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All English words in common use with 

their meanings in modern Persian 

with numerous examples. 



Late Secretary and Member, Board of Examiners, Calcutta; 

Some time Fellow of the Calcutta University ; 

Author of Higher Persian Grammar, 

Current Persian Tales, 

etc.t etc. 


Printed at the baptist mission press and 
published by the aitthor. 





G.O.S.I., G.C.I.E.. P.C. F.E.S., 

,^0R O. "PERSIA ANO ^^^^^^^ 


^xT ^^rwTlOY OF INDIA. 



During a residence of two years in Persia, the need of a purely colloquial 
dictionary of modern Persian was frequently brought home to me. The Persian of 
Afghanistan and India differs from the modern Persian of Persia, not merely in 
accent and idiom, but sometimes in construction. Often Persian words that are in 
common use in India have either a different signification in the colloquial of Persia, 
or else they are objected to as being "book language." The use of a phrase, 
perfectly correct and colloquial in Afghan Persian, sometimes excites ridicule, and 
occasionally even causes offence. A few common examples of differences are : 
Tankhwah, which means '' goods," and not as in India " pay "; taklif " duty, what 
is incumbent," and not " trouble *' : halki often means ** perhaps," chird " of 
course," dil "stomach," and dimdgh " nose" : tamiz means " clean," imtiyaz " an 
order, medal," and tanzll " interest " : in Persia shir is '* lion " and hahar " tiger," 
while in India sher is " tiger" and bcU)ar *' lion " ; ishtihdh is in Persia used for 
" mistake " and not ghalat or ghalatl, which is too strong a word ; daslur or daaturl 
means " permission." Again, the common word rukhsat for '' leave of absence " is 
seldom if ever used colloquially in Persia, the more cumbrous marakh^asl being 
preferred. Occasionally a phrase is used in Persia where a single noun or adjective 
is used in India; thus for haiza when it means *' windgall," the Persians say asp 
rawghan dvarda aat. Again for " wool-gathering " they say shutur mi-chardnad ; for 
" wildness " vahshl budan ; for " glittering, gorgeous " zarq u barq ddrad. (Hence 
in using this dictionary, the student should look up all English tvords from or con- 
nected with the same root, and read the whole of the vfiatter under each). It is therefore 
natural that Indians, and those British Officers who learn Persian in India, are liable 
to make ludicrous slips on first visiting Persia, and even to be occasionally unintelli- 
gible. But it is in abstract nouns that difficulties chiefly occur. Dictionaries rarely 
give the shades of meaning of synonyms, or the difference in application of Persian 
terms that in English are represented by one only. In the present modest work, an 
attempt has been made to do this, with, it is hoped, a modicum of success. 
Peculiar constructions, or constructions that differ in India and Persia, are occa- 
sionally illustrated in the examples, which have often been chosen with a view to 
conveying information interesting to a beginner. A few medical and other technical 
terms that are not strictly colloquial, have been embodied for the benefit of medical 
missionaries, who are doing such excellent work in Persia. It must also be noted 


that some terms which are hardly coUoquiaJ in English (such as ' primordial atom ,' 
and ' incorporeal body ') are in Persia frequently in the mouth of even the illiterate. 

It is a matter of much regret that the great expense incurred in the production 
of this book obliged me to discard the Persian character altogether. 

The material for the book was originally collected in Persia with the assistance 
of Persian friends. Since then, during the course of seven years, it has been twice 
revised with the efficient assistance of my friend and late colleague Muhammad 
Kazim Shirazi, Persian Instructor of the Board of Examiners, Calcutta, who also 
assisted me in the correction of the greater part of the proofs ; and I seize this 
opportunity of expressing my indebtedness to him. The proofs of some of the 
earlier pages were corrected by the late Mr. R. F. Azoo, Arabic Instructor of the 
Board of Examiners. (The work has taken more than two years to issue from the 

I have, as a matter of course, availed myself of the labours of previous lexico- 
graphers, in particular Wollaston, to whom acknowledgment is especially due, 

A French author has remarked that, ' while the writers of all other sorts of 
books can aspire to praise, the writer of a dictionary can only aspire to freedom 
from blame.' If I escape blame, I shall deem myself fortunate indeed. 

D. C. P. 


5th February, 1914. 



Aaron, Hdrun. 

Abandon, vil kardan (of things or habits) ; 

iark k. or guftan (of a habit or an office) ; 

maUah-ha jah'dz rd guzdshta gurikhtand. 
Abandoned, matruk (of habits). 
Abase, zalil k. ; khwdr k. 
Abasement, zillat u khwdn ; zabuni. 
Abash, khijdlat dddan. 
Abashed, sharminda {k.) ; sar-afgandu (k.) ; 

khajil (k.) ; mukhajjal (k.) ; khijdlat-zada 

(sh.). Vide Ashamed. 
Abate, takhfif (sh.) ; yak pul bardy-i man 

kam nami-kunad or bi-man takhfif nami- 

dihad ; tufdn qadr-l dram shud (or drdm, 

girifi), " the storm abated." 
Abbreviated, mukhtasat (k.). Vide Ab- 
Abbreviation, ikhtisdr (k.) (by condensation 

and omission), vide Abridgment; ijm^l 

(by condensation ; also a summary) ; ijdz 

(brevity as opposed to prolixity). 
Abdicate, takht guzdshtan; tdj az sar nihd- 

Abdication, 'uhda rd tark kardan or guftan. 
Abdomen, shikam; dil (m.c.) ; kum, vulg. 

(the whole) ; mi'da (med. ; the portion 

that contains the food). 
Abduct, ijhvd karda burdan ; gurxzdndan ; 

zan-i fuldn rd girift burd. 
Abel, HdhxL 

Abet, pushti dddan. Vide Aid. 
Abhorred, manfur (rare) ; nafrat karda shuda. 
Abhorrence, nafrat {k.) ; tanaffur {k. and 

ddshtan) ; dn pdrsd chashrrtri didan-i gundh 

rd na-ddrad. 
Abide, mdndan ; manzil k. ; inde Stay, 

Remain, Fulfill (promise) ; qiydm k. ; 


iqdmat k. ; chand ruzri bd man tashrif 
ddshta bdshid (polite), abide with me a 
few days. 

Ability, qdbiliyyat ; liydqat ; jurbuza (m.o.) ; 
tu 'urza-yi in rd na-ddri (it is beyond 
your ability) ; u mddda-yi in kdr kardan 
rd na-ddrad. Vide Possible. 

Abject, khwdr ; zalil ; haqir. 

Able, qdbil ; Idyiq ; (as for me I am not able 
to do anything, but as for Husayn 1 
cannot say), az man kdr-i sdkhta nami- 
shavad, Husayn rd nami-ddnam; (can 
you do this ?), in kdr rd mi-tavdnid bi- 
kunid? az dast-i-shumd bar mi-dyad? (he 
is an able or learned man), H ahl-i isti'ddd 

Ablution, dast^namdz or db-da^t or vuzu 
(before prayers, etc.) and tayammum (with 
sand when water is not obtainable) ; gAu^l 
(after impurity ; in India, any bathing) ; 
jdn ahustan (bathing) ; tahdrat k. and 
dddan, intr. and tr., (purification). Vide 

Abnormal, Jchildf-% qd'ida. 

Aboard, rHy-i kishti. 

Abode, manzil, pi. mandzil ; mahaU-i nishi' 
man; jd-yi mu'ayyan-i naddrad. 

Abolish, az miydn bar-ddshtan; bdtil k. (to 
make null and void, not by authority ; 
also to reject). Vide Custom. 

Abolished, mansukh k. (cancel by authority) ; 
in daftar rd gdv khurd (this has been done 
away with). Vide Abandoned. 

Abominable, nafrat-angiz ; shanV ; makruh ' 
or kardhat ddrad (i.e., not forbidden, but 
better avoided, such as the flesh of the 
hare, the chough, etc.). 

1 Mtibah "indifferent" (i.e., the commission or omission are equal): mial-athhalal, l^un-ash mubah 
' hia property is lawful and there will be no retaliation if his blood be shed.* 



Abominate, manjur dashtan; nafrat burdan 

Abomination, karahiyat. 

Aborigines, hashindagdrv-i asli or qadimi. 

Abortion, Muhammad farmud td bar siqi 
shuda namdz juzdrand (Muhammad is said 
to have ordered prayers to be said over an 
abortion) ; an zan rd isqdt-i haml shud (she 
had an abortion . but kard she procured an 

Abortive, Id-hdsil ; bi-sam^r ; bdtil k. (to 
render abortive). 

Abounding in, jmr ; fardvdn ; bi-ifrdt^ (in 

About, dawr ; gird (around) ; ■^ dar khusus-i ; 
dxir hardy-i ; dar bdb-i ; min bdb-i (con- 
cerning) ; takhmin'^" ; taqrib'^^ (nearly) ; 
muvdzi-yi dah rupiya ( ' ' about ten rupees " ; 
prop, the exact equivalent of ten rupees) : 
hamin bud sar-i zabdn ddshtam (this was 
what I was about to say ; 1 had it on 
the tip of luy tongue) ; dar sadad-i raj- 
tan budan (to be about to go ; be on the 
point of going) ; mi-khipdhad bi-ravad. 

Above, bald; fawq; khusus'^" or bdldtar az 
hama (above all); az In kdr 'dr rui-ddrad 
(he is not above doing this). 

Above-named, mazkur or mazbur or maz- 
kura-yi-bdld ; marqum (lit. written) ; sd- 
biq'^'z-zikr (mentioned previously) ; maz- 
kur" 'I- fawq. 

Abrasion, khirdsh (med.) ; sd^ldagl or far Su- 
dani (of coins). 

Abraham, (Abraham is called the friend of 
God), Ibrahim rd khalil'^'lldh mi-guyand 
or m,%-lchwdnand. 

Abridged, vide Abbreviated. 

Abridgment, ikhtisdr {k.) (the act) ; mujmal 
(summary, i.e. , heads) ; mukhiasar (in which 
unimportant things have been omitted); 
hhuldsa (sum and substance). Firfe Com- 
pendium, Summary. 

Abroad, blrun (from house); bi-safar. 

Abrogate, munsukh k. ; vide Abolish. 

Abscess, kurak or durnbal ; ddna (small pim- 
ple or boil) ; dasUam mddda shud (of un- 
broken abscess). 

Abscond, dar raftan; firdr k. ; ru-push sh. ; 
panhdn sh. 

Absconder, firdri. 

Absence, ghaybat; durl; dar 'adam-i- (in 
the absence or non-existence of — ) . 

Absent, (I was absent ten days) dah ruz 
Injd na-budam-; chird In si ruz ghdyib* 
budi? (familiar). 

Absent-minded, bad-havdss. 

Absolute, mutlaq; qddir-i mutlaq (of God 
only) ; pddishdh-i ' alq-' l-itldq (an absolute 

Absolution, dmurzish (k.) ; bi-hill {k.) (de- 
manded from friends by a man on his 
death-bed or on the eve of a journey). 

Absolve, barl k. 

Absorbed, ijharq-i khiydl ; dar bahr-i fikr ; 
vide Abstracted. 

Absorption, jazb (k.) ; nashf (k.). 

Abstain, durl justan : ijtindb k. ; ihtirdz k. 
az ; md bdyad az kdr-i bad parhlz * kunlm 
(we should abstain from evil). 

Abstemious, parhiz-gdr (sp. relig.) ; muhtdt. 

Abstinence, parhlz {k.).* 

Abstinent, vide Abstemious. 

Abstract, mujmal; hhuldsa. Vide also Ab- 
breviation and Abridgment. 

Abstract, to, dar dvurdan (steal). 

Abstracted, majzub (a term applied to ab- 
sorption in contemplation of the Deity ; 
of darveshes, etc.). 

Abstraction, tajarrud ikhtiydr k. (to lead a 
recluse life) ; gharq-i fikr budan (being in 
deep thought) ; majzubiyyat (of der- 

Abstruse, mughlaq ; [daqlq means difficult to 
understand as Hafiz ; the language may be 
simple] ; mvbham (obscure ; doubtful and 

Absurd, blhuda ; bi-jd ; (it is absurd to say 
so) chunln guftan bi-khud (or 'abas) ast. 

Absurdity, vide Impossibility. 

Abundance, vufur ; fardvdnl ; kasrat ; ifrat 
(excess) ; (take as much as you want. I 
have plenty ; har qadr ki ml-hhipdhld 
bi-glrld man ziydd ddram). 

Abuse, dushndm{d.) ; fuhsh {d.) (filthy) ; fuhsh- 
i Hrzl or fuhsh-ipidar (or madar) (obscene 

Abuse, to, bl-jd or bl-mahall sarf k. (to put to 
an ill use). 

Abusive, bad-zahdn ; bad-dahan ; fahhash. 

Abyssinia, H abash. 

1 The antonym is tafrit, "deficiency." 

2 Dawr-a-dawr ' ' all round. ' ' 

3 In '• I have been absent from Persia for two years," or similar sentences, ghayib cannot be used. 

4 Parhlz would be the word to use for " diet " in such sentences as ** What is the diet to be ob- 
served with this medicine ? " 




Abyssinian, "he is an Abyssinian slave," 

u (jJnulditiri Hahashl ast or kaka sty ah aat. 
Acacia, akakiyd; gul-i ahrisliarm (the silk 

tasselled acacia). 
Accede, anchi ml-guyam qabul mi-kuni yd 

na? (do you accede to my request ?). 
Accelerate, ta'jll dddan. 
Acceleration, Ui'jll {d.). 
Accent, lahja-yi u dar fdrsi khub nlst (his 

Persian accent is not good) ; talaffu^i 

Accept, qahul k. ; paziruftan ; ijdbat k. 

Vide Approve. 
Acceptable, matbu' ; pasandida ; marff/iub; 

pasand dmadan (to be — ) ; matbu'-i to6' ; 

in bi-mizdj-i pddishdh sdzgdr-tar ast; mat- 

lub (desired). 
Acceptance, qabuli or qabuliyyat. 
Accepted, " he immediately accepted what 

I said," u fVl-jawr^ sukhan-am rd qabul 

kard or paziruft (or harf-i mard shanld). 

" The prayers of the oppressed are heard 

even though they be infidels," du'd-yi 

mazlumdn mustajdb ast va ndla-yi sitam- 

dldagdn maqbul, agarchi kdfir bdshand. 
Access, rdh (gen.) ; taqarrub (to big persons). 
Accessible, sahl'^'l-bdb (easy of access ; of 

persons) . Mt-shavad bi-u rami ? = dast-ras 

bi-u ast? 
Accessibility, sahl^'l-bdbi. 
Accession, julus (k.) (to throne) ; bar takht 

bar dmadan. 
Accessory, sharlk. Vide Accomplice. 
Accidence, sarf. 
Accident, ittijdq (gen.), pi. ittijdqdt; hddisa 

(bad) ; vdqi'a (gen. ; good or bad) ; vide 

Disaster, Misfortune, etc. 
Accidental, itlifdql; 'drizt (an attribute; 

impUed ; also incidental). 
Accidentally, ittifdq"" ; bi-ndddnistagi ; bi- 

'amd sahv-l kardan ('accidentally on pur- 
pose '). 

-clamation, dfarln k. ; marhabd guftan. 
Acclamatory, bd-dfarln; tahniyat-dmiz. 
Acclimatize, khu dddan. 
Accommodate, jd dddan (house-room) ; khid- 

mat k. (obhge) ; khwdhish bar dvurdan 
(meet your wishes in price ; of a shop- 
man) ; isldh or ta'dil-i mundza'a k. (accom- 
modate the dispute). 
Accommodating, bd-ta'druf (obliging). 
Accompany, Aawra/i (or Itam-fd or bi-ma'iy- 
yat)rajtan ; Jmmrdhl A;.'^ (also = to assist); 

rifdqal k. (but with ddshtan — friendship). 
"I will not go unless you accompany 
me," bidun-i skumd nami-ravam or namt- 
ravam td ahumd hamrdh-i man na-ydyid ; 
bi-sahdbat-i u raflam ; In jur abrhd hamisha 
dar 'aqab bdrdn ddrad (this sort of cloud 
is always accompanied by rain) ; bd-adz 
liamrdhi k. (in music). 

Accomplice, Jiam-dast (on equal footing) ; 
vide Accessory. 

Accomplish, sar u sural dddan; bi-jd dvur- 
dan ; "I failed to accomphsh what I 
wanted," bi-murdd-i khud na-roMdam or 
ummid-i khud rd bi-anjdm na-rasdnidam 
or maqsud-am hdsil na-shud ; rdh bi-maqsud 
ydjtam (I accomplished what I wanted). 

Accomplishment, ikhtitdm or takmll (com- 

Accord, khud bi-khud or bi-pd-yi khud (of its 
own accord) ; mutdbiq sh. (to agree with) ; 
muttafiq"'' r-rdy (with one accord) ; mutta- 
fiq"" (all together; of action). 

Accordance with, in, muvdfiq ; bar vifq ; bi- 
niiijib ; bind bar ; bi-hasb-i. 

According to, az qardr-% ki imruz dar aUibdr 
didam (according to what I saw in the 
papers) ; hasb'^'l-kukm (according to order). 

Accordingly, bind bar %n (or dn) ; li-hdzd; 
li-zd (m.c.) ; az in ru. 

Accost, to, bd kas-i m,ukhdtib sh. 

Account, gufta; baydn (narration) ; hisdh (of 
money) ; ' ' his accounts are quite clear ' ' 
(to the understanding), hisab-ash rawshan 
ast; 'ilm-i siydq (a very complicated 
system of keeping accounts) ; m,uvd1diaza 
k. (to call to account). 

Account, to be of, vide Formidable. 

Accountable, mas'ul. 

Accountant, mukdsib ; mustawfi (mil.). 

Account-book, daftar ; ruz-ndmcha (daily). 

Accounted, "whoever is accounted the most 
intelligent, let him come forward," khub ! 
har kuddm ki bd 'aqUtar mahsub mi-skavad 
pish bi-ydyad. 

Accoutred, musallah (armed) ; vide Ready. 

Accoutrements, yardq. Vide Arms. 

Accrue, to, 'd*id-i hdl sh. or vdrid-i hdl sh. (of 
benefit, profit, misfortune). 

Accumulate, fardham dvurdan and shudan ; 
andukhtan (of wealth) ; jam' k. 

Accumulation, ijtimd' (being collected). 

Accumulative, jam' shudani. 

Accuracy, sihhat. 

1 Ar. /* = " in," pron. ft — . 

' Hamrahl gen. means " assistance," but also ♦* accompanying." 



Accurate, sahlh. 

Accurately, sahlh'^" ; hi-durustl. 

Accursed, la'ln ; maVun; mardudi^it. rejected). 

Accusation, taqnir or jurm {nihadan) (true) ; 
tuhmat (bastan or zadan) (false) ; ilzam 
(true or false) ; vide Calumny , Backbit- 
ing, Slander ; maya hardy-i kas-% zadan (to 
brew mischief against, or make false 
charges against in secret). 

Accuse, muttaham k. ; iflird bastan bar — 
(false) ; " he was accused of stealing from 
his master," jurm-i duzdi az dqd-yash 
zadand or jurm bar dn shakhs nihddand ki 
mdl-i dqd-yash rd duzdida ast ; "I am 
accused of breach of promise, levity, and 
feebleness of judgment," man bi-bad-qawli 
va Id-ubdli va manqasat-i rdy mansub shuda 
am. Vide Impute. 

Accused, mujrim. Vide Defendant. 

Accuser, mudda'i (in law) ; maldmat zan (not 
in law). 

Accustom, 'ddat dddan; Tchu d. (of things 
that are natural to one) ; ' ' accustom 
yourself to read and write," mashq-i 
khwdndan va navishtan rd bi-kun. 

Accustomed, to be, dmukhta ; 'ddi; muHdd 

Ace, ds (in cards). 

Ache, dard {giriftan) (any pain). 

Achievement, kdr ; fi'l; 'amal (gen. deed); 
' ' one of them said the credit of this is 
with me," yak-% gufl ki chunin kdr-% sivd- 
yi man ki mi-tavdnad bi-kunad? or m jath 
bi-ism-i man ast — (Prof. S. J.) 

Acid, tursh (or sour ; of fruit, vinegar) ; dibsh 
(acrid, q.v.). 

Acidity, turushi; turusJii-yi sina (acidity of 
the stomach). 

Acknowledge, mu'tarif sh. ; iqrdr k. ; i'tirdf 
k. ; plsh-i shumd » v^Alldk ddrim (we 
admit your superiorty) ; vide Surrender. 
" Had he acknowledged his fault I would 
have forgiven him," agar chundnchi bi- 
iaqslr-i khud qd^il ml-shvd (or shuda bud) 
urd mi-bakhshidam. 

Acknowledging, mu'tarif bi. 

Acknowledgment izhdr-i tashakkur or 
imlindn (thanks). 

Acme, u munlahd-yi kamdl ast (she is the 
acme of perfection). 

Acorn, bdlut for balliit ; jaft-i ballut (prop, 
the cup). Vide Oak. 

Acquaint, dgah k. ; muttali' k. ; i'ldm k. ; 
khabar d. 

Acquaintance, "he has many acquaintan- 
ces," u khayli dshnd (or rajlq)^ ddrad, 
"have you an acquaintance with any 
one here ^ bd-kasi saldm 'alayk ddrl ? 
dgdhi; 'ilm (knowledge). 

Acquainted, masbuq (of matters); "I am 
acquainted with them all, ' ' man hama rd 
ml-shindsam ; " he has made us acquaint- 
ed ' ' m,d rd bi-ham dshnd karda ast , 
"until the darugha is fully acquainted 
with the business he cannot carry through ' ' 
ddru§Lka id sar-ash iu-yi hisdb na-bdshad 
nami-tavdn In kdr rd pish bi-barad. 

Acquiesce, rizd dddan; rdzi shudan; qabul 
k. or d. 

Acquiescence, rizd and rizdmandi (d.) ; izhdr-i 
qabuliyyat [k.) (expression of). 

hcquixey anduhhtan, vt.anduz (stores, wealth, 
knowledge) ; hdsil k. ; u 'ilm-i-ziydd tahsil 
karda (or fard girijta) asi, (he has acquired 
great knowledge) ; bi-ham rasdnidan ; kasb 
k. ; iktisdb k. 

Acquisition, iaksil (k.) and iktisdb {k.) and 
kasb (k.) (of knowledge, science, money) ; 
nayl (of object). 

Acquit, "he was tried and acquitted," 
murdfa'a-yi u tamdm shud va chiz-i bar u '^ 
sdbit na-shud = tahqiq-i urd kardand va 
llkin chunki chiz-i sdbit na-shud khaldsi 
ydft ; ru safid shudan. 

Acquittal, rihd^i (ydftun) ; ibrd* (y.). 

Acquittance, ibrd^-nama or azdd-nama (deed 
of acquittal) ; mafruq-i hisdb (of ac- 
counts) ; vide Receipt. 

Acquitted, mubarra'' (rare) ; mustakhlas. 

Acrid, dibsh (of fruit ; also of tea) ; [tursh or 
turush , acid or sour]. Vide Acid. 

Acrobat, bdzigar ; band-bdz (rope-dancer). 

Across, dn taraf-i. 

Acrostic, muvashshah. 

Act, majlis or parda (of a play). Vide 

Act, to, kardan ; kdr k. ; ' amal k. ; harakat k. 
(to do, behave, etc.); vide Treat; kdr k. 
(of medicine) ; "they acted the play of 
the Vazir of Lankuran ' ' Bazi-yi Vazir-i 
Lankurdn rd dar avurdand (or birun 

Action, fi'l, pi. af'dl; 'amal; kdr; kirddr ; 
raftdr or harakdt (of horse) ; ' ' good acts 

1 Rafig is properly a companion. 

2 In m.c. bar is still used with reference to persons or societies: ru or ruy for things. 



deserve commendation,' ' kdr-i khub layiq-i 
afann u tahsin ast. 

Active, firz; chabuk (in movement); ziring 
(in brain) ; chust u chdldk (action) ; " he is 
exceedingly active in that business," dar 
dn kdr hisydr chust u chdldk ast; muta- 
'addi (gram.). 

Activity, chdbuki; ziringi ; chustl. 

Actor, taqlid-chi ; ' muqallid (also means 
• mimic ') ; bdzigar. 

Actual, vdqi'%; haqiqi; vide Hypothetical. 

Actually, fi^l-vdqi' : fft-haqlqat ; dar ma'nq. 

Actuate, tahrtk k. 

Acute, tiz-hush or ziring (in intellect) ; shadld 
(of pain) ; kdr-bnr (in business). 

Ad, • Jd* 

Adam, "the Angel of God expelled Adam 
and Eve from the garden of Eden," 
Firishta-i Khudd Adam, va Hawd rd dz 
bihisht blrun kard. 

Aden, 'Adan. 

Adapt, mundsib k. ; muvdfiq-i tabi'at k. 

Add, jam' zadan (of figures) ; [with kardan = 
"to collect"]. 

Adder, Aft; mdr-i ja'fari.^ Vide Viper. 

Addition, " an addition to his salary has 
been granted to him," dar mavdjib-ash 
ajzuda and ; \u izdfa-yi mavdjib-i khud rd 
girifta ast, " he has drawn more pay than 
he was entitled to, or his increment] ; jam' 

Addle, Addled, gandida; " that's an addled 
egg ' ' dn tukhm-i murgk laq ast ; shift 

Address, "can you give me his address, 
Sir ? " dqd, ml-tavdnid nishdnx-yash rd bi- 
man bi-dihld? sar-ndma; 'unvdn (of a 
letter) ; ddris (Eur., often used in news- 

Address, to, " tell him not to address me as 
father when speaking to me,' ' bi-gu miydn-i 
mhbat bi-man pidar khitdb na-kunad. 

Addressing, ' ' were you addressing me ? " 
dyd bd man budid ? ' ' No ' ' 65 shumd 
na-budam; mukhdtib (part.). 

Adduce, istidldl k. ; az dald^il istikhrdj k. ; 
irdd * k. (cite) ; dalil dvurdan ( — proof). 

Adept, mdhir ; kirm-i kdr ; ustdd-i kdmil ; in 
kdr bar u khatm ast. 

Adhere, chaspidan; chasp ddshtan; istSdem 
bar (of opinion). 

Adherence, payvastagi (to opinion, etc.) ; vd 
bastagi (to persons). 

Adherent, dam-ddr ; Jiavd-khwdh ; az vd 
basiagdn. Vide, Followers. 

Adhesion, chaspidagl (of things) ; pay-rati 
(following) ; vd bastagi (to persons). 

Adhesive, chaspndk ; chasbu (vulg.). 

Adieu, Khudd hdfi:^ (guflan) ; aUvidd' (k.); 
" to bid adieu," Khudd hdfiz^i k. ; or vid^' 
k, or guf tan. 

Adjacent, muttasilbi — (joined to) ; dar jarnb-i 
or dar pahlu-yi — (by the side of, close to). 
Vide Near. 

Adjective, ism-i sifat. 

Adjoined, munzamm bi — . 

Adjoining, muttasil bi — . Vide Adjacent, 

Adjourn, multavi k. ; bi-ta'^khir anddhhtan ; 
" the meeting is adjourned," mnjlis ta'tU 
(or mawquf) shud. Vide Postpone- 

Adjournment, iltivd. 

Adjudicate, insdf k. ; fayaala k. ; hakam 
shudan (to be umpire). 

Adjure, qasam dddan. 

Adjust, tasfiya and tasviya k. ; musdlaha d. 
(reconcile persons) ; isldh k. ; " let us first 
adjust tliis matter," bi-guzdr awal raf va 
ruju'-i in kdr rd bi-kunim. 

Adjusted, isldh shuda ; tasfiya ydfta. 

Adjutant, Ajuddn (Ft.) : Ajuddn-Bdshi (Ad- 

Administer, iddra k. (gen.) ; vide Rule. 

Administration, siydsat (k.) ; hukumat (k.) ; 
iydlat (k.) ; nazm (d.) (management) ; mulk- 
rdni {k.) (of king or minister). 

Administrator, ndzim. 

Admirable, "this is admirable writing," in 
khatt ta'rif ddrad or mumtdz ant; \in kitdb 
khush khatt ast, but in mard khv^h navis 
ast\; gharib (lare or admirable). 

Admiral, daryd-begi; amir^'l bahr; amirdl 

Admire, tahsin k. (lit. to praise); "he ad- 
mired this book," in kitdb rd khayU paaand 
kard; " I admire his learning," az ziyddi- 
yi 'ilm-ash ta'ajjvb ml-kunam. 

' Taqlid k. "to imitate." 

5 The Arab tribe of *Ad was destroyed for infidelity «uid for turning a deaf ear to the Prophet 
Hud, by a sufTocating wind. 

' These are two species of poisonous snake ; the latter is popularly supposed to be blind and to 
have two horns. 

* But trad giriftan in m.c, '* to object to an argument," etc. 




Admission, dukhul ' (d.) ; rah {d.) ; iqrar {k.) ; 
i'tiraf {k.) (confession). 

Admit, mu'tarif shudan hi — ; paziruftan; 
qabul k. ; " I do not admit it," anchi mi- 
guyi qabul na-daram ; "I admit I am 
somewhat to blame," man khud-am qayil- 
am bar In ki juz^-i taqslr daram; izn-i 
dukhul dddan (to allow to enter) ; qabul 
mi-kunam ki — , or giriftam ki — (I eudmit 

Admitted, musallam (of an argument) ; " is a 
stranger, an outsider, admitted?" bigdna 
murakhkhas (or ma^zun) ast ki ddkhil bi- 
shavad ? 

Admonition, nasihat, pi. nasdHh (k.) ; pand 
{d.) ; andurz (d.). Vide Advice . 

Adopt, Adopted, rablb ; mutabannq {kardan ^) 
(law term; of children); "he adopt- 
ed him," urd bi-farzandl har-ddsht; az 
sar-i rah bar ddshtan (to pick up and 
adopt) ; ikhtiydr kardan (of customs, 
opinions, etc.) ; u rdh-i bad-% pish girifta. 

Adoration, parastidan or parastish kardan 
(adore God or human beings; to love 

Adore, 'ibddat k. (of God) ; sujud k. (a 
special prostration in prayer) ; tasbih 
khwdndan (praising God). 

Adored, ma'bud (worshipped). 

Adorn, drdstan, rt. drdy ; drdyish d., zlnat^ 
d. ; zib u zlnat d. ; jilva d. (all gen.) ; vide 
Decorated, Apparelled. 

Adorned, muzayyan (of persons or places) ; 
drdsta (gen.); pirdsta (of persons) ; drdsta 
u pirdsta (gen.). 

Adornment, zinat^ {d.) ; drdyish {d.) ; tazyin 
{k. or d.). 

Adrift, ru-yi db vil shuda. 

Adult, "he is an adult," u bi-hadd-i bulugh 
(or takltf *) rasida ast ; "a school for 
adults has been opened," madrasa-l az 
bardy-i javdnhd-yi bdligh bdz shuda ast; 
khud rd shindkhta ast (gen. refers to a 
child of about 12 years of age). 

Adulterated, khdlis nist; makhlut (k.) (lit. 
mixed); maghshush (also alloyed). 

Adulteration, dmizish (lit. mixing). 

Adulterer, zdni-yi muhsan ^ (of married man 
with any woman, married or not); zdni 

(also fornicator) ; zind-kdr, adj. (fornicat- 
ing or committing adultery). 
Adulteress, zdniya ; zind-kdr (or adulterer) ; 
zdniya-yi muhsana (married woman with 
any man, married or not). 
Adultery, zind or zind-kdrl {sdao iornication) ; 
zind-yi muhsana {k.) (of a man with a 
married woman). 
Advance, taqdim k. (of a present, or an 
opinion) ; " he got ahead of me in study," 
dMr dars az man pnsh ujtdd ; ' ' will you 
advance me this money?" in pul rd 
pishaki mi-dihid? pish raftan (of an 
army) ; jilo raftan. 

Advance-guard, pish-qardvul ; muqaddama- 
t"^l-jaysh; yazak. 

Advancement, taraqqi (promotion in rank) ; 
pish-rajt (in business). 

Advantage, sud (also interest) ; sarfa ; fdHda, 
pi. iavdHd ; manfa'at, pi. mandfi' ; bahra 
(ht. share); "what is the advantage? 
az dn chi fd%da mi-rasad ; bi-chi dard-i 
man mi-khurad ? 

Advantageous, ndfi' ; mufid ; sud-mand. 

Adventure, vdqi'a, pi. vaqd^i' ; sar-guzashi. 

Adverb,^ zarf-i makdn (of place) ; zarf-i zamdn 
(of time). 

Adversary, raqib (in love) and harif (in 
games, trade, war) (opponent, rival, qq.v.) ; 
mudda'i (legal) ; mubdriz (in duel) ; mukhd- 
lif. Vide Enemy. 

Adverse, mukhulif; "fortune is against 
me," bahht-i man basta ast. 

Adversity, nakbat ; bad-bahhti; idbdr ; "she 
has for long been in adversity," dn zan 
muddat-i madid-i ^st ki dar musibat ast. 

Advertise, ' ' you had better advertise the 
sale,"'' bihtar ast ki farush-i dn rd shuhrai 
bi-dihid; i'ldn k. ; ikhbdr namudan (pub- 
lish) ; Mhvd-farushi k. (to advertise oneself). 

Advertised, i'ldn shuda. 

Advertisement, ishtihdr (rare) ; i'ldn. 

Advice, savdb-did; mashvarat (d.) (prop, 
consultation); in rd bi-harf-i man kard 
(he did this at my advice) ; az harf-i kas-i 
birun raftan (to neglect the advice of) ; 
" what is your advice ? ' ' dar in mu'dma- 
la chi saldh mi-ddnid or chi maslahat m,i- 
binid; saldh-i bd savdb (good advice). 

DaJchll, " an intruder ; one who seeks refuge or protection. " 

Tabannl k. " to adopt ' ' and mutabanna (&.) " adopted " are not used in ordinary speech. 

Zina in India *' stairs." 

Taklif, i.e., the age at which he is bound to perform religious duties. 

The word zina legally includes fornication; ziria-kar can be applied to a male or female. 

No word exactly corresponding to the English term. "^ Haraj *' auction." 



Advisable, " do you think it advisable to do 
so ? " (iya shuma chunin kdr kardan rd 
mt-pasandid or rnundsib mi-ddnid or aaldh 
mi-ddnid '^ 

Advocate, iaraf girifian (take the side of a 

Adze, tisha. 

Afar, az dur ; az ba'id. 

Affability, khush-khulql. 

Affable, khush-khulq. 

Affair, kdr ; amr, pi. umur, ; bdb ; mu'dmcUa ; 
mddda ; kdr u bdr ; pd-yi man asl (that is 
my affair). 

Affect, to, amr k. ; zuhd farukhtan (to affect 
piety); 'ilm farukhtan (to affect learning); 
" his speech affects his audience," dakan- 
nsh garm ast [sard the opposite]; vide 
Effective. " He has affected you too, has 
he ? " nafas-i (or bu-yi) u bi-shumd khurda 
ast? (gen. used in a bad sense). 

Affected, muta\issir ; * 'he affected great kind- 
ness for us," zdhir"" mihrbdni-yi bisydr 
vd namud kard (or izhdr kard) ; khwdh 
sdkhta khipdh rdstin (whether real or 

Affectedly, bi-sdkhtagi. Vide Oblique. 

Affecting, mu^assir ; "this is an affecting 
story," in qissa dar hama kas asar mi- 
kunad ; ' anduh-ndk ast, it is a sad story. 

Affection, mahabbat ; mihr ; dil-bastagi; 
uns ; idfat ; ' ' natural affection did not 
permit that — ," hvbb-i shir va taqdzd-yi 
nutfa ^ na-guzdsht ki — . 

Affianced, ndm-zad (of man or of woman). 

Affinity, nisbat ; barq 'dshiq-i dhan ast 
(lightning has an affinity for iron); dh/in 
tab''""dshiq-i maqndtis ast; db bd rug^an 
id fat na-ddrad. 

Affirm, " he affirmed the truth of it," u bi- 
taior-i yaqin guft ki in sukhan sahih ast; 
bi-tawr-i muhaqqiq guftan. 

Affirmative, musbat. 

Affix, ilhdq k. (at the end). Vide Append, 
Place, etc. 

Afflicted, muaibat-zada ; dzdr-dida ; ^am- 
zada; " he was much afflicted (upset) on 
hearing the news," az shunidan-i in khabar 
bisydr jxirishdn (or muztarib) shvd; diU 
ash khayli suhht (grieved) ; giriftdr or 
mvbiald (by disease, pain, etc.) 

Affliction, ghamm (khurdan). Vide Grief, 

Affluence, lamawtd-i ziydd ; sarvat-i ziydd ; 
ziyddati-yi mdl ; dawlat-i hanguft. 

Affluent, n., shdkh or shu'ba of a river) ; adj. 
mustagAni (of wealth; also = independent 
of-). _ 

Afford, dddan ; maqdarat ddshtan ; " I can- 
not afford to give such high wages," 
az quwatri man bar nami-dyad ki — ; or 
maqdur-am nist ki — ; or imkdn-i (or 
iqtiddr-i or tavdnd-yi) — naddram ; " kindly 
afford me your assistance," marhanuU 
farmuda mdrd kumak bi-farmdytd or 
iltifdt karda himdyat (lit. protection) 
bi-farmdyid ; " a poor man cannot 
afford meat," faqir dust-ash numi-rasad ki 
gusht bi-khurad; man taddruk-i nigdh 
ddshtan-i chdr asp na-ddram or kharj-i 
nigdh ddshtan-i chdr asp rd nami-tamnam 
mutahammil shavam (I cannot afford to 
keep four horses) ; az man nami-dyad ki 
sad tumdn zarar bi-kunam. Vide Means. 

Affront, khiffat dddan; "I don't wish to 
affront him," maw nami-khwdham bi-ii 
zillat bi-diham ; or — ki az man ranjish-t 
hdsil kunad (offend him). Vide Slight. 

Afghan, Afghan, pi. Afdghina. 

Afghanistan, Afgjidnistdn. 

Afraid, to be, khawf or tars ddshtan ; " I am 
afraid to go there," az tars dnjd nami- 
ravam or mi-tarsam ki dnjd bi-ravam; 
zahra-at na-ravad (do not be afraid) ; 
jdn-am mi-larzad (m.c). Vide To fear. 

Afraid, (adj.), tars-ndk ; Uid^if. 

Afresh, az sar-i naiv; mujaddad"*; mukarrar. 

Africa, Afriqd. 

After, pas az ; ba'd ; ba'd az (of time) ; 
dar'aqab, or 'aqab (of place); dumbal; 
pay or az pay (following) ; pushi-i ham 
(closely following, one after the other) ; 
ba^d az dn-ki (after that, when). 

After-birth, mashima (gen., of humans or 

Afternoon, ba^d az ^ithr ; ba'd az zaval; 'asr 
(2 to 4 o'clock). 

Afterwards, ba'd az an; pas az an; min 

Again, bdz ; digar ; dvrbdra (a second time) ; 
yak bdr-i digar (once again). 

Against, bar-zidd-i — ; bar khildf-i — . 

Agape, dahan-bdz. 

Age, " that girl's age is not more than ten,' ' 
dn dukhtar dah sal bishtar na-ddrad or 

For joy or sorrow. 

NiUja •' sperma hominis " is in m.c. often used for "stock, descent." 




'umr-i an dukhtar btshtar az dah sal nist 
(the latter, however, might signify that 
she would not live beyond ten) ; "he said 
four of them are of middle age and one is 
young," guft chahdr kdmil-and va yak-i 
javdn ' ; vide Turned ; az fart-i skaykhu- 
khiyyat (or ziyddati-yi sinn) az chashm nd- 
bind qasht (he lost his sight through age) ; 
zamdn: 'ahd, pi. 'uhud; 'asr (time), vide 

Aged, sdlrkhurda ; musinn ; mu'ammar. Ham- 
^umr ; ham-sinn (adj.; of the same age). 

Agent, vakil ; kdr parddz * ; vakil-i siydsi 
(Political Agent) ; fd'il (gram. term). 

Ages, duhur, pi. of dahr ; 'uhud, pi. of 'ahd. 
Vide Age. 

Aggravate, afzudan or ziydd k. (to make 
more) ; bad-tar sdkhtan. 

Aggregate, in the, sar-i ham rafta or ru-yi 
hamrafta; majmu'"". 

Aggression, avval dast-dardzi (or dardz-dasti) 
k. ; iqddm k. bi — . 

Aggressive, u hamisha hamla mi-kunad. 

Agile, firz ; chdldk ; chust (active, q. v.) 

Agility, iirzl. Vide Activity. 

Agitate, vide To shake ; khud rd parishdn k. 
or bi-tashvish anddkhtan or dast u pd z. (to 
agitate oneself). 

Agitated, parishdn; muztarib ; bd-taldsh 
(m.c.) ; dast-pdcha (m.c.) (to lose one's 
head) ; dil-ash tapidan girift ; tars bar u 
mustawli shud (fear overcame him). 

Agitation, parishdni ; taldsh (m.o.) ; iztirdb ; 
tashvish (anxiety of mind) ; dast-pdchagi ; 
dshuftagi (of anger) ; junibish (of things) ; 
jush (of water) ; tamawuj (of water, air). 

Agitator, fina-angiz ; mufsid. 

Agony, sakardt or jdn-kandani (of death) ; 
naz' (ditto). 

Agree, to, rdzi shudan ; muvdfaqat namu- 
dan; sdzgdr sh. (of climate, food, etc.); 
' ' I agree ' ' dnchi mi-guyi qabul mi-kunam ; 
they agreed upon a rendezvous, bd yak 
digar mi'ad-i guzdshtand^ (or qardr 
dddand) ; ittifdq-i kalima ast (all agree) ; 
muttafiq"^'l-katima and bar in ki — . 

Agreeable, pasandida (gen.) ; Idmsh-maza (of 
taste, or of companion, or story); " he's 
an agreeable companion," rafiq-i khush- 

suhbatri 'st; musdhib-i khub-i ' st ; 'dlam-i 
khush-i bud (it was very agreeable; of a 
party, etc.). 

Agreement, qawl u qardr (oral) ; qardr u 
maddr (gen.); "what agreement did you 
make with him ? " bd H chi qardr guzdshta 
budid (gen.) ; — chi qardr-ndmori navishta 
budid ? (written only) ; qardr dad (oral or 
written) ; iitijdq (opp. to strife). 

Agriculture, kisht-kdri ; zird'at; falahat; 
kishtrvarzi ; vazir-i zird'at (Minister of 

Agriculturist, dihqdn (villager) ; za'im (vulg.) ; 
kisht-kdr ; falldh; zdri'. 

Ague, tab-i larz (vulg., tab-u larz) ; nawba- 
yi duzda (a kind of ague: slight). 

Ah, dh or akh (for pain). Vide Alas. 

Ahead, jilo ; pish ; dar pish. 

Aid, madad {k.) ; imddd (k.) ; kumak {k.) ; 
ydri (k.) ; dast-g'iri (k.) ; pushti (k.) ; 
musd'adat (k.) ; i'dnat {k.). 

Aide-de-camp, ndzim^i khalvat (A.D.C. in 
waiting): nd'^ib djuddn (Shah's Diary); 
ydwar T. (or a Major ?). 

Aider, ydvar ; dast-gir (in good sense) ; ndsir 
(gen. of God) ; ham-dasi (sp. in a bad 
sense) ; mu'in (good or bad). Vide Ally. 

Aigrette, 7 ig-a * (of Shah); tita (a jewelled 
ornament worn in the hair by women). 

Ailment, ' illat (slight) : nd-khv^hi &nd maraz 
(sickness, q. v.). 

Aims, vide Object. 

Aim, nazar bastan ; nishdna giriftan ; nishdn 
bastan: tir bi-tdriki anddkhtan or tu-yi 
buta anddkhtan (to fire without any aim, 

Aimless, bi sar u pd zindagi k. (to lead an 
aimless life; also, to be not respectable). 

Aimlessly, misl-i shutur-i bi-mahdr, vide To aim. 

Air, "The air (climate) of the city is un- 
healthy," havd-yi shahr khayU nd-sdzgdr 
(or nd-sdlim) ast; "the weather has 
cleared," havd bdz shudaast; navd (me- 
lody). Vide Face, Appearance, State. 

Airs, ' ' from the airs you give yourself one 
would suppose you wers the vazir," an 
qadar bdd bi-khud mi-dihi ki guyd vazir-i ; 
qdrl u qurl (commanding airs ; lording it) ; 
vide Bag. 

1 Javav,, between 16 and 40 for a man, and 12 to 25 for a woman. 

2 But kar-guzar, a foreign oflSce official. 

3 Mi'ad, " place or time of promise"; more commom, /a-y» mW'ayyan (for place), and vaqt-i 
mu'ayyan or mawHd-i mu'ayyan (for time). 

♦ Birjiqa-yi aaltarmt agar az sar-i in bi-guzaram, " I swear by my royal aigrette I won't forgive 
him. (Shah's oath). Governors often take an oath " bi-jlqoryi Shah." 




Air-gun, lufang-i badt. 

Air-tight, havd-khali (m.c; for tinned stores) ; 

Airy, 6a rawh ; khush-havd; havd-gir (of 
room, etc.) ; vide Light. 

Akimbo, dast bi-kamar (with both arms) ; kaj 
u chula (one arm akimbo and body lean- 
ing to that side). 

Alabaster, rukhdm-i nartn. 

Alarm, vide To frighten ; khabar dddan ; sadd 
zadan ; biddr kardan, etc., (to give the 

Alarming, pur az Jchawf ; haybat-angiz. 

Alarum (clock), sd'at-i shamvidta; sd'at-i 
blddr-kun (vulg.). 

Alas, kayhdi; "alas for him," hayf-i u ; 
" what a pity this is not true," afsus ki 
In hama rdst nlst ; "I pity tliy know- 
ledge," hayf bar 'ilm-i ki bd hist (profi- 
cient m learning but deficient in morals). 

Albino, iiqun (prop, the ' white goshawk ' 
but applied also to the albino of any 
species of bird; vide Hawk). 

Alchemist, klmiyd-gar. 

Alchemy, kimiyd (but in mod. Persian 
usually "chemistry"); 'ilm-i makhfi-yi 
kimiyd ; san'aUi hall u 'aqd. 

Alcohol, alakul. 

Alcove, tdq-numd ; suffacha and suffa and shdh- 
nishxn (a bench and sometimes an alcove). 

Alembic, al-amblq or arnbiq ; qararnbiq. 

Alert, hushydr (also 'sober ') ; biddr ; hamtsfm 
ddr kdr-ash biddr ast ; vide Clever. 

Alexander, Iskandar or Sikandar. 

Algebra, al-jabr ; jabru muqdbala. 

Ali, 'Ali: 'Alavi (descendant of Ali).' 

Alien, khdriji (of religion or nation). 

Alienated, to be, bigdna sh. ; judd ah. 

Alight, to, nuzai k. (from heaven ; also of a 
big person). 

Alighting, piydda sh. or pdyin (or jarud) 
dmadan (from horse or carriage). 

Alike, mushdbih ; ' ' these two are very much 
alike," in du bd yak digar kkayli shabih 
and (or shabdhat ddrand) or misUi ham 
and; hama yak-sdn and (they're all 
exactly alike, the same). 

Aliment, ifAizd, pi. agtziya. 

Alive, zinda ; jdn-ddr ; zi-haydt ; mutanaffis-i 
bdqi na-mdnd (not a soul remained 

Alkali, qaliyd. 

All, hama (pi. hamgindn and hamrkundn^) ; 
tamdm (the whole, q.v.) ; az chahdr taraf 
sharirdn va mufsiddn ear bar-ddshland- — 
Prof. S. T. (sedition appeared on all 
sides) ; kamagi rajtim bi-bd^ (we all went 
to the garden) ; jamV ; sdHr (also meann 
'* others, the rest ") ; az tah put na-ddravi 
(I've no money at all) ; in ast va has (and 
that's all). 

Allayed, taskin-ydfta. 

Allegation, da'vq, (may be true or false) ; 
tuhmat (false charge) ; vide Charge. 

Allegiance, farmdn-barddri and itd'at {k.) 
(obedience) ; haqq-i namak (ddshian) ; bay- 
'at {k.) (oath of allegiance). 

Allegory, masal bi-tariq-i ramz va mabni bar 
murd'dt-i nazir. 

Aleppo, Halab. 

Alleviate, to, takhfij k. or d. ; laskin d. 

Alley, pas-kucha (a back-street) ; kucha-yi 
bun-basta or kucha-yi basta (a blind alley) ; 
kucha-yi dar no-raw (ditto). 

All-fours, on, bi-chdr dast u pd. 

Alliance, mu'dJiada {k. or bastan) ; muvdsala 
(k.) (in marriage) ; the two kings made an 
alliance, har du pddishdh ham^'ahd va 
paymdn * shvdand ; vide Treaty. 

Allies, vide Ally. 

Alligator, ''alligators are common in the 
Nile," limsdh dar Rud-i Nil fardvdn ast; 
ndhang or nihang (prop, shark, q.v.). 

Alliteration,* saf u qdfiya ; tajnis-i qdfiya. 

All-knowing, 'dlim^i kidl (of God only) ; vide 
All- wise. 

Allot, qismat d. ; taqsim k. : vide Divide. 

Allowed, mu'ayyan (fixed). 

Allow, rukhsat or ijdzat or izn d. ; vide 
Admit; " allow me to a<;company you," 
bi-guzdr liamrdh-i shumd. bi-ydyam (but 
hamrdh-i u bi-ravam) ; "don't let him be 
late," na-guzdr bi-ta^'Uiir bi-yuftad; in du 
nafar rd ^ bi-guzdr bi-ravand (allow these 

1 Sayyid, a doscendaat of the Prophet through his daughter Faf^ma and 'Alt; and M/au'i, a 
descendant of *Ali by any of his other wives. 

5 Ham-kunan is properly the plural of ham-kun. 

8 Ham understood before payman. 

* There is no corretponding word. Saj' is properly rhymed prose and qafiya is rhynie. Mai u 
hal and ainn u aal would both come under the terms used. 

i Note the ra after a numeral , nafar being made definite by in. In du nafar ru raftan dihid 
( Afghan). 




two men to go) ; [hargiz tan dar nami- 
diham, I won't agree or submit]. 

Allowable, mujdz; ma^zun ; rava ; muhah 

Allowance, "I give him an allowance of 
three tumans a month , " si tuman mahana 
bi-u rm-diham ; vazifa or mustamarri 
(pension) ; najaqa (a subsistence in money 
or food) ; vajh-i kafaf (money sufficient to 
live on) ; vide Share. 

Allowed, vide Allowable. 

Alloy, dakhili {guzdshtan or k.) ; chashnl 
[guzashtan) ; har (a jewellers' word) ; 
dniizish (k.) ; dldyish {k.). 

Alloyed, maTMut ; maghshusli ; kkdlis nist. 

All-sufficient, mustac^ni (gen. of God; also 

Allude, ishdra {k.) ; "by this expression I 
think he alluded to you," az in Hbdrat 
khiydl ml-kunam kindya hi-shumd dmad or 
az in taqrir gusha hi-shumd zad. 

Allure, to, jariftan, rt. farib ; pd-yi mulldydn 
rd niz bi-dukdn-i khud kushud (he allured, 
attracted, even Mullas to his shop) ; bi- 
ddm kashidan. 

Allured, farib-khurda ; vide Deceived. 

Alluring, jdlib (of sural) ; dil-farib (of men 
or women) ; dil-ruhd (of women) ; vide 

Allusion, kindya; ishdra; talmih (rhet.). 

All-wise, ' Alldm"'l-(j[huyub ; vide All- know- 

Ally, muttafiq (gen.) ; or ham dast (sp. in 
bad sense) (i.e., assistant, etc.); duval-i 
mutahdbba (allies) ; qushun-i muttahida 
(the allied armies) ; vide Aider. 

Almanac, taqvim, pi. taqdmm. 

Almighty, Qddir-i mutlaq. 

Almond, hdddm ; ' [bdddmi, the colour of 
almond-skin, i.e., the colour of English 
bridle-leather] ; chaghdla (green and un- 
ripe) ; bdddm-i kdghazi (Jordon almond) ; 
nuqt-i bdddm (sugared almond) ; bdddm-i 
talkh (bitter almond). 

Almost, qarib ; kam mdnd or mdnda bud ki — 
(followed by Pres. Subj.). 

Alms, sadaqa (cash or kind) ; khayrdt (all 
kinds of good works) ; giving alms wards 

off calamities, tasadduq raf'-i bald ^st^ ; 

zakdt ( legal). 
Aloe, darakht-i sabr. 
Aloes, 'ud (wood, for burning) ; sahr-i zard; 

sabr-i ^ saqutri (Socotra aloes). 
Alone, tanhd ; mujarrad ; I and my mother 

are alone, waw-am va mddar-am ; tan-i tanhd 

(all alone); bu-guzdr! (let me alone !) = 

dast az sar-am bi-kash ; dast az dil-am bar- 

ddr (said by one in grief). 
Aloud, buland bi-gu td bi-shnavam (speak 

up so that I may hear) [zir-i lab * guftan 

(to speak low and indistinctly or to 

grumble); jdvidan (to speak indistinctly)]. 
Alphabet, kuruf-i tahajji; "I have not yet 

learnt the alphabet, hanuz alii bd rd ydd 

na-girifta am. 
Already, pish az in ; hdld ; hanuz ; ' ' have 

you come already ? " bi-tn zudi dmadi? 
Also, ham; niz ; not only — but also, vide 

Both ; ayi"" ^. 
Altar, qurbdn-gdh ; mazbak (also that part of 

the throat that is cut when slaughtering 

animals): mihrdb (the arch in a mosque). 
Alter, Alteration, taghyir'^ dddan ; tabdil k. 

(to change for or excliange) ; mubaddal sh. , 

Altercation, mundza'a {k.) ; qil u qdl [k.) ; 

mujddala (k.) ; vide Fight and Quarrel. 
Altered, " it is now finished and cannotbe 

altered," hdld tamdm shud taghyir ddda 

Alternately, nawbabi-nawba (in turns) ; yak-i 

ba'd-i digar-i (one after the other) ; in 

davd rd yak ruz ba'd-i yak ruz bi-hhur 

(take this medicine every other Aa,y = yak 

ruz dar miydn — ). 
Alternative, cMm ; Hldj ; shaqq-i digar. 
Although, agarchi ; va-law ; har chand ; bd 

vujud-i ki ; harchi gasht paydd na-kard 

(search as he would he could not find 

Altitude, bulandi ; irtifa'. 

Altogether, jami'"" ; bi-kulli (wholly) ; 

tamdm""' ; az sar td pd. 
Alum, zdj-i safid ; vulg. zdq-i safid ; shabb 

Always, hamisha ; hamvdra or hamdra ; 

1 A mistress's eyes are compared to a badam. 

2 Qadam-i ahuma raf'-i bala aat is said to a holy person. 

5 Properly sahir. 

* Zlr-i lah or yavash, " in a low voice." 

* To abuse the reply may be aiz"" = " to you also. ' ' 

6 ^^jj>a3 but jJjAj taghayyur, " rage. " 




ddyim'*" ; hamisha awqdt ; hama vaqt ; 
mudam; paymsla ; vide Continually, Con- 

Amalgam, mahjhfim (an admixture of mer- 
cury and another metal) ; mala^ma. 

Amanuensis, kdtih ; rdqim. 

Amass, jam' k. ; fardham dvurdan (to 
collect); arulukhtan (for wealth); tudu k. 
(ht. to pilfc in heaps). 

Amassed, andukhta ; fardliam dmada. 

Amateur, tajannurii (adj.) ; 'akkds-i taf an- 
num (amateur photographer) ; dars khwdn- 
dan-dm tafannuni'st (I study for pleasure 

Amazed, mufahayyir (sh.); mdt (sk.) ; mdt-am 
ml harad (I am amazed) ; I am amazed 
at your account, az jam'-i hisdb-i shuma. 
khayli mdt shudam ; dang-am girift ; 
hayrdn (bewildered) ; az dar dmxidan-i 
shab dar an biydbdn hayrdn u sar-garddn 

Amazement, hayrat-zadagi ; hayrdni u sar- 
garddni (bewilderment) ; vide Wonder. 

Ambassador, safir, pi. sufard; llchi (minis- 
ter) ; safir-i kablr (Ambassador Extraordi- 

Amber, kdh-rubd (lit. " attracting straw ") ; 
kdk-rubd^, adj. 

Ambergris, 'arnbar ; mu'ambar, p.p. (per- 
fumed with — ). 

Ambi-dexter, du-dastl, adj. 

Ambiguity, ibhdm. 

Ambiguous, mvbJiam ; mushtabih. 

Ambition, buland-himmatl ; 'uduvv-i hirnmat ; 
hawsala-yi buland ddrad (all in a good 

Ambitious, designing and ambitious men, 
mardumdn-i mudabbir va dunyd-talab ; 
buland himmat ; 'dli-himmat; buland- 

Amble, to, " this donkey ambles well," in 
vMgh khub yur gh a mi-ravad. 

Ambling, subs., yurqa or yurgha rajtan. 

Ambush, kamin ; dar kamin-i dhu nishista 
budand ; kamtTi-gdh (place of ambush). 

Amend, to, isl^h k. or bi-ialdh d. ; tashih k. 
(to correct) ; ta'dll k. (for law or writings) ; 
lahvir k. (a law term). 

Amends, mukdfdt (d. or k.) ; ^ivaz {d.) ; 
taldfi {k.). 

America, Yangl ^-Dunyd. 

Amethyst, ydquUi kabud ; jamasht. 

Amicable, khush-akhldq (civil) ; ahafiq. 

Amidst, vide Among, 

Amity, dUsti ; mihr ; mavaddat (affection) ; 
ittihdd (unity) ; bdluim bi-aar burdan or 
bi-ittifdq zistan (to live in amity). 

Ammunition, dtash-khdna (prop, magazine) ; 
gulula u bdrut ; asbdb-i jang or dldUi razm 
(arms and ammunition) ; yardq or laddru- 
kdtri jang (munitions of war). 

Amnesty, 'afv-i 'dmm ; amdn. 

Among, dar miydn-i — or miydn-i — ; md- 

Amorous, zud 'dshiq ; 'dshiq-mizdj ; 'ishq- 
bdz (of gestures, actions, etc.). 

Amount, miqddr (quantity) ; " the amount 
is altogether 500 rupees," hisdb^ id pdn- 
sad rUpiya mi-rasad , "what is the total 
amount," jam'-i hisdb-at chtst or jumla 
chi qadr shuda ast ? 

Ample, fardvdn ; vast' (of space) ; vide Much 
and Sufficient. 

Amplification, bast-i kaldm (k. ord.); tawsi'-i 
kaldm {k. or d.) ; vide Exaggeration. 

Amplitude, fardvdnl ; vufitr ; ziyddatl ; 
kushadagt and viis'at (of space). 

Amputate, buridan ; qaV k. 

Amputated, maqtu'. 

Amputation, qat\ 

Amulet, du'd ; hirz ; ta'viz; hamdSl (sus- 
pended from neck). 

Amuse, tamdshd k. (amuse oneself by see- 
ing) ; in jur chlzrhd iskdn rd vnashghul mi- 
ddrand (these things amuse them) ; 
sdzanda u navdzanda mufarrih-i qvlub-i 
Imma mardum ast (singers and dancers 
amuse all ranks) ; " amuse yourself a 
little by walking in the gaiden," qadr-i 
dar bdgk tajarruj bi-kun, gardish bi-kun. 

Amusement, tafarruj ; mashghuliyyat ; tafar- 
ruj-gdh (place of amusement) ; tamdsha- 
khdna (theatre, etc.). 

Amusing, khus/i-maza (of people). 

Anagram, taqlib ; tahrCf ; vide Palin- 

Analize, vide Analysis. 

Analogy, qiyds (also a syllogism). 

Analysis, tajziya (k.). 

Anarchist, fawzavi (mod.). 

Anarchy, ikhtildl , harj u marj ; bi-siydsi ; 

Anathema, la'nat (k.) (of God, high priest, 
etc.) ; nafrin (k.) (ordinary curse). 

> Yangl, T. " new." 

'2 Barat (properly bara^at), " bill of exchange." 

Siyaha "list." 




Anatomy, 'ilm-i tashrlh ; [tashrih alone, dis- 
section; tashrlh-i murda, ' skeleton ']. 

Ancestors, dbd u ajddd ; asldf, pi. of salaf, 
which is Collec. 

Ancestral, ajdddi ; dbd^i. 

Ancestry, nasab (family, lineage) ; asl 

Anchor, langar {anddkhtan and bar dashtan). 

Ancient, qadim. 

Ancients, pishtniyan ; mutaqaddimm ; bas- 
tdniydn (rare). 

Anecdote, qissa or hikdyat (story) ; laUfa (a 
witty or amusing story) ; naql. 

Anemone, shaqdHq (a name also given to 
the poppy). 

Angel,' the Angel of Death comes to all, 
'Izrd^il (or Malak" 'l-Mawt) jdn-ifiama kas 
rd mi-gtrad or dkhir ajal-i hama kas ml- 
rasad (ajal is the appointed time of 
death) ; firishta ; malak, pi. maldHka ; Mun- 
kar u Naklr, or dual Nakirayn (the two 
angels who visit the corpse in the grave). , 

Angelic, firishta-sifat (i.e., sinless). 

Anger, ^bashm or ghayz (anger) ; ijhazab 
(wratli) ; qahr (anger; also sulks). 

Angle, gusha (corner) ; kham-gird (vulg.) ; 
zdviya ; zdviya-yi qdyima (right angle) ; 
zdviya-yi hddda (acute angle) ; zdviya-yi 
munfarija (obtuse angle); 'amudi (adj., at 
right angles). 

Angler, mdhi-glr (gen.) : sayydd (gen. of any 

Angry, mutaghayyir (sh.); does this anger 
you ? In sukhan shumd rd khashm-ndk rm- 
kunad ? ghayz ddrad. 

Angry, to get, kaj khulq sh. (be put out, 
cross) ; az u qahr-am (I'm angry with 
him) ; khashm-ndk sh. ; bar dshujta sh. ; 
bi-ghayz dmadan ; darham sh. ; az jd dar 
drnadan (get angry, get excited, upset). 

Anguish, dar ghdyal-i 'azdb budan. 

Aniline, vide Dye. 

Animal, jdnvar ; hay(a)vdn : bi-zaban ; zaban- 
basta ; hay{a)vdn-i ahll (domestic) ; an ruz 
jdnvar-hd dar takallum khwdhand dmad ; 
daranda (beast of prey). 

Animate, zi ruh va ghayr-i z% ruh (animate 
and inanimate). 

Animate, to, zinda k. (lit. and met.) ; ruh d. 
(to restore to life). 

Animating, ummld-i pul muharrik-i in sar- 
garrni ast ; ruh-bakhsh. 

Animation, garm mi-guyad (he speaks with 
animation) ; vide Coldness. 

Animosity, bad-khwdhl (ill will) ; bugkz or 
kina ; hiqd'^ (rare) (malice); 'addvat (en- 
mity, q.y.). _ 

Aniseed, badiyan or raziydna ; anisun. 

Ankle, much-i pd (just above ankle bone) ; 
quzak (ankle bone). 

Anklet, khalkhdl ; pd-zib (foot ornament) ; 

Annals, tavdrikh (pi. of tdrikh)- 

Annexation, ilhdq (k.) ; zamima k. ; vide 

Annexed, mulhaq; munzamm. 

Annihilate, nist u nd-bud ^ k. ; fand k. 

Annihilated, ma'dum {k.). 

Anniversary, no special word ; ' ' the 10th 
of Muharram is the anniversary of the 
murder of Husayn," {'dshurd-yi Muhar- 
ram ruz-i qatl-i Imam Husayn ast) ; jashn-i 
sdldna-yi — . 

Annotate, hdshiya (pi. havdshl) navishtan ; 
[hdshiya = margin of a book, and also a 
marginal note]. 

Annotated, muhashshi (for muhashshci). 

Annotator, hdshiya-navis. 

Announce, khabar dddan ; ittild' dddan ; 
i'ldn namiidan. Vide Iniorm. 

Annoy, dzurdan, rt. dzdr; ranjdnidan ; ranj 
d. ; jir dvurdan (to tease) ; aziyyat rasdni- 
dan ; ' ' does this annoy you ? ' ' dyd in 
awqdt-i shumd rd talkh mi-kunad ? 

Annoyance, kudurat (d.) ; ranj (d.) : ranjish 
(d.) ; parishdni {d.) (lit., bewilderment). 

Annoyed, mukaddar ; ranjida-khdtir ; dil-gir ; 
malul ; why are you annoyed with me ? 
chird az man dil-Miur hastid ? Suhhan-am 
bad-ash dmad or zir-i puz-ash hhurd (he 
was annoyed at what I said). 

Annual, har sdla ; sdliydna ; sanavi. 

Annually, har sdl ; sal bi-sdl. 

Annuitant, vazifa-khwdr. 

Annul, mansuhh k. (cancel) ; bdtil k. (render 

Anoint, to, charb k. ; tadhin k. ; marhum or 
rawghan zadan (a wound) ; tild k. (paint on 
a wound) ; tnash k. (relig.). 

Anonymous, bi-imzd ; majhul. 

1 Muslims believe in angels (Mata*ika) who are impeccable beings created of light, 
are peccable beings created of smokeless fire ; some are Muslims. 
* In Arabic hiqd is rancour and hughz is animosity. 
s Lit., to make " is not " and " was not." 

The Jinn 




Another, digar-i (another, a second) ; yak 
digar (one another) ; yak-i digar (another, 
i.e., one more); in matlab-i digar ast (this 
is quite another matter) ; in asp an iiiat 
(this is quite another horse). 

Answer, to, javdb d. ; pasukh d. ; this will 
answer my purpose, in bi-dard-i man (or 
bi-kar-i man) mi-khurad , ay dukhtarak bi- 
ru-yi man mi-isii or bd man mukdbara mi- 
kuni? (girl! do you answer me back?); 
bvibulrzabdni k. (of inferior to superior, in 

Ant, mur or murcha ; murcha-yi savdri (large 
black ant) ; murcha-yi par-ddr (flying 
ant) ; muriydnu or tarda (white ant) ; 
divak (rare ; white ant) ; Idna-yi mur (ant- 

Antagonism, mu'draza {k.) ; mukhdlafat (k.). 
Vide Enmity. 

Antagonist, taraf-i muqdbil; harif (opponent, 
in war, games and trade) ; raqib (a rival 
in love). Vide Enemy. 

Antecedent, muqaddam; mawsul (of a rela- 
tive pron.) ; savdbiq (former actions). 

Antechamber, pish-utdq ; kafsh-kan (an ante- 
room or cloak-room where shoes are re- 
moved and kept) ; uidq-i pazirdH (drawing 

Antelope, (jhazdl ; " the antelope ("ravine 
deer") bounded out of sight," dhu bind 
kard bi-khiz zadan va gjs,d%b shud — (Prof. 
S. T.). 

Antenna, shdkha. 

Anterior, pishin; jilavi. 

Antics, harakdt-i muzhika ; bdzi. 

Antichrist, Dajjdl (also term of abuse ; = 
" impostor "). 

Anticipate, pish dasti k. ; dast-i pish giriftan 
vulg. ; az mun sabqat girift va kitdb rd 
kharid (he forestalled me and — ) ; gumdn 
burdan (to expect) ; az pish ddnistan. 

Antidote, pd-zahr (bezoar stone) ; tirydq (but 
tirydk opium) ; ddfi'-i samm. 

Antimony, surma (powdered) ; sang-i surma 
(unpowdered) ; chird khud rd misl-i sag-i 
chdr ' chashm kardi ? (said to a man who 
has put too much antimony in his eyes). 

Antiquarian, kuhna-pizhuh. 

Antique, antika {Ft.) ; in qdli khayli chiz-i 
antika-i 'st ^this is a really fine carpet; 

Antiquities, dsdr-i qadima. 

Antiquity, kuhnagi ; qaddmai. 

Antithesis, Antithetic, na^z ; zidd ; iibdq 

u lazddd (Rhet.). 
Antler, shdkh; shdkh-dar (antlered). 
Ant-lion, shir-i mur (mod. trans.). 
Antonym, muUizJddd (adj.) ; zidd ; naqiz. 
hnns, kun or chun (vulg.); maq'ad,'^ vulg. 

maqat ; suqba-yi maq'ad (med. term) ; 

sujra ; nishiman-gdh (polite) ; md-taht 

(facetious) ; pizi (slang) ; makhraj (in a 

certain facetious contest). 
Anvil, sinddn. 
Anxiety, taraddud (prop. uncertainty) ; 

QJiussa ; tashvish ; fikr ; andRsha ; khadsha ; 

" this causes me some anxiety," in asbdb-i 

khiydl ast. 
Anxious, dil bi-fikr ; andisha-ndk ; fikr-mand ; 

I am very anxious to go there, man dil-am 

Jdiayli mi-khwdhad ki dnjd bi-ravam; 

vide Desirous; dil-am bard-yash shur mi 

zanad (I am very anxious about him). 
Any, Mch; (with negative verb = " none"): 

digar (any longer, or any more) ; kas-i 

(any one) ; chiz-i. 
Anything, har chiz (bdshad). 
Anywhere, hich jd ot ;a*t (with negative 

verb = nowhere). 
Anzali, vide Lagoon. 
Aorist, muzdri'. 

Apart, jvjdd ; 'alq-kida ; sivd ; vide Fact. 
Apartments, marddna (men's apartments) ; 

andarun or zandna (women's apart- 
ments) ; vide Room. 
Apathy, bi-hissi ; kahili (laziness) ; sardi. 
Ape, 'antar (with short tail, the species 

usually led about by lutis) ; buzna or 

buzina (a monkey with a long tail) ; vide 

Aperient, davd-yi kdr-kun ; mus-hil (subs. 

and adj.) ; julldb (subs.). 
Aperture, surdkh (sp. round) ; shigdf (long) ; 

rawzan (for light). 
Apex, awj. 
Aphorism, masal. 

Aphrodisiac, muqavm-yi bdh ; mvbahhi. 
Apocopate, jazm, k. 
Apocopated, majzum. 
Apocopation, jazm; tarkhim (of vocative 

case only). 
Apologist, 'uzr-dvar. 

1 Sctg-i-char-chtuhm is a dog with a black spot over each eye. 

* The word arUlka is often vulgarly used for " fine ", being applied to even brand-new articles. 

s Ar., lit., " place of sitting." 




Apologize, izhar-i khijalat k. ; ma'zarat 
khwdstan ; vide Apology. 

Apologue, qissa-yi nasikat-dmlz. 

Apology, he made no apology for his bad 
conduct, az hardy-i had-raftdri-yi khud hick 
'uzr-khwdhl^ na-kard (or ma'zarat na- 

Apoplexy, I heard he died of apoplexy 
yesterday, shanidam diruz sakta shud 
murd ; also sakta-ash zad. 

Apostacy, Apostate, he is an apostate from 
Islam, az din-i Islam irtiddd namud; 
chunki az dm murtadd shud shar'"" zan- 
ash taldq ast (being an apostate from the 
faith his wife is ipso facto divorced). 

Apostle, murid (follower of any spiritual 
guide) ; havdri, pi. Jmvdriyywi (of (3hrist) ; 
pay^ambar and rasiil (any prophet). 

Apostleship, risdlat. 

Apothecary, davd-sdz (compounder) ; 'attar 
and davd-farush (seller); ajzd-cht, Turc, 

Apparatus, asbdb ; dldt ; dast-gdh (plant, 

Apparel, vide Dress. 

Apparelled, muldbhas. 

Apparent, zdhir ; numdydn ; huvaydd ; dsk- 
kdrd ; vdzih ; paydd. 

Apparently, 'ala'z-zdhir ; zdhir"". 

Appeal, he appealed about his case, u bi- 
hukumat bardy-i tajdtd-i murdfa'a ruju' 
hard ; mahkama-yi istindj, T. (court of 

Appealable, qabiUi ruju' (legal). 

Appear, padld'dmadan ; paydd shudan ; nazar 
dmadan (to come in sight) ; "he will not 
appear in the matter," dar in kdr khud rd 
makhfi khivdhad kard ; ' ' this appears 
strange," bi-nazaram hhayli 'ajib mi-dyad, 
khayli Miayli; namudan (to seem). 

Appearance, manzar ; sural; zuhur (of Pro- 
phet, etc.); vide Far and Beginning; 
zdhir"" (in appearance) ; sirat"" bad ast 
surat"^ khub (his deeds are bad though his 
face is good) ; ' ' this bright colour de- 
tracts from the other colours," in rang 
ranghd-yi digar rd az jilva ml-anddzad. 

Appease, drdm d. ; taskin d. ; faru nishdndan. 

Appellant, musta^nif (mod.). 

Append, ilhdq kardan ; zamm namudan ; 
zamima k. Vide Annexation, etc. 

Appendage, az lavdzimdt-i ; zamima. 

Appendix, zamima ; tatimmu ; mulhaqdt, pi. 

Appertain, to, muta'alliq budan ; ta'alluq 

Appetite, ishtihd^; ju' "' l-baqar (an enormous 
appetite) ; mayl na-ddram (I have no 
appetite) = raghbat bi-(jkizd na-ddram. 

Applauded, mustahsan ; mamduh. 

Applause, tahsin {k.) ; dfarin {guftan) ; 
mMrhabd {guftan). 

Apple, sib. 

Applicable, vide Fit, Suitable. 

Application, 'arz (k.) (oral petition); 'ariza 
or 'arz-ddsht {k.) (wvitten) ; muddvamat and 
muvdzabat {k. ) (assiduity). Vide Attention. 

Apply, tnushtan (to apply oil, paint, etc.) ; 
vide Use ; mashgjiul sh. (oneself to busi- 
ness) ; "don't apply this (taunt, etc.) to 
yourself," in rd ru-yi khud ma-ydvar ; 
in gufta rd bar khud mu-band or ma-khar or 
bi-rish-i khud na-gir. 

Appoint, ta'yin k. ; nasb k. or ma^mur k. 
(to an office) ; bi-kdr gumdshtan (rt. gumEr) 
to a work or business). 

Appointed, mansUb {k.) opposite to ma'zul 
'dismissed'); ma^mur ;for some special 
thing) ; mu'ayyan {sh.) : ndm-zad ish.) (as 
member of a committee, etc.). 

Appointment, ma^muriyyat (sp.) ; ta'ayyun 
(gen.) ; mansab (office) ; va'da (assigna- 
tion, etc.). 

Apportion, to, qismat d., (but qismat k., to 
divide) ; tawzi' n. (distribute) ; in bi-hissa- 
yi man rasid. Vide Give, Entrust. 

Apposite, bd-mahall ; bi-jd ; mundsib ; javdb-i 
bd savdb (apposite answer) ; ism-i bd 
musammq (an apposite name ; vide Appro- 
priate). Vide Apropos. 

Apposition, badal (gram.). 

Appraise, qimat guzdshtan ; his effects will be 
appraised and auctioned, ba^d az takhmin 
asbdb-ash hardj mi-shavad. 

Appreciate, qadr ddnistan ; ghazalhd-yi Hdjiz 
rd mushtari nist (he does not appreciate 
the odes of Hafiz). 

Appreciative, qadr-ddn. 

Apprehend, giriftdr k. (arrest) ; bim ddsh- 
tan, etc., {vide Fear) ; tasavvur k., etc. 
{vide Suppose) ; " I apprehend you are 
wrong," dar khiydl-i banda ishtibdh ^ karda 
id ; he was apprehended and imprisoned, 
a, rd giriftdr kardand va mahbus shud. 

• But 'wrr avardan, " to make excuses." 

2 Qhalat., too strong a word; it means erring and straying. 




Apprehended, yiriftar (ah.) or dast-gir (ah.) 

Apprehension, giriftdrt (seizure) ; vide Fear 
and Supposition and Suspicion, etc. ; 
quwa-yi idrak (intellect). 

Apprentice, shagird. Vide Beginner and 
Carpet; kuchak abddl (to a dervish). 

Approach, subs. rah. 

Approach, to, nazdik sh. ; tcu/arrvh namudan. 

Approachable, qdbil-i taqarruh (of persons) ; 
da-Ht-ras (generally of places). 

Approbation, taJmn: dfarin ; bi-savdb-did-i 
(or isfisvdb-i) u in kdr rd kardam (1 did 
this with his approval). 

Appropriate, ism-ash Khiradmand ,^ va ism-i 
bd musamma bud — Prof. S. T. (" his name 
was Khiradmand, a name that was a just 
index of his qualities) ; In kaldm-i mawzu'% 
guftld (you spoke appropriately to the 
.occasion) ; bd mahaU. Vide Apposite and 

Appropriate, to, he has appropriated all his 
property to this end, hama-yi milkiyyat-i 
khvd rd makhsus-i in kdr guzdshta ast ; 
vaqf k. (for religious purposes). Vide Give 
and Appoint. 

Appropriated, mukhtass {k.). 

Appropriation, takhsis. 

Approval, vide Approbation. 

Approve, qabul k. ; pasand k. or pasandi- 
dan ; do you approve of what I say ? 
dnchi mi-guyam bi-nazar-i shumd pasand 
mi-dyad ? tasdiq k. (to confirm). 

Approved, pasandida ; manzur [ddshtan] ; 
m^bul (uftddan or sh. ; but qahul k.). 

Approximately, takhmin'*" ; taqrib'^". 

Apricot, zard-dlu (small yellow) ; zard-dlu- 
yi shirin (with sweet kernel) ; zard-dlu-yi 
talkh (with bitter kernel) ; tursh-dlu (dried 
and sour) ; qaysi"^ (dried, small and white, 
better than zard-dlu) ; muri (the best kind 
of apricot). 

April, Avril, Fr. ; db-inaysdn^ (April showers 
for 30 or 35 days after the Naivruz ; if the 
drops fall in shells they produce pearls; 
if on snakes they produce venom ; Persian 
children are not allowed out in the rain 

during this period lest the rain entering 

their eyes should produce db-i-marvdrid or 

Apron, pish-band ; futa (apron and wrapper 

for bath) ; lung (worn in the bath and by 

bakers as an apron). 
Apropos, bd-mahall ; bd-maxvqi'^ ; hd f Ichub 

khdtir dmad (Oh ! apropos of ). Vide 

Appropriate and Apposite. 
Apt, mdyil (liable to, inclined to); qdbil ; 

ziring (clever, etc.). 
Aptitude, tqbVat-ash bi-naqqdshi mawzun ast 

(he has a natural aptitude for painting) ; 

tab'-i mitziki ddrad (he has a natural 

aptitude for music). 
Aquarius, dalv (Zodiac). 
Aquatic, dbi. 
Aqueduct, qandt and kdriz (an underground 

charmei with light shafts at long intervals ; 

it conducts water from the hills). 
Aqueous, ab-ndk. 

Aquiline-nosed, shdhin-binl. Vide Nose. 
Arab, 'Arab (subs., a man of Arabia) ; 'Arahi 

Arabia, 'Arabistdn, Yaman (Arabia Felix); 

Hijdz (Arabia Petrsea). 
Arabic, He teaches Persian and Arabic, u 

zabdn-i* Fdrsl va 'Arabi ydd (or durs) mi- 

Ararat, Agliir tdtjh. 
Araxes, Rud-i Aras. Vide Caspian. 
Arbiter, miydnji ; munsif ; hakam; sdlis. 
Arbitrariness, tahakkum. 
Arbitrary, 'alq l-itldq (of kings) ; faysala-yi 

amr bi-ta'jil u tahakkum mt-shavad {prompt 

and arbitrary decisions). 
Arbitration, miydnji-gari (k.) ; muhdkama (k). 
Arbor, chdr-tdq (in gardens; made of trees). 
Arc, qaws; nisf-dd'^ira (semi-circle). 
Arch, gawdi-yi kaf-i pd (of foot) ; hiUil, tdq-i 

nusrat (triumphal arch); "this buildinji 

has two arches," In Hmdrat du tdq mi- 

khurad; this veranda has five arches, 

ayvdn-i ^ in khdna panj-dari ^st (or pan} 

dahana ddrad); c)iashma^-yi pul (of a 

bridge); mihrdb"^ (in mosque or fire 


1 Khiradmand means "possessed of wisdom." - Khubani, Afghan. 

''• Naysun, a Syrian month corresponding to April. 

* The plural zabanha here would be incorrect : it would signify all the various dialects in these 

* Or talar or fjalar. 

6 Chashma is also the hole in a w. c. 

'' In a mosque the mihrab shows the direction of the qibla : in a fire temple it is the place where 
the sacred fire is. 




Arched, muqawas (of a roof, etc.) ; hildli 

(crescent-shaped) . 
Archer, tir-anddz ; ' kamdn-ddr ; tir-zan. 
Archery, tir-anddzi (k.) ; kamdn-ddri ; tlr- 

zani {k.). 
Architect, mvmdr. 
Architecture, mi'mdri; Hlm-i mi'mdrl 

(science of — ). 
Archives, daftar, pi. dafdtir ; daftar-ddr 

(keeper of — ). 
Ardent, 'dshiq-i pur-zur (of a lover). Vide 

Ardour, dil-garrm ; shawq. 
Arduous, mushkil; sa'b ; sakht ; dushvdr = 

difficult, q.v.; ishkdl ddshtan (to be 

Area, sath (surface) ; vus'at (expanse) ; sahat 

Arena, may dan; 'arm; gawddl-i kushii-gin 

(a wrestler's pit; like the arena in a 

Argue, mubdhasa or bahs {k.} ; radd u badal 

(k.) ; bahs (also = discussion) ; khar-i ma 

dum norddrad ( = I give in or well we won't 

argue any more). 
Argument, he uses sound arguments, u 

hhayll dald"il-i mustaqim (or muhkam) ml- 

dvarad. Vide Proof. 
Argumentative, kdfir-mdjard. 
Arid, bd^ir (uncultivated; also unwatered, 

of any small portion of land) ; khushk ; bi 

db u 'alaf ; tishna. 
Aries, Hamal. 
Arise, barkhdstan, rt. barkhiz ; pa shudan 

(to get up on one's feet) ; ndshi shvdan 

(to grow from) ; sar zadan or buruz kardan 

(to happen from). 
Aristocracy, nujabd'- (pi. of najlb) and 

shurafa^ (pi. of sharif) (nobles by birth) ; 

umara^ (by wealth). 
Aristotle, Aristu (vulg. Arastu). 
Arithmetic, Hlm-i a' dad; "I am studying 

arithmetic," Mid Hlm-i hisab mi-khwd- 

Arithmetician, hisdb-ddn. 
Ark, the, kishti-yi (or safina-yi) Null. 
Arm, &azM_(prop. upper arm); dast (whole 

arm); saHd (fore-arm; also wrist); zlr-i 

bac[hal (under the arm) ; bdzii, bi-bdzu ddda 

(arm in arm). 
Armed, musallah (k.) ; bd sdz u yardq. 

Armenia, Arminiyd ; Armanistdn ; bildd-i 

Armenian, Armani, pi. Ardmina. 

Armistice, muhlat dar jang. 

Armlet, bdzu-band , dast-band or alangu 
(bangle) ; shdhha-yi daryd (of sea). 

Armour, zirih ; jawshan ; chahdr d^ina (plate 
armour of four pieces) . Vide Breast-plate. 

Armoured, zirih-ddr (for man) ; zirih-push 
(also for ship). 

Armourer, asliha-sdz. 

Armoury, chi vaqt bi-yd^im qur khdna rd 
tamdshd kunim ? (what time shall we go 
and see the armoury ?) Vide Arsenal. 

Armpit, bagkal ; zir-i bayhal. 

Arms, asliha, pi. of sildh ; dldt-i harb. 

Army, lashkar ; 'askar, pi. 'asdkir; gushUn-i 
hazir-i dd^imi (standing army) ; " the king 
himself led the_ army," khud-i pddishdh 
ra^ls-i (or sipdh sdldr-i) qushUn bud; 
tamdm-i lashkar m,isl-i galla^i ki gurg^ dar 
dn uftdda bdshad az ham pdshidand (the 
army scattered like sheep attacked by a 
wolf;— Prof. S.T. 

Aroma., khush bii''i ; 'itr. 

Aromatic, hhush-bu ; mu'attar. 

Around, dawr ; pirdmitn ; gird-d-gird or daior- 
d-dawr (all around a thing) ; dar atrdf (all 
around; in the district). 

Arouse, {az khwdb) hiddr k. ; barkhlzdnidan 
(to make to get up) ; bi-kdr tahrik k. or 
angikhtan, rt. angiz (incite) ; tashviq dddan 
(to encourage). 

Arrange, chidan, rt. chin (to pluck flowers, 
arrange them, etc.) ; murattab namudan or- 
tartib dddan (to put back in their proper 
places; of things, affairs) : nazm dddan (of 
things, plans, business). Vide Decide, 

Arranged, murattab; vide Settle; kdr-sdi^ 
sh. (to be managed). 

Arrangement, tartib [d.) ; qardr {d.) (verbal) 
paymdn n; nazm or intizdm (k.) (of a 
plan) ; vide Plan, Preparation, Agreement; 
harf bud ki farddbi-ramm (it was arranged, 
settled, that we should go to-morrow). 

Array, the armies drew up in battle array 
opposite each other, qushun-i tarafayn 
muqdbil-i ham saff kashldand ; pirdstan (of 
humans) and drdstan (gen.) (to attire, 
etc.) ^ ; saff drdstan (of battle) . Vide Dress. 

1 In m.c. this might mean * a good shot with a gun.' 2 Or gurg-%. 

5 In bash khiU) plrasta aat; with this ^except ion plrasta seems to be used only for humans. 





Arrears, haqaya, pi. of haqiyya; haqiyat, pi. 
of haqi ; karha-yi pas mdnda (of work). 

Arrest, to, asir k. ; dast-gxr k. ; " Qasim had 
him arrested for debt," mahz-i qarz hi- 
tavnssut-i Qasim giriftdr shud (but bi-da^t-i 
farrdsh); sar-i raJi giriftan (to stop, q.v.). 
Vide Hindrance. 

Arrested, dast-gir ; vide Stopped ; giriftdr 
(local and Indian). 

Arrival, vurud ; dar awal-i (or hi-mahz-i) 
vurud-i u (just as he arrived) ; bi-mujarrad-i 
rasidan-i u (ditto) ; rasmdna vdrid na-shud 
(his arrival was private, non-official). Vide 
Enter, Come. 

Airive, to, rasidan; vdrid shudan ; vurud k. 

Arrogance, nakhvat ' (in Persian in a bad 
sense) ; 'ujb (conceit) ; fis (show) (vulg.) ; 
takabbur and ghurur (pride) ; iddi'd-yi hi- 
jd; buland-parvdzi (k.) (in words). 

Arrogant, bd nakhvat; fisu (vulg.) ; kalla pur 
bad (puffed up); mutakabbir ; maghrur. 

Arrow, t%r ; paykdn (head) ; sujdr (notch) ; 
tir-bdrdn (a shower of arrows); "better 
had you pierced my heart with an arrow 
than said this," agar tir-i bi-dilam mi-zadA, 
bih-tar az in harf bud ki bi-surai-am (or bi- 
ruy-am) zadt^ : he buried the arrow in it, 
ttr rd id par faru kard. 

Arsenal, asliha-khdna ; jabba-khdna or qur- 
khdna (a magazine for making and storing 
rifles and ammunition) ; [qur-cht is the 
man in charge and qurchi bdshi, "the 
head man " J . Vide Armoury . Kdr-kMna- 
yi tup-rizi (for casting big guns) ; Icdr- 
khana^yi asliha-sdzi (for manufacture of 

Arsenic, marg-i mush or samm^-^l-fdr ; zarntkh 

Art, I am not acquainted with that art, dn 
hunar (or fann) rd na-ddram (or narni- 
ddnam) =^ az dn hunar sar-rishta (or vuquf) 
na-ddram . san'at (profession). Vide Skill, 
Science, Artifice. 

Artery, shirydn : shdh-rag. 

Artful, hila-bdz or pur hila (crafty) ; they are 
very artful (or smart), tshdn khayli naqP 
ddrand; ziring (smart, dexterous, and 
vulg. clever). Vide Crafty. 

Artfully, bd kamdUi ziringi harf rd pichidam 
(I artfully turned the conversation). 

Artfulness, Vide Dexterity, Craftiness, 
Smartness, Foxiness, etc. 

Artichoke, kangar-i farangi ("European 
thistle " ) : the Jerusalem artichoke is 
called "sweet earth-apple," i.e., "sweet 

Article, moid', pi. amti'a; or jins pi. ajnas 
(goods for sale) ; daf'a or rnddda (clause) = 
band (a new word) ; maqdla or Id^iha (lit. 
article in newspaper) ; maqdla-yi makhsHa 
(leading article) ; ^ar/-t tonHr (the indefinite 
article) ; he retails various articles, khurda 
farushi^ mi-kunad, "he sells various 
articles," mutafarriqa mi-farHshad ; {pHla- 
var (pedlar who visits villages) ; baqqdl 
sells butter, rice and fruits, fresh or dried ; 
saqat-farush sells sugar, tea, cofiFee and 

Articulation, in tifl durust add nami-kunad 
(this child cannot articulate properly). 

Artifice, tadbir (plan) ; hikmat (ingenuity) ; 
hlla (trick) ; bahdna (pretence). 

Artificer, san'at-gar ; sdni' ; dast-kdr ; oM-i 

Artificial, " this pearl is not real, it is artifi- 
cial," in marvdrid asl nist sdkhiagi ^ st ; 
masnu't ; ^amali ; badal; ja'B and naqR 
(counterfeit, forged, not real). 

Artificially, smiling artificially he advanced 
to meet his guest, bd tabassum-i ghayr-i 
tab'i mihmdn-ash rd istiqbdl kard; girya-yi 
sdkhtagi or darucfhakt (false tears; also 
artificial, on the stage). 

Artillery, tup-khdna : for ' horse-artillery ' 
vide To man. 

Artist, musawir (who sketches and paints) ; 
naqqdsh (painter, inferior to musawir) ; 
ustad (a past master). 

Artizan. Vide Artificer. 

Artless, sdda ; sdda-dil ; sdda-lawh ; rdst ; sdf 
u sddiq. 

Artlessness, sddagi ; sddordiU ; sdda-lawhi ; 

PiSy has he repaired the carriage as I told 
him ? chundnki guftam kdliska rd ta'mir 
karda ast? hamchi (vulg.); as she is a 

1 Nakhwa in Arabic Esprit de corps. 5 Said by a person whose feelings have been hurt. 

8 But naghl (m. c.) ''a bastard." ♦ Stb-i zamlni . "potato." 

* A khurda-faruah sells buttons, needles, tea cups, etc. ; this word is also applied to a retail dealer as 
opposed to a jumla jarush : the word further means a pedlar in a town as opposed to pila var a pedltu- 
who travels to villages. Bazztu is a retail cloth-seller in the bazar and not in the caravansera; the 
latter is styled taj'ir. 





woman she is useless, an ham zan ast az 
dast-ash chi bar ml-ayad ? bi-tawr-t hi — (in 
the manner of) ; misl (like) ; ammo, (as for 
— ). Vide Because. For "as far as" 
vide Far. 

Asafoetida, anguza; barlja (local). 

Ascend, to, let us now ascend the hill, biya 
bi-ravlm hdla bald-yi kuh; su'iid k. bar; 
'uruj k. dar ; bar takht bar dmadan or julus 
kardan (to ascend the throne) ; bi-havd 
raftan (of balloon, bird); bald raftan (of 
bird, soul after death). 

Ascendency, ghaldba. 

Ascension, 'uruj {dar); su'ud (bar); mi'rdj 
(gen. used for the Prophet's ascension, 
but fig. of others). 

Ascent, vide supra ; nishib u fardz (descent 
and ascent) ; tamdm-i rah sar-bdld mi- 
ravad (it is an ascent the whole way). , 

Ascertain, tahqiq k. or sh. ; dar-ydft k. ; 
" from what you say it is ascertained 
that you deny the advantages of travel," 
az taqrir-i ki kardid mushakhkhas shud ki 
munkir-i favd^id-i safar-id. 

Ascertained, ma/A WW (sh.) ; muhaqqaq (sh.) ; 
mustavnbat (sh.). 

Ascetic, zdhid, pi. zuhhdd (a true devotee) ; 
darmsh-i sdlik va majzub ' — Prof. S. T. ; 
riydzat-kash ovmurtdz (doing penance) ; par- 
hiz-gdr (abstaining from what is unlawful). 

Asceticism, riydzat-kashi. 

Ascribe, nisbat dddan ; mansub kardan ; hand 
namudan. Vide Impute. 

Ash, zabdn-gunjishk (lit. " sparrow-tongue"). 

Ashamed, sharmanda; khajil; khijdlat-zada 
or — kashlda (adj.) : khijdlat kashidan (to 
feel ashamed) ; * ' am' t you ashamed at 
not having yet started ? ' ' qabdhat nu-ddri 
ki harakat norkardi 9 Vide Abashed. 

Ash-coloured, hhdkistari ; bukhdn (smoke 
coloured) ; kabud (slate grey). 

Ashes, khdkistar ; [bdbul, Afghan] ; takUs k. 
(chem., to reduce to ashes). 

Asia, Asiyd. 

Aside, ' ' take him aside and whisper it to 
him," u rd kindr kashlda bi-najva hdE-yash 
kun; " turning his face away," ru-yash bi- 
kindr girifta ; dhista or yavdsh (in a stage 
sense); yak taraf ; dar khalvat (in private). 

Asinine, hhar-rndnand. 

Ask, khivdsian (rt. khipdh) or khwdhish k. 
(to ask for a thing) ; iltimds k. (to beg, 
entreat that); "ask him what his name 
is," bi-raw az u bi-jmrs ki " ism-i shumd 
chlst?'''' (or ism-ash chlst, indir. narr.) ; 
suvdl (prop, su^dl) k. (to question : also to 
beg, of beggar) ; istifsdr k. (to make en- 

Asked, bd-vujud-i takrdr-i suvdl (though 
often asked). 

Asker, sd^il (also beggar). 

Askew, kaj ; urib and urub * (on the slant, 
sideways) ; yak-bar (to one side). 

Asking, sar-vaqt (raftan) or ahvdl-pursi (k.) 
(asking after the health) ; az hdl-i barddar 
juyd shud (he began asking after his 
brother) ; mustafsir ahvdan (to make 

Asleep, khwdbida (also lying down, crouch- 
ing) ; khufta ; dar khwdb ; khivdb ast (he 
is asleep) ; bi-hhwdb uftddan (to fall 
asleep unwillingly). 

Asparagus, mdrchuba ; isfandj (Eur.). 

Aspect, manzar ; simd (of people only ; lit 
forehead) ; vide Appearance ; havd-yi kdr 
or surat-i hal (aspect of affairs) ; ru bi- 
shimdl ddrad (it has a N. aspect). 

Asperity, talhhi ; tundi u tizi (irritation). 

Asperse, bad-ndm k. ; tuhmat z. (falsely, vide 
Accusation, Charge). 

Aspirant, tdlib. 

Aspire, 1fl,lib sh. (to desire, seek for) ; havd 
or himmat ddshlan. 

Aspiring, tdlib ; buland himmat (ambitious). 
Vide Desirous. 

Ass, uldgh ; khar ; chdrvd * ; himdr, Ar. 
(rare) ; narrorkhar (jackass ; also a term 
of abuse). Vide Donkey. 

Assailant, hamla-var. 

Assassin, qdtil (lit. ' killer ' ) ; qdtiUi ma^jur 
(hired assassin). 

Assassinate, qatl k. or kushtan (to kill). 

Assassinated, kushta or maqtul (killed) ; 
' ' martyr ' ' is sometimes applied to a 
great man (Muslim) after assassination.* 

Assassination, qatl* 

Assault, zad u kub k. (assault and battery) ; 
hamla, or yurish (k.) (of army, etc.) ; 

1 Salik prop, "travelling." Majzub who has attained the Sufi stage of abstraction, 
i To cut cloth on the slant or tilt a table to get it through the door would be urtS) taraehidan and 
urub burdan. 

3 Perhaps a corruption of chahar-pa. 

* Na8ir«'d-dm Shah is always styled Shah-i Shahld. 





ahabU khun (zadan or kardan) (night aa- 
sault). Vide Attack. 

Assay, to,' *iydr k. (in mint) ; chdahni giriftan 
(on a stone). Vide. Test, Try. 

Assayer, 'iyar-kun. 

Assemble, tlie villagers assembled, ahl-idihdt 
jam' shudand or amadand ; faraham dvur- 
dan and dmadan; mun'aqid shudan (of a 
court) ; majlis bar pa shiul. 

Assembled, mujtami' ; faraham dmada. 

Assembly, majlis, pi. majdlis ; anjuman; 
majma' (concourse) ; I saw a large assem- 
bly of people, jam'iyyat-i ziydd-i didam; 
majlis-i mu'ayyan hi-jihat-i islah-i umur 
yd iddra-yi maJtdmm ^ az umard-yi mamla- 
kat ydvukald-yi ra'iyyat yd ru^asd-yi millat 
dar Irdn nist (there is no assembly of 
nobles, no popular representation or eccle- 
siastical Council, in Persia). 

Assent, I assent to your proposal, ra^y-i 

shumd rd qabul mi-kunam ; ha muvd- 

faqat k. ; rdzi shvdan. 

Assert, he asserted that it is so, bi-yaqin (or 
bi-tahqiq) guft ki hamchunin ast; bi-tawr-% 
qaVi guftan; I did not assert myself, 
shikasta nafsi kardam (I was purposely 
rather humble ; took a lower seat than I 
considered my due, etc.). 

Assertion, bi-zur guftan or tahakkum (mere 
assertion without proof); in matlab rd 
tahakkumdna guft. 

Assessment, har-dvard or takhmin k. ; qim<xt 

Assets, mo yumlak. Vide Property. 

Assiduity, mujdhadat (constant trying) ; 
muvdzabat or mvddvamat (sticking to). 

Assiduous, sd't va jdhid (always trying) ; 
m,uvdzib (sticking to). 

Assign, to, havdla k. ; tahml dddan ; vajh fish 
kardan (to assign a reason; give money). 
Vide Entrust, 

Assignation, vide Negotiate and Assign- 
ment ; mi'dd-gdh (place of ; in good 

or bad sense); va'da kard ki dar fvldna 
jd dar fuldna vaqt turd mi-binam. 

Assignee, havdla<-gir. 

Assignment, In mablagh rd havdla bar mdliy- 
ya-yi jd^i karda bardt mi-dihand (is paid 
by an assignment on the revenue). 

Assist, madad k. ; ydn k. ; pushti k. ; ta^yid 
k. ; pahlu d. ; we should assist each other, 
bdyad ki yak digar rd kumak bi-dihim ; assist 
me, mard dast-giri kun. 

Assistance, pusht-bandi (k.) ; mu'dvanat {k.) ; 
mu'dvanat-i vajhi (pecuniary — ) = i'dna- 
yi puU. 

Assistant, kumah-kdr ; mu'tn ; kumak-dih ; 
madad-gdr; mu'dvin; ndyib (deputy); 
shdgird (in shop, etc.) ; dast-gir or ydri- 
kun (sp. of God, or to help with money) ; 
pd-daw (in bath, etc.). 

Assisting, mumidd. 

Associate, to, dmtzish k.; shank shudan; 
nishast u barkhdstk. bd — ; bd — rdh raftan; 
why do you associate with the low, bd 
lutlhd chird mt-nishinid (or una mi-gtrid 
or ulfat mi-gtrid or mu'daharat mi-kunid) ; 
dust shvdan; mix with fools and you'll 
become one, agar bd'ahmaqhd ikhtildt kunid 
ahmaq khivdhi shud. 

Association, shirkat; shirdkat (in a company, 
etc.); musdhabat {coiapajiionBhip). 

Assuage, taskin d. (of hunger, thirst, anger, 
pain) : takhfif k. (to lessen) ; faru nisJuin- 
dan (of fire, anger, etc.) ; drdm d. (of 
pain) ; tasalU d. (of grief). 

Assvune, giriftan or tasawur k. ; pinddshtan, 
rt. pinddr (suppose) ; hods zadan (to con- 
jecture) ; multazim sh. (become liable or 
responsible for) ; 'uJida g. (of office) ; law 
faraznd ki — (let us suppose that) ; ism bar 
khvd giriftan (assume a name). 

Assumed, ma,fhum ast ki — (I conclude, sup- 
pose that — ). 

Assumption, bi-farz-i — . 

Assure, itmindn d. ; khdtir jam'i d. ; iqrdr 
k. ; I assure you there is no danger, sar-i 
shumd ki khatar nist or man bi-shumd 
itmindn mi-diham ki — . 

Assurance, mde Confidence, Promise, Impu- 
dence, Insurance, Certainty, etc. ; bi-kewr-i 
qat'i itmindn dddan (to give a positive 

Assuredly, ya^n ast ki in rdst ast ; yaqin'^' ; 
bi-shakk u shubha. 

Aster, gul-i mind. 

Asthma, tawji-yi nafas, ziq" ^n-nafas. 

Astonish, to, dar ta'ajjub or hayrat anddkh- 
tan; mdt zadan; vide Amaze, Be- 

Astonished, to be, vdr (or vd) raftan; dar 
dHna bi-'rulj . cabil-i khud vd raft, " he 
lost himself in contemplation of his curls 
and moustache ; in admiring himself in the 
mirror] ; muta'ajjib sh. ; hayrat-zada sh. ; 

1 Daru'l-Hyar (or zarrab khana, "■ mint "). > In spettking the reg. fern. pi. muhimmat is always used. 




Astonishing, hayrat-angiz ; mdhall-i ta'ajjub 
ast ki — (it is astonisliing that — ). 

Astonishment, he evinced great astonish- 
ment, ta'ajjub-i hisyar-i izhar namud ; 
hayrat. Vide Amazement, Wonder, Be- 
wilderment, Astounded. 

Astounded, to be, va rmndan ; I was as- 
tounded, mat-am hurd^ or mat mandam. 
Vide supra. 

Astrakhan, Hajl TarMmn (the place). 

Astray, gum-rdh (k.) ; I was led astray, mara 
bi-rdh-i ghalati burdand (lit.), but az rah 
dar burdand (fig.). 

Astride, fo-kushad; dar Inglistdn mg/rd-hE 
rdst va zan-hd yak-vari savdr-i asp m%- 

Astringent, zumukht (gen.) (of taste; appear- 
ance) ; dibsh (of tea, coffee, fruit) : qdbiz 

Astrolabe, usturldh. 

Astrologer, munajjim, nujuml; rasad-band-i 
daqiqa-ydb (a skilled astrologer) ; sitdra- 
shivus ; the astrologers said that the prince 
was born at such a lucky moment that he 
would rival Alexander in greatness and 
Niishlrvan in justice — provided that he 
saw neither the sun nor the moon for the 
first ten years of his life, munajjimdn javdb 
dddand ki bi-fazl-i ildhi tavallvd-i shdhzdda 
dar chunln sd'at-i nik va qirdn-i sa'ld 
shuda ast ki bdyad misl-i Sikandar saltanat 
kunad va hamchi Nushtrvdn 'addlat numu- 
yad va likin shart dn ast ki td dah sal na 
dftdb va na mdhtdb ra ^ binad — (Prof. S. T.) 

Astrology,^ 'ilm-i nujum. 

Astronomer, falakl (mod.). 

Astronomical, nujuml 

Astronomy,^ Hlm-i hayrat; tanjlm (not 

Asunder, az ham; sivd or jvdd (k.). Vide 

Asylum, pandh (gen.) [justan or giriftan bi 
— ) ; madman (place of safety) ; yatlrrv- 
hhana ( — for orphans) ; basf^ (sanctuary) ; 
basti, one who has taken refuge in any 
sanctuary. Vide Sanctuary. 

At, dam; dar ; hich (at all). 

Atheism, dahri-gari; zandaqa. Vide infra. 

Atheist, dahri,^\. dahriyya (one who believes 
in the eternity of matter) ; Id mazhab 
(without religion) ; zindiq, pi. zanddiqa 
(lit., one who believes in the Zand). Vide 

Athlete, pahlavan (sp. wrestler). 

Atmosphere, havd-yi mujdvir (i.e., the air 
close to the earth) ; jaw (space in vault 
of heaven) ; dtmusfur (Eng.). 

Atom, zarra, pi. zarrdt; zarrdt-i shamd (the 
atoms in a sunbeam, in a darkened room) ; 
juz^-i Id yatajazzd ^ (the indivisible or 
primordial atom). 

Atone, kaffdra-yi in gundh rd chi tawr bi- 
diham (how can I atone ? ) . 

Atrocity, amr-i fazih; ghdyat-i ijhdf ki 
mujib-i inzijdr-i qalb mt-shavad. 

Attach, mulJiaq k. ; payvand d. ; vide 

Attachment, ta'alluq-i ziydd, dil-bastagi (of 
heart) ; vide Affection ; payvastagi or 
chaspidagi (sticking together). 

Attack, duzd bar sar-i qdfila rtkht or qdfila rd 
duzd zad (robbers attacked the caravan) ; 
hamla kardan or burdan ; yurish (vulg. 
yurush) or tETcht dvurdan; hujum k.; 
shabl khun zadan (night attack) ; vide 
Assault; bar man hamchu purkhdsh kard 
ki sar-i majlis khijdlat kashidam (he at- 
tacked me and put me to open shame) ; 
ham dar hamla pusht dddand (they fled at 
the first attack) ; Hlm-i yurish _u difd' va 
qaPa-giriuqal'a-ddri hanuz dar Irdn qadam 
bi-qadam ml-ravad (in Persia the science 
of attack is not more advanced than that 
of defence). 

Attain, to, vide Acquire, Reach. 

Attainable, ydftani ; mumkin" ' l-husul ; Tmsil 

Attainment, husul. Vide Learning. 

Attempt, kushish (k.) ; sa'i (k.) ; jahd (k.) ; 
qasd-i jdn k. (to attempt a person's life) ; 
" he makes no attempt to learn," hargiz 
tan-i khud rd bi-ta'lim dar nami-dihad or 
bi-kulli sa'l dar khwdndan nami-kunad. 

Attend ! bash ! ; gush-at bd man ! 

Attend, raddagl k. (to look after_a child, 
any work, etc., etc.) ; gush dddan (to 

1 Mat ahudan in the language of falconry is applied to a goshawk when she crouches on the fist on 
spying quarry. 

2 Note that ra only occurs once. 

s The distinction between astronomy and astrology is not carefully observed. 

* Bast, a sanctuary where a criminal cannot be arrested. The houses of mullas, a stable, a telegraph 
office, a consulate, etc., are all bast. 
6 A not uncommon m.c. term. 




listen to) ; iltifdt h. (pay attention to) ; chi 
vaqtfardo hazir-i khidmat bi-shavam (what 
hour shall I attend to-morrow) ; I have 
received notice to attend the court at ten 
o'clock, hukm-i ih?Rr az linkim-i Shar' ' 
amada ast ki dar sa 'at-i dah hdzir hdsham. 

Attendance, your attendance is necessary, 
huzur-i shuma vdjih ast; khidmat (service, 
q V.) ; haqq'^l-qadam, attendance fee 
(med. — ) ; dar riknb budan (to be in 

Attention, iltifdt (witii neg. verb) ; dil d. ; 
gdsh d. (heed) ; awqdt rd masruf-i bd^hd 
mi-kunand (their chief attention is devot- 
ed to gardens) ; hi-kdr mubdldt na k. (to 
pay little attention to; mde Careless- 
ness); "he pays attention to his book, 
an jdsar bi-'ilm khayli tavajjuh darad, 
juahcdl naguzdshtan (to pay no attention 
to, to ignore the presence of). 

Attentive, mutavajjih ; multafit. Vide 

Attentively, bi-diqqat asp rd vd rasid (he 
looked attentively at the horse) : bd tavaj- 
juh mi-khivdnad. 

Attest, to, gavdht or shahddat d. ; tasdiq k. 

Attesting, shdhid (sh.). 

Attire, libds ; rakht (gen., good or bad); 
nrdstan (gen.); pirdstan (of people) ; tajam- 
mul k. (ornament, etc.) ; pushtdan or bar 
kardan or dar bar k. (to put on). Vide 

Attired, drdsia (gen.) ; jnrdsta (adorned, 
of people) ; malbus (Pers.) or mulabbas 

Attitude, vaz' ; hdlat. 

Attorney, vaMl-i murdfa'a; vakdlat-ndma 
(power of attorney). 

Attract, to, jazb k. (also to suck up, as blot- 
ting paper) ; jalb k} 

Attraction, kashish or jdzib (charm) ; quwa-yi 
jdziba (the power of attraction) ; maqbuliy- 
yat (prettiness of things or people). 

Attractive, jdzib (of things ; of beauty) ; 
rhang bi-dil zan ; dvdz^ash chang-t bi-dil 
naml-zanad (her voice is not attractive). 
Vide Alluring. 

Attribute, si fat, pi. si fat. 

Attribute, to, niabal d. ; hand k. 

Attributed, tnansiib. 

Attrition, farsudagl. 

Attune, ham-dhang k. 

Auction, hard j ; lildm (Indian). 

Auctioneer, harrdj or hardj-chi ; lildmrchi. 

Audacity, ja^drat. Vide Bold, Impudent. 

Audibly, buland. 

Audience, hdzinn (of any assembly) ; sdmi'in 

(hearers; gen. relig.) ; tamdsha-bindn or 
tamdshd'^iydn (spectators); izn-ihuzurdddan 

(to give audience) ; divdn-i 'dmm (general 

audience chamber) ; divdn-i khdss (special 

— ). Vide Interview. 
Audit, to, muhdsaba k. 
Auditor, mustami' or sdmi' (hearer) ; muhdsib 

or muhasaba-chi (of accounts). 
Auger, mata or barma (gen. with bow) ; ddna- 

yi khashkhdsh rd mata 7ni-kunad or mata 

bi-kutiri khashkhdsh mi-guzdrad (he is 

terribly particular; vide Particular). 
Augment, afzudan, rt. afzd; ziydd k.; 

izdfa k. 
Augmentation, afzdyish or izdiydd (k. or d.) ; 

izdfa [k. and sh.). 
Augmented, afzuda. 
Augur, fdlrgir (gen.); (jhayb-gh (revealer of 

what is hidden) ; kdhin (from signs). 
Augur, to, Augury, fdl-giriftan ; tafa*'%d z. 

(from Hafiz, Sa'dl, etc.); istikhdra k. 

(rosary, Qur*an); shugun (girt f tan). 
Aunt, khdla (maternal) ; ' amma (paternal). 
Auricular, sama'i. 
Auspices, sdya. 

Auspicious, mvbdrak ; maymun. 
Aurangzebe, Aiorangzib. 
Austere, 'abus (in appearance) ; durusht 

(severe); riydzat-kash (in habits). Vide 

Austria, Utnsh. 
Authentic, sahih; muhaqqaq and mtisaddaq 

(of statements). 
Author, musannif-i (or m,u^alhf-i) In kitab 

Idsf^ (who is the author of this book ?). 
Authority, by whose authority, bi-huhn-i 

ki? the schoolmaster has no authority 

over the boys, dn mwallim pashm tu-yi 

kuldh-ash nist * ; vaJnUi mvUaq (a represen- 

1 The Hakim-i Shar' is a mujtahid that administers civil (and religious) law: the Hakim-i ^TJrf 
administers criminal law. 

■i In Arabic 7026 is inherent attraction, and jcUh is to bring. 

3 Not bud as it is not known whether the author be living or dea 1 .- but aya Sa'dl mu*aUif-i 
Ouliatan biid (or huda oat)? In modern Persian <a#ni/ is generally "a song," but ta'/i/ is any com- 
position. Naviaanda = kattb, "■ scribe or copyist." 

* Bi-wu'allim bi-gu nazdlk-% zamiatan oat qadr-l paahtn tu-yi kulah-aah bi-gtizar<»d is a catch 
sage sent by the parents of n boy who is making poor progress at school. ~ 




tative with full powers) ; dastur and ijaza 
(permission). Vide Awe and Dignity. 

Autobiography, savanih-i 'umrl-yi khud 
navishta ast. 

Automaton, lu'bat-i janarl (toy). 

Autumn, pa^iz ; hhazan ; barg-rimn ( = the 

hvxxMsivy , mumidd ; mu'avin; af'dt-iinu'avin 
(auxiliary verbs). 

Avail, mustafiz sh. (to avail oneself of — ). 

Avalanche, hahman (local word). 

Avarice, tama' (greed) ; Mrs (avarice ; for 
money or anything) ; huhhl (miserli- 
, Avaricious, tamma' (greedy) ; danddn-gird 
(exorbitant in his prices) ; harts (avarici- 
ous) ; hahhtl or kanis (m. c.) or mumsik 

Avenge, intiqam hashidan (avenge or re- 
venge) ; qisds giriftan (to take the exact 
blood retaliation allowed by the law, but 
colloquially used of any revenge. Vide 

Avenger, muntaqim (or revenger). 

Avenue, khiydbdn (a street or garden path 
lined generally with poplars ') ; ckahdr- 
hd gh ^ (cross avenue). 

Average, ru-yi ham or ru-yi ham rafta; 
takhmln" " ^ ( on an average ) . Vide Subsc rip- 

Aversion, tanaffur {ddshtan or k.) ; ikrdh* 
or kardhat {d. or k.) ; nifrat {d. or k.), for 

Avert, to, daf k. ; dur k. (of evil threatened 
or arrived). 

Avidity, Mrs (in eating) ; hd kamdl-i shawq 
(or m,ayl or ra gh hat, etc.). 

Avoid, to, ijtindb namudan; parhiz k.; az 
Mir pahlu tuhi mi-kunad (he avoids work); 
I cannot avoid going, nami-tavdnam az 
raftan bdz bi-manam ^ ; namihhwdstam du 
chdr-i n shavam, khud rd bi-kucha-yi 
Hasan chap zadam (I did not want to 
meet him, so I avoided him by a detour) ; 
az suhhai-i zandn Mndra mi-kashad (he 
avoids the society of women). ' 
Avow, iqrdr k.; mu'tarif sh. ; qdHl budan. 
Avowed, murid-i bd-ism u rasm (avowed 

Await, Awaiting, muntazir budan. 

Awake, wake me early, mard subh-i zud 
blddr kun ; qadri khwdb-dlud budam (I was 
not quite awake) ; az hhivdb pa k. (m. c). 

Aware, vdqif ; dgdh ; bd hhabar ; multafvt 
(rare) ; masbuq (modem) ; I was not in 
the least aware of this, az in ittild'-t no- 
ddshtam h/ich. 

Away, dur. Vide Absent. 

Awe, ru'b (awe or fear of man or lion); 
haybat (awe of man or God). Vide Fear. 
They do not stand in awe of him, Mnnd- 
yash rang-l na-ddrad or zahra-yi chashm 
n^t-ddrad. Vide Authority and Stuff. 

Awful, muhib (prop, mahib), mahhuj (frighten- 
ing) ; ' ' how awful is the state of those 
who despise God," hdlat-i dn kasdn-i ki 
khudd rd hich mt-shumdrand dn qadar 
hawl-ndk ast ki morpurs. 

Awhile, dam-i. 

Awkward, shirtl (one who dashes at things) ; 
u shutur bar nardahdn ast (rare) ; jirat- 
gji,uz; dast u pd chilifti (or — mumi)ast; 
chuldq-dast {hnttev-fLngereiA) ; bad-tarldb (ill- 
shaped, of animals). 

Awl, dirafsh. 

Awning, sdya-bdn ; dftdh-garddn. 

Awry, kaj. 

Axe, " bring an axe and chop this wood," 
tabar-i bi-ydvar in chub " rd khurd kun. 

Axioms, qazdyd-yi awaliyya (of Euclid) ; 
musallamdt (postulates). 

Axis, miV ; mihvar (in m. c, of Earth). 

Axle, tir. _ 

Ayisha, 'A^isha (the Prophet's wife ; amongst 
the Shi'ahs also used as a term of abuse). 

Azerbaijan, AzarbdHjdn. 

Azof, Bahr"^ 'l-Qirlm (Sea of Crimea). 

Azure, Idjawardi. 


Baal, Ba'l. 

Baalbak, Ba'labak. 

Babbler, he's a babbler, u ki pur-gu ast; 
fazul (also a meddler) ; chdrm-zan or 
fardkh-dahan (talks too much and foolish- 
ly) ; charand-gu (who talks rot); ydva-gu 
(ditto). Vide Blabber, etc. 

1 If without trees it would be called kucha. 

2 Also the name of a celebrated royal garden at Isfahan. 

3 In India awsat (adj.). 

* In Arabic ikrah used only in the sense of compulsion. 

6 But i'tiraz Jc. "to object to.'" 

6 Kunda, logs for burning, etc., hlzam or hlma, small wood for burning. Shikaftan, " to split. 

■J Mil. mile-stone, etc. : mil-i zur-khana, " Indian clubs : ' ' mllcha "a collyrium needle. ' ' 




Babel,' Babil. 

Baboon. Vide Ape, 

Baby, tifl-i shxr-khwdra ; razt' ; bdbn (by 

father or mother to tiny child). 
Babyhood, shir-khwdragi . 
Babylon, Babul. 

Bachelor, zan na-girifta or 'arusi na-karda; 
damnd na-shuda; 'azab; mujurrad (m. c). 
Back, pushl ; jmshi-i hard ( — of knife); 
" what has he got on his back''" ru-yi 
pusht-ash chi ddrad? hi — puaht k. (to turn 
the back on) ; vide Rear ; bdz ; vdpas ; 
vide Again ; fUsh or kuhna (of numbers of 
a paper). 
Backbite, to, bi-pusttn-i kas-l uftadan; 
(jhibat k. or guftan ; pusht-i sar harf zadan. 
Backbiter, (jhibat-gu ; chugtU-khirr (tale- 
Backbiting, sukhan-chlni (tale-bearing) ; 

Backbone, tir-i pusht ; rrmza (also the g'roove 
in the back) ; muhra-yi pusht (one bone or 
joint of the backbone). 
Backgammon, nard {bdkhtun) ; takhta-bdzt 

Background, zamina (of picture ; carpet). 
Bick-handed, pusht-i dastt, adj. 
Bickward, 'aqab uftdda (of a child) ; kund 

Beckwardness, susti or kunit (dullness) ; 

^cam-ru^l (shyness) 
Backwards, he retired from the Shah's pres- 
♦nce backwards, az huzur-i Shah pusht-i 
faraici birun raft or qahqard har-gasht. 
Ba:k- water, murddb. 

Bai, bad ; na-khub (in Persian Gulf) ; zabun ; 
qpbxh (of people, things, words) ; fdsid 
(jone bad, of food, etc.) ; ganda or bad-bu 
cr muta'affin (stinking) ; sag-i zard bard- 
dar-i sha(fhdl-i siydh or kahar kam az 
habud nist (one is as bad as the other); 
bid-zabdni {k.) (bad language). Vide 
Badge, nishdn. 

Badger,^ gur-kan ; gur-shikan ; khuk-i dih(?). 
Badness, ba/K (gen.) ; qabdhat (of actions, 

Baffle, to, sa't bi-kdr k. Vide Deceive. 

Baffled, mahrum or ma^yua {ah.) (disappoint- 
ed or despairing of — ) ; hayran (ah.) or 
gum (ah.) (of a scent). 

Bag, lif (a hand-bag for washing) ; u MiayJi 
Ef ddrad (he gives himself the airs of a 
swell) ; put this money in the bag, m pvl » 
rd tu-yi Idsa bi-guzdr ; chanta (dervishe 
and beggars; of carpet); jawzrbartdi (a 
dervish's bag suspended under the arm 
and from the shoulder) ; tobra (nose-bag) : 
vide Bale; he's alone and without bag 
and baggage, u lut u Idt oat va bt-aabab 

Bag, to, pufidan, intr., (fill with wind; of 

Bagdad, Bagdad. 

Baggage, buna: sarbdz-hd hamrdh*-i aabdb-i 
khud-i shdn raftand ; bar u buna : rakht-i 
safar ; sdmdn; Mwrrfa-m (small et ceteraa 
for journey, etc.). Vide Bag. 

Bagpipe, nay-arnbdn ; nay-ambdn-chi (player 

Bahrain, Bahrayn. 

Bail, mi-khwdhtd zdmin-ash bi-shamd? (of a 
person); zamdnat (d. or k.) (the security 
itself) ; kafdlat (personal only). 

Bait, ddna; china , Vwma (for fish) ; mulld^ (a 
live bait, and also a decoy bird) ; chiddmri 
bardy-ash bi-niham ki gir-ash bi-ydram 
(with what bait can I allure him ?). 

Bake, to, dar tanur piikhtan; khabbdzi k. 
(of bread only). 

Bake-house, kjiabbdz-khdna (also a place 
where bread is sold). 

Baker, ndn-vd : khabbdz. 

Baking, khabbdzi (k). 

Baku, Bddkuba. 

Balance, "what is the balance of my ac- 
count ? ' ' mizdn-i hisdb-am chist (for credit 
or debt) ; baqiyya (gen.) ; tatimmoryi bi-dih 
(bal. debt) ; tatimma-yi talab (bal. credit) ; 
qdpun (large scales) ; tardzu (small scales). 

Balance, to, vide Weigh, Adjust; langar k. 
( — oneself, on a tight-rope, etc.). 

Balcony, bdld-khdna (also an ' upper storey ') ; 
ayvdn (with covering; above the tdldr) ; 
mahtdbi (on roof of house ; has no covering 
or awning; vide Terrace). 

1 The angels Harut and Marut are suspended head downweuxls in a great pit near Babel. They 
teach magic. 

2 The Persian belief is that the more the bJkdger is beaten the fatter it gets. 

3 The pi. pul-ha is often useil, if there is more than one piece. 
♦ Ham rikab only used for accompanying people. 

6 Corruption of Ar. milwah. Midla is in India also used for a live insect (mole, cricket, etc.) 
used to snare birds that are insect-feeders. 




Bald, tds ; kal, kad, or kachal (from favus). 

Bale, open the bale of cotton, ktsa-yi pamba 
ra va kun ; hasta (for cloth ; also a parcel) ; 
javdlri gandum (sack of wheat); also bdr-i 
gandum (sack or load of wheat) ; linga (half 
a load) ; 'idl (m. c. : for cloth). 

Balkh, Balkh. 

Ball, tupa, and git or guy (for playing); 
majlis-i (or mihmdm-yi) hdl (dance, Eur.) ; 
guruk (of thread). 

Ballast, this ship came in ballast, in jahdz 
khdli dmada: pdr-sang (make weight). 

Bamboo, chub- i khayzurdn (Malacca cane) ; 
nay (gen.). 

Banana, mawz or muz (a word not commonly 
known) ; halvd-yi darakhti (fig.). 

Band, jama' at; dasta or guruh (of people); 
tdHfa^ (a tribe; a class) ; dasia-yi muztkdn 
or dasta-yi sdz (musical). 

Bandage, band; takhta-band (with splint, 
also a wooden floor) ; pd-tdba (leg-band- 
ages, putties). 

Band-box, sanduqcha yi muqavvd. 

Bandit, rdh-zan. Vide Robber. 

Bandolier, baQhal-taq (a bandolier for carry- 
ing a rifle and protecting tbe clothing). 
Vide Belt. 

Bandy, to, radd u badal k. (to bandy words ; 
in a bad sense). 

Bandy-legged, Jcamdn-pd. 

Baneful, 7iahs (unlucky) ; muzirr (injurious). 

Bang, tardq (noise of gun. hammer, door). 
Vide Blow. 

Bang, to, dar rn bi-ham zadan (of a door ; in 

Banish, to, bi-dar k. ; ikhrdj k. ; "let us 
banish our fears, hdld tars (not pi.) ra az 
khud dur kunlm ; ' he was banished from 
the city,' urd, az shahr birun kardand or 
hukumut an muqassir rd nafi-yi balad 
hard; but m/xn khud rd jald vatan mJi- 
kunam (to emigrate, or banish oneself). 

Banister, dasl-anddz. 

Bank, bdnk (money) ; iskinds or nut (bank- 
note) ; lab or kindra'^ (of river, sea); 
pushta (of earth) ; sadd (basfan) : band (rare) 
(guzdshtan) . 
Banker, Banking, ahl-i bdnk (staff) : ra^is-i 
bdnk (manager).'^ They are bankers of 
Shiraz , dar Shlrdz sarrdfi mi-kunand. 

Bank-note, vide Bank. 

Bankrupt, u In ruz-hd var-shikasta ast (he is 

at present bankrupt). 
Banner, 'alam; bayraq (flag). 
Banquet, ziydfat (dadan) (any entertainment 

of food) ; valhna {dadan) or shayldn {kashi- 

dan) (a general feast) ; mihmdni [k. or d.) 

(entertainment, q. v.). 
Baptize,'* ta'mid {k.). 
Bar, pushtibdn (of door or window) ; mjdni' 

(impediment, q. v.) ; sikh (of any cage). 
Bar, to, chijt k. (to bolt) ; qufl z. (to lock) ; 

muni' dmadan or masdud sdkhtan (to 

Barb, khdr ; sim-i khdr-ddr (barbed wire). 
Barbarian, vahshi; a'jami also 'ajami, Ar. 

(one who does not speak Arabic, i.e., a 

barbarian, uncultured, a Persian) ; 

(prop, a person of Berber). 
Barbarity, barbariyyat ; vahshi-gari. 
Barber, dalldk (also shampooer in T. 

salmdnl (vulg.) ; ha j jam (cupper). 
Barberry, zirishk. 
Bard, ddstdn-khwdn ; qavvdl (who 

religious songs). 
Bare, ' ' we were sitting on the bare grounc 

ru-yi zamln-i hi-farsh nishista biidim; 

barahna mi-ravad (he goe>s bare-footea) ; 

sar-barahna (bare-headed) ; luhhi (naied 

of body) ; mahz (mere) ; mu'arid |(of 

ground ; void of any growth). I 

Bare-faced, rn-bdz (with face uncovered). 

Vide Impudent, etc. 
Bai ely , hamin ast va bas ; man In ka\ ra 

hanuz tammn na-kardam ki u dmad. 
Bargain, to, you made a bad bargain, 

mala-yi bad-i kardtd ; chdna zadan 

to chatter ; lit. to wag chin) ; say 

proper price, don't haggle, qimat 

kalima bi-gu or bi-chdna bi-gu ^ ; bd 

qimat na-kun (don't bargain with 

Vide Haggle. 
Bark, pust (kandan) (of tree) ; qishr \ (by 

druggists) . \ 

Bark, to, " that dog barks at every one," 

dn sag bi-har kas vaw vaw mi-kunad , pars ' 

k. ; haw dvurdan ^ (bark and attack) : 
'af .'a/ kardan ; "his bark is worse 

than his bite," dn sag haw ddrad gir na- 



I the 

TaHfa yi incis.^ " the female sex. " 2 But kinar, " edge, side, etc. 

In In^lia farrai j.s a ' native banker.' but in Persia 'a money changer ' 

Yahya-''i tamid dihanda, " John the Baptist." 

Bi-sarhar hist tnman ml diham, " for monsieur it shall be twenty tilmans." 

Pens (corrup. of pas) z.\ properly to keep guard. 

Haic or hawa is corrupted from hamla. 




Barked, adj., puM-kand ( ' peeled,' of 
fiuit ; and ' skiiuied,' of almonds) ; mu- 
qashshar (peeled ; nkinned). 

Barley, jaw ; jav ; talid (green barley given 
to horses) ; khavid ' (ditto ; but rare). 

Barn, ambar (k.) ; kharman {k.) (a heap in 
the open before or after cleaning). 

Barometer, tnizan-i havd ; shisha-yi ham 

Barracks, sarbaz-khdna ; qardvul-khdna 

Barrel, pip (cask) ; lula (of gun). 

Barren, bdyir (of land) ; zird'at tui-ddrad (of 
fallow land) ; nainak-zdr or shura-zdr ast 
(brackish) ; kavir (salt desert ; produces 
melons) ; nd-zd or 'aqim{oi woman). Vide 

Barrenness, bay in u bi-db u 'alafi-yi zamln 
(the barrenness of the soil) ; ' aqhn budan 
(of woman). 

Barricade, to, ' ' the people rose and barri- 
caded the streets," ahl-i shahr shurish 
karda kucJiahd rd sangar kardand ; kucha- 
bandi k. Vide Barrier. 

Barrier, sadd-i rah ; maid' . Vide Barricade. 

Barter, to. Barter, mubddala {k ) (exchange 
for kind) ; tijdrat bi-mu'dvaza k. ; ddd u 
siiad (k.) or bay' u shird (k.) (trade by 
money). Vide Buy, Bargain, Deal. 

Base, subs, bun ; asds (foundation) : pdya 
(foot) ; qd'ida (of a triangle). 

Base, adj., past; dun; qabih {oi actions; 
but of people =" hideous"). "What 
baseness I am guilty of," afsusf chi 
"avial-i past-i kardam. Vide Baseness. 

Base-born, tukhm-i hardm ; hardm-zdda ; 
valad" 'z-zi7id (illegitimate) ; mddar bi- 
khatd (ditto, but in abuse only); bad-asi ; 
past-nizhdd (low-born) Vide Bastard. 

Based, rnahni hi or bar — (founded on) ; 
mu''assas bi — . 

Baseness, dnni ; pasli ; razdlat; siftagt (also 
with k.); sagtyat, vulg. (baseness with 
injury to) Vide Base. 

Bashful, kani-rii ; fiharm-tu; khijdlal ml' 
kasfiad ki bd bacJtcha-hd-yi digar Lukht 
hamrmiiii kunad. 

Bashfulness, kain-ru''i ; aharm-ru^l. 

Basil, rayhdn (the Holy Basil, the tuUii of 
the Hindus). 

Basin, tds ; hawz (of a fountain); " bring a 
little water in a basin," yak khurdu db 
(also yakkhurda-yi db) tu-yi la{/an (or kisht) 
bi-ydvar. Vide Tank. 

Basis, uss-i asds (the key-note or foundation 
stone). Vide Base. 

Bask, to, khud rd dftdb dddan. 

Basket, zarnhll (deep) ; sabad, vulg. saft 
(broad and open) ; " put them in the bas- 
ket," tH-yi sabad bi-guzdr or bi-rlz; lawda 
or chdk (pointed donkey pannier) ; 
salla-yi munjh^ (for covering fowls ^); 
qawsara (a basket of dwarf-palm leaves for 
packing dates). Vide Box. 

Basket-maker, vid/i Box ; zambll- (etc.) bdf. 

Bass, zir u bam (treble and bass). 

Bastard, hardm-zdda; tukhm or nutja-yi 
hardm; valad "' z-zind ; mddar bi-khatd 
(abuse). Vide Base-born. 

Baste, to, kiik k. (ttick). 

Bastinado, he was bastinadoed, um bi-falak* 
kardand; chub zadan (gen.); vide Beat; 
[ktUak zadan, gen. to beat anyhow] ; falak 
khurdan (Pass.). 

Bastion, burj, pi. buruj (also = tower) : bdsti- 
ydn (Eur.). 

Bat, mush-kur , ruz kiir ; kabish (Gilau) ; and 
sfiabpara* (the animal); chaivgdn (old 
spoon-shaped bat for playing ball) : rhafta 
m. c. (cricket bat). 

Bath, hammdm (Turkish bath ^) ; ustdd or 
hammdml oi hammdm-chl (ouner or 
supermtendent) ; tun-tdb or tun-sdz (stoker) ; 
blna or }dma-kan (the place in a bath 
where the clothes are removed) ; jdma-ddr 
(the man in charge of the clothes) ; gvl- 
khan (the furnace of a bath) ; khizdjia (the 
tank in a bath) ; hammdm-i chubl (bathing 

1 In India qa,^l. 

2 The hen hous 'is, in some parts of Persia, the w. c. 

^ Falak or fal'ika is the pole held by two assistant)*, which by means of a noose holds tiie ii«t 
of the ort'ender sole upwards ("'skywards"). Chnh art> the switches for beating. If the soles are 
struck by the middle of tlv 8i\ itch, the switch curls round the ankles and increases the suffering. 
A present to the '>s ' and the blows will rain henvily on the falaka and not on the feet 

* Shahpara , '• but'erfly." 

6 In I'ersia. the bathroom of a t 'nt, or evon a tub, is. for wa:it of a better word, styled ham- 
mZ'Tn; not so in India. Hurin,' the hours that the hamnum is appropriated to women, a lung ia 
hun^' before the door. When a bather cocno; out of the garm khutn ,nto the juma-kan. a common 
greeting is 'ufiyat bilfthad: but to a person who has left the hammtm for the street, the greeting is 
8ihhat-i f,:\mmam. 




house by river) ; hammdm-i dasti and 
chalak (bathing tub). 

Bathe, dh-hazi k. (to bathe for recreation) ; 
hammdm-i pdk-i raftam (I took a good 
bath) ; " I saw a lot of people bathing in 
the Euphrates," jam'tyyat-i ziydd-i d^dam 
ki dar dh-i Furdt shust u shu mi-kardand 
or jdn m^-shusiand ; hi-dh mt-jaqidand 
(were bathing and jumping about) ; ahusl 
k. (relig.) ; istihmdm-i db-i garm-i ma' dam 
k. (to take hot mineral baths).' 

Baton, 'asd; dur-hdsh ; [dur-bdsh-kun, "the 
man that carries the baton]. 

Battalion, bdtdlyun (Eur.). 

Battery, bdtn (Art.) ; hanuz tup bi-qal'a na- 
basta budand ki —(their batteries had 
hardly opened when — ) ; charkh-i almds 

Battle, jang {k.) ; m^'raka (with kardan = to 
make a row or collect a crowd) (prop, the 
field of battle) ; m^yddn-i jang (drdstan) 
(field); jihdd (k.) (relig. war). 

Battle, to, saff-drd^l k. (to draw up in battle 
array) ; jangldan. 

Battlement, kungura (castellation, q.v.). 

Batum, Bdtum. 

Bauble, bdzicha (toy). 

Bawd, iiide Pimp; dalldla [dalldl, male]. 

Bawl, farydd; bachcha-hd, farydd na-zanid, 
yavdsh bi-gu*id. 

Bay, khalij (gulf) ; khitr (for khawr ; bay 
near the mouth of a river) ; kahar or 
kumayt (of colour) ; qara kahar (dark bay) ; 
{kahar az kabud kam nist = " the one is as 
bad as the other). 

Bayazid, Bdyazid. 

Bayonet, mza-yi tujang ; sar-niza. 

Bay-window, shdh-nishm. 

Bazar, there the bazar commences, dnjd 
avval-i bdzdr ast. 

Bdellium, mitql. 

Be, budan; zlstan (to live); shudan (to be- 

Beach, sdhil (coast) ; [but lab-i daryd, " river 

Bead, muhra '^ (also a cowrie) ; [khcir-muhra 
a large shell] ; shaha ; ddna (of a rosary or 

Beaded, shabordukhta. 

Beak, nuk ; ching ; [chang " birds' claws or 
foot "] ; minqdr. 

Beam, shdh-tir ; maflul (also twisted wire or 
rope) ; shdhin (of large scales) ; mil (of 
steelyard) ; partav or lam'a (of light) : 
vid£. Sunbeam; muhdr (the thin pole, 
usually a poplar, that binds opposite 
walls ; said to be necessary owing to 

Bean, bdqild (broad) ; lubiyd (French) . 

Bear, khirs ; khdlu ; mam (Baluchistan); 
Dubb-i Akbar (Great Bear) ; Dubb-' Asgjiar 
(Little Bear); Hazrat-i Khirs ( Bruin ^ 

Bear, to, burdan, rt. bar , haml namudan (to 
carry) ; ru-yi sar-ash mi-barad (he carries it 
on his head) ; tahammul n. (endure) ; sdJch- 
tanbd- , intr. (ditto); kashidan; tab dvur- 
dan, he bears it patiently; " az ru-yi sabr 
mutahammil-i an sadma ast ' ' ; vide En- 
dure and Patience ; zd^ldan (young) ; " she 
has given birth," an zan pd subuk karda 
ast; bi-bdr dmadan or bdr dvurdan (of a 
fruit tree). 

Beard, rish; rish-i arnbuh or tup-rish (thick 
beard) ; rlsh-pahn (broad beard with whisk- 
ers); "he has a chin beard only," u 
kusa ast or rish-i kusa ddrad;'^ vide 
infra ; kusa-yi rish-pahn (said of contradic- 
tory things as a ' round square hole ' ) ; 
khatl (newly sprouting beard and whisker); 
mahdsin (big); "the Prophet said, 'Do 
the opposite of the Polytheists and let 
your beard grow long,' " Paigjiambar 
farmud ki shunid bar-khildf-i mushrikln bi- 
guzdrld ki rishhd-yi tan buland shavad ; 
vide Hat ; naw-khatt ast (he is just begin- 
ning to get a beard, etc.). 

Bearded, rish-ddr or rlshi ; arnbuh-rish or 
tup-rish or gapa-rish (thickly) ; rish-kusa 
(with beard on chin only like the Chinese). 

Beardless, bl-rish ; ■* amrad , sdda-ru (without 
hair on the face). 

Bearer, hdmil , [but hammdl 'coolie']; 
chughll-knn ^ (tale-bearer). 

Bearing, vaz' . 

Beast, mdl (of burden, or for riding) ; vahsh, 
pi. vuhush (any wild beast or bird) ; 
bahlma, pi. bahdHm (of quadrupeds) ; sutur 
(any beast of burden ; sp. a mule) ; jdnvar 

1 There are hot mineral springs in Persia used by the rheumatic and paralytic. 
* Also a ' • piece ' ' at backgammon ; and a ' ' chessman. ' ' 
8 Considered ugly. Also a kusa beard is a sign of a knave. 
4 As blrtsh may signify ' catamite ' the word is best avoided. 
6 In India chughli-lehur. 




or hay{a)van (anything alive) ; daranda (of 
prey); aibd'-t, zdrra (dangerous beasts). 

Beat, subs. , zarb (one beat of pulse) ; hara- 
kat (the beating of pulse). 

Beat, " I have twice beaten him u) class," 
dar dars khwdndan du bar az u jilo shudam 
or sabqat giriftam; az n bdzi rd burdam 
(for games) ; the master has beaten his 
slave, dqd ' ^nldm-ash rd kutak zad (gener- 
ally) ; — bd shalldq khurd u khamtr Icard 
(beat him black and blue with a Peraian 
whip) ; chub-i khub-i zad (gen. for basti- 
nado, q.v.); tasma az gurda-yash bar ml- 
dram (I'll hammer his back for him) ; u rd 
dam-i chub girifta and (they are beating 
him); "the ram beats into the room," 
bdrdn tu-yi utdq mi-zanad; he was beaten 
to a jelly, az bos ki u rd zadand lih shud, 
bi-ham z. (beat up eggs, etc.) ; bi-pdnzda 
dvurdam (I beat him down to 15 tumans). 
Vide Tender. 

Beater, shikdr-garddn (of game). 

Beating, kutak-kdri mi-kunand or ddrand 
(there is a whipping going on) ; taldtum 
(of waves) ; harakat (of pulse ; vide. Beat). 

Beau, shangul ; khush-vaz' . 

Beautified, arasto (A;.) ; muzayyan{k.). Vide 
Array. Adorn. 

Beautiful, khush-mariT^r ; hasin ; malang 
(vulg.) (of persons); mdh-ru ( of women 
only) ; qashang'^ (for persons, animals or 
things) ; khush-gil (for living things) ; 
maqbul (pretty ; people or things) ; ' ' this is 
a beautiful garden , in bdij,l%-i dil-chasp-i ^st; 
(malih = good looking). Vide Handsome 
and Pretty. 

Beauty, husn ; jamdl ; khush-glli (prettiness); 
maldhat (being of pleasing looks) ; rabb" 
^n-naw'-i husn (the God or Goddess of 

Beauty-spot, khdl (also mole). 

Becalm, the ship was becalmed four days, 
az bt-bddi jahdz id chahdr ruz dar jd-yi 
Mhud sdkit, or sdkin, mdnd. Vide Soothe. 

Because, zirdki; bi-vdsitaryiinki - ; bi-' illat-i 
in ki — ; chunki ; bi-sabab-i in ki — ; bi-jihat-i 
in ki — . 

Beck, man ki khar-i w hastam (I'm at his 
beck and call). 

Beckon, beckon to him to come here, ishdra 
bi-kun injd bi-ydyad. 

Becloud, lira or tdrik k. 

Become, shudan ; gardidan ; gashtan ; libidan 
or shdyistan to suit); "he has lately 
become very haughty (got swollen head), 
in ruz-hd, dimdff^-ash bald rafta ast ; " I 
will never become his wife neither now 
nor hereafter," hargiz zan-i u nami-shavam 
va norkhwdham ahud; chi shud? (what's 
become of him ^ ; chiin havd garmi bi-ham 
rasdnid (when the sun became hot) {vide 
Obtained). Vide Suit and Befit. 

Bed, takht-i khwdb; gul-zdr (large flower- 
bed) ; kurza-yi >gul (small) ; takht-i pi*in 
or pahin (of horse). Vide Bedding. 

Bedchamber, utdq-i Idiwdb or l^ivdb-gdh; 
shabisidn (old). 

Bedding, rakhi-i khtvdb ; jul-bandl (of der- 
vishes) ; for ' horse-bedding ' vide 

Bedfellow, kindr-khwdb (any bedfellow) ; 
ham-khipdba (wife). 

Bedim, lira k. 

Bedouin, Badavi. 

Bedraggle, dluda k. 

Bedridden, bistari. Vide Bed. 

Bedstead, lakht; takht-i khwdb; charpdy^ 
(Indian bedstead). 

Bee, I have been stung by a bee, zarnbur-i 
'asal 7nard zada ast ; l^yl (swarm of) ; 
{ya'mb, the king, i.e., 'queen' of the 
bees) ; zdrii or zarnbur-zardu (a yellow 
wasp) ; zarnbur, (hornet). 

Bee-eater, zambur-kush ; murgii-i ja'ldb.* 

Beef, gusht-i gdv. 

Beehive. Vide Hive. 

Beer, db-i jaw, bir (Eur.); "you think no 
small beer of yourself," tu bi-nasar-at ki 
khayli chiz hasti. 

Beetle, guh-gildn^ (the beetle that rolls 
pellets of dung) ; sin (some kind of blight, 
that particularly infests mulberry trees) ; 
ju'al ; madu (in dung) ; susk (cockroach) ; 
kdkrus, Eng. (by Calcutta Persians). 

Beetroot, chukandar or chughandar : labu 
or laljlabu (a street word for whole cooked 
beetroots ; and also for whole cooked 

) Pronounced ui/lia and often so wrUten. 

* In m. c qashanq applied to men often means '* good-tempered," but to women " pretty." 
s But chahhr pay, a ••quadruped.' ' 

* ' HfU'binger ot sheep.' t7aUa6 in mod. Ar. is one who trades in sheep (specially in the male* 
which do not yield milk). 6 Oilan, oorrup. from (fhalfiantdan. 




Befitting, sJidyisia ; Idyiq ; sazdvar , dar-khur. 

Before, jilaw (with izdfat gen. jilav-i — (in 
front of) ; plsh-i (of place), but pish az (of 
time) ; muhdp, (opposite) ; muqabil (fac- 
ing) ; qabl az (of time) ; misl-i sabiq (as 
before) ; rdst ru-yat (right before you). 

Before-mentioned, mazkur or mazkura-yi 
hold ; sdhiq"'' z-zikr ; mazkur"'' I- fawq. 

Beg, su'^dl k. or sd^il sh. \ gadd^'i k. (solicit 
alms) ; iltimds k. (entreat, q. v.) ; " I beg 
your pardon for what I have done , az dnchi 
karda-am bakhshish (or ' afv) mi-talabam ; 
'uzr mi-khivdham (please excuse my atten- 
dance or acceptance of, etc.) ; bi-bakhshtd 
(pardon me) ; isti gh fdr k. (to beg pardon 
from God). Vid,e Pardon. 

Beget, bi-vujud dvardan (also to create). 

Beggar, "a beggar is at the door," dar-i 
khdna gadd-l istdda ast ; gadd ; sd'^il ; he's 
a beggar with nothing, u Idt ast. Vide 

Begin, bind k. ; shuru' k. ; "we must begin 
to-moriow," fardd bdyad dast bi-kdr shud ; 
" the big chilla has not yet begun," chilla- 
yi ' buzurg hanuz na-girifta ast ; ' ' the 
man began to punish his wife," mard 
zariri khud rd tambih "^ kardan dghdz kard — 
Prof. S. T. ; dar avd^il-i ydd giriftan-i dn- 
am (I'm just beginning to study it) ; 
tajdid k. or bdz az sar giriftan (to begin 
again) ; bdd-l bar-khdst (it began to 

Beginner, mubtadi; naw-dmuz; tuza-kdr; 
they are beginners in Persian, tdlibdn-i 
zabdn-i Far si and. 

Beginning, dar awal-i kdr or dar badv-i amr 
(at the beginning) ; I have begun to talk 
a little English, dar zahdn-i Inglisi bi-harf 
zadan shuru' karda-am, or bind karda (or 
nihdda) am bi-harf zadan ; ' ' this has 
neither beginning nor end, in na-avval 
ddrad na dkhir ; avd^il (pi. of avval) ; In 
tifl tdza bi-zabdn dmada (this child is just 
beginning to talk) ; sar td sar (from begin- 
ning to end). 

Behalf, az taraj-i fuldn ; az zabdn-i hama (on 
behalf of all). 

Behave, 'amal k. bd — (to treat); bd-qd'ida 
(or .shdyista) raftdr kardan (to behave 
well) ; harakat-i nd-ma'qul k. (to behave 
ill) ; bd u suluk-i khub-i kard (he dealt 
kindly with him; behaved well towards 
him). Vide Treat. 

Behaviour, harakdt, pi. ; raftdr ; kirddr ; atvdr 

Behead, gardan zadan ; sar burlddn or anddkh- 
tan or bar ddshtan ; dush-i urd az bdr-i sar 
sabuk kard (he relieved his shoulder of the 
weight of the head). 

Behind, 'aqab; pusht , pusht-i sar; durnbdl; 
(three ships followed behind us, one be- 
hind the other, az 'aqab-i sar-i md si kishti 
bi-rad^f ^ mi-dmad ; pitsht-i sar-at na-nigdr 
(don't look behind you); dkhir-i hama 
(last of all, behind everybody). 

Behold, inak; nigdh kun; hdn rasid (see, 
here he is). 

Beholden, mamnun ; zir-i ihsdn-i shumd nami- 
ravam (I won't be beholden to you). ■ 

Beholders, iidzirin, pi. 

Being, banda-yi Khudd ; makhluq-i Khudd 
(a cjeature) ; kd^irmt (all created things) 
vujiid, Ar. (existence); hasii, Pr. (ditto) 
Vujud-i Mutlaq (the Supreme Being) 
vujndri 'drizi (contingent being; opposed 
to vujud-i haqlqi ' ' real being ' ' : Sufi 

Belch, ' ' the English consider it very rude 
to belch," pish-i* Inglis-hd drug zadan 
bisydr khildf-i adab ast. 

Beldame, patydra (in contempt or abuse, sp. 
old woman). 

Belgium, Biljik. 

Belie, takzib n. Vide Slander, etc. 

Belief, i'tiqdd (k.) ; bdvar (k.) ; yaqin (k.); 
i'timdd (trust, belief, confidence); imari (the 
Faith). Vide Creed and Firm. 

Believable, qdbil-i i'timdd. 

Believe, I don't believe you can shoot a deer, 
gunjishk-l bi-zan, dhu zadan pish-kash-i tu 
(i.e., I make you a present of all the deer 
you're likely to shoot) ; irrmn dvurdan 
(become a convert to : of any religion ; 
also met. to credit) ; he believes all that 

1 Chilla is a period of forty days of greatest heat or greatest cold. There is also a ' little' 
chilla. This use of giriftan is rustic. 

2 Tambih, properly " to admonish," is in m. c. " to punish " and in this context would signify 
" to beat.' ' 

3 Rodlf, "riding behind any one on the same horse; following behind in a row." The Turks 
use the word radif for the ' reserve forces ' and the word is alpo now used in this sense in Persia. 

* Pish, m. c. for nazd. 




is said to him, har chi mardum tni-guyand 
bdvaj nii-kuiuul , or har har chi mi-guyand 
i'tibdr rni-kunad ; bi-u imdn na-daram, m.c. 
(I don't believe his words) ; yaqm-i kdmil 
h. (to believe implicitly). Vide Induce. 

Believer, mu'laqid; mu*min (lelig., of a 

Bell, zaTig (2.) ; zangula, pron. zangula (any 
small bell) ; ztl (a small closed bell for 
hawks, cats,' etc.); naqus (Christian 
churches); dard or ;ams (large; for cara- 
vans) . 

Bellicose, jang-ju. Vide Quarrelsome. 

Belligerents, tarafayn (Ht. the two parties). 

Bell-metal, chawdan. 

Bellowing, farydd {k.) ; na'ra {kashldan) ; 
bura (2.) (of bull). 

Bellows, dam ; minfdkh. 

Bell-ringer, zang-kub. 

Bell-wether, buz-i plsh-dhang. 

Belly, kum, vulg. ; ahikam ; dil (m. c.) ; mi' da, 
(that contains the food ; vide Stomach) ; 
shikam-i shdn ma'bud-i shdn ast (their God 
is their belly). Vide Stomach. 

Belly, to, bad k. ; jmj k. (of sail). 

Belong, whatever is in this house belongs to 
you, va dnchi dar in khdna bdshad az 
shurnd ast — Prof. S. T. ; ta'alluq ddshtan 
hi — ; az ahl-i kishvar ast, ddkhil-i qushun 
ntst (he' 8 civil not military ; he does not 
belong to the army) ; in kursi midl-i dn 
uidq ast (this chair belongs to that room) ; 
az dn-i man ast (it belongs to me) ; az H-st 
(it belongs to him). 

Belonging to, tndl-i fuldn kas ; muta' alliqdn- 
or mansubdn-am (my belongings, i.e., wife, 
children, servants, etc.) ; muta'alliq hi — . 

Beloved, mu'shuqa"^ and mahbuha (fem ) ; 
ma'shuq (masc.) ; zan-i sUguE-yam ast (she 
is my most beloved wife). 

Below, {dar) zlr-i or pdyin-i miz (or 6am or 
kuh, etc. ; but zir-i zamin). 

Belt, zunnar (the white belt of kurk, worn 
by Zardushtis after they are seven years ^ 
old) ; kamar-hand (soldiers' belt, etc.) ; 

k^sorkarruir * (caitridge-belt) ; fdliska (cross 
belt for cartridges) ; tasma (of leather) ; 
mintaqa (Astr.). 

Bemoan, az bakht-i l^vd ndla ddshtan ; bar 
qismat-i khud zdri k. Vide Bewail. 

Bench, saku (earthen platform or seat) ; 
takht or nhn-takht (a couch, a bedstead); 
rnastaba (in the taverns). 

Bend, to, pichidan (tr. and intr.) ; ^Aam k. ; 
zidnu 2. (to bend the knee to) ; " the ripe 
ears of corn are bending, khushahd-yi 
gJaalla az rasidagt bi-zamin kham mi-shavad ; 
"he is bent under his load , ztr-i hdr m%- 

Bend, subs. Vide Turn. 

Beneath, zir-i — ; dar pdyin-i — ; Idyiq-i rish- 
am ntst (it's beneath my dignity) ; az juhsh 
ham guzdshta ast (he is beneath abuse 
even) . 

Benediction, barakat {dddan) ; salavdt firistd- 
dan or darud guftan (for the souk of 

Benefactor, vali-ni'mat.'' 

Benefice, vaqf, pi. awqdf (anything given to 
the Church) ; matvqujdt (ditto). 

Beneficence, bahhshandagi ; fayz (of money) : 
fazl (rare) ; ihsdn (gen.). 

Beneficent, bakhshanda ; sakhi-tab' ; fayydz 
(stronger than sajchl or generous) ; ihmn- 
kun (gen.). 

Benefit, sUd; naf ; manfa'at, pi. mandfi,' ; 
hdsil ; samar ; tawftq-i qahri or jabri (a 
benefit or favour against the recipient's 

Benefit, to, have you benefited by the 
medicine, azindavd fd^ida {or khdssiyyal) 
dida id? ta^sir k. (also, of medicine, to 
act) ; ' ildj (treatment , either by medicine 
or by operation) ; ihmn k. (to do favour 

Benevolence, shafaqat ; mihrbdni ; muldtafat. 

Benevolent, mushfiq u mihrhdn; khayr- 
khwdh-i khalq; Aranm j(kind) . Ftrfe Bene- 

Benign, hoRm. 

1 Bell and sometimes tassels are put in cats' ears for ornament. 

^ In old Persian ma'ahiiq, f. Theoretically, it is only the woman who is 'beloved'; hence the 
feminine termination was not necessary. 

•' Opened once at each of the five daily prayers at the words ahikaat Ahriman bad. ahUast 
Ahriman bud. ahikast Ahriman bud. This belt is called by the Zardushtis kushti. 

*, the row of loops that holds the cartridges (gen. 2 > in number). 

6 Slm-i talagrZif khwabtda ast, " the telegraph line is down,' ' Sa*al Mwafttrfa aat. •* the watch has 
stopped." Bi-thwub ' lin down, crouch down. " Khyuubanidan . " to mai^e a camel lie down," etc. ; 
also used of trees or corn blown down by the wind. 

8 In India often ' ' father. ' ' 




Benignity, hilm ; ra^fat. 

Bent, kaj or kham, adj., (aslant, crooked, 
warped); munhanl and khamtda, adj. (of 
persons or things) ; mayl ddrad, or fitraf^" 
mayl ddrad (he has a bent or natural in- 
clination). Vide Bowed. 

Benumbed, hi-hiss ; afsurda. 

Bequeath, hi-irs or hi-vasiyyat dddan; ba'd az 
fawt vaqf Tc. (for religious purposes) ; dar 
Mn-i haydt hiba k. (to make a deed of 
gift). ■ 

Bequest, vaqf, pi. awqdf (relig.) ; matruka 
(money or property, etc.) ; az matrukat-i 
(or az yddgdr-i) fuldn ast. 

Bereft, ducfh dida. 

Berry, ddna; habh, pi. hubuh. 

Beseech, to, istid'd k. ; iltijd k. ; ilhdh k. 
(properly to press) ; "I beseech you to 
attend to this," iltimds mi-kunam hi bi-in 
amr dil bi-dihld (or multafit bdshld). 

Beset, ihdta k. ; jam giriflan ; giriftdn-hd-yi 
ziydd ddrad (he is beset by work) ; az 
chahdr taraf dushman urd tang karda and 
(he is beset by enemies on all sides) ; khvd 
rd az har taraf bastoryi kamand-i bald ydfta 
(beset by danger on all sides). 

Beside, pahlu; kindr; dar jamb. 

Besides, bd; (jhayr az m or juz m or magar 
or bi-istisTM-yi — (except) ; 'aldva bar (in 
addition to) ; vard-yi — (beyond this) ; qat'-i 
n^zar az (setting aside). 

Besiege, muhdsara or mahsur k. ; chdtma «.' 

Besieged, mahsur. 

Bespeak, farmdyish-i — k. (to order) ; nigdh 

Best, bihtarm ; khub-tarin; afzal; a' la; I do 
my best, bi-qadr-i quvva kdr rm-kunam; 
^vdd bihtar ml-ddnad (God knows best) ; 
man saldh mi-ddnam ki m kdr rd bi-kunid 
(I think it best for you to do this) . 

Bestow, bakhshidan; 'indyat k: 'atd namu- 
dan ; isdr k. (unselfishly) ; dn rd bi-man 
arzdnl ddsht (great persons to small) ; "I 
am a poor man, bestow something," faqlr- 
am yak chiz-l tasadduq kunid, or dar rah-i 
Khudd bi-dihld. 

Bestowal, 'aid; Isdr (unselfish). 

Bestower, bakhshanda; 'atd kunanda. 

Bet, giraw or shart or nazr {bastan, with a 
person ; but zadan on a thing) ; sar-i chi ki 
imruz khtpdhad rasid? (what is the bet- 
ting he wUl come to-day?) sar-i dil-bi- 
khivdh (the amount of the wager what 
you please). 

Betel-leaf, tarnbul. 

Bethlehem, Bayt"-lahm. 

Betray, khiydnat k. (also to embezzle 
money). Vide Secret. 

Betrayer, khdnn ; dar rdz khiydnat kard ; 
sarbdz-hd nisbat bi-pddshdh khiydnat kar- 
dand ; gh adr k. (to rebel or mutiny) ; 
khiydnat-kdr ; ghadddr. 

Betroth, to, ndm-zad k. 

Betrothal, ndm-zadagl. 

Betrothed, nJdm-zad or mansub (of man or 
woman) . 

Better, ' ' mine is better than yours , mdl-i 
man az >ihu7nd bihtar ast * ; man u rd khub 
mi-ddnam (I know him better) ; better 
and better, in nur"-^'- 'ala nur ast (lit,, or 

Better, to, kuldh rd rubudan (to get the 
better of) ; sar-ash rd shira mushtam or 
gush-ash rd buridam (I got the better of him 
in the bargain) ; 'djiz k. or Id-javdb sdkh- 
tan (in argument) ; zir k. (in fight) ; fd'^iq 
dmadan bar — (gen.). Vide Conquer. 

Between,® miydn; dar miydna-yi — ; md 
bayn; dar miydn-i db u dtash uftdda 
(between the devil and the deep sea). 

Beverage, mashrub, pi. mashrubdt; dshdmi- 

Bewail, ndla k., ndlidan. Vide Bemoan. 

Beware, bd hazar bash (look out, take care) ; 
dgdh bdsh ; " now no more disturbance, go 
away, zinhdr digar qil u qdl norkunid bi- 
ravid birun ; beware of idleness and igno- 
rance , az iarnbali * va jdhili parhiz kun. 

Bewildered, hayrdn {k. and sh.) ; sar-garddn 
{k. and sh.) ; sardsima [k. and sh.) ; hayrat- 
zada {sh.) ; gich sh. (lit. to be giddy) ; mat- 
ash girift (astonishment) ; dang-ash girift 
(stunned) . Vide As tonish , Astound , Won- 

Bewitched, afsun-shuda or — zada ; sihr khurda ; 
jinn girifta. 

1 Ghatwa z., T.. "to pile arms." 

* ^\A^. iov rnal-i rnan az mal-i shumia-, but as mai in m. c. also means "donkey," the sentence 
is ambiguous. 

3 No distinction, as in English, between the words " amongst " and "between." 

* B\-'-ar\ idleness, also shamelessness. 




Beyond, an sU-yi — or an taraj-i — ; an laraf- 
tar (more that way) ; an dast-i rudrkhdna 
ast; "you're a child, this is beyond 
you," tu hachchn-l 'aql-at bi-injd naml- 
ra,sad; "this is beyond a joke, md-fawq-i 
(or kharij az or biriin az) shukhVst ; az 
sh ukhl guzashta ast. Vide Besides. 

Beyrut, I have been absent for three years 
in Beyrut, si sal Bayrut (or Birut) buda am. 

Bezoar-stone, pdd-zahr (antidote for poison. 
Vide Antidote). 

Biased, ra'^y-i muijhrizana (a biased opinion). 

Bible, Kitdb-i muqaddas ; Injil (New Testa- 
ment) ; Taiordt (Pentateuch) ; Zabur 
(Psalms) . 

Bid, to, qadatjkan k. ; amr A;. ; " why do you 
bid me do this ? chird mi-farmdyid kt in 
kdr rd bi-kunam ? Vide, Invite. 

Bidding, hukw,', farmdn; amr; qadaghan 
(order) ; da' vat (invitation) ; qtm^t guftan 
(at auction). 

Bier,' tabut ; 'imdri (a hand-bier with arched 
canopy) ; jandza-kash or m,urda-kash (a 
paid bearer ^ of) ; {jandza is the corpse 
and the bier as well]. 

Big,, buzurg; kaJtdn (rare and "Afghan"); 
durusht (thick and large) ; kuluft (thick) ; 
' ' how big is the book ? ' ' kitdb-l ki m%-guy%d 
chi qadr hajm ddrad? (more colloquial 
buzurg asf^.); jasim (big-bodied as an ele- 
phant; gross, corpulent). Vide Spacious. 

Big-bellied, shikam-gunda ; shikam-buzurg ; 
qaiur (of large girth). 

Bigness, 'azamat; buzurgl; kuluftl (thick- 
ness); durushti ("coarseness"; but dur- 
usht, adj., "big"); jasdmat (being big- 
bodied or corpulent) ; vus'at (of expanse). 

Bigot, muta'assib^ dar din; khar-i sdlih or 
khar-i muqaddas. 

Bigoted, ba ta'assub.^ 

Bigotry, ta'assub {k. or d.). 

Bile, zard-db ; safrd'' ; zahra (gall-bladder). 

Bilious, safrd^i ; safrdvi. 

Bill, bijak (invoice with price) ; qabz (bill ; 
also receipt) ; sitami (bill of lading or 
packing, i.e., the invoice without the 

price) ; " give me the bill and I'll pay it," 
hisdb-i khud rd bi-dih jml ml-diham (or jMl- 
ash rd bi-shumd radd* mi-kunam) ; bardt 
and hindavi (Indian) (bill of exchange; 
also a cheque). Vide Beak. 

Billiards, miz-i gvlula-bdz% (the table) ; biU 
yard-bdzl (the game). 

Biluchistan, Biluchistdn. 

Bind, jild k. (of book) ; who bound this book ? 
shirdza-yi^ in kitdb rd kt zada ast? " but 
I did not bind myself (force, tie) to read 
one, two, or three chapters at each sitting, 
likin in qayd na-bud ki yak yd du yd si 
bdb bi-yak nishasi bi-khwdnam ; ' ' bind 
him hand and foot, dast u pd-yask rd bi- 
band; zanjir dar gardan va kunda^ dar 
pd-yash bi-kun; kitfhd-yash rd (or shdnor 
hd-yash rd) bi-band (pinion him); ura bi- 
qasam bastam (or muqayyad kardam) (I 
bound him by an oath) ; vide Compel ; 
mi'da rd qabz k. (to make costive) ; chas- 
jndan or bastan (to stick). 

