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COLLOQUIAL JAPANESE, 



OB 

ruNVKK>ATI<>N.\I. vKMKNC!- 

AM- 

DIALOGUES 

IN 

ENGLISH and .iAi\Y\i:si\ 

MNnmm m 

AN ENGLISH-JAP Wisi: INDEX 

-i if| Ad 

A VOCABULARY. 

AM> 

AN INTRODUCTION 

ON Tin 

GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURE OF THE LANGUAGE. 

BY 

REV. S. R. BROWN, A. If. 



SHANGHAI: 

TRESBYTERIAN MISSION PRESS. 
1863. 



« i • e 




Main lib. 

JOHN FRYER 

CHINESE LIBRARY 



r 



p R i: i a C i: 



This work wa« common., d without tin* remotest view to public;) 
tion. That ji:irt of it which is arranged nlphaht -lb-ally, Ii;i<1 been 
written and rewritten and laid ankle, when MOM friends happening 
. that it might be neefbJ lo ether students of the 
language, if it were pubbahed. Still it might never have 
gone to thepress. but for tin- offer of a mercantile fr'n-iid' in this 
country, to bear the cxj»ei..-e of its publication. It was then, 

that the idee of adding eome dialog Rnglian •Japaneee index; 

and a grammatical introduction ■Q gg e ot e d itself The aoihof has 
n«»t heaitated to avail himself of all possible aid from the works of 
Other! within his roach. Collado'a All <irammatica3 Japonica* 

L682. Hodrignea 1 Grraaunaire J , 1826 The Japanesc-Portu- 

Diaiionary, 1603; and the work by M .J. 11. Donker Cur- 

tius. edited bj ILL. J. Sofinan, Leipeie, 1857; have been his 

ni">st valuable aids, mote especially the two last named. 

It is but just to add, that as this book is printed at Shanghai, the 
author has not been able to comet the proofs, and the printer has 
been OOOpeUed to rely upon his own corrections from the copy. A 
list of the most important errata will, however, accompany the 
volume. 

The author is constrained to tender his most grateful acknowledge, 
ments. to W. Keswick Esq., through whose spontaneous, munifi- 
cence this work is published; aud if it facilitate the studies of those 
who desire to obtain a knowledge of the language of this interesting 
people, the end of its publication will so far have been accomplished. 



747798 



CONTENTS. 

Page 
I. Preface 

II. System of Notation. 

III. Introductory Remarks ox Japanese Grammar i — lxii 

IV. Sentences in English and Japanese Colloquial 1 — 172 
V. Dialogues 173— 19G 

VI. Weights and Measures, Money &c. - - 107 — 200 
VII. Exolish-Ja.panese Index 203 — 243 



SYSTEM OF NOTATION 

] OR 

ROMANIZING JAPANESE WORDS. 



Tin; system adopted in this relume, baa been rabmitted to the 

judgement of gentlemen who tie ly of rlii> lan- 

guage, and nnr seired the approval of 

who are most likely bereaftei to produce other, and no doubt, 
better works on the Japanese langv 

- diriaed the syllables in tlie alphabetically arranged 
part of this work, and omitted the hyphens m tin- Dialogues, so 
that both modes of writing may have I fair trial. The Katakana 

character being placed under each Romanized syllable, the reader 

will b.' enabled thereby to see the euphonic changes that take place 
in apeech, and the Japanese reader will be able to see at the same 
time, how the sounds are represented by Roman letters. The scr- 
- of a native teacher will also be rendered available, by his 
ig at once, how the idea is expressed in his own tongue. A 
little practice, will suffice to enable any one to read the Romanized 
Japanese ret lily. 

Let it be observed that there are but five vowel sounds in the 
Japanese language, which are the same in all positions, and are 
represented by, a, e, i, o. and u. The sounds of these vowels are in- 
variably as follows, viz. A, like a in Ah\ E. like ey in they, or ay in 
suy. i, like i in machine, or ee in bee. O, like o in no. U, like oo 
in foal. 

When any of these vowels are doubled, although there must be 
two Japanese syllables to represent it, yet in practice, the result 
is merely the prolongation of the single vowel sound, as, aa,=ah 
lon<j. Ee=ay long. Ii=ee long. Oo=oo as in door. Uu,= 
oo prolonged as if fool were spelt foo-ool. 

The most difficult sou n da for a foreigner to acquire correctly, are 



SYSTEM OF NOTATION 

those of nga, nge, ngi, ngo, ngu; of sz, tsz, and hi(tl). But when no- 
is an initial sound, it does not differ from ng final, in any English 
word., a c s/nr/. for. instance. It is only necessary to trdnspose it 
from its position, aftV. :■ ■> \r], to one before a. e, i, o, or u. Sz is 
simply the.artjculatjon of s and z, in close consecution. Tsz is but 
th6 articaijatnm* of ij.s three letters. Neither Sz, nor Tsz, has any 
vowel sound after the' final z.' The sound of z must terminate the 
syllable. This at least is the pronunciation at Yedo, and Kana- 
ngawa. When hi (tz) is a word by itself, the final vowel i, is 
heard, and \t sounds like the English pronoun he. But when it 
precedes another syllable commencing- with a consonant, the vowel 
i ceases tc be vocalized, and is only whispered. Thus, h'to, a man, 
is to be pronounced, not shto, as many do, but first the syllable he 
must be whispered, and then to, is to be enunciated in quick suc- 
cession. To represent this suppression of the vowel in hi (tl) an 
apostrophe is put in the place of i after h, (h\) The vowel i un- 
dergoes the same suppression to a whisper, alter k, very often, espe- 
cially before mutes, as, k'ta, for kita, he cama The vowel u, also 
is but whispered in ku {/?) when that syllable is followed by an- 
other commencing; with k, or s, or, sh, as, Watak'shi, for Watakushi, 
I. Hiak'kin, for Hiakukin, a hundred catties. Asaksa, for Asa- 
kusa, name of a district, or ward in Yedo. 

When the syllable tsz (y) stands before a syllable in the same 
word commencing with t, sh,p, or k, it becomes a mere reduplication 
oft, sh, p, or k, Thus j^»y w -J-^is pronounced nippon. ijvy^ 
2^ is pronounced Hok'kin. 1J »y \,^ , is pronounced kesh'snte, or 
kes'shte. fJV^, is pronounced kappa, &c. The syllable ri[V)] 
before y , te, becomes likewise a reduplication oft, as, arite ~f 1) 
■7* atte. The same occurs whenri[V)] precedes [^] ta. as, "f 
1) # atta. 

When \sy shi precedes a mute in the s;ime word, the i is suppres- 
sed, as, sh'ta. sh'kashi, instead of shita, and shikashi. 

Vowel Comhi?iations. 
Ai, oi, ei, and ui, are proper diphthongs, and both vowels are 
distinctly heard. But, au, ou, and eu, often become 00 in pronun- 
ciation. Thus, $-ffJty is pronounced chinoota, omou [i?^!?], 
omoo; and meu, mioo; shi-yau, is pronounced sh'oo ; and seu, sh'oo, 
wau, woo [^7^]. 

Interchanged ble Syllables . 



7 occurs 


with 


the 


sound 


of 


9, -u. 


>* 73 


rj 


33 


33 


37 


9, wa. 


*J\ 33 


•• 


33 


3-3 


33 


#3 0. 


9 „ 


33 


37 


,. 


3' 


^3 0. 


tr 


>» 


33 


JJ 


33 


f>> 



I> i' murks or ( r Cuuso, 

It will be ■* iminingthe following Syllabary, thai Uventj 

d 1 which i- ! by the marks 

[ * ] or [ the chart tor, These marks 

are called oingori by the Japanese Thin r\\ ha, with the ning 
becomes jrt t ba, or s<, pn A 

Accentual 

The penultimate ivllable n b primary aocent in polysyl- 

Is, unless the penultimate vowel ii ned, and then 

•miltimotc ia accented. The eeca is thrown 

hack two removes from the syllablj the primary accent. 

#^. Bniranu, Wftkaranu Si In the last word the 

pressed, th< if on the antepenult. 

Words of (In. the sames) Ilabli s, 

might be mistaken for one another, are distinguished hy difference 
of accent. The following are examples: — 

Accented on the Penult. Accented on th> UUma 
Jishin, one's self. lit] 

Hana, a /lower. 
Kasa, an umbrella. 

\.a river. tkm. 

Umi, the tea. Umi, pus. 

lYIii, to strike. Uchi, a/touse. 

ii. vapor. Mushi. USD ctt and rept.il> t. 

I lashi, a bridge, is distinguished from hashi, chopstickg, by tin- 

suppression of the final i in the Inst, thus hash', signifies chopsticks. 

.ru, accented on the penult. sigoifiee,to burn, (intranasal Hi nga 

moyeru, the fire burns, but if the last syllable receives the accent, 

it signifies to germinate. 

Japanese syllables are written in two ways, called the Katakana, 
and the Hirangana. Hirangana, signifies the cursive or easy, flow- 
ing style of writing, and Katakana, the one-sided or half (written) 
character. Kana alone etymologically signifies, a borrowed name, or 
fictitious name, referring to the fact that the characters of the sylla- 
bary were borrowed from the Chinese language, as mere representa- 
tives of sound, without regard to their sense. 



SYSTEM Of NOTATION 





1 

! 


g 




.J 








TS 




& 


to 






J- 




.^j* 


c 




o 


o 




p4 






g> » 


S to 


■wS 




o3 N o 




* * *s 


N c 


^ 


* "I 


N T3 ^~ 




g M «T 


aT .^ 


jS 


M 


O N 2 




-* • o S 


? -X 


CO 


O °«l 


«o m c 




n || ^ 


.11 =2 
II * * || || 


•3 II 

II "> 


II u II 


II II * 
** 1 


N 


flH^^'fr.tfrtf'X 


wl A M JJ tf 


# K A 












« 












< 












w 












3 












^ 












»-q 












>H 












a: 


6 

N 








a 


<1 


o 








a 


fc 


o ^; 






3 


6 -o 


3 


01 is 






to 
c 

at 


bo - 

cT 




o II II 

II * * 


S S 2 1 * 

Ii II II II II 


6 
1 1 


. || « 

ii * n 


1 jl i: 




^ >s 2\ 


rt> i «s 4 ^ * 'N 


■* ^ * 


\' *> ts 




a 


6 © 










4 


s cT 


< 




rt 




-a 


J" £ 4 -. 




6 


t -i 




II 

o ^ 

ii j < 


II II o- 3 

f * v i & 


II II 


M 

O 

~ © P 

2 * £ 

11 II 11 






^ n < 


ij * ^ * * 


P * 


* fts * 


^ m ^ 



INTRODUCTORY RKMARKS 

G I1.1JIM A B 

mi 

JAPANESE LANGUAGE. 



Tin- objeol of tin- writ, immatiea] 

md their will onable the 

Mudmt to investigate wuutettoes by the anahtic >\ lit lietiral pit) 

iphfloaopl uq.t to ■■liiiiiletn tiif Grammar of the 

leee to tin the Latin, I ntal language, 

bii i Me th od peculiar to it.-, it', ma ell that be done to 

to elucidate thai method* 

> in all titlu-r l:i there ate elaeaet ofwocde 

which are usually d i speech. 



PABTS OF SPEECH. 

These are Verba. Nouns. Penonal and Interrogative Pronouns, Ad- 
( ' ■•njunrti'" ntions, oorreaponding to our 

etkma, and Oonatraetire Particka, 

Sec. I. Verbs Rkcular and Irregular 

In order to conjugate a Japanese verb, it is necessary first to as- 
certain its root form, which is the base on which all its other forms 
arc constructed. Hence we observe that all verbal roots, except in a 
few anomalous cases, end in the vowel sound /= Englishes in bee, 
or E =a in name, and for convenience sake, verbs may be divided 
into regular and irregular. 

Regular verbs are those in which the final vowel of the root /or E 
remains unchanged in the formation of the future tense, and in the 
formation of passive, negative, and causative verbs. 

Irregular verbs are those whose root terminates in /, and the vowel 
in the above cases, passes into the more open sound of A or 0. 



ii ORAMMAB $1.] 

Examples of Irregular Verbs. 

Verb. Root. Future Passive. Causative. INegative. 

Kiku, to hear, Kiki Kikoo Kikarcru Kikaseru Kikanu. 

Motsz, to take up, jy} ^' 1 [ Motsoi) Motarcru Motasz Motanu. 

Korosz, to till, Koroshi Korosoti Korosareru Korosaszru Korosanu. 
Shiman, to finish, Shimai Shimawoii Shimawareru Shimawaszru Shimawanu. 
Utsz, to strike, Uchi Utsoo Utareru Utaseru Utanu. 

Kuii, to eat, Kui Kuwoo Kuwareru Kuwaseru Kuwanu. 

Omou, to think, Omoi Omowoo Omowareru Omowaseru Omowanu. 
Narau, to learn, Narai Naravvoo Narawareru Narawaseru Narawanu. 

N.B. — In verbs whose root lias a vowel immediately before the 
terminal vowel, there is a W sound inserted before the strengthened 
/, when it becomes A or O, to prevent a hiatus; e.g. kai-fut kawoo; 
Omoi, omoiranu; and kuii kwianu. 

The reason of the change of /into in the future of irregular verbs 
is as follows. In the written language, the future tense of all verbs is 
formed by adding i/ wto the roots of regular verbs, and to those 
of irregular verbs after the final / of the root has passed into A. 
Hence from ake, to open, a regular verb, we have ake-n=aken for 
the future, which in the spoken language becomes akeo, or akeyoo. 
From the regular verb root mi, to see, we have min, which in the 
spoken language becomes mioo or miyoo in the future. In the case 
of the irregular verb ari, to be, we have for the future, first, ari changed 
into ara, and then, the 2/ n added making aran; but this in the 
spoken language becomes arau, and according to a euphonic law, the 
combination au is pronounced 06 ; and eu is pronounced eo. Thus "f 7 , 
*7*?> ^)"^, ^"^, are all pronounced 06; and;£;?, and X*?> are 
pronounced eo, or eoo. See remarks on euphonic changes of vowels 
and consonants. 

The oral language delights in courteous expressions, and one of the 
most remarkable features of the polished style of speech is tire use of 
long words, and circumlocutions. Thus ari means to be, and aru 
is or are. But these simple forms are not used in polite conversa- 
tion; at least they are never used in addressing or speaking of a per- 
son to whom one desires to show respect. In that case ari becomes 
arimaszru, or by elision, arimas', or more politely gozarimaszru, or 
gozarimas'. The verbal root mashi, which is affixed to all verbs, seems 
to be derived from ma a space or interval, and shi , root of szru, to do, 
to make or occupy ,to occupy a space, or to be, and it is conjugated 
like any other verb. It is the only part of the ' compound that is sub- 
ject to conjugation, the first part of it being always a simple root. 
Thus nomi to drink, nomimaszru , or nomimas', present indicative, 
hanashi to speak, hanashimaszru, or hanashimas', present indicative. 
This verb mashi, in the future becomes mashoo. According to the 
principle which is explained above, the written form of the future 



iii 

would ho mash'nn; but in the oral lugS \ replaced by I . "?or- 

**) whieh would . '.': -a u. OK mash" \a u. the / Bound 

.still | :iml the written ya- 

u according to the law of enphonj or on. Hence 

i • >iiitiiias < * is ^^"T^T 1 ^ nomiinash , o©. These re- 

murks will nff the fafture farm when ai in polite speak* 

the affix Bnehl (man 1 ot maszru). 

Src. 1 1. Tin; Imi'kkatiyk. 

The I- .j.lrst form «»f the veil) In regular 

affirmative rarbs, the imrr rerbaJ root, and in irregular affirmative 

iniual vowel / changed into E ; is the import- 

Verb. t. bmaai 

Reg. Akeru, to open, Ake, Akc, or Akcyo, or Akcro. 

Yukc, or Yuk. 
Reg. Mini, toset. Mi Mi. or Miyo, or Miro. 

:lk, Aruki Aruk« or Ami 

[nthel of the unperal n abore, the syllables yo 

andjro, affixed to tin- simple Imperative, leen to be interjectione an- 

\heii we say, O see! though then! 
appears to be no special for to the Japanese expression by 

the addition of these syllables. 

Sec. III. Attributive Form of Verbs. 

When I verb is used to modify the meaning of another word like 
an adjective, it always terminates in the vowel sound u=^or7; sz 
==^; or tsz=»y. It is probable that in ancient times the syllables 
%Vub+} may have been pronounced su, and tsu. or tu. Many even 
now as Mr. Hoffman and his French translator, M. Leon Pages repre- 
sent ^ by sou and >y by tsou. It may be that in some districts of 
Japan, these two syllables are pronounced with the pure vowel sound 
u; but it certainly is not so in Yedo and its vicinity. If the present 
pronunciation were that of the learned gentlemen above named, it 
would only be necessary to say that the attributive form ends in u. 

In accordance with this rule, to make the attributive form, regular 
verbs in /and E change / into iru or uru, and E into eru or uru; 
while Irregular verbs change /into u. 

a in the attributive form are also used in place of our infinitive 
mode. Hence this is sometimes called the substantive form of the 
verb. 

For an example of this form, used iufiuitively, see 145. Karada wo 



iv (WAMMAR S S4.] 

uugokasz wa, to exercise the body &c. There Karada wo, the body, 
is the direct object of the verb. Uugokasz, a causative verb in the 
attributive form derived" from ungoku, to move; ungokasz, to cause to 
move, to bestir. The clause is isolated by the particle wa from the 
rest of the sentence which is its predicate. A similar construction, 
but ^ne in which the verb in the attributive form, Musaboritoru, is 
used attributively to modify a noun, Koto, is seen in 144. Musabori- 
toru Soto, Lit. the extorting act, or the act of extortion. So also in 
1269 Yomu Koto, and Kaku Koto. Yomu and Kaku are both used 
as adjectives modifying the noun Koto, Lit. the reading act, and the 
writing act, or the acts of reading and writing. Again in 60, Nippon 
de ts'kuremash'taui mono. Ts'kuremas' is a passive verb, in the attri- 
butive form, from the root ts'htri, to make, and here signifies made. 
Hence literally the sense is, Japan made cloths, i. e. Cloths made in 
Japan. See also Toru Koto in 78. Toru is the attributive form from 
the irregular verbal root tori, to catch. Hence literally toru koto, 
the catching act, or act of catching, naranu is impossible, or that which 
cannot be. In 1224, Mamoru is the attributive form from the irregu- 
lar verbal root mamori, and used as an infinitive, Mamoru, to see to, 
or to take charge of. 

Sec. IV. Gerundives. 

Among the simpler forms of the verb, derived immediately from 
the root, is the gerundive, which consists of the root with te or de ad- 
ded to it- e. g, Arukite, or by the elision of the k, Aruite, is the 
gerundive from Aruki, to walk. — Tadznete is the gerundive from 
Tadzne, to inquire. — Kiite is the gerundive from Kiki, to hear, or to 
inquire. 

The nature and signification of the Japanese Gerundive, in te or 
de may be better understood by a reference to the use of the post- 
position de, with nouns and pronouns. When we say, as in 600, Doko 
no niacin de — In what street — ? De is the index of the locative re- 
lation of michi. In 133, Oshi no h'to nga te-mane de oshiemas', 
Dumb people talk by signs, de after temane is the index of the in- 
strumental relation of te-mane, which signifies, manual "signs. In 811, 
Kome de, *. e. in or by means of rice, de denotes the same relation of 
Kome, as the material with which the rents are paid to the Taikun. 
So in 28, Kashi to moosz ki de, of a wood called Kashi, de denotes 
the instrumental relation of ki, as the material of which axehelves 
are made. In 365, Nani hodo de, at, or for how much? de is again 
the index of the locative relation of nani hodo, which means, what 
price? In 398, Nokoradz de, i. e. in all, or in all without exception, 
de marks the same relation. In 523, Watak'shi wa h'tori de *. e. I by 
(my) one person; de is the index of the modal relation of h'tori. In 



i of tho causa] relation. 
In •_■ lb ■ club, ilc ii the index of tin- instrumental 

relation Tlir HUM de. with pajnT. In 

11 ^«.» Doohira de, and l» 'here, in what place? de is the 

III' I. V 

i these exnmph r tint dewith Dovns(and the same 

">un.s) indicates the locative, modal, or instrumental re- 

: . the 'in. <i .-us Where? When? 

II i •in >»r With what'." Win ,i HI Qt de (these are the same) is 

join, i an'! forms a gerwndire, it denotei thr same 

ased bj the rerbaJ element of the 

uiuli m ..l.il. Qf instrumental d 

mmatmn eonnected with, and subordinate to another action follow- 
ing it In «»tli let an aotionor operation 
drat, hi the mode, lime, or ntfimw in which, or the oanse, means, or 

iie.tniiii.-nt by w liich BOluc ot juent 

Tims. r. , f in liniae. and Taite shiniao. The 

Vaki t.i hnrn; ami Taite=Takite 
irmii Tata' t<» Ml on tire. Koth denote the manner in which the action 
of the following verb >himae. ini|.crati\c form of >him:ii. to finish, to 

put an .n.l to, ii to he j.crfomicti. / ,-. it is to be done by burning, and 
by setting an tire. In other word- indite is the modal d 

ininati\c of the fell 3 IJD 216, Aim Lata wa ude 

wo kiijut. i>\ or iru. lie has broken his arm. Kujiiteisa 

i.livc from Kujiki, to break, and orarem:i>* or iru is the conti- 
unati\e vcrh. to he. — Kujtite denotes the condition in which the per- 
son B»oten of. is or continues to be, via. that of baring broken his 
arm. 

In lots. Tadaims hajfmete o mc ni kakarimash'ta, This is the first 
time I have had the honor to see you Hajiniete IB the gerundive 
form of Bajime, to begin, and denotes the time when the act of see- 

mg was done Lit: Now begiimmg, Ihayemetyour eye. 1178. Kore 
(4) wo ts'kutte (o) shimash ta (2) toki (1) wa. Lit. When, I have 
finished (*J) makiu<r(o) this. (4) Here ts'kutte is the gerundive from 
ts'kuri. to make, and modifies the verb shimash'ta, by showing in 
what the finishing consists, viz; in making. So in the shorter form of 
the HUHS sentenee. ts'kutte shimattara, the gerundive performs the 
same office. 3">!>. Ano (1) h'to (2) no chichi (3) wa moto(4)-de (5) wo 
iremash'te; (G) akinai (7) wo hajime (8)sasemash'ta. (9) Lit: That (1) 
man's (*2) father, (3) the original (4) outlay (5) putting in, (6) trade 
(7) to begin (8) caused (9) him to do. Here iremash'te is the polite 
form of irete from ire, to put in. and shows by w r hat means the father 
set up his son in business, viz. by putting in the capital, (moto-de- 
wo). 



VI GRAMMAR \)f). j 

Verbs whose roots have more than one syllable, and ending in 
Ki generally drop the K in the gerundive form. Thus, Yukite, Ki- 
kite, S'kite. attd Ts'kite, become Yuite, Kttte, Szite, and Tszite. 

Verbs in ri and chi change rite, and chite of the gerundive into 
tte. Thus, arite becomes atte; narite, natte; tachite, tatte; yorite, 
yotte; Mochite, motte; orite, otte. 

Irregular verbs in mi and bi, in the spoken language, form their 
gerundives by dropping the final I, and changing m or b into n before 
the gerundive termination de. Thus; — 

Yomi, to read, becomes, Yom'de, pronounced Yonde. 
Yobi, to call, becomes, Yob'de, pronounced Yonde. 

Ayutni, to w/dk, becomes, Ayum'de, pronounced Ayunde. 
Muszbi, to tie, becomes, Muszb'de, pronounced Musznde. 
Erami, to select, becomse, Eram'de, pronounced Erande. 
Irregular verbs in ai and oi, (*f fc and TJTfc) drop the vowel I and 
insert u (^or? ) in its place; and then au ('f ?or*f ty) becomes oo, 
to which the gerundive termination te is added, Thus; — 
Ai ("ft), to meet, makes the gerundive Oote. 
Narai(^-^tl), to learn „ „ „ Naroote. 

Warai ( *? ^ fc), to laugh „ „ „ Waroiite. 

Omoi (^Jr^bt!.)? to think ,. „ „ Omoote. 

See. V. The Conjunctive Form of the Verb. 

By the conjunctive form, we mean such verbal expressions as in 
English are connected to the principal verb of a sentence or proposi- 
tion, by the conjunctions, when, as, while, &c, and modify the princi- 
pal verb, by their adverbial sense, denoting time present, or a past 
time considered as present: — e.g. When I stand up, my feet pain me. 
In Japanese, Watak'shi wa tateba, ashi nga itamimas'. Here tateba 
signifies, When (I) stand up, and is an adverbial clause modifying 
the principal verb itamimas', to be in pain. Tateba is the conjunctive 
form of the irregular verb Tachi. This form is made by affixing ni 
[ji] Eng. in, or at, and wa to the root tachi=tati. After its final I has 
been changed to E. [see below] ni-wa (ji^), by elision of the I, be- 
comes n-'-wa, and that is equivalent to m'-wa, which by a law of 
euphony is pronounced ba. Hence tata-ni-wa signifies in the act 
of standing, or on standing up=When (I) stand up. So from Nari 
to become, we have Nareba, when it becomes, and from Maze, to mix, 
we get mazeba, when [we] mix. In place of the regular verbal root 
in e or i, the attributive form terminating in eru, uru, iru, is some- 
times taken for the formation of the conjunctive. Thus, instead of se 
ba, the conjunctive form from the root shi, to do, we sometimes have 
szreba from szru, and instead of miba from mi, to see, we have mire 
ba from mini; from tatsz, to stand, we have tutszreba. and from ma- 
dzru we get madzreba. 



I : \ itli ha follow* 

ing result* the 

Yttki. t-» go, Vul. 

Tachi (— tati) to stand Uj 

Shiri, to know, Shin 

i 

Forli stead of the form jual oxplained, theattri 

buti. -..itli ni |.n|"riii \\a IsOUSed. Tims 

mini ni i> the !■ Mini, th. wliit !i i- tln-attrihu 

mi. to sec. Miruni R 
iiig, 01 ght of, or when one sees. 

Src. VI. Tiik Q .km. 

This is ma fare of tlio written 

language. Tl I iki. to go, the future is Yukan. To this 

tion ni. and the is- »!;it i\ »• wa. and w< 
Yukan-ni-wa. and from nari. to 1"-. the future naran. Appending 

i to the latter we have N., OOmbmal 

both in If noting and writing rOBOhltioO Vukaha, ami 

one is to go, and If onais to be. As regu- 
lar veroj in e bare their written future in en. by 1 1 j « - same oombina- 
tion wr g«4 tir>t from tate, I -ni-wa; from Ake. to 

Open, aken-ni-wa. and from nare, I nareii-ni-wa. whieh tluiH 

DM taten'ba akin" bt and nann'ba. and again bj tin- same method 

of contraction tateba, aJcebe, narebi S ie, infra. 

Note. Japanese Teachers know nothing of the rationale of these 

formations, and oonstantlv affirm that the conjunctive tateba is the 

same in sense M the conditional, an<l that Yukaba and Yukcba luive 
the same Signification; but Mr. Hoffman has ably and clearly demon- 
strated the distinction at above given. Indeed it is remarkable how 
man. pointa in the structure of Japanese words have been 

elucida t e d by one who has derived all his knowledge of Japanese 
from the study of books. 

Sec. VII. The Concessive Form. 

The English expressions corresponding to this form of the verb 
are connected with the principal assertion 'by such words and phrases 
as though, although, for as much as, whereas, in as much as, even 
when, notwithstanding, seeing that. The word which in Japanese is 
constantly used to express the concessive sense is mo % or tomo }• ^ 
In the sentence sore wa dare mo shiranu ka? Who does not know 



vui gram.ua b &7.1 

that'r the principle is seen on which the concessive is formed. 31 o, in 
this sentence, is not easily translateable, but it gives force to the in- 
terrogative pronoun dare, much as if we should say, Let it be who it 
may, or whosoever it may be, does he not understand that? ama-ngu- 
mo attemo furanu. Though there are rain-clouds, it does not rain. 
Here mo affixed to the gerundive atte has the sense of though or 
although. Or the sentence might be rendered, Even granting the pre- 
sence of rain-clouds, it does not rain. 

We may therefore in accordance with this principle, present the 
following table of verbal forms. 

f Kiki wa, the act of hearing. Kiku mo or tomo, though hearing. 

Miru wa, the act of seeing Miiu mo or tomo, though seeing. 

Arukuwa, ihe act of walking. Aruku mo or tomo, though walking. 

Kiku ni wa, on hearing. Kikuni mo or tomo, even on hearing. 

Miru ni wa, on seeing. Miruni mo or tomo, oven on seeing. 

^ Aruku ni wa In walking. Arukuni mo or tomo, even in walking. 
v C Kikite, or Kiile or Kiite wa By hearing. Kiite mo, though hearing, or 
^ | even if one hears. 

s ^ Mite or Mite wa, by seeing. Mite mo, though seeing, or even if one sees. 
£ I Aruite or Aruite wa by walking. Aruite mo, though or even by walking, or i( 
^ ^ one walks. 

'Kikeba ( =Kiki-ni-wa) When one hears. Kikedomo (= Kike-ni-tomo) 

even when one hears. 

Mireba ( =Miru-ni-wa) When one sees. Miredomo (= Mire-ni-tcmo^ 
'■§ * | even when one sees. 

| 1° | Arukeba, ( =Aru^u-ni-wa) When one walks. Arukedomo (Aruke-ni 
>^'~ (^tomo) even when one walks. 

The last of these three combinations Kike domo &c results from 
the contraction of Kike, and ni, and tomo. Just as ni— wa makes 
ba, so n-t of ni-tomo produces the d in domo. 

Instead of domo, iyedomo [ f 'vK? 01 " ^ 1 XK^] M sometimes 
employed. Iedomo, or Iyedomo is the concessive form of the verb ii, 
to say, and signifies, Though it be said, or Though it be called. This 
verb always has before it an appositive complement, denoting how the 
thing is called, or what is said, with the postposition ]- to. See sen- 
tence 1183. "What is that musical instrument called'- ? Anonari mo- 
no wa, nani to iu ka? Literal translation ano==that nariinono musi- 
cal instrument, or sounding thing wa isolative particle, separating 
what goes before from what follows it, nani, what, (appositive com- 
plement of iu; to, postposition, index of the foregoing appositive com- 
plement; iu, do (they, indefinite subject of iu) call, attributive and 
predicative form of the present indicative; Ka interrogative particle. 
The longer form of the Japanese sentence is a more exact translation 
of the English. Nani to ju mono de gozarimas' Lit. What called 
thing is it? Iu with its appositive complements nani to is here att- 
ributive to mono thing. If the appositive is a verb, it is, in the oral 
language, put in the attributive form. Thus, Yuku to iu signifies he 
says or they say that he is going or they are going - , and Yuku to ie- 
domo signifies, lit. though one says that he is going, and is equivalent 



§1 



<S 



is 
t.i ■though he goes, or ft should ho observed 

tod nut to future time, 

and is therefore purclj oonsi ditional. 

BBC* VIII PA! I It M ATI VS. 

the addition of t.i t » the -im j»K^ 
rerhi B Bhian baa ably dfimonstratod, 

!«• and ari. Tim- tt —art, becomes tari, and 
tiiiv. dropping »hc laal syllable hi The te in tari \t i 

utuli. hence the verb t«> which 1 to form the 

essarilj in the gerundive form, with ari append- 
it Thui totte-ari from toi rttari, ind 

the final syllabl< Ata. 'I'lu • po- 

lite form < l 'hi' \erlrr»Mi t . » i- i — in.ishi — ta, which corabiued 

elided be- 
- have or has caught, or did otieh. 
Ini lik«- iii.miK r wv get thi •_: — 

• Am — Aii=» Att 

M Al ' 'inia»li'tc — A ri - A riii 

„ Goza:, DMbJ wv I ' ">/.;iri- 

t tn. 

TheHe three words ire - md may mean 

either haf been, or fees bad, for the radical of each of them is ari, 
which is the proems equiralent of the Chineae fj. a word which has 
both moanJ 

In the higher or polite style of conversation, it is common t.» avoid 
using the shorter and simpler fbi son, and instead of 

using atta for have had, the Japanese would sayarimash'ta or gosari- 
masirta, Jso of using a single word for the preterit, they 

make a* of ;I compound i ipteaaion, consisting of s verbal root, de- 
noting the principal action to be si followed by an auxiliary 
verb, in the preterit tense. 

Thus in •*!-"> "He arrived there late", the shorter mode of ex- 
pression is seen to be Osoku, (late,) tnzita. Tssitaisthe preterit of 
Ts'ki, which by elision becomes Tssi, the Z reappearing where its 
elision had before been marked by an apostrophe. Tszi — te=Tszite, 
the gerundive, and Tszite — ari=Tszita. But the more polite mode 
of saying the same is t.s'ki [v. r.] nasaremash'ta, preterit tense of 
nasareru, to do, Lit. arrive-did=did-arrive=arrived. Thus oide na- 
saremash'ta and itta, mean the same, namely, went or came, or has 
gone or has come. Itta, is probably a corruption of yuita=yukita- 
lkita is frequently heard in the vulgar dialect of Kauagawa, mean- 
ing has gone, or went. By the elision of K it would become iita, and 
this might easily pass into itta, just as arita is always pronounced 



GRAMMAR 



eg fej a a g t 



?9 



CD PS 



a g- 






g X * 

r- O Q 



-%?^Si 



2.^ 



• 3 



as © « - 



J* s 



S* «a ° S" 1 5* **< 



<->- S X ft 



CO CO CO CO 

P p N N 


PC? 
B P TO 




GO 

TO Q 


T. 


, 


P 


p 




r- 


J 


N 


C> 


"" 


r: 


~- 


- 


re 


s 


a 


s* 


z. 


- 


o 


3, 


~> 


a 


IH. 


a 




o* 


■ 


3e 


'as 


a 


j 


^ 

^ 


a 




*5 


a. 

PS 


o 




5 




s* 


* 


-• 


. ~- 


r. 


2 






^. 




O 


^ 


cs> 




»■ 


s 


2k 

se 






2 




<. 






Q 


g 








i 










| 


5^ 


Ok 







# ^- as ?• El ?^?r S »— o ST r? H 5 C BB . K J. rr' r* N rt » ST.; ^ £- o EI 



O p 



to » p o. ^-° jr g. 
fD " 



P X- £- ~ - 






£~ J& to 
to 



. b to 

g- CSJ 

TO p 



CO CO 

P P 



s£ I K 3 ~ ! 



O^aHH^S^^cpcococo^^^^WU 



| TO TO 



Pi 
ft 


<~ 




ffi 




£$ 


1 


c 




cr 


P 


1 




1 


hi 




a 


PS 


.J - " 


h 










pa 


— • 







9 TO 

L I 

B P* 



Q 


cr 


a 


2 

















~ d 


s 


zv 


77- 








Z 


c 








1 

p 


(t 


i 
g 


C 




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BO, 




pa 


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7 


s-1 


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of 


s 


pj 


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pa 


r-t- 


1 


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p 










1 








rp 




rt- 




pa 




P TO 




1 




cb 




H 


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2. 1 




as 


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1 




J - ' 



CO CO CO ^ j-j HH toj 

p p cr a ^r. 5t o 
^ as ^ Jt ^ ?r ^ 
P gui 9 P g g S 

p 5 2 p S-S p 

^ g ^ hj *-- sa ^ 

3." 5* 3 © ^ § 

|p°^g ^^p 
^ 3 ? 5 f a 5 

P PL, p TO C r*- 

p r CO 25 P 



25 p 

cr 



r- ° ° 

w p 

TO "* 

«" 2 
o O 

Hi* 



CO 



iu <— t< >— ' "• 

et- fi E3 h» Si 

P P r P cc 

r ft g. cr c^ 

ho" ~ ' 2. 

?32 o c sr 



5-* ^r i B. S" Clj 



P P SO _ 

ffi 1 N O 

CC S* C5 
c^ C* O 

P B 2 

• p B 

an. B 

cr p p 



P P 



B p 

P_, r^- 
P ST 



PiSairH 



£ cr? 

p 



Whwo 22 o 2: g 



Htp 

H 03 



K.'S © 2L 



p p 



CO B. 

ffi CO 

B C 3 

B c 

g 3 



^t2j 
P P 

|- 

H P 

^2 

p ** 

1 * 

2 p 

p £ 






P H-. TO TO 
TO £5 P >-• 



M 
TO 



P ^ P fc- 

2 i^cg 



p ffi 



— % p 



:m\i. xi 

ii saying what 

-? as t'ullv cxj.iv»nl hy "it;i- -kita. I '. bai }>ut . T->ri nasaiv- 

aqturaiei ■• baa taken awaj . B 

-■tor bai Med ( ikon hwhj I>1 1 from) liim 

twico \ I ihl lia>areliia>h'ta. ha\ <• |»:i i 1. Ifl c.jni- 

ralent to wataa thia kind will be noticed 

in the pagea of tin- b 

^ic. IX P I 

:m action still 

g <>m in pail tune, Of the imperfect tense l>ut it is dona l>> 

meai Uowed by the rerbl or Ori in the preterit 

tense Tims Watak ahi vrs sakniitaa boo wo yonde orimaahta feokini, 

Sajin achi a mairin While I ■ _ r :i )»• »« »k yesterday, 

bnaalrta - louy 

the sense of th ira« raaaUa/. The remark of 

M Hoftnan that the JanancacTerbhanimimnerfi therefore 

in cor r e ct , unions ho meana to say that tin- Imperfect eonld m>t be 
no word. 
The Gerundive, in thiaooaibi] ling to its true nature 

ami often, ■ nodal Ihahatrrm of the preterit it. showing iu 

what .<litimi. or operation too subject waa or continued to be 

loi iiiiaah*tal at ■naan pail time. The Gerundive therefore fills the 
place of t king in the phrase 

teas drink I from I 

[ -f or #] a pi and therefore signifies to re- 

am ml v. Thus, the phrase Yedo ni s/matte oru 
or orimas'. signifies, He is livin<r at Yedo. J^it. In Yedo dwelling 
[he] resides=IIe li\ « > in Yedo. 

Exawpbs of the Imperfect Tense. 

Mite orimash'ta. wis s- Okite orimash'ta, was gelling up. 

NoTuli- orimash'ta was drinking. Kin- orimash'ta. teas dressing. 

Kiite orimash'ta. ims hearing. Maitte orimash'ta, was coming or go- 

ing. 
\ unto orimash'ta. was aft Tsznde orimash'ta, iras loading, {as 

in a ship). 
Itte =Yuito orimash'ta, too* May. Angatte orimash'ta, was ascending. 

Tatte oriihosh'ia. was standing. Orite orimash'ta, was descending. 

Sz watte orimash'ta, was sitting. Tottc orimash'ta, was talcingaway. 

Moite orimash'ta, was taking or holding. Hiroite orimash'ta, v:as picking up. 
N i tc orimash'ta. was hung damn . Dash'te orimash'ta was taking out. 

fihmnttci orimash'ta. was finishing. Shimete orimash'ta, was shutting. 

Sli'm orimash'ta. wtis going. Kaite orimash'ta. was writing. 



Xli GRAMMAR §10-] 

Sec. X. The Potential Form. 

Uncertainty in the mind of the Speaker as to any fact transpiring 
in present time, which in u English is expressed by the auxiliary may 
or maxj be is expressed in Japanese by the present indicative or attri- 
butive form of the verb, with the dubitative particle Ka after it 
followed by the appositive particle to ( J- ) and some verb signifying, 
to think, as dzongimas' or omoimas' e g. kita no hoo ni kuro ngumo 
nga atszmatte orimas' kara, Yedo no hoo wa ima ame nga f 'tte orima- 
s'ka to omoimas'. As black clouds are collected in the north, I think 
it may be raining at Yedo. Here f 'tte orimas'ka expresses entire un- 
certainty in the speaker's mind whether it rains or not. J f he said 
ftte orimas' to omoimas', it would imply his decided opinion that 
it did rain. 

The same with a little less of uncertainty might also be expressed 
by the future ftte orimash'oo, without to omoimas'. 

Uncertainty in regard to a past event is likewise expressed by the 
combination of a preterit, with the future of ari, and the termination 
of the tense is ta-aroo=taro6. Thus Sakujitsz o me ni kakattaroo si- 
gnifies, He may have seen him yesterday. Sakuban ittaroo. He may 
have gone last evening. Washi (1) wa ushi [2] no shingai (3) wo 
Kano-zan [4] e motte (5) ittaroo. The eagles. (1) may have carried 
[5] the bullock's (2) carcase (3) to Kanozau,.(4) Omai michi de 
komattaroo. You may have been in straits on the road [from not 
knowing the way or otherwise] The future potential denoting uncer- 
tainty, with a slight degree of expectation that the event referred to 
will take place, is expressed by the in dicative future with the interro- 
gative particle ka following it, together with to omoimas' or to dzon- 
jimas'. If these last words are omitted, the future alone is sufficient, 
though it expresses more of certainty than the former Miod nichi 
fune ni norimash'oo ka to omoimas'. I may embark to-morrow. Mioo 
nichi fune ni norimash'oo, I shall probably embark to-morrow. The 
future in Japanese essentially denotes uncertainty, in as much as all 
events that have not yet transpired are regarded as contingencies 
that may or may not occur. Hence this tense is used as already 
stated, when the discourse relates to something - in past time, if the 
speaker does not know whether it has taken place or not. A more 
strictly potential form of the verb, viz: one denoting ability to do, or 
the possibility of an action, islhe same as that of passive verbs. Thus:— 
Mieru from Mini to see may mean can see, or visible. 
Hanasareru ,, Hanasz to speak, „ „ can sp:ak or utteralle. 
Arukareru ,, Aiuku to walk, „ „ can walk. 
Urareru ,, Uru to sell, ,, „ can sett or saleable. 

Kawareru „ Kau to buy, n ,, can buy or purchaseable. 

No explanation of this singular fact has been met with by the writer 
in works ancient or modern on Japanese grammar. There is no 
difficulty in seeing why the element E % used for passive forms 



I $11. MHO .\iii 

ihoajM be equally ivaibhle in producing ■ | i form denoting 
■bill ling Chinese f|J. ftoku ] 

hi ( 'tun. | [Uently in this 

r of to get or to obtain. * 

.11 m ide by ere, 
■ad ihookl )»•• tiir .sunt-; as lor example, why in 

ru or an in to be sold, and at oth< 

to be Kawan K ght, or ;it ;»n- 

OtiV i tiinr. lo be able to buy. The following hypothesis may per- 
haps account for this idtntity of form, with diffi meaning. 
as the potrnti : produced ai 
shown iii this section ah nbstitnting e [fj] for the terminal 
be manner of passive rerbi of the brst order. But s 
men i ii inn. to sell, 

• mhinalioii ui u -:i i*-= ururt*, which may Signify to be 

able to be selling, cr can sell; boti^on the other band, areb 

•-das a passive from ari, i . urare will signify to be sold, 

then will have a p tion. Something in the 

context will often show which ol sificationi it to be given 

to a verb in this form. All serbs in this form derived from intran- 
ets are potential in - To bear this in mind will 

mi much j eciding whether he has before 

him a potential or a pa^ n the sent. i h'to 

wa j He can ascend tm mountain. Nobareru is 

. to be inn 'position e=to, or direction 

nil is required after the noon yama, the complement of the verb. 

s<o. XI. Tiik Dismnanvi Form of in I 

Tbe Japanese has a mode of converting verbs into adjectives, ex- 
pressing the desire to do what is signified by the verb. This is done 
by aiiixing the word tai or tod to a verbal root. Tai=taki by the 
elision of K, and too=taku, the same elision taking place, and 
bringing the vowels Aand D together, which a law of euphony requires 
to be pronounced oo Thus on u.r. signifying to sell becomes uii- 
too, i, e. desirous to sell. Mooshi v r. to speak, becomes mooshitou, 
desirous to speak, nobose. v.r. to send up, becomes nobosetai or no- 
bosetoo, desirous to send up, mi v.r. to see, becomes mito*> o: mitai 
desirous to see; and so any verbal root may be made to assume this 
form, and change of sense. The form in tai, an adjective in the 
attributive form, is either conclusive of the sense, i. e. it is used as a 
predicate verb, or is used as an adjective before a noun. The. form 
in loo, however, is but a verbal predicate adjective, and must have 
an equivalent to the verb "to be'' expressed after it, on the same prin- 
ciple that warui may end a proposition, or qualify a noun; but wa- 
rulvu=warnu used predicatively must have a verb signifying :: to be" 



XIV GRAMMAR §!-■] 

alter it. See the section on adjectives. For examples of the dpsidera- 
tiveform of verbs, or desiderative verbal adjectives, see Dialogue I. 1. 

hanashi mooshitai koto nga aru. Lit. There issomething of which 

1 wish to speak, or of which it is desirable to speak. The phrase 
O hanashi-mooshitai being a compound attributive adjective belong- 
ing to the noun Koto. In Dialogue III. 1. O kiki mooshitoo gozari- 
mas'. I wish to consult, or I am desirous to consult? mooshitoo as 
a predicate adjective, takes the verb gozanmas' as a copula after it. 
Again, in Dialogue I. 22, '-Mihon nga mitai" "I wish to see the 
musters,'. Mitai completes the sense as a predicate verb. See also 
Dialogue IV. 11. Uritoo gozarimas', where uritQo is a predicate 
adjective, and requires the coplula gozarimas' after it. Besides 
this, verbs with the affix taku, taki, or tai, are conjugated in the in- 
dicate, conjunctive, concessive, and conditional modes, as will be seen 
hereafter, see Section. 22. Paradigm. V. 

Sec. XII. Passive Form of Verbs. 

The Japanese methods of forming passive verbs are peculiar; for 
while thev are passive in signification, they are still active in their 
forms of conjugation. 

The element which sometimes serves to express the notion of 
passivity, is the regular verb ye or e (^) Chinese Jff£ to get. The 
attributive form of e is eru, or yuru, its gerundive ete, and its preter- 
it eta. A'erbs formed by this as the passive element, signify to get. 
receive or appropriate to one's self, an action proceeding from with- 
out, which action is denoted by the verbal root to which e is affixed. 
Both in form and nature these are active verbs, for which in occiden- 
tal languages, passive or reciprocal verbs are used. We need there- 
fore only consider the derivation of passive verbs, since their con- 
jugation is the same as that of active verbs. 

There are three modes of derivation. 
1. Passive verbs of the first order. 

Irregular transitive verbs may become passive by substituting the 
verbal element e or ye [_£] in place of the terminal vowel I of the 
root. 

Thus from Yomi act. v.r. to read we get Yomi pass. v.r. & Yomcru, to be read. 
„ Ori act. v.r. to break ., Ore, pass. v.r. & Oreru, to be broken. 
„ Yaki act. v.r. to burn ,, Yake, pass. v.r. & Yakeru, to be burned. 
,, Ts'kuri act. v.r. to male „ Ts'kure, pass. v.r. & Ts'kureru, to be made. 
„ Ari act. v.r. to be ,, Are, pass. v.r. attributive form not used. 

These passive verbs, and others similarly formed, when used attribu- 
tively as adjectives, frequently have the force of the Latin adjective 
in litis or the English adjective ending in lie. as visible, legible &c. 
Thus. Yomeru lion wa, means a legible book. Yakeru pan wa, 



iking. Oreru 

hn al%. Set- v\. 10. 

on the potential foni I ikuremas', 

8ee(*»" : B I- Ml tammono wa, made* or manufactured cloths. 

rimple root, is used with allowing it. precisely 

• in » Bee ' y. I p. I. ' to be 

in toki to until 
:le. 

Icr. 
■ilar verbs which for tha raoet part hart . an< 

the pastta I f(£)jothe root Thus, aYt, root of the 

or Mit mus . I.. Ii, i 

or iotram & ik W wa (aa'to my -self) 

kas'ka ni (in the « i t ~ Jl (the ship) mi* imas 1 (is seen, or 

ihlr). From at {r.r.) to boil. I 
mas' to be boiled, or is boiled. Seethe nag m of this verb 

in 10 

In i Dgtheninff of its 

find inch is changed into a or 0, and then * it addi 

form the passive verbal root. Thus kiki (it) to Likoe 

(i'.r.) from which we have kikoeru and kikormas to OS heard, or 111- 

koko made kikoe- 
mpfcA bell lothbpLce is heard. Kikoemas' 
oi it can be beard. 
The v to be derived in thit way from art, to be, 

or to have exi- hanged to am, and then yuru, one 

of the attributive forms of e [^J is added to era, making arayurn. 
This word is in cei in this, its attributive form, as an ud- 

I'lins araynro mono, signifies, The things that have ex- 
isted 1 thinos, or all ihe things [in a particular locality]. 
\ parti Hotoke, all the Buddhas, Arayorti Kami, all the gods, A- 
rayara h'to all men. 
•"'». Paa - of the third order. 

These are fer the most numerous. Most transitive verbs form their 
y adding are the passive of Off "to be'\ to their active at- 
tributive forms, unitingthe two according to the principles of Japan- 
ymology. If the active verb is irregular [See §.1] its attributive 
form ends in «, ss, or tsz, but if regular, it ends in rv. When there- 
fore a comes before the passive element cure, u being a less open 
vowel than a is suppressed before it, and instead of u-are, we have 
are as Yomu-Yomare. Tateru, Taterare. When the attributive 
form active ends in sz (su) or tsz [tsu], the combination becomes sare 
and tare, s or sz disappearing like u before the vorwal a. Thus from 
utsz, to beat, we have utare to be beaten; and from korosz to kill, 
we have korosare, to be killed. The passive forms here given, it 
must be remembered, are only the passive verbal roots. The appro- 



GKAM.UAU 



$13.] 



priate endings for the various tenses are to be annexed to them. 

The v.r. are has no such attributive form as areru now in use, but 
we suppose it to exist, or to have been in use originally, and this 
hypothesis will be confirmed by the attributive passive forms in the 
following list of verbs, 

Active Attributive Passive Attributive. 

Hiku to lead, add areru becomes Hikareru to be Ud. 



Motsz to lift, 

Umu or M'mu to give birth, 

Ou to follow, 

Yobu to summon, 

Yomu to read, 

Akeru to open, 

Tate-u to erect. 

Korosz to kill, 

Kau to buy, 

Tskuru to make, 

Nomu to drink, 

Toru to take away, 

Kuru to bite, 

Tsuru to angle 

Tszreu to accompany 

Angeru to promote, 

Otosz to drop. 

S'kuu to rescue, 

Watasz to transport, 

Uru to sell. 

Eru to get, 

Qshinau to lose, 



Motareru to be lifted. 

U ni areru to be Lorn. 

Owareru to be followed . 

Yobareru to be summoned. 

Yom areru to be read. 

Akerarcru to be opened. 

Taterareru to be erected. 

Korosareru to be killed. 

Kawareru to be bought. 

Tskurareru to be made. 

No m areru to be drunk. 

Torareru to be take away. 

Kawareru to be bitten. 

Tsurareau to be caught withhook & line. 

Tszrcrareru to be accompanied. 

Angerareru to be promoted. 

Otosareru to dropped. 

Skurareru to be rescued. 

Watarareru to be transported. 

Urareru to be sold. 

Erareru to be gotten. 



Ushinawareru to be lost. 
Of course none but transitive verbal roots can become passive. An 
intransitive verb may apparently assume a passive form, but in that 
case it is potential in sense. See. § 10. 

Sec, XIII. Negative Verbs. 



Theory of their Negative Element. 

The Japanese language associates negation with the predicative 
verb. It denies that some action, situation, condition or quality is 
inherent in, or found in connection with the subject, but not the ab- 
solute existence of the subject. On this principle there are no such 
words as nobody, or nothing, nor are there any originally negative 
verbal roots. The power of attribution, or predication resides in the 
verbal element i root of the verb iru, the continuative to be, or in shi, 
root of szru, to be or to do Chinese 3§. Now the negative element 
is n, seen in nai = is not. (compare the Latin non, ne, nee, and 
the English not, no &c) If then we prefix this negative ele- 
memt to the verbal root i we get n-i = ni not to be, a negative 
verbal root whose attributive or present indicative form is nu=t8 
not. 

lu like manner frcin shi, by prefixing n, we get n-shi. and as n 



xvii 

with t becomes rf, so n with *A' becomes dz\ nnd n-shi become* iki, 
nn a di [perhapi originally, daa ordu]. Neith- 
er A i j bol both ere added to roots ot affirm- 
■live rerbi n> i note commonly used in 
books of the bigb< "'I tu< iii thf oral language. Still dz\s 
■ : with in the ipoken language v common 
is nokora from Qokori, I or leave out. 
Nok<> mil:, without excepting. 
Consonants a thebonei leton of woras; nnd 
li the more perishable part?, that are constantly undergoing 
change*. Hence in mi*— not. the rowel maybe regarded as that 
hi *i ntfieri change, while the n is thu durable 
f the tjUable. Thaafron naki ornakaL the forma n&oand 

an- d«-riv.-d. in which everything but the initial letter // is lost. 
This inn tat inn of vowel sounds is a vers nOIBIIICIII nliemiinencai in nmst, 
if not all languages, and very naSJeoahls in the Japan* 

See. X I V HaU| M B*01MIHS Nk;\tim. Vi 

B § il he n Hai attach dz «>r aa Immediately t<> their runts (ending 
always in e or i. See $. 1) <>r tO the honorific appended verbal root 
mate in polite conversation, and thus i> prodnOM the negative attri- 
butive form. 

\n. v ihk. 
becomes Akenu or Ak. •masenu. 
Bene or FHiiinaiwnu 
Minn or Ifimaaemi. 
Tatena or Tan masenu. 
Tabenn or Tabemasemt. 

an or Nemasena. 
Misenn or Mimssenu. 
Bikaenu or Htkaemasenu. 
Xikunie r.r. to hwiihate, „ Nlkumenu or Xikumeinasenu. 
Node r.r. to xtrolt'. Mfadenn or Xadeniasenu. 

Xadamer.r. to Wp p t mt „ Xadainenu or Xadamemasenu. 

Mite r.r. to /><' fulL .. Mitenn or Mitemasenu. 

It will he seen thai the honorific affix piote, itself a verbal root, 
is affixed to the root form of the verb to which it is joined. This is 
the ease with all verbs regular or irregular, active, passive, transitive 
or intransitive, so that by taking away mase, or mas', or maszru, or 
mashi or mash'te from any verb, the remaining part of the word 
must be its root. 

In irregular verbs, in their simplest form, the final I of the root 
undergoes a strengthening and becomes a whence result the nega- 
tive endings adz and ante. Adz is less used than aim in the collo- 



Thus Ake. 


r.r. 


to open, I* 


Se 


r.r. 




Mi 


vr. 


to see. 




r.r. 






r./\ 


to rut. 


N 


I r. 


to no to bed 


M • 


r.r. 


to aft 


Uikae 


r.r. 


to restrain. 



(iRAMMAK 



*10.] 



quial. See ^ 1. paragraph 3. where this characteristic of irregular 
verbs is alluded to. 

Tabic of Irregular Negative Verbs. 



to write, becomes 



Affirmative 
Kaki v.r 
Tachi=Tati v.r. to stand 
Uehi— Uti v.r. to atrike, 
Ari v.r. to be, 
Nari v.r to be, 
E'ki v.r. to blow, 
Ongami v.r. to pray, 
Nomi v.r. to drink. 
Harac v.r. to pay, 
Okori v.r. to be excited, 
Ougori v.r. to be proud, 
Odori v.r. to dance, 
Nuri v.r. to paint, 
Kaeri vr. to return, 
H'ki v.r. to lead, 
Odoshi v.r. to intimidate, 
Naki v.r. to cry, 
Miwashi v.r. tc cause to turn 
Hiroi v.r. to pick up, 
Yurunri v.r. to loosen, 
Hirumi v.r. to faint, 
Hodokoshi v.r. to attribut 
Nengai v.r. to beg, 
Tookari v.r. to be far from 



)i 



55 



Negative. 

Kakanu or Kakimasenu 

Tatanu or Tachimasenu 

Utanu or Uchimasenu 

Aranu or Arimaseuu 

Naranu or N arimaseuu. 

F'kanu or F'kimaseuu. 

Ongamanu or Ongamimasenu. 

Nomanu or Nomimasenu. 

Harawanu or Haraimasenu 

Okoraim or Okorimasenu. 

Ongoranu or Ongorimasenu. 

Odoranu or Odorimasenu. 

Nurami or Nurimasenu 

Kaeranu or Kaerimaseim. 

H'kanu or ITkimasenu. 

Odosanu or Odoshimasemi 
Nakanu or Nakimasenu. 
Mawasanu or Mawashimasenu. 
Hirowanu or Hiroimasemi. 
Yurumanu or Yurumimasenu. 
Hirumanu or Hirumimasemi.' " 
Hodokosanu or Hodokoshimasenu. 
Nengawanu or Nengaimasenu. 
Tookaranu or Tookaradz. 



Sec. XV. Negative Imperative Form. 



The negative imperative is made by affixing the negative element 
na to the affirmative attributive. Thus, from 

Szru, to do, we have, Szruna, do not do. 

Tataku, to strike „ Tatakuna, do not strike. 
■„ Nasaru, to be doing „ Nasaruna, do not be doing, 

Toru, to take away „ Toruna, do not take away. 
In polite conversation, instead of the short imperative form given 
above, Nasaruna, or Nasarimas'na is placed after a verbal root, and 
serves as a sort of auxiliary verb to that root which denotes the action 
forbidden. Thus, instead of Miruna, do not see, Mi nasaruna, or Mi 
nasaremas'na would be the better expression in addressing an equal 
or a superior. Tori nasaruna, would be said rather than the simple 
Toruna. do not take a war. 



+ l.'i | \i.\K \i\ 

src. Wl. Phi Nmatii >nii. 

it form of n gular made l.v affixing 

the ajnrplt to 1 nereaaed by the honorific 

affix w«<mA/ whi * In ooinmon parlance mu 

iamore firoipMnUj beard tlian inmAi, but the latter ii more oorreel 
ami in K. • 1 1 t In* rerb ii nvegalar the final lofthc root, is 

changed t«» u (> grapE .');. 

Tabk of Xt gat ire Prrtrrit V 
D : — 
T»'kc, rtg. r.r. to apply, va !. I i konasl.inaiuln. 

- /i«r, I I obianaxhlnanda, 

ishiiianiln. 

.ishin;ui(li». 

loss, „ la >>r IfayoimaalunaiMla 

to pardon, Vuniaanaadaoi y "»«"»frhnrnhinanila 

■ i,*/, i ». landa 01 I »• a ishioanda. 

ulasarope., ,, Kurunanda or Kurimaahtaanda, 

k. M • ••■i.iiul.i <»r Koiioiniiiiahliiiiarula 

The for form u lean need in conTeraation 

than the I in which nakatta is placed after theaimple regular 

verbal root, or ilar rerbalrool when its final i lias 

la iteelfa compound ofnakn, the adverb 

not, and atta. th<- preterit .»t* tin- verb ari. t<. be, and h<-nee nakatta 

fiea lias not been or baa not. It ia theref! re need aa a negative 
Imrj rerb. Baeh of the rerfaa in the foregoing table may be put 

in Hie negatire preterit form as follows: — 

'IVki reg. v.r. to apply, and Ts'ki nakatta, has not applied. 

Tobi irrcg r.r. tojfg, „ Tobinakatta, has uotfoun. 

g. v.r. to go or come out ., Penakatta, did not go or come out. 

Sec. XVI I. Nk.,\h\k FoTuni Form*. 

Of these there are two. IK the first method mai, is appended to 
the affirmative attributive form, if it contain no more syllables than 
the root of the verb, otherwise the excess is dropped before mai. 

The affix mai is a negative verb signifying not to be, derived 
from maji (madzi) by the elision of j. Maji is given in the old diction- 
aries as a negative future ending without explanation. Mr. Hoffman 
maintains that it is4Compounded of ma space, and nasi not to be. But 
it would seems more readily derived from the combination of ma,-dzi 
(=n-shi). The meaning is the samewhichever derivation be adopted, 
but the etymology here suggested is more direct, because the sounds 



XX 



GRAMMA* 



$17] 



represented by ji and dz, are so nearly identieal as to be easily in- 
terchanged, and as dzi, signifies, not to be (See §. 13.) the theory of 
Mr. 1 1 oilman respecting the regular ending dz, receives corrobora- 
tion by the present hypothesis. 

The second method of forming the negative future, consists in 
placing de aroo after the negative attributive form in nu. 

Pe thus becomes a locative post-position giving a gerundive force to 
the form in nu, which precedes it. Thus u nomanu dearoo" would 
mean, he will not be in the act of drinking, or brielfly he will 
not drink. The future of Japanese verbs simply predicts, but never 
expresses determination as in English. 

Future Forms in Mai. 



Nam to become, 
Narimas 1 , ,, 
Aru, to be, 
Arimas' „ 
Mini, to see, 
Mimas 1 , „ ■ 
Ttasz, to accomplish, 
Ttashimas' ,, 
Kikoeru. to be heard, 
Kikaemas', ,, „ 
Katadzkeru, to put aside 
Katadzkemas\ „ ,, 
Katayoru, to (jet aside 
Korobu, to fall to ruin 
Korobimas' „ „ 
Ochiru, to fall down, 
Ochimas' „ „ 
Szru, to do, 
Shhnas', to do. 
Arau, to wash, 
Arimas',, ,, 
Wabiru, to intercede, 
Omou, to think, 
Omohnas', „ 
Semitoru, to take by conquest 
Semitorimas' ,, „ ,, 
Semeru, to attach. 
Semeinas',, ,, 
Semeiru, to enter by force, 
Semeirimas' 



Narumai, will not become. 
Narimas'mai „ „ ,, 
Arumai, will not be. 
Arimas'mai ,, „ ,, 
Mimai, will not see. 
Mimas'mai, „ „ „ 
Ttaszmai, will not accomplish, 
Ttashimas'mai,,, „ „ 

Kikoemai, will not he heard, 
Kikoemas'mai „ ,, „ 
Katadzkemai will not put aside. 
Katadzkemas'mai „ „ ,, 
Katayorumai, will not yet aside. 
Korubumai, will not fall to ruin 
Korobimas'mai, „ „ „ 
Ochimai, will not fall down. 
Ochimas'mai „ „ „ 

Semai or Szmai will not do 
Shiraas'mai, ,, „ „ 

Araumai, will not ivash. 
Araimas'mai, „ „ „ 
Wabirumai will not intercede. 
Omoumai will not think. 
Omoimas'mai, ,. „ „ 
Semitorumai will not take by conquest, 
Semitorimas' mai * ., „ „ 
Sememai will not attack. 
Sememas'mai „ „ ., 
Semeirumai will not enter by force. 
Seineririmas'mai ,, „ 



NllAa xxi 

samiuingi It will be seen that there is a 

d hfc rc n cc smong tbeiu in thcmodi of forming the negative future. Thus 
I'miu rim. whd sri, also ■ dissyllable, we have aru-mai, or 

n r in t future. The compound root of arimas' (arima- 

"fl)"C^\)V)i« arimaahi, c of four syllables, From 

mini, on tli.- contrary, ive future, niai 

4 mi. which is s monosyllable. 

hiru. kik • in W€ have tin- futures 

iniai. kik smemai, of wmch Ochi, kikoe and seme 

the roots, It aj dial in ev< oai is pre- 

rj Llablea as there in in the root olf the i erb, whetfa 

• be simple or compound. Henoe we derive the following roll 

mai • the attribute rerbs, when thai form has no 

■ion syllables than the root, but it'it has more, tl - dropped 

from the end of .the attributive twin, and then mai is added to produce 

the negative future. There appear to anomalous verbs, in 

which the terminal rowel of the n stive 

future, th< rms. Tims, ki, 

the r.»ut ofkui tag kiimin the negative attri- 

buthn mi. not to qoum Tin negative future is ko-mai, 

fnatead of ki mai, and ti. is koneba. Shi tho 

to, has for its negal nu, tor its 

thrc tutun srmai, and seueba for the neg junotive. 

srr. XVII I r.ivK. 

and in tin- colloquial language at Miako, a negative 
indtve in de is much used, but not n I ad its vicinity. The 

indive of books is derived from the root of regular verbs, by 
adding de, and from the root of irregular verbs by Hist changing 
the terminal vowel 1 to A, and then annexing de. [nthe miako 
dialect the vowei I is inserted between the A and de, or in regular 
verbs, an I is in s tat ed after the terminal 1 of the root before de. 
Thus from mi regular verfa*lroo4,1 have in the written lan- 

guage, mitle. n sad Dsiide in the Miako dialect: 

From tori, to take, irreg. p.r, we have torade. in books, and toraide 
not taking, at Miako. The latter form is frequently met with in 
books written in the colloquial style, or books for the common people 

At Vedo. however, instead of mide, not seeing, minaide, or midz- 
ni, is used. Instead of Torade, Toradz-ni or Toranaide is used. 
The phrases miuai-to and torauai-to, are also used to the rjime in- 
tent, and signify by not seeing and by not taking. 



♦The remark of Rodriguez that the form motnvic mai is virions, is incorrect. 
The future form motemvrvmai is wren-/ 



Xxii URAMMAH ^9. J 

Sec. XIX. Negative Conjunctive Forms. 

The negative conjunctive form for the present tense, like the 
affirmative, ends in eba- It is derived from the regular verbal root 
in ni, (See § 13. Paragraph second), which according to § 5. being 
irregular, changes the final I into E before ba (ni — wa) thus making 
eba. From nomi, irreg.v.r, to drink, we have noma before the ne- 
gative element ni in its root form, making noinani irreg. neg. v.r. 
and then the final I is changed to E, and ba (ni — wa) is added thus 
forming nomaneba, meaning, when one does not drink, which may 
relate either to present or future time. e.#. Anoh'towa sakewo 
nomaneba, midaremasenu. When he does not drink saki, he does 
not make disturbance. In conversation we often hear, nomanuto or 
iiomadzniwa or nomanaito. as well as nomaneba all having the 
same meaning. See Dialogue III, p. 184 No. 6. Hakono uchi wo 
namari de haraimaseneba &c. When, or in case that you do not 
line the boxes with lead &c. Omae no sh'taku nga dekineba, yuka- 
remasen', since you are not ready, I cannot go. Omae sh'taku nga 
dekineba, yukaremasen', as you are not ready, we cannot go. No 
( } ) being omitted in the latter sentence makes the difference in 
the subject of yukaremasen. Dekineba, dekidzwa, and dekinakereba, 
may also be used with reference to a future time. Thus mioo nichi 
sh'taku nga dikineba, yukare mai. We might substitute dekidzwa, or 
dekinakereba for dekineba in the proceeding sentence without chang- 
ing the sense. The form in eba may likewise refer to past time. 
Thus, sakunen kono shingotowo shimawaneba, konnen dzehi shi- 
mawoo. Since I did not finish this work last year I shall finish it 
this year at all events. The compound verb shimawa-nakatta, with 
kara (because or since) after it, would have the same signification as 
shimawaneba. so also, instead of dekineba, or dekidzwa, or dekinake- 
reba, the expression dekinakattaraba (= deki-nakatta araba) may be 
used with the same meaning. 

Sec. XX. Negative Conditional Form. 

The negative conditional of books is not uufrequently made by 
placing wa after the negative gerundive of the written language as 
nomadewa, toradewa, mide wa. If one does not drink, or take, or 
see. The more common colloquial expression for the negative presuppo- 
sitive or conditional, at Yedo, would be noma nakereba, tora nake- 
reba, mi-nakereba, or nomanu naraba, toranu naraba, miru naraba, 
or nomimaseneba, torimaseneba, mimaseneba. See Dialogue II, p. 
179, N. 7. Watak'shi wa kiu ni toiya e yarimaseneba, &c. If I do 
not immediately send some money to the wholesale dealers &c. See 
also 585. Kaishi nasaraneba. If you do not pay &c. kaisanu nara- 
ba or kaisauakereba would express the same. 



^•Jl.] HMAI xxiii 

rm of nari, to be, derived from narao,' 

future indicative. Uld ni-un-=ba. meaning, it'it be. 

•In conditional form < -t' t h»> rerb keri witb the negutn o 

r need el •. but is found in coiu- 

■ii with other words, :i» keredomo, though itbe, i.e. although 

ih t-> decide what keri means, but in the colloquial of the 

present day, it appeara t<> signify, to be. The remark of Rodrianea 

that it b used to denote peel time, tan hardlj be sustained] either 

by the snage of< Japanese writ ken. 

sec. \ \ I x 1 1. For* 

like the affirmative is made b] tbeaffia tomo ordomo(l»^* 
of y 3z) added tothenej r its anal rowel I baa been 

ohaaa I oehiru. Though I <!<• n<»t nee (it), 1 know 

(it) kikam- dome, slum. Though I do not hear (it) I know (it). The 
form madebj t.» iyedomo()* f 'n.K^) is also us d, in books. Thus 

kitarads t<» todomo, ware kokoroni kakeda. Though he does 
not 8 •. The hubs ooUouaially would be expressed thus, 

to oga kimaaenu t.» hitomo wi taVahi kokoro ui kakenn. 

See. X X I i an oi Vi 

With the exception of the desiderative rerb, all Japanese verba 
are conjugated alike Bveo the demderatire rerb bat slightly differs 
from others in this respect. Bence two paradigms might aer 
iples for the student, but for the sake of convenience we ahajl 

furnish an examples of a substantive, an active, a passive, a causative, 
ierative, and a negative verb. 

MODES. 

This is eopfeasedly a complicated subject, but since grammarians, 
even to this day, disagree in respect to the conjugation of the English 
verb, it need not be wondered at, if there should be diversity of 
opinion ea t«» that nf the Japanese. The reader will recollect that 
the language of this country, has as yet received but little attention 
from philologists, and no one can boast of more than a limited acqu- 
aintance with it. 

All that the writer of these remarks can venture to say on the 
topie now under consideration, is that there appear to be seven modes 
belonging to the Japanese verb, rat; the indicative, the conjunctive, 
the concessive, the conditional, the potential, the imperative, and the 
participial under which last we include the infinitive, the participle 
and the gerund or gerundive. Some grammarians, we arc aware: 



XXiv filtAMMAR ^22.] 

deny that the infinitive and participle are modes of the verb, concei- 
ving them to be essentially devoid of all modality, but without stop- 
ping to discuss the question, it is believed that these distinctions 
will be intelligible, and the paradigms more useful with than with- 
out them. 

TENSES. 

The Japanese verb has three tenses, the present, past and future, 
together with a separate continuative form of each, in the indicative 
mode. The latter differ from the former three, just as in English, 
I am writing, I was writing, I shall be writing, differ respectively 
from, I write, I wrote, and 1 shall write. 

PERSON AND NUMBER. 

The distinction of three grammatical persons, which prevails in 
occidental languages, and is so strictly observed, that the verb must 
be associated with them by means of conjugative terminations, name- 
ly the distinction of the person speaking, spoken of, and spoken to, 
is altogether foreign to the Japanese. Hence the verb does not 
admit of endings to indicate them. The same is true of number. 

When speaking of or to a person of quality, the honorific prefix o 
(W) 1S P lacecl before the verb, or if it be the verb aru (to be), go {'$$) 
is prefixed, and the long form gozarimas', or gozarimaszru, in full, is 
used, if the verb have an auxiliary, o is placed before the princi- 
pal verb, and the auxiliary is nasaru or nasareru (to do) in some of 
its forms, as yomi nasaremas'ka? Do you, or does he read? But 
this evidently bears no resemblance to grammatical person in verbs. 
- The folloing paradigms are intended to present the forms used in 
speaking, not those of books, except so far as they may happen to be 
the same in both. 

PARADIGM I. 
Principal parts. 
Ari, irrcg. v.r. To be, or exist. 

Aru, Arimaszru or gozarimas. Attributive form, is or to be or being 
Atta, Arimash'taorgozarimash'ta. Past tense form, wasov has been 
Atte, Arimash'teorgozarimash'te, Gerundiveform, Being 
Indicative Mode. 

Pres. Aru, Arimas' or Gozarimas' 

Past. Atta. Arimashta or Gozarimashta. 

Fut. Aroo, Arimashoo or Gozarimashoo or like the present. 

Conjunctive Mode. 

Pres. Areba. Arimaszreba or Gozarimaszeba. 

Past, Attareba, Arcmash'tarcba. Gozarimash'tareba. 

Tut. like the present. 



1 1 v 

no, and 8onictiuu> Att< 
in-., Arii: BO, 

AlOti vr ArimaahoO, ktrr«l"iu<«. 

COMMIT v \. M 

1. That of Uncertainty. 

\raba. Arunaraba. Arimasnar;.'' 

\tt:ira. Attanaraba. or Arima^h'taraba. 
J'ut. Like the present, or ArOo mouonara. 

Thai of the assumed hypothesis contrary to the/act. 
nib*, ArimiKroba <>r <i. ba, 

Pa$t. Attaraba, Att :ir:i. At tanaraba, Arima>li*t:ir;il»:i. 
/ .V | 1 1 

Mode. 
1 That of ability, not used. 
nty. 
Pres. Anka, or Ariiuas'ka, with }■ =to and -fr$zty=omo-6 or 

f ^^— diotQfanm 1 following, meaning, to think. 
Past. Attarooka ur Ariinash'taro<>ka, followed by oaufi or dzonji- 

mas', 
Fui. Arooka, or Arimaah'odka 



PARTICIPIAL MODK. 

•1. The infinitive, not used. 
•J. The participle, used attributively, Aru, Arimas, with a noun 
3. The gerundive, Atte, Arima>l. [following. 

Note. The verb ari has not the continuative tenses of the indica- 
tive, and is otherwise defective. The imperative mode is not used 

PARADIGM II. 

Of the regular Active verb, Miru to see. 

Principal Parts. 

Mi. r.r. to see. 

Miru, Mimas', Omi nasaru, Attributive form to see or sees or seeing. 
Mita, Mimash'ta, or Omi nasareta. Past tense indicative sawhasseen. 
Mite. Mimash'te, or Omi nasarete, Gerundive form, by seeing or seeing. 

* If there is a proper infinitive the author has not been able to discover it. 
Aru koto is not an infinitive mode of the verb, koto is a noun and aru a partici- 
pial adjective. The phrase means, an existing act, thing or fact. 



GRAMMAR 



Indicative Mode. 



Pres. Mini, Mimas, mi nasaru, or Omi nasaremas' 

Do. Con. Mite iru, Mite orimas, Mite oide nasaru. 

Past. Mita, Mimash'ta, Omi nasareta, or nasaremash'ta. 

Do. Con. Mite ita, Mite arimash'ta, or Mite oide nasaremasli'ta. 

Put. Miyoo, Mimashoo, Miru de aroo, mi nasaremashoo. 

Do. Con. Mite iyoo, Mite orimashoo, or Mite oide nasaremashoo. 

Conjunctive Mode. 

Pres. Mireba, Mimaszreba, or mi nasareba. 

Past. Mitareba, Mimash'tareba, or mi nasaretareba. 

Put. Like the present, 

Concessive Mode. 

Pres. Miredomo, Mimaszedomo, Mitemo, or mi nasaretemo, or 

mi nas'temo. 
Past. Mitaredomo, Mimash'taredomo, or O mi nas'taredomo. 
Fut. Like the present. 

Conditional Mode. 

1. Of uncertainty, or mere presupposition. 

Pres. Mireba, Mimaszreba, or mi nasareba i. e. If you see. 
Past. Mitaraba, Mitanaraba, Mimash'tanaraba, mi nasaretara. 
Fut. Like the present, or Miyoo mono nara. 

2. Of the assumed hypothesis contrary to the fact. 
Pres. Mireba, Mimaszreba, mi nasareba i. e. If I saw. 
Past. Mitara, Mimash'tara, or mi nasaretara *'. e. If I had seen. 
Fut. Wanting. 

Potential Mode. 
1. Of Ability. 

Pres. Mirareru, Miraremas', Miru koto nga dekiru mi nasaru 

koto nga dekiru. 
Past. Mirareta, mirareniash'ta, or mi nasaru kotonga dekimashta. 
Fut. Mirareyoo, miraremasb'oo, Omi nasaru kotonga dekimasbJoo. 

2. Of uncertainty or possibility. 
Pres. Miruka, mimas'ka, or mite iruka, mite o ide nasaruka (to omou). 
Past. Mitaka, mimash'taka, or o mi nasaremash'taka, (to omou). 
Fut. Miyooka, mimash'ooka, or miru de arooka (to omou). 

Imperative Mode. 
Miro, mi nasare, or mi nasai, o mi nasaremash'. 



•mai; xxvn 

PaRTH'IIMAI. M 

1. The infinitive pres. mi with ni = to, to express apurpose M mi ni. 

M i OT mimuizm. need a.s | wrhal noun to see. 

I)<> .00. or mimaah'ootos/ru. i proximate future. 

2. Tht- p Mini <>r mimauru, used attril>uti\ vlv. or with 
a po^ as mini ni wa, on y or while seeing. This may refer 
to past. • f t'utur.' 1 

/ he gerundive, Mite, mimash'te, oro minas'te, 1 Kmtraetion for 
uasuivte. 

Note, With tin* postpositions, Kara, yoti Of DOohioJ, as mite kara 
<>r miteyori, it would moan at either in part or future time. 

Mitt rarb WOOid lOltefn the same relation to it, 

as the wonl figkiiug in the English tt i fighting does 

to the verb died i.e. purely a gerundive relation. 
PARADIGM IN. 

Of a Passive Verb. Korosare v.r. to be killed. 

rosare, v.r. Koroshi-are. tl lenient. 

Prineijml J Korosareru, Attrilmtive form, M 
parts, j Korosareta, Past tent- u or has hem killed. 

Koroai undive, by being killcd } or being killed. 

hl'inir 
Fres. Korosareru. B saremas\ 

Do. Con. K ini OT fllilllM He is in the state of one killed. 

Past. Korosa: Arv\n:^}\Ui=7Ie was or has been killed. 

Do. Con. Korosarcte ita or orimash'ta=7/f was in thestateoj one killed. 
Fut. KorosareyoO or Korosareraidcarod=i/d will be kilted. 

CoN.iiN(TivK Mode. 
Pres. Korosarercba, Since he is killed. 
P'ist. Korosaretareba, Korosaretara. 
Fut. Like the present. 

Concessive Mode. 
Pres. Korosaruredomo or Korosareteino. 
Past. Korosaretaredomo, Korosareta, keredomo. 
Fut. Like the present, or Korosareyo" keredomo Korosareru de aroo 
Keredomo. 

