestige following the South 
African War was greatly increased. An 
alliance was made with Japan in 1902 
and 1905, Trade relations were estab- 
lished with Tibet in 1904. In the same 
year the position of England in Egypt 
improved by an agreement with France 
by which the latter gave her approval 
to the British acquisition of that 
country. 

In 1907 relations which had been 
growing increasingly strained between 
the House of Commons and the House 
of Lords brought about a desire for a 
modification of the powers of the latter 
body. This was accomplished in 1911 
when a bill was passed depriving the 
House of Lords of practically all power 
over money bills and providing other 
curbs on the power of the Upper House. 
An old-age pension bill was passed in 
1908. In the year following, David Lloyd 
George became Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer, and he at once began prepara- 
tions of measures to produce increased 
revenues. These included a tax on land 
which met with wide opposition, espe- 
cially in the House of Lords, which de- 
feated it. The government went twice 
to the country in 1910 on this issue and 
was each time sustained. Edward VIL 
died in 1910 and was succeeded bj 
George V. In 1914 the Home Rule Bill 
for Ireland was passed, as well as a bill 
disestablishing the Anglican Church in 
Wales. The Home Rule Bill was de- 
ferred on account of the outbreak of 
the World War. 

When the war began in August, 1914, 
political conditions were most unfavor- 
able. Ireland was on the verge of Civil 
War. The army was in poor condition and 
there were disagreements with the col- 
onies in regard to the naval policy, and 
other matters. In spite of these condi- 
tions, however, England went into the 
war with great enthusiasm. War mea- 
sures were passed providing for the 
authorization of war credits, and other 
legislation aiming at a successful prose- 
cution of the war was put into effect. 
For an account of the part taken by 
England and Great Britain in the World 
War, see that title. See also articles on 
the separate battles, Canada, Aus- 
tralia, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Pales- 
tine, Turkey, etc. 

Although by April, 1915, 750,000 men 
had been sent to the front it was evi- 
dent that more man power must be sup- 
plied. Conscription was proposed by 
many prominent men but did not at first 
meet with favor. A great campaign of 



recruiting was carried on in 1915 which 
resulted in the enlistment of about 830,- 
000 men. In January, 1916, a military- 
service bill was introduced in Parlia- 
ment. This provided that all bachelors 
and widowers between the ages of 18 
and 41 were liable for military service. 
Ireland was excluded from the operation 
of the bill. The bill was finally passed 
in May, 1916. 

One of the chief problems to be met 
by the government was the question of 
munitions, which during the first period 
of the war was entirely inadequate to 
meet the demands of the rapidly form- 
ing new army. The Munitions Act was 
passed which provided for government 
supervision of all manufacturing, which 
made strikes and lockouts illegal. 

In May, 1915, as a result of the 
cabinet crisis, a coalition cabinet was 
formed consisting of 12 Liberals, 8 
Unionists, and one Labor member. In 
December, 1915, Parliament introduced 
a bill prolonging its life for 12 months. 
By a later compromise this was reduced 
to 8 months. 

In April, 1916, a serious outbreak oc- 
curred in Ireland under the direction of 
Sir Roger Casement. (See Ireland.) In 
February, 1917, a bill was introduced 
into Parliament requiring all men be- 
tween the ages of 18 to 61 to be en- 
rolled. This bill was passed in March. 
Among other important events of 1917 
were the introduction of the new budget 
which largely increased taxation besides 
providing for electoral reforms and 
woman suffrage. In March of that year 
the First Imperial War Cabinet includ- 
ing representatives from all British 
dominions was held in London. The 
Irish question continued to be the most 
serious domestic problem during this 
year. During 1918 many stringent meas- 
ures were passed providing for in- 
creased efficiency in war work. A new 
military-service bill was enacted in 
April. This provided military service 
from every British male between the 
ages of 18 and 51 who had been in Eng- 
land since August, 1915. The second 
session of the Imperial War Cabinet 
took place June 10, 1918. The House of 
Commons in October of this year passed 
a measure providing for the member- 
ship of women in Parliament. A general 
election was held on December 14, 1918. 
The Liberal party was divided into two 
factions, one of which supported Lloyd 
George and the other Asquith. The 
Coalition Government was successfuji in 
the election, electing almost 5 to 1 of 
its members as candidates. This marked 
the complete overthrow of the Asquith 
Liberals and the Pacifists. During the 
year an Irish convention was held for 



ENGIiAND 



23 



ENGLAND, CHURCH OF 



the purpose of arriving at some agree- 
ment between the Irish factions. This, 
however, resulted in no substantial 
success and the Irish question was still 
unsettled at the end of the year. 

When Parliament met in 1919 the 
traditional party lines were more or less 
obliterated. Several of the most con- 
spicuous members, including Mr. As- 
quith, had lost their seats. David Lloyd 
George had been Prime Minister since 
December 7, 1916, and from that period 
until the end of the war he was the 
strongest figure and practically a dicta- 
tor of the English government. He was 
given the fullest possible powers and 
was in most cases warmly supported by 
the people. With President Wilson, he 
was the most conspicuous figure at the 
Peace Conference in 1919. During 1919 
economic conditions in England were 
very unfavorable and there were fre- 
quent strikes in the industrial centers. 
A threatened strike of the coal miners 
resulted in the formation of a coal com- 
mission, which succeeded in recommend- 
ing conditions which were accepted by 
the miners. The railway strike was in 
force during the latter part of the year, 
but was broken by lack of support by 
the people. During 1919 the Prince of 
Wales visited the United States, where 
he was received with great enthusiasm. 
In February 10, 1920, Parliament began 
a new session. Herbert Asquith, the 
former premier, was elected to the 
Hou.se of Commons from Paisley. After 
remaining in session until August 16, 
the House of Commons adjourned until 
October 19. At the beginning of the 
session on that date, supplementary 
army estimates were introduced bring- 
ing the total estimates for the year to 
about il65,000,000. 

During 1920 and 1921 disorder con- 
tinued in Ireland. In some portions of 
the country a practfcal condition of civil 
war existed. For an account of these 
conditions, see Ireland. The Irish Home 
Rule Bill was signed by King George 
in December, 1920, which was to go into 
effect at the discretion of the king. 

In 1921 agi'eement was made with 
France in regard to the control of Syria 
and Palestine, and a practical protector- 
ate was established over Mesopotamia. 
Egypt had already become an integral 
part of the British Empire. In March, 
1921, the Supreme Council of the Peace 
Conference held sessions in London to 
decide the question of reparations by 
Germany. 

For statistical data relating to Eng- 
land, see Great Britain. For the terri- 
tory embraced in the Empire, see 
British Empire. See also articles on the 



various subdivisions of the Empire, as 
Australia, Canada, New Zealand, 
India, etc. 



Sovereigns 
Began to 
reign. 

Anglo Saxon Link — 

Egbert 800 

Ethclwulf .... 836 
Ethclbald .... 857 

Ethclbert 860 

Ethelred 866 

Alfred 871 

Edward the Eld- 
er 901 

AthelBtan .... 925 

Edmund 940 

Bdred 946 

Edwy 955 

Edgar 957 

Edward the Mar- 
tyr 975 

Ethelred' the Un- 
ready 978 

Edmund Iron- 
side 1016 

Danish Line — 

Canute 1017 

Harold 1 1036 

Hardicanute ..1039 

Saxon Line — 

Edward the Con- 
fessor 1041 

Harold II 1066 

Norman Line — 

William 1 1066 

William II. . . .1087 
Henry 1 1100 

House of Blois — 
Stephen 1135 

Plantagenet Line — 

Henry II 1154 

Richard 1 1189 

John 1199 

Henry III 121G 

Edward 1 1272 



OF England 

Began to 
reign. 

Edward II 1307 

Edward III... 1327 
Richard II 1377 

House op Lancaster— 

Henry IV 1399 

Henry V 1413 

Henry VI 1422 

HousK OF York — 

Edward IV 1461 

Edward V. . . .1483 
Richard III...14S3 

House of Tudor — 

Henry VII 1485 

Henry VIII . . . 1509 

Edward VI 1547 

Mary 1553 

Elizabeth 1558 

Stuart Line — 

James 1 1603 

Charles 1 1625 

Commonwealth . 1649 

Stuart Line — 

Charles II 1660 

James II 1685 

House op Orange — 
William and 

Mary 1688 

Stuart Line — 

Anne 1702 

Brunswick Line — 

George 1 1714 

George II 1727 

George III 1760 

George IV 1820 

William IV... 1830 

Victoria 1837 

Edward VII... 1901 

Windsor Line — 

George V 1910 



ENGLAND, CHURCH OF, the official 
name of that body of Christians who 
have a formal head in the person of the 
hereditary ruler of England. This des- 
ignation is used in two senses: first, a 
general one signifying the Church re- 
garded as continuous, which, from the 
first triumph of Christianity till now, 
has been that of the English people; 
secondly, in a more specific sense, the 
Protestant Church now established in 
England as distinguished from the 
Church of Rome. 

The evangelistic zeal of Whitfield, 
Wesley, and various other clergymen, in 
the 18th century, awoke the Church to 
new life, which did not pass away even 
when the followers of these two great 
preachers ceased to belong to the Eng- 
lish Church. The evangelical party, still 
the most numerous in the Establishment, 
is, in large measure, the fruit of 18th 
century revival effort. In the 19th, the 
movement was in other directions. With 
1833, just after the passing of the first 
Reform Bill, the first of a series of 
"Tracts for the Times" came forth, and 
90 in all were issued within the next 
eight years. The ritualistic party, at a 
Jater date, carried on the work which 



ENGLEWOOD 



24 



ENGLISH LANGUAGE 



the tractarians had begun. In 1860 the 
"Essays and Reviews," and in 1862 a 
work by Bishop Colenso on the Penta- 
teuch, gave prominence to the opposite 
pole of thought, being what theologians 
call strongly rationalistic. Church con- 
gresses, bringing the representatives of 
these three parties face to face, softened 
their antagonisms, and fear of common 
danger renders them more united than 
they otherwise would be. 

In the English Church there are 3 
archbishops (Canterbury, York, and 
Wales) and 143 bishops, and 39 suffra- 
gan and assistant bishops, 2 of the arch- 
bishops and 24 of the bishops having 
seats in the House of Lords ; subordinate 
to these ai'e 30 deans, 100 archdeacons, 
613 rural deans, and about 13,500 bene- 
ficed clergy, the whole clerical staff of 
all grades being about 23,000. The total 
membership throughout the world in 
1919 was estimated at over 6,000,000, 
of whom about 2,400,000 were in Eng- 
land and Wales, about 576,000 in Ireland, 
about 56,000 in Scotland, and about 
3,000,000 in other parts of the world. 
Previous to 1871, the English Church 
and the Established Church of Ireland, 
constituted but a single body, called the 
United Church of England and Ireland. 
It is powerful also in the colonies, and 
by means of its two great societies, the 
Propagation and the Church Missionary 
Societies, acts powerfully on nearly every 
part of the heathen world. The Church 
in Wales and Monmouthshire was dis- 
established and disendowed by an act 
passed in 1914 which came into force in 
1920. 

Under the National Assembly of the 
Church of England (Powers) Act of 
1919 there is, in England, a National As- 
sembly, consisting of a House of Bishops, 
a House of Clergy, and a House of 
Laymen, and having power to legislate 
regarding Church matters. 

ENGLEWOOD, a city of New Jersey, 
in Bergen co. It is on the Erie railroad. 
It is chiefly a residential city, and con- 
tains a hospital, a public library, and 
other public buildings. Pop. (1910) 
9,924; (1920) 11,627. 

ENGLISH, THOMAS DUNN, an 

American author; born in Philadelphia, 
Pa., June 29, 1819; was graduated in 
medicine at the University of Pennsyl- 
vania in 1839; admitted to the bar in 
1842; engaged in journalism in New 
York in 1844-1859; then resumed medi- 
cal practice in Newark, N. J. He was a 
member of tR'e state assembly in 1863- 
1864, and of Congress in 1891-1895. He 
was the author of "Ben Bolt," an exceed- 
ingly popular ballad (1843); "Walter 
•Woolfe" (1842) ; "Ambrose Fecit, or the 



Peer and the Painter" (1869) ; "Ameri- 
can Ballads" (1882) ; "Book of Battle 
Lyrics" (1886) ; "Jacob Schuyler's Mil- 
lions" (1886) ; "Old Glory" song (1898) ; 
etc. He died in 1902. 

ENGLISH, WILLIAM HAYDEN, an 
American capitalist; born in Lexington, 
Ind., Aug. 27, 1822; received a college 
education and became a lawyer; was 
elected to Congress in 1852 and served 
there through four consecutive terms. 
As a member of the Committee on Terri- 
tories, in opposition to his own party, he 
worked against the admission of Kansas 
to the Union. He reported from the 
Committee of Conference what was 
known as the "English bill," in which 
it was urged that the question of admis- 
sion be referred back to the people of 
Kansas according to the provision of the 
Lecompton constitution. This bill was 
adopted and the people voted against 
admission. He strongly opposed seces- 
sion. In 1861 he retired to private life; 
was president of the First National bank 
of Indianapolis, in 1863-1877, and was 
also interested in railroads. In 1880 he 
was the Democratic nominee for Vice- 
President on the ticket with General 
Hancock. He published a historical and 
biographical work on the constitution 
and lawmakers of his State. He died in 
Indianapolis, Ind., Feb. 7, 1896. 

ENGLISH CHANNEL, the arm of sea 
which separates England from France, 
extending on the English side, from 
Dover to Land's End; and on the French 
from Calais to the island of Ushant. On 
the E. it communicates with the Ger- 
man Ocean by the Strait of Dover, 21 
miles wide; and on the W. it opens into 
the Atlantic by an entrance about 100 
miles wide. At its greatest breadth it is 
about 150 miles. The pilchard and 
mackerel fisheries are very important. 

The advantages of a railway tunnel 
across the Channel at its narrowest part 
have been frequently urged ; and an Eng- 
lish company formed for the purpose of 
constructing a tunnel half way across 
from Dover to meet a similar tunnel 
starting from near Calais, pushed an ex- 
cavation under the sea for over 2,000 
yards, but was interdicted by the British 
goveiTiment for military reasons. This 
tunnel would have a total length of 23 
miles. 

ENGLISH LANGUAGE, a member of 
the Teutonic family of languages, which 
form three groups: (1) Low German. 
(2) Scandinavian, and (3) High Ger- 
man. The English language belongs to 
the first of these groups. The Teutonic 
languages themselves form a subdivision 
of the European division of that great 



ENGLISH LANGUAGE 25 

family of languages called Indo-Euro- 
pean. The English language is closely 
related to dialects still spoken on the N. 
shores and lowlands of Germany. The 
original inhabitants of England were 
Celts, and but few words of their lan- 
guage survive. 

The language introduced by the Teu- 
tonic invaders was an inflected language, 
and free from admixture of foreign ele- 
ments. But the English of the present 
day, which is a direct development of the 
Anglo-Saxon, has lost its inflections, and 
has adopted words freely from other 
tongues. First it adopted many words 
from the Roman missionaries, by whom 
the island was converted to Christianity 
in A. D. 596. Secondly, a large number 
were adopted from the Northmen (the 
Norwegians, Danes, and Swedes). These 
words are numerous in old Northern 
English literature, and in Northern pro- 
vincial dialects. A few still survive. But 
the event which exercised the greatest 
influence on the English language was 
the Norman invasion in 1066. After 
this, French became the language of the 
court, of the nobility, the clergy, and of 
literature, and continued to be so for 
nearly 300 years. In 1349 Latin ceased 
to be taught in schools through the me- 
dium of French, and in 1362, the plead- 
ings in the law courts were directed by 
act of Parliament to be for the future 
conducted in English. But the English 
of the end of the 14th century had be- 
come, through the influence of the Nor- 
man-French, analytic; that is to say, 
prepositions and auxiliaries were used 
instead of inflections to express the vari- 
ous modifications of the idea to be con- 
veyed. 

The English language may be divided 
into five periods : 

1. First Period A. D. 450-1100. 

2. Second Period A. D. 1100-1250. 

3. Third Period A. D. 1250-1350. 

4. Fourth Period A. D. 1350-1460. 

5. Fifth Period A. D. 1460-the present 
day. 

In the first period (called also Anglo- 
Saxon or Old English), the language 
was inflectional; in the second it began 
to show a tendency to become analytic, 
the tendency increasing till in the fourth 
period inflections had virtually disap- 
peared. Befoi-e the Norman conquests 
there were two dialects in English, a 
Southern and a Northern, the former of 
which was the literary language. After 
the Conquest dialects became much more 
marked, so that we can distinguish three 
great varieties, the Northern, the Mid- 
land, and the Southern, distinguished 
ft-om each other by various grammatical 
differences. The Midland dialect was 



ENGLISH LITERATTJRE 



that most widely spread, and it ultimate- 
ly became the standard language, a re- 
sult principally due to the influence of 
Chaucer, and in a less degree of Wyclif, 
Gower, and others. 

ENGLISH LITERATURE, the mass 
of expression in written prose and 
poetry, of the mind of the English-speak- 
ing peoples, through the medium of the 
English language. 

Before any English literature, in the 
strict sense of the term, existed, four 
literatures had arisen in England — the 
Celtic, Latin, Anglo-Saxon, and Anglo- 
Norman. The first included the name of 
Merlin. The Latin literature prior tc 
the Conquest presented the names of 
Bede, Alcuin, and Asser. With the com.- 
ing of the Normans the native language 
practically ceased for a time to be used 
in literature, Latin being employed in 
law, history, and philosophy, French in 
the lighter forms of literature. The 
Norman trouvere displaced the Saxon 
scop, or gleeman, introducing the fabliau 
and the romance. By the fabliau the 
literature was not greatly influenced till 
the time of Chaucer; but the romance 
attained an early and striking develop- 
ment in the Arthurian cycle, founded on 
the legends of Geoffrey of Monmouth's 
Latin "History of the Britons" (1147), 
by Geoffrey Gaimar, Maistre Wace, Wal- 
ter Map, and other writers of the 12th 
century. The Latin literature included 
important contributions to the Scholastic 
philosophy by Alexander Hales (died 
1245), Duns Scotus (died 1308), the 
philosophic works of Roger Bacon 
(1214-1292), the Golias poems of Wal- 
ter Map, and a long list of chronicles 
or histories, either in prose or verse, by 
Eadmer (died 1124), William of Malm.es- 
bury (died 1143), Geoffrey of Monmouth 
(died 1154), Henry of Huntingdon (died 
after 1154), Joseph of Exeter (died 
1195), Roger of Wendover (died 1237), 
Ro^er de Hoveden (12th and 13th cen- 
turies), Joscelin de Brakclonde (12th 
and 13th centuries), and Matthew Paris 
(died 1259). 

Apart from a few brief fragments, the 
first English writers after the Conquest 
are the "Brut" of Layamon (about 
1200), and the "Ormulum," a collection 
of metrical homilies attributed to Orm 
or Ormin, an Augustine monk. Next in 
importance come the rhyming chroniclers 
Robert of Gloucester (time of Henry III.. 
Edward I.) and Robert of Brunne or 
Mannyng (died 1340). To this pre- 
Chaucerian period belong also several 
English translations of French ro- 
mances. Between the beginning and 
middle of the 14th century a rapid ex- 
pansion of the literature took place, 



ENGLISH LITEBATURE 



26 



ENGLISH LITERATURE 



having as the foremost figure Chaucer 
(1340-1400). Contemporary with him 
were the poets William or Robert Lang- 
land (1332-1400), John Gower (1325- 
1408), John Barbour (1316-1395). In 
prose the name of John Wyclif (1324- 
1384) is pre-eminent. 

The period from the time of Chaucer 
to the appearance of Spenser (from the 
end of the 14th to near the end of the 
16th century), is a veiy barren one in 
English literature. The center of poetic 
creation was for the time transferred to 
Scotland, where James I. (1394-1437) 
headed the list, which comprises Andrew 
de Wyntoun (15th century), Henry the 
Minstrel or Blind Harry (died after 
1492), William Dunbar (1460-15—), 
Gavin Douglas (1474-1522), and Sir 
David Lyndsay (1490-1557). In Eng- 
land the only noteworthy prose prior to 
that of More being that of Reginald 
Pecock (1390-1460), Sir John Fortescue 
(1395-1485), the'Taston Letters" (1422- 
1505), and Malory's "Morte d'Arthur" 
(completed 1469-1470) ; the only note- 
worthy verse, that of John Skelton 
(1460-1529). 

The Renaissance spread from Florence 
to England by means of Colet, Linacre, 
Erasmus, and Sir Thomas More (1480- 
1535), the last noteworthy as at the 
head of a new race of historians. Im- 
portant contributions to the prose of the 
time were the Tyndale New Testament, 
printed in 1525, and the Coverdale Bible 
(1535). The first signs of an artistic 
advance in poetic literature are to be 
found in Wyatt (1503-1542) and Surrey 
(1516-1547), who nationalized the son- 
net, and of whom the latter is regarded 
as the introducer of blank verse. The 
drama too, had by this time reached a 
fairly high stage of development. At 
length farces on the French model were 
constructed, the interludes of John Hey- 
wood (died 1565) being the most im- 
portant examples. To Nicholas Udall 
(1504-1556) the first comedy, "Ralph 
Roister Doister," was due. The first 
tragedy was performed in 1561, and the 
first prose play, the "Supposes" of Gas- 
coigne, in 1566. The most prominent 
figures are those of Sidney (1554-1586) 
and Spenser (1552-1599). In drama 
Lyly, Peele, Greene, Nash and Marlowe 
(1564-1593) are the chief immediate 
precursors of Shakespeare (1564-1606), 
Marlowe, alone, however, being at all 
comparable with him. Contemporary 
and later dramatic writers were Ben 
Jonson (1573-1637), Middleton (died 
1627), Marston (better known as a satir- 
ist), Chapman (1557-1634), Thomas 
Heywood, Dekker (died 1639), Webster 
(17th century). Ford (1586-1639), Beau- 
mont (1586-1616) and Fletcher (1576- 



1625), and Massinger (1584-1640). Tha 
minor poets include Michael Drayton 
(1563-1631), Samuel Daniel (1562- 
1619), John Davies (1570-1626), John 
Donne (1573-1631), Giles Fletcher 
(1580-1623), and Phineas Fletcher 
(1584-1650), Drummond of Hawthorn- 
den (1585-1649) . In Elizabethan prose the 
prominent names are those of Rogers 
Ascham (1515-1568), Lyly the Euphuist 
(1553-1606), Hooker (1554-1600), Ral- 
eigh (1552-1618), Bacon (1561-1626), 
the founder in some respects of modern 
scientific method, Burton (1576-1640), 
Herbert of Cherbury (1581-1648), and 
Selden (1584-1654), with Overbury, 
Knolles, Holinshed, Stowe, Camden, Flo- 
rio, and North. The issue of the author- 
ized version of the Bible in 1611 closed 
the prose list of the period. 

After the death of James I. the course 
of literature breaks up into three stages, 
the first from 1625 to 1640, in which the 
survivals from the Elizabethan age 
slowly died away. The "metaphysical 
poets," Cowley, Wither, Herbert, Cra- 
shaw, Habbington, and Quarles, and the 
cavalier poets. Suckling, Carew, Denham, 
all published poems before the close of 
this period, in which also Milton's early 
poems were composed, and the "Comus" 
and "Lycidas" published. The second 
stage (1640-1660) was given up almost 
wholly to controversial prose, the Puri- 
tan revolution checking the production 
of pure literature. In this controversial 
prose Milton was easily chief. With the 
restoration a third stage was begun. 
Milton turned his new leisure to the com- 
position of his great poems; the drama 
was revived, and Davenant and Dryden, 
with Otway, Southerne, Etherege, Wy- 
cherley, Congreve, Vanbrugh, and Far- 
quhar in their first plays, and minor 
playwrights, are the most representative 
writers of the period. Butler established 
a genre in satire, and Marvel as a satir- 
ist in some respects anticipated Swift; 
Roscommon, Rochester, and Dorset con- 
tributed to the little poetry; while in 
prose we have Hobbes, Clarendon, Ful- 
ler, Sir Thomas Browne, Walton, Cotton, 
Pepys, and Evelyn, John Bunyan, Locke, 
Sir William Temple, Owen Feltham, Sir 
Henry Wotton, James Harrington, and a 
crowd of theological writers, of whom 
the best known are Jeremy Taylor, 
Richard Baxter, Robert Barclay, William 
Penn, George Fox, Isaac Barrow, John 
Tillotson, Stillingfleet, Bishop Pearson, 
Sherlock, South, Sprat, Cudworth, and 
Burnet. Other features of the last paii; 
of the 17th century were the immense 
advance in physical science under Boyle, 
Isaac Newton, Harvey, and others, and 
the rise of the newspaper press. 

Dryden's death in 1700 marks the 



ENGLISH LITERATURE 



27 



ENGLISH LITERATURE 



commencement of the so-called Augus- 
tan age in English literature. During 
it, nowever, no greater poet appeared 
than Pope (1688-1744). Against the 
formal limits of his conception of poetry 
signs of reaction were apparent in the 
verse of Thomson (1700-1748), Gray 
(1716-1771), Collins (1720-1759), Gold- 
smith (1728-1774), and in the produc- 
tions of Macpherson and Chatterton. 
The poets Prior (1664-1721), Gay 
(1688-1732), and Ambrose Phillips 
(1671-1749), inherited from the later 
17th century. Gay being memorable in 
connection with English opera; and 
there were a large number of small but 
respectable poets — including Parnell, 
Shenstone, Blair, Akenside, Anstey, 
Beattie, and Allan Ramsay. It was in 
prose that the chief development of the 
18th century was found. Defoe (1661- 
1731) and Swift (1667-1745) led the 
Way in fiction and prose satire; Steele 
(1671-1729) and Addison (1672-1719), 
working on a suggestion of Defoe, estab- 
lished the periodical essay; Richardson 
(1689-1761), Fielding (1707-1754), 
Smollett (1721-1771), and Sterne raised 
the novel to sudden perfection. Gold- 
smith also falls into the fictional group 
as well as into those of the poets and the 
essayists. Johnson (1709-1784) exer- 
cised during the latter part of his life 
the power of a literary dictator, with 
Boswell (1740-1795) as literary depend- 
ent. The other chief prose writers 
were Bishop Berkeley (1685-1753), Ar- 
buthnot (1675-1735), Shaftesbury (1671- 
1713), Bolingbroke (1678-1751), Burke, 
the historians David Hume (1711- 
1776), William Robertson (1721-1793), 
Edrnund Gibbon (1737-1794) ; the poli- 
tical writers Wilkes and Junius, the 
economist and moral philosopher Adam 
Smith (1723-1790) ; the philosophical 
writers Humey Bentham (1749-1832), 
and Dugald Stewart (1753-1828), the 
scholars Bentley (1662-1742), Sir Wil- 
liam Jones (1746-1794), and Richard 
Porson (1759-1808); the theologians At- 
terbury, Butler (1692-1752), Warbur- 
ton, and Faley, and some inferior play- 
wrights, of whom Rowe, John Home, 
CoUey Gibber, Colman the elder, Foote, 
and Sheridan were the most important. 

With the French Revolution, or a few 
years earlier, the modem movement in 
literature began. The departure from 
the old traditions, traceable in Gray and 
Collins, was more clearly exhibited in 
the last years of the century in Cowper 
(1731-1800) and Burns (1759-1796), 
and was developed and perfected in the 
hands of Blake (1757-1828), Bowles 
(1762-1850), and the "Lake poets" 
Wordsworth (1770-1850), Coleridge 
(1772-1834), and Southey (1774-1843); 



but there were at first many survivals 
from the poetic manner of the 17th cen- 
tury, such as Erasmus Darwin (1731- 
1802), Dr. John Wolcot (1738-1819), Ro- 
bert Bloomfield (1766-1823) , and Samuel 
Rogers (1763-1855). Among the earlier 
poets of the century, also, were George 
Crabbe (1754-1832), Sir Walter Scott 
(1771-1832), Hogg (1772-1835), Camp- 
bell (1777-1844), James Montgomery, 
Mrs. Hemans Byran, Waller Procter 
("Barry Cornwall") Milman, L. E. Lan- 
don, Joanna Baillie, Robert Montgomery. 
A more important group was that of 
Byron (1788-1824), Shelley (1792-1822), 
and Keats (1796-1821), with which may 
be associated the names of Leigh Hunt 
(1784-1869), Thomas Moore (1779- 
1852), and Landor (1775-1864). Among 
the earlier writers of fiction there were 
several women of note, such as Maria 
Edgeworth (1767-1849), and Jane Aus- 
ten (1775-1817). The greatest name in 
fiction was unquestionably that of Scott. 
Other prose writers were Mackintosh, 
Malthus, Hallam, James Mill, Southey, 
Robert Hall, John Foster, Thomas Chal- 
mers, Hannah More, Cobbett, William 
Hazlitt, Sydney Smith, Francis Jeffrey, 
Lord Brougham. In the literature after 
1830 poetry included as its chief names 
Praed, Hood, Aytoun, Lord Houghton, 
Sidney Dobell, Alexander Smith, Philip 
James Bailey, William Allington, Eliza- 
beth Barrett Browning, Coventry Pat- 
more, Lord Lytton, ("Owen Meredith"), 
Arthur Hugh Clough, Edwin Arnold, 
Matthew Arnold, Dante G. Rossetti, 
William Morris, Lewis Morris, Swin- 
burne, William Watson, Kipling, and 
last and gi-eatest, Tennyson and Brown- 
ing. A brilliant list of novelists 
for the same period includes Mar- 
ryat. Lord Lytton, Ainsworth, Benja- 
min Disraeli (Earl of Beaconsfield), 
Dickens, Thackeray, Charles and Henry 
Kingsley, Charlotte Bronte, Lover, 
Lever, Wilkie Collins, George Macdonald, 
Charles Reade, George Eliot, Anthony 
and Augustus Trollope, William Black, 
Thomas Hardy, R. D. Blackmore, George 
Meredith, Conan Doyle, Hall Caine, 
Robert Louis Stevenson, Miss Braddon, 
Mrs. Craik (Miss Mulock) , Mrs. Oli- 
phant, Miss Yonge, Miss Thackeray, 
Mrs. Humphry Ward, J. M. Barrie, An- 
thony Hope Hawkins, and others. To 
the historical and biographical list be- 
long Alison, Macaulay, Buckle, Carlyle, 
Grote, Milman, Froude, Lecky, S. R. 
Gardiner, Kinglake, John Richard Green, 
E. A. Freeman, Charles Knight, Dean 
Stanley, David Masson, John Morley, 
Leslie Stephen, Justin McCarthy. Prom- 
inent among the theological writers were 
Dr. Newman, Whately, Augustus and 
Julius Hare, Trench, Stanley, Maurice, 



ENGBAVING 28 

Hamilton, Alford, F. W. Robertson, 
Stopford Brooke, Liddon, Isaac Taylor, 
Jowett, James Martineau, Tulioch, 
Henry Drummond, and Caird. In 
science and philosophy among the chief 
writers have been Whewell, Sir W. 
Hamilton, Mansel, John Stuart Mill, 
Alexander Bain, Hugh Miller, Charles 
Darwin, Huxley, Tyndall, Max Miiller, 
Herbert Spencer, T. H. Green, Sir 
William Thomson. Of the other prose 
writers of importance the chief are: De 
Quincey, Harriet Martineau, Sir Arthur 
Helps, Ruskin, Matthew Arnold, W. E. 
Gladstone. A large number of writers 
of American and colonial birth were 
added to the native contributors to Eng- 
lish literature in its widest sense. 
Among the English novelists whose work 
is notable in the twentieth century are 
Pvlaurice Hewlett, John Galsworthy, 
Hugh Walpole, D. H. Lawrence, J. D. 
Beresford, Compton MacKenzie, Clemence 
Dane, W. B. Maxwell, Gilbert Cannan, 
Stephen McKenna, and W. L. George. 

ENGRAVING, the art of cutting or 
incising designs on metal plates or 
blocks of wood, for the purpose of print- 
ing impressions from them with ink on 
paper, or other similar substance. Works 
of this sort belong to two classes: en- 
gravings on metal, in which the lines to 
be printed are sunk or incised, and en- 
gravings on wood, in which the lines to 
be printed appear in relief, the wood be- 
tween them being cut away. In the for- 
mer, the plate having been inked and 
wiped on the surface, retains the ink 
only in its hollowed lines, from which it 
is conveyed to the paper by the pres- 
sure of the printing press; in the latter, 
only the elevated portion of the surface 
of the block is inked by means of a 
roller, and, being subjected to the press, 
it prints as a raised type. 

Engraving on Metal. — The metal most 
commonly used for engraving has been 
copper; but during the 19th century 
steel was largely employed on account 
of its hardness. Steel is less readily en- 
graved than copper, and yields a less 
free and artistic result; but as the sur- 
faces of copper plates can now be pro- 
tected by an extremely thin coating of 
steel deposited by galvanic action, which 
can be renewed as often as is necessary, 
they are enabled to yield a large number 
of excellent impressions without being 
worn. Zinc plates have also been em- 
ployed to some extent for etchings. The 
earliest of the impressions taken from 
engraved plates are those most valued 
by connoisseurs, on account of their 
sharpness, clearness, and richness, quali- 
ties which are gradually lost as the 
surface of the metal becomes worn by 



ENGRAVING 

repeated printing. The term "work- 
ing proofs" indicates trial impressions 
printed by engravers for their own use, 
to test the state of their work during its 
progress. "Artist's proofs" are those 
bearing the signature of the painter or 
engraver, or both. "Proofs before let- 
ters" are those thrown off before the 
printed titling, etc., has been added; and 
"open letter proofs" are those in which 
the letters of the title have been added 
merely in outline. 

Line Engraving. — The practice of line 
engraving originated with the early 
Italian goldsmiths, who in this manner 
were accustomed to take proofs of the 
metal objects which they decorated with 
engraved designs, in order to test the 
progress of their work; and these nielli, 
or highly decorated plates of metal, in 
which the incised lines or patterns were 
to be filled with a black composition, 
are regarded as the earliest engravings. 
A pax or metal plate used in the Roman 
ritual to receive the kiss of peace, ex- 
ecuted by Maso Finiguerra, in 1452, for 
the Church of San Giovanni in Florence, 
is considered to have been the first metal 
from which impressions on paper are 
known to have been taken. 

Etching. — In this process a polished 
metal plate is coated with a thin trans- 
parent surface or "ground," impervious 
to acid. A mixture of white wax, gum- 
mastic and asphaltum made into the 
form of a ball and covered with silk ia 
applied to the heated surface of the 
plate, and melting exudes through the 
cloth, when it is spread evenly over the 
metal by means of a pad of cotton-wool 
covered with silk, termed a "dabber." 
The plate is then exposed to the smol?^ 
of wax tapers till it becomes of a uni- 
form black, which enables the etched 
line, disclosing the shining metal, to be 
visible on its surface. On this plate, so 
prepared, the design is drawn with an 
"etching needle," a sharp steel point 
fitted in a handle, and held like a pencil 
in the artist's hand. This needle dis- 
closes lines of the bare metal ready to be 
eaten or etched by the acid. The back of 
the plate having been protected by an 
application of Brunswick black, it is 
placed in the "acid bath," a flat tray 
filled with a mordant, usually composed 
of nitric acid diluted with an equal vol- 
ume of water, which attacks and cor- 
rodes the metal in the lines that have 
been exposed to its action by the needle. 
After sufficient time has been allowed 
for the palest lines of the subject to be 
bitten, the plate is removed from the 
bath; these lines are covered with a 
"stopping-out varnish" of Brunswick 
black, applied with a brush, y/hich pro- 
tects them from further action oi tho 



ENGRAVINQ 29 

acid; and the plate is returned to the 
bath, which attacks the lines still ex- 
posed. This process is repeated as often 
as necessary to produce the desired 
variety in depth of the various lines of 
the desi^. When the biting is completed, 
the plate is finally removed from the 
bath, the "ground" is cleaned off with 
turpentine, and the design appears in- 
cised on the metal. The plate is then 
inked and printed. Various methods of 
etching, and modifications of the process 
described have been introduced. Sey- 
mour Haden and James McN. Whistler 
stand at the head of the painter-etchers 
in England. Alphonse Legros and Hu- 
bert Herkomer have also done much to 
stimulate interest in the art. Among 
the younger painter-etchers are William 
Strang, Frank Short, and R. W. Mac- 
beth. Among the mc_„ talented of mod- 
ern etchers in America may be named 
Frank Duveneck, Otto Bacher-, Henry 
Farrer, Joseph Pennell, Stephen Parrish, 
Mary Nimmo Moran, Thomas Moran, 
Swain GifFord, and Charles A. Piatt. 

Mezzotint Engraving. — This method 
differs from all other processes of metal 
engraving in that, while other engravers 
work from light to shade, and each line 
which they draw prints as a dark, the 
mezzotinter works from dark to light, 
and each touch which he adds to his plate 
prints as a light. Mezzotint plates are 
prepared by the action of a kind of 
chisel, teiTned a ''cradle" or "rocking 
tool," which passing over the surface 
roughens it, raising a ''bur" of innu- 
merable small metal points, so that if 
the plate were then inked and printed it 
would yield an impression of a uniform 
black. The engraver, having traced his 
subject on the plate, proceeds to smooth 
the surface by removing the "bur" with 
a scraper, in proportion as he wishes to 
introduce light into his design; the bur 
being left untouched in the darkest shad- 
ows, partially removed in the half- 
lights, and wholly cleaned away in the 
high lights, in which the surface is per- 
fectly smooth, and brought to a high 
polish by means of the "burnisher." The 
process of mezzotint was invented by an 
amateur, Ludwig von Siegen (1609- 
1680). Among the mezzotint engravers 
of England may be mentioned Simon, 
Pelham, Beard, Miller, Houston, Frye, 
and Purcell. Noted in America for this 
art were Thomas B. Welch (1814-1874) 
and John Sartain (1808-1898). 

Aquatint Engraving. — In this process 
the polished metal plate is covered with 
a solution of resinous gum dissolved in 
spirits of wine. The spirit evaporates, 
leaving the resin deposited in minute 
granulations on the metal surface. The 
design is then transferred to the metal 

Vol. IV— Cye— C 



ENGRAVING 

and the plate is bitten in a bath of dilut- 
ed nitrous acid, which corrodes the por- 
tions left exposed between the grains of 
resin. The darkest parts of the design 
are longest exposed to the action of the 
mordant, the lighter parts being succes- 
sively protected by a series of "stoppings- 
out," consisting of oxide of bismuth and 
turpentine varnish applied vdth a brush 
in a manner similar to that employed in 
the "stopping-out" of an ordinary etch- 
ing. The impressions produced resem- 
ble those yielded by mezzotint, both proc- 
esses working by spaces and not by 
lines. This method is believed to have 
been invented by Jean-Claude-Richard 
de Saint-Non (1730-1804). 

Chalk or Stipple Engraving. — The 
metal plate is coated with an ordinary 
etching ground, and the subject is drawn 
upon it by means of a succession of 
small dots produced by the point of the 
etching-needle. The plate is then bitten 
in the usual way with the acid, which 
corrodes the metal at the points uncov- 
ered by the needle; and it is afterward 
finished by dots, applied with the point 
of the etching-needle or burin on the 
bare metal. Jean Charles Frangois 
(1717-1769) is said to have been the 
first engraver to employ this process. 

Mechanical and Photographic Process. 
— Engraving in recent times has been 
generally superseded by photographic 
and mechanical substitutes. The most 
important of these is known as photo- 
gravure or heliogravure. The beauty of 
the work produced by means of this proc- 
ess in the reproduction of paintings, of 
drawings in monochrome and of photo- 
graphs direct from nature, has raised it 
to a position of great importance. A 
photo-mechanical process which is much 
used in the reproduction of the plates of 
the older engravers and etchers, and in 
the production of intaglio etched plate- 
reproductions from pen drawings has 
been carried to great perfection, some 
of the work produced by Amand-Durand 
of Paris being almost equal to the finest 
original etchings. A positive photo- 
graph is taken of the drawing or en- 
graving to be reproduced (?. e., the lines 
are black, the whites clear glass) ; this 
is placed over a copper plate coated with 
a bituminous varnish, and exposed to the 
light. Where the lines of the photo- 
graph have protected the varnish from 
the light it remains soluble, but where 
the light has affected it through the 
glass it becomes insoluble. The varnish 
may then be dissolved from the lines and 
the copper exposed exactly as if the etch- 
ing point had been used to make the 
drawing on an etching ground. The 
plate is then bitten in the usual manner, 
and finally touched up with the graver. 



ENID 



30 



ENTOMOLOGY 



ENID, a city of Oklahoma, the county- 
seat of Garfield co. It is on the Atchi- 
son, Topeka and Santa Fe, the Chicago, 
Rock Island and Pacific, and the St. 
Louis and San Francisco railroads. It 
is the center of an important agricul- 
tural and poultry-raising district. Its 
industries include the manufacture of 
flour, lumber, machinery, boilers, brick, 
steel posts, candy, etc. It is the seat 
of the Phillips University, St. Francis 
Institute, College of Fine Arts, a State 
institution for the feeble-minded, and 
has a public library, excellent schools, 
Federal and county buildings, parks and 
hospitals. Pop. (1910) 13,799: (1920) 
16,576. 

ENNEBY, ADOLPHE PHILIPPE D' 

(den-ne-re'), a French dramatist; born 
in Paris in 1811; began life as a clerk, 
but later turned to the drama. He sub- 
sequently became the master of modern 
melodrama. During the 50 years of his 
active life he accumulated a fortune of 
$1,200,000. His most successful plays 
include "Taking of Peking"; "Two Or- 
phans"; "Martyrdom"; "The Grace of 
God," and "Grandmother." He died in 
Paris, Jan. 26, 1899. 

ENNIS, a city of Texas, in Ellis co. 
It is on the Texas Central and the Texas 
Midland railroads. It is the center of 
an important agricultural and stock- 
raising region and its industries include 
cotton compresses, cotton gins, cotton- 
seed oil mills, railroad shops, flour mills, 
etc. Pop. (1910) 5,669; (1920) 7,224. 

ENNISKILLEN, a borough in Ireland, 
87 miles W. S. W. of Belfast; famous 
for the victory, in 1689, of the troops of 
William III., under Lord Hamilton, over 
a superior force of James II., under 
Lord Galmoy. The banners taken in the 
battle of the Boyne hang in the town 
hall. The noted regiment of Enniskil- 
leners, or 6th Dragoons, was first insti- 
tuted from the defenders of the town. 

ENNS, a river in Austria, which rises 
in the Alps of Salzburg, flows N., then 
E. N. E., then N. N. W., entering Upper 
Austria ("Above the Enns"), which for 
15 miles it separates from Lower Aus- 
tria ("Below the Enns"), and finally 
enters the Danube a little below the town 
of Enns. Total course about 180 miles. 

ENSIGN, the flag or colors of a regi- 
ment. Also a former rank of commis- 
sioned officers in a regiment of infantry, 
by the senior of whom the regimental 
ensigns or colors are carried. The name 
is now abolished, the title of 2d lieuten- 
ant being substituted for it. In the navy, 
the national ensign consists of a red-and- 
white striped flag, 13 stripes, with blue 



field in upper inside corner containing a 
silver star for each State of the Union. 
Carried by all American vessels except 
yachts, which have an ensign of their 
own. Also the title of the lowest grade 
of commissioned officers in the United 
States navy. 

ENTENTE CORDIALE (on-tonf kor- 
di-al'), a cordial understanding, or 
friendly disposition and relations, be- 
tween the governments of two or more 
countries. 

ENTENTE NATIONS. Those govern- 
ments which were allied against the cen- 
tral European states in the war of 1914- 
1918. The Triple Entente consisted of 
France, England, and Russia. The cir- 
cumstances of the war early forced Bel- 
gium to become a member and in 1915 
Italy joined the group. Servia, Rou- 
mania, and Montenegro were the Balkan 
states which became allies. Japan was 
an early ally, but the United States, 
while actively participating in the strug- 
gle, never was a member of the Entente. 

ENTERIC FEVER, the correct desig- 
nation of what is usually called typhoid 

fever. 

ENTERITIS (-i'tis), inflammation of 
the small intestines, marked by diar- 
rhoea, pain, aggravated on pressure, 
quick and strong pulse, with increased 
temperature. It is very apt to become 
chronic, chiefly from obstruction to the 
hepatic circulation, especially by escape 
of blood from the portal vein. 

ENTOMOLOGY, the branch of zoology 
which treats of insects. Insects have 
jointed bodies and limbs, an enveloping 
cuticle of chitin, a ventral chain of gan- 
glia, a dorsal brain, and breathe by air- 
tubes or tracheae. Contrasted with peri- 
patus and myriopods, they have made 
two great steps of progress; the body 
is centralized, with locomotor limbs re- 
duced to three pairs, and all the typical 
average forms have wings. Insects fre- 
quently have a metamorphosis in their 
life history. The adult body is divided 
into (1) a head, with three pairs of ap- 
pendages (=legs), plus a pair of pre- 
oral outgrowths, the antennae or feel- 
ers; (2) a thorax, with three pairs of 
jointed legs, typically plus two pairs of 
dorsal, compressed sacs — the wings; (3) 
an abdomen, without legs, except in so 
far as these are rudimentarily repre- 
sented in stings, ovipositors, etc. In- 
sects exceed in number all other animals 
taken together. Over 80,000 species of 
beetles or coleoptera and about 15,000 
moths and butterflies have been re- 
corded; and Speyer estimates the total 
census at 200,000. 



ENTOMOLOGY 



31 



ENTOMOLOGY 



Form. — The body of an insect consists 
of a distinct undivided head, probably 
composed of four obscured segments, of 
a thorax with three divisions (pro, meso, 
and metathorax), and of an abdomen 
typically with 11 rings. 

Appendages. — The jointed feelers or 
antennae, which are outgrowths of the 
head, not strictly comparable to legs, 
have often numerous nerve-endings and 
seem to be used in smelling, as organs of 
touch and guidance or in communicating 
impressions to friends. Exactly com- 
parable with legs are the three pairs of 
mouth appendages, projecting downward 
or forward from the head, to which they 
are jointed and from which they are 
worked by muscles. The first pair, the 
mandibles (biting and chewing organs), 
more or less reduced in those insects 




ENTOMOLOGY — SWALLOW-TAIL BUTTERFLY 

A. Larva B. Pupa 

C. Butterfly 

which suck, have but one joint and are 
without the lateral "palp" present in the 
crustacean organs of the same name. 
Next come the first pair of maxillae, 
which have jointed "palps." The second 
pair of maxillae, are united at their base, 
and form the so-called labium, also pro- 
vided with "palps." In the different 
orders, and in association with the di- 
verse diet, these three pairs of mouth 
organs vary greatly. 

Wings. — The adult insect usually 
bears two pairs of dorsal outgrowths or 
wings on the two posterior rings of the 
thorax. They are undeveloped in some 
passive females and are likewise absent 
from many parasitic forms. In these 
cases the wings have been lost, while 
they have never been attained by the 
lowest insects. When at rest the wine:s 
are usually folded in various ways, the 



dragon flies and some others keep them 
expanded. The two pairs may be al- 
most alike, as in bees and butterflies; 
those in front may be merely covers for 
the hind pair, as in beetles, or contorted 
rudiments in the little bee-parasites 
(Strepsiptera) ; the hind pair may be 
linked to the fore pair, and are rudi- 
mentary "balancers" or "halters" in 
flies. They are often hairy or scaly, 
or gorgeous with pigment, or occasion- 
ally odoriferous. 

Locomotion. — Insects are emphatically 
locomotor animals. They walk, run and 
jump with the quadrupeds; they fly with 
the birds, they glide with the serpents; 
and they swim with the fish. Even the 
limbless larvae of many forms move 
deftly, contracting their bodies, and uti- 
lizing jaws, hairs, and tubercles to help 
them along. The limbed larvae, and es- 
pecially the true caterpillars, often move 
with great rapidity; a few jump, and 
many climb; others utilize their silken 
threads in spiderlike fashion; while the 
young dragon flies propel themselves 
along by the forcible expulsion of water. 

Skin. — Insects have a firm chitinous 
cuticle formed from the epidermis or hy- 
podermis. The cuticle bears scales, tu- 
bercles and hairs, of which the last are 
sometimes olfactory or otherwise sen- 
sory. In spite of the ensheathing arma- 
ture there are often glands in connection 
with the skin. Before the full size is 
reached there are often numerous skin- 
castings or moltings. 

Sense-organs. — Except in fleas, lice, 
and the lowly Collembola, adult insects 
have compound eyes. These are often 
associated with simple eyes or ocelli, 
which are all that ever appear in larvae, 
or fleas, and such insects. Blind insects 
also Occur with other blind animals in 
the darkness of caves. Auditory organs 
are represented in almost all orders by 
peculiar nerve-endings superficially dis- 
posed on various parts of the body. On 
the tactile antennae, and probably also on 
the maxillary palps of various insects, 
there are specially innervated skin cells 
and hairs believed to be olfactory in func- 
tion; while others more within the 
mouth are credited with gustatory sensi- 
tiveness. The intelligence is greatest in 
the social insects — especially the ants 
and bees, where it is associated with 
complex though very small brains. 

Alimentary Sijstetn. — The alimentary 
canal always consists of fore-, mid-, and 
hind-gut. But the length and structure 
vary in different insects, to some ex- 
tent in association with the differences of 
diet. The fore-gut includes mouth, phar- 
ynx, and gullet, of which the gullet may 
be swollen into a ci'op, or bear an ap- 
pended pouch (so-called sucking stom- 



ENTOMOLOGY 



32 



ENTOMOLOGY 



ach), or may be continued into a giz- 
zard with hard grinding plates. The 
mid-gut is glandular, digestive, and ab- 
sorptive; it often bears sacular out- 
growths or glandular casca, and has, as 
its origin implies, no chitinous lining. 
The hind-gut is often coiled, terminally 
expanded in the rectum, and in that 
region sometimes associated with glands. 
Respiratory System. — Insects when 
resting often show panting movements 
in the abdomen, which is swayed by mus- 
cles whose activity is the chief condition 
of the circulation of air throughout the 
body. For in all insects the whole body 
is penetrated by air-tubes or tracheae, 
which send fine branches into all the 
organs and tissues. These tubes are 
really ingrowths from the skin, and are 
lined by chitin, raised in what appear to 
be spiral thickenings which keep them 
elastically tense. In most cases these 
trachese open to the exterior by paired 
apertures or stigmata on the breast and 
abdomen, often guarded by hairs and 
very variously disposed. There are 
never more than 10 pairs of openings, 
though primitively there was probably a 
pair to each segment. 

Many insects produce sounds which 
often express a variety of emotions. In 
some cases, when not simply automatic, 
these sounds serve the purpose of love 
songs; they may also express fear, an- 
ger, or even sorrow, or they may give 
alarm and convey tidings. 

Circulatory System. — As the tissues 
are riddled with air-tubes, the need for 
definite blood-vessels is greatly lessened, 
and so the circulatory system is slight- 
ly developed in comparison with the 
thorough respiratory arrangements. The 
biood — which is colorless, yellow, green- 
ish, or even reddish, with amoeboid cells 
— flows for the most part along lacunae 
without definite walls. The central organ 
is the dorsal blood-vessel or heart. 

Metamorphosis. — From the egg-shell 
of such insects as butterflies, beetles, 
flies, and bees, there emerges a larva 
(maggot, grub, or caterpillar) which 
lives a life of its own, growing, resting, 
and molting, often very active _ in its 
movements and voracious. Having ac- 
cumulated a rich store of reserve food in 
its fat-body, the larva becomes for a 
longer time more or less quiescent, be- 
comes a pupa, nymph, or chrysalis. In 
this stage, often within the shelter of a 
spun cocoon, great transformations oc- 
cur: wings bud out, appendages of the 
adult pattern appear, reconstruction and 
centralization of organs are effected; 
and, finally, out of the pupal husk there 
emerges an imago or miniature fully- 
formed insect. 

The Internal Metamorphosis. — In 



those forms which have no metamorpho- 
sis, or only an incomplete one, the organs 
of the larva develop continuously into 
those of the adult. It is otherwise in the 
complete metamorphosis of the higher 
insects. There the internal changes are 
as marked as the external; there is a 
gradual reconstruction of organs during 
the later larval, especially during the 
pupal stages. Most of the larval organs 
are absorbed by amoeboid cells, and their 
debris is utilized in building up new 
structures. 

General Life. — (a) While insects are 
predominantly active animals, we find in 
contrasting the families abundant illus- 
tration of the antithesis between activity 
and passivity, (b) In the majority of 
cases the adult insect is short-lived, and 
dies within a year; an adult Ephemerid 
may be literally the fly of a day, but 
from this there are many graduations 
leading up to the rare cases of a queen- 
bee five years old, or an aged queen ant 
of thirteen, (c) Reproduction in a great 
number of insects of both sexes is 
shortly followed by death, love being in 
such cases at once the climax and end of 
life. 

Econo^nic Impo^rt. — As far as insects 
are concerned, the struggle between man 
and animals is by no means finished. 
Direct injuries to man's person are 
familiarly illustrated in the parasitism 
of fleas, lice, and other more or less inti- 
mate "boarders"; but these are less im- 
portant than the share the mosquito 
seems to have in the loathsome disease 
Elephantiasis arabum. Personal injuries 
are dwarfed when we think of those 
done to property, and especially to crops 
and herds, by voracious or by parasitic 
insects. Clothes-moth and furniture- 
borer, vine-insects and Colorado beetle, 
the botflies which attack sheep, cattle, 
and horses are familiar illustrations of 
formidable pests. It should also be noted 
how the hostile insects which infest for- 
est trees and vegetation generally may 
occasion changes which have far-off 
effects on the fauna, scenery, and even 
climate of a countryside. The majority 
of plants are dependent on insects, as the 
unconscious bearers of the pollen essen- 
tial to the normal cross-fertilization of 
flowers. 

Plants and Insects. — Many insects in- 
jure plants without any compensating 
benefit, and in this connection there are 
numerous cases in which plants and in- 
sects (especially ants) form a mutual 
partnership. Such plants are saved by 
their bodyguard of ants from_ unwel- 
come visitors, and the benefit is some- 
times returned by the growth of special 
shelters, tenanted by the partner-insects. 



ENTBE DOURO E MINHO 



33 



EFEE 



ENTRE DOURO E MINHO (en'tre 
d5'r6 a men'yo), CT MINHO, a province 
of Portugal, in the extreme N. W. of the 
country, bounded on the N. by the Minho 
river, and on the S. by the Douro river. 
It has been called the Paradise of Portu- 
gal. The climate is agreeable and healthy. 
The chief productions are v^ine, oil, 
flax, maize, w^heat, barley, oats, and 
vegetables. Wine is shipped largely at 
Oporto, the capital. Along the coast are 
numerous fisheries, at which great num- 
bers find employment. The province of 
Minho consists of three districts, Braga, 
Vianna, and Oporto. Pop. about 1,300,000. 

ENTRE RIOS (en'tra re'os) ("be- 
tween rivers"), a province of the Argen- 
tine Republic, between the Parana and 
the Uruguay rivers. Estimated area, 
29,021 square miles: pop. about 430,000. 
The country is chiefly pastoral, but an 
increasing proportion is being put under 
cultivation, about 300,000 acres being 
now devoted to maize and wheat. The 
province is fertile, and well watered, be- 
ing subject, in the S., to annual floods; 
nevertheless, the climate is very healthy. 
Lime and gypsum are worked. The prov- 
ince has about 500 miles of railway. 
The capital is Parana. 

ENVER PASHA, a Turkish soldier 
and politician. He was the chief and 
most influential leader in the Committee 
of Union and Progress, and with its ad- 
vent into power through the revolution 
which overthrew Abdul Hamid, he began 
to take a prominent part in the political 
life of the Turkish nation. Immediately 
after the success of the Young Turk 
party he was sent to Berlin as the mili- 
tary attache of the Turkish Embassy, 
and it is believed that it was through 
him personally that the understanding 
between Turkey and Germany was de- 
veloped which led the Turks to throw 
their lot in with the Central Empires 
during the World War shortly after hos- 
tilities began. Enver Pasha was the 
most able assistant of General Liman 
von Sanders in the reorganization of the 
Turkish Army. After the collapse of 
the Turkish Government, in 1918, he fled 
to Germany. In January, 1920, he was 
reported to be back in Asiatic Turkey, 
where he raised the flag of revolt against 
the Government established by the Allies 
in Constantinople. Believing that he had 
the moral support of the whole Moham- 
medan world, especially in India, he de- 
manded a revision of that clause of 
the Paris Treaty which proposed the 
partition of Turkey, his followers being 
known as the Nationalists. See Turkey. 

EOCENE (e'o-sen), in geology, a 
term applied to the lower division of the 



Tertiary strata. The Eocene beds are 
arranged in two groups, termed the 
Lower and Upper Eocene; the strata 
formerly called Upper Eocene being now 
known as Oligocene. They consist of 
marls, limestones, clays, and sandstones, 
and are found in the Isle of Wight and 
in the S. E. of England, and N. W. of 
France, in central Europe, western Asia, 
northern Africa, and the Atlantic coast 
of North America. 




ENVER PASHA 

EOLUS (e'o-lus), in Roman mythology, 
god of the winds. 

EPAMINONDAS, an ancient Greek 
hero, who, for a time, raised his country, 
Thebes, to the summit of power and pros- 
perity. He was born about 418 B. C. He 
led in the struggle during which Spartan 
supremacy in Greece was destroyed, and 
the supremacy of Thebes temporarily se- 
cured. Four times he successfully in- 
vaded the Peloponnesus, at the head of 
the Thebans, but after his death Thebes 
soon sank to her former secondary condi- 
tion. He was distinguished for the 
friendship subsisting between him and 
Pelopidas, with whom he served in the 
Spartan campaign 385 B. c. His virtues 
have been praised by both Xenophon and 
Plutarch. He was killed at the battle of 
Mantineia 362 B. C. 

EP^E (e-pa'), CHARLES MICHEL. 
ABB^ DE L'. instructor of the deaf and 
dumb; born in Versailles, France. Nov. 
25, 1712. Taking orders, he became a 
preacher and canon at Troyes, but later 



EPERNAY 



lived in retirement in Paris. In 1765 he 
first began to occupy himself with the 
education of two deaf and dumb sisters; 
and invented a language of signs, by 
which persons thus afflicted might be en- 
abled to hold intercourse with their fel- 
low-creatures. At his own expense he 
founded an institution for the deaf and 
dumb, which was first publicly examined 
in 1771, and from 1778 received an 
annual subsidy. He died in 1789. 

EPERNAY, capital of an arrondis- 
sement, in the department of the Marne, 
on both banks of the river Marne, about 
12 miles S. from the city of Rheims. It 
is the center of a rich champagne wine 
producing district. Important railroad 
shops are located there. The population 
before the World War was about 21,- 
000. It was captured by the Germans 
during the first German advance toward 
Paris, after the beginning of military 
operations, in August, 1914, and held by 
them until, driven back during the battles 
of the Marne, their lines were established 
from ten to fifteen miles to the north- 
ward. 

EPHEMERIS, in astronomy, a table 
giving the position of a heavenly body 
from day to day, so that observers may 
know where to find it. The name is also 
applied to an astronomical almanac con- 
taining a collection of such tables. 

EPHESIANS, THE EPISTLE TO 
THE, a canonical epistle addressed by 
the Apostle Paul to the Church which he 
had founded at Ephesus. It was written 
during his first captivity at Rome, im- 
mediately after he had written the 
Epistle to the Colossians (a. d. 62), and 
was sent by the hands of Tychicus, who 
also bore the message to the Church at 
Colossse. 

EPHESUS (ef'e-sus), a famous city 
of Asia Minor, now in ruins, about 38 
miles S. S. E. of Smyrna. It was the 
ancient capital of Ionia, and had one of 
the seven Christian Churches founded by 
the apostles. Its temple, dedicated to 
Diana, was considered one of the seven 
wonders of the world. Its dimensions 
were 425 feet long and 200 broad. The 
roof was supported by 127 columns, 60 
feet high, which had been placed there by 
as many kings. Of these, 36 were carved 
in the most beautiful manner, one of 
which was the work of the famous 
Scopas. This celebrated building was not 
completed till 220 years after its founda- 
tion. Ctesephon was its principal archi- 
tect. The riches which were in the 
temple were immense, and the goddess 
who presided over it was worshiped with 
the most awful solemnity. It was burnt 
on the night that Alexander was born, 



H EPICURUS 

but soon after it rose from its ruins with 
greater splendor and magnificence. 

EPHESUS, COUNCILS OF, two ec- 
clesiastical assemblies held at Ephesus. 
The first was the third ecumenical 
council, summoned by Emperor Theo- 
dosius II., in 431, to settle a compli- 
cated controversy, involving among other 
things the fate' of Nestorius (g. v.), 
Bishop of Constantinople. The second 
was the so-called "robber synod," con- 
vened by Theodosius (449), to consider 
again the case of Nestorius. In the 
proceedings of this council no opposition 
to the will of the president, Dioscurus, 
Bishop of Alexandria, was allowed; the 
bishops were overawed by monks, sol- 
diers, and brawny servants, and were 
compelled to sign blank papers, to be 
filled up as the leaders chose. These law- 
less methods, as well as the violent 
measures carried through by their aid. 
hastened a crisis in the Eastern Church, 
and greatly fui'thered the advancing 
power of the Bishop of Rome, by com- 
pelling an appeal to him against oppres- 
sion and wrong. 

EPHRAIM, the younger son of 
Joseph, and the founder of one of the 12 
tribes of Israel. When the Israelites left 
Egypt the Ephraimites numbered 40,500, 
and their possessions in the very center 
of Palestine included most of what wat 
afterward called Samaria. 

EPIC, a poem which narrates the his- 
tory, real or fictitious, of some notable 
action or achievement, or series of ac- 
tions or achievements, accomplished by 
some distinguished hero. The most cele- 
brated epic poems are in Greek litera- 
ture, the 'aiiad" and "Odyssey" of 
Homer; in Latin, the "^nid of Vergil"; 
and in English, the "Paradise Lost" of 
Milton. 

EPICTETUS (ep-ik-te'tus), a Greek 
Stoic philosopher; born in Hierapolis, 
Phrygia, about a. d. 50. A slave and then 
a freed-man at Rome where he taught 
philosophy there till 94, when all philoso- 
phers v,^ere banished by Domitian;^ he 
apparently returned later and lived into 
Hadrian's reign. The essential tenets of 
Stoicism are nowhere more clearly or 
feelingly set forth than by him. No 
writing'^ of his are kn-^wn; but his 
maxims were gathered ana published in 
the "Encheiridion," or handbook, and the 
"Commentaries." 

EPICURUS (ep-i-kii'rus), a famous 
Grecian philosopher; lived from about 
341 B. C. to 270 B. C He was a teacher of 
philosophy rather as a rule of life than 
as a system of knoAvledge, and began to 
teach when he was about 32 years old. 



EPIDEMIC 



36 



EPINAL 



first at Mitylene, then at Lampsacus ; but 
his great school was at Athens, where he 
settled about 305 B. C. According to him 
the supi'eme good of life is found in 
pleasure, but not in the momentary grati- 
fication of sense, rather in the delight 
inseparable from the practice of virtue. 
The Epicurean doctrines were in time 
misinterpreted and misunderstood, and 
Epicureanism became a sjmonym of self- 
indulgent and sensuous pleasure. 

EPIDEMIC, a disease which attacks 
many persons at the same time at dif- 
ferent places, spreading with great 
rapidity, extremely virulent and fatal at 
the first onset, gradually becoming spent 
and feeble, so that the early cases are 
usually the worst. The plague, cholera, 
smallp(5x, and influenza are epidemics, 
and other infectious diseases are among 
the number. 

EPIDERMIS, in human anatomy, the 
cuticle or scarf-skin constituting the ex- 
ternal layer of the skin, and protecting 
the inner ones. It is thickest in the 
palms of the hands and the soles of the 
feet, where the skin is much exposed to 
pressure. In comparative anatomy, a 
somewhat similar cuticle in several 
animals; also a layer of animal matter 
covering the shells of mollusks. In 
botany, the true skin of a plant below 
the cuticle; also the general integument 
as a whole, divided into cuticle and 
derma. 

EPIGLOTTIS, a cartilaginous valve 
which partly closes the aperture of the 
larynx. 

EPIGRAM, a short poem of a pointed 
or antithetical character, or any short 
composition expressed neatly and happily 
or antithetically. Epigram was the name 
given by the Greeks to a poetic inscrip- 
tion on a public monument, and hence 
the word came parsed into its modern 
signification. Of the Roman poets, Catul- 
lus and Martial are most celebrated for 
their epigrams. In cookery, epigrams of 
mutton, veal, etc., are small cutlets of 
mutton, veal, etc., dressed in a particular 
manner. 

EPILEPSY, falling sickness. It de- 
rives its name, epilepsia, from the sud- 
denness of the attack. The leading symp- 
toms are a temporary suspension of 
consciousness, with a recurring clonic 
spasm. Epilepsy may be caused by fear, 
passion, etc., or by a blow operating 
on the brain; it is often associated with 
idiocy and the puerperal state. There is 
little hope of cure. 

EPILEPTIC COLONIES, establish- 
ments modeled on farms in which epilep- 
tics inhabit houses surrounded by open 



spaces such as gardens and meadows, 
and supplemented by factories, schools, 
theaters, and churches; giving the pa- 
tients occupation and a diversion, and the 
opportunity of a life spent largely in 
the open. The idea is a modem one and 
has been fx'uitful of results. It was first 
conceived in Germany and the epileptic 
colony at Bielefeld, in Westphalia, the 
best known of its kind, provides vdth the 
officials and employes for about 4,000 
persons. Both sexes are accommodated, 
and the tabulated results show that less 
than 1 per cent, of the patients have 
been allowed to develop insanity. Nearly 
10 per cent, are discharged as cured; 
over 20 per cent, improve sufficiently to 
leave for ordinary duties; 21 per cent, 
show no sign of improvement; and 20 per 
cent, are released by death. Epileptic 
colonies, modeled on that of Bielefeld, 
have been established in different parts 
of Europe. There are several in Germany, 
one in Holland, one in Italy, and one in 
Switzerland. The English established 
colonies at Chalfont St. Peter in 1894, 
and another at Warford, Cheshire, in 
1900. The results have been similar to 
those noted at Bielefeld. The principles 
that lay at the basis of the treatment 
of epileptics in Germany had long re- 
ceived favorable consideration in the 
United States, and in course of time sev- 
eral States established farm colonies of a 
similar character. There are now such 
colonies in New York, Virginia, Indiana, 
Michigan, New Jersey, and other States. 
The colony at Sonyea, N. Y., was opened 
in 1896, covering something like 2,000 
acres, with gardens, orchards, woods, 
meadows, parks and numerous groups of 
buildings, including mills, residences, 
churches, libraries, schools, shops, and 
barns, and the available means for many 
industries. The average attendance is 
about 1,500. The census of 1912 showed 
745 males, 673 females, of whom 130 
males and 97 females were admitted 
during the previous year, 146 males and 
83 females being discharged, transferred 
or died, 4 recovering. 

EPILOGUE, the closing speech or 
short poem addressed to the audience at 
the end of a play. The epilogue, is the 
opposite of the prologue, or opening 
addi'ess. 

EPINAL, chief town of the depart- 
ment of the Vosges, France, situated at 
the W. base of the Vosges Mountains, on 
both banks of the Moselle, and about 
260 miles E. S. E. from Paris. It was 
in this region that the French forces 
attempted to launch an offensive against 
the Germans in Alsace-Lorraine, shortly 
after the beginning of the World War, 
in August, 1914, but were strongly re- 



EPIPHANY 



36 



EPWORTH LEAGUE 



pulsed. The French jvere able to hold 
their lines just E. of Epinal. Pop. about 
30.000. 

EPIPHANY (-pif'a-ni), a Church 
festival, observed on Jan. 6 in honor of 
the adoration of our Saviour by the three 
magi, or wise men, who came to adore 
Him and bring Him presents, led by the 
star. As a separate festival it dates 
from 813. 

EPIRUS (-pi'rus), a province of an- 
cient Greece, now forming the S. part of 
Albania. It was separated from Grecian 
Illyria by the Ceraunian Mountains, and 
by the famous river Pindus from Thes- 
saly. The river Acheron, also famous in 
mythological story, flowed through its 
limits. Here were also the celebrated 
temple and sacred grove of Dodona. 
Pyrrhus, King of Macedon, was a native 
of Epirus, which country passed succes- 
sively into the hands of the Romans and 
the Turks. It was ceded to Greece by 
the Turks in 1881. 

EPISCOPAL CHURCH. See PROTES- 
TANT Episcopal Church; Reformed 
Episcopal Church. 

EPITAPH, an inscription on a tomb 
or monument in honor or memory of the 
dead. Epitaphs were in use both among 
the Greeks and Romans. The Greeks 
distinguished by epitaphs onh' their il- 
lustrious men. Among the Romans they 
became a family institution, and private 
names were regularly recorded on tomb- 
stones. The same practice has generally 
prevailed in Christian countries. 

EPIZOOTIC, or EPIZOOTIC DIS- 
EASE, a disease that at some particular 
time and place attacks great numbers of 
the lower animals, just as an epidemic 
attacks man. Pleuro-pneumonia is often 
an epizootic, as was also the rinderpest. 
See Epidemic. 

EPOCH, in ordinary language, a point 
of time from which a new computation 
of years is begun. Technical uses : 

History. — A point of time in which an 
event of such importance takes place that 
its influence is powerfully felt in all suc- 
ceeding time. 

Geology. — The term is sometimes used 
for period, as the Tertiary epoch; this 
sense of the word is loose and objection- 
able, as the term epoch more properly 
refers to the moment at which a new 
space of time commences than to its 
whole duration. 

Astronomy. — The longitude which a 
planet has at any given moment of time. 
To predict this for any future period the 
longitude at a certain instant in the past 
must be known; that instant is the epoch 
of the planet, which is an abbreviation 
for its longitude at that epoch. 



An epoch and an era are different. 
Both mark important events, but an era 
is an epoch which is chronologically 
dated from; an epoch is not marked in 
this way. The birth of Christ and the 
Reformation were both of them highly 
important epochs in the history of man- 
kind; the former, the inconceivably 
greater event of the two, gave rise to 
the Christian era ; but the Protestant na- 
tions and Churches do not any of them 
reckon time from the Reformation. The 
birth of Christ was, therefore, both an 
epoch and an era, the Reformation an 
epoch only. 

EPSOM, a town in the county of 
Surrey, England, 15 miles S. W. of Lon- 
don, formerly celebrated for a mineral 
spring, from the water of which the well- 
known Epsom salts were manufactured. 
The principal attraction Epsom can now 
boast of is the grand race meeting held 
on the Downs, the chief races being the 
Derby and Oaks. 

EPSOM SALT, sulphate of magnesium 
(Mg SO4 7H2O), a cathartic salt which 
appears in capillary fibers or acicular 
crystals. It is found covering crevices of 
rocks, in mineral springs, etc.; but is 
commonly prepared by artificial proc- 
esses from magnesian limestone by 
treating it with sulphuric acid, or by dis- 
solving the mineral kieserite (Mg SOi 
H2O) in boiling water, allowing the in- 
soluble matter to settle, and crystallizing 
out the Epsom salt from the clear solu- 
tion. It is employed in medicine as a 
purgative, and in the arts. See Epsom. 

EPSTEIN, JACOB, an American 
sculptor. He was born in New York, 
1880, and was educated in the New York 
public schools. He then took up sculpture 
and after producing several minor works 
was commissioned in 1907 to execute 
eighteen figures to decorate the recently 
erected building of the British Medical 
Association in London. The work, with 
the strongly marked anatomy of the 
figures, aroused much adverse criticism, 
though it had its defenders. In 1909 he 
was commissioned to execute the tomb of 
Oscar Wilde for the Pere Lachaise Ceme- 
tery, Paris; the tomb was carved out of 
Derbyshire marble. Later he decorated 
the Church Square, Pretoria, and in 1919 
his figure of Christ caused much com- 
ment. 

EPWORTH LEAGUE, a society of 
young people of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church; formed May 15, 1889, in Cleve- 
land, O., by the union of five societies 
afliliated with the Methodist Church. It 
adopted as its motto: "Look up, Lift up," 
and its declai'ed object is to "promote 
inte)b>ent and loyal piety in the young 



EQUATION 87 

members and friends of the Church; to 
aid them in the attainment of purity of 
heart and constant ^owth in grace and 
to train them in works of mercy and 
help." The league is governed by a board 
of control, appointed by the bishops, and 
consisting of one bishop, who is Presi- 
dent, and one member for each General 
Conference District. The general secre- 
tary, the assistant-general secretaries for 
the German and colored conferences, and 
the editor of the "Epworth Herald" are 
advisory members. From the United 
States the league extended to Japan, 
China, India, Norway, Sweden, the Philip- 
pines, Burma, Mexico, South America, 
Denmark, Finland, Bulgaria, and other 
countries. In 1920 there were 30,000 
chapters enrolled, with over 2,000,000 
members. 

EQUATION, a term based on the idea 
©f equality. 

Algebra. — Two algebraic expressions 
which are equal to one another, and are 
connected by the sign = . Thus 

6X— 13=:22i) + 19. 

is an equation ; and, since the equality of 
the members depends on the value 
assigned to x, it is called an equation of 
condition. The two quantities separated 
by the sign= are called the members of 
the equation; the quantity to the left 
of=being the first member, and that to 
the right the second. The quantities 
separated by the signs + and — are called 
the terms of the equation. Of the quan- 
tities some are known and the others 
unknown. The known quantities are gen- 
erally represented by numbers. If letters 
be used, then those employed are gen- 
erally a, b, c, d, etc. — i. e., letters at or 
near the beginning of the alphabet. Un- 
known quantities are represented by let- 
ters toward the conclusion of the alpha- 
bet. If there be one unknown quantity 
it is generaly represented by x; if two, 
by X and y; and if three, by x, y, and z. 
Sometimes a statement that two expres- 
sions are equal for all numerical values 
that can be assigned to the letters in- 
volved, provided that the same value be 
given to the same letter in each member, 
e. g. — 

{x ± a.)'=x' ± 2ax-\-a'. 
Such a statement is called an identical 
equation, or briefly, an identity. The 
solution of an equation is the process 
which ultimately results in discovering 
and stating the value of the unknown 
quantity, which value is the root of the 
equation. Equations are classified accord- 
ing to the highest power of the unknown 
quantity sought. When that quantity 
exists only in the first power we have 
a simple equation, or one of the first 
degree; if there be a square or second 



EQUATION 

power of the unknown quantity, the 
equation becomes a quadratic, or one of 
the second degree ; if the third power be 
present a cubic equation, or of the third 
degree. It is rarely that a higher power 
than the cube of the unknown quantity 
has to be dealt with. When such cases 
occur the equation is biquadratic, or one 
of the fourth degree, an equation of the 
fifth, of the sixth, of any degree. 

Astronomy. — Any sum to be added or 
subtracted to allow for an anomaly or a 
special circumstance aff'ecting the exact- 
ness of a calculation. If, for instance, the 
orbit of a planet were calculated on the 
supposition that its orbit was circular 
when in reality it is elliptical a small 
number would require to be added or sub- 
tracted to make the calculations accurate. 
That small sum would be the astronom- 
ical equation. If the movements of the 
planets calculated on the supposition that 
the only attraction operating on them is 
that of the sun, error, though not of a 
considerable magnitude, will be the re- 
sult. There is a mutual attraction among 
all the planets; each is capable of pro- 
ducing a perturbation in the orbits of all 
the rest. An equation is required for 
every such perturbation before it is pos- 
sible to calculate accurately the course 
of the planet. 

Chemistry. — A chemical equation rep- 
resents symbolically a chemical reaction, 
the symbols of the reacting substances 
being placed on the left hand, and the 
symbols of the new substances formed by 
the reaction being placed on the right 
hand. In a chemical equation the number 
of atoms of each element must be the 
same on each side of the equation, thus, 
3AgN03+Na2HPO.=rAg,PO.+2NaN03+ 
HNO3. Three molecules of argentic 
nitrate and one molecule of disodium-hy- 
drogen-phosphate equal (that is, form 
when added together) one molecule of 
triargentic phosphate, and two molecules 
of sodium nitrate, and one molecule of 
hydrogen nitrate (nitric acid) . Chemical 
equations are imperfect, as they do not 
show the amount of heat liberated, or 
absorbed, during the reaction. 

Annual, Personal, Etc. — Annual equa- 
tion^ in astronomy, one of the numer- 
ous equations requisite in determinfl^ 
the moon's true longitude; equation ol 
the center; the equation required to fix 
the place or orbit of a planet calculated 
as if it were moving in a circle when it 
is doing so really in an ellipse; equa- 
tion of the equinoxes; the equation re- 
quired to calculate the real position of 
the equinoxes from its mean one, the dis- 
turbing element being the movement 
called precession of the equinoxes; equa- 
tion of time, the difference between mean 
and apparent time; personal equation, 



EQUATOR 



38 



EQUINOX 



the difference between the time at which 
an astronomical occurrence takes place 
and that at which a fallible observer 
notes that it does so; also, the correction 
of personal differences between particu- 
lar individuals as to exactness in obser- 
vations with astronomical instruments; 
equation of payments, a rule for ascer- 
tc^ining at what time a person should in 
equity pay the whole of a debt contracted 
in different portions to be repaid at 
different times. 

EQUATOR, an imaginary great circle 
of the celestial vault or on the surface 
of the earth. 

In Astronomy. — A great circle of the 
celestial vault at right angles to its axis, 
and dividing it into a northern and 
southern hemisphere. It is constituted by 
the plane of the earth's equator, pro- 
duced in every direction till it reaches the 
concave of the celestial sphere. In his 
progress north and south, and vice versa, 
the sun is twice a year in the celestial 
equator — viz., at the Equinoxes (g. v.). 
The point in the equator which touches 
the meridian is raised above the true 
horizon by an arc which is the comple- 
ment of the latitude. The sun and 
planets all have equators. They rotate 
around their several axes, and the plane 
at right angles in each case is the equa- 
tor of the heavenly body. 

In Geography. — A great circle on the 
surface of the earth equidistant from its 
poles, and dividing it into two hemi- 
spheres. Its latitude is zero; it is there- 
fore marked on the maps as 0. Other 
parallels of latitude are counted from it, 
augmenting in their numerical designa- 
tion as their distance from it north or 
south increases, the poles being 90°. The 
plane of the equator is a plane perpen- 
dicular to the earth's axis, and passing 
through its center. 

In Magnetism. — A somewhat irregular 
line, nearly but not quite a great circle of 
the earth, in which there is no dip of 
the magnetic needle. It is hence called 
also the aclinic line. It is inclined to the 
equator at an angle of 12°, and cuts it at 
two points almost exactly opposite to 
each other, the one in the Atlantic and 
the other in the Pacific. It is not far 
from the geographical equator, but its 
situation slowly alters year by year, 
there being a slow oscillation of the mag- 
netic poles, while the geographical equa- 
tor and poles are fixed. The two points 
in which the magnetic equator cuts the 
equator seem traveling at present from 
E. to W. 

EQUATORIAL, an astronomical in- 
strument designed to note the course of 
the stars as they move through the sky. 
A strong axis is constructed and perma- 



nently fixed in a slanting position so as 
to point exactly to the North pole of the 
heavens. It turns on its axis, carrying 
with it a telescope which, if it retained 
its relative position to that of the re- 
volving portion of the instrument, would 
enable an observer looking through it to 
see no more than a single great circle of 
the sky. It is not, however, fixed to the 
revolving portion of the instrument, but 
may be moved up or down so that with 
it an astronomer can follow the entire 
course of a circumpolar star in its pas- 
sage around the sky. It is of importance 
to ascertain not only the course of a star, 
but the apparent rapidity of its move- 
ment. This end is attained by attaching 
to the axis of the equatorial a racked 
wheel in which works an endless screw 
or worm, the whole put in motion by an 
apparatus furnished with centrifugal 
balls, like those of the governor of a 
steam engine, and which render the mo- 
tion uniform. 

EQUATORIAL CURRENT, a current 
in the ocean which crosses the Atlantic 
from Africa to Brazil, having a breadth 
varying from 160 to 450 nautical miles. 
Its waters are cooler by 3° or 4° than 
those of the ocean under the line. Its 
effect, therefore, is to diminish the heat 
of the tropics. 

EQUATORIAL TELESCOPE, a tele- 
scope so mounted as to have a motion in 
two planes at right angles to each other; 
one parallel to the axis of the earth, 
and the other to the equator. Each axis 
has a graduated circle, one for measur- 
ing declination and the other right ascen- 
sion. 

EQUINOCTIAL, the same as the 
celestial equator. The equinoctial points 
are those in which the equinoctial and 
the ecliptic intersect. Equinoctial time is 
time reckoned from the moment in each 
year when the sun passes the vernal 
equinox. This instant is selected as a 
convenient starting-point of a uniform 
reckoning of time for the purposes of 
astronomical observers. 

EQUINOCTIAL GALE, a gale popu- 
larly supposed to occur at the time of 
the spring or autumn equinox. Long-con- 
tinued observations, however, are decisive 
against this popular belief. 

EQUINOX, in astronomy, either one 
of the two points at which the sun, in its 
annual apparent course among the stars, 
crosses the equator ; so called because the 
days and nights are nearly equal when 
the sun is at these points. The vernal 
equinox occurs about March 20. When 
but one equinox is referred to, vernal 
equinox is meant. The autumnal equinox 
occurs about Sept. 23. 



EQUINOXES, PRECESSION OF 39 



ERFURT 



EQUINOXES, PRECESSION OF 
THE, the motion of the eauinoxes along 
the ecliptic due to the cnan^e in the 
direction of the earth's axis of rotation, 
caused by the attraction of the moon and 
sun on the protuberant equatorial ring of 
the earth. 

EQUITY, in law, the system of supple- 
mental law administered in certain 
courts, founded on defined rules, I'ecorded 
precedents, and established principles, 
the judges, however, liberally expound- 
ing and developing them to meet new exi- 
gencies. While it aims to assist the de- 
fects of the common law, by extending 
relief to those rights of property which 
the strict law does not recognize, and by 
giving more ample and distributive re- 
dress than the ordinary tribunals afford, 
equity by no means either controls, miti- 
gates or supersedes the common law, but 
rather guides itself by its analogies, and 
does not assume any power to subvert its 
doctrines. Courts of equity grant redress 
to all parties where they have rights, 
ex ieguo et bono, and modify and fashion 
that redress according to circumstances. 
They bring before them all the parties 
interested in the subject-matter of the 
suit, and adjust the rights of all. 

ERA. See Epoch. 

ERASED, in heraldry, signifies vio- 
lently plucked or torn off, and showing a 
ragged edge ; as opposed to couped or cut, 
which shows a smooth edge. The term is 
chiefly applied to the heads and limbs of 
animals. 

ERASMUS, DESIDERIUS (-raz' 
nous), a Dutch scholar; born in Rotter- 
dam in 1467. His original name was 
Gerard. At the age of 17 he assumed the 
monastic habit; the Bishop of Cambray 
delivered him from this constraint. In 
1492 he traveled to "Paris to perfect him- 
self in theology and polite literature. A 
rich Englishman there, Lord Mountjoy, 
pensioned him for life. In 1497 he went 
to England. He returned soon after to 
the Continent, took his doctor's degree, 
was relieved from his monastic vows by 
dispensation from the Pope, and pub- 
lished several of his works. He returned 
to England in 1510, resided with Sir 
Thomas More, and was appointed Mar- 
garet Professor of Divinity and Greek 
Lecturer at Cambridge. In 1514 he re- 
turned to the Continent. He rendered 
gi'eat and lasting service to the cause of 
reviving scholarship. Though he took no 
direct part in the Reformation, he at- 
tacked the disorders of monasticism and 
superstition. He edited various classics, 
the first edition of the Greek Testament 
from MSS. (with Latin translation), 
etc., but his best kno^^^l books are the 



"Praise of Folly," and his "Colloquies." 
He died in Basel, in 1536. 

ERCELDOUNE, THOMAS OF (called 
the Rhymer, and Learmont), a Scotch 
poet and seer, who flourished probably 
between 1220 and 1297, and wrote a 
poem called "Sir Tristrem." He occupies 
a very conspicuous position in the annals 
of Anglo-Saxon literature. 

ERCKMANN, EMILE (erk'man), a 
French novelist; born in Pfalzburg, in 
1822; studied law, but early developed 
a taste for literature. In 1847 he formed 
a literary partnership with Alexandre 
Chatrian (born Dec. 18, 1826; died Sept. 
5, 1890), and later with him published 
successfully the dramas "The Polish 
Jew" and "Friend Fritz." But at the 
height of their financial success the part- 
nership was dissolved through a quarrel. 
After the separation Erckmann con- 
tinued to write indefatigably, but his 
writings were no longer in demand, 
owing to the lack of advertisment which 
Chatrian had furnished. He died in Lune- 
ville, March 14, 1899. 

EREBUS. MOUNT, an active volcano 
on Victoria Land, in lat. 78° 10' S., rising 
12,367 feet above the sea. It was discov- 
ered in 1841 by Ross, who named it after 
one of his vessels. Captain R. F. Scott's 
Antarctic expedition wintered in the 
vicinity (1901-1904) and Sir E. Shackle- 
ton's party made the ascent in 1908. 

ERECHTHEUS (e-rek'thus) , or 
ERICHTHONIUS (e-rik-th5'ni-us), an 
Attic hero, said to have been the son of 
Hephaestus and Atthis, daughter of 
Cranaus, the son-in-law and successor of 
Cecrops. He was brought up by Athena, 
who placed him in a chest, which was in- 
trusted to Agraulos, Pandrosos, and 
Herse, the daughters of Cecrops, with the 
strict charge that it was not to be 
opened. Unable to restrain their curi- 
osity, they opened the chest, and discov- 
ering a child entwined with serpents, 
were seized with madness, and threw 
themselves down the most precipitous 
part of the Acropolis. Afterward Erech- 
theus was the chief means of establishing 
the worship of Athena in Attica. The 
Erechtheum was erected in his own 
honor. This original Erechtheum was 
burned by the Persians, but a new and 
magnificent Ionic temple was raised on 
the same site. 

ERETRIA (-re'tri-a), an ancient 
Ionic trading and colonizing town on the 
S. W. coast of Euboea, which was de- 
stroyed by the Persians in 490 B. C, and 
rebuilt by the Athenians. 

ERFURT (ei-'fort), an important 
town in the Prussian province of Saxony, 



ERIC 



on the river Gera, formerly a fortress 
with two citadels, now given up as such. 
It has a fine cathedral dating from the 
13th century and several handsome 
Gothic churches. The university, founded 
in 1378 and suppressed in 1816, was long 
an important institution. There are still 
a Royal Academy of Science and a 
Royal Library with 60,000 volumes 
The monastery (now an orphanage) was 
the residence of Luther from 1501 to 
1508. Prior to the World War the indus- 
tries were varied, including clothing, ma- 
chinery, leather, shoes, ironmongery, 
chemicals, etc. The horticulture of the 
environs enjoyed a high reputation, 
plants and seed being produced in great 
quantities. Pop. in 1919, 129,646. 

ERIC, the name of several Danish 
and Swedish kings. ERIC VIL, King of 
Denmark; born in 1382, the son of Duke 
Wratislaw of Pomerania, was selected as 
her successor by Queen Margai-et of Den- 
mark, and in 1412 mounted the throne of 
Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, united 
by the treaty of Calmar. Cruel and 
cowardly in character, he lost Sweden in 
1437 through a revolt of the peasants of 
Dalecarlia, and in 1439 was deposed also 
in Denmark. He died in Rugenwald in 
1459. Eric IX., the Saint, became King 
of Sweden in 1155, did much to extend 
Christianity in his dominions, and to 
improve the laws, and fell in battle with 
the Danes in 1160. Eric XIV., the last 
of the name who reigned in Sweden, suc- 
ceeded in 1560 to the throne of his father, 
the great Gustavus Vasa, and at once 
began to exhibit the folly that disgraced 
his reign. His flighty matrimonial 
schemes reached even Elizabeth of Eng- 
land, till at length (1567) his roving 
fancy found rest in the love of a Swedish 
peasant-girl, who acquired an influence 
over him which was ascribed by the 
superstitious to witchcraft. His capri- 
cious cruelties and the disastrous wars 
alienated his subjects, who threw off 
their allegiance in 1568, and elected his 
brother John to the throne. In 1577 he 
ended his miserable life by a cup of 
poison. His story has been worked into 
dramatic form by Swedish poets; in Ger- 
man by Kruse in his tragedy, "King 
Erich" (1871). 

ERICA (-rlTca), the heath, a large 
genus of branched rigid shrubs, type of 
the natural order Ericacese, most of 
which are natives of south Africa, a few 
being found in Europe and Asia. The 
leaves are narrow and rigid, the flowers 
are globose or tubular, and four-lobed. 
Five species are found in Great Britain. 

ERICSSON. JOHN, an American in- 
ventor; born in Langbanshyttan. Sweden, 



40 ERIE 

July 31, 1803; entered the Swedish army 
in 1820; was promoted captain; resigned 
in 1827. He soon became known as an 
inventor. In 1828 he made the first appli- 
cation to navigation of the principle of 
condensing steam and returning the 
water to the boiler; later he brought out 
a self-acting gun-lock by means of which 
naval cannon could be automatically dis- 
charged at any elevation without regard 
to the rolling of the ship. In 1833 he de- 
signed a caloric engine; and in 1836 in- 
vented the screw propeller, which revolu- 
tionized navigation. Ericsson came to the 
United States in 1839 and two years 
later built the screw-propelling warship 
"Princeton" for the government. This 
vessel was the pioneer of modern naval 
construction and the foundation of the 
steam marine of the world. The achieve- 
ment, however, which made him famous 
in the United States was the construction 
in 1861 of the ironclad "Monitor," which 
arrived in Hampton Roads just in time 
to defeat, on March 9, 1862, the Confed- 
erate ironclad "Merrimac." A fleet of 
monitors was soon built and did impor- 
tant service during the remainder of the 
war. Ericsson died in New York City, 
March 8, 1889. After his remains had 
been paid marked honor, they were sent 
back to Sweden on the new cruiser 
"Baltimore," and interred with imposing 
ceremonies. 

ERIDANUS (e-rid'a-nus) , in Greek 
legend, the name of the river Po. In 
astronomy, one of the 15 ancient S. con- 
stellations. It winds like a river through 
the sky from the star of the first mag- 
nitude, Achernes, in the constellation 
Phoenix, past the feet of Cetus, to the 
star Rigel in Orion. 

ERIE, city, port of entry, and county- 
seat of Erie co., Pa., on Lake Erie, and 
on the Lake Shore, the Pennsylvania, 
the Erie, and several other railroads; 
85 miles S. W. of Buffalo; 100 miles 
N. E. of Cleveland. Erie is on a bluff, 
having a grand view of the lake, is laid 
out with broad streets at right angles 
with each other, and has several large 
and attractive parks. It is lighted with 
gas and electricity, and has a bountiful 
supply of water from the lake. The 
peculiarly advantageous location of 
Erie has given it high rank as a ship- 
ping and manufacturing point. It has 
the largest land-locked harbor on Lake 
Erie. The harbor has been greatly im- 
proved. Presque Isle, lying directly in 
front of the city, furnishes means of 
ample protection; three lighthouses 
stand at the entrance to the harbor, and 
substantial wharves, where merchandise 
is transferred directly from vessels to 
cars, extend along the entire front. The 



EBIE CANAL 



41 



ERIVAN 



principal industries are manufactures of 
iron, steam engines, machinery, car- 
wheels, car-work, stoves, engines and 
boilers, chemicals, blast furnaces, auto- 
mobiles, flour and grist mill products, 
brick, leather, organ, pump, furniture, 
and various kinds of woodwork factories, 
and petroleum refineries. The leading 
articles of shipment are lumber, bitu- 
minous and semi-bituminous coal, iron 
ore, petroleum, and manufactured prod- 
ucts, and these are conveyed by rail- 
roads, steamboats, and sailing vessels 
that ply regularly between Erie and 
other ports on the great lakes. Among 
the notable buildings are the City Hall, 
Union Depot, Government Building (in- 
cludes PostofRce, Custom House, and 
other departments). State Soldiers' and 
Sailors* Home on Garrison Hill, Hamot 
Hospital, St. Vincent Hospital, Protes- 
tant Home for the Friendless, United 
States Marine Hospital, and Central 
School. Near the city is a memorial in 
the form of a block house, erected by 
the State, in honor of Anthony Wayne. 
The city has excellent public schools, a 
public library, daily and weekly news- 
papers, 3 National and several sav- 
ings banks. Erie occupies the site of a 
French fort, called Fort de la Presque, 
built in 1753, was laid out as a 
town in 1795; had a portion incorpo- 
rated as a borough in 1805; and the 
whole was given a city charter in 1851. 
It was the headquarters of Commodore 
Perry in the War of 1812; the fleet with 
which he defeated the British in the 
battle of Put-in-Bay was built and 
equipped here. Natural gas was dis- 
covered in 1889. Pop. (1910) 66,525; 
(1920) 93,372. 

ERIE CANAL, the largest artificial 
waterway in the United States, serving 
to connect the great lakes with the sea. 
It begins at Buffalo on Lake Erie, and 
extends to the Hudson at Albany. It is 
387 miles long; has in all 72 locks; a 
surface width of 70 feet, bottom width 
of 42 feet, and depth of 7 feet. It is 
carried over several large streams on 
stone aqueducts and was opened in 1825. 
See New York State Barge Canal. 

ERIE, LAKE, one of the great chain 
of North American lakes, between Lakes 
Huron and Ontario, about 265 miles 
long, 63% miles broad at its center, 
from 200 to 270 feet deep at the deepest 
part; area, 9,600 square miles. The 
whole of its S. shore is within the terri- 
tory of the United States, and its N. 
within that of Canada. It receives the 
waters of the upper lakes by Detroit 
river at its S. W. extremity, and dis- 
charges its waters into Lake Ontario by 
the Niagara river at its N. E. end. The 



Welland Canal enables vessels to pass 
from it to Lake Ontario. It is shallow 
compared with the other lakes of the 
series, and is subject to violent storms. 
The principal harbors are those on the 
United States side — Buffalo, Erie, Cleve- 
land, etc. 

ERIE, LAKE, BATTLE OF. In the 
War of 1812, between the United States 
and Great Britain, each party tried to 
gain possession of Lakes Erie and On- 
tario as a theater for warlike opera- 
tions. The chief command of the naval 
force on Lake Ontario was held by Com- 
modore Chauncey, and that on Lake 
Erie by Master-Commandant Oliver 
Hazard Perry, of Rhode Island, then 
only 27 years old. Perry fitted out a 
squadron of seven vessels at Erie, and 
succeeded in running the British block- 
ade early in August, 1813. On Sept. 10 
following he engaged in a fight in Put- 
in-Bay, near the W. extremity of the 
lake, with the British squadron of 6 ves- 
sels, mounting 63 guns. A fierce battle 
was waged for several hours, in the 
early part of which Perry's flagship, the 
"Lawrence," was completely disabled 
and struck her flag. He immediately 
shifted his flag to the "Niagara," and 
continued in action, finally defeating the 
British and establishing American su- 
premacy on the lakes. 

ERIGENA, JOANNES SCOTXJS (e-rij' 
e-na), an eminent scholar and meta- 
physician; probably born in Ireland 
about 800-810. He spent a great part 
of his life at the court of Charles the 
Bald of France, and was placed at the 
head of the school of the palace. The 
king further imposed on him the double 
task of translating into Latin the Greek 
works of the pseudo Dionysius the Are- 
opagite, and of composing a treatise 
against Godeschalc on "Predestination 
and Free-will." This treatise, and an- 
other, "Of the Division of Nature," con- 
tained many views in opposition to the 
teachings of the Church. They were 
condemned by the councils of Valencia 
in 855 and of Langi-es in 859, and Pope 
Nicholas I. demanded the immediate dis- 
grace of the culprit. He died in France 
about 875. 

ERIN, an old name for Ireland. Now 
used only in poetry. 

ERINYES. The Furies, q. v. 

ERIVAN, a strongly fortified city of 
Armenia, and the capital of the former 
Russian government of Transcaucasia, 
3,000 feet above sea-level, and 170 miles 
S. W. of Tiflis. The province of the 
same name has an area of about 10,700 
square miles, formerly bordering on 



ERLANGEN" 



42 



ERNST 



Persia and Asiatic Turkey. The popu- 
lation of the city, before the war, was 
about 33,000, and that of the province 
about 970,000, being about equally di- 
vided between Mohammedans and Chris- 
tian Armenians. During the Russian 
campaigns against Asiatic Turkey, in 
the World War, Erivan was one of the 
bases of the Russian forces. In 1920 
Erivan became the economic center of 
the new Armenian Republic, here being 
established the central wholesale supply 
depot of the co-operative societies which 
were exclusively supplying the people 
with food stuffs. 

ERLANGEN, a city of Bavaria, about 
fifteen miles N. N. W. of Nuremberg, on 
the Regnitz. Important manufacturing 
plants are located here, principally turn- 
ing out woolen and cotton goods, glass- 
ware, gloves, and beer. The city was 
Prussian from 1791 until 1810, when it 
became Bavarian. It is noted as the 
location of the Friedrich-Alexander Uni- 
versity, which, before the World War, 
had an average student body of 1,350 
The volumes in the local library num- 
ber a quarter of a million. Pop. about 
25,000. 

ERLANGEN, UNIVERSITY OF, an 

institution for higher education, situated 
in the town of the same name in Ba- 
varia. Founded in 1743 by Frederick, 
malgrave of Bayreuth, its main building 
was formerly the palace of the mar- 
graves in Erlangen. It has four facul- 
ties : philosophy, law, medicine, and Prot- 
estant theology. Many institutions of 
learning are connected with the univer- 
sity, among these being extensive clini- 
cal and anatomical laboratories. The 
library contains over 200,000 volumes. 

ERMINE, in zoology, the ermine 
weasel, a small mammal. The body in 
summer is reddish-brown above and 
white beneath, and in winter is wholly 
white, except the extremity of the tail, 
which all the year round is black. It is 
found in the arctic and temperate parts 
of Europe, becoming more abundant as 
one travels N. It occurs also in the cor- 
responding parts of North America, 
ranging as far S. as the middle of the 
United States. It frequents stony places 
and thickets, and is active, fierce and 
blood-thirsty. It is called also the stoat. 
It is obtained from Russia in Europe, 
Norway, Siberia, Lapland, and also, 
though to a less extent than formerly, 
in North America. The word is used 
figuratively to designate the office, posi- 
tion, or dignity of a judge (from his 
state robe being ornamented or bordered 
with ermine). In heraldry it designates 
one of the furs, represented by black 



spots of a particular shape on a white 
ground. 

ERMLAND, or ERMELAND, a dio- 
cese of East Prussia, in the district of 
Konigsberg, with the episcopal seat at 
Braunsberg. It was formerly under th© 
administrative control of Poland, but 
after the partition of that kingdom, in 
1772, was assigned to Prussia. 

ERNE, one of the "bare-legged" eagles. 
The genus includes some seven species, 
represented apparently in all parts of 
the world except South America. The 
common erne or white-tailed sea-eagle 
is widely distributed in northern Europe 
and Asia. It occurs in Great Britain, 
but is rare. Another notable species is 
the white-headed or bald eagle, the em- 
blem of the United States. This erne 
is common in North America, both by 
the coasts and by inland lakes, and also 
occurs in northern Europe. The gen- 
eral color is brown, but the head and 
neck of the adults are milky-white, and 
the same is true of the rounded tail. 
The size is slightly less than that of the 
British species. The white-bellied sea- 
eagle, found round the Australian coasts, 
and from Ceylon to Cochin-China, and 
the Asiatic erne, are other important 
species. 

ERNE, LOUGH, a lake in Ireland, 
county Fermanagh, consisting of a N. 
or lower, and a S. or upper lake (with 
the town of Enniskillen between), con- 
nected by a narrow, winding channel, 
and properly forming only expansions 
of the river Erne. Its entire length is 
about 40 miles; average breadth 6 miles. 
It contains numerous islands, and is well 
stocked with fish. 

ERNEST AUGUSTUS, King of Han- 
over and Duke of Cumberland, the fifth 
son of George III.; born in 1771. _ He 
became a field-marshal in the British 
army, and on the death of William IV. 
in 1837, ascended the throne of Hanover, 
in consequence of the succession to the 
sovereignty of that country being lim- 
ited to male heirs. He was succeeded by 
his son George V., the last of the Hano- 
verian kings. He died in 1851. 

ERNST, OSWALD HERBERT, an 
American soldier, born near Cincinnati 
in 1842. He attended Harvard College 
for two years and graduated from the 
United States Military Academy in 
1864. In the same year he was appointed 
1st lieutenant of engineers. He rose 
through the various grades, in 1898 be- 
coming a brigadier-general. With this 
rank he served in the volunteers during 
the Spanish-American War. He was 
promoted to be major-general in 1916. 



EROS 

His active service included several cam- 
paigns in the Civil War, where he served 
as assistant chief engineer with the 
Army of Tennessee. He was instructor 
in practical military engineering at 
West Point from 1871 to 1878, and from 
that year until 1886 he was engineer in 
charge of Western river improvements. 
For 3 years following he had charge of 
the harbor improvements on the Texas 
coast, where he began the great work 
which resulted in the deepening of the 
channel at the entrance to Galveston 
harbor. He served on various boards 
from 1880 to 1906. From 1893 to 1898 
he was superintendent of the United 
States Military Academy. He was a 
member of the Isthmian Canal Commis- 
sion from 1899 to 1901, and again in 
1905 and 1906. From 1903 to 1906 he 
was president of the Mississippi River 
Commission. He retired from active 
service in 1906. He wrote "Manual of 
Practical Military Engineering" and 
other works on engineering subjects. 

EBOS, the Greek equivalent of the 
Latin Cupid, the god of love. 

ERSKINE, JOHN, an American edu- 
. cator, born in New York City in 1879. 
. He graduated from Columbia University 
in 1900 and was in turn instructor of 
English, assistant professor, and asso- 
ciate professor of English at Amherst, 
serving until 1909, when he became 
adjunct professor of English at Colum- 
bia University. He was appointed full 
professor in 1916. He wrote several 
volumes of poems and was a frequent 
contributor to magazines on literary 
subjects. He was coeditor of the Cam- 
bridge History of American Literature, 
1917-1919. In 1918-1919 he was chair- 
man of the Army Education Commission 
of the American Expeditionary Forces, 
and was educational director of the 
American Expeditionary Forces Univer- 
sity at Beaune, France, in 1919. 

ERSKINE, THOMAS, a Scotch baron; 
born in Edinburgh, Jan. 21, 1750; be- 
came a noted forensic orator and jurist, 
attaining most of his renown as a 
pleader in support of the accusations of 
corruption made against Lord Sand- 
wich; later he added to his success by 
his defense of Stockdale, Hardy, Thomas 
Paine, Home Tooke, and others. He 
was a member of the House of Commons 
in 1790-1806. About the latter date he 
was created Baron Erskine of Restor- 
mel, on becoming lord-chancellor. He 
died near Edinburgh, Nov. 17, 1823. 

ERVINE, ST. JOHN GREER, an 
Irish dramatist and novelist. He was 
born at Belfast in 1883 and first came 
into notice in connection with the Abbey 



43 ERZERUM 

Theater, Dublin, which in 1913 produced 
his one-act play, "The Magnanimous 
Lover," written by him in 1907. In 1910 
he wrote a four-act play, "Mixed Mar- 
riage," produced by the Abbey Theater 
in 1911. Other of his plays are "John 
Ferguson," played with gi-eat success in 
New York in 1919, and "Jane Clegg," 
played in New York in 1920. His novels 
include: "Mrs. Martin's Man," "Alice 
and a Family," "Changing Winds," and 
"The Foolish Lovers." He was trooper 
in the Household Battalion in the 
World War; after serving as 2d lieu- 
tenant, Dublin Fusiliers, was wounded, 
May, 1918, and invalided home. He 
wrote a political study, "Sir Edward 
Carson and the Ulster Movement," and 
he lectured in the United States in 1920. 

ERYSIPELAS, a peculiar inflamma- 
tion of the skin, spreading with great 
rapidity; the parts affected are of a 
deep red color, with a diffused swelling 
of the underlying cutaneous tissue and 
cellular membrane, and an indisposition 
to take on healthy action. Erysipelas is 
divided into: (1) Simple, where the skin 
only is affected; (2) Phlegmonous, where 
the cutaneous and areolar tissues are 
both attacked at the same time, going on 
to vesication, then yellowness, and death 
of the skin; death of the areolar tissue 
may follow, constituting malignant or 
gangrenous erysipelas; (3) (Edematous, 
or sub-cutaneous, of a yellowish, dark 
brown, or red color, occurring about the 
eyelids, scrotum, or legs, usually in 
broken-down dropsical constitutions. The 
first is superficial and sthenic, the other 
forms more deep-seated and asthenic. 

Some physicians speak highly of poul- 
tices of Phytolacca leaves, while others 
recommend topical applications of some 
form of iron in tincture. The constitu- 
tional treatment is mainly restorative. 

ERYX, an ancient city and a mountain 
in the W. of Sicily, about 2 miles from 
the sea-coast. The mountain, now 
Monte San Giuliano, rises direct from 
the plain to a height of 2,184 feet. On 
the summit anciently stood a celebrated 
temple of Venus. All traces of the 
ancient town of Eryx have now disap- 
peared, and its site is occupied by the 
modern town of San Giuliano. 