Binder, sahhdf ; jild-gar (of books). 

Binding, shirdza ^ (of a book) ; lahak and 
mar^zi (of garments ; also piping in uni- 
form, q.v.); vdjib and Idzim, adj., and 
farz, subs., (gen. relig. ; obligatory); qdbiz 
(making costive). 

Binocular, du chashma, adj. 

Binoculars, dur-bin (also ' telescope'). 

Biographer, savdnih-navis-i 'umr. 

Biography, savdnih-i 'umri (navishtan). 

Biped, jin^-i du pd. 

Bird, paranda ; mur^ ; td^ir, pi. tuyur ; 
musiqdr (a fabulous musical bird with 
perforated bill) ; murr^-i mawsimi (of 
passage) ; kabutar bd kabutar bdz bd bdz 
( = birds of a feather). 

Bird cage, qafas. 

Bird-catcher fShikdri or shikdr-chi and sayydd 
(any kind of trapper, hunter, or sports- 

Birdlime, kishmish-i KdbuU (?) ; dibq 

Birinjal, bddinjdn. Vide Tomato. 

Birth,^ payddHsh ; vilddat ; tavallud ; mildd 
(birthday, anniversary of ; vide Bixth- 

1 Muslims do not use coffins. Well-to-do people place the bier in an *imart or canopied hand- 
hearse. [In India 'imarl is a canopied haudah]. A coffin "■acmdw/'^ is only used for storing a 
corpse or when carrying it to Kerbala, etc. 

2 It is sawab to carry a corpse for as much as forty steps; hence friends of the deceased c»sist. 

8 Ta'assub by itself may have a good meaning, e»prit de corps; but *asabiyat is more proper in 
the latter sense. 

♦ Radd k., "to return, to give back " ; radd ah., " to pass by." 

6 Shiraza (the best method of binding) is the silk cord at the top and bottom of the leaves. 

* Handcuffs, ' * khalUl. ' ' 

"^ As soon as a child is born tlie takhir is repeated in its ear; in Persia usually by the midwife. 




day) ; Iraniyy^ ^l-asl ast (he's by birth a 
Persian) ; " he is deaf from his birth," u 
kar-i mddar-zdd ast; mashima (after- 

Birth, to give/ m^idan, rt. zd; vide To 
bear ; turd hi-vujud avardam ki mard hi- 
dard hi-ydrl? (a mother to a child). 

Birthday, ruz-i mawlud; 'id-i mawlud (for 
the Shah and for Saints, etc.) ; mildd (also 
for prophet; vide Birthday). Vide Cele- 

Birthplace, zdd-bum; masqit" W-ra^s ; mahall-i 

Biscuit, buqsumdt or bisqumdt (only used in 
pi.) ; ndti-i khushk; kalucha (soft cake). 

Bishop, usquf (rare) ; ftl (at chess). 

Bit, tika; para, pdrcha; khurda (a small 
piece) ; lujcha, Iwpcha or luqma (morsel of 
food) ; dahna ' (of bridle) ; lagdm (prop, 
bridle without the bit) ; give me a bit of 
charcoal to draw with, yak habh-i zughdl-f, 
bi-dih td surat bi-kasham ; qdsh or qdch (of 
fruit) ; pdra pdra (torn in bits) ; khurd 
Jchurd or riza rlza (broken in bits). 

Bitch, saxj-i las ; sag-i mdda ; shash pistdn, 
or sp. of Umar ; mddar-i bachchahd (abuse 
to a man or a woman) ; pidar-sag or 
sag-bachcha ( = son of a bitch ; also lit.) ; 
inddar qahba (met.). 

Bite, gdz giriftan (of humans only) ; gazidan 
(gen. ; also to sting) ; danddn giriftan ; 
javidan (to chew) ; he has been bitten by 
a jackal, shi!^dl-l u rd kand (m. c.) (or 
girift or gazid). 

Bitter, talhh (adj.) ; I still feel very bitter 
and angry about it, whenever I see him, 
hanuz ham, vaqt-i ki urd ml-biTiam zahra- 
tarak rrvi-shavam?- 

Bitterness, talhln ; talkhi-yi marg ( — of death). 

Bitumen, qir; naft-i siydh. 

Blab, fardkh-dahan ; fuzul ; rdz fdsh-kun ; rdz 
gu (of a person) Vide BablDler. 

Blab, to, mde Secret; dahan-ash laqq ast or 
zabdn-ash shul ast (latter also means " to 
talk filth " ) . Vide Babbl e , etc . 

Black, siydh, adj. (also a negro) ; siydhl, 
subs.; duda {Boot of lamp or chimney^); 
the Devil is not so black as he is painted, 

Shaytdn bi-dn zisht-i ki tasmr-ash kashidand 

Blackberry, tut-i kuhl (blackberry ?). 

Blacken, siydh k. ; rughan z. or siydh k. 
(boots ; vide Blacking). Vide Defame. 

Blackguard, du7n-burida ; pidar-sukhta ; luti 
(open blackguard ; mild term) ; juwalajkl ; 
hardm-zdda (lit. bastard) ; nd-durust (play- 
ful term) ; awbdsh (ill-liver in secret) ; dum- 
dnr (in abuse; sp. of a Sunni) ; dum-ddr 
dmad = a, Sunni has joined the party. 

Blacking, vdks (?) z. ; rughan (2). 

Black Sea, Bahr-i siydh ; Qara Dingiz ; Bahr"'l- 

Blacksmith, dhangar; Jiaddnd (rare). 

Bladder, masdna; shdsh-ddn (gen. of ani- 
mals) . 

Blade, ti§[h or tiyjia* (of sword or knife or 
grass) ; ustukhwdn-i shdna (shoulder) ; par-i 
kdh (of grass). 

Blame, qusur-vdr sdkhtan or taqstr bi-gardan-i 
kas-i andJdkhtan (to cast blame on to) ; sar- 
zanish or maldmat k. (censure). 

Blameable, am I blameable ? dar In, banda 
taqsir ddram? 

Blamed, mahall-i i'tirdz sh. 

Blameless, bl-gundh ; bl-taqslr ; bi-khatd ; bl- 
jurm; ma' sum (also sinless). 

Blanch, to, safid k. 

Blanched, muqashshar (i.e., 'peeled'; of 
almonds, etc.). 

Bland, salim ; halim. 

Blandishment, ndz and Hshwa (gen.) ; kirish- 
ma and ghamza (amorous glances or 
movements ; of women only) , qirr or qir 
(postures in walking or dancing , waggling 
the body below the waist ^) ; shirin-zabdnl 
(of speech, of children, but tamalluq of 
men ; vide Flattery) . 

Blank, khdli; ruq'a-yi mda (in lottery); 
fdsila (in writing). 

Blanket, patu; ihrdm: Jul (for horse, etc.). 

Blase, chashm u dil-ash pur ast. 

Blaspheme, kufr guftan ; takfir k. (to impute 
or accuse of blasphemy). 

Blasphemy, kufr (infidelity and in m. c. also 
blasphemy); kufr bi-Miudd; [tajdif, At., 
cursing God ; not colloquial in Pers.]. 

2 Lit. "My gall-bladder bursts." 
built of bricks placed edgeways (and only one brick 

I Generally used for the whole bridle. 
8 Ink is made from this lamp-black 
* In divar tlgha ast (m. c.) = " this wall is 
thick) " ; this can be done in Persia with gach. 

6 Much admired by Persians. A certain muUa, A^a Baqir, had a fast daughter. Local wits 
write on his door : — 

Rastl A Baqir az has ba qir ast, 
Dughtar-l darad az n ba qir-far ast. 




Blast, bad-i sakht; lahna (.slap of wind or 
waves) ; nafkha (of trumpet) ; had-i aamum 
(burning wind). 

Blast, to, pazkmurda k. or khushkamdan (to 
wither) ; paranldan (of gunpowder) ; 
aukhtan (by hot wind) ; burdan (of hopes). 

Blaze, subs., zahami; shwla (flame) ; dfrukh- 
tagi (blazing); nhuira, subs., and rndh- 
jAshdnl or saftd-piskdm , adj. (of horses, 
cows). Vide Conspicuous. 

Blaze, to, dtash zabdna ml-kaahad; khtra ah. 
(of eyes, from anger); "his eyes blazed 
with anger ' ' = cliaahm-ash az (jkayz mial-i 
kdsa-yi khuni ahud. Vide Bloodshot. 

Bleach, go and bleach this calico, bi-raw in 
ndslmr^ rd gdzirl kun (lit. wash it). Vide 

Bleak, jd bi-pandh va zamhanr bud. 

Blear-eyed, kurmaki, adj. (a disease). 

Bleat, to, mar mar k. ; m^a' Tna'^ k. ; ba' ba' k. 

Bleed, to, tr., rag zadan, or fasd k. (gen. by 
taking blood from inside the elbow) ; 
"after bleeding he recovered," ba'd az 
khun giriftan chdq shud ; hajdmat k. (from 
the back) ; hajdmM ( = cupping between 
the shoulders) 

Bleed, intr., " I have cut my finger, see how 
it bleeds," angusht-am rd buridam bi-bin 
chi tawr khun mi-chakad. 

Blemish, 'ayb, pi. 'uyub; lakka (spot) ; ddgA 
(in Persia gen. confined to a brand) . 

Blessed, aa'id (happy). 

Blessing, du'd (k.) (also a prayer) ; fdHda, 
etc. (benefit, q.v.) ; dard u bald-yat bi-jdn-i 
man bi-ydyad (a woman's expression) ;* 
also ay, dawr-i aar-at bi-gardam; dard-at 
bi-jdn-am ; qurbdn-i sar-at, etc.; himmat 
khiodstan (ask a blessing from a saint or 
prophet) ; murdd khivdstan (from God or 
a saint); also du'd khwdatan;^ " by the 
blessing of God I am a little better," oi- 
fazlri Allah Ta^dla qadri bihtar ahudam; 
az yumn-i marhamat-i ahumJd bi-in pdya 
rasidam; barakat (d.) (a blessing from 
God) ; sawdb* (any meritorious act). 

Blight, ain (khurdan) (sp. on fruit trees) ; 

zang (z.) ; purmak (2.). Vide Louse and 

Blighted, purmak-zada or zangdr khurda (of 
crops) ; karaahk-baata (of caterpillars) ; 

Blind,* kur ; he is blind, and a leader of the 
blind, u kur, u'aad-kaah-i kur-i digar-i ^at; 
a' ma (rare) ; nd-bind ; kur-i mddar-zdd (from 
birth) ; yak-chaahm or vdhid'^H-' ayn (blind 
of one eye) ; ahab-kur (night- blind). 

Blind, subs., kirkirl (mod. and Indian) (Vene- 
tian, shutter). [Alley. 

Blind-alley, pas kucha-yi dar norraw. Vide 

Blindfold, he was blindfolded and led round 
the city, chuahm-aah rd baata dawr-i ahahr 

Blindly, kur-kurdna (met.). 

Blindness, kuri; nd-bind^i; ahab-kuri (night- 
blindness). Vide Folly and Ignorance. 

Blink, chashm z. : pilk z. 

Bliss, aa'ddat-i abadi (eternal). 

Blister, dbila (2.) (also small-pox) ; dfk (2.) 
(from scalding; local?); zimdd (plaster, 
alao a poultice) ; " my hand is blistered" 
{dast-am tuwl or iidvil zada oat). 

Blobber-lipped, gunda-lab. 

Block, kunda (of wood) ; gharcjhara (pulley) ; 
sadd (obstruction); da^ta (of houses). 
Vide Earth. 

Block, to, baatan; aar-i rah giriftan {" to 
block the road"; but sar-i rdh buridan, 
"to attack, infest the road"; of rob- 
bers). Vide Infest. 

Blockade, alba-bandi .(k.) (with cheveux de 
frise) ; muhdaara (besieging) ; maadud Ic. 

Blockhead, kawdan ; ghabi (dunce) ; kaila- 
khar (also = pig-headed). Vide Fool, etc. 

Blood, khun; khuah-rag, adj.( of good breed) ; 
khu7i rikhtan (to shed blood). Vide Blood- 

Blood-money, the widow of the murdered 
man agreed to accept blood-money (in 
stead of retaliation), blva-zan-i aJiakhs-% 
maqtul rdzi ahud ki diya (or khun-baha) 
bi-girad;^ " 'Ayisha once killed a snake 

' Nashur is what is called kora markln in India. 

* A woman will circle round a beloved person and take his or her calamities on herself. This 
custom is said to be dying out in Persia. Similar expressions are used in India. 

s Du^a khtpandan "to repeat a charm." 

♦ Such as repeating texts, helping to carry a bier, etc., etc. 

6 The blind are, in Persia, noted for their impudence: kur va rawza-khtpon pur-ru va bi-haya 
haatand is a common saying. 

8 Dar-khwaat-i qiaas kard woii\d mean, 'she asked for his death.' Qi?aa, lit. ' retaliation,' is that 
punishment which, though fixed by a law, can still be remitted by the persons ofTended against. 




and was alarmed by a dream. She gave 
in alms, as an expiation, about 12,000 
dirharas or £300, the price of the blood of 
a Mush m," ruz-i 'Ayisha mar-l kusht va 
dar hhivah mu'azzah shud; az an jihat 
duvdzda hamr dirham, ki mu'ddil-i sl-sad 
Era-yi InglisVst, hi diya-yi MusUm-l 'st 
kaffdra-yi an rd add namud. 

Bloodshed, khun-rizi (k.) : kushtdr {k.) 

Blood-shot, hhun-dlud; may-gun (from 
drink) ; his eyes became bloodshot with 
anger, az hhashm chashmhd-yash khun 
girift or kdsoryi hhun shud. Vide Blaze. 

Blood-thirsty, Idmn-hhwdr ; u tishna-yi hhun- 
am ast (he's thirsty for my blood). 

Bloody, Tchumn; khun-dlud; saffdk (a great 
shedder of blood). 

Bloom, shikuftan; gul zadan; ghuncha za- 
dan; this plant will soon bloom, m nihdl 
zud gvl mi-dvarad. 

Blooming, gul-karda (of flowers) ; khush-dil 
(of people). 

Blossom, shikufa; bahdr (also spring) ; ghun- 
cha ; gum'p ; "it was the season when 
the orange trees were just coming into 
blossom," avval-i shikufa-yi nidranj hud; 
when there is blossom there is hope of 
fruit, jd^i ki shikufa hast ummidri mlva 
hast. Vide Bloom. 

Blossom, gul kardan (also met. to com- 
mence; also to be 'happy' from drink 
or drugs). Vide To bloom. 

Blot, he blotted ail his papers, hama-yi 
kdghaz-ash rd az murakkab lakka kard ; 
Jchushk k. (with blotting-paper). 

Blotting-paper, kdghaz-i jdzib. Vide Paper. 

Blow, to, " blow into the reed," tu-yi nay 
jut kun; " blow away the dust," gard rd 
puf kun; vazldan (of wind). Vide Nose 
and Inflate ; dam-i tup guzdshtan (from a 

Blow, zarhat {z. and khurdan) ; sadma {Teh.) 

Blow-pipe, jmjak (for fire; also pea-shooter). 

Bludgeon, chumdq. 

Blue, dbt (sea-blue) ; kabud ^ (slate colour ; 
blue grey of_ horses) ; ml (dark indigo 
blue) ; dsrmni-rang and Idjavardl (bright 
blue like lapis lazuli) ; firuzal (turquoise 
blue) ; surmal (blue-black). 

Blue-eyed, zJdgh-chashm (light-blue or grey) ; 
chashmri mlsh (darker than former). 

Blunder, ishtibdh-l (or sahv-t) bad [k.) ; gjialat 
(k.) (error, straying; a stronger word than 

Blunderbuss, qardbina (from Fr.). 

Blunt, kund {k.). 

Blush, to, khijdlai-zada sh. ; sharm-ru sh. (to 
feel ashamed) ; ruhh-ash afrukhta shuda (to 
turn red from shame or anger). 

Boar, gurdz (wild) , khuk-i nar ; shikdr-i 
gurdz {k.) (met. ; to get something that's 
useles s) . 

Board, takhta; lawh (for writing). 

Board, to, tahhta-bandl k. (of a floor, but 
gen. of a partition) ; takhtorfarsh k. (of 
floor) . 

Boarded J az takhta mafrush (of a floor). 

Boast, la {z.) or Idf u guzdf (k.) ; fls k. (idle 
boast) ' shaykhl {k.) (vulg.) ; iftikhdr or 
fakhr {k.) (to pride or boast oneself on) ; 
ifdda (k.) (also to teach one's grand- 
mother). Vide Wind. 

Boaster, Idf-zan; shaykhi-bdz (vulg.). 

Boasting, shdh-andEz% {k.) (gen. showing off 
by deeds, not words ; vulgar ostentation) ; 
W,f dar ghurbat (an idle boast; no one 
can contradict an unknown stranger). 

Boat, kishtl (gen.) ; qdyiq (small pleasure 
boat) ; mdshuva (small) ; karji (for plea- 
sure) ; mi' bar (ferry boat) ; lutka (smaU) ; 
bugdra (cargo boat). Vide Ship and 

Boatman, kishtl-bdn; jdshu; mullah. Vide 

Bode, daldlat kardan bar — . 

Bodice, pistdn-band (for women) ; slna-band 
(for old men, children, or women; also a 
horse's breast-plate). 

Bodkin, mil (for coUyrium; also a probe). 
Vide Needle. 

Body, tan; badan, pi. abddn; jdn (m. c.) ; 
jasad, pi. ajsdd (dead) ; jism, pi. ajsdm 
(gen.) ; jirm, pi, ajrdm (heavenly bodies, 
stars, etc.); jussa na-ddrad (he is thin; 
has no frame; of men or animals; vide 
Corpse; In rd asl-i qd'ida-yi istikshEf-i 
kurdt u ajrdm-i samJdvi mi-ddnand; tdHfa, 
pi, tavdHf; janm'at (of people, of multi- 
tude). Vide Crowd. 

Body-guard, jawj-i khdssa. 

Bog, lajan-zjdr ; mashila (from the overflow- 
ing of a river ; also a lagoon) ; bdtldq (any 
muddy place). 

Boil, subs., durnbal (large); dana (pimple); 

1 Hence kabutar " pigeon." 




the boil has burst, kurak aar baz karda ' 
ast. Vide Abscess. 

Boil, to, jush k. or dadan , tr. ; jush J^urdan 
or hi- jush anuidan, intr. ; ab-paz k. (in 
water) ; dd;jA k. (fry or boil, for butter, 
oil) ; jushtdan (of a spring of water, .or of 
anger, emotion). 

Boiled, jusJuinda; db-paz shuda (in water). 

Boiler, satmvar (for tea; of an engine, etc.); 
dig (ui a hammdm). 

BoWing, db-i jush (boiling water; also soda- 
water) ; [db-i dd(jA, ' ' hot water ' ' ; and db-i 
(jarm, " warm water "]. 

Boisterous, mcZe Stormy ; ^awg^^i (noisy). 

Bokhara, Bukhara. 

Bold, dilir; shujd' ; sdhib-i jur^at ; rashvl, 
m. c, (brave); jasur ; shukh ; chashm- 
darlda; chashm-safid (impertment). Vide 

Boldness, jur^'at; jasdrat (in a bad sense). 
Vide Bravery and Impudence. 

Bole, gil-i Armani (Armenian bole). 

Bolt, subs., nar u Ids (bolt and catch); 
chifi ; sd'iqa (thunderbolt). 

Bolt, to, bolt the window, darlcha^ rd chijt 
hi-kun; baVldan (of food). 

Bomb, khumpdra (by howitzer, etc.) ; ndran- 
jak (thrown by hand). 

Bombard, tup bi — bhstan; tup-anddzl k.; 
gulula-bdrdnl k. (firing of rifles, or big 

Bombay, Bamba^l. 

Bond, tamassuk ; " he wants a bond for this 
money," bardy-i In mablagh put qabz ml- 
khwdhad; " if you have a bond, produce 
it, and I'll pay it on the spot," dast-dmz-l^ 
ddrl blrun bi-ydvar, man al-dn pul mi- 
shumdram * — (Prof. S T.) ; az u navishla 
ddram (m. c. = I hold his written bond). 

Bondage, rtftn (captivity) ; bandagi (slavery). 

Bone, hama-^sh ustukhwdn ast (he's a per- 
fect skeleton ; also it is all bone) ; khush- 
astukhxpdn (strong) ; u khub-ustukhwdn- 
bandl ddrad (he is very strong). Vide 

Bone-setter,^ shikasta-band ; glr-mdla. 

Bon-mot, latlfa (also a good or witty story'). 

Bonne-bouche, luqma-yi laviz% 
Bon-vivant, khush-guzrdn. 
Bony, pur-ustukhivdn. 

Book, Book-seller, Wii/a (relig. vol.) ; janda, 
pi. jard*'id (journal) ; jitd (volume) ; kitab, 
pi. kutub (gen); sahhdf (binder); kitdb- 
farush (seller) ; dar dukdn-i kitah-farush 
buda-am or raftoram (I have been at the 
book-seller's); muraqqa' (scrap-book; al- 
bum; portfolio). 

Bookstall, bisdt-i kiidb. 

Bookworm, kirm-i kitdb (met.). 

Boon, i/Aanlmat {shimurdan). 

Boon companion, hum-dam; anls-i jalis. 
Vide Companion. 

Boor, Boorish, aldang (ill-maimered and 
ignorant. Vide Villager. 

Boot, chakma (long, up to the knee) ; nimr 

chakma (Persian ' Wellingtons ') ; kafah 

(gen. term, but sp. of small shoe); urusi 

(cut very low like pumps) ; muza (leather 

socks). Vide Shoe. 

Bootlace, band-i kafsh. 

Boot-maker, "ord>r a pair of boots," bi- 
raw bi-urusl-duz jarrndyish-i (or sijdriah-i) 
yak jujt umsl bi-dih. 

Booty, ya^md ; (jAcinlmat, pi. gJianid^im (also 
* boon ') ; yAdrat, idrdj. 

Borax, buraq. 

Border, hdshiya^ {zadan or nihddan) (of book, 
carpet, etc.) ; sar-hadd, pi. sar-hadddt 
(frontier) ; kindr (of lake) : intihd (verge 

Bore, maldl-dvar ; mara malul ml-kunad; 
" he's a great bore, khayU dard-i sar m«- 
dihad; mu-yi dirndrfh oat (irritating, a 

Bore, to, &uftan, rt. surnb (of pearls, beads) ; 
kandan (well) ; surdkh kardan (tunnel ; 
rock ; or in wood) . 

Bored, dil-tang (ennuy6, q.v.). 

Boring, kaj-kul (adj., of a horse); sumbish ; 
suftagl (in pearls, etc.). 

Born, to be, paydd sh. ;'' bi-dunyd dmadan; 
mutamllid shudan or tavallud ydfian. 

Borrow, I want to borrow some money; 
from whom can I get it ? mi-khwdham 

Also metaphorically ** he is beginning to complain." Kuru vulg. and local for kurak. 

A panjara (window) does not open, so can't be bolted. Pi»h k. ' * to shut.' ' 

Agar understood before dast-aviz. 

Note force of Pres. Tense — al-an ml-ehurriaram. 

Often an unlettered butcher. 


' The plural havaahi " marginal notes." 

1 Dlriiz fvUana kaa dar khana pish az ahuma payda ahud Y 

Yesterday, did so and bo arrrive before 




qadri pul qarz kunam az ki hi-glram? 
"borrow one (temporarily)," Hjalaf" 
yak-t amanat bi-gir^; 'driyat giriftan (of 
things other than money). 

Borrowed, 'driyatl (of things) ; bi-qarz dvurda 
(of money). 

Borrower, qarz-giranda (of money) ; 'driyat- 
kun (other than money) . 

Bosh, puch ast. 

Bosom, d'jhush; bar; kindr ; sina; {dar — 
giriftan) . 

Boss, qubba (on shield). 

Botanist, giydh-shinds ; 'alaf-chin (often 
used rather contemptuously) . 

Botany, 'alaf-cMm; 'ilm-i nabdtdt. 

Both, har du (pron.) ; ham (conj.)'; bi-ittijdq 
( — i ham digar) ; I should both be a 
fugitive murderer, and a loser of my 
betrothed, ham Jchud-am khunl va firdrl 
ml-shavam ham numzad-am az dast-am dar 

Bother, to, tang k. 

Bottle, shisha; butll or botrl (gen. an Eng- 
Msh quart bottle) ; bac[haU (Persian, 
small, flat); kup (Pers., large size); 
matdra-yi ^ bulghdn (a wooden water-bottle 
covered with scented leather that is 
supposed to be good for the 'inside.' 
Vide Leather) ; qardba (large decanter, 
containing some quarts); qdrura (med., 
for urine only) ; tung (decanter) . 

Bottom, tah ; bun; qa'r; sar tu bur dan (to 
get to the bottom of ) ; " the ship ground- 
ed," jahdz bi-zamm-i dar yd khurd (or 
girijt) , surdkh shud ; " " read to the bot- 
tom of the page," td dkhir-i (or pd-yi) 
safha bi-hhwdn. Vide Anus. 

Bottomless, — ki tah na-ddrad. 

Bough, shdkh ; shdkha (dimin.). Vide 

Bounce, jastan, rt. jah ; jaqidan. 

Bound, hadd, pi hvdud (limit) ; jast (spring, 

Bound, (p.p.)> P^^ shud; mujallad (of 
books) ; munqabiz (constipated) ; basta ; 
muqayyad (confined) ; mxijbur (compelled). 
Vide Duty. 
Boundary, sar-hadd,^ pi. sar-hadddt. 

Bounded, mahdud. 

Boundless, bl-pdydn (of expanse) ; ?id-mahdud 
(gen. of numbers) ; bi-hadd (of numbers or 
spaces) . 

Bounteous, Bountiful, bakhshanda; fayydz; 
javdd (rare). 

Bounty, jud ; bad u makramat. 

Bouquet, dasta-yi gul 

Bow, kamdn ; qaws; qaws-i quzah (rainbow) ; 
kabdda (an iron bow with a loose chain; 
for gymnastic exercises) ; kamdncha (vio- 

Bow, to, sar farud dvurdan ; sar Mam k. ; 
nizdm dddan (military salute) ; zamin-i 
khidmat busidan (for Shdh) ; ta'zlm k. 
(gen. , to make a reverence) ; saldm kardan 
(oral salutation). Vide Salute, and Bow- 

Bowed, muqavvas (bent or shaped like a 
bow) ; kaj-pd or kamdn-pd (bow-legged). 

Bowels, ruda; alishd u am'd (plurals). 

Bowing, kurnish (k.). Vide To bow. 

Bowl, subs., jdm (small, for drinking); qadah 
(very large) ; kdsa (between jdm and 
qadah) ; gawdi-yi qdshuq (of spoon). 

Bow-legged. Vide Bowed. 

Bow-maker, kamdn-gar or — sdz. 

Bowshot, partdb-i tir (the distance of a bow- 

Bowstring, chilla (prop, the loop at the end 
of the bowstring). 

Box, huqqa or quti {^y'') (a match-box, 
cigar-box, etc.) ; " what shall I put in the 
large wooden box? " \tu-yi sanduq chi bi- 
guzdram? hazdr-pisha (the box, "lunch- 
basket," containing tea-things, lamps, 
etc., in an dbddri) ; mijri (a jewel or cash 
box) ; ja'ba (any small box) ; baks (Eur.) ; 
lazh (Fr., opera); shimshdd (tree). 

Box, to, tu-sari z. (give a blow on the head); 
sill zadan or kashlda zadan or khivdbdndan 
(on the side of the head) ; musht zadan 
(in fighting) ; the huge fellow then gave 
him a sound box on his ear, pahlavdn shast 
khy^dbdnid va chahdr angusht rd lams 
karda yak durusht sill tu-yi gush-ash zad* 
Vide Slap. 

Boxer, musht-zan. 

1 Amanat (or amanat'"') dadan, " to lend " ; amanat also means "deposit." 

2 Hindu, chagul. Matara, corrup. of matfiara, rt. t;uhr. 

8 In m. c. sar-hadd often means aard-air. Tehranis use shimran in the same sense. Shim,ranat is 
applied to a collection of villages below Mt. DaviatHind, which is a Summer resort for people from 
the Capital. 

* It is said that anciently the thumb was folded into the palm of the hand and a slap administered 
by the fingers only. Modern Persians, however, slap with the whole of the open hand. 




Boxing, hiLshl u musht; musht-zani or rrntsht- 

bdzi (k.). 
Boy, pisar : kudak and tif, and bachcha 

(common gender) ; javdn (a youth) ; 

(jAuldm (servant-boy ; also slave of any 

Boyhood, tufuliyyat; bachchagi; javanx 

Boyish, bachcha-indnind ; tifl-mizaj. 
Bracelet, dast-baranjan or dast-barjan (gen. 

term) ; alangu (sp. of glass) ; dast-band 

(with beads or jewels on it) ; ydra (gen. 

of gold or silver) ; bdzu-band (amulet 

bound on upper arm). 
Braces, no proper word, band-i shcdvdr is 

used ; also tasma-yi shalvdr ; kash-band. 
Brackish, shur (of land or water) ; namakin 

(salted). Vide Brine. 
Brahman, barahman, pi. barahima. 
Braid, kalabatun (gold or silver braid) ; 

qaytan (of gold or silk ; narrow) ; pahnak 

(any kind of tape ; broader than qayiun) ; 

navdr (coarse stuff for bedsteads, etc.). 
Brain, ma^z-i sar ; \dimd(jh in m. c. is 

nosej ; kalla-yash pur az guh ast ( = he has 

no brains). 
Brambles, khar ; khdr u khdshdk; varak (a 

species of common prickly jungle bush). 
Bran, sabus (skin of any grain). Vide 

Branch, shdkh, shdkha (dim.) ; shu'ba (of a 

river); "this tree has many branches," 

In darakht shdkhhd-yi ' ziydd ddrad ; [chi 

qadr shdkh u barg mi-dihi = ' ' how you do 

embroider your statement ? "] ; asl u far' 

(root and branch; gen. met.). 
Branched, shdkh shdkh (of tree) ; munsha'ib 

{sh.) (branched out; to be deviated from). 
Branchy, shdkh-ddr; pur shdkh. 
Brand, to, dd§^ kardan or nihddan; lakka-yi 

bad-ndtni (stigma). 
Branding-iron, dhan-i dd(/h-kun. 
Brandish, garddndan. 
Brandy, brdndl (Eng.) ; kunydk (Fr.). 
Brasier, manqal; kalak (of earth); mis-gar 

(coppersmith) . 
Br£iss, ' ' do you not know the difference be- 
tween copper and brass ? dyd tawfir-i mis 

va birinj rd (or tawflr miydn-i mis va birinj 
rd) nami-dunld? 

Brave, dUir ; shujd' ; ahir-mard; ahxr-dil; 
himrnat-var ; jari (rashly) ; bi-zanrbahadur 
(daring blackguard ; in bad sense) ; rashid. 
Vide Bold. 

Bravery, shajd'at; shlr-mardt; rashadtU; 
marddnagi (also manlines.s, enterprise) ; 
vide Boldness ; bi-zan-bahdduri (of 
blackguards) ; " what bravery they have 
shown ! ' ' dnha, chi diliri (or himmat) * karda 
andl ' he displayed greater bravery than 
Rustam's ' ' , chunin javdnmardi zdhir kard 
ki az RiLstam ham buruz na-karda bud — 
Prof. S. T. 

Bravo, rruirhatM!'^ bah bah! d/arin! bdrak 
Alldh ! ma-shd^ Allah / ahsant! 

Brawl, subs., 'arbada {k.) (drunken brawl). 

Brawler, 'arbada-kun (drunken). 

Brawling, adj., salita* (a brawling woman, 
shrew) ; shalldfa (local ?) ; (jhawijJid'^t (gen. ; 
noisy) . 

Brayer, 'ar 'ar-zan (of a fool). 

Braying, 'ar 'ar k. (of an ass) ; bdng kashi- 
dan (rare). 

Brazen, birinji (lit.) ; sajid-chashm (impu- 
dent or shameless, qq.v.). 

Breach, rakhna ; shikaf (a cleft, spht) ; 
shikast (gen. ; infraction) ; khalal (rupture ; 
being marred) ; — shikani (in comp.). 

Bread, khvbz; nan; ndn-i fatirl (unleaven- 
ed) ; ndn-i khamirl (leavened) ; ndn-i mji 
or nan-i bdzdrl or ndn-i sangak (long flaps 
of bread-cake, baked on stones) ; 7idiv-i 
khdnagt (round, home-made bread that 
will keep a week) ; ndn-i baydt or ndn-i 
shab-manda (stale bread) ; ndn-i du-dtasha 
(dried over the oven after baking ; rusk) ; 
kuindch (thick cake of tent-folk) ; kuRcha 
(sweet; vide Cake). 

Bread-fruit tree, darakht-i nan (newsp.). 

Breadth, what is the breadth of this cloth ? 
pahnd*i-yi ^ in pdrcha chi qadr ast ? 'arf ' 
(for other things); 'arz"" (in breadth). 

Break, subs. Vide Rains. 

Break, to, shikastan, rt. shikan (tr. and 
intr.) ; bi-ham dar shikastan (into bits) ; 
bdzdr-ash shikasta ast (its price has gone 

1 Or shakh-i ziyad. 

* Himmat also means " perseverance, resolution." 

3 Arabic, " welcome," and also colloquially " well-done." 

* Sallffi, Ar., in m. c. ahalita is the short uiider-akirt worn by Muslim women. 

( Pahna is subs, and adj. ; po/tna^i, subs. In India ' 'arz u ^ul ' are used for breadth and length of 




down) ; tah shihasta (the fever has broken 
its fixed time of return) ; zaban-ash shik- 
asta (stammerer) ; " I have never broken 
bread in his house, luqma-yi nan-i urd 
norshikasta-am or gusha-yi ndn-i urd na-dlda 
am ; riza rlza k. (to break or crumble into 
small pieces) ; pdrapdra k. (to tear or break 
up into two or more pieces) ; gustkhtan, rt. 
gusil, intr. (snap of a rope ; of friendship) ; 
bar-ddshlan (seal) ; ta'lim dddan (break in, 
of horses, vide. Broken) ; az dast dar 
raftan (break away) ; shikastan (break 
down, of horses, etc ) ; vide Broken and 
Dismiss; for 'break wind,' vide Wind, 
etc. ; 'ahd (or qardr dad) shikastan (break 
a promise) ; jasTch-imu'dmala k., to cancel 
an agreement) ; dtvdr-i khdna kandan ; 
naqh zadan (break into, of thieves) ; for 
'break off,' vide Mumble; majlis bar- 
khdst (the committee broke up). 

Breakages, shikastagl-hd. 

Breakfast, ndshta {k.) (light; taken about 8 
or 9 a.m.) ; nahdr (khurdan) (also chdsht 
{kh.) vulg. ; taken at noon) ; ijtnr {k.) 
(breaking a fast) . 

Breast, sina (chest) ; 'pistdn (female) ; pistdn-i 
Umu^l ddrad (of firm round breasts ; vide 
Breasted) ; pistdn-i khlki (or misl-i mashh-i 
saqqd^l) (the reverse); 'azm-i zavrraqi 
(breast-bone of a bird ; vide Sternum) . 

Breastbone, 'azm-i zaivraql (the sternum). 

Breasted, nar-pistdn (firm-breasted; vide 
Breast) . 

Breastplate, slna-band (of horse) ; chahdr- 
d^ina (armour). 

Breath, " I held my breatli and went under 
water," habs-i nafas^ karda dar db faru 
shvdam : ' ' when I had rested a little and 
gained my wind," — chun clilz-l dsuda 
shudam va nafas sar-i jd-yi khud dmad ; "^ 
vide Breathless; "I am out of breath" 
(from running, etc.), naias-am tang shud; 
nafas zadan (to be out of breath; of men, 
animals) ; hasshassk. (to pant, of animals) : 
nafas-i tdzi bi-suhht (the greyhound got out 
of breath) ; yak qatra bad na-bud (there 
was not a breath of wind) ; nafas kashldan 

(to draw a breath) ; mutanaffis (any thing 
that draws breath) . Vide Stopping. 

Breathing, tanaffus. 

Breathless, bi-dam ; nafas-ash qat' shud. 

Breathlessness, zlq-i nafas; iangi-yi nafas 
(disease) . 

Bred. Vide Bring up and Breeding. 

Breeches, shalvdr ; pdtlun (Eur.). 

Breech-loader, tufang-i tah pur; [sar- or 
dahan-pur , ' ' muzzle-loader " ] . 

Breed, zdd u valad k. ; paydd shudan ; this 
kind of worm breeds in rice, in kirm dar 
birinj tawlld mi-shavad; shutur mi-parva- 
rdnand va nasi mi-girand (they breed 
camels) ; khayl-i asp ddrad (he breeds 

Breeeding, in asp rd bardy-i tukhm nigdh m/i- 
ddram, keep this horse (or mare) for 
breeding ; kurra-giriftan (for stallion 
horses, donkeys) ; nariydn-i tukhmi (a 
breeding stallion) ; khush-rag ( = well-bred ; 
of animals) ; asil (of ditto) ; vide Bring 
up; bad-rag (ill-bred ; of animals or men). 

Breeze, nasim. 

Brew, bardy-i man nmya mi-rizad, or dar 
pay-i juft u jald asi (he is brewing mis- 
chief against me). 

Bribe, rishva'^ {khurdan or giriftan, intr.; 
dddan, tr.) ; he bribed him not to tell, 
u dahan-ash rd bast; shirini-yi shumd rd 
mi-diham* (a j)ohte hint); shikam-puri^ 
k. , zir-farshi urd dddam (I gave him some- 
thing secretly in the way of bribe). 

Bribery, rishva-dihi ; rishva-giri ; dar Irdn 
bdzdr-i rishva garm ast. 

Brick, djur (kiln bricks) ; az in jur gil khisht 
mi-mdland? "can {sun-dried) bricks be 
made of such clay ? ' ' khishti and djurt 
(adj., of brick). 

Brick-kiln, kura-yi djur-pazi. 

Brick-maker, khi^ht-mdl; djur-paz (the brick- 
burner). _ \kar%. 

Brickwork, khisht-bandi ; ajur-bandi or — 

Bridal, 'arusi (adj.) ; ddrmdl (adj., of bride- 
groom only). 

Bride, 'arus^ (also in m. c. daughter-in-law) ; 
hajla-khdna (bride-chamber). 

1 Nafa in mod. Pers. usually signifies " penis.' ' 

2 The Afghans say sahib dam shudan, "to recover one's wind " ; but in modern Persian this means 
' to acquire the power of charming snakes by texts from the Qur^an.' 

3 liishva also means "manure" 

♦ Shlrinl-yi shuma ml-rasad (of a ' tip ' or a ' bribe '). 

» Shikam-i an zan ra pur karda ast, "he has put her in the family way ' ' (not used of the husband) 
Shikam-ash pur kardam, " I bribed him." 

6 A bride is, by the Persians; called " young " when she is about 14 ; by the Arabs when about 12. 




Bridegroom, danmd (also son-in-law). 

Bridge, iml {andakhUin) ; jiar (kaahxdan) ; 
quiVara- or bar-aniadagi yi diina,^ (of nose); 
piU-i ruy-i ham (suspension bridge) . Vide 

Bridle, dahana ajsar (prop. = bit alone) ; 
a/'.sar (head-stall) ; jilo-kash (reins) ; rashma 
(chain of donkeys) ; makdr (for mihar, 
nose-string of camels). 

Bridle, to, dahana k. ; lagdm or lijam z. ; 
khishm faru khurdan (of anger). Vide 

Brief, mukhlasar (abridged, q.v.) ; kutah ; 
tnufma! (sum mary ) . 

Briefly, yhayai-ash tn-ki ; aUgJiaraz; bi-'l- 
jumla (in a few words). 

Brier. Vide Sweet-brier. 

Brigand, rdh-zan ; qaMjd' " 't-tariq. 

Bright, rushan; munawar (well-lighted) ; 
darakhshdn, or darakhshanda u iabdn 
(shining) ; munir (of mihr) ; zinda-dil (full 
of life ; opp. of dull , apathetic) ; bash- 
shdsh (of merry appearance) ; sitdra-yi 
ruslian (a bright star) ; hama chiz-i dunyd 
bar ru-yi javdndn mi-khandad (to the 
young all is bright). Vide Smile, Merry. 

Brighten, barrdq k. (to clean ; of metals) ; 
sayqal z. or jcM d. (to poHsh with instru- 
ments ; of metals). 

Brightness, nur or nurdniyyat (of sun, stars) ; 
rushnd'i (light) ; tdbdm or darakhshandagi 
(glittering) ; ziyd (of sun). 

Brilliancy. Vide supra. 

Brilliant. Vide supra, and ' Clever,' etc. 

Brim, Brimful, lab (of cup, river, roof, etc.) ; 
labdlab or lab riz, adj. (brimful); kindr 

Brimstone, ougird; kibrlt (but in m. c. 
" match "). 

Brine, db-i namak (cooking) ; ab-i shur (of 
sea). Vide Brackish. 

Bring, dvurdan, rt. dr or dvar ; parvarish 
dddan or bdld dvurdan (bring up) ; ihzdr k. 
(to bring before, make present; of per- 
sons) ; zddan and zd''idan (to bring forth 
young) ; var-i haml namudan (to give 
birth to); vide Birth, Produce; a badly 
brought up child or spoilt child, tifl-i bad 
bar dvurda ; ' biim ash bad bud (he was badly 
brought up) ; he brought up his children 
in the best manner, bachcha-fid-yi khvd rd 

khayll khub tarbiyat kard; ^ [khush tarbiyat 
and khush atvdr (well-bred, well-mannered ; 
of people) ; najV) (well-bred ; of men) ; 
vide Breeding.] 

Brink, kindr (of precipice, etc.) ; dar akaraf-i 
tabdhi (on the brink of ruin). 

Brisk, chust; chdldk; ziring ; havd-yi qdlx- 
bd/i khub ast or bdzdr-i qdli-bdfi garm oat 
(the carpet trade is brisk just now) . 

Briskly, cfidbukdna ; bi-tizi u tundi; firzdna. 

Bristle, mu-yi aakht; mu-yi bar-khdata (when 
standing up, as on neck of boar, etc.). 

Brittle, turd (as glass, etc. ; crisp, of pastrj) ; 
ndzuk (delicate or easily broken) ; khasta 
(crisp, of pastry) ; that wood is very 
strong but this is brittle, dn chub khayli 
qdyim ast va likin in turd ast. 

Brittleness, turdi. 

Broad, " how broad shall I make this mat- 
ting ? " in buriyd rd chi qadar pafin (or ' ariz) 
bi-sdzam ? [buriyd, of split cane ; hasir of 
palm leaves] ; vid^ Breadth ; dar ruzi 
ruslian (in broad daylight). 

Broadcloth, rmhul. 

Broaden, 'ariz k. ; [but jxihn k. 'to spread 
out ' ] ; pahn-tar k. 

Brocade, zari or zar-baft (silver, gold, brass, 
or copper embroidery) ; atlas-i gvldar ** 
(satin embroidered with flowers). 

Broil, kabdb k. ; surkh or qirmiz k. (also = to 
fry). Vide Roast. 

Broken, shikasta; khurd ahvda (smashed); 
para pdra (torn) ; darham rafta (gone to 
bits) ; "he has broken it up," in rd khurd 
khurd karda ast ; vide Bit ; rdm (broken in, 
of horse) : vide Break. 

Broken-hearted, bisydr dil-shikasta ; kamar- 
ash shikast. 

Broker, dalldl (go-between) ; simsdr and 
kuhna-farush (seller of old things). 

Brokerage, dalldlt. 

Bronze, chudan or chawdan (or bell-metal ?). 

Brooch, sanjd(j (also '"pin"); gul-i sina; 
sanjdq zadan (to wear a brooch). 

Brooding, Broody, kuruk (of hen) ; ru-yi 

tukhm nishasta (on eggs). 
Brook, juy ; jub (vulg.) (natural or artifi- 
cial); nahr (gen. artificial; canal, larger 
than ju) ; jadval (very small irrigation 
Brook, to, tahammvX k. Vide Endure. 

I Bar avurda probably corruption of 65/3 avtoiJS. 

* Tariqa-yi ahaan, " the best manner," is not colloquial. 

^ Kamkhab not used in modern colloquial. 




Broom, jaru (vulg.) : ja-rub {k.). 

Broomstick, dasta-yi jarub. 

Broth , shurba or ash (thick) ; ab-gusht or sup 
(Eur.) (thin soup) ; shulla (rice-gruel). 
Vide Soup. 

Brothel, jinda-hhana ; qahba-khana. 

Brother, baradar; kdka, vulg. (elder) ; ddda, 
vulg. ; baradar khwandu (adopted) ; bard- 
dar-i rizd'l^ (foster-brother); barddar-i 
sulbl'^ (paternal half-brother) ; barddar-i 
batni * (uterine brother) ; barddar-zan ^ 
(wife's brother, vide infra) ; barddar-i 
tavfam (twin-brother) ; ' ' they treated 
me as his brethren treated Joseph," 
misl-i barddardn-i Hazrat-i Yusuf kdr kar- 
dand.—Prot S. T. ' 

Brotherhood, barddari; uhhuwat. 

Brotherly, barddardna. 

Brother-in-law, ham-rtsh or ham-zulf (of men 
marrjdng sisters) ; barddar-shawhar ^ ; 
shawhar-khwdhar ^ ; barddar-zan, etc. 

Brought up, bald dvurda or bar dmada 
(reared). Fitfe under Bring. 

Brow, jabin; pisTmnl; jahha; abru (eye- 
brow) . 

Brown, qahva^i (tf^V coffee-coloured) ; mi- 
khaki (colour of" cloves) ; bakhuri (smoke- 
coloured, or light ash -coloured) . 

Bxovfs^, char idan, or churd k., vulg., intr. ; 
chardnidan, causative. 

Bruin. Vide Bear. 

Bruise, kuftan or kubtdan. rt. kub; vide 
Pound; jaiv-kub k. (to bruise or pound 
roughly) . 

Bruised, to be, kufta shudan. 

Brush, mdhut pdk-kun (for clothes, shoes, 
hair) ; mu pdk-kun (hair-brush) ; qalam-i 
mu^l (paint) ; misvdk (tooth-brush ; 
Muhammadan or European). 

Brush, to, pdk k. (of clothes) ; tdpu(jh zadan 
(of horse, etc.) ; uldgh pd-mdl ast (the 
donkey brushes with the houghs. 

Brushing. Vide supra. 

Brushwood, [hizum — split wood for burn- 
ing] ; durmdn (a common plant used for 
burning) ; chulka, in Bushire chuta (for 
starting a flame). 

Brusque, durusht. 

Brutal, khaslat-i bahlmi ddrad ; vahshl-sijat. 

Brutish. Vide Brutal. 

Bubble subs., hubdb (in liquids or in glass). 

Bubo, khiydrak (from gon.). 

Buck, dhu-yi nar (of gazeUe) ; kaj-kuldh 

(fop ; in a bad sense) . Vid£ Stag. 
Bucket, dalv (of leather) ; sail (of metal) ; 

labchin (of soft leather and with a strap to 

close the mouth). 
Buckle, sagak {z.). 
Buckskin, pust-i dhu. 
Bud, shikufa {k.) ( very little open) ; tukma- 

(k.) (not open at all) ; ghuncha (2.) (half 

open) ; payvand {k.) (graft or bud). 
Budget, budjd (Eur.) (Parliamentary). 
Buff, bdddmi (almond-coloured) ; limu^l 

(lemon-coloured) ; shikdrl or shuturi (of 

the fawn colour of deer or of camel) ; 

gandum-gun (wheat-coloured ; of people). 
Buffalo, gdv mish, Pr. ; jdmus, Ar. 
Buffet. Vide Slap. 

Buffeted, to be, mutaldtim {sh.) (by waves). 
Buffeting, taldtum (of waves) ; zarb-i sill (of 

slaps) . 
Buffoon, maskhara; lutl; mvqallid (actor, 

Buffoonery, maskharagi ; maskhara-bdzi. 
Bug, sds or surkhak; katmal* (Indian) ; 

mala (a large poisonous bug found in 

certain districts) ; shab-gaz (a gen. term) ; 

gharlb-gaz (a species of noxious bug). 
Bugle, shayjur (mil.) ; karrm (trumpet). 
Buglos, gdv-zabdn^ Vide Ox-tongue. 
Build, bind k. (but with niJmdan ' ' to 

found"); "I want to build a house," 

nii-khwdham'' khdna-i bi-sdzam; ['inuirat 

is any building] ; dshiydna sdkhtan , or ^na 

zadan (a nest). 
Builder, bannd" or gilkdr (trade) ; bdni 

(founder) ; mi'mdr (architect). 
Building, Hmdrat or bind^. Vide Public. 
Built, binn shuda or mabni (founded or 

built) ; sad sdl ast bind shud (it was built 

100 years ago) . 
Bujnurd, Bujnurd. 
Bulb, piydz (unless any special flower is 

1 Arabic raza"^ or riza' , "nursing, sucking the breast." 

2 Sulb, " loin " ; batn, " belly, womb." Half-brothers by the same father are more nearly related 
than half brothers out of the same mother. In the fornaer case " the seed is the same, the soil only is 
different. ' ' 

s No izafat. 

4 Also locally kak-mal, corrup. of Hindustani khatmal, " bedstead defiler." 

6 Buglos, lit. "ox-tongue." 

6 Khwastan in m. f. means *' to be on the point of doing," as well as " to wish." 




discussed, ^tf/a2 means "onion" ; piydz-i 

uargis, etc.). 
Bulbous, piydz-dar ; ditnaghrgunda (of nose). 
Bulgaria, Bulbar. 
Bulge, to, bar drnadan ; qulupidan or dar 

buluqidan, vulg. (to bulge out). 
Bulky, zakhhn (for book) ; ziydda jd m%- 

girad ; mard-i fakhim-i jaslm (a strong 

bulky man). 
Bull, nar-gdv; saior. 
Bullet, gulula (also cannon-ball). 
Bully, qul-chumdq (kept by prostitutes as 

protection, etc.) ; gardan-kuluft (a kept- 
man ; a ponce). 
Bulwark, mahjar (wall or railing ; of ship) ; 

sangar (breastwork) ; hdra or hdru (ram- 
part) ; matras ' (stockade) ; divdra (of 

ship) . 
Bumper, sdtgln (a bumper glass drunk to 

some one's health). 
Bumpkin, diJvdtl or rustaf% (villager, q.v. ; 

often used contemptuously for ' country 

Bunch, khusha-yi^ angur (of grapes) ; tilanga 

(a . small spray off a bunch of grapes) ; 

daata-yi kalid (of keys); 'uqda (knot; as 

'uqda-yi Parvin," Pleiades "). 
Bundle, buqcfia ; basta (also parcel) ; saruqcha, 

vulg. for sar-buqcha; dasta. Vide &iap- 

Burden, dn bdr-i gardan-iman ast (the burden 

rests on me ; also I am obliged to do it) ; 

Imyvdn-i bdr-kash or bdr-barddr (beast 

of — ) ; band or tarjl' (chorus) . 
Burn, dtash zadan, tr. ; sukhtan, rt. suz, tr. 

and intr. ; alaw z. (vulg.) , tr. ; dtash giriftan, 

Burning, suzish (sensation of — ). 
Burning-glass, shisha-yi dtashi. 
Burnished, sayqal-zada and masqul (of steel) ; 

mujalld (made bright). 
Burnisher, sayqal-zan or sayqal-gar (man) ; 

aayqal (instrument). 
Burst, to, farkidan; puktdan (vulg.); cfidk 

shudan (of clothes, of melons) ; " don't eat 

so much or you'll burst," dn-qadar ma- 

khur ml-tarkl;^ "I nearly burst," kam 

mdnd (or nazdik bud) ki bi-tarkam ; "he 

burst open the door and entered," dar rd 
shikasta ddkhil shiid ; sar bdz k. (of boil) ; 
jastan (of a fountain) ; jushldan (of a 

Bury, "he has gone to bury his father," 
rafta ast pidar-ash rd dafn kunad (or bi- 
khdk bi-kunad or bi-sipdrad) ; zinda bi-gur- 
ash ml-kunam (a threat). 

Burying, tadfin {k.) ; kajn u dafn {k.) ; or 
tajhlz u takjin {k.) (shrouding and burying). 

Bush, buta; or butta (vulg.) ; buna. 

Bushire, Bu-shahr. 

Business, shuijtl; kdr-i muhimm (important 
business); "my business is doing well," 
kdr-i man kuk ast*; "excuse me, I have 
a httle business engagement," ma'pir hi- 
ddrid qadri giriftdri dJdram; "mind your 
own business," bi-raw dar band-i kdr-i 
khudbdsh^; dakhl-i na-ddrad bi-u (it's no 
business of his) ; " why, what business can 
he have in Tehran ? ' ' dar Tahrdn chi dad 
u silad ddrad — magarmurda-shu dnjd murda 
ast? u kdr-i (or shugt^l-t) ddrad. Vide 
Affair, Matter. 

Bussorah, Basra. 

Busy, ' ' I am busy about my own affairs, 
I've no time for anjrthing else," in chand 
ruz-hd giriftdr-i khud-am fiastam va bi-kas-i 
d^gar nami-parddzam ; mashr^ul (engaged 
in) ; aX-dn rriashijjiul-i kdr ast nami-tavdnad 
bd shumd harf bi-zanad (he's busy and 
can't speak with you) ; sar-garm-i kdr-i 
khvd ast; kdr ddram (I'm busy). 

Busybody, fuzul (incorr. for fazul). 

Bustard, hubdra ('houbara' bustard); tvi- 
tmjhli or dui-dJd'jh, T., and mish-murgi ,^ 
P. (large bustard, Otis Tarda). 

Bustle, tag u daw {k.). 

But, amirvd (also = " as for"); va-likin, 
juz in-ki — ; magar dn-ki — , balki (more- 
over, enhansive; in m. c. "perhaps"); 
" but I who never had a child — won't 
people ask to see my supposed cliild, man 
bachcfia na-zd'^ida mardum nami-guyand 
bachcha-at ku? u ki murd (but he's dead) . 
Vide Except. 

Butcher, qassdb (seller of meat) ; salldkh 
(lit. skinner, flayer). 

* Ar. and Per., but supposed to be from the Persian matara, " don't fear." 

* Khuaha also means •' ear of corn " ; khUaha-baatan, " to ripen (of grain)." 

8 Tarkidan also=rt<2an. Man tura qaaam mi-diham ki ham Snja pish-i qazl bi-tarakl (a vulgar 

* Kilk k., " to wind up a watch, tune an instrument, etc.": vide also '* to chaff." 

* Dar band-i kar-i f^tid aet, " he is engrossed in his own concerns." 

* This name is often erroneously applied to other large birds. 





Butcher, to, zahh k. (to slaughter by cutting 
the throat, and specially according to 
Muslim law) ; gardan buridan (ditto) . 

Butler, saql (gives wine only) ; sufra-chi (in 
charge of the table) ; nazir (head butler) ; 
ab-dar (in charge of sherbets, etc.) ; qahva- 
cM (gives tea, coffee, smokes). 

Buft, hadaf and nishana (shooting) ; pip 
(Eng. barrel) ; qundaijh (of musket) ; hadaf 
(one ridiculed). 

Butt, to, shaJch zadan (slightly) ; kalla z. (in 
fighting together). 

Butter, kara and maska; rughan (clarified 
butter or ghi) ; du(jh (the hquid remaining 
from wMst or curds when churned into 

Butter-fingered. Vide Clumsy. 

Butterfly, sJiahpara or shahparak ; parvdna 
(prop. moth). 

Buttocks, kafal (of man or animals) ; ditbr 
or sunn (of humans) ; shalvdr (thighs of 
horses or hawks) . 

Button, dukma (gen. of silk, etc.) ; pulak 
(Eur. buttons of bone or metal); "this 
button-hole is too large for the button," 
in nmdagl bi-jihat-i tn dukma gushdd ast ; 
sar-at az kadu-yi tuhi dmzdn ast ( = I'll cut 
off your head and sew on a button ; 
you've no head at all). 

Buttress, pushtihdn. 

Buy, khand k. ; khandan ; sitdndan ; " I am 
going to the bazar to buy paper," ml-ravam 
bdzdr, kd,gjiaz bi-kharam (or bi-sunam; 
vulg. for bi-sitdnam) . 

Buyer, mushtarl (also any ' customer ' ; for 
instance, of a barber, a bath, etc.) ; khan- 
ddr (uncommon in m. c). 

Buying, kharid (k.) ; dud u sitad (k.) ; kharid 
u farush {k.) ; mu'dmala {k.) ; bay' u shird 
[k.) (buying and selling; deahng). 

Buzz, to, viz viz k. or ving ving k. (of fly) ; 
hamhama (noise of distant crowd ; of bees , 

Buzzard, sdr, incorrect for sd; mush-khor. 

Buzzing, vide To buzz ; [tariin, sound of 
reverberation of metal, string instru- 
ments] . 

By, az; bi — ; bd; pahlu-yi — (by side of); 
dam-i — (close by) ; "I sent the letter by 
post," kdghaz rd mashub-i"^ chEpdr jiris- 

tddam; "he tore the book leaf by leaf ," 

varaq varaq kitdb rd para kard. 
Bypath, chap-rdh, pas-kucha (back street). 
Bystander, tamdshd-cht. 
By-the-by, khub ydd-am dinad. 

Cabbage, kalam; kalam-i-jnch ; kalam-i-qumri 

(varieties). Vide Cauliflower. 
Cabin, utdq; hujra; kamra (Eur.) and dab- 

busa (of ships) ; kapar ; kulba (Imt). 
Cabinet, duldbcha (small cupboard). 
Cabinet-Council, Shurd-yi khalvatl. 
Cable, mahdr-i jahdz (rope) ; langar-band 

Cackle, kil kit k. (of talking or laughing) ; 

vir vir k. (of talking) ; qdr qdr k. (of geese). 
Caesar, Qaysar. 
Caffenic, qahva^m. 
Cage, qafas or qajas. 
Cajole, rish-khand k. 
Cajolery, vide Flattery; rish-khand (lit. 

ridicule, q.v.). 
Cake, whence did you get that cake? dn 

kulucha az kujd gir-i shumd dmad? 

kumdch; twin-i farangi; ndn-i shirin;^ 

ham khudd va ham khurrrm * .? ( = you can- 
not have your cake and eat it) . 
Calamity, djat; musibat, pi. masd^ib ; ghdHla ; 

bald ; idbdr (ill-luck) ; In bardy-i dnhd 

sadma-yi buzurg-t mi-shavad. 
Calculate, anddza k.; hisdb k. ; mu'ddil-i 

du khums-i mdliyya takhmin shuda (calcu- 
lated at f of the revenue). 
Calculated, tahhmtn shuda; vide Estimate; 

[mahsub, included]. 
Calculation, shumdr ; hisdb ; takhmm-i kharj 

rd hisdb kardid ? ta' dad (numbering) . 
Caldron, dig; pdtil (smaller). 
Calendar, sdl-ndma, taqvim. 
Calender, qalandar-i chahdrum haqiqat-i say- 

r-ash rd giriydn giriydn in tawr baydn ka-rd 

ki—{Frot S. T.). 
Calf, mada gdv va gusdla yak jd budand ; mdhi 

cha (pron., md^icha; calf of leg; also 

muscular portion of fore-arm) ; gusht-i sdq. 
Calico, ndshur (the Indian mdrkin) ; chilvdr 

(longcioth ; in pieces of 40 yds.) ; chit or 

qalam-kdr (coloured chintz) . 

1 In Persia butter is not made from milk or cream, but from mast. 
4 Mashuh, lit. "accompanied by : along with." 

3 None of these words corresponds fully with the English cake. 

4 Khurma ; referring to the ass of the Dajjal or Antichrist. 




Caligraphist, he is the chief caligraphist of 
the age, u sar-amad-i khuah-navis-ha-yi 
zamdn cut. Vide Calligraphist. 

Caliph, khalifa, pi. k[i,ulafd': 

Call, soda k. or z. (call out to) ; taU>idan 
(summon from a distance) ; khivastan, rt. 
khtvah; biddr k. (awaken, q.v.) ; bang or 
dad z. or faryad k. (to call out, cry out) ; 
ism dddan or nihadan (name) ; jar z. or 
kashidan (of proclamation) ; did or bdzdid 
raftan (to visit) ; khdna-ash sadd-ras ast 
(he lives within call) ; rnas^ul k. (to call to 
account) ; muddat-i ^st ki jd-yi shutnd 
khdli bud or ast (you have not called on 
me for an age). Ft'rfe Prevention. 

Called, musamTTtq. (named) ; mawsum bi — . 

Calligraphist, khush-khatt; khush-nams. 

Calligraphy, khush-khatti ; khush-navisi. 

Callow, gushtdlu (i.e., only flesh; of young 
birds) ; bi-par ; in bachcha kald(fh-ha yak 
luppa (jusht ast. 

Calm, bi-mawj (of sea) ; daryd bi-kulli drdm 
bud misl-i kaf-i dust ; drdm (of persons or 

Calmack, Qalmdq. 

Calomel, kalomal oi kalumal. Vide Mercury. 

Calumniate, u ijtird bi-mardum, mi-bandad. 
{gjnbat, backbiting) ; midya az bardy-i 
fuldii shakhs zad (he has got him into a 
mess by falselj* reporting him ; buhtdn z.; 
tuhmat bastan; ijtird b. ; nammdmi k. 
(creating mischief by telling tales to both 
sides ; carrying tales) ; isrmd-i bad bar 
u mi-bandad = bar u tuhmat mi-zanad. 
Vide Slander and Accusation. 

Calumny, buhtdn (false) ; tuhmat (false accu- 
sation) : iftird* ( = buhtdn) ; gjiibat (back- 
biting) ; nammdmi and chugjili (tale-bear- 
ing). Ftrfe Accusation, Slander. 

Camel, shutur ; jammdz, corrup. into jambdz 
(riding camel) ; shutur-i du kawhJdna (or — 
kuhdna or — kuha) (two-humped) ' ; luk 
(large hairy breed) ; sdrbdn (camel driver) ; 
shutur-ddr (owner) ; kajdva (parmier) ; nnqa 
(female) . 
Cameleon, hirbd^ ; bu-qalamun (gen. means 

in m. c. a turkey). 
Camelman, vide Muleteer ; sdhib-jamal (for 
Ar. jimJdl) (a servant who collects camels) ; 
jammdl (camel-owner) . 
Camomile, bdbuna. 

Camp, lashkar-gdh; mu'aakar; urdu (of 
army) ; buna (lit. baggage ; a private camp, 
whether in the open or in a caravanserai, 
is usually so styled) ; ajzd-yi urdu or 
siydhi-yi Ioshkar (camp followers, i.e. all 
non-combatants with a camp, Post Office, 

Camphor, kdfur; [the adj. kdfuri is applied 
to anything white like wax , or pure with- 
out colour] . 

Can, " he cannot do more than kill me," bi- 
man chi mi-tavdnad kard bishtar az in ki 
bi-ku^had .^ ' * I walked as far as I could ,' ' tid 
quwat ddshtam rdh raftam ; in kdr az man 
bar mi-dyad (I can do this) ; agar man nd- 
tavdnam bi-kunam ^ tu Jiar-chi mi-tavdni bi- 
kun (I can't ? Then just stop me) ; na pa- 
yi raftan ddram va na jd-yi mdndan (I can- 
not go and I camiot stay ; I'm at a loss). 

Canal. ^ Vide Brook. 

Cancel, bdtil k. (to make null) ; mansukh k. 
(to abolish) ; mahv k. (obliterate). Vide 
Erase, Annul, Abolish, (Obliterate. 

Cancellation, bdtiliyyat; mansukhiyyat ; bul- 

Cancelled, bdtil shuda; mansukh (abolished). 

Cancer, saratdn (disease ; also sign of Zodiac) ; 
khura (also applied to some forms or some 
stages of syphilis). 

Candid, bi-yharaz; mukhlis; khdlis; sddiq ; 
(for people or opinions) ; rukh-gu (one who 
speaks out to the face). 

Candidate, ummidvdr (Indian expression) ; 
tdlib-i jd (of office). 

Candle, sham'; sliam'-i kdfuri (of wax); 
sham'-i pih (tallow) ; bi-zahmat nami-arzad 
(the game is not worth the candle; it is 
not worth the trouble) ; bi-gard-i man 
nami-rasad (he is not fit to hold a candle 
to me). 

Candlestick, sliam'-ddn; Idla (Eur. pattern 
with a globe) and pdya-yi lala (the stand 
without the kdsa or globe) ; Idla-yi dviz- 
ddr (a candlestick with crystal pendants, 
sometimes with several branches) ; {qindU 
a lamp for candle or oil]. 

Candour, rdsti; ikhlds; sidq; bi-gharazi; 

Cane, nay-shakar (sugarcane) ; khayzurdn 
(Malacca) ; ta'Rmi (a swagger-stick or 
cane). Vide Bamboo. 

• Classically bnkhti. The gannalr camels su-e wretched anirtials. 
« Vulg. na-tavani«tam bi-kunam. Note force of pronouas. 
8 There are no proper canals in Persia. 




Cannibal, adam-khur. 

Cannon, tup (big gun) ; zamburak (small 
camel gun) ; tup-chi (gunner) . 

Cannonade, tup-andazi {k.) ; galula-andazi 
(k.) ; tup bi-qal'a hastan (to bombard a 
fort). Vide Bombard. 

Canopus, SuJiayl. 

Canopy, sdya-ban; dftdb-garddn (small tent 
with adjustible roof ; also an eyeshade 
and a parasol) . 

Canter, yurtma raftan. 

Canvas, kirhds ' rd az kujd kharldid? 

Cap, kuldh (Pers. cap. of felt or of astra- 
khan) ; kuldh-namadl (felt) ; ids (same 
when new) ; qalbdq (fur cap) ; kuldh-latta 
or 'araq-chm (worn in private or under a 
turban) ; shab-kuldh (night cap) ; i^j (der- 
vishes' hat or crown) ; chdshm (of gun). 

Cap, to, mushd'ara k. (to cap verses, a game ; 
the verse that is to cap one already said, 
must begin with the same letter that 
terminated the other; there are other 
forms of the game). 

Capability, qdbiliyyat ; liydqat ; qudrat ; quvvat; 
isti'ddd; sur-rishta. 

Capable, qdbil ; kdfi ; bd qdbiliyyat. 

Capacious, gunjdyish-i ziydd ddrad or bisydr 
jd ddrad. 

Capacity, zarfiyyat (of vessels, boxes, etc.) ; 
[but In shakhs zarfiyyat na-dErad= kam-zar' 
ast, "mean, low"]; dn sJiakhs Ichayli 
qdbiliyyat (or isti'ddd) ddrad; In jdm chi 
qadr gunjdyish ddrad, or chi qadr db mi- 
glrad ? 

Cape, dirndgiha (geo.) ; ra^s (not common). 

Caper, kubar (shrub). 

Capital, mdya or sar-mdya and ra^s'''l-mdl 
(money, etc.) ; pd-takkt (metropolis) ; 
shahr-i hdkim-nishin (provincial capital) ; 
agar sar-mdya-l bi-ham basti kdr-at rawnaq 
mi-glrad (if you can find capital you'll 
succeed) . 

Capitation tax. Vide Tax. 

Capitulate, siWi andEkhtan; taslim shudan 
(gen. of fort); sipar anddkhtan; tan dar 
dudan (of people) ; az dar-i amJdn dar 
dmadand (they ofifered to capitulate). 

Capon, khurus-i khast. 

Caprice, taysh; talavvun. 

Capricorn, Jadi (Tropic of — ). 

Capsize, munqalib shudan or vdruna shudan 
(of boat or anything) ; asp uftdd va kdliska 

Captain, kaptdn or nJd-khudd '^ (of a ship) ; 
Sultan (mil., in Persia a very low rank). 

Captivate, dilbarl k. 

Captive, asir ; nazar-band (under arrest, mil. ; 
a prisoner at large) ; giriftdr (seized) . 
Vide Surveillance. 

Captivity, astrl. 

Captured, dast-gir (also helper; dast-glrl 
help) ; giriftdr. 

Captured, to be, gir-dmadan or uftddan (but 
gir k. to be embarrassed or trapped in 
speech) ; giriftdr shudan. 

Carat, sang-i qirdt (Eur.). 

Caravan, kdravdn or kdrvdn ; qdfila ; kdravdn- 
sard (place for putting up) ; ribdt ; timcha 
(an open square with a collection of small 
shops ; = the chauk of India ; timcha (also 
= a small shop or stall) . 

Carcase, Idsh (of men or animals) ; na'sh (of 
men only) ; mayyit (of man) ; gusht-i 
mayta (flesh of an animal that has died of 
its own accord) ; jifa (when stinking) ; 
murddr (gen. of anything not slain by 
Muslim rite) ; shaqqa (the spht half of a 
carcase; butcher's term). Vide Carrion 
and Corpse. 

Card, ganjifa; ds (Persian playing cards); 
kdrt (Fr.; visiting cards) ; u ruq'a-yi da' vat 
(or da'vat-ndma) '^ bardy-i man firistddaast. 

Card, to, parnba zadan; halldji k. Fitfe Cot- 

Cardamum, Ml; hil-i bdd (large dark variety). 

Carder. Vide Cofcton-carder. 

Care, fikr or tavajjuh {dddan) (to pay atten- 
tion to) ; ihtiydt; hazar (caution) ; ghamm; 
fikr ; anduh (anxiety) ; parastdri (nurs- 
ing) ; hifz (charge) ; bi-ma' rifat-i or bi- 
tavassut-i (care of — ) ; zinhdr (interject., 
have a care to! followed by verb in 
afiirmative or negative). 

Care, to, az harf-i u parvd na-ddram (I don't 
mind or pay attention to what he says) = 
bi-gufta-yi u mahall na-ddram ; ' ' have a 
care he doesn't run off," muvdzib (or 
murdqib) bdsh na-gurlzad; gush dddan (to 
heed) ; bi-pashm-i man, vulg. (I don't care 
a fig, a jot). 

1 Palas, tenting made of hair; palaa nishln, ' tribes' people': gilam (sometimes po^) is the name of 
a woollen carpet without pile. 

2 Corruption of na' o-khuda. 

3 Invitations are frequently oral. Notes are not much used in Persia. Servants carry oral mes- 
sages, and unlike Indian or English servants, seldom make mistakes. 




Careen, to, yak-bar or yak-barl shudan; yak 
burdu sh. (of load or ship) ; yala sh. 

Careful, mutavajjih (v/atching) ; ba ihtiyat; 
bd hazar (cautious). 

Careless, (jhdfil; bi-parvd; bi- ihtiyat ; bi-hush 
(also senseless) ; dar band-i khdna-dJdri-yi 
khud nlst (he's careless about his domestic 
aflfairs) . 

Carelessness, (jAaflat: ta'jkdfvl ; bi-parvd'i; 
kutdhl dar kdr-ash mi-kunad; sahl-angdri- 
yash bi-hadd-i 'st ki khabar az kuldh-i khud 

Caress, )idz k. (of animals, children, etc.) ; 
navdzish k. (also to be kind to ; of the 
Shah to a favourite, etc.) ; dost bar sar u 
sural kashidan ; navdkhtan. Vide Coa,x. 

Cargo, bdr-i jahdz. 

Carnal, nafsdra ; jismdni; ham-khivdb — or 
ham-bistar shvdan bd — (to have carnal 
intercourse with). 

Carnation, mikhak. Vide Clove. 

Carnelion, 'aqiq-i surkh ; [there are also 
yellow, white and black 'aqtqs]. 

Carouse, to, shardb-khwdri va 'ayydshl k. 

Carp, mdhi-yi qirmiz (gold fish) ; mdhl-yi 
sajid (silver fish). 

Carpenter, najjdr. 

Carpentry, najjdrl (k). 

Carpet, qdli ; qdlicha (small ; a rug) ; gilim 
(without pile) ; sar-anddz (a large piece of 
felt at the head or at the end of a room) 
and kitidra (two narrow strips of the same 
material as the sar-anddz ; these flank the 
room ') ; jd-namdz and sajjdda (prayer- 
carpet) ; Sulaymdn ru-yi qdli-i khud-ash 
bi-har jd mdyil bud dar yak an safar ml- 
kard; v^tdd (the owner or master of a 
carpet factory) ; khalifa (the under-master, 
sub-overseer) ; shdgird or bar-i dost (work- 
ers*) ; qdM-yi pashm andar pashm ( — both 
warp and woof of wool) ; qdli-yi pashm 
andar pamba (with web of cotton and 
woof of wool). 

Carpet, to, farsh anddkhtan (of any floor 
covering) ; farsh u farush ^ gustardnlda — 
Prof. S. T. (having spread carpets and 
rugs, etc.). Vide Warp, Web and Woof. 

Carr a way-seed, karavyd; zira-yi siydh (black 

Carriage, kdliskoryi ru-hdz (open carriage) ; 
durushka (Rus.) ; yak u0q-i gdri-yi dtashi 

(one railway carriage*) ; lokotnoiiv oi 
kdliska-yi bukhdr (engine) ; gdri (Hind.) ; 
^ardba or 'arrdda (a cart). 

Carrier, bdr-barddr ; hainmdl (porter) ; kabu- 
tar-i payk (homing pigeon). 

Carrion, murddr ; gusht-i mayta; jifa. Vide 
also Carcase and Corpse. 

Carrot, gazar ; zardak ; dUldbi (local) ; haviz 
(rare) . 

Carry, to, burdan, rt. bar ; kashldan ; bi-du9h 
girifian, or — kashldan (on shoulder) ; ' ' kind- 
ly help me to carry out this," himdyat 
kunld id in kdr rd az pish bi-baram; man u 
rd didam ki bdr-i ru-yi sar-ash bud va mi- 
raft; " one mule will not carry all this," 
yak qdtir bardy-i in hama bdr kafi nist. 

Cart, 'arrdda or 'ardba (colloq. 'arrdba). 

Cartilage, parda-yi dirtidcjh, (of nose) ; [parra- 
yi dinvdyic , the outside of the nostrils] ; 
v^tukhwdn-i norm; kurkuri (vulg., any 

Cartridge, kdrtus or fishang ; faEis (case) ; kif 
( — pouch) . 

Carve, to, kandan (deep) ; tarashidan (cut- 
ting) ; naqsh k. ; bundan (of meat) . 

Carved woodwork, munabbat-kdri (k.). 

Carver, munabbat-kdr (on wood) ; naqqdsh 
(also painter, engraver). 

Carving, munabbat-kdri (wood) ; hajjdri 
(sculpture, etc.); hakkdki (seals, etc.); 
sang-tardshi (stone-cutting) ; naqsha-buri 
(ornamentation on the gach or cement on 
walls) . 

Cascade, db-shdr. 

Case, qdb bardy-i fi(/h-i dalldki-yi khud-ai no- 
ddri ? ghildf (for sword) ; pushish (of cloth) . 
Vide Box. 

Case, in murdfa'a ishhdl ddrad; ^arz-i hcU 
(statement of — ) ; bi-har taqdir (in any 
case); "in this case what matters it 
whether she be pretty or ugly ? Let her 
be 'Ifriia ' ' {dar in sural khush-gil yd bad- 
gil bdsJiad chi tafdvul ddrad? bi-guzdr 
'Ifrita buda bdsJiad) ; "in either case he 
deserves punishment," {dar har du jd (or 
hdl) sazdvdr-i 'vqubat a^t) ; lidlat (gram- 
matical) ; dirUz dali nafar mvbiaM bi- 
Vd'un shudand (there were ten cases of 
plague yesterday). 

Cash, pul-i naqd va iskinds sad tiimdn dash- 
lam (in cash and notes I had in all 100 

1 Small carpets can be placed iu the centre. 

^ These terms are used for the establishment of any shop. 

3 Furush Ar., pi. of jarah. 

* Qi&r-i garl-yi ataahl, " railway train.'* 




tumans) ; vajh-i naqd ; pul-i mawjud ; 

nmidi (adv. ; in cash). Vide Credit. 
Cash-box, mijn-yi pull; sanduq-i tahml; 

sanduq-i dakhl (in shops; the till). Vide 

Box, Casket. 
Cashier, tahvil-dar. 
Cashmere, Kashmir (country) ; shal-i tirma 

(the stuff). 
Casket, durj (for jewels only) ; ja'ba (for 

other things). Vide Cash- box and Box. 
Caspian Sea, Bahr-i Khazar ; Baryd-yi Mdzan- 

daran, or — Gildn. 
Cast, subs., anddkht; mi-khwdst du shash 

(or shash juft) bi-yarad vali du bish ' amad ; 

andakht-ash bad bud (he made a bad cast ; 

he wanted two sixes but two fives turned 

Cast, to, in libds rd bi-andaz dur ; part or 
par 1Mb k. (to fling, cast away with force*); 
bi-mufragh rikhtan (in a mould) = bi-qdlab 
rikhtan ; muhra anddkhtan (of dice) ; juft 
anddkhtan or jandh andJdhhtan (to fly a 
cast of hawks) ; pust anddkhtan (of snakes) ; 
qur'a anddkhtan (cast lots). 

Castellated, kungura, subs, (the castellation 
of a crown or a tower ; also the ornamen- 
tal lumps on a mud wall). 

Castle, nazdik-i qal'ah manzil ddrad; hisdr 
(wall of city or fort) ; burj ( = tower or 
bastion) ; bunydn-i bl-asdsi ( = a card- 
castle) ; ark (citadel) ; also the Governor's 
dwelling) . 

Castor-oil, rawghan-i karchak; rawghan-i 
kinnatu ; rawghan-i bidanjir ; rawghan-i 
chirdgk . 

Castrated, akhta (horses ; gelding) ; Mas? 
(for goats, sheep, cocks) ; khdya burida 
(gen. ; for men or animals) ; khivdja-sard 
(eunuch) . 

Casual, ittijdqi; 'drizl. 

Casualties, Casualty, talajdt (mil. term). 

Cat, gurba (any cat) ; gurba-yi burdq (long- 
haired "Persian" cat); also shaldl (?); 
gurba-yi kuhi (wild cat ; chalak-musa (tip- 
cat) ; inusht-ash vd shud (he let the cat 
out of the bag). 

Catalogue, siydha; fJirist-i hardj-i imruz rd 
dtda-id (have you seen the catalogue of 
to-day's auction ?). 

Catamite, pusht; bi-rlsh; gada (?) ; hlz; kun%. 
Vide Confederate and Sodomite. 

Cataract, db-i marvdrid (in eye) ; db-i siydh 
(incurable cataract or glaucoma) ; chashm- 
ash db dvarda ast (a vague term for catar- 
act, opthalmia, etc.). Vide Cascade. 

Catarrh, zukdm; "she's caught a cold," 
nazla rikhta ast or chdhida ast. Vide Cold. 

Catch, dn paranda rd bi-glr (or bi-ddm bi-yan- 

Catchword, rddda (in MS.) ; pd-safha (also 
= a footnote); zabdn-zad (of party-cry, 

Caterpillar, no special word ; kirm or kirm-i 
darakht. Vide Snail. 

Cattle, mavashi. 

Caucasus, Kuh-i Qdf or Qafqdz} 

Cauliflower, kalam-i gul or gul-i kalam. 

Cause, sabab ; 'illat; vajh, ipl.vujuh: vasila 
(means) ; Mabda^-i Avval (the First Cause) ; 
Hllat-i ghd^i (the final cause for which a 
thing was created) ; sabab-i in kdr rd mi- 
dunid, or jihat-ash rd mi-ddntd? "you 
caused him to come," shumd bd'isshuda 
Urd dvardld; 'illat u ma'lul or sabab u 
musabbab (cause and effect) ; 
Mard bimarg-i 'aduv jd-yi shddmdni nist; 
Ki zindagdni-yi md nlz jdvidEni nist 
■' (No cause have I to rejoice at the death 
of a foe 
For my life too will not endure for 
ever "). 

Causeless, bl-jihat, etc., etc. 

Causeway, sang-bast; rdh-i muriafi'-i sang- 

Caustic, qalam-i jahannam or sang-i jahan- 
nam (lunar caustic). 

Cauterize, Cauterizing, d^gh k. 

Cautery, ddgh-guzdri {k.) (the act) ; dhan- 
djdgji or dJdgh (the iron or instrument) . 

Caution, hazar ; baslrat (prudence) ; tarnbih 
(also = Nota Bene) ; hdjat-i in hama ihtiydt 
chist ? 

Cautious, 6a-Msyi, m. c. ; bd-ihtiydt; bdyad td 
bi-tavdnim kas-i rd na-ranjanlm (we should 
be cautious not to oflfend any one) ; insdn 
bdyad hamisha taraf-i ihtiydt rd nigdh bi- 
ddrad (one should be cautious). Vide 

Cavalcade, mawkib (of great person) ; savdrl. 

Cavalry, savdra; dasta-yi samra (party of 
cavalry) . 

1 There are two dice: ones are Ichal- and fives are hiah; other numbers ordinary. 

2 Partab 8hudan=part shtidan, " to fall suddenly " (from a height, a precipice, etc.). 
'^ Supposed to be inhabited by the Jinn. It was also the chief abode of the Slmurgh. 




Cave, ^dr; niaj^dra. 

Caviller, khurda-gir. 

Cavilling, khurda-gtri. 

Cavity, surdkh ; jawj ; [dar jawf-i pdkat = 

Cease, to, has k. ; nrdm shudan ; vd isiddan 
{az) ; az harf zadan kay khalds mi-shavid ? 
%n sadd qaV namt-shavad, (this noise never 
ceases) ; In hdrdn tstdda namt-shavad. 
Vide Stop. 

Cedar, darakht-i 'ar'ar. 

Cede, vd guzdsht kardan; havdla namudan. 

Ceiling, saqfj^ Vide. Roof.- 

Celebrate, 'Id-i mawlud-i Shah rd dar ftUdn 
tdrikh khwdhand girift (the Shah's birth- 
day will be kept on such and such a date) ; 
jashn-i 'arusi bar pa k. (to celebrate a 
marriage) . 

Celebrated, mushtdhir ; Tidm-var ; an shd'ir 
khayll mashhur (or rtia'ruf) ast (that poet 
is celebrated) ; angttsht-numd , or sar-i 
zabdn-i hama kas ast (notorious, q.v.)- 

Celery, kalajs or karafs. 

Celestial, falaki; dsmdni; samJdvi ; charkh-i 
dawdr (the celestial sphere, which is 
supposed to be ever in motion) ; hihishtl 
(heavenly) . 

Cell, saumM'a (of a hermit) ; takya (a sort of 
monastery; tomb of a saint); zdviya; 
fjusJia (of recluses, ascetics, etc.). 

Cellar, zir-zamini ' (for spending the heat of 
day) ; sarddba^ (a vault in a cemetry for 
storing a corpse till it can conveniently 
be conveyed to Kerbela, also = zlr-zarriinl) . 

Cement, gach (gjrpsum) ; sdruj (Portland). 

Cemetry, qabristdn; maqbara; dakhma 
.('Tower of Silence'). 

Censer, mijmar, pi. majdmir ; bakhur-ddn. 

Censor, mumayyiz ; muhaqqiq. 

Cent, az chihil yak, ya'nt az har sad-i du mm 
(2^ per cent.); az dah du, ya^nl sad hist 
(20 per cent.) ; sad pdnzdah (15 per cent.) ; 
sad panj or az dah nim (5 per cent.). 

Centifolious, sad-par ( = " of many petals "). 

Centipede, hazdr-pd; sad-pd. 

Central. Vide Situation. 

Centre, inarkaz-i dd^ira (of circle) ; qalb (of 
army); vasat-i or ndf-i shahr ; markaz-i 
saqdlat (centre of gravity) ; vide Gravity 
and Equilibrium ; dar miydn bi-guzdr (put 
it in the middle). 

Centred, niarkuz. 

Century, sad sal ast ki in khdna fdkhta shuda 
ast or biiid shuda ast. 

Ceremonial, bi-jihat-i numJdyish, ra»ml 

Ceremony, bi-takaUuj (without ceremony) ; 
Ishik dqdsi bdshi (the Shah's Master of 
Ceremony) ; mardsim-i 'arusi (marriage 
ceremonies) ; ta'ziya (ceremonies of the 

Certain, yaqin ast (it is certain) ; mu'ayyan 
or muqarrar (fixed) ; 6a' zt or chand (some, 
a few) ; man tn rd yaqin ddram (I'm cer- 
tain of this) ; muhaqqaq namudam ki u 
qdtil ast (or bud) {J. ascertained for certain 
that he was the murderer). 

Certainly, "certainly you are to blame," 
hukm"" muqassir-i ; chirdf (of course); 
chashm! (certainly I'll do it). 

Certificate, man az ishdn bi-sahab-i qdbiliyyat 
va khush-raftdri-yi khud sijdrish-iidma-i 
(recommendation) girifta am; sanad; 
i' tibdr-ndma ; tasdiq-i tabib (medical); 
' jamz-ndma (license). 

Cesspool, mazbala; chdh-i mabraz. 

Chaff, rish-khand (k.) (also ridicule, cajole) ; 
maskhara {k.) ; in hama sahus a^t, ism-i 
gandum ham nist (this is all chaff without 
a particle of wheat) ; pust-i gandum.^ 
Vide Bran, Fodder, Straw, 

Chaff, to, jir dvurdan or tu-yi Icuk-i kas-i 
raftan (to pull a person's leg; to get a 
'rise' out of a person). Vide Tease and 
Mischief and Ridicule). 

Chain, in zanjir-i dhani ^st (or az dhan sdkhta 
shuda ast) ; rashma (a picketing chain for 
horse or donkey ; also a camel-hair rope 
for picketing) ; jarib (for surveying) ; silsila- 
yi kuh ( — of mountains). Vide Elbui-z 
and Bridle. 

Chair, sandali; [hirsi is a table covered by 
a felt and has under it a brazier ; people 
sleep under it] ; sandali-yi rdhat (easy 
chair) . 

Chaldea, 'Iraq. 

Chalk, u faqat bi-giJri safid mi-navisad. 

Challenge, nahib z. (of heroes to one another, 
and a robber to a traveller with the pur- 
pose of frightening) ; tashar z. (to frighten 
by threats) ; rajaz khtpdndan and mubdriz 
talabidan (in fight). Vide Threaten. 

1 The tah-khana of Afghans and Indians. 

■^ Formerly ' a cool chamber ' or ' ice house ' and sometimes still so used. 

s Pust-i gandum = aabus, " bran." Narm-i kah is the oha£f blown away by the wind when winnow- 
ing, and kah the ohaS that falls and remains. 




Chamber, hajla-khana (the nuptial chamber, 
so called on the first night only) ; mash- 
vara-khana (Council-chamber). 

Chamberlain, IsMk-aqasi . 

Chameleon. Vide Cameleon. 

Champion, taham-tan or pahlavan (champion 
Avrestler) ; mubariz; ghazi (religious 
wan-ior) ; yakka-taz (single champion). 

Chance, ittifaq; mawqi' ; az qazd'' , itfifaq"^ 
(adv. , by chance) ; ' he has a good chance 
of — " agarbakht-ash yari kunad — ) ; ' ' such 
a chance will never occur again ' ' [Jiamchu 
fursat-i dlgar hi-dast ml-uftad ' ?) ; dar 
burdan-i shart mawqi'-ash kam ast (the 
chances are against his winning the bet). 

Chandelier, chihil-chiragh ; jar^ (Eur., with 
pendants) ; .sJidkha (a branch of — ) . 

Chandler, shammd' . 

Change, khurda (smaU money). Vide infra. 

Change, to, taghyir k. ; bardy-i tahdll-i db u 
havd dnjd rajta (he's gone there for 
change of air) ; bdyad Itbds-am rd 'ivaz 
kunam (I must change my clothes) ; tn 
ashraft rd khurda bi-kun (change this gold 
piece) ; naql-i makdn (k.) (usually change of 
residence before starting on a journey ^) ; m 
rang taghyir shudani nist (this colour 
won't change or fade). For " to change 
one's mind," vide Intention. 

Changeable, bl-qardr ; nu-pdyaddr ; u sar-i 
harf-i khud naml-istad (he does not keep 
his word) ; mutalawin'^^l-mizdj (he is 
changeable) . 

Changed, taghyir rah ydfta ; [mutaghayyir , 
"angry"]; the house was changed be- 
yond recognition, 'aql kdr nami-kard ki In 
hhdna chi bud va chi shud, Prof. S. T. ; dar 
m sar-hadd vaz'-i hama chiz az ddam va 
zamm va kdliska va khurdkl* va ghayrah 
taghyir kard (Shah's Diary). 

Channel, mamarr (lit. " place of passing") ; 
kdriz and qavMt (underground water- 
course). Vide Brook and Canal. 

Chant, tarannum k. (also to hum a tune). 

Chanter, mutarannim ; shab-hhwdn-i gul-dasta 

(chanters in mosques that sing before 
dawn) . 

Chapped, dust-am az sarnm tarkida ast. 

Chapter, az kuddm bob bi-khwdnim? sura 
(of Qur*an). 

Character, u ism-i khub ddrad, or il ism-i 
khub-i buland karda ast; khasd^'is-i shahh- 
siyya (personal character) ; nafas-i u bi- 
shumd khurda ast (his character has affect- 
ed you ; you've learnt his tricks) ; hatta 
dushmandn-i vay bi-maziyyat-i u i'tirdf rrii- 
kardand (even his enemies admired his 
character) ; sifdt and khasdHl (qualities) ; 
mardri shul (weak, without character) ; 
atvdr (behaviour, q.v.). 

Characteristics, sifdt; khavdss. 

Charcoal, bd zughdl surat mi-kashad (he draws 
with charcoal) ; zughdl-suz ( — burner). 

Charge, to, tdkhtan; hamlak.; hujum dvur- 
dan; yurish bur dan (attack) ; qadaghan k. 
or ta kid n. (to enjoin) ; sifdrish k. (polite 
for enjoin) ; pur k. (a gun) ; sipurdan ; 
havdla k. (to entrust to) ; mulzam k. 
(legal) ; muttaham k. (gen. of a false 
charge) ; vide Accusation ; u girdn qimat 
mi-girad or u girdn-farush ast (he charges 
high = dandan-gird). 

Charitable,^ mukhayyir ; tshdn khayli ndn- 
dih hastand; and khayli bi-rdh-i KhudE 
i'dnat mi-kunand; and khayli dad u dihish 
ddrand {= they are very charitable). 

Charity, sadaqa^ ; u khayli hhayrdt mi- 
kunad (good works) ; sadaqa and tasadduq 
(giving alms or leaving bequests for 
charitable purposes) ; zakdt (legal alms) ; 
bi-suvdl ruzgdr mi-guzardnand (they subsist 
on charity). 

Charm, subs.,'' ta'viz; du'd (a written 
charm, gen. from the Qur*an) ; hamd^il (a 
charm or Qur*an suspended from neck) ; 
sihr ; jddu ; tilism; afsun (black magic); 
vide Unique ; mulld naqsh u ta'viz dar db 
hall karda bi-man khurdnid va du'd 
khwdnda puf kard — Prof. S. T. (the Mulla 
dissolved charms and amulets in water 

1 Note the negative force of the interrogative. 

2 For Hindu, jhar. 

3 The astrologers fix a lucky moment to commence a journey. This is seized and the naql-i makan 
is then made and counts as a start; the real start may not bo made till a month after. 

* m. c. for khurak. 

6 Khayyir, Ar. , not used in m. c. 

<> Charity {sadaqa) is enjoined in the Qur*an. Zakat (ij^yi in its primitive sense signifies puri. 
fication ; hence, a portion of property bestowed in alms. Zakat is the legal alms. Khums is the fifth 
of certain property given to the BayV^ 'Imal or public treasury. 

7 Jewesses and occasionally old Muslim women manufacture charms, philtres, etc. In the Arabian 
Nights , enchantments are generally performed by women. 




and made me drink it, and he repeated 
texts from the Qur*an blowing them on 
me '). Vide Amulet, Magic, Spell, Pliiltre. 

Charm, to, dam kardan (to charm by repeat- 
ing texts, etc., and exhaling the breath. 
Vide To cook). 

Charming, tasnlf-i^ dil pasand-l ^st or — qash- 
ang-l '.'»/(it's a charming song); dil-kash; 
dil-aviz ; mufarrih (of garden; drinks). 

Chase, to, ta'aqub k. ; sayd k. (of game); 
hnidan; munaqqask sakhtan (metal). 

Chaste, pak-daman; ha 'ismat; 'afif. 

Chastisement, tam6»/i (k.), prop, "admoni- 
tion"); ta^dlb {k.) ; siyasat {n.). Vide 

Chastity, 'iffat; pdk-ddmani ; Hsmat. 

Chatter, "don't chatter," chana na-zan or 
zaban- rizi na-kun; misl-i zaqcha ziq ziq 
mi- kunad; az shiddat-i sarmu danddnhd- 
yash sadd mt-dJad. 

Cheap, hi-nazar-am ml-rasad m chiz-hd arzdn 
ast ; jalah ^ (cheap and nasty or damaged ; 
not lasting; opp. sa;^ = fresh, or unpack- 
ed; of goods); bdzdr-ash sust shud (it's 
gone down in price ; the market price is 
down) ; qimat na-ddrad. 

Cheapness, arzdni ; kam-qim/iti ; kam,-bahd*i. 

Cheat, subs., sar-tardsh; gush-bur; qalldsh : 

Cheat, to, gush-buridan ; mafjJibun k. and sh. 
(gen. , in bargains) ; dajAal dvardan or 
duzdi k. (at games) ; rang-ash kard or khub 
rang-i zad sktra bi-sar-ash musht (he 
cheated him in a bargain); quiz. (gen.). 

Cheated, ma^bun; "I have been cheated 
in this purchase," dar In mdl man yAabn 
ddram . 

Cheating, laqallub (k.) (gen. in accounts) ; 
dmxida bud chdchul-bdzi bi-kunad vail bi- 
liarf-ash na-yuftddam (he came to cheat 
me, but I was not taken in) ; chdp u chup- 
zani (by words). Vide Deceive. 

Check, tu zihni z. (of speech ; to check and 
• make one forget what he was saying). 
Vide Stop. 

Checkmate, to, nmt k. ; mdt ahudan (to be 

checkmated ; also to be asttmished) ; ki/th/ 
(for kiahl) ("check"!). 

Cheek, kup and kuft (vulg.) ; rukhsdra (tliat 
part where there is no hair) ; dvardhd, pi., 
vulg. for alvdrhd (the part of the cheeks 
that go hollow with age); "his cheeks 
are hollow," dvardlid- (or luphd)- yofth 
gawd uftdda (or tu rafta) ; lunj (that part 
near the corners of the mouth). 

Cheerful, hofihshnsh or khanda-ru (of appear- 
ance) ; s/tdd, khush-hdl, etc., (happy) ; " a 
cheerful room," utdq-i bd ruh. 

Cheerfulness, basJmshat (in appearance) ; 
tarab : jarah; masarrat (joy). 

Cheerless, girifta (of men, rooms, gardens, 
etc.); also dil-girifta; iira and bi-nur 
(dark) ; shdm-i Kalkatta biaydr dil-girifta 

Cheery. Vide Cheerful. 

Cheese, panir; kashk (made of midst) ; panir- 
mdya (cheese rennet). [Leopard. 

Cheetah, yuz, Pr. ; jahd, Ar. (rare). Vide 

Chemist, kimiyd-sdz (scientist) ; 'atiur and 
davd-adz (druggist) ; kimiyd-gar (alchem- 
ist). Fitie Apothecary, Druggist, Alchem- 

Chemistry, 'ilm-i kimiyd (mod. Pers.). Vide 

Cheque, bardt; chak* (Eur.). 

Cherish, parvarish k. or parvardan; bisydr 
dust ddshtan; muvdzabat k. (to look after). 

Cherry, gilds (sweet) ; dlu-bdlu (dark colour- 
ed and sour) ; richdr (dried black cherries ; 
also some kind of preserve). 

Cherub, karubi. 

Chess, shatranj {bdkhtan or bdzi k.) ; shatranj- 
bdzi (k.) (chess-playing) ; bisdt-i shatranj 
( — board) ; khdna (square) ; mukra (piece ; 
also dice) ; Slidh (King) ; Vazir or Farzin 
(Queen) ; Fit (Bishop) ; Asp (Knight) ; 
Rukh (Castle) ; Piydda or Baydaq (pawn). 
Vide Check. 

Chest, sanduq; jdma-dJdn (for clothes) ; sina ; 
sadr (of men). Vide Box. 

Chestnut, shdh balui (also — ballut) ; kurand 
or surang (colour; horse). 

I Amulets and charms consist of miniature Qur'Sns or texts, or names of Allah, or of saints, or else 

the numerical valuo of these names by abjad. Charms can bo suspended from the neck or arms of 
human beintfs or animals. Toxts, etc., are often dissolved in water and the water then given to the 
patient. Other texts are repeated and breathed over a person. Some charms are in the form of magic 
squares. The science of da'va has been elaborated and tomes have been written on it. 

^ Tamlf : gen. topical songs with dances : awaz = a good solo song as aung. A written song is ahi^r 
or fjhazal, etc. 

•'' Jnlab (opp. to aagh, '• fresh," of shop-goods) • zan-jalab is an abuse to a man. 

* Chak, a word coming into use instead of barat. 





Cheval-glass, dyina-yi qadd bi-numd; ayina- 
yi hadan-nurm. 

Chew, khd^tdan ; mazgh k. ; jdvxdan , nush- 
Tchipdr k. ( — the cud). 

Chewing, mazgh. 

Chick, parda-yi zamburakJ_ 

Chicken, man murgh-l rd ha dah juja dldam ; 
churl (small chicks). 

Chicken-pox, dhla-kurak. 

Chide, Chiding, maldmat {k.) ; nikuhish {k.) ; 
tawbikh (k.) ; sar-zanish {k). 

Chief, adj.. sar-dmad; u sar-dmad-i aqrdn-i 
khud ast. Vide infra. 

Chief, sar-ddr ; m^«s,pl. ru^asd (of an ofl&ce, 
bank, etc.); shaykh, pi. shuyukh; amir, 
pi. umard^; ll-khdnl or ll-beg% (of a Nomad 
tribe) ; asl-i dmadan-i man dldan-i sTiurm 
'st (I have come chiefly to see you) ; he is 
the chief merchant, u sar-dmadri tamMm-i 
tujjdr ast ; " Tehran is the chief city; of 
Persia," Tahrdn sar-dmad-i bildd-i Iran 

Chiefly, aksar ; ghdlib"^ ; makhsus"" ; khds- 
saf^". Vide Especially. 

Chiefship, sarvarl ; riydsat; sardnrl; hukm- 

Chik, (for chiq). Vide Chick. 

Child,^ bachcha; tifl, pi. atfdl; kudak; far- 
zand-i bikr (the first child of a woman) ; 
"the child takes after its mother," tifl bi- 
shlr ruju' ml-kunad ; " really you're a per- 
fect child," bi-Khudd ki hanuz bachcha-l ; 
az dahan-at bu-yi shir ml-ayad ; awldd-ash 
munhasir bi-jard ast (he has an only 
child); "she has a seven- months-old boy 
at the breast, pisar-i haft mdha-l ru-yi 
pistdn-ddrad. Vide Boy, Girl and Seed : 
bachcha-hd/^ chdhl bi-ydrld (hie! bring 

Childbirth, vaz'-i haml {n.) , dard-i zih (pain 

Childhood, man urd az bachchagl ml-shind- 

sam* ; tufuliyyat; kuchikl ; kudakl ; khurdl 

Childish, In bachcha-bdzl-' st ^ (this is childish, 

child's play) or In faqat ikdr-i bachchagl 

ast; u danddn-i tifldna^ birun dwarda ast 

(he is a childish old man). 
Childishly, bachchagdna. 
Children atfdl ; bachcha-hd. Vide Child ; 

Seed; Ofifspring. 
Chill, adj., sard; bdrid. 
Chill, subs., chdhish; sarmid khurdan (to 

take a chill). 
Chillies, filfil-i Hindi. Vide Pepper. 
Chimney, dud-kash; chimney-piece, tdq- 

cha"^ (there is no special name); bukhdrl 

Chin, chdna, zanakh ; rfhabghab (dewlap, 

double chin; much admired). 
China, ' the painters of China were famous , 

naqqdsh-hd-yi Chin mashhur budand ; chlnl 

(porcelain; also a Chinaman); chlndvl, 

adj., (of or belonging to China). 
Chintz, qalam-kdr or chit (coloured prints). 
Chip, chub-rlza; khirdsha; In khdshdk^ chird 

In jd ast? dn-hd. rd bi-bar (why are these 

chips here ? take them away) ; tardsh-hd- 

yi najjdrl (shavings). 
Chisel, ishkana {k.). 
Chloroform, ddru-yi bl-hushl (dddan) (also 

ether) ; nush-ddru (k.) (m.c). 
Choice, intikhdb (k.) (selection); u dn kdr-rd 

bi-ikhtiydr-i khud kard; Ichwdhish; dast-i 

khud-at ast = ikhtiydr-ash rd ddrl. 
Choice, adj., fard-i a'ld or fard-i akmal (of 

goods) ; mumtdz (select). Vide Rare. 
Choke, khafa k. or sh. ; nafas hastan or 

giriftan; gulu-glr shudan, intr. (in eating). 
Cholera, dast-qay, vulg.; vabd (ie., the 

epidemic, q.v.) ; hayza {m.c; indigestion 

with diarrhoea). 
Choose, to, guzldan, rt. guzin; intikhdb k.; 

bar-chldan; az In du td yak-l rd pasand 

1 The Anglo-Indian word chick {chiq, T. & Hindu.) is not used in m.c. : chiga not found in Persia 
except in houses of a few Europeans. 

^ Persians think a child chiefly takes after its father, Arabs think that a daughter resembles her 
mother in character, while a son resembles his maternal uncle. The Persians also have a saying Far- 
zand-i halal zada hi-hhalU ml-iavad. 

8 Bachcha ha which corresponds to the ' ko^i hai' of India, here means " attendants! " A soldier 
will say of another, u yak-l az bachcha-ha-yi mast, "he's one of our boys, one of 'ours.' " 

* Az zanan-i tjtfiiliyya ura ml-nhi aaam may mean either "I have known him from his child- 
hood," or " I have known him since my childhood." Note the Present Tense; the speaker is still in 
the state of knowing. 

6 The phrase should be avoided as it has a secondary and commoner meaning. 

6 The Persians believe old people in their dotage cut a sort of folly (not wisdom) tooth. 

7 Taqcha is any recess. 

8 The final k of this word is generally omitted in pronunciation. 




kunid, "why are you doing this? Be- 
cause I choose to ' ' chird chunin mi- 
kunid? Mahz-i dil bi-khwdh. 

Chopper, hughda (of butchers). 

Chorus, band-garddn (of a song); tarjV or 
tar ji' -band (a written poem with a re- 
frain) ; gul-bdng-i Muhammadi (the recita- 
tion of the ckdvtish {vide Guide) and 
the pilgrim chorus to it). 

Chosen, muntakhab ; bar-guz%da. 

Chough, zdcfA. 

Christ, Hazrat-i Mdsih; Masth. Vide Jesus. 

Christian,' Masihi; 'Isam, Nasrdni^, pi. 
Nasdrq (gen. applied to Eastern Christians, 
i.e., Armenians, Chaldeans, etc.). 

Chronicle, tdrikh, pi. tavdrtkh. 

Chronicler, muvarrikh ,^ pi. muvarrikhin. 

Chronogram, mddda-yi tdrikh, [example: — 
Shah-i 'dlam bi-i(jAvd-yi shaydtin Kashtda 
mil dar chashm-i saMtin = 1126 A.H., the 
date that the Emperor Farrukhsiyar of 
India deprived of sight three princes of 
the house of Timur]. 

Chrysalis, kirm-i jnla [pila cocoon, sp. of 
silkworm] ; mihr-i giydh (the leaf-case of 
a chrysalis ; found in old walls and used 
as a love philtre). 

Chrysanthemum, gul-i dd'Udi. 

Chubby, vide Round-faced. 

Church, kalisa; kanisa* (pi. kaimHs) ; mil 

Churn, mashk zadan (in skin bags) ; kara 
giriftan; bi-ham zadan (beat up). 

Cicada, jik; jirjirik; jikul. 

Cigarette-holder, vide Stem; chub-i sigdr ; 
sar sigdr. 

Cinder, nim-suz. 

Cinnabar, shanjarj or shangarf. 

Cinnamon, bd adviya-yi digar qadr-i ddr- 
ckini makhlut kun (or qdti kun). 

Circle, dd'ira ; muhit (circumference) ; markaz 
(centre) ; qutr (diameter) ; nim-ddHra or 
nisf-i dd'^ira (semi-circle) ; hama halqa 
zada^ nishastand (they sat round in a 
circle) . 

Circle, to, Circumambulate, tavdf {k.) (for 

shrines and sp. for Ka'ba) ; pir khurdan 
(of birds; also to spin, of a top); vide 

Circuit, datvr-i dihdt-i kirmdn rafta-i? biUuh- 
gardi or gasht-i bulukdt k. (to tour in the 

Circuitous, az rdh-i kaj u kuj (by a circuit- 
ous route); rah rd kaj karda dmadam; 
pich pich (winding). 

Circulate, to, dd%r sdkhtan (of newspaper) ; 
ishan bi-har taraf i'ldn firistdd-and (they 
have circulated notices in all directions) ; 
in kdghaz rd nazd-i ajzd-yi Shurd^ bi- 
firistid (circulate this paper to the Coun- 

Circulation, ishd'at-i in jarida kam ast (this 
magazine has a poor circulation) ; dawrdn-i 
khun (of blood ; for dawardn) ; khayli vaqt 
ast in sikka az ravdj uftdda ast (this coin 
went out of circulation long ago) ; taivzi' 
(of newspaper). 

Circumambulate. Vide To circle. 

Circumcised, khatna shuda, makhtun; mi- 
guyand ki Muhammad makhtun bi-dunyd 

Circumcision, khatna; khatna sunnat ast va 
az 'ahd-i Ibrahim ravdj ydfta. 

Circumference, gird; muhit-i dd^ira (of 
circle) ; dawr-i shahr nazdik-i yak farsakh 
ast = dawr td dawr-i shahr qarib-i yak 
farsakh ast. 

Circumlocution, tul-i tavil or tatvil-i Id td^il 
(useless — ; a fault) ; itndb (not necessarily 
a fault). 

Circvunspect, bd ihtiydt ; bd-hush ; bd-hazar. 

Circumspection, ihtiydt, etc., vide supra. 

Circumstance, Circumstances, amr, pi. umur; 
hal, pi. hdldt {ahvdl, pi. of /iaZ = state, con- 
dition) ; in kayfiyyat khayli ' ajib ast ; vd- 
qi'a; " 1 have related all the circumstance 
to you ' ' hama-yi chigunagi rd bi-khidma,t-i 
shumd 'arz kardam; vaz' , pi. awzd' ; dar 
in ruz-hd hdl-ash bisydr ndzuk ast (his 
money circumstances are in a critical 
state); but Jidl-ash bad ast (gen.); kayfiy- 
yat-imurdfa'aryi, u rd nami-danam(l do not 

1 A Muslim may lawfully marry a Christian or a Jewess, but a Muslims may only marry a Muslim. 
If a Muslim turns Christian his wives are ipso facto divorced. 

■^ Nazarene. 

- For mu*arril£h. 

♦ In Arabic kanlaa a Christian church and kanis a synagogue. 

' The distinction between halqa zadan and halqa bastan is not observed in m.c. : halqa bi dar zad — 
" he knocked at the door " =dor ra zad. Daqq»-'l bab k., though not colloquial, is much used by pro- 
fessional story-tellers. 

^ The word kainltl is coming into use. 




know the circumstances of his suit) ; dar 
in sural (in these circumstances) ; dimdc[/i- 
ash chdq ast (he is in good circumstances). 

Cistern, dh-ambdr (a covered reservoir in a 
courtyard or in a bazar) ; hawz (tank, 
open or closed) ; hirka; hawz-i ahani (Eur. 

Citadel, arg (also applied to the residence of 
a Governor). 

Citation, ihzdr [k.) (summoning before a 
court) ; Irdd {dvurdan) (from book) ; naz%r 
dddan or dvurdan (of a case) ; dalU dvur- 
dan (of Qur*Sn and sometimes of poets). 

Citizen, shdhrl (i.e., a dweller in a city as 
opposed to a villager). 

Citron, turunj. 

City, shahr ; balad. 

Civet, zabdd. Civet-cat, gurba-yi mushk {?). 

Civil, Civilian, bd-ta'druf and hhaliq (polite) ; 
u yak-l az ahl-i qalam ast (formerly " office 
officials ' ' ; now ' ' civilians " ) ; sahib man- 
sab-i siydsl '«< (diplomatic officer) ; bi-hirfat 
u sanEH' iktisdb kardan (to pursue civil 

Civility, u bd mihrbdm-yi bisydr bd rrm pish 
dmad or raftdr kard or suluk kard; muld- 
yamat; ia'druf. 

Claim, bar milk-i an dqd digar iddi'd^-i ddrid? 
(have you any further claim against his 
estate) ; hold talab-i az shumd ddrad ? (has 
he still any money claim against you ?) 
" settle their claim and finish the case," 
divdn-i in-hd rd lay bi-kun ki qat'-i da'vd 
shavad; da'vd-khar (one who buys up 
claims and makes what he can out of 
them); pur mudda'i budan (claiming too 
much ; with too high claims) . 

Claimant, mudda'i. 

Clamour, dud u farydd {k.) (of voices) ; 
gh awghd {k.) (of voice) ; kavdzha {k.) ; hay 
huy {k.). 

Clandestine, mahhfi ; dar khafd^. 

Clandestinely, duzdaki. [(vulg.). 

Clap, dastak (or dost) zadan^ ; chapa z. 

Clapper, zabdna (of bell). 

Clarified, sdf shuda ; musaffd. 

Clarifier, pdk-kun (of men) ; musa§i (of 

Clarify, sdf k. ; kaf giriftan (to remove skum ; 
to skim). 

Clarionet, sur-nd. 

Clashing, chakdchak (noise of swords) ; ta^d- 
dum (collision). 

Clasp, sagak (hooks for doors or lids of boxes ; 
also a 'buckle'); qaysh for T. qdyish 
(buckle) ; qu/l (for bracelet). 

Class, i^yifa,'^ pi. tavdHj ; dasta (of school); 
sinf, pi. asrmf (in m.c. applied to all in 
one trade) ; jins (kind ; but pi. ajrvds 
goods); qism, pi. aqsdm; az taHfa-yi past 
hastand (they belong to the lower orders). 

Classification, taqsim-i tabaqdt ; tartib. 

Clause, maqula; fiqra; fasl; band (of any 
regulations) ; vide Chapter and Section. 

Claw, chang P. and mikhlab Ar. (2.) (of bird 
or beast of prey) ; [changdl in modern 
Persian is restricted to "fork"]; qulldb 
(lit. ' hook,' the hind claw of a hawk) ; 
dast (foot of hawks) ; panja (2.) (for men 
and birds and beasts of prey). 

Clay, gil-i dum (vulg.) ; gil-i lazij; gil-i surkh 
(red-clay); gil-i buta (from which crucibles 
are made) ; gil-i chinl (porcelain) ; gil-i 
hikmat (k.) (used by alchemists). 

Clean, tamiz (m.c); pdk; pdkiza (pure); 
shusta (for vessels) ; tjdhir (relig. pure) ; 
db-i zulal (clean ; of water only) ; ' ' my 
money's clean gone (lost)" pul-am pdk 
sukht shud; " I lost a clear five pounds " 
panj lira pdk bdkhtam. 

Clean, to, tamiz, etc. k. ; zadudan (to re- 
move rust) ; vide Sift and Winnow. 

Cleanliness, pdkizagi; nazafat (but nazif in 
m.c. "nice"); tahdrat (relig.); [pdk in 
m.c. pure or clean, but pdki " purity "]. 

Clear, rushan (bright ; evident) ; sarih ; vdzih ; 
dshkdrd ; huvaydd ; zdhir (evident) ; badih 
(in logic) ; zuldl (of water) ; shaffdf (trans- 
parent) ; du hazdr rupiya manfa'at-i sdfi 
burd (he made a clear profit of 2,000 
rupees) ; " a spring bubbled up , its water 
clear as Salsabil,^ chashma-i manand-i 
Salsabil jdri bud — Prof. S. T. Vide Wea- 
ther and Clean. 

Clear, to, ibrd^ k. or ru-safid gardMnidan (in 
law) ; sufra bar chidan (the table) ; sdf k. 
(of wine , water) ; dldyish-i db tah nishast 
(the water cleared). 

Clearly, dshkdrd; vdzih""; sarih"". _ 

Clearness, sardhat (of speech) ; safari. 

1 Daatak zadan in classical Persian = ' to clap the hands as a summons' or 'to beat time ' ; but in 
m.c. ' to bockon, to approach.' 

2 I'rop. tja^ifah. 

8 Salaabll (lit. " the soft flowing "); a fountain in Paradise mentioned in the Qur'an. 




Clear-sighted, tiz-iuisiar ; ha hasirat (men- 

Cleave, thikaffan; shaqq k ; chak k. (also to 
tear) ; cJuispicUin (to stick to). 

Cleaver, satur (butcher's knife). 

Cleft, shikdj ; .shaqq: rakhna. 

Clemency, shafaqat [k.) ; rahmat {k.). 

Clement, rakm-dil ; rahim (of God) ; khata- 

Clergy, ulamd-yi dm. 

Clergyman, kashlsh (any Chiistian priest). 

Clerical, mulla-sifai; kashtsh-sifat : ishtibdh-i 
kitdbat (clerical error). 

Clerk, munshi ; daftar-navts ; mirm ; mushrif 
(a military clerk who keeps the nominal 
rolls and the accounts ; there is one to 
aach fawj). 

Clever, ziring (also quick, active, etc.) ; 
zirak; tiz-fahm (quick) ; zakl (of learning 
only); jurbuza' darad; khayli naql ddrad 
(lie is very clever) ; hdziq (of physicians) ; 
dn zan az u pukhtartar ast (more experi- 
eiced, and therefore cleverer). 

Client, vakil ^ bi-muvakkil-i khud qadajhan 
kardd ast ki kharid-i shdl rd sural bi-diliad 
(tile agent has instructed his client, or con- 
stituent, to buy the shawls). 

Climate, db-o-havd-yi Farangistdn sdlim ast. 

Climb, u bar daraUit bdld mi-rajt; bar darakht 
bar dmad; sar-i darakht mi-raft ki — . 

Cling, dn bachcha bi-mddar-i khud ml-chaspad ; 
oiiqt-i ki az kishti uftdd bi-sukkdn-ash 

Clip, to, chldan or qaynchl k. or miqrdz k. (to 
clip trees, wings, coin, etc.) ; mu-tardshl k. 
(horses) . 

Clipping, qurdza (a clipping of metal). 

Clitoris, kayn. 

Cloak, pdlto "-i khud rd dar bdrlka * bi-guzdr; 
labdda (the long Eastern overcoat worn 
by merchants, called also in m.c. db-dast) ; 
'aha (the loose Arab overcoat); jvbba 
(long, with bell-sleeves ; vide Coat). 

Clock, sd'at-i majlisi (for table) ; sd'at-i 
divdri (for wall) ; vidp Watch ; " this child 
cannot tell the time by the clock," in 
bachcha khaU-i sd'at nami-shindsad ; az 
ru-yi sd'atri kailaa^ sd'at-i chand oat? 

Clod, kulukh (of earth). 

Close, adj., nazdik; muttaail (adjoining); 
"it (the weather) is very close," havd 
tang va khafa nM. Vide Stifling. 

Close, to, bdilan ; i/i/x-idad k. ; sdf k. (ac- 
(!Ount) ; chashm bar ham nihddan ( — the 
eyes); iijhrrviz k. (overlook a fault, etc.); 
also chashm- pushi k. ; In mrdkh rd bi-gir 
(close this hole). 

Closed, girifta; basta. 

Closet, utdq-i khalvat ; mabraz and )fiabdl 
(latrine) = khald*, Ar. (m Persian a vulgar 
word) ; past-tuy (a small back-room or 
closet) ; to go to the — , vide Stool and 

Cloth, ' ' remove the table cloth ' ' sufra rd 
nydd kun'' (said by Zardushtis) ; abra (as 
opposed to astar the "lining"); pdrcfiaj 
pdrcha-yi mushamma" (waxed cloth) 
qumdsh, pi. aqmisha; inJdhut (broad cloth) 
garm-sut (of silk and cotton and waved) 
karbds (cotton); tup (a piece; gen. 40 
yards; from the Arabic sawb?). 

Clothe, barahna rd mi-pushdnand va gurisna 
rd sir mi-kunand (they clothe the naked 
and feed the hungry) ; libds pushJdnidan 
or mulahbas sdkhtan; dar bar k. and 
pushidan (to clothe oneself). 

Clothed, mulabbas. Vide Apparelled. 

Clothes, libds, pi. albisa; rakht, pi. rukhut; 
jdma, malbusdt (gen. of soldiers); rakht-i 
shah (night-clothes) ; libds-i majlisi ( 
clothes) . 

Cloth-merchant, bazzdz. Vide Article. 

Clothing. Vide Clothes and Rag. 

Cloud, havd abr ast, bdrdn-i sakht-i mi-hdrad 
(or mi-dyad) (it is cloudy, it will rain 
heavily) ; abr-i siydh (dark heavy clouds) ; 
abr-i sdf (light clouds). 

Cloudy, havd girifta ast or havd abr darad (it 
is cloudy) . 

Clove, mikhak (also a carnation) ; qaranftU. 
Vide Carnation. <!•▼•)• 

Clover, slwbdar or shafdar ; yunja (lucerne. 

Cloves. Vide Clove. 

Clown. Vide Buffoon. 

Club, chumdq (of wood); gui-z (of metal); 
kalab (social; Eur.). 

1 Arabicised from gurg-biiz " wolf in sheep's clothinR. " 
> In India vakil is a common term for a kind of " pleader " (in law). 
8 The French word ; note the izafat after o or u : » not yi. 
* Dalan. is an outer hall near the outside gate ; barika is passage. 
6 Vulg. kalltiya. 

It is unlucky to say 'remove.' In India a similar idiom is used for weaning a child, closing 
shop, olearihg a table, etc. 




Cluck, diq diq k. (of hen after laying). 

Clue, suragh yaftan (to get a clue) ; bilga-yi 
mdl-i masruqa glr amad. Vide Stolen. 

Clumsy, chulldq-dast. Vide Butter-fingered 
and Awkward. 

Cluster, khusha (of grapes ; ear of corn) ; 
'iqd (of pearls, Pleiades). 

Coachman, kaliska-chl ; kaliska-ran. 

Coal, zughal-i sangl ; kharg-i atash or angisht 
(embers , live coal) ; khak-i zu gh al (coal- 
dust) . 

Coaling, bandar-i zughal-gin (coaling-sta- 

Coarse, in parcha khayll zibr ast ; khashn or 

Coast, sahil, pi. savahil; " Bushire is on the 
Persian Gulf ' ' Bandar-i Abu Shahr lah-i 
Khalij-i Fdrs ast. 

Coat, jubba {vide Cloak ; the old-fashioned 
Persian dress cloak with bell-sleeves worn 
by Munshis, etc. ; it had long sleeves to 
conceal the hands ; the place of the jubba 
is now taken by the ab-dast) ; qabd (worn 
under the ab-dast) ; arkhdluq (of chintz 
and worn under the qabd); kulija or 
kulcha (has half -sleeves and extends to 
the knees) ; kamarchin (double-breasted 
frock-coat with pleats from the waist) ; 
sarddri (single-breasted frock-coat with 
pleats , the Napoleonic pattern) ; bald- 
push or labdda (overcoat) ; bdrdnl (water- 
proof) ; parda (of paint) ; zirih (coat of 
mail) ; nim-tana (waistcoat). 

Coax, navdzish k. ; rish-khand k. (even for a 
child; also to cajole, ridicule; chaff; 
make a fool of). 

Cobbler, pina duz ; qulumba-kdr (met. ; one 
whose work is coarse). 

Cobweb, in parda-yi 'ankahut rd dur bi-kun; 

. tdr-i 'ankabut (a thread of cobweb). 

Cocaine, kukd^in. 

Coccyx, dumcha or dumhlicha. 

Cochineal, qirmiz-i jarangi. 

Cock, ' ' the cock says when it crows — ' Rise , 
ye slothful! ' " mi-guyand zikr-i hhurus 
'Qiimu yd ayyuha 'l- cjh dfllun' ast ' ; " cock 
your gun ' ' chaqmdq rd sar-i pd bi-kash ; 
sar-i nim-pd (half-cock) ; shir or dahan- 
shir (tap, q.v.) ; bul (penis of little boys ; 
vide Penis) ; khurus-bdzi (k.) (cock-fight- 
ing). Vide Snow-cock. 

Cockatoo, kdka-tu. 

Cock-crow, vaqt-i bdng-i hh-urus, or vaqt-i 
hhurus-hhwdn (cock-crow). 

Cock-fighting. Vide Cock. 

Cockroach, susk ; kdkrus ; vide Beetle. 

Cocoanut, ndrjil; jawz-i Hindi (by drug- 

Cocoon, pila (sp. of silkworm). 

Code, Code-word, kitdb-i qdnun; talagrdf-i 
ramzi (code-telegram) ; kaldm-i ramz (code- 

Coeval, ham-'ahd^ {also contemporaneous). 

Coffee, Coffee-cup, Coffee-pot, qahva ^; finjdn-i 
qahva-khuri (coffee cup) ; zir-i finjdn 
(metal holder with handle ; for the finjdn); 
yak qahva bi-man bi-dih (give me one cup 
of coffee) ; qahva-jush or qahva-paz (coffee- 
pot) ; qahva riz (silver pot in which it is 
served) . 

Coffin, sanduq* (for transporting bodies to 
Kerbela or to holy ground at a distance). 

Cog, danddna (also ' tooth ' of a saw) 

Cognizance, khabar ; dgdhi : Him (know- 
ledge) ; az hayyiz-i iddra-yi zdbit khdrij ast 
(above the cognizance of the zdbit). 

Cohabit, mujdma'at k. ; ham-bistar shudan. 

Coherent, marbut (also in m.c. grammati- 
cal). Vide Intrigue. 

Cohesion, payvastagi ; ilsdq (scientific term). 

Coil, to, coil the rope, in tandb rd charnbara 
kun ; [cAamftar = a circle , hoop] ; pichidan 
or tdbidan (to twist) ; liila k. (to roll up 
like a roll of paper) ; in mdr halqa zada 
nishasta ast; charnbar sh. (intr. , of snake 
or creeper). 

Coin, sikka, maskukdt (coins) ; qalb (base) ; 
sar-i sikka (the head side) ; tah-i sikka 
(reverse) . 

Coin, to, sikka zadan ; zarb zadan ; qalldbi k. 
(forge; of coins, colours, MSS., stamps, 

Coincidence, in az ru-yi tasaduf vdqi' shud: 
" by a strange coincidence , " aa; ittifdqdt-i 
gh ariba ham chunin vdqi' shud ki-—. 

Coined, maskuk, pi. maskukdt. 

Coiner, zarrdb (profess.) ; qalldb (of false 
coin) . 

Colander. Vide Cullender. 

Cold, sardi ; burudat; sarmd; zamharir {the 
purgatory for Sayjads ; a place of intense 
cold) ; khayli sarmd-yam ml-shavad (vulg.) ; 

The Zardushtis say it cries Dukhtar Agha. 

1 It also cries Qadir Allah " God is Powerful." 

2 Ham-' ahd al8o lueans ham-pay 7)i an "allied," 
<* Qahva, tlie origin of the English word coffee, originally in Arabic signified 
•* Muslims do not bury in coffins. 




fib cfui'ida ast (the water is cold); 'he 
left me out ui the cold," sar-i mard bi- 
huldh guzdsht ; az sarrnd khushk shudan 
(to be • perished ') ; '' you must (or prob- 
bably you)' have caught cold," ma^lum 
ast chaHda bdshid Vide Sweat. 

Cold-blooded. Vide Heat. 

Coldness, fuldni misl-i yakh sard ast (of 
maniKM) ; yakh ifjctr/ m?-2anorf ■^ (he speaks 
uiiliuut animation). Vide Cold. 

Colic, qulinj ; pick (a bad stomach-ache). 
Vide Obstruction. 

Collar, yakha (of a coat ; also a linen collar) ; 
Uiwq (of wood or of metal ; also the collar 
band of a shirt) ; garibdn ; quUdda (dog- 
collar, etc. Ar. qildda). 

Collate, muqabala, k. Vide Compare. 

Collating, muqabala 

Colleague, sharik. 

Collect, to, jam' k. ; fardham dvurdan ; ijtinvd' 
namudan; tadvin k. (to collect in one 

Collected, dsuda; khdtir-jam' (collected of 
mind); jam' iyyat-i ztydd-t jam' shudand or 
shud; dawr u bar-ash rd giriftand (they 
collected round him). 

Collection, majimw'a; majma' (of people). 

Collector, muhassil ; bdj-glr (of taxes) ; u 
hold taksilddr-i''' Shlrdz ast. 

College, madrasa, pi. m/idaris ; ddr" H-'ilm. 

Collide, to, bi-ham khurdan ; tasdduf k. ; 
tasddum k. 

Collision, tasddum; [tasdduf, to meet or pass 
each other ; of persons or trains]. 

Colly rium, surma or surma-yi sang (for 
eyes; pure antimony); tutiyd; kuhl ; [dn 
mard kahfidl ast, " he is an oculist."] 

Colocynth, hanzal. 

Colonel, sarhang ( = Major or Lieut.-Col.) ; 
kulunal (Eur.) ; sartlb (commands nearly 
1000 men). 

Colony, important colonies (lit. possessions), 
mutasarrafdt-i mu' tabara ; mustamlakdt ; 

Colour, rang; lawn, pi. alvdn ; rang-d-rang 
or gun-d-gu7i (of various colours ; latter 
also of various kinds) ; rang-i surat-ash 
UKjkylr kard (intr. ; he changed colour ; 
from anger, fear, shame, etc.) ; dn rd chi 
rang bi-hunam (what colour shall I make 

or dye it ?) raruj-i aurat-ash surkh shud (he 
got red from anger) ; khijdUU-zada ahud 
( = she blushed ; no word for ' to colour 
for shame'). 

Colour, to, rayig z. or k. Vide Blush. 

Coloured, rangtn; mulawan ; -gun (in 

Colours, bayraq or 'alam (standard; vakU-i 
uayraq (0. C. of colour party) ; 'alam-ddr 
or bayraq-ddr (private that carries the 

Colt, kurra (of horse, donkey, or camel). 

Column, sutun (of stone, brick, or wood) ; 
sutun-i jardHd (column in a newspaper); 
rukn, pi. arkdn. 

Comb, tdj-i khurus (of cock ; also the flower 
* cock's comb ') ; khdna-yi zarnbur (honey) ; 
[Idna, nest ; of wasps, birds] ; sJidna (for 
the head). 

Comb, to, shdna-i bar-ddr va muhid-yat* rd 
(or sar-at rd) shdna bi-zan. Vide Curry- 

Combat, muqdtala {k.) : muhdraba {k.}. 

Combatant, lashkarl ; [ajzd-yi urdu and 
siydhl-yi Ioshkar are all non-combatants 
with an army, high and low]. 

Combative, jang-ju. 

Combination, sdzish {k.) (for plotting only) ; 
tarkib (mixture) ; ittihdd (of people) . 

Combine, bi-hum sdkhtan (for plotting ; also 
to make up a quarrel) ; bi-Jiam muttafiq or 
muttahid shudan; dost bi-ham dddati. Vide 
To mix. 

Combustible, sukhtanl or chiz-fid-yi sUkhtani 
(combustible things) ,; shu' la-gxr (quick to 
ignite, as cotton). 

Combustion, dtash zadagi ; ihtirdq. 

Come, dmadan; birun (or dar) dmadan (to 
come out) ; bi-sar-i khvd bdz dmadam (I 
came to myself; after anger, etc.); rasi- 
dan; vdrid shudan (to arrive) ; bar khurdan 
(to come across unexpectedly. Vide En- 
counter and Meet). 

Comet, sitdra-yi dum-ddr or dumbdla-dar. 

Comfort, dram ; dsdyish ; rdhat ; khdtir-jam'i; 
in amr mard tasalll mi-dihad (this affords 
me some comfort) ; In pish-khidrnat hick 
murdqib-i ahvdl-am ntst (this servant does 
not look after my comfort). 
Comfortable, rdhat and drdm (both subs, are 

1 Vide Hope. 

' The opposite of garm ml-giiyad. 
3 Tahalldar in Persia is a collector of revenue. 

♦ In in.c. the pi. termination of coll -ctive nouns is often used unnecessarily 
the short cut tresses of women ; qlauha for women or for dervishes. 

Zitlfha for men or for 




also used as adjectives); asuda : khush- 
hal ; khud-i tan ra tahhflj kumd ( = make 
yourself comfortable ; by removing turban, 

Command, subs., hukm, pi. ahkdm; farmdn, 
P., Ar. pi. fardmin; duvlst nafar dar sar- 
kardagi-yi man budand (mil.). Vide Sub- 

Command, to, farmdn dddan ; hukm namu- 
dan ; amr k.; " the king commanded the 
army in person,' ' khud-i Padishah bar sar-i 
lashkar-i khud-ash bud; " he lost command 
over himself from anger (gave way to 

, abuse)," pUst-i sagi ra bar ru-yi khud 
kashida ; u bi-man hukm farmud ki hamdn 
sd'at dnjd bi-ravam.^ 

Commander, sar-karda ; ra^is-i lashkar ; amlr-i 
nizdm; sar-'askar; sdldr-i kull-i qushun 
or sijnh-mldr (Commander-in-Chief). 

Commanding, qal'a-yi sar-kub (a command- 
ing fort). 

Commence, to, biyd shuru' kunlm. Vide 
Begin and Blossom. 

Commencement, shuru' ; ibtidd^; djhdz; 
avval-i or avd%l-i — ; badv-i amr; b'.yd kdr-i 
khud ra shuru' kun, or az sar bi-gir. 

Commend, man dur-andishi-yi shumd ta'rtf 
Tni-kunam (I commend your prudence). 
Vide Praise, Commendation, Entrust. 

Commendable, Idyiq-i tahsin (or — ta'rif); 
situ da va pasandlda; mahdmid-i akhldq 
(the commendable in morals). 

Commendation, tahsin; dfarln. 

Commentary, tafslr (of Qur*an or relig 
books) ; sharh (gen.). • 

Commentator, mufassi,. Vide Job. 

Commerce, tijdrat (k.) : dad u siiad {k.) ; 
bay' u shird (k.) ; mu'dmala (k.) ; matd' , 
pi. amtra (article of — ); vazir-i tijdrat 
(minister of — ) ; BajhdJdd tijdrat-gdh-i 
'umda-i 'sf^ (or mu'tabar-i 'st). Vide Bar- 
gain, Trade. 

Commiseration, (jhamm-khwdrl k. ; dil-suzi 
k. ; ham-dardi k. 

Commission, irtikdb (of any act) ; muzdraba 
(selling goods for half profits) ; )uigq''s-sd'i 
(on goods, sales, etc.) ; tawkil {k.) (appoint- 
ing a person) ; sanad (mil. commission) ; 
kumisyun (Eur. ; the body of men). 

Commit, irtikdb namudan; iqddm k. bi — (to 
do) ; mard rn dasht ki hi kdr rd bi-kunam 
(he forced me to commit this act). Vide 
Entrust, etc. 

Committed, u habs shud or iird bi-habs (or 
bi-dustdq-khdna) firistddund (he was com- 
mitted to prison) ; u murtakib-i In ft' I 
shud = in fl'l az u sar zad (he committed 
this act). 

Committee, ijlds (a sitting of) ; anjuman ; ajzd 
(members). Vide Court. 

Common, 'awdmm' ''n-nds (ov dmiydn for 
'dmmiydn) In jur mi-guyand (the common 
people speak like this) ; rasmi {vide Offi- 
cial) ; mushta,rak (shared) ; mashhur (well- 
known) ; mutaddvil (current) ; gunjishki- 
ma'muli (the common sparrow) ; az gul- 
hd-yi rasmi-yi Hind ast (it is a common 
flower of India) ; kam-bahd (of no value) ; 
bdzdri shuda (hackneyed, vulgar). i 

Commotion,. <jhawjhd ; shuluq ; shurish\ 
tazalzul (stronger than previous words). | 

Communicate, ibldjh or tahlit^ k. ; muntaqti 
sh. (of disease ; for sirdyat k.) ; In sukhan 
rd, bi-u hdli kun or bi-rasdn ; tabliyh-i 
farmdyishdt rd namudam (I communicated 
your orders) ; in utdq bi-tdldr rah ddrad 
(this room communicates with the veran- 
dah) ; bd kajtar mukhdbara namudand 
(they communicated by means of pigeons). 

Communication, Communications, vidn Confi- 
dential ; inurdvaddt (mil.) ; in shahr rdh- 
hd-yi ma'quli bardy-i dmad u shud bi-atrdf 

Communicative, ma'lum mi-shavad ki u 
harrdf - ast; pur-gu. 

Compact, mu'dhadat (k.) ; 'ahd u paymJdn 
{k.) ; qardr u maddr (L). 

Companion, man hich rajiq-i na dardm (I 
have no friends, or accomplices) ; ham- 
suhbat; ham-nishin; ham-mashrab (boon 

Companionship, rifdqat. 

Company, shirdkat (trade) ; majlis. pi, 
tnajdlis (social) ; jam'iyyat (of people) ; 
dasta (mil.; ; maw nfdqat-i u rd dust mi- 
dJdram* ; "present company expected," 
bi-ld nisbat-i hdzirdn (or dustdn^) ; "why 

1 Or birnw, direct narration. 

2 The adj. • umda does not precede ts subs., but 'umda-yi kitab-ha-al (m.c), "this is the beat of the 

3 Soiii' times harraf " fluent."' 

4 Note ilio " %■ with the present tense of the comp. \erb — dashtan. 

6 Generally said when any objectionable epithet is uttered, lest any one present should apply the 
term to himself. Also dr;r az janab if referring to the addressed person onlj'. 




do you keep bad company < chird bd baddn 
ham-nishini (or mujdlasat) mi-kunl ? 

Compare, bd-ham ancldza k. (of size) ; bd-hani 
muvdzana k. (in weight or value) ; biyd 
khatt-i man rd ' bd khait-i khud-at muqdhala 

Compared, nazar bi-awal or nisbat bi-avval 
(compared with formerly). 

Comparison, nisbat-bi— or dar muqdbil-i — 
(in comparison with) ; m but-khdna — bi-Ui 
tashblh — rnisl-i masjid-ast (this temple — I 
don't want to compare them — is like a 
mosque) . 

Compass, pargdr ; jalidz bi-vdsita-yi qutb- 
numd rdh ml-ravad or safar mi-kunad; 
Qibla-numd"^ {gen. for the direction of 

Compassion, riqqat or riqqat-i qalb ; chird m 
kdr mt-kunld, rahm na-ddrid? Vide Pity. 

Compassionate, Rahim (of God) ; dil-rahni 
or sdhib-i rahm (of man) ; dil-ash raqlq ast. 

Compel, w ddshtan bar— ; Id-budd sdkhtan; 
bi-man zur dvurd va pul-ash rd girijt (he 
forced me to give him his money) ; majbui 
kardani ki — ; man urd bar an ddshtam 
ki pul bi-dihad. 

Compelled, majbur ; bar hasb-i ijbdr u zaru- 
rat ; chun kdr bi-niJmyat rasid pish-i man 
bardy-i imddd dmad (he was at last com- 
pelled to come to me for help) ; in rd 
bi-gardan-ash bar kardam (I compelled him 
to do it). 

Compendium, majmu'a (collection) ; mujmal 
(briefly touches on every point) ; mukh- 
tasar (an abridgment of a large work 
and also an elementary treatise). Vide 
Abridge, Abbreviate. 

Compensate, majqud" H-badal va ma'dum" 'l- 
'ivaz ast (nothing can compensate for its 
loss) . 

Compensation, 'ivaz ; taldfl-yi zarar, or taMfl- 
yi mid jdt; jabr-i nuqsdn (making up for 
a deficiency) ; vide ' Instead of ' ; " ' the 
Zardushtis don't take compensation for 
anything lost or broken by a friend," 
Zardvshtiydn td,vdn-i chlz-i ki gum shuda 
yd shikasta ast naml-glrand, armrvd musul- 
mJdnJdn ba'z-i awqdt ziydd tar az qimat mi- 

Compete, muqatyala k. (in busineHs) ; musaba 
qat k. (of boys at school, horses in a race, 
etc.) ; ham-mayddni k. (athletics) ; hart ft k. 
(in enmity). Vide Field, Rival, Oppo- 
nent, Emulation and Competition. 

Competence, Competency, kifdyat (of in- 
come) ; istit/d'at (affording, l>eing able) ; 
qdbiliyyat; liydqat (capability, ability). 

Competent, qdbil ; InHq ; tn kdr az dasl-i 
shumu bar mi-dyad? (are you competent 
to undertake this ?) ; m bardy-i kdr-i ta'Um 
kdfi ntst (he is not competent to teach). 

Competition, miwidbaqat ; ham-maydidnt. Vide 

Competitor, Iiam-mayddn or mayddn-ddr ; 
harif{iov prize ; in trade, etc.) ; raqib (rival 
in love). Vide To Compete, Antagonist, 
Opponent. [(^O- 

Compilation, Compile, to, jam' dvari ; taHif 

Compiler, mu'allif. 

Complain, shikdyat burdan pish-i (or bi-) kas-i 
(to complain to) ; shikdyat k. az — (to 
complain of) ; khayli vaqt ast ki az v. gUa 
ddram ; az dast-i kas-i ndlidan ; [ndlish k. 
in m.c. = to groan from pain or fever]. 

Complaining, Complaint, u hamisha shikdyat 
(or ndla) ddrad (he is always complain- 
ing) ; tazallum (seeking justice, and hence 
complaint) ; shikdyat-i shumd chist (what 
is your ailment ?). 

Complete, tamdm ; ai ruz-i kdmil (three com- 
plete days) ; u dar in zabdn kdmil ast ; in 
kitdb mukamm,al ast ; dar fann-i kushti-giri 
tamdm ast. Vide Perfect. Exact , Whole, 

Completed, bi-anjdm rasida, etc. ; takmil 

yafta. _ .... ["^S)- 

Completion, itmdrn; takmil; ikjititam (finish- 
Completely, bi-H-fnarra^ ; tamJam"'' ; kuU"" ; 

mutlaq"" ; az bikh.. 
Complexion, rang-i ru ; " his complexion is 
a little darker (than the other)," ru- 
yash qadr-i girijta-tar ast; he is of a dark 
complexion, sabz rang ast*; safid (very 
fair, as European) ; gandum-gun (fair for 
an oriental). 
Compliance, rizdyat, rizd-mandi , qaiml; 
hasb" ' l-khwdhish-i u ^ (in compliance with 
his request). 

1 Man ra, vxi\g. for mara. 

* Qibla-numa — a compass pointing to the qibla {Ka'ba) or direction of prayer. 
8 Marrah, At., a "time." 

* In India gandum rang, " wheat coloured " means " rather dark " as applied to the dark-skinned 


6 Note the .Arabic construction with the Persian word khv)ahish. 




Complicated, tu dar tu ; ptch dar plch ; shdkh 
dar shakh ; tu-yi ham pichida (all mixed 
up , entangled^ ; mushkil. F^de Difficult. 

Compliments, Aqa, aqa-yi man hi-shumid 
salam mi-rasanad va m,t-guyad ki — (or agha 
du' a mi-rasanad va — ) (Sir , my master sends 
his compliments and says — ) ; ta'aruf-i 
ziyad ddrad (he is too ' politef ul ' ) ; ba'd 
az ta'druf-i rasmi (after the usual compli- 
ments) ; ba'd az mizdj-pursl hdlat-am rd 
haydn kun (mizdj-pursi k., to ask after 
the health of. Vide Enquire). 

Comply, rdzt shudan; qahul k. ; farmdyif<Tidt-i 
sdml rd khwdham flristdd (I will comply 
with your indents, send what you have 

Compose, u hdld sarf u nahv-l tasmf mi- 
kunad; shir guftan (of poetry) ; kitdb 

Composed, tnurakkab az — (made of — ) ; dram 
(of manner) ; dsuda khdtir (in mind ; 
comfortable) . 

Composer, musannif ; sahib. 

Composite, murakkab ; makhlut (mixed). 

Composition, tarkib ; ajzd^ (ingredients) ; 
inshd^ (lit.) ; Hbdrat (liter, style) ; qardr u 
maddr (with creditors). 

Composure, khdtir-jam'l ; itmindn; khud- 
ddrl (self-restraint). 

Compound, Compounded, murakkab (past 
part.) . pi. murakkabdt (compounds ; also 
all fruits of the orange and lemon kind). 

Compound, to, tarkib dddan or dmtkhtan (of 
medicines) ; musdlaha k. (compromise). 

Comprehend, fahmidan ; dark k. ; in matlab 
rd rasidl? multaflt na-shudid (you have 
not understood ; polite) ' ; bi-matlab-am bar 
na-khurd ; ' " gently my friend , you have 
grasped the matter a little late," yavdsh 
'azlz'i man matlab khayll dir dast-gir-at 
thudaast; m harf rd khub nami-fahmam, 
multaflt ^ na-shudam. 

Comprehended, mafhum (understood) ; mash- 
mfiZ (comprised). Firfe Contain. 

Comprehending, in kitdb mushtamil ast az 
intikhdbdt-i Sa' di , Hdfiz va digar shu' ard ; 
Oulistdn mushtamil bar hast bdb ast. Vide 

Comprehension, idrdk ; ' ilm ; fahm : az 
ihMta-yi khiydl-i man birun ast ; az ihdta-yi 
baydn birun ast. 

Comprehensive, jdmi'' ; idrdk-i vasi'-i ddrad. 

Comprehensiveness, jdmi'iyyat. 

Comprise. Vide Comprehended and Con- 

Compromise, isldh k. ; Jandb-i fuldn rdzt 
hastid in 'amal rd bi-sulh kutdh kunid (or 
bi-guzardnid or khatm kunid) ? dar mush- 
kil anddkhtan (a person) ; bd-ham sdkhtan 
(with verb in plural). 

Compulsion, zur ; ijbdr ; majburiyyat ; jahr'^'' 
or zurakl (adv. , under compulsion) ; jabr'^" 
va qahr"". 

Compunction, ta^assuf (regret) ; bi-dun-i dagh- 
dajha or bi-dun-i hich khalish-i khdtir 
(without the least compunction). 

Computation, hisdb ; shumdr ; bar dvard 
(estimate) ; birun az hisdb ast = — ki hisdb 
na-ddrad (beyond computation). 

Compute, bar dvurd k. or iakhmin z. (to 
estimate, q.v.) ; hisdb k. (count). 

Concave, taraf-i mujavvaf (the concave side : 
opp. to taraf-i muhaddab, convex side). 

Conceal, to, panhdn, etc., k. ; qdyim k. (to 
hide a person or thing). Vide Suppress. 

Concealed, panhdn ; nihdn ; mafchfi ; si ruz 
ast az pulls mastur ast (he has concealed 
himself from the Police for the last three 

Concealment, kilman ; taqiyya {k.) (to conceal 
one's religion ; Shi' ah doctrine). 

Conceit, khud-pasandi ; khud-bini ; nakhvat 
(arrogance); dimdi/h-ddri {m.c.) ; mdbdyad 
ki khudrpasand na-bdshim, or bar khud (or 
bi-khud) na-bdlim. Fic^e Pride, Arrogance. 

Conceited, an shakhs fchayli dimdjh ddrad or 
dimd§[i-ash bdld rafta ast (lost his head, 
above himself) ; bi-khud bdlidan (to plume 
oneself falsely on a thing). 

Conceive, tasavvur k. ; man mi-ddnam ki 
haqq bd-shumd ast or haqq bi-jdnib-t shumd- 
st : haml bar dMshtan (in the womb) . 

Concentred, ham-markaz shuda. 

Concentric, ham-markaz. 

Concern, amr , ^\. umur ; mddda ; bdb; mvr 
qaddama (affair) ; andisha; fikr ; tashvish; 
iztirdb (anxiety) ; in kdr bi-shumd dakhl 
na-ddrad or ruju' na-ddrad (this is no 
concern of yours) ; also dar in dakhl u 
tasarruf na-kun. 

Concerning, dar haqq-i — ; dar bardy-i — ; dar 
khusus-i — ; nisbat bi — . 

Concession, imtiydz (a privilege ; a Royal 
grant for the construction, etc., of any- 

Multafit shudld? lit. " have you paid attention ? " 
comprehend is due to slight inattention. 

Persian etiquette assumes that a failure to 





thing; also medal, order, distinction); 
guMsht (k.) (in agreements) ; ri'dyat 
(favour) ; 'bilit'-i ri'ayaii (concession 
tickets, railway, etc.). 

Conciliate, razi k. ; jalh-i qulub k. 

Conciliatory, isldh-dmiz; jdlib-i khavdtir. 

Concise, mukhtasar ; mujaz (brief). Vide 

Conclude, bi-anjdm rasdnidan; bi-pdydn 
burdan (finish) ; istimbdt namudan or 
natija dar dvurdan (to infer) ; hdld vaqt-i 
khatm-i kaldm ast (it is now time for me 
to conclude). 

Conclusion, anjdm ; intihd ; dkhir (end) ; 
natija (logic) ; istimbdt (inference) ; m 
dkhir-i bdb ast {hut bdb-i dkhir , " the last 
chapter "). 

Concoct, khiydl pukhtan (of fancies) ; pilav-i 
khiydli pukhtan (build castles in the air) ; 
ja'l k. (to invent) ; in qissa-hd az ' man- 
dar-dvurdi ' gufta ast (m.c. , he has concoct- 
ed all this (story)) ; tartib dJddan (prepare, 

Concord, muvdjaqat ; sdzgdri ; mutdbaqat 
(gram.) : dar miydn-i ism va fi'l mutfibaqat 

Concubine, si^a,' Per., and mut' a, Ar. (a 
temporary but legal wife). 

Concurrence, ham-ra^y-i ; muvdfaqat-i rdy. 

Condemn, mulzam k. (to find guilty) ; mold- 
mat k. or mazammat k. (to censure) ; 
hukm-i qatl dudan, or liukm bi-qatl dddan 
(to condemn to death). 

Condiments, chdshni ; adviyat (spices). 

Condition, /«aZ, pi. hdldt (state; pi,, ahvdl = 
heakh) ; vaz'- , pi. awzd' ; shart, pi. shurut; 
qardr u maddr (stipulation) ; bi-shurut-i 
chand (on certain conditions) ; dar surat-i 
ki — or mashrut bar in ki — (on condition 
that — ) ; hdl-am az Jidl-at bih-tar ast (" my 
health is better than yours," or "I'm 
better off than you "). 

Condolence, mdtam-pursi (visit of condolence 
on death) '^ ; tasliyat or to' ziyat (on death 
of either relative or friend) ; sar-saJdmati 
(on death of relative only). 

Conduct, subs., rdh-nunm^ ; rah-bari; daldlat 
(guidance) ; hiddyat (gen. relig.) ; raftdr ; 
haraknt; ravish; raviyya; vaz' ; atvdr 
(behaviour, q.v.). 

Conduct, to, burdan ; hiddyat k. (gen. relig.) ; 

rdh namudan; daldlat k ; In rah rd ki 
bi-man balad mi-kunad? = dnja ki mard 
rah-bari kunad? 

Conductor, rdh-numd ; balad; pish-raw ; in 
sim hdmil-i quwa-yi barqi ast (this wire 
is conductor of electricity) ; mvXrib-bdsht 
(musical); muzj^in-hdshi {ditto) . 

Conduit, db-raw (gen. covered) ; mh-i db ; 

Cone, makhruta; misl-i kalla-qand. 

Conical, makhrut; qalami (pointed). 

Confectionary, halvaydt (sweets, gen. with 
butter; cakes, etc.); shirini (small dry 
sweets) ; murabbq (jams). 

Confectioner, qannddi (sweetmeat maker; 
from qand, loaf sugar) ; shirini- farush. 

Confederacy, mu'dhada {k.) ; ham-paymdni. 

Confederate, rafiq ; sharik ; ham-dust ; kuchak- 
abddl (a confederate, etc., of a dervish ; a 
votary; also in m.c. a catamite kept by 
a confederacy). 

Confederated, muta'dhid: mutlafiq. 

Confer, to, mushdvarat (to consult together) ; 
muzdkara k. ; bakhshidan (of benefit). 

Conference, ijlds {k.) ; majlis {k.) ; majlis-i 
muzdkara {k.) ; ba'd az suvdl u javdb-i 
bisydr ra^y-i shdn bar in qardr girift ki — . 

Confess, to, qahul k. ; biyd taqsir-at rd gardan 
bi-gir ; qabuldnidan (caus. ; vulgar; to 
make to confess) ; iqrdr k. bi — ; man igrdr 
mi-kunam (or qdHl-am) ki kirddr-i man bad 

Confessing, muqirr {sh.). 

Confession, iqrdr {k.) ; i'tiraf {k.). 

Confidant, mahram or mahram-i rdz (one 
who knows secrets; also one who won't 
blab) ; ham-rdz. 

Confide, to, amin d^nistan ; man bar it i'tiqdd 
ddram; u urd bi-tamdm-i md yurrdak-ash 
amin ddnist (he entrusted him with the 
management of all his property) ; ' ' con- 
fiding in his ^ trength," bar-quvva-yi bdzu 
i'timdd karda — . 

Confidence, i'tibdr {k.) ; i'tinmd {k.) ; tavak- 
kul {k.) (on God); bar harfhd-yi IshRn 
hich i' tibdr nami-kunam (or harjha-yi ishdn 
rd i'tiqdd nami-kunam) . 

Confidential, mu' tamad (of person) ; mahra- 
midna (secret) ; in kharita-yi mahramdna ast 
(this is a confidential map) ; " I have a 
confidential communication to make," 

1 Sunnis do not consider this temporeury marriage lawful. A woman will sometimes become 
algha-yi navad-sala, in order to simplify matters of inheritance. 

2 Condolence is expressed by ' baqa-yi 'umr-i, ahuma bashad" or " dtgro'' baz-mandagan bi-salamat 
baehand or bad na-binld" or " (jham-i akhir-i tan baahad ,*' etc., etc. Vide Sympathize. 




liarf-i ddram mahranMna bi-shumd bi- 
guyam; musamara (talk by night between 
friends ; stories told at night) . 

Confined, mahhus ; u al-an dar zinddn giriftar 
ast ; TM-khush-i histarl (confined to bed) ; 
mahdud (limited) ; m muldhazdt munhasir-i 
hi-Kalkatta ast (these remarks apply only 
to Calcutta) ; d^ruz pa sabuk hard (she 
was confined yesterday). 

Confinement, habs ; qayd; mahbusi (imprison- 
ment) ; zd'idan or vaz' -i haml (of \\omen) . 

Confines, hudud, pi. 

Confirm, to, tasdiq k. ; musaddiq sh. ; u ta^yld-i 
kaldm rd kard (he confirmed what I said). 

Confirmation, tasdiq; isbdt (proving). 

Confirmative, mu^ayyid. 

Confirmed, in khabar sdbit shuda ad yd na 
(or bi-tasdlq rasida ?) ; tasdMq ydjta (of evi- 
dence) . 

Confirming. Vide Confirmative. 

Confiscate, zabt kardan. 

Confiscated, zabt shuda. 

Conflagration, hartq. 

Conflict, zad u khurd {k.) ; tu-sar-ham-zanl 
(k.) ; diruz Sunnl va Shi' a bar sar va 
kalla-yi ham-dzgar zadand; ikhtildf-i drd^ 
(of opinion). 

Confluence, majma' ; nuqta-yi ittisdl. 

Conformable, mutdbiq ; muvdfiq. 

Conformity, bar-hasb-i — (in conformity with) ; 
bar-vifq-i — ; bind bar — . 

Confound, lOiudd dushmanhd-yi shdn rd 
la'nat garddnadf lOiudd gardan-ash rd 
bi-shikanad ! Iindtn kamar-ash rd bi-zanad 
or murda-shur-ash bi-barad (confound 
him !). Vide Astonish. 

Confront, jilo giriftan and dmadan (to stop) ; 
ru bi-ru kardan or shudan. Vide Oppose. 

Confused, dast-pdcha, hdj vdj,ov parisJiun sh. ; 
dar ham bar ham {sh.) ; kdr-am rd bar ham 
zadid; muztarib ; muta^addid (hesitating). 
Vide Bewildered, Astonished. 

Confusedly, "how confusedly you describe 
it," dar baydn chi qadar ikhtildt mi-kuni ; 
{ikhtildt also means conversation) ; matlab 
rd pichlda baydn kard (he described it 
in a roundabout way; purposely round- 
about) . 

Confusion, ikhtildt u ightishdsh ; harj marj; 
dshub (noisy) ; misl-i hammidm-i zandna; 

tamdm-i shahr fihuluq ' bud (all the town 
was in confusion). 

Confute, to, radd k. ; tardid k. 

Confuted, radd shuda. 

Congeal, to, munjamid shudan; bastan (of 
ices only) ; yakh bastan (to freeze). 

Congealed, munjamid. 

Congealment, Congelation, injimdd. 

Congratulate, to, • • congratulate me ! ' ' muzh- 
dagdni-yam rd bi-dih ( = give me the re- 
ward of good news, I've been successful 
for you '^ " ; said jokingly by a friend or 
seriously by an agent) ; bar ddmddt-yash 
urd tabrik gufta,m (I congratulated him on 
his marriage) ; mubdrak-bdd guftan. 

Congratulation, tahniyat ; mubdrak-bddJi ; 

Congregation, jamd'at. 

Conic, Conical, shakl-i makhruti ; or tnakh- 

Conjectural, (/i^ast ; tasavv uri ; khiydli. 

Conjecture, gumdn (burdun) ; hads (namu- 
dan; in m.c. zadan) ; hads"" or qiyds"" 
(by conjecture). 

Conjugation, tasrij ; garddn. 

Conjunct, bi-ham payvasta ; mawsul ; mun- 

Conjunction, qird)i (of planets) ; 'atj (gram- 
mar) ; ittisdl (joining) : in jumla-hd bd yak 
digar nisbat na-ddrad. 

Conjuration, ihzdr-i jinn ; afsun-gari. 

Conjurer, huqqa-bdz'^ ; sha'bada bdz (a higher 
class of conjurer) ; sdhir or jddu-gar 
(magician) ; chashm-band (one who by 
magic deceives the sight and cause>* others 
to see what he wishes). 

Connect, to, vasl k., tr. ; vasl shudan, intr. ; 
it bd man nisbat ddrad (he is a connection 
of mine) ; tathiq k. (of doctrines, customs, 
etc.) ; in matlab bi-man rabt na-ddrad, (this 
matter does not concern me) ; kdliska-hd 
bd-ham rah ddrand (the carriages connect 
with each other). 

Connected, Connectedly, rnarbut. Vide Dis- 

Connection, ' ildqa ; dard-i dil rd * bd chashm 
chi nisbat (what has a stomach-ache to do 
with the eyes ? what is the connection ?) ; 
guz rd bd shaqiqa chi ? (a vulg. saying) ; 
hamjdn hikdyat-i zar-duz va buriyd-bdf ast 

1 Gen. spelt (Jj^*«. 

2 Karhu yat ra sural cladarn, 

•" Hvqqabaz (small feats by sleight of liand) ; 
4 Not da>d-' shikam as in India. 

huqqa a little box. 




(there is no coimectioii or relevancy) ; u 
ba man hich vd hastagl na-darad ; an zan 
ba shawhar-ash rah u rasm-i na-darad (she 
will have nothing to do with her hus- 

Connections, va bastwjan (by blood, by 
marriage, or by ties of interest). 

Connivance, Connive, ij^mdz (k.) ; chashm- 
pushi (k.) ; u dida va ddnista chashm- 
pushi ' kard. 

Connoisseur, — shinda (in compounds; as, 
shardb-shinds , 'a connoisseur of wine '). 

Conquer, fath kardan; g^lib shudan bar -; 
zafar ydjtan ; firuzi ydftan ; fdHq dmadan 
(in games, athletics, discussions); bar in 
mor^ala dast-ydjtam (I've conquered this 
problem) . 

Conquered, musakhkhar ; magjilub ; u bar 
tamdm-i mulk musallai shud. 

Conqueror, jdtih ; mvsakhkhir ; taskhir kun- 

Conquest, fath ; taskhir ; shikast ; gifllaha bar 

Conscience, nats-ash urd maldinat mi-kunad 
(his conscience pricks him) ; az zamir-i'- 
khud-at bi-pursid (ask your own consci- 
ence) ; az mashg[Mil-zimmagi fdrigh shudan 
(to free one's conscience of anything) ; bi- 
mayldn-i khdtir-i khud va istirzd-yi rizd-yi 
Khuddvand rihd kard (he left them to their 
conscience). Vide Prick. 

Conscious, ihsds k. (to feel) ; bd khabar bu- 
dan ; multafit budan. 

Consecrate, shamshir ki dar zarih-i Imam 
Husayn mutabarrak shuda bud — ("the 
sword consecrated at the tomb of the 
Imam Husain" — ). 

Consecration, taqdis (k.) ; takhsis (k.) (to 

Consecutive, musalsal ; mutavdlt. 

Consent, rizd; istirzd^. 

Consent, to, rdzi shudan; bi-istisvdb-i u 
navishta am; tadbir-i mard qabul ml- 
kumd? Vide Approve. 

Consequence, natija, pi. natd^ij ; anjdm; 
Imsil (result) ; bdk-i nist or matlab-i ntst 
(never mind; also there's nothing parti- 
cular or strange, i.e., I can do it); zarar 
na-ddrad (by all means ; why not ? ) ; "if 
his wife sees me smartly dressed she will 
think me of more consequence," agar zan- 
ash mard drdsta ji-hinad ziydda-tar hisdb 

mi-barad; md tnardumJdn-% hastim, az 
khdnvdda fiasthn (we are people of conne- 
quence, we are somebodies). 

Conservatory, garm-khdna (hot-house). Vide 
Orange: y. 

Consider, dar bdb-i an fikr mi-kunam (I will 
consider about that) ; dar pish-i khvd 
hhiydl kardan; ddnistan ; mahsub k. ; 
shimurdan (to deem) ; ghfiwr k. 

Consideration, ta^ammul {k.) (reflecting) ; 
tashakhkhus (importance) ; qdbil-i ihtirdm 
(worthy of respect) ; nazar bi-khidanidt-i 
shumd (in consideration of your services) ; 
bi-muldhaza-yi pidar-i shumd zaiil na-kar- 
dam (in consideration of your father I did 
not disgrace you). 

•Consign, sipurdan , tafviz namudan ; havdla k. 

Consigned, bdr-i jahdzbi-ism-iu bud; muhav- 
val ; tahvtl-i u shud (it was handed over 
to him). 

Consignee, qiranda ; mursal ilayh. 

Consigner, irsdl-kunanda ; f arisarida (vnlg.). 
Vide Sender. 

Consignment, mursala; amdnat (of goods). 

Consist. Vide Contain. 

Consistency, qavdm (of liquids ; also the 
cookery word ' mixture ' ) ; bi-paz td misl-i 
dsh qavdm bi-girad. 

Consolation, Console, lasalli, and tasliyat, 
and dil-dJdri (dddan) ; ta'ziyat {guftan; on 
death only) ; bi-raw hachcha rd bi-fahrrmn 
(go and comfort the child). 

Conspicuous, nMmuddr ; numdydn ; vdzih ; 
dshkdrd ; paydd ; huvaydd ; gdv-i safid- 
pishdni (lit. a cow with a blaze) ; ma'ruf ; 
mashhUr (eminent). 

Conspiracy, sdzish (k.) ; dasta-i az a'ydn dost 
bi-ham dddand ki Pddishdh rd bi-kushand. 
Vide Plot. 

Conspirator, ham-rdz. 

Conspire, bd-ham sdkhtan (to join together ; 
in good or bad sense; also to compromise, 

Constant, sdbit-qadam ; hd-vafd ; bar qardr; 
dd%m (of time) ; u bar-gufta-ash hamisha 
qdHm ast; " in spite of the fact that your 
brother cruelly sought to separate us, I 
remained constant and bore his ill usage," 
har qadar barddar-at bi-man silam karda 
bi-judd^i-yi md taldsh mi-kard man haindn 
qadar pd-ddri namuda jaivr-ash rd mi- 

^ Az taqair i u chaahm puahl kard = " he pardoned him." 

2 Zamir has also sometimes the meaning of '* heart" or "comprehension." 




Constantinople, Islamhul or Isldmbul ; Qus- 

Constellation, majma'-i kavakib ; burj, pi. 
buruj (Zodiac). 

Constipated, maqhuz ; mizaj-ash qabz ast (he 
is always constipated) ; hisyar sudda 

Constipation, qabz; yubusat; [khushki? 
either wrong or vulgar]. 

Constitution, bunya ; quvd, pi. of quvvat (of 
body) ; tabl' at-i (or hdlat-i) u hamisha 
sdlim ast; qavi bunya or bd bunya (of 
strong constitution). 

Constitutional, qdnuni ; bd intimm. 

Constitutionally, hasb-i qd'ida va qdnun. 

Constrained, majbur. 

Construct, sdkhtan ; bind kardan; nasb k. 
(to erect) ; Muhammad qdnun-i IslRm rd 
bi-vujud dvurd. 