Conditional Mode. 
Pres. Korosarereba or Korosarareba, Korosareru nara. 
Past. Korosaretaraba or korosaretara. [nara. 

Fut. Like the present, or Korosareyoo nara or Karosareru de aroo 
Potential Mode. 
1. Of Ability. 
Pres. Koroseru, korosemas'. 
Past. Koroseta, korosemash'ta. 
Fut. Koroseyoo, korosemash'oo or Koroseru de aroo. 



XXVU1 GRAMMAR 

2. Of Uncertainty. 
Pres. Korosarcte iru or imaska or orimas'ka (to omou) 

or korosareruka (to oniou) 
Past. Korosare tarooka, korosarete arimashoo ka. 
Fut. Korosareyooka, Korosareru de arooka. 
Imperative Mode. 
Wanting in the colloquial, in books korosareyo. 
Participial Mode. 

1. Infinitive, ni, denoting the object or purpose, 

2. Participle, as an attributive, followed by a noun, or taking, an 
object after it, or governed by a postposition. 

Pres. Korosareru, Korosaremaszru. 

Past. Korosareta, Korosaremash'ta, used attributively. 

Fut. Korosareyoo-to szru, Do. 

3. Gerundive. Korosarete Korosamasli'te. 

PARADIGM IV. 

The Causative verb Miseru, to show, or cause to see. Derived from 
mi to see, and se, root of the verb szru to do or cause. 

f Mise, v.r. to show. 
Principal J Miseru, attributive form, showing, shows or to show. 
p , | Miseta, past tense indicative, showed or has shown. 
|_ Mite, gerundive, by showing or showing. 

Indicative Mode. 
Pres. Miseru, misemas'zru, ormisemas'. 
Do. Con. Misete iru or misete orimas', 
Past. Miseta. Misemashta, o mise nasaremash'ta. 
Do. Con. Misete ita or oriniashta, misete oide nasaremash'ta. 
Fut. Miseyoo, Misemash'oo, o mise nasaremashoo. 
Do. Con. Misete iyoo, misete orimash'oo, misete oide nasaremash'oo, 
Conjunctive Mode. 

Pres. Misereba Misemaszreba, o mise nasareba. 

Past. Misatareba, Misemash'tareba, o mise nasaretareba. 

Fut. Like the present. 

Concessine Mode. 

p ( Miseredomo, o mise nasaretemo, or mise nasattemo. 

* l Misetemo, misemash'temo. 
Past. Misetaredomo. mise nasaretaredomo. 
Fut. Miseyoo keredomo, Omise moosoo to szredomo. 

Conditional Mode. 
Pres. Misereba, Miseru nara or naraba, misetara = Misete araba. 
Past. Misetaraba, Misetanaraba, Misemash'ta naraba. 
Fut. Miserunara, miserataraba, miseru naraba or miseyoo mononara . 



Poti 

1. <>f Ability. 

rarenias', uiiserukoto nga dokiru. 
Pmi, Miserareta. uash'ta. 

Fut. M v . • • 

fainty. 
M i.sete ira ka. at urimas'ka (to onnui). 
Pa*/. MisetaroO,< i "<.,„ with kat<»llowing&(toomou). 

Miseyooka or Misi ma*h\>oka (to omou). 

Imiikmive Mode. 
Misero, Miso nasai, Misc nasarc, mise nasaremask'. 
Partk • i i - t 
1. The infinitire to express a j.urj ni. 

- "he participle used attributively, Miseru Misemassru. 
with ■ postposition, as Miseruniwa, on * 
. }.a*t, Miseta, Misemask'ta, used attributively. 
2to. yoO to Bin; „ „ 

3. The gerundive. MiseUy Miseiuask'te or o misc nasarete, or o miso 
naa'te. 

PARADIGM V. 

Desideratm verb, Mitai, to be desirous to see. 

{Mitaku, root form. =» Mi v.r. taku. 
Mitai, attributive or predicate form, pres. indicative. 
Mitakatta, Past tense indicative. 
Mitakute, Gerundive form, also, MitoOte. 

Indicative Mode. 

Pres. Mitai, or Mitoo gozarimas'. 

Do. Con. Mitakute iru, or MitoOte iru. 

Fust. Mitakatta, Mito^ atta, or Mito« gozartmask'ta. 

Do. Mitaku omoote ita, or orimask'ta. 

Fut. Like the present. 

Conjunctive Mode. 
Pres. Mitai ni, 
Past. Mitakatta ni. 
Fut. Wanting. 

Concessive Mode. 

Pres. Mitai keredomo, Mitaku temo. 

Past. Mitakatta- keredomo. 

Fut. Like the present, also, Mitaku wa aredomo. 



xxx (1kammar 

Conditional Mode, 
Pres. Mitakuba, Mitai, uaraba, Mitakereba, 
Past. Mitakatta naraba. 
Fid. Like the present. 

Potential of Uncertainty. 

Pres. Mitakarc*>. {lie may wish to see). 

Past. Mitakattaro^ {He may have wished to see). 

Participial Mode. 

1. Infinitive, Wanting. 

2. Participle, used attributively Pres. Mitai, Past, Mitakatta. 

3. Gerundive, Mitakute, or Mi'toote. 

Note. Any Active verb may be made a desiderative one by the 
affix tai. 

To express regret at not having done something, or to say what 
one would have done, under a certain condition, that did not 
exist, there is a singular pharse in common use, made up of a verb in 
the future or past indicative and the words mono wo e.g. If I had 
seen it, I would have bought it, Watak'shi wa mitara, katta mono 
wo. or kawo° mono wo. Again, If his father had been alive, things 
would not have come to this pass. Moshi chichi nga itara, ko° wa 
naru maimono wo, or If his father were alive, he would put things to 
rights again. Moshisoni chichi nga itara, mata tate naosz koto mo aroo 
mono wo. This, if it can be called a mode of the verbs, is the true 
subjunctive, to be always employed in the apodosis of a sentence whose 
protasis contains a verb in the conditional mode of the assumed 
antithesis. 

PARADIGM VI. 

Negative Verb, Kakanu, writes not or does not write. 
Derivation, Kaki. irreg. v.r. affirmative,-nu. See. § 13. 
Kakani, v.r. not used separately. 
Kakanu, attributive and predicate form, writes not. 
Kakananda or Kakimasenanda did not write or has not written. 
Kakanaide, Kakadzni, at Miako kakaide Gerundive, not writing. 

Indicative Mode. 
Pres. Kakanu, Kakimasenu, Kakanai. 
Do. Con. Kakadzni, iru or orimas' Kakanai de iru. 
Past. Kakananda, Kakimasenanda, Kakanakatta. 
Do. Con. Kakadzniita, or orimash'ta Kakanaide ita. 
Fut. Kaku mai Kakimas'mai Kaki wa shimai. 
Do. Con. Kakadzniyoo or orimashoo, when a person is the subject, 
and kakadzni aroo, or kakadzni aru dearo<>, or kakanaide aro«, 
when the subject is a thing. 



iMAK \\M 

•1>E. 

K ikaucba, Kakiniaaenrba. Klkm kara. kakanai kara. 
kadxareba Kakanakatta kara kakanaforabft, 
Fut. Kaku mai kara, Kakhuasiuai kara kakiwashiniai kara 

Mode. 
p i Kakarodomo, Kakimascncdonio. 

**' ( Kakadztomo Kakanutom 
j, \ Kakauandai Kakiiuascuait'lan «l in->. 

' ( Kakanakat tared* >mo. 
Fut. Kakumai ki-r« . • Kaki\va>hmiai keredomo 
Conditional Mode. 

p $ Kakaneba, kakanu nara or naraba. 

I Kakanai naraba, kakanakm l>a 
Past \ Kakmaiidirebi, Kakauakereb*. 

( kakauakattareba, Kakauakatia naraba. 

Potential Mode. 
1 of Ability. 
p J Kakcnu or Kakicnu Kakemaacnu, 

rei ' i Kaku koto dokimaaenu Kak« 
p a \ Kakenanda, kakeniaacnanda. 

1 ' f Kab-nakatta Kakimakatta. 
2^. \ Kakiniai or Kakicinai Kakinakarod 
) Kakemag'mai, or kakiemas'mai. 

2 Of Uncertainty. 
p ( Kukanaika or kakanuka, kakanaideiru ko? 

rCS ' \ Kakadz ni iru (to omou). % 

p . i Kakanandaroo Kakanakatta de aroo, 

08 ' I Kalvanai dfl ariinashoO. 
Fut. Kakuinaika Kakinias maika (to omou, following.) 

Imperative Mode. 
Kakuna. Kakimas'na. 

Participial Mode. 

1 Infinative, Wanting. 

2 Participle. 
Pres §' Fut.. Kakanu, used attributively. 
Past. Kakananda, 

3 Gerundive. 
Kakau-iidz. 'cakadzni, and at Miako, kakaide. 



XXX11 GKAMMAll. 

Remarks on the Papadigms. 

1. They are intended chiefly to present the conjugative forms 
derived from the verbal roots, as their base. The periphrases by 
which modes may be indicated, are idioms belonging rather to the 
province of the lexicographer, than that of the grammarian. 

2. The conditional mode is usually characterized by the word 
moshi (Chin. 3§f), i. e. if, or granting that, preceding it, and when 
both the conditional and conjunctive forms are the same, which 
must always be the case, in regular verbs in E, (See §.$. 5 and 6,) 
this presuppositive particle distinguishes the one from the other. 

3. The author is of the opinion that the so called infinitives of the 
old Portuguese grammarians, (such as, miru koto, to see, and mitu 
koto, to have seen,) are not proper infinitives. They are substan- 
tive phrases, composed of the noun koto, and a verb modifying it. 
See. 203. Koto e kuru koto avo iyangarimas', Lit. He refuses the 
act of (Kuru) coming, i. e. He will not come. See also 941. Ara- 
tameru koto wo itashimasenu. Here aratameru koto wo, is a phrase 
constituting the direct object of the transitive verb itashimasenu, or 
seru. In 144, musaboritoni koto wa, i. e. Extortion, or the act of 

taking away wrongfully, is the subject of the sentence. Although 
these and similar expressions might be best rendered in English, by 
infinitives, yet this is not their office in the Tapanese construction. 
For a proper infinite governing a direct object, and at the same 
time being subject of a proposition, see, 145. Karada wo ungokazs 
wa &c. Lit. To exercise the body, or to bestir the body, &c. 

Rodriquez and Collado also give the form miru to, as the infini- 
tive, but this is even more objectionable than those in koto, because 
to ( J* ) in this position, is a conjunction, most frequently equivalent 
to the English conjunction that. 

Besides the infinitive given in the paradigms, expressing a pur- 
pose (as mi ni, to see,) there is a phrase composed of a verb in the 
attributive form, followed by the noun tame, a purpose; and the 
postposition ni signifying for, which often answers to cur infini- 
tive. See. 1*208. Dare nga tetsz wo uru tamcni motte iru ka ? Uru 
tame ni, here rendered for sale, when analyzed, is, ni=for,dame= 
the purpose of, U ru= selling, old English, for to sell. Uru is a 
verb in the attributive form qualifying the noun tame, which, again, 
is governed by the postposition ni. 

The subject infinitive in English, is often expressed in* Japanese 
by the gerundive with wa or by the conjunctive mode. e.g. Yubi 
wo k'tte wa [or kireba] ito6 gozarimas To cut ones -finger is pain- 
ful. The literal signification of K'tte wa, and kireba, when one 
cuts. Watak'shi yori sh'ta no h'to wo utte wa for Uteba]. iyashii 
waza de aroo. It would be a mean act to strike a man inferior to 



HAI 

myself. I -erelto s /rt%», eta 

they are 
The lit.: the Brat example 

00 • I. and 

Live] a man in- 

iwa, the form given to I for the infinitive u in 

ted in the above sentence, end then t<» 

i it literal. 

i Th pari I •. miru mono, and mita h'to, mita mono, 

limilar to those 
lo their so called infinitivi 
w ■ of eonstrni 

. the nature ox these 

Sic XXIII S 

Japanese nouns ar without ii their 

:• by posi! 

Mich a.s : Of by what W6 

call - '; I iro ( ^). \\ i. 

which ii merely an tsolatiTe j id or 

olloW it. i 

though it frequently stands bet* nbjeel and its predi 

Asa proof that, it an Distance in 

Which it - to wu, which marks the* direct object of a 

!. Kataki ni BSTO mOOO I WO kawai- 

ngar I he first phrase ending with wobs is eqniralent to 

enemies and literally rendered it wonld b len tee, 1 wye 

these, sta Be »ws with the ningori [ft) separatee the a 

re it from those fulfo a substantive phrase, in apposition 

with the pronoun aorewo which is the direct object of the verb 
kawa i"vc. W'a is tnouhim around a collection of 

:> widen i of a verb, and serves to give 

dehnif his group of words, distinguishing it from the other 

elements of the proposition. I liina wami koto no uehi 

de wa, Of all had ti This particle is not generally translate- 

able, hut may. to ei force, be sometimes rendered as to, In 

'd to, Latin quoad, French qiumt a. Nga or ga (ff) is used for 
the same purpose, except that it seems to be more emphatically de- 
finitive. See o. Ichidora nga i.e. a dollar precisely. The difference 
between wa and nga is scarcely translateable, but is to be expressed 
by the tone of the speaker's voice, rather than by any corresponding 
words in English. The native ear at once perches the difference, 



XXXIV GRAMMAR $24.] 

and a foreigner can acquire the use of these particles, only by prac- 
tice and much familiarity with the Japanese usage. The native 
teachers say that wa is a kind of cordon drawn around a word or 
words, as if to isolate it or them, as a distinct subject of thought, and 
that nga is used when one or more objects are singled out being 
present or conceived to be present, spoken of specifically . Thus, if a 
Japanese should say of a certain lot of teas in Yedo, Here are 
the musters, his expression for the musters, would be, Mihon wa, 
i.-e. the musters, as separated from the original packages, but, if a 
buyer taking one of the samples should say he liked it, his expres- 
sion would be Kono mihon n</a ki ni irimas'. The idea would then 
be, that that particular sample suited him. See Dialogue I Nat. 6, 
and For. 9. where these expressions are used. 

The attributive (possessive or genitive) relation is denoted by the 
postposition no ( } ,) for which the Chinese equivalent is ;£, See 2. 
Akangane no deru to koro wa, Lit.=Copper's issuing place i. e. 
the place whence it comes. Nga (ff) is used for the same purpose, 
after either nouns or pronouns. See 735. watak'shi nga kimono. 
My clothes, the same as watak'shi no kimono. Examples of this use 
of do and nga are too numerous to require further references. 

Whenever wo [^ J is used it is placed after the direct object of a 
verb. A verb, therefore, with such a complement may be known 
to be transitive. But it must not be supposed that a transitive 
verb, or one that would be transitive in English, always takes wo as 
the index of its direct object. On the contrary, it sometimes takes 
wa, sometimes woba=wo wa, sometimes nga and sometimes neither, 
after its direct regimen, See 970. Are no szru koto wa mireba, or 
Ano h'to no okonai wa mireba, &c. Here, szru koto wa, and 
okonai wa, both meaning conduct, are the direct objects of mireba 
Lit. when I see, The verb miru, to see, usually governs its 
direct regimen, with wo. Nga likewise may follow the direct re- 
gimen of a verb. See 456. Washi wa sono ri nga wakaranu. I can- 
not understand the rationale of that It is abundantly evident, then 
that wa and nga are not essentially case signs. Wo only, is, when 
used, invariably the sign of the complement of a transitive verb. 
But even this may be replaced by wa, or, nga, or all the three omitted. 

The other relations of nouns , are expressed by words which we 
call postpositions, answering to our prepositions, See § 28. 

NUMBER. 

The noun is the same in form for both the singular and plural. 
When, however, it is desired to express the plural number, the noun 
is sometimes repeated, as H'to, a man H'to-bito, men Iro, a sort 
Iro-iro, sorts' Shina, an article, Shina-jina articles. Shima, an 



HUM xxxv 

"'lima jima ul B i, ft cnwifn/, Kuni n«iuni. cotw' 

doubling re than mere plurality, for it 

the idea uf multitude and sometime* of universality. 

Besidea 
oaaking plurals, t! rtain word* spp i 

to nouns and prom plurality. Such are ra 

eee tt, aigiu^ying a olaaa, or kind, Domo (K'Jfc,) Chinese dt 
togtt 7 £,] Chineee jfc, all <»\<t cw r\; ngata 

— k.v ' I {ion; sniu (^ r^^ Chanese jfe 

a sfjrn ::il. and nado. 

Examples. 

I'll KM. 

Takuuin. an officer of govern miii-iaclii 

farmer, EPyak'sh r:i. farmers. 

. a child, K domo, chil<lr>n. 

i/a. 
Ken i retainer. li-domo, 

I '■: inio, rt >wW<-, 1 1 i. Holiest. 

-am a, a feudal lord, Ton ita, A>r//«. 

Quango, a icoman, < h 

Tlu' word rui. (Obineae $Jj.) meaning ■ kind frequently 

bed to namea of inanimate ol denote plurality, Tims 

on tbeaign-board of apaper dealer, Kami rui shina-jina", 

sorts of p plural by domo some- 

time r.-i in addition, as kod imo ra, children. This word 

at 1.., 

Tin* plural signs, arc not osed indiscriminately, but varied according 
to tli ,vith which the Idressed, or spoken 

of, arc regarded Beginning with that which the least degree, 

may be arranged in the following order I to the highest 

1 Domo, 2. £ .i, 4 Shin, Bui, applied to names 

of things or ] d Nado, which is used in the same way, 

seem to be devoid of any such distinction. 

GENDER 

Nouns in this language are essentially without gender. "When it is 

to indicate sex. the prefixes for the male, and Me for 

the female are put before the noun; as Ushi, a beef, Oushi, a bull, 

and Meushi a cor. Tori, a fowl, Ondori =0-no-tori, a cock. 

Men dori = me-no-tori. a hen. 

Sec. XXIY. Pronoun-. 

The Japanese like the Chinese language, delights in the use of 
nouns and adjectives of Quality, as personal pronouns. 



XXXvi GRAMMAR §24]. 

The emperor, for the pronoun of the first person, uses (fj)£) Shin, 
which may signify, subtle, recondite. The Taikun, or any noble- 
man of high rank, would use Yo. (<£> or -p-) when addressing in- 
feriors, and Watak'shi if speaking to a superior, To a friend they 
would say Sessh'a( :{$ ^) meaning I. Officers of government would 
use Sessh'a and watak'shi, in like circumstances. Washi is use by 
persons of inferior station, when speaking to those under them. The 
meaning of Watak'shi, is still uncertain. It is the word most generally 
used for the first person. Washi and Ore are used by the common 
people for I. 

For the second person, the emperor is addressed by the courtiers, 
with Shin, meaning your majesty. Addressing his attendants, the 
emperor uses Nanji, which is derived by contraction from na-mochi, 
having a name, or illustrious. The Taikun in addressing high daimos 
such as the Sankio, for the pronoun of the second person says 
Kikoo which is merely the Chinese j^ £V, Honorable Lord, English, 
My Lord. To most of the princes, inferior to the Sankio, he would 
say Sono-koo. Lit. that side, or quarter. The servants of a daimio, 
addressing their liege lord, would say Watak'shi, for I, und Kimi, 
Lord, or Gozen, Your presence, or Tonosama, for you. To a friend 
or superior the usual address is Anata, for the pronoun of the second 
person. Damios' retainers and officers of Government (yakunins) use 
the same term, in speaking to those of their own class, but if speaking 
to an inferior, iemai is the pronoun used. Temae signifies, "before 
(my) hand", Omae' which is of the same import of Gozen, is used 
among the common people when addressing each other, especially, at 
entertainments, where the wine flows freely. It is also used as a 
pronoun of less respectful import than Anata. 

The personal pronouns most commonly heard, are Watak'shi, Washi, 
and Ore, for the first person, Anata, Sonohob, Omae and Teniae, for 
the second, and Ano o kata, Ano-kata, Ano h'to or Are wa, for the 
third. Sama is often added to those for the second person, and in 
the vulgar dialect is contracted into san as Omae san, Anata san. 

Politeness of address has been so long and carefully studied among 
the Japanese, that they are very careful to select the proper terms, 
in conversation, and nothing is more offensive to their taste, or more 
significant of bad breeding than carelessness, or neglect in this matter 

Pronouns Properly so Called 

Most of these are derived from primitive adverbs of place. The 
following is a list of these adverbial roots. 

1. Wa ( >? ), which denotes the central point of space, the conceived 
position of the person speaking, or the place of the I or me. 

2. A ( "f ), somewhere else, a place less definitely marked than wa. 



WW il 

■o-^thrrr. 

\. iv. i 2 i . and detemnim <1. ■here. 

V.» ( 3). :i J»l i [ there. 

' - ich— 

Ti I ' ■ ■■; \n u>h in 

. 
These i . in composition with other words from 

niim-il adjoetiYes Pronouns are so formed bv 
adding " (v ) t«» the adverbial root, witli two <»r throe exceptions, 

from ari, p. r. the final i 

into r. The pronominal aajeotirefl are made by 

gi ti» th. - Tims we hare Ware, in 

-. signfring I, and Wanj '■ k'ahi, and Washi in the 

eoUoqnial need for the pronoun ( of the Brat p< probably 

ime root wa. 

'hot. and Ano, pronl adj. that. 

I HiyOTt) „ that, 

."hi* and Kono, „ „ this, 

ami that. 

an Whose? 

Which? tad D „ Jfliirh'' 

Tip R 1 1 .t;«. Lit. 
which 

N.mi or N.ni fi i J . ) is an in! e pronoun, meaning 
deed attributively, it ii Namo, what? I<l/re also is :i oonunon 

word for tf . ;•• ■•. the attributive form of the same, as 
: iich iiuml 

f%) the body, or person, is a noun much used where 
in English a ri »uld be employed, and is either of 

the first, second, <>r third Prom Mi. is derived Midz 

kara [—mi no tars] Chinese \\ which signifies, of one's self i. e, one's 
self personally. Onore is a reflexive pronoun derived from Ono each 
ami ore I, and hem- individually. From Ono, or 

perhaps from ( I 1 Onodzkara, and signififles. from or by 

self individually. The folio wing Chinese reexive pronouns 
are also in common use. Ji. [ |j] and Jishin [§J Jff] both signify 
one's self. Ji man no h'to, is u a man who prides himself 1 , Jishin 
no koto, an affair belonging to one's self. Jibun, [^ ^] is also 
used in the same sense as Jishin. 

Reciprocal Pronouns. 

There seem to be no proper reciprocal pronouns. Reciprocity 



xxxviii GRAMMAR §25.] 

of action is expressed either by adverbs, or by ai, root of the verb 
isgnifying to meet, used as the first part of a compound verb, which 
si thus made to express an action and its mutual character. 

The adverbs most commonly used for this purpose are, Tangaini, 
or Aitangai ni, Soo hod [^ jjf] and Rioohoo, [ j|g ^f ], The last two 
literally mean both sides or two sides. Ai is an element of very 
many compound words, conveying the idea of reciprocity or mutual 
participation, as, Aishiru, to know each other, Aiszszmeru, to coun- 
sel each other, Aideshi, a fellow pupil, Aikotoba, a pass-word i. e. 
one to be given to each other, and Aikuchi, mutual assent. 
Relative Pronouns. 

These are also wanting in the Japanese language. The office of 
the relative pronoun is to connect an adjective proposition with the 
leading one. Compare the English sentence, The prudent man 
looks to the future, with The man, who is prudent, looks to the 
future. In the latter, the adjective proposition, who is prudent, is 
developed from the verbal adjective prudent, and by means of the 
relative pronoun who as a connecting word, it occupies, the place 
of .that adjective in the first sentence. The genius of the 
Japanese language, as it has no relative pronouns, makes it necessary 
that a sentence of that description, should assume the construction 
in which the adjective is used attributively before its noun. Hence 
The man who comes, would be expressed, in Japanese, by the. words 
Kuru h'to wa, and The man who came, by k'ta, or kimash'ta h'to 
wa. A verb is thus used attributively with a noun, which in English, 
would be the antecedent of a relative pronoun the subject of that verb. 

The noun tokoro, precisely like the Chinese, ffi the place, or the 
place where, is also used as a substitute for the relative pronoun 
Thus, the act of doing, is szru koto, the person who does, szru h'to, 
and that which a man does, is h'to noszru to koro. Tokoro in 
this use of it, may be in any of the relations (cases) that a noun sus- 
tains and therefore in the analysis of a sentence containing it, it may 
have case signs, like any other noun, and yet when rendered into En- 
glish, it will be converted into the compound relative pronoun, that 
or those, which or what, or the simple relative which, Watak'shinoshi- 
reru tokoro de gozarimas', It is what I know. Inishieyori mochiiru 
tokoro no nen-ngo de gozarimas. They [certain Chinese characters] 
are the year-names used from ancient times. Mochiiru to korono=those 
which were used. See Dialogue, II. 30 p. 183 "Omai noiu tokoro 
wa &c. io hat you say fyc. 

Sec. XXV Adjectives. 

Adjectives of Japanese origin, have one of two forms, when used 
attributively, or before a noun, viz, that ending in ki ( ^ ) or that in 

ua [yh]. 






XXXIX 



Na, is the first syllable of I riling to 

M. I 1 rowi I ofl '" to An;i 

wouli and ki hare U Wrc 

and i ihould have in i i the same 

meaning. Besides, tin ; tiding in 

ki, as we shall see below, strongly corm \l I lnilman's view. 

.••so endings ki and na are affix radio*! form of the ad- 

re, as Nanga, r Nanga ki— Nangai, long. Yawaraka, r. Ya- 
warakana, toft. 

ainations are o at, 1; -Tally interchangeable. 

s take one, and some the other. Usage, and a good 
nary will decide which is proper. 

Examples of Adjectives. 

Taka, root. Takaki, or Takai. [by I li>i..n »i k. ] High. 
Samu, „ Satnuki, or Samui, „ „ ' 

Atsx, „ >*ki, or Atszi, „ „ Thick. 

i t or 1 Stmdtr, 

In. the iii usually, though rid always elided In 

boold in a familiar style, the same elision oft lace. 

impks of Adjectives in Na. 

Tairaka, root, Tairakana, Li 

Tash'ka, „ - ue or reliable. 

TaOyaka, „ Taoyakana, Flexible, and graceful 

Akiraka, „ Akirakana, Bright, < 

There are also three waysin which the adjective is used predicatively. 

1. It may have the form in ki, as before. An adjective which 
ilodes a proposition, or sentence ends always in hi, or i, if k be 
elid< hen so used it includes in itself the copula, or verb to 

iie second form of the sentence. Kono shikata 
wa yasasihi This works's easy, or This is easy work Comparing 
it with the longer and more polite form immediately above it, 
no that the copula gogarunafl', of the first, is omitted iu the se- 
cond, and unless the ki=i which terminates yasashii be the verb to 
be, the sentence has no copula. Yasashii, therefore, includes the 
copula in itself. 

It was probably this peculiarity of Japanese construction the in- 
duced Rodriqnei to call adjectives occupying this position in the 
proposition; adjective verbs. When the copula is in the past or fu- 
ture tense, the verb aru is developed distinctly as an affix to the ad- 
jective. Thus arewa yorosh'katta, That has been, or was good, and 
Arewa yorosh'karod. That will be good or teeU. 



xl GRAMMAR §25.] 

*2. When a separate word is used for the copula, as aru, naru, or 
shi, the predicate adjective ends in ku, as are wayorosh'ku, or yoro- 
shiu, gozariiuas', That is good or well, or again; 

3. When usage does not admit of the termination ku, the root 
form of the adjective, with the locative de after it, precedes the copula, 
as, are wa yawaraka de gozarimas'. It is not true, therefore, that 
the form in ku is always adverbial, though many adverbs have this 
termination. On the contrary, wherever this form precedes a substan- 
tive verb, it is an adjective. The common morning salutation 
hayoo, in its full expression, is hayoo gozarimas', You are early 
Sir, and here hayoo, which is the same as hayaku =(hayau, =ha- 
yoci,) is a predicate adjective. So, also, Waruku natta, signifies, has 
hero me had, or has been and now is bad, and here too waruku is an 
adjective. But when the verb following this form is not a substantive 
verb, the word ending in ku is an adverb, as, Osoku mairimash'ta, 
came laic, Waruku okonaimash'ta, Conducted badly. 

Adjectives in ki, are also used as concrete nouns e.g. shiroki, white, 
and Shiroki wa nga, or wo, the white [ones']. Furuki wo s'tete, 
abandoning or rejecting the old. In conversation the h is elided and 
no\_J\ added to the adjective, to form concrete nouns, as Fu- 
rui no wo s'tete, atarashii no wo totta. Rejecting the old, he took the 
new. Furui no nga ki ni irimasen', The old [ones] do not suit me. 

To find the root of an adjective, reject the termination ki or ikuov 
ni. Adjectives which cannot take the termination, ki are transformed 
into concrete nouns, by simply affixing the attributive particle no [ } ] 
to the root, as, Taira, r Taira no wa, nga, or wo, The level or even 
[ones]. Some adjectives may take either the termination na or ki, as 
Yawarakana, and yawarakai.=yawarakaki. 

Abstract nouns, are also derived fron adjectives by annexing the 
syllable sa [if] to the root, asNanga. r. Nangasa, length. Aka, r. 
Akasa redness. Hiro, r. Hirosa, breadth, Sa is propably a contrac- 
tion for shi, to be [Jj^]. and the separative and definitive particle 
wa [/%]. 

Adjectives of Chinese origin, are simply Chinese words transferred 
to this language, and made attributive in their meaning, by means of 
the particle no [7] following them, when the noun to which they 
belong is a word of Japanese orgin as, Nippon no h'to, a Japanese 
Fuji no yama, Lit. the no-two mountain, the peerless mountain. 
But when both the adjective, and the noun to which it belong? are 
Chinese, no is omitted, as, Nippon jin, a Japanese and Fuji san, The 
matchless mountain. Here the Chinese and Japanese languages are 
not at variance, in respect to the relative positions of the adjectives 
and noun. But when either one, or both words is of Japanese origin 
the particle no [ ) jmust be placed between the adjective and the noun. 



CKVMMU. Xll 

be made to perform the office of an 

tOtifC adjn-tiw. as, Ak;>' ; Kash'a 

no kiiu"!i". H 'hes. 

\lh'cti\«-s > ; deprivation, and oo i r c eponding to English 

adjecthrei bai •■ formed I j plaeinji nako, 

or nai preceded by no (/) after the noon denoting that of which de 

biebi, i father, and ohiehi no nai, 
nai, in";! kono nai, bottomleet; I'ta no 

ing reaemblumvs in quality, kind, or nature, to 

some thing, arc formed i>y adding the termination ahiki, or rash'ki, 

•an. r.'j. Ito d om o , a child, or children, end kodomoraah'ki purerite. 

Itiki, like mm. «»r manly. OoftBgO, a woman, 

Oiiangoraah'ki, Ilk*' women, womanly, or effeminate. Otona, an 

adul; I ', ki. manlv, lik«- a irrown up 11 tah'kl like 

human beinga, />. Iniman, not like* brutei Kimirash'ki, like princes or 
princely Shiki, signifies, such as, or like, and perhepa ra in rash'ki is 
only tii<> plural aigi : to the preceding noma. M. Hoffman 

from ari. to be, the final rowel being strength- 

I into #, but upon tlu- Mippi'.sition that ra is the sign of the plural, 

the moaning of H toranhlri would lie. like the human speeies, or like 
mankind, i.e. human. Adjectives, of this deouiiption may be foiined 
from nouns, int il roots: as. ttaknrash'ki. foolish, 

from the noun baka. K.nnash'ki, or kanasli'ii. fr«-m kana! alas! and 

moaning, end, or lamentable, and airaah'lri, lovely, from ai, to love. 
Qnere, May n->t the oommonwotdmedsraeh/ki, or medzrashii, be 

derived from me, the eye, t>/.»u to attract, andsh'ki like, or suck as, 
•:n or signifying, such [a thing] as attracts the eye, i.e. something 
rare or noi 

A large number of adjectives is derived by adding beki to their 
attributive form. e.g. Tattomer, to respect, and tattomu beki, respect- 
ble, Warau or waroo, to laugh, and waroo beki, laughable or ridicu- 
lous Sz to do. aud szbeki, possible. Aru, to be, and aru beki, [that 
which ought to be] proper, or suitable. Beki is the attributive form of 
an adjective derived from be, a contraction of mube, or ra'be [Chinese 
pj]. English, viay or the adjective termination, ble. The ancient Portu- 
guese dictionary defines it to mean, withreason, In truth? adjectives form- 
ed by means of this element often include the idea of duty, or necessity. 
Comparison of Adjectives. 

Degrees of comparison, are expressed by a method common to the 
Tartar aud Japanese languages. In order to express the comparative, 
relative or the real comparative, a quality is simply attributed to an ob- 
ject, as having a relation to another object, with which the first is com- 
pared. The object, therefore, with which the comparison is made, is 
regarded as the starting point from which the attribution of the equality 



xlii 'in a. mm Ah 

in question is made. Hence it is marked by the postposition yori, from, 
or proceeding from. Thus to say A tempo is larger than a zeni, the 
Japanese expression would be, Tempo wa zeni yori ooki. Lit. Starting 
from a zeni, [as the point or object with which the comparison is 
made,] a tempo is large. 

The comparative degree may also be expressed by verbs signifying to 
exceed. For examples, see Index, under the word JJetter, & references. 

The comparison of absolute equality, is made by means of hodo 
fi}\K]? a noun signifying quantity- e.g. Nami wa, yama hodo takai, 
The xoaves are as high as mountains, or The waves are mountain 
[quantity or measure] high. v The same is expressed by yoo ni after 
the name of the object with which the comparison is made. Thus. 
Ishi yoo ni katai. [It] is hard as a stone. See 646. Lit. It is hard 
in the manner of a stone. The superlative absolute, is made by 
prefixing itatte [Chinese :g], hanahada, ma, or some other intensive 
adverb to the adjective. Thus, Itatte warui, signifies extremely 
bad. Hanahada kuroi, very black, and Ma shiroi, very white. Ma 
is a primitive word, found in Makoto, truth or reality, Masash'ki 
reliable, [from masa, abstract noun, and sh'ki], and Masari, and Ma- 
shi, to exceed, to excel, to be better, which is likewise composed of 
rnasa and ari, Hanahada is given in the Portuguese dictionary, as 
an adverb signifying greatly. 

The superlative relative, is made by prefixing Ichi, one,Ichi no, Dai, 
ichi no, or Ichiban, to an adjective, as; Ichi ban yoroshii, The best. 

The idea of excess in a quality, is expressed by Amari v.r. to be 
excessive, before an adjective, as, Amari osoi, too late. Amari, tsz- 
yoi„too strong, or by placing szngiru, which means also, to be ex- 
cessive, after an adjective, as, lrayaszngiru, too early, or too fast, 
Taka szngiru, too tall. 

t Numeral Adjectives. 

1. Cardinal numbers. 
The primitive cardinal numbers are 1 H'to, 2 Fta, 3 Mi, 4 Yo, 
5 Itsz, 6 mu, 7 Nana, 8 Ya, 9 Kokono, 10 Too. and anciently 
the enumeration was continued by saying. Too (10; Amari (plus) H'to 
Tooamari F'ta, and so on, to 19 inclusive, and then 20 was Hatachi. 
Lit. Twice 10. misoji, {SJ9 $■) 30, Yosoji, 40 Isoji,=Itsz-so-ji, 50. 
Musoji, 60. Nana-soji, 70, Yasoji, 80, Kokono-soji, 90, Momo, 100, 
Chi, 1.000, Yorodz, 10.000. The form now in use, H'totsz, is equi- 
valent to H'to no, and thus the syllable tsz=no, is added to allthe 
primitive numbers above, up to Kokono, 9. inclusive. Thus, 

1. Htotsz. 6. Mutsz. 

2. F'tatsz. 7. Nanatsz. 

3. Mitsz. 8. Yatsz. 

4. Yotsz. 9. Kokonotsz. 
5 Itsztsz. 10. Too. 






xliii 



weights, and mea< 
flares, and atrodnoed into Japan?. 

mil tin 1 1'tlnr purely (Chinese, 

or have been intermingled with eaeh other, 

Still the twe are not applied mdieertminatelj. Japanese numbers 

i. and Chinese oamberi bofore 
the number does no1 exceed I" . 



Comp / 






Iehi. 

N 

She 

lla.-hi. 
.liu. 



<-)■ 

(W) 

(//)• 

(-L). 
(K)- 
(*.)■ 

i 

H 



7. 

a 

10 
too 

or Han. (;\\ 

The number of hundreds, thousands, or tern of thousand* is cx- 
- .1 by i ofDberaJ before the nuBcbreds, tfiousandfl &e. aa Sam 
b'yaku 800, Bh'ehi I I ReVrnan, 61,000 &c. 



.1 M'WKSR. 


: 


11 i 


•i 






' 


i 


1 




taa 


•;. 


M 


7. 


N.m;: 




Vats/ 




Kokonotei 


in. 


Toe 



Ohhin \f. Ni wihkrs. 



These are the Chinese numerals Iehi, ni, sen, &c. followed by ban 

[#] whieh signifies s* order of succes*ion. Thus, Ichiban, first, 
Nioan seeondi Samban, third, Ae. and Gk>jin ban. fiftieth. 

The same is also expressed by prefixing DaifjJJ] to the same 
numerals, with no [ )\ or ban no. following them when used attri- 
butively. Dai iehi. first, Dai iehi no, Of Dai iehi ban no. first. 
When only three tinners are to be enumerated, as the three vols, of 
a book, the first is called j'oo [_£], the second, Chiu [rjj], and the 
third Ge ["pj, or using Japanese words of the same import, Kami, 
Naka, and Shimo; or Saki, the first, Tszngi, the next, or second, and 
Ato, the last, or third. When used attributively, all these must be 
followed by no [/]. Thefirst,in order of time, is expressed by Hajime, 
v. r. to begin, with no [ } J after it. Hajime no toshi, the first year 
[of a period] Hajime no h'to, the first man. 



xllV UllAMMAK. 

Reduplicative Numbers. 

These are made by prefixing the Chinese numerals to the word bai, 
[fig], which means doubled, Thus Ichi bai, is one doubled or 2. Ni 
bai is two doubled, or 4, Sam bai, is three doubled or G, or 2 times 1 , 
2 times 2, and 2 times 3. 

Still another method of expressing reduplication, is to add the original 
Japanese numeral to e [~^y Chinese Ijr], which signifies superaddition 
Thus, H'to e means a single one; F'tae, twofold. Mi e, threefold. 
Yo e, fourfold. &c. Ya e, eightfold, has come to beused indefinitely for 
main if old, as, Ya e no hana; A manifold flower, or one whose 
petals overlie each other in many superadditions, like that of the 
flowering cherry, or the double rose. 

Distributive Numbers. 

These are formed by placing Dztsz (')>* »y ) signifying, at a time, 
at once, after the Japanese numerals so far as they extend, and 
after that to the Chinese. Thus H'totsz dztsz signifies, one at a time, 
or one by one. Ftatsz, dztsz, two at a time and so on. H'yaku dztsz, 
a hundred at once. When persons are enumerated, H'tori, Ftari, or Mi- 
tari are used before dztsz, so that, H'tori dztsz, F'tari dztsz &c, signify 
one person at a time. Two persons at a time and so on. The phrase 
ate ni, from the verb ateru, and ni, is also used as synonymous w ith 
dztsz, and may replace it, after the aforesaid numerals. See. 171. 

Iterative Numbers. 

These are either Japanese or Chinese. The Japanese are formed by 
preixing the primitive numerals H'to, F'ta&c to tabi. which signifies, 
a time, and the Chinese by prefixing the Chinese numerals, to the 
word do [,/*•] which means the same as tabi, Thus, we have two 
sets of words, having the same signification. 

Japanese. Chinese. 

H'to tabi, once. Ichi do, once. 

F'ta tabi, twice, Ni do, twice. 

Mi tabi, thrice, San do, thrice. 

Yo tabi, four times, Shi do, four times. 

Itsz tabi, five times, Go do, five times. 

Mu tabi, six times, Rok' do, six times. 

Nana tabi, seven times, Sh'chi do, seven times. 

Ya tabi eight times, Hachi do, eight times. 

Kono tabi, nine times, Ku do, nine times. 

To tabi, ten times, Jiu do, ten times. 

Jiu ichi tabi, eleven times, Jiu ichi do, eleven times 6fc. 
It will be observed that Chinese numerals are used even before 
tabi, for numbers higher than 10. 



:mai: xlv 

•i limn l»un ¥#J 

i Sam I'U DO iehi i.e. one oj tin 

9U I'U no ichi, / r Jiu [obi bn no ni, 

. M idii, v | f ll'xaku )<u 00 ichi 

I Hocbi bo no iohi, ,fi$j lobi min ba no icbi 

•fa Jiu buno iehi. tt!** * ( ' m ni:in '" l ^° san - 

In all fractional . onipator prooodoo the portiele 

DO (J), and the numerator follows it. 

Nl mu:\ti\ »'• Aim 1.1 k! 

The Jt] ::iin«»n with other Asiatics, especially the 

Chinese, make use of certain auxiliary words, in the enumeration of 
concrete objects, which form a port Of the numerical expression of 
tftOMObJootO. By ibjOM auxiliaries, objects are divide. 1 into classes, 
rdini to their external appearance BoflM of the auxiliaries are 
used solely for such and bject, and others are applied to the 

names of a large numl>er. Usage regulates their application and 
it does not admit of any poM rident thai this is a 

'apauese language and not borrowed from China, 
because, though the Chinese nunc uliarics are most com- 

monly used, yet th» | ,'anesc wcrds for the same. These aux- 

iliaries, bear a resemblance in meaning, though not in their 
grammatical use, to the English words, piece, and stick, in the 
phrases, A piece of cloth, A stick of tcood. 

These phrases, in Japanese, would be, Tanamono iltan, i.e. Of 
cloth one piece, and Ki ip'pon, i.e. Of trees one root, or a tree, or, a 
stick of wood. In the first, tan is the numerative auxiliary, and in 

the second, pon«=hon. The Chinese equivalent of tan is jjYjj and 

that of pon or hon is, /K. The numerative auxiliaries for various 
classes of objects, must be learned by usage, rather than by rule. 
The following are a few of them, with the specification of their prop- 
er objects. 

Hon, 3£ for things long and slender, as, Fude ip'pon, One pencil. 

H' ki, l/L for quadrupeds, as, Kuma ip'piki, One bear. 

Mai, iv for things thin and flat, as, Tempo ichi mai, One Tempo 

K'yaku, ma] for articles of furniture having feet, as,T'skue ik'k'yaku 

one desk. 

Soo, jtffl for boats and other sailing craft, as, Kobune is'soo, One loat t 

Riu.ipjf foe kernels of grain, as Kerne ichiriu. One kernel oj rice. 



xlvi GBAMMAH 

Tszbu, Jap. Do. as, Morokoshi h'to tszbu, One kernal of com. 

Wa, -Jp] for birds, as Niwatori ichi vva, One jowl. [medicine. 

Zai, 2&|] for a parcel of medicine as, K'szri ichi zai, One packet of 

Tszmami Jap. for a pinch of any thing; as, Tabako h'to tszmami, 

A 'pinch of tobacco. 

Se , ^& for saddles, as, Kura is'se, One saddle, 

Sod, ip: for pairs of screens, as, Bioobu is'soo, A pair of screens. 

Furi, Jap. for a sword as, Katana h'to fun, One sword. 

Kasane, Jap. for suits of clothing, as, Kirui h'to kasane, A suit of 

clothes. 

Ken, j|j-P for houses and shops, as, lye ik'ken, One house. 

Tomai, Jap. for store houses, as, Kura h'to tomai One go down. 

Soku, 51 for all foot gear, as, Tabi is'soku, A pa ir of stockings 

Ma R^j for apartments, as Nedokbroh'to ma, One bedroom. 

Ch'oa, ijM fornorimonoandsedan chairs, as, Norimono itch'oo, One 
norimon. 

Satsz, -jljL for vols, of a book, as, Hon is'satsz, One volume. 
Ch'oo, JjjjJ for tools with handles, as Nokongiri itch'oo, One saw. 
Tszngai, Jap. for pairs of animals, Tori h'totszngai, A pair of birds. 
Rioo, jjjjg' for wheel carriages, as, Kur'ma ichi rioo. One cart. 

J'oo pem for mats, as, Tatami ichi j'oo, One mat. 

Notation of time. 
There are four terms which signify a day, viz. Ka, Hi, Jitsz and 
Nichi. Ka and Hi are purely Japanese. The other two are of 
Chinese origin, being different pronunciations of the same Chinese 
character PI . # These all originally denote the naturalday, or thetime 
from sunrise to sunset. But nichi has been appropriated to the de- 
signation of the civil day, and is so used in Japanese Almanacs 
[Koyomi]. In common parlance, the term Chiu ya (^fe^F/ or 
Hiru-yoru expresses the whole astronomical day. 

*Jitsz is the pronounciation brought from China, about the commencement 
of the Western Tsin dynasty, or A. D. 234. according to the Japanese Chrono- 
logists, and Nichi is a pronounciation of Q imported when Buddhism was intro - 
duced from China, at the close of the Chin dynasty, three centuries latter. 



(MAI xlwi 

- follows, vix. 

1 1 1 1 1 m i ; ■ i • o r K Q re n gata even ituj 
Hi: rite, twilight (tusk. 

Yunb«? or ben, evening. 
Ilini, 01 N "OO/i, "» ifo-l .midnight. 

Ilii /zoo*. Machirti, or mappiru, midday. 

Www Bmgi< afternoon. 

I J is confined to the designation of certain days 

G in-jitsz^T' Fj the first day of the year Sakujitsz yesterday. 

Is'sal, fore yesterday, or Senjitsz a former day, Nichi is 

also used for the same purpose thou _rh not in todays that are 

. as ten Die hi A. Q , to-day 3Iio« nidi IJ£J |_-J to-morrow 

and Mioo DgQ nichi, ^/J^S M day after to-morrow. 

In eouol without reference to their order, the cardinal 

numbers. lohi.ni, San, &c. may be prefixed to michi, for all numbers 

;>l 4, and those in which 4 occurs. Shi VQ nichi |f| are 

to each other, because Shi («4) and shi y}^ death 

the same pronounciation, and to avoid the unpleasent association, 
Vok'ka, i^> used instead of Shi nichi. meaning 4 days. 

Tie • ions of the days of the month are as follows: — 

I. Tszitachi 11. Jiu ochi nichi. 21. Nijiu ochi nichi. 
i. F'ts'ka. 12, Jia ni nichi. Xijiu ni nichi. 

3. Mik ka. 13. Jiu san nichi 23. Nijiu san nichi. 

Yok'ka I 1. Jiu Yok'ka 24. Nijiu yok'ka. 

I tt ka. 15. Jiu go nichi. 25. Nijiu go nichi. 

6. Muika. 16, Jiu roku nichi. 26. Nijiu roku nichi. 

7. Nano ka. 17. Jiu srTchi nichi. 27. Nijiu sh'chi nichi. 

8. Yo6 ka. 18. Jiu hachi nichi. 28. Nijiu hachi nichi. 

9. Kokonoka.19. Jiu Ira nichi. 29. Nijiu ku nichi. 
10. TVka 20. Hats'ka. 30. Misoka. 

Tszitachi signifies, the moon's rising, or the first of the new moon, 
Inisoka, is compouneded of Mi (3) So (10) and ka (a day), i. e. 30th 
day. Flatsz in hats'ka=20. 

Substituting Ichi nichi, for Tszitachi, San jiu nichi for misoka, in 
the table above, the same terms are used as cardinal numbers, in 
counting days. 

With the same substitutions, they become ordinal numbers, by 

adjoining the word me H toka or nichi. e.g. Nano ka me wa 
vaszmibi dc iiozariinas*. The seventh day i.« a day of re=t. Muika 



Xlvi'li GUAMMAR 

me ni deki nngarimash'ta. He finish it on the 5th day (from a given 
date.) /. e. He finished it in seven days. 

Hours. 

The civil day is divided into 12 portions, from midnight to mid- 
night. # 

There are two methods of naming the 12 divisions (hours) of 
the day. The first is identical with the Chinese method, and was 
probably introduced into Japan at the same time with Chinese letters. 
According to this, the hours are called after the 12 signs of the Zodiac. 
In the second method, the hours are numbered, not forward from 
1 to 12. but singularly enough, in retrogression from 9 to 4. which 
being repeated gives twice six, or twelve hours for the day. Both 
these modes of counting the hours are in use among the common peo- 
ple, but the introduction of watches into Japan induces those who carry 
them to prefer the numbers, to the names of the signs of the zodiac. 

When the names of the zodiacal signs are used to designate hours, 
the 12th part ofa day is called a Koku, but when numbers are used 
it is called a .Doki, 

The two modes of naming the hours of the day, may be presented 
as follows: — 
1st hour. Ne no koku, The hour of the rat. Kokonotsz do- 
ki, or 9th. hour, i.e. 10. P. M. to 12. M. 
2nd hour. Ushi no koku, The hour of the bull. Yatsz doki.or 

8th, hour, i.e. 12 M. to 2. A. M. 
3rd hour. Tom no koku. The hour of the tiger. Nanatsz doki, 

or 7th, hour, i.e. 2. A. M. to 4. A. M. 
4th hour. U no koku. The hour of the hare. Mutsz doki, or 

6th hour, i.e. 4. A. M. to 6. A. M. 
5th hour. Tatsz no koku. The hour of the dragon. Itsztsz doki, 

or 5th, hour, i.e. 6. A. M. to 8. A. M. 
6th hour. Mi no koku. The hour of the serpent. Yotsz doki, or 

4th. hour, i.e. 8. A. M. to 10. A. M. 
7th hour. M'ma np koku. The hour of the horse. Kokonotsz do- 
ki, or 9th hour, i.e. 10. A. M. to 12. Noon. 
8th hour. Hitszji no koku. The hour ofthegoat. Yatsz doki, or 

8th hour, i.e. 12 M. to 2 P. M. 
9th hour. Saru no koku. The hour of the monkey. Nanatsz doki, 

or 7th hour, i.e. 2. P. M. to 4. P. M. 
10th hour. Tori no koku. The hour of the cock. Mutsz doki, or 

6th hour, i.e. 4 P. M. to 6. P. M. 
1 lth hour. Ina no koku. The hour of the dog. Itsztsz doki, or 

5th hour, i.e. 6. P. M. to 8. P. M. 
12th honr. I no koku. The hour of the boar. Yotsz doki, or 

4th hour, i.e. 8 P. M. to 10 P. M. 



peao boon are bin giTen, to show what 
thcv would Km if the bowi of the istr nueeJ day wnv ofeqnaJ length. 

' tin- contrary, for tin* porpOM 

civil lilV ; of diminution «»t* thena* 

tiii:.i Donee there are bat two dnya 

in tli' tboeo at the eqninoxet in which the boon of the day 

and nml or in which they coincide with the boon 

neneae aln tronomicaJ day is divided 

into 100 kokn Vj|I or minnto parte, and thus a k«»ku is eqna] to 

inn tea and » i rhe kokn it again anbdirided into 100 

that ■ ban b s and ,',.' 

the length of each day hi kokn and halveaof 
k<>kn -ural day . and natural night are each diridcd 

into6 doki, the do'ti of a ■omater'aday nraal be much longer than 

mo rice reran, The practice i* 

to call mii, i » M tea doki or 6 o' oloek, or more odmmonly Ake nm- 

hour and raneel knre tnntaa, or tin- darkening 

ii in Japaneae clocka are made s<> as to be set two or three 

nth. in or ofthedaj and d ding 

to this arrangement 

Km mi : ■ \\i' Vn 

The Japaiu-M' nainc tor a month is ts'ki, Lit. moon, ami the 

Ohmetw ^,ai pr on ooj n \gatsz. Themonthaof aypar 

in their order are named as foUowK — 

-hoongatsz. Chinraelf p\ . 7th. ShVhi ngatsz. 4^ f] 

2nd. Ni Ngatsz. ~ J j • 8th, Hachi ngatsz. SK>^\ 

3rd. Baa V Zl^J Wl * K^ngatea. ~f\s}^ 

4th. Shi Ngataa. |/L|"^J ,10th. Jiu ngataa. -4- £J 

6th. (Jo Ngataa Jj J 1 ] 11th. Jin ichi ngatsz. -I— — EJ 

6th, Roku Ngatsz. y^ /^J.12th. Jiuui ngatsz. -4^ ' ' ; H 

An intercalary month takes the numerical part of its name from 
the month immediately preceding. Thus in 1862 there was an in- 
tercalary Sth month of 30 days, immediately after the regular 8th 
month of 29 days. The general name for intercalary months is 
I'rudzki, from Uru, J ra, supernumerary, and ts'ki, a moon or month. 
The intercalary month of 1862 waa called uru hachi ngatsz. 



1 lil'.AMMAk [^-~- 

Mouths are enumerated by means of the Japanese cardinal num- 
bers before the Japanese word ts'ki, as far as the 10th month, or if 
the Chinese name for 2 month is used this Chinese numerals must be 
used before it, and its pronunciation then is ngetsz, not ngatsz. e.g. 

H'to tski, Ichi ngetsz, or Ik ka /rv ngetsz, One month. 
F'ta ts'ki, Ni ngetsz, or Ni ka „ ngetsz, Two months. 
Mi ts'ki, San ngetsz, or Sao ka „ ngetsz, Three months. 
Yo ts'ki, Shi ngetsz, or Shi ka ,, ngetsz, Four months. 
Itsz ts'ki. Go ngetsz, or Go ka ,, ngetsz, Five months. 
Mu ts'ki, Rok ngetsz, or Kok ka ., ngetsz, Six months. 
Nana ts'ki Sh'chi ngetsz. or Sh'chi ka ,, ngetsz, Seven mouths. 
Ya ts'ki, Hachi ngetsz. or Hak' ka ., ngetsa;, Eight months. 
Kokono ts'ki,Ku ngetsz, or Ku ka ,, ngetsz, Nine months. 
To ts'ki, Jiu ngetsz, or Jik' ka „ ngetsz, Ten months.- 

• Jiu ichi ngetsz,or Jiu ik' ka „ ngetsz, Eleven months. 

■ — Jiu ni ngetsz, or Jiu ni ka „ ngetsz, Twelve months. &c. 

Years are enumerated by prefixing the Chinese cardinal numbers 
to the Chinese word Nen, (a year), or the Japanese numerals to the 
Japanese word toshi, (year), for any number not exceeding ten, after 
which the Chinese numbers must be used, except, (as in the enume- 
ration of days) where the number four occurs, when yo takes the 
place of shi (JZ5J 4,) even before the Chinese Nen. This deserves to 
be noted as an exception to the general rule that Chinese numerals 
are used with Chinese nouns, and Japanese numerals with Japanese 
nouns. Thus, Yo toshi, and Yo nen are both used for 4 Years. 

The term me % Ffl is also employed after toshi and nen, to convert 

the numerals that immediately precede them into ordinal numbers. 
It is also used for the same purpose, after ts'ki and ngetsz. e.g. Kom- 
modoru Periuri Nippon e mairimaslrta yori, jiu nen me ni narimas'. 
It is the tenth year since Commodare Perry came to Japan. Jiu ni 
ngetsz me wa toshi no owari de gozarimas'. The twelfth month is 
the end of the year. Yo ts'ki me ni kairimash'oo. He will return 
in the fourth month (from a given date). 

Sec. XXVII Adverbs. 

Adverbs are either primitive or compound, and may be arranged 
etymologically under the following classes. 

1 Primitive adverbs, such as, Ma more, or truly, verily; Kioo to-day. 

2. Adverbs ending in Ku, derived from adjectives, as Hayaku, from 
Haya. root of the adjective Hayai; early. 

8. Compounds of verbal roots, as Tachi-machi, lit. standing and wait- 
ing, i.c, instantly, at once. 



IIMAI li 

I i ipouHiis of I do. lit. rxa<t nica> 

I xrnmU of verbal rooU and aov I lent inter 

i pronoun end postposition, in, A.to de; 
aften -it thai rate; Sokode, thereupon. 

,<>hh({* of an adverb ami li lemo- 

ii i negative following; no la 

n1 the postposition fu',u,odki ni, greatly. 

nd noun*, as. Knli-niclii, 
j . lit. tlii- ■ 
1<>. {nmputunis ,,J several parf* of SB* '" n «li nm. ;it 

how man j net or again, Doode* tnwhal 

111:1111 >• I » r. 

11.' 9 In a dired or pointed manner 

domet e, osrtaJnly, or positively, Bajhnete, at Brat, Ka.tr. = kakite, 

in writing, i.e. ni»t orally. the abore compounds are 

rbial phrases, bul are none the lem adverbi in their office, and 

l>\ an English adverb. It may aaaiat the 

learner to adopt the usual division bi into classes, according 

t<» the nature of the modification which they *l*-ii< »t«*. and give a list 

of wiiir of each. Tlii> division ia the logical one, in contradistinction 

to thai ^i\ 

1 / Uefi .or those which aiurwer to the question When? 

• •rll 

a. ' I ma. n«»w. Tadaiiua. just BOW. Mada. still. 

1 son nirhi. t.» .la\. Tschi niaclii. instantly, Ssngn oi, imme- 
diately. 

b. Of past time. Saku jitss, yesterday Ifohaya, already. Saki 

bodO; just now M Aoshi saki ni. a littl«- while ago. Ima made, 

1 rai, hitherto, or heretofore Kara, and yori, since. I-zen, Ato, 
Saki. and Mac 01 Mai, ago. Mukashi, in former times, Saku nen, 
last vear. Saku DgetSS, last month. 

•/time to come. Kore kara, henceforth, Kono-i-ngo, here- 
after. Ots'kr. by and by. Hayaku, soon. Aah'ta, Mioo-niehi, to- 
morrow. Mi<n' liiro-uichi. and Asatte, day after to-morrow. Akuru 
toshi. Mioo-nen. Kai-ntn. next year. Rai ngetsz next month. Mioo- 
asa, to-morrow morning. MioG-ban, to-morrow evening. Miod-nichi 
no hiru. to-morrow noon. 

d. Of relative time. Hayaku, early. Osoku, late. Atsde, after- 
wards. Mai ni, before. Uebini, whilst, Sono toki, then. Toki, when. 

e. Of absolute lime. Ttszdemo, always. Tszni. (with a negative 
verb,) never. 

2 A dver bs of place, answering to the question. Where? Whither? 
Whence? Asoko. or As'ko, there, or yonder. As"ko e. thither. 



Hi GRAMMAR [$28. 

As'ko kara thence. Achi, Achira, there. Aehi e, or Achira c, thither. 
A (hi kara, or Achira kara, thence. Kochi, Koch int. here. Kokoni, 
and kokode, here. Kochi e, Kochira e, Kokoe, hither. Koko kara, 
Kochi kara, Kochira kara, hence. Aru tokoro ni, .somewhere. Uchi 
ni. in. Sotoni, out. Doko-demo, wherever. Hoka e, Yoso e, away. 
Sh'osh J o, every where. Koko no uclii ni, hereabout. t T e e, upward, 
►Sh'ta e, downward. Mawari ni, around Kosh'ko ni, there. 

il. Adverbs of number, answering to the question, How often? H'to 
tabi, and Ichido, once. F'ta tabo and ni do, twice. Nitabi, and san do, 
thrice, &c. Mare ni, seldom. Tamasaka ni, rarely. Kasanete, andmata, 
or F'ta tabi, again. 

4. Adverbs of deyrec, or those which answer to the question, How 
much? Hanahada, very, or very much. Amari, too, too much, ex- 
cessively Bakari, only, and about i.e. more or less. Tooku, far. 
Takaku, high. Slrkuku, low. Tada-bakari, merely. Chitto, some- 
what. Itatte, very, extremely. Ooki ni, much, greatly. Mattaku 
entirely. Taingai, and Taitei, generally. Ara ara, in the main. i.e. 
not minutely, or particularly. No koradz, without exception, Yoo- 
yooto scarcely, with difficulty. Fusoku ni, insufficiently. Kotongo- 
toku, altogether. Soro-soro to, liesurely, moderately. 

5. Adverbs of manner, answering to the question, How? 

a. Of quality. Yoku or yorosh'ku, well,Waruu, or Waruku, badly 
Jiki ni, quickly. Shidzkani, slowly. Hayaku fast. Yooi ni or yas'- 
ku, easily. Ukengatte, willingly. Ayamatte, accidentally, or by 
mistake. Kuwashiku, minutely, particularly. Sassoku, directly. 
Yawarakani soft. 

b. Of Affirmation. Hai, yes. Tash'ka ni, surely. Kes'hte, posi- 
tively. Makoto ni, truly, really, Yangate, of course. Ketszj'oo 
sh'te, doubtless, Ukengai nashi ni, without doubt. Mochiron. un- 
questionably. 

c. Of Negation. Iiye, no. In some regions Iiya, no. Fu (Chinese 

X not, the first element in Chinese negative compounds, as Fusoku, 

Chinese X nL not enough. The termination of negative verbs, 

nu, and dz. 

d. Of doubt Ookata, probably, perhaps. Taingai on the whole, 
probably. Satewa, if so, in that case. 

Sec. XXVIII. Postpositions. 

These are the same in nature and office as prepositions in other 
languages, but as they are always placed after the words to which 
they relate, we call them postpositions. This is merely an external 
definition, and though so far correct, it does not indicate their inter- 
nal nature. Postpositions are from words which express only the 






in %MM \C 



liii 



nal to Uie banian mind. 
The externa] relatione being phyiaieaJ are obrioni t<> the eeneea. but 
tin- internal belong to tin- province of the intellect. Both are bow- 

became tin- mind rappojeea aeloae 

reeeuil>l:iiM ••• be t ween the external and the in teUeetnal world Henee 

it is thai -? part, expreai eonalrj well the 

nal or phjaical, and the internal <t intellectual rolationi ofthinga 

Tpho iranher of noaefnan relatione ia alaeoet infinite, and \et thej ar« • 

all aa^prnaeed l.v eotnparatiral j i rerj email nam1»n of pnatpoaitionr 

withoal eanftanon or nuataka In aoaaelangona^relaakMniarealao 

expreened bj eaaea. Tim language whieb baa Boeaana^mnat hare more 

poatpoeitiona, The Japeneee lanj on this ac- 

i ridi in poetpoaitiona. They are either etntple and primitive or 

poand and derirod Thoee ofmoai freqnenl oo ear r anee in speech, 

Jb \ linirli greater nwjnber, arc 

• itlur derived ran theae alone, or from rarbal roota,and nownawith 

the addition of monoeyllabie poetpoeitione. A few arc given here, 

aaaaad <-iaaaea. 

1 Snajaii po* t posit 



Ni. li : in and 

into. 

Of the dative r 
Ni. I I ' on. 

Ni. Bj ; of the aj 

. Of With; instru 

mental 
Da. (Hj indei of the relation of the 

material to the thing made. 
To. With; of accompaniment. 

r"; index of tne genitive re 
lation. 



towarda; 



after 



or 
rerba of motion. 

At; denoting temporary 

1'iMin: or after, of time or 

pl:i 

Yori. From, or Since; of place or 
time. 

Motte. With; instrumental ger- 
undive from the verbal root, 
moehi, to take. 

Made. Till, or until. 



2. Compound or dtrived postposition*. 



Nite. At, or in. Gerundive from 
ni r.r. to be in„ De denoting 
the same local relation ih from 
nete, by contraction. 

Ue ni. Upon, Above, from Ue, the 
upper side, and ni, on. 

Sh : ta ni. Under, Beneath, from 
Sh'ta, the bottom, and ni, at 

Ushiro ni. Behind, from Uahiro. 



the rear, and ni, in. 
Soba ni. Beside, from Soba, the 

side, and ni, at. 
Mae or Mai. Before, of place or 

time; from ma, the eye, ande 

the direction. 
Omote ni. Before, In front of; from 

Omote. the face or front, and 



liv 



ORAMMAR 



m. 



Hoka ni. Bosides. from Hoka.jUehi ni, Within, 
outside of some limit, and, and ni. in. 



T chi, interior 
Sote, exterior, 



Soto ni. Without 

and ni. 
Nochi ni. After, of time, from 

noehi, Chinese 7;g . and ni, 

in.- Always of the future. 

Tootte. Through. Gerundive from 
Toori. v.r. to go through. 

Tsz. Through. Chinese j|| 

Mawari ni, Around, from Mawari, 
v.r. to go round about, and ni, 

Yo.ko ni. Across. Athwart; from 
Yoko. a transverse position 
or direction and ni, in. 

Naka ni. In the midst of. Among. 
• Into; from Naka. middle, 
and ni. 

Uehi ni. Among. Amongst. 

Nokosh'te. Except , Gerundive, 
from Nokoshi, v.r. to leave out. 



ni. in. 
Aida ni. Between; from Aida, an 

interval of space or time and 

ni, in. 
Mukoo ni. Beyond; from Mukoo, 
the opposite quarter, and ni, in 
Konata ni. This side of; from Ko- 

no kata and ni, on this side. 
Temai, or Teniae ni. This side of; 

from Te, hand, and mae. be- 
fore. 
Tame ni. For, (expressing purpose 

or end,) For the sake of, from 

tame a purpose, or final cause. 

and ni. 
Kawari ni. Instead of; from kawa- 
• ri v.r. to exchange, and ni,in. 
Tonari. Near, Next to; properly 

an adj. as are near and next 

in English. 

Sec. XXIX. Conjunctions. 
Conjunctions properly speaking connect only propositions. Those 
particles which merely connect words, are prepositions or postpositions, 
as, Two and two are four, all but one died. Of two connected pro- 
positions, one is either independent of the other, or forms an integral 
part of the same. In the former case the conjunction is called coor- 
dinative. In the latter, subordinative. It is not intended here to 
give more than a few specimens of each class. 

1. Coodi native Conjunctions. 

These express logical relations of thought, and the logical relations 
between independent thoughts can only be those of causility and 
antithesis. Hence there are but three kinds of coordinative con- 
junctions, viz. copulative, adversative, and causal. 

1 Copulative conjunctions. And, both- and, neither-nor. 

The Japanese puts to ( ]- ) where we use and. to connect two nouns 
that are the complex subject of a single verb, forming a sentence which 
is capable of resolution into two propositions. To ( \ ) conveys the 
idea of association, or companionship in this ease, nearly or quite as 
much as when it is a postposition meaning with. e.g. See 718. Shishi 
to torawa &c. Lions and tiger." &e. 

To ( ]• ) repeated is also used as a copulative conjunction (if and'm such 
a case may be so called) when it connects the two subjects of the same 



rerb, in tl Kono lit" fo, ano htofo, 

that, are brothers. Mo (£,) 

mm/, when there arc two 

firuiative M i mo yoroshi-i, koO-ki mo 

Both 1 .iixl the flovOT IN good. BOTfl tlir 

i. < m the other hand, it the \ orb or i orba 
follow fc '" N ' pgnifiee 

memoehj we j oO-ngofi wi 

\ • be | r can escape «l 

When th- i- I'm .-I aid two predicative verba 

the hi conjunction ina) be obviated, by putting 

tin- first rerb into the gerundive form, ending in te, de or sh'te. Hut 

do that cither te, sh'te, or de ii ■ conjunction 

STedo e in. . mimash'ts. He went to fedo 

und it. This construction <!<•- 

tteution. 

•j. ./.' '■/■».■ ■ ., ..... But, but yet, nevertheless, n twith- 

St.lllM 

318. Arc wa 

kokoro-daashi wa yoroshi-i nga» machingoota. Hemeani well (lit, 

hie intention was good,) but lie was mistaken See also, i!7!>. and 

Dialogs 1 A I Keredotno and baredomo Hut. Nevertheless. 

These are con fthe verba keri and Nari, but need an 

eonjunetions in this sen* B uud Dialogue EI. F. 22) and 

/". •_'!. The elliptical N - i,,. j> innocent, would be 

.in" tflsmi ii lt:i nai, 

The eoncossive form of tb< rafficient, without a conjunction, 

■ the sdvei ie, for which we use though, although, 

nevertheless, and notwithstanding, $.g, Daehofl wa bane nga aredo* 

mo, tobn tekom. The ustrioh has wings, but it cannot fly. 

: withstanding the ostrich has wing.- it cannot By. 

if'tmeiim*. Aruiwa (or, or else) Hi wo moyasz 
i i wa, taking! arujwa asmiwa t.^kaimas'. Wc use kindling-wood or 
else charcoal in Lighting a lire. Tatoe wo motte, aruiwa otoshi-bana- 
shi wo itaah'tedbc. By means of illustrations, or by making jokes, &c. 
Ka repeated, signifies <>r. as in the double question, Is it high water 
or low? Michi shiwo ka, h'ki shiwo ka? In an assertion, it would 
signify either-or, or whether or; but then Ka must not conclude the 
sentence. Hiru ka. kini sk'oshi mawatta ka to omou, I think it is 
cither noon, or a little after noon. Michi shiwo ka, h'ki shiwo ka to 
Inkimash'ta. He inquired whether it was high water or low. O^kata 
repeated may have the meaning of or, See. VA*. 
4. Cau-idl Conjunctions 
ft. <'<tu*nticr Conjunctions. Kara following the member of the sen- 
tence which assigns the cause. See. 25. li<3. 073. Yue and yue ni 



hi OKAM.MAK I $•-'•' 

andNiyottc, all signifying because, or for, arc used for the same pur 
pose, and in the same position. 

b. Illative Conjunctions, of such as precede the member whieh ex- 
presses an effect or consequence, e.g. Then, therefore, e onset piently, 
hence, thereupon, &c. 

Sooslrte kara. Sore da kara, Then. Kore ni yotte, Sore ni yotte, 
on this account or on that. Kono yueni sore yuc ni, consequently. 
Sore kara, therefore, Sokode, thereupon. These arc adverbial phrases, 
used as conjunctives. 

II. S'UBORMNATIYE CONJUNCTIONS. 

These introduce a clause or proposition as a member or factor 
(subject, attribute, object) of another proposition. They are, as it 
were, the inflections of the subordinate proposition, shewing its rela- 
tion to the main proposition. 

1. Those which merely introduce the subordinate proposition, ex- 
pressing an abstract idea To ( \ ) that. Anoh'towa shinimash'ta to. 
( Y ), omoimas'. I think that he is dead. ■'■ 

Ka, whether, anolrto wafune ni norimash'te itta ha mo shirimaseir. 
I do not know whether he went by ship. Ka, if. Ano h'to wa shini 
wa, Shinai ha to, kikimash'ta. I asked if he was dead. In the last ex- 
ample to ( y ) after 1^», is an appositive particle, showing that all the 
words which precede it, are the complement of kikimash'ta (=asked) 
and that they conjointly are explanatory of, and in apposition with 
some word understood meaning question, so that the sentence in full 
woidd be, I asked (the question) if he was dead. 

"Wherever the words of another are quoted, or one's own arc 
repeated by way of narration, to ( Y ) is placed after the quotation, 
or the words repeated, in the same way as above, and for the same 
purpose. 

This is a particle of frequent recurrence whether in the oral or 
written language, and in often the most difficult to understand. 

2 Subordmative conjunction^ of time, corresponding to the En- 
glish words, when, while or whilst, before, after, till, or until, 
since, &c. 

Toki, when ; is a noun meaning time, used as a conjunction. Ye- 
doe yukimash'ta toki, llokungo no kawa ni midz nga niashimash'ta. 
When I went to Yedo, the waters in the river llokungo were high. 
Kara, after a gerundive signifies after, or when. Tabete kara, yuki- 
mash'ta. He went after eating, or when he had eaten. 

Uchi ni, Whilst. Yedo ni orimash'ta uchi ni, kaji nga arimash'ta. 
There was a conflagration, whilst I was in Yedo. 

Mai ni, before. Watak'shi wa mairanu inai ni. shingoto wo sh'te 
shimaimash'oo. I shall finish my business before I return. 

Made, until. Gai koku no h'to wa koko e mairimas made. wa. 



lvii 

>hama i«-hi men ni. no da marimafeVtft. Tntil foreigner! ohm 

h<n\ Yokohama w:i* ;ill :■ I 

] M -ii't«- \ < • r i . aim tokoro wa hirakemash'ta. 

That plaM has bceu I une. 

rdmctim u tj />/"<r, meaning where, whither, 

\\h« I 

Anat i no alumni f$bm I ikW bm mala aa ) ko ni ihinima- 

tlion diaH I will di< Bared , ia the oonjone- 

tiv<- phrase, and as'ko ni=tli Aire Dokoe, whither. 

■ u. 1 do not know whither In- has gone. 
kara. uhenee. I>okokara kima.-h ta ka, >hiriinasen\ I know not 

avIi.i th mo following, aigninea v kt nwr, Doko 

c okimash'tc mo, kaiuaimaseini. It is immaterial where J00 put it. 
I itive conjunction* of ni'iiun >\ meaning; as, as if, so that. 

Toori ni. aft Anata no os'shiarti tOOri ni, itashimash'ta. I have 
as \uu dim-ted. XoO ni As it". Uiooki no yo6 ni mien 
»oks as if ho were siek. Y<>o ni may also signify so that. H 
tobito no oaoreru JOO ni okonaima>h'ta. He behaved so that people 

l of bin. 

I ^junctions of camahtu, meaning; beeanae, since, 
whereas fl 

\ Of the actual came. Karn, because, OX whereas. Hofbi wa 
■ o toOi kara. chii>aku iniemas". The stars appear small, because 
they art* very di>tant. 

15. Of the 'tdversatice came, or concession This is expressed by 
the I • i >nn of the verh. in DM or doino. 

Of the final cau*$ or purpose . Tame ni, that. Yakunan wo 
nongareru tame in, kimono wo kaete kimashta. lie changed his 
that he Blight escape frofli CUU 
D. <\f the po**ibh cause, denoted by; if, unless, except. Moshi, 
with an affirmative verh following it, ia if; with a negative verb, 
unless, except. Moahj sono fune nga kono kuni e ts'ku nara, ooki 
ni kanemooke wo itashimas". It that ship reaches this country 1 
shall make a great deal of money. Moshi naru take hayaku kaira- 
nai to. watak'shi nga shimpai itashimas'. If you do not come back 
'ii as possible I shall be anxious. 
<"), Suhordinative conjunction* of intensity. As — as, then, and the, 
repeated before the comparative degree of adjectives. 

To onaji yoo na, as — as. Ano h'towa chichi to onaji yoona ka- 
nemochi de gozarimas'. He is a* rich as his father. Yori, than. 
Ano deabi wa sono shish'oo yori sai nga gozarimas. That pupil has 
more natural talent than his teacher. Odi hodoyoi. Themore, the better. 
Sec. XXX. Interjections. 
A few, the most common in speech are given below. Aa ! Ah ! 
Alas! Expressive of sorrow or displeasure, as; Aa, soo itte wa 



lviil (illAMMAli §>l.] 

waruil Ah! you ought not to say so ! Ee! Expressive of anger 
as, Ee, sore wa ikenai ! That never will do ! 

Sate-sate. Expressive of admiration or regret, like the English 
! or Oh ! as, Sate-sate komatta ame ! what a disagreeable 
rain ! 

Satemo sateino, similar to the preceding, as ; Satemo satemo ha- 
nga itai ! Oh ! How my tooth aches ! Yare-yare , expressive of sur- 
prise, as, Yare-yare. ano h'towa shinimash'ta ka ! Indeed ! He is 
dead ! The final word ka, is a contraction of cana, alas ! much used 
in books, not a note of interrogation, Naru hodo ! This is an ex- 
clamation often heard in conversation. And though difficult to analyze 
it seems to be nearly equivalent to our Ah ! Indeed! expressive at 
once of surprise, and satisfaction, as if the remark that drew it forth 
corresponded to what might have been expected. Show a Japanese 
some philosophical instrument and he will answer Naru hodo ! to 
every explanation you may give of the apparatus. Literally the 
phrase would seem to mean, As much as possible. 

CHAPTER II. 
SYNTAX. 

The first chapter has occupied so much more space than was an- 
ticipated at the outset, that it will be impossible, without unwarran- 
tably increasing the size of this volume, to treat extensively of the 
subject of syntax. The structure and use of the several parts of 
speech,having been discussed, it remains now to speak very briefly 
of the structure of sentences. 

Sec. I. Simple Propositions. 

The most general rule for the construction of a simple proposition, 
in the Japanese language, is, to place the subject at the beginnig 
and the verb at the end of the sentence. The other words, by which 
it may be expanded, follow the rule, that every modifying word, 
must stand immediately before the word which it modifies. 

Thus, an attributive adjective stands before the noun to which it 
belongs, and a predicate adjective before the copula; a noun in an 
oblique case, before the postposition that marks its relation to some 
other word : an adverb, before the verb or adjective which it modi- 
fies: and both the direct and indirect complement of a verb, stand 
before the verb, as being adjuncts that modify its meaning. 
Sec. II. Compound Subordinative Propostiions. 

The simple proposition may be taken as the model on which com- 
pound subordinative propositions are formed, for the subordinate pro- 
position, stands in a grammatical relation to the leading proposition, 



$-.\ Its 

• it is a 11. yu tactical oouibina 

There in bofl tiirot- kinds of aubordinate propositions. 

L £ 

1 1. Ai'.iK. n\ y. Pwj 
III \ LAI PftOPOilTIOXB, 

These reap oovpy the place, and follow the construction 

of tin- |»art> of spee. !i after which they are severally named. 

I. Si »i- ' cither, the subject, the com- 
plex Mi, the Mippleiiieutan ohji rt. tlir.ju« led sentiment. or 

tin- quoted uaeetiou, and in each of these cases, toe substantive j»r« i 
: «• tin- leading i 

se 1 Sul : OnuU no in UttTQ ini, DOttOBO do 

gOtnriiiKis What i/oii a*Jf, II «|uitc right 

Ca iplfiniitta! y object, WatoJfiki no §m eWt w* yarcA 

1 will give, ff* wuc/* <f* I hair, or vfcal / toe*. 
Caae 3. The m aoeed thought or wntimfait Sou <k ant tn, hanaahi- 

ma>h 1 1 ll< said that it iras so. 

Can- I. Tin- .ju • % !#, kikiniii.^li t.i Beaaked 

/ Heaefc I < it wan *o? Remark. Tin- particle to (J.) 

which marks a BOOted thought, assertion. <>r question, is always fol- 
low. .1 L\ a verb of tailing, thinkn !/» Of JNTtf* Itinff and the 

like, iii the leading propoeition. 