ERZERUM (erz-rom'), an important 
town in the Armenian Republic, in lat. 
39° 55' N. and Ion. 41° 20' E., not far 
from the Kara-Su, or W. source of the 
Euphrates. It is situated on a high but 
tolerably well cultivated plain, 6,200 
feet above the level of the sea, sur- 
rounded by mountains. The climate is 
cold in winter, but hot and dry in sum- 
mer. In November, 1901, an earthquake 



EBZGEBIBGE 



44 



ESCAPEMENT 



destroyed over 1,000 houses, with a small 
loss of life. During the World War 
important operations were carried on 
around the city. The Russians captured 
it in February, 1916, following its evacu- 
ation by the Turkish garrison. Pop. 
variously estimated from 50,000 to 100,- 
000. 

ERZGEBIRGE (erts'ge-ber-ge) , or 
ORE MOUNTAINS, a chain of European 
mountains forming a natural boundary 
between Saxony and Bohemia, nearly 
120 miles in length and 25 miles broad. 
The highest summits, which are on the 
side of Saxony, rise to 3,800 or 3,900 
feet. The mountains are rich in silver, 
iron, copper, lead, cobalt, arsenic, etc. 

ERZINGAN, a city of Armenia, for- 
merly capital of a sandjak, in the vilayet 
of Erzerum, Asiatic Turkey, 86 miles 
S. E. of Erzerum, a strongly fortified 
town, situated at an altitude of 3,900 
feet, and about a mile from the right 
bank of the Euphrates, the center of a 
very fertile plain, where wheat, fruit. 



Genesis. He was the progenitor of the 
Edmonites, who dwelt on Mount Seir. 

ESCALATOR, an elevator in the form 
of a moving stairway. It is the most 
efficient machine for handling people in 
large numbers when the distance to be 
traveled is not excessive. The passen- 
gers travel on the moving treads and a 
single large-size escalator will deliver 
more than 10,000 persons per hour. Its 
use is principally for department stores, 
railroad and subway stations, theaters, 
and for large manufacturing plants 
where great numbers of employees must 
be transported quickly between the en- 
trance to the building and the upper 
floors. They are made reversible for 
operation in opposite directions during 
different periods of the day. 

ESCANABA, a city and county-seat 
of Delta CO., Mich., on the N. end of 
Green Bay, at the mouth of the Esca- 
naba river, and on the Chicago and 
Northwestern railroad ; 52 miles N. E. of 
Marinette. It is the grain and vegetable 





ESCALATOR — CLEAT TYPE 



wines, and cotton are produced in large 
quantities. Iron and sulphur springs 
are also abundant in the vicinity. It 
was the object of a special campaign by 
the Russian Caucasian Army, which re- 
sulted in its capture by the Russians on 
July 25, 1916. Since the war it has 
become part of the territory of the new 
Armenian state. Pop. about 18,000, half 
being Mohammedans and half Christian 
Armenians. 

ESATT, the eldest son of Isaac, and 
twin brother of Jacob. His name (which 
signifies rough, hairy) was due to his 
singular appearance at birth, being 
"red, and all over like an hairy gar- 
ment." His story is told in the book of 



raising and lumbering center of the 
county and an important iron-shipping 
point. It has passenger and freight 
steamer connections with all the leading 
ports on the Great Lakes, public high 
school, St. Joseph's high school, public 
library, daily and weekly newspapers, 
and a National bank. Pop. (1910) 
13,194; (1920) 13,103. 

ESCAPEMENT, a device intervening 
between the power and the time-meas- 
urer in a clock or watch, to convert a 
continuous rotary into an oscillating 
isochronous movement. It is acted on 
by each. Clocks and watches are gener- 
ally named according to the form of 
their escapement; as, chronometer, 



ESCHATOLOGY 



46 



ESK 



crown wheel, cylinder, deadbeat, de- 
tached, duplex, horizontal, and lever 
escapement, etc. 

ESCHATOLOGY (es-ka-), in theol- 
ogy, the "doctrine respecting the last 
things," which treats of the millennium, 
the second advent of Christ, the resur- 
rection, judgment, conflagration of the 
world, and the final state of the dead. 

ESCHENBACH, WOLFRAM VON 
(esh'en-biich), a German mediaeval poet; 
born of a noble family in Eschenbach, 
near Ansbach, Bavaria, in the second 
half of the 12th century. He was one 
of the most prominent minstrels at the 



was begun in 1563 and finished in 1584, 
and was intended to serve as a palace, 
mausoleum, and monastery. It has a 
splendid chapel with three naves 320 
feet long and 320 in height to the top of 
the cupola. The pantheon, or royal 
tomb, is a magnificently decorated octa- 
gon chamber 36 feet in diameter by 38 
feet in height, in the eight sides of which 
are numerous black marble sarcophagi. 
Its library, previous to the sack by the 
French in 1808, contained 30,000 printed 
and 4,300 MS. volumes, mainly treasures 
of Arabic literature. In 1872 the escurial 
was struck by lightning and partially 
burned. 




ESCALATOR — STEP TYPE 



court of Hermann, Landgraf of Thurin- 
gia ; and his epics rank among the great- 
est German imaginative works. Besides 
several love songs he wrote "Parcival," 
"Wilhelm von Orange," and "Titurel." 
He died between 1218 and 1225. 

ESCHWEILER, city of Prussia, 
situated on the Inde, eight miles N. E. 
of Aix-la-Chapelle, in the Rhine prov- 
ince. It is the center of a rich wine- 
producing region. Following the armi- 
stice which concluded the World War, 
it became part of the territory occupied 
by the Allied forces as a guarantee of 
the fulfillment of the provisions of the 
Treaty of Peace. 

ESCXJRIAL (es-kii'ri-al), a famous 
monastery of New Castle, Spain, in the 
province of Madrid. This solitary pile 
of granite has been called the eighth 
wonder of the world, and at the time of 
its erection surpassed every other build- 
ing of the kind in size and magnificence. 
It owes its origin, it is said, to an in- 
spired vow made by Philip II. during 
the battle of St. Quentin, who promised 
St. Lorenzo that, should victory be 
granted to him, he would dedicate a 
monastery to the saint. The escurial 

Vol. IV — Cyo — D 



ESDRAELON, PLAIN OF (ez-dra- 
e'lon), a plain extending across Pales- 
tine from the Mediterranean to the Jor- 
dan, and drained by the river Kishon. 
Among its subsidiai'y valleys are those 
of Engannin, Taanach. and Megiddo. 
This plain is celebrated for many im- 
portant events in Old Testament history. 

ESDRAS, BOOKS OF, two apocry- 
phal books, which in the Vulgate and 
other editions are incoi-porated with the 
canonical books of Scripture. In the 
Vulgate the canonical books of Ezra and 
Nehemiah are called the first ana sec- 
ond, and the apocryphal books the third 
and fourth books of Esdras. The Geneva 
Bible (1560) first adopted the present 
nomenclature, calling the two apocry- 
phal books first and second Esdras. The 
subject of the first book of Esdras is the 
same as that of Ezra and Nehemiah, and 
in general it appears to be copied from 
the canonical Scriptures. The second 
book of Esdras is supposed to have been 
either of much later date, or to have 
been interpolated by Christian writers. 

ESK (Celtic for water), the name 
of two small rivers in England, one in 
Cumberland and one in Yorkshire; and 



ESKILSTUNA 



46 



ESKIMO 



of several in Scotland, the chief being 
the Esk in Dumfriesshire; the North Esk 
and South Esk in Forfarshire; and the 
North Esk and South Esk in Edinburgh- 
shire. 

ESKILSTUNA, a city of Sweden, 
situated on the Eskilstuna river, about 
60 miles W. of Stockholm. It is noted 
for its large steel manufacturing plants, 
in which are produced fine cutlery and 
small arms. A large gun factory is 
located on an island in the river. Pop. 
about 30,000. 

ESKIMO, the name of the inhabit- 
ants of the N. coast of the American 
continent down to lat, 60° N. on the W., 
and 55° on the E., and of the Arctic 
Islands, Greenland, and about 400 miles 
of the nearest Asiatic coast. They prefer 
the vicinity of the seashore. Their num- 
ber scarcely amounts to 40,000. Never- 
theless they are scattered as the sole 
native occupants of regions stretching 
from E. to W. as far as 3,200 miles in 
a straight line. 

Race. — They used to be classed among 
nations of the Mongolian stock; but now 
they are considered as akin to the Amer- 
ican Indians. Their height nearly equals 
the average of the N. W. Indians. They 
appear comparatively taller sitting than 
standing. Their hands and feet are 
small, their faces oval, but rather broad 
in the lower part; their skin is only 
slightly brown; they have coarse black 
hair and very little beard. The skull is 
high. 

Habits. — The Eskimos get their sub- 
sistence mostly from hunting by sea, 
using for this purpose skin boats where 
the sea is open, and dog sledges on the 
ice. From the skin, blubber, and flesh 
of the seal and the cetaceous animals, 
they procure clothes, fuel, light, and 
food. Their most interesting as well as 
important invention for hunting is the 
well-known small skin boat for one man, 
called a kayak. It is formed of a frame- 
work covered with skin, and, together 
with his waterproof jacket, it completely 
protects the man against the waves, so 
that he is able to rise unhurt by means 
of his paddle, even should he capsize. A 
Greenlander's kayak is almost 18 feet 
long and 2 feet broad, and can carry 
200 pounds besides the man. The spe- 
cial weapon of the kayak is the large 
harpoon, connected by a line with an 
inflated bladder. The hunter throws it 
when but 25 feet from the seal, and at 
once drops the bladder overboard, thus 
retarding the speed of the wounded ani- 
mal, which runs off with it till finally 
killed by a lance-thrust. Their winter 
dwellings vary with regard to the mate- 
rials of which they are built, as well as 



in their form. In the farthest W. they 
are constructed mostly of planks, cov- 
ered only with a layer of tui-f or sod; 
in Greenland the walls consist of stones 
and sod; in the central regions the 
houses are formed merely out of snow. 
In Alaska the interior is a square room, 
surrounded by the sleeping places, with 
the entrance on one side, while a hearth 
with wood as fuel occupies the middle 
of the floor. In Greenland the room is 
heated only by lamps, and the sleeping 
places or family stalls are arranged in 
a row occupying one of its sides. The 
number of inhabitants at an Eskimo 
station is generally under 40. 

Dress. — The dress of the Eskimos is 
almost the same for the women as for 
the men, consisting of trousers or 
breeches and a tunic or coat fitting close 
to the body, made of skins, and covering 
also the head by a prolongation that 
forms the hood. For women with chil- 
dren to carry, this hood is widened so 
as to make it an excellent cradle, the 
amaut. 

Language. — The language is charac- 
terized by the power of expressing in 
one word a whole sentence in which are 
embodied a number of ideas which in 
other languages require separate words. 
The Greenland dictionary contains 1,370 
radicals and about 200 affixes. A radi- 
cal may be made the foundation of thou- 
sands of derivatives, and a word can be 
composed which expresses with perfect 
distinctness what in our civilized lan- 
guages might require 20 words. In 
Greenland and Labrador the mission- 
aries have adapted the Roman letters 
for reducing the native language to 
writing. 

Sociology. — It is doubtful whether an 
organization like that of the Indian 
"families" has been discovered among 
the Eskimos. But a division into tribes, 
each with their separate territories, ac- 
tually exists. The tribe again is divided 
into groups constituting the inhabit- 
ants of the different wintering places. 
Finally, in the same station, the inhabit- 
ants of the same house are closely 
united with regard to common house- 
keeping. In this, and perhaps similar 
ways, their general communism in liv- 
ing, characteristic of their stage of cul- 
ture, is governed by rules for partner- 
ship in householding, for distribution of 
the daily game during the winter, and 
for the possessions of the individual, the 
family, the housemates, and the place- 
fellows. One of the oldest and most 
respectable men, called in Greenland itok, 
in Labrador angajorkak, is obeyed as 
chief of a house or wintering place, 
though his authority, perhaps, may rest 
on tacit agreement only. 



ESMOND 



47 



ESSAD TOPTANI 



Religion. — The inhabitants of Danish 
West Greenland, numbering about 10,000, 
the greater part of the Labradorians, 
and the southern Alaska Eskimos are 
Christianized. As for the rest, the re- 
ligion of the Eskimos is what is generally 
designated as Shamanism. 

The name Eskimo is said to be formed 
by corruption out of an Indian word sig- 
nifying "eaters of raw meat." They 
call themselves Inuit, in Greenland 
partly Kaladlit. Their origin generally 
has been derived from Asia, but now 
they are believed by some to have come 
from the interior of America. The 
Eskimos may be divided into the follow- 
ing groups: (1) The Western Eskimos, 
inhabiting the Alaska territory and the 
Asiatic side of Bering Strait; (2) the 
Mackenzie Eskimos, or Tchiglits, from 
Barter Island to Cape Bathurst; (3) the 
inhabitants of the central regions, in- 
cluding the Arctic Archipelago; (4) the 
Labradorians; (5) the Greenlanders. A 
side branch inhabits the Aleutian 
Islands. 

ESMOND. HENRY V., an Eng- 
lish actor and playwright, whose real 
name was Jack, born at Hampton Court, 
England, in 1869. He was educated pri- 
vately and went on the stage in 1885. 
Since 1896, however, he turned to the 
writing of plays, many of which were 
successful. They include "One Sum- 
mer's Day" (1897) ; "The Wilderness" 
(1901); "When We Were Twenty-One" 
(1901); "Under the Greenwood Tree" 
(1907) ; "The Dangerous Age" (1914) ; 
and others. Many of his plays were 
produced with great success in the 
United States. 

ESPARTO, a plant growing in 
Spain, Algeria, Tripoli, Tunis, and 
northern Africa, long applied to the 
manufacture of cordage, matting, etc., 
and now extensively used for paper- 
making. This plant is a species of gi'ass 
2 to 4 feet high, covering large tracts in 
its native regions, and also cultivated, 
especially in Spain. 

ESPIRITO SANTO, a state of Bra- 
zil, bordered by the Atlantic Ocean on 
the E. It has an area of 17,310 square 
miles. The coast region is for the most 
part swampy, but there are cliffs in the 
S. The interior is mountainous, with 
an elevation reaching 7,000 feet. The 
chief river is the Rio Doce, which divides 
the state into two parts. The soil is 
well adapted for cultivation. The chief 
products are sugar cane and coffee. 
There are also considerable quantities 
of cotton and rice. The principal export 
is coffee. Rare woods and di-ugs are 
obtained from the forests. Fishing is 



an important occupation of the people. 
There is no mining, but there are valu- 
able deposits of marble and lime. The 
state has about 50 miles of railway. 
Pop. (1917) 482,308. The capital is 
Victoria. 

ESQUIMALT (tski-mo), a seaport 
and harbor of British Columbia, on the 
S. E. coast of Vancouver Island, and on 
the Strait of San Juan de Fuca; 4 miles 
from Victoria. The harbor is extensive 
and capable of receiving vessels of the 
greatest size, and is the British naval 
station for this part of the Pacific coast. 
It has a navy yard, marine hospital, a 
large dry dock built by the Dominion 
Government in 1888, and a meteorological 
station. In 1894 the British Government 
constructed elaborate defenses at Esqui- 
malt. In 1908 the Canadian Govern^ 
ment took over the military charge of 
forts, etc. The harbors of both Esqui- 
malt and Victoria are kept thoroughly 
mined and wired, and constitute one of 
the best defended naval stations in the 
world. Pop. about 3,000. 

ESQUIRE, originally, a shield-bearer 
or armor-bearer, an attendant on a 
knight ; hence, in modern times a title 
of dignity next in degree below a knight. 
In England this title is given properly 
to the younger sons of noblemen, to offi- 
cers of the king's courts and oi the 
household, to counsellors at law, justices 
of the peace while in commission, sher- 
iffs, gentlemen who have held commis- 
sions in the army and navy, etc. Both 
there and in the United States in the 
addresses of letters esquire may be put 
as a complimentary adjunct to almost 
any person's name. In heraldry the 
helmet of an esquire is represented side- 
ways with the visor closed. 

ESSAD TOPTANI. PASHA, an Al- 
banian soldier and military leader, born 
near Durazzo, about 1863. He served 
in the Turkish army and rose to the 
command of the gendarmerie of Con- 
stantinople. He fought in the war 
against Greece in 1897, and for his serv- 
ices was given the title Pasha. He 
killed the agent who had been ordered by 
the Sultan Abdul Hamid to murder his 
brother, Ghani Toptani, but his influence 
was so great that Abdul Hamid feared 
to punish him. Essad was instead trans- 
ferred to Janina, where he rose to the 
rank of general. He joined the Young 
Turk movement in 1908 and was among 
the leaders who opposed Abdul Hamid. 
During the Balkan War he defended 
Scutari against the Montenegrins, and 
when the Great Powers declared for the 
self-government of Albania, he declared 
for the independence of that country. In 



ESSEN 48 

1913 he was a member of the provisional 
Albanian Government, and in 1914 was 
appointed Minister of War and of the 
Interior. He was assassinated in Paris 
in 1920. 

ESSEN, a town of Rhenish Prussia, 
18 miles N. E. of Diisseldorf, founded 
in the 9th century, and adorned with 
a fine church dating from 873. It in- 
creased with great rapidity, and is 
celebrated for the steel and iron works 
of the Krupps, the most extensive in 
Europe. This great establishment was 
started in 1827, w'th only two workmen. 
During the World War Essen was one of 
the most important of the German cities. 
At the Krupp works were produced vast 
quantities of armament and munitions. 
Attempts, some very successful, were 
made by Allied aviators to damage and 
destroy the works. Following peace, the 
works were devoted to the manufacture 
of various steel products. In the suburbs 
are the "colonies" — cottages, churches, 
schools, stores, libraries, places of amuse- 
ment, homes for the superannuated and 
disabled workmen, etc., established by 
the Krupps for their workmen. Pop. 
about 400,000. 

ESSENCE, in philosophy, originally 
the same as substance. Later, sub- 
stance came to be used for the undeter- 
mined substratum of a thing, essence 
for the qualities expressed in the defini- 
tion of a thing; or, as Locke put it, "Es- 
sence may be taken for the very being 
of a thing, whereby it is what it is." 
In chemistry, and in popular parlance, 
essences are solutions of the essential 
oils in alcohol. The term has, however, 
received a wider significance, and is ap- 
plied to any liquid possessing the prop- 
erties of the substance of which it pro- 
fesses to be the essence. Thus essences 
of coffee, beef, and rennet contain in a 
concentrated form the virtues of coffee, 
beef, and rennet. 

ESSENES (es-senz'), or ESSiEANS, 
a sect among the Jews, the origin of 
which is unknown, as well as the etymol- 
ogy of their name. It appears to have 
sprung up in the course of the century 
preceding the Christian era, and disap- 
peared on the dispersion of the Jews 
after the siege of Jerusalem. They were 
remarkable for their strictness and ab- 
stinence, and had a rule of life analogous 
to that of a monastic order. 

ESSENTIAL OILS, volatile oils usually 
drawn from aromatic plants by subject- 
ing them to distillation with waters, such 
as the oils of lavender, cloves, pepper- 
mint, etc. 

ESSEQUIBO (es-se-ke'bo) , a river of 
British Guiana, which flows into the At- 



ESSLINGEN 

lantic by an estuary 20 miles in width 
after a course of about 450 miles. The 
district or division of Essequibo is well 
cultivated and extremely fertile, produc- 
ing coffee, cotton, cocoa, and sugar. Pop. 
36,000. 

ESSEX, a maritime county of Eng- 
land, with an area of 1,530.5 squar.3 
miles, and a coast line of 85 miles. The 
surface of the coast is low and marshy; 
but from the center to the north is un- 
dulating and well wooded. There is a 
considerable amount of good agricultu- 
ral land, and wheat and barley are 
largely grown. Stock raising is also im- 
portant. Its manufactures include chem- 
icals, railroad machinery, agricultural 
implements, brewing, fishing, and oyster 
fishing. Pop. about 1,400,000. 

ESSEX, ROBERT DEVEREUX, 
EARL OF, an English soldier; born in 
1591. When 11 years old he was re- 
stored by James I. to the rank and titles 
held by his father, the 2d earl, and be- 
came a companion of the young Prince 
of Wales, and when 15 years of age was 
married to Frances Howard, daughter 
of the Earl of Suffolk, from whom he 
was divorced in 1613. He served in the 
army of the elector palatine in Holland 
1620-1623, was vice-admiral of an un- 
successful naval expedition against Ca- 
diz in 1625, and was lieutenant-general 
of an army sent by King Charles against 
the Scotch Covenanters in 1639. Espous- 
ing the cause of the Parliament against 
the king, he was appointed to the com- 
mand of the parliamentary army at the 
beginning of the civil war, was victorious 
over Charles at Edgehill in 1642, cap- 
tured Reading in 1643, and relieved 
Gloucester, but lost the greater part of 
his army in 1644. He urged the im- 
peachment of Cromwell before the House 
of Lords in 1645, and had to resign his 
commission. An annuity of £10,000 was 
settled on him for life. He died in 1646. 

ESSLING, a village in Lower Austria 
on the Danube, 6 miles below Vienna, 
near which a battle was fought May 21- 
22, 1809, between the French and Aus- 
trians, in which the former were vic- 
torious. Marshal Lannes was killed in 
this battle. Marshal Massena receiving 
the title of the Prince of Essling. 

ESSLINGEN, a city of Wiirttemberg, 
situated on the Neckar, seven miles E. S. 
E. of Stuttgart. The largest machine 
shops of Wiirttemberg are located here, 
employing, before the World War, about 
2,200 men. It also manufactures gold 
and silver ware, cotton goods, and is the 
center of a region producing the famous 
Neckar wine. Pop. about 32,000. 



ESTABLISHED CHURCH 



49 



ESTERHAZY 



ESTABLISHED CHURCH, a Church 
having a form of doctrine and govern- 
ment established by law in any country 
for the teaching of Christianity within 
its boundaries, and usually endowed by 
the state. The upholders of the estab- 
lishment theory maintain that it is the 
duty of a state to provide for the re- 
ligious instruction of the people. On the 
other hand it is argued that the state has 
no right to endow or support any partic- 
ular sect or denomination, unless they 
assume that the denomination alone is 
possessed of religious truth and worth. 

ESTAING (es-tanO , CHARLES HEC- 
TOR, COMTE D', a French army and 
navy officer; born in 1729. He entered the 
French army as colonel of infantry; was 
promoted Brigadier-General in 1757; ac- 
companied the expedition of Comte de 
Lally to the East Indies, and was cap- 
tured at the siege of Madras, 1759. He 
was released on parole, and without 
awaiting exchange took command of sev- 
eral men-of-war, and greatly harassed 
the English in various parts of the East. 
On his return to France in 1760, he 
accidentally fell into the hands of the 
English, and was imprisoned in Ports- 
mouth. In 1763 he was appointed Lieu- 
tenant-General, and in 1777 vice-admiral 
in the French navy. In 1778, in accord- 
ance with the treaty between France and 
the United States, France fitted out^ a 
fleet of 12 ships of the line and 4 frig- 
ates to aid the latter in the struggle 
against Great Britain, and Estaing was 
placed in command. He sailed April 13, 
reached Delaware Bay in July, and then 
proceeded to New York, expecting to en- 
counter the British fleet on the way. He 
captured some prizes off the coast of 
New Jersey, agreed to assist in a land 
and sea attack on Newport to expel the 
British from Rhode Island, but was un- 
able to carry out his plans. Subsequent- 
ly he captured St. Vincent and Grenada, 
West Indies, and in 1779 co-operated 
with General Lincoln in an ineffectual 
attempt to capture Savannah, Ga. He 
returned to France in 1780; commanded 
the allied fleets of France and Spain in 
1783; was elected to the assembly of 
nobles in 1787 ; appointed to the command 
of the national guard in 1789; chosen 
admiral of the navy in 1792; testified in 
favor of Marie Antoinette at her trial 
in 1793; and was condemned as a royal- 
ist and guillotined in 1794. 

ESTATE, a term ordinarily applied to 
designate landed property. The applica- 
tion has its origin in the feudal system, 
under which land was not conceived as 
being capable of absolute ownership but 
as the property of the Crown, of which 
subjects were the tenants. The interest 



of a particular tenant in a piece of land 
was thus known as his status or estate 
in reference to it, and this interest was 
considered to be limited, partly by the 
nature of land itself, and partly by the 
reversionary interest of the Crown. The 
term had not at first the wide application 
which modern usage has given to it. It 
was in the beginning employed as appli- 
cable only to lands held on a freehold 
basis, and did not, as later, include land 
held in subordination to other superior 
titles. The term has gradually come to 
have a general application to landed 
property held under varying conditions, 
such as that subject to creditors' rights, 
the interest of mortgages and leaseholds. 
Estates of freehold under our legal sys- 
tem include estates held under the three 
forms of freehold tenure, known as fee 
simple, fee tail and life estates. Estates 
not of freehold are in their nature really 
tenancies. 

ESTE (es'ta) , a town in the province 
of Padua, Italy, 17 miles S. W. of Padua ; 
the ancient Adeste. Pop. about 6,000. 
Also one of the most ancient and illus- 
trious families of Italy. In the 11th cen- 
tury the house of Este became connected 
by marriage with the German Welfs or 
Guelphs, and founded the German branch 
of the house of Este, the dukes of Bruns- 
wick and Hanover. The sovereigns of 
Ferrara and Modena were of this family, 
several of them being famous as patrons 
of letters. The lives of Boiardo, Ariosto, 
and Tasso were closely connected with 
members of this house. The last male 
representative of the Estes died in 1803. 
His daughter married a son of Emperor 
Francis I., who founded the Austrian 
branch of the house of Este, of which the 
male line became extinct in 1875. 

ESTERHAZY (es'ter-ha-ze) , a family 
of Hungarian magnates, whose authentic 
genealogy goes back to the first half of 
the 13th century. They were zealous 
partisans of the house of Hapsburg, to 
whom, during the reigns of Frederick II. 
and Leopold I., they lent a powerful 
support. Among the more prominent 
members of the family are: Paul IV., 
Prince Esterhazy, a general and liter- 
ary savant, 1635-1713. His grandson, 
Nicholas Joseph, a great patron of arts 
and music, founder of the school in 
which Haydn and Pleyel, among others, 
were formed, 1714-1790. Nicholas, 
Prince Esterhazy, distinguished as a 
field marshal and foreign ambassador, 
1765-1833. Prince Paul Anthony, a 
distinguished and able diplomatist; bom 
1786; was successively Austrian ambas- 
sador at Dresden, Rome, and Britain; a 
supporter of the National Hungarian 
movement. He died in 1866. 



ESTERS 



60 



ETCHING 



ESTERS, ethereal salts formed by the 
reaction between an acid and an alcohol. 
For instance 

C2H.OH 4- HCl 
Alcohol Hydrochloric Acid 
C^H.Cl + H.O 
Ethyl Chloride Water 
Ethyl Chloride is the hydrochloric acid 
ester of ethyl alcohol. The change from 
an alcohol to an ester is never complete, 
because the reaction is reversible; that 
is to say, esters are decomposed by 
water, giving acid and alcohol. When 
an alcohol and an acid are mixed, there- 
fore, the reaction illustrated above pro- 
ceeds to a certain point until a balance, 
or equilibrium, is reached, the final prod- 
uct being a mixture of alcohol, acid, 
ester, and water. If, however, the water 
produced is removed, and so prevented 
from decomposing the ester, the reaction 
is far more nearly complete, and it is a 
common practice to employ, a dehydrat- 
ing agent, such as sulphuric acid, which 
combines with the water as fast as it is 
formed. 

Esters are usually pleasant-smelling, 
colorless liquids, and the odor of flowers 
and fruits is frequently due to their 
presence. Many artificial flavorings, es- 
sences, and perfumes consist of esters. 
Some of the best known are methyl 
salicylate (oil of winter green) amyl 
acetate (banana or pear oil) methyl 
butyrate (pineapple oil) and isoamyl 
isovalerate (apple oil). 

ESTHER (es'ter), a Jewess who be- 
came the queen of Ahasuerus, King of 
Persia, and whose story is told in the 
book of the Old Testament called by her 
name. This book is supposed by some 
to be the composition of Mordecai him- 
self, the uncle of the heroine. The feast 
of Purim, which commemorates the 
events narrated, is still observed by the 
Jews during the month Adar. 

ESTHONIA, a former maritime gov- 
ernment of Russia, bounded by the Gulf 
of Finland, the Baltic and the former 
governments of Livonia and Petrograd. 
It includes sevei'al islands, of which the 
most important are Dagoe and Oesel ; 
area, 23,160 square miles. It has 
for the most part a flat or undulating 
surface. The whole of the N. side, how- 
ever, rises considerably above the sea, 
and presents to it ranges of cliff's. The 
Narva, which merely bounds Esthonia 
on the E., is the only river of any im- 
portance; but minor streams, as well as 
small lakes, are very numerous. About 
a fourth of the surface is covered with 
forests of pine, birch, and alder. The 
crops include a little wheat, much barley 
and oats, and some flax, hops, and tobac- 
co. Cattle are reared, and active fish- 



eries are carried on. The peasantry are 
almost all of Finnish origin, and speak a 
Finnish dialect. In the 10th and 12th 
centuries it belonged to Denmark; it was 
afterward annexed by Sweden, and in 
1710 was seized by Russia. Reval is the 
capital. Pop. (1919) 1,744,000. On Feb. 
24, 1918, the National Council of Esthonia 
declared for an independent state, which 
was recognized de facto by Great Brit- 
ain. After the conclusion of the World 
War (1914-1918) the government of Es- 
thonia was established. 

ESTRADA, a town of Spain, in the 
province of Pontevedra. It is on the 
Rio Ulla. It is the center of an exten- 
sive farming and stock-raising region, 
and has manufactures of woolen and 
linen goods. Pop. about 30,000. 

ESTRADA CABRERA, MANUEL, a 
president of Guatemala, born in Guate- 
mala in 1857. He studied law and be- 
came a justice of the Supreme Court. In 
1892 he was appointed Secretary of 
State. He became acting president in 
1898, following the assassination of Pres- 
ident Barrios, and was successively re- 
elected, becoming actual dictator of the 
country. He did much in improving con- 
ditions in Guatemala, especially along 
agricultural and industrial lines. He 
was compelled to abdicate the presi- 
dency in 1920. 

ESTREMADURA (es-tra-ma-do'ra), 
a W. division of Spaiu, consisting of the 
provinces of Badajoz and Caceres. It is 
fertile, but not cultivated to its full ex- 
tent. The Tagus and Guadiana inter- 
sect it E. to W. Immense flocks of 
sheep graze on the rich plains. The area 
is about 16,100 square miles. Pop. 
882,000. 

ESTREMADURA, a maritime prov- 
ince of Portugal, divided by the Tagus 
into two nearly equal parts, of which the 
N. is the more mountainous. Wines and 
olives are the principal produce. The 
principal city is Lisbon. Area, 6,937 
square miles. Pop. about 1,250,000. 

ESTUARY, the wide mouth of a river 
opening out so as to form an arm of the 
sea. 

ETAWAH (e-ta'wa), a town in Hin- 
dustan, Northwest provinces; capital of 
the district of the same name on the left 
bank of the Jumna, picturesquely situ- 
ated among ravines, and richly planted 
with trees. It has some good buildings 
and a considerable trade. 

ETCHING, the art of producing de- 
signs on a plate of steel or copper by 
means of lines drawn with an etching 
needle. See Engraving. 



ETEOCLES 

ETEOCLES (e-te'6-klez), and POLY- 
NICES (pol-i-ni'sez), two heroes of 
ancient Greek legend, sons of OEdipus, 
King of Thebes. After their father's 
banishment from Thebes, Eteocles 
usurped the throne to the exclusion of 
his brother, an act which led to an ex- 
pedition of Polynices and others against 
Thebes. The two brothers fell by each 
other's hand. See Antigone. 

ETHELBERT, King of Kent; born 
about 560. He succeeded his father, 
Hermenric, and reduced all the Anglo- 
Saxon states, except Northumberland, to 
the condition of his dependents. Ethel- 
bert married Bertha, the daughter of 
Caribert, King of Paris, and a Christian 
princess, an event which led indirectly to 
the introduction of Christianity into 
England by St. Augustine. Ethelbert 
was the first Anglo-Saxon king to draw 
up a code of laws. He died 616. 

ETHELBERT, King of England, son 
of Ethelwulf, succeeded to the govern- 
ment of the E. side of the kingdom in 857, 
and in 860, on the death of his brother, 
Ethelbald, became sole king. His reign 
was much disturbed by the inroads of the 
Danes. He died in 866. 

ETHELBED I., King of England, son 
of Ethelwnlf, succeeded his brother 
Ethelbert in 866. The Danes became so 
formidable in his reign as to threaten 
the conquest of the whole kingdom. 
Ethelred died in consequence of a wound 
received in an action with the Danes in 
871, and was succeeded by his brother 
Alfred. 

ETHELRED II., King of England, 
son of Edgar; born 968; succeeded his 
brother, Edward the Martyr, in 978, and, 
for his want of vigor and capacity, was 
surnamed the Unready. In his reign be- 
gan the practice of buying off the Danes 
by presents of money. After repeated 
payments of tribute he effected, in 1002, 
a massacre of the Danes; but this led to 
Sweyn gathering a large force together 
and carrying fire and sword through the 
country. They were again bribed to de- 
part; but, upon a new invasion, Sweyn 
obliged the nobles to swear allegiance to 
him as King of England; while Ethelred, 
in 1013, fled to Normandy. On the death 
of Sweyn he was invited to resume the 
government, and died in London in the 
midst of his struggle with Canute 
(1016). 

ETHELWULFE, King of Etigland, 
succeeded his father, Egbert, about 837. 
His reign was in great measure occupied 
in repelling Danish incursions; but he 
is best remembered for his donation to 
the clergy, which is often quoted as the 



51 ETHICAL CULTURE SOCIETY 

origin of the system of tithes. He died 
857. 

ETHENDUN, BATTLE OF, the vic- 
tory which Alfred the Great gained over 
the Danes (878), and which led to the 
treaty with Guthrum, the Danish King 
of East England. The locality is doubt- 
ful. 

ETHER, or ^THER, a medium filling 
all space. The ether seems to be of 
the nature of an elastic solid, and, in 
order to account for the immense rapid- 
ity of its vibrations when radiation passes 
through it, its rigidity must be exces- 
sively large compared with its density. 
It may be asked, how, if this be so, the 
earth can move through the ether at the 
rate of nearly a million miles per day. 
But, if we consider that shoemaker's 
wax is so brittle a solid that it splinters 
under the blow of a hammer and that it 
yet flows slowly like a liquid into the 
crevices of a vessel in which it is placed, 
and that bullets sink slowly down 
through it, and corks float slowly up 
through it, the motion of the earth 
through the ether does not seem so in- 
comprehensible. From magneto-optic 
phenomena it seems certain that some- 
thing of the nature of molecular rotation 
is going on in the ether. 

ETHERS, compounds conti^ining two 
alkyl groups, which may be identical or 
different, united to an oxygen atom. For 
instance, methyl ether has the formula 
CHs.O.CHi, and consists of the two iden- 
tical methyl groups, CHj, united to the 
oxygen atom. Methyl ethyl ether has 
the formula CH3.O.C2H5, the alkyl groups 
in this case being different. Methyl ether 
is a gas, but all other ethers are mobile, 
volatile, inflammable liquids. The best 
known is ethyl ether, C2H0.O.C2H5, some- 
times known as sulphuric ether, and this 
is the ether used in surgery as an anaes- 
thetic. It is prepared from alcohol, by 
heating with sulphuric acid, ethyl hy- 
drogen sulphate being first produced, this 
compound reacting with more alcohol to 
yield ether and sulphuric acid. Sul- 
phuric ether is a colorless liquid, boiling 
at 35" C, and having a specific gravity 
of 0.720. It is highly inflammable, and 
its vapor forms an explosive mixture 
with air. Its odor to some is pleasant, 
but to those on whom it has been used as 
an anagsthetic it is apt, afterward, to 
produce nausea. Large quantities of it 
are used in the manufacture of smokeless 
powder and as a solvent for fats, resins, 
alkaloids, etc, 

ETHICAL CULTURE SOCIETY, an 

organization founded in New York in 
1876 by Dr. Felix Adler for the purpose 
of associating together those who be- 



ETHICS 



52 



ETHIOPIA 



cause of antagonism to traditional creeds 
and ceremonies had drifted away from 
organized churches and synagogues. His 
purpose was to promote the moral devel- 
opment of society and the individual by 
emphasis upon the humanitarian im- 
pulses of men and women and by holding 
up a high moral standard of conduct. 
Meetings of the society were held on 
Sundays and an address on some social 
or economic question was made. The 
moral aspect of the problem was stressed. 
The importance which the society placed 
on education led them to establish the 
New York Ethical Culture School. This 
school, providing elementary and second- 
ary instruction, was among the first to 
assign to manual training an important 
role in the elementary education. In 1882 
a similar society for ethical culture was 
formed in Chicago, and three years later 
an organization was effected in Phila- 
delphia. By 1915 they numbered in 
membership 2,500, being confined mostly 
to the large cities. Societies have also 
been formed in England and Germany. 

ETHICS, that branch of moral philos- 
osophy which is concerned with human 
character and conduct. It deals with 
man as a source of action and is closely 
related to psychology and sociology. It 
seeks to determine the principles by 
which conduct is to be regulated, having 
to do not merely with what is, but with 
what ought to be. Modern ethics has 
frequently a distinctly legal or theolo- 
gical stamp, being presented as a system 
of duties prescribed by God, or by con- 
science. Underlying this notion is the 
conception of certain kinds of conduct, 
or certain types of character, as better 
than others or preferable to them. The 
doctrine that pleasure is the highest 
good was held by predecessors and con- 
temporaries of Aristotle, and was after- 
ward formulated by Epicurus (q. v.) 
into an ethical theory. Contrasted with 
this is Universalistic Hedonism or Utili- 
tarianism, which owes its development to 
modern, and especially to English writers, 
and holds that the chief good is the hap- 
piness or pleasure of the community, or 
of mankind, or even of sentient crea- 
tures. The founder of modern utilita- 
rianism was David Hume (g. v.). The 
utilitarianism of Paley {q. v.) was 
founded on the belief that the happiness 
of mankind was the ethical end pre- 
scribed by God; that of Bentham {q. v.) 
resulted from looking at action from the 
point of view of the community and its 
interests rather than from that of the 
interests of the individual. Applied only 
to the method of utilitarianism in Her- 
bert Spencer's (q. v.) hands, the evolu- 
tion theory has been used by other wri- 



ters to show the inadequacy of the utili- 
tarian principle. 

The controversies, especially of Eng- 
lish ethics, have been largely occupied 
with the debate on the question between 
the^ empirical and intuitive schools of 
ethics. The intuitive school lays stress 
on the immediateness and universality 
of the moral judgment passed by each 
man's conscience. A doctrine of the 
Moral Sense, as a feeling or perception 
by which action or motives are morally 
distinguished apart from their conse- 
quences, was developed by Shaftesbury 
(q. V.) and Hutcheson (q. v.); and 
W. A. Butler formulated the doctrinp 
that conscience is the supreme authority 
as to what is right or wrong. 

The introduction of Christianity 
brought a new element into ethical spec- 
ulation; among Christians ethics was 
intimately associated with theology, and 
morality was regarded as based on and 
regulated by a definite code contained 
in the sacred writings. Most modern 
ethical systems consider the subject as 
apart from theology and as based on in- 
dependent philosophical principles; they 
fall into one of two great classes, the 
utilitarian and the rationalistic systems. 
The first of the modern school in Eng- 
land was Hobbes (1588-1679). Among 
subsequent names are those of Cud- 
worth, Locke, Clarke, Shaftesbury, But- 
ler, Hutcheson, Hume, Adam Smith, Reid, 
Paley, Whewell, Bentham, and Johji 
Stuart Mill. 

ETHIOPIA, or .ETHIOPIA, in ancient 
geography is the country lying to the 
south of Egypt, and comprehending the 
modern Nubia, Kordofan, Abyssinia, and 
other adjacent districts; but its limits 
were not clearly defined. It was vaguely 
spoken of in Greek and Roman accounts 
as the land of the Ichthyophagi or fish- 
eaters, the Macrobii or long-livers, the 
Troglodytes or dwellers in caves, and of 
the Pygmies or dwarf races. In ancient 
times its history was closely connected 
with that of Egypt, and about the 8th 
century b. C. it imposed a dynasty on 
Lower Egypt, and acquired a predomi- 
nant influence in the valley of the Nile. 
In sacred history Ethiopia is repeatedly 
mentioned as a powerful military king- 
dom (see particularly Isaiah xx: 5). In 
the 6th century B. C. the Persian Cam- 
byses invaded Ethiopia; but the country 
maintained its independence till it be- 
came tributary to the Romans in the 
reign of Augustus. Subsequently Ethi- 
opia came to be the designation of the 
country now known as Abyssinia, 'and 
the Abyssinian monarchs still call them- 
selves rulers of Ethiopia. 

Language. — The Ethiopian language, 




©Keystone View Company 

THE KING ON THE WAY TO OPEN PARLIAMENT 




AN ESKIMO. THE HARPOONS HE USES HAVE DETACHABLE HEADS 




A FOREST OF DOUGLAS FIR IN OREGON 



ETHNOGBAPHY 53 

or more accurately the Geez language, 
is the old official and ecclesiastical lan- 
guage of Abyssinia, introduced into that 
kingdom by settlers from south Arabia. 
In the 14th century is was supplanted as 
the language of the Christian Church of 
Abyssinia by the Amharic. It is a Se- 
mitic language resembling Aramaic and 
Hebrew as well as Arabic. It has a 
Christian literature of some importance. 
The principal work is a translation of 
the Bible, including the Old and New 
Testaments and Apocrypha, to which are 
appended some non-canonical writings, 
such as the "Shepherd of Hermas" and 
the "Book of Enoch." The language is 
to some extent represented by the mod- 
ern dialects of Tigre, and by that spoken 
by some nomadic tribes of the Sultan. 

ETHNOGRAPHY, the systematic de- 
scription and classification of races. In 
recent years there has been but little 
distinction made between ethnology and 
ethnography, the general tendency being 
to name the science ethnology. It is a 
part of anthropology, and includes the 
studies of living non-historical peoples 
with a view to their classification. The 
studies of language and anatomy are not 
included in the science of ethnography. 
Under this heading are treated the loca- 
tion, movements or history of the tribe; 
next, its state of culture, its art, its dress 
and manufactures, etc. The political, 
social, and religious ideas should be in- 
cluded in the ethnology of a nation, as 
also some mention of the place it occu- 
pies in relation to other peoples, and its 
contributions to the general culture of 
mankind. 

ETHNOLOGY, the science which 
treats of various races of mankind and 
their origin. With anthropology, phi- 
lology, psychology, and sociology it helps 
to cover the complete study of man. 

Ethnologists rely, in their different 
schemes of classification, on what are 
called ethnical criteria. These criteria 
are partly internal, the skeleton in gen- 
eral, and particularly the cranium; part- 
ly external, color of skin, color and 
texture of hair, and such other deter- 
mining elements, whether physical or 
mental, as may be studied on the living 
subject. Of mental or intellectual cri- 
teria immeasurably the most important 
is language. Different phonetic systems 
often involve different anatomical struc- 
ture of the vocal organs. 

The most eminent naturalists mainly 
agree in classifying the whole human 
family in three, four, or at most five fun- 
damental divisions; but the term funda- 
mental is to be understood in a relative 
sense, for all races are necessarily re- 
garded as belonging to a common prime- 



ETHNOLOGY 

val stock, constituting a single species 
though not sprung from a single human 
pair. Rather has the growth been the 
slow evolution of a whole anthropoid 
group spread over a more or less exten- 
sive geographical area, in a warm or 
genial climate, where the disappearance 
of an original hairy coat would be a re- 
lief. The difficulty of determining the 
exact number of these types is due to 
the fact, pointed out by Blumenbach, 
that none of them are found in what may 
be called ideal perfection, but that all 
tend to merge by imperceptible degrees 
in each other. They are the black, 
frizzly-haired Ethiopic (negro) ; the yel- 
low lank-haired Mongolic; the white, 
smooth-haired Caucasic; the coppery, 
lank and long-haired American, and the 
brown, straight-haired Malayo Poly- 
nesian. The last is commonly rejected 
as evidently the outcome of a compara- 
tively recent mixture in which the Mon- 
golic elements predominate. Most au- 
thorities regard also the American as a 
remote branch of the same group; this 
view seems justified by the striking Mon- 
golic features occurring in every part 
of the New World, as among the Utahs 
of the Western States and the 
Botocudos of eastern Brazil. The char- 
i^cter of hair and color of skin has been 
used by Huxley as the basis of his 
classification, which divides mankind 
into Ulotrichi, crisp or woolly-haired 
people with yellow or black skin, com- 
prising Negroes, Bushmen, and Malays; 
and Leiotrichi, smooth-haired peo- 
ple, sub-divided into Australoid, Mongo- 
loid, Xanthochroic (fair whites), and 
Melanachroic (dark whites) groups. 
Peschel's classification, based on a num- 
ber of different particulars, such as the 
shape of the skull, the color of the skin, 
the nature and color of the hair, the 
shape of the features, etc., is as Austra- 
lians, Papuans, the Mongoloid nations, 
the Dravidians (aborigines of India), 
Hottentots, and Bushmen, Negroes, and 
the Mediterrean nations. 

The Ethiopic group falls naturally 
into a Western or African and an East- 
ern or Oceanic division. The Western 
occupies all Africa from the Sahara S. 
and comprise a N. or Sudanese branch 
(African Negroes proper), and a S. or 
Bantu branch (more or less mixed Negro 
and Negroid populations). The Oceanic 
division of the Ethiopic group comprises 
four branches: (1) the Papuans of the 
Eastern Archipelago and New Guinea; 
(2) the closely allied Melanesians of the 
Solomon, New Hebrides, New Caledonia, 
Loyalty, and Fiji Archipelagoes; (3) the 
now extinct Tasmanians, and (4) the 
Australians, the most divergent of all 
Negro or Negroid peoples. 



ETHYL 



54 



ETNA 



The Mongolic group occupies the 
greater part of the Eastern hemisphere 
and till the discovery of America was in 
exclusive possession of the New World. 
Its chief branches are (1) the Mongolo- 
Tartars of central and north Asia, Asia 
Minor, parts of Russia and the Balkan 
Peninsula; (2) the Tibeto-Indo-Chinese 
of Tibet, China proper, Japan, and Indo- 
China; (3) the Finno-Ugrians of Fin- 
land, Lapland, Esthonia, Middle Volga, 
Ural Mountains, north Siberia, Hun- 
gary; (4) the Malayo-Polynesians of the 
Malay Peninsula, the greater and lesser 
Sunda Islands, Madagascar, the Philip- 
pines, Formosa, and eastern Polynesia; 
(5) the American Indians, comprising 
all the aborigines of the New World, ex- 
cept the Eskimo, who with the Ainos of 
Yesso, form aberrant members of the 
Mongolic group. 

The Caucasic group, called also Medi- 
terranean because its original domain is 
western Asia, Europe and north Africa 
— i. e., the lands encircling the Mediter- 
ranean Basin — has in recent times 
spread over the whole of the New World, 
south Africa, and Australasia. The 
chief branches are: (1) Aryans of 
India, Iran, Armenia, Asia Minor, and 
great part of Europe, with sub-branches; 
(2) Semites of Mesopotamia, Syria, 
Arabia, and north Africa, with sub- 
branches; (3) Hamites of north and east 
Africa; (4) the Caucasians proper; (5) 
the Basques of the western Pyrenees. 



are the cathedral, an ancient Romaiv- 
esque structure; the town house, court 
house, exchange, communal college, min- 
ing school, gallery of arts, library, and 
museum. The town stands in the center 
of one of the most valuable mineral fields 
of France; and in addition to the exten- 
sive collieries, blast furnaces and other 
ironworks in the vicinity, has manufac- 
tures of ribbons, silks, cutlery, firearms, 
etc. Pop. about 150,000. 

ETIOLATION, or BLANCHING, of 

plants is a state produced by the absence 
of light, by which the green color is pre- 
vented from appearing. It is effected 
artificially, as in the case of celery, by 
raising up the earth about the stalks of 
the plants; by tying the leaves together 
to keep the inner ones from the light; 
by covering with pots, boxes, or the like, 
or by setting in a dark place. The green 
color of etiolated plants may be restored 
by exposure to light. 

ETIVE (et'iv) , LOCH, an inlet of the 
sea on the W. coast of Scotland, county 
Argyle, nearly 20 miles long, of very un- 
equal breadth, but at the broadest part 
about 1^/^ miles. The scenery of its 
shores is very beautiful. About three 
miles from the sea, at Connel Ferry, a 
ridge of sunken rocks crossing it causes 
a turbulent rapid, which at half-tide 
forms a sort of waterfall. 

ETNA, or ^TNA, MOUNT, the 
greatest volcano in Europe, a mountain 




MT. ETNA, SICILY 



ETHYL, the radicle CH^ or CH^— 
CH;, not known in the free state, but 
existing in a large number of organic 
compounds, such as alcohol, ether, etc. 
The name was given by Frankland to the 
compound CiHio, but this is now known 
as butane. 

ETIENNE, ST., a tovt^i of southern 
France, in the department of the Loire, 
on the Furens, 32 miles S. W. of Lyons, 
The principal buildings and institutions 



in the province of Catania, Sicily; 
height, 10,874 feet. It rises immediately 
from the sea, has a circumference of 
more than 100 miles, and dominates the 
whole N. E. of Sicily, having a number 
of towns and villages on its lower slopes. 
The top is covered with perpetual snow; 
midway down is the woody or forest re- 
gion ; at the foot is a region of orchards, 
vineyards, olive groves, etc. A more or 
less distinct margin of cliff separates the 



ETNA 65 

mountain proper from the surrounding 
plain; and the whole mass seems formed 
of a series of superimposed mountains, 
the terminal volcano being surrounded 
by a number of cones, all of volcanic ori- 
gin, and nearly 100 of which are of con- 
siderable size. 

The eruptions of Etna have been nu- 
merous, and many of them destructive. 
That of 1169 overwhelmed Catania and 
buried 15,000 persons in the ruins. In 
1669 the lava spread over the country 
for 40 days, and 10,000 persons are es- 
timated to have perished. In 1693 there 
was an earthquake during the eruption, 
when 60,000 lives were lost. Among more 
recent eruptions are those of 1852, 1865, 
1874, 1879, 1886, 1892, 1909, and 1911. 

ETNA, a borough in Pennsylvania, in 
Allegheny co. It is opposite Pittsburgh 
and on the Baltimore and Ohio and the 
Pennsylvania railroads. It is an im- 
portant industrial center and has manu- 
factures of furnaces, steel mills, pipe 
works, and other manufactures. Pop. 
(1910) 5,830; (1920) 6,341. 

ETON COLLEGE, the largest and most 
famous of the old public schools of Eng- 
land. Founded by Henry VI. in 1440, 
who connected it with his foundation of 
King's College, Cambridge. This rela- 
tionship in a modified form still obtains 
at the present time. Having but a small 
endowment at its foundation, the college 
has since become very wealthy by nu- 
merous benefactions, and the rise of 
property values. The college consists of 
a provost and ten fellows, a headmaster 
of the school, and seventy scholars. The 
main body of students, however, are 
the thousand scholars in attendance on 
the school. Old limitations with refer- 
ence to qualifications for entrance have 
been discarded, and the school admits all 
boys who are British subjects, within 
certain ages, and with definite scholastic 
attainments. Until 1860 the course of 
study was exclusively classical; since 
that time other subjects have been added. 
Many of the buildings erected in the 15th 
century are still used, but as they were 
unable to accommodate the number of 
students who entered in the succeeding 
years, they have been enlarged and new 
structures erected. A splendid range of 
buildings was opened in 1908 by King 
Edward VII. 

Many of the ancient customs have been 
retained by the modern school. The 
chief celebration of the school occurs on 
June 4th, King George III. birthday, on 
which occasion a procession of boats on 
the Thames takes place. Eton holds a 
high place in the sport of rowing, many 
of its graduates becoming the stars of 
the crew at Cambridge. 



ETRUKIA 

ETRURIA, the name anciently given 
to that part of Italy which corresponded 
partly with the modern Tuscany, and 
was bounded by the Mediterranean, the 
Apennines, the river Magra, and the 
Tiber. The name of Tusci or Etrusci 
was used by the Romans to designate the 
race of people anciently inhabiting it, 
but the name by which they called them- 
selves was Rasena. These Rasena en- 
tered Italy at a very early period from 
the N. Etruria proper was in a flourish- 
ing condition before the foundation of 
Rome 753 B. c. It was known very early 
as a confederation of 12 great cities, each 
of which formed a republic of itself. 
Among the chief were Veil, Clusium, Vol- 
sinnii, Arretium, Cortona, Falerii, and 
Fassulae. The chiefs of these republics 
were styled lucumones, and united the 
offices of priest and general. They were 
elected for life. After a long struggle 
with Rome the Etruscan power was com- 
pletely broken by the Romans in a series 
of victories, from the fall of Veil in 396 
B. C. to the battle at the Vadimonian 
Lake (283 B. c). 

The Etruscans had attained a high 
state of civilization. They carried on a 
flourishing commerce, and at one time 
were powerful at sea. They were less 
warlike than most of the nations around 
them, and had the custom of hiring mer- 
cenaries for their armies. Of the Etrus- 
can language little is known, though 
more than 3,000 inscriptions have been 
preserved. It was written in characters 
essentially the same as the ancient Greek. 
The Etruscans were specially distin- 
guished by their religious institutions 
and ceremonies. Their gods were of two 
orders, the first nameless, mysterious 
deities, exercising a controlling influence 
in the background on the lower order of 
gods, who manage the affairs of the 
world. At the head of these is a deity 
resembling the Roman Jupiter (in Etrus- 
can Tinia). But it is characteristic of 
the Etruscan religion that there is also 
a Vejovis or evil Jupiter. The Etruscan 
name of Venus was Turan, of Vulcan 
Sethlaus, of Bacchus Phuphlans, of Mer- 
cury Turms. 

Etruscan art was in the main bor- 
rowed from Greece. For articles in terra 
cotta, a material which they used mainly 
for ornamental tiles, sarcophagi, and 
statues, the Etruscans were especially 
celebrated. In the manufacture of pot- 
tery, they had made great advances; but 
the most of the painted vases popularly 
known as Etruscan are undoubtedly pro- 
ductions of Greek workmen. The skiTl 
of the Etruscans in works of metal is at- 
tested by ancient writers, and also by 
numerous extant specimens, such as 
necklaces, ear-rings, bracelets, etc. The 



ETRURIA 



56 



EUCHER 



Etruscans showed great constructive and 
engineering skill. They were acquainted 
with the principle of the arch, and the 
massive ruins of the walls of their an- 
cient cities still testify to the solidity of 
their constructions. Various arts and 
inventions were derived by the Romans 
from the Etruscans. 

ETRURIA, KINGDOM OF, in Italy, 
founded by Napoleon I. in 1801. Its 
capital was Florence. In 1807 Napoleon 
incorporated it with the French empire. 

ETTRICK, a district of Scotland, in 
Selkirk, through which the Ettrick water 
runs. It is now a sheep pasture denuded 
of wood, but anciently formed part of 
Ettrick Forest, which included the whole 
county as well as parts of Peebles and 
Edinburghshire. The "Ettrick Shep- 
herd," James Hogg, was a native of this 
district. 

ETTY, WILLIAM, an English 
painter: born in 1787. He studied at the 
Royal Academy. He worked long with- 
out much recognition, but at length in 
1820 he won public notice by his "Coral 
Finders." In 1828 he was elected an 
academician. Among his works are a 
series of three pictures (1827-1831) il- 
lustrating the "Deliverance of Bethulia 
by Judith," "Benaiah one of David's 
Mighty Men," ''Women Interceding for 
the Vanquished." All are now in the 
National Gallery of Scotland. Others 
of note are "The Judgment of Paris," 
"The Rape of Proserpine," "Youth at the 
Prow," and "Pleasure at the Helm." He 
died in 1849. 

ETYMOLOGY, a term applied to that 
part of grammar which treats of the 
various inflections and modifications of 
words and shows how they are formed 
from simple roots; and to that branch 
of philology which traces the history of 
v/ords from their origin to their latest 
form and meaning. Etymology in this 
latter sense, or the investigation of the 
origin and grovd;h of words, is among 
the oldest of studies. It was not till 
modern times, and particularly since the 
study of Sanskrit, that etymology has 
been scientifically studied. Languages 
then began to be properly classed in 
groups and families, and words were 
studied by a comparison of their growth 
and relationship in different languages. 
It was recognized that the development 
of language is not an arbitrary or acci- 
dental matter, but proceeds according to 
general laws. The result was a great 
advance in etymological knowledge and 
the formation of a new science of phi- 
lology. 

EITBCEA (u-be'a), formerly called 
Negropont, a Greek island, the second 



largest island of the ^gean Sea. It is 
90 miles long, 30 in greatest breadth, re- 
duced at one point to 4 miles. It is sep- 
arated from the mainland of Greece by 
the narrow channels of Egripo and Ta- 
lanta. It is connected with the Boeotian 
shore by a bridge. There are several 
mountain peaks over 2,000 feet, and one 
over 7,000 feet. The island is well- 
wooded and remarkably fertile. Wine is 
a staple product, and cotton, wool, pitch, 
and turpentine are exported. The chief 
towns are Chalcis and Karyst. The is- 
land was anciently divided among seven 
independent cities, the most important 
of which were Chalcis and Eretria, and 
its history is for the most part identi- 
cal with that of those two cities. With 
some small islands it forms a modern 
nomarchy, with a population of about 
100,000. 

EUCALYPTUS, a genus of trees, 
mostly natives of Australia, and remark- 
able for their gigantic size, some of 
them attaining the height of 480 or 500 
feet. In the Australian colonies they are 
known by the name of gum trees, from 
the gum which exudes from their 
trunks; and some of them have also such 
names as "stringy bark," "iron bark," 
etc. The wood is excellent for shipbuild- 
ing and such purposes. 

EUCHARIST (u'ka-rist), a name for 
the sacrament of the Lord's Supper, in 
reference to the blessing: and thanks- 
giving which accompany it. 

EUCHER (u'ker), the most generally 
played parlor game after whist in the 
United States. The pack of cards con- 
sists of 32, being an ordinary "deck," 
minus the deuce, trey, four, five, and 
six spots of each suit. The game is usu- 
ally played by two, three, or four per- 
sons, the most interesting party being 
four, two playing on each side as part- 
ners. When choice of partners and first 
dealer shall have been decided (as at 
whist, or in any other mode agreed on), 
five cards are dealt, usually two at once, 
then three, or the contrary. In throw- 
ing around for partners and dealers the 
holder of the best cards deals. The 
cards rank in value as follows: The best 
eucher card is the knave of trumps; 
the second best is the knave of the suit 
of the same color as the trump. The 
former card is called the "right bower," 
the latter the "left bower." After the 
right and left bowers the cards rank as 
at whist, the knaves of the color not 
turned as trumps falling into their regu- 
lar place as at whist. The object of the 
game is to take tricks. The score is five 
points, unless otherwise agreed. The 
non-dealer may "pass," or "order up" 
the trump. Should he nass. then the 



EUCLID 



67 



EUGENICS 



idealer may take up the trump and dis- 
card. In that case the dealer must make 
three tricks or be "euchered," which 
counts two points for the adversary, but 
if he makes the three tricks (or four), 
he counts one point. Should he make all 
five tricks, it is termed "a march," and 
counts him two on the score. The non- 
dealer has the first lead, after which he 
who takes the trick leads. Should the 
non-dealer "order up" the trump he 
must make three tricks or be "euchered," 
which counts two for his opponent; if he 
win three tricks (or four), having or- 
dered up the trump, he scores one point. 
Should he make "a march," he scores 
two. If both players pass (the dealer 
turning down the trump), and then both 
decline to make a trump, there must be 
a new deal. Either party naming a new 
suit for trump must make the three 
tricks or be "euchered." 

EUCLID, a celebrated mathematician, 
who collected all the fundamental prin- 
ciples of pure mathematics, which had 
been delivered down by Thales, Pythag- 
oras, Eudoxus, and other mathemati- 
cians before him, which he digested into 
regularity and order, with many others 
of his own, on which account he is said 
to have been the first who reduced arith- 
metic and geometry into the form of a 
Bcience. He lived about 277 B. C, and 
taught mathematics in Alexandria. 

EUDOXIANS, followers of Eudoxius, 
who from A. D. 347 was Bishop of An- 
tioch, in Syria, and from 360 to his death 
in 370 Bishop and Patriarch of Con- 
stantinople. He was successively ^ an 
Arian, a Semi-Arian and an Aetian. 
Respecting the Trinity, he believed the 
Will of the Son to be differently affected 
from that of the Father. 

EUGENE, a city of Oregon, the 
county-seat of Lane co. It is on the 
Southern Pacific, the Oregon Electric, 
and the Portland, Eugene and Eastern 
railroads. It is the center of an extensive 
agricultural region, and the lumbering 
industry is also important. Its industrial 
establishments include canneries, flour 
mills, woolen mills, machine shops, etc. 
It is the seat of the University of 
Oregon and the Eugene Bible University. 
It has a public library and other public 
buildings. Pop. (1910) 9,009; (1920) 
10,593. 

EUGENE (ii-jen'), or FBANCOIS 
EUGENE, Prince of Savoy, fifth son of 
Eugene Maurice, Duke of Savoy-Cari- 
gnan, and Olympia Mancini, a niece of 
Cardinal Mazarin; born in Paris, Oct. 
18, 1663. Offended with Louis XIV. he 
entered the Austrian service in 1683, 
serving his first campaign as a volunteer 



against the Turks. Here he distinguished 
himself so much that he received a regi- 
ment of dragoons. Later, at the sieges 
of Belgrade and Mayence, he increased 
his reputation, and on the outbreak of 
the war between France and Austria he 
received the command of the imperial 
forces sent to Piedmont to act in con- 
junction with the troops of the Duke of 
Savoy. At the end of the war he was 
sent as commander-in-chief to Hungary, 
where he defeated the Turks at the 
battle of Zenta (Sept. 11, 1697). 

The Spanish war of succession brought 
Eugene again into the field. In northern 
Italy he outmaneuvered Catinat and 
Villeroi, defeating the latter at Cremona 
(1702). In 1703 he commanded the im- 
perial army in Germany, and in co-opera- 
tion with Marlborough frustrated the 
plans of France and her allies. In the 
battle of Hochstadt or Blenheim, Eugene 
and Marlborough defeated the French 
and Bavarians under Marshal Tallard, 
Aug. 13, 1704. Next year Eugene, re- 
turning to Italy, forced the French to 
raise the siege of Turin, and in one 
month drove them out of Italy. During 
the following years he fought on the 
Rhine, took Lille, and, in conjunction 
with Marlborough, defeated the French 
at Oudenarde (1708), and Malplaquet 
(1709), where he himself was danger- 
ously wounded. After the recall of Marl- 
borough, which Eugene opposed in per- 
son at London, without success, and the 
defection of England from the alliance 
against France, his farther progress was 
in a gi'eat measure checked. In the war 
with Turkey, in 1716, Eugene defeated 
two superior armies at Peterwardein and 
Temesvar, and, in 1717, took Belgrade, 
after having gained a decisive victory 
over a third army that came to its 
relief 

During 15 years of peace which fol- 
lowed, Eugene served Austria as faith- 
fully in the cabinet as he had done in 
the field. He was one of the great gen- 
erals of modern times. He died in 
Vienna, April 21, 1736. 

EUGENIA (so named in honor of 
Prince Eugene), a genus of dicotyledon- 
ous polypetalous plants of the natural 
order Myrtacese, nearly related to the 
myrtle. It contains numerous species, 
some of which produce delicious fruits. 
The allspice or pimento is the berry of 
the E. Pimenta. E. acris is the wild clove. 

EUGENIC ACID, or EUGENOL, an 

acid derived from cloves, and conferring 
on them their essential properties. 

EUGENICS, a term introduced by 
Francis Galton in 1883 and defined by 
him as follows: "Eugenics is the study 
of agencies under social control which 



EUGENICS 58 

may improve or impair the racial qual- 
ities of future generations either physi- 
cally or mentally." It is based upon 
genetics or the study of heredity, a 
science open to experimental methods, 
in which great advance in knowledge has 
been attained; eugenics seeks to apply 
this knowledge to the improvement of the 
human stock by selection in mating. The 
study of genetics has shown that the 
qualities which influence heredity are 
contained in the chromatin of the nucleus 
of the male and female germ cell; that 
in fertilization there is intermingling of 
the chromatin, and the ovum from which 
the development of the embryo proceeds 
contains the qualities of both parents. 
The substances contained in chromatin 
and which influence development are 
called determinants and in certain direc- 
tions their influence is predictable. There 
are certain unit characters such as color 
and form of hair in animals, color in 
flowers, etc., which are transmitted to the 
off"spring with certainty, appearing in 
the first generation, when they are 
termed dominant or in the second genera- 
tion when they are termed recessive. 
White and black guinea pigs when mated 
produce black offspring, the black being 
dominant, and in the second generation 
one in every four of the offspring will be 
white, the white color being recessive. 
This is known as Mendelian inheritance, 
and was described by Mendel in 1865, 
whose work remained unknown until 
1906, when the law and the former pub- 
lication of Mendel were rediscovered. 
There are similar unit characters in man 
which are transmitted with equal cer- 
tainty and if it were desirable to produce 
a race marked by excessive fingers (poly- 
dactylism) or webbed fingers (syndac- 
tylism) it would be possible by selective 
mating to do so. There are also certain 
unit characters which are linked with 
sex, appearing in males and transmitted 
by females who do not have the condition 
which is recessive. Thus hssmophilia, or 
tendency to bleeding, affects males only, 
but is transmitted by females. In addi- 
tion to this Mendelian inheritance in 
which there is no blending of chai-acter, 
there is another form in which char- 
acters such as general body size, stature, 
skin color, are blended in the offspring. 
Great results have been attained in the 
breeding of domestic animals, strains 
being developed marked by certain qual- 
ities which are desirable, such as milk 
production, fat formation, wool produc- 
tion, etc. All these animals are bred 
•under strictly artifical conditions, and it 
is not probable that the qualities arrived 
at would be advantageous for animals in 
a natural state. It has also been ascer- 
tained that only the qualities resident in 



EUGENICS 



the germ affect heredity and that qual- 
ities which are acquired and due to en- 
vironment are not inherited. While this 
is true, environmental conditions are 
probably of equal importance for the im- 
provement of a race, with the character 
of the germ plasm, for a good environ- 
ment may render possible the develop- 
ment of qualities which in another en- 
vironment might be suppressed. The most 
important qualities which affect man in 
his social relations are the mental, such 
as general mental ability, temperament, 
memory, musical, literary, artistic and 
mathematical ability, and these are un- 
doubtedly subject to inheritance, but to 
an unknown extent. With regard to the 
inheritance of disease there is a surer 
foundation. There is no inheritance 
of the infectious diseases, though there 
may be infection of the male or 
female germ cell or infection of the 
foetus by the mother before birth, re- 
sulting in congenital disease. Or dis- 
ease of the parents may affect not the 
germinal material of the germ cell, but 
the general character of the cellular ma- 
terial, resulting in a general imperfection 
of offspring. Syphilis may affect the off- 
spring in any of these ways and it 
should constitute a bar against mating. 
Great interest attaches to the inheritance 
of such conditions as insanity, epilepsy, 
and feeble-mindedness. These may be 
due to conditions which are acquired and 
are not inheritable, but when due to a 
congenital imperfection of the nervous 
material they are inheritable to a high 
degree. These diseases are of such enor- 
mous social importance in increasing the 
number of defectives which burden a 
state that mating among them should be 
forbidden. Certain states have passed 
laws requiring the sterilization of males 
and females so affected, but it is difficult 
to have such laws carried out, and they 
are opposed to the moral sense of the 
people. Segregation with separation of 
the sexes is much more desirable, but in 
asylums it is difficult or impossible to 
have this so effectively done as to include 
the milder forms of these diseases which 
may be just as disadvantageous for 
breeding. There are certain forms of 
criminality which depend upon qualities 
which may be transmitted, and breeding 
from these should be prohibited, but the 
interdiction should not include all those 
who come under the ban of the law. A 
fine population has arisen from the crim- 
inals whom England formerly trans- 
ported to her colonies. The desire to im- 
prove the race is a laudable one, but 
there is great uncertainty as to mea- 
sures. The prevention of descent from 
those with such defects of both mind 
and body as are inheritable and disad- 



EUGENIE 



69 



EUPEN 



vantageous to the social environment, or 
with such diseases as syphilis, is a 
measure the advantage of which cannot 
be disputed. One great difficulty is to as- 
certain in what direction other than 
health we should seek to improve the 
race. The stratification of society is 
based not upon the biological qualities of 
the germ plasm, but upon environmental 
conditions. Alarm has been felt that in 
number of offspring the cultivated and 
upper classes were at a great disadvan- 
tage as compared with the lower. Cattell 
has shown that a Harvard graduate has 
three-fourths of a son, and a Vassar 
graduate one-half of a daughter. Such 
a declining birth rate is due to late 
marriage and voluntary restriction of 
offspring dictated by motives of love of 
luxury, and fear, and these qualities are 
not of advantage to a race. It is not 
probable that in bodily strength and 
mental ability we are superior to prim- 
itive man and it has never been shown 
that an upper class in society is better 
biological material than a lower. Above 
all in Eugenics there is need of more ex- 
tended and certainly more exact knowl- 
edge of heredity in man before any gen- 
eral measures looking toward the im- 
provement of the race can be undertaken 
with expectation of success. 

EUGENIE (e-zha-ne') (maiden name, 
Marie de Guzman), ex-empress of the 
French; bom in Granada, Spain, in 




EMPRESS EUGENIE 

J826. Her father, the Count de Montijo, 
was of a noble Spanish family; her 
mother was of Scotch extraction, maiden 
name Kirkpatrick. On Jan. 29, 1853, 
she became the wife of Napoleon III. 
and Empress of the French. On March 



16, 1856, a son was born of the marriage. 
When the war broke out with Germany 
she was appointed regent (July 27. 
1870) during the absence of the em- 
peror, but on Sept. 4 the revolution 
forced her to flee from France. She went 
to England, where she was joined by the 
prince imperial and afterward by the 
emperor. Camden House, Chislehurst, 
became the residence of the imperial 
exiles. On Jan. 9, 1873, the emperor 
died, and six years later the prince im- 
perial was slain while with the English 
army in the Zulu war. In 1881 the 
empress transferred her residence to 
Farnborough in Hampshire. She died in 
1920. 

EUGENIUS, the name of four Popes. 
EUGENius I., elected Sept. 8, 654, while 
his predecessor, Martin I., was still liv- 
ing; died in 657 without having exerted 
any material influence on his times. 
EuGENius II. held the see from 824-827. 
EUGENIUS III., born in Pisa, was a dis- 
ciple of St. Bernard of Clairvaux. He 
was raised to the papacy at Farfa, in 
1145, having been obliged to quit Rome 
in consequence of the commotions caused 
by Arnold of Brescia; through negotia- 
tions by Frederick Barbarossa, he was 
enabled to return in 1152, and died in 
1153. EuGENlus IV., from Venice, orig- 
inally called Gabriel Condolmero, was 
raised to the papacy in 1431. In con- 
sequence of his opposition to the council 
of Basel he was deposed. He died in 
1447. 

EULENSPIEGEL (oi'len-spe-gl) , 
TILL, a name which has become associ- 
ated in Germany with all sorts of wild, 
whimsical frolics, and with many amus- 
ing stories. Some such popular hei-o of 
tradition and folklore seems to have 
really existed in Germany, probably in 
the first half of the 14th century, and 
a collection of popular tales of a frol- 
icsome character, originally written in 
Low German, purpoi'ts to contain his 
adventures. The earliest edition of such 
is a Strassburg one of the year 1515 in 
the British Museum. Better known, 
however, is that of 1519, published also 
at Strassburg by Thomas Miirner. 

EUPATORIA, a city in the former 
Russian province of Taurida, on the W. 
coast of the Crimea, on an inlet of the 
Black Sea forming a good harbor. It 
has been one of the bases of operation 
of the Anti-Bolshevik armies, first under 
General Denikine, and later, in 1920, 
under General Wrangel. Pop. about 
30,000. 

EUPEN, formerly a city of Prussia, 
ten miles from Aix-la-Chapelle, and two 
miles from the Belgian frontier, in the 



EUPHORBUS 60 

Rhine province. As a result of the 
Peace Treaty of Versailles the city with 
the district of which it was the capital 
was transferred to Belgium. It is fa- 
mous for its iron foundries, woolen and 
cloth mills, and its breweries. Pop. about 
13,500. 

EUPHORBUS, the son of Panthous, 
slain by Menelaus in the Trojan war. 

EUPHRATES (-fra'tez), or EL 
FRAT, a celebrated river of western 
Asia, in Asiatic Turkey, having a double 
source in two streams rising in the Anti- 
Taurus range. Its total length is about 
1,700 miles, and the area of its basin 
260,000 square miles. It flows mainly in 
a S. E. course through the great alluvial 
plains of Babvlonia and Chaldsea till it 
falls into the' Persian Gulf by several 
mouths, of which only one in Persian 
territory is navigable. About 100 miles 
from its mouth it is joined by the Tigris, 
when the united streams take the name 
of Shatt-el-Arab. 

EUPHUISM, an affected style of 
speech which distinguished the conversa- 
tion and writings of many of the wits of 
the court of Queen Elizabeth. The 
name and the style were derived from 
the "Euphues, the Anatomy of Wit," 
(about 1580), of John Lyly, (about 1554- 
1606). 

EURASIANS (syncopated from Eu- 
rop-Asians), a name sometimes given to 
the "half-castes" of India, the offspring 
of European fathers and Indian mothers. 
They are particularly common in the 
three presidential capitals — Calcutta, 
Madras, and Bombay. They generally 
receive a European education, and the 
young men are often engaged in govern- 
ment or mercantile offices. The girls, 
in spite of their dark tint, are generally 
very pretty and often marry Europeans. 
EURE (er), a river of France, which 
rises in the department of the Orne, and 
falls into the Seine after a course of 124 
miles, being navigable for about half 
the distance. It gives its name to a de- 
partment in the N. W. of France, form- 
ing part of Normandy; area, 2,300 
-quare miles. The surface consists of an 
extensive plain, intersected by rivers, 
chief of which is the Seine. Almost the 
whole surface is profitably occupied, the 
waste not amounting to one-thirtieth of 
the whole. Apples, pears, plums, and 
cherries form important crops, and a 
little wine is produced. The mining and 
manufacturing industries are extensive, 
and the department has a considerable 
trade in woolen cloth, linen and cotton 
fabrics, carpets, leather, paper, glass, 
and stoneware. Evreux is the capital. 
Pop. about 330,000. 



EURIPIDES 



EURE-ET-LOIR (er a Iwar), a de- 
partment in the N. W. of France, form- 
ing part of the old provinces of Orlean- 
nais and Ile-de-Fz-ance; area, 2,267 
square miles. A ridge of no great height 
divides the department into a N. and a 
S. basin, traversed respectively by the 
Eure and the Loire. The soil is ex- 
tremely fertile, and there is scarcely any 
waste land. A considerable portion is 
occupied by orchards and vineyards, but 
the greater part is devoted to cereal 
crops. The department is essentially 
agricultural, and has few manufactures. 
The capital is Chartres. Pop. about 
275,000. 

EUREKA, a city and county-seat of 
Humboldt co., Cal., on Humboldt bay, 
and on the Northwestern and Pacific 
railroad; 225 miles N. W. of San Fran- 
cisco. It has a fine harbor, which has 
been improved by the United States 
government on the jetty plan. The city 
is situated in the famous redwood region, 
and has large lumber interests. Se- 
quoia Park, a tract of 20 acres of virgin 
redwood forest, is near the city. The 
city has gas and electric lights, high 
schools, daily and weekly newspapers. 
Pop. (1910) 11,854; (1920) 12,923. See 
Big Trees. 

EUREKA COLLEGE, a coeducational 
institution in Eureka, 111.; founded in 
1855 under the auspices of the Christian 
Church; reported at the close of 1919: 
Professors and instructors, 23; students, 
383; president, L. O. Lehmar. 

EURIPIDES (-rip'i-dez) , a celebrated 
Athenian tragedian; born in Salamis, in 
480 B. c. (or 485). He studied under 
Prodicus and Anaxagoras, and is said 
to have begun to write tragedies at the 
age of 18, although his first published 
play, the "Peliades," appeared only in 
455 B. c. He was not successful in gain- 
ing the first prize till the year 441 B. C, 
and he continued to exhibit till 408 B. C, 
when he exhibited the "Orestes." The 
violence of unscrupulous enemies, who 
accused him of impiety and unbelief in 
the gods, drove Euripides to take refuge 
at the court of Archelaus, King of Mace- 
donia, where he was held in the highest 
honoi'. Euripides is a master of tragic 
situations and pathos, and shows much 
knowledge of human nature and skill in 
grouping characters, but his works lack 
the artistic completeness and the sub- 
lime earnestness that characterize 
^schylus and Sophocles. Euripides is 
said to have composed 75, or according 
to another authority 92 tragedies. Of 
these 18 (or 19, including the "Rhesus") 
are extant, viz.: "Alcestis," "Medea,' 
"Hippolytus," "Hecuba," "Heracleidse," 



EUROPA 



"Suppliants," "Ion," Hercules Furens," 
"Andromache," "Troades," "Electra," 
"Helena," "Iphigenia Among the Tauri," 
"Orestes," "Phoenissae," "Bacchae," "Iphi- 
genia at Aulis," and "Cyclops." 

EtrROPA (-ro-pa), in Greek mythol- 
ogy, the daughter of Agenor, King of 
the Phoenicians, and the sister of Cad- 
mus. The fable relates that she was ab- 
ducted by Jupiter, who for that occasion 
had assumed the form of a bull, and 
swam with his prize to the island of 
Crete. Here Europe bore to him Minos, 
Sarpedon, and Rhadamanthus. 

EUROPE, the smallest of the great 
continents, but the most important in the 
history of civilization for the last 2,000 
years. It forms a huge peninsula pro- 
jecting from Asia, and is bounded on 
the N. by the Arctic Ocean; on the W. 
by the Atlantic Ocean; on the S. by the 
Mediterranean, the Black Sea, and the 
Caucasus range; on the E. by the Cas- 
pian Sea, the Ural River, and the Ural 
Mountains. The most northerly point on 
the mainland is Cape Nordkyn, in Lap- 
land, lat. 71°6'; the most southerly 
points are Punta da Tarifa, lat. 36" 
N., in the Strait of Gibraltar, and 
Cape Matapan, lat. 36" 17', which 
terminates Greece. The most west- 
erly point is Cape Roca in Portugal, 
in Ion. 9° 28' W., while Ekaterinburg is 
in Ion. 60° 36' E. From Cape Matapan to 
North Cape is a direct distance of 2,400 
miles, from Cape St. Vincent to Ekate- 
rinburg, N. E. by E., 3,400 miles; area 
of the continent, about 3,800,000 square 
miles. Great Britain and Ireland, Ice- 
land, Nova Zembla, Corsica, Sardinia, 
Sicily, Malta, Crete, the Ionian and the 
Balearic Islands are the chief islands of 
Europe. The shores are very much in- 
dented, giving Europe an immense 
length of coast line (estimated at 
nearly 50,000 miles). The chief seas or 
arms of the sea are: The White Sea 
on the N. ; the North Sea or German 
Ocean, on the W., from which branches 
off the great gulf or inland sea known 
as the Baltic; the English Channel, be- 
tween England and France; the Medi- 
teri'anean, communicating with the 
Atlantic by the Strait of Gibraltar (at 
one point only 19 miles wide); the 
Adriatic and Archipelago, branching off 
from the Mediterranean, and the Black 
Sea, connected with the Archipelago 
through the Hellespont, Sea of Mai*- 
mora, and Bosporus. 

Siirface. — The mountains form several 
distinct groups or systems of very dif- 
ferent geological dates, the loftiest 
mountain nasses being in the S. central 
region. Tne Scandinavian mountains in 
the N. W., to which the great northern 
Vol. IV — Cyc— E 



61 EUROPE 

peninsula owes its form, extend above 
900 miles from the Polar Sea to the S. 
point of Norway. The highest summits 
are about 8,000 feet. The Alps, the high- 
est mountains in Europe (unless Mount 
Elbruz in the Caucasus is claimed as 
European), extend from the Mediter- 
ranean first in a northerly and then in 
an easterly direction, and attain their 
greatest elevation in Mont Blanc (15,- 
781 feet), Monte Rosa, and other sum- 
mits. Branching off from the Alps, 
though not geologically connected with 
them, are the Apennines, which run S. 
E. through Italy, constituting the cen- 
tral ridge of the peninsula. The high- 
est summit is Monte Corno (9,541 feet). 
Mount Vesuvius, the celebrated volcano 
in the S. of the peninsula, is quite dis- 
tinct from the Apennines. By south- 
eastern extensions the Alps are con- 
nected with the Balkan and the Despoto- 
Dagh of the southeastern peninsula of 
Europe. Among the mountains of south- 
western Europe are several massive 
chains, the loftiest summits being in the 
Pyrenees, and in the Sierra Nevada in 
the S. of the Iberian Peninsula. The 
highest point in the former. La Mala- 
detta or Mount Maudit, has an elevation 
of 11,165 feet; Mulahacen, in the latter, 
is 11,703 feet, and capped by perpetual 
snow. West and N. W. of the Alps are 
the Cevennes, Jura, and Vosges; N. 
and N. E., the Harz, the Thiiringerwald 
Mountains, the Fichtelgebirge, the 
Erzgebirge and Bohmerwaldgebirge. 
Farther to the E. the Carpathian chain 
incloses the great plain of Hungary, at- 
taining an elevation of 8,000 or 8,500 
feet. The Ural Mountains between 
Europe and Asia reach the height of 
5,540 feet. Besides Vesuvius other two 
volcanoes are Etna in Sicily, and Hecla 
in Iceland. A great part of northern 
and eastern Europe is level. The "great 
plain" of north Europe occupies part of 
France, western and northern Belgium, 
Holland, the northern provinces of Ger- 
many, and the greater part of Russia. 
The other great plains of Europe are 
the plain of Lombardy and the plain of 
Hungary. Part of southern and south- 
eastern Russia consists of steppes. 

Rivers and Lakes. — The main Euro- 
pean watershed runs in a winding direc- 
tion .'rom S. Yf. to N. E., at its north- 
eastern extremity being of very slight 
elevation. From the Alps descend some 
of the largest of the European rivers, 
the Rhine, the Rhone, and the Po, while 
the Danube, a still greater stream, rises 
in the Black Forest N. of the Alps. The 
Volga, which enters the Caspian Sea, 
an inland sheet without outlet, is the 
longest of European rivers, having a 
direct length of nearly 1,700 miles, in- 



EUBOPE 



62 



EUBOPE 



eluding windings 2,400 miles. Into the 
Mediterranean flow the Ebro, the Rhone, 
and the Po; into the Black Sea, the 
Danube, Dnieper, Dniester, and Don 
(through the Sea of Azov) ; into the 
Atlantic, the Guadalquivir, the Guadi- 
ana, the Tagus, and Loire ; into the Eng- 
lish Channel, the Seine; into the North 
Sea, the Rhine, Elbe; into the Baltic, 
the Oder, the Vistula, and the Duna; 
into the Arctic Ocean, the Dwina. The 
lakes of Europe may be divided into two 
groups, the southern and northern. The 
former run along both sides of the Alps, 
and among them, on the N. side, are 
the lakes of Geneva, Neuchatel, Thun, 
Lucerne, Zxirich, and Constance; on the 
S. side, Lago Maggiore, and the lakes 
of Como, Lugano, Iseo, and Garda. The 
northern lakes extend across Sweden 
from W. to E., and on the E. side of the 
Baltic a number of lakes, stretching in 
the same direction across Finland on 
the borders of Russia, mark the continu- 
ation of the line of depression. It is in 
Russia that the largest European lakes 
are found — Lakes Ladoga and Onega. 

Geology. — The geological features of 
Europe are exceedingly varied. The 
older formations prevail in the northern 
part as compared with the southern half 
and the middle region. N. of the lati- 
tude of Edinburgh and Moscow there 
is very little of the surface of more re- 
cent origin than the strata of the Upper 
Jura belonging to the Mesozoic period, 
and there are vast tracts occupied either 
by eruptive rocks or one or other of the 
older sedimentary formations. Den- 
mark and the portions of Germany ad- 
joining belong to the Cretaceous period, 
as does also a large part of Russia 
between the Volga and the basin of the 
Dnieper. Middle and eastern Germany 
with Poland and the valley of the 
Dnieper present on the surface Eocene 
formations of the Tertiary period. Eu- 
rope possesses abundant stores of those 
minerals which are of most importance 
to man, such as coal and iron, Great 
Britain being particularly favored in 
this respect. Coal and iron are aLo 
obtained in France, Belgium and Ger- 
many. The richest silver ores are in 
Norway, Spain, the Erzgebirge, and the 
Harz Mountains. Spain is also rich in 
quicksilver. Copper ores are abundant 
in the Ural Mountains, Thuringia, Corn- 
wall, and Spain. Tin ores are found in 
Cornwall, the Erzgebirge, and Brittany. 

Climate. — Several circumstances con- 
cur to give Europe a climate peculiarly 
genial, such as its position almost wholly 
within the temperate zone, and the great 
extent of its maritime boundaries. Much 
benefit is also derived from the fact 
that its shores are exposed to the warm 



marine currents and warm "winds from 
the S. W., which prevent the formation 
of ice on most of its northern shores. 
The eastern portion has a less favorable 
climate than the western. The extremes 
of temperature are greater, the summer 
being hotter and the winter colder, while 
the lines of equal mean temperature de- 
cline S. as we go E. 

Vegetable Productions^ — With respect 
to the vegetable kingdom" Europe may be 
divided into four zones. The first, or 
most northern, is that of fir and birch. 
The birch reaches almost to North Cape ; 
the fir ceases a degree farther S. The 
cultivation of grain extends farther N. 
than might be supposed. Barley ripens 
even under the 70th parallel of N. 
latitude; wheat ceases at 64° in Norway, 
62° in Sweden. V/ithin this zone, the 
southern limit of which extends from lat. 
64° in Norway to lat. 62° in Russia, 
agriculture has little importance, its in- 
habitants being chiefly occupied with the 
care of reindeer or cattle, and in fishing. 
The next zone, which may be called that 
of the oak and beech, and cereal produce, 
extends from the limit above mentioned 
to the 48th parallel. The Alps, though 
beyond the limit, by reason of their ele- 
vation belong to this zone, in the moister 
parts of which cattle husbandry has been 
brought to perfection. Next we find the 
zone of the chestnut and vine, occupying 
the space between the 48th parallel and 
the mountain chains of southern Eu- 
rope. Here the oak still flourishes, but 
the pine species become rarer. Rye, which 
characterizes the preceding zone on the 
Continent, gives way to wheat, and in 
the southern portion of it to maize also. 
The fourth zone, comprehending the 
southern peninsula, is that of the olive 
and _ evergreen woods. The orange 
flourishes in the southern portion of it, 
and rice is cultivated in a few spots in 
Italy and Spain. 

Animals. — As regards animals the 
reindeer and polar bears are peculiar to 
the N. Bears and wolves still inhabit 
the forests and mountains; but, in gen- 
eral, cultivation and population have ex- 
pelled wild animals. 

Inhabitants. — Europe is occupied by 
several different peoples or races, in 
many parts now greatly intermingled. 
The Celts once possessed the W. of 
Europe from the Alps to the British 
Islands, But the Celtic nationalities w ere 
broken by the wave of Roman conquest, 
and the succeeding invasions of the Ger- 
manic tribes completed their political 
ruin. At the present day the Celtic 
language is spoken only in the Scotch 
Highlands (Gaelic), in some '"arts of 
Ireland (Irish), in Wales (Cymric), and 
in Brittany (Armorican). Next to the 



EUROPE 



63 



EUROPE 



Celtic conies the Teutonic race, compre- 
hending the Germanic and Scandinavian 
branches. The former includes the Ger- 
mans, the Dutch, and the English. The 
Scandinavians are divided into Danes, 
Swedes, and Norwegians. To the E., in 
general, of the Teutonic race, though 
sometimes mixed with it, come the 
Slavonians, that is, the Russians, the 
Poles, the Czechs or Bohemians, the Ser- 
vians, Croatians, etc. In the S. and S. 
E. of Europe are the Greek and Latin 
peoples, the latter comprising the Ital- 
ians, French, Spanish, and Portuguese. 
All the above peoples are regarded as 
belonging to the Indo-European or 
Aryan stock. To the Mongolian stock 
belong the Turks, Finns, Lapps, and 
Magyars or Hungarians, all immigrants 
into Europe in comparatively recent 
times. The Basques at the western ex- 
tremity of the Pyrenees are a people 
whose affinities have not yet been de- 
termined. The total population of Eu- 
rope is about 425,000,000. 

Political Divisions. — The lines of divi- 
sion of Europe were greatly changed and 
in many cases obliterated by the World 
War. As a result of the treaty follow- 
ing the conclusion of the war, new na- 
tions were established. This included 
Jugoslavia, Czecho-Slovakia, Poland, 
Latvia, Esthonia, Lithuania, and others. 
Germany lost, in addition to 5,600 square 
miles of territory, with nearly 2,000,000 
inhabitants, by the recession to France 
of the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, 
control of the great Saar Valley coal 
fields, to compensate in part for the coal 
mines of northern France destroyed or 
crippled during the war. Within 15 
years from the coming into effect of the 
Peace Treaty, the inhabitants of this 
basin are to determine by plebiscite 
whether they shall remain under +he 
control of the League of Nations, be- 
coming a part of France, or revert to 
Germany. Germany was also compelled 
to surrender to Poland the vast area 
with a population of 6,000,000, and, in 
order to provide Poland with an outlet 
to the sea, Germany was compelled to 
relinquish the Baltic seaport of Danzig 
which became the free city of Danzig 
under the protection of the League of 
Nations. The Memel district, northeast 
of East Prussia, was given in charge of 
the Allied and Associated Powers, pend- 
ing the final settlement of their sov- 
ereignty. 

In addition to the Saar Basin, the 
Peace Treaty designated these areas for 
plebiscite to determine their eventual 
ownership. Two of these were in East 
Prussia, one in northern Schleswig, 
southern Schleswig, Holstein, and Upper 
Silesia. Plebiscites were held in all 



these prior to 1921, except Upper Si- 
lesia. Holstein and southern Schleswig 
elected to be reincorporated into the Ger- 
man Republic. North Schleswig voted 
to return to Denmark, and East Pi'ussia 
preferred German as against Polish 
absorption. 

By the Treaty of St. Germain, signed 
Sept. 10, 1919, the monarchy of Austria- 
Hungary ceased to exist. Its place was 
taken by the republics of Austria, Hun- 
gary, and Czecho-Slovakia, while large 
areas of its former territory passed into 
the hands of Italy, Rumania, and Jugo- 
slavia. For further details see the 
articles on these countries. By the 
Treaty of Neuilly signed on Nov. 
27, 1919, Bulgaria suffered a loss of 
territory. Bulgarian Thrace was given 
to Greece. To Jugoslavia was surren- 
dered a strip of territory including the 
town of Strumitsa and two small por- 
tions of territory belonging to the west- 
ern Bulgarian front. The total area of 
territory lost was about 2,000 square 
miles. 

Turkey, by the Treaty of Sevres, be- 
came in Europe scarcely more than a 
name. Its European territory included 
only a small tract of land west of Con- 
stantinople, and the city itself. The 
Dardanelles, the Bosporus, and the shores 
of the Sea of Marmora were placed 
under the control of the Interallied Com- 
mission. Turkish Thrace was awarded 
to Greece. Twelve islands formerly be- 
longing to Turkey, known as the Spo- 
rades, were awarded to Italy, who, on the 
same day, ceded all the group with the 
exception of Rhodes, to Greece. 

The Russian empire, as the result of 
the revolution, was deprived of a great 
area of territory from which new states 
were formed. These included the repub- 
lics of Finland, the Baltic states of Es- 
thonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, and a 
large territory which went to help form 
the republic of Poland. Montenegro 
ceased to exist as an independent power 
and became a part of the kingdom of 
Jugoslavia. Albania had declared its 
independence in 1917, but its boundaries 
had not been established at the begin- 
ning of 1921. 

Italy gained, as a result of the war, 
the so-called "unredeemed provinces," 
including the Trentino region, Gorizia, 
and the Istrian peninsula, together with 
the great seaport of Trieste. The esti- 
mated area of this territory is between 
15,000 and 18,000 square miles, with 
nearly 2,000,000 inhabitants. Italy also 
gained the administration of the island 
of Rhodes and several other small 
islands. 

Greece made great territorial gains. 
In addition to the acquisition of Thrace 



EUBOPB 



64 



EUSTATIUS, ST. 



ana many islands in the ^gean Sea, 
she also assumed administration of the 
Smyrna district in Asia Minor, with a 
proviso that a plebiscite at the end of 
five years shall determine w^hether or not 
it shall remain permanently in the hands 
of Greece. 

Rumania profited greatly in terri- 
tory. She was awarded the province of 
Bessarabia, formerly a part of Russia, 
the former Austrian crownland of Buko- 
wina, together with Transylvania, a part 
of Banat, and other provinces from Hun- 
gary. By this acquisition Rumania be- 
came the largest country of the Balkan 
states, with an area equal to the com- 
bined areas of Czecho-Slovakia, Hungary, 
and Austria, with a population, in 1919, 
of 12,500,000. 

Ukraine, formerly one of the richest 
provinces of Russia, declared itself an 
independent republiCo Its boundaries 
are vague. It is claimed to have an area 
of about 200,000 square miles, with a 
population of 30,000,000. Its independ- 
ence had not been acknowledged at the 
beginning of 1921. 

History.- — Europe was probably first 
peopled from Asia, but at what date we 
know not. The first authentic history 
begins in Greece at about 776 B. C. 
Greek civilization was at its most flour- 
ishing period about 430 B. C. After 
Greece came Rome, which, by the 
early part of the Christian era, had 
conquered Spain, Greece, Gaul, Helvetia, 
Germany between the Danube and the 
Alps, Illyria, Dacia, etc. 

With the decline of the Roman empire 
a great change in the political constitu- 
tion of Europe was produced by the 
universal migration of the northern na- 
tions. The Ostrogoths and Lombards 
settled in Italy, the Franks in France, 
the Visigoths in Spain, and the Anglo- 
Saxons in South Britain, reducing the 
inhabitants to subjection, or becoming 
incorporated with them. Under Char- 
lemagne (771-814) a great Germanic 
empire was established, so extensive that 
the kingdoms of France, Germany, Italy, 
Burgundy, Lorraine, and Navarre were 
afterward formed out of it. About this 
time the northern and eastern nations 
of Europe began to exert an influence 
in the affairs of Europe. The Slavs, or 
Slavonians, founded kingdoms in Bo- 
hemia, Poland, Russia, and the N. of 
Germany; the Magyars appeared in 
Hungary, and the Normans agitated all 
Europe, founding kingdoms and princi- 
palities in England, France, Sicily, and 
the East. The Crusades and the growth 
of the Ottoman power are among the 
principal events which influenced Eu- 
rope from the 12th to the 15th century. 
The conquest of Constantinople by the 



Turks (1453), by driving the learned 
Greeks from this city, gave a new im- 
pulse to letters in western Europe, which 
was carried onward by the invention of 
printing, and the Reformation. The dis- 
covery of America was followed by the 
temporary preponderance of Spain in 
Europe, and next of France. Subse- 
quently Prussia and Russia gradually 
increased in territory and strength. The 
French Revolution (1'789) and the Na- 
poleonic wars had a profound effect on 
Europe, the dissolution of the old Ger- 
man empire being one of the results. 
Since then the most important events in 
European history have been the estab- 
lishment of the independence of Greece; 
the disappearance of Poland as a sepa- 
rate state; the unification of Italy under 
Victor Emmanuel; the Franco-German 
war, resulting in the consolidation of 
Germany into an empire under the 
leadership of Prussia; the partial dis- 
memberment of the Turkish empire, in- 
cluding the loss of Crete; the loss by 
Spain of her colonies in 1898; the ab- 
sorption by England of the Transvaal 
Republic and the Orange Free State in 
Africa in 1900. The political history of 
Europe from the beginning of the 20th 
century led directly to the World War. 
The seizure of Bosnia and Herzegovina 
by Austria in 1908, the Balkan Wars 
in 1912-1913, and the ever increasing 
militarism of Germany culminated in the 
great world struggle which began in 
August, 1914. 

EURYALE, a genus of plants of the 
water-lily order, growing in India and 
China, where the floury seeds of some 
species are used as food. 

EITRYDICE (u-rid'i-se) , in Greek 
mjrthology, the wife of Orpheus (q. v.). 

EUSEBIUS, a Greek writer, the 
father of ecclesiastical history; born in 
Palestine about A. D. 265. About 315 he 
was appointed Bishop of Csesarea. He 
became an advocate of the Arians and 
condemned the doctrines of Athanasius. 
His ecclesiastical history extends from 
the birth of Christ to 324. Among his 
other extant work is a life of Constan- 
tine the Great. He died about 340. 

EUSTACHIAN TUBE (iis-ta'shun), 
in anatomy, a canal leading from the 
pharynx to the tympanum of the ear. 
See Ear. 

EUSTATIUS, ST., a Dutch island in 
the West Indies, one of the Leeward 
Islands, 11 miles N. W. of St. Christo- 
pher's, pyramidal in form; area 8 square 
miles. Sugar, cotton, and maize are 
raised; but the principal production is 
tobacco. The climate is healthy, but 



EUTAW SPRINGS 



65 



EVANS 



earthquakes are frequent. Pop. about 
1,300. 

EUTAW SPRINGS, a small tributary 
of the Santee river in Clarendon co., 
S. C. It is noted for the battle fought 
on its banks in 1781, between about 
2,000 Americans under General Greene, 
and about 2,300 British under Colonel 
Stuart. The latter were defeated and 
driven from their camp but returned 
and Greene was compelled to retire. In 
the night, however, the British retreated 
toward Charleston, leaving 138 killed 
and wounded and about 500 prisoners. 
The Americans lost about 550 in killed, 
wounded and missing. 

EUTERPE (-ter'pe), one of the 
Muses, considered as presiding over Ijrric 
poetry, the invention of the flute being 
ascribed to her. She is usually repre- 
sented as a virgin crowned with flowers, 
having a flute in her hand. In botany, 
a genus of palms, natives of South Amer- 
ica, sometimes nearly 100 feet in height. 

EUTHANASIA, a term employed to 
describe painless methods of inducing 
death. The subject is chiefly of interest 
in respect to the close of illnesses in 
which the death agony is likely to be 
prolonged, and methods of easing pain 
in such cases by narcotics and similar 
means are regarded as admissible. The 
actual hastening of death in an appar- 
ently incurable illness is, however, a 
graver matter, and the weight of ethics, 
law and religion is strongly against such 
action, which is regarded as tantamount 
to actual slaying. The adage that while 
there is life there is hope expresses the 
fundamental principle opposed to eu- 
thanasia, and the cases are numerous of 
ultimate recovery on the part of a pa- 
tient who has been doomed by expert 
opinion. 

EUTROPIUS. FLAVIUS, a Latin 
historian, who flourished about A. D. 360. 
His abridgement of the history of Rome 
is written in a perspicuous style. 

EVANGELICAL, a term often used to 
qualify certain theological views, es- 
pecially strict views on the question of 
the atonement, justification by faith, the 
inspiration and authority of the Scrip- 
tures, and allied doctrines. In England 
the so-called Low Church party is evan- 
gelical in its views. In a more general 
sense the word implies a peculiar fer- 
vency and earnestness in insisting on 
such doctrines as regeneration, i-edemp- 
tion, etc. The "Evangelical Chui-ch" is 
the official title of the Established 
Church of Prussia, formed in 1817 by 
the union of Lutherans and Calvinists. 

EVANGELICAL ALLIANCE, an as- 
sociation of members of different sections 



of the Christian Church, organized in 
London in 1846, to lend its influence in 
favor of evangelical doctrines (see Evan- 
gelical) , religious union and liberty, and 
against superstition and unbelief. The 
alliance has branches throughout the 
world. 

EVANGELICAL ASSOCIATION, a 

body of American Christians, chiefly of 
German descent, established about the 
beginning of the 19th century. In forni 
of government and mode of worship it 
generally agrees with the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. 

EVANGELICAL UNION, the name of 
a religious sect, also familiarly known 
as the Morisonians, from the Rev. James 
Morison, its originator. It took rise in 
Scotland in 1840, and three years after- 
% ard organized itself as a separate 
Christian denomination. The Morison- 
ians maintain the universality of the 
atonement, combining with this the doc- 
trine of eternal personal and uncondi- 
tional election, and denying that anyone 
will be condemned for Adam's fall. 

EVANGELIST, a writer of the his- 
tory or doctrines, precepts, actions, life, 
and death of Christ; in particular, the 
"four evangelists," Matthew, Mark, 
Luke, and John. 

EVANS. SIR ARTHUR JOHN, an 

English archaeologist, born in Nash 
Mills, Herts, in 1851. He was educated 
at Oxford and in Germany. He spent 
10 years in travel in eastern Europe, 
especially in the Balkans. From 1884 
to 1908 he was keeper of the Ashmolean 
Museum at Oxford. In 1893 he under- 
took investigations in Crete, and these 
resulted in the discovery of remarkable 
archaeological remains, which gave a new 
aspect to the history of prehistoric Eu- 
rope. He wrote "Cretan Pictographs 
and Prae-Phoenician Script" (1896); 
"Scripta Minoa" (1909). He was 
knighted in 1911. 

EVANS, AUGUSTA JANE (WIL- 
SON), an American novelist; born in 
Columbus, Ga., May 8, 1835. Her writ- 
ings include: "Inez, a Tale of the Alamo" 
(1856) ; "Beulah," the most popular of 
her novels (1859); "St. Elmo" (1866); 
"At the Mercv of Tiberius" (1887) ; "A 
Speckled Bird" (1902) ; "Devota" (1907). 
She died in 1909. 

EVANS. ROBLEY DUNGLISON. an 
American naval oflicer; born in Floyd 
CO., Va. ; was graduated at the United 
States Naval Academy in 1863; pro- 
moted ensign, Oct. 1. 1863; lieutenant, 
July 25, 1866; lieutenant-commander, 
March 12, 1868; commander, in July, 
1878; captain, June 27, 1893; and rear- 



EVANS 



66 



EVAPOKATION 



admiral in 1901. During the Civil War 
he took part in the attack on Fort Fisher, 
Jan. 15, 1865, and in the land engage- 
ment was wounded four times. In 1891 
he was in command of the "Yorktown" 
at Valparaiso, Chile, during the strained 
relations between the United States and 
that country. He commanded the "Iowa" 
in the action of July 3, 1898, off Santi- 
ago de Cuba, which resulted in the de- 
struction of the Spanish fleet. He was 
promoted rear-admiral in 1901 and com- 
manded the Asiatic fleet, 1902; flagship 
"Kentucky." He was in command of 
Atlantic fleet, 1905-1907; touring the 
world in the latter year. He retired 
Aug. 18, 1908. Publications : "A Sailor's 
Log" (1901); "An Admiral's Log" 
(1910). He died in 1912. 

EVANS, SIB SAMUEL THOMAS, a 
Welsh lawyer. He was born in 1859 at 
Skewen, Neath, and was educated in the 
board schools. He studied law, was ad- 
mitted to the bar, and entering politics, 
was elected to represent Glamorganshire 
(Mid. Div.) in 1890, continuing to sit in 
the House of Commons from that con- 
stituency till 1910. He became a King's 
Counsel in 1901, Recorder of Swansea 
1906, Solicitor-General 1908, and a Privy 
Counsellor in 1910, becoming in this last 
year also President of the Probate, Di- 
vorce, and Admiralty Courts. He was a 
Justice of the Peace of Glamorganshire, 
Pembrokeshire and Beaconshire; Hon. 
Freeman of the County Borough of 
Swansea, and of the Borough of Neath. 
He died in 1918. 

EVANS, THOMAS WILLIAMS, an 
American dentist; born in Philadelphia, 
Pa., Dec. 23, 1823 ; studied dentistry and 
practiced in Maryland and later in Lan- 
caster, Pa.; made a specialty of saving 
teeth by filling. In seeking a substitute 
for gold foil he mixed rubber and sul- 
phur, which make a black substance in- 
stead of a white one. Because of the un- 
favorable color he laid the substance 
aside and gave it no more thought, till 
his mixture was used by others for pro- 
ducing commercial gutta-percha, which 
he declared he had discovered. In 1848 
he went by invitation to Paris as the 
most skillful American dentist, to attend 
to the teeth of President Louis Napo- 
leon. During his career in Paris he ac- 
cumulated a very large fortune. He also 
won an international reputation as an 
» expert in military sanitation and was 
one of the founders of the Red Cross 
Society. His home was the refuge of 
the Empress Eugenie from the mob on 
the night of Sept. 4, 1870. Dressed in 
his wife's clothes, she was taken by him 
to the Normandy coast, where he secured 
her escape to England. He died in 



Paris, Nov. 14, 1896. Dr. Evans be- 
queathed all of his fortune, estimated at 
from $8,000,000 to $12,000,000, excepting 
$250,000, to establish a museum and in- 
stitute in Philadelphia. 