Construction, quvdra ; sdkht ; bind'' (of build- 
ings) ; qurmsh (of cloth , carpet ; of 
people ; bad-qumash ast = he is ill made) ; 
tarkib (of a sentence). 

Consul, balyuz,T. ; kunsal or qunsal, etc.; 
Shdh-bandar (by Turks ' Consul ' ; by 
Persians ' Port-Commissioner'). 

Consult, ray giriftan (to take the opinion 
of) ; biyd dar In am/r mashvarat bi-kunim ; 
agar naf'-i khud rd bi-hini — (if you consult 
your own interests — ). 

Consultation, mashvarat (k.) (med.). 

Consulted, dar ta'yin u intikhdb-ash istishdra 
bi-drd-yi mardum mi-kunand (in his appoint- 
ment and selection, the wishes of the 
people are consulted) ; dar ta'yin-i kaldn- 
tar rizd-yi mardum dakhil ast. 

Consulting-room. Vide Room. 

Consume, khurdan (eat) ; sarf shudan or 
kardan (of food , money and time) ; sukk- 
tan (to bum, q.v.) ; az gAamm u ghussa 
kdhida, shud (consumed with anxiety). 

Consummation, itmJdm; ikmdl; 'arusl bi- 
g^dyat na-rasid (the marriage was not 
consummated) . 

Consumption, maraz-i diqq. 

Contact, mass {k.), tr. and intr. (touching). 

Contagion, sirdyat; nid-Jchushi-yi an mariz 
bi-man sirdyat kard. 

Contagious, nd-khusht-yi musri (contagious 

Contain, khud-ddri k., or khud rd zabt k. (to 

contain oneself; in any emotion, etc.) 

gunjidan; gunjdyish ddshtan (to be con- 
• tained) ; in kiiub murattab (or mu^htamU 

or mabni) bar du bdb-ast (this book con- 
tains two chapters) ; In sanduq chi qadr 

chdf'l mi-girad? "he was unable to con- 
tain himself," u bl-ikhtiydr shud {gen. oi 

diarrhoea); khud-ddri k. (of anything). 

Vide Comprehended. 
Contained, in shir dar in zarf jd-yash nami- 

shavad ' ; mundarij (of writings). 
Contaminated, dludan or dluda k. ; mulavvas 

k. ; najis {garddnidan) . 
Contemplated, mutasavvar. 
Contemplation, tajakkur ; ta^immul ; dar 

'dlam-i murdqaba rajtan (relig.). 
Contemplative, mutafakkir ; mustaghraq-i 

Contemporary, ham-' ahd,ov ham ' asr; mu' dsir, 

pi. mu'dstrin. 
Contempt, haqdrat {k.) ; bi-haqdrat nazar k. ; 

tawhin {k.) (also to feel aversion for) ; 

zalil (ddnistan) ; kasi rd haqir or khwdr 

Contemptible, khwdr; zalil; jaru-mMya; 

dun; haqir; nd-chiz. 
Contend, to, mujddala k. (dispute). Vide 

Contender, mujddil (in argument) ; sitiza-kdr 

(in fight). 
Contending, u mard-i bisydr mundzi'-i a^t 

(he is always contending). Vide Contest. 
Content, qand at ; rim (subs.); qdni' ; qarvd- 

'at-kdr; rdzi (adj.); har chi ddram bidn 

qdni' m,i-bdsham. 
Contention, mujddala (dispute) ; mundza'at 

(quarrelling, fighting, disputing). 
Contentious, dnhu khayli jang-ju hastand; 

{mufsid and mufattin = stirring up strife). 
Contentment. Vide Content. 
Contents, mazmun (of a letter) ; maknurmt 

(of box, etc.). 
Contest, ham-sari {k.) (to vie with ; in good 

or bad sense). Vide Quarrel, Battle, etc. 
Contestor, murmzi' (friendly or otherwise; 

vide Contending). 
Contiguity, muttasil budan. 
Contiguous, muttasil. 
Continence, 'ismai; 'iff at; pdk-ddmuni. 
Continent, iqlim,''- pi. aqdlim; 'afif (adj.); 

pdk-ddman . 

1 But ja shudan (m.c.) "to be finished.' ' 

^ Originally one of the seven climates of the world, but now used for a Province, Presidency and 
by Persians also for a country. 




Contingency, hddisa {accident) ; mgt' a (occur- 
rence). Vide Accident, Accidental. 
Continual, injd hamlaha janjdl ast (there is a 
continual noise here) ; continued action is 
in ra.c. expressed by the interjection hay, 
as hay bdrdn dmad' ; hay hi-khur ; man 
didam az saqf hay Jchdk rm-nzad, ham- 
chunin ki lirun davidam saqf pdytn dmad 
(I saw that earth kept falling from the 
roof ; I had barely set foot outside when 
the roof fell in). Reduplication of a word 
may give same si gnijS cation, as tarsdn 
tarsdn kardam (I was in a fright all the 
time I did it) . 
Continually, mudam ; vide Always ; mutta- 

sil'"' (without break; vide Continuously). 
Continuation, davdm (lasting) ; ildva bar 
dnchi diruz gujtam (in continuation of 
what I said yesterday). 
Continue, tul da-dan, tr. , and tul kashidan, 
intr. ; imtiddd yd f tan ; agar dar in kdt 
muddvamat numdyid — (if you continue to 
do this — ) ; bdqi ddrad (to be continued ; 
of newspaper article) . Vide Continual ; 
dumbdla-yi sukhan rd bi-din naw' kashidan 
girift or mMlab rd bi-din tariq pay kard. 
Continuously, muttasil-i ham; 'ala ^l-ittisdl; 
yak mdh pay-i ham (or pusht-i sar-i ham) 
safar kardim, Prof. S. T.; mardum pusht 
pusht (or pusht-i ham) dmadand; pusht 
pusht fawj dar mayddn firistdd. Vide 
Contortion, pich u tdb ; surat-ash bi-ham 

pichid (his face became contorted) . 
Contract, qabdla (sometimes for mercantile 
deeds of sale) ; ijdra-ndma (paper ; for a 
lease. Vide Farm) ; rahn-nJdma (deed of 
mortgage) ; muqdta'a and maqta' (k.) (for 
work) ; kdbin-ndma (marriage — ). 
Contraction, kashish (of muscles) ; mukhaffaf 

(of words). 
Contractor, muqdta'orddr or -kunanda (of 

work, etc.). 
Contradict, "don't contradict me," mard 
takzib^ ma-kun, or harf-i mard radd ma- 
kun, or tamarrud-i harf-i mard ma-kun; u 
khudrosh rd darugti-gu kard (he contra- 
dicted himself) ; ' ' how is it you contradict 
yourself ? ' ' jihat chist bi-du zabdn dar 
amadi ? tard^dri kaldm k. 

Contradiction, ikhtilaf ; kaldmri skuma mund- 
fdt ddrad. 

Contradictory, khilaf ; zidd; naqiz; mund- 
qiz ; harffid-yi shumd na^t?-t yak dtgar ast. 

Contrariety, ziddiyyat ; ziddiyyal-i tabi'at. 

Contrary, bar ' aks (on the contrary) ; khildf-i 
ihtimdl (contrary to expectation) ; az bdd-i 
mukhdlif jahdz mu'attal shud; " have you 
any proof to the contrary ? ' ' bi-khildf-i in 
harf isbdt-i dart ? 

Contrivance, tadbir (plan) ; hikmal or ikhtird* 
(devise, invention) ; bi-chi hila dnjd mxravi? 

Control, iqtiddr or ta-sallui dashtan bar — ; 
sarbdz-hu az qabza-yi (or ikhtiydr-i) man 
btrun raftand. 

Controversy, munidzara; mujddala. Vide 

Controverting, mushdjara (k.) ; bd man dar 
in amr mushdjara namud. 

Contumacious, mard-i 'anud ast; lajuj (mu- 
lishly obstinate). Vide Obstinate. 

Contumacy, 'indd; lajj. 

Contused, kufta (also tired, stiff) ; zarb- 
khurda; az chub khurdan badan-ash lih (or 
khurd u khamir) shud (he was black and 
blue from the thrashing). 

Contusion, kuftagi (also tiredness , stiffness) ; 
asar-i kuftagi. 

Convalescence, ifdqa (ydftan). 

Convalescent, luza shifd ydfta. 

Convene, mun'aqid (k.) ; ijlds {k.) ; fardd in 
anjuman du-bdra bar pa khtodhad shud. 

Convenient, bardy-i shumd zahmat-i na- 
khwdhad bud ki'^ fardd injd bi-ydyid? (will 
it be convenient for you to come to- 
morrow ?) ; or mdni'-i kdr-i shumd na- 
khwdhad bud agar fardd injd bi-ydyid? 

Conveniently, bi zahmat. 

Convent, dxiyr (of Christians or Hindus) ; 
hhdnaqdh (dervishes); rdhibdn* dar dn 
dayr suknq ddrand. 

Conversation, guft u gu (k.) ; harf (zadan) ; 
mayl-i suhbat ddrid? gap zadan (to gossip, 
with an underlying meaning of falsehood) ; 
mardri khu-sh muhdvara (a man of charm- 
ing conversation ; of interesting and well- 
expressed ideas). 
Convert, tdza bi-din dmada; jadid^'l-Isldm 
(new to Mahomedanism) ; ' Isavi-yi jadid ; 
murtadd az Islam (pervert from Islam). 

1 This particle hay can precede the prefix mi of the Imperfect. 

2 The root meaning is "to lie." 

3 Or agar. 

♦ Ar, pi. ruhban and ruhkab; rahiba, feminine, singular. Note the pi. in an here; for euphony. 




Converted, hi-sharaf-i Islam fd^z gasht ; 
muhtadt hi-dln-i - shud. Vide Believe. 

Convey, bur dan ; naql k. or naql u hand k. 
(to transport) ; iltifat karda in chiz ra hi-u 

Conveyable, naql-paztr. 

Convex, ' adasi (i.e. 'like a lentil'); muhad- 
dab; mahl-pusht or khar-pusht (of roads, 
roofs) ; shakl-i siparl (slightly convex like 
a shield) ; shakl-i khudi (domed, or like a 
helmet in shape). 

Convict, to, mulzim k. ; mufrim sdkhtan ; 
gundh or jurm sdbit k. 

Conviction, ilzdm; isbdt (of crime) ; i'tiqdd- 
am in ki — (it is my belief that — ) ; yaqln-i 
kdmil ddram ki — (it is my conviction 

Convince, bi-khata-yash urd mu'tarif sdkhtam 
(I convinced him of his error) ; sukhan-am 
urd mujdb kard. 

Convinced, yaqin ddram ki dnchi mi-guyi rdst 
a<it, or khdtir-am jam' ast ki shumd rdst 
mi-guyid ' (I am convinced what you are 
saying ' is true) ; az in dalil yaqin hdsil 
kardam; az ru-yi dalil urd khdtir jam' 

Convivial, 'ayydsh (ill-liver) ; ham-piydla va 
ham-navdla ; dust-i ham-mashrab. 

Conviviality, ham-piydlagi va ham navdlagi 
rd dust mi-ddrad. 

Convolvolus, nilufar. 

Convulsed, to be, shurlda"^ shudan or k. (to 
be excited, upset) ; in qadar khandid ki 
nafas-ash qaP shud or ruda-hd-yash pich 
uftdd ; bachcha tashannuj girift va murd. 

Convulsions, tashannuj (disease) 

Coo, to, kuku k. (of dove) : ndla k. (of dove 
and other birds). 

Cook, to, tabkh k. ; pukht u paz k. ; pukhtan, 
rt. paz ; isldh k. (of meat) ; dam kardan or 
dddan (to first cook rice, etc., and then, 
adding butter, to cover and place fire 
above and below , and so complete the 
cooking) ; vide To Charm. 

Cook, u ghild-yi khud rd mi-pazad. 
bi-jihat-i in ki dsh-paz na-ddrad ; ' ' too 
many cooks — " matbakh-i du kad-bdnu 

hamisha nd-rub mi-mdnad, and tndmdcha 
ki du td shud sar-i bachcha kaj dar mi-dyad. 

Cooked. Vide Over-cooked. 

Cookery, tabbdkhi. 

Cool,'^ khunuk ; sard* (cool oi cold; also 
cold-blooded of a person's temperament) ; 
bdrid (cold) ; im,ruz az diruz khunuk-tar 
ast; u db-i hinduvdn bardy-i tabrid rm- 
khurad (he takes juice of water-melon to 
cool his system). 

Cooled, yakh karda (this does not necessarily 
imply with ice) : dast-ash yakh karda ast 
(on a cold day, or of a sick person). 

Cooling, mubarrid ; khunuk-kun, bdrid. 

Coolly, bd istiyknd (with indifference, inde- 
pendence) ; bd bi-parvd^i ; bd itmindn. 

Coolness, khunuki ; sardi (or coldness) ; buru- 
dat (coldness, lit.); shakar-dbi (a slight 
coolness between friends ; a tiff). 

Cool-region, sar-kadd (prop, boundary) ; sard- 
sir, V. (opp. to garm-sir^') and ildq, T. (as 
opp. to qishldq). 

Cooly, dabbdsh (Ar. cooly, but in Persian 
Gulf the head cooly of a steamer) ; hammdl 
(porter) . 

Coot, parld or par-maid (coot?). 

Copious, vdfir ; fardvdn; mawfur ; ziydd. 

Copper, mis , takhta-yi mis (sheets of — ) ; 
nuhds ; misina dldt (copper ware); pul-i 
siydh (coppers,'' money) ; zangdr (sulphate 
of copper). 

Copper-smith, mlsgar. 

Copt, Qibt; Qibti (adj., Coptic). 

Copulate, gd^ldan (vulg.) ; jimid' k. ; nazdiki 
k. ; mubdsharat k. ; mujdma' at k. (hu- 
mans) ; pusht-i ham rajtan or jujt giriftan 
(of animals). 

Copulation, mujdma'at; nazdiki; jimd' (hu- 
man beings) ; savdri (animals). 

Copy, az ru navishtan (of writing) ; az ru 
kashidan (of pictures) ; mashq k. (practise 
from a copy-book) ; taqlld k. (imitate, 
q.v.) ; marhamal karda in rd bardy-i man 
savdd bar ddrid or kunid; pdk-navisi k. 
(make a fair copy) ; she copied (mimicked) 
the Tehran accent, zabdn-ash rd kaj kard 
misl-i Tahrdni'^-hd. 

1 Ouftld would mean you said a little time ago —perhaps unly ten minutes. 
■i Shurida also means "mad." 

s The uEual distinction between ' cool ' and ' cold' is that bisyar is prefixed in the case of the latter. 
+ Hich gar ml na-darad (m.c. ). 
6 PI. sard-slra! and gar m-sirut . 

6 In m.c. «»ven applied to the now nickel coins. It is better not to give copper coins even to 
beggars ; nickel coins of equivalent value are preferred. 

T Zandl zandi hart zadan (m.c.) 'Ho mimic the Tehran accent." 




Copying, istinadkh-i kulub (^^) (copying 
books) : naql k. (coining into use in Persia 
in this sense). 

Coquetry, ' ishva (of gestures) ; qirr (of ac- 
tion) ; rmz (to draw back for the sake of 
being pressed). 

Coquette, zan-i husn-farush-i Tmzddr ; ma- 
ku-th niarg-i md (a phrase used as a sub- 
stantive or adjective) ; 'ishva-bdz. 

Coral, marjdn (subs.) ; marjdm (adj.). 

Cord, qadr-l rtsmdn bt-khartd va m chiz-hd rd 
bi-bandld ; nakh-i ^ kuluft ; qaytdn (of silk 
for piping) ; zih (bow-string or gut) ; ruda 
= gut. 

Cord, to, bd rlsmdn bastan. 

Coriander-seed, gishniz. 

Cork, subs,, buj or buck; hi butrl chub- 
pamba^ na-ddrad; chub or sar (stopper). 

Cork, to, sar-i dn sMsh-a (or butrl) rd bigir 
(cork or close that bottle). 

Cork-screw, plch; buch-kash. 

Corn, pina (hardened skin on elbow, knee, 
sole of foot or on forehead from the 
muhra-narmz) ; mlkhak (on foot) ; ghfdla 
(grain) ; zurat (Indian corn) ; sdl-i guzashta 
jins-i fardvdn-l paydM shud (there was 
plenty of food grain last year) ; chun 
nawbat-i khusha rasld (when the ears 
began to f orpa) . 

Cornelian, ' aqlq-i surkk. 

Corner, ' ' he searched in every corner but 
could not find it " m gusha kindr nigdh 
kard valt na-ydft ; kunj; paygJmla. 

Coronation, tdj-pushi ; tdj-guzdrl. Vide 
To take place. 

Corporal, sar-juqa ; dah-bdshi (commander of 
ten ; vide Regiment) . 

Corporeal, jismdnt ; mujassam (rendered cor- 
poreal ; embodied) . 

Corporeally, bi-hdlat-i jismdni. 

Corpse, mayyit, pi. amvdt; na'ah (human); 
janaza (bier with corpse, and in m.c. 
corpse alone); Idsha; mayta; Idsh (prop, 
of animals only) ; murda (anything dead) ; 
zinda u murda, or hayy u mayyit (the living 
and the dead) ; jlja (decomposed corpse 
of any kind, carrion) ; tashyi'-i jandza k. 
(to follow to the grave, or part of the 
way) ; jandza-at rd ru-yi db bi-btnam f ( = 
may I see thee dead^). 

Corpulence, jaadnuU ; gundcujl (vulg.) ; chdqi 
or farbihl (fatness) . 

Corpulent, >cwtw; gunda (vulg.) ; farbili (fat) ; 
cJulq (fat; also healthy, etc.); gat u 

Correct, sahth ; duruat. 

Correct, to, taahih or isldh k. ; ta*dib k. 
(punish, etc.). 

Correction, tashih (k.) ; isldh, pi. isldhdt (k.) ; 
ta^dib (k.) (to punish). 

Correspond, to, mukdtaJbat ddshtan; murdsala 
k. or ddshtan ; khatt u kitdbat k. 

Correspondence, mukdtaba; khatt u kitdbat; 
shumd bd it hlch murdsalat ddrld? iradl u 
marsull (k.) ; al-kiidbat"^ nisf'^ l-muldqdt 
(saying) ; bd u murdvada ddram (I have 
friendly relations with hira, or trade rela- 

Correspondent, vaqd'^i' -nigdr or ndma-nigdr 
(to a newspaper) ; mukhbir-i Rutar (Ren- 
ter's correspondent). 

Corresponding to,_ mutdbiq bi — ; awai-i 
Farvardm ki 'Idri Naw-Ruz mi-bdshad 
musddif-i bist u yakum-i Mdrsh ast (the 
1st of Farvardin which is the Persian 
New Year's Day corresponds to the 21st 
of March). 

Corroborate, taqviyat-i qawl dddan (supports 
this statement) ; ta'kid k. ; tasdiq k. ; 
ta^yld k. 

Corroborated, ta^yid karda shuda. 

Corroboration, ta^yid; tasdiq. 

Corroborative, mu^ayyid. 

Corroded, zang khurda. 

Corrupt, fdsid (of blood, etc.) ; rdsht (in Ar. 
the one who gives bribes) or rishvat-khipdr 
(open to bribes) ; gandtda or mtUa' a/fin 
(stinking ; of flesh or of water) ; puslda 
(of fruits , woods) ; khardb ; mukharrab (of 
language) ; chun dar-i khdna-yi pddishdh 
fdsid ast — (when the court is corrupt — y 

Corruption, fasdd (of blood) ; rishvat-khwari 
(of bribery) ; gandidagl or 'ufunat (putri- 
dity) ; ta'affun (bad smell, etc.) ; pusidagi 
(of fruits, woods); takhrlb (of language); 
tahrlf (in text ; an accusation by Muslims 
against Christians and Jews *) . 

Cossack, QazzJdq. 

Cost, qlmat ; m^khdrij or ikhrdjdt or masdrif, 

1 Nakh. — sewing thread. 

i Vulg.— supposed to be from the cotton tree. 

3 A woman's curse ; may I see thee in the hands of the body washers. 

* Tdhrtf-i lafzl and tdhrlf-i ma'nat;«. 




Cost, to, kharld-ash btshtar ast, or hlshtar 
kharid darad (m.c.) (it cost me more) ; 
chi mdya guzashiid (what did you pay for 

Costs (law), murafa' a-yi khud rd hd makhdrij 
bur dam. 

Cosy, gusha-yi 'dfiyat (a cosy corner; also a 
snug country cottage). 

Cottage, kulba ; kappar (a hut) ; khdna-yi 
kdll-push ' ; bungah (a Turkoman hut). 

Cotton, pamba (cotton wool) ; ghuza (pod) ; 
dar In vildyat pamba-yi ziydd paydd mi- 

Cotton-carder, pamba-zan or halldj ; halldjl 
k. (to card cotton; also meta. 'to jump 
on a person '). 

Couch, " kawch^^ (Eur.); nim-kat; suffa; 
In nim-takht rd bi-utdq-i digar (or bi-dn 
utaq) bi-bar. 

Cough, surf a, vulg. sulfa; siydh-surfa (whoop- 
ing cough) ; surfa-yi khushk (dry cough) ; 
surf a 'driz shud (he had an attack of 

Cough, to, surfa kardan (vulg. kandan) ; akh 
u tuf k. (to cough and spit) ; tanakhnukh 
or tanahnuh k. (to hem, especially after 

Council, ii yak-i az ajzd^-i (or a'zd^-i) majlis-i 
vazdrat ast ; ahl-i shurd. 

Council-house, mashvarat-khdna. Vide As- 

Counsel, pand; nasihat, pi. nasdHh ; mash- 
varat (consultation) ; rm bdyad ki masla- 
hat-i nlk rd qahul kunlm; shura kardan bd 
kas-i (to take counsel with or seek advice 

Counsellor, mushir (state or private) ; ndsih. 

Count, to, shumurdan, rt. shumdr ; hisdb k. ; 
mahsub k. (to include) ; dunistan, shimur- 
dan, pindushtan (to deem); "he counted 
on his fingers and then said," bar angusht- 
hd-yi khud hisdb karda guft — . 

Counted, shimurda. Vide Calculated. 

Countenance, rw ; vajh; sural (m.c); chihra 
(rare); manzar (appearance, in m.c. face). 

Counterfeit, to, imzd-yash rd ja'l kardand 
(his signature was counterfeited). 

Counterfeit, ja'll; sdkhta; maghshush (adul- 

terated, etc., q.v.) ; sikka-yi qalb (countei- 
feit coin) ; in sikka-yi qalb ast or qalldbi 
ast. Vide Tinsel. 

Counterfeiter, qalldb (of coin; also a cheat). 

Countermand, to, TUiskh-i hukm k. ; man' k. 
(of order for goods). 

Counterpane, lihdf (quilt). 

Country, vatan ; zdd u bum (native country) ; 
m,ulk ; mamlakat ; vildyat (kingdom) ; 
zamin (ground) ; sahrd (as opposed to 
town) ; dihdt and atrdf (the country 
suburbs) ; bildd (the town and its country 

Countryman, ham-vatan (rare) ; ham-shahri 
(prop, fellow- citizen, but used for fellow- 
countryman) ; ham-vildyati ; dihatl, and 
rustd^i (rustic) ; saldm-i rustdydn bl-yharaz 
nist (common proverb). 

Country seat, ydyldq T. (any cool country 
seat, specially in the hills) ; bdg[h (used of 
a house and garden away from the town). 

Couple, yak juft^ tigh-i dalldki bardy-i man 
bi-girid (buy me a couple of razors) ; yak 
zawj (or juft) kafsh kharldam. 

Couple, to, juft shudan (intr. , to pair) ; dar 
kdliska du asp juft kard (or bast). 

Couplet, bayt. 

Courage, dillri ; shajd' at ; himmat ; rashddat ; 
shumd dilir-tar az man-id (or bd jur^at-tar, 
or bihtar az man marddnagi dnrid; dil 
bi-ydr or dil pay da kun (take courage !) ; 
dil qavi dar (keep up your courage ; don't 
be disheartened). Vide Bravery. 

Courageous, shujd' ; dilir ; pur-dil ; in mar- 
daka bi-zan-bahEdur ast (vulg.). 

Courier, qdsid (on foot) ; payk (with letter) ; 
chdpdrl (official or private mounted) ; 
(j/huldm-chdpdr (house-to-house postman). 

Course, majrd, pi. majdri (of river) ; may- 
dEn-i asp-davdni, or in m.c. mayddn-i shart 
(horse — ) ; dar ' arz-i safar (in the course 
of the journey) ; dar bayn-i guft-u-gu (in 
the course of conversation) ; dar zarf-i du 
sdl (in the course of two years) ; bihiarln 
tariqa In ast ki — (the best course for you is 
— ) ; drl, chird (m.c), bi-shakk (of course). 

Courses. Vide Menstruation. 

Court, dar-i khdna-yi shdhi ; darbar ; khadam 

1 Corrup. of kahl^push. 

v_»! <^»j 

— »v^. twv*j t5^^ *^i>'J«3i tow*''' V? ij*^^ tf *-***"' J •^^■ifi «»J^'J= 
3 No izafat after fuft. Juft is only applied to things of which two go to a pair; yak qaychl is a pair 

of scissors. 




u hashani-i slmh , or multazimin rikdb (atten- 
dants on a prince) ; sahn-i khana or hiyat 
( — yard) ; saff-i saldm bar pa k. (to hold a 
court ; of Shah) ; farda hi-saMm mi-nishi- 
7iad (the Shall will hold a court to- 
morrow) ; murdfa'a dar divdriri u ml- 
guzarad (the case will be tried in his 
court) ; majlis-i nizdmiyya (court-martial) ; 
majlis-i 'adliyya (a kind of High Court in 
Tehran: civil, criminal and appellate); 
istinifiq (court of enquiry on criminal 
matters, the members being selected by 
the Governor) ; ijlm (a civil committee) ; 
darhar-i u marja'-i udabd^ u fuzald*^ bud (liis 
court was the resort of men of learning). 

Courteous, mutavdzi' ; khaliq (polite) ; mu- 
^addab (well-behaved ; of youngsters before 

Courtesan, qaliba; jdhisha; jinda; lavand 

Courtesy, muldtafat (kindness) ; muddrdt 
(tact) ; tavdzu' and ta'druf (outward polite- 
ness) . 

Courtier, muqarrab-i dawlat; az ahl-i dar-i 
khdna; bdr-ydfta. 

Cousin, pisar 'ammu ' (son ot paternal uncle), 
pisar 'amma (son of maternal aunt) ; pisar 
kkdlu (son of maternal uncle) ; pisar khdld 
(son of maternal aunt); dukhtar 'ammu, 
etc. , etc. ; pisar-dayt (m.c. , son of maternal 
uncle) . 

Covenant, mu'dhada {k.) ; 'ahd u paymdn 
(bastan) . 

Covenanter, mu'dhid. 

Cover, subs., pushish (gen.) ; sar-push (metal, 
or a mat) ; jild (of book). 

Cover, to, pushtdan; sar-push guzdrdan; 
nihuflan (to hide) ; jild k. (of book) ; "I 
will send my mare to you to be covered," 
mJddiydn-am rd pish-i shumJd mi-firistam ki 
nariydn-at rd ruy-ash bi-kashid; m mJddi- 
ydn (or nariydn) rd hich vaqt kashida-id 
(have you ever used this mare (or stallion) 
for breeding ?) ; nar rd bar mddiydn an- 

Coverlet, lihaf (warm quilt) ; ru-push (gen. 
term) . 

Coverts. Vide Feather. 
Covet, tania' kardan or varzidan. 
Covetous, tamrrbd' ; pur-tama' . 
Covetousness, lawM' ; tama'-kdri. 
Covey, khayl (of birds or animals); par- 
tridges fly in covie«i," kabk-hd galla galla 
Cow, mdda-gdv or gdv-i mJada. 
Coward, buz-dil; nd-mard; tarsU (vulg.); 

kam-zahra; pizi-shul (lit. of loose behind) ; 

kam-dil ; zirmidl (lit. inhabitant of Zurmat 
between Kabul and Herat). Vide Cowed. 
Cowed, btkh-i dum-ash stist ast (he carries his 
tail down, he cannot get it up; also cow- 
Cowardice, nd-mardA,; bi-dili ; buz-diU; jvbn, 

Co-wife, habu (m.c.) ; hu, vulg. 
Crab, kharchang ; kilinjdr ; karanjdl, etc. ; 

saraidn ; ^ bi-kalanjdr guftand chird kaj kaj 

mi-ravi? Guft javdn-V st va cham u jcham 

(The crab was asked why it always walked 

crooked. It replied it is the activity and 

pride of youth). 
Crab-louse. Vide Louse. 
Crack, in qadah mu bar ddshta ast or ddrad ; * 

in finjdn tarak ddrad = a big crack ; mu 

= a crack like a hair). 
Cracked, dahang. Vide Mad. 
Cracking, sharaq sharaq (of wHip ; also blows 

of a stick). 
Crackle, to, gur gur k. (successive noise of 

rifles, big guns, thunder) ; chirk chirk k. 

(of cooking, of fire). 
Crackling, sharaq sharaq (the sound of blows 

with a stick) ; sharp sharp (sound of blows 

with a switch or cane). 
Cradle, gahvdra ; gdchu (local) ; nanu or 

n^ni^ (hammock). 
Craft, Craftiness, rubdh-bdzi ; kayd; hila 

(deceit) ; sind'at; hirfat (profession) ; dast-i 

Jiunar ddrad (he has skill). 
Cram, tapdmdan or chapdnidan (to cram, to 

stuff; ram home a charge). 
Crane, kvlang ; durnd (for turnd, T., the 

bird) ; manjamq ^ (the engine ; scaffolding) ; 

" there were various cranes from America 

1 Marriages between cousins are the rule, and the Persian saying with regard to a marriage between 
cousins is — 'aqd-i ahan pa-yi kurai-yi Khuda basta ast. The tie of blood is stronger than that of matri- 
mony; hence a Persian will address his wife as " cousin " (dukhtar 'ammu, etc.) preferring it to any 
other address. 

2 Note plural verb to give idea of number. 

3 SaratfLn, Ar. Also the Zod. sign Cancer, and the disease. 
♦ A similar idiom exists in Urdu. 

6 Slung like a swing or suspended with a rope fastened to opposite walls. 

•> The engine by which Abraham was cast into the fire by Nimrod is called manjanlq. 




much larger than the common crane of 
Persia," aqsam-i durna-ha-yi Yangi Dunya 
bud khayli durushi-ar az durnd-lm-yi muta- 
'arif-i Iran (Shah's Diary). 

Crawl, " children always crawl," bachcha-hd 
kun Jchizu ' ml-kunand (vulg.) ; khazldan 
(to creep) ; bar shikam rajtan (of snakes) ; 
bi-chahdr dast u pa rajtan (on all fours) ; 
gdv-ku (vulg. ; to go on all fours like a 
cow) . 

Craze, shur-i-qdlln ddrad (lie has a craze for 
carpets) ; pay-ash divdna ast (he has a 
craze for — ) ; junun-i taydtur rajtan hama 
rd girijta ast (every one has now a craze 
for going to theatres) . 

Crazy, khushk maghz : dirmigh-ash khabt 
shuda ; anj-ash khardb ast. Vide Cracked 
and Mad. 

Cream, sar-sMr ; IrdniTid kara az mast mi- 
girand na az qaymdq; 'umda or zvbda 
(best part of). 

Crease, chin; kurch (vulg.); [Id or td fold]. 
Vide Crooked and Note. 

Crease, to, chin chin k. ; chin dddan. 

Create, to, djaridan ; khalq k. (of God) ; 
ikhtird' k. , or ijdd k. (to invent) . 

Created, khalq shuda or makhluq (created) . 

Created beings, Creatures, makhluqdt (crea- 
tures with life) \ kdHndt (all created things, 
with or without life). Vide Creatures. 

Creation, khilqat ; insdn ashraj-i makhluqdt 
ast (man is the Lord of creation) . 

Creator, dfaridagdr ; jahdn-djarln (creator 
of the world) ; Khudd khdliq-i tamidm-i 
ka%rMt ast. 

Creatures, khald%q, pi. , or bandagdn-i Khudd ; 
vujud-i bi-jud ast (he is a worthless use- 
less creature). Vide Created beings. 

Credit,'^ warn; 'Izzat (reputation); i'tibdr 
(confidence, trust); az daraja-yi i'tibdr 
ujtada; talab (sum due); nasi^a (money); 
man bi-shumd td si rmh nasVa mi-diham ; 
nisj-ash naqd ml-diham, nisj-ash nus^a; 
"is my account in credit or in debt?" 
hisdb-am jdzil ast yd bdqi? bi-va'da-yi si 
mah mi-kharam ; si-mdha pul-i shumd rd 
mi-parddzam (I will pay you after three 
months) ; az in kdr khayli i'tibdr bi-ham 

rasdnda ast (he has obtained great credit 

on this account). 
Creditor, kdr-u-bdr-ash bar-ham khurda ast, 

bi-jihat-i in talab-kdrdn-i khud rd khtvdsta 

ast. Vide Debtor. 
Credulous, zud-bdvar-kun ; sahl" H-i'tiqdd. 

Vide Simple. 
Creed, 'agtrfa (a belief) ; d^n (relig.) ; mazhab 

(of sect) ; Isldm ; irmn (Muslim Faith ; 

also in m.c. honesty) ; kalima rd talqin 

kardam: bi-sidq-i dil khivdnd va tawba 

istighjdr karda Musalmdn shud — Prof. 

S. T. (I taught her the Mushm creed : she 

repeated it with sincerity, repented, and 

asked forgiveness for her sins, and became 

a Muslim). 
Creep, to, bi-bin chi tawr an kilpak-ha bi-divdr 

bdld mi-ravand. Vide Crawl. 
Creeper, in nihdl pichu-'st (this seedling is a 

creeper) . 
Crescent, hilM ; mdh-i naw ; hildli (adj.). 
Cress, Cresses, tar tizak.^ 
Crest, tdj or shEna (as of hoopoe, cockatoo, 

etc.) ; kxikul (as of lark, bulbul, etc.). 

Vide Hair. 
Crested, tdj-dar ; kdkul-ddr. 
Crete, Kirit. 

Crevice, shaqq (a small crack) ; surdkh (hole) . 
Crew, ' amalajdt*-i kishti. 
Cricket, Jchazuk (house cricket ; " little creep- 
er ") ; angusht-burak or guksum (mole 

cricket ^). 
Crier, munddA ; jdrchi (aproclaimer, a public 

crier) : vide Proclaim and Proclamation ; 

mu^azzin (of mosque, to prayers). 
Crime, gundh (sin) ; chi taqsir karda ast? or 

chi taqsir az u sar zada ast? (m.c); I 

won't enter on such a crime, man ddkhil-i 

chunin jurm nami-shavam . 
Criminal, gundh-kdr ; muqassir (man) ; murd- 

ja'ajdt-i jindyatl (criminal suits). 
Crimson, qirmiz ; surkh. 
Cripple, lang (lame in leg) ; shal (useless ; of 

hand or leg) ; chuldq (of hand) ; u chuldq-i 

mddar-zddri 'st. 
Crisis, buhrdn (of disease) ; hdlat-i ndzuk 

(critical moment) ; kdr-i jang bi-jd-yi rmzuk 

kashid ; hdlat-ash khayli rmzuk ast (of a 

1 To travel on the b — t — m. 

2 Credit is rarely given on the first of the week or of the month, especially if the buyer be the first 
in the day. 

s Grown (as an ornament) for the Naw-RCz, on flannel or on a porous earthen vessel. 

* The Ar. pi. of 'amil in 'amalah, but in Persia this is used as a singular. 

6 The ghu'an of the Panjab; an excellent live bait for catching insect-eating birds. 




sick man) ; f}ald bdzl dar burd u bakht oat 
(the crisis of a game). 

Crisp, turd (brittle) ; pur-shikan or shikanj- 
dcir (crisp wavy hair). Vide Brittle. 

Critic, daqlqa-shinds ; muhaqqiq; bank-bin; 
nuktordan (in good sense) ; nukta-cliin ; 
nukta-gir (in bad sense). 

Criticise, to, rnatlab ra mu-shigafl nii-kunad 
(gen. in a good sense) ; kalam-am ra mu- 
shigdfi kard (gen. in bad sense) ; u inshd-yi 
mard nukta mi-girad (in a bad sense; to 
'pick holes in'); isldh k. (to correct); 
dar harf-i, man Irdd mt-glrad (he criticizes 
what I have said; gen. in a good, i.e., 
scholarly sense). 

Criticism, m*// (of any literary work) ; taqriz 
■ {k.) (review, q.v.). 

Croak, to, Croaking, qur qur k. (of frog) ; 
<z4ar §iiar k. (of raven); qarqdr {k.) (of 

Crochet work, qulldb-duzi (also silk work on 
cloth, done with a crochet needle; also 
darning socks, etc.). [Q-V- 

Crocodile, timsdh. Ar. ; nahang, prop. ' shark ' 

Crook, kajak (shepherd's; also elephant 

Crook, to, kham kardan. 

Crooked, khamlda (bent ; of men, trees) ; mu- 
•avvaj (of streets, streams) ; kaj (of things) ; 
kaj u kuj (zig-zag) ; in satr kaj ast (or in 
kkatt, m.c.) ; " sir, the carpet is not crook- 
ed ; the ends are parallel ' ' qdli sar-kaj ' 
na-ddrad, dqd ; ' ' certainly it is ; also it 
rumples and won't lie flat," chird kis ham 
ddrad va bi-hich tawr sdf nami-shavad. 

Crookedness, khamidagi ; kaji. 

Crop, hdsil ; kisht (sown but not sprung 
up): hawsala and china-ddn (of birds); 
sang-ddn (gizzard) ; khazina (stomach of 
birds); zird'at-i daymt (crops dependent 
on rainfall) ; ' ' the crops are ripe ' ' gjkalla 
rasida ast ; but khusha basta ast (ears have 
formed, near ripening) ; ghalla-hd rasida 

Cross, salib or khdj (Christian) ; chalipa (the 
sign of ' multiplied by ' or ' plus ' : x or 
+ ; also adj.); khatt-i chalipa (crossed, 
i.e., of writing in margin written at an 

angle ; also shikasla writing) : ' at last we 
arrived at the cross-roads ' ' dkhir bi-sar-i 
chahdr-rdh rasi<Rm. Vide Cross-way. 

Crossed, az rud-khdna ' vbur kard or guzaaht ; 
" is it your habit to sit with your legs 
crossed (English fashion) ? ' ' dyd pa ru-yi 
pa (or pa ru-yi ham) anddkhta ^ nishastan 
"ddat-i shumd 'st? 

Cross-bred, du-raga (of animals) ; du-naala 
(of men). 

Cross-examination, jarh (lit. discrediting a 
witness) ; istintdq k. Vide Examination 
and Witness. 

Crossing, muriir {k.) ; 'ubur {k.) ; ubur-gdh ; 
mamarr (place of). 

Cross-legged. Vide Crossed. 

Cross- way, chahdr-rdh; chdr-su (where four 
I'oads meet). 

Crouch, to, dost u pa jam' kardan (of cat, 
lion) ; khwdbidan (to crouch down, to 

Croup, khurusak or bdd-i khurusak (so named 
from the sound). 

Crow, kaldgh; kaldgh-i ablaq or kaldgh-i 
plsa (the Royston crow, the common 
crow of Persia ; this name may be applied 
to the English magpie, in some districts) 
vide Raven, Magpie, Chough, Jackdaw 
bdng-i khurus (cock-crow) ; u bar vaqt-i 
hhurus-khwdn bar mi-khizad. 

Crow, to, bang zadan; td kdr tarrmm nist bi- 
khud ma-ndz (don't crow till you are out 
of the wood). 

Crow-bar, ahrum (any lever of wood or 
iron) ; ahrum-i dhani. 

Crowd, izdihdm; fawj fawj mardum dmadand 
(the people came in crowds) ; dnjd dshub-i 
khalq bud (of crowd and noise) ; jam'iyyat-i 
ambuh (a dense crowd). 

Crowd, to, jam' shudan; mardumdn dnjd 
hujum dvardand; ma'raka k. (to collect, 
a crowd ; as when a dervish recites a 
story) ; " they crowded round me," dawr- 
am rd giriftand; " there was a densely 
packed crowd," chundn janjdl* bud ki 
jd-yi suzan anddkhtan na-bud, or agar 
suzan-i mi-anddkhiand bi-zamin nami- 

• Sar-kaj means that the two ends are not parallel —that corners are not true right angles ; kls is a 
fold (owing to defective weaving) so that the carpet won't lie flat. 

•i Plural substantive to signify different kinds of grain ; plural verb to a neuter noun, to give the 
idea of plurality. 

* Or gardanda. 

♦ Or janjal-i. 




Crowded, fur ; dar majlis janjdl-i mardum 

Crown, tdj ; afsar ; farq, or majraq (of the 

Crown, to, tdj guzdshtan ; quz bdld-yi quz (to 
crown all, the last straw; vide Hump). 

Crowned, tdj-push; tdj-guzdr. 

Crowning, tdj-guzdri [k.). 

Crown-lands, zamin-i khdlisa ; or hhdlisajdt. 

Crucible, huta. 

Crucified, maslub. 

Crucifixion, saEb kardan. 

Crude, khdm. 

Crudeness, khdmi. 

Cruel, khdrij az muruvvat va insdf (of person 
or his acts): zdlim: jafdkdr ; bi-muruvvat 
(of person) ; ' ajah ! magar dil-at az sang 
ast? Oh cruel one ' ! 

Cruelty, faqat dar bi-rahmi va sang- dill khiLsh 
mt-shudand (they delighted in cruelty). 

Crumb, maghz-i nan (crumb as opposed to 
past or crust) ; parinda-hd riza-hd-yi nan 
rd bar mi-chmand; khurda-hd-yi ndn 
(crumbs or small pieces). 

Crumple, to, chin chin k. ; chin dddan (also 
to wrinkle, q.v.). 

Crumpled, chln-khurda ; kls shuda (of cloth 
or carpet only). 
. Crupper, qushqun ; pdr-dum (of riding don- 

Crush, to, kuftan (crush, pound, knock) ; 
jaw-kub = par-kut k. (m.c.) (to pound coarse- 
ly so that the pieces are about the size 
of barley corns) ; khurd k. (prop, of hard 
things) ; lih k. (of soft things) ; jaw-kub k. 
(med., to pound coarsely). 

Crushed, u zlr-i charkha-yi kdliska raft khurd 
shud or lih''- shud (he was crushed under 
the carriage wheels). 

Crust, pusi (outside of bread). 

Cry, jlr or jdr (z.) (vulg.) ; na'ra (z.) ; farydd 
(k.) ; 'ami (k.) (of a newly-born infant); 
kilkil (k.) (of joy; of women at marriages) ; 
halhala^ (z.) (women's cries of exultation; 
also shouting in a charge) : ' ' she gave me 
one shrill cry and then fell dead," td zan 
yak jlq zad, uftdd u murd; " what has 
made you cry out like this ? what has 

happened ? " chi bdk-at ast ? (or cM shuda 
ast? or chit* shud?) chird In tawr farydd 

Cry, to, jdr kashldan ; munddl k. (to pro- 
claim) ; rah zadan (to cry off ; also to mis- 
lead a man) ; giristan ; girya k. ; girya u 
zdrl k. (to weep). 

Crystal, bulur (also applied to good English 
glass); bulu rln {'dd].). 

Cube, ka'b. 

Cubebs, kabdba-yi chlni. 

Cubed, muka"ab (-^*^-<:). 

Cubit, dast; dardzl-yi (or tul-i) In chub qarib-i 
chahdr araj ast [araj lit. elbow]. 

Cuckold, qurumsdq (wittingly or unwitting- 
ly) ; dayyus (one who is pimp to his own 
wife) ; zan-kussa (but zan-i kussu a wo- 
man who goes to any man). 

Cucumber, khiydr (gen. term); bdlang and 
khiydr-i charnbar (long) ; and khiydr-i dbl 
(small) (these are names of varieties). 

Cud, to chew, mushkhwdr^ kardan: tchadd- 
vlsh k. (vulg.). 

Cue, ishdra; ma* (hint). 

Cuff, *" sill or tu-gushi or tapdncha (z.) (a slap 
or box on the ears) ; tu-sarl [z.) (slap on 
the top of the head) ; pas-i gardanl (2.) 
(on the back of the neck). 

Cuirass, chEr-d^ina (of four pieces ; for breast 
only) ; jawshan or zira (or zirih) (coat of 

Cul de sac. Vide Alley. 

Cull; chidan (of flowers; to pick up grain); 
intikhdb k. (to select). 

Cullender, chilo-sdfl; pdluna. 

Culpable, mustahiqq-i (or ld%q-i) maldmat ; 
mazmum (blamed). 

Culprit, muqassir (gen.) ; khatd-kdr (gen.) ; 
mujrim (of crime). 

Cultivate, to, kdshtan (to sow) ; kisht-kdrl k.; 
zird'atk.; mazru' k. Vide Talent. 

Cultivated, kdshta or kdshta shuda; mazru' ; 
dbdd (populated and hence sometimes culti- 

Cultivation, zird'at; dbddl-hd (populated 

Cultivator, kishtdvarz ; kisht-kdr ; zdri% pi. 
zdri'ln; falldh, pi. jalldhln. 

I Compare chiimn girya kard ki dil-i sang ab shud. 

4 Lih is applied to meat cooked to a pulp, in which state it is much liked bj' Persians. 

8 Hallelujah. 

* Vulgar for chi-at. 

6 Nushkhifar is also applied to uneaten remnants of straw left in a manger. 

6 Kaff zadan = " to clap the hands." 




Cumin or Cummin seed, kamun zlra ' ; zira 
bi-kirmdn burdan (prov.; = to carry coals 
to Newcastle). 

Cuneiform, khutut-i niikht (writing used be- 
fore Zardusht ; still found in old inscrip- 
tions) ; khait-i Pahlavi (simpler and later 
than former). 

Cunning, kila-var or muhtl u makkdr (tricky 
in bad sense) ; ziriruj and hushyar (of 
animals, children, etc.); duzd (of old 
hawks or hounds). 

Cup, piyala (a soup-cup) ; kdsa (larger than 
piydla) ; qadah (larger than kdsa); chdhl'^ 
tu-yi finjdn va nalhakl mi-khurand ; istikdn 
(small tea cup or glass) ; jdm ; jdm-i Jam 
har-chi dar dunyd vdqi' mi-shud dar on 
nunidydn bud^. Vide Bowl, Glass. 

Cup, to, khun qiriftan; hajdmat k. (on the 
bick of the neck or between the shoul- 
ders) ; fasd k. (to open the vein in the 
el 1)0 w). Vide To bleed. 

Cup-bearer, sdqi ; aydgirchi (one in charge 
of cups and china; a dish-washer and 
lan.p-cleaner) ; db-ddr (the tea-maker ; 
also a servant in charge of drinks) ; qahva- 
chl (makes coffee and prepares pipes*;. 

Cupboard, duldh or ganjina (in a wall) ; 
taqcJia (an open recess in the wall) ; mdst- 
ddn (=a meat safe). 

Cupola, (fumbad or gumbaz (the big dome in 
centre;, and qubba (smaller domes that 
match it; in mosques, tombs of saints). 

Cupper, hajdmat kun; hajjdm^. 

Cupping, hajdmat {k.) **. Vide To cup. 

Cupping-glass, shdkh-i hajdmut. 

Curable, 'ddj-pazir; darmdn-pazir ; qdbil-i 
mu'dlaja; in bimdri chdq shudanl ast. 

Curb, dahami (bit) ; sadd (curb-stone). 

Curb, to, khwdhisMt-i nafsdnl rd jilo-giri k. 
(curb the passions) ; sabr az dast ma-dih 
(curb your impatience). 

Curd, Curds, mast ; kashk (a kind of dried 

Curdle, to, banian, intr. (also to congeal, 
q.v.) ; shtr bast va mast shud; sift shudan. 

Curdling, bastagt. Vide Congeal. 
Cure, to, mu'dlaja k. (this also means treat- 
ment) ; chdq k. (vulg.) ; iltiydm yaftan (of 
wound or sore) ; bih shudan ; bi-dast-i an 

ta^ib"^ ahifd ydfta am (but az an payffAam 

bar shifd ydfta am, I am cured by that 
Prophet's miracle) ; bi-namak or bi-ab-i 

namak khwdbdnidan (to put meat in salt) ; 

dudl k. (to smoke; cheese, meat, etc.). 
Cured, mu'dlaja shuda; shifd ydfta; sihhat 

ydfta; chaq shuda (vulg.). 
Cureless, la 'ildj ; bi-darmdn ; in mara:^ 'ilaj- 

paztr nist; az ildj guzashta. 
Curfew, Tabl-i si rd zada and (about 3 hours 

after sunset, as a warning^). 
Curiosities, nafisdt, better nafd^is ; chtz-hd-yi- 

Curiosity, kunj-kdm or kunj u kdvi (prying); 

fuzuli {.meddling) ; rdz-ju^ , " he is as full 

of curiosity as a woman, misl-i zandn kunj- 
kdm mi-hinad. 
Curious, mz-?M ; kunj'kdv{\nq\x\s\i\ve); fazul 

(meddling); gtarib ; 'a jib {rare; strange); 

" this is a curious shell," in 'ajab saduf-i 

^st; [gush-i mdhi, small shell, q.v.]. 
Curl, zulf (long black curls ; gen. of men) ; 

gisu (long black hair ; now gen. of women) ; 

pich u tab (of rope, etc. Vide Twist, 

Curl, to, tab dddan ; pich dddan (of hair) ; 

pichidan, intr. 
Curly, chin chin ; shikan shikan ; pur-shikan 

(wavy); [pich pich , cnrVy or matted; but 

zulf-ash pich u kham ddrad] ; kham ddrad 

or pich ddrad (of hair). 
Currants, sagak-angur. 
Currency, puUi rd%j or puUi ravdj (current 

Current, adj., jdri ; raHj ; in pul az ravdj 

uftdda ast (of coin) ; in masal mutaddvil 

ast ; in lafz mudta'mal nist, matruk ast. 
Current (stream) , jaraydn or sayl (flowing of 

water) . 
Currier, dahbdgh- 
Curry, sdlun. 

t Zira-yi sabz is the variety used in Indian curries. 
2 For chay. 

8 Jam-i Jam, the cup or mirror of Jamshid, Solomon, or Alexander: it represented the universe, 
and hence is frequently styled jam-i jahan- (or glti-) numa. 

* Servants who hand round dishes are plsh-khidmat. 

* Not " barber," as in India 

s Not shaving, etc., a& in India. 
"^ Piziahh, old Persian, is used by Armenians. 

8 At tfibl-i chahar (four hours after sunset) no one can— theoretically— leave his house. The 
countersign is called iam-i ahab. 




Curry, to, dahhdgB k. (leather). 

Curry-comb, qashaw {k.). 

Currying, dahbaghl {k.) (leather); iiniar (k.) 
(horse) . 

Curse, la'n {k. or firistadan) ; la'nai {k.) ; 
nafrin {k.) (by God sp., but also to abuse) ; 
du'd-yi bad {k.) (of man only). 

Curse, la'nat k.^ (by God, also = to abuse, 
revile) ; nafrin kJ (of God or man) ; du'd-yi 
bad (or bad du'd) k. (by man) ; go to any 
d — d place you like, ziidl bi-har jaJian- 
nam-i ki mi-khivdhl bi-raw ; rni-iarsidam 
ki shdyad du'd-yi bad bi-kunand ki — (Prot. 
S. T.). Vide Tongue and Revile. 

Cursed, maVun and la' in (p.p.) ; sag-pidar ; 
pidar-sukhta (abuse). 

Cursory, sarsari; nigdh-i sarsarl. 

Curt, durusht ; sakht (uncourteous) ; javab-i 
khtLsh u khdll (short and flat refusal). 

Curtail, to, kutdh k. ; mukhiasar k. (of 
words) ; kam k. or qaP k. (of expenses). 

Curtailing, ikhtisdr; qaP . 

Curtain, pasha-ddn (mosquito) ; parda (for 
door- way) ; parda bald raft (of theatre). 

Curve, qaws ; khatt-i qawsl (curved line). 

Curved, hildll or muqavvas ; hildU. 

Cushion, pushtl (for back) : muttakd (large 
bolster; often of green velvet); bdlish (a 
pillow; often a small one placed on the 
muilakd to preserve it). Vide Pin-cushion. 

Custard-apple, sharifa (Indian). 

Custodian, mutavalli ( — of a shrine) and 
mutavalli-bdshi (chief custodian) ; nigdh- 

Custody, kifdzat; havdla; sipurd; 7iigdh-darl 
(charge) ; giriftdrl (of prisoner) ; qayd 

Custom, rasm (pi. rusum; and double pi. 
rusurmt) ; rah u rasm; raviya; qd'ida; 
shiva; tarlq; 'ddat, pi. 'ddnt (habit); In 
rasm ravdj ydfta ast; hasb^'r-rasm (ac- 
cording to custom) ; m rasm chi tawr 
pay da (or bar pa) shuda? dastur guzdshtan 
(to originate) ; az miydn bar-ddshtan or 
mawquf k. (to abolish). 

Cnsiomaxy, mutaddvil ; rasml"^ ; shuyu' ddrad. 

Customer, mushtarl^ (also purchaser, q.v.) ; 
ahl-i ruju' (distant clients ; in trade only) . 

Custom-house, gumruk-khdna. 

Customs, gumruk ; gumruk-chi (customs 
official) ; yak-zabdn shuda bind kardand bi- 
bad-guS-yi shdh-bandar — Prof. S. T. (with 
one accord they began to abuse the Port 
Comm.issioner ) . 

Cut, burish (of dress, beard) ; frdnsam burish 
(of French cut); zarb (blow, of sword, 

Cut, to, buridan ; qaV k. ; qaynchl k. (with 
scissors); tardshidan (of a jewel or a pen); 
du mm k. (cut in two) ; hich mahall-am I 
na-guzdsht (he cut me, he paid no atten- / 
tion to me); "you have so cut this per^ 
that one cannot write with it," qalam rS 
In tawr qaV kardid ki bd dn na.nn4avd/i 
navisht; ' his father has cut him off wiih 
a shilling," pidar-ash urd 'dqq karda ^st 
(disowned him); "he severed his haiids 
with one cut," shamshir-i zad ki har du 
dast-ash qalam shud. Vide Ignorance 

Cutler, sayqal-gar ; shamshir-sdz ; chdqu-sdz, 

Cutlery, shamshir-gari {k.); chdqu-sdz^ (k.) 
(makhig knives, etc.). 

Cut-purse, Idsa-bur ; jib-bur. 

Cutter, jahdz-i yak dagali (ship) ; hakkflk (of 

Cutting, (of plants), qalam (k.). 

Cycle, dawr (ddrad). 

Cylinder, lula (roll). 

Cymbals, sinj or sanj (of metal) J chakh- 
chakhl (of wood). / 

Cynosure, qibla-yi nigdh-i hama shutjam. 

Cypher, if you add a naught tt> one it 
makes ten, agar yak sifr bi-yak zhdd kunid 
dah mi-shavad, or 'adad-i yak ad sifr dah 
ml-shavad; khatt-i ramz; ramt (cypher, 
code, q.v.). 

Cypress, sarv ; jawz-i sarv (cone of); sarv-i 
dzdd; sarv-i kuhi (species). 

Cyprus, Qahris or Qubrus. 

Cyrus, Kisrq; Kurush (in Bible). 

Czar, Impardtur-i Bus. 

Czarina, Impardtris-i Rus. 


Dagger, qama (large straight knife) ; dishna 
(a large pointed knife with single edge) ; 

1 La^nat fc., stronger than nafrin k.; la'nat bar u; Wnat-i Khuda bar u: nafrin = du'a-yi bad. 
Nafrin from na-afrin, 

2 iJasAi », m.c, often means '-common" as gurba-yi rasml, "the common cat." It also means 
" official " (of acts or of dress). 

S In India only " buyer ' ' but in Persia also a customer at a bath, coffee shop, barber's shop, etc., 




du qab:}a khanjar daram (1 have two CHrved 

Dahlia, (jul-i kawkab. 

Daily, ruzarut (adj.) ; rSz-i, or Jiar ruz-x (adv.) ; 
yavmiiyya (daily allowance) ; ndn-i ruzdna, 
or rizq (daily bread from God). 

Dale, julga ; vddi (a valley or water-course, 
dry or otherwise) ; darra (a pass). Vide 

Dcim, sadd. Vide Embankment. 

Dam, to, sadd k. ; masdud sakhtan. 

Damage, ziydn ; zarar ; nuqsdn ; dya hi-hdr-i 
jahdz ayh rasida? 

Damaged, ayh karda ; ma'yuh; dh-khurda 
\ b}' water ; in a ship) . 

Damaghan, Ddmag^n. 

Damascus, Dimashq or Dimishq. 

Damietta, Dimydt. 

Damn, haclicha zlr-l khdk bi-ravad/ magar 
dram mx-girad? (damn that child; she 
won't stay still ifor a second); gur-i pi- 
dar-i patlun (damn the cost of the trou- 
sers) ; ' ' damn his coming ; I dislike the 
fellow," bi-Jahannam (or bi-Darak) ki 
mardaka bi-ydyad, man az ru^yat-i u bad- 
am mi-dyad. 

Damp, namriJdk; tnartub (adj.); ruiubat ; 
namt (subs.); in khdna rutubat ddrad. 

Dance, raqs ; majUs-i raqs or majlis-i hdl ; 
raqs, or mujlis-i hdl u qdl (of dervishes). 

Dance, to, raqs k. ; raqqdsi k. (of the pro- 
fession) ; jast u khtz (of monkeys) ; m,isl-i 
khirs raqs ml-kunad; vaqt-i khud rd dar 
sard^idan va raqstdan ' sarf ml-kunand 
(they spend their time singing and danc- 

Dancer, raqqds ; band-bdz or rlsindn-bdz (on 
tight rope). 

Dandriff, kivla or kula (also scab). 

Dandy ; vide Old man ; qashang. 

Danger, khatar ; kJiatra ; mukhdtara ; chird 
mt-tarsid? hich khawf u khaUir nist; bi- 
pd-yi khud dar gur dmzidam — Prof. S. T. 
(I walked into the jaws of death or this 

Dangerous, khatar-ndk; khawf -ndk ; muhlik 

Dangle, to, 'aqab-i an zan ma-yuft. 

Daniel, Ddnyal. 

Danube, liinl-khdnu-yi jMinUb. 

Dapple-grey, sah>i gul-dar. 

Dardanelles, liiiijhdz-i l)aryd-yi Siyah. 

Dare, jur^al^ iia-ddram (I dare not); shumd 
chi harld ddrid in kdr rd bi-kunid (how 
dare you do fuch a thing). 

Dare-devil, sliaytan ma-tars. 

Darius, JJdrd. 

Daring, jasdral ; bi-bdii (nubs.) ; jasUr (gen. 
in a bad 

Dark, tdrikl ; zulmal ; tiragi (subs.) ; tarik; 
lira or r.rng-i sir (deep ; of colour) ; in 
rang purgirifla asi (this colour is too dark) , 
(R-shab idrikx-yi zulurml^ hud; ham tank 
shud (it got dark). 

Darkness, <anH,- tiragi; zulnuU; " they are 
in spiritual darkness," ishan dar zulmat 
mustagbraq and = dar gum-rdhi hastand. 

Darling, Jan-am! (mother to child, lover to 
mistress) ; mahbuh or iruvshuq (mistress). 

Darn, Darning, raju (k.) ; u chunin rafu khxpd- 
had kard ki hich kas na-khtvdhad fahmid — 
Prof. S. T. (he will dam it so skilfully 
that the darn will be imperceptible). 

Dart, jarid (used in play). 

Dash, khatt (Hne) ; 'aldmat; yak-dmizisJi^i (a 
trace of — ; but for wine or scent, 6u*I). 

Dash, pari or partdb k. (to dash on the 
ground) ; u khud rd bi-biydbdn zad (he 
dashed off to the desert). 

Dashing, tasddum (of waves). 

Date, khurmd; khdrak (dried; used in 
pickles) ; nakhl (date-palm) ; rutab (fresh 
dates*); nakhlistdn (date grove); lif-i 
khurmd (fibre) ; tdrikh (time) ; tdrikh-i 
navishta-ash chist (what is the date of his 
letter) ; ra^s-i va'da (a promised date of 

Datura, idtura. 

Daughter, dukhtar ; 'arus (daughter-in-law). 

Dauntlessly, bi-muhdbd (in good or bad 
sense; also mercilessly bi-muhdbd urd zad) : 
bi- or bi-dun-i daghdagha (in good or bad 
sense). Vide Demur. 

David, Dd^ud. 

Dawn, sahar-gdh (or sahar) bar mi-khizam; 
di-shab sahar biddr shudam (I awoke before 
dawn this morning) ; * dam-i svbh (just at 

1 Persian Infinitive from Arabic root. 

2 Written »f>». or of, 

(f^ or c:*f j^. 

3 Darkness ; a dark place penetrated by Alexander in search of the water of lif©- 

* Dates are essentially a Muslim fruit; the date and the water-melon were the Prophet s lavounte 
fruits. .Muslims are said to have conquered every country where the date is found. 

* The night comes before the day. 





Dawn, to, dftab nlsh zad. 

Day, imruz subk (this morning after dawn) ; 
ruz ; yawm (rare; pi. ay yam ' time ') ; yak 
sltahana-ruz (of 24 hours) ; sa'at-i chand 
ast? (what time of da,y'^.);Jardd-yi ruz-i 
digar (the third day); hava saf ast (it's a 
fine day) ; ruz bi-ruz (day by day) ; dar 
hi ruz-hd, or ayydm (nowadays) ; ruz-i 
rushan (in broad day) ; ruz-i tang or ruz-i 
ma-bddd (a ' rainy day ') ; shash ruz muhlat 
ydfta-am (I have got six days' grace); 
yawm"" fa-yawm"" (day by day). 

Day-book, ruz-rmmcha (but ruz-nama '■ news- 
paper ' ) . 

Day-break, safidu-yi subh. 

Dazzle, to, chashm rd khira k. or chashm ra 
zadan; [Idnra nigdh k., to stare; q.v.]. 

Dazzling, chashm-khira-kun^ 

Dead, murda, pi. murdagdn; guzashtagan ; 
amvdt (sing, mxiyyit) (the dead) ; bismil ' 
or nim bismil (Afghan, slaughtered; half 
dead) ; mdr-i murda-i kindr-i rah dldam ; 
ihyd-yi amvdt va imdtat-i aliyd^ (raising 
tiie dead and slaying the living) ; jawt 
shuda ('late'; of any man); marhum, 
fern., Tuarhuma (prop, tor Muslims only, 
but often by Persians applied also to cer- 
tain non-Mushms) ; mutavaffq (deceased ; 
of non-Muslims, except as a law-term); 
shah rndt (checkmate ; lit. ' the Shah is 
dead'; vide Check); Jasr-hd-yi Panj- 
shamba ahl-i shahr bi-ziyarat-i"^ ahl-i qubur 
ml-ravand chi khiydl mi-kunand az subh-i 
Panj-sharnba td zuhr-i jum'a dar-hd-yi 
bihisht bdz ast (on Thursday afternoon, 
the city people visit the graves, they 
believe that the gates of heaven are open 
from Thursday morning till Friday noon). 

Dead Sea, Bahr-i Litt ; Bahr-i Zift. 

Deadly, zahr-i qdtil (deadly poison) ; zarb-i 
muhlik-i zad (he gave him a deadly blow). 

Deaf, " he's q;iite deaf," gush-ash kar ast; 
hich naml-tavdnad bi-shinavad ; gush-ash 
sangin ast (he's hard of hearing). 

Deal, bd kas-l suluk k. or rajtdr k. (to treat, 
q.v.) ; mu'dmala k. (commercial) ; az ru-yi 
anrnnat (or imjdn-djdrl) bd hama kas pish 
ml-dyad (he deals justly with all). 

Dealer,'^ jdn-bdz and jarn-bdz (horse-dealer) ; 

vide Merchant, nakhkhds Ar. (rare) (in 
horses, cattle or slaves). 

Dealings, mu'dmaldt (pi.; commercial); bd 
fuldn zan rdh u rasm ddrad (in a bad 
sense) . 

Dear, girdn ; girdn-bahd (dear in price) ; 
gimaii (costly) ; bi-rdy-i banda khayli girdn 
bud or qimat-ash girdn bud (I think it was 
very dear 'in price'); 'aziz; mahbub 
(beloved) ; ay jdn or jdn-am (my dear !) ; * 
^aziz-i dil-am ast or urd khayli dust mi- 

Dearth, kami ; qillat; tangi ; gh ald^: khushk- 
sdli (famine) ; magar shawhar bardy-i man 
qakt-a^? (vulg. ; "is there a dearth of 
husbands ? i.e., don't fash yourself: I can 
pick elsewhere "). 

Death, margf; mawt; a/aZ (prop, the appoint- 
ed time of death) ; marg-i mujdjdt (sudden 
death); khwdb barddar-i marg ast; jdn 
kandan or naz' or sakardt (the pains of 
death) ; bl-ajal murdam — Prof. S. T. (I 
died of fright) ; yd takht yd takhta '^ (death 
or glory) ; az pilla-yi takht bi-pd-yi takhta 
dmad (of the death of a great man) : dar 
hdlat-i naz' bud = dar hdlat-i jdn kandan 
bud (he was in the agonies of death) ; 
marg rd bi-chashm-i khud dldam — Prof. 
S. T. (I saw death close in front of me) ; 
saldt-kash (a mulla who announces death 
from the roof) ; bistar-i marg (death-bed) ; 
kharkhara-yi marg (death rattle) ; dam-i 
marg ast (he's at death's door). 

Debarred, mahrum {k.) ; mamnu' (k.). 

Debase, to, zalil or khwdr k. (of people); 
makhlut or magkshush k. (adulterate any? 

Debasement, 2)as^«; zillat ; khipdri. 

Debatable, bahs-pazn.^ 

Debate, bahs k. ; mubdhasa k. ; muzakara k. ; 
mushdvara k. (consulting together). 

Debauchee, khardbdti ; 'ayydsh. 

Debauchery, harza-kdri va 'ayydshi. 

Debilitated, za'if ; az quvvat uftdda; badan- 
ash db shud or bunya-ash rafta ast. 

Debility, naqdJiat; zu'f (for ?a'/). 

Debit, bi-dih. 

Debt, talab az u ddram (he is in debt to me) ; 
bi-dih; duyun (pi. of dayn, but in m.c. 

1 Contr. of bismi^llah. 

2 Certain chapters of the Qur'^an are read, either by the relatives or by a hired deputy. 

5 Sometimes applied to a sharper. 

* Plah-i hama kas 'azlz, " popular " ; in India har-dil-'azlz. 

6 Qahi-a (now vulg.) = qaht, ast. 
t> Takhta = " p\ank ; i.e., bier." 




used in pi. only) ; u viaqru^ (oi iidrz-iliir) 
shuda or qarz haUi avurda (he is in debt) ; 
add k. or bi-dih-i khud rd dddan (to pay 

Debtor, qarz-ddr kas-% hast hi qarz ddrad; 
nuiqruz-am hast (he is my debtor) ; u bi- 
dih-kdr-i man ast; du turndn bi-u bi-dih- 
kdr-am (I owe him two tumans) ; dd^in u 
nmdyun (creditor and debtor). 

Decadence, zavdl. Vide Decline. 

Decanter, kantar (Eur.); tung. 

Decapitate, sar buridan (with knife) ; gardan 
zadati (with sword) ; duslt^ash rd az girdnl- 
yi sar sahuk mkht. Vide Execute. 

Decay, pusidagl (of wood, fruit, bodies); 
zavdl (decline) ; fund (passing away). 

Decayed, pusida ; kirm khurda or pusida (of 

Deceased, marhum (prop, of Muslims by 
Muslims); mutavaffa (gen.). Vide Dead 
and Late. 

Deceit, fartb {d.}; talbis (k.) ; 'ayydri (k.) ; 
kuk u kalak {z.) (trick): gul (2.); 7nakr u 
fartb {k.) ; taqallub {k.) ; shira bur sar-ash 
mdlidam (I took him in). Vids Cheat, 

Deceitful, hlla-var ; hlla-baz ; pur- fartb ; 
'ayydr; gul-zan ; mahkdr. 

Deceive, fariftan (rt. fartb) , vide Deceit : 
rang-ash kardand (he was taken in) ; 
tukh7n-i laq tu-yi dahan-ash shikastand (he 
was deceived by vain promises). 

Deceived, magkbun (cheated) ; az dnhd gul 
khurdid (you were deceived by them) ; 
gul-khurda; farxb-khurda. 

Deceiver, fanbanda; muhil. 

December, nmh-i Disdmbar musddif-i bi-Day 

Decent. Vide Respectable. 

Deception, fartb; talbld ; taqallub, etc. Vide 

Decide, khatm k. (to finish); raf' u ruju'-i 
amr-i k. (of dispute, etc.); bi-guzdr ki 
infi,sd.l-i in amr rd bi-kunad (or fay sal 
dihad) ; rnan bi-raftan-i Kalkatta yak-jihat 
gashtam (I decided to go to Calcutta) = 
man qaV kar da-am ki bi- Kalkatta bi- 
ravam) ; yak qardr-dad-i bi-guzdnd (come 
to a fixed decision). Vide Idea and 

Decided, hcUml or qai'i. 

Decimal, qd^tda-yi u^hur (tin- decimal wvk- 
tern) ; kumr-i aufhdr (deciuial fractions). 

Decision, hukm ; fatvq. (of Mujlahids) ; iMiftd*^ 
k. (to ask a leji^al decision from a Mujta- 
hid); (Uir miydn-i md tasdtq bi-kuntd {a&y 
which of us is right); muhdkama (umpir- 
ing; deciding between two); 'azm, deter- 

Decisive, qat'l; jang-i burd u bdkht-i kardand 
(the}^ fought a decisive battle). 

Deck, sath or 'arsha-yi kishti ; 'arsha-yi mim- 
bar (top step and seat of the pulpit M. 

Decked, drdsta u pirdsia ; muzayyan (adorn- 
ed). Vide Adorned, Ornamented, Em- 
bellished; Apparelled. 

Declaration, i'ldn (k.) : ishtihdr dddan (rare 
in Persia) ; i'ldm (k.) (to make public, 
advertise) ; i'ldn-i harb or jaTig (declara- 
tion of war). 

Declare, guftan or yaqin guftan (assure). 
Vide Infra. 

Declension, tasrif (k.) or gardan {k.) (gram- 

Declination, mayl (leaning over) ; zavdl (of 
sun, etc.) ; inhirdf (astron.). 

Decline, to, rdzt na-shudan ; qabul na-kardan , 
radd k. (invitation); "I invited him but 
he declined" urd da' vat kardam likin 
inkdr kard~ ; zavdl k. (of sun, prosperity, 
etc.) ; tanazzul k. (of goods) ; tasrif k. 
(grammar); itihirdf k. or munharif sh. (to 
decline from the right course) ; kdstan 

Declivity, nishib or shib, adj. and subs. ; sar- 
d-shib, adj. ; sar-d-zir, adj. 

Decoction, jushdnda (boiled). Vide Mixture. 

Decompose, to, pusidan ; ta'affun k. ; tajzi'a 
namudan (chem.). 

Decomposed, pusida ; gandida. 

Decomposition, gandidagi ; pusidagi ; tafzi^a 

Decorate, drdstan ; pirdstan ; zib d. ; tazyin 
k. Vide Embellish, Adorn, Ornament; 

Decorated, drdsta; ptrdsta; muzayyan; 
hdmil-i nishdn (with an order). 

Decoration, zinat (d.) (beautify); imtiydz or 
nishdn (order) or nishdn-i iftikhdr ; Pddi- 
shdh ^ barkhdsta bi-dast-i khud-i sMn nishdn 
rd bi-md zadand (Shah's Diary). 

Decoy, murg^i dam (bird). Vide Bait. 

1 Except on special occasions a Muslim preacher sits. 
'2 Inkar k. also = " to deny. ' ' 
^ Referring to Queen Victoria. 




Decrease, to, tahhfij dadan or katn kardan, 
tr. ; kdstan (intr.) ; kam shudan: tahhfij 
yajtan; ruz bi-ruz nirkh-i an chlz pdyin 
mi-dyad or mt-uftad, or nirkh-ash shikasta 
shud ( = it declines daily in price, etc.). 
Vide Decline. 

Decree, amr ; kukm jdrl (or sddir or ddda) 
shud; fatvq (Ijy a mufti) ; muhdkama (arbi- 
tration) ; qazd-yi Ildhl or taqdir-i rabbdnt 
(of Providence). 

Decreed, muqaddar (by Providence) ; maqsum 

Decrepit, pir-i mard-i fartut (man) ; hhirif ' 
(dotard) ; pir-i navad-sdla ( = very old). 

Deduce, istimhdt k. (reasoning) ; istidldl k. ; 
natija giriftan or bar dvurdan; istihhrdj-i 
matlah k. 

Deduct, vaz' k. ; min-hd k. (substract) ; az 
hisdh-ash kam ml-kunam (I'll deduct it 
from his account). 

Deed, kdr ; 'amal; fvl, pi. af'dl; harakat 
(action) ; daat-dviz (any written deed) ; 
qahdla (title-deed) ; tamlik-ndma (Afghan) 
or hiba-ndma (deed of gift) ; kdbin-ndma 
( — of marriage) ; vakil-ash bd chap u chup 
va hild bila hiba-ndma-i durust karda ast 
(her agent by wile and guile and hocus 
pocus has prepared a deed). Vide Bond. 

Deep, zharj (rare in m.c); gawd; 'amiq; in 
hawz chand holla '^ db ddrad ? 

Deer, dhu P., gkaz^l Ar. , jayrdn T. (gazelle; 
the ' ravine deer ' of Anglo-Indians) ; 
gavzan (fallow-deer; vide Stag). 

Deface, mahv k. or pdk k. (efface, q.v.); 
Tnahq k. (erase, q.v.); khardb k. (deface, 
q.v.). Fic?e Obliterate. 

Defacement, Vide Erase, Spoil. 

Defamation, bad-ndmi ; iftird (bastan) (calum- 
niate, q.v.) ; tuhmat (zadan) (to make a 
false accusation) ; buhtdn {zadan) (to 
calumniate) ; bi-dbru k. or dbru-rizi k. (to 
disgrace by words or deeds) ; (jhibat (k.) 
(backbiting ; true or otherwise) ; nam^ 
tndmi (k.) or sukhan-chini {k.) (carrying 
tales of the other to each of two or more 
parties). Vide Calumny and Slander. 

Defame, to, bad-ndm k. ; hatk-i 'irz k. ; az 
shu^un^ kdstan; qadh k. (any one); qazf 

k. (defaming a virtuous woman) ; dbru 
rikhtan (publicly disgrace). 

Default, bi-'adam-i — (in default of — ). 

Defaulter, qdsir. 

Defeat, shikast d. ; maghly-b sdkhtan; munha- 
zim k. (to make to flee) ; taskhir or niusa- 
khkhar k. (to subjugate). 

Deieated, shikast khurda ; magMub ; maqhur ; 
mucakhkhar (subjugated). 

Defect, khardbi ; ' ayb , pi. ' uyub ; manqasat : 
kasr (deficiency) ; kdst (loss in value) ; 
dyd dar in hich 'ayb u naqs-i mi-bini? 

Defective, ndqis ; nd-tamdm ; nd-mukammal ; 
ma'yub and ndqis* (both terms also 
applied to crippled, or injured, or bhnd 

Defence, muddfa'a {k.) ; muqdbala {k.) (face, 
oppose) ; hijdzat {k.) (prop, to protect) ; 
javdb-da'va {pish k.) (in law); dar divdn- 
khdna (or istintdq) 'uzr dvurd or daldHUi 
muvajjah pish dvurd (he made a reason- 
able defence in court). 

Defenceless, g]iayr-i mahfuz or bi-hifdzat ; 
bi-pandh-am (I'm a defenceless creature); 
u kas-i rd na-ddrad; man bi-dast u pd am; 
pushti na-ddram (I have no helper). 

Defendable, hifz-pazir ; 'uzr-pazir (of con- 

Defendant, harj-i mudda'i va mudda'q 'alayh 
shunida ^ shud : [izhdrdt ' statements ']. 

Defended, mahfuz (protected) ; mahrus 
(guarded) ; qal'a az daraja-yi hifdzat guz- 
ashta ast (the fort can no longer be held, 
defended) . 

Defender, hdfiz^ (of fort; guardian); hdmi 
(by words) ; ghdzi (relig. warrior) ; Hdmi- 
y"- 'l-Millat va'd-Din (title assumed by 
Amir of Afghanistan). 

Defensive, difd' k. (to act on the defensive) ; 
mahaU-i difd'i (defensive position). Vide 

Defer, bi-ta'viq (or 'aqab) anddkhtan; taskhir 
k. ; bardy-i chand ruz pas anddkht; Tnan 
bd shumd dar in bob hujjat numi-kunam (I 
defer to your superior knowledge — ' but I 
think I am right '). 

Deference, bi-ihtirdm-i rdy-i ishdn (out of 
deference to his opinion). 

' For Jcharif. 

'2 Kalla, a man's stature. 

ft PI. of sh^'an. 

* Naqis in India "spoilt and useless." 

6 In m.c. also pronounced mudda^iy^' 'alayh. 

•» Hafiz also ' one who has learnt the Qur'^an by heart,' and hence in India " a blind man." 





Deficient, kam ; kasr ; dah kitab kasr ast 
(there are ten books deficient) ; tayifu-yi 
utMS naqis"H-'aql and. 

Deficiency, kanil ; kasr ; kam-rasi (deficiency 
in ability) ; iafnt (opp. to ifrdt " excess ") ; 
tamam na-budan or kamil na-budan. 

Defile, subs. , ianga (narrow) ; darra (big ; 
vide Valley) ; tang-i makhuf (a dangerous 
defile) ; kutul or kaduk (the steep road 
over a pass) ; gardan (a pass) . 

Defile, to, yak-l yak-% amadan or dajila k. (to 
file, of troops); aludan; mulaiwas k. 
(make dirty) ; najis k. or nd-pdk k. 
(relig.) ; [gusht rd qima sdkhta bd du zarda- 
yi tukhm-i murgh dluda kun (cookery re- 

Defiled, paJtd (gen.) ; najis (relig.) ; mulav- 

Defilement, paEdi ; nd-pdki; najis ^ budan; 
laios; dldyish or dludagi (mixing some- 
thing bad with). 

Define, to, ta'nf k. 

Definite, sarih (answer) ; mu^ayyan or durust 
(plan) ; mu'arraf (gram.) ; tsm-i ma'rifa (a 
definite noun) ; harf-i ta'rif (definite arti- 
cle). Fic?e Clear, Decisive. 

Definition, sharh-i ma'ni (for ma'nq) ; ta'rif ; 
hudud-i Uqltdus (definitions of Euclid). 

Deflower, bakdrat giriftan ; muhr bar ddshtan 

Deformed, badrtarkib ; ma'yub; jisniri an 
zan ndqis" H-Jchilqat ast (she is deformed). 

Deformity, 'ayb ddrad dar jism. 

Defraud, magibun k. Vide Cheat. 

Defray, to, ad^ k. ; khari-i ta'Um-ash rd man 
rm-diham ; mutahammil-i ihhrdidt-i u tnan 

Defy, to, u mard jirr''- kard ki bi-zanum-ash 
(he defied or dared me to beat him) ; in 
shdgird bd man sar-kashi mi-kunad ru bi- 
ru-yam mi-istad (this pupil defies me, 
answers me, q.v.) ; bi-raw bi-Pddishdh bi- 
gu fikr-i nun kun ki hhatbuza db ast (go 
and tell your King to think about prepar- 
ing his bread because melons turn to 
water ^) . 

Degenerate, Tui-Tchalaf (undutiful, of son or a 
millat but not of a mulk). Ft'cfe Depraved. 

Degrade, az manmit anddkhian; jjost ut 

zalll k. 
Degrading, bd'ia4 ntujUUi i'tibdr; in kar-i 

past (or zalil*) ast. 

Degree, daraja (rank, degree of thermometer, 
circle, etc.) ; tahag {storey of house; floor; 
generation) ; qadr or miqdnr (quantity) ; 
mxirtaba (rank ; storey of house) ; kam 
kam; rafta rajta ; darja bi-darja; piUa 
bi-pilla; toc/rt;'»" (by degrees) ; bi-ffj^yat or 
bi-nihdyat (to the last degree). 

Deity, Khudd ; Rabb ; Allah (God); Ma' bud 
(of any religion) ; Khudd'^i (Godhead) ; 
kas-i qddir nist ki bi-uluhiyyat pay 

Dejected, malul ; afsurda; dil-iang ; " he is 
dejected" diUi u khayli dzurda ast; dil- 
ash sard ast ; pazhmurda-khdtir . 

Dejectedly. Vide Disappointedly. 

Delay, mu'attali {k.) ; gir k. (to wait, be 
delayed^); ta'viq k. ; dar in amr ta^Mnr-i 
bisydr ast ; tavaqquf (k.) (stopping) ; bt- 
dirang ; bi-ld ta^khlr ; 'ijdlat"' (without 
dela}^) . 

Delegate, ndHb ; valdl. 

Deliberate, this is my deliberate opinion, 
in ra^y-i sanjtda-am ast ; bd ta^anni, opp. 
to 6a ta'jll); sanjtdan (to deliberate on, 
weigh) . 

Deliberately, dida u ddnista; ikhtiydri = 
'amd"" (intentionally) ; sanjida u jahmida. 

Deliberation, sanjidagi; muvdzana (think- 
ing); tadbir; ta^anni (opp. to 'ajala 
" hurry ") ; ihtiydt (circumspection). 

Delicacies, lazdHz. 

Delicacy, latdfat u zardfat (m.c. daintiness, 
neatness, etc.; of a woman) ; nazakat (of 
form ; also of delicate health). 

Delicate, ndzuk ; latij^ ; nakif (m health); 
ndzuk-mimj (gets ill or angry with slight 
cause) ; imruz-hd Mirzd Ndzuki shv4a-i 
(you have become verj' delicate and 
dainty lately) . 

Delicious, khush-gavdr or kkttsh^maza ; in 
luqma-yi laziz-i 'st (delicious morsel) ; in 
'ajab miva-i 'st (this is a delicious fruit). 

Delight, lazzat (burdan) ; hazz (i.), intr., and 
lazzat {dddan),tv. ; tarab {b. or k.) ; farman- 

The best kind of melons ' dissolves ' and spoils 

1 Najcuat, dirt, filth ; also a polite word for ordure. 

2 Jirr, lit. to chafF, tease, annoy. 
S i.e., tell him to inind his own affairs, I defy him. 

very soon after it is opened. 

* In Arabic zalil is confined to persons. 

8 From the idea of sticking; arra gir kard, " the saw stuck " ; qalam gir kard, etc. 

8 Zarif Ar. " witty " ; in Pers. m.c. signifies ** neat ; well turned out." 




hurdEri-yi ' ura sa'ddat-i khud mi-danistam 
— Prof. S. T. (I delighted to serve hira). 

Delighted, khushniid; mash'itf ; masrur 
(happy) ; mahzuz. 

Delirious, to be, hazayan guftan; hazayan 
dvardan (cause delirium ; said of the 
fever) ; madhiish (senseless). 

Delirium, hazayan or hadaydn. 

Deliver, rasdndan ; taslim k. ; havdla n. ; 
khalds k. or najdt d. or rahdnidan (to 
release) ; barddar-i khud rd az dast-tangi'^ 
hirun avard (he delivered his brother for 
money difficulties) ; zan-am imruz az vaz'-i 
harnl fdrigh shud (my wife was to-day 
safely delivered) ; birun dvardan (of mid- 
wife, doctor). 

Deliverance, vxijdt; khaldsi; rahd^i ; rasta- 
gdrl (from sin). 

Delivery, tasltm {k.) (of things) ; vaz'-i hand 
(child-birth) ; dar nutq add-yash bad ast. 

Delude, izldl k. ; zaldlat k. 

Deluded, gum-rdh (k.) (gen. of religion). 

Deluge, Tufdn-i Nuh 

Delusion, nazar-band (of magic) ; vahm u 

Delusive, sardb numd. 

Demand, pursldan; su^dl k. (to ask) ; khwdh- 
ish k. ; mutdlaba k. ; istid' a k. (request) ; 
taqdzd k. (of payment ; to dun) ; In jins 
bisydr tdlib (or ravdj or farush) ddrad (in 
great demand) ; htch iddi'd^-i bar man 
ddrid? u blsh-tar az haqq-ash khwdst (he 
demanded more than his due). Vide 
Claim, Due. 

Demean, to, az in fi'l khud rd khafif mi-kunl 
(you demean yourself by doing this) ; 'dr-i 
su^dl rd bar khud narm-'pasandam (I won't 
demean myself by asking). 

Demented, majnun; az 'aql uftdda; man 
chundn hayrdn va sar-garddn mdndam ki 
guyd sdya-yi pari bar man uftdda bud va 
dunyd dar nazar-am tdrik shud^ — Prof 
S. T. (I stood still amazed like one de- 
mented — struck by an evil spirit). Vide 
Mad, Bewildered. 

Demolish, munhadim sdhhtan ; nist k. ; 
ma'dum k. ; az bikh u bun anddkhtan. 

Demolished, inhiddm ; nist u ndbudl. 

Demon, jinn, vulg. pi. ajinn^; 'ifrlt, ghul (a 
ghoul) ; har qadr ki man dast blsh-tar dardz 
mi-kardam dn dlv bi-havd buland-tar ml- 

shud; bardy-i didun-i u gar dan dardz 
kardam ki — Prof. S. T. (the more I tried 
to reach the demon the higher he rose in 
the air ; I leant forward to — ) ; ay zan-i 
'ifritaf (abuse). 

Demonstration, burhdn and dalil {dvurdan) 
(proof, etc. ; pi. bardhln and daldHl) ; 
tabyln (k.) ; shahddat-i 'ayni (ocular de- 
monstration) ; vajhri mundsabat-i dn ru- 
shan-tar ast ki bi-dalil ihtiydj uftad ( — too 
clear to need demonstration). 

Demur, dagjidagha k.; you must do this 
without demur, shumd bdyad bi-dun-i chun 
u chird (or bi-dun-i hd u na) In kdr rd bi- 
kunid. Vide Hesitation and Dauntlessly. 

Den, maghdra (cave of animals, thieves). 

'D&maXyinkdr {k.) ; najl {k.) ; ibd^{k.); hdshd 
(2.) ; tamarrud-i qawl (k.) (to go back on 
one's words, deny one's promise) ; divdr-i 
hdshd buland ast or kuldh-i hdshd bar 
guzdsht (he made a stout denial). 

Denominator. Vide Numerator. 

Dense, sakht or tu dar tu (forest) ; darakht-i 
ambuh (a tree with foliage) ; [rlsh-t 
ambuh] ; jamHyyat-i arnbuh (dense crowd) ; 
ghaliz (of fog). 

Density, ghildzat (of fog) ; ambuhi (of crowd, 
of trees) ; siql-i mddM (of metals). 

Dent, tu rafta. 

Dentated, danddna-ddr. 

Dentifrice, danddn-shu ; sanun, Ar. 

Dentist, danddn-sdz , [kandan or birun dvur- 
dan, " to extract a tooth; pur kardun, " to 
stop ' ' ; ambur, ' ' forceps ' ' ; danddn-i 
'amali or masnu't or sdkhtagi or 'driya, 
' ' false teeth " ' ] . 

Dentistry, danddn-sdzi. 

Deny, to, va'da-yi diruzi-yash rd zir zad (he 
denied his promise of yesterday) ; he 
denies having said this, az guftan-i in harf 
inkdr mi-kunad ki man chunin na-guftam, 
or az in sukhan hdshd mi-kunad; vide 
Denial; mddar az pisar hich chiz darigh 
na- ddrad. 

Depart, ravdna sh. ; kuch k. (prop, of bodies) ; 
tashrif burdan (polite) ; when do you 
intend departing, irdda-yi raftan kay darid 
(vulg.), or kay hhiydl-i harakat ddrid? 

Departure, harakat {k.) ; kuch (k.) (prop, of 
a body) ; ravdnagl; irtihdl {k.) (rare; sp. of 
departure of the soul). 

1 Prop, hardarl. 

* Halat-i kharabl, " any evil state 

s Or plsh-i chashm-am aiyah shud. 

as penury, drunkenness, sickness, etc. 




Depend, mnwquf shudan , b(isUt bt-saUirnati'yi 
mt (it depends upon his health); "you 
can't depend upon his word," anchi m%- 
guyad bar an i'limad na-iavdn hard; basta 
bi-khtid-i shakhs ast (it depends upon the 
individual) ; bar qaivl-ash naml-shud iakya 
dad (one can't depend on his word). 

Dependence, iruidari^ khurdk-i humdy bar 
ustukhwan-nza ast (the lammergeyer lives 
on bits of bone) ; tavakkul {k.) (on God or 
on man). 

Dependencies, tavdbi' ; mutajarri'dt (wrongly 
used in this sense and rare) ; maqbuzdt 
(possessions); musta' mardt [coXonieB , q.v.). 
Vide Colony. 

Dependents, muta' alliqdn or vd-bastagdn (of a 
person) ; tavdbi' , pi. of tdbi' (those under 
a person). 

Depilatory, nura'^ ; "use the depilatory," 
vdjibi birkash. 

Deplume, par kandan. 

Depopulate, az ma'muriyyat anddkhtan; bt- 
dbdd k. ; virdn sdkhtan. 

Depopulated, virdn; gi^yr-i ma'mur; shahr 
az mardum khdlt gasht. 

Deportment, nishast u bar-khdst. Vide Be- 
haviour, Etiquette, Manners. 

Deposit, amdnat (g.) ; vad^'at (n.) ; zakhira 

Deposit, to, bi-amdnat guzdshtan. Vtde 

Depositary, amin or amdnat-giranda (guar- 

Deposition, iqrdr (confession of one's own 
acts) ; baydn ; izhdr, pi. izhdrdf; 'azl (being 
deposed). Vide Evidence. 

Depository, ambdr (store, of anything). 

Depraved, akhldq-ash jdsid shuda ; tahrat-ash 
past shuda. 

Depravity, fasdd (of nature, morals). 

Depredation, gifl,rat (k.) ; tdrdj (k.) (to loot, 
etc. ; of men or animals or storm) ; chapaw 
(k.) (raid, mil. or otherwise). Vide Raid, 
Attack, Plunder. 

Depress, sard or stist k., or tang-dil k. (of 
persons) ; kam arzish k. (of the market) ; 
bdzdr-i nil rd sard (or sust) kard, or pdyin 

Depressed, sard shudn ; nuilul (of Kpirit<4 

Depressing, dil-gir. 

Deprivation, fiqddn or fuqddn ; inahr&miyyat. 

Deprive, mahrum k. ; qoV-i ujnvudri trmra 
kard (he deprived me of all hope) ; sar-ash 
rd bi-kiUdh guzasht (he deprived him of 
everything; stripped him bare). 

Depth, 'uni({, but for .sea zharfi ; " what la 
the depth of this tank?" in hau^^ chi 
qadar tah ddrad, or chi qadar gaiodi ( = 
cJiand kalla or sar) db ddrad ? 

Deputation, hay^at (m.c. for hay*tit-i mab'u- 
sdn) ; vukald" (the deputies) ; niydJbat. 

Depute, ma''mur k. 

Deputy, nidHb ; vakil ; qdyim maqdm (one act- 
ing temporarily). 

Deride, to, ta'na z. (to taunt); atwal mard 
nsh-khand mi-kardt, hold didi harf-am 
sahih bud (you see I was right, though 
you derided me) ; minnat nihddan (taunt 
a person with favours done) . Videlnira. 

Derision, istihzd (k.) (derision) ; sukhriyya 
(k.) (ditto, but coarsely) ; rishkkand {k.) 
(ridicule, also chaff). Vide Taunt, Ridi- 
cule, Chaff, Coax. 

Derivation, ishtiqdq (k.) ; ma^khaz. 

Derive, to, az gujta-i shumd chunin istimhdt 
mi-shavad ki khidmat nami-khivdhid bi- 
kunid (I gather from what you say — ) ; 
istidldl k. ; natija bar-dvurdan (deduce) ; 
'umda mdliyydt-i Kirmdn az qdR Jidsil mi- 
shavad (or bar mi-dyad, or ydft mi-shavad, 
or mi-rasad). Vide Derivation, Obtain. 

Derived, mushtaqq; ma^khuz; majus mit- 
'arrab-i magd^i ast or asl-i lafz-i majus 
magd'i ast; askala* mufarras-i ' Escalier ' 

Dervish, darvish, pi. dardvish ; qalandar (a 
Calender) ; murshid * (head of a section) ; 
kashkul ( — bowl) ; dalq ( — gown) ; tdj ( — 
cap) ; mantaslM (short dervish crutch for 
resting on and dozing on) ; darvish har 
kujd ki shab dyad sard-yi ust (a darvi-sh 
saving signifying " he is a khdna bi- 

Descend, to, bi-zir or pdyin or fariid dmadan ; 
ndzil sh. or nuzul k. (from heaven) ; zaw/ 

• Madar, lit. *' that round which anything revolves." 

•2 Made of lime, yellow-arsenic with sometimes an addition of white of egg and castor oil. A depila- 
tory is kept in every hammam and paid for at the rate of two Shahi a head. 
3 Ab ambar or birka, " reservoir of drinking water." 

* Askala "a jetty, pier" (Shah's Diary); for Fr. Eacalier. 

6 The title of Shah is generally added to the name of a murahid as Qutbu'd-Din Shah. Dervishes 
have various ways of addressing each other such as GuUi Mawla. 




k. (of planets); nasab-i khud rd bi-Timur 
mi-rasdnad. Vide Descent. 

Descendants, awldd ; zurriyya, pi. zardrl; 
akhldf ; dukhtar-i bl-vdsita-yi — (she is the 
immediate descendant of — ) ; az nasl-i 
saldthi ast (he is the descendant of Kings). 

Descent, nishib (declivity) ; nuzul (from 
heaven) ; nasl-i khud rd bi-fuldn mi rasd- 
nad (he traces his descent to so and so). 

Describe, to, ta'rlj k. ; vasf k. : baydn k. , 
bi-tartf (or bi-navishtan) nami-dyad (im- 
possible to describe or to mention) ; khud 
rd bi-mulld^i qalam ddd (he described him- 
self, gave himself out to be, a mulla). 
Vide Specify. 

Described, u bi-husn-i akkldq mawsuf va bi-su^-i 
tarkib mawsum ast. 

Description, naw' , pi. anvd' ; qism, pi. aqsdm; 
jins, [but pi. ajrms '"goods"]; qabll; 
sinj, pi. asrMJ (sort, kind) ; chi jur (or chi 
iawr or chi-guna) mard ast (what descrip- 
tion of man is he?); shark (or ta'rif^ or 
baydn) -i an jd rd chi tawr ddd? tafdsil- 
a'^h'^ rd bt-dih (describe it in detail) ; jarml- 
ash khdrij az baydn ast ; dn qadr mardum 
jatn' budand ki bi-vasf nami-dyad (beyond 
description, computation). 

Desert,blydhd7ioT lut; dasht; sa/ira* (country 
as opposed to town) ; kavir (salt desert) ; 
virdna (wilderness) ; istihqdq (meriting) 
(good or bad) ; sazR ; bi-sazd-at mi-ra^i 
(you'll get 3'our deserts) ; az md na-khurda 
bdshi ( = you may not get your deserts 
from me but you will from some one 

Desert, to, ruy garddnidan ; firdr k. or gurikh- 
tan (of a soldier) ; har ruz fawj-i kasir 
az sar-i u pdshida sar-i khud giriftand (the 
daily desertion of — ) ; abvdh-jam'i-yash az 
dawr-ash rikhtand or raftand (his detach- 
ment, command, deserted him). 

Deserter, firdri (gen. ; absconder, or deser- 
ter) ; guriz-jm (truant ; of schoolboy or 
slave) . 

Desertion, firdr (gen.) ; guriz-pd^i (being 
truant); tark (abandoning, q.v.). 

Deserve, to, ishdn mustahiqq-i tarnhih (or 
siydsat) hastand ; Idyiq sh. ; sazdvdr budan ; 
u bi-hama-yi la'nat hd mt-arzad (he deserves 
to be reviled). Vide Serve. 

Deserved, in sazd mustahaqq (or mustawjab, 
etc.) -i u bud or haqq-ash bud. 

Deserving, mustahiqq ; mar&i mustahiqq ast 

(he's a deserving man) ; shdyista-yi rahm 
ast. Vide Suitable, etc. 

Design, qasd ovmurdd (object) ; niyyat ; irdda ; 
'azm (intention); sm*-i qasd (evil); gh.araz 
(secret or selfish) ; naqsha (picture of 
carpet) ; tarh (of building or anything 
else) ; tarh-ash margjiub ast (its design is 

Designer, tarh-riz ; naqqdsh (painter) ; mukh- 
tari' (inventor). 

Designing, tarh-rizi ; shdluda-giri (subs.); 
kila-bdz (adj., tricky, q.v.); mardumdn-i 
mudabbir va dunyd-talab (designing and 
ambitious men). 

Desirable, matlu' ; margjiub; maqbUl (in 
m.c. "pretty"); matlub. 

Desire, khwdh'sh [ddshtan) ; drzu (k.) ; murdd 
(d.) ; havas (k. or d.) (great eagerness) ; 
sJiaivq (d.) ; ishtiydq {d.) ; raghbat (k. or 
d.) (delight); shahvat (d.) (lust). 

Desire, to, khwdstan, rt. khiodh ; mayl ddsh- 
tan ; " I will desire him to do it," az u 
dar-khwdst (or khivdhish) mi-kunam ki bi- 
kunad ; \ura hukm mi-kunam ki — , I will 
order him to — J; vide Order; dastur"'l- 
'amal dddan (to give instructions to, 
written or oral); kirm kushtan (to satisfy 

Desirous, drzumand ; mushtdq ; havas-ndk 

Desist, dast bar- ddshtan or dast bar-ddr shudan 
az (from an act engaged in) ; bdz istddan az 
(avoid doing; of an act not commenced); 
has kardan az ; dast kashidan az — . Vide 
Abandon, Give up, Stop, Cease. 

Desk, pish-taldita (Pers. pattern); rahl (lec- 

Desolate, khardba ; virdna (a desolate or 
ruined place) ; gh ayr-i dbdd : khardb shavad 
hmna-i ki bi-faqir chiz-i nami-dihand (or 

Desolation, virdni ; tanhd^i (loneliness). 

Despair, nM-ummidl; ya^s ; qat'-i ummid {k). 

Despair, to, nd-ummid shudan; he des- 
pairs of success, az* rasidan-i bi-matlab 
ma^yus ast ; we despaired of life , dxist az 
jdn shustlm (or bar-ddshtim) ; qat'-i ummid 
k. Vide Despondency. 

Despatch, navishta-yi rasmi (official); bi-sur'- 
at, etc., or mustaqim"" (with despatch). 

Despatch, to, ravdna k. or firistddan (of 
persons); irsdl k. or d. (of things). Vide 

I Ta'ri/ also, but not here, signifies "praise." 

2 PI. of ta^all 




Desperado, shir-i bt-pir. 

Desperate, ma^yhs or wi-ummid (or na-umid) ; 
dast az jan shusta. 

Despicable, M war; muhaqqar ; si/la; in'dm-i 
muhaqqar-% dad (he gave me a despicable 

Despise, haqarat k. ; we should despise 
none, ma na-bayad kick kas rd khwdr (or 
fiaqir) shurmrim. 

Despised, khwdr shimurda ; mardud (reject- 

Despondency, dar zamdn-i hujum-i ijjuamm u 
^ussa (when overcome by deep despon- 
dency). Vide Despair. 

Desponding, mard-i tna^yus-i ast va gdh-l az 
bakht ummid-i na-ddrad. 

Despot, Pddshdhri khud-mukhtdr or 'alq '^ 
itldq or khudsar ; mlim or jafd-kdr or 
jahbdr (tjo-ant) . 

Despotic, musiaqill ; mutluq' l-'indn (of 
rulers); hukumat-i 'alq 'l-itldq (despotic 

Dessert, tanaqquldt (sweets, nuts, etc., eaten 
in a majlis) ; {djU between meals) ; miva , 
pi. mivajdt, and favdkih, pi. (fruit). 

Destination, mahall-i or manzil-i maqsud. 

Destine, to, man pisar-am rd bi-pisha-yi duk- 
tarl ndm-zad kardam (I have destined my 
son to be a doctor). 

Destined, in mard bi-Jahannam muqaddar 
ast; in faqir ki b^.yad bi-salianat bi-rasad 
muhtdj-i ndn-i shah bud; dar taqdir navish- 

Destiny, qazd u qadar ; taqdir; qismat; sar- 

Destitute, 6t-mim; muhidj (needing); muflis 
(without money) ; Idt u lut ( — of every- 
thing) ; tahl-dast (empty-handed). Vide 

Destitution, faqr; iflds ; ihtiydj ; bi-navd'i ; 

Destroy, to, ma'dum or nd-bud sdkhtan; 
khardb u labdh k. ; bar bdd d. ; munhadim 
k. (of buildings) ; khud rd talaj kard (he 
destroyed himself, committed suicide) ; 
I will not rest till I ruin him, id, damJdr az 
ruzgdr-ash bar na-ydram qalb-am taskln 

Destroyed, ma'dum; bar bdd — or nd-bud 
shuda ; munhadim (of buildings). 

Destroyer, mukharrib. 

Destruction, tabdhl (ruin); khardbi (gen.); 
inhiddm ( =of city or buildings). 

Destructive, muriydna bardy-i kutub muhlik 
ast; maraz-i muhlik; davd-yi mvMik-% 


hi-u dad va kuaht; alasfi-i tnran-kun-i 

uftdd; malakh sfarar-rasan-t ghalla ast. 
Detach, juda k. ; munfasil k ; nva k. (to 

separate) ; gusli k (to detach or despatch ; 

of ships, troops and political envoys). 
DetaLched, judd shvda; munfasil. 
Detail, tafsil, pi. tajdsil; juz^iyydt (p\ of 

Detail, to, tafsil k. 
Detailed, mufassal; bd tafsil. 
Detain, lawqif n. ; vd — or bdz ddshtan; nau>- 

kar rd bi-guzdr bi-ravad, digar mu^aUal-ash 

na-kun ; dar kdr gir uftddam va dir shud 

(I was detained by business). Vide Keep. 
Detect, dar daru 'jh-gu*i-ash giriftam ; duzdi- 

ash rd fahmidam ; daJtan-ash ki vdz kard 

az matlab-ash shast-am khabar shud. 
Detected, makshuf (of actions) ; giriftdr (of 

persons) . 
Detection, gir — or giriftdr shudan; kaahf 

Detective, jdsus ; khufya-pulis (mod, news- 
Deterioration, 'ayb (kardan). 
Determine, to, qasd-i qal'i k. ; irdda-yi pukhta 

karda am ki — ; musammim shuda am ki 

ura bi-zanam; bi-lldh ki urd mi-zanam; 

qat'"" urd khipdham kusht. 
Determined, musammim; I am determined 

(ready equipped) to do this, kainar basta- 

am ki in rd bi-kunam ; mu'ayyan (settled). 
Detest, to, ?ia/ro/ k.; az u ianaffur ddram; 

az-ash bad-am mi-dyad (I dislike him). 
Detestable , mustakrah ; manfur. Vide Hate. 
Dethrone, to. Dethronement, az takht pdyin 

dvurdan ; az takht khal' kardan. 
Detour, rah rd kaj kard Id jilav-i urd bi-girad 

(by making a detour she got in front of 

him and blocked his way) ; rdh rd pick 

karda rafian. 
Detriment, zarar ; khalal. 
Detrimental, muzirr. 
Detrition, sd'idagi. Vide Attrition. 
Devastate, Devastation, takhrib (k.) (destroy) ; 

(jhdrat {k.) or idrdj {k.) (to lay waste; 

rob) ; tufdn in dih rd tamdm-idrdj kard ; 

virdn kardan ; virdni ; khardbi. 
Develop, Development, az yak 'dlam bi- 

'dlaniri digar dmadan ; nashv (for Ar. 

nushOf' {k.) ; rasidagi; numuvv (k.) (grow). 

Vide Grow. 
Deviate, inhirdf (varzidan) ; az hukm sar 

pUchidan (to disobey). 
Deviated, munharif. 
Deviation, inhirdf. 




Device, hikmat {k.) ; hila (k.) (trick in bad 
sense); naqsh (z.) (trick). 

Devil, az kujr-i Iblis ' mafihhur tar ast (of 
any thing notorious) ; jinn hi -pustin-ash 
uftdda (he is possessed of a devil) ; oh 
Devil in human form, ay shakl-i Shaytdn; 
al-ghciraz shayt%ni insan khud-i insan ast 
— Prof. S. T. (the devil of man is man 
himself) ; an ' ifrlta bar jll-i savar shuda 
misl-i bald^-i ndga?tdn-t varid shud — Prof. 
S. T. (that she devil arrived suddenly) ; 
shaytdnaki tam%m-Vst (that boy is a per- 
fect little devil) ; dar miydn-i ab u dtash 
uftdda-am — miydn-i Shaytun va Jahannam 
girijtdr-am (I'm between the Devil and 
the deep sea). Vide Whirlwind. 

Devilish, shaytdni ; shaytanat-ma^db ; ay 
mard-i shaytdn- si fat ! 

Devilry, shaylanat; mun-gari (mischief, 

Devise, to, tarh rikhtan or anddkhtan (of plan ; 
trick) ; ijdd k. or dar-dvardan (to invent) ; 
%n maV anat-hd rd tu dar-dvardi. 

Devote, to, mantamdm-i umr-am rd makh- 
sus-iinkdr kar da-am ; sarf k. (to spend; 
of money, time, labour). 

Devoted, jdn-nisdr ; fldd^l ; he has devot- 
ed all his property to this, hama yi 
milk-i khud rd bardy-i In kar vaqf karda 
ast; man khud rd vaqf-i kdr-i shumd karda- 
am; [vaqf is prop, property bequeathed 
or assigned during life for relig. purposes] ; 
bardy-i Shdh id pd-yi jdn istdda-am (I'm 
devoted to the Shah even to death). 

Devotee, 'dbid (in prayer); mhid (ascetic); 
gusha-nishin (hermit); darvtsh, pi. dard- 
vish; qalandar ; dzdd (a sect of Sufis). 
Vtde Ascetic, Hermit. 

Devotion, 'ubudiyyat (in prayer); "'khlds-i 
qalbi (heart-felt — ; for a person, for science, 
etc.); taqvq, (piety); Hbddatk. (perform 

Devour, to, baVtdan. 

Devour er, bal'anda. 

Devout, muttaql (one fearing God) ; 'parsd 
(pious, q.v.); 'ibddat-kdr or kun; muta- 

Devoutly; u muttaqiydna namdz mi-guzdrad. 

Dew, shabnam; chikka- ot qatra-yi shabnam 

Dewlap, €fhflh_^ab (a beauty in man or 
woman) ; charm-i zir-i qulu (of cows). 

Dexterity, charb-dasti (manual dexterity) ; 
and chira-dasti (dexterity) ; tar-dasti 
(sleight of hand; of conjurors or thieves). 

Dexterous, cAira-cfosf; iar-dast; charb-dast. 

Diabptes, salas 'l-bawl or huwdl (profuse 
staling) ; ad-dd^^s sukkari (the form in 
which sugar is present); salas" 'IbawU 
(one so afflicted); silsilat^Hbawl, Per. ^; 
diydbatus (Eur.). 

Diagnosis, tashkliis-i maraz. 

Diagonal , urlb ; arub raftan (to move diagon- 
ally like the Bishop in chess). Vide 

Dialect, shu'ba, pi. shu'ab (branch). 

Dialectic, istildht or istildhdti. Vide Idiom. 

Dialectics, 'rlm-i jadal. 

Dialogue, muhdvara (in India "idiom") or 
mukdlama ; or guft u gu (conversation) ; 
javdb u su'dl (in dialogue) ; Vaztr-i Lan- 
kurdn rd dar su'dl u javdb na,vishta and. 

Diameter, qutr (pi aqtdr). 

Diamond, almas. 

Diar-bakr, Diydr-bakr. 

Diarrhoea, is-hdl; shikasta-dil ; hayza (from 
surfeit; also applied to individual cases 
of cholera, but not to an epidemic). 

Diary, Ruz-ndma ; safar-nnma (of a journey). 

Dice, Die, muhr (stamp) ; muhra (in play) ; 
^a' 6, dual ka'batayn^ (for play); muhra-ash 
khub naqsh midrad (the dice turn up well 
for him) ; az qumdrbdzl mM-i khud-ash ra 
talaf (or tabdh) kard, or bi-bdd (or bi-bdd-i 
fand) ddd; [nardu bdkhtan, to play back- 
gammon with dice). 

Dice-box, muhra-ddn (rare) ; finjdn-muhra 
(common) ; tds (when there is no dice-box, 
the dice are thrown by hand into a bowl). 

Dictate, Dictation, imld k. (a letter) ; az ru- 
yi imld-yash navishtam (I wrote it at his 
dictation) , or az ru-yi gufta-ash navishtam. 

Dictates, bi-iqtizd-yi (or bi-muqtazd-yi) dun- 
tabl'i — (acting after the dictates of his 
low nature — ) ; bi-qalb-at ruju' kun or bi- 
tmd-yi zamir-i khud gush dih (listen to the 
dictates of your own conscience). 

Dictionary, kitdb-i lughat ; look up this word , 
In lafz rd dar qdmus* bi-btmd; farhang 
(glossary; also dictionary). 

1 Iblis : root meaning signifies ' despair.* Iblls or Shaytjan is the chief of the evil Jinn. His 
throne {'arsh-i Iblis) is on the circumambient ocean (bahr-i muhit). 

2 Silsilatu'l-b iwl, Per. for Ar. salsalat'^' l-bawl. 

3 Persians play with two dice. The sing, (ka^b) is masc, but this dual is the fern, dual of fca'6a. 
* Qamus properly the name of a special well-known dictionary. 




Didactic, panrf-navi* ; nasihat-kun; ahu'ara*- 
ki ta'limi akhlaq mi-kunand (didactic 

Die, subs. Vide Dice. 

Die, to, murdan, rt. rmr ; sard sh. ; fawt sh. ; 
marhum sh. ; rihlat k. {vide depart) ; dunya 
rd vidd' k (to bid adieu to the world); 
dkhir ruzri murdan ham ast — Prof. S. T. 
(we must all die one day) ; tashnfdt burdan 
(a joking phrase) ; javdn-marg sh. (to die 
young, untimely). Vide Wither. 

Diet, ^izd (lit. food); 'umda-yi khurdk-i 
Bari'jdla hirinj ast (the chief diet, staple 
food, of Bengal is rice) ; what is the diet 
to be observed with this medicine ? 'par- 
hiz-i ' in davd chist ?. 

Differ, to, tafdvut ddshtan; ikhtildf or farq 
d.; iawfir"^ d. (m.c). 

Difference, dar miydn-i in du td sar-i mu-i 
farq nist ; mavdjib tafdvut ddrad (there is a 
difference in the pay) ; nami-shud hich 
farq dad (it was impossible to distin- 
guish the difference) ; chi tawfir mi-kunad? 
yak-i ^st (what difference does it make?). 

Different, mutajarriq ; mukhtalif (various) : 
judd; 'alorhida^ (separate) ; he saw every- 
thing was changed, did varaq, varaq-i 
digar-i 'st (met.*) : mukhtalif "^ W-ra'^y 
(holding different, opposed, opinions); 
har kns chiz-i mi-guyad (every one says 
something different) ; in bd u mutafdvit 
ast or mufjkdyir ast (this is different from 
that) ; in vard-yi un ast (m.c.) (this is 
different from that ; but vard-yi un chiz-i 
bi-dih, ' ' give me something besides that " ). 

Difficult, mu^hkil ; dushvdr ; sakht; ishkdl 
ddrad ; in kdr az u bisydr bd zur bar mi- 
dyad; sangin (vulg.). 

Difficulty, dushvdri ; sakhti ; mushkili; iash- 
vish (doubt) ; ishkdl-i or mdni'-i paydd 
shud; ammd in iddra muzdyaqa nami- 
ddrad (as for this office it has no objec- 
tion) ; there's no difficulty in doing so, 
naql-i nist or mallab-i nist ; I have a head- 
ache {dardri sar ddram) ; it's nothing, take 
some phenacetin {naql-i nist, 'findsitun^ 
bi-khur, chdq mi-shavi) ; Sakkdki^ dar 
jandbat gir uftdd (fig. I was caught in an 
unexpected difficulty) . 

Diffident, az khud itmindn (or kiatir-jam'i) 

na-darad; %harm-ru (shy). 
Diffuse, nuiq-i parishdn va Uivil-i dad. 
Diffuse, to, muntashir k. (of light, scent, 

etc.); afsliandan; pardganda k. 
Diffusion, intishdr {k.). 
Dig, kandan ; kand u kub k. ; haft k. (exes' 

vate) ; naqb k. (to mine; also to dig 

through a wall) ; dig up these weeds, in 
butahd-yi^ bi-khud (or 'alaf-i khud-rv.) rd 

az zamin birun bi-ydvar (or bi-kan). 
Digest, to, hazm k. ; tahlil burdan ; vide Eat ; 

bi-tahlil raftan (to be digested). 
Digested, hazm shuda. 
Digestible, sahh 'l-hazm; sari''* ^l-hazm. 
Digestion, quvva-yi hdzima. 
Digestive, muhallil; hdzim; db-i an rud-khdna 

khayli buranda ast. 
Digger, hdfir; kananda (vulg.) 
Digging, hafr {k.) (excavation) ; kandan. 
Digitalis, digital. 
Dignified, bd-vaqdr ; muvaqqar ; mujallal : bd 

tamkin; mufakhlchar; bd-haybat (with 

Dignify, mu'azzaz k. : musharraf k. 
Dignity, sha'^n; vaqdr ; tamldn; mansab 

Dilatoriness, kdhiH, etc. Vide Laziness. 
Dilatory, kdhil, etc. 
Dilemma, dar miydn-i du m/ihzur uftdda ast ; 

bayn'^ H-mahzurayn. Vide. Cant. 
Diligence, kushish (exertion, q.v.) ; muddvct- 

mxit (sticking to a thing) ; only diligence is 

necessary to complete it, bardy-i itmdm-i 

kdr faqat jidd u jahd Idzim ast ; faqat bdyad 

dar in kdr istimrdr'^" mashrfhul bdshim. 
Diligent, mutajdhid; sar-garm; sa'y ddrad; 

Diluted, rruimzuj {k.) (mixed) ; dbald or raqiq 

{k.) (watery) ; db shdmil karda hiddat-x 

davd kam kun. 
Dim, tdrik; tira: tdr (of metals, eyesight); 

az pin chashm-ash tdnk^ (or kam-nur or 

kam-su) shuda ast. 
Dimension, anddza (rough dimensions) ; hajm 

(height, breadth and length) ; gadd (for 

a room ; also for inside of a box) ; ttU u 

'arz (length and breadth). Vide Breadth 

and Cloth. 

Literally ' • abstinence of food. ' ' 

Tauflr properly means "increasing, and saving." 

Varaq, " leaf of tree or book " ; varaq bar gardanldan, " to turn over a new leaf." 
Sakkdki was an Arab rhetorician of iiaghdad. He was skilled in taskhir-i Jinn. There is a story 
connected with this saying. 

* Coll. for bfda. ^ T&rtk here means not ' blind * but * dimmed.' 




Diminish, kam k., kastan, rt. kah (tr. and 
intr.) ; takhftf dadan. 

Diminution, kami; kast; takhflf. 

Diminutive, tasjjnr (gram.). Vide Small. 

Dimity, gimtl (of which table-cloths are 

Dimness of sight, tarikl or tan. Vide Dim. 

Dimple, chah-i zanakhdun (in chin) ; dar 
khanda bi-rukhsar-ash gawdi nd-uftad (of 
cheek) . 

Dinner, chasht (midday meal) ; ba'd az sarf-i 
sham (when dinner was over) ; it's dinner- 
time, I must go, vaqt-i sltam ast hayad bi- 
ravam ' ; qadam ranja farmuda sharik-i 
nan u namak shavid (honour me by din- 
ing, or breakfasting, with me). 

Dip, ztr-i db k. ; dar kitab nazar-i sarsari k. ; 
qalam-rd dar murakkab kun. 

Diploma, istishhdd-ndma ; sanad. 

Diphtheria, khurmq (prop, quinsy). 

Direct, rdst; muslaqim; yak-rdst; yak-sar; 
man yak-sar pish-i hdkim raftam ; yak-rdst 
(or mustaqim) sar-i tsigdh raftam (I went 
directly to the railway station) ; ra^s"" bi-u 

Direct, to ,daldlat k.; hiddyat k. (gen. religi- 
ous) ; rdh-numd^l k. (of road) ; ' unvdn or sar- 
ndma navishtan (on envelope) ; irshdd k. 
(relig., of murshid; also polite for to say) ; 
marhamat farmuda bi-man mshdn bi-dihid 
ki kujd urd bi-binam; kindly direct this 
envelope, zahmat kashida sar-i in pdkat rd 

Direction, sar-ndma or 'unvdn (of a letter) ; 
taraf, pi. atrdf ; samt; jdnib, pi. javdnib ; 
sib, nasihat (admonition) ; dastur"^ ' 1-' anud 
(of action) ; bi-nasihat-i shumd mutavajjih 
mt-shavam. Vide Command, Direct, Ad- 
vice, Order. 

Directly, blrUn raftan hamun va kushta 
shudan haman. 

Director, ndzim; kdr-farrm; ra^ts ; hddi 

Dirge, nawha (in Muharram) ; ghafar Alldh 
(a chant while the bier is being borne). 

Dirt, chirk''- (of body, a watch, dress, etc.); 
khumdm, (the dust and dirt in a house; 
the sweepings before the room is swept) ; 
%n rdh khaylt kasif ast ; he looks on me as 

so much dirt, bi-chashm-i u man bi-qadr-i 
pasha-i ham namt-dyam; lajan (black 
mud ; morass) ; gil (mud) ; khdk (earth) ; 
khdshdk (chips of wood, etc.) ; guh or fazla 
(excrement); kasdfat (gen., polite for ex- 
crement) ; najdsat (polite for excrement) . 
Vide Filth. 

Dirty, chirk or chirkin (badly soiled, of 
clothes, hands, etc.); pachdl (vulg.) ; 

Disabled, 'djiz; az kdr uftdda; band or Id 
javdb or 'djiz (k.) (in argument); nuqsdn 
ddshtan or 'ayb u naqs ddshtan. 

Disadvantage, favd%d va nuqsdndt (advan- 
tage and disadvantage) ; naf u zarar ; 
sud u ziydn ; in rafidr agar bi-kuni bardy-i 
shunid 'ayb (or zarar, etc., etc.) ddrad (if 
you act thus it will be to your disadvan- 

Disagree, to, mukhalif shudan; bi-sar na- 
burdan; bi-ham na-sdkhtan {oi peoi^le) ; bi- 
na-sdkhtan or muvdfaqat na-kardan (of 
food, climate) ; ishdn bd yak digar mukhdla- 
fat ddrand (they disagree amongst them- 
selves : but ikhtildf ddrand, "they (the 
things or opinions) are not of the same 
sort." Fi^e Disagreement. 

Disagreeable, makruh* ; kardhat darad (of 
things) ; az dn jihat khayli nd-margi,ub 
ast, dar n^zar-ash nd-guvdr dmad (the 
action was disagreeable to him). 

Disagreement, ikhtildf (difference of opin- 
ions) ; shakar-dbi (coolness, estrange- 
ment) ; md-bayn-i ishdn bl-ittifdqi ast. Vide 
Disagree, Coolness. 

Disappeared, ghd^ib sh. ; nd-padid sh. ; kdfur 
sh. ; az nazar birun raft. 

Disappointed, mahrum {sh. or k.) ; ma^'yus 
{sh. OT k.) ; nd-ummid; u dar maqsad-ash 
nd-kdm (or nd-murdd) shud ; dimdgh-am 
sukht (I'm disappointed); bi-takhalluf 
dmad (he did not disappoint us, i.e., he 
came) ; dil-shikasta (disheartened) ; tu-sari 
khurdan (to be — ). 

Disappointedly, bl-navd-vdr (looking deject- 
ed) ; mahrumdna bar gasht. 

Disappointment, nd-U7nidi ; mahrumiyyat ; 
nd-kdmi ; nd-murddi ; dil-shikastagi (being 

The sham is eaten 

1 Mara hayad raft could not be used in m.c. as in India, but might be written. 
by the upper lasses about 4 ho irs after sunset, and by simpler folk about 2 hours after. 

s Najia, •' unclean (in a relig. sense) " ; najaaat " filth, i.e., excrement." 

8 In m.c. kasafat " foulness " merely signifies "untidiness." 

* Makrnh, ' that which is hateful or unbecoming,' in a religious sense is applied to anything which 
may not be actually ' unlawful ' but which is considered improper. 




Disapprobation, na-pasandi ; na-num^urx ; 
'adam-% rizd'iyyat. 

Disarrange, to, dar-lmm bar-ham k. or sh. ; 
■pas u pish k. ; bi-tartib k. 

Disarranged, as soon as he entered the 
room he saw the books had been dis- 
arranged, meddled with, ta dakhiUi utaq 
shud did kitnb-hd dost khurda ast. 

Disaster, dfat ; bald ; sadma ; dslb ; sadmaryi 

Diseistrous, pur-dfat ; pur-dsib. 

Disastrously, 'amal kard va-li muhlikdna 
'amal kard. 

Disavowal, m^ar (^.) ; hdshdkardan; ibd{k.) 

Disbelief, Disbelieve, 'adam-l i'tiqdd (d.) , 
stisti-yi imun (d.) (relig.) ; bdvar na-kar- 
dan; kujr ; bi-dim. Vide Infidelity, 

Disc, qurs (of sun or moon ; cake ; sweet- 
meat) ; girda (any disc) ; dah girda nan 
(ten cakes of bread). 

Discernment, banirat; idrdk; firdsat. 

Discharge, rna'zul (k.) (dismissal) ; murakh- 
khasi {k.) (polite) ; kkdli kardan (of fire- 
arms) ; chirk or fasdd (of sore) ; mddda 
and jardhat (pus inside a boil, etc.). 

Discharge, to, ikhrdj k. ; ma'zul k. ; blrun k. ; 
javdb dddan (to dismiss) ; murakhkhas k. 
(polite) ; add k. or kdr-sdzi k. (debts) ; 
lufang khdli k. or anddkhtan or dar-kardan 
(fire-arms) ; blrun dddan (of a boil) ; bdr 
pdyin k. (of ship) ; rlkhtan (river) ; inzidl 
sh. or k. (of semen). 

Discharge, fasdd (of abscess or wound) ; 
hold qarz-hd-yi khud rd mi-tavdnad bi-par- 
ddzad; az 'uhda-yi imtindn bar dmada ast 
(he has fully discharged the obligation). 

Disciple, murld; khalifa,^ pi. khulafd^ ; pay- 
raw (follower) ; havdri, pi. havdriyyun (of 
Christ) ; ashdh pi. (of the Prophet). 

Discipline, nizdm or intiz/dm; ta^dib k. (to 
teach manners?) ; In qushun nazm na-ddrad 
(or qdnun na-ddrad). 

Disclose, if shd^ or kashf k. ; buruz dddan; 
parda darldan or parda az ru-yi kdr bar- 
ddshtan; balchiya -ash ru-yi kdr uftdd (his 
secret was disclosed; lit. the sewing of 
the seam showed on the outside of his 
coat) ; musht-ash vd shud. Vide Coat. 

Discomfort, zaAma/, ' adamri rdhat. 
Discommode, to, ranjdnldari; zahmaldadan; 

bdr-i Jchdiir chudan. 
Discomposure, i^tirdh ; parishdnt ; vd zadagi. 
Disconcerted, to be, az ru raftan. Vide. 

Disconnected, burida or maqtu' (cut). 
Disconnectedly, nd-marbut (also ungrammati- 

cal or vulgar in pronunciation) ; rabt no- 

Discontented, qand'at norddrad ; 'adamri 

qand'at ddrad ; qdni' nist. 
Discontinuance, inqitd' . 
Discontinued, hdld In rasm az miydn rafUi 

ast (or mansiikh^ shuda). Vide Cancelled, 

Discordant, dvdz-i nd-hanjdr-t ddrad; bi-sdz 

(out of tune). 
Discount, tanzll. Vide Sight. 
Discourage, nd-ummld k. ; bl-mayl k. or az 

shawq anddkhtan ; karn jur^at k. ; ru no- 

dddan ; atfal rd bdyad dar bdzl ru '^ no- 

Discouraged, dil az dast ddda urd rihd kar- 

dand (they were discouraged and left 

Discouraging, dil-shikan. 
Discourse, maqdla, pi. maqdldt (written; also 

newspaper article). Vide Conversation, 

Speech, Article), 
Discover, dar-ydftan; fahmldan ; id bi-hdl 

duzd rd paydd na-karda-am ; Kulambas 

Yangl Dunyd rd avval paydd kard or 

inkishdf namud. 
Discovery, kashf -i buzurg-i ^st; [ikhtird' or 

ijdd,* 'invention']; inkishdf-i dawrdn-i 

dam dar 'uruq rd Duktar Hdrvi namud. 
Discredited. Vide Unpopular. 
Discretion, baslrat; qdbiliyyat ddrad va-R 

tamlz na-ddrad. Vide Opinion. 
Discriminate, tabdyun dark kardan; nam%- 

tavdnad nlk rd az bad tamlz bi-dihad. Vide 

Discrimination, quvva-yi muin/iyyiza. 
Discussion, bahs {k.) ; mubdhasa (k.) ; mu^ 

kara {k.) ; mund^ra (controversy ; conten- 
Disdain, ihdnat (k.) ; tahqir {k.) ; tawhin (k.) 

(a thing) ; az nishistar^-i bd alvat ham 

dari(jh. na-ddrad. 

1 Khalifa is also a head boy or usher in a schooL 

5 AfoTwSii '* cancelled." 

s Ru dadan ' to encourage.' 

♦ Ijad generally used for ' creating ' (Gk)d). 

Vide Carpet. 




Disdain, to, khwdr shimurdan; haqarat k. 

Disease, maraz, pi. amrdz ; bimdrl; im- 
khushl ; amrdz-i mutandsila ' (hereditary 
diseases) ; maraz-i mawrusi ; takassur-i 
mizdj (being out of sorts). Vide Sick. 

Diseased, ma'yuh (of animal, sick or mutilat- 
ed ; of man , deformed or mutilated) ; manz 
or nd-khush (sick, q.v.). 

Disembark, az jahdz pdytn dmadan or piydda 

Disgrace, Disgrace, to, rusvd^i , bi-hurmati ; 
hl-db-ru^l ; hl-'izzaii; zillat ; 'dr ; nang ; 
az kardan-i chunin kdr-l db-ru-yi md ml- 
rizad (we wUl lose our honour by doing 
so) ; 'pust-i sag bar ruy-am na-kash (don't 
disgrace me). Vide Insult. 

Disguise, Hdrun"W-Rash%d shab-hd bd libds-i 
tabdill birun mi-raft; tabdil-gardi (wander- 
ing about m disguise) ; bd-libds-i darvishdn 
dar dmada bud ; in hama riyd^ ast (this is 
all for show). Vide Hypocrisy. 

Disguise, to, tubdil-i surnt or -libds or -vaz' 
kardan, intr., but with dddan, tr. or cans. 

Disgust, tanaffur; kardhat; ikrdh ; istikrdh ; 

Disgust, to, vd zadan ; bizdr k. 

Disgusted, a" in bii-yi bad akh-ru kard (to 
make a disgusted face) ; dil-am bi-ham 
khurda (coll.) ; hdlat-i iahavvu' dost (or ru) 
dddan (not coll.). 

Disgustful, Disgusting, mukrih; nafrat-anglz, 
etc. ; makruh. 

Dish, zarf, pi. zuriif (gen.) ; qdb ; bushqdb 
(plate) ; dawri ; iabaq (of metal or wood) ; 
pilla-yi or kaffa-yi tardzu (of scales) ; 
khurish (food). 

Disheartened, to be, sar khurdan (to be 
checked) ; dil-shikasta sh. ; dil-tang k. ; 
dil-ash vd raft. Vide Discourage. 

Dishevelled hair, zhullda-mu (dirty and 
dishevelled) ; bd mu-yi parishdn} 

Dishonest, Ichiydnat-kdr ; IchdHn; bi-lumn; 
nd-amin ; dast-ash kaj-a.^ 

Dishonour, 'ismat giriftan (of women) ; zillat 
dudan; bi-db-ru k., etc. (a man); ru- 
siydh k. (disgrace) ; mujrd na-ddshtan or 
vd zadan mukul k. (of a cheque) ; chird-db- 
ru-yi in zan rd rikhli (why did you dis- 

grace her'^) i^ubi-namus* k. (to deflower, 

Dishonourable, nd-najib, and razll (ungentle- 
manly) ; past (of men or actions). 

Disinterested, hi-gharaz ; bi-taraf (neutral) ; 
bi-ta'assub (neutral; m.c). 

Dislike, makruh ddshtan; I dislike him 
{az-asli bad-am mi-dyad) ; az mdhi Tiafrat 
(or tanafjur) mi-kunam (I hate fish) ; dil-i 
man az in mulk girifta ast; az kardhat 
ddshtan (to have a repugnance to and 
hence not to touch with the hand, as 
dogs, wine, etc.). 

Dislocated, jd bi-jd shuda ; dar-rafta; mun- 
fakk (separated) ; my arm was dislocated, 
but put in again at once, dast-am dar-raft 
va-likin girmdl^ fawr"" bi-jd avddkht. 

Disloyal, bi-vafd (of friends) ; bad-khivdh-i 
Shdh ; namak-bi-hardni ; haqq nd-shinds 
(unfaitliful ; of dependents). 

Disloyalty, 'adam-i vild^; 'adam-i vafd-ddrl. 

Dismissal, ma'zuli; murakhkhasi (polite). 
Vide Discharge. 

Dismissed, ma'zul; murakhfchas (polite) ; 
Shdh saldm rd shikast (but saldm-i pddi- 
shdh bar-ham khurd) ; dast-ash az dast-gdh- 
ash burida shud (of a governor). 

Dismount, to, piydda sh. and k. ; pdyin 
dmadan or k. ; farud dmadan. 

Disobedience, nd-farmdni (k.) ; sar-kashi (k.) 
(also to rebel) ; 'udul-i hukm {k.). 

Disobedient, nd-farmdn; sar-kash ; ghayr-i 
muti' . 

Disobey, to, sar-kashi k. (also to rebel) ; sar 
az ild'at bar zadan ; rtd-farmdni k. ; far- 
mdn-i urd nami-tavdnam radd kunam or 
hukm-ash rd nami-tavdnam bi-shikanam; 
zir-i hukm-am rd zad ("he completely 
disobeyed me"; not before the face). 
Vide Deviate. 

Disorder, 'adam-i nazm; bi-intizdmi ; shuluqi 
(of people or things) ; iashvish (anxiety, 
etc., of mind, etc.) ; khabt-i dimdgh ddrad 

Disorder, to, az tartib (or nizdm) anddkhtan. 

Disordered, rish-ash pakhsh ast (also of a 
bird and feathers; but durust na-bud, of 

1 Mutariasila would mean in Arabic, if used, that the diseases result in each other. Arabic amraz 

2 Parlahan (but not zhvlida) might be applied to a dishevelled or angry beauty. 
^ A in m.c is vulg. for a^t. 

* If a man says « maru hi-ruimua karda, it means some one has spoken against his female relatives. 
*> Oirmal " a bone-setter " (possibly the local butcher). 




clothes) ; havass-ash pakhah bud. Vide 

Disowned, *dqq-i pidar (disowned by his 
father ; undutiful) ; az farzandi kharij 
hard a. 

Dispensary, mahkama (m.c. only in this 
sense) ; davd-kh,ana. 

Disperse, to, paraganda or mutafarriq sakh- 
tan; pakhsh k. (m.c. also to spread out; 
tr. and intr '); shirdza-yi itiifdq-i shdn az 
ham guslkkt. 

Dspersion, pardgandaqi ; tar u mar shvdan ; 
'.ajarruq (rare in coll.). 

Diipirited, h% khdtir-i kufta; afsurda-khdtir ; 
ahndjli-ash m'ilida sliud. 

Displace, lakhalkhul (being displaced ; put 
«ut of place) ; takhalkhul-i mizdj (angry 
cr sick) ; ha takhalkhul-i muhd tdsi-yash 
piydd bud (his baldness was apparent in 
sjitc of the .displacement of his hair to 
cov^er the baldness). 

Dispay, khud-num^i {k.) (ostentation) ; 
iz/ar-i tashakhkhus {k.) (of self import- 
ante); jilva-gari (k.) (showing off) ; dar in 
malab isti'ddd-i (or idrdk-i) u zdhir mi- 
shamd (or huvaydd mi-shavad). Vide 

Displeased, nd-rdz; dil-dzurda; nd-khush- 
nua^ ; az u mukaddar-am; or ranjida- 
khdir-am az u girdni-yi khdtir ddram (I 
am offended or displeased with liim) ; 
aw^dt-ash az man ialkh ast. Vide Offend- 

Displeasing, nd-pasand or nd-maqbul ; na- 

Displeasure, dzurdagi; nd-rdzi. 

Dispose, to, chidan, rt. chin; tartib dddan (to 
arrange) ; az khud judd kardan (to sell) ; 
bd chdhi chi-tawr-id?^ (about tea — are 
you disposed to take any ? = bi-chdhi 
mayl ddridi) 

Deposition, tabl'at; khaslat; mizdj; fitrat; 
hik-t<ih' ; nik-nihdd (of good diposition). 
Vide Understanding. 

Dispossessed, az md-yamlik anddkhtan; bi- 
bahra k. or mahrum sdkhtan (in will, etc.). 

Disputant, mubdhis. 

Dispite, bahs or mubdhasa (calm discussion 
and also argument); mu'.dhasa-yi shdn 

munjarr bi-mujddala ahud (their discussion 
ended in a heated argument) ; vide 
Quarrel; dar miydn-i ahumd du ia chi 
nizd'-i \t? or md-bayn-i ahum'i va U chi 
kash-ma-kaah-i vdqi* ahuda ait? chird in 
kdr rd bi-mulidjja anddkhti ? (why are you 
disputing about this?)- 

Disquietude, izlirdb ; parishdni ; taahvish-i 
khdtir. Vide Anxiety, Restlessness. 

Disregard, to, itina^ na kardan ; mahall na- 
guzdshtan (of people oi things). Vide 
Ignore, Cut, Attention. 

Disregard, subs., ' a Iam-ii'tin2*i or bl-i' lind*i ; 

Disrespect, bi-fiurmati ; pish-khidmat-am bd 
kam'il-i bi-iktirdmi bd man pish dmad (my 
servant treated me with the utaiost dis- 
respect). Vide Rudeness, Impudence. 

Dissatisfaction, nd-rizdyat; bi-qand'ati. 

Dissatisfied, nd-rdz, rdzi (or qdni') na-s.ku- 

Dissect, to. Dissection, tashrih {k.). 

Dissemble, du-ru'i k. (in bad sense) ; tadlis k. 
(rare) ; tajdhul k. (to feign ignorance) ; 
daruc/taki izhdr i ta'ajjub namud (he pre- 
tended surprise). Vide Feign, Pretend. 

Dissimulation, taqiyya (A;.) (relig. ; a Shi'ah 
tenet). Vide Hypocrisy and Time-serv- 
ing and Dissemble 

Dissipated, Aarza-^ar ; 'ayydsh; bisydr mard-i 
rind-i ast. 

Dissipation, harza-kdri ; 'ayydshi; rindi; 

Dissolute, fdsiq u fdjir; bi-fisq u fujur bi-aar 
burdan (to lead a dissolute life). 

Dissolve, db kardan (snow, butter, metals, 
etc.) ; guddkhtan (gen. for metals) ; hall k. 
(gen. in chemistry ; also to solve a prob- 

Dissolved, guddkhta ; hall shvda ; db ahuda. 

Dissolvent, muhallil. 

Dissuade, nami-tavdmd urd man' kunid (or 
mdni' bi-shavid) ki chunin kdr na-kunad? 
rdy-ash rd az rajtan bi garddn (or bi-zan) 
va bi-m^ndan bi-ddr. 

Distaff, duk. 

Distance, m/isdjat (gen.) ; fdsila (between 
points, place, or time) ; bu'd (long dis- 
tance); az injd td BajAddd chi qadr rdh 

I In rud-khana bUhahar panj ehuba pakhth ahuda. Dana-ha ra rS^yi zamln pakhah kun " spread 
the beftds out on the floor." 

* iJa-klku.-'h in India '* displeased " ; in Persia "ill." 

i» " QaUva mi-ii"rjd ? " • » fci^yr. " " khOb ; 65 chahx chi H/awr-id f " , j~ 

Sar a kar-t bu-chahi na-dirain, " 1 never take tea " : but AaZa aar u kar-i 53 Sit mard na-daram. 
" I hav** nothing to do with him now." 




ast? du sa'at rah hi-SKiraz asl (it is a 
distance of two hours to Shiraz) ; andaza-yi 
tir or partab-i ilr (distance of a gun-shot). 
Vide Far. 

Distance, to, pas or 'aqab andakhtan (leave 

Distant, dur ; ba'id; dur-dast (far oflf) ; sard 
(in manner). 

Distasteful, na-pasand; na-marghub ; nd- 
guvdr (of the palate, or of an action). 

Distend, shikam-i khud-ash ra ziydda bar 
anddza pur az ghizd kard, Tialdk shud ; 
sina-yi khud rd bad ddda rah mi-ravad (he 
puffs out his chest when he walks). 

Distention, nafkh (of belly). 

Distich, bayt (one line consisting of two 
misrd' or hemistiches, making a complete 
sense; Ex. Humdy bar hania inurg^n az 
an sharaf ddrad .' . Ki ustukhwdn khurad u 
tayir-l na-ydzdrad; in the foregoing thfe 
two misrd' rhyme). Vide Couplet. 

Distil, johar or jawhar (or 'araq) giriftan or 
kashldan (to extract the juice or essential 
oil from) ; taqiir k. (in Persian to filter ; in 
Arabic to distil). 

Distilled, muqattar (k. and sh.) (filtered ; in 
Arabic distilled) ; kashtda. 

Distiller, 'araq-kash or 'araq-gtr. 

Distinct, vdzih ; dshkdrd ; huvaydd ; ghayr az 
— (distinct from) ; talaffuz-i u sdf u sahlh 
ast (his pronunciation is distinct) ^ [lahja 
' accent'] ; makhraj'^ (iti Persian, the pro- 
nunciation of the Arabic gutturals and 
foreign letters). Vide Evident, Clear. 

Distinction, farq ; tafdvut ; tashkhls; tawjlr 
(vulg. and incorrect) ; sdkib-i imtiydz (man 
of distinction). Vide Distinguish and 

Distinctly, man vdzih shumdam ki kasi dad 
zad; shumurda harf mi-zanad (speaks 
slowly and distinctly). 

Distinguish, tamiz d. ; farq k. ; tawjlr d. 
(vulg.); farq guzdshtan^; tashkhis-i md 
bayn-i mis va birinj rd nami-dihi (can't 
you distinguish between brass and cop- 
per ? ) ; khar u gdv rd bd yak chub mi- 
rdnand (they make no distinction between 
the two); bayn-i nuh va dah farq nami- 
dihad (or tamiz namldihad) (he's a fool 
and can't tell the difference between nine 
and ten). 

Distinguished, muiashakhkhis (of position, 
standing) ; nam bardvarda. 

Distorted, mu'avvaj (of things or of stature) ; 
ma'nl-yamrd pichlda baydn kard {he dis- 
torted my words). 

Distracted, dshufta-hdl ; parishdn ; shurida ; 

Distress, sajchtt ; tangi ; ' iff as (poverty);/ 
hdld dar musibat-i skadtd uftdda; urd daj 
db bi-hdlat-i iztirdb dida bi-kumak-asi 

Distress, to, khud rd 'abas parishdn na-ki 
(don't distress yourself for nothing). 

Distribute, taqsim k. , qismat k. 

Distributed, taqsim shuda ; [munqasim. dj*fi- 

Distribution, taqsim tr., said inqisdm intj. ; 
tawzV-i aklibdr (distributing the nevs- 
paper; at the subscribers' doors). / 

Distributor, qdsim. / 

District, buluk, pi. bulukdt ; vildyat (a lirge 
district under a governor). 

Disturb, dludan or dluda k. (of water, elc.) ; 
az jd harakat d. , or bi-ham zadan (physi- 
cally) ; safd-yi vaqt-i kas-i rd mukdddar 
kardan or muzdhim-i awqdt shtdan; 
don't disturb me by useless quesiions, 
havdss-am rd bd su'dlhd-yi bi-fdHda nagji- 
shush na-kun; rakhna dar kdr-ash\kard 
(disturbed his arrangements). 

Disturbance, fitna; dshub ; ightishdsh; shiluq 
(fiar-khdstan) ; gk awghd (lit. noise; vulg. 
in this sense); hayd-huy (noise in streets, 
etc., at a time of disorder). 

Disturbed, mushavvash or dshufta-Ml ; muz- 
tarib (of a person); magjishush; shuluq , 
(of town, road, etc.); mukaddar ; tira (of 
water) . ' 

Disturber, shuluq-kdr (also one not straight/ 
in money matters) ; fitna bar pd kun. \ 

Disunited, bi-ittifdq ; ittifdq na-ddrand. \ 

Disused, matruk or mansukh* (of customs, 
words etc.). Vide Abolish, Annul, Cat- 
eel). _ ' 

Ditch, khandaq ; cMla ; gawddl (pit) ; hamclu 
jastan-i kard ki az jadval radd shud |be 
jumped over the gutter). / 

Ditto, ayz""". \gatd). 

Diurnal, ruz-gard (of animals ; opp. to siab- 

Dive, ghuta khurdan inti. or zadan tr. ; Zir-i 
db raftan. 

1 ^Aroqg'ir also a metal rim for catching the nicotine of a water-pipe 

2 Makhraj, Ar., the place of utterance and classically and colloquially anus. 
S Taf. iq ic. = niin-ha k. " to subtract ' ' 

* ManswM properly "cancelled." 




Diver, (jhavms (profe.s.sional); ffhvfa-var. 

Diversion, tafarruj ; bdzi ; lafannun ; mash- 
ffJiuliyyclt ; iahdn rd az in kdr khush mi- 
ay ad. 

Divide, nisf nisf k. or dtL-nim k. (in otjual 
portions). Vide Distribute. 

Divided, qismat shuda ; munqasim. 

Dividend, ftahm (share) ; maqsum (arith.) ; 
ta7izil (also interest ; but prop, discount) : 
bi-tdrikh-i gjittrra-yi mdh-i dyanda qist-i 
az hisdb-ash ddda rni-shavad. 

Divination, (dl (for /a*/) giriftan or tafd'ul ' 
zadan; istikhdra (from rosary or Qur*an) ; 
rajnl (geomancy) ; shdna didan (by shoul- 
der-blades of sheep) ; 'ilm-i yJiayh. 

Divine, ildhl ; rabhdni ; yazddni ; snhhdrii : 
hunar-i KhtiddH (divine gift) ; dvdz-ash 
husn-i Khudd^r St. 

Diviner, fdl-gir ; ghayh-gu (professional) ; 
rammjdl (prop, geomancer) ; tas-garddn (by 
means of a bowl). 

Divinity, uluhiyyat ; rabbdniyyat. 

Division, qismat. {k.) ; khdna (division in a 
room or in a drawer, etc.) ; taqsim (arith- 
metic, etc., etc.). 

Divisor, maqsum 'alayh (arith.). 

Divorce,'^ taldq (dadan or gujtan) ; rifai 
kardan bi — ) (taking back a divorced 
wife) ; si-taldq (triple decisive divorce) ; 
'idda (period during which a divorced wife 
must remain unmarried). 

Divorced woman. Divorcee, mutallaqa; khul' 
{dadan) (release of wife by husband for 
money consideration) ; zan-i taldq ddda 

Divulge, ifshd^ k. or fash k. , buruz d. 

Divulged, if shd^ shuda; buruz ydfta. 

Divulging, ijshd^; zabdn-ash shul ast (he 
blabs, q.v.). 

"Do ^ to, kardan ; kdr kardan: sdkhtan; 'amal 
namudan; pas takllf chist? (what am I to 

do ; what courHf ou^ht I to take ') ; Aa- 
chi kardani hdshad mi-kunam^ (whatever 
there is to do I'll do); chi chdra bdyad 
kard (what is to be done?); bi-man chi? 
(what has that to do with me?); ahval-i 
sharif? (how do you do ?). 

Dizful, Dizful. 

Dock, subs., duk or ddk (Shah's Diary). 

Dock, to, dum zadan (of animals). 

Doctor, hakim (also a wise man, philosopher) : 
tabib (of med. only); duktur (Eng.). 

Doctrine, in 'ajib 'aqida-i 'si; usul* (prop. 
pi. but in this sense used as a sing.) ; ra*«-t 
masd*il-i din (principal doctrine). 

Document, sanad ; dast-dviz. Vide Bond. 

Dog, sag ; sag-i hdr (mad dog) ; tula (hound, 
any sporting dog except tdzi, the grey- 
hound) ; buji (lap-dog) ; the howling of the 
dog forebodes death , for the dog can 
distinguish the awful form of 'Izrd^l, 
dula kashidan-i sag pish-gu^i-yi marg 
ast zird ki sag mi-tavdnad shakl-i muhib-i 
'Izrd^V ya'ni Malak''-l-Mawt rd bi-binad ; 
sag-i ahli or -khdnagi (house-dog) ; sag-i 
shabdn (sheep-dog) ; sag-i iliydli (of the 
breed kept by the tent-folk ; large and 
fierce) ; havd bad ast, sag birun na-mi- 
ravad (the weather is bad ; even a dog 
wouldn't go out in it); sag rafiq-i shikar 
u ydr-i yifl.r-i ishdn ast. 

Doleful, 'abus (lit. frowning ; stem) ; khushk-i 
muqaddas (like a priest, refers to mode of 
life) ; qissa-yi 'abusi khwdnd bardy-i man 
(he told me a doleful tale) ; sirka-ru 
(vinegar-faced) ; tavallud-ash dar Muhar- 
ram shuda = surai-ash Muharrami ast. 

Doll, 'arusak; 'aluchak (vulg.) ; lufat (vulg.) ; 

Dollar, ''daldr'' ; majidi (Turkish dollar).* 

Dolphin, dalfin (Eur). 

Dolt, kund ; kund-fahm (slow) ; kawdan or 

« If a Muslim divorce his wife a third time, or by the triple sentence, he can only taUe her back 
after her marriage with another man has been consummated, and she has been divorced by him. A 
Muslim who desires to take back his wife after she has been thrice divorced by him, sometimes resorts 
to the following ladbtr : — He marries the divorced wife to his slave and then presents the slave to the 
wife. As a free woman cannot be the wife of her own slave, the marriage becomes void. In olden 
days the slava used to be killed from a * sense of honour. ' A Muslim may marry a Christian or a 
Jewess but a Mushma may marry none but a Muslim. If a Muslim change his Faith. hi-< wives are ipao 
facto divorced. In the wilderness when no mujtahid can be procured a marriage can be legally con- 
tract>ed by the man and woman agreeing to become husband and wife. 

8 Afghan an' hi kardan ast khwaham kard 

♦ Also ugul i din as opposed to furii- i din. 

' Prop, any plaything ; lu'bata-'i-'ayn (or mardumak-i ehaahm or pSdishah-i oAa»Am) "the pupil of 
the eye." 

Still coined and exported to the Persian Qulf. 





ghabi (backward in learning) ; vide Back- 
ward ; hhar. 

Dome, gumbad or gumhaz ; quhha (the small 
domes in a mosque ; also domes in private 
houses. Vide Cupola). 

Domestic, hhana-dust (of people) ; khdnagl or 
sakht-i khdna {houae-ma,id, etc.); mur gh -i 
khdnagl (domestic fowl). 

Domineer, huzurgi k. ; izhdr-i tasallut k. ; 
tahakkum k. 

Dominion, tasallut; istild^; hukumat (dash- 
tan) ; saltanat ; qalam-raw. 

Donation, 'aiiyya; vajh-i i'dna. 

Donkey, khar ; uldrfh T. ; chdrvd ; dardz-gush 
(sp. of people) ; jms-i du pd or khar-i du 
pd (a two-legged donkey) ; uldghrddr or 
kharak-chi (driver) = khar-handa (class, and 
rare in m.c). 

Donkey-driver. Vide Muleteer. 

Donkey-riding, khar-savdri {k.). 

Doom, ajal (the appointed time of death) ; 
ajal-ash nazdik shuda and ajal-ash dawr-i 
sar mt-gardad. 

Doomed, az hukm-i Shdh mahkum-i sha- 
kanja-yi mumtadda bud (was doomed by 
the royal decree to protracted torture) ; 
dar qismat-ash marg-i mujdjdt bud. 

Door,' dar (gen.); clarb (of great people); 
darvdza (gate-way and gate) ; dar rd pish 
kun (shut, put to, the door) ; chift kun 
(bolt it) ; vdz kun (open it) ; dargdh (door- 
way of a house); kist 'aqabi dar? or 
kist kubanda-yi dar? — Prof. S. T. (who 
knocks?); kdghaz rd bi-dar-i darvdza 
chaspdnid (he stuck the paper on the 
gate); yak zawj dar (a pair of doors); 
linga (one leaf) ; djhishqa (a door with 
small window panes in the upper part) ; 
dar-i kitdbi (folding-doors). 

Door-keeper, darbdn; hdjih ; qdpu-chi, T. (of 
big people). 

Dormitory, shabistdn (rare in m.c.) ; of great 
men ; also the covered-in portion of a 
mosque) ; khivdb-gdh. 

Dormouse, vide Mouse. 

Dose, khiirdk; slidyad yak misqdl tirydk 
'ddat-i khud-i mawld-nd^ ast. 

Dot, nuqta, pi. nuqat. 

Dotage, khurdfdt (guftan). 

Dotard, kharif, vulg. khirif. 

Dote, to, khurdfdt guftan; u bar pisar-ash 
shifta ast (he dotes on his son). 

Dotted, manqut. 

Double, ham-zdd (ghostly 'double'); harrir 
shakl (living double). 

Double, to, taz'if namudan; agar du muqdbil 
ham mavdjib bi-dihi in rd naml-kunam (I 
wouldn't do this even if you doubled my 
pay) ; in rismdn rd du Id* bi-kun, mazbut 
mi-shavad ; du in qadr bi-kun or du chan- 
ddn or muzd'af* kun (double in quantity) ; 
in kdgtiaz du Id, ^st; du bardbar-i dn (double 

Doubled, du-ld; muzd'af.* 

Double-barrelled, du-lula. 

Double-edged, du dama. 

Double-faced, durU, ; du zabdn ddrad or misUi 
gul-i du-ru ^st. 

Doubt, shakk {k. or d.) ; shuhha (k.) ; dar du- 
rust kdri-yash harf-% nist (there is no doubt 
of his honesty) ; dar bdb-i dmadan-i u shakk 
ast = dmadan-i u shakk ddrad; dil ma-dil 
mi-kunad ( = mutaraddid. Vide Hesitate, 

Doubt, to, shakk k. ; gumdn k. or bur dan ; 
shubha namudan. 

Doubter, shakkdk (in religious matters). 

Doubtful, mashkuk; mushiabih ; ghayr-i 
mxCayyan; bi-kunad yd na-kunad (he may 
do it or he may not ; it is doubtful). 

Doubtless, bi-shakk u shubha. 

Dough, khamir.^ 

Dove, qumri ; fdkhta; ku-ku. 

Dove-cot, kaftar-khdna ; burj-i kaftar. 

Dove-tail, to, nar u mdda k. (each ' tail ' is 
called zabdna). 

Dower. Vide Dowry. 

Down, pdyin or zir (adv. and prep.) ; td or 
ila (down to) ; narm-par or par-i riza 
(subs.; of birds); khatt (of new beard, 
etc.) ; mu-yi hardmi (on young of animals). 

Down-cast, malul (dejected, q.v.). 

Dowry, jahdz or jahiz (plenishing, etc., 
brought by bride); mahr (legal money- 

• One of the following is often written on the door: — 

(a) Hamisha bad bidawlat gushada In dargdh. 

(b) Bi 'ami Hlah^ -r-r hmav,i 'r-rahlm. 

(c) Innd fatah-nd laka fatfjn*" mubini^f. 
i Mawld-nd, Ar., " our mawla." 

3 Less common du td. {Tah k. "to fuld " ; of paper, clothes, etc. 

* Not to be confused with muzdf "increased." 
s In India Mkamir is leaven. 




dowry paid by husband) ; kabin (trousneau , 
or dowry and trousseau, given by hus- 

Doze, bi-churt raftan (but churt zadan ' to 
nod in sleep). 

Dozing, churt-zada (in a dozing state) ; 

Draft, musvadda, vulg. for musawada (of a 

Drag, chi tawr yak a,sp bar I bi-tn buzurgi 
mi-tavanad bi-koshad? taydlur id chahdr 
•^d'at ling ling' tul kashid (the play drag- 
ged on for four hours). 

Dragoman, iurjuman: dubdsl (vulg.; in law 
courts); mutarjim (translator or inter- 

Dragon, azMahd ; azhdar. 

Dragon's-blood, khun-i siydvushdn; dam'H- 

Drain, dh dar-raw ; db-riz (in roofs); ndv- 
ddn (the gutter-spout) ; there is a drain 
under the house from the w.c.. zlr-db-% az 
mabdl ztr-i khdnd'st; [chashma ' the hole 
of the mabdV\ 

Dramatic. Vide Effective . 

Draper, bazzdz Vide Cloth-merchant. 

Drapery, qumdsh. Vide Cloth. 

Draught, yak jur'a or qurl [db) ; yak qup'^ 
(of water) ; khumdr-shikan (a morning or 
afternoon draught^ to remove effects of 
drinking); chird;jk bi-rdh-i bad* ma-guzdr 
(don't put the lamp in a draught). 

Draughts, nard (a kind of backgammon, not 
draughts) . 

Draw, to, kashidan (pull ; to paint) ; kandan 
or kashidan (tooth) ; dam kardan (of tea, 
cinnamon tea, etc.) : in handasa rd bi-navis 
va jadval ^ bi-kash ; khdka kashidan (draw 
in outline) ; sijt kashidan (draw tight) ; 
' Idturi ' kashidan or bar ddshtan (draw in a 
lottery) ; Idturi bi-ism-i man birun dmad (I 
drew the prize). Vide Breath and Inspire 
and Expire. 

Drawers, zir-i shalvdr (of men or women) ; 
zir-jdma (for men); zabdnayi or ja'ba-yi 
miz or khdna-yi miz; dakhl, vulg. for san- 
duq-i dakhl (of shop-keeper; for money). 

Drawing, naqsha-kashi (k.). 

Drawing-room, idaq-i pazird'i (reception 


Dread, dafishat. Vide Fear. 

Dreadful, tors-MoA;; hawl-ndk; makhuf: muhib 
(awful) ; khun kl na-ahuda ast (nothing 
very dreadful has happened!). 

Dream, ru^yd (didan) ; khwdb-i parishdn or 
-shaytdni '' {didan) (bad dream). 

Dream, to, dar khipdb in tawr didam. 

Dreamer, Dreamy, in bachcha khiycUi ast, 
'dmil nisi. 

Dregs, durd (wine); /a*» or lay (of water); 
az nukhdla-yi ardzil or az arzal-tarinri 
ardzil (from the drogs of the people) ; az 
chakida-yi ardzil ast (he is from the dregs, 
scum, of the people). 

Dress, rakhi, pi. rul^hut ; libds, pi. albisa; 
jdma ; u bi-jihat-i Ubds-i khvd fikr na-ddrad 
(or bi-iavajjuh ast) (he is careless in his 
dress) . 

Dress, to, pushdnidan; mulabbas sdkhtan 
(tr.) ; rakht bar kardan or libds pushidan 
(to dress oneself) ; kam-i sabr kun, djl^d 
libds mi-pushad ; jarrdh zakhm rd shusta 
marham guzdrd (the surgeon dressed the 
wound). Vide Robe. 

Dressed, mulabbas; khush-libds (well dress- 

Dried, khushk shuda or karda, or khushldda ; 
khushk (of herbs, fruits). 

Drift, siydq-i kaldm; matlab. Vide Import. 

Drill, mashq-i nizdm (mil.); mashnhdq (drill- 
instructor) ; mayddn-i wicwAg (drill-ground); 
misqab {k. ) (any instrument for boring) ; 
barma {k.) (a bit worked by a bow or 

Drill, to, mashq dddan, tr., and k., intr. ; 
surdkh k. (make a hole). 

Drink, subs., mashrub, pi. mashrubdt. Vide 

Drink, to, nushidan; khurdan; az mnshru- 
bdt chiz-i biydr (bring something to drink, 
i.e., bring wine) ; sir-db shud (he drank his 
fill, of water). 

Drinkable, khurdani; nushidani; mashrubdt 
(drinkables, pi. ; gen. for wines). 

Drinker, shardhi (drunkard); shardb-khtpdr. 
Vide Drunkard. 

1 For long lann. 

* Qup, vulg. kup, " the cheek, or the mouth." 

8 Under this name a host will press a ' last glass' on a guest. 

* Compare bi rah i uflab. 

* Khattri muvuzl, " parallel lines " ;—mM«ta9«fn, "straight " ;—mu«tadir, "circular 
" curved " ; daHra, " circle "; hayzi or bayzavl "oval." 

' But shayfani «Audan = nocturnal pollution. 

: — munhani. 




Drinking, shurb ; khurdan. 

Drip, chakidan ; chaka chaka amadan ; qatra 
qatra uftddan. Vide Drop and Distil. 

Dripping, shur-shur (of rain on roof) ; ashk-i 
kabdb (drippings of fat on to the fire, 
while roasting). 

Drive, to, randan, tr. ; savdr-i kdliska sh. 
iiitr. ; kuftan (to drive into the ground; 
a peg, etc.) ; zadan (drive into the wall ; a 
nail) ; kish k. (to drive away birds) ; pish 
k. (drive off cats) ; chiq k. (for dogs) : u 
hamisha kdliska rd tund mi-rdnad ; ' yak 
rriikh bi- (or dar) divdr kuftam or zadam. 

Driver, kdliska-clii or kdliska-rdn. Vide 

Droll, muzhik; bd maza. 

Drollery, maskharagl ; mazhaka-gari . 

Drop) qatra; chaka. 

Drop, to, chakdnldan, tr., and chakidan, intr. 
(of liquids ; inde Drip and Distil) ; kitdb az 
daslram uftdd (I dropped the book) ; az in 
sukhun bi-guzdr (let the matter drop) ; 
bi-bin kitdb rd az dast-at na-yanddz (now 
don't drop the book). 

Dropsical, mustasql. 

Dropsy, istisqd*. 

Drosky, durushka (Russ ). 

Dross, khilt (sp. of gold) ; chirk (of metals). 

Drought, khushk-sdll ; qaht (scarcity). Vide 

Drowned, gjiariq ; gharq shuda ; ma gh ruq. 

Drowsy, khivdb-dlud. 

Drug, davd, vulg. pi. davdjdt (the correct 
pi. adviya in m.c. gen. means spices). 

Drugged, urd bi-hush sdkhta lukht-ash kar- 

Druggist, davd- farush ; 'attar. FtVfe Apothe- 

Drum, kdsa {zadan or kuftan) (a drum in the 
form of an earthen or brazen cup, closed 
by leather); bdldbdn'^ (big drum); turnbak 
or duhul (tom-tom) ; tablcha (little drum) ; 
naqqdra^ (kettle); har ruz dar qal'a tabl 
ira-zanand; ghurrish-i tabl (the rolling of 
the drum); tabla-yi gush (of the ear); 
kajak (drum-stick; also elephant goad). 
Vide Tambourine. ■ 

Drummer, bdldbdn-cM ; naqqdr-chi ; tabbdl or 

Drunk, mast ; bad-mast (drunk and trouble- 
some); mast-i Id ya'qil* (dead drunk); u 
masii-yash gul karda ast (drunk and jolly) ; 
kalla-ash garm shuda (he's drunk; also 
angry) ; shardb bi-sar-i man zada ast (the 
wine has gone to my head) ; savdr-i fil ast 
(very drunk; also savdr-i asp-i shaytun 
ast); tu-yi shash dung rafta ast (he's dead 
drunk). Vide Whole. 

Drunkard, dEHm" 'Z-Mamr (habitual); shdrib" 

Drunkenness, musti ; sar-shdrl. 

Dry, khushk; ydbis (med.) ; bi-maza or sard, 
uninteresting); in khdna hich rutubat na- 
ddrad ; in bagk khushk ast (this garden is 
not properly watered) ; dimdgh-ash khushk 
ast (he's cracked). 

Dryness, khushki ; yubusat (in m.c. also = 

Dual, tasniya (gram. ; in Arabic the being 

Duality, duH, isnaniyyat. 

Ducat, bdjughli (Eur. gold ducat, value about 
one tuman). 

Duck, bait and vulg. batkh (domestic) ; m,ur- 
ghdbi, P.; urdak, T. (wild); 'anqud (the 
Sheldrake or Brahminy Duck of India) ; 
murghdbi-yi sar-sabz P., or shil-bdsh T. 
(mallard) ; pul-hd-yash rd bi-db rikht (to 
make ducks and drakes of). 

Duck, to, ghuta dddan ; sar zir-i db dddan. 

Due, dddani; vdjib"' 'l-add; lavdzim-i huquq-i 
shawhar bi-zan; sar-i va'da pul bdyad 
dad; va'da-yi In bardt fardd bi-sar mi- 

Duenna, gis-safld. 