II. Adjkctivj r those which occupy the place and 
follow the eonetrmction of an a<lje»tive. In English, this propoeition 

in its full form, is introduced by a relative proiionn, re ferrin g to a 
noun, the subject of the leading j>roj.osition, as, The mint, who told 
me, is dead. The proposition, who Mi I S, modifies the Bnbjeet (man) 

of the loading propoe i tion, like an adjective. Adjective propositions 

in English, and other languages that have relative pronouns, arise 
from an attributive participial or verbal adjective, developed to a pro- 
position Thus, the npeaking man is equivalent to the mm who speak*. 
\- the .lapanoe has no relative pronouns, to serve as conjunctives, 
the participial mode of speaking, is universally adopted.where we use 
the developed adjective proposition. The adjective proposition is 
employed, as follows; riz: — 

First, to modify the subject of the leading proposition, and there- 
fore precedes it e.g. Obzaka ni ovinias ukindo tea, kane-mochi de go- 
zarimas*. The merchants, who live in Ouzaha are rich men. Akire- 
do is the subject, and Oozaka, no orimas', the adjective proposition 
modifying it. 

Secondly, to modify the complementary object, in which case it 
immediately precedes the object, eg. Oyaji no tometa Jcanewo, mina 
ts'kai-ts'kushimash'ta. He has spent all the money that h is father 
'ixrumvlatcd. 



IX tJitAHMAit 

Thirdly, to modify the supplementary object, which it likewise 
precedes, e.g. Shin-ki ni-tatta uchi ni szmatte orimas'. He is living 
in the house [snip, obj.] which he has newly built. 

III. Adverbial Propositions. They are so called because they 
modify the verb of the leading proposition, and they arise from 
adverbs, or adverbial phrases, developed to propositions. Thus from 
suddenly, is developed before he was aware, and from during life, while 
I live. Adverbial propositions express the modification of place, time, 
manner, cause, and intensity and must precede the leading proposition. 

1. Adverbial propositions of place. Anata no orimas tokoro ni, 
watak'shi mo orimash'oo. Where you. lice I will live. 

2. Adverbial propositions of time. See. 1179, In the longer form 
of the sentence, the word toki, [time] stands at the end of the adver- 
bial proposition. In the shorter form, the verb of the adverbial 
proposition, shimattara, is in the conjunctive mode, fut. tense, and no 
other word denoting time is required. 

3. Adverbial propositions of manner. WataV shi no iu tobri ni. 
korewo shiro. Do this, as 1 tell you. Soku shi-szruyoo ni, butta. He 
struck [him], so that he died immediately. 

4. Adverbial propositions of the cause, introduced in English 
by, as, because, since, if, unless, although. Tangai ni nakama-doshi 
nareba, men-men kokoro-dzashi wo hanash'ta. As they ivere of the 
same mind, they told each other their intention. (Said of two frogs 
who met on a journey). Here the verb nareba, the conju nctive 
mode of nari, to be, supplies the place of a conjunction, and accord- 
ing to its nature express the adverbial sense. See. Chap. I. §. 5. 
The same mode, would also be used, where since, introduces an ad- 
verbial proposition in English. 

The Actual cause Ano hHo wa nibui Icara, Oshietemo tozi ni h'to 
ni naru mai. He will never be a man, by teaching, for he is so 
stupid. 

The. possible cause. Sod nas'te kudasa.reba. aringatoo gozarimas'. 
,If you will kindly do so, I shall be much obliged. See. Dialogue. I. 
No. 21. The word kudasareba, in the text, ought to be kudasaraba, 
in the conditional mode. The Japanese, however, constantly, con- 
found the two forms. 

The adversative cause, or concession. KikimashHakeredomo, wa 
karimasenanda, Although I heard, I did not understand it. 

A negative verb in the conditional mode, gives the sense of un- 
less or except; as, Dashimasen' naraba, uri haraimas. If you do 
not take it up, {lit. out) I shall sell it to reimburse myself. See 
Dialogue 1. F. 22. 

5. Adverbial propositions of intensity. Maszmasz kiu-kutsz ni 
natta, sono uede iyoiyo h'to nga ooku narimash'ta. The more they 
were oppressed, the more they multiplied. Ooi hodo yoi. The 



l\i 

Mid 106 
B mirk. '1'iH- adtei sition of manner, cause, m 

is often eharackn/ geruod|l Serb. Thus 

in the common sxpn M Brandies form 

..•In. to take, mi tl lignify lakini?, (the thing), or 

take (the thing) sod (koi) coi I k>kn \\" nonde, iDini- 

mash 'ta, I !•• di ' (in what manner or 

ii. Naahi ngajiku sa'ta* ocni- 

mas'. Th- ripe and falb I becoming 

i ilh off v i - in o kik w i. meiuraku 

'iijimas'. H lomethii t (or extraneous) 

you will experience ■ delusion, oi li yow bear Ate. 

• mliiiLT w ith Mi e of a 

^conditional cm*. . The ger'uadi?Q with wa, often hSi this force, 
see remarks on tl • undive, Chap. L |. 1 

In both the simple snd compound Bnbofdinativn propositions, the 
timversslprinciple of construction leems to be, that all modifiers, 
wlnth.-r words on sub ffldittats propositions, shoajld stand before tl 
which they modify. W M sometimes the case, the subject 

and predicate verb of the leading proposition are >• the 

subject is put at the baginaing and the verb at the end of the com- 
pound proposition, probably for the sake of emphasis. The leading 
verb never changes its place. 

SCO. ' irOUND CooUMWTIVK foiOrOSITIONs. 

The simple rfropositions included in the compound coiirdinative 
proposition, are constructed IB the manner described in the first 
in of this chapter. Coordination is a combining of two distinct 
propositions into one. They still express distinct thoughts. The 
relations of thoughts are logical, and these relations are only those 
of causality and antithesis. The more copulative conbinution ex- 
SBI no relation between the propositions combined, but only a 
common relation, either adversative or causal, to a third proposition, 
Hence it admits of more than two members. The three relations 
in which the parts of a coordinating proposition stand to each 
other are. 

1. The eopvlative, or that in which two assertions are simply 
coupled together, as, The man walked and (he boy ran. 

2. The adversative, or that in which one is opposed to the other, 
as. Granges do not grow in high latitudes, but they do within the 
tropics. 

3. The causal, or that by which we account for one assertion, by 
means of another. 

1. The copulative relation, is in Japanese, expressd by pauses, 



lxii GRAMMAR 

rather than by conjunctions. Thus, Watak'shi wa kukimas', anata 
wa yomimas. I write (and) you read. In this omission of the 
conjunction, the Japanese corroborates the fact that such a combi- 
nation, expresses no logical relation between the two connected as- 
sertions, but is merely a coupling of them together. Inochi wa 
inijikai, sz be ki koto wa ooi. Life is short, and there is much to he 
done,isa closer resemblance of two independent thoughts, while yet, 
they sustain no logical relation to each other. 

The merely copulative combination may consist of two or more 
propositions, all equally emphatic, and the more so, if conjunctions 
are omitted. This combination is looser and more imperfect than 
the antithetic and causal. 

2. The adversative combination: e.g. Mungi wa makadz ni haema- 
senu nga, h'to nga makimas'. Wheat does not grow wild, but men 
plant it. Here the adversative proposition is placed last, while the 
conjunction nga, but, is joined to the end of the other. 

Ts'chi ngahoshii keredomo, te nga kakaru. The soil is desirable, 
but it requires labor. This is a restrictive combination, and the 
same order of propositions is preserved, with keredomo, but, but yet, 
as their connective. 

Lastly, there is the disjunctive combination; e.g. Watak'shi wa 
achira e yukimash'06 ka, aruiwa anata nga kochira e mairimas' 
ka ni itashimash'oo. Either I shall go there, or else you will come 
here. . 

In such a combination the order of propositions is changeable at 
pleasure. 

As might be expected from the nature of coordinate propositions, 
there is far less regularity in their construction, than in compound 
subordinate propositions, because the relation between the member s 
is not grammatical but logical. 



SEN T E N C E S I N E N ( J 1 . 1 S II 

AND 

JAPANESE COLLOQUIAL 



I. A boirknot is easy to untie. 

IIi-/.a o-ri mi mii-s/.-l>u to to-k<> ya-s-r i jo / i-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. Ni-zao-ri ni imi-sz-hu loto-kfl va-s/.-i. 

2. .t ntai *.« ailed 'l"vidti. 

\ - V i Dfft«D€ i •' to-ko-ro wa do-o-za-M to mo-o-shi-ma-s' t 

Do. A-lvi nga-DQ mo de-fa to-ko-ro wa do-o-za-M to i-u. 

Tft if 3- ^ f >v J- a 13 ^ K*«r>M9 

3. -<1 dollar is the fixed price. 

I-chi do-ra Dga ji-o-o ne-da-n de go za-.i-ma-s'. 

„ 14- Y3 if Vy9*ir>f **>)-?* 

Do. I-chi do-ra Dga ji-o-o Me-da-n da. 

Y* K? fiVvyVX*'? 

4. .4 dbt/d neglected grows tcorse and worse. 

Ko-do-Mio \va s'-te-teo-ki-ma-s' toshi-da-i Mi wa-ru-ku na-ri-ma-s', 

Do. Ivo-do-mo wa s'-te-te o-ku toshi-da-i Mi wa-iu-ku na-ru. 

So-re wa do-ua-ta de mo de-ki-ma-s'. 
Do. So-re wa da-re de mo de-ki-ru. 

6 Another vessel has arrived. 

Ho ka no fu-ne nga ts'-ki-ina-sh'-ta 

vj\ft } ??r ft y*~? ^ $ 

Do. Ho-ka no iu-Me M^a tsz-i-ta. 

E 



7. A n6w law was published yesterday. 

Sa-ku ji-tsz shi-n ki ni ha-t-to wo ta-te-ra-rc-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. Sa-ku ji-tsz shi-n ki ni ha-t-to wo ta-te-ra-re-ta. 

8. Any thing icill do. 

INa-ni de mo yo-ro-shi-u go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. Na-ni de mo yo-i. 

^- f fc 3 1 

9. t!?-c ?/ow w*e/Z $ 

Go ki ngen yo-ro-shi-u go za-ri-ma-s' ka? 

Do. Ka-wa-rU ko-to Wa na-i ka? 

ft ^jv 3 y ^^ifj 

\0; Arc you read?/? 

A-na-ta sh'-ta-ku wa yo-ro-shi-u go za ri-ma-s' ka? 

Do. O-ma-e sh'-ta-ku wa i-i ka? 

^^^ ^> an 

1 1 - Jlre your children all at home ? 

A-na-ta no ko-do-mo shi-u wa o u-chi de go za-ri-ma-s' ka? 

Do. O-ma-e no ko-do-mo wa mi-na u-chi ni i-ru ka? 

12. Are you married? (to a superior.) 

Go shi-n-zo wa go za-ri-ma-s' ka? 

3f l^^T t> dttftl^A ft 

Do. O-ma-e ka-mi-sa-n wa a-ri-ma-s' ka? (to an equal ) 

jr^iL ?) * ^ j* i i) ^% ft 

Do. Te-ma-e wa ni-o-o-bo-o nga a-ru ka. (to an inferior.) 

f ~?3L ^ ^VVtf&f? f)V ft 

\3.Are they your oicn? 

^na-ta go ji-bu-n no de go za-ri-ma-s' ka? 

Do. O-ma-e ji-shi-n no ka? 
Jt^S>&lsfS ft 

14. Are you sure of it? 

A-na-ta ta-sh'-ka ni sh'-t-teo i-de na-sa-ri-ma-s'ka? 

?*# Zisft -.^yf^ffy-* ')-?*# 

Do, O-ma-e ta-sh'-ka ni sh'-t-te i-ru ka? 

jr-?^ 2^?i ~is)>7l)Vft 

15. Are you coming back again ? 

A-na-ta ma-ta o i-de na-sa-ri-ma-sh'-o-oka? 

1 9-9^Z-Ki?9-'im ■? isV?ft 



Do. O-ma-e ma-ti Iti n:»->a-ru kat 

jf^s.^9 \** nil 

i ! ,• you at work by the day or by tkt 

• . ■ . wo i ri ni s/-iu ka. ii-k<< a-i ni sz-ni lea 1 

17. v/re potatoes to ret 

ra i mo \va ko ko da ka-wa-re ma s'ka? 

Writ? ft^33 f* a 9 v-r*# 

Do. Ja-n^ata ra i-mo wa ko ko d« kawa it.ru fa 

T**7 ft^32 f # 9 V )l# 

18. ^rr | 

1 la ilx -ka -shi u \va go /..i-ri-iiusc-iui ka? 

Do. I la ji wo shi-ra-nu k i.' 

^V 9 >?* J? 

19. As many as you pi t 

uo-'l/o-ini shi-da-i ni i-kn-tsz de mo. 

Do. No-dzo-mi shi-aa-i ni 1-ku-tM Ui'ino. 

20. ^<s yu reft is a iriaA, </o it, 

.M i-l»t -ta -ki no mi ni na sare-m ash'. 

-? '<£* y -? — ^+VT > 

Do. Ma-l>a-ta ki DO ma ni shi-ro. 

21. As long as you do so you trill nnl get leetf. 

Ana ta mi noo-ko-na-i no na-o-riina se-nu n-chi \va. ya-ma-i vva 

na-o-ri-ma-se-nu. 
Do. O-ma-e mi no o-ko-na-i no na-o-ra-nu u-chi wa, ya-ma-i wa 
na-o-ra-nu. 

*99Z 

82. Ask him; he knows all about it. 

A-no o ka-ta ni o ki-kina-sa-re; yo-ku sh'-t-te o i-de na-sa-re- 

ma-s'. 

Do. A-no h'-to ni ki-ke; yo-ku sh'-t-te i-ru. 

23, ^4^ your leisure. 

O te tsz-ngo-o shi-da-i ni. 

Do. Te tsz-ngo-o shi-da-i ni. 



4 A B 

24- Ac whose expense has this been donel 

Ko-re wa do-no o ka-ta nga ka-ne woda-sh'-tets'-ku-ra-re-ma-sh' 

a V /n F ^n^nfi^r 9ttisf¥t3v~?i, 

ta ka? 

fin 

])o. Ko-re wa da-re nga ka-ne wo da-sh'-tets'-kti-ra-re-ta ka? 

av ^ yty ff i? lr 9 5T l^f > P 5 vfr ft 

25. Averaging them at $300 each, I will take them, for they are not of 

the same quality. 
Ko-re wa fu-do-o nga go za-ri-ma-s' ka-ra, na-ra-sh'-te sa-m bi- 

ya-ku do-ra dz-tsz ni wa-ta-k'-shi ka-i-ma-sh'-o-o. 

vfi V? W ~V9#Pft1?l'Vy 

Do. Ko-re wa fu do-o nga a-ru ka-ra, na-ra-sh'-te sa-m bi-ya-ku dz- 
tsz ni ka-wo-o. 

y ~ft?7 

26. Avoid that man, for he tells lies. 

A-no h'-to wa i-tsz-wa-ri wo mo-o-shi-ma sz-ru ka-ra, o he-da-te 

t Atil-M * /> *) ?^?^ -e %w n? it *^jt? 

na-sa-re. 
Do. A-no h'-to wa i-tsz-wa-ri wo 1-11 ka-ra, ha-bu-ke. 

27. Awake me at 6 o'clock to morrow morning. 

Mi-o-o a-sa mu-tsz do-ki ni wa-ta-k'-shi wo o o-ko-shi na-sa-re-te 

ku-da-sa-re, 

t?** ; ; ; 

Do. Mi-o-o a-sa mu-tsz do-ki ni wa-ta-k'-shi wo o-ko-se. 

AWI^i^y V* — ? fit i, 9 jrm 

28. Axe-helves, and spear-handles are made of a wood called ka-shi. 
Yo-ki no e to,ya-ri noe wa, ka-shi tomo-o-sz ki de ts'-ku-ri-ma s'. 

3 ^Ss-Yv*) l^^ His y &9?>*t m f:9.#V'? X 

Do. Yo-ki no e to ya-ri no e wa, ka-shi to i-u ki de ts'-ku-ru. 

a ^ Ss-Yvt) ''/,*>**'.&*, Y l7\Tvt)V 

29. Aye; at your service. 

Ha-i, Ka-sh'-ko-ma-ri-ma-sh-ta. 

B 

30. Back your cart up to the door. 

Ku-r'ma wo ka-do-ngu-chi ni mo-do-se. 

9 nr ^ 9 n K it * ~ fc F k 



B I 

I ft ttill {of MM* ) lie ttill {talking. ) 

Iz-ki ni o shi -i I I <la-ma-ri na-sa-ro. 

! ■>■ n ^ ty- *v + -r -? \)s-*v 

. in shire I ' 

/> n good boy. 

> tii na-sa-imash'. 

Do. O-to-na-sh kn *h.-ro. 

*>/*> 9 ^& 

33. lie quick, or yon will loxe if. 

I I \a-ku niki 1 re In, u sln-na-i m 

^r 9 s-*7 vj* Vi, *i^% 

Do. I la-Vii-lvM na-ke-re-Ua u shi no-0. 

^ r 9 + *jv*y ^y-7 

34. lie on the look out for it. 

ki u.) ts'-ke-te mite i <le na-sa-re. 

Do. Ki w ) t.s' U» -t.' mit<- i-ro. 

35. /Ay; m where yon left off. 

1 » v i : - i! vi r« ti io-ko ro vo-ri o ha-ji me na-sa re. 

Do. i a-iiM-'. i ti)-ko ro v«> ri ha-ji-im-ro. 

v a ZYan'av) ^i;At2 

30. />V there exactly at the time. 

JSo-no ko-kti-nsre-n ni ta-nira-wa-dz n-chi-ra ni ma-t-te o i-de na- 

sa-re. 

**- ... ... 

Do. So-no ko-ku-ngc-nni chi-nqn-i na-ku, a chi-ra ni ma-t-te i-ro. 

yy a ^T^--f tff ^ T-f 5 -^S>?ft2 

37. Besides this how much do you want f 

Ko-no ho-ka ni i-ku-rao i-ri na-sa-re-ma-s' ka? 

Do. Ko-no ho-ka ni i-ku-ra i-ru ka? 

a ; ^n —it 5 inn 

38. Bring a light. 

A-ka-ii wo mo-t-te o i-de na-sa-re. 

Do. A-ka-ri wo mo-t-te ko-i. 

39. Bring a chair. 

_-sz wo mo-t-te o i-de na-sa-re. 



B C 

Do. Ki-yo-ku-ro-ku wo mo-t-te ko-i. 

^ a # nv 9 ~?vf *1 

40. Bridges are luilt and the poor are aided, in Japan, with the money 

derived from fines . 
Ni-p-po-n de wa ka-ri-o-o no ka-ne de ha-shi wo ts'-ku-ra-re-ma 

-s', hi-n mi-n wo s'-ku-wa-re-ma-s'. 
% t^ 22s 9 %#*> V*?% 

41. Bring it here. 

Ko-chi-ra-e rao-t-te o i-de na-sa-re. 

Do. Ko-chi-ra e mo-t-te ko-i. 

42 . Brush away those cobwebs. 
So-no ku-mo no sz wo ha-ra-e. 

it ^ } %9 ^75- 

43. Brush my shoes. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi no ku-tsz wo mi-n£ra-ke. 

44. Burn it up. 

Ya-i-te o shi-ma-e na-sa-re, 

Vlf if Ir^r^^^v 

Do. Ya-i-te shi-ma-e. 

ir i "f ^^ 

45- Burn up the rubbish. 

Go-mi wo ta-i-te shi-ma-e, 

*% f $ 1 f j^f* 

46, Buy me an umbrella Sf rain-coat. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi no ka-sa to mi-no wo ka-t-te ki-te ku-da-sa-re. 

Do Wa-ta-k'-shi no ka-sa to mi-no wo ka-t-te ko-i. 

V $9l» } ft^ \ 3>> 9 ftyf*1 , 

47. Burning the dead is called Jcwasob. 

Shi-ni-ma-sh'-tah'-to wo ya-ku ko-to wo k'-wa-so-oto mo-o-shi-ma- 

s\ 
IK 

Do, Shi-n-da h'-to wo ya-ku ko-to wo k'-wa-so-o to i-u. 

c 

48 Call a servant. 

Ko-dz-ka-i wo yo-n-de ku-da-sa-re. 

Do. Ko-dz-ka-i wo yo-n-de ko-i. 

a *rni9 b^t ai 



7/ at the Umi I Kit, 

Ni-n-s" -ku woni ji n ni-n in ka-ke-nu vo-o ni vnilt' ku-dt-fl 1 r.\ 

Do. N ni ji ti ni-n i.i ka -la -nu po B «'i JO IHM ko-i. 

i 

kata wa yo-mu ko-to n^a dc-kimn s'-ka? 

fS*ft 9^ 3 !~ * Y fff* ~?%ft 

Do. A-n«» D 40 w;i \o mil ko-tO Dgl (!•• ki 1 1 

Tytl-^a^jf^ f **)v ft 

6 1 < '. I MTV Bf MM of those Jaj>i.: ]i$t 

Ana-ia s?o-no funic w<> i-j> p<wi wa-ta r .-hi ni ku ma-se- 

nu ka? 

Do. C lime so-no fu-de wo i-p-po-n wa-ta k'-shi ni ku-rr-nu ka ? 

t-r^y } ?f 9 f y>t>?£^ — P v % ft 

n i/f>n find out /.»ir this is made? 
K«»-n- \va <!.>-«> >\\ -h- t>'-ku-t-tr go /a-ri- ma-.*' ka. ka-» - 

n v * K9 *•? * * *? af *f n -r 7,t) it ft * n 1 

na-si-ri- t.- .*hi-r«--ina-.*' ka ? 
Do. Ko-rr \va do-o sh'-to ko-obj -ra-»'-ta ka, ka-n-nirn-i-te shi-ro- 

* v rV9l'?al> 5*-'J ft ft^ if 1 r is v 

ra ka ? 

n n 

53. Crtn / do any thing to help you? 

A-na-ta, na-n zo o s'-ke mo-o-shi-ma-sh'-o ka? 

T^ 9 t^jtv*? z. 91* -? l^itft 

Do. O-ma e na-n zo te-tsz-da-wo-o ka I 

54. Can you not find me one like that 1 

A-na-ta wa-ta-k ; -shi ni so-no yo-o-na shi-na wo h'-to-tsz ta-dz-ne- 

te ku-da-sa-re-ma-se-nu ka ? 

Do. O-ma-e wa-ta-k'-shi ni so-no yo-o-na shi-na wo h'-to-tsz ta-dz- 

ne-te ku-re-nu ka ? 
3-f ^>V *# 

55. Can you mend this ? 

A-na-ta ko-re wo o na-o-shi na-sa-ru ko-to wa de-ki-me-s' ka ? 

f +2 a v 9 9+ir ^ J- -*>v *Y ^T^^ft 

Do. O-ma-e ko-re wo na-o-sz ko-to wa de-ki-ru ka 1 

JC^S* a v 9 J-?%* \ ^ r *)V ft 



8 C 

56. Carry this back. 

Ko-re wo o mo-chi na-sa-re-te o ka-e-ri na-sa-re. 

Do. Ko-re wo rno-t-te ka-e-re. 

a v 9 ^yfft^v 

57. Carry this letter to Mr. . 

Ko-no te-nga-mi wo sa-ma e mo-t-te o i-de na-sa-re-te 

ku-da-sa-re. 
Do. Ko-no te-nga-mi wo sa-ma e mo-t-te yu-ke. 

a V f ff 3. 9 *f ^«%? f ^ *7 

58. Carry this box in. 

Ko-no ha-ko wo u-chi e i-re-ro. 

59. Carry it this side up. 

Ko-no ho-o wo u-e ni sh'-te mo-t-te yu-ke. 

^ > 4^9y^-ls f ZzV?3-*7 

60. Cloths imported from foreign countries, can be sold cheaper than those 

made in Japan. 
Ni-p-po-n de ts'-ku-re-roa-s' ta-m-mo-no yo-ri, ga-i ko-ku ka-ra 

wa-ta-ii-ma-s' ta-m-mo-no wa ya-sz-ku u-ra-re-ma-s'. 

6 1 . Come day after tomorroxo. 
Mi-o-o ngo ni-chi o i-de na-sa-re. 

Do. Mi-o-o ns:o ni-chi ki na-sa-e. 

62. Comb your hair. 

Ka-mi wo ku-shi de o na-de ts'-ke na-sa-re. 

ft 3-99 i>:fjt*fvVz>-^v 

Do. Ka-mi wo ku-shi de na-de ts'-ke-ro. 

n 5~9 $ i^T^r v^n 

63. Come early tomorrow morning. 
Mi-o-o a-sa he-vv-ku o i-de na-sa-re. 

Do. A-sh'-ta no a-sa ha-va-ku ki na-sa-e. 

64. Come quich; here is a large snake. 

O ha-ya-ku o i-de na-sa-re, o-o-ki-na he-bi no-a i-ma-s\ 

Do. Ha-ya-ku ko-] ; o-o-ki-na he-bi nga i-ru. 



mi -!•• mo o-boshiino-slii shi-da-i ni n i-de na-> 
Do. MH ni-tr mo \o-i to o-ino-o to-ki ni ki D i-si-c. 

1 *-? 1 3 1 y *t? y * - ^ti 

///<• /W w* tale a ride. 
M'-ma ni im-ii t> | hi do-mo to i-.li- na-.«a-re. 

I >o M mn-ni no-t-te wa-ta-k'-shi do-mo to yu-ki 

9 * ^ / ??9 £ ^ i< K fc )- ^ * :^+^- 

C7. Come //•/'* *<r irAo /* the strongest. 

Wu-t.i-k'-shi do-mo to chi-ka-ra ks-Tft-bt wo s\\'-\r i>o ra-tt na- 

»a-re. 

Do. Wa-ta-k'-^lii do mo to ohi-ki-ra kn-ra-lx' wo sli'-te, mi na- 

MM, 

N I MM AY* fldb tf kv?/Z\ 

W I a-k'-shi do-mo to o a-so-bi ni o i-dc na-? I 

n V ?& X& Y * T 5 ¥ J ** f ,^ * * v 

JJo. Wa-ta-k-sni do-mo to a-so-bi ni yu-ki na 

•7 ^ ^ > K % h T y fc? - ^ * ^ *:*- 

<//»<• ^<7<7/>i «ow<« oAW tune. 
Taji-tsz ma-ta o i-de na-sa-rc. 

Do. Ma-ta ko-n-da ki na-sa-e. 

70. Come again soon. 

Ma-ta kin ji-tsz ni o i-de na-sa-re. 

Do. Ma-ta so-no n-chi ni ko-i. 

71. Come, go tcifh me. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi to to-mo-ni o i-de na-sa-re. 

Do. \\ a-ta-k -shi to to-mo-ni yu-ke. 

9 2? I, Y Y fc-i? 

72. Come, make up yo>'r mind what you icill do. 

A-na-ta na-ni wo na-sa-ri-ma-sh'-o-o ka, ha-va-ku o ki-me na- 

sa-re. 



10 u 

72. Na-ni wo sz-ru ka, ha-yn-ku ki-me-ro. 

y-^ 9 *>vft /** ^ ^ A n 

73. Co»?0 fto?t>, altogether ; up with it. 
Mi-na k'-te^ to-mo ni o-shi a-ncre-ro. 

3. 9- * f Y ^ ~#^ t >r n 

74. C'owtf wo*£, feS me all about it. 

J-ma, wa-ta-k'-shi ni ku-wa-sh'-l<u o ha-na-shi na-sa-re. 

Do I-raa, wa-ta-k'-shi ni no-ko-ra-dz ha-na-se. 

75. Consider that matter well. 

So-no ko-to wo yo-ku ka-n-nga-e-te go ra-n na-sa-re. 

V ? * V 9 3 Pftz-'if&f dt ?*** * v 

Do. So-no ko-to wo yo-ku ka-n-nga-e-te rni-ro. 

y; * Y ? 3 # n^ ft ***f ^ n 

76. Count the eggs in that haslet. 

So-no ka-niro no ta-ma-ngo wo ka-dzo-e-te go ra-n na-sa-re, 

y ; fi dt j # ^ dt 9 ji yr&f a ?^ tM-v 

Do A-no ka-ngo no ta-ma-ngo wo ka-dzo-e-te mi-ro. 

? A n £ A % -? dt 9 fl T^f 2. & 

77. Cover those boxes with oil-paper, so that they will not get wet. 
A-no ha-ko no nu-re-nu yo-o-ni to-o yu wo ka-ke-te o-ke. 

t7 j* a A %v% v?~Y93- 9 JiyfJrV 

78. Cranes Sf geese abound in the fields of Japan, bat it is forbidden to 

catch them. 
Tsz-ru to ga-n wa ni-p-po-n no ta ni ta-ku-sa-n o-ri-te o-ri- 

9 )V Y #v^-^t> A $~$? ^^XVfJrV 

ma-s' nga, to-ru ko-to wa go ch'-o ji de go za-ri-ma-s' . 

~?% ft Yw ?Y ^ ^f^VT d? ifW* 

Do. INi-p-po-n no ta ni, tsz-ru to ga-n wa ti-n-to i-ru nga, go 

—Vifc' A % — 9 )V Y ft>. ri $^Y f >V *f d> 

ch'-o ji da ka-ra, to-ru ko-to wa na-ra>nu. 

f 9 Vft ft 9 Wv a \ j* J- 9 % 

79. Crape is made by tightly twisting the silken threads. 

Chi-ri me-n wa ki-nu i-to ni o-o-ku yo-ri wo ka-ke-te ts'-ku- 

*.i) A^ /> * M Y~H9>A 3\) 9 n *J9 9 V 

ri-ma-s'. 
Do. Chi-n me-n wa i-to ni ta-n-to yo-ri wo ka-ke-te ts'-ku-ru. 

^ *) a^ ^ iy—$^yb~ 9 # 7f ?pyv 

80. Cut it in two. 

K'-t-te f-ta-tsz ni na-sa-re-ma-sh'. 

Do. K'-t-te f'-ta-tsz ni shi-ro. 



C 1) 11 

81. < uttk-fish are considere t a itHtmy I 

butsz ni o-mo-wn-rc-mi-s' 

Do. NKp-po-o dfl mi t'k> wa h ■ •-rn. 

D 

(l yon say so ? 
I \va so-no to-o-ri ni o i 

Do. O-ma-e so-no to-o«ii ni i i-i i 

t^i :/; j- ,»- — f stft 

> id you tell him so f 
A-na-ta \va a-no o ka-ta ni sa-vo-o ni o-s'-slii-ya-ri-ma-sir-ta ! 

„ T^* r> T Stft %-***?-**> 1st n* I, * ti 

10. ui so- tio \<> »> ni lia-na-.-IT-ta ka / 

6 1 Dul you ever see an elephant 1 

A-na-ta \va i-ma made ni dzo-o wo go ra-n iia-sa-rr-ma-sli'- 

ta ka? 

Do. U-ma-c \va i-ma made ni dzo-o wo mi ta ka ? 

*^ /> f -7 -r f — f *> 9 s. % n 

85. Bid you hear the bell ring ? 

Ka-iu' Dga na-ri-ma-sh'-ta Dga o ki-ki na-sa-re-ma-sh'-ta ka? 

^ ft* n + Q-rw a; jr*^*v-?^>z 11 

Do. Iva-ne Dga na-t-ta Dga ki-i-ta ka I 

ft * ft~ +?2 ft $ 12 ft 

86. Did you hear the clock fir ike ? 

To-ke-i 110 ka-ne Dga na-ri-ma-sh'-ta nga o ki-ki na-sa-re-ma- 

sh'-ta ka? 
Do. To-ke-i no ka-ne nga na-t-ta nga ki-i-ta ka? 

> Vi* ft* if +9 9 ft' *12ft 

87. Did you hear him say so ? 

A-no h'-to no a-no ha-na-sh'-ta ko-to wo, o ki-ki na-sa-re-ma- 

sh'-ta ka'. 

^2 ft 

Do. A-no h'-to no a-no ha-na-sh'-ta ko-to wo ki-i-ta ka? 

iv ti- 7 iv /*/^* ^ y 9 ^i^n 



12 D 

88 Dinner is read)/. 

Ili-ru (JO ha-n no sh'-ta-ku wa mo-o yo-ro-shi-u cfo za-ri ma-s'. 

Do. Hi-ru me-shi no sh-ta-kn n?a ino-o i-i. 

ts >v A I, f ^ 5t 9 if &9 1 1 

89. Divide this into jive parts. 

Ko-re wo i-tsz ni o wa-ri na-sa-re. 

a v 9 1 f ~ f ^ ?) * * v 

Do. Ko-re wo i-tsz ni wa-ri na-sa-e. 

90. Do you smoke f 

Ta-ba-ko wo o no-mi na-sa-re-ma-s' ka? 
# ,*n 9 it ?3* /Hfrv^* # 

Do. Ta-ba-ko wo no-mu ka? 

£ /*a 9 St* ft 

91. .#0 thisfrst : afterwards the other. 

Ko-re wo sa-ki ni na-sa-re-te, ho-ka no wo a-to tie na-sa-re- 

^ v 9 if* ^yhifvr >t># 7 ? Th r *M-v 

ma-sh'. 
Do. Ko-re wo sa-ki ni sb'-te, bo-ka no wo a-to de shi-ro. 

a v 9 if% a ^t *# S 9 TlrT I'll 

92. -Do yow like Indian corn ? 

A-na-ta wa to-o mo-ro-ko-sbi wo o s'-ki de go za-ri-ma-s ka 1 

is-** ^>? ^n ^ 9 ***r ar -if i) -?*# 

Do. O-ma-e wa to-o mo-ro-ko-sbi wo s'-ki ka? 

jr-?3- r> > 9 fc tr^ ^ 9 ** ft 

93. Zto as you please. 

A-na-ta no o-bo-shi-me-sbi ni na-sa-re-ma-sb'. 

Do. O-ma-e no o-mo-o to-o-ri ni na-sa-i. 

it-?*- Sift? l-^i)- :>Hff 

94. Doit as well as you can. 

Ki-ri-o-o no o-vo-bu da-ke nasa-re-ma-sh'. 

Do. Se- i i-p-pa- i ni shi-ro. 

95. Zto yo«« speak English? 

A-nata wa I-nofi-ri-sz no ko-to-ba wo o ts'-ka-o na-sa-re-ma-s' ka. ? 

Do. O-ma-e I-ngi-ri-sz no ko-to-ba wo ts'-ka-e-ru ka? 

it^x-1 3fl)* } *Ys< 9 Vft3~)V ft 

9G. Do fgs grow in this country ? 

Ko-no ku-ni ni i-chi-ji-ku no ki nga ha-e-ma-s' ka? 

a; 9 a a i^SV ? * n r>s>*A ft 



n 13 

9C. Ko-no k it in ni i-chi-ji-ku ki n?a ha-c-ru ka? 

a ; >;^l^ f +$# * ff >^\ ft 

97 /' wUr hotc it iran Y 

\-w wa <lo-o i ta-sh 1 1 ko-todc ijo za-ri-ma-s 1 ka, o-bo-e-te 

Tv /» K*f »MlaVf ar if i) •?* /? ***•? 

o i-tle na-sa-rr-ma-s' kal 
'' Are \va BO-0 sh'-ti koto ka, o-l>o-e-tc i-ru ka? 

Tv /* V9 is* *> *Ht$s>fln ft 

!>■> the Japanese male pistol* ? 

.\i|>-|*iu h t > w,i u n»'-ni>a slii-ma wo ko-shi ra-i-ma-s' ka? 

-*$> fc> r> *lr ff V $ 9 * > ? 1 ? * ft 

Do. I\i-p-po-n I) to w.i ta m n-a >l.i ni.i wo ts'-ku-ru ka? 
-*#> HY » fi?r if i, -? 9 9 ?)V ft 

99. Jh you luow any thing about thin. 

Ko no ko-lo wo s'-ko-shi wa po zo-nji dc go za-ri inns' ka? 

Do. Ko no koto wo s' ko-shi wa sh'-t ■!«■ i-ru kftl 

a;a^^3},^ }^vf1)V ft 

100. Vt you L,„„r tchat is good for a cold! 

H ki ka-/.- no k-sz-ri wo sh'-t-te o i'-de na-sa-rc-ina-s' ka? 

u* tie > ?? } \) f i,rm T£*v? * n 

L»o. H -ki ka-zc no k -sz ri wo sn -t-te i-ru Hi 

t: *ft\£ ; t?,\) 9 >Vf1)Vft 

10 1. Jh you really need it ? 

A-na-ta ko-rc wa ina-ko-to ni i-ri vo-o de po zari-ma-s' ka? 

Do. ia-sli-ka ni i-n yo-o ka? 

IOSk Jh thin the first thing io-morroic morning. 

Mi-o-o a-sa ko-rc wo sa-ki ni na-sa-re-ma-se. 

Do. A-sz no a-sa ko-re wo sa-ki ni shi-ro. 

T* ;n^v^ ^* -i-tf 

103. Jhes this silk fade? 

Ko-no ki-nu no i-ro wa sa-me-ma-s' ka? 
*J %% >m *> *A *?% ft 

Do. Ko-no ki-nu no i-ro wa sa-me-ru ka? 

a J ** / in*** *i* n 

1 04. Does your watch keep good time ? 

A-na-ta no to-ke-i wa yo-ku a-i-ma-s' ka? 

n 1£9 > +*fir 3*11?* ft 

Do. U-ma-e no to-ke-i wa yo-ku a-u ka? 

105. Does he lire there still ? 



14 D 

105 A-no o ka-ta wa ma-da a-so-ko ni sz-ma-t-te o i-de na-sa-re- 

mas' ka? 

Do. A-no h'-to \va ma-da a-s'-ko ni sz-ma-t4e i-ru ka? 

f y £> rs -?jt f^a ~^-?9f 1)1 31 

1 06. Do not touch that. 

So-re ni te wo o ts'-ke na-sa-ru-na. 

y v— f ?.jt 9 J ^ WJ- 

Do. So-re wo i-ji-rii-na. 

9V 9 1^v^ 

107. Do not play too hard. 

A-ma-ri sa-wa-i de a-so-bi na-sa-ru-na. 

Do. A-ma-ri sa-wa-i de a-so-bu-na. 

f^ i) ^?Y T ? yyV- 

108. i)o «o£ awte herd again. 

Mo-o f-ta-ta-bi ko-ko ni o i-de na-sa-ru-na; 

Do. Mo-o f-ta-ta-bi ko-ko e ku-runa. 

1 09. Do not let it get wet. 

O nu-ra-shi na-sa-re-ma-s'-na. 

* 9*7 Is 9-^V -?* 9- 

Do. Nu-ra-sz-na. 
% 5 * * 

110. Do hot miiid what he says. 

A-no h'-to no mo-o-sa-re-ru k:-to ni o ka-ma-i na-sa-ru-na ; 

Do. A-re nga i-u ko-to ni ka-ma-u-na. 

111. Do not take up so much room. 

So-no yo-o ni ha-ba wo na-sa-re-ma-s'-na. 

y y vy ~ /v* 9 * ** v *•* ^ 

Do. So-o ha-ba wo sz-ru-na. 

112 Don't throw away a single kernel of that bird-seed. 
So-no ki-bi h'-to tsz-bu mo o s'-te na-sa-ru-na, 

^ 9 ? %t£ fc J- * ^ fc tT *? ^+jv ^ 

Do. So-no ki bi h'-to tsz-bu mo s'4e-ru-na. 

y y ^rt£ t. > ? jf fc *f ;v y* 

113* Do not waste a lit of it. 

S'-ko-shi mo o tsz-i-ya-shi na-sa-ru-na. 

Do» S'-ko-shi mo tsz-i-ya-sz-na. 



15 



! I J. !><> mi |f m such a hurry. 

So-no yo-o ni o i-so-n<_ r i na-si-ru na 

y; V?-*f y v *M->v^ 

Do. So-no yo-o ni sr-ku-na. 

y 7 V?-fe^ 

11". Do not lea re the door open. 

To wo n-kc lia-nish'-te o i !■ n i-sa-ru-na. 

Da I wo a ke ha-na-sh'-t.« do-ni-na. 

II G. Do not let it htm: Mr it. 

Ko-nge-na vo-o ni o kaki ma-wa-*hi na-sa-re. 

1 > >. K iu r ' ■•mi yo-o ni ka-ki ma-wa-co. 

117. 7)o not put it off any longer. 

\ H o Do4Mhl ii i >.i-ru-na. 



M -i-ta 



Do. Ma-ta IM>4»-tZ4M. 

118. Do not be discouraged. 
O a-ki na-sa-ru-na. 

Do. A-ki-ru-na. 

1 19. Do nol swallow the pits. 

Ta-ne wo o no-mi ko-mi na-sa-ru.na. 

Do Ta-ne wo no-mi ko-mu-na. 

2 3- ? ;^^^ 

120. Do «o< k *o /0M/7 ffootrf & 

So-no yo-o ni h'-sa-sh'-ku o ka-ka-ri na-sa-ru.na 

y^-r^-t^^^* nn i) s^t >v^' 

Do So-no yo-o ni na-nga-ku ka-ka-ru-na. * 

1 2 1 . Do no/ lose your place. (in reading.) 
A-na-ta no o yo-mi na-sa-re-ta to-ko-ro wo o wa-sz-re na- 
?/■£ } **3 3. J-*V% Yn& 9 it? * V 7^ 

sa-ru-na. 
Do Yo n-da to-ko-ro wo wa-sz-re-ru-na. 

122. Do mo£ so/7 tJuit map. 

So-no e-dz wo o yo-ngo-shi na-sa-ru-na. 

y / SS9 it 3* ^ +*)v* 



16 D 

122. So-no e-dz wo vo-ngo-sz-na. 

y } 3jX 9 3 dt %+ 

123. Do not take that child 's play-things. 

A-no ko-do-mo no mo-chi-a-so-bi wo o to-ri na-sa-ru-na. 

t; ^Kt y *: * f ?£ 9 t y 9 * *>v* 

Do. A-no ko-do-mo no mo-chi-a-so-bi wo to-ru-na. 

124. 7)0 no^ go there; you may get hurt. 

A-so-ko e o i-de na-sa-ru-na; ke-nga wo sz-rn to a-bu-no- 

fy*s.jti? +*>v* iff 9 Awyy-f j 

o go za-ri-ma-s'. 
Do. A-s'-ko e yu-ku-na; ke-nga wo sz-ru to a-bu-na-i. 

125. Dorit wale up the baby. 

Sh'-o ni no me wo o sa-ma-shi na-sa-ru-na. 

*>^~ y a 9 jr *^ ^ 9~^)V9- 

Do. Ko no me wo sa-m.i-sz-na. 

^ ;^ 9 * * % * 

126. Do you not see into it get ? 

Ma -da o wa-ka-ri na-sa-re-ma-se-nu-ka? 

Do. Ma-da wa-ka-ra-nu ka? 

t # y ft ?% ft 

127. Do not ride too fast down hill. 

Ya-ma avo o-ri-ru ni wa m'-ma nga ha-ya sz-ngi-ru ha-shi- 

■V -? 9 *i)>v £L j* 9^ ff ^V *#* >v ^ >- 

ra-se na-sa-ru-na. 
Do, Ya-ma wo ku-da-ru ni wa m'-ma nga ha-ya sz-ngi-ru ha- 

X ^ "9 9$w - ^ 9 ^ ft /*fe % % ^v ^ 

shira-se-ru-na. 

128. .Do?^ fovw^r f&tf here; away with it. 

So-re wo ko-ko e mo-t-te o i-de na-sa-ru-na; ho-ka e o ya-ri 

y v 9 * * ^t9fit1 f"TMh¥* &ft ^itW 

na-sa-re. 
Do. So-re wo ko-ko e mo-t-te ku-ru-na, ho-ka e ya-re. 

yv 9 3a-\fc^f fy)\J- ^ft ^\v 

129. Zto wo£ talce the whole, leave some for him. 

No-ko-ra-dz o to-ri na-sa-ru-na; a-no o ka-ta ni no-ko-sh'-te 

o o-ki na-sa-re. 



L> E 17 

120. Mi-na to-ru-na; a-nc h'-to ni no-ko-sh-to n k<\ 

130. Do not trade with that man; he is sure to take you in. 

A-no h'-to to ka-u « ki wto na saru-na; tash'-ku ni a-na-ta wo 

ila-ma-shi-ma «z-ru. 
Do. A-no h'-to to ka-u-e-ki wo slii na-sa ru-na: tn-sh'-ka ni o- 

TV fch h fits.* 9 l, +*n + r>ft -* 

mac wo da-ma -a 1 . 
^N 9 ?^% 

131. Do not call him off from hi* work again. 

A-no h'-to no ma-nga ka-ke-ru ka-ra mo o o-yobi na sa-re- 

rna-sz na. 
Do. A-no h'-lo no ma-nga ka-ke-ru ka-ra, mo-o yo-bu-na. 

t;th ; * ff n^)\ H9 fc 9 3 -f + 

132. Do not cross my thrcshoUl again without bate. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi no yu-ru-shi ma-se nu ti-rhi wa, ka-sa-ne te ji-l'- 

ko wo o ma-ta-ngi na-sa-ru-ni. 
Do. V\a-ta-k'-shi no vu-ru-sa-nu u-chi wa P-ta-ta-bi ji-f-ku wo 
ma-ta ngu-na. 

1 33. Dumb people talk by signs. 

O-shi no h'-to nga te ma-ne de o shi-e-ma-s'. 

^ jtl, J t \ n f * 3- f &*-?* 

Do. O-shi no h'-to nga te mane de o-shi e-ru. 

jt*s / fc V ff f -? 3- f* *>£>v 

134. Dy<r# tfrv mW ko-o-ya sho-ku-nin. 

Some mo-no sz-ru h'-lo wa ko-o-ya sh'-yo-ku-ni-n to mo-o- 

shi-ma-s' . 
Do. So-me mo-no sz-ru h'-to wa ko-o-ya sh -yo-ku-ni-n to i -u. 



135. jE«f^ country has its own laws. 

Ono o-no no ku-ni wa ji ko-ku no ha-t-to nga go za-^-ma-s'. 



18 E. 

135. 0-no o-no no kn-ni wa ji ko-kti no ha-t-to nga a-rir 

it; jtJ J ^ * V&Ht > >** \ ff ?>* 

136. Earthquakes are frequent here. 

Ko-no to-ko-ro wa ji shi-n nga o-ri o-ri 50 za-ri-ma-s'. 

Po. Ko-no to-ko-ro wa ji shi-n nga o-ri o-ri i-ta-shi-ma-s'. 

* ; \^U rs 1;^ ff #1)**) f#v^* 

137. Empty tin's box. 

Ko-no ha-ko no na-ka no mo-no wo a-ke-te ku-da-sa-re. 

a ; />a ) j~ft } £ ; 9 tW V 9 ^ v 

Do. Ko-no ha-ko no na-ka no mo-no wo a-ke-ro. 

a ; ^3 ; /^ /■ t;; j UK 

138. England §• China have been at tear three times. 

I-ngi-ra-n wa Ka-ra to mi ta-bi ka-s-se-n ni o-vo-bi-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. I-nui-ra-n wa Ka-ra to sa-n do ta-ta-ka-t-ta. 

139. Ever since I came here, I have been unwell. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi ko-ko-ni ma-i ri-ma-sh'-te yo-ri ki-ba-n mm. a- 

» ^V 3*~ ff !)^^ ^3\) \?^ ff f 

shi -1? go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. Wa-ta-k'-shi ko-ko-ni k'-te ka-ra ki-bn-n nga waru-ku na t-ta. 

140. Every body knows that. 

So-re wa do-na-ta mo go zo-n-ji, de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. So-re wa da-re mo sh'-t'-te i-m. 

141. Every Japanese may wear one short sword at pleasure. 

Wa-ji-n mi-na mi-na wa-ki za-shi wo i-p-po n sa-shi-ma-s' ko- 

to-wa kar-t-te shi-da-i ni na-ri-ma-s 1 - 
Do. Ni-p-po-n ji-n wa mi-na mi-na wa-ki-za shi wo i-p-po-n sa- 
sz ko-to wa ka-t-te shi-da-i ni-na-ru. 

142. -EVi£ <feet& fttw a thousand leagues; but good deeds do not go out °f 

one's door. - (a proverb) 

A-ku ji wa sen ri wo ha.shi-ru, ko-o ji wa mo-n wo i-de-dz. 

t ^ v 'Msu-tJ 9 j*. isiy *y$^*&'9 i? x 

143. Evil left to itself grows worse and tvorse. 

A-sh'-ki wo s'-te-te o-ki-ma-s' to shi-da-i ni tsz-no-ri-ma-sz- ru 



E F 19 

1 13 A >li ki \v.> - i. -t«> o-ku to shi-di i ni i<z-iin-rn. 

111. lit tort ion in rvv 

M ni koto \va h:i-na-ha-da mil do-o no i-t.i ^h' 

* ^Dh)i ^h ^ j^»? * YV ;f^ 

: <l«* go /-i ri ii 

ftl T a *!)-?* 

Do. Mum no-ri-tn-rti koto \va lu-na-ha-da mulo-o no s/.-ru-ko-to 

i» **i)Hv ^h ^^^-^5T^ K*^ *>v *Y 

I 1". /.' re imc of the body is its medicine. (a proverb.) 

: mi no k'-s/.-ri do % l /;i-ri-mn-s'. 

fr* 5T ? >> af &* /» 3. / ***) r *: *t>-? * 

Do. K a -i.i-d.i-\v*> n uirn-ka-s/ \va mi DO k ->/. ri ni na-iu. 



1 16, /<wf »iy Aorw tr<*J7, he is growing thin. 

Wt -ta-k' shi no m'-ma-n^a ya-se-ru Id -ra ta-k'-sa-n kii-wa-se-ro. 

9 99 1s Si»^ ft >fe>v# ? 5^*^ ^ /> fetf 

147. />»r persons sag so. 

So -no vo-o ni mo-o-sz h'-to wn >'-ku-no-o go zn-ri-inn-s'. 

y / a?- *:** tiY /* %>>)*>* *H)-?* 

Do. So-no yo-o ni i-ti b'-to-\va s-ku-na-i. 

148. /«■/ Mm, Aofr soft it is. 

Ko-re ni sa-wa-t-te go ran na-sa-re ; ya-wa-ra-ka de go za- 

n y — ^"^^f ^* 7^ tM" v -T /* 5 ft T zt If 

ri-ma-s'. 
Do. Ko-re ni sa-\va-t-te mi na-sa-i ; va-wa-ra-ka-i. 

3V- ♦>>* f ^ tM* Y V /* ? ft Y 

140. /Ytf it ttp. 

I- p-pa-i o i-re na-sa-re. 

Do. I- p-pa-i i-re-ro. 

150. Fill it half full 

Ha-m-bu-n o i-re na-sa-re. 

Do. Ha-m-bu-n i-re-ro. 

\ 5 1 . #SB # « //«& Mtr* Am half full. 

ITa-m-bu-n yo-ri s'-ko-shi vo-ke-i o i-re na-sa-re. 



20 F. 

151. Ha-m-bu-n yo-ri s'-ko-shi yo-ke-i i-re-ro. 

152. Find my hat, Sf brim/ it here. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi no ka-mu-ri mo-no wo ta-dz-ne-te k'-te ku-cla-sa-re. 

Do. Wa-ta-k'-shi no ka-mu-ri mo-no wo ta-dz-ne-te mo-t-te ko-i. 

153. Fix it to suit yourself. 

No-zo-mi shi-da-i ni o o-ki na-sa-re. 

Do. Ka-t-te shi-da-i ni o-ke. 

154. Fry some, and boil the rest. 

S'-ko-shi ya i-te, a-to wa o ni na-sa-re. 

Do. S'-ko-shi ya-i-te, a-to wa ni na-sa-i. 

155. For whom are you making this? 

Ke-re wo do-na-ta ni o ta-no-ma-re de o ts'-ku-ri na-sa-re- 

* v 9 Y+& —9 % J ~? v ?9 y #X) ^ -+ v 

ma-s' ka ? 
Do. Ko-re wo da-re ni ta-no-ma-re-te ts'-ku-ru ka ? 

n v 9 #v ~ # S •? Vf 9 #)V fj 

156. Fuel is cheaper in Japan than in China. 

Ka-ra yo-ri Ni-p-po-n de wa sz-mi ta-ki-ngi wa ya-sz-u go- 

#530 ~y$> T ^ %3- £* ^ ^ -r %V Jt 

za-ri-ma-s'. 

*f *)^* . . 

Do. Ka-ra yo-ri Ni-p-po-n de wa sz-mi ta-ki-ngi nga ya-sz-i. 

n ? a i) ^vt> f ** K2. # w ft VA1 

157. Furl the sail. 
Ho wo o-ro-se. 

& 9 9&& 

158. Furniture is not seen in Japanese parlors. 

Ni-p-po-n no za-sh'-ki no u-chi-ni wa do-o-n^u nga mi-e- 

-**>- } m^ * 7 9 *-- * Y9 y ft 3lz 

ma-se-nu. 
Do. Ni-p-po-n no za-sh'-ki no u-chi-ni wa do-o ngu nga mi-e-nu. 

A*Kis /if*,* ; ?4-~ r> \*>F ft 3.%% 



G Ql 

Get the horse ready. 

M'-ma no sh'-taku wo shi-ro. 

fc* ; >*^ 9 >ti 

160. Get my attendant* rendy. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi no to-mo no sh'-taku wo shi-ro. 

161 Get it done be/ore I come back. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi no ka-e-ru ma-e-ni sh'-te o shi-ma-e na-sa-re. 

Do. Wa-ta-k'-shi no ka-e-ru ma-e-ni sh'-te shi-ma-e. 

9 #* v > ten ?3a >f ^ -?z 

162. Get out of my way. 

Wa-ki e o yo-ri na-sa-rc-te ku-da-sa-re. 

9 *Zjt'BV+<tV f P 2 *V 
Do. Wa-ki e yo-re. 
9 U3V 

163. Get up auick. 

Ha-ya-ku o o-ki na-sa-rc-ma-se. 

J* V P it9%+* v-?iz 

Do. Ha-ya-ku o-ki na-sa-i. 

r> ir 9 9\+*i 

16 4. Get me an ink-stone. 

Sz-dz-ri i-shi wo mo-t-te k'-te ku-da-sa-re. 

Do. Sz-dz-ri i-shi wo mo-t-te ko-i. 

165. Get me a ruler \ 

J'-o-o-niji wo mo-t-te k'-te ku-da-sa-re. 

Do. J'-o-o-ngi wo mo-t-te ko-i. 

166. Get your dinner Jirst, and then go. 

Sa-ki e o hi-ru go ha-n wo a-nga-t-te o-yu-ki na-sa-re. 

Do. Sa-ki— e hi-ru me-shi wo ta-be-te, yu-ke. 

+ * £fc)V A ^ 9 %-<7 3- V 

167. Give this to me. 

Ko-re wo wa-ta-k'-shi ni ku-da-sa-re-ma-sh'. 

_ ^ v 9 9 %V \s ~ 9 Z^v -?^ 

Do. Ko-re wo wa-ta-k'-shi ni ku-da-sa-i. 

3 v 9 yztis a vt^ i 

168. Give him as much as he wants. 

A-no o ka-ta ni i-ku-ra de-mo i-ru ho-do o a-no-e na-sa-re 

Uo. A-no h-to ni i-ku-ra de-mo i-ru ho-do ya-ri na-sa-i 



•2 : > G. 

169. Give him tiro thirds of it. 

Sa-m ba ni a-no o ka-ta ni o a-ng-e na-sa-re. 

Do. Sam bu ni a-no h'-to ni ya-ri na-sa-i. 

'ft*, ? ^t > \z\ ~w 9-M 

170. Give me. a receipt for this money. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi ni ko-no ka-ne no o n-keto-ri nsra-ki wo ku-da- 

sa-re-ma-se. 
Do. Wa-ta-k'-shi no ko-no ka-ne no u-ke-to-ri wo ku-da-sa-i. 

171 . CartVj tftfc/?. of those loys a tempo. 

A-no o-to-ko no ko-do-mo ni to-o h'-ya-ku wo i-chi ma-i dz- 

tsz o ya-ri na-sa-re. 
Do. A-no o-to-ko no ko-do-mo ni h'-va-ku se-n wo i-chi ma- 

7 7 fl-3 7 ^F^-tV /;^MI f 

i dz-tsz ya-re. 

172. (7 m? fftf* to your master. 

Ko-re wo o-ma-i no da-n-na ni a-nge na-sa-i. 

173. (to ««<? «<tf yw 1 ****£ 

Go ze-n o a-nga-ri ni o v"-ki na-sa-re 
Do O me-shi wo ta-be ni yu-ke. 

1 74. Go £0 ^ 

O shi-dz-ma-ri na-sa-re. 

Do. Ne na-sa-i. 

175. Go $ fiftd out what that is. 

A-re wa na-ni de go zari-ma-s' ka i-t-te go ra-n na-sa-re. 

Do. A-re wa na-n da ka, i-t-te mi na-sa-i. 

1 7G. Go Sf come bac 7 c immediately. 

Sz-ngu ni i- t-te o i-de na-sa-re-ma-sh'. 

Do. Sz-ngu ni i- t-te ko-i. 



Q II 

' ' thin fnui 

mo !«> no to I 0-k\ in v i-" 

Do. Ko-re wo ino-to do h o kc 

l ; - (•', ,/W /,r//j f/v/y/i ike *ngar. 

\ i ko e i- ' ■ ti-i k:i-ri in In k- mi ti- isi-da i \\<> 

sdii-ro. 

179 01 «>ul //ft thin pail iHtii&tl. 

Ko no ir o-kc wo ua-os:i-su ni ino-t \r \ 1 1 k* - 

i* } f9V 9 +9**l &&1*y 

f/orcrns all things in heaven and earth. 
Te-0 o hi bam mo t>v. lo-mi ni ki-i i mt ran-ma- 

r ^ * *&> *l*? \ =e- n 2- n ?aa ? v -? 

8Z-IU. 

l ? 1 . <V//W ///<// Indian corn. 

Ko-no un>-ro kn-.«hi fro lii-i-tr ko m shl 

I 32. (Itu'lty prnons are afraid of others. 

Tsz mi a-rn mono wa h'-to wo o-so-r. mi ■-/.-vu. 

183. (t'unpotrder is made of saltpetre, charcoal, and t*hkwr. 
En-sh'-o-o wa sh'-o-o-se-ki »o sz-mi to i-wo-o do ts'-kii-ri-ma-s' 

:£>Mr9>^-v***> K2.Y 1 VVT vW~?% 

Do. E-n-sh'-o-o wa sh'-o-o-se-ki to sz-mi to i-wo-o de ts'-ku-ru 

H 

184. Had you not better talc the other. 

Ho-ka no wo ts'-ky-i-mn sh'-te wa yo-ro-shi-u go za-ri-mase 

^ ft J 9 Vft1 Tlsf r> SOWa^D? fe 

nu-ka? 

%ft 

Do. Ho-ka no wo ts'-ka-t-te -wa yo-ro-sh'-k-i na-i ka? 

^ft J 9 vftyf^Bti^VJ-lft 

J 85. Hand me an envelope. 

J'-oo bu-ku-ro wo i-chi ma-i ku-da-sa-re 

Do. J'-o-o bu-ku-ro wo i-chi ma-i ku-re-ro. 



24 • H. 

18G Hark ! what noise is that! 

O ki-ki na-sa-re ! A-no hi-bi-ki \va na-ni de °fo za-ri-ma-s' kal 

Do. Ki-ke ! A-no hi-bi-ki \va na-ni ka? 

187. iZtfr£ / what is that? 

O ki-ki na-sa-re! A-re \va na-ni de go za-ri-ma-s' ka? 

JT ** +*V IV » y-- f f if <)^* # 

Do. Ki-ke! A-re wa na-ni ka? 

1 88. 7Ztf« your father got well. 

A-na-ta no chi-chi no go bi-o-o-ki wa yo-ro-shi-u go-za-ii-ma- 

s' ka? 
Do. O-raa-e no chi-chi no bi-o-o-ki wa yo-i ka? 

*^1 j 4- ± f &*$** 3it) 

189. Have you any work for me to do Sir? 

Da-n-na wa-ta-k'-shi no i-ta-sz shi-ngo-to nga go za-ri-ma-s' ka? 

srv-^/N %p %>Ji£& y ^v # ar -*i) i?& ft 

190. f/fl^e dinner ready by the time divine service is over. 
Wa-ta-k'-shi do-mo no o-nga-mi wo shi-ma-u ma-de-ni go ha- 

n no sh'-ta-ku wo sh' te o-ke. 

w vzv $ \> fjtv 

L9L Save you not done this yet ? 

Ko-re wa ma-da de-ki a-nga-ri-ma-se-nu ka.? 

Do Ko-re wa ma-da de-ki a-nga-ra-nu ka? # 

a V r* ^ 5Tf ¥ f if ? % ti 

192. Have you any more. 

A-na-ta ma-da go za-ri-ma-s' -ka? 

7^2 TF dt if i) -?% ft 

Do. O-ma-e ma-da a-ru ka? 

Ko-re wo ts' ka-t-te o shi-ma-i na-Sa-re-ma-sh'-ta ka? 

a V 9 9 flVV-fris^tL J-^V^^Z ft 

Do. Ko-re wo ts' -ka-t-te shi-ma-t-ta ka? 

a v y yftvr is-?9$ ft 

194. Have you ever been to Nagasaki ? 

I-ma-ma-de ni Na-nga-sa-ki e o i-de na-sa-re-ta ko-to wa go 

za-ri-ma-s' ka? 
■*f t)T* ft 



P.M. I nil mn*ile ui Na-nga-*a-k- t it tn koto wa n-ru ka? 

190 Hai'f yon found your *poon Y 

A un-ta no sa-ji wo o ta-di-ne i-da-sa-iv-ma-sli'-t-i ka ' 

T+9 / *Vy tlr* f$T*V t I S ft 

I » >. < >-ma-t* no sa-ji wo sa-n«ja-shi da ?Ij -ta fan 

*r:c y **; ? * jf > 5r >* ft 

199. 7/rfrY yoi» gained or /<*«/ £jf i'/? 

Aua-ta so-re do to-ku wo na-sa-re-ma-sh'-ta ka, sou wo, na- 

TV-* n r^ ? ^*v -r^* ft y^ ? * 

ina-sh'-tn ka? 
I I t > ina-r MHt M to-ku wo sli -ta ka. so-n wo sh -ta ka? 

Tj-r^ ?vt Yt 9 >z ft y* ? ^# *? 

l'.»7. BSNM y>K /y/»/ an, acamnt of expenditures all along Y 

\-nata ko-rc ma-do no kin ni»i-n no de-Mi i li'-o me-n ni 

t +% 3v?f.; *^ *v / rn f *>*^ - 

hi-ka-e-te go zn-ri-ma-s' ka? 

\zfts.? 3 *T1) "T* ft 
Do. O-ma-e ko-rc ma-de no ki-n niri-n no dc njja ch'-o-ino-n 

ni ka-ki to-uio t.' a-ru-ka? 

-ft* Mr 1>vft 

198. Hare you any objection to it? 

So-rc wa anata no o ki ni i-ri-mn-sc-nu ka? 

yv r* ?/•>* y**.-f n-?te* ft 

Do. So-rc wa o-ma-c no ki-ni i-ra-nu-ka? 

yv * *^x> / *-f ? % ft 

100. ITave an eye to (hose coolie* occasionally today. 

Ko-n ni-clii ko-no ni-n-so-ku no sz-ru koto wo o-ri o-ri o 

mi ma-wa-n ku-da-sa-re. 

Do. Ko-n ni-chi ko-no ni-n-so-ku no sz-ra ko-to wo to-ki do- 

3i/ --f 3; -^y^ ;;jV3i- ? )-* k 

ki mi ma-wa-ri na-sa-e. 

200. ifor* yo«r MN& come up ? 

O ma-ki na-sa-re-ta ta-ne wa me nga de-ma-sh'-ta ka? 

* -?*y--+v£ 23-^ a if T^l^^ ft 

Do. O-ma-e noma-i-ta ta-ne wa me nga de-ta ka? 

*^s^iii tt >^ a n T$ft 

20 1 . He is dead. (of a superoir) 
A-no o-ka-ta wa o na-ku-na-ri na-sa-re-ma-sh'-ta. 



26 H. 

201. A -no h'-to wa shi-na-re-ta (or) sh r -ki-o. (ofa commoner) 

Do. Ta-i ku-n wa ko-o ki-o a-so-ba-sa-re-ma-sh'-ta. (of fh>e 

Tai-kun) 
Do, Da-i-mi-o wa go se-i ki-o na-sa-re-ma-sh'-ta. (o."a Daimio) 

202. Tie struck me with a club. 

A-no sh'-to nija wa-ta-k'-shi wo bo-o de ta-ta-ki-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. A-no sh'-to nga wa-ta-k'-shi wo bo-o de bu-t-ta. 

t;ti- it v $w> 9 $? f$f*# 

203. J0& ip*# «o£ cow^ fore. 

A-no sh 1 to wa ko-ko-e ku-ru ko-to wo i-ya-no-a-ri-ma-s-*.. 

Do. A-re wa ko-ko e ku-ru ko-to wo i-ya-nga-ru. 
"fV^ an 3. #)V 3Y91Vff)V 

204. He is gone to Yedo. 

A-no o ka-ta wa Ye-do e o i-de na-sa-re-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. A-no h'-to wa Ye-do e yu-ki-ma-sh'-ta. 
f ) 1 1- J* 3~ Y 3-3- K f ls$ 

205. He keeps two horses. 

A-no o ka-ta wa m'-ma wo ni h'-ki ka-t-te o-ki na-sa-re-ma-s'. 

Do. A-no h'-to wa m'-ma wo ni h'-ki ka-t-te o-ku. 

206. He is making money fast. . 

A-no o ka-ta wa ji-ki ni ka-ne wo mo-o-ke-ru ko-to wo na- 

1V# fit '^V*~tt 9 =fc 97'V * Y 9 ^ 

sa-re-ma-sz-ru. 
Do. A-no h'-to wa ji-ki ni ka-ne wo mo-o-ke-ru ko-to wo sz-ru. 

207. .Zfc tf to have his trial to dag. 

A-no h'-to wa ko-n ni-chi gi-m mi wo u-ke-ra-re-ma-s'. 

t7tV £ **? -SLf-^V 3. 3? 97 ?v ■?* 

Do. A-re wa ki-o gi-m mi-wo u-ke-nr 

tv />##*> 3? 97 jv 

208. 7Z~0 foo&.s /i£e a Chinese. 

A-no h'-to wa To-o ji-n ni ni-te i-ru yo-o n' mi-e-ma-s' 

Do. A-re wa To-o ji-n ni ni-te i-ru yo-o ni mi-e-ru. 
fV^H?^inff)Vf9 — 3-3-M 



n. 27 

209. lie is a spendthrift. 

Alio o ka-ta wa fu-sbi-m i I za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. A-no h'-to wa fu shi-ma-tsz. 

tyth /> ? ^-? * 

210. He is fond of opium . 

A-no o-ko-ta wa a-hen WO sz-i-ti 1 t .-! •-rare-mas'. 

fj jtny * 1^9 Mf *-< >vta 

Do. A-no h'-to wa a-he-n wo sz-i-te tabc-ra. 

211. lie has spent all his money. 

A-no o kata wa ki-nc wo mi-na ts'-ka-i ha-ta-sl'i-ma sh'-ta 

Do. A-no h'-to wa ka-n»- WO mi na ts'-ka-i ts'-kush'-ta. 

T/ th /* #3- 9 2*+ vn\L ? Pis ft 

212. He has intfeter and ague. 

A-no o kata wa o-ko-ri no ya ma-i de go za-ri-ma-s' 

Do. A-no h'-to wa o-ko-ri wo wa-<lz ro-o-te i-ru. 

213. lie is a well-bred man. 

A-no o ka-ta wa re-i ngi nga ta-da-thi-n go za-n-ma-s' 

Do. A-no h'-to wa rc-i ns?i wo yo-ku sh'-t-te o-ri-ma-s'.- 

214. //<? <&>*« not know good manners. 

A-no o kata wa ie-i nei wa shi-ri-ma-se-nu. 

t > *»!* * vf *: ? ^ i)^fe * 

Do. A-no h'-to wa re-i ngi wo shi-ra-nu. 

2 1 5. ifo M a rery bad man. 

A-no o ka-ta wa ha-na-ba-da a-ku ni-n de go za-ri-ma-s 1 

Do. A-re wa ha-na-ha-da a-sh'-ki h'-to. 

21C. He has a broken arm. 

A-no o ka-ta wa u-de wo ku-ji-i-te o-ra-re-ma-«\ 

Do. A-no h'-to wa u-de wo ku-ji-i-te i-ru. 

t;ti- *9f 9 tfifi* 

217- He has put his wrist out ef joint. 

A-no h'-to wa te ku-bi no ho-ne wo chi-nga-i na-sa-re-ma- 

T } t \ j* f j>t£ S *3- 9 * ^f^-^v^ 

sh'-ta. 



28 n. 

217. A-no h'-to wa te ku-bi no ho-ne wo chi-nga-i-ta. 

fS \$\ /N f #\£ / $* 9 * If 12 

2 18. Jle is ashamed of it. 

A-no o ka-ta wa so-re cle ha-ji wo o shi-n na-sa-re-ma-s 1 . 

TSilr tit » W f K??* fci> *M-v^* 

Do. A-no h'-to wa so-re de ha-ji wo shi-ru. 

f 7 t: y r> ^ v f ^f 9 ^ )V 

1 29 Jle is an American, not a Japanese. 

A-no o ka-ta wa A-me-ri-ka no h'-to de Ni-p-po-n no h'-to 

de go za-ri-ma-se-nu. 
f* 3+* 1)-T *>* 

Do. A-re wa A-me-ri-ka no h'-to de Ni-p-po-n no h'-to de 

wa na-i. 

220. JZe has not done thit right. 

A-no o ka-ta wa ko-re wo ts'-ku-ru ko-to wa yo-ro-sh'-ku go 

T^iW^av 9 ? PHY aYs* 313 p#* 

za-ri-ma-se-nu. 
Do. A-no h'-to wa ko-re wo ts'-ku-ru ko-to wa yo-ro-sh'-ku na-i. 

is fc> /> av 9 ypwxY^ati^P^i 

22 1. Jle is an impudent fellow. 

A-no h'-to wa ha-ji wo shi-ra-nn. 

222. Tfo Arts a new jacket. 

A-no o ka-ta wa a-ta-ra-shi-i ha-o-ri nga go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. A-no h'-to wa a-ta-ra-shi-i ha-o-ri nga a-ru. 

223. Jjfc said I might go. 

A-no o ka-ta nga wa-ta-k'-shi ni i-t-te mo vo-i to o-s-shi-ya- 

?/#### ? 9*i* £&•{*?«; 9 ft ^y^-r 

ri-ma-sh'-ta. 
Do. A-no h'-to nga wa-ta-k'-shi ni i-t-te mo yo-i to i-t-ta. 

224. 7Z~<j has gone home. 

ta-ku e o ka-i-ri na-sa-re-ma sh'-ta. 

„ ***** fim+*v^ 1,$ 

Do. U-chi e ka-i-t-ta. 

225. Jle was here just now. 

Sa-ki ho-do ko-ko ni o i-de na-sa-re-ma-sh'-ta. 



EC 23 

Do. Sa-k'-ki ko-ko ni i-ta. 

fry* an sl1* 

•j .".. II- M as had a* ever. 

Se-n no too-ri wa-ru-u so za-rimn-s'. 

tt^ 7h9l) ?>V9 3- *1)^* 
I>o. Se-n no to-o-ri ua-ru-i. 

887. Jle has a bad cold. 

A -no o ka-ta wo sh-o-o-ka-n wo wa dzra-t-te o KM na-sa-re- 

ina-s\ 

^* 

Do. A no h'-to wa sh-o-o-kan wo wa-dz-ra-t w. i-rn. 

r/tLY^isavt)^9 9$9*fi* 

88& He has a hud c,«<jh. 

A -no o ka-ta wa se-ki nga o-mo-o go za-ri-ma-a'. 

Do. A no h'-to wa sc-ki nija o-ino-i. 

229. Jh is a cheer boy. 

A-no o ko wa ha-tsz-me-i dc o i-de na-sa-re-ma-s'. 

Do. A-no ko wa ri-ko-o mo-no. 

230. lie eotne* here seldom . 

Tu-ina ni ko-ko ni o i-de na-sare-ma-a'. 

Do. Ta-ma ni ko-ko e ku-ru. 

23 1 . Iff is only pretending. 

A-no o ka-ta wa to-bo-ke-ta koto ba-ka-ri na-sa-rc-ma-s\ 

Do. A-re wa to-bo-ke-ta ko-to ba-ka-ri sz-ru. 

232. 7/e <i/t*7 1 differ in opinion about that. 

A-no koto wa wa-ta-k'-shi no o-mo-o to a-no o-ka-ta no o 

f;a>/^9^W **.? HV jrftfi >* 

o-mo-i na-sa-ru to wa chi-nga-i-ma-sz-ru. 

•Xt1^)V Y * * if f^X>v 

Do. A-no ko-to wa wa-ta-k'-shi no o-mo-o to a-no h'-to no o- 
mo-o to chi-nga-i-ma-s'. 

233. He is the most polite man I am acquainted with. 
Wa-ta-k'-shi no dzo-n-ji-ma-sh'-ta u-chi de wa a-no o ka-ta 

^n; r^+ *i> 9 v± r * t v ant 



30 II. 

nga i-chi-ba-n re-i ngi ta-da-shi-u go za-ri-ma-s'. 
Do. Wa-ta-k'-shi sh'-t-ta u-chi de \va a-no h'-to nga i chi-ba-n 
re-i ngi no-a ta-da-shi-i. 

234. He is so stupid, he will never learn any thing. 

A-no o h'-to wa gu-do-n de go za-ri-ma-s' ka-ra, tsz-i-ni o-bo- 

IV #fc> ^^y^T a^fl)^* ft? 9i±it# 

e-ru koto wa de-ki-ma-s' ma-i. 
Do. A -re wa gu-do-n yu-e tsz-i-ni o-bo-e-ru ko-to wa de-ki ma-i. 

235. He does not understand his business well. 

A-no o ka-ta wa ka-ngi-o-o no mi-chi wo wa-ki-ma-e-te o- 

ra-re ma-se-nu. 

?V •?& % 

Do. A-no h'-to wa ka-ngi-o-o no mi-chi wo shi-ra-nu. 

236. .F/tf zs «o tt£& £tal Ac cannot live long. 

A-no o ka-ta wa go bi-o-o shi-n de go za-ri-ma-s' ka ra, o 

f 7* ft.£ ^ ^tf^ ^f 5f ifl) -?% ft ?* 

na-nga i-ki wa de-ki-ma-s' ma-i. 

Do. A-no h'-to wa bi-o-o shi-n da ka-ra na-nga-ku wa i-ki-ra- 
re ma-i. 

237. He was covered with mud from head to foot. 

A-no o ka-ta wa a-ta-ma ka-ra a-shi ma-de ni do-ro ma-bu- 

1V7J-.ft£ *>f*^ #£ T ■■$*.*>?& vm * x 

re ni o na-ri na-sa-re-ta. 
Do. A-no h'-to wa a-ta-ma ka-ra a shi ma-de ni do-ro ma-bu- 

IVfcV^T^ ft? ti'TTT* XU^-f 

re ni na-t-ta. 

238. f/0 «s always in mischief. 

A-no h'-to wa he-i ze-i wa-ru-i i-ta-dz-ra wo i-ta-shi-ma-s' 

Do. A-no h'-to wa tsz-ne ni wa-ru-i i-ta-dz-ra wo sz-ru. 



n. 31 

239. tic cannot do such a thing at this tcell ; it is not in him. 

\ I kit. i w.i ehl-fl Dfta ti-ri-nu \i\-r ko-no to-o-ri ni wa 

de-ki-mi-se-nu. 
Do. A-re \va iru-ma-i da ka-ra ko no to-o-ri ni wa doki-nu. 

Tv rs r-rf 7f) ?a ; \?\)^ r> ?$* 

240. lie it a late riter. 

A-no o ka-ta \va a-sa-ne wo i-ta-shi-ma V. 

T7 *f)Z>^ T*3- 9 f *><>* 

Do. A r« wi a.i-nobo wo sz-ril. 

24 1 . He geit up he fore day-l*renk. 

A-no o ka-ta wa vo a-ke ma-e ni o o-ki na-sa-rn. 

iv it ft*'* a ty *\aw ^*>v 

Do. A-no h'-to wa yo a-kc ma-e ni o ki-ru. 

242. He gets up by tun-rite 

A-no o ka-ta wa hi no de ni o o-ki nasn-ru. 

Do. A-no h'-to wa hi no de ni o-ki-ru. 

243. J7<? «/feN<fo money foolithly. 

A-no o ka-ta wa mu-da ni ka-no wo o ts'-ka i na -sa-ru 

Do. A-no h'-to wa mu-da ni ka-ne wo ts'-ka-u. 

244. 2Cl M too strong for you. 

A-no o ka-ta wa a-na-ta. ni ku-ra-be-ma-sz-ru to chi-ka-ra n^a 

VS itn* '^y+9 — #9 *<*A)V >±K3 ff 

tsz-yo, sz-niji-ma-sz-ru. 

9 a A W + * >V 

Do. A-no h'-to wa o-rr.a-e ni ku-ra-be-rn to chi-ka-ra n^ tsz- 
yo sz-nf-i-ru. 

245. life Myi he it unwilling. 
Ko-no-ma-nu to o-s'-shi-va-ri ma-s\ 

Do. I-ra na-i to i-u 

240. /J<? cares for nobody. 

A-no o ka-ta wa ho-ka no h'-to ni ka-ma-i-ma-se-nu 

Do. A-no h'-to wa ho-ka no h'-to ni ka-ma-wa-nu 



32 H. 

247. He deserves a flogging. 

A-no o ka-ta wa ta-ta-ka-re na-sa-re-te mo yo-ro shi-u z;o za 

ri-ma-s 7 . 
Do. A-re wa ta-ta-ka-re-te mo i-i. 