EVANSTON, a city in Cook co., 111.; 
on Lake Michigan and on the Chicago 
and Northwestern and the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee and St. Paul railroads; 12 miles 
N. of Chicago. It includes the villages 
of Rogers Park and South Evanston; 
is delightfully laid out; and has gas and 
electric light plants; electric and ele- 
vated railroads to Chicago; Holly sys- 
tem of waterworks, weekly newspapers, 
National bank. It is the seat of North- 
western University (M. E.) founded in 
1851, largely endowed and of high re- 
pute, with a library and a museum. It 
is the seat also of the Garrett Biblical 
Institute, Winchell Academy, and of the 
Evanston College for Women, founded in 
1871. The Dearbon Observatory was 
transferred here from Chicago in 1888, 
and dedicated the following year as a de- 
partment of Northwestern University. 
Pop. (1910) 24,978; (1920) 37,215. 

EVANSVILLE, a city port of entry, 
and the county-seat of Vanderburg co., 
Ind., on the Ohio river, and the Evans- 
ville and Terre Haute, the Louisville, 
Evansville and St. Louis, the Louisville 
and Nashville, and several other rail- 
roads: 185 miles W. of Louisville. It is 
on a high bank at a bend in the river 
midway between the falls and the junc- 
tion with the Mississippi; is the trade 
center of a rich agricultural and coal 
region ; and has the finest wharf and city 
front on the Ohio or Mississippi river. 
It has excellent shipping facilities, with 
10 packet lines, iron and brass foundries, 
harness and saddlery, steam engine and 
boiler, furniture, boot and shoe, pottery, 
metal goods, tobacco, and chemical 
plants. The city contains the Evansville 
Insane, St. Mary's, and United States 
Marine Hospitals, County Infirmary, 
Evans Hall, United States Government 
Building, public day school for the deaf, 
a business college, public library, high 
school, daily and weekly newspapers, 3 
National and several private banks, and 
an assessed property valuation of over 
$25,000,000. Pop. (1910) 69,647; (1920) 
85,264. 

EVAPOEATION, the conversion of a 
liquid or solid by heat into vapor or 
steam, which becomes dissipated in the 
atmosphere in the manner of an elastic 
fluid. The process of evaporation is con- 
stantly going on at the surface of the 
earth, but principally at the surface of 
the sea, of lakes, rivers, and pools. The 
vapor thus formed, being specifically 



EVABTS 67 

lighter than atmospheric air, rises to 
considerable heights above the earth's 
surface; and afterward, by a partial 
condensation, forms clouds, and finally 
descends in rain. 

EVABTS, WILLIAM MAXWELL, 
an American lawyer; born in Boston, 
Mass., Feb. 6, 1818; was graduated at 
Yale College in 1837 and studied at the 
Harvard Law School. In 1841 he began 
the practice of law in New York City; 
in 1849-1853 was assistant district attor- 
ney; and in 1868 was the principal coun- 
sel for President Johnson in his im- 
peachment trial. In 1868-1869 he was 
Attorney-General of the United States; 
in 1877 principal counsel for the Repub- 
lican party before the Electoral Commis- 
sion on the Hayes-Tilden election re- 
turns; in 1877-1881 United States Secre- 
tary of State; and in 1885-1891 United 
States Senator from New York. He also 
represented the United States in the 
Alabama-claims case, and was the prin- 
cipal counsel for Henry Ward Beecher 
in his defense against the charges pre- 
ferred by Theodore Tilton, He was fa- 
mous as an orator. He died in New 
York, Feb. 2, 1901. 

EVDOKION. ABCHBISHOP (MES- 
CHEBSKY), head of the Russian Or- 
thodox Church in North America. He 
was born in the state of Vladimir, Russia, 
in 1869, and was educated in Moscow 
Theological Academy. In 1894 he be- 
came professor at the Theological Sem- 
inary of Novgorod, and in 1896 profes- 
sor and inspector of the Moscow Theo- 
logical Academy. In 1896 he became 
archimandrite, and in 1898 Master of 
Theology. He continued teaching in his 
professorial capacity for a number of 
years when in 1903 he was ordained 
bishop and appointed rector of the Mos- 
cow Theological Academy. He became 
bishop of Kashira, state of Tula, 1909, 
and in 1914 was named to his present 
position. He has written a book: ''St. 
John the Divine." 

EVE. See Adam and Eve. 

EVELETH, a city of Minnesota, in 
St. Louis CO. It is on the Duluth, Mis- 
sabe, and Northern, and the Duluth and 
Iron Range railroads. It is the center 
of an important iron-mining region and 
has also industries of lumbering and 
dairying. There is a public library, 
parks, and other important public build- 
ings. Pop. (1910) 7,036; (1920) 7,025. 

EVELYN. JOHN, an English writer; 
born in Wotton, Surrey, Oct. 31, 1620. 
After completing his course at Oxford, 
he studied law at the Middle Temple. In 
1659 he took the royal side in the civil 
war. He published works, including 



EVENING SCHOOLS 

"Sculptura, or the History and Art of 
Chalcography"; "Sylva, or a Discourse 
of Forest Trees"; treatises on gardening, 
architecture, etc. But his most impor- 
tant work is his memoirs, which are 
interesting contributions to the history 
of the time. He died in Wotton, Feb. 27, 
1706. 

EVENING SCHOOLS, schools which 
endeavor to educate those who for vari- 
ous reasons cannot attend schools con- 
ducted in the daytime. For the most 
pai-t they are attended by people who 
earn their livelihood by v/orking through 
the day and who desire to better their 
positions. They provide instruction in 
the primary grades, in vocational train- 
ing, and in the liberal arts. Those who 
desire the primary work are chiefly older 
children and adults who have grown up 
illiterate. The largest number of stu- 
dents attending evening schools in the 
United States are those who wish to 
place themselves above the position of 
unskilled laborers by learning a trade. 
The introduction of courses in liberal 
education is comparatively an innova- 
tion. In 1834 New York City estab- 
lished the first evening school and for 
a time it prospered, but as only primary 
instruction was given the number of 
students remained between ten and 
twenty thousand. When, however, even- 
ing high schools giving instruction in 
commercial and technical work were 
opened, the number of students greatly 
increased. The Cooper Union of New 
York, a private institution, is one of the 
most famous of those offering secondary 
and vocational education by evening high 
schools. Massachusetts now leads the 
States in the Union in the number of 
evening schools and in average attend- 
ance of students. Of the 204 cities which 
in 1913 had evening schools, 41 were 
located in Massachusetts cities. This 
has largely been the result of a law 
passed by the State in 1911, which made 
provision for the extension of the work 
in night schools as a part of the move- 
ment for vocational education. Many 
private institutions similar to the Cooper 
Union in New York have opened night 
schools. The Maryland Institute of Bal- 
timore and the larger branches of the 
Young Men's Christian Association are 
conspicuous in the efforts to provide 
education for those who must earn their 
living by day labor. 

In Germany the evening schools were 
started as early as the 18th century, 
but not until 1844 did they receive state 
or municipal aid. By 1914 Germany had 
established the most complete and effec- 
tive system of evening schools, and at- 
tendance on them was made compulsory 
for certain classes of ceoole. As a re- 



EVENING- STAB 



68 



EVIDENCE 



suit nearly 600,000 Germans attended 
night school during 1914. The number 
attending in the United States did not 
exceed 150,000. England surpassed even 
this record in evening school attendance, 
nearly 700,000 being given instmiction 
in 1914. The courses in England are 
more varied than elsewhere, and in most, 
cases lead to degrees, a most unusual 
affair in the States. The municipal gov- 
ernments have made the evening schools 
centers of the social activities of the 
young people of the city, and much at- 
tention is paid to physical education. 

EVENING STAR, the name given to 
any one of the planets that may be seen 
at certain seasons just above the horizon 
early in the evening; especially applied 
to the planet Venus on account of its 
brightness and beauty. Mars, Jupiter, 
and Saturn are the other evening stars. 

EVEREST, MOUNT, the highest 
known mountain in the world, situated 
in the Himalayas, in Nepal. It is 29,140 
feet high, and was named in honor of 
Sir George Everest, a noted English sur- 
veyor and civil engineer. 

EVERETT, a city in Middlesex co., 
Mass., on the Boston and Maine railroad ; 
three miles N. of Boston. It was part 
of Maiden until 1870 and was incorpo- 
rated as a city in 1893. It has electric 
railway connections with Boston and 
neighboring cities, and iron, steel, and 
woolen mills, and varnish and chemical 
works. It contains several public schools, 
high school, Whidden Hospital, Shute 
and Parlin Libraries, the Home School, 
weekly newspapers, savings banks, etc. 
Pop. (1910) 33,484; (1920) 40,120. 

EVERETT, a city of Washington, the 
county-seat of Snohomish co. It is a 
port of entry and is at the mouth of the 
Snohomish river, on Puget Sound, and 
on the Great Northern, the Northern 
Pacific, and the Chicago, Milwaukee, and 
St. Paul railroads. It is also on several 
lines 01 freight and passenger steam- 
boats. It is the center of an important 
lumbering, gardening, and mining com- 
munity. There is an excellent harbor 
with facilities for docking vessels of 
large tonnage. The city has an impor- 
tant trade in lumber. Other industries 
include ship yards, paper and flour mills, 
iron works, and chemical works. It is 
the seat of the Pacific College and has a 
public library, hospitals, and the United 
States customs and assayer's offices. 
Pop. (1910) 24,814; (1920) 27,644. 

EVERETT, CHARLES CARROLL, 
clergyman; born in Brunswick, Me., June 
19, 1829; was graduated at Bowdoin 
College; and studied at the University 
of Berlin. He returned to Bowdoin Col- 



lege, where he was tutor for two years, 
librarian for five, and Professor of Mod- 
ern Languages in 1855-1857. He was 
ordained pastor of the Independent Con- 
gregational Church in 1859; resigned in 
1869 to become Professor of Theology in 
Harvard Divinity School; and was dean 
of the school from 1879 till his death. 
Among his published works are "The 
Science of Thought" (1869) ; "Religion 
Before Christianity" (1883) ; "Ethics 
for Young People" (1891); and "The 
Gospel of Paul" (1893). He died in 
Cambridge, Mass., Oct. 17, 1900. 

EVERETT, EDWARD, an American 
statesman; born in Dorchester, Mass., 
April 11, 1794. After traveling for some 
years in Germany and England he re- 
turned to America in 1819 to occupy the 
chair of Greek Literature at Harvard. 
He became editor of the "North Amer- 
ican Review," and entering the political 
world became successively member of 
Congress, governor of Massachusetts, 
and minister plenipotentiary to England 
(1840). In 1845 he was appointed presi- 
dent of Harvard College, and in 1852 
Secretary of State. Shortly after he re- 
tired to private life. He died in Boston, 
Jan. 15, 1865. 

EVERGLADES, a low marshy tract of 
country in southern Florida, inundated 
with water and interspersed with patches 
or portions covered with high grass and 
trees. In recent years extensive drainage 
systems were established and about 1.- 
000,000 acres of land have been reclaimed 
(1920). Owing to the richness of the 
soil of this territory the land is eagerly 
sought for farming purposes and it is 
expected that in a few years the remain- 
ing 2,700,000 acres will be reclaimed for 
agriculture. 

EVERGREEN, a plant that retains 
its verdure through all the seasons, as 
the fir, the holly, the laurel, the cedar, 
the cypress, the juniper, the holm-oak, 
and many others. 

EVIDENCE, that which makes evi- 
dent, which enables the mind to see truth. 
It may be intuitive, i. e., resting on the 
direct testimony of consciousness, of per- 
ception or memory, or on fundamental 
principles of the human intellect; or 
it may be demonstrative, i. e., in a strict 
sense, proofs which establish with cer- 
tainty as in mathematical science cer- 
tain conclusions; or it may be probable, 
under which class are ranked moral evi- 
dence, legal evidence, and generally every 
kind of evidence which, though it may be 
sufficient to satisfy the mind, is not an 
absolutely certain and incontrovertible 
demonstration. 

In jurisprudence evidence is classified 



EVIDENCES OF CHRISTIANITY 69 

into that which is direct and positive, 
and that which is presumptive and cir- 
cumstantial. The former is that which is 
proved by some writing containing a 
positive statement of the facts and bind- 
ing the party whom it affects; or that 
v/hich is proved by some witness, who 
has, and avers himself to have, positive 
knowledge thereof by means of his 
senses. Whenever the fact is not so 
directly and positively established, but is 
deduced from other facts in evidence, it 
is presumptive and circumstantial only. 
The following are the leading rules re- 
garding evidence in a court of law: 

(1) The point in issue is to be proved 
by the party who asserts the affirmative. 
But where one person charges another 
with a culpable omission this rule will 
not apply, the person who makes the 
charge being bound to prove it. (2) The 
best evidence must be given of which 
the nature of the thing is capable. (3) 
Hearsay evidence of a fact is not admis- 
sible. The principal exceptions to this 
rule are: Death-bed declarations, evi- 
dence in questions of pedigree, public 
right, custom boundaries, declarations 
against interest, declarations which ac- 
company the facts or are part of the 
res gestse (things done), etc. (4) Insane 
persons and idiots are incompetent to be 
witnesses. But persons temporarily in- 
sane are in their lucid intervals received 
as witnesses. Children are admissible as 
witnesses as soon as they have a com- 
petent share of understanding and know 
and feel the nature of an oath and the 
obligation to speak the truth. 

EVIDENCES OF CHRISTIANITY 

may be divided broadly into two great 
classes, viz., external evidences, or the 
body of historical testimonies to the 
Christian revelation; and internal evi- 
dences, or arguments drawn from the 
nature of Christianity itself as exhibited 
in its teachings and effects, in favor of 
its divine origin. 

In the 16th and 17th centuries the in- 
fluences of the Renaissance and the 
Reformation gave rise to a spirit of in- 
quiry and criticism which developed 
English deism as represented by Herbei't 
and Hobbes in the 17th century, and 
Collins and Bolingbroke in the 18th. The 
general position of English deism was 
the acceptance of the belief in the exis- 
tence of God, and the profession of 
natural religion along with opposition to 
the mysteries and special claims of 
Christianity. It was in confutation of 
this position that the great English 
works on the evidences of Christianity 
of Butler, Berkeley, and Cudworth were 
written. In France the new spirit of 
inquiry was represented by Diderot, 



EVOLUTION 

D'Holbach, and the encyclopaedists, whc 
assailed Christianity mainly on the 
ground that it was founded on imposture 
and superstition, and maintained by 
sacerdotal trickery and hypocrisy. No 
reply of any great value was produced 
in the French Church, though in the pre- 
vious age Pascal in his "Thoughts" had 
brought together some of the profound- 
est considerations yet offered in favor 
of revealed religion. The 19th century 
was distinguished by the strongly ration- 
alistic spirit of its criticism. The works 
of such writers as Strauss, Bauer and 
Feuerbach, attempting to eliminate the 
supernatural and mysterious in the origin 
of Christianity, were answered by the 
works of Neander, Ebrard, and Ullmann 
on the other side. The historical method 
of investigation, represented alike by the 
Hegelian school and the Positivists in 
philosophy, and by the Evolutionists in 
science, is the basis of the chief attacks 
of the present time against the super- 
natural character of Christianity, the 
tendency of all being to hold that, while 
Christianity is the highest and most per- 
fect development to which the religious 
spirit has yet attained, it differs simply 
in degree of development from any other 
religion. Notable among later apologists 
of Christianity have been Paley (Natural 
Theology), Chalmers (Natural Theol- 
ogy), Mansel, Liddon, and others, lec- 
turers of the Bampton Foundation; in 
Germany Luthardt, Ewald, Baumstark, 
and others. 

EVOLUTION, the act of unrolling or 
unfolding. The word is used as a term in 
science and philosophy to indicate the 
development of an organism toward 
greater differentiation of organs and 
functions, and a more complex and high- 
er state of being. Some regard Herbert 
Spencer {q. v?) as the author of the 
Doctrine of Evolution, others Charles 
Darwin (q. v.) 

In astronomy, the nebular hypothesis, 
which regards the planetary bodies as 
evolved from nebular or gaseous matter, 
is an example of evolution; in geology 
the old view, which considered the ani- 
mal and vegetable life of each geological 
period as a new and separate organic 
creation, has given place to the evolu- 
tionary theory of a process of develop- 
ment from earlier types to those of the 
later periods. But the evolution of the 
more complex from the simple organisms 
probably never exhibits a linear series 
of advances. Evolution is a law, the 
operation of which is traceable through- 
out every department of nature; it is 
equally well illustrated from the history 
of philosophy or the arts, or from the 
historical development of society. Evola- 



EVOLUTION" 

tion has been most discussed (in connec- 
tion with the evolutionary theory of the 
Origin of Species), as it affirms that all 
forms of life in both the animal and 
vegetable kingdoms have been developed 
by modifications of parts from one low- 
form of life consisting of a minute cell. 
The steps by which this process has 
been accomplished, and the causes that 
have been mainly at work in it, form 
a department of research to which many 
notable scientists — Lamarck, St. Hilaire, 
Goethe, Schelling, Haeckel, Spencer, Dar- 
win, Wallace, and others have contrib- 
uted. John Fiske, in his doctrine of 
evolution, brings out vividly before us 
the ever-present God, destroying the con- 
ception of the world as a mere cosmic 
machine. 

The origin of all mammals from one 
common parent form upward to man is 
an established fact. Man's evolution can 
be traced upward from a fish in 12 steps 
or stages. This fish ancestor of ours be- 
longed to the order of the Selachii, the 
best existing species of which is the 
shark. In another direction this primitive 
fish gave rise to the higher forms of 
vertebrate amphibious animals leading 
up to man. The next higher class of 
vertebrates, leading toward man, are the 
batrachians or amphibians. The axolotl 
of Mexico, a fish-like animal with a long 
tail, belongs to this class. It has both 
gills and lungs, and can either respire 
water through the gills or air through 
the lungs. Similar are the numerous 
kinds of salamanders. An experiment 
was made of keeping the axolotl perma- 
nently out of the water. It lost its gills 
and became permanently mature and ac- 
customed to its environment. Resembling 
these are the various kinds of toads and 
frogs, after which animals come the pro- 
tanmians (lizard-like reptiles). These, 
losing their gills and breathing only 
through lungs, were a step farther re- 
moved from fishes. In the formation of 
the group of Stegocephala, from which 
man descended, a distinct advance occurs. 
I partition wall forms within the simple 
ventricle of the heart, dividing it into 
right and left ventricles. Progress is also 
noticed in the development of the brain, 
the skeleton, and the muscular system. 
The period at which the important ad- 
vances occurred which laid the founda- 
tions for the mammal class, to which 
man belongs, was probably the Triassic. 
Out of that epoch came the monotremate 
mammal, of which the modern duck-bill 
or Platypus of Australia is a remnant. 
The next step higher in development was 
that of the marsupials, or animals whose 
females carry their young in pouches. 
From a branch of such pouched animals, 
the parent form of the higher or Pla- 



70 EWELL 

cental mammals, of which man is an 
extremely specialized type, afterward 
sprang. Hence we reckon a whole series 
of pouched animals among the ancestors 
of the human race. The Placental mam- 
mals mark another distinct advance in 
evolution. To this group belong the 
carnivora, of which the lion, the tiger, 
the dog family and the bear family, are 
members. A special stage is that of the 
semi-apes, and probably our ancestor 
among the semi-apes resembled the exist- 
ing lemurs, and like these, led a quiet life 
climbing trees. Immediately following 
are the true apes. Beyond a doubt, of 
all animals, the apes are the most nearly 
allied to man. A thousand million of 
years may have been consumed in this 
evolution of man. 

EVOBA, a city of Portugal, capital of 
the province of Alemtejo, 75 miles E. by 
S. of Lisbon. It is the center of a con- 
siderable steel, cotton, and woolen indus- 
try, but is most famous for its archaeo- 
logical museum, one of the best in the 
country. It contains a church library 
with 25,000 volumes. Pop. about 18,000. 

EVBEUX, a city of France, capital of 
the department of Eure, in Normandy, 
situated on the Iton, 67 miles W. N. W. 
from Paris. A considerable industry in 
linens, shoes, and gasoline engines is 
carried on, while the town is the center 
of an important grain trade. It was 
the center of heavy fighting during the 
World War, especially during the in- 
tensive operations incidental to the great 
Allied offensive, known as the Battle of 
Normandy. 

EWALD, GEORG HEINRICH AIT- 
GUST VON (aValt) , a German Orienta- 
list and Biblical critic; born in Gottin- 
gen, Nov. 16, 1803. After studying at 
the university there, in 1827 he became 
extraordinary, in 1831 ordinary Profes- 
sor of Theology, and in 1835 Professor 
of Oriental Languages. In 1837 he lost 
his chair at Gottingen on account of his 
protest against the king's abrogation 
of the liberal constitution, became Pro- 
fessor of Theology at Tubingen, but in 
1848 returned to his old chair at Gottin- 
gen. When Hanover was annexed by 
Prussia in 1866 he became a zealous 
defender of the rights of the ex-king. 
Among his chief works are the follow- 
ing: "Complete Course of the Hebrew 
Language"; "The Poetical Books of the 
Old Testament"; "History of the People 
of Israel"; "Antiquities of the People 
of Israel." The history is considered his 
greatest work. He died in Gottingen, 
May 5, 1875. 

EWELL, RICHARD STODDERT, 
military officer; born in Georgetown, D. 



EWING 

C, Feb. 8, 1817; was graduated at the 
United States Military Academy in 
1840; served in the cavalry on the fron- 
tier, and during the Mexican War with 
Scott from Vera Cruz to the City of 
Mexico; and was promoted captain for 
gallantry and meritorious conduct at 
Contreras and Churubusco. At the out- 
break of the Civil War he resigned his 
commission in the National army; joined 
the Confederates; and Avas actively en- 
gaged throughout the war. Pie took 
part in the Maryland campaign and in 
the battles of Bull Run, Gettysburg, and 
the Wilderness, and attained the rank of 
Lieutenant-General. After the war he 
retired to private life. He died in 
Springfield, Tenn., Jan. 25, 1872. 

EWING, JULIANA HORATIA 
GATTY, an English story-writer and 
poet; born in Ecclesfield, Yorkshire, in 
1841. Her stories for children became 
very popular and included "Daddy Dar- 
win's Dovecote"; "Dandelion Clocks and 
Other Tales"; "A Flat-iron for a Far- 
thing"; "A Great Emergency and Other 
Tales"; and "Jackanapes." She died in 
Bath, England, May 13, 1885. 

EWING, THOMAS, an American 
statesman; born near West Liberty, Va., 
Dec. 28, 1789 ; was graduated at the Ohio 
University in Athens in 1815; admitted 
to the bar in 1816; and practiced law 
for 15 years. He was a United States 
Senator from Ohio in 1831-1837 and 
1850-1851; Secretary of the Treasury 
under President Harrison in 1841; and 
Secretary of the Interior under Presi- 
dent Taylor in 1849. In the United 
States Supreme Court he ranked among 
the foremost lawyers of the nation. He 
died in Lancaster, O., Oct. 26, 1871. 

EXCAVATOR, an apparatus used in 
making docks, railway cuttings, canals, 
etc. Excavators are made of two kinds, 
each adapted for different kinds of work, 
though in some cases they work to- 
gether very effectively. In making a 
long "gullet" or cutting, the first to come 
into operation has the appearance and 
all the functions of the ordinary steam- 
crane, such as is used for loading rail- 
way trucks, with the exception that it 
is mounted on wheels to move on rails, 
and that, instead of the hook on the end 
©f the chain, there is a large and strong 
iplate-iron bucket or "scoop," with a very 
heavy handle or lever to which a second 
chain is fastened. The lever is heavy 
enough to counterbalance the scoop when 
filled with clay. The machine begins by 
lowering the scoop, and the two chains 
are made to push it into the bank until 
it is full. The suspension chain then 
lifts the scoop over the wagon, while the 



71 EXCHANGE 

chain on the handle lifting it up empties 
it. The machine now swings round on 
its center to renew the operation. The 
largest size can excavate two cubic 
yards per minute. As the excavator ad- 
vances over its rails, those behind are 
brought to the front. The cutting is 
made as wide as the arm or *'jib" will 
reach on both sides of it, which leaves 
sufficient room for the men to work 
round it freely, and for wagons to pass. 

When the cutting has been made the 
requisite distance forward, the second 
class of excavator is brought forward 
to make the cutting wider. The original 
conception of this is clearly derived from 
the dredging machine, which has long 
been in u.se in deepening harbors and the 
mouths of rivers. Its sides are made 
sloping to an angle of 45°, and on the 
top of the bank a temporary line of rails 
is laid a few feet from the edge. The 
machine is placed on the rails at the 
end of the cutting; the jib is lowered 
until the row of buckets it carries can 
cut into the clay; these scrape up the 
bank, reaching the top of it full of soil; 
they next pass over the machine, and 
are emptied into the wagons beyond it. 
The excavator and wagons move for- 
ward simultaneously, the latter receiv- 
ing, in the case of some excavators, a 
continuous stream of clay equal to about 
four cubic yards or two wagon loads 
per minute. 

All the movements of excavators are 
effected by the power of the engine, and 
two men manage each machine. 

EXCHANGE, the act of exchanging, 
or giving one thing for another; or that 
which is so given. In commerce, a place 
where merchants, brokers, etc., meet to 
transact business; generally contracted 
into 'Change. The institution of ex- 
changes dates from the 16th century. 
They originated in the important trading 
cities of Italy, Germany, and the Nether- 
lands, from which last-named country 
they were introduced into England. In 
some exchanges only a special class of 
business is transacted. Thus there ai-e 
stock exchanges, corn exchanges, coal 
exchanges, cotton exchanges, etc. For 
bill of exchange, see Bill. 

Course of exchanpre, the current price 
of a bill of exchange at any one place 
as compared with what it is at another. 
If for $500 at one place exactly $500 
at the other must be paid, then the 
course of exchange between the two 
places is at par; if more must be paid 
at the second place, then it is above par 
at the other ; if less, it is below it. Arbi- 
tration of exchange, the operation of 
converting the currency of any country 
into that of a second one by means of 



EXCHEQUER 



72 



EXCRETION 



other currencies intervening between the 
two. In arithmetic, a rule for ascertain- 
ing how much of the money of one coun- 
try is equivalent in value to a given 
amount of that of another. In law, a 
mutual grant of equal interests, in con- 
sideration the one for the other. 

Theory of exchange, a hypothesis with 
regard to radiant heat, devised by Pre- 
vost of Geneva, and since generally ac- 
cepted. All bodies radiate heat. If two 
of different temperatures be placed near 
each other, each will radiate heat to the 
other, but the one higher in temperature 
will receive less than it emits. Finally, 
both will be of the same temperature, 
each receiving from the other precisely 
as much heat as it sends it in return. 
This scale is called the mobile equilibrium 
of temperature. 

EXCHEQUER, in Great Britain, the 
department which deals with the moneys 
received and paid on behalf of the public 
services of the country. The public rev- 
enues are paid into the Bank of England 
(or of Ireland) to account of the ex- 
chequer, and these receipts as well as 
the necessary payments for the public 
service are under the supervision of an 
important official called the controller 
and auditor-general, the payments being 
granted by him on receipt of the proper 
orders proceeding through the treasury. 
The public accounts are also audited in 
his department. 

EXCOMMUNICATIOlsr, a word de- 
noting exclusion, whether temporary or 
permanent, from fellowship in religious 
rites, involving also, where participation 
in such rites is required in the civil order, 
privation of the rights of citizenship. It 
is not peculiar to the Biblical religions, 
but is found in most of the sytematized 
cults, whatever their origin. The clear- 
est analogy, however, to the Christian 
discipline of excommunication is that 
furnished by the Rabbinical code. The 
offender first received a public admoni- 
tion, and seven days later, if he did not 
make satisfaction, the lesser excommuni- 
cation, Niddui, was pronounced against 
him, whereby he was isolated during 30 
days from contact with all save his wife 
and children, being obliged to keep at 
least four cubits' distance from all 
others; and though the sentence did not 
technically include expulsion from the 
synagogue, yet this provision practically 
enforced it. At the expiration of 30 days, 
a second term of like duration was en- 
joined in case of continued impenitence; 
and the contumacious were then visited 
with the greater excommunication of 
Cherem, which excluded both from the 
synagogue and from all social intercourse, 



and the offender was treated as a leper. 
These two grades of excommunication 
were the only ones anciently in use; but 
the later rabbins added a third and se- 
verer one, styled Shammatha or Anathe- 
ma Maranatha, which was lifelong, at- 
tended with solemn imprecations, and 
sometimes entailing forfeiture of goods. 

The Christian system of excommuni- 
cation is based doctrinally on the precept 
of Christ (Matt, xviii: 15-18) and on 
the precepts and practice of St. Paul. It 
was primarily, as the word denotes, ex- 
clusion from communion in the eucharist 
and the agape, or love-feast, including 
also suspension from office in the case of 
clerical offenders; and it was distin- 
guished as major and minor, each having 
various degrees of severity. 

The most notable exercise of the power 
of excommunication in the modern Angli- 
can Church was when Bishop Gray, as 
Metropolitan of Cape Town, deprived 
and excommunicated Bishop Colenso of 
Natal in 1863, which sentence, approved 
by the Convocations of Canterbury and 
York, the General Convention of the 
American Episcopal Church, the Epis- 
copal Synod of Scotland, and the Pro- 
vincial Council of Canada, was reversed 
by the Judicial Committee of Privy- 
Council in 1865. 

In the Established and other Presby- 
terian Churches of Scotland, the lesser 
excommunication, involving deprivation 
of all "sealing ordinances," can be pro- 
nounced by the kirk session. 

Islam forms an exception to the almost 
universal incidence of the practice of 
excommunication. Under the Moslem 
code every religious offense carries with 
it a temporal penalty, such as fines, 
scourging, stoning, or other mode of 
death, and only in this last manner can 
an offender be cut off from the congrega- 
tion. 

EXCRETION, the process in animal 
and plant physiology which separates 
from the essential substance or animal 
body waste matter of no further use in 
nutrition. The organs so employed par- 
take of the characters of strainers, 
which retain substances soluble in the 
blood necessary to health and extrude 
the harmful. The primary excretory 
organs in vertebrates are the kidneys. 
The function of these is to separate 
from the blood the waste materials pro- 
duced by the decomposition of nitrog- 
enous substances and expel them from 
the body. The lungs and the skin likewise 
perform some of the duties of excretory 
organs. In its simplest form the excre- 
tory organ is found in the Protozoa, in 
which the contractile vacuole by means 



EXECUTION 



78 



EXETEB COLLEOE 



of delicate infusoria drains the waste 
material and then discharges the 
contents. 

EXECUTION, the carrying out of a 
death sentence by court order. Such 
cruel methods, as burning at the stake, 
starving, drowning, poisoning, bleeding 
to death, breaking on the wheel, etc., are 
no longer employed as modes of punish- 
ment in the progessive countries. In 
Belgium, Holland, Norway, Portugal 
Rumania, Finland, Argentine, Brazil, 
Venezuela, Guatemala, and Ecuador life 
imprisonment is the heaviest punish- 
ment inflicted and no person is ever put to 
death. In England and Spain, hanging is 
the common form of execution. In France, 
a death sentence is usually carried out by 
the use of the guillotine for decapitation. 
In Italy the death penalty is not inflicted 
in any case. In modern times the tend- 
ency has been toward the employment 
©f the least cruel methods of execution. 

Capital punishment is retained in 36 
States of our Union. The usual method 
©f execution is either by hanging or 
electrocution. The Federal Government 
may punish high treason by death pen- 
alty. In most States death penalty is 
inflicted only for murder, in some others 
also for arson and rape. Ai'izona, Kan- 
sas, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Mis- 
sissippi, North Dakota, South Dakota. 
Oregon, Rhode Island, Washington, and 
Wisconsin do not inflict any death penalty. 

EXECUTION, MILITARY, a techni- 
cal term, signifying the carrying out of 
the decision of any military court, not 
necessarily a death sentence. Military 
laws and their execution, or administra- 
tion, are quite separate and distinct from 
the civil laws of the same territory, the 
former having as their special object the 
maintenance of military organization 
and discipline. The offenses covered are, 
therefore, of a peculiar nature, such as 
desertion, absence without leave, disobe- 
dience, or refusal to obey orders, neglect 
of duty, and, among oflficers, "conduct 
unbecoming that of a ^ntleman." Those 
subject to the jurisdiction of military law 
are, first of all, officers and soldiers on 
the active list, in the pay of the Govern- 
ment, whether of the regular army or the 
militia; retired officers and soldiers; dis- 
charged officers or soldiers who have de- 
frauded the Government; and general 
prisoners. In time of war certain ci- 
vilians may be included, such as those 
suspected of being spies in the pay of the 
enemy, and camp followers. Punish- 
ments range from imprisonment, dishon- 
orable dismissal or discharge, to death. 
Before the decree of a military court 
may be executed it must first be what is 
termed confirmed. In the British army 



this confirmation is done by a special 
officer representing the King, but in the 
United States army the highest com- 
manding officer of the department is com- 
petent to confirm a sentence in ordinary 
cases. Where a court sentences an offi- 
cer to dismissal from the service, hov/- 
ever, the confirmation must be signed by 
the President of the United States him- 
self, and this rule applies also to death 
sentences, except in very special cases. 

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, that 
branch of government whose duty it is 
to enforce or execute the law. According 
to the accepted canon of political science, 
there are three departments of govern- 
ment : the legislative or law-making body, 
the judicial branch, which interprets the 
law, and the executive. In the Federal 
Government of the United States the 
President is the chief executive, assisted 
by the various heads of departments. In 
the State governments the governor 
heads the executive department. The 
heads of the executive departments, that 
is, the secretaries of State, War, Navy, 
Treasury, Interior, Commerce, Agricul- 
ture, and Labor, with the Attorney-Gen- 
eral and Postmaster-General, constitute 
the President's advisers or Cabinet. This 
was not provided for in the Constitution, 
which vests the entire executive power in 
the President's hands, but the Cabinet 
has grown up as a matter of necessity. 

EXETER, a city, river-port, and par- 
liamentary and municipal borough of 
England, in the county of Devon, on the 
left bank of the Exe, 10 miles N. W. from 
its outlet in the English Channel. It is 
pleasantly situated on the summit and 
slopes of an acclivity rising from the 
river, and has handsome squares, ter- 
races, and streets. Among the objects of 
interest are the cathedral (founded 
1112), the remains of the castle of 
Rougemont, the Guildhall, the Albert 
Memorial Museum, St. Michael's Church, 
etc. Exeter has iron foundries, manu- 
factories of agricultural implements, 
paper mills, etc., and Honiton lace is also 
made. By means of a canal vessels of 
300 tons can reach the city. The largest 
vessels remain at Exmouth. Exeter is a 
place of remote antiquity, having been a 
British settlement long prior to the in- 
vasion of the Romans. Pop. about 50,000. 

EXETER COLLEGE, one of the col- 
leges at Oxford University, England. 
Founded by Stapeldon, Bishop of Exeter^ 
in 1314. It consists of a rector, 12 fel- 
lowships, and more than twenty scholar- 
ships. Eight of the latter, in accordance 
with the will of the founder, are reserved 
for those born or educated in the diocese 
of Exeter. The buildings have been ex- 



EXFOLIATION 



74 



EXHIBITIONS, INDUSTRIAL 



tensively restored, most of them dating" 
from the 17th and 18th centuries. The 
chapel was built in 1857-1858 by Sir Gil- 
bert Scott. A beautiful secluded garden 
adds to the attractiveness of the build- 
ings. 

EXFOLIATION, in surgery, the pro- 
cess by which a thin layer or scale of 
dead bone separates from the sound 
part. 

EXHIBITION, a benefaction settled 
for the maintenance of undergraduates 
in the universities of England, the Brit- 
ish colonies, and America. In Scotland 
such scholarships are called bursaries. 

EXHIBITIONS, INDUSTRIAL. 

Modern industrial exhibitions differ 
from the festivals and fairs of ancient 
times, of which they are a development, 
chiefly in the fact that they do not aim 
at immediate and retail sales, but rather 
for the purpose of showing the progress 
of industry and of general advertise- 
ment. The fair in its manifold aspects 
of athletic spectacle, and commercial 
and artistic concourse, is almost as old 
as civilization itself. The Olympic fes- 
tivals in Greece brought together mer- 
chants who exhibited their wares. The 
great fair of Tailtenn in Ireland was 
likewise an athletic and commercial fes- 
tival, the oldest known in northern 
Europe. Fairs of this multiple charac- 
ter were known in Egypt and Persia, 
and seem to have arisen on occasions 
that brought large numbers of people 
together, permitting merchants to make 
exhibition of their wares. Following the 
usual pathway of civilization, they 
passed from Greece to Italy and the other 
countries of Europe, and Charlem.agne 
appears to have favored the establish- 
ment of such a fair in the 9th century 
in his capital of Aix-la-Chapelle. The 
most considerable of these fairs in 
Europe are those of Leipzig in Germany 
and Nizhni Novgorod in Russia, both of 
them of respectable antiquity. On a 
smaller scale similar gatherings have 
long existed in other countries, but the 
great expansion of modern industry has 
resulted in an immense development of 
the idea, and the industrial exhibition, as 
it is conceived of to-day, greatly differs 
from its predecessors in its duration, 
magnitude, and setting. These exhibi- 
tions now often partake of a national 
character and are held in the capital or 
a chief city of the country. Napoleon 
inaugurated an exhibition in Paris in 
1802 which won so much success that 
similar exhibitions came to be held every 
three years. Similar exhibitions began 
to be held in Dublin under the auspices 
of the Royal Dublin Society, beginning 



with 1829. The idea had an early vogue 
in the United States and the American 
Institute of New York, founded in 1828, 
initiated a series of industrial exhibi- 
tions. The St. Louis Exposition, which 
was first opened in 1883, was modeled 
on the expositions which had by that date 
attained a great vogue in France. Side 
by side with the utilitarian aspect an 
artistic setting was aimed at and the 
arts as well as commerce and industry 
were sought to be represented. These 
exhibitions then came to be a feature in 
the commemoration of important events 
or to serve as a close to some large un- 
dertaking finally accomplished. Thus 
the World's Industrial Cotton Culturist 
Exposition, held in New Orlaens, La., 
1883-1884, was followed by the Califor- 
nia Mid-Winter Exposition, held in San 
Francisco in 1894. Following these 
were the Cotton States and Industrial 
Exposition, held in Atlanta, Ga., 1895; 
the Tennessee Centennial Exposition, 
held in Nashville, Tenn., 1897; the 
Trans-Mississippi Exposition, held in 
Omaha, Neb., 1898; the Pan-American 
Exposition, held in Buffalo, N. Y., in 
1901; the South Carolina Interstate and 
West Indies Exposition, held in Charles- 
ton, S. C, in 1902; the Lewis and Clark 
Centennial American Pacific Exposition 
and Oriental Fair, held in Portland, 
Ore., 1905; the Jamestown Tercentennial 
Exposition, held in Hampton Roads, Va,, 
1907; and the Alaska- Yukon Pacific Ex- 
position, held in Seattle, Wash., in 1909. 
The first exhibitions that partook on 
their scale the character of the great in- 
ternational expositions of recent years 
were the Society of Arts exhibition, held 
in London in 1851, and the Paris Inter- 
national Exposition of 1855. The Lon- 
don exhibition was visited by 6,039,195 
people; there were 13,938 exhibitors; 
and the receipts amounted to $2,444,718, 
as against $lj600,000 expenditure. The 
Paris Exposition was a much more elab- 
orate affair. It was held in the Champs 
Elysees in a vast Palais de I'Industrie, 
827 feet long by 354 feet wide, designed 
and solidly built as a home for similar 
future exhibitions. Round this perma- 
nent building were grouped other halls 
devoted to separate arts and industries. 
It was the greatest and most artistic 
exposition held up to that date in any 
country, and almost 5,000,000 people 
visited it, while the expenditure amount- 
ed to something like $5,000,000. The 
next great international exhibition held 
in London in 1862 left as a perma- 
nent memorial the great iron and glass 
building known as the Crystal Palace. 
The exhibitors numbered 28,653; the 
visitors 6,211,103; and the expenditure 
amounted to roughly $5,000,000. All 



EXHIBITIONS, rNDUSTRIAL 75 



EXODUS 



these exhibitions were again surpassed 
by that held in the Champs de Mars, 
Paris, in 1867. The site in this case oc- 
cupied 171 acres, in the center of which 
was erected a central palace, rectangu- 
lar with circular ends, 1,608 feet in 
length and 1,247 feet in width, with a 
great central dome, and provided with 
gardens and galleries. Concentric gal- 
leries housed the industries of the vari- 
ous countries, with avenues radiating 
from the central garden. Grouped 
round the central palace were nearly a 
hundred structures devoted to industries 
and arts. The exhibitors numbered 
50,226; the expenditure totaled $5,883,- 
400; the receipts approached $3,000,000 
exclusive of subsidies made by the 
city and the nation. Nearly 10,000,000 
people visited the Exposition, and these 
included visitors from every country 
on earth. During the early part 
of the second half of the 19th century 
industrial exhibitions, having an inter- 
national character, became the rule and 
these were held in many cities of Europe 
and America and other countries, includ- 
ing Constantinople, Dublin, Oporto, 
Havre, Amsterdam, Stockholm, Mel- 
bourne, Sydney, Moscow, and St. Louis. 
Under the auspices of the Austrian gov- 
ernment an important international expo- 
sition was held in Vienna in 1873, the vis- 
itors to which numbered 7,254,687. The 
first Centennial anniversary of the Dec- 
laration of Independence was commemo- 
rated by the International Centennial 
Exhibition in Philadelphia in 1876. The 
fourth centennial anniversary of the dis- 
covery of Ainerica was signalized by the 
World's Fair in Chicago in 1893, and 
this was followed by the California Mid- 
Winter Exhibition held in 1894 at San 
Francisco. The Paris Exposition of 
1900 touched the high-water mark. The 
site took in an area of 336 acres in the 
heart of Paris on both banks of the 
Seine. The erection of the various build- 
ings cost $27,000,000, and several of 
them were of a permanent character and 
of great beauty. The exhibition lasted 
from April 14 to Nov. 11, and was 
visited by over 50,000,000 people, of 
whom in one day, Sept. 6, 600,528 are 
estimated to have passed through the 
gates. There were 79,712 exhibitors, 
31,946 of them French. Edifices were 
erected by various nations, and the 
whole represented a wonderful assem- 
blage of the products of the various in- 
dustries and arts throughout the world. 
In 1915 an international exhibition was 
held in San Francisco, Cal., to celebrate 
the opening of the Panama Canal. On 
the day the exhibition was opened its cost 
is said to have totaled over $50,000,000. 
The exhibition covered a site of 635 



acres, and the construction tocJc nearly 
four years, beginning in October, 1911. 
There were eight large central palaces, 
while avenues and courts divided build- 
ings of lesser dimensions from each 
other. Thirty-six foreign nations took 
part and some of them erected pavilions. 
The international industrial exhibition 
has thus come to play a great part in 
the life and business of the modern 
world, and is showing itself capable of 
continual development, so that wonder- 
ful as these exhibitions have been in the 
past, it is evident that they are going to 
assume still more striking forms in the 
future. 

EXMOUTH, a seaport and market- 
town of Devonshire, England. It is an 
attractive summer resort and has a good 
beach and handsome promenades. Its 
elevation is high and it is noted for its 
mild climate. The chief industries are 
lace-making and fishing. Pop. about 
15,000. 

EXMOUTH, EDWARD PELLEW, 
VISCOUNT, a British naval officer; born 
in 1757. He went to sea at the age of 
13, seized as midshipman in the 
"Blonde" frigate during the American 
war, and greatly distinguished himself 
at Lake Champlam. In 1782 he was made 
a post-captain for a brilliant action in 
the "Pelican," and on the outbreak of 
the war of 1793 was appointed to the 
command of the frigate "La Nymphe." 
From this time till the peace in 1802 he 
was employed in active service. In 1804, 
on the resumption of hostilities, he com- 
manded the East India station, in the 
"Culloden," till 1809, when he had at- 
tained the rank of vice-admiral. In 1814 
he was made Baron Exmouth with a 
pension of £2,000 per annum. In 1816 
he proceeded to Algiers in command of 
the combined fleet of 25 English and 
Dutch ships to enforce the terms of a 
treaty regarding the abolition of Chris- 
tian slavery which the dey had violated. 
He bombarded the city and inflicted such 
immense damage that the dey consented 
to every demand. Three thousand 
Christian slaves were by this exploit re- 
stored to liberty. Lord Exmouth was 
raised to the dignity of a viscount for 
this service. In 1821 he retired to pri- 
vate life, and he died Jan. 23, 1833. 

EXODUS, the name given in the 
Septuagint to the second book of the 
Pentateuch, because it describes the de- 
parture of the Israelites from Egypt. 
The content? of the book are partly his- 
torical, describing the departure of the 
Israelites from Egypt, and partly legis- 
lative, describing the promulgation of 
the Sinaitic law. 



EXOPHTHALMIC GOITER 



76 



EXPLOSIVES 



EXOPHTHALMIC GOITER, enlarge- 
ment with turgescence of the thyroid 
gland, accompanied by protrusion of the 
eyeballs, breathlessness, palpitation, and 
anaemia. Also called Basedow's or 
Graves' disease. 

EXPANSION, in physics, is the en- 
largement or increase in the bulk of 
bodies, in consequence of a change in 
their temperature. This is one of the 
most general effects of heat, being com- 
mon to all bodies whatever, whether solid 
or fluid. The expansion of fluids varies 
, considerably, but, in general, the denser 
the fluid, the less the expansion; and, 
commonly, the greater the heat, the 
greater the expansion; but this is not 
universal, for there are cases in which 
expansion is produced, not by an in- 
crease, but by a diminution of tempera- 
ture. Water, in cooling, ceases to con- 
tract at 42° F. ; and at about 39", just 
before it reaches the freezing point 
(32°), it begins to expand again, and 
more and more rapidly as the freezing 
point is reached. This expansion is 
about one-eleventh of its hulk, and ac- 
counts for the bursting of pipes, etc., 
when water is freezing in them. 

EXPATRIATION, the act or state of 
banishment from one's native country; 
also the voluntary renunciation of the 
rights and liabilities of citizenship in one 
country to become the citizen or subject 
of another. In the early part of the 19th 
century, the United States was almost 
the only nation that claimed for indi- 
viduals the right of expatriation with- 
out the consent of the government of 
which they were citizens or subjects. 
The European nations, as a rule, main- 
tained that the permission of the sover- 
eign was necessary; and the enforcement 
by England of this claim was one of the 
causes of the War of 1812. It must be 
said, however, that notwithstanding the 
position of the United States in regard 
to citizens or subjects of foreign powers, 
the right of voluntary renunciation of 
allegiance to the United States by one 
of our citizens was unsettled, so far as 
legislation was concerned, till the act 
of Congress of July 27, 1868, asserted 
that expatriation "is a natural and in- 
herent right of all people," but the ac- 
tion of the Department of State had 
previously seemed practically to admit 
the right. As far as foreign States are 
concerned, however, the United States 
has steadily maintained its original posi- 
tion. The first formal recognition of its 
claims was secured in an expatriation 
treaty with the North German Confed- 
eration, signed Feb. 22, 1868. England 
first recognized the right of voluntary 
expatriation by act of Parliament in 



1870, and immediately concluded an ex- 
patriation treaty with the United States. 
All the leading nations of Europe now 
recognize the right, including besides 
those just mentioned, France, Austria, 
Russia, Italy, and Spain. 

EXPECTORANTS, in pharmacy, med- 
icines which favor the discharge of mu- 
cus from the windpipe and air-passage3 
of the lungs, 

EXPLOSIVES are substances which, 
by sudden decomposition or chemical ac- 
tion, produce large volumes of heated 
gas. The decomposition can be brought 
about by heat, by a blow or by other 
means. All explosives in actual use are 
those in which the chemical action is one 
of oxidation, the oxygen being supplied 
either by a nitrate or chlorate, nitric 
acid or an NO2 group. The ease with 
which an explosion can be brought about 
depends very largely on the physical 
condition of the explosive. For instance, 
gunpowder varies widely in its effects, 
according to the size of the particles 
composing the mixture. While the force 
of all explosives is increased by inclos- 
ing them in a small space, confinement 
is not necessary in the ease qf_ those 
compounds in which decomposition is 
very rapid, as, for instance, mercury 
fulminate. 



JDftMPIN 




(CA(?-n?!P6e I 



M///}//>//A 



EXPLOSIVES 

A. Blasting charge 

B. Cross section of primer 

In an article of this length it wouW 
be impossible to deal, even briefly, with 
all substances of an explosive nature, but 
as far as possible, representative types 
of all the well-known groups will be 
described. 

1. Explosive mixtures, as distinct 
from explosive compounds, consist of two 
or more substances, at least one of 
which is a combustible, and at least one 



EXPLOSIVES 



77 



EXPLOSIVES 



of which is a supporter of combustion. 
The ingredients of these mixtures are 
frequently not themselves explosives, but 
may be ordinary combustibles such as 
carbon, or sulphur, and stable salts such 
as chlorate or nitrate of potash. In the 
explosive powder, however, these other- 
wise harmless substances are incorpo- 
rated so thoroughly, and are in such a 
fine state of division, that combustion 
can be induced almost instantaneously 
throughout the mass, with a consequent 
rapid evolution of hot gases, thus pro- 
ducing the phenomenon known as an ex- 
plosion. The best known member of this 
class is gunpowder, now almost obsolete 

TANKS 



at all or only a very small percentage. 
As substitutes for saltpeter, nitrates of 
sodium, barium, and ammonia have been 
employed, the latter extensively in the 
manufacture of "safety explosives" for 
use in mines. 

Ammottal consists of a mixture of 
ammonium nitrate, aluminum and char- 
coal. Mixtures containing chlorates and 
perchlorates in place of nitrates have 
been manufactured and used to a con- 
siderable extent, but, owing to their un- 
stable character, have never very largely 
replaced the nitrate mixtures. 

2. Explosive compounds are those sub- 
stances which are of such a nature as to 



NITI?ATlON 
HOUSE 




EXPLOSIVES — DIAGRAM OF GUN-COTTON FACTORY 
Key : 

A. Sulphuric acid E. Mixed acids I. Endless belts 

B. Sulphuric acid P. Oleum J. Steam trays 

C. Nitric acid G. Water K. Nitration pans 

D. Strong waste acid H. Teasing machine L. Beater 

M. Sand trays N. Poacher 



for military purposes, but still largely 
used for sporting purposes, in mining, 
for fuses and for minor military pur- 
poses. It consists of a mixture of 
nitrate of potash (saltpeter), sulphur, 
and charcoal, the proportions varying 
somewhat, but being approximately 
fifteen parts of potassium nitrate to two 
parts of sulphur and three parts of char- 
coal. Great care is taken in selecting 
the sulphur, while the charcoal is pre- 
pared in special retorts, and the process 
of manufacture is one requiring much 
skilled supervision. Many modifications 
of gunpowder have been made from 
time to time. In place of charcoal, such 
materials as coal, coke, peat, sawdust, 
bran, sugar, starch and many others 
have been used, while powders have been 
produced containing either no sulphur 
Vol. IV — Cyc — P 



be themselves explosive. Instead of a 
chemical reaction taking place between 
two separate substances, the reaction oc- 
curs within the molecule of a single sub- 
stance. As a consequence explosive com- 
pounds are more powerful in their action 
than mixtures, and modem explosives 
used in warfare all belong to this class. 
For the most part they are produced by 
the nitration of organic compounds and 
the best known and most widely used is 
trivHrotoluenc , commonly called T.N.T. 
This is manufactured by the nitration 
of toluene in successive stages, mono- 
nitrotoluene being first produced, then 
dinitrotoluene, and finally, trinitro- 
toluene. It occurs as yellow crystals, 
which darken on exposure to light, but 
is frequently used as a fused mass. 
When held in a flame, it does not explode, 



EXPLOSIVES 



78 



EXPRESS 



but burns with a smoky flame. It can, 
however, be detonated by means of ful- 
minate of mercury. It is safe to handle 
and remarkably stable, and while slight- 
ly less powerful than picric acid it has 
the advantage that it does not attack 
metals or form unstable compounds with 
them. 

Picric acid, or trinitrophenol, occurs 
as bright yellow crystals, but is usually 
fused when used as an explosive (v. 
Lyddite). Picric acid does not explode 
easily by direct percussion, but it can 
be readily detonated by mercury ful- 
minate. 

Nitroglycerin is prepared by nitrating 
glycerine in the presence of sulphuric 
acid. It is a heavy, oily liquid, having a 
specific gravity of 1.60. Owing to the 



Smokeless powders are mixtures of 
nitrocellulose or nitrocellulose nitro- 
glycerin, with other ingredients added as 
stabilizers, "deadeners," or "coolers." 
The explosive is dissolved (usually in 
acetone or a mixture of ether and al- 
cohol), the mixture is rolled into sheets, 
the solvent evaporated, and the powders 
finally dried at a temperature of about 
40° C. Cordite belongs to this class, and 
consists of a mixture of nitroglycerin 
and guncotton, with a small amount of 
vaseline, gelatinized by means of ace- 
tone, and dried. 

Percussion caps are filled with explos- 
ive compositions, of which the chief con- 
stituent is mercury fulminate (Hg 
(CN0)2). When used alone, however, 
this substance is too rapid in its action 




WAsrt 

ACIO 

E6G 



/wash \ /wash \ 

FlLTEl^ FILTEI? 




EXPLOSIVES — DIAGRAM OP MANUFACTURE OF TRINITROTOLUENE (T.N.T.) 



great danger of premature explosion 
during transportation, nitroglycerin is 
no longer used as such. It forms, how- 
ever, an important constituent of d/yyui- 
mite, which consists of nitroglycerin, 
absorbed on a base, which may be inert, 
combustible or explosive. The absorb- 
ents chiefly used are kieselguhr, mag- 
nesia, charcoal, and wood pulp. Ex- 
plosive bases are usually nitrates of 
potassium, sodium, or ammonium or or- 
ganic nitro derivatives. 

Guncotton, or trinitrocellulose, is 
manufactured by nitrating cotton with a 
mixture of nitric and sulphuric acids. 
It is a grayish-white solid, odorless and 
tasteless, and, when properly prepared, 
is a safe and permanent explosive. 



and it is, therefore, mixed with such 
materials as potassium chlorate, sul- 
phur, antimony sulphide, and powdered 
glass. 

Other explosive compounds have been 
prepared by nitrating starch, sugar, dex- 
trin, gelatin, resin, and even coal, but 
these are of minor importance. 

EXPRESS, in the United States, a 
system organized for the speedy trans- 
mission of parcels or merchandise of any 
kind, and their safe delivery in good con- 
dition. It originated in the trip made 
from Boston to New York by William 
Frederick Harnden (1813-1845), the first 
"express-package carrier," March 4, 1839. 
The project recommending itself to busi- 



EXPRESSED OILS 79 

ness men, competing companies sprang 
up rapidly, and express lines were estab- 
lished in all directions. Adams & Co.'s 
California express was started in 1849; 
Wells, Fargo & Co.'s in 1852; the Amer- 
ican-European Co. was created in 1855. 
As railways extended, the early "pony 
express" disappeared, and individual 
companies now have contracts with the 
several railway companies, their business 
over these routes being held to be en- 
titled to protection of the courts 
against any efforts to dispossess them. 
Express companies developed greatly 
in the 19th and 20th centuries. From 



EXTERRITORIALITY 

them from mineral and essential oils, 
which last are, for the most part, ob- 
tained by distillation. 



EXTENSION, UNIVERSITY. See 

University Extension. 

EXTERRITORIALITY, a term used 
in international law for those privileges 
granted to foreigners by states exempt- 
ing them from being subject to the laws 
of that state while they are within its 
boundaries. There are three recognized 
cases in international law: (1) The per- 
sons and property of ambassadors or 
ministers and their suite. In certain non- 



DENITRATING 
HOUSE 




^^77P777!7f7VT?^777i 



EXPLOSIVES — DIAGRAM OF NITRO-GLYCERINE FACTORY 
Key : 



1. G, glycerine store ; MA, mixed acid store ; 
HNOs, nitric acid ; H2SO4, sulphuric acid. 

2. C, cascade ; F, furnace. 

3. F, fume shaft ; CB, collecting bottles ; D, 
denitrator ; C, cooler; E, acid egg: ST, settling 
tank. 

4. NA, nitrating acids ; DA, displacing acids ; 
C, compressor ; E, acid egg. 

1918 to 1920 the companies in the United 
States, in common with the railroads, 
were under Government control. They 
were restored to the parent companies 
on March 1, 1920. Express companies 
issue various forms of money orders for 
both foreign and domestic use. 

EXPRESSED OILS, in chemistry, 
those oils which are obtainable from 
bodies only by pressing, to distinguish 



5. W, water tank ; G, glycerine tank ; NS, 
nitrator separator ; PWT. pre-wash tank ; L, 
labyrinth ; DT, drowning tank. 

6. WT, washing tank; L, labyrinth; F, filter; 
S, scales. 

7. WWST, wash water settling tank: L, laby- 
rinth. 

Christian nations this has been extended 
to include consuls. (2) The persons 
and property of visiting sovereigns. (3) 
Public ships in foreign waters. The priv- 
ilege of being exempt from the laws of 
non-Christian states has been obtained 
by the Western powers for all of their 
subjects residing in such countries as 
Turkey, China, etc. These provisions 
guaranteeing exterritoriality to Chris- 



EXTRACT 80 

tian subjects of foreign nations were in- 
corporated in the case of Turkey and 
the nations of the Far East into definite 
treaties. Likewise the privileges and im- 
munities granted by the Italian govern- 
ment to the Pope come under cases of 
exterritoriality. In the "Alabama" case 
the arbitrators at Geneva ruled that the 
immunity granted to vessels of a foreign 
nation could not be called a right which 
belonged to them, but only a courtesy and 
hence did not relieve the neutral state 
in whose harbor they were from the re- 
sponsibility of preserving that neutrality. 

EXTRACT, a term to denote all that 
can be dissolved out of a substance by a 
specified menstruum, such as water, alco- 
hol, ether, etc. Extracts must be capable 
of being redissolved, so as to form a solu- 
tion like that from which they were 
derived. Extracts are used in cookery, 
medicine, and the manufacture of per- 
fumery. Extract of meat is a soft, yel- 
lowish-brown, solid, or very thick syrup, 
which is employed as a portable soup. 

EXTRADITION, the act by which a 
person accused of a crime is given up 
by the government in whose territories 
he has taken refuge to the government 
of which he is a subject. Conventions 
have been entered into by Great Britain 
with almost all civilized countries for the 
apprehension and extradition of persons 
charged with particular offenses, espe- 
cially those of the most heineous stamp, 
such as murderj robbery, embezzlement, 
arson, rape, piracy, obtaining money 
under false pretenses, unlawful destruc- 
tion and obstruction of railroads, pi'O- 
curing abortion, etc. The Extradition 
Act of 1870 makes special provision that 
no criminal shall be surrendered for a 
political offense, and that the criminal 
shall not be tried for any but the crime 
for which he was demanded. 

EXTRADOS (-tra'dos), the external 
outline or curve of an arch. 

EXTRAVAGANZA, in music, the 
drama, etc., a species of composition de- 
signed to produce effect by its wild ir- 
regularity and incoherence; differing 
from a burlesque in being an original 
composition and not a mere travesty. 

EXTRAVASATION, an escape of 
some fluid, as blood or urine, from the 
vessel containing it. Blood extravasation, 
in contusions and other accidents, is 
when blood-vessels are ruptured by the 
injury, and the blood finds its way into 
the neighboring tissues. In some acci- 
dents to the urethra and bladder extra- 
vasation of urine is a very serious occur- 
rence. 

EXTREME UNCTION, since the 12th 
century, one of the seven sacraments of 



EYCK 

the Catholic Church. It is performed in 
cases of mortal disease by anointing in 
the form of a cross, the eyes, ears, nose, 
mouth. 

EXTJMAS, a group of islands of the 
British West Indies, forming a part of 
the Bahamas. The chief islands are 
Great Exuma, Little Exuma, and the 
Exuma Keys, with a total area of 150 
square miles. Little Exuma has an ex- 
cellent harbor. The inhabitants are em- 
ployed chiefly in agriculture, and the 
making of salt. Pop. about 4,000. 

EYCK, HUBERT VAN (ik), a noted 
Flemish painter; born in Maaseyck, near 
Liege, Belgium, in 1366. It has been 
claimed that he and his brother Jan 
were the inventors of oil painting. For 
transparent and brilliant coloring and 
minute finish their works have never 
been surpassed. Their masterpieces are 
for the most part in Ghent, Bruges, Ant- 
werp, Berlin, Munich, and Paris. The 
only painting that can now certainly be 
assigned to Hubert is the altar-piece with 
folding doors, "The Adoration of the 
Lamb," begun by him and finished by 
Jan, and afterward presented to the 
Cathedral of St. Bavon, Ghent, where 
only the two central divisions now re- 
main, the wings being in the Gallery at 
Berlin, with the exception of those repre- 
senting Adam and Eve, which are in the 
Brussels Museum. Hubert died in Ghent, 
Flanders, Sept. 18, 1426. 

EYCK, JAN VAN, a Flemish painter, 
brother of Hubert; born in Maaseyck, 
about 1386. He was court painter of 
Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, and 
practiced his art chiefly at Bruges. In 
the National Gallery, London, there are 
three pictures of Jan van Eyck. These 
are portraits of Jean Arnolfini and 
Jeanne de Chenany, his wife — signed 
and dated 1434; the portrait of a man 
in a cloak and fur collar, with a red 
handkerchief twisted round the head as 
a turban — painted Oct. 21, 1433; and the 
portrait of a man with a dark-red dress 
and a green head-covering — signed and 
dated Oct. 10, 1432. In the Louvre is his 
exquisitely finished little picture of 
"Chancellor Rollin kneeling before the 
Virgin." Jan died in Bruges, July 9, 1440, 
and lies buried in St. Donatus Church. 

EYCK, MARGA-RET VAN, a Flemish 
painter, sister of Hubert and Jan van 
Eyck. A "Virgin and Child," in the 
National Gallery, London, formerly as- 
signed to her, is attributed to an un- 
known painter of the Early Flemish 
school. She is believed to have executed 
the miniatures in the missal of the Duke 
of Bedford. She died before 1431. 



EYE 



81 



EYE 



EYE, the organ of sight. The principle 
on which the human eye is constructed 
is that of the camera obscura, a dark 
chamber with a small opening for the 
admission of light, a quantity of black 
matter for the absorption of superabun- 
dant rays, and a nervous expansion on 
that wall which receives the rays of 
light. For protection it is deeply sunk 




EYE — CROSS-SECTION OF HUMAN EYE 



A. Optic nerve 

B. Retina 

C. Choroid 

D. Sclera 

E. Vitreous humor 

F. Lens 

G. Aqueous humor 
H. Cornea 

I. Iris 

J. Fovea centralis 



K. Arteria centrall 

retinae 
L. Orbital fat 
M. Levator palpebrae 

superioris muscle 
N. Rectus superior 

muscle 
O. Rectus Inferior 
P. Eyelids 
Q. Eyelashes 



in a fatty cushion within a bone cavity. 
The human eye is nearly globular, but 
the anterior part formed by the cornea 
is part of a smaller sphere, and slightly 
protuberant, in the proportion of 20 to 
19. In the globe itself the chief consti- 
tuents are: (1) The retina, the expan- 
sion of the optic nerve; (2) the trans- 
parent refracting media (the vitreous 
body or humor, the crystalline lens, the 
aqueous humor, the iris, and the pupil) ; 
(3) the tunica sclerotica, forming a dense 
tunic inclosing the first two. It is opaque 
except in front, where it becomes (4) 
the cornea, perfectly transparent, to 
allow the light to enter (5) the choroid 
membrane, lying between the retina and 
sclerotica, and containing a layer of dark 
pigment. The vitreous humor is imme- 
diately within the cup formed by the 
retina, and gives the support ^ inside 
which the sclerotica does outside; it 
forms four-fifths of the whole globe, and 
its perfect fluidity allows for the expan- 
sion and contraction of the pupil and of 
the lens itself to or from the cornea. The 
crystalline lens is divided into three equal 
parts by three lines, which radiate from 
the center to one-third of the surface; 
each one of these layers consists of hun- 
dreds of concentric layers, connected by 



finely serrated edges. This beautiful 
dove-tailing of fibers is not peculiar to 
man; the best example is the lens of the 
common codfish. 

The eyes of the vertebrata are essen- 
tially like those of man. The eyes of 
insects are of two kinds: compound eyes 
and simple eyes or stemmata. The com- 
pound eyes are immovable. They consist 
of vastly numerous lenses; thus in the 
dragon-fly there are 12,000. Spiders 
have compound eyes; the higher members 
of the class have ocelli; many of the 
lower parasitic species are blind. The 
eyes of Crustacea vary greatly, from a 
sessile median eye-speck to two distinct 
eyes placed on movable peduncles. The 
centipedes have many simple eyes; in 
lulus these are so near as almost to make 
two compound eyes. Of mollusks, the 
cephalopoda have large eyes, the gaster- 
opoda possess them, as do the pectens 
among the conchifera, though in most 
other genera of the class, and in brachi- 
opoda, they seem wanting. The animals 
of lower organization are destitute of 
eyes. 

hi Architecture. — (1) The circular 
aperture in the top of a dome or cupola. 
(2) The circle in the center of a volute 
scroll. (3) A circular or oval window. 

In Nautical Parlance. (1) A circular 
loop in a shroud or rope. A worked circle 
or grommet in a hank, rope, or sail. (2) 
The loop of a block-strap. (3) The hole 
in the shank of an anchor to receive the 




EYE — CROSS-SECTION OF HUMAN EYE 

A. Lachrymal gland C. Nasal sac 

B. Lachrymal canal D. Nasal duct 

ring. The foremost part of the bows of 
a vessel, on which formerly eyes used to 
be painted. The term is also applied to 
the hawse-holes. The strands of a rope's 
end opened and divided into two parts 
and laid over each other, marled, par- 
celed, and sewed together, and so form- 
ing an eye, is called a Flemish eye. 



EYE STRAIN 



EYE STRAIlSr, the condition oc- 
casioned as a result of using the eyes 
where the light is bad or the conditions 
unfavorable. The adverse condition is 
often produced as a result of imperfect 
balance of the ocular muscles, and the 
results are sometimes serious. There 
is always a waste of nerve force and 
there is often headache; but where 
the condition is prolonged, convulsions, 
chorea, hysteria, and dementia may be 
among the consequences. The malady 
may be remedied by the use of proper 
glasses, and on the other hand it may be 
aggravated by the use of improper 
glasses. Where the painful condition is 
the result of constitutional defects, a 
normal condition mg.y be brought about 
by surgical operation. 

EYLAU (i'lou), a town of 3,600 in- 
habitants, 23 miles S. of Konigsberg by 
rail. Here Napoleon encountered the 
allies — Russians and Prussians — under 
Bennigsen, Feb. 8, 1807. Darkness came 
on while the contest was still undecided; 
but as Napoleon had a considerable force 
of fresh troops close at hand, the allies 
retired during the night on Konigsberg. 
Their loss is estimated at about 20,000; 
that of the French is set down at 10,000, 
but must have been considerably greater. 
The place is called Preussisch-Eylau, to 
distinguish it from Deutsch-Eylau, a 
town of about .5,000 inhabitants, 89 
miles N. E. of Bromberg. 

EYRA (T'ra), in Scandinavian mythol- 
ogy, the physician of gods. 

EYSE, EDWARD JOHN (ar), an 
Australian explorer and colonial gover- 
nor; born in August, 1815. He emi- 
grated to Australia at the age of 17. In 
1840 he failed in an attempt to explore 
the region between South and Western 
Australia, though he discovered Lake 
Torrens. He accomplished the task in 
1841. In 1846 he became lieutenant-gov- 
ernor of New Zealand, and in 1854 of St. 
Vincent in the West Indies. In 1864 he 
was appointed governor of Jamaica, 
where in 1865 negro disturbances broke 
out. The outbreak was suppressed with 
rigid severity. A commission sent to in- 
quire, found that Eyre had acted unjust- 
ly in one case and he was recalled. On his 
return he was pi'osecuted by a committee 
of whom John Stuart Mill was the most 
prominent; Thomas Carlyle, Charles 



82 EZRA, BOOK OF 

Kingsley, and Sir R. Murchison pro- 
moted the Eyre defense fund. The pros- 
ecutions could not, however, be sustained; 
and eventually in 1872 the government 
refunded to Eyre the costs of his defense. 
He died Dec. 1, 1901. 

EYRE, LAKE, a salt lake of South 
Australia, lying due N. of Spencer Gulf > 
at a depression of 38 feet, and with an 
area of 3,706 square miles. Except in 
the season of rains, this lake is generally 
a mere salt marsh. It was discovered in 
1840 by Eyre. 

EZEKIEL, one of the greater prophets, 
to whom is attributed one of the larger 
prophetic books of the Old Testament, 
the visions and utterances which it con- 
tains being expressly attributed, in the 
work itself, to Ezekiel. He was the son 
of Buzi, a priest (i: 3). He was carried 
captive, in the time of Jehoiachin, 595 
B. c, about 11 years before the destruc- 
tion of Jerusalem under Zedekiah (xl: 
1). There is no direct quotation from 
Ezekiel in the New Testament, but there 
are a few allusions to his utterances, 
especially in the Book of Revelations. 
The genuineness and authenticity of the 
prophecies of Ezekiel have not been seri- 
ously impugned either in the Jewish or 
Christian Church. 

EZRA, BOOK OF, an Old Testament 
book. The name Ezra is by most persons 
held to denote that he was the author of 
the book. It may, however, signify no 
more than that the doings of Ezra are 
the main theme of the book, which is 
certainly the case. The illustrious per- 
sonage so designated was a priest de- 
scended from Phinehas, the son of Aaron. 
His immediate father was Seraiah. He 
was a ready scribe in the law of Moses. 
An exile in Persia, he so commended 
himself to the then reigning monarch 
(apparently Artaxerxes Longimanus), 
as to obtain from him a commission to 
lead the second expedition of Jews back 
to their own land. The enterprise be- 
gan about 458 B. C. Subsequently we 
find him again at Jerusalem, exercising 
only priestly functions under Nehemiah. 
Where he died is uncertain. The period 
which the book spans is about 80 years, 
viz., from the first of Cyrus, 536 B. C, 
to the eighth of Artaxerxes Longimanus, 
456 B. c. Both Jews and Christians 
consider the work part of the Scripture 
canon. 



F 



F, f, the sixth letter, and fourth conso- 
nant of the English langxiage, is a labial 
or labiodental articulation, being formed 
by the emission of breath between the 
lower lip and the upper teeth. It is a 
surd spirant, the corresponding sonant 
spirant being V (g. v.). In Anglo-Saxon 
it was pronounced as v, and it still re- 
tains that sound in of. It takes its form 
from the Greek digarama, which had a 
very similar power. An original f has 
frequently become v in English words, as 
vat for fat, vetch for fetch, vixen for 
fixen. It has also disappeared from many 
words, as in head (O. Eng. heved) , lord 
(0. Eng. hlaford), hawk (O. Eng. 
hafoc), woman (0. Eng. wifman), etc., 
and in others it has been dropped, as 
hasty (0. Fr. hastif), jolly (O. Eng. 
jolif), testy (O. Eng. testif), etc. An f 
sound is now used in trough, enough, and 
rough, to represent an original g:uttural. 
In the plurals of nouns of pure English 
origin ending in -f or -If, with a preced- 
ing long vowel (except oo), the f is 



(1) For the note called parhypate in 
the Greater Perfect system of the 
Greeks. The letter name of Frite in the 
upper tetrachord. 

(2) The first note of the Eolian mode, 
or church scale, commencing four notes 
above the hypo-Eolian. 

(3) The note called Fa ut in the hexa- 
chord system. The fourth note in the 
scale of C. 

(4) The keynote of the major scale 
requiring one flat in the signature; and 
the keynote of the minor scale related 
to A flat. 

(5) For the note Fah in the Tonic Sol- 
fa notation. 

4. In Bibical criticism: F for the 
Codex Augiensis; f (small letter), for 
the Cursive MSS. 

5. In physics: For Fahrenheit, denot- 
ing that the degree of temperature is 
according to that scale, as 60° F. 

6. In old law : F was branded on felons 
who were admitted to benefit of clergy. 

7. In heraldry: For the Fesse-point, 



changed into v. In Romance words the f .the central point of the escutcheon 



remains unchanged, and the plural is 
formed by adding s. Words ending in 
-ff or -rf, also form the plural by the 
addition of s. In Russian the letter f is 
uniformly used to represent the sound of 
th, as Feodor for Theodore. 
F as an initial is used: 

1. In music: For forte, to mark that 
a passage is to be played or sung loudly; 
ff=fortissimo, when it is to be played or 
sung very loudly. 

2. In distinctions: For Fellow, as F. 
R. S. = Fellow of the Royal Society. 

3. In medicine: For the Latin word 
Fmt = let it be made. 

F as a symbol is used: 

1. In numerals: For 40, and with a 
dash over it (F) =40,000. 

2. In chemistry: For the non-metallic 
element, fluorine, and for fluoride — e. g., 
F = fluorine, KF = potassium fluoride. 
Sometimes F written with a stroke above 
is used for formic acid. 

3. In music: 



FABER, FREDERICK WILLIAM, an 
English hymn-writer; born in Calverley, 
England, June 28, 1814. He was long in 
the Anglican priesthood, and wrote 
hymns of singular sweetness and spiritu- 
ality; going over at last to Rome. Among 
his most familiar hymns are: "Hark, 
Hark, My Soul"; "O Paradise! Para- 
dise!"; "There's a Wideness in God's 
Mercy"; "Sweet Saviour Bless Us Ere 
We Go"; etc. He died in the Oratory, 
Brompton, Sept. 26, 1863. 

FABER, WILLIAM FREDERIC, an 

American Protestant Episcopal bishop, 
born in Buffalo, N. Y., in 1860. He 
graduated from the University of Roches- 
ter in 1880 and from the Albany Theo- 
logical Seminary in 1883. In the same 
year he was ordained to the Presbyterian 
ministry, and until 1892 was pastor of 
the First Church of Westfield, N. Y. In 
the latter year he entered the Protestant 
Episcopal Chui'ch and served as rector 



83 



FABIAN SOCIETY 



84 



FABBE 



111 churches in New York and Michigan. 
He was consecrated coadjutor-bishop of 
the Diocese of Montana in 1914, and be- 
came bishop in 1916. He wrote "The 
Church for the Times" (1891) ; "Henry 
VIII. and the Reformation in Relation 
to the Church of England" (1897) ; and 
^vas a frequent contributor to maga- 
zines on religious subjects. 

FABIAN SOCIETY, an organization 
in England, with headquarters in Lon- 
don, whose members are interested in 
the reorganization of society on a social- 
istic basis. In 1883 an American, Thomas 
Davidson, who was temporarily residing 
in London, made a practice of confer- 
ences, at which questions of social re- 
form were discussed. From these in- 
formal meetings sprang the Fabian 
Society, so named after the Roman Gen- 
eral Fabius, who by his tactics of delay 
saved Rome from invasion and capture. 
By this name it was indicated that the 
members of the society were in favor 
of evolutionary means to accomplish 
their ends, rather than revolutionary, or 
violent means. The leading figures in the 
activities of the Fabian Society have 
been the two Webbs; Mr. and Mrs. Sid- 
ney Webb, two brilliant writers on eco- 
nomics, who have done more than any 
others to shape the politics of the Fabian 
Society. Other prominent members have 
been Bernard Shaw, H. G. Wells and 
Mrs. Annie Besant. The Fabian Society 
has stood for state socialism, and has 
published a number of volumes of essays 
by its members, advocating the gradual 
extension of government functions in 
public utilities and industry. Since the 
war, however, this principle of reform 
has grown into disfavor, especially 
among the labor organizations, which 
have had a tendency toward syndicalism, 
or modifications of that theory, which 
implies the management of industry by 
labor organizations. The Fabian Society, 
also, has shown a broader interest in 
other plans for collectivist reorganiza- 
tion, especially in the direction of con- 
sumers* co-operation. 

FABIUS, the name of one of the oldest 
and most famous families of Rome, every 
member of which was massacred at 
Cremera, 478 B. c, except QuiNTUS Fa- 
Bius ViBULANUS, who became one of the 
decemvirate. After him are mentioned 
Fabius Ambustus, dictator, 3.50 b. c 
Fabius Rullianus, to whose name Maxi- 
MUS was added, twi^e dictator, conqueror 
of the Samnites and Etruscans, 323-280 
B. c. Fabius Gurges, son of the preced- 
ing, consul of Rome. Fabius Pictor, the 
first writer of Roman history, 3d cen- 
tury, b. c. Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, 
considered the greatest of his family, 



surmamed "Cunctator," "the Delayer," 
on account of his system of warfare. 
He died in 203 B. c. Fabius Maximus 
QuiNTUS, son and next in office to the 
preceding, afterward consul. Fabius 
Maximus ^milianus, distinguished in 
the war of Persia and in Spain, consul 
147 b. c. Fabius Maximus Servilianus, 
pro-consul for Spain, censor 126 B. c. 
Fabius Maximus Allobrogicus, consul 
122 E. c. 

FABLE, any fictitious narrative ; 
more particularly a kind of literary con - 
position, either prose or verse, in which 
a short fictitious story is made to convey 
practical rules of prudence or wisdom. 
The fable consists properly of two parts 
— the symbolical representation, and the 
application of the moral of the tale. 
Among the most celebrated fables of the 
East, where this species of composition 
seems to have originated, are the Indian 
fables of Pilpay, or Bilpai, and the more 
eager Arabic collection of Lokman, who 
is said to have lived in the time of King 
David, Among the Greeks, the fables of 
.^sop were well known, but many of 
those that were current in Greece under 
his name are identical . with those of the 
East. In Latin, Phaedrus has left about 
90 fables of considerable merit in imita- 
tion of .^sop; but the well-known fable 
of "the town-mouse and the country- 
mouse," related by Horace, is the best in 
that language. During the Middle Ages 
the fable was not entirely neglected; 
"Reynard the Fox," a famous mediasval 
epic, may be considered as a sort of ex- 
tended satirical fable. Among the most 
distinguished of the later fable-writers 
are Gellert, Gleim, and Lessing of Ger- 
many, and Gay of England, but pre-emi- 
nent among all the modern fabulists, for 
his delicate sarcasm and his lively wit, 
is the French La Fontaine. 

FABB,E, JEAN HENRI, a French en- 
tomologist and writer; born at Saint- 
Leons, Avignon, in 1823. For several 
years he taught in the Lycee of Avignon 
and afterward served as Professor of 
Physics at the College of Ajaccio. He 
retired from teaching, however, to devote 
himself entirely to the study of entomol- 
ogy and from 1879 to 1907 he devoted 
himself to writing the great work in ten 
volumes, entitled "Souvenirs entomolo- 
giques." This was crowned by the Insti- 
tute. The greater part has been trans- 
lated into English. He wrote "The Life 
of the Insects" (1910) and many other 
v.'^orks. He was a corresponding member 
of the Institute and Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor. Among his works 
translated into English are "Insect Life" 
(1901) ; "The Life and Love of the In^ 



FABEICIUS 



sect" (1911) ; "Social Life in the Insect 
World" (1913); "The Life of the Spi- 
der"; and "The Life of the Fly" (1913). 

FABRICIUS, CAITTS, surnamed Lu- 
cinus, a Roman general who was twice 
consul and gained several victories over 
the Samnites and Lucanians. He was 
famed for his integrity and contempt of 
riches. This was shown during his em- 
bassy to Pyrrhus in 280 B. c, when he 
firmly withstood all the attempts of 
Pyrrhus to buy his service. When con- 
sul, he discovered to Pyrrhus a plot 
formed to poison him by his physician; 
and in gratitude Pyrrhus released the 
Roman prisoners without ransom. Fabri- 
cius was afterward censor, and endeav- 
ored to check the growing passion for 
luxury. He lived a simple life and died 
poor. 

FACADE (fa-sadO, the face or front 
of any building of importance. It may 
he applied to any side of a large quad- 
rangular building embellished with suf- 
ficiently striking architectural features, 
but it is usually confined to the principal 
front, in which the chief entrance is most 
frequently, if not always, situated. 

FACIAL NEBVE, a nerve of the sev- 
enth pair of cranial nerves, a motor 
nerve which supplies the muscles of ex- 
pression on either side of the face. Par- 
alysis of this nerve produces facial 
paralysis. 

FACTOR, an agent or substitute, es- 
pecially a steward or agent of an estate, 
appointed by a landowner to manage the 
estate, collect rents, let lands, etc.; also 
an agent employed by merchants to 
transact business for them in other 
places, as to buy and sell, to negotiate 
bills of exchange, etc. He differs from 
a broker in that he is intrusted with the 
possession and disposal of the goods, 
property, etc., and may buy and sell in 
his own name. 

One of several circumstances, elements, 
or influences on which a certain result 
depends, and which have to be taken into 
consideration in estimating the probable 
results of any events. 

In algebra, a name given to any quan- 
tity which constitutes an algebraical ex- 
pression : thus a + b and a — b are fac- 
tors of the product a' — b'. 

In arithmetic, the multiplier and the 
multiplicand; the numbers from the mul- 
tiplication of which the product results. 

Prime factors in mathematics, the 
prime factors of a quantity are those fac- 
tors which cannot be exactly divided by 
any other quantity except 1. Every num- 
ber has 1 for a prime factor. The prime 
factors of 12 are 1, 2, 2, and 3. 



85 FACTORIES 

FACTORIES AND THE FACTORY 
SYSTEM, the basis of modern industry. 
The change from the old handicrafts 
system of manufacturing, in which prac- 
tically all the needs of life were manu- 
factured by individual men in their own 
homes, to the present factory system, 
where commodities are manufactured in 
great quantities by a large number of 
people co-operatively, was primarily 
caused by the invention of steam-driven 
machinery. Factory production may be 
said to have begun with the invention, 
by James Hargreaves, of the spinning 
jinny, a machine which obviously could 
not be operated by one person. The in- 
vention of the jinny, spinning vast 
quantities of yam, naturally stimulated 
the efforts which resulted in the inven- 
tion of machinery for weaving. These 
machines were put up in one large build- 
ing, and gradually the entire process of 
manufacturing cloth by machinery was 
carried on in the one factory. Further 
inventions carried the system into the 
production of other commodities, and so 
gradually changed the whole basis of in- 
dustry, the hand tools being gradually 
scrapped and the workers becoming the 
attendants of the machines instead. 

The speed resulting from the use of 
machinery was merely one of the big 
gains achieved through the new system. 
There was also the great economy re- 
sulting from organization. Under the 
handicrafts system one man carded the 
cotton, another spun it, and a third wove 
it, and between each process there was 
the delay necessitated by the removal of 
the material from one house to another. 
Each of these transfers of material, in 
fact, amounted to a separate commercial 
transaction, since the one handicrafts- 
man purchased it from the other, until 
the weaver finally sold the finished cloth 
to the merchant. In the factory the ma- 
terial passed quickly from one machine 
to another, in a continuoi>s stream. 

This economy of labor and time has 
progressed equally with the invention of 
new machinery. 'Each process involved 
in the manufacture of any commodity 
represents a separate operation. Each 
workman, with the aid of machinery, is 
continuously employed on the one proc- 
ess, without having to pass from the 
one to the other. This in itself makes 
for speed, and also eliminates the skill 
needed in the entire manufacture of one 
article by one operator. This economy 
of organization has probably been 
brought to its highest degree of efficiency 
in this country, in the production of 
automobiles, as in the Ford factories of 
Detroit, and the manufacture of watches, 
as in the case of the cheap IngersoU 
watches. Here the vast scale on which 



FACTOBIES 



86 



FACTORY INSPECTION 



production is carried on is another ele- 
ment of economy, since the minutest 
operation becomes the work of an entire 
department of the plant by itself. An- 
other illustration of the efficiency of the 
factory system is seen in the killing and 
dressing of meats by the large packing 
houses of this country. Where the kill- 
ing was formerly done by the independ- 
ent small butcher, one man could kill 
and dress only a very few pigs or beeves 
in one day. Under the factory system 
thousands are killed and dressed by a 
correspondingly small number of men, 
3ach motion involved being performed 
ivith lightning speed by one man. 

It was in England and Scotland, 
ivhere machinery was first applied to 
manufacturing, that factories were first 
established. But the system followed 
very soon after in this country, es- 
pecially in New England, where the 
many small streams and the rivers fur- 
nished hydraulic power for the machin- 
ery. The first factory in which the en- 
tire series of processes involved in mak- 
ing finished cotton cloth out of the raw 
material were carried on under one roof 
was put into operation in Waltham, 
Mass., in 1814. Similar textile mills 
were soon established all over New Eng- 
land and, after the Civil War, were in- 
troduced in the South, with Northern 
capital. 

The chief result of the factory system 
of industry has been the tremendous 
cheapening of the cost of production. 
As an instance, in the days of handi- 
crafts industry, in England, woolen 
goods were cheaper than cotton, because 
wool was a home product and cotton 
must be imported from abroad. So little 
was the amount of goods which could 
be produced under this system that the 
scarcity of wool as compared to cotton 
had no influence in raising the cost. 

The cheapening of the cost of pro- 
duction as a social gain, however, has 
been more than offset by the evils which 
the factory system has worked on the 
Vv^orking classes. First of all, the large 
majority of skilled artisans were 
thrown out of employment. Unskilled 
la^or was found quite as suitable as 
''killed, and, furthermore, in the manu- 
facture of a given commodity much 
greater quantities could be produced by 
one-tenth as many workers, the machin- 
ery doing most of the actual work. Then 
it was found that women and children 
could serve quite as well as men in at- 
tending the machinery, and large num- 
bers of men were left out of employment. 
Added to this, the workers could now 
only find employment under the roofs 
of the masters, who owned the machines 
and the factories, and so they came un- 



der their personal autocratic control. 
With this came a gradual reduction of 
wages, also brought about by the keen 
competition for work among the workers 
themselves, a natural result from the 
fact that only a portion of them were 
needed to work in the factories. Thus 
there was a tendency to lower wages 
to a point where they could only sustain 
the lives of the cheapest workers, the 
women and children, and the hours of 
labor were extended to the limits of 
human endurance. 

These inhuman tendencies were first 
checked by legislation, known as the fa- 
mous Factory Acts, which first of all 
shortened the hours of labor (see Eight- 
Hour Day). Afterward, both in Eng- 
land and this country, came legislation 
indicating minimum wages for women 
and children, and, in rarer instances, for 
men as well. 

Another, and even stronger, check on 
the evils of factory labor has been the 
gradual growth in power of labor or- 
ganizations. The organized workers, 
through their economic organizations, 
have brought such pressure to bear on 
the manufacturers that gradually condi- 
tions have been improved. 

FACTORY INSPECTION, the need of 
special factory legislation was first 
brought about by the fact that machin- 
ery, by reducing the need of labor, and 
throwing an increasing number of work' 
ers out of employment, created compe- 
tition among the workers themselves 
(see Factories and Factory System). 
This created a continuous tendency to- 
ward reduced wages, long hours of em- 
ployment and a disregard for sanitary 
conditions. Still more important, the 
elimination of the need of skilled work- 
ers brought women and children into the 
factories in competition with men. 

It was one thing to pass legislation 
correcting these evils; it was quite an- 
other matter to enforce it. Thus, fol- 
lowing all this labor legislation came the 
need of competent inspectors to see that 
the laws were being enforced. Grad- 
ually it has been realized that factory 
inspection had even a bigger function 
than that. The competent inspectors 
were those who not only saw that the 
letters of the laws were being enforced, 
but who could intelligently observe the 
results of their enforcements. Where 
certain legislation fails to correct the 
abuses it has set out to cure, the fact 
should first be made known through the 
reports of the inspectors. It is also the 
function of a competent inspector to 
indicate the cause of such failures, and 
recommend new laws which will correct 
the faults. 



FACULTY 87 

After the first Factory Acts were 
passed in England, in 1802, the local 
judges appointed visitors. In 1833. the 
need of experts being felt, four special 
inspectors were appointed, their number 
being increased to nine in 1842. These 
have since been increased to hundreds, 
directed from the Home Office. 

In the United States factory inspec- 
tion, naturally, is carried on by the 
separate States, each of which has 
passed its own set of labor laws. Prac- 
tically every State of the Union now 
carries on some form of factory inspec- 
tion. Usually this is directed by a spe- 
cial department of labor, but in Massa- 
chusetts this function is under the juris- 
diction of the police. In other States 
independent bureaus carry on factory 
inspection. Every year sees legislation 
passed to enlarge the jurisdiction of the 
factory inspection staflFs. In 1919 Con- 
necticut, New York, Missouri, and West 
Virginia enlarged their forces of inspec- 
tors. New Jersey, Washington, and 
North Dakota established special mine 
inspection bureaus. California empow- 
ered its industrial Welfare Commission 
to issue subpoenas and administer oaths, 
while Minnesota authorized its inspec- 
tors to enter the offices as well as the 
workrooms of the establishments they 
inspected. 

FACULTY, the power or ability of do- 
ing anything; capacity for any natural 
action or function; ease or dexterity in 
performance, possessed naturally or ac- 
quired by practice ; one of the powers of 
the mind or intellect, enabling it to re- 
ceive or retain perceptions; as, the 
faculty of imaging, remembering, etc. 
In ecclesiastical law, a privilege or 
license granted to any person by favor, 
and not as a right to do any act which 
by law he may not do. In mental philoso- 
phy, a natural and active power of 
the human mind, as distinguished from 
a passive one, the latter approximately 
called capacity or receptivity. In the 
Roman Catholic Church, permission 
granted by an ecclesiastical superior to 
a duly qualified subject to hear confes- 
sions. Such permission only extends to 
the district over which the superior has 
jurisdiction. Thus, faculties are granted 
by bishops to the priests of their dio- 
ceses, and by the heads of religious 
houses to such of their subjects as they 
judge qualified to hear the confessions 
of the community. 

In the United States, the term faculty 
indicates the body of persons who are 
intrusted with the government and in- 
struction of a university or college as a 
whole, comprising the president, profes 
sors. and tutors. It is also used for the 



FAIDHEBBE 



body of masters and professors of each 
of the several departments of instruction 
m a university; as, the law faculty, etc. 
F.aJCES, the excrementitious contents 
of the bowels, the refuse of the food and 
aliment, and sometimes called alvine dis- 
charges, or the dejecta; also, sediments; 
dregs; lees; settlings after distillation 
and infusion. 

PAENZA (fa-aint'sa), a city of Italy, 
20 miles from Ravenna. It was once 
well known for its manufacture of col- 
ored and glazed earthenware called 
Faience {q. v.). Its chief industries are 
now the making of paper, silk twist, 
and fabrics. Faenza, the ancient Fa- 
ventia, was at one period a town of the 
Boii, but afterward a municipium under 
the Romans, and was annexed to the 
States of the Church in the 15th century 
by Pope Alexander VI., in which condi- 
tion it remained till 1860, when, with the 
Emelian provinces, it was annexed to the 
Kingdom of Italy. Pop. (1901) 22,239. 

FAEROE ISLANDS. See FAROE IS- 
LANDS. 

FAHRENHEIT, GABRIEL DANIEL, 

a German natural philosopher; born in 
Danzig, Prussia, May 14, 1686. He was 
a maker of scientific instruments, and in 
1720 introduced the use of mercury in- 
stead of spirits of wine in the construc- 
tion of the Thermometer {q. v.). 

JFAIJQHERBE (fa-darb), LOUIS 
LEON CESAR, a French military officer; 
bom in Lille, France, June 3, 1818. His 
apprenticeship as a soldier was passed 
in Algiers and Guadaloupe. He went to 
Senegal in 1852; became two years later 
governor of the colony, and extended the 
colony by the subjugation of the Mooi-ish 
Trarza in 1858, and of the country of 
Cayor in 1861. Faidherbe was sum- 
moned to France in December, 1870, and 
given command of the Army of the 
North. After successfully withstanding 
Manteuffel's attack near the Hallue 
river, Dec. 23, he was severely beaten 
near St. Quentin, Jan. 19, 1871. After 
the conclusion of peace, he was dis- 
patched by the French government to 
Upper Egypt to study the monuments 
and inscriptions. He became a member 
of the National Assembly in 1879. Faid- 
herbe published books on the language, 
geography, and archeology of northern 
Africa, chief among which are two col- 
lections of "Numidian Inscriptions" 
(1870-1872); "Anthropology of Algiers" 
(1874) ; "Phoenician Epigraphy" (1873) ; 
"The French Soudan" (1884) ; a work 
on Senegal (1889). His "Campaign of 
the Army of the North" appeared at 
Paris in 1871. He died in Paris, Sept. 
29, 1889. 



rATKNCE 88 

FAIENCE, a fine kind of pottery origi- 
nally made in imitation of majolica. The 
different kinds of faience are produced 
by the use of common or of fire-clay; 
the admixture of sand with the clay, as 
in Persian ware; the use of a trans- 
parent or of a colored glaze; of an 
opaque or translucent enamel, or by a 
combination of these processes on the 
same piece. 

FAILSWORTH, a city of Lancashire, 
England. It is on the Lancashire and 
Yorkshire railway. It has important 
manufactures of cotton. Pop. about 
17,000. 

FAIOUM. or FAYOUM. See Fayum. 

FAIRBAIRN, SIB WILLIAM, a 

Scotch civil engineer; born in Kelso, 
Scotland, Feb. 19, 1789; entered business 
in Manchester, England, in 1817. He 
constructed the first iron ship in Eng- 
land and afterward his firm built over 
100 iron vessels. He was associated 
with Robert Stephenson in designing 
and building the great tubular bridge 
over Menai Strait. He was the author 
of "Iron, Its History and Manufacture"; 
"Iron Shipbuilding"; "Useful Informa- 
tion for Engineers"; "An Experimental 
Inquiry Into the Strength, Elasticity, 
Ductility, and Other Properties of 
Steel" (1869); etc. He died Aug. 18, 
1874. 

FAIRBANKS, a city of Alaska on the 
Tanana river. It is the chief city of the 
territory and is the site of the Fourth 
Judicial District and of government 
activities in the interior of Alaska. It 
is the center of the important Fair- 
banks gold-mining district. It is a well- 
built city and has schools, churches, 
hospitals, and wireless and telephone con- 
nection with the outer world. It is the 
shipping point for miners' supplies. It 
has all the characteristics of an impor- 
tant city. The principal section of the 
new Alaskan railroad is the one from 
Chitina to Fairbanks, 313 miles. See 
Alaska. 

FAIRBANKS, ARTHUR, an Ameri- 
can art director, born in Hanover, N. H., 
in 1864. He graduated from Dartmouth 
College in 1886 and attended the Yale 
Divinity School and the Union Theo- 
logical Seminary. He also studied in 
Germany. He was on the faculty of 
Dartmouth College and Yale and Cornell 
Universities until 1900, when he became 
professor of Greek literature and archae- 
ology at the University of Iowa. In 
1906, he was appointed professor of 
Greek and Greek archaeology in the Uni- 
versity of Michigan. He was in the 
following year appointed director of the 
Boston Museum of Fine Arts. He was 



FAIRFAX 

a member of many classical and learned 
societies. He wrote "Introduction to 
Sociology" (1896) ; "The Mythology of 
Greece and Rome" (1907) ; "Handbook 
of Greek Religion" (1910) ; "Greek Gods 
and Heroes" (1915). 

FAIRBANKS, DOUGLAS, an Ameri- 
can actor, born in Denver, Colo., in 1883. 
He was educated at the Jarvis Military 
Academy in Denver, and at the Colorado 
School of Mines. He made his first ap- 
pearance on the stage in New York in 
1901 and afterward appeared as a star 
in several successful plays. His chief 
success, however, was won as a moving- 
picture actor, in which he attained great 
prominence, both in the United States 
and other countries. 

FAIRBURY a city, of Nebraska, the 
county-seat of Jefferson co. It is on 
the Chicago, Rock Island, and Pacific, the 
Burlington, and the St. Joseph and Grand 
Island railroads, and on the Little Blue 
river. It has important manufactures 
and is the center of an important fruit- 
growing region. There are a library; 
postoffice, and other public buildings. 
Pop. (1910) 5,294; (1920) 5,454. 

FAIRCHILD, CHARLES STEBBINS, 
an American public official, born at 
Cazenovia, N. Y., in 1842. He graduated 
from Harvard University in 1863, and 
after studying law was admitted' to the 
bar in 1865. He was deputy attorney- 
general of New York in 1874, and at- 
torney-general in 1876-1877. In 1885 he 
was assistant secretary of the Treasury 
in President Cleveland's Cabinet, and be- 
came Secretary of the Treasury in 1887. 
He was an officer and director in many 
important financial institutions. 

FAIRFAX, THOMAS, LORD, a Brit- 
ish military officer; born in Denton, Eng- 
land, Jan. 17, 1611. He was the eldest 
son of Ferdinand, Lord Fairfax. On the 
first breaking out of the civil discon- 
tents, following the example of his 
father, Fairfax embraced the popular 
side, and ranged himself as one of the 
firmest opponents of the royal party in 
Church and state. On the commence- 
ment of hostilities, he was commissioned 
by the Parliament to act as general of 
the horse under his father, who was 
made commander in the north. After 
the passing of the "Self-denying ordi- 
nance," Fairfax was appointed general, 
conjointly with Cromwell. He and Skip- 
ton commanded the main body of the 
Parliamentary army at the battle ^^ of 
Naseby; after which he marched with a 
powerful division to the W. counties; 
and, having reduced Exeter and other 
important towns, proceeded to lay siege 
to Oxford. His conduct on all occasions.. 



FAIBFAX 



89 



FAIBY 



was inarked by the highest sense of 
honor and humanity. During the Com- 
monwealth Cromwell treated him with 
contempt. After Cromwell's death, when 
it became evident that the restoration of 
the monarchy was the general wish, he 
came forward to co-operate in bringing 
about that event. It was through his in- 
fluence mainly that the Irish brigade for- 
sook Lambert and joined Monk's army. 
Fairfax then seized York on the royal 
behalf; was made a member of the heal- 
ing Parliament; and was nominated 
head of the committee appointed to wait 
upon Charles II. at The Hague and in- 
vite him to the throne of England. On 
the Restoration he withdrew altogether 
from active life. He wrote "Short 
Memorials" of his life, etc. He died 
near York, England, Nov. 12, 1671. 

FAIRFAX, THCMAS, 6th Baron of 
Cameron; born in England in 1691; was 
educated at Oxford and was a con- 
tributor to Addison's "Spectator." Dis- 
appointed in England, he came to 
America and settled on a vast landed 
estate in Virginia which he had inherited 
from his mother, a daughter of Lord Cul- 
peper. It was there, at Greenway Court, 
that Washington first met him. Between 
the two there sprang up a warm friend- 
ship, and when, years later, he learned 
that Washington had captured Corn- 
wallis, he was overcome with emotion, 
and called to his body-servant to carry 
him to his bed, "for I am sure," he said, 
"it is time for me to die." He died at 
his lodge, Greenway Court, in Frederick 
CO., Va., Dec. 12, 1782. 

The 11th Lord Fairfax and Baron of 
Cameron who succeeded his brother to 
the baronetcy in 1869, and who died in 
Northampton, Md., Sept. 28, 1900, like 
his American predecessors, made no 
claim to the title. 

FAIRFIELD, a town and port of entry 
in Fairfield co., Conn., on Long Island 
Sound, and on the New York, New 
Haven and Hartford railroad; 52 miles 
N. E. of New York. It contains the 
Pequot and Memorial libraries, National 
and savings banks, a stone powder house 
and four other buildings constructed dur- 
ing the Revolutionary period. It was 
founded in 1639. In 1779 it was burned 
by Governor Tryon. Pop. (1910) 6,134; 
(1920) 11,47.5. 

FAIRFIELD, a city of Iowa, the 
county-seat of JeflFerson co. It is on the 
Chicago, Burlington and Quincy, and 
the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific 
railroads. Its industi'ies include the 
manufacture of agricultural implements, 
wagons, pumps, washing machines, 
gloves, brooms, etc. It is the seat of 



Parsons College, and has a court house, 
county jail, hospital, public library, and 
other public buildings. Pop. (1910) 
4,970; (1920) 5,948. 

FAIR HAVEN, a town in Bristol co., 
Mass.; on Buzzards Bay, at the mouth 
of the Acushnet river, and on the New 
York, New Haven and Hartford rail- 
road; 60 miles S. of Boston and opposite 
New Bedford, with which it is connected 
by bridges. Here are the Millicent Pub- 
lic Library, several banks, churches, and 
a newspaper. It has manufactories of 
glass, castings, nails, and tacks. The 
British were here repulsed by Maj. 
Israel Fearing on Sept. 7, 1778. Pop. 
(1910) 5,122; (1920) 7,291. 

FAIR ISLE, a small island in the 
North Atlantic, lying between the Shet- 
land and Orkney Isles, 22 miles from 
Sumburgh Head. It is 4 miles long by 
a breadth of IVi. Here (1588) the Duke 
of Medina, admiral of the Spanish Ar- 
mada, was shipwrecked. 

FAIRMONT, a city of West Virginia, 
the county-seat of Marion co. It is situ- 
ated on both sides of the Monongahela 
river, and is on the New York Central, 
the Monongahela Valley, and the Balti- 
more and Ohio railroads. The river is 
spanned by a steel bridge. Its industries 
include coal mining, and the manufac- 
ture of flour, lumber, iron, glass, cigars, 
etc. It is the seat of the State normal 
school, and has a hospital, training 
school for nurses, excellent school build- 
ings, and the State miners' hospital. 
Pop. (1910) 9,711; (1920) 17,851. 

FATRMOUNT COLLEGE, an institu- 
tion for higher education at Wichita, 
Kan., founded in 1892 as a preparatory 
school. It took its present form and 
name in 1896. In the autumn of 1919 
there were 252 students and 19 instruc- 
tors. President, W. H. Rollins, D.D. 

FAIRY, a fay; an imaginary being 
or spirit, supposed to assume a human 
form, dance in meadows, steal infants, 
and play a variety of pranks; an en- 
chantress. In the traditional mythology 
of the nations of western Europe, fairies 
(the elves of the Anglo-Saxons) were 
generally believed to be a kind of inter- 
mediate beings, partaking both of the 
nature of men and spirits, having mate- 
rial bodies, and yet possessed of the 
power of making themselves invisible. 
They were remarkably small in stature, 
with fair complexions, and generally 
clothed in green. Their haunts were be- 
lieved to be groves, verdant meadows, and 
the slopes of hills ; and their great diver- 
sion, dancing hand-in-hand in a circle. 
The traces of their tiny feet were sup- 



FAIBY RINGS 



90 



FALCON" 



posed to remain visible on the grass long 
afterward, and were called Fairy Rings 
or Circles (q. v.). They were regarded 
as being sometimes benevolent and some- 
times mischievous. Croker in his "Fairy 
Legends and Traditions of the South of 
Ireland," describes them as being "a 
few inches high, airy, and almost trans- 
parent in body; so delicate in their form 
that a dewdrop, when they chance to 
dance upon it, trembles, indeed, but 
never breaks." They are supposed to 
live in large societies, governed by a 
queen; and the peasantry never speak 
of them but with caution and respect, as 
the good people and friends, believing 
them to be present and to hear what is 
said. The fairy superstition belongs to 
modern Europe. The pure fairy tales 
first became popular in the latter part of 
the 17th century, and the Italians ap- 
pear to have been the first to take the 
lead. They afterward became very pop- 
ular in France; and, at the present, they 
are more extensive and popular in Ger- 
many than in any other country. 

FAIRY RINGS, or CIRCLES, rings 
occasionally observed in pastures, and 
usually attributed by the peasantry of 
western Europe to the dancing of the 
fairies. They are now known to be oc- 
casioned by the growth of certain kinds 
of fungi, which, proceeding outward 
from a center, render the soil for a time 
unfitted for the nourishment of grass. 

FAITH, that assent or credence which 
we give to the declaration or promise of 
another, on the authority of the person 
who makes it. Faith is the means by 
which we obtain a knowledge of things 
which do not come under our own obser- 
vation — things not seen; and in this way 
faith is distinguished from sight. Faith 
is also distinct from reason, in so far as 
it deals with matters which we cannot 
comprehend by our reason; but, at the 
same time, while we exercise faith, we 
must also exercise reason; for it is im- 
possible to exercise an acceptable faith 
without reason for so exercising it. The 
term faith is used in theology for the 
assent of the mind to the truth of what 
has been revealed to us in the Holy 
Scriptures. 

In mythology. Fides was deified by the 
Romans, and had a temple dedicated to 
her as early as the time of Numa Pom- 
pilius. She is at times represented with 
a basket of fruit in one hand and ears of 
corn in the other; but her usual symbol 
is two hands clasped together. 

FAKIR, a Mohammedan religious 
mendicant. Among Anglo-Indians, and 
even among the Hindus, it is often used 
for a native mendicant of any faith; but 
specifically it is one of the Mohammedan 



religion ; a Hindu mendicant being better 
called a Gosavee. Mohammendan fakirs 
in the East either live in communities or 
are solitary. The latter wander from 
place to place, are of filthy habits, and 
are regarded by the unthinking Moham- 
medan multitude as men of great 
sanctity. 

In the United States, fakir is a slang 
name gfven to one of the numerous street 
merchants and mountebanks. 

FALAISE (f a-lais') , a town of France, 
department of Calvados, 15 miles from 
Caen. The castle, which stands on a 
precipice, and in which William the 
Conqueror was born in 1024, is in ruins, 
with the exception of a tower. 