Dull, tira (of metals) ; havd girifta (of 
weather) ; vide Sail; kund (of intellect). 

Dumb, gung , Idl; bi-zabdn (silent, not talka- 
tive). Vide Animal. 

Dumb-bells, mll-i dhani. 

Dun, taqdzd-chi (man); taqdzd-rMma (letter). 

Dun-coloured, samand. 

Dunce, kawdan ; khar ; ghabl. 

Dung, pihin (of any animal ; sp. of horse) ; 
sargln (of horses or cows) ; guh (human or- 
dure) ; chal^uz ("mutes"; of birds); 
tapala (of cows ; gen. when dried for fuel) ; 
pishkil (goats, camels, deer); fazla (of 

1 Tund randan, " to ride or drive last." 

2 Also the ' passage ' Saker Falcon. 
'^ Naqara-Mkana, the place where the drums are beaten Emd the trumpets blown at sunset ; on gala 

days before noon and in Kamazan in the early morr 

* La ya'qil, Ar., 'he does not understand." 1^ %h-maat class. 



anything) ; kiUir (camels) : lahhta-pihin 
(horae-bedding of dried dung broken up 
and laid down several inches deep) ; 
pachak (dung-cake for fuel) ; kud (manure, 

Dunghill, mazbala (m.c. = w.c.) • tull-i kud. 

Duplicity, du-ruH. Vide Double-faced. 

Durable, pdyadar; ba davdm; dar %n dunyd 
rakat-i mustaqill muyassar naml-shavad ; 
%n pdrcha davdm ddrad, or dur* ayh mJ- 
kunad (this cloth is durable). 

Duration, chand ruz tul kasKld? (of how 
many days' duration?). 

During, md-ddm-i ki (as long as ; and also 
colloquially, the case being so, since) ; dar ; 
dar zarf-i du sal ; dar bayn-i gujt u gu- 
yash; dar 'arsa-yi (or zarf-i) In dah ruz 
(during these ten da5's). 

Dusk, havd-yi gurg u mish (of -morning or 
evening); tdrlki-yi shdm; {idri1n-yi shab 
' the darkness of night '). 

Dust, gard u ghubdr ; khdka-yi zar (gold- 
dust) ; bi-khdk sipurdan (to lay in the 
dust; bury) 

Dust, to, gard takdnldan. 

Dust-bin, rashtdan. 

Duster, gard-pdk-kun (brush or cloth). 

Dust-heap, JdidkiHar-riz. 

Dustiness, gard-dludagt. 

Dusty, pur-gard ; gard-dlud. 

Duty, dar ijrd-yi lavdzim-i 'ddiyya-yi 'uhda-yi 
khud (in the exercise of his usual duties) ; 
In ajnds gumruk ddrad ; jardHz-% shar' iyya 
(Muslim religious duties) ; dad-i cihizd 
dddam (I did my duty to the food) ; dakhl-i 
bi-kdr-i man na-ddrad (that's not part of 
my duty). 

Dwarf, ushpukhtur (in Shiraz) ; kutulu or 
kuchiku (vulg.) ; kupuk shakhs-Vst ki qadd- 
ash kutdh va kuluft ast. 

Dwell, mdndan; nishastan; tavattun k. (set- 
tle in a place) ; har jd ki suknq guzinad 
khush -afh naml-dyad. 

Dweller, sdkin, pi. sdkinxn; mutavaUin ; 

Dwelling, manzil [pi. mandzil "stages"]; 
mahall-i nishinuin. 

Dwindle, kdstan, rt. kdh. 

Dye, sabbdjJii k. (cloth) ; rang k. (also ' ' to 

deceive"); [rang u rUgKan zadan, of a 
painterj; khizdh k. (of hair, naiU): 1 
dye my beard and hair onco a month, 
mah-% yak daf'a risk va mu-yi sar-i khud 
rd rang ^ u hinnd mi-bandam. '' Ramj-ajth 
jawfiari'st'^ V Khayr. dfjAd, ^abit (or 
vulg. pukhia) ast (Aniline dyed ? No, sir. 
permanent vegetable dye). 

Dyed, rang karda. 

Dyeing, sabbdgjil ; khizdb kardan or bastan 
or zadan (dyeing the hair or nail with 

Dyer, rang-rtz; sabbdjA- 

Dying, fawt (subs.); murdant (adj.); insan 
murdanl ast (man must 6'\e) = inmn nitr- 
anda ast. 

Dynamite, dindmut (Eur.). 

Dynasty, tabaqa ; silsila; khdnddn (family). 

Dysentery, pichish; zahir (ined.) ; is-hidl-i 

Dyspepsia, zu'f-i mi* da. 

Each one, har ; har yak; har kuddm. 

Eager, shd%q ; rdjjiib ; pur-shawq ; u mushidq 
bi-in shu gh l ast. 

Eagerness, ra^bat-i tamdm; shawq; mayl-i 
ziydd; u bi-dars khwdndan dil-ash garni- 
ast or dil-garmi ddrad. 

Eagle, 'uqdb At. and qara-qush T. (gen. 
terra ; but specially applied to the golden 
eagle) ; sanj (serpent eagle) ; 'uqdb-i mdh- 
dum (a mountain eagle said to have a 
white end to its tail and to prey on part- 
ridges, lambs and larks, but not on fish); 
'uqdb-i kuchx-gdn (' has a white tail, hunts 
in pairs and preys on water-fowl ' ) ; 'uqflb-i 
d*inarli (has a few white feathers in its 
back from which, it is said, it derives its 
name); 'uqdb-i zard (probably the tawny 
eagle) ; 'uqdb-i qurbdqa-chi or buq-khura 
(eats frogs, dead fish and occasionally 
injured water-fowl) ; dubarnr* (apparently 
a hawk-eagle: hunts in pairs; the male is 
described as being of the size of a goshawk 
tiercel); karlak (?); daniir-dizindk T. 
(osprey or " iron-claw"); nasr (the con- 
stellation Aquilla). 

• DUr vulgar for dir. 

2 Rang alone is gen. used for a mixture of hinria and vaama. 
nut colour bub rang u hinna " a blue blark 

HitmS alone prodaces a dark cheat- 

3 Jawhar " essence " and chiz-i jawhar mx 4it*r» a euphemism for "Will you have some •oro^ or 
ither spirits 7 " 

♦ Apparently a corruption of du-haradaran, the tummaj of the Arabs. 




Ear, dshuh-i (or shuluq-i) shuma gush-i mar- 
dum ra kar nti-kunad, or parda-yi gush ra 
para mi-kunad (the noise you make is 
deafening) ; ay barddar gush-at bi-man 
bdshad (brother, your ear). 

Ear-ache, dard-i gush. 

Early, subh-i zud; avval-i subh; hanuz zud 
ast (it's too soon to go); sahar-khlzl {eaxXy 

Earn, to, maddkhil k. ; paydd k. ; kasb n, ; 
In tawr, mdh-i dah rupiya ml-tavdnam hdsil 
bi-kunam (or dar dvaram). 

Earnest, bay' ana (earnest money; vide 
infra) ; jiddl nami-guyid, shukM rrii-kumd 
(you are not in earnest, you are joking). 

Earnest money, pul-i pish (vulg.) ; dah 
rupiya bi-iawr-i bay' ana bi-u dddam. 

Earning, kirdya-mandl (earnings) ; kasb. 

Earring, gushvdra ; dviza. 

Earth, khdk ; zaniin or kura-yi zamin (world) ; 
sujdagdh (for sijda-gdh) and turbat (the 
small block of sacred Kerbela earth used 
by ShV ahs in prayer) . 

Earthen, gili or gilln; sijdli or sifdlin. 

Earthenware, sifdl and vulg. kupdl (burnt 
earthenware) ; kuza-garl or kuza-farusht k. 
(to trade in — ). 

Earthly, dunyavi. 

Earthquake, jumbish-i or larzish-i zamtn ; 
chand ruz ast ki dar In navdhl zalzala 
shuda ast; zamin humcliu takan khurd ki 
bisydr-i az khdnahd uftdd. 

Earthworms, khardiin (Ar. pi. used in Per- 
sian as a sing. ; pi. khardiin-hd) . 

Earwig, du-dum. 

Ease, dsdnl; suhulat (facility); dram; dsd- 
yish ; rdhat ; istirdhat (repose) ; jar a ghat 
(leisure) ; ruz-hd-yi khud rd bi-rdhat mt- 
guzardnad (but bi-jardghat = without any- 
thing to do) ; dram bar hhud Jiardm 
kardam td — Prof. S. T. (I allowed myself 
no rest till — ) ; kh,dtir-jam' or dsuda Midtir 
(to be at ease, easy in one's mind). 

Easily, sahl"^ ; bi-dsdni. 

East, mashriq; dar samt-i sharqi-yi — (to the 
east of — ) ; mashriq zamin (Eastern coun- 

Eastern, sharqi. 

Easy, sahl; sabaq-i dsdn-i ml-diham; In kdr 
rd misl-i db-khurdan mi-ddnad (this is as 
easy to him as drinking water). Vide 

Eat, khurd td sir shud (he ate sufficient to 
satisfy hunger) ; pur khurda ast (he has 
overeaten) ; hich chiz sarf na-shud (I 
could not eat anything) ; gusht-i khuk 
zahr-i mar ' mi-kunad (he eats pig's flesh). 

Eatables, khurdani, pi. khurdanihd; wa*- 
kiildt pi. ; in miva bdb-i khurdani nist. 

Eaves, shddurvdn (of roof of house) ; turra 
(over an urusi). 

Eavesdropping, gush kashidan (or giriftan) ; 
isiirdqi sam' (k.) ; gush-kash or gush bi- 
zanak (adj.). 

Ebb, jazr u madd (ebb and flow of the tide). 

Ebony, dbnus. 

Ebullition, jush. 

Echo, sadd-yi kuh ar sadd-yi jangal ; mddar-i 
kith; manu{?); [the Arabic 6m^^'Z-;a6aZ, 
"daughter of the mountains," is only 
used by the learned]. 

Eclipse, ba'd az chand ruz dftdb (or ruz or 
khurshid) mi-girad; mdh mi-girad (of 
moon) ; kusuf-i dftdb and khusuf-i mJdh 
(correct terms used in almanacs). 

Eclipse, to, rushnd^i-yi barqi rushnd^i-yi mdh 
rd zada ast (the electric light eclipses the 
moon light) ; rawnaq shikastan. 

Economical, sarfa-jit ; khdna-ddr {good mana- 
ger) ; bd ihtiydt (' careful '). 

Economy, kam-kharji; khdna-ddri (thrift); 
bi-sahab-i qillat-i khurdanihd ia'dm rd bi- 
ihliydt^ (or bi-sarja) mi-/churdim (owing to 
scarcity of provisions we practised econo- 
my in rations). 

Ecstacy, vajd (love, etc., that produces hdl) ; 
hdl ; ahl-i hdl (Sufis) ; figar-ash (or dil- 
ash) hdl dmad (he was in an ecstacv of 

Eden, Bihisht-i 'Adn (Garden of — ). 

Eddy, gird-db. 

Edge, Edgewise, lab or kindr (of a stream, 
table, etc.) ; dam (of sword) ; yak bar-i 
uftdd (m.c.) (it fell on its edge, or he fell 
on his side) ; danddn-am kund shud (my 
teeth were set on edge). 

Edging, sajdf (piping of uniform, etc.); 
Jmshiya (in shawls). 

Edict, Farmdn-i Shdhi. 

Edifice, bind''; 'imdrat. 

Edition, nusJcha-yi avval (first edition) ; 
nuskha-yi muharrafa (spurious edition, i.e. 
in which changes have been made). 

1 Said of anything objectionable or forbidden; lit. "snake-poison." 
* In India bi-kifayat, " economically." 




Editor, dabir or mudir-i ruz-ndvia; dabir u 

Educate, tarhiyat d. or k.; ia'lim d. 

Educated, ta'lim yafia ; tarbiyal yajta; savdd 
dan? or vulg. mulld hasii? (Can you 
read and write?) 

Education, ta'lim; tarhiyat; savad; vazir-i 
ma'arif (minister of education); kitdb-i 
dar bdb-i farbiyat naviahta asl or mard-l bd 
kamdl-i ast (highly educated). 

Eel, mdr-mdhi. 

Efface, to, mahv k. (efiface) ; hakk k. (erase) ; 
pdk k.; hdtil k. (to annul, make of no 
eflFect). Vide Annul, Cancel. 

Effacement, mahv. 

Effect, ta^6%r-i ruhdni (moral effect) ; davd 
asar (or ^'Z or ta'str) na-kard or mu^assir 
na-shud or fdHda na-hakhshtd (the medi- 
cine had no effect) ; vahm dar umur-i basJia- 

«*> . 
riyya fa"dl (Jl**) ast (imagination has a 

great effect on the actions of men) ; az tn 
qardr (to this effect) ; bdtil {k.) and (sh.) 
(to make or be of no effect, vide Annul, 
Cancel) ; ijrd (k.) (to give effect to). 

Effective, Effectual, mu^assir; kdr-gar ; mu- 
fid; bd ta^sir ; zabdn-ash qalam-i Khudd 
ast (whatever he says comes to pass) ; 
nafas-ash garm ast or zabdn-ash garm u gir 
asl (his talk h effective, dramatic ; of a 
story-teller, i.e., makes the hearers laugh 
and cry, etc.). Vide Efficacious. 

Effeminacy, zaninbvad ; na-mardi. 

Effeminate, tan-par\xir (looks after himself) ; 
zan-tabVat ; nd mard. 

Effervescence, jush. 

Effervescent, jush ddrad; jushdn. 

Efficacious, kdr-gar; mu^assir ; mufld: mu- 
jarrab (prop, proved, tested). Vide Effec- 

Efficient, kdr-ddn u kdr-gumr ; qdbil. 

Effigy, shakl ; sural. 

Effort, jidd u jahd (k.) ; sa'y-i balvj^ (k.) 
(great — ) ; zur zad ki bar-khizad ' (he made 
an effort to rise) ; harakat-i tnazbuht 
(feeble effort or feeble resistance). 

Effrontery, gustdkhi ; chashm-daridagl ; just 
see the effrontery of the girl, bi-bin 
chashm safidi-yi in duUilara'^ chi qadr ast. 

Effusion, rizish. 

Egg> tukhm-i mur^ (a vulg. pi. is tukhm- 
murgihd) ; nim ru (fried in butter) ; nim- 

6tt/M/ (half-boiled); db-jMz (boiled); sakhl 
PmH ton (to boil hard) ; ArAagrtna* (omelette 
with chopped vetietables) ; I saw a bird's 
nest with four eggs, dshiydnayi murjA-i 
bd cJuihdr lukhm didam; p&st i tukhm-i 
muT'jA (egg-shell) ; lukhm-hd-yi murrj/i 
garm karda dar maq'adash faru kardand 
(a Persian torture). 

Egg-pl2int, bddinjdn ; bddinjdn-i farangi (to 

Eglantine. Vide Sweet-Briar. 

Ego, bay ad du^i az miydn-i rm bar ddshta 
shavad (we must be alter ego.<i). 

Egotism, maniyyat. 

Egotistical Vide Self. 

Egress, khuruj ; makhraj, pi. TwaMart; (place 
of — , and also expenses). 

Egrette, tila (a jewelled hair ornament, worn 
by women) ; jiqa (of Shah). 

Egypt, Misr; Misr-i Suflq or Buhayra 
(Lower) ; Misr-i 'Ulya or Sa^id (Upper). 

Egyptian, Misri. 

Eight, hasht. 

Eighteen, hid.dah. 

Eighteenth, hiJidahum. 

Eigth, hashlum. 

Eightieth, hashiddum. 

Eighty, hashtdd. 

Either — or, yd — yd (or yd — va yd) ; chi — chi ; 
kh ivdh — kh wdh . 

Ejaculation, inzidl (of semen). 

Eject, birun anddkhtan or randan; ikhrdj k. 

Ejection, Ejectment, ikhrdj. 

Elaborate, shdm-i mufassal-i (an elaborate 
dinner; opp. to shdm-i mukhtasar-%, a 
simple dinner). 

Elapse, guzashlan ; tul kashidan ; munqazi sh. 

Elastic, Elasticity, kash (elasticity); kafsh-i 
kash-ddr (elastic side boots) ; jahanda 
(adj.; gen. of a spring); in kash darad; 
hukm-i Idstik ddrad; qdbil-i inUiddd va 

Elated, pur-bdd; mast; in falh rd fdtihti-yi 
iqbdl ddnisla ( = elated with his success 

Elbow, arinj or aranj ; mirfaq, pi mardfiq. 
Elburz, lamdm-i ufuq-i shimiAi rd rishia- (or 

silsila-)yi kuhistan-i Ilburz girifta ast (the 

whole of the N. horizon is bounded by 

the Elburz Mts.). 
Elder, rish-i safid ; buzurg ; buzurg-tar (comp. 


• Jihat-i ba--khaatan quvvat hard (Afghan). 
S The dimin. dukhtarak might be affectionate. 
8 KImq (obs.) "egg." 




Elders, mashaf'ikh. 

Eldest, Eldest son, az hama huzurg-tar ; 

pisar-i arskad ; arshad-i awldd-i zukur (or 

inds) (eldest male offspring, or female). 
Elect, to, bar-guzidan ; intikhab k. 
Elected, har-guzida; muntakhab. 
Election, intikhab. 

Electric, cliirdgk-i barql (electric light). 
Electricity, alaklrisita (Eur.) ; quvva-yi bar- 

Elegance, lata f at ; nazakat. 
Elegant,^ nagAz (nice and neat) ; la^f ; zan-i 

shangul mangul (pretty) ; khdna-yi an zan 

drdsta va bd sallqa ast ' ; khush-qdmat. 
Elegy, marsiya ; nawka (sung during Muhar- 

Element, 'unsur, pi. 'andsir; 'andsir-i arba'a 

(the four elements) ; asl, pi. usul (rudi- 
Elementary, ibtidd^l (for beginners). 
Elephant, pil P. , or jil A. ; fil-bdn (mahout) ; 

hawdaj (howdah). 
Elephantiasis, fU-pd. 
Elevate, bar-ajrdkhtan ; buland k. ; murtafi 

garddnldan ; imrUz-hd juldn rd bdld burda 
. and (in joke; not in a good sense). 
Elevated, afrdkhta; sar-buland. 
Elevation, bulandi or irlifd' (height) ; rif'at 

(elevation) . 
Eleven, ydzdah. 
Eleventh, ydzdahum. 
Elicit, istimbdt k. (for words) ; biriin dvur- 

Elision, hazf (gram.) ; jazm (apocopation, 

Elite, zuhda-yi lashkar (the elite of the 

army) ; nuichba-yi javdndn. 
Elixir, ikslr. Vide Stone. 
Elizabeth, Alisdbdt. 
Ell, gaz ; zird' . 
Elm, ndrvand. 
Elongate, dardz k. ; tul or iatvil dddan ; 

mutavval sdkhtan. 
Elopgation, iatvil ; imtiddd. 
Elopement, dukhtar-i Qdzi rd burd, or — 

Eloquence, suMhau-drd^'l ; fasdhat^ u bald- 

^at ddrad. 

Eloquent, faslh^ ; sukhan-avar ; harraf (gen. 

Else, va ilia atid agar 7ia (otherwise) ; did 
you see donkeys or anything else on the 
road? dar 'arz-i rdh uldgh-i chtz-t dldid^? 
bardy-i chi, digar, girya bi-kunam? (why 
else should I cry ?). 

Elucidate, rushan k. ; vdzih or tawzlh k . ; 
tafsir k. (explain fully). 

Emaciated, mafluk (also poor) ; zdr u za' if 
shuda ; pust u usiukhwdn shuda. 

Emanation, iamdm-i makhluqdt tajalli-yi 
nur-i Ildhi ast ; 'dlam-i ndsut 'aks-i 'dlam-i 
Idhut ast; partav (ray of light. Vide 
Beam. Ray, Sun). 

Emancipate, dzdd k. 

Emancipation, iHdq (k.) (legal term) ; hargdh 
banda-i bi-tavdnad khud rd dzdd kunad bar 
muslimin farz ast ki urd khalds numdyand 
(when slaves can redeem themselves it is 
the duty of Muslims to grant them eman- 

Emancipated, dzdd karda shuda or dzdd 
shuda; 'aliq (k.) (legal term for an eman- 
cipated slave). 

Embalm, tahmt namudun (rare) ; hanut k. 

Embalmer, muhannit (rare) ; hanut-kun. 

Embankment,* pushta , khdk-riz ; band 

Embark, to, savdr-shudan-i ^ dar kishti ; dar 
jahEz nishastan ; javdHd-i ashhhds-i ki dar 
an kdr iqddm karda and bish az dnchi hast 
dar nazar-hd jalva mi-kunad (the gains of 
those who embark on it are likely to be 

Embarrass, bi-khijdlat atiddkhian; bi-tash- 
vish anddkhtan; parishdn or muztarib k., 

Embarrassed, dast-pdcha; u dast u pd-yash 
rd gum kard (to lose one's head) ; dar kdr- 
ash mu'attal mdnda ast (m.c. = he is at a 
loss ; also delayed) ; glr uftdda or karda 
(he is in a fix). 

Embarrassing, mushkil; parlshdn-kun. 

Embassy, si f drat; sifdrat-khdna (residence); 
nd^ib-i sijdrat (First Secretary to — ). 

Embellish, shdkh u barg nihudan (to embel- 
lish a story) ; zlnat dddan; drdstan (to 

1 Zarlf, " neat; " aal'iqa, "good taste." 

* Fasahat is clearness and correctness in language ; halaghat i>3 eloquence. Fasahat is chiefly con- 
cerned with words, halaghat with meanings, hence, the latter term cannot be applied to single words. 

3 Note this use of cAtz-i,' also ^s o^ unity repeated after each substantive. 

* There are no regular embankments in Persia. 
6 Or omit the izafat. 

Emb 97 

decorate, gen.) ; munaqqash k. (of things 
only). Vide Adorn, Decorate. 

Embellishment, drayish {k.) ; zinat (d.) ; zib 
(d.) ; rawnaq (d.) ; qiaaa rd skdkh u barg 

Embers, l^ul (a few embers kept burning by 
being smothered in ashes) ; kharg (a live 
coal or wood). 

Emblem, 'aldmat; nislidn. 

Emblematical 'aldmati; ramzl. 

Embodied, chi mi-ddnid ki InhJd div yd (jhul- 
and ki dar surat-i insdn mujassam shuda 
bd-ham sulibat kundn nishasia and — (Prof. 
S. T. (how do you know that they are not 
demons and ghuls embodied in human 

Embrace, dar bar (or dar baghal) giriftan; 
mu'dnaqa k. (mutual) ; Jmm-dghush sh. (of 
lovers) ; bus u kindr k. (kissing and em- 
bracing). Vide Neck. 

Embracer, bagAal-gir. 

Ernbracing, bagiial-glri ; ham-dc0bshi or 
aghush-kashi (of lovers). 

Embrasure, jurja (rare). 

Embrocate, mdltdan; tadhin k. (med.). 

Embrocation, wMidarii ; zimdd (anything 
thick to be painted or simply applied out- 
side ; also a poultice ') ; tila (k.) (a grease 
or ointment ; in m.c. sp. that used to cure 

Embroider, qulldb-duzt k. 

Embroiderer, qulldb-duz. 

Embroidery, gul-duzt , qulldb-duzl ; zar-duzi 
(in m c. not necessarily gold) ; qaytan- 

Embryo, janln (of human beings) ; nutja dar 
rahim-i u bast (of animals) ; mddda (source, 
matter) ; rnddda-yi mur^ tukhm ast. 

Emendator, muslih; musahhih. 

Emerald, zumurrud, zumurrudin or zumur- 
rud-rang ( — in colour). 

Emery, sumbdda; kdgltaz-i surnhdda (emery 

Emetic, davd-yi qay : muqayyi (subs, and 
adj.); jawhar-i qay (Ipecac); qay-dvur 

Emigration, jald-yi vatan {sh.) ; tark-i vatan 
(k.) ; muMjarat (n.). 

Eminence, bidandi; lappa {mound) ; zamln-i 
,'?ar-A;u6t (commanding) ; Jandb-i Muqaddas- 
ma^db (H.E., for Chief Mujtahid) ; Jandb-i 
FazUat-ma^db (not so exalted a title as the 

1 But in dava-yi mdlidanl for *' embrocation " 
no ambiguity. 



Eminent, mashhur ; ndm-ddr ; fd:fil (learned) ; 
7naahdhir-i mulk u millat (the eminent men 
of the day). 

Emission, inzal (seminal) • ikhrdj-i :}iyd* at 
shams (the emission of light from the 

Emolument, dakhl (income ; also emoluments 
other than lawful pay) ; dar-dmad (rare) ; 
maddkhil (income) ; kiUl-i maddkhil-i in 
mansah chlst. 

Emotion, ta^dkytr-i hdlat ; mard-i sard-i aat, 
jush na-ddrad. Vide Refine. 

Emperor, Impardtur ; Qaysar (sp. of Turkey); 
Faijhjur or Khdqdn (of China) . 

Emphasis, ta^kid; bd shadd u madd guftan 
ki — (I said with emphasis — ) ; [also bd 
shadd u madd nutq kard, he made a power- 
ful speech]. 

Empire, Saltanat; Dawlat; Chin mamlakat-i 
wast' ast. 

Employ, to, bi-kdr giriftan; mustakhdam 
sdkhian; bi-kdr burdan; istirml k. (to 
use) ; awqdt-ash rd sarf-i shikar mi-kunad ; 
bi-chunin ashkhds ki kdr rujW mi-kunad :" 
bi-masraf rasidan (to be used). 

Employed, sar-i kdr budan; mashghul ; hdld 
ma^mur-i kdr-i td'un ast. 

Employer, mustakhdim; dghfl' (master, q.v.)- 

Employment, kdr; pisha; kasb ; kasibi ; 
shugM-i shumJd chist or chi san'at ddrid 
(what are you by trade ?) ; 'uhda (office) ; 
dast-ash bi-kdr band shud (he has got 
employment) ; dast-ash bi-kdr ast (he is 
out of work). 

Empress, Qaysara (of India) ; Imprdtris (of 
Russia, Austria, etc.). 

Empty, tuhi (of vessels) ; khdli (of vessels, 
houses) ; puk (vulg.) ; ta'rif-i khdli shikam 
rd piir nami-kunad (empty praises do not 
fill the belly) ; gufta-hd-yash khdli az khayr 
ast ( = no one listens to him, his re- 
commendation is no use) ; mard^i hich u 
puch (an empty man) ; khdna khoR '«/, 
hich kas an rd kirdya na-karda ast ; [kirdya- 
dih "tenant"]; may your journey be 
prosperous and may you not return empty- 
handed, ughur bi-khayr bdshad dasl-i 
khdli bar ma-gardid (or dast-i pur bar 
gardid) ; kucha-Jid khilvat bud (the streets 
were empty). 

Empty, to, tuhi or khdli k.; takhliya k. 
(empty a room ; make private; evacuate, 


and dava-yi ptiMlani for " poultice * ' there e«n be 




Emulation, ghayrat; mujahada; rashk (jeal- 
ousy; used both in a good and a bad 

Enamel, qalyan-am mtna-kan 'st. 

Enameller, mina-kar; mlndH. 

Enamoured, farlfta; shlfta; pd-suz (m.c). 

Encampment, chddar or dastgah; urdu (mil. 

Enchant, ashujta or shifta k. ; hazz dudan 
(to delight). Vide infra. 

Enchanted, sihr or afsun khurda; jddu-zada 
(of people) ; jinn ddrad or jadu karda (of 

Enchanter, sdhir or jddu-gor (magician) ; 
afsun-gar (gen. of spoken spells) ; dil-ruhd 
(of mistress). 

Enchantment, sihr or jddu (k.) ; afsun {k. 
or kh.) (spell m black magic) ; 'azlma 
(spell in white magic). 

Enchantress, sdhira (female magician). 

Enclose, to, ihdta k. (of land, etc.); dawr u 
bar-i in zamin rd az chub bi-qir (enclose 
this ground by paling) ; please enclose 
my letter in yours, Icdghaz-i mard dar 
jaivf-i kd gh az-i khud-i tdn bi-guzdrid; I 
enclosed the cheque, bardt rd laff'^^' firistd- 

Enclosure, ilmta (place) ; maljuf (p. p. in 
letter ; laff<^" , adv.) ; si kdgkaz dar in malfuf 

Encounter, du chdr shudan bd — (of sudden 
encounter) ; u az jilo-yam dar dmad 
(sudden meeting) ; bd dushman dost dar 
kamar zadan. Vide Come. 

Encourage, to, tashviq d. ; marhamat (or 
lutjyi sdbiq-i shumd mard ummld-vdr 
mi-gardunad ki — ; this encourages me 
to continue, in mard taqviyat (or iarghib) 
mi-dihad ki 'aqab-i an rd bi-giram {or pd- 
pay-i dn bi-shavam) ; harchi bi-nd-ummidi 
ru bi-dihi zur-dvar-tar mi-gardad (the more 
you encourage, or give way to, despair, 
the more it overpowers you). 

Encouragement, tashviq (d.). 

Encourager, mushavviq; tashviq-dih. 

End, sar ; nuk (point) ; anjdm ; dkhir ; pd- 
ydn; ikhtitdm; khdtima (conclusion); bi- 
pdydn ; bi-nihdyat; nd-mutandhi (bound- 
less ; gen. of God or of space) ; alakh ' 
'aldmat-i ilq dkhir ast; harf zadan-i u 
intikd na-ddrad or guft u gu-yi u anddza 
na-ddrad ; sabr-am bi-dkhir rasid = hawsala- 

am sar raft (my patience is at an end) ; 
dar sar-i du sal (at the end of two years) ; 
gharaz : maqsad ; matlab (object) ; naiija, 
pi. naia%j (consequence). 

End, to, tamdm k. ; bi-dkhir rasidan ; Jchatm 
k. ; parddkhtan (with ace); anjdm dddan 
or bi-pdydn rasdnidan (to accomplish). 
Vide Finished. 

Endeavour, kushidan; jahd k. ; dast u pa 
zadan; man bdyad imruz sa'y kunam ki 
urd muldqdt numdyam; dar taraqqt-yi 
'uhda-yam bazl-i himmat kard. Vide Re- 
sult, Attempt, Try. 

Endive, kdsni (endive ?) ; hindibd. 

Endless. Vide End. 

Endorsement, imzd^"^ {k.) (signature); tasdiq 
{k.) (to confirm). 

Endowment, vaqf, pi. awqdf and vaqfiyydt 
(relig. only). 

Endurable, tahammul-pazir. Vide Dowry. 

Endurance, tahammul^ u tjdqat; sabr; shiki- 
bd^l (patience) ; pdyadari ; davdm ; baqd^ 

Enema, imdla; dastur. 

Enemy, 'adu, pi. a'dd^ (in m.c. of human 
beings only) ; dushman ; gurba u mush 
tabi'ttt"" bd-ham bad-and. Vide Natural. 

Energy, gwtwai ; zur ; jahd; quvva-yi fd'iliyya- 
ash rafta (he has lost his energy ; also he 
has become impotent). 

Enervated, Enfeebled, kam-zur ; za'if shud^,; 
kam bunya shuda. 

Enfranchise, to, dzdd^-yi ray dadan. Vide 
To free. 

Engage, nawkar k.; bi-mulazamat giriftan; 
bi-kdr ddshtan ; iqddm k. (enter upon) ; 
ta^ahhud n. (to promise). 

Engaged, mashjhul-i — (to be enga^ged in) ; 
ndm-zad (betrothed) ; sar-garm-i kar-i idara 
ast (he is busily engaged in ofiiee) ; ura 
pish-i khud nawkar karda, am; khilvat 
karda ast (he is engaged; in a private 

Engagement, vide Battle, Fight; ta'ahhu- 
ddt-i dawlati (international engagements) ; 
ndm-zadi (matrimonial) ; imshab jd-i va'da, 
ddram (or jd-i maw'ud haslam) azjn jihat 
da'vat-i shumd rd qabul nami-tavanam bi- 
kunam; [da'vat-i majlis-i bdl ; invitation 
to a ball]; qadri giriftdri ddram (I have 
some small business to attend to). 

^\=.tji.1 J\ 

2 Ar. t^*a^\ 

3 Tdhammtd also patience (as of Job). 




Engine, injin or tnaahin, Eur. (locomotive) ; 

alai, pi. aldt (tool) ; manjantq (crane). 
Engineer, muhandis ; muhandisin-i ni?^ml 

(•' military engineers" : there are said to 

be two in Persia, both Parsis). 
Engineering, muhandisi. 
England, Inch ixiqt hi-Inglistdn rafta id? 
English, Ingltz; Ingllsi. 
English Channel, Daryd-yi Mdnsh (Fr.). 
Engrave, hakkdki k. (seals or silver) ; kandan 

(anything) ; khidavrnt-i shumd dar dil-am 

naqsh-i ka-H-hajar^ ast — Prof. S. T. (my 

obligations to you are engraved on my 

Engraved, kanda; manqush (also ' painted '). 
Engraver, hakkdk ; naqqdsh (also painter) ; 

qalam-zan; naqqdr. 
Engraving, kandagi; qalam-zanl (on silver, 

etc.) ; naqsh, pi. nuqush (carving). 
Engrossed, to be, m rafian (to be lost in 

wonder at) ; gharq shudan; hdld dar kdr-i 

khud-ash ijjkarq ast. Vide Wrapped. 
Enigma, m mu'ammd rd mi-tavdnid hall bi- 

kunid (can you solve this riddle ?) ; lughz. 
Enigmatic, ramzdna; mu' ammd-dniiz. 
En'ioin, ta^ktd k. , vide Forbid, Order, etc.; 

please enjoin him not to come here any 

more, marhamat farmuda urd bi-sifdrtd 

dtgar Injd na-ydyad. 
Enjoined, mahuz (relig.) ; amr u nahi, or pi. 

avdmir u navdhl-yi Qur^dn = mafruzdt-i 

Enjoy, lazzal bur dan ; 'aysh k.; dar in 

mawsim-i sdl mahzuz mi-shavam, or hazz 

mi-kunam ; bisydr bad va bi-kasdlat guzasht 

(we did not enjoy ourselves ; it was very 

Enjoyable, pur-masarrat ; bahjat-afzd. 
Enjoying, mutamatti' sh. ; 'aysh k. ; khush 

guzasht or khush guzardndim (we enjoyed 

Enjoyment, 'aysh u 'ishrat; hazz; lazzat; 
. majlis-i diruzi hich safd na-ddsht; 'aysh-i 

ragdiid (unrestrained enjoyment). 
Enlarge, to, vu^'at dddan (a space) ; buzurg 

k. (picture, photo) ; kaldm-ash rd bast ddd. 
Enlarged, mabsut ; dar bdb-i in ma'ni mabsut * 

kaldm kard (he enlarged on this topic); 

sharh u bast d. 
Enlist, jam' dvari n. (mil.) ; sar-ash tu-yi 

siydha dmad (he was enlisted). 
Enmity, dushmani ; 'addvat; khusumat; kina 


Ennobling, shardfat-dih. 

Ennui, maldla. Vide Gail. 

Ennuye, dil-tang ; malUl; dil-am az hama 
chiz girifta oat, bi-qadr-i an ki gtd-i bu 
kunam dim>dijj^ na-ddram. 

Enoch, Idris. 

Enough, 6as; kdfi (adj.) ; kifdyat kard (that'll 
do); " Digar ham mi-khwdhi? Bdshad.** 
("Do you want any more?" "It's 

Enquire, su*dl^ k. ; pursidan; juyd ah.; 
taftish k. ; tafahhu^ k. , purs u juy k. ; 
tafaqqud-i ahvdl k. dr ahvdl-pursi k. (to 
enquire after the health of) . 

Enraged, c[hazab-ndk {sh. and k.) ; khashmr 
ndk {k. and sh.) ; bar dshufta {k. and sh.). 

Enshrouding (the dead), kafan kardan ; 
takfin {n.). 

Entail, to, vaqf-i awldd k. (leg.). 

Entangled, girijidr (caught) ; gir uftdda (of 
persons in calamity, cross-examination ; of 
birds, etc.) ; tu-yi ham pichida, kildfa. 
shuda (local, only of thread) ; pich-d-pich 
shuda; pUch-i ham uftdda. 

Enter, tit or dar dmadan; dukhul k. (also to 
enter unto a woman, for the consumma- 
tion of marriage) ; sabt-i daftar k. ; usm- 
navisi k. (to enregister) ; hi ddkhil-i in 
gifiir mi-shavad ? vdrid-i khdna shud (m.c. , 
he entered the house). 

Entering, dukhul (subs.). 

Enterprise, 'azimat; kdr. 

Enterprising, dilir ; jasur; bd 'azimat. 

Entertainer, Entertainment, ziydfai or mih- 
mdni (of eating and drinking only) ; valitna 
(of relig. or customary feasts) ; u bardy-i 
Irdnihd mihmdn-ddr shuda ast (he has 
been appointed to look after the Persian 
official guests); tafarruj-i bdzi-gardn bud; 
tamdshd-yi asp-davdni bud ; shayldn {kashi- 
dan) (of a big feast). Vide Feast, Dinner, 

Enthusiasm, shawq , jush ; sar-garmi. 

Entice, to, fariftan ; bi-ddm kashidan; var 
(f^oMnidan ; va'da-i ki ishan dddand chang-i 
bi-dil-am zad (an enticing oflFer) ; bd harfhd- 
yi shirin tifl, rd jazb karda bi-khdna-ash 
burd; nawkar-am rd var <j^aldnid va bard. 

Enticer, var ^aldn-kun. 

Enticingly, jdzibdna harf zad va-li bi-ddmr(uh 

Entire, tamdm; kdmil; durust haft mah 
(seven full months) ; narydn (horse) ; 

1 For ka-'n naqsJi-i fi't-hajar. « Vulg. for kalSm-i tnabsStrh 

3 Az kaa-i au*al k. " to beg." 




murgh ra salim ru-yi gab avurd (he brought 
an entire uncut fowl on the dish) ; akhta 
norshuda (of horse).' 

Entirely, hi-kulli ; kull'^" ; tamdm'^" ; niutlaq''" ; 
in Wiahar sar-a-sar bi-pd ast; sar-d-pd tar 
shvdam; hasta hi-mayl-i Jandb astf or har 
chi hukm farmd^l (I'm entirely at your 

Entitled, to be, mustdhiqq ; mustawjib. 

Entrails, ruda, pi. rudahd (gut) ; ahshd^ u 
am'd^, pi. 

Entrance, madkhal (place of — ) ; duhhul (act 
of entering). 

Entreat, iltimds k. ; 'djizi k. ; 'nana gharlb- 
am^ dar dvurdan ; bind^ kard bi-guftan 
'nana man ^arlb-am, bdbd-ml^ tu kushtr 
( = he began to beg and pray). Vide 

Entrenchments, istihkdmdt ; khandaq (ditch) ; 
Midk-riz (heaping earth; also glacis). 

Entrust, havdla k. ; sipurdan, rt. sipdr; mu- 
fawaz k. ; tafvlz k. ; muhavval k. ; In pul 
rd nazd-i shumd amdnat mi-niham. 

Entry and exit, dukhul u khuruj {k.). 

Enumeration, ta'ddd k. ; shimurdan, rt. 

Envelop, fard giriftan ; ihdta k (surround) ; 
picMdan (wrap up) ; the city was en- 
veloped in a fog, shahr rd dud u ghubdr^ 
girifta bud. 

Envelope, pdkat (Eur.) ; lifdfa* (cover or 
wrap for book, etc.). 

Envied, mahsud. 

Envier, hdsid. 

Envious, hasud. 

Environs, savdd-i^ shahr; navdhi-yi or 
havdll-yi or hawl-i or hawsh-i shahr. 

Envoy extraordinary and Minister pleni- 
potentiary, vazir-mukhtdr^ ; saftr-i kablr 
(ambassador) . 

Envy, bar kas-i hasad bur dan ; tama' and 
hirs (covetousness) ; bughz and klna 
(malice); hasad qabih ast ; chashm-i didan-i 
mard na-ddrad (he envies my good luck ; 
also he hates me). 

Enzeli, Anzali. 

Epaulette. Vide Shoulder-cord. 

Ephemeral, khalq"^ s-sd' ah ; shdhparak 'umr- 

ash du-ruza ast; 'aysh-i du-ruza-yi %n 

Epic, SMh-Ndma rajaz-ndma-i ^st. 
Epidemic, vabd (of virulent diseases only). 
Epilepsy, sar'. 
Epilectic, masru' . 
Epistle, risdla. 
Epitaph, kitdba ; sar-lawh (on tombstone) ; 

Epithet, vasf ; laqab. 
Epoch, vdqi'a-yi 'azim. 

Epsom-salts, numak-i farangi. [ast. 

Equable, tabi at-ash hamvdr ast or yaksdn 
Equal, TMZir ; misl ; 'adll ; u nazlr nM-dxirad — 

bl-hamtd ast ; Ichatt-i shumd bd khatt-i man 

musdvi ''st? ling-ash"^ nist (vulg. ; he has 

no equal) ; yak lira-yi Inglisl m,u'ddil-i 

punzdah rupiya ast; az har du nuqta bi- 

fdsila-yi musdvi vdqi' shuda (it is situated 

at an equal distance, or equidistant, from 

both places). 
Equals, aqrdn ; ham-sha^ndn ; ham-sardn; 

ham-pdyagdn) . Vide Friends. 
Equality, bardbari ; musdvdt; tasviyat. 
Equalize, Equalizing, ta'dil (k.) ; musdvi 

sdkhtan ; mavdjib-i in du mansab rd bi-yak 

mizBn bdyad nihdd (the pay of the two 

appointments must be equalized). 
Equally, bi-'l-mundsafa; ' aW s-saviyya ; ham- 

chumn (in like manner). 
Equator, khatt" ^l-istivd^. 
Equiangular, mutasdvi 'z-zawdyd. 
Equilibrium, muvdzanat (of power only) ; 

band-bdz langar-ash rd gum kard va part 

shud (of balance). 
Equipment, hama-yi md yahtdj (all necessary 

Equipped, hdzir-yardq ; musta'idd (ready, 

prepared) . 
Equity, insdf ; 'addlat. 
Equivalent, mu'ddil (adj. ; of money) ; badal; 

Hvaz (subs.). 
Equivocation, tafra; tafra-zam ; muyhdlaia. 
Era, 'asr (agei ; sann-i 'Isavl or sann-i mllddi 

(Christian Era) ; sann-i hijri (Muslim). 
Eradicate, az bikh kandan; qaV u qam' k.; 

isiisdl k. ; musta^sal sdkhtan ; az blkh u 

bunydn bar kandan. 

I Baray- ■ qurbanl bayad guafani-i naqia na-dad. 

^ Bubaml, vulg. for baba-yi mara. 

8 Mih is fog and haze on hills, not of a city. 

* In India " envelo e." 

6 Sawud, At., "blackness." 

<> No izafat. With izafat any representative sent by the state. 

1 For linga-aah. 




Eraser, ftik-kun (India-rubber). 

Erasing, malw (k.) (by rubbing or drawing a 
pen through) ; liakk k. (with pen-knife). 

Erect, to, afrdhhtan or afrdshtan ; nasb k. ; 
bar pa k. ; istdda k. 

Erect, adj., rdst; sarv-bdld (in stature). 

Erection, afrdkhlagi ; nu'uz and vulg. rdstl 
(of penis). Vide Building. 

Erivan, Iravdn. 

Ermine, qdqum (ermine?); ermine is white 
with black tail. 

Errand, paydm. and payfjAdm (mes-sage) ; 
he went, but forgot the errand on which 
he was sent, raft va-llkin qdsidi-yi^ khud 
az ydd-ash raft. 

Erroneous, fdsid'^ (prop, mischievous, evil) ; 
nd-savdb; gAalat; md bay ad khiydldt-i 
bdtil rd tark kunlm. 

Error, khatd ; sahv ; ishtibdh ; khabt ; ghalat 
(stronger than the preceding) ; dar in 
kaijhaz hich ishtibdh ml-binid? gum-rdhi 
(being in religious error); (jhalat-i 'dmm 
fasih (a popular error but idiomatic, and 
accepted as correct). 

Eructation, drugA {k.). 

Erudition, tarbiyat ; 'ilm. 

Eruption, ddna-hd (on skin) ; jush (of vol- 
cano) ; Kuh-i Visuviyas tdza yak sar-i 
dlgar bdz karda. 

Erzeroum, Arzirum. 

Esau, I saw. 

Esaias, Isha^yd. 

Escape, dar raftan; firdr k. ; gurikhtan, rt. 
guriz (to flee away) ; rihd sh. ; az zinddn 
firdr kardand gurikhtand ; az murg jdn-ash 
rd bi-dar burd (he nearly died ; he escaped 
death) = az marg najdt ydft (of threatened 
danger) . 

Escapement (of watch), ragqds-i sd'at. Vide 

Escort, mustahfiz; [badraqa, class., in m.c. 
means seeing a guest off] ; yasdvul (escort 
of Shah, Governor). 

Esop, The Luqman of the Qur*an is supposed 
to be Esop, Luqmdn ki zikr-ash dar Qur^dn 
dmada ast khiydl mi-kunand ki Isdp buda. 

Especial, amr-i muhimm (important matter); 
In amr-i makhsus-i ^st; khdss. 

Especially, khiisus"" ; khdssa. 

Esprit de Corps. Vide Jealous. 

Essence, jawhar ; ruh ; 'ayn; 'aro^ (anything 


Essential, tijdrat-i ahdn mumidd balki mdddo' 
yi Tudliyya ast ( = their traffic is essential 
to the revenue). Vide Necessary. 

Essentially, min hais"'' l-ma^khaz. 

Established, y/itt^arrar ; mutamakkin; qd^im; 
in tdzagl-hd, In qdnun guzdshta shvda ast 
(or bind shuda or bar pd shvda or jari 
shuda ast) ; in amr-i musaf.bat ast (estab- 
lished fact). 

Establishing, bar qardr ddahtan. 

Estate, amldk ; milkiyyat ; mirds (heritage of 
kinsmen by law) ; u insiyyat kard ki 
tamdm-i md yamlik-ash^ mdl-i pisar-i 
buzurg-ash bdshad. Vide Condition. 

Esteem, rtibdr k. (for persons and things) ; 
vaq' or vaqdr nihddan (for persons or heir- 
looms, etc.) ; muhtaram or mukarram dash- 
tan; bar in kdliska i'tibdr ddram; in 
angvshtar rd vaqdr mi-niham ; bar in sham- 
shir i'timdd ddram. [daza k. 

Estimate, bar-dvard k. ; takhmin zadan ; an- 

Estrangement, bi-gdnagi ; shakar-db (cool- 
ness) ; judd'i anddkhtan (to effect — ). 

Et cetera, va-(jhayra; khdna-ash raftam, 
didam 'arusi bud; raqqds-hd, bdzi-garhd, 
qawdl-hd, va va va (m.c. ; I went to his 
iiouse and saw there was a weddmg there ; 
there were dancers, jugglers, ' funny-men,' 
etc., etc., etc.). 

Eternal, jdviddn or bdqi (without end) , God 
is eternal, Khudd azali va abadi '.5/ (with- 
out beginning and without end); dn-hd* 
ki az Khudd ta'dlq mi-tar sand surur-i 
jdviddni (or bdqi) mi-ydband. 

Eternity, abadiyyat or jdviddni (without 
end); azaliyyat (without beginning). 

Ether, asir. 

Ethics, ilm-i akhldq. 

Ethiopian, Habashi (of Abyssinia) ; Sidi or 
Suduni (of the Soudan) ; Zangi (of Zanzi- 
bar) ; Bambdsi (of Mombassa) ; kdku-aiydh 
or siydh (a Black) 

Etiquette, rasm; takallufdt (ceremonies); 
qd'ida-yi nishast u barkhdst or tahzib 
(polish, good manners) ; dddb u ruaUm-i 
fvldn chiz {or jd). 

Etymology, ishtiqdq; masdar ; ttuidda; sarf 
(grammar as opposed to nahv ' syntax '). 

1 Qaaidi is also the office of postman (on toot). 

2 Faaid is also applied to an evil thought. 

3 Ar. ; lit. " that which he poaaeases " ; note Persian suffix a«A, affixed to an .Arabic phrase. 
♦ Or anha*l ki—ot kaaan-l ki (but not ishan ki). 




Euclid, Uqltdas ; Tahrir-i Uqlidas (Geo- 

Eulogist, maddah. 

Eulogy, qasida (a poem) ; chtz-i dar madh-i u 
guft (he composed something in eulogy of 
him) . 

Eunuch, khivaja or hhoja; khwaja-bdshi 
(chief eunuch). 

Euphemism, tahsin-i kaldm. 

Euphrates, Rud-i Furdt va Dijla va Qdrun 
muttasil shuda dhhd-yi ' sTmn bi-Khaltj-i 
Fdrs mi-rizad. 

Europe, Farangistdn. 

European, Farangl ; ajnds-i Farangi hdld 
fardydn ast; ball in surat-i khdnum-t 
Farangi^-i ^st, az m chi dar dmad? Jd-yi 
rashk nist (Yes, this is a picture of a 
European lady. What is there in that ? 
You need not be jealous). 

Europeanized, farangl-ma^db. 

Evacuation, takhliya k. (mil.); itldq [nxed^) . 
Vide Empty. 

Evade, gurlz kardan ; pahlu-tuhi k. ; lilch 
tafra ^ na-zan (do not shuffle) ; bi-kuchoryi 
Hasan chap raftan (to avoid, q.v.). Vide 

Evaporate, Evaporation, pandan (vulg.) ; 
juzv-i havd shudan ; khushk shudan. 

Evasion, gurlz; pahlu-tuhl ; Mia (artifice); 
tafra, tajdhul (pretending ignorance). Vide 

Eve, dar sadad-i dmadan budam (I was on 
the point of coming to you) ; dar sharaf-i 
raftan-i bi-Bamba^i budam (I was about 
to start for Bombay) ; dar kdr-i jastan 
budam ki u jilav-am dmad. Vide Even- 

Even, hamvar ; sdf ; musattah (of land) ; 
du khatt ham-bardbar bi-kash ^; 'adad-i juft 
(even number); Aam (adv.). Vide Money. 

Evening, shdm (after sunset ; also the even- 
ing meal) ; sar-i shab (the beginning of 
the night) ; ghurub (sunset) ; imruz 'asr 
inlizdr-i urd ml-kasham ; khiydl mi-kun- 
am* ki imruz 'asr-i ml-dyad. 

Event, vdqi'a; ittifdq; md-jard ; sar-guzasht 
(adventure) ; vide Accident ; m hddisa-yi 
vahshat-dmlz ast ; bi-har hdl or bi-har surat 
(at all events) ; dar surat-i ki — (in the 
event of). 

Ever, gdh-i ; hargiz ; hich vaqt ; [with verb in 

negative = " never " ; also asl"^' ; abad<^"]; 
abad'^'l-dbdd (for ever). Vide Always. 

Evergreen, darakht-i hamlsha-bahdr (tree). 

Every, Everyone, har ; har kas ; hama-kas ; 
har kuddm ; har nafar (every one) ; har yak 
(each). Vide All. 

Every kind, har jins ; har jur ; har qism. 

Everywhere, har jd : hama jd. 

Evict, Eviction, birun kardan or rdndan; 
bi-dar kardan, tr. ; rdnda shudan, intr. 

Evidence, gavdhi ; ta' dil-i shdhid or shahddat 
{n.) (to correct evidence) ; shuhud iqdma 
(k.) (to produce evidence) ; az shaJmdat-t 
ki dar dlvdn-kkdna dddand taqsir-i u sdbit 
shud or isbdt (or subut) yd ft ; ta'druz-i 
adilla (conflict of evidence) ; bisydr kam 
ast ki kormd yarnbagiAi awqdi rd sarf-i 
muldhaza-yi bayyina u shuhud kunand 
(they seldom bestow much time on the 
consideration of evidence). 

Evident, zdhir; paydd; badihl; dshkdrd ; 
rushan ; bayyin ; wdzih ast ki shumd 
ishlibdh karda id; bi-vuzuh payvast ki — (it 
became evident that — ). 

Evil, badi ; sharr ; fasdd; shararat ; qabdhat 
(mischief, evil); bad; sharir ; both good 
and evil exist in this world, dar dunyd 
ham khub va ham bad paydd mi-shavad. 
Vide Calamity, Misfortune. 

Evil-eye, chashm-shur; avaunt the evil eye, 
chashm-i bad dur ! Khudd urd az chashm- 
zakhm nigdh dar ad ! Vide Tongue. 

Evil-eyed, bad-chashm or shur-chashm (pos- 
sessed of the evil-eye) ; badnigdh (towards 
women) . 

Ewe, mish; [quch " ram"]. 

Ewer, dftdba , ibrlq ; dftdba-chi (ewer-bearer , 
after meals) . 

Exact, durust; rdst; kdmil; bd hisdb (care- 
ful. Vide Regular) ; he was exactly two 
years in the service of my late brother, du 
sdl durust (or tamam) pish-i marhum-i 
barddar-am (or barddar-i Khudd bi-ydmurzr 
am) nawkar bud. 

Exaction, bi-ijhdf giriftan, subs.; bi-zur-i 
daganak giriftan, verb. Vide Extort. 

Exactitude, the exactitude so dear to the 
European is distressful to the Asiatic in 
that it tends to circumscribe the flight of 
his imagination, har qadar ahl-i Farangis- 
tdn mdyil-and bar in-ki har chiz rd ka-md 

1 Note pi. of ab. 

2 Tafra, Ar., "skipping." 

S This may mean " of the samo length " or " p8irallel." 
* But Jchiyal daahtan ' ' to intend. ' ' 




huwa haqquh ta' rlf nurmyand hamdn qadar 
afiiri Asiyd az an dun mx-juyand va zaiimat 
mi-shimdrand chi vus'at-i khiydldt-i shdn 
rd dar dd''ira-yi qayd dar ml-dvarad. 
Exactly, guft har ki khabar-i an 'ujuba rd 
kornid huwa haqquh bi-ydrad sar-i urd az 
gumbad-i daunvar mi-guznrdnam — Prof. S. 
T. (he said whoever will bring me full and 
accurate information will be exalted to 
tl;e highest) ; misl-i namuna bi-adz, yak 
"tfr-i mu farq na-ddshta bdshad (make it 
exactly like the pattern) ; In chdqu misl-i 
lAud-ash ast ki gum karda budam, m.c. (this 
pnknife is exactly like the one I lost) ; 
As bihu, adv. (exactly alike) ; bi-'aynih; 
ta'l bi-na'l{ = as like as two shoes and also 
= foot-print for foot-print) ; har tawr-l ki 
g if tarn 'ayn"" bi-kun. 
Ex^gerate, Exaggeration, u khayll bi-ddd 
nl-kunad (m.c); vide To embellish; 
ifhrdq {k.) ; his account of the fight was 
^eatly exaggerated, sharh-i da'va-% ki u 
lavisht khayll i^rdq ddsht. 
Exilt, rifat dddan; sarfardz k. or sar buland 
♦r buland k. ; bi-dsmdn burdan ; afrdkhtan 
to exalt another person) ; az khdk bar 
lashtan; urd bdld burda ast (in joke). 
Vide to praise and to honour. 
Exaltation, sar-afrdzi ; sar-bulandi ; rifat. 
E»lted, sar-afrdz; rulba-yi mani'a (exalted 

E:amination, imtihdn (testing) ; bdz-purs 
[k.) (of witness) ; tajassus (k.) (of cases) ; 
jarh {k.) (cross-examination) ; vulg. , purs 
u su^dl. 
Ecamine, to, ghawr-rasi k. (to look into the 
matter) ; muldhaza k. (to inspect) ; sar- 
kashi k. (inspect, q.v.). 
Ixample, taqlid k. (copy an example; good 
or bad); let this be a warning to you, 
in bardy-i shumd Hhrat bdshad; iqtidd'^ 
bi-u mi-kunam (I will follow his example) ; 
but mutdba'at-i kas-i kardan (to follow the 
example of a Prophet or an exemplar) ; %n 
khdnum namuna-i (or sar-mashq-i) bardy-i 
hama ast; az ru-yi In bachcha hisdb 
kunid or in bachcha rd bardy-i khud sar- 
mashq-i qardr bi-dihid; bi-juz hamin yak 
mawrid naql na-shuda ast ( = except this 
one example — ) ; chand shavdhid-i in qd'ida 
baydn kunid (quote me a few examples of 
this rule from writers) ; misdl (example 
by any one) ; naTiir (precedent). 

Excavation, hufra (k.) ; hafr (k.). 

Excavations hufra-hd. 

Exceed, u dar fahm u firaaal bar hama sabqeU 

ddrad; u az hadd tajdvuz nu-kunad. 
Exceedingly, bi-j/Adyat; binihdyal. 
Excel, to, sabqat burdan ; fa:filat ddshtan bar 

Excellence, khubi ; fazilat. _ 

Excellency, Hazrat-i A jail: * AR Ha^rat 

Excellent, a' la. 

Except, juz; bi-juz, bi-ffAayr; ilia; vara; 
hama kasdmadand magar u. Vide Be- 

Exception, istisnd*; shdzz, pi. shd^t (for 
Ar. shdzzdt; gen. shawdzz) ; hama bila 
ist'snd^ dmadand; in istisnd*^ dali-i bar 
qavd'idri kulliyya ast (this exception provee 
the rule). 

Exceptionable, tadbir-i ki pish gufta-id khiydl 
mi-kunam ki bi-yak nuqta qdbil-i i'tirdz 

Exceptional, mvAstasnq. 

Excess, ziyddati ; ifrdt. FtV/e Abundance. 

Excessive, mufrit ; bi-hadd u hisdb , az hadd 
birun. Vide Wholly 

Exchange, mubddala (k.); mu'dvaza (k.) (of 
things); radd u badal {k.) (of words or 
despatches) ; what is the rate of ex- 
change.? tas^ir-i^ pawnd chist? or nirkh^i 
rupiya chist? sarf-i pul (difference of 
value between new coins and old) ; sarf 
na-ddrad ( = at par); farukhtan (to ex- 
change money) ; but khurda k. (to change 
money) ; hich mayl na-ddram ki jd-yam rd 
bd jd-yi shumd ' iwaz bi-kunam ; ' iwaz-i an 
(or dar izd^-i dn) in rd bi-shumd mi-diham. 

Excite, tashviq {d. or k.); bar angikhtan ; 
tahris bi-fa'lim (or targi^ bi-tadris) kardan 
(to encourage, incite, q.v.). 

Excited, az jd dar raftan (to get angry, ex- 
cited) ; bi-hayajdn dmadan ; kalla-ash garm 

Excitement, dshub ; jmh u khurush ; haya- 

Exclamation, harf-i ?itrfa* (gram.). 

Exclude, khdrij k. or sh. 

Excluded, m^hrum. Vide Disappointed. 

Excommunication, az din khdrij kardan. 

Excoriation, khird<*h. 

Excrement, gufi (vulg.); fazla; gAd^ti (in 
m.c. jfAdy at) . najdsat; chirk-i chashm (of 
eye). Vide Dung, Filth. 

Tas'lr is also the rate in cash of that portion of wages that can be drawn in kind. 




Exculpate, i6m* w. ; ura hariyy^^ z-zimma 

Exculpation, hariyy^^ z-zimmagi. 

Excusable, ma'zur. 

Excuse, ^uzr ; 'uzr-i ma' qui (a reasonable ex- 
cuse) ; ma'zarat; bahdna (evasion); 'uzr-i 
bad-tar az gundh k.{to aggravate a fault by 
feeble ' excuses) ; 'uzr or ma'zirat dvurdan 
(to excuse oneself) ; 'uzr khwdstan (to beg 
to be excused) ; ' afv k. or ' uzr qabul k. (to 
accept excuses, pardon); nana gh arlb-am 
dar dvurdan (to make pitiable, not false, 
excuses; vide. Entreat); ishdn 'uzr-i bis- 
ydr dvurdand ; az in ki na-navlshta budam 
ma'zur-am ddrid; ddam-i ki tarsid^ az in 
bahdna-hd mi-dvarad. 

Excused, ma'zur. 

Execrable, manfur u mazmum. 

Execrate, to, la' nut k. ; nafrin k.; manfur 
ddshtan (abominate) ; sahb u shatm bar 
ravdn-i u mi-kunand (they execrate his 

Execration, la' not; la'n, nafrin (k.) ; sahb 

Execute, to, ijra^ n. (of order) ; parddkhtan 
(of written deeds) ; sural dddan or bi-jd 
or bi-anjdm rasdnidan (to carry out) ; 
bi-qatl rasdnidan (to kill) ; dusharnba-yi 
guzashta bi-qisds-i khun-i dunafar'' bi-tandb 
anddkhtand* ; bi-ddr kashidan^ (to hang, 
etc.) ; bi-tandb anddkhian (to strangle any- 
how) ; sar buridan (to behead, q.v.) ; bi- 
gach giriftan (to wall up alive); dahan-i 
tup guzdshtan (to blow from a gun) ; zinda 
pust kandan (to flay alive) ; chdr sJiaqqa k. 
(quarter alive) ; sham' djin ^ k. (to stick 
lighted candles in wounds in the body of 
the ojffender, who is paraded in the streets 
til] death) "^ ; tuqmaq k. (to fix the head 
between two nails and beat out the brains 
with hammers) ; bi-dum-i asp-i divdna 

bastan (to tear by wild horses) ; chahdr 
mikh kashidan (to peg out, crucify on the 
ground) ; az kuh part kardan (to cast from 
a cliff). 

Executing a business, ijrd-yi kdr ; in how 
many days can you execute my order ? 
td chand ruz-i digar mi-tavdnid asbdb rd 
hdzir kunid? 

Executioner, nasaq-chi ; mir-ghazab ^ (pi. \nir- 
ghazabhd) and nasaqchi-bdshi (chief exbcu- 
tioner) ; jalldd (rare in m.c). 

Executor, vasi, pi. awsiyd; vasi-yi mirds-'i u 
kist? (who is the deceased's executor?); 
vakil u vasi-yi murda ^ kist ? 1 

Exempt from, bari {k.) ; mu'df {ddshtai) ; 
dzdd (k.) ; gumruk na-ddrad (exempt fwm 
customs duty). j 

Exercise, mashq {k. and d.) (to practise); 
gardish (k.) (walk) ; varzish {k.) (gymras- 
tics) ; varzish u mumdrasat (bodily espr- 
eise) ; muddvamat-i riydzdt-i badani (hahts 
of exercise) ; kasrat-i badani. \ 

Exert, Exertion, jidd u jahd k. , kushish br 
5a' « '° k. (to endeavour) ; in spite of all |is 
exertions he got nothing, har-chi dast.u 
pd zad chiz-i gir-ash na-ydmad; bismr 
davandagi kard. \ 

Exhaling, nafas bdr dvardan or birun kas/i- 
dan; dam zadan (to blow); 'iir dddan (|>f 

Exhibition, bdzdr-i 'umumi " ; nurridyish-gal; 

Exhilarated, sar-hhush ; sar-i kayf ast ; park 
dimd gh . 1 

Exhilarating, farhat-bahhsh or mufarrih (t 
air; drinks). 1 

Exhilaration, sar-hhushi ; sar-i kayfi. \ 

Exhort, Exhortation, tahrik {k. ovd.); tashvti 

Exigency, iqtizd^; muqtazayat-t vaqt (exigeu'^ 
cies of the case). 

^ Also lit. to aggravate a fault by a mischievous excuse, as when Abii Nu'as pinched the Khallfah 
and said — ' But, I thought it was your wife.' 

2 Taraid for ml-.arsad ; az m — " out of these, like these." 

8 Or du adam. 

4 Birtflnuf kashidan, " to strangle a man (with a shawl, etc.) on the ground." 

6 A noose is placed round the victim's throat and he is then hauled up to the top by means of a 
pulley. _ 

*> Ajin k. (old) " to notch." 

T Wounds are made in the body by daggers. Such punishments are niost rare. There is too little, 
not too much punishment in Persia. 

8 The mir-ghazah wears red, in the East the colour of wrath. 

9 Marhum, " blessed," is used by Muslims of Muslims for " deceased " : mutaivaffq for other creeds. 
In Kirman, however, marhum is often used of Christians, Jews and Zardushtis — just as the Muslim salu- 
tation is there given to other creeds. 

'0 Ar. pron. sa'y. 

11 In newspapers the word Ikapuzisiyun, from Fr. exposition, is often used. 




Exile, to, Exiling, ikhraj-i (or najy-i) halad 
(k.) ; tab' id az halad or mamlakat (k.), 

Exist, vujtid ddshtan ; hast shudan^ ; ztstan, 
rt. zi (to live). 

Existence, vufud ; hastl. 

Existent, mawjud ; zinda (alive). 

Exit, khuruj (action), makhraj (place of); 
birun ml-ravad (theatrical) ; dar-raw (for 
water; also escape from a danger). 

Exorbitant, qlmat-i guzaf ; guzaf farfikhtan 
(sell at an exorbitant rate) ; qimat mi-kunl 
yd tup mt-zani ? ( = your prices are exorbi- 
tant) . 

Exorcise, in jinn rd 'azimat khivdnda birUn 

Exorcist, 'aztmat-khwdn or ' azd^im'^ -khwdn. 

Expand, bdz shvdan (of flower) ; vus'at dddan 
(kingdom, etc.). 

Expanse, fazd'' (of atmosphere); tn mayddn 
vus'at-i ziydd ddrad ; 'arsa-yi mayddn tang 

Expect, rdh pdyidan ; dida bi-rdk ddshtan (of 
persons) ; dar intizdr bu dan or intizdr 
kashidan (of persons or things) ; az mar- 
dum-hd-yi past tjhayr az In chi tavaqqu' 
ast? Firfe Hope and Think. 

Expectation, ummld or umid ; tavaqqu' ; pas 
khiydl-am khdm shud va kdr bar 'aks vdqi' 
shud: — Prof. S. T. (things turned out 
contrary to my expectation). 

Expecting, dar intizdr-i — , or muntazir-i — 
(waiting) ; mutavaqqi' . 

Expediency, munasabat ; saldh. 

Expedient, mundsib (adj.); hikmat ; tadbir 

Expedition, ilghdr {k.) (raid or forced march) ; 
chapaw (z.) (a raid for loot) ; hay^at-% 
bardy-i taftish bi-samt-i qutb-i shimdli firis- 
tdda shud (expedition to explore the N. 
Pole regions — ). Vide Haste. 

Expel, Padishdh farmud ki urd az balad 
ikhrdj kunand^ ; jild-vatan in m.c. usually 
voluntary exile, emigration. 

Expend, to, hharj k. ; sarf k. 

Expenditure, makhdrij pi.; kharj ; ildirdjdt 
pi.; masdrif pi.; hi khayti kharj Idzim 
ddrad (this entails great expense). 

Expense, vide supra; makhdrij-ash chi qadar 
mi-shavad? in HmJdrat kharj-i guzaf bar- 

dash t (built at enorraouH expeiuie) ; in 
UMrj bar 'uhda-yi man ast (I will pay the 


Expensive, girdn (dear) ; J^rj ddrad (costs a 
lot of money) = pul ziydd mikhwdliad. 

Experience, (sadma-yi — ) chashidan (of pain 
or joy) ; dar kdr tajriba* ddrad; tajriba-yi 
vdfur kashidan karda-i? (have you ever 
tried opium smoking ?) ; gdh-i in davd rd 
dzmdyish karda id? 

Experienced, mujarrab ; tajriha-kdr , kar- 
kushta ; pukhta ; kdr-dzmuda ; jang-dzmuda 
(in war) ; chakida-yi kdr (m.c.) ; u gurg-i 
bdrdn dida ast ( = he is an old soldier) ; 
also shutur-i naqdra-khdna ast or shutur-i 
Nddiri ast; in davd mujarrab ast (this is a 
tested, eflficacious medicine). 

Expert, ahl-i khibra (subs.) ; chdq-dast or 
chira- das I {dexterous) ; ustdd ; kirm-i kdr; 
dar tufang-anddzi az ahdli mumtdz ast (he 
is an expert marksman). 

Expertness, chdq-dasti ; chira-dasti ; ustddi. 

Expiation, kaffdra. 

Expiration, inqizd'' {oi time). 

Explain, fahmdnidan, hdli k.; sharh k. or 
dddan (in detail); baydn k.; ta'rif k. 
(describe) ; chiz-i ki nami-fahmid agar az 
u bi-pursid shark mi-dihad, or agar istifsdr 
kunid mushkil-i shumd rd hall mi-kunad. 

Explained, mashruh {sh.). 

Explaining, mubayyin. 

Explanation, shark; baydn. 

Explicitly, sarih'^'' va vdzih"". 

Explode, dtash girijtan (no proper word in 
Persian) ; butri-yi db-i jush para shud va 
tikka-i bi-chashm-am l^urd (the soda water 
exploded and a piece of bottle struck me 
in the eye). 

Exploration, Explore, to, istikshdf (k.). 

Export, Exports, qdli-hd-yi^ Kirmdn bi-Isldm- 
bul kaml mi-shavad (the carpets of Kirmau 
are exported to Constantinople) ; mJdh-i 
guzashta nil-i ziydd bi-Misr haird shud; 
sddirdt u vdriddt (exports and imports). 

Exportation, haml (k.). 

Exported, mahmul. 

Express, adj., moJ^sus ; mu^akkad; vdzih; 
maXlab-i ^ud-at rd durust add na-kardid. 

Express, to, add k. (of meaning). 

Expressed, ma'sur (of juice) ; nami-danam %% 

I In old Persian kaat^an. . 

« 'AzaHm, pi. of 'azimat ; these words are not much used ; du'a khwan is in m.c. usually subetitutod. 
8 Class, kardand Past tense, to signify the completion of the order. The Aorist indicates that the 
order was issued ; it might or might not have been cturried out. ^ 

♦ ShaytJan mara tajriba (or azmayish) hard " Satan tempted me." ' Or singular, ^Uu 





istilah (or 'ibdrat) rd dar zahdn-i Inglisi 
chi tawr tarjuma (or ma'ni) mi-kunand. 
Expression, istilah (idiom, etc.); in 'ibdrat 
rd dar Fdrsi chi ' mi-guyand ? (how do 
they express this in Persian?); ta'hir-i 
muiaddvil (a common expression) ; az 
safha-yi jahin-ash (from the expression of 
his countenance) ; add^ (mode of speak- 
ing) ; gkalal-i 'dmm fasih (a current, 
though incorrect, expression; now good 

Expulsion, ikhrdj ; nafi. 

Expunge, qalam zadan or ka^hidan ; mahv or 

pdk k. (to blur, obliterate) ; hakk k. 

(erase). Vide Erase, Cancel. 

Exquisite, hi-cfhdyat nafis ; kdmil; tamdm 

Extempore, murtajal (rare in m.c.) ; fi-H- 
badihain shi'r rd guftam (I recited these 
extempore verses). 

Extend, bast dddan ; imtiddd dadan ; in qdnun 
avval"" makhsus-i shahr bud, hdld hama jd 
jdri 'si. 

Extension, tntml (making longer) ; tawsr 
(making more expansive). 

Extensive, vasi' ; basit ; kushdda ; fardkh. 

Extent, vits'ai; fardkhi; bast; qadr ; miqddr 
(degree) ; td hadd-i ki— {to such an extent 
that — ) ; chanddn ki (to whatever extent) ; 
dn qadr (to that extent, so much) ; in 
muntahd-yi ' ilm-i shdn ast [savdd — reading 
and writing only] (this is the extent, limit, 
of their knowledge). 

Extenuate, takh/if k. or d. 

Exterminate, musta^sal k. ; babr dar in navdhi 
nasl-ash munqati' shuda ast (tigers have 
been exterminated in this district). 

Exterior, zdhir ; birun (subs.). 

Extermination, istisdl k. 

External, zdhiri; zavdhir (externals). 

Extinct, mafqud; ma'dum" ^l-asar. 

Extinction, t7/a* or intifd^ (k. or sh.) and jaru 
nishdndan (or nishastan) (of fire, thirst); 
inqirdz {sh.) (of a family). Vide Extin- 
guish and Extinguished. 

Extinguish, khdmush k. ; itjd^ov intifd^ k. or 
sh. (of fire). Vide Extinction and Extin- 

Extinguished, muntafi; khdmush shuda. 

Extol, tamjid k. (God or man). Vide Praise. 

Extort, bi-ijTmf (or bi-jabr) giriftan ; man bi- 

zur az u va'da girijtam ki — . Vide Exac- 

Extortions, ijhdfdt; ta'addiydt Vide Tyr- 
anny, Oppression. 

Extract, rubb (boiled juice of certain acid 
fruits; sp. of pomegranate and mul- 
berry) ; rubb-i andr or rubb-i tut (extract 
of pomegranate or mulberry) ; shira (juice 
of plants) ; shira-yi angur ( boiled grape 
juice) ; shira-yi khurmd (expressed and 
raw juice of dates) ; shira-yi qand (the 
scum of boiling white sugar ; mixed with 
water and eaten with bread); jawhar'^ 
(any essence) ; 'araq (a good spirit ; made 
from dates and grapes) ; ruh-i guldb (es- 
sence of roses; rose-scent); intikhdb, pi. 
intikkdbdt (from books). Vide Syrup and 

Extraction, wm hasal (the outcome) ; 'araq- 
glri or -kashi (of spirits) ; nasi (descent). 

Extraordinary, jawq"' ^l-'dda; gh dyat-i ihti- 
rdm (extraordinary honouring) ; in mard 
ki 'ujuba-yi ruz-gdr u nddira-yi dahr-i hhud 
bud (the extraordinary character of this 
wonderful man). 

Extravagance, isrdj {k.) ; vil-kharji {k.) ; ifrdt 
{k.) (excess) ; tajdvuz {k.) (exceeding the 
bounds) . 

Extravagant, isrdf-kdr ; musrij ; "I extra- 
vagant ? Never ! ' ' man u vil kharj ? 

Extreme, bi-hadd u hisdb. Vide Wasteful. 

Extremely, dar (jkdyat-i tashnagi ast or bi- 
nihdyat tashna ast (he is extremely thirsty). 

Extremity, pdydn; dkhir ; kdr bi-jdn va kard 
bi-ustukhivdn rasid (to be at the last ex- 
tremity) . 

Exudation, tardvish. 

Exude, tardvidan. 

Exult, izhdr-i vajd kardan. 

Eye, chashm ; chdla (eye-socket) ; dku-chashm 
(gazelle-eyed) ; chashm-i durusht (large- 
eyed ; a beauty) ; chashm darida (with star- 
ing, starting eyes ; also shameless) ; cha- 
shm-i nargisi (sleepy-eyed ; a beauty) ; cha- 
shm-i man bdsh (act the part of eyes for 
me) ; that woman has attractive eyes, 
chashm-i dn zan giranda ast; chashm-i 
kutu (beady eyed) ; khurus-chashm or bul- 
bul-chashm (small but fine eyed) ; chashm-i 
pur bdd (puflfy with swollen lids) ; chashm-i 
gawd rafta or bi-gawd jaru rafta (hollow 

1 But chi-tawr ml-guyand ' ' how do they pronounce it ? " 

■^ Jawhar-i safld, etc., is a euphemism for white ^araq. Jawhar-i qirmiz 

red wine. ' ' 




eyed); cfiashm-i zdgA^ (bluish eyed; vide 
Blue) ; vide Evil-eye ; agar chaahm-ha- 
yi^ tan rd bi-ham bi-guzdrid chi tawr mi- 
tavdnid bi-navlsid? (if you shut your eyes 
how can you write?); cfiashm pushldan^ 
(to pardon) ; [i^mdz k. (to connive at) ; 
dida na-dida k. (to pretend not to see *] ; 
chasfim-ash bi-chashm-am uftdd (I caught 
his eye) ; asp rd chashm zadand (the horse 
has been struck by the evil eye) ; chashm 
khurdan (to be struck by the evil eye) ; 
bi-ra^y" 'l-'ayn mushdhada namudam (I 
saw it with my own eyes) ; zir-i chashm 
nigdh-am mi-kard — Prof. S. T. (he was 
watching me out of the comer of his eye) ; 
mardumak-i chashm (pupil) ; bi-chashm- 
zadan (in the twinkling of an eye) ; chashm 
dukhtan (fix the eyes on) ; td madd-i nazar 
= td chashm kdr mi-kunad; surdkh (of 
needle). Vide Sunken. 

Eyeball, ru-yi tukhm-i chashm-ash lakka 
dvurda ast (simple cataract). 

Eyebrow, abru ; abru-yi payvastu (joined 
eyebrows ; a beauty in Persian and Arab 
women)^ ; abru-yi kutdh (short eyebrows; 
an ugly feature) ; abru-yi hildli (or kamjdni) 
(arched brows) ; abru-yi pdcha-buzi (bushy 
brows ; an ugly feature) . 

Eye-glass, 'aynak-i yak chashmi. 

Eyelash, mizha, pi. mizhagdn. 

Eyelid, pilk (vulg.) ; palak (or (jkildjyi bald 
(upper) ; — zirin (lower). 

Ezekiel, Hizqil. 

Fable, in kitdb-i afsdna ast; pand (admoni- 
tion) ; amsdl-i Luqrndn (Esop's Fables) ; 
ddstdn (story, q.v.). Vide Tale. 

Fabric, qumdsh, pi. aqmisha; birvd'^ (build- 

Fabricate, to, az khud Ijdd k. ; ikhtird' n. 
(invent, q.v ). 

Fabricated, sdldUa shvda ; sdkhtagi ; mun-dar- 
dvardi vulg. ; in harfhd man-dar-dvardi-yi 

Fabulous, ma'lum" H-ism ma'dum" H-jism; 
vujud norddrad. Vide note to ' Traces. ' 

Face, ru or riiy ; chihra; sHrat (ra.c.) ; safha; 
salh (surface) ; durchashm (adj. ; full face, 
vide Profile) ; an zan safid p&st ast {tair in 
complexion ; vide P'air) ; gandumgun (nei- 
ther dark nor fair for an Oriental) ; zard 
(pale, yellow of complexion); safld u 
surkh (red and white; complexion); sabz- 
rang (of dark complexion) ; rii-yam nanii- 
shavad ki bi-kunam^ (I haven't the face 
to do it) ; bi-ru-yi khud na-ydtmrdam (I 
didn't show it in my face, I didn't mind; 
for ' to put a good face on a thing ' vide 
' Job ' ; vide Attention, Ignore) ; malih or 
bd-nam^k (pleasant of face, good-looking ; 
malih also used of a pleasant manner of 

Face to Face, rH bi-ru. 

Facetious, shukh (amusing ; joking) ; maa- 
khara (a profess, clown) ; muzhik (funny, 
in good or bad sense ; ridiculous). 

Facilitate, tas-hil kardan ; dsdn or sahl k. 

Facilitated, sahl shuda. 

Facility, suhulat: dsdni 

Facing, ru (surface) ; muhdzi (adj. and 

Fact, kdr; 'amal (deed); fi-^l-haqiqal or al- 
haqq or vdqi'-ash in ast ki (in fact) ; the 
fact of the matter is you lost your tem- 
per, ka-md-hi-yi hdV in ast ki az hdUi tabi'i 
blriin raftid (also applied to any change 
of mind or state) ; latifa bi-kindr rdst-ash 
(or rdsli-yash) in ast ki (joking apart, 
the fact is — ) ; rdsti bdyad bi-ravim (well ; 
in fact, we must go then); in na gumdn 
ast 'iydn ast (this is an evident fact). 

Factory, kdr-khdna; sabiq"" dast-gdh-i nil- 
sdzi injd buda {ast,. 

Faculty, quwal, pi. quvq and vulg. quvdt. 

Fade, khushkidan or pazfimurdan (of flowers 
and met. of people, animals) ; rang pari- 
dan or raftan (of colours) ; mvufmakUl or 
kdsta shudan (of people). 

Fail, bi-harf u bi-khildf (without fail) ; 'o^ 
ash bi-jd-^i na-rasid, qdsir mdnd (he failed 
to guess it) ; na-shavad ki naydyid ( = I 
hope you won't fail to come; vide Must ; 
nami-shavad ki — ) ; agarbi-man kumak 
nami-ddd az mudda'd-yi khud^m mahrum 

1 Zagh said to be a corruption of zaj " alum " which in a lump is blue; vulg. supposed to be zSgh 
" a crow, etc." 

* More colloquial chashm-i tanra. 

8 Chashm prishidan sometimes means ii/hmaz kardan or rfl avard na-kardan, 

* Musamaha k. negligence ; neglecting to carry out any business properly. 

* Women often paint a join with waama or with kuhl. « Don't however say hi-kunamrosh, 

T Ar. 

j»U^ ka-ma hiy" " as it was, i.e. as it happens." roii'i ^^t^. 




mi-shudam ; zaban az ta'rif-ash 'djiz ast 
(the tongue fails to express it). Vide 

Failing, muqassir (in duty). 

Failure, 'adam-i nayl-i murad (failing to 
accomplish one's object) ; na-kdmyabi 
(being unsuccessful). 

Faint, hi-hush shudan ; az khastagl va guris- 
nagi ghash kardam (I swooned from 
hunger and thirst) ; az has ki khasta va 
gurisna hudand zu'f kardand (they half 
fainted from — ) ; dil-ash az hdl raft, 
m.c. (to be near fainting). 

Faintness, ^Aash (without power of speech 
but not in a dead swoon) ; zu'f (weakness, 
failure of strength). 

Fair, hdld dsmdn sdf ast; u misl-i gul ndzuk- 
anddm ast (she is beautiful as tlie rose) ; 
simm or ydsmin-badan (of fair skin: vide 
Face and Complexion; Beauty) ; hdjnsaj ; 
rdst-kdr ; amln (of shop-keeper) ; pdk-bdz ' 
(in dealing) ; [qimdr-bdz pdk-bdz shuda ast, 
the gambler has lost his all]. Vide Mid- 

Fairy, pari (female and good) ; jinn, pi. 
ajinna"^ and dlv P. (good and bad; 
males); 'ifrli, fem. Hfrita_{&, malignant, 
powerful div) ; ay 'azizdn bdvar na-khivahtd 
kard ki dn bdijh chundn bi-nazar ml-dmad 
ki guyd pariydn rd hdl burida vil karda 
hudand — Prof. S, T. (you will not credit 
me, but it was as though the garden were 
filled with pinioned fairies) ; sdya-yi jinn 
bar u ujtdd (possessed by a jinn). Vide 

Faith, mazhab, pi. mazahib (of sect) •,^ din, pi. 
adydn (relig.) ; 'aqida, pi. 'aqd^id _(3bn 
article of faith) ; i'tiqdd [ddshtan or dvur- 
dan) (confidence) ; vajd (good faith) ; 
mard-i va'da-vafd (a man of good faith); 
togiyt/a (concealing one's faith; a Shi'ah 
doctrine) ; ihdds-i din-i jadid namud (he 
founded a new religion) ; Nasrdniyyat 
(Christian Faith); Islam (the Muslim 
Faith): imdn {ditto; also honesty). 

Faithful, vafd-ddr ; bd-vafd (of lovers, ser- 
vants) ; n^mak-shinds or namak-haldl (of 

servants, dogs, horses, etc.) ; mu^minin 
(the Faithful, i.e., Muslims); u nawkar-i 
amln-i qadim-Vst (he's a faithful old 
servant. Vide Honest) ; agar in khdna- 
zdd-i mawrusl^ rd niz mahram-i in rdz 
farmdyid awlq ast, va harchi dar 'agl-i 
ndqis-ash dar dyad hi-'arz khivdhad rasdnid 
— Prof. S. T. (if you will condescend to 
inform your faithful slave about what is 
in your mind, he will advise you to the 
best of his poor understanding). 

Falcon, qush (a general term for any of the 
Raptores but by falconers specially ap- 
plied to the goshawk) ; siydh-chashm 
(black-eyed, i.e., the falcons or long- winged 
hawks as opposed to the zard- chashm ' ' the 
yellow-eyed ' ' or short- winged hawks) ; 
tudr or tuvdr (the female falcon as opposed 
to jurra the male) ; shunqdr (in Persia 
and formerly in India a jer-falcon ; but in 
Basra, a ' booted ' variety of the F. Saker 
is so distinguished*) ; bdldbdnP. (the ' pas- 
sage falcon ' of F. Sacer) : charkh P. (the 
Eyess, or nestling of the same) : utalgt T. 
(male or female of F. Sacer) ; bahri (the 
female Peregrine^); shdhin P. (properly 
the Shdhin Falcon, F. Peregrinator, but 
loosely applied also to the peregrine); 
Idchin T. (the Shdhin falcon) ; turumta 
(the EngUsh merlin) ; layl (the Hobby) ; 
dalija-yi ndkhiln-i siydh (the Common 
Kestril) ; dalija-yi ndkhun-i safid (the 
Lesser Kestril). Vide Buzzard, Harrier, 
Kite, Hawk. 

Falconer, qush-chi ; qushi-hdshi (Grand Fal- 

Fall, uftddan ; zamin khurdan ; rikhtan bar — 
(to fall upon , attack) ; shindvar ujtdd 
(local ? he fell prone ; vide Prone) ; he 
fell flat on the ground, u ru-yi zamin 
naqsh bast or dam-i ru ujtdd; [dam-i ru, 
on the face] ; bi-qasd-i pusht ujtdd 
(local ? he fell flat on his back) ; u az 
asp-i khud parid va murd = az asp bi-zamin 
khurda murd; az kuh part shud ; [part- 
gdh = precipice] ; u taraqqi-yi ma' kus dar 
dars karda ast (he has fallen off in his 

1 Murdan ' ' to die ' ' is not used of flowers. 

2 Ajinna is incorrect as pi. of jinn; it is the pi. of janli foetus. In Ar. jinn and jin^'U are collec- 
tive noun, the sing, being jinnl. 

8 Khana-zad ' ' a house-born slave ' ' as opposed to zar-kharld ' ' purchased slave ' ' ; mawrusi ' heredi- 

* The sang-sang of some Panjab falconers. 

* By some Arabs the female is called shahina. 




studies) ; rii-yi pd-yam uftad (he fell at 
my feet) ; az pa dar amadan (of tree, man, 
etc.); rumbidan {y\x\g. ; to fall down, of 
houses; met. of men). 

Fall through, ha'daz tamdm-i In guft u gu-hd 
tadbir-i ma zamhi munda ast. 

Fallow, bd'^ir or (jhayr-i mazru' (unculti- 
vated) ; shiydr or Jchiah shuda (ploughed). 

False, diirugh; hizb (prop, subs.); nd-rdst 
(vulg. , in P. Gulf; untrue); gAadddr 
(treacherous, q.v.) ; yaqin ddshta bdsh ki 
in khabar bl-pd (or durugh) ast; vdhi 
(absurd, without foundation : of news ') ; 
qalb (of money) ; maghshush (adulterated, 
q.v.) ; rasul-i kdzib (a false prophet). 

Falsehood,^ A;i^6; durugt ; ghadr [tvedbchery , 

Falsification, jwl ; tahrlf (changing words or 
letters. Vide Garbled). 

Falsify, kaldm-ash rd radd (or takzib) kardam 
(to disprove) ; sdkhtan (of accounts). 

Fame, nam ; shuhrat ; dvdza. Vide Name. 

Familiar, anis ; ma^nus ; khudimJdni (like 
one of the household) ; dghd nawkar-ash 
rd bisydr ru ddda ast (he has made his 
servant very familiar, has encouraged 
him too much) ; jasUr ; gustdkh (impu- 
dent, q.v.). 

Familiarity, ulfat ; uns ; dsknd budan or 
shudan. Vide Impudence. 

Family, u Hydl-i^ bisydr ddrad; ndn-khivdr; 
awldd ; atfdl (children); sdsila; khdna- 
vdda ; qavrni (from one ancestor) ; najib- 
khanddn (of good family) ; past-pdya (of 
no family, a nobody) ; dah sar Hydl ddram 
(there are ten in my family dependent on 
me; i.e., wife, and nine children). 

Famine, khushk-sdli ; qaht or qaht u ghald 
(opposed to fardvdm) ; dn qadr gj^alla dar 
shahr kam bud ki bim-i qaht-i mt-raft. 
Vide Relief. 

Famous, mashhur ; ndm-ddr; ma'ruf; ma'- 
ruf-i dunyd (world-famous). 

Fan,* bddrzan; lidld khunuk ast, bdd-bi-zan 
Idzim norddrad. 

Fan, to, ddman zadan (to fan a flame Eastern 
fashion) ; bdd zadan. 

Fanatic, muta'assib (also patriotic, q.v.). 

Fanaticism, ta'assub (also patriotism). 

Fancier, ifca6u/ar-fcaz (pigeon — ; ) ; buBml-bSt: 
etc., etc. 

Fanciful, insha-yi khiydli (of writings) ; vahmi 
(of people). 

Fancy, to, hazdr khiydldt bar-ash mi-ddsht (a 
thousand fancies coursed through hi« 
brain ; lit. raised him up) ; 'uqdb bi- 
tasavvur-i gusht jarud dmad (the eagle 
imagining it to be meat, descended from 
the air) ; har qism khiydldt dar dH-am jd 
girift (all sorts of fancies took hold of 

Far, dur ; ba'ld ; td kujd ? (how far ?) ; ^layli 
rah (very far) ; dur u dardz (far off, far 
distant) ; md,-ddm-i ki zdhir-i surat-ash 
malhuz ast (as far as his personal appear- 
ance goes) ; td jd-^% ki muta'alliq-i bi-Kal- 
katla ast — (as far as Calcutta is concerned 
— ). 

Farce, In dunyd rd bdzi-yi taqlidi hisdb kun 
— Prof. S. T. (just consider this world 
as a tarce) ; bdzi-yi khanda dar dvardand 
(they acted a farce). 

Fare, kirdya (hire); ujrat (of labourers); 
ta'dm and khurdk (food). Vide Hire and 

Farewell, vidd' {k.) subs. ; al-vidd' or Khudd 
hdfiz ! interjection ; mi-khivdham az pidar- 
am hilliyyat bi-khivdham (on a death-bed 
or previous to a journey). 

Farewell, to bid, Khudd hdfizi k. or gujtan; 
badarud k. or g. (class, padrud or bad 
rud). Vide Adieu and Good-bye. 

Farm, to, zird'at k. (land) ; ijdra d. (to give 
out to farm) ; ijdra k. (to accept). 

Farmer, falldh ; mri' (cultivator) ; mustc^jir; 

Farrier, na'l-gar (one that makes horse- 
shoes) ; na'l-band and na'l-chi gar (one 
who shoes horses) ; baytJdr (horse doctor) ; 
[puz-mdl (farrier's horse-twitch) ; sum- 
tardsh (farrier's knife)]. 

Fart, tiz ; guz (z ) ; fisiisu (k.) (silent) ; 
\mard-i fisfim'i as/ = " he's a piffler, a 
rotter " J ; [guz dar bdzdr-i mis-gardn * = Idf 
dar gJiurbat; vide Boast J ; muhra bi-tds 
zadan (lit. to cast a die in the glass; fig. 
to break wind aloud by accident ; polite) 

' Vahiyat " absurdities." 

* Falsehood was commended by the Propliet for three purposes only ; to get the better in war of «d 
infidel ; to please a wife ; and to reconcile enemies ; vide also Oulistan, St. I, Chap. 1. 

3 In m.c. Hyal is a respectful way of referring to a man's wife. 

♦ There are no punkahs in Persia. 

i The noise in the coppersmith's bazar is deafening and drowns lesser sounds. 




=■ tiling-ash dar raft (by accident). Vide 

Farther, dur-tar ; ha' id-tar ; qadr-i an iaraf- 
tar hi- raw ; biyd bi-ravim an sar-i kucha 
(let us go to the other side, the further 
side, of the street). Vide Further. 

Fascinate, to, Fascinated, dil ruhudan; farif- 
tan (rt. farib) or farifta k. (of a woman) ; 
ajsun k. or khwdndan (by magic) ; shir 
mard rd mustasha' kard (only used of 
lions, snakes) ; an pari-ru dil-ash rd hurda 
ast — farifla-yi an ndznin ast ; az sukhanhd-yi 
shirin-ash mahv shudam — Prof. S. T. ; dam 
k. (by repeating charms and exhaling the 
breath) ; 'ishq-i u mard ajsun kard; ism 
khwdnda mar rd ajsun kardam. Vide 
Charm and Magic. 

Fascinating, dil-jatih ; dil-ruhd (of a mis- 
tress) ; dil-giranda (of persons or things). 

Fascination, tilism (a charm, q.v. ; not for- 
bidden by relig.) ; jddu or sihr (black 
magic; forbidden); ajsun (spoken; en- 
chantment) ; jazb (attraction). 

Fashion, rasm, pi. rusum; atvdr pi. ; vaz' , pi. 
awza' ; ravish ; dastur (Indian in this 
sense) ; sahk-i jadid and sahk-i qadim (new 
and old fashion) ; qdnun-i jadid-i Tihrdn 
in ast ki dast-kash hi-dast kunand; the 
fashion in clothes changes yearly, hur- 
ish-i libds-hd har sal Hvaz mi-shavad, or 
farq mi-kunad. Vide Cut. 

Fast, zud; jald; tiz-raw ; tund-raw (of ani- 
mals) ; chundn gurikht ki oi-gardri u na- 
rorsidam (he ran so fast I couldn't get 
near him even) ; jmr pish ma-raw (here, 
not so fast ; met.) ; in sd'at du daqiqa 
tund ast ' ; muhkam ; mustahkim ; mazbut ; 
qd^im; ustuvdr ; sijt, m.c. (firm). 

Fast, to, jdqa kashidan Afghan (to go 
without food) ; sawm or ruza girijtan 
(relig. fast) ; ruza mi-khurad (he is not 
keeping the fast). 

Fasten, bastan, rt. band ; muhkam bastan ; 
{pich rd sijt kun, tighten the screw]. 

Fastened, asp rd hasta-i ? (have you tied up 
the horse ?). 

Fasting, sd^im ; ruza-dur (adj.). 

Fat, gunda (corpulent of men ; also big, 
clumsy, of a horse) ; sanduq-i gunda ast 
(it's a big fat box) ; harra chdq ast yd 
lugMr ? mardri chdq u jarhih-l ast (he's a 

big fat man) ; p^h, subs, (fat) ; charhi 

Fatal, muhlik ; zakhm-i kdri, or munkar, or 
muhlik (a deadly wound) ; [zahr-i gdtil, 
deadly poison] . 

Fatalist. Vide Predestination. 

Fate, sar-navisht; tali'; hakht (fortune, 
luck) ; bakht-am bi-khwdh ast; chi kunam, 
in nasih-i man ast ? Taqdir ; Qazd ; Qazd 
u Qadar; Qismat (Fate). 

Fated, m^qdur or muqaddar ; qism,ati. 

Father, pidar ; valid ; bdbd (a child's ex- 
pression; also vulgar)^ ; Qibla-gdh (resp.) ; 
dqd (respect.) ; pidar-zan (wife's father, 
father-in-law) ; pidar-shu (husband's 
father) ; jadd or bdhd-yi huzurg (grand- 
father) ; nd-pidari and nd-madari (m.c. ; 
step-father and step-mother) ; sigha-yi 
pidar- jarzandi khwdnd (he went through 
the ceremony of adopting him). 

Fatherless, yatim (in v[i.Q. = bi-pidar or bi- 
middar)-^; u dar dnjd murda zan-i khud. rd 
hiva hd panj yatim bdqi guzdsht. 

Fathom, baghal (the measure of the extended 
arms) . 

Fathom, to, ' umq-i db paymiiddn ; ay mard! 
az hila-yi zandn hargiz sar hirun mi-tavdn 
dvard? (oh man ! can any one fathom the 
wiles of women ?). Vide Comprehend, etc. 

Fatigue, khastagi ; mdndagi; kujtagi; dasi-i 
jalldddn az kasrat-i 'amal az kdr mdnd 
(" — to the fatigue of their execution- 

Fatigued, Masto; manda; az ziyadati-yi gar- 
dish kujta shuda-am (I am knocked up by 
the walk). 

Fatima, Fdtima. [lence. 

Fatness, farbihi; chdqi (vulg.). Vide Corpu- 

Fatted, Fattened, parvdri (of cattle, poultry). 

Fault, qusUr (vulg.) or iaqsir (gen. and prop, 
slight fault) ; khatd (unintentional error) ; 
sahv (mistake) ; khabt (blundering) ; gkalat 
(grossly erring unint.) ; in sahv u gAalat az 
kdtib ast (copyist 's error) ; jurm (crime) ; 
gundh (sin). 

Fault-finding, sulchan-chlnl (also tale-bear- 
ing) ; 'ayb-giri; nukta-glri. Vide. Criti- 

Faultless, hi-gurmh ; hi-qusur (vulg.) ; hi-taq- 
sir; bi-'ayb (of things); kist ki taqsir na- 
ddrad? {or gundh-kdr nist 1) 

1 ^Aqdb or kund " slow " (of watches, etc.). 

* Often vulgarly prefixed to trades, etc. ; In baba-yi qumar-baz ' ' this gambling fellow. 
Princes say shah-baba. 

8 Yatim is properly ' ' fatherless ' ' and yaslr ' ' motherless. ' ' 





Faulty, ba-'ayh^ naqia; ma'yub (of things). 

Favour, mihrbanl (gen. kindness) ; tavajjvJi 
(from superior) ; fad or karam or makra- 
niat (pecuniary) ; indyat (bestowing 
things) ; marhamat (prop. kindnes.s from a 
superior) ; tarafddrl and taraf-ghi (parti- 
ality); ni'mat (sp. for benefit of God) ; 
tauifiq-i ildhl (favour of God) ; iltijdt-i 
shakhsl (personal favours) ; luif farmuda 
lidm u nishdn-i khud rd bi-man bi-guyid. 

Favourable, mas'ud (of time) ; musd'id (of 
time) ; mumfiq ; bad bardy-i bdld rajian-i 
ritd-khdna muvdfiq ast; in rd mumidd-i 
istiqldl-i khud mi-ddnist (he thought this 
favourable to his power, strengthening 
his position). 

Favoured, mas'ud (of people; by fortune). 

Favourite, In tiflak 'aziz-i man ast (this is 
my favourite child) ; muqarrab va mu'- 
iamadri Pddishdh (royal favourite) ; u 
naz,ar-karda-yi pidar ast (favourite son) ; 
ikhtisds u imtiydz-i kulli dar Hazrat-i Pddi- 
shdh ddrad (royal favourite) ; Hlm-i 
makhft-yi kimiyd muntahd-yi maqdsidri u 
asi (alchemy is his favourite pursuit) ; 
bishiar md'il bi-shikdr-i bdz va gh ayra ast 
(hawking is his favourite sport). 

Fawn, barra-yi dhu or dhu-bachcha; dhu- 
barra. ' 

Fawn, to, paZ^ u pdcha busidan (of dogs). 
Vide Toady, Flatterer, etc. 

Fayence, kdshi-kdri (k.). 

Fear, khawj (ddshtan) ; bim (d.) (fear) dah- 
shat {d.) (panic) ; hawl u hirds {d.) 
(terror) ; tars u larz {d.) (fear and trem- 
bhng) ; md bdyad ki az Khudd bish az 
insdn bi-tarsim; dnjd mi-raftam, llkin az 
tars-i dir rasidan na-ra)tam ; az tars zahra- 
ash db shud ; bdk na-ddrad (he has no fear ; 
also he doesn't caro); haybat or mahdbat; 
ru'b (fear, and incorrectly awe) ; mabddd 
(for fear lest). Vide Awe. 

Fear, to, tarsidan; bim, or khatvf, or vdhima, 
ddshtan; hirdsdn shudan; mi-tarsam ma- 
bddd bi-miram. Vide Fright and Afraid. 

Fearful, tarsit (of men or animals) ; ramu 
(shy, of animals) ; hawl-nidk (of people or 
places) ; khawf-ndk (of places, etc.). Vide 
Coward, Frightened. 

Fearless, bi-tars ; fn-bdk ; na-tars. 

Feast, ^iydfat {k. or d.) ; mihmJdni {k. or d.) ; 
valhna (d.) (a general feast ; sp. at mar- 
riage, etc.)=8hildn''^ (kashidan) ; 'id, pi, 
a'ydd (feast-days, holidays). 

Feast, to, dn ruz duvist mihtndn rd ta'dm 

Feather, bdl (prop, wing, but also flight- 
feather) ; par; shdh-par or shdhrbdl (iWght- 
feather) ; sar-push (wing coverts) ; ydr- 
mdliq T. (tertiariss ?) ; miftdh (primary 
coverts) ; qdpdq T. and 'amud Ar. (the two 
centre tail feathers, the ' deck-feathers ' 
of old falconers) ; ruddfq Ar. (the outside 
tail feathers, one on each side): dum-liza 
(the small feathers under the tail ; the 
' brayles ' of old falconers) . 

Feature,* sar u sural; rang u ru-yi in du td 
khayU bi-ham shabih hast = simd-yt in du 
td misJri ham ast ; sar u ru. 

Feeble, nd-tavdn or nahif (from sickness) ; 
kam-zur (gen.) ; za'ij (enfeebled) ; hdld 
khayli za'if shuda ast, az jd-yi khud nami- 
tavdnad harakat kunad; harakat-i mazbuhi 
(feeble resistance). 

Feed, to, intr. mush-i darakhti (or mush-i 
parrdn) bi-miva zist mi-kunad (the squirrel 
feeds on fruits) ; tr. , khurdk dddan , or 
khurdnidan (gen.) ; kdh u ddna d. (of 
horse) ; jaw-ash pdk ast (said of a well-fed 
horse or a romping boy). 

Fee, haqq^'l-qadam (gen. of a doctor or tu- 
tor) ; haqq'^'s-sa'i (pf broker); haqq^'n^ 
nafas (of lawyer, exorcist, etc.) ; haqq'^ T 
qalam (of a mirzd) ; who pays his school- 
fees? makhdrij-i madrasa raftan-i urd 
ki muiahammil mi-shavad'i vide Hush- 
money ; rusum-i farrdshdn (often used for 
certain legal fees which, by a polite fic- 
tion, are assumed to be intended for the 
farrashes) ; nasaq-bahd (a fee to those 
that execute nasaq '') . Vide Tip. 

Feel, to, ihsds k. ; dast zadan (to touch) ; 
vide Know, Experience ; az nuqsdndt-i 
shumd muta^assit shudam (I felt sorry at 
hearing ot your loss) ; kasdlat ma'ltim mi- 
kunam (I feel unwell) ; dar tdriki pd*ida 
mi-raftim ; vide Grope. 

Feeling, hiss; quwxhyi Idmisa (sense of 

1 But hvbara (also hubura Ar. and ahii-bara P.) the hubara or bastard bustard. 

* Pal, vulgar, is the lower part of the trouser-leg. 

3 Shilan is properly a very long narrow table-cloth. 

* JSiltatt. u J^al " markings " (of animals). 

* Nasaq is any mutilating or corporal punishment, other than death. 




touch); sard (without feeling, i.e., emo- 
tion). Vide Emotion. 

Feign, bahana k. (shamming) ; riya k. (hypo- 
crisy in religion or love) ; tajdhul k. (to feign 
ignorance) ; mahdbhai-i riya'i darad ; tama- 
ruz k. (rare in m.c. ; to feign sickness) ; 
Tchud ra hi-dlvanagi zad or hl-hhwab, etc., 
zad ; murda-hdzi dar dvardan (to sham being 
badly hurt) ; kalak-hdzi-hd dar ma-yar (no 
shamming). Vide Pretend, Sham. 

Felicity, m'ddat or sa'ddat-mandi. 

Fellow, mardaka; in compounds ham, as 
ham-qatdr (fellow-servant) ; ham-ndm ' (of 
the same name) ; ham-shahri (of the same 
city) ; ham-sadd (each echoes the other ; 
also of the same tune) ; ham-maktab (school- 
fellow) ; dardmand (the poor fellow) ; juft 
or linga (of a pair). 

Fellow-creature, ham-jins (of the same 
species or class, rank) ; u niz banda-yi 
Khudd ast. 

Fellowship, husn-i shirkat (good-fellowship) ; 
suhbat (also conversation). 

Felt, namad (subs.) ; namadi (adj.). 

Felt, mahsiis (p. p.). 

Female, mdda , td%fa-yi inds (the female '^ 
sex). Vide Offspring. 

Feminine, mu^annas; ta^nis (in gram.). 

Fence, divdra; divdra-yi chubi or divdra-yi 
khishti, etc. 

Fence, to, in bdjh rd az chub dawr girifta- 

Fend, bachcha-hd-yash sar-i khud ast (the 
young have flown and are able to fend for 

Fennel, shibit (green) ; marza (sweet fennel) ; 
siydh ddna {small fennel); rdz-ddna (vulg. 
ior rdziydna) (aniseed?) Ficie Aniseed. 

Fenu-greek, shambalila. 

Ferghana, Farghdna. 

Ferment, jush khurdan; kaf k. 

Fermentation, tahhrriir (of dough, tobacco, 
halva, etc.) ; jush khurdan (of wine or 

Fermented, jush khurda ; (but jushida boiled) ; 

Ferocious, daranda; muzi ; sag-tab' (of 
people) . 

Ferret, mush-i khurmd (a mongoose, ichneu- 
mon; not a weasel or ferret, etc.; class. 
rdsu) . 

Ferry, ma'bar, pi. ma'dbir (any crossing; 
ford, etc.) ; safina-yi 'ubur and 'ibri (ferry 
boat; latter also = passenger by boat). 

Fertile, hdsil-dih ; pur-hdsil ; tamdm-i zaminhd- 
yi dn vildyat hdsil-khiz ast; zar khiz 
(Afghan and Indian) ; bdr-dvar ; miva-ddr; 
pur-bdr ; musmir (fruitful ; of trees) . 

Fertilize, mdyi dddan (to fertilize date 
trees) ; [talqih and ilqdh in books]. 

Festival, 'id, pi. a'ydd (in Persian of relig. 
or semi-relig. festivals only) ; jashn. 

Festivity, shddi^ ; shddmdnl (joy); jashn 
(also festival, celebration). 

Fetch, dvardan, rfc. dr or dvar ; biraw qadrl 
miva az bdjk bi-chin biydr. Vide Bring. 

Fetid, ganda; gandida p.p. (' gone fetid'); 
muta'affln; bu-yi gand (a bad smell) ; 
[gandand a leek]. 

Fetter, c[hull (gen. for neck) ; ^ull u zanjir 
(for hands, feet and neck) ; kunda 
(stocks). ['addva. 

Feud, khdna-jangi (family feud or civil war); 

Fever, tab ; tab-i larz (ague) ; iab-i nawba 
(intermittent) ; makhmalak (scarlet fever); 
tifus (typlius) ; hasba (typhoid) ; tab-i 
Idzimi or tab-i diqq (hectic fever or con- 
sumption) ; tab-i nifds* (puerperal fever). 

Few, qalil^ [opp- to kasir " many"] ; chand 
najar-i qalil (m.c. a few men) ; naml- 
ddnam dnjd khayli budand yd kam; pdra-i 
az sarbdz (or pdra-yi sarbdz-hd (a few of the 
soldiers) ; chand nafar sarbdz (a few sol- 
diers) ; ba'zi (some) ; panj ruz (fig. a few 
days ; also this life) ; kamtar kas-l mi- 
tavdnad (few can do it). 

Fewness, qillat. 

Fez, jis. 

Fiance, -ee, ndm-zad. 

Fibre, rtsha ; nakh u risha-yi In kuluft ast 
(it is of course fibre) ; lif (of date ; also a 
' lufa ' for the bath) ; tdr ; rishta (thread) . 

1 Also saml (for Ar. (.5**«) " of the same name, synonymous." 

5 Awladr-i zuhur and awlad-i inas " male and female offspring." 
S In India s/^ad^ " marriage." 

4 ^ws^-i ni '5,9 the bathing forty days after child-bearing when the mother first leaves her room. 
There is a belief that if a mother dies before taking this bath, she will go straight to Heaven. The pains 
of child bearing are so great that all the mother's sins are forgiven on account of them, and as she has 
not left her room for forty days she has had no opportunity of committing fresh ones during that 


5 '• At least ' ' aqall<in or fi'l-aqaU. 




Fickle, bi-vafa (of the affections) ; har-dam 
khiydl ; nmtalawin " ' l-mizdj (changeable , 
q.v.) ; har sd'at yak Jidlat (Idrad (change- 
able; also flighty and fickle). 

Fickleness, u har-dam rang-% mi-zanad ; mard-i 
7nustaqill"'l-7nizd} nist; ialavvun ddrad. 

Fiction, afsdna ; vide Falsehood ; if lira'- (false 
tale; with bastan, to calumniate, q.v.); 
ikhtird' (an invention). 

Fictitious, ja'li; sdkhtagi ; Iftird'^i; az pish-i 
khud sdkhia or bi-ham bdfta (made up ; of 
a story). 

Fidelity, vafd-dari; haqq-i namak-shindsi ; 
namak bi-haldlt; a7w«na/-«?an (trustworthi- 

Fie, tuff bar tu ; or khijdlat bi-kash ; or 
qabdhat bi-fahm (fie on thee, shame on 
thee !) ; vay bar tu (out on thee!). 

Fief, twjul, pi. tuyuldt (lands given by tlie 
Shah on condition of receiving a certain 
fixed return). 

Field, (no word exactly corresponds to the 
English 'field'); kisht-mr or mazra' (a 
place made ready for sowing) ; mayddn 
or razm-gdh or nabard-gdh (—of battle ') ; 
[hunar-i man chtst kibi-muydan-iu bi-ravam 
(what skill have I to compete with him ?J. 

Field-glass, dur-bin-i du-chashmt. Vide Bino- 

Fierce, khun-khwdr (of savages) ; sharza (of 
lions) ; daranda (of animals gen.) ; qalir- 
dlud (of men or of animals, etc.) ; muzz 
(injurious). Vide Ravenous and Savage. 

Fierceness, darandagi; qahr-dludagl ; shid- 
dat ; hiddat (of sun) . 

Fiery, dtash-mizdj (of people) ; dtashln (of 

Fife, mizvmr (2.) (fife) ; lahak (2.) (flute) ; 
nay (2.) (a gen. term for any pipe). 

Fifteen, pdnzdah. 

Fifth, panjum. 

Fiftieth, panjdhum. 

Fifty, fanjdh 

Fig, an]ir: for 'I don't care a fig' vide 

Fight, jang {k.) ; da'vq, (k.) ; niza' (k.) (wordy 
or _ otherwise); sit%z {k.) (with blows); 
khdmush nisfiastan bihtar az bar-khdstan-i 
bi-jang ast. Vide War, Quarrel. 

Fight, to, bar sar u kalla-yi ham, digar 
zadand; zad u kub kardan; parWidah k. 
(prop, hand to hand). 

Figurative, majdzi (opposed to haqiqi). 

Figure, shakl, pi. ashkdl (gen.); paykar (of 
man) ; qadd u quvdra or qadd u qdmat or 
bdld (stature) ; rikht (gen. and vulg.) ; 
handaa (arithmetical); ahakl (geometri- 

Filch, to. Filching, ganda-duzdi k. (pilfering). 

Filcher, ganda-duzd. 

Filbert-nut, funduq. 

File, to, suhdn z. ; %n pich rd suhidn bi-zan ; 
in kagAazdt rd jam' bi-kun or bi-riahta bi- 
kash (file these papers ; but ddkhil-i daftar 
bi-kun " copy them in the book"). 

File past, to, dkjtla kardan (Fr. ; mil.). 

Filings, burdda (sing, and pi.) ; 8uvdla{?) ; 
sd^ida (sing, and pi.). 

Fill, pur or mamluv k. ; tapdnidan or chapd- 
nidan (to cram) ; lab-riz k. (fill up ; of 
liquids) ; In pip rd pur-i db kun. 

Filled, jmr ; mamluv ; lab-d-lab ( — to the 

Fillet, lula-gusht and sar-dast{?) (of meat) ; 
sar-band (for the head) . 

Fillip, to, gush-ash rd piling zad.^ 

Filly, kurra-mdda. 

Film, parda. 

Filter, db-sdf-kun ; sdfi (a strainer). 

Filter, to, sdf kardan ; muqattar k. , or taqiir 
k. (prop, to distil, q.v.). 

Filtered, sdf karda ; muqaiUir and mvqaUar- 
shuda (prop, distilled, q.v.). 

Filth, chirk; or kasdfai (gen.) ; laws (stain) ; 
najdsat (gen. for faecal matter) ; harzagi 
(of words or deeds) ; aljdz-i rakik (filthy 
abuse) . 

Filthy, chirkin, kxtsif ; muiarwas; chi guh- 
kdri kardi! (what a filthy mess you've 

Fin, par-i midhl or hal-i mdhi; par-i mdza 
(dorsal fin). 

Final, javdb-am qat'Vst; qist-i dl^iri (final 
dividend); Hllat-i gli ds-l. 

Finally, "dqibat (subs, and adv.). 

Finance, 'ilm-i hisdb-ddni; vazir-i mdliyya 
(minister of finance) . 

Find, ju^tan, rt. juy (in m.c, to find as well 
as to seek) ; urd bi-jur ^ bi-ydr (find him 
and bring liim) ; paydd k. ; zir-% miz 
ydftan; qalam-i khud rd gum karda-am, 
nigdh kun shdyad dn rd paydd hunt ; biraw, 
dar bdb-i dn sar-i dar bi-ydvar (just go and 
fijid out something about the matter) ; 

1 Class, mo'rajba. 

^ Piling zadan is also to soap the fingers, Persiem fashion, to music. 

S Bi-jur wdg. for hi-ju. 





hharm-yi Ustd-Sayn-i ' qali-bdf ra surdg[h 
ikun (find out the house of Ustad Husayn, 
the weaver) ; bi-ham rasidan, intr. (to be 
found, to be obtained) ; bi-ham rasdnidan, 

Fine, jurmana or jarlma k. or giriftan (in 
money) ; latif (fine and good) ; ndzuk 
(delicate) bdrik (slender and also not 
coarse) ; sdf or khub (of weather) ; qalam-i 
riza (a fine pen). 

Fine arts, sand^i'-i nafisa. 

Fined, agar daf'a-yi digar chunin Mr bi- 
kunid shunm rd jarlma mi-kunand (if you 
do this again you will be fined) . 

Finger, filing'^ zadan (to snap the fingers, 
as boys might do in a class) ; angusht ; 
[angusht-i pd, toe] ; panja (all five fingers 
or toes) ; angusht-i shahddat (fore-finger, 
q.v.) ; angusht-i miydni (middle finger) ; 
angusht-i kuchak (little finger) ; shast 
(thumb or big toe) ; sar-i angusht (finger- 

Finis, tammat; tamdm shud; khatm; khdii- 

Finish, sdkht u pardukht (make and finish) ; 
this silver work is not bad but it lacks 
finish,^ in nuqra-kdri bad nist va likin dn 
puf-i kdsa-gari (or tamdmiyyat) ki bdyad 
ddshta bdshad na-ddrad. Vide note to 

Finish, to, khatm k. or sh. ; khalds k. or sh. ; 
tavmm k. or 6^. ; bi-dkhir rasdnidan ; 
anjdm dddan ; surat dddan (accomplish) ; 
in Mr rd bi-jd bi-ydvarid (accomplish) ; 
takmil or anjdm ydftan; bi-sar dmadan; 
bi-dkhir rasidan ; tamdm shudan (to be 
completed or ended) ; pul tamdm (or 
khalds) shud (the money is finished) . 

Finished, mukammal (completed), bi-itmdm 
rasida (of provisions, money) ; bi-dkhir 
rasida (of a work) ; I've done it and 
there's an end of it, dn rd kardam raft. 
Vide End. 

Fir, kaj. 

Fire, dtash ; ihtirdq or hariq (conflagration) ; 
dtash-garddn (a small iron basket attached 
to a long chain, whirled round to revive 
charcoal embers). 

Fire, to, dtash puf kardan or damidan (to 
blow the fire) ; dtash z. (to set on fire) ; 
dtash giriftan (to catch fire) ; dtash raiv- 
shan k. or durust k. (to light the fire) ; 
dta^h khdmush k. (to put out the fire) ; 
dtash bi-ham z. (to poke or stir the fire) ; 
dtash dfrukhtan or rushan k. (to light a 
fire) ; tup anddkhtan or khdli k. (to fire a 
big gun) ; ddfiA k. (cauterize or to brand) ; 
tujang-iru bi-man khdli kard (or anddkht) 
(he fired a gun at me) : du si tir (or gulula) 
bi-shir zadand ammd hich yak na-khurd. 

Fire-brigade, Fireman, tulumba-chi (of Fire- 
brigade). Vide Stoker and Bath. 

Fire-place, buhhdri (in a living room) ; tun 
or gulkhan (of bath) ; ujdq (cooking 
place). Vide Stove. 

Fire-temple, dtash- kada. 

Firewood, hxzum; hima. 

Fireworks, dtash-bdzi {k.). 

Fire-worshipper, majus* ; gabr, vulg. gawr ; 
Zardushii ; Pdrsi ; Ibrdhimi ; dtash-parast ; 

Firing, tup-zani or tup-anddzi {k.) (of big 
guns ; vide Bombard) ; tufang-anddzi {k.) 
(of rifle); dagh-nihi {k.) (branding). Vide 

Firm, sdbit ; ustuvdr ; qdyim (vulg.); pdydar 
(lasting; of buildings, etc.); muhkam; 
mustahkim; rdsikh (in faith, etc.); sdbit- 
qadam (in relig., in promises, etc.). Vide 

Firmness, istihkdm (strength ; of things) ; 
sdbdt-i qadam (of persons in opinions or 
deeds) ; pdyddri and davdm (lasting long) : 
rdsikh'^H-i'tiqdd (firm in his faith). 

First, awal (pi. avd^il) ; ghurra (the first of 
the month) ; dar ibtidd'' (at first) ; az awal 
(from the first) ; kuddm kdr awal bdyad 
kard? bddi dar kdr u bud (he was the 

1 Usta-Sayn the usual m.c. form of Ustad-Husayn. 

2 Professional dancers (raqqas) snap the fingers in this manner. Sometimes the company snap their 
fingers to testify approval. 

3 Prop, kasa-gart: it is a custom of a ' plate-maker ' to blow over a cup, etc., just made as though 
to give it a finish. 

* Majus coll. in Ar., Majuai noun of unity. Zarduaht, perhaps from some similarity in the Muslim 
legend of the ordeal by fire, has been confused with Abraham. The Muslims for some time tried to make 
the niame of Zardusht forgotten, and the fire-worshippers were known by the name of Ibrahimi. 
Muhammad Shah, son of Fath 'All Shah, protected the Fire- worshippers, who resumed the name of 
Zardushti. By the Muslims however they were called Oabr, which name has come to signify ' infidel.' 
In India they are called ParsI, and this name is being introduced into Persia. The Persian Zardushtis 
resent being styled Oabr. 




first to do this); mtUakallim (the first 
person; gram.). 

Firstly, avr)al'*''. 

Fish, mahi; hut (the sign Pisces); [the 
Arabic word hut is applied to the fish 
that swallowed Jonah, called also nihang 
or 'shark']; mdhi-yi dudi or — dud-zada 
(smoked fish) ; indhi-yi khuahk (dried — ) ; 
midhx-vash (fish-like ; of certain sea ani- 

Fish, to, rmki giriftan; sayd-i mdhi k. 

Fisherman, mdht-gir; sayydd or shikdr-chl 
(any kind of trapper, falconer, sportsman, 
etc.) ; chand sayydd-i didam ki ddm-i khud 
rd mi-anddkhtandJ 

Fish-hook, qulldba-yi mdhi-gtri. 

Fish-net, dam or tur-i mdhi-girl. 

Fissure, shikdf ; darz. 

Fist, musht ; mu^ht bastan = dost musht k. (to 
close the fist). 

Fisticuffs, mursht-zanl {k.). 

Fistula, ndsur. 

Fit, adj . , qdbil ; shdyista ; IdHq ; vdjib ; ram ; 
munasib (proper) ; it mutlaq"" bdb-i In kdr 
Tiist (he is quite unfit for this job) , tabi'at- 
am ziring ast (I'am feeling very fit) ; 
subs,, bl-hushi (k.) (a swoon); gkash {k.) 
(a semi-swoon) ; sar urd girift (fit of 
epilepsy) . 

Fit, to, in qabd bar-ash chust ast (this coat 
fits him) ; kalid bi-qufl khurd (the key 
fitted the lock) ; kafsh anddz-i pd-yam ast. 

Fitness, shdyistagi ; liydqat; mundsabat; 

Five, panj ; pan-sad''- (five hundred) . 

Five-fold, panj muqdbil-i an; panj Id (in 
five folds). 

Fix, to, bar pa or nasb k. (to erect) ; nishdn- 
dan (to plant ; of trees, etc.) ; qardr d. ; 
ta'ytn k. (to assign) ; kuddm ruz rd qardr 
guzdshtid or muqarrar kardld/ qlmat-ash 
bi-chand guzardndid (or tayy^ kardid)? 
(what price did you settle for it ?) ; chashm 
dukhtan bi — (to fix the eyes on, stare at) ; 
gir kardan (to get into a fix). 

Fixed, burida (m.c. ; settled) ; mushakhkhas ; 
mu'ayyan; muqarrar; qardr ddda shuda 
(decided, settled); hamr turridn qlmat-i in 
khdna qat' shuda ast. 

Flaccid, shui ; Hz ; norm. 

Flag, 'alam; bayraq khtvabanidan (to lower 

a flag ; met. to vacate the field, run away ; 

also simply ' to depart ' ) ; bayraq-i Iran rd 

didam ki ru-yi arg* bdd mi-khurd tcU^ta- 

sang (of stone); bach (root of Acorns 

calamus) . 
Flag, to, stMt shudan; sang-farsh k. (pave 

with stones). 
Flagellation, taziydna-zani : shalldq-kdri ; 

chub-kdrl (also working in wood) ; kutak- 

Flagon, qardba; kup; sabu (bottles; of 

different shapes). 
Flame, shu'la (of fire or lamp) ; zabdna (fiie 

only); mushta'il (part., burning; in 

Flaming, ishti'dl (subs.); mu^hta'il (partic). 
Flamingo, qdz-i surkh (lit. scarlet goose). 
Flap, to, par or bal z. (of a bird, when fly- 
ing) ; par par k. (fluttering). 
Flare, dta^h gurgur ml-kunad (of the noise of 

the fire). 
Flashing, darakhshdn. 
Flashy, mardri bd zarq u barq (in good or 

bad sense). 
Flask, baghaU (a flat bottle that contains 

rather more than a quart) ; dabba-yi 

rughan ( — for clarified butter ; of metal) ; 

dabba-yi bdrut (for powder). Vide Pouch. 
Flat, musaUah ; khwdbida (lying down) ; jush- 

rafta (of drinks); kdsid (dull, of trade); 

sust; sard; kasil (feeling dull); shakl-i 

kura-yi zamin chi tawr ast, mudawar, yd 

musattak, yd murabba' , ydbayzam? \irvws- 

tatil oblong]. Vide Fall. 
Flat-bottomed, tah-pahn; zir-fardkh. 
Flat-iron, uttu. 
Flatter, chdplUsl k. and tamaUuq guftan; 

sahzi pdk k. ; hhush-dmad guftan ; bad zir-i 

baghal-ash dad (to make a fool of by — ) = 

pizur bi-pdldn-ash chapund (vulg.X- 
Flatterer, bddinjdn-i dawr-i qdb (lick-spittle) ; 

clvdplu s ; sabzx-pdk-kun ^ ; tamalluq-gu ; 

hdshiya-nishin (hanger-on and dittoer). 

Vide Toady and Ditto. 
Flattery, chRplusi ; khush-dmad; tamaUuq; 

chird in taivr tamalluq-i mard mt-kunld? 

chird in qadr sifdl^ bi-pdldn-ash mi-kuni 

i Mahl-gir is also a name of the common heron. Dam is properly " a snare " and tur ** a net." 

2 Pronounced pun-sad. 

s Toyy k. also " to travel." 

* Arg residence of Shah or governor ; the citadel ; qa»r, palace of Shedi. 

6 i.e. Sabzi haray-i u pak mi-kunad. 

6 Sifal long straw used for stuffing a palan. 




(why do you flatter him so ?) ; hi-hama 
cMz; (without joking; without flattery; I 
am speaking seriously). 

Flatulent, Flatulency, naffakh and badi (of 
foods; causing flatulency) ; nafkh-i mi' da; 
sJiikayat-i nafkk ddram (I am suffering 
from — ) ; [badu and flsu (pretentious)]. 

Flatwise, tahhta ra pahn bi-guzar na Istada 
(lay down the plank flatwise not on its 

Flavour, maza; zd^iqa; Tchush-mazagi (being 
nice flavoured). Vide Taste. 

Flaw, 'ayb; naqs; mu (crack; also black 
lines in stones or in gems) ; lakka (spot) ; 
navisht u khwan naqs ddrad, bdtil ast 
(vulg. ; there is a flaw in the contract, it 
is invalid). 

Flax, kattdn. 

Flay, jMst kandan or kashidan , salkh k. 

Flayer, salldkh (one that slaughters, and also 
sells liver, head and feet, etc.); pust-kan. 

Flayed, pust-kashlda ; pust-kanda. 

Flaying, satldkhl {k.). 

Flea, kayk or kahk or kak. 

Flea-bitten, magasi (of a grey horse). 

Fledged, vide Fend ; par birun dvurda (half- 
fledged) . 

Flee, firdr k. (gen.) ; pusht dddan (in a fight) ; 
chird bi-gurizim? khawj nist. Vide Cow- 

Fleece, to, vide To flay ; pashm giriftan (to 
shear) ; lukht-am kardand pirdhan ham rj/i- 

Fleeting, nd-pdydur ; jdni (of the world, life, 
etc.) ; guzardn (passing away) ; gurizdn 
(fleeing) ; sdya-yi zd^il or — ravdn (a fleet- 
ing shadow; vide Shadow). Vide Un- 

Flesh, gusht (also applied to ' flesh ' of 
fruits) ; but in miva gushtl ast (this fruit 
is dry, without juice); najs kushtan (to 
mortify the flesh). 

Flexible, nxirm ; lams ' ; fanari (springy) ; 
misl-i fanar jihanda ; in chub cham u kham 
bar mi-ddrad ; In khayzurdn lams ast. 

Flicker, cMrdgh kur kur mi-suzad. 

Flight, gurlz (k.) ; firdr {k.) ; parvdz (of 
birds); gurizandan and munhazim k. (to 
put to flight). Vide Defeat. 

Flinch, mizhgdn bi-ham zadan; takdn khur- 
dan ; dasl^am rd ru-yi surat-ash bur dam, 
pas kashid. Vide Wince. 

Fling, to, in chi jur gulhd ast? bi-yanddz-i 
shdn dur (or birun) ; part k. (with force). 

Flint, sang-i chdqmdq; az chdqmdq'^ zadan 
dtash payddmi-shavad ; [fatila tinder- wick, 
for flint and steel]. 

Float, hdld vaqt-i madd-i bahr ast jahdz ru-yi 
db mi-dyad. 

Flock, galla (of sheep, of birds) ; rama (of 
cattle) ; dnjd galla-yi gusjand-i. 

Flock, to, mardum bi-didan-ash guruh guruh 

Flood, sayldb {sh.) , rud-khdna bi-tu^ydn 
dmad, or tughydn kard ; Tufdn-i Nuh (the 

Floor, takhta-push (of boards) ; zamin-i in 
utjdq ta'mir Idzim ddrad; zamin-ash rd 
farsh-i djurr karda and ; daraja ; tabaqa ; 
martaba (storey). 

Floor-cloth, ztlu (a cotton stuff used for the 
floors of schools and mosques) ; zir-farshi 
(common and coarse) ; farsh (better qua- 
lity, placed over former). 

Florid, surkh ; surat-ash misl-i chuqandar 
surkh ast ; dn mard swat-ash ziydd khuni- 
'st (m.c). 

Flour, nan az drd durust ml-kunand ; drd k. 
(to grind to flour or to powder) ; [tdpu (a 
large earthenware receptacle or ' bin,' q.v., 
for flour, rice, etc.)]. 

Flourish, zinat dddan, or shdkh u barg nihd- 
dan (in writing) ; shahr digar surat-i dbddi 
girift, or shahr bdz rawnaq girift (the city 
again flourished = db-i rafta bi-jHb amad) ; 
sd'at-at rd bi-man jilva ma-dih (don't flaunt 
or flourish your watch at me). 

Flourishing, kdmrrdn (successful; of people) ; 
ma'mur (of country); risha dar db ast; bd 
db u tab; kdr-ash bi-khubi mi-gardad (in 
business) ; rawnaq ddrad ; kdr u bdr-ash 
chdq u chilla ast (his business is flourish- 

Flow, to, Rud-i Aras bi-Daryd-yi mdzandaran 
(or bi-Bahr-i Khazar) muttasil mi-shavad, 
or ml-rlzad, or khMl mi-shavad; db-i rud 
khdna kuddm taraf jdrVst? 

Flower, gul ; shigufa (bud) ; na-bdyad in 
gulhd rd bi-chinid; khayli gul-bdz ast (he 
is a great flower fancier) ; zubda-yi qushun 
(the flower of the army). Vide EUte; 
awal-i javdni or 'unjuvdn-i shabdb (the 
flower of youth). 

Flower, to, gul dddan or kardan; shikuftan 

1 Lama " flexible " and ahaqq " inflexible, rigid,' 

2 Chaqmaq i tufang " cock of a gun." 




or shiguftan (to open into flower from the 

Flowing, jarayan; zulfhJd-yash td surin 
rikhta or u/tdda. 

Fluent, tund-add; Fdrat rd ravdn harf mi- 
zanad ; u agarchi zabdn-i Inglist sahih 
harf nami-zanad vali dar dn harrdf ' (or 
lassdn) oat. 

Fluently, ravdn khwdndan (to read fluently). 

Fluid, abald ; md'i. 

Fluids, chiz-Iid-yi ra^q u sayydl ; vmHyydt. 

Fluidity, sayydM. 

Flush, rang-ash bar dfrukhta shud (he 
flushed ; from anger or shame) . 

Flute. Vide Fife. 

Flutter, tapidan ; par par k. Vide Bate. 

Fluttering, bdl-zani. 

Fly, to, paridan or parvdz kardan, intr. ; hi- 
bdd dddan, tr. (of a hawk, a paper-kite, 
etc.) ; par-i bdl-i tuti rd chid ki na-parad 
(or mabddd bi-parad) ; jahidan (of a 

Fly, subs., tnja magas pur ast (this place 
is full of flies) ; inid ism-ash bdyad Magas- 
dbdd bdshad na Dawlat-dbdd (this place 
should be called Magas-abad and not 
Dawlat-abad) ; guh-magas (fly speck) ; 
pa^ha-yi khaki (sand-fly). 

Fly-blown, mo^cw-ncfei, vulg. (fly-spotted; and 
also stale). 

Fly-flap, magas-rdn. 

Fly-fringe, magas-pardn (for eyes of horses 
or donkeys). 

Flying, bvJand-parvdzi (high-flying; lit. or 

Foal, kurra ; kurra-asp ; kurra-khar. 

Foam, kaf ; daryd kaj mi-kunad ; bi-hadd-i 
ghayz hard ki dahan-ash kaf dvard. 

Focus, to, mizdn shvdan, intr. (of camera, 
binocular, etc.); bi-mizdrh dvardan, tr. 

Fodder, 'aliq; 'alufa (fodder and grain); 
'alaf (green) ; kdh (dried straw, chopped). 
Vide Seller. 

Foetus, 'alaqa or muzgha; janin (rare ?). 

Fog, mih-i ^aliz-l (a dense fog) ; mih-i 
kam-i (a slight fog, or mist) ; gi^dr (dust 
fog) ; bukhdr (steam or exhalation from 
marshy ground) ; az zamin dtash bar mi- 
Wiizad (of haze) ; dud ru-yi havd rd girift 
(the smoke, or fog, hid everything). 

Fogginess, kudurat-i fahm (of understand- 
ing) ; mih giriftan-i havd, etc. Vide Fog. 

Fold, in chiz-hd rd dar kdgiflz hi-jnch (or 

tah or tu kun) ; navardidan (to roll up) ; 
du Id k. or du td k. (to double up) ; aila k., 
etc. (to fold three times) ; dost :^r-i 
bagl^ nihddan (to fold the arms Eni^lish 
fashion) ; dast bastan (to fold the arms 
as Persian servants * do) ; Sunnihd namdz 
rd dastrbasta ml-k^ivdnand va ShVa-hd 
dast-vdz (the Sunnies cross the hands in 
front; the Shl'ahs let the arms hang 
straight down by the side). 

Fold, d^ul (of sheep) ; tah (of cloth, etc.) ; 
chin (wrinkle) ; du tah ; du bardbar (two- 
fold) ; Id or tah ; Id-yi dar rd bdz kard (he 
opened one fold of the door). 

Follow, pusht-i sar raftan ; jilaw bi-raw man 
az 'aqab ml-dyam or durnbdl-at mi-dyam; 
iqtidd k. (to follow the example of holy 
men) ; pay-ravl k. (follow the example of, 
good or bad) ; tashyl'-i jarvdza k. (in fune- 
ral procession) ; az Inqardr (as follows : — ); 
badraqa raftan or mu>shdya'at k. (to follow 
a guest to the door, etc. , on taking leave) ; 
basta muta'aqqib-i in kd(jihaz khwdhad rasid 
(the parcel will follow this letter) ; hami- 
sha tdbi'-i guyanda-yi dkhirin ast (weak, 
q.v., always follows the last speaker); 
bi'matlab-ash namitavdnam pay bi-baram 
(I can't follow his meaning). 

Follower, pay raw and t^i' (gen.) ; murid 
(relig. only) ; muqtadl and muqallid (of a 
great Mujtahid) ; ummut (followers of one 
prophet only ; but in Arabic also for na- 
tion) ; millat, pi. milal, (nation; but in 
Arabic only for followers of one prophet) ; 
rajjdlaigi. (camp-followers). 

Folly, khariyyat vulg.; hamdqat; baldhat; 
muntahd-yi hamdqat or gt^dyat-i U^ariyyat 
(height or extreme of folly). 

Foment, to, bakhur or tabkhir k. (to steam) ; 
taftit k. (with hot oil) ; takmid k. (dry or 
wet) ; taskhin k. (med.). 

Fond, in miva rd abad"" dust nami-ddram; 
'dshiq-i guldb hastam. 

Fondle, navdzish k. (a kitten, a mistress) ; 
dast ru-yi sar kashidan (stroke the head). 
Vide Caress, Coax. 

Food, ^i2a (pi. ajfhziya = dishes, meats) ; 
ta'dm, pi. oi'tVna ; in chi qism khurdki'st ; 
qut-i Id-yamut na-ddrad (he has nothing to 
eat, he's starving) : ma^kuldt u mashrubdt 
(meats and drinks) ; khvriah (a special 

1 Harraf and laaaan alone have the idea of loquacity. 

4 beut jur kardan " to fold or join the hemds as Hindus do." 




dish) ; m khurish-i khuh-i ast (this is a 
nice plat) ; rizq; ruzi (daily food, daily 
bread, sent by God). 

Fool, to, rish-khand h. (to fool a person ; 
make an April-fool of). 

Fool, dbldh; ahmaq; Mar; pakht vulg. 
(thick-headed) ; dabang (cracked) ; sdda- 
lawh (simpleton) ; maskhara or mashhara- 
chi (professional fool) ; lull (bear or mon- 
key leader, etc.). Vide Ass, Mad, Simple- 

Foolish, hi-vuquf ( = an ass; doesn't know 
how to behave) ; bl-'aql (no brains) ; bi- 
shu'ur (wanting in perception) ; rish-gav, 

Foot, pa (foot or leg, sp. hind-leg; of man, 
beast or furniture, etc.) ; sum (hoof) ; pa- 
yi u misl-i gur-i bachcTia ast or pa-yi guri 
darad (he has enormous feet) ; pd-yash rd 
bi-bin, Khudd shutur rd rahm kunadl (said 
by a jealous woman of a rival; = "Did 
you ever see such feet as she's got?") ; 
pusht-i pd (instep) ; kaf-i pd (sole) ; 
gawdi-yi pa (arch) ; ddmana (of moun- 
tain) ; juz* or rukn (in scanning) ; piydda, 
adv. (and subs.) (on foot). 

Footman, piydda; shatir (a running foot- 
man; in front of a horse). 

Footstep, qadam, pi. aqddm ; radd-i pd or 
dsdr-i pd ( — track) ; pay-ravl-yi pidar-ash 
mi-kunad, or az ru-yi garda-yi pidar-ash 
raftdr mi-kunad ^ (local) (in good or bad 
sense) . 

Footstool, kursi-yi zir-i pd. 

Fop, Mlrm Qashamsham (a fop) ; qashang. 

For, bi-vdsita-yi- , or vulg. bi-vdsa-yi — ; 
{mahz-i) pds-i khdtir-i shumd in kdr rd 
Tcardam; az du sd'at injd ast (he has been 
here for two hours) ; td du sd'at birun mi- 
ravam (I'm going out for two hours) ; az 
bardy-i — ; jihat-i — ; nafy" va isbaf'" (for 
and against); zird ki ; chunki; bi-'illat-i 
%nki ; c^*ra-^i (because). 

Forage, 'allq (barley and straw or hay). 
Vide Fodder. [Raid . 

Foray, chapaw (k.) ; chapawal (k.). Vide 

Forbearance, hawsala dvardan; tahammul 
kardan; hilm ddshtan. 

Forbearing, burd-bdr. 

Forbid, nahi k. ; qadaghan n. ; chird az dma- 
dan man' kardid (why did you forbid him 
to come?). 

Forbidden, mamnu' ; qadaghan ast (it is^ 
forbidden) ; mamnu' dt or manahi (things 
forbidden) . 

Forbidding, mdni'. 

Force, zur ; jabr ; 'unf (violence); shiddat; 
hiddat (severity) ; hdld rud-khdna pur zur 
ast ; quvva-yi barqiyya (electric force) ; 
bigdr giriftan (to seize men for forced 
labour — generally without pay — for State 

Force, to, majbur k. ; vd ddshtan bi^; jdrl 
sh. (to come into force). Vide Compel. 

Forceps, arnbur-i danddn-kashi (for teeth) ; 
gdz-arnbur (blacksmith's) ; minqdsh (twee- 
zers) ; kalbatayn* 

Ford, guzar-gdh ; guddr vulg. (usually moun- 
tain-pass) ; ma'bar, vulg. mi'bar (also a 
ferry boat). Vide Ferry and Crossing. 

Ford, to, az rud-khdna bi-pd 'ubur kardand. 
Vide Wade. 

Forearm, sdqa-yi dad ; sd' id ; dast (fore- 
arm or fore-leg of an animal as opposed to 
pd the hind-leg). 

Forecast, hads zadan (to conjecture) ; tadbir- 
bdfi or tarh-rizl k. (planning beforehand). 
Vide Prophesy. 

Forefathers, ajdud (forefathers; pi. of jadd 
grandfather, q.v.) ; aslnf pi. Vide Ances- 
tors, Ancients. 

Forefinger, sabbdba; angusht-i shahddat (the 
forefinger is used in emphasising the words 
of the kalima or creed ^) . 

Fore-foot, sum-i dast (of horse) ; panja-yi 
dast (dog, etc.). 

Forehead, plshdni ; ndsiya ; jabin. 

Foreign, ashyd-yi hhdrija (foreign goods) ; 
iddra-yi hhdrija (Foreign Office) ; Vazir-i 
umur-i khdrija (Foreign Minister) ; u bi- 
mulk-i ghurbat rafta; dahhl-% bi-matlab 
nist (foreign to the subject). 

1 Oarda is a small bag of powdered charcoal used in copying drawings. A pricked tracing is placed 
on a clean sheet of paper and the bag of charcoal dabbed and dusted over the pricked lines of the 

2 But qadaghan k. "to order." 

3 'Amala-yi qalam "labourers so seized. " Bigari bihiar az blkarl ; a common saying. Ri-aukhra 
giriftan (class.). 

* Dual of kalba "a bitch," fem. of kalb " dog." 

' Also Shi'ahs when repeating the ziyarat point the forefinger towards the grave or at a distance 
towards the qibla. 




Foreigner, (jtanb (pi. (jAurabd* " the poor"] ; 
ajnabt {]}\. ajanib, rare in ni.c.) ; khdriji ; 
bigana (stranger, i.e., not of the same 
household ; an outsider) ; nami-guzarand 
khdrija^ az mulk-i shdn 'ubur bi-kunand 
(foreigners are not permitted to pass 
through their country). 

Foreignness, ajnabiyyat. 

Fore-leg, dast (opp. to jxi hind-leg); saqor 
yi dast and qalam (shank). 

Foreman, ustad. 

Foremost, bar hama muqaddam; awal ; 
jilaw-tar asi ; az hama fish-tar. 

Forenoon, avval-i zuhr. 

Forepart, jilaw. 

Foresight, pish-bini; basirat. 

Foreskin, </hulfa, pust-i sar-i hashaja^ 

Forest, jangal; bisha (of trees); tarafayn-i 
rah kuJtrha'^ pushida az jangal bud (on 
both sides of the road were hills covered 
with forests 

Foretell, pishin-gu'^i k. : az ffhayb guftan ; 
ki mi-tavanad az pish hi-guyad ki jar da az 
parda-yi (fhayb chi zdhir mt-shavad? 

Forge, kura-yi dhangarl (a smith's forge) 

. [kura also = a furnace, a brick-kiln]. 

Forge, to, sur^ karda kuftan (of iron); ja'l 
n. ; u imzd-yi urd ja'l kard, or muhr-i urd 
bar tamassuk taqallvb kard (he forged his 

Forged, ja'li ; sdhhtagt ; bi-ham bar bdfta (of 
a story). 

Forgery, jfa'/; sdkhtagi. Fide Counterfeit. 

Forget, raft va likin paygham-ash rd az tah 
fardmush kard (he went but completely 
forgot his message) ; banda rd az khdtir-i 
sharif na-bdyad anddkht (don't forget me); 
mard az dil-at mahv rui-kun, or az ydd-at 
na-ravam (ditto). 

Forgetful, fardmush- kdr ; fardhh-gush (lit. 
' wide-eared ' =az yak gush mi-shinavad va 
az dlgar dar mi-anddzad). 

Forgetfulness, fardmushi. 

Forget-me-not, gul-i fardmush (flower). 

Forgive, 'afv k. ; mu'df k.; bakhshidan; az 
sar-i gunah guzashtan; guzasht k.; agar 
iqrdr mi-kard ma'zur-ash mt-ddshtam; 
Khudd urd bi-ydmurzad (God forgive him) ; 
Khuda pidar-ash rd bi-ydmurzad, pisar chi 
guh-% dar dmad ! ( = God curse the father 
for having left such a rotter pf a son) ; 
Khudd fU rd bi-ydmurzad! chi shikam-i 

gunda-i ddradf Khuddvand vdlidayn-t 
shumJd rd bi-ydmurzad or rdhal farmdyad 
(a form of thanks ; gen. implies that the 
parents are dead). 

Forgiving, gAafur (of God); bd-guzfuht (of 

Forgotten, gdv-khur shuda ast (of customs) ; 
fardmush shuda ; hargiz-fardmush-na-kun 
(adj.; never-to-be-forgotten). 

Fork, changdl (also claws) ; kdh-pardn vulg. 
and awshxn (winnowing-fork; for afshdn?). 

Forked, du-shdkha adj. (bifurcated); mun- 
shaHb (into several branches). 

Form, shakl ; hay^at ; tarkib ; rikht vulg. ; 
pan-paykar (of fairy form) ; daraja (at 
school); qaddri sarv kulliyat'" rdst ast; 
rasm-i khitjdb (form of address). Vide 

Form, to, tashkil dadan, tr. , and — ydftan, intr 

Formal, rasmdna (official) ; bd-takalluf (of 
people, ceremonies). 

Former, an (' that,' i.e., the farther oflF) ; 
[in 'this,' i.e., the latter]; sdbiq"' z-zikr 
(mod. newspapers ; opp. to dkhir"'z-zikr) ; 
kuddm-ash bihtar ast, await yd dkhiri? 
dar zamdn-i salaf or — qadtm; and dar 
awqdt-i pishin (in former times). Vid^ 

Formerly, sdbiq"" ; sdbiq bar in, or pish az In. 

Formidable, muhib (terrifying) ; i'tirdzdt-i 
shumd bar in tadbir vdqi'"" sakht ast; 
milal-i atrdf az vay hisdb bar giriftand or 
ml-burdand (he was formidable to the sur- 
rounding nations) ; sayl-i bunydn-kan; 
rafta rafta chundn parishdn va az nazarhd 
sdqit gashtand ki na dawlat rd bi-xshdn 
ummid-i va na dushman rd az ishdn bim-x 
rndnd (they gradually became so broken 
and discouraged that they ceased to be 
formidable). Vide Fortification. 

Formula, nushha (medical) ; qd' ida-yi jabriyya 
(algebraic); kalima (reWg.). 

Fornication, zind* (or adultery) ; [zina-yi 
muhsina, "adultery," q.v.]; jindorbdsi 
(frequenting female prostitutes) ; mard- 
bdzx (of women). 

Fornicator, zant (or adulterer, q.v.) ; jinda- 
bdz (frequenting female prostitutes). 

Forsake tark guftan or k. (of habits ; vide 
Abandon) ; dast bar dashtan az — ; vU k. ; 
na-bdyad dustdn-i khud rd dar halat-i 
parishdni vd guzasht (or tark kard). 

1 Kharij'i mazhah " of another sect or religion." 

2 Haahafa glans penis. 

8 Not k~ih sing, which would mean " the hiU." 

Kl^rijl = Sunni ; so called by the ShV<Mh». 




Forsaken, mahjur ; az haram randa va az 
dayr mdnda (forsaken by both parties) . 

Fort, qal'a,^ Pers; pi. qaVajat'^ ; hisar (a fort 
or a fortified wall around a city) . 

Fortieth, cMhilum. 

Fortifications, bur j u hdru (of a town, etc.); 
istihkdnidt (protections) ; — hurj-i gilin 
saddri Iskandarl mi-namud ( — the slightest 
fortification seemed formidable). 

Fortified, mahsur [k.) (also beseiged) ; mahsun 
or muhassan (k.). 

Fortify, qal'a bandi k. ; mustahkim k. 

Fortitude, tdqat (dvardan) ; dar bald khayll 
tahammul namud; sabr {k.) (endurance, 
q.v.). Vide Bravery. 

Fortnight, du-hafta. 

Fortunate, nik-bahhl; khush-bahht ; javdn- 
bakht; bakht-ydr; tdlv-mand; iqbdl-mand ; 
kkushd bi-hdl-ash (may he prosper, be 
fortunate!); mubdrak bddl (may it be 
fortunate for you!); bakht-i Nddiri ddrad 
(he is a very lucky person) ; In kdr sakht 
bi-jd uftdd (it happened opportunely). 
Vide Fortune and Lucky. 

Fortunately, bi-ydrl-yi bakht; az husn-i itti- 
fdq; khush-bakhtdna. 

Fortune, mdl-i fardvdn iam' karda ast ; bakht ; 
iqbdl ; tali' ; qismat ; mdl ; dawlat ; mrvat 
(wealth) ; bakht-i it bdz (or blddr) shuda ast 
(he is now fortunate) ; bahht-ash basta (or 
khwdbtda) ast (he is now unfortunate) ; 
iqbdl ru bi-man hargiz nami-dvarad (for- 
tune never comes to me) ; bi-margi pidar- 
ash pul-l hangujt-t gir-i u dmad (he in- 
herited a fortune on his father's death) ; 
irmrgk u mdhi dar khwdb dida ast (he's 
come in for a fortune ^^). Vide Fortunate 
and Wealth. 

Fortune-telling, kaJinnat (divination) ; ghayb- 
gu^l ; dast mi-binad (he tells by hand). 
Vide Omen, Palmistry, Geomancy. 

Forty, chihil. 

Forward. Vide Impudent. 

Forward, to, firistddan ; irsdl k. or ddshtan ; 
rasdrddan ; In kdghaz rd bi-khidmat-i ja- 
ndb taqdim mi-numdyam. 

Fosjsil, jamdd, pi. jamdddt (anything without 
life); mutahajjir. Diary). 

Fossilized, mutahajjir {sh.) ; " fasiV (Shah's 

Foster-brother, barddar-i razd't ; u ham-, 
shir-i * mxin ast. 

Foster-mother, ddya. 

Foster-sister,* khwdhar-i razd'i. 

Foul, palid (gen. of Satan, or of living 
things) ; muta' affin ; bad-bu (evil smell- 
ing) ; kasif (dirty; in m.c, often untidy). 

Fouling, jirm-i qalydn, etc. (of pipe). 

Foul-mouthed, bad-dahan ; harza-dahan ; bad- 
zabdn (lit. and fig.) ; dahan-darida (also 
impudent, answering back) : fahhdsh 
(foully abusive). 

Found, to, ihddsk. (to found ^ a city; a well); 
ta^sis-i (or bind-yi) In madrasa rd fuldnt 
guzdsht; rikhtan (to cast in a mould). 

Foundation, pay-i khdna {guzdshtan or nihd- 
dan) ; shdluda (rikhtan) ; sang-i bunydd-i 
khdna rd u guzdsht; in khabar-i bi-pd^st 
(this rumour is without foundation). 

Founded, ta^sis ydfta; mabnt bar — ; bun- 
ydd-i shahr az kay nihdda shuda ast or 
guzdshta shuda ast ? (when was the city 
founded?) = in shahr az kay dbdd shuda 
ast? (= populated). 

Founder, bdni ; mu^assis. 

Founding, ta^sis ; bind': 

Foundling, kucha''t (adj.); bachcha-yi sar-i 
rah bar ddshta, or bachcha-yi sar-i rdhi. 

Fountain, sar-chashma or chashma (spring); 
hama jd iavvdra-hd mi-jihand (fountains 
are playing all around us). 

Four, chahdr, chaMr-td or chahdr-ld (in four 
folds) ; chahdr muqdbil (four-fold) ; laid 
'abbdsi (four o'clock flower). 

Fourteen, chahdr-dah. 

Fourth, rub' , or chahdr-yak, or vulg. chdrak 
(a fourth part) ; chahdrum (ordinal). 

Fowl, murgh; juja (prop, chicken) ; murgh-i 
khdnagi (domestic fowl) ; tayr, pi. tuyur 
(bird) ; paranda (collec). 

Fowler, sayydd; shikdr-chi (gen. term for 
bird-catchers, fisherm.en, sportsmen). 

Fox, rubdh; 8haykh-i Rubdh (Reynard). 

Fraction, kasr, pi. kusur (arithmetic). 

Fracture, shikastagi; vide Population; dast- 
am shikast; or, for compound fracture, 
khurd shud. 

Fragment, rlza or khurda; parcha or tikka 
(larger than previous). 

• Not to be pronounced as in India : divide the word into two distinct syllables qal'-a (not qila"-). 

2 Arabic J^Wal qila'- not used in colloquial. 

3 Har an kC>\ Mkwab binad murah u mahl .: Na-mtrad (a hi-blnad badshahl. Refers to the dream of 
Nadir Shah. \ 

♦ Marriage witii a foster-sister is as unlawful as marriage with a sister. 

* Also " to discover." 




Fragrance, 'ajtr (for Hlr); khu8h-bu*t; ra^i- 

Fragrant, khush-bu ; 'atr-bakhsh ; mu' attar; 
bdcfA-hd-yi mamluv az rayahin (fragrant 

Frame, qab (of picture, looking-glass) ; cfidr- 
chuba (gen. of doorway) ; kdlbud or qavdm 
(human). Vide Workshop. 

Framer, qdb-sdz. 

Franc, farank (coin). 

France, Frdnsd. 

Frank, sdda-manish ; rdst-gu; Farangl (Euro- 

Frankincense, kundur ; Ivhdn. 

Frantic, Franticly, vahchiydna; divdna-vdr. 

Fraternal, bardduri. 

Fraternally, barddardna ; barddar-vdr. 

Fraternity, ukhuvvat; yagdnagi (unity). 

Fraud, htla (k.) (any mild artifice or trick) ; 
khidd' or makr (deceit) {k.) ; tazmr {k.) 
(using unlawful means to obtain one's 
object) ; ghabn (k.) ^cheating) ; khiydnat 
(treachery in money matters ; or in betray- 
ing secrets) ; talbis (k.) (disguising the 
truth, acting a part). 

Free, dzud [k.) ; ban or mubarrd (exempt) ; 
mujaz; murajdikhris ; ma\un (permitted, 
etc.) ; khudrsar (of an ordinary indivi- 
dual) and khud-mukhtdr (of a ruler) (inde- 
pendent) ; dzdd k. (from slavery) ; khalds 
k. (from imprisonment) ; rihd k. (let go) ; 
harchi dil-i tan ml-kkwahad bi-khurid, kas-i 
rmni'-i shumd nami-shavad (you are free 
to eat what you like ; said by a Doctor) ; 
'• Whoever frees a slave that is a Muslim, 
God will redeem every member of his 
body, limb for limb, from Hell" {dar 
Shari'at-i Islam dmada har kas banda-yi 
Mttslim-i dzdd kunad Khudd-yi Muta'dl 
urd bi-hamdn naw' az 'azdb-i dtash-i Du- 
zakh rastagdr mi-kunad) . Vide Freedom. 

Free-agent, insdn fd'il-i mukhtdr ast, na 

Free-born, hurr. 

Freeman, he is a freeman and not a zimmi 
(u Muslim ast, zimmi ntst) ; u hurr ast na 
'abd (he is a freeman and not a slave). 

Freedom, dzddi; dzddi-yi qalam (freedom of 
the press) ; rihd^i and khaldsi (from pri- 
son or death) : najdt (from danger) ; ilchti- 
ydr (option). 

Freemason, Fararmsun ; Fardmush-khdna 

Freethinker, dzad-khiydl ; la-mazhab (with- 
out religion) ; Sufi. 

Freewill, ikhtiydr ; Qadariyya (the sect that 
denies predestination, q.v.). 

Freeze, munjamid sdkhtan tr. ; in shir rd 
bastani kun (of ices ; or bi-band, vulg.) ; 
gumJdn ddram, yakh bi-bandad ' (I think it 
is going to freeze) ; ihtimJdl mi-ravad yakh 
basta bdshad (it has probably frozen). 

Freight, kirdya ; hama-yi bdr-i in jahdz rd 
ijdra karda-am ki bi-Kirrndn bi-baram. 

Freighted, mahmul. 

Freighter, bdr-gir (the officer ; also the small 

French, Frdnsdvi. 

Frenzy, sar-sdm (disease). Vide Madness. 

Frequency, kasrat-i vuqu' ; az ziydrat-i bar- 
bdr-ash 'djiz shudam (I'm tired of his fre- 
quent visits). 

Frequent, kasir" 'l-vuqu' ; bdr-hd (manj- 
times, often) ; bi-jihat-i dJidan-ash fursat-i 
ziydd ddram (I have frequent opportuni- 
ties Oi seeing him). 

Frequent, to, hamisha rajtan bi — ; dar ftddn 
qahva-khdna dmad u raft mi-kunad. 

Fresh, tdza; tar u tdza; sdgh (of shop- 
goods) ; in sabzi^ rd az bdy[h tdza dvarda 
and; in 'amal rd garm-d-garm tahqiq bi- 
kunim (let us enquire into the matter 
while it is hot) ; hdr na-dida, or khdm (of 
people) . 

Freshness, tar u tdzagi (or in stilted speech 
tari u tdzagi) ; khuzrat (greenness) ; tardvat 
(of air, season ; greenness). 

Fretful, niqniqu (of children) ; bad-ukht, vulg. 
(of people). 

Fretfulness, 7iiqniqi; badrukhti, vulg. 

Friction, sd^idagi; dalk; musht u mat (by 
hand) . 

Friday, jum'a (not ju-m'a) ; dddrm. 

Fried, birishta ; birydn. 

Friend, dust; ydr; habib , pi. ahtbba ; dust-t 
muvdfiq (a congenial friend) ; chi kunam. 
dust-% na-d^ram; ydr-i or dust-i sddiq (a 
true friend); ^r-* ^dr (in m.c, com- 
panion and friend in evil practices ; but 
sag ham rafiq-i shikar va ham ydr-i tjAdr-i 
ishdn ast); dshnd (acquaintance); rafiq, 
pi. rufaqd^ (prop, companion, comrade) ; 
sar va ham-sar (pi. ; friends and equals). 

Friendless, 6»-dti5< ; bi-rafiq; bi-kas (without 
any one). 

Friendliness, MuLyr-Wiipdhi. 

1 Or khwahad bast but not mirbandad. 


2 Sabz-rang " dark-complexioned. 




Friendly, dustana; rafaqaf^^' ; mushfiqana; 
u ha dusti-yi tamdm pish amad ' (he treated 
us in a very friendly way) 

Friendship, dusti ; yari; rafaqat; ittihdd; 
pay-mar di {k.) (standing by a friend). 

Fright, bim (ddshtan) ; tars (d.) ; hawl {d.) : 
khawf (d.) ; vahshat (d.) ; dahshat (d.) ; 
vahima k. 

Frighten, tars var-dashtan (to take fright) ; 
tars, etc., hhurdan (to be frightened); 
tarsdnidan ; chashm-i kas-i tarsdntdan ( = to 
frighten shghtly) ; hamchu iarsldam ki 
zahra-am raft. 

Frightful, tars-ndk; hawl-nak; dahshat-ndk ; 
hayhat-ndk ; man shakl-i (or haykal-i) hawl- 
nak i dldam. Vide Challenge. 

Frigid, bi-hdlat ; khushk ; sard ; afsurda ; 
yakh (of persons). 

Frigidity, hurudat (of things or of tempera- 
ment) ; afsurdagt (of persons). 

Fringe, risha (of turban or coat) ; ddmana (an 
added border) ; sanjdf (hemming, border- 
ing) ; magas-pardn (for eyes of horses, 
donkeys) ; chatar (of hair over the fore- 
head of girls). 

Frisk about, to, shalakhta (and vulg. shiling- 
takhta) z. (of goats, boys, etc.) ; jast u 
khiz z. (of goats or monkeys). 

Frisky, shalakhta-zan. 

Frivolous, zan-i nd-ma' qui ; sahuk; bi-ma'nl. 

Frizzle. Vide Frying. 

Frock-coat, kullcha (without pleats and with 
short sleeves) ; kamar-chin (with pleats) ; 
sardart (Napoleonic frock-coat). Vide 

Frog, qurbdqa T. ; ghiik; vazaq; kurvagh. 
Vide Lively. 

From, az ; az pish-i — . 

Front, pishi or jalam (adj.) ; pish or jalaw 
(adv. and prep.) ; [danddn-i pish-i dahan, 
vulg. for danddn-i jilaw ' front tooth '] ; 
jilo bi-yuft man az 'aqab mi-ay am (or m»- 
rasam) (go on ahead, I'll follow). 

Frontier, sar-hadd^ pi. sar-haddJdt; du sd'at u 
nim ^ kashid td rasidim bi-sar-hadd-i Hind. 

Frost, zhdla (hoar frost). 

Frost, to, shakar-push k. (of cakes). 

Frost-bitten, sarma-zada; sarrm-khurda. 

Froth, kaf. 

Frou-frou, khish-khish (noise of silk, or of 
any new dress). 

Frown, chin (or kham) bi-ahru dvardan. 

Frown, to, abru-yat rd chird kaj kar da-i? 
(why are you frowning ?) ; akh-ru k. (to 
look disgusted) ; turush-ru sh. (to be sour- 
faced) . 

Frozen, yahh-basta; munjamid (of liquids). 

Frugal, khuna-ddr (thrifty) ; pas-anddz (sav- 
ing)_; umurdt-i khdnagi rd chiguna sar- 
anjam mi-dihad, bd qdHda yd bi-vil 
kharji * ? dm kharj kardan daqiq ast (he is 
too economical). 

Fruit, miva; bar; samar, pi. asmdr ; dnjd 
mivajdt-i mumtdz bi-'amal mi-dyad (fine 
fruits are produced there) ; murakkabdt 
(lemons, oranges and citrons; yellow 
fruits) ; naw-bar (first fruits given to big 
people ; or first fruits brought for sale to 
a town) ; khusk-bar (dried fruits) . 

Fruitful, bdr-ddr or pur-bar; miva-ddr (giv- 
ing fruit , of trees) ; hdsil-dih (of ground) . 

Fruition, tamattu' ; tana"um; talazzuz. 

Fruitless, bi-samar ; bi-miva ; bi-bdr ; ghayr-i 
mufid; bi-natija; Id-hdsil. 

Frumenty, shir-gandum (a dish made of 
wheat boiled in milk ^ ; raisins are some- 
times added). 

Frustrate, to, mahrum k. (disappoint, etc.; 
people) ; bdtil k. , or hadar k. (of plans) . 

Frustrating, butldn; [ibtdl not used in m.c.]. 

Frustration, hirnmn (disappointment, q.v.) ; 
6a' d az hadar raftan-t taddbir-am (after the 
frustration of my plans). 

Fry, to, birydn k. ; qirmiz k. ; surkh k. (with 
butter in a pan). 

Frying, jiz jiz {k.) (frizzling; noise of fry- 

Frying-pan, tjdva ; mdhi-tava; az chula^ bi- 
chdla uftddan (out of the hole into the 
well; out of the frying-pan into the fire). 

Fuel, sukht; sukhtani. 

Fugitive, firdri ; muhdjir (emigrant) ; pandhi 
(one who seeks shelter) ; guriz-pa (truant, 
of boys; runaway, of slaves) ; firdr-kun 
nistam (I'm not a man to run away, likely 
to abscond). Vide Deserter. 

1 If the pronoun ma ' us ' be inserted, bi- is substituted for 65 before duati, as u ha ma bi-duati-yi 
tamam pish amad. 

2 Sar-hadd in m.c. aiao^qashlaq. 

'^ Afghans (but not Persians) say du va nim, sa'^at. 