TV ^ ?##vf ^ 3f 

248. He Tenons what he is about 

A-no o ka-ta wa ko-ko-ro e a-t-te na-sa-ve-ma-s'. 

Do. A-no h'-to wa ko-ko-ro e a-t-te sz-ru. 

f } fc > /n rrn Ettf >y f ;w 

249. JI* will not lose hj it. 

So-no ko-to de ke-s'-sh'-te so-n wo i-ta-shi-ma-se-mi. 

Do. A-no ko-to de ke-s'-sh-te so-n wo shi-ma-se-nu. 

250. He cares little for dress. 

A-no o ka-ta wa i-rn-i no ko-to hi a-ma-ri o kn-ma i na-sa- 

re-ma se-nu. 
Do. A-no h'-to wa ki-mo-no ni a-ma-ri ka-ma-wa-nu. 

251. He is always well dressed. 

A-no o ka-ta wa he-i ze-i yo-ro-shi-i i-P-ku woo-ki na-sa- 

if * n>* * -Mtff atn,n?t 9ir*f-* 

re-ma-s' . 
Do. A-no h'-to wa tsz-ne ni i-i ki-mo-no wo ki-ma-s'. 

252. He is drunk every day. 

A-no o ka-ta wa ma-i ni-chi sa-ke ni ta-be yo-t-te o i-de na- 

i/itxz^^i -**>?- to?? an? f- 

sa-ru. 
Do. A-no h'-to wa ma-i ni-chi sake ni yo-t-te i-ru. 

253. 77** opinion and yours are the same. 

A-no o ka-ta wa o-mo-o to a-na-ta no o-mo-o to o-na-ji-ko-to 

de go za-ri-ma-s'. 
Do. A-no h'-to no o-mo-o to o-ma-e to o-na-ji- ko-to. 

If \x\ ;*fc? \ -K^Y itf-^^V 



H. 33 

254. He denies that he did it. 

A-no o ka-ta wa i-ta-«hi-ma-se«nu to o-s'-shi-ya-ri-nun*. 

Do. A-no h'-to wa shi-ma-se-nu to i-i-ma-s'. 

255. He confesses that he did it. 

A-no o ka-ta wa i-tn-shi-ma-sh'-ta to a-ra-wa ni mo-o-shi- 

ma-sh'-ta. 

fist 

Do. A-no h'-to wa i-ta-sh'-ta to a-ki-ra-ka ni i-t-lu, 

256. He is said to he rich. 

A-no o ka-ta wa bunge-n de go za-ii-ma-a' to mi-na nga mo- 

o-ani-ma-a'. 
Do. A-no h'-to wa cho-o-ja to mi-na i-i-ma-a'. 

257. He is a new comer. 

A-no o ka-ta wa ha-ji-mc-te o i-de na-sa-rc-ta o ki-va-ku de 

t/ it »? r. '-V* f*1?+*vft it *>* T 

go za-ri-ma-s . 
Do. A-no h'-to wa ha-ji-me-te k'-ta ki-ya-ku ji-n. 

258 He has blue eyes. 

A-no o ka-ta no me wa a-i i-ro de go za-ri-ma-a'. 

Do. A-no h'-to no me wa a-i i-ro ni mi-e-ru. 

259. He is a hard man to deal with. 

A-no h'-to to u-ri ka-i sz-ru ko-to wa rou-dz-ka-ahi-u go za- 

ri-roa-s'. 
Do. A-no h'-to to u-ri ka-i wa shi ni-ku-i. 

260. He has been gone aU day. 

A-no o-ka-ta wa ki-o-o wa i-chi ni-chi o tu-sz de go za-ri- 

ma-sh'-ta. 
Do. A-no h'-to ki-o-o wa i-chi ni-chi u-chi ni o-ri-ma-se-na-n-da. 

E 



34 H. 

261. He has gone bach. 

A-no o ka-ta wa a-chi-ra-e o ka-i-ri na-sa-re-ma-sh'-ta. 

n 7Sirft$ j* 1* 93lT.it 1 Wtvt I,* 

Do. A-no h'-lo wa a-chi e ka-i-t-ta. 

fS t:> /> f4-ZftlV# 

262. He fell flat on his loch. 

A-no o ka-ta wa a-wo-no-ke ni o ko-ro-bi na-sa-re-ta. 

■ 1:J tW^t? S 7 ~** BtT^V* 

Do. A-no h'-to wa a-wo-no-ke ni ko-ro-n da. 

IV t:h J*19 J*J -xV^yC 

263. i?e *7o0« wo£ Zn?« here now. 

A-no o ka-ta wa i-ma ko-ko ni sz-ma-t-te o-ra-re-ma-se-nu. 

^ S * ft^S ^ i^ x 3^^yfjr?v^&% 

264. He (a child) wants to play all the time. 

A-no o ko wa i-tsz-de-mo yo-ku o a-so-bi na-sa-re ta-nga-ru. 

fs* a /% i y ?& 3 $ jtT?£*$y $ if yv 

Do. A-no ko-do-mo wa i-tsz-de mo yo-ku a-so-bi ta-nga-ru. 

IV * Y5z ^ 1*f ^ B 9 1Vtt# 1f)V 

265. He was lorn deaf and dumb. 

A-no o ka-ta wa m' -ma-re ts'-ki o-slii de go za-ri ma-s'. 

J is* ft? j*9%K *\-w%'? ***l ^* 

Do. A-re wa m' -ma-re ts'-ki o-shi da. 

1v s> 9 -? v v^jtisP 

266. He has not been here to-day 

A-no o ka-ta wa ko-n ni-chi ma-da ko-ko ni o i-de na-sa- 

is *ft$ > ai> -* -?$ * * ~*1? +* 

re-ma-se-nu. 

267. He lives there all alone. 

A-no o ka-ta wa h'-to-ri a-so-ko ni sz-ma-t-te o i-dena-sa-re- 

is *ft2^\z\\) iv* - ttvf*iT**v 

ma-s' . 
Do. A-no h'-to-wa h'-to-ri a-s'-ko ni sz-n-de i-ru. 

is t i-^tH)f v ;2 A*&fiw 

268. He does not understand this business. 

A-no o ka-ta wa ko-no sh' -yo-ku wo o shi-ri na-sa-re-ma-se-nu. 
K mW^a;s,3^*H S-*V^&% 

Do. A-no h'-to wa ko-no sh' -yo-ku wo shi-ra-nu. 

1 S t> rs as IsB >? ? ^ 5 % 

269. He has been arrested for theft. 

A-no o ka-ta wa nu-sz-mi wo i-ta-shi-ma-sh'-ta ka-ra me-shi 

1 sir ft$ J* %%3> ?12^^l«>l ft? A ^ 

to-ra-re-ma-sh'-ta. 



H 35 

Do. A-re wn do-ro-bo-u-sh'-ta ka-ra shi-ba-ra-re-ta. 

270. He is sick of hit bargain. 

A-no o ka-ta wa te wo u-t-la ka-ra ko-o k'-wa-i i-ta-sh'-tc o- 

ra-re-ma-s\ 
Do. A-no h'-to wa te wo u-t-ta ka-ra ko-o k'-wa-i sh'-to i-ru. 

f ; th *s f 9 9?M ? ^9^9* l*?fiv 

271. ffo m mow sighted. 

A-no o ka-ta wa kin nga-n de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. A-no h -to wa chi-ka me-da. 
ty t:h ^ *» *$f 

272. He is the worst man I ever knew. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi no dzo-n-ji-ma-sh'-ta u-chi de wa a-no o ka-ta 

nga i-ta-t-te wa-ru-u go zo-ri-ma-s'. 



Wa-ta-k'-shi no sh'-t-ta u-chi 



Do. Wa-ta-k'-shi no sh'-t-ta u-chi de wa a-no h'-to nga i-chi- 

9 fit ^ f \>** 94- f /» t y ti- «• f * 

ba-n wa-ru-i. 

273. /fc rfoe* well for so small a hoy. 

A-no ko-do-mo wa chi-i-sa ke-re-do-mo yo-ku yo-o nga ta-ri 

fj a v % ^ *1* V v yz. a ? a? if $ i) 

ma-s\ 

^>* 

Do. A-no ko-do-mo wa chi-i-sa-i nga yo-ku ya-ku ni ta-tsz. 

274. He has run through all his property. 

A-no o ka-ta wa ka-za-i wo no-ko-ra-dz ts'-ka-i ts.-ku-shi-ma- 

TV* tips* Xif1 9 S* 9X^X1 9&*s* 

sh'-ta. 
Do. A-no h'-to wa ka-za-i wo no-ko-ra-dz ts'-ka-t-te shi-mo-o-ta. 

275. He is in the right, they are in the wrong. 

A-no o ka-ta no o-bo-shi-me-shi to-o-ri nga yo-ro-shi-u go za- 

f > * tit > ittf Is A %>Y$ X) tf 3X2^9 dT4f 

ri-raa-s'. A-no o ka-ta nga-ta no o-bo-shi-me-shi wa so-o i 

1)-?X f^W^3i; JT^is A Is *>?91 

i-ta-shi-ma-s'. 
Do. A-no h'-to no o-mo-i do-o-ri nga yo-i-A-no h'-to ta-chi no 

TV t> /#fef r*94f at?; th %±> 



36 H. 

o-mo-o to-koro wa chi-nga-u. 

276. He thinks a great deal of his horse. 

A-no o ka-ta wa go ji bu-n no m-ma wa chi-n ch'-o i-ta- 

f ; /'ir '#*>*' V*f& > ^^ * i^±vy 1# 

sa-re-ma-s'. 
Do. A-no h'-to wa ji bu-n no m'-ma wo da-i ji ni sz-ru. 

277. Jle thinks nothing of getting dead drunk 

A-no o ka-ta wa sa-ke ni yo-i-ma-s' to sh'-o ta-i na-ku na- 

ri-ma-s' ko-to-mo-na-ni mo ka-ma-i-ma-se-nu. 

i)^* *Y z.^~,*i ft *?i <?^% 

Do. A-no h'-to wa sa-ke ni yo-o-to sh'-o ta-i na-i nga na-ni mo 
ka-ma-wa-na. 

ft^? 9 % 

278. He is deeply in debt, and likely to fail. 

A-no o ka-ta wa sh'-ya-k'-ki-n nga ta-i so-o ni go za-ri-ma-s' 

ka-ra, no-chi ni wa bu-n sa-n wo i-ta-shi-ma-sh'-o-o. 

ft 9 > £ «a/* i^^^ 9 i $ I, -? ^v^ 

Do. A-no h'-to wa sh'-ya-k' ki-n nga o-o-i ka-ra no-chi ni wa 

t ; \=.\ /» v*9k*4tirk*in 9 J * — » 

bu-n sa-n wo sz-ru de a-ro-o. 
f^is 9 M?7t29 

279. He was once poor bat now has become rich. 

A-no o ka-ta wa sa-ru ko-ro hi-n j'-a de go za-ri-ma-sh'-ta 

nga, i-ma de wa fu-u ki-ni na-ri-ma-sh'-ta. 

if 1 • tf T *> ?9 %^ ^-i) ^ ^$ 

Do. A-no h'-to wa sa-ru ko-ro hi-n j'-a de a-t-ta nga i-ma de 
wa f-ku sh'-a ni n a-t-ta. 

280. He is a learned man. 

A-no o ka-ta wa ha-ku nga-ku de go za-ri-ma^. 

f/ar ft$ » cP ft P f =* *■*** 

Do. A-no h -to wa ha-ku nga-ku da. 

281. He does not care what he says. 

A-no o ka-ta wa e-n ri-o na-shi ni o-s'-shi-a-ri-ma-s'. 

-?sir ft$ ^z^va^is—jrv prw* 

Do. A-re wa e-n ri-o na-shi ni i-u. 



H. S7 

£82. He is bhnd of one eye. 

A-no o ka-ta vva kn-ta-me de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

fj * ft* * ft za f ^^fi)^^ 

Do. A-no h'-to \va me-k-ka-rhi da. 

283. He died of smallpox. 

A-no o ka-ta wa ho-o-so-o de o na-ku-na-ri na-sa-re-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. A-re wa ho-o-so-o de shi-n da. 

tv j* &W9T Is ±-7 

234. He has lost all his property. 

A-no o ka-ta wa ka-za-i wo mi-na na-ku sa-re-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. A-re wa ka-za-i wo mi-na na-ku sh -ta. 

tv rs ft*1 9 3+ +V isfi 

285. He is a stingy fellow. 

Ano o ka-ta wa shi-wo-o go za-ri-ma-s'. 

T7 it ft* r v *>? * if\)^% 

Do. A-re wa shiwa-i. 

286. Hi has sprained his ankle. 

A-no o ka-ta wa a-shi-ku-bi wo ku-ji-ki-ma-sh'-ta. 

T > *ft2 ?Yfc *& f ti^S^l-H 

Do. Are wa a-ehi-ku-bi wo ku-ji-i-ta. 

Tv>T^*tf 9 0V19 

287. He teas fined one and one-half kobans for buying stolen property- 
A-no o ka-ta wa nu-sz-bi-to no mo-no wo ka-i-ma-sh'-ta yu- 

1V* ft 9 * **fcTh J *: ? 9 Hi *&> 9 X 

e k'-a-ri-o ki-n i-chi ri-o ni bu to-ra-re-ma-sh'-ta. 
Do A-no h'-to wa do-ro-bo no mo-no wo ka-t-ta ka-ra. ka-ri- 

t ;\±\ ^ YX3$$> *. > 9 ftv? ft5ty\) 

o ki-n i-chi ri-o ni bu. to-ra-re-ta. 

288. He writes a good hand. 

A-no o ka-ta wa no-o j'-o-de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

T7 # ftt *\ >*? VBT* *ri)^* 

Do A-re wa mo-ji wo yo-ku ka-ku. 

tv ^Z.^V9 3 V ft P 

289. He keeps house himself 

A-no o ka-ta wa ka-na-i no ko-to wo h'-to-ri de na-sa-re-ma-s'. 

T7 *ft2 '^ft*l s 3 > ? \z\y)?**v^% 

Do A-re wa ka-na-i no ko-to wo h -to-n de sz-ru. 

Tv ^ ft+i f *\ ? fcHJ 7 W 



38 H. 

290. He has gone ashore. 

A-no o ka-ta wa o-ka ni o a-nga-ri na-sa-re-ma-sh'-ta. 

_ fj *p5 * *n +* t# >) +* v -? ^ % 

Do. A-no h -to wa o-ka ni a-nga-t-ta. 

291. He is always losing his pocket-book. 

A-no o ka-ta wa o-ri o-ri ka-mi-i-re wo na-ku-sa-re-ma-s'. 

Do. A-no h -to wa o-ri o-ri ka-mi-i-re wo na-ku-sz. 

292. He looks very like his brother. 

A-no o ka-ta wa a-ni sa-ma ni yo-ku ni-te o i-de na-sa-re- 

Tv>#*?£ X T~-t^^ 3^ -7*1? **v 

ma-s\ 

^^ 

Do. A-re wa a-ni ni yo-ku ni-te i-ru. 

293. He said to be poor. 

A-no o ka-ta wa hi-n-ki-u de go za-ri-ma-s' to, h'-to ni i-wa- 

fSJT ftZ ^tLf*9T*1FV*A > t:h -1V 

re-ma-s . 
Do. A-re wa bi-m-bo-o da to h'-to ni i-wa-ru-ru. 

294. He has been a great traveller. 

A-no o ka-ta wa sh'-o ko-ku wo hi-ro-ku o me-ngu-ri na-sa 

TSJTJP&J* ls3 ?9 9 tL&t* A pi) ^-t 

re-ta n -to de go za-ri-ma-s'. 
Do. A-re wa ku-m-ngu-ni wo hi-ro-ku ma-wa-t-ta h'-to da. 

195. He lives over the river. 

A-no o ka-ta wa ka-wa no mu-ko-o ni o i-de na-sa-re-ma-s'. 

T/ Or ft# h n v ? t* ft? tstf-iTlHt-v** 

Do. A-re wa ka-wa no mu-ko-o ni i-ru. 

TV r> ft *? ; l*ft 7 ~1)V 

296. He is not of age. 

A-no o ka-ta wa ma-da o-to-na ni o na-ri na-sa-re-ma-se-n'. 

Do. A-re wa ma-da o-to-na ni na-ra-nu. 

297. He has played a trick upon us. 

A-no o ka-ta wa ta-wa-mu-re ni wa-ta-k'-shi wo o da-rna-shi 

f /1ttt#r> %V I* V^ »?.# #%, 9 JT?^^ 



H. 39 

na-sa-re-ma-sh'4a. 

^-* v + i, 9 

297. Are wa j'-o-o da-n ni wa-shi wo da-ma-sh'-ta. 

298. He sills them at a great profit 

A-no o ka ta wa so-re wo u-ri-mash'-tc ta-i-so-o o mo-o-ke 

nummr 
Do. A-re wa ko-re wo u-t-te ta-i-so-o mo-o-ke-ru. 

299. iff A«f become used to it. 

A-no o h'-to wa sore ni na-re-te o shi-ma-i na-sa-re ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. A-re wa so-re ni na-re-te shi-ma-t-ta. 

300. //Ss if rfry careful of his horse. 

A-no o ka-ta wa m'-ma wo ta-i-se-tsz ni yo-o ji-n na-sa-re- 

Y>># ft$ ^ *^ 9 Hi&V ^3?^ yHf V 

ma-s\ 

•?% 

Do. A-re wa m'-ma wo da-i-ji ni yo-o ji-n wo sz-ru. 

?v ^ 1^ *• 9 ViV^B^V^ 9 A)V 

30 1 . He can undersell us. 

A-no h'-to wa wa-ta-k'-shi do-mo yo-ri ya-s'-ku u-ru koto nga 

T7 fch /> ? 9^ h *: 31) **^ ^Vn> *f 

de-ki-mas'. 

Do. A-re wa wa-shi yo-ri ya-s'-ku u-ru ko-to nga de-ki-ni. 
tV^!7i/ 3 !)** WW *> If f *>V 

302. ZZc if a middle aged man. 

A-no o ka-ta wa chi-u ne-n de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

is**? ^ **? 5-^ r* *p)^* 

Do. A-re wa chi-u ne-n mo-no da. 

303. JEff otrff morf Man A* if worth, and will finally be bankrupt. 
A-no o ka-ta wa ji-bu-n no shi-n-da-i yo-ri sh'-a-k'-ki-n nga 

yo-ke-i de go za-ri-ma-s , ka-ra tsz-i-ni wa ji-mo-tsz i-ta- 
3*7 if ^ifl) -?* ft J V1^> j* ^A 9 1$ 

shi-ma-sh -o-o. 

Do. A-re wa shi-n-da-i yo-n sh'-a-k'-ki-n nga yo-ke-i da ka- 

tv ^VzSfi 3D ^^*^ tf 3+fi $ ft 



40 H. 

ra shi-ma-i-ni tsz-bu-re-ru de a-ro-o. 

304. He has no right to do it. 

A-no o ka-ta wa so-re wo na-sa-re-te wa mi-chi-nga chi-nga-i 

fj jrxz^w 9 **vf ^3. * n ^ jfi 

ma-sh'-o-o. 
Do. A-re wa so-re wo sh'-te wa mi-chi nga chi-nga-o. 

?v rs v ;v ^ h ^ 3. f n f X? 

305. He injures himself by drinking sake. 

A-no o ka-ta wa sa-ke wo o no-mi na-sa-re-te ka-ra-da nga 

i-ta-mi-ma-s'. 

1 %*??% 

Do A-rc wa sa-ke wo no-n-de ka-ra-da nga i-ta-mu. 

tv •? w *'?*+ *5? n 1?* 

306. He is a good hand at this business. 

A-no o ka-ta wa ko-re wo na-sa-ru ko-to nga j'-o-o-dz de go 

t sir «* A 3v 9 j*if)V3Y fT&+9X'?dr 

za-ri-ma-s' . 

*fl)^* 

Do. A-re wa ko-re wo az-ru ko-to nga-j'-o-o-dz da. 

?v /> 3V 9 jfcva* ifW9£T < 

307. He has made a good teacher. 

A-no o ka-ta wa yo-ro.sh'-ki shi-sh'-o-o ni na-ri-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do A-re wa yo-ki shi-sh'-o-o ni na-t-ta. 

tv jj a^isisW—j-yp 

308. He J&M this side of the temple. 

A-no o ka-ta wa te-ra yo-ri te-ma-i ni o-ra-re-ma-s'. 

T ?1S ft% /* T5 31). f^f^^V^ 

Do A-no h'-to wa te-ra yo-ri te-ma-i ni sz-ma-t-te i-rti. 

?7 t:> A T7 31) f ^Y— A^TVf 1)V 

309. He Ziv^s tfAree doors Mw side of the inn. 

A-no o ka-ta-wa ha-ta-ngo-ya yo-ri sa-n nge-n te-ma-i ni sz- 

i m n% /*> #3* -V 31) ^yv *t*A^% 

ma-t-te o-ra-re-ma-s'. 

Do. A-re wa ha-ta-ngo-ya yo-ri sa-n nge-n te-ma-i ni sz-ma-t- 

tV ^ /vj| 3* f 3') +^ T^, f*t1. — *^ * 

te o-ru. 

310. He lives ten doors beyond the custom house. 

A-no o ka-ta wa u-n-j'-o-o-sh'-o no ji-k ke-n sa-ki ni sz-ma- 



II. 41 

t-te o-ra-re-ma-s' . 

*?*?v^A 

Do. A-no h'-to \va u-n-j'-o-o-sh'-o no ji-k kr-n sa-ki ni sz-ma- 

T>> t> ^9>VW^B SWV^ *S -* ? 

t-te i-ru. 

3\\. He lives the other tide of the tea house. 

4-no o ka-ta wa ch'-aya no sa-ki ni sz-mat-te o i-de na- 

sa-re-ma-s'. 

*v-?* 

Do. A-re wa ch'-a-ya no sa-ki ni sz-mat-te i-ru. 
TV /N *-*"* >> ** — *^*?f)V 

3 12. lie let it fall and broke it to pieces. 

A-no o ka-ta nga o o-to-shi na-sa-rcta ka-ra ku-da-ke-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. A-re nga o-to-sh'-ta ka-ra ko-wa-re-ta. 

Tv ffjt Yis2 fi? ^ ^v>* 

313. He m e ant well, but was mistake*. 

A-no o ka-ta \va ko-ko-ro dza-shi wa yo-ro-shi-u go za-ri- 

T/* HZ ^ a np *F ^ *> 3 £Z^9 rf *fl) 

ma-sh'-ta nga ma-chi-ngai-ma-sh'-ta. 

^ ^5 *f * * tf t^ > £ 

Do. A re wa ko-ko-ro dza shi wa yo-ro-shi-i-nga ma-chi-ngo-o-ta. 

tv * 3^t3 ** v j^anyiti *4> ts ?% 

3 [4. He thinks more of eating than of any thing else. 

A-no o ka-ta wa ho-ka no ko-to yo-ri ta-be-ma-s' ko to ni mi 

t/ tn* * ♦ ft s ** ao 9 **?% * y -z. 

wo i-re-ma-s'. 
Do. A-re wa ho-ka no ko-to yo-ri ta-be-ru ko-to ni mi wo i- 

T v ^ * X J ^h 31) ^)V^i^^t 

re-ru. 
V)V 

315. /lip did it on purpose. 

A-no o ka-ta wa ko-ko-ro e-te i-ta-sa-re-ma-sh'-ta. 

T Jit UZ r * xps-rifnYv ^isfi 

Do. A-re wa wa-za-to shi-ma-sh'-ta. 

Tv A' •?"'*> ^ * >5? 

316. He keeps his horse well. (said of the owner.) 
A-no o ka-ta wa m'-ma wo yo-ku ya-shi-na-wa-se-ma-s'. 

T7 arfi^ /> *^ ?34\-V^:^9fe^* 

Do. A-re wa m'-ma wo yo-ku ya-shi-na-u. (of the groom ) 

Tv ^ ^ *? ? 3 ,? -p ^zhy 

F 



42 H. 

317. He is a respectable man. 

A-no o ka-ta \va ta-t-to-mu be-ki h'-to de go za-ri-ma-s\ 

5 Jit ft% h WYi* $% t:> f ^ *r i) -?* 

Do A-re wa ta-t-to-mu be-ki h'-to da. 

318. .Zfo foofo ow£ well for himself. 

A-no o ka-ta wa ji-bu-n ng-a-t-te no yo-ro-sh'-ki ko-to wo o 

o-mo-i na-sa-rtr. 
Do A-re wa te-ma-i nga-t-te no yo-i ko-to wo o-mo-o. 

319. He is a selfish fellow. 

A-no o ka-ta wa wa-nga ma*ma no mo-no de go za-ri-ma-s ? . 

f /> it K2 » 9 *f ^^S^s?*^*)-?* 

Do A-re wa wa-nga ma-ma mo-no. 
f V /> 9 ff -?-? £ } 

320. He broke the law. 

A-no o ka-ta wa ha-t-to wo ya-bu-ri-rna-sh'-ta. 

7S itt>$ ^ ^?Y9 X-fti^UA 

Do. A-re wa ha-t-to wo ya-bu-t-ta. 

f v ^ ^9Y9 -v iff # 

321. He thinks of nothing but making money 1 and cares for nothing else. 
A-no o ka-ta wa ka-ne wo fu-va-sz ko-to ba-ka-ri o o-mo-i na- 

sa-re-ma-s', ho-ka no ko-to wo o ka-ma-i na-sa-re-ma-se-nu. 

4Yv^?% $>fj S *Y 9it ft-m* +v -r ^ % 

Do A-no h'-to wa ka-ne wo ta-me-ru ko-to ba-ka-ri o-mo-t-te, 

?7 nY *nir-9 $* )V^^ *)it&yf 

ho-ka no ko-to wa ka-ma-wa-nu. 

322. IZ0 «s always finding fault. 

A-no o ka-ta wa i-tsz-de-mo h'-to no a-ya-ma-chi wo ta-dz- 

ne-te o-ri-ma-s'. 

3* fit*)? A 

Do. A-re wa i-tsz-de-mo h'-to no a-ya-ma-chi wo ta-dz-ne-te i-ru. 

fv.^1 y?f&L$ J7V^£ 9 Z^fpv 

323. He asks too much for his goods. 

A-no h'-to no shi-ro-mo-no no ne-da-n dz-ke wa ta-kasz-ngi-ru. 

IVtiV 7 V t2 ^ ? ? 3-#V T >j ^5? fl % ^)V 

Do- A-re nga shi-ro-mo-no wa ne nga ta-ka-i. 
fVtf >#*: 7 '< 5- tf ZK1 

324. 5^ ft «?or£A 143.000 kobangs. 

A-no o ka-ta wa i-chi ma-n ri-o-o no shi-n shi-o-u de go 

7 sir n% j* r -f ^ \)w s ^ i^b v? st 



U. 43 

za-ri-nm-s'. 

Do. A-re wa i chi ma-n rio-o no shi-n shi <>-u 

Ife arrived there late. 

Aim o ka-t i wa mu-ka-u e o-so-ku o ts'-ki na-sa-re-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. • wa mu-ka-u e o-so-ku tsz-i-ta. 

fVS* fell 73-JtVP V12 

326. Zfc ha* just gone out. 

A-no o ka-ta wa sa-ki ho-do ho-ka ni o i-de na-sa-re-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. \ • va sa-ki ho-do no-ka ni vu-i-ta. 

327. He hat jutt gone home. 

A-no o ka-la wa sa-ki ho-do u-chi e o ka-i-ri na-sa-re-ma- 

ft til >- *\ -t.K 7 4-3-Xni \)+*v -r 

sh'-ta. 
Do. A-no h'-to wa sa-ki ho-do u-chi ni ka-i-t-ta. 

328. He comes here often. 

Ano o ka-ta wa ta-bi ta-bi ko-ko Hi o i-de na-sa-re-ma-s'. 

Do. A-rc wa la-bi ta-bi ko-ko ni ku-ru. 

Tv ^ $\£ %\£ aa ~ $ )\ 

329. He comes here several times a day. 

A-no o ka-la wa hi ni i-ku ta-bi mo ko-ko ni o i-de na-sa- 

re-mas'. 
Do- A-re wa hi ni na-n do mo ko-ko ni ku-ru. 

330. JLt is an honest man 

A-no o ka-ta wa sh'-o-o-ji-ki de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do A-re wa sh'-o-o-ji-ki mo-no. 

tv /*Vfc#£%fe7 

331. He has gone on board ship. 

A-no o ka-ta wa fu-ne e o i-de na-sa-re-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. A-re wa fu-ne e i-t-ta. 

tv y> 7 3-^-f y# 

332. 2& A<w ^on* up the river. 

A-no o ka-ta wa ka-wa yo-ri a-nga-t-te o i-de na-sa-re-ma- 



44 H. 

sh'-ta. 
Do. A-re wa ka-wa yo-n a-nga-t-te i-t-ta. 

333. iZe w coming this evening whetlwr or no. 

A-no o ka-ta wa ko-m ba-n dze-hi-to-mo o-i-de na-sa-re-ma 

sh'-o-o* 

^-*9 

Do. A-no h'-to wa ko-m ba-n dze-hi-to-mo ku-ru de a-ro-o. 

334. jEfe Acw cheated me out of a dollar. 

A-no o ka-ta wa wa-ta-k'-shi wo da-ma-sh'-te i-chi do-ra o 

to-ri na-sa-re-ma-sh'-ta. 
Do. A-re wa wa-ta-k'-shi wo da-ma-sh'-te i-chi do-ra to-t-ta. 

335. ifo «'s &/"£ handed. 

A-no o ka-ta wa hi-da-ri ki-ki de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

t sit ftft.^ b5;i) *\ f 3^1)^* 

Do. A-re wa hi-da-ri ki-ki da. 

336. Jleis a great coward. 

A-no o ka-ta wa o-ku bi-o-o de go za-ri-ma-s\ 

7 Sit ft 2 /\t*iMr9f =r ifi)^* 

Do. A-re wa o-ku bi-o-o mo-no da. 

337. JETe «« tf^oo^ natured loohng man. 

A-no o ka-ta wa ni-u-wa ni mi-e-ma-sz-ru. 

Do. A-re wa ni-u-wa ni mi-e-ru. 

338. He has been gone a great ivhile. 

A-no o ka-ta wa o i-de na-sa-re-ma-sh'-ta yo-ri. hi-sa-sh'-ku 

7 Sir. *?# »S1T 9-^v^^z b\) t:-^ # 

na-n.ma-s'. 
Do. A-re wa i-t-te yo-ri hi-sa-sh'-ku na-ru. 

tv^Y>yf3i) fc+^^v 

339. He promised to come to-day. 

A-no o ka-ta wa ko-n ni-chi ma-i-ri-ma-sz-ru to ya-ku so-ku 

wo l-ta-shi-ma-sh'-ta. 



R 45 

Do. A-re wa ki-o-ku-ru to ya-ku so-ku shi-ma-sh -ta. 

340. He vat taken tick on the road. 

A-no o ka-ta wa mi-chi de o wa-dz -ra-i na-sa-rc-ma-sh'-tn 

Do. A-re wa mi-chi de wa-dz- ra-t-ta. 

ZA\. He told m* ail about it. 

A-no o ka-ta wa no-ko-ra-dz wa-ta-k'-shi ni o ha-na-shi na- 

sa-re-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. A-no h'-to wa noko-ra-dz washi ni ha-na-ah'-ta. 

342. 27* tc<u to have done it in a month. 

A-no o ka-ta wa h'-to ts-ki no u-chi ni ki-t-to de-ki-ma-s to 

ya-ku so-ku wo l-ta shima-sh -ta. 

* * y* ?f # ^ * v # 

Do. A-re wa h'-to ts'-ki no u-chi ni ki-t-to de-ki-ru to ya-ku 
so-ku wo sh'-ta. 

9 9 9ls Z 

343. He it fond ofjino clothet. 

A-no o ka-ta wa ki-re-i no ki-rao-no nga o s'-ki de go za-ri- 

T7* ftt^ *W ? *t ; tfjr* *T**i) 

ma-s'. 

^^ 

Do. A-re wa ki-re-i no ki-mo-no nga s'-ki da. 

344. He had some, but hat none now. 

A-no o ka-ta wa sa-ru ko-ro go za-ri-ma-sh'-ta nga, ta-da-i-ma 
IS* fit ^^)V3 tfrf ifl) -?l->? ff %$i~? 
de wa go za-ri-ma-se-n'. 
f fs 3l if X)~? &1S 
Do. A-re wa sa-ru ko-ro a-t-ta i-ma de wa na-i. 

Tv * ^)V ^t2Ty^Y^f » ^f 

345. He hat committed harakiri. 

A-no o ka-ta wa se-p-pu-ku wo i-ta-sa-re-ma-sh'-ta 

t/ or ft 2 ** y fty ? fWv?^ 

Do. A-re wa ha-ra wo ki-t-ta. 

TV J* J* 5 ^**£ 

346. Help me a little. 

A-na-ta s'-ko-shi wa-ta-k'-shi ni o te wo o ka-shi na-sa-re- 

1+2 * *%> r> $ 9%, - *f 9 * ft is +*v 



4fi H. 

te ku-da-sa-re-ma-sh'. 
Do. O-ma-e chi-t-to wa-ta-k'-shi ni te wo ka-sh'-te ku-re-ro. 

jr^z * v > W^Af? ^i/f 9 v n 

347. Help me twist this string. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi i-to wo yo-ri-ma-s' ka-ra,-o te-tsz-da-i na-s a-re- 

V % ^i\ ? 3 i) -?* ft ?*? m^ifv 

te ku-da-sa-re. 
Do. Wa-ta-k'-shi i-to wo yo-ru ka-ra. te-tsz-da-t-te ku-re-ro. 

348. Help him to some rice. 

A-no o ka-ta ni go ha-n wo o a-nge na-sa-re-te ku-da-sa-re. 

Do. A-re ni wa me-shi wo ku-wa-sh'-te ku-re-ro. 

349. Here is the place for it. 

O-ki-ma-s' to-ko-ro wa ko-ko de go za-ri-ma-s' . 

Do. O-ku to-ko-ro wa ko-ko da. 
-ft? Y*t2 A a a f 

350. Here is a dose of medicine. 

Ko-ko ni k'-sz-ri nga i-t-ch'-o go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. Ko-ko ni k'-sz-ri nga i-t-ch'-o a-ru. 

351. Here it is. (after searching) 
Ko-ko ni go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do Ko-ko ni a-ru. 

352. Here it is, take it as long as you require *V.(\vhen given to be used) 
Go yu-ru-ri-to o ts'-ka-i na-sa-re-ma-sh'. 

Do. Yu-ru yu-ru to ts'-ka-e. 

353. His father lives at Yedo. 

A-no o ka-ta no chi-chi wa Ye-do ni sz-ma-t-te o i-de na 

sa-re-ma-s'. s 

Do, A-re no chi-chi wa Ye-do ni sz-ma-t-te i-ru. 

354. His pronunciation is had. 

A-no o ka-ta no go i-n nga wa-ru-u go za-ri-ma-s'. 



II 47- 

Do. A-re no go i-n nzi wa-ru-i. 

f\ ? *u ti 9 )V-f 

Hit shop is next to mine. 

• h'-to no miss wa wa-ta-k'-shi no to-na-ri de go za-ri- 

mis'. 

Do A-re nga mi-se wa o-re no to-na-ri da. 

356. Hi* maimer* are e/otcnish. 

A no o ka ta no fu u-dzo-ku wa i-na-ka mo-no de go za-ri- 

1V *f)9 S ?9r 9 *i9*n fc ; f dr ifX) 

mas'. 
Do. Are nga fu-u-dzo-ku wa i-na-ka mo-no da. 

tv n ?9 r 9 /> i+n t;y 

857. His wife i$ my tmni. 

A-no o ka-ta no tsz-ma wa wa-ta-k'-shi no o ba de go za-ri- 

mas'. 

^* 

Do. A-re no tsz-ma wa wa-ta-k'-shi no o ba da. 

fv / **j* >?9 91^ t**9 

358. His mind is not on his work. 

A-no o h'-to wa na-sa-ru ko-to ni mi wo o i-re na-sa-ra-nu. 

Po. A-re wa sz-ru ko-to ni mi wo i-re-nu. 
Tv^ *>V ay — 3.9 iv% 

350. His father set him up in business 

A-no h'-to no chi-chi wa mo-to de wo i-re-ma-sh'-te a-ki-na- 

i wo ha-ji-me sa-se-ma-sh'-ta. 

19 **£* *\z^is 9 

Do. A-re no chi-chi wa mo-to de wo i-re-te a-ki-na-i wo ha- 

tV ? * * J* *z.\ T 91 Vf f *7>-19 *s 

ji-me sa-se-ta. 

VA +fe 9 

360. Hi« horse ran atcay with him, and he could not stop him. 

A-no o ka-ta wa m'-ma de ha-shi-ra-se-ma-sh'-ta nga, ji-shi-n 

9 > it ft 9 * h 1? T ^> 9 * * I- 5? ft Vl^ 

de to-me-ru, ko-to nga de-ki-ma_se-na-n-da. 

r M >v a l- *f f * ■? * ^$r 

Do. Are wa m'-ma de ha-shi-ra-se-ta nga to-me-ru ko-to nga 

tv » **^ f /%v?^ tf M >v 3f # 



43 H. 

de-ki na-ka-t-ta. 

361 His house is opposite to mine. 

A-no o h'-to no i-e wa wa-ta-k'-shi no i-e no mu-ko-o de 

go za-ri-ma-s' 

Do. A-re nga i-e wa wa-shi no i-e no mu-ko-o da. 

362. Em wound is healed. 

A-no o ka-ta no ki-dz wa i-e ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. A-re no ki-dz wa i-e-ta (or)na-o-t-ta. 

7v ) % *rj*i*% *itv % 

363. His income is 1000 no a month. 

A-no o ka-ta no ri-o-o bu-n no a-nga-ri-da-ka wa h'-to ts'- 

tlXnzw**}*?*',} iff y#n &n > * 

ki ni se-n ri-o-o dz-tsz ha-i-n-ma-s' . 

a^—te^ \)v^ry ^1*)^?> 

Do. A-re nga ri-o-o bu-n no a-nga-ri-da-ka wa h'-to ts'-ki ni se-n 
ri-o-o dz-tsz, ha-iru. 

364. i?is children have their own way. 

A-no* o ka-ta no ko-do-mo wa wa-nga ma-ma de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. A-re nga ko-do-mo wa wa-nga ma-ma mo-no da. 

365. TZbiy *fo yew seZZ £&»* article.? 

A-na-ta ko-no shi-na wa na-ni ho-do de o u-ri na-sa-re-ma-su- 

ka? 
Do. O-ma-e ko-re wa na-ni ho-do de u-ru ka? 

366. .How <fo you say that in Japanese. 

So-re wa Ni-p-po-n de wa na-ni to mo-o-shi-ma-s' ka? 

Do. So-re wa Ni-p-po-n de wa na-ni Jo i-u ka? 

367. How many eggs are there here. 

Ko-ko ni ta-ma ngo wa i-ku-tsz go za-ri-ma-s' ka? 

a a ^ %^ dt /n -f $ * rf if 1)^* # 

Do 1 . Ko-ko ni ta-ma-ngo wa i-ku-tsz a-ru ka? 

an^$-?Jtj*1#y T>V ft 



II. 49 

368. How much did you pay for this ? 

re wa na-ni ho-do de o ka-i na-sa-re mn-sh-'ta ka ? 

a v ^ +~ fc K 7 it ft 1 + * v * i,>* n 

Do. ko-re wa iku-ra de ka-t-la ka? 

^ v ^ 1 1? 7 ftv? ft 

369. How is this idea expressed in Japanese? 

Ko-no o rao-o ko-to wa Ni-p-po-n dr wa na-ni to i-i-ma-sh'- 

t.i-r.i V"-ru-slnn p za-rima-sh-'o-o ka? 

Do. Ko-no o-mo-o ko-to wa Ni-p-po-n de wa do-o i-t-ta-ra yo- 

karo-o ka? 
*7?? ft 

370. How long do you want this? 

Ko-re wa i-tsz ma-de o i-ri yo-o de go za-ri-ma-s' ka? 

Do. Ko-re wa t-tsz ma-de i-ri yo-o da ka? 

371 . //oir foa^ do yaw tMN^ •*.* (speaking of length.) 
Na-nga-sa na-ni ho-do o i-ri na-sa-rc-ma-s' ka? 

9- ff * *» A K*\f <) >*-+ v^ # 

Do Na-nga-sa na-ni ho-do i-ru ka? 

372. How does he get his living f 

A-no o h'-to wa na-ni wo ka-ngi-yo-o ni sh'-te o ku-ra-shi na- 

sa-re-ma-s' ka? 

*V ~?A ft . 

Do. A-ie wa na-ni wo ka-ngi-yo-o ni sh'-te ku-ra sz ka? 

TV /* +~ 9 ft*?B*> - ^f VJK ft 

373. Mow long shall you be gone? 

A-na-ta i-tsz ma-de ni yu-t-te o ka-e-ri na-sa-re-ma-s' ka? 

Do. O-ma-e-i-tsz ma-de ni i-t-te ka-e-rn ka? 

3h?:fcf* -?7 — 1?f ft^w ft 

374. How long ie this house. 

Ko-no i-e no ke-n sz-u wa na-n nge-n go za-ri-ma-s' ka? 

Do. Ko-no i-e no ke-n sz-u w T a na-n nge-n a-ru ka? 

a ;i^; *f^%V r*+& >T^7)V ft 

375. How wide is it? 

Ha-ba wa na-ni ho-do de go za-ri-ma-s' ka? 

j» ,< ^ +^ &V 7 * *Ti)^* ft 



50 H. 

Do. Ha-ba wa na-ni ho-do a-ru ka? 

^ j* /\ j-^l 4vK f >v ft 

376. How wide is the front entrance? (or door) 
I-e no rna-ngu-chi wa na-n nge-n ho-do go-za-ri-ma-s? 

i s~;-? >jr 4- ? +^ T^ * F ^if l) -?x 

Do. I-e no ma-ngu-chi wa na-n nge-n ho-do a-ru ka? 

is-; ^ p * ^ **, 9> v^F f)V ft 

377. iTotp fongr is the house from front to rear? 

So-no i-e no o-ku-yu-ki wa na-n nee-n ho-do go za-ri-ma- 

y ; is-; jr# i ^ A ^ >f ^ * F af if i) ^ 

s' ka? 
Do. So-no i-e no oku-yu-ki wa na-n nge-n ho-do a-ru-ka? 

V ; is- ;%'; z-% ^ +*, TV vjsF f >v # 

378. iZbw? MMc/i m A* worth? 

A-no o ka-ta wa shi-n sh'-o-o wa na-ni ho-do de go za-ri-ma- 

fSit ft% r* Is^^W >v*^tfvF ftfHfl) -? 

s' ka? 

Do. A-no h'-to wa na-ni ho-do no shi-n sh'-o-o ka? 
T^tl- s^ +~ v^F ? I** U*9 ft 

379. How much is this worth? 

Ko-no ne-u-chi wa na-ni ho-do ngu-ra-i de go za-ri-ma-sh- 
=2 J ?r*? * rsyh^z sJvK 9t ?t f & if 1) -? is 

o-o ka? 

Wft 

Do. Ko-no ne-u-chi wa do-no ku-ra-i de a-ro-o ka? 

* > 3-9 * ^ F >> '99&ti9? ft 

380. ZTow Aar^ ^ w?m<? blows? 

A-a ha-nge shi-i ka-ze de go za-ri-ma-s'? 
^ f f ^ T ^f #*£ T 3* if 1)^* 
Do. A-a tsz-yo-i ka-ze da? 

ttPBi ft& >f 

381. How long have you been her el 

Ko-ko ni na-ni ho-do o i-de na-sa-re-ma-sh'-ta ka? 

Do. Ko-ko ni na-ni ho-do i-ta ka? 

382. How long is it since you come here. 

A-na-ta ko-chi-ra e ma-i-ri-ma-sh'-te yo-ri na-ni ho-do ni na- 
f+# n i; S-^iX)^^y 3 \) ,*-,$ y ^ j- 

n-ma-s ka? 

1)^* ft 

Do. O-ma-e ko-chi-ra e ki-te yo-ri na-ni ho-do ni na-ru ka? 

ir^rs- =t ± ;*>*? 3 i) +~ & F ~ +)v ft 



II. 51 

383. How do you want this done? 

ko-rc wa do-no vo-o ni ts'-ra-sh'-te yo-ro-shi-u go-za 

na-sh'-o-o ka? 

n^>T^ ft 

Do. O-mae ko-rc wa do-o ts'-ku-t-te yo-ka-roo ka? 
*-?!. a\ /\ K9 >>> ^)> f 3 # ? ? # 

384. //ou? mncA rfo you tr<i/i/.' 

in-la na-ni ho-do o i-ri vo-o do go za-ri-ma-s' ka? 

T^-5 ^-- *K* f.D39 f * *»K* n 

Do. O-ma-c na-ni ho-do i-ru ka? 
*-? J- ^- fcK f >V ft 

385. 7/om» c<nwe yow to be so late? 

A-na-ta na-ni go yo-o M-th'-tfl ka-yo-o ni o-so- 

o in n nn m ti ka? 

Do. O-ma-e na-ni nga a-t-tc ko-no yo-o ni o-so i ka? 

*-?*- As frf*? ^y V?-*y f ft 

//bir long shall I make it? 

Wa-ta-k'-shi ko-re wo na-nga-sa na-ni ho-do ts'-ku-ri-ma-sh'- 

i? 9 9V * v ? ^ # * ^- * F*9W l> 

o-o ka? 

*9ft 

Do. Wa-ta-k'-shi ko-re wo na-nga-sa do-re ho-do ni ts'-ku-ro- 

*?99^*v9+tf * Kv * K - * 9 t2 

o ka/ 

9ft 

387. How much do I owe you? 

Wa-ta-k'-shi a-na-ta ni sh'-a-k'-yo-o nga na-ni ho-do go za- 

•? 99 > 1+9 ~ 1^*939 n +~ * v * *r 

ri-ma-sh'-o-o ka '? 

n^^-r^ ft 

Do. Wa-ta-k'-shi o-ma-e ni ka-ri nga i-ku-ra a-ru ka? 

9 ;5»^*-v>i- ft>) ft -f^ ?f>v ft 

388. iZow; many kinds of tea are there 9 

Sz-be-te ch'-a no ru-i wa i-ku shi-na ho-do go zari-ma-s' ka? 

*^f ±r ; )Vf ^19 1'* * K^r -»fi)^^ ft 

Do Sz-be-te ch'-a no ru-i wa i-ku shi-na ho-do a-ru ka? 

X-<f *-*> 7 >v Y /n i 9 Is > 4v K 7>v ft 

389. 77om7 fowy M?f7Z i£ Je before grapes are ripe? 

Bu do-o no ji-k'-shi-ma-sz wa i-tsz no ko-ro de go za-ri-ma- 

-fV9 S&fil'^A^i* J *\2 ? ? if X) ^> 

s' ka? 



52 H. 

Do. Bu-do-o no ji-k'-sz no wa i-tsz ngo-ro ka? 

fV9 ? &#A / x\i9 ar tt ft 

390. Hoio did it turn out ? 

A-no ko-to wa i-ka-nga na-ri-ma-sh'-ta ka? 
t ; 3 1- ^ 1Xlf 9- 1)^^# ft 
Do. A-no ko-to wa do-o na-t-ta ka ? 

391. Mow much does that weigh? 

So-no me-ka-ta wa na-ni ho -do go za-ri-ma-s' ka? 

y;^W /> t*~ *F aP if l)^* ft 

Do. So-no me-ka-ta wa i-ku-ra a-ru-ka? 

y ? * n$ j* 1 93 TfVJi 

392. iZow wwcA 02/$rA£ Jfo give for it? 

Wa-ta-k'-shi ko-re wo na-ni ho-do ka-i-ma-sh'-te yo-ro-shi-u 

•?^i/3W *- 4s F ftf^^f 3d>^ 

go za-ri-ma-s' ka? 

ar ->fi)^ ft 

Do. Wa-shi wa ko-re-wo i-ku-ra de ka-t-te yo-i ka? 

v %> /> 5i v v 9 f ^? r nvf&i ft 

393. How mwA <fo ;z/ow ^Am/c ?"£ is worth? 

A-na-ta ko-re wo na-ni ho-do no ne-u-chi to o-bo-shi-me-sz ka? 

f^-^ xv 9+^&Y /3-9>>#*S> ^ X ft 

Do. O-ma-e ko-re wa i-ku-ra ngu-ra-i no ne-u-chi to o-mo-u ka? 

ir^^v ^1#f F31 ) &f # Yitz.7 ft 

394. Sow much does he get a months 

A-no h'-to wa i-ehi nge-tsz ni ki-u-ki-n wo i-ku-ra o to-ri 

na-sa-ru ka? 
Do. A-re wa i-chi nge-tsz ni ki-u-ki-n wo i-ku-ra mo-ra-u ka? 

fv /> Y* >f 9 ~*y*^9i ?? £?? ft 

395. How many are there in all? 
No-ko-ra-dz de i-ku-tsz go za-ri-ma-s' ka? 

/■j*V£f-f'#y* *r*)^* ft 

Do. No-ko-ra-dz de i-ku-tsz a-ru ka? 

/ * 5AT1P* ?>vft 

396. How much does this hold ? 

Ko-re ni wa na-ni- ho-do ha-i-ri-ma-s' ka ? 

a v a * J-~ v^ Y r> iV)-?%ti 

Do. Ko-re ni wa do-re ho-do ha-i-ru ka? 

a v a /> F v v}sK ^i)V ft 

397. How thick the mosquitoes are ? 

Ka nga o-o ku-te u-t-to-shi-u ngo za-ri-ma-s' 

Do. Ka nga o-o-ku-te u-ru-sa-i. ' 

ft n *MfV**i 



B. 53 

308. How mwh does it all amount to t 

N ko-ra-dz de da-i kin \va i-ka hodo ni na-ri-ma-s' ka? 

Do. No-ko-ra-dz de da-i wa i-ku-ra ni na-ru ka ? 

309. /fair <fc#» he support himself? 

A-no o ka-la wa yo atari ni na-ni wo sh'-tc o ku-ra-shi na- 

sa-ru-ka? 
Do. A-re wa na-ni wo to se-i ni sh'-te i-no-chi wo tszna-ngu ka? 

tv s**a? }-t>f->Tf J+99 + r fi 

400. How far is it to Fujiyama f 

Ku-ji-sa-n ma-de wa i-ku ri hodo go-za-ri-mas' ka? 

Do. Fu-ji-sa-n e wa na-ni no-do a-ru ka ? 

401 . 2/wr long will you be about it t 

I-tsz ngo-ro ma-de ni ka-ka-ri-ma-sh'-o-o ka ? 

Do. I-tsz ma-de ka-ka-ru ka? 

402. How many can you spare t 

i hodo ni i-dz-ri na sa-re-te ku-da-sa-re-ma-sh'-o-o ka? 

Do. I-ku-ra ni l-dz-t-te ku-re-ru ka? 

i99^iX*f fjvyv ft 

403. f/<w many days will you be about it ? 
I-k' ka ho-do ka-ka-ri-ma-sh'-o-o ka? 

Do. I-k' ka ho-do ka-ka-ru ka? 

itft^Y ft ft )V ft 

404. How do you do to-day ? (Said when a person is not known to have 

been ill) 
Ko-n ni-chi wa go ki-nge-n yo-ro-shi-u o i-de na-sa-re-ma-s' ka * 

a^ - * »* *r^3 a i>9jt#T+*v -z^n 

Do Ko-n ni-chi wa ka-wa-ru ko-to wa na-i ka ? 
3^-^ J* ft V)\ 3> /* J-ift 

How do you do to-day? (when one has been ill.) 

Ko-n ni-chi wa go ki-bu-n wa i-ka-n^a de go za-ri-ma-s' ka 9 

Do. Ko-n ni-chi wa o ko-ko-ro yo-i ka? 

a^ ^* s^x * * n 31ft 

405. How long may I keep it? 

Wa-ta-k'-shi i-tsz o ka-ri mo-o-sh'-te o-ki-ma-sh'-te vo-ro-shi 



54 II. f. 

u go za-ri-ma-s' ka? 
Do. Wa-ta-k'-shi i-tsz ma-de ka-ri-te o-i-te yo-i ka ? 

v wl-i v vf ftVfxifai ft 

406. Human nature is the same in all countries. 

Ba-n ko-ku to-mo-ni h'-to no m'-ma-re-ts 1 -ki wa o-na-ji-ko-to 

**%> a $ \ :fc.nfc Y S V ^?V9 \ ^jf^ijzY 

de go za-ri-ma-s'. 
f rf if 1) ^^ 

Do. Se-ka-i no h'-to no m'-ma-re-ts'-ki wa o-na-ji-ko-to da 

&ft1 StzY ? 9.T v.J>* /> itJ-Va Y >? 

407. Hunting is forbidden within 10 ri in all directions from the Niton 

bridge at Yedo. 
Ye-do no Ni-ho-n ba-shi ka-ra ji-u ri yo ho-o ka ri wo sz-ru 

s*Y > jsA^ Ay ft 5V9V 3*9 ft\) 9 A)V 

ko-to wa ki-n-ze-i de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

aY ^ *^l£1? ^ *fl)^* 

Do. Ye-do no Ni-ho-n ba-shi ka-ra ji-u ri yo ho-o ka-ri wo sz 
3. V ; j&fo^ A > fjf &$ 1) 3^y ftX) ? ^ 

ru koto na-ra-nu. 

)V 3Y 9-7 % 

408. Humble persons do not boast of their merits. 

Ke-n so-n no h'-to wa koo ni ho-ko-ri ma-se-nu 

>7^y^ ;ti- ^ =iy~ vt,r?i) <*? & % 

Do. He-ri-ku-da-ru h'-to wa ko-o ni ho-ko ra-nu 

I. 

409. I am not well. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ki-bu-n nga yo-ro-shi-u go za-ri-ma-se-n' 

V 5 9 Is ^ ^?\^ # 3t2 ^9 ar ->f 1)^> -fe ^ 

Do. Wa-ta-k'-shi nga ki-mo-chi nga wa-ru-i 
? £ ^ # **:* tf ?)V1 

410. I want it well done. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi yo-ro-sh'-ku ts'-ku-ra-se-to-o dzo-n-ji-ma-s' 

V ^/i/'a^^ 9 # ?& Y 9 £>£'*& 

Do. Wa-ta-k'-shi yo-ku ts'-ku-ra-se-la-i 

i? #**; a ^ s> # 7&$1 

4 1 1 . / want some of each hind. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi i-ro i-ro s : -ko-shi dz-tsz i-ri-ma-s' 

Do. Wa-ta-k'-shi i-ro i-ro s'-ko-shi dz-tsz i-ru. 



55 



412. lam a little deaf. 

ko-shi to-c i ina-s. 

V 9 9is J*2>3> ft *? > V?*?" *P)-?* 
Do. v. -sin mi-mi di 

>? *? I ***l,2.& If YB1 

l have the tooth ache. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ha nga i-ta mi-ma-s'. 

Do. W i wa ha Dffl i-ta-mu. 

9 ** Ve j* j* $ 4 4* * 

414/ (umv yo« •/ »'# mo/ so. 

Sa-yo-o de wa go za-ri-nn smiu ma-koto woo ha-na-shi-mo- 

o-shi in 

Do. So o (1 i ho-n to wo ha-na-s . 

f9S r*t *** V 9 aj« 

415.7 four r*Hl /Am ioojfc through. 

W h ->hi wa kono ho-n wo vo-mi o-wa-ri-ma-sh -ta. 

Do. Wa-shi wa ko-no ho-n wo von-de shi-ma- 

>? i/ ^ 3 ; ^ ? 3^ f l^ ^** 

4 16. 7 Aacv ntrtr Aflrf awy oM<r. 

Wutik-iu wa i-ma ma-de ni ho-ka no wa go za-ri-ma-se- 

v 99 ^ **i \V **¥ ~ *» ^ ^ a- ifi) -^ ^ 

na-nda. 
Do. Wa-ta-k'-shi wa i-ma made ni ho-ka no wa na-ka-t-ta. 

9 *£}< /* f ^ *? T — * * s »+nv9 

4 1 7. / cannot affoi d it. 

"Wa -ta-k -*hi wa so-no yo-o ni da-sz ko-to wa de-ki-ma-se-nu. 

*? 99 is ^ y } a*?~ sr* a y /* f * ■? & % 

Do. Wa-shi wa so n na-ni da-sz ko-to wa de-ki-na-i. 

4 18. I cannot bear it any longer. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi mo ha-ya ka-n-ni-n na-ri-ma-se-nu. 

Do. Wa-ta-k'-shi wa mo ka-n-ni-n nga na-ra-nu. 

v 99 ^ r* £ n^-~ ^ if J- ? % 

419. I would rather not go. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa yu-ka yo-ri yu-ki-ma-se-nu ho-o nga yo-ro- 

V 99 ^ J* a- 9 3 V a. * ^ *l% Wtf 3D 

shi-i to dzo-n-ji-ma-s'. 
Do. Wa-shi wa yu-ku yo-ri yu-ka-nu ho-o nga yo-i to o-mo-o. 

v > ^ a. 9 3i)i^?^w tf a 1 y ***> 



56 1. 

420. I did not understand, although I heard it. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ki-ki-ma-sh'-ta ke-re-do-mo wa-ka-ri-ma-se- 

na-n-da. 
Do. Wa-shi wa ki-i-ta ke-re-do-mo wa-ka ra-na-ka-t-ta. 

? If r* *1$ V v f^ v n ?9-nv% 

42 1 . 1 think it will be so eventually. 

Shi-ji-u wa sa-yo-o de go za-ri-ma-sh'-o-o to o-mo-i-ma-s' 

Do. Tsz-i ni wa so-o de a-ro-o to o-mo-o. 

422. I will not do so again. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi f -ta-ta-bi so-no to-o-ri ni i-ta-shi-ma-se-nu. 

Do. Wa-shi wa f-ta-ta-bi so-no to-o-ri ni wa se-nu. 

V is ^ ?5?#tr V ?\W~ n &% 

423. I got up this morning he/ore dag break 
Wa-ta-k'-shi ke-sa yo-a-ke ma-e ni o-ki-ma sh'-ta. 

•? #>.^ 7* at ytt^jt*-? ><$ 

Do. Wa-shi wa ke-sa ku-ra-i u-chi ni o-ki-ta. 

424. J mws£ Aaw £Aw ^oo^A om£. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ko-no ha wo uu-ki-ta-i to o-mo-i-ma-s'. 

Do. Wa-shi wa ko-no ha wo nu-ki-ta-i to o-mo-o. 

425. I can do it now as well as any time. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa i-ma i-ta-shi-ma-s' mo no-chi ni i-ta-shi-ma- 

s' mo o-na-ji-ko-to de go za-ri-ma-s'. 
Do. Washi wa i-ma sz-ru mo no-chi ni sz-ru mo o-na-ij-ko- 

v v /* 1 ' ■ t **v % ? * — %)\ & nr^v * 

to da, 

426. 1 see now that I was mistaken. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa sa-ki ni chi-nga-i-ma-sh'-ta nga i-ma de wa ko- 

ko-ro dz-ki-ma-sh -ta. 

3|3 X* f^ 2 

Do. Wa-shi wa sa-ki ni chi-nga-e-ta nga i-ma de wa ki nga- 

V > /^ *~ * tfs-% ft 1*'-? * * ft 

tsz-i-ta. 

*1# 



I II 

T came aross it in the market. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi \va i-chi ni yu-ki a-aw-se-te ka-i-ma-sh'-ta 

9 9? Vs*1 *■**■* J *?*.?» 1 Vis * 

Do. Wa-shi wa i-chi ni yu-ki a-wa-se -to ka-t-ta. 

428. I hate been busy helping off with his baggage. 

W v shi wa a-no o ka-ta no ni-ngo-shi ra-i no te-tsz-da- 

i de i-so-nga-shi-u go za-ri-ma-sh la, 






129 



Do. W .- hi wa a-no h'-to no ni wo ts'-ku-t-tc yarn no de i- 
so-nga-shi ka-t-ta. 

y # ~> *?*# 

/am beginning to be a little better of my illness. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi no bi-o-o-ki ngn i-maV-ko-shi yo-ro-shi-u go za- 

9 * 9\, ytra?* #*-?** ^ a ti^?^*r 

n-ma s\ 
Do. Wa-shi no bi-o-o-ki wa i-ma s^ko-shi yo-ro-shi-i. 

9 V J t£39*>M^* ^ I, 3 tr>Y 

430. I found them scattered here and there all along the road. 
Wa-ta-k'-shi wa a-chi ko-chi no mi-chi ni chi-t-tc a-ru no wo 

9 * 9V ** f * ^ -f ;^^ -* * f f >v / ? 

yu-ki a-wa-se-te mi-ma-sh'-ta. 
Do. Wa-shi wa a-chi ko-chi no mi-chi ni chi-t-te a-ru no wo 
mi-ta. 

431 . lam afraid that boy will not turn out tcell. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi a-no ko-do-mo wa se-i ch'-o i-ta-shi-ma-sh'-te 

mo ro-ku-na mo-no ni wa na-n-ma-s'-ma-i to o-mo-i-ma-s'. 
Do. Wa-shi wa a-no ko-do-mo wa se-i ch'-o sh'-te mo ro-ku- 
na mo-no ni na-ru-ma-i to o-mo-o. 

432. I have a charge of 10 rio against you. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi no ch'-o-me-n no o-mo-te ni a-na-ta ni ka-ne- 

9 £ ^ ) ±3*^ 7 *£f ~? ;*#- ft 3- 

nga ji-u ri-o ka-shi nga shi-ru-sh'-te go za-ri-ma-s'. 



58 I. 

432. Wa-shi nga ch ; -o-rne-n ni o-ma-c ni ji-u ri-o no ka-shi 

!? i». if 4-a*^ ~jr-?3.^yx)ays ni, 

nga shi-ru-sh'-te a-ru. 

it ^Wls7 7>v 

433. I have been here upwards of a year. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ko-ko ni i-chi ne-n a-ma-ri o-ri-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. Wa-shi wa ko-ko ni i-chi ne-n no yo l-ta. 

9 £ ^ 3 3 ^f | ji/ ; af^ 

434. I have paid you up to the end of last month. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi a-na-ta ni se-n nge-tsz mi-so-ka ma-de no bu-n 

wo a-nge-ma-sh'-ta. 
Do. Wa-shi wa o-ma-e ni se-n nge-tsz no-rai-so-ka ma-de no 

v is /* ^^-^ t *"j&9n'**rF > 

bu-n wo ya-t-ta. 

435. Jfafti yow fo <fo £A«s fowjr 0^0. (to a servant) 
Wa-ta-k'-shi ko-re wo shi-ro i-i-ts'-ke-te ka-ra hi-sa-sh'-ku 

V %9\> * v 9 IsU 119*7? X? fc-t^ 9 

na-ru. 

436. 1 am sich. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa bi-o-o-ki go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. Wa-ta-k'-shi wa bi-o-o-ki. 

437. I don't care. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ka-ma-i-ma-se-nu. 

Do. Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ka-ma-wa-nu (or) Wa-ta-k'-shi to-n-j'-a-ku 

v %v ^ *> n & v % v&v ^ V*W9 

na-i. 

433. I want this. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ko-re wo ho-shi-u. go za-ri-ma-s'. 

V %9 p r> a v ? *js v? dt *ry*x 

Do. Wa-shi wa ko-re nga ho-shi-i. 

H^?v it tfs^Y 

439. I don't know. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa dzo-n-ji-ma-se-nu. 

- V % >J ^ rs f ^-? ^ % 

Do. Wa-shi wa shi-ra-nu. 



i. H 

440. / cannot tell. 

ma-so-nu. 

Do. Wa-shi wa ha-na-sa-re-nu. 

441. /suppose so. 

Wa-ta-k'shi wa sa-vo-o ni o-moi-ina-s\ 

Do. Wa-ta-k'-shi wa so-o o-mo-o. 

? y *9\>> » V9XZ.9 

II J. [ don't Jike this. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ko-re wo s'-kt-ma-so-nn. 

Do. Wa-shi wa ko-re wo s'-ka-nu. 
9 ^ ^ 3V^^^ 
443. /am hungry. 

,1 m Ivu-u f-ku ni na-ri-mash'-ti. 

9 99^ ^ 4>9 ?4> -y-1) T^9 

Po. Wa-shi wa ha-ra nga sz-i-ta. 

V l, >^ ^5 if Kit* 

III 1 am going out to-day. 

W 1 ta-tf-shi wa ko-n ni-chi yo-so c ma-i-ri-ma-sh'-o-o to 0- 

mo-i-ma-s'. 

Do. Wa-shi wa ko-n ni-chi yo-so e yu-ko-o. 
9 '• ^ 3^ r. + 3 y ii3>? 

445. lam sleepy. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi ne-mu-u go za-ri mas'. 

Do. Wa-shi wa ne-mu-i. 

446. I hare lost my hook. 

Wa-ta-ti'-shi no ho-n nga fu-n ji-tsz i-ta-shi-ma-sh'-ta. 

V 99 v > **" it 7^V?19^^^9 

Do. Wa-shi no ho-n nga na-ku na-ri-ma-sh'-ta. . 

9'Vy *^ if +9 *V $ V9 

447. I am very tired. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ha-naha-da ts'-ka-re-rna-sh'-ta, 

V 99" ^ r> f* 9-r*9t 9 ii v ~?V>9 

Do. Wa-shi wa o-o-ki ni ts'-ka-re-ta. 

V ^ ^jr9*~ 9ft v9 

448. I have not a cash. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ze-ni nga s'-ko-shi mo go za-ri-ma-se-nu . 

9 9 9 \s /> If— if >\ * Is £ 3T -f l)-? ^ /• 



60 I. 

Do. Wa-shi \va ze-ni nga s'-ko-shi mo na-i. 

9 l*> s* *£& if X* ^ Z.7>-1 

449. I have never seen him. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi vva ma-da a-no o-ka-ta-ni o me n i ka-ka-ri-ma 

se-n', 

^^ 

Do. Wa-shi \va ma-da o-no h'-to wo mi-nu. 

450. J am afraid to tell 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa i-u ko-to wo ha-ba-ka-ri-ma-s'. 

Do, Wa-shi wa i-u ko-to wo ha-ba-ka-ru. 

9 ^ /> 1 9 *> 3? ■ ■> /* * >v 

45 1. 1 have forgotten. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa sh'-tsz-ne-n i-ta-shi-ma-sh'-ta. 

17 9^ l- ^ l< ^3-^ Y £ s^ ^# 

Do. Wa-shi wa wa-sz-re-ta. 

V Is ^ V ^v5? 

452. J<0t3? %ee to that myself. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi nga ji.shi-n de sa-shi-dz wo i-ta-shi-ma-sh'-o-o. 

Do. Wa-shi n^a ji-shi-n de sa-shi-dz wo shi-yo-o. 

? v n v^ f * i* x y i» 39 

453. /do wo£ w«w£ «wy ^^?- 

Wa-ta-k'-shi ni te-tsz-da-i wa i-ri-ma-se-n'. 

Do. Wa-shi ni te-tsz-da-i wa i-ra-nu. 

>? ^ ^i fVjTi /> Y?^ 

454. / A«W0 been taking medicine* 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa k'-sz-ri wo no-mi-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. Wa-ta-k'-shi wa k'-sz-ri wo no-n-da 

455. / have not seen it, 

Wa-ta-k'-shi ma-da ha-i-ke-n i-ta-shi-ma-se-na-n-da, 

Do. Wa-shi wa ma-da mi na-ka-t-ta. 

V ^ /> * & ^ J~ft 9 5? 

456. / cannot understand the rationale of it. 
Wa-ta-k'-shi wa so-no ri nga wa-ka-ri-ma-se-n'. 

v w i» » y y v if v n J )^ *^ 

Do. Wa-shi wa so-no ri nga wa-ka-ra-nu. 

V ^ r* V > *) if Vti 9 X 



I 61 

457. lam ashatned. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ha-ji wo ka-ki-ma-s'. 

9 9 9 ^ /* '^ 9 ft * ^^ 

Do. Wa-shi wa ha-ji wo ka-ku. 

? >; ^ ^i: 9 n 9 

458. I am not sure. 

Wata-k'-ahi wa la-sh'-ka ni dzo-n-ji-ma-s. 

9 ?9 > >^ £ >*? — V^^tM^ 

Do. Wa-shi wa la-sh'-ka ni shi-ra-nu. 

459. /shall (70 Mm evening. 

Wa-ta-k'shi wa ko-m ba-n k'-t-to ma-i-ri-ma-sh'-o-o. 

Do. Wa-shi wa ko-m ban k'-t-to yu-ko-o* 
9 if ^ 3i/^^y|-'j.3 9 
4C0. I have cut my finger. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa yu-bi- ni ki-ri-ki-dz wo ko-shi-ra-c-ma-sh'-ta 

9 W Is r* *~ tT -* i) * X 9 3 i, 5s.-? is 9 

Do. Wa-shi wa yu-bi ni ki-ri-ki-dz wo ko-shi-ra-e-ta. 
? ^ ;> * 12 - * >) *X 9 *is53-9 

46 1 . 7 have eel my teal in my blood that I will not break my promise. 
Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ya-ku-so-ku wo chi-nga-i-ma-se-nu ta-me ni 

v 99 is A y 9 y 9 9 ifii-z^z*- 

ke-p-pa-n wo i-ta-shi-ma-sh'-ta. 
Do. Wa-shi wa ya-ku-so-ku wo chi-nga-e-nu yo-o ni ke-p-pa- 

9 Is ^ V9V 9 9 * ifx-Z 3*? - T^° 

n wo sh'-ta. 

^ 9 ^9 

462. I have seen this be/ore. 

Wa-ta-k'-sh wa ko-re wo ma-e ka-ta ha-i-ke-n i-ta-shi-ma- 

V 99 ^ /* *v 9 -Z3-H9 ^1*7^1 9 ^ ^ 

sh'-ta. 
Do. Wa-shi wa ko-re wo ma-e ka-ta mi-ta. 

9 ^ ^ av 9 -?*> fJ9 ^9 

463. / think so too. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ya-ha-ri sa-yo-o ni dzo-n-ji-ma-s'. 

V M9 v /> Y^O *B9~rfV^A 

Do. Wa-shi wa ya-p'-pa-ri so-o o-mo-o. 

9 I* ** ** ^°i) y??%9 

464. I like this best. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ko-re nga i-chi-ba-n ki ni i-ri-ma-s'. 



02 1. 

464. Wa-shi wa ko-re nga i-chi-ba-n ki ni i-ru. 

465. I do not think so. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa sa-yo-o ni wa dzo-n-ji-ma-se-nu. 

9 9 9 Is '*> ifB9 ~ A jf-si^fcjR 

Do. VVa-shi wa so-o wa o-mo-wa-nu. 

466. / do not believe it. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa shi-n-ji-ma-se-nu. 

Do. Wa-shi wa ma-ko-to to se-nu. 

V V J* ■ * 3 f > M £ 

467. I dont care whether there are any or not. 
Go-za-ri-ma-sh'-te mo go za-n-ma-se-nu de mo to-n-j'-a-ku i- 

**#$ -?l»? £ aT if i) -?& % TZzY^VWI 

ta-shi-ma-se-nu. 
Do. A-t-te mo na-ku-te mo ka-ma-wa-nu. 

Tffp <M> f ft # * 9 ja 

468. I shall go in a month- 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa mo h'-to ts'-ki ta-chi-ma-sh'-tc ma-i-ri-ma-sh'- 

V % # ^ r* fc fcf y^- /^ ^ ^f -^f *)-? v 

yo-o. 
Do. Wa-shi wa mo h'-to ts'-ki ta-t-te yu-ko-o. 

469. I cannot stay here any longer. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa mo ko-ko ni o-ra-re-ma-se-n. 

Do. Wa-shi wa mo ko-ko ni wa o-ra-re-nu. 
? >- ^ ^ x n ~^%3 v% 

470. I have no more patience with you. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa a-na-ta no ka-to ni mo ko-n-ni-n nga na-ri- 

ma-se-nu. 
-? &% 

Do. Wa-shi wa o-ma-e no ko-to ni mo ka-n-ni-n ngana-ra-nu. 

471. I bathe twice a day. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi hi ni ni do dz-tsz yu wo ts'-ka-i-ma-s'. 

Do. Wa-shi wa hi ni ni do dz-tsz yu wo ts'-ka-u. 

f If ?< t* a *k y ;>c y a 9 :.# &9 

472' I have sent a messenger. 

Wa-ta-k ? -shi wa ts'-ka-i no mo-no wo ts'-ka-wa-shi-ma-sh'-ta. 



I. 03 

Wa -lu wa ts' ka-i wo ya-t-ta. 

673. I hare just found out what it means. 

W I .-k'->lii \va !■ ill i IM ka-n-nsra-i i-da-shi-ma-sh'-ta. 

9 # f^ /* *Tf^ ft^tfY 1 9 r t>* 1^9 

Do. Wa shi wa ta-da-i ma kannga i da-sh'-ta. 

9 is* wn* fj^tfi 5r^2 

474. I cannot help it. (in the sense of preventing) 

Wl ta-k'-shi wa P-sc-ngu ko-to nga dc-ki-ma-se-n\ 

Do, Wa-shi wa P-sengu koto D£l d«--ki-mi. 

475. 1 cannot help it. fin the sense of remedying.) 

W i -ta-k'-shi wa na-o-a' ko-to nga ae-ki-ma-se-nu. 

t \> % 9 I, r^9 * 3^ tf f * -?* a 

Do. Wa-shi wa na-o-s'.ko-to nga de-ki-nu. 

V lrf*+9X*\ if T * * 

l never said so. 

W i ta-k'-shi wa ma-da so-no yo-o-na ko-to wo mo-o shi-ma- 

V % 9*s '^ ^V 9 S 3^3h 9 *z9is ^r 

se-n'. 
Do. Wa-shi wa ma-da so-n-na ko-to wo i-wa-nu. 

9V r**& f*+*Y 9i V J* 

477. lam surprised at that. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa so-re wo he-n ni o-mo-i-ma-s'- 

^ •? 99 p * yv 9 ^ ~9*.i-?7. 

Do. Wa-shi wa so-re wo he-n ni o-mo-o. 

478. I forgot to triad up the clock last night. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi sa-ku-ba-n to-ke-i wo ka-ke-ru ko-to wo sh'-tsz 

V 99 is *9><^ YV1 9 XV )V *Y 9 i^ V 

ne-n i-ta-shi-ma-sh-ta. 



3-^19is-? V9 



Do, Wa-shi wa yu-u-be to-ke-i wo ka-ke-ru koto wo wa-sz- 

V I, js x.y^YVI 9 X >7)V *Y 9 V A 

re-ta. 

v9 

479. 1 cannot lift this. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ko-re wo mo-ta-re-ma-se-nu. 

V 9 9 is <r> a v 9 *z 9 v sr ^ 

Do. Wa-shi wa ko-re wo mo-ta-re-nu. 
•7 }^^nv9^9v^ 

480. 1 sometimes work in the garden for amusement. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ta-no-shi-mi ni to-ki-do-ki ha-ta-ke wo ts'-ku- 

V 99 Is * 9 ?ls ^- V*K* ^9*7 9*9 



64 I. 

ri-ma-s'. 
480. Wa-shi-vva ta-no-shi-mi ni to-Ici-do-ki ha-ta-ke wo ts'-ku-ru. 

!?i/^ #7 ^2> ~)-*F* ^5* V 9 ? 9rv 

481./ cannot tell them apart. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa mi wa-ke-ra-re-ma-se-nu. 

Do. Wa-shi wa mi wa-ke-ra-re-nu. 

482. I am at a loss what to do. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa do-o sh'-te yo-ka-ro-o ka shi-re-ma-se-nu, 

^ 9 J* #%> ^ v 9 yi a Km ^?i/vtu 

Do. Wa-shi wa do-o sh -te yo-ka-ro-o ka shi-ra-nu. 

v v r* Y9 }sf a nm n^3 % 

483. I will help you all lean. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa de-ki-ma-s' ho-do a-na-ta ni o te-tsz-da-i wo 

V Wis /* *T * * *4stf fa* £ -#T 5f9Tf ? 

i-ta-shi-ma-sh' -o-o. 
Do Wa-shi wa de-ki-ru ho-do o-ma-e ni te-tsz-da-wo-o. 

V Is j* t\ft &F #^^~ f * #99 

484. 1 do not want so much. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa so-no yo-o ni ta-k'-sa-n wa i-ri-ma-se-nu. 

y'J*9\s'r> V } 39 ~ #'M^^1V * &Z 

Do. Wa-shi wa ko-n-na ni i-ra-nu. 

435. / think a little less will do. 

Mo-o chi-t-to he-ra-sh'-te yo-ro-shi-u to dz-o-n-ji-ma-sz-rn. 

Do. Mo-o s'-ko-shi he-ra-sh'-te i-i to o-mo-o. 
%.9 %* ^ -vj ls*TiiY**& 

486. I have taken pains with this. 

Wa-ta k'-shi wa ko-ko-ro ni ka-ke-te kc-re wo i-ta-shi-ma-sh' -ta. 

*? % 9ls r* nnU^^y av 9 1 5? 2^ ^ # 

Do. Wa-shi wa ko-ko-ro ni ka-ke-te ko-re wo sh'-ta. 

? & ^3ap^Wf 3V 9 is# 

487. I connot think a&. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa sa-yo-o ni wa o-mowa-re-ma-se-nw. 

Do. TFa-shi wa sa-yo-o ni wa o-mo-wa-re nu. 
9 ^A^M^W^^ 
488. 1 will see to it presently . 

PFa-ta-k'-shi wa no-e.hi ni mi-ma-sh'-o-o. 

9 % V\» r* ? *~ 5^v39 
Do. Wa-shi wa no-chi ni mi yo-o. 

y ^ ^ ;± ^ jr-^39 



I 

489. I will tend for it 

Wa-ta-k'-shi \va to-ri ni ts'-ka-wa-se-mn-sh'-o-o. 