FALCON, FAUCON, FAUCOUN, or 
FAULCON (fa'kn), one of the Fal- 
coninse, a sub-family of the FalcX)NID.(B. 
The beak is short, toothed, curved from 
the base with one or two strong indenta- 
tions on the margin on each side; wings 




SAKER FALCON 



very long. The best-known species is 
the peregrine falcon. It has always been 
held in the greatest esteem for hawking. 
It is of a bluish-gray color, narrowly 



FALCONET 91 

barred with black. Technically in fal- 
conry the female alone is termed a fal- 
con, the male, which is smaller and less 
courageous, being known as a terse! or 
tiercel. 

FALCONET, a little falcon; a name 
applied to a genus of tiny falcons, be- 
longing to the sub-family Falconinse, 
peculiar to the East Indies. One, Micro- 
Merax cserulescens, is found in the Him- 
alayas and Burmese countries. Not one 
tf these little hawks is seven inches in 
length; they are said to be used by na- 
tive chiefs for hawking insects and but- 
ton quails, being thrown from the hand 
like a ball. They sit solitary on high 
trees, and, according to native accounts, 
feed on small birds and insects. The 
word was also formerly applied to a 
small piece of ordnance, having an out- 
side diameter at the bore of 4% inches, 
length 6 feet, weight 400 pounds, and 
carrying a shot of about 2 inches dia- 
meter, and 1^/4 to 2 pounds in weight. 

FALIERO, or FALIERI, MARINO 
(fal-e-air'o, or e), a Venetian noble; 
born about 1274, who succeeded Andrew 
Dandolo as Doge of Venice, in 1354. He 
had previously commanded the troops of 
the republic at the siege of Zara, in Dal- 
matia, where he gained a brilliant victory 
over the King of Hungary; and was aft- 
erward ambassador to Genoa and Rome. 
When he succeeded to the office of doge, 
he was 76 years of age, and had a young 
and beautiful wife. Jealous of Michael 
Steno, he quarreled with and was in- 
sulted by him at a masquerade; but 
Steno being sentenced to no more than a 
month's imprisonment for his offense, 
Faliero, burning with revenge, entered 
into a conspiracy with the plebeians to 
overturn the government and massacre 
the patricians. On the night before it 
was to be carried into effect, the plot was 
discovered, and Faliero was beheaded 
April 17, 1355. 

FALISCI, a people of Etruria, said to 
have been originally a Macedonian 
colony. When they were besieged by the 
Roman general Camillus, a schoolmaster 
went out at the gates of the city with 
his pupils, and offered to betray them into 
the hands of the enemy, that, by such a 
possession, he might easily oblige the 
place to surrender. Camillus heard the 
proposal with indignation, and ordered 
the man to be stripped naked, and 
whipped back to the town by the very 
pupils whom his perfidy would have be- 
trayed. This instance of magnanimity 
operated upon the people so powerfully, 
that they surrendered to the Romans. 

FALK, PAUL LUDWIG ADALBERT, 
a noted German statesman; born in 



FALSIR 

Metschkau, Germany, Aug. 10, 1827; was 
graduated at the Medical Department of 
the University of Breslau; elected as a 
Liberal to the Prussian Diet in 1858. 
When the states of the German Empire 
were consolidated he was appointed to 
codify the laws of the confederation. In 
February, 1871, he became Prussian 
Minister to the Federal Council. Later 
he was appointed Minister of Education 
and Worship. In January, 1873, he pre- 
sented to the Prussian Chamber the 
scheme of ecclesiastical legislation known 
as the "May Laws." These laws v/ere 
administered with such severity and 
particularly where they affected the 
various religious bodies, that a bitter re- 
ligious conflict ensued. He resigned from 
the ministry July 14, 1879; and was 
president of the Provincial Court of 
Westphalia from 1882 till his death, in 
Hamm, Germany, July 7, 1900. 

FALKENHAYN, ERICH G. A. S. 
VON, a German general, born in 1861. 
He graduated from the war academy in 
1880 and was for three years military 
instructor in China. He was major of 
the German brigade of occupation in 
eastern Asia and was on the staff of 
Count von Waldersee during the opera- 
tions of the German contingent at the 
time of the Boxer uprisings, in 1900. In 
1912 he was Prussian Minister of War, 
and as such was a strong supporter of 
Lieutenant Forstner, against whom pub- 
lic opinion had been deeply aroused on 
account of his attack on a lame civilian 
in Zabern, the notorious "Zabem affair." 
In October, 1914, he replaced Von Moltke 
as Chief of the German General Staff, 
the latter having been relieved of his 
duties because of a disagreement over 
the tactics of the armies in France with 
the Emperor. General Falkenhayn was 
in command of the German-Austrian 
forces which invaded Rumania in 1916 
by way of the passes in the Carpathians, 
effecting a junction with Von Mackensen 
in the south, on the banks of the Danube. 

FALKIRK, a parliamentary and mu- 
nicipal burgh and market-town of Stir- 
lingshire in Scotland. It is on the North 
British railway and is connected with the 
east and west coasts by the Forth and 
Clyde canal. Its seaport is Grangemouth, 
on the Firth of Forth, about three miles 
distant. The city has several notable 
buildings, including a town hall, free 
library, and a hospital. It is the center 
of the Scotch iron foundry trade. In the 
neighborhood are important coal mines 
and large distilleries. The town was 
founded in the 11th century, and in 1298 
it was the scene of an important battle 
between the English under Edward I. 
and the Scotch under William Wallace, 



FALKLAND ISLANDS 



in which the latter were defeated. Pop. 
(1911) 33,574; (1918) (est.) 35,251. 

FALKLAND ISLANDS, two large is- 
lands, with a number of smaller ones 
surrounding them, in the South Atlantic 
Ocean. These islands were discovered by- 
Davis in 1592, and came into the posses- 
sion of the British in 1771. Their appro- 
priation has been at times disputed; but 
since 1833 the British have held unin- 
terrupted occupancy of them. Capital, 
Stanley; area, 6,500 square miles; pop. 
about 3,000. 

FALKLAND ISLANDS, BATTLE OF, 
a naval engagement fought Dec. 8, 1914, 
between a British squadron led by Rear- 
Admiral Sir Frederick Sturdee and the 
German Far East squadron under Ad- 
miral Von Spee. On Nov. 1 of the same 
year the German squadron had met the 



92 TALKNKR 

in number, and there were few German 
survivors from the foundered vessels. 
"Niirnberg" was speedily overtaken and 
sunk, but the "Dresden" roamed the seas 
for months and was finally sunk off Juan 
Fernandez on March 14, 1915. In the 
squadron of Rear-Admiral Sturdee were 
two battle cruisers, the "Invincible" and 
the "Inflexible," armed with 12-inch guns 
and capable of a speed of 28 knots, and 
three armored cruisers, the "Carnarvon," 
"Kent" and "Cornwall." These were sup- 
plemented by the "Glasgow," which had 
been in the previous engagement. The 
Germans had been brought to battle by 
a ruse. They had come expecting to find 
a single British warship, and were sud- 
denly confronted by Sturdee's powerful 
squadron steaming out of a land-locked 
harbor. The ice-cold water is given 
among the causes that prevented the res- 




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GERMAN SipiJADtiON(BLACtO 
I. SCHARNHORSr 
Z-NURNBERO *: DRESDEN 
3-6NEISENAIJ SL^IPIIQ 



BATTLE OF FALKLAND ISLANDS, DEC. 8, 1914 



British squadron under Admiral Cradock 
off the coast of Chile and had sunk the 
•Good Hope" and the "Monmouth," the 
"Glasgow" and the transport "Otranto" 
averting destruction by flight. It was as 
a consequence of this disaster that a pow- 
erful squadron was sent out by the 
British to search for Admiral Von Spee's 
fleet. On Dec. 9 the two squadrons came 
in sight of each other. On the German 
side were the cruisers "Gneisenau" and 
"S harnhorst," and the light cruisers 
"Niirnberg," "Leipzig" and "Dresden." 
These vessels mounted 16 8.2-inch, 12 5.9- 
inch, 32 4.1-inch, 40 3.4-inch, and 12 2.1- 
inch guns. The contest was a brief one. 
Following it the British Admiralty an- 
nounced that the "Scharnhorst," flying 
the flag of Admiral Count Von Spee, the 
"Gneisenau" and the "Leipzig" had been 
sunk. The "Dresden" and the "Niirn- 
berg" made off during the action and 
were pursued. Two colliers were cap- 
tured. The British casualties were few 



cue of survivors, just as the victors in 
the battle off the coast of Chile had 
been prevented by the heavy seas to save 
the defeated crews. It is stated also that 
many while in the water were attacked 
by the albatrosses which picked at their 
eyes. As a result of the struggle with 
the vultures the weakened members of 
the crew slipped off the debris and 
were lost. 

FALKNEB, BOLAND POST, an 

American statistician; born in Bridge- 
port, Conn., April 14, 1866; was gradu- 
ated at the University of Pennsylvania 
in 1885; studied economics at Berlin, 
Leipzig, and Halle-on-Saale, Germany; 
was instructor in accounting and statis- 
tics in the University of Pennsylvania 
in 1888-1891, and Professor of Statistics 
in 1891-1900. He served also as statis- 
tician of the United States Senate Com- 
mittee of Finance in 1891; as secretary 
of the United States Delegation to the 



EALL 



93 



falli£bes 



International Monetary Conference; and 
as secretary of the conference in 1892. 
He was a member of the American 
Economic Association, the American Sta- 
tistical Association, and the American 
Academy of Political and Social Science; 
author of numerous essays on crimi- 
nology, sociology, etc.; chief of the di- 
vision of documents in the Library of 
Congress, and editor of "Annals" of the 
American Academy of Political and 
Social Science (1890-1900). Commission- 
er of education, Porto Rico (1904-1907), 
Statistician U. S. Immigrant Commission 
(1908-1911), Assistant Director of Cen- 
sus (1911-1912). 

FALL, ALBERT BACON, a United 
States senator from New Mexico, born 
in Frankfort, Ky., in 1861. He was edu- 
cated in the country schools. After read- 
ing law, he was admitted to the bar and 
began practice in 1889, continuing until 
1904. He worked as a miner and became 
interested in mines, lumber, lands, and 
railroads, acquiring large interests in 
farming, stock raising, and mining. He 
served as a member of the New Mexico 
Legislature and as associate justice of 
the Supreme Court of New Mexico. He 
was elected to the United States Senate 
in 1912 and was again elected in 1913 for 
the term of 1913-1919. He was re-elected 
in 1919. In the Senate he gave special 
attention to the relations of the United 
States and Mexico, and in 1918-1920 he 
conducted a series of investigations re- 
lating to Mexico and the border States, 
Arizona and New Mexico. He became 
Secretary of the Interior on March 
4, 1921. 

_ FALL. THE, a term used of the first 
sin of Adam, and hence often called "the 
fall of Adam," with which "original sin" 
his posterity are held to have had mys- 
teriously to do; on which account we 
often meet with the term "the fall of 
man." The verb "to fall" is often used 
in a generic sense in Scripture for a 
lapse into sin (Ezek. xliv: 12, Rom. xiv: 
13, ICor. x: 12, Rev. ii : 5. The sub- 
stantive is not used equivocally in the 
same sense. "The Fall" is therefore a 
theological rather than a scriptural term. 
According to the Biblical narration, God 
created man in His own image (Gen. i: 
27), like the rest of creation "very good" 
(i: 31). In the midst of the garden of 
Eden, in which the first parents of our 
race were placed, was the Tree of the 
Knowledge of Good and Evil. This they 
were forbidden to eat on pain of death, 
all other trees being f I'eely granted them 
for food (ii: 16-17). Beguiled by the 
serpent. Eve first yielded, and then, at 
her persuasion, Adam ate the forbidden 
fruit (Gen. iii: 1-6): after this they 
Vol. IV— Cyc— G 



feared to continue communion with God 
(8-10), had sentence pronounced against 
them (16-19), and were expelled from 
the blissful garden (24). In the New 
Testament it is indirectly hinted that 
the devil used the serpent as a mouth- 
piece, whence he is called "that old ser- 
pent . . . which deceiveth the whole 
world" (Rev. xii: 9), and "the dragon 
that old serpent" (xx: 2), and is said by 
our Lord to have been "a murderer from 
the beginning" (John viii: 44). 

FALLIERES, ARMAND, 8th Presi- 
dent X)f the French Republic. He was 
born at Mezin, Lot-et-Garonne, in 1841, 
and after his preliminary education took 
up the study of law. His first promi- 
nent public position was as mayor of 




ARMAND FALLlfcRES 

Nerac, following on which he was in 
1876 elected as member of the Chamber 
of Deputies, where he sat with the re- 
publicans. His career in the chamber 
showed him to be possessed of much solid 
talent, and in 1880 he was appointed to 
act as Undersecretary in the Ministry 
of the Interior, holding that position dur- 
ing the Ferry administration till the 
baginning of 1882. After an interval 
he became, toward the end of the same 
year, head of the department under Du- 
clerc, becoming in 1883 Minister of Pub- 
lic Instruction in the Ferry administra- 
tion. When in 1887 Rouvier succeeded, 
he became Minister of the Interior, and 
was later (1887-1889) Minister of Jus- 
tice and Public Instruction under Tirard, 
holding that position later under Frey- 
cinet, who was head of the administra- 
tion from 1890 to 1892. In 1890 Fal. 



FALLING STABS 



94 



FALL RIVER 



lieres entered the Senate and gained 
much distinction in that chamber. In 
1899 he was elected President of the 
Chamber, being re-elected eight times in 
succession. In the elections of 1906 he 
was put forward by the Socialists and 
Republicans as their candidate for Pres- 
ident to succeed Loubet, easily winning 
over Doumer, who had the support of 
the Conservative elements. In January 
of the same year he was elected by the 
National Assembly by 449 votes to 371, 
a&suming office as President in Febru- 
ary. He held the office till succeeded by 
M. Poincare in 1913. As President he 
gave support to the same principles and 
tendencies that had secured his adhesion 
during his public life, favoring the radi- 
cal elements, and opposing the royalists 
and conservatives. The first year of his 
presidency was signalized by much pub- 
lic excitement, due to the resistance of 
religious associations to conform their 
organization to certain rules issued by 
the Government, which as a result com- 
pelled the evacuation of many churches, 
convents, and monasteries. In 1909 Fal- 
lieres, in conjunction with the Cabinet, 
formed a separate Ministry of Labor. 

FALLING STARS. See METEOR. 

FALLOPIAN TUBES, two ducts or 
canals floating in the abdomen, and ex- 
tending from the upper angles of the 
womb to the pelvis. They were popu- 
larly but incorrectly believed to have 
been discovered by Fallopius. 

FALLOW DEER (Dama vulgaris), an 
animal of the deer kind, well known from 
being preserved in a semi-domesticated 
state in many English parks. The color 
of the wild animal, both buck and doe, 
is a rich yellowish brown in summer, 
spotted with white all over. In winter 
the tints are more somber and grayish. 
Domestic varieties vary greatly both in 
the distinctness of the spotting and the 
general coloration. The antlers are pal- 
mated in the upper parts, in the region 
of the sui'-royals, the digitations or ter- 
minal points being developed along the 
convex posterior margin of the palmated 
surface. Till six years of age the buck 
receives a distinct name each year from 
sportsmen — viz., fawn, pricket, sorrel, 
soare, buck of the first head, and buck 
complete; the antlers not being devel- 
oped at all in the fawn, being simple 
snags in the pricket, with two front 
branches in the sorrel, with slight pal- 
mation of the extremity of the beam in 
the soare, and the whole antler larger 
and larger until the sixth year. It is a 
native of northern Europe. 

FALLOWS, SAMUEL, an American 
clergyman; born in Pendleton, Lanca- 



shire, England, Dec. 13, 1835; was gradu- 
ated at the University of Wisconsin in 
1859; vice-president of Galesville Uni- 
versity in 1859-1861; minister of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church in 1859- 
1875, and later of the Reformed Episco- 
pal Church. He served with distinction 
in the Civil War. Subsequently he 
preached at Milwaukee; was State Su- 
perintendent of Public Instruction in 
Wisconsin in 1871-1874; regent of the 
University of Wisconsin in 1866-1874; 
and president of Wesleyan University in 
1874-1875. He became rector of St. 
Paul's Reformed Episcopal Church in 
Chicago in 1875, and bishop in 1876; 
was president of the Illinois State Re- 
formatory; chairman-general of the Edu- 
cational Committee of the World's Con- 
gresses; chancellor of the University 
Association. Chaplain-in-chief of G. A. 
R., 1907-1908. Patriotic instructor to 
the same, 1908-1909. Commander for 
Illinois of the Loyal Legion (1907). De- 
partment commander for Illinois of the 
G. A. R. (1914-1915). Author, "Life of 
Samuel Adams," "Students' Biblical Dic- 
tionary," "Past Noon," "Splendid Deeds," 
"Popular and Critical Biblical Encyclo- 
pedia" (1901); "Health and Happiness" 
(1908). 

FALL RIVER, a city and port of 
entry of Bristol co., Mass., at the mouth 
of the Taunton river, where it empties 
into Mount Hope Bay, and on the New 
York, New Haven and Hartford rail- 
road; 49 miles S. of Boston. It is con- 
nected with New York City by steamers, 
and has a fine harbor capable of admit- 
ting the largest vessels. The stream 
called Fall River is the outlet of Wa- 
tuppa lake, and has a fall of 129 feet in 
less than half a mile, affording excellent 
water power. 

Public Interests. — The city is built on 
high ground and covers an area of 42 
square miles. The streets are well laid 
out and contain many handsome build- 
ings, largely of granite, found in the 
vicinity. It is lighted by gas and elec- 
tricity; has a waterworks system owned 
by the city, supplying 18,000,000 gallons 
daily from Lake Watuppa. Its educa- 
tional institutions include the Durfee 
public high school, the Academy La Ste. 
Union des Sacres Coeurs, Notre Dame 
College, Fall River Conservatory of 
Music, and a civil service school. There 
are also a public library, several cir- 
culating libraries, a State armory, and 
50 churches, daily and weekly news- 
papers, and electric street railways con- 
necting with neighboring towns. 

Business Interests. — Fall River is the 
largest cotton-milling city in the United 
States. The city has cotton goods estab- 



FALLS 



95 



FAMILY 



fishments employing 40,000 persons and 
over $40,000,000 capital. Other impor- 
tant manufactures are machines and 
machinery, food preparations, clothing, 
woolen goods, metals and metallic goods, 
drugs and medicines, paints and dyes, 
cordage and twine, and clocks, watches, 
and jewelry, boots and shoes, brass prod- 
ucts, rubber, sash, etc. In 1919 there 
were 4 National banks. The exchanges 
at the United States clearing-house dur- 
ing the year ending Sept. 30, 1919, 
aggregated $108,228,000. 

Histot'y. — The city was originally a 
part of Freetown, but was incorporated 
separately in 1803. Later it was called 
Troy, but its first name was restored in 
1834. The city charter was granted in 
1854 and in 1862 Fall River in Newport 
CO., R. I., was annexed. Pop. (1910) 
119,295; (1920) 120,485. 

FALLS, DE WITT CLINTON, an 

American artist, soldier and writer, born 
in New York City in 1864. He was 
educated in private schools. He served 
during the Spanish-American War and 
on the Mexican border. In 1917 he was 
appointed colonel of the 7th Infantry of 
the New York Guard. In the following 
year he became major in the United 
States Army and was assigned inspector 
of the General Staff. He was promoted 
to be colonel and was honorably dis- 
charged in 1919. Prior to his discharge 
from the American Army he acted as 
observer in the Russian Army during 
the Russo-Japanese War. During the 
World War he engaged in special duty 
at the American Embassy in London. 
He was a member of many patriotic 
societies. He wrote "A. B. C. of Golf" 
(1897); "The Journey Book" (1910); 
"Mobilization of the Armies of Belgium 
and England" (1914) ; "Army and 
Navy Information Book" (1917). He 
was the illustrator of a number of 
books. 

FALMOUTH, a town in Barnstable 
CO., Mass.; on Buzzards Bay, Vineyard 
Sound, and on the New York, New 
Haven and Hartford railroad, at the 
extreme W. end of Cape Cod; 50 miles 
S. E. of Boston. It is the center of an 
agricultural and cranberry region. It 
is best known as containing the Woods 
Hole (g. v.) Station of the United 
States Fish Commission. 

FALMOUTH, a seaport town of Eng- 
land, Cornwall county, at the mouth of 
the Fal river, 11 miles from Truro. It 
has a good harbor, and a fine and 
spacious roadstead. There are two 
castles on the coast, one of which, Pen- 
dennis, commands the entrance of the 
harbor; and the other, on the opposite 



side, is St. Mawes Castle. The town is 
chiefly important as a station of the 
boats carrying foreign mails. The 
scenery of the Fal, from Truro to Fal- 
mouth, is of great beauty. Pop. about 
12,000. 

FALSE DEMETRIUS, THE. See 
Demetrius. 

FALSTER, one of the Danish islands 
in the Baltic, separated by narrow 
straits from Zealand on the N., Moen on 
the N. E., and Laaland on the W.; 
length, N. to S., 27 miles; breadth, vary- 
ing from 3 to 14 miles; area, 194 square 
miles; surface, almost entirely flat. Fal- 
ster is the pleasantest of all the Danish 
islands, is well watered, richly wooded, 
and so prolific in fruit that it has been 
called the "orchard of Denmark." Pro- 
ducts, corn, hemp, hops, cattle, honey, 
wax, etc. Some shipbuilding is carried 
on. Capital, Nykjobing. Pop. about 
40,000. 

FAMAGUSTA (fa-ma-goos'ta) , a sea- 
port town of the island of Cyprus, 40 
miles E. of Nicosia. Famagusta is built 
on the ruins of the ancient Arsinoe, and 
during the Venetian regime it was one 
of the richest and most populous towns 
in the Levant. It is now almost in ruins, 
with its once fine harbor almost choked 
up with sand, having declined since its 
conquest by the Turks in 1571. About 
5 miles N. E. are the ruins of Constan- 
tia, occupying the site of the ancient 
Salamis, now called Eski, or Old Fama- 
gusta. Guy de Lusignan was here 
crowned King of Cyprus in 1191. 

FAMILY, a household, including 
parents, children, and servants; the col- 
lective body of persons who reside under 
one roof, and under one head, or 
manager; those who descend from one 
common ancestor; a tribe or race; 
kindred; as, the human family; lineage; 
line of ancestors. Among the Romans, 
familia was applied to all persons in the 
power of a ixtterfamilias — as his sons, 
daughters, grandchildren and slaves; 
but it was also used in a wider sense, 
including all objects of property, even 
inanimate. The family is the corner- 
stone of the social edifice. Hence, it has 
been taken as a model for forming other 
associations — political, civil, or religi- 
ous. Among the early Hebrews, and in 
Eastern countries, the patriarchal form 
of government is only an extension of 
the family relationship. The Greeks re- 
garded the family as a type of the state; 
and among the Romans the natural 
power of a father was taken as the 
basis of the whole social and political 
organization of the people. The family 
life is based upon the wants and necessi- 



FAMINE 



96 



FANEUIL 



ties of our nature, and is essentially 
fitted to develop and foster those habits 
and affections on which the happiness 
and welfare of mankind depend. It can, 
however, exist in a state of purity only 
where monogamy prevails. 

In botany, a synonym for Order 
(q. v.). In zoology, the group above the 
genus. An order of animals should be 
divided into families according to the 
form of species, but, in fact, the great- 
est confusion reigns in the classification 
of the animal kingdom. 

FAMINE, a scarcity of food over 
large areas, resulting in suffering or 
death by starvation and disease to mul- 
titudes. Short crops are caused by 
drought, excess of rainfall, severe and 
untimely frosts, the ravages of insects 
and vermin, the devastation of war, 
wholesale destruction of forests, dis- 
eases of plants, etc. 

The Greek republics enacted very 
strenuous laws regarding the trade in 
grain; and the Romans, even at the 
time of their greatest prosperity, were 
so dependent on Egypt and Sicily for 
their breadstuffs, that even a brief delay 
in the aiTcival of the ships caused local 
famines. In the Middle Ages famines 
were of frequent occurrence and were 
often accompanied by frightful social 
phenomena. The famine of 1125 dimin- 
ished the population of Germany one- 
half. All through the Middle Ages pub- 
lic opinion upheld the city authorities in 
driving out of the gates the neediest 
inhabitants and letting them perish. 
In a famine which devastated Hungary 
in 1505 parents who killed and ate their 
children were not punished. As late as 
the middle of the 17th century famines 
were a common affliction in Europe and 
even in the 18th century they still oc- 
curred. The last time a period of bad 
hai-vests was designated as a famine in 
Germany was in 1817. 

During and in the year following the 
"World War (1914-1918), there were 
many deaths from famine in Europe, but 
it is inconceivable at the present time 
that a general famine should devastate 
western or central Europe or the 
Americas. In India and other parts of 
Asia the situation is diffei-ent. In India, 
where there are eight months of dry 
weather and the crops depend on the 
rainfall of four months and subsequent 
irrigation, if there is any lack in the 
monsoon, famine is almost sure to fol- 
low. Under the I'ule of the English, too, 
the population has greatly increased, 
and, while the majority of people live 
from hand to mouth in ordinary times, 
the slightest failure in the rice crop 
causes the famine point to be immedi- 



ately reached. The recent famine in 
India cost the government in 1900-1901 
$28,235,000. Apart from this $13,700,- 
000 was advanced to native states for 
famine relief and $4,735,000 for special 
agricultural advances. In 1870-1872 
Persia lost 1,500,000 inhabitants, a 
quarter of the whole population. In the 
N. provinces or China, Shensi, Shansi, 
and Honan, with a population of 56,- 
000,000, during the years following 1877 
it was reckoned that between 4,000,000 
and 6,000,000 people perished. In the 
famine of 1891-1892 in Russia it was 
estimated that in 18 provinces 27,000,- 
000 inhabitants were affected. 

In the summer of 1920, a famine in 
China caused thousands of deaths. 

FANATIC, a person affected by ex- 
cessive zeal and enthusiasm, especially 
on religious subjects; one laboring under 
wild and extravagant notions of reli- 
gion; an enthusiast; a visionary. 

In ancient Rome the term was applied 
to such as passed their time in temples, 
and who, pretending to be inspired by 
the divinity, would burst into wild and 
frantic gestures, utter pretended pro- 
phecies, cut themselves with knives, etc. 
Hence, the term has in modern times 
come to be applied to such as manifest 
a religious enthusiasm, uncontrolled by 
reason or experience. Fanaticism is 
sometimes applied in a wider sense to 
any excessive prepossession of the mind 
by ideas of any kind. It has prevailed 
under different forms in all ages of the 
world; and one of its most remarkable 
and dangerous features is the tendency 
that it has to spread over large masses 
of a people. The very earnestness of the 
fanatic serves to carry conviction to the 
minds of others. Among persons of this 
class were Madame Guyon, Joanna 
Southcott, and numerous others. 

FAN CORAL, in zoology, the name of 
the genus Rhipidogorgia, belonging to 
the family Gorgonidae. 

FANDANGO, a lively Spanish dance 
in triple time, derived from the Moors. 
It is danced by two persons, male and fe- 
male, and accompanied by the sounds of 
the guitar. The dancers have castanets 
which they beat in time to the measure, 
though sometimes the male dancer beats 
a tambourine. Also the accompaniment 
of this dance. 

FANEUIL, PETER, an American 
merchant; born in New Rochelle, N. Y., 
in 1700; settled in Boston, Mass., where 
he became a successful merchant. In 
1740 he built a market house at his per- 
sonal expense as a gift to the town. 
During the Revolutionary War thi* 
building was often used as a meeting- 



FANEUIL HALL 

place by the patriots. Owing to the 
many stirring debates that occurred 
here, the hall received the name of "the 
Cradle of American Liberty." Faneuil 
died in Boston, Mass., March 3, 1743. 
See Faneuil Hall. 

FANEUIL HALL, a public hall in 
Boston, presented to the town by Peter 
Faneuil, in 1740. In 1761 it was de- 
stroyed by fire. In 1763 it was rebuilt by 
the town; and, in 1775, during the Brit- 
ish occupation of Boston, it was used 
for a theater. It is an edifice about 80 
feet square ; the hall contains some fine 
paintings; and the basement is still used 
as a market. See Faneuil, Peter. 

FANNING ISLANDS, a group of is- 
lands in the Pacific Ocean, lying be- 
tween longitude 157° and 163° West. 
The group has an area of about 260 
square miles. The chief islands are 
Christmas, Fanning, Jarvis, Washing- 
ton, and Palmyra. They have been the 
property of Great Britain since 1888. 
Pop. about 200. 

FANO (ancient Fanum Fortunae, from 
a temple dedicated to the goddess For- 
tuna) ; a well-built town and seaport of 
central Italy, province of Urbino, 7 
miles S. E. of Pesaro, and 29 N. W. by 
W. of Ancona. Manufactures silk stuffs, 
twists, etc. Pop. about 12,000. 

FANTAIL, in zoology, a genus of 
Australian birds (Rhipidnra) belonging 
to the family Muscicapidse. They derive 
their name from the fan-like shape of 
their tails. Also a variety of the domes- 
tic pigeon. In gas lighting a form of gas 
burner, in which the burning jet has 
an arched form. In carpentry, a kind of 
joint. 

Fantail warbler; in ornithology, Cis- 
ticola eursitans, a very tiny bird, some- 
what like a diminutive lark. It is a na- 
tive of southern Europe, Africa, India, 
and China. 

FANTASIA, in music, a species of 
composition in which the author confines 
himself to no particular form or theme, 
but ranges as his fancy leads amid vari- 
ous airs and movements. 

FANTIS, a negro people on the Gold 
Coast of Africa. They were once the 
most numerous and powerful people on 
the Gold Coast. In 1873 they were at- 
tacked by the Ashantees who after a 
considerable struggle were conquered by 
British forces. Ashantee became a Brit- 
ish protectorate in 1896, and was an- 
nexed in 1901. 

FARAD (from Michael Faraday, the 
great electrician) , the standard electrical 
unit, which is measured by the capacity 
of a condenser, that with an electromo- 



97 FARADAY 

tive force of one volt is able to overcome 
a resistance equivalent to one ohm in one 
second, or in other words, the resistance 
offered by a cylindrical copper wire 250 
feet long, 1-20 inch in diameter, the ohm 
being the magneto-electric unit. 

FARADAY, MICHAEL, an English 
scientist; born in Newington Butts, Eng- 
land, Sept. 22, 1791. He received little 
or no education and was apprenticed to 
the trade of a bookbinder. During his 
term of apprenticeship, a few scientific 
woi-ks fell into his hands, and he devoted 
himself to the study of, and experi- 
ments in, electricity. Having attended 
the lectures given in 1812 by Sir Hum- 
phry Davy, and taken notes thereon, he 
sent them to that great philosopher, and 
besought some scientific occupation. The 
reply was prompt and favorable. In 1813 
Faraday was appointed chemical assist- 
ant, under Sir Humphry, at the Royal 
Institution. After a continental tour in 
company with his patron, Faraday, still 
pursuing his scientific investigations, dis- 
covered, in 1820, the chlorides of carbon, 
and, in the following year, the mutual 
rotation of a magnetic pole and an 
electric current. These discoveries led to 
the condensation of gases in 1823. In 
1829 he labored on the production of 
optical glass; but though unsuccessful in 
his immediate object, his experiments 
produced the heavy glass which after- 
ward proved of great assistance to him 
in his magnetical investigations. In 1831 
the series of "Experimental Researches 
in Electricity," published in the "Philo- 
sophical Transactions," began with the 
development of the induction of electric 
currents, and the evolution of electricity 
from magnetism. Three years later Fara- 
day established the principle of definite 
electrolytic action, and in 1846 received 
at the same time the Royal and the Rum- 
ford medals for his discoveries of dia- 
magnetism, and of the influence of mag- 
netism upon light respectively. In 1847 
he discovered the magnetic character of 
oxygen, and, also, the magnetic relations 
of flame and gases. His papers, includ- 
ing other contributions to the store of 
modern science, are too numerous to 
mention in detail. In 1833 Faraday was 
appointed Professor of Chemistry in the 
Royal Institution, London, which chair 
he continued to hold until his death. In 
1835 he received from government a pen- 
sion of .$1,500 per annum in recognition 
of his eminent scientific merits. In 1836 
he was appointed a member of the senate 
of London University. From 1829 to 
1842 he was chemical lecturer at the 
Royal Academy. In 1823 Faraday was 
elected corresponding member of the 
French Academy, in 1825 he was chosen 



FAR EASTERN QUESTION 



98 



FARIBAULT 



a Fellow of the Royal Society, and in 
1832 made a D. C. L. of Oxford Uni- 
versity. He was, besides, a knight of 
several of the European orders, and a 
member of the chief learned and scien- 
tific societies in Europe and the United 
States. He died in Hampton Court, Aug. 
25, 1867. 

FAB EASTERN QUESTION, that 
problem of international politics which 
has to do with the maintenance of the 
equilibrium of the various national 
spheres of influence in the Far East, 
especially in China. China, and formerly 
Japan, have been nations whose com- 
mercial importance has been out of all 
proportion to their political and military 
power. The consequence has been that 
there has been a keen rivalry among the 
Western nations for commercial influence 
in the Orient, resulting in a pressure of 
special privileges which the military im- 
potence of China made her unable to 
resist. Until the World War this 
rivalry for trade privileges existed be- 
tween Great Britain, France, Russia, 
Gerrnany, and the United States. A 
partial solution to the problem thus 
raised was found in an agreement 
whereby the Orient was divided into 
"spheres of influence," the territory in- 
volved being apportioned out among the 
rivals, each to have a dominant interest 
in its own sphere. The exception has 
been the United States, whose Govern- 
ment has stood for an equal opportunity 
in the markets of China for all. 

These spheres of influence were recog- 
nized as follows: the Yang-tse Valley 
and Tibet for Great Britain; Mongolia 
and Manchuria for Russia; Indo-China 
for France, and Kiauchau and the Shan- 
tung Peninsula for Germany. Since her 
emergence into the concert of nations as 
a military and naval power to be reck- 
oned with, Japan has also been granted 
recognition, and has had Korea assigned 
to her as her sphere of influence. 

These influences progressed rapidly, 
to the point where they amounted to at 
least partial military occupation, as in 
the case of Kiauchau by Germany, Korea 
by Japan, Manchuria by Russia, and 
Hong-Kong by Great Britain. Inevitably 
the final result would have been the com- 
plete partitioning of China among the 
rivals, had it not been for the consistent 
opposition of the United States to such 
a conclusion. 

As first enunciated by Anson Bur- 
lingame, in 1868, the United States was 
unalterably opposed to any further 
undermining of the "right of eminent 
domain" by China herself. This policy 
was further elaborated into the "open 
door"' policy by John Hay, after the 



Boxer troubles, in 1900, which the rival 
nations made the pretext of a military 
occupation of the Chinese capital itself. 
During 1912-1914 President Wilson still 
further voiced this policy by declaring 
that the Powers involved must keep 
"hands off" China, and respect her na- 
tional entity. 

Since the World War the superficial 
aspect of the problem has been somewhat 
changed by the elimination of Germany 
and Russia as factors. Kiauchau and 
the Shantung Peninsula, the German 
"sphere," were occupied by Japan, as one 
of the allies opposing Germany, with 
the declared intention of returning these 
territories to the Chinese administration. 
This promise Japan had not, in 1920, ful- 
filled. The Russian Soviet Government, 
in _ September, 1920, voluntarily relin- 
quished the Russian treaty rights in 
China. 

FARGO, a city and county-seat of 
Cass CO., N. D. ; on the Red river, and 
on the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul, 
the Northern Pacific, and the Great 
Northern railroads; opposite Moorhead, 
Minn, Here are a United States land 
ofl[ice, Fargo College (Cong.), the State 
Agricultural and Mechanical College, 
high school, court house, waterworks, 
street railroad and electric light plants, 
several banks, hospitals, parks, and a 
number of daily and weekly newspapers. 
It has the car shops of the Northern 
Pacific railroad, flour, planing and paper 
mills, large grain elevators, knitting 
mills, bottling works, and large brick 
yards. Pop. (1910) 14,331; (1920) 
21,961. 

FARGO COLLEGE, a coeducational in- 
stitution in Fargo, N. D. ; founded in 
1888 under the auspices of the Congre- 
gational Church; reported at the close 
of 1919 : Professors and instructors, 
32; students, 602. President, W. H. 
Howard, 

FARGO, WILLIAM GEORGE, an 
American capitalist; born in Pompey, N. 
Y., May 20, 1818; became Buffalo agent 
of the Pomeroy Express Company in 
1843; established the first express com- 
pany W. of Buffalo, in 1844; and, in 
1868, became president of the gi'eat cor- 
poration controlling the whole West, the 
Wells Fargo Express Company, He died 
in Buffalo, N. Y., Aug. 3, 1881. 

FARIBAULT, a city and county-seat 
of Rice CO., Minn.; at the confluence of 
the Cannon and Straight rivers, and on 
the Chicago Great Western, the Chicago, 
Rock Island and Pacific and the Chicago, 
Milwaukee and St. Paul railroads; 53 
miles S. of St. Paul. Here are a court 
house, city hall, public library, the Shat- 



FARLEY 



99 



PARM MANAGEMENT 



tuck Military School, the Seabury Divin- 
ity School, the State Schools for the 
Deaf, Blind, and Imbeciles, Bethlehem 
Academy for Girls, St. Mary's School 
for Girls, gas and electric lights and 
weekly and monthly periodicals. It has 
manufactories of pianos, carriages, fur- 
niture, boiler works, foundry products, 
rattan goods, and gasoline engines, and 
canning establishments, flour, planing 
and woolen mills. Pop. (1910) 9,001; 
(1920) 11,089. 

FARLEY, JOHN MURPHY, CARDI- 
NAL, an American prelate. He was 
born at Newton Hamilton, Armagh, Ire- 
land, in 1842, and received his prelim- 
inary education in his native place. Com- 
ing to the United States in early youth 
he became a student at St. John's Col- 
lege, Fordham, and at St. Joseph's Sem- 




CABDINAL FARLEY 

inary, Troy, and then was transferred to 
the American College at Rome. He was 
ordained priest in Rome in 1870 and took 
charge of a parish in Staten Island for 
two years. After acting as secretary to 
Cardinal McCloskey he was chosen rector 
of the American College at Rome, but 
was retained in New York and given the 
appointment of private chamberlain. In 
1891 he became vicar-general of the arch- 
diocese of New York, and in 1895 pro- 
thonotary apostolic. He was then made 
assistant bishop, and in 1902 succeeded 
as archbishop of New York. In 1911 he 
journeyed to Rome to be made cardinal 
and on his return to New York was given 



a great popular ovation. During the 
later as during the early years of his 
archiepiscopate he showed great energy 
in furthering the erection of churches, 
schools, orphanages, hospitals, and other 
institutions in the popular archdiocese. 
He died at Mamaroneck, N. Y., Sept. 17, 
1918. He was an eloquent preacher and 
was a contributor to several magazines. 
He was author of a "Life of Cardinal 
McCloskey." 

FARM, a tract or piece of land culti- 
vated by a single person, whether 
owner or tenant; also a district farmed 
out for the collection of revenue; or the 
right or permission to sell certain arti- 
cles subject to duties. Also a term 
formerly used in Cornish mining for the 
lord's fee, which is taken for liberty to 
work tin-bounds. 

FARM MANAGEMENT, the problem 
of economics in agricultural production, 
with the object of introducing therein 
the same business efficiency which has 
brought American manufacturing to its 
present high degree of perfection. While 
the basis of manufacturing industry has 
been radically changed by the use of ma- 
chinery and factory organization, thus 
becoming the subject of executive man- 
agement, agricultural production has not 
undergone any such basic changes. 
Farming is still a one-man enterprise 
and is still largely carried on in the same 
way in which it was carried on when 
the handicrafts system of manufacturing 
obtained. It has been only partially 
affected by machinery, and that in only 
certain phases, as in the production of 
the grain crops, which are now harvested 
by machinery. Farming, therefore, still 
remains very much a home industry. 

The rapid growth of the urban popu- 
lation, and its demands for farm-grown 
products, have made improved methods in 
agricultural production a national prob- 
lem. For this reason the Federal Depart- 
ment of Agriculture and the various 
State agricultural departments have 
made efficiency in agricultural production 
one of their chief aims. 

Minnesota, through its agricultural ex- 
periment station, in 1902, was the first 
State to raise the problem of farm 
management to the dignity of a special 
scientific study. Shortly after this sub- 
ject also received the serious considera- 
tion of the Federal Department of Agri- 
culture. Now it has been taken up by 
most of the other States, and every effort 
is made, through literature and practical 
demonstrations, to propagate among the 
farmers a knowledge of the results ob- 
tained from the experiments made by the 
demonstration farms established in all 
parts of the country. 



FARMEB 



100 



EABMINa 



Farm management involves many 
phases of practical farming; the proper 
rotation of crops, the comparative value 
of fertilizers; co-operative organization 
for the purpose of purchasing seeds and 
fertilizers, and for the sale of crops at 
a minimum of loss to profiteering middle- 
men, and, by no means least, a proper 
system of bookkeeping, whereby the in- 
dividual farmer may know his profits 
and losses on his various transactions, 
so that the source of loss may be elim- 
inated. All means to making farming 
profitable to farmers are considered a 
legitimate part of the general subject 
of farm management. The economy of 
gasoline-driven vehicles for carrying pro- 
duce to market, or of dynamite in dig- 
ging ditches for drainage, are fair illus- 
trations of phases which are shown by 
actual demonstration. The main object is 
to eliminate waste and to introduce a 
scientific efficiency in every department 
of agricultural production. A fuller dis- 
cussion of this subject will be found in 
"What is Farm Management?" Bulletin 
No. 259, issued by the Bureau of Plant 
Industry, Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, D. C. 

FARMER, one who farms or contracts 
to collect taxes, imposts, duties, etc., for 
a certain payment per cent.; also one 
who farms or cultivates ground; an agri- 
culturist; a husbandman. 

FARMER - LABOR PARTY. — See 
United States. Political Happenings. 

FARMERS' ALLIANCE, a general 
term for an American association of 
agriculturists which was founded in 1873, 
originally in Texas, where it was organ- 
ized for the purpose of co-operation 
against cattle thieves. In 1887 its mem- 
bers had increased to over 100,000, its 
scope was greatly extended, and it con- 
solidated with the Farmers* Union of 
Louisiana, becoming incorporated under 
the laws of the District of Columbia, as 
the National Farmers' Alliance and Co- 
operative Union. In 1880 the National 
Agricultural Wheel was organized in 
Arkansas, and branches were formed in 
other States. These two organizations 
were consolidated at St. Louis, Mo., Oct. 
1, 1889, under the name of the National 
Farmers' Alliance and Industrial Union, 
with a membership then estimated at 
from 1,600,000 to 2,500,000. This so- 
ciety is in active operation in all the 
Southern and Western States (except 
Ohio and Wyoming), and in New York, 
New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. Another 
organization, called the National Farm- 
ers' Alliance, was formed in Chicago in 
1880. In 1892, fusing with others as the 
People's party, it nominate J J. B. Weaver 



for President and cast 1,041,021 votes. 
The Southern branch seceded and went 
out of politics. The Farmers' National 
Alliance held a convention in 1914, when 
it claimed a membership of over 3,000,- 
000. The Alliance advocated Federal 
assistance for inland commerce, a liter- 
acy test for immigrants, and a poll tax 
upon them. 

FARMERS' INSTITUTE, an assembly 
of the farmers held to further their 
knowledge of agriculture or for their 
entertainment. The institute is derived 
from the earlier farmers' meetings which 
were held under the auspices of local 
agricultural societies. 

When the Morrill Act of 1862, grant- 
ing Federal aid to State universities, 
was passed, these meetings were patron- 
ized by the State and became distinc- 
tively educational in their character. 

Custom differs in the various States as 
to the length of the meetings; some are 
held for only half a day, while other 
institutes last for several days. Usually 
they are held in the winter season, so as 
to afford the farmers full opportunity to 
attend. The State agricultural college 
commonly directs the activities of the 
institutes, and with the help of the local 
committee prepares their programs. 
These usually consist of addresses by 
specialists on some subject of interest to 
farmers, and is followed by questions 
and discussions from the body of the 
meetings. The United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture has prepared valu- 
able lantern slides for exhibition at these 
institutes, showing how to increase pro- 
duction on the farms and how best to 
combat plant diseases. Very frequently 
social features are introduced in the in- 
stitute programs. It is estimated that 
more than four million persons a year 
attend these meetings, and their influ- 
ence in improving agricultural methods 
has been incalculable. 

FARMING, the business or manage- 
ment of a farm, comprising the entire 
circumstances and control of it. Once 
regarded as a profession easy to be un- 
derstood, and requiring but little prep- 
aration for its successful practice, it has 
come to be viewed in a different and a 
wiser manner. It has been justly said 
that no pursuit requires more talent, per- 
severance, and careful observation than 
the cultivation of the earth ; that, so far 
from its being an empirical business, it 
is, in fact, one that several other sciences 
illustrate and assist; one whose profes- 
sors cannot too often examine the prac- 
tice of other cultivators; and hence, since 
it has been found that the labors of the 
chemist, the botanist, the mechanist, and 



FABNHAM 



101 



FABOE ISLANDS 



the geologist, are all^ available in the 
service of the farmer, it has followed, as 
a natural consequence, that the farmers 
of our age are rapidly becoming a more 
scientific, more educated, and far more 
enlightened class than those of any pre- 
vious generation. See Agriculture. 

FARNAM, HENRY WALCOTT, an 
American economist, born in New Haven, 
Conn., in 1853. He graduated from Yale 
in 1874 and took post-graduate studies 
at Berlin and other German universities. 
From 1878 to 1880 he was tutor and fi'om 
1880 to 1918 professor of economics in 
Yale University. In the latter year he 
was appointed professor emeritus. From 
1892 to 1911 he was one of the editors of 
the "Yale Review," and of the "Economic 
Review" in 1911-1912. He served as chair- 
man of the New Haven Civil Service 
Board and as president of the Connecti- 
cut Civil Service Reform Association. 
He was the author of a number of books 
on economic subjects, several of them 
written in the German language. He was 
a member of many economic societies. 

FARNBOROUGH, a town in Hamp- 
shire, England. It is on the Blackwater, 
near the Basingstoke canal. Its most 
important industry is the raising of 
strawberries. It was long noted as the 
seat of Farnborough Hill, which was the 
residence of the former Empress Eugenie 
until her death in 1920. The main depot 
of the British Royal Aircraft factory was 
at Farnborough during the World War. 
Pop. about 15,000. 

FARNESE, the patronymic of an il- 
lustrious and princely Italian house, 
which arose about the middle of the 13th 
century. Of its principal members were 
the following: 

Farnese, Alessandro, Cardinal, raised 
to the tiara under the title of Pope Paul 
III., in 1534, who created his natural son, 
PiETRO, Duke of Parma and Piacenza. 

Farnese, Alessandro, great-grandson 
of the preceding; was born 1546. He 
early entered upon the profession of 
arms, and distinguished himself at the 
battle of Lepanto (1571) under his uncle, 
the famous Don John of Austria. Philip 
II. afterv>rard appointed him governor of 
the Netherlands, where he waged war 
against the Prince of Orange. He was 
subsequently made commander-in-chief 
of the army sent to the assistance of the 
French Catholics, and compelled Henry 
IV. to raise the siege of Paris ; but, being 
ill-supported by the League, he was 
eventually obliged to succumb to his 
great adversary and died soon after in 
Arras, in 1592. The line continued until 
1731, when it became extinct in the per- 



son of Antonio Farnese, the prince of 
his house. 

FARNSWORTH, CHARLES STEW- 
ART, an American soldier, bom in 
Lycoming county. Pa., in 1862, He 
graduated from the United States Mili- 
tary Academy in 1887. In the same year 
he was appointed 2d lieutenant and rose 
through the grades, becoming colonel in 

1917. In the same year he was ap- 
pointed brigadier-general of the Na- 
tional Army, and in the followiiie; 
year was made major-general. He com- 
manded the 37th Division of the Ameri- 
can Expeditionary Force from May 22, 

1918, to April 5, 1919, taking part in 
the St. Mihiel offensive and in the offen- 
sives of the Argonne-Meuse and in Bel- 
gium. In 1919 he was commander of 
Camp Bowie, Tex., and in the same year 
was commander of the Infantry School 
at Camp Benning, Ga. 

FARNWORTH, a town of Lancashire, 
England, on the Manchester and Bolton 
Railway. It has important manufac- 
tures of cotton, brick, tile, and iron. 
Within its limits are several mediaeval 
buildings. Pop. about 35,000. 

FARO, a game of cards, in which the 
player plaj's against the bank, which is 
kept bjr the proprietor of the table. It 
was introduced into France by the Vene- 
tian ambassador in 1674, in a form like 
bassette ; but so many nobles were ruined 
by this game that Louis XIV. made a 
law against it. To elude this law it was 
called pour et centre, which gave rise to 
new prohibitions, to evade which the 
name Pharaoh was adopted. The game 
essentially consists in betting on which 
of two piles, into which the cards are 
alternately dealt, a certain card will fall. 
It is played with a "lay-out" of 13 cards, 
ranging from ace to king, inclusive, and 
a pack of 52 cards dealt from a box, 
one at a time, in two piles, alternately, 
as above said. There are various per- 
centages, accruing to the dealer, the 
principal one being known as a split, 
which occurs when two cards of the same 
denomination follow in succession from 
the box, in which case the dealer takes 
haif the sum bet by the player. When 
but two or three cards remain to be 
dealt, the player who succeeds in naming 
the order in which they will appear (or 
"calls the turn," as the gambler hath 
it) receives from two to four to one, ac- 
cording to the denomination of the cards, 
the amount being determined by the doc- 
trine of chances. 

FAROE ISLANDS, a group of 22 is- 
lands belonging to Denmark, in the 
Northern Ocean, between lat. 61° 15' 
and 62° 21' N., and Ion. 6° and 8'^ E.; 



FAKRAGUT 



102 



PABBAND 



about 185 miles N. W. of the Shetland 
Isles, and 320 S. E. of Iceland; area 
530 square miles; pop. (1901) 15,230. 
The principal island, Stromoe, in the 
center, is 27 miles long by about 7 broad ; 
the chief of the others are Osteroe, Vaa- 
goe, Bordoe, Sandoe, and Suderoe. Only 
17 of the islands are inhabited. Each 
of these islands is a lofty mountain ris- 
ing out of the waves, and divided from 
the others by deep and rapid currents. 
The highest point, Skoelling, in Stromoe, 
has an altitude of 2,240 feet. Some of 
the group are deeply indented v?ith deep 
and secure harbors; all are steep and 
most of them present, seaward, a suc- 
cession of sheer precipices. Soil, thin, 
but tolerably fertile: barley is almost 
the only cereal grown. Products, hay in 
large quantities, salted mutton, tallow, 
feathers, eiderdown, etc. Manufactures, 
coarse woolen stuffs, and stockings. Vast 
quantities of sea-fowl haunt the rocks, 
the taking of which for the sake of their 
feathers affords a perilous employment 
to the inhabitants. Capital, Thorshavn, 
at the S. E. end of Stromoe. These is- 
lands are under the jurisdiction of a 
Danish governor, and have belonged to 
Denmark since the union of that king- 
dom with Norway in the 14th century. 

FARRAGUT, DAVID GLASCOE, an 

American naval officer; born in Camp- 
bell's Station, Tenn., July 5, 1801. He 
was appointed, without previous train- 




ADMIRAL FARRAGUT 

ing, a midshipman as early as 1810. 
Under Commodore Porter he was en- 
gaged in the "Essex" in her cruise 
against the British in 1812-1814, and 
after her capture he served on board the 
line-of-battle ship "Independence." Pass- 



ing for a lieutenant, he was ordered to 
the West India station, and was ap- 
pointed, in 1847, to the command of the 
"Saratoga" in which ship he took part in 
the naval operations during the Mexican 
War. When the Civil War broke out 
Farragut received the command of the 
Gulf squadron which was to co-operate 
with General Butler in the reduction of 
New Orleans, and engaged and passed 
the two strong forts of the Mississippi 
in April, 1862, which brought about the 
surrender of that city on the 28th of the 
same month. Natchez was taken in May, 
and Farragut's fleet ascended as far as 
Vicksburg, which place he bombarded till 
the fall of water compelled him to re- 
turn to New Orleans. In 1862 he was 
the first officer to receive the rank of ad- 
miral in the United States navy; and in 
March, 1863, he passed the batteries of 
Port Hudson, and was in a few days 
again before Vicksburg, co-operating 
with General Grant in the reduction of 
that important stronghold. Having been 
ordered to attempt the capture of Mobile, 
he took the forts commanding the mouth 
of that harbor in August, 1864, with the 
loss, however, of one of his ironclads, 
the "Tecumseh," and its crew, by the ex- 
plosion of a torpedo, and met with a re- 
pulse in an attack on Wilmington, Dec. 
24-25. The place was, however, taken 
Jan. 15, 1865, and Mobile surrendered 
April 12, following. Admiral Farragut 
served in the United States navy for 60 
years. In 1865 Farragut was appointed 
to the command of an American squad- 
ron dispatched on a cruise in European 
waters, from which he returned in 1868. 
He died in Portsmouth, N. H., Aug. 14, 
1870. 

FARRAND, LIVINGSTON, an Amer- 
ican educator, born in Newark, N. J., in 
1867. He graduated from Princeton 
University in 1888, and from the College 
of Physicians and Surgeons in 1891. He 
carried on post-graduate studies in Cam- 
bridge, England, and in Berlin. He was 
on the faculty of Columbia University 
as professor of psychology and anthro- 
pology, from 1893 to 1914. In the latter 
year he was appointed president of the 
University of Colorado, serving until 
March 1, 1919, when he became chair- 
man of the Central Committee of the 
American Red Cross. He was director 
of tuberculosis work in France for the 
International Health Board in 1917-1918. 
He was a member of many American so- 
cieties and was the author of "Basis of 
American History" (1904). He con- 
tributed to psychological and anthropo- 
logical publications. 

FARRAND, MAX, an American edu- 
cator, born in Newark, N. J., in 1869. 



FABBAB 



103 



FASCIA 



He graduated from Princeton Univei-- 
sity in 1892 and took post-graduate 
studies at that University and in Ger- 
many. From 1896 to 1901 he was in- 
structor and professor of history of 
Weeleyan University, and from 1901 to 
1908 he was professor and head of the 
department of history at Leland Stan- 
ford University. He was acting pro- 
fessor of Cornell in 1905-1906, and from 
1908 was professor of Yale. In 1919- 
1920 he acted as general director of the 
Commonwealth Fund of New York City. 
He wrote "Legislation of Congress for 
the Government of the Organized Terri- 
tories of the United States" (1896) 
"Framing of the Constitution" (1913) 
"Development of the United States' 
(1918); "Fathers of the Constitution" 
(1920). He was a frequent contributor 
CO historical magazines. 

FARRAR, FREDERICK WILLIAM, 
an English clergyman, dean of Canter- 
bury; born in Bombay, India, Aug. 7, 
1831. He was educated at University 
of London and Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge. He was ordained a deacon in 
1854 and priest in 1857. He was assist- 
ant master at Harrow and head master 
at Marlborough College. He v/as made 
archdeacon of Westminster in 1883; 
and chaplain to the queen. He 
wrote these novels: "Eric, etc." (1858); 
"Julian Home" (1859); "St. Winifred's, 
etc." (1863). Of his religious and theo- 
logical writings the most notable are: 
"The Witness of History to Christ" 
(1871); "The Life of Christ" (1874); 
"Life and Works of St. Paul" (1879) ; 
"The Early Days of Christianity" 
(1882); "Eternal Hope," "The Life of 
Lives" (1899), etc. He was author also 
of works on language, as "The Origin 
of Language" (I860) ; "Families of 
Speech" (1870) ; "Language and Lan- 
guages" (1878) ; and handbooks on 
Greek grammar. He died in London, 
March 22, 1903. 

FARS, or FARSISTAlSr (anciently 
Persis), a province of Persia, bordering 
on the Persian Gulf; rises from the 
steep coast in a succession of broad ter- 
races. Area, about 53,500 square miles; 
the population, the exact number of 
which is not known, is very sparse. The 
coast zone or "hot country," the pro- 
ductiveness of which is greatly depend- 
ent on the rainfall, is backed by the 
"land of the passes," behind which 
comes the "cold country"; the interior 
belongs to the Iranian plateau. The 
mountain chains, lying parallel to the 
coast, embrace numerous fertile valleys, 
rich in pasturage and vines and fruit 
trees. Among the mountains are sev- 
eral lakes, the largest Lake Bakhtegan. 



The rivers are small. The climate 
varies with the different districts. The 
principal products of the province are 
fruits, dates, tobacco, cotton, silk, and 
excellent wine. The capital of Fars is 
Shiraz, pop. 25,000 to 30,000. The port, 
Bushire, on the Persian Gulf. 

FARSAN ISLANDS, a group of is- 
lands in the Red Sea, about 35 miles 
off the W. coast of Yemen. They in- 
clude the two larger islands of Farsan 
Seghir, 18 miles in length, and Farsan- 
el-Kebir, 25 miles in length. The islands 
are important chiefly for the pearl and 
coral fisheries. Dates and other fruit 
are also grown there. Prior to the 
Woi'ld War Germany maintained a coal- 
ing station on one of these islands. 

FARUKHABAD, a city of the North- 
west provinces of India; near the 
Ganges; 83 miles N. W. of Cawnpur. 
It is a clean and healthy place, with a 
considerable trade, and a population 
(1901) of 67,338. The district of 
Farukhabad belongs to the alluvial 
plain of the Doab, the soil being for the 
most part high-lying, sandy, and infer- 
tile; area, 1,719 square miles; pop. about 
1,000,000. The most important crops 
are potatoes, indigo, and sugar-cane. 
The capital is Fatehgarh. The ruins of 
Kanauj, the capital of a powerful Hindu 
kingdom, still exist within the district. 

FASANO, a city in southern Italy. It 
is near the site of the ancient Roman 
city of Egnatia. It contains a city hall, 
which was the former palace of the 
Knights of St. John. Pop. about 20,000. 

FASCES, the most ancient insignia of 
the Roman magistrates, consisting of 
bundles of elm or birch rods, in the 
center of which was an ax. The custom 
was borrowed from the Etruscans. 
After the banishment of Tarquinius 
Superbns, the fasces wei'e carried before 
the consuls by men called lictors; but 
this honor was granted to the consul- 
major only. The consul and pro-consul 
had 12 lictors, each of whom carried a 
fasces; the dictator had 24, and when 
in Rome the ax was carried before him. 
The prjetors of the towns had only 2 
fasces; those of the provinces and the 
army 6. Under the empire the consuls, 
who were merely civil magistrates, had 
12 fasces, while the pro-prastors and 
pro-consuls were allowed 6, and this 
lasted till the fall of Rome. 

FASCIA, a bandage employed in 
various ways, as: (1) A diadem, 
formerly worn round the head as an 
emblem of royalty, the color being 
Y.-hite; that worn by women was purple. 



I'ASCIME 



104 



FASTING 



(2) Formerly as a support to the 
breast by women. 

(3) Formerly as a bandage round the 
legs, especially of women, from the 
ankle to the knee, serving as a protec- 
tion or a support to the legs of the 
wearer, a practice that was adopted in 
Europe in the Middle Ages. 

(4) As a bandage for enswathing the 
bodies of infants, as practiced by the 
modern peasants of Italy. 

In anatomy, a thin, tendon-like cover- 
ing surrounding the muscles of the 
linibs, and binding them in their places; 
a tendinous expansion or aponeurosis. 
The fasciae are named from (1) the 
position, as the anal and lumbar fasciae; 
(2) from some peculiar function, as the 
cremasteric; or (3) from some pecu- 
liarity, as the cribriform fascia. In 
architecture, a flat architectural mem- 
ber in an entablature or elsewhere; a 
band or broad fillet. The architrave in 
the more elegant orders of architecture 
is divided into three bands, which are 
called fasciae; the lowest being called the 
first fascia, the middle one the second, 
and the upper one the third. When 
there are only two fasciae, they are 
called the upper and the lower. The 
term is also applied to the board or 
strip over a shop front, on which the 
name, etc., of the owner or occupier is 
written. In astronomy, formerly the 
belt of a planet. In entomology, a 
broad, transverse band. In surgery, a 
bandage, roller, or ligature. 

FASCINE, in fortification, a cylindri- 
cal bundle of faggots or brushwood used 
in revetments of earthworks. When the 
limbs are stouter and longer than usual, 
it is called a saucisse or saucisson. In 
civil engineering fascines are used in 
making sea and river walls to protect 
shores subject to washing; or to collect 
sand, silt, and mud to raise the bottom 
and gradually form an island, either as 
a breakwater against inroads, or for 
purposes of cultivation, as in Holland. 

FAST, total or partial abstinence from 
or deprivation of food; an omission to 
take food. Also a time set apart to ex- 
press national grief for some calamity, 
or to deprecate an impending evil. 

Ethnic Fasts. — The old Egyptians, the 
Assyrians (Jonah iii : 5), the Greeks, 
Romans, and other ancient nations had 
most of them stated or occasional fasts, 
as have the modern Mohammedans, Hin- 
dus, etc. 

Jewish Fasts. — The Day of Atonement 
was the only fasting day enjoined by the 
law of Moses, but the Mishna speaks of 
four others, respectively commemorating 
the storming of Jerusalem by Nebuchad- 



nezzar, the burning of the Temple by 
Titus, the sack of Jerusalem by Nebu- 
chadnezzar, and the receiving by Ezekiel 
and the other captives of the news of the 
destruction of Jerusalem. There were 
also fasts proclaimed by royal or other 
authority on special occasions (I Kings 
xxi: 9-12; II Chron. xx: 3; Ezra viii: 2). 
For the spiritual and unspiritual way of 
keeping a fast, see Isaiah Iviii : 3. 

Christian Fasts. — No stated fasts are 
enjoined in the New Testament; they 
arose subsequently, the Lent fast taking 
the lead (see Lent). In the 3d century 
the Latins fasted on the seventh day. 
In A. D. 813 the Council of Mentz in its 
34th canon ordered a fast the first week 
in March, the second week in June, the 
third week in September, and the last 
full week preceding Christmas eve. In 
the Episcopalian and Roman Catholic 
Churches the principal fasts of the year 
are Lent, the Ember days, All-Saints, 
the Immaculate Conception, Rogation 
days, and the eves or vigils before cer- 
tain festivals; as before Christmas day. 
Some of these fasts are common to both 
Churches. 

Modern Fasts. — Several times in the 
course of political events have different 
Christian governments proclaimed days 
of fasting and prayer. As a notable 
antitype of this custom may be mentioned 
the American National Thanksgiving, in 
which feasting and not fasting is the 
salient feature. See also Fasting. 

FASTI. Numa Pompilius (715 B, c. to 
673 B. c), instituted the custom of mark- 
ing monthly records of the feasts, games, 
etc., observed at Rome, on tables of stone. 
These, preserved by the priests, became 
the calendar by which the course of pub- 
lic business and of justice was regulated. 
C. Flavius copied these fasti, 306 B. c, 
and exhibited them in the Forum; and 
they subsequently became a kind of 
abridged annals, recording the names of 
public magistrates and the most impor- 
tant political events. 

FASTING, in ordinary language, the 
act or state of abstaining partially or 
entirely from food. In medicine, loss of 
appetite without any other apparent af 
fection of the stomach; so that the sys 
tern can sustain almost total abstinence 
ior a long time without fainting. For a 
number of years a lively discussion has 
been carried on as to the length of time 
a human being could exist while volun- 
tarily fasting. Dr. Tanner, in New York 
City, fasted for 40 days without any ill- 
effects, and his fast found several imita- 
tors. Nothing of scientific value resulted 
from the experiment. Terence McSwiney, 
Lord-Mayor of Cork, Ireland, refused 



FAT 



105 



FATHEBS, THE 



food while in prison, and died on the 
63d day of his fast, in October, 1920. 
Other Irish prisoners carried on a food 
strike for over fifty days and several of 
them died. See Ireland. 

Amo7ig the Ethnic Nations. — Its chief 
object was to produce religious exalta- 
tion, with visions, dreams, and imagined 
intercourse with superior beings. Fast- 
ing exists for this purpose among the 
North American Indians and many other 
tribes. Dreams, visions, etc., thus pro- 
duced are not supernatural, but morbid. 

Amoyig the Jews. — It was practiced in 
seasons of affliction, nature having in a 
manner prescribed this by taking hunger 
away during keen sorrow (I Sam. xxxi: 
13; Esther iv.) ; to chasten or humble the 
soul (Psalm XXXV : 13; Ixix: 10). 

Among Christians. — Jesus miracu- 
lously fasted 40 days and nights (Matt, 
iv; 2; Luke iv: 2), as Moses and Elijah 
had done previously (Exod. xxxiv: 28; 
I Kings xix : 8) , and as several Roman 
saints claim to have done since. The 
practice is not, however, formally en- 
joined in the New Testament, though our 
Lord indirectly sanctioned it (Matt, vi.: 
16-18), as did St. Paul (I Cor. vii: 5). 
The apostles and the Church of which 
they constituted a part practiced it on 
specially solemn occasions (Acts xiii : 2 ; 
xiv: 23). In the Roman and Greek obedi- 
ence, communion must be received fast- 
ing, except when administered by way of 
viaticum. 

FAT, in anatomy, an animal substance 
of a more or less oily character deposited 
in vesicles in adipose tissue. It forms a 
considerable layer under the skin, is col- 
lected in large quantity around certain 
organs, as, for instance, the kidneys, fills 
up furrows on the surface of the heart, 
surrounds joints, and exists in large 
quantity in the marrow of bones. It 
gives to the surface of the human 
frame its smooth, rounded contour. In 
chemistry, fats are glycerides of acids 
belonging to the fatty or acetic series 
and of acids belonging to the acrylic se- 
ries, being the ethers of the triatomic 
alcohol glycerine. They are insoluble in 
water, but soluble in ether. They vary in 
consistence from a thin oil (olive oil) to 
a hard, greasy substance (suet). When 
fats are boiled with any caustic alkali 
they are decomposed, and yield an alka- 
line salt of the fatty acid (see Soap), 
and Glycerine {q. v.). In printing, copy 
which affords light work, as blank or 
short pages or lines. The fat is in the 
fire: All is confusion, or all has failed. 

FATALISM, the doctrine that all 
things are ordered for men by the arbi- 
trary decrees of God or the fixed laws of 
nature. In theology, it has given birth 



to theories of predestination, and in 
moral science to such systems as those 
of Spinoza and Hegel, and more recently 
to the philosophy of Herbert Spencer. It 
is carried out to its most pitilessly logical 
extreme among the Mohammedans, where 
everything that can happen is "kismet," 
i. e., fated, or decreed by fate. 

FATA MORGANA, a remarkable 
aerial phenomenon observed from the 
harbor of Messina and adjacent places, 
and supposed by the Sicilians to be the 
work of the fairy Morgana. Objects are 
reflected sometimes on the surface of the 
sea, and sometimes on a kind of aerial 
screen to 30 feet above it. 

FATES, the Parcas, or Destinies; the 
goddesses supposed to preside over the 
birth, life, and fortunes of men. They 
were three in number; Clotho held the 
spindle, Lachesis drew out the thread of 
man's destiny, and Atropos cut it off. 

FATHERS, THE, a name applied to 
the early writers of the Christian Church 
— those writers who have given us ac- 
counts of the traditions, practices, etc., 
that prevailed in the early Church. The 
term is mostly confined to those who lived 
during the first six centuries of the 
Christian era, and no writer is dignified 
with the title of father who wrote later 
than the 12th century. They are fre- 
quently divided into the Greek and Latin 
fathers; and those who flourished before 
the Council of Nice, in 325, are called the 
ante-Nicene fathers. The chief fathers 
of the first six centuries were as follows: 
In the 1st century flourished Clement, 
Bishop of Rome, and Ignatius, Bishop of 
Antioch; in the 2d century we have Poly- 
carp, Bishop of Smyrna, Justin Martyr, 
Hermias, Dionysius of Corinth, Hege- 
sippus, Tatian, Athenagoras, Thcophilus, 
Bishop of Antioch, Irenaeas, Bishop of 
Lyons, Clement of Alexandria, and Ter- 
tullian; in the 3d century, Minucius 
Felix, Hippolytus, Origen, Cyprian, Dio- 
nysius, Bishop of Alexandria, Gregory 
(Thaumaturgus) ; in the 4th century, 
Arnobius, Lactantius, Eusebius, Julius 
Firmicus, Maternus, Hilary, Bishop of 
Poitiers, Athanasius, Basil, Ephraim the 
Syrian, Cyril of Jerusalem, Gregory of 
Nazianzen, Gregory of Nyssa, Ambrose, 
Archbishop of Milan, Epiphanus, Bishop 
of Salamis, Chrysostom, Bishop of Con- 
stantinople, Ruffin, Presbyter of Aqui- 
leia; in the 5th century, Jerome, Theo- 
dorus. Bishop of Mopsuestia, Augustine, 
Cyril of Alexandria, Vincent of Lerins, 
Isidore of Pelusium, Theodoret, Bishop 
of Cyrus in Syria, Leo I., surnamed the 
Great, Virgilius, Bishop of Thapsus; in 
the 6th century, Pi'ocopius of Gaza, Are- 
tas, Gregory, Bishop of Tours, and Greg- 



FATIMIDES 



106 



FAURE 



6ry I., surnamed the Great, Bishop of 
Rome. The last of the fathers is Ber- 
nard of Clairvaux, who died about the 
middle of the 12th century. 

Learned men and theologians differ 
very much in opinion as to the value that 
is to be attached to the writings of the 
fathers. By some they are looked on as 
nearly of equal authority with the sacred 
Scriptures themselves, and as the most 
excellent guides in the paths of piety 
and virtue. Others regard them as un- 
worthy of the least attention. The right 
we believe lies between these two ex- 
tremes; and while the Roman Catholics 
exalt too highly the opinions of the 
fathers, yet by Protestants generally 
they are too much disregarded. Their 
writings contain many sublime senti- 
ments, judicious thoughts, and things 
naturally adapted to form a religious 
temper, and to excite pious and virtuous 
affections; on the other hand, they abound 
still more with precepts of an excessive 
and unreasonable austerity, with stoical 
and academical dictates, with vague and 
indeterminate notions, and, what is still 
worse, with decisions absolutely false 
and in manifest opposition to the char- 
acter and commands of Christ. Of the 
character and doctrines of the primitive 
Church they are competent witnesses, 
and, living within a comparatively short 
period of the apostles, there are many 
things which they relate regarding apos- 
tolic times, which had come down to them 
by tradition, and which are therefore not 
to be altogether rejected. 

FATIMIDES, or FATIMITES (named 
from Fatima, the daughter of Mohammed 
and wife of Ali, from whom the founder 
of the dynasty described in the definition 
professed to have sprung), a race of 
Mohammedan kings, whose founder, Abu 
Obeidallah (El Madhi),was born in A. D. 
882, and began to reign in 910, making 
Mahadi, the ancient Aphrodisium, about 
100 miles S. of Tunis, his capital. The 
place was called from the name Mahadi, 
or Director of the Faithful, which he 
had assumed. The dynasty there founded 
continued to reign till 1171, and produced 
in all 14 kings. 

FAUCIT, HELEN (LADY MARTIN), 
an English actress; born in London, 
England, Oct. 11, 1819. She made her 
professional debut as Julia in the 
"Hunchback" at Covent Garden in Janu- 
ary, 1836. She was at once successful, 
took a leading part in Macready's Shake- 
spearean revivals, in the first represen- 
tation of Lytton's plays, and in Brown- 
ing's "Blot in the Scutcheon" and 
"Strafford." As an interpreter of Shake- 
speare's heroines, Juliet, Rosalind. Por- 



tia, Beatrice, Imogen, Cordelia, and 
Lady Macbeth, she stood first among the 
actresses of her time. After her mar- 
riage to Theodore Martin, in 1851, she 
left the stage. In 1885 she published a 
volume of delightful studies, entitled 
"On Some of Shakespeare's Female 
Characters." She died in Wales, Oct. 31, 
1898. 

FATLT, in mining and geology, the 
sudden interruption of the continuity of 
strata till then on the same plane, this 
being accompanied by a crack or fissure 
varying in width from a mere line to 
several feet, generally filled with broken 
stones, clay, or similar material. There 
are faults in some sections, of which the 
horizontal extent is 30 miles or more, the 
vertical displacement varying from 600 
to 3,000 feet, and the width of the fissures 
filled up ranging from 10 to 50 feet. In 
hunting, a check, the losing of the scent, 
In tennis, an improper service. At fault, 
at a loss; in a difficulty; puzzled; em- 
barrassed. 

FAUN, in Roman mythology, a Latin 
rural deity who presided over woods and 
wilds, and whose attributes bear a strong 
analogy to those of the Grecian Pan. He 
was an object of peculiar adoration of 
the shepherd and husbandman, and at a 
later period he is said to have peopled 
the earth with a host of imaginary beings 
identical with himself. They are repre- 
sented as men with the tail and hind 
legs of a goat, pointed ears, and project- 
ing horns. 

FAUNCE, WILLIAM HERBERT 
PERRY, an American educator; born in 
Worcester, Mass., Jan. 15, 1859; was 
graduated at Brown University in 1880, 
and at the Newton Theological Seminary 
in 1884; held pastorates in Spring- 
field, Mass., and New York City; was 
long a trustee of Brown and Rochester 
Universities: lecturer at the University 
of Chicago and at Yale. He was made 
president of Brown University in June, 
1899. He wrote "The Educational Ideals 
in the Ministry" (1908); "What Does 
Christianity Mean?" (1912); "Social 
Aspects of Foreign Missions" (1914); 
"Religion and War" (1918). He has fre- 
quently contributed to various periodicals. 

FAURE, FRANCOIS FELIX, Presi- 
dent of the Frencli Republic; born in 
Paris, Jan. 30, 1841; was for a time a 
tanner in Touraine, but became _ a 
wealthy shipowner in Havre. During 
the Franco-Prussian war he commanded 
a body of volunteers, and gained the rib 
bon of the Legion of Honor. He enterea 
the Assembly in 1881: served as colonial 
and commercial minister in the Cabinets 



FAUST 



107 



FAVRE 



of Gambetta, Jules Favre, and Tirard, 
and as Minister of Marine in that of 
Dupuy. A moderate republican, he was 
elected president of the republic on the 
resignation of Casimir-Perier in 1895. 
He died in Paris, France, Feb. 16, 1899. 

FAUST, or FUST, JOHANN, one of 

the three artists to whom the invention 
of printing has been ascribed, was the 
son of a goldsmith at Mentz, Germany. 
The other two were Gutenberg and 
Schoffer; to the former of whom the in- 
vention of printing with wooden blocks 
has been attributed; and to the latter, 
who married the daughter of Faust, is 
allowed the honor of having invented 
punches and matrices, by means of 
which this grand art was carried to per- 
fection. It is believed that he died of 
the plague in 1466. 

FAUST, or FAUSTUS, DR. JOHANN, 
a famous magician, about whose name 
and existence so many obscure legends 
have grown, lived in the beginning of 
the 16th century, and was probably born 
at Knittlingen, in Suabia. After re- 
ceiving his education at Wittenberg, he 
went to Ingolstadt, where he studied 
medicine, astrology, and magic, and oc- 
cupied himself in alchemical experi- 
ments. Faust was a man of great scien- 
tific acquirements; and, according to 
legendary tradition, he made use of his 
powers to inspire his countrymen with 
a firm belief that he had dealings with 
the devil. The story of Dr. Faustus 
furnished the subject of a remarkable 
dramatic poem by Christopher Marlowe, 
and has been immortalized by the genius 
of Goethe. Gounod's well-known opera 
is also founded on this character. 

FAUSTINA, mother and daughter, 
wives of two of the noblest among the 
Roman emperors. The elder, Annia Ga- 
leria, usually spoken of as Faustina 
Senior, was the wife of Antoninus Pius, 
and died 141 a. D. ; the younger, known 
as Faustina Junior, was married to his 
successor, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, 
and died at a village near Mount Tau- 
rus in 175 A. D. Both, but particularly 
the younger, were notorious for the prof- 
ligacy of their lives, yet after their 
deaths their memories were marked with 
signal honors by their forgiving hus- 
bands, Institutions for the relief of poor 
girls were founded by both emperors, 
and were called "jmellse alimentarise 
Faustinse" (The Daughters of the Fos- 
tering Faustina). 

FAUX. See Fawkes. 

FAVERSHAM, WILLIAM, an actor, 
born in England in 1868. He was edu- 
cated at Hillmartin College. His first 



appearance on the stage was made in 
1887. In the following year he came to 
the United States. He acted as support 
for Mrs. Fiske for 2 years and for the 6 
years following was leading man at the 
Empire Theater. He played many impor- 
tant roles, and was recognized as one 




WILLIAM FAVERSHAM 

of the leading actors on the American 
and English stage. In 1902 he married 
Julie Opp, also well known on the 
American stage. 

FAVBE, JULES CLAUDE GABRIEL, 
a French advocate, author, and orator; 
born in Lyons, France, March 21, 1809. 
He was prosecuting his studies for the 
bar at the outbreak of the revolution of 
July, 1830, in which he took an active 
part. He soon afterward commenced 
practice and won a reputation for his 
independence and radicalism. After the 
revolution of February, 1848, Favre be- 
came secretary-general of the Ministry 
of the Interior. He acted for some time 
as Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs, 
and opposed the expedition to Rome of 
December, 1848. Favre became the 
strenuous opponent of Louis Napoleon 
after the latter's election to the .presi- 
dency. Favre's defense of Orsini in 
1858 created a great sensation. In the 
same year he became a member of the 
legislative bo(!y ; after which time he dis- 
tinguished himself by his speeches in 



FAWCETT 



108 



FAYOLLE 



favor of complete liberty of the press, 
against the war with Austria of 1859, 
and, in 1864, by an attack on the policy 
of the imperial government in the Mexi- 
can War. He became vice-president of 
the provisional government of national 
defense, and minister of foreign affairs 
in September, 1870; signed the definitive 
treaty of peace v?ith Prussia, May 10, 
1871, and resigned his post two months 
later. He was elected to the French 
Academy in 1867. He died in Versailles, 
France, Jan, 19, 1880, 

FAWCETT, HENRY, an English 
political economist; bom in Salisbury, 
England, Aug. 26, 1833. An accident 
which deprived him of sight early in 
life did not prevent his attainment of 
d'stinction as postmaster-general under 
Gladstone, and as a writer of force in 
"Manual of Political Economy" (6th ed. 
1883) ; "The Economic Position of the 
British Laborer" (1865); "Pauperism: 
Its Causes and Remedies" (1871) ; and 
"Free Trade and Protection." He died in 
Cambridge, Nov. 6, 1884. 

FAWCETT, M. EDWABD, an Amer- 
ican Protestant Episcopal bishop, born 
in New Hartford, la., in 1865. He grad- 
uated from Upper Iowa University in 
1886, afterward studying at the Garrett 
Biblical Institute. He was ordained a 
priest in 1897 and was rector of churches 
in Elgin and Chicago, 111., until 1903, 
when he was appointed 3d bishop of 
Quincy, 111. In 1917 he was captain and 
chaplain of the 5th Illinois Iniantry and 
was also a divisional chaplain of the 
33d Division. 

FAWKES, FAUX, or VAUX, GUY, 

an English conspirator; born in York, 
England, in 1570. He enlisted in the 
Spanish army in the Netherlands, where 
he was found by Winter, one of the anti- 
Protestant conspirators, and with him 
returned to England, in 1604, after 
agreeing to assist in the Gunpowder 
Plot. He passed under the name of 
Johnson, as servant to Thomas Percy, 
another conspirator, and was placed to 
lodge in the house next to the Parliament 
House. After collecting the necessary 
combustibles, Fawkes worked his way 
into the coal cellar under the House of 
Lords, and after storing it with gun- 
powder, etc., was appointed to the dan- 
gerous duty of firing the mine. The gov- 
ernm.ent having had timely information 
of the detestable plot, the House of 
Lords and its cellar was searched, and 
Fawkes found secreted amid some casks 
of gunpowder, Nov. 5, 1605. He was at 
once arrested, soon after tried, and Jan. 
31, 1606, suffered death at Westminster 
with several of the other conspirators. 



FAY, ANDREAS (f i or fay) , a Hun- 
garian author; born in Kohany, Zemplin, 
Hungary, May 30, 1786. Till the ap- 
pearance of Kossuth on the scene (1840) 
he was the foremost leader at Pest of 
the Opposition party. His volume of 
poems, "New Garland" (1818) estab- 
lished his fame as a poet, but his ad- 
mirable prose "Fables" (1820) attained 
a far wider popularity. Among his dra- 
matic works are the tragedy, "The Two 
Bathorys" (1827) ; and several comedies. 
His social novel, "The House of the Bel- 
tekys" (1832), and a number of short 
stories, entitle him to a place among the 
great masters of Hungarian prose. He 
died in Pest, July 26, 1864. 

FAYETTEVILLE, a city and county- 
seat of Washington co.. Ark.; on the St. 
Louis and San Francisco and the Kansas 
City and Memphis railroads; in the 
Ozark Mountains, surrounded by beauti- 
ful scenery; is a well-known summer 
resort and is called the Athens of Ar- 
kansas. Fayetteville is a fruit center for 
northwestern Arkansas, It is the seat 
of the Arkansas Industrial University. 
Here are a foundry, flour mills, large 
wagon factory, fruit evaporating estab- 
lishment, etc. Pop. (1910) 4,471; (1920) 
5,362. 

FAYETTEVILLE, a city and county- 
seat of Cumberland co., N. C; on Cape 
Fear river, and on the Aberdeen and 
Rockfish and the Atlantic Coast Line 
railroads; 80 miles N. Wo of Wilmington, 
It contains a high school, military acad- 
emy, a State Colored Normal School, a 
bank, and several newspapers. It has 
manufactories of edge tools, carriages, 
wooden ware, flour, turpentine, cotton, 
etc. On April 22, 1861, the Confederates 
seized the United States arsenal at this 
point. General Sherman occupied the 
town March 11-14, 1865, and destroyed 
the arsenaL Pop. (1910) 7,045; (1920) 
8,877. 

FAYOLLE, MARIE EMILE, a French 
soldier, born in 1852. He was educated 
at the Superior School of War, and for 
several years served as instructor at that 
institution. He was promoted to be lieu- 
tenant-colonel in 1903 and general in 
1910. In 1914 he commanded the artil- 
lery brigade of Vincennes and in the 
same year was commander of the 70th 
Division Infantry. In the following year 
he commanded the 33d Army Corps and 
was made commander of the 6th French 
Army in 1916. In December, 1919, he 
commanded the French forces in Italy. 
General Fayolle took part in the first 
French offensive of Lorraine, where he 
greatly distinguished himself by ener- 
getic action which held up the German 



FAYUM 



109 



FEATHER 



advance. His next important service was 
in the battles of Arras, during the at- 
tempts of the German armies to reach 
the coast. He showed great skill in an- 
ticipating the movements of the enemy. 
His name, however, is chiefly connected 
with the Battle of the Somme where he 
commanded the 4th Army in 1915. In 
1918 he was given command of a group 
of armies, including a portion of the 




GENERAL FAYOLLE 

American Expeditionary Forces. He was 
remarkably efficient in withstanding the 
movement of the Germans at Amiens 
toward Paris. During the final German 
retreat he did effective service at Be- 
thune, Chateau-Thierry, and Montdidier. 
In 1920 he visited the United States as 
a representative of General Foch at the 
Convention of the American Legion. 

FAYUM, FAYOUM, or FAIOUM 
(fa-yoom') , a famous valley and province 
of central Egypt, anciently the name of 
Arsinoe, and stretching out into the 
desert, which almost entirely surrounds 
it. In extent, its length may be taken at 
40 miles by a width of 30. It is the 
most fertile of the Egyptian provinces 
and produces dhurra, rye, barley, flax, 
cotton, sugar, grapes, olives, figs, etc. 
Near the capital (Medinet-el-Fayum) 
large quantities of roses are cultivated, 

Vol. IV— Cyc— H 



and are converted into rose water which 
is highly esteemed. The land capable 
of cultivation in Fayum is about 493 
square miles. Manufactures woolen, 
linen, and cotton goods. In ancient tim.es, 
the Fayum contained the artificial lake 
MOERIS (q. V.) and a famous labyrinth. 

FEALTY, loyalty; faithful adherence; 
true service or duty to a superior lord, 
especially in feudal times. 

Fealty, suit of court, and rent, are 
duties and services usually issuing and 
arising ratio7ie tenurx, being the condi- 
tions upon which the ancient lords 
granted out their lands to their feuda- 
tories; whereby it was stipulated that 
they and their heirs should take the oath 
of fealty or fidelity to their lord, which 
was the feudal hond (comTnvne cinculum) 
between lord and tenant ; that they should 
do suit, or duly attend and foiiow the 
lord's courts, and there from tinif; to time 
give their assistance, by serving on 
juries either to decide the property of 
their neighbors in the court baron, or 
correct their misdemeanors in the court 
leet; and lastly, that they should yield 
to the lord certain annual stated returns, 
in military attendance, in provisions, in 
arms, in matters of ornament or pleas- 
ure, in rustic employments (prasdial 
labors), or (which is instar omnium), in 
money, which will provide all the rest; 
all which ai'e comprised under the one 
general name of reditus, return or rent. 

FEATHER, a plume or quill, one of 
the dermal growths, multitudes of which 
constitute the covering of a bird. A 
feather is homologous with a hair from 
the skin of a mammal, and some of the 
inferior birds have imperfect feathers 
suggestive of hairs only. A feather con- 
sists (a) of a central shaft, which is 
tubular at the base. This is inserted in 
the skin like a plant in the earth, living 
and growing, (b) Of a web on either 
side, that on one side being often devel- 
oped more than on the other. This web 
is composed of a series of regularly 
arranged fibers, called barbs. In some 
cases, of a small supplementary shaft 
with barbs, called the plumule — ?. e., the 
little plume. Feathers are of two kinds, 
quills on the wings and tail, and plumes 
generally diffused. The primary feathers 
rise from the bone corresponding to the 
hand in mammals; the secondary feath- 
ers from the distal end of the forearm; 
and the tertiary feathers from the proxi- 
mal end of the forearm. The feathers 
are renewed once or twice a year; the 
bird is languid during the process, but, 
when fresh plumage is obtained, renews 
its youth in vigor as well as in beauty. 

The beard and quill of feathers have 
essentially the same composition, about 



FEBEIFUGE 



110 



EDEBALIST 



52.5 per cent carbon, 7.2 hydrogen, 17.9 
nitrogen, and 22.4 oxygen and sulphur. 
Feathers owe their permanent color to 
peculiar pigments, of which the red, 
green, lilac, and yellow are soluble in 
alcohol and ether. Black feathers con- 
tain a pigment insoluble in alcohol and 
ether, but soluble in ammonia. 

FEBRIFUGE, a medicine tending to 
cure, or alleviate fever. As fevers are 
cured by several classes of medicines, 
the list of febrifuges would be very nu- 
merous, embracing articles from the min- 
eral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms, 
and comprehending tonics, stimulants, 
emetics, diaphoretics, purgatives and 
diuretics. 

FEBRUARY, the name of the second 
month of the year. It contains in ordi- 
nary years, 28 days, and in bissextilis, or 
leap year, 29. By the calendar of Julius 
Cassar, February had 29 days except in 
bissextile, or leap year, when it had 
30. But Augustus took a day from it, 
and added it to his own month, August, 
that it might not have a less number of 
days than July, dedicated to Julius 
Caesar. Previously August had been 
called Sextilis, and consisted of 30 days 
only. 

FECHTER, CHARLES ALBERT, a 

French actor; born in London, England, 
Oct. 23, 1824; made his first public ap- 
pearance in 1840 at the Salle Moliere, in 
Paris, after which he went to Florence, 
Italy, with a dramatic company as lead- 
ing juvenile. Subsequentlv he appeared 
as Seide in Voltaire's "Mahomet," in 
1844; as Valere in Moliere's great 
comedy; and as Armand Duval in "La 
Dame aux Camelias." In 1860 he went 
to London, where he presented "The 
Corsican Brothers," "Don Cesar de 
Bazan," and "Hamlet." In 1870 he came 
to the United States and played to 
orowded houses, especially in "The Count 
of Monte Cristo." He died in Quaker- 
town, Pa., Aug. 4, 1879. 

FEDERACY. See FEDERAL STATES. 

FEDERAL COUNCIL OF THE 
CHURCHES OF CHRIST IN AMERI- 
CA, a body which grew out of attempts 
to unite the general activities of the 
several Protestant denominations. Pre- 
vious work in avoiding duplication of 
effort had been accomplished by the 
Evangelical Alliance, the National Fed- 
eration of Churches, and the Christian 
Workers. In 1905 a commission from 
30 denominations met in New York City 
and drew up the Constitution for the 
Federal Council of Churches of Christ in 
America. This was an organization 
founded by the churches themselves and 
was not a voluntary or individual asso- 



ciation as its predecessors in this field 
had been. Its purpose is to unite the 
churches for service and it has no power 
nor intention to unite them in theology 
or to interfere in any way with the com- 
plete independence of each denomination. 
It meets every four years, the first meet- 
ing being held in Philadelphia in 1908. 
One of its most important commissions 
is that on "Church and Social Service" 
which has reported with a statement of 
the attitude of the Christian Churches on 
the labor problem. It advocated collective 
bargaining, reasonable hours of labor 
and aligned the Churches definitely with 
the forces of social progress. Among the 
other commissions of the Council are 
those on Foreign Missions, Home Mi"=^- 
sions. Religious Education, Peace and 
Arbitration, and the Church and Country 
Life. Investigations are held by these 
commissions and a large amount of sta- 
tistical data is at hand which affords a 
scientific as well as a religious basis for 
the discussions. 

FEDERALS, the name given to those 
who during the Civil War in the United 
States fought to maintain the Union of 
the Federated States, in opposition to the 
Confederates. 

FEDERAL STATES, states united by 
a federation or treaty which, binding 
them sufficiently for mutual defense and 
the settlement of questions bearing 
on the welfare of the whole, yet leaves 
each state free within certain limits to 
govern itself. Switzerland and the United 
States are examples of this political con- 
stitution. Such a union or confederation 
is sometimes known as a federacy. The 
term federation indicates centralization 
in government while confederation is 
used where state sovereignty is stronger. 

FEDERALIST, the name of an early 
political party in the United States. 
After the acknowledgment of the inde- 
pendence of the 13 colonies by the mother 
country, the first task that confronted 
the successful revolutionists was the 
erection of a government and the formu- 
lation of a constitution. When the delib- 
erative body on whom devolved this duty 
met, it was discovered that there were 
various sentiments entertained by its 
members, these differences of opinion 
aligning themselves on opposite sides of 
the great question of organic union. One 
faction favored the erection of a nation 
with more or less absence of independ- 
ence of its constituent members, while 
the other urged a federation of sovereign 
states, each one of which should retain its 
autonomy, and not be amenable to the 
general government any further than it 
by actual cession gave that government 
authority. Those favoring a strong or na- 



FEDOR 



111 



FEISI 



tional organic union were called Federal- 
ists, and numbered in their ranks such 
men as George Washington, Alexander 
Hamilton, and others, while those favor- 
ing the sovereignty of the States were 
called Republicans, among them being 
Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and 
others equally distinguished. The Repub- 
licans in this contest were victorious. 
Later in the history of the country the 
Federalists became known as Whigs, 
while the Republicans were called Demo- 
crats. 

FEDOR. See Feodor. 

FEE, a reward, compensation, or re- 
turn for services rendered. It is espe- 
cially applied to the money paid to pro- 
fessional men for their services; as, a 
lawyer's fees, marriage fees, etc. 

In feudal law, fee applied to all lands 
and tenements which were held by any 
acknowledgment of superiority to a high- 
er lord; land held by the benefit of an- 
other, and in name whereof the grantee 
owed services or paid rent, or both, to 
a superior lord. 

In American and English law, a free- 
hold estate of inheritance, descendable to 
heirs general, and liable to alienation at 
the pleasure of the proprietor. (1) A 
tenant in fee-simple (also called fee- 
absolute) is one who has lands, tene- 
ments, or hereditaments, to hold to him 
and his heirs forever; generally abso- 
lutely and simply; without mentioning 
what heirs, but referring that to his own 
pleasure or to the disposition of the law. 
This is property in its highest degree. 
(2) Limited fees, or such estates of in- 
heritance as are clogged with conditions, 
are of two sorts: qualified, or base fees; 
and fees conditional, so called at the com- 
mon law; and afterward fees-tail, in con- 
sequence of the statute de donis (con- 
cerning gifts). 

(a) A base, or qualified, fee is such a 
one as has a qualification subjoined 
thereto, and which must be determined 
whenever the qualification annexed to it 
is at an end. 

(6) A conditional fee, at the common 
law, was a fee restrained to some par- 
ticular heirs, exclusive of others; as to 
the heirs of a man's body, by which only 
his lineal descendants were admitted in 
exclusion of collateral heirs; or to the 
heirs male of his body, in exclusion both 
of collaterals, and lineal females also. 

FEEBLE-MINDED, THE, a defective 
class of children for whom educational 
advantages are provided by special 
State institutions. Several State insti- 
tutions are for the feeble-minded irre- 
spective of age or sex; some are for 
vomen or for children only; and one, 



Washington, is for defective youth gen- 
erally. There are also a number of 
private schools for this class of youth. 

FEEJEE ISLANDS. See FIJI IS- 
LANDS. 

FEELING, the tensation or impression 
produced in the mind when a material 
body is touched by any part of the body ; 
a physical sensation of any kind due to 
any one of the senses; as, a feeling of 
warmth, or of cold; also a mental sen- 
sation or emotion; mental state; sensi- 
tiveness. 

Classifying them by their functions, 
they may be divided into centrally 
initiated feelings called emotions, and 
peripherally initiated feelings called sen- 
sations. These last again are subdivided 
into epiperipheral sensations, being those 
which arise on the exterior surface of 
the body, and endoperipheral sensations, 
those which arise in its interior. The 
proximate components of mind are of 
two broadly contrasted kinds, feelings 
and the relations between them. Quan- 
tity of feeling is of two kinds, that 
which arises from intense excitation of 
a few nerves, and that which springs 
from slight excitation of many nerves. 

Feeling and sensibility, taken as 
moral properties, are awakened as much 
by the operations of the mind within it- 
self as by external objects. Suscepti- 
bility designates that property of the 
body or the mind which consists in 
being ready to take an affection from 
external objects, hence we speak of a 
person's susceptibility to take cold, or 
his susceptibility to be affected with 
grief, joy, or any other passion. 

FEHLING'S SOLUTION, a solution 
used to determine the amount of glucose 
in a solution. It is prepared by dis- 
solving in 200 cubic centimeters of dis- 
tilled water, 34.64 grammes of pure 
crystallized cupric sulphate, previously 
powdered and pressed between blotting 
paper, and mixing it with 174 grammes 
of Rochelle salt dissolved in 400 cubic 
centimeters of a solution of pure caustic 
soda. The liquid must be kept in bottles 
protected from the light, and from ab- 
sorption of CO: from the air. 

FEHMARN, or FEMERN (fa'mern), 
an island lying in the Baltic; taken from 
Denmark "in 1864 and now part of 
Schleswig-Holstein, Prussia. Area, 70 
square miles; surface, level; soil, fertile, 
producing corn. Cattle are abundant. 
The inhabitants are mostly engaged in 
fishing and coastwise navigation. 

FEISI. ABtTL-FEIS IBN MUBARAK 

(fa-e-se), a celebrated Indo-Persian poet 
and scholar; born in Agra, India, in 



FELDSPAR 



112 



FELLOWS 



1547. He surpassed all his contempo- 
raries in philological, philosophical, his- 
torical, and medical knowledge, and 
about 1572 was crowned "king of 
poesy" in the court of the Emperor 
Akbar. Of his poems the most note- 
worthy are his lyrics. Their exalted 
pantheism brought on him the enmity 
of the orthodox Muslim clergy. He 
wrote also many double-rhymed poems; 
and a Persian imitation of the famous 
Indian epic ''Nala and Damajanti," de- 
signed to form the third member of an 
epic cycle. His scientific treatises were 
numerous. He died in 1595. 

FELDSPAR. See Felspar. 

FELID^, or FELINJE, the cat tribe, 
a family of carnivorous quadrupeds, in- 
cluding the domestic cat, lions, tigers, 
panthers, leopards, and lynxes. In these 
animals tht destructive organs reach the 
highest perfection. The head is short 
and almost rounded m its form. The 
principal instruments of their destruc- 
tive energy are the teeth and claws. 
They have six small incisors in each 
jaw, the exterior ones larger than 
the rest; two canine teeth in each jaw, 
eight praemolars in the upper jaw, and 
four in the lower, and generally four 
ilesh teeth, or true molars, in the upper 
jaw, and two in the lower, veiy large, 
sharp-edged, and terminated by two or 
three points. In addition to this the 
tongue is covered with small recurved 
prickles by which they can clean from 
the bones of their prey every particle of 
flesh. 

There are no quadrupeds in which the 
muscles of the jaws and limbs are more 
fully developed. The skeleton presents 
a light but well-built mechanism; the 
bones, though slender, are extremely 
compact; the trunk, having to contain 
the simple digestive apparatus requisite 
for the assimilation of highly organized 
animal food, is comparatively slender, 
and flattened at the sides. The mus- 
cular forces are thus enabled to carry 
the light body along by extensive 
bounds, and thus it is that the larger 
felines generally make their attack. 
The five toes of the fore-feet and the 
four toes of the hind-feet of cats are 
armed with very strong, hooked, sub- 
compressed, sharp claws. The lower 
surface of the foot is furnished with 
thick ball-like pads of the epidermis, on 
which the animal walks; this gives them 
the noiseless tread peculiar to this 
family. 

FELIX, CLAUDIUS, or ANTONIUS, 
a Roman procurator of Judea, before 
v/hom Paul so "reasoned of righteous- 
ness, temperance, and judgment to 



come," that he trembled, saying, "Go 
thy way for this time; when I have a 
convenient season I will call for thee." 
Felix rose from slavery, having been 
manumitted by Claudius Caesar. His 
rule in Judea, notwithstanding its se- 
verity or rather in consequence of it, 
was marked by constant disorders and 
disaffection; and but for the interest of 
his brother (the notorious freedman 
Pallas) with Nero, the charges carried 
up against him to Rome would have 
been his ruin. 

FELIX I., Bishop of Rome. He suc- 
ceeded Dionysius, 269, and suffered 
martyrdom in the persecution of Aure- 
lian. 

FELIX II., Pope. He occupied the 
pontifical see during the banishment of 
Liberiu-^, 355. In reply to a proposition 
for the recall of Liberius, it was pro- 
posed by the Emperor Constantius that 
Liberius and Felix should reign con- 
jointly, but the people exclaimed, "One 
God, one Christ, and one bishop!" Felix 
was exiled in 358, but became Pope 
again the same year, and died in 359. 

FELIX III., Pope; he succeeded 
Simplicius in 483. He had a holy dis- 
pute with the Emperor Zeno, in behalf 
of the Western Church, and died in 

492. 

FELIX IV., Pope; a native of Be- 
nevento; he ascended the chair after 
John I., 526. He governed the Church 
with zeal and piety, and died in 530. 
He introduced extreme unction. 

FELIX v., antipope; the same as 
Amadeus VIII., Count of Savoy. See 
Amadeus. 

FELLAHS, the people in Egypt who 
live in villages and cultivate the soil. 
They form three-fourths of the popula- 
tion ; are the most ancient race in that 
country, and are generally believed to be 
the de'scendants of the old Egyptians, 
their physiognomy resembling that which 
is found on the ancient sculptures. 

FELLOWS, GEORGE EMORY, an 
American educator; born in Beaver Dam, 
Wis., in 1858. He graduated from Law- 
rence University in 1879 and studied in 
Germany and in Edinburgh University. 
For 10 years he taught in the high schools 
of Appleton, Wis., and other cities. In 
1891 he was appointed professor of Euro- 
pean history of Indiana University, and 
from 1895 to 1902 was assistant professor 
of history at the University of Chicago. 
In 1902 he was appointed professor of 
the University of Maine, serving until 
1911, when he resigned to become presi- 
dent of James Millikin University. In 



FELLOWSHIP 



113 



FEMGERICHTE 



1915 he was appointed head of the de- 
partment of history at the University of 
Utah. He was a member of many learned 
societies, and was the author of "Out- 
lines of the 16th Century" (1895) and 
"Recent European History" (1902). 

FELLOWSHIP, -c: foundation in an 
English university entitling the holder, 
who is called a fellow, to participate in 
the revenues of a certain college, and 
also conferring a right to rooms in the 
college, and certain other privileges, as 
to meals, etc. The annual pecuniary 
value of fellowship varies, and till of late 
years it was tenable for life or till 
marriage. American colleges frequently 
have fellowships for their graduates, but 
the conditions of occupancy are not the 
same. 

The pecuniary value of a fellowship 
in an American college varies from $250 
to $800 per annum. 

FELSITE, a name given to the dense 
volcanic or dike rocks found in the Appa- 
lachians, in the Rocky Mountains, and 
elsewhere. The name is applied more 
particularly to dense igneous rocks 
whose structure can only be accurately 
determined by the use of the microscope. 
A felsite containing crystals of recogniz- 
able minerals is known as a felsite por- 
phyry. 

FELSPAR, or FELDSPAR, a genus 
of minerals rather than a single mineral. 
Formerly there were included under it 
five species — viz.: (1) Adularia or moon- 
stone, (2) commo:., (3) compact, (4) 
glassy, and (5) Labrador felspar. 

FELSPAR GROUP, in mineralogy, a 
gr'>up of unisilicates ; its composition 
having the protoxide bases lime, soda, 
potash, and, in one species, baryta, the 
sesquioxide only alumina; ratio between 
the two 1.3. Dana includes under it the 
species Anorthite (Lime felspar), Labra- 
dorite (Lime-soda felspar), Hyalophane 
(Baryta-potash felspar), Andesite and 
Oligoclase (Soda-lime felspar), Albite 
(Soda-lime felspar), and Orthoclase 
(Potash felspar). 

Blue felspar, the same as lazulite; 
common felspar, the same as orthoclase; 
compact felspar, the same as felsite. It 
is either compact massive oligoclase, 
oligoclase felsite, or compact orthoclase, 
orthoclase felsite, halleflinta. Glassy 
felspar, the same as sanidine; Labra- 
dor felspar, the same as labradorite; 
lime felspar, the same as indianite, or 
as labradorite; potash felspar, the same 
as orthoclase. The name was used spe- 
cially to distinguish it from albite (soda 
felspar). Soda felspar, the same as 
albite. 



FELT, the material formed by uniting 
and compressing fibers of wool, fur, and 
other substances fit for the purpose, into 
a compact body, by what is termed the 
felting process. This consists in mixing 
the fibers of the materials employed till 
they become interlaced or matted to- 
gether in the form of a soft, loose cloth 
or sheet, which is done by the instru- 
mentality of carding and doffing ma- 
chines. The cloth is then wound on a 
roller, and carried to the felting machine, 
in which the fibers are combined and 
interlaced still more closely by the action 
of heat and pressure, till the loose sub- 
stance is converted into a close, thick 
material, possessed of great strength and 
durability. Felt of a fine kind is used 
for making hats (see Hat) ; and a coarser 
description is used for table covers and 
carpets. 

FELTON, CORNELIUS CONWAY, an 
American classical scholar; born in New- 
bury, Mass., Nov. 6, 1807. In 1834 he 
became Professor of Greek Literature at 
Harvard; in 1860 its president. His 
publications include many translations 
from German, French, and Greek, of 
which "The Clouds" and "The Birds" of 
Aristophanes are the most distinguished; 
also "Familiar Letters from Europe" 
(1864) ; "Greece, Ancient and Modern" 
(1867) ; "Selections from Modern Greek 
Writers"; etc. He died in Chester, Pa., 
Feb. 26, 1862. 

FEMGERICHTE. FEHMGERICHTE, 
or VEHMGERICHTE (faim-ge-rik'ta) , 
the name of celebrated secret tribunals 
which existed in Westphalia, and pos- 
sessed immense power and influence in 
the 14th and 15th centuries. They are 
said by some to have been originated by 
Charlemagne. The femgerichte first 
came into notice after the deposition and 
outlawry of the Emperor Henry the Lion, 
when anarchy everywhere prevailed. In 
such circumstances the secret ti'ibunals 
took on themselves the protection of the 
innocent and defenseless, and inspired 
with salutary terror those whom nothing 
else would keep in check. These tribunals 
soon acquired great power, and spread 
themselves over the whole of Germany, 
though their principal seat still continued 
to be Westphalia. The secrecy with which 
they carried on their operations, and the 
power they manifested in carrying out 
their sentences, rendered them the terror 
of all Germany. Their number is said 
at one time to have amounted to 100,000. 

Though originally established for the 
preservation of right and justice, there 
can be little doubt that they afterward 
were frequently made use of to carry out 
party feelings. The members were called 



TEMGERICHTE 



114 



FEMINISM 



the Wissende, or the knowing ones; and, 
before being admitted, they must be of 
blameless life, of the Christian religion, 
and take a terrible oath. From among 
the Wissende the Freischoffen (free jus- 
tices) were elected, who were the asses- 
sors of the court and executors of its sen- 
tences. The president of the court was 
called the Freigraf (free count). The 
general superintendence of the whole of 
the tribunals was in the hands of the 
lord of the land, who, in Westphalia, was 
the Archbishop of Cologne. The chief 
superintendence, however, was in the 
hands of the emperor, who was usually, 
on his coronation at Aix-la-Chapelle, ad- 
mitted a member of the society. 