* In India kifayat " economy." In m.c. the European word ikanami is used. 

6 Fiml is rice cooked in milk. 

6 Chula a small hole in the ground and chala a big pit. 




Fulcrum, takya-gah. 

Fulfilment, tahml {k.) (of promise, rare; 
also finishing in study) ; anjam (d.) ; 
ikhtitdm {k.) ; hi-iimJam (or ikhtitam) rasd- 
nidan; ifd-yi or vafd-yi va'da (k.) (of pro- 
mise) . 

Full, mamluv az — ; pip khdWst yd pur ? 
pur az db, or pur-i ah ; lab-riz (full to the 
brim) ; sir (satiated) ; ambdshta or mash- 
hun (of dry things) ; chapdnda (vulg., cram- 
med full) ; dganda (stuffed full but not 
crammed) ; nlm-pur (half-full) ; pul rd 
tamdm u kamdl parddkht (he paid up in 

Fuller, gdzur or gdzur-gar (a washerman) ; 
gil-i sar-shu'% (a kind of fuller's earth). 

Fulness, purl ; slrl (satiety) ; dgandagi 
(being packed full) ; chapdndan (being 

Fumigate, dud dddan; hakhur d. 

Fun, mahz bardy-i bdzl (for fun) ; khayll naql 
ddsht (it was very funny, q.v.). Vide 

Functionary, ma^mur. 

Fundament, surtn ; nishlman-gdh (polite) ; 

. md-iaht (facetious) ; kun (vulg.) ; maq^ad 
(vulg. , the anus) ; mawzi'-i mu' tad (polite ; 

Fundamental, asll ; az usul; usul-i din panj 
ast; chlz-l 'umda (m.c. only;; chlz-hd-yi 
'umda dar dln-i Muhammad: namdz, va 
ruza, va khums u zakdt, va hajj, va jihdd 
ast (m.c). 

Funeral, tadfln (k.) (burying, q.v.); tashyl'-i 
jandza k. (to assist at, or to follow, a 

Fungus, chatr-i mdr ; qu{?)^ ; qdrch (mush- 
room) . 

Funny, khanda-dvar ; muzhik (causing laugh- 
ter) ; mazorddsht. Vide Fun. 

Fur, pust; khazz (name of a special fur). 
Vide Ermine, Squirrel. 

Furious, mutahawir ; misl-i shir-i zhiydn (or 
pil-i damdn) ; vide Angry, etc. ; bi-haya- 
jdn dmadan (to be — ). 

Furnace, kura (of smithy ; of kiln) ; tun or 
gulkhan (of a bath). 

Furnish, to, asas"" H-bayt-i khdna rd durust 
kardan ; In chlz-hd rd bi-chi zudi ml-tavdnld 
hdzir kunld (or muhayyd kumd) ? (how 
soon can you supply these ?). 

Furnished, ardsta; bd-asbdb ; mafrush (car- 

Furniture, mabl (Fr. ; house-furniture) ; o^oj" 
H-bayt (ditto) ; u hama jur asbdb ml-sdzad; 
zln u barg (horse furniture). 

Furrier, pustln-duz (one who makes puatlns 
or sheep-skin coats) ; kulah-duz (one who 
makes fur hats and lines coats) ; [a man 
who makes felt hats is called kuldh-mxU] ; 
khazz- farush. 

Further, dn sar-ash (its further end or boun- 
dary) ; dur-tar ; bdld-tar : fUgar pdylrirtar 
(further down) ; digar ; bdz (moreover). 
Vide Farther and Besides, etc. 

Fury, shiddat-i ghayz. 

Fuss, shuluq (k.) ; 'ar u tlz (k.) (vulg. ; Ut. 
braying and breaking wind ; of noise and 
fuss) ; shdt u shut {k.) (sp. of women). 

Fussy, shuluql (vulg.) ; shdt u shut ddrad. 

Futile, bdtil ; hlhuda; 'abas. 

Future, dyanda; mustaqbal, or muslaqbil 
(part.) ; istiqbdl (subs.) ; dkhirat (future 
state, next world); dar mustaqbil, or dar 
dyanda, or ba'd az In (adv. ; in future). 

Futurity, az pish naml-tavdnlm khahar bi- 
dihlm = 'ilm-i ghayb na-ddrlm. 

Fy , uff bar tu (to servants or children) . 

Gabriel, Jibrd*ll; Jibrll. 

Gad-fly, khar-magas (horse-fly). 

Gaffer, 'ammu (lit. pat. uncle); khdlu^ 
Safar dust-i man ast (Gaffer Safar is a 
friend of mine). 

Gaiety, khush-maza^l (of temperament) ; 
imruzrhd Landan kayf ddrad (there are 
gaieties now in London). 

Gain, fdHda;sarfa; naf ; az Inkasb {or 
kdsibl) tavaqqu'-i manfa'at-i ziydd darid? 
pahlH-yash khayli charb ast (there is much 
gain to be had by living with him). 

Gain, to, tund raftan (of watch). 

Gaining, tahsll (k.) ; iktisdb (to.) (acquiring). 

Gait, raftdr. ' Vide Walk and Waggle. 

Gaiters, pd-tdba or much-pich (properly ' put- 
ties '). 

Galangal, sa*di kufl. 

Galaxy, Kahkashan {Milky Way) ; majma'-i^ 
mdh-ruydn (galaxy of beauty). _ 

Gale, tufdn (with rain) ; bdd-i tufdn. 

' Qu is " touchwood " and also Turkish a ''swan.' 

■i Lit. "maternal uncle." 

s Ma^din ' ' mine * * is sometimes used in this sense. 




Galen, Jdllnus. 

Gall, zdhra (gall-bladder) and zard-ab (the 
contents) . 

Gall, to, khirdsh k. ; zakhm k. 

Gall-apple, mazu. 

Galled, khardshida ; zakhm sJiuda. 

Gallery, rivdq ' (gallery looking into a court- 
yard ; also portico and projection of eye- 
brow) ; ghuldm-gardish (round a court- 
yard on the ground-floor or on an upper 
storey) ; gushvdra (gallery inside a hall). 

Gallingale. Vide Galangal. 

Gallop, chahdr-na'l rajtan ; bi-tdkht raftan ; 
tdkhtan or tdlcht dddan (tr.) ; jilo-riz raftan 
(at a gallop) ; sar-i shinaw raftan (fully 
extended) ; davdnldan (to cause to gallop ; 
also to race, q.v.). 

Gallows, dnr ; qdpuq T. (the frame of a door- 
way and also the place of execution) . 

Gamble, qimdr-bdzi k. ; burd u bdkht k. 

Gambler, qimdr-bdz ; liarif-i bad-l rd du-chdr 
dmada budani ki Laildj '^ shdgird-ash narm- 
shud (I met an opponent in gambling that 
could have beaten Lailaj himself) . 

Gambling, qirmr^ (bdkhtan and vulg, zadan). 

Game, shikdr or sayd (quarry) ; khurus-i 
jangi (game-cock); bdzi (a play); "we 
played three games and he won two; I 
then became tired ' ' (md si martaha bdzi 
kardim, u du daf'a az man burd, kasdlat- 
am faydd shud) ; in bdzi-hd injd dar ma- 
ydr, man ki gul nami-khuram (now none 
of these games here). 

Game, [qayqdj zadan, shooting when at a 
gallop ; but qayqdj nishastan, to sit mak- 
ing a half turn in the saddle towards the 
rear or to sit in a chair half-turned]. 

Game-keeper, shikdr* (head shikdri to the 
Shah, a good post) ; shikdrchi (any shi- 
hdri) ; shikdr-bdn ; nakhchir-bdn. 

Gaming. Vide Gambling. 

Gang, jamJd'at; guruh. 

Gangrene, khura; dkila (rare). 

GB.o\y zindan ; dustdq-khdna (m.c.) ; mahbas ; 
ambdr (m.c). 

Gaoler, zinddn-bdn. 

Gape, to, kkamydza kashldan (yawn) ; dahan 
gushddan (of young birds). 

Garbled, ( — story) baydn-i sdkhta; tahrif 

Garden, bdgh ^ ; bustdn, or bdgh-i gulddr, or 
gulzdr (flower) ; Bdghri 'Adn or Bdgjk-i 
Bihisht (Paradise) ; dar-i bd gh rd chird vd 
guzdrdid? al-hdl dar-i bdgh-i sabz-i bi-man 
nishdn mi-dihad ( = will you walk into my 
parlour? said the spider) ; bdgh-i nabdtdt 
(Bot. Gardens). 

Garden, to, bdgh-bdnl k. ; isldh k. (lay out a 
garden; also to prune). 

Gardener, bdgji-bdn; bazr-gar (cultivator). 

Gardening, sayfi-kdri (k.) (summer garden- 
ing ; also met. ' to do things out of sea- 
son ' ) ; bdg}i,-bdni k. 

Gargle, bd db-i zdj-i safid gh arghara bi-kun 
(use a gargle of alum) ; mazmaza (k.) 
(rinsing out the mouth). 

Gargling, gli arghara (noise of — ). 

Garland, tdj-i gul (for the head) ; band-i gul 
(a necklace of flowers). 

Garlic, sir. 

Garment, jdma; libds. 

Garrison, sdkhlu or sdkhlaw (^i^U) T. ; ahl-i 
qal'a {all the people in the fort) ; mustah- 
fizm-i qaVa. 

Garrulous, ruda-dardz (m.c, gen. of old 
people) ; virr-gu . 

Garrulity, ruda-dardzi. 

Garter, zdnu-band: jurdb-band; nishdn-i 
zdnu-band (Order of the Garter: Shah's 

Gas, gdz ; chirdgh-i dudi (gas-lamp) ; shahr bd 
chirdgh-i gdz rushan ast (the city is lighted 
by gas). 

Gasp. Vide Extremity. 

Gastritis, varam-i mi' da. 

Gate, darvdza; qdpu T. 

Gate-keeper, qdpuchi ; muhdfiz-i darvdza. 

Gateway. Vide Door- way. 

Gather, to, chtdan, rt. chin (pluck); jam' k. 
(collect) ; chirk jam' shudan (of wound) ; 
riza-hd-yi^ ndn rd bar chin (brush up the 
crumbs, with the hand). 

1 .4gra«i, m.c. for portico ; also, gallery. 

2 "Lailaj wouldn't have been even a pupil to him." Lailaj is supposed to have invented the 
game of nard. 

s Gaming (may air) is forbitMen in the Qur*an. May sir was played by ten men, with ten unfea- 
thered arrows, of which seven had shares and three had none. The stake was a camel which was 
divided into ten portions, the three drawing the portionless arrows paying for the camel. 

•* In India an assistant falconer or a common bird-catcher, etc., is called mir-ahikar. 

6 The idea of ha^ is a place where trees are. 

<> jKfttirda-/ta " broken bits." 




Gathering, miva-chini (of fruit); jam'iyyat 
(concourse ; vide Crowd) ; ijtimd' (collect- 

Gauntlet, qalchaq T (of iron) ; dast-kash 
(any glove or gauntlet) ; bahla (fal- 

Gauze, khdssa (a fine cloth) ; tan-zib ; tur 
(netting or lace) ; mushabbak (of wire). 

Gay, khandan ; khush-hal ; khush u khurram. 

Gaze at, chashm dukhtan (.stare at) ; chashm- 
charanl k. (to gaze leisurely at a panorama, 
to gaze at natural scenery). 

Gazelle, dhu P. (the Persian gazelle), ghizdl 
(for Ar. gtaml). 

Gazette, gdzai (Eur. , newspaper) ; akkbdr-i 
rasmi (official gazette). 

Gelding, akhtu (of horses) ; khasi (of goats , 
birds; also facetiously applied to men). 

Gem, jawhar (or gawhar*). pi. javdhirdt; 
sang-i qimaii (precious stone). 

Gemini, Jawm^ Ar. ; Sitdra-yi du paykar 

Gender, jhis. 

Genealogy, hasab u nasab ; shajara (tree ; 
sp. of Say y ids and kings) ; nasah-rMma 
(tree; gen.); kursi-ndma (succession tree 
of saints and great dervishes). 

General, amir-panj (supposed to command 
5000); 'umumi (adj.); shuyu'-V^ ddrad — 
mutaddvil ast (to be in general use) ; 
'umum"" va kkusus"^ (in general and in 

Generally, btshtar awqdt; aksar-i awqdt, or 
agklab-i ^ awqdt ; majmu^ "" baydn mi- 
kunam (I will explain generally). 

Generated, paydd shuda (gen.) ; mutavallid 
(being born; not of insects). Vide Breed. 

Generation, tawlid {dddan or sh., gen. of 
insects, etc.) (begetting); silsila (race); 
'pusht (a single generation) ; pushtbi-pusht, 
or nasi"" ba'd'' nasU"*, or ah"" 'an jadd^ 
(from generation to generation) ; tavallud 
(spontaneous generation as opposed to 
tavdlud propagating) ; dlat-i tandsul (male 
organ o — ). 

Generosity, karam = jud (liberality, q.v.); 
fazl; tafazzul (open- handedness ; stronger 
than fazl) ; ddd u dihish ; sakhdvat-i u 
hadd n/i-ddrad = u bi-hadd dost u dil bdz 
ast ; u daryd-yi fayz (or karam) ast ; tafaz- 

zul-i ziydd bi-kharj mt-dihad (he over-tips 
or makes a show of his generosity) ; jdma- 
yi sakhdvat rd Khudd bar qdmat-i dn zan 
burldabud — Prof. S. T. ( = sakhdvat mun- 
hasir biu bud; the latter a common 

Generous, sdhib-karam ; sakhl ; jayydz ; 
gushdda-dast ; dil u dasl-ash bdz ast. Vide 

Genius, nddira-kdr (a genius, a great inven- 
tor) ; qariha (natural talent) ; malaka (an 
acquired facility). — ' ' The abode of the 
Jinn (genii) is Mt. Caucasus. They eat, 
drink and propagate their species. They 
appear to mankind in the shapes of ser- 
pents, dogs, cats or human beings " {ad-i 
vnanzil-i Ajinna Kuh-i Qdj ast; akl va 
shurb va tawlid mi-kunand va bishakl-i 
mdr, sag, gurba, yd insdn, bi-dld-i mardum 
mi-dyand. Vide Star and Jinn). 

Gentian, juntiydna (Eur.); kharbaq. 

Gentle, faqlr or mazlum (of animals or 
men) ; rdm (tame, not frightened) ; hanm 
(mild ; of men) ; najib (of animals ; of 
men = noble). 

Gentleman, mardri najib ; dn dghd rd midd- 
qdt kar da-id ; bd u dshnd'i ddrid? (do you 
know that gentleman ?) ; in Hazardt mi- 
khwdhand bi-ravand (these gentlemen wish 
to go) ; dcjhdydn (a better word than the 
preceding; would be applied to Khans, 
Mullas, etc.); mardumdn-i najib in jur 
harakat nami-kunand (gentlemen don't do 
such things). 

Gently, drdm ; yavdsh T. ; dhista ; narmak 
narmak nazd/ik-i utdq-am dmad. 

Genuine, asl^ ; khdlis (pure, without mix- 
ture. Vide Adulterated). 

Genuineness, asdlat (also nobility of birth) ; 
asliyyat ; khdlis bit dan. 

Geography, dar 'ilm-i jwjhrdfiya kitdb-i ta^- 
lif karda ast; jughrdfiya-yi tabi'i (physi- 
cal — ) ; jughrdfiya-yi siydsi (political — ). 

Geologist, ma' din-shinds ; juldjiyd-ddn (Eur.). 

Geomancer, rammdlJ 

Geomancy, 'ilm-i rami." 

Geometrical, handasi. 

Geometrician, muhandis (in m.c, gen. = 
' Engineer ') , handasord^n. 

I The Ar. pi. favahir is gen. used as a sing, in m.c. 
'■' Also ahuyu'l adj. 

8 The autonym is badal. 

4 (JLJ Oaj 1L~J. 

7 Bcmil Ax. '«sand." 

S jLk. ^ It 




Geometry, 'ilm-i handasa; uqlidas rd khub 

Georgia, Gurjistdn. 

Georgian, Gurjji. 

Geranium, sham'-ddnl. 

German, Almdnl (man); mdl-i Almdn (adj.). 

Germany, Almdn; Namsd. 

Gesture, Jiarakat, pi. harakat. 

Get, paydd kardan; glr dvardun ; hi-ham 
rasdmdan; anditkhtan (to horde, collect) ; 
shumd kitdb-hd-yi ' ziydd ddrid (you have 
got a lot of books) ; db-i shdn bi-yak jub 
namt-ravad (they will never get on, pull 
together) ; buland sliaw, pa shaw (stand, 
get up. Vide Rise) ; hammdm-ash 'araq 
pas narm-dihad (you won't, or can't, get 
anything out of him). 

Ghost, div; jinn (a being of fire. Vide 
Jinn and Genius) ; shaytdn (devil) ; pari 
(fairy); ''ifrit; ham-zdd (ghostly double, 
q.v.) ; Riih"^ 'l-Qudus (Holy Ghost) ; sdya; 
arvdh (used as a sing.) ; siydha{?) (bogey?) ; 
ululak (a bogey, to frighten children). 

Ghoul, ghul (masc. and fem.^) ; narra-ghul 
(used of a man in rather a bad sense = 
lazy and lusty brute; often applied to 
wrestlers). _ 

Giant, u misl-i 'Uj ast (he is as Og, King of 
Bashan ; said of a big man) ; div (some- 
times applied to a man of great stature). 

Gibbet, dar. Vide Gallows. 

Giddiness, davdr or duvdr ; gichi. 

Giddy, pish-i chashm-am siydh shud; sar-am 
daiur mi-zanad ; az bos dawr i khud gash- 
tam sar-am gich shud (I'm giddy from 
spinning round) ; bl-magkz (flighty). 

Gift, hadya (for hadiyya), pi. haddyd (gen.); 
ta'druf (gen.) ; pishkash (prop, to a supe- 
rior) ; armaghdn or sawghEt (a rarity or 
nice thing brought back from a journey) ; 
iuhfa (any such rarity or speciality) ; nazr 
(from a tenant ; also vow) ; muzhdagdni 
(for good news ; vide news) ; isdr (a self- 
sacrificing gift) ; bi-gadd panj rupiya Isdr 
kard (he gave the beggar five rupees, 
which he could ill spare) ; Awliyd^'^^lldh 
hamlsha isdr-i bi-nafs mi-kunand (the 
saints are unselfish in their acts) ; malaka 
(a talent) ; mawhabat (gift of God) . 

Giggle, to, kirkir, or hirhir, kardan. 

Gild, to, tazhlb k. ; mt-ddnid chi-iawr kitdb-ha 
rd db-tild-kdri ^ (or tild-kdri) mi-kunand ? 

Gilded, muzahhab {k.); mutalld* (k.). Vide 

Gilding, tild-kdri; mutalld-kdrt. 

Gilt, u bi-man qdb-i 'aks-i ni,utalld-H nishdn 
dad (he showed me a gilt picture frame). 
Vide Gilded. 

Gimlet, barma (lit. a brace ; vide Bit) ; misqoh 
(any boring instrument) ; matta (a kind of 
gimlet) . 

Gin, tala, vulg. talla (a trap) ; ddm or band 
(any snare, q.v.). 

Ginger, zanjabU, vulg. zanjafil; murabbd-yi 
zanjabil (preserved ginger) . 

Giraffe, zurdf or zurdfa. 

Gird, bar miydn bastan; miydn, or kamar, 
bastan (to gird the loins). 

Girded, daman dar miydn, or ddman bald 
chida (with loins girded up) ; kamar basta. 

Girder, tir. 

Girdle, sTvdl-i kamar (a waist-shawl) ; kamar- 
band or kamar; zunndr (sacred; of Par- 
sis) ; bikh-i kamar-ash rd (or hlkh.-i qadd- 
ash rd) girijtam va vd-sh ddshtam (I seized 
him by the girdle and stopped him). 

Girl, dukhtar; sabiyya; u panj bachcha (or 
awldd) ^ ddrad, si td pisar va du dukhtar ; 
khddima (a maid-servant) ; kaniz (a negress 
slave of any age). 

Girth, tang (of saddle) ; girdi (circumfer- 
ence) ; dawra-yi sina-ash chi qadr ast ? 

Give, dddan, rt. dih; bakhshidan, or arzdni 
dJdshtan; 'atE k. ; vdpas, or pas, dddan 
(give back) ; taslim k. or rasdnidan (to 
deliver) ; zih zad^ ( = he gave in, gave up) ; 
qalam dudan (to give out) ; sipar anddkh- 
tan or sar-i taslim kham k. (to give in, 
yield). Vide Gift. 

Giver, dihanda; 'atd-kunanda (bestower) ; 
rasdnanda Khudd ast. 

Gizzard, sang-ddna, vulg. for sang-ddn. 

Glacier, bahman. 

Glacis, khd-k-riz. 

Glad, masrur ; shdd-mdn; farah-ndk; khush; 
dil-am dsuda shud ( = I'm glad); dar in 
amr khush-hdl hastid yd ranjida-khdtir ? 

Or kitab-i ziyad. 

In Persia ghvl is male or female, but in Arabia the former is distinguished by the term qutruh. 

In India OTMZammo'. 

Note the ra. 

AwlMd, plural of walad " child." 

Zih ' ' bowstring. ' ' 




(are you glad or not at what has hap- 
pened ?) 
Gladness, khushrhall ; shddrmni ; jarah; 

masarrat; khursandi. 
Glance, to , yak nazar k. ; vide Glimpse ; tir 
bi-sang Jchurda kaj raft (the arrow glanced 
off the stone). 

Gland, ghudda At., pi. gAudad; gkobdud P. 
Glemders, sardja or sarrdja; ufa (glanders ?). 

Glass, shislui ; dyina (mirror) ; jam (pane of 
glass ; also any cup) ; bdr-fitan (coloured 
glass-ware, opaque) ; bulur (cut glass, 
table glass ; properly crystal) ; mutavajjih 
bash, hi shisha mi-shikanad^ (take care; 
the glass will break) ; ydru (a facetious 
name for a wine-glass) ; langart (a kind of 
drinking glass) ; istikdn (little deep tea 
glass); shisha-yi sd'at (sand- or hour- 
glass) ; dyina-yi dtashl (burning glass) ; 
Idla (a round and cup-shaped glass candle- 
shade or globe) ; mirdangl (a glass cover 
or chimney placed over a light to protect 
it from draughts). Vide Mirror. 

Glass-blower, shlsha-gar. 

Glass-ware, bulur-dtdt. 

Glaucoma, db-i siydh. 

Glazed. Vide Porous. 

Glcize, to, muhra kashidan (to glaze paper, 
etc., with a shell) ; shisha zadan (put in 
window panes). 

Glazier, shlsha-bur ; [in some places glazier's 
work is done by painters ' naqqdsh ']. 

Glean, fchuslw, bar chidan (to glean) ; [but 
khusha chidan ' to reap and gather the 

Gleaner, khusha bar-chin (lit.) ; khusha-chin 
(lit. and met.). 

Glib-tongued, khayli ravdn harf mi-zanad; 
zabdn-ash khub mi-gardad (he talks glibly). 

Glibness, ravdni ; darugh-i ravdn-i (a glib 

Glimpse, ayar khdnum rd yak nazar bi-binam 
amr-i buzurg-V st. — Prof. S. T. Vide See. 

Glimmer, to, kurkurak sukhtan (candle 

Glimmering, sitdra-yi za'if-i (a glimmering 

Glissoire. Vide Slide. 

Glitter, darakhshidan. 

Glittering, barq barq; zarq u barq'^ (subs.); 
shu'lorzan; darakhshdn (part.); barrdq 
(shining) . 

Globe, kura; kura-yi zamin (Earth); fdnus 
(of lamp) ; Idla (of candle. Vide Glaae). 

Globose, Globular, kuravi ; mudavvar; gird 
(round) ; mustadir (rare). 

Gloomy, lira or girifta (of sky, atmosphere) ; 
flkr-lM-yi lira u tar (gloomy thoughts). 

Glorifying God, tamjid (k.) (also of men) ; 
iasbih k. ; tasbih u tahlil k. 

Glorious, jalil; zu 'l-jaldl (of God); majld 
(of God). 

Glory, majd u jaldl (of God) ; hdla (round 
the moon, and hence halo of a saint). 

Glorying, i^tikhdr ; mubdhdt (vaunting, q.v.) ; 
Idf (boast, q.v.). 

Glossary, farhang. Vide Dictionary. 

Gloss, hashiya, pi. havdshi {navishtan) 
(marginal notes) ; tafsir, pi. tafdiir (com- 
mentary) ; rakhshandagi (of hair, etc.). 

Gloss over, to, taqsir-i mard raf u ruju' kar- 
dand ; parda bar ru-yi kdr-am kashidand (to 
gloss over a fault) ; musdmahat {k.) ; bad- 
^■huS-yi zan rd mdsUmdU karda va payva^s- 
tagi-yi abru-yash rd jalva ddda (glossing 
over the lady's bad temper and making 
much of her two eyebrows joined in one 


Glove, bahla (falconer's glove) ; [kaff or chaff 
in Basra and Baghdad] ; mangala Ar. (a 
padded canvas cuff that takes the place of 
the hawking-glove) ; dasf^kash [in India 
an assistant falconer is called dast-kash, 
i.e., one who carries and handles a hawk] ; 
klsa (for bath). 

Glowing, bar afrukhtagi, subs, (of face); 
qirmizi or surkhi (of face or of metals) ; 
bar afrukhta; mushta'il (adj.) 

Glue, sarisham-i mdhi or sarisham or sir- 
sham ; dhdr (paste) ; bi-najjdr bi-gu in du 
takhta rd bd sarish bi-ham bi-chaspdnad. 

Gluey, chaspndk. 

Glutton, 'abd"'l-batn (sometimes applied to 
a fool) ; pur-khur (greedy feeder) ; shikam- 
parast; chi qadr hirs mi-zani, kam bi-khur 
(what a glutton you are, eat less) ; shi- 
kamu, vulg. 

Gluttony, pur-khuri; shikam-parasti (devoted 
to good living; also gluttony); ju'^'^l- 

Gnarled, pur-girih. 

Gnash, danddn fishurdan (to clench or grind 
the teeth, gen.) ; danddn sd^idan (grind 
the teeth in sleep only) ; danddn khirch 

1 Mutavajjih bash in ahisha na-ahikanad " take cture lest this glass break." 
* Vulg. arq u barq. 




khirch L, tr. and intr. (in sleep. Vide 

Gnat, pasha. 

Gnaw, javidan (a bone ; also to chew) ; 
kha^tdan (to gnaw as a mouse ; also bite 
the nails). 

Go, raftan, rt. raw ; rah raftan (to walk, q.v.) 
tashrlf hurdan (resp.) ; kar k. (of watch) 
dawr n. (go round) : dar raftan (go off ; of 
gun or people) ; taraddud dashtaii ' (to go 
to and fro ; also to vacillate) ; dih hiraw ! 
(go away! ; also go on, go on). 

Goad, daganak (2.) (ox-goad) ; gdv-ran (z.) ; 
gdv-sanj {z.) ; suk zadan (met.). 

Goal, manzil-i maqsud; maqsad; sar-i gaz 
(in polo; in India darwdza). 

Goat, buz ; buzri tagga (for stud purposes) ; 
buz-i qandi (a he-goat let about by lutis ; 
gen. has its beard dyed red) ; chupan (any 
herdsman or tender) ; galla-ban, the owner 
of flocks). 

Gobble, to. Vide Hurriedly. 

Go-between, dalldl (any go-between; bro- 
ker) ; dalldla and mashshdta (sp. for 
marriages ; classically the latter is a tire- 
woman that goes from house to house). 

Goblet, tung (of earthenware or glass) ; surdhi 
(gen. of earthenware) ; kup (very large de- 
canter-shaped bottle; also vulg. "cheek" 
because it bulges out) ; kuza (earthen, 
with long neck) . 

God, Khudd ; Allah; Haqq ta'dlq (God Most 
High) ; Khudd na-kunad or Khudd na- 
khwdsta or Khudd na-karda (God forbid) 
bi-fazl-i Ildhi (by the goodness of God) 
Astaghfir''Hldh, na-kardam (God forbid 
I did not do it) ; bi-khwdst-i Khudd 
agar — (God willing if I — ) ; Khudd shdhid 
ast ki — (God is my witness that — ) ; bi-'lldh 
va-^lldh, or bi-'lldh, or bi-Khudd (By 
God!); az bardy-i Khudd or qurbaf^" ilq 
'lldh (for God's sake) ; na'uz^ bi-^lldh (we 
take refuge with God) ; Khudd ddnd 'st, or 
va-Hldh" a' lam ( = God knows best); Al- 
hamd" li-HWi (God be praised) ; in-shd^- 
Alldh (Please God, or I hope so) ; ma- 
sha^-Alldh (as God willed ; an expression 
of admiration, etc., etc.); bdrak- Allah 
(God bless you ; an exclamation of praise 
or admiration) ; Subhdn Alldh (Gracious 
God !) ; khdk-am bi-dahan ( = ' God forgive 

me but I am obliged to mention these 
tyrannies ' ; only when referring to ty- 
ranny of rulers ; lit. may my mouth be 
filled with earth, i.e., may 1 die) ; 
Khuddyd! (Oh God!); Khudd hdfiz-i 
shumd (God preserve you ; good-bye) ; 
Khudd na-ku7iad ki u bi-mirad (God forbid 
that he should die) ; agar, Khudd na-karda 
(or na-khwasta), u bi-mlrad — (should he 
die, which God forbid — ) ; Khudd pidar-i 
asp rd bi-ydmurzad ki mard az dahan-i 
shir khalds kard. 

Godliness, Khudd-parastt ; Khudd-shinasi ; 
taqvq. (pietj^). 

Godsend, Khudd firistdda; Khudd-ddd-i bud 
ki jdn bi-dar burdam (it was a godsend 
that I escaped); bdd-dvard (windfall). 

Gog and Magog, Ydjuj u Mdjuj (two bar- 
barous tribes descended from Japheth). 

Gold,'^ tild ; zar-i khdlis (pure gold) [zar alone 
not used in m.c] ; tild-kub (inlaid with 
gold) ; varaq-i tild (gold-leaf) ; In zanjlr az 
tild ast yd mis ? 

Golden, zarin or zarrin ; tiVd, or az tild ; tild^i 
(generally ' gold-coloured '). 

Goldfinch, sihra (in Kirman ' a gold-finch '). 

Goldfish, mdhi-yi surkh. Vide Carp. 

Goldsmith, zar-gar. 

Goloshes, zangdr. 

Gomorrah, Ghumurah. Vide Sodom. 

Gong, ndqus (also a big bell). 

Gonorrhoea, suzdk ; suzanak. 

Good, khub (gen.) ; nik and niku-kdr (of 
people or horses) ; khush-khulq (good- 
natured) ; bah/ (interj.); ntk u bad or 
khayr u sharr (good and evil). 

Good-breeding, akhldq ; akhldq-i hasana. 

Good-bye, Khudd-hdfiz (by guest) ; Khudd- 
hdfiz or fi amdn^'lldh (by host); KhudM- 
hdfizi guftan (to say good-bye) ; bi-jihat-i 
hamishagi Khudd-hdfizi mi-guy am (I'm 
going to say good-bye for ever). 

Good-morning, sabbaha-k Alldh biH-khayr. 

Goodness, Good deeds, niki; nikuH ; khay- 
rdt (good works generally but sp. alms) ; 
hooandt (good deeds) ; please have the 
goodness to — ,az ru-yi lutf — . 

Good news, muzhda; Tdbush-khaharl ; bisha- 

Good-night, shab-Tchush (old) ; massa-k Allah 
bi H-khayr. 

1 Taraddui also anxiety ; coming and going of etnxious thoughts. 

2 Vessels of gold and silver are forbidden by Muslim law. In Persia silver tea-spoons often have 
small holes in the bowl ; as they do not then hold liquids, they are by a quibble supposed not to be 
' vessels. ' 




Goods, tankhwdh (merchandise ; but in India 
"pay"); mdl, pi. amvdl ; jins, pi. ajnds ; 
mdl u matd* ; kuhna-asqdt (goods that are 
worn out). 

Goodwill, ism (when selling a shop and its 

Goose, qdz. 

Gore, to, shdkh zadan (of an animal). Vide 

Gorgeous, muzayyan; munaqqash (painted, 
of various hues) ; arq u harq (vulg. for 
zarq u harq) ddrad. 

Goshawk, huz ; tarldn ; qizil (local race) ; 
qush (properly any of the raptores) ; tiqun 
(white goshawk and also any albino bird) ; 
(the foregoing words are specially appli- 
cable to the female) : jurra (male of any 
hawk or falcon, but specially of goshawk, 
the females being distinguished by the 
term tuvdr). Vide Hawk. 

Gospel, Injil (New Testament) ; Andjil-i 
arba'a (the Four Gospels). 

Gossamer, idr-i 'ankabut (of spider) ; abri- 
sham-i ndzuk-i misl-i tdr-i onkdbut. 

Gossip, hhabar-chin (male or female). 

Gossip, to, gap zadan. 

Gourd, "When Jonah was sick, after the 
fish had cast him up, God caused a gourd 
plant to grow over him," ha'd az dn-ki 
mdhl Yunas rd bi-khu-^hki anddkht va u 
marizbud, Khudd hukm farmud td darakht-i 
kadu^l sahz shuda sdya bar u anddkht. 

Gout, niqris. 

Gouty, niqrisi ; giriftdr-i niqris. 

Govern, to, hukumat kardan ; iydlat n. ; 
siydsat n. 

Governed, taht-i hukm-i — ; mahkum (of per- 
sons ; to be under the orders of) ; muzdf'"' 
ilayh (of noun, in grammar). 

Government, /^M^umaf (k.) ; iydlat {k.) ; huku- 
mat , or awliyd-yi mulk, or arbdb-i siyd- 
sat (the Government) ; hukumat-i mutlaqa 
(absolute — ) ; husn-i iniizam (good — ) ; 
bt-intizdmt and su*-* tadblr (bad govern- 

Governor, hakim ; vdli (of a small or sub- 
district) ; Farmdn-Farmd (Governor-Gene- 

Grace, hicsn u lata fat (of women, gazelles) ; 
nazdkat (ditto) ; lawfiq-i ildhl (of God) ; 
fazl-i ildhi (ditto). 

Graceful, khush-numd {gen. ; of appearance, 

action, etc.); ndzuk (delicate); ahang or 

shangul (pretty) ; In bachcha-hurdq 'ajab 

shangul mangul ast (what a very graceful 

little Persian kitten!). 
Gracefully, misl-i ta'us ml-khirdmad (she 

walks gracefully) ; bi-ndz rah raftan. 
Gracious God. Vide God. 
Gradation, tadrij. 
Grade, daraja. 
Gradually, kam kam , rafta rafta ; daraja hi- 

daraja; bi-tadrij ; tadrij'^* ; pilla pilla (step 

by step). 
Graft, to, qalam hastan or payvand k. 
Grafted, payvandi (adj.). 
Grain, ykalla ; ddna (a single grain) ; hvbU' 

bat (pi. various food grains) ; dar in vild- 

yai (jhalloryi bisydr bi-'amal ml-dyad; rag 

(of wood). 
Grained, khush-rag (of prettily grained 

Grammar, kitdb-i sarf u nahv. 
Grammarian, nahvi. Grammarians, ahl-i (or 

'ulamd^-i) sarf u nahv. 
Grammatically, dar Tihrdn khayll marbut 

karf mi-zanand (they speak grammatically 

in Tehran). 
Gramophone, dla-yi hifz^* s-sawt. 
Granary, arnbdr-i (jhalla. 
Grand, an khdna-yi 'dli ' az klst ? 'dli-sh^an,^ 

or 'dli-martaba (for men). 
Grandchild, nabira or nava (boy or girl) ; 

pisar-zdda; dukhtar-zdda. Vide Grand- 
Grandees, buzurgdn ; mutashaUilchisdn ; akd- 

bir ; 'amd'id (pi. of 'umda) ; a'ydn (of 

State). Vide Great and Notable. 
Grandeur, jaldl (of people, court); 'azamat 

(men or buildings) ; hashmat (men only) ; 

In HmJdrat-i bd shukuh ast ; jdh u jaldl (of 

high rank). 
Grandiather, jadd {pi. ajddd' 'ancestors"); 

jadd-i mddari (maternal) ; jadd-i pidari 

Grandmother, mddar-i mddar and mJddar-i 

pidar ; jadda (gen.); nana-bdbd (paternal; 

m.c.) ; btbi (vulg;.; pat. or mat.). 
Grandson, pisar-zdda ; nabira or nava (child 

of daughter or of son). Vide Grand-child. 
Granite, sang-i sumdq. 
Grant, to, djfhd istid'd d^ram ki 'arz-i mard 

bi-paz%rid (I hope, sir, you will grant my 

request); [bi-'arz-i man b i-rasid = heax 

1 In India 'ali-8h*an is also applied to buildings, 
things, and means ''grand." 


211 "high •• is colloquially in Persia applied to 




me] ; farz'^^ ki, or giriftam ki, shuma bar 
haqq hastld, bdz — (granted you are right, 
still — ). Vide To give and Admit. 

Granulate, to, ru-band shudan. 

Grape, angur ; ghura (unripe; for sherbet, 
vinegar) ; tujala (vulg. for sufala lit. 
dregs, sediment) (skins and stones left 
after expressing the juice) ; angur-i 'askarl 
(stoneless grape, the be-ddna of India) ; 
angur-i siyah (purple grape) ; rish-i bdbd 
(black from which wine is made) ; khdya-yi 
ghuldmdn (only used for sherbet) ; angur-i 
ydquti (a good variety) ; tdk or maw or 
raz (vine). 

Graphic, ranj rd chundn baydn kard guyd 
iamdm-i awzd' dar chashm mujassam gar- 

Grasp, dast giriftan; vide Comprehend; bi- 
gusha-yi dinmijk-am naml-dyad (I can't 
grasp this). 

Grass, 'alaf ; hashish (also Indian hemp or 
bhang) ; 'alaf-i saldm ^ 'alay-kum (a trouble- 
some weed in gardens ; when weeded it 
at once re-sprouts and greets you) ; buzak 
ma-mir, bahdr mi-dyad ( = the steed dies 
while the grass is agrowing). Vide Weed. 

Grass-cutter, 'alaf-bur. Vide Woodman. 

Grasshopper, 'alaf -ting; and incorrectly 
malakh. Vide Locust. 

Grate, to, khardshidan or tardshidan (nut- 
meg, etc.). Fic^e Pare and Gall. 

Grateful, minnat-pazir ; shukr-guzdr ; mam- 
nun ; kamdl-i tashakkur rd * khwdham ddsht. 

Grater, kadu-tardsh (for carrots, etc.) ; kadu- 
kash (ditto). 

Grating, shabaka; panjara (of windows). 

Gratis, _mw/if, or muftaki, vulg.; rd^igdn; 
majjan"'") ; hamin tawr bi-u dddam (I gave 
it to him for nothing) . 

Gratitude, tashakkur; imtindn; mamnuniy- 
yat. Vide Obligation. 

Grave, muvaqqar; bd tamkin ; bd vaqdr ; 
sangln (adj.); vide Dignified, Sedate; 
in kar mas^uliyyat-i ziydd ddrad, or taklif-i 
buzurg-i ast (a grave responsibility) ; gur ; 
qabr, pi. qubur ; mazdr ; mazja' ; zarih (of 
saints). Vide Tomb. 

Grave-digger, gur-kan (also the badger); 

Gravel, sang-riza; shin (mud and sand 
mixed); rlg-i masdna or sang-i masdna 
(the disease). 

Gravel, to, rig-farsh k. 

Gravelled, rig-farsh. 

Gravitation, kashish. 

Gravity, tamkin ; vaqdr ; sangini (sedate- 
ness) ; razdnat-i mddda (specific gravity ; 
of metals only) ; markaz-i saqdlat (centre 
of gravity) ; quvva-yi jdziba (met., attrac- 
tion, of women; and lit., the force of 

Gravy, db-i gusht. 

Gray, kabud (blue grey like a kabutar) ; 
khdkistarl (ash-coloured) ; filfil namakl 
(pepper and salt ; also grizzled) ; qizil T. 
(nutmeg-grey ; prop. = ' ' red " ) ; gizil nila 
(iron-grey) ; sinjdbi. Vide Grey. 

Gray-beard, rish-safid; shaykh, pi- shuyukh 

Graze, charidan intr. ; chardnidan tr.j 
MamsMcfow (scratch, grate, etc.); asp-hd 
ru-yi dasht mi-charand, but dar sahrd chard 

Grease, charbi ; pih and pi (fat) ; shuhum 
(pi. of shahm). 

Greasy, charb ; pur az pih; mucharrab Ar. P. 

Great, buzurg ; kabir ; 'azim£ jasim (in 
body) ; hajim (of books) ; 'amdHd^ u buzur- 
gdn (the great) ; shumd minnat-i ziydd bar 
mun* nihdda id (you have done me a 
great favour) ; a' ydn u ashrdf-i shahr. 
Vide Grandees and Notable. 

Greece, Yundn. 

Greedily, bd hirs; shardb rd misl-i gdv ml- 
khurad, or shardb hawlaki mi-hhurad. 

Greedy, haris (in eating) ; tammd' (for gain) ; 
shikamu (fond of eating much) ; dil-i 
ddrad, harchi zibd did mi-khipdd (adj. lit. 
he has a nature that covets every nice 
thing he sees; mi-khwdd, vulg. for mi- 

Greek, Yundni ; ahl-i Yundn or Yundniydn 
(the Greeks). 

Green, sabz; sahz-i barg-i ndrangi (orange- 
leaf green or darkish green) ; qara-mashi 
(dark green, the colour of vetches) ; tdza 
(fresh) ; rm-ras (unripe) ; vide Inexperi- 
enced ; sabzi, subs. , pi. sabzi-dldt {greens ^) 

Greengrocer, sabzi-farush ; miva-farush 

Greeting, ahvdl-pursi (asking after the 
health) ; id)rik-i 'Id guftan (i.e., saying 
'Id-i shumd mubdrak bad) ; " after saying 
' How d'ye do,' I said — " {ba'd az dimdgh 

1 In this name the tanvnn si generally omitted. ^ Note the ra. 

8 PI. of ^umda. 4 Or vulg. har-i man for baray-i man. 

6 Compare sharbat alat ' ' sherbets, various kinds of sherbet ' ' and ahirini alat. 




cAagt, guftam — ); aaldm 'alay-kuin, (but in 
greeting a person scddm"" ^alay-kum or as- 
salam" 'alay-kum). 

Grey, rish-i jato-gandum-i ddrad (grizzled). 
Vide Gray and Gray-beard. 

Greyhound, 1uz% ; tdzl kashidan (to slip a 

Griddle, sdj. 

Grief, (jhussa (hh.) (grief, sorrow; lit. 
things that choke); huzn (sadness) (^.); 
(dam (lit. pain) ; gkcim{rn) (the face being 
clouded through grief) ; giam{m) u ghussa, 
(kh.) ; u pidar-i khud rd ranj u mihan ' 
d^da ast ; hisahab-i marg-i pidar-ash dil- 
ash hugiiZ kard (m.c). 

Grievance, shikdyat (k., az) ; gila (k., az). 

Grieve, (jhamm, etc., khurdan, and huzn k., 
intr. ; dzurdan, ranjdmdan, dil-lchur k., 
dil-tang k., Ir. 

Grieved, magKrnum (with clouded face) ; 
mahzun (saddened) ; dil-khun (very griev- 

Grievous, sakht; shadid; sadma-yi sangln 
(grievous hurt). 

Grill, kahdh k. (of meat) ; hirydn k. (to fry ; 
also to parch) ; birishta k. and bu ddcUin 
(to parch; roast cofifee, etc.); tu-yi rato- 
ghan qirmiz k. (fry in butter). Vide 

Grim, 'abus. 

Grimace, turush-ru^i k. and turush-ru sh. ; 
akhru_ k. (gen. from pain) ; nishun k. or 
dar avardan (m.c. ; of children) ; sural 
sdkhtan (make grimaces ; also to compose 
the face for a photograph). 

Grin, to, nishak vd k. (of dog, monkey) ; 
danddn namudan. 

Grind, sdldan or sdbidan (of tools ; rubbing 
the hands together, etc.) ; ds k. (in hand- 
mill) ; khirch khirch k., tr. and intr. (to 
grind the teeth; vide Gnash) ; in ghalla rd 
dar dsiya drd kun; shumd hich mi-ddntd 
za'jardn {rd) chi tawr mi-sdband'^ (do you 
know how to grind saffron ?) ; siUiya k. (of 
spices on a stone). 

Grinder, charkh-gar (of knives) ; ds-garddn 
(of mill) ; danddn-i dsiyd (tooth). 

Grindstone, sang-i sab or sang-i fisdn (whet- 
stone or hone) ; charkh-i sdb (a circular 
grindstone) ; dam-i charkh bi-dih, tiz bi- 
shavad (grind it on the stone). 

Gristle, kirich kirichu^ (vulg.) ; kurkuraJc. 
Vide Cartilage. 

Grizzled. Vide Grey. 

Groan, ndla kashidan. ; ah kashidan (to sigh 
and groan). 

Groats. Vide Grout. 

Grocer, saqat-farush (sells adviya, i.e., spices, 
and tea, sugar, etc.); baqqdl (sells vege- 
tables and cheese). Vide Confectioner. 

Groceries, mdl-i saqat. 

Groin, bikh-i kash; bikh-i rdn (of humans; 
also a butcher's term for rump-steak. 

Groined, du-tdqa (architec). 

Groom, jilaw-ddr (head) ; mihtar (under) ; 
mir-dhhur (head of the stables; of princes, 
governors, etc.). 

Groove, khdna; gawdi. 

Grope, dost pdlun k. or dost palmds k. (to 
grope in the dark) ; kurdna harakat k. 

Gross, gkaXiz (of words, people ; thick, of 
liquids) ; harza (of words ; opp. to ma^- 

Ground, zamin ; khdk (earth) ; zamina (of 
picture; background) ; jahdz dar rig ni- 
shast (the ship grounded) ; zamin-gir sh. (to 
lie down and hug the ground; in wrest- 

Ground floor, tahtani adj. (opp. to fawqani). 

Groundless, bi-jihat; in khawf durugji bud 
(vulg., the fear was groundless) ; bi-jd. 

Ground-rent, kirdya-yi zamin-i * in bdgjt chi 
qadr ast? 

Grouse, siydh-sina P., and bdqri-qara T. (the 
"black breast," i.e., the large sand- 
grouse) ; kokar or kawkar P., and qilqiirvq 
T. (the large pin-tailed sand-grouse). 

Grout (pi. groats), bul(jhur ; [bul§[hur, k., of a 
child just learning to talk]. 

Grove, khiydbdn ; darakhtisidn-i ddr-bast (for 
creepers) ; raz-bandU (for vine) ; darakhl- 
zdr (a clump of trees). 

Grow, kdshtan, tr. (to sow or plant) ; bi-'amal 
dvardan (raise) ; rustan, rt. ruy, intr. ; 
numuv k. (of trees and humans) ; sar, or 
tinja, zadan (of seeds just appearing) ; 
bdUdan and rushd k. (of humans); nashv 
u numd k. (of plants, humans); gul-i 
ziydd-i dar hdgjiri Khdn bi-ham mi-rasad. 

Growl, Growling, ghV'Tridan (low growling of 
dogs or lions). Vide Grumble; [na'ra 
kashidan, to roar ; of lions]. 

The extract is used 

1 PI. of mihnat. 

^ The saSron is wetted with rose-water and then rubbed in a ohina mortar, 
for colouring pilaw, sweetmeats, etc. 

* So named from the sound it emits when chewed. 

* The term kiraya-yi ba^ might include the rent of the buildings in the bagh' 




Grown, az an vaqt ki shumd rd dida hudam 
Jchayll qadd kashida-td or khayll rushd kar da- 
Id (you have grown a lot since I last saw 

Growth, rushd; numuv ; nashv (Ar. nushuv) 
u numd ; rushd-i ki na-karda (he has not 

Gruel, Jiarira^ (made of rice and water 
cooked and mixed with sugar and almonds, 
etc.) ; jaw-shxr (barley water). 

Grumble, lund lund (or qum qum, or qur qur) 
kardan (dissatisfaction in a low tone) ; 
shikam-am qur qur ml-kunad (from hunger, 
etc. = qui hu'^ Allah mt-khwdnad). 

Grunt, bagih hagh kardan (of pig). 

Guarantee, zdmin shudan ; mukaffal shudan ; 
kafdlat namudan; zdmin (person). 

Guaranteed, in sd'at rd zamdnat karda-and 
ki dah sal kdr mi-kunad. 

Guard, qardvul (mily. term); kishik-chi (a 
patrolling sentry) ; mustahfiz (of a post, 
jail, etc.) ; pds-bdn (gen. term) ; hifz ; 
hirdsat (protection) ; afvdj-i khdssa (Shah's 

Guard, to, kishik kasMdan (of sentry) ; pas- 
bdni n. (gen).; hijdzat k. ; nigdh ddshtan 

Guarded, mahjuz (also safe) ; mahrus. 

Guard-house, qardvul- khdna ; sar-i dam (at 
a cross-road). 

Guardian, murahhi or vali (teacher or guar- 
dian of a youth) ; buzurgtar, m.c. (ditto) ; 
lala (a servant, mentor, vide Tutor); qay- 
yim (of orphan) ; vasi (appointed by will). 

Guardianship, muhdfazat (protection) ; visd- 
yat (by will over a minor) ; zir-i dast-i 
mulld urd guzdshtam. 

Guarding, nigdh-bdni (k.) ; hifdzat {k.) ; hird- 
sat [k.). 

Guard-room. Vide Guard-house. 

Guava, anjlr-i Hind} 

Guess, qiyds k. ; hads zadan (to conjecture) ; 
anchi dar dil-am ast mi-tavdnid qiyds bi- 
kunld or bi-jahmid? : shast-ash khabar 
shud (he's guessed we are discussing him 
= havd-yi kdr rd fahmid) . Vide Thumb. 

Guest, ^ mihmdn ; mihmdn khar-i sahib- khdna 
ast (a saying ; = I will follow you). 

Guidance, rdh-numd^i or rah-bari (k.) ; bala- 
diyyat (k.) ; hiddyat (k.) (spiritual). 

Guide, rdh-bar or rah-bar ; rdh-numd * ; dalil 
(of road) ; chdvush (professional for a pil- 
grim band) ; hddl (sp. spiritual) ; agar-chi 
hich vaqt az dn rdh na-rafta budam ma'- 
hdzd bt-balad^ raftam. 

Guide, to, baladiyyat k. ; daldlat k. ; hiddyat 
k. (spiritually) ; bardy-i shumd baladi mi- 
kunam (I will act as your guide). Vide 

Guilt, gundh or gundh-kdri ; khatd-kdri ; taq- 
sir ; qusur. 

Guiltless, bi-gundh; bi-taqslr ; bijurm; ma*- 
sum (pure by nature, of a prophet, etc.). 

Guilty, mujrim (criminal) ; gundh-kdr (sin- 
ful) ; muqassir, and khatd-kdr (committed 
a fault). 

Guinea, jina (money). 

Guinea-fowl, murgiri habashi. 

Guinea-worm, rishta; pivak. 

Guitar, 'ud; tdr (any stringed instrument) ; 
si-tdr (of three strings) ; kdsa (the body) ; 
dasta (the long neck) ; kharak (bridge) ; 
gush or gusha (pegs) ; mizrab (plectrum) ; 
stm (the strings or wires) . 

Gulf, khalij ; khur (for Ar. khawr) (narrow 
river mouth) ; bughdz T. (the broad part 
of a river mouth; also straits). 

Gullet, gulu, P., hulqum A. (throat) ; hanjara 
Ar. (windpipe). 

Gully, gulu-gdh, also = the neck of a spear. 

Gulp, jur'a or qurt (one gulp of water, etc.). 

Gulp down, to, bi-zudi jaru burdan; qurt 
dddan or zadan. 

Gum, uzii (m.c.) ; samcfh (gum-arabic) ; jitk 
(any gum on bark of trees) ; katira (traga- 
canth) ; mastaki (for mustakq, mastic) ; Idk 
(shellac) ; bun-i danddn (of teeth) , also 
gusht-i danddn. 

Gun, iujang ; du-lula or tufang-i du-lula'i'^ 
(double-barrelled) ; tufang-i jaiila'i (match- 
lock) ; chdqmdqi (a flint-lock) ; zarnburak 
(small camel-gun) ; tup (cannon) ; iah-pur 
(breech-loading) ; dahan-pur (muzzle-load- 
ing) ; shash-khdna (rifled) ; qunddgh 
(stock) ; chdqmdq or chdkush or chakush 

1 In India ' congee ' (kanj'i). 

2 In Ben;j:al the guava is erroneously called anjlr " a fig." 

3 A guest should not stay so long as to incommode his host, but according to a precept of the Pro- 
phet, the host should entertain him three days. 

♦ BaUriga, in India ''a gui e, escort," in modern Persian means going a short distance along the 
road to speed a parting friend on a journey. 
6 Balad = vaqif. 




(cock, hammer) ; shaytdnak (trigger) ; tup-i 
musalscd (a quick-firing gun). 

Gunner, tup-chi (of big gun); tufang-chl (a 

Gun-metal, chawdan. 

Gunpowder, barut or bdrut. 

Gunshot, partdb-i gtUula, or partdb-i tir 
(distance of — ). 

Gunsmith, tufang-sdz; tup-riz (one that 
cast J cannon). 

Gurgling, qulqul or cfhulgjkul-i mind (the 
gurgling of wine). 

Gushtasp, Gashidsp. 

Gusset, bagJjMak (a gusset under the arm- 

Gust, latma (slap ; also of waves) ; [nafha, a 
gentle puff ; hvbub, blowing]. 

Gut, ruda. 

to, ruda-ash bi-kash or shikam-ash pdk 
m (of fowl) 

,ter, rdJtri db, or db dar-raw (on ground) ; 
idv-ddn (on roof) ; jadval (a drain), 
ittural, hcdql; az hanjara-ash harf mi- 
zanad. Vide Voice, 
fymnasium, zur-khdna; varzish-khdna. 

jypsum, gach (as dug out) ; sdruj (mixed 
with lime and ashes; also Portland 

Gypsy, kawli (said to be a corruption of 
KdbtUi) ; qara-chi ; lull (a tribe that dan- 
ces, etc.) ; dast-muzd-i Zubayda rd bi-dih 
( =^ cross Zubeyda the Gypsy's hand with 
a bit of silver) ; tdli'-i shumd rd ml-blnam, 
dawr-at bi-gardam (I'll tell your fortune 
my dear). 

Gyrate, to, charkh zadan, pir khurdan; 
dawr gashtan. 


Habit, 'ddat {h.) ; khuy {k. or giriftan) ; u 
ddVst ki har ruz subh gardish kunad; 
rasm, pi. rusum; tarlqa ; dastur (Indian 
but coming into use ; dtistur in Ar. per- 
mission) ; ma'mul (custom). Vide Cus- 

Habitated, maskun (for Mouse or land ; also 
haunted, q.v.) ; dbdd (land only). 

Habitant, sakin (gen.) ; [sdkinln only of a 
house, or a quarter or cityj. 

Habitation, maskan, pi. masdkin; manzil. 
Vide Residence. 

Habitual, mu'tdd; ma' mull. 

Habitually, 'ddat'" ; bar hasb-i *ddal. 
Hackneyed, bdzdri shuda; dast-i har kaa 

Hadramaut, Hazramawt. 

Heifiz, az Hdfiz tafa'^^vi juatam, chun ki kam 
tvaqt-i ^8t ki takhalluf (or takhdluf) namuda 
bdshad (I sought an omen from Hafiz ; his 
omens seldom fail). Vide Divination and 

Hag, plr-i zdl and 'ajuza (any very old 
woman). Vide Beldame. 

Hagar, Hdjar ; " and Hagar called out 'Oh 
Abraham ! with whom leavest thou me ? ' 
He answered ' With God ' " va Hdjar 
soda karda pursld ' ' Ay Ibrdhim mard bi- 
ki sipurdi ? ' ' Javdb dad ' ' Bi-Khudd.' ' 

Haggard, ddsh-tulak T. (' moulted outside ' ; 
of falcon) ; tulakl (gen.) (' intermewed ' or 
moulted = jamds At.). 

Haggle, to, vide Bargain ; jir u da' va k. 

Hail, tagarg sar-darakhtl-hd rd ' kharab kard. 

Hail, to, tagarg bdrldan. 

Hair, mw; /ll/il-mu , subs, and adj. (wool of 
Negroes) ; mu-yi zahdr and vulg. pashm 
(of the pubes) ; glsit (long ba,ck hair of 
women) ; zulf (side curls of women, or 
long back curls of men) ; kdkul (top-knot 
of Muslims or of Zardushti boys) ; [kdkull 
is a species of crested lark] ; dalldk rd bi- 
gu bi ydyad muy-am rd isldh kunad (or bi- 
chinad) (tell the barber to come and cut 
my hair) ; rishma (strands of camel-hair 
worn by dervishes round the waist, or 
round the kuldh: also for rashm/i. Ar. reio, 
q.v.). Vide Curl and Locks. 

Hair-dresser, mashshdta (of women). Vide 
Tire-woman and Maid. 

Hair-pin. Vide Pin. 

Hair-splitting, mu-shigdfl {k.). 

Hairy, pur pashm u pita (long haired, etc., 
of dogs) ; pur mu (of men) . 

Half, nlm; nima; nisf ; yak nisfa-yi limu 
or nisf-i llmu (half a lemon) ; hd ! agar 
bakht-at ydrl kard har chi dvardl bdyad 
bardLar-i khudrat bi-man qismat bi-dihl 
(now, if luck befriend you, whatever sum 
you get you must halve, share equally, 
with me) ; shamshlr zad, du nlm shud (he 
cut him in half with his sword) ; nisf-i 
ziydd-ash or niaf-i ziydda-tar-osh (more 
than half*). 

• Sar-darakhti " fruits grown on trees " (not melons, etc.)~ 

* Corresponds to the English colloquialism " the larger half.'* 




Half-caste, du-nasla (of men) ; du-raga (of 

Hall, bdrika (a passage with rooms off it) ; 
kiryds (a hall, gen. octagonal, not join- 
ing the main building) ; in khdna yak 
ddldn ^ va si utdq ddrad; tdldr or ayvdn (a 
verandah, or open room on pillars) ; tdldr-i 
ddh-rmla (a room open on one side and 
with ten pillars). 
Halo, IMa or hdld (round moon, on Saints' 
heads) ; khirman (of moon) ; nur (round 
Prophets' and Imams' heads). 
Halsband, jalqu (the ' neck-band ' for short- 
winged hawks). 
Halt ! vd tst ! ; bdsh ! 

Halt, to, lang k. or uirdq k. (on a journey or 

march) ; maks k. (for some minutes) ; 

mdndan ; tavaqquf k. (for some time) ; 

langidan (to limp). 

Halter, ajsdr ; qdhil-i tandb ast (he deserves 

the halter) . 
Halting-place, manzil-gdh; farud-gdh (for 

passengers from ships). 
Halve, to, vide ' Half ' ; dvrmm kardan; nisj 

Halving, tansif ; nisj kardan. 
Ham, gusht-i bulbul (a facetious name) ; gus- 

fand-i jarangi; gushtri gurdz. 
Ham, Ham (son of Nuh). 
Hammer, chakush; mangana (T. , corrup. of 
Eng. "machine"; a steam-hammer or 
steam-presser) ; kalla-pd (large smith's 
Hammock, nanu ; nani ; nanu^i. 
Hamstring, pay zadan (but pay burdan ' to 

track foot-prints ') ; pay buridan. 
Hand, * dast (also fore-leg) ; dast bi-dast (from 
hand to hand) ; chahdr angusht (a hand's 
breadth) ; gurg-i bdrdn-dtda or kuhna-rind 
(an ' old hand ' ; an ' old soldier ') ; 'aqrabak 
(of_ watch; lit. 'small scorpion'); dxbst-i 
ura bi-gtr (" take his hand " ; not in m.c. 
' ' help him " S) ; az taraf-i digar (on the 
other hand) ; kdr bi-har jd munjarr bi- 
shavad khayr-i md'st, az yak taraj asp az 
yak taraf pul (it is to our advantage how- 
ever it may end; on the one hand a 
horse, on the other money) ; du-dastl 

(adv. with both hands) ; yak dast shudan 
(join hands ; in a good or bad sense) ; 
dast d. (to shake hands) ; fuldna zan dast-i 
shuhar-ash rd zir-i sang ml-ddrad ■= dar 
dast-i khud khub nigdh mi-ddrad (she keeps 
her husband in hand) ; u bdzu-yi man ast 
= dast-i rdst-i man ast, he's my right-hand 

Hand, to, vide To pass; urd d>dd bi- 
kushand-ash (vulg.) (he handed him over 
to be killed) ; urd bi-kushtan ddd (he 
caused him to be ruined) ; dast u giribdn 
shudan (to come hand to hand, close 
quarters). Vide Entrust. 

Handcuffs, khallll ; zanjir-i dast. 

Hand-made, dast-sdhhta; 'amal-i yad{d)t. 

Handicraft, pisha; shuc0 ; kasb ; kdsibi ; 

Handiwork, kdr-i dast ; 'amal. 

Handkerchief, dast-mdl.* 

Handle, dasta-yi in zabdna (or — In khdna-yi 
mlz) shikasta ast; pir-i zan dasta-yi jdrub 
bi-dast-ash dmada chunin bar sar-ash navd- 
khi ki mardaka bi-u pandh dvard — Prof. 
S. T. 

Handled. Vide Soiled. 

Handmaid, kaniz (Negress or Georgian). 
Vide Maid, Tirewoman, Hair-dresser. 

Handmill, dast-ds. 

Hand-rail, dast-anddz. 

Handsel, dasht (first money taken in the 
morning) ; ay bdbd ! hanuz dasht na-karda- 
am ki turd chiz-l bi-diham (said to a beg- 
gar by a shopman). 

Handsome, hasm (gen.) ; jamil ^ (gen.) ; 
vajih (in face) (all of people) ; qashang ; 
maqbul; khush-gil (pretty; gen.; not so 
strong as former ; even used of buildings) ; 
Ichush-manzar (of buildings or views and 
rarely of people) ; 'all (m.c. of buildings) 
khush-tarkib (well-made, of anything) 
khush-quvdra (well-made, of living things) 
shakil ; khush-anddm (of fine form ; of 
living things); khush-chashm u abru, or 
khush sar u surat, or malih (good or plea- 
sant looking) ; dar vajdhat mu' tadil ast 
(his looks are middling) ; bd tandsub-i 
anddm (well-formed, well-proportioned). 

1 Dalan gen. hall in a gateway or near the entrance , not in the house ; it leads into and out of the 
hiryas. Some houses, however, have no kiryas. 

2 Muslims eat with the right hand, in helping themselves to a dish, Persians will sometimes use 
the left_hand. In Miaslim society, Europeans should be careful to use the right hand. 

'i Ura dastrgirl kun (m.c.) " help him." 
* In India lu-mal. 

6 In Arabic jamll implies stoutness as well as good looks. 




Handspike, ahrum, or dilum (lever, of iron 
or wood) ; 'atala Ar. (rare) (lever). 

Handy, 8ar-i dost (at hand). 

Handwriting, khatt ; khatt-i shlnn (beautiful 
writing) ; fuldni sdkib-i chahdr khatt oat 
(So-and-so can write four kinds of hand- 
writing) ; khatt-i ja' U (disguised writing ; 
also forged writing) ; shiva-yi khub ddrad 
(he writes a nice hand). 

Hang, to, dvikhtan, rt. dviz ; dvizdn k.; bar- 
or bi-ddr kashidun or zadan, and maslub 
k. (to execute by hanging by the neck ; 
lit. the latter means to crucify ') ; bi-tandb 
anddkhtan (to strangle on the ground or 
to execute by hauling up from the 
ground) ; az daraJcht mu'allaq k. (execute 
by hanging from a tree) ; kalid-hd rd ru-yi 
mikhdvizdnkun {or bi-ydviz), or vulg. kalid- 
hd-rd gal-i mlkh bi-kash (hang the keys on 
the peg) ; guh mt-khuram ki nazdlk-i u bi- 
ravam '■ (I will be hanged if I go near 
him) ; gardan-at khurd sTiavad ! or chashm- 
at kur shavad ! ( = hang you !). 

Hanged, maslub^ (prop. crucified). 

Hanger-on, muta'allig; az vd bastagdn; 
tujayli (parasite) ; hdshiya-nishtn (and 
toady) . 

Hangings, parda-hd (curtains, etc.) ; dviza-hu 

Hankering, dar fikr-i chiz-% budan ; 'aqab-i dn 
qdli chashm anddkhta am (1 have an eye 
on that carpet). 

Happen, ru dddan; iitifdq uftddan; VTiqW 
ydftan ; bi-zuhur rasidan ; vdrid dmadan ; 
tan shudan (to come suddenly upon ; chun 
shdb tdri shud) ; in hddisa kay vdqi' shud? ; 
fi'l-% sar mt-zanad (something will hap- 
pen) ; ba'd bi-sar-am har-chi bi-ydyad bi- 
ydyad (let happen what will) ; har-chi bddrd- 
bdd (happen what may) ; dar dunyd hich 
harnchu chiz-i shuda ast ? ; khub , chi bi-sar- 
at dmad? ("well, please; what befell 
you ? " , of unpleasant events only) ; na- 
fahmidam chi shud; agar In kdr tavyr-l ki 
m%-guyam surat bi-girad bi-tu chiz-i khwd- 
ham dad (if things turn out as I expect I 

won't forget you) ; kdr-i ahudant mt-ahor 
vad (what is to happen, will happen). 

Happiness, masarrat; farah; khush-vaqti; 
dar in dunyd hich kas rdhat-i kdmil no- 

Happy, hhv^h-vaqt; masrur ; khush u khur- 
ram; dil-shdd; dn-Iid-i ki az Khudd mi- 
tarsand 'dqibat khush-hdli mi-ydband. 

Harass, dzdr k. ; tza* dddan; aziyyat dddan; 
parishdn k. 

Harbinger, ptsfi-raw ; khabar-rasdn ; muzhda- 
dvar (of good news). 

Harbour, bandar, pi. banddir (port) ; langar- 
gdh (anchorage) ; qdvi (any extensive har- 
bour) ; TTM^man (refuge) ; kishti qarib-i 
gddrbandi ^ Idhim shud = dar rig faru ni- 

Hard, sakht ; shadid (severe) ; khushk (of 
bread) ; vide Diffic;ult ; sabaq-i ki bi-man 
ddda and dsdn ast yd mushkil? ; sakht-giri 
k. (to be hard on). 

Hard-featured, sakht-ru ; hhishin*-ru. 

Hard-fisted, kuluft-dast and sakht-dast (lit.) ; 
mumsik ; db az dast-ash nami-chakad (met.). 

Hard-hearted, sang-dil; sakht-dil. 

Hardly, mv^hkil or zur ; mushkil mi-ddnam 
(this can hardly be the case; also I don't 
think it can be done; shak^ mi-ddnam, 
has much the same meaning) ; td pd birun 
guzdsht saqf pdyin dmad (he had hardly 
set foot outside when the roof came 
down) ; zur-am mi-dyad in kdr rd bi-kunam 
(I can hardly do that ; I don't want to 
do it). 

Hard-mouthed, harun (m.c. a puller, a horse; 
prop, restive) , bad-lagdm ; sar-kash. 

Hardship, zulm (lit. tyranny) ; shadd'^idri- 
zamdna or — bakht (the hardships of for- 
tune). Vide Toil. 

Hardware, dhan-dldt. 

Hare, khar-gush ^ bisydr tarsu (or ramu) ^st. 

Hare-lipped, lab-i Mpargushi ddrad or lab- 
shakar ast; lab-i u muhra khurda ast 
(local); shutur-lab ; lab-chidk {Gr'Adkn). 

Harem, andarun; haram;"^ haram-sard (gen. 
of kings). 

An angry mttster will say to an 

I Properly to crucify; sdlib "a cross." 

^ A crude but common expression ; guh lit. ' ' human excrement, 
offending servant az guh guhrtar-i, az Jihar khar-tar (m.c). 

5 The corruption of some Bombay word. 
♦ For hhaah n. 

6 Shak P. for Ar. ahakk. 

<> Kbar old Pers. "big." Compare Jshfir-chang "crab," (a large sheU, a "large 
cowrie ' ' ). 

T Hartim also the sacred enclosure of the Ka'ba at Makka, and of tombs at Madlna, Karbela, Mash- 
had, etc. 




Hark, gush, gush! 

Harlot, jinda (m.c.) ; qahba; fahisha; zan-i 
zdniya ; zan-i kusu or zan-i kus-dih (vulg.). 
Vide Whore. [tery). 

Harlotry, jinda-hazx ; zina-kari (also adul- 

Harm, zarar rasdndan ; mazarrat (r.) ; ziydn 
{k.), or khasdrat {k. or r.), or nuqsdn {r. 
or dddan) (loss) ; dyd chunin kdr kardan 
'ayb-i ddrad? ; hdk-i nist (there's no harm) ; 
chird ? (why not ?). 

Harm, to, aziyyat k. (living things) ; zarar 
rasdnidun gen. ; sadma z. (to living things). 

Harmonize, Ivam-dhang, or ham-navd, hudan 
(gen. in music ; but of people also) ; in 
rang-hd hama ham-navdkht ^-and. 

Harmony, muvdfaqat (gen.); vifq (gen.); 
dhang and ham-nacfhrnagi {oi music) ; ham- 
rang va ham-dhang shudan (to be in har- 
mony with, of people only) ; ham-dhang 
(gen. of music but of people also) ; mulja- 
baqat'^'l-asvdt (harmony of voices). 

Harness, yardq (equipment of a saddle horse ; 
also harness ; arms and accoutrements, 

Haroun-al-Rashid, Hdrun^'W-Rashid. 

Harp, chang (gen. played by Jews ; it is 
placed flat on the ground and not upright 
like a Welsh harp). 

Harper, changi ^ (gen. a woman) ; chang-zan 
(man or woman) . 

Harridan, kuhna- jinda. Vide Hag and Bel- 

Harrier, hil-hdqll T., and shab-mdla Kurd., 
and Abu-hikab Ac. (the bird). Vide Kite. 

Harrow, takhta k. or takhta-kashi k. (with a 
board .studded with nails) ; mala kashldan 
(with a log of wood) ; shdqul (k.) (also a 
mason's line). 

Harsh, durusht (in words, manners; also 
"big"); zibr (rough, of things) ; khishin 
(coll. for khashin, rough; of persons or 

Harshly, durushtdna ; sakht-gu^l farmudid 
(you've spoken harshly). 

Harshness, durushti (also bigness ; vide Big, 
Large) ; khushunat (of disposition, or 

Harvest, mahsul or pi mahsuldt^ ; mahsul-i 

In bd gk chlst? (what is the money value 
of the grain and fruit- crop of this gar- 
den ?) ; imsdl az jihat-i qillat-i dftdb diraw 
'aqab uftdda ast (the harvest is late this 
year on account of the dull weather) ; 
sayfi (summer harvest) ; shitavi (winter 

Hasp, chift (also bolt of a door). 

Haste, ziidi or shitdb (k.) ; bi-sur'at raftan; 
ta'jil (n.) ; bi-ta'jtl mi-navisam td bi-'pvst^ 
bi-rasad (I am writing in haste 'to save 
the post ') ; in du kalima bi-rasm-i isti'jdl 
mgdrish yd ft ( = yours in haste; vide 
' Yours') ; bar sabil-i 'ijdla navishta shud 
(ditto, at the end of a letter) ; ' ajala az 
Shaytdn ast va sabr az Eahmdn * (common 

Hastening, ta'jil: dar zud ra^idan (or rasdni- 
dan)-i u bdyad kushish bi-kunid. 

Hastily, shitdbdna; bi-ta'jil. 

Hastiness, tund-mizdji (of temper). 

Hasty, dast-pdcha (flurried) ; ta'jil namudan 
kdr-i ddam-i 'dqil^ nist. 

Hat, kuldh-i jarangi (European hat; also a 
round summer house, etc.) ; tdj-i hasht tark 
(dervishes' cap of eight pieces, each sha- 
ped like the divisions of an orange) ; ha- 
mjdn vaqt ki dar utaq ddkhil shud kuldh rd 
bar ddsht '' ; pukh pukh (barrel-shaped hat 
worn by farrashes) ; tds-kuldh (a felt hat 
while new and in shape) ; agar na-kunam 
in rish nist, dumi khar ast ( = I'll eat my 
hat if 1 don't do so ; said by men) ; agar 
nakunam in lachak lachak-i'' fdhisha-hd 
hdshad (said by women). 

Hatch, dar dvardan; murgh ru-yi tukhm-hd 
khwdhida. Vide Broody. 

Hatchet, tabar ; tabarcha (small). 

Hate, to, tana^ur ddshtan (to feel aversion to, 
to loath) ; az hich bdyad najrat na-kunim 
gkayr (or magar) az gundh; sdya-yi urd 
nami-tavdnad ru did, vulg. (he cannot bear 
the sight of him) ; [but az man guzashta 
sdya-am rd ham nami-tavdni did — injure 
me ? w^hy you cannot even hurt my sha- 
dow ! ] ; dushman rd bad ddnistan ; kard- 
hnt, or makruh, ddshtan (to dislike much, 
detest) ; urd namitavdnam bi-binam. 

' Ham-navakht also of music. 

2 In some districts a term of abuse, as female harpers are generally prostitutes. 

5 Hasil is used in the sense of fa'i a. In India mahsul railway or boat-fare, etc. 

* Or al-'aj'alah min<J^ ' sh-Shaytan va 't-ta'^anni min<* 'r-Rahman. 

6 Note singular ; or kar-i 'aqilan. 

* Kulah I a az aar-i kas-l har daahtan also signifies '' to get the better of." 

7 Lachak = charqad. 




Hated, manfur (loathed ; of people or things). 

Haughtiness, fis {k ) (m.c.) ; kibr {k. or 
farukhtan) ; takabbur (k.) ; khud-farushi 
{k) : ghurur {k) : az in sukhan bdd-i burnt- 
ash faru nishast (at this speech his haugh- 
tiness, swaggor, forsook him). Vide Pride. 

Haughty, kibr-farush, and mutakabbir ; 
nuKjhrur (proud q.v.) ; in ruz hd dimdcfh.- 
ash bald rafta (now-a-days he holds his 
nose in the air). 

Haul, ka.'ihidan; kashdn kashdn bur dan ; 
khwdbdnidan (to haul down a flag, etc.). 

Haunch, gurda (small of the back) ; dubur 
(buttocks ; of man or animals). 

Haunted, pnn ddrad; maskun {At., rare in 

Hautboy, surnd (made of reed or wood). 

Have, ddshtan, rt. ddr ; bd dn dgiff, Inch 
shindsd^i ddrtd? 

Haven. Vide Harbour. 

Haversack, chinta (of dervishes and beggars). 

Hawk, qush (any hawk or falcon or eagle, 
but specially the goshawk) ; bdz (gos- 
hawk ; gen. term) ; zard-chashm {' yellow- 
eyed,' vide Falcon) ; tlqun or tay:jkun (the 
white goshawk; a name also applied to 
the albinos of other species of birds) ; 
tarldn (the goshawk that migrates into 
Persia) ; qizil (the local variety or race of 
goshawk that breeds in Persia ; supposed 
to be inferior) ; tujhral (a species formerly 
imported from ' China,' perhaps the Cres- 
ted Goshawk) ; bdsha P., and qirghfiy T., 
(the Common Sparrow-hawk) ; jiiqu (the 
Indian shikra). Vide Goshawk and Fal- 

Hawker, tabaq-kash (gen. of fruit); dast- fa- 
rush; vide pedlar; qush-chl (falconer, q.v.). 

Hay, bida (dried lucerne) ; [yunja green 
lucerne] ; ' alaf-i khushk. 

Hazard, giraw (the stake). 

Hazard, to. In muhra rd ' yd-nasib ' mi-andd- 
zam (1 hazard every thinsf on this throw) ; 
dar ma'raz-i khatar anddkhtan. 

He, u (or she). 

Head, sar ; kalla ; sar-d-pd, or az sar id pd 
(from head to foot) ; Jmj vdj, or dast pdcha, 
shudan (to lose one's head) ; ra''s (of 
cattle) ; vide ' Button ' and ' Chief ' . Vide 
Reverse (of coin). Vide Source, and Lose. 

Headache, dard-i sar; sudd' ; tasdi' (to give 

a headache to, to trouble); sudd'-i shor- 
qiqa (nervous or sick-headache). 

Head-dress, chdrqad (a square handkerchief 
worn by Muslim women out of doors) ; 
sar-band (of women). Vide Turban, etc. 

Heading, ' invdn for 'unvdn (of chapter, 
letter, etc.). 

Headlong, sar-nigun ; sar-d-nr. 

Head-piece, ydl-push (of horse clothing). 
Vide Helmet. 

Head-quarterS; mahall-i markazi, or ddr" 

Head- stall, ajsdr. 

Headstrong, khud-rdy ; lajuj. 

Heal, ' ildj k. ; mu'dlaja k. ; chnq k. tr. ; 
shifd or slhhat, dddan (of God) ; hdla 
zakhm-ash chdq shuda ast; gusht-i naw 
bdld dvarda ast (granulated) : zakhm ash 
pur mi-shavad, or iltiydm mi-ydbad (his 
wound is healing). 

Healing, subs. Hldj kardan ; mu'dlaja (treat- 

Health, hdl, or mizdj (state of ) ; sih- 

hat, or tan-durustt, or 'dfiyat; mizdj-i u 
sdlim (or mustaqim) ast ; \mizJdj-i u mu^ta- 
qim ast also = " he is not changeable "] ; 
bi-saldmati-yi shumd ("your health"; 
when drinking wine) ' ; saldmat-% ki hast 
hama chiz hast ( = if you have health you 
have wealth) ; bi-tdq-i abru-yi n khurdim 
(we drank his health) ; tajaqqud-i ahvdl k., 
or ahvdl-pursi k. (to enquire after the 
health of) ; in fi'l mukhill-i sihhat ast (this 
vice injures the health). 

Healthy, tan-durust (of people) ; sdlim (of 
climate, food) ; bulukdt-i ki bishtar maqrun 
bi-sihhat ast — (the healthiest districts — ) ; 
sdlim-mizdj (of people). 

Heap, tal ; tuda ; pushta; yak kut-i^ kd^az 
injd jam' shuda ast, birun-ash bi-riz (or 
kindr bi-guzdr). 

Hear, shanidan or shinudan ; dars gush girij- 
tan (to hear a lesson) ; dnchi mi-guyam 
gush kun (or gush bi-dih). Vide Listen. 

Heard, masmH' ; gush-zad. 

Hearer, mustami' ; shinavanda; sdmi' , pi. 
sdmi' in. 

Hearing, istimd' ; na-tavanistam gush kunam 
(I could not hear). 

Heart, qaW, pi. qulub ; az tah-i dil (from the 
bottom of my heart) ; nidj-i ^ shahr (the 

1 The reply is nuah-i jam. 

^ In some districts kut is applied only to a heap of manure, and henoe sometimes means '* manure ' ' 


3 Nal "navel." 




heart of the city) ; dil-i insan mdyil ' hi- 
gundh ast ; az bar khwdndan (to repeat by 
heart) ; dars-i imruz ra ravdn ddrld (or 
ravdn-i shumd ast?) (do you know to-day's 
lesson by heart ?) ; ma-tars, dil-i pay da 
kun (take heart, don't be frightened); 
shdyad dukhtara jd-yi dlgar-l'^ dil-bastagl 
ddrad (perhaps the girl has lost her heart 
to some one else) . 

Heart-burn, dil-suzisTi. 

Heart-disease, maraz-i qalb. 

Hearth, pish-bukhdri. 

Heartily, Hearty, az ru-yidilujdn; qalb"^" ; 
ikhlds''" ; az tah-i dil ; bd ishtihd (for eat- 
ing) ; bd garm-jushi. 

Heat, garmt, or t'b (heat or light of sun or 
fire); hardrat (applied to disposition, 
fever, sun, etc.) ; hardrat-i gh arlzl (natu- 
ral heat of the body) ; for ' heat ' of ani- 
mals vidz Season; imruz khayli garm ast, 
havd khafa ast (it's close) ; hich ruh dar 
badan-ash nist, or hardrat na-ddrad (he has 
no heat in him ; vide Life) ; dar qahr-i 
garmd (in the depth, or great heat, of 
summer) . 

Heathen, but-parast (idolater) ; kdfir, pi. 
kuffdr (vague term; infidel) ; mushrik, pi. 
mushrikm (polytheist, often applied to 
Hindus and to Christians) ; mulhid (prop, 
one that denies the existence of God) ; 
zindlq, pi. zanddiqa (fig. a believer in the 
Zand ; now one only outwardly a Muslim). 
Vide Idolator and Infidel. 

Heaven, bihishfP., or jannat Ar.; firdaws-i 
barin (the highest heaven) ; 'arsh (the 
seat of God above the 7th heaven) ; dar 
bihisht dsdyish-i hirun az hadd-i baydn ast, 
dar jahannam 'azdb-i bl-pdydn. 

Heavenly, sarmvi ; bihishtl. ^ 

Heavens,* afldk (sing, not used): sarmvdt 
(sing, not used colloquially). 

Heaviness, sanginl ; siql; saqdlat; sar-girdni 
(of head ; and met., " anxiety "). 

Heavy, sangin; vazni ; saqil (also indigesti- 
ble, of food) ; sakht; shadld; tund (severe; 
of rain, snow, or wind) ; sangin (severe ; of 

snow or rain) ; sangin ast, chi taior bi-baram 
(it is too heavy for me to carry) ; ' ibdrat- 
ash khayli sangin ast ( = he is a heavy 
writer) . 

Hebrew, 'Ibrdni; 'Ibri; Yahudi, pi. Yahud 
(Jew); /sm*?/» (Israelite). 

Hedge, khdr-band or khdr-bast (also hurdle). 

Hedge-hog, jujuk or jujak ; khdr-pusht. ^ 
Vide Porcupine. 

Heed, to, gush dddan; tavajjuh k.; multaflt 
shudan ; mahall guzdshtan. Vide To listen. 

Heel, pdshna. 

Heel-rope, pa-band (also, adj., tied by the 
leg; fig.)^ 

Heifer, gusala-yi mdda. 

Height, bulandi ; irtifd' ^ ; rif'at, miydna- 
qdmat (of middle height). Vide Sta- 

Heir, vdris, pi. vurasd^iov varasa ; mirds-khur ; 
sdhib-khun (legal heir of a person mur- 
dered) ; vali-'ahd (heir apparent) ; jd- 
nishin (successor; not necessarily heir). 

Heir-loom, tarika ; murda-rlk (rare). Vide 

Heliograph, hilugrdf (Eur.). 

Hell, Jahannam, and Duzakh (the whole 
place) ; Saqar or Saqar ; Darak (Lowest 
Hell) ; bi-Darak-i Asfal bi-raw (go to the 
Lowest Hell) ; bi-raw bi Tun u Tabas '' 
( = go to Hell !) ; also bi-raw bi- Jahannam ; 
sag-i duzakh (hell hound). 

Hellish, duzakhi; jahannami. 

Helm, sukkdn-i^ kishti. 

Helmet, khUd. 

Help, madad (k. or d.) ;_ imddd {k.) ; ydri 
(k.) ; i'dnat (k.) ; mu'avanat (k.) ; ta^yid 
{k.) ; pushti {k.); dast-ydri or dast-giri {k.) 
[but dast-gir = " captured "J ; dar in_ amr 
mard kumak mi-kunid? — bi-shart-i an ki 
gusha-yi kdr-i banda rd ham bi-girld ( — on 
condition that you help me too) ; az man 
pushti kard or girift (he took my part) ; 
chdra nist (there is no help for it). Vide 

Help! ay dad, ay farydd, bi-rasid ! ; ay mu- 
salmdndn ! 

1 Properly ma^il Ar. 

^ Note this m.c. ja-yi digar-i for ja'i dlga- : dlgar-l prop, means " another person." 
8 In India bihishti is a water-carrier, because to quench another's thirst is a heavenly act. 
* Traditions regarding the fabric of the seven heavens differ. 
6 The porcupine aikhu is sometimes called hhar-pusht. 
s Irtifa' in classical (or Indian?) Persian also means revenue. 
T There are however worse places than Tun and Tabas. 

8 Sukkan is also the Ar. pi. of sakin •' inhabitant " ; in Persian only the Ar. reg. pi. of this, aakinin, 
is used. 




Helpless, Id-char; bi-chdra ; 'djiz; dar- 
mdnda ; bi-dast u pa ; magar dast-i ahumd 
basta ast? (= helpless creature!). 

Helpless, to be, az kdr dar mdndan ; az javdb 
*djiz shvd (he could not answer) ; az 
marg-i barddar-ash kamar-i u shikast (after 
his brother's death he became helpless, 
he could do nothing ^); bi dost u pa shud. 

Hem, maghzl (a border or hemming of other 
cloth added) ; labak (edging, gen. of tape) ; 
bi-khayydt bi-gu In pdrcha rd sijdf^ bi- 
girad; hdshiya (border of shawl or car- 
pet) ; daman (skirt or hem of cloak, etc.). 

Hemming, bakhiya {k.). 

Hemistich, misrd' or misra' = nisf-i bayt. 

Hemlock, shukardn or shawkardn (a species 
of hemlock). Vide Henbane. 

Hemorrhage, khun-ravish(?) ; jaraydn-i dam. 

Hemorrhoids, bavdsir-i khunl (pi. of bdsur ; 
sing, not used). 

Hemp, bang'"" or varaq^^l-khaydi (leaves); 
hashish ; chars (for Hindustani charas ; for 
drinking) ; kanab (for Ar. qinnab). 

Hen, murgA-i khdnagi (gen. ; but sp. female) ; 
mdkiydn (rare in m.c). 

Henbane, saykardn (night shade ?) ; bikh-i taft 
(the poison supposed to have been given 
to Suqrdt or Socrates ; hemlock ?). 

Hence, az dnjd; az In jihat (for this reason) ; 
az injd (from this place); ba'd, or az in 
pas (of time). 

Henceforth, ba'd az In; ba^da-hd or ba'da-h". 

Henna,* hinnd Ar. , or vulg. Pers. hind ; hinnd- 
ash rarhg na-girift (he did not succeed) ; 
hinnd-ash rang na-darad. (his business does 
not flourish; also he has no awe, autho- 
rity, q.v.) ; hinnd bastan (to dye with 
henna). Vide Dye. 

Hen-pecked, muzakkar-i sarnd'i (of husband) ; 

Heptagon, musabba'^ : haft-gusha*i. 

Her. VideKis. 

Herald, cha^ush (guide to a qdfXa; also an 
ofl&cial that rides a little way ahead of the 
Shah's carriage; chdwtsh in Turkish a Ser- 
geant) ; munddi or jdrchi (public crier) ; 

rikd or shdlir (a runner immediately in 
front of a carriage). 

Herat, Hardt. 

Herb, sahzl, pi. sabzljdt, or sabzi dldt 
(vegetables and kitchen heibs): ruatanl 
(any vegetable) ; ishdn faqat nabdidt rni- 

Herd, gala or galla (gen.) ; rama (of sheep or 
goats) ; khayl or rama asp (of horses). 

Herod, Htrudis. 

Herdsman, galla-ddr or galkt-bdn ; shabdn or 
shiibdn; chupdn. 

Here, injd; in-su; huy huy (look here, look 
here !) ; tak tak (here and there ; dotted 
about) ; in ast 'Aziz Beg,^ khud-ash mi- 
dyad (here is 'Aziz Beg himself, now com- 

Hereafter, dar dyanda ; sipas ; pas az in. 
Vide Henceforth. 

Hereditary, irsi ; maivrusi ; mirdsi ; maraz-i 
mMiorusi (hereditary disease) ; amrdz-imu- 
tandsila (hereditary diseases). Vide Dis- 

Heresy, bid'at; rafz (the here.«iy of the 

Heretic, ahl-i bid'at; khdriji (the Sunnis are 
so called by the ShI'ahs) ; rdfizi (the 
Shi'ahs are so called by the Sunnis), 

Heritage, irs or mirds; matrukdt pi. 

Hermaphrodite," nar u muk, vulg. for nar- 
nidda; nar-mdya , zan-mard ; khunsq; 
[khoja T. " eunuch ' '] ; [mukhannas Ar. an 
effeminate person, but in Persian herma- 

Hermit, gusha-nishin ; 'dbid (devotee, q.v.; 
not necessarily hermit) ; zJdhid (leads an 
ascetic life, not necessarily alone). 

Hermitage, saioma'a. 

Hernia, fatq; qari. 

Hero, yal ; gurd (old) ; gav (by Zardushtis) ; 
shir-mard ; gkdzi (religious warrior) ; Rus- 
tam-i vaqt ast. 

Heroic, vide Brave; bahr-i mutaqdrib 
(heroic verse; the metre of the Shah- 
Heroism, yaU (rare). Vide Bravery. 

1 Ka»-i ki baradar na-darad quwat-i kamar na-darad ; common saying. 

5 Sijaf prop. ' ' piping. " • u • j • ^ 

s Urdu bfiang; in Ar. banj. HaahsMshln, smokers and sellers of Ao«Af«A, from which la derived 
' assasin.' 

* The Zardushti women do not dye the nails with henna. The custom, too, is dying out amongst 

<• Beg pronounced like the English word ' ' beg. " u • ^u 

« In public prayers, hermaphrodites take their station between men and women, but m other res- 
pects they observe the customs of women. For the spiritual existence of these unfortimates, vtde 
Hidaya, Vol. IV, p. 559. 




Heron, rmhl-gtr ; butimdr (heron?); 'aqdr 
or haqdr (common heron); jarda (purple 
heron) ; vdq (night heron) ; [in poetry 
gtam-hhurak , gAussa-khurak , and Mdlik" 
^l-Hazln; nothuzn]. 

Herpes, tablchJdl. 

Hesitate, taraddud ddshtan ; pas u pish k. ; 
dar shish u bish uftddan; dil dil k. (to be 
uncertain) ; pas-i gardan-at rd ma-khdrdn 
( = don't hesitate, don't turn over excuses 
in your mind). 

Hesitating, mutaraddid (part.); muzahzah; 
taraddud {d.) (subs.). 

Hesitation, taraddud; tazabzub. 

Hexagon, shash-gusha; musaddas. 

Hexagonal, shash-gusha^i ; musaddasi. 

Hiccough, /MvaA; (also sobbing, q.v.) ; saksaka. 

Hidden, panhan (k.) ; nihdn {k.) ; nihufta {k. 
or ddshtan or guzdshtan) ; pushida {k. or 
d. or g.) ; makhfi k. or d. or g.) ; nd-padid 
(gashian) (not visible) ; mastur (also cov- 

Hide, charm (untanned hide of oxen, ele- 
phants or very large animals; also 
leather); pust (of sheep, goats, deer, 
tigers or small animals ; also skin of fruits, 
bark, etc.) ; jild (skin of human beings ; 
also cover of a book). 

Hide, to, nihuftan, rt. nihdn; pushidan, tr. ; 
(jjid^ib shudan, intr. ; inzivd^ guzidan (to 
hide in a corner like a hermit) ; kaldgfj, 
duzdl mi-kunad va har-chi ml-taidnad ' 
pinhdn mi-kunad ; lashkar shikast khurda 
dar bisha mutavdri shudand (the army was 
defeated and (the soldiers) hid in the 

Hideous, karift"H-manzar ; zishti bar u khatm 
bud ; misl-i shakl-i Shaytdn. 

Hiding-place, kamin-gdh (ambush) ; makman. 

Hierarch, buzurgdn-i millat ; pishvdydn-i din ; 
ru^asd-yi ruhdni. 

High, buland ; 'dli (in m.c. also 'grand' of 
buildings) ; raji' ; murtaft ; 'dli-makdn or 
'dli-martaba (of high station) ; vazi' u 
sharif, or amir u faqtr, or khdss u 'dmm,OT 
pddishdh u gadd (high and low, rich and 

poor) ; Khudavandri Ta^ dlq ■^ (God the 
Most High). 

High-flier , buland-parvdz (of birds ; and met. 
of men who make a show). 

High-minded, 'dli-dimdgh, and 'dli-hawscUa 
(noble) ; 'dli-nazar. 

Highness, A'la Hazrat (for Shah only); 
Hazrat-i FaZ5 (Royal Highness); Navvdb^ 
or Navvdb-i_ydld {ioT ordinary Shahzadas); 
Hazrat-i 'Alt (a term applied by an 
inferior to any gentleman) ; [a gentleman 
writing to_a servant would address the 
envelope 'All Hazrat-i Fuldn; Muqarrab" 
^l-Hazrat is applied to munshis and 

High-road, shdh-rdh.* 

Highwayman, rdh-zan; quttd^ "^ t-tariq (in 
m.c. used only in pi.). 

Hijaz, Hijdz (see Arabia). 

Hill, kuh ; silsila-yi kuh (range of — ) ; qulla 
(summit of — ) ; dar vildyat-i Khwdrazm 
kuh-i kam ast^ ; darra u tappa (hill and 
dale) ; [az darra u tappa pdra-yi suvdldt 
kard, he questioned me on various or 
irrelevent matters]. 

Hilly, kuhistdn and kuhistdni (of a country) 
kuhi (of man, animals, etc.). 

Hilt, qab:}a. 

Hinder, maw k. ; bdz ddshtan ; muzdhim 
shudan; izdlhdm-i mardum qadri mdni' az 
tamdshd bud (the thronging of the crowd 
hindered us from seeing the spectacle 
properly) . 

Hindrance, mdni' , pi. mavdni' (part.; also 
mdni'i^, a thing that prevents, a hind- 
rance) ; sadd (barrier) ; in kdr 'dHq-i pish- 
raft-am shud (this hindered my advance- 

Hindoo, Hindu, Hindu, pi. Hunud; HindJi'^ 
" Indian." 

Hinge, lawla; qabza (Indian?); pdshna-yi 
dar (either European hinge or its Eastern 
substitute, i.e., a pivot) ; pdshna-gard (the 
socket or hole in which the pivot works). 

Hint, imd'' {k.) ; kindya, or gusha, zadan; dar 
in bob chiz-i ishdra-i bi-u bi-kunid colloq. 
(give him a slight hint). Vide Allude. 

I Or birtavanad. 

•i Taala (Ar.) prop, a verb " may He be oxalted " ; note the incorrect izafa'. 

5 Note tashdld : in India incorrectly navab. 

4 There are no ' roads ' in Persia high or otherwise. 

6 Vulg. for kuh kam ast. Kuh-i bisyar "much hill" or kuh-ha-yi bisyar " many hills " ; both 

8 ^«iLc P., and with ^ of unity ^_j5k>olx:. 

1 As Indian settlers are usually bariyana, many Persians think that aU Indian are Hindus. 




Hippocrates, Buqrat also Abuqrat. 

Hippopotamus, aap-i daryd*i. 

Hip, Hips, hula (the hip) ; kafcU (quarters) ; 
[pur-kafal, or ' broad below the hips,' is a 
point of beauty in women]. 

Hire, kirdya (of animals, conveyances; and 
also rent) (k.) ; ujrat (of labourers, etc., 
only) ; muzd (of a labourer). Vide Wa«;e8, 

Hire, to, bi-kirdya giriftan; ajir k. (of 
labourers) ; yak takkt-i ravdn va zaiuraq-% ' 
bdyad kirdya kunam; bi-kirdya dddan ; 
ijdra d. (to let on hire). 

Hirer, mukdri (one who hires out mules, 
donkeys, camels) ; kirdya-kun and musta'^ 

Hired labourer, Hireling, ajir. 

His, mdl-i u ; mdl-ash ; az dn-i m. 

Hiss, to. Hist! his his kardan (of men, i.e., 
to say hist — ' * come here " ) ; fis k. (of 
snake) ; ahsant ahsant k. (lit. to say bravo 
= to hiss a person in public on the stage, 
etc. ; ironical). 

Historian, tdrikh-navis ; muvarrikh (for rmt- 
^arrikh) . 

History, tdrikh, or pi. tavdrikh ; 'ilm-i tdrtkh 
rd bi'dkhir rasdnda ast (he has studied his- 
tory deeply). Vide Study. 

Hit, zadan, rt. zan; zarb zadan; zarb-i sha- 
dtd-i bi-sar-am zad = khayli sakht tu-yi 
sar-am zad ; chub rd bi-man dshnd kard ; 
khurdnn bi — , intr. ; khiydl-ashb i-tn iadbir 
bar khurd ki — (he hit upon this device 
— ). Vide Beat. 

Hitch, girih (lit. knot) ; gir (catch, hitch). 

Hitter, zananda ; zdrib. 

Hive, kandu ; qandll (this is a barrel-like 
hole in the wall with a wooden lid that 
has a small bee-entrance in it). 

Ho ! ho^i or o*J .' ; ay kas-l ki dar utaq 
hastt ! ay Karbald^l ! ay Mashhadl '^ ! 
(ho thou within!) ; ay khwdhar! ; ay ham- 
shira ! ay mddar ! etc . ; ay bachcha-hd, 
kas-i bardbar nabdshad ( = I'm coming in, 
let your women veiP themselves). 

Hoard, andukhta ; dafina (buried treasure) ; 
zakhtra (gen. ; store). 

Hoard, to, ihtikdr k. (hoarding up any grain 
or any necessity of life to increase its 
price) * ; andukhtan. 

Hoar-frost, zhala, aarmd-riza. 

Hoarse, sadd-yi shumd girifta ast? 

Hoarseness, giriftagl-yi gvlu. 

Hobble, to, langdn langdn rdh raftan ; langt- 
dan ; kaj u chula rdh raflan. Vide Wad- 

Hobby. Vide Falcon. 

Hock, Hough, bakham (of horse, or other 

Hock, to. Vide Hamstring. 

Hoe, bil (z) : bilcha (z.) (smaller). 

Hog, khuk (gen.),- gurdz (boar); khinzir, pi. 
khandzlr (also a disease; goitre?). Vide 
Boar and Pig. 

Hog, to, ydl zadan (a horse's mane). 

Hold, tasallut (ddshtan) (influence, q.v.) ; 
khann or arnbdr (of ship). Vide Cabin. 

Hold, to, ddshtan, rt. ddr ; gunjdnidan (to 
contain) ; pas kashidan or vd isiddan, intr. 
(to hold back) ; qalam rdbi-dast-i chap ml- 

Hold-all. Vide Wallet. 

Hole, surdkh ; manfaz, pi. mandfiz (venti- 
lation holes) ; rawzan (light-hole) ; dar za- 
mm gawd- 1 bi-kan ; mddagi (button-hole). 

Holiday, ta'ttl, and vulg. riizi rukhaat ; 'id, 
or vulg. 'ayd (annual festival and holi- 
day) ; 'idi (adj.). 

Holiness, taqaddus ; TaqaddiLS Ma*db (His 
Holiness ; for Mujtahids, the Pope, etc.). 

Hollow, puk (vulg.) ; miydn tuhi; ajvaf Ar. ; 
db-kand (water-hollow) ; dust i zdhiri (hoi 
low friend) ; gawdi-yi dost (of hand). 

Hollyhock, khatmi; [possibly the marsh- 
mallow is also so named]. 

Holsters, qabul (leather, for saddle) ; qdh-i 
tapdncha (box for pistols; of wood). 

Holy, muqaddas ; pdk ; taqdis (to make holy ; 

Holy Ghost. Ruh" 'l-Quds. 

Homage, izhdr-i 'ubudiyyat k. ; bay' at k. (to 
swear allegiance to). 

Home, khdna; manzil ; vatan (native coun- 
try); dir-vaqt shud,^ bi-yd biravim khdna; 
man khdna-nishiji shvdam, (I was confined 
to the house ; from sickness, poverty, or 
because of dismissal from office) ; dg^ 
tashrif ddrand? (is the gentleman at 
home ?) ; bale, khdna ast. 

Home-made, sdkht-i U^ana, or adl^t-i mtUk. 


1 Or yak zawraq (any small boat). 

* Karbala*i one who has performed the pilgrimage to Kerbela, ^id Maahhadi one who has done so 
Meshed. It is civil to address unknown people by such terms. > 

S For Muslims only ; Zardushti women do not veil. Ay bachchal a ! also = Hindustani ko*l hai ? 

* A common custom in Persia though forbidden by Muslim law. ) 

S But vaqt tang aat. An Indian or an Afghan might say tang »h%^ i. 






Home-Secretary, Vazir-i Dakhila (for Vazlr-i 
umur-i dakhila). 

Homicide,' khun or gatl (k.) (the action); 
khuni or qdtil (person) ; [khiin-ddr is the 
killer, as opposed to Ichun-khwah, the heir 
claiming death for the killer in lieu of the 
kh,un-bahd or diya]. 

Homogeneous, ham-iins. 

Homogeneousness, ham-jinsl. 

Homonym, tajms ; ham-sawt. 

Hone, sang-i sab ; sang-i fisdn. 

Honest, amm; durust-kdr ; mutadayyin "^ 

Honesty, diyanat ; amdnat-pishagi ; durust- 
kdri ; tadayyun. 

Honey, shahd ; 'asal; angahln; shahd-i ndb 
or -khdlis (pure honey) : khdna-hd or su- 
rdkh-hd-yi ^ shdn hamlsha musaddas ast (the 
cells of the comb are hexagonal). Vide 

Honour, 'asmat, for Hsmat; 'iffat (chastity); 
u Hzzat-i ziydd bi-ham rasdnda ast ; ri- 
'dyat-i nam u nang iqtizd-yi dn mt-kard ki 

— (honour required that ) ; makhsus-i 

nam dar guriz ast (it is a point of honour 
to run away) : vide Dignity, Rank, etc. ; 
mahz-i dbru khud-kushi kard (he com- 
mitted suicide to save his honour, escape 
disgrace) . 

Honour, to, ihtirdm n. ; mumtdz garddnldan ; 
imtiydz bakhshidan ; bi-sharaf-i m,uldqdt-i 
shdn musharraf shudam (I had the honour 
to meet him). 

Honoured, mu' azzaz ; musharraf ; muhia- 
ram; mukarram. 

Honourable, muhtaram; muvaqqar ; zikr-i 
jamil (honourable mention). 

Honouring, ihtirdm [k.) ; i'zdz {k.), tawqir k. 

Hood, bdsh-luq, T. ; kuldh, P. (for hawk ; 
also hat, etc.) ; and [burqa' At. ; local]. 

' Hood-shy, ' bad-kulah (of hawks) 

Hoof, sum; sum-i chdk-ddr (cloven — ). 

Hook, shist or qulldb-i mdhi (fishing) ; qulldba 
(iron hook in the roof) ; nar u Ids * (hooks 
and eyes) and qazan qulfi'° (a bazar 
name) ; pd-nihddanl (hooks on a sporting- 
belt) ; dns (reaping hook) ; qanndra and 

kinndra (hooks with tripod for suspending 
a whole carcase in a butcher's shop). 

Hook, to, bi-qulldb kashldan or zadan (to 
hook up or suspend an article) ; bi-qulldb 
giriftan (to hook a fish). 

Hoop, halqa. 

Hooping-cough, siydh-surja. 

Hoopoe, murgh-i Sulaymdm ; the hoopoe 
carried the letter of Solomon to the Queen 
of Sheba, hudhud^ kaghaz-i Hazrat-i 
Sulaymdn rd pish-i Bilqis burd; [Hadhdd 
was the name of the father of Bilqis]. 

Hope, ummld (ddshtan) ; tavaqqu' {k.) ; 
chashm-ddsht (expectation) ; ummid ast ki 
zud sharaf-ydb bi-shavam (I hope to call on 
you soon) ; gumdn-i ghdlib , or ummid-i 
qavi or qat'i (strong hope). 

Hope, to, ummidvdr shudan ; tab na-ddshta 
bdshid'^? (I hope you have not got 

Hopeful, ummidvdr (in India also a candi- 
date for a prize, or place in examination, 

Hopeless, nd-ummid or nawmid; ma^yus ; 
mahrum (disappointed) ; dast az jdn shus- 
tan (to despair of life). Vide Despair. 

Hopelessly, nawmiddna; bi-navdydna; ma"- 

Horizon, ufuq, (pi. dfdq for the four sides of 
the world). Vide Elburz. 

Horizontal, ufuqi (rare) ; khatt-i uftdda or — 

Horizontality, ujuqiyyat. 

Horizontally, bi-tawr-i ufuql ; uftdda vulg. = 

Hormuz, Hurmuz. 

Horn, shdkh {zadan) (of animals) ; karnd or 
surnd (2.) (the instrument, vide Trumpet) ; 
buq {z.) (bugle) ; nuk (of moon) ; jilaw- 
giri k. (to pull in one's horns). 

Horned, shdkh-ddr. 

Hornet, zarnbur ; zdru (a yellow wasp) ; 
chEl-i zarnbur or ghdl-i zarnbur (hornet's 
nest). Vide Comb. 

Horoscope, zd^icha ov tMv -i zd%cha , munaj- 
jim-hd zd^icha-ash rd navishtand; naqsha 
(the diagram) ; khdna-bandi k. (to divide 

1 No distinctive words for mans=laught^, homicide and murder, though the latter might be rendered 
khun-i 'amdi 

* Mutadayyin prop. ' ' religion ' ' 

3 But ghal-i zarnbur wasp's nei . Qhal = nest. 

4 In India huk-i nar u mada. 
6 Derivation not clear. 

8 Hudhud has been erroneously rendered * lapwing ' by translators of the Qur'an. 
T Note Subj. expressing a doi bt ; nordarld would express an assertion, but tab ki na-darld would 
express a doubt. 




the diagram into squares and triangles; 
Jdhdna-'pur k., to fill in the numerical 
values, etc.). 

Horrible, hawl-iridk and dahshat-ndk (fearful); 
muhish ; muvahhiah (prop, desolater). 

Horrify, Horrified, vaqt-% ki in harf rd zad\ 
zamin zir-i pd-yam larztd (when you said 
that I was horrified) ; gusht-hd-yam db 

Horror, hawl (fear) ; kardhat (dislike). 

Horse, asp or asb, and vulg. as; ydbu (a 
coarse-bred pony, gen. a pack-pony) ; 
asp-i kutal (pron. kutal; a riderless horse, 
led for parade purposes during the Muhar- 
ram, or at the death of a great person) ; 
yadak (a spare led horse; hence yadaki. 
adj. , spare) ; markab (pi. mardkib " ships ") 
(any riding beast) ; akhta (gelding) ; the 
horse when it neighs says 'Oh God, res- 
pect him that respects me and disgrace 
him that dirg races me,' asp dar shlka 
ml-guyad ' Alldhumma a'izz"^ mana'azza-nt 
wa ahin man ahdna-m ' ; du asp-i chdldk 
ki dar raftan az bdd sabqat burdand — (two 
horses swifter than the wind — ) ; in asp 
mdl-i kist? whose horse is this 1 but in 
asp mdl-i kujd ast? of what district is 
this horse ? where was it bred ? ' 

Horse-cloth, jul. 

Horse-shoe, na'T^ [bastan or zadan). 

Hospitable, mihman-navdz ; mihmdn-dust ; 
dar-i khdna-ash hamisha bdz ast ; sufra-ash 
hamisha pahn ast, or khdli az mihmJdn nist. 

Hospitably, bi-navdzish ; az ru-yi mihmjdn- 

Hospital, mariz-khdnori hamin zudi-hd dnjd 
bind^ mi-shavad ; shifd-khdna; haspitdl 

Hospitality, mihmdn navazi ; mihmdn^par- 

Host, miz-bdn ; mihmdn-ddr (also an official 
in charge of State guests). 

Hosteige, girawgdn,V. ; yarghamJdl, T. ; zdmin 
u kafil (guarantee; bail). 

Hostile, mukhdlif ; m,undqiz. 

Hostility, mukhdlafat ; mundqazat. Vide 

Hot, ddgiA (boiling-hot, or buming-hot ; of 
water or metals) ; surkh (red-hot) ; garm 

(warm) ; tund or hdrr (to the taste, or in 
effect; of eatables, etc.); tiz (of disposi- 

Hot-house, bi-garm-khdna 'amal dvardan (to 
raise in hot-houses). 

Hotel, mihmdn-khdna ; lokanda (in the Gulf). 

Hough. Vide Hock. 

Hound, tula (any sporting-dog that hunts by 
scent ; also a pup) ; ^azt (greyhound) : sag-i 
shikdri. Vide Dog. 

Hour, sd'at (also watch, clock) ; az ru-yi ad' at 
("by the hour" or "by the clock"); 
yak sd'at-i nujumi muntazir-i shurrvd bu- 
dam (I waited for you a whole hour). 

Hour-glass, shisha-yi sd'at; [shisha-yi qdb, 

Houris, HUri, P. {Hur, Ar. pi., but used as 
a singular in P. : P. pi. hurtydn) — ki dar 
muqdbil-i husn-ash hur va pari sharminda 
and^ — Prof. S. T. (she shamed the very 
houris and fairies by her beauty). 

Hourly, har sd'at; sd'at bisd'at. 

House, khdna; manzil [pi. mannzil, stages]; 
maskan, pi. masdkin; 'imdrat, pi. 'imdrdt 

House-bresiker, naqb-zan (by digging through 
the wall or under ground). 

Household, ahl-i khdna; ndn-khtpdr. 

Householder, khdna-ddr ; sdhib- khdna. 

House-keeper, khdna-ddr. 

House-keeping, khdna-ddri (also thrift). 

House-warming, ziydfat* (no special name 
though the custom exists). 

Housewife. Vide Woman. 

How, chi tawr ? ; chi-guna ? ; chi qadar y (how 
much?)"; chi qadar rah (how far?); charui 
(how many ?) ; har chand (however much) ; 
hi chi vajh (in what way?); '' Ahval-at 
khub ast?'' '' Az kujd khitb ast?'' 
("How are you; well?" "By no 
means.") ; ahvdl-i sharif? (how are you ?) ; 
chun-i (how are you ? vulg. and double 
entendre); bi-chi zudi? (how soon?); 
digar chi? (how else, what else?); chi 
qism vdqi' shud? (how did it happen ?). 

Howda, hawdaj (for elephant). 

Howl, dula, or zuza, kashidan (of jackals). 

Howling, vo/yaia {k.) (shouting and weeping; 
also cries of exultation of persons). 

' Kia khet kaghora hai? Hindustani. Qara (dull black); muahki (bright black); qara kahar (dark 
bay) ; aap-i char qalam.aafld (with 4 white stockings); daw (ordinary gallop); <5fcir (full gallop). 

2 Na'^l dar atash aruiakhtan an idiom, classical tmd modern, " to render restless." A lover writes 
the name of the beloved, and adds it to a ^iam on a horse-shoe and casts it into the fire, and by this 
means attracts the love of his mistress. 

^ Historical present. 

* The feast must be preceded by a raima-lelkvant. 




Hub, chamhara (of a wheel). 

Hubbub, hangdma; ma'raka. Vide Crowd, 

Dervish, Turmoil. 
Hue and cry, hdydhu (k.) (to cry and chase) ; 

dad u biddd k. (to cry out). 
Hug, to, dar haghal giriftan or — kashidan; 

kishti kindr kindr harakat mi-kard. 
Hull, tana (of a ship). 
Hum, vin-vina {k.) (of bees) ; ham-hama (of 

people). Vide Mumble. 
Human, insdnt and bashari (adj.); insdn ; 

ddam-zdd (human being) ; bani naw'-i 

insdn, or bani naw'-i bashar (the human 

race) ; tabi'at-i bashari (human nature) ; 

[insdniyyat is courtesy and refinement] ; 

ins u jmn (men and jinns). 
Humane, halim (of mild temper) ; rahm-dil 

(pitiful) ; sdkib-muruwat. 
Humanity, muruvvat. Vide Compassion. 
Humble, faru-tan; rmitavdzi' (also polite, of 

superiors to inferiors) ; miskin (poor) ; 

mazZwm (prop, "oppressed," but in m.c. 

" quiet ' ') ; ujtdda ; shikasia-nafs. 
Humble, to, faru-lani or uftddagi k. , intr. (to 

humble oneself) ; zalil k. ; bi-khdk nishdn- 

dan ; dimdgtA bi-khdk mdlidan, tr. 
Humbug, chi bdzif (what humbug! what 

rot !) ; that black (Negro) dervish is a 

great humbug, an darvish-i siydh khayli 

kalak ' mi-zanad ; pufyHz (quack) ; qash- 

mar Ar. coll. Vide Joker. 
Humid, tar (wet) ; martub ; rutubat ddrad 

(damp). Vide Wet. 
Humidity, rutubat; [tari = freshness]. 
Humiliation, sar-shikastagi {k.) ; zillat {d.) ; 

takqir (k.). 
Humility, uftddagi ; faru-tani ; tavdzu' (also 

condescension) ; kuchaki. 
Humming-bird, murgh-i magas. 
Humour, khilt, pi. akhldt (the humours of 

the body) ; sar-i dimdgh, or parr-i dimdgk, 

or sar-i kayf, budan (to be in a good 

Hump, kawhdn, kuhdn or kiiha (of camel) ; 

quz (of man); [quz bdld-yi quz, fig., to 

crown all ; misfortune on misfortune ; the 

last straw]. 
Hump-backed, kuz-pusht or quz-pusht; quzu 


Hundred, sad'''; duvist^ (two-hundred); si- 
sad or si-sad* (three-hundred). 

Hungary, Majdristdn. 

Hunger, gurisnagi ; ju' ; ishtihd'^ (appetite); 
az gushnagi glkash karda am, za'f mi- 
kunam; sadd-i jW k. (to appease hunger). 

Hungry, gurisna; gurisna-yi man ast (vulg. 
" we are hungry ") ; tdlib (seeking after). 

Hunt, shikdr k. ; sayd k. 

Hunter, shikari or shikdr-chi; sayydd; 
shikdr- or sayd-garddn (beater). 

Hunting, shikdr (k.) ; sayd {k.) ; shikdr-gdh 
(hunting-ground) . 

Hurl, partdb k. (for things) ; anddkhtan. 

Hurrah, to, hurd kashidan — Shah's Diary. 

Hurricane, bdd-i tufdn. 

Hurried, dast-pdcha: hawlaki (flurried). 

Hurriedly, hawlak hawlak raftan; [but hav)- 
lakhawlak khurdan "to gobble"]; sard- 
sima ( = hurriedly and in confusion). 

Hurriedness, dast-pdchagl (flurry). 

Hurry, 'ajala; shitdb ; ammd mi-shavad ki 
shumd dar dn hdy u hu va dast-pdchagi 
multafit-i tifl na-shuda bdshid (possibly in 
the hurry and confusion you did not 
notice the child). 

Hurt, zarar (injury or loss) ; nuqsdn (loss) ; 
sadma (blow; to body or mind). Vide 

Hurt, to, az mushdhada-yi chunin qabdhat-i 
dil-ash mi-suzad; ranjdnidan, tr. ; dzurdan, 
rt. dzdr, tr. (the feelings); aziyyat k., or 
tzd dddan, tr. (the body) ; dil shikastan 
(to hurt the feelings of — ). 

Hurtful, muzirr (of things) ; muzi (of animals, 

Hurting, dil-khardsh (of words). 

Husband, shu; shawhar ; mard (vulg.). 

Husbandman, zdri' , pi. zdri in (cultivator) ; 
falldh, pi. falldhin (a common tiller). 

Husbandry, zird'at; jaldhat. 

Hush!, khdmush! ; bdsh! ; drdm, dram 
(quiet, quiet!). 

Hush-money, haqq-i sukut ('hush-money.' 
Vide Recompense and Remuneration). 

Husk, pusi. 

Husk, to, pust kandan; muqashshar k. 

Hut, kulba; kapar ; kuma, pron. kuma (a 

1 Kalak-ash ra bastand " they tied up his jaw after death " (of Muslims). The Zardushtis do not 
tie up the jaw but cover the face, leaving the eyes visible. 

'■^ Sad «x^ Pers. , so written to distinguish it from 0mm At. ' ' barrier. ' ' 

8 Afghans say du-sad. 

* (X«e Am) (not (XiOms, but in speaking (XhAxm). 




sportaman's hiding place) ; tdpu (a 

wooden hut shaped like a tente d'abri and 

covered with mud). 
Hyacinth, sumbul; sumhuUi hiydbdni (wild) 
Hyaena, kaftdr. Vide Wolf. 
Hydrocele, hddri khJdya (there are two kinds 

gushli and dbl) ; aJb-i nuzul. 
Hydrophobia, sag-gazi (prob. trans, of Arabic); 

kalab (med.). 
Hymn, sarud-i miLqaddas {khwdndan) ; tasbih 

u tahlil {k.) (praising God) ; mundjdt {k. or 

M.) (gen. sung at the dead of night or in 

the early morning). 
Hyperbole, ighrdq (guftan) ; mubdlagl^ (g.) ; 

(the Figure mubdlagha is divided into 

tablig^, ighrdq, (jAuluv). 
Hypochondria, mdlikhuliyd or sawdd {dash- 
Hypocrisy, riyd; riyd-kdri; du-ru^i: nifdq 

(in Persian, hypocrisy in friendship). 
Hypocrite, dtt-ru; riyd-kdr : mundfiq (in 

Hypocritical, gurg dar libds-i mish (wolf in 

sheep's clothing) ; 'aqrab-i zir-i hasir, or 

rmr-i zir-i kah (snake in the grass). 
Hypothesis, jarz, pi. furuz; bar farz-i taslim 

ki — (on the supposition that — ). 
Hypothetical, farzi ; i'tibdri (opposed to 

haqiqi actual). 
Hyssop, zufd. 
Hysteria, khajaqdn (slight, temporary) ; bdd-i 

khaydldt ; ikhtindq-irahim {med., of women 


I, man; man-am (I am); [banda, Jiaqtr, 
mukhlis, etc., are substitutes for "I"]; 
man khud-am, or vulg. man-i khud (I 

Ibex, pdzan ; buz-i kuhi ; buz-i pd-sang. 

Ice, yakh; db-i yakh (iced water); bastanl 
(the confection) ; the sun has thawed all 
the ice, az hardrat-i dftdb tamdm-i yakh-hd 
ab shuda ast; qadr-i mayl mt-farmdyid az 
in bastani? (will you have a little of this 
ice?). Fide Uninteresting. 

Ice, to, yakh pushdndan (with ice) ; shakar- 
push k. (with sugar; of cakes, etc.). 

Ice-house, yakh-chdl or yakh-ddn.^ 

Ichneumon. Vide Mongoose. 

Icicle, qalam-i yakh. 

Idea, khaydl (k.) ; tasawur (k.) ; tasawur-i 
bdtil (vain idea) ; bi-har hdl mi-bdyiat^ Ura 
az in sardfat andaUu (at any rate it is 
necessary to get this notion out of her 
head) ; hich bi-khaydl-am na-rasid ki imrUz 
khwdhad dmad (or bi-ydyad) ; az in khaydl 
bi-yuft (put this idea out of your head) ; 
JchiydUi dur u dardz (far-fetched ideas; 
also thoughts of events far distant); az 
irdda bdz dmadan (to give up an idea or 
intention) ; yak rishta ittild' az dn maUab 
bidihid (give me some idea, clue, about 
it) ; khaydl-ash bi-jd'i band na-shud (he 
couldn't make up his mind, or decide). 
Vide Doubt, Conjecture, and Opinion. 

Identical, 'ayn-ih; hamdn and hamin (" that 
very ' ' and " this very *') ; yak chiz ast, or 
har du yak-i ; hu bi-hu (exactly like) ; 
^ayn-i khudrash ast (it is the identical 
thing ; just what I wanted). 

Identification, shindkht ; tashkhis (k.). 

Identify, vaqt-i ki qissa-yi Majnun rd mi- 
khipdnam ham-rang-i Majnun mi-shavam 
(when I read the story of Majniln I 
identify myself with him); in murgh rd 
tashkhis na-karda am ki az kuddm jins ast. 

Id est, ya'ni; a'ni. 

Idiom, istildh ; muhdvara. 

Idiomatic, istildhi ; bd muJidvara. 

Idiot, ablah-i fitri; kawdan-i muUaq (news- 
paper) ; haplahapu (slang ; half-witted 
but not quite idiot ; perhaps a corrup. of 
the mod. Ar. coll. haiodiva). 

Idiotic, ahmaql and ablahi (foolish). 

Idle, tambal (lazy) ; tambal-i Baghddd (very 
lazy) ; kdhil and sust (slack ; takes no 
exercise ; also idle in work) ; bd^-gush 
(playful and hence idle ; of school-boys) ; 
chird bi-kdr bi-kdr dar shahr mi-gardi? 
(why do you wander round in a continued 
state ^ of idleness?); rdhat-talab (luxuri- 
ous; seeking comfort); 'uzr-i bi-jd (idle 
excuse). Vide Shirker. 

Idle, to be, tarnbali k. ; magas-pardni k. (to 
idle or waste the time; of merchants or 
the unemployed) ; vaqt rd bv-hich sarf k. 
(to idle away the time). 

Idleness, vaqt-i khud rd sarf-i tambaR (or 
kdhiR) mi-kunad; bi-kdri (want of work). 

Idol, but; sanam, pi. asnam; hold tu dan* va 

1 Yaldk-dan is also a rude kind of portmanteau (covered with leather). 

* Mi-bayiet stronger them bayad. 

8 Note the force of repetition of 6i-Jfc5r. 





but-i buzurg — Prof. S. T. (all right, you will 
see how the Great Idol will treat you ; 
look to yourself). 

Idolater, but-parast; [surat-parast worship- 
per of beauty]. 

Idolatry, but-parastl 

Idolize, tifl-ash ra mt-parastad (he idolizes 
his child). 

Idol-temple, but-kada; but-khdna. 

If, agar; in m.e. also hargdh, chundnchi, 
and agar chundnchi: va Hid, varna and 
a^ar na' (if not, otherwise, whereas); 
a,fsus ki jd-yi agar u magar u ammd ast 
(it's a pity there is an ' if ' in the case) ; 
Agar rd bd Magar tazvij kardand : .Az xshJdn 
bachcha-^l shud Kdshki ndm (If was mar- 
ried to But and the offspring of the union 
was ' Oh-would-that '). 

Ignite, dtash zadan or dddan, tr. ; dtash girif- 
tan, intr. ; mushta'il, or muhtariq, shudan 
and kardan; rushan k., tr. 

Ignoble, nd-najib ; bad-rag; bad-asl; faru- 
mdya; past: razil; dun (low): bi-^urza} 

Ignobly, bd zillat ; zallldna. 

Ignominy, rusvd^l ; fazihat ; khwdrt ; zillat. 

Ignorance, nd-dum ; jahl; jahdlat ; ayydm-i 
jahdlat,ovJahiliyyat (the time before Islam ; 
opp. to zamdn-i Isldm) ; tajdhul {k.) (feign- 
ing ignorance) ; jahl'i basit (simple igno- 
rance, i.e., not knowing anything) ; jahl-i 
murakkab (compound ignorance, i.e., 
thinking you know what you don't. Ex. 
An kas ki na-ddnad va bi ddnad ki na- 
ddnad .". Asp-i tarab az gurnbaz-i gardun 

An kas ki na-ddnad va bi-ddnad ki bi- 
ddnad .-. Dar jahl-i murakkab abad"^ 'd-dahr 
bi-mdnad; tajdhul u na-ddnam-kdri ma- 
farush (don't pretend ignorance) ; u khud 
ra bi-kucha-yi Hasan chap mi-zanad (he 
pretends ignorance; he avoids me: Id-'ilmi 
(being unacquainted with). Vide Turk. 

Ignorant, im-ddn; bi-ittild' ; bi-'ilm; bi-kha- 
bar (without information) ; man ndshi ^ az 
zahdn-i IngUsi hastam (I'm ignorant of 
English) ; bl-savdd ; ummi ; nd-khivdnda 
(unlettered). Vide Illiterate. 

Ignore. Vide Attention. 

Ill, nd-khu;Sh* (not well); mariz and bimdr 
(quite ill) (vulg.) ; suH (a little out of 
sorts) ; kasil ast or kasdlat ddrad (he is in- 
disposed) ; bad-hdl (dangerously ill ; but 
hdl-am bad ast may mean ' ' out of sorts " ) ; 
ahvdl-i ahad-i bar-ham na-hhurd (no one 
was sea-sick) ; kaj-khulq (ill-tempered) ; 
bl-vaqt and bt-hangdm (ill-timed) ; bad- 
bakht, or bakht bar gashta, or baUit-ash bi- 
khwdb ast (ill-fated) ; bad-nihdd (evil by 
nature) ; bad bdr dmada (ill-bred) ; bad- 
niyyat (ill-intentioned) : bad-khu^i ; bad- 
mizdjl (ill-temper) ; badi (evil) ; zarar 
(loss, calamity); dfat and bald (a gen. 
calamity) ; muslbat (a severe stroke of per- 
sonal ill-luck) ; ranj (pain) ; khaydl-i bad 
nisbat-i mardum na-kun (don't think evil 
of people). 

Illegal, hardm (unlawful) ; khildt-i shar' ^ (of 
Qoranic law) ; khildf-i 'urf (of civil law) ; 
khildf-i qdnun (contrary to civil law). 

Illegible, your writing is, illegible, tM^^.^?^ 
shumd khwdnda nami-shavad ; panja-yi ka- 
Idgh ast (like crow's feet); misl-i kalinjdr 
ast (like a crab). 

Illegitimate (child), hardm-zdda ; nutfa-yi ha- 
rdm; tukhm-i hardm; valad"^' z-zirid ; ay 
mddar bi-khatd (oh bastard, i.e. , one whose 
mother went wrong). 

Illiberal, sahhdvat na-ddrad (of money only) ; 
chunin khaydl-i khaydl-i kam-vu^'atdn ast 
(such a sentiment is illiberal). 

Illiterate, ummi; bi-savdd; nd-Tchivdnda ; 
dars na-Jchivdnda; ['dmmi "a common 
person"]; bd bi-tarbiyatdn^ musdhabat 
kardan mundsib nist. Vide Ignorant. 

Illness, nd-khushi ; maraz ; maraz-i mawt 
(last illness) ; bimdrl (vulg.) ; nd-chdqi 
(vulg).; su'^imizdj. 

Illuminate, = rawshan k. ; chirdghdn k. , or 
chirdgirbdni k. (to illuminate a city, etc.); 
tild-kdri k., or muzahhab k. (MSS.). 

Illuminated, muzahhab (of MSS.). 

Illuminati, ishrdqiyym (the Platonists of 

1 Surat-i khud ra az zarb-i aill aurkh karda-im va ilia az gurianagl quvvat-i zanu na-dartm " our 
cheeks are red from the slaps we have given them; but indeed we are so hungry that we can hardly 
stand up." 

2 ^ Urza incorrect for Ar. 'irz. 

3 Naahl P. "ignorant," in Arabic signifies " growing, arising." 
♦ In India " displeased." 

6 Shar' is religious law and 'urf customeiry law. There is however no law in Persia except the law 
of ' perhaps,' or ' go as you please.' 

6 Bi-tarbiyat ' ' uneducated " in its proper sense. 




Illumination, shahr ra chird^dn kardand 
(the city was illuminated). 

Illusion, khivdb u khaydl; (jiJirur (Sufi term) ; 
ashyd*^ rd zdda-yi awhdm va dar haqtqat 
ma*dum ml-danand (the Sufis think crea- 
tion to be an illusion of the senses) ; 
nazar-bandi (of conjuror). 

Illustrate, to, Illustration, tamsil or misdl 
{dddan and dvardan) (example) ; tasvir, pi. 
tasdvir (picture or drawing) ; bardy-i taio- 
zih-i hujjat-am (to illustrate my argu- 
ment) ; mafJab rd bd misdl shark dad (he 
cited examples in illustration of his mean- 

Illustrative, muvazzih. 

Illustrious, ndm-var (famous, renowned, 
q.v.) ; ashraf (most noble); jaltl"^ 'l-qadr; 
'dli (of name) ; ndm bar dvarda. 

Ill-will, badrkhwdhi. 

Image, but; sanam, pi. asndm (idol) : shakl; 

Imagination, Imagine, to, vahm, pi. awhdm; 
khaydl-ash khayli vus'at ddrad (a fertile 
imagination) ; nutq-i u bdb-i ajkdr rd gu- 
shud (his speech appealed to the imagina- 
tion) ; In khaydl az kujd sar zad? ; chiguna 
tasawur kardld man in sukhan rd qabul 
mi-kunam^ (or bi-kunam) ; dn khaydl dar 
nazar-am mujassam shud (my imagination 
made that real) ; az nazdik shudan-i ruz-i 
visdl khaydl-am rd khush mi-kardam (I was 
pleasing my imagination by indulging in 
the thought of our meeting) ; khdm-khaydll 
(idle imaginings). Vide Rein. 

Imaginative, pur-khaydli (of people or 

Imagined, khaydli : mawhum; mutasawar. 

Imagining, quvva-yi takhayyul. 

Imam, Imdm, pi. Ayimma. 

Imbecile, za'tf'^ 'l-'aql ; tdHfa-yi inds ndqis^ 
H-'aql-and (women are silly creatures ; of 
poor understanding). Vide Idiot. 

Imitate, to, taqltd k. , or tashabbuh k. (in good 
oi bad sense) ; zarb giriftan (also = to play 
the Persian tambourine at physical drill) ; 
iqtidd*' k. (of a good example) ; qvldbt k. 
(counterfeit or forge coins, etc., etc.) ; naql 
dar dvardan (to mimic) ; pay-ravi k. (follow 
in the ways of) . Vide Copy. 

Imitated, muqallad (of a holy man, by 

Imitation, taqltd; naql; in ja'U ast na asU; 

shdl-i tirma-numd (imitation KaAhmir 

shawl) ; in chiz bi-tarkib-i sang az chUb 

sdkhta-and, or in chiz bi-sang shabik cut 

vali az chub sdkhta and. 
Imitator, muqallid (gen. of one following the 

example of a holy man; also actor). 
Immaculate, ma'sum. 
Immaterial, ghnyr-i mdddi; gAayr-i jismdni. 

Vide Important. 
Immature, nd-ras (rather unripe ; of fruit) ; 

nd-bdUgi (of humans) ; rmqis,^ or nid- 

tamjdm (of plans) ; khdm (raw, very unripe ; 

of fruits, plans; inexperienced). 
Immeasurable, bi-andJdza; bi-nihdyat; birun 

az hadd-i hisdb. 
Immediately, dar hdl; favjr"* ; fawri {m..c.)\ 

fi-'l-faiur: bi-karf (without questioning); 

bi-mujarrad; bi-mahz; hamin ki (as soon 

as) ; hamin ki u dmad bild fdsila man raf- 

tam; (as soon as he arrived I left, without 

any interval of time). 
Immemorial, az qadim"^ H-ayydm. 
Immense, bi-anddza ; nd-mahsur; ihtimdl 

mi-ravad ki, dar in kdr kharj-i bi-hisdh 

khwdhad shud. 
Immerse, to, zir-i db k. ; khisdndan, tr. (to 

soak) ; ghuta dddan (to duck ; of things 

or persons). 
Immersed, mu^staghraq; dar mv^shkildt faru 

raft (he was involved in difficulties) ; 

mustaghraq-i fisq u fujur (plunged in 

debauchery) ; gharq-i fikr ast. 
Immersion, istighrdq; ghuta (ducking, di- 
ving) ; giriftdri (in work). 
Immigrant, muhdjir, pi. muhdjirin (also = 

emigrant) ; jald-vatan (m.c. ; prop. = 

Imminent, nazdik; qarib" 'l-vuqu' ; u mush- 

rif bi-mawt ast (his dying is imminent) ; 

chun bi-H-mushdfaha surat-i muf^dtara 

jilo gard/id (when the danger became 

imminent) ; dar sharaf-i vuqu' budan. 
Immobile, qd'^im: sdbit. 
Immoderate, bi-i' tidal (of persons); ghayr-i 

mu'tadil (of season, words, actions). 
Immodest, bi-sharm ; bi-hayd; khijaUU nOr 

jahm: bi-dard u 'dr (very shameless). 
Immolate fidd k. ; qurbdni k. 
Immoral, fdsiq u fdjir, and bad-kdr (of 

Immorality, fisq u fujur ; faadd-i akhlaq._ 
Immortal, la-yamut ; jdvid; jism fdni asi 

1 Future. 

* In India haqis generally means " spoilt " or " unservioeable." 




Ukin ruh baqi ; Sa' d? ki ndm-ash harmsha 
zinda ast mi-guyad — (the immortal Sa'di 

Immortality, haqd ; jdvid-manl ; abadiyyat. 

Immortalize, ism-i kas-% rd jdvid sdkhtani In 
ghazal ism-ash rd hdcp, khwdhad guzdsht. 

Immovable, sdhib-i 'azm (also determined ; 
of people) : ashyd-yi manqula va g[kayr-i 
manqula (movable and immovable pro- 
perty) : ishdn dar ra^y-i khud sdbit-and (or 
mustaqill) ; mustabidd^ W-ra^y (immovable 
in opinion) : In miz rd naql nanii-tavdn 
kard, or harakat naml-tavdn ddd. Vide 

Immunity, dzddl: mu'dfi (of taxes). 

Immutable, bi-tagkyir ; Id yazdl, or Id yata- 
baddal (of God only) ; Id yataghayyar. 

Imp, shayian-bachcha. 

Imp, to, payvand k. (to mend a feather in a 
hawk's wing or tail). 

Impale, qdbuq k. (to crucify on a plank 
or wall) ; qanndra zadan (on butcher's 
hooks) ; chdr mlkh kardan (on wall or 
ground) ; chub tu-yi kun kardan (in anus). 

Impalpable, latif ; ffhayr-i mahsus. 

Impart, to, dddan, rt. dih] bakhshtdan] ilqd 
k. ; bar md vdjib ast ki ' ilm-i khud rd bi- 
digardn talqm kuntm (or ta'lim dihim). 

Impartial, bi-taraf : bi-ta'assvh (sp. in re- 
lig.); hdktm-i 'ddil taraj-giri namt-kunad, 
or hdkim-i munsif bi-taraf ast. Vide Par- 

Impartiality, bi-taraf i : bi-ta'assubl. 

Impassable, bi-guzdr; 'ubiir na-pazir ; rdh-i 
'ubur u murur na-ddrad ; 'ubiir az in kuh- 
ha muhdi ast zird-ki az har taraf jangalhd- 
yi mdni'^ 'd-dukhUl ddrad (or — dnhd rd 
ihdta karda ast). 

Impatience, bi-sahri ; nd-shikibd^t ; bl-haw- 
salagl ; bi-tabii. 

Impatient, bi-sabr; nd-shiJdbd ; kam-hawsala 
or hi-hawsala; bl-idb ; khub, hawsala-at 
tang na-shavad (don't get impatient, 

Impeccable, ma'sHm (that has not sinned 
and cannot sin). 

Impede, to, man' k.; rmni' shudan; bdz 
ddshtan (stop) ; vd ddshtan (also to impel, 
q.v.); muzdhim shudan; dar kdr-i kas-l 
khalal anddkhtan. Vide Intervene. 

Impediment, khdr-i rdh; sadd; muzahamat; 
ta'arruz; mdni' . 

Impel, to, rdndan ; tahrlk k.; vd ddshtan 
(also to impede) ; [bar dn ddshtan (to 

Impend, marg bar sar-am mu'allaq ast. Vide 

Impenetrable, ghayr-i manfuz (of forest, of 
materials) ; khaydldt-ash ghayr-i manfuz 
ast (none can understand him). 

Impenitence, bt-tawbagi. 

Imperative, hatmi; hukml: hukm-i Nddirl 
( — order) : amr (the mood ; gram.). 

Imperatively, dmirdna hukm ddd. Vide 

Imperceptible, ghayr-i mahsus. 

Imperfect, nd-tamdm ; Thdqis ; ma'yub ; har- 
chi dar in dunyd hast 'ayb-i ddrad: mdzi- 
yi istimrdrl (Imperfect Tense). [tamdmt. 

Imperfection, 'adam-i kamdl; manqasat; tm- 

Imperial, saltanati. 

Imperious. Vide Imperatively. 

Impersonal, fi'l-i bi-fd'il (impersonal verb). 

Impersonate, Impersonation, naql k. (on 
stage); u khud rd bd ' Ali tashabbuh kard 
(he impersonated 'Ali; on _ the stage or 
in private life) ; khud rd Rdja qalam ddd 
(he gave himself out to be a Raja). 

Impertinence, gustdkhi; chashm-safidi ; 
chashm-daridagi ; jasdrat ; raftar-ash gustd- 
khdna ast, or vaz'-i u bi-adabdna ast: 
muddkhala-yi bi-jd (interference). 

Impertinent, bi-adab ; gustdkh : shukh (saucy ; 
good and bad sense); chashm-safid ; 
chashm-darida : hich rdbita na-ddrad (ir- 
relevant) : ziydda bar in fuzulVst (to say 
more would be impertinent, i.e., un- 
necessary) . 

Impertinently, bi-adabdna ; gustdhhdna ; 
fuzvMna : jasurdna (boldly). 

Imperturbably, bi-dn ki az jd dar ravad. 

Impetuous, mutahavvir (rash in war) ; 'ajul 

Impetus, zur ; quwat; sur'at-i harakat: tah- 
rtk-i dddan (to give an impetus to). 

Impiety, bi-dini; kufr. 

Impious, bad-kish : bi-din; kdfir. 

Implant, nishdndan, tr. ; ghars k., tr. (lit. to 
plant trees) ; markuz shudan, and nishas- 
tan intr. : khdtir-nishidn k. ( — in the mind). 

Implement, dla, pi. nlEt; awzdr, P. (pi.; no 
sing.) ; adavdt (pi. of addt, the singular not 
being used). 

Implicate, to, shdmil k. ; ddkhil k. 

Implicated, to be, dar in madkhaliyyat (or 
dakhdlat) ddsht, or dast-i ddsht ; shank 

Implied, m^fhUm {understood); zimn""" ; dn 
dar zimn bud (that was implied ' ' in the 




Implore, to, iltimaa k. : ba iltimas guftan; 
bi-*ajz u ilhdh guftan. 

Imploring, multamia (part.) ; niydz, subs, (k.) 
(sp. of God or mistress) ; iltimaa {k.) 

Imply, to, vide Implied and Allude ; bi-lhdm 
guftan {to hint) ; tazammun k. (to include). 
Vide Infra. 

Import, ma'nl; matlab ; dkhir az fahvd-yi^ 
kaldm-ash chunin mafhum shud ki — Prof. 
S. T. (at last, grasping the import of his 
speech — ). 

Imports, vdriddt u sadirdt (imports and ex- 
ports, q.v.) ; tankhwdh-i dukkul va khuruj 
(old ; imports and exports) ; chiz-hd-i ki 
az khdrij bi-ddkhil mi-dyad in az ddkhil bi- 
khdrij mi-ravad, dar in vildyat chist? 

Importance, lashakhkhus (personal impor- 
tance ; gen. as manifested by display) ; 
qadr : ahammiyyat ; chanddn mvhdlagKa 
nisi (?) (it is not of such vast importance) ; 
hdld khayU didkhil-i ddam shud (he is now 
a person of importance); magar khayU 
. ddam ast ? 

Important, muhimm, and 'azim (of things) ; 
chanddn matlab-i na-bud (it was nothing 
very important) ; khaylt Idzim ast bi-in 
amr dil bi-dihlm or tavajjuh bi-kunxm; 
kdr-i Idzim-i bUd^ bdyist dn rdbi-guyam- 
ash (I have something important to tell 
him) ; mushakhkhas (of people) : juzv-i 
a'T^am (the chief ingredient) . in sukhan 
madkhaliyyat-i tamdm dar pish-raft-i u 
ddrad (this has an important bearing on 
his advancement). 

Imported, mal-i daryd vulg. ; maivrud (a 
merchants' term). 

Importunate, in gadd khaylt mvbrim (or 
sakht-gir) ast ; pila-kun, isrdr-kun. 

Importune, ilhdh k. : ibrdm k. ; isrdr k. : 
jnla k. : taqdzq k. (dun for money or 
things lent, or for fulfilment of promise). 

Importunity, isrdr ; ilhdh ; ibrdm ; piila , 
taqdzq (dunning). 

Impose, guzdahtan; nihddan (a tax, etc.); 
Id Hlmt-yam rd ghammat shimurda — (im- 
posing on my ignorance — ). 

Imposer, mzi' (of a law, tax). 

Impossibility, chlz-i muhal; az mukalat; 
misdl-i marvdr va gunjishk ast (from news- 
papers ; = the height of impossibility ' or 

Impossible, muhdl ; ghayr-i mumkin ; shudanx 
na — ; bi-'aql nami-gunjad, or az 'aql dur 
ast; imkdn na-ddrad; muhdl-i mumkin* 
ast (m.c). 

Impostor, talbis'kun; tadlia-kun^ ; ahayydd; 
muzawir (deceiver). 

Imposture, daghd-bdzl {k.) ; taUns {k.) ; taz- 
vir (k.) (to deceive, trick) ; Miad'a {k.). 

Impotence, 'unnat; mardi na-ddrad (physi- 
cal); zu'f-ibdh (partial): 'ajz (inability). 

Impotent, wo-mard; 'innin (of males): 'djiz 
(helpless). Vide Inability. 

Impoverished, muftaqir. Vide Poor, Needy, 

Impoverishment, iftiqdr : iflda (also bank- 

Impregnability, mana'at (rare) ; sakhti. 

Impregnable, mani' ; magAlub shudant nlat 
(also = invincible). 

Impregnate, dbistan sdkhtan; hdmila k.; 
pur k. (met.) ; khdk d. (of dates). Vide 

Impregnation, talqih (scientific). 

Impress, to, ta^sxr k. ; kdr k. ; sukhan-am 
dar dil-i u naqsh bast (my words affected 
him) : bi-sukhra giriftan ; muft bi-khidmat 
dvardan (by force). Vide Imprint. 
khan Impressed, muta'^assir ahudan; mu^aaair 
kardan ; qalb-i in bachcha asar-pazxr ast. 

Impression, naqsh (stamp) ; chap (edition) : 
sukhan-ash dar dil-am naqsh bast (or /ay 

Imprint, khdtir-nishdn k., or zihn-niahxn k. 
(on the mind) ; zadan (of a kiss) . Vide 

Imprison, hobs, or mahbus, kardan; bi-qayd 
anddkhtan ; dar zinddn k. 

Imprisoned, mahbu\ 

Imprisonment, hobs; qayd. 

Improbability, ' adam-i ihtimdl ; duri. 

Improbable, ba'xd ; mustab'ad (rare); ria- 
muhlamal; dur az 'aql bi-nasar-am mi- 

Impromptu (I recited an impromptu couplet) 

' ^J^^ and *|j.».5 ; root meaning "to intend, mean." 
■i Or oat, note this m.c, of the past for the present. 

8 A crude allusion ; fnanar dar kun-i gunjishk ( = the less cannot contain the greater). 
♦ Compare bar farz-i taalim: also the m.c. vulgarisms na ahafil (for ^Ja^t**") ; htun-i badi (for 
badt): huan-i hhubl (for Ishiibi) : na-mahrum (for mahrum). 

' Tadlia properly concealing the faults of goods that are for sale. 




fi,-'l-badtha yak hayt-l kkwdndam; badih'^' 

Improper, im-shdyista ; ghayr-i munasib ; 

ffhayr-i masldhat ; khdrij az tadbir. 
Improve, to, taraqql d. (tr.) : bihtar shudan : 

fUsh uftadan (to progress). 
Improvement, 'pish-raft ; taraqql ; bihtan. 
Improvidence, ghaflat dar kharj {k.) ; la 

ubali-gart {k.) ; bt-ihtiyatl {k.). 
Improvident, kUtdh-andish (gen.). Vide Im- 
Improvisatore, badlha-gu. 
Imprudence, bl-ihtiydU; cjhaflat; 'adam-i 

Imprudent, bi-basnat ; bi-ihtiydt; 'dqibat na- 

andish ; bi- tadbir. 
Imprudently, bi-ihiiydtJdna ; ghdfildTm; bl- 

Impudence. Vide Effrontery and Impeiti- 

nence, etc. 
Impudent, bi-adab ; shukh-chashm. Vide 

Bold and Impertinent. 
Impulse, iargkJb d. , or tahrik k. (to give an 


Impunity, 'adam-i 'uqubat; bd bi-bdki va 
'adam-i iarnbih tn rd nanii-tavdni kard. 

Impure, nd-pdk^ (sp. relig.); najis (relig. 
only); mulavvas (stained, polluted, de- 
filed); ndkhdlis (not pure, alloyed); 
mukaddar (muddy, of water). 

Impurity, nd-pdin: najdsat (also excrement) ; 
jandbat (ceremonial impurity) ; kudurat 
(muddiness of water) ; Sakkdki ^ dar hdlat-i 
jandbat gir uftdd (to fall into an unex- 
pected difficulty) . 

Imputation, Impute, haml {k.) ; nisbat {d.) ; 
mansub k. ; tuhmat {d.orz. or bastan) ; vide 
Accusation, Charge. 

In, bi — ^, dar; tu or iuy ; darun; ddkhil; 
Id (vulg. ; in the folds of, between the 
leaves of) ; id yak mdh-i dlgar (in another 
month). Vide also Ins. 

Inability, nd-tavdndl dar — ; dar-mdndagi; 
'ajz (helplessness, q.v.). 

Inaccessibility, dur-dastl ; — ki su'ud bar dn 
ghayr-i mumkin ast; dast-rasl mumkin 
mst. Vide Impregnability. 

Inaccessible, dur-dast; dast na-ras or dast- 
ras na; manV . Vide Impregnable. 

Inaccuracy, 'adam-i sihhat (also ill-health). 

Inaccurate, ndqis; ghalat; nd-sahih (vulg.) 
baydn-ash qadr-i ndqis ast, or dar chand 
nukta sahih mst (his statements are not 
quite accurate). 

Inaction, bi-kdrt ; tarnball, etc. Vide Lazi- 

Inactive, bt-hiss and sust (of movement) ; 
kund (slow of intellect) ; bi-dast u pa (help- 
less) ; lakht (a flop) ; bi-khur u bi-hhwab 
(thinks only of eating and sleeping) ; naml- 
khwdhad az jd-sh harakat kunad. Vide 

Inactivity, bi-hissl; sustl ; kundi ; bi-dast u 
pd^l. Vide Inaction, Laziness, etc. 

Inadmissible, (jjiayr-i maqbul; nd-matbu' ; 
'uzr-i nd-muvajjah (inadmissible excuse; 
vide Excuse). 

Inadvertence, ghaflat : gidfill; sahv. 

Inadvertently, bi-fikrdna , sahv^^' ; az ru-yi 

Inasmuch as, chunki : az dnjd ki : hdl-dn ki 
(whereas) ; az bas ki u mard zahmat ddd 
man firdr kardam (inasmuch as he greatly * 
worried me, I absconded) . 

Inattention, tagMful (k.) ; bi-hhaydli {k.) ; bl- 
tavajjuhi (k.) ; bi-i'tindH (k.), bi-mubdldtl 
ijc.) ; chashm-chardm mi-kunad (he stares 
about him). 

Inattentive, bi-tavajjuh ; ghdfil ; bl-khaydl; 
bl-i' iind^ ; chashm-chardn (staring every- 
where) ; gush-ash bd man vail dil-ash jd-yi 
Sgar ast. Vide Ogle. 

Inauidble, nd-masmu' ; ghayr-i masmu* ; u 
shunlda naml-shavad, vulg. 

Inaudibly, bisydr dhista guft (he spoke in- 

Inauspicious, nd-mubdrak ; na-mas'ud; nahs 
(in m.c. also ugly). Vide Omen, Ill- 

Incalculable, bi-shumdr ; bi-hisdb ; bl-hadd u 

Incantation, afsun, or vird; or mantar^ 
(khwdndan) ; da'ivq^ khipdndan (a system 

1 Na-pak in m.c. often means '' saucy, cheeky, etc." of a woman ; in good sense. 

2 The allusion is to a well-known story. 
8 Classically ba—. 

♦ Az baa ki in Persian always gives the idea of excess. In India however it is used for ' ' because. 
6 Sanskrit mantra. 

6 In Ar. da'wah lit. " call " ; sz^r "magic" and kahana " fortune-telling " are by the orthodox held 
to be unlawful. 




oi incantation held lawful by orthodox 

Muslims. Vide Charm). 
Incapable, bi-qdbiliyyat ; bi-iati'ddd ; na-loMq ; 

nc-qdbil; *djiz. 
Incapacity, ' adam-i q^iliyyat ; 'adam-i iaW- 

ddi; ' adam-iliydqal ; 'ajz. 
Incarnation, tajassum (k) ; [hvlul k. of a 

spi-it entering into a body]. 
Incautious, bi-khabar ; bi-hazar ; bi-ihtiydt ; 

bi-jarvd ; la-ubdli. 
Incautiously, bl-fikrdna; bi-ihtiydtdna : bi- 

dur.-i hazar. 
Incendiary, dtash-afruz ; or khdna-suz: 

fitm-angiz ; or mufattin ; or mufsid (se- 
Incense, bakhur {d.) (gen.; to fumigate; 

relij, or otherwise) kundur {sukhtan) (pine- 

resia); liibdn (sukh.): 'ud (aukh) (aloes 

Inceme, to, bi-giayzu ^azab dvardan; urd 

bi-giazab hayajdn kard. 
Incenive, muharrik; and mushavviq: mujib, 

etc (cause). 
Incessant, muttasil; or bild fdsila; or Id 

yarqaii' (without cessation) : muddmi ; 

dd^imi (continually) ; dar in ruzha, bdrdn-i 

mulavdtir bdrxda ast. 
Incessantly, pitsht-i sar-i ham; or pay-i ham; 

or oay dar pay (one after the other without 

a Ireak) ; 'alq ^Uittisdl; mutavdtir; si ruz 

haj (or muttasil) bdrld; bi-dun-i inqitd'. 
Incest, ziim bd mJddar^ etc. kardan; zind 

kardan bd mahdrim (relig.). 
Inch, band-i angusgt (one finger-joint) ; girih 

(= 2 finger-joints;; agar qadd-i In chub 

yik band-i ndkhiin buland-tar bud kifdyat 

Inddent, vdqi'a; ittijdq; 'driza: hddisa; 

(accident) : sarguzasht (adventure). 
Incidental, itiifdqi; 'drizi. 
Incipient, ibtidd^i; khatt-i sabz (of beard or 

moustache) ; rish-ash dam-i khatt ast (he 
has an incipient beard and whiskers). 
IfiCision, shigdf, in m.c. gen. shikdf ; shaqq. 
Iicisor, danddn-i pish, or danddn-i jilaw. 
Incite, to, vd ddshtan (prop, to compel) ; tar- 
Qh%b k. (for good or bad action, but sp. 
former) ; ighvd k. (for bad actions only) ; 

tahrls or tahrxk k. (good or bad) ; urd 
igj^vd kardand ki in chunin kdr-i bi-kunad ; 
angikhtan ; var^aldnidan (to mislead, 
lead astray ; sp. of Satan) ; bar aar-i shatoq 

dvardan (to good) ; but urd bar sar-i duzdi 
dvard (he incited him to theft). 
Incitement, targhib ; tahrik ; tahria (good or 
bad) ; ifjAvd (bad sense only). Fide Supra. 
Incivility, bi-adabi (of subordinated) ; bi- 
ta'drufi (want of politeness) ; 'adam-i inad- 
niyyat (want of ordinary refinement). 
Inclement, durusht; aakht: ahadid (of per- 
sons or weather). 
Inclination, mayl ; dinmgh (of persons) ; vide 
Desire; mayl or tamdyvl (of things, of 

Incline, nishib (subs.); khdna bar niahib-i 
kuh bind shuda. 

Incline, to, mayl dddan ; kaj k. tr. ; divdr yak- 
aar kham shuda ast (the wall completely 
leans over, its top overhangs) ; darakht- 
hd-yi zaytun bi-taraf-i ki had mi-vazad 
mutamdyil (or kaj or kham) gaahtorand. 

Inclined, rmyil. (k.) (for. Ar. md*'il) ; or mun- 
'atif (lit. bent) (Ar.) (of persons ; of thoughts) ; 
havd ru-{oT mJayiU) bi-khubi ^st (the weather 
is inclined to be fine) ; mdyil bi-qirmizi 
(inclined to scarlet) in kdgifiLz bar bi-aur- 
khi mi-zanad) (for bi-surl^i bar mi-zanad) ; 
sar-i mu'dmala na-ddrad (he's not in- 
clined to do business with me) ; bind-yi 
taslim ddshtand (they thought of, were in- 
clined to, surrender). 

Inclining, mutamdyil. 

Inclose, to, maljuf k. (in envelope, etc.); dar 
jawf guzdshtan (gen.) : muhdt k. (with wall 

Inclosed, malfuf ; laff"" irsal shuda. 

Inclosure, muhawata (place) ; malfufa (of 

Including, Inclusive, mushtamil — ; or miUa- 
zammin — ; or mundarij ; in kitdb mush- 
tamil bar si bob ast (this book consists of 
thirty chapters) ; in mablagh mushtamil- 
bar kirdya-yi bdijJi ast yd na? vulg. for 
kirdya-yi bdgh. mushtamil-i in mablagh oat ? 
(does this include the rent of the gar- 
den ?) ; har du ruz ddUiil (or mashmul) 
(both days inclusive). 

Incoherent, bi-rabt; darham u barham; 
ghayr-i marbut (also = ungrammatical) ; 
kalimdt-ash bi-yak (Rgar vifq na-ddrad (or 
vulg. — ruimi-dihad) . 

Income, dar-dmad ; rrtd hasal; dakhl u i^rj 
(income and expenditure) ; maddkhU-ash * 
chand aat ? 

^ Har ki ba madar-i Ishtid zina kunad ba digaran chi-ha kunad ? Prov. 

^ Colloquisdly often means "pickings, small bribes," the word rishva being specially 
applied to bribes taken by Mujtahids or Hakims to influence their decisions. 




Incommode, to, zahmat dadan ; musaddi' 

Incomparable, Id-sani; bi-misal; bi-hamta; 
bi-'adtl; hl-misl ; nazir na^ddrad: jarid ; 
yahid; yagdna (unique). 

Incompatible, in qissa-yi dh u dtash ast, bd- 
ham dar naml-sdzand; kushish dar jam'-i 
bayw^l-azddd; kushish ki ham Khudd 
ham khurmd gir bi-ydyad (vide Cake) ; 
khildf-i 'aql (incompatible with reason) ; 
mundfdt ddshtan bd — (to be incompatible 
with — ). 

Incompetence, ^ajz ; bi-kifdyatl ; nd-qdbili. 

Incompetent, bi-kifdyat (opp. to bd-kifdyat) ; 
nd-qdbil; ghayr-i kdfi ; 'dj'iz; az'uhda-yi 
in kdr durust bar nami-dyad. Vide Effi- 

Incompetently, nd-qdbildna; bi-klfdyatdna. 

Incomplete, nd-tamdm; ndqis; nd-mukam- 

Incompleteness, naqs ; nd-tamdmi. 

Incomprehensible, Id-yudrak; bi-zihn-i ddam 
nami-rasad; Khudd birun-i idrdk-i insdni 
ast; bi-'aql (or bi-fahm) nami-dyad. 

Inconceivable, nd-mutasavvar ; ghayr-i mud- 
rak; bi-'aql nami-gunjad; 'aql-am nami- 
rasad bi — . 

Incongruity, nd-ukhti; bi-jd^i; nd-mundsibi. 

Incongruous , wa-wMf ; bi-jd ; nd-mundsib. 

Inconsiderate, Id-uhdli, adj. ; bi-parvd. 

Inconsistency, tandquz ; mukhdlafat : talav- 
vun (being changeable). 

Inconsistent, m,undfi bd — ; mundqiz bd — ; 
tandquz guftan (of speech); khayli ba'id 
az ust, or azu zur mi-dyad (this is inconsis- 
tent with what I know of him). 

Inconsolable, tasalli nd-pazir: mu^yus (in 
despair) . 

Inconspicuous, paydd nist; ghayr-i marH (to 
sight): ghayr-i mxi'ruj ; or bi-ndm (not 

Inconstant, bi-vafd (in affection) ; mutalav- 
vin; or munqalib"' t-tab' (changeable); 
fdni and bi ddvdm (perishable) ; sust pay- 
mdn (of lovers and their oaths) ; hich 
sabdt-i mizdj na-ddrad. 

Incontinence, ' ad^m-i kkud-ddri gen. : 'adam-i 
'iff at. 

Incontinent, nd 'afif: shdshu (vulg.; of 
children that cannot contain their urine) : 

Incontrovertible, in mas^ala nim* bar nami- 


Inconvenience, muzdhamat; az in zahmat-i 
bi-shumd mi-rasad? (will this inconveni- 
ence you?). ' 

Inconvenient, mushkil or dushvdr (mic.) ; 
musaddi' -i awqdt shudan ; agar fardd bi- 
ydyam bard-yi shumd tasdi'-i (or zahnnt-i) 
ki nist? (wUl it inconvenience you if I 
come to-morrow?). 

Inconveniently, bi-vaqt; bi-mahall; bi- 
hangdm; btmawqi'. 

Incorporate, ghayr-i mujassam ; ghayr-i warf- 
di ; ruhdni (spiritual). 

Incorrect, ghalat; nd-sahih (vulg.); n^xdst: 
durust-raftdr nist (in behaviour). I 

Incorrectness, VM-rdsti; ghalat: buldn-i 
tariqat (of belief). 

Incorruptible, bitama' ; or rishva-norhhw (of 
persons); Id-zavdl; or giayr-i fdni: or 
bdqi (of matter, or of God) ; fasdd dar 
zdt-i U rdh nami-ydbad (of God). 

Increase, (zdfa {k.) ; afzuni ; iazyid (k.). 

Increase, to, afzudan, rt. afza, tr. and 
Vide To grow. 

Increased, afzuda; mazid; tazyid shida; 
chand ruz ast ki nnn-khwdr-i^ man siydd 
shuda ast (my household has lately in- 

Incredible, khdrij az 'aql; bdvar na-kardini ; 
afsdna bi-gush mi-dyad ; nami-shavad invar 

Incredulous, nd-bdvar-kun ; shakki; bdiffar- 

Incrustated, pushida ; mastur (rare in (his 
sense) . 

Incrustation, dludagi. 

Incubate, to, bar tukhm nishastan or — khufi- 
bidan. Vide Broody. ' 

Incumbent, Idzim ; vdjib ; bar man farz ast\ 

Incurable, Id 'ildj, mu'dlaja nd-pazir; a- 

Incursion, chapdw k. ; tdkht dvardan ; chdpi 
dan. Vide Raid. 

Indebted, bidih-kdr ; or maqruz; or madyut 
(of money) : minnat-ddr vulg. ; or mamnun 
(obliged) : man zir-i minnat-i shumd has- 
tam (I am obliged to you) ; zir-i dayn (orl 
-qarz)-i shumd hastam (of money). \ 

Indebtedness, bi-dih-kdri; madyuni; maqruzi 
(of money) ; imtindn or mamnuni (obliga- 

Indecency, harzagi; or rakdkat; (words or 

Indecent, harza (of words or actions) ; harza- 

i Nati'hhtpar might even include the servants. 




— ^ (of people); fuhhdsh (indecently abu- 
sive) : luhsh (of words). Vide Shameless. 

Indecision, iazabzub : bi-istiqdmati ; 'adam-i 

Indecisively, muzabzabdna ; bi-dun-i iatiqd- 

Indeclinable, ghayr-i munsarif (in gram.). 

Indeed, albalta; yaqin'" ; 'ajab! (strange); 

:> dyd mumkin aat?. 

Indefatigable, khasta na-shaw. 

Indefensible, hifdzat-pazir nlst (mil.); ^uzr 
barddr nist (of conduct). 

Indefinite, nd-mu'ayyan ; gh ayr-i tnu'ayyan ; 
nakira (gram.); mvbham (obscure). 

Indefinitely, bi-dun-i qayd-i vaqt; mubha- 
mdna (obscurely). 

Indelible, niaht)-nd-pazlr ; pdk na-shudam. 

Indemnification, 'ivaz {d.). 

Indemnity, tdvdn (d.) (equivalent for loss) ; 
ghfirdmat {d.) (fine) ; Hvaz-i talafdt (as an 
indemnity for the killed) ; khasdrdt-i jang 
{d.) (for all losses). 

Independence, isLiqldl (in acts) ; isti gh nJd^ (in 
temper) ; sar-khvdi (in acts) : dzddi (free- 

Independent, mustagini (in temperament; 
of God or man) ; mustaqill; dzdd; u sar-i 
khud ast or khud-mukhtdr ast; u bi-htch 
kas mula'alliq or vdbasta nlst (he has no 
connection with anyone). 

Indescribable, — ki bi-ta'rif naml-dyad or 
nami-gunjad ; khdrij az vasf ast ; bartar 
az tawsif ast (beyond all praise). 

Index, fihrist {k.) ; surat tarjumdn-i dil ast 
(the face is an index to the mind) ; zdhir- 
ash mukhbir-i bdtin bud (her face was an 
index of her mind = surat-ash khabar az 
sirat mi-ddd). 

India, Hind; Hindustdn; Hindustdn bi- 
ydd-i fxl uftdd ( = to remember old times, 

Indian, Hindi. 

Indian corn, zurat. 

India-rubber, jir or kash (any rubber) ; 
midad pdk-kun (pencil eraser). 

Indicate, ishdra k. ; daldlat bar — k. ; ddll-i 
bar in ast ki — ; az — chunin ma'lum mi-sha- 
vad ki — . 

Indication, ishdra (hint) ; daldlat (guiding 
to) ; 'aldmat (token) ; surd^ (clue) ; asar 

Indict, muttahim sdkhtan. [of — ). 