? xt \> * y ») - vn v * ^39 

Do. Wa-shi wa tori ni ya-ro-o. 

v i, ^ y n-tn^ 

490. I am m\ k of fish. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa sa-ka-na wo ta-be a-ki-ma-sh'-ta. 

? fit Is >» *f) + 9 ^ ?*-? Is 5* 

Do. Wa-shi wa sa-ka-na wo ku-i a-i 

V l> r* *f) + 9 ?1?*fi 

491 . 1 hare a bad memory* 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa mo-no o-bo-e nga wa-ru-u go za-ri-ma-s'. 

v %>? \> ^ *. ) jMU n v »v =f *r»)^* 

Do. Wa-shi wa mo-no oboe nga want -i. 

? ^ ^ fc > ■*#*># v>vl 

492. 1 am a stranger here. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ko-ko ni ri-o-sh'-ku wo sh'-te o-ri-ma-s'. 

V 2t}s ^ a a ^ X)3ls$ 9 >f *!)-?* 

Do. Wa-shi wa ko-ko ni ri-o-sh'-ku wo sh'-te i-ru. 

*> ^ /s a a ^ \)3i, // 9 l» f 1)V 

493. I must change my clothe*. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ki-mo-no wo ki-ka-e-ru yo-ro-shi-u. go za-ri- 

9**^/>*fc>>? \tl*)V 3 Vis 9* if 1) 

ma-s . 

~?% 

Do. Wa-shi wa ki-mo-no wo ki-ka-e-ru nga yo-i. 

V \s ^ * *: ' ? * *** *f 3 1 

494. I said so only in jest. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa sa yo-o ni j'-o-o-da-n ba-ka-ri mo-o-shi-ma- 

V 9 >?^ ^A3*,~V3*??^ AW) t^ * 

sh'-ta. 

Do. Wa-shi wa sa yo-o ni j'-o-o-da-n ba-ka-ri i-t-ta. 

495. I do not sett on credit. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ka-ke-u-ri wa i-ta-shi-ma-se-nu. 

Do. Wa-shi wa ka-ke-u-ri wa se-nu. 

v is j» nwv ^ &z 

496. I have been ill for a month. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa h'-to ts'-ki wa-dz-ra-i-ma-sh'-ta. 

v %t is ^ ny v* y$? i^is$ 

Do. Wa-shi wa h'-to ts'-ki wa-dz-ra-t-ta. 
9 ^ ^ \zy y^ >7X ?*£ 



66 I. 

497. I do not want this any longer. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ko-re wo mo-o i-ri-ma-se-nu. 

Do. Wa-shi wa ko-re wo mo-o i-ra-nu. 

498. I cannot Jceep it out of my mind. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ko-re wo» wa-sz-ra-re-ma-se-nu. 

Do. Wa-shi wa ko-re wo wa-sz-ra-re-nu, 

499. I am not in want of it at present. 
Wa-ta-k'-shi wa i-ma ko-re wo i-ri-ma-se-nu. 

V 9 Pis ^,1 ^3V^f))^)( 
Do. Wa-shi wa i-ma ko-re wo i-ra-nu. 

500. 1 do not know when Tie will come. 

A-no o ka-ta wa i-tsz o i-de na-sa-ru ka dzo-n-ji-ma-se-nu. 

•rsjrftfi^ ivjtif pM-jv ft. r^v^ &z 

Do. A-no h'-to wa i-tsz ku-ru da-ro-o ka shi-ra-nu. 

T7t:> *sf ? #)V #W ftt- 9 % 

501. 7" bought these at auction. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ko-re wo se-ri de ka-i-ma-sh'-ta. 

9 %V Is -* *V 9 ^1) f ft1^^$ 

Do, Wa-shi wa ko-re wo se-ri de ka-t-ta. 

? 2/yN.av ? fei) rnw 

502. I have done my best to teach him. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa i-ta-t-te mi wo i-re-te a-no h'-to wo o-shi-e- 

ma-sh'-ta. 
Do. Wa-shi wa i-ta-t-te mi wo i-re-te a-no h'-to wo o-shi-e-ta. 

503. I want it done in this way. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ko-no to-o-ri ni ts'-ku-ra-se-to-o go za-ri-rna-s' 

Do. Wa-shi wa ko-no to-o-ri ni ts'-ku-ra-se-ta-i. 

504. 1 want three ichibus. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi ka-ne nga sa-m bu ho-s'-shi-i, 

505. I will stick to my word. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa va-ku-so-ku wo ka-ta-ku a-i ma-mo-ri-ma-sh'- 

V $V v ^V^ y #9 ft 2s;l1-?*z i) ■? ^ 

o-o. 

39 



I 

605. \\"a->lu :-.^oku wo ka-ta-ku ma-mo-ro-o. 

9 *, ^ v 9 v 9 9 n 99 ~? *.nv 

506. I would thank you to explain it 

A-na-ta ko-n* wo to-i-te o ki-ka-se-tc ku-da sa -ra-!»a a-ri-nira- 

lo-o dzo-n-ji-ma-s'. 
Do. O-ma-c ko-re wo to-i-tc ki-ka -sr-ni na-ra a-ri-n<ra-ta-i. 

i-^x a v 9 Y 1 f **? &V +? T I) If 9 1 

507. I hare nothing to do with that. 

W shi wa so-no ko-to ni s'-ko-shi mo ka-ka-ri a-i go 

9 99^ r* y; 3 I--X3^t^^i)Tf3* 

za-ri-ma-sen'. 

#1) -?fc^ 

Do. Wa-shi wa so-no ko-to ni s'-ko-shi mo ka-ka-ri a-i wa na-i. 

508. / wont hate any thing to do with it. 

No-chi-no-chi ni na-ri-ma-sh'-te mo, wa-ta-k'-shi wa ka-ma-i- 

ma-s* ma-i. 
Do. No-chi ni wa-shi wa ka-ma-wa-nu. 

; f ^ !? ^ ^ ftf?% 

509. / like this more and more the more I use it. 

ta-k'-shi wa ko-re wo ts'-ka-e na-re-te shi-da-i ni yo-ro- 

V 99^ ^3V 9 Vft*-zhV7 ^91 ~3X2 

sh'-ku na-ri-ma-s'. 

Is 9 +X)^% 

Do. n as hi wa ko-re wo ts'-ka-e na-re-te da-n da-n yo-ku na-ru. 

*? ^ ^ av 9 yf)^*vy VC^F^B 9 J-)V 

510. / like this more and more the more I eat it. 

W ta-k'-shi wa ko-re wo ta-be na-re-te shi-da-i ni s'-ki ni na- 

9 9 91^ <? *v 9 #*< /-vf^Jf-f -**- ^ 

ri-ma-s' . . 

Do, Wa-shi wa ko-re wo ta-be na-re-te da-n-da-n s'-ki ni na-ru 

9 v /> * v9 9*< 9-V7 #v#v*^— :/->v 

511./ cannot reach so high. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa so no yo-o ni ta-ka-ku.te wa to-do-ku ko-to 

9 99^.^ v > 39- 5?# 9t /> yy 9 *Y 

n?a de-ki-ma-se-n\ 



if T * ** 

We 



Do. Wa-shi wa so-no yo-o ni ta-ka-ku-te wa o-yo-bu ko-to nga 
de-ki-nu. 



68 1. 

512. jT have overtaken you at last 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa a-na-ta ni yo-o va-ku o-i ts'-ki-ma-sh'-ta, 

^ 9 99 ^ /^f^i39 V 2*1 ^n^9 

Do. Wa-shi wa o-ma-e ni yo-o yo-o o-i ts'-i-ta. 

9 is /n jt^^ay&9?i?i% 

513. / cannot answer you now, I must take time to think. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ta-da-i-ma go a-i sa-tsz wa i-ta-sh'-ka-ne-ma-s' 

ka-ra, to-ku to ka-n-nga-i-te, no-chi ni mo-o-shi a-nge-ma- 

ft? \ 9 \ ft^fflf s * -^^ff ■* 

sh -o-o. 

\s39 

Do. Wa-shi wa i-ma he-n-to-o wa de-ki-na-i ka-ra, ka-n-nga- 

i-te no-chi ni i-wo-o. 

514. I have been waiting for you two hours. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa a-na-ta wo f'-ta to-ki o ma-chi mo-o-sh'-te o- 

#'&?■ p J* t+# 979Y**-? f *9Pf* 

n-ma-sh'-ta. 
Do. Wa-shi wa o-ma-e wo f'-ta to-ki ma-t-te i-ta. 

P I,* jr^rs- 9 79Y*-?v?19 

515- 1 cannot sit up so late. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa so-no yo-o ni na-nga-ku o-ki-te wa i-ra-re- 

rna-se-n'. 

Do. Wa-shi wa so-n-na-ni na-nga-ku o-ki-te i-ra-re-nu. 

9 Is * ?&&£*-# 9 jr*r1?vz 

516. 1 can't put up with it any longer. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa mo-o ko-no ngo wa ka-m-be-n-nga de-ki-ma- 

9 99ls ^^9*7 a' ^ ftf<^ tff \ ^ 

se-nu. 
Uo ' Wa-shi wa mo-o ko-no no-chi wa ka-m-be-n nga de-ki-nu. 

9 ^ > *& *f / # >% fj ^^ ft f * % 

517. I took this coin for an ichibu by mistake. 

Wa'-ta-k'-shi wa ko-ko-ro e chi-nga-i de ko-no ka-ne wo i-chi 

v 99 is /< nans.! m f* /n 5- 9 1 * 

bu no ts'-mo-ri ni u-ke to-ri-ma-sh'-ta. 
Do. Wa-shi wa ko-ko-ro e chi-nga-i de ko-no ka-ne wo i-chi bu 

V Is ^ a a vs.} ffi f i JWSr9 1* ? 

no ts'-mo-ri ni u-ke to-t-ta. 



i no 

618. 1 went with him all the way home. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa a-no h'-to to is-sh'-o ni a-no h'-to no i ye ma- 

de ma-i-ri-ma-sh'-ta. 
[)o. Wa-shi wa a-rc to i-s-sh'-o ni a-re no u-chi ma-do i-t-ta. 

9 ^*fV M *^9- TV SV* *fl9fi 

5 19. I carry this cane to hep off the dogs. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa i-nu wo o-u ta-me-ni ko-no tsz-e wo mo-chi- 

mas'. 

"^* 

Do. Wa-shi wa i-nu wo o-u ta-me-ni ko-no tsz-e wo mo-tsz. 

9 Is r> i% 9*V$ A- *> ** 9 *z f 

520. 1 find the material] he pay* for the work. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa sh'-o-sh'-ki no i-ri yo-o wo da-shi-ma-s'; a- 

no o ka-ta wa te-ma wo o da-shi na-sa-re-ma-s'. 

Do. Wa-shi wa sh'-o-sh -ki wo da-sh'-te, a-no h'-to wa te-ma wo da-s'. 

V I, ^^3^^ 9 PI* ftyth J*f* 9?K 

521. Is this fruit wholesome f 

Ko-no ku-da-mo-no wa ha-ra no ta-me-ni na-ri-ma-s'-ka? 

* ? v rz. ? * *p > % a~ + \) ^%n 

Do. Ko-no ku-da-mo-no wa ha-ra no ta-me-ni na-ru ka? 

n ; v $ ^ > r> n ? ; fit ~ t^>v ft 

522. I beg you to come quickly. 

Do-o-zo a-na-ta o ha-ya-ku o i-de na-sa-re-te ku-da-sa-re. 

Do. Do-o'-ao o-ma-e ha-ya-ku k'-te ku-re-ro. 

523. I cannot do two things at once. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa h'-to-ride f'-ta ya-ku wa ts'-to-ma-ri-ma-se-nu. 

Do. Wa-shi wa h'-lo-ri de f-ta va-ku wa ts'-to-ma-ra-nu. 

v v ^ tH) ??£ ■* 9 * * \-*f& 

524. 1 can do it as well as not. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ko-re wo i-ta-sh'-le mo, i-ta-shi-ma-se-nu de- 
9 9#ir^r> z v 9 IZis? ^-f# i^te J* f 

mo o-na-ji ko-to de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. Wa-shi wa ko-re wo sh'-te mo shi na-ku te mo o-na-ji 
ko-to da. 

a V 5T 



70 I. 

525. I aduise you to accept his offer. 

A-no o ka-ta no o da-n-ji na-sa-ru ko-to wo o u-ke-a-i na- 

sa-re-ma-sh', ko-re wa a-na-ta ni o sz-sz-me mo-o-sz. 

Do. A-re no da n-ji-ru ko-to wo u-ke-a-i ko-re wa o-ma-e ni 

sz-sz-me-ru. 
>\>\A )V 

526. I leg your pardon. 

Ma-p-pi-ra go me-n na-sa-re-ma-sh'- 

Do. Go me-n na-sa-i. 

dt *y ^1 

527. I go to see him now and then. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ta-bi-ta-bi a-no o ka-ta wo ta-dz-ne-te ma-i- 

ri-ma-s'. 
Do. Wa-shi wa ta-bi-ta-bi a-no h'-to wo ta-dz-ne-te yu-ku. 

528. I long for a little rain. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa s'-ko-shi o shi-me-ri nga ho-shi-u go za-ri- 

ma-s'. 

-?* . 

Do. Wa-shi wa s'-ko-shi a-me nga ho-shi-i. 

9>^ %* Is 7* it tf^f 

529. I leave that for you to do. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa so-no sz-ru ko-to wo a-na-ta ni o ta-no-mi- 

mo-o-shi-ma-s'. 
Do. Wa-shi wa so-no sz-ru ko-to wo o-ma-e ni ta-no-mu. 

V is ^ y s Ms *\ 9 jt^x>~ %? ^ 

530. 1 barely see the ship. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ka-s'-ka ni fu-ne nga mi-e-ma-s'- 

Do. Wa-shi wa ha-ru-ka ni fu-ne nga mi-e-ru. 
9 l» 'J* lr*lV ft ~? 5- if 2. 33V 

531. 1 will raise your wages next month. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ra-i nge-tsz a-na-ta no ki-u-bu-n wo ma-sh'-te 

9^2/^?fT^ 7^2 >> **>i^9 ^ f 

a-nge-ma-sh'-o-o. 



i. n 

531. Wa-shi wa ra-i ncr^-tsz te-ma-i noki-u-ki-n WO ma-sh'-tc-ya 
ro-o. 

T have made it as good as it teas before. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ko-re wo mo-to no to-o-ri ni na-o-shi-mr sh'-tn. 

Do. Wa-shi wa ko-ro wo mo-to no to-o-ri ni na-osh' ta 

9 is '* av 9 *iY /YV*) ~t>-9 U9 

533. lam going to take my pick out of these. 

W i ta-k'-ghi wa ko-ko-no u-chi de e-ra-n-do to-ri-ma-sh'-o-o 

V 99 y /% a a ; ?.f T.s^f^f H) -?^39 

Do. Wa-shi wa ko-no u-chi de yo-ri do-ri ni shi-yo-o. 

534. lam near sighted. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa chi-ka mc do go z»-ri-ma-s\ 

V 991, » ± il AT *4fi) -??, 

Do. Wa-shi wa chi-ka-mr 

9 t> >> * » * 9 

535. I have not suspected him in the least heretofore and now ichcn I 
hear what he has done lam very much surprised 

i-k'-shi wa i-ma ma-de a-no h'-to wo s'-ko-shi mo u-ta- 

9 * i* r?T IS th 9 *? l» ^ *>9 

nga-i-ma-se-n, ta-da-i-ma so-no ko-to wo ki-ki-ma-sh'-te o-o- 

if 1-?^?>X1^ y; *Y 9 **-? isf 9* 

ki-ni o-do-ro-ki-ma-sh'-ta. 
Do. "W a sin wa i-ma ma-de a-no h'-to wo s'-ko-shi mo u-ta-nga wa 

V is r* f^^fT;tF 9 >X*P *zV9lf r* 

naka-t-ta. tn-da-i-ma so-no ko-to wo ki-i-te o-o-ki ni o-do- 
ro-i-ta. 

536. / shall he ready ly the time you are. 

A-na-ta sh'-ta-ku wo na-sa-ru to-ki ni, wa-ta-k'-shi mo i-s-shi-o ni 

IV-Si^ 9 9 t^Nv }-*-!?!* 9V*A VW^ 

i-ta-shi-ma-sh'-o-o. 
Do. O-ma-e sh'-ta-ku wo sz-ru na-ra wa-shi mo i-s-shi-o ni shi-yo-o. 

-jt-es-^99 9 Aw*? /> l? &1 9ls94irBV 

537. 1 offered a thousand dollars for that home. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa a-no i-e wo se-n do-ra ni ne wo ts'-ke-ma-sh'-ta. 

V 99 3s ^7 Si ^9^ Y7-3-9 W^is % 

Do. Wa-shi wa a-no u-chi wo se-n do-ra ni ne wots'-ke-ta. 



72 I. 

538. I took Mm up at Ms price. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa a-no o ka-ta no ne wo o ts'-ke na-sa-ru to-ko- 

ro de, te wo u-chi-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. Wa-shi wa a-re no ne wo ts'-ke-ru to-ko-ro de te wo u-t-ta. 

539. 1 have been offered $100 for my watch, but I would not take it. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi no to-ke-i wo h'-ya.ku do-ra ni ne wo ts'-ke-ra-re-ma- 

9 % Vis J Y>71?tzv /;V3^3-? y >? ?v * 

sh'-ta n^a, so*no ka-ne wo to-ru ko-to wo ko-no-mi-ma-se-n . 

1-9 it V > ft?r9 YmY.9 ^73^^ 

Do. Wa-shi no-to-ke-i wo h'-ya-ku do-ra ni ne wo ts'-ke-ra-re-ta nga 
so-no ka-ne wo to-ru ko-to wo s'-ka-nu. 

V S ft?r9 Y)V*Y 9 s? n% 

540. I have more than I know what to do with. 
Wa-ta-k'-shi no i-ri yo-o yo-ri yo-ke-i go za-ri-ma~s'. 

9 W^ 7Yl)39 '31)3 Vi^Jf 1)^* 

Do. Wa-shi no i-ri yo-o yo-ri yo-ke-i ni a-ru. 

9 w-f i)393i)37-f-?>v 

541. I have less than I want. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi no i-ri yo-o yo-ri s'-ku-no-o go za-ri-ma-s'. 

9 99 >7 1 1)39.3 I) A* 79 ^-fl)-?* 

Do. Wa-shi no i-ri yo-o yo-ri s'-ku-na-i. 

9 w-f 1)3931) a^y 

542, 1 have been all over town for flannel, but do not find any. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ko-o-e-ki-ba wo ma-wa-t-te shi-ro-ra-sh'-a wo ta- 

dz-ne-ma-sh'-ta ke-re-do-mo ma-da mi-e-ma-se-nu. 

Do. Wa-shi wa ko-o-e-ki-ba wo ma-wa-t-te shi-ro-ra-sh'-a wo ta-dz- 

y i, ^39x^?t^f ls)Z?^9 9% 

ne-ta ke-re-do-mo ma-da me ts'-ka-ra-nu. 

543. I have been there many a time. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa a-s'-ko e i-ku ta.bi mo ma-i-ri-ma-sh'-ta. 

9 5T £S^9YA3f*Y 99t:tti 9 *?V& 

Do. Wa-shi wa a-s'-ko e i-ku do mo i-t-ta. 

9 ^ ^?Aa:*Y^KfcY ** 

544 I still owe him for a day's work. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa a-no h'-to ni ma-da i-chi ni-chinohi yo-o wo 

9 Zpi, V7 ;\z>Y~^yi * ^;t3^ 9 

ya-ri-ma-se-nu. 
•V 1) * & % 



I 73 

544. Wa-shi waa-no h'-to ni ma-da i-chi ni-chi no hi yo-o wo va- 

nil. 

/ have cock's-combs growing m my garden. 

W • i k ->\\\ no ha-tu.kr ni Uv -i too n^a ha-yc-ma-sz-ru. 

**9yj ^*? ^yji Wit ^s-^M 

DO. Wft-fbl ru. 

i, ^W ^ >M yy ff /xi)v 

f am of the same opin ion st ill . 

Wa-ta.k '-shi M MO -n -ji-vo.ri wa i-ma-da ka-wari-ina-sc nu. 

9 »*> s r^va*) *> t-cT nv o * * * 

Do. \\a>hi no o-mo-o ko-to I nu. 

I have paid off all my carpenter*. 

W t.i-k >fii \va mi-na da-i-ku no te-ma wo ya-ri ma-sh'-ta. 

9 J * S.-A* f ? 7 f * 9 Vi) T^ # 

Do. Wa-shi wa da-i-ku no U- BU na va-t-ta. 

? ^ ^ Tf ^ / t^ ? ay-*** 

548. / have paid all my servants wages. 

\\ s n-k -shi wa ko-dz-ko-i no ki-uki-n wo mi-na ya-ri-ma- 

Do. ^V\ .i - ^ 1 1 i wa ko-dz-ka-i no ki-u-ki-n wo mi-na-ya-t-ta. 

9 > /> ^X#Y ^ *>?*>? 3.A1T** 

549. I have paid off all my day laborers. 

YYa-ti-k >lu wa ya-to-i-buto ni hi yo-o wo mi-na-ya-ri-ma- 

sh'-ta. 
Do. Wa-shi wa va-to-i-bi-to ni hi yo-o wo mi-na ya-t-ta. 

9 '!> > irMtTh -t"39 9 3*Mr*£ 

550. /tfw captain of this ship. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ko-no fu-ne no se-n-do-o de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

? #t ^ *> ^ 7 ?3- ?^l>y9 r^ *ri) -?x 

Do. Wa-shi wa ko-no fu-ne no se-n-do-o da. 

9 i/^a;?} >^Y*? 5T 

551. I am looking for crimson velvet. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa hi bi-ro-o-do wo ta-dz-ne-te o-ri-mas\ 

^99 9V ^.ttiP^F 5? 9X3-T* *)^X 

Do. Wa-shi wa hi bi-ro-o-do wo ta-dz-ne-te i-ru 

9 > ^ \i\£X29Y ? $£^7 1)V 

552. / want a wide ribbon to match it. 

Do-o vo-o no sa-na-da hi-mo nga i-ri-ma-s'. 

vvav ? *+? fc fc # f i)-?* 



74 I. 

552. Do-o-yo o no sa-na-da hi-mo ng-a i-ru. 

Way ?**+$ t% ft i)\ 

553. I shall sail tomorrow morning, 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa mi-o-o a-sa sh'-p-pa-n i-ta-shi-ma-sh'-o-o. 

Do. Wa-shi wa mi-o-o a-sa sh'-p-pa-n shi-yo-o. 

554. I came into 'port yesterday. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa sa-ku-ji-tsz ni-u shi-n i-ta-shi-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. Wa-shi wa sa-ku ji-tsz mi-na-to ni ha-i-t-ta. 

555. / shall go out of the harbour to throw ballast over board. 
Wa-ta-k'-shi vva fu-ne no o-mo-ri wo da-shi-ma-s' ta-me ni mi- 

na-to no so-to ni yu-ki-ma-sh'-o-o 

Do. Wa-shi wa fu-ne no o-mo-ri wo da-s' ta-me ni mi-na-to no 

so-to ni yu-ko-o. 

556. I have ordered a saddle from America. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa m'-ma no ku-rawo i-s-sa-i A-me-ri-ka e chi- 

u-mo-n i-ta-shi-ma-sh'-ta. 

? ^19^*? ^$ 

Do. Wa-shi wa m'-ma no ku-ra wo i-s-sa-i A-me-ri-ka e chi 

v %,.**-** ? v? 9imn* *) n*~^ 

u-mo-n sh'-ta. 

557. Ihave left my umbrella behind. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi no ka-ra-ka-sa wo i-p-po-n wa-sz-re.te ma-i-ri- 

? 9$%' J ft? #-* 9 1v$> VAvy -?1 l) 

ma-sh'-ta. 

^^9 

Do. Wa-shi wa ka-ra-ka-sa wo i-p-po-n wa-sz-re-te k ? -ta. 

9 ^ -» 2? ? #+ 91V$> 9*vf ^^ 

558. I cannot get on without it. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi so-re ng:a na-ku-te wa na-ri-ma-se-nu. 
!?5^i/ yv If *# f s^ ^ V^? & % 

Do. Wa-shi wa so-re nga na-ku-te wa na-ra-nu. 

*? Is r* y v ff'f-^f ^ + 3 % 

559. Jaw fo'^e a £/m^ maw without a cane. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa dza-to-o nga tsz-e ni ha-na-re-ta yo-o de go 



I 75 

urirai 

•sz-e ne ha-na-re ta jro-o da. 
| . £ ft .yji^ ^V^ 3 95T 
600 I did not know that bej ore. 

So- no ko-to wo i-d/r-n wa d/o-n-ji-ma-se-n. 

Do. So-re wo hum ni \va slii-ra -mi. 

561. I am just note going to shav*. 

Wh ■ wa ti-lii-mi Dt-Qge WO sz-ri-nn-sh'-o-o. 

9 *^ ! vrf-r t:T 9 *>) ^3* 

Do, Wa-slu ro-o. 

I ran outrun you. 

W I I «hi \\;i i -;::i I ' ki tii ha-shi-m ko-lo Qga d(-- 

? .*^; - f^2 3») **-^>)l ny ft f* 

ki-ma-s'. 



*T* 



Do. W^-shi wao-mo-e yo -ri sa-ki ni lia-shi-ru ko-to nga dc-ki ru. 

/o nothing more for you. 
Wa-i.-'-k' shi wa a-m-n wo mo-o s'-ku-u ko-to nga de-ki-ma- 

-nu. 

Do. ANa-slii wa o-ma-i wo mo-o s'-ku-u ko-to nga de-ki-nu. 

5G4./ never find him at home. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa a-no o ka-ta no u-chi ema-i-ri-ma-sh'-ta nga, 

tsz-i ni o me ni ka-ka-ri-ma-se-nu. 

Do. "Wa-shi wa a-no h'-to no u-chi e i-t-te mo tsz-i ni a-wa-nu. 

■? ^ /> T>> tih 7? f*f*?fc* Y-T9 ^ 

565. I make nothing on it. 

Wa-ia-k'-shi wa ko-no shi-na de ri-bu-n n<ra go za-ri-ma- 

V Ztls r, a ; ^yh f i) -f^ ft a: if i) -? 

se-nu. 
Do. Wa-shi wa ko-no shi-na de mo-o-ke n?a na-i. 

566. I do not know icltat to make of him. 

A-no o ka-ta wa i-ka yo-o na mo-no ka wa-ka-ri-ma-se-nu. 

?>># n>* ^in a*?* %. > ft vnv^&% 



76 I. 

566. A-no h'-to wa i-ka na-ru mo-no ka wa-ka-ra-nu. 

t; ti-^-f^^vt; ft v ft y^ 

567. I am out of debt. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa sh'-a-k' ki-n nga mo-o go za-ri-ma-se-nu. 

^ V #*> ^ %>W '^ if ^? * -fi)^-fc ^ 

Do. Wa-shi wa mo-o sh'-a-k' ki-n no-ana-i. 

568. / cannot do it alone. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi h'-to-ri de wa de-ki-ma-se-n'. 

Do. Wa-shi h'-to-ri de wa de-ki-nu. 

^>t:fj) f ^ f ** 

569. If I speak to a Japanese in his own language, he is so surprised that 
he sometimes does not answear me. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa a-ru to-ke Ni-p-po-n ji-n ni wa ngo de ha-- 

na-shi-ma-sh'-ta-ra-ba a-no h'-to wa he-n ni o-mo-t-te, he-n 
to-o wo i-ta-shi-ma-se-nu. 
Do Wa-shi wa a-ru to-ki Ni-p-po-n ji-n ni so-no ku-ni no ko- 
to-ba de ha-na-sh'-ta-ra a-no h'-to wa he-n ni o-mo-t-te he- 
n-ji wo se-nu. 

570. 1 have not the least objection to it. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa so-no ko-to ni s'-ko-shi mo sa-wa-rf go-za-ri- 

ma-se-nu. 

Do. Wa-shi wa so-no ko-to ni s'-ko-shi mo sa-wa-ri-nga na-i. 

571 I do not see any objection to it. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi nga ka-n-nga-i-te mi-ma-s' ni so-no ko-to ni wa 

v %>? p if ft^iflr ^^x — y ? *\ — ^ 

s'-ko-shi mosa-sa-wa-ri nga go za-ri-ma-se-nu to o-mo-i ma-s' 
Do. Wa-shi nga o-mo t-te mi-ru ni so-no ko-to ni wa s'-ko shi 

!? ^ ft" jt?tyf 33V ^> 9 / *y ^ ^ ^a ^ 

mo sa-sa-wa-ri nga na-i to o-mo-o. 

572. I am very glad to see you. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa a-na-ta ni o me ni ka-ka-ri-ma-sh'-te ta-i ke- 

V Ztl, /n t^^-^y? - ft ft \) -?^f$ 1*7 



I 77 

i ni dzo-n-ji-ma-s'. 

Do., Wa-shi wa I mi-te ha.na-ha-da yo-ro-ko bu. 

9 Is />**< 9 2>f <* ^* {f 3 O 3 ^ 

573. / MMT tairrf o/" *wrA a thing. 

\\ i so-no yo-o-na ko-to woki-ki ma snu 

*? Z'S > r» tjf * ; 3V+ny 9 \*^& z 

Do. ko4Q WO k;-k:i-nu. 

V I '- -?? V>+ a\ 9 * n % 

674. I have got thro 1 the worst of it. (of any ditnVuh work.) 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ko-no koto no na-n j'-o wo ko e-mash'-ta. 

y >* ti- ^ a } zY > +>^3 9 * **? ^ 9 

Do. Wa-shi wa ko-no ko-to no nan j'-o wo ko-c-ta. 

575. I shall go at all events, whether you do or not. 

| -M.i ta o i-dfl 48 mo o i-dc na-sa-ra na-ku-te mo wa-t:i- 

ii wa d/< -hi ina-i-ri-ma-sh '-o-o. 
Do O-ma-i i-t te mo i-ka-na-ku-t»» mo wa-shi wa d/< hi vn-ku. 

576. / cant keep up with you. 

\\ | ta-k'shi wa a-na-ta no yo-o ni ha-ya-ku wa de-ki-ma- 

sc-nu. 
Do. Wa-shi wa o-ma-i no yo-o ni ha-ya-ku wa de-ki-nu. 

577. I hare spoken to him about it. 

Wa ta-k -^hi wa a-no o ka-ta ni ko-no ko-to wo o ha-na-shi 

9 Wis >^ 7 >* ft** ~ *? *\ 9 *? >^9~ls 

mo-o-shi-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. "Wa-shi wa a-re ni ko-no ko-to-wo ha-na-sh'-ta. 

? ^ ^ Tv -. a? a \9 >>*'*' 2 

578. / can't see how it is done. 

Ko-re wa do-o sh'-te ts'-ku-ri-ma-sh'-ta ka wa-ta-k'-shi wa 

a v r> F9 >f * £ *) ^ ^£ # !? £ ^ ^ ^ 

wa-ka-ri-ma-se-n'. 
Do. Ko-re wa do-o sh'-te ts'-ku-t-ta ka wa-shi wa wa-ka-ra-nu. 

579 . -/ have no time to do it now. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa so-no ko-to wo sz-ru hi-ma nq-a go za-ri-ma- 

V 9 Pis ^ 9S aY 9 ?VV tz~? if * if l) ■? 



78 I. 

se-nu. 

579. Wa-shi wa so-no ko-to wo sz-ru hi-ma nga na-i. 

V ^ * y y ^ h 9 K)V \z^ If J-1 

580. 7/W fclfer £A«w / <&VZ ^ o^r <foy. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa se-n ji-tsz yo-ri ko-ko-ro yo-o go za-ri.ma-s'. 
9 % Pis r> &^VV 3V * a\2 3*? flf X)^ A 

Do. Wa-shi wa ko-no a-i-da yo-ri ko-ko-ro yo-i. 

58 1 . I do not want it just now. 

Ko-re wa ta-da-i-ma i-ri-ma-se-nu. 

n v /n ZFi^i 1). ^ ^J* 

Do. Ko-re wa ta-da-i-ma i-ra nu. 

^ v /> ^y-f-rf ? ^ 

582. I dreamt of flying last 'night. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa sa-ku-va so-ra wo bi-ngi-o-o sz-ru yu-me wo 

mi-ma-sh'-ta. 
Do. Wa-shi wa yu-u-be so-ra wo to-bu yu-me wo mi-ta. 

y > />> ^?^ y 5 ? y i ^ * 9 v> $ 

583. 1 can do it twice to your once. 

A-na-ta ko-re wo i-chi do na-sa-re-ma-sz, u-chi ni, wa-ta-k'- 

?^# av 9 i i Y yt-ifv -?%*? * ~?^ 

shi ni do de-ki-ma-sh'-o-o. 
Do. O-ma-i ko-re wo i-chi do sz-ru u-chi ni wa-shi wa ni do 

jr?i*v 9 1 £ V *>v 9 * ~ V Is r- ~ F 

de-ki-yo-o. 

584. If you do so what will people think. 

A-na-ta so-no yo-o ni na-sa-re-ma-s' na-ra-ba h'-to nga na-ni to 

?7*5f ?7 39— *Mfv ~? 7^?;<\z\ if 7>-~Y 

ka o-mo-i-ma-sh'-o-o ? 
Do O-ma-i so-no yo-o ni sz-ru na-ra-ba h'-to nga na-ni to ka o- 
mo-o da-ro-o ? 

585. If you do not pay me soon I will enter a complaint to the Governor. 
A-na-ta ha'-ya-ku o ka.i-shi na-sa-ra-ne-ba, o bu-ngi-o-o sh'-o e 

go u-t-ta-e mo-o shi-ma-s'. 



I. 79 

585. Oma-i ha-va-ku he-n-sa-i se-n» 8 co u- 

; e ni s/.-ru. 

586. Jf you trill do it, I will bear the bhme. 

i-t t->o-r< u na-ra hi, wu-ta-k'-shi no me-i wa ku 

t^s i n 9 +* )i 9-5 /* ^z 9 > ) a 1 v t? 

ni nari-n 
])o. O s'-ru na-ra ! k Bhi DO i:i< ■ i-wa -ku ni 

*-rfy? x>v^?^ 9**^ y ^ Y?^~ 

n HTO. 

587. If you wish to get it done, stick 

s!ii-ma-i na-sa-rr-t.i ku-l>a va-in»--dz ni na-sa ro. 

Do. ()-ina-i shi-ini-i-t i k-j-l'i v a id- -•!/ ni shi-ro. 

588. Tjf yo« to ty iY, 7 in'// »w^ iY tip. 

i-t i ko-re de so-n wo na sa-re ta na-ra-ba, son la-ke wa wa- 

ta-k'-shi ts'-ku-na-i-ma-sh'-o-o. 
Do. O-ma-i ko-re die so-n wo sh'-ta na-ra-ba so-rf da k<- wa wa- 
ta-k -thJ DffV ts'-ku-no-wo-o. 

*4>ls if * fi J99 

589. If that servant behaves well I think I trill keep him. 

A-no ko-dz-ka-i no ts'-to-me nga yo-ro sh'-ke-re-ba wa-ta-k'-shi 

t y 3X» i J vy a if a&isV y* v fiti, 

wa na-nsja-ku ts'-ka-e-ma-sh'-o-o to o-mo-i-ma-s'. 
Do. A-no ko-dz-ka-i no ha-ta-ra-ki risra i-i na-ra-ba wa-ta-k'-shi 

t ; n%ni > ,^? %ffi izh? a v % vis 

wa na-ngn-ku ts'-ka-wo-o to o-rao-o. 

590. i/" you find it bad, I xcill take it back at any time. 

A-na-ta so-re wo o mo-chi-i na-sa-re-te mo-shi wa-ru-i na-ra-ba, 

t^"^ yv ? JTZ.11 **Vf *:> V)\i*?>< 

wa-ta-k'-shi i-tsz-de-nfb u-ke to-ri-ma-so'-o-o. 

VZVls 1V?£ .97 H)^y 39 

Do. O-ma-i a-re wo mo-chi-i-te mo-shi wa-ru-i na-ra-ba wa-ta-k'- 
shi i-tsz-de-mo h -ki-to-ro-o. 



30 I. 

59 1 . If the article is only goody never mind the price; buy it and bring 
it here. 
Yo-ro-shi-i shi-na na-ra ne-da-n ni wa ka-ma-i-ma-se-nu ka-ra o 

ka-i na-sa-re-te h'-te ku-da-sa-re. 

Do. Shi-na sa-e yo-ke-re-ba ne-da-n ni wa ka-ma-wa-nu ka-ra ka- 

^ 9- fs* 3 7 VA 3-$rv ^^ ft •?. V % ft y ft 

t-te ki na-sa-e. 

592. If you do so any more, I will punish you. (said to children.) 
O-ma-e ma-ta so-no yo-o ni sz -ru na-ra-ba, wa-ta-k'-shi k'-t-to 

shi-o-o-ki wo shi-rna-s'. 

593. If this is lost you must make it good. 

Ko-re wo mo-shi u-shi-na-i na-sa-re-ru na-ra-ba a-na-ta o ma-do- 

i na-sa-re. 
Do. Ko-re wo rao-shi na-ku-sz na-ra-ba o-ma-e k'-t-to ka-wa-ri-wo 

* v 9 % ^ * # %j-5^ #^^ v\ftv i)9 

da-se. 

5T& 

594. Jf the best were so bad, what must the rest be? 

I-chi ba-n yo-ro-shi-i-no nga so-no yo-o ni wa-ru-u go za-ri-ma- 

sz na-ra-ba, ho-ka-no wa do-no yo-o de go za-ri-ma-sh'-o-o? 

£*?'J* &ft ? r> \ l B9f flfV^lsBV 

Do. I-chi ba-n i-i nga so-n-na-ni wa-ru-i na-ra. ho-ka-no wado- 
n-na da-ro-o 1 

595. If you we not in a hurry, go around by the main road. 

O i-so-ngi de na-ke.re-ba ho-n do-o wo o ma-wa-ri na-sa-re. 

/? i y^f j-*j v >^fv^9 9*? * V V 9-^v 

Do. I-so-nga na-ku-ba ka-i do o wo ma-wa-re. 

1 ?ff* Pistol vv?-? v v 

596. If I give to the beggars, there will^e no end to it. 
Wa-ta-k'-shi ko-j-ji-ki ni ho.-do-ko*shi wo shi-ma-s' na-ra-ba ka- 

!? ^>2 t&?r± * Vp l>9t>*?X^5^ ft 

ngi-ri wa go za-ri-ma-s'-ma-i. 
Do. Wa-shi ko-ji-ki ni ho-do-ko-shi wo sz-ru na-ra-ba ka-ngi-ri 

V Is ar^^AfJvf* 3l is 9 *)V 9-?^ ft 3fi) 



I. 81 

wa na-ka-ro-o. 

597. If you blot out a word correct it over the erasure. 
Mo-n-ji wo ke-sh'-ta na-ra ba, u-e ni o ka-ki-n:- 

Do. Mo-n-ji wo ke-sh'-ta na-ra, u-e in ka-ki na-o-se. 

t^V 9 Vl>9 +?*>*-- f)* +9\> 

698. Ignorant people are the most positive in their opinions. 

O-ro-ka no mo-no wa i-ta-t-te g yo-o go za-ri-mas' 

tXHl > fc ) ^1#Vf if if 5f 39 3-^1)^^ 

Do. (iiini-n wa i-chi-ba-n ga nca tsz-yo-i. 

599. Intelligent persons are the most gentle and yielding, 
Ha-ku-sh'-ki no h'-to wa i-ta-l-te on j'-vu-n do go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. Mo-no wo shi-ru h'-to wa i-ta-t-te o-n j'-yu-n da. 

^ ; 9 ^>vth /vf Ht^fir^ib^f 

600. In what street did you meet him. 

A-na-ta wa ano o ka-ta ni do-ko no ma-chi dc o a-i nn-sa- 

T^*^ T Jitftit -Fa / f* Tjt71+* 

rc-ma-sh'-ta. 

V fist* 

Do. O-ma-i wa a-no h'-to ni do-ko no ma-chi dc a-t-ta. 

60 1 . Is it high tcater or low 1 

Mi-chi shi-wo de go za-ri-ma-s' ka, h'-ki shi-wo dc go za-ri* 

^ * is 9 t * *ri)^* nr^^f^ *p) 

ma-s' ka ? 
Do. Mi-chi shi-wo ka h'-ki shi-wo ka? 

2. 4- ^ 9 X ti* ^ 9 ?l 

602. 7* your new house finished? 

A-na-ta no shi-n ta-ku wa c;o shi-t-ta-i ni na-ri-ma-sh'-ta ka? 

f^5l ? l& fit * dLl,y%<^ThX)^}y>}n 

Do. O-ma-e no a-ta-ra-sh'-ki u chi wa de-ki a-nga-t-ta ka? 

603. Is this for sale ? 

Ko-re wa u-ra-re-ma-s' ka ? 

Do. Ko-re wa u-ra-re-ru ka? 

Is it true ? 

Ma-ko-to de go za-ri-ma-s' ka ? 

-C3J- T dT4fX)^K ft 

K 



82 i. 

Do. Ma-ko-to ka ? (or) Ho-n to-o ka ? 

y * y ft vt^ y 9 ft 

604. Is it right for us to do so. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi do-mo ka-yo-o ni i-ta-shi-ma-sh'-te mo yo-ro-shi-u 

v yp^ f^ ft ay^iz^^is f % a t?^9 

go za-ri-ma-s' ka? 
3T # $ *?% ft 

Do. Wa-ta-shi do mo ko-no yo-o ni sh'-te mo yo-i ka ? 

V %is Viz n ; a?~ ^? % 3i fj 

605. Is this enough ? 

Ko-re de ta-k'-sa.n go za-ri-ma-s' ka ? 

a v T &W**:&4m^;9% ft 

Do. Ko-re de ta-k'-sa-n ka? 

nv f ## if^ ft 

506. Is this your pencil ? 

Ko-no fu-de wa a-na-ta no go sh'-o-ji de go za-ri-ma-s' ka? 

* ? ? f *» 19-% ; 3f i^ai^r af -fi) ^ ^ ft 

Do. Ko-no fu-de wa o-ma-e no sh'-o-ji ka ? 

* > 7T /> *-?*- / i^av ft 

607. h that all ? 

So-re ba-ka-ri de go za-ri-ma-s' ka? 

Do. So-re ba-ka-ri ka ? 
t V Aft \) ft 

608. Is it odd or even ? 

Ta-m me-i de go za-ri-ma-s' ka ch'-o-o me-i de go za-ri-ma- 

^>(jf jf W^X ft±a? a 1¥ ar *jmj -? 

s' ka? 
Do. Ta-m me-i ka eh'-o-o me-i ka ? 

^ M ft l-a*?M ft 

609. Is it time for us to go? 

Wa-ta-k'-shi do-mo no ma-i-ri-ma-s' ji-kc-ku ni na-ri-ma-sh'- 

9 £^v f^ > -c^i)^^ t^ ~ ^*)^ ^ 

ta ka? 

* ft . 

Do. Wa-ta-k'-shi do-mo no yu-ku ji-bu-ri ni na-t-ta ka? 

610. is it a good time to transplant trees ? 

I-ma ki wo u-e-ka-e ma-sh'-te mo yo-ro-shi-u go za-ri-ma- 

1^ * 9 V^ft^ ^Tt3I2^ a* if l) ^ 

s' ka f 

%ft 

Do. I-ma ki wo u-e-ka-e-te mo yo-i ka? 

f^?% ? y^ft^rz.ai ft 



T. 83 

611. h this home to let. 

Ko-re wa ka-shi i-e de go za-ri-ma-s' ka? 

Do. Ko-re \va ka-shi i-e ka ? 

CI 2. hthit gttn loadedl 

DO te-p-po-o \va ta-ma-npu-sz'-ri DH ko-me-te go za-ri-ma- 

^ y f *#?^ *■? ^ -*o tf ^ f aff i) •? 

I k;i .' 

613. 7# this piece tiker? 

lv -no gi-n \va mu-ku de go za-ri-ma-s' ka? 

3 / \^^ i» t ? * **)-?* n 

Do. Ko-no gin wa mu-ku ka ? 

^ 7 V«^ ^ * 9 ft 

G 1 4 . /51V «o/> to keep money here ? 

Ko-ko in ka-no wo o-ki-ma sh'-tc mo an shi-n do go za-ri- 

a a a fj 5- 9 ** ? >? *: T^ l*> f 5* *fi) 

ma-s' ka? 

Do. Ko-ko ni ka-nc wo o-i-tc mo a-n shi-n ka? 
a a .n ?)J- 9 *1f *:T^ V^ft 

C 1 5. 7> (hit child a girl or a boy J 

Ko-no o ko wa o-na-ngo dc go za-ri-ma-s' ka oto-ko de go 

za-ri-ma-s' ka? 

*n)^* ft 

Do. Ko-no ko wa o-na-ngo ka, o-to-ko ka? 

n ; a ^ tJV- 3l fj iryn n 

6 16. It there a fruit called the apple ? 

Ri-n-ngo to i-u ku-da-mo-no nga go za-ri mas' ka? 

\)^ *- y 1 ? 9 ?*. > n * *H)^* ft 

Do. Ri-n-ngo to i-u ku-da-mo-no n<ra a-ru ka? 

\)^ji\i? $ spfc >> n v>* ft 

617. If spoilt the teeth to file them. 

Ya-sz-ri de ha wo sz-ru to so ko-na-i-ma-s'. 

-V **) f ^ 9 *>V > ya^t^ 
Do. Ya-sz-ri de ha wo sz-ru to so-ko na-u. 

-v *i) t ^ 9 * yv y y*+7 

618. It takes two to make a row. 

F'-ta-tsz na-ke-reba h'-to na-ra-bi ni na-ri-ma-se-nu. 

Do. F'-ta-tsz na-ke-re-ba h'-to na-ra-bi ni na-ra-nu. 



84 I. 

619. It takes more cloth to make it in that way. 

So no yo-o ni ts'-kut-te wa ki-re nga o o-ku i-ri-ma-sh'-o-o. 

Do. So-no yo-o ni ts'-ku-t-te wa ki-re nga o-o-ku i-ru de a- 

y > ^ ~7#7f /> %v ft jr^Plw ?1 

ro o. 
77 

620. It makes no difference to me which you do; suit yourself. 
Do-chi-ra na-sa-re-te-mo wa-ta-k'-shi ni ka-ma-i wa go-za- 

ri-ma-se-nu, o-bo-shi-me-shi shi-da-i ni na-sa-ri-ma-sh'. 

Do. O-ma-i do-o sh'-te mo wa-ta-k'-shi ni ka-ina-i wa na-i ka- 

ra, no-zo-mi shi-da-i ni shi-ro. 

7 7 rs* uxi~ \»n 

621. It is a long time since I bade you adieu. 

A-na-ta ni o wa-ka-re mo-o-sh'-te yo-ri hi-sa-sh'-ku o me ni 

ka-ka-ri-ma-se-na-n-da. 
Do. O-ma-i ni wa-ka-re-te yo-ri. hi-sa-sh'-ku a-wa-na-n-da. 

3r^Y- *>n vf 3i) fc-t^ ^ t ^^y 

622- A m my time to go. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi nga yu ku j'-yu-m-ba-n ni a-ta-ri-ma-sh'-te go za- 

9 $#\s ft * W^'^~ f £ V *? ^f * -f 

ri-ma-s' . 

Do. Wa-shi nga yu-ku j'-yu-m-ba-n ni a-ta-t-ta. 

V Is ft *-# ^f*^^~T#*# 

623. It will do very well as it is; do not le too particular about it. 
So-re de mo-o yo.ro-shi-u go za-ri-ma-s', ta-i so-o ni ne-n wo 

i-re-te sz-ru ni wa o-yo-bi-ma-se n. 

Yvf M—^-ftB^^&Z 

Do. So-re de mo-o yo-ro-shi-i a-ma-ri ne-n wo i-re-te sz-ru ni 

nf *?? 3 \2\si 1~?X)^9 1V? K)V~ 

wa o-yo-ba-nu. 

624. It will not last long. (said of the weather) 
Hi-sa-sh'-ku wa tsz-dz-ki ma-s' ma-i. 

t ^ I, # ;\ V IT * ^?X "^Y 
Do. Na-nga-ku wa tsz-dz-ku ma-i. 
/• # # ^ 9 ftp -?i 



1 85 

// won't last long. (of any thing in use.) 

Na-nga-ku wa mo-chi-ma-s' ma i. 

** it 9 j* ^4* *%-*i 

Do. Na-nga-ku \va mots/., ma-i. 

+ it 9 » *b * *i 

626. It was an accident on my part, I beg pardon. 

Wa-lak'-shi wa so-so o wo i-ta shi-mash'-ta, go men ku-da- 

V fit is* 9 9*9 iZ^-Zis Z ar A^ t ? 

sa-re-ma-sh'. 

Do. Wa-shi wa soso-o wo sh -ta, go mc-n na-sa-i. 

V V rs y yt 9 V * *** ^^ 

627. // A<m ton <f<ro* already. 

Mo-o sa-ki ho-do sh'-te o shi-ma-i nn-sa-rc-ma-sh'-ta. 

*:9 ^* 4\K i- ? * l^^t: ^-+v^^£ 

Do. Moo sa-k -ki sli'-te shi-ma-wa-rc-ta. 

628. It is sun set. 

Bl no i-ri de go za-ri-ma-s". 

Do. Hi no HI da. 

t y 1 ») $r 

620. /* i* as plain as can be. 

Ko-re yo-ri a-ki-ra-ka na-ru ko-to wa go za-ri-ma-se-n'. 

Do. Ko-re yo-ri a-ki«ra-ka na-ru wa na-i. 

630. It is no such thing. 

Sa-yoo de wa go za-rima-se-n'. 

Do. Sa-o de wa na-i. 

631. It is as light as a feather. 

To-ri no ke no yo-o ni ka-ru-u go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. To-ri no ke no yo-o ni ka-ru-i. 

632. It is not good without salt. 

Shi-wo ke nga pa-ku te wa a-ji-a-i nga go za-ri-ma-se n\ 

■ n Is >t> 7 if 9*9 f *'T i?!? Y *f ^ *fi) ^ * 

Do. Shj-wo ke nga na-ke-re-ba a-ji-a-i nga na-i. 

i> * y n ^w^igy-itf 9-i 

633. It has lost its savour. 

Ko-no a-ji nga nu-ke-ma-sh'-ta. 

* J 7¥ if *7 -? Is Z 



86 I. 

Do. Ko-no a-ji nga nu-ke-ta. 

634, It is exactly noon. 

I-ma ni-t-chi-u de go za-ri-ma-s 7 . 

1-?^y±y ¥ & *f i)^* 

Do. I-ma -ma-hi-ru da. 

635 is very useful. 

Ta-i so-o ni ya-ku ni ta-chi ma-s'. 

Do. Ta-i so-o ni ya-ku ni tii-tsz. 

636. /^ is past 8 o'clock. (in the Japanese way) 
1-tsz-tsz do-ki sz-ngi de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

1 f >y y ^ ^ $ y rf if IJ ^ 

Do. I-tsz-tsz do-ki sz-ngi da. 

637. /£ is 0tfs#, because we have been accustomed to it from ancient times. 
Mu-ka-shi yo-ri na-re-te o-ri-ma-s' ka-ra, ya-sa-shi-u go za-ri- 

* ft ^ 31) :/•*?* tjhft* »? *^9^if i) 

ma-s' . 

Do. Mu-ka-shi yo-ri na-re-te i-ru ka-ra ya-sa-shi-i. 
*» # ^ 3 V yt-Vf 1)V ft? ViYlsl 

638. 72 d wow? 11 o'clock. 

I-ma yo-tsz do-ki ha-n de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. I-ma yo-tsz do-ki ha-n da. 
i^? 3 9 Y% />ftf #" 

639. 75 zs 9 o'cfocA. 

I-tsz-tsz do-ki ha-n de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

1 9 9 Y% /^ f* =* -f *) ^A 

Do. I-tsz-tsz do-ki ha-n da. 

1 9 9 Y% />& 5T 

640. 75 «n/£ 0J0 you good. (as medicine) 
Ko-re wa a-na-ta no k'-sz-ri ni na-ri-ma-sh'-o-o. 

Do. Ko-re wa o-rna-i no k'-sz-ri ni na-ro-o. 

641. It must be so. 

Ta-sh'-ka ni sa-yo-o de co za-ri-ma-s'. 

# 1, ft- ^\y f jtif i)^ 

Do. Ta-sh'- ka ni sa-yo-o da 

# ^ ft —^wqc 



I 87 

648. It must he true. 

Ta-sh'-ka ni ma-koto de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. Ta-sh'-ka ni ma-ko-to da. 

643. It can not be true. 

Ka-nara-d* ma-ko-to de go za-ri-ma-sc-n'. 

Do. Ka-na-ra-dz ho-n too »1«' wa na-i. 

644. It mutt be you that did it. 

Ki t-to a-na-ta nga i-ta-sa-re-ma-sir I 

Do. Ki-t-to o-ma-e nga shi na-sa-t-ta. 

6 1 "•• fl ffl* bought for nine dollars* 

Ko-ro \va dora ku-tu i-i dfl ka-wa-re-ma-sli'-ta. 

Do. Ko-re \va dora ku-ma-i de In ta. 

646. 72 w as hard a* a stone. 

I-shi no yo-o ni ka-to-o go za-ri-mas'. 

i^ } W^L fit? * if\)?A 

Do. 1-shi no yo-o ni ka-ta-i. 

647. It is hot* let it get cold t 

A-lsz-u go za-ri-ma-s', sa-ma-sh'-tc o o-ki na-sa-re-ma-sh'. 

?>y? * if l)^** ^fm^+ v^^ 

Do. A-tsz-i ka-ra; sa-rna-sh'-te o-ki na-sa-i. 

648. It mag be so, or it may not. 

O-o-ka-ta sa-yo-o de £0 za-ri-ma-sh'-o-o o-o-ka-ta sa-yo-o de 

go za-ri-ma-s' ma-i. 
Do. O-o-ka-ta so-o da-ro-o, o-o-ka-ta so-o de a-ru ma-i. 

649. It is running over . 

I-p-pa-i sz-ngi-te wa, na-nga-re de-mas'. 

Do. I-p-pa-i de wa na-nga-re de-ru. 

1 y ** 1 T ^ J~ ff v -T>v 

650. It is impossible fen' him to recover. 

A-no o ka-ta no ya-ma-i wa na-o-ra-re-ma-s'-ma-i 

7 mni > -V^fc:^ J-it^v^^l 



88 I. 

650. A-no h'-to no ya-rna-i wa na-o-ru ma-i. 

65 1 . It takes up too much time. 

So-re de wa hi ka-dz nga ka-ka-ri sz-ngi-ma-s'. 

nr^t n* n ## i) * af * * 

Do. So-re de wa hi ka-dz' nga a-ma-ri o-o-i. 

652. ifc is up hill all the way. 

Ko-no mi-chi wa tsz-ma-sa-ki a-nga-ri de go za-ri-ma-s'. 
n ; 3.* r> 9 ~? * *? ffl) T dt if)) ** 

Do. Ko-no mi-chi wa tsz-ma-sa-ki a-nga-ri da. 

653. It is down in the hold , 

Fu-ne no so-ko ni go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. Fu-ne no so-ko ni a-ri-ma-s'. 

654. It is in the middle, compartment of the ferry boat. 
Wa-ta-shi-bu-ne no do-o-no-ma ni go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. Wa-ta-shi-bu-ne no do-o-no ma ni a-ru. 

655. It is in the loio of the boat. 
He-sa-ki ni go za-ri.ma-s'. 

Do. He-sa-kmi a-ru. 

656. It is in the stern. 
To-mo ni go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. lo-mo ni a ru 

657. It was a mere joke 

So-re wa jo-o-da-n 1 a-ka-ri de go za-ri-ma-sh'-ta. 

V v ^ yrypisAft \) f jt if i) -? i,y 

Do. So-re wa jo-o-da-n ba-ka-ri de a-t-ta. 

658. It has all come to nothing. 
Sz-he-te na-shi ni na-ri-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. Sz-he-te na-ku na-t-ta. 

659. It is a pity to lose all this trouble. 

Se-k'-ka-ku ta-n se-i wo i-ta-shi-ma-sh'-ta ka-ra, ma-ko-to ni dza- 



I. 80 

n nc-n do iro za ri mas'. 
Do. Sc k ka-ku da-i-ji ni sh -ta ka-ra ma-ko-to m kti-chi-o slu-i. 
/' is exprntirt I i ring fore. 

i i-twa-s' nga o-o kn ka-ka-ri-mi 

Do. Ko-ko ni i-rn to dta-p-pi ngfl ta-n-to i-m. 

3 3 — f )V h ^»t: ff fl^Y1)V 

GO I . It it well worth the trouble. 

re wa shi-n-ro-u wo ts'-ku sh'-ta da-ko no ko to i 

ri-ma-sz-ru. 



n -7 *>v 



Do. Ko-re wa ko-koro wo tr-ka-ah' ta dt-ke no K-o-to 
n-ru. 

T>v 

6G2. 7* is not worth the trouble. 

Ko-re wa shi-n-ro n wo ts'-ku sh' ta ho-do dt> mo go za-ri-ma- 

3 v ^ > ^cr? 9 v #is$ ft K f £ rf -»fi) ^ 

se-n'. 
Do. Ko-re wa ko-ko-ro wots'-ku-sh'-ta ho-do no ko-to nga na-i. 

3V^33B? 3>£ 5^9 ftK > a >-*f ^ 

603. It t« good as far ax it aoes. 

Na-ni ni o-yo-bo-sz bo-do ho-shi-u go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. Na-ni ni o-yo-bo-sz da-ke ho-shi-i. 

G64. 7/ w enough such as it is. 

So-no vo-o-na no na-ra-ba ko-re-de ta-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. So ; n-na no na-ra-ba ko-re de ta-ri-ru. 

665. 7/ *s Jitter than it looh. 

Mi-ka-ke yo-ri yo-ro-shi-u go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. Mi-ka-ke vo-ri yo-i. 
3. # 7 3 1) 3 Y 

666. 7/ M-s ietar $*» s£ is. 

Mi-ka-ke da-o-shi de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. Mi-ka-ke da-o-shi da. 

3.1} "J TitV- T 



'90 i. 

667. It thundered last night 

Sa-ku-ya ra-i nga i-ta-shi-ma-sh'-ta, 

Do. Yu-u-be ka-rni-na-ri nga na-t-ta. 

668. It is a shame to him, 

A-no o h'-to wa so-re ni ts'-ke-te mo o ha-ji na-sa-ru nga 

fy^ti-^yv^^>;f &ir^¥ **rn ft 

vo-ka-ro-o. 

3 nu9 

Do. A-re wa so-re ni ta'-ke-te mo ha-ji-ru nga yo-i. 

669. It is not a whit better than it teas before. ■ 

Mo-to no yo-ri s'-ko-shi mo yo-ro-sh'-ku go za-ri-ma-se n'. 

% y ? s i) ** %, % 3 n > 9 dt ftj^&x 

Do. Mo-to no yo-ri s'-ko-shi mo yo-ro-sh'-ku na-i'. 
^y ? 3l)Aai,e 3 £2^ 9 +i 

670. It must be done by this time. 

I-ma wa k'-t-to de-ki-te o-ri-ma-sh'-o-o. 

1^ ^*9Y TSfjtV fls3*? 

Do. I-ma wa k'-t-to de-ki-te i-ru da-ro-o. 

671. It may be better for a short time, but not in the long run. 
S'-ko-shi no a-i-da wa yo-ro-shi-u go za-ri-ma-sh'-o-o nga, na- 
X * Is Jjltf** 3 &^9 3Tif1) ^^39 ft J- 

nga-ku wa .yo-ro-shi-u go za-ri-ma-s' ma-i. 

ft 9 *s $ u^9 ar ifi)-?*^f 

Do. S'-ko-shi no a-i-da wa yo-ka-ro-o nga na-nga-ku wa yo- 

K3 I- J f f 5T » 3 ?lW ft ^ft 9 ^ 3 

ku na-ka-ro-o. 

9 J-nn9 

<672. It must be done somehow or other. 

Do-o de-mo ko-o demo k'-t-to i-ta-sa-se-ma-s'. 

Do. Do-o de-mo ko-o de-mo k'-t-to i-ta-sa-se-ru. 

Y9 T&*9 ?& * * M 9^&v 

673. 72 « better not to build here, for I do not know how long I may 
live here. 
Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ko-ko ni i-tsz-ma-de o-ri-ma-sh'-o-o ka shi- 

V 99 l» ^23^ V^Tf **);? isBV ft l» 

ri-ma-se-n' ka-ra sa-n-za-i wo sh'-te f'-shi-n wo i-ta-shi-ma- 

i)^te^# 9*^*19 Uf 71^^91 9 Is * 

s' yo-ri i-ta-sa-nu ka-ta nga ma-shi de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

*31) 19^Z fl 1 * ft -? IsT ^ if X)?% 



I 91 

G73. Wa-shi wa ko-ko ni i-tsz-ma ; shi it nu ka-ra, sa- 

n- f-shi-n P i-i boo n^i ma- 
shi-da. 

G74. It will not keep more than a day or two. 

Ko ••■ hi ni chi P-t^'-k i yo-ri n.fcj ni wa o-ka-rc ini- 

3 v rs 1± ~± 7 V ft 3 I) ** A/S ^V^ 
se-nu. 

Do. Ko-re wa i chi ni-chi P-ts'-ka vo-ri sa-ki ni wa o-Ki- 

IlU. 

V * 

GJ5.Il it too late to do it now, put it off till tomorrow. 

I-ma i-ta-sh'-t»: wa o-so-o go za-ri-ma-s' Kara mio-o ni chi 

ni o no-be M I sh'. 

Do. I-ma sh'-te wa o so-i ka-ra n-sh'-ta ni no-be-ro. 

G76. 7* i« rf/ir/r uv must feel our way. 

Kuro-o go za-ri-ma-s' ka-ra wa-ta-k'-shi do-mo ka-na-ra-dz 

*cr*rf *ro ** »? ? #^> Ft *?^?x 

•u-t-te yu-ki-ma-s'. 
Do. Ku ra-i ka-ra ka-na-ra-dz sa-ncrii-Mf- yii-kn. 

677. 7/ mttttf ^ </ow« *>»** tfi'/w* or oM^r. 

ki e yorf-te ka-na-ra-dz ts'-ku-ra-se-ma s'. 

Do. Sa ki e yo-t-te ka-na-ra dz ts'-ku-ra-se-ru. 

678. /if is falling in price. 

Ko-re wa to-o-ji no so-o-ba wa sa-nga-t-te o-ri-ma s\ 

Do. Ko-re wa to-o-ji no so-o-ba wa sa-nga-t-te i-ru. 

679. It is ircll that you waited. 

A-na-ta o ma-chi na-sa-re-ta no nofa sa-i-wa-i ni na-ri-ma- 

T^*^ 4- +*v %> if if1<?i ^ + X) ■? 

sh'-ta. 

^!* 

Do. O-ma-e ma-t-ta no nga sa-i-wa-i ni na-t-ta. 

^s--??% ; if -*1^l~*v# 



92 I. 

GSO. It is high time for us to go. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi do-mo no ma-i-ru ji-ko-ku ni na-ri-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. VVa-shi no yu-ku ji-ko-ku nya k'-ta. 

v ^ ; 3-tv* V if *2 

681. It will take at least four men te lift this. 

Ko-re wo mochi a-nge-ru ni wa yo-t-ta-ri nga ka-ke-nu yo- 

o ni i ta-sh'-to-ro go za-ri-ma-s'. 
Do. Ko-re wo mo-chi a-nge-ru ni y»-t-ta-ri nga ka-ke-nu yo- 

n v ? te 4- in™ ~ayyx)ft ft y % -v 

ru sh'-ta-i. 

682. It is not safe to live here. 

A-s'-ko ni o i-de na-sa-re-te wa a-n-do i-ta-shi-ma-se-nu. 

y.*,3 -XI? **vf /^7^F i^l^^^.% 

Do. A-s'-ko ni i-te wa a-n-do se-nu. 

?*3^? f /^T^F ^% 

683. It is dangerous to live there. 

A-s'-ko ni o i-de na-sa-re-te wa ki-dz-ka-ide go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. A-s'-ko ni i-te wa ki-dz-ka-i. 

684. It is a good thing to have plenty of money. 

Ka-ne wa o-o-i ho-do yo-ro-shi-u go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. Ka-ne wa o-o-i ho-do yo-ro-shi-i. 

685. It has always been so and always will be so. 

I-ma ma-de ka-wa-ri nga na-i ka-ra, mi-ra-i mo sa-da-me-te 

i^t •<?? ft /Ni) ff y^i ft 7 2*71 z. 4t$A f 

ka-wa-ri wa go za-ri-ma-s' ma-i. 
ft ^ X) /> X~ ifl) tt-vf 

Do. I-ma ma-de ka-wa-ra-nu ka-ra sa-da-me-te mi-ra-i mo ka- 

1 -? ~? f ft ^7 % ft 7 ^^A f ^ 7 1=£ n 

wa-ru ma-i. 

/n)V ^1 

686. It has not rained here for 60 days. 

Ro-ku ji-u ni-chi no a-i-da ma-da a-rae nga fu-ri ma-sen'. 

Do. Ro-ku ji-u ni-chi no a-i-da ma-da a-me nga fu-ra-nu. 

n WV ^-f y-fttfr^ t a ?f ? ?% 

687. It has begun to rain to-day, and the farmers will be glad, for the 
rice fields are very dry. 



I 93 

Ya-tto ko-n ni-chi a-rae n<ra fu-ri-nia sh'-ti t;i ni mi-d 
n i-i ka ra, h'-\ 

y^ifj ? tf^^f^^-t!? A7 3 Oatrf a" 

Do. Ki-o-o hu ji-me-te n-mc ng» 1-t-ta ka-rn, ta Dl D 

7? *& *1 1 * n. ?*9Ji9 9 4.2*f* lit 

na-i y-rc, 1»'->.i !;'-sir-o-o wa yo-rol 

688. // m laughable to hear his jokes. 

> h'-to no j'-o i-.l;i-n WO ki I 

Do. u-j. 

689. Jrtrrfr <?r« »o< trorw M Japan. 

Ni-p-po-n do wa ta-iua no ka-za-ii wo l*' -nil. 

Do. Ni-p-po-n de wa ta-ina no ka-za-ii WO ta'»ke na-i. 

bSw* T^ * * ) a*P) 9 in *i 

690. Jump over the ditch. 

Do-bu wo ko-c-to o-i-de na-sa-re-ma-se. 

Do. Do-bu wo ko-e-te o i d< . 

y ? 9 3^7*1? 

69 1. June is the 0th month. 

J'-yu-n wa ro-ku BgB-tU de co za-ri-ma-s'. 

^^ **t2 # if 9 r i *F i) tt 

Do J'-yu-n wa ro-ku n?a-tsz da. 

K. 

632. Keep out of the tun, or you will be tanned. 

Hi na-ta e de-te a-ru-ki na-sa-ru-na, i-ro n?a ku-ro-tu na-ri- 

t ^-xff T>V* + *)V+1t2 ff WVJ-X) 

ma-s'. 

Do. Hi na-ta e de-te a-ru-ku-na i-ro nga ku-ro-ku na-ru. 

t ^^ff tw^-ftr ff #n# 7*>v 

693. JTorp your book clean] by handling it carelessly, the letters will be 
defaced. 
Ho n wo ki-re-i ni sh'-te o mo-chi na-sa-re, dza-tsz ni mo-tsz 



94 K. L. 

to ji nga ku-sz-re-te mi-e na-ku na-ri-ma-s'. 
Do. Ho-n wo ki-re-i ni mote, dza-tsz ni to-ri-a-tsz-ka-u to ji n^a 

4^ 9 *y1~^f if 9 — H)f *h&Y&ff 

ku-sz-re-te mi-e na-i. 
^T V f 3.5* 9- i 

694. Keep on doing as you are now. 

I-ma no to-o-ri ni ko re ka-ra na-sa-re-ma-sh'. 

Do.. I-ma no to-o-ri ni ko-re ka-ra shi-ro, 

i* J! YitV &r*y ft? itpt 

695. Keep what I have told you to yourself do not tell any one else of it. 
Wa-ta-k'-shi nga mo-o-shi a-nge-ta ko-to wo hi-mi-tsz ni sh'- 

V %# i« if r9 ^f T^a> ? fe i> - ^ 

te o-o-ki na sa-re-ma-sh' h'-to ni wa o ha-na-shi na-sa-ru-na. 

fitiT*^ v^ls tiY^svjt^p 9-^)V 9- 

Do. O-re nga ha-na-sh'-ta ko-to wo na-i-sh'-o-o ni sh'-te o-ke, h'- 

*vtf >>V-^# *Y 99-1is3y~is?j)r } 7 fc. 

to ni wa ha-na-sz-na. 

696. Keep out of my way, you bother me. 

Sochi-ra e o no-ki a-so-ba-sa-re, j a -ma ni na-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. So-chi-ra e no-ke j a-ma ni na-ru. 

y ^ 5^7 Wv? — 9-rv 

697. Kill that dragonfly. 

So-no to-m-bo wo o ko-ro-shi na-sa-re. 

V S \^^ 9 IT *& Is 9-*\v 

'Do. A-no to-m-bo wo ko-ro-se. 

698. Kind treatment, every body likes. 

Na-sa-ke wo ka-ke-ru ko-to wo da-re de-mo yo-ro-ko-bi-ma- 

9- ft V 9 ft V >v a y 9 & 'V 'f fc 3 U * tf '% 

sz-ru. 
Do. Na-sa-ke wo ka-ke-ru wo da-re de-mo yo-ro-ko-bu. 

9- A V 9 ft J)V 9 #v ?% BVSLpt <f 



699. Last night I could not sleep, it was so hot Sf close. 

Sa-ku ya, mu-shi a-ts'-ku-te, wa-ta-k'-shi ne-mu-ra-re-ma- 

se-n'. 



L. 05 

G99. Yu-u-be mu-shi a-ts'-ku -t»» wa-ta-k'-shi ne ts'-ka-n'. 

700. /vW me jive dollar*. 

m Jo-ra wo go ma-i ka-sh'-te ku-da-sri-re-ma-sh\ 

Do. Wa-shi ni do-N :;<> nia-i ka sh t»« kn-roro. 

701. Let it alone. 

■<• wo o yo-shi na- 

Do. 8o-rr \\<> vo-se. 

9V 9 B& j 

702. /^ i/ £*/<*• *A* present where it is, tomorrow we wiU move it into. 

ike parlor. 

Ta-da-i-ma o-ku toko-ro wo yo-shi-ma-sh'-te, mi-o-o ni-chi 

# F1*jt'/ Y*a 9 a > r v f J9 - * 

o za-sh'ki c sa-shi dn-9lii-ma-sz ru. 



Si I 



Ho. Ta-da-i-ma o-ku to-ko-ro wo vo-sh'-tc, a-sh'-ta o za-sh'-ki 

# 5T-f^*^ Y*K 9 3 >f ?>2*'F>* 

e sa->hi ih-shi-ma-s'. 
^ ^ $ Is ^** 

703. />* who will say it, I do not believe it. 

I > t-re dc-mo so-no yo-o ni mo-o-shi-ma-sz-ru nga wa-ta-k'- 

y v y €s.y / V * — ? 9 ^ ? X)v # ? n ^ 

shi wa shi-n-ji-ma-se nu. 
Do. Da-re demo so-no yo-o ni mo-o-sz nga, wa-ta-k'-shi wa 
shi u-ji na-i. 

704. Let him do it, he has nothing eke to do. 

A-no o ka-ta wa ho-ka-no shi-ngo-to nga go za-ri-ma-se- 

t / it ft? ^ 4, ft s is*\ if dr ->f i)- ^ 

nu ka-ra, ko-re wo o sa-se na-sa-re. 

Do. A-no h'-to wa ho-ka-no shi-ngo-to nga na-i ka-ra ko-re 
?>> tV /> *#>> ^ 3T \ if zhi ft? av 

wo sa-se-ro. 

9 m^U 

705. Z*tf us see icho can throw a stone the fartlmt\ you or I. 

A-na ta to wa-ta k'-shi to l-shi na-nge wo i-ta-shi-ma-sh'-o-o, 

do-chi-ra nga to-o-ku e yu-ki-ma-s' ka. 

F *-+ if Y ? # ^* * -? '* ft 



96 L 

705. O-ma-i to wa-ta-k'-shi to i-shi na-nge wo shi-yo-o do-chi n^a* 
to o-ku e yu-ku ka. 

706. Let us do it at a venture. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi do-mo ko-re wo dze-hi i-ta-shi-ma-sz-ru. 

V % V is V Z. * v 9 tf t 1 $ ^^ %w 

Do. Wa-ta-k'-shi do-mo ko-re wo dze-hi sz-ru. 

v % v is v * 5z x v 9 *2 : t * yv 

707. Let it he just as it is. 

So-o sh'-te o o-ki a-so-ba-sa-re. 

Do. So-o sh'-te o o-ki na-sa-re. 

708. I jet us take a pipe under this tree. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi do-mo ko-no- ki no sh'-ta de i-p-pu-ku ts'-'ka-ma- 

tsz-ri-ma-sh'-o-o. 
Do. Ko-no ki no sh'-ta de wa-shi do-mo i-p-pu-ku no-mi-ma- 
sh'-o-o. 

709. X^ ws coo? ourselves under this tree. 
Ko-no ki no sh'-ta de sz-dz-mi-ma-sh'-o-o, 

Do. Ko-no ki no sh'-ta de sz-dz-mo-o. 
n J * J IsfiTKXW 

710. Let us take a ride together into the country to day. 

Ko-n ni-chi go do-o yo-o ni m'-ma ni no-t-te no na-ka de ka-ke-^ 
Hs^j-zT K9^9^^ ^>^/yf y ^ftf* % yj 
ma-sh'-o-o. 

Do Ki-o-o mi-n-na-sh'-te m'-ma ni no-t'te no na-ka e de-ma- sh'- 

W ^tsJ-Vf l*^~ S9 7S 7>-ft^?~? Is. 

o-o. 

3? 

711. Let him ride the pielald horse, fy I will ride the bay. 

A-no h'-to wo bu-chi no m'-ma ni o no-se na-sa-re; wa-ta-k'- 

shi wa a-ka-i m'-ma ni no-ru. 
Do. A-no h'-to wo bu-chi no m'-ma ni no-se, wa-shi wa a-ka-i 



L 

mo ni-no-ru. 

7 1 "2. 7,/rr/ the ground well for the foundation of the house. 

l-vc no ji-niji o-o wo ta-i-ra BJ <» Id u-inr a->n tfc-l 1 re-ma- 

fi y -FY*? ? *f ?-* ^5^ry^^ v * 

shi. 

Do, U-chi no ji njji-o-o wo ta-i-rn ni ka-ta-me-ro. 

7\'o. Lexicons in Japanese $• English are most needed by foreigners in 
learning the Japanese langwige. 

I ko-ku no h'-to nga Ni-ho-n no ko-o j'o o wo na-ra-u 

ni wa \\ a ngo Ye va-k«i no ji-bi-ki nga da-i i-chii-ri yo- 

o de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

afifl) 

Do. Ga-i ko-ku no h'-to ngn Nip-po-n no ko-o j'oo wo na-ra- 
u ni wa Wa ngo Ye ya-ku no ji-bi-ki nga da-i i-chi i-ri 

V^ » v a i r >; > vt£$ if vcmix) 

vo-o da. 

7 1 4. Lift this board up, and set it on end. 

Ko-no i-ta wo mo-chi a-nge-te o ta-te a-so-ba-sa-re-ma-shi. 

.? ?1 * ? *: * ?T ?**? TM* v *V 

Do. Kono i-ta wo mo-chi a-nge-te ta-te-ro. 

7lT>. TwyM the lamp. 

A-ka-ri wo o ts'-ke a-so-basa-re-ma-sh\ 

ft) 1) ? * V*! 79*+tr+.l> 

Do. A-ka-ri wo ts'-ke-ro. 

710. Lightning is the cause of thunder. 

Ka-mi na-ri no rao-to wa i-na-bi-ka-ri de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. Ka-mi-na-ri no moto wa i-na-bi-ka-ri da. 

717. Li7/m abound in the woods and Pinks grow wild by the road sides 
in Japan. 
Ha-ya-shi no na-ka ni yu-ri nga ta-k'-sa-n ha-e-te o-ri , mi chi 

ba-ta ni wa na-de-sh'-ko nga ya-ta-ra-ni ha-e-te o-ri-raa-s . 



98 L. 

7 J 7. Haya-shi no na-ka ni yu-ri aga o-o-ku ha-e-te o-ri, mi-chi 

^ -V Is ? J-tl — ^) IfjtfrP *X-f fV A * 

ba-ta ni na-de-sh'-ko njra }'a-mi-ko-mo ha-e-te o-ru. 

718- Lions and tigers are not natives of Japan. 

Shi-shi to to-ra \va Ni-p-po-n ni o-ra-na-i ke-da-mo-no de go 

za-ri-ma-s\ 

Do. Shi-shi to to-ra-wa Ni-p-po-n ni i-na-i ke-da-mo-no da. 

7 19. Lock the doors. 

Mo-n no j'-o-o wo o-ro-shi a-so-ba-sa-re. 

Do. Mo-n no j'-o-o wo o-ro-shi na-sa-re. 

720. Look them over, and pick out the bad ones, and throw them away. 
Ko-re wo mi-wa-ke-te wa-ru-i no wo o to-ri s'-te na-sa-re- 

^v^nt ? )V1 S 9 * H) Xf > * v 

ma-sh'-. 

? &" 

Do. Ko-re wo mi-wa-ke-te wa-ru-i no wo to-ri s'-te-ro. 

* v 9 a. Wf ?)V1 ; 9\v) ?^n 

72 1. Look again; it must be about here somewhere. 

Mo-o i-chi do o ta-dz-ne na-sa-ri-ma-sh ? so-ko no ki-n-j'-o 

ni k'-t-to go za-ri-ma-sh'-o-o. 
Do. Mo-o i-chi do o sa-nga-shi na-sa-re, so-ko no ma-wa-ri ni 
k'-t-to a'-ri-ma-sh'-o-o. 

722. Look out or you will get hurt. 

Ki wo ts'-ke-na ke-re-ba ke-nga wo i-ta-shi-ma-sz-ru. 

* 9\?*f*9 V* V if 9 i % V* % >v 

Do. Ki wo ts'-ke-na ke-re-ba ke-nga wo sz-ru. 