Their courts were either open or se- 
cret; the former were held by day in the 
open air, the latter by night in a forest, 
or in concealed and subterranean places. 
The process of trial, and the circum- 
stances of judgment were different in 
the two cases; the former decided in all 
civil causes, the latter took cognizance of 
such as had been unable to defend them- 
selves sufficiently before the open courts, 
as well as such as were accused of heresy, 
sorcery, rape, theft, robbery, or murder. 
The accusation was made by one of the 
Freischoffen, who, without further proof, 
declared, upon oath, that the accused had 
been guilty of the crime. The accused 
was then thrice summoned to appear 
before the secret tribunal, and the cita- 
tion was secretly affixed^ to the door of 
his dwelling, or some neighboring place. 
The citation mentioned that the accused 
was to meet the Wissende at a certain 
hour and place, and to be conducted by 
them before the tribunal. Here by an 
oath the accused might clear himself; but 
the accuser might also oppose it with his 
oath and the oaths of witnesses. If the 
accused could not bring forward six wit- 
nesses in his favor, the accuser might 
strengthen his oath with 14 witnesses; 
and sentence of acquittal did not neces- 
sarily follow until the accused had sup- 
ported his case with the oaths of 21 wit- 
nesses. The judges were all armed, and 
dressed in black gowns, with a cowl that 
covered their faces like a mask. _ The 
condemned, as well as those who did not 
obey the summons, were then given over 
to the Freischoffen. The first Frei- 
schoffe who met him was bound to hang 
him on a tree; and if he made any re- 
sistance it was lawful to put him to 
death in any other way. The punish- 
ment, however, was rarely inflicted on 
those who readily appeared, the judges 
being satisfied with cautioning the of- 
fender to redress the wrong he had been 
grnty of. 
At length a great outcry was raised 



against these courts, and in 1461 various 
princes and cities of Germany, as well as 
the Swiss Confederates, united in a 
league to resist the free judges, and to 
require that the trial of accused persons 
should take place in open day. 

Their influence, however, was not en= 
tirely destroyed until the public peaci 
was established in Germany, and a>:; 
amended form of trial and penal judica- 
ture introduced. 

FEMINISM, a term, supposed to have 
originated in France in 1890, which in- 
cludes all phases of the modern tendency 
of women to assert their equality in the 
social life with men; their right to enter 
the professions on an equal basis with 
men, equal suffrage for both sexes in 
political matters, and a general recog- 
nition of the rights of women to inter- 
est themselves in pubic affairs. 

The first manifestation of what has 
been commonly called the "women's 
rights" movement was the growing de- 
mand xor equal suffrage, principally in 
this country and in Great Britain. The 
demand has been based on the democratic 
ideals of both these nations, supported 
by the contention that men formed a su- 
perior political class who subjected 
women, as an inferior class, to political 
slavery. In Great Britain equal suffrage 
for the sexes has been a national prob- 
lem, on account of the centralized system 
of the British Govei-nment. In this 
country it had, until slightly previous to 
1920, been a problem which each State 
might solve as it saw fit. Thus in sev- 
eral of the Western States, notably Kan- 
sas and California, women were granted 
the right to vote at a much earlier period 
than it was granted them in other parts 
of the country. 

The growing agitation by women's or- 
ganizations, however, stimulated public 
interest in the question, and repeated 
efforts were made to grant the right of 
suffrage to women by means of an 
amendment of the Federal Constitution. 
The activity of women in war relief 
work, during the participation of the 
United States in the World War, 
rousing universal admiration of their 
efforts, undoubtedly was the chief cause 
of the sentiment which carried th? 
amendment through Congress in 1919 
(passing the Senate June 7, 1919). In a 
little over a year the necessary number 
of State Legislatures had ratified the 
measure, that of Connecticut being the 
last to pass its approval, thus enabling 
women all over the country to partici- 
pate in the presidential elections in No- 
vember, 1920. 

In other phases of the general m.ove- 
ment toward equality of men and women 



FEMUR 



115 



FENIANS 



the United States has been far in the 
lead over Great Britain and the Conti- 
nental countries, with the possible ex- 
ception of the Scandinavian countries. 
As far back as 1833 the coeducation of 
men and women was introduced in Ober- 
lin College, and gradually became a com- 
mon feature of a large number of Ameri- 
can institutions of learning. The right 
of women to a place in the professions 
has long been recognized in this country, 
while in other countries women who ven- 
tured into the gainful occupations would 
be socially ostracized. 

FEMUR, in vertebrate animals the 
first bone of the leg or pelvic extremity, 
situated between the os innominatum 
and the tibia; in insects the third joint 
of the leg; it is long and generally com- 
pressed; also in architecture, the long, 
flat, projecting face between each chan- 
nel of a triglyph in the Doric order. 

FENCING, the art of using skillfully, 
in attack or self-defense, a sword, rapier, 
or bayonet; but usually taken to mean 
address in the use of the second of these 
weapons. In the school of fence, the 
foil is wielded. 

The foil is a circular or quadrangular 
rod or blade of pliable, highly tempered 
steel, blunted and covered with leather 
at the point, so as to prevent accidents 
in its practice. Froni its nature, the foil 
can only be employed in thrusting; and, 
being edgeless, it can be handled without 
liability to cutting wounds. Fencers wear 
a strong wire mask upon their faces, as 
a defense against accidental thrusts, etc. 

Fencing was cultivated by the an- 
cients; the Roman gladiators instructed 
the soldiery of that period; but as their 
weapons differed so materially from 
those of the present day, and as they de- 
fended themselves by shields and armor, 
their methods were infinitely less com- 
plicated and efficient than those of the 
present day. During the period com- 
prised within the Middle Ages, fencing 
became greatly neglected, and this was 
owing most likely to the fact that there 
was a great improvement in the armor 
worn by knights in battle; from which 
circumstance battle axes and other pon- 
derous weapons of offense were substi- 
tuted for the sword. 

When metal casing became somewhat, 
if not altogether disused, fencing came 
once more into vogue; and as all gentle- 
men wore swords, and quarrels were fre- 
quent, it was absolutely necessary that 
all should have some knowledge of the 
"fence." The peculiar state of society in 
Italy made this even more needed than 
in any other country, and it followed 
that the Italians became the best fencers 
in Europe. Spain next found the art 



necessary, and soon France, in which 
latter country it created such a favorable 
impression that a school was established 
for its prosecution. 

In fencing there are three openings or 
entrances — the inside, comprising the 
whole breast from shoulder to shoulder; 
the outside, which can be attacked by all 
the thrusts made above the wrist on the 
outside of the sword; and, finally, low 
ports, which embrace the armpits to the 
hips. 

FENELON, FRANCOIS DE SALIG- 
NAC DE LA MOTHE,'a French prelate; 
born in the Chateau de F^nelon, province 
of Perigord, France, Aug. 6, 1651, was 
educated at Plessis College in Paris, and 
at the seminary of St. Sulpice, where he 
received holy orders in 1675. In 1678 he 
was appointed head of an institution, 
then newly organized in Paris, for the 
reception of female converts to the Ro- 
man Catholic faith. His success in the du- 
ties here led to his appointment as head 
of a mission to Saintonge for the con- 
version of the Huguenots. In 1689 
Louis XIV. intrusted to him the edu- 
cation of his grandsons, the dukes of 
Burgundy, Anjou, and Berri; and in 
1694 he was created Archbishop of Cam- 
bray. A theological dispute with Bos- 
suet, his former instructor, terminated in 
his condemnation by Pope Innocent XII., 
and his banishment to his diocese by 
Louis XIV. He was the author of the 
famous "Fables," "Dialogues of the 
Dead," "The Education of Girls," "Tel- 
emachus," "History of the Ancient Phi- 
losophers," and numerous other works on 
philosophy, theology, and belles-lettres. 
He died in Cambray, France, Jan. 7. 
1715. 

FENIANS, an Irish secret society 
npmed from an ancient military organi- 
zation of Ireland that became extinct in 
the 3d century. The Fenian society was 
formed in the United States probably 
in March, 1858, by the refugees who 
crossed the Atlantic after the unsuccess- 
ful outbreak of 1848, and had for its ob- 
ject the expulsion of the British Govern- 
ment, or even the Saxons from Ireland, 
and the conversion of that island into an 
independent republic. Its originator di- 
vided it into district clubs called circles, 
each with a president called a center; the 
whole organization being ruled over by 
a senate, over which a "head center" pre- 
sided. Its members had to take an oath 
before being intrusted with its secrets. In 
January, 1864, they began to attract 
notice in Ireland, and the next year some 
of them were seized and imprisoned. Be- 
tween 1865 and 1867 they made various 
outbreaks. In 1866 they captured a 



FENN 



116 



F£)BrS£Ar 



British vessel, and made a raid into Can- 
ada, but were defeated by the volunteers 
and censured by President Johnson. In 
1867 they unsuccessfully attempted an 
attack on Chester Castle in England, 
made other risings, and on Dec. 13 blew 
in the wall of Clerkenwell prison, killing 
and wounding a number of innocent 
people living in adjacent houses. A 
second Fenian raid into Canada took 
place in 1870, but was repelled by the 
militia. The basis for all the Fenian 
operations was America, where, in 1865, 
600 Fenian representatives held a con- 
gress. First and last, many Fenians were 
captured and imprisoned by the British 
Government, most of whom were after a 
time released. The organization seemed 
to become dormant about 1874, and vari- 
ous persons who had been connected with 
it joined the "Invincibles," formed some 
years later for the purpose of assassinat- 
ing government officers or others obnoxi- 
ous to its members or its chiefs, but not 
much was known of this latter organiza- 
tion until the murder of Lord Cavendish 
called attention to them. 

FENN, GEORGE MANVILLE, an 
English story-writer; born in London, 
Jan. 3, 1831. He graduated from jour- 
nalism into fiction, gaining prominence 
by -'Eli's Children" (1882), a tale of 
clerical life; "The Golden Magnet" 
(1884), a story for boys; "The Master of 
the Ceremonies" (1886) ; "High Play" 
(1898) ; "A Woman Worth Winning" 
(1898) ; "Nic Revel" (1898) ; "The Sil- 
ver Salvers" (1898) ; "The King of the 
Bjach" (1899); etc. He died Aug. 27, 
1909. 

FENN, HARRY, an American artist; 
born in Richmond, England, Sept. 14, 
1838; removed to the United States in 
1856 and later traveled extensively. He 
achieved great success as an illustrator 
of books, and v/as one of the founders 
of the American Watercolor Society. 
Some of his best work is contained in 
"Picturesque America"; "Picturesque 
Europe"; and "Picturesque Palestine." 
He died in 1911. 

FENNEC (Cards zerda) , a pretty 
little fox-like animal about 10 inches 
long, with a tail of about 5M inches. 
The fur is of a whitish hue, the cheeks 
large, and the snout sharp like that of a 
fox. The fennec is found in the whole 
of Africa. 

FENNEL FLOWERS {Nigella damas- 
cena) , named from the deeply-cut in- 
volucre of the flower which resembles the 
leaves of fennel. The name is also given 
Nigella sativa, an annual of the Ranun- 
eitlaceas. It has finely-cut leaves, with 
white, or Meht blue open flowers. The 



seeds are strongly aromatic, and are used 
in India for putting with woolen goods 
to keep away insects. In Palestine and 
Egypt they are used for flavoring 
curries. 

FENOLLOSA, MARY McNEILL, an 
American writer, using the pen name 
"Sidney McCall", born in Mobile, Ala. 
She was educated at the Irving Academy, 
Mobile, Ala. In 1894 she married Er- 
nest F. FenoUosa, who died in 1908. She 
traveled extensively in Europe and 
Japan, residing in the latter country for 
about eight years. She devoted much 
time to the study of Japanese life and 
characters. She wrote many volumes of 
verse and fiction, including ''Out of the 
Nest"; "A Flight of Verses" (1899); 
"The Dragon Painter" (1906); "The 
Breath of the Gods" (1906) ; "Blossoms 
from a Japanese Garden" (1915) ; 
"Christopher Laird" (1919). 

FEODOR I., IVANOVITCH (fa'6- 
dor) , the last czar of the dynasty of 
Ruric on the throne of Russia; bom May 
11, 1557. He began his reign in 1584, 
and being weak, both in body and mind, 
assigned the government of his affairs to 
Goudonoff", who seems to have managed 
them with dexterity and vigor. In his 
reign the peasants of Muscovy were con- 
verted into serfs, and attached to the 
land. Previously they had enjoyed per- 
sonal liberty. The conquest of Siberia 
was achieved by Goudonoff, and many 
remarkable diplomatic relations with 
foreign courts were effected. He died 
Jan. 7, 1598. 

FEODOR III., Czar of Russia, and 
eldest brother of Peter the Great; born 
June 8, 1656. He ascended the throne 
when only 19 years of age, and evinced 
a strength of will and determination of 
character. His reign is rendered mem- 
orable on account of his calling into his 
presence the Muscovite nobles, who deso- 
lated the country with bi'oils about their 
claims of family precedence, and throw- 
ing the rolls of the Razriad or "Ar- 
rangement," into the fire. The genealogi- 
cal records, which did not relate to claims 
of precedence, were preserved and prop- 
erly arranged, in accordance with his 
will. He died in Moscow, April 27, 1682. 

FERBER, EDNA, an American writer, 
born in Kalamazoo, Mich., in 1887. 
She was educated in the public and 
high schools of Appleton, Wis., and 
at the age of 17 began newspaper work, 
which she continued in Milwaukee and 
Chicago. She then devoted her attention 
to short-story writing. Her character 
sketches in magazines became widely 
popular. Her books include "Dawn 
O'Hara' (1911) ; "Buttered Side Down" 



FERDINAND 



117 



FERDINAND 



(1912) ; "Emma McChesney and Com- 
pany" (1915); and "Cheerful— By Re- 
quest" (1918). 

FERDINAND, the namo of several 
European monarchs, of whom the follow- 
ing are the most noticeable: 

EMPEROR OF AUSTRIA. 

Ferdinand I., son of Francis; bom in 
Vienna, Austria, April 19, 1793; as- 
cended the imperial throne of Austria in 
1835, and continued to pursue the policy 
of his father, leaving the chief direction 
of affairs in the hands of Metternich 
(q. v.). In his reign, the republic of 
Cracow was annihilated, and a portion 
of it added to the empire. During the 
Revolutionary war of 1848 he dismissed 
Metternich, and made several conces- 
sions which were found insufficient. 
"Vienna revolted in May, and Ferdinand 
at length retired to Olmiitz, and on Dec. 
2, 1848, abdicated, having no children, in 
favor_ of his nephew, Francis Joseph I. 
He died in Prague, Austria, June 29, 
1875. 

emperors of GERMANY. 

Ferdinand I., younger brother of 
Charles V.; born in Alcala, Spain, March 
10, 1503. He married, in 1521, Anna, 
daughter of Ladislaus, King of Hungary 
and Bohemia, became King of Bohemia 
in 1527, and at the same time contended 
with John Zapolya for the crown of 
Hungary. The war lasted many years 
and was terminated by an unsatisfac- 
tory treaty. Ferdinand was elected King 
of the Romans in 1531, took the title of 
emperor on the abdication of his brother, 
Charles V., and was recognized by the 
electors in 1558. As the Pope, Paul IV., 
refused to acknowledge his title, it was 
resolved that the Pope's consent should be 
thenceforth dispensed with in the elec- 
tion of the emperor. Ferdinand was a 
moderate and just ruler, and especially 
airned at reconciling the conflicting re- 
ligious parties. He died in Vienna, July 
25, 1564. 

Ferdinand II., grandson of Ferdi- 
nand I.; born in Gratz, Austria, July 9, 
1578. He was crowned King of Bo- 
hemia in 1617, King of Hungary in the 
next year, and was elected emperor on 
the death of his cousin Matthias in 1619. 
His Bohemian subjects revolted and 
chosefor their king Frederick V., elector 
palatine, who reluctantly accepted the 
crown, and lost it by his defeat at the 
battle of Prague in 1620. Thus began 
the famous Thirty Years' War, Catholics 
and Protestants contending for the su- 
premacy. The bigotry and intolerance 
of Ferdinand led him, at the beginning 
of the war, to take the most violent 
measures against the Bohemian Protes- 
tants, and 30,000 families quitted the 



country. He died in Vienna, Feb. 15. 
1637. 

Ferdinand III., son of Ferdinand II.; 
born in Gratz, Austria, July 11 (or 13), 
1608, made King of Hungary in 1625, of 
Bohemia in 1627, and succeeded his 
father in 1637. Sweden and France, 
being in alliance, gained several advan- 
tages over the Imperialists, which ter- 
minated with the peace of Westphalia 
in 1648. He ^lied in Vienna, April 2, 
1657. 

KINGS OF NAPLES AND SICILY 

Ferdinand I., King of Naples, son of 
Alfonso I.; born about 1424; succeeded 
his father in 1458. His false and cruel 
character provoked a civil war, in which 
John of Anjou took part with the barons, 
and the king was aided by the Pope, 
Sforza, Duke of Milan, and by Scander- 
beg. The king defeated his rival in 1462, 
and made peace; but breaking his word 
war broke out again. Again the king 
won, and established order by terror. 
He ^ afterward joined with the Pope 
against the Florentines; but Lorenzo de 
Medici, by the bold step of a personal 
visit to Naples, succeeded in detaching 
him from that alliance, and negotiated a 
treaty of peace. He was detested for his 
debaucheries and cruelties; and at the 
very time that Charles VIII. of France 
was setting out on his celebrated expedi- 
tion for the conquest of Naples, he died, 
Jan. 25, 1494. 

Ferdinand II., King of Naples, son of 
Alfonso II. ; born July 26, 1469, succeeded 
his father, when the latter abdicated in 
1495. He died Oct. 7, 1496. 

Ferdinand III., King of Naples, the 
same as Ferdinand V., of Spain {q.v.). 

Ferdinand IV., of Naples, and I. of 
THE Two Sicilies; born in Naples, Italy, 
Jan. 12, 1751. He ascended the throne 
in 1759, and reigned in peace and se- 
curity till the outbreak of the French 
Revolution in 1792, when, after the death 
of Louis XVI., he joined the coalition 
engaged in the general war against 
France (1793-1796). The victory gained 
at Aboukir by Lord Nelson again brought 
Ferdinand into a hostile attitude against 
the French, who summarily drove him 
from his kingdom, and inaugurated the 
Parthenopean Republic in 1799. In the 
same year, however, his troops regained 
possession of the capital. In 1806 Fer- 
dinand was again forced to abandon 
Naples, the crown of which Napoleon I. 
conferred first on his brother Joseph 
Bonaparte, and afterward on his brother- 
in-law MURAT (q. v.), Ferdinand, how- 
ever, continuing to reign in Sicily under 
English protection. In 1814 the Con- 
gress of Vienna finally established Fer- 
dinand as King of the Two Sicilies. Rev- 



TERDINAND 



118 



FEBDINAND 



olutionary movements, set afloat by the 
secret Carbonari, compelled the estab- 
lishment of a constitution against the 
advice and interests of Austria, Russia, 
and Prussia; the first named power 
marched an army across the Po, defeated 
the Neapolitan army, and occupied 
Naples. Ferdinand who, refusing to 
sanction the liberal declarations of his 
subjects, had quitted his capital, was 
then re-established, and ruled thencefor- 
ward with absolute power. He died in 
Naples, Jan. 4, 1825. 

Ferdinand II. of the Two Sicilies 
(surnamed Bomba, from his bombarding 
Palermo and other cities during an in- 
surrection), son of Francis I. of Naples, 
by Isabella of Spain; born in Palermo, 
Sicily, Jan. 10, 1810; succeeded his father 
in 1830. His reign was marked by un- 
bridled tyranny and frequent insurrec- 
tion of the oppressed people. In 1848, 
when half the thrones in Europe were 
trembling in the balance, Sicily burst 
out into open rebellion. Naples followed 
suit and Ferdinand was compelled to 
summon a parliament, and take oath to 
adopt and maintain a constitution. After 
succeeding in suppressing the Neapolitan 
revolt, Ferdinand, in 1849, dissolved the 
parliament, and violated his oath by an- 
nulling the constitution. After succeed- 
ing in subjugating Sicily, his tyranny 
knew neither bounds nor sense of com- 
mon decency. Even the most absolute of 
European sovereigns condemned his rule 
and grave remonstrances were addressed 
to him at the Congress of Paris in 1856. 
These proving unavailing, France and 
England proceeded in the same year to 
recall their ambassadors, and suspended 
all diplomatic intercourse. He died in 
Naples, May 22, 1859. 

KINGS OF PORTUGAL 

Ferdinand I.; born about 1345; suc- 
ceeded his father Pedro I., in 1367. On 
the death of Peter the Cruel, King of 
Castile, he assumed the latter title, which 
produced a war between him and Henry 
of Transtamara, who ravaged Portugal, 
and forced Ferdinand to make peace and 
marry his daughter. This marriage he 
afterward disowned, and entered into an 
alliance with John of Gaunt, Duke of 
Lancaster, who laid claim to the Cas- 
tilian throne. This war proved very dis- 
astrous to the Portuguese, and Ferdi- 
nand was obliged to sue for peace. An- 
other war was entered into in which he 
was supported by the English, and was 
for a time successful, but was at last 
under the necessity of making peace. He 
died in 1383. 

Ferdinand, infant of Portugal, son of 
John I.; passed into Africa, at the age 
of 14, to attack the Moors, and laid siege 



to Tangier. He was, however, made 
prisoner by the Moors, and spent the 
remainder of his life in captivity, dying 
of chagrin, 1443. 

kings OF SPAIN 

Ferdinand I., King of Castile and 
Leon, called the Great, second son of 
Sancho III., King of Navarre; born 
about 1000. By the death of Bermudo, 
in 1037, he became King of Leon. He 
then made war against the Moors, from 
whom he took several cities, and pushed 
his conquests as far as Portugal. He 
next declared war against his brother, 
Garcias III., King of Navarre, in which 
that prince lost his kingdom and his life. 
He died in Leon, Spain, Dec. 27, 1065. 

Ferdinand XL, son of Alphonso VII. 
King of Leon and Castile, gained great 
advantages over the Portuguese, and 
made their king, Alphonso Henriquez, 
prisoner, whom he used with moderation. 
In the reign of this prince the military 
order of St. James was instituted, for 
the purpose of defending the dominions 
of the Christian powers against the 
Saracens. 

Ferdinand III., surnamed The Saint, 
son of Alphonso IX.; born about 1200. 
He obtained the crown of Castile by the 
abdication of his mother, Berengaria, in 
1217, and that of Leon by the death of 
his father in 1230. He took many places 
from the Moors; but while he was pro- 
jecting an expedition against Morocco, 
died. He_ was canonized by Pope Clement 
X., and is regarded as the founder of 
the University of Salamanca. He died 
in Seville, Spain, May 30, 1252. 

Ferdinand IV., son of Sancho IV.; 
born in Seville, in 1285, succeeded to the 
throne of Castile in 1295, at the age of 
10 years, under the guardianship of his 
mother, who governed the kingdom with 
great prudence. In 1309 Gibraltar was 
taken from the Moors by the Spaniards. 
This prince, in a fit of anger, caused two 
noblemen to be precipitated from a high 
rock. Just before undergoing this fate, 
they told him that he would appear be- 
fore God in 30 hours from that time. 
Their prediction was verified, and thence 
he obtained the name of the "Sum- 
moned." He died in 1312. 

Ferdinand V., called The Catholic, 
son of John II., King of Navarre and 
Aragon; born in Soz, Spain, March 10, 
1452. He married, in 1469, the Princess 
Isabella of Castile, in whose right he 
succeeded on the death of her brother, 
Henry IV., to the throne of Castile. A 
rival claimant, Joanna, was supported by 
Alfonso, King of Portugal, who invaded 
Leon, and was defeated by Ferdinand 
at Toro, in 1476. Three years later 
Ferdinand succeeded his father in the 



FERDINAND 



119 



FERDINAND I. 



kingdom of Aragon, thus reuniting the 
two crowns of Castile and Aragon. He 
applied himself to the reform of the 
great abuses in the administration, and 
in 1480, at the instigation of Torque- 
mada, established the Inquisition at Se- 
ville and, after courageous resistance on 
the part of the people, at Saragossa also. 
One of the greatest events of this reign 
was the conquest of Granada. The war 
with the Moors began in 1483; victory 
after victory attended the arms of Fer- 
dinand, and in 1492 the capital city was 
taken after a siege of eight months. The 
"two kings," as they called Ferdinand 
and Isabella, made their entrance in 
January, 1493. The dominion of the 
Moors in Spain had lasted 800 years. 
By a cruel edict of the same year, 
1493, the Jews in Spain were commanded 
to receive baptism, or quit the country 
in four months. Multitudes of them, 
counted at from 30,000 to 170,000, be- 
came exiles, and the prisons were filled 
with those who remained. It was at this 
period that Columbus, with vessels fur- 
nished by Ferdinand and Isabella, made 
his memorable voyages and discovered 
America, which the Pope Alexander VI. 
assumed authority to give to those sov- 
ereigns. The great Cardinal Ximenes 
was then confessor to Isabella, and in 
1495 was made Archbishop of Toledo. 
In 1500, Gonsalvo was sent to make the 
conquest of Naples, which, partly by the 
sword and partly by the most unscru- 
pulous perfidy, he effected. On the 
death of Isabella, in 1504, the Kingd'^m 
of Castile passed to Philip, son-in-law 
of Ferdinand; but on Philip's death, two 
years later, Ferdinand again assumed 
the government. In 1507 Ximenes became 
first minister, labored successfully for 
the conversion of the Moors, and 
achieved the conquest of Oran. The in- 
famous League of Cambray was con- 
cluded in 1508. Soon after Navarre was 
conquered and united to Castile and 
Aragon. Of Ferdinand's four daughters, 
one was married to the Archduke Philip, 
two in succession to Emanuel, King of 
Portugal, and the fourth, Catharine, 
first to Prince Arthur of England, and 
afterward to his brother, Henry VIII. 
Ferdinand died in Madrigalejo, Spain, 
Jan, 23, 1516, and was interred in the 
cathedral of Granada with Queen Isa- 
bella. 

Ferdinand VI., son of Philip V.; born 
Sept. 23, 1713. He ascended the throne 
in 1746, and during the 13 years of his 
reign was one of the most just and hu- 
mane monarchs who ever ruled the 
Spanish destinies. He promoted the in- 
ternal welfare of his country, reorgan- 
ized the navy, encouraged manufactures. 



and by his judicious political conduct 
placed his elder brother on the throne of 
Naples, and another under the ducal 
canopy of Parma. The destruction of 
Quito, Lima, and Lisbon, by earth- 
quakes, occurred in this reign. He died 
Aug. 10, 1759. 

Ferdinand VII., son of Charles IV.: 
born in San Ildefonso, Oct. 13, 1784- 
succeeded his father in 1808. Upon the 
entry of Napoleon's troops into Spain, 
Ferdinand was taken prisoner and car- 
ried to Valen^ay, where he and his fam- 
ily remained till 1813, when he was 
restored to his kingdom. After his res- 
toration, he dissolved the Cortes, and 
assumed the powers of an absolute 
monarch. Like all the later Bourbons, 
"adversity taught him nothing, and in 
prosperity he forgot nothing." He re- 
established the Inquisition and those very 
liberals who had fought for the expulsion 
of the French from Spanish soil, he per- 
secuted with pitiless rancor. In 1820, 
his people broke out into I'ebellion, and 
re-established the Cortes. Ferdinand 
was, however, by the aid of French 
bayonets, restored to his crown, but not 
to his former absolutism. Bequeathed the 
crown to his daughter, Isabella, to the 
exclusion of his brother, Don Carlos — an 
act that led to a long and disastrous 
civil war. He abolished the Salic law by 
pragmatic sanction of 1830. He died in 
Madrid, Sept. 19, 1833. See Carlos, Don, 
Duke of Madrid. 

FERDINAND I, former King of Bul- 
garia. He was born in Vienna, in 1861, 
the youngest son of Prince Augustus of 
Saxe-Coburg and Princess Clementine of 
Bourbon-Orleans, who was the daughter 
of Louis Philippe. He was educated in 
the schools of Germany and developed a 
marked taste for natural history. He 
made several trips, including one to 
Brazil in 1879. He published his observa- 
tions in botany. In 1886 he was offered 
the throne of Bulgaria which at that 
time was vacant. This he accepted and 
on Aug. 14, 1887, was crowned Prince of 
Bulgaria. He was not, however, recog- 
nized by the Great Powers until 1896. 
He married in 1893 Marie Louise of 
Bourbon, the eldest daughter of Duke 
Robert of Parma. Following her death, 
he married in 1908, Eleanor, the daugh- 
ter of a prince of the house of Reuss. 
In the same year he took advantage of 
the political difficulties of Turkey and 
proclaimed the complete independence of 
Bulgaria, assuming the title of King. 
This title was recognized by Turkey and 
the Great Powers in the following year. 
Ferdinand took an active interest in the 
formation of the Balkan League and in 
the carrying on of the Balkan War of 



FERDINAND 



120 



FEUGUSON 



1912-1913. The victories of the Bul- 
garian forces in this war increased his 
prestige, but the collapse of Bulgaria in 
the second phase of the war brought him 
discredit both at home and abroad. In 
spite of the fact that the Bulgarian 
territory had been greatly enlarged as 
a result of the Balkan War, Ferdinand, 
who was a man of great ambition, v/as 
deeply disappointed that larger territory 
had not been secured. At the outbreak 
of the World War both the Entente and 
the Central Powers made strenuous 
efforts to secure the support of Bulga- 
ria. Ferdinand's sympathies were with 
Germany, while it is believed that the 
majority of the people, had they been 
left free to choose, would have preferred 
to join with the Allies. There is evidence 
to indicate that Ferdinand, even before 
the outbreak of actual hostilities, had 




FERDINAND I., KING OF BULGARIA 

arrived at a friendly understanding with 
the Central Powers. In September, 1915, 
ffter a period of neutrality, Ferdinand 
finally decided to actively join against 
the Allied Powers. On the final defeat 
of Bulgaria in October-, 1918, Ferdinand 
formally abdicated the crown in favor 
of the Crown Prince, Boris. See Bul- 
garia; World War. 

FERDINAND, VICTOR ALBERT 
MAINRAD, King of Rumania, born at 
Sigmaringen, Prussia, in 1865, the 
second son of Prince Leopold of Hohen- 
zollern, and elder brother of King 
Charles I. of Rumania. His father 
and his elder brother renounced title 
to the crown, and Ferdinand was 
declared presumptive. He became Sen- 
ator in 1889 and on March 18 of 
the same year was vested with the 
title of Prince of Rumania and declared 



successor to the throne. He married on 
Jan. 10, 1893, Marie Alexandra Victoria, 
the eldest daughter of the Duke of Edin- 
burgh. He succeeded his uncle on the 
death of the latter on Oct. 11, 1914. In 
spite of the German birth and relation- 
ships, his influence was opposed, at the 
outbreak of the World War, to the par- 
ticipation of Rumania on the side of the 
Central Powers. He was also opposed 
during the first years of the war, to 
active affiliation with the Entente na- 
tions. In August, 1917, however, Ru- 
mania finally cast aside her neutrality and 
declared war against Austria-Hungary, 
and from this time on King Fei'dinand's 
efforts were devoted to the direction of 
the Rumanian armies and to the welfare 
of his people who suffered greatly by 
the repeated Austrian and German in- 
vasions. At the end of the war he had 
firmly established himself in the admira- 
tion and affection of his people. 

FERDTJSI. See FiRDAUSl. 

FERGHANA, a province, since 1876, 
of Russian West Turkestan, formerly 
the khanate of Khokand, lying among 
the W. ranges of the Tian-Shan Moun- 
tains; area, 28,222 square miles, four- 
fifths of which are mountainous, the 
Tchotkal Mountains being in the N., 
and the Ala-tau and the Trans-Ala-tau 
chain in the S. The rest of the province 
consists of the fertile irrigated plain of 
the Syr Daria (Jaxartes), which trav- 
erses Ferghana from N. E. to S. W. 
The chief towns are Khokand (the for- 
mer capital), Marghilan (the present 
capital), Namangan, and Andijan. 

FERGUS I., King of Scotland, the son 
of Fergus, King of the Irish-Scots. He 
was invited to Scotland to repel the 
Picts, and for this was chosen king. He 
was drowned in his passage to Ireland, 
about 305 B. c. 

FERGUS FALLS, a city and county- 
seat of Otter Tail co., Minn.; on the 
Red River of the North, and on the 
Northern Pacific and the Great Northern 
railroad; is in the heart of the park 
section of the State, being surrounded 
by prairie land and forests of pine and 
hardwood. It contains the Norwegian 
Lutheran College; high school, public 
library, an Odd Fellows' Hall, Masonic 
Temple, court house. Hospital for the 
Insane, waterworks, electric lights, 
several banks and newspapers. It has 
large woolen and fk>ur mills. Pop. (1910) 
6,887; (1920) 7,581. 

FERGUSON, ELSIE (MRS. THOMAS 
B. CLARKE), an American actress, born 
in New York City in 1885. She made her 
first appearance on the stage in "The 



FERGUSON 



121 



FERN 



Liberty Belles" (1901) and was at once 
successful. She played in 1907 in Lon- 
don, in "The Earl of Pawtucket." In 
the following year she toured the United 
States in several plays. This was fol- 
lowed by other appearances as star and 
leading woman. She became one of the 
most popular of the American actresses. 
She was also well-known in moving 
pictures. In 1916 she married Thomas 
Benedict Clarke, Jr. 

FERGUSON, PATRICK, inventor of 
the breech-loading rifle; born in 1744 in 
Pitfour, Scotland. Entering the army 
in 1759, he served in Germany and 
Tobago. In 1776 he patented his rifle, 
firing seven shots a minute, and sighted 
for ranges of from 100 to 500 yards; 
and with it he armed a corps of loyalists, 
who helped at the battle of Brandy- 
wine (1777) to defeat the American 
army. Three years later, on Oct. 7, 
1780, Major Ferguson fell, defending 
King's Mountain, South Carolina, with 
800 militia against 1,300 Americans. 
This affair, which was not unlike that 
of Majuba Hill, turned the tide of S. 
warfare. 

FERMENTATION, a change which oc- 
curs in an organic substance, by which 
it is decomposed. 

Alcoholic fermentation was known to 
the ancients, and is the change which 
sugar undergoes under the influence of 
yeast. Before fermentation takes place, 
cane sugar is transformed into glucose, 
thus Ci2H-On-fH20 = 2CeH,206. About 
95 per cent, of the glucose is converted 
into alcohol, C6HuO.=2C02+2C2H5-OH. 
Of the other 5 per cent., about 1 part is 
used by the growth of the yeast, the 
other 4 parts are converted into succinic 
acid, glycerin, carbonic acid, and free 
hydrogen : a larger quantity of these 
secondary products is formed if the 
fermentation is slower, or is made with 
more exhausted and impure yeast. Fer- 
mentation takes place most readily at 
about 24° to 30°. The saccharine liquid 
becomes turbid, gives off COj, and be- 
comes warmer than the air; when the 
evolution of CO- ceases, the yeast or 
ferment, torula cerevisise, separates 
from the liquid which now contains 
alcohol, glycerin, and succinic acid in the 
place of the sugar. A small quantity of 
acetic acid is always formed, probably 
from the decomposition of the yeast. 
Most of the natural saccharine juices, as 
beet-root, potato, and grape juice, when 
fermented, yield small quantities of alco- 
hols, homologous with ethylic alcohol, 
forming fusel oil, which contains propyl, 
butyl and amyl alcohols, also a small 
quantity of caprioic oenanthyl, and cap- 
rylic alcohols. 



Butyric fermentation is the convers'or. 
of lactic acid, etc., into butyric acid, due 
to the presence of Vibrio, according to 
Pasteur. Lactic fermentation is the con- 
version of sugar into lactic acid, said to 
be due to the presence of Penicillium 
glaucum. It takes place when 2 gallons 
of milk are mixed with 6 pounds of raw 
sugar, 12 pints of water, 8 ounces of 
putrid cheese, and 4 pounds of zinc 
white; the mixture is kept at a tempera- 
ture of 30° for some weeks. If the fer- 
m.entation is allovv'ed to go further, the 
lactic acid, CH,-CH'OH-CO -OH, is con- 
verted into butyric acid, CHs'CH-'CHa- 
CO 'OH. Mucus fei'mentation is the con- 
version of sugar into mannite, C.Hi Oc,. 
gum, C12H20O10, and carbonic acid, COl> 
under the influence of a peculiar fer- 
ment. Tannous fermentation is the con- 
version of tannin, in a solution of galls, 
into gallic acid, C.tH..OiT+0,2 = 3C-Hc06 
+ 6CO2+2H2O. 

FERMO, a walled city of central Italy, 
till 1860 capital of a delegation of same 
name, forming part of the states of the 
Church in the province of Ascoli, 3 miles 
from the Adriatic, and 32 S. S. E. of An- 
cona. Its harbor on the Adriatic, called 
Porto di Fermo, is small, and but little 
frequented. Fermo was founded by the 
Sabines before Rome existed, v/as colon- 
ized by the Romans toward the beginning 
of the First Punic War, and was re- 
peatedly sacked by the Goths and other 
barbarians. In the 8th century the city 
was transferred to the Holy See. Pop. 
about 5,000. 

FERMOY, a town in the county of 
Cork, Ireland. It is situated on both 
banks of the Blackwater. It is the site o^ 
a cathedral, archbishop's palace, tv»'o 
convents, and a college. The chief in- 
dustries are agricultural products and 
grist mills. It is an important garrison 
town with accommodations for 3,000 
troops. Pop. about 12,00D. 

FERN, in botany: (1) General: The 
filical alliance, consisting of vascular 
acrogens, with marginal or dorsal one- 
celled spore cases, usually surrounded 
by an elastic ring; spores of only one 
kind. Ferns are leafy plants springing 
from a rhizome, which creeps below or 
on the surface of the ground or rises 
into the air like the trunk of a tree. 
This trunk does not taper, but is 0' 
equal diameter at both ends. It is cov 
ered by a hard, cellular, fibrous rind ; 
its wood, when any is present, consist?; 
of large, scalarif orm or dotted ducts ; 
the vernation of the leaves is circinate. 
their venation often dichotomous. Re- 
productive oi'gans, consisting of spore 
cases, arise from the veins on the lower 



FERN ISLANDS 



122 



FERNIE 



surface of the leaves or from their mar- 
gins. The collection of seeds are called 
sori. 

FERN, or FARNE, ISLANDS, a group 
of 17 rocky islets off the N. E. coast 
of Northumberland cc, England. St. 
Cuthbert aied here, and his stone coffin 
is still pointed out. The "Forfarshire" 
steamer was wrecked here in 1838, when 
nine persons were saved by the heroism 
of Grace Darling, the daughter of a 
lighthouse keeper. 

FERNALD. BERT M., a United States 
Senator from Maine; born in West 
Poland, Me., in 1858. He was educated 
in the public schools and at Hebron 
/icademy. He engaged in the packing 
business, in which he became very suc- 
cessful. He was a member of the State 
House of Representatives, and was for 
tv/o terms State Senator. In 1909 he 
was elected Governor of Maine, and in 
1916 was elected to the United States 
Senate He was re-elected in 1918. 

FERNALD, CHARLES HENRY, an 

American zoologist; born in Mount 
Desert, Me., March 16, 1838; was edu- 
cated at the Maine Wesleyan Seminary; 
was an acting ensign in the United 
States navy during the Civil War; and 
Professor of Natural History at the 
Maine State College in 1871-1886. In 
the latter year he was appointed Pro- 
fessor of Zoology at the Massachusetts 
Agricultural College. His publications 
include "Tortricidae of North America"; 
"The Crambidse of North America"; 
"The Pterophoridge of North America"; 
"Pyralidae of North America," etc. 

FERNALD, CHESTER BAILEY, an 

American writer; born in Boston, Mass., 
March 18, 1869. He was a contributor 
to magazines, and author of "The Cat 
and the Cherub, and Other Stories" 
(1896) ; "Chinatown Stories" (1899) ; 
''Under the Jackstaff" (1903); "John 
Kendry's Idea" (1907) ; "The White Um- 
brella" (1919). He wrote a number of 
plays; notable are: "The Pursuit of 
Pamela" (1913), and "The Day Before 
the Day" (1915). 

FERNANDEZ, NAVARETTE, (fer- 
nan'deth), surnamed El Mudo, or "the 
Dumb," a Spanish painter; born in Lo- 
grono, Spain, in 1526. He was a dis- 
tinguished pupil of Titian, and became 
painter to Philip II., for whom he 
adorned the Escurial with some of its 
finest picture?. Among his chief works 
are a "Martyrdom of St. James," a 
"Nativity of Christ," "St. Jerome in the 
Desert," and his masterpiece, "Abraham 
with the Three Angels." His brilliant 



coloring earned for him the name of the 
Spanish Titian. He died about 1579. 

FERNANDO DE NORONHA, an is- 
land in the South Atlantic Ocean, be- 
longing to Brazil. It is 8 miles long, by 
a mean breadth of 2 miles, and has a 
rugged, mountainous, wooded surface. 
It is used as a penal settlement for 
Brazilian criminals. 

FERNANDO PO, an island in the 
Bight of Biafra, 20 miles from the west 
African coast, and about 40 in length 
by 20 in breadth. It is mountainous in 
the interior, presenting a rich and va- 
ried aspect of beauty and fertility. A 
large portion of its surface is covered 
with dense forests of valuable timber, 
while the land gradually rises from the 
steep and rocky coasts into two peaks 
culminating upward of 10,000 feet above 
sea-level. It is well watered, and the 
sugar cane grows in spontaneous abun- 
dance. Yams form the staple food of 
the natives. Birds, some varieties of 
animals, and fish are plentiful. The 
climate is very unhealthy. The capital :'s 
Sta. Isabel. This island was disco '- 
ered in 1471 by the Portuguese, wl o 
ceded it to Spain in 1778. The Spaniards 
eventually abandoned it and the Brit- 
ish, in 1824, selected it as a suitable 
military depot and naval station. They, 
in their turn, abandoned it in 1834. on 
account of its insalubrity. The Span- 
iards again took possession in 1844, and 
called the island Puerto de Isabel. It 
is now used by them as a penal settle- 
ment, to which, in 1869, several Cuban 
patriots were deported, as political 
prisoners. 

FERNEY, a village of France, in the 
department of Ain, five miles N. W. of 
Geneva. This place not merely owes its 
celebrity, but even existence, to its hav- 
ing been for a lengthened period the 
residence of one of the greatest writers 
of modern times. Voltaire purchased 
this estate in 1768. Out of a paltry 
village, consisting of a few miserable 
cottages, he constructed a neat little 
town, in which he established a colony 
of industrious artisans, principally con- 
sisting of watchmakers from Geneva. 
Voltaire resided here, with little inter- 
ruption, for more than 20 years. Dur- 
ing the whole of this period Ferney was 
to the literary and refined what Mecca 
is to the Mohammedan world. Voltaire 
quitted Ferney for the last time on Feb. 
6, 1778. 

FERNIE, a city of British Columbia, 
Canada, in the Kootenay district. It is 
near the Elk river, and on the Canadian 
Pacific, the Great Northern, and the 
Morrissey, Fernie, and Michel rail- 



FERONIA 



123 



FERRIC OXIDE 



ways. The city has several handsome 
public buildings, including a custom 
house, a postoffice, public schools, and 
hospitals. It is the port of entry and 
the provincial police headquarters for 
East Kootenay. It is the center of an im- 
portant hunting region. Its industries 
include sawmills, railway-car shops, 
breweries, brick works, etc. The Crow's 
Nest Pass coal mines are in the neigh- 
borhood. Pop. about 8,000. 

FERONIA, in mythology, a Roman 
goddess, commonly ranked among the 
rural divinities, and worshiped with 
great solemnity both by the Sabines and 
the Latins, but more especially by the 
former; in astronomy, an asteroid, the 
72d found; discovered by Peters, on Jan. 
9, 1862. Also a genus of Au^-antiaceas 
(citronworts), the order to which the 
orange belongs. The single species is the 
wood apple or elephant apple (F. ele- 
phantum). The fruit is gray with a 
hard rind. It grows in India. Also an 
insect of the Coleoptera, belonging to the 
section Pentamera, and family Carabidse. 

FERRARA (fair-rar'a), a fortified 
city of central Italy, capital of province 
of same name, and formerly an independ- 
ent duchy under the rule of the House of 
Este; situate in a low marshy plain, on 
the left bank of the Volano, 5 miles S. 
of the Po, 26 N. N. E. of Bologna. Under 
the rule of its native princes Ferrara 
was the seat of one of the most polished 
and refined of the Italian courts. Fer- 
rara contains a cathedral built in 1135, 
a university and a fine public library (in 
which are deposited the MSS. and other 
relics of the poets Ariosto and Tasso), 
and one of the finest theaters in Italy. 
Its manufactures and trade are incon- 
siderable. Ariosto resided in this city, 
and here, in 1516, was published the first 
edition of his immortal "Orlando"; and 
here, too, in 1533, he breathed his last. 
The house in which he lived is still care- 
fully preserved. Ferrara, besides being 
the birthplace, was also the place of im- 
prisonment of the poet Tasso {q. v.). 
Cardinal Bentivoglio was also a native 
of Ferrara. From a small town Ferrara 
became a walled city, A. d. 670. The 
family of Este possessed it first as chief 
magistrates, and afterward as heredi- 
tary sovereigns, from about 1030 to 1597; 
when, on the death of its last duke, and 
the extinction of the male line of the 
house, it was taken possession of by the 
Pope. In 1796, the French entered 
Ferrara, and made it the capital of the 
department of Basso Po. In 1814, the 
Church again recovered it, but in 1859 
it became a part of the new Kingdom of 
Italy. Pop. of commune about 90,000. 



FERRERO, GUGLIELMO, an Italian 
historian. He was born near Naples in 
1872, studied law at Pisa and literatui'e 
at Bologna, and collaborated with Lom- 
broso in producing, "La donna delin- 
quente." His first important work was 
''II Mondo criminale italiano," written 
in collaboration with Sighele and Bian- 
chi. He had already commenced his 
study of Roman history and between 
1902 and 1908 produced his "Grandezza 
e decadenza di Roma," which has since 
been translated into the principal Eu- 
ropean languages. The work shows much 
original reflection and is boldly critical 
of Latin and Greek authorities. During 
1906, he lectured on Roman history at 
Paris, and during 1907 and 1908 visited 
South America and the United States, 
lecturing at the Lowell Institute and else- 
where. His principal work, in four 
volumes, is knovra in English as the 
"Greatness and Decline of Rome." His 
other works include : "Characters and 
Events of Roman History"; "Fra i due 
mondi" (English translation: "Between 
Two Worlds") ; ''Ancient Rome and Mod- 
ern America: A Comparative Study of 
Morals and Manners." 

FERRET COL (fer'ra), a pass of the 
Pennine Alps, in Switzerland, connecting 
Orsieres, in the latter counti-y, with Cor- 
mayeur, in Piedmont. Height 7,640 feet 
above sea-level. 

FERRIC OXIDE, FeiO,, peroxide of 
iron, sesquioxide of iron, red oxide of 
iron, rouge, colcothar. It occurs in na- 
ture as red haematite, specular iron ore, 
and is obtained by heating, FeSoj, fer- 
rous sulphate in the preparation of sul- 
phuric acid. It is a red powder, nearly 
insoluble in acids; it is used as a pig- 
ment, and to give an orange or purple 
color to glass and porcelain, according 
to temperature. Ferric oxide is not mag- 
netic, and is unaltered by heat. It is 
used to polish glass, and when finely 
divided by jewelers under the name of 
rouge. The hydrated sesquioxide is ob- 
tained in a bulky brown precipitate by 
precipitating ferric chloride by am- 
monia; soda or potash must not be used, 
as the oxide retains a large quantity of 
these substances. The hydrate occurs 
native as brown haematite. Hydrated 
ferric oxide is soluble in acids form- 
ing ferric salts; these solutions dissolve 
excess of the oxide, which is afterward 
precipitated as a basic salt. The hy- 
drated oxide is used to remove H:S from 
coal gas, and as a mor-lant in dyeing. 
It is reduced by organic matter, but is 
reoxidized in the air. Ferric oxide unites 
with ferrous oxide to form magnetic 
oxide of iron, Fe.Oj-FeO, or FeaOi. 



FERROL 



124 



FESSENDEN 



FERROL, a Spanish seaport in Ga- 
licia, Spain; on a narrow arm of the sea, 
11 miles by water and 33 by rail N. E. 
of Corunna. A poor fishing town till 1752, 
it now is one of the strongest fortified 
places in the kingdom, and possesses one 
of its three largest arsenals (with dock- 
yards, naval workshops, etc.), while the 
annual trade reaches about £500,000. 
The harbor is safe and capacious, and 
has a very narrow entrance, defended 
by two forts. The town has manufac- 
tures of naval stores, linen, cotton, and 
leather, and exports corn, brandy, vine- 
gar, and fish. In 1805 a French fleet was 
defeated by the English off Ferrol. The 
town was taken by the French in 1809 
and 1823, and in 1872 had a republican 
rising. Pop. about 30,000. 

FERRY, FREDERICK CARLOS, an 

American educator, born in Braintree, 
Vt., in 1868. He graduated from Wil- 
liams College in 1891 and took post-grad- 
uate studies at Harvard and in Ger- 
many. He was on the faculty of Wil- 
liams College from 1891 to 1917, when 
he was elected president and professor 
of mathematics at Hamilton College. He 
was a member of many educational so- 
cieties and contributed articles, chiefly 
on mathematical subjects, to scientific 
publications. 

FERRY, JULES FRANCOIS 
CAMILLE, a French statesman; born in 
Saint Die, France, April 5, 1832; was 
admitted to the Paris bar in 1854, and 
speedily identified himself with the oppo- 
nents of the empire. In 1869 he was 
elected to the National Assembly, where 
he voted against the war with Prussia; 
and during the siege of Paris by the Ger- 
mans (1870-1871) he played a promi- 
nent part as central mayor of the city. 
He was minister to Athens in 1872- 
1873, and in 1879 became minister of 
public instruction, and began an agita- 
tion against the Jesuits. Their expul- 
sion was effected, and brought about the 
dissolution of the ministry in Septem- 
ber, 1880. M. Ferry then formed a cabi- 
net, which remained in office till Novem- 
ber, 1881. In February, 1883, he again 
became premier, with a policy of "colo- 
nial expansion," involving a war in 
Madagascar and the invasion of Ton- 
quin, where a disaster to the French 
troops brought about his downfall in 
March, 1885. In 1890 he was made 
senator. He died in Paris, March 17, 
1893. 

FERSEN, AXEL, COUNT, a Swedish 
militarv officer; born in Stockholm, 
Sweden, in 1755; came to Am.erica on 
the staff of Rochambeau; fought under 
Lafayette and received from Washing- 



ton the Order of the Society of the Cin- 
cinnati. Later he went to France, 
where he became a favorite at court, 
and was the disguised coachman at the 
flight of the royal family from Ver- 
sailles during the Revolution. He re- 
turned to Sweden, where he was received 
with honor, and in 1801 was made grand 
marshal of that country. On suspicion 
of complicity in the death of Prince 
Christian of Sweden, he was seized by 
a mob while marshaling the funeral pro- 
cession, and tortured to death, June 20, 
1810. 

FESCH (fesh), JOSEPH, Cardinal 
Archbishop of Lyons, and half-brother 
of Letitia Ramolino, mother of Napo- 
leon I.; born in Ajaccio, Corsica, Jan. 
3, 1763. He was educated in France for 
the Church; in 1790 he was appointed 
by his nephew. General Bonaparte, com- 
missary-general of the army of Italy, 
in which capacity he realized a princely 
fortune. He afterward resumed his 
clerical studies, and adopting the pro- 
fession, was, in 1802, consecrated Arch- 
bishop of Lyons. In the year afterward, 
Fesch received a cardinal's hat, and was 
sent to Rome as French ambassador. In 
1804 he accompanied Pius VII. to Paris, 
to assist at the emperor's coronation, and 
in the following year was created Grand 
Almoner of France. As president of the 
Council of Paris, he energetically oppo- 
sed his nephew on many occasions, and 
especially espoused the cause of the un- 
fortunate Pope. He finally fell into dis- 
grace with the emperor, and retired to 
Rome, where he died May 13, 1839. 

FESS, SIMEON D., an American edu- 
cator and congressman, born in Allen 
CO., 0., in 1861. He was educated at the 
Ohio Northern University and studied 
law at the same institution. He was 
professor of American history, head of 
the College of Law, and vice-president 
of the Ohio Northern University, from 
1889 to 1902. From 1902 to 1907 he was 
graduate student and lecturer of the 
University of Chicago. In the latter 
year he was appointed president of Anti- 
och College, serving until 1917. In 1910 
he was delegate and vice-president of the 
Ohio Constitutional Convention. He was 
elected to Congress in 1913 and again 
in 1915. During this service he was 
chairman of the committee on education, 
and during the campaign of 1918 was 
chairman of the Republican National 
Congressional Campaign Committee. He 
wrote "Outline of United States His- 
tory" (1897) ; "American Political The- 
ory" (1907) ; and "Civics in Ohio" 
(1910). 

FESSENDEN, WILLIAM PITT, an 
American statesman; born in Boscawen, 



FESTUBEBT 



125 



FEUDAL SYSTEM 



N. H., Oct 16, 1806; was graduated at 
Bowdoin College in 1823 and admitted 
to the bar in 1827. He entered politics 
and soon acquired a national reputation 
as a lawyer and a Whig. He was elected 
to the United States Senate in 1854, and 
a week after he took his seat made a 
speech against the Kansas-Nebraska 
Bill, which placed him in the front rank 
of senatorial orators. During the Civil 
War he was conspicuous for his efforts 
to sustain the national credit. He was 
made Secretary of the Treasury in 1864, 
and, having placed it on a firm basis, re- 
signed in 1865 to return to his seat in 
the Senate. He died in Portland, Me., 
Sept. 8, 1869. 

FESTUBEBT, a small town in north- 
ern France, three miles S. of Neuve Cha- 
pelle, the center of intensive fighting be- 
tween the British forces and the Ger- 
mans in the early part of the World 
War. From it was named the Battle 
of Festubert, which was a forward 
movement undertaken by the British 
during May, 1915, with the object of 
preventing the Germans from sending 
re-enforcements to Lens, where the 
French were being hard pressed. The 
battle proper began on the morning of 
May 9, 1915, the British offensive extend- 
hig from Armentieres to La Bassee. The 
attack lasted several days, but ended in 
failure, demonstrating the superiority 
of the Germans in heavy artillery at 
that time. 

FESTUS, PORCITJS, pro-Consul and 
Governor of Judaea, before whom St. 
Paul was accused by the Jews; but the 
apostle appealing to the emperor, Festus 
sent him to Rome. Also, a celebrated 
Latin grammarian who lived between the 
2d and 4th centuries. 

FETICHISM, or FETICISM, the 
worshiping of a fetich. The word fetich 
is said to be derived from the Portuguese 
word fetiso, bewitched, and was applied 
originally to the objects worshiped by 
the negroes of Africa. The term is ap- 
plied to anything in nature or art to 
which a magical power is ascribed, as 
stones, carved images, etc. Fetichism is 
the worship of material substances, and 
prevails very extensively among barbar- 
ous nations. Among them, tribes, fam- 
ilies, and individuals have their I'espec- 
tive fetiches; which are often objects 
casually selected, as stones, weapons, ves- 
sels, plants, etc., and the rude worshiper 
does not hesitate to chastise, or even 
throw away or destroy his fetich, if it 
does not seem to gratify his desires. 

FEUDAL SYSTEM, that constitu- 
tional system which was introduced into 
Europe by the N. nations after the fall 

Vol. IV — Cyc— I 



of the Roman power^ and which has left 
important traces of its existence in most 
European countries. The constitution 
of feuds had its origin in the military 
I- jlicy of the Goths, Huns, Vandals, and 
other N. nations, who overran Europe 
at the declension of the Roman empire. 
The term feud is of very doubtful deri- 
vation, but most probably it is formed 
from the Teutonic fee or feh, wages or 
pay for service, and odh, or od, property 
or possession; a feud, then, being the 
property or possession given as wages 
for service. In order to secure their 
newly acquired possessions, and at the 
same time to reward their deserving fol- 
lowers, the conquering generals were 
wont to allot large districts, or parcels 
of land, to the superior officers of the 
army, and these were by them again 
dealt out in smaller allotments or parcels, 
to the inferior officers and soldiers. 

According to this system, every re- 
ceiver of land, or feudatory, was bound, 
when called on, to serve his immediate 
lord or superior, and to do all in his 
power to defend him. Such lord or su- 
perior was likewise subordinate to, and 
under the command of, a higher su- 
perior or lord; and so on upward to the 
prince or general himself. The several 
lords wei'e also reciprocally bound in 
their respective gradations to protect 
the possessions they had given. Thus 
the connection between lord and vassal 
was made to wear all the appearance of 
a mutual interchange of benefits — of 
bounty and protection on the one hand, 
and of gratitude and service on the 
other. In this way the feudal connec- 
tion was established, and an army was 
always at command, ready to fight in de- 
fense of the whole or of any part of the 
newly-acquired territory. Thus the feu- 
dal constitution, or doctrine of tenure, 
extended itself over all the W. world; 
and the feudal laws drove out the Roman, 
which had hitherto universally prevailed. 

This system was adopted in most coun- 
tries of Europe from the 9th to the end 
of the 13th century; but it differed in 
various particulars in the different coun- 
tries. Though there can be no doubt 
that feudal principles prevailed to a 
considerable extent in the polity of the 
Saxons in England, yet it was only when 
that country was conquered by the Nor- 
mans that it was regularly established. 

A country, under the feudal law, was 
divided into knights' fees, the tenant of 
each of which appears to have been 
obliged to keep the field at his own ex- 
pense for 40 days, whenever his lord chose 
to call on him. For smaller portions of 
land, smaller periods of service were 
due. Every great tenant exercised a 
jurisdiction, civil and criminal, over his 



FEUILLANTS 



126 



FEZZAN 



immediate tenants, and held courtSv and 
administered the laws within his lord- 
ship, like a sovereign prince. The exis- 
tence of manor-courts and other small 
jurisdictions within the kingdom is one 
of the features of the feudal system. 
The land escheated to the lord when the 
tenant left no heir, and it was forfeited 
to him when he was found guilty either 
of a breach of his oath of fealty or of 
felony. There were also fines payable to 
the lord on certain occasions, as well as 
aids, reliefs, etc. The vassal had also to 
attend the lord's courts, sometimes to 
witness, and sometimes to take part in, 
the administration of justice; in battle, 
he was bound to lend his horse to his 
lord if dismounted, to keep to his side 
while fighting, and go into captivity as 
a hostage for him when taken. It was 
a breach of faith to divulge his (the 
lord's) counsel, to conceal from him the 
machinations of others, to injure his 
person or fortune, or to violate the sanc- 
tity of his roof. 

FEUILLANTS (fu-e'yans), a re- 
formed branch of the Cistercian order 
of monks. It was founded by Jean de la 
Barriere, abbot of the Cistercian monas- 
tery of Feuillans near Toulouse, in 1577, 
who, being opposed to the great laxity of 
discipline that then prevailed, introduced 
a much more austere mode of life. They 
were declared independent by Sixtus V. 
in 1589. They were afterward divided, 
in 1630, into two congregationo by Pope 
Urban VIII., who separated the French 
from the Italian. 

FEUILLET, OCTAVE (fe-ya'), a 
French novelist; bom in St. L6, Aug. 11, 
1821. "The Great Old Man" (1845) was 
his first story; but the "Romance of a 
Poor Young Man" (1858), which was 
dramatized, first made him famous. 
Among his numerous other novels are: 
"The History of Sibylla" (1862), "Julia 
de Trecoeur" (1872), "A Marriage in 
High Life" (1875); "Story of a Parisi- 
enne"; "La Morte" (1886). He was also 
a successful playwright. He was elected 
to the Academy in 1863. He died in 
Paris, Dec. 29, 1890. 

FEVER, a disease or rather a whole 
group of diseases, one general, though 
not universal, symptom of which is in- 
creased heat of the skin, besides which 
the pulse is frequent, and various func- 
tions are disturbed. Fevers may be di- 
vided into continued, periodic, and erup- 
tive or exanthematous. Under the first 
are ranked typhus, typhoid, and relap- 
sing fevers; under the second, inter- 
mittents and remittents; and under the 
third variola, rubeola, and scarlatina. 
Yellow fever belongs to the remittent 
rather than the continued type; so also 



does hectic fever. Puerperal fever 
should be removed to the class of inflam- 
mations. 

FEZ, a city of Morocco, capital of the 
province, as it formerly was of the king- 
dom of the same name, and residence of 
a kaid or governor. It is singularly and 
beautifully situated in a funnel-shaped 
valley, open only to the N. and N. E., 
the sloping sides of which are covered 
with fields, gardens, orchards, and 
orange groves, 95 miles from the Atlan- 
tic, 225 N. E. of Morocco, and 80 miles 
S. E. of Tangier. Fez contains about 
100 mosques, the chief of which, called 
El Carubin, is a fine structure, and 
possesses a covered place for women 
who may choose to participate in public 
prayers — a circumstance unique in Mo- 
hammedan places of worship. Public 
baths are numerous and good. Twice a 
year caravans go from Fez across the 
desert to Timbuktu. This city has al- 
ways been considered one of the chief 
?eats of Moslem learning. Old Fez was 
founded in 793 by Edris II., a descend- 
ant of Mohammed, and continued the 
capital of an independent kingdom till 
1548, when it was, together with its 
territory, conquered, and annexed to 
Morocco. Fez has always been held so 
sacred by the Arabs and others, that 
when the pilgrimages to Mecca were 
interrupted in the 10th century, the 
Western Moslems journeyed to this city, 
as the Eastern did to Mecca; and even 
now none but the Faithful can enter 
Fez without express permission from 
the emperor. Pop. estimated at 100,090, 
of which about three-fourths are Moors 
and Arabs, and the remainder Berbers 
and other cognate tribes, Jews, and 
Negroes. 

FEZZAN (ancient Phasania Regio, and 
the country of the Garamantes), a coun- 
try of central Africa, immediately S. of 
Tripoli, to which pashalic it is tributary. 
Its true boundaries are ill-defined, and 
its area is uncertain. Fezzan is, as far 
as has been ascertained, the largest 
oasis, or cultivable tract in the great 
African desert of Sahara, by which it 
is surrounded on three sides. A great 
portion of this region consists of an 
extensive valley, bounded by an irregu- 
lar circle of mountains on all sides ex- 
cept the W., where it opens into the 
desert. No streams (properly so called), 
but Water is plentifully found at a 
depth of from 10 to 12 feet below the 
surface of the soil. A few small lakes, 
incrusted with carbonate of soda, are 
dotted here and there. The osti'ich and 
antelope are commonly met with, while 
to the ordinary domestic animals cam- 
els may be added. In summer the tem- 



FIALA 



127 



FICZE 



perature is insupportably hot, and, on 
the other hand, the cold of winter is 
sufficiently severe to be acutely felt by 
the natives Some wheat is raised, but 
maize and barley form the staple gi-ains. 
Dates, figs, legumes, and pomegranates 
form an abundant source of food to the 
denizens. Fezzan derives its chief im- 
portance as being a depot for the great 
caravan traffic between Egypt and Bar- 
bary, and the countries to the E. and S. 
of the Niger. Capital, Mourzouk. Fez- 
zan after the Turkish-Italian War 
(1911-1912) was by the Treaty of 
Ouchy placed with Tripoli under the 
dominion of Italy. 

FIALA, ANTHONY, an American ex- 
plorer; born in Jersey City Heights, in 
1869. He was educated at Cooper 
Union and at the National Academy of 
Design in New York. After several 
years spent in various employments, in- 
cluding that of an art engraver, he be- 
came war correspondent for the Brook- 
lyn "Daily Eagle" in the Spanish- 
American War, in which he took part 
as a 1st lieutenant of the infantry. In 
1901-1902 he was photographer for the 
Baldwin-Ziegler Polar Expedition, and 
from 1903 to 1905 commanded a second 
expedition sent out under the same aus- 
pices. He accompanied Colonel Theo- 
dore Roosevelt on the latter's trip 
through the Brazilian wilderness in 
1913-1914, and made extensive explora- 
tions in that region. He served as cap- 
tain in the machine-gun troop on the 
Mexican border in 1916-1917, and dur- 
ing the World War served as major in 
the National Army. He wrote "Fight- 
ing the Polar Ice" (1906). 

FIBER, or FIBRE, a filament, or 
thread, the minute part of either animal 
or vegetable substances. The scientific 
use of fiber is described with regard to 
the animal kingdom under muscle and 
tissue; and with regard to the vegetable 
kingdom, under vegetable tissue, wood, 
and woody fiber. In its more popular 
but perfectly accurate use, the word 
includes the hair and wool of quadru- 
peds, the threads of the cocoons of silk 
worms, etc.; the fibers of the leaves of 
plants and of their inner bark, the elon- 
gated cells or hairs connected with the 
seeds of plants, and the ordinary mate- 
rials used in making cordage and textile 
fabrics. Mineral substances are called 
fibrous in structure even when it is im- 
possible to detach the apparent fibers. 
The only fibrous mineral which has been 
used for textile fabrics is Amiantfms, 
a variety of asbestos, but that only to 
a very limited extent. The animal sub- 
stances used are divided into two classes 
1 — the first including hair and wool, and 



the second the silk of cocoons. Nearly 
all textile fabrics are made from the 
first, and the wool of the sheep is the 
most important division of the class. 
The hair of the goat, alpaca, camel, 
bison, and other animals is also used. 
The hair of most animals is, however, in 
general, too short to allow of its being 
used for textile manufacture. The 
vegetable kingdom yields the largest 
number of useful fibers, which are ob- 
tained from natural orders very differ- 
ent from each other. The carogenous 
or cryptogamous plants do not, how- 
ever, afford any. From exogenous 
plants, fibers are obtained from the 
inner bark, as in the case of flax, hemp, 
etc., and from the hairs of the fruit, as 
in cotton. In endogenous plants the 
fiber is sometimes obtained from the 
fruit, as in the cocoanut fiber. The 
spathe of some palms is also used. 
Some of the slender palms called rat- 
tans, and the bulrush, etc., are much 
used, on account of their fibrous nature, 
for wicker-work, chair-bottoms, and simi- 
lar purposes. 

The most valuable fibers obtained 
from endogenous plants come from the 
leaf or leaf-stalk. Among the useful 
vegetable fibers those of flax, hemp, and 
cotton have long held the first place. 
The principal additions, of late years, 
have been New Zealand flax, jute, Sunn 
or Sunn hemp, coir. Pita flax, Abaca or 
Manila hemp, Chinese grass, and some 
others. One of the most important uses 
of vegetable fiber is in the manufacture 
of paper. 

FICHTE, JOHANN GOTTLIEB, a 

German philosopher; born in Rammen- 
au in Upper Lusatia, May 19, 1762; 
wrote his treatise, "Essay Toward a 
Critique of All Revelation" (1792), as 
a "letter of introduction" to Kant. He 
was appointed Professor of Philosophy 
in the University of Jena in 1794; and 
the following year published his "Doc- 
trine of Science," a fundamental depar- 
ture from Kant. Of his philosophical 
writings the most important are: "The 
Doctrines of Science" (1794) ; "Founda- 
tions of the Whole Doctrine of Science" 

(1794) ; "Introduction to the Doctrine 
of Science" (1798) ; "Svstem of Moral 
Doctrine" (1798) ; "Man's Destiny" 

(1800). He died in Berlin, Jan. 27,1814. 

FICKE, ARTHUR DAVISON, an 
American writer, born in Davenport, 
la., in 1883. He graduated from Har- 
vard University in 1904 and after study- 
ing law was admitted to the bar in 1908. 
He was the author of several volumes of 
prose and poetrv, including "From the 
Isles" (1907) ; "The Happy Princess" 
(1907); "The Breaking of Bonds" 



FICUS 



128 



FIELD 



(1910) ; "Twelve Japanese Painters" 
(1913); and "An April Elegy" (1917). 
During the World War he was captain 
of the Ordnance Department. He served 
in France until July, 1919, rising to the 
rank of lieutenant-colonel. 

FICUS, in botany, a genus of 
Moraceas; flowers unisexual, the males 
and females mixed indisci-iminately on 
the inner side of a concave fleshy recep- 
tacle, the upper margin of which consti- 
tutes a narrow aperture. Flowers sep- 
arated from each other by soft, colorless, 
bristle-like bracts or scales. The genus 
is a very large one, about 600 species 
being already known. They occur in all 
the hotter parts of the world. 

FIELD, CYRUS WEST, an Ameri- 
can capitalist; born in Stockbridge, 
Mass., Nov. 30, 1819; received a fair 




CYRUS WEST FIELD 

education; began the manufacture and 
sale of paper in 1840, and soon became 
wealthy. About 1845 he turned his at- 
tention to ocean telegraphy. In 1854 
the Newfoundland Legislature granted 
him the right for 50 years to land cables 
between the United States and Europe 
on that island. He later organized the 
New York, Newfoundland, and London 
Telegraph Company, of which Peter 
Cooper, Moses Taylor, Marshall O. 
Roberts, and Chandler White were mem- 
bers. In 1866, after many disappoint- 
ments and failures, a cable was success- 



fully stretched across the ocean (sed 
Atlantic Telegraph). For his achieve- 
ment Congress voted him a gold medal 
and the thanks of the people. In 1867 
the Grand Medal, the highest honor of 
the Paris Exposition, was bestowed on 
him. He died in New York City, July 

12, 1892. 

FIELD, DAVID DUDLEY, an Ameri- 
can jurist; born in Haddam, Conn., Feb. 

13, 1805; was admitted to the New York 
bar in 1828; practiced till 1885, distin- 
guishing himself especially by his labors 
in the direction of a reform of the ju- 
diciary system. In 1857 he was ap- 
pointed by the State to prepare a politi- 
cal, civil, and penal code, of which the 
last was adopted by New York, and all 
have been accepted by some other States. 
In 1866, by a proposal brought before 
the British Social Science Congress, he 
procured the appointment of a committee 
of jurists from the principal nations to 
prepare the outlines of an international 
code, which were presented in a report 
to the same congress in 1873. This 
movement resulted in the formation of 
an association for the reform of the law 
»f nations, and for the substitution of 
arbiti'ation for war, of which Mr. Field 
was the first president. He died in New 
York City, April 13, 1894. 

FIELD, EUGENE, an American 
journalist; bom in St. Louis, Mo., Sept. 
2, 1850. By his poems and tales in the 
press he won a high reputation in the 
West. His complete works comprise: 
"Love Songs of Childhood," "A Little 
Book of Western Verse," "A Second 
Book of Verse," "The Holy Cross, and 
Other Tales," "The Love Affairs of a 
Bibliomaniac." He made, in collabora- 
tion with his brother, Roswell Martin 
Field, some good translations from 
Horace — "Echoes from the Sabine 
Farm." He died in Chicago, 111., Nov. 
4, 1895. 

rJIELD, HENRY MARTYN, an 
American clergyman and scholar; born 
in Stockbridge, Mass., April 3, 1822; 
brother of Cyrus West and Stephen 
Johnson Field; was graduated at Wil- 
liams College, and was ordained to the 
ministry in 1842. In 1854 he became 
editor and proprietor of the New York 
"Evangelist." He was a lifelong trav- 
eler. Among his work are: "Summer 
Pictures from Copenhagen to Venice" 
(1859) ; "History of the Atlantic Tele- 
graph" (1866) ; "From Egypt to Japan" 
(1878); "On the Desert" (1883); 
'Umong the Holy Hills" (1883); "Our 
Western Archipelago"'; "The Barbary 
Coast"; "Old Spain and New Spain"; 
"The Story of the Atlantic Cable." He 
died in 1907. 



FIELD 



129 



FIFESHIRE 



FIELD, KATE, an American author 
and lecturer; bom in St. Louis, Mo., 
about 1840. During several years she 
was European correspondent of the New 
York "Tribune" and other journals. She 
founded "Kate Field's Washington" 
(1889), in Washington, D. C. Among 
her books are "Planchette's Diary" 
(1868); "Ten Days in Spain" (1875); 
"History of Bell's Telephone"; "Life of 
Fechter," etc. She died in Honolulu, 
Hawaii, May 19, 1896. 

FIELD, STEPHEN JOHNSON, an 
American jurist; born in Haddam, Conn., 
Nov. 4, 1816; brother of Cyrus West 
Field; was graduated at Williams Col- 
lege in 1837; studied law and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1841 ; and removed to 
San Francisco in 1849. He was elected 
to the first legislature under the Cali- 
fornia constitution, in the autumn of 
1850; prepared a code of mining, civil 
and criminal laws, which was generally 
adopted in the Western States; became a 
justice of the Supreme Court of Cali- 
fornia in 1857; was appointed its chief- 
justice in 1859; and in 1863 was ap- 
pointed an associate justice of the Unit- 
ed States Supreme Court, which office 
he resigned in April, 1897. He died in 
Washington, D. C, April 9, 1899. 

FIELD ARTILLERY. See AR- 

TILLERY. 

FIELDING, HENRY, an English 
novelist; born in Sharpham Park, Som- 
ersetshire, April 22, 1707. After only 
moderate success as a playwright and 
lawyer he wrote "The Adventures of Jo- 
seph Andrews" (1742), to burlesque 
Richardson's "Pamela"; it grew in his 
hands into a strong novel of a new type, 
and his career and fame were deter- 
mined. His masterpiece is "Tom Jones; 
or the History of a Foundling" (1749). 
His last novel, "Amelia" (1752). is char- 
acteristic of his sentiments rather than 
of his genius. He died in Lisbon, Oct. 
8, 1754. 

FIELDING, WILLIAM STEVENS, a 
Canadian statesman. He was born at 
Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1848, where he 
was educated, and where he was for 
20 years connected with the Halifax 
"Morning Journal." Since 1882 he has 
represented Halifax, first in the Pro- 
vincial Legislature, becoming Prime Min- 
ister in 1884 and resigning in 1896 to 
become Minister of Finance in the Cabi- 
net of Sir Wilfred Laurier. He repre- 
sented Canada in London in 1902 and at 
the negotiation of the Franco-Canadian 
Commercial Treaty, Paris, 1907-1909. He 
was a member of the commission on 
Canada- West India trade, 1909-1910, and 



helped to negotiate the Reciprocity 
Agreement with the United States in 
1911. Since 1917 has represented Shel- 
burne and Queen's in the Dominion 
Pai-liament. 

FIELDS, ANNIE (ADAMS), an Amer- 
ican poet and essayist, wife of James T. 
Fields; born in Boston, Mass., in 1834; 
became a leader in charity organization 
and work. She published: "Under the 
Olive," poems (1881) ; "Biography of 
James T. Fields" (1884) ; "How to Help 
the Poor" (1885); "The Singing Shep- 
herd"; "Authors and Their Friends"; 
"A Shelf of Old Books" (1896) ; "Life 
and Letters of Harriet Beecher Stowe" 
(1897) ; "Charles Dudley Warner" 
(1904). She died in 1915. 

FIELDS, JAMES THOMAS, an Amer- 
ican publisher and author ; born in Ports- 
mouth, N. H., Dec. 31, 1817._ The vari- 
ous publishing firms of which he was 
partner, with Ticknor, Osgood, and 
others, were of the first rank. He edited 
the "Atlantic Monthly" in 1862-1870; 
and was an acceptable lecturer on liter- 
ary subjects and authors. He published: 
"Poems" (1849); "Yesterdays with Au- 
thors" (1872) ; "Hawthorne" (1875) ; 
"In and Out of Doors with Dickens" 

(1876); "Underbrush" (1881), essays; 
"Ballads and Other Verses" (1881) ; and 

(with Edwin P. Whipple) edited "The 
Family Library of British Poetry" 

(1878). He died in Boston, Mass., April 
24, 1881. 

FIERI FACIAS, a writ which lies for 
him who has recovered in an action for 
debt or damages to the sheriff, command- 
ing him to levy on the goods and chattels 
of the defendant the sum or debt recov- 
ered. This writ lies as well against 
privileged persons as common persons, 
and against executors or administrators 
with regard to the goods of the deceased. 
It is commonly contracted to Fi. fa. 

FIESCHI, JOSEPH (fe-es'ke), a 
Corsican conspirator. Having conceived 
a hatred for the French king, Louis 
Philippe, in consequence of the depriva- 
tion, by the prefect of the Seine, of a 
situation which he held, he constructed 
an infernal machine which he discharged 
from a house in the Boulevard-du- 
Temple, during a review of the National 
Guard, July 28, 1835. The king escaped 
unhurt, but Marshal Mortier and 17 
people were killed and many more 
wounded. Fieschi, with his accomplices, 
Pepin and Morey, was guillotined, Feb. 
16, 1836. 

FIFESHIRE, a maritime county of 
Scotland, in the eastern midland division. 
It has an area of 504 square miles 



FIFTH-MONARCHY MEN 



130 



FILIBUSTER 



and a coast line of 108. The surface is 
for the most part a succession of valleys 
and hills. Agriculture is carried on in 
an adranced state. There are important 
coal and iron mines and lime quarries. 
The chief industries are the manufacture 
of linens, oil-cloth, paper, and malt 
liquors. The principal river is Eden, 
which flows N. E. into the North Sea. 
Pop. about 270,000. 

FIFTH-MONARCHY MEN, in Eng- 
lish history, a set of fanatics who formed 
a principal support of Cromwell during 
the Protectorate. They considered his 
assumption of power as an earnest of the 
foundation of the fifth monarchy, which 
should succeed to the Assyrian, the Per- 
sian, the Grecian, and the Roman, and 
in which Jesus Christ should reign with 
the saints on earth for the space of 1,000 
years. Upon the restoration of the royal 
family, and the return of the kingdom 
to its former principles in Church and 
State, a party of these enthusiasts, head- 
ed by a man of the name of Venner, 
made a desperate insurrection in the 
streets of London, which was put down 
with the slaughter of a great number of 
them. 

FIGURE, in arithmetic, a character 
employed to represent a number. The 
Arabic figures are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 
9, 0, by combinations of which any pos- 
sible number can be represented. In as- 
trology, a horoscope; a diagram of the 
aspects of the astrological houses. In 
dancing, the several steps which a dancer 
makes in order and cadence, considered 
as they form certain figures on the floor. 
In geometry, a diagram or drawing made 
to represent a magnitude upon a plane 
surface. In logic, the form of the syl- 
logism with respect to the position of the 
Middle Term. In music, a form of 
melody or accompaniment maintained 
throughout the phrase in which it is sug- 
gested. In a melody, figure is called se- 
quence. In harmony, a figure relates to 
the rhythmical observance of a certain 
form in all the accompanying chords to 
the melody. Also a musical phrase, or a 
florid melody. In rhetoric, any mode of 
speaking or writing in which words are 
distorted or deflected from their literal 
and primitive sense; the use of figura- 
tive language or expressions ; a deviation 
from the rules of analogy or syntax, 

FIJI ISLANDS, a group of over 250 
islands belonging to Great Britain, in the 
South Pacific Ocean. Their total area is 
7,083 square miles. The two largest are 
the Viti Levu, with an area of 4,053 
square miles, and the Vanua Levu, with 
an area of 2,180 square miles. The 
islands are mostly mountainous, and have 



a fertile soil, and luxuriant vegetation. 
The forests contain valuable timber. 
There is a tropical climate, but it is 
healthy for Europeans, of whom there 
are about 3,500. In 1874 the group was 
voluntarily ceded to England by the king 
and chiefs. The government is admin- 
istered by a governor and an executive 
council. The legislative council consists 
of 7 elected and 12 nominated members, 
appointed by the governor. The prin- 
cipal exports are sugar, copra, and fruit. 
Besides two government grammar 
schools, there are many mission schools. 
The pop. on Dec. 31, 1919, was 163,84 (. 

FILAMENT, a slender, thread-like 
process; a fiber or fine thread of which 
flesh, nerves, skin, roots, etc., are com- 
posed. In botany, that part of the sta- 
men which supports the anther. The fila- 
ment is usually, as its name imports, fili- 
form or thread-like, cylindrical, or 
slightly tapering toward its summit. It 
is often, however, thickened, compressed, 
and flattened in various ways. It some- 
times assumes the appearance of a petal, 
or becomes petaloid. The filament is 
usually of sufficient solidity to support 
the anther in an erect position ; but some- 
times, as in grasses, Littorella, and 
Plantago, it is very delicate and capillary 
or hair-like, so that the anther is pendu- 
lous. The filament is usually continuous 
from one end to the other, but in some 
cases it is bent or jointed. In electricity, 
the carbon thread or conductor in an ex- 
hausted glass lamp bulb, which becomes 
incandescent by its resistance to the elec- 
tric current. 

FILANDER, in zoology, Halmaturns 
asiaticus, a species of kangaroo found in 
the N. of Australia, in the region of King 
George's Sound. It is about the size of 
a common rabbit, and has a scaly tail. 
It is also called the short -tailed kangaroo. 

FILARIA. in zoology, a genus of 
Entozoa, of the order Ccelelmintha, and 
family Nematoidea. The body is filiform, 
very long, and nearly uniform; head not 
distinct from the body; mouth round or 
triangular, naked or with papilse; it is 
white, yellowish, or red. They are most 
commonly found in the abdominal cavity 
and between the peritoneal folds of mam- 
malia and birds, in the air-cells of the 
latter. Species are also met with in 
reptiles, fishes, and insects. Filaria 
medmensis or gxiinea worm is common in 
hot climates. 

FILIBUSTER, a sea-rover; a pirate; 
a corsair; a freebooter, or buccaneer; 
sometimes applied to any military adven- 
turer who undertakes an expedition 
against a territory, unauthorized by law 



FILLET 



131 



FILTEB BED 



or the exigencies of war. The term fili- 
buster, now used in any country where 
the English language is spoken, was first 
applied in New Orleans to certain ad- 
venturers who, after the termination of 
the war between this country and Mexi- 
co, exerted themselves with setting on 
foot within the United States military 
expeditions designed to operate in the 
Spanish-American countries to the S. of 
us. The pretended object of these expe- 
ditions was the emancipation of those 
countries from tyranny, foreign or 
domestic, and the introduction of demo- 
cratic institutions after the model of the 
United States. The most noted expedi- 
tion of this sort was that led by Walker 
against Nicaragua in 1855, See Walker, 
William. 

FILLET, in ordinary language, a band 
of metal, linen, or ribbon worn round the 
head. Also the fleshy part of the thigh; 
applied most commonly to veal. Also 
portions of meat or fish removed from 
the bone and served either flat or rolled 
together and tied round; the term is spe- 
cially applied to the under-cut of the sir- 
loin of beef, served whole or cut into 
steaks, and to slices of flat-fish removed 
from the bone. In anatomy, a collection 
of fibers passing upward from the an- 
terior columns of the spinal cord. Also 
a similar bundle of fibers in the corpus 
callosum. 

In architecture, a small flat face or 
band used principally between moldings 
to separate them from each other in 
classical architecture; in the Gothic, 
Early English, or decorated styles of 
architecture, it is also used on larger 
moldings and shafts. 

FILLMORE, MILLARD, an Ameri- 
can statesman, 13th President of the 
United States; born in Summer Hill, 
Cayuga co., N. Y., Feb. 7, 1800. Appren- 
ticed to a wool-carder, he made amends 
by his zeal in the pursuit of knowledge. 
His talents and aptitude procured him 
the notice of Judge Wood, an eminent 
lawyer who invited the young man to 
a desk in his ofiice, and offered to defray 
his expenses while he prepared for the 
bar. Fillmore accepted the off'er, but 
continued teaching in a school to help 
pay his way. He moved to Erie county 
in 1821 and "Was admitted as attorney two 
years later. In 1829 he was a member 
of the Legislature, and in 18.32 was 
elected to Congress as a Whig. In 1847 
he was elected comptroller of New York 
State and a year later Vice-President 
of the United States. President Taylor 
entered on his oflice in March, 1849, and 
died suddenly in July, 1850. Fillmore be- 
came, in virtue of his office. President of 



the United States. It was the era of the 
Lopez expedition against Cuba; and of a 
more than usual bitterness in the rela- 
tions between North and South on the 
slavery question. Fillmore made Daniel 
Webster his Secretary of State. Presi- 
dent Fillmore's messages favored the 
fugitive slave law, and recommended a 
protective, but not a prohibitory tariff. 
Under his presidency California was ad- 
mitted as a new State into the Union. In 
his final message he had to deplore the 




MILLARD FILLMORE 

death of Webster; and in March, 1853, 
he yielded up his office to his successor, 
General Pierce. He was the candidate 
of the American party for the presidency 
in 1856, but he received a very small 
minority of votes. After his retirement 
from public life he resided in Buffalo, N. 
Y., where he died, March 8, 1874. 

FILM, a transparent, flexible sub- 
stance used as a substitute for glass 
plates for portable photographic work. 
It consists of a strip of celluloid which 
is ti-eated with a sensitized coating, the 
same as is used on plates. See Photog- 
raphy. 

FILTER BED, a settling pond whose 
bottom is a filter. It may consist of a 
reservoir five feet deep, with a paved 
bottom covered with open- jointed tubu- 
lar drains leading into a central conduit. 
The drains are covered with a layer of 
gravel, and a top layer of sand. The 
water is delivered upon the surface uni- 
formly, and the rate of subsidence is 
about six inches an hour. The mora 



FIN 



182 



FINE AKTS 



rapid the rate (other things being equal) 
the less effective the operation. 

FIN, the organ by which locomotion 
is effected in a fish. As a rule fins con- 
sist of a membrane supported by rays. 
Of these organs the two pectoral fins, so 
called from being situated on the breast, 
where they are just behind the branchial 
aperture, are modifications of the an- 
terior limbs in other vertebrata. The 
ventral fins, so called from being, as a 
rule, situated on the belly, correspond to 
the hind limbs in other vertebrata. Often 
there are also one or more dorsal fins 
on the back, two anal fins near the anus, 
while the tail is technically called the 
caudal fin. In carpentry, a tongue on 
the edge of a board. In commerce, a 
blade of whalebone. In machinery, a slip 
inserted longitudinally into a shaft or 
arbor, and left projecting so as to form 
a guide for an object which may slip 
thereon, but not rotate; a spline or 
feather. In molding, a mark or ridge 
left in casting at the junction of the 
parts of the mold. 

FINANCE, the art of managing 
money matters, the person who professes 
this art being called a financier. Fi- 
nances, in the plural, is often used for 
money itself, but still with a reference to 
the purpose to which it is to be applied, 
as where the finances of a country are 
said to have improved or fallen off. It is 
used in the United States as in England, 
rather in a political and economic sense 
than ofiicially; but in France there have 
been, from time to time, comptrollers- 
general of finances, councils of finances, 
bureaus of finances, etc., and at the 
present time, Minister of Finances. 

FINANCES, UNITED STATES. See 

United States, section Finance. 

FINCH, FRANCIS MILES, an Ameri- 
can poet, and associate judge of 
N. Y. Court of Appeals; born in Ithaca, 
N. Y., June 9, 1827. He was graduated 
at Yale; and was the author of the well- 
known lyrics "Nathan Hale" and "The 
Blue and the Gray," and of several popu- 
lar college songs. He died July 31, 1907. 

FINCK, HENRY THEOPHILTJS, an 

American musical critic; born in Bethel, 
Mo., Sept. 22, 1854. He was graduated 
at Harvard in 1876; and from 1878 to 
1881 studied physiological psychology at 
Berlin, Heidelberg, and Vienna. He was 
musical critic of the New York "Evening 
Post," and a contributor to the "Nation." 
His works include: "Wagner and Other 
Musicians" (1887) ; "Romantic Love and 
Personal Beauty" (1887) ; "The Pacific 
Coast Scenic tour" (1890); "Chopin, 
and Other Musical Essays," "Lotos Time 
in Japan" (1895) ; "Spain and Morocco"; 



"Paderewski"; "Primitive Love" (1899) 
"Songs and Song Writers" (1900) 
"Eduard Grieg" (1905) ; "Massenet' 
(1910); "Henry Strauss" (1917). 

FINDLAY, a city and county-seat of 
Hancock co., 0.; on the Toledo and Ohio 
Central, the Cincinnati, Hamilton and 
Dayton, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chi- 
cago and St. Louis, and other railroads; 
44 miles S. of Toledo. It is in the heart 
of the oil and gas fields of Ohio. It con- 
tains Findlay College, electric lights, 
electric railroads, several banks, and 
numerous daily, weekly, and monthly 
periodicals. In the vicinity are rich beds 
of clay and vast deposits of gravel and 
sand. There are manufactories of glass, 
pressed bricks, furniture, wooden imple- 
ments, nails, and an oil refinery, machine 
shops, foundries, extensive potteries, and 
rolling mills. Pop. (1910) 14,858; 
(1920) 17,021. 

FINDLAY COLLEGE, a coeducational 
institution in Findlay, O.; founded in 
1882 under the auspices of the Church 
of God; reported at the close of 1919: 
Professors and instructors, 19; students, 
535. President, W. H. Guyer, A. M., D. D. 

FINE ARTS, a term generally ap- 
plied to those arts in which the artist 
seeks chiefly to give pleasure by the im- 
mediate impression produced on the mind 
by his work. These arts are thus dis- 
tinguished from arts which are designed 
to answer some practical purpose, and so 
have been termed useful. 

Antique, Mediaeval and Modern Art. — 
In its general acceptation, the term an- 
tique art is understood to be that of a 
period antecedent to the revival of the 
classical studies in western Europe, or 
before the risorgimento, or renaissance, 
of the arts from their assumed period of 
lethargy. There was, in fact, a distinct 
character about the productions of the 
artists of the more ancient and themore 
modern times, which was sufficiently 
marked to produce in the best of them 
a separate style of art. The antique 
school was distinguished by an anthro- 
pomorphism and a divination of the hu- 
man form; the mediaeval school was 
formed on and characterized by a species 
of contempt for the human figure, and 
an aspiration after an ideal perfection, 
and therefore there is something vague 
and undefined in its efforts to represent 
the objects it copied; while the modern 
school has united the indefiniteness of 
its aim with that clearness of the per- 
ception of its objects which is so marked 
a characteristic of its production. The 
antique schools date from the dawn of 
civilization to the end of the 10th cen- 
tury; the mediseval schools date from the 



FINGAL 



133 



FINXAND 



10th to the 15th century; and the modem 
schools have continued the traditions of 
the masters of art to the present times. 

FINGAL, a personage celebrated in 
the poems of Ossian, who was his son. 
He was Prince of Morven, a province 
of ancient Caledonia, and struggled 
against the power of the Romans, who 
were in his time the rulers of England. 
He also undertook warlike expeditions 
to the Orkneys, Ireland, and even 
Sweden, and was a prince of a highly 
chivalric character. Lived in the 3d 
century. 

FINGAL'S CAVE, a curious cavern 
formed of basaltic columns, in the Isle 
of Staffa, one of the Hebrides, on the 
W. coast of Scotland, 25 miles from 
Oban. See Basalt. 

FINGER ALPHABET. See Deaf 
AND Dumb. 

FINGERING, the art of arranging 
and managing the fingers on any musi- 
cal instrument so as to produce the re- 
quired notes in an easy and graceful 
manner. A good method of fingering is 
of the utmost importance to the student, 
as without it the easiest passages will 
often appear difficult, and the difficult 
ones almost impracticable. 

FINGER PRINTS. The individual 
distinctiveness that attaches to the pap- 
illary ridges on the palms of the hand, 
their unchanging characteristic through 
life, and their broad variations as be- 
tween one individual and another, are 
the traits that have led to their study 
and classification for purposes of per- 
sonal identification. These characteris- 
tics apply especially to the patterns of 
the fingers, and the circumstance has re- 
sulted in much effort among men of 
science so to facilitate subdivision in 
cases where such identification is likely 
to be necessary as to make identification 
easily available. Up to the present the 
chief purpose to which the use of finger 
prints has been put to secure identifica- 
tion has been in the case of criminal 
classes, but there are not wanting thosp 
who see in it uses in many other direc- 
tions, as in important legal documents 
where something moi'e certain than 
mere signature is desirable, and in the 
army and navy during war. In wills 
and similar documents the use of the 
finger print would render forgeiy al- 
most impossible, while it is an easily 
available substitute for a signature in 
the case of an illiterate. In the case 
of criminal identification, finger prints 
are now largely in use as a supplement 
to the Bertillon system, and the combi- 
nation of the two systems leaves little 



chance for error. Occasionally finger 
prints left on doors, windows, and pol- 
ished surfaces in the course of the com- 
mission of a crime have led to the iden- 
tification of the perpetrators, but suc- 
cess in these cases is not easily ob- 
tainable from the imperfect character 
of the imprints and the difficulty in ade- 
quately reproducing them. 

FINISTERE, the extreme W. depart- 
ment of France, formerly a part of the 
province of Brittany; surrounded on 
three sides by the Atlantic and British 
Channel, and having E. the departments 
of C6tes-du-Nord and Morbihan; length, 
65 miles; breadth about 55 miles; area, 
2,595 square miles; pop. about 810,000. 
The coasts are generally steep, rocky, 
and indented with many bays and har- 
bors, some of which, as that of Bi'est, 
are of the first excellence. Numerous 
small islands skirt the coast. Surface, 
diversified, two chains of hills running 
through the department E. to W. Soil, 
various. Climate, humid, and subject 
to tempests and fogs. Agriculture is 
in a backward state, though oats, rye, 
wheat, barley, flax, and potatoes are 
largely raised. Pasturage is excellent, 
rearing large numbers of cattle. The 
fisheries yield a good return. The mines 
of lead at Poullaouen and Huelgoet are 
the most productive in France. Manu- 
factures, sail-cloth, linen, ropes, leather, 
oil, tobacco, etc. Chief towns, Quimper 
(the capital), Brest, and Morlaix. 

FINLAND, REPUBLIC OF, (called 
by the natives, Soumen-maa, "land of 
marshes"), a country of northern Eu- 
rope, having N. Russian Lapland; E. the 
provinces of Archangel and Olonetz; S. 
Lake Ladoga, the province of St. Peters- 
burg, and the Gulf of Finland; and 
W. Sweden and the Gulf of Bothnia; 
length, 600 miles; average breadth, about 
240 miles; area, 125,689 square miles; 
pop. (1918) 3,329,146; chiefly Finns and 
Lapps; capital, Helsingfors (1918) 187,- 
544. 

Topography. — Finland, which is di- 
vided into 8 provinces, consists princi- 
pally of a tableland from 400 to 600 feet 
above the level of the sea, and inter- 
spersed with hills of no great elevation. 
In the N., however, the Manselka Moun- 
tains have an average height of between 
3,000 to 4,000 feet. The coasts, par- 
ticularly on the S., are surrounded by a 
vast number of rocky islets, separated 
from the mainland and from each other 
by intricate and narrow channels, ren- 
dering the shores of the country easy of 
defense in case of hostile attack by sea. 
But the chief natural feature of Finland 
is its myriads of lakes, which spread like 



FINLAND 



134 



FINLAND 



a network over a large proportion of its 
surface ; some of them being of very con- 
siderable size. The greater number of 
these are on the S. and E.; they have 
frequent communications with each 
other, and generally abound with islands. 
There are numerous rivers, but none of 
much importance. 

Climate. — The climate is rigorous. 
Even in the S. the winter lasts from 6 to 
7 months, and in the N. from 8 to 9 
months. Dense fogs are very frequent; 
heavy rains take place in autumn, and 
in May and June the thaws put a stop 
to nearly all traveling. In the N. the 
sun is absent during December and Janu- 
ary; but during the short summer, while 
that luminary is almost perpetually 
above the horizon, the heat is often very 
great; and near Uleaborg, in about lat. 
65°, the corn is sown and reaped within 
6 or 7 weeks. Crops in all parts of the 
land are exposed to thfe double danger 
of being destroyed by sudden frosts, and 
by the ravages of a variety of caterpillar 
called turila by the natives. 

Soil. — The principal geological forma- 
tions are granite, which very easily dis- 
integrates, hard limestone, and slate. 
Soil for the most part stony and poor. 

Production and Industry. — Finland is 
chiefly an agricultural country, although 
the cultivated area covers less than 10 
per cent, of the land. There are about 
300,000 farms. In 1919 the production 
of the principal agricultural crops was 
as follows, in bushels: rye, 11,030,560; 
barley, 5,634,560; oats, 22,659,000; pota- 
toes, 22,569,480; flax and hemp, 1,222 
tons; hay, 2,012,200 tons. The produc- 
tion of butter is an important industry. 
Over half of the country is covered with 
pine and spruce forests. These form the 
chief natural wealth of the country. The 
main industry is lumbering. 

The chief mineral products are copper, 
pyrite, iron pyrite, magnetite, galenite, 
and molibdonite. Iron exists in consider- 
able quantities in Lapland, but has not 
been developed. A small amount of gold 
is also mined. On account of the war and 
the high cost of labor, the mineral pro- 
duction in recent years has been small. 
In 1918 about 2,000 tons of copper, about 
3,000 tons of magnetite, about 800 tons 
of pyrite and about 1,000 tons of iron 
pyrite were mined. The production of 
ron ore was about 8,000 tons. 

There were in 1916 4,693 manufactur- 
ing establishments employing an aggre- 
ECate of 109,900 workers, and yielding a 
product valued at 1,458,993,100 marks. 
The most important industries are the 
nanufacture of paper, iron and mechani- 
.•al products, textiles, lumber, leather, to- 
bacco, chemicals, and liquors. 



Commerce. — The imports in 1919 
amounted to £94,956,000, and the exports 
to £31,717,000. The largest quantity of 
imports was received from Sweden and 
Norway followed by Germany and Rus- 
sia. The chief exports were to Ger- 
many, Russia, Sweden and Norway. 
The chief articles of export were 
paper, paper mass and cardboard, tim- 
ber, butter, tar, iron and iron goods, 
textiles, leather, hides, pitch, and fish. 
The chief imports were cereals, cofl'ee, 
and chicory, sugar, fish, iron and iron 
ware, cotton, machinery, chemicals, and 
leather ware. 

Fisheries. — Fishing is an important 
Industry. Over 7,000 families are en- 
gaged in it, employing over 10,000 boats. 
The chief fish taken is Baltic herring. 
The catch in 1918 amounted to 9,000 
tons. 

Transportation. — For inland commu- 
nication Finland has a remarkably 
developed system of lakes, which are 
connected with each other and with the 
Gulf of Finland by canal. Over 60,000 
vessels pass along the canal yearly. There 
are about 2,600 miles of railway, prac- 
tically all of which belong to the State. 

Banking and Fitmnces. — There were 
in 1917 437 savings banks with 462,771 
depositors, with deposits of nearly £25,- 
000,000. In addition to the State Bank, 
there were in 1919 22 banks and 7 land 
mortgage banks. The deposits of all 
private banks amount to about 3,000,- 
000,000 marks. The mark has a normal 
value of about 20 cents. 

Finances. — The estimated revenue for 
1920 was £52,443,026, and the estimated 
expenditure £55,843,563. The consoli- 
dated debt on Jan. 1, 1919, amounted to 
662,196,837 marks, of which the foreign 
debt comprised 329,217,278 marks. 

Education. — The system of education 
is well developed. There is a university 
at Helsingfors and another at Abo, 
which, however, is entirely Swedish. 
This was opened in 1919. There are 70 
lyceums, 37 elementary schools for boys 
and girls, 25 girls' schools, 35 prelimi- 
nary schools, and 46 popular high schools. 
In the country there are 3,391 primary 
schools of higher grade, with 157,215 
pupils. In the primary schools of lower 
grade are 75,332 pupils. There are pri- 
mary schools in 38 towns, with 43,357 
pupils. In addition there are a large 
number of special schools, including 
commercial schools, navigation schools, 
trade schools, technical schools, agricul- 
tural schools, etc. The school age in the 
primary schools is from 7 to 15 years. 
There were in 1919-1920 in all schools 
215,995 pupils, with about 6,000 teachers. 

Army. — The army is based on con- 



FINLAND 



135 



FINLAND, GULF OF 



scription and is formed in accordance 
with a law enacted in February, 1919. It 
consists of three divisions and one inde- 
pendent brigade. Subordinate to the 
army command are also heavy artil- 
lery, flying, automobile, and intelligence 
troops. The coastal defense consists 
chiefly of three artillery coast regiments. 
There is practically no fleet. In addition 
to the regular army there is an organi- 
zation of Civic Safety Corps, in which 
about 100,000 men are enlisted. The 
regular army includes about 36,600 men 
and the volunteer about 105,000 men. 

Government. — On Dec. 6, 1917, Fin- 
land was proclaimed an independent and 
sovereign state by the House of Repre- 
sentatives. It was recognized by most of 
the leading powers. The National Par- 
liament consists of one chamber of 200 
members, chosen by direct and propor- 
tional election, in which all who are en- 
titled to vote have an equal vote. The 
suffrage is possessed by all Finnish men 
and women who have reached their 
twenty-fourth year. Every citizen en- 
titled to vote is eligible to the House of 
Representatives. The Diet exists for 
three years, unless sooner dissolved. The 
president is elected for six years by the 
vote of the citizens. 

History. — The origin of the Finns is 
to a large extent unknown. They are 
thought to have been driven northward 
from the Volga at the beginning of the 
8th century. In the 12th century began 
the long struggle with the Swedes which 
lasted over 100 years and ended in the 
subjection of the Finnish people to 
Swedish sovereignty. Finland remained 
for over 500 years as a part of Sweden. 
The people enjoyed a practical self-gov- 
ernment and developed an intelligent 
civilization. Finland was frequently a 
battle ground in the war between Russia 
and Sweden. As the Finnish frontier is 
only 33 miles from Petrograd. Russia de- 
sired to possess the country in order to 
complete its defenses. This wish was 
realized in 1809, when Sweden ceded to 
Russia the Grand Duchy with the Aland 
Islands. Finland was guaranteed the 
preservation of its laws, constitution, 
and religion. This pledge was kept until 
1897, when the Russian Government 
began a series of systematic attacks cul- 
minating in 1899 in an edict which re- 
moved from the Finnish Diet all matters 
afi'ecting the Grand Duchy, in common 
with Russia proper. An attempt to Rus- 
sianize the country was carried on in the 
following years with great severity. The 
people resisted, and in 1905 revolution- 
ary agitation in Russia was supported in 
Finland. The Czar granted the Diet its 
old privileges and this was followed by 



a period of quiet. Women were given the 
suffrage and other radical changes in the 
government were made. The government 
of Russia, however, continued hostile to 
the self-rule of Finland, and in 1910 a 
law was passed stipulating that the Rus- 
sian Duma and the Imperial Council had 
sole power in matters affecting Russia 
and Finland together. This practically 
deprived Finland of home rule. On July 
20, 1917, the Diet declared the independ- 
ence of the country. The Russian Pro- 
visional Government in August of the 
same year ordered the dissolution of the 
Diet and the summoning of a new one 
to meet on November 1. Shortly after 
the meeting of the Diet the Kerensky 
government fell and on Dec. 9, 1917, the 
country was proclaimed an independent 
republic. There followed a period of 
civil war between the Red Guards (Bol- 
sheviki) and the White Guards (pro- 
Germans). The Finnish authorities 
seized the Red Guards and executed 
many of them. Distui'bances continued 
until the signing of the Brest-Litovsk 
Treaty between Germany and the Bol- 
shevik Government. Four days later 
Germany signed a treaty with Finland 
and German troops were sent into Fin- 
land. There was a strong attempt to 
establish a monarchy, but this was op- 
posed by the people. The country re- 
mained under the practical domination 
of Germany during 1918. General Man- 
nerheim, the organizer of the Finnish 
White Guard became Regent in Decem- 
ber of that year. He used severe meas- 
ures in ridding the counti'y of Bolshe- 
vists and conditions gradually turned to 
a liberal policy. Professor Staahlberg 
was elected president of the republic, 
defeating General Mannerheim on July 
5, 1919. A constitution was formulated 
and the republic was established on a 
firm basis. In 1920 and 1921 a contro- 
versy was carried on between Sweden 
and Finland as to the disposition of the 
Aland Islands. A plebiscite was held 
according to the conditions set down by 
the Peace Conference and it was main- 
tained by Sweden that this indicated an 
overwhelming majority in favor of Swe- 
dish sovereignty. Finland declared, how- 
ever, that the islands had l>een adminis- 
tered as a part of the Finnish province 
for more than a century and that the 
majority of them lay nearer the Finnish 
coast than to the Swedish coast. A 
commission was appointed by the Council 
of the League of Nations to make in- 
quiries and submit recommendations as 
a basis for peaceful settlement. 

FINLAND, GULF OF, one of the 
great arms of the Baltic Sea, extending 
E. and N. between lat. 58° 40' and 60° 



FINLEY 



136 



FIRE ALABM 



40', and between Ion. 23° and 30° 10' E. 
It has a length of 260 miles, by a vary- 
ing width of between 25 and 90 miles. 