Indictment, Uzdm {d.) ; ilzdm-ndma (deed 

Indifference, bi-parva^i ; Id-ubdligari ; 6»- 
mubdldti ; salil-angdri ; b% i'tina^i ; in 
kdr-t nlst ki bi-Uiwr-i Id-ttbdli-gari (or bi- 
tarlq-i ihmdl) az dn bi-guzartm. 

Indifferent, bi-parva ; and Id-ubdtl ; and bi- 
sar u pa (in bad sense ; in living or to pub- 
lic opinion) ; bdk-l na-ddram or parvd^-i 
na-ddram (it's all the same to me either 
way) ; miydna (middhng). 

Indigence, bl-puli ; (absence of money) ; 
iflds (bankruptcy); iftiqdr (impoverish- 
ment): bl-chlzl ; or bl-mdyagl : muhldjl 
(being in want) : darmshl. 

Indigenous, buml. 

Indigent, tuhl-dast ; muflis ' ; faqir ; muhtdj ; 
bl-chlz ; bl-pul; darvish; Idt u lut (vulg.). 

Indigently, muflisdna; muhldjdna; darvi- 
shdna; [faqlrdna = m^)\i\y, humbly]. 

Indigestible, saqil; sangln; lahlil naml- 
ravad ; hazm naml-shavad. 

Indigestion, fMMma ; su^-ihazm; hayza {m.c. 
with diarrhoea). 

Indignant, bar dshufta ; bar ajrukhta. 

Indignation, vide Anger: bd'is-i la' not u 
maldmat-i jam' I shud (excited general 

Indignity, khiffat; zillat; kkwdrl. 

Indigo, nil; nll-i par-i td'^usi (peacock 
indigo ; said to be the best) ; kdr-khdna-yi 
nll-sdzi, or dasl-gdh-i nil-sdzl (indigo fac- 

Indirect, nd-rdst; pUchlda; bd-vdsita (by 
means of a third person) ; bd kinidya (by 
innuendo). Firfe 'Influence. 

Indirectly, kindya-vdr ; ramzdna ; gkayr-i 
mustaqlm'^'' . 

Indiscernible, vjd-ma'lum; ivd-paydd; nd- 
mar'l, gkayr-i mahsus (to touch) ; khafl. 

Indiscreet, bi-ihtiydt. 

Indiscriminately, bi-dun-i tafriq ; misUi dsh-i 
hama djll; az buzurg u kuchak hama rd^ 
fuhsh dad. 

Indiscriminating, bl-tamylz; gko>yr-i mumay- 
yiz. _ _ . 

Indispensably Idzim; In kitdb, Id-buddast ki 
nazd-i hama bdshad; safar bi-dun-i put 
naml shavad. 

Indisposition, kasdlat; or sustl; or takassur-i 
mizdj (illness): bl-mayll; or bl-ragijbatl 

Indisputable, bl-harf (without dispute, with- 
out question); bi-ikhiildf (without any 
dissent) ; jd-yi guft u gu na-darad. 

• Muflis in India often " bachelor.' 

i Ellip. for az buzurg girifta tS kuehak. 




Indissoluble, hall na-pazir, ah na-shudanl ; 

nd-gndaz: mutaldsM na — (not going to 

pieces). Vide Inseparable. 
Indistinct, Indistinctly, na-saf ; sdf harf 

naml-zanad : ghayr-i vdzih (of sights or 

sounds) ; huriif-ash durust paydd nisi (the 

writing is indistinct). 
Individual, nafar ; afrdd-i^ az nds, or har 

fard-i az nds na — (not a single individual). 
Individually, Jard'^" (opp. to jami'^" or 

Indolence, susti (of temperament): kahili 

(slackness) ; tambali (laziness, bodily)* 
Indorse, to, bar pusht imzd namudan . ta^yid 

k. ; or pasandidan (of opinion) . 
Indolent, sust; etc. Vide Lazy. 
Induce, bar sar-i mayl dvardan; dar zihn-ash 

anddkhtand ki — (he was persuaded to 

believe that — ) . 
Inducement, targMb ; tashviq ; tahrtk ; tahris : 

gharaz (motive); mujib (cause). Vide 

Incite and Excite. 
Induction, istiqrd^ (k.) (log) ; [istintdj {k.) 

deduction] . 
Indulge, to, Indulgence, ru dddan (to in- 
dulge a child); nafs-parasti (k.) indulge 

one's passions) : marhamat; or muldtafat ; 

or mahahbat-hd pi. (kindness) ; dar khur- 

dan ziydd-ravi k. (to indulge too much in 

eating) . 
Indulgent, az hadd mushfiq : khvd-kdml k. ; 

or nafsdniyyat k. (to be selfish) ; nafs par- 

vari or tanparvari k.: dn pidar bachcha- 

khardb-kun ast (he is a very indulgent 

father, he spoils his children). 
Indulging, nafs-parast ; havas-bdz; shahvat- 

parast (indulging one's lust).- bi-khwd- 

hishdt-i nafsdni tan-dar-dih (of indulgence). 
Industrious, kdr-kun; zahmat-kash; jafd- 

kash ; jdhid. 
Industry, A;a5& (profession): mihnat; zahmat; 

jidd u jahd; sd'i. 
Ineffable, khdrij az baydn; birun az tawslf ; 

bi-'ibdrat nami-gunjad. 
Ineffective, bi-asar; bi-samar. 
Inefficacious, bi-samar ; Id-yanfa' ; bi-sud ; 

bi-natija, etc. 
Inefficaciously, bi-samardna. 
Inefficacy, bi-samari ; 'adam-i fd'ida; 'a- 

dam-i ta^sir. 
Inefficient, mL-qdbil : vide Incompetent. 
Inelastic, kash bar ma-ddr : fanari nist (not 


Inelegance, bi-latafaii. 

Inequality, na-hamvdri (being up and down); 
'adam-i tdsdvi (in length, or in size). 

Inestimable, bi-bahd : khdrij az takhmin. 

Inevitable, shudani ; nd-guriz ; nd-guzlr ; 
bdyistani (rare). 

Inevitableness, nd-chdri ; nd-guziri ; luzum. 

Inevitably, Id-mahdla; Id-budd; nd-chdr. 

Inexcusable, 'uzr-pa^r rm — ; nd-ma'zur; 
'uzr bar-ddr na — . 

Inexhaustible, tamdm nd-shudani ; lutf-i 
Khudd ddHm ast ; ghayr-i munqati' . 

Inexorable, bi-inhirdf ; az hukm-i khud mun- 
harif na-shud; mahtum (of Fate). 

Inexpedient, nd-mundsib ; na-kardan-ash bih- 
iar ast. 

Inexperienced, bi-tajriba ; ndshi (lit. ' grow- 
ing, immature' and hence ' ignorant, q.v. , 
and inexperienced'); qashm At., vulg. 
ghashim (local) ; na-ddnam^kdr vulg. ; kdr- 
na-dida; khdm. 

Inexpert, khdm; ustdd nist. 

Inexpiable, kaffdra-pazir na: 'afv nu-pazir 
(not to be forgiven). 

Inexplicable, tawzlh nd-pazir; bila-ta'bir. 

Inexpressible. Vide Ineffable. 

In eoctenso, ' alqH-tafsil ; mukammal; bi- 
H-tamdm: bl-kam se kdst (without sub- 
tracting an}^ thing). 

Infallibility, ma'sumiyyat. 

Infallible, ma'sum (sp. being sinless of Pro- 
phets ; also of infants) ; man ki ma' mm 
nistam ki ishtibdh na-kunam. 

Infamous, shani' ; shani"' H-akhldq. 

Infamy shand'at. 

Infancy, bachchagl ; kudaki: ayydm-i shir- 
khipdri; razd'at: az tufuliyyat urd mi-shi- 
nMsam (I have known him from childhood). 

Infant, babi (baby): tifl-i shir-khwdra ; razi'. 

Infantry, piydda ; piydda-yi nizdm (Regular) ; 
piydda bi-dnki dast bi-sitiz bar-drand pa bi- 
guriz bar-ddshtand (the Infantry fled before 
they were attacked). 

Infatuate, to, fariftan, rt. farib. 

Infatuated, divdna {k. and sh.) ; shifta {k.) ; 
farijta (k.) ; u shijta-yi dn zan ast: dar 
'ishq-i u majnun ast; majtun {k. and sh.). 

Infect, to, sardyat {k.) intr. (of disease) ; 
masmum k. (to poison); asar k. (to 
affect) ; najs-ash bi-shumd khurda ast (his 
ways have infected you ; evil ways). 

Infectious, miisri. 

1 Afrad pL with singular signification. 




Infer, to, fahinidan ; iatirnbdt k. ; pay bur- 
dan ; natxja giriftan; — va qis 'alq haza^ 
(from which the rest may be inferred). 

Inferior, kuchuk-tar ; kih-tar ; past-tar: ba 
2nr-dastdn chi tawr pish mi-ayad? ; khush 
tab' ast bd-shdn? (how does he treat Ills 
inferiors ? ; is he afiFable with them ?) : In 
kam az an ast. 

Inferiority, kuchaki ; and kih-tari (in rank); 
kam-tari; or past-tart (in rank or in learn- 
ing) ; zir-dasti (in rank). 

Infernal, ya^awnawt ; duzakhl : mal'un (cur- 
sed) ; an mard-i bad-bakht ^ bisydr bi-man 
zahmat dad (the infernal fellow worried 
me a lot). 

Infertile, bi-quvvat : or kam-zur (of ground) ; 
hdsil-kMzna (of ground or country) ; shura- 
zdr (full of saltpetre). 

Infest, 'azdb dddan; Iza rasanidan. Vide 
to Block. 

Infidel, kafir, pi. kuffdr (gen. term. ; Non- 
Muslim) ; bl-din or Id-mazhab (without any 
religion) ; mushrik (Polytheist, sp. ap- 
plied to Hindus) ; ta kay'' dar in kafiris- 
tan ini-mdni ? — Prof. S. T. (how long will 
you remain in this land of infidelity?); 
daftri (materialist) ; mulhid (one that 
turns away his face from the true religion). 
Vide Atheist and Pagan. 

Infidelity, kufr ; bi-dlni ; Id-inazhabl : dahri- 
gari (believing in the eternity of matter) . 

Infinite, bt-intiha ; or njd-mutanidhx ; or 6t- 
pdydn (without end) ; bl-kirdn (without 
shore ; limit) ; nd-mahdud (unbounded) ; 
na-ma'dud (beyond number) ; az hadd-i 
ahumdr birun (ditto). 

Infinitesimal, juz-l Id-yatajazzd^ (the indivi- 
sible atom) ; jawhar-i fard (the primordial 
atom) ; qalil bi-gl^yat (exceedingly little 
m quantit}'). 

Infinitive, masdar (gram. ; also root of a 

Infirm, nd-tavdn; za'if ; mard-i *ajuz (infirm 
old man); 'ajuza (infirm old woman); 
kharif (dotard). 

Inflame, to, haydjdn dddan ; or bar-angikhtan 
(to excite to anger, etc.); bar afrukhtan; 
or kalla k. (ditto). 

Inflamed, dmdslda or varam karda (swollen) ; 
surkh shuda (red and inflamed) ; pur-suz 

(burning) : multahifj (of a flame) ; maah- 
ghfi't or pur az shaghaf (with love) : gulii- 
yash bad karda ast (his throat is swollen) ; 
or — mddda shuda ast (swollen with matter 
in the abscess) : jd-yi zakhm surkh shuda 
fXL bad karda. 

Inflammation, suzish (burning of wounds) : 
surkhi ; varam; dmds (swelling): ishti'al; 
ihtirdq (being set on fire). Vide Lungs. 

Inflated, pur-bdd; and puf karda (full of 
wind) ; bdd-karda (for stomach ; bladder, 
etc.) ; nxifkh karda (of stomacii) ; bi-sabab-i 
jath chundn bad kard ki dar jama nami- 

Inflected, munsarif. 

Inflexible, sakht ; or mislri fanar tah nami- 
shavad (of things) : dar intiqdm-i in zvlm 
{bar) yak pd istdda ast. Vide Inexorable. 

Inflexion, tasrif (gram.). 

Influence, nufuz; rusukh; md pish-i ishdn 
hich iqtiddr-% (or tasallut) na-ddrim ; Sarkar 
A ghJ ddar dilhd-yi 'avdmm" 'n-nds rusuUi-i 
tamdm-i ddrad (the S. A. has great influ- 
ence with the common people) ; 'ulamd" 
agarchi dar sural libds-i hukumali nami- 
pushand vali dar ma'ni rusukh-i kiUIi dar 
mamlakat ddrand (the priesthood in an 
indirect manner have considerable influ- 
ence if not authority) ; rdy-i urd vaq'-i 
mi-nihand va dar jaysala-yi amr rur<>ukh-i 
ddrad (his opinion often influences the — ) ; 
asardt-i falaki (the influence of the stars, 
or heavens) ; kuldh-ash pashm na-ddrad 
(he has no influence, authority) ; khdya-yi 
chap vulg. slang (one who is under 
another's thumb). 

Influential, sdhib-nufuz; sdhib-iqtidar ; bd- 

Influenza, anflutvanza ; zukdm-i farangi (less 

Inform, fahirvdnidan ; ittild' dddan tr.; mut- 
taW shudan or iUild' ddshtan intr. (to be 
informed); khabar k. ; dgdhk.; i'ldm n., 

Information, ittild ; khabar; dgdhi; 'ilm; 
ittild' bi-ham rasdnidan (to gain informa- 
tion of) ; surdjfhri na-ddram or masbHq nis- 
iam (I have no information on the 

Informed, muikUv ; masbuq ; dgdli (ah. and 

1 f^ jjle fjf»s J Ar., lit. *• and measure (guees) on that." 

2 Bad-bakht and kani-babht are in Persian the same, "unfortunate, 
used to express contempt or abuse. 

'i In India ta kuja is often used for ta kay. 

In Urdu, the latter is only 




k.) ; mardri ha ittild*-i ast (he is a well- 
informed man). 
Informer, muhhbir (gen.); jasus (spy). Vide. 


Infraction, Infringement, shikast (on pur- 
pose) ; muhhalafat-i ha qanun (on pur- 
pose) ; tajavuz az qanun (or az shart) {k.) 
(gen.) ; or faskh k. (on purpose). 

Infuriate, to, dtash-pa k. ; ghazah-nak karda 
urd divdna sdkht. 

Infuse, dam kashidan or khurdan intr., 
and — dddan tr. (of tea, etc. ; to stew 
slowly); taqtir k. (to filter; or to distill); 
'araq kashidan (to distill; tech. term of 
hakims) ; khisdndan (to soak) ; shira kashi- 
dan (extract the juice by any means) ; 
nkhtan tr. and intr. (to pour into) ; ilqd k. 
(to instill good qualities). Vide Draw. 

Infusion, jushdnda fby heat) : khimnda (by 

Ingenious, ha ikhtird' (of people) ; or hd hik- 
mat (of people or plans) ; in mjdshin-i 'pur 
hikmat ast. 

Ingenuity, san'at-kdri; saw at va hikmat; 
khub san'at hikdr hurda ast or hikmat bi- 
kharj ddda ast (he has displayed great 
ingenuity in making this) ; chi 'aql-i hi- 
kharj ddda ast. 

Ingenuous, hd-saddqat ; sdf-dil ; sddiq ; sdf u 

Ingenuously, sddiqdna ; az ru-yi safd. 

Ingot, shimsh (of gold or silver). 

Ingrained, qasdvat-i qalh dar 'uruq-ash pay- 
Tosta ast (cruelty is ingrained in his na- 

Ingratitude, kufrdn-i ni'mat; nd-haqq-shi- 
ndsi vulg. for haqq nd-shindsi ; ihsdn- 

Ingredient, juz*', pi. ajzJd^; also juzv. 

Ingress and Egress, dukhul u khuruj ; mad- 
khal u makhraj. 

Ingulf, to haVidan (swallow whole) ; faru 
hurdan (swallow anyhow) ; zarmn Qdrun 
rd faru hurd. 

Inhabit, to, sukunat ddshtan (gen.) ; sdkin 
budan (gen.) ; hud u bash k. (of a quarter); 

Inhabitable, qdhil-i sukunat ; or la^iq-i hud u 
hdsh (gen.; of houses, cities, islands). 

Inhabitant, sdkin, pi. sdkinin and sakana 
(gen.) ; muqim ' (gen. and temp.) ; hdsh- 
inda (of the soil) ; mutavattin (settler). 

Inhabited, Inhabiting, dhdd; maskun (also 
haunted, q.v.) ; ma'mur; rub'-i maskun 
(the fourth part of the world, the amount 
that is inhabited ; the remaining three- 
fourths are water). 

Inhalation, kash (of the pipe); [puk, vulg., 
for puf exhalation, puff of pipe]. 

Inhale, nafas faru hurdan: dud u buhhdr 
faru hurdan (med.) : dar kashidan' 

Inharmoniousness, nd-ham-dhangi (of sound) . 

Inherent, asli ; jihilll ; tabi'i; fitri. Vide 

Inheritance,* irs or mirds; tarika (ydftan). 

Inherited, mau^rusi. 

Inheriting, virdsat; irs hurdan (act of). 

Inheritor, vdris, pi, vurrds or varasa; mirds- 
khur ; mirds-gir; irs-gir. 

Inheritress, vdrisa. 

Inhospitable, mihrnan na-navdz : mihmdn- 
dust nist. 

Inhuman, vahshi ; khabis ; [khdrij az insdniy- 
yat in m.c. = " impolite " = hi-adab]. 

Inimical, mukhdlif gen. : mu'dnid (of persons 
only) ; in mund-fiyi favd^id-i man ast (in- 
imical to my interests). 

Iniquitous, shanV ; qahih. [etc. 

Iniquity, \s^am'a^; qabdhat. Vide Crime, 

Initial, ihtidd^i (adj.) : huruf-i avval-i ism 
(subs. ; of a name). 

Initial, to, ism-ash rd na-namshta, huruf-i 
muqatta'dt ddda (he has not signed his 
name; merely his initials). 

Initiation, ta'lim-i muqaddamdt (d.). 

Initiative, avval iqddm k. : tnubddarat k. (to 
hasten to do). 

Inject, to. Injection, db-duzdak dddan (into 
the veins) ; tanqiya {d and g.) (a purge and 
also an enema) ; 'amal or dastur giriftan 
(to take an enema) ; ' mJdrflya^ dar badan- 
ash kardand (he was given an injection of 

Injudicious, bi-hasirat (imprudent) ; bi-tad- 

Injunction, ta^kid; ta^kid-i akid (strict in- 
junction) ; qadaihan. Vide Command, 

1 Mnqlm also meajis ''quartered, of army, etc." 

2 Children, whether by a wife or by a concubine, inherit by law equally, provided the father ac- 
knowledge the law. A daughter's share is half a son's. If there is no issue, a wife's shsire is one-fourth, 
otherwise an eighth. A man may will away a third of his property as he pleases. 

If a wife die without issue, the husband inherits half her property ; if there be issue, a quarter. 
Legacies 6«id debts must first be settled. 




Injure, ^arar — or ziyan rasamdan (to cause 
loss to) ; azurdan, rt. azar (bodily injury); 
aadma rasanidan (gen.). 

Injured, kharab shvda (of things) ; sadma 
khurda (of persons) ; iride Wounded ; az 
ziyddatx-yi zahmat sihhat-ash khalal-% hi- 
ham rasdnda oat (his health has become 
impaired by over- work,). 

Injurious, muzirr ; mukhill ; zarar-rasdn ; 
ziydn-dih : in jdnvardn mu^zx and? 

Injury, azxyat (gen. , but sp. bodily) ; dslb ; or 
gazand (bodily) : zarar ; or ziydn ; or nuq- 
sdn; or khisdrat (loss); khalal (in health, 
or in work). 

Injustice, jawr ; or jabr ; or zulm ; or bi-ddd ; 
or sitam; or ta'addi ; or ijkdf (oppression, 
q.v.); vide Tyranny: nii-shavad mvipbiq-i 
qdnun bdshad vali khildf-i insdi ast (it 
may be law but it isn't justice). 

Ink, murakkab ; middd : shanjarf or murak- 
kab-i surkh (red ink). Vide Silk. 

Inkling, ishdra ; shamma-i az In matlah pay 
bur dam. 

Inkstand, davdt; murakkah-dJdn. 

Inlaid, khdtim-kdrx (subs. ; inlaid wood- 
work) ; murassa' (past part. , inlaid with 
jewels) ; muhajjar-kdrx (mosaic work). 

Inlay, to , jawdhir nishdndan (with jewels) ; 
tild-kub k. (with gold). 

Inn, khdn,^ pi. khdndt (local) ; kdravdn-sardy^ 
(*public ; for caravans) ; mihmdn-khdna 
(hotel, q.v.); ribdt (charitable; without 
charge ; food is provided free) .* 

Itmate, mddar-zdd; tabrx; firl ; zdti ; 
jibillx ; sirishtt. 

Innately, bi 't-tab' ; bi ^Uzdt ; bi H-fUra. 

Innocence, bi-gundhx; bard^at az gundh : ma'- 
sumiyyat (sinlessness by nature) : az gundh 
khud rd bard^t kard (he proved his inno- 

Innocent, bi-gundh ; hx-jurm; az dn gundh 
barx ast : m/i'sum (sinless) . 

Innovate, naw dar dvardan. 

Innovation, " this tax is an innovation" xn 
khirdj (or mdliydt-i san^) bid' at ast. 

Innoxious, bx-zarar. 

Innuendo, ta' riz (in Rhet.) ; bi-gusha gujtan 
(in coll.). Vide Hint and Insinuation. 

Innumerable, bx-shumJdr ; bx-hisdb ; nd-ma- 
'dud; bx-hadd. 

Inobservant, bi-khaydl ; bad-hamss. 

Inoculation, dbla-kubi (k.) (for small-pox) ; 
td'un-kubx (for plague). 

Inoculator, dhla-kub. 

Inodorous, bx-bu ; and bx-rd^iha (without any 

Inoffensive, m jdnvarhd muzx nxstand; bi- 
zarar ; bx-dzdr; bt-xzd : "I'm a quiet in- 
offensive being who wouldn't hurt a fly" 
(waw ddam-i faqxr va bl-sadd-x hustam ki 
hich vaqt aziyat-am bx-murda-x nami-rasad). 

Inopportune, bt-vaqt ; bx-mawqi' ; bx-mahaU ; 

Inorganic, jamddl. 

Inquest , sarbdz-x ki khud rd bd tufang haldk 
kard iakqlq-ash rd dxruz kardand. 

Inquietude, iztirdb (sp. of mind) ; bx-drdmx 
(of body or mind); 'adam-i sukun (of 
body) ; qalaq (of mind; rare). Vide Rest- 

Inquire, pursldan; istifsdr k.: "someone 
else was inquiring about this and we gave 
him the same answer" {kas-i dxgar ham 
az mJd juyd shud, bi-hamxn qardr javdb dd- 
dtm) ; tafahhus k. ; or taftxsh k. ; or tahcfiq 
k. (to investigate matters) ; tajassus k. 
(spying out, secret inquiry). 

Inquirer, mustafsir (asker) ; mutajassis (spy- 
ins) ; mufattish (an investigator, police- 
officer) ; sdHl (questioner ; but gen. b^- 
gar) ; su^dl kunanda, and vulg. pursanda 

Inquiring, 'iyddat subs. = ahvdl-pursx-yi bi- 
mdr (inquiring after the sick) : pursdn; 
and mustafsir; and juyd (part.) ; muhaq- 
qiq (part. ; in science or relig.). 

Inquiry, pursish {k.) ; or istifsdr (k.) : tahqx- 
qdt {k.) (investigation q.v.). 

Inquisitive, kunj-kdv ; fuzul P. (also meddle- 
some; P. for Ar. fuzulx). 

Inquisitiveness, kunj-kdvx ; fuzuH (P. ior Ar. 
fuzul) . 

Ins and outs, rdh u chdh (i.e. what to follow 
and what to avoid). 

Insane, dxvdna; sawda^x; majnun: dimdgh.- 
khushk (has a tile loose, cracked) ; dali T. 
(mad), pakht (weak-minded; wanting). 
Vide Mad, Cracked. 

Insanity, divdnagx ; saiodd, junun: Utabt-i 
dirndgh ; and dirndjfhrl^ushhx (being crack- 

Insatiable, xshtihd-i (or tam'-i) ddrad ki har 

1 Khan At. 

^ In karavan-aaraa on the road, no charge is made; but in those in dties a charge is made. 

8 Maliyat only on Isuid ; mSUy^it^ aori "fr^ x on cattle, poll-tax, etc." 





giz sir naml-shavad ; shikam-ash sir nami- 

Inscribe, vide Engrave ; dar dil-i man naqsh 
bcmta ast (it is engraved on my heart) . 

Inscription, katlha (on tombs or sacred 
places); navishta, or kanda (gen.). Vide 

Inscrutability, na-mudrakl. 

Inscrutable, Id yudrak. 

Insect, havdmm, and hasharat"H-arz (only 
used in pi.) ; khazanda (all creeping 
things; includes snakes, lizards, etc.): 
kirm (m.c. worm or insect, etc.). 

Insectivorous, kirm-khwdr. 

Insecurity; 'adam-i amniyyat; and na-amnt 
(of road, country); bi-hifdzl (of life, pro- 
perty); na-muhkami (of buildings, etc ). 

Insensate, misl-i jarnJdddt ; bi-hiss. 

Insensibility, bl-hushi ; madhushi ; bi-hissi : 
guyd bi^l-tab' az hlch chiz muta^assir nist 
( = the insensibility of his nature). 

Insensible, madhush; az nd-khushi bi-hush 
ast: bi-hiss: gh ayr-i mahsus (not to be 
felt); nd-mar^i (invisible). 

Insensibly, nd-ma'lUmdna ; nd-mahsusdna. 

Insentient, quvvat-i ihsds na ddrad. 

Inseparable, la yanfakk. 

Insert, faru k. ; ddkhil k. ; gunjdnidan (to 
cause to contain) ; bihtar ast in Id^iha rd 
dar kdgi,az-i khud darj kunid (you had 
better insert this article in your paper). 

Inserting, idkhdl; darj. 

Insertion, mundarija (lit. matter inserted) ; 
payvand (of dress). 

Inside, darun, ddkhil; tu or tuy. 

Insight, basirat. 

Insignia, nishdn-Jm; 'aldmdt-i imtiydz. 

Insignificance, nd-chizl ; bt-miqddri ; haqiri. 

Insignificant, Mch; nd-cMz; bi-miqdar ; mu- 
haqqar : yak-vajabi (in stature) : insdn 
nisbat bi-Khydd-yi Qddir va Mutlaq chi- 
qadar nd-chiz ast. 

Insincere, nu-sddiq (of words or persons) ; 
bi-ikhlds (of persons) ; bi-vafd (faithless ; of 
persons): sukhan-ash riyd^Vst: an mard 
du-ru^st (double-faced). 

Insincerity, 'adam-i khulus; bi-saddqati ; du- 

Insinuate, dhista dhista rah-i khud rd bi-dil-i 
u paydd kard: bi-Umd guftan. Vide 
Allude, Imply, Innuendo, Hint. 

Insinuation, tma* or ihdm (k.) (good or bad) ; 
lujAz-pardni (k.) (of evil). Vide Innuendo 
and Hint. 

Insinuating, lughz-pardn : ramz-gu (adj.). 

Insipid, bi-maza (of persons or things) ; hi- 
zdHqa; bi-ta'm (of things) ; misl-i rndch 
ba'dazjamd' vulg. (indecent). 

Insist, isrdr k. : bard-yi in kdr qd^im bi-man 
chaspid: tu khwdhi na-khwdhi dar pay-i 
nawkari dar dmadi — Prof. S. T. : harchi 
khwdstam na ravamu pila ' karda burdat-am 
(in spite of my trying not to go, he insis- 
ted and took me). Vide Search and 

Insistence, ilhdh u isrdr {n.) ; pila (k.). 

Insistent, musirr ; bd ilhdh: chun mard nihd- 
yat dar pay-i dn kdr did — Prof. S. T. 
(when he saw me so insistently bent on 

Insolence, bi-i'tinal; ihdnai. Vide Pride, 

Insolent, bi-adabdna pish dmadand or suluk 
kardand. Vide Haughty, Impertinent, 

Insoluble, Insolvable, ghayr-i munhall ; ghayr-i 
mahlul; bi-guddz; (sp. in chem.) : hall nd- 
shudani gen.: bi-ta^ml (not to be interpreted, 
explained) ; in matlab hall nd-shudani ast. 

Insolvent, var — or bar-shikasta ; vide Bank- 
rupt; al-muflis^ fi amdn^'lldh ( = to one 
who has nothing to give, you can do no- 
thing, he goes scot-free; said by bank- 
rupts to dunning creditors) . 

Insomnia, maraz-i kam-khivdbi or — bi-khwdbi. 

Insomuch so, bi-hadd-i ki; bi-qadr-i ki (to 
such an extent that). 

Inspect, sdn didan or kardan tr. (to make to 
file past, of troops at a review) ; sdn dddan 
intr. (to be reviewed) ; nigdh k. (vulg. in 
this sense) ; sar-kashi kardan (of things or 
places or troops) ; muldhaza k. (of persons 
or things): dcjhd, sar-rishta^ rd^ bi-talab 
ki in pdrcha rd muldhaza kunad vulg. (sir, 
send an expert to inspect this cloth) : bind 
mi-kunad yak-i yak-i bi-ruy-i mardum nigdh 
kardan (he began to inspect their fea- 

Inspection, muldhaza (gen.) ; rasidagi (of 
work) ; sdn (review ; making troops file 
past a high official). 

Inspector, mufattish (official) ; mumayyiz 

1 Pila "cocoon of silk " ; origin of idiom unknown. Burdat-am (vulg.) " he took me " and hurdan- 
am (vulg. ) ' ' they took me. ' ' 

2 Or kh.ybra*l ra, for yak-i az ahlri Mkibra (vulgarly khuhrn). 




(tester); naair-i ta'timat (Inspector of 
Schools); fnai?ir alone is steward, etc.]; 
gazma-bdshl (Inspector of Police). 

Inspiration, ilham (relig. and gen.) ; vahl (for 
Prophets only) ; bi-tawr-i ilhdm dar zihn- 
am dmad ki — (I had a sudden inspira- 
tion) ; mukdshafa (revelation ; relig.) ; 
qanha (genius, sp. poetic). 

Inspire, to, damidan. tr. (to blow into) ; nafas 
bald (or — dar) kashldan (to draw in the 
breath) ; tashviq d. ; tahris d. ; muhayyij 

Inspired, mulham; vahi-ydjta ; mi-guyand 
daricha-t az khizdna-yi asrdr-i ildhiyya bar 
qalb-i vay kushdda shud; nur-i ildhi dar 
dil-ash tdbld. 

Inspiring, muhayyij (of words, music, etc.). 

Inspiratory, dldt-i najkhl or nafas-kashi (the 
inspiratory organs). 

Inspiriting, ruh-bakhsh. 

Inspissate, to, til kardan (local?); qavdm 
dddan; ghpllz kardan. 

Inspissated juice, rubb. 

Inspissation, qavdm (of S5rrups) ; masht (of 

Instability, bi-istiqdm^ati ; 'adamri sabdt (for 
people or things) ; nd-payaddri (of world, 
buildings, opinions) ; bi-i'tibdri (of world); 
bi-'azmt (of purpose). Vide Hesitating. 

Installation, nasb {k.) (in ofl&ce). 

Instalment, qist, pi. aqsdt. 

Instance, masal, pi. amsdl ; nazir : masal'^'* 
(for instance). 

Instance, to, masal dvardan ; nazir a. ; m/isal 
zadan (gen. of apt quotations, in prose or 

Instant, yak chashm barham zadan, or turf at"' I 
'ayn (the winking of the eyes) ; sdniya 
(second by the watch) ; lamha; dn (a 
moment) ; al-dn (this very instant ; vulg. 
hamln hold) ; id mard did parid (the in- 
stant, or as soon as, he saw me he bolted) ; 
in rd gujta bild fdsila kdfur shud (the 
moment he said this he disappeared). 

Instead of, 'ivaz {d.) (subs, and prep.); bi- 
jd-yi — ; bi-manzila-yi — ; dar maqdm-i — ; 
taldfi-yi mdfdt, or jabr-i nuqsdn (making 
good a deficiency from loss) ; badal (d.) 
(vulg.; subs, and prep.): bi-'ivaz-i diruz 
fardd mi-ayam, told ft rd mi-kunam (I'll 
come to-morrow and make up for yester- 
day's lost time). 

Instep, puaht-i pa; [gaivdi-yi kaf-% pa '* arch 
of foot"]. 

Instigate, Instigation, tahrik or tahris k. 
(good or bad) ; i^fJivd k (bad) ; targAib 
dadan (gen. bad) ; bar-angikhtan (to stir 
up ; in bad sense) ; var gkaUdnidan (to 
tempt; of the Devil ' or of men). 

Instigator, muharrik (inciter) ; ighvd-kun , 
munshd-yi in balvd u bud (he was the insti- 
gator of the disturbance, rebellion) ; dtash-i 
in fitna rd u afrukht. 

Instill, to, vide Infuse; dar dil nihddan or 
guzdrdan: dhista dhista bi-qalb nishdndan , 
or chakka chakka dar qalb rikktan. 

Instinct, 'aql-i hayvdni; shu'ur-i fitri ; filrat 
(prop. = tabi'at) : insdn quvva-yi idrdk 
ddrad vali hayvdndt rui-ddrand (man has 
reason, beasts have none). 

Instinctively, fit/rat"". 

Institute, to, bar pa k. (gen.) ; vaz' k. (of 
laws); ijdd k. (of customs). Vide Invent. 

Institutor, bdni or mu^assis (founder of any- 
thing) ; muqannin or vdzi' (of a qdnun) ; in 
qdnun rd ki guzdrd ? Vide Inventor. 

Institution, dar Farangistdn az bdbat-i tadris-i 
'ulum qavdnin-i khub qardr girifta ast. 
Vide Custom, Law. 

Instruct, dmukhtan, rt. dmuz, tr. and intr. ; 
ta' lim k. ; dars dddan or tadris k. ; sabaq 

Instructions, ynuiabiq-i dastur"' 1-' amal-i shumd 
raftdr kardam (I acted according to your 

Instructive, mufid (often in m.c. "interest- 
ing " ; of a book). 

Instructor, mu'ailim ; [mula'allim ' ' pupil ' 'J ; 
mudarris : ustdd (master) ; dkhund (a small 
mulla, a teacher of boys ; does not preach 
in a mosque but takes part in the raioza* 
khwdni ; vide Teacher) ; ndsih (adviser). 

Instructress, mu'allima. 

Instrument, dla,^ pi. dldt; awzdr P. pi., also 
used as sing. ; adavdt pi. (sing, not used) : 
sdz (any musical instrument) ; tdr (any 
stringed—). Vide Cause. 

Instrumental, to be, dast-i ddshtan; sabab-i 
budan, etc. 

Insubordinate, mulamarrid; sar-kash. 

Insubordination, sar-kashi; tamarrud. 

Insufferable, bi-tahammui; birun az taham- 
mul a^i. 

Insufferably, In qadar nakhvat ddrad ki l^rij 

I Shaydan mora var-gJicUanid specially = muhtalim shudam ; but the term is also applied to all the 



* AJf instrument but »5Jf generally " the mcde organ of generation." 




az tahammul-i insdni ast (he is proud 
beyond human endurance). 

Insufficient, kam {dmadan) ; qasir {dmadan) ; 
ghftyr-i kdjl (budan) ; da' vat-i hist nafar 
kardam vail ghizd kam dmad. 

Insulator, gh,argh,ara (m.c. ; telegraph — ; 
also reel of thread) ; finjdnak (of tel. only) ; 
dla-yi ihtibds-i barql (Leyden jar). 

Insult, mard bl-'izzat kard; khiffat dad 
(sleight) ; hatk-i ab-i ruy ' k. (to disgrace) ; 
'uzr-i badtar az gundh dvardan (to add 
insult to injury).^ 

Insupportable. Vide Insufferable. 

Insurance, bimd {k.) ; btmd-ndma ( — policy). 

Insure, In jahdz rd dah hazdr tunmn himd kar- 
dam va sanad-ash dar dast-am ast (I have 
insured the ship for 10,000 tumans and I 
have the policy in my possession) ; 'umr 
rd bimd kardan (to insure one's life). 

Insurgent, yd gh l ; 'dsl (also sinner) ; sar-kash. 

Insurrection, sar-kashl {k.) (disobedience; 
also to prospect a mine) ; or shurish {k.) : 
tughydn (k.) (exceed just measure or 
limits) ; fitna {bar pd k.) ; fasdd (k.) (gen. ; 
disturbance of any kind) ; balvd (k.) ; or 
ghadr {k.) (mutiny or revolution) : [but in 
India balwd is any riot]. 

Intact, sdlim ; dast na-khurda (prop. ' ' not 
touched "). 

Intangible, misl-i havd nd-mahsus [incorrect 
for — rm-mar^i] ; hukumat giriftanl nist, or 
chlz-i nist ki urd bi-dast hi-girand. 

Integrity, durusti; rdsii ; saddqat: diydnat 
(honesty) ; tavmmiyyat (wholeness). 

Intellect, 'aql; or idrdk; or quvva-yi darrdka : 
zakdvat (keenness of — ) ; zu'f-i 'aql (weak- 
ness of intellect , approaching idiotcy) . 

Intellectual, zakl ; zahin. 

Intelligence, firdsat. 

Intelligent, hd-idrdk; mudrik ; tlz hush or 
zud-fahm (quick) ; zirak (clever). 

Intelligently, dastur"H-'amal-i ki hi-u dddam 
khayli bd firdsat (or fahmldagt) anjdm ddd. 

Intelligible, fahmldani ; mafhum shudanl. 

Intemperance, bl-i'tiddli; bad-parhlzl: isrdf 
(extravagance of any kind in living). 
Vide Intoxication. 

Intemperate, gt^ayr-i mu'tadil; M-i'tiddl. 

Intend, khaydl ddshtan ; irdda d. ; qasd d. , 
'azm d ; dyd 'azm-i safar ddrid? : pas 

fikr-at chi chiz ast? (well, what do you 
intend to do ?) ; fardd mi-hhipdham ddam 
bi-firistam (I intend'^ to send a man to- 
morrow) ; dar dil-am bud ki dnjd iqdmat 
kunam. Vide Persuade. 

Intense, bi-shiddat; shadid; bi-hadd. 

Intensely, dar ishtiddd-i garmd va havd (of in- 
tense heat). 

Intensify, quvvat dddan (strengthen) : vide In- 
crease : tlra-tar k. (of colour). 

Intensity, shiddat (gen.) ; hiddat (sharpness 
of heat, cold, or emotions) ; saivrat (se- 
verity; of heat or cold) ; ghMdzat (of fog). 

Intention, m,urdd ; maqsud, pi. maqdsid; 
niyyat ; vide Intend : irdda-am rd faskh kar- 
dam (I changed my mind). Vide, Idea. 

Intentional, qasdl ; 'amdi; irddi. 

Intentionally, dida va ddnista; qasd'^" ; 
'amd"" ; hi ^l-irdda; sanjida u fahmida. 

Inter, to, khdk k. ; dafn k. ; bi-khdk — or bi- 
zamin sipurdan ; dar qabr k. {ye&r]. 

Intercalary, kabisa adj. ; [sdl-i kabisa leap 

Intercalate, afzudan. 

Intercede, to, vdsita k. or sh. ; vasdtat k. ; 
miydnchi-gari k. (to mediate) ; lab-l bi- 
shifd'at na-guslidd (he did not make the 
least intercession). 

Interceder. Vide Intercessor. 

Intercept, jilav-giri k. ; or kas-i rd bayn-i rdh 
giriftan (a person on the road) ; jilav-i 
rushnd^i rd bdz kunid, tdrlki na-kunid 
(please get out of the light); qaVk. (to 
cut off) ; az miydn burdan (to carry off ; 
of things). 

Intercession, sAt/a'ai; ot vasdtat ; or miydn- 
jl-gari {k.) (mediation) ; tavassut-i vay 
nizd-i shdn maqbul bud (he pleaded with 
them for him , with success) . 

Intercessor, shajV [in India relig. only] ; 
vdsita; miydnchi (mediator). 

Interchange, mubddala (k.) ; mu'dvaza {k.) 
(also exchange). 

Interchangeable, ml-shawad bd-ham mubddala 
kard: 'iwazi. 

Intercommunication, radd-u badal-i fi mJd- 
bayn [k.) (of ideas, letters, goods) ; muhd- 
vara fl md-bayn (k.) (of speech) ; murd- 
vada , ^\. murdvadat (k.) (gen.; of letters, 
speech, goods ; also roads) ; rdh-hd-yi 
dmad u shud (roads). 

1 In m.c. often ab u ruy. In India ab-ru. 

% Also as when Abu Nu*a8 pinched the Khalifa and apologized by saying ' Oh I thought it was 
your wife. ' 

S Note this common m.c. use of khtpaatan. 




Intercourse, dmad u raft; murdvadat (nen.) : 
rdbita ; or mu'dsJmral ; or ikhtilcU (social) ; 
miydn-i man va harddar-am khub ast: bd 
zan rdh ddshtan (improper ; intrigue) ; 
muqdrabat k.; or mujdma'a k. ; or mubd- 
Kharat k. (carnal). 

Interdict, to, nah% k. ; man' k. : qada^an k. 
(also to order). Vide Command, Order. 

Interdicting, mdni (part.). 

Interest, far (as opposed to asl " prin- 
cipal"); tnanfa^at, pi. mandfi' (profit); 
tanztl ' ; sud (usury) ; sud bar sud (eorap. 
int.): vdaita"^ (in high places): dar In 
amr cjAaraz-i na-ddram (I have no self- 
interest ; also grudge) ; harf-i man pish-t 
u kharidarl na-ddrad ; la'alluq-i shakhsl 
(personal interest) ; khildf-i mandfi'-i man 
ast (this is against my interest) ; m^n bi- 
an kdr h%ch dil-bastagt na-ddram (I take 
no interest in the work). 

Interest, to, bi-hich shawq na-ddram (nothing 
interests me) ; in bi-dard-i man davd nist, 
or in bi-hdl-i man mufid nist (this doesn't 
interest me or benefit me). 

Interested, mugkriz^gkaraz ddrad (selfishly 
interested) . 

Interesting, ii^c/iasp; shirin; inkiiabkhayU 
mufid ast (this is a very interesting book) ; 
ruzTMtnajdt akhbdrhd-yi khub khub ddrand 
(the newspapers are full of news : intei'est- 

Interfere, to, Interference, muddMiala k. 
(polite) : dast-anddzi k. ; or fuzuli k.^ 
(rude) ; dust tna-zan or kdr ma-ddr (don't 
interfere or don't touch) ; pa dar miydn 
guzdshtan; dakhl u tasarruf k. Vide 
Meddle and Hinder. 

Interim, dar in asnd ; or dar bayn-i in (in 

Interior, darun ; ddkhil ; tu or tuy. 

Interjection, harf-i nidd (sp. of vocative; 
gram); harf-i ta^ajjub (of astonishment) ; 
harf-i tambih (of warning), etc., etc. 

Interlace, to, bi-ham bdftan, tr. 

Interlaced, muslujbbak {k.) ; bi-ham pichida ; 
or shdkh dar shdkh (of creepers) . 

Interleave, yak dar miydn varaq-i soda dar 
miydn nihddan. 

Interlinear, bayn-i sutur navishta. 

Interlink, halqa dar halqa dar dvardan (of 
every link of a chain). Vide To join. 

Interloper, khar-magas-i ma'raka (a forcible 
interfere r, or an active spoil-sport). Vide 

Interlunar, tahf^'sh-shu'd'i (adj., interval 
between two moons). 

Intermarriage, dukhtar dddan va dukhtar 
giriftan; mundkahat (k.) ; muvdsalat {k.) 
muzdvajat (k.). 

Intermediary, mutavassit (half-way; mid- 
dling). Vide Intercede. 

Interment, tadfin; dafn; Miidk sipurdan. 

Intermewed. Vide Haggard. 

Intermingled, bi-ham maMlut; qdti bi-ham 
T. ; dar ham dmikhta or — karda ; mamzuj 
(of medicines). 

Intermission, tavagquf (delay) ; inqi^'. 

Intermittent, tab-i nawba (of fever) ; gdh 

Internal, andaruni; ddkhili; bdtini: qcdbi 
(of the heart). 

International, duvaliyya ; qdnun-i milali* or 
qanun-i bayn"' d-dawali. [fciyn. 

Internecine, tarafayn-kush ; muhlik'^ ^trtara- 

Interpolation, ilkdq (addition) ; zavd'id, pi : 
tahrif (changing words or letters): munda- 
rijdt, pi. (insertions) [fa-kun. 

Interpolator, ilhdq-kun ; mundarij-kun ; izd- 

Interpose, pd dar miydn nihddan ; hd*il shu- 
dan (to come between) ; Imjiz sh. Vide 
Intervene, Interfere; Intercede. 

Interposer, pd-dar-miydn-nih. 

Interposition , muddhhala ; miydnji-gari (me- 

Interpret, to. Interpretation, sharh k. (to ex- 
plain fully, enlarge on) ; tar jama k. (to 
translate and to interpret) ; tafsir k. (ex- 
plain ; of Qur*an only) : taujjih k. (give 
meaning to) ; tawzih k. (make clear, eluci- 
date) : ta'bir k. (of dreams) ; md'ni-yi fdl- 
guftan (of omens). 

Interpreter, tarjumdn ; dilvwij T. (rare) ; du- 
bdsi (vulg.) : mutarjim (translator) : mufa- 
ssir (of Qur*an) : shdrih (gen.) ; ta'bir-kun 
(of dreams) : fdl-gu ; fal-chi ; or fal-gir 
(taker of omens). 

Interred, madfun; dar gur karda; bi-khdk 

1 Tamil is really " discount." The proper meaning, however, of tanzU is ' sending down specially 
from Heaven ; causing a traveller to alight. ' 

^ In India the word toaaila is used for interest in high quarters. 

8 Fuzuli k. has in m.c. msuiy meanings; fuzuli na-kun ' don't touch that; don't be misohievous: 
don't be abusive ; don't chatter, etc' 

* MiUiti ; incorrect Arabic form. In Arabic nouns of relation are not formed from plurals. 




Interregnum, ayydm-i fatrat (prop, religious ; 
interval between two apostles). 

Interrogation, su'ul (k.) (question ; also to 
beg>; pursish {k.) (also to ask after 
health) : istifhdm {k.) ; and istifsdr {k.) 
(gen., asking); istintdq (k.) (cross-examine 
in law-courts) ; harf-i istifhdm (gram. ; 
particle of — ). 

Interrogate, pursidan ; juyd sli. ; mustafsir 

Interrogated, mas^ul (also responsible for). 

Interrogative, su^dli; istifhdrm ; istifsdri. 

Interrogatively, bi-tawr-i su^dl; bar sahil-i 

Interrogator, mustafsir; su'dl-kun; [sd^il 
gen. = beggar] 

Interrupt, to, Interruption, qat'-i kaldm k. ; 
guft u gu rd barham zad: bd'is-i khalal-i 
kdr {sh.) : dgJm mi-tarsam mukhili-i shumd 
bi-shavam, or — asbdh-i zahmat-i shumd 
bdsham, or — shumd rd az kdr bdz ddram 
(sir, I fear I interrupt, or intrude) ; smM- 
an-i mard ma-burid, or lu-yi harf-am na- 
ydyid (don't interrupt me when I'm 
speaking) ; kdr-am gir paydd kard (I was 
interrupted, stopped altogether) ; bidun-i 
inqitd' ; ' ala ' t-tavdll ; pay dar pay (un- 
interruptedly ; without interruption or 

Interrupted, burida (also ' ceased ' of sound). 

Intersect, to. Intersection, buridan; In khatt 
dn hhatt rd taqdtu' mi-kunad: nuqta-yi 
taqdtu' (point of — ). 

Intersecting, mutaqdti' (part.) : mutaldql 
(part. ; meeting) . 

Interstice, shigdf. 

Intertwine. Vide Interlace. 

Interval, masdfat (of space) ; fdsila (time or 
space); tak tak (at intervals, i.e., here 
and there). Vide Meanwhile. 

Intervene, to, u miydna uftdda dnhd rd az 
yak digar sivd kard (he intervened and 
separated them). Vide Interpose. 

Intervening, hdyil ; hujiz: mdni' (lit. pre- 
venting) ; dar miydnl (of space, etc.). 

Interview, to, sharafydbl {hdsil k.) or ziydrat 
(k.) (with great people) ; muldqdt (k.) ; 
dldani {k.) (vulg.). 

Interweave, to, bi-ham bdftan. 

Intestate, hi-vasiyyat. 

Intestinal, ruda^l. 

Intestine, ruda; or am'd^, pi. subs. ; ddkhila 
adj. (of a state). 

Intimacy, muwdnasat; rabt; dshim^l-yi zi- 

Intimate, to be, munis sh. ; vaqt-l ki sag 
mu^nus shud — . Vide Openly. 

Intimate friend, dust-i mahram va ham-dam ; 
rafiq-i mahram u yak-rang ; dust-lm misl-i 
du maghz dar yak pust. 

Intimation, ittilM' {k.). Vide Information. 

Intimidate, to, tarsdndan. 

Intimidation, takhvlf (k.) : tahdid, pi. tahdl- 
ddt {k.) (threats). 

Into, tuy ; dar ; dar miydn-i — ; darun. 

Intolerable, nd-mutahammil ; mukdl" H-haml; 
fawq-i tahammul. 

Intolerably, nd-mutahammildna. 

Intolerance. Vide Bigotry. 

Intoning, tarannum {k.) (hamming) ; bd 
dvdza khipdndan (singing) ; bi-talhln kh. 
(rare) . 

Intoxicant, muskir, pi. muskirdt; munashshi: 
The Prophet said, " All intoxicants are for- 
bidden ' ' [Paygharnhar farmud ki harqism % 
az muskirdt hardm ast) . 

Intoxicated, mast ; khush-mast (jolly) ; glch 
(giddy ; very drunk) ; bad-mast (offensive in 
his cups) ; mast-i Id-ya'qil ' (dead drunk) : 
sar-ash tu havd ast, or savdr-i fil ast, or 
savdr-i asp-i Shaytan ast (very drunk) ; 
sar-mast or maJchmur (drunk but capable). 
Vide Wine. 

Intoxication, nashva ; nasha ; sar-masti ; 
sar-khushl ; sukr paydd karda ast. 

Intractable, sar-kash ; nu-muti' (of iDeople) ; 
ram na-shaw (that cannot be tamed) ; u 
hamlsha magjdub" ^l-gjiazab ast (he has an 
intractable temper). 

Intreaty. Vide Entreat. 

Intrench, to, Intrenchment, qaVa bafidl (k.) ; 
sangar ^ {bastan or sdkhtan) ; saqndq u 
khandaq va matars u murchal (k.): [ma- 
tars also = scarecrow.] 

Intrepid, bl-bdk; jdn-bdz; dildvar-i bl-bdk; 
mutahavvir (rash). 

Intrepidity, bl-bdkl ; jdn-bdzi. 

Intrepidly, bt-bdkdna. 

Intricate, ptchida (gen.); pich u kham-dar 
(of road, labyrinth, curl, etc.) : pur-girih 
(knotted, of string; also of intricate sen- 
tences) . tu dar tu (of a statement). Vide 

Intricacy, pich-plcht (gen.) ; kham andur 
khaml (of road, etc.) ; pur 'aqdi. Vide 

1 In India aiyah-maat. 

8 Sangar a breastwork, generally of stones or earth. 




Intrigue, fUna ftar pa kardan or fitna angu 
khtan; mufattin ahiidan (with tlie idea of 
disturbance) ; bar u tuhmat hastand ki ha 
yak'i az khavatin-i MiLsahndn rah darad 
(accused him of an intrigue with a Mus- 
lim lady) ; sdzish k. (to plot with). Vide 
Deceit, etc. 

Intriguer, fitna-ju, or fitna-bar-pd-kun ; mw- 
fattin (disturber) ; sdzish-kun (plotter) ; 
hila u makr-kun (trickster). 

Intrinsic, asll , haqiqi; zati. 

Introduce, to, shindsdnidan ; shumd rd hi-dn 
jandb mu-'arraj% bi-kunam? ; prezdnt6 k. 
(Ft.) : dar dvardan : ddkhil k. (insert) ; 
dar miydn dvardan (of subject of conver- 
sation) ; shuinJd dar dmad hi-kunld man 
dumbdl-ash rd mi-giram (of a subject) ; 
darj k. (of a clause) ; rasm jdri k. Vide 

Introducing, idkkdl (k.) (insertion). 

Introducer, mu'arrij (to peisons). 

Introduction, dlbdcha ' (prop, the ornate 
preface, i.e.. Praises of God, etc., and the 
reason for writing the book, etc.) ; muqad- 
dama (prop, the introduction to the sub- 
ject of the book) ; mu'arrafl (to persons) ; 
kdghaz-% mu'arrafi (letter of — ) ; sifdrish- 
ndma (letter ot — ; also — of recommenda- 
tion). Vide Frei&ce. 

Introductory, tamhidi; 'unvdni (of intro- 
ductory titles on letters) ; tamhid-i muqad- 
dama [chidan) (preparatory ' beating about 
the bush,' gen.). 

Intrude, muzdhim shudan; na-khipdsta rdy 
dddan (one's opinions); "If a serpent or 
scorpion intrude on a Muslim at prayers, 
it should be killed; at other times it 
should first be admonished to depart" 
agar mar ya 'aqrah-% dar hangdm-i namdz 
daMil shvda hdHs-i taraddud-i khdtir-i 
narrmzV-x shavad urd hdyad faur"" bi-kush- 
and; vali dar awqdt-i dtgar bdyad awal 
urd az rdh-i naslhat guft ki blrun bi-raw. 

Intruder, mard-i juzul; sar-i khar. Vide 

Intrust. Vide Entrust. 

Intrusted, mufavvaz; muhawal (handed 
oyer; of money* or things) ; taindm-i kdr 
hi-du vd gazdshta (or sipurda) shuda hud. 
Vide Entrusted. 

Intuition, basirat; iahrdqaUi qalb (Sufl 
term) ; qalh-i man ilhdm kard (or gatvdhi d.) 
ki; ilqd sh. 

Intwine, pichdnidan, or hi-ham jnchtdan. 
Vide Interlace. 

Innuendo, kindya ; ramz. 

Inundate, to, sayldb k. ; zir-i db k. ; yAarq k. 

Inundated, atrdf-i Tihrdn az gadd mawj mi- 
zanad (Tehran is inundated with beggars) ; 
khututri gadd*i har ruz bdr-i man mi-skawd 
(I am inundated by begging letter); u 
mard khatt-ktLsh kard (he inundated me 
with letters) ; zir-i ah {ah.) (by rain, etc.) ; 
gAarq-i ah k. (inten. ; by enemy). 

Inundation, sayldb {k. or sh.) (irrigation or 
flood) ; tughydn {k. or sh.) (ditto) ; rud shahr 
rd zad; rud tugAydn kard, or bi-tughydn 
dmad (the river overflowed its banks). 

Inured, 'dd/i shuda; mu'idd. 

Invade, to. Vide Invasion. 

Invalid, hamisha 'alii; bimdr-i histari (con- 
fined to bed) ; ma'yuhin (cripples or 
invalids; sp. mil.); za'if (weak, can't 
work); az kdr uftdda (worn out; of 
animals, men or things). Vide Sick. 

Invalidate, bdtil k. 

Invalidation, hutldn. 

Invaluable, bi-qimat or bi-bahd (also "with- 
out any value ^ ") ; hi-saman (rare) ; qimat 
na-ddrad {ambiguous^). 

Invariability, davdm (permanence) ; bi-tagh- 
yirt; 'adam-i tala-vvun. 

Invariable, ddHm (permanent): yak hot; 
yak-sdn; nn-mukdawin ; taghyir-pazir na 
— ; rang-ash sdbtt ast (fast, of colours). 

Invasion, tdkht or yurish {dvardan) ; hanUa 
{burdan) (to attack; or charge; no special 
words to express * invade '). [sal^ zadj 

Invective, tashni' {k.) ; harf-% bar J^Udf-i u 

Inveighing against,* la'nat wa maldmat {k.). 

Inveigle, to, az rdh dar hurda — , izldl karda 
— ; igAvd kardan. 

Invent, harf tardshidan: ja'l k. (to forge, 
etc. , of fables, etc.) ; kashf k. (to discover) ; 
ikhtird' k. (to invent something strange) ; 
%jdd k. (to bring into existence) ; " could 
a man have invented such a lie ? " 
{hamchu durugh-i rd ham m%-shvd sdkht ki 
in sdkhta ast?); %n qdniin rd ki tjdd 
karda?; but ad' at rd ki »fc^»m' karda?. 

» The dtbacha should be in a flowery style. Muqaddama is often loosely used for dibSoAo. Modern 
writers often substitute 'arz-i makhsua for both. 

« Barat bi-havala-yi Fttlan aai, ki dar vajh'i Fulan kar-aazl darad "a bill on So-and-So in favour of 
So-and-So." Vajh here = money and hence account. 

8 The meaning depends on the tone of voice. * TaiabUchat u fti^rt'o* k. (literary). 




Invented, ikhtird' karda; ijdd karda and 

Invention, ihdd,s or tjdd (k.) (to bring into 
existence) : ikhtird' (k.) ; rm-guyand az 
muhhtara'dt-t khud-i Payyhambar ast (they 
state that this is an invention of the Pro- 
phet) ; ja'l (also forging) ; iftird*^ (of words 
or statement, etc.; prop, calumny). 

Inventor, mukhtari' : mujid (the Creator, 
God). Vide Genius. 

Inventory, siydha (k. or giriftan) ; fihrist (k. 
or g.). 

Inversely, bar ^aks ; ma^kusdna. 

Inversion, taqltb (k.) ; tdhrif (k.) (of letters) ; 
taqdlm u ta^khir. 

Invert, vdzhgun kardan or sar-nigun k. or 
mankus {k.) (to invert head downwards) : 
and ma' kus k. 

Investigating, mujattish; and muhaqqiq (act. 
part.; — officer). 

Investigation, tahqiqdt pi. (k.) ; and taftish 
{k.) (of police etc., or of a matter) : tafa- 
hhus {k.) (of a matter only) ; tajassus (k.) 
(of a secret) : istintdq [k.) (police or judi- 

Investigator. Vide Investigating. 

Investiture, Tiasb {k.) (placing on the gaddi, 
etc.) ; takhli' {k.) (giving a robe of honour 
to — or office, etc. to — ) ; 'atd (k.) (gen. ; 

Investment, muhdsara {k.), (siege); takhll' 
or 'aM (with honours); khiVat pushdndan 
or mukhalla' sdkhtan (to invest with a 
robe of honor) ; nmya-yi ziydd hirun karda 
(he has large investments of money). 

Invidious, bd'is-i rashk-i dJigardn; hasad- 

Invidiously, hasuddna; rashkdna. 

Invigorate, to, quvvat dmlan. 

Invigorating, quvvat-dih; mvqavvi. 

Invigoration, taqviyat {d.) ; quvvat-ydbi. 

Invincible, shikast-khurdani na — .• manl' 
(impregnable) . 

Inviolable, dast na-hhur (not to be touched) ; 
sirr-i ma-gu or sirr-i maknun ( — secret) ; 
hardm (unlawful) ; muqaddas (pure) ; qati' 
(of promise). 

Inviolate, sdlim (safe) ; pdk ; nd-mulavvas 
(unsoiled). Vide Inviolable. 

Invisible, — ki bi-chashm nami-dyad; ghdHb : 
nidr'paydE; na-mar^i : nihufta, pinhdn 
(hidden) ; mastur (hidden by a parda) ; 
[masturdt=' parda '-ladies]. 

Invisibility, ghfiybat (but ghibat ^ backbiting) ; 
gMydb (also 'absence'): nihuftagi ; ni- 
hdnt; masturl. 

Invitation, da' vat {k. or d.) ; ruq'a-yi mih- 
mdni or ziydfat; da'vat-ndma (letter of 
— ); mard da'vat-i shdm karda ast, qawl 
dudoram (or qabul karda-am, or pazirufta 
am, or ijdbat namuda-am) (he has invited 
me to dinner and I have accepted). 

Invite, to, chdr nafar rd bi-shdm va'da girif- 
tam vail yak nafar qabul kard. 

Invited, maw'ud; da'vat-girifta. 

Inviter, da'vat-kun. 

Invocate, Invocation. Vide Invoke. 

Invoice, siydha ; or fihrist (any list) ; bljak 
(trade term for invoice and bill). Vide 

Invoke, istimddd khwdstan ; Khudd rd 
hhwdndan; istimdJdd-i himmat az dn vail 
bi-jihat-i pddishdh talab kardand (they 
invoked that saint to be propitious to the 
sovereign) ; Iblis rd hhwdst ki u bi-ydyad 
va imddd nunmyad. 

Involuntarily, bt-ikhtiydr ; bi-dun-i idrda ; 
khwdh ma-hhipdh ; az dahan-ash bi-khud In 
harf dar dmad. 

Involuntary, bi-irdda; bl-qasd. 

Involved, kashida (dragged into) ; glr dm/ida 
(entangled in) ; kdr-ash darham va barham 
ast, or tu-yi ham plchtda ast (his affairs are 
very involved) ; jumla-yi plchtda-i (an 
involved sentence). 

Invulnerable, rWin^tan (like Isfandiyar). 

Inward, bdtini (of the mind, etc.) ; darunl 
(gen.); ddhhiU {gen.). 

Iodide, yud, or jawhar-i yud (iodide of potas- 
sium) . 

Iodine, ayud^n (Eur.) ; ta'fin-i yud (tincture 

Iota, shusha (the medial form of dotted 
letters, but without the dots) ; nuqta 
(dot) ; zarra (particle) ; shamma ; habba 
(grain) ; qatra (drop). 

Ipecacuanha, jawhar-i qay ; afiququna and 
apikd (Eur.). 

Inwardly, az darun (gen.) ; bdtin"^ ; or qalb"" 
(of the heart) ; ddkhil"'' (opp. of hhdrij'^'*). 

Irascible, zud-hhashm; tund-tabi' at ; zud-az- 

Irascibility, zud-khashmi ; tund-tabVati. 

Item, Bdgh-i Iram.^ 

Iridescent, mutamawij bi-alvdn-i qaws-i 

1 Not all Persians observe this distinction, 
s A fabulous garden mentioned in the Qur^an. 

It was constructed in the desert of '■Adan by the 




QuzaJt (reflecting iridescent tints) ; rang-i 

par-i tfl^s : sdya-kuhl ' (of silk). 
Iris (flower), susan ; also, but perhaps 

erroneously called zambaq. Vide Lily. 
Iron, dhan P. ; hacRd A. (rare) : utu {k. or 

sh.) (for ironing clothes) : dhan-takhta 

(sheet-iron); burdda-yi dJian (iron-filings). 
Iron-bound, dhan-band (of boxes) ; bd tamq-i 

dhan (of bales). 
Ironclad, zirih-push (adj. ; of ships). 
Ironer, uiu-kash (of clothes). 
Iron-foundry, kdr-khdna-yi dhan-rizi. 
Ironical, ta'na-drriiz or Uinz-dmiz (prop, taunt- 
ing) : vide Satire, Sarcasm, Ridicule and 

Ironically, to' 7ia-zanan (tauntingly); gusha 

va kindya zadan (to speak — ). 
Ironmonger, dhan-farush ; [dhan-gar 

' smith ']. 
Iron-mould, zang-zada or zang-khurda (adj.). 
Irony, tanz (sneering) ; bi-istihzd^ guftan 

(ridicule) ; bi-ta'n guftan (taunt) ; bi-kindya 

guftan. (innuendo) : hajv (satire ; poetical 

only) :, sukhriyya (derision). 
Irreconcilable, sulh na-pazlr (of persons) ; 

mundqiz ast va isldh-jxzzir na. 
Irrecoverable, bi-imkdn-i bdz gasht; vusul 

shudani na. 
Irrefutable, Id-javdb ; qdti' ; In-radd; muskit. 
Irregular, bi-tarttb ; bi-qd' ida : ghayr-i nizdml 

(of troops) ; samd'i (in gram.). 
Irregularity, bi-qdnuni ; bi-nizdmi (of troops) ; 
'adam-i tarttb (of formation, order) ; bad- 

7tazini: bi-qd' idagi. 
Irrelevant, bi-rabt; nisbat na-ddrad bi — . 

Vide Fits. 
Irreligious, ghfibyr-i mutadayyin (also dis- 
honest) ; bi-din. 
Irremediable, ftz'tTa^'; bi-darmdn; bl-cHdra. 
Irremovable, ghfiyr-i manqul (of property, 

such as lands, houses, etc.); (j^ayr-i 

mutaharrik (of heavy things) ; raf — , or 

dur shudani na — (of doubts).* 
Irreparable, isldh nd-pazir. 
Irreproachable, maldmat-pazir na — ; niyyat- 

ash pdk ast ; kdr-hdrosh pdk az bdk ast. 
Irresistible, mv^dvamat-pazir na; daf na- 

shaw: nd-magbJiub (unconquerable). 
Irresolute, du-dil ; mutaraddid ; pas-pish kun 

(vulg.) ; (muzabzah is generally used of an 

irreligious time-server, i.e., one who 
changes his faith with his company). Vide 

Irresolution, du-diR; taraddvd; tazabzvb. 
Vide Hesitation. 

Irresolvable, gkayr-i munfakk (not to be 
separated) ; tujziya-nd-pazir (not to be 
analysed, or resolved into component 

Irrespective of, qat'-i na^ar az — ; bi-dun-i 
muldhaza-yi in ki — . 

Irresponsibility, 'adam-i mas^uliyyat. 

Irresponsible, ashkhds-i gkayr-i mas^ul (irres- 
ponsible people). 

Irretrievable, isldh nd-pazir; nuqsdn-i bdz 
yd ft TiOr shudani ( — loss). 

Irreverence, bi-ihtirdmi ; 'adam-i ihtirdm. 

Irreverent, dar na>mdz ihtirdm nigdh nami- 

Irreversible, mansukh na-shaw. 

Irrevocable, mardud na; naskh na-pa^r; 

Irrigate, db dddan, or db-ydri k. (by man) : 
mashrub k. (of a river). 

Irrigated, mashrub or sir-db {sh. or k.) ; (but 
m«w sir-db shudam 'I drank my fill"); 
fdrydb adj. (of irrigated land, as opposed to 
zamin-i bahhsh land dependent on rain) . 

Irrigation, db-ydri {k.) ; [db-pashi k. to 
sprinkle a courtyard, etc.] ; in zanun rd 
db dasti mi-dihand yd db-i ravdn ? (is this 
land watered by hand or flooded ?) ; az 
db-i gdv-gard zird'at mi-kunand (it is irri- 
gated by a well and oxen) ; dayma-kdr 
ast? (does it depend on rain?); khayr bd 
rudrdb'^ db mi-kunand (no, it is irrigated 
by hill- water). 

Irritable, churidn tund mizdj ast ki nami- 
tavdn guft abru-yat kaj ast (saying) ; jir- 
jiru adj.; zHd az jd dar-raw. Vide Iras- 

Irritate, to, aziyyat k. (gen.) : kaj-khulq k. (of 
people) ; or awqdt-am rd ialkh na-kun : 
parishdn-am na-kun (don't bother me) ; 
in shir khwdbida ast angusht-ash na-kun, 
or jir-ash na-kun. 

Irritating, vide Bore. 

Irritation, mu-yi dimdjfJk-i man ast (he's a 
constant source of irritation to me ; bores 

impious Shaddad son of 'Ad and great-grandaon of 'Amlaq, the son of Ham, to rival the celestial para- 
dise. The tribe of 'Ad, refusing to listen to the Prophet Hud, was, with the oppressor Shaddad, ^.ttnok 
dead by a voice from Heaven, and the garden vanished from sight. It is still existent . thoufi^ hidden 
from human vision. It is often referred to in the Arabitm Nights. 

1 In Urdu dhup-chha*un ka kapra. 

* Biid-ab is a stream fed by hiU-floods, and snow water, etc. 




Is, hast-ash (vulg. ; "is he there ? " ) ; nlst- 
05^ (vulg. ; "he is not"). 

Isaac, " Muslims think it was Ishmail and not 
Isaac who was offered up as a sacrifice ' ' 
{Muslirmn chunin ml-pinddrand ki Ismd'U 
qurbdm shud na Ishaq). 

Isaiah, Isha'ya. 

Isfahan,^ Isfahan chahar fad darad (Isfahan 
has a good chmate, with four^ distinct 
seasons) ; [A man asked the Devil, 
'^Isfahdm-zada sJiEgrid-i tu hud?^' The 
Devil humbly replied, " IJstdd ast an 
' Ali Jandb ^^]; Isfahan nisf-i Jahdn 
(common sajdng) ; Isfahan jannat-l ^st 
pur ni'mat .-. Isfahdnl dar u nami-bdyad 
(common saying), and Jahdn rd agar 
Isfahdn-i na-hud .'. Jahdn-dfarin rd jahdn-l 
norbud. Vide Israel. 

Ishmael, " Ishmael was the eldest son of 
Abraham by Hagar ' ' {Ismd' II az shikam-i 
Hdjar pisar-i avval-i Ibrdhim bud). 

Islam, Isldm : dtn-i Muhammadt ; har kas ki 
rdh-i Islam raft^ saldmati-yi du jahdn 

Islamism, Isldmiyyat ; Musalmdni * ; musal- 
nmn ast vail isldmiyyat na-ddrad. 

Island,^ jazira 'ibdrat ast az qii'a-yi zamin-% 
ki dawr-ash rd db ihdta tarda ast (or — 
bdshad) ; [shibh-i jazira peninsula]. 

Isolated, tanhd karda shuda ; jvdd {sh. or k.) ; 
tak tak (here and there). 

Isolation, tanhdl (loneliness). 

Israel, Isrd'-U; Bani Isrd^il (children of — ); 
Banl Isrd^il mi-dyad ( = " an Isfahan! or a 
blackguard is coming along." Vide Isfa- 

Issue, Issue, to, birun dvardan (of bank 
notes) ; hukm-l dar Jchusus-i In sddir shuda 
(an order about this has been issued) ; 
shumdra (of newspaper) and also nuskha 
("copy"); aioBd (children); Id-valad 
murd (he died without issue). 

Issuing, isddr (k.) tr. , and sudur intr. ; 
khuruj (sh.) (coming out) ; jdri (sh.) (flow- 
ing); ijrd^, tr. (ydftan). 

Isthmus, tav^a; gardana, bdrika (prop, 

It, dn; u; tu budi ki ruz-i 'Id dmadi va — 
(it was you that came on the 'Id and — ). 

Italy, Itdliyd; Itdliyd^i (Italian). 

Itch, gar ; hikka *" (rare) ; khdrisht ; khdridan 
(to itch) ; gar-gin (adj.) ; sawdd (also mad- 

Itching (subs.) khdr-khdr (k.) ; khdrish {k.). 

Item, madd; and bdbat ; and shay (thing) 
(of an account). 

Itinerary, safar-ndma (narration of a Jour- 
ney) ; dastur" H-' amal-i safar az Kuk (an 
itinerary by Cook). 

Itself, of, hhud bi-khud ; khud-ash : dar 
khud-i Shlrdz (in Shiraz itself). 

Ivory, danddn-i fil and 'dj (of elephant) ; 
shir-mdhi or danddn-i shir-mdhi or u^tv^ 
khwdn-i mdhi (of walrus). 

Ivy, labldb. 

Izrael, 'Izrdll (the name of the Angel of 
Death or Malak^'l-Mawt) ; 'Izra^il firishta- 
yi qdbiz-i arvdh ast. 


Jabber, to, harza-dmna^gi k. ; qirqir or vir vir 
k. (to be garrulous, q.v. ; of old people) ; 
bi-Fdrsi viq'' viq, (or vir vir, etc.) mt-kuruid 
(they are jabbering Persian) ; chi zabdn 
bulgkur mi-kunad? Vide Babble. 

Jabberer, ydva-gu; harza-dara (one that 
talks rot) ; vir vir-kun or qir qir-kun (gar- 
rulous person). Firfe Babbler. 

Jackal, sliaghdl; tura. 

Jack-ass. Vide Ass. 

Jack-o'-lantern, fdnus-i Shaytdn (Will o'the 

Jackdaw, zd^ (jackdaw ?). Vide Crow and 

Jacket, nim-tana; sadri ; jilitqa (Ft. gilet; 
waistcoat) ; sina-band (sleeveless ; worn by 
small children). 

Jacob, James, The grief of Jacob and the 
patience of Job zari-yi Ya'qub va taham- 
mul-i Ayyub : nardbdn-i rismanl or ward- 
bdn-i dagal (naut. ; a Jacob's ladder). 

Jade, yashm (the stone) : murda adj. (worn 
out; of horse, bullock, etc.). 

1 The Isfahan! merchants are proverbial for their meanness. 

2 Some districts have only two, a hot and a cold. 
8 Note Pret. Indie, for Pres. Subj. or Pres. Indie. 
* In India muaalmanl means ' ' circumcision. " ' 

6 The Hindi word tapu " island " is used by travelled Persians for the Andamans; ura tapu firia- 
<ada-awd " he is transported." _ . , _ , 

6 Hikka, Ar., is in Persian generally used in an indecent sense : u hikka darad = u azar-i ubna darad 
= u ma f til ast. 

1 Viq viq or vdk vak ' ' cackling of geese. ' * 




Jaded, kjiasla va IdgAar shvda ; shikasta 

Jail, mahbas; dustaq-^dna (vulg.) ; siyah- 
cMl (a dungeon, pit) ; td yak sal bdyad 
mahbus bdshad, or qardr ddda-and ki td yak 
sal dar zinddn bdsJiad : fiUdn rd tu ambdr 
karda-and ( = they have locked him up). 

Jailor, zinddn-bdn. Vide Warder. 

Jam, murahbd. Vide Extract. 

Japan, Zhdpun. 

Japhet, Ydfis. 

Jar, khum or khumra (large earthenware, for 
wine) ; drira (small , porous or glazed ; for 
jams, pickles, etc.) ; sabii (small, porous, 
for drinking) ; kuza (a general terra . gen. 
earthenware) ; martabdn (a Chinese jar for 
preserves, etc.) ; tdpu (of earthenware ; 
big enough to contain a man; used for 
storing grain). 

Jasmine, ydsamin. 

Jasper, yashp (prop. yasb). 

Jaundice, yaraqdn; u zardU birun dvarda asl 
— yaraqdn girifta. 

Javelin, jarid ' (blunt ; used in sport ; prop, 
a plm-stick stripped of leaves). 

Jaw, ilvdr ; and ilvdra (also the hollow part 
of the cheek) ; alvdrdsh dar gawdi faru 
raftb (with hollow cheeks) ; fakk-i asfaJ 
(lover) ; fakk-i a' la (upper) ; lup (the 
low3r part of the face). 

Jaw-tone, ustukhipdn-i chdna; shdkul (?), 

Jaxaites, Sayhun. 

Jay, ialut-khur. 

Jealoos, rashkin (prop, in a bad sense) ; 
roihk-dvar (causing jealousy) ; hdsid (envi- 
oiB ; in Persian always in a bad sense) ; 
gjflyur (with a fine sense of honour regard- 
irg one's women-folk or nation ; esprit de 
cjrps) : az man mt-mzad ; chashm-i didan-i 
liraqqi-yi mard na-ddrad. 

Jealousy, rashk : hasad (envy in a bad 
reuse) ; ghayrat (a nice sense of honour 
regarding one's women-folk, nation, etc.; 
asprit de corps) : bar *ilm-i 'Arabl-yi 
shumd rashk mi-baram (I envy you your 
knowledge of Arabic). 

Jeddah, Jidda. 

Jeer, to, istihzd^ k. (prop, ridicule; vide 
Irony) ; nshkhand k. and tamashhur k. (to 

laugh at, to chaff; of friends). Ftcfo JafI, 
Joke and Taunt. 

Jeering, ta'norzanl (k.) (taunting) ; sfuundtai 
(k.) (the laughter of enemies at failure) ; 
dushman-kdm, adj., and dushman-kdint 
subs, (failure, or being in a state that 
delights enemies; kdr-i na-kun k% bd'is-i 
dushman-kdmi shavad). 

Jehovah, Yahuwa. 

Jelly, mdquti (made of sugar, starch and 
saffron) ; dvlma ^ (said of anything of the 
consistency of jelly). 

Jellied, misl-i didma. 

Jerboa, mush-i du-pd, P. ; and yarbH' , Ar. 
(rare) . 

Jeremiah, Armiyd. 

Jericho, Arlhd. 

Jerk, to, much-ash rd takdn ddda gurikht (he 
jerked his wrist free). 

Jersey, ganj-i jrdgJs, (by Persians in India) ; 
banydn H. ; zir-pirdhanl. 

Jerusalem, BayfU-Muqaddas. 

Jesses, pdcha-band, P.; {shabug Ar.] (of 

Jest, shukhi {k.) (opposed to jadcR; vide 
Joke); muzdh{k.); mazhaka (k.) ; latifa, 
pi. latd'^if iguftari) (any bon mot or neat 
witty story) ; hazl, pi. hazliyydt (g.) (amus- 
ing improper stories) ; bazla {g.) (any 
laughable story, independent of style). 
Vide Jeer, Joke and Fun. 

Jester, mxiskhara (profess.); luti-bdshi^ 
(chief comic man of Shah). Vide Fool. 

Jesting, dil-hhushi {k.) (mirth) ; shukhi {k.) 
(jesting) ; rishkhand (k.) (chaffing). 

Jesus, "Jesus was crucified in effigy " {'Isd 
rd dar asl rrmslub na-kardand vali ham- 
shakl-i urd). 

Jet, yusr (prop, the black aromatic seeds of 
a plant; also black coral from theRed 
Sea); yusr-i masnul {Mtxi. jet); 'aqiq*'l- 
bahr (jet ?) : yak fawara db (of water). 

Jetty', askala (pier ; Fr. " steps " ) : mislri gtr 
siydh ast (jetty black). 

Jew,* Jewish, Yahud sing, and pi. ; Yahudl: 
Isrd^ili; 'Ibrdni. Vide Hebrew. "And 
the Jews said, ' Verily we have slain the 
Messiah, Jesus the son of Mary, an 
Apostle of God'" {va Yahiid guftand 

1 Two jarld about one foot long are by Shi'ahs (not by Sunnis) palced in the coffin with the corpse, 
to assist it to sit up when visited by the Two Angels. 

* Dulma, mtule of cabbage or brinjal, with minced meat, sugsu-, lemon juice, etc. 

3 A luti sings, plays, travels with monkeys, etc. The word is also a term of reproach. 

* Jews in Persia can be distinguished by their side locks ; and their qaba is generally of a peculiar 




harayina ma Masih-i 'Isd pisar-i Mar yam 
yak-i az ambiya-i ^ Khudd rd hi-qaU rasdni- 

Jewel, to, jawhar-nishdn k. (to set with 
jewels) ; murassa' k. ; tdj mukallal hi-almds 
hud (the crown was set with diamonds). 

Jewel, zwar (of gold, silver, etc.); sang-i 
qlmatl; javdhir'^ (pi. jewels); and javdhi- 
rdt (double plural ; all sorts of jewels) ; 
marvdrid (pearl) ; almns (diamond) ; zum- 
urrud (emerald) ; zabarjad (an inferior 
green stone, olavine, etc.); la'l or ydqut 
(ruby) ; firuza (turquoise) ; 'aqiq or 'aqlq-i 
surkh (cornelian) ; dyd hich zar u zlvar 
zada bud? (had she any jewels on?). 

Jewel-box, mijri (cash-box) ; durj (casket 
for jewels). Vide Box and Casket. 

] ev/elled, gawhar-nishdn ; murassa' : mukallal 
(of crown or rings). 

Jeweller, javdhir-farush ; jawharl : zar-gar 

Jib, to, gah-gir sh. and zamin-duz sh. (to refuse 
to go ahead; of a horse). Vide Restive. 

Jinn, Jinn^ (and Jinna) : magar guh-i Jinn 
khurda''-i? ( = "you can't tell about the 
future " ; it is believed that one who eats 
the excrement of a Jinn obtains the power 
of reading the future). 

] oh, kdr-i mukhtasar : talkh rd shir in khurdan 
(to make the best of a bad job ; to put a 
good face on what is unpleasant). 

Job, "some Muslim commentators say Job 
was of the family of Esau ' ' ha'zi az mufa- 
ssirin-i^ Muslim mi-guyand ki Ayyub az 
khdnddn-i (or nasl-i) 'Isu ast (or bud). 

Jockey, chdbuk-savdr : rd^iz-i asp (horse 
trainer) . 

Jocose, shukh-tab' ; muzdh-kun : zarlf (witty) ; 
hazla-gu (one who tells naughty stories) : 

Jog, to, suk zadan (to jog a person, or his 
memory) ; urd bdyad hamisha suk zad ki 
fardmush na-kunad. Vide Remind. 

John, Yuhannq; Yahyq (John the Baptist; 
in the Qur^dn). 

Join, vasla (place of a join ; and also a 
" patch in cloth"). 

Join, to, payvastan, rt. payvand, tr. and 
intr. ; vasl k. : mulhak k. : chaspdnidan (to 
cause to stick) : in du takhta rd^ bd-Jiam 
payvand kun : kdliska-hd hama bi-ham vasl *> 
bud (the carriages, "railway," were all 
joined together). 

Joined, payvasta (also = always) ; mulhaq. 

Joiner, najjdr ; or ursi-sdz (carpenteri. 

Joinery, najjdri ; ursi-sdzi. 

Joint, band; mafsil, pi. mafdsil; much (wrist 
or ankle); vide Limb; fiH-i mushtarik 
(joint action). 

Jointly, shardkat'*" : hdham mas^ul-and (they 
are jointly responsible). 

Jointure (woman's), mahr ; or kdbin (rare) 
(money paid by husband to wife); jahdz 
(money and plenishing given by father) ; 
mxihr-i mu'ajjal (the amount paid down 
at marriage by the husband) ; mahr-i 
mu^ajjal (the amount paid at some later 
date). Vide Dowry and Bond. 

Joists, shdh-tir (big); tir : varga (small). 

Joke, dnchi guftam faqat shukhi bud, fiddl 
na-bUd (I spoke in jest, not in earnest) ; 
guftam biyd shuhhl shukhi dnhd ra bi- 
tarsdnim (I said let us just frighten ihem 
for fun) ; shu khiyyaP" (by waj^ of j»ke). 
Vide Jest and Fun. i 

Joke, to, bi-shukhi giriftan (to jest with). 
Vide To jest. ! 

Joker, juwala gh i T. (a humbuging joter). 
Vide Jester. \ 

Joking, muzdh {k.) ; bi-hama chiz (seriouily, 
not in joke, without flattery). ,\ 

Jollification, jashn; surur-i bar pd cttt; 
majlis-i suri; biyd imshab *aysh-i n- 

Jolly, par-i dimdgji (good humour) ; 
dimd gh or sar-i hdlat ; khurus-ash (or 

1 *ljjjJt. After a final * in Arabic words the izafat is expressed by a kaara (i), and is not written nor 
pronounced ^. 

2 .Jawhar sing, also means " essence " ; jawharl " a jeweller " ; and also ' made of spirit." 

5 Created some thousands of years before Adam. There are five classes. When the Jinn creep up 
to listen to the secrets of the lowest heaven, many are killed by the meteors hm-led at them by the 
Angels. The chief abode of the Jinn is the mountain of Qaf. According to a Hadis , their chief abode is 
in the /lammam* ,• their place of resort, markets and cross-roads; their drink, intoxicants; their food, 
what is haram ; their mu^azzin. music ; their Qur^an, poetry ; their snares, women ; their speech, false- 

♦ Sharih (gen.) is a less common word for ' commentator.' 

6 Note ra after a definite noun preceded by a numeral. 
6 Or budand. 




ash or bidbul-ash ') mi-khtvanad (he is feel- 
ing jolly). 

Jolt, takan ; rah bad bud, hay takan mi-khur- 
dim dar kaliska. 

Jonah, " When the fish swallowed Jonah, it 
swam after the ship with its head out of 
water, so that the Prophet might breathe. 
The fish vomited him up on dry land." 
Ba'd az dn-ki mdhi Yunas rd baVtd az 
dumbdl-i kishti shind mi-kard va sar-i khud 
rd az db bar dvard id Yunas bi-tavdnad 
nafas^ bi-kashad. 

Jonas, Yunas; misl-i Yunas dar dahdn-i 
m/ihl shud ( = disappeared). 

Jonquil, nargis. 

Joseph, "It is among the sayings of the 
Prophet that woman should be forbidden 
to read the story of Joseph andPotiphar's 
wife ' ' dar hadis dmada ki zandn na- 
bdyad hikdyat-i Yusuf va Zulaykhd rd bi- 

Jostle, to, tana zadan (to shoulder). 

Jot, zarra: pa'ihiz (of money): pashm-ash^ 
mi-shumdram (I don't value it, or him, a 
jot) ; man yak sar-i suzan ham bdk na- 
. ddram. Vide lota. 

Journal, ruz-ndma ; ruz-namcha : sajar-nama 
(of journey). Vide Diary. 

Journey, sajar {k.), pi. asfdr: sayr {k.) walk 
ing, driving, sailing; sdmnn-i safar didan 
(to prepare for a journey) ; hdld man 
bdyad safar-i iulanV-l bi-kun/im (or safar-i 
dur-dasl-i or safar-i dur u dardz-i * bi-ku- 
nam). Vide Travel. 

Journeying, siydhai (k.) (travelling for re- 
creation) . 

Jovial, khush-guzardn (in living) ; {'ayydsh 
' ' debauched ") ; khanda-ru ; bashshdsh. 
Vide Jolly. 

Joy, shddmdni; dil-shddi; dil-khushl ; khur- 
rami; masarrat: Varab (dancing, leaping 
for joy ; in Ar. emotion) : farah ; Jdiush- 
hdli, khursandi; khush-vaqti; az khushi 
pd ru-yi pd-yash band namt-kunad, or pd 
ru-yi zamin namt-guzdrad (he can't con- 
tain himself for joy, i.e... he can't sit at 
rest with one leg over the other) ; pddi- 
shJdh rd bi-tawr-i khushi dast ddd ki n/izdik 
bud haldk bi-shavad — Prof. S. T. (the King 
nearly died of joy) ; az shddi par zad (he 

crowed with joy) ; shadi-marg shudan (to 
die of joy). 

Joyful, masrur ; shad; shddrkdm; shndman; 
farahndk, etc. 

Judah, Yahudd. 

Judas, Yahudd-yi Iskharyuti. 

Judas Tree, ar^avdn. 

Judge, qdzi, pi. quzdt (gen. ; a Judge) ; 
hdkim-i shar (of relig. law); hdkim-i 'urf 
(of common law) ; qdzi mujrim rd siydsat 
kard (tlie Judge .sentenced him) ; qdziy'l- 
quzdi^ (chief Judge). 

Judge, to, divan k. : tawbihh k. (censure) ; 
ilzdm k. (accuse) ; chiguna dar bdb-i raf- 
tdr-i u sukhan bi-guyam? urd nami-shind- 
sam. Vide Consider, Think, etc. 

Judgment, fatvq {d.) (prop, of a mufti): 
tahakkum k. , mahkama or divdn-khdna 
(the hall of — ) : tamyiz; fahm (discretion). 

Judgment-Day, rHz-i qiydmat ; ruz-i jazd'^ ; 
ruz-i ddvari (Day of Judgment) ; dar ruz-i 
qiydmat ddman-i turd mi-giram — Prof. S. T. 
(I will cling to your skirt and not release 
you at the Resurrection). 

Judicial, shar'i (relig.); 'urfi (of common 

Judicially, shar"'* ; 'urf"". 

Judicious, bd sanjidagi , sanjida ; bd basirat 
(prudent); \bd tamiz in m.c. "clean" 
and "of good manners"]; bd firdsat (in 
active sense). 

Judy. Vide Punch ; (no word for Judy). 

Juggle, to, shu'bada-bdzi k. (to conjure) ; 
huqqa-bdzi (jugglery with cups, etc. ; met. 
to deceive): chashm-bandi k. (to create 
optical delusions). Vide To deceive. 

Juggler, huqqa-bdz ; shu'bada-bdz (conjurer) : 
bdzi-gar (dancer and performer) ; band-bdz 
(dancer on tight- rope). 

Juggling, art of, shu'bada-bdzi{k.) (conjuring); 
huqqa-bdzi [k.) (jugglery) ; chashm-bandi 
(k.); Imyydli (trickery); tar-dasti (sleight 
of hand). Vide Deceit, Trick, etc. 

Jugular vein, shdh-rag; varid (med.). 

Juice, rM66 (inspissated); shira (boiled syrup- 
juice ; or of dates and grapes also the rav* - 
juice); db (of fresh fruits); fishurda (ex- 
pressed juice) ; qadr-i db az in limu bi-gir 
(or bi-fishdr). Vide Syrup. 

Juicy, db-ddr; pur-db; shdd-db. 

1 But " buttnil-ash Ya Qtiddua mi-bhwanad " has an indecent meeming. 

* Note Pres. Subj. 

3 Paahtn here mu-yi zuliar. 

* Note the ^ of unity added to the second adjective only of the compound. 

i Incorrect for QazVl-Quzat. 




Jujube fruit, 'unndb (the fruit ' of the Eur. 
jujube tree) ; sidr (the lote tree, Indian 
jujube tree) ; kunar (its fruit, the Hindust. 
her) ; sinjid (a species of jujube?). 

July, mahri zhuld^l (Ft.). 

Jumble, darhami harhaml subs. ; khilt u pilt; 
shuluq-kdn : parishdn-khiydlthd (of ideas). 

Jump, jaqidan (vulg. for jihidan) ; jastan 
kardan (vulg.) ; jastan rt. jih ; khiz zadan ; 
asp az divdr parid (the horse ' flew ' the 
wail) ; bar-jastan (to start up) ; jast u khiz 
k. (to jump here and there, jump about; 
of monkey Sp etc.). 

Jumper, khlz-gir (hopping, springing) ; ja- 
handa (of horses, men, etc.). 

Junction, jd-yi ittisdl (gen ); nuqta-yi ijtimd' 

!''0r ilsdq (of rivers, railways, roads, etc.). 

June, zhun (Ft.). 

Jungle, jangal (with trees) ; sahrd (open 
country as opposed to town) : dasht ; 
btydbdn (a desert plain) : ddkhil-i jangal-i 
shudam; jangal-i bud ki har qadar ddam 
dahhil bi-ravad^ bdz khud rd khdrij ml- 
blnad — Prof. S. T. (I entered a forest, a 
forest so vast that the further one pene- 
trated it the nearer one was to the edge 
from which one started). 

Junior, c?ar 'uhda kihtar, or past-Uir or pdyin- 
tar; man mu^'akhkhar-am (I am junior); 
\u az man dar mansab (or dar kkidmat) 
muqaddam-tar ast (he is my senior)] : u dah 
sal az man 'aqab tar ast. Vide Senior. 

Jupiter, Mushtari Qdzl-yi falak ast. 

Jurisdiction, qalam-raw (of governor) ; in 
blrun az 'uhda-yi man ast, or az iddra-yi 
man khdrij ast.. 

Jurisprudence, 'ilm-i fiqh (relig.). 

Jurisprudist, faqih,i^\. fuqahd* {relig.) : qdnun- 
ddn (one that knows the secular law) . 

Jury, Hdkim-i Inglisi az shuhud tafahhus 
karda khuldsa-yi izhdrdt-i-shdn rd bar ahl-i 
majlis-i instintdq ^ zJdhir kard va ba' d ishdn 
rdy-i khud rd huvaydd namudand. 

Just, 'ddil; munsij : abrdr (just men ; the 
Just) : bd savdb (in the right) : sahih 
(correct) ; 'ayn-i or sar-i vaqt (just in time ; 
also punctual). 

Justice, dMd ; insdf ; 'adl; 'addlat. Vide 

Justification, 'uzr (excuse) ; ' uzr-i masmu' ; 

bard-yl kirddr-i khud 'uzr-i nami-drad. 
Justify, khud rd mubarrq qalam dddan az — . 
Justly, insdf"" ; az ru-yi 'addlat. 
Jute, kattdn-i hindi ; kanif (vulg. for qinnah). 
Juvenile, khurd-sdl; kam-'umr : javdn (about 

17 or 18). 
Juvenility, khurd-sdli ; kam-sinni ; javdni 



Kabul, Kdbul. 

Kai Kaus, Kaykd^us.* 

Kai Khusrau, Kaykhusraw. 

Kai Kubad, Kayqubdd. 

Kalat, Kaldt. 

Kaliyan (Persian water-pipe), qalydn. Vide 

Kalmuch, Kalmdq. 

Kars, Qdrs. 

Karun, R. Vide Euphrates. 

Kashan, 8ag-i Kdshan bih az akdbir-i Qum, 
bd-vujud-i ki sag bih az KdshVst (say- 
ing); Kdshi (inhabitant of K.).'' Vide 

Kashghar, Kdsh^kcir. 

Kashmir, Kashmir. 

Kaswin, Qazvin. 

Kathay, Khatami. 

Kazarun, Kdzarun (between Shiraz and 
Bushire; noted for its oranges, limes, 

Keen, tund ; tiz (sharp) : sar-garm ; and 
shd^iq-i (eager and mushtdq-i fond of) . 

Keep, to, vafd n. (a promise) ; sar-i qawl-i 
khud Istddan (a promise) ; tdza mdndan 
intr. (of eatables) ; bdz ddshvan tr. (to 
keep back) ; and bdz istddan intr. : mahfuz 
mdndan (to be pieserved, kept safe) , 
nigah ddshtan (to maintain); mar'i dash- 
tan (observe) ; bi-jd dvardan (to perform) : 
" they went on and on (kept on) till they 
reached an enchanted castle ' ' {raftand 
rajtand raftand^ td bi-qal'a-yi sihr-karda'i 
rasidand)—TToi. S. T. : in pul ptsh-i tu 
amdnat bdshad td vaqt-i ki mard Idzim 
bdshad (or bi-shavad) (keep this monej^ for 
me till I want it). 

Keeper, nigdh-bdn ; and mustahfiz : muhr-ddr 

1 The juice is extracted from the fruit by boiling, and the extract used as a 'cooling medicine.' 
The fruit soaked in water is occasionally given to bulbuls. 

2 Better ml-ravad. 

8 MajUa-i istintjag is a committee of enquiry only ; the members are chosen by the Governor, 

* Name of the grandfather of Kayjchuaraw ; supposed to be Cyrus. 

6 Professional story-tellers are especially fond of such repetitions to express continuance. 




(keei>er of the seal) : darban ; or qapfl-chi 
and toll, qdb-chi (of door). Vide Door- 

Keepsake, yddxjar. 

Kennel, sag-khdna: dasta-yi tula (a pack of 

Kerbela, Karhald. Vide Pilgrim. 

Kernel, maghz-i hassa-yi hulu (kernel of a 
peaeli-stone) ; in ndrjil rd bi-shikan va 
7nagh.z-Ush rd bi-khur ; {db-i ndrjil milk of 
the cocoanut) ; ma^z-i uslukhwdn (mar- 
row) ; [but marrow for eating is maghz-i 

Kerman, Kirmdn; [also the pi. of kirm 
*' worm " ; a certain poet's tajnis]. 

Kermanshah, Kirmdnshdh. 

Kerosine, naft (for najt) , or rugifibn-i najt. 

Kersey, barak. 

Kestrel, Kestril. Vide Falcon. 

Kettle, kitli (Eur.). 

Kettle-drum, naqqdra. Vide Drum. 

Key, kalid; miftdfi, pi. mafdtih (rare) ; pich-i 
kuk (of musical instrument) ; parda (in 

Key-hole, surdkh-i kalid. 

Keyless, dasta-kuk (of a watch). 

Khaibar, Khaybar. 

Khiva, Khavdrizm. 

Khojand, Khujand. 

Khokand, Khuqand. 

Khosroes, Kisrq, Ar. form of Khusraw. 

Khotan, Khulan. 

Khurasan, Khurdsdn. 

Kick, lagad z. (with one leg; also to stoop, of 
a falcon) ; juftak anddkhtan ' (to let fly 
with both hind legs) ; chundn tipa tu-yi 
kun-at bi-zanam ki du pdra shavad ("I'll 
give you such a toe on the ax x e in a 
minute ' ' ; vide toe) ; tu-yi kuni or sJiala- 
khta'^ (a kick on the behind). Vide 

Kid, buzj/hdla. 

Kidney, gurda. 

Kill, kushtan ; qatl k. ; bi-qail ra-sdnidan ; 
kushtdr or khunrtzi k. (of a big slaughter) : 
duzd-hd dar dn may dan barddar-i 'aziz am 
rdshahid'' kardand—Proi 8. T. : zabhk. (to 
cut the throat and hence often to slaugh- 
ter for food according to law) ; yd sar, yd 

huldh (=-.kill or cure; i.e., either my head 
or his hat). Vide Sword. 

Killed, kushta ; maqtHl ; qaiil. 

Killer, kushanda; qdlil; khUn-riz; [mard-i 
khuni a murderer, a bloody man]. 

Killing, qatl (k.) ; kushtdr (k.) (of a number). 

Kill-joy, farhal-kush (adj.). Vide Long- 

Kiln, kura-yi djur-pazt (brick-kiln) ; [khisht 
an unburnt brickj ; kura-yi qach-pazi 
(lime-kiln). Vide Forge. 

Kind, jins [pi. ajnds goods] ; qism, pi. aqaam ; 
waW, pi. anvd' ; sinkh (m.c.) ; «tn/, pi. 
asndf ; qahil ; jur (subs.): ;i7m, adj. (in 
kind opposed to naqdl) : mihrbdn, ad j . 
(kind); mushfiq; and sliajiq (showing 
affection to, sp. to inferiors) ; adj. Jchaijli 
iltifdt ddrid (you are very kind). 

Kindle, afrukhtan, rt. ajruz, tr. and intr. ; 
mushta'il k., tr. ; mushta'il shudan, intr.; 
bd kdh* dtash-i rushan kardand (or afrukh- 
tand) . 

Kindling, ishti'dl ; dtanh girif tan, intr. ; afrukh- 
tan ; or rushan kardan, tr. 

Kindness, lutf (an inherent quality) ; talattuf ; 
or ihsdn (doing kindness to others) ; mihr- 
6am (gen.) ; sAa/a^o/ (compassion) ; raf'at 
(sp. from God); 'indyat {fB.w our irom & 
superior) ; in-hd az iltifdt-i shumd ast (this 
is due to your kindness ; lit. paying atten- 
tion) . 

Kindred, khivishdn ; qaurni u khivish ; aqvdm ; 
khivish-dvand ; aqribd^ {pi. of qarib) : man- 
sub (connections by marriage or distant 
relations). Vide Kinsfolk. 

King, Pddishdh ; Shah (of Persia) ; Syd^n^ ; 
Shkhanshdh (King of Kings) ; Shdha ! (O 
King!); malik, pi. muluk ; Khdqdn or 
Fa^fur (of China) ; Shah (at chess) ; 
Ya'sub (king^ of the bees). 

Kingcraft, 'ilm^i pddishdhi ; 'ilm-i saUatuU- 
ddri ; d''in-i shahrydri. 

Kingdom, aqjltanat; dawlat (country): az 
mamlakat-i Irdn *ubur kardim: pddishdhat 
(ruling); mavdlid-i^ saldsa. ya'nihayavd- 
VMt, nabdtdt, va jamdddt. 

Kingfisher, mdhi-girak. 

Kingly, shdhdna; khusravdna; mulukdna 
(adv. and adj.); s?uih-vash (adj.). 

i Hindustani du-latt mama. 

•i ShnlaUlta rah raj tan (vulg.) " to go kicking about the place," i.e., wander idly in the bazars ; said 
of good-for-nothings. 

'i Shahld, lit. " martyr." Shuh-i skahid is Naaiv' d-D\n Shah who was assassinated. 
* Kah, chopped straw (Hindustani hhtiaa) ; 'alaf-i khushk " dried grass ; hay." 
6 Suldan Ar. = "power." « i.e., the Queen. ^ Sing. fiiatoIt7</. 




Kinsfolk^ Kinsman, hhipishavandMn ; khivi- 
shan; az aqarih; 'ashira or khanddn 
(family). Vide Kindred and Tribe. 

Kiosk, kushk. 

Kiss, rmch (vulg.) {z. or g.) ; husa {z. or g.) ; 
mach u much {k.) (mutual kissing) ; hus u 
kinar {k.) (kissing and cuddling) ; yak juft 
husa az lab-ash bar-dasht (he gave her a 
double smack on the lips) ; du-busa (a 
double smack, not a kiss on each cheek) ; 
chahdr-husa (two double smacks on the 
same place). Vide Smack. 

Kitchen, dsh-paz khdna ; matbakh- 

Kite, childq T. (a term also applied to the 
Marsh-Harrier and another species of 
harrier); childq-i qdpdq ^ T. (the 'Fork- 
tailed Kite'); ghaUvdj : sangak (said to 
closely resemble the piqu or Indian Shikra 
but to have black eyes ; perhaps the black- 
winged kite) ; (the toy) kd(jhaz-havd ; bdd- 
badak ; tayydra (Ar. ; rare) {pardndan) ; 
[bi-bdd dddan of first casting the kite into 
the air]. 

Kitten, in burdq-i khayli qashang ast du td 
bachcha-yi shangul mangul ddrad misl-i 
khudrosh (this is a pretty Persian cat ; she 
has two sweetly pretty kittens like her- 

Knapsack, kula-bar-i sarbazi: chanta (der- 
vishes' bag; suspended from a shoulder 
and carried under the same arm) ; push- 
tdra (a small bundle carried on the shoul- 
der by a stick). Vide Ba,g. 

Knave, vJa-pak or ndquld (mischievous of 
children ; dishonest of servants) ; dast-kaj 
(pilferer; sp. apphed to servants) ; pidar- 
sukhta; and khabis (blackguard, q.v.). 

Knavishly, az ru-yi siflagi, or — pas firatl. 

Knead, kharnir k. 

Kneaded, khamlr karda. 

Kneading-trough, tac^dr-i khamlr (baker's; 
of any substance) ; lagan (domestic , of 

Knee, zdnu; u bi-zdnu dar-amad va 'uzr 
khwdst , or zamin-i khidmat busid va talab-i 
'afv kard: du-zdnu nishastan (to sit 
formally on the calves and heels) ; chahdr- 
zanu n. (to squat tailor-fashion) ; asakk 
(knock-kneed; sp. of camels). 

Knee-deep, zdnu-ras; yak zdnu gawd ast; 
td sar-i zdnu dar gil faru raft (he sank in 
the mud quite up to his knees). 

Kneel, zdnu z., or zdnu tah k., intr. ; khwd- 

hdnldan, tr. (to make to kneel or lie down ; 
of camels, etc.). Vide Knee. 

Knife, clidqu (penknife or clasp-knife) ; qalam- 
tardsh (penknife) : kdrd (with handle) ; 
or sikkin (rare) ; sdtur (butcher's) ; 
bughdd (butcher's chopper) ; qama (wea- 
pon ; straight and double-edged) ; Tchanjar 
(single- edged and shaped like a tiger- 
claw) ; sum-tardsh (farrier's knife) ; hdrjhaz- 
bur (paper-knife). 

Knife-grinder, charkh-gar (the man) ; charkh-i 
fisdn (the stone). 

Knight, mard-i marddn; sMr-i qdlin (carpet 
knight; opposed to former). Vide Hero. 

Knit, bd mil bdftan or — chldan ; u yak juft 
jurdb bd mil bar mi-chinad (she is knitting 
a pair of socks) : abrib dar-ham kashidan ; 
and girih afgandan; and chin dar abru 
anddkhtan (to knit the brows) . 

Knob, bar-dmadagl ; qubba: luk (vulg. on 
body or elsewhere) : dukma (small knob ; 
the button of an electric switch ; also a 
button of silk). 

Knobby, qubha-ddr ; dukma mdnand. 

Knock, Knock, to, zarb (z.) (a blow) ; taraq 
taraq dar ra zad'^ (he knocked loudly at 
the door) ; dar kubldan or daqq"^ l-bdb k. 
(to knock at the door with the fist) ; 
dastak z. (with the open hand) ; halqa z. 
(to knock with the knocker) ; zamin zadan 
or anddkhtan (to knock down). 

Knock-kneed. Vide Knee. 

Knocker, halqa (of door) ; chakush (rare ; lit. 
hammer) . 

Knot, girih, in m.c. often girin, {z.); aqd; 
or 'uqda (bastan) ; in rismdn girih ddrad, 
bdz kun or bi-gushd ; tandf (vulg. for 
tandb) rd girih bi-zan (tie a knot in the 
rope) ; but tanuf-hd rd sar-i ham girih 
bi-zan (tie the ropes together) ; girih-i kur 
(a knot that can't easily be untied) ; 
'iqd-i surayyd (the knot, cluster, of the 
Pleiades) . 

Knotted, girih shuda; pur-girih; girih girih 
(knotted) ; pich dar plch (intricate). Vide 
Difficulty, etc. 

Knotty, daqiq (of problems) ; sa'b ; and 
mushkil (difficult, intricate) ; dar hall-i 
mushkildt-i daqlqa-yi mazhabl (or dar 'uqda- 
kushd-'^l-yi — ) mdhir bud (he was skilled 
in solving knotty points of religion). 

Know, to, ddnistan, tr. ; ma'lum {k. or shJ) ; 
shlndkhtan, rt. shinds (recognize ; balad sh. 

1 Qapaq, T. the two centre tail-feathers. 

2 A villager or an impatient person. 




(oi a ruad , language) ; shumd dar in kdr 
kam-tajriba hastid (a polite expression) ; 
rah namx-haram bi-navisam (vulg.) (I 
don't know how to write) ; u dar an kar 
dast-i na-ddrad vulg. (he doesn't know 
how ') ; hick az jddu-hd^-i ki karda ast m%- 
ddni bi-guyi?^ (do you know anything of 
the magic he has practised ?) ; sar-ash dar 
hisdb ast (he's in the know) ; Turin sar-at 
ml-shavad? (do you know Turki?): vid>e 
Knowledge ; bi-tawr-i yaqin mi-ddnam — (I 
know for certain that — ) ; Khudd mi- 
ddnad = va 'lldh''a'lam (God knows; vide 
Knowing); 'ilm-i najjdri rd ddrid? (do 
you know carpentry ?). Vide Acquainted. 

Knowing, dar — kirm-i kdr (of any special 
business or art) ; Allah" a* lam (God is 
most knowing, God knows best ; this 
phrase is used by writers when stating 
something the truth of which they cannot 
vouch for. When telling intentional false- 
hoods the phrase is rarely used). 

Knowingly, bi-tawr-i dgdhdna gujt (he spoke 
with authority, as one that knows) ; 
ddnista. Vide Purposely. 

Knowledge, ddnish ; Him (pi. 'vlum 
sciences) ; ma^rifat; dar qahva-sdzi mu'ri- 
fat ddrad; 'ilm-i sarsari (superficial — ); 
* ilm-i rasmi (worldly knowledge) ; &»- 
sdbiqa (without previous knowledge) ; az 
dmadan-i u hich 'ilmri na-ddshtam (I did 
not know he was coming) ; banda masbuq-i 
in na-budam (I had no previous know- 
ledge of this) ; mardum-shirvds u qiydfa- 
ddn (adj. with a knowledge of character). 

Known, mO-lum ; ma'ruf ; mash-hur (well 
known, famous) : zarb^ 'l-amsdl-i afvdh 
(vulg. ; omit afvdh) (well known) ; maw- 
sum bi (known as — ) ; zabdn-za^i 

khald'^iq gardida (notorious ; for good or 
evil) ; angusht-nurrui (gen. in a bad sense, 
notorious). Vide Notorious. 

Knuckle, band-i angusht. 

Korah,' Qdrun. 

Koran, Qur*dn; Furqdn; Kaldm" 'lldh 
(Word of God). 

Kran (coin), qo/rdn and qirdni [52 to 54 = i:l ; 

i.e. in 1903J. 
Kum, Qum : vide Kdshdn. 
Kurd, Kurd, pi. Akrdd: Kurdi (adj.). 
Karachee, Kardchi. 

Label, sar-chaspdn {k.). 

Labial, shafavi; huruf-t shafaviyya (the 

Laborious, kdr-kun (hard worker) ; mihnat- 

kash; jafd-kash (hard worker) : pur-zahmal 

(of things). 
Labour, kdr (k.) ; mihnat {k.) ; zahmai 

{kashidan) ; vide Endeavour ; bard-yi mor 

'ishat khayli zdhmat (or mihnat) mi- 

Labour, to, dard-i zih* (of child-birth); 

to'oft kashidan; ranj burdan. Vide to 

Labourer, muzdur ; fwala (prop. pi. of fdHl; 

sing, not used in this seiLse) ; injd panjdh 

'amala^ mashgAul ast (fifty labourers are 

employed here). 
Lac (gum), Idk (subs.;; Idki (adj.). 
Lace, tiir (net), or turi, or zanjira (for 

dresses) ; band-i kafsh (boot-lace) ; qaytJdn 

(gold or silk braid on uniform) : kalabatiin 

(of gold only). 
Lace, to, band bastan (of shoes) ; tur, qaytdn, 

etc., duhhtan; hdshiya-duzi k. (to work 

needlework borders, etc.); mtbshabbak k. 

(to interlace; also to sew lace on the cuffs 

or skirt of women's dresses). 
Lacerate, to, jigar pdra k.; or dil rd dtash 

zadan (of the feelings). 
Lack, 'adam (subs.); Al-hamd" IVlldh man 

kam u kasr-i na-dJdram (thank God I lack 

nothing) . 
Ladder, nardabdn, or nardbdn; suUam; 

urchin: kamand (of rope). FtVie Jacob's 

Ladies' man, 'ishq-bdz (in a bad sense). 
Lading, sitami (bill of lading ; for receiver 

to clear goods. Vide Bill). 

1 Also "he h£is no hand in the business." 

^ This is not the same as mi tavani bi-guyl, which would refer to the ability only to speak and not 
to the will : whereas ml-dani implies that the person will tell if he knows. 

8 The opulence emd avarice of Qarun are proverbial. He brought a feJse accusation of immorality 
against Moses. There is a tradition that as Qarun sank gradually into the ground to his knees, to his 
waist, and to his neck, he cried out four times "Oh Moses, have mercy on me!"; but each time 
Moses replied, "Oh earth, swallow them up." Allah said, "Thou hadst no pardon on Qarun though 
he asked pardon of thee four times : I would have had pity had he asked pardon of me but once." 

* When travail is prolonged, a muUa mounts on to the roof and cries the asjan. 

6 Prop. pi. of 'amtl but in Persian used as a singular. Ast should be and. 




Ladle, kafcha; kaf-gir. 

Lady, khanum; khdtun pi. hhavatln; banu 
(rare) : haygum (address to Sayyidas). 

Lady-like, misl-i khdnumha. 

Lag, to, 'aqab ujtadan. 

Laggard, sust-raw ; 'aqab-raw. 

Lagoon, murdab (any marshy or boggy 
ground) ; mashila (joined to sea). Vide 

Laid, nihdda ; maivzu' (rare) (set aside). 

Lair, kundm (of beast) ; maghdra (cave, den). 

Lake, darydcha-yi idza-i injd tashkll ydfta (a 
new lake has been formed , formed itself, 
here) . 

Lakh, yak lak ' rupiya nii-shavad (or tamdm 
ml-shavad) (it will cost a lakh of rupees). 

Lama, Ldmd (of Tibet). 

Lamb, barra''- (in some parts of Persia "a 
sheep " ) ; barra-yi shir (even when no 
longer being suckled) : barra-yi shir-mast 
(sucking lamb).'^ 

Lame, to be, langidan (to be lame). 

Lame, lang; shal ("crippled," from an 
accident or disease or " broken down" of 
a camel, etc. ; and also = mafluj " para- 
lysed ' ') : bi-sabab-i langi bd 'asd mi-gardad 
(as he is lame he walks with a stick) ; chuldq 
(permanently crippled in the hand ; vide 
left; also fig. "butter-fingered") ; man 
shal shudam (I'm broken down from over- 
work, or from a bad cold, etc.) ; langdn 
langdn raftan (to limp along); langidan 
(to go lame); 'uzr-i sust, or — lang; or 
bahdna-yi sust (a lame excuse). 

Lament, ndlidan ; ndla kardan ; zdn k. ; 
flg];^dn k. : zdr zdr ginstan (to weep bitter- 
ly) ; shivan k. or mdtam-ddrl k. (to mourn 
for the dead by beating the head and 
breast, etc.); ^azd-ddri k. (ditto); afsus 
khurdan; or ta^assuf (ddshtan) (to feel 
sorrow for) ; nawha k. (to mourn for the 
dead by chants, etc. ; sp. at the Muhar- 
ram) ; marsiya khivdndan (to recite an 

Lamentation, shivan {k.) ; or shivan u shayn 
[k.) : nawha-gari (k.) (by chants; at death 
or in a great calamity) ; muya k. (rare ; 
weeping for the dead only). 

Lamenter, nawha-gar or nawha-Tchwdn; 

marsiya-khivdn (reciter of an elegy) ; 
mdtam-ddr*; or 'azd-ddr; or sahib-' azd 
(mourner for death). 

Lamenting, ndldn ; or girydn (part.) : yidla 
(subs.) ; shivan (at death). 

Lammergeyer, humjd (the Bearded Vulture 
or Ossifrage). 

Lamp, chirdgh^ (now a gen. term); jdnus 
(Chinese; also globe); chirdc^4 mushl 
(small lamp without shade : Roman 
shape) ; Idla (Eur. candle-lamp with 
globe) ; chihil-chirdgk (chandelier) ; jar 
(candle-lamp with many branches) : chi- 
rd gh -i duzdi (any lamp yielding insufficient 
light) ; qindil, pi. qanddil (a hanging lamp 
burning either candles or oil ; sp. used in 
mosques); mash'al (torch); ''Idmpd'^ 
(Eur. pattern) ; pih-siiz (old Persian pat- 
tern ; with loose wick and castor-oil) ; 
vaqt-i ki bar gashlam dldam hanuz chirdgh-i 
shumd mi-suzad.^ 

Lamp-black, duda-yi chirdgh. 

Lamp-lighter, chirdi/h-chl (of a palace or a 

Lampoon, tasnlf-i hajv (in m.c. topical song 
in satire of some one) 

Lampoon, to, galak zadan (?); hajv gujtan 
(to satirize or lampoon). 

Lamp-post mil; sutun ; ' alam-i Yazid (fig. 
a man or post very tall and thin). Vide 

Lance, nayza. 

Lancet, nlshtar and nishtar. 

Land, mulk (country) ; vildyat ; fchdk ; vatan 
(native land) ; zamin-i khdlisa (crown 
lands) ; zamlnhd-yi arbdbi (private lands) : 
az rdh-i daryd mt-ravld yd khushkl (do you 
go by see or land ?) ; chand band-i gdv 
zird'at ddrid ( = how much cultivated land 
have you ?) ; zamin-i dayml (dependent on 
rain) ; zamin-i farydbi (irrigated) ; zamin-i 
mushajjar (land with trees) ; zamin-i bdyir 
(uncultivated or fallow) ; zamin-i shur or 
shurorzdr (salt land) ; zamin-i bi-sdhib (un- 

Land, to, kujd irdda-yi payin dmadan ddrid 
(where do you intend to land ? ; but 
piydda shudam, not pdyin rafktm "I 
landed ") ; piydda k. or pdyin dvardan, tr. 

1 The Persians have vague notions of a lak ; the word is better avoided. 

•i Barra-yi ahu " a gazelle fawn." 

3 Butchers blow out the skin of lean sucking lambs to make them look fat. 

♦ For At. " ma^tam." 

6 In m.c. chiragh is often used in the sense of " a light." 

8 The Imperfect mi-auMLt would not be so idiomatic as the Present. 




Landed, mhib-i milk (of people) ; favd'id-i 
milkiyyd (landed interests) ; milk, pi. amiak 
(landed property). 

Land-force, quvvayi barriyya; [quwa-yi 
hahriyya naval strength]. 

Landholder, malldk ; or sakifhi milk (small) ; 
arbdb {hip). 

Land-locked, tnahsUr bi-zamtn; char dawr- 
ash zamin ast. 

Landing-place, muJiall-i nuzul. 

Landlord, u sdhib-i khdna ast ' ; man kirdya- 
ddr-i u hastam va u ijdra kdr ; vide Land- 
holder; karavdnsard-ddt (of a karavan- 

Landmark, 'aldmal (conspicuous object); 
mtUi sar-kaddi (boundary pillar). 

Landscape, chashm-anddz (view) ; m/inzar. 

Landslip, dvdr (also debris and also of the 
collapse of a building) ; kuh dar rajtan. 

Land-tax, khirdj (tax on land: also tribute) ; 
m^l-i divdn; or mMiyydt (revenue from 
land only). 

Lane, pas-kucJta (back-street) ; kucha (any 
street or lane). Vide Alley. 

Language, zabdn, P., lit. and met. ; lisdn, lit. 
and met. (Ar. pi. alsina, met. only) (ton- 
gue) ; zabdn-i khdrija (foreign tongue) ; 
harf-i yavmhiyya naml-tavdnad bi-zanad 
(expresses ignorance; ; dar panj lujjtat 
kaldm mi-tunad (he speaks five langu- 

Languid, siist ; kasil or khasta (tired) ; pazh- 
murda (withered) ; kdstan, rt. kdh (to 
decrease daily). Vide Protracted. 

Languish, pazhmurdan (lit. to wither). 

Languor, kasdlat; kisil^ hastam, nami khwd- 
ham harakat bi-kunam. 

Languorous, chashm-i makhmur (languorous 
eyes ; a point of beauty). 

Lank, bisydr buland-qadd u Idgiir ast. Vide 

Lantern, jdnus (prop. Chinese pattern ; also 
globe); chirdgiiri dastl: fdrvm-i shu'bada 

Lap, Msh (local) ; daman ; kindr. 

Lapdog, buji^ (lapdog). 

Lapful, yak daman (a lapful) ; ddmun ddman 
(whole lapfuls). 

Lap, to, bd zabdn lak zadan (of a dog) ; 
lisidan (to lick). 

Lapidary, saruj-tardsh (also incorrectly uued 
for hakkdk); hakkdk (of jewels, and seals 
only) ; vide Jeweller : hajjdr (of stones, 

Lapidation, rajm (law term); " Lapidation 
is the punishment fixed in the Shar' for 
adultery" {shar""* aazdyi zind*^ aang-sar 
kdr dan ast). 

Lapis lazuli, Idjavard; tdjavardi (of the 
colour of — ). 

Lapsable, sdqit-shaw ; bi-dauUit bar khipdhad 
gasht ( — to Government) ; mtistaraddrshaw. 

Lapse, murur-i duhur (of time, ages) ; inqizd- 
yi muddat (of fixed period) ; inhirdf az — 
(turning aside from) ; lo'jAzish (slip) : sahv 

Lapsided. Vide Lopsided. 

Lapwing, bdrdn-talabak. 

Larder, chambara (made of string and cone- 
shaped ; suspended from the ceiling) 

Large, buzurg (gen.) ; 'azirn (of roads, build 
ings, cities, kingdoms, the body); kaldn* 
(rare) ; diruzmiht-yi buzurgl sayd kardam : 
jarshanddz-i utdq chi-qadr ast (how large is 
the room ?) : saffhtr u kainr (young and 
old) : jasim (bulky ; of men or animals) ; 
sitabr and zakhim (bulky ; gen. of things) ; 
kuluft (thick ; of men or things) ; hajhn 
(of books) ; vast' (spacious) ; khattr (great ; 
of fear, sum of money) ; kaslr (of num- 
bers) ; ziydd; or fardvdn (of quantitjO- 

Largeness, buzurgl, azamxit (generally 
majesty) ; jasdmat (bulkines.^) ; kidufti 
(thickness) ; sitqbrl (ditto) : Ivajm (size ; 
big or small ; sp. of books) ; tms'at (ex- 
panse) ; fardvdni; or ztt/a(^<i (abundance, 
of quantity) ; kasral; or vujur (abundance 
in numbers). 

Lark, chakdva or chakdvak ; tjhuzldgh or 
qdzldq T. ; qurnbara Ar. and kdkidt P. (the 
crested lark) ; chughul ; tlsak (a small bird ; 
perhaps the short-toed or social lark). 

Larkspur, zabdn dar qafd. 

Lascivious, sJuihvati ; pur-shahvat (lustful) ; 
hasharl^ (vulg. and stronger than former); 
bdh ziydd ddrad. 

Lash, shalldq (2.) (the thong of a whip and 
also the whole whip) ; zabdna-yi shalldq 
(the lash) ; khayli urd zarb-i zabdn zadam 
(I laslied him with my tongue). 

1 But aahih-khana ' ' occupier. * ' 

''' Properly kasil. Isfahanis are specially apt to substitute a ztr for a zeibctr. 

8 Buji is applied to any diminutive breed or to a diminutive individual of tiny breed. 

* Kalan much used by Afghans. 

f> Seud to be derived from haaharat " insects, etc.'* 




Lasso, kamand (also the rope ladder of 
thieves) . 

Last, pas-i hama (vulg.) ; dkhir-i Kama (be- 
hind all); akhirm (the last): bi'l-akhira; 
'aqibat"'l-amr (at last) ; dar payan-i kar 
(at the end of all) ; si-shamha-yi guzashta 
(last Tuesday) ; par-sal (last year) ; salk[i 
(last day of the month) ; dusk, dishab and 
vulg. dina-shab (last night) ; qdlib (shoe- 

Last, to, davdm k. ; mdndan , ddHm budan (to 
last for ever) : qd^im budan (of God, build- 
ings, etc.) : pd^ldan (also to watch) ; tul 
kashidan (of periods of time) ; in durtar ' 
'ayb mi-kunad m.c. (this will last longer) ; 
td yak mdh In majlis hast (this committee 
will last a month) ; tE tulu'-i dftdb bar in 
qardr guzasht'^ (this state of things lasted 
till dawn) . Vide Suffice. 

Lasting, bd davdm (gen.) ; dur 'ayb ml-kunad 
(of cloth, furniture, eatables); pdyaddr 
(for buildings) ; bdqi (of God). 

Lastly, dkhir'^". 

Latch, zabdna (of door). 

Late, d^r; dir-vaqt, or vulg. dur-vaqt; 'asr-i 
tang-i (late in the evening) ; jawt shuda or 
mutavaffq (deceased, gen. ; sp. non- Mus- 
lims) ; marhum ^ (lit. blessed, i.e., deceased, 
generally of Muslims) ; Persians, however, 
apply this term to Christians also) ; magh- 
jur (lit. pardoned = marhum) ; nazd-i 
barddar-i Khudd-biydmurz-am nawkar bud 
(he was a servant of my late brother) , dir 
dmadid (you're late). 

La.tely,darln ruz-ha; dar In nazdiki-hd ; dar 
%n awqdt or dar hi awdkhir : dar In tdzagl- 

Lateness, dlri ; tangi-yi vaqt (insufficiency of 
time). Vide Delay. 

Lathe, mikhrata; [kharrdt, a man who uses a 
lathe] : dla-yi kharrdii. 

Lather, kaf-i sdbun {dar dvardan) (of soap). 

Latitude, 'arz (geo.) ; [tul, longitude] : dzddi; 
or mayddna or vus'at (in instructions). 

Latrine, mabdl (prop, urinal); pd-khdna: 
khaW (prop, open space, deserted place) ; 
mabraz (rare) ; mutavazzq (rare ; prop, 
place of ablution) . Vide Water-closet and 

Latter, duyuml or duvvumt; dkhirl; in 

(this); [dn " that "=" former "] : dkhir'" 
'z-zikr (modern; in newspapers). 

Latterly. Vide Lately. 

Lattice- window, panjara; shabaka; qafasa. 

Latticed, mushabbak. 

Laud, to, hamd k. (of God) ; sand guftan (of 
God or man) ; tamjid k. (of God and great 
people) . 

Laudable, mustahsan; situda; af dl-i hamida 
(laudable actions) : sifdt-i hamida (laud- 
able qualities). 

Laudably, bi-tarz-i sutudagi. 

Laudanum, Iddan (Eur.) : jawhar-i tirydk. 

Laudatory, pur-madh ; hamd-dmiz. 

Laugh, Jchandidan ; khanda k. or z. ; qdh qdh 
khandidan or qahqaha z. (to laugh aloud) ; 
bidun-i jihat chird nisJi-ai rd vd mi-kuni 
(vulg.; why are you grinning?); tabas 
sum k. (to smile) ; khanda kas-i rd ast ki 
mi-barad (let him laugh that wins) : puq 
khandidan (to burst with restrained 
laughter). Vide Bright, Ridicule, etc. 

Laughable, muzhik (that causes laughter) ; 
khanda-dvar : bisydr khanda ddsht. 

Laugher, khandanda ; khanda-zan or — kun. 

Laughter, Laughing, khanda; qahqaha (loud 
laughter; also the call of the chukor 
partridge) ; man az khanda ruda-bur 
shudam (I split my sides with laughing) ; 
khanddn (adj.) : mutabassim (smiling; 
adj.). _ _ 

Laughingly, khanda-kunxin ; khandan khan- 
ddn (contin.) ; mutabassimdna (smilingly). 

Laundress, rakht-shur * (male or female) : 
gdzur (rare). 

Laundry, rakht-shu khdvia. 

Laureate, malik"^ ^sh-shu'ard (Poet Laureate). 

Laurel, ghdr Ar. (rare). 

Lavatory," ru-shur-khdna, or utaq-i ru-shuS 
(in trains). 

Lavender, ustukhuddus (a species of lavender ; 
made into a tea and drunk as a remedy 
for cold in the head). 

Lavish, musrif (also extravagant) ; or vil- 
hharj (extravagant in a bad sense; vide 
Extravagant) : bi-hisdb. 

Lavish, to be, isrdf k. ; vil-hharji k. 

Lavishly, az ruy-i isrdf gen. : musrifdna (in 
bad sense). 

Law, shar' ; or shan'at; or aunnxit (relig. sp. 

1 Dur-tar (for dir-tar ?). 

i The subject is awqat or some such word understood : vide also ' feel. ' 

S In India and elsewhere this term is applied by Muslims to deceased Muslims only. 

* In Persia it is always the women who wash clothes : there are no dhobia. 




of Muslim lau) ; 'urf (common law): 
masaHl-i shar'iyya (points of Muslim reli- 
gious law): qdnun,\)\. qavanin; or dyin 
(regulation) : rasm, pi. rusum, and rasumdt 
(customs); fiqh, or fiqh u uaul (jurispru- 
dence) : bi-murdfa' a raftan (to go to law) . 

Law-abiding, mutl'-i qnnun. 

Law-breaking, qdnun-shikan. 

Lav/-couTt, mahkama ; 'adliyya. 

Lawful, ram; jdHz; mashru' (according to 
Muslim law) ; or shar'-pasand; or haldl 
(ditto) ; inakruh (lawful but inexpedient) ; 
mubdh (lawful to do it or omit it ; in- 
different); mustahahh (recommended to be 
done); in shar'"" jd^'iz ast: 'urfi (accord- 
ing to common law) : khun-ash id hadar 
sdkht (he proclaimed his blood lawful). 

Lawfully, s^r""; 'urf'^" ; qdnun"". 

Lawfulness, hilliyyat ; javdz. 

Law-giver, shdri' ; qdnun-sdz ; muqannin 
(in newspapers). 

Lawless, bi-din u dyin ; vahsJd (savage) : sar- 
kash u ydg[At. 

Lawn,' chaman (any meadow or grass plot, 

Lawsuit, murdfa'a; muhdkama: mitqaddama 

Lawyer, qdnun-gu (vulgar) ; qdnun-dan. 

Lax, siist; pd-band na — . 

Laxative, mulayyin (of food or medicine). 

Laxity, linat (of bowels). 

Lay, to, nihddan, rt. nih; vaz* k. or yak taraf 
nihddan (to lay aside) ; giraw or nazr or 
shart bastan (lay a wager) ; md bdyad 
shardrat rd^ kindr bi-guzdrlm — bdyad az 
mandht (or manhiyydt) ijtiimb kunim ; fru 
nishdndan (of dust) ; tukhm dddan or 
guzdshtan (eggs) ; sufra kashidan (the table 
cloth) ; taqdim k. (lay before) ; zakhira k. 
(store) ; bd(jh sdkhtan (to lay out grounds) ; 
sar bi-sar-i ham nihddan (to lay heads 
together) ; Vdlid-i buzurgvdr-am niz sa'y-i 
liaydr kardand ki az tukhm bachcha bi- 
kashand; na-shud. Man farmudam ki 
chand-i az nar u mdda-yi u^ yak jd nigdh 
darand. Rajta rafta bi-tukhm dmadand. — 
Mem. of Emperor Jehangir (My respected 
father made many attempts to rear the 

young [of the saras crane] from the egg, 
but failed. I gave orders for a pair to be 
kept in a specially prepared place and 
after a time they produced eggs). 

Lazarus, La'dzar. 

Laziness, tambali; suiti ; kahili. 

Lay-figure, ddam-i chubi (wooden idol); 

Lazy, au8t; kdhil; ddam-i tamhal munajjim 
mi-sliavad {or vulgarly mi-uftad*) ; tarr^al-i 
Baghdidd ast (he is very lazy) ; tapala (lit. 
cow- pat; a fat, lazy person ; a ' flop '). 

Lead, surb: middd (of pencil); shdqhul 
(used by masons) ; safida (white lead) ; 
shangarf or shanjarf (red lead) ; surbi 

Lead, to, burdan; vide Guide; mahdr-ai 
bi-dast-i ust ( = he leads you by the nose) ; 
dn bichdra nd-bind ast, yaJc-i digar 'asd- 
kashri ust : in rdh bi-kujd mi-ravad ? ^ (or 
sar dar mi-dvarad or sar mi-kashad or bi- 
kujd muntahi mi-shavad?) ; in kucha bi- 
manzil-ash rdh ddrad (this street leads to 
his house) ; gum-rdh k. ; or bad-rdh k. 
(lead astray ; relig. only) ; az rdh (dar) 
burdan (ditto); 'umr-i zisht-i bi-sar mi- 
barad (he leads a dog's life); dar zimn-i 
suhbat sukhan rd bar sar-i matldb kashid 
(he led up to this — in talking) ; raftdr-ash 
dn qadar bad bud ki hich kas urd 'izzat 
nami-kard (or inahaLl nami-guzdsht) (he 
led such a life that none respected him) 
(or regarded him). 

Leader, sarddr ; sar-karda (gen.) ; aar-jang 
(mil.) ; fishvd or imM7n or pish-namdz (at 
prayer) : pish-raw (going ahead) ; maqdla- 
yi makhsus (leading article of newspaper). 

Leading, gum-rdh k. ; or izUil (k.) (rare) (into 
error ; relig.) ; hiddyat {k.) (guidance, reUg. 
or otherwise) ; daldlat {k.) (showing the 
way) ; rah-bari {k.) (to tell or show the 

Leading-strings, hanuz mahar-a^h dast-i 
mddar-ash ast. 

Leaf, barg (of plants) ; varaq (of plants or 
books ; but pi. awrdq of books only) ; 
Ah! dn varaq bar-gasht (Oh! I've turned 
over a new leaf) ; takhta (sheet of paper) ; 

1 It is said that the §adr-i A' jam has started the fashion of having lawns, but that for long, the 
only lawn in Persia was that of the British Legation. 

2 Ra necessary. 

8 Modern anha ra instead of ii. 

* i.e., does not act, but after the manner of an astrologer says to himself "perhaps it will turn out 
all right. ' ' 

6 In India rafta cut would be preferred. 





linga-yi dar (of door) ; varaq-i tila (gold- 
leaf) ; In sabaq-Vst ki az shwnm yad ddram 
(I have taken a leaf out of your book). 

Leaflet, risdla. 

Leafy, pur-barg. 

League, mu'dhada (k.) ; 'ahd u misdq {k. or 
hastan) ; sdzish {k.) (plot). 

Leak, to, chakidan or chaka k. ; tardva k. 
vulgar or local for tardvldan (to ooze out) ; 
db tu dmadan (of ship). 

Leaky, pur cliakha ' ast ; nukhud dar dahan- 
ash nami-khisad = rdz rd td bi-khdna namt- 
rasdnad = dahan-ash sanduqcha-yi sirr-i 
kas-i mst (he blabs). 

Lean, to, takya zadan bar — (intr.) ; bar — zur 
k. (intr.) ; takya dddan bar (tr.) (all of per- 
sons) ; mdHl budan and kardan (of things 
out of the upright) ; bi-man takya naml- 
kunad (he does not expect help from me) ; 
bar himmat-i khud takya karda ast: bar 
mlz takya'^ ma-zan (or morkun or ma-dih). 

Lean, (adj.) laghar ; kdhida shuda (after 
sickness) : gusht (subs. ; opp. to pih fat). 

Leaning, md^il bi — (inclining towards). 
Vide Incline. 

Leanness, Idghari; kdhidagl {after sickness). 

Leap, to, jastan (or jaqidan), rt. jih; bar- 
jastan (leap up) ; Ichiz z. or giriftan ; parl- 
dan (of horses over a jump) ; didam yak 
maymun-i az ru-yi ddr-bast ^ jahid ; asp az 
bdgh blrun jahid or parid: savdr shudan 
or bar pusht rajtan (to copulate, of ani- 
mals) ; fuldni savdri rd khub mi-ddnad = 
dar jirm' Mub sar-rishta ddrad. 

Leaping, jast u khiz (here and there, like 
goats, monkeys). 

Leap-year, sdl-i kabisa. 

Learn, ravdn kardan (to get by heart) ; 
dmukhtan, rt. dmuz^; shumd zud-tar az 
md mi-dmuzid; tahsil k. and anduhhtan, 
rt. anduz, (of science) ; ydd k. (of lessons) ; 
dars giriftan (to take lessons) ; ittild' yd f tan 
and mustahzar shudan (to get informa- 
tion) ; khabar-ddr sh. (to be warned, to 
learn) ; zabdn dmukhtan or ydd giriftan (to 

learn a language) ; istifdda k. (to acquire 
a knowledge from a person). 

Learned, 'dlim, pi. 'ulamd^; fdzil, pi. fuzald*^ 
(accomplished^ a man of letters) ; ddnd 
(wise) ; but sdhib-i 'ilm va ddnish (learn- 
ed) ; 'drif, pi. 'urafd^ (Silfl term) ; mard-i 
hakim; pur Him u ddnish; mutabahhir 
(deeply learned). 

Learnedly, 'dlirmn^; fdzildna. 

Learner, naw-dmuz; mubtadi (beginner); 
shdgird (pupil) ; alif-bd-khwdn (quite a 
beginner ; in anything) . 

Learning, 'ilm (gen.); hikmat (philosophy 
and wisdom) ; fazilat (accomplishment, 
merit); Hlm-i adab (literature); ma'rifat 
(of God). 

Lease, Lease, to, ijdra-ndma (the document) ; 
in khdna panj-sdla ijdra (or kirdya) kar- 
dam; ijdra dddan (to give on — ). 

Leash, shikdr-band P. : murasa Ar. (for 
hawks) ; tasma (for dogs). 

Least (adj.), kamtarin; kamtar az hama ; 
adnq; kihtarm; aqall-i nids (the least of 
persons) : aqall-i qalil (the least part) : 
kamtar az kamtarin less than the least). 

Least (adv.), hxch na-bdshad; aqall<^^ P. dast-i 
kam ; Id-aqall (prop, not less); fVl-aqall; 
bdr-l; (well, at least) ; dast-i kam (at the 

Leather, charm, (of cows, and generally of 
large animals) ; timMj (goat- or sheep-skin) ; 
jir^ (chamois leather, etc.); bulghdr^ 
(scented leather) ; jild (of men ; also the 
cover of a book) ; pust (skin of goats and 
sheep and small animals,*" and of fruits) : 
sdgharl (green leather; shagreen). 

Leathern, charmi or charmin; pusti ; [bub 
pustin a fur coat of sheep-skin]. 

Leathery. Vide Sodden. 

Leave, izn ; or ijdzat (permission) ; rukhsat 
(permission, also leave of absence) ; mur- 
akhkhasi (leave of absence) ; vidd' guftan 
or k. (to say good-bye) ; Khudd-hdflzi k. 
or g. (ditto). 

Leave, vide to Place, Entrust, Deposit, 

1 In pur chakka the k is doubled to distinguish it from chaka ' ' trickster. ' ' 

2 In India toA^o " pillow " : in Persia takya-gah "a pillow" (big or little). Takya is also the 
place where the passion-play is enacted, and also a shrine ; takya-yi Sa'dl (the garden and tomb of 

5 Dar-bast wooden verandah-frame for training a vine-arbour. KMr-bandi (of hurdle or hedge of 
thorns) ; Miar-aadd (hurdle). 

4 Tr. and intr. but rarely tr. in m.c. 

6 Corpses of the rich, to be transported to Kerbela for burial, are sometimes enclosed in this 
leather — In m.c. jir also means India-rubber. 

• Occasiona,lly pust is incorrectly used for large animals. 




Abandon, Quit, Start, Bequeath, Cease, 
etc.; hama-yi kdr u bar-ash rd bi-muharrir' 
ash vd ml-guzdrad: mi-guyad ki irdda 
ddrad zud az In vildyat bi-ravad ' ; mard 
■oil kun (leave me alone) ; nziyyat-am ma- 
dih (ditto) : In kdr rd bi-shumd vd mi- 
guzdram (I leave this to you). 

Leaven, khamir-mdya (k.) ; or khamtr-tursh 

Leavened, var-dmada (of dough, q.v.). 

Leavings, pas-mdnda or bdqt-mdnda (gen.) ; 
pas-khurda ; or ulush T. (rare) ; (leavings 
of food). 

Lebanon, Mount, Kuh-i Lvhndn. 

Lecherous. Vide Lascivious. 

Lecture, dars (for schools); nutq (public; 
also "speech"); gush-i va"z raftan (to 
attend religious lectures). 

Lectiirer, dars-gu; nutq-kun ; va*z-kun or 
vdiz (relig. lecturer; also preacher). 

Led-horse, yadak (spare) ; kutal (for parade 

Ledge, raf (the high ledge that runs round a 
Persian room) ; tdq (niche or projecting 

Ledger, daftar, pi. dafdtir ; dastak (?). 

Leech, zdlu ; zulu vulg. ; zdlu-yi Shirdzi (the 
best kind) ; zdlu anddkhtan (to apply — ). 

Lees, durd (of wine) ; tah-nishln gen. (sedi- 
ment; what settles at the bottom). 

Leek, gandana. 

Leeward, taraf-i bdd-pandh%. 

Left, bdqi ; bdqi-mdnda ; tatimma (balance of 
account): matruk (abandoned): chun az 
dastri rdst chvldq (or lunj)^ ast bd dast-i 
chap ml-namsad; dast-i cJiap or taraf-i 
chap (to the left, on the left). 

Left-handed, chaplu, or dast-chapi; u chap 
ast, or chapakl kdr nii-kunad ( = he is left- 
handed) ; [chapaki " upside down" : also 
" cross- ways ' ' ; chapaki uftdd = he fell on 
his side]. 

Leg, pd or pdy (sp. hind-leg) ; qalam (shank, 
or bone of forearm) ; ran (thigh) ; sdq 
(shank of leg only ; dast u^,pdy (fore and 
hind-leg, of a horse, etc.); pacha (sp. 
shanks of goats, cows) ; az asp parid va 
pay-ash shikast : chap u rdst k. (to cut off 
the left foot and the right hand or vice 

versa ; an ancient punishment) ; pdya (of 
table, chair ; also a stand). 

Legacy, mirds, tarika; mukhallafdt (rare; 
property left, estate) ; az tarika-yi u faqat 
sad tumdn bi-man rastd: vasiyyat {k.) (the 

Legal, mashru' or shar'i (according to Qura- 
nic law); ravd; jdHz; haldl. F»«fe Law- 

Legality. Vide Lawfulness. 

Legate, saflr, pi. sufard* (ambassador, etc. ; 
polite for messenger). 

Legatee, vofi ; irs-gir ; and wm (prop. heir). 

Legation, sifdrat ; sifdrat-khdna. 

Legend, hikdyat-i qadim ; afsdna-yi qadim. 

Legendary, afsdna-dmiz or pur-afsdna. 

Legerdemain, huqqa-bdzi {k.) (with cups) ; 
shu'badorbdzi (gen. conjuring) ; tar-dastl 
(sleight of hand) ; hila, etc. (artifice, 

Legging, vide Gaiters ; [f^-push is used for a 
mat to wipe the feet on]. 

Legible, in khatt khwdrvd nist or khwdnda 
nami-shavad (this writing is not legible; 
but khivdndant nist " it is not to be read, 
it is secret"). 

Legislator, vdzi'-i qdnun; muqannin. 

Legitimacy, haldl-zddagi ; or haldl-budan-i 
nut fa (of offspring) : hilliyyat (lawfulness) : 
ravd- or jd^tz budan (of actions). 

Legitimate, hdUdUzdda ; nutfa-yi haldl. Vide 

Leisure, fardghfii; fursat; awqdt-i bi-kdri; 
dghd hdld fdrigh hastid? izn mi-dihid (or 
murakhkhas-am) ki bd shumd guft u gu 
kunam ? ; agar bi-kdr hastid banda bi-ydyam 
du kalima harf bi-zanam. 

Lemon, Umu (lemons with thin skins) ; db- 
limu or db-i Umu, or 'araq-i limu (lemon 
juice); turanj (sour with thick skin; for 
making jam) ; rang-i limu (colour of — ). 

Lemon-grass, bddrang-buya.^ 

Lemonade, sharbat-i db-i limu. 

Lend, qarz dddan; or vdm d. (rare); [qarz 
or vdm giriftan to borrow] ; man khayli 
faqir-am chand rupiya bi-qarz-i* man bi- 
dihid; qarz^'l-hasana d. (lend without 
interest) : 'driyat dddan or bi-Uiior-i amunat 
d. (of things; the latter also means, to 

1 Indirect narration. 

* Lunj ia also a ' thick lower negroid lip.' 
' butter-fingered.' 

8 The agya-ghaa of India. 

♦ Qarz with or without interest. Qarz k. 
usually take interest. 

But u chulaq-daat oat = he breaks everything he touches, 

to borrow money." The Persians, though Muslims, 




entrust to the safe keeping of) ; ['ariyat 
giriftan to borrow things]. 

Lender, qarz-dih; or vdm-dih (of money); 
'arlyat-dih or amanat-dih (of things; 
latter also means depositor) . 

Length, tul ; dardzi (of things) ; muddat 
(long time); dhhir ; dhhir^H-amr ; 'dqi- 
baf^'l-amr (at length). 

Lengthen, dardz sh. (intr.) ; tul dddan (tr.) ; 
tul kashldan intr. (of time) ; tatvil k. (to 
be prolix in speech) ; madd d. (of vowels . 
in speaking or writing). 

Lengthening, imtiddd (of things) ; tatvil (of 

Lengthwise, tul"^'. 

Lengthy, tuldnl (of speech or a writing). 

Leniency, muldyamat and narm-dili. ' Vide ' 
infra; tasdhul; muddra; (excessive leni- 
ency; neglect). 

Lenient, muWim (of persons, or thmgs) ; 
narm-dil (soft-hearted) . 

Lenity, narmi; muldyamat. 

Lens, 'adasiyya; shlsha-yi 'adasi. 

Lentil, 'adas. 

Lentiform, shakl-i 'adasi. 

Leo, Burj-i Asad (Zodiac). 

Leopard, palang ; yuz (cheetah or hunting 
leopard) ; yuz hd yuz dar qafas jujt namt- 
shavad td chi rasad bi-shir ^ (the cheeta 
will not pair in confinement how much less 
the lion^). 

Leper, pisi P. ; or mabrus At. (white) ; 
majzum (black). 

Leprosy, pis; or baras (white) ; juzdm (black 

Leprous. Vide Leper. 

Less, kam ; or kamtar (in quantity) ; kuchak- 
tar ; or khurdrtar (in size) ; kihtar ; or past- 
tar (in rank) ; kamtarak (a little less) ; 
kasr-% az dumst rupiya (a little less than 
Rs. 200) ; duvist rupiya va kasr-i (a little 
more than Rs. 200) ; kam yd bish (more 
or less) ; yak 'ashara kam^tar bar mi-gardam 
(I'll return in less than ten days) ; mavd- 
jib-am kamtar az mavdjib-ash ast (also 
colloquially — kamtar az u'st) ; mElik-i ydk 
gusfand ham nist chi jd-yi galla-yi shuturdn 
(why, he does not own even one sheep, 
how much less a flock of camels) ; mun in 
rd nami-tavdnam harakat ham bi-diham id 
chi rasad bi-in ki bi-khdna bi-rasdnam (I 
cannot even move this, how much less 

can I carry it home) ; bahd-yi (or pul-i or 
qimat-i) yak shalvdr na-ddram td chi rasad 
bi-kharj-i 'arusi (I have not the price of 
one pair of trousers even, how much less 
money for the marriage) . 

Lessee. Vide Lessor. 

Lessen, kam k.; talchfif d. (tr.) ; takhfif 
ydftan (intr.) ; faru nishastan (of a swell- 
ing, of anger, of violence). 

Lesson , sabaq ; or dars ; biyd dars-at rd pas 
bi-dih (come repeat your lesson) ; dars-ash 
rd pas bi-gir (hear him his lesson); 'ibrat 
(warning). Vide Learn. 

Lessor, mu^jir ; [musta^jir lessee] ; ijdra-dih ; 
[ijdra-gir lessee]. 

Lest, mabddd ; na-kunad (vulg. iox na-shavad) 
bi-ufti (lest you fall) ; ki (after a verb of 
fearing — with verb in negative) ; az tars-i 
in ki — ; na-shavad ki — (followed by Pres. 

Let, vide Allow, Permit : riha k. ; or khalds 
k. (to release) ; bi-gu bi-binam (come 
let me see what you have to say) ; bi- 
guzdr bdshad (let it alone) ; chird asp rd 
vil kardM? (why did you let the horse 
go?); biyd (or bi-guzdr) bi-binam in rd 
mi-tavdnam bi-khwdnam (let me see if I 
can read this) ; bi-ravim ki bi-ravim (Oh, 
do let us be off) ; jasdrat-i harf zadan ham 
na-bud chi jd-yi khand^dan = khanda rd 
bi-guzdr kindr, jasdrat-i harf zadan chi 
ma'ni ddrad ? (I dared not speak let alone 
laugh) ; az magas guzashta kayk ham bud 
= magas rd bu-guzar kayk niz bud (let 
alone flies, there were fleas as well) ; kdr 
ma-ddr (let it alone ; don't touch or inter- 
fere) ; bi-kirdya — or bi-ijdra dddan (to let 
on hire) ; firu k. (to let down from a 
height) ; m,a-guzdr ki biyufiad (don't leb 
it drop) ; dast az man bar ddr = kdr bi- 
m/in na- ddshta bdsh (let me alone) . 

Lethal, nisydn-dvar. 

Lethargic, sust (in movement ; or of tem- 
perament) ; dlr-matlab-ras or dir-hushydr- 
shaw (slow to understand) ; tapala (in 
movement; of humans; lit. a "cow- 
pat," i.e. short, fat; and unwieldy); 
pinaki (drowsy). 
Lethargy, sustt. 

Letter, kdgtkaz; or navishta; or maktub pi. 
makdtib (gen.); raqima (polite); farmdn; 
or dast-khatt ; or hukm ; or manshur ; or 

1 As this was said by the Emperor Jehangir, he by sher meant '' tiger " and not '• lion." Note 
that 65 shir (if substituted) would mean ' a cheeta would not pair with a tiger.' 




iawqV (of Shah) ; raqam; or (lasl-khatt ; or 
hukm; or imzd*" ; or ta'liqa (of Princes or 
Ministers) ; tawqV ; or khilab ; or lawh 
(dignitaries of the church); 'anza (lower 
to higher) ; ibla^-idusiana (gen.) \ i^timad 
noma (sovereign to sovereign) ; murdsala ; 
yad-dasht; rasila ; raqirna; marquma and 
kayjiaz (mercantile ') ; shuqqa and mufd- 
vaza (superior to inferior) ; ruq'a (note ; 
polite) ; sifdrish-ndma (of recommenda- 
tion) ; khatt-i mu'arrift (letter of introduc- 
tion) ; harf, pi. huruf (of alphabet) ; bardt 
(letter of credit) : bi-'ibdrat-i qdnun 'amal 
mi-kuntd yd bi-mcUlab (will you act on the 
letter of the law or on the spirit ; ^(i^f 
bi-harf (to the letter) ; adib (a man of 

Lettuce, kdhu. 

Levee, saldm-i 'dmm or bdr-i 'dmm (of Shah 
only) ; majlis-i scddm (for Governors, etc.). 

Level, hamvdr; sdj ; ham-bardhar (vulg.) 
musattah; dar mayddn-i hamchu kaf-i dost 
vdrid shudlm — Prof. S. T. : dla-yi istivd 
(spirit level). 

Lever, dllum; tah-zan (vulg.); ahrum (said 
to be the stick on the shoulder with the 
bundle at the end^). 

Levite, Levitical, Lam. 

Levity, sahuki; khtffat; Id-ubdli-gari. 

Levy, to, (of taxes), guzdshtan; nihddan; 

Lewd, nafs-parast ; havd-parast (sensual, q.v. 
polite); hashart (wulg.). F/rfe Lascivious. 

Lexicographer, lughfit-nams . 

Lexicography, 'ilm-i lughat. 

Lexicon. Vide Dictionary. 

Liable, mustawjib ; sazdvdr ; az chunin fi'l 
mustahiqq-i janma hastid ; in , gumrak bar 
mi-ddrad (liable to customs duty). 

Liaison, rah ddshtan bd— ( — with a wo- 

Liar, darughgu ; kdzib. 

Libel, dbru-nzt k. ; hajv guftan (to lanipoon, 
and to satirize); tuhmat (z.) (a false 
charge, scandal) : buhtdn (z.) (evil accusa- 
tion on one innocent) ; bad-ndm k. (to give 
a bad name to) ; iftird'- (b.). (calumny, 
spec, relior.). Vide Calumny, Slander. 

Libeller, mujtan (false). 

Libellous, iftird*i (false). 

Liberal, sakhi-tah' ; karlm (m.c); gushddor 
dost; fayydz (munificent): ba^shiah-kun ; 
vasi'khiydl (in ideas ; opp. to tang-khiydt) ; 
chashm u dil-ash air oat (in money) ; 
dzdditalab (Liberal politician ; also ahrdr 
Liberals, opp. to mustabidin conserva- 
tives). Vide Generous, Munificent. 

Liberality, sakhdvat; bakhshish; makramat; 
jud; jayydzl ; etc., etc. 

Liberally, kanmdna: fayydzdna. 

Liberate, rihd k. ; dzdd k. (of slave); [the 
law terms for liberating a slave are 'itq, 
intr. , and i'tdq, tr.]; sar dddan (to give 
the head to; in riding or driving). Vide 
Let and Release 

Liberation, khaldsi; or rihd^i; or dzddi 
rastugdri (properly Salvation). 

Liberated, rastagdr (relig.) ; khaJus shuda; or 
rihd ydfla ; dzdd shuda. 

Liberator, rihd^i bakhsh ; or Jchaldsi-dih. 

Liberating, rihd^l; or takhlis. 

Libertine, mard-i Id-ubdli (gen. careless in 
work or in living, etc.) ; fdsiq u fdjir (loose 
in morals as regards women). 

Liberty, hurriyyat; or dzJddi (freedom); 
najdt ; or khalds ; or rihd*'i (from danger 
or restraint) ; mahbus budand va likin hdld 
khalds shuda-and or birun dmada-and; 
rastagdri (salvation) ; dzddi-yi akhbdr 
(liberty of the press) ; dzddi yi ray: dzadr 
or muhhtdr hastid ki bi-ravid (you are at 
liberty to 20). 

Libidinous. Vide Lewd. 

Libra, Mizdn (Zodiac). 

Librarian, muhdjiz-i kutvb. 

Library, kiidb-khdna ; kulub-khdna ; qird'tU- 
khdna (reading-room). 

License, ijdza; ijdza-ndma: dasiak ; javdz; 
javdz-nama (to trade, etc.). 

Licentious, awbash ; bi-fisq u fujur va anvd'-i 
imddhi u mandhi ruz mi-guzdrad. 

Lichen. Vide Moss. 

Lick, to, Lick-spittle, lisidan ; sag az lazzat-% 
gusht Jahhd-yi khud rd mi-lisad^ : an 
shakhs kdsa-lis ast (he is a plate-licker, i.e. 
toady, etc.). 

Licorice, rubb-i sus. 

Lid, sar ; sar-push (of a pot) : takhtoryi bald 

' Most of the foregoing are used by Persian Foreign Office officials ; some of them are not in com- 
mon use. 

* Apparently the equivalent of the Ar. ilip; jJlL: is " a carrier of burdens." 
8 In India lcU}ha-yi fc&wd / 5 M««A mi-kunad. 




or sar-i bald (of box) ; dar-i sanduq rd 
guzdsht (he shut the box) ; dar-i In ja'ba 
rd huland kun: pilk (of eye). 

Lie, durugh- or hizb (guftan) : takzib {k.) (to 
give the lie to). 

Lie, to, durugi, gujtan pish-i u kdr-i na-ddrad 
(he's a regular liar); hard-yash sdkhtand 
(they trumped up lies against him) : in 
durugA-hd rd hardy-am juft kardand (ditto). 

Lie down, dardz kashidan (to lie down at 
length) ; kkwdbidan (intr. ; also to sleep) ; 
khwdbdnidan (to make camels, etc., kneel 
down) ; dam-i ru khwdbidan (to lie or 
sleep face downwards) ; bar pusht hhwdbl- 
dan (to lie on the back) ; yak pahlu- or 
yak-bara kh. (to lie on the side) ; ham- 
bistar sh. : or ham-hhxvdba sh. (with a 

Lieutenant, ndHb-i avval (Sub-Lieut.) : ndHb-i 
duvvum (Lieut.). 

Life, zindagdnl ; or zindagi (living) ; hasti 
(existence) ; u jaqat ztst mi-kunad, zindagi 
na-ddrad; tul-i 'umr (long life); haydt : 
jdn or ruh na-ddrad (he is dead) ; bi-in 
taivr in panj ruz-i zindagi bi-sar baram — 
Prof. S. T. (let me thus spend the few 
remaining days of my life) ; ruh-i dar 
qdlib na-mdnda bud — Prof. S. T. (no life 
was left in my body) ; zindagi baqd^i na- 
darad, taddruk-i 'dqibat bay ad did; 'umr-i 
'aziz-am dar mulk-giri guzasht, kdld bi-in 
sinn u sal rasida am ; juz marg hich bdgi 
nist — Prof. S. T. ; khun rd bd khun mi- 
shuyand (they exact life for life) ; hdldt-i 
'umri or savdnih-i 'umri (memoirs, biogra- 
phy) ; dkhirat (next life) ; mu' a shar at {boc\&\ 
— ) ; 'umr bi-sar burdan or guzardnidan (to 
pass one's life) ; ihyd k. (to raise from the 
dead, restore to life); az zindagi sir sh. 
(to be weary of life) ; ruh-i anjuman (the 
life of the party) : md ddm' 'l-haydt (as 
long as life lasts). 

Life-giving, haydt-bakhsh. 

Lifeless bi-hush (senseless); bi-jdn bi-zamin 
khurd or rH-yi zamin naqsh bast (he fell 
lifeless or senseless to the ground) ; murda 
(dead) ; afsurda ; or yakh ; or sard (dull ; 
of people) ; asar-i ruh dar u na-bud. 

Lift, mushin-i rap (a lift). 

Lift to, buland k. ; barddshtan; afrdshtan, 
rt. afrdz (to raise on high; of hand, flag, 
etc.); bar khizdnidan (to force to rise); 
naql k. (remove); mih bar taraf (or zaHl) 
shud (the fog lifted). 

Ligature, rismJdn ; nakh (thread) ; Hsdba 
(med., bandage). 

Light, to, dtash rushan k. or -afrukhtan; 
rushan k. or munavvar sdhhtan (to light a 
room, etc.). 

Light (subs.) rushnd'i ; nur, pi. anvdr ; 
nurdniyyat (heavenly brightness, of sun, 
etc., and of face); tutuq-i nur (a column 
of light in a dark bazar, from an upper 
window) ; chirdgh (prop, lamp but in m.c. 
often for any light) ; vide. Lamp and 
Candle; khatt-i nur (streak of light in a 
room) ; khatt-i shu'd' (of dawn) ; nur 
iqtibds k. (to borrow light ; as moon from 
sun, etc. ; also met. of knowledge by a 
disciple) . 

Light, sabuk; hhafij (of weight); kam-rang 
(gen. ; ^ light in colour, weak) ; dbaki (of 
liquids ; light in colour, weak) ; vdz (light- 
coloured; of stuffs, not of liquids); ahvdl-i 
Tihrdn rd bi-sar javdb ddd (in reply he 
made hght of the news of Tehran) Vide 
also Dark. 

Lighted, munavvar (past part.) ; rushan. 

Lighten, bdr rd sabuk kardan; or takhfif n. 
(of weights); barq z. (of lightening). 

Lighter, rushan-kunanda (of lamps) ; zhirdgh- 
chi (lamp-lighter, q^^v.). 

Light-footed, sahuk-pd (of animals or men) : 
bdd-pd (swift; of horses). 

Light-headed, sabuk-maghz (als_o foolish). 

Light-horse, sabuk- savdr ; sawdra-yi Ichafif. 

Lightness, sabuki (in weight) ; sabuk- pari 
(buoyancy in flight) ; kami-yi vazn. 

Lightning, barq-i ziydd mi- jihad; diruz vaqt-i 
ra'd birun budam ; barq zadan tr. and — kh. 
intr. (to be struck by—); [pdya (thunder); 
sdHqa thunder 'bolt]; mil-i barq ( — rod) ; 
barq-rubd ( — conductor). 

Like (resembling), misl-i— ; nazir-i— ; rm- 
nand-i—(pveip., resembling); bardbar-i — 
(equal to); ham-mdnand; or ham misl or 
ham-shabih (like one _ another) ; yak-san 
(exactly hke) : mutdbiq; or muvdfiq 
(equal): —sd, —dsa, —vdr, —vash and 
— sdn (in composition) ; chun or chu (adv.) ; 
amsdl-i shumd (subs. ; the likes of you) : 
vide to Resemble ; khdna-am shabih-i khdna- 
yi shumd ast: vaz'-i pddishdh chi tawr 
bud? (what was the king like ?)_; kur kur 
rd payda mi-kunad va db gawddl'^ (like to 
like) ; pisar-i pidar-ash ( = like father, hke 

Like, to, dust ddshtan; mayl bi-chiz-i ddsh- 

1 Bang-ash sir ast " deep coloured." 

2 Ra understood after gawdal. 




ta7i ; khwdstan (of things = to like ; of 
persons = to love) ; tnan shawq-i ziyad bi- 
safar-i Farangistdn ddram; az-ash (or 
%z hania chiz-ash) khush-am im-ayad (I 
like him immensely ; vide also Mind) ; az 
In bad-am mi-dyad (I do not like this) ; 
tirndakd rd chi-guna didi (how did you 
lice the play?) ; mar^ub sh. ; or pasand 
d'nadun, or Uiub bi-nazar dmadan (to be 

Likes, in naw' nasd^ih az nsh-safiddn bishtar 
qcbul mi-kunand (this soit of S/dvice is 
more listened to coming from grey- beards 
than from the likes of us). Vidt Rather. 

Likelihood, ihtimJal. 

Lilely, muhtamil; yahlamil (prop. 3rd pers. 
^or. Ar.). 

Liktn, to, tashbih k. or dddan. 

Likeness, shabih (of an effigy ; also of pictures 
oi Muhammad,' his son-in-law, and his 
grandsons) ; timsdl ; or tasvir (any picture 
or ^hoto other than those of Muhammad, 
etc.) ; 'aks (photograph) : mushdbdhat 
(resemblance); shabahat-i tdmtn ddrad (it's 
an excellent likeness). 

Likewise, ham ; ham/^huniu ; ayz" " ; niz ;- -va 
hdkizd man ham bi-u bad k/npdham gujt 
(anc likewise I will speak harslily to him). 

Liking mayl; khxvdhish ; ragkbat 

Lilac, /a-s'. 

Lily, zimbaq; fjul-i maryam (some kind of 
white-lily) ; nilufar or laylupar (lotus, 
wat(r-lily) ; susan (prop, the iris) ; zain- 
baq-i tukhm-i Zhdpuni (Japan lily ; Shah's 

Limb, uzv, pi. a'zd^; dost u pa, or par u pa 
(limas) ; javdrih (limbs ; also classically 
bircfe and beasts of prey). 

Lime, ahak; dhak-i zinda (quicklime, q.v.) ; 
dhac-i murda or kushta (slaked lime) ; dibq, 
Ar. (bird-lime, q.v.); kura-yi gach-pazi; 
and kura-yi dhak-pazi (kiln) ; Umu-yi 
shcrbaii (sweet lime). 

Limestone, sang-i ahak. 

Limi:, hadd, pi. hudud (gen.) ; sar-hadd, pi. 
8ai-hadddt (boundaries of land) ; sughur 
(dkto; the sing, not used in m.c.) in mun- 
ta}R-yi savdd-ash ast (this is the limit of 
hs knowledge). 

Limited, mahdud ; 'ilm-ash mahdud ast; kdr- 

hd-yash munhasir-i bi-taqcMvb ast (his busi- 
ne^ss is limited to cheating) : murakhkhas 
nistam ki bishtar az sad rupiya bi-diham. 