723. Loosen that horse's girth a little. 

So-no m'-ma no ha-ra-o-bi wo s'-ko-shi o yu-ru-me na-sa-re. 

9 S*-? j ^3in£9 %* ^jc 3~)V * ihitv 

Do. A-no m'-ma no ha-ra-o-bi wo s'-ko-shi yu-ru-me-ro. 

t;^; j*9it\£9 *? ^ ^)v At2 

724. Love your enemies, bless them that curse you ; do good to them 
that liate you, and pray for them that despitefully use you and 
persecute you. 



).. M. M 

A nm wo ad. i In -t:i — ki-ni sz-ru mo-no wo ha, a-na-ta ko- 
T-^ ? TT #£ *- * >l S: 7 ? A ?^# a 

re wo 1; i-ru-kn vuu mo-no. wo, 

V 9 t)** 1 tfi t+9 9 *>)\ '/ '1? & J 9 

a-na-ta sore wo yo-ku i-i. a-na-ta wo u-ra-mi ni mo no wo, 

T^ ; rn9 3M(W?9?^vt; 9 

a-na-ta so-re wo vo-ku to-ri-a-ts'-ka-i : a-na -ta wo iii-dn kti 

t^^vv 9 a 9 yiiyrniz t^s 9 tp 9 

wo n-shi-ra-i, a-na-ta ni ga-j jama wo sz-ru mo-no wo , 

9 f I ^tT^ ~tf1 vr^9 *>v % ; 9 

n-na-la ko-re nsra ta-me-ni ka -mi m«ma ni o i-no-ri na- 

725. Lunatics in Japan are taken, care of by their friend* if they luivc 

«»y ; if *°ti thy fall into bet*. 

Nl p-po-n de wa ki-chi-ii-a-i mo-no wa shi-nru-i nga se-wa 

j=.9,\^r J* * ±if 1 ^ ? * i^JVf ft fc »? 

wo i-ta-shi-ma-s, shi-n-ru-i n^a na-ke-rc-ba ko-ji-ki ni o- 

9i % s^xs^fiW t> +>jv# aj;* ,n# 

chi-ma-e'. 

f -? A 

1 1 Ni-p-po-n de wa ki-chi-n^a-i wa mi vo-ri nga se-wa sz- 

ru, na-ke-re-ba ko-ji-ki ni nam. 

M. 

726. Make haste back. 

Ji-ki-ni o ka-e-ri a-so-ba-sa-re. 

Uo. Ji-ki-ni ka-e-re. 

727. Jfafo the most of this, there is no more. 

Ko-re ngi-ri go za-ri-ma-se-n' ka-ra, da-i-ji-ni o ts'-ka-e a-so- 

ay If l) :f #!)<?** nj VCiV-*VtltL7V 

ba-sa-re. 

^ V 

Do. Ko-re ki-ri na-i ka-ra da-i-ji-ni ts'ka-i na-sa-re. 

728. Make sure of this whatever becomes of the other. 

A-chi-ra wa do-o-de-mo yo-i nga ko-chi-ra wa dze-hi mo-to- 



100 M. 

me o-ki-ta-i. 

728. A-cbi wa do-o-dc-mo yo-i nga ko-cbi \va dze-bi to-me-te 

f f >> F 9f £ $T $ '£..£ **Mk M ? 

o-ki-ta-i. 

729. Make out your bill , / will pay you. 

Ku-wa-sh'-ki u-ke-to-ri nga-ki wo o da-shi na-sa-re, wa ta-k'- 

// /x ^ % 97 V l) jf \ 7X $%, ^- * v K> %» 

shi ka-ne wo ha-ra-i-ma-s'. 

is ftlr 9 v* ?*z?P\ 

Do. U-ke-to-ri wo o da-shi, ka-ne wo ya-ri.ma-s'. 

97 f ') 9 it ^ * 3-. 9 V ') ■** 

730. JJ/flfX'(3 Am do it over and over again, till be yets it rigid. 

A-no h'-to nga yo-ku de-ki-ma-sz-ru nia-de na-m-be'-n de-mo 

t; th if 3 9 f #^ >\>V & f **s<<is? ^ 

o sa-se na-sa-re-ma-sh'. 
Do. A-no h'-to nga yo-ku de-ki-ru ma-de, na-m-be-n de-mo o 

t / tiY m if 3 P T*)V -? T * H&* f tt 

sa-se na-sa-i. 

731. Marie my name on my handkerchief in Japanese characters. 
Wa-ta-k'-shi no ha-na-f'-ki e a-na-ta nga Ni-hon mo-ji de 

V Ztls > X*?k % '4*i&& if x&zs&VT 

wa-ta-k'-shi no na wo ka-i-te ku-da-sa-re-ma-s-e. 

V #tls S*9.ij1f##*y *& .; 

Do. Wa-shi nga ha-na-f'-ki e o-ma-e nga Ni-ho-n mo-ji de wa- 

V, ^ if /vp^*^r«t if — 4^^ f 5> 

shi nga na wo ka-i-te ku-da-sa-re. 

t> if > 9 ft if &$$Y 

732. Masks of various descriptions are worn at the Japanese religious 
festivals in their pantomimes and dances 

Wa-ko-ku no ma-tsz-ri ni i-ro-i-ro-na me-n wo ka-bu-ri-te o- 

^/;;^>yi) ~iniK9-*^ 9 ft ftyf* 

do-ri ha-ne-ma-sz-ru. 

F0 ^3- ^ >\)V 

Do. Wa ko-ku no ma-tsz-ri ni wa i-ro-i-ro no me-n wo ka-bu- 
t-te o-do-ri ha-ne-ru. 

y?#F»)''-3->v 

733. May I not have a pear Sir? 

Da-n-na, Wa-ta-k'-shi wa raa-shi wo h'-to-tsz mo-ra-t-te yo-ro- 

& is?* y %!/ v> /<<&%> 9 t> * *: ? y f at* 



\|. 101 

734. May I take this? 

\\ i wa Ko-rt" wo Ka n b /in ma- 

s' I 

Do. Wa -shi wa ko-ro wo ka-ri-to \o i ka? 

735. J/eii/ iwjf c/ofta niVv/y. - 

\\ l-tl h -shi nga ki-mo-no wo yo-ro-sh'-ku im-i nao-sh'-tr ku- 

9 99 > n **. j 9 a vis? zti+x>7 9 

re-ro- 
V$t2 

736. Miners are not long lived in the island of Sado. 

Sa-do no ka-na-ho-ri wa na-n^a i-ki dc go za-ri-ma-sc-n'. 

*k;»^ *>) j* + iti*? * *;>) ^** 

Do. Sa-do no ka-na-ho-ri wa na-nga-i-ki de na-i. 

*K y »^*») ***** * fV-f 

737. J/<W yowr wr» business, don't bother me, 

O mac o-ina-c nga sz-ru ko-to wo na-sa-rc wa-ta-k'-shi nga 

itvs-itfs* if *>v a y 9 +*v v 99is if 

j'-a-ma wo sz-ru-na. 

Mix these ttco together* 

Ko-no i'-ta-tsz wo o ma-ze na-sa-re. 

3 J 7 9? 9 *-?& **V 

Do. Ko-no i'-ta-tsz wo ma-ze-ro. 

738. Murders are numerous in Japan of late years. 

Ni-p-po-n de h'-to-ngo-ro-shi wa chi-ka-ngo-ro ta-k'-sa-n' go za- 

—?$> ftiY^r ni, >^ ± n 3 \2 %r;it±<JLi? 

ri-ma-s'. 

ft"** 

Do. Ni-p-po-n de h'-to-ngo-ro-shi wa chi-ka-ngo-ro ta-k'-sa-n 

~*&rT tzYsr&^^i-iJft* 99^^ 

a-ru. 
f IV 

739. My feet are cvld. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi no a-shi nga tsz-me-ta-o go za-ri-ma-s\ 

_ 9 99 V J TV if v A 99* *n)^* 

Do. \\ a-shi nga a-shi nga hi-e-ru. 

9 t? if t!> if t»v 

740. My house is overrun with rats. 

Wa ta-k'-shi no i-ye wa ne-dz-mi nga ta-i-so-o ni o-ri-ma-sz-ru. 

9 99 V JH-^l-rs. if91v9~jtV^7*>v 



IQ2 M. N 

740. Wa'-f<l/i 'figa- *i-chi wa ne-dz-mi nga ta-i-so-o i-ru, 

7i\. My jingtr 1,(d afelou on it, or is sore of a felon. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi no yu-bi nga hi-o-o-so de ya-me-ma-sz-m. 

V 9#p J *-\~ if tiBV??*? A ^ 7, >v 

Do. Wa-shi nga yu-bi nga hi-o-o-so de i-ta-mu. 

V l> if **£ if tiSW? 1$i* 

N. 

742. Never mind (that is, Do not be concerned about it.) 
Ki ni o ka-ke a-so-ba-sa-re-ma-s'-na. 

Do. Ki ni ka-ke na-sa-ru-na. 

* ^ ft yj 1 Mt )V * 

743. No matter how you do it if you only do it 

Po-o de-mo yo-i ka-ra ko-shi-ra-i sa-i sz-re-ta yo-ro-shi-u oo 

za-ri-ma-s'. 

*H) -?% 

Do. Do-o de-mo yo-i ka-ra ko shi-ra-i sa-i sz-re-ba vo-i. 

>V ?*z31 ft? Us f^^TsVJ* 3 1 

744. No one knows where it came from. 

Ko-re vva do-ko ka-ra ki-ma-sh'-ta ka da-re mo shi-ri-ma-se-n'. 
a V ^ V n ft J ^ I, $ ft $ V %z V ] ) ^^ * 
Do. Ko-re wa do-ko ka-ra k'-ta ka da-re mo shi-ra-n'. 
a V /s y aft? %# ft tfy, ^ I, ?% 

745. No t they are my brothers, 

I-i-ye, wa-ta-k'-shi ki-o-o-da-i no mo-no de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. I-i-ye vva-ta-k'^shi ki-o-o-da-i no mo-no da. 

746. No, I am the taller. 

I-i-ye wa-ta-shi se-i nga ta-ko-o go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. I-i-ye wa-shi no-a se-i nga ta-ka-i. 

f!if*9 ^ tf*Y ^ $?#Y 

747. Nobody thinks so but you. 

A-na-ta yo-ri ho-ka ni wa h'-to wa sa-yo-o wa o-mo-i-ma- 

se-nu. 

^^ 

Po. O-ma-e yo-ri ho-ka no h'-to wa so-o wa o-mo-wa-nu. 

#^ 3 ») $ft S KY »V9 '^ it*: V Z 



\ ilitrtf in 1 

K ko-ya-ahi nga na-ku-te wa na-ni mode~ki< 

a ; } ± #> a r 3. *f + 9 f J* *~ *: f * 

Ko do li iii wu ko-ya-ahj nga na>ktt-to ua na-ni in<» (!.•- 

a > * * j* a * !• tf ^ ^f ^ ^ — £ ? 

kf-na-i. 

\ to do it. 

k -!•<• wo ko >lii-rai-ru ni i •, o-n> >lii-u go za-ri-un |\ 

Do* K"-n wo -/-ru DJ i-ni;i Dga VO-i. 

:* V 9 70V — 1-? ff 3i 

\ I get into it. 

-hi \va MM wa-ka-ri mas'. 

9 Z9\s * .1 * V ft »)^* 

Wa-abi am i-ma wa-ka-tt.i. 

7 . 1 . StUmegs are in great demand. 

1-ina nikudz-ku wo o-o-kn h'-lo nira ho-shi-nun i i ma s'. 

1? A^5T * 9 iNv^ tih # & ^ V ■)-?* 

Po. I-ma ni-ku dz-ku wo o-o-ku h'to nija ho-slji-nija-ni. 
Yr7 ^// )/^ ? tM\^ fch ff >t^ tf )V 



0(//« grow wild in thin country, but the farmers pull them up and 

throw them away, though they are very good for hone-feed. 

K r.i-sz mo-Offi wa ko-no ku-ni de ma-ka-dz-ni ha-e-ma-sz- 

ft ?* fe af /* a ^ ^— f *c# X— ^^^^ 

ru . sa-ri na-ncra-ra h'-va-ku-sh'-o-o wa nu-i-te s'-te-ma-sz- 

w **) + if ? fc* ^ Mr*M #Y f*f -c* 

ru nga , m'-ma no ta-be-mo-no ni wa ha-na-ha-da yo-ro-shi-u 
)V ff ^ * ) ^ *: } — >^ /* 9->-> $C 3 13^9 
go za-ri-ma-s\ 

I )o. Ka-ra-sz mu-niri wa ko-no ku-ni de ma-ka-dz-ni ha-e-ru , sh'- 

ft 3 7s * 3f /n n s #^f> -? ft X— ^^>V ^ 

ka-shi-na-nq-a-ra h'-ya-ku-sh -o-o wa nu-i-te s'-te-ru nga,m'- 

ft 2s + i? 5 fcV^ ^-*>9 '\*Yf *f>v tf ^ 

ma no ku l-mo-no ni wa ha-na-ha-da yo-ro-shi-u go za-ru. 

^ J 9 i% S « ^ ^y- /^5T 3 £2^ 9a* if ;v 

J\">3. Oftf/rt w<? <dba m J6aacn by writing them out. and signing them 
with ones blood. 



104 t O. 

Ni-p-po-n de wa chi-ka-i wo i-ta-sbi-ma-sz-ru ni wa shi-m- 
rao-n ka-i te ke-p-pa-n wo ts'-ka-ma-tszri-ma-sz ru. 

=t^ K17 W>^9 9 fl •? 9 1) ^*>V 

Do. Ni-p po-n de chi-ka-i ni wa shi-m-mo-n ka-i-te ke p-pa-n 
sz-ru. 

754. Of all lad things, that is the icorst. 

Mi-na wa-ru-i ko-to no u-chi do wa so-re nga i-chi-ba-n wa- 

ru-u go za-ri-ma-s'. 
Do. Mi-na wa-ru-i no ko-to u-chi de wa a-re nga i-chi-ba-n 
wa-ru-i. 

755. 0/ w/jatf nation are you % 

A-na-ta wa do-ko no ku-ni de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

f ^ ^ F a 7 ^>~ f rf ip)^* 

Do. O-ma-e wa do-ko no ku-ni de go za-ru. 

756. 0/ w/^ ««<? f* sw/i « thing to you ? 

Ko-no yo-o-na mo-no wo na-ni ni o mo-chi-i na-sa-ruka'^ 

3 ; i>9^ *> J 9 9~~ ~-frz.4-1 ^)Vft 

Do. Ko-n-na mo-no wo o-ma-e wa na-ni nits -ka-e-ma-sz-ru kaf 

757 '. Once there was a house here. 

I-ze-n ko-no to-ko-ro ni i-ye nga go za-ri-ma-sh'-ta. 

Y^v^ ; \ a n ~ix ft ar *fi) -?$s% 

Do. I-ze-n ko-no to-ko-ro ni u-chi nga a-t-ta. 

-f*2>^y >3t2— 9 4~ft*?*& 

758. One of the spoons ts missing. 

Sa-ji nga i-p-po-n mi-e na-ku na-ri-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. Sa ji nga i-p-po-n mi-e na-ku na-t-ta. 

759. One of my horses is lame in the fore shoulder, and I cannot ride 

him till he is well, 

Wa-ta-k'-shi m'-ma nga i-p-pi-ki ka-ta wo i-la-me-ma-sh'-ta ka- 

V % Pis* ^> ^ 1 vtZ^ftZ 91$ A -eisji n 

ra, na-o-sz ma-de no-ru ko-to de-ki-ma-se-nu. 

9 J-*s\ ^r ? )V 3 y ?% -? *> % 

Do, Wa-shi nga m'-ma nga i-p-pi-ki ka-ta wo i-ta-mc-ta ka-ra na- 



p 108 

io-ru ko to nga de-ki-oa i. 

O ne and one are two ; two and (wo are four ; four and four are 

;h( and eight are sixteen. 
1! -isz wo yo-sr-t.- f-ta-ts/ p vo- 

b f V fc > y ''& B *? 79 * ? 2 # w* 9 3 

se-te yo-tsz; yo-tsz yo-tsz \ ta ya-tsz; i-tta 

**f a ^ a^ a> ? 3Ct f ^ t * V * 

wo vose-tc ji-u ro ku, 

7 I 1 1 . Onion* hate no bulbs in Japan. 

Ni-p-po-n do wa ne-ngi ni \va ta-ma wa go za-ri-ma-st -n'. 

— *$&' ¥ * 3" V r 1 * #^ ^ =f *f»)-? te# 

Do. Ni-p-po-n de ne-niri ni wa ta-ma wa na-i. 

762. Opium, being a contraband grticle, cannot he imported. 

A-he-n wa go ha-t-to no mo-no de go /.a-rim i- I nra, mo- 

T^i- /* S J*9Y / % ^ f 3T if 1)-?* # ? ^ 

chi-ko-mu ko-to wa na-ri-inase-n 1 . 
Do. A-he-n wa hat-to mo-no da ka-ra, u-ri-ko-mu koto wh na- 
ra-n'. 

763. Orphan* who have no relative* to take care of tlicm become beggars. 
Mi-na-shi-ngo wa shi-n-ru-i ni so-da-te-ru mo-no nga na-ke-re* 

ba ko-ji-ki ni o-chi-masz-ru. 

Do. Mi-na shi-n^o wa shi-n-ru-i nga ku-wa-sc-n' to ko-ji-ki ni 

3. zh ^ 3 n i&mn V V fe* \ x^% - 

na-ru. 

76 1. Our work is behind hand. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi do-mo no shi-ngo-to nga o-so-ku na-ri-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. Wa-shi nga shi-ngo-to nga o-so-ku na-t-ta. 
9 V ::*T l* *Y if *V9+VZ 



765. Paper can be made of straw. 

Wa-ra de ka-mi wo ts'-ku-ru ko-to nora de-ki-ma-sz-ru. 

9 9TH3*? 9 #)V a r tf ¥ * ? A'V 

Do. Wa-ra de ka-mi wo ts'-ku-ru ko-to nga de-ki-ru. 

V 9 ¥ ft ^ 9 v# w *Y ft T ¥ *)V 



p. 

100 

766. Pass the Irread to all the guests. 

Mi-na-mi-na o ki-a-ku sa-ma ye pa-n wo a-nge-ro. 
3 9-3.9- Jt^Vt * ? i *V 9 7 T t2 

767. Pirates are numerous on the coast of China. 

Ka-ra no ka-i-nga-n ni wa o-o-ku ka-i-zo-ku go-za-ri-ma-s'. 

ft ? ? nitf^~ ^ %?/? mr? ^-f*) * * 

Do. Ka-ra no ka-i-he-n ni wa, ta-i-so-o ka-i-zo-ku nga a-ru. 

ft y J ft1^~ p yivvftirt n ?>v 

70S. Please shut the. sliding papered door. 
Ka-ra-ka-mi wo ta-te-te ku-da-sa-re. 

ft vft 3.9 #t f # p*v 

Do. Ka-ra-ka-mi wo ta-t-te ku-re-ro. 

ft ? ft ^ 9$Vr Vvn 

769. Pray walk in. 

Ma-dz u-chi ye o a-nga-ri na-sa-re. 

* ?:?* 3-in n*) 9-^v 

Do. Ma-a u-chi ye ha-i-re. 

770. Pray talce a chair. 

Ma-dz ko-shi wo o ka-ke na-sa-re. 

-?$3^9j!rft J 77>-iYv 

Do. Ma-a ko-shi wo ka-ke-ro. 
tf 2 "u 9 ft*J tt 

771. Prop up this board fence. 

Ko-no he-i wo o-ko-sh'-te ku-da-sa-re. 

* 7 ^1 9 #3^ f PP^v 

Do. Ko-no he-i wo o-ko-sh'-te ku-re-ro. 

n J ^1 9 jr*ls f #V \2 

772. Pull off your loose trowsers, and rest yourself. 
Ha-ka-ma wo to-t-te, ki-u-so-ku na-sa-re-rna-sh'. 

^ ft-? 9 Y9f *9?# 7^-tv^^ 

Do. Ha-ka-ma wo to-t-te ya-sz-me. 

/> ft *? 9 YVfVA A 

773. Pull of my loots. {to a servant.) 
Wa-ta-k'-shi no na-nga-ngu-tsz wo nu-ke. 

!? ^ '• ; y- n ? if'.jay 

774. Put on your clothes quick ; the house is on fire. 
Ka-ji-da ka-ra, i-so-i-de ki-mo-no wo o ki na-sa-re. 

ftV 5T ft ?f y ff *j% J 9 ir* **v 

775. Put on your outside coat ; it is very cold to-day. 

Ko-n-ni-chi wa ha-na-ha-da sa-mu-u go za-ri-ma-s' ka-ra, ha- 

3^ a ^ /* ^9- ^ yt ^9 st fr *) f& ft 9 ^ 

o-ri wo o ki na-sa-re. 
Do. Ko-n-ni-chi wa me-s-so-o sa-mu-i ka-ra, ha-o-ri wo ki-ro. 



p Ifl 

776 Put mi i • ■ 

\-k.i-ii WO k;i->lu na 4JMT& 
A-ka-ri wo ka-oe. 

/'id M*w «V& 6y tide, not one upon another. 

Ko-re wo i-chi i-chi na-ra-bo-te o o-ki M 4M -n\ Id -sn-nc na- 

iv? f-ff^- +*<<f *** **+* fl*3- > 

sa-ru-na. 

I * 
Do. Ko-rc wo i-chi i-chi na-ra-betc ok.. Li-> i nr ru-na. 

*v ? \4- 14- i^f<f **7 »*!■>* + 

778. Put every thing in its place before you go to bed. 

Mi-na mo-no wo ba mo-to no to-ko-ro e ka-ta-dz-kete o ne 

na-s 

+ * V 
Do. Mi-na mono wo ba mo-to no to-ko-ro ni ka-ta-dz-ke-te 

ne-ro. 

3-tr 

779. Put it down here. 

Ko-ko ni o o-ki na-sa-re-ma-sh'. 

Do. Ko-ko ni o-ke. 

780. Put it on the table. 

Da-i no u-e ni o o-ki na-sa-rc-ma-sh'. 

Do. Da-i no u-e ni o ke. 

7 8 1 . Pid this in the sun to dry. 

Ko-re wo hi-na-ta ni ho-sh'-te o o-ki na-sa-re-ma sh'. 

a v 9 t ^£ — * ^f*** + ^v -r ^ 

Do. Ko-re wo hi-na-ta ni ho-sh'-te o-ke. 
:2 V ? fc^2 - * I, f *? 

782. Ptd this away. 

Ko-re wo shi-ma-t-te o o-ki na-sa-re. 

^ 3 V ? £, ;?*?#**:/■ *v 

Do. Ko-re wo shi-ma-t-te o-ke. 

783. Pid it down any where. 

Do-ko ni de-mo o o-ki na-sa-re-ma-sh*. 

l, F a - ft*** ^-^v r? ^ 

Do. Do-ko ni de-mo o-ke. 






m p. a. 

784. Put it back again. 

Ma-ta mo-to no to-ko-ro e o o-ki na-sa-rema-sh'. 

JMa-ta mo-to no to-ko-ro ni o-ke. 

785. Put it in writing, that you will deliver the goods tomorrow. 
K'-t-to mi-o-o ni-chi shi-na wo yo-ko-sz to yu-u, ya-ku-so-ku- 

WY^W~£ \s 9- ? 3 * x> 3-y v# y # 

nga-ki wo shi na-sa-re. 

if * 9 ^ 9- -t v 

786. Pw£ off going till tomorrow. 

Yu-ku ko-to wo mi-o-o ni-chi ma-de o no-be na-sa-ro. 

Do. Yu-ku ko-to wo a-sh'-ta ma-de no-be-ro. 

787. Put loth together and get the amount. 

Ri-o-o ho-o i-s-sh'-o ni sh'-te ka-n-j'-o-o shi na-sa-rc. 

Do. So-o ho-o h'-to-tsz ni sb'-te ka-n-j'-o-o shi-ro 

a 

788. Quack-doctors practice empiricism for the sake of getting money. 
De-mo-i-sh'-a nga ka-ne wo to-ru ta-me-ni i-i-ka-nge-n na ri-o.o- 

ji wo sz-ru. 

783. Quadrupeds are four-footed animals. 

Yo-tsz a-shi a-ru mo-no wa, shi-so-kU-de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

790. Quails, wild geese, ducks, pigeons, pheasants, deer and wild boars 
U-dz-ra, ga-n, ka-mo, ya-ma-ba.to, ki-ji, sh'-ka, i-no-shi-shi, fu- 

9 rtf-ftf tit. t <*.>*> hpv. x f;^>? 

yu wa ko-o-e-ki-ba ni ta-k'-sa-n go za-ri-ma-s'. 

791. Queens reign in some countries of Europe. 

Yo-ro-pa no u.chi, ni-sa-n nga ko-ku, ni-yo-te-i ns>a o-sa- 

3 n^ > V± ~-t^ if * <>/ -3f1 jff jt^ 

me-ru, 
A )V 

792. Queen Victoria, of England, is distinguished as a wife, a mother, 
and a sovereign. 

I-ngi-ri-sz ngo-ku no ni-yo-tp-i Bi-k'-to-ri-a wa, tsz-ma no mi- 



u R loo 

i In mo, ha-ha BO un-clii mo i;i-im wo o saiiK'iu ini-chi m<>, 
ku bfrtH '•• -n-ma-sV 

ft>? <* * f v ?**)-??> 

Quench that /ire with water. 

Bo-DO hi in im-il/ «ro fcft-ke-ta ke-tb'*tfl ku-da sa 

Do. So-no hi-ni mid/ wo U se. 

I Question him, arid see if he knows any thing about it. 
A-no h -to w.i ko-ra wo shi-ru ka. shira mi In, «> ki-ki na- 

STi ' 

♦ v 

Oo. Ano h'-to \va shi-ru ka, shi-ra-nu Ira, ki-ki-na. 

795. Quick : bring it here. 

1 la-va-ku. BM -t-t' 1 o-i 'I' 1 na-sa-re. 

Do. Ha-ya-ku, mo-t-tr 

Qui* my house, you are in i/ie way. 

Oma-e j-a-ma ni na-ru ka-ra. wa-ta-k'-shi r.o i -ye wo de-ro. 

t-i>;t^- ^)V f) 9 V %P^. ? 1 s. 9 f X2 

797. Quit claim deeds are taken when land and houses are bought. 
Gi-me-n to i-yc-wo ka-u to-ki, vu-dz-ri j'-o-o-rno-n wo to-ri-ma 

s'z-ru. 

R. 

798. Rabbits dig holes, and burrow in them. 

U-sa-ngi wa ana wo ho-t-te sz-ma-i wo i-ta-shi-rr.a-s'. 

Do. U-sa-ngi wa a-na wo ho-t-te sz-mu. 

V* K * T^ 9 fc*fXiS 

799. Rags that once were thrown away in Japan, having become an 
article of commerce, a ship had has gone to London. 

Mo-to s'-te-ta bo-ro nga to-o ji wa ko*u-e-ki-mo-no ni na-ri-ma- 

sh'-ta ka-ra, fu-ne i s-so-o ye i-p-pa-i ts-n-de Ro-n-do-n ye 
nia-i-ri-ma-sh'-ta. 



ha-i 


wa, 


wa 


-shi 


wa 


ki-tsz-i 


ki- 


'^t: 


/\ 


9 


Is 


^ 


**f 


* 



800. JKtfAv *^; Mow leaves, and throw them into the gutter. 

A-no ha wo ku-ma-de de ka-ki yo-se-te do-bu ni s'-te-ro. 

is ** 9 '; -?? T ft\ b&t Yf ~*ftf 

801 RatisacJc the house till you find that spoon. 

Sa-ji nga de-ru ma-de, u-chi ji-u sa-nga-se. 

**; ft ?)V -? f 9* VV -t if* 

802. Rap at the do&r, if it is shut. 

Mo-n nga shi-me-te a-ru na-ra ka-do yo-ri o-to-dz-re-ro. 

^^ n ^ *? fjy *? ftvs\) XYryn 

£03. Rape seed is largely raised in Japan for making oil. 

Ni-p-po-n de wa a-bu-ra to-ru ta-me-ni, na-ta-ne wo ta-k'-sa-n 

ts'-ku-ru. 

804. Rats, snakes, fleas, mosquilos, and flies. I do detest. 

Ne-dz-mi, he-bi no-mi, ka, ha-i wa, wa-ta-k'-shi wa ki-tsz-i ki- 

3- its. -m£ ;> ft M ^ v zvis /> *y 1* 

, ra-i de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. Ne-dz-mi, he-bi, no-mi, ka, 

3> *' 3> **}£■ S3>, ft 

ra-i da. 

805. Reach up, and fake down that picture. 

Se-i wo no-ba-sh'-te so-no e-dz wo to-t-te kuda-sa-re. 

*l 1 9 / >*V? V > S?r ?V?f ## * v 

Do. So-no e-dz wo se-i wo no-ba-sh'-te, to-t-te ku-re-ro. 

806. U^af? loader. 

Ko-e wo a-nge-te o yo-mi na-sa-re. 

m-9 IT fit 33 +it V 

Do. Ko-e wo a-nce-te yo-me. • 

si Jfc $f T.f 3 * 

807. i?^c? in a lower voice. 

Ko-e wo sh'-ku-ku sh'-te o yo-mi na-sa-re. 

as- 9 Mb V Ssf -KB?- J-if v 

Do. Ko-e wo sh'-ku-ku sh'-te yo-me. 

808. Reindeer are called tonalcai by the Ainos of Karafto. 

O-o-ji-ka wo ka-ra-f'-to no A-i-no wa to-na-ka-i to mo-o-shi- 

X&Vft 9 ft ?7\ > 1i ? ^YJ-ftiY-?*?*s 

ma-s'. 

*?% 

Do. O-o-ji-ka wo ka-ra-P-to no A-i-no wa to-na-ka-i to i-u. 

**£*> 9 ft??Y >1i > >» Y^ftlYI? 



B in 

j: ■ ■ ■// hoU >/• ■ 

ta no va -Km >o-K u DO nio-du-ra-iiw yu-o ni ina-uio -i i-ma-.V 

T^-S ; x>; 9 9 ; fc y ?%x*?~ -rfc i)-?* 

lv i ji-tsz ha-na ->hi -ma-sli -ta ko-to wo t)-bo-ye-tc 

ft ? * 9$ / ^i,^^ 3 y ? jr$*f 

o i-de na-sa-rc. 

] ( >-ma-e no \:» -ku-so-kti no mo-dora-nu yo-o ni ma-mo-ru 

*-?*. ; >>/ y 9 ; *: K?* V? — * ^ >v 

ka-ra M ku-ji-ts^ ha-na >h'-ta ko-to wo o-bo-ye-te i-ro. 

810. Remit //ir value to in*, <m *oo» a« you /i^re *oM M« yoorf*. 

Shi-ro-mono wo n-ri na-sa-re-ta-raba da-i-kin wo sa-s-so-ku 

wa-ta-sh'-te o ts'-ka wa-shi na sa-re-ma sh', 

(),» Shi -ro-mo-no wo u-re-te na-ra sz-njju-ni da-i-ki-n wo w;i- 

i -te v<>-k 

» &•? 33 ^ 

S 1 1 . H<ti/« o/" land are paid to the Taikun, in rice, and the rice is 
inspected and deposited in the storehouses at Asa-V-sa by the 
Collector. 
Ta-i-ku-n no ne-n-ngu wa ko-me de a-nge-ma-s' ka-ra so-no 

ko-me wa da-i-ka-n Bgl a-ra-ta-me-te A-sa-k'-sa no ku-ra 

3 y ^?1 n^ if T? #^f ?+^* 7 93 

ni o-sa-me-ma-s'. 
Do. Ta-i-ku-n no ne-n-ngu wa ko-me de a-nge-ru ka-ra so-no 

91 9^ ?.lr^9r ^aOTT)V»?yy 

ko-me wa da-i-ka-n nsra a-ra-ta-me-te A-sa-k'-sa no ku-ra ni 

a a /> ?in>>n 759* ?? ***>> *? — 

o-sa-me-ru. 

Q l'2. Re-icrlte that page, for there are errors in it. 

So-no ma-i wa ma-chi-nga-t-te o-ri-ma-s' ka-ra ma-ta o ka-ki 

? ? *1 J* * # *f Vflt^Anf ~?9 *fl* 

na-o-sln na-sa-re. 

S~*^ + it v 

Do. So-no ma-i wa ma-chi-nga-t-te i-ru ka-ra ma-ta ka-ki na- 

y } -71 r> -?±ifyf1)V f)? -?9 #* + 

o-se. 



lit r. i. 

813. Rice and salt are indispensable articles of food. 

Ko-me to shi-wo wa na-ku-te na-ra-nu ta-bemo-nc cle go Za- 

ri-ma-s'. 
Do. Ko-me to shi-wo wa na-ku-te nn-ranu ta-bc-mo-no da. 

814. Ring the bell for dinner. 

Hi-ru me-shi no sh'-ta-ku nsra de-ki-ta ka-ra re-i wo fu-re. 

815. .Rip Mm s^m. 

Ko-no nu-i-me wo to-ke. 

* A M A 9 >7 

81.6. Ripe fruits are not unwholesome. 

Ji-ku-shi-ma-sh'-ta ku-da-mo-no wa ta-bc-ma-sh'-te mo a-ta-ri- 

ma-se-n'. 

Do. Ji-ku-sh'-ta ku-da-mo-no wa ta-be-te mo a-ta va-nu. 

817. Roast that duclc. 

So-no a-hi-ru wo a-bu-ri-mo-no ni shi-ro. 

y A7tDV9 ??n *z a ~ 1^X2 

818. i2o# wp ^0 sun screens. 
$z-da-re wo rna-ki a-nge-ro. 

% >Xv9 ^%f rt2 

819. Row with alli/our might ; it is late. 

O-so-i ka-ra se-i wo da-sh'-te ro wo o-se. 

JT V S i HA^i 9 yri^f t2 9 jt& 

820. Rub your hands together briskly, and they will soon become warm. 
Ri-o-o te wo a-wa-se-te ki-u-ni sz-ri-ma-s' na-ra-ba ji-ki-ni a-ta- 

ta-ma-ri-ma-s'. 

$•? 1) *X 

Do. Ri-o-o te wo a-wa-se-te ki-u-ni sz-ru na-ra ji-ki-ni a-ta-ta- 

I)ir9 f 9 f/Maf *?~ 7o\9-?^~7>A>A 

ma-ru. 

32 1 . Rust is decomposed iron. 

Sa-bi wa te-tsz nga ku-sa-ru no do gq za-n-ir.a-s'. 



rtnly money art the i 

ilvi n do u-ri-mas' \v;i ge ji-ki 

Do. Ge-nki-n dc urn \\ 1 

Mi on rrwM ar* M« dearest. 

Ka-U. -u-ri wa takao go za-ri-ina-s'. 

Do. ri wa ta-ka-i. 

Salmon are brought in large quantities by junks from Matnmai to 

Yedo. 

Sh'-ako \\ a M 1 ts/.-ma-i yo-ri o-o-ku Ye-do c fu.ne do tsz-mi 

c-ku-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. Sh'-a-ke wa Ma-tszma-i von o-o-ku lu-in: ie \ <■ <!<> e t.»z- 

mi o-kuru. 

B2& Sailors, grooms, and chair-bearers, are regarded as degraded men in 
Japan. 
Ni-p-po-n do wa fu-ne no-ri, in'-makata, ni-n-so-ku, o-chi no 

-**> r ^ ? 3- >> >) * -? nz ~> y #* ± > 

h'-to to o-mo-i-ma-s\ 

G26. Sandal wood, being expensive, is used for burning iticetise, and for 
medicine. 
Bi-a-ku-da-n wa a-la-c nga ta-ko-o go za-ri-ma-sh'-te ko-o ni 

mo ta-ki-ma-s* ya-ku-shi-u ni mo mo-chi-i-ma-s'. 

Do. B.-a-ku-da-n wa a-ta-e nga ta-ka-ku sh'-te ko-o ni mo ta-ku 

k' sz-ri ni mo ts'-ka-u. 

^*i)- ^ * n*? 

827. Sartf this for tomorrow. 

Mi-o-o ni-chi mo-chi-i-ma-s' ta-me-ni ko-re wo shi-ma-t-tc o o- 

ki na-sa-re. 

Do. Mi-o-o ni-chi ts'-ka-u ta-me-ni ko-re wo shi-ma-t-te o-ke. 

Q28. Sag it in Japanese. 

Ni-p-po-n no ko to-ba de o ha-na-shi na-sa-re. 





114 & 

828. Ni-p-po-n no ko to-ba tie ha-na-se. 

829. Scare that dog. away. 

A-no i-nu wo o-i i-da-sh'-te ku-da-sa-rc. 

fs 1%9*11$^ ';>*~*v 

Do. A-no i-nu wo o i i-da-se. 

830. Scour the pots and kettles bright, inside and out. 
Ka-ma to na-be wo u-chi so-to wo mi-nga-ke. 

83 ! . Scrape the inlc off from that desk. 

So-no ts'-ku-e ni tsz-i-te a-ru sz-mi wo ke dz-ri o-to-sh'-te ku- 

da-sa-re. 

Do. A-no ts'-ku-e ni tsz-i-ta sz-mi wo ke-dz-ri o-to-se. 

f 7 f9^^19 *3. 9 Jtn)itY& 

832. Scribble on scraps of paper • it is a waste to use whole sheets. 
Ka-ri-nga-ki wo ha nga-mi ni na-sa-re; ma-t-tao sh'-tft i-ru ka- 

#1) ff 3f 9 ^tf5-MV -?9#?l,f 1)Vft 

mi wo ts'-ka-i-ma-s' wa tsz-i-e de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. Ka-ri-nga-ki wo ha nga-mi ni shi-vo; ma-t-ta-ki ka-mi wo 

UV ff * 9 '< jf'&*U& ***k K2. 9 

ts'-ka-u wa tsz-i-e da. 

833. Scruh the floor. 

Yu-ka wo f-ki^na-sa-i. 

n. n 9 ?\^*1 

834. Scuds fly wheresoever the wind drives them. 

U-ki-ngu-mo wa ka-ze ni sh'-ta-nga-t-te yu-ku ewo sa-da-me- 

9^ ¥ fc >> #*£ — l/% ffVf **# x* 9 ^9 ^ 

ma-se-n'. 
Do. U-ki-n^u-mo wa ka-ze ni sh'-ta-nga-t-te vu-ku e wo sa- 

9 * F fe ^fJ^^l^9ff^f^9^9 ■* 

da-me-nu. 
ST*.,* 

835. $£#£ wj? £/?#£ money box. 

A-no ka-ne-ba-ko ni fu-u-i-n wo na-sa-re-ma-sh'. 

IV # j>/« :*— 7? 1^9** V*s?ls 

Do. A-no ka-ne-ba-ko ni fu-u-i-n wo shi-ro. 

836. <S^<7£ yourself in the Japanese fashion. 
Ni-p-po-n no yo-o ni o sz-wa-ri na-sa-re. 



% and hcunt. 
\ m ' ■••mi wc 

Do. A-no ch'-o-c!. mi iro mi-ro 

T I T VfVY \L3- 9 3-X2 
838. »SV /fl this now and thru. 

i\ a o-ri-o-ri ki wo ts'-Uo-i.- ku 

Do. Ko-re wo o ri-o-ri ki wo ts'-ke-ro. 
I he good* for what they will fetch. 

■<>-l« in na-ra-t-t«» n t ta ku da 

840. Set the dog on that hog. 

A no l>u-t.i m i-nu wo kc-shi-ki-k- a I >i-re. 

T > 7Z ~i%9 +7 l> f) 7 ***v 

Do. A-no bu-u ni i-nu wo ke-slii ka-ko-ro. 

841. Send me word how it is. 

! i na-sa-re-te, i-na-ya wo o ki-ka-so na -sa-rr. 

ni?*'**) **v f1+y 9** n ^ *m-v 

Do. 1 ya-t-te a-m-pi wo ki-ka-se-t. feti-re 

* fl1 9V*f 1*'ti9 *#fef ^V 

Several person* have told me of it. 

IT to-bito nga so no ko-to wo wa-la-k'-shi ni ha-na-shi-ma- 

tVtTh if * ; z\ 9 VZV ^ A /** Is * 

sh'-ta. 
Do. H'-to-bi-to nga so-no ko-to wo wa shi-ni ha-na-sli'-ta. 

tht^ n y;3 \9 V i,^L *#%, * 

Shall I help you? 

A-na-ta no o te-tez-da-i wo i-ta-sh'-i-nia-sh'-o-o ka* 

?^£ ? jrfwi 9i y *^i^\s\*?n 

Do. O-ma-e no te-tsz-da-i wo shi-yo-o k&f 

%<?s- } f W19 lsV9 ft 

8 14. Shall I feel your puke? 

A-na-ta no mi-a-ku wo u-ka-nga-i-ma-sh'-o-o ka? 

?^2 > &%# 9 *?tl tft: ^ t-vv n 

Do. O-ma-e no mi-a-ku wo mi-yo-o ka? 

ir^s- ; 2*w 9 3.W fj 

845. Shall we have fair weather to-day? 

Ko-n-ni-chi wa o te-n-ki ni na-ri-ma-sh'-o-o ka? 
a ^~ i rs ft? ^$ j=. J-X)^ ^v? # 

Do Ki-o wa hi-yo-ri ni na-rooka? 



116 B. 

746. Shake the bottle before you take the medicine. 

K'-sz-ri wo no-mu ma-e-ni to-k'-ku-ri wo o fu-ri na-sa-rc. 

Do. k'-sz-ri wo no-mu ma-e-ni to-k'-ku-ri wo fu-re. 
^1) 9 > ^ ^^— \ VpX) 9 7V 

847. She has three children. 

A-no o-na-ngo wa ko-do-mo nga sa-n ni-n go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. A-no o-n-na wa ko-do-mo nga sa-n ni-n a-ru, 

TSit^ ^ a K fc *? ^^— ^f)V 

848. £$0 #ms£ fo upwards of twenty years old. 

A-no o-na-ngo wa ta-sh'-ka-ni ha-ta-chi no u-e de go za-ri- 

ma-sh'-o-o. 
Do. A-no o-n-na wa ta-sh'-ka-ni ha-ta-chi no u-e da-ro-o. 

849. She is a handsome woman. 

A-no o-na-ngo wa u-ts'-ku-shi-i sz-n^a-ta de sro za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. A-no o-n-na wa u-ts'-ku-shi-i sz-nga-ta da. 

850. She cannot walk icithout help. 

A-no o-na-ngo wa ka-i-ho-o shi na-ku-te wa a-yu-ma-re-m?.- 

t;^ ar * ftlfrv P*P5 /*$*>* v -? 

se-n' . 
^% 

Do. A-no o-n-na wa ka-i-ho-o shi na-ku-te wa a-ru-ka-re-ma- 

fSJt^ /^#f**9 I- *.#? r* f )Vft V ~? 

se-n'. 

^% 

851. Shut the windows (sliding ones) 
Ma-do wo ta-te-te ku-da-sa-re. 

Do. Ma -do wo ta-te-ro 

-? F 9 £ftf 

852. Sign this paper. 

Ko-no ka-ki-ts'-ke ni go se-i me-i ngaki wo na-sa-re. 

a > ft* vn ~ 3^1 a 1 if * 9 J-^v 

Do. Ko-no ka-ki-ts'-ke ni se-i me-i wo shi-ru-se. 

ay ft * 9 y ~te 1 A 1 9 > )V & 

853. Sit still (i.e. do not rise) 
Go-a-n-dza wo na-sa-re. 

a*f^4f 9 9~^v 



11/ 

I >,, 10. (in UM -la|»am>. Ia>iiu>n) 

(«»i sitting in ■ chair) 

10. 

^ melt this roee. 

K : t>a-ra no ni-wo-i wo ka-i-de go ran i 

l >,, |\ . i i -.].■ mi in. 

855. iSa wititA the Ml 

So-r.- <l • i" >lu-i gO z;i n in I 

yv W +? a tr^far *!)-?* 

Do. Son dll-kfl na-no yoio >lu-i. 

Yoki mo a-sh'-ki-mo go za-ri-in 

3 * £ T I* %l * ^n ^* 

I • \ -i-i no mo wa-ru-i no mo a-ru. 

Speak plainly. 

W t-ka-ni yo-o-ni o lia-na-shi na-sa-rc. 

I >.> VVa ka-ru yo-o-ni ht«* 

,r</ M»'« om^ o« the grass. 

\v wo k'-sa no u-e-ni hi-ro-nge-te o o-ki na-sa-rr. 

Do Ko-re wo k'-sa no u-e-ni hi-ro-nge-te o-ke. 

a v 9 V* ? ^-tDTf *7 

sprinkle some water on those flowers. 

So-no ha-na ni s'-ko-shi mi-dz wo o so-so-ngi na-sa-rc. 

y ; r+ ^ %a^ 3. *T 9* f y 3f ^v 

Do So-no ha-na ni s'-ko shi mi-dz wo fu-ri ka-ke-ro. 

y y ,^^%xls 3- IT 9 7 1) ft^n 

SOU. Squads rise suademy. 

Ha-ya-to wa ni-wa-ka-ni o-ko-ri-ma-s'. 

/> vf r* — /> n — #3 1) ?% 
Do Ha-ya-te wa ki-u-ni o-ko-ru. 

^ iff ^ *9— *:W 

961 Stand. 

O ta-chi na-sa-re-ma^li 

.1 >o. l'a-te. 

9 f 



118 S. 

862 Stay here while I am gone. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi nga i-t-te ki-ma-s' ma-de ko-ko-ni ma-t-te o i-de 

V % Vis ft 1*f*^* tf3 *^T?yfit1? 

na-sa-re. 
Do. Wa-shi nga i-t-te ku-ru ma-de ko-ko-ni ma-t-te i-ro. 

863. Stay here till I come hack. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi nga ka-e-ri.ma-s' ma-de ko-ko-ni ma-t-te o i-de 

na-sa-re. 
Do. Wa-shi nga ka-e-ru ma-de ko-ko-ni ma-t-te i-ro. 

864. Strange that you should think sof 

A-na-ta so-no yo.o-ni o-ho-shi-rne-shi ko-to wa a-ya-shi-i ko- 

f *$ v > v?— *# is* I, * y *i+&i * 

to de go za-ri-ma-s'. 
Do. O-ma-e so-o o-mo-o ko to wa a-ya-shi-i ko-to da. 

865.' Stretch oat this line, and hong the clothes on it to dry. 

Ki-mo-no ka-ke-te ho-sz ta-me-ni, ko-no na-wa wo ha-re. 

* fc } ft J /f &* #;? - ^ 7 +> * 9 ^ v 

866. String the bow. 

Yu-dz-ru wo o ka-ke na-sa-re. 

***f>V 9 JTft V ** V 
Do. Yu-dz-ru vfo ka-ke-ro. 

^ 9")V 9 ft Vtt 

867. String those cash. 

Ko-no ze-ni wo sa-shi ni o to-o-shi na-sa-re. 

n / te 9 *&.'<?;$ Wl* ^v 

Do- Ko-no ze-ni wo sa-shi ni to-o-se. 

a ? &~9 *l» -]-?*> 

868. Strive once more with all your might. 

Mo-o l-cni wo-o chi-ka-ra wo ts'-ku-sh'-te o ts'-to-me na-sa-re. 

*:>? t* it? * nf ? * t iftit yy a+^v 

Do. Mo-o i-chi wo-o ho-ne wo o-t-te ts'-to-me-ro. 

€69. Study makes the ripe scholar. 

H'-to nga ma-na-be-ba se-ki nga-ku ni i-ta-ri-ma-s'. 

\^y ft -? j-'tysisi* it # —vw^k 

Oo. H'-to nga ma-na-n-de se-ki nga-ku ni na-ru. 
t: V ft ^ +*¥ fe* ft P - ^>V 



i no 

Stumbling hone* are dangerou* to ride. 

i in -ma m no-ru \v:i a-hu-no-o no za- 

ri-n 

Do ru-rn m'-ma ni no-ru w;i a-[>u-na-i. 

f f fc*f*>V * «? - /)V ^ T?V-f 
B ; I . >'■ Merer* can speak like ordinary people, by counting their syllables. 
D0-1 o-n wo ka I HMM no h'-to ha- 

na-s i tit ki-ma-s'. 

Do. I I i mo i w.i ii wo ka-il/i»«-te i-wa-se-rc-ba tn-<.la no h'-to 

-ru. 
/^^ -f 9 V )V 

Subdue //">«? evil passion*. 

So . 0-0-f ku na-sn-re. 

y ^ t ^*;t 9 "^ 3-? 7 // ^* v 

I I So-no a-KU j'-o-o wo In- -i-f-ku shi-ro. 

yy 1WW9 ^17>; >v 

873. Si*/f<r wrong rather than do it. 

H'-to wo ga-i sz-ru yo-ri wa, h'-to ni ga-i se-ra-ru-ru nga 

fcl- 9 tff *>V 31) A fch-tff fc?>V)V tf 

ma-shi to o-mo-i na-sa-re. 

Do H'-to wo so-ko-na-u yo-ri, h'-to ni 80-ko-na-wa-ru-ru nga 
tiY ? V*J-7 3 fch — ytxjhr* )\)V if 

ma-shi to o-mo-e. 

S7 i. Superintend my business while I am absent. 

\\"a-ta-k'-shi no ru-sz no u-chi, a-na-ta wa-ta-k'-shi no ts-to- 

me wo o o-sa-me na-sa-re. 

Do. Wa-shi nga ru-sz no a-i-da, o-ma-e wa-shi nga shi-ngo-to 

wo o-sa-me-ro. 

9 *** V 



575. Take care. 

Go yo-o-ji-n na-sa-re-ma-sh'. 
3f ¥9>VtM*V ^V 



120 1*. 

875. Yo-o-ji-n wo shi-ro. 

876. Take this away. 

Ko-re wo mo-t-te o i-de na-sa-i. 

a v 9 *z)>?Jr1T^1 

Do. Ko-re wo mo-t-te yu-ke. 

a v 9 %&f ^ *7 

877. Take all hut one. 

H'-to-tsz no ko-sh'-te no-ko-ra-dz o mo-chi na-sa-i. 

t yv ; a$> f ? a?x tffc 1 +*i 

Do. H'-to-tsz no-ko-sh'-te no-ko-ra-dz mo-t-te yu-ke, 

878. j?feb £4es£ eggs out, one by one. 

Ko-no ta-ma-ngo wo h'-to-tsz dz tsz o to-ri na-sa-re. 

n ; %^> d: 9 t: \ 9 it 9 -fr Y l) ^ v 

Do, Ko-no ta-ma-ngo wo h'-to-tsz dz-tsz to-re. 
:* ^ # ■? rf ^tl-^X^ >V 

879. Take good care of that. 

A -no shi-na-mo-no wo da-i-ji ni na-sa-re-ma-sh'. 

Do. A-no shi-na wo da-i-ji ni shi-ro. 

880. T#fo yowr c/toi^. 

Go ka-t-te no wo o to-ri na-sa-re. 

Do. S'-ki-na wo to-re. 

**>* 9 w 

88 1 . Tafo wA&A yow please. 

A-na-ta o-bo shi-me-shi ni ka-na-i-ma-sh'-ta no wo o to-ri na- 

sa-re. 
Do. O-ma-e ki ni i t-ta no wo to-re. 

jr-?3-*~iv$s 9 yv 

882. Take as many as you please. 

A-na-ta i-ku-tsz de-mo o-bo-shi-me-shi ho-do o to-ri na-sa-re. 

f y- # f .^ v f fe ^ ^ y > * F * V 9 ^ -+ v 

Do. O-ma-e i-ku-tsz de-mo o-mo-o ho-do to-re. 

n~?5-i & v ft-jr^y &Y* yv 

883. Take three a piece. 

Ko-re wo h' -to-ri de mi-tsz dz-tsz o mo-chi na-sa-re. 
av 9 \z\X)T ?- 7. ** VJt tl^+V 

Do. Ko-re wo h' -to-ri de mi-tsz dz-tsz mo-te. 

3 v 9 t: y \) T z. y sr y ^f 



r i-2i 

884. Take care! you uill set the house onjirc if you do not. 

l-fh 1 Ki wo ts'-kc-nm— Miu n;i-r;i- 

ba so-so-o bi * l<i ma-s'. 

\ q o-ji ii wn lhi-ro-k] wo t.» -k« nil na-ra-50-so-o bi wo da- 

3^:^ ? >V\ 9 * 7* + ?y V^fcT 9 ? 

sh'-te i- 

I, fizz r '; r 

885. 7fl# /o Mi about that some oth< I >u» too bust/ to //#/ 
•/ now. 

W i-nii ainan ko-u-za -ts' i-t.i -li'-(.> o-ri-ma-s' 

ka-rn. ha-nashi wo Q-keta-roa-wm-ru koto agv de ki-ma- 

*? 7itjy+ i, ?W 9-? >^)\ *\ ff r * * 

sc-nu ta-ji-tj. o ha na-shi-na 1 
Do. Wa-shi \va i-ma to ri-ko-n-dc i-ru ka-ra, ba-na-ahi wo ki- 

9 > /> 1* H)3>ff v n i '\+is 9 * 

ku koto nga deki-nu ma-ta ho-ka-no bi ni ba na-se. 
9 * \ if f " * * T 9 &1) S t — ^ ^fe 

886. Talloic is made from the fruit of tlte tallow tret, and from that of 
the varnish tree. 

Ro-o wa ha-ji no ki no mi lie ts'-ku-ri-ma-s', u-ru-sbi no ki 

no mi de mo ts'-ku-ri-ma-s . 

887. 7WrcA i^ example as icell as by prctrpt. 

Gi-o-o-j'-o-o to o-ki-te to wo mo-t-te h'-to wo o o shi e na- 

sa-re. 
Do. Gi-o-o-j'-o o to o-ki-te to wo mot te h'-to wo o-shi-e-ro. 

888. Teachers are respected for their instructions ; but the military class 

are respected only for fear of their power and authority. 

Shi wa o-shi-e wo ta-t-to-n-de u-ya-ma-i-ma-s', bu-shi wa ken 

i ni o-so-re te u-ya-ma-i-ma s'. 

Do. Shi sh'-o o wa o-shi-e wo ta-t-to-n-de u-ya-ma-u, bu-shi wa 

^ is v*> '***Vs> 9 5 y y^T 9-v ^9 ;f > ^ 

ken i ni o so-re-te u-ya-ma-u. 



122 



T. 



889. Tell your father that I will take all the shirtings he has for sale. 
So-no u-ri-mo-no no ka-na-ki-n wo i-ku-ra go za-ri-ma-sh'-te 

y y 9 .*)*:>> > ft+^y.i93 sr?HHl^? 

mo ka i-ma-sh'-o-o to chichi ni o ha-na-shi na-sa-re. 
Do. So-no u-ri-ta-i ka-na-ki-n wo i-ku-ra-de-mo ka-wo-o to chi- 

y.y WM n***-? it?r*. kw y * 

chi ni ha-na-se. 

* ~ ss + & 

890. Ten brave men are letter than a hundred cowards. 
O-ku-bi-o-o mo-no h'-a-ku ni-n yo-ri mo ji-u ni-n tsz-yo-ki mo- 

no nga ma-shi de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. O-ku-bi-o-o mo-no h'-a-ku ni-n yo-ri mo ji-u ni-n tsz-yo- 

i mo-no nga ma-shi-da. 
t:^7 if -? }s # 

891. Thank you. 
A-ri-nga-to-o go za-ri-ma-s'. 

^ t))tff9 a **fi)^* 

Do. Ka-ta-ji-ke na-i. 

892. T&tf wiZJ <fo. 

So-re de yo-ro-shi-u go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. So-re de yo-i. 

893. 2fo# w right. (not wrong) 
Sore nga yo-ro-shi-u go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. So-re nga yo-i. 

894. p^ m r*>fc. (correct) 
So-re nga ma-ko-to de go za-ri-ma-s". 

Do. So-re nga ho-n-to-o da 

y v # ^ y 9 y 

895. jTW g wowp. (morally) 
So -re nga yo-ko-shi-ma de go za-ri-ma-s'- 

y V ff 3 a l,<? ? f ^ j) ^ 

Uo. So-re nga yo-ko-shi-ma da. 

y v n 3 * i, -? $ 

896. That is the worst of all. 

Mi-na no u-chi de so-re wa i-chi-ba-n wa-ru-u go za-ri-ma-s' 



1 

Mi-nn no u-chi de ?o-re wa i-chi-ba.n wa-ru-i. 

That is a Chinese custom. 

Mo-ro-ko-shi ho-o-sh'-ki de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Tv ht»al.W^f rffJ)^ 

Do. Are u no ho-o-sh'-ki d;i. 

n^i > ; **^ *t 

b98. That is not my fault. 

A re wa wa-ta-k'-shi no tsz-mi de wa go za-ri-ma-se-n'. 

tv r. 999 > / * 5. r * 3* *f o-? * * 

Do. Arc wa wa-shi no tsz-mi de wa na-i. 

Tv ^ •? > 7 * 3>f j*+i 

899. rtatf M his look out. 

So-re wa a-no h'-to no ka-ka-ri de go zari-ma-s'. 

yv ^ T>> t:h 7 ft*? 1 ) f a- if l) -?* 

Do. Are «n a-no h'-to no ka-ka-ri da. 

rv ssfstiY /tiny it 

900. 7W «A«> i"« out of sight. 

A-no fu-ne wa mo-it mi-e na-ku na-ri-ma-sh'-ta. 

T; ?3- ^ %9 £* ^ * i)^^ * 

Do. A-no fu-ne wa mo-u mi-e na-ku na-t-ta. 

T 7 i* »*,? 3A + 9 +V9 

901- T^atf t*« not for me to speak of. 

So-no ko-to ni wa wa-ta-k'-shi wa na-ni to-mo mo o-sa-re- 

ma-se-n. 

Do. So-re ni wa wa-shi wa na-ni to-mo i-wa-re-nu. 

n-^ !;i/^ ^ — v^ f ? v* 

902. T^a* i« ;io* time. 

Sore wa ma-koto de go za-ri-ma-se-n 
y V ^^3)- f'3* if 1) ^r fe^ 
Do. So-re wa ho-n-to de wa na-i. 

yv /* 4^> f ^hi 

903. Tfatf was natf my meaning. 

A-re wa wa-ta-k'-shi no ko-ko-ro-dza-shi de go za-ri-ma-se-n' 

Tv /s «7 £^> ;3 3D^Vf3*f t)^^jst 

Do. A-re wa wa-shi no ko-ko-ro-dza-shi de wa na-i. 
T V /n !?^; 3 3t2if >/f ^^f 

904. 7%fl£ m wrjf useful. 

So-re wa o-o-ki-ni ya-ku-ni-ta-chi-ma-sz-ru. 

y v *> ***— t ^^f^xjv 

Do. A-re wa ta-n-to ya-ku-ni-ta-tsz. 

Tv j* ^^y W ~ $y 



124 T. 

905. That is the custom. 
So-re wa sa-ho-o de go 

Do. A-re wa sa-ho-o da. 

906. 7te M>iZ£ not do ; it is too short. 

A-ma-ri mi-ji-ko-o go za-ri-ma-s' ka-ra, a-re de wa de-ki-ma- 
f *?. 1) a&a^dt if 1) ^ ^??fV f » f ^ ^ 
se-n' . 

^* 

Do. A-ma-ri mi-ji-ka-i ka-ra a-re de wa de-ki na-i. 

907. That is not half so good as this. 

A-re wa ko-no go bu do-o-ri ho-do yo-ro-sh'-ku go za-ri-ma- 

se-n. 

*^ 

Do. A-re wa ko-no go bu do-o-ri wa-ru-i. 

908. That man is sea-sick. 

A- no h'-to wa fu-ne ni yo-i-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. A-no h'-to wa fu-ne ni yo-t-ta. 

909. That is all he cares for. 

A-no h'to wa so-re ba-ka-ri ni mi wo i-re-ma-s'. 

t;ti-^ 9 V j*% t) ^. 3. 9 Y v ^ a 

Do. A-re wa so-re ba-ka-ri ni mi wo i-re-ru. 
TV ^ W ?<fi 1) -5?f V)V 

910. That is just what he is good for. 

So-no ko-to wa a-no h'-to no mo-chi-ma-i ni ch'-o-do yo-ro-shi- 

u go za-ri-ma-s'- 

9^ *Ti) ^?a 

Do. So-no ko-to wa a-re no mo-chi-ma-i ni ch'-o-do yo-i. 

y;3)-^tv;tf t-f -f^Faf 

91 1. That maris words and actions do not differ. 

A-no o h'-to wa mo-o-shi-ma-s' ko-to to o-ko-na-i to chi-nga4- 

ma-se-n'. 
Do. A-re no ku-chi to o-ko-na-i to chi-nga-wa-nu. 

tv;^f #^fc:> ± ft V % 

912. TA#£ 2S mtf atf a^ like tins. 

A-re wo ko-re ni ku-ra-be-te wa s'-ko-shi mo-o-na-ji to-ko-ro 



I 

wa go za-ri-ma-se n. 
I' A-re wo ko-n; ni ku-ra-bc-to s'-ko-shi mo o-na-ji to-ko-ro 

Tv3? avi ^?-<f * aV fc;*V->; >3t2 

wa na-i. 

>f 

913. 7%a/ tra* a yrwi mist ah. 

\ re wa o-o-ki-ni ma-chi-ngai de go za-ri-ma-sh'-tn. 

Do. A-re wa o-o-ki-ni ma-chi-ngai de a-t-ta. 

tv ^**%^<? * tfY rt ** 

.'It Jfort m a great delusion. 

A-re wa o-o-ki-ni ma-yo-i de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. A-re wa o-o-ki-ni ma-yo-i da. 

910 That it very MUrange. 

A-re wa ha-na-ha-da ki-k'-wa-i no ko-to de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. A-re wa o-o-ki-ni a-ya-shi-i ko-to da. 

910. That never wiU be. 

A-no ko-to wa tsz-i-ni go za-rf-mas 1 ma-i. 

Do. A-no ko-to wa ke-s'-sh'-te a-ru ma i 

917. Thai we can never do. 

So-re wa do-o mo wa-ta-k'-shi-do-mo ni wa de-ki-ma-se-n. 

y v a F9 fc 17 5f* ^ F fc — ^ f *^> fc^ 

Do. So-re wa do-o mo wa-shi-do-mo ni wa dc-ki-nu. 

y v /> F9 fc 9 ^ F fc a /n f 1 ** 

913. Tfarf num is probably lying, 

A-no h'-to wa u-so wo i-i so-o de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

?y th ^9? ? Yty^r^ *fi)^* 

Do. A-re wa u-so wo i-i so-o da. 

tv ^9? 9ft:y95r 

919. That looks like a fast horse. 

A-no m'-ma wa ha-ya so-o ni mi-e-ma-S'. 

f y ^ * « jv-ir y ?j=. 3&m 

Do. A-no m'-ma wa ha-ya so-o ni mi-e-ru. 

iv ^ ^ '• /^-v y 9— ^^)v 

920. 7%<rf #wn t* likely to recover. 

A-no o h'-to wa na-o-ri so-o de qo za-ri-ma-s'. 



126 T, 

920. A-re wa na-o-ri so-o da.' 

921. That is none of your business. 

So-re wa a-na-ta no o ka-ma-i na-sa-ru ko-to de wa go za- 

y v ss 7^5? / itft fl * *iv 'a > :f\r> a* -+ 

ri-ma-se-n. 
Do. So-re wa o-rna-e no ka-ma*u ko-to de wa na-i. 

922. That is a pretty ehild. 

A-no o ko wa ki-re-i de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. A-no ko wa ki-re-i da. 

923. jTAtftf is no easy matter. 

A-re wa ta-ya-sz-i ko-to de wa go za-ri-ma-se-nu. 

7 v /n ^-VX-f ^ J- f /» dt *f \)^ te* 

Do. A-re wa ya-sa-shi-i ko-to de wa na-i. 

.924. That, I cannot think of doing. 

A-no ko-to wo i-ta-so-o to o-mo-o-te mo ka-na-i-ma-se-nu. 

Do. A-no ko-to wo shi-yo-o to o-mo-o-te mo ka-na-wa-nu. 

925. That is all wrong ; begin again. 

A-re wa mi-na chi-nga-i-ma-sh'-ta ka-ra, ma-ta ha-ji-me yo- 

ri o na-o-shi na-sa-re. 

Vits-jr^ + ^v 

Do. A-re wa mi-na chi-nga-t-ta ka-ra, ma-ta ha-ji-me yo-ri na- 
o-se. 

or* 

926. That hat is old fashioned. 

So-no ka-bu-ri mo-no wa mu-ka-shi no ka-ta-chi de go za-ri- 

y s x-fi) *.; r* i* fti, ; ft % $~ ft* tf i) 

ma-s'. 

^* 

Do. A-no ka-bu-ri mo-no wa mu-ka-shi no ka-ta da. 

T J ti-fV fc ? rs i* til, S 11#>X 

927 . That is not so much as its first cost. 

So-no ne-da-n de wa mo-to ne ni na-ri-ma-se-nu. , 

Do. So-no ne de wa mo-to ne ni na-ra-nu. 



I 127 

928. That M all idle t*lk. 

So-re wa mi-na mu-e-ki no ha<na-shi de go za-ri-ma-s'. 
yv ^ 5-+ l^3-\ > /***> f rT ^f 1) -?* 

Do. A-re wa mi-na mu-da ba-na-shi da. 

? v /> A 3^ * 5T /^ i" £f 

929. Tforf i« a/r«< ra/* on*. 

So-re \va ichi-ba-n yo-ro-shi-i no de go za-ri-ma-s 1 . 

y v * f *^ a bm 7 r * *i)^* 

Do. Are wa i-chi-ba-n yo-i no da. 

tv M ±>^91 > ? 

930. 7totf m contrary to law. 

A-re wa ko-ku ho-o ni so-mu-i-tc o-ri-ma-s'. 

tV ^ 3 ^ ft* ,=tyM ?*!)■?* 

Do. A-re wa ko-ku ho-o ni so-mu-i-te i-ru. 
tV ^ 3 ^ ft* — **1 ? 1 >V 

93 1 . 7W tr<w a great while ago. 

A-no koto wa o-o mu-ka-shi go za-rima-sh'-ta. 

t; 3 r >~*ft * tip * **) *V> 2 

Do. A-no ko-to wa o-o mu-ka-shi a-t-ta. 

ty 3r >»*ft^ »VT** 

932. 7%<rf m a portrait of my friend. 

A-re wa wa-ta-k'-shi no ho-o-yu-u no e-sz-nga-ta do ga za-ri- 

TV j* VZtl, > ft*n.* >*-%fi % T ar*Fi) 

ma-s'. 

^^ 
Do. A-r3 wa wa-shi nga ho-o-ba-i no e-sz nga-ta da. 

tv /* 9 \> n *i9j*i **>% if 9 r 

933. That is my business, 

Ko-no koto wa wa-ta-k'-shi no mi ni ka-ka-ri-mas'. 

Do. So-re wa wa-shi nga mi ni ka-ka-ru. 
yv ^ !7 J/tf i-^J fJ)V 

934. That horse is what I say he is. 

A-no m'-ma wa wa-ta-k'-shi no mo-o-sh'-ta to-o-ri de go za- 

ri-ma-s' . 

*)** - 

Oo. A-no m'-ma wa wa-shi nga i-t-ta to-o-ri da. 

935. That is not the key, it does not fit. 

A-no ka-ngi wa a-i-ma-se-nu ka-ra, chi-nga-t-te o-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. A-no ka-ngi wa a-wa-nu ka-ra chi-nga-t-te i-ru. 

?y *?¥ ^ t ^* a? * ffvfl>v 



128 T. 

936. That boy has been well brought up. 

A-no o ko wa yo-ku so-da-te-ra-re-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. A-no ko wa yo-ku so-da-te-ra-re-ta. 

937. That sketch was meant for a horse, but looks like a dog. 

A-no ga-ku wa m'-ma wo ka-i-ta ko-ko-ro de go za-ri-ma-s' 

7 J if 9 ^ * ? 9 ft 1.9 P *& ??t if \)-?K 

nga ; i-nu wo ka-i-ta yo-o ni mi-e-ma-s'. 

if 1% ? m%w~ ^^?% 

Do. A-no ga-ku wa m'-ma wo ka-i-ta ki da nga i-nu wo ka- 
i-ta yo-o ni mi-e-ru. 

938. That cinnamon is not pounded fine. 

A-no ke-i-hi wa ma-da tsz-i-te sa-i-ma-tsz ni i-ta-shi-ma- 

se-nu. 

*# ; ' 

Do. A-no ni-k'-ke-i wa ma-da tsz-i-te ko-ma-ka ni se-nu. 

f 7 A9*f1/s ^ 5T pf? a^ # ~ fe* 

939. 7%<? rich have troubles as well as the poor. 

To-me-ru h'-to mo ma-dz-sh'-ki h'-to mo ku-ro-o wa o-na-ji- 

ko-to de go za-ri-ma-s'. 
Do. Ka-ne-mo-chi mo bi-m-bo-o ni-n mo ku-ro-o wa o-na-ji-ko- 

ft 3- fc * £ t?^9 ~^fc ^t27^ 3V-*; ^ 

to da. 

940. The lots on that street are all taken up. 

A-no ma-chi no ji-me-n wa mi-na mo-chi-nu-sh' nga go za- 

7 > * 1 ? V*^ s* 5 9- fe * J* ^ # :f if 

ri-ma-s'. 

Do. A-no ma-chi no ji-me-n wa mi-na mo-chi-nu-sh' nga 

f ? ^ f ^ VA *> r> $.* fc * * %f if 

a-ru. 
T)V 

941. TAe ^/wos do not improve; they are always about the same. 
A-i-no wa a-ra-ta-me-ru ko-to wo i-ta-shi-ma-se-nu, i-tsz-mo 

o-yo-so o-na-ji-ko-to de go za-ri-ma-s'. 



T. 129 

Do. A-i-no wa a-ra-ta -rae-ru koto wo sc-nu i-tsz-mo ta-i-nga-i 
o-na-ji-ko-to da. 

942. The snail carries his house on his hack, 
Ka-ta-tsz-muri wa i-yc wo sh'-o-t-te a-ru-ki-ma-a'. 

Do. Ma-i-ma-itsz-bu-ri wa i-yo wo sn'-o-t-to a-ru-ku. 

-?1^?1 *?*) ^ 1*9 is9 9f1Mr 

943. The English are always getting up something new. 

I-ngi-ri-sz no h'-to wa i-tsz-de-mo mc-dz-ra-shi-i mo-no wo 

ka-n-ngai i-da-shi-ma-s'. 

ti±>tfniyi''?A m 

Do. I-ngi-ri-sz no h'-to wa i-tsz-mo me-dz-ra-shi-i mono wo 

1 Vij^y tf^fn^ tr fui *. > 9 

ka-n-nga-i da-s'. 

944. The price of sugar has doubled, the last month. 

Sa-to-o wa se-n nge-tsz ji-u yo-ri ne-da-n nga i-chi ba-i ni 

*yv »**-?* wav 3-*V it 1 **i - 

na-ri-mash'-ta. 

* 9* 1,9 

Do. Sa-to-o wa sen nge-tsz ji-u yo-ri ne nga i-chi ba-i ni na- 

*YV /> M^rf *>^3\) 3. ff i+*1^ + 

t-ta. 
*£ 

945. The doctor has bled him twice. 

I-sh'-a nga a-no h'-to no chi wo ni-do o to-ri na-sa-ri-ma- 

Y^-Vtf f ) tWf ? -F* H) **«) * 

sh'-ta. 
Do. l-sh'-a nga a-no h'-to no chi wo ni-do to-t-ta. 

Yi^tf ?/ th > 4- 9 4p.Hst* 

946. The lamp has gone out. 
To-mo-shi-bi nga ki-e-ma-sh'-ta. 

; *^l*S.M **?ls9 • 

Do. lo-mo-shi-bi nga ki-e-ta. 

1- *: M£tf **9 

947. The wind has put the lamp out. 

Ka-ze nga to-mo-shi-bi wo ke-shi-ma-sh'-ta. 

^ X & ff Y fi^iz 9 V ^ ^? Is >* 

Do. Ka-ze nga to-mo-shi-bi wo ke-sh'-ta. 



130 T. 

948. The more you do it, the more you. may. 

Sz-re-ba sz-ru ho-do ka-ngi-ri wa go za-ri-ma-se-nu. 

% vA m vt, V ft 3f r> r ? if i) ^ & % 

Do. Sh'-te mo sh'-te mo ka-ngi-ri wa na-i. 

949. The longer wine is kept, the loiter it is. 

Bu-do-o shi-u wa hi-sa-sh'-ku ka-ko-i-ma-s' ho-ko yo-ro-sh'- 

jT F9 V^ ^ t: ■* l^ ft *i~?% vj\F 3 H^ 

ku na-ri-ma-s'. 
Do. Bu-do-o shi-u wa to-shi wo ko-sz ho-do yo-ro-sh'-ku na-ru. 

i \ 9 i** ^ ^^? a* ^F 3 12 > /; 9- rv 

950. 77^ hearts of all joyfully united to follow him. 

Ko-ko-ro wo h'-to-tsz ni sh'-te mi-na yo-ro-ko-n-de a-no h'-to 

a art* 9 tt>* —i-f 3.^-3 jaa^ff 7 t;> 

ni sh'-ta-nga-i-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. Ko-ko-ro wo h'-to-tsz ni sh'-te mi-na yo-ro-ko-n-de a-no h'- 

to ni sh'-ta-nga-t-ta. 
> —l-$fty# 

9 5 1. The earth quaked. 

Ji-shi-n nga yu-ri-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. Ji-shi-n nga yu-t-ta, 

952. The enemy and our troops commenced the battle. 
Te-ki mi-ka-ta to ta-ta-ka-i wo ha-ji-me-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. Te-ki mi-ka-ta to ta-ta-ka-i wo ha-ji-me-ta. 

? * ^ft^y $ %fti? ^&*9 

953. The carpenter will prolably get through to-day. 

Da-i-ku wa ko-n-ni-chi shima-i so-o de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. I.)a-i-ku nga ki-o-o wa shi-ma-i so-o da. 

954. :7%# sww 5^s in the west. 

Hi wa ni-shi ni i-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. Hi wa ni-shi ni i-ru. 

955. The water here is up to your chin. 

Ko-no to-ko-ro wa a-na-ta no a-pgo ma-de mi-dz no;a go za- 

n / y an /n f^# yf sr ■* fi^ n * *f 

ri-ma-s'. 



T. 131 

955. Ko-ko wa o-mae no a-ngo made mi-dz nga a-ru. 
n a ^j"?x. ;T2 m -7 T 2~V if f >V 
95G. The water here it over your head. 

I\ no toko-ro no mi-dz wa a-na-fa no se-i nga ta-chi-ma 

n ; \ 3D7 ^r ? t^£ j &1 ff $ i -? 

sen 1 . 

Do. Ko-ko no mi-dz \va o-ma-e no se-i nga ta-ta-nu. 
* * / 3JT r* jr^s* > U1 tf2 %% 

957. The mud u anJUe deep. 

Nu-ka-ru-mi wa a-shi ku-bi ma-de go za-ri-ma-s'. 
% f))\ 2. rs 11, t\£ *?? J *P) -?A 
Do. Nu-ka-ru-mi wa a-shi ku-bi ma-de ha-cru. 

958. The man hoe been given up by the doctor. 

Ko-no o ka ta wa i-sh'-a ni mi ha-na-sa-re-raa-sh'-ta. 

Do. Ko-no h'-to wa i-sh'-a ni mi ha-na-sa-re-ta. 

959. The greater part are good. 

Ta-i-nga-i wa yo-ro-shi-u go zari-ma-s'. 

„ 91 if 1 ? 3 tH-^f a" if >)^* 

Do. Ta*i-nga-i wa yo-ro-shi-i. 

91 ff 1 /* aa^i 

960. The salt is almost gone. 

Shi- wo nga s'-ko-shi ni na-ri-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. Shi-wo nga-s'-ko-shi ni na-t-ta. 

96 1. The cat has caught a rat. 

Ne-ko nga ne-dz-mi wo i-p-pi-ki to-ri-ma-sh'-ta. 

n 3- * if 3- r 3. 9 1 9)£*\ V^W 

Do. Ne-ko nga ne-dz-mi wo i-p-pi-ki to-t -ta. 

5- a if 3- °r~.?iv\£*\v% 

962. The other is just right. 

A-chi-ra no wa ch'-o-do yo-ro-shi-u go za-ri-ma-s'. 
f * ? > r> £ v^F 3 P >? dt if \)^T % 

Do. A-cbi no wa ch'-o-do yo-i. 
Tf > rs £ vt,F3 1 

963. The other is better than this. 

Ko-re yo-ri a-chi-ra no nga yo-ro-shi-u go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. Ko-re yo-ri-a-chi no nga yo-i. 



132 T. 

964. The bait is all used up. 

E-sa wa ts'-ka-t-te shi-ma-i-ma-sh'-ta. 

:M" /^ ? ft? f l> ^ f *W 9 

Do. E-sa wa ts'-ka-t-te shi-ma-tta. 

965. The rice is all gone. 

Ko-me nga na-ku-na-ri-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do Ko-rae nga na-ku-na-t-ta. 
a A if * #+*% 

966. The table is too high. 

Da-i nga ta-ka sz-ngi-ma-s'. 

5T-f if 5?*J**^.X . 

Do. Da-i nga ta-ka sz-ngi-ru. 

xi if an a* >v 

967. The clock has stopped. 

To-ke-i nga to-ma-ri-ma-sh'-ta. 

Wiif Y*Wl>» 

Do. To-ke-i nga to-ma-t-ta. 

YV1 if Y ff£ 

968. The next may read. 

So-no tsz-ngi no h'-to o-yo-mi na-sa-re. 

y 7 y 3f ? t:> *33 *iYv 
Do. Tsz-ngi no h'-to yo-me. 

9 3f ; t: \ 3 A 
969! The mountain flowers are scattered by the wind. 

Bo-ta-n no ha-na nga ka-ze ni chi-ri-ma-sh'-ta. 

^ tf^w j»+n n*?~ * i)^i»$ 

Do. Bo-ta-n no ha-na nga ka-ze de cni-t-ta. 