FINLEY, JOHN HUSTON, an Ameri- 
can educator; born in 1863 at Grand 
Eidge, 111. He was educated at Knox 
College and at Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity. From 1892 to 1899 he served as 
president of Knox College, and after 
that as editor of "Harper's Weekly," 
and later of "McClure's Magazine." 
Princeton University appointed him in 
1900 professor of politics, and three 
years later he was elected president of 
the College of the City of New York. 
In 1913 he becairte Commissioner of 
Education for the State of New York, 
a position he still holds. In 1917 he 
went to France as special commissioner 
representing the State of New York in 
matters pertaining to education. He is 
the author of many periodical articles 
and reviews, and his recent books are: 
"The French in the Heart of America" 
(1914) ; "French Schools in War Time" 
(1917) ; "A Pilgrim in Palestine" 
(1918). 

FINNAN, or FINDON, a fishing vil- 
lage of Scotland, Kincardine county; 6 
miles S. of Aberdeen. It has been long 
celebrated for its preparation of smoked 
haddocks, known far and wide as "Fin- 
nan haddocks," or "baddies." This deli- 
cacy is prepared by gutting, cleaning, 
splitting, and smoking the fish. The 
most particular part of the process is 
the smoking, which should be done by 
the green branches of the fir tree, or 
still better, spruce; thus communicating 
to the fish its peculiar odor and bright 
yellow color. 

FIORD, an inlet of the sea, generally 
long, narrow, and deep; a term applied 
in Scandinavian countries to any bay, 
creek, or arm of the sea which extends 
inland, and sometimes used to express an 
inland lake or considerable sheet of 
water; as, Sogne Fiord. The fiords of 
Iceland, like those which indent the gra- 
nitic coasts of Norway, were formed by 
immense flows of lava, raised and rent 
by subterraneous forces. In the S. part 
of the island, the caverns, basaltic colon- 
nades, and natural arches of Stapi re- 
mind one of the strangest formations 
of Ireland, and the beautiful grotto of 
Antrim. These gulfs, often but half a 
mile in width, extend as far as 5 or 6 
miles into the mountains, where they are 
suiTounded on all sides by perpendicular 
rocks, rising to an immense height. 

FIR, the common name of a large 
number of coniferous trees, of a pyra- 
midal form^ and elegant proportions. 
This name is often used in a sense co- 



extensive with the widest sense of the 
word Pine {q. v.), and therefore so as 
to include a large portion of the Pina- 
cese (coniferse) , or at least the whole 
of the Linnsean genus Pinus. But the 
name fir is also often used in a more 
restricted signification, and the trees so 
designated are those forming the genus 
Abies of some authors, Abies and Picea 
of others, which the greater number of 
botanists have now agreed in separating 
from Pinus. In the classification of 
Lindley, all the firs are included in the 
genus Abies. The common silver fir, 
Abies picea, has erect cylindrical cones, 
5-6 inches long, and two-rowed leaves, 
with two white lines upon the under 
side. It forms considerable woods upon 
the mountains of central Europe and of 
the N. of Asia, and attains a height of 
150-180 feet, and an age of 300 years. 
The wood is white, contains little resin, is 
very soft and light, and is employed for 
the ordinary purposes of coopers, turn- 
ers, and joiners, and in ship and house 
carpentry, also for making bandboxes, 
and for many fine purposes, especially 
for the sounding-boards of musical in- 
struments. It yields the beautiful clear 
turpentine known as Strassburg turpen- 
tine. Very similar to the silver fir, but 
generally of much smaller size, and indeed 
seldom much above 40 feet in height, 
is the Balm-of-Gilead fir (Abies bal- 
samea) , a native of the United States, 
from Virginia to Canada. The wood is 
of little value, but the tree yields the 
Canada balsam. (See Turpentine.) 
The other important species of firs will 
be seen under their particular names. 

FIRDAXJSI (fer-dou'se) , or FIRDUSI 
(-do-se), a Persian poet; lived from 
about 935 to about 1020. His true name 
was Abul Kasim Mansur. He is the 
greatest of Persian epic poets. In 1010, 
after 35 years of labor, was completed 
his first heroic epic, the "Shah-Namah" 
(King's Book), in about 80,000 distichs; 
it recounts the ancient Persian tradi- 
tions of heroism. His other great poem, 
"Jussuf and Zullkha," a religious-roman- 
tic epos, is founded on the Biblical story 
of Joseph and Potiphar's wife. He 
lived long at the court of Mahmud of 
Ghazni. 

FIRE ALARM, elective signaling 
equipment connected by wire with a 
central office for the purpose of notify- 
ing the fire department in case of fire. 
The instrument is usually reduced to its 
simplest dimensions so that people not 
familiar with the system may operate it. 
Fire-alarm boxes contain devices to 
make and break electric currents. There 
is usually a wheel provided with teeth 
separated by a non-conducting substance 



FIBEABMS 



137 



riBE ENGINE 



and this when turned comes in contact 
with a spring which opens and closes 
the circuit at each tooth, thus producing 
a signal at the central station. The 
number of the signal box is usually 
indicated by the arrangements of teeth 
and spaces and in that way the fire is lo- 
cated. Access to the crank or chain by 
which the signal is communicated is ob- 
tained either by a key or by twisting the 
door handle or by breaking the glass — 
this last being the method most in vogue 
in large cities. Telegraph instruments 
connecting with headquarters for the use 
of firemen are often attached. The sig- 
nal may be registered on a Morse re- 
cording instrument or by some similar 
device. In some districts there is an 
apparatus by which the signal results 
in the ringmg of tower l^lls or the 
sounding of steam-whistles. The last 
method, now supplemented by electricity, 
was formerly in general use, but the 
development of the electric telegraph has 
resulted in greater speed and in many 
simplifications. From the middle of the 
19th century telegraph boxes have been 



with great velocity, and not infrequently 
passing unbroken across the sky until 
lost in the horizon. They differ frora 
ordinary meteors, probably, more in vol- 
ume and brilliancy than in any other dis- 
tinctive characteristic. 

FIRE ENGINE, a machine employed 
for throwing a jet of water for the pur- 
pose of extinguishing fires. This name 
was formerly applied to the steam en- 
gine. Machines for the extinguishing 
of fires have been used from a very 
early date. They were employed by the 
Romans, and are referred to by Pliny; 
but he gives no account of their con- 
struction. Hero of Alexandria, in his 
treatise on pneumatics — written prob- 
ably about 150 years before the Christian 
era — proposition 27, describes a machine 
which he calls "the siphons used in con- 
flagrations." It consisted of two cyl- 
inders and pistons connected by a recip- 
rocating beam, which raises and lowers 
the pistons alternately, and thus, with 
the aid of valves opening only toward the 
jet, projects the water from it, but not 




FIRE APPARATUS — ELECTRIC STORAGE BATTERY ENGINE 



in use in Boston, and improvements such 
as the non-interfering pull and succes- 
sive feature have brought the fire-alarm 
system to its present perfection. 

FIREARMS. See AMMUNITION; Ar- 
tillery; Explosives; Gun Powder; 
Ordnance; Etc. 

FIREBALL, a ball filled with powder 
or other combustibles, intended to be 
thrown among enemief- and to injure by 
explosion, or to set fire to their works. 
Bombs and grenades were thus employed 
in the World War (1914-1918). 

A popular name applied to a certain 
class of meteors which exhibit them- 
selves as globular masses of light moving 



in a continuous stream, as the pressure 
ceases at each alternation of the stroke. 
The first application of the steam fire 
engine was made when the Argyle Rooms 
in London were burned in 1830. Float- 
ing fire engines have been constructed 
and worked by steam. The steam fire 
engines have been greatly improved, and 
steam of more than 100 pounds pressure 
on the square inch can be raised in seven 
minutes after making the fire. Some of 
these engines throw a jet to a vertical 
heisrht of about 200 feet, or can drive 
water horizontally through half a mile 
of pipe. Gasoline motor-driven engines 
now iareely in use can be started in- 
stantly and make 35 miles an hour. The 



FIRE ESCAPES 



138 



FIRELESS ENGINE 



same engine drives and pumps the water. 
Those preferred are six cylinders of 70 
h. p. pumping 700 gallons of water a 
minute. Chemical engines, motor driven, 
are within the means of the smallest 
towns and require only two men and a 
pilot to operate. 

FIRE ESCAPES are of two distinct 
kinds — one for affording aid from out- 
side, and another for enabling those 
within the house to effect their own 
escape. Of the latter the simplest is a 
cord that should be firmly attached to 
the window sill of every sleeping apart- 
ment, and coiled either in a box on the 
floor, or under a dressing table, or other 
suitable place. A rope one-quarter or 
three-eighths of an inch thick, and knotted 
at intervals of about one foot, is well 
adapted for the purpose. A pulley fixed 
to the window sill, over which runs a 
rope with a chair or simple board to sit 
on, is a well-known contrivance. Fire 
escapes, to be used from without, con- 
sist either of simple ladders kept at con- 
venient stations, or a series of ladders 
that can be joined together; or ropes with 
weights at one end that they may be 
thrown or shot into windows. Large 
buildings generally have permanent iron 
stairways attached to the outer walls for 
use in the case of fire. 

FIRE EXTINGUISHER, or FIRE 
ANNIHILATOR, an apparatus intended 
for extinguishing fire by the spraying of 
specific liquids, such as water charged 
with carbon dioxide or some other gas 
impervious to combustion. These extin- 
guishers are usually cylindrical in form, 
made of a metal both light and strong, 
containing a solution of soluble carbon- 
ate, and in an upper glass receptacle a 
quantity of sulphuric acid which mingles 
with the carbonate solution when the 
cylinder is inverted preparatory to its 
use. The resultant carbon dioxide during 
its process of generation drives the sat- 
urated liquid through a valve, nozzle, 
or other opening, by the manipulation 
of which it may be directed on the 
flames. The extinguishers may be of a 
size convenient for carrying or they may 
be large enough to require moving on 
wheels, as in factories. A more elaborate 
arrangement is the sprinkler system, 
consisting of pipes running under the 
ceiling in the successive stories of an 
establishment, from which water is auto- 
matically released when a given tempera- 
ture is reached, supplemented by the use 
of certain chemical agents. A smaller 
form of extinguisher is the hand grenade, 
containing solutions such as chlorine, and 
mixtures of calcium chloride, which is 
thrown bodily in the flames where the 
fire is at >ts inception. 



FIREFLY, popularly, a comprehensive 
name for any small insect which flies 
and is luminous. They belong to the 
Lampyridss and the Elateridse. The Ful- 
gora lantemaria, or lantern fly, a homop- 
terous insect, is too large to be called a 
firefly. The glowworm {Lampyris nocti- 
luca) is also excluded, because the lu- 
minous sex, the female one, only crawls. 
In the case of several Lampyri in hot 
countries, the female, like the male flies. 
The firefly of the S. of Europe is Lam- 
pyris italica, that of this country L. 
canadensis. An East Indian species may 
be seen in myriads during the rainy 
reason glancing round trees. The firefly 
of South America is one of the Elater- 
idse elaters, or Pyrophwus noctilucus. 

FIRE ISLAND, the most W. end of a 
strip of the Great South Beach, Suffolk 
CO., N. Y., 40 miles long, averaging one- 
half mile W., off Long Island, between 
Great South Bay and the Atlantic Ocean. 
It is reached by ferry from Babylon. The 
beach took its name from the fires built 
there as signals to vessels during the 
war with England, in 1812. Between the 
beach and the mainland, in Great South 
Bay, are five small islands. About 45 
miles E. of the inlet to the bay Great 
South Beach joins the mainland. The 
entire strip is dotted with popular and 
well-known watering-places. To the east 
there is a lighthouse 185 feet high with 
a revolving light. 

FIRELESS COOKER, a mechanical ar- 
rangement by which hot or partially 
cooked food can be kept at a tempera- 
ture which will complete the cooking 
and allow the food to be served still 
heated. To this end the cooking pot has 
to be inclosed in a box or other recep- 
tacle provided with insulating material 
in sufficient thickness and quantity. 
The insulating materials most in use ai-e 
asbestos and mineral wool, but there is 
great variety in the materials that may 
be used, the object in every case being 
to conserve the heat sufficiently to allow 
the food to be thoroughly cooked, and 
to keep it at the required temperature 
for a given time. Among the fireless 
cookers on the market, some supplement 
the insulating material with metal plates 
that may be heated and placed under 
the pot. The principle is a simple one 
and has been used by housewives in va- 
rious forms from time immemorial, so 
that there is a great variety in the 
mechanical devices employed. The chief 
considerations are that the arrange- 
ments should be convenient and the 
danger of causing fire be obviated. 

FIRELESS ENGINE, vapor or steam 
engine, acting independently of any 



FIRELOCK 



139 



FIRE PROTECTION 



heating apparatus or combustion. In 
its simplest form the engine consists of 
a tank filled with water and condensed 
steam, from which valves allow the 
steam to emerge and exert pressure on 
cylinder and piston. By this device suf- 
ficient steam is capable of being stored 
to carry a locomotive and several cars 
over a distance of several miles. The 
engine may be replenished with a fresh 
supply of steam as occasion requires. 
This form of steam engine has been 
found serviceable under certain condi- 
tions, but there are other forms of fire- 
less engines which have been found con- 
venient. In one form, invented in 1870, 
by Lamm of Louisiana, the motive 
power was furnished by vapor of am- 
monia, and the engine was used for a 
number of years in running street cars. 
Its great advantage was that the vapor 
of ammonia could be used over and over 
again, a reservoir of water absorbing 
the vapor as it emerged from the engine 
and releasing it again when the proper 
temperature was reached. The advan- 
tages to be derived from the use of en- 
gines that can dispense with the use of 
fire-boxes are many, and they have been 
developed to a still higher level by the 
arrival of compressed-air and similar 
locomotives. 

FIRELOCK, a musket or other gun, 
with a lock furnished with a flint and 
steel, by means of which fire is pro- 
duced in order to discharge it; distin- 
guished from the old matchlock, which 
was fired with a match. 

FIREPROOF, proof against fire, in- 
combustible. Buildings are rendered 
fireproof by constructing them entirely 
of brick or stone, and using iron doors, 
lintels, etc., and stone stairs. Wood can 
be treated with silicate of soda, which, 
on the application of a strong heat, 
fuses into a kind of glass, forming a 
shield against fire. Cloth or wood im- 
pregnated with certain saline substances 
will not blaze. Borax, alum, and phos- 
phate of soda or ammonia are recom- 
mended as most suitable for this pur- 
pose. By treating cloth with graphite 
in a bath in which the mineral is sus- 
pended, and then subjecting it to the 
action of the electro-metallic bath, the 
cloth may be coated with metal. Woolen 
and ordinary stuffs may be treated with 
borax, alum, or soluble glass, but these 
cannot well be applied to the lighter 
descriptions, which are most liable to 
take fire. 

Fireproof building, a term somewhat 
loosely applied, and may be held to 
mean: (1) A building absolutely incom- 
bustible, such as one whose walls, floors, 



and roofs are of metal, stone, brick, or 
cement. (2) A building capable of op- 
posing the access of fire from without, 
having walls, window shutters, and 
roofs which are incombustible from ex- 
ternal flame and heat. 

Fireproof structure, a vault, safe, or 
building proof against destruction by 
fire, either from the outside or by the 
burning of its contents. 

FIRE PROTECTION. From the very 
earliest times, since men first began to 
live together in communities, organized 
fire protection has been a function of 
local government. So far as despatch 
and efficiency are concerned, the munic- 
ipal fire department of ancient Rome 
was little behind the fire departments of 
modern cities at the present time. In 
various districts of the city brigades of 
fire fighters were barracked, whose mem- 
bers were ever ready to respond to the 
call of the fire guardians, sentinels sta- 
tioned in high towers, watching for the 
first signs of a blaze. At the sound of 
the bucina, as the horn which sounded 
the alarm was called, the Roman firemen 
hurried to the scene of the fire, equipped 
with ladders, axes, buckets, and even 
with a large water squirt on wheels, 
which was fed water with buckets. Di- 
recting the operations of the brigades 
was the fire centurion, corresponding to 
our fire chief, who arrived in a special 
chariot drawn by four fleet horses. 

Pumps, hose and, above all, municipal 
water systems, have brought about im- 
proved equipment for fire fighters since 
then, but hardly any better organization. 

In no country in the world has fire pro- 
tection reached so high a degree of per- 
fection as in the United States, for the 
simple reason that in no other country 
has there ever been so high a percent- 
age of loss through fire. Whether be- 
cause of the fact that frame houses are 
more common here, or that the Ameri- 
can people are naturally more careless, 
statistics prove that the loss of property 
from fire in this country, amounting to 
about $15 per family each year, is ten 
times greater than in any other country. 

Instead of exercising precaution 
through legislation or by fixing legal 
responsibility on house owners, American 
cities have, instead, organized remark- 
ably eflficient fire departments, whose 
contingents have invariably won the com- 
petition prizes at the international ex- 
positions. 

Throughout the country towns volun- 
teer fire departments are still the rule, 
but in every community approaching the 
dignity of a municipality paid fire 
fighters are maintained. 



FIEE WORSHIPERS 



140 



FISH 



Within the past few years, however, 
notably since the big fire in San Fran- 
cisco, in 1906, the emphasis has been 
placed on prevention, rather than on 
fighting fires already started. In prac- 
tically all cities strict ordinances are 
passed regarding fireproof structures in 
the commercial districts. But not only 
must the buildings themselves be built 
of fireproof material, but wired glass for 
windows must be used, floors must be 
insulated, to prevent heat being trans- 
mitted from the burning contents of one 
story to material above or below. The 
most effective device for the prevention 
of fire is the automatic fire sprinkler, 
whose use makes a difference of from 
fifty to seventy-five per cent, in the cost 
of insurance. The principle of the auto- 
matic fire sprinkler is quite simple. 
Pipes, filled with a continuous supply of 
water, pass back and forth under the 
ceiling, perforated with holes which are 
plugged with wax, or a soft solder. With 
a rise in the temperature above a cer- 
tain degree, these plugs melt and the 
water begins pouring forth. It has been 
estimated that the automatic sprinkler 
has reduced the loss by fire in commer- 
cial districts by at least 70 per cent. 

FIRE WORSHIPERS, the Zoroas- 
trians called also Guebres. Herodotus, 
about 450 B. C, said "The Persians think 
fire to be a god." Strabo, about 50 A. D., 
says, "They peculiarly sacrifice to fire 
and water, placing dry wood on the fire 
stripped of its bark, with fat thrown 
upon it." The Rev. Dr. Wilson, of Bom- 
bay, alleges that "they actually address 
it in supplication, as if it were sentient, 
intelligent, divine, and omnipresent, and 
ready to hear, bless, assist, and deliver." 
No prominent race now in India has be- 
come more rapidly modified by inter- 
course with Europeans. The fire wor- 
shipers have, in the course of their his- 
tory, suffered the most cruel persecution 
from the Mohammedans. 

FIRST FRUIT, the fruit or produce 
first matured or collected in any season; 
first profits of anything; first or earliest 
effects of anything, in a good or bad sense. 
In ecclesiology, that portion of the fruits 
of the earth and other natural produce, 
which, by the usage of the Jews and 
)ther ancient nations, was offered to God. 
The mediaeval ecclesiastical impost known 
under the name of primitiss, or first 
fruits, and sometimes of annates or an- 
nalia, was the first year's whole profits, 
first of a bishopric, and afterward of any 
benefice, claimed by the Pope. This 
claim was the subject of many contests 
in Germany, in France, and in England. 
Henry VIII. withdrew the right of first 



fruits from the Pope, in order to transfer 
it to the king; and he established a spe- 
cial court for the administration of first 
fruits. In the reign of Anne, the reve- 
nues arising from this impost in Eng- 
land were vested in a board, to be ap- 
plied for the purpose of supplementing 
the incomes of small benefices. 

FISCHART, JOHANN (fish'art), a 
German satirist; born in Mainz, in 1545. 
He took the doctor's degree in the Uni- 
versity of Basel, in 1574, and afterward 
was an official of the Imperial Chamber 
of Justice at Spires. The period of his 
literary production lies between 1575 and 
1581, while he assisted his brother-in-law 
Jobin, who had a printing office in Strass- 
burg. Among his compositions in verse 
may be mentioned : "The Jester in 
Rhyme" (1571); "Description of the 
Four-Cornered Hat" (1580), against the 
Jesuits; the "Flohhatz Weibertratz" 
(1573) ; "Podagramic Book of Consola- 
tion" (1577), "The Hive of the Holy 
Roman Swarm" (1579). In imitation of 
Rabelais's "Gargantua," but giving free 
play to his own native humor and wit, 
he wrote of "The Wondrous Deeds, 
Thoughts and Words of the Famous 
Heroes and Lords Grandgusier, Gar- 
gantua, and Pantagruel" (1575). He 
died in Forbach, in 1591. 

FISH, the name applied to a class of 
animals exclusively aquatic, and occupy- 
ing the fourth and lowest station of the 
section Vertebrata. The head is large, 
and set on the body without the inter- 
vention of any distinct neck; the body is 
usually of a spindle-shape, tapering 
gradually toward the extremity; and the 
surface is usually smooth, without any 
irregularities which might impede the 
motion of the creature in its native ele- 
ment. In its general form the body is 
usually rounded, or slightly compressed 
at the sides; sometimes this flattening 
proceeds to a much greater extent, so 
that the animal presents the appear- 
ance of a broad band, or oval disk, of 
which the edges correspond with the 
dorsal and ventral surfaces; in other 
cases, the flattening takes place from 
above downward, producing a disk-like 
body, of which the upper and lov/er 
surfaces are dorsal and ventral. A fish 
may be shortly defined as an animal 
breathing through the medium of water 
by means of gills. This latter apparatus 
is the most important feature presented. 
It is situated on each side of the neck, 
and consists of numerous laminas fixed on 
arches. These laminae are covered with 
numerous blood-vessels, and are so con- 
structed as to present a considerable sur- 
face to the water, so that the blood may 
receive a sufficient portion of the oxygen 



FISH 



141 



FISH 



contained in that element. As the water 
in contact with the gills becomes de- 
teriorated, it is necessary that a constant 
current be caused to Aov/ over them. In 
most fishes this is effected by their tak- 
ing water in at the mouth and expelling it 
at the gill-covers. The blood, which is con- 
stantly sent from the gills to the heart, 
is distributed by means of the arteries to 
every part of the body, whence it returns 
to the heart by means of the veins. Ani- 
mals of this order are for the most part 
furnished with an air-bladder in the in- 
terior of the body, which, as it is often 
connected with the oesophagus by a tube, 
must be regarded to a certain extent 
analogous to the lungs of the air breath- 
ing Vertebrata. This sac or air bladder, 
however, has nothing to do with respira- 
tion; it receives blood from the arteries, 
and I'eturns it into the veins and the air 
which it incloses is probably derived 
from this fluid. By the dilatation or com- 
pression of this sac, the specific gravity 
of the fish is governed, and, acted on by 
a curious muscular apparatus, renders 
its possessor lighter or heavier than the 
surrounding element. The limbs of the 
fish are formed into fins; the forelegs 
constituting what are termed the pec- 
toral fins, and the posterior extremities, 
the ventral. Besides these, ordinary 
fishes are furnished with one or two 
dorsal fins, an anal fin, and a caudal fin, 
or tail. 

The principal organ of motion is the 
caudal fin, or tail; by this it is propelled. 
The dorsal and ventral fins serve to bal- 
ance it, and the pectorals to arrest its 
progress when required. The bones of 
fishes are of a less dense and compact 
nature than in the higher order of ani- 
mals, and always remain in an isolated 
state, similar to that of the embryo of the 
Mammalia. The head varies more in 
form than in any other class of verte- 
brate animals. The same bones as those 
found in other oviparous animals are al- 
most always traceable. The upper jaw 
consists of maxillary and intermaxillary 
bones. In the greater number of fishes, 
the intermaxillary bones constitute the 
chief portion of the upper jaw, the max- 
illary bones being placed behind and pa- 
rallel to them. The lower jaw is composed 
generally of two bones on each side, 
the dental portion in front, and the 
articular portion behind. The form of the 
body is for the most part such as 
mechanical principles teach to be best 
adapted for moving with least resistance 
through a liquid medium. The surface 
of the body is either smooth and lubri- 
cous, or is covered by closely imbricated 
scales, rarely defended by bony plates or 
roughened by hard tubercles, still more 

Vol. IV— Cyc— J 



rarely armed with spines. The power of 
touch can be but feebly developed in 
fishes. The organ of taste is a very in- 
conspicuous one — the chief function of 
the framework supporting it, or the hyoi- 
dan apparatus, relating to the mechan- 
ism of swallowing and breathing. Of 
the organ of hearing there is no outward 
sign; but the essential part, the acoustic 
labyrinth, is present, and the semicir- 
cular canal, largely developed within the 
labyrinth, is without cochlea, and is 
rarely provided with a special chamber, 
but is lodged, in common with the brain, 
in the cranial cavity. The eyes are 
usually large, but seldom defended by 
eyelids, and ever destitute of a lachrymal 
organ. 

The alimentary canal is commonly 
short and simple, with its divisions not 
always clearly marked, the short and 
Made gullet being hardly distinguishable 
from the stomach. The blood of fishes is 
red but cold, and is rarely elevated above 
the temperature of the surrounding ele- 
ment. The sexes of fishes, excepting the 
sharks and rays, offer no very decided 
external characters by which they may 
be distinguished. The respiratory organs, 
however, occupy more space in the males 
than in the females, and, on the other 
hand, the abdomen is larger in the 
females than in the males. The differences 
of character in the scales have been 
made the foundation of a classification 
of fishes by Agassiz, by whom all fishes 
are distributed into the following four 
orders of cycloid, ctenoid, placoid, and 
ganoid fishes, having respectively cycloid, 
ctenoid, placoid, and ganoid scales; a 
classification which has been found par- 
ticularly convenient with reference to 
fossil fishes. 

FISH, HAMILTON, an American 
diplomatist; born in New York City, 
Aug. 3, 1808; was graduated at Columbia 
College, and admitted to the bar in 1830. 
A Whig in politics, he was elected a 
congressman in 1842, and governor in 
1848. In 1851 he was returned to the 
United States Senate, where he opposed 
the I'epeal of the Missouri Compromise 
and joined the Republican party on its 
formation. He was Secretary of State 
under Grant from 1869 to 1877, signing, 
as one of the commissioners, the Wash- 
ington Treaty of 1871, and carrying 
through the settlement of the "Alabama" 
question. Died at Garrison, Putnam CO., 
N. Y., Sept. 7, 1893. 

FISH, NICHOLAS, an American mili- 
tary officer; born in New York City, 
Aug. 28, 1758, studied law; joined the 
Continental army and was an aide on 
the staff of John Morin Scott early in 



FISH CULTURE 



X42 



FISHER 



1776; was promoted major of the 2d 
New York Regiment in November of 
that year; participated in the battles at 
Saratoga in 1777; led a corps of light 
infantry in the battle of Monmouth ; and 
otherwise distinguished himself during 
the Revolutionary War. He was made 
adjutant-general of New York in 1786; 
supervisor of United States revenue in 
1794, and president of the New York 
State Cincinnati Society in 1797. He 
died in New York City, June 20, 1833. 

FISH CULTURE, or PISCICULTURE, 

the artificial propagation of fish to off- 
set the destructive effect of fisheries. 
The art of fish fertilization is compara- 
tively new. In 1763 Stephen L. Jacobi 
of Westphalia, Germany, devised the 
process now in use of stripping the ova 
from the female fish and mixing them 
with milt taken from the male. In 1850 
the first government fish culture station 
was established in Huningue, Alsace. 
In the United States the art has made 
greater progress than in Europe. Dr. 
Garlick in 1865 began the propagation 
of brook trout, and New Hampshire im- 
ported salmon eggs from Canada to 
hatch in the waters of that State. Since 
then the various States have one by one 
taken up the art, till now nearly all 
have regularly appointed fish commis- 
sioners. Of the numerous inventions 
along this line, the most important is 
McDonald's fish-hatching jar, which 
keeps the eggs in motion, and automati- 
cally separates the dead fish from the 
living. 

The United States Commission of 
Fish and Fisheries was established by 
joint resolution of Congi-ess, approved 
Feb. 9, 1871. It is placed in charge of 
a Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries, 
who is required to be a person of scien- 
tific and practical acquaintance with the 
fish and fisheries of the sea, coast, and 
inland waters. Reports are made annu- 
ally to Congress. The scope of the work 
of the commission covers (1) the propa- 
gation of useful food fishes, including 
lobsters, oysters, and other shellfish, 
and their distribution to suitable waters ; 

(2) the inquiry into the causes of de- 
crease of food fishes in the lakes, rivers, 
and coast waters of the United States, 
the study of the waters of the coast and 
interior in the interest of fish culture, 
and the investigation of the fishing 
grounds of the Atlantic, gulf, and 
Pacific coasts, with the view of deter- 
mining their food resources and the 
development of the commercial fisheries; 

(3) the collection and compilation of 
the statistics of the fisheries and the 
study of their methods and relations. 
See Fishery. 



FISHER, ANDREW, High Commis- 
sioner of Australia in England. He 
was bom at Crosshouse, Kilmarnock, in 
1862, and went to Queensland, Australia, 
in 1885. He entered the Queensland 
Parliament in 1893, and later became 
Minister of Railways in the Dav/s-on 
Ministry. He represented Wide Bay in 
the Commonwealth Parliament for the 
first fifteen years of the Parliament. In 
1904 he became Minister for Trade and 
Customs, Commonwealth of Australia; 
and in 1907 leader of the Federal Par- 
liamentary Labor party. In 1908-1909 
he was Prime Minister of Australia; in 
1909-1910 leader of Federal Opposition, 
and in 1910-1913 and 1914-1915 Prime 
Minister. In 1915 he resigned office as 
Prime Minister to represent Australia 
in London. 

FISHER, DOROTHY CANFIELD 
(DOROTHEA FRANCES CANFIELD 
FISHER), an American writer, born in 
Lawrence, Kan., in 1879. She graduated 
from the Ohio State University in 1899, 
and took post-graduate courses at Co- 
lumbia. In 1907 she married John Red- 
wood Fisher. She traveled and studied 
extensively in Europe. She wrote sev- 
eral books on educational subjects. Her 
chief fame, however, rests on her works 
in fiction, which include "The Squivrel- 
Cage" (1912) ; "Hillsboro People" (1915) ; 
"The Bent Twig" (1915); "Fellow-Cap- 
tains" (1916); "The Day of Glory" 
(1919); "The Brimming Cup" (1919). 
During the World War she spent three 
years in France engaged in war work. 

FISHER, GEORGE PARK, an Amer- 
ican educator; born in Wrentham, 
Mass., Aug. 10, 1827; was graduated dt 
Brown University in 1847; studied 
theology at the Yale Divinity School; at 
Andover, and in Germany; was Pro- 
fessor of Divinity in 1854-1861, and 
subsequently of Ecclesiastical History at 
Yale. He was the author of "Essays on 
the Supernatural Origin of Christian- 
ity," "History of the Reformation," 
"The Grounds of Historic and Christian 
Belief," "Manual of Christian Evi- 
dences," "Colonial History of the United 
States." He died in 1909. 

FISHER, HARRISON, an American 
illustrator; born in Brooklyn, N. Y., in 
1876. He was educated in San Fran- 
cisco. He was recognized as one of the 
most talented of American illustrators, 
and his work appeared in the leading 
magazines. He made illustrations for 
"The Market Place," by Harold Fred- 
eric; "The Eagle's Heart," by Hamlin 
Garland; and other books. 

FISHER, HERBERT ALBERT 
LAURENS, a British legislator. He 



FISHER 



14S 



FISK 



was born in London in 1865 and was 
educated at Winchester and Oxford 
University. He divided his time between 
politics and educational subjects, and in 
1912 became a member of the Commis- 
sion on the Public Services of India. In 
1916 he was elected to represent the 
Hallam Division of Sheffield in Parlia- 
ment, and in the same year became 
President of the Board of Education. 
His publications include: "The Mediaeval 
Empire," "Studies in Napoleonic States- 
manship," "A Political History of Eng- 
land," ''Bonapartism," "Life of F. W. 
Maitland," "The Republican Tradition 
in Europe," "Political Unions," "Napo- 
leon Bonaparte," with contributions to 
many magazines. 

FISHER, IRVING, an American eco- 
nomist; born in Saugei'ties, N. Y., in 
1867. He graduated from Yale in 1888 
and afterward studied in Bei'lin and in 
Paris. In 1890 he joined the faculty of 
Yale and became successively assistant 
professor and professor of political econ- 
omy, the latter in 1898. From 1896 to 
1910 he was editor of the "Yale Review." 
He was president and director of many 
important commissions, including the 
Citizens' Commission on War-Time Pro- 
hibition, and the National Conservation 
Commission, appointed by President 
Roosevelt. In 1917 he was chairman of 
the board of scientific directors of the 
Eugenics Record Office. During the 
campaign of 1920 he was active in sup- 
port of the League of Nations as a cam- 
paign issue. He wrote "The Nature of 
Capital and Income" (1906) ; "The Rate 
of Interest" (1907) ; "The Purchasing 
Power of Money" (1911); "Stabilizing 
the Dollar" (1919). He also contrib- 
uted numerous articles to magazines. 

FISHER'S HILL, a lofty eminence, 
about 20 miles S. of Winchester, Va., 
between the Massanutten and North 
Mountains, and with its base washed by 
a branch of the Shenandoah. This place 
was the scene of a smart action, Sept. 
22, 1864, between a National force under 
General Sheridan, and one of Confeder- 
ates commanded by General Early, in 
which the latter was defeated with the 
loss of about 1,000 men killed and 
wounded, over 1,000 prisoners, and 16 
guns. Among the killed were Generals 
Rhodes and Goodwin. The Union casual- 
ties numbered about 3,000. 

FISHERY, the business or occupation 
of catching fish. The word fishery is 
popularly used in a comprehensive sense ; 
not merely is there a herring fishery, a 
salmon fishery, a cod fishery, a pilchard 
fishery, etc., for catching these genuine 
fishes, there is a whale fishery for har- 



pooning the mammals called whales, a 
crab and lobster fishery for catching 
those crustaceans, an oyster fishery for 
obtaining those testaceaus mollusks, as 
well as a seal fishery for capturing those 
animals. The great locality for the 
whale fishery is the polar regions of the 
N. and S. hemispheres, that for the cod 
fisheries the banks of Newfoundland, 
that for the herring fishery the entire 
E. coast of this country and the coasts 
of Great Britain and Ireland, that for 
the salmon fishery the rivers of North 
America and Great Britain. The prac- 
tice of salting fish was known to the 
Egyptians about 1351 b. c, or even 
earlier. Herrings were largely caught in 
Scotland, as early as the 9th century. 
The injudicious interference of the gov- 
ernment drove some of the fishermen to 
Holland. The fisheries of the United 
States are superintended by the federal 
Bureau of Fisheries which is a division of 
the Department of Commerce. There are 
also similar bureaus in many States, 
and extensive hatcheries for propa- 
gation of various species with which 
to stock our waters have been established. 
In 1919 the number of vessels employed 
in the fishery industry of the United 
States was estimated at 8,280 of 228,000 
tons; the number of persons employed 
at 188,000; the capital invested at 
$142,140,000; and value of products at 
$110,992,000, about one-fifth of the total 
value of fishery products throughout the 
world. 

FISK, CLINTON BOWEN, an Ameri- 
can soldier and publicist, born in 1828 
at Greigsville, N. Y. For some time he 
was engaged in business in Michigan and 
then removed to St. Louis. He entered 
the Union army at the outbreak of the 
Civil War and in 1865 was brevetted 
major-general. He devoted the remain- 
der of his life chiefly to the interests of 
the negro race and was assistant com- 
missioner in the Freedmen's Bureau. He 
was instrumental in founding Fisk Uni- 
versity. In 1884 he left the Republican 
party and joined the temperance move- 
ment. He was Prohibition candidate for 
Governor of New Jersey in 1886, and for 
President of the United States in 1888. 
He died in 1890. 

FISK, FRANKLIN W., an American 
educator; born in Hopkinton, Vt., in 
1820; was graduated at Yale University 
in 1849; taught there awhile; then be- 
came Professor of Rhetoric in the Sem- 
inary of Beloit, Wis. He was called to 
the Chicago Theological Seminary when 
that school was founded in 1859. Sub- 
sequently he was president of the sem- 
inarv till 1900 when he resiened. He 
died" in Chicago, 111., July 4, 1901. 



FISK UNIVERSITY 



144 



FISSURE 




FISK UNIVERSITY, a coeducational years later she became a star under the 

institution for colored persons in Nash- name of Minnie Maddern. She became 

^ille, Tenn. ; founded in 1866 under the one of the most eminent artists on the 

auspices of the Congregational Church. American stage. Among the most suc- 

FISKE, BRADLEY ALLEN, an 
American naval officer; bom in Lyons, 
N. Y., June 13, 1854; was appointed a 
cadet midshipman in the United States 
navy Sept. 24, 1870; became a lieutenant 
Jan. 26, 1887, and a lieutenant-comman- 
der March 3, 1899. He invented a boat 
detaching and attaching apparatus for 
warships in 1877; the first electric am- 
munition used in the navy in 1888; elec- 
tric gun training apparatus and electric 
steering gear the same year; range and 
position finders in 1889; improvements 
of the range finder and electric steering 
gear in 1895; and an electrical appara- 
tus for transmitting the orders of a 
ship's commander from the deck bridge 
to the engine room in 1896; and was at- 
tached to the Naval Bureau of Ordnance 
from 1895. In 1901 he was appointed a 
lieutenant-commander and, by promotion, 
a rear-admiral in 1911. He assisted in 
naval operations 1913-1915, retiring in 
the latter year. Was awarded Cresson 
gold medal by French Institute in 1893, 
Gold Medal by U. S. Naval Institute for 
prize essay "American Naval Policy" 
(1905) ; author "Electricity and Electri- 
cal Engineering,** "Electricity in Theory 
and Practice," "War Times in Manila" 
(1915). He published "Electricity and 
Electrical Engineering." 

FISKE, JOHN, an American his- 
torian; born in Hartford, Conn., March 
30, 1842. He was graduated at Harvard 
College in 1863, and in 1865 took his 
degree in law, but never practiced. He 
was for a while lecturer on philosophy at 
Harvard, and in 1872-1879 assistant li- 
brarian. He was author of "Mvths and 
Myth-Makers" (1872) ; "Outlines of 
Cosmic Philosophy" (2 vols. 1875), his 
principal work, in which he gives an 
exposition of the philosophy of natural 
evolution; "The Unseen World" (1876); 
"Darwinism" (1879) ; "The Idea of God" 
(1885). On phases of American history, 
he wrote: "American Political Ideas" 
(1885) ; "The Critical Period of Ameri- 
can History, 1783-1789" (1888); "The 
Beginnings of New England" (1889) ; 
"The American Revolution" (3 vols. 
1891) ; "Discovery of America" (2 vols. 
1892). He died in Gloucester, Mass., 
July 4, 1901. 

FISKE, MINNIE MADDERN, an 
American actress, born in New Orleans 
in 1865. She took a child's part on the 
stage when but three years of age, and 
at the age of twelve, played leading 
roles in old women's parts. Three 



MINNIE MADDERN FISKE 

cessful plays in which she appeared were 
"Tess of the D'Urbervilles," "Becky 
Sharp," and plays of Ibsen. 

FISMES, FRANCE, a town in the de- 
partment of the Marne, situated at the 
juncture of the Vesle and the Ardre, 
seventeen miles N. W. of Rheims. Shortly 
after the invasion of northern France 
by the Germans, in the summer of 1914, 
Fismes was occupied by them and used 
as a supply depot. They were finally 
ousted by the American troops, who 
entered the town on Aug. 4, 1918. Pop. 
about 3,000. 

FISSURE, in ordinary language, a 
cleft; a narrow opening made by the 
parting or opening of any substance; a 
crack. In botany the opening of seed- 
vessels, anthers etc. In heraldry, the 
fourth part of the bend sinister. In 
geology, a crack in the strata, produced 
by volcanic or earthquake action, sub- 
sidence, or any other cause. Fissure 
of Glaser: In anatomy, a fissure in the 
ear, separating the upper margin of the 
tympanic plate from the glenoid fossa. 
Fissure of Rolando: In anatomy, a 
fissure separating the parietal from the 
frontal lobe of the cerebrum. Fissure 
of Sylvius: In anatomy, a fissure or 
deep cleft commencing on the under sur- 



FISSURE NEEDLE 



145 



FITZROT 



face of the brain, and passing trans- 
versely outward to the lateral surface 
of the hemisphere, where it divides into 
two limbs. Fissures of Santorini: In 
anatomy, irregular gaps transversely 
dividing the cartilaginous tube of the 
ear. Great fissure of Bichat: In 
anatomy, a fissure connecting the two 
limbs of the fissure of Sylvius. 

FISSURE NEEDLE, a spiral needle 
for drawing together the gaping lips of 
wounds. By revolution, the point is made 
to pierce the lips alternately, carrying its 
thread with it. 

FISTULA, a shepherd's pipe; a water- 
pipe. In zoology, the intermediate sub- 
quadrangular pipe, in insects, formed by 
the union of the two branches of the an- 
thia which conveys the nectar to the 
pharynx. 

In surgery, a long and sinuous ulcer, 
having a narrow opening, sometimes 
leading to a larger cavity, and which has 
no disposition to heal. 

FITCH. JOHN, an American inventor; 
born in East Windsor, Conn., Jan. 21, 
1743; manufactured arms during the 
Revolutionary War. In 1786 he built a 
steamboat which could run eight miles 
an hour. Two years later a company 
was organized in Philadelphia, which 
built a steampacket that ran on the Dela- 
ware river for about two years, when the 
company failed. He wrote a history of 
his work on the steamboat. He died in 
Bardstown, Ky., July 2, 1798. 

FITCH, WILLIAM CLYDE, an Amer- 
ican playwright and author; born in New 
York, May 2, 1865. He was educated at 
Hartford, Conn., and Amherst College, 
Amherst, Mass. He wrote a number of 
successful plays, among them "Beau 
Brummell" and "Bohemia," "The Climb- 
ers." "The Way of the World," "The 
Girl and the Judge," etc. He is also the 
author of "The Knighting of the Twins, 
and Ten Other Tales" and "Some Cor- 
I'espondence and Six Conversations." 
He died Sept. 4, 1909. 

FITCHBURG. a city and one of the 

county-seats of Worcester co., Mass., on 
the New York, New Haven, and Hart- 
ford, railroad; 50 miles N. W. of Boston. 
It comprises the villages of Traskville, 
Rockville, South Fitchburg, West Fitch- 
burg, and Fitchburg Center. It contains 
a public library, high school, electric 
street railroad, electric lights, several 
National and savings banks, and a 
number of daily and weekly newspapers. 
There are manufactories of pianofortes, 
tools, machinery, paper, saws, electrical 
apparatus, steam engines, bicycles, fire- 



arms, cotton, and woolen goods, etc 
Pop. (1910) 37,826; (1920) 41,013. 

FITZGERALD, a city of Georgia, the 
county-seat of Ben Hill co. It is on the 
Seaboard Air Line, the Atlanta, Bir- 
mingham and Atlantic, and the Ocilla 
Southern railroads. Its industries in- 
clude cotton and oil mills, fertilizer 
plants, and railroad repair shops. It 
has a large trade in timber and turpen- 
tine. Pop. (1910) 5,795; (1920) 6,870. 

FITZGERALD, EDWARD, LORD, an 

Irish patriot; born near Dublin, Ireland, 
in 1763. He was a son of the first Duke 
of Leinster. He distinguished himself 
for intrepidity as aide-de-camp to Lord 
Rawdon in the latter part of the Ameri- 
can Revolutionary War, and was severely 
wounded in the battle of Eutaw Springs. 
When the French Revolution broke out, 
he supported its principles, and in 1793 
hastened to Paris. Here he married 
Pamela, the daughter, it is said, of Louis 
Philippe Joseph, the Duke of Orleans, 
and Madame de Genlis. On his return to 
Ireland, Fitzgerald was desirous of ef- 
fecting a separation of that country from 
England, and induced the French Direc- 
tory to furnish him with a fleet and 
troops. A landing was attempted on sev- 
eral occasions, but without success, owing 
to the vigilance of the English channel 
fleet; and Fitzgerald was seized, tried, 
and condemned to death. He died of his 
wounds before the time fixed for his ex- 
ecution, 1798. His wife had been edu- 
cated with the daughters of the Duke of 
Orleans, by Madame de Genlis, and mar- 
ried a second time, Mr. Pitcairn, the 
American consul at Hamburg. 

FITZGERALD. EDWARD, an Eng- 
lish poet; born in Bredfield House, near 
SuflTolk, England, March 31, 1809. His 
father, John Purcell, assumed the name 
Fitzgerald, which was his wife's family 
name. His writings are for the most 
part remodeled translations of poems in 
other languages; among them are: "Six 
Dramas from Calderon" (1853), and 
two more ("The Mighty Magician" and 
"Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made of") 
subsequently "The Rubaiyat of Omar 
Khayyam" (1859), a translation that 
won for Fitzgerald great celebrity; a 
version of the "Agamemnon" of .^Eschy- 
lus; and versions of other Greek and 
Persian poets. He died in Merton, Nor- 
folk, England, June 14, 1883. 

FITZROY. two Australian rivers, one 
in Western Australia and one in Queens- 
land. The first rises in the King Leopold 
Mountains and after a westerly course 
of about 300 miles enters into King 
Sound on the Indian Ocean. It is navi- 



FIUME 



146 



FLAG 



gable for about 100 miles. The Queens- 
land river is formed by the junction of 
the Mackenzie and the Dawson rivers. 
It flows in an easterly direction into 
Keppel Bay on the Pacific coast. It is 
navigable for about 40 miles from its 
mouth. 

FIUME, a city on the west coast of 
the Adriatic, forty miles S. E. of Trieste. 
It is a large, modern city, with buildings 
of large size, covering eight square miles, 
and with a population of 50,000, com- 
prising Slavs and Italians. Fiume was, 
before the World War, under Hungarian 
sovereignty, and constituted the only 
seaport of the kingdom, for which reason 
much money was spent in its develop- 
ment. Its exports averaged $35,000,000 
a year, and its imports only slightly less. 
It was also of first-class importance as an 
industrial center, there being established 
here large manufacturing plants for the 
production of Whitehead torpedoes, 
paper, petroleum, and flour. Extensive 
fisheries were carried on in the Adriatic 
with Fiume as their center. 

After the collapse of the Austro-Hun- 
garian Empire, in 1918, the city fell into 
the hands of the Jugoslavs, who claimed 
it on the ground that it was indisputably 
situated in Slav territory. This claim, 
however, Italy was disposed to contest, 
contending that the majority of the pop- 
ulation within the city was Italian, and 
desired to be part of Italy. A compro- 
mise was finally effected, both parties 
agreeing that Fiume should become a 
free city. Suddenly, on Sept. 12, 1919, 
it was announced that a force of Italian 
soldiers, under the leadership of Captain 
Gabriele d'Annunzio, the famous poet 
and writer, who had distinguished him- 
self as an aviator during the war, had 
entered the city and taken possession by 
armed force, declaring that the city 
should remain Italian. This action was 
not only without the sanction of the 
Italian Government, but occupation was 
continued in spite of the orders of the 
Premier that the Italian soldiers within 
the city should withdraw. A threat was 
even made to send other Italian forces 
against the mutineers. D'Annunzio's 
popularity, however, gave him a moral 
force stronger than the military force of 
the Government, or even of that of the 
Allies, for, in November, 1920, he was 
still in possession. A treaty signed by 
Italy and Jugoslavia on Nov. 12, 1920, 
made Fiume a free city. 

FIVE FORKS, a locality near Din- 
widdle Court-house, Va. Here, on April 
1, 1865, a severe engagement was fought 
between the National troops and the 
Confederates, the former under the com- 
mand of General Sheridan, and the latter 



under that of General Lee. After sev- 
eral hours' heavy fighting, the Confed- 
erates retreated with a loss of a large 
number of killed and wounded, 5,000 
prisoners, and several guns. The Na- 
tional loss was about 1,000 men, includ- 
ing General Winthrop, who was killed. 

FIVES, an English game at ball, in 
which the ball is struck against a wall. 
It is played either in close or in open 
courts, of various shapes and propor- 
tions. The game is known as hand-fives 
or bat-fives, according as the ball is 
struck by the open hand or a small 
wooden bat. Also the first, or hand, as 
having five fingers. Also a disease in 
horses, resembling the staggers, and con- 
sisting of an inflammation of the parotid 
glands; written also vives. 

FIXED STAR, in pyrotechnics, a com- 
position introduced into a rocket case 
and emitting fire at five holes, to repre- 
sent a star. The composition is niter, 
sulphur, gunpowder meal, and antimony. 

In astronomy, fixed stars are those 
which till lately were supposed absolute- 
ly to maintain their relative positions 
toward each other in the sky, and are 
still admitted to do so very nearly. They 
are contra-distinguished from planets or 
"wandering stars." The number of 
fixed stars is infinitely great, especially in 
the part of the heavens called the Milky 
Way (see Galaxy). From a remote 
period of antiquity they have been 
grouped into constellations (see Con- 
stellation). They shine by their own 
light, and probably are suns each one 
surrounded by planets of its own. Some 
stars are periodic, and vary in bright- 
ness, others disappear and come again. 
There are double and triple stars, grav- 
ity operating on their movements. 

FIXTURE, in law, a term applied to 
things of an accessory nature annexed 
to houses or lands, so as to become part 
of the realty. The annexation must be 
by the article being set into or united 
with the land, or with some substance 
previously connected therewith. Thus a 
shed built upon a frame not let into the 
earth, is not a fixture. Machines and 
other things erected for the purposes 
of trade are not fixtures, if they can be 
removed without material damage to 
the property. Fixtures may not be dis- 
trained upon. 

FLAG, an ensign or colors; a piece of 
cloth, either plain or colored, and hav- 
ing certain figures, lines, or marks 
painted or worked on it; a banner indi- 
cating nationality, occrpation, or intelli- 
gence. Flags of nationality are stand- 
ards, ensigns, pennants (pendants), 
jacks. Flags of occupation indicate serv- 



FLAGELLANTS 



147 



FLAGLER 



ice, as war, merchant, dispatch, pilot, 
yacht-squadron, liners, etc. Flags of 
intelligence are of various colors and of 
three shapes: square, pointed, and bur- 
gee. They are used in various combina- 
tions to transmit messages according to 
a printed or secret code. The standard 
(military or naval) is a war flag. The 
ensign is national. The idea of stand- 
ards originated with the Egyptians, at 
an early age. The Crusaders added the 
cross to their banners. The union of 
the three crosses of St. George, St. An- 
drew, and St. Patrick, marks, first the 
union of England and Scotland into the 
kingdom of Great Britain; and, then, 
this kingdom with Ireland. This is 
termed the Great Union Flag of Great 
Britain, and was brought by the colo- 
nists to America. When the 13 colonies 
began to feel the pressure of British 
rule they placed upon their banners a 
rattlesnake, cut in 13 pieces, represent- 
ing the 13 colonies, with the motto: 
"Join or die." When these colonies be- 
came more united in their purpose of 
resistance to British tyranny, they 
placed upon their flag a well-formed 
rattlesnake in the attitude of about to 
strike, with the motto, "Don't tread on 
me." 

The next form of the United States 
flag was our present standard, the Stars 
and Stripes. On June 14, 1777, the Con- 
tinental Congress resolved that the flag 
of the United States be 13 stripes, alter- 
nate red and white, and that the union 
be 13 white stars on a blue field, repre- 
senting ''a new constellation." On Jan. 
13, 1794, by an act of Congress, the flag 
was altered to 15 red and white stripes, 
and 15 stars. On April 4, 1818, Con- 
gress again altered the flag by returning 
to the original 13 stripes and 15 stars, 
as the adding of a new stripe for each 
additional State would soon make the 
flag too unwieldy. The new star is 
added to the flag on July 4, following 
the admission of each State into the 
Union. 

Also, the uneven end of an uncut tuft 
of hair on a brush. To strike or lower 
the flag: To pull the flag down in token 
of respect, surrender, or submission. To 
dip the flag: To lower it for a brief 
space as a salute or mark of respect. 
To hang the flag half-mast high: To 
raise it only halfway up the staff as a 
token of mourning. 

FLAGELLANTS, a Christian sect 
which arose in 1260 at Perugia, called 
by the French Peronse, and spread 
throughout and beyond Italy. Its ad- 
herents, who saw a plague raging, and 
moreover expected the world speedily to 
terminate, believed that they could "pro- 



pititate the Divine Being by walking in 
procession with only a cloth tied round 
them, and flagellating their bare shoul- 
ders with whips which they carried. At 
first they were noted for sanctity, and 
made many converts, but doubtful char- 
acters beginning to join their ranks, 
they fell into disrepute, and were re- 
strained from their processions by the 
civil and ecclesiastical authorities, when 
the sect gradually died away. The terror 
produced by the dreadful disease called 
the black death, which destroyed many 
millions of people in Europe between 
1348 and 1351, produced a revival of the 
flagellation mania, which spread over 
most of Europe. In 1349 Clement VII. 
declared the Flagellants heretics and 
took steps to repress them. In 1414 an 
effort was made in Thuringia to revive 
them anew, but the burning alive of 
their leader, Conrad Schmidt, and 90 of 
his followers led to the gradual decline 
of the sect. 

FLAGEOLET, in music, a small pipe 
with a mouth-piece inserted in a bulb 
(hence the derivation of the name from 
the same root from which the word fla- 
gon comes), producing a shrill sound, 
similar but much softer in quality than 
that produced from the flauto piccolo. 
It was formerly employed in the orches- 
tra. Also the tone produced from a vio- 
lin by lightly pressing the bow near the 
bridge upon lightly touched strings, is 
called flageolet or flute tone. 

FLAGG, JAMES MONTGOMERY, an 
American artist and illustrator, born in 
Pelham Manor, N. Y., in 1877. He was 
educated privately and in the New York 
public schools. He studied at the Art 
Students' League in New York, and in 
Paris. In 1890 he began his work as 
an illustrator, and within a few years 
his work appeared in nearly all the im- 
portant magazines. He also illustrated 
several well-known books. He became 
well known as a painter of portraits. He 
wrote and illustrated several books, in- 
cluding "Yankee Girls Abroad" (1900); 
"Why They Married" (1906) ; "The 
Mystery of the Hated Man" (1916). 
During the World War he was ap- 
pointed State military artist of New 
York and designed 45 war posters. 

FLAGLER, HENRY M., an Ameri- 
can capitalist, born in Canandaigua, N. 
Y., in 1830. For several years he acted 
as a clerk in a country store, and was 
later a manufacturer of salt in Michi- 
gan. He came in association with Johi 
D. Rockefeller in the oil business, and 
became a member of the Standard Oil 
Co. He was vice-president and practi- 
cal head of this corporation until 1908, 



FLAMBOBOUGH HEAD 



148 



FLAME THEOWEBS 



and was a director until 1911. He was 
interested in the development of the 
east coast of Florida and built several 
of the largest hotels at Palm Beach, St. 
Augustine, and other resorts. He was 
also instrumental in the building of the 
Florida East Coast Railway and was a 
director in many other important rail- 
roads and financial institutions. He 
died in 1913. 

FLAMBOROUGH HEAD, a bold 
promontory of England, on the York- 
shire coast, projecting a considerable dis- 
tance into the sea ; lat. 54° 7' N., Ion. 
0°5' W. This is at once the most strik- 
ing and most celebrated headland on the 
E. coast of Great Britain, rising 450 feet 
sheer above the sea, having on its sum- 
mit a lighthouse, 214 feet high, showing 
a revolving light. For the battle of 
Flamborough Head, see Jones, Paul. 

FLAME, in chemistry, a shell of in- 
candescent matter surrounding a mass of 
combustible vapor. To produce flame it 
is therefore necessary that the burning 
body should be capable of volatilization 
just below the temperature at which it 
undergoes combustion. Charcoal or iron 
will burn with a steady glow, more or 
less luminous according to the medium 
in which they are burnt, neither of these 
substances being susceptible of volatili- 
zation at the temperature at which com- 
bustion takes place. A piece of wood or 
paper, on the contrary, burns with a 
large luminous flame, in consequence of 
the combustible matter of which it is 
composed rising in vapor or becoming 
converted into mixed gases at the tem- 
perature required for kindling the sub- 
stance. Flame is, in fact, produced when- 
ever a continuous supply of inflammable 
vapor or gas is made to combine with a 
supporter of combustion, such as the 
atmosphere, at a sufficiently elevated 
temperature to cause ignition. The heat- 
ing power of a flame is in direct propor- 
tion to the energy of the chemical action 
that takes place, those flames being hot- 
test and least luminous which proceed 
from gases containing no solid particles, 
as in the case of a mixture of oxygen 
and hydrogen in the proportion necessary 
to form water, which is one of the hottest 
flames we have at our command. The 
most luminous flames are from gases 
which contain just sufficient solid matter 
to give the maximum of incandescence 
without any of its particles passing 
away unburnt. defiant gas and the 
ordinax'y coal gas are good examples of 
this as compared with the oxyhydrogen 
flame, which contains no solid "matter on 
the one hand, and the flame of pitch or 
turpentine on the other, which contains 
too much carbon, the excess passing off 



in the form of smoke. The flames used for 
illuminating purposes are all produced 
by the combustion of compounds con- 
taining carbon and hydrogen. Besides 
the proper proportions of gaseous and 
solid matter contained in illuminating 
substances, care must be taken to regu- 
late the supply of air. The Argand 
Lamp (q. v.) and chimney, as applied to 
gas and camphene, are examples of this. 
Flame has three distinct parts: The 
central or non-luminous part, where 
there is no combustion, but where the 
carbon begins to separate from the 
hydrogen; the second or luminous part, 
where the carbon is for a moment free 
and heated to a white heat; and the 
exterior part, which is the hottest, and 
where the combustion is complete. It is 
easy now to understand of what impor- 
tance is the form of the burner, and 
how it may be modified accordingly as 
we desire light or heat. If we wish light 
the carbon must be protected for some 
seconds from contact with the air; but 
not long enough to allow it to pass off 
unconsumed. If, on the contrary, heat 
is desired, the carbon must be burned 
as quickly as possible. The German 
chemist Bunsen constructed a gas burner 
after this theory, which is perfectly 
adapted to the production of heat. Every 
mixture of gases requires a certain tem- 
perature to inflame it; and if the tem- 
perature be not reached, the mixture does 
not take fire; we may thus cool down 
a flame so much that it goes out by plac- 
ing over it a small coil of cold copper 
wire, whereas if the coil be previously 
heated, the flame will contine to burn. 
If a piece of wire gauze be held close 
over a jet of gas and the gas lit, the 
gauze may be removed several inches 
above the jet, and yet the inflammable 
gas below will not take fire, the flame 
burning only above the gauze. See 
Safety Lamp. 

FLAME THROWEBS, or FLAMMEN- 
WERFER, were used by the Germans 
in the World War as a weapon of 
attack. They consisted of a cylindrical 
vessel of steel, approximately two feet 
long and fifteen inches in diameter, 
divided internally into two compart- 
ments. The upper compartment con- 
tained nitrogen under a pressure of 
twenty-three atmospheres, while the 
lower was filled with inflammable oil. The 
cylinder was strapped to the back of the 
operator, and toward the base was affixed 
a valve to which was attached a short 
length of flexible hose ending in a nozzle. 
On opening the valve the oil was forced 
out under pressure and moved an auto^ 
matic friction lighter which ignited the 
oil, thus producing a spray of "liquid 




)Eunng Galloi^ay 



A FISHING BOAT LEAVING BOSTON HARBOR 




)ColoniaI Press Service 

HOISTING A TUNA FISH FROM A SPILLER TRAP INTO A FISHERMAN'S SMACK 




©Colonial Press Service 

PURSING THE SEINE NET FOR "SARDINE" FISHING IN THE 
NEW BRUNSWICK FISHING GROUNDS 




©Colonial Press Service 

A CATCH OF HERRING, NEW BRUNSWICK FISHING GROUNDS 



} V ft 





© Underwood & '^ndcncood 

A VIEIW ON THE TOMOKA RIVER, FLORIDA, SHOWING TYPICAL VEGETATION 
AND AN ALLIGATOR IN THE FOREGROUND 




©American Photo Service 

THE CATHEDRAL OF NOTRE DAME AT RHEIMS, AT THE CLOSE OF THE WORLD WAR 



FLAMINGO 



149 



FLANK 



fire," which was directed toward the 
enemy. The oil was a carefully com- 
pounded mixture of light and heavy com- 
ponents, the lighter portion being either 
gasoline or ether, and the heavier portion 
higher boiling petroleum oils, 

FLAMINGO, a bird, Phcenicoptems 
mber, which has very long legs, and in 
other respects so much resembles one of 
the grallatores (waders), that it was 
long classed with them. But Swainson 
pointed out that its feet have the webbed 
toes of the duck, and the bill is a modi- 
fication of a duck's bill. He therefore 
placed it with the natatorial (swimming) 




FLAMINGO 

birds. The plumage is rose-colored, the 
wing coverts red, the quill feathers of the 
wings black. It is about 3% feet high. 
It is found in the S. of Europe, frequent- 
ing the seashore, and living on mollusca, 
Crustacea, and smaller fishes. Also the 
genus Phcenicoptems, of which species 
exist in Europe, Asia, Africa, and South 
America. They are gregarious and mi- 
gratory, moving in large flocks. 

FLAMMARION, CAMILLE (fla-ma- 
re-6n'), a French astronomer, writer on 
descriptive astronomy, and "astronomical 



novelist"; born in Montigny-le-Roi, 
Haute-Marne, France, Feb. 25, 1842. 
He was designed by his parents for the 
Church, but went over to science, and by 
a long course of writings of a more or 
less popular character made his name 
widely known. "The Plurality of the 
Inhabited Worlds" (1862); "Celestial 
Wonders" (1865); "The Atmosphere" 
(1872); "Urania" (1889); "The Planet 
Mars and Its Habitability" (1892) ; 
"Popular Astronomy" (1894) ; and "Lu- 
men" (1897), "Thunder and Lightning" 
(1906), "Mysterious Psychic Forces" 
(1907), etc., are among his best known 
works. 

FLANDERS, the name of a very in- 
teresting and early civilized portion of 
Europe, forming two contiguous prov- 
inces of Belgium, termed East Flanders 
and West Flanders, respectively, bound- 
ed on the N. W. by the North Sea, and 
inclosed on its other sides by the prov- 
inces of Antwerp, Zealand, South Bra- 
bant, Hainault, and the French depart- 
ment Nord. East Flanders is separated 
from West Flanders by a line running 
almost due S. from Sluys, a small town 
nearly opposite Flushing. Area, 1,158 
square miles; pop. about 1,134,079. The 
surface is level in the N. part, while to 
the S. it consists of undulating plains. 
The soil is heavy loam, and highly fer- 
tile. Capital, Ghent. 

West Flanders has a considerable 
coast-line, in the central part of which 
is the port of Ostend. This side faces 
the N., but the W. boundary of the 
province adjoins the French territory. 
Area, 1,249 square miles; pop. about 
885,000. The surface is generally level, 
excepting the dunes, or sand-hills, on the 
coast. The soil is fertile and agricul- 
ture good. Capital, Bruges. For pro- 
ductions, manufactures, etc., and history, 
see Belgium. 

FLANK, one of the two parts of the 
body which enable it to bend; the part 
of the side of an animal between the 
ribs and the hip. As a military term, 
either side of a body of troops; 
the extremities of a body of soldiers 
in line, or the sides of a column, 
being termed the right and left flanks 
respectively. In any defense work, it 
is applied to that part from which a fire 
may be directed against the side or flank 
of an attacking party. Thus, the flanks 
of a bastion are those parts of the ram- 
part and parapet which connect its faces 
with the extremities of the curtains of 
the enceinte on either side of it. A fire 
from the flanks is effective in preventing 
an attacking party from eflfecting a 
lodgment at the foot of the curtain that 



FLANNAGAN 



150 



FLEA 



lies between them, which might be done 
with comparative ease and security if 
these portions of the work did not exist. 
A fire from the flanks of any bastion enfi- 
lades the ditch at the foot of the curtain. 
In architecture, the side of any building. 
In machinery, the straight part of the 
tooth of a wheel which receives the im- 
pulse. Flanks, in farriery, a wrench, 
strain, or other injury received by a 
horse in the back. 

FLANNAGAN, JOHN, an American 
sculptor; born at Newark, N. J. He 
studied under Augustus Saint-Gaudens 
and in Paris. Among the most important 
works executed by him were the monu- 
mental clock in the Library of Congress; 
a bronze relief at the Newark Public 
Library; and a number of porti-ait busts 
and heads. He was awarded many 
medals for the excellence of his work, 
and was an associate of the National 
Academy and a member of the National 
Sculpture Society. 

FLAT. In music, a character of the 
form b, which depresses the note before 
which it is placed, a chromatic semitone. 
Thus D6 signifies a semi-tone below D 
natural. On keyed instruments the short 
keys are the representatives of these flats 
and sharps. An accidental flat is one 
which, though not occurring at the com- 
mencement of the staff, is inserted in any 
other part of it, and only affects the bar 
in which it is placed. A flat fifth is an 
interval of a fifth depressed by a flat. 

FLATHEAD, or SALISH, INDIANS, 

in the State of Washington, a tribe in- 
habiting the region between lat. 48° and 
50° N., and Ion. 117° and 121° W, They 
are so named on account of a practice 
formerly prevalent among them, of flat- 
tening the heads of their infants by arti- 
ficial means. The custom, it is said, has 
been abandoned by this tribe, though it 
still exists among several neighboring 
tribes, to whom the name of Flathead 
is not generally given. They are short 
of stature, and badly formed, with wide 
mouth, thick nose and lips, and large 
nostrils. 

FLAUBEET, GUSTAV (flo-bar'), a 
French novelist; born in Rouen, France, 
Dec. 12, 1821. His gfreatest novel was 
his first, "Madame Bovary" (1857). He 
next wrote a historical novel, "Salamm- 
bo," the scene laid in the most flour- 
ishing period of Carthage ; "The History 
of a Young Man" (1869)"; "The Temp- 
tation of St. Anthony" (1874), and 
"Three Stories" (1877). The posthu- 
mous novel "Bouvard and Pecuchet" 
(1881) is a satire on humanity in gen- 
eral. His comedy "The Candidate" 



(1874) failed on the stage. He died in 
Rouen, May 8, 1880. 

FLAX BRAKE, a machine for remov- 
ing the woody and cellular portion of 
flax from the fibrous. Also a machine 
for shortening flax staple to adapt it to 
be worked by a given class of machines, 

FLAXMAN, JOHN, an English sculp- 
tor and draughtsman; born in York, 
England, July 6, 1755, His father was 
a figure-molder. The son, from his earli- 
est years, exhibited and cultivated his 
talent for designing, and was also at- 
tracted by the picturesque conceptions of 
Greek mythology. He began to study at 
the Royal Academy in 1770, earning for 
some time a living by making designs 
for Wedgwood, the potter, and other per- 
sons. He went to Italy in 1787, and dur- 
ing the seven years he spent there, his 
wife accompanying him, he acquired the 
highest reputation by three series of de- 
signs, the illustrations to Homer, -lEschy- 
lus, and Dante. He was chosen A. R. A. 
in 1797, and Professor of Sculpture in 
1810. The monument to Lord Mansfield 
in Westminster Abbey, the group of 
"Cephalus and Aurora," "Psyche," the 
group of the "Archangel Michael and 
Satan," are among his best works. The 
monuments to Nelson Howe, and Reyn- 
olds in St. Paul's are by his hand. ()ne 
of his latest and finest productions is the 
"Shield of Achilles." He died in London, 
Dec. 7, 1826. The sculptures and sketches 
of Flaxman are exhibited in a gallery, 
called the "Flaxman Hall," at University 
College, London. 

FLEA, a too well-known wingless in- 
sect. Pulex irritans. Though, as a rule, 
each species of Pulex is parasitic only on 
one animal, as P. canis upon the dog, 
P. talpse on the mole, and P. hirundinis 
on the swallow, yet P. penetrans is said 
to be an exception, and to prey on man, 
the dog, and the cat. The female lays 
in the cracks of floors or such places, a 
dozen of eggs, white and a little ciscous. 
In favorable weather they hatch in five 
or six days, giving exit to little footless 
larvae, like small worms, first white, then 
reddish, which roll themselves in a circle 
or spiral, and move forward in a serpen- 
tine manner. In about 12 days they in- 
close themselves in a small silken shell, 
and become nymphs. After another 12 
they come forth as perfect insects. The 
last brood of summer continues in the 
larval state all winter. The flea is in- 
cased in armor like a mediaeval knight. 
It can leap 30 times its own height; it 
can draw with ease 80 times its own 
weight. A plant, Fleabane, has been 
said to destroy it. 

In Scripture, the rendering of the 



FLEECE, ORDER OF GOLDEN 151 



FLEUR DE LIS 



Hebrew word parsh; Sept. psyllos; Vulg. 
pidex, which is probably correct. The 
Hebrew word, according to Gesenius, is 
from an obsolete quadrilateral root, 
paras h = to leap (1 Sam. xxiv:14; 
xxvi:20). 

FLEECE, ORDER OF THE GOLDEN. 

See Golden Fleece. 

FLEMISH SCHOOL, a school of paint- 
ing highly recommended to the lovers of 
the art by the invention, or at least the 
first practice, of painting in oil. It has 
been generally attributed to John Van 
Eyck, in the beginning of the 15th cen- 
tury, who was, it is said, accustomrd to 
varnish his distemper pictures with a 
composition of oils, which was pleasing 
on account of the luster it gave them. In 
course of practice he came to mix his 
colors with oil, instead of water, which 
rendered them brilliant without the trou- 
ble of varnishing. From this and sub- 
sequent experiments arose the art of 
painting in oil. The attention of the 
Italian painters was soon excited. John 
of Bruges was the founder of painting 
as a profession in Flanders. The chief 
masters of the school were Memling, 
Weyden, Rubens, Vandyck, Snyders, and 
the younger Teniers. 

FLENSBORG, one of the most popu- 
lous towns of Slesvig, at the extremity 
of the Flensborg Fjord, an inlet from the 
Baltic, forty miles N. W. of Kiel. It 
was taken from the Danes by the Ger- 
mans in 1866. Pop. about 60,000. 

FLETCHER, DUNCAN UPSHAW, a 
United States Senator from Florida, 
born in Sumter county, Ga., in 1859. He 
graduated from Vanderbilt University in 
1880 and afterward studied law at that 
institution. He was admitted to the bar 
in 1881 and engaged in practice in Jack- 
sonville, Fla. He was a member of the 
Florida House of Representatives in 
1893, and for two years following was 
mayor of Jacksonville. He was appointed 
United States senator by the governor 
of the State in 1909, and was elected 
senator by the legislature in the same 
year. He was re-elected in 1914. He was 
chairman of the Senate Committee on 
Commerce. 

FLETCHER, FRANK FRIDAY, an 

American admiral, born at Oskaloosa, la., 
in 1855. He graduated from the United 
States Naval Academy in 1875 and in the 
following year was promoted ensign. He 
was promoted through the various 
grades to the rank of rear-admiral, in 
1911. After performing important duties 
on shore and at sea, he was in 1913 ap- 
pointed commander of the 3d division of 
the Atlantic Fleet, and was later com- 



mander of the 2d and 1st divisions. In 
1913 and 1914 he commanded the naval 
force on the west coast of Mexico, and 
on April 21 seized and occupied the city 
of Vera Cruz. In 1914 he was appointed 
commander-in-chief of the Atlantic Fleet, 
and in the following year was appointed 
admiral. During the World War he was 
a member of the War Industries Board 
of the Council of National Defense, and 
a member of the General Board of the 
Navy. He invented several pieces of 
mechanism for guns and was awarded 
a medal of honor for distinguished con- 
duct in battle. 

FLETCHER, GILES, an English 
clergyman and poet, cousin of John; 
born in London, England, about 1580. 
His only notable composition was a 
sacred poem entitled "Christ's Victorie 
and Triumph in Heaven and Earth over 
and after Death" (1610), rich in imagery 
and descriptions of natural scenery. 
Parts of it were utilized by Milton in his 
"Paradise Regained." He died in Alder- 
ton, in 1623. 

FLETCHER, JOHN. See BEAUMONT, 
Francis, and Fletcher, John. 

FLETCHER, SIR LAZARUS, a Brit- 
ish scientist. He was born at Salford, 
England, in 1854, and was educated at 
Manchester Grammar School and Oxford 
University. In 1880 he became Keeper of 
Minerals in the British Museum and in 
1882 Examiner for Natural Sciences 
Tripos, Cambridge. He is a member and 
official of many British and other scien- 
tific societies, and was vice-president of 
the Royal Society (1910-1912.). His pub- 
lications include: "Introduction to the 
Study of Meteorites," "Introduction to 
the Study of Minerals," "Introduction to 
the Study of Rocks," "The Optical In- 
dicatrix," and papers on the crystallo- 
graphical, physical, and mineralogical 
subjects and on meteorites. 

FLEUR DE LIS, in botany, various 
species of the genus iris; also Phalan- 
gium liliago, a liliaceous plant. In 
heraldry, the royal insignia of France. 
Its origin is disputed; by some it is sup- 
posed to represent a lily, by others the 
iron head of some weapon. In the old 
time the French Royal banner was seme 
of lys, that is, completely covered with 
fleurs de lis; but from the time of 
Charles VI. it has consisted of three 
golden fleurs de lis on a blue field. It is 
of frequent occurrence in English ar- 
mory. From the claims invariably put 
forth by English sovereigns to certain 
principalities in France, gained by in- 
heritance or marriage, the French royal 
coat appeared as a quartering in the 
English royal arms; and though all such 



FLEURUS 



152 



FLINT 



claims had long ceased to be enforced or 
justified, it remained till the accession of 
George IV., by whom it was abolished. 

FLEURUS, a town of Belgium, in the 
province of Hainault, near the Sambre, 
7 miles N. E. of Charleroi. This place is 
noted for four important battles having 
taken place in its vicinity. The first took 
place on Aug. 30, 1622, between the Span- 
iards under Gonsalvo of Cordova, the 
general of the Catholic League, and the 
troops of the Protestant Union com- 
manded by the Bastard of Mansfeld and 
the Dukes of Brunswick and Saxe- 
Weimar. Both sides claimed the advan- 
ia";e. The second was fought July 1, 
1390, Montmorency, Duke of Luxem- 
bourg, defeating the Prince of Waldeck, 
one of the most able of the generals of 
the Augsburg League. The third was that 
in which General Jourdain defeated the 
Imperialists under the Prince of Coburg, 
June 26, 1794. The fourth, more com- 
monly known as the battle of Ligny, took 
place on June 16, 1815. On that day 
Bliicher was defeated by Napoleon. 

FLEURY, a small village in France, 
about six miles N. W. of Verdun, at 
which were located some of the outer 
works defending Verdun during the 
World War. It was the center of 
some of the heaviest fighting during the 
attack on Verdun by the Germans, in 
June, 1916, known as the battle of Mort 
Homme. 

FLEURY, CLAUDE (fle-re'), a 
French Church historian; born in Paris, 
France, Dec. 6, 1640. His learning and 
unaffected simplicity made him a notable 
figure at the court of Louis XIV., and 
later at that of Louis XV., whose con- 
fessor he became. An "Ecclesiastical 
History" (1691-1720) forms his claim to 
enduring renown; the work coming down 
to 1414. He also vrrote: "A History of 
French Law" (1674) and a "Historical 
Catechism" (1679). He died in 1723. 

FLEXIBILITY, in physics, the prop- 
perty which all bodies possess to a 
greater or less degree, and which is 
evinced in their disposition to yield or 
change their form in a direction at right 
angles to their length, through their own 
weight or by means of any pressure or 
strain applied to them. Pieces of the 
same material differ from each other in 
the degi'ee of flexibility they exhibit, in 
proportion to their length and thickness. 
Thus it is evident that a cylindrical bar 
pf iron an inch in diameter and 20 feet 
in length will exhibit a far greater de- 
gree of flexibility than another which is 
only half the length, and has a diameter 
of two inches. Materials also exhibit a 
greater degree of flexibility in one condi- 



tion than in another; metals, for in- 
stance, yielding far more readily to pres- 
sure when heated than when cold. The 
degree of flexibility possessed by any 
material is denoted by the extent to 
which it will bend, or by the weight 
which it will support without breaking. 
This property must not be confounded 
with that of elasticity; elastic bodies will 
return to their former shape when they 
have been bent or altered by pressure 
in any way; but bodies which possess 
flexibility without elasticity do not return 
to their original form in all cases. The 
consideration of the deflection or flexi- 
bility of beams of wood and iron bars 
and girders, as well as of ropes and 
chains, and other materials, is an im- 
portant point in the construction of 
buildings, bridges, and engineering works 
of various kinds. 

FLEXNER, ABRAHAM, an Ameri- 
can educator, born in Louisville, Ky., in 
1866, brother of Simon Flexner. He 
graduated from Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity in 1883 and took post-graduate 
courses at Harvard and at the Uni- 
versity of Berlin. After teaching for 
several years he was appointed an expert 
of the Carnegie Foundation for the Ad- 
vancement of Teaching, in 1908, serving 
until 1912. He was assistant secretary of 
the General Education Board from 1912 
to 1917, and secretary from 1917. He 
wrote "The American College" (1909) ; 
"Medical Education in the United States 
and Canada" (1910); "Medical Educa- 
tion in Europe" (1912) ; and "A Modern 
School" (1916). He also contributed 
educational papers to periodicals. 

FLEXNER, SIMON, an American 
physician and medical authority, born in 
Louisville, Ky., in 1863. He received a 
common school education in his native 
city and took his medical degree from the 
University of Louisville in 1889. He took 
post-graduate work at Johns Hopkins 
and at the Universities of Strassburg 
and Berlin. From 1891-1899 he was a pro- 
fessor in Johns Hopkins University and 
from 1899-1904 in the University of 
Pennsylvania. In 1903 he became direc- 
tor of the laboratories of the Rockefeller 
Institute for Medical Research, with 
which he has been connected ever since. 
He has published numerous treatises and 
monographs upon pathological and bac- 
teriological subjects, and his work has 
been recognized abroad, where he has 
been made a member of many of the 
learned fraternities. 

FLINT, a crypto-crystalline variety 
of quartz. It is usually gray, smoke- 
brown, or brownish black. If derived, as 
it mostly is, from the cretaceous forma- 



FLINT 



163 



FLINT IMPLEMENTS 



tion, the white of the chalk is still seen 
on its external surface. Luster subvitre- 
ous; fracture conchoidal, leaving a cut- 
ting edge. Most of the flints scattei'ed 
on the surface of the ground or existing 
in Tertiary or more recent sedimentary 
deposits came originally from the cre- 
taceous rocks, one division of M^hich is 
termed Upper White Chalk with flints, 
this being distinguished from the Lower 
White Chalk without flints. Next to the 
Maestricht beds and Faxoe limestone, the 
chalk with flints constitutes the highest 
or newest layer yet discovered of the 
sedimentary rocks. The organic portion 
of flint pebbles consists of diatoms, sea- 
weeds of low organization, the minute 
infusorial animals called polycistina, the 
spicules of sponges, with echinoderms, 
etc. They are the same as those in agate 
and chalk. Liquor of flints, a solution 
of flint in potassic hydrate. To skin a 
flint, to descend to any false economy or 
meanness to make a trifling sum of 
money. 




DR. SIMON FLEXNER 

FLINT, a city and county-seat of 
Genesee co., Mich.; on the Flint river and 
on the Grand Trunk Western and the 
Pere Marquette railroads; 64 miles N. N. 
W. of Detroit. Here are a court house, 
the State Institution for the Deaf and 
Dumb, a private retreat for the insane, 
a high school, waterworks, gas and elec- 



tric lights, public library, a National 
bank and several daily, weekly, and 
monthly periodicals. It has a large num- 
ber of saw mills, carriage and wagon 
factories, automobile works, iron works, 
stove works, flour and woolen mills, etc. 
Pop. (1910) 38,550; (1920) 91,599. 

FLINT, AUSTIN, an American phy- 
sician ; born in Petersham, Mass., Oct. 
30, 1812; was graduated at the medical 
department of Harvard College in 1833. 
His professional career began in North- 
ampton, Mass., but after a few years' 
practice there he removed to Boston, 
thence to Buffalo, where he remained till 
1844. He then accepted a call to a chair 
in the Rush Medical College in Chicago, 
but soon returned to Buffalo, where he 
established the Buffalo "Medical Journal" 
in 1846, and where later he was one of 
the founders, and for six years a pro- 
fessor, of the Buffalo Medical College. 
He was a professor in Louisville Univer- 
sity in 1852-1856; Professor of Pathology 
in the Long Island College Hospital in 
1861-1868; president of the New York 
Academy of Medicine in 1872-1875, and 
of the American Medical Association in 
1884; delegate to the International 
Medical Congress in Philadelphia in 
1876; etc. He was the author of numer- 
ous text-books, clinical reports and medi- 
cal papers. He died in New York City, 
March 13, 1886. 

FLINT GLASS, a species of glass made 
of white sand, 52; carbonate of potash, 
14; oxide of lead, 33; alumina, 1; with 
metallic additions to neutralize color. 
Pure white sand free from oxide of iron 
is required for flint glass, as iron im- 
parts a green color. The articles are 
made by the agency of the blow-pipe, or 
ponty, the mold and press, and frequently 
by a combination of blowing and press- 
ing. The silica for its manufacture was 
formerly derived from pulverized flints, 
and hence its name. The presence of 
lead gives it a peculiar property of re- 
fracting light, which causes it to be used 
for lenses. Flint glass fuses at a lower 
temperature than ordinary glass, such 
as crown, plate, or window glass. Flint 
glass is softer than some other varieties, 
and is the kind which is cut. It is much 
used for tumblers, fine tableware, and 
various articles of decorative furniture 
and fittings. 

FLINT IMPLEMENTS, a generic 
term used for any implements of flint 
obtained from Pleistocene or more recent 
deposits, each being afterward named 
more specifically as its exact nature be- 
comes understood. Evans divides the 
implements into three classes — spear 
heads, oval or almond-shaped flint imple- 



FLINTSHIRE 



154 



FLOOB 



ments, and flint flakes. Such relics of 
early man had been found with the bones 
of an elephant, in 1715, in the gravel of 
London, England. Similar remains were 
exhumed at Hoxne, near Diss, in 1797, 
by John Frere. About 1833 or 1834, the 
Rev. Mr. McEnery, a Roman Catholic 
priest, discovered similar ones in Kent's 
Hole, Torquay, in Devon, England. From 
about 1841, M. Boucher de Perthes, of 
Abbeville, collected flint implements from 
the valley of the Somme, in France, pub- 
lishing the result in his "Celtic An- 
tiquities," in 1847. 

Many flint implements have been 
found in the S. and E. of England, in 
Bedfordshire, in Suffolk, Hampshire, 
Wiltshire, and in the N. and N. E. of 
London, in Essex, in Buckinghamshire, 
etc. The oldest ones are palaeolithic, and 
are unpolished; the newer neolithic, and 
are polished. The implements from the 
Somme are of the former kind, and are 
the oldest known. According to Prof. 
Boyd Dawkins, the river-drift man in- 
habiting the valleys of the Somme, the 
Thames, etc., was older than the cava 
man of Brixham, Kent's Hole, and other 
caverns. The former lived in the middle 
part of the Pleistocene (Lyell's Upper 
Pliocene) period and inhabited Palestine, 
India, and this country as well as Europe. 

FLINTSHIRE, a maritime county of 
North Wales, with an area of 257 square 
miles and a coast line of about 20 miles. 
Only about one-seventh of the area is 
cultivated. The most important industry 
is mining, which includes coal, iron, lead, 
copper, and zinc. The chief rivers are 
the Dee, Alyn, and Clwyd. Pop. about 
70,000. The chief town is Flint. Other 
important towns are St. Asaph, Holywell, 
and Hawarden. 

FLOATING DOCK. See DOCK. 

FLODDEN, a village of England, 
Northumberland county, near the Scot- 
tish border, 5 miles S. E. of Coldstream; 
memorable as being the scene of the 
battle of Flodden Field, one of the most 
sanguinary conflicts recorded in British 
history. James IV., King of Scotland, 
having invaded England with a large 
force, was encountered here, Sept. 9. 1513, 
by an English army under the Earl of 
Surrey. James, who was destitute of 
every martial quality except bravery, was 
killed, and his army totally defeated. 
The loss on the part of the Scots was 
extremely great. Besides the king him- 
self, no fewer than 12 earls, 13 barons, 
and 5 eldest sons of peers, with a vast 
number of knights and persons of dis- 
tinction, and probably about 10,000 com- 
mon soldiers, were left dead on the field. 
The English loss was about 7.000. This 



is by far the most calamitous defeat 
recorded in Scottish annals; and there 
was scarcely a family of distinction in 
the kingdom who did not lose one or more 
members in it. Archibald Douglas, the 
great Earl of Angus, for instance, was 
killed, together with his six sons and 200 
knights and gentlemen of the name of 
Douglas. 

FLOETZ ROCKS, in geology, a name 
applied by Werner and his followers to 
the Secondary rocks of Germany, be- 
cause they were supposed to occur most 
frequently in flat, horizontal beds. 

FLOODS are caused by excessive rains, 
giving rise to an overflow of the rivers; 
by the bursting of the banks of rivers, 
lakes, and reservoirs ; by the sudden melt- 
ing of ice and snow; and by irruptions 
of the sea, produced by high tides, wind 
storms driving the sea water inland, 
earthquakes, volcanic outbreaks, and the 
bursting of sea banks. The felling of 
forest trees throughout extensive tracts 
of mountainous country also tends to 
make the rivers which have their ori- 
gin there swell rapidly after a heavy 
rainfall (see Forestry) ; good and com- 
plete drainage of land has the same 
tendency. 

FLOOR, in building, the surface on 
which a person walks in a room or house. 
It may be of masonry, brick, tiles, con- 
crete, earth, boards. The term usually 
refers to boards laid close together, and 
nailed to timbers which are termed joists. 
A single floor is one in which the joists 
pass from side to side of the house, rest- 
ing upon wall-plates and sustaining the 
floor above, and the ceiling of the room 
below. A double floor is one in which 
the primary timbers are binders which 
rest upon the wall-plates, and support the 
floor or bridging joists and the ceiling 
joists. A framed floor has an additional 
member, which assumes the primary po- 
sition. The girder rests on the wall- 
plates and supports the binding joists, 
whose ends rest thereupon. The binding 
joists support the bridging or floor joists 
and the ceiling joists, as before de- 
scribed. 

In geology and archaeology, the part of 
a cavern corresponding in situation to 
the floor of a house. As a nautical term 
the bottom part of the hold on each side 
of the keelson ; the flat portion of a ves- 
sel's hold. In hydraulic eng^ineering, the 
inner piece of the two which together 
form the bucket of an overshot water 
wheel. In mining, the bottom of a coal 
seam; the underlay on which the coal, 
lead, or iron ore rests. To take the floor: 
To rise to address a public meeting; also 
to stand up to dance (Irish). 



ELOQUET 



155 



FLORENCE 



FLOQUET, CHARLES THOMAS (flo- 
ka'), a French statesman; born in St. 
Jean de Luz in 1828; began life as a 
lawyer in Paris. His cry, "Vive la Po- 
logne. Monsieur!" ("Hurrah for Poland, 
Sir!") addressed to the Czar Alexander 
II., in the Palace of Justice in 1867, 
made him a political celebrity. On the 
fall of the empire he was appointed one 
of the deputy mayors of Paris, but was 
forced to resign on account of his com- 
plaisance toward the Red Republicans. 
Later he was elected to the Paris munic- 
ipal council, and in 1876 became one of 
the Deputies for Paris. He sat in the 
Chamber till 1882, when he was appointed 
Prefect of the Seine; re-entered the 
Chamber in 1882 and was elected its 
president in 1885, but resigned in April, 
1888, to become prime minister. In 1889 
he was again elected president of the 
Chamber. He was the Radical candidate 
for the Presidency of the Republic in 
1887; but his career was cut short by 
the Panama Canal scandal. He died in 
Paris, Jan. 18, 1896. 

FLORENCE, a city and county-seat 
of Lauderdale co., Ala.; on the Tennes- 
see river, and on the Southern and the 
Louisville and Nashville railroads. Here 
are the State Normal College, a high 
school, several churches, and a number 
of weekly newspapers. The city has 
manufactories of iron, cotton, wagons, 
ice, flour, stoves, etc. Pop. (1910) 6,689; 
(1920) 10,529. 

FLORENCE, a city of South Carolina, 
The county-seat of Florence co. It is 
on the Atlantic Coast Line and the 
Southern Carolina Western railroads. 
It is the center of an important agricul- 
tural region and has an important trade 
in tobacco and cotton. Its industries in- 
clude cottonseed oil mills, railway repair 
shops, machine shops, lumber mills, etc. 
It is the seat of the South Carolina In- 
dustrial School and a State agricultural 
experiment station. Within its borders 
is a national cemetery. Pop. (1910) 7,- 
057; (1920) 10,968. 

FLORENCE, a famous city of central 
Italy; on both sides of the Arno, 63 miles 
S. by W. of Bologna; 68 E. N. E. of Leg- 
horn, and 187 N.N.W. of Rome. It stands 
in a richly wooded, well-cultivated, and 
beautiful valley, encircled by the Apen- 
nines, and is well built and agreeable. 
Its shape is nearly a square, the sides of 
which almost correspond with the car- 
dinal points; the Arno intersects it from 
S. E. to N. W., three of the quarters into 
which it is divided being situated on the 
right, and the fourth on the left bank of 
the river. The communication between 
the opposite sides of the river is main- 



tained by means of seven bridges. Flor- 
ence contains a great number of mag- 
nificent edifices and squares, generally 
adorned with statues, columns, or foun- 
tains; there are no fewer than 170 
churches, 89 convents, 2 royal, and many 
other palaces, hospitals, and theaters 
great and small. Each angle of a street 
presents an architectural view, fit to be 
drawn for a scene in a theater. Many 
of the houses are palaces, and are fitted 
up with great magnificence. 

The Piazza Reale is the largest 
square; it has a fine marble fountain, 
and an equestrian statue in bronze of 
Duke Cosmo I. by John of Bologna. The 
Piazza del Mercato Veochio, exactly in 
the center of the city, has a marble 
column from which Florence radiates for 
one mile on each side. The Arno is 
decidedly superior to the Tiber at Rome. 
The bridge Santa Trinita, built of mar- 
ble in 1559 by Ammanati, is designed in 
a style of elegance and simplicity unri- 
valed by the most successful efforts of 
modern artists. The bridges, and the 
handsome though not spacious quays by 
Avhich the river is bordered, afford fine 
views of the river, Florence being in 
this respect much superior to the "Eter- 
nal City." The duomo, or cathedral, a 
vast edifice, coated with marble, about 
500 feet in length, and 384 feet in height 
to the top of the cross, stands in a 
spacious square. It was begun by Ar- 
nolfo di Lapo in 1296, and finished by 
Brunelleschi in 1426. It is built of brick, 
and veneered, as it were, with parti- 
colored marble slabs arranged in narrow 
strips or panels. The interior is very 
striking. The campanile or belfry, ad 
joining the duomo, but detached from it, 
is a fine tower 288 feet in height. The 
church of Santa Croce, called the Pan- 
theon of Florence, is interesting from its 
containing the remains and tombs of 
four of the greatest men of modern Italy, 
or indeed of modern times — Michael 
Angelo, Galileo, Machiavelli, and Alfieri. 
Among the palaces are the Palazzo 
Vecchio, or Old Palace, inhabited by the 
Medici when citizens of Florence, which 
was begun in 1298, and finished in 1550. 
It is in a massive, severe, and gloomy 
style, with a tower 268 feet high. Ad- 
joining it is the Piazza del Palazzo 
Vecchio, a square containing a fine col- 
lection of statues, and a noble arcade, the 
Loggia di Lanzi, under the porticoes of 
which are magnificent groups of sculp- 
ture. The Palazzo Pitti, erected in 1440. 
the ordinary residence of the King of 
Italy, is a vast and heavy structure; it 
is furnished in the most costly manner, 
and is enriched with a great number of 
the choicest works of art and virtu, and ^ 
an excellent library. Attached to this 



FLORENCE 



156 



FLORIDA 



palace are the Boboli Gardens, laid out 
by Cosmo I. in 1550, in the classical style. 
Connected with these gardens is the 
botanical garden, a museum of natural 
history, the Fontana anatomical collec- 
tion in wax, etc. Another fine palace, 
the Riccardi (built in 1440), has a noble 
gallery with a ceiling painted by Luca 
Giordano, and a library of 40,000 vol- 
umes, open to the public. But the crown- 
ing glory of Florence is its Grand Gal- 
lery, occupying the upper floor of the 
Uffizi, a building erected after a design 
of Vasari, by Cosmo I., consisting of two 
parallel corridors or galleries, each 448 
feet in length, and 72 feet apart, united 
at one end by a third corridor. This 
contains some masterpieces of statuary, 
as the world-renowned "Venus de Me- 
dici," "The Knife-Grinder," the "Fawn," 
"Niobe and her Children," etc. The col- 
lection of pictures comprises superb ex- 
amples of all the best schools. A splen- 
did apartment, known as the Tribuna, 
contains the rarest treasures of the col- 
lection, and is in itself a wonder of art, 
with its cupola inlaid with mother-of- 
pearl, and its rich marble pavement. 
Besides the Riccardi and Laurentian 
libraries, the Magliabecchi library, con- 
taining a rare, extensive, and valuable 
collection of books, is also open to the 
public. Florence is subject to fogs in the 
winter; but in spring and autumn it is 
a delightful residence. The literary and 
educational institutions are both numer- 
ous and important. At the head of these 
is the famous Academia della Crusca. 
The charitable institutions are numerous, 
extensive, and well conducted. 

The encouragement given under the 
late as well as the present government, 
to artistic and scientific studies, has con- 
ferred advantages on Florence unknown 
in most other parts of Italy. Manufac- 
tures silks, straw hats, articles of virtu, 
as intaglios, etc., jewelry, porcelain, per- 
fumery, etc. Florence has produced more 
celebrated men than any other place in 
Italy, or, perhaps, of Europe; among 
others may be specified Dante, Petrarch, 
Boccaccio, Villani, Cosmo and Lorenzo 
de Medici; Galileo, Michael Angelo, 
Leonardo da Vinci, Benvenuto Cellini, 
A.lberti, Lapo, Brunelleschi, Giotto, An- 
drea del Sarto, Machiavelli; Popes Leo 
X. and XL, Clement VIL, VIIL, and XII. 
The origin of this city is not clearly as- 
certained; but it owed its first distinc- 
tion to Sylla, who planted in it a Roman 
colony. In 541 it was almost wholly 
destroyed by Totila, King of the Goths. 
About 250 years afterward it was re- 
stored by Charlemagne. It then became 
the chief city of a famous republic; and 
was for a lengthened period in Italy 
what Athens had been in Greece in the 



days of Xenophon and Thucydides. At 
length, in 1537, the Medici, from being 
the first of her citizens, became sovereign 
dukes of Florence. The city afterward 
became the capital of the former grand- 
duchy of Tuscany till 1860, when it was 
annexed to the new kingdom of Italy, 
and in 1865, the seat of government was 
transferred thither from Turin. Pop. 
about 235,000. 

FLORENCE CRITTENTON MIS- 
SION, an organization, established in 
1883 by C. F. Crittenton, having for its 
purpose the tendering of aid to women 
in need of it, particularly those of an 
unfortunate class. The mission has 
established homes in seven cities of the 
United States, and has one in Marseilles, 
France, and another in Tokyo, Japan. 
Its principal establishment is in New 
York City, and here over 1,000 girls have 
been cared for. The head office is in 
Washington, D. C, and a feature of the 
mission is the provision of summer 
homes, to which girls can be sent for 
the summer holidays. 

FLORENTINE SCHOOL, a school of 
painting remarkable for greatness; for 
attitudes seemingly in motion; for a cer- 
tain dark severity; for an expression of 
strength by which grace is perhaps ex- 
cluded ; and for a character of design ap- 
proaching to the gigantic. This school 
has an indisputable title to the venera- 
tion of all the lovers of the arts, as the 
first in Italy which cultivated them. 

FLORES, a department of Uruguay, 
with an area of 1,744 square miles. The 
surface is level and well watered. The 
chief industry is the raising of cattle. 
Wheat and corn are also produced. The 
capital is Trinidad. Pop. about 25,000. 

FLORIDA, a State in the South At- 
lantic division of the North American 
Union, bounded by Alabama, Georgia, 
the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and 
the Straits of Florida; arc-a, 58,680 
square miles; admitted as a State in 
1845; number of counties, 54. Pop. 
(1890) 391,422; (1900) 528,542; (1910) 
751,139; (1920) 968,470; capital, Talla- 
hassee. 

Topography. — The surface of the 
State is very low and flat, gradually ris- 
ing from a few feet above sea-level along 
the coast to a central ridge with an 
altitude of about 300 feet. The flat lands 
extending along the coasts consist of 
open grass-grown savannahs, cypress 
swamps, pine forests, and "cabbage ham- 
mocks," so called from the extensive 
growth of the cabbage palms. The W. 
part of the State, excepting on the coast, 
is quite hilly. The S. part of the pen- 
insula is built up of successive coral 



FLORIDA 



157 



FLORIDA 



dikes; the upper part being occupied by 
Lake Okechobee, whose shallow waters 
gradually merge into the Everglades, an 
extensive swamp covering the entire 
lower part of the State. The Everglades 
are penetrated in all directions by a net- 
work of small, shallow streams, and at 
short intervals over the entire area are 
found wooded islands covered with semi- 
tropical vegetation. These islands are 
supposed to have been formerly sur- 
rounded by the ocean and to have borne 
the same relation to the mainland as do 
the reefs and keys of to-day. The Ever- 
glades are separated from the Gulf by 
extensive cypress swamps, the forests 
extending dovsm the W. coast, narrowing 
out around the cape, and extending up 
along the Atlantic coast. Many of the 
Florida swamps are so densely over- 
grown with vegetation that they have 
been explored but little and are con- 
sidered impassable. Among these are the 
Great Cypress in the S. part, and the 
Fen Holloway and Wakulla swamps 
farther N. The Okefenoke swamp in the 
extreme N. extends over into the State of 
Georgia. Almost the entire Atlantic 
coast is protected from the ocean by sand 
bars and coral reefs. Florida is noted 
for the number, size, and clearness of her 
springs, the most famous being the Silver 
Spring near Ocala in Marion county, 
with an estimated output of 300,000,000 
gallons daily. Other notable springs are 
the Wakulla, near Tallahassee, the We- 
kiva in Orange county, and the Blue in 
Marion county. There are numerous 
sulphuretted springs along the coast; 
one near St. Augustine, 2 miles out at 
sea, boils so violently that the waves 
break against it as though it were a 
sunken reef. There are numberless lakes, 
many being aggregations of smaller 
springs. The largest are Okechobee, 
Munroe, George, Kissimmee, Crescent, 
Dexter, Apopka, Harris, and Eustis. 
These lakes are usually quite shallow 
and are in many cases connected with 
the sea by subterranean passages, often 
causing strange fluctuations, rising and 
falling at irregular periods. 

Geology. — The substratum of the 
greater part of the State is of Upper 
Eocene or Vicksburg limestone, while 
the coasts and the S. parts are mostly 
Postplio.cene, or coralline limestone. Con- 
siderable phosphate exists in various 
forms, land and river pebble, hard and 
soft rock, and vertebrate remains, the 
hard rock extending in a belt running 
S. E. from Tallahassee to the S. E. 
part of Pasco county. 

Mineral Production. — The only impor- 
tant mineral product is phosphate rock. 
About 1,500,000 tons, valued at about 
$4,000,000, are produced annually. Other 

Vol. IV— Cyc— K 



mineral products are fuller's earth, 
lime, and mineral waters. 

Soil. — The soil is mostly sandy, but 
supports vegetation in great luxuriance. 
The surface soil, depending on the char- 
acter of the underlying rock, is rich in 
phosphates, and these, together with de- 
composed vegetable matter, produce a 
very rich soil. In the N. and middle 
portions of the State, the oak, hickory, 
and pine grow extensively, while the 
long-leaved pine, pitch-pine, and cypress 
cover the S. portions. 

Agriculture. — Florida exhibits the 
vegetable productions of both temperate 
and semi-tropical nature. In the N. the 
products include peaches, pears, and 
cotton, while the middle and S. counties 
produce the finest oranges, pineapples, 
mangoes, cocoa palms, guavas and al- 
most all tropical fruits. The acreage, 
value and production of the principal 
crops in 1919 were as follows: com, 840,- 
000 acres, production 12,600,000 bushels, 
value .$17,640,000; hay, 113,000 acres, 
production 141,000 tons, value $3,243,- 
000; peanuts, 216,000 acres, production 
3,402,000 bushels, value $7,178,000; to- 
bacco, 4,200 acres, production 3,990,000 
pounds, value $2,175,000; potatoes, 24,- 
000 acres, production 1,824,000 bushels, 
value $3,830,000; sweet potatoes, 41,000 
acres, production 4,100,000 bushels, value 
$5,740,000; cotton, 117,000 acres, produc- 
tion 17,000 bales, value $3,570,000. 

Manufactures. — There were, in 1914, 
2,518 manufacturing establishments, em- 
ploying 55,608 wage earners. The 
capital invested was $88,319,000 and the 
wages paid $24,822,000. The value of the 
materials used was $33,816,000 and the 
value of the finished product was $81,- 
112,000. The principal manufactures are 
naval stores, cotton-seed oil, cigars, lead 
pencils, refined sugar, flour, salt by 
evaporation, palmetto hats, braids, and 
wooden boxes. Lumbering is a leading 
industry; fishing, sponge and coral 
gathering aff'ord occupations for many. 
Jacksonville has many canning estab- 
lishments, and Key West and Tampa are 
noted for their fine cigars. 

Banking.— On Oct. 31, 1919, there 
were 54 National banks in operation, 
having $6,460,000 in capital. $5,502,000 
in outstanding circulation, and $25,084,- 
000 in United States bonds. There were 
also 184 State banks with $5,585,000 
capital and $2,147,000 surplus. In the 
year ending Sept. 30, 1919, the exchanges 
at the United States clearing-house at 
Jacksonville aggregated $411,247,000, an 
increase over the previous year of $202,- 
120,000. 

Education. — School attendance is not 
compulsory. Separate schools are pro- 
vided for white and colored children. 



FLOBIDA 



158 



FLORIDA UNIVEBSITY 



There are about 200,000 enrolled pupils 
in the elementary schools and about 
6,000 teachers. There are 100 public high 
schools with about 7,000 pupils. The 
total annual expenditure for educational 
purposes is about $4,000,000, The in- 
stitutions for higher education include 
the University of Florida at Gainesville, 
the State College for Women at Talla- 
hassee, Rollins College at Winter Park, 
John B. Stetson University at De Land, 

Churches. — The strongest denomina- 
tions in the State are the African Method- 
ist Episcopal; the Methodist Episcopal, 
South; Regular Baptist, South; Regular 
Baptist, Colored; Roman Catholic; 
Methodist Episcopal; Protestant Epis- 
copal ; Presbyterian ; Disciples ; and Con- 
gregational, 

Finance. — The receipts during the 
fiscal year 1919 amounted to $6,334,025, 
and the disbursements to $6,369,753, 
There was a balance on hand January 
1, 1919, of $1,861,628, and on January 1, 
1920, there was a balance of $1,825,899. 
The public debt amounted to $601,567. 

Transportation. — There are about 6,000 
miles of steam railway and about 200 
miles of electric railway. The Atlantic 
Coast Railway and the Louisville and 
Nashville Railway run through the 
State. The Florida East Coast Railway 
with an extension to Key West was 
opened in 1912. A large trade is carried 
on through Pensacola and other ports. 
Harbor improvements have been carried 
out at Jacksonville. 

ChaHties and Corrections. — The char- 
itable and correctional institutions in- 
clude the State Institute for the Deaf, 
Dumb, and Blind at St. Augustine, Hos- 
pital for the Insane at Chattahoochee; 
Industrial School for Boys, at Mari- 
anna; Prison Farm, at Raiford; Indus- 
trial School for Girls, at Ocala. 

State Government. — The governor is 
elected for a term of four years. Leg- 
islative sessions are held biennially, be- 
ginning on the first Tuesday in April, 
and are limited to 60 days each. The 
legislature has 32 members in the Senate 
and 75 in the House. There are 4 repre- 
sentatives in Congress. 

History. — Florida was discovered by 
Juan Ponce de Leon, March 27, 1513, 
on Easter Sunday, after which the pen- 
insula was named. He and his succes- 
sors explored a large part of Florida 
in search of gold and "the fountain of 
perpetual youth." He was killed in a fight 
with the natives in 1521. A Spanish 
force of 400 men under Panfilo de Nar- 
vaez landed in 1528, and all but four 
perished. In 1539 a force of 600 under 
Fernando De Soto landed at Tampa Bay 
and moving to the N. and W., over- 
coming the natives by treachery and 



violence, passed beyond the present limits 
of Florida. A settlement of French 
Huguenots was attempted '.n 1564, but 
two years later was exterminated by 
the Spanish. From this time the Span- 
ish were in absolute control, and settle- 
ments were made at Pensacola and else- 
where along the coast. In 1687 the first 
large consignment of negi'o slaves was 
brought to Florida. From 1702 to 1748 
there were continued hostilities between 
the Spanish, French, and British along 
the coast, during which St. Augustine 
was twice besieged by the British. A 
truce lasted from 1748 to 1752, when 
war was again renewed, resulting in the 
exchange of Cuba for Florida, the 
British immediately taking possession. 
Shortly after the American Revolution- 
ary War Florida was re-ceded to Spain. 
West Florida was sold to France in 
1795. During the War of 1812 the 
British occupied Pensacola with the con- 
sent of Spain. In 1814 it was captured 
by the United States forces under An- 
di'ew Jackson. Then followed a long 
series of wars with the natives, the 
whole of Florida being ceded to the 
United States by Spain in 1819. In 1822 
Florida was organized as a Territory of 
the United States. From 1835 to 1842 
the Seminole Indians were in active hos- 
tility and on their final surrender they 
were removed to a special reservation. 
Florida was admitted to the Union as 
a State in 1845. At the outbreak of the 
Civil War the principal government 
posts were seized by the State forces. 
Fort Pickens, however, was held by a 
Union garrison, and after being re-en- 
forced was used as the base of opera- 
tions in the vicinity. Jacksonville was 
several times occupied by the contending 
forces, and many minor engagements 
took place along the coast, Florida was 
given full civil govern uient July 4, 1868. 