Limp (adj.), mardaka khayli sard ast, bdyad 
garm-ash kard (he's a limp fellow, he 
requires stirring up). ' ' 

Limp, to, langidan. Vide Lame. , \ 

Limpid, zuldl ; shaffaf (transparent). Vide 

Limpidity, shaffafi. 

Line, to, saff zadan or — kashidan, intr. (to 
fall in, in line; of soldiers, slaves, etc.); 
saff drdstan, tr. ; rah rd bd sar-bdz mff- 
bandi k. (to line the road with troops ; for 
a reception) ; astar k. or astar-duzi k. (to 
line a garment) ; mistar k. (to rule paper) ; 
khatt kashidan (to draw lines) ; a^ar sim-i 
talagrdf khwdbida ast^ (if the telegraph 
line is down, i.e. if communication is 

Line, (subs.), satr, pi. siUur ; khait, pi. Mfl# 
M^ (lines, marks); risrndn (cord); rishta 
(string) ; shdqul (mason's) ; silsila (race, 
q.v.) ; saff, pi. sufuf (mil.) ; qitdr {chidan) 
(file) ; khatt-i dhan (of railway) ; khatt-i kaj 
u kuj (zig-zagged) ; khatt-i qawsi (bowed): 
khatt-i munhani (crooked, bent) ; khatt-i 
mustaqim (straight line) ; khait-i mutavdzi 
(parallel lines) ; khait-i 'amudi (perpendi- 
cular) ; khatt-i ujuqi (horizontal Une) ; 
khatt-i fdsil (that separata** or divides) ; 
ahl-i in iMr nistam, or az ddHrd-yi lair-am 
kMrij ast (this is not in my line). 

Lineage, nasab ; asl u nasab ; hasab u nasab ; 
khdnavdda ; or dudmdn; or 'ashira 
(family) ; qabila. pi. qabd*il (tribe) ; zur- 
riyya (descendants). Vide Race, Tribe. 

Lineament, khatl-hd-yi surat or — chihra. 
Vide Features. 

Lineal, bild fdsild azPayghfimbar mi-dyad, or 
bl-khatt-i mustaqim nasab-i khud rd bi- 
PaygJiambar mi-rasdnad (he is a direct 
descendant of the Prophet; i.e. from his 
daughter) ; bild vdsita (immediate descen- 

Linear, khatii. 

Linen, katdn or katUdn (subs.) ; kattdni (adj.). 

Linendraper, bazzidz (anj' cloth seller) ; 
pdrcha-farush (ditto). 

Lingah, Linga. 

1 Though forbidden to draw pictures of the Prophet, etc., many uneducated people have such 
pictures, which they regard early in the morning. The face is always veiled. 

4 The Persian telegraph Une spends a large portion of its time on the ground. I have heard a 
postman complain that he could not carry the mails and erect the fallen posts as well. 

!i The Ar. pi. khutftf, is in m.c. confined to " letters." 




Linger, to, 'aqab uftadan : vide Delay ; hanuz 
ta'm-ash rd ddram (the taste still lingers 
in my mouth). 

Linguist, zabdn-ddn. 

Liniment, marham (ointment for wounds 
only) ; tild (for painting or rubbing on) ; 
zimdd (poultice). 

Lining astar or dstar (k.) (of a garment). 

Link, halqa (ring or link in a chain) ; hdqala 
vulg. or ddna (a bead in a rosary '). 

Link, to, musalsal sahhtan: hi-Jiam payvas- 
tan; or vasl k. (to join latter also — to 

Linked, bi-ham payvasta : musalsal (linked 
together ; of a number) 

Linkman, mash^al-chi (in a procession) ; 
fdnus-kash (a private servant with lamp). 

Linseed, tukhm-i kattdn; rawghan-i bazr-i 
katdn (linseed oil) ; [raw§[han-i kunjad, oil 
of sesamum seed ; in India til oil ; often 
confused with linseed oil]. 

Linsey-woolsey, pdrcha az pashm va kattdn. 

Lintel, sar-dar. 

Lion, shir, P. ; asad, At. ; arsaldn, T. (rare) ; 
shir-i ydl-dm (a maned, i.e., male lion); 
[in Persia shir is a lion and bahr is a tiger, 
but in India vice versa] ; u az shir shir-tar 
ast (he is braver than a lion) ; nishdn-i 
Shir u Khurshid (the Order of the Lion 
and the Sun) ; mahall-i tavajjuh-i mardum 
ast (he's the lion of the season) ; jd-hd-yi 
khub (the lions of a place) ; burj-i asad 
(Zodiac). Vide Knight. 

Lioness, shir-mdda. 

Lip, lab ; lab-i pdyin (lower) ; lunj (lower 
lip; sp. Negroid) ; lab-i bdld (upper) ; lab-i 
shuturi (loose hanging lips) ; lab-i durusht 
(thick lipped) ; lah-i ndzuk (delicate- 
lipped) ; lab-laHi (ruby-lipped ; of women) ; 
lab-i khargushi (hare- lipped, q.v.). 

Liquefaction, guddzish ; db shudan ; hall. 

Liquid, dbaki ; mn^i, pi. muHyydt: ashyd-yi 
mdS dar dn jd nami-girad (it won't con- 
tain liquids) : db sh. (to melt q.v ) : [mun- 
jamid, solid as opposed to liquid ; but 
sulbl, solid as opposed to hollow] : gar da 
or safuf (powder). 

Liquor, jawhar (lit. essence): 'araq (spirit, 
also sweat, juice). Vide Wine. 

Liquorice, rubb"''s-sus (in sticks); shirin 
baydn {?) ; malhati, vulg. mutkl (the 
plant) . 

Lisp, to, vdzih harf nami-zanad; (no special 
word; vide Moses; to Jews the wori 
luknat " stammering " is applied). / 

List, fihrist; siydha; fard; tafsil. , 

Listen, gush k. or dddan; gush fard ddaan 
(to eaves-drop, q.v.) : gush-am bd shufid 
ast (I'm listening to you) ; gush-at bd n^n 
bdshad, or gush bi-ddr: dgha bi-manbdsjiid. 
Vide To hear. | 

Listener, mustami' ; sdmi' (hearer, q.v.)./ 

Listless, izhdr-i mayl bi-chiz-i na-ddrad ; sjird ; 
yakh (m.c). \ 

Literal, taht" H-lafz (of translation) ; lafti &*■ 
lafz; harji; in tarjuma istildhi nlst (un- 
idiomatic) : fuqahd-yi millat i'tiqdd bi- 
zavdhir-i dydt rd bi-tariq-i ta'abbud Idiim 
mi-ddnand (the religious guides believ^ in 
the literal interpretation of the Qorani. 

Literary, adib : Hlm-dust (also scientific),! 

Literature, 'ulum-i adabiyya. ' 

Lithographer, sang-chdp-kun or — zan. 

Lithography, chdp-sangi (for chdp-i san^i) 
(k.) : sang-i chdp (the stone). 

Litigation, murdfa'a {k.) : muqaddaim (an 
Indian word coming into use). 

Litigious, murdfa'a-ju. 

Litter (a sort of palki carried by t^o, or 
four mules or camels) takht-i ravdt; az 
takdn-i takht-i ravdn Ichayli sadmu kh'irdam 
nazdik bud nd-khush bi-shavam; mkhmil, 
pi. mahdmil (rare) ; haudaj (elephant 
howdah) : kajdva (camel 'kajavas'); 
pushdl (straw bedding for horses) ; hhas u 
khdshdk and ashqdl (litter, chips, ejc, in 
a room, vide Refuse) ; Ichdkruba; oi ra^ht 
(sweepings when swept up) ; in (hahdr 
tula yak jd zdHda (these four pups are of 
one litter) ; az shikam-i awal-and (they 
are the first litter). _ i 

Litter, to, chird in utdq ra shuluq katdi? ; 
in shuluq-kdri-hd chist? (what a litter you 
have made!). \ 

Little, andak; kam ; qalil ; (adjs. ; ; for 
quantity): yak kam-i (or yak khurda\ bi- 
dih, ziydd nami-khivdham : khurd;\ or 
kuchak (small in size) ; kutdh (short) ; 
andak-i ; or qadr-i (a httle) ; jasta psta 
rdh raftan (of a child just learning to 
walk) ; jasta jasta harf z. (of a child, or of 
a learner of a foreign language) ; hm 
kam; khurda khurda (little by little); ywr 
kam; or khayli kam (too or very little),; 

I There are in a tasblh 101 beads ; 99 for the attributes and 1 for the essential name of God. 
101st bead, larger than the rest, is called ahayMiak and marks the completion of the round. 





Littleness, Icuchaki (smallness) ; kutdhl short- 
ness) ; kami (deficiency) ; yia-chtzi (worth- 
lessness) ; laruj-na^arl (littleness of mind) ; 
paaii (meanness). 

Live, ztatan, rt. z% ; zinda budan; pahlu-yi 
khana-yi man mi-nishlnad (he lives close 
to me) ; in firqa bar nabatat u giyah sadd-i 
ramaq mt-kunand (they live, just subsist, 
on vegetables) ; awqat guzrdnldan or bi-sar 
burdan ; or zindagdni k. (to pass the time) ; 
tahsiUi mu'dsh k. (gain a livelihood) ; mkin 
budan ; and sukunat or manzil ddshtan (to 
dwell) ; mdndan (remain) ; tavattun k. (to 
settle) ; iqdmat n. (to stay for a time) ; 
agar id sdl-i qabl haydt ddshta bdsham — (if 
I live till next year — ) ; chand sal ast ki 
injd hasti ? 

Livelihood, cldrd bi-ruzi-i (or bakht-i khud) pa 
mi-zani?; ma'ishat; or maddr-i ma'dsh 
(means of — ) ; kafdf-i ma'dsh (sufl&ciency) ; 
rizq (daily bread from God). 

Lively, u khayli zinda-dil ast: firz (active, 
quick , in movent) : ziring (prop, active ; 
of mind or body). 

Liver, ;Vgrar; kabid: sudda-yi kabid ; varam-i 
kabid (diseases of — ) ; khush-guzrdn (one 
that is a generous, free liver). 

Liveried, nawkar-bdb (any servant in livery). 

Livid, kabud (of nails or lips of a corpse) ; 
labhd-yash az tars kabud shud; rang-ask 
yarid or — bdkhta ast (of fear ; of face 
only); zard shud (pale, etc., from sick- 
ness or from death). 

Living, hayy ; zinda ; jurnbanda (living 
thing); khurdk; or ta'dm, pi. at'ima; or 
ma^kuldt (pi. eatables) (food) ; asbdb-i 
ma'ishat (means of living). Vide Liveli- 

Lizard, susmdr or buz-dush ' (Uromastix) ; 
cJialpdsa (house lizard) ; kulpuk (chame- 
leon, q.v.). 

Lo ! bi-bin; Mi; ho^l (vulg.); inak (here it 

Load, bar ; hand (for Ar. himl) ; khar-vdr 
(ass-load) ; yak bdr-i shutur (one camel- 
load) ; kula-bdr (a man's load). 

Load, to, bar or haml (k.) (of animals and 
carts) ; bdr-i matd' k. (of a ship) ; kishti rd 
pur az mdl (or matd') kardand: zir-i bdr 
kashidan (to make to work) : pur k. (a gun 
or rifle). 

Loaded, in tufang pur ast? ; khar-hd mahmul- 
and?; jahdz az mata' bdr shuda ast: 
muntalid-yi 'izzat va ihtirdm bi-u kardand 
(he was loaded with honours). 

Load-star, sitdra-yi qutb (, q.v.). 

Loadstone, sang-i dhan-rubd; khds{8)iyyat-i 
sangi maqndtls rd^ mi-ddnid? 

Loaf, ndn-i ("a bread ") ; qurs-i nan (round, 
flat cake of bread) ; bi-ndnvd sifdrish bidih 
ruz-% si td girda-yi nan bi-dihad-^ (order the 
baker to supply daily three (flat round) 
cakes of bread). 

Loafer, vil (a bazar loafer) ; mUgard ; harza- 
gard; avdra; dar bi-dar ; kucha-gard. Vide 
Respectable, Blackguard, Vagabond. 

Loan, qarz, for money ( — dddan to lend ; and 
— giriftan " to borrow ") ; vdm (debt) (d. 
and g.) (rare) ; istiqrdz-i dawlatl {g.) (a 
Govt, loan^) : qarz^' l-hasana (a loan for a 
few days without interest ; a savdb) ; for 
things, lutf karda in kitdb rd chand ruz-i 
bi-man 'driya bi-dihid; vide Borrow. 

Loathe, to, makruh ddshtan; munfur d.; 
bizdr budan az — to be tired of, sick of). 
Vide Hate, Aversion. 

Loathing, nafrat (k.) ; istikrdh {k. ; — az); 
tanaffur {ddshtan az) ; kirdhat {ddshtan az). 

Loathingly, ba-tanaffur-i tamdm; az ru-yi 

Loathsome, karih ; makruh ; maraz-i makruh-i 
ddrad; bu-yi manfur-lst. 

Lobby, kafsh-kan (place of removing the 
shoes) ; ddldn (hall) . 

Lobe, bind-gush (or bind-yi gush) ; and 
narma-yi gush (of ear). 

Lob-sided. Vide Lop-sided. 

Lobster, maygu-yi dardz; [maygu alone is 
" prawn "]. 

Local, mahalli ; mahalliyya; kukumat-i ma- 
halliyya (local government). 

Loch, buhayra (prop, a large lake or inland 
sea; but a small loch or "tank" is so 

Lock qufi (of door) ; chakhmaq (of gun). 

Lock, to, qufl k. (with key) ; band k. ; and 
bastan (to shut) ; chift k. or — zadan (to 
bolt) ; dar ham payvastan or bi-ham digar 
chaspidan (to lock in wrestling) . 

Lockjaw, dahan-quflak ; kahak-quflak. 

Locksmith, qu/l-sdz; kiRd-sdz. 

Locomotive, lukumutif (Eur.). 

1 Supposed to suck goate. 

4 Note the ra. 

3 Gen. pronounced nuriva and nun. 

* Sanadat-i iatiqraz, '• the notes given by Government for a loan.' 





Locomotive-power, quvva-yi jarrara va har- 

Locum-tenens, qdSm maqdm ; nEHh ; ndHh 

manab. Vide Acting, Deputy. 
Locust, malahh; malakh-i misrt (a species, 

small and injurious) ; malakh-i daryd^i 

(large and less injurious) ; s^ar'"" malahh 

bard-yi Muslimin hdldl ast bidun-i dnki 

zabh bunand; agar malakh rlza bud durust 

faru mi-burd (if the locust were small, it 

(the bird) swallowed it whole). 
Lodge, to, baytuta k. (spend the night) ; 

mJdndan; imshah kujd bdyad manzil ku- 

nlm (where shall we put up ?) ; sar-i dara- 

kht mdnd (it lodged, got caught, in the 

tree) . 
Lodging, manzil {k. and d., intr. and tr.) ; jay 

{dddan, tr.) ; khdna subs.. 
Lodger, kirdya-nishin. 
Loftiness, rifat; or *uluv (of buildings, or of 

rank). Vide Pride. 
Lofty, 'dli ; or rajl' ; vide Pride ; Dawlat-i 

^aliyya-yi Irdn or ' JJamdrii (but Dawlat-i 

fakhima-yi Inglis). 
Log, kunda : tana (trunk of tree, cut or 

Logic, ' • Avicenna translated some Greek 

works on logic into Arabic ' ' {Abu Sind 

ba'zi kutub-i 'ilm-i maniiq-i Yunani rd bi- 

'Arabi tarjuma namud: istildhat-i manii- 

qiyya (terms of ). 

Logical, mantiqi. 

Logician, mantiqi; mantiq-ddn. 

Logwood, baqam. 

Loins, kamar (the whole waist) ; gurda (prop. 

kidney) ; sulb (the small of the back) ; 

az sutb-i fuldn ast (offspring of So-and-So) ; 

a^p-i kamari (horse gone in the loins). 

Vide Girded. 
Loiter, w'(Ze Linger, Delay ; chird awqdt-i khud 

rd in tawr mujt az dast ml-dihid, or bi- 

gkaflat myi' mi-kunld : In-jd bi-kdr chi mi- 

kuni ? 
Loiterer, dir-ra^s (arrives late) ; sust-kdr (lazy 

at his work). 
London, Landan (to Persians a synonym for 

Loneliness, dil-tangi (boredom, depression) ; 

tajarrud (being alone) ; bi-sahab-i tanhd^l 

vahshat 'driz-am ml-shavad. 
Lonely, dil-tang (depressed) ; bisydr vahshat- 

am girifta ast (I feel lonely) ; dur az dbddl 

(lonely) ; mrdna (desolate, of places ; or 
met. of the heart). 

Long, kucha-yi tavil or — tuMnl ; qissa-yi tavil : 
mard-i qadd-buland or mard-i dardz : ruz-i 
buland ; rish-i buland : in pdrcha chand zar' ^ 
ast?; khayli vaqt, or muddat-i madid, or 
zamdn-i dardz (a long time) : saltanat-i"^ pd- 
dishdh khayli tul na-kashid; chand ruz bi- 
'Id-i Naw-Ruz ddrim (how long is it to 
New Year's Day?); td kay (how long ?) ; 
dir-bdz ast ki urd didam or khayli vaqi ast 
ki urd na-dida am (it is long since I saw 
him) ; khuldsd-yi kaldm (the long and the 
short of it). Vide Tall, and Lamp-post. 

Long-cloth, lang-kldt (Eur.) ; yak tup chil- 
vari (for chihil vdri) (a piece, a thdn, of 

Long-faced, khushk-i muqaddas (austere- 
looking, of priests) ; sirka-ru (sour-faced). 
Vide Doleful. _ 

Longing, mushtaq (part. ) ; yiwahish ; ishti- 
ydq ; drzu (subs.) : dilshura (longing of a 
pregnant woman for sour things) ; also 
vomiting, of a pregnant woman whose 
longing is not satisfied) ; drma {?) (ditto) ; 
magar zan-i drma ddri? (said to a man 
vomiting, or to one fond of pickles, etc.). 

Longingly, mushtdqdna; harisdna. 

Longitude, tul ; daraja-yi tul. 

Longitudinally, az tul. 

Long-sighted, dur-nazar : ^dqibat-bin (met.). 

Long-suffering, iul-i tahammul (subs.) ; bd 
iahammul, or bd tdqat (adj.). Vide Pa- 
tience, and Patient. 

Long-winded, ruda-dardz ; or pur-gu (in 
speech) ; najas-i khub ddrad (in running). 

Long-wise, tub"; in rd az tul bi-bur, na az 

Look, to, nigaristan ; didan, rt. bin; nazar 
k. ; nigdh k. ; namudan intr. numd ; or bi- 
nazar dmadan; or ma'lum shudan (to 
seem) ; muvdzahat k. (look after, care for) ; 
vd-rasi or rasidagi k. ; and ghawr k. (to 
look into) ; didan ; or just u ju k. ; or 
tafahhus k. (to look out for a thing ; vide 
also 'Wait'); in utdq bar daryd sar-zan 
ast, or bar daryd mushrif ast (this room 
overlooks the sea) ; sayr ^ kardan or tamd- 
shd k. (to look at shop windows, stroll 
about a city, etc.) ; bi-guzdr bd durbin-at 
bi-binam (let me look with your glasses) ; 
khiydl-i bdrdn ddrad, or mi-khivdhad bdrdn 

1 In India t.iii and 'arz "length and breadth " for cloth, etc. 
used for cloth. 

2 But Hukumat for a Governor. 8 Vulg. aayl. 

In Pers. m.c, however, tfil is not 




bi-ydyad (it looks like rain, or I think it is 
going to rain) ; in rd hash (now just look ' 
at this). 

Look here, Injd nigdh Icun (fig. and lit.) ; 
gush ; bi-shumd hastam ( = I am speaking 
to you; poHte). 

Look out ! bi-pd ! ; hushydr bdah ! 

Look-out man, did-bdn (sentry) ; <Uda-gdh 
(place of ). 

Looking-glass, dlna or dyina; badan-numd 
(cheval glass). 

Loom, kdr-gSJi-i bdjandagi. 

Loop, halqa (2.) ; mddagl (loop, button-hole). 

Loose, shut (loose of a rope or cloth) ; laq 
(of teeth, screws, etc.) ; bandhd-yi in 
sandall shul (or sust) shuda ast ; in tandb 
rd shul kun; sa'i bi-kunid bi-binid mi- 
tavdnld in girih rd bdz kunid (try and 
see if you can untie this knot) ; fardkh ; 
or gu^hdda (of clothes) ; basta na — (of 
porridge, etc.) ; vil (of a loose end of a 
rope ; untied) ; dvikhta (hanging down) ; 
juru hishia (of loose under-lip, or of 
eyelid) ; judd shuda (of a leaf of a book) ; 
or aiordq shuda (if many leavas are loose) ; 
mi' da narm ast (of bowels, loose) ; bi-qayd 
or biparvd (in morals). 

Loose, to, Loosen, gushddan; or vd k. ; or 
bdz k. (to untie) ; shul k. (to loosen) ; 
rihd k. ; or vil k. ; or khalds k. (set free) ; 
"■ivJdnrd sust k. (to loosen the reins; lit. 
and fig.); mi' da rd narm k., or — linat 
dddun (the bowels). 

Looseness, shuli ; gushddagi , fardkhi ; laq^ 
or laq budan: bi-parvd"i (of morals) ; linat 
(of bowels). 

Lope, shiling (2.) ^ (a long high step) : qurg- 
davi k. 

Lop-sided, yak-bara; in bdr yak taraf-ash 
sangin ast ; yak-burdu rdh mi-ravad (of a 
man, horse, ship, leaning over to one side 
in moving). 
Loquacious, pMr-gfM ; vir viru (vulg.); harrdf 
(full of talk ; in good or bad sense) ; laffdz 
(talks too much ; in bad sense) ; ruda- 
dardz (sp. of garrulous old people); chil 
chit zabdn (pleasantly talkative, sp. of 
children); jafang adj. (of prattle; of 
children or fools : lassdn (fluent). 
Loquacity, rudadardzi {k.) '.garrulity ; sp. of 
old women) ; pur-gu^i {k.) ; or harrdfi, (k.); 
vir vir {k.) (vulg.) ; chil\chil zdbdni; chachuU 

zabdni (blarney; but chdchul-bdzi (gross 
flattery) . 

Lord, Khuddvand; Rabband {Our Lord \ i.e., 
God) ; Mawlana (prop, our Lord, is in 
m.c. a title of respect for a learned man) ; 
vide God, Master, Husband: amir, pi. 
umard'' (opposed to faqir, fuqard) ; Jdiwss, 
pi. khavdss (opposed to 'dmm, pi. 'avdmm). 

Lordship, Hazrat-i 'Ali. 

Lose, to, gum k. and sh. ; or mafqud sh. [also 
to be missing; but mafqud k. to make 
to vanish] ; zd%' k. or sh. (gen. ; to des- 
troy, waste); zarar k. or rasdnidan, tr., 
and — rasidan, intr. ; and nuqsdn k., tr., 
or ydjtan, intr. ; or Id dddan, tr. and vulg. 
or khasdrdt k. , or — kashidan (of money ; 
lost in trade or gambling) ; fawt k. and sh. 
(of time) ; bar bdd dddan; or talaf k. (to 
squander) ; bdkhtan (in games) ; chdqu^i 
ki bi-shumd dddam muvdzib bdshid gum- 
ash na-kunid: khud-ash rd gum kard (he 
lost his head) ; kund rajtan (of watch) ; 
talaj sh. (to be lost, of men in battle); 
shikast yd f tan (be defeated, lose in battle, 
or in games) ; fur sat az dast dddan or — 
fawt k. (of time, opportunity); 'indn-i 
ikhtiydr-ash az dast raft (he lost control of 
himself) ; jdn-ash az dast raft (he lost his 
life) ; az jd birun raft (he lost his t-emper, 
or got upset). 

Loss, khasdrat ; or zarar; or nuqsdn (to 
property or life) ; talaf, pi. talafdt (of life ; 
in battle, etc.) ; mutahayyir sh. (to be at 
a loss) ; dast-pdcJui sh. (ditto). 

Lost, bar bdd shuda : or zd%' shuda (wasted) ; 
gum shuda-yi dast-az-vay-shusta-i (a thing 
hopelessly lost) ; vaqt-i ki az shahr bar mi- 
gasht rdh rd gum kard. 

Lot, "Lot was rescued from the city that 
wrought filthiness ' ' {KhudJd Lut rd az 
shahr-i hhahisdn najdt dud). 

Lot, qur'a (anddkhtan) ; hissa (share) ; qismat, 
etc. (destiny, q. v.) ; u dMa ast (local ?) (he 
is a bad lot, not respectable); ba'd nd- 
chdr shuda tan bi-qazd mi-dihad (she will 
then be forced to put up with her lot) ; 
Uit (Eur.) ; in Idt-i chdhi si ' mdrka ' ddrad 
(this lot of tea has three distinctive 
marks) ; dar hardj-i imruz panj qalam 
chizhd kharidam (I bought five lots at to- 
day's auction). 

1 Look in a figurative sense. 

2 Shiling-takhta is some wrestling term ; also frisking about. 




Lote, sidr ^ (the lote-tree ; the juice of the 
soaked leaves of which is sprinkled on a 
corpse). Vide Jujube. 

Lotus, laylu par ; nllufar. VideJjily. 

Loud, huland; huland-avaz (loud-voiced) ; 
jahr (rare) ; ghawgMH (noisy, clamorous) ; 
pur shdt u shut (of quarrelsome or noisy 
women) ; khud-farush. 

Loudness, hhud-numdS (of dress; self-adver- 

Lounge, to, lui raftan (vulg.) ; tamhall k. ; 
vd lamidan (to loll or recline on a sofa, 

Lounger, khurdan u Tchwdhidan kdr-ash ast 
(he is a lounger) ; Bu-hhur u bu^khwab kdr-i 
man ast .'. Khudu nigah-ddr-i man ast 
(saying of the lazy). 

Louse, shipish ; rishk (nit) ; shipish-i zuhar 
(crab-louse) ; sin, sen or sina (a plant 
louse that destroys crops) ; khar-i khaki 

Lousy, shipishu (of men) ; pur az shipish (of 

Lout, rustd (lit. villager) ; rustd-vdr (loutish) ; 
dabang-guz (vulg). 

Love, Love, to, 'ishq (ardent love, between 
the sexes or for God) ; mahabbat (gen. 
affection) ; mihr (parental ; also God's 
love for man) ; 'alaqa (sp. of parents for 
children and vice versa) ; u murd az dil u 
jdn mi-hhwdst — Prof. S. T. (he loved me 
dearly); muddat-i madid-i bar lu 'dshiq 
shuda am. ^ va dar in zindagi murda am — 
Prof. S. T. (it is now a long time since I 
first fell in love with you and died a living 
death); yak dil na, hazdr dil 'dshiq-i u 
shuda ast (she has fallen madly in love 
with him) ; 'dshiq shudan bi — or bar — (to 
fall in love with) ; giriftdr-i mahabbat-i u 
ast (ditto) ; dil-bastagl dashtan (gen.) ; ham 
digar rd dust bi-ddrid (love each other) ; 
az bimdr shudan khush-ash mi-dyad (he 
loves being sick) ; saldm-i Lur^ {or saldm-i 
rustd^i) bi-tama' nist ( = cup-board love) ; 
hubb-i dunyd (love of the world). Vide 

Love-lorn, hijrdn-zada (separated); mahjur- 
shuda (forsaken, love-lorn). 

Love-philtre. Vide Restless. 

Lover, Love-sick, giriftdr-i faldn; maraz-i 

'ishq ddrad; kirm-i 'ishq ddrad (vulg.; 
kirm = microbe) ; majnun. 

Lover, 'dshiq, pi. 'ushshdq (lover; generally 
the man); ma'shuqa; or mahbuba* (be- 
loved, the woman) ; in mard u zan 'dshiq 
u ma'shuq-and (not ma'shuqa); 'aysh- 
talab ; or 'aysh-dust (lover of pleasure); 
/asig (paramour, q. v.; unlawful); sift-zan 
vulg. (ditto). 

Loving, mihr-bdn (of superiors) ; pur-Hshq 
(amorous) : mushfiq (indulgent) . 

Low, rani; or dun-tabi'at; u mardaka-yi 
pastfitrat-V St : past (in height or in origin, 
etc.) ; bdzdri (of people or words) ; or 
dani-tab' (of people) ; puch (worthless, 
gen.) ; u bi-qimat-i ndzil (or arzdn) mi- 
farushad; nisf-i bahd (at half its value); 
zamin-i past; bi-sadd-yi past or — kuchak 
(in a low voice ; also yavdsh or dhista, 

Low-bred, past ; bad-asl ; razil ; az sinf-i jarr- 

Lower, to, sar-d-ztr k. ; furu — or zir k. 
(from a height); arzdn — or ndzil k. (of 
prices) ; in sail (or dalv) rd dar chdh pdyin 
bi-kun : kam k. (of quantity) ; khwdbdni- 
dan or pd^in kashidan (of a flag, standard, 
etc.) ; 'dr-am mi-dyad ki bi-u harf bi-zanam 
(I lower myself by speaking to him) ; in 
mujib-i kasr-i man mi-shavad (this will 
lower me in people's eyes) ; az hisdb-ash 
kdsta bdqi pul-ash rd dddam (I lowered, 
cut his bill down, and then paid him). 
Vide to Humble. 

Lowering, tiragi, subs, (of clouds) ; havd pur 
az abr-i tira va tdrik shud. 

Lowest, past-tarin (gen.) ; adna-tarin (double 
superlative ; of people) . 

Lowing, khuvdr, Ar. {k.) (rare) ; sadd {k.) 
(common, of cattle). 

Low-land, zamin-i past. 

Lowliness, farH-tani ; khdk-sdri ; inkisdri ; 
khushu' u khuzu' ; tavdzw ; u bisydr kucha- 
ki or shikasta-nafsl izhdr mi-kunad. 

Lowly, faru-tan or uftdda ; burd-bdr (meek) ; 
miskin ; or mazlum (humble, quiet). 

Lowness, pasti (gen.) ; siflagi (of a man's 
nature) ; narmi ; or dhistagi (of voice). 
Vide Meanness and Cheapness. 

Low-spirited, dil-tang ; or malul ; or pur- 

1 There is a tree of this kind in Paradise, a boundary mark that no creature may pass. 

2 Or haatam. 

8 The Lvrs are noted for greed. 
4 Mahbub, masc. "loved." 




malal; dil-murda; or dil-afsurda (from 
sorrow, or naturally). 

Loyal, jdn-nisar (devoted); mukhlie ; vafa- 
ddr ; namak-shinds or— haldl{oi servants) ; 
fidd'-l. Vide Obedient. 

Loyalty, jdn-nisdri ; ikhlds ; vafd-ddrT. Vide 

Lozenge, lawz (the sweetmeat, and also any- 
thing in its shape) ; In pdrcJia rd lawzl 
dujchla ast (this cloth is quilted). 

Lucerne, yunja (sp. fresh) ; shajtal and si- 

Lucid, rawsfian ; or vdzih (for style) ; 
munir ; or rawshan (for stars) ; vaqt-i ki 
hush-ash durvst bud (during a lucid inter- 

Lucifer, kibrit (match); Zuhra (Venus; the 
morning star); Iblts; ov Shaytjdn (Ssitan). 

Luck, nik-bakkti; or sabz-bakhti ; or iqbdl ; 
or khush-naslbl (good luck) ; bakht-am rd 
basta and (my luck is gone) ; bad-bakhtl ; 
or nuhusat; or bakht-i shum (bad-luck); 
^W (the star) ; taqdir (Fate) ; or qismat 
(portion) ; bahht (luck, good or bad) ; nas^ 
(portion ; naslb sh. (to fall to one's luck, 

Luckily, bi-ydri-yi bakht; bakht ydri karda; 
az khushrtdli'i. 

Luckless, badrbakht; or bad-nasib ; or bad- 
taW ; or bi-nasib ; but kam-bakht (a term 
of abuse = wretched). Vide Unlucky. 

Lucky, ruz-i ta'yin-i sd'at-i nik karda az dnjd 
harakat kardim — Prof. S. T. (one day we 
started at the fixed lucky moment) ; zahl 
sa'ddatri man ki dar khidmat-i shumd mi- 
bdsham (I'm indeed lucky to be with 
you) ; barra-yi du mddar (lit. a lamb with 
two mothers, i.e., one that gets a double 
quantity of milk). 

Lucrative, sud-mand; ndfi,' ; bd manfa'at. 

Lucre, jifa-yi dunyd (filthy lucre). 

Ludicrous, khanda-ddr ; muzhik; khanda- 
dvar or khanda-khiz (causing laughter; in 
a good or bad sense ; bd'is-i istihzd'^ (cause 
of ridicule) . 

Ludicrously, puUi ki bi-man dddand qabiUi 
istiJizd ast (a ludicrously small sum) . 

Luggage, 6%na ; asbdb ; sdmdn; rakhi-isafar 
(personal luggage) ; bar (luggage or loads ; 
but bar u buna personal luggage) ; khurda- 
riz; or khir u fir; or khirt u pirt (small 
packages, odds and ends, things not neces- 
sary ; also lumber, q.v.). 

Lukewarm, shlr-garm or ntm-garm; malUl; 
rui garm na sard; khayli bd dnhd garm 
nist (he's lukewarm in his attachment to 
that party). 

Lull, to, Idld^l karda khiodbdnldan (lull an 
infant to sleep) ; sdkit sh. or khtpdbidan 
(of storm). 

Lullaby, Idld^i {khwdndan or k.). 

Lumbago, dard-i kamar. 

Lumber, asbdb-i bt-kdra; khir u fir. {Vide 
Luggage). _ 

Lumber, to, in asbdb-i bi-kdra tamJdmri tUaq 
rd girifta ast. 

Luminous, rusJuin (lighted ; also adj. of day- 
light) ; darakhshdn ; and daraJ^handa (of 
sun, etc., gems, metals); munir (of sun); 
and tdbdn giving heat and light ; of sun, 
fire) ; nurdnl (of heavenly bodies) ; mu- 
nawar (illuminated) ; rang-i lammd' (lumi- 
nous paint). 

Lump> tikka (small piece) ; luk (a little swell- 
ing) ; radd-i nish (insect bite) ; bar-dma- 
dagi (any protuberance) ; yak-jd (in a 

Lunacy, junun. Vide Madness. 

Lunar, qamari. 

Lunar caustic, qalam-i jaJiannam (in sticks) ; 
jawhar-i nuqra (nitrate of silver). 

Lunatic, majnun, pi, majdnin ; vide Mad; 
ddr'^H-majdmn ( — asylum). 

Lunch, 'asrdna {sarf k.) (about 2 o'clock). 

Lungs, shush; ri^ah (rare); zat'^^Uri^ah (in- 
flammation of the lungs. Vide Pneumo- 

Lure, iabla, P. ; baftara (in Basra and Bagh- 
dad) ; \milu)d^ih (in Koweit and in Bah- 
reyn Is.] ; china (a grain bait for birds) ; 
tu'ma (a live bait); mvJld^ (a bird when 
a live bait for a hawk). Vide Bait. 

Lurk, panhan s?i., intr. (to hide) ; kamin k., 
intr. (to lie in wait ; qd^m sh.). 

Lurking-place, kamin-gdh. 

Luscious, laziz; Ichush-maza; pur ab u bd 
lizzat (juicy and luscious). 

Lust, shahvat ; havd-yi nafsdni ; masti. 

Lust, to, hirs varzidan (to lust after). 

Lustful, shahvat- parast; or pur-shahvat; or 
shahvati: harts (covetous). 

Lustfully, shahvatdna; bd nigdh-i shahvat 
nigaristan (to look lustfully at a woman). 

Lustration, tathir {k. or d.) (relig. ; of any 
portion or the whole of the body) ; taghsil 

1 MuUa, P. ; corrup. of Ar. tnilwah, a decoy-bird ; em owl used as a decoy-bird, etc. 




{k. or d.) (relig. ; of the whole body ; also 
for dead bodies). 

Lustre, -jalva ; or raumaq (of things) ; 
darakhshandagi (of gems, the sun, etc.) ; 
barrdqi (of silk); db (the "water," of a 
jewel) ; jar or chihil-chirdgh (a crystal 
chandelier) ; and qalam (a ' drop ' of the 

Lusty, vide Strong; mard-i gardan kuluft-i 
pur-shahvat-i ast ; fil-i mangus.^ 

Lute, 'ud (Arabian) ; rubdb {z.) ; barbat (Per- 
sian). Vide Lyre. 

Lutist, 'ud-zan; rubab-zan. 

Luxuriance, jart ; or kasrat (abundance) ; 
ijrdt (excess). 

Luxuriant, vafir ; fardvdn (abundant) ; am- 
buh (thick; of foliage). 

Luxurious, 'ayydsh (in a bad sense) ; khush- 
guzardn (in a good sense) ; zan-sifat (effi- 
minate) ; tan-parast (selfish and luxurious) ; 
'aysh-talab (seeking after pleasure; in 
good or bad sense). 

Luxury, *aysh u 'ishrat; khush-guzardm ; 
'ayydshi (in a bad sense; profligacy) ; 
zaruriyydt va ghayr-i zaruriyydt (neces- 
saries and ordinary luxuries of life) ; asbdb-i 
tajammul, or tajammuldt (dress, carriages, 
and all luxuries' for show). 

Lying, pur-darugh; or kdzib, adj. (of 
people): darugk, adj. (gen.); kazzdb, adj. 
(intensive; of people); kizbdmiz, ad], (of 
words); darugltgu^l ; and kazzdbi, subs. 

Lying-in, dard-i zih (pains of) ; vaqt-i zd^idan 
(time of ; of a woman) ; manz-khdna-yi 
bachclia-zd% (a lying-in hospital) ; chilla 
(the 40 days after birth, during which the 
woman does not leave the chamber). 

Lying in ambush, kamln-nishinl. Vide Am- 

Lymph, mddda-yi dbila (for vaccination). 

Lynx, siydh-gush; hudhud-chashm'^ (lynx- 
eyed; lit. hoopoe-eyed). 

Lyre, barbat [miz'har, Ar., not used in m.c.]. 


Macadamize, to, sang-farsh k. 
Macadamized, rdh-i sang-farsh; rdh-i shusa 
(Fr. ; mac. road). 

Mace, basbdsa (spice) ; gurz (battle) ; chumdq 
(official mace; also a thick walking stick). 

Mace-bearer, chumdq- ddr (with mace) ; 
yasdvul (precedes procession, carrying a 
mace, or a flag, or a spear, etc., also 
guard, q.v.). 

Macerate, to, narm k. (to Soften) ; hhisdndan 
(to steep) ; nafs kushian (to mortify the 
flesh) ; Idghar k. (to make thin). 

Machination, htla, pi. hiyal ; kayd, pi. makaHd 
(prop. pi. of makida). 

Machine, charkh (with wheels) ; charkh-i 
khayydti (sewing machine) ; in ' mdshin ' rd 
chi ml-guyand? : dast-gdh (prop. ' plant,' 
is also applied to factory machinery) ; 
manjaniq (a hand- sling; war catapidt; 
crane). [sky). 

Mackerel, dsmdn-i chifta chifta (mackerel 

Mackintosh, bdrdm. 

Macrocosm, 'dlam-i kablr (tlie universe 
exterior to man; opp. to microcosm or 
man, 'dlam-i saghir). 

Mad,'* divdna (gen.) ; majnun (sp. from love) ; 
sag-i har urd gazid or kand ( = he's mad) ; 
dirmgk-ash khushk ast; or khabt-i dimdgh 
ddrad (he's cracked) ; anj-ash Jchardb ast 
(ditto); shlfta-yi — or farlfta-yi dn dukhtar 
ast (he's madly in love with the girl) : 
vide Dog and Madman; 'aql-ash pd-sang* 
mi-barad (his wit requires make- weight). 

Madam, Madam (Fr.). 

Made, sdkhta (made; also made-up, false); 
masnu'l (artificial) ; u mard bi-khatt 
navishtan vd ddsht, or majbur bi-kdgl^az 
navishtan kard (he made me write) ; 
qalam-l sar karda (or tardsMda) shuru' 
bi-navishtan kard (he cut, made, his pen 
and then wrote) ; hdzir (ready-made ; opp. 
to farmdyishi , adj. 'to order'). Vide 

Made-up. Vide. Fabricate, Invented, False, 

Mad-house, divdna-Tchdna ; ddr"-' l-majdnm. 

Madmen, mulhidin-i majdnln (impious 
madmen. Vide Mad. 

Madness, divdnagl (gen.); shuridagi (from 
love); khabt (being cracked); junun; 
mdlikhuliyd (melancholy, madness) ; sawdd 

1 Mangus is properly the name of some place ; said to be noted for white elephants. 

2 It is believed that the hoopoe can spy springs hidden under ground. 

3 Mad people are not well treated in Persia. They are sometimes fettered and beaten by their rela- 

* When one pan of a scale is too heavy, a small stone, etc., is placed in the other to rectify the 
balance, and this is called pa-sang. 




Magazine, ambar, or ma/chzan, or khazina 
(store- place, etc.); barui-khdna (for pow- 
der) ; qur-khana (powder and weapons) ; 
jabba-khdna (for arms ; armoury) : risdla-yi 
mdhdna (monthly magazine). Vide Jour- 
nal, Periodical). 

Maggot, kirm ; kirm-khurda, or — zada (worm 
— or maggot-eaten) . Vide Meat. 

Magi,Magian,l/a7i/« ; {majus%,XT., pi. majus, 
Ar.]; {Majusiyyat, the Magian religion]; 
gabr or gawr (guebre) ; dtaah-parast (fire- 
worshipper) ; Pdrsi (sp. in India) ; Zar- 
dushti; Mugh, old P. (rare); dastur (high 
prest of — ) ; rnubid (priest of — ) ; [zunndr 
(the girdle) ; dtash-kada (fire-temple) ; 
dakhma (place where the dead are ex- 
posed ; a tower of silence ']. 

Magic,^ jddu (k.) (black) ; sihr (k.) (black or 
white); afsUn (A;.) (incantation; good or 
bad) ; sihr-i haldl (lawful magic) ; sihr-i 
haram (unlawful — ) ; sihr-i Sdmin ddrad 
(he is a skilled magician). 

Magistrate, hakim (governor) ; mufti (one 
that gives a legal opinion or fatvq) ; qdzi, 
pi. quzdt (who gives a judgment) ; zdbit 
(governor of a village). 

Magnanimous, javdn-mard; ' dli-himmat ; 

Magnanimously, az ru-yi bulandrhimmuti. 

Magnate, az 'amd^id— (pi. of 'umda), or 
ashrdf — , or a'ydn-i shahr ; yak-i az ajilla 
ast; yak-% az sar-shinds-hd-yi shahr ast 
(one of the notables, well known to sight). 

Magnet, dhan-rubd ; sang-i miqndtts. 

Magnesia, tabdshlr. 

Magnetic, miqndtisi; chashm-ash quvva-yi 
miqndtisi ddrad (her eyes have a magnetic 
attraction) ; suzan-i qutb-numd (magnetic 

Magnetism, quvva-yi miqndtisiyya ; jazabdt-i 
najsdnl (Sufi term) ; quvva-yi kashishiyya, 
or — jdzibiyya (animal magnetism). 

Magnetize, to. Vide Fascinate. 

Magnificence, jaldl; shukuh (gen.); 'azamat. 

Magnificent, jaUl ; shukuh-mand or 'pur shur 
kuh; in utdqhd khaylt 'dlVst (these rooms 
are magnificent; 'dli, prop. " high"). 

Magnificently, jaEldna; shukuhdna. 

Magnifier, zarra-bin (glass) : mddih ; buland- 
kunandd (Etoller). 

Magnify, to, buzurg k. ; madh n.; or mrui 

guftan; ortamjidn. (to extol). Vide To 
Honour, Exaggerate. 

Magnitude, 'a?iamat (greatness) ; hajm (bulk) ; 
ahammiyyat (importance); 'ammat — or 
ahammiyyat-i amr (the importance of the 
business) . 

Magpie, zdjfh'^ and zdrj^cha (the English 
magpie) ; kardjak (ditto, in Kirman). 

Mahdi, Mahdi-yi Kdzib (of all false Mahdis) ; 
Imdm-i Mahdi (the 12th Imam of 

Mahommedan. Vide Muhammedan. 

Maid, bdkira (virgin), colloquially duUitar; 
dukhtar-khdna (unmarried girl); jdriya; 
and kaniz; and kanizak; (Negress or 
Georgian slave) ; hhddima (gen. servant- 
maid or slave-girl). Vide Maid-servant. 

Maiden. Vide Maid ; mazmun-i bikr (maiden 
speech, etc.) ; fikr-i bikr (a maiden thought 
and excellent thought). 

Maidenhead, bakdrat; dost bi-tarkib-i kas-t 
zadan (to take the maidenhead of; also 
fig. to molest). 

Maidenhood, ayydm-i bakdrat. 

Maid-servant, mashshdta (a tiring-maid, sp. 
for bride ; she goes from house to house 
and is not a private servant. In some 
places, any old woman that decorates a 
bride ; also a government servant that in 
cases of rape or seduction decides whether 
the victim is or is not a virgin) ; band- 
anddz or haffa-kun (a woman that removes 
small hairs or fluff from women's faces; 
a Muslim custom). Vide Maid. 

Mail, jawshan ; zirih ; dir (for fighting) : 
" pusta " or " pusid" and ." mayV (the 
post) ; mayl-i qabl (last mail). 

Mail, to, zirih- push k. (of armour) ; bi-zari'a- 
yi mayl firistddan (to post). 

Mail, to, qapdncha k. (to 'mail' a hawk; to 
put a hawk in a ' sock '). 

Maimed, chiddq (in the hand); ndqis-^'Vuzv 
(gen.); maqt:U' "' Uyad etc. (with a Umb 
cut off). 

Maintain, to, parvardan; or parvarish k. ; 
and ndn dddan; khur u push d. (to sup- 
port); iddi'd k. (to claim); vide Assert, 
Say, Defend ; dast-gdh-i va^i'-i rd mi-gar- 
ddnad (he keeps a large establishment of 
Maintenance, vajJiri ma'dsh (in money) ; ma 

1 Called In India Manara-yi khamoaKan, or "Tower of Silence." 

* Held to be unlawful by orthodox Muslims. Vide Incantation and Charm. 

3 Zajpi is sometimes also applied, apparently incorrectly, to the chough and the crow. 




^ishat (in money) : qui (food) ; hifz (guard- 
ing) ; iqama-yi an hujjat mukal ast (the 
maintenance of that argument is impos- 
sible) . 

Maize, zurat; saqa-yi zurai (the green stem) ; 
chub-i zurat (the dry stalk). 

Majestic, ha-jaldl; ha 'azamat; ha dahdaha. 

Majestically, jaltldna ; mu' azzanidna ; shuku- 

Majesty, A' la Hazrat : Qihla-yi 'Alam or Haz- 
ratri Zill"'Udh (Your, or His, Majesty 
the Shah); 'Ulyd Hazrat (Her Majesty); 
Hazrat-i Aqdas-i Humdyuni (His Sacred 
Majesty the Shah). 

Major, ydvar^ (in Turkey A.D.C.) ; Mdjur 
or Mayzhur (in newspapers). 

Major-domo, ndzir. 

Majority, taraf-i agMah or kasrat-i drd^ (Par- 
liamentary) ; hi-haddri taklif, or hi-sinn-i 
tamyiz rasidan (to attain one's majo- 

Make (subs,), tarkih ; or sakht (gen.); rikht 
(of a man). 

Make, to, sdkhtan rt. sdz ; kardan rt. kun; 
durust kardan: hd'is shudan (to cause to 
do, be the cause of) and vd ddshtan (to 
cause, or force to do) ; man hd'is sJiuda 
urd dvurdam = man urd vd ddshtam ki hi- 
ydyad (I made him come). Firfe Create; 
hikdyat rd ru-ham anddkhtan (to make up 
a story ; of stories only) ; khud sdkhtan 
(make up, invent words). 

Makeup, for, vide Instead; tasalli-hd-yi 
shumd taddruk-i ghamri mard nam,ud (m.c. ; 
= taldfi kard). 

Makeup, to, khdya-mdli^ (k.) vulg. (making 
up to an official in any way). Vide Flat- 
ter, Toady. 

Makeup (subs.), taqlid-i lihds-i dn hdzi-gar 
(or muqallid) khuh-a (his make-up is 
good) ; dn zan vazak mi-kunad (that lady 
makes up, paints, etc.) ; ja'ba-vazak 
(makeup box). 

Maker, sdzanda (also player on a musical 
instrument). Vide Creator. 

Make-shift, bi-jihat-i kdr-guzardn, or guzardn- 
dan-i kdr ; hard-yi daf^ 'l-vaqt; bard-yi 
Hjdla-yi vaqt (temporary). 

Maladministration, su^-i intizdm ; bad-nazmi. 

Malady, nd-khusM ; maraz, pi. amrdz; hl- 
mdri ; 'illat ; dard. 

Male, nar, subs, and adj.; of animals) ; nari- 
na (adj.; of humans); zukur,^\. (subs.); 
muzakkar (adj. ; masculine) ; "in the rut- 
ting season the females flee from the 
males ' ' ; can it be that Nature has placed 
pain at the portals of love as she has at 
the portals of maternity ? [dar ayydm-i 
jujt khurdan mdda az pish-i nar dovdn 
davdn firdr mi-kunad dyd mi-shavad ki 
Qudrat, dard-l_dar dstdna-yi mahahbat ni- 
hdda hamchu dard dar dar-i ummiyyai? 
Vide Offspring. 

Malediction, du'd-yi had {k. or khwdstan) ; 
or nafrin* (k.) (to call down a curse from 
God); la'nat {k.) (from God); Id'nat-i 
Khudd bar u! ; Shi' a ' Umar rd la" not mi- 
kunad. Vide Curse. 

Malefactor, mujrim (guilty). 

Malevolence, had-khivdhi; bad-niyyati ; bad- 
andisM: 'addvat {enmity). 

Malevolent, bad-khwdh; had-niyyati; bad-an- 

Malice, kina; shutur-kinagi (rancour; for 
injury) ; bughz (a grudge) ; 'amd"^^ az ru-yi 
kina in kdr rd kard (with malice pre- 
pense) . 

Malicious, shutur kdna; kina-var or kina- 

Malign, to, tuhmat zadan (any false charge, 
also scandal) ; huhtdn z. (slander) ; badr 
ndm k. : iftird' (calumny ; any false inven- 
tion) . 

Malignancy, kina-varzi ; ' adavat-pishagi : 
shiddat (of disease). Vide Mahgnant. 

Maligner, tuhmat-zan; buhtdn-zan ;bad-gu. 

Malignant, kina-varz; or ' addvat-pisha 
(continuously) ; bad-hhwdh-i bad-i : maraz-i 
muhlik (raed.). Vide Tongue and Curse. 

Malinger, to, tamdruz^ k. ; hhud rd bi-nd- 
khushi zadan. Vide Feign, Pretend. 

Mallard, Vide Duck. 

Malleable, az zarb-i chakush imtidad yaftani 
or imtiddd-pazlr ast. 

Mallet, tukhmdq: mushta (of shoe-maker). 

Mallow, khatmi (a name also given to the 

1 A Yavar does not really correspond to a Major. A fawj is commanded by a Sartip who merely 
draws the pay and arranges the reliefs. Next is a Sarhang who occasionally looks on at a parade. A 
Yavar marches with the men and says yak, du ; or chap, laat. 

2 i.e., for a boy about 16 years when he must observe all the religious observances. If married 
before this age he can disavow the marriage. 

8 ^aya " testicle." 

* Corruption of na-afarln. 

6 Of the same measure as tajahul " to feign ignorance." 




hollyhock) ; khatmx-yi kuchak. Vide 

Mammal, hayvdn-i valud (those giving birth 
to young ; opp, to hayvan-i gi^yr-i valud 
those that lay eggs). 

Malta, Malta. 

Maltreat, to, bad-rajtan k. ha—; bad-suluH 
k. bd — ; bad pish dmdan bd — . Vide 

Mammon, mdl-parast; zar-paraat (votary 
of) ; dunyd-parasii (worship of). 

Man, ddum (gen.) ; mard (as opposed to 
zan) ; insdn (mankind q.v.) ; mardum, pi. 
(people) ; nafar (with numerals) ; shakhs, 
pi. ashkhds (person); kas (pron., person); 
muhra (a piece at chess, draughts) ; %n 
mardaka bdb-i man ast (this is the man 
for me) ; duvdl-pd or iasma-pd (a creature 
Uke Sindbad's old man; it has no bones 
in its legs; sometimes it throttles its 
victims with its ' strap-legs ' ) ; khitn ki 
fiamt-shavad, dkhir tu mardri, an kdr rd 
li-kun (there's no great harm in it; at 
least you're a man; do it). 

Man, to, fawj-i az tupchiydn-i savdra hi mi- 
tavdnand bist tup dar mayddn harakat 
dihand — (a corps of horse artillery suffi- 
cient to man 20 field guns — ) ; for " to 
man a hawk ' ' : vide to Tame. 

Manacle, dast-band: bukhav (only for feet); 
ghuLl u zanjir (chain attached to hands, 
feet, and neck) ; [kunda "a log and chain 
for the feet "] : MiaUU (handcuff). 

Manacle, to, bi-zanjir bastan. 

Manage, iddra dddan; rdh bur dan; garddn- 
dan (a business); rasidagt k. (to look 
after); ''who manages his affairs?" 
tartib-i kdr-ash rd ki ml-dihad? 

Management, nazm; tartib: tadbir ; husn-i 
tadbir (good — ) : sar-bi-rdhi-yi khdna dast-i 
khdnum ast: ajzd-yi iddra (the whole staff 
of — ) ; but ajzd-yi intizdmi (the managing 
committee): ratq u fatq-i umur ( — of 
public affairs). 

Manager, sar-kdr (in small affairs); ndzim; 
and mvhdshir ; and * manajar ' (Eur. ) ; 
khdna-ddr (good — ; in a household) ; pish- 
kdr (a head assistant or head clerk in an 
oflSce) . 

Manchuria, Manuchihar or Manch-har ; now 
generally written ManchHriyd. 

Mandate, farmdn P. ; fardmln Arabicized pi. 
(official ; prop, of kings only, but also used 
for governor) ; manshur (Royal) : far- 
jrvdyiah, pi. farmdyisliat (not official ; hukm 
pi. ahkdm; amr, pi. avdmir (gen. ; orders 

Mandible, minqdr-i bdld (upper) ; minqdr-i 
pdyin (lower). 

Mandrake, t/a6rii^, and luffdh (rare in Pers.) ; 
yabruj" s-sanam Ar. (med.) : mihr-giyd or 
mihr-giydh P. 

Mane, yal (horse's) : shtr-i ydlddr-i Afriqd^i 
bd ydUi siydh-i bisydr zakhim-i riUita va 
chashmhd-yi * darida yi khayli muhib dnjd 
hud — Shah's Diary (there was there a 
male African lion with a thick flowing 
black mane and terrible fierce eyes). 

Maned, ydUdidr. 

Mange, i khdrish (contagious)*; hakka (for 
hikka). Vide Itch. 

Manger, dkhur or dkhur ; 'alaf-ddn (vulg.). 

Mango, am (or amba) rd^ dust mi-darid? 
do you (like mangoes ?) 

Mangosteen, tnangistdn. 

Manhood, 5»7iw-t5^M'iir; bulughiat{ip{xhexty) : 
rujuliyyat. Vide Maturity and Manliness. 

Manichee, payraw-i Mdnl.* 

Manifest, dshakdrd ; huvaydd ; zdhir ; vdzih ; 
paydd ; 'iydn; nurndydn: fash (disclosed 
of secrets only). 

Manifestation, zuhur (intr. ; also appear- 
ing) ; izhdr ; ibrdz tr., huruz intr.: tajaUi 
(Sufi term). 

Manifestly, sardhaf^* ; vdzih"". 

Manifold, mutakdsir (many) ; mutanawi' (of 
many kinds). 

Manikin, mardaka (dimin. for contempt) ; 
mardak (dimin. not contemptuous). _ 

Mankind, bant naw^-l insdn ; awldd-i Adam ; 
insdn; bashar ; hayvdn-i ndtiq (reasoning 
animal, opp. to hayvdn-i sdmit or hayvdn-i 
mvilaq) ; bdyad hama kas rd dust bi-darim ; 
makhluq ("created"; includes animals 
and even inanimate things) ; 'dlamiydn 
(dwellers of the world ; humans). 

Manliness, mardanagi; mardi (bravery and 
also virile power) ; rujuliyyat ; \marduml 
is "kindness"]. Ftdc Courage, Bold- 
ness, etc.). 

Manly, marddna (brave); »»7a^t marddna 
ddrad (manly). 

' Or singular chaahm. 

2 Amongst the Indian horse-dealers khariaht is non-contagious mange. 3 Note the ra. 

* Marii, Manes, a Persian of the 3rd century A.D. ; a famous painter, and the founder of the sect of 





Manna, taranjvhin (Ar. form of P. turanga- 
bm) , and mann Ar. (obtained from a tree) ; 
sMr-khisht (used in medicine) ; gaz or gaz- 
angabin (the sweetmeat). 

Manner, toiyr (pi. atvdr " behaviour ") ; nahv ; 
tarh; tarz; vajh (pi. imjuh "causes"); 
tariq (pi. turuq ' ' ways ") ; qism (pi. aqsdm 
" kinds " ) ; jur (also " kind " ) : m tawr 
bi-man harf zad: in-chunm; or hdkazd^ 
(' ' thus " ) ; hamchumn ( ' ' thus ' ' and 
" also ") ; chi-tawr (what manner of, what 
sort?): minvdl ; vaz' (pi. awza' "affairs, 
disturbance," etc.) ; naw' (pi. anva' sorts) ; 

Mannerism, takya-yi kaldm (a cant word or 
phrase that is a mannerism). 

Mannerly, khaliq; mu'addab (adj.: of good 
manners). Vide Civil, Polite. 

Manners, dddb-i mu'nsharat (social) ; rusum 
(customs, etiquette) : akhldq; mubddi dddb 
adj. (rare)(" of prepossessing manner," in 
m.c.) husn-imu'dsharat{&jniah\e manners) : 
harakdt; tarz-i nishast u bar-khdst ; tahzib-i 
akhldq; or akhldq-i pasandida, or — niku 
dd,rad (good or refined manners) : aJchUdq-i 
bad (bad manners or bad morals) : tamjtd- 
az zan na faqat ta'dJil-i harakdt-i nd-hanjar 
ast balki mushavviq-i a'mdl-i buzurg ast 
(the approbation of women not only 
softens man's rough manners but stimu- 
lates him to noble actions). 

Mannish, mard-vash 

Manoeuvre, 'manHvar' (k.) (Eur.); harakdt-i 
nizdml (in newspapers). 

Man-of-war, jaMz-i yawgf? .• ^manvdr^ (Eur.). 

Mansion, 'imdrat-i 'dll (for private indivi- 

Man-slaughter, ddam-kushl (k.) (gen.) : qatl-i 
bi-'amd (k.) (murder). 

Man-stealer, ddam-duzd: bachcha-duzd (of 

Mantel-piece, sar-buhhdri : bdld-ujdqi (in 

Mantle, ridu or 'abd (the Arab over-mantle 
should be of pure camel-hair ; also called 
kisd^): drndnr-nanwiz (women's white 
over-sheet) : chddar 'arabi (outer loose 
garment of women, gen. blue; for out- 
door wear) ; khirqa (of dervishes) ; ydpun- 
cha (short lamb-skin mantle, buttoning 
on the shoulder farthest from the wind). 

Manual, dasii, adj. (made by hand; sent 

by hand); dastur''''l-'amal (instructions); 
risdla (pamphlet). 

Manufactory, kdr-khdnd, pi. kdr-khdnajdt. 

Manufacturer, sdni' (a small retail manufac- 
turer, such as a basket-maker, watch- 
maker, etc.); sdhib-i kdr-khdna. 

Manumission, i'tdq (law term). Vide Liber- 

Manure, zur (d.) ; quvvat (d.) ; rishva (d.) 
(also bribe) ; kiit or samdd (these words 
are also used of human ordure removed 
from the latrines by special persons 
styled guh-kash or chdh-pdk-kun, and 
spread in the roads, whence land-owners 
remove it at will.^ [etc. 

Manuscript, kitdb-i hhattx: Qur^dn-i qalarm 

Many, bisydr ; khayll ; ziydd; bas-iaz — 
(followed by pi. verb.); basd (followed by 
pi. noun); bisyar-i az — (followed by pi. 
verb); 'adid; [ma'rfilc? " few "J ; muta- 
' addld : chand ; or chi-qadr (how many ? ) ; 
in — or dn-qadr ki-; or chandin or chanddn 
— ki ; or har-qadr (as many as) ; du-chand ; 
or muzid'^ af ; or du-muqdbil ; or du barabar 
(twice as many, double) ; sad-chand (100 
times as many) ; zan-i ziydd-i du chJdr-i md 
shudand (we met a lot of women) ; qatra 
qatra jam* gardad, vungdh-l daryd shavad 
(many a mickle makes a muckle, many 
drops a flood). 

Map, naqsha: khartta (prop, a roll of paper). 

Map, to, naqsha kashidan: — naqsha bar- 
dashtan (to copy a — ). 

Marauder, tdrdj-gar; chapaw-kun: dar pay-i 
shikar ("marauding," of animals). 

Marble, farsh-i in khdna az marmar ast ( — has 
a marble floor). 

March, March, to, kuch (k. intr.) ; ilghdr {k. 
intr.) (forced march; m<^eRaid) ; kuchdni- 
dan ; and harakat dddan ; and kuch dddan 
(tr.). Vide Walk: Mdrsh (Eur. the 

Marching, kuch: 'ubur; and murur (passing, 

Mare, mddiydn; mddiydn-i kurra-ddr (with 
foal at foot) ; mddiydn-i kurra girijtan 
(brood-mare) ; kaf-i /lavd pay da, karda, or 
tuhhm-i 'anqd^ paydd karda or pd-yi mar 
dida ( = to find a mare's nest). 

Margin, hdshiya (pi. havdshl of books) ; dam ; 
lab ; kindr ; kirdn : daman (skirt of moun- 
tain) ; hadd, pi. hudud (boundary). 

1 IAS^A. 2 The Zardushtis use ashes, not water in the latrines. 

S Indians say " an elephant's egg. ' ' 




Marginal, jadval (marginal lines in borders 
of books ; also any parallel lines ; rivulet). 

Marigold, gul-i jafan. Vide Parsley. 

Marine, bahri; darya^l: Vazir-i Bahriyya 
(Minister of Marine). 

Mariner, kishti-bdn ; mallak ; jdshu ; [but 
imshu ' a long narrow boatj. 

Marionettes. Vide Punch, 

Marjoram, gul-par^ (Persian marjoram, used 
in the kitchen) : puna (essence ; used in 

Mark, Mark. 

Mark, nishdn {k.); 'aldmat {k. or n.) ; asar, 
pi. dscir (guzdshtan) ; vide Brand : bi- 
nishdn khurdan, intr., and bi-nishdnz, tr. 
(to hit the mark) ; ttr bi-sang khurdan (to 
miss the mark, oiE bullets or arrows). Vide 
Heed, Give ear to. 

Marked, nishdn-zada or — guzdshta; hdld 
nazr karda-yi Dawlat shuda ast {''he is a 
marked man " ; in good sense ; gdv-i 
safid jnshdni (conspicuous, q.v.). 

Market, bdzdr (any street with shops) ; 
chdr-su or chdr-suq (a cross street) ; may- 
ddn (a large open market) ; nakhkhds (for 
slaves or cattle) ; bdzdr-i bazzdzdn (of cloth 
merchants) : bdzdr-i sabzi-farush (vege- 
table market) ; bdzdr-i 'dmm (the Indian 
meZa or fair). Vide Share; ru-yi mayddn 
raftam ^ (I went to the market) : dar atrdf 
bildd-l hast ki mdl-i tijdrat bi-masraf mi- 
rasad (it has several markets for — ). 

Market-price, nirkh-i bdzdr (market-rate) ; . 
qimat-i muta'drif (current, ordinary rate). 

Marskman, nishdnoryi khub darad, or ttr-zan-i 
khub-Vst (he's a good shot) ; dar nishdna- 
zani az aqrdn mumtdz ast. 

Marmot, mush-i Sultdniyya. 

Marmora, Daryd-yi Marmara. 

Marriage, nikdh {k.) (a lawful marriage) ; 
'arusl {k.) (gen.); muVa (k.) (temporary 
marriage; lawful amongst Shi'as; by 
Persians called also si tjAa* ; majlis-i 'aqd 
or — nikdh (the ceremony) ; khwdstgdrl {k.) 
(to demand in marriage ; propose for the 
hand of) ; bi-zani dddan (to give in marri- 
age) ; shawhar dddan ; (ditto) ; dukhtar rd 

shawhar dadand. Vide also Contract and 

Marriageable, pa bar bakht (local ?) (of a 
marriageable age) ; bdli(jh , masc. ; and 
bdliglya, fem. (of the age of puberty) : 6*- 
hadd-i nikdh rasida. 

Married, zan-burda or ddrridd-shuda ; or 
muta^ahhil (sh.) (of man) ; shawhar-ddr or 
* arusi- shuda (of woman) ; but ' arus shuda 
" decorated as, or like a bride ") : mankuha 
(of woman; married by nikdh). 

Marrow, maghz-i listukhipdn (gen.) : maghp-i 
qalam (of shank ; eatable) ; hardm-magAz 
(of backbone ; not eaten) : Ivbb (gen. used 
for the best of anything). Vide Prime. 

Marry, to, 'arust k. (gen.) : nikdh k. ; zan k. 
or — giriftan, tr. (of man) ; shawhar k. or 
— giriftan, tr. (of woman) ; zan ikhtiydr k., 
etc. ; 'arus-shndan, intr. (of women) ; 
ddmdd shudan, intr. (of men) ; khwdst- 
gdrl k. (to ask in marriage by parents) ; 
hd Fvidn 'aqdri nikdh bastan, or bd Fuldn 
sigia jdri k. (of Qazi) : but pidar pisar- 
ash rd bd Fuldn 'aqd bast. 

Marrying, muzdvajat. 

Mars (planet), Mirrikh (or Bahrdm) khun- 
dshdm-i Falak ast (Mare is the warrior of 
the sky). 

Marseilles, Mdrsil : MarsaUi Frdnsa, m.c. 

Marsh, mashlla (lagoon, q.v.) ; murddb (any 
stagnant water) ; bdtlaq, T., or khildb 
(a bog) : lajan-zdr (black mud). Vide 

Marshal, marshal (Fr.). 

Marshal, to, saff-drd'^i k. 

Marshalled, saff-drdsta; murattab. 

Marshmallow, khatmt-yi khabbdza. Vide 
Mallow and Hollyhock. 

Marshalling, saff-bandi; saff-drd'i; iarttb- 

Marten, dala and dalak (Pine Marten; the 
skin is confounded with that of a desert- 

Martin. Vide Swallow. 

Martingale, ta'llml^ (also means a thin 
' swagger-cane ' ) : sina-band (breast- plate). 

Martyr, shahld^^ pi. shuhaddt; hushtoryi 

1 In Bengal called n3*o. s Oulpar is used by druggists in the adulteration of safTron. 

8 Here a Persian would not say bi-maydan raftam, which might mean bi-jang raftam. 

* The term algha is also applied to the temporary wife; zan-i 'agdi is permanent wife as opposed to 
zan-i a%gha*%. 

^ In India zer-band. 

8 Shahid lit. '• present as a witness." It means aU that the English word means and more. It is 
specially applied to one slain in, or on the way to, a religious war, etc., or to one slain vinjustly ; also 
figuratively to one who dies in a manner that excites sympathy — by any sudden death, assassination, 
or by plague if he does not flee from it. 




rah-i Khuda : " nana-ghariham^'' k. (to 
pose as a martyr). 

Martyrdom, shahddat: [M ash-had, \\t. "Place 
of Martyrdom ' ' ; vide Meshed] ; mahall-i 
shahddat (place of — ) : shahddat ydftan 
(to suffer — ). 

Marvel, 'ujuba (for u'juba) Tchayli 'ujuba (or 
antika) ast (he's a perfect marvel) ; ' a^a*- 
i6» 'l-makhluqdt ("the marvels of crea- 
tion"; also the name of a book, the 
' ' World of Wonders " ) . Vide Miracle. 

Marvellous, 'ajib ['ajdHb, pi. of 'ajiba]; 
glaanb {ghardHb, pi. of gMnbd]; khdriq-i 
'ddat (supernatural); nazar-ash kimiyd 'st 
(he has marvellous sight) : hayrat-angiz. 

Mary, "Mary was the mother of Jesus" 
Maryam madar-i Hazrat-i 'Isq ast, or bud). 
Vide Jesus and Jews. 

Masculine, muzakkar ; dn zan mard-sifat ast 
(she is a masculine woman; or she has 
fine manly qualities ; but mard-mdnand ast 
only means ' ' she is a masculine woman " ). 

Mash, to, lih kardan. 

Mask, dlv-chihra (the toy) : niqdb (veil; exe- 
cutioner's veil or mask). 

Mason. Vide Stone-cutter and Freemason. 

Masonry, mi'mdn; or bannd^l (the trade 
of a mason) ; djur-kdn (burnt brick- work) : 
sang-kdn (stone- work). 

Masquerade, bi-libds-i — dar dmadan ; tab- 
dil-i libds n. 

Mass, Quddds (Syr.) : tuda (heap ; also 
mass) . 

Massacre, qatl-i, 'dmm (w); kushtdr (k.). 

Massive, zakhim. 

Massiveness, zakhdmat. 

Mast (of a ship), tzr; dagal ; dtrak (also pole 
of a tent) : darahht-i jahdz. 

Masted, dagal-ddr : kishtl-yi si-dagalt (three- 

Master, a^a or dqd (owner, etc.) ; mu'allim 
(teacher) ; ustdd (teacher ; also a past- 
master, skilled); dghd-yi shumd tashrlf 
ddrad (is your master at home?) ; sahib; 
and mdlik (owner) ; dichund (master of a 
school or a small preacher, vide Teacher) ; 
mulld-maktabt (a pedant, q.v.) ; ustddri 
kdr-ash ast, or dar fuldn kdr dast-i kdmil-l 
ddrad = yad-i tula ddrad (he is master of 
his subject) ; ustddl bar u khatm ast (he is 
a perfect master of this) : bi-zabar-dast-l 
bar-khurd (he has met his master). 
Master, to, ghdlib dmadan (to conquer) ; 
dast ydftan (to conquer ; also to master a 

Mastership, riyasat (headship) ; dqd^i (ditto, 
vulg.); istlld; bartari (mastery, q.v.). 

Master-stroke, 'ayn-ustddi: ustddi-yi kdmil. 

Mastery, tasallut ; or dast-i kdmil ; dar davd- 
sdzl tasallut ddrad : tasallut bar kas-i ydf- 
tan (to obtain mastery over). Vide 

Masticable, bdb-i danddn. 

Masticate, Mastication, jamdan; javldan-ash 
mushkil ast — bdb-i danddn nist. 

MdiSiic, mastaki : mastaki-yi ruml (best kind). 

Masterbation, jalq zadan ; mushtu kardan, 
vulg. : musht-zani k. 

Mat, buriyd ; or hasir (of reed or date-palm 
leaves) : pd-push, or kafsh-pdk-kun (door- 

Mat, to, buriyd, etc., bdftan (to weave): 
hasir, etc., anddkhtan or — farsh kardan (to 
mat a floor). 

Match, kibrit (lucifer) ; kibrit-i rasml (com- 
mon Persian match) ; kibrlt-i farangl (Eur. 
match); skam'cha (wax match); mahtdbl 
(slow-match) ; harif (equal) ; zawj ; and 
juft; and ling (of a pair). 

Match, to, mutdbiq sh, and k. (of things) ; 
juit dvardan (of things in pairs). 

Matchless, bi-nazlr ; bi-'adll; bl-misl; bl- 
mdnand : hi-hamtd. 

Matchlock, tufang-i fatilaH : [chakhmdq, flint- 

Matchlock-man, tufang-chl. 

Mate, najjdr va shdgird-ash rd sada zan (or 
bi-gu bi-ydyand) (call the carpenter and 
his mate) ; juft (of a pair) ; mdt (in chesf;) : 
kish or kisht "check") zich (?) (stale- 

Mate, juft sh. (to mate and also to copulate, 
of beasts or birds). Vide To pair. 

Material, Materials, masdlih (for making 
things) ; qumdsh, pi. aqmisha (gen. of 
cloth) ; mdddl or jismdni (adj. of the body ; 
opp. to ruhdni "spiritual"); in pdrcha 
az chi jins (or qumdsh) ast ? : lavdzim 
(necessaries for) ; sdmdn-i jang, or asbdb-i 
jang ( — of war) : 'umda (important, essen- 

Materialism, mazhab"'l-mdddiyyin (the doc- 

Materialists, mdddi, pi. mdddiyyin (who hold 

the doctrine). 
Materiality. Vide Materialism. 
Materia-medica, kitdb^'l-adviyah : qarabddln. 
Maternal, mddari; az taraf-i mddar (of 
relationship) : [khdla ' ' maternal aunt ' ' 
and khdlu " maternal uncle "]. 




Maternally, mddar-vdr; mddardna (bke a 

Maternity, ummiyyat. 

Mathematician, muhandis (engineer) ; riyazl- 
ddn ; hisah-ddn (arithmetician) ; muhdsib 
(accountant) ; muhdsib-i sanad-ydfta (char- 
tered accountant). 

Mathematics, 'ilm-i riydzl; hindasa (geo- 
metry); *i7m-i i^tsaft (arithmetic); Uqlidus 
(Euclid) ; jabr u muqdhala (Algebra). 

Matricide, mddar-kush (adj.); rmdar-kuaht 
(the act of — ). 

Matrimony, 'arusl; izdivdj. 

Matrix, zihddn; rdhim. 

Matron, kadrbdnu (lady of the house, how- 
ever young) : ndzira (stewardess) ; mukhad- 
dara (a polite form of address) ; nanct- 
hdshl (an elderly person, generally a rela- 
tion, who manages the house). Vide. 

Matronly, hlbl-manish (in imitation of the 
mistress; said of maid-servants or little 

Matter, avir, pi. umur ; kdr (affair) ; qaziyya ; 
mu' dmala (occuTtence) ; matlab ; kayfiyyat; 
muqaddama (ditto) ; turd chi shud?, or 
vulg. chit ml-shavad, or chita ' ? (what's the 
matter with you ?) ; in khayll Idzim ast, 
bdqi naql-i nist (or matlab-l nist, or hikdyat-l 
nist) (this is necessary, the rest doesn't 
matter) ; muzdyaqa nist ; 'ayb na-ddrad ; 
chizarar ? ( = " yes, I don't mind if I do " ; 
a familiar or casual reply when refresh- 
ments are offered; for the respectful bi- 
chashm); harf-% nist, khub ; or' ayb na-ddrad, 
or zarar na-ddrad ("it doesn't matter; 
that will do"); chirk or jardhat^ ; or rim 
(rare) (pus) ; rmdda (in nature) ; jd-yi guft 
u gu ast = mahall-i shakk ast (it's a matter 
of doubt) ; kamd-hiy-yi hdldt in ast = asl 
in ast (the fact of the matter is — ) ; Mr 
bi-hadd-i rasida ast — (matters have reached 
to such a pitch that^) : dar in harf-i nist 
(as a matter of course) ; chanddn matlabi 
norbud (it was not a very important 
matter) ; Jiar jur-i ki mumkin bdshad 
(somehow, it matters not how). 

Matthew, Mattq. 

Matting. Vide Mat. 

Mattock, kulang (pick-axe) : tisha. 

Mattress, dushak (for sleeping on) ; dusJiak-i 

fanari (spring mattress) : visdda (for sit- 
ting on). 

Mature, rasida (of fruit) ; pukhta (in experi- 
ence, etc.) ; kdmil"* s-sinn (about 30 years 
of age) ; bdligA (of the age of puberty, 
i.e., about 16 or 18). Vide Age. 

Maturity, bulugi, (of persons) ; rasidagi of 
fruit or persons). 

Matutinal, bdmdddi. 

Maugre, ' alq-raghm (out of spite to — ). Vide 

Mauritania, Macjhrib. 

Maul, to, lih k. : panja z. (to claw). 

Maund (Indian) man; [the Tabriz man is 
about 7| lbs. ; the man-i shdhi is about 
double. In India the maund is about 82 

Mausoleum, zarih (of Prophets or Imams) ; 
rawza (prop, of Prophets and Imams) ; 
mazdr (of saints, etc.); mazja' (rare; of 
kings and great men) ; marqad (gen. ; but 
sp. of big people) ; maqbara (of kings ; 
prop. = cemetery) ; bug* a (a spot;' where 
anything sacred has happened and which 
has been made into a residential shrine). 

Mauve, arghavdni (colour of the Judas-tree 

Maxim, pand; masal, pi., amsdl: qd'ida 

Maximum, muntqha; qimat-i a' la [opp. to 
(pmdUi adna the minimum price]. 

May, shahr-i May. 

May be, shdyad (ki) ; guyd (perhaps) ; mi- 
shavad ki — ; or mumkin ki — ; or yumkin 
ki — (possibly) ; yahtamil ki — ; or muhtamil 
ast ki — (probably) ; ma-bdd (may it not 

Mayor, hdkim ^ (of large cities) ; kaldntar (of 
a big village). 

Mayoralty, m^nsab-i hukumat : kaldntari. 

Maze, sP^alat-anddz (a mod. trans, for laby- 

Meadow, ulang* (a spacious natural grazing 
ground); margizdr (large space covered 
with grass) ; chaman, any small green plot, 
lawn) ; chard-gdh (grazing-ground). 

Meal, khurdk (food) ; drd (flour) ; bulghnr, T. 
(coarse meal) : iiA»30*and ta'dm (repast). 

Mean, miydna ; and mutavassit (medium) : 
khcisis (mean) ; and mumsik (miserly) ; or 
kinis (vulg.) (in money matters, etc.) ; 

1 Chita, vulg., for chi-at aatf 

4 JaraJ^at, lit. " wound *' but in m.c. " pus." 

8 The Shah uses the term hakim for the Lord Mayor of London. 

♦ Corruption of mahaU-i lang-i iiba (for oba, T., "a tent, a transportable cabin "). 




past ; or faru-mdya ; or ra^l ; or kamlna 
(in origin); jtuch; and vil (vulg.) (of ac- 
tions and persons). 

Mean, Mean, to, qasd k. (to intend, pur- 
pose); ma'm ddshtan (to denote); daldlat 
k. {of. the application of a word ; to imply) 
ya'ni hi-kushi-ash ' ? (then you mean to 
kill him ?) ; man naml-jahmam ; ya'ni chi? 
(I don't understand what you mean) ; 
lajz-i (or ma'nl-yi) chdpdr Hhdrat ast az 
Inki dar har manzil asp 'ivaz nii-kunand : 
az in jur harakdt matlab-at chist (what do 
you mean by such behaviour ?). 

Meander, pichidan» 

Meaning, gusha-ddr or ma'm-ddr, adj. (with 
hidden meaning); ma'nl; and matlab, 
subs, (signification) ; maqsad, pi. maqdsid, 
or murdd or matlab; or maqsud (object, 
q.v.) : fahvq (signification, import, q.v.). 

Meaningless, bi-ma'm ; la^hv. 

Meaningly, hd-maqsad; ha qasd (also = pur- 
posely) : pur-ma' nq. 

Meanly, khasisdna (stingily) ; hahhtldna 
(miserly) ; az ru-yi dand^at-i tab'. 

Meanness, khissat ; and khasisi (stinginess) ; 
bakhtli (miserliness) ; past-fitratl ; or sif- 
lagi; or duni; or nd-najibi (of nature). 

Means, msite; vasila,^l. vasd^il: mujib (but 
pi. muvdjib — " pay ") or sabab ; and ' illat ; 
and vajh; and bd'is (cause) : bi-chi tadhir in 
kdr rd ml-tavdmd bi-kunid (by what means 
can you accomplish this ?) : istitd'at-% yak 
juft kajsh ham na-ddram (I haven't the 
means to buy even a pair of shoes) : dar 
sdya-yi — (by means of — ). 

Meanwhile, dar in bayn ; dar in asnu. Vide 

Measles, surkhcha; surkhak. 

Measure, to, paymudan, rt. paymd (of land, 
of grain) ; paymdyish k. (of land only) : 
zar' k (of cloth) : mxisdhat k. (of area) : 
qadd giriftan (height, of recruits, etc.); 
qadd-i sina-ash chist ? ; qadd-i in miz bi-gir 
(measure this table) : j)aymdna k. or kayl 
k. (of com) ; anddza (or vulg. angdra) 
giriftan (to take the measure; height, 
depth, etc.). 

Measure, vazna (powder measure) : vazn-i 
tarn (good measure) : ziydda az hadd; or 
bi-hadd (beyond measure) : band (tape — ) : 
gaz (yard-measure). 

Measurement, anddza (length and breadth. 

as of a room ; cubic, of a box) : paymd- 
yish (of land) : tul u 'arz-ash chi qadr asl? 

Measurer, anddza-gir ; payrmyanda : kayydl 
(of corn, etc.). 

Meat,^ in gusht kirm zada ast (the meat has 
maggots in it). 

Meat-safe. Vide Cupboard. 

Mecca, Makka or Makka-yi Mu'azzama : 
Bayt" 'l-Hardm (Temple of Mecca). 

Mechanics, 'ilm-i jarr-i asqdl. 

Medal, nishdn; marfaZ (Eur.) ; imtiydz (deco- 

Mede, Shirvdni. 

Media, Shirvdn. 

Meddle, fazuli k. (of impertinent meddling): 
muddkhala k. ; or dakhl u tasarruf k. 
(interfere) : dast zadan (to touch) ; kdr 
ddshtan (ditto). 

Meddler, Meddlesome, fazul, adj. 

Meddling, subs., fazuli (k.). 

Mediate, to, tavassut n. ; visdtat k. ; miydnji- 
gari k. Vide to Intercede. 

Mediation, visdtat, or tavassut. 

Mediator, miydn-ji: vdsita ; visaiat-kun. 
Vide Intercession. 

Medical, tibbi: [tibb, the medical art; tqhd- 
bat "the profession"]: mu'dlaja (treat- 

Medicine, davd, pi. davdjdt; (the Ar. pi. 
adviya, in m.c. gen. means "spices"): 
' ildj ; darmdn; mu'dlaja (curing). Vide 

Mediocre, mutavassit; miydna. 

Mediocrity, hadd-i vasat. 

Meditation, tafakkur (k.) ; ta^ammul {k.) ; 
ghawr {k.) : bi-'dlam-i murdqaba raftan 
(Sufi term) : hhawz {k.) (thinking deeply 
on a subject). Vide Intend. 

Mediterranean Sea, Bahr"* 'I Abyaz; Bahr-i 
Safid ; Bahr-i Rum ; Bahr-i mutavassit. 

Medium. Vide Mediocre and Means. 

Medlar, azgil. 

Meek, burdbdr ; and halim : mazlum (m.c; 
prop, "oppressed"); salim ; shikasta- 
nafs; mutavdzi' . 

Meekness, burdbdri ; hilm: shikasta-nafsi ; 
and tavdzu' ; and farutani (humility) : 
muldyamat (gentleness). 

Meet, to, muldqdt {k.) : du chdr sh. (to 
encounter unexpectedly) ; bar-khurdan 
(ditto) : urd dar rdh ydftam or didam (I 
met him accidentally) : fardd dar khdna-yi 

' Note the Pres. Subj., the full sentence would be ya'ni irada dari ki — . 

2 The Mu-slim distinction between meats that are lawful and unlawful is nearly the same as the 
Mosaic. For Muslims, however, camel's flesh is lawful. 




Maxdavi Sa'id mara muldqdt kunid: yak 
farsakh raftam htch kas rd na-dtdam: 
jf^aflat"" tu-yi kucha bi-u bar khurdam (I 
accidentally met hira in the street) : lasd- 
dum shvdan (to collide); vide Assemble: 
istiqbdl — or jnshvdH—oT pishvdzk. or jilaw 
raftan (going out some distance to meet a 
guest) ; [badraqa k. (in Kirman also kafdpd 
k.) to accompany and speed a guest on 
his way: tashyV , the Arabic for the mod. 
badraqa, is in m.c. generally used for 
accompanying a jandza. Vide Funeral]. 

Meeting, majlis, pi. majdlis ; and dnjuman 
(assembly): muldqdt: ilsdq (of rivers, 

Meeting-place, sar-dam (a secret meeting- 
place for drinking, gambling, etc.) : dakk 
or dakka (m.c.) (ditto): mVdd-gdh (ren- 

Megrim. Vide Head-ache. 

Melancholic, mdlikhuliyd''% ; sawddvi. 

Melancholy, afsurdagi ; mdlikhuliyd (sp. the 
disease) : dil-i u girifta ast. Vide Sad, 

Melodious, khush-sadd; khush-ilhdn ; khush- 
dvdz ; khush-giUu ; hhush-navd ; khush- 
dliang (of people) ; shlrln (of sounds). 

Melody, dhang (harmony); lahn, pi., alhdn: 
tardna (sweet sounds). 

Melon, garmak (an inferior kind that comes 
in season about 1st July) ; kharbuza (bet- 
ter variety a month later) ; hinduvdna 
(water-melon) ; kharbuza-yi gur-gdbi (a 
large, good variety) ; fdliz or pdUz (melon- 

Melt, guddkhtan, rt. gttddz (tr. and intr. ; of 
snow, wax, fat); db k. (of metals) ; hall k. 
(chem. ; by grinding or by acids). 

Melted, guddkhta; db-shuda; mahlul. 

Member, 'uzv, pi. a'zd (also limb); or juz*, 
pi., ajzd (of committees, etc.); aharik 
membrane (partner) ; parda (of brain, 
stomach, ear). 

Membership, 'uzviyyat; shirkat. 

Membrum virile, dla-yi tandsul; dlat-i 
mardl; Abu H-' Abbas (polite, prop, only 
for one very large) : zakar : hashafa (the 
acom) : kir (a crude word) : bul (of little 
boys: na'wgf (properly only when in erec- 

tion); ?ar6a (of bulls); faqara (joking 
term). Vide Penis. 

Memoir, savinih-i 'umri (biography); taz- 
kira (gen. in m.c. "passport"); hdldt ; 
sar-guzasht-i Jahdngxr-i ' qaymr rd mi- 
khwdnam (I am reading the memoirs of 
the Emperor Jehangir). 

Memorable, — ki gdh-l fardmush nami-ahavad, 
or ydd-aah az khdtir nami-ravad. * Vide ' 

Memorandum, In rd ydd-dasht kun : kitdbcha-yi 
ydd-ddsht (pocket-book). 

Memory, Itdfiza-yi bad-i ddram-kam-hdfizoram 
(I have a bad memory) : zikn-ash khub 
nist (vulg. ; prop. = he has not a good 
brain) : zihn or k^ir (mind) : dz ydd-am 
raft (it has escaped my memory) ; hafiza-yi 
gharrd^-% ddrad (he has a glorious mem- 

Menagerie, jdnvar-khdna (a small private — ). 

Mend, to, tarmim k., or marammat k. (gen.) : 
ta'mir k. (build or repair; of buildings, 
tanks, masonry) ; rafu k. (to darn) ; vasla 
— or 'payvand k. (to patch) : »n isldk-i 
umur na-khivdhad shvd (this won't mend 
matters) : havd ru bi-bihtarl ast (the 
weather is mending, clearing up). 

Mender, marammat-kun ; ta'mir-sdz. 

Mendicant, gadd ; jac^r, pi. juqard^; sdU; 
khdna-bi-dush (gen, for a poor dervish) ; 
mis kin (prop. "poor"). 

Mendicity, gadd^; faqiri; su^dl. 

Mending, to' m»r* (A.) (of things); isldh (k.) 
(of manners, defects in administration; 
also dressing meats with flavourings). 

Menial, past; dani; dun; sifla (mean). 
Vide Servant. 

Menses, rvd-khushx-yi zandna; hayz (sh.) ; 
bi-namdzi, or 'ddat (polite) {ddshtan) ; imruz 
az hayz fdrij^ shudam (fig.; "I've got 
out of my difficulty ' ' ; said by women 

Menstruation. Vide Menses. 

Menstruous woman, bi-namdz (polite) ; haSza 
and hdHz^. 

Mensuration, Hlm-i masdhat. 

Mental, zihnl (of the understanding; also 
of diseases); 'aqli (of sciences; also of 

' Note this izafat. In Indian and in classical Persian 
this word means " passport." 

memoirs ' ' are tazkira but in Mod. Pers. 

■^ In India " to build. 
In Arabic the masc. form is used for adjectives that can apply to females only. 




Mention, Mention, to, zikr k. ; nam burdan ; 
mazhur k. vulg. ; zikr-i jamil (favourable 
mention) ; yad-i shumd kard ' (he men- 
tioned you) ; az zan guzashta mard ham 
khayll hud (not to mention women there 
were plenty of men too) ; az fuhsh guzashta 
urd zadand = fuhsh hi-guzdr kindr, urd 
nlz zadand. 

Mentioned, mazkur : — ki zikr-i khayr-ash raft 
(previously mentioned) ; mazkura-yi hold; 
or mazhur (mentioned above). 

Mentor, laid (a head man-nurse) : ndsih ; and 
nasihat-gar (adviser). 

Mercantile, tijdratl. 

Mercenary, ajir (hired; of soldiers); puU 
dust : tammd' (covetous) ; haris (greedy of 
gain or in eating). 

Mercer, hazzdz (cloth-seller). 

Merchandise, matd' , pi. amti'a; jin^, pi. 
ajnds ; tankhwdh (wares); in jins-i tijdratl 
'st: qumdsh, pi. aqmisha (stuffs, cloths): 
tijdrat; and mu'dmala; and Md u sitad 

Merchant, tdjir, pi, tujjdr. 

Merchantman, jahdz-i tijdratl. 

Merciful, rahm-dil (of men) ; rahlm (pp. of 
God only ) : rahmdn (of God only). 

Mercifully, az ru-yi rahm; az ru-yi muruvvat. 

Merciless, hl-rahm; sang-dil; zdlim. 

Mercilessly, zdlimdna ; az ru-yi sitam. 

Mercury , zlbaq ; jlva; slmdh (rare); 'Utdnd 
(or Tlr) munshl-yi Falak ast (Mercury is 
the Secretary of the sky) : kushta-yi jlva 
(mercury at the back of mirrors). 

Mercy, rahm (gen.) ; rahmat (of God only) ; 
anmn! amdnf (Mercy, mercy!): mdl u 
jdn-i shdn dar dast-i khush-i Sultdni qah- 
hEr-l ast (their lives and properties are at 
the mercy of an arbitrary monarch) : turd 
bi-Ei'Udd bigu (tell me for mercy's sake) : 
aman — or dakhll dvardan (to cry for 

Merely, faqat: mahz (in m.c.= hardy): In 
rd guftam va has (I said this and nothing 

Meridian, khait-i nisf'^'n-nahdr (astr.) : awj 
(of anything) : dar vdsat"^^ s-samd-yi jaldlat- 
ash hud ki — (he was at the height of his 
fame when — ). 

Merit, sazdvdrt ; and liydqat (fitness) : fazl- 

lat; hhuhl; In kitdh ta'rlf-i na-ddrad (this 
book has no merit) : hunar (of persons 

Merit, to, IdHq-i (or sazavdr-i) —hudan; 
mustawjih-i (or mustahiqq-i) — hudan. 

Meriting, istihqdq {dashtan). 

Meritorious, Idyiq-i ta'rif va tawslf ; qdhil-i 
lahsln; mustahiqq-i tamjld. 

Merlin. Vide Falcon. 

Mermaid, ddam-i darydl (gen. term) : zan-i 
darydl (mermaid). 

Merry, sar-i hdlat; sar-i kayf ; hhush-hdl : In 
hulhul sar-i kayf Tor dimdgh) ast, mi- 

Merry-thought, jarMgh- Vide Philopena. 

Merv, Marv. 

Mesh, chashma-yi tur, or surdkh-i dam (of 
net) : [ddm is properly any kind of snare]. 

Meshy, mushabbak. 

Meshed, Mash-had (lit. "place of martyr- 
dom"; the tomb of Imdm'^ Rizd, the 
seventh in descent from 'All, is here). 

Mesmerize, to, jazba-yi ruhdnl k. 

Mesopotamia, Diydr-hakr. 

Mess, to, kdr-shikanl k. (said of a third 
person that cuts in and spoils a bargain) ^ ; 
kdr khardb k. 

Message, paydm ; payghdm ; rasdlat or risdlat 
(rare) ; tabllgiri payghdm k. (to deliver a 
message) . 

Messenger, firistdda (gen.); qdsid (on foot); 
paygJidm-bar (gen.) {but payghamhar 
' ' prophet " ) ; rasul (also = ' ' prophet ' ' ; 
Rasul'^'lldh, or Rasul-i Khudd = Muham 
mad); chdpdr (mounted messenger or a 
post-man). Vide Orderly. 

Messiah, Maslh * murdagdn rd ihyd ml-kard. 

Messmate, ham-sufra ; ham-kasa; ham-navdla 
(gen. of friends living together). 

Metal, mufarrigA^ (m.c. cast in metal); ma'- 
danl, pi. ma'daniyydt; filizz, pi. filizzdt. 
Vide Silver. 

Metalled. Vide Road. 

Metallic, filizzl; ma' danl. 

Metamorphosis, tabdll-i shakl (of disguise) ; 
taJbdll-i hdlat (as of butterfly from chry- 
salis) : maskh (of man into a lower form 
of animal) : tandsukh (rebirth, transmi- 
gration) . 

1 Or fihuma ra yad kard : note ra. 

2 He was killed by Ma'muw'r-Rashld. 
2 Urdu hhanjl mama. 

* Masih, lit. " anointed with the sacred oil,' 
^ Incorrect for Ar. mufragh. 

i.e. olive oil mixed with balsam. 




Metaphor, majaz (as opposed to haqiqat): 

isti'ara (the Figure) ; {tashblh similej. 
Metaphorical, majdzi. 
Metaphorically, majdzo". 
Metaphysics, 'ilm-i haqtqat (the science); 

'irfdnrbdfi (a half-contemptuous term for 

the metaphysical talk in a Persian majlis). 
Metempsychosis, tandsukh. 
Meteor, tir-i dtash-fishdm. Vide Star. 
Meteoric, tnisl-i shihdb : khush darakhshid 

vaU dawlat-i mustu'jil bud (of meteoric 

fame, etc.). 
Metheglin, sharbat-i 'asal (mead). 
Methinks, guyd ; bi-mazanna-yi man ; gumdn- 

am an ki — ; bi-khaydl-am mi-rasad ki — ; 

hamchunin 7ni-fahmam ki — . 
Method, tartq or tarlqa ; qdnun ; vaz' . 
Methodical, munazzam ; bd na^m : kdr rd bi- 

vaqt mi-kunad. 
Metonym, kindya. 
Metre, miir (Fr. measure) ; bahr or vazn (of 

verse) ; qdfiya (rhyme in poetry) ; saj' 

(rhyme in prose). 
Metrical, mawzun. 
Metropolis, pd-yi takht ; ddr" 'l-khildfa; ddr" 

Mettlesorrie, svJbuk-ruh (of horses; also of 

little birds = " sprightly ") : jdn-ddr (opp. 

to Idgjiar " thin "). 
Mew, Mews, qush-khana (hawk-mew). 
Mew, to, mn,tD-mxiw — or mn'aw ma' aw k. 

(of cats). 
Mewing, subs., miyu miyu kardan, or wmw 

m^w kardan (of cats). 
Miasma, bukhdr-i muta'afjin. 
Michael, Mikd*'%l. 
Microscope, zarra-bin; khurda-bin. 
Microcosm. Vide Macrocosm. 
Midday, nimrruz; zuhr ; nisf"^ ^n-naJidr. 
Middle, miydn; vasal; dar-dil-i shah (in the 

middle of the night; vide, Midnight); 

dar ndf-i shahr (in the middle of the city). 
Middle-aged, sinn-ash bayn bayn; ma,rd-i 

kamil"^ 's-sinn; miydna 'umr; mutavas- 

sit" U-'umr. 
Middle height, miydn-qadd; miydna-bdld. 
Middling, mutavassit ; miydna: na-khub na- 

bad (m.c.) ; bayn bayn. 
Mid-heaven, fl vasat^ ^s-samd (of sun); dar 

vasat-i dsman (of birds flying). 
Midnight, nlmr^hab ; nisj-i shah; vasat-i 

shab; duqismi-yi shabm ; dil-i sAa6 (dead 

of night). 

Midst, d/ir miydn-i — ; dar vaaal-i — ; miyd- 
na-yi — .• dar ndf-i shahr, or dar bah- 
buha-yi shahr: dar qalb-i—(ol anything); 
dar In asnd (in the meanwhile) ; dar 
miydn-i hama-yi inhd ftUdn rasid (while 
this was going on So-and-Sc arrived). 

Midsummer, chilla-yi tdbistdn ( the forty days 
of greatest heat) ; tamuz (rare ; dog-days) ; 
qahr-i garmd , 'ayn-i tdbistan. 

Midway, nhn-rdh, or nisf-i rdh. 

Midwife, mdrrvd and mdmdcha ; vaqt-i ki 
mdmdcha du id shud sar-i bachcha kaj dar 
mi-dyad (Anglice, "too many cooks"); 

Midwifery, qdbilagl {k ); mdmdcha-gari (k.). 

Midwinter, chilla-yi zamistdn (forty days of 
greatest cold); vasat-i sarma; 'ayn-i 
sarmd ; dar ghalba-yi sarmd. 

Mien, manzar (outward appearance); qavdra 
or paykara (frame) ; hay*at (general appear- 
ance in face and dress); vajh, etc. (face, 
q.v.). _ 

Might, zur (bodily); qudrat (of God) ; tdqat; 
and quvvat (bodily ; or of nations) ; bd 
hama-yi dil u jdn = bd hama-yi tavdnd^i ; 
zur, kun-i khar-i hisdb rd pdra mi-kunad 
(might ' is right). 

Mignonette, rizdda Fr. 

Migrate, to, yiyldq u qishldq k. ; sard-sir u 
garm-sir k. Vide Summer. 

Migratory, yiylag u qishldq-kun. 

Milch, gdv-i shir-dih, or gdv-i tdza zdd (a cow 
that has just given birth and will not 
therefore go dry soon). 

Mild, muldyim; or fuUim; bd tdhammul or 
mutaliammil (forebearing) ; havd mulayim 

Mildew, purmak {khurdan) ; pamp (or pampu) 
in rd zada ast (m.c. only); zangdr'^ (of 

Mildewed, purmak-zada. 

Mile, mil, pi. amydl (Eur.) ; farsakh-hd Idla- 
yi khud-ru ru^ida bud—Vvol. S.T. (for 
miles there were wild poppies growing). 
Vide Square. 

Milestone, sang-i mil. 

Military, 'askari; nizdmi ; bard-yi havd^ij-i 
lashkan (for military purposes). 

Milk, shir ; laban (rare) ; shir-i sar-shir girifia 
(skimmed) ; mast (curds) ; dujfA {mast 
is mixed with water and from this butter 
is made ; what remains is dujfh) ; bad- 

1 And also hagq ba sfuinuhir aat eaxd dast-i qudrat govt 'at. 
* Properly " verdigris." 





shn^ (said of a child suckled by a low 
nurse; hence applied to an ill-behaved 
child , also used as a term of abuse) ; '^ in 
shir dbakl'st (this milk is poor) ; kashk 
(made from curds and dried) ; Dar khana-yi 
akdhir-i Kirmdn chu hu-guzari .\ Kashk 
ast u baz kashk u dlgar kashk u bdz kashk 
.•. (a saying in derision of the poverty of 

Milk, to, dushidan; shir-giriftan. 

Milker, dushanda; shir-dush. 

Milking, shlr-dushi (k.) ; shir-girt (k.) (subs.). 

Milk-pail, dalv. 

Milk-safe, vide Larder ; shir-dviz (a cage of 
wood or rope but of one storey) ; cham- 
bara (circular, of string ; has several 
stories). Vide Larder. 

Milk-seller, shir-farush. 

Milk-tooth, danddn-i shir. 

Milky way, Khatt-i rah i Makka (vulg.) ; 

Mill, dsyd; dsyd-yi bddJi (wind-mill); dsydb 
(water-mill); dast-ds ; and dsak (hand- 

Millepede, hazdr-pd. 

Miller, dsyd-bdn. 

Millet, arzan 

Million, milyun (Eur.); du kurur.^ 

Millstone, sang-i dsiya. 

Mimic, taqUdrkun. 

Mimic, to, taqlid dar dvardan; add-yash rd 
dar dvard (he mimicked him) ; zarb girif- 
tan ; {zarb zadan ' ' to threaten and to 
multiply "] ; Irdnihd khayli muqallid and 
(the Persians are great mimics) ; maymun 
taqlid-i shumd rd dar mi-dvarad (the 
monkey is mimicking you). 

Mimosa, gul-i fitna (mimosa?). 

Minaret, marvdra or mandr* (vulg. muTMr), 
pi. marMvir; gul-dasta (a small minaret 
in the centre, over the entrance, from 
which, in Persia, the azdn is delivered). 

Mince, qima k. ; riz riz k. ; (^ma (minced 
meat) ; kujta (minced and made into 
balls ; rissoles) : tannazdna rah raftan, to 
walk mincingly). 

Mind, Mind, to, rasidagi k. and mutavajjih 

sh. (to look after) ; vide Listen, Pay atten- 
tion, etc.; pay-i kdr-at bi-raw (mind your 
own business) ; hhud-at rd bi-pd (mind 
what you do) ; in rd dar khdtir-i hhud-am 
fikr karda am or sanjida am: khub ! or 
'ayb na-ddrad (= I don't mind) ; agar (bi-) 
dnchi guft multafit shuda budid bihtar bud : 
muzdyaqa na-ddram (I don't mind) ; az 
yak digar bad-i mdn na-ydmad (we didn't 
mind each other, i.e. we rather liked each 
other, vide Like) ; ra^y-ash bar gasht (he 
changed his mind) : bi-zahmat dn kitdb rd 
bi-dihid = agar zahmat na-bdshad dn kitdb 
rd bi-dihid (would you mind giving me 
that book) : zamir (conscience) , pi. zamdHr; 
khdtir, pi, khavdtir ; and dil (the mind) ; 
qalb (heart; the organ); 'aql (intellect) 
yak-dil budan (to be of one mind) ; mayl 
ddshtan (to have a mind to) ; bi-khdtir 
dmadan (to come to one's mind). Vide 

Mind, presence of, ijtimd'-i havdss ; dast- 
pdchagi bi-khud rah na-dada ; huzur-i 
qalb (?) (means also " devout attention in 
prayer"); havdss rd ma-bdz (don't lose 
your head). Vide Intuition. 

Mindful, mas^aiiyyat-i khud rd hamisha dar 
nazar ddrad: hamisha kdr-i khud-ash rd 

Mine, wia'c?ari, pi. ma'ddin ; and kdn ; surb 
va mis rd'^ az ma* dan mi-kanand: naqb 
(underground passage). Vide My. 

Mine, to, naqb zadan (to undermine, dig a 
passage ; to dig into a house or a fort, of 
thieves, etc.) ; zir-i Ichdna khdli karda 
bdrut guzdshtand va raftand vulg. (they 
mined the house and evacuated it). 

Miner, ma'dan-chi; naqb-zan (as a thief, 
etc.) ; haffdr u naqqdb (sappers and 

Mineral, ma'(Za%t, adj. ; filizz, pi. filizzdt; and 
ma' dan, pi. ma'daniyydt, subs. *dlam-i 
jamdd/i (mineral kingdom) ; m,a'ddin-i 
nafisa (valuable minerals) : db-i mu'dani 
(mineral water). 

Mineralogist, ma' dan-shinus . 

Mineralogy, 'ilm-i ma'ddin. 

• Easterns believe that a child imbibes some of the qualities of a nurse with the mill?. Similarly . 
Indians think that if a foal be given buffalo's milk, it will learn the trick of lying down in water with 
its rider. 

2 Bad-asl attributes the bad origin to the father ; bad-shlr to the mother. 

S The Indian karor is one hundred lakhs or ten millions, the lakh being a hundred thousand. In 
Persian corrupted into l6k. 

* ' A place where a light is seen/ and in Persia met. the " penis." 

S Note ra required after the second object only. The ra could here be omitted. 




Minister, vazir, pi. vuzard : vazlr-i duval-i 
khdrija (Head of Foreign OflSce) : Sadr-i 
A'sam (Prime Minister of Persia) : Vazir-i 
Muhhidr-i IngRs (British Minister , Tehran); 
safir (ambassador) : arkan-i dawlat (Minis- 
ters of State) : vazir-i ddkhila (Minister of 
Interior) ; vazir-i ma'drif (for Public In- 
struction) ; vazir-i 'adliyya (of Justice ; 
hears final appeals) ; Vazir-i favd^id (of 
Public Works); Vazir-i jang (of War); 
Vazir mukhidr ( — Plenipotentiary). 

Ministry,, vizdrat; saddrat (office of Prime 

Minor, khurd-sdl ; rM-bdligh (in law) ; tu ki 
na-ydmadi sahl ast, mard du sd'at hi-kdr 
guzdshli (your not coming was of minor 
importance, "was nothing"; but you 
wasted two hours of my time) 

Minority, nd-hdligi^ (of age) ; qillat (opp. to 
kasrat ; Parliamentary term); qillat-i yak 
rdy (minority of one). 

Minstrel, sdzanda and mutrih (professional, 
who plays); hhicdnanda {gen.) ; and wm- 
ghanni (prop, who sings) : rdmish-gar (a 
hired local singer and player) : khunyd- 
gar (a wandering bard). 

Mint, zarrdb-f^na or ddr"'z-zarb (for coins) ; 
na'n' ' T. (the garden herb) ; pudina (wild 

Minus, 'aldmat-i tafriq (the sign — ) ; panj 
Hid si (5-3). 

Minute, daqiqa; shast sdniya yak daqiqa ast 
or mi-shavad (sixty seconds make one 

Minute (adj.), khatjLi riza (small) : duqiq (criti- 
cal) ; 6artA:-6m (ditto). 

Minutes. Vide Proceedings. 

Miracle, mu'jiza (by a prophet) ; kardmat or 
khdriq-i 'ddat (by a saint or vali) ; bale, 
ydru mu'jiza karda sad tumdn bi-fuqard^ 

Miraculous, mu'jiz-numd. 

Mirage, sardb; db-i Yazid (less common). 

Mire, gil u shul. (for gil-i shut ?). Vide. 

Mirror, m,ir^at ; d^ina ; dHna-yi badan-numd 
(cheval glass) ; Arastu dHna-yi iskandan 
rd sdkht va dar qal'a-i az qild'-i Sikan- 
dariyya nasb kardand (Aristotle made the 
mirror of Alexander which was erected on 
a fort in Alexandria). 

Mirth, az khushi dar libds (or dar pust) nami- 
gunjad, or az khushi khud-ddri nami-kunad 

(he cannot contain himself for joy ; vide 
Joy) ; hangdma (boisterous mirth, up- 

Misadventure , hddisa ; su^-i itiifdq. Vide 
Accident, Misfortune. 

Misanthrope, mutanaffir az khalq. 

Misanthropy, tanaffur az khalq. 

Misapprehension, kaj-fahmi. Vide Misunder- 

Misbehaviour, harakat-i bi-jd ; bad-raftdri. 

Miscalculate, ghfilat shimurdan (also to count 
the mistakes) ; ghfilat pinddshtan ; ishti- 
bdh dar hisdb k. 

Miscellaneous, mukhtalif (various) ; muta- 
farriqa, pi. mutafarriqdt (miscellaneous). 

Mischance, su*-i ittifdq. Vide Mistake, Mis- 

Miscarriage, isqdt-i haml (k. or sh.) (abor- 
tion) ; dn zan bachcha ndqis (or sdqit) kard 
(she had a miscarriage) kdshki bdr-am 
uftdda bud (said by a mother to an unduti- 
ful child); za*' shudan-i haqq (of justice). 

Mischief, shaytanat; fasdd ; bad-zdtt; kalak-i^ 
zir-i sar ddrad (he has some mischief, 
trick, in his head) ; khardbi-yi kdr inki — 
(the mischief of the matter is — ) ; m»- 
ddnam bard-yi man mdya ml-girad (I know 
she is brewing mischief for me). 

Mischief-maker, mufsid. Vide Tale-bearer, 

Mischievous, muzi (hurtful) ; bdzi-gush, bdzi- 
mush vulg. ; sharir ; badzdt ; bachcha fazuli 
na-kun (child, don't be mischievous); in 
tifl pidar-i Shaytdn ast. 

Misconception, ghfdatrfahmi ; kaj-fahmi. 

Misconduct, bad-raftdri; harakat-i nd-sazd: 
nd-najibi (stronger than two previous). 

Misconstruction, kalnm-am rd ta^vil-i bi-jd 
kardid, or — ma'nd-yi gl^lat guzdshtid. 

Miscreant, awbdsh; shaqi. Vide Black- 

Misdeeds, zatnd^im-i kirddr (sing, jamiwia 
not used in conversation) ; sW^i raftdr 
(opp. to husn-i raftdr). 

Misdirect, rdh-i bdtil namudan (gen.) ; sar-i 
pdkat rd ghalai navishtan (of a letter). 

Miser, la'im (miserly to himself and others) ; 
bakhil (miserly to others only) ; mumsik 
(niggardly ; will spend on his own comforts 
but not more) ; kanis; and khasis (stingy, 

Miserable, shikasta-hdl (of men or animals) ; 

Variously spelt. 

Kalak is properh- an earthen brazier {mahgal) used by the poor. 




parishan-hal (of men) ; khivdr (of animals 
or men) ; muhaqqar (of things). 

Miserliness, la^dmat ; huhhl ; khissat. 

Miserly, hhasis ; vulg. kinis and kinisk; 
hakhil (about every thing). 

Misery, khwdrl ; shikasta-hali (gen.); fald- 
kal; and 'usrat (pecuniary); shaqdvat 
(miserable luck) ; dar hdlat-i khwdri guza- 
ran mi-kunand. 

Misfortune, siydh-bakhti ; hold; muslbat, pi. 
masd%h ; falak-zadagi ; idhdr ; sadma (gen. ; 
disaster) ; shikasi (loss of property) ; dfat-i 
huzurg-i bi-u rasida ast, or bad-baJchtl bi-u 
ruy dvar da, or urd nakbat girifta ast ; kalak 
bar sar-i kas-i bastan (to play a trick on, 
and hence to bring trouble on any one). 

Misgovern, to, siydsat-i bad k. ; hi-intimml k. 

Misgovernment, bi-nazml. 

Misguidance, gum-rdh-sdkhtan (gen.) ; izldl 
(k.) (gen.; rare); bad rdh-numd^i (gen.). 
Vide Mislead. 

Misguided, gum-rdh (k.). 

Misinform, ittild'-i kizb dddan and ydftan; 
khidmat-i shumd daru^ 'arz karda-and 
(you have been misinformed). 

Misinterpret, ghalat ta'^vil kordan; bad fah- 

Misjudge, hukm-i nd-haqq k. (in law). Vide 

Mislead, to, kucha-ghalaii k. ; vide Misgui- 
dance ; sar az rdh burdan (fig.) ; bi-gi/alat 

Misleading, bi-ishtibdh mi-anddzad ; gum- 
rdh-kun; izlal-kun; (gen.). 

Miss, to, hhatd shudan and kardan (of rifle) ; 
nishana gjialat raft; gulula radd shud na- 
hhurd : dnjd khayli jd-yi shumd khdli (or 
sabz ') bud (we missed you) ; az dast dddan 
(of opportunity) ; gum k. (to miss a per- 
son on the way); Mpcitd k. (without an 
object, of a train). 

Mismanagement, bi-tadbirt ; bl-nazmi, bad- 

Misplaced, bi-jd. 

Misreckon, bad-shimurdan ; ghalat shimur- 

Misrepresent, khildf *arz k. ; ghalat izhdr 
ddshtan ; harf rd bar khildf vd namuda ast 
(he has misrepresented the matter). 

Missal, kitdb-i amrdd (any book of prayer) ; 

Miftdh'^^l-Jindn^ (a ^t' a book of prayers 
for all twelve months). 

Missing, azmjdmafqiidast; maqtuUn^ hazm , 
majruhin du-vist, va mafgudin sad* (killed 
one thousand: wounded two hundred; 
and missing one hundred). 

Mission, ma^muriyyai-i 'umda (special — , or 
important mission) ; risdlat (of a prophet) ; 
si f drat (embassy); vakdlat; or niydbat 
(being a delegate) . 

Missionary, kashish (clergyman) ; duktur-i 
kashish-maslak (medical missionary ; either 
sex) ; paras^r (nurse), or shdgird duktur 
(doctor's assistant) are also terms in use. 
[The Ar. dd'i, pi. du'dt, is coming into 

Mist, bukhdr (also steam, vapour) ; havd dud 
girifta ast (fog or mist) ; mih (sp. morning 
and evening mist). 

Mistake, sahv {k ) ; fardmushkdri [k.) ; khabt 
(k.) ; ghalat {k.) ; (erring) ; maqsud-am rd 
bad jahmidid (you have mistaken my 
meaning) ; chunin ml-fahmam ki ishtibdh 
kardld (I think you have made a mis- 
take ; but kdr-i ghalat kardld ' ' you have 
erred, sinned " ) ; dar avval-i nazar Jandb-i 
'All rd Hvaz-i kas-i dlgar bi-jd dvurdam (I 
at first mistook you for some one else ; 
vide Recognize) ; sahV" ; or nd-ddnista 
(by mistake). 

Mistletoe, kdvali. 

Mistress, dil-drdm, or shdhid, or rafiq = ma- 
'shuqa; hhdnum or bdnu (of house); 
begam^ (for Sa5ryid ladies); blbi^ (by 
people of the house): mu'allima; and 
dtun (instructress ; goes from house to 
house) ; zan-i dashta and politely mut'a-^t'' 
(kept woman) ; rafiq (not ' kept'). 

Mistrust, az kas-i bad-gumdn shudan; or 
bad-zann sh. 

Mistrustful, bad-gumdn; shakTd (suspicious). 

Misty, pur-mih; havd mih bud (it was 
misty). Vide Mist. 

Misunderstanding, kaj-fahmi ; bad fahmldan ; 
ghalat- fahml : dar miydn-i shdn qadri nd- 
chdqt ast (there is a misunderstanding 
between them). Vide Coolness. [k. 

Misuse, to, bad bi-hharj dadan; bi-jd isti'mM 

Mite, kirm-i panir (in cheese) ; pashtz (coin) ; 
zarra (atom). 

1 On the grass. * Jinan, pi. of Jannat. 

3 Or kushtar or atlaf ' ' killed. ' ' 

* In India yak hazar ; and yak sad would be substituted. 

* Pronounced bigum. 

s A child calls its mother blbi. ^ djtxK 




Mitigate, az qusur-aah 7ni-kdhad (mitigates 
the offence) ; iakhflf dddan or k. ; kam k. 

Mitre, 'imanui (pagri worn by mullas) ; liar 
ki 'imdma sar ast az ulama*^ 'sf. 

Mitred, mu'arnmam (bound with or wearing 
an 'imama). 

Mix, dmikhtan, rt. dmh ti. and intr. ; and 
qdti k., T. ; and shdmil k. and makhlut k. 
(gen.); mamzuj k. (of liquids or pastes); 
yakjd k. vulg. : tu-yi ham k. or shdmil-i 
ham k. (to mix all together; of dry 
things); ikhtildt k. (of persons); mw'- 
dsharat k. (ditto) ; bd ham nami-jushim (we 
don't mix, we don't get on together) ; In 
hakim bd mxirdum misl-i hdkim-i awal 
nami-jushad (or dmlzish nami-kunad). 

Mixable, qdbil-i imtizdj. 

Mixed, dmikhta ; and makhlut (gen.) ; mam- 
zuj (of liquids or pastes) ; muraklcab (com- 

Mixture, mamzuj; dam (gen. medicine); 
'araq (liquid medicine) ; qivdm (in cookery ; 
the mixture after cooking). Vide Consis- 

Moan, ndla (k.). 

Moat, khandaq. 

Mob, tzrfiViam (crowd) ; 'avamm^^n-nds. Vide 

Mock, to, taqltd-i kas-l rd na-bdyad kard (we 
ought not to mimic) ; zarb giriftan (m.c.) ; 
isiihzd'- k. (ridicule). Vide Mimic and 

Mocker, islihzd-kun; taqlld-chi (mimicker). 

Mockery, istihza; iamaskhur (ridiculing). 

Mockingly, bi-tawr-i istihzd; bar sabil-i 

Mode, vaz' ; tawr ; tarz; ravish; awzd' (pi. 
of vaz') (manners ; also disturbance). Vide 
Manner, Fashion, Cut. 

Model, namuna (sample of things) : sar- 
mashq (copy, a good example ; of persons 
and things); namuna-yi 'iffat ast (she is a 
model of virtue ; chastity) ; raftdr-ash sar- 
mashq ast bard-yi digardn = In mujas- 
sama-yi akhldq ast (he is a model of good 

Model, to, misdl sdkhtan ; dar qdlib durust k. 
or bi-qdlib zadan (or rikhtan) (to cast). 

Moderate, miydna-rdw ; mu'tadil. 

Moderation, miydna-ravx ; i' tidal; iqtisdd u 

Modern, tdza ; jadid : mutaqaddimin va muta*^ 
akhkhirln (ancients and moderns) ; (dza 

ijdd, or tdza ikhtird* (of inventions, fash- 

Modest, aharm-ru (also shy) ; bd hayd; muh- 
jub ; najib (prop, noble) ; 'a/«/ (chaste) : 

Modesty, khijdlat; or sharm-sdri; or hayd: 
'ismat; or ' iffat ^ (chastity) : shikasta-naffti 
(humility) ; uftddagi (ditto). 

Modicum, miqddr-i ; miqddr-i qalil-i. 

Modification, ta'dil pi. ta'dildt {k. or d.) ; 
isldh, pi. isldhdt {k.) (corrections) : ba'd az 
tabdll u tayhyir matlab rd fish kard. Vide 

Modulate, 7nawzun k. ; dvdz garddnidan (of 
voice) : kuk k. (to tune, of instruments; 
wind up a watch, etc., etc.) : [qalydn kuk 
ast ' ' does the pipe sing properly ? " ; a 
new pipe does not emit the correct note ; 
also - " does it draw ? "J. 

Modulation, garddndan-i sawt. 

Mogul or Mongolian, Mu^al (a vague term 
in Persia, where it is often applied to 
Afghans and implies barbarity). 

Mohur, ashrafi. 

Mohammedan, Musalmdn ; Muhammudl ; 
Muslim ^^ pi. Muslimln; din-ddr (opp. to 
kdfir). Vide also Moslem. 

Mohammerah, Muhammara. 

Moire antique, risham-i mawj-ddr. 

Moist, nam (k.) (of clothes, paper, floor); 
nam-ndk {k.) ; or pur-num {k.) ; or martub 
( of house, land, floor, atmosphere) ; in 
pdrcha (or ka^az nam or pur-nam ast or 
nam ddrad; but in zamin nam ddrad or 
namn/dk ast or martub ast (but not nam 
ast) : tar (wet and also fresh) ; nam k. (to 
make damp). 

Moisten, tar k. (prop. " to wet*'). 

Moisture, rutubat ; tiami (rare) ; [tan fresh- 

Molar, danddn-i dsyd^i. Vide Teeth. 

Mole, mushri kur (also the musk-rat ?): khdl 
(a small beauty-mole on the skin) ; kalaf 
(disfiguring mole ; also freckles ; the spots 
on the sun ; the dark marks in the moon). 

Mole-cricket. Vide Cricket. 

Molecule, zarra, pi. zarrdt. 

Molest, aziyyat — or dzdr dddan ; zarar rasdn- 
dan; izd k.; muta'arriz shudan. Vide 

Molester, dzidr- etc. — kun. 

MolUent, mulayyin ; linat-dih. [grief). 

Mollify, nirm k. (of anger) : tascUli dJddan (of 

' Modesty is enjoined by Muslim law. 

^ Mtiaalmanan ! or Ay Musalmanan ! is a Muslim cry for ' ' Help ! help ! ' ' 




Moment, lamha : lahza : harniii hdla hi-raw 
(go this very moment) ; dar an-i vahid (in 
a single moment) ; hi-yak chashm zadan or 
bi-tarfat"^H-'ayn (in the twinkling of an 
eye); dn-l ki (or td) dost zad murd (the 
moment he touched it he died) : hi-yak 
an mi-dyam (I will come in a moment). 

Momentary, dm; fawri. 

Momentous, muhimm; girdn; bd 'uzm; 
ahammiyyat ddrad. 

Monarch. Vide King. 

Monarchy, Inglist^n Shah durad, jamhurl 
nist; dawlat-i mashruta (limited monar- 

Monastery, dayr (Christian ; also nunnery) : 
khdnaqdh (residence of one or more der- 
vishes or Sufis). 

Monasticism, az dunyd guzashtagi (asceti- 
cism) : rahbdniyyat or ruhbdniyyat (of 
Christians) . 

Monday, du-shamba. 

Money, jml: pul-i hdzir: pul-i mawjuda ; 
naqd (cash including notes) : naqdina (cash 
in coin) : dasht {k.) ' (the first money taken 
in a shop in the day) ; td bi-hdl dasht na- 
kardam (I haven't sold anything yet) : 
bay'dna (earnest money) : jtb-kharj {ipocket- 
money) ; sikka (coin) ; pul-i khurda (small 
money) ; pul-i qalb (bad — ) ; qdyima or sar- 
rdst tech. ; even money) ; u put paydd-kun 
ast (he's a money-maker) ; pul-am sukht 
shud"^ (my money has clean disappeared) ; 
in kharj-i jih-i bachcha-hd-t ast , or in djil-i ® 
kisa-yi bachcha-hd-t ast (pocket-money for 
your children) : pul bi-jigar-ash chaspida 
ast (he canH part with his money) : bd 
pul-i naqd bdld-yi sabil-i Shdh naqqdra 
tavdn zad (with money you can do all 
things) ; pul pul rd mi-kashad (money 
makes money) : sim u zar (money ; also 
silver and gold) ; pul-i khud rd hi-ddHra 
zad (he wasted his money on music and 
delights). Vide Remuneration and Out- 

Money-changer, sarrdf. 

Moneyed, p/uldar. 

Mongoose, mush-i khurmd. 

Mongrel, du-raga. Vide Wolf. 

Monitor, naslhat-kun or ndsih ; khalifa (the 
head boy in a class who assists in teach- 
ing). _ 

Monk, rdhib, pi. ruhban and ruhhdb (Christian 
monk ; or Buddhist monk) ; zdhid (asce- 
tic) ; gusha-nishln (recluse) ; tdrik-i dunyd 

Monkey, buzina or maymun; shddi P. ; 
'antar* (m.c. ; ape). 

Monogram, naqsh-i khdtam (in signet ring) ; 
saj'-i muhr (in seal) ; saf-i ism (elsewhere) ; 
tughrd (a full name in ornamental mono- 
gram form, as on a coin). 

Monopolist, muhtakir. Vide Infra. 

Monopoly, imtiydz (mod. ; given by Govt.) : 
ihtikdr^ — , or ambdr kardan (engrossing, 
hoarding up foodstuffs against a time of 
scarcity or to produce a rise in price) : 
ikhtiydr-i kull. 

Monotheist, muvahhid; mu'taqid-i tawhid : 
muqirr bi-yagdnagi-yi Khuda. 

Monotone, bi-yak sadd (or — tiavd) harf mi- 
zanad (he speaks in a monotone). 

Monsoon, mawsim-i bdrdn ; barash-kdl or 
bdrish-kdl (Hind. ; rare). 

Monster, tarkib-i kharq-i 'ddat; vide Demon: 
mazhar-i khabdsat ast — shardrat bar u 
khatm ast (a monster of iniquity). 

Monstrous, vide supra : chunin 'amal-i az vay 
bi-shiddat qabih ast (it's monstrous of him 
to act like this). 

Month,'' mdh; shahr, pi. shuhur (used in 
letters, etc.): shahr-i qamari (lunar — ); 
mdh-i shamsi (solar — ) ; ghurra or avval-i 
mdh (first of the month) ; in pul rd sar-i 
mdh mi-diham (I will pay on the first of 
next month; sar properly beginning). 

Monthly, har-mdha (adv.) (every month); 
mjdhiydna adv. ; [mdhdna monthly pay] : 
m,dh bi-rimh (adv.) : jira (daily or monthly 
ration, or its money equivalent) : musha- 
hara or shahriyya = mavdjib-i mdhdna. 

Monument, ydd-gdr ; dsdr-i qadimu (ancient 
ruins) ; mi-hhwdham ydd-gdr-l ru-yi qabr- 

1 The dasht is sometimes placed on the lips and forehead before it is placed in the pocket. 

2 Sukht kardan, tr. 

3 AjU, nuts, etc., eaten between meals. 

* 'Antar, At. " horse-fly." How does it come to mean baboon in Mod. Persian ? 

6 Practised even by leading Mullas. Monopoly, engrossing, and usury, axe however all contrary to 
Muslim law. 

6 In letters, the Muslim lunar month is used; but in agricultural and revenue documents, etc., the 
old Persian solar months or the signs of the Zodiac are used. The Turkish year is used in farmans and 




ash bu-guzaram (I'm going to erect a 
monument over his grave) : mandra (col- 
umn) ; sang-i lahd (tombstone). 

Mood, stjf^a (gram.) ; zamdn (tense) : vide 
Disposition: irnruz mutaiiammil-i ta'arruz 
nldt (he is in no mood to be contradicted) ; 
halat i bdzi kardan na-ddram (I am not in 
the mood to play). 

Moon, mdh: mdh-i naw, or hildl (new) : badr 
(fuU) ; mdh-i shdb-i chaJidr-ddh ( = full 
moon) ; tahvil-i mdh (change of the moon) : 
mdh td hanuz sar na-zada oat. or tulW rm- 
karda : istihldl namudan (to view the new 

Moonlight, mdh-tdb. 

Moonstruck, qam^r-zada (lunatic). 

Moor, Mar^ribl (man of Murrdkish or Moroc- 

Moorage, langar-gdh. 

Mootable, bahs-pazlr ; nizd^-barddr. 

Moot-point, mahall-i guft u gu ; mddda-yi 
nizd' ; mawrid-i bahs. 

Mope, to, puff k. (of birds ; with feathers 
puffed up); pizhmurda (adj.) (moping; of 
birds or people). 

Moral, fahvq (meaning) ; dar hi hikdyat du 
fd*idu ast (there are two morals to this 
story) ; naiija : pdrsd (in behaviour) ; 
taJizib-i akhldq (moral culture, and refine- 
ment of manners). 

Morality, saldhiyyat ; pdrsd^ (righteousness) ; 
'i7m-t akhldq (the doctrine). 

Moralize, to, natija giriftan az — ; dar bayn-i 
hikdyat bind mi-kunad bi-va'z u nasihat. 

Morals, akhldq (also behaviour) ; hus7v-i 
akhldq (good — ; opp. to su^-i akhldq or 
fasddri akhldq). 

Morass. Vid£ Marsh, 

Mordant, nxsh-zan ^biting). 

More, blsh ; bishtar ; ziydda {ziydd much) ; 
bishtarak (a little more) : kam u bish, or 
kam-d-bish (more or less) ; bi-kam u ziydd 
(neither more nor less) : digar na (no more); 
bish az, or mutajdviz az, or ziydda az du 
rupiya na-ddd; harchi ziydda- tar bihtar 
(tlie more the better) ; az jdn-ash ham 
ml-guzarad td chi rasad bi-mdl (he's risk- 
ing liis life, how much more won't he risk 
his property) ; chanddn ki Uilab kard kam- 
tar ydft (the more he searched for it the 
less he found it) : {az) yak jarsakh bishtar 
rah bud: qadr-i bi-charbdn ("give me a 

little over ' ' ; said by a woman making a 
purchase: the seller, for instance, will 
then increase his measure of cloth by the 
breadth of half his nail,' a quantity that 
will quite satisfy the laidy that she has 
made a bargain) : iHibdr-i zan dar chashm-i 
mard mdnandri khidmatf/dr ast na rafiq 
(women are regarded by the men more a.** 
servants than associates). Vide Over and 

Moreover, guzashta az in; 'aldva bar in; 
izdfa bar in; vdngahi^ (pronounced vun- 
gahi) ; sivd-yi dn (excepting tliat) ; qat'-i 
nazar az — (setting aside). 

Morgue, murda-khdna. 

Moribund, qarib'^ U-marg ; mushrif-i bi- 
mawt; nafas-ash bi-shumdr uftdda. 

Morning, sttbh : bdmddd; 'alq-s-sabdh (adv.; 
early in the morning) ; sahar (before 
dawn) ; vide Dawn ; sitdra-yi subh (the 
morning star, i.e. Zuhra or Venus). 

Morocco, Mardkash (Ar. Murrdkish) ; Magh- 
rib {old; Mauritania). [green). 

Morocco leather, sdghari (gen. green; sha- 

Morose, 'abus (frowning). 

Morosely, 'abusdna. 

Morphia, jawhar-i tirydk. 

Morrow, to-, fardd ; pas fardd (day after 
to-morrow) ; pastur fardd, and vulg. pas-i 
pas fardd (the day after the day-after- 
to-morrow) : shab dbistan ast fardd chi 
zdyad ( = none knows what the morrow 
will bring forth) ; fardd-yi qiydmat bi-man 
mi-rasad ( = 'I'll never get it). 

Morsel, luqma (nice or nasty). 

Mortal, murdani; and fdni; and bi-baqd 
(fleeting) ; qdtil or muhlik (gen. ; deadly, 
killing) ; kdri or muhlik (of wound) ; zahar-i 
haldhal (deadly poison) : du^hman-i jdni 
or a'dd 'aduv (mortal enemy) : irisdn (a 

Mortality, itldf-i nufus; diruz 'idda-yi amvdt 
dutist bud : bashariyyai. 

Mortar, jughfin or havan (for pounding) ; 
[dasta-yi hdvan, pestle]; khumpdra (gun) : 
gach (prop, gypsum, cement) ; sdruj (mix- 
ture of hme, ashes, and chopped straw ; 
for flooring ; also Portland cement) ; kdJi- 
gil (mud and chopped straw). 

Mortgage, to, rahn guzdshtan or bi-rahn 
dddan; giraw guzdshtan; [but giraw bas- 
tan, to bet]. 

J U barorffi man an qadr charhZnld. 





Mortgaged, marhun ; dar giraw rafta ; dar 
giraw ast. 

Mortgagee, murtahin; rahn-giranda. 

Mortgager, rahin; rahn-dihanda. 

Mortification, riyazat (mortification and reli- 
gious exercises); nafs-kushl (mortifica- 
tion) ; parhiz (abstinence) ; fasad (corrup- 
tion) : murtdz and riydzatkasJi adj. (practis- 
ing mortification). 

Mortified, khusk-i muqaddas (austere look- 
ing ; of priests). Vide Doleful. 

Mortify, fasdd payda k. (of wound) ; tawhln 
k. (to humiliate) ; javab-i iawhin dddan 
(to give a mortifying reply) ; javab-i dil- 
shikan dddan (ditto). 

Mortmain, vaqf (gen. of church property, but 
also corporate body). 

Mosaic, hhdtam-kdn (in wood) ; zamm-i man- 
qusha (in floor). 

Moses, Musq; 'asd-yi Musq^ bi-chashm-i tu 
( = "mayyounot guess"; said by boys 
playing at finjdn-bdzi). 

Moscow, Musqaw. 

Moslem, Muslim, pi. Muslimin; Muslima, 
fem. Vide Mohammedan. 

Mosque, masjid, pi. masdjid; masjid-i jdmi' 
(congregational mosque, for Friday pray- 
ers) ; khdna-yl Khudd (also = Ka' bah in 
Mecca) . 

Mosquito, pasha; [pashsha-yi khaki, sand- 


Moss, puda (that grows on damp walls) ; 
davdlak (tree moss; lichen). 

Most, blshtarln; agMab-i — ; aksar-i — ; 
khayli bdshad (or muntahq) qimat-ash dah 
tumdn ast (its price at the most will be 
ten tumans) ; muntahJd-yi mardtib (or 
dast-i dkhir) mard mi-kushand (at the most 
they can kill me). 

Mostly, aksar-i awqdt ; gkdlib-i awqdt : aksar- 
ash (of quantity). 

Mosul, Musil, for Mawsil. 

Mote, zarra, pi. zarrdt; tutuq-i nur (the 
column of light in a dark bazar or in a 
darkened room). 

Moth, bid (also the fungus insect that eats 
woollen stuff in the hot weather) ; bid- 
khurda (moth-eaten) ; parvdna 'dshiq-i 
chirdgh ast. 

Mother, rmdar; vdlida; nana (by children) ; 
mddar-zan and rmdar-shu (mothers-in- 
law) ; khush-ddman^ (rare = mddar-zan). 

Motherhood. Vide Maternity. 

Motherless. Vide Orphan. 

Mother-o '-pearl, sadaf. 

Motion, harakat; jurnbish: inqildb-i daryd 
(restlessness of sea) ; harakat-i ddHmi 
perpetual — ). 

Motionless, sdkin; bi-harakat. 

Motive, maqsud-i asli gkaraz ; sallamnd 
muharrik-i shdn asbdb-i digar bdshad 
(admitted they act from different motives 
— ) ; quvva-yi mutaharrika (motive power). 

Motor-car, kdliska-yi khud-raw ; ' atomobil ' 

Mouflon, arghali (the Persian mouflon; 
vide Sheep). 

Mould, qdlib ; gulula-riz (for bullets) ; khdk; 
and gil (soil). Vide MildcAv. 

Mould, to, tashkil dddan; and qavdra d. (rare) 
(to fashion, shape); qdlib z. or bi-qdlib 
rikhtan (to pour into a mould). 

Mouldable, tashkll-pazir. 

Moulder, qdlib-zan. 

Mouldy, purmak-zada ; pampu-zada (vulg.);' 
vide Mildew; urusi-yam pampH zada ast 
(my shoes are mouldy). 

Moult, to, tulak k. T. ; kuriz k. P. ; par rikh- 

Moulted, tulaki. Vide Haggard and Inter- 

Moulting (subs.), par-rlzi ; tulak ; kuriz. 

Mound, tal ; lappa ; pushta; tuda (heap). 

Mount, to, muqavva {k.) (a picture ; 
muqavvq = cardboard) ; bar asp bar dma- 
dan, intr. ; savdr k. caus.; tr. (of gems); 
savdr-i asp shuda tdkht : bdld-yi kuh raftan : 
bi-qushun asp dddan (of troops) : bald 
raj tan; and taraqqi k. (of prices). 

Mountain, kuh: sar-ikuh; and qulla-yi kuh 
(summit)'; kamar-i kuh (half way up): 
pd-yi kuh; and ddm^n-i kHh (skirt of — ); 
ddam bi-ddam mi-rasad vali kuh bi-kuh 
nami-rasad (prov.; = it's a small world; 
we'll meet again) ; kuhi (adj.). 

Mountaineer, kuhistdni. 

Mountainous, kuh-sdr ; pur az kuh. 

Mounted, bi-gurda-yi ^ (or pusht-i) asp savdr 
shudam (I mounted the horse) : savdra 
(adv.; also subs, "cavalry"). 

Mourn, to, ndla k. (to moan) ; zdri k. (weep 
loudly) ; nudba k. (to mourn and recount 
the good qualities of the dead) ; girya k. (to 
weep) ; afsus kh. or k. (to regret) ; mdtam 

1 The rod of Moses possessed magical powers. 

2 Khushrdaman, is common in India, s Qurda properly " kidney " and hence " back of the loins. 




(for ma^tam) girijUm; ahxvan n. (beating 
the breast, etc. for the dead); nawha k. 
chanting, etc. for dead) : dar matim-i u 
taimm-i ahl-i vilayat siyah-push shuda and ; 
bi-jihat-i marg-ash gjiussa ml-khurand. 

Mourner, mdiam-gar or gtriya-kun (any 
mourner for the dead) : nawha-gar (hired 
chanters and wallers] : mdtam-ddroTta'ziya- 
gxr (prop, in Muharram) : 8ahih 'azd kist 
(who is the chief mourner ?). 

Mournful, gham-gin; and gham-nak (shown 
by appearance ; with clouded looks) : 
mahzun (saddened in heart) ; dil-tang (sad 
and also bored q.v.) : malvl (sad, q.v. ; 

Mournfully, mahzundna. 

Mourning,^ vide Grief: 'azd-dari; and md- 
tam-ddri (holding the assembly, etc. for 
mourning) : ishdn dar 'azd hastand (they 
are in mourning) : tshdn 'azd-ddr and, 
nami tavdmd didan-i shdn hi-ravld (they 
are in mourning, you can't call); vide to 
Mourn ; libds-i mdtam (dress) ; shdl-i 'aza 
hi-gardan^ bastam (to wear the sign of 

Mouse, mush ; mush-i Tchdnagi (house — ) ; 
dar-mush (i.e. ' tree-mouse or the dor- 
mouse') ; mush-i sahrd*i (field- rats such as 
the mush-i du-pd or kangaroo-rat, and the 
jerboa, etc.). 

Mouser, mush-gir adj. (of cats). 

Mouth, dahan; dahan-i tang ddrad (she has 
a small mouth ; a point of beauty) : 
dahan-i fardkh (large mouth) ; saqf-i dahan, 
or kdm^ (roof of the mouth) : dahan-darlda 
foul-mouthed) ; nihang dahan-ash rd misl-i 
yak * darvdza vd mt-kard (the shark ^ opened 
its mouth wide like a don) ; puz (the snout 
of animals) ; the lips and mouth of hu- 
mans ; dahana (of river or of pass) ; dahan 
(of a big gun); bi-yak zabdn (with one 
mouth) . 

Mouth, to, vaqt-i ki sukhan ml-guyad dahan- 
ash rd mi-sdzad. 

Mouthful, yak luqma ; navdla (rare) ; qwp (of 
water) : yak chingak (a beakful) ; bu-guzdr 
yak ching bi-zanad; [ching "beak," but 
chang "claw"]. 

Mouthpiece, lab-gxr (of pipe, etc.) : sufora* 
zabdn-i bddshdh-hd and (amba.ssadors are 
the mouthpieces of the kings). 

Movables, asbdb-i manqula. TiVfe Furniture, 

Move, to, jumbtdan ; and harakat k. (intr.) ; 
jumbdntdan ; and harakat dddan ; takdn d. 
tr. (to shake) and takdn kh. intr. ; harakat 
na-kun; vd ist jd-yi khud (don't stir; 
stay where'you are) ; takdn na-khur (don't 
move) ; dar-majlis-i shurd u fuldn maUab 
rd tahnk namud (at the committee he 
moved that — ) ; to*5tr k. (aflFect) ; bi-jush 
dvardan (for joy or grief); bar-angikhtan 
(to anger) ; garm k. (to move to tears) : 
vide Induce; harakat d. (of troops, chess- 
men) : pish k. (of chessmen) : jd bi-jd k. 
(of troops, articles) : rah bi-raw ("go on; 
move" ; in chess). 

Movement, harakat ; jumbish (shaking) : jum- 
bish i langar-i sd'at (of pendulum, not 6»z-» 

Mover, muharrik (fig.) : jurnhdnanda {shaker; 
of things) ; jurnbanda (living creature) ; 
taqdim-kun (of a motion) : jd bi-jd kun 

Moving, muta^assir (affecting); tashviq-dih; 
tarcjhib-kun (inciting of words or people). 

Mov/, to, diravldan or diraw kardan ; das k. 

Mowed, Mown, diravida; bunda; diraw 

Mower, diravanda or diraio-gar ; 'alaf-bur (of 

Much, ziydd; hhayU; firdvdn; az bas; 
bisydr ; vdfir ; pur ; id chi rasad bi — (how 
much the more or less ; vide More) ; an 
qadr ki ; or chanddn ki ; or har qadr ki (as 
much as) ; bisydr ziydd (too much). 

Muchness, bisydrl; ziyddx; miqdar-i 'azxmi^ 
kasrat; ziyddatx; vufur ; fardvdnx (abun- 
dance) ; ifrdt (excess ; opp. to tafrit defici- 
ency, being too little). 

Mucous, lu'db-ddr (of leaves, seeds). Vide 

Mucus, khitt, pi. akhldt (from nose, eyes, 
wounds) ; mtif (of nose) : lu'db-x dahan 
(saliva) ; but lu'db ddrad (it is glutinous). 

Mud, gil; gil u shut (adj. and subs.; slush; 

1 Mourning — black or some dark colour — is worn by Shi'as for a near relation for a year, and for a 
cousin for two or tliree days. The mourning dress is removed from the mourners by the head of the 
family or by a big person. Mourning is also worn during the months of Safar and Muharram. 

* A bl£ick shawl is worn on the head by men and one end is twined round the neck. The women 
wear a bleick chadar. 

5 Kam also means " desire." A donkey with a black palate is unlucky and hence cheap. 

♦ Yak here is emphatic. 

6 The crocodile is often confused with the niahang or shark. 





shul is looser than gil) ; lajan or Esh (black 
mud at the buttom of a well or stream, 
etc.) ; lay (of mud in streets) ; batldq T. 

Muddle, ightishash (k.) ; shuluq (k.) ; kharabi 
{k.) ; vide Mire: kar rd shalgham shurbd 
karda ast vulg. 

Muddy, (adj.) gil-dlud (of water) ; mukaddar 
(ditto); gill ; Id^l-ddr ; shul u gil (adj. 
and subs.) : libds-am tamdm-asJi pur gil 
shuda, or shul-dlud shud. 

Muddy, to, mukaddar k. ; gil-dlud k. (water, 
clothes, etc.). 

Muezzin, mu^azzin. 

Muhammadan, Muslim; az ahl-i Isldm (the 
man) ; Isldm ; or dm-i Muhammadi (the 
religion); /sZamj (adj.). 

Mulberry, tut; tut-i saftd (white—); tut-i 
siydh (black — ); tut-i khurmdH (large 
kind) ; shdh-tut (a good kind). 

Mule, qdtir ; baghl; astar : qdtir-i dar dwmsi 
rupiya hhandam. 

Muleteer, qdtircJn; or qdtir-ddr, a muleteer 
who owns mules : cTidrvd-ddr (for mules or 
donkeys ; either the owner or the head- 
man in charge) : [sdrvdn or sdrbdn ' ' camel 
driver or grazer ' ' jammdl-ddr ^ or shutur- 
ddr, the owner] : mukdri (a muleteer or 
camel-man that transports goods) ; jilaw- 
ddr (a head- muleteer ; also a head-groom 
that rides ahead of his master) : yatlm- 
chdrvd-ddr (assistant muleteer). 

Multiform, kasir"' 'l-ashkdl. 

Multiplicand, mazrub. 

Multiplication, zarb {k.) (arithmetic) ; zarb-i 
murakkab ^compound — ) ; jadval"^ 'z-zarb 
( — multiplication table). 

Multiplier, mazrub bih, or — fih. 

Multiply, zarb k. or z. (arithmetic) ; vide 
Increase ; du si td shash td (twice three is 
six) ; chahdr rd dar shish zarb kun (multi- 
ply six by four). 

Multitude, izdihdm; or jam'-i ghajir. 

Mumble, min min khivdndan or — harf zadan 
(to speak in an indistinct manner ; also of 
children humming their lessons to them- 
selves) ; jdvida harf ml-zanad (he mumbles 
his words ; a natural defect) ; shikasta 
harf mi-zanad (he breaks off in his sen- 
tences ; also of a beginner ' ' he speaks 

Mummy, mumiyd^l'^ (the medicine) ; Vdsh-i 
mumiyd zada (the Egyptian ; the corpse). 

Mundane, dunyavi. 

Municipality, iddra-yi baladiyya, or iddra-yi 

Munificence, bakhshish; or bakhshandagi ; 
or bazl (giving freely) ; jud (liberality , even 
by a poor man); fayydzl, (munificence; 
more than bazl). 

Munificent, bakhshanda; and bazl kunanda 
(liberal) ; javvdd (rare) ; or fayydz (munifi- 
cent) ; daryd-dil. 

Murder to, khun rtkhtan; and kushtan (to 
kill); bi-'amd bi-qatl rasdndan: khun k., 
Indian, but coming into use). 

Murder, khun nami-khwdbad (murder will 
out) ; qatl : hhun-rizl (slaughter of a num- 
ber) ; qatl-i 'amd. 

Murderer, khuni^; qdtil (killer). 

Murderess, qdtila. 

Murderous, hhun-Tchipdr (of men) ; khunln (of 

Murmur, Murmuring, hamhama (of distant 
crowd) ; shur shur (noise of water) : gila ; 
shikdyat; shakvq (complaint in any way). 

Murmur, to, lund lund k. (gen.; grumble 
under the breath) ; qur qur k. (of unwill- 
ing servant); qum qum k. (rare). Vide 
Grumble and Mutter. 

Murmurer, shdkH (complainer) ; qur qur-kun 
(of servant). 

Muscat, dar Masqat * faqat chand darb khdna 
bd safd ast. 

Muscle, mdhicha (of calf, or upper arm) ; 
pay, and •asab, pi. a' sab, (tendon). 

Mascular, gusht-i badan-ash pichlda ast (he is 
very muscular). 

Museum, muza (Eur.); 'ajd^ib-khdna. 

Mushroom, qdrch. 

Music, ^ musiqdn, ^ vulg. mizgdn ; musiql or 
muzlk ; muziq dust mi-ddrld, or az dvdz u 
sdz khush-i tdn mi-dyad ? ( are you fond 
of music ?)• 

Musical, parda (scale) : musiqi-dEn (one 
skilled in music) : sanduqi muzlk (musical 

Musician, sdzanda or mutrib (professional 
singer or player) ; khivdnanda (singer ; 
gen.) ; dvdzrhhipdn (ditto) ; mugkanni (pro- 
fessional singer or player). 

1 The affix dar is incorrect as jammal by itself is a camel-owner. 

a A medicine sold in the bazars, but no longer Egyptian mummy. 

8 Enunciate the x. distinctly. 4 Lit. "place of falling " ; masqaty-'r-ra'a Ar., " birth-place." 

6 Music is condemned by Muslim law. 

6 Mvsiqar, a bird with a perforated bill that emits musical notes. 




Musk, mishk : nafa (the musk- pod) ; mishk-bu 
(scented like musk ; the adjective mishkin 
in m.c. generally signifies musk-coloured, 
i.e. black) ; ahu-yi mishkin (muak-deer) ; 
mush-i mishkl (musk-rat). 

Musket, tufang : lula (barrel) ; qunddjfh (butt); 
khizana (chamber) ; khurusak (hammer of 
flint-lock) ; ckaqtrvaq ; or chakuah ; or ding 
•(cock); sumha or mU (ram rod); tasma 
(sling) ; karndn ' (spring) ; qabza (the grasp) ; 
atashkhdna (pan of flint-lock) : did (back- 
sight) ; magasak (fore-sight) ; lablaba (trig- 
ger); pashna and shaytanak (ditto); qar- 
khaluq (trigger guard). Vide Rifle, Gun, 

Musketeer, tufang-chi. 

Musketry, tir-anddzi. 

Muslin, malmal (Hind.). 

Must, mi-bdyist or hdyisl ; or bdyad ; or Idzim 
ast ki ; — (followed by Pres. Subj.) : chi 
sadd-yi khish khish-i mi-dyad^ jdnvari 
bdyad bdshad (what is this noise ? it must 
be some animal) : bdyad rafta bdshad (he 
must have gone ; classically mi-bdyist rafta 

Mustachios, burut ; or sabil : shdrib or 56- 
khwdr (that portion that overhangs the 
lip ; cut off by very strict Muslims) : 
burut-ash tab ddrad (he has twisted mus- 
taches) ; sabil-i c/taqmdqi ( — curled up- 
wards) : bi-sabil-at qasam, in rd narkardam 
(vulg. oath). 

Mustard, kkardal (seed). 

Muster, sdn didan (to review, by big people) ; 
vide Review : hdzir u ghdyib k. (to note 
attendance in muster-roll) : kitdbcha-yi 
ftdzir-bdshi (muster-roll) : lashkar-navis (the 
keeper of the roll). 

R'^^utability, taghyir, pi. UKjJiyirdl; inqildb, pi. 
inqildbdt. Vide Change. 

Mutable or Mutation, ta^yir — or tabdil- 
pazir ; munqalib. 

Mute, Idl; u kar-i gung-i mddar-zdd-V st (he 
is a deaf mute from his birth). 

Mute, to. Mutes, chdlquz, anddkhtan (mutes 
of birds) : sargin or chalquz^ (of pigeons). 

Mutilated, maqlW "'l-yadd etc. , etc. : dost u yd 
burida (of hands and feet). 

Mutilation, qal'-i a'zd; nasaq^ (cutting off 
nose, hands, etc., etc., as punishment for 

theft) : khwdja or khaal kardan (to emas- 

Mutineer, ydg^i ; bdgi^i ; tayifi : sar-kash 
(gen. ; rebellious). 

Mutiny, ydgifi-gan ; or bajfA^vat: balva 
(gen.) ; or ahurish (disturbance) : 9ar-kafshi 
(gen. ; rebellion). 

Mutter, zir-i lab guftan (speak in a low voice) ; 
qum gum k. (rare) or qut qut k. or lund 
lund k. (grumble in a low voice; vide 
Murmur) : dhista or yavdsh guftan (to say 
' aside ' or in a low voice) ; qir qir or qur 
qur k. (of unwilling servant). 

Mutton, gusht-i gusfand: gusht-i barra-yi 
shir (lamb) ; gusht-i barra (in m.c. the 
flesh of a ram of any age; barra, properly 
lamb) : gusht-i rdn (leg of — ) ; gusht-i dast 
(shoulder of — ) gusht-i pusht-i mdza* 
(upper portion of the saddle) ; gusht-i sina 
(breast of — ). Vide Sheep and Lamb. 

Mutual, du-san ; az tarafayn or jdnibayn ; 
in fdHda-yi tarafayn ^ khwdhad bud. 

Muzzle, puza (of animals) ; [pw2,for a man's 
nose, is a word chiefly used bvZardushtis ; 
it is considered vulgar] : puz-band for dogs 
and horses) : lunj (mouth and chin and 
also the fat part of the cheek ; usually of 
chubby-cheeked boys). 

Muzzle-loader. Vide Breech-loader. 

My, mdl-i man : — am : dz dn-i man or az man 

Myrobalan, halila-yi siydh (black) : haHla-yi 
zard; and halila-yi kdbull ; and ImlVki 
(names of various species). 

Myrrh, murr; murr-i m^kki (Mecca myrrh). 

Myrtle, as ; murd. 

Myself, khud-i man, or m/in khud, or jdkud-dm 
(I myself). 

Mysterious, ramzi, sirri; asrdri (secret): 
makhfi (hidden). 

Mysteriously, mmz"" ; az ruy-i ramz ; makhfi- 

Mystery, ramz: mu'amma (prop, riddle): 
digar az xn sirr hich nami-ddnam, or digar 
namiddnam In chi sirr-Vst. 

Mystic, 'drif pi. 'urafd^, Siifl (relig.) : arbdb-i 
kashf u shuhud (those Sufis to whom reve- 
lations ate made) ; xn raqs-hd ramz ddrad 
(of mystic dance) : ghayb-shinds (one wlio 
knows hidden secrets) : ahl-i murdqaba 

1 Fanar spiral spring. 

2 Sargin dung of animals. Pigeon's racmure is used for melons. 

3 Nasaq-chl. " executioner. " 

♦ Maza or maz, •' back-bone." 

* Tarafayn Ar. dual. No word for •• mutual." 




(Sufis that, at will, fall into a temporary 

waking trance). 
Mysticism, Sufi-gan; and Tasawuf : and 

mazhab-i asrariyan (rare) (Sufism). 
Mystical, ha mu'amnm; pasi parda; sirrl ; 

ramzi ; az ghayb. Vide Mystery. 
Myth, qissa-yi kuhna; afsana. 
Mythological, mawhum; ' adim^^ l-vujud. 
Mythology, Tchurafat-i Yundnlyln (Greek 



Nadir, an-nazir or samf^'l-qadam (astron. ; 
term opposite of samf^^r-ra^s). 

Nail, ndMun (of finger ; also claw) ; mikk (of 
iron or wood) ; gul-mlkh (with large head, 
for retaining tiles in position) ; mismdr 
(rare); chang (of animal, but ching 
"beak"); nakhun tardshidan or giriftan 
(to cut the nails) ; gal-i milch dmzdn kun 
(vulg.) (hang it on the nail). Vide Hang. 

Nail to, mlkh zadan (in box, or ground) ; or 
kubidan (in ground, in box, in wall) ; vide 
Hammer ; vide Peg. 

Nail-cutters, tlgka-yi ndhhun-gir, or ndJchun- 

Naked, harahna; luhht or luch {vide also 
Squint-eyed): 'urydn: luhhi-i mddar-zdd 

Nakedness, barahnagl; 'urydni; juz sdtir-i 
'aurrat lihds bar khud nami-girand (their 
dress is only sufficient to cover their 
nakedness). Vide Nude. ^ 

Name, nam ; ism pi. asdmi and asrm^ (pi. 
asm,d also = nouns q.v.) ; laqah pi. alqah 
(title or nickname) ; kunya ' (caUing one by 
the relationship ; as son, father, brother — 
of So-and-so) ; takhallus (nom de plume of 
a poet) ; asm^yi husna (the 99 names 
or attributes of God) ; ism^ 'z-zdt (the 
essential name of God, i.e. Allah or 
Hu) : 'alam (a proper name : of persons 
the special name by which the individual 
is distinguished) ; az taraf-i Shah (in the 
name of the Shah) : ism-i a^zam^ (the 
great name of God) ; "in jahdz Zulaykhd 
nam ddrad, or bi-Zulaykhd mawsum ast 
(this ship is called Zulaikha) : agar kdm- 
yah norshavam i6m az sar-i hhud-am mi- 

garddnam or bar-mi-ddram (if I fail I'll 
change my name) : az in kdr ism u rasm 
paydd mi-kuni ("by this you will acquire 
a great name ' ' ; the word rasm in Ar. = 
trace) ; ism-i khudat rd sar-i man mi- 
guzdri ("you're making me out to be 
what you are yourself " ; in a bad sense) ; 
ism-i hd musammq ast (it bears out its 
name; is aptly named). 

Name to, ndmidan; ism niJiddan; n^m 
gumrdan; laqdb dddan ; bad-ridm k. (to 
give a bad name to). 

Named, mawsum hi — ; mulaqqah hi — ; muta- 
khallis hi — (of poet; with the nom de 
plume of — ). 

Nameless, bl-ndm; bi-nishdn. 

Namely, ya'ni; a'ni. 

Name-sake, sami; ham-ism; ham-ndm. 

Nap, khwdb-i khargushi^ (k.) ; churt-i ml- 
zanam (I'll take a short nap ; vide Nod). 

Nap to, bi-guzdr bi-ravam churt-i hi-zanam 
(let me go and take a nap ; churt zadan 
' ' to nod in sleep " ) ; vide Sleep . 

Nap (on cloth), purz. 

Nape, qafd (of neck) ; gawddl-i gardan (vulg.) ; 
or pas-i or pusht-i gardan. 

Naphtha, najt (for najt) ; nafti (adj.). 

Napkin, dast-mdl-i sar-i miz (table — ) : pish- 
gir* (table — ) : nihdlcha (of infants). 

Naples, Ndpul. 

Narcissus, nargis. 

Narcotic, Miwdh-dvar; munavvim (med.) : 
muskir, pi. muskirdt (intoxicant). 

Narration, vasf (k.) (to praise); ta'rif (speci- 
fication and praise) (k.) ; taqrir (k.) (also 
to make a speech) ; and baydn {k.) ; vide 
To say : ajsdna — or qissa — or hikdyat 
(guftari) (story). 

Narrative, rivdyat (k.) (sp. tradition) : ddstdn 
(sp. of adventure) {g.); qissa pi. qasas (g.) ; 
hikdyat {k. or g.) ; naql (k.). 

Narrator, ndqil; or rdvi (gen): qissa-gu ; 
or ddstdn-sard (story-teller) : rdvi rivdyat 
karda ast dar mulk-i Rum shdhanshdh-i 
hud ki 'addlat-ash misl-i Nushirvdn va 
sakhdvat-ash chun Hdtim mash-hur-i dfdq 
bud—Proi. S. T. 

Narrow, tang (also ' tight ') ; kam 'arz; kam- 
pahnd; bi-ham girifia (vulg. or local) ; 

1 Also in Arabic a nickname as " He of the cat " Abu Hurayrah. 

• Solomon had this name engraved on his seal and by it he compelled the Jinn to assist in building 
the temple. By this name the dead even have been raised to life. 

s JKbipab-i Mkargushi is also applied to state of negligence, or extravagance without regard to the 
future. ;' 

* Also the name of the loin-cloth in the hammani 




barik (of loads; also slim, slender; fine of 
thread) : inardVst naT^ar tang (greedy ; also 
miserly; but khaydl-ash mahdud ast or 
vast' nist "he is narrow-minded "). 

Narrowly, kam mdndabud (or — mand) ki 
ghfirqhi-shavam (I narrowly escaped drown- 

Nasal, harf-i ghunna (letter). 

Nasturtium, guUi Iddan. 

Nasty, bad-maza (taste) ; qay-avar (nause- 
ous) : vide Unclean , Dirty : muta'a/fin (of 
smell) : 'amal-i rafdk (a nasty, mean ac- 
tion). Vide Rose-water. 

Nation, millat, pi. milal (properly all peoples 
of one faith, in Persian, also a nation) ; 
ummat (followers of one prophet as ummat-i 
'Isa Christians ; sar-amad-i milal-i dunyd 
IngRshd ast (The Enghsh are the leading 

National, milli: dawlatl (of Government, 
state) . 

Native, buml ; u ahUi Iran ast (he is a native 
of Persia) : talaffuz ' az ahl-i zabdn bdyad 
bi-ydmuzid (learn the pronunciation from 
a native) ; u zd*\da-yi Kalkata ast (he was 
born m Calcutta) : zidd-bum ; or vaian (na- 
tive land or village). Vide Birth-place. 

Nativity, vilddat ; mildd; payddyish. Vide 

Natural, zdti ; jihilll, filri : gkarizi {in Persian 
of heat of body only) : dushmam-yi sag u 
gurba zdti (or tabi'i) ^st: az 'dlam-i^ zarrdt 
dushman-i yak digar and ( = they are 
enemies from the egg) . 

Naturalism, Naturalist, mazliab-i naychan; 
iabiHyyln pi. naychan (Eur.) (the doctrine). 

Naturalized, mujarras (Persianised ; of a 
foreign word in Persia) ; mu'arrab (Arabi- 
cised ; of a foreign word in Arabic) : asl"^^ 
Irani hast hdla mahsub-i bi- Hindi shuda: 
bi-Hindl mahsub mi-shavad, or dar i'ddd-i 
Hindi-hd dar dmada ast (he is a naturalised 

Naturally, ^^raf""; tabi'af^"; az sirisht ; bi't- 
tab' ; 'ddat"" (vulg.) ; bi 'z-zdt: bl-sdkhta 
(or sdda) bi-lstld (said by photographers 
to a posing person). 

Nature, tabl'at (God or of lu^.. , ; sirisht or 
nihdd: or fttrat (of man); oi .. wa< (lit. 
clay) ; tab' (nat. gift of poetry) ; babr az 
awal sharza (or qahr-dluda or daranda) 
ast (the tiger is fierce by nature) ; har kas 

sildh ma'na ddahl (every one who had 
anything in the nature of a weapon). 

Naughty, nd-guld; sharir (of children); u 
dukktar-i shayOdnVst; ay nd-durust 
(naughty boy! said playfully). 

Naughty, to be. Vide To meddle. 

Nausea, hdlat-i istifrdgh (feeling of — ; but 
istifrdcjji, alone the act of being sick) ; 
tahawu' (feeling of — ) ; kardhat az — 

Nauseate, kaldm-ash (or inta'dm) dil-am rd 
bi-ham mi-zanad (lit. makes me vomit). 

Nauseous, qay-dvar. 

Naushirwan, Nushiravdn. 

Nautical, Naval, bahri ; daryd^i ; madrasa-yi 
bahri (naval college) ; sdhib mansab-i bahri 
(naval officer) ; dar fann-i jang-i daryd^i 
Jhdpun khusha-chin-i khirman-i Inglis ast 
(Japan is the pupil of England in naval 

Navel, wa/; ndf-i finjdni ddrad (she has a 
navel Uke a cup; a point of beauty on 
which stress is laid by Arab and Persian 

Navigable, qdbil-i sayr-i kishti ; qdbil-i ' nbUr 
u murur-i safd^in 

Navigation, 'ilm-i malldhi (or — kishti-rd7ii) 
rd ydd girijta ast. 

Navigator, daryd-gard (a traveller by sea). 
Vide Navigation. 

Navy, isti'dddri bahri; quwa-yi bahriyya 
(naval power). 

Nazarene, Nasrdni, pi. XasSrq (now applied 
to any Christian). 

Nazareth, Ndsira. 