970. The more I see of him the less Hike him. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi a-no h'-to no o-ko-na-i wa mi-re-ba mi-ru ho-do 

na-wo ki ni i-ri-ma-se-n. 

Do. Are no sz-ru ko-to wa mi-re-ba, mi-ru bo-do na-wo ki 
fV;^)V3f ;>^V * 3. )V vj\ vv- 9 * 
ni i-ra-nu. 

971. The tears fell like rain. 

A-me no yo-o ni na-mi-da nga o-chi-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. Na-mi-da nga a-me no yo-o ni o-chi-ta. 

+ 3.P if 1* s vy~jr±$ 



I 1.;:; 

: There is no oil. 

A-bu ni n^'a mo o go za-ri-ma-s. 

tf9 if *l*> a tP)^U* 
Do. nga moo na-i. 

179 nw-i 

973. There is not guile enough. 

I < >hi l'u-so-ku de go za-ri-ma-fT. 

Do. S'-ko-shi ta-ra-nu. 

974. There is nothing there. 

So-ko ni wa na-ui mo go za-ri-ma-so-n. 

y 3-^ ^*— *: zT *f I) -^ ^^ 

Do. So-ko ni wa na-ui mo na-i. 

975. There are thousands of them. 

So-no yo-o-na mo-no Wa sz man go za-ri-ma-s'. 

y 7-r?y- % ? * *^ dt *f i)^^ 

Do. So-no yo-o-na mo-no wa sz-ma-n da. 

976. T%«r<r arc but few left. 

S'-ko-ehi ba-ka-ri no-ko-shMo go za-ri-ma-s'. 

*a 5^*»I) ^3^f rf *fl)^* 
Do. S'-ko-shi ba-ka-ri no-ko-sh'-te a-ru. 

%* isj*ny >* >f ?>v 

977. There is not light enough here. 

Ko-ko ni wa a-ka-ri nga fu-so-ku de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

a n ~^T*?1) if ?Y 9T ***)**> 

Do. Ko-ko ni wa a-ka-n nga ta-ra-uu. 
a a ^^?#1) if %?% 

978. There is no doubt of it. 

Ko-re wa u-ta-nga-i wa go za-ri-ma-sc-nu. 

Do. 
979. 



Do. 



a v/>9Jtff >» 


a-ifl)^ 


I** 




Ko-re wa u-ta-nga-i 


wa na-i. 






a v r>9jtff1 


*>'-f 






There is sickness in m% 


r family. 






Wa-ta-k'-shi no ka-na-i no u-chi 


ni bi-o-o sh'-a go 


za-ri- 


? 99\? > n+i / V4- 


— tM>9 Mr * 


ifo 


ma-s\ 








^* 








Wa-shi no ka-na-i 


no u-chi ni 


wa-dz-ra-t-te i-ru 


mo-no 


9 ^ y ti+1 


; 9f - 


x> *^y^w* 7 


nga a-ra. 








if f >v 









134 T. 

980. There are but three words that end in mui, viz. samui,nemui, 

and kemui. 
Sh'-ta ni mu-i to ts'-lm ko-to-ba wa mi-tsz ba-ka-ri shi-ra go 

I, # ^^ -f y y ty a \A ■/*& & Aft WXs 3 dt 

za-ri-ma se-n 1 , sa-niu-i, ne-mu-i, ke-mu-i no-mi. 
Do. Sh'-ta ni mu-i to ts -ku ko-to-ba wa mi-tsz ba-ka-ri sh'-ka 

I, £ "a m f K * 9 a \ : /* j* '&■# j* ft i) V ft 

na-i, sa-mu-i, ne-mu-i, ke-mu-i. 

981. There is no body to blame but yourself. 

A-na-ta h'-to-ri no tsz-mi de go za-ri-ma-s' ho-ka no h'-to 

f ^£ t:> 1) ; 9 3. f 3 if X)-?K 4s ft J ^ h 

no a-dz-ka-ru ko-to de wa go za-ri-ma-se-n'. 

) 7>rft)V n y f r* dt -f l)-^ *l% 

Do. O-ma-e h'-to-ri no tsz-mi de ho-ka no h'-to no to-mo-ni 
sz-ru ko-to de wa na-i. 

%W a y ?^*1 

982. There is two-thirds as much as there was before. 
Ta-da-i-ma wa ma-i no sa-m bu no ni bo-do go za-ri-ma-s . 

# fi t? /> -?1 ? *3> Jf ) ~ tjs V dT if i) -? *■ 

Do. I-ma wa ma-i no sa-m bu ni bo-do aru. 

983. There are many kinds of grapes. 

Bu-do-o no sh'-u-ru-i wa a-ma-ta go za-ri-ma-s'. 

jr yy ; l>*jy1 ■'??'* % dt ^\)^% 

Do. Bu-do-o no ru i wa i-ro-i-ro a-ru. 

984. There are not more than 50 at most. 

Ka-dz nga o-o ke-re-ba go ji-u ho-do go za-ri-ma-sh'-o-o. 

ft r ftir&y v^^j^if, f ?*?*)-? is^y 

Do. O-o ke-re-ba go ji-u ho-do a-ru de a-ro-o. 

•985.. There is to be a great wedding next week. 

Ko-no tsz-ngi no na-no-ka ni wa go ko-n-re-i nga go za- 

ri-ma-s'. 

Do. Ko-no tsz-ngi no na-no-ka ni wa go ko-n-re-i nga a-ru. 

& ? 9 3f ? 9-; ft ^ ft-a^V 1 jf f)V 

986. There is no hope of his getting well. 

A-no o h'-to no ya-ma-i wa na-o-ro-o to wa o-mo-wa-re-ma- 

se-n. 



r itt 

A :. do j i-ma-i wa o-mo-wa-ro-nu, 

987. TAcre i5 *oo little to be of any use. 

A ma-ri s'-ko-ahi yu-c na-ni no \a-ku ni mo U-chi-ma-se-nu. 

T ^i)* ^ ^a.^ ^y V ^~*: £ * ^ fe * 

Do. A-ini-ri ihi ; o ni mo ta-ta-nu. 

988. TA«re is not a good one among (hem. 

K no na-ka ni w i b i yo-ro-shi-i no wa go za-ri- 

a > +n -^ tut an^f;^ a- A* «) 

ma-sen'. 
Do. ia na-ka ni wa h'-to-tsz mo yoi no wa n.i i. 

989. There is to be a man executed to-day. 

Ko-n-ni-chi wa h'-to-ri shi-za-i ni o-ko-no-wa-rc-ma-sh'-o-o. 

Do. Ko-n-ni-chi wa h'-to-ri shi-za-i ni a-ro-o. 

990. There is a picul and so much 

Ili-a-k' ki-u no ho-ka-ni ma-ta ko-rc ho-do go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. Hi-a-k' ki-n no ho-ka-ni ma-ta ko-re ho-do a-ru. 

991. There is nothing to hang it on, 
Ka-ke-ru to-ko-ro nga go za-ri-nia-sc-n'. 

ft 7)V \*n if a" if l)^fe* 

Do. Ka-ke-ru to-ko-ro nga na-i. 

nywYat3if+1 

992. These two look alike. 

Ko-re wa f ' -ta-tsz to-mo o-na-ji yo-o ni mi-e-ma-s'. 

Do. Ko-re wa f '-ta-tsz to-mo o-na-ji yo-o ni nii-c-ru. 

993. These are not good to eat. 

Ko-re wo o a-ngo-ri na-sa-re-te wa yo-ro-sh'-ku go za-ri-ma- 

sen'. 

Do. Ko-re wo ku-u-te wa wa-ru-i. 
a V ? W7 /> >7)Vf 

994. TAese horses are well matched. 

Ko-no f -ta-tsz no ni'-ma wa ta-nga-i ni yo-ku ni-te o-ri-ma-s'. 

a > ?$v ; *^ ^ 2if1~3t ~r*V^7, 



136 T. 

994. Ko-no f'-ta-tsz no m'-ma wa ta-nga-i ni yo-ku ni-tc i-ru. 

995. These children look like twins. 

Ko-no ko-do-mo wa f'-ta-ngo to mi-e-ma-s'. 

Do. Ko-no ko-do-mo wa f'-ta-ngo to mi-e-ru. 
a J i y %z A 7 # z y Z-S-yV 

996. This is hard work. 

Ko-no shi-ka-ta wa mu-dz-ka-shi-u go za-ri-ma-s'. 
* ) ^ ft% A ^ T ft Vtypt if X)^K 
Do. Ko-no shi-ka-ta wa mu-dz-ka-shi-i. 

^ / i< n 9 * * r n is 1 

997. This is easy work. 

Ko-no shi-ka-ta wa ya-sa-shi-u go za-ri-ma-s'. 

a ; i, p#^viti,9 m zfiT i)^x 

Do. Ko-no shi-ka-ta wa ya-sa-shi-i. 

998. This milk is half water. 

Ko-no chi-chi wa ha-m-bu-n mi-dz nga ma-ji-t-te o-ri-ma-s'. 

a f * 4: ** *&%& 3~y if ^y?jr})^?* 

Do. Ko-no chi-chi wa ha-m-bu-n mi-dz nga ma-ji-t-te i-ru. 

a J $> 4- A ^^p^ST. if ^V9f1)V 

999. This is too large. 

Ko-re wa o-o-ki sz-ngi-ma-s'. 

Do. Ko-re wa a-ma-ri o-o-ki-i. 

1000. This and that are different. 
Ko-re to so-re to wa chi-nga-i-ma-s'. 

Do. Ko-re to so-re to wa chi-nga-u. 

* vy yv y ^ $~ n y 

100 1 . This boy is all for play. 

Ko-no ko wa i-tsz-de-mo na-ma-ke-te o-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. Ko-no ko wa i-tsz-de-mo na-ma-ke-te i-ru. 

a } a s^1 9 T ^ 9-^? Vf 1)V 

1002. This cloth cost me seven kobangs, 

Ko-no ta-m-mo-no wa sh'-chi ri-o de ka-i-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. Ko-no ta-m-mo-no wa sh'-chi ri-o de ka-t-ta. 

1003. This coat does not jit me. 

Ko-no ha-o-ri wa yu-ki-ta-ke nga a-i-ma-se-nu. 



T. 137 

1003. Ko-no ha-o-ri wa yu-ki-ta-ko nga a-wa-nu. 

a > /»*!>/> b. \W ft T^ % 

1004. 7%/# oi7 won't bum it has something in it. 

Ko-no a-bu-ra wa ma-ze-mo-no Hn ;i-ru ka-ra ta-chi-ngi-e 

nga i-t i->lu ma-s\ 

n f *> ^ * 

Do. Ko-no a-bu-ra wa ma-zc-mono nga a-ru ka-ra, tache- 
c nga sz-ru. 

£ i tf * >l 

1005. This tea is too weak. 

Ko-no cli'-u wa u H si-ugi-ma-s'. 

Do. Ko-no ch'-a wa u-sz sz-ngi-ru. 

^ ? 4-v ^ 9X* V>v 

100G. This meat is not done. 

fio no ni-ku wa ma-da hi nga to-o-ri-ma se-n\ 

Do. Ko-no ni-ku wa ma-da hi nga to-o-ra-nu. 

1007. This meat is not boiled enough. 

K io ni-ku wa na-ma ni-e de go za-ri-ma-s' . 
a } ^ # /> + ~? -if di *f J) -?* 
Do Ko-no ni-ku wa na-ma ni-e da. 
a ; ^ ? /> + -7 — i ? 

1008. This meat is not baked enough. 

Ko-no ni-ku wa nama ya-ke de go za-ri-ma-s' 

* > ^/; ,> ^^ v yy r *4fx)r?x 

Do. Ko no ni-ku wa na-ma ya-ke-da. 

1009. This is all news to me. 

Ko-re wa wa-ta-k'-shi ni wa me-dz-ra-shi-i-ko-to de go za- 

n v j» ^^-^ A T f l, f a f ? dt if 

ri-ma-s'. 

»^* 

Do. Ko-re wa wa-shi ni wa me-dz-ra-shi-i ko-to da. 

n v /* y ^ — r> A r 3 l, i a \ ft 

1010. This well is very deep. 

Ko-no i-do wa ta-i-so-o-ni f-ko-o go za-rima-s'. 

Do. Ko-no i-do wa ta-i-so-o P-ka-i. 

1011. This is still worse. 

Ko-re wa na-wo wa-ru-u go za-ri-ma-s'. 

^ v s**9 v wit ^\j^^ 

R 



138 T. 

1011. Ko-re \va na-wo wa-ru-i. 

10 12. This room is too small. 

Ko-no he-ya wa se-ma sz-ngi-ma-s\ 

Do. Ko-no he-ya wa a-ma-ri se-ma-i. 

1013. :7%«s is just what I want. 

Ko-re wa wa-ta-k'-shi no ch'-o-do i-ru shi-na de go za-ri- 

ma-s'. 

^* 

Do. Ko-re wa wa-shi no ch'-o-do i-ru shi-na da. 

a v /n V l> /fWYfrti'* % 

1014. This look is out of print. 

Ko-no sh'-o-mo-tsz wa dze-p-pa-n i-ta-shi-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. Ko-no sh'-o mo-tsz no ha-n wa na-ku-na-ri-ma-sh'-ta. 
^ 7 >3 t ^ r* yO ft J- $ 9- 1) f ^ # 

1015. TH«? zs « M dollar. 

Ko-no do-ra wa gi-n no sh'-o nga wa-ru-u go za-ri-ma-s'. 

^ y k? ^ $> / it $ # 'b )V9. ^ &$-?& 

Do. Ko-no do-m wa gi-n no sh'-o nga wa-ru-i. 

a / Y ? ■ /n #v y ^9 *f 9 >v-f 

1016. 17«'s m his favorite child. 

Ko-no ko-do-mo wa a-no o ka-ta no i-chi-ba-n a-i-shi de 

go za-ri-ma-s'. 
Do. Ko-no ko-do-mo wa a-no h'-to no i-chi-ba-n ka-wa-i-nga- 
ru ko da. 

1017. This is not well done. 

Ko-re wa yo-ku ts'-ku-ri-e-ma-se-n'. 

a V /* 3 $ V fyX)3--7*L% 

Do. Ko-re wa yo-ku ko-shi-ra-i-e-nu. 

1018. 2%w tree has begun to bear fruit this year. 

Ko-no ki wa ko-n ne-n ha-ji-me-te mi nga na-ri-ma-sh'-f.a. 

a J % r* a^ ^ /s^J f £ ff J- X) 4 ^ # 

1019. This is rather better than that. 

So-re yo-ri ko-re wa s'-ko-shi yo-ro-shi-u go za-ri-ma-s' 



T. 139 

1019. Arc yo-ri ko-re vva s'-koshi yo-i. 

1 020. This is the hit. 

Ko-re wa i-chi-ba-n yo-ro shi-u go za-ri ma-s\ 

Ho. KdHTi wa i-chiba-n yo-ro-shi-i. 

1021. This is mine. 

Ko-re wa wa-ta-k'-shi no de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. Ko-re wa wa-shi no da. 

nil is the one. 
Ko-rc de go za-ri-ma-s'. 
n v f * if J) T % 
Do. Ko-n- da 
a v & 

1023. Thie is pood for nothing. 

Ko-re wa ya-ku ni ta-chi-ma-se-nu. 

n v /> -v 4> ^ # *^* * 

Do. Ko re wa ya-ku ni ta-ta-nu. 

a v ^ X # — ££ % 

1024. This hoe is more handy than that. 

So no ku-wa yo-ri ko-no ho o nga ts'ka-i yo-o go za-ri- 

^H3l)a; ft* ff Vfiti 3* dt if 1) 

ma-s'. 

^^ 

Do. So-no ku-wa yo-ri ko-no ho-o nga ts'-ka-i i-i. 

y^!?3i)a; ft* tf yftfc f f 

1025- ^'* c< 2$* ** no ' *«# roasted. 

Ko-no ka-he wa ma-da na-ma i-ri de go za-ri-ma-8'. 

Do. Ko no Xa -fo wa ma-da i-re-nu. 

102G. Tflw i« wuwk exactly to my mind. 

Ko-re wa ch'o-do wa-ta-k'-shi no o-mo-o to-o-ri ni ts'-ku- 

re-ma-sh'-ta. 
V ipj/ # 

Do. Ko-re wa ch'-o-do wa-shi no o-mo-o to o-ri ni ko-shi-ra- 

e-ta. 

1027. Tliis must be well attended to ; don't neglect it. 

Ko-re ni ko-ko-ro dz-ke-te k'-t-to ma-mo-t-te o-ri-ma-s'; 



140 T. 

yu-da-n wa na-ra-dz. 
Do. Ko-re ni ki wo ts'-ke-te k'-t-to mi-te l-ru yu-da-n na-ra-nu. 

1028. This table, is warped. 

Ko-no da-i wa so-ri-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. Ko-no da-i wa so-t-ta. 

1029. 7%ts w J^fer than nothing. 

Ko-re wa na-i ni wa ma-sa-ri-ma-s'. 

a v j* 9~i ''a s\ '<? *$&'& 

Do. Ko-re wa na-i nga ma-shi da. 

^ v ^9-i ft Y-t, jt 

1030. This money does not pass here. 

Ko-no ka-ne wa ko-ko de wa tsz-yo-o i-ta-shi-ma-se-n' . 

Do. Ko-no ka-ne wa ko-ko de wa tsz-yo-e se-nu. 

n ) ft 3- ^ * x T j^v?3*i**% 

1031. This horse is no match for that. 

Ko-no m'-ma wa so-no m'-ma ni o-yo-bi-ma-se-nu. 

3 ; i*^> ^ yy^t- jt £t£ ■£ & % 

Do. Ko-no m'-ma wa so-no m'-ma ni o-yo-ba-nu. 

a > i» -? /» y ; i*^? A'jrsi** % 

1032. This house needs repairs. 

Ko-no i-ye wa sh'-yu-f-ku i-ta-sh'-to-o go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. Ko-no u-chi wo sh'-yu-f-ku sh'-ta-i. 
3^^ ^3-7tls$i 

1033. This is a good holing one. 

Ko-no h'-to-tsz wa yo-ro-sh'ku mi-e-ma-s'. 

Do. Ko-no h'-to-tsz wa yo-ku-mi-e-ru. 

1034. This board is uneven. 

Ko-no i-ta wa u-ne-t-te o-ri ma-s\ 

Do. Ko-no i-ta wa u-ne-t-te i-ru. 

1035. This kind is not common. 

Ko-no yo-o-na mo-no wa tsz-ne ni go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. Ko-o yu-u mo-no wa tsz-ne ni na-i. 



T 14! 

f 036. This large dictionary is full of wor 

Ko-no o-o ji-bi-ki \va koto-ba ncra s'-ki-ma na-ku shi-rir-sh'-tc 

go zan-maa'. 

a if n . 

1 1 Ko-no o-o ji-bi-ki \va koto-ba nga s'-ki-ma na-ku ka-i- 

3 /**£*£* >* * Y ><tf **? + ? f)1 

te a-ru. 
f f>V 

1037. This money chest is left open. 

Ko-no ka-ne ba-ko wa f-ta nga hi-ra-i-te go za-ri-ma-s'. 

*J Wr ** »7& if tL?1r * <¥ l)^X 

Do. Ko-no ka-nc ba-ko wa f-ta nga a-i-te a-ri-ma-s'. 

1038. This tree appears to be dying. 

K o no ki wa ka-re so-o ni mi-e-ma-s\ 

Do. Ko-no ki wa ka-re so-o ni rni-e-ru. 

1039. 7V« m>iw* like the other. 

Ko-re wa sore ni ku-ra-be-ru to ch'-o-do o-na-ji-ko-to de 

go za-ri-ma-s'. 

1040. This is the only one I have. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ko-re h'-to-tsz ngi-ri de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. Wa-shi wa mo ko-re h'-to-tsz ngi-ri da 
»? te /% fc 3V fcl-y 3fl) £T 

1041. 7%w Mrertd m very fine. 

Ko-no i-to wa ha-na-ha-da ho-so-o go za-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. Ko-no i-to wa o-o-ki ni ho-so-i. 

1042 7%ts w?i// cure the tooth ache. 

Ko-re wo ts'-ke-ru to ha no i-ta-mi nga na-o-ri-ma-s'. 

*v9*y)vY^si#2Ltf +**)^x 

Do. Ko-re wo ts'-ke-ru to ha no i-ta-mi nga na-o-ru. 

1043. This is not equal to that. 

Ko-re to a-re to wa i-chi-yo-o de wa go za-ri-ma-se-n'. 

^ v Y f v Y ^ 1 ± a K>f ^ a - ^ \) ^ ^ ^ 

Do Ko-re to so-re to wa o-na-ji-ko-to de wa na-i 

^ v Y WY ^X+VaYT ^*1 



142 T. 

1044. This coffee is not well settled. 

Ko-no ka-he wa ma-da yo-ku o-do-mi-ma-se-n\ 

Ko-no ka-he wa ma-da yo-ku o-do-ma-nu. 

1045. This is very much like the other. 

Ko-re wa a-re ni yo-ku ni-te o-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. Ko-re wa a-re ni yo-ku ni-te i-ru. 

ay ^fv-3^ ~r 1>v 

1046. This is the one I had before. 

Ko-re wa wa-ta-k'-shi ko-no ma-i rno-t-te o-ri-ma-sh'-ta de go 

a v :* W-9.V * > ~?1 ^yfJrV^i' # T& 

za-ri-ma-s'. 
Do. Ko-re wa wa-ta-k'-shi ko-no ma-i mo-t-te i-ta no da. 

1047. This has been of great use to me. 

Ko-re wa wa-ta-k'-shi no ta-me-ni ha-na-ha-da ya-ku ni ta- 

a v /> r> % 9 I* / 9 A - r* *r> W 9 A 9 

chi ma-sh'-ta. 

*-?^£ 

Do. Ko-re wa wa-shi no ta-me-ni ta-i-so-o ya-ku ni ta-t-ta. 

1048. This is the first time I have had the honor to see you. 
Ta-da-i-ma ha-ji-me-te o me ni ka-ka-ri-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. Ta-da-i-ma ha-ji-me-te a-t-ta. 

1049. This is the only one I ever saw. 

Ko-re ba-ka-ri wa-ta-k'-shi ko-no ma-i mi-ma-sh'-ta no de 

go za-ri-ma-s'. 

3**rn^* 

Do. Ko-re ba ka-ri wa-shi nga ma-i-ka-ta mi-ta no da. 

3 v; jxpr) y i, $ -? 1 ## 5. $ / $ 

1050. This is a poor soil 

Ko-no de-n-ji wa ya-se-te o-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. Ko-no de-n-ji wa ya-se-te i-ru. 

1051. This is a rich soil. 

Ko-no de-n-ji wa ko-ye-te o-ri-ma-s'. 

Do, Ko-no de-n-ji wa ko-ye-te i-ru. 



I 143 

This rice is not thoroughly boiled. 
Ko-no me-slw w.i -hi-m ma-de ma-da ni-e ma-se-nu. 

a / A I'.jkIs*' *? T^if — ^^ * * 

Do. Ko-no me-shi wa shi-n nga aru. 

a J A V A \s f ft t*V 

1053. This clock is out of order. 

Ko-no to-ke-i wa ku-ru-t-te o-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. Ko-no to-ke-i wa ku-ru-t-te i-ru. 

1 054. litis is not a pood knife ; it has a flaw in it. 

Ko-no ko-nga-ta-na wa yo-ro sh'-ku go za-ri-ma-se-nu, ki-dz 
a > a if $ J- r* 3 O ^ ^ dt if * fc * *r 

nga a-ri-ma-s'. 



£ 



Do. Ko-no ko-nga-ta-na wa yo-ku na-i, ki-dz nga a-ru. 

1055* This is the one I told you about the other day. 

Ko-re wa wa-ta-k'-shi nga sen ji-tsz a-na-ta ni o ha-na-shi 

mo-o-sh'-ta de go za-n-ma-s'. 

■?Vl>9T ***)** 

Do. Ko-re wa wa-shi nga ko-no a-i-da o-ma-e ni ha-na-sh'-ta 

a v /* V ^ if n ; TY^*^-^^^ 

no da. 

> #■ 

1056. This is not pood for you; do not eat it. 

Ko-re wa a-na-ta ni yo-ro-sh'-ku go za-ri-ma-se-n' ka : ra, 

n v ^ 1+2 ~ % Bis 9 * ^f 1 )^^^ ft 7 

o a-nga-ri na-sa-ri-ma-s'z-na. 



Ko-i 



Do. Ko-re wa o-ma-e ni yo-ku na-i ka-ra ta-be-ru-na. 

^ v ^ft^x.— 3 #*1 ft? Z^wJ- 

1057. This house was built twenty or thirty years ago. 

Ko-no i-ye wa ni sa-n ji-u ne-n a-to ni ts'-ku-ra-re-ma- 

sh'-ta. 
Do. Ko-no u-chi wa ni sa-n ji-u ne-n a-to-ni ts'-ku-ra-re-ta. 

a ; 9 * /n ^^93-^? V— ^?v^ 

1058. This it worn out; we must have a new one. 

Ko-re wa mo-chi-i-te ya-ku ni ta-chi-ma-se-nu ka-ra, a-ta- 

ra-shi-i no wo mo-to-me-ma-sh'-o-o. 



144 T, 

1058. Ko-re wa fu-ru-k'-te mo-chi-i ni na-ra-nu ka-ra a-ta-ra- 

a-vi» 7 )V#f *Z 4-1 — ^? % ft 7 ?#? 

shi-i no wo mo-to-me-yo-o. 

M ; ^ ^ > ^ 3 ^ 

1059. This is the last day of the month. 

Ko-n ni-chi wa mi-so-ka de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

a^ i * /n a. vi n 7 3" *f o^ * 

Do. Ki-o-o wa mi-so-ka da. 

V ? /> 3> > » 5T 

1060. TA«s £m<? is op£ to irarA. 

Kc-no yo-o-na shi-na wa ji-ki ni ko-wa-re so-o de go za- 

ri-ma-s' . 
Do. Ko-n-na mo-no wa ji-ki ni ko-wa-re so-o-da. 

1061. 2%«s s^j? Aas made four voyages to England. 

Ko-no fu-ne wa I-ngi-ri-s' no ku-ni e yo ta-bi yu-ki ka-e 

a / y^r ^ 1^V)% 9 t~3~3 #t£ ^* ft\z 

wo i-ta-shi-ma-sh'-ta. 
Do. Ko-no fu-ne wa 3-ngi-ri-s' no ku-ni e yo ta-bi yu-ki ki 
wo sh'-ta. 

9 is* 

1062. This boy makes nothing of his father. 

Ko-no ko wa chi-chi wo na-i-nga-shi-ro ni na-sa-ru. 

Do. Ko-no ko wa chi-chi wo a-ru-nga-na-shi ni sz-ru. 
a ; a ^ £ £ ^ ?>v if* ^ ~ % )V 

1063. This thing is not worth much, but it cost a great deal. 

Ko-no shi-na wa yo-o ni ta-tsz ko-to wa s'-ku-na-ku-te, ne- 

da-n nga ha-na-ha-da ta-ko-o go za-ri-ma-s'. 
Do. Ko-re wa ts'-ka-u ko-to wa s'-ku-na-ku-te ne-da-n nga o- 

a yrs y ft? a\ A %>;9- ^f 3-5TV if jC 

o-ki-ni ta-ka-i. 

1064. This is worth more than it cost. 

Ko-re wa ne-da-n yo-ri ts'ka-i-ma-s' to-ko-ro nga oo go za- 

3\V ^ lr flV 3 i) *?ft^% * zt2 if >M\ 3t if 

ri-ma-s'. 

if?* 

Do. Ko-re wa ne yo-ri ts'-ka-u to-ko-ro nga o-o-i. 

2V^J-3l)^^Mtl ft #>M 



T. Ml 

This wood is so henry that it sinks in wgter. 

Ko-no ki wa^omo-i vu-»'-ni mi-dz ni shi-dz mi-mas'. 

Do. Ko-no ki V Ua-ra mi-dz ni shi-dz fed. 

10C0. Those fowl* are not full grown. 

BO in \\ ma-da lii-na de go za-ri-ma-s'. 

a / a /*> I) ^irt^f :f +" p ^* 

Do. Ko no ni-wa-to-n \va ma- la o-o-ki-ku na ri ma s< -nn. 

7 . Those are better made than these. 

Ko-re yo-ri so-re wa yo-ku ts'-ku-ra-re-ma-sli 

Do. Ko-re yo-ri a-re \va \*o-ku ts'ku-ra-re-ta. 

^ ^ a 9 f V /* 3 # 9 9 $ v 9 

1069. JAott m*w Art/<» each other. 

A-no o ka-ta f-ta ri \va a-i tn-nga-i ni i-mi-ma-sz-rn. 

\ HO h'-to f ta-ri \va ta-nga-i ni ki-ra-i-ma-s.' 

1 0G0. TAoae gentlemen do not live together. 

A-no ka-ta ta-chi wa i-s-sh'-o ni sz-ma-i na-sari-ma-se-n'. 

Do. A-no h'-to ta-chi wa is-^hi-o-ni sz-ma-wa-nu. 

1070. Those people are our neighbours. 

A-no ka-ta ta-chi ua wa-tn-k'-shi do-mo no to-na-ri no kn- 

ta de go za-ri-ma-s'. 
#?a-*fl)^* 

Do. A-no h'-to ta-chi wa wa shi do-mo no to-na-ri no h'-to da. 

1071. Tfios* coofos /wre come for their pay. 

A-no ni-n-so-ku njja hi-vo-o wo mo-ra-i ni ma-i-ri-ma-sh'-t*a. 

t 7-^y^ *f t3^ 9 Oif^^f 9^^# 

Do. A-no ni-n-so-ku n^a hi-yo o wo to-n ni k'-ta. 

t 7-^y * if t 39 5? H) - *# 

1072. 7^(?«« ar* all of a size. 

So-re wa mi-na o-na-ji-ko-to ni o-o ki-u go za-ri-ma-s' 

Do. A-re wa mi-na o-na-ji-ko-to ni o-o-ki-i. 

1073. Tfiostf women with blackened teeth are married, but unmarried wo- 
men from twenty years old and upwards blacken their teeth and 
shave their eyebrows, though prostitutes and dancing girls do not. 



14G T. 

A-no ge-m-bu-ku wo sh'.ta o-na-no;o wa yo-me-i-ri wo i-ta- 

f ? T ^ -f # ? ^% ** 3 r* a A 1 $ -1 9 

shi-ma-sh'-ta, shi-ka-shi na-nga-ra o-t-to no na-i o-na-ngo 

}^^^ $ V ftp *ti 9 *** S+iit* zt 

wa ha-ta-ehi no sa-ki yo-ri ka-ne wo ts'-ke-te ma-yu wo 
so-ri-ma-s'. Ke-re-do-mo yu-u-j'-o u-ka-re-me no ta-ngu-i 
wa . sa-yo-o i-ta-shi-ma-se-n' . 

1074. Those are not very good. 

A-re wa ha-na-ha-da yo-ro-shi-u go za-ri-ma-sz-nu. 

? v /s ^ />$ 3X2 I-? dT if l) -? & % 

Do. A-re wa o-o-ki-ni yo-ku na-i. 

1075. Those men are going to hill a bullock pretty soon. 

A-no h'-to ta-chi wa mo s'-ko-shi no-chi ni o-u-shi wo ko- 

ro-shi-rna s' . 
Do. A-no h'-to ta-chi wa o-shit-ke o-u-shi wo ko-ro-s 1 . 

1076. To-morrow is pay day \ 

Mio-o-ni-chi wa ki-u-ki-n wo wa-ta shi-ma-s' lo-ki de go za- 

A 9 ~± **?y*^9 yfils^KY*? dt if 

ri-ma-s'. 

*>*"* ; , 

Do. A-sh'-ta wa ki-u-ki-n wo wa-ta-s' to-ki da. 

1077. Travellers are always passing Kaiiagawa, on their way up to Miako. 
Mi-a-ko e no-bo-ru h'-to wa i tsz-mo Ka-na-nga-wa wo to-o- 

2-y ax. ; tf^v fc. \ jy 1 9 fc ft J- ff y 9 \9 

ri-rna s'. 
Do. Mi-a-ko e no-bo-ru h'-to wa i-tsz-mo Ka-na-nga-wa wo 

^V a 5- J $ )V t: Y £> 1 9 ^ ft + if *? 9 

to-o-ru. 

Y9)V 

1078 Tribute is paid by the king of Corea to tJie Taikun. 

Ch'«o-se-n no wo-o yo-ri mi-tsz-ngi wo Ta-i-ku-n ni a-no-e- 

f ^*i^ ; W3 X) 2. 9 3f 9 ^f/A^fV 

ma-s' . 
Do. Ch'-o-se-n no wo-o yo-ri mi-tsz-ngi wo Ta-i-ku-n ni 



U. M7 



i-mc-ru. 

** * >v 

1079. Try again once more. 

Mo-o h -to-ta-bi ko-ko-ro mi na-sa-re. 

Do Moo i-chi-do ko-ko-ro mi-ro. 

1080. Turn it bottom vpuartb. 
Ka-e-sh'ic o oki nasa-re. 

Do. Ka-e-sh -te oke. 

1081. Turn it up-sid* down. 

U-e wo sh'-ta-ni sh'-te o o-ki na-sa-re. 

Dp. Ue wo sh'-ta-ni sh'-te o-ke. 

1082. Turn it inside out. 

U-ra-nga-i sh'-te o o-ki na-sa-re. 

93 n 1 isl***++v 

Do. U-ra-nga-i sh'-te o-ke. 

1083. Turn the bread; don't let it burn. 

Pa-n wo ma- wa sh'-te ko-nge-nu yo-o ni o ya-ki na-sa-re. 

Do Pa-n wo ma-\va-sh'-te ko-nge-nu yo-o ni ya-ke. 

1084. J«r» i7 w*r and over again. 
Tu-bi-ta-bi ka-e sh'-te o o-ki na-sa-re. 

Do. Do-do ka-e-sh' -te o-ki. 

u 

1085. Umbrellas are covered with paper, end then smeared with a bean oil. 
Ka-ra-ka-sa wa ka-mi de ha-ri-ma-sh'-te no-chi-ni e-no-a-bu- 

fj 7 fj ■* r> ft 2- f r> \)^ i,? ; £ —3:7 f ? 

ra wo nu-ri-ma-s'. 
5 9 % 1)^* 

Do. Ka-ra ka-sa wa ka-mi de ha-t-te, no-chi-ni e-no-a-bu-ra wo 

nu-ru. 



J 48 U. V. 

1086. Unless you pay the cash, you cannot have this article. 

A-na-ta ka-ne wo ya-ri-ma-se-nu na-ra-ba, ko-no shi-na-mo- 

no wa u-ke-to-ra-re-ma-se-n'. 
Do. O-ma-e ka-ne wo ya-ra-nu na-ra, ko-no shi-na-mo-no wa 
u-ke-to-ra-re-nu. 

1087. Under the table you will find my cane. 

Da-i no sh'-ta wo ta-dz-ne-re-ba, wa-ta-k'-shi no tsz-e nga 

mi-e-ma-sh'-o-o. 
Do. Da-i no sh'-ta wo sa-nga-se-ba, wa-shi no tsz-e nga mi 

$i ?i»z 9 * fi ^ ^ v v ? ?*if ^ 

e-yo-o. 

1088. Unfortunately the ship leing wredced, all hands were drowned. 
F'-ko-o-ni sh'-te ha-se-n i-ta-shi-ma-sh'-te no-ri-a-i no mo- 

no wa no-ko-ra-dz de-ki shi shi-ma-sh'-ta. 

) ./> v ^ ? A f 3 *- ^ ^ •? ^ # . 

Do. F -ka-o-ni sh'-te fu-ne wo ya-bu-tte no-ri-a-i wa no-ko-ra- 
dz sz-i-shi sh'-ta. 



1089. Vaccination was introduced into Japan about 30 ^orro ago, by the 
Dutch. 

I-re-bo-o-so-o wa sa-n ji-u ne-n i-ze-n O-ra-n-da ji-n nga Ni- 

p-po-n ye mo-chi-wa-ta-ri-ma-sh'-ta. 

f «*«. fc * ? # 1) ^ ^ # . 

Do. I-re-bo-o-so-o wa sa-n ji-u ne-n ma-i O-ra-n-da ji-n nga 

Ni-p-po-n ye mo-chi-wa-ta-t-ta. 

1090. Vinegar can be made of rice. 

Sz Ava ko-me de mo ts'-ku-ra-re-ma-s'. 

Do. Sz wa ko-me de mo ts'-ku-ra-re-ru. 



W. 149 

1001 Wait a little, lam busy. 

W ' i ta-k'shi yo-o nga go za ri ma-s' ka-ra shiba-ra-ku o ma- 

chi nh-sa-i. 

Do. Wa-ta-k'-shi i-so-nga shi-i ka-ra s'-ko-shi ma-t-te i-ro. 

I? $P ^ i 9 tf^i ft ? *^ ^9 fin 

1092- IVmA yowr Aamfc. 

Te wo o ara-i na-sa-re. 

Do. To wo a-ra-e. 

f ? T5i 

1 093. H> 1'iit into the harbour because the tcind teas ahead. 

Ka-ze ni mu-ka-i-ma-sh'-ta ka-ra wa-ta-k'shido mo mi-na-to 

c mt-Offi ri ko-ir.i-ma-sh'-ta. 

I » ■>. Ka-ze ni mu-ka-t la ka-ra wa-shi-do-mo mi-nn-to c ma-n^i- 
*7 *£^ *> #?£#? +>}sY *L 2.+Y2*-? V 
ri ko-n-da. 
I) n^^T [a pupil) 

1094. We never shall make anything of him, he is so stupid (said of 
O-shi-e-ma-sh'-te mo, ts-i-ni mo-no-ni-wa-na-ri-ma s' ma-i. 

E»o. A-rc wa ni-bu-i ka-ra, o-shi-e-te-mo-tz-i ni-wa-h'-to ni na- 

ru rr.a-i. 

1095. We art going to touch at Shimoda. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi do-mo Shi-mo-da ni a-nga-ri-ma-sh'-te, s'-ko-shi 

to-ma-ri-ma-sh'-o-o. 
Do. Wa-shi do-mo Shi-mo-da ni a-nga-t-te s'-ko-shi to-ma-ro-o. 

1 096. VF<? ar* ok* o/ rife 

Wa-ta-k'-shi do-mo ko-me nga na-ku na-ri-ma-sh'-ta 

Do. Wa-shi do-mo ko-me nga na-ku na-tta. 

1097. Wt /<rtr« only enough for ourselves. 
Wa-ta-k'-shi do-mo no da-ke go za-ri-ma-s\ 

Do. Wa-shi do-mo no da-ke a-ri-ma-s'. 



150 W, 

1098. We cannot get off under a month. 

Wa ta-k ? -shi do-mo h'-to ts'-ki no a i-da ma-i-ru koto nga 

P^^K«t>y*> f -iff lint-air if 

de-ki-ma-se-n'. 
Do. Wa-shi do-mo h'-to ts'-ki no a-i-da yu-ku-ko4o nga de ki 

y v v ^ t \ * * ? t f *r d. #*\ if t* 

nu. 

1099. 1% must do as well as we can. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi do-mo chi-ka-ra no o-yo-bu da-ke ka-na-ra-dz 

»? fit \, V *. * ft ? ; ira -f 9 V ft * 3$ 

i-ta-shi-ma-s'. 
Do. Wa-shi do-mo chi-ka-ra no o-yo-bu da-ke k'-t-to sz-ru. 

? I* F fc * n f f jra? 5r ^ $?>'*nr 

1 100. We have warm weather here all the year round. 

Ko-no to-ko-ro no ji-ko-o wa ne-n ji-u a-ta-ta-ka de go za- 

ri-ma-s'. 

*) ^* 

Do. Ko-no to-ko-ro ji-ko-o wa ne-n ji-u a-ta-ta-ka da. 

1101. We have it still on hand. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi do-mo ma-da mo4-te o-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. Wa-shi do-mo ma-da mo-t-te i ru. 

V Is Ffc -? yc*z9f1rt 

1 102. We move to-morrow. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi do-mo mi-o o ni-chi h'-ki-u-tsz-ri wo i-ta-shi- 

ma s'. 

^* 

Do. Wa-shi do-mo a-sh'-ta h'-ki-ko-sz. 

y ^Ft t is$ t ^ ^ ^ 

1 1 03. TFe Aai-0 Jeew separated for a long time. 
Wa-ta-k'-shi do-mo to-o-ku he-da-t-te o-ri-ma-s'. 

Do. Wa-ta-k'-shi do-mo to-o-ku he-da-t-te i-ru. 

v fi rj/F ^ v?%'s$r&f m 

J 104. 7F^ £/wm, A<w wwc/i will you give for it ? 

Sa-yo-o na-ra i-ku-ra ni o ka-i-na-sa-ru ka.' 

+ W* ?1P ? —HftiJ-^wft 

Do. So-n na-ra i-ku-ra ni ka-u ka. 

♦9 ?*? Y^?~#? ft 



W 1M 

i 105. We must tale up with what tee can pet. 

Wa ta-k'-shi domo na-ni de mo te ni i-ri-ma-sz-ru na-ra-ba, 

kannradz yo-o ni ta te-ma-sz-ru. 

Do \\ i : k'-shi do mo na-ni dc mo te ni i-ru na-ra-ba k'-t-to 

yo-o ni ta-tc-ru. 

1 I0G. JJT' MOl take turns in watching to-night. 

\\ i-ia-k'-shi do-mo ko-n ya ka-wa-ri-nrja-wa-ri ni k'-t-to 

9 M If K*: ^^ \ ft ^ 1) ff /n^^^^V 

, wo i-t.i-shi-ma-sh'-o-o. 
I' \\ . shi do mo ko-n ya ka-wa-ri a-t-te k'-t-to-ba-n wo 

9 %}sY*. 3*> V ft /> 1) T * f * * \*f 9 

shi-yo-o. 

I H'7. Were you at the auction to-day . 

A-na-ta kon-ni-chi se ri u-ri no ba-e o i-dc na-sa-ri-ma-sh'- 

ta ka. 

*** . 

Do, O-ma-e ko-n-ni-chi sr-ri u-ri no ba-e i-t-ta ka? 

1 108. What is the matter with this gun f It will not go off. 

Ko-no te-ppo-o wa do-o i-ta-shi-ma-sh'-ta ka, has 3hi-ma- 

se nu. 

Do. Ko-no te-p-po-o wa do-o sh'-ta ka ha-s-se-nu. 
^ } i*$P r*Y? Is % ft /*** % 

1 109. What interest do you get for your money ? 

A-na-ta ka-ne wo ka-e-az ni wa ri-ki-m wo na-n-bu o to- 

ri na-sa-ru ka ? 

1) +* )V ft 

Do. O-ma-e ka-ne wo ka-e-sz ni wa n wo na-m-bu to-ru ka. 

"K-ZS-ftlr 9 ns>%~r> X) 5? + ^lT \)\ ft 

1 1 10. Whatever you do, 1 shall go at all events. 

A-na-ta wa do-o-de-mo na-sa-ri-ma-s-k' wa-ta-k'-shi wa dze- 

f+ % /» Y9T fc ^i) ^^ft *? 9 91> r* & 

hi ma-i-ri-ma-s'. 
Do O-ma-e wa do-o-de-mo na-sa-i wa-ta-k'-shi wa ze-hi yu-ku 

jt^* J* Y9T fc ?*+ f P# * ^ /> #fc ^ * 



152 W. 

1 J 1 1 . What are shooting stars a sign of ? 

Ri-u se-i wa na-ni no ze-m-pi-o de go za-ri-ma s' ka ? 

i) 9 & 1 x /• — y fe^t^^T ^ ^ n ■£* # 

Do. Ri-u se-i wa na-ni no ze-m-pi-o da ka ? 

J 1 12. Wliat is the difference between this and that ? 

Ko-re to a-re to wa do-ko n<ya chi-nga-i-ma-s' ka? 

a v VTW /n K^ *f * if1~?Kft 

Do. Ko-re to a-re to wa do-ko nga chi-nga-u ka ? 

1113. Wto have you been about all this time ? 

A-na-ta hi-sa-sh'-ku na-ni wo na-sa-re-te o i-de na-sa-ri-ma- 

?^2 t^i/^ ^~ 9 **vfjr1?*it ») -? 

sh'-ta ka? 

lo$ ft 

Do. O-ma-e hi-sa-sh'-ku na-ni wo sh'-te i-ta ka? 

ir^s. t ^ ^ # j-~ ?\si i% n 

1 1 14. 7F5W sA«/Z / dfo m>iYA this. 

Ko-re wo i-ka-nga J-ta-shi-ma-sh'-o-o ka? 

* v 9 1ft if 1%ls-?lsW ft 

Do. Ko-re wo do-o shi-yo o ka ? 

x* v 9 \V ls3*> ft 

1 1 15. What is the market pr 'ice of beef '? 

Ko-no se-tsz u-shi ni-ku no so-o-ba wa na ni ho-do i-ta-shi- 

a J *"* Vt- — # I V M r% J-~ vt, F f #^ 

raa-s ka? 

^%ft 

Do. Ko-no se-tsz u-shi ni-ku no so-o.ba wa i-ku-ta sz-ru ka? 

a ; -& y Vt> a # ; 9 9j* /> Y #& uv ft 

1116. JFW is that fellow skulking about Iwrefor ? 

A-no h'-to wa na-ze so-ko ko-ko ni ka-ku-re-te o-ri-ma -s' ka ? 

f 7t> /*JM3 * * n^ft/tvy JTV^Kft 

Do. A-re wa na-ze a-chi ko-chi ni ka-ku-re-te o-ru ka ? 

fV^^^ff ^^ ~ ft 9 Vf jf)V ft 

1117. What have you done mth tt ? 

A-na-ta so-re wo mo-t-te o i-de na-sa-re-te na-ni ni na-sa-ri- 

??>-# yv 9 &?fjtlT**v?*^^yMt. i) 

ma-sh'-ta ka ? 

~Z^ % ft 

Do. Oma-e so-re wo mo-t-te i-t-te na-ni ni sh'-ta ka ? 

jt^j. yv 9 *zvf1 vyJ-^—isZ ft 

1 1 18. What makes this horse act so ? 

Ko-no m'-ma-wa na-ze ka-yo-o-ni i-ta shi-ma-s' ka ? 

a ; i* «* *> ?>-*£ ^V9- f # L^ * # 

Do. Ko-no m'-rna wa na-ze ko-o sz-ru ka ? 



W t5| 

1119. H'luU are you doing note a dags ? 

A-na-ta ko-no ngo-ro na ni wo na-sa-ri ma s' ka ? 

t^^;3" t? +~ 9 tM-h -7% ft 

Do. O-ma-e ko-no se-\>/. ua n:i ni wo sz-ru ka ? 

tJ-^jC a > U * h zh — 9 *>V ft 
I ISO. What use do you make of this ? 

\ na-ta ko-re wo na ni ni o mo-chi-i na-sn-ru ka ? 

T^-* 3V 9 ?*--* fc*f ?^>v ?7 

Do. O-ma-c ko-n wo na ni ni lnochi-i-ru ka ? 

•X^s- a v 9 ^- — fc-f Y>V ft 

1121. JrAn/ iff you trailing for f 

Ana ta nani wo o in:-cl)i nasa-ru ka ? 

t ^£ ^- .? * -c -f ^* >V ft 

Do. O-ma-e na-ni wo ina-tsz ka ? 
*^M. AS ? ^ V *7 

1122. What else ean it be for} 

Na-n zo ho-k.i ni ts' ka i mi-chi cle go z,*-ii mas' ka I 

Do. Na-nzo ho-ka ni mo-chi-i-ru kola nga a-ru ka? 

+>? &ft~Z.4-1)V3Y ff f >v ft 

1 1 23. What objection is there to Foreigner* coming to Japan ? 

Ga-i ko-ku no h' to nija Ni p-po-n e kite wa nani oga ki 

if1 * .9 > fc> ft ~y^z\? ^^ ff % 

ni i-ri-mase-n ka .' 
^f X)^\L% ft 

Do. Ga-i ko-ku no h'-to nga Nip po-n e kite wa n a -ni n^a 

ifi a v ; ny ft A^*>i *f >* +~ ff 

ki ni i-ra-nu ka I 

*-Y?* ft 

1 1 24. IFhatisthat? ' 

Sc-re wa na-ni de 6 o za ri-ma-s' ka ? 

Do. A-re wa na-ni ka ? 
fV /% ;A-/7 

1125. What fori 

Na-ni yu-e de go za-ri-ma-s' ka? 

J-~h-3~T ar*f»)^* ft 

Do. Do-o i-u wake da ? 

1126. What is the news ? 

Na-n-zo me-dz ra-sh'-ki koto v\~l go za-ri-ma-s' ka ? 

^^r * *rf i, **y ft * if i) -?* # 

Do. Na-n-zo me-dz r^-shi-i koto nga a-ru ka ? 

^ /yf?^f a|- ft* 7>v ft 



154 W. 

1127. What do you want 7 

A-na-ta na ni no-a ho-shi-u Qfo za-ri-ina-s 1 ka ? 

1+ $ s*a tf t% >? af if i) -? * ft 

Do. Te-ma-e na-ni nga ho-shi-i ka ? 

f ^ *- 9-~ ff * V f ft 

1 1 28. What are you doing ? 

A-na-ta na-ni wo nc-sa-ri-ma-s' ka ? 

Do. O-ma-e na-ni *vo sz-ru ka ? 

1 129. JF^dtf is tf/se matter with you ? 
A-na-ta do-o ka na-sa-ri-ma-sh'-ta ka 1 

„ S+fiV9n + itWl,Z ft 

Do. O-ma-e do-o ka sh'-ta ka ? 

#-?£ F9 ft l-# ft 

1130. TPJfarf is yow w«f»w f 

A-na-ta no o na \va na-ni to o-s-shi-a-ri-ma-s' ka % 

^ ?*# 9 **rs ^~ yjTV^VV^Aft 

Do. O-ma-e no na wa na-n4 to i-u ka ' 

ar^x >9~ ^ ?>-~Yi?ft 

1 1 3 1 . What do you think of that affair ? 

A-na-ta so-no koto wa na-ni to o-bo-shi-me-shi-ma-s' ka ? 

Do. O-ma-e so-no koto wa na-ni to o-mo-o ka 3 

1132. What hoy is that? 

So-re wa ta-re no o ko de go za-ri-ma-s' ka i 

Do. A-re wa da-re no ko da ka 1 

fv^&v ? a $r ft 

1133. What tree is that ? 

Sore wa na-ni no ki de go za-ri-ma-s' ka 1 

yv /> ^—.7 */f ar *fi)^* # 

Do. A-re wa na-ni no ki da ka ? 
fV ^ ?>-- 7 * ^ ft 

1 134. 7F7^ tfr^ yow looking for ? 

A-na-ta na-ni wo o ta-dz-ne na-sa-ri-ma s' ka? 

ty* ?>-~9jr$r3-s-*VT* ft 

Do. O-ma-e na-ni wo sa-nga-s' ka"? 

jT^rZ t~? itlTK ft 

1 135. What does he say ? 

A-no h'-to wa na-ni wo ha-na-shi-ma-s : ka 1 

? ; tt \ /% j~~ 9 * J- > *#; ft 

Do. A-re wa na-ni wo ha-na-s' ka ? 



W. 155 

1 1 16. What did you do that for ? 

Ana ta na-ni M tame ni ec.-re wo na-sa-re-ma-sh'-ta ka ? 

?>£^- > £ t^yv 9 **v^^ $ ft 

Do. O-ma-e na-ni no ta-me ni so-rc wo sh'-la ka? 

*-?£ ^->> ^-yv? ^ $ ft 

1 137. What did you strike him for ? 

A-na-ta wa a-no h'-io wo na-ze o bu-clii na-sa-re-ma-sh'-ta ka? 

f^£ ^IVfch 9+Mr-f* +* v-?ls$ ft 

Do. O-ma-e a-no h'to wo na-zc bu-t-ta ka? 

1 138. What is that musical instrument called f 

A-no na-rimo-no wa na-ni to i-u mo-no de go za-ri-ma-s' ka? 

Do. A-no na-ri-mo-no wa na-ni to i-u ka? 

T7 ^-l) fc y .^ As Y1?ft 

1 1 39. TTA/tf day of the month is it ? 

Ko-n ni-chi wa i-ku ka de go za-ri-ma-s' ka? 
a ^ ^ ^ ^ i # ft f x~ tf I) T7, ft 
Do. Ki-o-o wa i-ku ka da ka ? 

1 1 40. yrAd/ ar* $k>m laughing at f 

A-na-ta na-ni wo o wa-ra-i na-«a-rc-ma-s' ka? 

7V-*^-? * V?1 +Av^ %ft 

Do. O-ma-e na-ni wo wa-ra-u ka ? 

*?% + ~9 V *>? ft 

1 1 4 1 . What are you going to do f 

A-na-ta no-chi ni wa na-ni wo na-sa-re-ma-sh'-o-o ka? 

?^£ ; * a r* y-- 9 +*v -?^VVft 

Do. O-ma-e no-chi ni wa na-ni wo sz-ru ka? 
*^£ / * - ^ ^-- ? *)V # 

1 1 42. What is the meaning of this word ? 

Ko-no ko-to-ba no gi-ri wa na-ni de go za-ri-ma-s' ka? 

Do. Ko-no ko-to-ba no wake wa na-ni da ka ? 

1143. TPiW sort of a man is he ? 

A-no h'to wa do-no yo-o-na h'-to de go za-ri-ma-s' ka f 

IV th ^Y J v?9-x^\ T ^ifi)^^ # 

Do. A-re wa do-no yo-o-na h'-to da ka? 
TV /n W -V?^ t:> if # 

1 144. What gentleman is that ? 

A-no o ka-ta wa do-na-ta de go za-ri-ma-s' ka ? 

r*frf*fi * Y+z f =* *n*?A ft 

Do. A-no h'-to wa da-re da ka? 



156 W. 

1145. What is his occupation? 

A.-no h'-to wa na-ni no ka-ngi-o-o wo i-ta-shi-ma-s' ka ? 

t;ti- » p^a ? ft^v:> 9 i%is-?%n 

Do Are wa na-ni no to-se-i wo sz-ru ka ? 

tv ^ j*a ? Y&1 9 K)V ft 

1 146. 7FA«£ is the reason of it f 

So-no wa-ke wa na-ni de go za-ri-ma-s' ka 7 

V } V 7 >> ^~ ? **$'*'% ft 

Do. A-no wa-ke wa na-n da ka? 

t; v v ^ **> 5r ft 

1 147. JTybtf have you been about all day ? 

A-na-ta ko-n ni-chi wa i-chi ni-chi na-ni wo na s'-te o i-de 

na-sa-ri-ma-sh'-ta ka? 

9-*iV-?^% ft 

Do. O-ma-e ki-o-o wa i-chi ni-chi na-ni wo sh'-te i-ta ka ? 

jtVX**?* 1±^4-^9 l^fHtft 

1148. What o'clock do you think it is ? 

A-na-ta i-ma na-n do-ki to o-bo-shi-me shi-ma-s' ka ? 

Do. . O-ma-e i-ma na-n do-ki to o-mo-o ka ? 

*-?Z1^^ F* \te? ft 

1 149. What do you want of me, ? 

A-na-ta wa-ta-k'-shi ni na-ni no go yo-o nga go za-ri-ma- 

f ^ % V$P^~ J-~ ; dt \7 ff sf if l) -? 

s' ka? 

%ft 

Do.. O-ma-e wa-ta-k'-shi ni na-ni no yo-o nga a-ru ka? 

Jt-?ZV$?i« ~*~SW ff 7)Vft 

1 150. What noise is that f 

A-re wa na-ni no o to de go za-ri-ma-s' ka ? 

Do. A-re wa na-ni no o-to da ka? 

1151. Wa^ ^#d w<? better do ? 

Wa-ta-k'-shi do-mo do-o i-ta-sh'-ta-ra yo-ro-shi-u go za-ri-ma- 

sh'-o-o ka? 

IsV? ft 

Do. Wa-shi do-mo do-o sh'-ta-ra yo-karo-o ka ? 

9'%> V & V9 l> $ 9 3 KKL*> ft 

1 152. What makes you think so ? 

A-na-ta na-ze sa-yo-o ni c-bo-shi-me-shi-ma-s' ka ? 

f+Z^mYV? ~*vj\^ A Is-?* ft 

Do. O-ma-e na-ze so-o o-mo-o ka ? 

jt-?Z*i£ W*%*> ft 



W 157 

I 158. What shall 1 it "rut f 

Ko no tsz-n^i w.i h.mii wo i ta-shi-ma-sh'-oo ku ? 

a ; y V A *— ? 1$ls ~?^\*>ft 

Do. Ko no tsz-ngi wa na-ni wo shi-yo-o ka ? 
a } -yV * +~ 9 i" *9 ft 

I 151. What did you say Y 

A-na n na-ni wo o-s-shi-a-ri-ma-sh'-ta ka \ 

1-ht +~ 9*y^v*)^^>* ft 

Do. O-ma-e na ni wo it-ta ka t 

1156. What it (hat to you Y 

Sore wa a-na ta Dga do-o i-n wa-ke dc ka-ma-i na-saru ka t 

Do. Sore wa o-ma-e nga do-o i-u wa-kc dc ka-ma-u ka 1 

y v /% *^£ n YViWV r ft-?? ft 

1150. What do you call this 1 

Ko-re wa a-na-ta na-ni to na-dz-ke-ma-s' ka ? 

Ko -iv wa o-ma-e na-n to na-dz ke ru ka 1 

n v ^ Tf^i 7^ h J*r yj)i ft 

I I *i7 . Wforf more can I do Y 

W.i-ta-k'-shi wa ko-no n-e wa na-ni wo i-ta-sa re ina-sh'-o- 

o ka? 
Do. Wa-shi wa ko-no u-e wa na-ni nga shi-ra-re-yo-o ka ^ 

1 1 58. What more do you want ? 

A-na-ta ma-da na-ni nga o i-ri yo-o de go za-ri-ma-s' ka ? 

Do. O-ma-e ma-da na-ni nga i-ru ka'? 

X^X^y ^- if 1)V ft 

1159. What is this good for 1 

Ko re wa na-ni ni mo-chi-i-ru koto nga go za-ri-ma-s' ka 'I 

rr v /> J- ~ ~ fc * Y>V * > tf sf if 1) -^^ ft 

Do. Ko-re wa na-ni ni ts'-ka-u ko-to nga a-ru ka 1 
a V r» ?*-— .n yft 7 a V ft* T>V ft 

1 160. JFfarf rfo vow <ra^ this for % 

A-na-ta ko-re wa na-ni no ta-me ni i-ri na-sa-ru ka ? 
f^£ a V r* J-~ > % A ~*Y1)^)V ft 
Do. O-ma-e ko-re wa na-ni no ta-rne ni i-ru ka ? 
^£3 V » 7* — } % A ~1)V ft 

1161. What made you so late ? 

A-na-ta na-ni wo sh'-te o i-de na-sa-re-te Ka-yo-o ni o-so-o 



158 W. 

go za-ri-maV ka 1 

srir i)*a a ... 

Do O-ma-e na-ni wo sh'-te i-te ko-no yo-o ni o-so-i ka 1 

#^^- 9 I,? t?a ; av^vtv 1ft 

1 162. What have you for me to do ? 

A-na-ta wa-ta-k'-shi ni na-ni no go yo-o no-a go za-ri-ma- 

T^-^ y$V is— 9-~ ; a ay n & if *) ^ 

s' ka^ 

*•* 

Do. O-ma-e wa-ta-shi ni na-ni no yo-o nga a-ru ka i. 

*■?*- v % is— 9-— ; ay if iti ft 

1163. What have you come for 1 

A-na-ta na-n-zo go vo-o nga a-t-te o i-de na-sa-ri-ma-sh'- 

fj-z^r ^sy ft t yf^ffv--^ 1 ) ^ ^ 

ta ka - ? 

# ft 

Do. O-ma-e na-n-zo yo-o nga a-t-te k'-ta ka ? 

1164. JFJiat is the matter with this 1 

Ko-re wa do-o sh'-te ka-yo o ni na-ri-ma-sh'-ta ka 7 

9VS* K9 5""? ftW —y>-V f^ $ ft 

Do. Ko-re wa do-o sh'-te so-o na-t-ta ka 1 

n v /\ yp i^fyy j-9$ft 

1165. What is your name % 

A-na-ta no go se-i me-i wa na-ni to o-s-shi-a-ri-ma-s' ka ? 

Do. O-ma-e no se-i me-i wa na-ni to i-u ka^ 

jr-?^ j %Li*i >^ 9-—M? ft 

1166. What is the date of his letter ? 

A-no o ka-ta no te-nga-mi wa i-tsz ngo-ro ka-ka-se na- 
if sjrti? ) fit >& j* iv^&jrftft&J- 

sa-ri-ma-sh'-ta ka • 

-tv-^ ^ ft 

A-no h'-to no te-nga mi wa i-tsz ngo-ro ka-i-ta ka 1 

t / t y ? ? ft h 3L *> 1 9 d nftizft 

1167. What right have you to this land? 

A-na-ta na-ni no gi ni tsz-i-te ko-no gi-me-n wo o ts'-ka-i 

na-sa-ru ka ? 

J-ifWft 

Do. O-ma-e do-o i-u wa-ke de ko-no gi-me-n wo ts'-ka-u ka '? 

1168. When does he sail? 

A-no o ka-ta wa i-tsz fu-ne ni no-t-te o i-de na-sa-ru ka? 

T mftZ >?i* ?3-- /*f Hr1T^^)v ft 



m 159 

1168. A-no h'-to wa i-tsz fu 4M ni no-t-te i-ku da-ro-o ka? 
f J fc>> J* i 9 7 & ^ / * f 1 p ?&*? ft 

'. When you ere ready, let me know it. 
A-na-ta sh'-ta-ku nga de-ki-ma-sh'-ta-ra-ba wa-ta-k'-shi ni sa- 

yo-o os-shi-a-ri mash'. 

*?**>**) ~?i. 

Do. O-ma-e sh -taku nga de-ki-ta-ra-ba wa-shi ni *o-o l-e. 

*-?s-i * >/ *f T**9* >?is -Wis- 

1170. 7J"ftf n <7r« you going ? 

i ta \va i-tsz o i-de na-sa-n: 

I >■> I ka i ■ i IM yu-ku ku? 

1171. W'/jrw *Aa // //ok r«/«m * 

A-t ngo-ro ma-de ni o ka-e-ri na-sa-ru ka 1 

Do. O mac i-tsz ngo-ro ka-e-ru ka 1 

jt^x-19 3X2 ft^i ft 

\\1l. 11 l>cn shall you gel it done 1 

A-na-ta i-tsz ma-de ni de-ki a-nga-ri-ma-s' ka; 

t ^f-y * r-f* ?#i)^* ft 

Do. Oma-e i isz ma-de ni shi a-nira-ni ka ? 

*^M* -?T — i, 7tfy\ ft 

1 173. When do you go on board! 

A-na-ta i-tsz t'u-ne ni o no-ri na-sa-ru ka '( 

Do. O-ma-c i-tsz fti-ne ni no-ru ka ? 

*^*f * 7 3-- S)V ft 

1171. When comet* male their appearance, the Japanese say they are 
signs of changes in the world. 
Hc-o-ki-bo-shi de-ma-s' to-ki ua, Ni-p-po-n no h'-to nga se- 

ka-i ni he-n no a-ru shi-ru-shi da to mo-o-shi-ma-s'. 

Do. Ho-o-ki-bo-shi nga de-ru to-ki wa Ni-p-po-n ji-n nga yo 

ni ka-wa-iu ko-to no a-ru shi-ru.shi da to i-u. 

— ftyyv a\ ; 7>v i^jv^ yt Y1? 

1175. When you called to see me, unfortunately I was out. 

A-na-ta ng^a wa-ta-k'-shi wo o mi-ma-i ku-da-sa-ri-mash'- 

1+9 ff V 99^ 9 * 3.^1 9 ?**)-? is 

ta to-ki wa, o-ri-a-sh'-ku ru-sz de ero za-ri ma-sh'-ta. 

9 Y* >»*0T^ 9 >v*f3r W^lsft 



160 W, 

1175. O-ma-e nara wa-tashi wo mi-ma-t-te ku-re-ta to-ki wa, a- 

JT^3~ if V %ls 9 s.'??? # v& Y* j^ f 

i-ni-ku ru-sz de a-t-ta. 

1176. When you have done with it, bring it bach 

A-na-ta o ts'-ka-i na-sa-re-ta no-chi-ni o ka-e-shi na-sa-re. 

1+%*vni9-*>v% s 4-~ Xft^ ^v 

Do. O-ma-e ts'-ka'-t-te shi-ma-t-ta-ra a-to de ka-e-se. 

1FT&>#fiirf V*?*&9$ Y f ft^^. 

1177. When did he promise to bring it baclcl 

A-no o ka-ta wa i-tsz-ma-de ni mo-t-te ka-e-ri-ma-s' ya-ku- 

so-ku wo i-ta-shi-ma-sh'-ta ka 1 

y # 9121?'? is $ ft 

Do. A-no h'-to wa i-tsz-ma-de ni mo-t-te ka-e-ru ya-ku-so-ku 

f } t Y r*1 9 y'T — fc* f fi*W V V J 9 

wo sh'-ta ka ? 
5? ^£ # 

1178. TF'Aew & is done I will let you know. 

Ko-re wo ts'-ku-t-te shi-ma-i-ma-sh'-ta to-ki wa-ta-k'-shi nga 

a v 9 Vt97l«^1 fu 9 Y* VZV l» if 

a-na-ta ni mo-o-shi a-nge-ma-sh'-o-o. 

Do. Ko-re wo ko-shi-ra-e-te shi-ma-t-ta-ra wa-shi nga o-ma-e ni 

a V ? a I/is-"? is^?&? ?*• if JT^z^ 

i-wo-o. 

1179. When you see him, put him in mind of it. 

A-na-ta a-no h'-to wo go ra-n na-sa-re-ta to-ki o shi-ra-se 

1V# T>fct F dt 9±>**Yvfi YSitl' 5& 

ku-da-sa-re. 

A ?% v 

Do. O-ma-e a-no h'-to wo mi-ta to-ki, shi-ra-sh'-te ku-re-ro. 

"K^s-7 s th 9 2.& Y* is9Vf VW 

1 180. When do you begin 1 

A-na-ta i-tsz ka-ra o ha-ji-me na-sa-ru ka % 

1+2 iVftJdt ?&A ^-t )V ft 

Do. O-ma-e :-tsz ka-ra ha-ji-me-ru ka 1 
JT^Z19 ft") »V *W ft 

1181. When does that note of hand become payable. 

A-no sh'-o-mo-n wa i-tsz ka-i-sz yo-o ni na-ri-ma-sh'-oo ka ? 

Do, A-no sh'-o-mo-n wa i-tsz ka-i-sz yo-o ni na-ru ka ? 

1J %>W*fr'j*iy ftilK v?~J-)V ft 



m i6i 

1189 Wkm ' f o come ] 

\ << Li-t.i Dfl q i !• ii. i .vt-iti wo i-t*/. m.i-de o- 

ma-chi na-sa-ru ka 1 
Do O-ma-c \va u-no h'-to no ku ru no wo i-tsz DM-dl inn-ts' ka ? 

*-?£^ f / feh ^ ^IVV 9 1 * ^ T ^ * ft 

1 183 JO*/* »i// you cow* 7 

A-natn wa ko-no no-chi i-tsz o i-dfl na sa-rrina-s' ka ' 

r^ ^;;i f **fr*M-v ?* ft 

Do. O-n.a-c ko-no DgO its/ ku-ru ! 

#-?£ 3 y 3" f y >/)\ ft 

1 184. W A«i shall we settle our account* ? 

Wa-ta-k'-shi do-mo no ka-n-j'-o-o \va itsz o ta-te na-sa-ro- 

- 1 ri ma-s' ka r t 
Do Wa-sln do-mo no ka-n-j'-o-o \vn itsz ta-t-te ku-re-ru ka ? 

^Ft; »^s>*9^<***t£v >v ft 

11 85. Where were you born? 

A-na -ta wa do chi-ra no o in'-ina -n- da _o xa-ri-ma-sh'ta ka 1 

?^2 /%K* JM** ? V f* a* ^fl) -?>£ ft 

Do. O-ma-c \va do-chi-ra no m'-ma-re-ta ka ? 

-K^s. r> y * j ;^tv^ 

1186. W^r« ir«« A« broilght up? 

A-no o ka-ta \va do-chi-ra de o so-da-te-ra-re na-sa-re-ta ka ? 

Do A-re wa do-ko de soda te ra-re-ta ka ? 
f V /* K 3 f Pjff ?V # ft 

1 1 87 . JW*r« for* A<? £0>w? 

A-no o ka-ta wa do-ko e o i de na sa-re-ma-sh'-ta ka ? 

T ;* ft* ^ K ^i^ffMv -^^ # # 

Do. A-no h'-to wa do-ko e ma-i-ri-mash' ta ka 1 

1 188. Where icas this book printed ? 

Ko-no ho-n wa do-chi-ra de ka i-ha-n ni na-ri-ma-si.'-ta ka? 
* ) ^ rs yip f fj y >^it *M) ^» ^ 2 ft 

Do. Ko-no t'O-n wa do-ko de ha-n m na-t-ta ka ? 

1 189. Where does he board? 

A-no o-ka-ta wa do-chi-ra de sh'-o-ku-ji wo i-ta-shi-nu- 

s ka f 

xft 

Do. A-re wa do-ko de rae-shi wo ku-u ka ? 

fV/>Kaf Xk? ^? ft 



162 W. 

1 190. Where shall we go. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi do-mo do-ko e ma-i-t-te yo-ro-shi-u go za-ri- 

ma-sh'-o-o ka ? 

^^vy ft 

L>o. Wa-shi do-mo do-ko e l-t-te yo-ka-ro-o ka? 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa do-chi-ra wo ta-dz-ne-ma-sh'-ta-ra a-no h'- 

V $91, /> F £ ? 9 &9%-*Z>#J f } t: 

to ni a-wa-re-ma-slV-o-o ka ? 

}- ^f ^v ^ l,W ft 

Do. Wa-shi wa do-ko wo ta-dz-ne-ta-ra a-re ni a-wa-re-yo-o ka? 

9-ls-*> V* 9 #^3*9 9 TvdLfs+v*7 # 

\ 192. Where does opium come from f 

A-he-n wa i-dz-ku yo-ri wa-ta-ri-ma-s' ka? 

Do. A-he-n wa do-ko ka-ra wa-ta-ru ka ? 
?-x^ ^y a ft? V $ )V n 

1 193. Where are you going ? 

A-na-ta do-chi-ra e o i-de na-sa-ri-ma-s' ka ? 

?*# F * ? ziri ?v-*t 9^ * n 

Oo. O-ma-o do-ko e yu-ku ka ? 

1f?2. F xx^s; ft 

1 1 94. Where is the money which I paid you the day he/ore yesterday 
when you came from Yedo ? 

A-na-ta i-s-sa-ku-ji-tsz Yedo yo-ri o i-de na-sa-re-ta to-ki 

T^# f *'+#*;* iFaot 1t^v$ >* 

ni, wa-ta-k'-shi nga a-na-ta e a-nge-ma-sh -ta ka-ne wa ta- 

~p ZZ If if 3+Z Z7T -? ^ # ftlr * % 

da-i-ma do-chi-ra ni go za-ri-ma-s' ka? 
Do. O-ma-e i-s-sa-ku ji-tsz Ye-do ka-ra k'-ta to-ki ni, o-re nga 
o-ma-e ni ya-t-ta ka-ne wa i-rna do-ko ni a-ru ka ? 

1 195. Where shall 1 put this ? 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa ko-re wo do-ko ni o-ki-ma-sh'-o-o ka ? 

Do. WL-shi wa ko-re wo do-ko ni o-ko-o ka ? 

V i, /* -at v y y a ~jr*7 p 

1 19G. Where have you been. 

A-na-ta do-ko e o i-de na-sa-re-ta o ka-e-ri de go za-ri-ma- 

s' ka? 
2* 



103 



1 1 97 Where did you yet thai. 

Sore wo do ko ka-ra mo tome to o i de na-sa-ra-ri-ma-sh , - 

yv 9 Fa *?? Z-Y *f*Yf '^*5 v -r ^ 

la ka? 
Do. So-re wo do-ko ka ia mo to-hie tt k'-ta ka f 

i v ? Ka # y tv a ?** n 

1198. Where do you 1 

A -na-ta wa do-ko ni o-sz-mai na-sa-ri-ma s' ka ? ■ 

f^>* * Ka ~*7,-?i +*\)^% fj 

Do. O-ma -r .%a do-ko ni sz-ma-t-te i-ru ka ' 

*^£^ Ka - ft?* 9 i>vn 

1 199. PPftstf ft the best ; CM or that * 

re to sore de wa do-chi-ra nga yo-ro-shi-u go zarima- 

s' I 

Do Ko-re to sore de wa do-chi-ra nga yo-i ka? 

a y t yvf ^ Kf 5 *f 3Y *; 

1 200 . \\h ich do you prefer ? 

Do-chi-ra nga o ki ni i ri-ma-s' ka ? 

„ V- 4>9 if ***.1 *)?*>» 

Do Do-chi-ra n^a ki ni i-ru ka f 

V 4- 5 if *-Y>v n 

1 20 1 . Which of these will wear longest I 

Ko re wa do-chi-ra nga na-m?a-ku rao chi-i-ra-re-ma-s' ka ? 

a v ^ V * 9 If * 1) t *: * f ? v^> %n 

Do. Ko-re wa do-chi-ra nga na-n g a-ku ts'-ka-e-ru ka? 

a v ^ K * ? tf ^ tf 9 vn-^)\ n 

1202. Which shall I take 7 

Wa-ta-k'-shi do-chi-ra wo to-ri-ma-sh -o-o ka? 

Do. Wa-shi wa do-chi-ra wo to-ro o ka? 

V i*^Y + 9 9 YttV n 

1203. Where did you leave your penknife 7 

A-na-ta no ko-nga-ta-na wa do-ko e o-i-te o i-de na-sa-re- 

ma-sh -ta ka ? 
Do. O-ma-e no ko-nga-ta-na wa do-ko e o i-te l-t-ta ka ? 

1204. Which of them is most to blame? 

Do-chi-ra no tsz-mi nga o-mo-o go za-ri-ma-s' ka? 

. k * ? j y 2. ft **z*? dti?x)-?K n 

Do. Do chi no tsz-mi nga o-rno-i ka ? 

V f ? V 2. tf TTfcfc * 



164 W. 

1205. Which of them is it best to take ? 

Do-chi-ra no ho-o wo to-ri-ma-sh -te yo-ro-shi-u ^o za-ri- 

K * ? >> *9 9 >V-?^fBttW 3f if l) 

ma-s' ka ? 

^* # 

Do. Do-chi no ho-o wo to-t-te yo-i ka ? 

F * > ^9 9 J-5>?3-f# 

1206. TFAo se2 tffo cfocZ; a going ' 

Da-re nga to-ke-i wo u-ngo-ka-shi-ma-sh'-ta ka ? 

JTv ffWi 99^ ft l«^^2 ft 

Do Da-re nga to-ke-i wo u-n~o-ka-sh'-ta ka ? 

1207. Who wound up the clock? 

Da-re nga to-ke-i wo ka-ke ma-sh'-ta ka ? 

$f v ft W19 #£^>*» 

Do Da-re no-a to-ke-i wo ka-ke-ta ka 1 

JT v if \V1 9**79 i* 

1208. 7F^0 Arts iron for sale 1 

Do-na-ta nga te-tsz wo u-rn ta-ine-ni mo-t-te o-ri-ma-s' ka * 

K^# ft f* 9 9)V tU-fzVf jt*)*!M$ 

Do. Da-re nga te-tsz wo u-ru ta-me-ni mo-t-te i-ru ka i 
5TV ff f 9 9 9)V ^^ — *z9f 1)Vft 

1 209. PFAo «s to blame for that ? 

A-re wa da-re n^a tsz-mi ni na-ri-ma s' ka 1 

t v /> $rv jar * := —^m) ^ ft 

Do. A-re wa da-re # nga tsz-mi ni na-ru ka? 
TV h #> *f * 3. ~ 7*>V # 

1210. Who did this 1 

Ko-re wo do-na-ta nga na-sa-re-ma-sh'-ta ka 1 

a v ? F ^ # ^ -t v^ %, # ft 

Do. E^o-re wo da-re nga sh'-la ka 1 

a v 9 #v ff l>& ft 

1211. Who made this% 

Ko-re wo do-na-ta nga o ts'-ku-ri na-sa-re-ma-sh'-ta ka i 

a v 9 F *& ff it 9 9 9 ** v -? is # ft 

Do. Ko-re wo da-re nga ko-shi-ra-e ta ka ? 

a v 9 {f V ff a IsJ^Z ft 

1212. Who Mows ? 

Do-na-ta nga sh : -t-te i na-sa-ru kal 

F *$ ff VVf.1 ^ )V ft 

Do. Da-re nga sh'-t-te i-ru ka * 

tt v ft isvfi)vft 

1213. Who can tell -why the tide rises and falls ? 

Shi o no mi-chi hi no do-o-ri wo da-re nga to-i-te ki-ka-sa- 

^4\ } 3. * t ? V9V9W 9 >tf *ft* 



\v. ior» 

r«'-ii 

f».» BbhWO no mi-chi hi no li wo du-rr Dgl liana >h 4e Ui 

ka-ia-re ru I 
*7* V)l # 
MU H •> it to go ttexi Y 

Ko-no tsz-mji wa da-re nga yu-ku ban de go zu-ri tt I 

3;m*^?v ^*i^ rt* f af ^ I) ? 

■' ka I 

n 

Do. Ko-no tes-agi \\;t ii i -it ngN fu-ku bt-o di hi I 

a } y if /% y v n * 9 J*** *X ft 

1213. Who tn'Uyo n> 

Oo-na t;» Dfll kon«> tt2-Dffi wa vu -ki-ma sh'-o-o ka? 

K +9 if * > 9 W /> * * *Hr9 *7 

Do. Ko-no tn-Dgi \va da-rc nga yu-ku da-ro o ka ? 

a/^af/%5rv*fju^ Ttf? # 

1916 Who taught you this? 

Do-na-ta nga ana ta ni ko-re wo o-shi-ema-sh'-ta ka ? 