FLORIDA KEYS, or REEFS, in 
Florida, a chain of small islands, keys or 
reefs, and sandbanks, extending S. W, 
from Cape Florida, about 220 miles. 
They are very considerable in number, 
but only a few are of any importance. 
Among these may be mentioned Cayo 
Largo, Indian Key, Long island, Old and 
New Matacombs, Cayo de Boca, and Key 
West, on which the city of Key West is 
built, 

FLORIDA. UNIVERSITY OF, a 

State institution for higher education, 
established in 1905. It is organized into 
a Graduate School; College of Arts and 
Sciences; College of Agriculture; College 
of Engineering; College of Law; Teach- 
ers' College; University Extension Di- 
vision; and an Agricultural Experinient 
Station. It has an income of over $100,- 



FLOBIO 



159 



FLOWER 



000 a year for current expenses. In 1919 
there were 43 instructors and 988 stu- 
dents. President, A. A. Murphree, LL.D. 

FLOBIO, JOHN, an English lexicog- 
rapher, and the translator of Mon- 
taigne; born in London, England, about 
1553. His father was a Protestant exile 
and Italian preacher in London. Florio 
appears as a private tutor in foreign 
languages at Oxford about 1576, and 
two years later published his "First 
Fruits, which yield Familiar Speech, 
Merry Proverbs, Witty Sentences and 
Golden Sayings," accompanied by "A 
Perfect Induction to the Italian and 
English Tongues." In 1581 Florio was 
admitted a member of Magdalen Col- 
lege, and became a teacher of French 
and Italian. He enjoyed the patronage 
successively of Leicester, the Earl of 
Southampton, and other noble persons. 
His next work was "Second Fruits, to 
be gathered of Twelve Trees, of divers 
but delightsome Tastes to the Tongues 
of Italian and English men," with, an- 
nexed to it, the "Garden of Recreation," 
yielding 6,000 Italian proverbs (1591). 
His Italian and English dictionary, en- 
titled "A World of Words," was pub- 
lished in 1598. Florio was appointed 
reader in Italian to Queen Anne, and 
afterward groom of the privy chamber. 
In 1603 he published in folio his famous 
translation of Montaigne. It was long 
believed that the pedantic Holofernes in 
"Love's Labor's Lost" was a study after 
Florio. He died in Fulham, in 1625. 

F L O T W (fl5'to) , FRIEDRICH 
ADOLPHUS VON, a German composer; 
born in Teutendorf, Mecklenburg- 
Schwerin, Germany, April 26, 1812. He 
studied music in Paris, but his earlier 
operas did not find favor with the Pari- 
sian opera house directors, so he had to 
content himself with performances in 
the aristocratic private theaters. At 
length "Medusa's Shipwreck" was suc- 
cessfully produced at the Renaissance 
Theater in 1839. This was followed by 
"Camoen's Slave" (1848) and "The 
Soul in Pain" (1846), perfoi-med in Lon- 
don as "Leoline." "Alexander Stradella" 
was first performed at Hamburg in 
1844, and his most successful work, 
"Martha," at Vienna in 1847. Among 
his other works are: "Indra" (1853); 
"The Phantom" (1869) ; and "The En- 
chantress" (1878). He was director of 
the court theater at Schwerin in 1855- 
1863; the last years of his life were 
chiefly spent at Vienna. He died in 
Darmstadt, Germany, Jan. 23, 1883. 

FLOTSAM, JETSAM, and LIGAN. in 
law: Flotsam, or floatsam, is derelict or 
shipwrecked goods floating on the sea; 



jetsam, goods thrown overboard which 
sink and remain under water; and ligan, 
goods sunk with a wreck or attached to 
a buoy, as a mark of ownership. When 
found such goods may be returned to 
the owner if he appear; if not, they are 
the property of the crown. 

FLOUR MILL, a mill for grinding 

and sifting flour. 

FLOWER, in botany, a developed 
terminal bud inclosing the organs of re- 
production by seed. The earlier botan- 
ists limited it to the corolla of a plant, 
but Linnaeus extended it to include the 
calyx, corolla, stamens, and pistil. The 
two last are the only essential parts. 
This is the modern sense of the term. 
The manner in which its parts are ar- 
ranged is called their estivation, and the 
calyx, corolla, and other parts are gen- 
erally believed to be transformed leaves 
arranged on a branchlet ; but many writ- 
ers consider the petals to be transformed 
stamens. The arrangement of flowers 
on a branch or stem is called Inflores- 
cence (q. v.). The term Flower of Con- 
stantinople, or Flower Constantinople, is 
a translation of the old name Flos con- 
stantinopolitanus, given to the plant 
now called Lychnis chalcedonica. It 
is named also flower of Bristowe. The 
flower of the Axe is Lobelia urens, found 
in England only near Axminster in De- 
von; the flower of Crete is Mesemhryan- 
themum tripolium; and flower of Jove 
Lychnis flos jovis; flower of four hours, 
Mirabilis dichototna; flowers of heaven, 
a fungal, Nostoc coeruleum; and flowers 
of tan, ^thalium, a gasteromycetous 
fungal. It is so called from its growing 
on tan. In chemistry, flowers used to he 
the name given to bodies of a powdery 
or mealy consistence or form, e. g., flow- 
ers of sulphur, a name sometimes given 
to sublimed sulphur. In printing, orna- 
mental types or blocks for borders of 
pages, cards, and the like. 

FLOWER, ROSWELL PETTIBONE, 
an American financier; born in Jeffer- 
son CO., N. Y., Aug. 7, 1835; began his 
business and political career in Water- 
town, N. Y., where he organized the 
Jefferson County Democratic Club. Hi 
success in politics attracted the atter 
tion of Samuel J. Tilden, through whos<. 
influence he was appointed chainnan of 
the Democratic State Committee in 1847. 
Four years later he was elected to Con- 
gress, and in 1886 was appointed presi- 
dent of the Subway Commission. He 
was re-elected to Congress in 1888 and 
1890, and in 1891 was elected governor 
of New York. From the close of his 
term till his death he applied himself to 
the interests of his large banking house 



FLOYD 



160 



FLUTE 



and to a systematic course of philan- 
thropy. He died in Eastport, Long Is- 
land, N. Y., May 12, 1899. 

FLOYD, JOHN BUCHANAN, an 
American statesman; born in Blacks- 
burg, Va., June 1, 1807; was admitted 
to the bar in 1828; served in the Vir- 
ginia Legislature several terans; and 
was governor of the State in 1850-1853. 
In 1857 President Buchanan appointed 
him Secretary of War. While in the 
cabinet he was detected in the act of 
stripping the Northern arsenals of arms 
and ammunition, and indicted by the 
grand jury of the District of Columbia 
as being privy to the abstracting of 
$870,000 in bonds from the Department 
of the Interior. He fled, however, to Vir- 
ginia, where, at the close of 1860, he was 
commissioned a general in the Confed- 
erate army. In that capacity he was 
driven from West Virginia by General 
Rosecrans. The night before the sur- 
render of Fort Donelson he stole away 
in the darkness, throwing the responsi- 
bility of surrendering on a subordinate 
officer, and, being censured by the Con- 
federate government, never afterward 
served in the army. He died near Ab- 
ingdon, Va., Aug. 26, 1863. 

FLUID, having the parts easily 
separable; consisting of particles which 
move and change their relative positions 
very readily; capable of flowing; liquid; 
gaseous. The fundamental property of 
fluids, viewed as forces, in physics, is 
their equality of pressure in all direc- 
tions. The term includes both liquids 
and gases. Elastic fluids: In physics, 
gases. Electric or electrical fluid: In 
electricity, a fluid composed, in the opin- 
ion of Symmer, now generally accepted, 
of two fluids, the positive and the nega- 
tive. Imponderable fluids: In physics, a 
name sometimes given to heat, light, 
magnetism, and electricity. They are 
mobHe and yet, if consisting of matter, 
are in such a state of tenuity that they 
possess no perceptible weight. Mag- 
netic fluids: In magnetism, two fluids as- 
sumed to exist. They are called respec- 
tively the N, or boreal fluid and the S. 
or austral fluid, the former predominat- 
ing at the N. and the latter at the S. 
pole of the magnet. Sometimes the N. 
fluid is called the positive, and the S. 
fluid the negative one. Ponderable 
fluids: In physics, those possessed of 
weight; as water and carbonic acid gas. 

FLUORESCEIN, C^Ha^Os. An im- 
portant dye-stuff, occurring as dark-red 
crusts, almost insoluble in water, but 
readily soluble in alkalies r.nd in alco- 
hol. Its alkaline solutions are dark red- 
dish-brown in color, and when diluted 



show a remarkable yellowish-green fluo- 
rescence, to which the material owes its 
name. It is prepared by heating to- 
gether phthalic anhydride and resorci- 
nol. As a dye, fluorescein has only a 
limited application, as the yellow color 
which it produces on wool and silk is 
not permanent. It is used largely, how- 
ever, in admixture with other dyes to 
produce fluorescence in the dyed mate- 
rial. The important dye Eosin is made 
fi'om fluorescein. 

FLUORESCENCE, in optics, a quality 
which exists in the rays of light by 
which, in certain circumstances, they 
undergo a change of refrangibility. 
Hence, certain solutions which, when 
viewed by transmitted light, are color- 
less, become bluish under reflected light. 
Fluorescence was discovered by Stokes 
in 1852. 

FLUORINE. A very pale yellow gas, 
atomic weight 19, molecular weight 38, 
density (compared to air = 1) 1.31. It 
does not occur in the free state, but its 
compounds (fluorides) are found in 
abundance; the best known being fluor- 
spar and chrysolite. It is considered to 
be the most active of the elements. It 
decomposes water with formation of 
hydrofluoric acid, oxygen and ozone; all 
metals are attacked by the gas, some 
taking fire in it, spontaneously, and 
many other elements combine with it 
with incandescence. It is prepared by 
the electrolysis of a solution of potas- 
sium fluoride in anhydrous hydrofluoric 
acid, hydrogen being evolved at the kath- 
ode and fluorine at the anode. 

FLUOROSCOPE, a device invented by 
T. A. Edison for use in making observa- 
tions of the influence of the X-rays. 

FLUTE, in music, a popular instru- 
ment, the use of wiiich, under various 
forms, may be traced to the most remote 
ages. Of its origin no direct account can 
be given. In its primitive state the flute 
was played like the modern flageolet, 
with a mouth-piece at the upper end ; and 
from the shape of this mouth-piece, which 
resembled the beak of a bird, it received 
the name of flute a bee. In this form, 
with slight alterations, it continued until 
the beginning of the 18th century, when 
it was gradually superseded by the flauto 
traverso, or transverse flute, so called 
from its being blown at the side, and con- 
sequently held in a horizontal position. 
At its introduction this instrument was 
about 18 inches in length, and had but 
one key. Shortly after, a movable head- 
joint was invented, its lengfth being in- 
creased, and more keys added, some 
flutes at the present time having more 
than a dozen keys, and a few less than 



FLUXION 



161 



FLYING BUTTRESS 



six. By means of these they are able to 
execute any music, howevez* chromatic, if 
within theii- compass, which extends 
from C below the treble to C in altissimo. 
In December, 1832, a flute of an entirely 
new construction was invented by Mr. 
Boehm, of Munich. It, however, remained 
in obscurity until 1837, when it was 
adopted and inti'oduced to the French 
professors by Mr. Cadmus; but they con- 
sidered its adoption would be attended 
with too much trouble, in consequence of 
its having an open G-sharp key. This, 
hov.'ever, was soon afterward remedied 
by Mr. Dorus, who put a shut G-sharp 
key in its place. It now became univer- 
sally adopted. 

In architecture, an upright channel on 
the shaft of a column, usually ending 
hemispherically at the top and bottom. 
Their plane or horizontal section is some- 
times semicircular, or segmental, or ellip- 
tical, as in some examples of Grecian 
architecture. The Doric column has 20 
flutes round its circumference; the Ionic, 
Corinthian, and Composite have respec- 
tively 24. 

FLUXION, in medicine, an unnatural 
flow or determination of blood or other 
humor toward any organ; a catarrh. 

In mathematics, a method of calcula- 
tion resulting from the operation of 
fluents, or flowing numbers. 

FLY, in zoology, a name applied al- 
most indiscriminately to all insects 
possessing wings; being often extended 
to all insects of the sub-order Diptera, 
and often also restricted to the family 
MuscicUe. The fly is characterized as pos- 
sessing a pair of veined and membranous 
wings, with two movable bodies called 
balancers (halteres) , placed a little be- 
hind them. The mouth is formed of be- 
tween two and six setaceous pieces of 
scaly texture, and these pieces are either 
inclosed in a proboscis-like sheath, or 
covered by one or two laminae, which 
form it. The head is globular or hemi- 
spherical. The mouth is only formed 
for transmitting fluids, and is conse- 
quently very delicate in structure. The 
sucker performs the part of a lancet, and 
pierces the envelope of vegetable or ani- 
mal fluids, in order to allow of the fluid 
itself being transmitted up into the 
mouth of the insect. The antennae are 
united in front, and are approximated at 
the base. Above the true wings of the 
insect and a little behind them, ai'e the 
balancers or halteres; these are almost 
rnembranous, and are furnished with two 
little knobs at their extremities, which 
are capable of dilatation. The legs of 
this class of insects are long and slender; 
and the feet, it is well known, are fui-- 
nished with skinny palms, to enable them 



to stick on glass and other smooth bodies 
by means of the pressure of the atmos- 
phere. 

In machinery, that part of a machine 
which, being put in motion, regulates the 
rest. In nautical language that part of a 
compass on which the 32 points are 
drawn, and to which the needle is at- 
tached underneath; the compass-card. In 
printing, that part of the machinery of 
a printing press which withdraws the 
sheet, and lays it aside after the impres- 
sion is made. 

FLY CATCHERS , the Musicapidxa, an 
extensive family of birds, order Inses- 
sores, represented in North America by 
about 80 species. As their name implies, 
the fly catchers prey on insects, which 
they seize in mid-air. They have the 
beak horizontally depressed, and armed 
with bristles at its base, with the point 
more or less decurved and emarginated. 
The value of the insectivorous family of 
birds to man is incalculable. One of the 
best types of fly catchers is that pre- 
sented by the tyrant fly catcher, king 
bird or bee martin, Muscicapa Tyrannus, 
or Tyrannus Carolinensis. This bird is 
peculiar to America E. of the Rocky 
Mountains. It is 8 inches in length, and 
14 in extent of wing. The general color 
of the upper parts is a dark bluish-gray, 
inclining to dull slate-black, on the head 
of which the central feathers along the 
crown form a gorgeous orange patch. 
The European species, Muscicapa grisola, 
the beam bird or bee bird, is distin- 
guished from any other by having much 
more slender bills, with shorter bristles 
at the gape. 




FLYING SQUIRREL 

FLYING BUTTRESS, in architecture, 
a structure in the form of an arch, span- 
ning the roof of an aisle between an 
outer buttress and the wall of the nave. 
It assists in resisting the thrust of the 
roof. 



FLYING FISH 



162 



FOCH 



FLYING FISH, the name given to 
more than one fish which, having ex- 
tended fins, leaps from the water and, 
after a more or less lengthened flight, 
drops into it again. The fins seem to act 
as parachutes rather than as wings. The 
common flying fish is ExocseUis volitans. 
It belongs to the family Esocidse. An- 
other closely allied species is E. exilieiis, 
the greater flying fish. Both have 
straggled to the North Atlantic waters. 
They are abundant in the Mediterranean. 

FLYING SQUIRBEL, a name given to 
such of the Sciuridge (squirrels) as have 
the skin of the sides very much extended 
between the fore and hind legs, so as, to 
a certain extent, to sustain the animal 
in the air when taking long leaps. 
Sciuopterus vokins is the only European 
species. 

FOCH, FERDINAND, French general 
and supreme commander of the Allied 
forces operating against the Germans on 
the western front, in Belgium and 
France during the World War. He 
was born in Tarbes, 1851, the son of a 
minor departmental oflficial under Napo- 
leon III. Together with his two brothers 
he was educated in a local college, where 
he especially distinguished himself in 
geometry and the higher mathematics. 
Already at a very early age he was pre- 
paring himself for an army career. Leav- 
ing college, he entered the Ecole Poly- 
technique, from which he gi'aduated as 
an artilleryman. When the Franco- 
Prussian War broke out he was only 
nineteen, but served as a second lieuten- 
ant with the army against the Prussians. 
At the age of twenty-six, when a captain 
of artillery, he was appointed instructor 
in strategy and general tactics at the 
Ecole de Guerre. Here he remained for 
five years, during which he established 
his reputation as little less than a genius 
as a teacher, a reputation which had 
spread so far and high that several years 
later, when he had reached the rank of 
brigadier-general, Clemenceau, who was 
then Premier, had him sent back to the 
ficole de Guerre as a director. 

It was not so much his ability to im- 
part information to the students that 
distinguished the teaching career of Gen- 
eral Foch, but rather the spirit with 
which he permeated the whole institu- 
tion. He was the very reverse of a dry 
tactician. He taught rather the art of 
war than its science; or, rather, he 
emphasized the human side of it. War, 
as he taught its principles, was not only 
a study of explosives and engineering, 
but the capacity to understand the psy- 
'"bology of the human brain under stress 
of the excitement of actual military oper- 



ations. In his courses intuition played 
quite as important a part as mathemat- 
ics. Briefly, he considered morale the 
most important element in successful 
warfare. How to inspire this, he taught 
quite as much by personal demonstration 
as by precept. This feature of his mode 
of instruction was more evident in his 
personal teaching than in his two books, 
"The Principles of War" and "The Con- 
duct of War," both of which works have 
been translated into practically all Euro- 
pean languages. 

When the Germans invaded France, in 
August, 1914, thus beginning the five 
years' military operations on the western 




MARSHAL FERDINAND FOCH 

front, General Foch was in command of 
the Ninth Army. His remarkable achieve- 
ments following, which gradually brought 
him to the highest rank on the side of 
the Allied forces, are historical, rather 
than biographical. His masterful defeat 
of the Germans under General von Bil- 
low, on Sept. 8, 1914, known as "The 
Affair of the Marshes of St. Gond," 
wherein the Allies registered the firs* 
check to the oncoming invaders, was but 
the beginning of a series of such achieve- 
ments. 

In May, 1917, General Foch succeeded 
General Petain as Chief of Staff of the 
French Army. On March 28, 1918, it 
was announced that the Allies had finally 
agreed to amalgamate their forces on the 



FOCUS 



163 



FOU. 



western front under a single command, 
with General Foch as supreme director 
of operations. Henceforward, the co- 
ordination of the Allies equalled that of 
the Germans, and the defeat of the latter 
was assured. In the following October 
Marshal Foch, who still remembered 
vividly the experiences of the French 
during the Franco-Prussian War, had 
the supreme honor of receiving the Ger- 
man delegation which brought the sur- 
render of the Central Empires into his 
hands. 

FOCUS, in ordinary language, any 
place from which an influence emanates, 
or where that influence exists in very 
concentrated form. In optics, a point at 
which the rays of light refracted from 
a convex lens, or reflected from a con- 
cave mirror, are most concentrated; a 
point in which such rays meet, or tend 
to meet; if produced either backward or 
forward. In conic sections: (1) Singular 
(of a parabola) : A point so situated 
that if from it there be drawn a line to 
any point in the curve, and another from 
the latter perpendicular to a straight line 
given in position, these two straight 
lines will always be equal to one an- 
other. (2) Plural: (a) Of an ellipse: 
Two points so situated that if two 
straight lines be drawn from them to any 
point in the curve, the sum of these 
straight lines will always be the same, 
(b) Of a hyperbola: Two points so 
situated that if two straight lines be 
drawn from them to any point in the 
curve, the excess of the straight line 
drawn to one of the points above the 
other will always be the same. 

In astronomy, the term foci is often 
used in connection vnth the orbit of the 
earth, which is an ellipse, with the sun 
in one of the foci. In acoustics, the point 
of convergence of sound rays, these fol- 
lowing the same laws as those of light 
and heat. Acoustic focus: The focus of 
sound rays. Calorific focus: The focus 
of heat rays. Conjugate foci: In optics, 
two foci so situated that, if rays of light 
diverging from one strike a concave 
mirror, they will be reflected and meet 
in the other. Luminous focus: In optics, 
the focus of light rays. Principal focus: 
In optics, the focus of parallel rays strik- 
ing a concave mirror. Vertical focus : In 
optics, a radiant point behind a mirror, 
from which rays may be held to diverge 
more and more, and in which, looking at 
them now as coming from the opposite 
direction, and consequently as conver- 
gent, they would tend to meet. Magnetic 
foci: The two points on the earth's sur- 
face where the magnetic intensity is 
greatest; they nearly coincide in position 
with the magnetic poles. 



FOG. a very thick mist; small hollorw 
vesicles of water suspended in the air, 
but so low as to be but a short distance 
from the earth in place of rising high 
above it and becoming so illuminated by 
the sun as to constitute clouds of varied 
hue. Fogs often arise when the air above 
warm, moist soil is colder than the soil 
itself. The hot vapors from the ground 
are then condensed by coming in contact 
with the colder air above, as the warm 
steam of a kettle is by the comparatively 
cold air of a room. But no fog arises till 
the cold air has absorbed vapor enough 
to bring it to the point of saturation. 
Fogs often hang over rivers. Their cause 
is the condensation by contact with the 
cold water, Of the vapor in a hot and 
moist air current passing over the river. 

FOGAZZARO. ANTONIO (fo-gats- 
ar'6), an Italian poet; born in Vicenza, 
Italy, in 1842. He first came into notice 
with "Miranda," a story in verse (1874), 
and added greatly to his reputation as a 
poet with "Valsonda," a volume of lyrics 
(1876). He was author of several novels 
which were received with marked favor, 
among them, "Master Chicco's Fiasco" 
(1885) ; "Daniel Cortis" (1887) ; "The 
Poet's Mystery" (1888); "The Saint" 
(1905); "Leila" (1910). 

FOGGIA, a city of southern Italy, 
capital of the province of the same name, 
in the center of the great Apulian plain, 
46 miles E. by S. of Campo Basso. It is 
well built, most of the houses being re- 
constructed since an earthquake, which 
happened in 1732. It has large store- 
houses for keeping corn, and is the place 
where the flocks that feed on the great 
plain of Apulia are registered. Pop. 
about 79,000. 

FOGO, FUEGO. or ST. PHILIP, one 
of the Cape Verde Islands, in the At- 
lantic Ocean, and the highest of the 
group, being 9,760 feet above sea-level, 
and presenting the appearance of one 
single mountain, though, on the sides, 
there are deep valleys; area, 40 miles 
in circumference; pop. estimated, 16,000. 
It has no rivers, and a scarcity of fresh 
water prevails, yet it is one of the most 
fertile islands of the archipelago, pro- 
ducing excellent maize and fruits. Chief 
town, Nostra Senhora da Luz. Also the 
name of a port of entry, capital of Fogo 
Island, Newfoundland. 

FOHR (fer), an island in the North 
Sea, ofl' the W. coast of Schleswig; area, 
28 square miles; population mostly 
Frisians engaged in fishing, the capture 
of wild fowl, and agriculture. 

FOIL, in fencing, a rod of steel, repre- 
senting a sword, with a handle or hilt at 



FOIL 



164 



FOLKESTONE 



one end, and a leather button at the other 
to prevent accidents. Foils measure from 
31 to 38 inches in len^h. 

FOIL, a leaf or thin sheet of metal 
placed beneath transparent jewels to 
heighten their color and improve their 
brilliancy; also applied to those sheets of 
tin amalgam placed behind mirrors. They 
are made of copper, tin, and silvered 
copper. The sheet lead which is used for 
the lining of tea-chests is a species of 
foil. By extension, anything of another 
color, or of different qualities, which 
serves to adorn or set off a thing to 
advantage. 

rOIX, GASTON III., COUNT DE 
and Viscount de Beam, a French mili- 
tary officer; born in 1331; acquired the 
surname of Phoebus. He was handsome, 
accomplished, and brave, and spent his 
life in war and the chase. His first service 
in arms was against the English in 1345. 
During the revolt known as la Jacquerie 
he contributed to the rescue of the 
Dauphin at Meaux. He made war on the 
Count of Armagnac, and took him pris- 
oner; was for a short time governor of 
Languedoc; and in 1390 magnificently 
entertained Charles VI. at his chateau of 
Mazeres. Gaston was of excessively vio- 
lent temper, and probably was guilty of 
the murder of his own son. He wrote a 
book on the pleasures of the chase, of 
which several editions were published. 
He died in 1391. 

FOLCLAND, or FOLKLAND, the land 
of the people, that portion of Anglo- 
Saxon England which was retained on 
behalf of the community. It might be 
occupied in common or possessed in sev- 
eralty, but could not become allodial 
estate or absolute private property ex- 
cept with the consent of the Witan or 
highest council in the land. From time 
to time large grants were made both to 
individuals and to communities; and land 
thus cut off from folcland was called 
bocland or "book-land." Ultimately the 
king practically acquired the disposal of 
it, and the remnant of folcland became 
crown lands. 

FOLCMOTE, in Anglo-Saxon Eng- 
land, an assembly of the people to con- 
sult respecting public affairs. 

FOLDVAR (ancient Sussuinum), a 
walled town of Hungary, on the slope 
and summit of a hill, on the right bank 
of the Danube, 49 miles S. of Budapest; 
pop. about 12,000. 

FOLGER, CHARLES JAMES, an 
American jurist; born in Nantucket, 
Mass., April 16, 1818; settled in Geneva, 
N. Y., in 1831; was graduated at Hobart 
College in 1836; and was admitted to the 



bar in Albany, N. Y., in 1839. He be- 
came judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas of Ontario county in 1843; was a 
member of the State Senate in 1861- 
1869 ; elected associate judge of the State 
Court of Appeals in 1871; succeeded to 
the chief justiceship of that court in 
1880; and was secretary of the United 
States Treasury in 1881-1884. In Novem- 
ber, 1882, he was the Republican candi- 
date for governor of New York, but was 
defeated by Grover Cleveland. He died 
in Geneva, N. Y., Sept. 4, 1884. 

FOLIO, in printing: (1) The running 
number of the pages of a book. The even 
folios are on the left-hand pages, the 
odd upon the right. The folios of prefa- 
tory matter are frequently in lower 
case Roman numerals. (2) A sheet of 
paper once folded. (3) A book of the 
largest size, whose sheets are folded but 
once, four pages to the sheet; hence it is 
used generally for any large volume or 
work. In bookkeeping, a page or open- 
ing in an account book. In law, a certain 
number of words in legal documents. The 
number varies in the States; thus in 
some of them, as in England, in low 
law documents, conveyances, deeds, etc., 
the folio is 72 words; in chancery and 
parliamentary proceedings 90 words. In 
New York and other States 100 words 
constitute a folio. 

FOLK, JOSEPH WINGATE, an 
American public official, born in Browns- 
ville, Tenn., in 1869. He graduated from 
Vanderbilt University in 1890. In the 
same year he was admitted to the bar. 
After practicing for 4 years in Browns- 
ville, he removed to St. Louis, and from 
1900 to 1904 was circuit attorney of 
that city. During his term of office he 
exposed a vast amount of political and 
official corruption and prosecuted numer- 
ous bribery cases which attracted wide 
attention. In 1905 he was elected gov- 
ernor of Missouri. He was the author of 
many reform laws during his term of 
office. In 1913 he was appointed solicitor 
for the United States Department of 
State and from 1914 was chief counsel 
for the Interstate Commerce Commission. 
He was also general counsel for the St. 
Louis Chamber of Commerce. In 1918 
he was the Democratic primary nominee 
for United States senator, but was de- 
feated. 

FOLKESTONE (fok'ston), a fortified 
seaport town of England, in Kent co., 
62 miles S. E. by E. of London, and 
7 W. by S. of Dover, It possesses a 
spacious harbor and fine pier whence 
the tidal steamers sail twice a day to 
Boulogne on the French coast. It was 
the birthplace of William Harvey, the 



FOLKLORE 



165 



FONT 



discoverer of the circulation of the 
blood. Pop. about 35,000. 

FOLKLORE, the science which em- 
braces all that relates to ancient obser- 
vances and customs, to the notions, be- 
liefs, traditions, superstitions, and preju- 
dices of the common people. Gomme's 
divisions are: (1) Traditional Narra- 
tives: (a) Folk-tales, (b) Hero Tales, 
(c) Ballads and Songs, (d) Place Leg- 
ends; (2) Traditional Customs: (a) Lo- 
cal Customs, (b) Festival Customs, (c) 
Ceremonial Customs, (d) Games; (3) 
Superstitions and Beliefs: (a) Witch- 
craft, (b) Astrology, (c) Superstitious 
Practices and Fancies; (4) Folk-speech: 
(a) Popular Sayings, (b) Popular No- 
menclature, (c) Proverbs, (d) Jingle 
Rhymes, Riddles, etc. 

Folklore had indeed been observed and 
noted by countless vi^riters from the 
Father of History downward, but it was 
not till after the beginning of the 19th 
century that its value for the elucidation 
of the social history of mankind had 
become apparent to thinkers, and its 
systematic study been sei'iously begun. 
Meantime the reawakening to natural 
poetry and to the beauty of free emotion- 
al expression in literature, which lay at 
the foundation of what it is usual to call 
Romanticism, had already commenced 
even in the 18th century, and the publi- 
cation of Percy's "Reliques of Ancient 
English Poetry" (1765) had given a 
powerful impulse to Scott and others in 
England, to Herder, and to Arnim and 
Brentano in Germany, who found lying 
to hand a rich wealth of traditional 
poetry, the poetic value of which they 
fortunately had the eyes to see. But 
the study of folksongs really began with 
Scott's "Minstrelsy of the Scottish Bor- 
der" (1802-1803). Popular traditions 
began to be valued duly just as they 
began to decline and disappear; but for- 
tunately a plentiful crop had been gath- 
ered and put into writing beyond the 
risk of oblivion. 

Such works as E. B. Tylor's "Primi- 
tive Culture" (1871), and G. L. Gom- 
me's "Folklore Relics of Early Village 
Life" (1883), have shown us what sig- 
nificant constructive results may already 
be attained with the evidence we possess. 

FOLLEN, ELIZA LEE (CABOT), an 
American author; born in Boston, Mass., 
Aug. 15, 1787. She was the wife of 
Charles T. C. Follen, whose memoirs she 
wrote (1842). Her other works are: 
"Well-Spent Hours" (1827); "Poems" 
(1839); "Anti - Slavery Hymns and 
Songs" (1855) ; "Twilight Stories" 
(1855); and "Home Dramas" (1859). 
She died in Brookline, Mass., Jan. 
26, 1860. 



FOLLICLE^ a form of fruit placed by 
Lindley in his class Apocarpi. It differs 
from the legume in having but one valve 
instead of two. A flower of Nigella, or 
one of Delphinium, produces several such 
follicles. In anatomy, a follicle is a 
minute secreting bag, which commonly 
opens upon a mucous membrane; a 
simple gland. It is called also a crypt 
or lacuna. 

FOMENTATION, the application of 
a liquid, such as water, generally warm, 
to a portion of the body to remove exter- 
nal or internal disease. The application 
is usually made by means of flannel, 
steeped in the liquid. If the water be 
charged with mucilaginous principles, it 
is called emollient; if with a narcotic one 
it is said to be sedative or anodyne. 

FOND DU LAC, a city and county- 
seat of Fond du Lac co., Wis., on Winne- 
bago lake, at the mouth of Fond du Lac 
river, and on the Chicago, Milwaukee, 
and St. Paul, the Chicago and North- 
western, and the Minneapolis, St. Paul 
and Sault Ste. Marie raih-oads; 60 miles 
N. W. of Milwaukee. There is steam- 
boat connection through Winnebago 
Lake and Fox river with all the Great 
Lakes. Here are a high school, St. Agnes 
Hospital and Sanatorium, a court house, 
Grafton Hall (Prot. Epis.), several 
banks, and daily and weekly newspapers. 
It has manufactories of engines, machin- 
ery, flour, paper, carriages, lumber, 
leather, typewriters, drugs, candies, etc. 
Pop. (1910) 18,797; (1920) 23,427. 

FONT, the vessel which contains the 
water for the purposes of baptism. The 
font is the only relic of our ancient archi- 
tecture which in its form is at all analo- 
gous to the Grecian and Roman vases. 
Norman fonts are generally square or 
circular; the first frequently placed on 
five legs. The circular form continued to 
be much used during the early English 
period; so, occasionally, was the square. 
Throughout the continuance of the Dec- 
orated style, the octagon was generally 
employed, sometimes the hexagon. Dur- 
ing the Perpendicular style, the octagon 
was almost always used. Until the 
Reformation, and occasionally after, dip- 
ping was practiced in England. Pouring 
or sprinkling was not unusual previous 
to the Reformation; for as early as the 
year 754, pouring, in cases of necessity, 
was declared by Pope Stephen III. to be 
lawful; and in the year 1311, the Council 
of Ravenna declared dipping or sprinkling 
indifferent; yet dipping appears to have 
been in England the more usual mode. 
Fonts were required to be covered and 
locked, and the covers were highly orna- 
mented. 



FONTAINEBLEATJ 



166 



FOOT 



FONTAINEBLEAU (fon'tain-blo) , a 
town of France, department of Seine-et- 
jMarne, near the Seine, in the forest of 
the same name, 32 miles S. S. E. of 
Paris, and 8 S. by E. of Melun. Manu- 
factures porcelain. Fontainebleau owes 
its celebrity, and indeed origin, to its 
palace, or chateau, a favorite residence 
of the French monarchs. This is a vast 
and superb pile, in fact, rather a collec- 
tion of palaces of different architectural 
periods, than a single edifice. Saracenic, 
Tuscan, and Greek orders are intermixed 
and interspersed with that of the Renais- 
sance, and with the most bizarre and 
dissimilar ornamentation ; yet, on the 
whole, the structure has a striking air of 
grandeur and majesty. It is surrounded 
by magnificent gardens, and lies in the 
forest of Fontainebleau, a finely wooded 
tract of 42,500 acres, intersected by the 
Seine, and presenting a very varied and 
picturesque surface. The chateau of 
Fontainebleau has been the scene of 
many historical events. Philip IV., Henry 
III., and Louis XIII. were born in it; 
and the first-named monarch died here. 
It was here that Louis XIV. signed the 
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, in 
1685. It was visited by Peter the Great; 
Louis XV. espoused the daughter of 
Stanislaus, King of Poland, in this pal- 
ace; Pope Pius VII. was confined within 
its walls for 18 months; and it is inti- 
mately connected with the history of 
Napoleon, who made it his favorite resi- 
dence. He signed his abdication in the 
palace, in 1814. It was comparatively 
neglected by Louis XVIII. and Charles 
X.; but Louis Philippe restored it to 
somewhat of its ancient grandeur. In 
1837 the nuptials of the Due d'Orleans 
were celebrated here with great pomp. 
Under Napoleon III. the palace was still 
more enlarged and embellished, and be- 
came the scene of luxurious autumnal 
fetes, rivalling those of the days of 
Louis XIV. The forest of Fontainebleau 
became famous during the 19th century 
as the resort of many famous French 
painters of the modern school, Rousseau, 
Corot, Diaz, Millet, etc. Pop, about 
15,000. 

FONTENOY, BATTLE OF, one of the 

most famous battles in the War of the 
Austrian Succession. It was fought at 
a small village of the same name, in 
western Belgium. Here, May 11, 1745, 
the French under Marshal Saxe defeated 
the Allies under the Duke of Cumber- 
land, with very heavy loss on both sides. 

FOOD, any substance which, taken into 
the body, is capable of sustaining or 
nourishing, or which assists in sustain- 
ing or nourishing the living being. Foods 



may be classed under three heads, gase- 
ous, liquid, and solid, the first two con- 
sisting of the air we breathe — the oxygen 
of which is so essential to life — and the 
water we drink. Milk, tea, coffee, cocoa, 
etc., are popularly called liquid food, but 
each of these is simply water in which 
various solid substances are dissolved, or 
held in suspension. The solid foods are 
of three kinds — viz., nitrogenous, non- 
nitrogenous, and mineral. Nitrogen 
compounds, or flesh formers, are essen- 
tially composed of carbon, hydrogen, 
oxygen, and nitrogen. They possess the 
only ingredients capable of building up 
and repairing the nitrogenous tissues of 
the body, but they also furnish a limited 
supply of heat, especially when heat-giv- 
ing compounds are deficient in the body. 
Nitrogenous compounds are found both 
in the animal and vegetable kingdoms 
under the forms of albumen, fibrin, casein, 
gelatine, and chondrin. Non-nitrogenous 
compounds, or heat givers, sometimes 
called carbonaceous compounds, are com- 
posed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. 
They serve to keep up the heat of the 
body, and so produce energy or force; 
but they contribute, also, to the repair 
and growth of the body. The chief heat 
givers are starch (abundant in the cereal 
grains), sugar, and fat. None of these 
substances will of itself sustain life. The 
mineral foods are the salts of soda and 
potash, the phosphates of lime and mag- 
nesia, iron, etc. As the daily waste of 
the body must be met by a daily supply 
of nourishment, it becomes of the utmost 
importance that such supply should con- 
sist of both flesh formers and heat givers, 
and in the proportion of two parts of the 
former to six of the latter. The National 
Pure Food Law, which went into effect 
in the United States Aug. 1, 1900, was 
aimed against Adulteration (q.v.). See 
Nutrition; Conservation of Food. 

The food of animals is not directly de- 
rived from inorganic nature, but medi- 
ately through the agency of plants. 
Plants can feed on and assimilate inor- 
ganic matter, in this respect differing 
from animals. A few plants, however, 
such as fungi, the sundew (Drosera), 
and Venus' fly trap, require animal 
food. The ordinary food of plants con- 
sists of carbon, water, and nitrogen. 

FOOT, that part of the lower extrem- 
ity below the leg on which we stand and 
walk. It is composed of three series or 
groups of bones — the tarsal, or hinder- 
most; the metatarsal, which occupy the 
middle portion; and the phalanges, 
which form the toes. The tarsal bones 
are seven in number. Above, they are 
connected with the tibia and fibula 
bones of the leg, and below from the 



FOOT 



167 



FOOTBALL 



heel and the hinder part of the instep. 
They are the astragalus, which articu- 
lates with the tibia and fibula; the os 
calcis, or bone of the heel; the os navi- 
culare, or scaphoid bone, on the inner 
side of the foot, articulating with the 
astragalus; the os cuboides, on the outer 
side of the foot, articulating with the 
OS calcis, the three cuneiform or wedge- 
shaped bones (the internal, middle, and 
external) in front of the scaphoid bone, 
near the middle of the foot. The meta- 
tarsal bones are five in number, and be- 
long to the class of long bones. They 
are connected posteriorly with the tar- 
sal, and anteriorly with the phalangeal 
bones. One is attached to each of the 
cuneiform bones, and two to the os cubo- 
ides; and they diverge slightly outward 
as they proceed forward. Their anterior 
ends form the balls of the toes. The 
first metatarsal bone is the shortest and 
strongest, while the second is the largest 




CROSS SECTION OF HUMAN FOOT 

A. Tibia D. Metatarsal bones 

B. Bone of the heel E. Phalanges 

O. Tarsal bones F. Sesamoid bones 

G. Ankle joint 

— the others all decreasing in length ac- 
cording to their distance from it. These 
bones form the anterior portion of the 
instep. The phalanges, or bones of the 
toes, are 14 in number, three to each 
toe, except the great one, which has only 
two. The upper ones, which are longest 
and largest, are named the metatarsal; 
the next, the middle; and the most an- 
terior, the ungual phalanges. The bones 
of the foot, more particularly those that 
compose the tarsus and metatarsus, are 
firmly connected together, so that they 
are not liable to be displaced; and those 
parts where they articulate with one 
another being covered with a tolerably 
thick layer of highly elastic cartilage, 
, they possess a considerable degree of 
elasticity. They are bound together in 
various directions, by a number of liga- 
ments, one of the principal of which is 
the plantar ligament, which is of great 
strength, and passes through the under 



surface of the heel-bone near its extrem- 
ity, forward to the ends of the metatar- 
sal bones. The movements of the foot, 
which are permitted by the connecting 
ligaments, are effected by a variety of 
muscles. The principal movements are : 

(1) That at the ankle, formed by the 
tibia and fibula with the astragalus, by 
which the foot is bent and straightened; 

(2) between the astragalus and os calcis, 
by which the foot is rolled inward and 
outward; (3) between the first and sec- 
ond range of tarsal bones, admitting of 
a very slight motion, by which the arch 
of the foot may be somewhat increased 
or diminished. Besides these there are 
the less complicated movements of the 
metatarsal and phalangeal bones. The 
foot is usually so much interfered with 
in civilized life as to be deprived of 
much of its beauty, and even of its utili- 
ty j its movements being impeded by its 
being confined in tight-fitting boots, to 
the shape of which feet are made to con- 
form. 

In poetry, a foot is a meter, or meas- 
ure, composed of a certain number of 
long and short syllables. Some are dis- 
syllabic, consisting of two feet, as the 
spondee, iambus, trochee; and some tri- 
syllablic, as the dactyl, anapest, tribrach. 
These are what are called simple feet. 
There are others, consisting of four, five, 
or six syllables, which are reckoned dou- 
ble or compound feet, but which are com- 
monly resolved into single feet. 

In arithmetic, a measure of length, 
consisting of 12 inches, or 36 barley- 
corns laid end to end. It also expresses 
surface and solidity. A square foot is 
the same measure both in length and 
breadth, containing 12x12 = 144 square 
or superficial inches. A cubic or solid 
foot is the same measure in all direc- 
tions, or 12 inches long, broad and deep, 
containing 12 x 12 = 144 x 12 = 1,728 cubic 
inches to the solid or cubic foot. As 
this term is employed in almost all lan- 
guages as a linear measure, it has 
doubtless been derived from the length 
of the human foot. Though the denom- 
ination is the same, the measure itself 
varies considerably in different coun- 
tries. 

As a military term, soldiers who 
march and fight on foot; infantry; as, 
horse and foot. 

FOOTBALL, a field game played in 
the United States, Great Britain, 
Canada, and Australia. The game is 
said to have originated among the Ro- 
mans, but it was under the guidance of 
the public schools of Great Britain that 
it advanced and became popular. There 
are at the present time several styles of 
football, the American and English, Rug- 



FOOTBALL 



168 



FOOTE 



by, and the Association games, being the 
most popular. The American Rugby 
game is played among the colleges, 
schools, and athletic clubs of the United 
States. The game is played on a field 360 
feet long by 160 feet wide, the bound- 
aries being marked off with white lines, 




i|(. END LINE l60Feet 

FOOTBALL — DIAGRAM OF FIELD OF PLAY 

Black players about to start play. White players 
ia defense positions 

with lines at everv five yards, running 
across the field. Two goal posts are 
placed 18 feet 6 inches apart in the mid- 
dle of each end line. These posts are 



20 feet high and have a cross bar 10 
feet from the ground. The ball has an 
oval-shaped leather covering containing 
an inflated rubber bladder. The foot* 
ball team consists of 11 men, (1) the 
center, (2) two guards, (3) two tackles, 
(4) two halfbacks, (5) two ends, (6) 
the quarterback, and (7) the fullback. 
The game is commenced by one team 
placing the ball on the center of its 40- 
yard line and kicking it into the oppo- 
nents' territory. One of the opponents 
catches it, and runs forward until tackled 
and thrown. The ball is then put down 
for scrimmage. The center of the team 
holding the ball passes it back between 
his legs to a runner. When the runner 
is stopped the referee signals "down," 
and the ball is held. The team is al- 
lowed four downs, in which it must ad- 
vance the ball 10 yards or surrender the 
ball to its opponents. The ball may also 
be advanced by the forward pass (throw- 
ing ball toward goal), by punting (drop- 
ping ball and kicking before it reaches 
ground), and by drop kicking. The game 
continues until one team carries the ball 
over its opponents' goal line. This is 
called a touchdown, and scores 6 points. 
One of the team then tries to kick the 
ball over crossbar and between opponents' 
goal posts by a direct place kick (kick 
from where it rests). This kicked 
goal counts 1 point. The ball is then 
taken out to the 40-yard line and kicked 
off again by either team, at loser's 
option. A goal from field (made — not on 
kick-off — by place kick or drop kick, 1, e. 
dropped ball kicked the instant it rises) 
counts 3 points; a safety (bringing ball 
over one's own goal), 2 points for oppo- 
nents. The game is played in four periods 
of 15 minutes each, with a 1 minute inter- 
mission, but 15 minutes between halves. 

The rules are somewhat modified every 
year, the tendency being to bring about 
open rather than mass play. 

The English game (15 men) is more 
open, more kicking being done, but does 
not develop team work and interference 
to any great extent. 

In the Association (or soccer) game a 
spherical ball is advanced entirely by 
kicking or propulsion by head or body, 
the hands being used only by goal keeper. 
The team consists of five forwards, three 
halfbacks, two fullbacks, and a goal 
keeper. The goals are made by kicking? 
ball between goal posts, 8 yards apart, 
and under a bar 8 feet from ground. 
The game is decided by the number of 
goals scored. The tendency in recent 
times has been to make the game faster 
by bringing every man into full play. 

FOOTE, AITDREW HULL, an 

American naval officer; born in New 



FOOTE 



169 



FOBBES 



Haven, Conn., Sept. 12, 1806; entered 
the navy as a midshipman in 1822. In 
1849-1852 he was engaged in the sup- 
pression of the slave trade on the coast 
of Africa. In command of the China 
station in 1856, when the Chinese tnd 
English were at war, he exerted himself 
to protect American property, and was 
fired upon by the Celestials. His de- 
mand for an apology was refused and 
he stormed and captured four Chinese 
forts, killing and wounding 400 of the 
garrisons of 5,000 men. In 1861 he 
commanded the expedition against Forts 
Henry and Donelson on the Tennessee 
and Cumberland rivers, and directed the 
attack on Island Number 10. In 1862, 
he was promoted rear-admiral, and in 
1863 was ordered to take command of 
the South Atlantic Squadron, but died in 
New York while preparing to join his 
flag-ship, June 26, 1863. 

FOOTE, MARY (HALLOCK), an 

American author; born in Milton, N. Y., 
Nov. 19, 1847; married a mining engi- 
neer. She was the author of several 
novels and collections of short stories 
illustrated by herself, on life in the 
Rocky Mountain regions: "The Led 
Horse Claim" (1883); "John Bodewin's 
Testimony" (1886); "Cceur d'Alene" 
(1894) ; "The Cup of Trembling and 
Other Stories" (1895) ; "The Little Fig 
Tree Stories" (1899) ; "The Prodigal" 
(1900); "ATouchof Sun" (1903); "The 
Royal Americans" (1910) ; "Picked 
Company" (1912); "Valley Road" 
(1915). 

FOOTE, SAMUEL, an English actor; 
bom in Truro, England, Jan. 27, 1720. 
From Oxford he went to London to 
study law, but had to go on the stage 
for a living; tried tragic parts and 
failed; then began to give entertain- 
ments, impersonating real and imagi- 
nary people and acting little farces by 
himself. He wrote farces, 22 in num- 
ber; the most notable being "The Minor" 
(1760), a skit at the Methodists; "The 
Liar"; "The Mayor of Garratt." He 
died in Dover, England, Oct. 21, 1777. 

FOOTSCRAY, a city of Victoria, 
Australia. It is a suburb of Melbourne 
and has manufactures of sugar, soap, 
woolen goods, chemicals, machinery, etc. 
In the neighborhood are important blue- 
stone quarries. Pop. about 25,000. 

FORAKER, JOSEPH BENSON, an 
American statesman; born near Rains- 
boro, 0., Jan. 5, 1846; enlisted as a pri- 
'Vate in the 89th Ohio Infantry and 
served till the end of the Civil War. He 
was graduated at Cornell University in 
1869, and began law practice in Cincin- 
nati, in the same year. He was judge 



of the Superior Court of Cincinnati in 
1879-1882, governor of Ohio in 1885- 
1887 and 1887-1889, and was United 
States Senator in 1897-1903. He ran 
for senator in 1914 against Warren G. 
Harding and was defeated. He died in 
1917. 

FORAMINIFERA, an order of ani- 
mals belonging to the sub-kingdom Pro- 
tozoa, and the class Rhizopoda (q. v.). 
The body is contained within a calcare- 
ous test or shell, which is polythalamous 
(many-chambered) . It may be cylindrical 
or spiral, or it may tend to the pyramidal 
form. The outer surface presents a punc- 
tate or dotted appearance, produced by 
the presence of very numerous foramina, 
or small apertures. Foraminifers are 
always of small size, and often indeed 
microscopic. With the exception of 
Gromia, which occurs both in fresh and 
salt water, they are exclusively marine. 
Sometimes their shells constitute sea 
sand. In the Atlantic, at a depth of 3,000 
fathoms, there is an ooze composed al- 
most entirely of Globigerime, which be- 
long to this order; the stratum thus 
formed is a direct continuation of the 
white chalk deposit, having gone on ap- 
parently through the whole Tertiary 
period. Drs. Carpenter and Parker, and 
Prof. T. Rupert Jones have divided the 
Foraminifera thus: 

Sub-order I. — Imperforata. Families: 
(1) Gromida, (2) Miliolida, (3) Lituo- 
lida. 

Sub-order II. — Perforata. Families: 
(1) Lagenida, (2) Globigerinida, and 
(3) Numrmdinida. 

The exceedingly antique Eozoon of the 
Laurentian rocks, if organic, as it is 
generally believed to be, was apparently 
a foraminifer. Forms more unequiv- 
ocal, some of them very like recent 
species, occur in the Silurian, the Car- 
boniferous, and other strata. They are 
found through all the Secondary period, 
chalk being almost entirely composed of 
their cases. They increase in number and 
importance in the Tertiary. The num- 
mulites of the Midde Eocene are forami- 
niferous animals. 

FORBES, ARCHIBALD, a British 

journalist; born in Morayshire, Scot- 
land, in 1838; was educated at the Uni- 
versity of Aberdeen. When the Franco- 
Prussian War broke out the London 
"Daily News" sent him to the front as 
war correspondent, in which capacity he 
impressed on his work a new and dis- 
tinctive character and style. In 1875 
he was sent to report the incidents of 
the Indian tour of the Prince of Wales. 
Subsequently he watched the course of 
events in Servia ; described the war with 
Turkey; and went to India to report the 



FORBES 



170 



FORCE 



AfghanWar, and to South Africa for the 
Zulu War. Afterward he revised his 
letters and reports, and recast them into 
historical narratives of the various cam- 
paigns. He died in London, March 29, 
1900. 

FORBES, WILLIAM CAMERON, an 
American public official, born in Milton, 
Mass., in 1870. He graduated from 
Harvard in 1892, and entered the bank- 
ing business, becoming a partner in the 
banking firm of J. M. Forbes & Co. 
From 1904 to 1908 he was a member of 
the Philippine Commission and secretary 
of commerce and police in the govern- 
ment of the Philippine Islands. He was 
successively vice-governor and governor- 
general, resigning the latter position in 
1913. 

FORBES-ROBERTSON. SIR JOHN- 
STONE, an English actor, born in Lon- 
don in 1853. His early years were spent 




FORBES-ROBERTSON 

as a painter. He went on the stage at 
the age of 21, and at once exhibited un- 
usual talent. He acted as leading man 
for Sir Henry Irving and Sir Squire 
Bancroft. In 1895 he appeared with 
Mrs. Patrick Campbell in "The Notori- 
ous Mrs. Ebbsmith." In the same year 
he began his career of manager in Lon- 
don, playing the part of Romeo in 
"Romeo and Juliet," following this with 
"Othello" and "Hamlet." In the latter 
he scored a great success. He made fre- 
quent tours to the United States, where 
he appeared in Shakespearean plays, 
several plays by George Bernard Shaw, 



and others. He was recognized as one 
of the most distinguished actors of his 
time. He was knighted in 1913. 

PORCE, in physics, an influence or 
exertion which, if made to act on a body, 
has a tendency to move it when at rest, 
or to affect or stop its progress if it be 
already in motion. The strength of 
man's arms is a force, so is the power 
of a horse or ox to pull a vehicle, or 
turn a wheel, or set in action an agri- 
cultural machine. Gravity, friction, 
elasticity of springs or gases, electrical 
or magnetical attraction or repulsion are 
forces. Accelerated force is the in- 
creased force which a body exerts in 
consequence of the acceleration of its 
motion. Active force is force which 
tends to move another body from a state 
of rest. Animal force is the muscular 
strength of man, horses, asses, cattle, 
or other animals viewed as a moving 
power. 

Composition of forces is produced by 
two other forces acting on a body. If 
they operate in the same direction the 
resultant or the resulting force will be 
the sum of both. If the two forces act 
in opposite directions and are equal, they 
will make the body remain at rest; and 
if they are unequal, they will move in 
the direction of the greater force; and 
with a force equivalent to their differ- 
ence. If the lines of direction make an 
angle with each other, the resultant will 
be a mean force in an intermediate di- 
rection. If many forces act, the result- 
ant is the line of motion or state of rest 
produced by their conjoint action. Reso- 
lution of forces is the decomposition of 
a force into the forces which have com- 
bined to produce it. 

The theory of the conservation of 
force, or of energy, is the doctrine or 
principle that in all cases force is con- 
served — i. e., kept in existence even when 
it appears to perish. Just as a certain 
definite amount of matter exists in the 
universe, to which man cannot add, and 
from which he cannot subtract an atom, 
so a definite amount of force, incapable 
of being increased or diminished, exists 
like the former, in the universe. It can, 
however, be transformed so as to look 
quite unlike its former self; but in every 
case the force or energy communicate! 
to a body or system of bodies is with- 
dravvTi from some fund of energy pre- 
viously existing. The theory of the cor- 
relation of force, or energy, is the doc- 
trine or principle that the different kinds 
of force in the universe are so correlated 
together that any one can be trans- 
formed into an exactly equivalent amount 
of another. There is equality when one 
can do precisely the same amount of 



FORCE PUMP 



171 



FORD 



work as any other. It has long been 
known that in a machine, the screw for 
example, what is gained in power is lost 
in velocity, and vice versa. At first 
sight motion and heat seem to have no 
relation to each other; but if a moving 
body be suddenly arrested in its career, 
as, for instance, a bullet by a target, 
heat will be generated, and the same 
number of units of the work which the 
motion was capable of effecting can be 
achieved also by the heat. Conversely, 
a certain amount of heat can produce 
an equivalent one of motion; thus the 
working energy communicated to the 
piston of a steam engine is withdrawn 
from the heat of the steam, and exactly 
balances the latter. 

By equilibrium of forces is meant the 
action of forces which, balancing each 
other, produce an equilibrium or state 
of balance, or rest in the body or bodies 
on which they operate. An impulsive 
force is a force which acts on a body 
for an unappreciably short time, as 
when one body strikes another. Kinetic 
force is the actual force excited by a 
moving body as distinguished from the 
potential forces which it is capable of 
creating. Potential force is the whole 
force which a body in motion can exert, 
as distinguished from the kinetic force 
which it is exerting at the specific mo- 
ment of time. The measure of force is the 
measurement of the magnitude of a 
force, which is done by noting the mo- 
mentum which it communicates to a 
body in a unit of time. The unit of force 
is the force which acting on a pound 
mass would, in one second, produce a 
velocity of a foot per second. Mechan- 
ical force is force of a mechanical na- 
ture acting on material bodies. It may 
be either that of the active force of a 
body in motion, or the tension or resist- 
ance opposed by a body at rest. Molecu- 
lar forces are those which by means 
of certain attractions and repulsions 
retain the atoms of matter side by side 
without their touching each other. When 
a force tends to produce rotation about 
a fixed point the tendency is called 
Moment. 

FORCE PUMP, a pump which delivers 
the water under pressure, so as to eject 
it forcibly or deliver it at an elevation. 
The term is used in contradistinction to 
a lift pump, in which the water is lifted, 
and simply runs out of the spout. The 
single-acting force pump is that in which 
the lift and delivery are alternate. The 
double-acting is that in which the pas- 
sages are duplicated, so that a lift and 
delivery are obtained by each motion of 
the plunger; the pump has a distinct 
water-way both above and below the pis- 



ton, so as both to draw and force water 
at each stroke, and thus cause a continu- 
ous stream, which is rendered more uni- 
form by an air-chamber. Also the boiler- 
supply pump sometimes connected to 
the piston rod of the cylinder of a loco- 
motive. 

FORD CITY, a borough in Pennsyl- 
vania, in Armstrong co. It is the center 
of an important agricultural and coal- 
mining region and its industries include 
the manufacture of plate glass. Pop. 
(1910) 4,850; (1920) 5,605. 

FORD, HENRY, an American cap- 
italist and philanthropist, born at Green- 
field, Mich., in 1863. After attending a 
district school he learned the machinist's 
trade and moved to Detroit to secure em- 
ployment. After securing notable suc- 




HENRY FORD 

cesses in his vocation he became chief 
engineer of the Edison Illuminating Co. 
and in 1903 organized the Ford Motor 
Co., which became the largest automobile 
company in the world. In the conduct 
of his plant he achieved great success 
partly by his enlightened attitude toward 
his employees, granting them high 
wages, making them profit-sharers in 
the plant, and maintaining for their 
benefit hospitals and schools. In 1915 
he financed a group of peace advocates 
which attempted to influence the belli- 
gerent powers to end the World War. 
After the war he was among the first 



FOBD 



172 



FORELANDS 



to announce a reduction in the prices of 
his goods in order to reduce the high 
cost of living. He was defeated for the 
United States Senate in 1918 by Tru- 
man H. Newberry. 

FORD, HENRY JONES, an American 
educator, born in Baltimore in 1851. He 
graduated from Baltimore City College 
in 1868. In 1872 he became an editorial 
v/riter on the Baltimore "American" and 
for several years acted as editor for 
papers in New York, Pittsburgh, and 
Baltimore. He was lecturer on political 
science at Johns Hopkins University in 
1906-1907. In 1908 he was appointed 
professor of politics at Princeton. He 
wrote "The Rise and Growth of Ameri- 
can Politics" (1898) ; "The Scotch-Irish 
in America" (1915); "Woodrow Wilson, 
the Man and His Work" (1916) ; "The 
Cleveland Era" (1919). He was a fre- 
quent contributor on economic subjects 
to magazines. 

FORD, JOHN, an English dramatist; 
born in Islington, England, in April, 
1586. He turned from law to devote 
himself to the drama. His first poem 
was "Fame's Memorial," an elegy on the 
Earl of Devonshire. Alone and in co- 
laboration he wrote a series of very suc- 
cessful plays. As a poet he ranks among 
the foremost outside of Shakespeare. 
Among his best plays are: "The Lover's 
Melancholy," "The Broken Heart," and 
"Love's Sacrifice." He died about 1640. 

FORD, PAUL LEICESTER, an Amer- 
ican author; born in Brooklyn, N. Y., in 
1865. His works include: "The Honor- 
able Peter Stirling" (1894) ; "The True 
George Washington" (1896); "Biblio- 
theca Hamilton"; "Franklin Bibliog- 
raphy"; "The Works of Thomas Jef- 
ferson" (1897) ; "The Story of an Un- 
told Love"; "Tattle Tales of Cupid"; 
"Janice Meredith" (1899), etc. He died 
in 1902. 

FORD, WORTHINGTON CHATJN- 

CEY, an American statistician; born in 
Brooklyn, N. Y., Feb. 16, 1858; was chief 
of the Bureau of Statistics, Department 
of State, in 1885-1889, and of the Bu- 
reau of Statistics in the Treasury De- 
partment in 1893-1898; became connected 
with the Boston Public Library in 1897 ; 
was chosen Lecturer on Statistics in the 
University of Chicago in 1901. He was 
the author of "American Citizen's Man- 
ual"; "The Standard Silver Dollar" 
(1884)and "George Washington" (1899) ; 
"Journal of Continental Congress" 
(1905) ; "Life and Writings of John 
Quincy Adams" (1913). 

FORDHAM UNIVERSITY, a Roman 
Catholic institution for higher education, 



formerly known as St. John's College. 
The latter institution was opened in 1841 
as the New York Diocesan College and 
Seminary. It then included St. Joseph's 
Seminary and a college department. 
The seminary was in 1864 removed 
to Troy, and in 1896 to Dunwoodie. 
In 1907 the charter of the college 
was amended to authorize the estab- 
lishment of law and medical depart- 
ments, and at the same time the name 
was changed to Fordham University. It 
is situated in Fordham, N. Y. In 1919 
there were 201 instructors and 3,209 
students. The president is Rev. E. P. 
Tivnan, S. J. 

FORECASTLE, a short deck placed 
in front of a ship above the upper deck. 
It is generally terminated at each end, 
in ships of war, by a breastwork, the 
foremast part reaching to the beak-head, 
and the after portion reaching to the 
fore-chains. This part of a ship used to 
be very much elevated in former times, 
for the accommodation of archers and 
cross-bowmen; whence the term fore- 
castle. 

FOREIGN WARS, MILITARY 
ORDER OF, a hereditary, patriotic or- 
ganization formed in New York in 1894. 
During the first year it was known as 
the Military and Naval Order of the 
United States, but the name was changed 
to its present one in 1895. The foreign 
wars referred to are the War of the 
Revolution, the War with Tripoli, the 
War of 1812, the Mexican War, and the 
War with Spain — and the objects are to 
preserve the names of those engaged in 
them and collect the records. The mem- 
bers fnclude Veteran Companions, con- 
sisting of commissioned officers of the 
army, navy, and marine corps, who took 
part in the wars, and Hereditary Com- 
panions, descendants of commissioned 
officers who so participated. When the 
World War broke out the State com- 
manderies numbered 20, and the mem- 
bership was over 1,500. 

FORELANDS, NORTH and SOUTH, 

two headlands on the S. E. coast of Eng- 
land, and on the E. seaboard of the 
county of Kent : the first, or North Fore- 
land, forms the N. E. angle of the 
county ; it projects into the sea in the form 
of a bastion, and consists of chalky cliffs 
nearly 200 feet in height. A lighthouse 
of the first class, having a fixed light 
elevated 340 feet above the level of the 
sea, was erected on this promontory in 
1688. The South Foreland, about 16 
miles S. of the former, consists also of 
chalky cliffs, and has two lighthouses, 
with fixed lights, erected upon it, to 
warn ships coming from the S. of their 



FOREORDIN'ATION 



173 



FOBEY 



approach to the Goodwin Sands. The 
North Foreland is made, by Act of Par- 
liament, the S. E. extremity of the port 
of London. 

FOREORDINATION, or PREDESTI- 
NATION, according to the Calvinistic 
view, the predestination before the foun- 
dation of the world of some to eternal 
life and others to eternal death. In the 
authorized version of the Scriptures, the 
word foreordination does not appear at 
all, and the word foreordain does not 
occur in this sense, but ordain does: 
"And as many as were ordained to eter- 
nal life believed" (Acts xiii: 48) ; "Who 
were of old ordained to this condemna- 
tion" (Jude 4, 13). 

FOREST CITY, a borough of Penn- 
sylvania, in Susquehanna co. It is on 
the Delaware and Hudson, the Erie, and 
the New York, Ontario, and Western 
railroads. Its chief industries are coal 
mining and the manufacture of silk. It 
is also the center of an important agri- 
cultural region. Pop. (1910) 5,749; 
(1920) 6,004. 

FOREST PARK, a city of Illinois, in 
Cook CO. It is 4 miles beyond the city 
limits of Chicago. It is on the Chicago 
Great Western, the Baltimore and Ohio, 
Chicago Terminal, and the Minneapolis, 
St. Paul and Sault Ste. Marie railroads. 
It is also on the Des Plaines river. The 
town is a suburb of Chicago, and within 
its borders are several cemeteries. Pop. 
(1910) 6,594; (1920) 10,768. 

FORESTERS, INDEPENDENT 
ORDER OF, a benevolent and fraternal 
organization founded at Newark, N. J., 
in 1874 and reorganized in 1881. The 
order has members throughout the 
United States and Canada, with branches 
in Great Britain, Frp.nce, Norway, Aus- 
tralia, and India. The responsibility for 
government is vested in a supreme court 
which sits in Toronto, Can., while high 
courts attend to the affairs of the order 
in the different States of the Union and 
in countries where branches exist. The 
number of members is now about 260,000, 
and the disbursements have amounted to 
over $50,000,000. In the United States 
there are a high court, and about 4,200 
subordinate courts. 

FORESTRY, the act, occupation, or art 
of forming and cultivating forests; the 
systematic utilization, reproduction and 
improvement in productive capacity of 
trees in masses, including the planting 
and culture of new forests. Not only 
private interest exists in forests but a 
public interest, which necessitates at 
times governmental action. Such action 
rests on the following principles: (1) 

VoL IV— Cyc— L 



The widest scope should be allowed to 
private enterprise in production, care 
being taken that abundant statistics in 
regard to supply and demand and oppor- 
tunity for education on the subject be 
furnished. (2) Adequate legal protection 
should be given to forest property. (3) 
Whenever improper management threat- 
ens damage to neighboring property the 
State should interfere to enforce proper 
management. (4) Wherever public wel- 
fare demands the reforestation of de- 
nuded tracts, the State should assist 
individual or communal enterprise in 
performing this, or else do the reforest- 
ing as a work of internal improvement. 
(5) In cases where a permanent forest 
is desirable and private interest can not 
be relied on for its proper management, 
the State should own and manage it. 

There were, in 1920, 152 National 
Forests, embracing 180,299,776 acres, of 
which a little over 86 per cent, is public 
land. By the act of February 26, 1919, 
the Grand Canyon National Park was 
created. For this purpose 606,720 acres 
were transferred from other National 
Forests. For a discussion of conserva- 
tion of forest lands, see Conservation. 
See also National Parks, and Forestry 
Association, American. 

FORESTRY ASSOCIATION, AMER- 
ICAN. An association organized in 1882 
and incorporated in 1897, having among 
its purposes the promotion of a business- 
like use of the forest resources of the 
United States, the advancement of legis- 
lation to that end and the inauguration 
of forest administration by the Federal 
Government and States, and the diffu- 
sion of knowledge in respect to the con- 
servation and utilization of forests. As 
a result of its work committees have 
investigated forest conditions and issued 
reports of great value in forest renewal 
and management. The members number 
over 5,000. The headquarters are in 
Washington, D. C, and there a maga- 
zine, "American Forestry," is issued 
each month. 

FOREY, ELIE FREDERIC, a French 
military officer; born in Paris, France, 
Jan. 10. 1804; was admitted to the Mili- 
tary School of St. Cyr in 1822. He took 
part in the first expedition to Algiers, 
and distinguished himself at the battle 
of Medeah, in the retreat which followed 
the first siege of Constantine, and at the 
Iron Gates. In 1840, he went through 
four other African campaigns, and re- 
turned to France with the rank of colonel 
in 1844, became a general in 1848, took 
an active part in the coup d'etat of 
December, 1851, and was made a general 
of division and commander of the Legion 
of Honor in 1852. At the breaking out 



FOEFARSHIRE 



174 



FORGET-ME-NOT 



of the war with Russia, he was placed 
on the reserve division of the Army of 
the East, and for a time held the com- 
mand of the siege force before Sebasto- 
pol. In 1857 he was nominated to the 
first division of the army of Paris. He 
commanded this division during the 
Italian War in 1860, gained at Monte- 
bello the first battle of the campaign, 
and distinguished himself at Magenta 
and Solferino, being wounded at the lat- 
ter. When the expedition to Mexico was 
decided upon in 1861, Forey received the 
command of the French troops. After 
several sanguinary engagements, he at- 
tacked and stormed the strong post of 
Puebla, thereby throwing open the road 
to the city of Mexico. For this service 
he was made Marshal of France, when 
he resigned his command to General 
Bazaine, and returned home, receiving 
the command of the 2d army corps in 
1863, He received the Grand Cross of 
the Legion of Honor in 1859, and was 
elected to the Senate in that year. He 
died in Paris, France, June 20, 1872. 

FORFABSHmE, or ANGUS, a mari- 
time county of Scotland, in the east mid- 
land division. It has an area of 873 
square miles. The surface is for the 
most part irregular and intersected with 
hills. It is an agricultural and stock- 
raising county. Its chief industries are 
the manufacture of jute and linen. Pop. 
about 285,000. The capital is Forfar. 

FORFEITURE, in English law, is a 
punishment annexed to some illegal act 
or negligence in the owner of real prop- 
erty, whereby he loses all his interest 
therein, and it goes to the party injured, 
as a recompense for the wrong which 
either he alone or the public with him 
has sustained. Forfeitures are either 
civil ^r criminal. Civil forfeiture takes 
place when some alienation is made con- 
trary to law, as in mortmain; or when a 
particular tenant aliens for a larger 
estate than he himself has, as when a 
tenant for life makes a conveyance in 
fee. Forfeiture for criminal causes takes 
place in treason or felony, and for one 
or two other offenses. 

Forfeiture by alienation is almost un- 
known in the United States, and the just 
principle prevails that the conveyance 
by the tenant operates only on the inter- 
est which he possessed, and does not 
affect the remainder man or reversioner. 
Under the Constitution and laws of the 
United States, forfeiture for crimes is 
nearly abolished; and when it occurs, 
the State recovers only the title which 
the owner had. An estate may be for- 
feited by a breach or non-performance 
of a condition annexed to the estate, 
either expressed in the deed at its orig- 



inal creation, or implied by law, from a 
principle of natural reason. 

FORGE, the apparatus or works for 
heating bars of iron and steel and work- 
ing them under the hammer. Works in 
which cast iron from the blast furnaces 
is converted into malleable iron by 
puddling and subsequent hammering, 
and also where the native ores of iron 
are reduced without fusion to the metal- 
lic state, are also called forges. Forges 
are required of various dimensions, and 
are often adapted to special uses. Port- 
able forges are used in many workshops. 
For forging heavy articles, as anchors, 
wrought-iron shafts for ocean steamers, 
etc., powerful machinery is required, 
adapted to the nature of the work to be 
done. Morrison's steam hammer, with 
which a bar of iron can be forged of any 
size or thickness, is one solid wrought- 
iron hammer bar, piston head and head 
for hammer face forged solid, with the 
bar passing through both ends of the 
cylinder, prevented from turning by the 
upper cylinder head. No guides below 
the cylinder. Slide-valve balanced. 
Double-acting hammers of all sizes, tak- 
ing steam above and below the piston, 
with self-acting valve gear and hand 
movement, can be changed at will while 
in operation, thus affording complete 
control over its movements. Hammers 
of 2,000 pounds and under have one up- 
right only; those over this size, two. In 
puddling iron, when the mass of cast- 
iron has been sufficiently purified in the 
furnace by burning out its carbon and 
other impurities, it is placed under the 
heavy forge hammer, which squeezes out 
the liquid slag and forces the softened 
particles of iron to cohere into a con- 
tinuous oblong mass or bloom. When 
iron is extracted from rich ores without 
first being converted into cast-iron, the 
forge hammer is used to force the spongy 
mass of reduced ore into a compact bar 
of malleable iron. 

FORGES, a small village in France, 
about eight miles N. W. of Verdun, 
which figured prominently in the first 
attack by the Germans on Verdun, in 
March, 1916. It was taken and re-taken 
several times by both sides, but on that 
occasion was finally held by the Ger- 
mans, who pressed on toward the main 
French position at Mort Homme. Dur- 
ing these operations the village was al- 
most entirely destroyed by gunfire. 

FORGET-ME-NOT, Myosotis palustHs, 
the creeping water scorpion grass, a 
boraginaceous plant about a foot high. 
The flowers are bright blue, with a yel- 
low eye and a small white ray at the 
base of each segment. It is found abun» 



FORK 



175 



FORMOSA 



dantly in ditches and the sides of rivers, 
flowering from June to August. The 
name is also applied to Myosotis arven- 
sis, Veronica chamaedrys, and Ajuga 
chamsepitys. 

FORK, an instrument divided at the 
end into two or more points or prongs, 
and used for lifting or pitching any- 
thing. The instrument used at table is 
only about three centuries old. The 
Greeks, Romans, and other ancient na- 
tions knew nothing of table forks, though 
they had large forks for hay, and also 
iron forks for taking meat out of pots. 
The use of any species of forks at the 
table was quite unknown till the 15th 
century, and they were then known only 
in Italy, which has the merit of this 
invention. None of the sovereigns of 
England had forks till after the reign of 
Henry VIII.; all, high and low, used 
their fingers. The first royal personage 
in England who is known to have had 
a fork was Queen Elizabeth; but it re- 
mains doubtful whether she used them 
on ordinary occasions. As late as the 
middle of the 17th century forks were 
used in England only by the highest 
classes. The general use of silver forks 
in Great Britain cannot be dated farther 
back than beginning of 19th century. 

In machinery, a fork is a short piece 
of steel which fits into one of the sockets 
or chucks of a lathe, used by wood-turn- 
ers for carrying round the piece to be 
turned; it is flattened at the end like a 
chisel, but has a projecting center point, 
to prevent the wood from moving later- 
ally. 

FORLI (ancient Forum Livii), a 
walled city of central Italy, capital of 
province of same name, in a fertile plain 
between the Montone and Ronco, on the 
Emilian Way, 38 miles S. E. of Bologna, 
and 15 S. W. of Ravenna. Manufac- 
tures, silk ribbons and twist, oil-cloth, 
woolens, wax, niter, and sulphur. In 
1797 Forli was taken by the French, 
who made it the capital of the depart- 
ment of Rubicon. In 1860 it was annexed 
to the kingdom of Italy. The collection 
of paintings in the municipal Pinacoteca 
is important. Pop. of commune, about 
46,000. 

FORMALDEHYDE. HCOrH, formic 
aldehyde, methyl aldehyde; obtained 
when a current of air, charged with the 
vapor of methyl alcohol, is directed on 
an incandescent spiral of platinum wire. 
The liquid collected reduces nitrate of 
silver, forming a mirror; a small quan- 
tity is formed by the action of the silent 
electric discharge on a mixture of hydro- 
gen and carbon dioxide, C02 + 2H2=:H- 
CO-H-|-H,0. 



FORMAMIDE. H-CO-NH., the amide 
of formic acid, obtained by the dry dis- 
tillation of formate of ammonium, or by 
heating two parts of dry ammonium for- 
mate with one part of urea to 140"^, till 
no more ammonium carbonate is given 
off. It is a liquid which distills in a 
vacuum at 150" at ordinary pressure, at 
195° with partial decomposition: when 
quickly heated, it is decomposed into 
CO and NH3. 

FORMICA, ant, the typical genus of 
the family FoKMiciDiE (q. v.). It has 
the footstalk of the abdomen composed 
of a single joint; the mandibles are tri- 
angular, and denticulated at the edge. 
The females are destitute of a sting. Of 
these F. sanguinea makes its nest in 
wood, and is a slave holder, carrying off 
the young of other species, such as those 
of F. cunicularia and F. fusca. Of the 
foreig^n species, F. saccharivora makes 
its nest at the foot of sugar canes, so 
loosening the soil that they are blown 
down by gales. F. indefessa, an Indian 
species, is a great devourer of sweets. 
See Ant. 

FORMIC ACID, HCHO2, or H:COr 
OH, a monobasic fatty acid, which de- 
rives its name from the circumstance 
that it was first obtained by distilling 
ants. It occurs in the animal and vege- 
table kingdoms, especially in the red ant, 
Formica rufa. When an ant walks over 
moistened blue litmus it turns it red. It 
exists also in certain caterpillars, in sev- 
eral secretions of the human body, as in 
blood, in urine, in the fish-juice, and in 
perspiration. It is also found in the 
juice of the stinging nettle, and in com- 
mercial oil of turpentine that has been 
exposed to the air, and in certain min- 
eral springs. 

FORMICID.ffi. in entomology, a genus 
of aculeate Hymenoptera, tribe or sub- 
tribe Heterogyiia. The abortive females 
are wingless, the basal joint of the an- 
tennae in the females and neuters is long 
and elbowed; the upper lip of the neu- 
ters, large, horny, and perpendicular, the 
first or second joint of the abdomen 
knotted. In many species the females 
and neuters have stings. They are gen- 
erally social insects living in communi- 
ties, consisting of males, females, and 
neuters. The chief genera are Foi-mic^, 
Polyergus, Ponera, Myrmica, and Atta. 
Formica and Myrmica have representa- 
tives widely distributed. 

FORMOSA (Chinese Tai-Wan. or 
"Terrace Bay"), an island in the Chinese 
Sea, belonging to Japan; about 80 miles 
from the Chinese coast, from which it 
is separated by the Channel of Foh-kien 
(sometimes called Strait of Formosa), 



FORMULA 



176 



FORT 



and 170 miles N. of Luzon, the chief of 
the Philippine Islands; length, N. to S. 
about 250 miles; breadth, in its center, 
about 80 miles; area estimated at 13,300 
square miles. A chain of mountains runs 
through the island in its entire length, 
forming, in general, the barrier between 
the Chinese on the W., and the independ- 
ent natives of the unexplored country on 
the E. side. On many of its peaks snow 
remains during the most of the summer. 
It exhibits distinct evidence of former 
volcanic action, and sulphur, naphtha, 
and other volcanic products are abundant. 
Some parts of the coast present bold 
headlands; but all of the W. shore is 
flat, and surrounded with rocks and 
shoals. Its harbors, which were formerly 
good, have now become nearly useless, 
owing to the encroachments of the land 
upon the sea. Ke-lung, at its N. extrem- 
ity, is the only good port. Soil, highly 
fertile and productive. All the large 
plain of the S. resembles a vast culti- 
vated garden. The principal productions 
are rice, sugar, camphor, tobacco, wheat, 
maize, millet, truffles, vegetables, and the 
choicest of Asiatic and European fruits; 
pepper, aloes, green tea, cotton, hemp, 
and silk are also important articles of 
cultivation. The leopard, tiger, wolf, 
etc., are found in the more impenetrable 
tracts of the interior; the domestic 
breeds of animals, game, etc., are abun- 
dant. The chief mineral deposits are 
salt and sulphur. The trade is mostly 
in the hands of Chinese and British mer- 
chants, who also own all the shipping. 
The principal article of import is opium. 
The natives bear no resemblance to the 
Chinese; but they have an apparent alli- 
ance with the Malay or Polynesian race. 
The Japanese, Spanish, Portuguese, and 
Dutch have been successively masters of 
this island. The latter were in 1662 ex- 
pelled by the Chinese, and the former 
reoccupied it after the Chinese-Japanese 
War, in 1895. Pop. about 3,700,000, in- 
cluding resident Japanese citizens and 
soldiers. Capital, Taiwan City. Pop. 
54,000. 

FORMULA, in chemistry, an ex- 
pression by means of symbols, especially 
letters and numbers, of the chemical 
elements contained in a compound; in 
medicine, a prescription. In mathemat- 
ics, a formula is the expression of a gen- 
eral rule or principle in algebraic sym- 
bols. For example, the equation — 

(a + b) {a — b)=a' — b' 
is a formula, being the algebraic expres- 
sion of the fact that the sum of two 
quantities multiplied by their difference 
is equal to the difference of their squares. 
If a rule or principle is translated into 
algebraic expressions, the result is a for- 



mula; conversely, if a formula is trans- 
lated into ordinary language, the result 
is a rule or principle. 

In Church history, a formula is a for- 
mal enunciation or declaration of faith 
or doctrine. The formula of concord was 
a confession of faith upon the points on 
which the Lutherans differed from the 
Calvinists, especially in connection with 
the Eucharist. The issue of such a docu- 
ment was suggested by Augustus, Elec- 
tor of Saxony, who employed James An- 
drea to ascertain opinions on the subject, 
and draw it out. His chief assistants 
were Martin Chemnitz, Nicholas Sel- 
necker, Andrew Musculus, Christopher 
Corner, and David Chytasus. The for- 
mula was published in 1580, all clergy- 
men and schoolmasters being required 
by the Elector to subscribe to it. It in- 
dorsed the opinions of Luther, and wid- 
ened the breach with the Swiss and 
other reformed Churches. 

The formula consensus was a formula 
drawn up in 1675, by John Henry Heid- 
egger, a celebrated divine, of Zurich, at 
the instance of his clerical brethren, to 
preserve the Calvinistic doctrine from 
the slight modifications of it introduced 
by the French divine, Amyraut, and 
others. It was annexed by the magis- 
trates to the common Helvetic formulas 
of religion. Its effect was found adverse 
rather than favorable to peace. It was 
abolished in the canton of Berne and the 
republic of Geneva in 1686, and ulti- 
mately became incapable of enforcement 
anywhere. 

FORREST, EDWIN, an American 
actor; born in Philadelphia, Pa., March 
9, 1806 ; made his first appearance on the 
professional stage in the title role of 
Douglas at the Walnut Street Theater, 
Philadelphia, in 1820. After a long tour 
in the West, during which he undertook 
several Shakespearean characters, he ap- 
peared as Othello at the Park Theater, 
New York, in 1826, where he met with 
remarkable success. In 1835 he went to 
England, and was there warmly received. 
Subsequently he played in Europe and 
the United States, but in 1871 retired 
from the stage. He died in Philadelphia, 
Pa., Dec. 12, 1872. 

FORT, in the general sense of t'e 
word, a small, inclosed work, usually 
erected near an important fortress or 
fortified town, to command any of the 
approaches to it. Forts are also fre- 
quently erected on the sea coast, for the 
defense of certain positions. They are 
generally quadrilateral, with bastions or 
demibastions at the angles, but it de- 
pends mainly on the position they oc- 
cupy, whether they are triangular; 



FORT COLLINS 



177 



FORTIFICATION 



square, polygonal, or in the form of a 
crown-work or star. They consist for 
the most part of a rampart, surrounded 
with a ditch and glacis; but in some 
cases an outwork is constructed for the 
defense of any side on which it may be 
more easily assailed. Paris is completely 
girdled with a chain of carefully planned 
forts, mostly pentagonal, in the shape 
of an enceinte, and situated at distances 
varying from a mile to IV^ miles from 
the inner line of bastions that encircle 
the city. In North America, generally, 
the name was also applied to a trading 
post in the wilderness with reference 
to the indispensable defenses, however 
slight, against the surrounding savages. 

FORT COLLINS, a city of Colorado, 
the county-seat of Larimer co. It is 
on the Cache la Poudre river, and on 
the Union Pacific and the Colorado and 
Southern railroads. It is the center of 
an important agricultural region and 
has manufactures of beet sugar, flour, 
bricks, etc. It is the seat of a Lutheran 
theological seminary and of the State 
agricultural college. It has a public 
library, a court house, hospital, and sev- 
eral excellent parks. Pop. (1910) 8,210; 
(1920) 8,755. 

FORT DODGE, a city of Iowa, the 
county-seat of Webster co. It is on the 
Minneapolis and St. Louis, the Illinois 
Central, the Fert Dodge, Deg Moines 
and Southern, and the Chicago Great 
Western railroads, and on the Des 
Moines river. It is an important manu- 
facturing center and has manufactures 
of clay products, brick and tile, oatmeal, 
shoes, etc. It is also an extensive coal 
regrion and in the neighborhood are large 
deposits of sand, clay, and sandstone. 
It is the seat of Tobin College and St. 
Joseph's Mercy Hospital. There is also 
a court house and a public library. It 
has the repair shops of four railroads 
which enter the city. Pop. (1910) 15,543; 
(1920) 19,347. 

FORTH, a river of Scotland, rising on 
' the E. side of Ben Lomond, in Stirling- 
shire. After a sinuous course E. past 
Aberfoyle, Stirling, and Alloa, it unites 
with an arm of the sea called the Firth 
of Forth. Its chief affluents are the 
Teith, Allan, and Devon. The Firth at 
its mouth is 35 or 40 miles wide, from 
Fife Ness on the N., to St. Abb's Head 
on the S. shore, both washed by the Ger- 
man Ocean. It contains several islands, 
of which the chief are Inchgarvie, Inch- 
colm, Inchkeith, the Bass, and the Isls 
of May; the largest of these is but a 
few miles in circuit. Lighthouses are 
erected on Inchkeith and on the Isle of 
May. The Forth possesses many good 
harbors, and St. Margaret's Hope, above 



Queen's Ferry, is one of the safest road- 
steads in the island. Length of river, in- 
cluding its "links," 180 miles. 

FORTH BRIDGE, a remarkable work 
in engineering, spanning the Firth of 
Forth in Scotland; completed and for- 
mally opened on March 4, 1890. The 
construction was begun early in 1883, 
and the total cost up to the time of com- 
pletion may be given in round numbers 
as $16,000,000. Total length, upward of 
XVz miles; cantilever arms projection 
(outer), 680 feet; depth of cantilevers 
over piers, 342 feet; depth at ends, 41 
feet; distance apart of lower members 
at piers, 120 feet; struts, largest diam- 
eter, 8 feet; ties, greatest length, 327 
feet; central girder, span, 350 feet; cen- 
tral girder, depth at center, 51 feet; 
central girder, depth at ends, 41 feet; 
total amount of steel in bridge, over 
50,000 tons, height of cantilever pier 
(masonry) above water, 209 feet. The 
designers of the bridge were Sir John 
Fowler and Benjamin Baker. 

FORTIFICATION, the art of increas- 
ing, by engineering devices, the fighting 
power of troops who occupy a position. 
The relation of fortification to the other 
great divisions of the art of warfare, 
strategy and tactics, may be divided as 
follows: Strategy determines the loca- 
tion of the position, which must conform 
to the general plan of campaign; tactics 
determines the best disposition of the 
troops on the position, for offense or de- 
fense; fortification improves the natural 
features of the position so as to increase 
the chances of success. Fortifications 
are commonly divided into two classes : 
"permanent fortifications" and "field- 
works." Under the former are included 
all works that are constructed for the 
defense of town, harbor, arsenal, dock- 
yard, etc., being carefully laid out and 
built with a view to durability and the 
resistance of an attack, whenever it may 
be made; under the latter, all works are 
classed that are intended to serve a tem- 
porary purpose, such as siege-work and 
batteries for an attack on a fortress, or 
lines of intrenchment hastily thrown up 
for the protection of an army in the 
field, or to check the advance of an 
enemy on an important strategical posi- 
tion. These works differ mainly in the 
manner in which they are built, the ram- 
parts and parapets of permanent works 
being faced or riveted with blocks of 
granite; the terre-plein of the rampart 
on which the guns are worked, the 
cheeks of the embrasures, casemates, 
bomb-proof buildings for magazines, etc., 
being formed of the same material; 
while field-works consist of mounds of 
earth formed of that which is thrown 



FOBTIFICATION 



178 



FORTRESS 



up out of the ditch in front, having the 
ramparts and embrasures riveted with 
sods of turf, fascines, gabions, and sand- 
bags, the terre-plein for the support of 
the guns and their carriages being made 
of pieces of thick timber strongly bolted 
together. 

The great improvements lately made 
in the construction of heavy guns have 
rendered it necessary to revise the sys- 
tems of fortification formerly in vogue. 
Iron and steel turrets are taking the 
place of masonry on low sites which are 
much exposed and where earth cannot be 
employed advantageously. These turrets 
are revolving' cupolas, with spherical 
roofs; while in some instances the guns 
are mounted on disappearing carriages. 
In the United States the frontiers ex- 
posed to attack being very largely mari- 
time, the fortifications are principally 
batteries of heavy guns adapted to a 
contest with steel-plated ships. It was 
formerly usual to mount guns in ma- 
sonry casements built tier over tier, but 
this method has been discarded in con- 
sequence of the modern developments in 
ships and guns. It was demonstrated 
during the World War when the Ger- 
mans smashed the Belgian forts that 
earth and sand constitute the most effec- 
tive defense. Stone, concrete and steel 
cannot withstand modern siegeguns. 

Iron-clad Forts. Since 1859 the prog- 
ress of fortification in Europe was in 
the direction of the use of some form of 
iron ai'mor. In England the necessity 
for using iron in fortifications was ap- 
parent just as soon as this material be- 
gan to be used in ships, and in 1861 
England entered upon the work of re- 
building her forts with iron. It was 
substantially completed in 1878, at a 
cost of $37,000,000, expended on nine 
harbors. Within comparatively recent 
times have come the solid iron turrets, of 
enormous thickness, carrying two 80- 
ton guns each, which form part of the 
defenses of Dover, England. While 
many of these forts, which were built 
while the contest between guns and ar- 
mor was still in progress, can be pierced 
by the more recent guns, yet the number 
of large guns which they mount is far 
superior to the number that could be 
brought against them afloat, and in con- 
nection with torpedoes and ironclad 
ships they afford a secure defense. On 
the Continent the problem was not taken 
up till guns had reached a greater devel- 
opment, and then it was solved generally 
in the direction of using iron alone, in 
the form of turrets or domes. Some 
were of wrought iron, some of steel, and 
some of cast iron. The latter were the 
Gruson cupolas, of which many were 
constructed in various harbors of Ger- 



many, Austria, Belgium, Holland, and 
Italy. See Fort. 

FORT LEE, a borough of New Jersey, 
in Bergen co. It is connected by ferry 
with New York City. Several important 
moving picture studios are located here. 
It has the Institute of the Holy Angels. 
During the Revolutionary War one of 
the forts defending the Hudson was situ- 
ated here. Pop. (1910) 4,474; (1920) 
5,761. 

FORT MADISON, a city of Iowa, the 
county-seat of Lee co. It is on the Mis- 
souri river, and on the Atchison, Topeka, 
and Santa Fe, and the Chicago, Burling- 
ton and Quincy railroads. Its industries 
include pork packing, railroad shops, 
grain elevators, cement works, flour and 
saw mills, farm-implement works, button 
works, etc. It is the seat of the State 
penitentiary and has a public library, 
two hospitals, and several parks. Pop. 
(1910) 8,900; (1920) 12,066. 

FORTRESS, the development of mod- 
ern ordnance has rendered fortification 
as exhibited in the construction of the 
fortresses of the past practically obsolete 
and useless. It is probable that no for- 
tress in the world (with the exception, 
perhaps, of Gibraltar) would form a 
serious obstacle to a modern naval or 
land attack, if the assailants were pro- 
vided with the most approved modern 
heavy guns. In view of this fact, the 
construction of fortresses has been di- 
rected almost entirely to enabling them 
to cause a ricochet of shots directed 
against them rather than to oppose the 
direct impact. Hence modern foi'tresses 
are usually small, and present nowhere 
a direct angle to the line of fire, being 
generally constructed on the turtle-back 
or spherical plan. They usually contain 
but few guns, and those of the heavier 
calibers, rendering them offensive, rather 
than great strongholds of defense, as 
formerly. Of this latter class the strong- 
est fortress surviving in the United 
States is Fortress Monroe, on Hampton 
Roads in Virginia, erected for the 
defense of Norfolk navy yard and the 
Virginian coast at that point. It was 
planned and built by a French engineer, 
and was an important Federal strong- 
hold during the Civil War. Other im- 
portant historical fortresses are Mc- 
Henry, Moultrie, Pickens, Webster, St. 
Augustine, and Sumter. 

The greatest fortress in the world, 
from a strategical point of view, is the 
stronghold of Gibraltar, on the coast of 
Spain. It occupies a rocky peninsula jut- 
ting out into the sea, about one and a half 
miles in length and three-quarters of a 
mile in width. One central rock rises to a 



FORT SCOTT 



179 



FOBT WORTH 



height of 1,435 feet above the sea level. 
Its N. face is almost perpendicular, while 
its E. side is full of tremendous preci- 
pices. On the S. it terminates in what 
is called Europa Point. The W. side is 
less steen than the E., and between its 
base and the sea is the narrow, almost 
level, span on which the town of Gibral- 
tar is built. The fortress is considered 
impregrnable to military assault. The 
regular garrison in time of peace num- 
bers about 7,000. It belongs to England. 

FORT SCOTT, a city of Kansas, the 
county-seat of Bourbon county. It is on 
the St. Louis and San Francisco, the 
Missouri, Kansas and Texas, and the 
Missouri Pacific railroads. It is also on 
the Marmaton river. It is the center of 
important deposits of coal, cement, clay, 
zinc, and lead. The industries include 
foundry and machine shops, flour mills, 
cement works, and manufactures of har- 
ness, medicines, etc. Pop. (1910) 10,463; 
(1920) 10,693. 

FORT SMITH, a city of Arkansas, 
one of the county-seats of Sebastian co. 
It is at the junction of the Arkansas and 
Poteau rivers, and is on the St. Louis 
and San Francisco, the Arkansas Cen- 
tral, the Midland Valley, the Kansas City 
Southern, the Fort Smith and Western, 
and the St. Louis, Iron Mountain and 
Southern railroads. It is an important 
wholesale jobbing center for the sur- 
rounding country, and has a large trade 
in coal, cotton, lumber, etc. Its indus- 
tries include saw and planing mills, iron 
and steel mills, and manufactures of 
brooms, stoves, overalls, refrigerators, 
etc. The river is spanned within the 
city limits by four steel bridges. It has 
a United States court house and post 
office, a high school, a public library, a 
city park, several hospitals, and a na- 
tional cemetery. Pop. (1910) 23,975; 
(1920) 28,870. 

FORTTJNA, in m3rthology, daughter of 
Oceanus according to Homer, or one of 
the Parcae according to Pindar, was the 
goddess of fortune, and from her hand 
were derived riches and poverty, pleas- 
ures and pains, blessings and misfor- 
tunes. She was worshipped in different 
parts of Greece. Bupalus was the first 
who modeled a statue of Fortuna for the 
people of Smyrna, and he represented 
her with the polar star upon her head, 
and the horn of plenty in her hand. The 
Romans held her in high esteem, and 
had no less than eight different temples 
erected to her honor in their city. She 
is generally represented blindfolded, and 
holding a wheel in her hand, as an em- 
blem of her inconstancy. Sometimes she 
appears with wings. 



FORT WAYNE, a city and county- 
seat of Allen CO., Ind. ; at the confluence 
of the St. Mary and St. Joseph rivers, 
and on the Wabash, the Lake Shore and 
Michigan Southern, the Lake Erie and 
Western, the Grand Rapids and In- 
diana, the Fort Wayne, Cincinnati 
and Louisville, and other railroads; 
43 miles S. W. of Defiance, O. It is 
built on a high plateau, covers an area 
of about 10 square miles, and is popi>- 
larly known as Summit City. Here are 
a United States Government building, 
several county buildings, Concordia Col- 
lege (Luth.), and several other educa- 
tional institutions, Hope and St. Joseph 
Hospitals. Fort Wayne has street rail- 
roads, electric lights, sewerage system, 
improved waterworks, several National 
banks, and numerous daily, weekly, and 
monthly periodicals. Among the indus- 
tries are extensive railroad, machine and 
repair shops which occupy many acres, 
flour mills, knitting mills, oil-tank works, 
and packing houses. The French visited 
this locality about 1700, and shortly 
afterward a trading post named Fort 
Miami was founded. The English con- 
structed a fort near the place in 1760. 
General Wayne located a government 
post here in 1794. Pop. (1910) 63,933; 
(1920) 86,549. 

FORT WILLIAM, a city of Canada, 
in the Thunder Bay District, in the 
Province of Ontario. It is on the Kam- 
inistiquia river, at its entrance into 
Lake Superior. The city has excellent 
harbor facilities and carries on a large 
lake traffic. It is the head of lake navi- 
gation on Lake Superior and is the en- 
trance of the wheat fields of western 
Canada. It has repair shops of the 
Canadian Pacific, Grand Trunk Pacific, 
and Canadian Northern railroads. Its 
industries include flour mills, stove 
works, machine-shop, and car-wheel 
foundries, shipbuilding, brickyards, 
breweries, etc. The city has a large 
number of grain elevators. There is a 
number of fine public buildings includ- 
ing a city hall, a court house, hospitals, 
parks, a librarv, and a collegiate in- 
stitute. Pop. (1920) about 20,000. 

FORT WORTH, a city of Texas, the 
county-seat of Tarrant co. It is on the 
Texas and Pacific, the International 
and Great Northern, the Chicago, Rock 
Island and Gulf, the Gulf, Colorado 
and Santa Fe, the Fort Worth and 
Denver City, the St. Louis and San 
Francisco, and other railroads. It is 
also on Trinity river. Fort Worth is 
the center of a large stock-raising and 
agricultural district and has a large 
jobbing trade in general commodities, 



FOBTY IMMORTALS 



180 



FOSSA 



and in hogs, sheep and cattle, grain, 
fruit, and produce. It has large stock 
yards with a daily capacity of over 
30,000 head of cattle, and large packing 
houses. It has several important indus- 
tries, including flour and stock-feed mills, 
rolling mills, railroad repair shops, 
foundries, cotton and oil mills, clothing- 
factories, chemical works, etc. There 
has been built, at a cost of nearly $1,500,- 
000 a large storage dam on the west 
fork of the Trinity river, 7 miles from 
the city, with a storage capacity of 30 
billion gallons of water. Fort Worth is 
the seat of the Fort Worth University, 
the Texas Christian University, and the 
Southwestern Baptist Theological Sem- 
inary, and has a Masonic Orphans' 
Home and School, several academies, a 
number of denominational schools, and 
technical, art, and music schools. There 
are a public library and the Medical Li- 
brary. The city is supplied with an ex- 
cellent system of roads and has over 30 
parks or park places; about 100 
churches; and 10 hospitals. There were 
in 1920 5 National banks. Fort Worth 
was founded as a military post in 1849, 
becoming the county-seat in 1860, and 
was incorporated in 1873. Pop. (1910) 
73,312; (1920) 106,482. 

FORTY IMMORTALS, THE, the 
members of the French Academy. See 
Academy, French. 

FORUM, an open space in Roman 
cities, generally surrounded by a cov- 
ered colonnade, that fronted an ambula- 
tory, and buildings of various kinds, 
such as temples, courts of law, prisons, 
granaries, etc. In the later period of 
the empire, when Rome had attained the 
summit of its glory, there were 19 fora 
within its limits, which were divided 
into two classes, some being especially 
s<t apart for public meetings and the 
proceedings of the law courts, while 
others were devoted to business purposes 
and the requirements of trade. The 
Forum Romanum, the first that was 
erected in Rome, served equally for the 
purposes of trade and all public meet- 
ings, as well as for the administration 
of justice by the consuls, decemvirs, and 
other magistrates of Rome. This forum 
was subsequently distinguished for its 
magniiicence ; the shops were removed, 
and many temples of the heathen gods, 
the senate-house, and the comitium, 
were erected in its immediate vicinity, 
and in communication with it. It was 
also adorned with arches, statues, and 
pulpits, from which public meetings were 
addressed, and which were called rostra, 
from being surrounded with the brazen 
beaks (rostra) , or ornaments of the 
prows of the ships of war that had been 



captured by the Roman triremes. Ex- 
hibitions of gladiators were often shown 
in the forum. The Roman forum corre- 
sponded to the agora of the Greeks, and 
no Roman city or colony was without 
this important center for the transac- 
tion of business and public affairs. Plans 
of the forum at Pompeii and the prin- 
cipal forum of Rome are given in "Pom- 
peii," a work published by the Society 
for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 
See Rome. 

FOSCARI, FRANCESCO, a doge of 
Venice; born in 1372, in 1416 was named 
procurator of St. Mark's and in 1423 
was elected doge. His son, Giacopo, be- 
ing accused of ordering the assassina- 
tion of a senator Donati, the enemies of 
the family created such commotion in 
the state, that he was banished from 
the city, the father having to ratify the 
sentence. Love of his country, and de- 
votion of his wife, compelled the ban- 
ished Foscari to revisit Venice, where 
he was again made prisoner, put to the 
question of the rack, and a second time 
banished, dying soon after of his 
wounds. The bereaved father went mad, 
in which state the enemies of his family 
compelled him to abdicate. He died 
three days after a spasm, upon hearing 
the bells of St. Mark's announce to Ven- 
ice the election of a new ruler. Byron 
wrote on the subject a tragedy entitled 
"The Two Foscari." He died in Venice, 
Nov. 1, 1457. 

FOSCOLO, UGO (fos'ko-16) , an Italian 
poet and patriot; born on the island of 
Zante, Jan. 26, 1778. His tragedy "Thy- 
este" was received with great favor at 
Venice in 1797. "The True Story of 
Two Luckless Lovers, or Last Letters of 
Jacopo Ortis" (1799), afterward re- 
written and renamed "Italy" (1802), 
voices his disappointment that the 
French armies did not liberate Italy; as 
did an outspoken apostrophe to Bona- 
parte. In 1807 was published his finest 
poem, "The Graves." His second tra- 
gedy, "Ajax," brought out at Milan in 
1809, caused his expulsion from Lom- 
bardy; he went to Florence and there 
produced the tragedy "Ricciarda" 
(1813) ; compelled to flee from Italy, he 
composed in Switzerland the bitter satire 
against his enemies, "The One-Volume 
Book of the Super-Revelations of the 
Cleric Didumus, Least of the Prophets. 
He wrote many critical and literary 
essays. He died in London, in 1827. 

FOSSA, in zoology, a term applied to 
certain depressions on the external 
surface, generally the seat of cutaneous 
glands, as the lachrymal fossae in deer 
and antelopes. 



FOSSIL 



181 



FOSTER 



In anatomy (1) In the singular, a 
groove. There are in the ear a fossa of 
the helix, which is a groove called also 
fossa innominata or scaphoidea, and a 
fossa of the antihelix, which is a some- 
what triangular depression, called also 
fossa triangularis or ovalis. There are 
also a fossa of the heart, one of the gall 
bladder, etc. There are also a canine, 
a corodoid, a digastric, a digital and 
many other fossa. (2) In the plural, 
grooves. There are nasal fossae, su- 
perior and inferior occipital, etc. 

FOSSIL, originally, "all bodies what- 
ever that are dug out of the earth are by 
naturalists commonly called by the gen- 
eral name of fossils." 

At present, any body, or the traces of 
the existence of any body, whether an- 
imal or vegetable, which has been 
buried in the earth by natural causes; 
one of the bodies called organic remains. 
Even the cast of a fossil shell, that is 
the impression which it has left on the 
rock, is deemed a fossil. (Used often in 
the plural.) 

In the early part of the 16th century 
fossils were supposed by some Italians 
to have been formed in the hills by the 




FOSSIL — SKELETON OP HYRACOTHERIUM 
VENTICOLUM, FROM EOCENE STRATA 

action of the stars, a view which, prior 
to 1579, Leonardo da Vinci combatted. 
Then the hynothesis arose of a plastic 
force, or, according to Andrea Mattioli, 
a fatty matter capable of fashioning 
stones into organic forms. But the 
hypothesis which held its place longer 
than any other, and is not yet extinct 
among the unscientific, is that they were 
relics of the Mosaic deluge. It is now 
thoroughly proved that the relics are 
really those plants and animals, that 
they were nearly all of them in existence 
ages before the Mosaic deluge, that they 
are not nearly contemporaneous with 
each other, but differ in age by untold 
millions of years, that there is at least a 
progression among them, if not even the 



evolution of the last from the more 
antique. There are breaks or gaps in 
the series of fossiliferous strata, espe- 
cially one between the Palaeozoic and the 
Secondary strata, and another between 
the Secondary and the Tertiary. Mr. 
Darwin showed that it is almost exclu- 
sively strata desposited in seas or lakes 
which at the time were slowly sinking 
that have been preserved; those formed 
when land was rising have as a rule^ 
been washed away. In thf older strata, 
and sometimes in those not so ancient, 
fossils have been destroyed by meta- 
morphic action, and when any rock is 
called non-fossiliferous or azoic, the cau- 
tious geologist means by the term only 
that fossils have not been found in it 
up to the present time. 

FOSSORES, or FOSSORIA, in en- 
tomology, burrowing Hymenoptera, a 
sub-tribe of the hymenopterous tribe 
Aciileata. Sexes two, the individuals in 
both of which are furnished with wings, 
legs formed for burrowing or for run- 
ning, tongue not elongated, but widened 
at the extremity. Habits not social. 
The females of the fossores construct 
holes in the ground, where they form 
their nests. Depositing their eggs, they 
next lay up for the future larvae a supply 
of food consisting of spiders and cater- 
pillars rendered half dead by being 
stung. Many of the fossores are called 
sandwasps. The sub-tribe ils divided 
into eight families: (1) Scoliadas, (2) 
Sapygidse, (3) Pompilidse, (4) Sphe- 
ddse, (5) Bembic-idae, (6) Larridse, (7) 
Nyssonidss, and (8) Crahonidse. 