Near, nazdik (of things or animals); nazd 
(of persons) ; qarib (of things or animals 
or of time) ; qarib-i ham-digar nishastim 
(we sat near each other) ; dar qurb-i (in 
the vicinity of — ) ; muttasil (adjoining) ; 
dam-i dast (near at hand) ; dam-i kdliska 
dmad (he came near, to the edge of, my 
carriage) ; qardbat-i nazdik-i bd man ddrad 
(he is a near relation) ; dar in nazdiki-hd 
( = '• neighbourhood ; " also "in these 
days," in a future sense only) ; 'an-qarib 
ki — , (it is near that — ) ; kam mdnda ast 
divdna bishavam (I'm near going mad); 
jahJdz nazdik bi-gjyirq shitdan rasid (the 
ship nearly sank) ; kam mJdnda bud * ki — 
or chizri na-mdnd az — ( = nearly).' 

Near to, taqarrub k. ; nazdik sh. (to draw 

1 But Ifihja ' accent.' 

* ' Alam-i zarr, the world of atoms before creation 

3 Manda bud, incorrect m.c. for mand. 




near to) ; u dar nazar-i Shah taqarrub 
ydfta ast (he has found great favour in 
the sight of the Shah) . 

Nearly, taqrih"'" ; ' an qarlb ki — (it is near 
that — ). Vide Near. 

Nearness, nazdikl; qarabat. 

Near-sighted, nazar-ash kutah ast: vide Fnr- 
bUnd and Short-sighted. 

Neat, tamiz (clean and neat; gen.); murattah 
(of a room) ; zan-i pdkiza (neat woman) ; 
nazlf (clean ; of persons or clothes or 
garden); zan-i Farangi-ma^ah ' va hhayli 
pdklza (a mother's description to her son 
of the wife she has selected for him). 

Neatly, urd hd safd^'i du-nim kard (he cut it 
neatly in two) ; bad tawjih na-kard (he 
expressed it rather neatly). 

Neatness, pdkizagl; saliqa (good taste). 

Nebuchadnezzar, Bukhf-Nasar. 

Necessaries, lavdzim ; hqvd^ij and hdjdt , 
zaruriyydt; nd-guzirlhd-yi safar (the abso- 
lute necessaries of a journey). 

Necessarily, Id-budd ; Id mahdla. 

Necessary, vdjih ; Idzim ; bi-qadar-i luzum : 
bi-hich vdjh Idzim nisi dnajd bi-ravid : dnchi 
Idzima-yi tadhir bud bi-jd dvard (he did 
what was necessary) ; nan Idzima-yi zinda- 

Necessitarian, Jabri: Jabriyya (the sect). 

Necessitous, muhtdj. Vide Poor and Needy. 

Necessity, luziim ; zarurai ; hdjal, bi-farz-i 
zarurat = dar htn-i luzum (in case ot neces- 

Neck, gardan (of men, animals, bottles); 
gardan bi-gardan shudan (to fall on each 
other's neck); halq ; or gulii (throat); 
ndy ; or hulqum (wind pipe) ; vide Nape ; 
gardana (of land) ; gusht-i gorm (from the 
neck of a slaughtered animal). 

Neck-cloth, gardan-band (also necklace) ; or 
shal-i gardan (comforter) ; dastmdl-i gardan 
(scarf) . 

Necklace, gardan-band; [gulu-band or zir- 
guluf'l is a pendant to a pin or broach 
which fastens the chdrqad] ; tawq (a ring 
round the neck ; not now worn by the 
Persians) . 

Neck-tie, gardan-band (applied to English 
neck-tie ?). 

Necromancy, tasMiir-i arvdh ; taskhlr-i arvdh-i 
khabtsa (subduing evil spirits) ; taskhlr-i 
jinn. Vide Magician, etc. 

Nectarine, shalil. 

Need, luzum or zarurat {ddshtan) ; ihtiydj 
(ddshtan) (also = ' ' destitution ") ; bi-ku- 
mak-i shumd hich muhtdj mstan (or — ihti- 
ydj na-ddram) ; dar band-ash nistam (I am 
not in absolute need of it). 

Needle, auzan : javdl-duz (Yfa,cking—); surdkh 
or tah-i suzan (eye of — ) ; sar (point) ; mil 
(a bodkin, probe, blunt needle). 

Needle-case, suzan-ddn. 

Needleful, yak nahh abrisham (a needleful of 
silk). Vide Knitting. 

Needless, bl-zarurat; bi-luzum ; khud rd bl- 
jihat bi-zahmat mi-anddzad (she is giving 
herself needless trouble). 

Needy, muhtdj. Vide Poor. 

Nefarious, sham' (of men or actions) ; ma- 
'dan-i khubs u fasdd; or shaqi (of people) ; 
jazih (of actions). 

Negation, salb (in logic); naqiz'^ (opposite); 
inkdr ; nafi subs, (denying). 

Negative, nafiy subs, (gram); ba'zi awqdt 
khabar-i naji bihtar az isbdt ast (negative 
information is sometimes more useful than 

Negatively, nafy"" 

Neglect, (jkajlal {k.) iaghdful {k.) ; tahnvun 
{k.) ; tasdhul {k) : kutdhi (k.) ; In bi-vdsita- 
yi ihmdl-i shumd shuda. 

Neglect, QJidfil sh. : dar kar-ash susfi mi- 
kunad; rasldagi-yi atjdl-ash rd naml- 
kunad (she neglects her children). 

Neglected, vil guzdshta: kas-i pursdn-i hdl- 

Negligent, bl-khabar ; bi-parvd ; bl-iHind; 
sust ; Id-ubali •"* ; u tarnbal va ghdfll oat : dar 
kdr-ash ihmdl ddrad. 

Negotiate, Inak bardt-' mablagh-i* fuldn 
havdla ddda shud ki fuldn tdjir bi-shumd 
bi-parddzad (here is the bill of exchange 
for so much, assigned on such and such a 
merchant who will negotiate it for you). 

1 Ma*-ah Ax., prop. " place of return ; a repository " ; used in forming compound adjectives of like- 
ness, etc. 

4 Motion is the naqlz of rest, because a body must be either in motion or at rest; but black is the 
zidd of white, because an object may be void of both these ; it may be yellow or another colour but never 
botli black and white. 

8 Lit. in Arabic " I do not care." 

4 Note that mdblagh, unlike most qualifying words preceding numerals, is followed by an izo/a<. 
Havala sTittd = " assigned by me," Az chiz-l pardalchtan, "to finish," but hi-ehlz-i pardahhtan, "to 
attend to a thing. ' ' 




Negotiations, inuzakarat, pi. (between par- 
ties); iiiukhabarat : 77iuravaddt p]. (m.c). 

Negress, dukhtar- i IJabushi (young) ; zan-i 
Habashi: dada-siyah (a negress slave). 

Negro, Zanf/i (Zanzibirl) : Habashi (Abys- 
sinian) : /^a/wc/t (a black-skinned Balucli of 
a special tribe) : siydh : kaka ' or siydh or 
jf^ulam (a black male slave) : kaniz (gen., 
a slave woman) ; and dada (black slave 
woman) ; siydh gar surkh pushad k/jar bi- 
khandad ( = a jackdaw in peacock's" fea- 
thers. Negroes are fond of bright red, a 
colour not supposed to suit them). 

Neighing, shiha [zadan or kaahidan) ; ihahna 

Neighbour, ham-sdya ; ham-javar. 

Neighbourhood, bam-sdyagi ; javdr ; qurb u 
javir ; alrdf ; nazdiki ; dar in havdll (or 
naidhx) manzil ddrad, or vulg. dawr u 
bari man manzil ddrad (or dar in dawr u 
barhd — ); dar hainsdyaji-yi man mi- 
mmad, but dar havdll-yi (or navdin-yi) 
Shrdz ml-mdnad. 

Neither, nor, na — na: na in na dn (neither 
tiis nor that; neither the one tiling nor 
tie other); .*. Na khud khuri na kas dihl 
: ganda kuni bi-sag dihl .*. (" you neither 
tat it nor give it away : you spoil and 
then give it to the dogs": said of the 

Nfjd, Najd:' 

Ntphew, barddar-zdda and khwdharzdda 
(nephew or niece) : pisar-ibarddar, etc. etc ; 
pisar-i kdkd (vulg. ; son of elder brother). 

lepotism, najsdniyyat (prop, selfishness) ; 

Nerve, 'asaba or 'asab; and pay (also = 
sinew, tendon, etc.). 

Nervous, amrdz-i asabi (nervous diseases). 

Nest, dshiydna (k.) (of birds) fchdna {k.) (of 
animals, of ants) : gbfil {k.) and Idna (k.) 
(of birds and wasps) ; chdl {k.) (of wasps). 

Nestle to, {dar — ) dast u pd jam' karda 
nishaslan (of animals) : bdl u par jam' k. 
(of birds). 

Nestling, dshiydni (eyess) : buz-yur T. and 
farkh Ar. pi. afrakh (in Falconry a bird 
in the immature plumage, before the first 
moult ; vide Haggard) : juja (of domestic 
fowl or any running chick). 

Nestorian, Nasturi. 

Neitorices, Nastur. 

Net, tur (gen. ; also lace) : du-gaza (a small 
hawk-net) : dam (any snare) : shabaka Ar. 
(netting, net-work). 

Net to, bi-tUr giriftan. 

Netted, turi ; vide Snared : mushabbak (of 
net- work). 

Nettle, anjara; gazna; [palakam, a leaf 
applied to cure a nettle-sting ; the dock ?J. 

Neuralgia, dard-i 'asab; nazla,"^ or vulg. 
rikhta. Vide Catarrh. 

Neuter, iazkir u taints na-ddrad: gjaayr-i zt 
ruh (things without life). 

Neutral, bi-taraj. 

Never, hargiz; or asl"" ; or abad"* ; or kick 
vaqt (with verb in negative) : vaqt-i gul-i 
nay, or nuh-sharnba-yi dkhir-i Jiafta (never ; 
said to children to put them off ; the nay 
of course never flowers. Compare the 
English "When Good Friday falls on a 
Monday ") ; haftdd sdl-i siydh. 

New, naw ; tdza; jadid; tdzagi na-ddrad 
(there's nothing new in this); dast na- 
khurda (untouched, first-hand). 

New Year's Day, Naw-ruz; "Id-i Naw-ruz 
(festival of — ). 

New-comer, tdza-vdrid. 

New-fashioned, naw dar dvard (of clothes, 
the latest invention) . 

Newness, jiddat : tdzagi. 

News, khabar (pi. akhbdr) (news or news- 
paper) ; muzhda ; or khabar-i khush (good 
news) ; az bishdrat-i* ki Mawld-yi mushkil- 
kuohd-yam bi-man dad khdtir-jam' shuda 
qasd-i Rum kardam — Prof. S. T. (feeling 
easy on hearing the joyful news my 
learned master gave me, I started for 
Turkey) ; muzhdagdni (a present for good 
news) ; khabar-i bad (bad news) : suhbat-i 
bdzdri (bazaar talk). 

Newsmonger, akhbdr-chi (gen. , also a report- 
er to a newspaper) ; khabar-tardsh. 

News-writer, akhbdr-navis , or vaqd*i'-nigdr 
(to newspaper). 

Next, maJi-i dyanda or mdh-i dtiya (next 
month): ruz-i digar or — ba'd, or fardd 
(next day) : mdh-i bad or mdh-i digar (the 
month following) ; tnuttasil (adjoining) : 
ba'd az in (adv ). 

1 Kaka, properly ••elder brother." 

* Pronounced 'Nejd.* 

8 Nazla (in coll. Ar. = apoplexy) is properl,- ••catarrh," but is a vague t«rm 
supposed to turn the hair \vhit*>. cause tlie teeth to decay, and the eyes to water. 

* Or bashZirat. 

for a disease that is 




Nib of a pen,sar-i qalam (m.c.) : sar-i qalam-i 
fuladl (steel nib) ; fak{k) (the slit) : nuk-i 
qalam (the nib portion of a reed pen) ; 
zabana-yi qalam (each side of the nib) ; 
qadd-zan (a strip of horn or ivory on 
which pens are nibbed). 

Nib to, qadd (or qatt) zadan. 

Nice, khayli-jd-yi ha safd ' tst or jd*-ist khayll 
bd safd (it's a very nice place) : khush 
ta'm ; or khush-maza (of taste) ; daqiq 

Niche, tdqcha (any small niche) : hilMi (an 
arched niche) ; mihrdb (in a mosque ; for 

Nick, gusha (notch in wood). Vide Time. 

Nickel, nikal (Eur.) ; varshu (Russian) (elec- 

Nick-name, laqab guzdshtan or nihddan) (also 
title) ; hard-yi u ism guzdshta-and. 

Nick-named, mulaqqab (also entitled, titled). 

Niece, dukhtar barddar or dukhtar-khwdhar. 
Vide Nephew. 

Nicholas, Nikld. 

Niggard, mumsik ; bakhil. Vide Miser, 
Mean, etc. 

Niggardliness, imsdk ; ^ bukhl or bakhdlat. 

Night, shab ; shaw (vulg.) ; layl Ax. pi. laydli; 
dishab, vulg. dishaw (last night) ; sahar 
(the last part of the night, i.e., the early 
morning before dawn) ; shab-i yaldd (the 
longest night) ; shabdiia-ruz (night and 
day ; 24 hours) ; parl-shab (the night 
before last) ; harf-i shab subh na-ddrad 
( = no importance must be attached to an 
after-dinuer speech) ; imshab yak sal ast 
(interminable night) ; biyd td dar suhbat 
shab bi-ruz drim (let us pass the night in 
talking) ; dar dil-i shab (in the dead of 
night); imshab, vulg. imshaw (this, i.e., 
the coming, night) ; shab-nishastan or sho^ 
nishinik. (to make a night of it) ; shab- 
zinda-dar (one who watches and prays by 
night; also used of dogs)^; Shah-i Qadar 
(supposed to be between 19th and 27th of 
Ramazan; the doors of Heaven are open 
and the angels descend) ; Shab-i Bardt (on 
the 15th of Sha'ban. Vide note to Re- 

Night-blind, shah-kur (opp. to ruz-kur). 

Night-blindness, shab-kuri. 

Night-brawler, shab-gard (also of animals 
' prowling at night.' Vide also Night- 
Night-cap, shab-kuldh. 
Night-dress, jdma-yi hhwdb ; [but rakht-i 

khwdb ' ' bedding ' 'J. Vide Night-Shirt. 
Nightingale, bulbul (a term sp. applied to the 
nightingale but also to several species of 
warblers) ; hazdr-ddstdn, or hazdr, or 'anda- 
lib pi. 'anddil (the nightingale Daulias 
Hafizi or Sylvia Luseenia) ; bulbul-i 
khurmid (the Common Bulbul). 

Nightly, har-shab ; or shabdna (every night). 

Night-man, khald-pdk-kun ; or hhdss^chln 
(who cleans latrines at night). 

Nightmare, kdbus ; khuftu (m.c. only); bakh- 
tak; qabuk (all with — dar khwdb dmaian). 

Nightshade. Vide Henbane. 

Night-shirt, yak td-yi pirdkan (with nothing 
on but a night-shirt). Vide Night-dress. 

Night-watch, shah-gard {vide Night-brayler) ; 
' asas. 1 

Nihilist, Nihilist (Eur.). 

Nile, Rud-i Nil. 

Nimble, chdbuk ; shdtir ; khush-daw (syift 
and also with good action; of a holse, 
etc.) : ziring (also of intellect). 

Nimrod, ' ' Nimrod persecuted Abrahar 
Namrud Ibrahim rd sitam kard. 

Nine, nuh. 

Nineteen, Nineteenth, nuzdah ; nuzdahi 

Ninety, navad. 

Nineveh, Ninavd or Naynavd. 

Nip to, pinjar giriftan (pinch with the fingei 
only) ; nishkunj or nishkan giriftan. 

Nipped, angusht-am tu-yiambur fishurda shud;\ 
or arnbur angusht-am rd girift ; or angusht- 
am tu-yi arnbur gir kard. 

Nippers, arnbur. 

Nipple, sar-i pistdn : pistdnak (of gun). 

Nishapur , ' Nayshdpur. 

Nit, rishk. Vide Lice. 

Nitre, natrun. 

No, not, na : khayr (polite) ; nodding the 
head forward English-fashion is " Yes," 
but throwing the head back, and some- 
times at the same time closing the eyes, 
is "No." Simply closing the eyes is 
"Yes," while raising the eyebrows is 


_lliU>U or 

* But u Tchayll imsak darad has a common and objectionable meaning. 
8 Hence ' Usman-i akab zinda-dar, a Shi'a equivoque. 




"No"); na khayr ; az tah pul na-ddram 
(no; I have no money at all) ; hihakhshid 
(lit. pardon me) ; nay nay, or khayr khayr 
(no, no! not at all!). 

Noah, "Noah built the ark at the time of 
the flood ' ' Nuh pish az tufdn kishii rd 
sdkht; [kishti-yi — or saftna-yi, Nuh, " the 
Ark " ; tuldn-i Nuh, ''the Flood "]. 

Nobility, najdbat ; or shardfat (worth) ; shura- 
fd'^u 7iM;a6a* (nobility and gentry). 

Noble, sharij (in lineage and nature) ; najih 
(ditto) ; buzurg-zdda ' or amir-zada (of 
noble race) ; bi-marg-i rnajddna murd (he 
died a noble death; opp. to marg-i razl- 

Nobles, nujabd'-. Vide Nobility. 

Nobly, najibdna. 

Nobody, hich kas'^ (no-one, with verb in nega- 
tive) ; mard-i majhul-i ast, or vulg. u kas-i 
nist (he's a nobody); past pdya (of no 
family ; and also of low family) ; hlch-kdra : 
dnkhil-i qdzurdt ham nist (not even dirt). 

Nocturnal, shab-gard (of animals). 

Nod, bd sar ishdra kardan (' vide ' No and 
Not) ; or sar jumbdnldan : churl zadan (in 
sleep ; vide Nap) ; pinaki z. (sp. for opium 
smokers, etc.). 

Noise, ghawgbJd (of crowd) ; dvdz ; or sada (of 
things) ; hdy huy, or shurish (of crowd) ; 
shdt u shut (loud talking) ; tdqal-i in qadar 
shar u shur norddram (I can't stand this 
noise ; of people) ; harf nami-zdnad tup ml- 
zanad^ (he's not talking, he's making a 
noise to frighten you) ; dar dil-i shab sadd- 
yi shika^lan-% dmad (in the dead of night I 
heard the noise of something cracking); 
farydd (loud cry) ; shuLuq (disturbance and 
noise ; of people) ; valvala (excited cries of 
grief or exultation ; inde Howling) ; hdy u 
huy (hue and cry) ; ddd u bi-ddd (crying 
Noiseless, bl-sadd; or bt-dvdz; or bi-sadd u 
nidd (of people, things ; ' ' desolate, quiet ' ' 
of a place). 
Noisily, bd sadd-yi buland. 
Noisy, ghawghd^l (of individuals) ; pur-sadd 

(of a street). Vide Uproarious. 
Nolens volens, khwdhl na-khwdhi ; tau"^" aw 

Nomad, %l^ pi. Hat or xliydi (a nomad tribe) ; 

lliydti, adj. ; chddar-nishin or bddiya- 
nishin, subs or adj. ; badii (a Bedouin). 

Nomadic, badavi (of .Arabs only). Vide 

Nom-de-plume, takhaUu^ (of poet) ; ismri far:^ 
(other than in poetry). 

Nominal, ismi ; bard-yi ndm or — tain (not 
in reality). 

Nominally, ism""; nan ismi yak man yak 
qardn ast, vali si shdhi mi-farushand (m.c.) 
(bread is nominally a qardn a mann but in 
reality it is sold at 1^ qardn). 

Nomination, tasmiya (kardan) ; ndm-zad kar- 
dan. Vide Appoint 

Nominative, hdlat-i fd'ili (gram.). 

Nominator, ndmzad-kun; nasb-kun. 

None, hich na (of things) ; hich kas na''^ — (of 
persons) : hich kuddm na — (ditto) ; ahad-% 
na-ydmad* (none came) : dar jahdn kist 
ki bi-gundh bdshad ? ; kas-t nist ki bi-gundh 

Nonentity, nisti: 'adam; fand (non-exist- 
ence) ; hich ast (of a person). 

Non-existent, nist; nd-bud; ma'dum; 'adtm^* 

Nonsense, to talk, puch, or bi-ma'ni, or bi- 
huda adj. (guftan) ( = " worthless " ; of 
men or things) ; cliarand or harza or laghv 
or jafang {guftan); harf-i muft {zadan); 
ardjif {guftan) (lit. false rumours) : az ru-yi 
fahm nami-guyad = ru-yi ham mi-guyad 
(he's talking rot ; ' gasing ' etc.) : marcUika 
guh mi-khurad vulg. (the fellow's talking 
rot); in hama pashm ast (vulg., this is 
nonsense ; lit. this is all pubes hair ; but 
of cloth, " this is all wool "). 

Nonsensical, bi-khud ; bi-ma'mi , bihuda; 
vdhi : ydva (rare). 

Non-suited, murdfa'a-yi mudda'i rd radd 

Noon, nim-ruz ; zuhr; nisf'''n-nahdr ; vasat-i 

Nooning, qaylula, or khipdb-i nim-ruz (noon- 
day sleep). 
Noose, kham-i kamand (of lasso*); qil (?) 
(horse-hair noose ?) ; halqa-yi mu-yi asp 
(horse-hair noose) ; dJdm (snare). Vide 
Nor, na. Vide Neither. 
North, shimJal (but sliamdl North- wind); 

i In India biizurgzada, " the son of a Murahid, etc., but in Persia aqa-zwia. 

t But in a complex sentence har kaa — na. 

8 Tup-zadan, also " to ask a high price." 

* But ahad-% az lahan na.yamadarui. 

6 In India kharij kardand. « Sometimes kikam, " untanned leather," is used for 






qutb-i shimdl (N. Pole) ; taraf-i sharq u 
shimdl (N.-E.). 

Nose, hlni ; dimagh; puza (muzzle of ani- 
mals); pul-i dimagh-am khurd shud (I 
broke the bridge my nose) ; ura gush u 
binl^ kardand (m.c.) (they cut off his ears 
and nose) ; dimagh-i qalarrn (a fine straight 
nose) ; dimagiri khamida (aquiUne nose) ; 
dimagh-i minqar-i shdhim, or adj. shdhln- 
bim (hook-nosed, with a large hook nose) ; 
dimdgh-i durusht (a large or fat nose) ; 
dimdgh-i pilch '^ (a flat nose) ; dimdgk-i 
hhumrudi^ (with a large blob nose); az 
(surdkh-i) dimdgh harf mi-zanad (he talks 
through his nose) ; dimdgh-i pahn-i hhwd- 
btda (broad flat nose) ; dimxigh-i bar gashta, 
(turned-up nose) ; hlni-yi istdda (promi- 
nent nose): dirmghrbdru adj. (with a 
coarse Jewish or Armenian nose) ; dimdgh 
fin kardan, or — takdnidan (to blow the 
nose poor-man fashion) ; pdk kardan (in 
any manner). Vide Infra. 

Nostril, tninkhar, dual mmkharayn ; surdkh-i 
dimdgh: lula-yi dimdgh (of hawks or 
men) ; para-yi dirndgk (the outside of the 

Not, na; in compounds ^a^/ri — ; mutlaq"", 
or asld or asl"", or bihich vajh (not at all ; 
with negative verb) ; bi-hich vajh min al- 
vujuh (by no manner of means) ; mutlaq"^ 
na (not at all q.v.). Vide Won't. 

Notable, sar-shindsdn (the leading people of 
a place) ; mashdhir, or mutashakhkhisin 
(ditto) . Vide Known and Nobles. 

Notch, sufdr (notch in arrow; rare in m.c). 

Note, hdshiya, pi. havdshi (a margin and a 
marginal note) ; ydd-ddsht (memo.) : pd- 
sa/^a (foot-note; mod.); ikhtdr, or intibdh 
( =N.B ) ; vide Letter ; iskinds (R. ; bank- 

Note-book, kitdbcha (also pocket-book). 

Noted, ma'ruf (well-known) ; u bi-duzd mash- 
hur ast (he is noted as a thief) ; marqum: 
or maktub (written): mazkura bald (noted, 
mentioned above). 

Nothing, az man chlz-i khivdst vali hich na- 
dddarn : bi-man chi ? - bi-man hich ruju' 
na-ddrad (it has nothing to do with me) ; 
khidmat-i chanddn-i na-bud (it was noth- 
ing I did for you) ; dar in muhimm mard 
sar u kdr-% nist (I have nothing to do with 

this matter) ; hizi ki na-kardam duzdi ki 
na-kardam (a common speech even in the 
mouth of women; = "I have done noth- 
ing dreadful ; no harm) : Khudd hich nlst 
vulg. for Khudd mddda nist (God is im- 
material). Vide Minor. 

Nothingness, rm-chizi (being of no value) ; 
'adam; or nisti; or madumi (non-exis- 

Notice, qdbil-i mahall (or i'tind) nlst (he's 
worth nothing) ; i'Zaw (poster, etc.) : lihdz ; 
or tavajjuh (attention). 

Notice to, mutavajjih shudan ; i'tind k. (to 
heed ; on purpose) ; vide Hurry : urd 
didam vail multafit-ash na-shudam ("I saw 
him but did not notice him"; by acci- 
dent, inadvertence) ; mahall na-guzdshtan 
(to take no notice of a person, on purpose ; 
to cut) ; ru-yi kdr dmadan (to come into 
notice) ; az In kdr 'dr-am ml-dyad (it is 
beneath my notice) ; tavajjuh dihdnidan 
(to draw attention to). Vide Attention. 

Noticeable, qdbil-i zikr ; qdbil-i did; jdlib-i 
nazar : gdv-i sajid-plshdni {budan). 

Notification, ittild' (k.) ; ikhbdr (k.); i'ldn 
(k.). Vide Inform. 

Notion, gumdn ; khaydl: sardfat (fancy); 
hads (conjecture) ; qiyds (guess etc.) ; 
i'tiqdd (belief) ; ittild' (information). Vide 

Notoriety, shuhrat, and shuhrat-i dfdq (in 
good or bad sense but spec. good). 

Notorious, mash-hur and ma'ruf (in good or 
bad sense) ; misl-i kufr-i Iblis mash-hur 
ast: harf-l u nuql-i majlis ast (he has 
become notorious; he is in every one's 
mouth like the sweetmeat nuql*)j u 
shuhra-yi dfdq shuda = kas-l nist ki urd na- 
ddnad (famous, or notorious) ; u zabdn- 
zad-i hama shuda (famous or notorious) ; 
angusht-numd shuda ast (pointed out for 
bad). Vide Known and Famous. 

Notwithstanding, bd-vujud-i ki ; bd-vqsf-i dn 
ki : bd in hama : bd dn-ki : (va) hdl an-ki 
(whereas) . 

Nought, sifr (num.); hich, etc., vide Noth- 
ing; M^aydldt-ash bi-havd va hadar raft 
(his ideas came to nought). 

Noun, ism, pi. asmd^ (gram., also name, 
names); ism-i si fat (adj.); ism-i jam' 
(collective noun) ; ism-i zdt (a real noun) ; 

1 The word bim la almost obsolete in m.c. 2 For pikht. 

8 Corruption of kJium and amrud, " pear." 

♦ Nuql is a small white sweet. But u nuql-i majlis ast (all like him). 
6 The pi. asaml, only " names." 




ism-i ma'na (abstract noun) ; hdail-i inas- 
dar (verbal noun) ; iam-i jdmid (primitive 

Nourish to, parvarish dddan, or — kardan; 
or jHirvardan ; or {xirvaridan (of humans, 
animals, trees) ; tarbiyat kardan (humans 
or animals). Vide to Feed. 

Nourisher, iarhiyat-kun. 

Nourishment. Vide Food. 

Nouveau-riche, naw-kisa. 

Novel, rumdn, Ft. (romance). 

Novelist, rurmn-navis (Fr. P.). 

Novelty, tiizagt ; jiddat. 

November, Navainbar (Eur.). 

Novice, naw-dmuz ; mvhtadi; imwcha (rare); 
tdza bi-kdr, or tdza ru-yi kdr dniada ; tdza- 
xmdn. or jadtd"U-isldm (a new convert to 
Islam) ; taht-i tajriba. Vide Probationer 
and Convert 

Noviciate, muddat-i imtihdn. 

Now, hdld ; aldn ; aknun or kunun ; harmn 
hdld (vulg.) ; aldn va bi'l-fl'l; gdh gdh-i 
(now and then) ; inak bi-khdtir-am mi-rasad 
ki — (now it has just occurred to ray mind 

Nowhere, hich jd (with verb in negative). 

Nowise, bi-hich vajh, or — iawr, or - guna 
or — qism (with verb in negative). 

Noxious, muzi (of living things) ; muzirr (of 
plants, vapours). 

Nubia, Nuba. 

Nuhi\e, ball jji ; bi-hadd-i taklif rasida ; khud 
rd shindkhta asi. Vid^. Puberty. 

Nude, 6a/aAna ; 'ury^n; lukht. Fjc^e Naked. 

Nugatory, bdtil. 

Nuisance, asbdb-i dard-i sar ; dzdr-i 'umumi, 
or zahmat'i — or shikdyat-i — (public — ) ; 
vahrd : bald. 

Null and void (to make), ibldl kardan (rare) ; 
bdtil k. [tion. 

Nullity, butldn: mansukh shudan (cancellar 

Numb, az sarmjd baynt shuda (local I); az 
aarmd angusht-hd-yam bl-hiss (or khttshk) 
shuda asi. 

Number, 'adad, pi. a' dad; numra (of periodi- 
cals, etc.) ; 'adad-i zawj or juft (even num- 
ber) ; ' adad-i tag (odd number) : chand 
nafar hdzir budand? ('what number of 
persons — ? ", but chand nafar-i m.c. ''a 
few persons"): bx-hisdb (without num- 

Number, to, 'adad k. ; shimurdan, rt. shumdr. 
Vide Count. 

Numbered, ma' dud. 

Numberless. Vide Countless. 

Numda, 'araq-glr (a numda under the 

Numeral, hindaaa (for handaaa). 

Numeration, ta'ddd (vulg. ti'ddd); ahumdra. 

Numerator, bast, or 8urat"l-kasr (arith. ; 
opposed to makhraj or maqdm*'l-kasr). 

Numerous, vide Many; ambuh (vulg.); az 
hadd u hisdb (or haddu hasr) bxrun (too 
numerous to be counted). 

Nun, rdhiba : zan-i tdrik-i dunyd. 

Nurse, bachcha-garddn (of children) ; dada or 
d^ya (wet-nurse) ; [dada also negress slave] ; 
paristdr (of sick) ; gis safid (an old faith- 
ful servant; duenna; matr(n; also a 
' wise- woman ') ; jmraidam ddya rd chi 
khivdhi kard ? Javdb ddd ki " In kdr-i 
dsdn ast ; qadr-i bi-u zahr mi-khurdnam ' ' 
— Prof. S. T. (I asked her what she would 
do about the nurse. She said, "It's easy 
enough to settle her; I'll just give her a 
little poison"). 

Nursing. Vide Overlooking. 

Nurture, parvarish kardan ; vide Nourish ; u 
ndz-parvarda bud [ = Indian sdya-parvarda 
or dar sdya parvarish ydfta] (delicately 
nurtured) ; vide Shade ; bdld dvardan (to 
bring up). 

Nusrabad, Nusrdbdd (a penal station in the 
lul between Sistan and Baliichistan). 

Nut, jawz (of walnut or cocoa-nut) ; funduq 
(filbert) ; girdU (walnut) ; pi.'ita (pistachio) ; 
ndrjll (cocoa-nut) ; jawz-i ^//trfi (mutmeg) ; 
chil^uza (of edible pine) ; fufal (betel) ; 
pulak, or muhra-yi pich (of a screw). 

Nut-brown, rang-i junduqi. 

Nutmeg. Vide Nut. 

Nutshell, pust. 

Nutritious, pur-quwai ; muqavvi. 

Nux vomica, kuchala. Vide Strychnine. 

Nymph. Vide Fairy ; Houri or Huri. 

Nymphomania, ' illat-i jxma' (gen.). 

O ! yd ; o-x ' ^y ) ; or oy C j^l ) (for attract- 
ing attention) ; akh (for pain) ; Khuddya f ; 
or (75) ildhx; or Yd Rabb (O God!) (for 

Oak, darakht'i bdliit (or — ballut); [bdlut 
' ' acorn. ' ' Vide Jay]. 

Oak-apple, rndzH . jift-mdzu. 

Oar, mardi; [f^ru, zadan, to rowj ; bidun-i 
pdru chi tawr mi-tavdnand zawraq rd hi- 
rdnand ? 

Oarsman, pdru-zan. 




Oath, sawgand {ydd kardan) ; qasam {khur- 
dan) ; half kardan ; qasam-i durugli khur- 
dan (a false oath) ; dar mahkama-yi shar' * 
shuhud qasam mi-ldmrand ; ba-qasam u dya 
(with oaths) ; sawgand — or qasam dddun 
(to administer an oath) ; qasam-hd-yi 
gh ildz va shiddd (great, binding oaths) 
bay' at girijtan (to take an oath of fealty). 
Vide Swear. 

Obdurate, bi-ta^assur (unafifected) ; sang-dil 
(hard-hearted) ; bi-rahm (pitiless). 

Obedience, farmdn-barddn ; itd'at; bdyad 
ita'at-i urd bi-kunid, or muti'-i hukm-i u 
bdshid; farmdn-i urd bi-ta'abbud qdbul 
mi-kunand (blind obedience). 

Obedient, muti' ; farmdn-barddr ; tdbi' ; far- 
zanddn-i ahl * tdbi'-i vdlidayn-i khud has- 
tand va hama kas rd hurmat ml-ddrand^; 
izhdr-i bandagi (k.). 

Obeisance, ta'zim (k.) (any reverence); vide 
Rule ; kiirnish (k.) (bowing the head) . 
Vide Bow. 

Obelisk, mtl-i chdr-gusha. 

Obese, gunda : surin-ash lurnba , or pur-lumba 
ast (he has big ' quarters ' ; lurnba is the 
tail of a fat- tailed sheep) ; chdq u gunda; 
misl-ifil-i mangus *(a,n obese fellow). 

Obesity, gundagi. 

Obey, itd'at k. ; farmdn barddr shudan; man 
bdyad hukm-ash rd bi-jd bi-ydvaram, or 
itd'at-i amr-ash rd bi-kunam, or bi-hukm- 
ash tan dar diham. 

Obituary, vafdt-ndma. 

Object, chtz ; or shay, pi. ashyd (thing) ; 
maqsad, pi. maqdsid (desire) ; gharaz-i 
shumd chi chiz ast ? (what is your object, 
purpose ?) ; az raftan ^ bi-Mashhad chi mat- 
lab (or maqsud) ddshti? : khar-i khud rd 
az pul guzardnid ( = he's got his own 
object) ; bi-murdd, etc., rasidan (to obtain 
one's object) ; maf'ul (gram.). 

Objection, i'tirdz k. ; az in dalil-i ki shumd 
dvarda-id irdd-i m%-giram (I have an objec- 
tion to raise against your argument); 
muzdyaqa nami-kunam (I won't object) ; 
'ayb dar an nami-binam (I see no objec- 
tion); harf-i na-ddram, or 'uzr-i na-ddram 
(I have no objection, nothing to say 
against it). 

Objectionable, qdbil-i irdd, etc. ; mard-% 
makruh (objectionable man). 

Objective, nazari (opposite of hissi " subjec- 

Objector, trad-gir ; mu'tariz. 

Obligation, minnat {nihddan) (to place a 
person under — ; also to cast obligations 
in a person's teeth); ihsdn; imtindn; zir-i 
bdr-i minnat budan (to be under an obliga- 
tion to — ) ; namak-shindsi (gratitude) ; 
rmmak-lchwdragi vd bi-sharmi khub nist ki ^ 
ihsdn-i ghayr-l bar gardan girl va taldft 
na-kuni — Prof. S. T. (" — its not the 
thing to accept an obligation and not 
repay it " ) . Vide Duty. 

Obligatory, ijbdrl; bi-man — (or bar man) 
farz ast; Idzim ast bi-kunam: gardan- ash 
bar shud ki bi-kunad (he was forced to do 
it). Vide Force. 

Oblige, to, vide to Force; mamnun sdkhtan 
(by doing a favour); marhuni minnat 
garddnldan (place under a deep obliga- 
tion) ; minnat bar gardan-i banda ddrid 
(you have placed me under an obligation 
= thank you). 

Obliged, mamnun sh. ; dar rizd-mandi-yi 
dqd-yi khud bdyad kushish kunid ; kamdUi 
imtindn rd ddram (I am much obliged to 
you) ; agar mard az in amr muttaW farmd- 
yld ba'id az mihrabdni na-kh,wdhad bud — 
Prof. S. T. ; agar avval sar-guzasht-i khud 
rd baydn kunid md mustafiz mi-shavim — 
Prof. S. T. Firfe Thanks. 

Obliging, khaliq or ba ta'druf (civil). 

Obligingly, az ru-yi mahabbat ; az ru-yi imti- 

Oblique, kaj ; urub (vulg.), or urib ; qayqdj 
nishastan (of men'' to sit affectedly 
in the saddle, the body half-left, the 
hands and reins held half- right; also to 
sit in a chair with the body above the 
waist half-turned) ; qayqdj zadan (to shoot 
right or left off horse-back) ; qayqdj shu- 
dan (turning the body half-left to draw 
the sword). 

Obliterate, pdk k. ; mxihv sdkhtan (efface) ; 
hakk k. (erase, by friction). Vide Efface 
and Erase. 

Oblivion, fardmushi ; nisydn. 

1 Oaths are not administered in the majikama-yi '■urf and only principals and not witnesses are 
sworn. The law allows expiation for an inconsiderate oath. 

2 AM, obedient opposed to lia-ahl, disobedient (m.c). 

8 Note Present tense of dashtan in a compound verb. * For Mangalus. 

6 Or az raftan i bi-Maahhad. • Ki = ya'ni. 

' Of women, " to ride side-saddle." 




Ohliyioxis, faramu ah- kar ; ghafil ; nasi. 

Oblong, mustatil 

Obloquy, to' n (2 ) (taunt) ; taahnV k. (to hold 
up to — ) : sharnatat (derision or rejoic- 
ing of enemies at failure or misfortune) ; 
iawbikh (reproof or censure) ; sar-zanish 
(ditto); tash,hir (k.) ; maVun-i kha1E*'iq k. 
(to hold up to — ). 

Obnoxious, manfur (hated) ; makruh (hate- 
ful). Vide Hate. 

Obscene, karza (of persons or books) ; jahish 
(ditto) ; fahhash (of persons ; obscene and 
abusive) ; Hukumat-i Hind hukm jdrl 
bar da ki Kulliyydt-i Sa'di mushlamil az 
harzagVsi: kitdb-i hazliyydt (=inm.c. a 
book humourously obscene '). 

Obscenity, harzagi: juhsh (filthy abuse). 

Obscenely, fdkishdna. 

Obscure, tdrlk ; tar (dark) ; mugbJLaq (ab- 
struse) ; daqxq (subtle) ; mvbham (amphibo- 
logical ; not clear ; a fault) ; ghdmiz or 
mu(jhmaz (veiled) ; mu'ammq (adj. and 
subs, riddle) ; muhmal (no particular 
meaning) ; mushtabih (of passages of doubt- 
ful meaning in the Quran) ; nd-ma'ruf or 
^um-ndm * (of a man) ; havd tank hud ki 
md savdr shudtm ("we mounted in the 
obscure light of morning;" or " — of 
evening " ) ; vaqt-i gurg u mish (the half- 
light or twilight before dawn; and also 
at evening). 

Obscurity, giriftagl (of cloudy day) ; txra^gl 
(darkness, q.v.). 

Obsequies, rusum-i tadjin. 

Obsequious, hisydr muti' ; ziyad faru-tant — 
or kuchaki mi-kunud ; khayli fish fish mi- 

Obsequiously, mutt' ana. 

Observance, ijrd^; hijd dvardan; add*; Ta- 
shayyu' iqdma-yi 'am-yi Imam Husayn 
har sal mi-kunand (the Shi* as keep the 
celebration of the mourning of Husayn). 

Observant. Vide Attentive and Obedient. 

Observation, rasad-bandl {k.) (astr.) ; miUd- 
haza (by sight and also ' ' remark ") : harf ; 
or kalima (saying) ; izhdr-i ray (expression 
of opinion). 

Observatory^, rasad; rasad-khdna. 

Observe, mulahaza k. ; or pd^idan; or dtdan 

(to look at) ; bi-jd dvardan (to fulfill) ; 
mar*% ddshtan or bi-jd dvardan (of customs, 
etc.); vide be Attentive to, to Watch: 
iT^hdr ddshtan ; or guftan : murdqaba-yi hdl- 
ash rd mi-kard (he continued observing all 
he did). 

Observer, murdqib (gen.) ; zdhir-btn (superfi- 
cial — ) ; rasad-band (astron. ). 

Obsolete, qadimi shuda; mansuMi (prop, 
cancelled); malruk* ; mutaddvil — (or wio'- 
mul — ) na ; in istildh hdld az miydn rafta 
ast, or — tark shuda ast; tn rusumhd hold 
mundaris^ shuda ast (m.c). 

Obstacle, tn mdni'-i ta'lim-am ast, or mard az 
ta' lim mdni^ mishavad ; dar kdr-am khalal 
mi-anddzad; sadd-i buzurg-% dar miydn-i 
rdh bud. 

Obstinacy, ziddiyyat (cussed opposition) ; lajd- 
jat (persisting in a request ; or sticking to a 
wrong opinion) ; khud-rd'^% (opinionative- 
ness) ; yak-dandagi (local) ; or yak pahlO- 
gari ; ov sar sakhtl (ditto); «5rar (pressing, 

Obstinate, khud-rdy (opinionated) ; lajj-hdz ; 
or lajuj: kallorkhar (stupid and obsti- 
nate, muhsh) ; dar ra'y-i khud khayli khud- 
sar and. 

Obstructed, masdud; basta. 

Obstruction, mdni' ; aadd : sadda or sudda (in 
bowels) ; [sar-am sudda karda ast (vulg. or 
local?) = "I have a cold in the head"]; 
mi-khiodst bi-kunad vali hard-yam sang 
anddkhtand (he wanted to help me but 
obstructions were placed in the way). 

Obstructive, muta'arriz; mukhill. 

Obtain, ydjtan, rt. yah; hdsil — or tahsil 
kardan ; kash k. ; hi-dast dvardan ; fardkam 
dvardan; hi-ham rasdnidan; Injd miva 
bi-ham mi-rasad? (can any fruit bo ob- 
tained here ?) ; muyassar shudan (not with 
kardan) : gir dmadan and dvardan ; vusul 
ydjtan intr. and — kardan tr. 

Obtainable, ydftani ; husul-pazir ; gir-dma- 
dani ; hi-dast dmadani ; muyassar. 

Obtaining, tahsil; husul; nayl. 

Obtuse, khul-damang ; vide Stupid: zdviya-yi 
munfarija ( — angle). -1' , 

Obverse, taraf-i rdst, or ru (of medal; opp. 
to pusht). 

1 Hazl prop .'* a jest," but on account of a work of Sa'di the word has in m.c. this secondary 

* Gum-nam in India ' anonymous.' 

3 The Eastern observatory was a deep pit in the ground. 

* U matrvk-i naz^ar-i Mio" 'l-Mulk ahuda oat " he is out of favour with the 'Ala<»'I-Mulk.'* 

* Mundaris Ar. "worn out," etc. 




Obvious, zahir ; k'^'' shrshams fi vasatys-sama; 
chlz-% ki Hydn ast chi hdjat hi-bayan ast? ; 
misUi ruz rushan ast. Vide Apparent. 

Obviously, zdhir"". 

Occasion, mawqi' ; hi-taqnb-i tdj-pusht (on 
the occasion of the Coronation) ; vide 
Accident and Opportunity; dmadan-i 
shumd bi-injd luzum na-ddsht (there was 
no occasion for you to come) ; vide Cause ; 
u sabab-i aziyyat-i vdlidayn-i khud shuda 

Occasional, ittifdqt (not constant) ; 'drizi 

Occasionally, gdh gah or gdh gah-t ; gdh 

Occult, g[kaybi; jMshtda; 'ulum-i khufya 
(occult sciences). 

Occupant, qdbiz (holding, gen. with force) ; 
mutasarrif (possessor). Vide Dweller and 

Occupation, kasb or kdr or shughl or hirfat, 
or plsha (trade, etc. q.v.) ; vide Civil; 
vide Possession; bi-kdrl (want of wotk, 

Occupied, mashgiMl (busied) ; ba'd az yak 
mdhri digar yak sdl-i tamdm ast dar injd 
tavaqquf ddram^ (in a month's time I 
shall have occupied this house a whole 
year); Bu-shahr rd maskan-i 'asdkir-i 
khud kard (he occupied Bushire) ; dushman 
sar-garm-i glr u ddr budand ki — (the enemy 
was wholly occupied with the fight when 

Occupier, sahib- khana ; dar in khdna ki nd- 

nishinad?. Vide Occupant. 
Occur, wg-i' sh. ; ru d. (to happen); bi-khdtir 

khutur kardan = bi-dil uftddan; bi-khdtir- 

am nlst ki chunln amr-l. pish az in, ittifdq 

uftdda bdshad (I can't recollect such a 

thing having ever occurred). 
Occurrence, amr; vdqi'a, pi. vdqi'dt; ittifdq, 

pi, ittijdqdt. Vide Accident. 
Ocean, bahr-i muhtt; oqiydnus Gr. (rare), 
Oceania, JazdHr-i Oqiydnus (Oceania?). 
Ochre, gil-i zard; or gil-i mdshi. 
O'clock, sd'at-i chand ast (what's o'clock ?) ; 

sd'at-i du'st (it is two o'clock; but du 

sd'at ast " it is two hours'^ ")• 
Octagonal, hasht-gusha ; musamman. Vide 


October, Aklubar (Eur.). 

Octogenarian, hashtdd-sdla (often used for 
any very old man). 

OcvlIslv, chashmi ; 'ayni; basari ; nazari. 

Oculist, kahhdl (from kuhl collyrium) ; ddru- 
gar (vulg.); tablb-i chashm. 

Odd, (not even), 'adad-i tdq (opp. to 'adad-i 
juft even number) ; in kajsh tdq ast (this 
is one shoe) ; %n kajsh tdq u ling a ast, or 
linga linga ast (two odd shoes) ; ur si-yam 
id bi-ta (or — ling bi-ling) shuda ast (my 
pumps are odd) ; hashtdd rupiya va kasr-i '^ 
(some eighty rupees or more) ; gharib ; 
and 'ajlb (strange) ; u 'ajab nuskha-yi khub 
Vst ( -=he's an odd sort of a fellow). 

Odds and ends, Jchirt u pirt (small belong 

Ode, gAazal (short) ; qasida (not less than 19 
or 20 lines; the longest written has 121 
lines). _ 

Odessa, Udisa. 

Odious, qabih ; makruh ; manfur. 

Odiousness, makruhiyyat ; manfuriyyat. 

Odium, istikrdh ; tanaffur; qabdhat. 

Odoriierous, mu' attar ; mashmum; khush-bu; 
raydhin, pi. (odoriferous herbs; rayhdn 
sing. " sweet basil "), 

Odour, bu or buy (gen.) ; bii-yi khush (sweet 
smell) ; bii-yi murddr (bad smell ; vide 
Offal); 'itr; or rd^iha, pi, ravd^ih (sweet 
odour); bisydr ta'affun ddrad, or 'ujunat 
ddrad (it stinks). 

Off, far, dur ; ba'id (far) ; banda rafta am 
(well, I'm off) ; gum shaw (be off with 
you, quit!); dihbi-rawf (run, off! also go 
on); durbdsh! (keep away!). 

Offal, murddr or mayta (anything stinking; 
also anything that has died of its own 
accord, or that has not been slain accord- 
ing to Muslim law ; vide Odour) ; ashJchdl 
(m.c. ; mess in a room) ; rasht (refuse 
when swept up) ; fuzla-yi gusjand ( — of 
sheep ; fuzla also = excrement) . 

Offence, chi taqsir az man sar zada ast ? ; 
qusur (vulg.) ; gundh (sin) ; jurm (crime) ; 
khatja (error); ranj (cause of annoyance; 
also trouble, pains). 

Offend, to, ranjdnldan tr. ; dar sar-i kar-i 
juzH az u qahr-am (I'm rather offended, 
angry, with liim about a little matter " ; 

1 The classical Future Perfect (karda basham " I will have done ") is not used in modern Persian; 
the Perfect Indicative or Present takes its place. Bayad karda basham (" I must have done, will have 
done ") is however used. 

i Indians always mistake this for " it is two o'clock." 

8 But hashtad rupiya va chand ana, " rupees eighty and some annas." 




vide Anger) ; taqslr etc. k. (to commit a 
fault); ranjish ydftan (to be or become 
offended) . 

Offended, az u ranjjida am or dzurda am: 
dil-gir; dil-khur ; ranjida-khatir. Vide 

Offender, taqsir-kdr ; or muqassir (gen.); 
gundhrkdr{H\nnQiv) ; khata-kdr (gen.) ; muj- 
rim (criminal) ; avtxil shwnm dast-dardzi 
kardid or — iqddm namudid (you were the 
first offender). Vide Aggresor. 

Offensive, kanh (objectionable, q.v. ; of 
people, odours) ; hamla-dvar (assailant) ; 
jang-i hi-hamla (opposed to jang-i bi-daf^ 
defensive war). 

Offensively, makrufidna. 

Offer, taqdim kardan (offer a present) ; az 
nazar guzardndan (to Shah) ; dah rupiya 
ml-dddam likin qabul na-kard (I offered 
him ten rupees for it, but he declined) ; 
shardb ta'druf kard, khurdam, sar-khush 
shudam (he offered me wine ; I drank and 
became merry) ; asp-hd rd bar pddishdh 
'arza kardand : m/in urd bi-khurdan-i chdhi 
taklif kardam (I offered him tea) ; fursat 
ru namud or dast dad ki (an opportunity 
offered to — ) ; qurbdni dddan (offer up a 

Offering, jnshkash (k.) (to superior) ; hadya 
(k.) (gen. ; present, q.v.); taqdim (k.) (put- 
ting forward ; also a present) ; qurbdni 
(k.) (sacrifice) ; nazr {k.) (present to a 
superior, to a religious teacher, a Hindu 
god ; also a vow) ; nazr u niydz (offerings 
to dead saints, etc.). 

Off-hand, sarsari ; bidun-i sdbiqa guft (with- 
out any preliminaries he said—) ; bidun-i 
sdbiqa Tnara zad (he beat me without any 
explanation or warning). 

Office, 'uhda; or mansab (rank) ; shugM (of 
a common occupation) : khidmxit-ash chist?; 
ma^muriyyat (specially deputed) ; iddra 
(place of business) ; dar 'uhda n%st = bi-kdr 
ast; masd'i-yi jamila-yi Jandb-i 'AH rd 
min bdb-i in murdfa'a tdlib-am (I desire 
your good offices in this suit). 

Office-keeper, muhdfiz-i iddra. 

Officer, a/sar (Eur.) ; sdhib-mansab , pi. sdhib- 
mansabdn (gen.); sdhib-'uMa (gen); 
gazmachi (of police). 

Official, Officials, ahl-i qalam (civil) ; ald-i 
kishvar (ditto) ; ahl-i say f, or ahl-i lashkar, 

or ahl-i ni^dm (military) ; ahl-i zqlama (a 
rather uncivil term much used by mulla8, 
and especially applied to officials with 
power) ; rasmi (adj.) ; [kabUtar-i rasmi the 
common pigeon] : dawlati (belonging to the 

Officially, ro«m°"; rasmdna. 

Officiate, vakdlaf" kdr k. (to act for an- 

Officious, fuzul ; dsh-i hama djil ' ( = he inter- 
feres in everything; lit. he is sauce for 
every dish). 

Offspring, farzand ; tifl; awldd-am munhasir 
bi-hamln yak bachcha ast, gltayr az in na- 
ddram; awldd-i zukur (male offspring); 
awlddri unds (female). 

Often, hdrhd (many times); mukarrar"" 
(repeatedly) ; chanddn-kt or harchi-ki (as 
often as); chand bar or chand daf'a or 
chand martaba (how often?). 

Ogle, to, Ogling, bd gusha-yi chashm nigah 
k.; chashmak zadan* {to wink at); nazar- 
bdzi (k.) (love signs by the eyes) ; chashm- 
chardni (k.) (of love looks). 

Ogre, (fhiJil (eater of corpses) ; 'ifrit (an ima- 
ginary ogre; prop, in Ar. an evil Jinn). 

Ogress, mMda-ghul. 

Oh ! Vide ! 

Oil, rawgbfin (also gh% and varnish) ; raw- 
ghan-i gdv or — zard (clarified butter, 
ghl) ; naft, for naft (kerosine) ; rawgh/an-i 
chirdglj,, or rawghhan-i bidanjir (or — kin- 
natun, or — karchak (castor-oil) : rawghan-i 
zayt (olive oil) ; rawgkan-i talkh (mustard 
oil) ; dabba-yi rawghan (a pot of oil or 
ghi) ; vide Kerosine and Castor-oil) ; raxo- 
ghan-ddn P., and mudhun Ar. (oil-bottle 
or the oil-gland in birds). 

Oil-cake, kunjada. 

Oil-cloth, mushamma' (oil- or wax-cloth for 

Oiled paper, kdgiaz-i rawgkani (for tracing). 

Oil-gland. Vide Oil. 

Oilman, rawgian-farush. 

Oil-painting, tasvir-i rawghant. 

Oil-press, Oil-presser, 'assdr (the man) ; 
charkh-i 'assdri (the press); 'assdr-khdna 
(the whole plant). 

Oily, cJiarb ; rawgAani : (rich or greasy ; of 

Ointment, marham: tild (for painting on). 

Old, sdl-d*da ; or sdl-Uiurda ; or kuhan-sdl ; or 

1 Ajil " nuts, desert *' ; and also, as here, " food, dish. 

2 Chaahmak, in India " spectacles." 




nmsinn (aged ; of people) ; muzmin (chro- 
nic, of disease) ; qadim ; or iwAwa (ancient, 
of things) : chand sal dan ? or sinn u sal-i 
shumd chi-qadar ast ' ? (how old are you ?); 
w du mitqdbil-i sinn-am ast (he is twice the 
age I am) ; pusida (rotten, of wood; bad, 
of food) ; vide Stale ; mundaris ; or farsuda 
(worn out) ; pir (old , of people or animals) ; 
pir-i mard (old man) ; pir-i zal (old wo- 
man) ; shaykh or rish-safid (grey-beard) ; 
gis-saftd (old woman and duenna) ; ay 
nana (a vulg. but respectful address to an 
old woman ; better ay madar) : kuhna ''■ 
(old clotheSj rags) ; pir-i na-haligh (child- 
ish old man) ; vide Oldman ; panj-mdha 
(five months old); du-sdla (two years 
old); daqydnusl ( = of the age of Methu- 
sala ; applied to people or things) . 

Old age. Vide Age. 

Older, musinn-tar ast = sinn-ash az shumd ^ 
bishiar ast (but 'umr-i it az shumd bishtar 
ast might signify "he will live longer 
than you will"); kuhna-tar; and qadim- 
tar (more ancient). 

Old man, shaykh-i matasabbi (an old man 
that ' gets himself up ' and behaves like a 
youngster. Vide Also Old). 

Oleander, khar-zahra (so called because it 
will kill even a donkey). 

Olive, zaytun or zayt; sanjid* (Bohemian 
olive ; the dried fruit is eaten by the 
poorer classes). 

Olive-oil, rawgAan-i zaytun. 

Oman, Umdn. 

Omelet, kuku, or hhagina (savoury). 

Omen, jdH (giriftan) (gen. from books, 
etc.); tajd^ul {zadan or justan) (gen. from 
birds, animals, etc.) ; btf (or bum) jdnvar-i 
bad ucfhur-Vst: ughurbdshad{Si greeting to 
a friend unexpectedly met in the street ; 
in Yezd a greeting of muleteers on the 
march; but in Shiraz jursat bdshad is 
used); tatayyur {giriftan) (from birds); 
shugun {g.) (gen.). 

Omened, bd-shugun (good-omened); bad- 
shugun (ill-omened) ; nd-mubdrak (inauspi- 
cious) . 

Omission, jaru-guzdsht (in duty) ; uftddan 
(of words in text). 

Omit, to, ihmdl k. (to neglect to do, of other 
people; but fardmush kardam " I omitted 
to do it ") ; sahv^^ na-guftam ki — (I omit- 
ted to mention that — ) ; anddkhtan (to 
omit by design from a list, etc.). 

Omitted, dar m savdd chiz-i az miydn uftdda 
ast (in this duplicate MS. copy, something 
has been omitted by error; but in print- 
ing generally chiz-t parida ast); ism-ash 
az siydha uftdda bud (his name was acci- 
dentally omitted from the list). 

Omnipotence, jabarUt; qudrat. 

Omnipotent, Jabbdr ; Qddir-i 'alq, 'l-itldq; 
Qddir-i mutlaq ; Qadir. 

Omnipresent, hama jd hdzir u ndzir ; hamu 
jd mawjud. 

Omniscient, ddnd-yi kull-i^ hdl; 'alldm^'l- 
ghuyub (knower of all secrets) ; ddnd-yi 

On, bar; bald; ru ; dar rU; sar; asbdb rd 
bdr-i shutur bi-kun (load these things on 
a camel) ; piydda (adv. ; on foot) ; savdra 
(adv. ; on horse-back) ; yd Allah, vulg. 
ydlld (on ! on !) ; dih biydyid (come on, 
do); dih bi-ramd (go on, do; also con- 
tinue) ; dih pish (go on ahead). 

Onanism, jalq (z.) ; musht-zani {k.) vulg. 

Once, yak da fa ; or yak bar ; or yak martaba 
(one time): ruz-i: mi-guyand zamdn-i — 
( = once upon a time) ; sdbiq"" (formerly) ; 
md ham yak vaqt-l dukhtar budim va likin 
— ("I too was once young but — "; said 
by a mother and = ' ' when / was young , 
girls were much better behaved"); 
daf'af" ; or yak hdragl (all at once 
suddenly); mukarrar (once more, encore). 

On, (lit, az qardr-i ki ma'lum mi-shavad ; mi- 
guyand — . 

One, yak ; yak-i or kas-l (some one) ; yak bi- 
yak, or yak-i yak-i, ovyagdn yagdn, or fard"^ 
fard'^" (one by one); "the animals went 
in one by one ' ' ( hayvdndt yagdn yagdn 
ddhhil-i kishti-yi Nuh shudand) : ahad-i 
(with verb in negative; "no one"); 
yak-i ba^d-i digar-i (one after the other) ; 
yak du (one or two) ; ma'ni-yi tawhid in 
ki Khudd yak ast va du nist. 

One another, yak digar ; ham digar. 

1 An instance of the Persian love of alliteration or jingling ; ainn At. and sal Pers. are synonymous. 

^ Kuhna muna ho is the cry of the old-clothes man, a Jew. 

8 Az shuma for az ainn-i ahuma, but asp-i man az aap-i tu hihtar aat ; were the word aap not re- 
peated the comparison might refer to ' you and the horse. ' 

* It is advisable to avoid mention of this tree. Many Persians will not allow it in their gardens. 
Sanjid hi-lchur has some significant and objectionable meaning. 6 Note this izafat. 




One-eyed, yak-chashm ; vdhid^'l-'ayn (also 
metap., " the penis "). 

Oneness, vahdaniyyat. 

Oneself, khud; khwtsh. 

Onion, piyaz [also means a ' bulb ']. 

Only, faqat ; — va has (merely) ; mahz-i khdtir-i 
shumd (only for your sake); na hamin 
dushndm-ash dad halki zad-ash (he not 
only abused him but beat him) ; u yak 
ddna-yi ihddar ast, or durr ddna-yi mddar 
ast (he is the only son of his mother); 
bard-yi shumd ast ki bi-ravid, or — kaldm 
nakunld ("you have only to go," or " to 
hold your tongue" ; said in displeasure); 
tanhd kas-% ki drnad — (the only person 
who came — ) : for ' not only — but also ' 
vide Both. 

Onset, hujum etc. dvardan. Vide Attack. 

Onus, bdr-i hujjat (or bdr-i subUt) bar shumd 

Onwards, az fardd bi-ba'd (from to-morrow 

Onyx, sang-i sulaymEni ; hdbd-quri. 

Ooze , birun dmadan ; tardvidan. 

Oozing, tardvush (k.). 

Opal, updl (Eur.). 

Opaque, mukaddar (dingy) ; kdsij ; giayr-i 
shaffdf (translucent). 

Open, to, gushudan; bdz — or vd kardan; 
m^ftuh kardan : rag zadan (of a vein) : 
yak madrasa maftuh (or bar pa) shud 
bard-yi — ; shisha anddkhtan (open a win- 
dow in a railway ' carriage) ; iftitdh k. (a 
meeting) ; tamJdm-i dard-i dil hi-man guft 
(he opened out his mind to me) , vide to 
Blossom ; in dar bi-kucha rah ddrad {' ' this 
door opens into the street ' ' ; but in 
daricha bar kucha vd mi-shavad " this 
window opens on to the street) . 

Open-eyed, chashm-bdz, or chashm-kushdd (but 
bx-ddr " wide-awake" lit. and met.). 

Open-handed, dast-vdz ; gushdda-dast. 

Open-hearted, dil-vdz (generous). 

Opening, gushdyish (met. only ) ; iftitdh (met.) ; 
gushdd (at chess). 

Openly, dshkdrd ; vdzih'^" ; fdsh; 'alq ru*Us^^l- 
ashhdd: dar khald u mala (openly and 
in secret ; but u bd juldn shakhs khayli 
khald u mala ddrad = " he is very intimate 
with him"); 'aldniyya; T^dhir^* : bVs- 

Open-mouthed, dahan^vdz (also greedy). 

Openness. Vidt Candour. 

Operate, to, fi*l k. ; or asar k. (of medicine) ; 
jarrdhi k. (surgically); bi-'amal dmadan; 
or jdri sh. (take eflFect from). 

Operation (surgical), jarrdhi (k.) ; 'amal-i 
yaddi^ {k.) ; nishtar-ash bi-khUbl shud {hia 
operation was successful). [mufid. 

Operative, kdr-gar, or kdn-gar ; mu'assir ; 

Operator, jarrdh (surgical). 

Ophthalmia, chashm-dard ; or chashm-khardbi. 

Ophthalmic, chashmi ; muia'alliq bi<hashm. 

Opiate, davd-yi musakkin (lessening pain or. 
the palpitation of the heart) ; munawim 
(causing sleep) ; ma' /tin (electuary). Vide 

Opinion, rdy (for ra*y), pi. drd^; gumdn (also 
doubt): khaydl; tasavrmr ; mazanna ; i'ti- 
qdd; 'aqida, pi. 'aqd^id (belief); rd*y-i 
m^n dar bdb-i u ndqis ast (I have a mean 
opinion of him) ; khatd-yi rdy (k.) (to form 
an erroneous) ; ba'zi bar an and ki — (some 
are of opinion that — ) ; bi-khdtir-i fdtir-am 
chunin mi-numdyad ki — (in my humble 
opinion — ) ; tdbi^-i drd^-i nds (slave of public 
opinion) ; vide Think ; havdla bi-rdy-i shdn 
kardam (I told them to act as they 
thought fit, best; to use their own discre- 
tion). Vide Immovable. 

Opinionated, khud-rd^i; dar ra^y-% khud 

Opium, tarydk^ (but tarydq antidote, q. v.); 
afyun (rare) ; tarydki (opium smoker) ; 
afyunx (ditto; rare); {dar) sad navad u 
panj az muslimin-i injd vdfuri hnstand (95 
per cent of the Muslims here are opium 
smokers). Vide Smoker. 

Opponent, mukhdlif : raqib (rival in love or 
trade) ; hartf (rival in trade ; opponent in 
a game) ; mujddil (in dispute) ; mubdhis 

Opportune, bd-mahall ; bd-maioqi' ; ukht uftd- 
dan (to fall opportunely). 

Opportunity, fursat (ydftan) ; [qdbu ydftan 
class.] ; fursat dast ddd (an opportunity 
presented itself) ; majdl-i na-ddshtam (I 
had no opportunity) ; ruz-i fursat rd fawt 
kardam, or mawqi' az dast-am raft (I lost 
the opportune day); fursat rd ghanxmat 
shimurdam (I seized the opportunity) ; 
vide Time; bi-zan-gdh (opportunity; adso 

1 Daricha andaMktan (in fin Indian hackney carriage). 

2 Meaning depends on context ; used alone *amal-i yaddl means " skill." 

8 In Ramazan, before ivisak, i.e. about 3 a.m. English time, a paid crier announces from a roof 56 
ast u taryak = ' drink your Itist water and take your last dose of opium.' 





spot,q.v.); dast-amz (pretext). Vide For- 

Oppose, mukhdlafat k. ; muqdvamat k. ; or 
jilawtstddan {to stand up to) ; i'tirdz k. (to 
object to) ; ta'arruz n, (to raise an objec- 
tion, q.v.) ; muzdhim oh. (by action) but 
man' k. (forbid by words) ; ddam khayll'st 
ammd Tiich yak harij-i u nanii-tavdnad bi- 
shavad (of men there are many, but none 
capable of opposing him) ; muzdyaqa naml- 
kunam (I shan't oppose the matter). Vide 

Opposite, muqdhil ; ru bi-ru ; jilaw : muhdzl 
(of place) : zidd ; or khildf (of disposition). 

Opposition, mw^afta^af ; mukhdlafat; muzdha- 
mat; muqdvamat: mukhdlifin pi. (Parlia- 

Oppress, ta'addi k (go beyond the limit); 
zulm k. ; or jafd k. (oppression) ; ijlmj n. 
(injustice ; sp. with extortion) ; jawr k. ; 
or siiam k. : bar ishdn sakht mi-girift. 

Oppressed, mazlum (also in m.c, " quiet, 
inoffensive ") : sitam-dida. 

Oppression, tazallum (k.); dast-dardzl (k.) ; 
tatdvul [k.). 

Oppressor, mlim ; jajd-kdr ; sitam-gar ; jawr- 

Opprobrious, shanl' ; mazmum. 

Opprobrium, rusvd^; mazallat: u kard vaU 
khardbi-yi an bi-man bar ml-gardad. Vide 

Optative, sigha-yi iamannd^i (mood). 

Optical, basari. 

Optics ,*ilm"^'l-mandzir. 

Optimist, nik-bln (opp. to bad-bin). Vide 

Option, ikhtiydr. 

Optional, ikhtiydri; basta bi-mayl va khivd- 

Opulence, ghind; tamavvul. 

Opulent, ghani ; mutamavvil. 

Or, yd ; hhwdh ; chi ; vide Otherwise ; du si 
(two or three) ; In jd bi-mdnid, yd in ki 
na-ydyid (either stay in my house or don't 
come near me). Vide Either. 

Oracular, ilhdmi ; zu ma'niyayn, adj. (with 
double meaning). 

Oracularly, bi-tawr-i ilhdm (by inspiration). 

Oral, zabdni ; shifdhi. 

Orally, zabdn'^" (Persian word ; Arabic case) ; 
shifdh'^" ; lafz"-^ : bi 'l-mushdfaha (face to 
face) ; taqrir^" na tahrir"'^ (orally and not 
in writing). \ 

Orange, tmrangi (with loose skin) ; purtugidl 
(Eur. variety) ; ndranj (Seville— or Bitter 
Orange); ndrangi-yi Chin or — majlisi 
(Mandarin) ; murakkabdt Cgen. term for 
yellow fruits; oranges, lemons, citrons) ; 
madanl (sweet lime; cooling to the sys- 

Orangeade, sharbat-i ndranj. 

Orange-flower, bahdr. 

Orange-flower water, 'araq-i bahdr. 

Orangery, nuranjistdn (orangery, conserva- 

Orange-outang. Vide Ourang Outang. 

Oration, khitdba (or address) {khivdndan). 

Orator, muqarrir ; Tchatib (preacher; in Ar. 

Oratory, namdz-khdna (place of worship) ; 
' ilm-i khitdba ; or vulg. ' ilm-i taqrir. 
Vide Eloquence. 

Orb, kura, pi. kurdt (globe) ; qurs (disc) ; 
jirm^ pi. ajrdm (anybody, especially celes- 

Orbed, kuravi. 

Orbit, rdh-i dawrdn ; khatt-i dawrdn ; maddr ; 
khatt-i gar dish, vulg. 

Orchard, hadiqa ; or bdgh (garden ; gen. term ; 
Persian gardens usually contain fruit 

Ordeal, imtihdn; az buta-yi imtihdn khdlis 
birun dmad (he passed successfully through 
the ordeal). 

Order, tartib (d.) (arrangment) ; intizdm; or 
nazm (good order) ; munazzam (well 
arranged, ordered) ; radij^ (one behind the 
other); dyin; or qdnun, pi. qavdnin; or 
zdbita, pi. zavdbit (regulations) ; hukm, pi. 
ahkdm (d.) ; or amr, pi. avdmir (k.) (gen.) ; 
farmdn P., Ar. pi. fardmln {d.) (sp. of the 
Shah, or Kings); hukm-i makhfi (secret 
order) ; bidun-i hukm-i sdni (without fur- 
ther orders) ; farmdyish, pi. jarmdyishdt 
(k.) (for goods; instructions, etc.); tariqa 
(relig.) : nishdn; or imtiydz (a decora- 
tion); ia-^i— (in order that) ; dlgar hukm 
ast ("well, it's the order"; a common 
reply to stop further query as to why a 
person is doing such and such a thing). 

Order, to, farmudan, rt. farmd; amr k. ; 
taht-i qd'ida dar dvardan (to bring into 
good order) = munazzam k. ; murattab k. 
(arrange in order); saif drdstan^ (of 
(troops) ; qadffhan k. or ta^kid k. (to give 
a strict injunction) ; bi-qd'ida ddshtan (to 

1 Radif " one riding behiAd on a horse; reserve forces." 

* Araatan. (rt. ara), alone ia." to adorn, etc., arrange, decorate, etc." 




keep in order) buzurgi bar an bichdra 
ma-hun (don't order that poor boy about 
so ; don't ' boss ' him so much). Vide 

Order, to, (adj.). Vide Made. 

Orderly, ghulam (gen.) ; gAulam-l savara 
(mounted — ) ; favdra-yi mukhbirdn (moun- 
ted orderlies, messengers) ; salim ; or dram 
(of a crowd) ; mazlum (quiet ; of an in- 
dividual) ; bd qd'ida (ditto). 

Ordinal, 'adad-i tartibl; ['adad-i handast 

Ordinance, fartza, pi. jardSz (of God) ; dijtn 
(regulations) ; qdnun (a code or system 
but pi. q'amntn, regulations); farmdn P., 
pi. Ar. jardmxn (of kings) ; ahkdm (of God). 
Vide Fate and Order. 

Ordinary, mutaddvil ; or ma' mul (customary) ; 
musta'mal ("used"; gen. of words); 
rdHj (current ; of coin or words) ; qimat-i 
*ddila (equivalent price of foreign coin) ; 
gunjishk-i muta'drif or — rasml (the com- 
mon sparrow); qimat-i mutadrif (the 
ordinary, well-known price). 

Ordinarily, 'umum"^^ ; ^ddat"" (customarily). 

Ordure, guh (vulg.) ; fuda (gen.). Vide 
Excrement, Mutes, Dung. [Maw. 

Ore, sang-i mu' dan-i tild (gold ore) ; fUizz-i 

Organ, dla, pi. aW.t (instrument) ; argh and 
arcfJianun {z.) (musical) ; in ruz-ndm^ dla-yi 
kdr-i daulat dst (this newspaper is a 
Government organ) ; dlat-i tandsul (organ 
of generation). 

Organization, tanzim {d.) ; tartib (k. or d.) ; 
tashkil {d. and yd f tan). Vide Order. 

Organize, tartib d. ; tashkil d. 

Organized, az pish murattab. 

Oriental, mashriqi, adj.; ahl-i mashriq zamln 
subs, (the pepple). 

Orifice, maw/as, pi. man^/iz (of ears, nose; 
any air-hole) ; stujba or sufra P. (of anus) ; 
dahana (mouth of a pipe) ; surdjch (any 

Origin, asZ [pi. usul principles, fundamentals] 
(root) ; bunydd (foundation) ; masdar 
(source); moftrfa* (beginning) ; mxtmba'-i 
fasdd u a^t; asl"" Irani { = he is of Persian 
origin on the father's side ; and possibly 
on the mother's too) ; bad-asl and bad-rag 
(of low origin) ; marja'-i jami' bi-yak asl 
ast (they have all a common origin). 

Original, fikr-i bikr, or af kdr-i abkdr (* virgin,* 
and hence 'original,' thoughts); asl subs, 
(of a work : not a copy) ; in nitakha-yi 
awal ast va dn nuskha-yi sdni (this is the 
original document and that the copy) ; 
asU, adj. 

Originality, jiddat; tdzagi ; in mard tdzagi 
ddrad; qasd^id-i Qa^'dni jiddat ddrad. 

Originate, to, ibdd' k. ; jdri k. ; bar pa k. ; 
bind nihddan. 

Originating, ndshi az — (arising from — ) ; 
bunydn az — ; ijdd az — . 

Originator, mubdi^; bdnt. 

Orion, Jabbdr; and Nasaq. 

Ornament, ardyish {d. or k.) ; or zinat {d. or 
k.) (gen.); ptmya (jewelry) (ba^tan) ; zivar 
{pushdndan; or bar k.) (jewellery). Vide 

Ornament, to, drdstan. rt. drdy (gen.) ; pirds- 
tan, rt. pirdy (of the person, or a garden) ; 
tazyin k. ; or muzayyan sdkhtan (decorate 
or ornament, etc., of persons or things). 

Ornamental, zinat-dih : pirdy a-bakhsh. 

Ornamentally, az ru-yi tazyin ; bard-yi zinat. 

Ornamentation, naqsh u nigdr (painting, 
carving, etc.); drdstagi (the furniture, 
pictures and ornamentation). Vide also 

Ornamented, drdsta ; pirdsta ; muzayyan; 
murassa' (studded with jewels) ; mukallal 
(with jewels). 

Ornaments,^ pHrdya; or zivar; or javdhir- 
dldt'^ (jewels); asbdb-i tajammul (every- 
thing that makes a show, as dress, horses, 
motor cars, etc.). 

Ornate, muzayyan (decorated); *ibdrat-i rangin 
(ornate style ; in writing) ; bi-'ibdrat-i 
rangin nutq-i kard or ddd (he delivered an 
ornate speech) ; rangin-khipdn adj. (of an 
ornate preacher; by Persians in India). 

Ornithologist, iayr-shinds. 

Orphan, bi-mddar, or mddar-murda (without 
mother) ; bi-pidar, or yatim, pi. aytdtn 
(without father); [yasir Ar. "mother- 
less" not used in m.c] ; vdlid-i in yatlm^ 
rihlat far mud va vaqt-i jdn-kandan bard- 
dar-i kuchak-ash rd ki *ammu-yi man'^ 
bdshad talab karda farmud ki man hama-yi 
mdl va mulk rd tark karda irdda-yi safar 
ddram va likin in vasiyyat-i inard^ bi-jd bi- 
ydvarid va buzurgi rd pisha kunid — Prof. 

1 By Mualim law, gold omamenta are forbidden to men, but allowed to women. Vide note to 

2 Javahir, alone " precious stones.'' 

^ The speaker commences in the 3rd person (in yatim) £uad changes to the Grst (man euid mara). 




S. T. (my father died, and in his last 
moments, sending for his younger brother, 
my uncle, said to him, " I am about to 
start on a journey, leaving my wealth 
and land behind me, but do thou carry 
out this behest of mine like an honour- 
able person)." 

Orphanage, yaiim-khdna. 

Orpiment, zarnikh (yellow). 

Orthodox, mutasharri* ; hanlf (rare) ; hhush- 
i'tiqdd; pd-band-i sharl'at. Vide Strict. 

Orthodoxy, tasharru' ; hanlfi (rare) ; khush- 

Orthography, imld^. 

Oscillate, to, Oscillation, harakat kardan-i 
langar-i sd'at (of pendulum) ; [in Arabic 

Osprey. Vide Eagle. 

Ossification, mutahajjirl (prop, petrifaction) . 

Ossify, to, mutahajjir sJtudan. 

Ostensible, zdhiri. 

Ostentation, khudrnunm^l {k.) ; izhdr-i tash- 
akhkhus (k.) ; pufyuzi {k.) (also quackery) ; 
jilva-farushi {k.) ; buzurgl farukhtan (show 
off wealth; also one's authority). 

Ostentatious, khud-numd ; tashahhlchus-far- 

Ostrich, shutur-murgh,; misl-i kahk sar zir-i 
barf mi-kunad (to put the head in the 
sand like an ostrich). Vide Partridge. 

Other, gAayr ; dtgar : sd^ir (also the whole) ; 
^ayr az (other than) ; an du td-yi dlgar 
(the other two ; of things) ; an du nafar-i 
digar (of persons). 

Otherwise, varna; or va agar na; or va ilia 
(if not) ; digar-gun or tawr-i digar (in an- 
other fashion) ; sihhat va 'adam-i sihhat-i 
in kayfiyyat (the truth or otherwise of this 
affair) ; bar khildf-i an ast (the case is 
otherwise) . 

Otter, sag-i dbl P.; [by the Afghans also 
sag-i law]; su-samuri T. (rare). 

Ottoman, ^Usmdnl. 

Ought, Idzim ast, or bay ad, or bdyist — (follow- 
ed by Pres. Subj. = "you ought to — ") ; 
mi-bdyist (followed by Pres. or Perf. Subj. 
= " ought to have — "); na-ravid, narm- 
shavad ( = you ought to come with me; 
polite); ^"-ma ?/am6a^i (as is fitting) ; Idzim 
hud ki diruz in kdr rd karda bdshid (you 
ought, should have, done this yesterday). 

Our, Ours, mM-i ma ; az ma ast ; az dn-i md 


Ourselves, khud-i mRn. 

Ourang-outangji nasnds (or gorilla?; also a 

demoniacal creature inhabiting deserts). 
Out, birun; khdrij ; hi-dar : dghd-m khdna 

nist (the master is out). 
Outbreak, Outburst, hudus (of epidemic) ; 

buruz. Vide Disturbance ; hayajdn-i ghayz 

(of anger). 
Outcast, rdnda-yi qawm ; bi-khdn u man ; [ay 

mardud is abuse, or a curse]. 
Outcry, ghfiiwghd ; hangdma ; farydd; dad u 

bi-ddd ; valvala. 
Outdone, sabqat burdan az — ; az Shaytdn 

ham guzashta ast. 
Outer side, of a garment, abra. 
Outfit, puli shalvdr chakma (outfit money to 

servants before a journey) ; lavdzim-i 

safar ; sdmMn. 
Outlaw, khun-ash hadar ast (i.e. it is lawful 

for any one to shed his blood). 
Outlet, manfaz; mahhraj ; dar-raw: mawqa' 

u mahaU-i bard-yi ibrdz-i jawhar-i zdti-yi 

khud na-ddrad = mayddn na-ddrad (he has 

no outlet for his talents). 
Outline, angdra zadan (by pen or pencil) ; 

garda zadan (to make an outline sketch 

by a perforated tracing and a bag of dust 

charcoal) ; khdka rikhtan or kashidan (by 

pencil) ; khuldsa-yi taqrir (of a speech). 
Outlook, dsdr; havd-yi kdr. 
Outpost, qardvul; tildya. [woman) ; ta'addi. 
Outrage, hatk-i 'irz = bi-ndmus kardan (on 
Outrider, savdr-i jilo. 

Outrunner, shdtir (foot-runner, with or with- 
out a wand, who precedes the Shah when 

he drives). 
Outside, biruni and khdriji adj. ; dam-i dar 

(either just inside or just outside of the 

door); abra (outside of a garment as 

opposed to the dstar or " lining "). 
Outskirts, dbddl-yi havali-yi shahr kam-a^ 

(there is little cultivation round the city) ; 

Outstare, az u khira-tar nigarlstam. 
Outwardly, zdUr"'' ; sural"'', or dar sural; 

dar birun. 
Outwear, bishtar davdm dashlan. 
Outwit, to, ru dast zadan (met. ; lit. to throw 

in wrestling). 

1 Sindbad's old mem of the sea is supposed to have been an oiirang-outang. According to the 
Arab notion a naanas is the product of a shiqq (i.e. a demon that is half a human being split from head 
to fork), and of a human being. 

2 A, vulgar for ast. 




Oval, hayzavl; hawz-i lukhni-muri^l (artifi- 
cial oval pool) ; surat-i kashida (oval face'). 

Ovarious, tukhm-nih. 

Oven, tanur; [in Ar. tannur, pi. tandnir]. 

Over, bald; bar; bar sar-i — prep.: baqi; 
zlydda (exceeding) ; bi-*Id du mdh uchiz-i 
mdnda (a little over two months to '7rf — ); 
■panjdh rupiya u chiz-i ; ba^d az si nbdh u 
kasr-l ; dah ml u and-l : mdndan ; and 
ziydd dmadan (to be over) ; az aar td pd 
maqruz (over head and ears in debt) ; dn 
taraf-i rah (over the way) ; raft, or tamdm 
shud, or hdld dlgar guzasht, or simply 
guzasht, ( = that's over). 

Overcast, havd girifta; dsmdn siydh shvd, or 
abrhd-yi slydh bdld dmad (the sky grew 
overcast) ; ddija duMUan ( to overcast ; in 

Overcoat, kulija (a warm overcoat with half 
sleeves); labdda; or bdld- push (an over- 
coat ; also a quilt or any sleeping cover- 
ing) ; bdrdni (waterproof) : pdltu (Fr.) ; 
'ahd (loose Arab over-garment) ; khirqa (of 
darvishes). Vide Goak. 

Overcome, to, bar—gifllib dmadan; magh- 
lub k. ; (bar) gkalaba k. ; bar — dastydftan; 
' vide ' Conquer and Defeat ; daf'-i sayyi^a 
bi-hasana k. (to overcome evil with good). 

Over-confident, az khyd rdzl ; bar khud 
ndzdn ; ziydd bar khud mutma^inn. 

Over-cooked, vd-rafta (gone to pieces; gen. 
term) ; ziydd tabkh shuda. 

Overdo, to, az hadd ziydd raj tan, or tajdvuz 

Overdue, cfidjjdr dir shuda, or 'mtV bi-ta^khir 
uftdda, the mail, the post, is overdue) ; 
maiv' id-i pul du ruz sar dmada (the money 
is overdue by two days). 

Over-eat, td hulqum khurdan ; pur khurdan. 

Overflow, bi-tughydn dinadan, or sayldb shu- 
(ian (of a river) ; jnir shuda mi-rizad (of a 

Overflowing, lab-riz (full to the brim) ; lab-d- 
lab (ditto). 

Over-gorge, pur-chapdndan (to overstuff of 
food ; to over-pack, or cram anything). 

Overhanging, bar-dmada or bar-jasta. 

Overhead, ru-yi sar ; bdld-yi sar : fawq-i sar; 
mu'allaq or dmzdn (hanying, suspended). 

Overhear, Overhearing, shunidan, etc. (by 
accident ; vide Hear) ; ta,sammu^ kardan or 

istirdq-i sam' kardan = gush kashidan (to 
eavesdrop ; on purpose) ; divdr muah 
ddrad, mush gush ddrad ( = walls have 

Overland, az hhushki (opp. to az tart) ; barri, 
adj. (opp. to bahrl). 

Overload, to, pur bdr k. ; bdr-i ziydd k. 

Overlook, to. Overlooking, vd-rasi (k.) bi — 
( — servants, etc.) : mushraf bar rudrldidnd 
(overlooking the river) ; faru didan (to see 
below one ; of persons) ; mde To Neglect ; 
chashm-pusht k. or ig^mdz k. (to overlook 
a fault; also to connive at). Ftde For- 

Overnight, shai>-i qahl az vdqi'a; shab-i 

Overplus, md, baqi.^ 

Overpower, mu^stawU shudan ; vide To Con- 
quer; kasrat bar shajd'at ghalba karda 
( — overpowered by numbers the heroes 
— ) ; kasrat bar qillat dast ydfta (over- 
powered by numbers). 

Overrate, ziydd shimurdan. 

Override, bi-zur pish burdan (met.) : zir-i 
sum-i asp pd-mdl k. (lit.) ; mansukh k. 
(annul) ; hukm-i mujtahid bar farmdn-i 
Shdh ndfiz ast. 

Over-ripe, ziydd-rasida ; [opp. to nd-ras, not 
quite ripe*]. 

Overseer, sar-kdr ; mubdshir. 

Over-set. Vide Overturn. 

Overshadow, sdya-anddkhtdn. 

Oversight, sahv , vide Mistake. 

Oversleep, ziydd (or td dlr) khrpdhidan. 

Overstep, az hadd tajdvuz k. or — dar guzash- 

Overtake, jard randan ; az *aqab raddan ; az 
'aqab mulhaq shudan. 

Overthrow, vdzhgun kardan (to overturn) ; 
shikast dddan ; or Jiazimat d. (to defeat) ; 
az pd anddkhtdn (to throw down a man, 
to demolish a building). Vide Conquer 
and Ruin. 

Overtures, (to make) , iqddm k. bi — .• taJirtk-i 
sulh k. (—of peace). 

Overturn, vdruna k. ; or vdzfigun — or sar- 
nigun k. ; or barx garddnidan ; bi-yak 
bdragi latma-yi bdd-i kishti rd sar-vigun 
kard. Vide Demolish. 

Overturned, ma'kus; vdruna. 

Overvalue. Vide Overrate. 

1 Kitabl oval, of face, is India. 

2 S/wfc i piah cannot mean the • cominK night.' 
♦ But Uiam " very unripe, quite green," etc. 

For ma baqq. 




Overwhelm, gharq kardan ; fard giriftan. 

Oviperous, iukhm-nih; tuJchm-guzdr : giayr-i 
valud (i.e. not produced by direct birth). 

Owe, bidih ddshtan; qarz ddshtan; madyun 
hudan; man hi-shumd dah tumdn maqruz- 
am, or bi-dih-kdr-am, or hi-dihl ddram (I 
owe you 10 tumans). 

Owl, bum; buf or blj ; shdh-buf P. and 
fahd^'l-layl At. (Eagle Owl) ; ydpldgh-i 
sdhrd^l (probably the Short-eared Owl) ; 
ydpldq-i bdg]vi (probably the Tawny Owl) ; 
'arus-i chdh (a * yellowish -white owl with- 
out horns that preys chiefly on pigeons ' ) ; 
bdya-qush or chughd (a species of little 
owl) ; mur^-i shab-dhang or murgh-i haqq 
(probably the Madge Owlet) ; misl-i bum 
ast (he is ill-omened ; carries ill-luck with 
him) ; jugAd murgh-i shum-Vst. 

Owl-eyed, bum-chashm (with big round eyes : 
not a beauty). 

Own, khud ; az khud-i man or mdl-i khud-am 
(it is my own) : chiz-l az khud nxi-ddram 
(I have nothing of my own). 

Own, to, mdlik budan; ddshtan rt. ddr ; bi- 
Khudd, }tasl u mst-am hamln as^(this is all 
I own in the world) ; muqirr-am ; or qabul 
ddram (I own it; admit it); mu'tarif-i 
qusur-i khud shudan (to own one's fault). 

Owner, mdlik ; pidar-sag sdhib (whose owner 
is a pidar-sag ; abuse to an animal) : 
hamchu khaydl-ash girifta ast ki bd in Mia 
va tadbir mi-tavdnad bi-dawlat-i u sdhib 
shavad (an idea has taken hold of her that 
by this artifice she will get hold of his 
property) . 

Ox, Oxen, gdv {gen. term) ; m gdv-hd az dn-i 

Ox-eyed, gdv-chashm. 

Ox-goad, mil-i gdv-rdni. Vide Goad. 

Ox-tongue, gdv-zabdn (the herb ox-tongue 
or bugloss). 

Oxygen, m,uvallid" ' l-hum,uz. 

Oxus, (river), Jayhun. 

Oxymel, sikanjabin (a sherbet made of 
vinegar and sugar with a little mint 

Oyster, sadaf (mo(her-of-pearl shell). 

Pace, qadam, pi. aqddm ; or gam (a pace, 
step) ; raftdr (gait) ; shiling (z.) (stride) ; 

khush-qddam or khush-gdm (well-paced, 
comfortable, of donkeys, etc.). 

Pace, to, qadam z. (to walk ; of persons only) ; 
qadum anddkhtan (to step showily; of a 
horse) ; qadam raftan (to walk slowly ; of 
horse) ; gdm z. (to walk, to measure by 
paces ; of persons only) ; gdm shimurda 
raftan (to pace in a stately manner, like 
a cat at certain times). Vide To Amble. 

Pacific, sulh- dust : drdm ; mard-i drdm-V st. 

Pacification, m,usdlaka (between parties) ; 
drdm kardan; or isldk-i umurdt (of a dis- 
trict, etc.). 

Pacify, to, sulh dddan (gen.) ; dshti dddan 
(between parties) ; drdm k. ; taskin d. (of 
appetites) . 

Pack, dasta (of cards) ; dasta or galla (of 
dogs) ; musht-i durugh (a pack of lies). 

Pack, to, basian, rt. band; bast u band k. : 
bar chidan (to gather up, remove ; at a 
picnic, etc.) : pichidan (to roll up). 

Package, Packet,' basta or amdnat (any 
parcel, small or large) ; az Isfahdn basta-yi 
kdghaz-i bi-tavassut-i (or bi-musdhabai'i) 
pust bard-yat rasida ast. Vide Package. 

Packer, basta-band. 

Pack-horse, mdl (gen. ; for pack-animals) ; 
ydbu-yi bdr or ydbu-yi bdri; [ydbu a 
coarse-bred pony ; a term also applied to 
a horse when it has become worthless]. 

Packing-needle, suzan-i javdl-duz. 

Pack-saddle, pdldn (of donkeys, mules) ; 
jahdz (of camels). 

Packthread, sar-duz (coarse black woollen 
thread) ; qdtima T. (hair-rope, gen. of black 
goat-hair) . 

Pad, takaltu (gen. for horse) ; sifdl iu-yi 
pdldn kardan (to stuff a pack-saddle with 
straw, and metaphorically = tamalluq guf- 

Padded, hashv-karda or muhashsha (of sad- 

Padding, hashv (gen.) ; (pi. hashviyydt (in 
literature only, tautologies). 

Paddle. Vide Oar. 

Paddle-wheel, charkh; parra (one board or 
blade of the paddle-wheel, or of the 
screw) . 

Padlock, qufl {k.) (also applied to an English 
lock) . 

Paean, fath-ndma (in prose or poetry ; an- 
nounces victory). 

J Pakat Eur. means " envelope." 




Paederast,' hachcha-hdz; bl-rish-baz; fa' it 
(only of the agent) ; pusht ; or lcu7U ; or 
bi-rish; or maj'ul (only of the pathic); 
maraz-i ubna ddrad (of pathic). 

Paederasty,' livdta: bachcha-bazi (al80 = 
" child- play ") ; jmshti ; or nd-khushl-yi 
ubna (of the pathic). Vide Sodomy. 

Pagan, but-'parast (idolator). 

Paganism, but-parasti. 

Page, safha, pi. safhajdi; varaq (leaf or two 
pages) ; j^uldtn-bachcha (negro page) ; 
Ichdna-shdgird (a small boy who acts as a 
messenger between the men's and wo- 
men's apartments ; he is usually spoilt 
and objectionable). 

Pagoda, pagoda (Eur.) ; [the English word 
' ' pagoda ' ' is derived from but-kada which 
means any idol- temple]. 

Pai], dalv (of copper) ; sail (has two handles). 
Vide Bucket. 

Pain, dard (gen.) ; ranj ; and alam (of mind) ; 
dard-i zih (of child-birth) ; pahlu-yam dard 
girifta ast (I have just'^ got a pain in my 
side) ; zakhm tir mi-kashad (of a stabbing 
pain). Vide Pang. 

Pains, mashaqqat (didan) ; or zahmat — or 
ranj {kashidan) ; sa'y (k.) (to take pains; 
ijide Try, Endeavour) ; mardrat (kashidan) 
(m.c. pains, trouble ; lit. bitterness) ; bi- 
diqqat kdr k. 

Pain, to, alam (of mind) or sadma (of body 
or mind) rasdnidan; bi-dard dvardan 
(gen.) ; dard dddan or — rasdndan (of 
wound, etc.). 

Painful, dard-ndk ; or pur-dard (of mind or 
body) ; ranj-dih (to mind). 

Painstaking, ranj {burddn or kashidan) ; jidd 
u jahd {k.) (striving). 

Paint, rang (2.) (of wood, the face; gen.); 
(jjidza (2.) ; or surkh-db (2.) (rouge; for the 
face) ; safid-db (2.) (white powder for 
face); vasma (kashidan) (black; for eye- 
brows) ; dn zdn surat-ash rd surkhdb u 
safid-db zada sar u mu-yash rd durust 
kard, pishtar haffa karda bud (she painted 
her face and tied her hair having previ- 

ously removed the fluff}' hairs from her 
face^) ; khdl nihddan (to paint a mole). 

Paint, to, rang k. (of carpenter) ; rang u 
ru^an z. (of picture) ; naqqdshi k. (to 
draw and paint) ; [naqsh k. and tasvir 
kashidan "to draw "J; rangin k. (to 
colour); abru bd vasma payvasta k. ("to 
join the two eye-brows by vasma ' ' ; joined 
eye- brows are a beauty). 

Painted, munaqqash (with coloured drawings, 

Painter, musawir (artist) ; dar zamariri salaf 
dar vildyat-i Chin naqqdsh-i mash-hur-i 
buda ast mawsum bi-Mani* (in ancient 
times there was a very famou.s painter in 
China, called ManI) ; naqqdsh (gen. ; house 
painter, or artist). 

Painting, naqqdshi ; or tasvir kashi (drawing) ; 
miLsawiri (art of — ) ; par da (anj' large 
painting ; as parda-yi ashkdl (an oil-paint- 
ing with figures ; human or animal) . 

Pair, juft ; zawj * ; " there was a pair of each 
sort (of bird)" az har jins-i yak juft nar 
u mdda bud : dn du td ukht-i ham and 
(those two men are a pair) ; in du mard 
juft-and ( = these two are always together); 
kahar az kabud kam nist (= they are a 
pair, as bad as each other). Vide Odd. 

Pair, to, juft giriftan or shudan intr. (of 
animals) ; juft k. tr. ; juft juft raftan (to 
pair off ; in a garden party) ; Tuan dar rah 
bd u juft shuddm ( = I joined him on the 

Palace, qasr (of Shah) ; arg (of Governor) ; 
kushk (any summer residence, a villa). 

Palacious, qa»r-mdnand. 

Palanquin, takht-i ravdn. 

Palatable, guvdra; khush-gavdr ; bd maza: 
laziz (delicious). 

Palate, kdm. ; saqf-i dahan ; saqq. 

Pale, kam-rang (of colours) ; az tars rang-ash 
zard shud = rang ash parid^ az tars: az 
na-khushi rang u ru*i na-ddrad: pd az 
dd^ira-yi zdhir-i shari'at biriin na-nihdd 
(he still kept within the pale of religion). 
Vide PaUid. 

1 Hiz and hizl k. are now used as abuse and signify acting in any low or disgraceful manner. 

'i Note force of Perfect here, girifta oat. 

'^ Also band andahJktan. Some Persian Muslim women remove the fluff off the face by means of a 
string : the professional woman who does this is called hand-anduz. Zan-i rna'qul va najib na aurtliab va 
aafid-ab ml-zanad va na haffa ml-kunad — Kirman saying. 

♦ Said to have been a Persian who went to China, leeu-nt painting, returned to his country as a pro- 
phet, and founded the Manchean sect. Miniatures in ancient Persian AISS. are very Chinese in character. 

f> Juft is sometimes incorrectly used for " two," like the English word " couple " ; but of shoes ifc 
must mean a pair, a right and left. 

(> Rangaah yaritl also " faded or weuhed out ' ' (of the colours in clothes, etc.). 




Palindrome,' maqlub-i mutasam. 

Paling, hisar-i takhta; az tahhta hisdr k. or 
bastan (to surround by palings). 

Palisade, dlvar-i takhta; mitras, pi. matarls'^ 
(also a barricade for a door). 

Pall, chddar-i tdhut (in Persia it is a white 
sheet or a costly shawl) ; jandza-push 

Palliate, to, tajchjif dadan {to lessen) ; ighmdz 
k. (to overlook a fault). 

Palliation, talchjif-i taqslr dddan. 

Pallid, zard (from sickness); rang-ash bdkhta 
(from fear). Vide Pale. 

Pall-mall, darham barham (gen. adj.); bar 
yak digar rikhta (of people or animals) ; 
ru-yi ham uftdda. 

Pallor, zardi. 

Palm, nahhl , or darakht-i khurmd (date- 
palm) ; lif-i khurmd (fibre) ; kaf-i dast 
(palm of the hand) ; \kaj-i pd sole of the 
foot] ; nakhlistdn or nakhl-zdr (palm- 

Palm off, to. In qirdn rd chunin qalam (or 
jilva) ddd ki guyd asl (or sahih) ast ^ ? (he 
palmed this qirdn off as genuine). 

Palmister, kaf-bln; kaf-shinds. 

Palmistry, 'ilm-i kaf-bini. 

Palpitate, tapldan or tapidan Vide Bate 
and Flutter. 

Palpitation, tapish-i qalb (—of the heart; 
heart-disease) ; khafaqdn (sudden and of 
short duration). 

Palsied, ra'sha paydd karda. 

Palsy, dast- ash ra'sha paydd karda ast. 

Paltry, yak par-i kdh nami-arzad; yak-pull 
or yak-ghdzi (value one mite ; of persons). 

Pampered, ndz-ddna: ndz-parvarda ; [sdya- 
parvarda (Class, and Indian; in m.c. 
applied to flowers grown in the shade).] 

Pamphlet, risdla. 

Pamphleteer, risdla-nams. 

Pan, dlzi and dlzu (gen. deep and of earthen- 
ware ; used for stewing soup) ; tdba or 
mdhi-tdba (frying pan) ; sdj (a griddle for 
bread); chdla ; or gushak; or dtash-Jchdna 
(of gun). 

Pander, dallal (gen. term ; any broker) : jd- 
ka,sh; lihdf-kash; qaltabdn ; qurumsdq: 
dayyus (to his own wife). 

Pander, to, dalldli k. ; jd-kashi k. : lihdf 
kashi k. 

Panderess, dalldla. 

Pane, jdm (gen.) ; kitdbl (pane of coloured 
glass) ; dar In panjra dah jdm-i sh'isha ast; 
[jdm also = a metal drinking cupj. 

Panegyric, qasida-yi madh Ichipdndan (to re- 
cite a — ). 

Panegyrical, madh-dmtz. 

Panegyrist, madh-gu ; madddh. 

Panel, lawha. 

Pang, vide Pain; danddn-am slkh kashid or 
tlr kasMd (I had a sudden pang in my 
tooth) ; sakardt-i mawt chashtdan (the 
pangs of death ; = dar hdlal-i jdn-kandan 
buddn) ; az shiddat-i m' (from the pangs of 
hunger) . 

Panic-struck, vahshat-zada. Vide Fear. 

Panniers, chdk (for fruit; local?); lawda {a 
pointed mule-pannier for fruit) ; sabad 
(any small basket) ; zambll (any small 
basket of date-leaves) ; kajdva (wooden, 
for riding in). 

Panorama, dur-numd (?) (a word used in the 
Shah's Diary). 

Pant, to, halhal zadan (of animals) ; tiafas 
zadan (of human beings) ; hmga zadan 
(to grunt as porters and Indian palki- 
bearers) . 

Pantheism, vahdat"'l-vujud. 

Pantheist, qdHl-i vahdat-i vujud. 

Panther, palang. Vide Cheeta. 

Pantry, sharbat-khdna (where all sorts of 
provisions are stored, as well as cups and 
saucers, etc.). 

Papa, bdbd (also •' baby"). 

Paper, kdghdz-i navishtani (writing) ; kdghaz-i 
muhra kashida (glazed) ; kdghaz-i kh^iishk 
-kun (blotting) ; kdghaz-i ndshir (absor- 
bent, i.e. on which the ink spreads); 
dafdtir-i divdnl (state papers) ; kdghazl 
(adj . ; made of paper) . 

Paper, to, az kdghaz pushdndan. 

Paper knife, kdghaz-bur. 

Paper weight, sang-i ru-jarsh (prop, weights 
pub on the corners of carpets) ; sang-i ru 

Papyrus, hafd (the name of the leaf when 

1 Palindrome ; a word or sentence that can be read indifferently backwards and forwards as j>j^, 
or in English " Madam, I'm Adam " (Adam's self-introduction to Eve). Anagram is a general term for 
any transcription of letters as evil and live. 

'I The Pers. ma-tara " don't fear," from which an Arabic verb has been coined. 

s Notftwd. 




Parable, masai, pi. amadl. 

Parade, mashq k. intr. , and mashq d. tr. ; 
sand, (review or muster); 'ilmi khud rd 
hi-kharj mi-dikad (he makes a parade of 
his learning). 

Parade-ground, mayddn-i mashq. 

Paradise, bihisht : or jannat; or khuld: fir 
daws-i barin (the highest heaven) ; A*rdf 
(the boundary between Paradise and 
Hell) ; Bdg.hri Firdaws (Garden of Eden) . 

Paradox, lu^z (a riddle). 

Paragraph, fasl, pi. fusul. Vide Chapter 
and Section. 

Parallel, mu/auazi; ham-bardbar {ra.c; prop, 
of the same size) ; ta^tq {k.) (to draw a 

Paralyzed, mafluj ; mashlul (in any limb). 
Vide Paralytic. 

Paralysis, jdlij : laqva (of the face). 

Paralytic, ifltj ; mafluj. Vide Paralyzed. 

Paramour, jdsiq^ (man; only in a had sense); 
rajiq; sift-zan (vulgar word). 

Parapet, divdr-i past (wall) ; kungura, m.c. 
for kangura (anything castellated) ; bdra 
or bdrii (outer low wall round a fort). 

Paraphernalia, sdman (gen.) ; yardq T. (of 
horses, soldiers). Vide Odds. 

Paraphrase, bi-in 'ibdrat dn rd tafsir (or 
tawzih, or shark) kard. 

Parasang, farsakh or farsang ; about 3f 

Parasite, iufayll^ ; tufayli u qufayli ; muft- 
khur : kdsa-lls (also toady, flatterer, q.v.). 

Parasol, djidb-garddn (also a shade for the 
eyes ; a small tent) ; shamsiyya (also um- 
brella, q.v.). 

Parboiled, mm-pukhta. 

Parcel, basta. Vide Package. 

Parch, bu dddan (of any grain ; to roast 
coffee berries, etc.) ; birishtan (rare) ; az 
tars db dar dahan-am khushkid (my mouth 
became parched from fear '*) . 

Parchment, pust ; pust-i dhu *. 

Pardon, 'afv (k.) ; bakhshdyish {k.); dmurzish 
{k.) (of God or man). 

Pardon, to, bakhshxdan ; mu'df k. : tasadduq- 
at gardam (said by a person when being 
beaten) ; a^^io 'afv bi-farmdyid (pardon 
my fault, sir); 'uzr mi-khivdham (I ask 
pardon) ; az khatd dar guzaahtan. 

Pardoner, dmurzanda and tf&affdr (of God) ; 

bd guzasht, adj. (of men). 
Pare , ndkhun giriftan or — chidan (of nails) ; 

stem tardshidan (of hoof). 
Parents, vnlidayn (Ar. dual) ; pidar u mddar. 
Parentage, chigunagi-yi pidar u mddar-ash; 

hasab u nasab (lineage) ; asl u bunydd; 

nizhdd: nutja-ash kharab {=hardmrzada). 

Vide Family. 
Parentheses, Paranthetical, qawsayn (Ar. 

dual = brackets) : jumla-yi mu'tariza (a 

parenthetical sentence). 
Paring, iardsha (a pairing of wood, etc.); 

iardsh (the act). 
Paris, Pdris. 

Park, bd^-i dawlati (public park). 
Parley, muzdkara (k.) ; mukalama {k.) ; tablri 

mukdlama (the drum beaten for a parley); 

[kd)l-i amdn, drum of truce]. 
Parliament, Pdrlirrvdn, or Majlis-i PdrlimJan; 

ajzd-yi Pdrlirmn (members of — ) ; Majlis-i 

Shurd-yi MilR (House of Commons) ; 

Majlis-i Shurd-yi Dawlati (the House of 

Lords). Vide Assembly. 
Parody, iaqlid; javdb. 

Parole, qawl (promise) ; ism-i shab (counter- 
Paronomasia, tajnls. 
Paroxysm, twjAydn-i dard (sudden increase 

of pain) ; jush-i jfAazab (of anger) ; nawbai 

(of .a remittent disease). 
Parquetry, khdtamrbandi {k.). 
Parrot, tuli ; Bibi-yi Mutu or MaXu (in story 

books) ; ka^ u kit (local ?). 
Parrot-like, tutl-vdr. 
Parry, daf kardan; radd kardan. 
Parse, in jumla rd tarlcib kun (parse this 

Parsee, Zardiishti ; Pdrsi or Fat si; Gabr,^ 

vulg. Gaivr ; Majus.^ Vide Zardushti and 

Fire- worshipper. 
Parsimonious, khasis (mean) ; bakhil (miser- 
ly) ; mumsik (stingy) ; tnde Miserly ; \mu- 

qattir not colloquial]. 
Parsimony, taqlir (correct but not colloquial). 
Parsley, ;a7or» ; [but gul-i j a' fori, the mari- 
Parsnip, gazr-i sajid. 
Part, juzv; or para (portion); khurda; or 

tiklM ; or pdrcha (a small piece ; last also 

1 Faaiq-i tu host also = fa'ilri tti haat. 

i Originally the name of a man. 

3 Amongst orientals and perhaps other folk, a well-known sign of fear. 

♦ Charms are preferably written on gazelle-skin. 

* The modem Parsis of Persia object to the terms Qabr or Qatar and MajSs. 





= cloth) ; or hissa Ar. (share); bahra P. 
(share; rare in the sense of portion); 
hahra-yi avval or juzv-i avval (Part I) ; 
(fhdlib'^'' or bishtar (for the most part) ; az 
janib-i u (on his part). Vide Share. 

Part, to, judd k. or tafnq k. tr. ; savd kardan 
tr. (also to select, separate) ; shank budan 
(to take part in) ; hdyil budan (intervene); 
vide Divide ; judd sh. and vida' guflan (of 
lovers) ; kimdyat k. ; or taraf-ddn k. (to 
take one's part) ; az man hirmyat kard or 
himdyat-i mard kard. 

Partake, man qadr-i mtva bi-u said zadam ' 
vail 7ia-khurd (I asked him to partake of 
fruit with me but he declined) : shum^ 
bism* 'illdh bi-kunid man ham shank mt- 
shavam : har chand u bard-yi ham-yiydla va 
hamrnavdla shudan isrdr mi- kard bdz qabul 
nami-kardam — Prof. S. T. (in spite of his 
frequent * and pressing invitations that I 
should partake of his repast, I continued^ 
to decline). Vide Share and Offer. 

Parterre, kurt; gul-kdr (with flowers); 
chaman (flower-beds divided by grass or 
by grav el- walks ; also a lawn). 

Partial, taraf-gir or jdnib-gir ; [in India tarai- 
ddr, iDut in Persia, the latter = hdmi] ; 
juz^i adj. and adv. (not wholly). 

Partiality, jdnib-ddrl; md na-bdyad ki dar 
mahakama taraf-i kas-i rd bi-ginm. 

Participating, adj . sharik ; bahra-mand. 

Participation, shirdkat (k.) ; mushdrakat {k.) : 
muddkhalat {k.) (interference). 

Participle, ism-i fd'il (act.) ; ism-i maj'ul 

Particle, Mwr^Za ; zarra, pi. ^armf (minute) ; 
harj (gram.) ; yak shusha'"' az in bi-shumd 

Particular, ma'lum shuda dar in nukta (or 
khusus) ishtibdh kardam [but nuqta 
' ' dot ' ' j ; matta dar kun-i khashkhdsh mi- 
guzdrad (he is over-particular; matta = 
gimlet); u khayli daqiq ast (he is very 
critical) ; u pur dar qayd-i (or bandri) 
libds-i khud-ash ast: faqara (for fiqra or 
faqra) pi. faqardi; or amr, pi. umurdt; or 
mas^ala, pi. masdHl; or tajsil, pi. tafsildt 
and tafdsll; or kayfiyyat, pi. kayfiyydt 
(particulars, circumstances); 'umum'^" va 
khuaiis'^" ; (in general and in particular) ; 

vide Anger ; dar in bdb (or dar in khusus) 
(in this particular). 

Parting, rajtanl adj. etc. (about to depart): 
ravdnagi ; khudd-hdfizi (departure); mxif- 
raq or farq (of hair) ; tafriq-i tarafayn 
(parting the two parties) ; judd shudan 
(of lovers) ; tafriq (of ways) ; vidd' guftan 
or k. (bidding adieu). 

Partisan, havd-ddr , havd-khivdh ; taraf-ddr. 
Vide Well-wisher. 

Partitioning, iaqsim (division) ; parda (in a 

Partly, nima-i — nima-i ; ovaz yah iaraf — az 
taraf-i dignr (partly — partly—); pdra-i — 

Partner, u sharik-i tijdrat-khdna-yi Hdji 
Hasan ast : rafiq-i abadi (partner for ever, 
i.e. a wife). 

Partnership, mushdrakat; shirdkat; shirkat. 

Partridge, kabk, vulg. kawk (the Chukor) ; 
durrdj (the Black Partridge or Francolin) ; 
jirujti and chil (the Grey Partridge of 
India) ; tihu (the See-see) ; du ddna kabk 
shikdr kardam; galla-yi kabk-i or galla^-i 
az kabk (a covey of Chukor) ; Jabbdr 
murdd-am bi-dih ( = the cry of the Black 
Partridge in Kirman) ; but Vdy Husayn 
kushta shud (its cry in Kerbela). Vide 

Parturition, zd^ldan (gen.) ; bachcha nihddan 
(of animals) ; pdbi-zih guzdshta ast = sar-i 
zih ast (she is in the act of giving birth 
to). F?'fl?e Bring forth. 

Party, dasta; jamd'at: zumra; guruh; vide 
Colours; majlis, pi. majdlis (social); 
bi-mihmdni raftan (to go to a party) ; 
mc?e Banquet, etc.; shab-nishini (evening- 

* Party,' taraf-i mutdlaha-yi 'aba haqir haslam 
(I am the ' party ' against whom the 
claim for the 'abd should bo preferred) ; 
taraf-i mukhdtab (the party addressed) ; 
ashhhds-l ki taraf-i tahvil dddan-i sanduq 
buda-and (the parties who delivered the 

Parvenu, naw-kisa ; tdza bi-navd rasida. 

Pass, (subs.), az bard-yi in tankhivdh khatt-i 
rdh-ddri ddrid? ; tazkara (pass-port); suk 
(a thrust in fencing) : kutal bisydr past 
u buland ast (the pass over the moun- 

1 Sala-i ruata^l a civil invitation that is not intended to be accepted. Sola z. is to invite by saying 
Bi-am illah, hi-farmayld, etc., etc., but to offer by hand is taqdlm k. 

2 Note the force of the Imperfect. 

s Shiisha is the intermedial form of contracted letters but without the dots. 




tains is difficult); darra (a defile between 
mountains) ; tang-rdh (any narrow way) ; 
gaduk (used by Shah); guddra, vulg. for 
guzdra (prop, any passage). 

Pass, to, guzashtan, rt. guzar ; az tu g. (to 
pass through a place) ; dar guzashtan (to 
pass away) ; in sikka dar Iran ravdj (or 
rd'^^ij) nist, or ravdj na-ddrad : az u guzasht 
or radd shud (he passed by liim) ; [lit. 
radd kardan = " to reject"]: az dn rdh 
guzar kardam or 'ubur kardam (1 travelled 
by that road) ; *umr hi-sar burdan (to pass 
one's life) ; dast-garddn k. (to pass from 
hand to hand , to pass round) ; in sikka 
rd hikh-i gulu-yash bastam ( = I passed 
the bad coin off on him) ; vide Pardon : 
mil z. (of catheter) : jam rd dawr dddan 
(to pass the cup) : baytuta k. (to pass a 
night with) ; shab rd bi-ruz dvardan (to 
pass a night till dawn in—) : jalvq d. 
(a decision; of anj' judge but properly 
of mufti) ; az imiifidn durust birun dmadan 
or dar imtihdn kdrrirydb sh. (to pass an 

Passage, 'ubur (of river, etc.): rah raw ; or 
bdrika (in a house) ; vide Defile, etc. ; rud- 
khdna-yi buzurg-% mdni'-i rdli-i shdn shud, 
or — sadd-i rdh shud, or —rdh-i ishdn rd 
masdud kard (a large river blocked their 
passage) ; insdn bay ad ta'ammul kunad ki 
iftikhdr bi-chi daraja Id^iq-i kas-Vst ki du 
martaba az mamarr-i bawl dar dmada (let 
man reflect how far pride befits a being 
that has twice passed through the uri- 
nary passage); safar (voyage); 'ibdrat or 
mazmun (in book). 

Passed, guzashta or sd^iq (of time); m?o 
ydftu (of bill). 

Pass^. Vide Youth. 

Passenger, jahdz rnusdfirdn-i ziydd (or musd- 
fir-i ziydd-i) dvard: 'ibri (by boat only); 
musdfir (by train) ; ' pdsinjar ' (gen. ; by 
Persians in India and of the Gulf). 

Passion, gAazab (wrath) ; na-bdyad dar gJiazab 
shud (one should not give way to wrath) ; 
khashm P. (anger) ; taysh (foolish passion ; 
as of children); i^Aoys Ar. (rage, with 

■ its expression) ; khivdhishdl-i nafsdni (the 
passions). Vide Lust. 

Passionate, (jAazab-ndk (wrathful) ; dtasfi- 
mizdj (of grown people; always getting 
angry) ; khashmndk : shahvati (lustful) ; or 

Passionately, bd gi^azab ; bd khashm ; bd 

Passive, maf'ul (object in gram, and the 

Pass. Part. ; also in a bad sense) ; majhUl 

(Passive voice); sdkit (unresisting). 
Passover, Fish. 
Passport, pds-purt (Eur.); or tazkara (for 

person) ; rdh-ddri (pass for goods) ; javd%- 

ndma (licence). 
Past, guzashta; munqazi; rrvdzi: sdbiq (for 

mer) ; fawq-i or khdrij az — (beyond). 
Paste, shulla (prop, gruel for eating) ; dhdr 

(for sticking). 
Pasteboard, muqawq. 
Pastern, bukhavlu ; bakhav. 
Pastime, mashghuliyydt , pi. (gen.); tafarruj : 

or tamJdsha (sight-seeing ; strolling about) ; 

bdzicha (a toy). Vide Sight-seeing. 
Pastry-cook, kulucha-paz. 
Pasturage or Pasture, margA-zdr : chaman 

(any green spot ; vide Parterre) ; chard-gdh 

(grazing place) ; 'alufa (cut forage). 
Pasture, to, chardnidan. Vide Meadow. 
Pat, yak lup az kara (vulg.) (of butter). 
Pat, to, dost z. (to pat a dog; also of cats, 

tigers, etc. in play). 
Patch, pina (zadan) (separate, unsewn) ; vasla 

{k. or anddkhtan) (when sewn; vulg. 

vasla) ; in rd vasla va dn rd rafu kun 

(patch this and darn that). 
Patched, vasla shuda; vasla vasla ('all 

patched"). " ["cobbler"]. 

Patcher, vasla-gar or vasla-zan; [pinorduz 
Patent, imtiydz-i dawkUi (Royal patent; 

also a concession). 
Paternal, pidari; mirdsi (inherited and also 

ancestral) ; jaddi (ancestral). 
Path, rdh (gen.); ma,' bar (across grass; a 

ferry, etc.); kura-rah (by-path); chap-rdh 

(by-path) ; in rdh bi-dih mi-ravad (does 

this path lead to the village?); tariqa 


Pathetic, suz-7idk; or dil-suz: hadn (sad); 
diUfiydr (heart-rending) ; dard-ndk (pain- 

Pathless, rdh na ddrad ; pd na-khurda. 

Patience, sahr (also resignation) ; sahr-i Ayyub 
(the patience of Job) ; tahammvl (resigna- 
tion, aiso endurance) ; mJdbdyaddar hdlat-i 
musibat (or mashaqqat) sabr kunim: haw- 
sola bi-kun (have patience) ; shikibd^i ; 
sabr az ddst-am rafta ast = digar iaqat-% 
sahr na-ddram = hawsala-am db shud or 
sar raft. 

Patient, sdbir or 60 sabr : muiahammil {hc&Ta 
patiently) ; mariz (sick person) ; sabur 
(very patient). 




Patois, Farsi-yash dihB,tVst (he speaks a 

patois of Persian). 
Patriarch, rish-safid (grey-beard). 
Patriot, millat-parast ; vatan-dust. 
Patriotism, hubb''H-vatan or hubb-i vatan ; 

gh ayrat-i milli. 
Patrol, tildya or qardvul (mil.) : shab-gard; 

ov gazma; or 'asas (night police-patrols). 
Patron, murabbi; or sar-parast: muskavviq 

(encourager) . 
Patronage, himayat (k.) ; or sar-parastl (k.) 

(the help of a patron). 
Patronize, har amr-i ki mujib-i taraqqi-yi 

mulk-ash mi-shavad dar an bi-nihdyat sa' y ' 

Patronymic, ism-i khdnddni. 
Pattern, bdyad namuna-l bi-dihld k^az ru-yi 

an kar bi-kunam : tarh or tarah ; or naqsh 

(design) : qudva (in Pers. in a relig. sense). 
Paucity, kamt ; qillat. 
Paul, Bulus. 
Paunch, shikam P. (the whole belly) = batn 

A. (rare); kum {vulg.) ; mi' da (stomach) : 

ruda (gut, q.v.). 
Pauper, miskin, pi mash Jan; 'djiz. Vide 

Poor, etc. 
Pause, vaqt-i khwdndan bdyad muldhaza-yi 

vaqf rd bi kunid. 
Pave, Pavement, tamdmri kucha-ha-yi dnjd 

farsh-i sang ast * ; sang-farsh or jarsh-i sang 

Pavilion, sard-parda or khargdh (big tent). 
Paw, panja (also hand or foot of men) (z.) .• 

chang{z.) (claws of birds or beasts) ; [ching 

Pawn, piydda; or bayzaq (at chess). 
Pawn, to, giraw nihddan ; rahn kardan - (gen. 

to mortgage a house or land). 
Pawn-broker, giraw-glr. 
Pawned, marhun; giraw-shuda. 
Pay, (wages), mdhiydna or m^hdna; mMvd- 

jib ; mavdjib-i yak mJdh plshaki girifta am. : 

nisf-i mavdjib-ash id shash mdli qaV shud 

or burida shud (he was cut half his pay 

for six months). Fide Wages and Hire. 
Pay, to, kdr-sdzi k. (to meet a demand) ; adB, 

k. (a debt) ; ddam-i bisydr amin-Vst quruzi- 

khud rd add mi-kunad ; mavdjib d. (monthly 

pay, etc.) ; haqqd. (pay dues) ; shumd bdyad 

kharj-i mard bi-kashid or — mutahammil bi- 

shamd (you must pay for me) : man ham td 
taldfi bi-u na-kunam dil-am dsuda naml- 
shavad (I won't rest till I pay him out) : 
zir-i kharch ki mi-ravad? (who pays the 
piper ?). 

Payable. Vide Sight. 

Payee, giranda. 

Payer, dihanda. 

Paymaster, Mazm ; khazdn-chi , T . ; khazdnor 
(for khizdna — ) - ddr. Vide Cashier. 

Payment arfa; pul; w/rai (wages, hire, q.v.). 

Pea, nukhud (chick-pea 'gram'); nukhud- 
cJil (parched peas) ; nukhud-i Farangi 
(English green-peas); mdsh (the " ddf 
of India) ; sib-i buda and du nisf (or du jd) 
shuda ( = they are as like as two peas); 
[misl-i du magJiz dar yak pust = du tan dar 
yak pirahan ( = fast friends)] . 

Peace, asA^i P. or sulh A. (after fight) ; dram, 
or dsudagi, or rdhat (quiet) ; ama?i (state of 
security) ; dar sadad-i musdlaha dar dma- 
dan (to make overtures of peace) ; dil-am 
bi-jd dmad (I got peace of mind; vide 
Rest) ; na ruz dram ddr am va na shab 
qardr (no peace day or night) : amdn-am 
nami-dihand) (they give me no rest) ; kdr-i 
ki az sulh bar na-ydyad .". divdnagi dar u 
mi-bdyad (saying) : in'^ igdd-i sulh (the 
conclusion of peace); saldm"^Udh 'alq — 
(the Peace of God on — ); RahmaVlldh 

Peaceable, sulh-ju ; bd sulh va sajd. 

Peacefulness, drdmi ; or khdmushi (of 

Peacemaker, muslih ; dshti-dih. 

Peach, hulu; shajtdlu (a larger variety) 

Peach-coloured, rang-i shaftdlU'i. 

Peacock, td^us. 

Pea-hen, ta^us-i mdda. [tain). 

Peak, qulla, or nuk (vulg.). or sar (of moun- 

Peal, firang-d-jirang-i jaras (the sound of 
many bells). 

Pear, guldbi (ripens on tree) ; amrud (plucked 
and buried in barley to ripen) : natanz 
or latanz (a large winter pear) ; 'abba si (a 
kind of guldbi). 

Pearl, marvdrid; durr; lu^lu^, pi. la^dli. 

Peasant, dihqdn (villager) ; zdri' ; za'hn 
(vulg.; prop, a small land tenant). Vide 
Cultivator, Tiller, and Villager. 

I Sa^y-i har chi tamamtar is not a common colloquial idiom. 

■i Irregular stones are said to have been laid down by hand in some of the streets of Tehran. Per- 
sian streets are as a rule unpaved, more unmetalled. 

8 Differs from bay^^'ehrshart (vide Sale), under which the property does not pass from the posses- 
sor's hands. 




Pea-shooter, pufak. 

Pebbles, sang-riza (also called rig or sand); 
shin. Vide Sand. 

Peck, chitig zadan: chidan (to pick up from 
the ground). 

Peculation, mablar^-% az mdl-i divan rd mdl-i 
khud ddnista (some peculation of public 
money). Vide Embezzlement. 

Peculiar, makhsus ; mu^tass bi — (especial 
to — ); jfharib (rare); *ajib (strange): 
munhasir bi — (confined to — ). 

Peculiarity, ikhtisds. 

Pecuniary, faqat ziydn-i naqdi bi-u rasida 
na-jinsi ; [mdli is opposed to jdni] : man- 
fa' at-i puli (pecuniary advantage) 

Pedant, mulld-yi maktabi; fazllat-farus?i. 

Pederast. Vide Poederast 

Pedantically, mulldydna; dkhunddna; u 
lafz-i qaiam harf mt-zanad. Vide Stilted. 

Pedestrian, piydda-raw; rdh-raw. 

Pedigree, kursi-ndma (for dervishes) ; nasab- 
ndma (gen.) ; shajara-ndma (the document 
for Sayyids and Nobles) ; silsila ; or nasab 
(race). Vide Tree and Genealogy. 

Pedlar, dast-farush (i.e. one whose stock 
consists of a few small articles carried in 
the hand) ; pila-var (who goes to villages ; 
also a quack, q.v.). Vide Articles. 

Peel, pust kandan: muqashshar k. (med.). 

Peeled, pust kanda or dar dvarda; muqashr 

Peep, to, duzdakt nigaristan (to peep secret- 
ly) ; panjara dn qadar tang ast ki bi- 
mushkil-l mi-tavdn sar kashid: yak nazar 
didan. Vide Glance. 

Peevish, niqniqu (of children, sick people). 

Peg, mikh (also nail) ; parchin (vulg.). 

Pegged out, mikh-kub. 

Pelican, kavdsil (prop, pi.) ; murgl^i saqqd 
(a name also incorrectly applied to the 
water wagtail). 

Pellet, giUula. 

Pellicle, parda. 

Pellitory, dqarqarkd. 

Pell-mell, darham barham. 

Pelli''" , shaffdf (transparent ; of water or 
K. cal); sdf (of air). 

Pellucidness, shaffdfi. 

Pen, qaJam , pi. aqldm ; khdrna ; kilk : qalam-i 
par (quill-pen) ; qalam-tardsh (pen-knife) ; 
qaU-zan; or qadd-zan (a bit of horn on 
which the pen is nibbed) ; qalam-ddn case 
containing knife, scissors, ink, pens) ; sar-i 

qalam (nib) ; dasta-yi qalam (pen-holder) : 
dgAul (a night pen for sheep). 

Penal, jurm-i qdnuni (penal offence). 

Penalty, jarima (fine) ; mukdfdt (in Per. used 
as a reward for good or ill); muzdri 
gundh mawt ast (the wages, penalty, of 
sin is death) ; fd^ida-yi ziydd khurdan-i 
shardb dard-i sar ' ast ; bi-sazd-yi hamdqat-i 
Umd rasid (he paid the penalty of his 
folly) ; zdlim bud, jaior-ash rd bi-kashad (he 
was a tyrant, let him suffer the penalty). 

Penance, bi-jazd-yi %n hdyad — ; dar muka- 
fdUi in guridh. 

Pencil, middd; qalam-i middd (also a foun- 
tain-pen) ; qalamri mu (of hair). 

Pendant, dviza (subs.). 

Pendulous, dvizan ; pdyin uftdda : lab-i 
shuturi {with coarse pendulous lips). Vide 

Pendulum, langar-i sd'at. 

Penetrable, nufttz-pazir. 

Penetrate, to, tuy raftan; nujuz kardan; 
sirdyat k. (of odours; also of diseases, to 
spread, infect); pichidan (of odours): 
tah-i matlab-ash rasidam (I penetrated his 
meaning) ; dark k. (of a person's design, 
etc.); 'umda-yi matlab-ash rd rasidam (I 
have penetrated his real object). 

Penetrating, mudrik (discerning) ; rvdfiz (of 
a bullet, etc.). 

Penetration, idmA; {k.); ta'ammtiq (k.) (going 
deep into a matter) ; ^raso/ (discernment); 
sur'at-i fahm (quickness, sagacity). 

Peninsular, shibh-i jazira; paninsuld (a 
word used in modern geographies) ; janra- 
numd. Vide Island. 

Penis, zakar ; dlat-i rujuliyyat ; qazib (rare); 
hashafa (the acorn) ; na/s (vulg.) ; kir (a 
very crude word) ; angusht-i shikam (face- 
tious) ; gushl-i bi-ustukhwdn (vulg, and 
facetious) ; khar-nafs or khar-kir (adj. ; 
vulg. ; with abnormally large penis) ; bid 
or bidbuli (of little boys; biyd bul-at rd 
bi-busam is a common expression of affec- 
tion to a Uttle son). Vide Membrane 

Penitence, bdz-gasht ; or taioba ; or indba ; 
[pashxmJdni (k.) and tanaddum k. regret for 
commission or omission] ; ta^assuf (M.) 
(sorrow, regret). 

Penitent, tauba-kdr ; or munib (rare) ; musta- 
ghfir (asking pardon); nddim and pashi- 
mdn (regretting, etc.). 

1 ^umar the ill effects of drinking experienced the next day. 




Pen- knife, qalam-tarash. 

Penman, khush-navis (a caligraphist) : sahih-i 
chand qalam (a master of several styles of 

Penmanship, khush-navlsi (caligraphy) . 

Pension, vazlfa, pi. vazaHf ; mustamirrl. 

Pensioner, vazifa-Jchwar. 

Pensive, dil-ash mutafakkir ast (of anxious 
thought) ; sar hi-zanu nishasta ast (he is 
seated buried in thought; also he is in 
grief); hazin (sad). 

Pentagon, panj-gusha ; mukhammas. 

Pentangular, panj-gusha^i . 

Pentateuch, Tawrat. 

Pentecost, ^Id^H-Ansura. 

Pent-house, shddarvan (a wooden shade over 
a wmdow ; also over a door) . 

Penurious, dar kharj kardan har pul-i ra mi- 
hinad. Vide Miser, Niggard, Parsimoni- 

People, mardum; khalq, pi. hhalaHq; jahd- 
niydn pi. ; makhluq. Vide Follower, Faith , 
Nation ; 'avdmm"'^ n-nds (common people) ; 
buzurgdn and akdhir (pi. of akbar) (great 

People, to, dbdd k. 

Peopled, dbdd (k.) ; mamur {k.) ; dbddani 
(an inhabited place ; opposed to virdni) . 

Pepper, filfil-i siydh (pepper corns); filfll-i 
hindi (chillies) ; filfil-i kufta (ground pep- 
per); filfil-nimaki (pepper and salt col- 
oured; also grizzled, q.v.). 

Peppermint, na'nd T. 

Perambulation, tavdf (k.) (of graves and 
sacred places) ; dawr {gashtan) (gen. ; going 
round any place). 

Perceive, to, bi-firdsat darydjtki — ; faJimtdan : 
muUaflt shudan (by the inward senses) ; 
ihsds k. (to feel cold, heat, etc.). 

Per cent, /^ sad : sad yak (one per cent) ; sad 
ddh or sad-l (^a/i= 10%. Vide Cent. 

Perceptible, mahsus ; In 'ayb nd-ma*lum (or 
nd-padid) ast. 

Perceptibly, Hydw^^ ; bi-taior-i zdhir. Vide 

Perception, idrdk (k.) (penetration) ; tashkhis 
(k.) (discrimination) : shu'ur{inna,te, intui- 

Perch, chub (in cage) ; pdya P. and vaqar At. 
(for hawks) ; chakas (for hawks ; old) ; 
nishlman (gen.). 

Perch, to, nishastan. 

Perchance, balki or guyd (m.c. in this sense) ; 
shdyad; bdshad ki — ; magar (gen. expects 
the answer no). 

Percolate, tiJu-yi chiz-i nufuz k. ; sirdyat k. 

Perdition, haldkat ; tabdhi ; haldk shudan. 

Peregrine. Vide Falcon. 

Peremptory, qdti' or sarih (of orders) ; mu^- 

Perennial, duvdzda-mdhl ; hamlsha-pd. 

Perfect, kdmil ; bd kamdl ; tdmm ; tamdm ; 
bi-kamdl rasida; [bi-itmdm rasida = bi- 
anjdm rasida = completed, finished] ; 
mdzi-yi qarlb (the Perfect Tense) ; sar td 
pa ahmaq ast = khar-i bd tashdid ast (he's 
a perfect fool). 

Perfected, mukammal; mwtommam {finished). 

Perfecting, takmil. 

Perfection, kamdl; vide Completion; u 
mujassama-yi husn ast (she is the perfec- 
tion or personification of beauty). 

Perfectly, sar-d-sar ; tamdm ; bi-kulU ; bi- 
tawr-i kdmil. 

Perfidious, ghadddr (treacherous , mutinous) ; 
]chd%n; or khiydnat-kdr (cheating, em- 
bezzling) : 'ahd-shika,n ; or sust-paymjdn 
(breaking promises) ; bl-vajd (faithless in 

Perfidy, glyxdr ; khiydnat ; etc. 

Perforate, surdkh kardan; suftan, rt. sumb 
(gen. of pearls). 

Perforated, surdkh- dar ; surdhh-shuda. 

Perforce, zuraki ; jabr"" ; bi-'unf. 

Perform, anjdm d. (work) ; bi-jd dvardan 
(fulfil) ; ifd-yi va' da or bi-va' da vafd k. (to 
fulfil a promise) ; murtakib sh. (commit) ; 
aksar awqdt va'da mi-kunad likin sar-i 
va'da nami-istad; nami-tavdnam az 'uhda- 
ash bar ay am, (I cannot perform it) : bdzi 
k. (in theatre). 

Performance, kdr ; or 'amal (work) ; */a -i 
va'da = bi va'da vafd kardan (of promise) ; 
itmdm (completion) ; bdzi or tamdsha (in a 
show) . 

Performer, bdzi-gar (in theatre). 

Perfume, khushbu {k.) ; 'itr (2.) ; rd%ha {k.) 
(rare) ; bakhur (d.) (incense, etc.). 

Perfumed, mu' attar (k.) ; tamdm-i utdq az 
bu-yi khush pur shud; bivdsita-yi 'itr-i in 
gulhd khdna khush-bu^ st. 

Perfumer, 'attdr (prop, seller of perfumes; 
in m.c. a druggist); 'itr-jarush (seller of 
perfumes) ; 'itr-kash or 'itr-sdz (distiller 

Perfunctorily, kdr ra bi-tawr-i sarsari mi- 

Perfunctory, bi-mubdldt ; la ubdli ; sarsari ; 
bd tahdvun. 

Perhaps, shdyad ; bdshad ki — ; guyd (m.c. 




in this sense); bcUJci (m.c. in this sense); 
bcUki in Jchabar mat bdshad: magar (often 
merely asks a question, and sometimes, 
signifying doubt, expects the answer no; 
magar divdna-t ? = perhaps you are mad or 
are you mad ?). 

Peri, yan. Vide Fairy. 

Peril, Peril, to, bak : him ; tars (fear) ; khaiar 
(danger) : jdn bi-haldkat andakhia (at 
peril of one's life) ; dar in kdr bisydr bak 

Ptrilous, pur-khatar ; kkatar-ndk; pur-bim. 

Period, *arsa (any space of time or place); 
muddal (longer time than 'araa) : hin (of 
short periods, day, hours, only); dawra 
(a cycle of time). 

Periodical, risdla-yi mJdhvdri (subs. ; monthly 
periodical); mawsimi Sid]. 

Periodically, dar awqdi-i mu'ayyana. 

Peripatetic, mashsha'; pi. mashshJd^in (the 

Perish, to, nisi shudan ; nist u nd-bud 
shudan ; haldk shudan ; fand shudan ; 
talaf shudan (sp. of property) ; bi-jahan- 
nam raftan (slang ; of persons as dah kdfir 
bi-jahannam raft). 

Perishable, jdni ; fand-pazir (of this world) ; 
bi-davdm ; or zud-khardb-shaw ; or nd-pdya- 
ddr (not lasting long). 

Periwig,' mu-yi 'amali ; gis-i masnu'i. Vide 

Perjury,* qasam-i (or sawgand-i) darugh {ydd 
k. or kh.) ; darugirhalji {k.) ; qasam-i zur 
(kh.) (vulg.). 

Permanence, baqd^ (lasting for ever; opp. 
to fand^) ; davdm (lasting long) ; sa^t 

Permanent, in chand ruza nist, bara-yi hami- 
shagi'st: dyd in qdnun bar qardr khivdhad 
rrvdnd? ; mu^'muriyyat-i u mustaqili ast, na 
muvaqqati (his appointment is permanent, 
not temporary). Vide Lasting. 

Permanently, mustamirr'^^ (opp. to Hjdlaf^^) ; 
bi-taun-'i davdm dnjd pd girift (he settled 
there permanently). 

Permeate, to, sirdyat kardan; pichidan; 
nujuz k. Vide Penetrate. 

Permission, murakhkhqsi [in India rukhsat, 
' ' privilege' ' — or other leave] ; td panj mdh 
ma^zun-am dnjd bi-ravam (I have permis- 
sion lasting for five months to go there) ; 

izn or ijdza (khwdstan and giriftan) (to ask 
and to obtain leave to — ). 

Permit, javdz-ndma (a licence or written 
permit for goods). Vide Certificate. 

Permit, to, guzdshtan rt. guzdr ; ijdza — or 
izn dddan. 

Permitted, ma^zun; haldl or jdHz or ravd 
(lawful, of rehgious law). [life). 

Pernicious, muzirr: muhlik (destructive to 

Peroration, khdtima-yi kaldm. 

Perpendicular, 'amudi; 'amud-vdr; rdst; 
istdda. Vide Upright and Horizontal. 

Perpetration, irtikab. 

Perpetrator, murtakib. 

Perpetual, dd^imi. Vide Eternal and Perma- 

Perpetuate, to, mustaddm k. ; bdc^ ddshtan ; 
ddm" ^umr^-h^ (may his days be long!); 
addm'^ Alldh" ^umr'-h* (may God perpetu- 
ate his days) ; bard-yi qavdmri ustuMiwdn 
u davdm-i ndm (to perpetuate his name) ; 
baqd yi nasi k. (to perpetuate one's 

Perpetuation, baqd'^ ; istiddmat. 

Perpetuity, davdm; istimrdr ; td ddman-i 
qiydmat (for all time). 

Perplex, to, hayrdn k. ; parisJidn k. ; aar-gum 
— or dast-pdcha sdkhian. Vide Bewilder. 

Perplexed, hayrdn; muztarib ; mushawash 
(in a state of anxiety). 

Perplexity, hayrdni, sargarddni , etc. : iztirdb 
(nervousness, anxiety) ; dar in hays u bays 
(in the midst of this perplexity). 

Perquisite, khurda-dakhl ; maddkhiUi bald 
bald; agar puUam rd nadihid, farrdsh az 
shumd bd qulluq mi-girad (if you don't 
pay, the Government farrash will take it 
by force plus the bailiff's fees). 

Persecute, to, in qadar 'aqab-am uftdd ki 
khdk-nishin shudam. 

Persecution, sitam (k.) ; jawr {k.) ; jabr k. ; 
jafd {k.) ; ijhdf {k.) ; zulm (k.) ; dzurdan 
rt. dzdr ; pd-pay k. (m.c.) (lit. ^o follow). 

Persecutor, sitam-gar ; jafd- kdr : dzdr-rasdn. 

Persepolis, Istakhr ; Takht-i Jamshid. 

Persevere, sabdt-i qadam ddshtan ; bdyad dar 
in kdr istimrdr'"' mashghul bdshid or him- 
mat bi-kunid (you must persevere). 

Perseverance, muddvamat (k.) (sticking to a 
work) ; hawsala {k.) (sticking to a thing in 
face of repeated failure). 

1 Now worn by some Persian women though considered fcfiiia/-* shart'cU, as the hair is supposed to 
be gathered from deetd people. 

« There is no penalty for perjury, which is merely a sin against God 




Persevering, muvazib (assiduous) :, muMvim 
(rare). Vide Strive. 

Persia, Iran; Mulk-i 'Ajam.^ 

Persian, Irani; 'Ajamt: Fdrsi (the lan- 
guage) ; zaban-i pahlavi and zaban-i dart 
(ancient languages of Persia) ; furs-i qadim 
(old Persian ; the language). 

Persian Gulf, Khalij-i Fdrs. 

Persist, to, Persistence, isrdr {k.) : chira in 
qadar pila mi-hunl? (to persist; gen.). 
Vide Persevere. 

Persistent, isrdr-kun; isrdr-mand. Vide In- 

Person, shakhs, p\. ashkhds ; nafar ; ddaml; 
kas ; man hargiz dhl-i In kdr nistam (I'm 
not the sort of person to do this) ; surat ; 
shaM (external but sp. of the face) ; qavdra; 
or rlkht (the frame) ; bashara (expression ; 
appearance of the face ; in Ar. skin) ; si ^h a 
(of verb or pronoun; the first person is 
mutakallim ; the second person mukhdtah ; 
the third gkdf'ih) ; shakhs'^" or bi-nafsih^ 
(in person). 

Personage, mard-i rujuhi: yasdvul-i hakim 
ya'ni khayli ddam ast? (what! is a man 
of the Governor's guard a great person- 
age ?) ; shakhs-i buzurg-l (a great person) ; 
vujud-i muhtaram (ditto). 

Personal, shajchsi; Irdd-i shakksl and ta'rlf-i 
shakhsi (personal remarks before or behind 
a person's back). 

Personally, sTmkhs"'" ,' bi-nafsih} 

Personate, to, hhud rd fuldn shdzda qalam 
dad or — namud; and bi-libds-i shdzda dar 
dmada mardum rd gul zad: taqlid dar 
dvardan (on the stage). 

Personification,^ dsmdn rd insdn tasavvur 
karda bi-takallum dar dvard. Vide Perfec- 

Perspective, dur-numd adj.; qavd'id-i dur- 
numd^i (rules of — ). 

Perspicacious, tlz-hush; tiz-fahm; zaki. 

Perspicacity, firdsat. 

Perspicuous, vdzih; sdf ; rushan. 

Perspiration, Perspire, 'araq (k or rikhtan) ; 
gharq-i 'araq shudan (to perspire profusely); 
bi-'araq dvardan (cans.). 

Persuade, rdzi k. ; tahrik k. and iarghlb k. 
(to incite) ; rdy-i urd zadand (they per- 
suaded him to change his mind) ; urd bar 
dn ddshtam ki bi-ravad (I persuaded him 
to go) ; angusht-ash kardam td In kdr rd 
kard, vulg. Vide Induce. 

Persuasion, tashviq; targMb ; tahrik. 

Pert, shukh. 

Pertinacious, musirr. 

Pertinacity, isrdr; pila; sakht-giri. 

Pertinent, muta'alliq bi — ; munusib bi — . 

Pertness, shukhi. 

Perturbation, tashmsh-i khdtir ; dshuftagi; 

Peruke. Vide Periwig. 

Perusal, mutdla' a (k.) ; muldhaza. 

Pervade, Pervading, sdri shudan ; nujuz k. ; 
nashr ydftan. 

Pervasion, sirdyat ; nujuz; intishdr. [vish. 

Perverse, lajuj ; khud-sar. Vide Cross, Pee- 

Perversion, inhirdf k. (turning aside) ; irtiddd 
(k.) (abandoning or taming from one's 

Pervert, Perverted, gum-rdh; az din-i khud 
munharif shuda or bar-gashta; murtadd 

Pessimist, kaj-bln; bad-bin. 

Pest, bald, vabdl (nuisance); td'un (the 
Plague); vabd (gen. cholera). 

Pestiferous, mukharrib-i afchldq or akhldq- 
khardb-kun (to morals). 

Pestilence, vabd (sp. cholera) ; td'un (plague). 

Pestle, dasta-yi hdvan. Vide Mortar. 

Pet, nuz k.* ; navdzish k.: dast-i ndz kashi- 
dan (a cat, etc.). Vide Stroke, Caress, 
and Coax. 

Petal (of flower), par (lit. feather); barg-i 
gul; [barg alone means "leaf"]; pur-par 
or sad-par (' double,' as opposed to 
' single ' of a flower) ; chdr-par, panj-par 
or kam-par ( = single). 

Peter, Pitr or Polar ; Patar-i Kabir (Peter 
the Great). 

Petition, 'arz {k.) (oral) ; 'ariza {k. or navish- 
tan) (written) ; du ruz qabl 'ariza-i bi- 
khidmat 'arz kardam ( = 1 wrote you a 
letter two days ago). 

^slp—J-sls] Ar. foreigners, sp. Persians; sing. j_j*slc. 

^ Bi-najaih incorrectly used in Persian for all three persons. 

* In modem Arabic the Figure is called lltifat, a term in classical Arabic and Persian confined to a 
change of person. 

4 Naz hbLaridan " to put up with the whims of." 




Petitioner, 'driz (who complains in a court); 
'ariza-nigdr (professional writer, of written 

Petitioning, ^arz-raadnt (k.). 

Petrifaction , hajariyyat. 

Petrified, mutahajjir ; man az tars hut shudam, 
or naq'^h-i dlvdr shudam ( = 1 was petrified 
through fright). 

Petroleum, naft P. for naft Ar. 

Petticoat, fistdn (of women). 

Pettiness, khissat-i raftdr; darid^at-i kirddr ; 
siflacjl (meanness, of actions). 

Petty, khurdorkharj (petty expenses). 

Petulance, niqniqi (of children or old people). 

Petulant, niqniqu (of children or old people); 

Petunia, gul-i atlasi. 

Pewter, ruh (mixture of brass and lead ?). 

Phantom, surat-i khaydli ; [in Ar. tayf]. 

Pharisee, zuhd-farush. 

Pharaoh, Fir' awn (pron. Fir'un). 

Pharmacy, ' ilm-i dam-sdzl. 

Pheasant,' qarqdvul or qirgAol; karkdvul or 
charchdvul T. (Phas. Colchicus) ; tadarv P., 
or tadarj (Arabicized) ; turanj (in Gilan) ; 

Philanthropic, khayr-khivdh-i nds ; mardum- 
dust ; bihi-khwdh-i khalq. 

Philopena, bd u jandgh^ shikastam sar-i dil 
bi-khwdh (I had a philopena with her 
over a merry- thought, the forfeit to be 
what the winner chose) ; mlkhwdstam ki 
janidgh rd az shawhar hi-baram ki " In makr 
rd kardam — Prof. S. T. (I wanted to win 
the philopena from my husband and hence 
originated this trick). 

Philosopher, hakim, pi. hukdmd'' ; faylasuf, 
pi. faldsij'a Gr. : iksir ; or kibrtt-i ahmar 
(Philosopher's stone). 

Philosophize, jaylsujdna istidldl k. 

Philosophy, jalsaja Gr. ; hikmat; hikmat-i 
nazari (speculative philosophy) ; hikmat-i 
'amall (practical philosophy; also policy). 
Vide Theology and Metaphysics. 

Philter (for love-philtre, virfe Chysalis) ; dydt-i 
mahabbat {ceriaAn verses of tlieQoran that, 
written on a bit of deer-skin together 

with the name of the beloved and the 
beloved's parents and bound on to the 
arm, are supposed to compel love); du'd-yi 
or tiliam-i mahabbat. Vide Charm, Spell, 

Phlebotomist, khun-gtr ; rag-zan; fassdd; 
(often a dalldk). 

Phlebotomy, fasd (g. or k.) ; rag-zani {k.). 
Vide Bleed. 

Phlegm, balgham. 

Phlegmatic, balf^ami or pur-balgham (lazy, 
indifferent); bi-'dr (also shameless); bi- 

Phoenix, 'anqd"^ ; 'anqa-yi mujfhrib (the far- 
flying phoenix) ; Simurgh mur^-% bud 
'azim"l-ju8sa ki dar kuh-i Qdf mvqim bud 
va ml-guyand Zdl pidar-i Rustam* rd u 
parvardnda (the Simurgh was a monster 
bird that dwelt in the Caucasus and reared 
Zal the Father of Rustam). 

Phonetically, mutdbiq-i sawt. 

Phonograph, dla-yi hifz-i (or habs-i) sawt 
(in newspapers). 

Phosphorous, fusfun adj. 

Phosphorus, furfur subs. 

Photograph, 'aks ; garda-paykar ^ (a word 
being introduced by Zardushtis in Kir- 

Photograph, si shisha 'aks anddkhtam (I 
took three photos). 

Photographer, 'akkds. 

Photography, 'akkdsi; 'Umri 'aks-kashi. 

Phrase, isitldh ; 'ibdrat. 

Phthisis, sill; m^raz-i shtLsh (vulg.). 

Phylactery. Vide Amulet. 

Physic. Vide Medicine. 

Physics, hikmat-i tabi't ; 'ilm-i ' fiak.^ 

Physical, jismdni; badani. 

Physically, jism'^". 

Physician, tahib (as opposed to jarrdh (sur- 
geon) ; hakim (also philosopher) ; agar 
murda-i pish-i an tqbib bi-bari bi-fazUi 
Ildhi urd zinda mi-kunad — Prof. S. T. 

Physiognomist, qiydfa-sfiinds . 

Physiognomy, qiydfa-shindsi : az qiydfa-yi u 
ddnish zdhir ast — Prof. S. T. (his physiog- 
nomy showed he was wise). 

I Poets compare the walk of a mistress to that of a pheasant and often refer to the pheasant's love 
of the cypress. 

* Janagb "the merry- thought of a bird." Vide "Current Persian Tales," Memoirs As, Soc. Beng., 
Vol. I, No. 18, St. I. 

'' Ki " and so. ' ' 

* Rustam the Persian Hercules. 

^ Qarda is a drawing outlined in pinholes ; this is placed on white paper emd a copy taken by means 
of charcoal powder. 





Physiology / ilm-i mdhiyyat-i nabatdt u hayva- 

Pianist, Piano, piydnu (Eur.) ; piyanu-zan 

Pick, tu-chln kardan; or bar chidan (pick 

out) ; savd kardan (separate , select) ; nd- 

khunak zadan (to pick at confectionary in 

a shop; of boys, etc.). 
Pick, Pickaxe, kulang, vulg. kuland. 
Pickle, to, dar dh-i namak khwdhdnidan; 

[db-namak brine] . 
Pickles, tursJn or iurushl, pi. turushl dldt; 

Pickpocket, klsa-hur ; jib-bur. 
Picquet, tildya (picquet or an advanced 

Picture, iasvir, pi. imdmr (or drawing) {kashl- 

dan); naqsh {k.) ; sural ^ {kashidan). 
Pie, sarnbusa (cooked without a dish) ; sarn- 

busa-jarush (pie-man). 
Piebald, ablaq (also shewbald) ; siyah-safid 

(vulg.); pisa (pied; gen. of birds, dogs, 

and of men with white leprosy). 
Piece, para; pdrcha; tikka: Zwg-ma (of food) ; 

fdra pdra (in pieces, torn) ; az ham pdshl- 

dan (to fall to pieces). 
Pied, lakka-ddr ; or gul-ddr; or hhdl-d^r 

(spotted) ; pisa (pied, of an animal ; 

blotched with any two colours). 
Pie-man. Vide Pie. 
Pier, sakku (prop, wharf or dock) ; furza 

(pier) ; askala (pier or jetty ; from the Fr. 

word for steps ; in Turkish also ' ' a port "). 
Pierce, surdkh kardan; faru kardan; tir td 

par nishast (the arrow buried itself up to 

the feather); sujtan, rt. surnb (of beads, 

etc.). Vide Bore. 
Piercing, bdng-i tlz (piercing cry). 
Piety, taqvq ; dln-ddri ; pdrsd^ ; Khudd-tarsi. 
Pig, kkuk P. ; gurdz P. (gen. wild boar) ; 

khinzir At., pi. khandzir: gurdz-chashm 

Pigeon, kabutar (from kabud "blue"); kaj- 

tar vulg. ; kaftar-i mu'allaqi (tumbler) ; 

kajtar-i chatri (fan-tail). 
Pigeon-breasted, sina-murgki (adj.). 
Pig-eyed. Vide Pig. 

Pigeon-fancier, kabutar-bdz. Vide Fancier. 
Pile, purz or burz (of velvet). Vide Heap. 

Piles, bavdslr (pi. ; sing, not used) ; havdsir-i 
khunl (hemorrhoids). 

Pilferer, ganda-duzd. 

Pilfering, ganda duzdi (k.). 

Pilgrim, Jidji (to Mecca, i.e. after the hajj 
is completed) ; zdHr, pi. zuvvdr, (pilgrim 
to other places than Mecca; rarely used 
in singular; but zuvvdr-i /ia/; = pilgrims 
while on the journey to or from Mecca) ; 
Mash-hadi (who has been to Meshed) ; 
Karbald'i (to Kerbela) ; chdvush'^ (a der- 
vish who acts as guide to pilgrims, and 
often rides ahead with a flag in his hand) ; 
i^wy'/a^' pilgrims [the sing, hdjj Ar. { = hdjt 
P.) is rare in m.c.]. 

Pilgrimage,'^ hajj {k.) (to Mecca) ; ziydrat {k.) 
(to any other shrine) ; ziydrat-gdh (a place 
of — ) ; rawza (the tomb of an Imam or a 
lesser saint). 

Pill, habb (also a grain, berry, a pill) ; [the pi. 
hubub in m.c. gen. means grains ; hububdt-i 
arba'a the four kinds of grain, i.e. wheat, 
barley, millet and chick-pea] ; qutt-yi habb 

Pillage. Vide Booty. 

Pillage, to, tdrdj kardan; ghdrat kardan; 
chdpidan or chapaw k. ; and tdkht k. (to 
make a raid, q.v.). 

Pillager, ghdrat-gar; idrdj-kun; chapaw-kun. 

Pillar, sutun: pd-fU* (vulg., a buttress to 
support a falling wall, etc.); rukn (rare; 
the pi. arkon is used only met.) ; ['arnud 
Ar. prop, pillar, in m.c. = the tent-pole]. 

Pillared, sutun-ddr. 

Pillory, pdldhang or pdlhang P. (of wood) ; 
ghull-i jdmia (of iron) ; tawq (any collar; 
a heavy iron ring round the neck) ; g[hull 
u zanjir (a chain connecting the neck, 
hands, and feet)._ 

Pillow, bdlln; ndz-balish (a, very small pillow 
for the neck, etc.) ; muttakd (large, for the 
back) ; man hich nami-dunam sar-am bi- 
kuddm bdlln ast (I don't know where I 
am; I'm in such suspense). 

Pillow, to. Vide To lean. 

Pillow-case, jild-i mutakkd: ru-push (of net- 
ting ; also a light sheet for the body in hot 
weather) ; ghildf gen. 

Pillowed , takya-zada or — karda. 

of it. 

1 Pictures, images, or statues of living things are forbidden by Muslim law. 

^ C7/iai;Ms/i in Turkish " a sergeant. " r t j •+ 

3 The hajj should be made at least once in a lifetime, if the means of the Muslim or Muahma admit 

* In India and perhaps in Persia too fil-paya a large column supporting a bridge, etc. 




Pilot, harakati, vulg. arkdtV (of river). Vide 

Pilotage, harakatx-gari gen. 

Pimp, jd-kash (male); Idj-kash (corruption of 
lihdf-kash ; male or female) ; qurumsdq T. 
(a pimp to his own wife; a common term 
of abuse); dayyus (same as previous); 
[qaltabdn has the same meaning but is 
seldom used] ; daUdl-i zan ; kus-kash (in 
abuse only) ; shirin-bdr (" producing sweet 
fruit " ; a polite term). Vide Pander. 

Pimping, jd-kaski {k.). 

Pimple, ddna (or very small boil) ; jush (near 
the lips). 

Pin, Pins and Needles, sanjdq (2.) ; iH-zulfl (a 
skewer for the hair) ; bi-chashm-i man bi- 
qadar-i yak pasha nami-arzad (I don't 
care a pin for him, or I don't value it in 
the least) ; bi-qadr-i sar-i suzan ham az u 
hisdb namlbaram (I don't care a pin for 
him); vide Wool and Hair; pd-yam mur 
mar ml-kunad'^ or bi-khwdb rafta oat (my 
foot is asleep); bdlishtak (pin-cushion). 

Pincers, mikh-kash (for extracting nails) ; 
gul-gir (snuffers for lamp) ; ambur (fire- 
tongs). Vide Tweezers. 

Pinch, yak pinjar namak (a pinch of salt). 

Pinch, to, pinjar girijtan or nishkunj kardan 
(of people) ; ursi-yam pdyam rd zada ast 
(my shoe has pinclied and blistered me) ; 
angusht-am gir kard (my finger got pinched 
or caught). Vide Nip. 

Pin-cushion, bdlishtak. 

Pine, kdj ; vide Poplar; chalghuza (seed of 

Pine, to, kdhidan. 

Pine-apple, 'ayn"^n-nds (corrup. of the 
Indian word ananas and anndnds, which 
again is a corruption of the Portuguese). 

Pinion, to, bdzu — or kitf — (vulg. kat) or 
shdna lastan (of people) ; sar-i bdl zadan 
(to cut the wings) ; bdl chldan (ditto). 

Pink, mlkhak (the flower : also a clove; 
there is a resemblance in the odour; also 
the liard root of a corn) ; rang-i pusht-i 
barg-i gut (colour). 

Pink-eyed, chashm-bulbuli (gen. red-eyed as 

Pinnacle, sar ; qulla (of hills) ; bi-awj-i mufd- 
kharat ra^d (he reached the pinnacle of 
honour); kungura (in archit. ; also the 
castellation of a wall). 

Pint, nim-rhdrak; nhn-vaqiyya (in Shiraz and 

Pioneer, rdh-sdf-kun (mil.) ; aar-jilav-i tamad- 
dun (pioneer of civilization). 

Pious, pdrsd P. ; sdlih At., pi. sulahd*^ (leadx 
a righteous life); muttaqi; or khuda-tars 
(fearing God) ; 'dbid (careful of religious 
observances) ; parhiz-gdr (abstaining from 
sin) ; din-ddr (upright in his life). 

Pip, iukhm (seed); khdl (on cards); sikh 
(giriftan) (a disease in pigeons and poul- 

Pipe, qalydn (kashidan) (water-pipe); qal- 
ydn-% bd sallqa^ chdq kun (prepare a nice 
pipe for me); chupuq (pipe of Eur. pat- 
tern) ; sar and vulg. sari (the head of a 
qalydn, containing the tobacco) : yak rdh-i 
lula-l sdkhtaand ki db i rud-khdna az 
miydn-i dn ddkhiUi shahr bi-shavad^ (pipes 
have been laid down to supply the city 
with water) ; surnd (mus.) ; nay-ambdn 
(bag-pipes, q.v.). 

Pipe, to, nay va surnd zadan. Vide Flute 
and Trumpet). 

Pipe-clay, gil-i said or gil-i giva ^ (for clean- 
ing) ; jass (from which pipes are made) . 

Piper, nay-zan. 

Piping, sijdf (broad) ; ma^zt or maghza 
(narrow, on uniform). Vide Braid. 

Pipkin, kuluk (small; of earthenware). 

Pirate, duzd-i bahri. 

Pisces, HUt. 

Pish! fish.' 

Piss, to, bawl k. ; shdshidan or shdsh k. 
(vulg.) ; zahrdb k. (used by the vulgar 
with the idea that it is a polite term) ; 
idrdr k. (med.). 

Pistachio, pisla ; fristuq (local ; used in Ker- 
bela, etc.). 

Pistol, tapdncha l^li k. (for pistols not 
anddkhtan) ; [tapdncha zadan " to slap "] ; 
ptshtu (Eur.). 

Pit, tal-i khdk-riz (an ash-pit or heap, gen. in 
a street; the refuse is removed by culti- 

* In Calcutta arj-a/.i fj^^j)- 

2 i.e feels ' anty.* The Arabs have a similar idiom. 

!* Saliqa is properly " good taste " ; chaq k. only used in this sense for a pipe. 

* Bi-ah'jvad merely indicates the object of the pipes ; it is not clear whether the water is yet laid 
on or not. Mi-shavad would signify that the object was accomplished. 

* Gtwo •• white rag- shoes." 




vators who mix it with human ordure 
that has been heaped in the sun for a 
year) : gawda (small) ; gawdal (large) ; 
chah (prop, a well). 

Pitch, qir ; shah misl-i qir siyah bud (a 
pitch-dark night) ; hamsaya rd yd Jchuy yd 
buy ( — j^'ou oannot touch pitch and not 
be defiled; evil communications, etc.). 

Pitched, qlr-andud; or — dlud. 

Pitcher, sabu (an earthen porous bottle with 
handle); kuza {ditto but without handle). 
Vide Flask. 

Pitching, kishil misl-i mdhl mi-raft [ioi pitch- 
ing) ; [murammd {k.) (in the Gulf) and 
gAaliidan (rolling)]. 

Piteous, dil-suz (also = looking after the 
interests of a master) ; or suz-ndk ; or 
jigar-suz; or dard-ndk (of story, appear- 
ance, condition). Vide Pitiful. 

Pitfall, chdh; gawdal. 

Pith, maghz-i chub; lubb (the best of any- 
thing) ; khuldsa-yi kaldm, or lubb-i matlab 
(the pith of the matter). 

Pithy, kalam-ash mughz-ddr ast. 

Pitiful, dil-rahm ; rahm-dil: Rdhim (of God 
only) ; qissa-yi huzn-anglz {a, pitiful story). 
Vide Piteous. 

Pitiless, bi-rahm ; sang-dil. 

Pitted, (of small-pox), dhla-ru ; mujaddar 

Pity, rahm {k.) : tarahhum {k.) ; narm-dili 
{k.) ; dil-suzl (k.) : hayf ki shikast, hayj 
sad hayj (a thousand pities that it's 
broken); dakhil, dakhil! m^rd bi-bakhshf 
(pity me, spare me!); az bard-yi Khudd 
( = for pity's sake). 

Pivot, mihvar. Vide Hinge. 

Placard; i'ldn-ndma {ba7' divdr chas'pdnidan) . 

Place, jd : makdn (gen. ; the pi. amdkin is in 
Persian only used of towns, as amdkin-i 
musharrafa the sacred cities of Kerbela, 
Najaf, etc.); mahall ; mawzi' ; naql-i 
makdn k. (to change one's house) ; sha^n-i 
u arfa' az maqdm-ash ast (he's too big a 
man for the place, i.e. his appointment is 
less than his deserts) ; jd-yash rd girijt 
(" it has taken its place"; also "he has 
taken his seat "), 

Place, to, guzdshtan rt- guzdr ; nihddan, rt. 
nih ; nasb k. (erect, to plant) ; jd dddan 
(to give a place to, for living in) ; dar jd 
anddkhtan (to get a place for, an appoint- 
ment for). 

Placid, dram,; salim (also guileless); zud az 
jd dar nami-ravad. 

Placidly, bd-drdmi. 

Plagiarism, Hbdrat-duzdi, sarqat for sariqah 
(any theft). 

Plagiarist, ' ibdrat-duzd : sdriq (any thief). 

Plague, td'un (the Plague) ; vabd (epidemic, 
esp. of cholera). 

Plain (ground), mayddn (open ground); 
dasht dar dasht (a vast pladn); jam (an 
open expanse) ; sahrd (also country as 
opposed to town); mayddn ki na dukhul-i 
insdn mi-shavad va na paranda bdl mi- 
zanad — Prof. S. T. (a vast and lonely 
plain) ; hamvdr (smooth, level) : sdda, adj. 
(unornamented). Vide Evident. 

Plainly, vdzHf-^ gujt, na bi-kindya; bihiar 
ast sukhan dshkdra bi-guyam (I had better 
tell you plainly) ; bi-dun-i ru-dar-vd