FOSTER, JOHN WATSON, an Amer- 
ican statesman and diplomat. He was 
born in Pike co., Ind., March 2, 1836. 
He graduated in 1855 from Indiana State 
University and for a time attended the 
Harvard Law School. When the Civil 
War broke out he enlisted as a major in 
the United States Volunteers, rising to 
the rank of Brigadier-General by the 
time the contest closed. After taking a 
prominent part in the councils of the 
Republican party he began his diplo- 
matic career as minister to Mexico. After 
serving seven years at this post and one 
as minister to Russia he practiced inter- 
national law at Washington and thus in 
1883 became Minister to Spain. From 
1885 to 1891 he negotiated for the 
United States a series of reciprocity 
treaties with Germany and Brazil. Presi- 
dent Harrison in 1892 appointed him 
Secretary of State, a post he held until 
Cleveland was inaugurated the following 
year. The closing years of his life saw 
him engaged on many important diplo- 
matic missions for the United States, 



FOSTER 



182 



FOULOIS 



and for a few years he acted as adviser 
to the Emperor of China. He died Nov. 
15, 1917. He w^rote several important 
works, among them being: "A Century 
of American Diplomacy" (1900) and 
"American Diplomacy on the Orient" 
(1903). 

FOSTER, STEPHEN COLLINS, an 
American song-writer; bora in Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., July 4, 1826; was educated 
at Athens Academy and Jeiferson Col- 
lege, Pennsylvania. He composed the 
music and wrote the words of over 125 
popular songs and melodies, among 
which are: "01k Folks at Home"; 
"Nelly Bly"; "Old Dog Tray"; "Come 
Where My Love Lies Dreaming"; "Su- 
wannee River," etc. He died in New 
York City, Jan. 13, 1864. 



(1879): "Kith and Kin" (1881); "The 
Lass of Lavprhouse" (1888) ; "Oriole's 
Daughter" (1893). She died in Lon- 
don, July 30, 1891. 

FOUGERES, a town and capital of an 
arrondissement, in the department of 
Ille-et-Vilaine, France, situated on the 
Nan?on river, 25 miles N. E. of 
Rennes. It is the center of a considerable 
industry in leather goods, boots and 
shoes, sail cloth, dairy products and tim- 
ber, being surrounded by extensive for- 
ests. The population is about 14,000. 

FOULKE, WILLIAM DUDLEY, an 
American writer and publicist, born in 
New York City in 1848. He graduated 
from Columbia University in 1869 and 
after studying law was admitted to the 
bar in 1870. In 1876 he removed to 



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^■••^^•- •'■:•• ■■'■■ r--"-:; :•^■^|^^.•^<4^^ 



FOSSIE — SKELETON OF ICHTHYOSAURUS 



FOSTORIA, a city of Ohio in Seneca 
and Hancock counties, and near the 
boundary line of Wood county. It is on 
the Baltimore and Ohio, the Lake Erie 
and Western, the Hocking Valley, the 
Lake Shore Electric, the New York, 
Chicago, and St. Louis, and the Toledo 
and Ohio Central railroads. It is an im- 
portant industrial community and has 
lime kilns, manufactures of glass, auto- 
mobiles, lumber, etc. In the neighbor- 
hood are extensive oil fields. The city 
was founded by the father of Charles 
Foster, Governor of Ohio and Secretary 
of the United States Treasui-y in 1891- 
1893. Pop. (1910) 9,597; (1920) 9,987. 

FOTHERGILL, JESSIE, an English 
author; born in Manchester, England, 
June 7, 1856. Her stories show a keen 
faculty of observation ; among them are : 
"Healey, a Romance" (1875); "The 
First Violin" (1878), in which Gorman 
life is faithfully portrayed; "Probation" 



Indiana, becoming a member of the Stat© 
Senate in 1883. From 1901 to 1903 he 
was a member of the United States 
Civil Service Commission, and was 
prominently identified with the work of 
the National Civil Service Reform 
League. From 1910 to 1915 he was 
president of the National Municipal 
League. He wrote "Slav or Saxon" 
(1887); "Dorothy Day" (a novel) 
(1911) "Lyrics of War and Peace" 
(1916) ; "Today and Yesterday" (poems) 
(1920). He was a frequent contributor 
to magazines on historical and other 
subjects. 

FOULOIS, BENJAMIN DELAHAUF, 
an American soldier, born in Connecti- 
cut in 1879. He entered the army as a 
private and served until 1901 as a non- 
commissioned officer. In that year he 
was appointed 2d lieutenant of the 17th 
Infantry, and was promoted to be 1st 
lieutenant of the Signal Corps. In 1914 he 



FOUNDATION 



183 



FOUQUIER-TINVILLE, 



was appointed captain of the aviation 
section of the Signal Corps. He was 
promoted to be major in 1917 and in 
the same year was made temporary 
brigadier-general of the Signal Corps. 
He made a special study of aviation 
and was the senior military aviator in 
point of service. He commanded air 
service troops on the Mexican border 
and in 1917-1918 was chief of the air 
Oervice of the A. E. F. 

FOUNDATION, act of founding or 
fixing the base; the base of an edifice; 
original; rise; origin; that part of a 
building which rests on the ground; the 
base or groundwork of anything; estab- 
lishment. A donation or legacy to 
support an institution; an established 
revenue, particularly for a charity; 
endowment; settlement; institution. 

In architecture, the word foundation 
may be applied either to the surface or 
bed on which a building rests, or to the 
lower part of the building which rests on 
the natural bed. (1) Foundation as the 
bed. The best that can be had is solid 
rock, or any kind of resisting incompres- 
sible stratum, free from water. Where 
there is no chance of water, sand forms a 
solid foundation. When the soil is soft, 
loose, and shifting, a solid bearing can 
be obtained only by driving piles or long 
beams of wood sharpened at the end, 
through the soft soil, till they reach a 
hard bottom. This is then planked or 
laid with cross beams, on which the su- 
perstructure is built. The piers of many 
bridges are formed in this manner. 
Where the soil is soft, but not shifting, 
as in the case of made or deposited earth, 
the method of converting is adopted — 
i. e., a large surface is laid with broken 
metal or gravel, and run together with 
hot lime, so as to form a broad, solid, 
artificial rock, on which the building may 
rest. (2) Foundation as the base of the 
building. The broader and larger the 
lower course of the mason work, the 
stronger the wall. The stones should, if 
possible, extend through and through, 
and project on each side of the wall. 
The Romans formed solid bearings of 
concrete as above described. In the dark 
ages, when there was want of knowledge 
combined with want of materials and 
means, many buildings fell fi'om the 
yielding of the foundations. But knowl- 
edge came with experience, and the foun- 
dations of later buildings, during the 
14th and 15th centuries, were built with 
extreme care, and on the virgin soil; the 
stones being as finely dressed as those 
above ground, were necessary to resist 
a strong thrust. 

FOUNDING Act of casting metals. 



FOUQUE, BARON FRIEDRICH DE 
LA MOTTE, a German author; bom in 
Brandenburg, Germany, Feb. 12, 1777. 
His first contributions to literature were: 
"Romances from the Vale of Roncesval" 
(1805); "Story of the Noble Knight 
Galmy and a Fair Duchess of Brittany" 
(1806) ; "Alwin" (1808) ; followed by the 
hero-drama "Sigurd the Snake-Killer" 
(1808) ; the epic poem,"Bertram du Gues- 
clin" (1821); etc. In 1840 he pub- 
lished an autobiography. The work by 
which he is chiefly known to-day is "Un- 
dine" (1811) ; "Sintram" is also still 
familiar. He died in Berlin, Jan. 23, 1843. 

FOUQUET, NICOLAS, a French 
statesman; born in Paris in 1615. He 
was Viscount of Melun and of Vaux, and 
Marquis of Belle Isle, finance minister 
under Louis XIV. of France. Attaching 
himself closely to Mazarin, he received 
in 1650 the important appointment of 
procureur-general to the parliament of 
Paris, and three years later was ad- 
vanced to be superintendent of finance. 
His rapid advance made him ambitious 
of succeeding Mazarin as first minister, 
and in order to secure himself friends 
and a party he distributed money with a 
lavish hand; but he had a formidable 
rival in Colbert. Fouquet's plans were, 
however, brought to naught; for, in the 
first place, Louis himself took the reins 
of power into his own hands when they 
slipped from the grasp of the dead cardi- 
nal, and, in the second place, instigated 
thereto by Colbert, he suddenly arrested 
Fouquet in September, 1661. After a 
trial extending over three years, Fou- 
quet was sentenced to perpetual exile 
and the loss of all his property, but the 
sentence was afterward altered to life- 
long imprisonment. He died in the for- 
tress of Pignerol, March 23, 1680. 

FOUQUIER-TINVILLE, ANTOINE 
QUENTIN. one of the most execrated 
figures of the French Revolution; born 
in Herovel, France, in 1747. His early 
career was immoral, but insignificant. 
On the outbreak of the Revolution, he 
figured as one of the fiercest democrats. 
By Robespierre he was appointed, first, 
a member , then director and public 
accuser, of the revolutionary tribunal. 
Without education, or sense of justice, 
he executed the bloody orders of the 
Committee of Public Safety. Incapable 
of friendship, or of anything even re- 
motely allied to generosity, he systemati- 
cally abandoned his successive coadju- 
tors in their hour of need, and sent to 
the scaffold, without the slightest com- 
punction, Danton and Herbert, Robes- 
pierre and St. Just. He himself died by 
the guillotine, May 7, 1795. 



FOUmERISM 



184 



FOX 



FOURIERISM, a system partly of co- 
operation, partly of socialism ; advocated, 
and to a certain extent carried out, by 
Francois Marie Charles Fourier. 

Fourier's scheme was that what he 
called from the word phalanx, a phalan- 
stery, consisting of about 400 families, 
or 1,800 persons, should live together, 
combining their labor, upon a district 
about a square league in extent. The 
buying and selling transactions requisite 
for the support of the community, were 
to be managed by a single person, which 
would save a multitude of peddling oper- 
ations. If any brought capital into the 
concern, it was not confiscated, but he 
was allowed interest upon it. The labor 
being carried on in common, the profits 
were apportioned on the following sys- 
tem: First a minimum of mere sub- 
sistence money was assigned to every 
member of the society, including those 
incapable of labor. The reniainder of 
the profits were then divided in propor- 
tions agreed on beforehand, to remuner- 
ate labor and talent, and pay interest on 
the capital received. The profits divided 
thus were then expended by the individ- 
ual recipients as they pleased. An effort 
was made about 1852 to form an indus- 
trial colony on Fourier's plan, but the at- 
tempt was unsuccessful. 

FOWL, in its general sense, this term 
is nearly synonymous with birds; but in 
a more restricted sense it means those 
domestic birds brought up in a farmyard 
for the table. Fowls originally came 
from Persia and India, and they are val- 
uable to the breeder in many ways, yield- 
ing profit as they do in eggs, in broods, 
and in feathers. The principal kinds of 
this useful domestic creature are : ( 1 ) the 
game fowl, with erect and slender body 
and showy colors; valued also for the del- 
icacy of the flesh and of the eggs. It is 
this breed which is used for cock fighting. 
(2) The Dorking fowl, so named from 
Dorking, in Surrey, where it has long 
been bred in great numbers for the Lon- 
don market — a breed characterized by an 
additional spur on each leg; often of a 
white color, with short legs; one of the 
most useful of all breeds, both for ex- 
cellence of flesh and for abundance of 
eggs. (3) The Polish fowl, black, with a 
white tuft, a breed very extensively 
reared in France, Egypt, etc., little in- 
clined to incubation, but valued for an 
almost uninterrupted laying of eggs. (4) 
The Spanish fowl, very similar to the 
Polish, but larger, and laying larger 
eggs, on account of which it is now much 
valued, and very common in Great Brit- 
ain; black, with white" cheeks and large 
red comb. (5) The Malay fowl, tall and 



handsome, and very pugnacious, but little 
esteemed. (6) The Hamburg fowl, of 
very be^tiful plumage, and much val- 
ued for the quality both of flesh, and 
eggs, as also for extreme productiveness 
of eggs. (7) The Cochin China fowl, a 
large, tall, ungraceful variety, with 
small tail and wings. Is valuable chiefly 
on account of its fecundity, eggs being 
laid even during winter, and the hens 
incubating frequently. (8) The bantam 
fowl, a diminutive variety, rather curi- 
ous than useful. Of most of these there 
are many sub-varieties and fancy breeds 
— gold-penciled, silver-penciled, etc. The 
guinea fowl, or pintado, is sometimes 
classed among the common order of 
fowls; they are very wild and restless in 
their nature, and, unlike the ordinary 
fowls, they give no notice to any one of 
their laying or sitting; they have conse- 
quently to be closely watched. The 
guinea fowl is very delicate eating, and 
is in season about Lent. See Poultry. 

FOWLER, ELLEN THORNEY- 
CROFT, an English novelist, born in 
1873. She published several volumes of 
verse and a volume of short stories. She 
first achieved fame by the publication 
of "Concerning Isabel Carnaby" (1898). 
This was followed by "A Double Thread" 
(1899) ; "Fuel of Fire" (1902) ; "Place 
and Power" (1903); and "Ten Degrees 
Backward" (1915). 

FOX, in general, the genus Vulpes. 
The foxes differ from the dogs in having 
a long, bushy tail, and the pupil of the 
eye elliptical or nearly linear by day, but 
becoming circular or nearly so by night. 
This fits them to be nocturnal animals. 
The American or red fox is Cayiix fulvus. 
Many skins are annually exported from 
this country. V. lagopus is the Arctic 
fox. The Deccan fox is V. bengalensis, 
though Bengal and the Deccan are some 
distance apart. V. vulgaris, formerly 
and still by many called, after the ex- 
ample of Linnaeus, Canis vulpes, is the 
common English species. Its cunning is 
proverbial. It is an inhabitant of nearly 
all Euope, as well as of western Asia 
and northern Africa, Other species are 
the black or silver gray, the cross-gray, 
and the cross-woods foxes. 

Also Callionymus lyra, the gemmeous 
dragonet, a fish, so called from its yellow 
color. 

In nautical language, a small strand 
of rope made by twisting several rope- 
yarns together. Used for seizings, mats, 
sennits, and gaskets. In mechanics, a 
wedge driven into the split end of a 
bolt to tighten it. 

FOX, CHARLES JAMES, an Eng- 
lish statesman; born in England, Jan. 



FOX 



185 



FOX 



24, 1749; was educated at Oxford; en- 
tered Parliament in 1768; and in 1770 
came forward as a supporter of Lord 
North. After six years' active support 
of that administration he was dismissed 
from office in consequence of a quarrel 
with his chief. Thereupon he joined the 
opposition and became the most formi- 
dable opponent of the coercive measures 
adopted by England toward the Ameri- 
can colonies. In 1782, on the downfall 
of Loi'd North, he was appointed one of 
the secretaries of state, which office he 
held till the death of Rockingham. On 
the dissolution of the Shelburne admin- 
istration in 1783 the North and Fox 
coalition was formed, and he resumed 
his former office; but the rejection of the 
India Bill by the House of Lords led to 
his resignation. It was then that Pitt 
came into power and that the long and 
famous contest between him and Fox be- 
gan. After the death of Pitt in January, 
1806, Fox became Foreign Secretary in 
the Ministry of All the Talents, and was 
on the point of introducing a bill for the 
abolition of the slave-trade, when he 
died in Cheswick, England, Sept. 13, 1806. 

FOX, GEORGE, founder of the Society 
of Friends; born in Drayton in Leices- 
tershire, England, in July, 1624. His 
father was a weaver, and by the strict 
honesty of his conduct had won from his 
neighbors the sobriquet of "Righteous 
Christer." George, while yet a boy, was 
distinguished by his gravity and exem- 
plary conduct. When in the 20th year of 
his age, and for some two or three years 
afterward, Fox describes himself as hav- 
ing been in a very distressed state 
of mind, from which the various pro- 
fessors and clergymen to whom he ap- 
plied for counsel were unable to relieve 
him. From this condition he was at 
length delivered by that which he re- 
garded as the voice of God in his soul, 
directing him to Christ as alone able "to 
speak to his condition." Very soon after 
this he commenced his public ministra- 
tions at Dukinfield, Manchester, and 
the neighborhood. From the first, his 
preaching seems to have made many 
converts and excited much opposition. 
Fox's first imprisonment took place in 
the year 1648, in consequence of his op- 
posing the preacher in "the great steeple- 
house at Nottingham," on a point of 
doctrine. In 1650 he was imprisoned at 
Derby under a false charge of blasphemy. 
One of the committing justices, Bennet, 
acted with great violence on this occa- 
sion. Cromwell, though himself favor- 
able to liberty of conscience, seems to 
have been unable to curb popular hos- 
tility launched against a sect which de- 



nounced all state interferences with reli- 
gion and maintained that the gospel 
should be preached without fee or re- 
ward. About a month after the restora- 
tion of Charles II., Fox was committed 
to Lancaster Castle "on the charge of 
being a common disturber of the peace, 
and of endeavoring to make insurrection 
and embroil the whole kingdom in blood." 
After lying in jail some months, a habeas 
corpus was obtained, and the authorities 
showed their disbelief of these grave 
charges by allowing Fox himself, un- 
bailed and unguarded, to convey to Lon- 
don the sheriff's return to the writ. The 
act empowering magistrates to tender 
the oaths of allegiance and supremacy 
to any person whom they thought fit to 
suspect, operated with great severity 
against the Friends; under its provisions 
Fox was committed to prison at Lancas- 
ter in the beginning of 1664, whence he 
was removed to Scarborough Castle, 
where he lay till the autumn of 1666. In 
1669 Fox married Margaret Fell, the 
widow of one of the judges of the Welsh 
courts. The year 1670 witnessed the 
passing of the most stringent of the Con- 
venticle Acts, forbidding under heavy 
penalties the assembling for religious 
worship, in any house, of more than four 
persons besides the family, except ac- 
cording to the usages of the Church of 
England. Fox exhorted his friends to 
firmness, and himself remained in Lon- 
don, to share with their suff'erings. Soon 
after his recovery from a severe illness 
he sailed for Barbadoes, where he 
exerted himself greatly in the inter- 
ests of religion and humanity. After a 
considerable time spent in Barbadoes, 
Jamaica, and the North American conti- 
nent, he returned to England in 1673. 
Here further persecutions awaited him. 
He underwent 14 months' imprisonment, 
and was at length liberated by the Court 
of King's Bench on account of the errors 
in his indictment. In 1677, in company 
with Penn and Barclay, who had joined 
the Society about 10 years before, he paid 
a visit to Holland and some parts of 
Germany, where his services seem to 
have been well received. The last 15 
years of his life were tranquil as regards 
personal molestation. Persecution of 
Quakers continued throughout the reign 
of Charles II.; and though James, by a 
stretch of the royal prerogative, ordered 
a general release of those imprisoned for 
conscience's sake, the legal toleration of 
dissent was reserved for the next roign. 
In the first year of William and Mary 
was passed the bill which nullified the 
Conventicle Acts, and allowed the Friends 
to make a solemn declaration in lieu of 
taking the oaths, and Fox had the grati- 



FOX 



186 



FBA DIAVOLO 



fication of seeing the public worship of 
the Society legally recognized before his 
death. He died in London, Jan. 13, 1690. 
See Friends, Society of. 

FOX. JOHN (WILLIAM), an Ameri- 
can writer of dialect stories; born in 
1863. He became a contributor to maga- 
zines, and published "The Cumberland 
Vendetta, and Other Stories" (1895) ; 
"Hell Fer Sartain, and Other Stories" 
(1897) ; "Crittenden" (1900) ; "Blue- 
grass" (1901); "A Knight of the Cum- 
berland"' (1906) "Heart of the Hills" 
(1913) "In Happy Valley" (1917) 
"Erskine Dale— Pioneer" (1920). He 
d:ei in 1920. 

FOXGLOVE, in botany, the genus 
Digitalis, and specially the species D. 
piirimrea, the purple foxglove. It grows 
to the height of three or four feet, with 
very long spikes of numerous drooping 
flowers, which are generally purple, 
though occasionally white. D. jnirpurea 
yields a valuable cardiac tonic and diu- 
retic. The Canary foxglove is D. cana- 
riensis; the downy false foxglove is an 
American name for Gerardia flava; and 
the ladies' foxglove is Verbascum th^p- 
sus. They succeed well in light, rich soil. 

FOX HOUND, a hound kept and 
trained for hunting foxes. They are 
smaller than the staghound, averaging 
22 to 24 inches in height. They vary very 
much in color. They possess a very fine 
scent, great fleetness and endurance. 

FRACKVILLE, a borough of Penn- 
sylvania, in Schuylkill co. It is on the 
Pennsylvania and the Philadelphia and 
Reading railroads. There are important 
coal mines in the neighborhood and coal 
mining is the chief industry. Pop. (1910) 
3,118; (1920) 5,590. 

FRACTION, a part of any magnitude, 
integer (whole number) , or unit. For 
example, "two and a fraction" means two 
units and that part of a unit which can 
be distinguished, as one-half, two-fifths, 
and so on. In the fraction ^ in arith- 

a 
metic, or — in algebra, the figure 1, or 

b 
a, is the numerator, and 3, or 6, is the 
denominator; and they represent that, if 
a whole number is divided into three 
or b parts, only one or a parts are taken. 
In the addition of fractions, the fractions 
must be brought down to the same de- 
nominator, and their numerators (as ex- 
pressed in the value of their new denom- 
inator) must then be added, when we 
have one whole fraction. Thus, if we 
want to add Vs and 2-5, we must find 
the least common multiple of 3 and 5, 
which is found to be 15; then, as 3 goes 



5 times into 15, and 5 goes 3 times into 
the same number, we multiply the numer- 
ators of the different fractions by those 
respective quotients, and then add the 
two quantities together. Thus, ys added 
to 2-5 will be 5 added to 6 fifteenths. The 
true definition of a fraction may be 
thus summed up: It is the division of its 
numerator by its denominator; as seven- 
eighths are equivalent to the whole num- 
ber 7 divided by 8 — whence a fraction is 
obtained. Decimal fractions simplify 
calculations greatly, as they are con- 
structed on the principle of having one 
common denominator — a multiple of 10; 
and thus fractions can be added, sub- 
tracted, and divided without repeating 
over the tedious process of bringing down 
to a common denominator. See ARITH- 
METIC; Decimal Fraction. 

FRACTURE, in mineralogy, the ir- 
regular surface produced by breaking a 
mineral across, as distinguished from 
splitting it along the planes of cleavage. 
The chief kinds of fracture enumerated 
by William Phillips and others are con- 
choidal, even, uneven, splintery, and 
hackly. 

In surgery, a solution of continuity in 
a bone. It is said to be simple when the 
bone only is divided, and compound when 
there is also a wound of the integuments 
communicating with the bone, which in 
such cases generally protrudes. In a 
comminuted fracture, the bone is broken 
into several pieces, and in a complicated 
fracture there is in addition to the injury 
done to the bone a lesion of some consid- 
erable vessel, nervous trunk, etc. Frac- 
tures are also termed transverse, oblique, 
etc., according to their direction. 

FRA DIAVOLO ("The Devil's 
Brother"), a Neapolitan robber, whose 
real name was Michael Pezza; born in 
Calabria, 1760. He began life as a stock- 
ing-maker, after which he became a 
friar, and in this capacity was the leader 
of a gang of banditti in Calabria. In 1799 
he assisted Cardinal Ruffo, who headed 
the counter-revolutionists in favor of the 
Bourbons of Naples. For this he re- 
ceived a pardon of his crimes, and a pen- 
sion of 3,600 ducats, with which he was 
enabled to purchase an estate. He lived 
in peace till 1806, when he rose again in 
favor of the expelled Bourbons. He 
entered Spalinga, and threw open the 
prisons, when he was joined by large 
numbers of lazzaroni; but after a severe 
engagement with the Bonapartists, he 
was taken prisoner, condemned, and sum- 
marily executed in the same year. Auber, 
the French musical composer, has written 
one of his best operas founded on the 
adventures of this bandit. 



FBA GIOVANNI ANGELICO 



187 



FRANCE 



ERA GIOVANNI ANGELICO DA 
FIESOLE. See Angblico, Fra. 

FRAGONARD, JEAN HONORE, a 
French painter; born in Grasse in Octo- 
ber, 1732. He studied under Chardin and 
Boucher; and, entering the academy 
schools, gained the prix de Rome in 1752. 
In Italy — which, later, he revisited — he 
was influenced mainly by the works of 
Tiepolo, the last of the great Venetians; 
and he executed many illustrations for 
Saint-Non's "Journey to Naples and 
Sicily." Returning to France, he in 
1765 received 2,400 francs from Louis 
XV. for his "Callirrho^," commissioned 
for reproduction in Gobelin tapestry; 
then he ceased to be academic, and began 
to be personal, to follow his true bent — 
helped to be most himself by the art of 
Venice and by the art of Rubens. He is 
well represented in the Louvre, most 
typically in its La Gaze collection by such 
works as "Bacchante Endormie" and 
"La Chemise Enlevee." He died in Paris, 
Aug. 22, 1806. 

FRAME, in engineering, the strong 
framework, outside the wheel, which sup- 
ports the boiler and machinery on the 
axes of a locomotive engine. 

FRAMINGHAM, a town in Middlesex 
CO., Mass.; on the Sudbury river, and on 
the New York, New Haven, and Hart- 
ford, and the Boston and Albany rail- 
roads; about 20 miles W. of Boston. It 
comprises the villages of Framingham, 
South Framingham, and Saxonville. 
Here are a high school, a State Normal 
School, Historical and Natural History 
Societies, the State Woman's Reforma- 
tory, several National and savings 
banks, daily and weekly newspapers, and 
street railroad and electric light plants. 
It has a large industry in woolen goods. 
Pop. (1910) 12,948; (1920) 17,033. 

FRAMPTON, SIR GEORGE JAMES, 
a British sculptor. He studied under 
W. S. Frith and entered the Royal Acad- 
emy schools in 1881. In 1887 he won 
Gold Medal and Travelling Studentship 
and since then has won many medals and 
other honors in several countries. Has 
executed many memorials and statues, 
including that of Queen Victoria for Cal- 
cutta, Southport, St. Helens, Newcastle- 
on-Tyne, Winnipeg, and Leeds. Among 
his other works are the terra-cotta deco- 
ration on the Constitutional Club, Lon- 
don; the sculpture on the Glasgow Art 
Galleries and Lloyd's Register, London; 
the entrance to Electra House, Moorgate 
Street, London; spandrels at the en- 
trance of the Victoria and Albert Mu- 
seum; figures on the spires of St. Mary's, 
Oxford; saints on the shrine of William 
of Wykeham, Winchester Cathedral; 



lions at the British Museum; statues of 
Queen Mary at Calcutta and Delhi; 
Edith Cavell Memorial, London. Has 
also designed many medals, including the 
British Coronation medal. 

FRANCE, a republic of S. W. Eu- 
rope; bounded on the N. and N. E. by 
the North Sea, Strait of Dover, English 
Channel, and Belgium; E. and S. E. 
by the Alps, separating it from Italy, 
Switzerland, German Empire, and the 
Mediterranean; S. by the Mediterranean 
and the Pyrenees, that separate it from 
Spain; and W. by the Atlantic Ocean. 
By the terms of the Peace Treaty with 
Germany signed on June 28, 1919, 
Alsace-Lorraine was transferred to 
France, to date from the armistice of 
November 11, 1918. The districts of 
Lower Alsace, Upper Alsace and Lor- 
raine became the Departments of Bas- 
Rhin, Alsace; Haut-Rhin; and Moselle. 
The total area added to France was 
5,605 square miles, with a population in 
addition of 1,874,014, making the total 
area 212,659 square miles and the popu- 
lation 41,475,523. 

Topography. — Generally, France may 
be said to lie in a gently descending 
slope between the mountains and the 
sea. The principal mountains are the 
Alps, designated in their various parts 
as the Maritime Alps, between France 
and Italy; the Cottian Alps, bounding 
the province of Savoy; the Graian Alps, 
between France and Switzerland, and 
the Pennine Alps, reaching to St. Gott- 
hard. Branch ranges of the Alps in the 
interior make the whole country more or 
less mountainous. Of these spurs the 
Alps of Valais, Savoy, Dauphine, and 
Faucigny, and the Great Chartreuse 
group, are the most important. Next 
in importance to the Alps are the Pyre- 
nees, across nearly the entire Spanish 
boundary, and then N. nearly 300 miles. 
This range, called the Cevennes Moun- 
tains, is continued by the Cote d'Or. The 
Faucilles connect the Cote d'Or A\'ith the 
Vosges range on the Swiss frontier. In 
the interior are the mountains of Lim- 
ousin, and the Aubrac system. Some of 
the highest peaks are famous, Mt. Blanc, 
15,776 feet; Mt. Cenis, noted for the 
great tunnel that pierces it; St. Gotthard 
and Mt. Viso, 12,585 feet, of the Alps; 
and Pique d'Etats, 10,302 feet; Pic 
d'Carlitte, 10,203 feet; Nethou, 11,168 
feet; and Mount Perdu, 10,995 feet, of 
the Pyrenees. The Seine, Loire, Garonne, 
Rhine, Meuse, Rhone, and Scheldt are 
the principal rivers of the country. Some 
of the chief affluents are the Maine and 
Allier. flowing into the Loire; the Dor- 
dogne, that joins the Garonne to form 
the Gironde; the Sambre, flowing mto 



FBANCE 



188 



FBANCE 



the Meuse; the Moselle, flowing into the 
Rhine; and the Saone, flowing into the 
Rhone. France has over 1,500 miles of 
sea-coast, of which 395 is Mediter- 
ranean, 584 Atlantic, and 572 washed 
by the North Sea, English Channel, and 
Dover Straits. The principal ports are 
Havre, at the mouth of the Seine ; Brest 
on the W. extremity of Brittany; 
Nantes, on the Loire estuary; Bordeaux, 
on the Garonne, having the Gironde 
estuary for a harbor; and Toulon on the 
Mediterranean. The Atlantic coast is 
mostly bold and rocky. The principal 
outlying islands are the Channel Islands 
in Bay St. Michael. The island of 
Corsica, in the Mediterranean, belongs 
to France. 

Agriculture. — France is essentially an 
agricultural country of great richness 
and fertility. There were in 1912 nearly 
100,000,000 acres available for cultiva- 
tion, and of this about 60,000,000 acres 
were under crops. The war area in- 
cluded some of the richest agricultural 
land in the country and this, for more 
than four years, was practically un- 
touched, and after the conclusion of the 
war remained in such condition that it 
will be probably useless for cultivation 
for many years. The arable ground torn 
up by shell fire and troops was about 
9,925,000 acres. The fact that practically 
all the men available were engaged in 
the armies or in military services, threw 
the burden of agricultural cultivation 
on the women, girls, and boys. In spite 
of this fact the production of agricul- 
tural products continued to an amazing 
extent. The decrease in production, how- 
ever, is shown by comparative figures. 
There were planted to wheat in 1914 
6,060,000 hectares (a hectare is equal to 
2.47 acres) ; in 1919 4,579,000 hectares, 
and in 1920 4,896,000 hectares. There 
were planted in rye in 1914 1,050,000 
hectares; in 1919 827,000; and in 1920 
906,000. In 1914 there were planted to 
oats 3,590,000 hectares; in 1919 2,758,- 
000; and in 1920 3,014,000. France is 
a great wine producing country. The 
production of wine in 1919 was as great 
as that in the pre-war period, amounting 
to 1,132,161,000 gallons. The Germans 
removed from France a great number of 
cattle and horses. The cattle taken by 
them numbered 523,000 head; the horses 
and mules, 367,000; and the sheep and 
goats, 465,000 head. According to the 
terms of the Peace Treaty these ani- 
mals were to be replaced. In 1920 74,000 
head of cattle, 4,400 horses and mules, 
and 43,000 sheep and goats were re- 
placed. 

Mineral Production. — Prior to the 
World War there were 41,638 mines and 
quarries, employing 372,517 workers. 



The annual yield of the mines was 
valued at 829,458,262 francs and of the 
quarries 305,955,651 francs. During the 
war the coal area was directly in the 
line of military operations and the coal 
mines were not worked during that time. 
The systematic destruction of the coal 
mines was carried on by the Germans. 
The production of coal before the war 
was 42,000,000 tons. The production in 
1920 was about 2,000,000 tons a month. 
By the terms of the Peace Treaty Ger- 
many is to deliver to France a specified 
amount of coal a month, and France has 
practical possession of the Sarre Basin. 
See Sarre Basin. 

The iron industry was of great im- 
portance during the war. There were in 
operation in 1914 72 blast furnaces, and 
in 1920 there were about 17 operated. 
The iron and steel industry in the in- 
vaded districts represented 85 per cent, 
of the total French production before 
the war. In 1920 this was being re-estab- 
lished to about 50 per cent., except the 
heavy steel works, of which about 14 
per cent, had been restored. Of the roll- 
ing mills ZV2 per cent, had been restored. 
The rolling mills were dismounted and 
machinery taken to Germany. Accord- 
ing to the terms of the Peace Treaty 
this must be restored to France. 

Commerce. — The commercial life of 
France was entirely disorganized as a 
result of the World War. In 1917 the 
imports were valued at 16,311,000,000 
francs and the exports to 3,837,000,000 
francs. During the first half of 1919 the 
imports exceeded the exports by 10,000,- 
000,000 francs, while the imports during 
that period exceeded by 2,389,000,000 
francs those during the same period 
in 1918. In spite of this enormous in- 
crease in value, the quantity had slightly 
diminished. This decrease was in ma- 
terial and manufactured products, while 
in food products there was an increase. 
As a result of the rise of prices the 
value of the exports, in spite of the fall- 
ing off in quantity was nearly equal to 
that of 1913. The enormous rise of price 
was shovni by the fact that the quantity 
had diminished by more than 500 per 
cent. The imports of food for the first 
eight months of 1919 amounted to 5,463,- 
270,000 francs, and the total imports for 
the eight months of that year amounted 
to 18,475,706,000 francs. This was an 
increase of about 4,000,000,000 francs 
over the same period of 1918. The im- 
ports greatly exceeded the exports, and 
this continued throughout the year. The 
imports from Jan. 1 to Nov. 30, 1919, 
amounted to 25,336,978,000 francs, while 
the exports amounted to 6,223,448,000 
francs, or a deficit of about 19,000,000,- 
000 francs. This condition is explained 



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by the fact that nearly all French ex- 
ports fall under the head of luxuries, 
for which it was difficult to find a mar- 
ket. The total imports for the first five 
months of 1920 amounted to 13,041,000,- 
000, while the exports amounted to 5,- 
970,000,000 francs. The chief articles 
of import are coal and coke, cast iron 
and steel, cereals, arms and munitions, 
chemical products and machinery. The 
chief articles of export are textiles, raw 
silk and yarn, leather, chemical products, 
and paper. 

Transportation. — There were prior to 
the World War, about 25,000 miles of 
railway open for traffic. During the war 
the railroads were greatly disorganized 
and were used chiefly for war purposes. 
During the period of the war 1,400 miles 
of principal line were practically de- 
stroyed, while 1,480 miles of branch lines 
were destroyed. By 1920 the principal 
lines had been entirely repaired, while 
half of the branch lines had also been 
restored to use. In 1919 measures were 
passed providing for an increased effici- 
ency in the operation of roads and a 
satisfactory organization of the great 
railroad systems. During 1919-1920 ex- 
traordinary efforts were made to restore 
normal conditions of operation of the 
railroads, especially of the battle area 
where they had suffered most severely. 
The great canal system also suffered 
greatly during the war. About 1,000 
miles of canal were destroyed, of which 
485 miles had been repaired by 1920. 
32,000 miles of roads were also de- 
stroyed. Of this 10,000 miles were re- 
paired in part and 1,122 miles com- 
pletely restored in 1920. 

Education. — The public schools con- 
stitute the University of France and 
are divided into primary, secondary, and 
superior. Before the war there existed 
6,445 schools. Of these, 5,345 had been 
re-established in 1920. The total number 
of pupils of school age is 6,000,000. 
Of this about 3,000,000 are enrolled in 
the public schools. There are about 70,- 
000 schools and 150,000 teachers. Second- 
ary instruction is supplied by the lycees 
and by the communes in the colleges, 
and by associations and private indi- 
viduals in free establishments. There are 
about 120 lycees, with about 60,000 
pupils, and about 200 communal colleges 
with about 30,000 pupils. The higher 
education is supplied by the state and 
the universities and special schools. 
There are 16 universities in France. 
They are as follows: Aix-en-Provence, 
Besangon, Bordeaux, Caen, Clermont- 
Ferrand, Dijon, Grenoble, Lille, Lyon, 
Montpellier, Nancy, Paris, Poitiers, 
Rennes, Strasbourg and Toulouse. There 
were in the universities in 1917 about 

Vol. IV— Cyc— M 



15,000 pupils. Professional and techni- 
cal instruction is provided in profes- 
sional schools. 

Religion. — There is no religion recog- 
nized by the state. Under the law of 
December 9, 1905, the churches were 
separated from the state, and the ad- 
herents of all creeds were authorized to 
fonn associations for public worship. All 
buildings actually used for public wor- 
ship and as dwellings were made over 
to associations for public worship. There 
are in France 17 archbishops and 68 
bishops of the Roman Catholic Church. 
The Associations law, passed July 1, 
1901, requires religious communities to 
be authorized by the state and no mo- 
nastic association can be authorized with- 
out a special law in each particular 
case. The prevailing religion is Roman 
Catholic. 

War Destruction and Reconstruction. 
— The following figures are prepared by 
Andre Tardieu. The population driven 
from their homes by the war amounted 
to 2,728,000. Those returned in 1920 
numbered 2,023,000. There were de- 
stroyed 4,068 municipal governments, 
of which 4,006 had been re-established in 
1920. The dwelling houses damaged or 
wholly destroyed numbered 574,777. Of 
these, 13,100 had been rebuilt and 178,- 
500 had been repaired in 1920. There 
had been constructed 46,570 temporary 
houses. The temporary houses and those 
rebuilt and repaired sheltered 887,000 
people. The remainder of the returning 
population found quarter in the undam- 
aged houses. Factories destroyed num- 
bered 11,500. Those restored to work 
in 1920 numbered 3,540, and those in 
process of rebuilding in that year num- 
bered 3,812. Reconstruction was under- 
taken on a large scale by the govern- 
ment and also by organizations estab- 
lished in the United States and other 
countries. In many cases towns and 
cities in the United States undertook the 
reconstruction of cities and towns in 
France. In spite of these efforts, how- 
ever, the devastated ai'ea in 1921 had 
practically been untouched. The French 
depended in a large measure on the in- 
demnity to be received from Germany 
for the reconstruction of this area. The 
delay in receiving any funds from the 
German Government made it necessary 
to adopt other measures. 

The effect of the war on the popula- 
tion is indicated by the fact that the 
pre-war population was 37,790.000. 
There were mobilized 8,410,000 men out 
of a total subject to mobilization (19 
to 50 years) of 9,420,000, or a mobiliza- 
tion o*f 89.5 per cent, of the available 
number. There were killed during the 
war 1,364,000 men or 16 per cent of 



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190 



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those mobilized. The total wounded num- 
bered 3,000,000. Of these 740,000 were 
incapacitated by the loss of an arm, leg, 
eye, or otherwise. 

Finance. — The public debt on July 31, 
1914, amounted to 27,264,937,331 francs. 
The consolidated public debt contracted 
in France from July 31, 1914, to June 
30, 1920, amounted to 92,434,336,500 
francs. The funded debt contracted from 
July 31, 1914, to June 30, 1920, amounted 
to 19,838,736,000 francs. The floating 
debt on June 30, 1920, amounted to 71,- 
487,930,000 francs. There were advanced 
from banks sums amounting to 26,020,- 
000,000 francs, making a total debt on 
July 30, 1920, of 247,045,937,831. The 
Bank of France had on hand gold 
amounting to 5,558,603,903 francs and of 
silver, 247,483,930 francs, or a total of 
5,806,087,833. The total expenditure in 

1919 was 48,793,884,587 francs. Of this 
36,675,781,168 francs was for military 
and special expenditures. The budget for 

1920 provided for expenditures amount- 
ing to 17,861,140,000 francs. The for- 
eign debt included $2,785,300,000 ad- 
vanced by the United States Government. 

Army and Navy. — See Army and 
Navy. 

Colonies. — The colonies of France in 
Asia include French India, French Indo- 
China, Cochin-China, Annam, Cambodia, 
Tonking, and the territory of Kwang 
Chau Wan on the coast of China. In 
Africa are included Algeria, practically a 
government of Morocco; French Congo; 
Madagascar; Mayotte and the Comoro 
Islands; Reunion; French Somaliland; 
French West Africa and the Sahara, 
and Tunis. In America, they include 
Guadeloupe and dependencies, French 
Guiana; Martinique, and St. Pierre and 
Miquelon. In Austi-alasia the colonies 
are New Caledonia and dependencies, and 
the French establishments in Oceania. 

Government. — The government of 
France is that of a republic, the present 
republic dating from 1870. The execu- 
tive and judiciary powers are vested in 
a President, chosen by the Senate and 
Chamber of Deputies, on joint ballot, 
and serving for seven years. The legis- 
lative body consists of a Senate, one- 
third of whose number is elected by the 
Senate itself, and the remainder by spe- 
cial bodies in each department, and in 
the colonies, and a Chamber of Depu- 
ties, the members of which are elected by 
popular suifrage, one from each arron- 
dissement, and one additional for each 
100,000 population or fraction of the 
same in the arrondissement, in excess of 
100,000. The Cabinet of the President 
is composed of Ministers of Foreign Af- 
fairs, of Interior, Justice, War, Marine, 
Finance, Colonies, Works, Commerce, 



Agriculture, Labor, Liberated Territories, 
Hygiene, of Assistance and Social Pre- 
vision and of Pensions, Awards and War 
Grants. For administrative purposes 
France is divided into communes (local 
units), of which there are 37,946; can- 
tons comprised of communes, 2,899; ar- 
rondissements, 362; departments, 90, and 
provinces, 37. The communes are gov- 
erned locally by a mayor and municipal 
council (in the case of Paris, by a Presi- 
dent and Vice-President), The cantons, 
usually comprising 12 communes, have 
no administrative officers; the arrondis- 
sement, usually consisting of 8 cantons, 
is governed by a sub-prefect. The de- 
partments, usually comprising 4 arron- 
dissements, are each governed by a pre- 
fect, appointed by the President of the 
Republic. He superintends public order, 
commands the police, etc. Each depart- 
ment has a local legislative council, elect- 
ed from the cantons. 

History. — France was originally known 
to the Romans by the name of Trans- 
alpine Gaul; but after its conquest 
by Caesar it was divided into the 
four provinces of Provincia Romanorum 
(Provence), Gallica Aquitanica, Celtica, 
and Belgica. In the 5th century it was 
subdivided into 17 provinces, inclusive 
of all the territory on the E. bank of 
the Rhine. At this time the Gennanic 
nations began to overrun Gaul; the Visi- 
goths established themselves from the 
Loire to the Pyrenees, where they estab- 
lished a kingdom that lasted till about 
540. Burgundians settled in the E., from 
the Lake of Geneva to the Rhine, and 
afterward stretched along the Rhone to 
the Mediterranean. The independent 
sovereignty they erected lasted till about 
532. The Franks, whose dominion swal- 
lowed up those of both the foregoing 
tribes, had long been settled in the N.; 
and Pharamond, their chief in 420, is 
considered the foundei' of the French 
monarchy, as he was of the first or 
Merovingian race of Frankish kings. In 
486 Clovis defeated Syagrius, the Roman 
general, at Soissons^, and in 507. by his 
victoi*y over the Visigoths, he rendered 
himself master of all the counti-y be- 
tween the Loire and the Garonne. ^ On 
the death of Clovis. in 511, his dominions 
were divided into four kingdoms — those 
of Paris, Metz, Soissons, and Orleans. 
These, however, were reunited in 558. 
In 732 Charles Martel defeated the 
Saracens in the S. of France, and ex- 
pelled them from the kingdom. Under 
Pepin and Charlemagne the country was 
relatively peaceful and prosperous; but 
after the latter's death things returned 
to their original state of confusion. 
Under his immediate successor France 
was again divided into four parts, and 



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191 



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the Normans began to ravage its N. 
provinces; the power of the nobility also 
rapidly increased and the last sovereign 
of the Carlovingian dynasty, Louis V. 
in 986-987, possessed only the town of 
Laon. His successor, Hugh Capet, Count 
of Paris and Orleans, the founder of 
the third race of kings, governed only 
the Ile-de-France, Picardy, and the Or- 
leannais; the dukes of Normandy, Brit- 
tany, Aquitaine, Gascony, Lorraine, and 
Burgundy, the count of Flanders, Cham- 
pagne, Vermandois, Toulouse, and sev- 
eral minor seigneurs, shared among 
them the rest of the modern kingdom. 
Vermandois was united to the crown 
by Philip Augustus; Toulouse and 
Perche, by Louis IX.; Champagne, in 
1274; the Lyonnais, Dauphiny, and Lan- 
guedoc, in the 14th century; Berri, Nor- 
mandy, Gascony, Burgundy, Anjou, 
Maine, and Provence, in the 15th; Bour- 
bonnais, Auvergne, Brittany, Lorraine, 
and considerable territories in the S. W. 
in the 16th; and Flanders, Artois, 
Franche-Comte, and Alsace in the 17th 
century. While the monarchy gained in 
consistency and extent, the regal power 
was making constant advances. At 
length, under the administration of 
Richelieu, the nobles were stripped of 
all power; and there being no other body 
in the State, with the exception of the 
parliaments — which had degenerated in- 
to little else than courts of law — that 
enjoyed any constitutional privileges, 
the power of the crown was raised above 
control. Under the vigorous, and for a 
lengthened period prosperous, govern- 
ment of Louis XIV., the royal preroga- 
tive arrived at a maximum. During the 
regency and the subsequent part of the 
reign of Louis XV., abuses of all sorts 
multiplied on all hands, and were no 
longer concealed by the dazzling splen- 
dor and magnificence of the preceding 
period. 

Louis XVI., who ascended the throne 
in 1774, was actuated by the best in- 
dentions, but he wanted the firmness of 
purpose and capacity required in so des- 
perate a crisis. At length, after a 
variety of futile expedients had been in 
vain resorted to, it was resolved, in 
1789, to hold a meeting of the States- 
General, which had not been convened 
since 1614, for effecting the necessary 
changes and averting a public bank- 
ruptcy. This was the commencement of 
that tremendous revolution which cost 
Louis XVI. the crown and his life, and 
destroyed every vestige of the govern- 
ment and institutions that existed when 
it broke out. The atrocities connected 
with the Revolution were in wild, but 
not unnatural excesses of an unin- 
structed populace that had suddenly 



been emancipated from a state of ex* 
treme degradation. ' 

The proscriptions and anarchy by 
which the Revolution was accompanied 
continued till Napoleon attained to the 
supreme direction of affairs. The talents 
of this extraordinary man were surpass- 
ed only by his ambition, which, by over- 
stepping all bounds, precipitated him in- 
to enterprises that ultimately led to his 
overthrow. In 1814 the Bourbons were re- 
placed on the throne; but in 1830 they 
were re-expelled from the kingdom. The 
crown was then offered, under condi- 
tions, to Louis Philippe, Due d'Orleans, 
by whom it was accepted. He has the 
merit of having contributed, under very 
difficult circumstances, to the mainte- 
nance, for a lengthened period, of the 
peace of France and Europe. Under his 
reign the Revolution of Feb. 24, 1848, 
broke out, and resulted in the establish- 
ment of the republic, with a provisional 
government. 

A new constitution having been voted 
by a "Constituent Assembly" of 900 
members. Prince Louis Napoleon was 
elected head of the republic, for four 
years, by 5,562,843 votes, on Dec. 10, 
1848. The prince President dissolved 
the National Assembly by a coup d'etat, 
Dec. 2, 1851, and having remodeled the 
constitution, appealed to universal suf- 
frage, which declared him president for 
10 years, by 7,439,216 votes, on Dec. 21, 
1851. By a third vote, Louis Napoleon 
was chosen Emperor of France, by 7,- 
864,216 against 31,145 votes, on Nov. 
22, 1852, and assumed the title of Napo- 
leon III., Emperor of the French, on 
Dec. 1, 1852. For the history ol France 
since 1852, see Napoleon. 

The government of Napoleon III. was 
in all essentials an absolute monarchy. 
The legislative powers and the suffrage 
were entirely within his control. In 
order to quiet the dissatisfaction of the 
people, Napoleon entered upon an ag- 
gressive foreign policy. He made an al- 
liance with England and France against 
Russia in 1854, and the successful out- 
come of the Crimean War was a per- 
sonal triumph for him. Paris became the 
diplomatic capital of Europe, follo\\ing 
the Congress of Paris in 1856. Napoleon, 
in 1859, in the role of the champion 
of the oppressed nationalities, aided 
Italy against Austria and obtained as 
a reward possession of Savoy and Nice. 
His attempts at intel•^'ention in Poland 
in 1863 and in Schleswig-Holstein in ; 
the following year, were, however, un- • 
successful. Far more disastrous, how- 
ever, was his invasion of Mexico and 
the establishment there of an empire 
under Maximilian of Austria. The fail- 
ure of this empire and the execution of 



FBANCE 



192 



FRANCE 



Maximilian were fatal blows at Napo- 
leon's prestige. This was followed by the 
defeat of Austria in 1866 and the rise 
of Prussia, which threatened to deprive 
France of the leading position in Euro- 
pean politics. While there was economic 
prosperity in France and great indus- 
trial development, there were many signs 
of dissatisfaction. Opposition to the 
Empire continued to grow until in 1869 
Napoleon was obliged to grant a respon- 
sible ministry. It soon appeared, how- 
ever, that this was in reality without 
power and that the personal govem- 
roent of the Emperor continued. An ap- 
peal to the people failed and the neces- 
sity of regaining his influence led Napo- 
leon to enter once more upon an aggres- 
sive course of action in foreign affairs. 
This issue of the succession to the va- 
cant Spanish throne precipitated the 
crisis between France and Prussia, 
whose foreign policy was now conducted 
by the genius of Bismarck. Napoleon, 
deceived by the false reports of his min- 
isters in relation to the efficiency of the 
French army, permitted himself to be 
carried into the war with Prussia, which 
had been silently preparing for many 
years for such a conflict. The Franco- 
Prussian War was of short duration. 
The succession of defeats for the French 
ended on Sept. 2, 1870, in the sur- 
render of Sedan. On Sept. 4, the 
Emperor and his descendants were de- 
clared forever excluded from the throne 
and France was proclaimed a republic. 
Following a period of disorder the first 
National Assembly met in February, 
1871, at Bordeaux, and the Third Repub- 
lic was formed. A treaty of peace was 
signed with Germany at Versailles on 
Feb. 26 and was quickly ratified by 
the French Government. France was 
obliged to cede Alsace and parts of Lor- 
raine to Prussia, and pav an indemnity 
of 5,000,000,000 francs. Not until this 
indemnity was paid, in September, 1873, 
were the Prussian troops withdrawn 
from French territory. There were vio- 
lent outbreaks of the commune in 1871, 
but these were suppressed. On Aug. 31 
of that year, Thiers received from the 
National Assembly the title of President 
of the Republic. He resigned in 1873 
and Marshal MacMahon was elected for 
a period of seven years. The National 
Assembly in 1873 adopted laws provid- 
ing for the constitution of the National 
Legislature. MacMahon resigned in 1879 
and was succeeded by Jules Grevy. In 
spite of attempts at the revival of the 
monarchy, republican sentiment con- 
tmued to grow. The constitution was 
revised in 1884. France, in 1881, entered 
upon a foreign colonial policy by estab- 
lishing a protectorate over Tunis. This 



was followed in 1883 by the enforcement 
of a claim of certain rights over Mada- 
gascar, which in 1896 became a French 
possession. In 1884 the war with China 
resulted in the establishment of a 
French protectorate over Annam and 
Tonking. M. Grevy was re-elected in 
1885, but resigned in 1887. He was suc- 
ceeded by Sadi Carnot, in whose admin- 
istration occurred the Panama Canal 
scandal. 

In 1889 there was a formidable at- 
tempt to overthrow the republic by a 
union of all parties favoring a mon- 
archy. This was under the leadership of 
General Boulanger. After promises of 
success, the movement failed and the 
republic continued to grow in strength. 
President Carnot was assassinated in 
1894 and was succeeded by Casimir- 
Perier, who in 1895 resigned and was 
succeeded by Felix Faure. In the latter's 
administration and that of his successor, 
Emile Loubet, occurred the famous 
DreyfuE case, which for a time threat- 
ened the downfall of the republic. The 
chief political tendency of this period 
was the increase of the Socialist power. 
Alexandre Millerand, the leader of the 
Socialists, at this time first emerged into 
power. In 1901 the Associations Law 
brought religious congregations under 
government supervision. The struggle 
between the Church and State continued 
throughout the following years, and 
ended in the complete separation of the 
Church and State in France, in 1905. 

France had in 1891 formed an alliance 
with Russia, thus offsetting the impor- 
tance of the Triple Alliance. This alliance 
was strengthened throughout the follow- 
ing years and cordial relations were 
established with Italy. These relations 
were chiefly due to Th^ophile Delcasse, 
who also accomplfehed in 1904 an agree- 
ment with England by which France 
abandoned certain rights in Newfound- 
land in return for territorial concessions 
in west Africa. France also recognized 
the predominance of Great Britain in 
Egypt in return for the right of France 
to maintain order in Morocco. 

The defeat of Russia in the war with 
Japan left France .without a strong ally, 
and Germany seized the opportunity to 
bring about the dismissal of Delcasse, 
whose policies were regarded by the Ger- 
man Government as hostile to it. The 
Algeciras Conference, which met in 1906, 
gave France certain customs rights on 
the Algerian frontier. Germany pro- 
tested in 1008 and 1911 that the French 
sphere of influence was too extensive. 
In the latter year the German Emperor 
sent a warship to Agadir to protect 
German interests. France, however, was 
strongly supported by England, and Ger- 



FBANCH 



193 



FRANCE 



many was obliged to give way and 
to recognize rights of France in Morocco. 
In return of this recognition France 
ceded to Germany 112,000 square miles 
of the French Congo. In 1912 France 
secured a practical protectorate over 
Morocco. 

The economic history of France is 
marked during this period by the rapid 
growth of industrial unionism and the 
development of the theory of direct 
action (See Syndicalism). General 
strikes occurred in 1909 and in 1910, but 
these were suppressed by the prompt 
action of Premier Briand who shattered 
the railroad strike by threatening mili- 
tary punishment. 

Raymond Foincare was elected Presi- 
dent in 1913. Threatening conditions in 
Europe, especially in Germany, led to 
demands for an increase in the size of 
the army, and this was accomplished. 
During the closing months of 1913, dis- 
turbances in Alsace-Lorraine, particu- 
larly in Zabern, increased the growing 
hostility between France and Germany. 
Germany's policy of aggressiveness and 
militarism foreshadowed the outbreak of 
the World War. For an account of 
France's part in this great struggle, see 
World War. 

The progress of the war was marked 
by many important political events. 
The first of these was the assassination 
of M. Jaures, the leader of the Unified 
Socialists, in 1914. The French Cabinet 
was reorganized on Aug. 26, 1914, 
with M. Viviani as Prime Minister. On 
Sept. 3, as a result of the possible 
danger of the German occupation of 
Paris, the French Government was re- 
moved to Bordeaux, where it remained 
until December of that year. Delcasse 
resigned as Foreign Minister on Oct. 
30. 1914. On Dec. 2, 1915, General 
Joffre was placed in supreme command 
of all the French armies. Changes in 
the Cabinet were made during 1916 as a 
result of criticism in respect to the con- 
duct of the war. There were, indeed, 
throughout the struggle, continuous 
changes in the ministry, which continued 
until the formation, in 1917, of a new 
ministry under Clemenceau. This con- 
tinued throughout the duration of the 
war. A number of prominent persons 
were involved in charges of disloyalty 
and treason. These included Malvy, 
Minister of the Interior; Caillaux, a 
former Prime Minister; and Senator 
Humbert. There were also treason 
charges against the editors of the Bon- 
net Rouge, Bolo Pasha, and others. All 
these men were charged with being con- 
cerned either directly or indirectly in 
treasonable dealings with the enemy. 
They were all eventually tried and found 



guilty, with the exception of Senator 
Humbert, who was acquitted. France 
was represented at the Peace Conference 
chiefly by M. Clemenceau, who was one of 
the chief figures in the deliberations of 
that body on June 27, 1919. The Senate 
passed the Electoral Reform Bill which 
had already been passed by the Chamber. 
The Peace Treaty was ratified by the 
Chamber of Deputies on Oct. 9, 1919, 
and the military agreements between 
France, Great Britain, and the United 
States were also ratified on Oct. 13. 
On Oct. 19 the French War Parlia- 
ment, which had been in session since 
the summer of 1919, came to an end. 
M. Clemenceau resigned as premier on 
Jan. 18, 1920. President Poincard com- 
pleted his term of office on Feb. 
17, 1920, and was succeeded bj" Paul 
Deschanel. During May there were riots 
in Paris and a strike was begun for the 
nationalization of the railroads. These 
strikes were prevented by a threat of 
Premier Millerand to dissolve the General 
Federation of Labor. Deschanel resigned 
the presidency on Dec. 10 on ac- 
count of ill health, and was succeeded 
by Alexandre Millerand. Georges Leygues 
became Prime Minister. 

The chief efforts in France during 1920 
and 1921 were for the reconstruction of 
the country from the devastations of the 
war. The financial and economic con- 
ditions are described in another portion 
of this article. France depended largely 
for rehabilitation upon the indemnities 
or reparations to be received from Ger- 
rnany. The Supreme Council finally de- 
cided that the total reparations should 
be about .S.56,000,000,000, to be paid in a 
definite period of years. At a session of 
the Supreme Council held in London in 
March, 1921, Germany refused to accept 
this sum and as a consequence French 
troops were despatched to occupy the Ger- 
man cities of Diisseldorf, Duisburg, and 
Ruhrort on March 7, 1921. See Peace 
"HiEATY; Alsace-Lorraine; World War; 
Verdun, Marne, Picardy, Aisne, Bat- 
tles of; League of Nations; Treaty 
OF Versailles. 

The following are the Presidents of 
the Third Republic: 

Louis Adolph Thiers, 1871-1873. 

M. E. Patrice Maurice MacMahon, 
1873-1879. 

Francois Paul Jules Grevy, 1879-1887. 

Marie Francois Sadi-Carnot, 1887- 
1894. 

Jean Casimir-Perier. 1894-1895. 

Felix Faure. 1895-1898. 

Emile Loubet, 1898-1906. 

Armand Fallieres, 1906-1913. 

Ravmond Poincare, 1913-1920. 

Paul Deschanel. 1920. 

Alexandre Millerand, 1920- 



FBANCE 



194 



FBANCIS I. 



PRANCE, ANATOLE (JACQUES 
ANATOLE THIBAULT), a French 
novelist and poet of great perfection and 
distinction of style; born in Paris, April 
16, 1844. His tirst volume of "Poems" 
v^^as published in 1873, and his dramatic 
poem "Corinthian Revels" in 1876. The 
humorous story "Jocaste and the Lean 
Cat" (1879) was received with indiffer- 
ence, but he had brilliant success with 
"The Crime of Sylvester Bonnard" 
(1881); "The Yule Log" (1881); and 
"The Wishes of Jean Servien" (1881). 
His other works include "Our Children: 
Scenes in Town and in the Fields" 
(1886); "Queen Pedauque's Cook-Shop"; 
"Opinions of the Abbd Jerome Coignard" 
(1893); "The Garden of Epicurus"; 
"Abeille"; "My Friend's Book"; "Our 
Children"; "Balthazar"; "Thais"; "Lit- 
erary Life"; "Alfred de Vigny"; etc. He 
was elected to the French Academy in 
1884. 

FRANCE, ISLE OF. See Mauritius. 

FRANCE, JOSEPH IRWIN, a United 
States senator from Maryland, born in 
1873. He graduated from Hamilton Col- 
lege in 1895. He studied in Germany and 
at the Clark University. He graduated 
from the College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons of Baltimore, in 1903, and engaged 
in the practice of his profession in Balti- 
more from 1905 to 1909. He was a mem- 
ber of the Maryland Senate and in 1916 
was elected United States Senator for 
the term 1917-1923. He was a frequent 
contributor to magazines on scientific, 
economic, and political subjects. 

FRANCESCO DI PAULA, or ST, 
FRANCIS OF PAOLA, an Italian monk, 
founder of the order of the Minims ; born 
in Paula or Paola, a village of Calabria, 
in 1416. At the age of 13 he was the in- 
mate of a Franciscan convent; and at 19 
he retired to a cave where he inflicted on 
himself every species of self-mortifica- 
tion. The fame of his piety having at- 
tracted to his cell several emulators of 
his austere life, he obtained permission to 
erect a convent, and the new community 
received from Pope Sixtus IV. the title 
of the Hermits of St. Francis of Assisi; 
but the title was changed by Alexander 
VI. to Minim-Hermits of St. Francis of 
Paola. The founder established nu- 
merous communities in Italy, Sicily, 
France, Spain, and Germany, but the 
Minims were never settled in Great Brit- 
ain or Ireland. Popular report having 
attributed to Francesco several wonder- 
ful cures, Louis XI. of France, being ill, 
summoned him to his presence. Fran- 
cesco was received v/ith the highest honor 
and attended the king on his deathbed. 
Charles VIII. and Louis XIL induced 



him to settle in France, and built him 
convents at Plessis-les-Tours and Am- 
boise. Francesco died in Plessis on Good 
Friday, 1507, and was canonized in 1519. 

FRANCHE-COMTE, an ancient prov- 
ince of France, adjacent to Switzerland 
and Lorraine: Its capital was Besan^on, 
and it is now divided into the depart- 
ments of Haute-Saone, Jura,, and Doubs. 
This province, conquered by the Franks 
in 534, formed part of the Duchy of Bur- 
gundy, and was bestowed on Philip II. of 
Spain on his marriage with Isabella, 
daughter of Henry II. of France, In 1559. 
Louis XIV. conquered it in 1668, and re- 
stored it to Spain by the treaty of Aix- 
la-Chapelle, May 12, 1668. He conquered 
it again in 1674, and it was finally ceded 
to France by Spain, by the treaty of 
Nimeguen, Sept. 17, 1678. 

FRANCIA, JOSE GASPAR ROD- 
RIGUEZ, dictator of Paraguay; born in 
Asuncion, in 1757. His mother was a 
Creole. Arrived at the proper age, he 
was sent to the University of Cordova, 
v/ith a view to entering the Church; but 
his plans underwent a change while he 
was still a student, and on his return to 
his native town with the degree of doctor 
of laws, he began his public career as a 
barrister. He devoted himself to legal 
pursuits for 30 years, varying his pro- 
fessional avocations with a study of the 
French encyclopaedic writers, mathe- 
matics and mechanical philosophy. In 
1811, soon after the revolution in the 
Spanish possessions of South America 
became general, Di*. Francia, then in his 
54th year, was appointed secretary to the 
independent junta of Paraguay; and on 
the formation of a new congress, called 
in 1813, he was appointed consul of the 
republic, vnth Yegros for his colleague. 
From this moment the affairs of his 
country underwent a favorable change; 
and the people's gratitude to their de- 
liverer was characteristically exhibited 
in conferring upon him, in 1817, un- 
limited despotic authority, which he ex- 
ercised during the remainder of his life. 
He died in Asuncion, Sept. 26, 1840. 

FRANCIS I., King of France; bom in 
Cognac, France, Sept. 12, 1494; suc- 
ceeded to the throne in 1515, on the death 
of Louis XIL, who died without male 
issue. Scarcely had he ascended, than 
he, as grandson of Valentino of Milan, 
put himself at the head of an army to 
assert his right over the Milanese. The 
Swiss, who opposed him in his entry into 
the duchy, were defeated at Marignano 
(or Melegnano), and Milan fell immedi- 
ately after this victory. After a short 
war with England, the famous intei'view 
between Henry VIII. and Francis took 



FRANCIS II. 



195 



FRANCIS FERDINAND 



place, in 1520, in Flanders, which, from 
the magnificence displayed on the oc- 
casion, was called The Field of the 
Cloth of Gold {q. v.). In the same 
year, Charles V. of Spain, having in- 
herited the empire after the death of 
Maximilian, Francis laid claim to the im- 
perial dignity, and declared war against 
his rival. In this struggle, however, he 
met with nothing but reverses. After 
the defeat of Marshal Lautrec at Bi- 
coca, in 1522, the retreat of Bonnivet, 
and Bayard's death, Francis was him- 
self, in 1525, beaten at Pavia, and taken 
prisoner. The fight had been a fierce one, 
and the king wrote to his mother, "All is 
lost, except honor." Led captive into 
Spain, he only recovered his liberty at 
the cost of an onerous treaty, signed at 
Madrid in 1526; but which Francis sub- 
sequently declared null and void. He im- 
mediately recommenced war in Italy, met 
with fresh defeats, and concluded a sec- 
ond treaty at Cambrai in 1529. He once 
more invaded Italy, in 1536, and, after 
various successes, consented to a defini- 
tive arrangement at Crespi, in 1544, by 
which the French were excluded from 
Italy, though Milan was given to the 
Duke of Orleans, the second son of 
Francis. Francis was a friend to arts 
and literature, which flourished during 
his reign; and he was called the "Father 
of Letters." Justice, also, began to be 
better administered in his reign. He 
founded the Royal College of France, the 
Royal Library, and built several palaces. 
He died at the Chateau de Rambouillet, 
March 31, 1547, and was succeeded by 
his son, Henry II. 

FRANCIS II., King of France, the 
eldest son of Henry II. and his queen 
Catherine de Medici; born in Fontaine- 
bleau, Jan. 19, 1543. He succeeded his 
father in July, 1559, having in the pre- 
ceding year married Mary Stuart, daugh- 
ter of James V. of Scotland. He made 
the Cardinal of Lorraine first minister, 
and his brother, the Duke of Guise, com- 
mander-in-chief. The insolence and 
cruelty of their rule produced profound 
discontent, and led to the conspiracy of 
Amboise, and the beginning of the civil 
war between the Catholics and Protes- 
tants. The states-general were convoked 
at Orleans in 1560, and the Prince of 
Conde, who had joined the Protestants, 
was there arrested, and sentenced to 
death; but the sentence was not executed 
owing to the King's death in Orleans, 
Dec. 5, 1560. 

FRANCIS I.. Emperor of Germany; 
born Dec. 8, 1708; the son of Leopold, 
Duke of Lorraine. He inherited this 
duchy from his father, in 1729, and six 



years afterward exchanged it for that of 
Tuscany, which the death of the last of 
the Medicis had rendered vacant. In 
1736 he married Maria Theresa, the 
daughter of the Emperor Charles VI. 
On the death of the latter, he disputed the 
imperial dignity with the Elector of Ba- 
varia, whom France supported, and who 
took the name of Charles VII.; he was, 
however, defeated, and Francis reigned 
peacefully for 20 years. He had 16 chil- 
dren, among whom was Joseph II., who 
succeeded him, and the unfortunate Marie 
Antoinette. He died in Innsbruck, Aug. 
18, 1765. 

FRANCIS II., Emperor of Germany, 
and I. of Austria; born in Florence, Italy, 
Feb. 12, 1768, succeeded his father, Leo- 
pold II., in 1792, as Emperor of Germany, 
King of Bohemia, Hungary, etc. At the 
very commencement of his reign, he had 
to sustain a war against France, in which 
he was defeated, and was, in 1797, obliged 
to sign the treaty of Campo Formio, 
which deprived him of the Netherlands 
and Lombardy. In another war with 
France he was defeated at Marengo and 
lost, by the treaty of Luneville, in 1801, 
all his possessions on the Rhine. In a 
third campaign, undertaken in 1805, the 
French were victorious over his armies 
at Elchingen, Ulm, and Austerlitz; and 
the treaty of Pressburg still further di- 
minished his territory. Renouncing now 
the title of Emperor of Germany, he took 
that of Austria, under the name of Fran- 
cis I. He tried again the fate of battles 
in 1809; but the defeats of Eckmiihl and 
Wagram led to the peace of Schonbrunn, 
to cement which more strongly, his 
daughter Maria Louisa was, in 1810, 
given to Napoleon I. Notwithstanding 
this alliance, however, he, in 1813, joined 
the coalition against his son-in-law. The 
treaties of 1815 put him again in pos- 
session of the greater portion of his ter- 
ritory, and he reigned peaceably till his 
death in Vienna, March 2, 1835. He was 
succeeded by his son Ferdinand. 

FRANCIS FERDINAND, Austrian 
Archduke and heir to the throne, whose 
assassination was the pretext for the 
World War. He was the nephew of the 
Emperor, Franz Joseph, and was born 
in Gratz, in 1863. His father, the Arch- 
duke, Charles Louis, having renounced 
his right to the throne, after the death 
of the Crown Prince, Rudolph, in 1889, 
Francis Ferdinand, became the heir. 
Having finished his education, he took 
up an army career, then went through 
the usual experience in administrative 
affairs, customary among members of 
the imperial family. In so far as he 
made his influence felt in the policies of 
the Government, he was a strong reac- 



FBANCIS FERDINAND 



196 



FBANCIS JOSEPH I. 



tionary, being in favor of a "strong" 
foreign policy; in other words, he was 
in close sympathy with the elements 
which stood for the "ironing out" of the 
Slavic nationalities within the Empire 
and the gradual expansion of its terri- 
tories at the expense of the Balkan na- 
tions, especially Serbia. In 1900 he con- 
tracted a morganatic marriage with the 
daughter of a Bohemian nobleman, the 
Countess Sophie Chotek, later created 
the Duchess of Hohenberg. 

The chief claim to a place in history 
of Francis Ferdinand, however, will 
ever be based on his death. In the 
middle of June, 1914, the Archduke had 
gone to Bosnia on his first visit, since 
that territory had been annexed to the 
Empire, in 1908, to take charge of mili- 




ARCHDUKE FRANCIS FERDINAND 

tary maneuvers there. Before his de- 
parture he was warned by the Serbian 
Minister in Vienna that there was dan- 
ger of a popular demonstration being 
made against him by the Serbian popu- 
lation of the annexed province. 

On arriving in Sarajevo, June 28, 
1914, the Archduke, his wife and their 
party proceeded from the railroad sta- 
tion to the town hall, where the provin- 
cial authorities were gathered to receive 
them. On the way a bomb was thrown 
from the roof of a house into the Arch- 
duke's automobile, but he had the pres- 
ence of mind to catch the missile in his 
hand before it exploded and hurl it out 
into the street, where it burst without 
doing any harm except slightly wound- 
ing one of his adjutants. The assailant. 



a Serbian by the name of Gabrinovics, 
was arrested on the spot. On arriving 
at the town hall, the Archduke pro- 
ceeded to berate the officials for the at- 
tempt on his life, accusing them of not 
having taken proper precautions. The 
ceremony of welcoming him then pro- 
ceeded. 

On leaving the town hall, and after 
the Archduke had seated himself in his 
automobile, a man rushed out of the 
ci'owd on the sidewalk and emptied the 
contents of an automatic revolver into 
both the Archduke and his wife, who 
were both killed. This second assailant 
was arrested, and also proved to be a 
Serbian, by the name of Prinzip. 

The Austrian Government immediately 
took the attitude that the assassination 
was the result of a conspiracy by Ser- 
bian expansionists, encouraged by the 
Serbian Government. 

FBANCIS JOSEPH I., Emperor of 
Austria and King of Hungary. He was 
born on Aug. 18, 1830, at Laxenburg 
Castle, near Vienna. His father was 
the Archduke Francis Charles, younger 
son of Emperor Francis I., and his 
mother was the Archduchess Sofia. He 
was carefully educated, and in 1848 
served under Radetzky in Italy. On 
Dec. 2, 1848, following political disturb- 
ances which threatened the dissolution 
of the Empire, the Emperor Ferdinand 
abdicated and the brother, the Archduke 
Francis, abandoned his claims to the 
crown. Francis Joseph thereupon be- 
came Emperor. During the first year of 
his reign he carried on campaigns which 
resulted in the defeat of the revolting 
Italian provinces. He was then obliged 
to direct his attention to Hungary, which 
was in revolt, under the leadership of 
Louis Kossuth. This revolt was put 
down only with Russian aid. As a pun- 
ishment, Hungary was absorbed into the 
Empire and was deprived of its constitu- 
tional liberties. In 1853 an attempt was 
made on the life of the Emperor by a 
Hungarian, but he escaped with a slight 
wound. Two years later he concluded a 
concordance with Pope Pius IX. by which 
there were restored to the Roman Catho- 
lic Church many of the liberties of which 
it had been deprived since the time of the 
Emperor Joseph II. In 1859 Francis 
Joseph was forced into a war with 
France and Sardinia. This ended with 
the loss of Lombardy by Austria. Fol- 
lowing this disaster, the Emperor aban- 
doned his former conservative policy and 
began many necessary measures of re- 
form. Following the disaster of the 
Seven Weeks' War with Prussia, the 
monarchy was reconstituted on a dualis- 
tic basis in 1867. Francis Joseph always 



FRANCIS JOSEPH I. 



197 



FRANCIS DE SALES, ST. 



attempted to maintain a constitutional 
and parliamentary regime in his domin- 
ions, and only through the respect and 
affection of his subjects and by means 
of his own personal influence, was the 
Dual Empire held together during the 
period of his long reign. On April 24, 
1854, he married Elizabeth, daughter 
of Duke Maximilian of Bavaria. This 
marriage ended in an estrangement 
which was terminated only by the assas- 
sination of the Empress by an Italian 
anarchist in Geneva, on Sept. 10, 1898. 
The only son of Francis Joseph and 
Elizabeth, Rudolph, died mysteriously in 
his hunting lodge at Meyerling, Austria. 
This left an heir apparent, Archduke 
Francis Ferdinand, nephew of the Em- 




FRANCIS .JOSEPH I. 

peror, whose murder on July 18, 1914, 
at Sarajevo, Bosnia, precipitated the 
World War. Throughout the long reign 
of Francis Joseph, public calamity and 
private distress were mingled. It was 
reported that he v/as forced into actual 
hostilities against Serbia only through 
t|ie influence of his ministers and the 
German Emperor. The disasters suf- 
fered by the Austrian armies greatly 
depressed him, although he continued to 
perform his duties until within a few 
hours of his death, which occurred on 
Nov. 21, 1916. 

Francis Joseph's reign was the longest 
in modern history. It lasted 67 years 
and exceeded that of Queen Victoria 
by 4^y4 years. He was succeeded as 
Emperor by Charles Francis Joseph, 
nephew of Francis Ferdinand and son 
of Archduke Otto. 



FRANCIS I., King of the Two Sicilies, 
son of Ferdinand I.; bom in Naples, 
Aug. 19, 1777, and twice during the life- 
time of his father he carried on the gov- 
ernment of the kingdom under the name 
of viceroy; first in 1812, when a con- 
stitution was granted to Sicily; and 
afterward in 1820, during the troubles 
which broke out in Naples and Palermo. 
He mounted the throne in 1825, and died 
in Naples, Dec. 8, 1830. He was suc- 
ceeded ly Ferdinand II. (Bomba), who, 
dying in 1859, was followed by Francis 
II., who lost his throne in 1861. 

FRANCIS, DAVID ROWLAND, an 
American public official, born in Rich- 
mond, Ky., in 1850. He graduated from 
Washington University in 1870. He en- 
gaged in business and became a director 
and official in many important financial 
institutions. From 1889 to 1893, he was 
governor of Missouri. He was appointed 
Secretary of the Interior by President 
Cleveland, in 1896, serving for a year. 
He was president of the Louisiana Pur- 
chase Exposition in 1904. In 1916 he 
was appointed ambassador to Russia, 
serving until compelled to leave by the 
Bolshevik Government, in 1919. 

FRANCIS, ST., or FRANCIS OF AS- 
SISI, the founder of the order of Fran- 
ciscan friars; born in Assisi, Umbria, in 
1182. He was the son of a merchant, 
and was said to be of dissolute habits; 
but on recovering from a dangerous ill- 
ness he became enthusiastically devout, 
undergoing every species of penance and 
mortification. Thinking his extrava- 
gance proceeded from insanity, his 
father had him closely confined. Being 
taken before the Bishop of Assisi, in 
order formally to resign all claim to his 
paternal estate, he cheerfully resigned 
everything. He was now looked upon as 
a saint, and great numbers joining him 
in his vow of poverty, he drew up rules 
for their use, which being sanctioned by 
Pope Innocent III., the order of Fran- 
ciscans was established. In 1219 he held 
a chapter which was attended by 5,000 
friars. After having made a fruitless 
effort to convert the Sultan Meleddin, he 
returned to Assisi, where he died, Oct. 
4, 1226, and was canonized by Pope 
Gregory IX. in 1230. 

FRANCIS DE SALES. ST., Bishop of 
Geneva, founder of the Order of Visita- 
tion; born of a noble Savoyard family, 
in the chateau of Sales, near Geneva, 
Aug. 21, 1567. He was educated by the 
Jesuits at Paris, studied law at Padua, 
and having a strong bent to theology 
and a religious life, entered the Church. 
He was sent, in 1594, with his kinsman, 
Louis de Sales, to preach in the Duchy 



FRANCISCAN 



198 



FBANKAU 



of Chablais, and bring back, if possible, 
to the Catholic Church the followers of 
Calvin. He had a large measure of suc- 
cess. His conferences with Theodore de 
Beze, Calvin's successor, at Geneva, 
were, however, without result. He went 
to Paris in 1602, preached there with 
great success. The same year he was 
appointed Bishop of Geneva and applied 
himself zealously to the reform of the 
diocese and its monasteries. He declined 
the offer of a cardinal's hat. In 1610 he 
founded the Order of the Visitation, of 
which the first directress was his 
friend, Madame de Chantal. He was 
sent again to Paris in 1618. His best 
known works are the "Introduction to 
a Devout Life" and "A Treatise on the 
Love of God." He died in Lyons, 
France, in 1622; was canonizpi by Pope 
Alexander VII. in 1665. 

FRANCISCAN, the followers of St. 
Francis (g. v.). Hearing accidentally 
in 1208, in a church the words of the 
Saviour (Matt, x: 9, 10), he considered 
that the essence of the Gospel was ab- 
solute poverty, and founded an order on 
this basis, which ultimately became one 
of the two great fraternities of mendicant 
friars. To manifest his humility he 
would not allow his followers to be 
called brethren (in Lat. fratres), but 
only little brothers, a designation which 
they still retain. Pope Innocent III., in 
1210, and a council of Lateran, in 1215, 
approved of his rules for the government 
of his order, which enjoined poverty, 
chastity, and obedience, and in 1223 
Pope Honorius III. issued a bull in his 
favor. He died in Assisi, in 1226, and 
in 1230 was canonized by Pope Gregory 
IX., the anniversary of his death, Oct. 
4, being fixed as his festival. In 1224, 
Franciscans went over to England. 
From 1228 till 1259 they contended with 
the Dominicans about precedency. At 
the suppression of the monasteries in 
England under Henry VIII., 1536-1538, 
the Franciscans had 66 abbeys or other 
religious houses. Their dress was a 
loose garment of gray color, reach- 
ing to their ankles, and a gray cowl, 
covered when they went into the streets, 
with a cloak. They were called Gray- 
friars. The order, in the course of its 
history, split into various branches. 

FRANCONIA, a name which was 
originally applied to the German coun- 
try on both sides of the Main, which 
was colonized by Frankish settlers under 
Thierry I., eldest son of Clovis I., who 
succeeded to his father's German pos- 
sessions in 511. Conrad, Duke or Count 
of Franconia, was elected King of Ger- 
many Nov. 8, 911, and princes of the 



same house occupied the throne from 
1024 till 1250. The Emperor Wences- 
laus, in 1387, divided the empire into 
four circles, of which Franconia and 
Thuringia constituted one; and Max- 
imilian I., in 1512, erected Fran- 
conia into a distinct circle. In 1806 it 
was divided among Wiirttemberg, Baden, 
Hesse-Cassel, the Saxon duchies, and 
Bavaria, but since 1814 the greater part 
has belonged to Bavaria, where the dis- 
tricts or circles of Upper, Middle, and 
Lower Franconia were established in 
1837. Upper Franconia includes the N. 
E. portion of Bavaria. It is watered by 
numerous rivers, as the Main, Raab, 
Saale, etc., and it is intersected by the 
Fichtelgebirge and by the hilly ravines 
of the Bohmer-, Franken-, and Steiger- 
Wald. The valleys produce good crops 
and fruit, and the district is rich in min- 
erals. Middle Franconia, which abuts 
upon Wiirttemberg, is intersected by 
branches of the Franconian Jura chain, 
but has few rivers of importance besides 
the Regrnitz and Altmiihl, which are con- 
nected by the great Ludwig canal. It 
produces good wine, but is principally 
celebrated for its hop-gardens. Lower 
Franconia, which occupies the N. W. 
part of Bavaria, is traversed by the 
Spessart, the Rhongebirge, and the Stei- 
ger-Wald, and watered by the Main and 
Saale. It is the richest and best cul- 
tivated of the Franconian circles, and is 
celebrated for the excellence of its wines, 
the Steiner and Leisten. The district is 
noted for its mineral springs at Kissin- 
gen, Briickenau, Orb, and Wipfeld. See 
Bavaria. 

FRANK, ROYAL THAXTER, an ^ 

American military officer; born in Gray, 
Me., May 6, 1836; was graduated at the 
United States Military Academy in 1864. 
During the Civil War he was brevetted 
major and lieutenant-colonel for bravery 
at Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862. Later 
was promoted colonel of the 1st United 
States Artillery and was in command of 
the Artillery School at Fort Monroe in 
1888-1898. He was promoted Brigadier- 
General in 1898. He died March 18, 
1908. 

FRANKAIT, GILBERT. A British 
novelist. He was born in 1884 and was 
educated at Eton. He entered his 
father's business on leaving school and 
did not commence writing till 1910. In 
1912 he produced his first book, "One of 
Us," and during the next two years 
traveled around the world. He fought 
in the World War at Loos, Ypres, and 
on the Somme, became Staff Captain in 
1916, and was invalided from service 
in 1918. In 1914 he wrote "Tid'apa," 



FRANKENTHAL 



199 



FRANKFORT 



and during the war "The Guns," "The 
City of Fear," "The Woman of the 
Horizon," and ''The Judgment of Val- 
halla." In 1919 appeared "One of 
Them." 

FRANKENTHAL, a city of Germany, 
in the Bavarian Palatinate, eight miles 
N. W, of Mannheim and near the 
Rhine canal. As an important indus- 
trial center is especially famous for its 
production of iron and steel machinery, 
and toys, soap and cement. Pop. about 
19,000. 

FRANKFORT, a city of Indiana, the 
county-seat of Clinton co. It is on the 
Chicago, Indianapolis and Louisville, the 
Lake Erie and Western, the Vandalia, 
and the Toledo, St. Louis and Western 
railroads. It is the center of an im- 
portant agricultural region. Its indus- 
tries include the manufacture of kitchen 
cabinets, brick, lumber, agricultural im- 
plements, etc. There are several large 
wholesale grocer establishments and 
railroad repair shops. Among the im- 
portant public buildings are a Carnegie 
library, a court house, and a high 
school. Pop. (1910) 8,634; (1920) 11,- 
585. 

FRANKFORT, a city, capital of the 
State of Kentucky, and county-seat of 
Franklin co.; on the Kentucky river, 
and on the Chesapeake and Ohio, and 
the Louisville and Nashville railroads; 
65 miles E. of Louisville. The city is 
built on a high plain and is regularly 
laid out. Here are the capitol, court 
house, governor's residence, the Ken- 
tucky Military Institute, the State 
Home for Feeble-Minded Children, State 
Colored Normal School, penitentiary, 
Young Men's Public Library, Odd Fel- 
lows' Hall, King's Daughters' Hospital, 
street railroad and electric light plants, 
waterworks, several banks, and a num- 
ber of daily and weekly newspapers. It 
has manufactories of brooms, shoes, fur- 
niture, lumber, flour, twine, carriages. 
On one of the hills in the vicinity of the 
city is a cemetery where lie the remains 
of Daniel Boone, several governors, and 
other prominent persons of the State. 
Pop. (1910) 10,465; (1920) 9,805. 

PRANKFORT-ON-THE-MAIN, a city 
of Germany, the capital of a district of 
same name, on the Main, 20 miles above 
its conflux with the Rhine. It is divided 
by the river into two unequal parts; the 
one on the N. bank, called Frankfort 
proper, being considerably larger than 
the other, which is called Sachsenhausen; 
and the two communicate by stone 
bridges. Frankfort was formerly forti- 
fied; but most of its outworks are now 



converted into gardens and promenades, 
and it is entered by nine gates. The 
principal streets are wide ; there are 
also many squares, and a number of 
large buildings, among which may be 
named the Rcemerberg, or old palace, in 
which the emperors of Germany were 
elected and place of the assembling of 
the Diet; the Taxis palace, a place of 
residence of the emperors ; the Saalhof , 
a modern imperial palace; the Lutheran, 
or High church; other churches, Jews' 
synagogues, hospitals, an academy of 
painting, and the Senckenberg Museum. 
Manufactures, carpets, table-covers, oil- 
cloths, cotton and silk fabrics, woolen 
stuffs, jewelry, tobacco and printer's 
black. It has also large printing, litho- 
graphic and stereotyping establishments. 
Frankfort was founded by the Franks 
in the 5th century. Charlemagne, who 
had a palace in this city, summoned a 
council in 794, and it was surrounded 
with walls by Louis I. in 838. It was 
the capita) of the Eastern Franks from 
843 to 889, when Ratisbon was selected. 
Frederick I. was elected at Frankfort 
in 1152. From that time it became the 
place of election of the emperors. Frank- 
fort was made a free city in 1257. Th^i 
bridge over the Main was built in 
1342. Frederick of Prussia signed a 
treaty, known as the Union of Frank- 
fort, with the empire. France, and Swe- 
den, at this city, May 13, 1744. The 
French captured it Jan. 2, 1750, and 
again in 1792; but the Prussians wrested 
it from them Dec. 2, 1792. It was bom- 
barded by the French July 12, and sur- 
rendered July 19, 1796. It formed part 
of the Confederation of the Rhine in 
1806. Napoleon I. erected Frankfoi-t 
into a duchy in 1810. The Declaration 
of the Allied Powers was issued at 
Frankfort Dec. 1, 1813. By the Con- 
gress of Vienna, in 1815, it was made 
one of the four free cities of Germanv. 
and the seat of the Germanic Diet. It 
was made a fi-ee port in 1831. The con- 
stituent assembly, elected in 1848, held 
its sittings at Frankfort. It was occu- 
pied by the Prussians July 16, 1866. and 
is now incorporated with Prussia. Coun- 
cils were held here in 794. 8.53, 1001, 
1007 (Feb. 2), 1234, and 1400. Pop. 
about 415,000. 

FRANKFORT - ON - THE - ODER, a 

well-built town of Prussia, the capital of 
a district of the same name, province of 
Brandenburg, 48 miles from Berlin, Its 
university, founded in 1506, was, in 1811, 
transferred to Breslau, Manufactures 
are woolens, silks, leather, earthenware, 
tobacco, mustard, etc. Near it is Kuners- 
dorf, the scene of the victory of the 



FRANKINCENSE 



200 



FRANKLAND 



Austrians and Russians over Frederick 
the Great, in 1759. Pop. about 70,000. 
The district has an area of 8,000 square 
miles, with a population of 1,200,000. 

FRANKINCENSE, a resin obtained 
from a great number of trees of the fir 
species, and greatly esteemed as an in- 
cense. The article now universally 
known as fi'ankincense is the resin 
called thus, a common, inodorous article, 
little better than common white resin. 



which discovery led to the theory of 
"equivalents." He was appointed Pro- 
fessor of Chemistry at Owens College, 
Manchester, in 1851, and there developed 
the process of making water gas. Be- 
coming Professor of Chemistry in the 
Royal School of Mines in 1865 he turned 
his attention to water analysis, the puri- 
fication of sewage and the means of 
preventing pollution. Subsequently he 
proved that compressed gases are ca- 
pable of giving out a flame of constant 




FRANKFORT-ON-THE-MAIN 



The article once so highly valued, and 
which, with gold and myrrh, was deemed 
a gift to lay before the Saviour, must 
have been some other drug. 

FRANKLAND, SIR EDWARD, an 

ii^nglish chemist; born in Churchtown, 
England, in 1825; studied chemistry in 
the Museum of Practical Geology and in 
Germany under Bunsen. He made the 
discovery of the union of organic radicles 
with metals, announcing in 1850 the 
preparation of compounds of zinc with 
methyl and ethyl. From this he deduced 
the conclusion that an atom of the metal 
could only attach itself to a definite 
number of the atoms of other elements, 



spectrum, from which he concluded that 
the photosphere of the sun was atmos- 
pheric. He also investigated the chemis- 
try of foods. He died in Norway, Aug. 
11, 1899. 

FRANKLAND, PERCY FARADAY. 
a British scientist. He was born at 
London in 1858, and was educated at 
University College School, the Royal 
School of Mines, and Wiirzburg Univer- 
sity. He was Professor of Chemistry at 
Dundee, Scotland, 1888-1894, and at Bir- 
mingham, 1894-1900. He inaugurated 
monthly bacteriological examination of 
London water supply in 1885. In 1901 
he was president of the Chemical Sec- 



FRANKLAND 



201 



FRANKLIN 



tion, British Association, Glasgow, and 
in 1906, of the Institute of Chemistry. 
He was president of the Chemical So- 
ciety in 1911 and in 1919 was made of- 
ficer of the Order S.S. Maurice and 
Lazarus. He has contributed numerous 
memoirs to publications and has writ- 
ten "Our Secret Friends and Foes," and 
a "Life of Pasteur." 

FRANKLAND, STATE OF, in 1784 
North Carolina ceded her W. lands to 
the United States. The inhabitants of 
East Tennessee, piqued at being thus 
disposed of, and alleging that no provi- 
sion was made for their defense or the 
administration of justice, assembled in 
convention and took measures to form a 
new and independent State. Notwith- 
standing the fact that North Carolina, 
willing to compromise, repealed the act 
of cession the same year, the scheme was 
urged forward and at a second conven- 
tion, Dec. 14, steps were taken toward 
the organization of a separate State un- 
der the name of Frankland. A pro- 
visional government was set up. John 
Sevier was chosen governor, and the 
machinery of an independent State was 
put in motion. Vei'y soon rivalries and 
jealousies appeared, opposing parties 
arose and divided the people, and a third 
party favoring adherence to North Car- 
olina led by Colonel Tipton, showed much 
increasing " strength. Party spirit ran 
high. Frankland had two sets of officers, 
and civil war became immment. Finally 
an armed collision between the men un- 
der Tipton and Sevier took place. The 
latter were defeated, arrested and taken 
to prison in irons. Frankland had re- 
ceived its deathblow. The assembly of 
North Carolina passed an act of oblivion, 
and offered pai-don to all offenders, 
whereupon the troubles ceased. 

FRANKLIN, a city of Massachusetts, 
in Norfolk co. It is on the New York, 
New Ha\en, and Hartford Railroad, and 
includes the village of Unionville. Its 
industries include the manufacture of 
pianos, printing presses, straw hats, and 
cotton, woolen, and felt goods. It has 
an almshouse, a public library, and is 
the seat of Dean Academy. Pop. (1910) 
5,641; (1920) 6,497. 

FRANKLIN, a city of New Hamp- 
shire, in Merrimack co. It is at the 
junction of the Pemigewasset and 
Winnipesaukee rivers, which here unite 
to form the Merrimack, and is on the 
Boston and Maine Railroad. The city 
has excellent water power and has manu- 
factures of paper and pulp, hosiery, 
knitting machines, woolen goods, lum- 
ber, etc. Franklin is the birthplace of 
Daniel Webster, and contains a public 



library and a hospital. Pop. (1910) 
6,132; (1920) 6,318. 

FRANKLIN, a city of Pennsylvania, 
the county-seat of Venango co. It is 
on the Allegheny river, and on the 
Pennsylvania, the Erie, the Lake Erie, 
Franklin, and Clarion, and the Lake 
Shore and Michigan Southern railroads. 
Its industries include flour mills, brick 
works, machine shops, and manufactures 
of tools. It is the center of an impor- 
tant oil-producing region. There are a 
public library, pai'ks, and several hand- 
some public buildings. Pop. (1910) 
9,767; (1920) 9,970. 

FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN, an Ameri- 
can statesman; born in Boston, Mass., 
Jan. 17, 1706. When 12 years old he was 
apprenticed to his brother James to learn 
the printer's trade. Three years later 




BENJAMIN FRAfJKLIN 

James started a newspaper called the 
"New England Courant." Benjamin tried 
his hand as a contributor to the columns 
of the newspaper, and with such success 
that, when his brother was arrested and 
imprisoned for a month by the speaker 
of the assembly for a too liberal exercise 
of his critical faculties, the management 
of the paper was confided to Benjamin. 
Diffei'ences arose between the brothers 
and Benjamin left Boston, drifting final- 
ly to Philadelphia, where he landed with 
only $1.25 in his pocket. 

He was fortunate enough to find em- 
ployment immediately with a printer. 

An accident secured him thte acquain- 
tance of Sir William Keith, the governor 
of the colony, who persuaded him to go 



FRANKLIN 



202 



FRANKLIN 



over to England for the requisite ma- 
terial to establish himself in the printing 
business in Philadelphia, by the promise 
to advance what money he would need 
for this purpose, and also to secure 
to him the printing for the government. 
Franklin arrived in London on Dec. 12, 
1724. Instead of the lettei's of credit he 
expected he discovered that no one who 
knew Keith placed the smallest depend- 
ence upon his word. Franklin soon 
found employment in a London printing 
house, where he remained for the next 
18 months. He then returned to Phila- 
delphia, where in connection with a 
fellow printer whose father advanced 
some capital, he established a printing 
house for himself. In September, 1729, 
he bought for a trifle the "Pennsylvania 
Gazette." 

In the following year, Franklin married 
his old love, Deborah Read, a widow, a 
young woman of his own station in life, 
by whom he had two children, a son who 
died in his youth, and a daughter, Sally, 
who afterward became Mrs. Bache, a 
name since associated with the history of 
American science. In 1732 he commenced 
the publication of what is still known to 
literature as "Poor Richard's Almanac," 
which gained a wide circulation. His con- 
tributions to it have been republished in 
many languages. In 1736 Franklin was 
appointed clerk of the assembly, in 1737 
postmaster of Philadelphia; and shortly 
after he was elected a member of the 
assembly. 

In 1746 he began those researches in 
electricity which gave him a position 
among the most illustrious natural phi- 
losophers. He exhibited in a more dis- 
tinct form than heretofore the theory of 
positive and negative electricity; by his 
famous experiment with a boy's kite he 
proved that lightning and electricity are 
identical; and he it was who suggested 
the protecting of buildings by lightning- 
conductors. At the comparatively early 
age_ of 47 he was elected to the Roval 
Society of London. Franklin was the 
author of many other discoveries. They 
are: (1) The course of storms over the 
North American continent — a discovery 
which marked an epoch in the science of 
meteorology, and which has since been 
utilized by the aid of land and ocean 
telegraphy. (2) The course and most 
important characteristics of the Gulf 
Stream, its high temperature, and the 
consequent uses of the thermometer in 
navigation. (3) The diverse powers of 
different colors to absorb solar heat. 

In 1757 he was sent to England to in- 
sist upon the right of the province to tax 
the proprietors of the land still held 
under the Penn charter for their share 
of the cost of defending it from hostile 



Frenchmen and Indians. His mission 
was crowned with success. He was 
absent on this work five years, during 
which he received honorory degrees from 
Oxford and Edinburgh. In 1764 he was 
again sent to England to contest the 
pretensions of Parliament to tax the 
American colonies without representa- 
tion. The differences, however, became 
too grave to be reconciled by negotiation. 
The officers sent by the home government 
to New England were resisted in the dis- 
charge of their duty, and in 1775 patri- 
otism as well as regard for his personal 
safety decided Franklin to return to the 
United States, where he at once partici- 
pated actively in the measures and de- 
liberations of the Colonists, which re- 
sulted in the declaration of independence, 
July 4, 1776. 

"To secure foreign assistance in prose- 
cuting the war in which the colonies were 
already engaged with Great Britain, 
Franklin then, in the 71st year of his 
age, was sent to Paris. He reached the 
French capital in the winter of 1776- 
1777, where his fame as a philosopher 
as well as a statesman had already pre- 
ceded him. His great skill as a negotia- 
tor and immense personal popularity led 
to an alliance between France and the 
United States signed by the French king 
Feb. 6, 1778, while opportune and sub- 
stantial aids in arms and munitions of 
war as well as money were supplied from 
the royal arsenals and treasury. On Sept. 
3, 1783, his mission was crowned with 
success through England's recognition of 
the independence of the United States. 
Franklin continued to discharge the 
duties of minister-plenipotentiary in 
Paris till 1785, when he was relieved at 
his own request. He reached Philadelphia 
Sept. 14, 1785, when he was elected al- 
most immediately governor of Pennsyl- 
vania with but one dissenting vote be- 
sides his own. To this office he was twice 
re-elected unanimously. During the period 
of his service as governor he was also 
chosen a delegate to the convention which 
framed the Constitution of the United 
States. With the expiration of his third 
term as governor in 1788 Franklin re- 
tired from public life, after an almost 
continuous service of more than 40 years. 
Franklin was the founder and first presi- 
dent of the Philosophical Society of 
Pennsylvania, and an honorary member 
of all the leading scientific societies of 
the Old World. He died April 17, 1790, 
and was buried in the graveyard of 
Christ Church, PhiladelpTiia. 

FRANKLIN, SIR JOHN, an Eng- 
lish navigator, born in Spilsby, Lincoln- 
shire, April 16, 1786 ; when only a boy he 
went to sea, and later entered the Eng- 



FRANKLIN 



203 



FRANKS 



lish navy. In 1806 he was present at 
the battle of Trafalgar, and in 1814 at 
that of New Orleans, and in 1819 was 
appointed to head an overland expedition 
from Hudson's Bay to the Arctic Ocean. 
After suffering many hardships, he 
reached home in 1822. In the following 
year he married a Miss Purden, the 
daughter of an architect. In 1825 he 
submitted to Lord Bathurst a plan "for 
an expedition overland to the mouth of 
the Mackenzie river, and thence by sea 
to the N. W. extremity of America, with 
the combined object also of surveying 
the coast between the Mackenzie and 
Coppermine rivers." This proposition 
was accepted, and six days after he left 
Liverpool. In the same year, his wife 
died. In 1827 Captain Franklin arrived 
at Liverpool, where he was married a 
second time, and in 1820 had the honor 
of knighthood conferred upon him. In 
1845, Sir John set out on a third expedi- 
tion with two ships, called the "Erebus" 
and "Terror," and spent his first winter 
in a cove between Cape Riley and 
Beechey Island. After that period many 
expeditions were dispatched, both from 
England and America, in search of Sir 
John, of whom there were no tidings, and 
not till 1854 did the intelligence reach 
England that the brave navigator and 
his heroic companions had, in all prob- 
ability, perished in the winter of 1850- 
1851. This intelligence, however, wanted 
confirmation and Lady Franklin, resolved 
to have the mystery cleared up. Accord- 
ingly, a last expedition was fitted out, 
and the news was, in 1859, at length con- 
firmed by the return of Captain McClin- 
tock, in the yacht "Fox," after a per- 
severing search for the lost adventurers. 
This officer brought with him indisput- 
able proofs of the death of Sir John and 
the loss of his crew. Several articles 
belonging to the unfortunate explorers 
were found at Ross Cairn and Point 
Victory. At the latter place a record was 
discovered, wherein it was stated that 
Sir John Franklin had died June 11, 
1847. C. F. Hall, the eminent Arctic ex- 
plorer, returned in September, 1869, 
from a 5-years' search for the remains 
of Sir John Franklin's companions with 
more relics of the expedition. Lieutenant 
Schwatka found the bodies of the Frank- 
lin party in his expedition of 1879-1880. 

FRANKLIN, WILLIAM BXJEL, an 
American military officer; born in York, 
Pa., Feb. 27, 1823; was graduated at 
the United States Military Academy in 
1843. In the Mexican War he served on 
the staff of General Taylor as a topo- 
graphical engineer; was engaged in mak- 
ing reconnoissances and carried Taylor's 
orders at the battle of Buena Vista. At 
the outbreak of the Civil War he was as- 



signed to the command of a brigade in 
Heintzelman's division. He took part in 
the battle of Bull Run, served with dis- 
tinction in the Peninsular campaign and 
was promoted Major-General in 1862. 
Subsequently he served under McClellan 
in Maryland and under Burnside at 
Fredericksburg, was assigned to the De- 
partment of the Gulf, under Banks, in 
1863; and in 1865 was brevetted Major- 
General in the regular army, but re- 
signed a year later to engage in manu- 
facturing. He was appointed United 
States Commissioner-General to the 
Paris Exposition in 1899. He died March 
8, 1903. 

FRANKLIN AND MARSHAL COL- 
LEGE, an educational institution in 
Lancaster, Pa.; founded in 1787 under 
the auspices of the Reformed Church in 
the United States; reported at the close 
of 1919: Professors and instructors, 17; 
students, 298; president, H. H. Apple, D. 
D., LL.D. 

FRANKLIN COLLEGE, a coeduca- 
tional institution in Franklin, Ind., 
founded in 1834 under the auspices of 
the Baptist Church; reported at the close 
of 1919: Professors and instructors, 16; 
students, 259; president. C. E. Goodell, 
A. M. 

FRANKLIN INSTITUTE, THE. of 
the State of Pennsylvania for the Pro- 
motion of the Mechanic Arts, an institu- 
tion established in Philadelphia in 1824, 
for the dissemination of knowledge of the 
arts and sciences. It combines many 
features of the mechanical institutes and 
of the scientific societies. The work of 
the institution is carried on by means of 
lectures, reports, libraries, exhibitions, 
and instruction. Publication of a journal 
was begun in 1826 and has continued 
without interruption. The library con- 
tains about 75.000 volumes. A school of 
mechanical and architectural drawing is 
conducted and there are also night 
schools in machine design and naval 
architecture. There are also schools for 
the instruction of English and ancient 
and modern languages. The institute is 
open to all persons of legal age on pay- 
ment of dues. 

FRANKS, the name of a confedera- 
tion which was formed about A. D. 240, by 
the tribes dwelling on the banks of the 
Lower Rhine anc. the Weser, who united 
under the title of Franks or free men. 
They invaded Gaul in 256, and for 12 
years ravaged that country and Spain, 
extending their incursions as far as the 
opposite continent of Africa. Probus 
drove them back into their native 
marshes in 277 ; but their influence grad- 
ually increased, and after the death of 



FRANZ 



204 



FRATRICELLI 



Constantine I., in 337, they constituted 
a powerful faction at the imperial 
court. In 355 they again invaded Gaul, 
and were defeated by Julian, who per- 
mitted them to establish a colony in Bra- 
bant or Taxandria. In 418 they again 
invaded Gaul, where, under their leader 
Pharamond, they founded the modern 
kingdom of France (q. v.). 

FRANZ, ROBERT, a German musi- 
cian; bom in Halle, Prussia, June 28, 
1815. He was famous for his songs, 
which were of a peculiar lyric beauty. 
His first published composition appeared 
in 1843. The latter years of his life 
were spent in editing the works of Bach, 
Handel, etc. He died in Halle, Oct. 24, 
1892. 

F R A S E R, MARY CRAWFORD 
(MRS. HUGH), an English Crawford, 
sister of Marion Crawford, the novel- 
ist. She was born in Rome and was 
educated in that city and in England. 
She married Hugh Eraser, who was af- 
terward Minister of Japan, and with 
him traveled throughout the East, and 
in North and South America. She 
wrote much, chiefly on Japanese life and 
characters. Her writings include "A 
Diplomat's Wife in Japan" (1911) ; 
"Letters from Japan" (1904) ; "A Diplo- 
mat's Wife in Many Lands" (1910) ; 
"Further Reminiscences of a Diplomat's 
Wife" (1912) ; "Italian Yesterdays" 
(1913); and "Storied Italy" (1916). 

FRATERNAL SOCIETIES. Many of 
the secret fraternal societies of the Uni- 
ted States include in their obligations 
the payment of sick: and death benefits, 
and fraternal care of the members when 
sick. Others are formed for the express 
purpose of insurance, the money for 
death payments being raised by assess- 
ments, the assessment rate either re- 
maining stationary or increasing with 
the age of the member. The insurance 
is generally from $1,000 to $3,000. An 
other class of such societies is that in 
which the lodge principle prevails and 
which have the social features promi- 
nently kept in view. In these a stipu- 
lated sum is paid on the death of a 
member, and assessments are made on 
the death ratio. Among the largest of 
these organizations are the Odd Fel- 
lows, founded in 1819; Knights of 
Honor, 1873; Knights OF Pythias (g. -y.) 
1864 ; and Royal Arcanum, 1877. The in- 
surance paid by these varies. There are 
numerous other societies conducted on 
the same principle. 

FRATERNITIES, a voluntary as- 
sociation of men for promoting their 
common interest, business or pleasure. 
In this wide sense it includes all secret 



and benevolent societies, the monastic 
and sacerdotal congregations, the orders 
of knighthood, and also guilds, trades- 
unions, and the like. In a limited sense 
it is applied to religious societies for 
pious practices and benevolent objects. 
They were often formed during the 
Middle Ages, from a desire of imitating 
the holy orders. Many of these socie- 
ties, which did not obtain or seek the 
acknowledgment of the Church, had the 
appearance of separatists, which sub- 
jected them to the charge of heresy. The 
pious fraternities which were formed 
under the direction of the Church, or 
were acknowledged by it, were either 
required by their rules to afford as- 
sistence to travelers, to the unfortu- 
nate, the distressed, the sick, and 
the deserted, on account of the ineffi- 
ciency of the police, and the want of 
institutions for the poor, or to perform 
certain acts of penitence and devotion.