Do. Da-re nga o-ma-e ni ko-re wo o-shi-e-ta ka / 

ft, v if jt^S.— n 9 *5^# ft 

1 217. Who sent you here ? 

Do-na-ta nga a-na-ia wo ko-ko e ts'-ka-wa-shi-ma-sh'-ta ka 1 

Y + 9 if T+% 9 z * ^vi) ^is^l, ft if 

Do. Da-re nga te-ma-i wo ko-ko e ts'-ka-wa sh'-ta ka 7 

F v if f*i 9 * a^ vu » > y a 

1218. Who has money to lend ? 

Do-na-ta nga ka-sz tame ni ka-ne wo mot te o i-de na- 

Y+9 if JJA9*-1l*9Z.*f "Kir + 

sa-re ma-s ka i 
Do. Da-re nea ka-ne wo ka-so-o to i-t te mo -Me i-rti ka ? 

? v if n 3- 9 ny9Yi*f&??.i)vti 

1219. Who is there? 

Do-na-ta nga a-s'-ko ni o i-de na-sa-re-ma-s' ka J 

Y+9 if T*3-*-ff ^*v -?* n 

Do. Dare nga a-s'-ko ni i-ru ka ? 

9v if I** -m n 

1220. Whoisthrt? 

A-no h'-to wa da-re de go za-ri-ma-s : ka f 

Do. A-re wa da-re da ka ? 



166 W. 

1 22 1 . Who says so ? 

Do-na-ta nga sa-yo-o o-s'-shi-a-ri-ma-s' kai 

YJ-Z if ■»Mr9#^ir*»}^* ft 

Do. Da -re tige. so-o i-u ka ? 

1 222. JT/iom shall 1 call? 

Wa-ta-k'-shi wa do-na-ta wo yo-n-de ma-i-ri-ma-sh'-te yo-ro- 

shi-u go za-ri-ma-sh'-o-o ka ^ 

^? rf ifl)-?Mr9 *? 

Do. Washi wa da-re wo yo-n-de ki-te yo-ka-ro-o ka ? 

y I, ^ fiv 9 b^t *f Bftnv ft 

1223. Whom do the Chinese worship ? 

To-o ji-n wa na-ni wo o-nga-mi-ma-s' ka? 

y 9 v^ ** *- 9 jnf3>^}\ ft 

Do. To-o ji-n wa na-ni wo o-nga-mu ka? 

VW^/^ t— 9 itlf. i» ft 

1224. Whose business ts it to see to tkisl 

Ko-no ko-to wo ma-mo-ru wa da-re nga ya-ku de go za- 
n } a y 9 ~? €5 )V /> # V if V $ f 3 if 
ri-ma-s' ka? 

Do. Ko-no ko-to wo ma-mo-ru wa da-re no ya-ku da ka? 

* ? ^\ 9 -? =fc jv ^ 5r v ; -v i? % ft 

1225. Whose loss is it% 

Ko-re wa do-na-ta no son ni na-ri-ma-s' ka? 

* a v *» w# ; y^^^X) <>% ft 

Do. Ko-re wa da-re no so-n ni na-ru ka ? 
^ V /% 5Tv ? V± -~ThW ft 

1226. Whose fault is it ? 

Ko-re wa do-na-ta no o-chi-do de go za-ri-ma-s* ka ? 

z V rs y-h$ ; %± y ? rf if I) <** ft 

Do. Ko-re wa da-re no o-chi-do da ka ? 

a v ^ ft v ; m y p ft 

1227. Whose look is this ? 

Ko-re wa do-na-ta no ho-n de go za-ri-ma-s' ka i 

a v ^ y j-% ; ^ fr ar # i)^r A » 

Do. Ko-re wa da-re no ho-n da kal 
3V/>Jfvy .j\^ & ft 

1 228 . Whose turn is it to read ? 

Do-na-ta no yo-rnu j'-u-m-ba-n de go zn*ri-ma-s' ka? 
F + 9 / B ^ p&jX&f aR if ») ^7s ft 
Do. Da-re nga yo-mu j'-u-m-ba-n da ka? 



W 107 

1229. Whott land tt thitl 

Ko no ji-me-n wa do-na-ia no de go za-ri-ma-s' ka? 

Do. Ko no ji-men wa da-re no da ka 1 

3 ; i;a^ /* ? v > % ft 

1230. Whott ten art you ? 

A-na-ta wa do-na-ia do go shi-so-ku de go za-ri-ma-s' ka? 

Do < > i: -<• wa da-re no rau-s'-ko dl I 

1231. Why do y<m ttepl go on 

\-iii-t.i wa M -ni \u-c ni ta-chi do-ma-t-te o i-de na-sa-ru 

ka 1 A-chi-ra e o i-de na-sa-ru nga yo-ro shiu go za-ri- 
ma-sV 
Do < >-ina-c wa na-ze ta-clu-do-ma-t-le i-ru ka i A-chi-ra e 
yu-ku nga yo-i. 

Jt p # 3 Y 

1232. JFfcywo*.* 

\ e ni go za-ri-raa semu kat 
yh tf — rf *f 1) •? fe # # 
Na-ze na-i ka? 

1233. Why did you not come far Her ? 

Na-ze ni ha-ya-ku o i-de na-sa-ri-ma-se na-n-da kat 

+ & ^J*V9 jr1T ** v-m+^yr ft 

Do. Naze ha-ya-ku ko-na-ka-t-ta ka ? 

^ # ^ V ^ *+nv% n 

1234. Why put it off to another day f 

Na-ze ni ma-ta hi-no-be wo na-sa-ru ka ? 

^^^^^t:/^ 9 J-*\ )V ft 

Oo. Na-ze ni ma-ta hi-no-be wo sz-ru ka? 

*& — -?>* \z;s<9 Kwft 

1235. Will this do? 

Ko-re de yo-ro-shi-u go za-ri-mas' ka? 

* v fa&t? *~ j?\y^K ft 

Do. Ko-re de yo-i ka? 
3Vf3j ft 

1236. Will this kind suit you ? 

Ko-no yo-o-na shi-na nga o ki ni i-ri-ma-sh'-o-o ka? 

Do. Ko-n-na shi-na nga ki ni i«ro-o ka? 
3 ^+ \,9- ff *~1t27ft 



168 W Y. 

1237. Will you have some morel 

A-na-ta ma-da ko-re wa i-ri-mas' ka? 

Do. O-rna-e ma-da ko-re wa i-ru ka? 

1238. JF«7£ #ow not take a little lest for it ? 

Ko-re wa s'-ko-shi ma-ka-ri-ma-se-nu ka ? 

Do. Ko-re wa s'-ko-shi ma-ka-ra-nu ka ? 

1239. Will there be a typhoon this year, think you f 

Ko to-sni wa ta-i-fu-u nga a-ro-o to o-bo-shi-me-s ; ka ? 

a y i, ys Ziy^nmyy^is *% x 

Do. Ko to-shi wa o-o ka-ze nga a-ro-o to o-mo-o ka ? 

^ Y i- ^#<fr># %? if ft27 y jet.? n 



1240. You ought not to do so. 

A-na-ta so-no yo-o-na mi-mo-chi wo na-sa-re-ma-s : -na. 

7^# yj a?*&* $ 9 *^v -?% + 

Do. So-no yo-o-na mi-mo-chi wo na-sa-ru-na. 
y } 3*?*3.^ ± 9 *^)V* 

1241. You read too loud. 

A-na-ta wa o-o-ki sz-ngi-ru ko-e wo sh'-te o yo-mi na-sa-ru. 

Do. O-ma-e wa o-o-ki sz-ngi-ru ko-e wo sh'-te yo-mn. 

1242. Yow ^//c /oo much. 

A-na-ta wa ku-chi nga o-o sz-nofi-ma-s'. 

f *9 ^94 if jr*>\$ * % 

Do. Te-ma-e wa sh'-a-be-ri sz-ngi-ru. 

1243. Yow. ?w?<s£ wo£ <&> so. 

A-na-ta k'-t-to ka-yoo-na ko-to wo na-sa-re-ma-s'-na. 

1*9 *vYft s?* *Y 9 **r v~? %* 

Do. O-ma-e k'-t-to ko-o i-u koto wo sz-ru-na. 

JS<?3-% yY*91?*Y 2 * >l* 

1244. You must stay at home to-day 

A-na-ta ko-n ni-chi wa k'-t-to u-chi ni o i-de na-sa-re- 

ma-sh'. 
Do O-ma-e ki-o o wa k'-t-to u-chi ni i-ro 



Y. 169 

You //lay gv horn* once a week. 

\ -u.i-tj ui na-noka no a-i da ni i chi-do dz tsz u chi e 

ka i-ru koto nga yo ro-shi-u go za-ri nia-s'. 

Do. O-ma-c na-n<> k.i no n-i-da ni i-chi-do dz-tsz u-chi e In 

i-ru nga yoi. 

*>i # a f 

I ,' I" You gate too much/* t if. 

A Mil wa da-i-bu-n ta-ka-ku ka i na-sa-rc-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. O-ma-e ko-rc wo ta-i so-o ta-ka-ku ka-t-tu. 

*-?* jiv 9 ZIYVZi) >/ t)V>* 

1217. You art very welcome here. 

A-oa-ta yo-o kc-so o i-dfl ni-siretc ku-da-su-re-mash'-ta 

T^£ a? ^y *Yf ^Mvf * 4* v ^^ # 

Do. O-ma-e yo-o ko-so k'-te ku-re-ta. 

*-?^39 ay *f ^V # 

1248. You hate epoiled it. 

A-na-ta nga ko-re wo o ko-wa-shi na-sa-re-ma-sh' ta. 

?^£ ff a V 9 *a j* *• ?Mfv ? g, ^ 

Do. O-ma-e nga ko-re wo ko-wa-sh' ta. 

1t-?3- ff av 9 * ^l, 9 

1 249. You to ought to hate done this before. 

Ana ta wa mo-t-to ha-ya-ku i-ta sz nga yo-roshi-u go za- 

ri-ma-s'. 
Do. O-ma-e wa mot-to ha-ya-ku sz-ru nga l-i. 

Or^s* ^ *zv y ^-v t *>v ff 1 i 

1250. You do not come to the point. 

A-na-ta wa sa-shi a-ta-t-te i-ri-yo-o no koto wo o ha-na- 

shi na-sa-re-ma-se-nu. 
^ ^-^ V "? t£ % 
Do. O-ma-e wa sa-shi a-ta-t-te i-ru koto wo ha-na-sa-nu. 

1 251. Fom must leave off doing this 

A-na-ta sa-yo-o-na ko-to wo k'-t-to o ya-me na-sa-i-ma-sh' 

V+j* ^^^a^ 9 **>* v a ^^f^>^ 

Do. O-ma-e so-o i-u ko-to wo k'-t-to ya-me-ro. 

1252. You are mistaken. 

A-na-ta nga c-bo-shi-me-shi chi-nga-i de go za-ri-ma-s' 
1+9 ff #tf> A l, * ffi f * *fl)^ * 



170 Y. 

1252. O-ma-e nga o-mo-i chi-nga-i da. 

*** ff tffct: £ ft r f $ 

1253. Your conduct has been bad. 

A-na-ta no o mi-mo-chi wa yo-ro-shi-u go za-ri-ma-se-na- 

n-da. 
Do. O-ma-e no o-ko-na-i wa yo-ku na-ka-t-ta. 

1254. Yow w/y ta&e either of them. 

Do-re-de-mo h'-to-tsz o to-ri na-sa-ru nga yo-ro-shi-u go 

F vf^ t^y i*H)^ ^)V 'ft sn^y dt 

za-ri-ma-s'. 
Do Do-re-de-mo h'-to-tsz to-ru nga yo-i. 

F v T ^tiV * >)V tf 3f 

1255. Yow owe we a dollar. 

Wa-ta-k'-shi ni a-na-ta nga do-ra i-chi ma-i ka-ri-te o-ri- 

raa-s . 

^* 

Do. Wa-ta-k'-shi ni o-ma-e nga do-ra i-chi ma-i ka-ri-te i-ru. 

1256. You can get tliemfor nothing. 

A-na-ta ko-re wa la-da mo-to-me-ra-re-ma-s'. 

Do. O-ma-e ko-re wa ta-da e-ra-re-ru. 

jt^^ a v >n %^[ 3~? VW 

1257 You ride too fast. 

A-na-ta wa m'-ma wo ha-shi-ra-se-ru ko-to nga ha-ya sz- 

f J~% ^ I* ^ 9 ^ ^ ?te >V af tf ^t * 

ngi-ma-s'. 

Do. O-ma-e wa m'-ma wo ha-shi-ra-se-ru ko-to nga ha-ya sz- 
#^^ jrs ^ -> ^ /> ?, ^ :fc>V 3)- &V/S * % 

n~i-ru. 

1258. Yot< have out-done me. 

A-na-ta wa-ta-k'-sbi yo-ri ma-sa-t-te o-ri-ma-sh'-ta. 

Do. O-ma-e wa wa-shi yo-ri ma-sa-t-te i-ta. 

1259. You flatter mc. 

A-na-ta wa wa-ta-k'-shi ni he-tsz-ra-i-ma-s'. 



V 171 

1259. O-raa-e wa-ta-k'-shi ni he-tsz-ra-u. 

'. 1'om may send the money by a messenger, and if any thing happen* 
ihe risk is mine. 
So-no ka-ne wo ta'-ka-i no uio-no ni o wa-ta-shi na sa-ru 

. mo-shi mo no koto nga a-ri-ma-sh'-te wa \va- 

tf 3 1 *.is ^ ; 3h ttlWisfrs r> 

ta-k'-shi no son de go za-ri-ma-s'. 
Do. So-no ka-ne wo ts'-ka-i no mo-no ni wa-ta sz nga yo-i ; 

? / il*9 VX1 S fc > - V ** if 31 

mo-shi mo no ko-to nga am to u;. so-n da. 

fc > *. ? a> ff 1*> 9Jk ft V^ # 

1261. You cannot trust him with so much money. 

A-na-ta wa so-no yo-o ni o o-ku ka-ne wo a-no h'-to ni ma 

ki-sete o-ka-re-ma-se-n'. 
I ' Oma-e wu so-n-na ni ta-n-to ka-ne wo a-no h'-to ni ma- 

ka sc-te oka-re-nu. 

1262. You should have anchored further out. 

A-na-ta mo-t-to o-ki e i-ka-ri wo o-ro-sh'-ta nga yoro-shi-u 

t+9% V\-K*^11>\)9*U^>X if BUI,* 

go Z!-ri-ina-s\ 
Do. O-ma-e mo-t-to o-ki e i-ka-ri wo o-rosh'-ta nga yo-i 

*^2*^]r**^1ft*) 9 JtVist ff 31 

1263. You must learn this by heart. 

Ko-re wa so.ra de yo mil yo-o ni sh'-u-ngi-o-o na.sa-i 

^ v <r» v ;?f a ^ a 9 ^ ^ v •* * ?M"f 

Do. Ko-re wo so-ra de yo-mu vo.o ni ke i-ko shi-ro 

1264. Yow way do fl awy Aow. 

Do-no yo-o ni de-mo na-sa-re-ma.sh'. 

K y a^-f fc ^-+v -?^ 

Do. Do-o de-mo shi-ro. 

K9 r ^ > o 

1265. You never will get it done at this rate. 

So-no vo-o ni o-so-ku na-s'-t-te wa i-tsz-ma-de mo ahi-ma-i 

ni wa na-re-ma-s' ma-i. 
^^ J-v -? A ^?1 



172 Y. 

12G5. So-n-na ni o-so-ku sh'-te \va i-tsz-ma-de mo shi-ma-i ni 
vva na-ru ma-i. 

1266. Your servant has arrived from Yedo. 

A-na-ta no go ke-ra-i nga Ye-do ka-ra ch'-a-ku i-ta-shi- 

t *% ? dt *jf 1 ff % y Pj9 * **t iZls 

ma-sh'-ta- 
Do. O-ma-e no ke-ra-i nga Ye-do ka-ra tsz-i-ta. 

*•?£ jy?1tf SV-p 9-919 

1 267. You have over-paid me one rio. 

A-na-ta i-chi ri-o-o yo-ke-i ni wa-ta-k'-shi e o wa-ta-shi 

na-sa-re-ma-sh'-ta. 

** v ? % % 

Do. O-ma-e i-chi ri-o-o o-o-ku wa-shi ni wa-ta-sh'-ta. 

1268. You ought to take letter care of your health. 

A-na-ta wa se-n yo-ri na-wo go yo-o-j -o-o wo na-sa-ru nga 

yo-ro-shi-u go za-ri-ma-s'. 

3E?>? dt ifl)^* 

Do. O-ma-e wa se-n yo-ri na-wo yo-o-j'-o-o wo sz-ru nga yo-i. 

^•^x^ *u"3*) *>?a*>if j r*>9 *>v ft si 

1269. You beat me in reading, but I possibly beat you a little in writing. 
A-na-ta yo-mu ko-to wa wa-ta-k'-shi yo-ri sz-ngir-re-te o 

?^£ 3 I* *Y r* VZV^ 31) Kfvf # 

i-de na-sa-ru nga ka-ku ko-to vva wa-ta-k'-shi nga s'-ko- 

1 f J-if)V tf m ft & a Y r* 9 %p l, ff %* 

shi ma-sa-t-te o-ri-ma-sh'-o-o. 
Do. O-mae yo-mu ko-to wa wa-shi yo-ri ma-sa-t-te i-ru nga 

•X"?z si* 3 y /> v i« an ^vf i)v ff 

ka-ku koto wa wa-shi nga s'-ko-shi ma-sa-t-te i-ru de a- 

# # 3> A !7 '• ff %*\s -?ifV7 i)V f f 

ro-o. 

1270. You have put your coat en inside out. 

A-na-ta wa ha-o-ri wo u-ra-nga-e-shi ni k'-te o i-de na-sa- 

re-ma-sh'-ta. 
Do. O-ma-e wa ha-o-ri wo u-ra-nga-e shi ni k'-te-i-ta. 

*^Z » ^9 ») 9 9 9 ff*\ > - *? 1 % 






DIALOGUES. 



DIALOGUE I. 



On Baying Teat. 

For \ . — Look here I J with to tpeak with you a mo nun I. 

Rlothi, moshi. s'koshi ohanashi mooshitai koto n<?a aru. 

iV<i*. 2. —A h f What do you, want f 

Hii, nani no goyoo nga gozarimas' kij 

,. i ^ ; asv ff aSf!)^* n 

Fur 3. —Xolhing, but to a*h if you hare any too. 

Hokano koto de mo nai njr:i, omai chawo motte iru 

^ns *\ r *.+i tfir*1 £*'**.* fint 

ka, okiki mooshitai. 

faf j — Yes* I have, lui what kind do you want? 

Dzibun motte orimas' nga, donna no irimas' ka? 

For. 5. — WtU, I icant some Uji, some Ise, and some Enshiu. 

Sayodsa, Uji ka, Ise, Enshiu no tangui nga irimas'. 

Xat. 6. — / hare about 50 pecuh of Uji in my godown, and about 70 
pectds each of Ise, Enshiu and Shimoosa at Yedo, but I have 
musters here. 
Ujinga £0 sen ngin hodo watak'shi no kura ni goza- 

rimas', Ise, Enshiu, Shimoosa no tangui, sh'chi sen 

ngin hodo dztsz, Aedo ni gozarimas' nga, shikashi mi- 

hon vva kokoni gozarimas'. 



174 DIAOGUE I. 

For. 7. — Well, let me look at the musters. 

Sayoo nara, mihonwo omise nasai. 

Not. 8. — Wait a moment: I will bring them 

S'koshi omachi nasai ; tadaima jikini motle mairi- 

mas'. 
^* 

For. 9. — The muster of Vji suits me. The leaf is good, andivhen drawn 
the flavor is good. What is the price of it 1 
Uji no mihon nga ki ni irimas. Ha mo yoroshii, seu- 

jite kooki mo yoroshii. Nedan wa nani hodo itashima- 

shoo ka? 
^9 ft 

N. 10. — Twenty seven dollars. ■ 

Ni jiu sh'chi dora de gozarimas'. 

?&$ P * Y 5 7 af ^f *) <* 

jP. 1 1 — / have no money now. What do you say to talcing camlets 
in exchange ? 
Watak'shi wa tadaima kanenga nai kara, o-oro to ko- 

9p#& ^W?1*ft&1f*1 ft9?t29Yn9 

eki ni sh'te wa ikanga de gozaimas' ka? 

j.^^>f ^ipfff ?*1^?<Kp 

JV. 12. — Ij you have a lot of B. B. B., I will make the exchange for 
them. 

B. B. B. no kuchi nga arimas' nara, kore to koeki 
t£ t£ : t: > VI iff *)-?*+? nv\ftys~* 

ni itashimash'oo. 

F. 13. — Yes, 1 have them, but I will not give $27, for this tea. If 
you will come down on the tea to $25, / will let you have 
the camlets in exchange for $23, Will that suit you ? 
Hai, go zarimas' nga, kono chawa ni jiu sh'chi dora 

rsj rftfl)^* ft aS 4-Vy ~£? ^* Y9. 

de watak'shi wa kaimasen'. Omai no chawo ni jiu go 
dora ni makete, watak'shi no goroowo ni jiu san dora 

|f$f&T9-?. 99^1^ S3rt299-W*>Y9 

ni sh'te, koeki ni itashimash'oo. Sore de ki ni iri- 

mas' ka? 
~?A ft 



DUOOUE I 175 

N. 1 4. — The tea is very cheap, but as you are a food customer, I wUl 
Wk with you at that rate. 
Cha no ne wa hanahada yaszu go zarimas' njja, ma- 

i do yoku katte kudasaru kara, sore de koeki ni 

itashimash'oo. 

F. I<j —IVeh Uhen, / wiU take 50 peculi. When will you briny the 
other tea that is in Tedof 
Suyoo nara, go sen ngin kaimash'oo, Yedo ni arimas' 

Cl i wa, itszngoro ko chira e motie mairimash'oo 

*V 9 1? JLt2 * ± 5 J-Z.*f^1*)?*V 

ka ? 

n 

N. 1 6. — In four days, positively. 

Yokka me ni wa, kitto motte mairimash'od. 

F. 17. — Very well. I want, besides, that, to buy about 20 peculs of 
Strunya tea. Will you not yet it for me f 
Sore de yoroshii. Sono hokani, Szrunga no cha- 

wa ni sen ngin ngurai. kaitai omai kattewa kure- 

mai ka ? 

N. 18. — At your service. I will briny all toyether. 

Kash'komarimash'ta. Mina isshioni motte mairima- 

sh'oo. 

F 1 9. — / wish you to put this lot into jars, and send it. 

Kono kuchi wa tszbo ni irete yokosh'te kurero. 

N. 20— Certainly. - 1 will do so. 

Kash'komarimash'ta. S'a yod itashimash'od 

[ After the four days have expired] 

N. 21. — The tea has arrived to-day. 

Konnichi cha nga ts'kimash'ta. 

*^~± ±Vtf *%-?£•£ 

F. 22. — I wish to see the musters. 
Mihon nga mitai. 
3- ifcxtf 2.£ 1 



170 DIAOGUE I. 

N. 23. — Mere they are. 

Kokoni gozarimas'. 

F. 24. — This lot of Ise I do not like, for it is full of sticks and dirt. 
As to this lot of Enshiu, the leaf is uniform and has a good 
appearance, but it does not draw well. 
Ise no kuchi wa, eda to gomi nga ooi kara, ki ni 

1 * > v± /> 3-p x 35. p^* i ft 5 * . ~ 

irim isen. Kono Enshiu no kuchi wa, ha nga ichi 

iX)y\z^3 SX^W ? .94* r* /> ff Y£ 

yooni sorotte arimash'te mingoto de gozarimas' nga, 
senjite kooki n^a waruu gozarimas'. 

&^Vf ^9* ft V)V9 &W *)^* 

N. 25. — This lot of Szrunga is mixed. It has a great deal of old 
leaf and stems in it. The lot of Shimoosa I like very much. 
It is very clear and free from dead leaves, omd draics well. I 
must have 40 pecvls more of it. 
Szrunga no kuchi wa iro iro majitte orimas'. 

Mff ? V 4- /> i\2in-?VV7 **)-?% 

Ooku hine to eda nga mazatte orimas* Kono Sh/rno- 
osa no kuchi wa hanahada ki ni irimas'. Ita- 

^^; /;± *» /»/-»? * - 1.))** 1 1* 

tte kiyoi, kore eda nga nakute, senjite kooki nga 

9f*3ift? 3& if * #f*^Vf39*1f 

yoi. watak'shi wa korewo moo shi sen ngin hoshiu 
gozarimas 5 

N. 25- — All right. I will bring it immediately . 

Sh'oochi itashimash'ta. Sassoku motte mairimash'- 

00. 

9 

F. 26. — I wish to know the prices of the different lots. 

Kuchi nguchi no nedan dszke nga kikitai. 

9 ± /r ± ; z-p^ry if**$i 

JV. 27, — Wells I will state them. The Ise is $24.; tJie Szrunga is 
$21.; the EnsKiu is $19 . and the Shimoosa is $17* 
Sayoo nara, mooshimash'oo. Ise nga ni jiu yo dora, 

Szrunga nga ni jiu ichi dora, Enshiu nga jiu ku dora 

Shimoosa nga jiu sh'chi dora de gozarimas . 



HAOOOI I 171 

F 2S.— Will you bart^ 

Kooeki m itashimash'oo ka ? 

tf, 29. — What do you wish to barter ? 

\ nani to kootlri Dl shitai ka ? 

F. 30. — / have grey shirtings, colored shirtings, velvets Src. 

Kinganakin ayanganakin, biroodo nado no tango] 

anurias*. 

if rwx 

jtf. 31. — lrhal is the price of your colored shirtings f 

Aya nganakin no sooba \va nani hodo de gozarima- 

s' ka? 

% n 

1\ : 1 2 — / trill sell for $3 . per piece . 

Ip'piki dora sam mai de urimash'oo. 

JV. 33. — How much are the 6 J catty grey shirtings ? 

Bfdkmta rok kin han no ki nganakin nani hodo de, 

aru ka ? 

/'. 34. — They are $2.40 per piece, but I cannot buy the teas at the 
prices you name. 
Are \va ni dora shi bu de gozarimas' nga, cha wa 

t v ^ - y 9 iff f =frri>^* n ±\ /> 

omai no ii ne de wa kawaremasen. 

*^1 S 11 * 7 » ftVv?& 

JV! 35. — What price will you give then ? 

Savoo nara, nani hodo de kai nasarti ka ? 

F. 36 — You must tale off one dollar from each kind. 

Ii ne yori, ichi dora dztsz oh'ki nasare. 

1 i 3- 3') a V9 r* *fc* +*v 

tf 37 , — Will you pay in dollars ? 

Dora de haraimash'oo ka? 

Y9 7^91f&ft 

F. 38. — I tcould rather barter. 

Kooeki ni sh'te rnorau hod nga katte de gozari- 

xys.*--^?*.?? W if ft*? 7 3f*fi) 

mas'. 



178 DIAOOUE t. 

iy. 39. — I will take half in colored shirtings §' half in dollw-s. 

Hambun wa mon nganakin wo kooeki ni sh'te, Iiam- 

bun wa dora de moraimash'oo. 

F 40. — Well, I will do that ; you must bring the tea some time to- 
day. 
Sayodnara, so6 itashimash'oo. Konnichi jiu ni cha 

wa motte oide nasai. 

& 41. — Yes, I will bring it immediately. 

Hai. szngu sama motte mairimash'oo. 

F 42. — When will the new tea arrive ? 

Shin cha wa itszngoro ts'kimash'oo ka? 

N. 43. — In about 40 days. 

Shi jiu nichi mo tachimasrrtara. mairimash'oo. 

F. 44. — Bring me musters as soon as possible for I intend to buy a 
large quantity of teas. 
Naru take hayaku mihon wo o mise nasai. Watak'- 

shiwa ooku shiire yoo to omoimas', kara. 

JV. 45. — / will do so, and if you will buy all your teas of me I will 
brivg you the best, and seh them as cheap as possible. 
Sayoo itashimash'oo. JVlina cha w T a watak'shi no te 

yori okai nasaru naraba, goku yorosh'ki no wo mo- 

tte maitte, naru take yas'ku angemash'oo 



DUI.CHilF. II 179 

DIALOGUE II 

BETWEEN A FOREIGNER AND A JAPANESE SILK-DEALER 

y. 1 . — / beg pardon {for interrupting you ) 
on nasai. 

F. 2. — You are welcome here. 

Kore \va yokn oide nasaimash'ta. 

JV. 3 — lam a silk-dealer. Do you with to buy? 

Watak'shi \va ito akindo de gozarimas' nga, kiitowo 

okai nasaru ka1 

F. 4. — / do not want any now. 

Ima irimasen 

W. 5. — / will tell very cheap. 

Oo yasz uri ni itashimash'oo. 

.F. 6. — I do not want any just at present. 
Ima sashi;itatte irimasen. 

JV. 7. — / r<»<i% do not know what to do, for if I do not immediately 
send some money to my friends the wholesale dealers, my 
credit will be injured. 
Watak'shi \va kiu ni toiya e kanewo yarimasene- 

ba, namai ni kidz nga ts'kimas' kara, makoto ni tod 

waku itashimas'. 

F. 8 — / am sorry for you. How much silk and what sort have 
you? 
Sorewa o ki no doku ni omoimas'. Dono yodna ki- 

ito de nani hodo arimas' ka ? 

N. 9. — / have 10 pecuk of Aida Nos. 1 and 2. 

Aida no kiito do sen ngin hodo arimash'te kod o- 

isz nga gozarimas . 



180 DIAOGUE II. 

F. 10. — If there is any No. 1, let me see the muster. 

Joo no kuchi nga aru nara, mihonwo mise nasai. 

N. 11. — Yes, here it is. 

Hai, kore de gozarimas. 

F 12— It is worth about $440. 

Kore wa shi h'yaku shi jiu dora no^urai no sooba de 

gozarimas'. 

2^9^* 

N. 13. — Will you buy it at that price? 

Anata sono nedan de kaemash'oo ka? 

i^. 14. jls / do not want it just now, you had better sell it to some 
one else. 
Ima sashiatatte irimasen kara, hoka e uru nga 

f^^f#*f fl)^M*^#? tf\#^9)V ft 

yoroshii. 

JV. 15. — No, there are no buyers at present, and the price has gone down 
very much. 
Iiye, kono setsz kau h'to nga nai de, ooki ni sooba 

1 f^; ^y^^th if *17itit*-y9'* 

nga daremash'ta. 

F. 16. — / expect a vessel to arrive soon, and then perhaps you may be 
able to sell. 
Moo s'koshi tatsz to irifune nga aroo to omoimas' 

kara, sono toki ni ookata uraremash'oo 

fly y ; \\~%?n%y5v^v*> 

N. 17. — Yes, but I must have the money for it to-day or to-morrow. 
Sayoo de gozarimash'oo nga, kom mioo nichi no uchi 

*B9? *W**9. ff ?*> * V — f ?9± 

ni kane wo saikaku itash'tai. 

F. 18. — Hovj much money do you want, 

Kane wa nani hodo hoshiika ? 

#3- /> ^ fry vjsv f # 

JV. 19.— TTd/, 7™m*$3000. 

Sayoo de gozarimas', san zen dora hodo irimas'. 

*B9f&$y*>&ft^&V9W f 9*?* 

F. 20. — If I take the 10 peculs of silk as security, I will lend you 
$3000, and you must pay me two per cent a month, interest 
for the money. 



DIALOHE U 181 

Sono k'ito no sen narinwo sh'chi ni totta Ml 

i ka$himash'oO kara, mai ts'ki, ni bu no nwo 



X. 21. — If you trill do to, I shall be much obliged. 

. nas'tc kud:i~ iriogatod ^ozarimas'. 

12. — But if you overrun a month, I shall not keep the security, 
and unless you take it up, I shall sell it to reimburse myself. 
Naredomo, h'to ts'ki ni amareba, sh'chiwa tome oki- 

masen; dashima-on naraba nri haraimas'. 

N. 23. That it too soon. If the price advances this month, I will 
return the money, but if it declines, I must beg you to allow 
me two months. 
Sore \va amari hayoO gozarimas'. Kon ngetsz no uchi 

ni sooba DM anL':uiinaszreba, kanewo kais>h'te da- 
~>/r>,< ff 1fj\)-? %VA f)^9 #Y>? # 
shimash'od; szwari naraba, tu DgotSI ~o kamben 

nas'te ku-.la?are. 

F. 24 V?ry uv//; / agree to that. But if you take the silk before half 
a month is up. you must pay half a month's interest, and after 
half a month is past, you must pay a month's interest. 
Sh'oochi itashimash'ta. Naredomo, han ts'ki rnai ni 

dash'ta naraba, han ts'ki no ri bunwo o harai nasai; 

han ts'ki szngite dash'ta naraba, ichi ngetsz no ri 

bunwo o harai nasai. 

N, 25. It i* a very high rate of interest, but as lam in a tight place 
and hare no other resource, I will do so. 
Makoto ni koo ri de gozarimas' nga, sashits'kaete, 

yondokoro gozarimasen kara, s'oo itashimaoh'oo. 

F. 26. When you or your friends want money, I will advance it at 
any time upoa silk, or tea, or other merchandize as security. 



182 DIALOGUE II. 

Omai mata Oraai no hooyun ni kane no iriyoo nga 
areba, kiito aruiwa cha, sono hoka urimonowo 
sh'chi ni totte. itszdemo kanewo kashimash'oo. 

^^ ^Y9f ivT^ftfy? ii^-?^W 

JV. 27. Thank you. I will tell my friends what you say. I think 
they will be glad to get money on those terms. 
Sore wa aringatoo. Sono omomukiwo hooyuu ni mo 

v ;v ^t.i)«fi-9 y; tT^^ \?'$&*9± =e 

hanashimash'oo. Ima sadameta toori de kariraremas' 
nara. hooyuu mo yerokobima^h'oo to dzonjirnas'. 

F. 28. When you have brought the silk here, I will weigh it, and 
after having ascertained the weight, I will give you a receipt 
for it, and take a receipt from you for the money. 
Omai kiitowo ' molte icita toki ni, hakari ni kakete, 

it^1*1 Y9Z.V? *>JY*~ ^n\)^wt 

mekatawo aratameta uede, omai ni adzkari no kaki- 
ts'kewo yarimash'oo' omai yori watak'shi ni kashikin 
no sh'oomonwo moraimash'oo. 

JV. 29. Pardon me; 1 wish to ask you one more question. If the silk 
should have been accidentally changed while deposited in your 
godowns )how shall I know it ? fhave no idea that you would 
do such a thing, but as it is a nvitter of business between mer- 
chants, I mention it so as to have it remembered. 
Gomen nasai; mata okiki moosh'te okitai koto nga 

jrx>?-ft-1 ?9*k**.Vpf1t*$1 =*Y if 

gozarimas. Anata no kura ni kiitowo adzkete oki- 
mas' uchi ni, f'to szrikairaruru yoona koto nga 
attara, doosh'te shirimash'oo ka ? Anata no hod ni 
wa sayoona koto wa arimas'mai to omoimaszredo- 
mo, o tangai ni akindo no koto de gozarimas' kara, nen 
no tarneni o kotowari moosh'te okimas'. 



DttLOOVl II in 183 

10- lfl,d t you fay is quilt right Well than, hare your silk nicely 

p in halts , and thru plaa If that 

cannot he opened. Should any seal be broken, and the silk 

in be changed, I trill pay you the value < ." 

<im ii no in tokoro wa mottomo At guxarimaa'. SayoO 

ba, bio koaH dual id irate, akorarenuyoo ni 

i fiiuiir.vo sh'te o oki nasai M.slii sono fun in 

a*?*>1>9l<>fit?\+*1 *A> f/?91*> 

ngn yabarete, mIi attara, so- 

ft- r-rvf+p JiY tfWf}1fT*it? y 

rv data no daikiuwn dasliim.ish oO. 

F 3:* — Tint will br Jan. 1 hart been very troublesome to you. Good 
bye, Sir. 
Sore de voroshiu gozarimash'oO. Ooki ni o ynkama- 

shin goxarunath'ta. SayoO nara. Go kmgen yoroshiu. 



DIALOGUE III. 

PINO Goods to Foreign Cointries. 

JV. 1. — 1 wish to consult you about the state of foreign markets. If 
you tall attend to the business for me, I will make some ship- 
wtsmt* 
Watak'shi wa gai koku no ichiba no yodszwo okiki 

moOshitoO gozarimas'. Anita watak'shi ni nari kawat- 

te sewawo szru uaraba sliiromonowo fane ni tsznde 

f &*?? W+5>< S/Dt;^ 7^r-A9>T 

okurimaslroO. 

F 2. — TFhat articles have you to ship? 

Nan no shiromonwo tszmi okuru ka ? 

iV! 3. — I have tea and silk to ship. 

Cha to kiilowo tszmi watashimash'oO. 



j'84 DIALOGUK III. 

jp. 4. — I would not advise you to ship silk at present. If you have 
good tea, well prepared, it will do for the English or Ameri- 
can market. 
Tadaima kiitowo tszmi nnsaru koto \va o szszme 

mooshimasen. Ii cha no seihoo sh'ta no nga aru nara 

fc"9i^**'jf 1 J-V S&1 &?l^>?. Stf 7)1/ S-7 

Ino-insz, aruiwa Amerika no ichiba ni mukima- 

sh'oo. 

JV! 5. — Ij that is the case, I will let you have tea. I have 300 peculs 
of the lest Vji. 
Son naraba, ochawo angernash'oo. Uji no itatte 

ii chawo sam man ngin motte orimasz. 

j? 6. — After I have seen the tea, we will talk about it. But if the 
tea is not well fifed, and the boxes are not lined with lead, it 
will not stand a long voyage, 
Sono chawo mimp.sh'ta uede soodan itashimash'oo. 

Naredomo, yoku hoiro ni kakete, hako no uchiwo naraa- 

J-vY** BtfrlB—iiyf r* S? ±9 y-^ 

ri de harimaseneba' nangai kaish'oo vva mochima- 

}) f ^1)^^3-^ +jfi }Ji*sV9r> =fe ± ^ 

sen. 
^^ 

ffi m 7 # — Will you prepare the tea for me? 

Watak'shi ni ka watte cha no niwo ts'kutte kudasa- 

ru ka? 

jp. 8. — I will, if you wish it. 

O tanomi nara, ts'kutte angemash'oo. 

jr$ }%**% * & 9 f ff^&v 9 

JV T . 9. — / think I will prepare the tea myself, and bring it to you. 
What icill the other charges come to? 
Watak'shi no hod de niwo ts'kutte angeyoo to omoi 

mas'. Sono hoka ni dzappi nga nani hodo kakarima- 

-?% 7? toti-<^4f*t£w *~L$& ft ft*)'? 

sh'oo ka? 



Pt.VI.OCHi: 111 

F. 10. — To uhit port if ill you */<// 
Dok<» BO miiKito i 

N. 11. — If the market price is good at San Irancisco, ; 
it there. 
Sun F'ranshis'ko ngn sooba »shii naraba, soko c 

vaitr kudasare. 

/•' I - 1 1 nantea* are telling well IVanrisco m>>r. 

The charges will be, firsts the export dut , 
my commission of Jive per cent '. toolie and bout 

trill amount to abou! fOWtd , 

and the import duty in America is 20 cents per pound, and the 
commission of the consignee there, and t)» /from 

difference of exchange trill be charged to your account 
SayoOsa, Nippon no cha nga San F'ranshis'ko dc 

tadaima ne nga vorosh.u gozarimas'. Soon bajirae no 

Wl^tf ao^a + n-r* y > r&* ; 

dzappi i dasz no unj'od aias'. 

Sore kara watak'shi no koOi bu to. karash'ki, 

karukochin, tunachin nado de gozarimas'. Unchin \va 

tl)\i±^ 7+***y fi *4f \Jt?A 9^+fr* 

Amerika ik kin ni tszite ni rin dztsz Dgnrai kakari- 
m&lh'oft. Sore kara, kano kuni no akmd# no t< m 

-?>a? yv fi? n; /;^;i^y > f^ 

watashimas' kara, sono koosen to kare kore no do- 
ra no sooba ni sh'tangatte dzappiwo kanj'od 
itashimash'oo. 

N. 13. — With such charges, I think there will be no profit for me. 

SayoO ni dzappi nsra kakattewa watak'shi no mooke 

^3?- JfVtL ff fifty f^VZ 91, SZiW 

nga gozarimas'mai to omoo. 
ff ^l)^^fh^^ 
F. 1 4, — At what do you value your tea? 

Omai no cha wa ikura ni tszite orimas' ka? 

jt?1 Jlv^i 9 5—v lfit*)^7*ft 



166 DfALOGl l: HI, 

jV. 15. — It cost, me $^U perpecul. 

H'yak' kin ni tszite ni jiu dora de kaimash'tn. 

p IG. — Then it will cost you about 39 cents per pound, laid down in 
San Francisco. 
Son nara San F'ranshis'ko ni okimash'te ik kin 

ni tszite san jiu ku rin ni narimas'. 

A?l?itfV9-& g^^t)^* 

JS. 17, — And what will it sell for there by the pound? 

Achira de ik kin ni tszite dono kurai de utte 

kuremash'oO ka? 

F. 18. — It will certainly sell for 50 cents per found. 
Kitto go jiu rin ni uremash'oo. 

N. 19 — How long will it be before I get my money back? 

Kane wa itszngoro tedori ni narimash'oo ka ? 

F. 29. — Probably in about five or six months. 

Ookata go roku ngetsz nochi ni toremash'oo. 

N. 21. — It is a long time to be out of one 1 s money for so small a profit 
but I will make one shipment for an experiment. 
Sh'oo ri no akinaiwo sh'te sayoo ni nangaku kash'te 

lr J r9*)S1**19l'? *99*&ff# iJt>? 

oitewa, aimasen nga, kokoro mino tameni h'to tabi 

okutte mimash'oo. 
*pt>f2&b'*9 



IV. 

j»l w.im.i E 11 
ik 3tzj 

I . — Do jfOH not wish to buy silk 

Ivii nnsarnnascu || 

nirr 2.— Yes what tort hare you* 

donbtnowo mom; o ide nn^ 

\ ; — / have Mttibashi. 

Maibtahiwo motto imas. 

No. I. Maibashil 
i j'oo no Maibashi dc arimas' ka? 

V r>.— It is Ko. Land 2. 

Khi btn no mo, ni ban no mo de gozarimas'. 

N. 6. — Save you a muster of it? 

Sono mihon nga arimas' ka? 

JV, 7 — Ye* , here it is. 

Hai, kokoni arimas'. 

F. 8 — //'"" much of the No. I. hive you? 

Ichi ban no kuchi \va dono kurai arimas' ka? 

.V 9 — I have \ m ec uh of No. 1 . and 2 pecuh of No. 2. 

Goku j'oo no kuchi wa shi h'yak' kin, tszngi no 

29 i;vy > $ ± ,^ i, kv? *±» 9 v > 

nga ni h'vak' kin arimas'. 

F 10. — Twill buy the No. 1 ., but do not want the other. 

Goku j'od wa, kaimash'od nga, tszngino wa yoshima- 

29W9 ^fll-zisVVif ?*V ^3M» 

sh'oo. 

X 11. — I would rather sell both together if possible. 

Naru koto nara, rioohoo isshioni uritoo gozari- 

mas'. 
^% 

F 12.— JJliat is the price of it all together ? 

Mina de nedan wa ikura de gozarimas' ka? 

• «* f 3-5r> ^ f 9 ? r 2* ») -?*# 



188 DIALOGUE IV. 

JV. 13. — Do you wish to know the true price? 

Sh'oomi no nedanwo okiki nasaritai ka ? 

F. 14 . — Yes, give me the lowest possible price. 

Hai, nam take yas'ku hataraite kudasai. 

N. 15. — The very lowest price is $450. 

Ketch'aku no tokoro wa, shi h'yaku go jiu dora de 

ijy^vy j \*n r* is t-r^ i^ F? f 

arimas'. 

F. 16. — I think that is too much. 

Sore wa omoi no hoka takai yoo da. 

iV. 17. — No, it is cheap I think, but how much will you give? 

Iiye, sore wa yas' karoo to omoimas' nga, oboshimeshi 

wa dono kurai ka? 

*Y> van 

F. 18 — If it is all like the muster, I will give $430. 

Minna mihon no toori naraba. shi h'yaku san jiu dora 

de kaimash'oo. 

N. 19. — I cannot sell so cheap; I shall lose money. 

Soo wa vas'ku wa dekimasen; watak'shi ni son nga 

tachimas' . 

F> 20. — Well, I will go to your house and see the lot, and then I will 
see if I can give you any more. 
Son nara, watak'shi wa omai no uchi e itte, kuchiwo 

mite, sono uede moo chitto yoku kaimash'oo ka kan- 

.sf # sv^? &>*? Y 3 9 m^vwnn^ 

ngaite mimash'oo. 

N. 21. — When will you come ? 

Itsz o ide nasaru ka % 

F. 22. — In the course of an hour. 
Han toki no uchi ni. 

^4* >*? *- 

N. 23. — Will you certainly come? 
Kitto o ide nasaru ka 



I\ 
) ,'tw house ( 

I |ai, .1 nehi wn doko 

Y. .,/'., f en-doori" street, the first 4 

the shop called Takatzya. 

-teu-dodn. itchoO me do gOftrifM^ 'I'll. 

[after '/"■ >np ) 

i to tee the tilk. 

Watak'shi \\;» kiitowo mi ni man: 

ff.—Jkf jr,;/: 

Sayoft dc jroznriii irimash 1 

-—Thank you 

.0 — TA/< M the silk we talked about , 

Sen koku o haoashi moosh'ta kiito \va, kore da gti 

mas' . 

1 — This does, not correspond with the mv 

K'ore \va mihon to soo-oo itashimasrn 

N. 31. — 7m what respect does it differ? 

Dono yoo ni chingaiinas' Ira t 

KV B9 - ±tf1^7*n 

r 32. — In the first place, the colour is not as good as the muster, and 
the thread is not as even. 
Dai ichi ni \va, mihon hodo, iro nga yoroshiu na- 

* i i *^ » a**' : t»K in n an^y + 

kute, ito ni mura nga arimas'. 

X 33. — / do not think there is any difference. 

Watak'shi \va chingawanu hadz da to omoimas'. 

F. 34. — There is a great deal of inferior silk mixed with it. 
Tidsoo waruino nga mazatte orimas'. 

21 V9 y>vu if ^irrfitQTrx 

If, 35 . — Well what will you give for it ? 

Savoo nara. ikura dc o kai nasaru ka .' 



190 DIALOGUE IV. 

Ji\ 3G. — / do not think I will buy such an article. 

Kono shina de wa, kawoo to omoimasen. 

J\ r . 37. — I will come down in the pr ice a little. 
S'koshi ii ne yori sangemash'oo. 

F 38.— How much? 

Dono kurai sangeru ka ? 

y; /;?i WW ft 

if. 39. — / will take off $5. a pecul. 

H'yak' kin ni tszite go dora dztsz h'kimash'oo. 

tivp ^^^ 9 if. dt v? »ry t^r^a^ 

F. 40. — That will not do. 

Sore de \va ikemasen. 

Jjf. 4 1 . — Please tell me the highest price you will give. 

Anata giringiri no tokorowo oshiatte kudasare. 

T^#*i)Vi) ; Y3&9Jri*wrW^v 

F. 42. — Well, I will give you $420. 

Sayoo nam, shi h'yaku ni jiu dora de kaimash'oo. 

^a*?*7 ^ t^ ±%p9Y9Tm*ira9 

N . 43. — 1 shall lose money, at that rate. 

Sore de wa watak'shi ni son nga yukimas'. 

v ;v f ^ y%Vls~ y^ ft]3-%~?% 

F. 44. — It is your misfortune^ but I cannot give you any more. 

O ki no doku de gozarimas' nga, moo sore yori de- 

«;H r'&lri)** ft f? yvai) f 

kimasen. 

JV. to.— Will you not give $440? 

Shi h'yaku shi jiu dora o kim nasarimasen ka? 
%s fc-V^ Is*?? YlJTt^^V^&^ft 

JF. 46. — >No. I cannot give you any more. 

Iiye, s'koshi mo kai angeru koto wa dekimasen. 

i\T 47. — You are a hard man to deal with. 

Ornai akinaiwo szru ni kataku kurushii h'to da. 

jt*n**12M~ft## V)\ls1tL\ 5T 

F. 48. — No. I am not. If 1 pay $.440, J cannot sell [the silk) to any 
profit. 
Iiye, watak'shi son c\p wa arimasen. Shi h'yoku 

shi jiu dora de kattewa, saki v"ki nga shimasen. 

v ^9 Y? rftvr^* i* ft >^&^ 



D1A! 181 

.1 li'yaku sail ji nioiniiin- 

not go*boce*\ 
sin li v.ilvii in jiu don no nowa Bngerareinaai n 

X 5 I .— / (mnol teUfor that. 

Sore de \va do6 ino nrarematea. 

/*. WH, I hope you will have tome thing to *,l! {uta, 

tune). 

nam mats inn/o o nongftj m lothimash'oti 

{The foreigner turns to go onay). 

X 53 _ -y„ ; , „ ,„, 

Chitto o macbi n 

/' ■"■(her) btisittess is th , 

Na la goarimat 1 I 

55.— PPW say you to $430. 

Shi h'vaku san jiu dora de \va ikanga dc gozarirna- 

^ t>^ a^^*> v?T /> inn f 3t*t)^ 

s ka? 

%ft 

F. 50. — Xo, that will not do. But since I have taken the trouble to 
examine the article, I will add 85. more, and give you 
8125. 
live, dekimas'-mai. Shikashi sek'kaku mita mono 

da kara, moo go dora mash'te. shi h'yaku ni jiu do- 

ra ansremash'oo. 

5 vm<*9 

JV! 57. — Well, I shall lose by it, but as I must have tlie money, I will 
let you have {the silk). 
Sayod nara, son nga mairimas' keredomo, kane nga 

isongashii kara, sashi angemash'oo. 

y S Q — IT It en ir ill you weigh it ? 

Itsz mekatawo aratame nasaru ka? 

f * An&9T99A***n ft 



19J2 DIALOGUE IV. V. 

JY. 59 — To-morrow if it is a fair day, but I will bring the goods to your 
godown, 
Mioo nichi tenki naraba, aratamemash'oa Shikashi 

nimotsz wa kom ban anata no kara e motte mairima- 

^L^y ^ ^^v^f^y^^t'yf ^1 i)^r 

sh'oo. 

F. 60. — Very well. Goodbye. 

Yoroshiu gozarimas'. Sayoo nara. 

N. 61. Good bye. 

Sayoo nara. 



DIALOGUE V 



Between a Master and Servant. 

Master. 1. — Take this money to Ejiro's shop, in Shimoda street, and' 
pay him for the goods I bought yesterday. 
Watak'shi sakujitsz, Shimoda no machi no Eijirod no- 

t?£^> %"9$* lo** 1 * J -?4-S^1V&y ? 

mise de kaimonowo sh'ta kara, kono kanewo motte 

i=te T ftl^S? 1-2 ft? *S X3-9Z.y? 

itte haraivvo sh'te koi. 
197^719^7^1 

Servant 2. — Aye, at your service, Sir. Sow much is there here? 

Hei kash'komarimash'ta. Kono kane wa ikura gozari- 

^ifii'Z^v^i'Z *s n* ^iv?3*?v> 

mas' ka ? 

M. 3. — A hundred dollars. 

Dora nga ipp'iaku mai. 

(Servant counts them.) 

S. 4. — Here are $105. Is it not a mistake. 

Kore wa ipp'iaku go dora arimas' nga, machingai de 

nv ^19\£V'/ dtY?1\)~?Kn f*if1T 

wa gozarimasen ka? 



01 a: IX 

yi_ ' — J. ' 

thr ' 'for it. 

Mm motfc . kanawa 

riwo tore 

S. (. ^ 4 v«w orders. 

11* 



!>i \ i .(Hi i i; \ i 



i • | Iff BXCHANGX. 

|, — J with to srnd 500 rioo /< Emu bought 

\\ - m •' IcaimooowQ kuhlmaih'ta 

+**ttf ttf/fcy'? f4>-^2 

h yaku 

*?? 31 ur ? »)■*•■* At;* 4 f 

•J — You can qet <i Bill m Ovztika. from some bunk <d Yedo. 

\ . ■ . « •• '/ lea no kawasetenga- 

tawo motoni" 

3. — ItflaJ rati i* charged for Bill* on Omuka .' 

OOzaka no kawas i ni nam bu risoku ng-a ka- 

kurhnasii'oo ka? 

\. — There is no fixed rate. It larie* according to the amount of 
tlte Bill. jV the time of payment. 
Sadainaim koto wa gozarimaaon. Tengatu wa kane 

liodo ni sk'tangatte, risoku no koo age uga gozarima- 

s, mata dasz no osoi to hayai ni yotte chingai n#a 

arimas'. 



194 DIALOGUE VI. V'A. 

5. — Well, what will be the rale of a Bill of 500 rioo. at sightf 
Sayoonara, tengata ntra ts*ki shidai szngu ni kanevro 

*at*9. : tif!* if n^f %V *>**&$ 

daseba, nam bu hodo kakarimash'oo ka I 

6. — / third' it will be about one per cent. 
Ichi bu ngurawto orooimas'. 

7. — What ic ill it be if payable at one month's sight? 

Tengata wa tszite kara h'to ts'ki Bzngite kanewo da- 

s^ba, nam bu hodo ka karimash'oo ka-? 

8. — / think it will be about seven-tenths per cent. 
Sh'chi rin ngurai to omoimas'. 

9: — Will you do me the favor tc buy a BW for mel 

Watak'shi ni ka watte sewawo sh'te. tencratawo tanon- 

de kudasare. 

fmv 

10. — Certainly. I will do so at once. 

Sh'oochi itashimashta, Sassoku tanomimash'oO. 



DIALOGUE VII. 
On Buying Lackered Ware. 

Buyer, 1 — Pardon a little [interruption.) 
Chitto gomeii nasare. 

Seller. 2. — Come in. 

O ide nasarimash'. 

B. 3. — I have come to make some purchases. 

Watak'shi wa kaimono ni kimash : ta. 

8. 4. — Yes? What do you want? 

Hai. nani n^a o irivoo de ~ozarirnas' ka ? 

M+^ltiti ») 39T?W >) -?7ft 

B. 5. — I want to look at your lackered ware, such as, cabinets, travel- 
liny trunks, chow choio boxes, stands, cups, dressing-cases, 
work-boxes, bathtubs, wash-boivh, picnic-boxes, <$*c. <^v\. 



1 9 5 

. fcio- 

iko no 

hut tint an Ik up here (i c. 
or.) 
ibimaah'ta Mad/ ingari 

:/. n.ini hodl ni nam 

.V 9 - - : (Atai BJB !// together tktf 

mimnshVo. Shimete 
ippia 

J?. 9. — / 1 »tarf fo that 1 As it if *</A*r fjtai My ettimate. make 

i mriir.ris' Li .- Watak'shl DO omoiiri yori 

tad sb'chi |iu t r «» dura in o make aaaai 

Zt7l fi7 Is4-V9* Y9 ******** 

10. — Km r that price hj any means, I did not 

mm «m extravagant price at jird. 

> itaah'te aayoo ni wo mainmasen. Hajime yori 

kakeue wa roooahimaaen. 

//. II . — I caniwt huy tktm at that rate. 

Sono oedan «io wa kawareraaaen. 

v:,6 nary go dora li'kimnsh'oo. 

4ta9+9*V9 t*^^9 

7?. 13 — I cannot buy at all at that price. You mast came down a good 
deal mare. 
Sore de wa doomo kaimaaen motto dzto o make 

nasai. 



19© MALOSCE VII; 

<i>. 14. — Then make an estimate how much you iwU give. 

Sayoo nara. go kambdi nasarete, uani hodo ni o kai 

nasaru ka ? 

B. 15. — I will give $5 more. 

Mod go dora naosh'te kaiinash'oo. 

S, 16. — T/W will not do. I cannot let you have these articles for less 
than $90. 
Sore de \va dekimasen. Kono shinawa ku jiu dora 

no nchi do vva angeraremasen. 

I?. 17. — JWJ, / w«72 w<?c/ you half way and take them at $85. 

Sayoo nara, ayubi ai ni sh'te, hachi jiu go dora dc 

*a9*9 t^tTTY-^f ^4* V9 3T y? f 

kaimash'oo. 

S, 18. — Well, if 1 let you have them {for that price). I bey you will 
make it tip at another time. 
Sayoo naraba, sashi angemas' kara, niata ol iriawa- 

sewo o nengai mooshimas'. 

&9JT3rif1 &9i,^?* 

B. 19. — Very well. 

Yoroshiu gozarimas'. 

S. 20. — Will you take the e articles now, ar shall I send them to your 
house 1 
Kono shinawo tadaima o mochi nasaru ka, anata no 

o taku e motasete angemashoo ka % 

JB. 21. — Nevermind, I will send for them to-morrow. 

Sore ni wa o yobimasen. Mioo nichi tori ni ange- 

mash'od. 






w incurs AND MKAM'RES 



i i:i;. 

« K ii. which i> equal to the 
English foot, mid ia di\; 

I mi. This foot is called tie I 

That I Sh'alra or Is ah' — R— I- to fan. 

I E — ^i*=» '2 do. 

I I ba — #= d". 

l Rft 01 [chi riu — M— 0!2 do. do 

-ft—1 Yard do. 

R :, : ; . ken- -|h| 

,\ 1 fin - i< ch'oo— bt 

i^+WO"" 1296 Pl.oi I -In i, '(i 
Eti or Japanese mill 

The unit of this measure is also called a Sh'aku, or foot, but it is 
3 inches longer than the foot of 'limber measure, and is called the 
Kujira j aku. or Whale foot. It is also decimally divided. 

Thus. 1 Sh'ak-u or Isslraku— ,R=15 Inches English. 
I Szn or Is szn — ^f= 1.5 do. do. 

1 Ba or Ichi bu — fr= .15 do. do. 

1 Riu or Ichi rin — g= .015 do. do. 

Square or Superficial Measure. 

The unit of this is the square Ken of Long measure, or 36 square 
feet, which is denominated a Po or Tszbo. 

Thus. 1 Po — 3? or H'to tszbo — Jf=-36 square feet. 

1 Se or Is se — -jjj£=30 po=1080 square feet. 

1 Tan or It tan — g=300 po= 10.800 do. do. 

# 1 Choo or It ch'oo — WJ=3000 po=luS.00u do. 

An acre is equal to 1-210 Tszbo -f-~ ^1~H^ 



weights and measures. 198 

Measure of Capacity. 

Its unit is the Mas', or Sh'oo ft, a box 3-,^ English inches deep, 

and 5 T \ inches square, and contains 111 T 3 „ 9 5 2_ cubic inches. It is 

used for measuring oil, sake, soy, vinegar, grain, seeds, salt, rice 

&c. and is decimally divided intongoo, sh'aku, sai, satsz, ke, and 

dzoku. 

Thus; 10 Dzoku or Jiu dzoku +|g =1 Ke or Ik ke — ^ 

10 ke or Jik' ke ~Hk=l Satsz or Is satsz — #| 

10 Satsz or Jis satsz -j-jg—l Sai or Is sai — Jj? 

10 Sai or Jis sai +S?=1 Sh'aku or Is Sh'aku — £j 

10 Sh'aku or Jis Sh'aku-j-^=l ngoo or Ichi ngoo — fc 

10 ngoo or Jiu ngoo -j-^^l Sh'oo or Is Sh'oo — ft 

AND 

10 Sh'oo or Jis sh'oo ~f^=l To or It to, or toraas, — if or 3\>ft 
10 to or Jit to -j^j^i Koku or Ichi koku — Jgf 

A koku contains 6,446 cubic feet English, or 5.13 bushels. 

Measures of Weight. 

The division of weights, with the exception of the kin^pp or catty, 
is also based upon a decimal scale. 

1 momme or Ichi momme— ^.=2.133 drams avoirdupois or 
58.33 grains Troy. 

10 fun, or Jip pun-f-^=l momme or Ichi momme — -fa 
10 rin, or Jiu rin -\^M.= \ fun or Ip pun — ft 

10 mo, or Jiumo-j j 3g==l rin or Ichi rin — firf 

The precious metals are weighed by this scale. 
10 Momme, or Jiu momme is written -j-^/, 
100 ,, or H'yaku me „ „ "gj^. 
1,000 „ or Ik kam me „ „ — J(^t 
10,000 „ or Jik kam me ,, „ +j|^. 

100.000 „ or H'yak' kam me „ „ "g^^ 
1,000,000 „ or Sen ngam me „ „ ^%fa 

10,000,000 „ or Man ngam me,, „ Wim.% 

100,000,000 „ or Ok' kam me „ „ fg jf^, 

Apothecafies Weight. 

Medicines are bought and sold by the same standard of weight as 
above. The smallest denomination is the rin, the next the fun, and 
the next the momme. 2 momme, however are called Han rioo me. 
or Half rioo weight, written. 4 momme are called Ichi rioo me or 
1 rioo weight, written. One and a quarter rioo of medicine is de 



Icfci rioo to ichi momme, or Go (five) momme. Evei v 
mtiltip, 

called San noO. or tnree rioO. ftJ died yo ( 1) rioo, 

'on, until 1G0 nie are called Ik kin or 1 aich ifl 

In speak in- I inomm. for all numbers, 

•\\r multiples of 10, when it is shortened into me. 



MONEY. 



Copper and I eon Con 

The smallest coin in value is the Mor. jjt or Zeni cash of iron, 
next larger iron coin is equivalent to 4 zeni. Besides these there are 
no iron coins in circulation, though it is not difficult to find others 
have been used in former times, and Japanese books descriptive 
of them. The smallest copper coin is also called a Mon or Zeni, 
and is likewise equal to 4 small iron Z«m in r&Jue, and hence it is 
frequently called the Shimon zeni, i. e. 4 Mon zeni. It is somewhat 
remarkable that the iron coin of the same dimensions, viz: the larger 
one above mentioned has the same value as the copper Shimon 
zeni. 

There is a much larger copper coin, in circulation, called Tempo, 
from the period at which it was first issued, or Too h'yaku, i. e. 
worth a hundred, because it is equal to 100 of the smaller iron zeni. 

It is also sometimes denominated H'yaku Mon zeni, or the Hundred 
Mon zeni. In ordinary business transactions among the Japanese, 
the Tempo is reckoned at 96 small iron cash, or 24 copper cash, or 
24 of the larger iron ca^h. 

Silver Coins. 

The smallest silver coin in circulation is the quarter bu, or is- 
shiu. The next larger is the half bu, or Nishiu, and the next 
the bu, or ichibu, which signifies one bu. It is therefore quite 
wrong to speak of 10 or 100 ichibus, inasmuch as it would when 
interpreted be equivalent to saying, 10 or 100 one-bus. The bu is 
a fourth of a rioo, which again used to be equal to a gold koban. 
Formerly there was a silver rioo, it is said, but it is not known to 
be in existence now. 



MONEY. 200 

The bu, (ichibu) does not represent a fixed value, but is a fourth 
of a riod or koban,be the value of the latter more or less. In the 
times of the Dutch Monopoly, the gold koban was valued at 4 bu, 
or $l T Vo> while its value to the Dutch trader was 12£ florins. 
So widely different were the relative values of gold and silver in 
Japan and Europe. This continued till 1859, when the new treaties 
with Japan went into operation. 

The foreigners who first came here, after theopeningof the ports, 
very naturally bought up all the gold kobans they could, at a large 
profit to themselves. The Yedo government, discovered that gold was 
rapidly leaving the country, and to prevent it, at the suggestion, it is 
said, of one or more of the foreign Ministers at Yedo, offered to 
holders of gold a higher price than foreigners could afford to pay. The 
price of kobans thus rapidly rose from 4 bus to 14, or even more, 
and this put an effectual stop to the further exportation of gold. 

The tide then set towards Japan, and kobans came back to be 
paid to the custom house at the enhanced government value. In 
1860 a new koban was coined, which was made to correspond to the 
intrinsic value of silver, being equal to 4 bu, thus bringing the rela- 
tive values of gold and silver to the foreign standard 

Gold Coins. 

Of the Koban we have already spoken. The only subdivisions 
of this are the half and the quarter koban. Formerly there were 
also eighths and sixteenths , but all have disappeared except those 
above named : and the eighth of a koban, in consequence of the 
reduction in the weight of the koban, is so light a coin, that the Ja- 
panese say of it. "It is blown away by a breath of wind". 

Mixed Coins. 

Besides the before-mentioned coins, half-bus and bus, and 2 bu 
pieces, made of a mixture of gold and silver, are in circulation. 






REFERENCES AND ABBREVIATIONS 
IN THE INDEX. 

The figures refer to the sentences in the Alphabetical part, where 
the words or phrases named occur. 
The Abbreviations are used as follows; viz: 



Ace. 


for 


Accusative, or the direct object. 


Adj. 


» 


Adjective. 


Adv. 


5) 


Adverb. 


Conj. 


5J 


Conjunction. 


Conj. Adv 


53 


Conjunctive Adverb. 


Dat. 


33 


Dative, or Indirect Object. 


Fut. 


)• 


Future. 


Ger. 


33 


Gerundive. 


Indie, 


}J 


Indicative. 


N. 


33 


Noun. 


Neg. 


33 


Negative. 


Pass. 


;♦ 


Passive. 


Pron. 


j) 


Pronoun. 


V. 


53 


Verb. 


V. Trans. 


M 


Transitive Verb. 


N. B. — These abbreviations refer only to the words which stand 


before them. 


The difference of idiom forbids, very often, that what is 


expressed by 


one part 


of speech in English, should be expressed by 


the same in Japanese. 





INDEX AND VOCABULARY 

OF THK 

i \(.lisii words AND PHRASES 

IN THK 

itnuHftcuii \kh\m.iii ran \ 

WITH THEIK 

OOERESPONDING EXPRESSIONS IN JAPANESE. 



Abound. J*ak'san oritc orimas'. 

78. 
About. Wa, following Kc 
About, i. e. doing, Nas'te, 1 1 IT. 

I 
Accident. SosoO. 
Account. Ch'omen, 197. 
Accounts. Kanj'oo, 11 ! 
Accost 637. 

I n. Itami. 1042. 

Acquainted with. Dzonjimash'ta, 

Sh'tta, 233. 

J i -is hi mas', Szru, 1118. 
Actions. Okonai, Oil. 
Adieu (Bade). Wakaremoosh'te 

Wakarete. 621. 
Advise. Szszme moosz, Szozmeru 

525. 
Affair. Koto, 1131. 
Afford (Cannot). Dasz koto wade 

kiuai. or Dekimuscnu. 417. 



Afraid (To be). < tooremarara, 182' 

llibakaru, 

450 I . < >inoO, 431. 

Afterwards. Atode. '.»l 

.ta, 70 784.925. F'tata- 

bi', ! ! ,. I il. 1079. 

Kasanete, 132 
Age (Of). Otona ni', 296.Tb5/. / 
Ago. Mukashi, 931. 

* while. Hisash'ku, 338 
Ahead, i. e. as a wind. Mukai- 

mash'ta, Mukatta, 931. 
Ainos. Aino, 808. 941. 
Alike. Onaji yoo ni, 992. 
All. Mina, 896. 211. 284. 754, 

928.940.950. 1072, Szbete, 

659. Nok'oradz, 274. 398 

877. 
All about it. Yoku. 22. Kuwas 

h'ku Nokoradz,'74. 
All alone H'torjde, 207. 
All countries. Bun koku, Sc-kai. 

406. 



204 



All day. Ichi nichi. 260. 1147. 
All directions. Yo-hod, Lit. 4 quar 

ters, 407. 
All lean. Dekimas' hodo, Dekiru 

hodo, 483. 
All hands. Nori-ainomono wa no- 

koradz, 1088. 
All the way home. lye made. 

Uchi made 518. 
All things. Bammotsz. 180. 
Alone. H'tori de. 267.' 
Although. Keredomo, 420. 
America. Amerika, 556. 
American. Amerika no hto, 219 
Among. Naka ni. 988. 
Amount, Kanj'oo, 787. 
Amount to. Narimas', Naru, 398, 
Amusement. Tanoshimi, 480. 
Ancient. Muk^shi, 637, Ikari wo 



orosh'ta, 1262. 
And. To, 718. 911. 
Ankle. Ashi kubi, 286. 957. 
Another. Hokano, 6. 
Answer. Aisatsz, Hentoo, 513 

Henji. 569. 
Any. Nani no, 987. 
Any body. Donatademo, Darede 

mo, 5, 
Any how. Dono yoo ni demo 

1264. 
Any longer. Mo hays. Mo, 418. 

Mo. 469. Moo. 497. Moo. 

Kono ngo wa, Moo kono no- 

chi, 516. 
Any more. Mada, 192. Mata 592 
Any other. Hokano wa, 416. 
Any thing. Nani demo, 8. Skoshi 



wa, 



', 99. Koto wa. 
zo, 53. Moshi 



239, Nan 
', w. i»iuani mono koto 

nga, 1260. 
Any thing else. Eloka no koto 

314. 
Any where. Doko ni demo, 783. 
A piece. Dz tsz, 883. 
Appears. Miemas'. 1038. 
Appearance (make their.) Demas' 

N74. ' 



Apple, Rinngo, 616. 

Are. Gozarimas'. and Aru. 9. and 

passim. 
Are. (continuative.) Xru. 14. and 
passim following the gerun- 
dive form of a verb. e. g. 
99. Sh'tte iru ka? Do you 
know? Also 311. Sz malte 
iru. He lives or dwells &c. 
Are you at work? Shi ngoto wo 

szru ka? 16 
Are you coming? O i de nasari- 
mash'oo ka? Ki nasaru ka? 
15. 
Arm. Ude, /21G. 
Arrested. Meshitoraremash'ta, Shi 

barareta, 269, 
Arrive, Ts'ki, Ts'kimas'. 6. 
Arrived. Ts'ki nasarimash'ta 325. 
Ch'aku itashimash'ta. 1266. 
Tszita, 325. 
Article. Shina 365. 591. Shina 

mono, 1086. 
Article of commerce. Kooe ki mo- 
no, 799. 

Article of food. Tabemono. 813, 
Asak'sa. (A district in Yedo.) 811. 
Ashamed. Hajikashiu. 18. Haji 

woshiou, 18. 218. 
Ashore. Oka ni, 290. 
Ask. Kik'e, O kiki nasare, 22. 
Assure. Makoto wo hanashi, Hon 

too wo hanas'. 414, 
As long as. Uchi wa, 21. 
As well as you can. Kirioo no 
oyobu dahe, Sei ippai ni, 94. 
As well as we can. Chikara no 

oyobu dake, 1099. 
As you please. Anata no oboshi- 

meshi ni, 93. 882. 
At. Ni, 11. 732. De, 11, 
At all events. Dzehi, 575. 1110. 
At last. Yoo yaku, Yoo yoo, 512. 
At a loss. Shiremasenu, Shirenu, 

482. 

At a venture. I >zehi, 706. 
At once. H'tori de, 523. 






111. 

Atten ' ti l 

uro dzbt 
rn-.ttp, 10 
At th»« I- no yoom 

At |] 

Aunt. Oba, 



Authority I b8C 

Averapin'j. . 2 r >. 

Avoid. Hedata d 

irate kudai 

h it Holca i y 128 

. (I Nit ) Shimatteo oki nasare, 

Shi: 

Axehah e, 28. 

r He, 29. 



Baby. Sh'odni, Ko, 125. 

Back 15 

B ack i. e. to the original place 

10 no tokoro 0* 7M. 
Bick v Mo.los.*, 30. 
Back (Come ) Kaerimas', Kaeru, 

Waruu. Warm, S 

191 590. 5 

KMV < >mo0, Omoi, Lit h< i- 
228. 

h ire, moosh'te, 

U'.k.r. !.. 621. 

Ni. 428. 
Hut Esn, 964. 
B.kcl Yake, 1008. 
Billast Omori, 555. 



tin, I 
Bear. t. e. suffer. Kanniti, 4 IS. 
Bear the blame. Lit the bad conse- 

quei vaku ni nari- 

mas, or nam, 586. 
Beat, i f. excel Maaatte orimat 1 , 
in. Szngarete oide 

Beat into (Nautical phrase ) Man- 
qiri kon: Mantfiri 

kooda. 1093. 

Because. Kara, 637. 1093 

Become. Ochimasz.u, Naru, 763. 
Narimash'o6,Naru, 1181. Na- 
rimash'ta, Natta, 279. 799. 

Become used to (Has.) Nareteo 
shirnai nasaremash' ta, Narete 



Bankrupt. Jimetsz itashimas', Tsz shimatta, 299. 

bureru, 303. Become warm. Atatamarimes', At- 

Barely. Lit. in the dim distance. atamaru, 820. 

Kas'kani, Harukini, 530. Beef. Ushi-niku, 1115. 



Bargain. Ts wo atta, 270. 
Basket. Kango, 76. 

Bathe. Yu wo ts'kaimas', Yu wo 

ts'kau, 471. 
B.ittle. Tatakai. 952.- 
B iv. (Color.) Akai, 711. 
Be there. Achira ni matte oide na 

sare, Achira ni matte iro, 

36. 



Been (Not.) Oide nasaremasenu, 
266. 

Been (Have.) Mairimash'ta, Itta, 
543. Oide nasareta koto wa 
gozarimas', Itta koto wa aru, 
194. 

Before. Maini, 161. 560. 423. Izen, 
560. Mai, 982. Konomai, 
1046. 



Be not long. Hisash'ku o kakari'Beg. Doozo kudasare, or Ku 



nasamna. Hisash'ku nasaru 



rero, 



522. 



2ufi 



B 



Beggars. Kojjiki, or Kojiki, 596. 

763. 
Beggary. Kojiki ni, 725. 
Beg pardon. Go men kudasarema 

sh', Go men nasai, 626. 526. 
Begin. Hajime nasare, Hajimero, 

35. 1180 
Begin again. Mata hajime yori o 

naoshi nasare, Mata hajime 

yori, naose, 925. 
Begun to rain. Yattoame nga furi- 

mash't^, Hajimete ame nga 

ftta, 687 
Behaves well (If he.) Ts'tome n^a 

yorosh'kereba, Hatarakinga- 

ji naraha, 589. 
Behindhand. Osoku, 764. 
Being Go/.arimas'kara, Da kara, 

762. Gozarimash'te, Sh'te, 

826. 
Being wrecked. Itasenitashimash' 

te, Fune wo yabutte, 1088. 
Believe (not.) Shinjimasenu, Ma- 

koto to senu, 466. Shinji nai, 

703. 
Bell Kane. P5. Rei, 814, 
Besides. Hokani. 37. 
Best. Ichiban yoroshu no, Ichi 

banii nga, 594. Ichiban yoro 

shiu, Ichiban yorosbii, i020 

Yoroshiu, Yoi. 1205, 1199 
Better. Yoroshiu, Yorosh'ku, 184 

949. 671. Yori — yoroshiu, 

Yori— yoi, 933. 1268. 665. 

669. 1019. Masarimas, Mashi, 

Lit surpasses, 1029. 890.763. 

Yori — yoku, 1067. Yoo, Yoi, 

580. Nawo yoroshii, 855. 
Bill. Uketori-ngaki, Uketori, 729. 
Bird-seed. Kibi, 112. 
Bit. i. e. the leastmite, S'koshimo, 

113. 
Blackened teetb (with ) Gembuku 

wo sh'ta, 1073. 
Blacken their teeth. Kanewots'ke, 

1073 
Blame (To.) Adzkaru kolo, Tsz- 



mi hiszru koto, 981. Tszmi 

ni narimas', 1209. 
Bless. Yoku ii, 724. * 
Blind of one eye. Mek'kachi, Ka- 

tame, 282 
Blind man. Dzatoo, 559. 
Blot (If you.) Kesh'ta naraba, or 

Nara, 597. 
Blue. A\ iro, 258. 
Boar (Wild.) Inoshishi, 790. 
Board. Ita, 714. 1034. 
Boardfence. Hei, 771. 
Board, v. Sh'okuji wo itashimas', 

Meshi wo kun, 1189. 
Boast (Not). Hokorimasenu, Hoko- 

ranu, 408. 
Body. Karada, Mi, 145. 
Boil. Ni nasare, Ni nasai, 154. 
Boiled (Not). Niemasenu shinnga- 

aru, 1052. 
Book. Hon, 415. 1188. Sh'omotsz, 

1014. 
Boots. Nangan^utsz, 773. 
Born. M'mare,265. 1185. 
3oth. Riooh- 6, 787. 
Bother. J'ama ni narimas' ,or Naru, 

696. 
Bother (Do not. J'ama woszruna, 

737. 
Bottle. Tok'kuri, 846. 
Bought. Kaimash ta, F^atta, 501. 
Bow (of a boat.) Hesaki, 6 >5. 
Bow-knot. Hi -a ori ni muszbi, 1 
Bow string. Yudzru, 866. 
Box. Hako, 58. 77. Bako, 835. 
Boy, Otoko r.okodomo, 171. Ko-. 

domo, 273 Ko. 1132. 
Brave. Tszyoi, Tszyoki, Lit. 

strong. 890. 
Bread. Pan, 766. 1083. 
Break (not) i. e. Violate. Chinga- 

imasenu, Chmgieou, 461 
Break (Apt to). Koware sod, 

1060. 
Bridge. Hashi, 40. Bashi, 4 07. 
Bring. Tszmi okurimas', Ts/mi- 

okuru,824. Motte oide nasare. 






2o: 



Briskly. Kiimi. 

K i 1 1 . 

K !-J 

Bruk.- frioliti | 

J 
Broil ) Ani, A 

I I" 
-,'nt up. E 

to polish, v 

Bui' ithimaa 

Built (Was). TV uh'ta, 

Trkuran 
Built. (ar< 10 

Bulbs. Tama, ) 
Burn (Not) ,, #. blacken with fire, 

K . . • :, ■:. I 16 

Bum op \ ihimai nasare, 

yahetfi Take shim 

ae, 45. 

Burning. Yaku koto, 17 
Burrow. Szmai wo itashimas', 
Szmu, 798. 



liy utlairs). Kan- 

cbanical). Bh'yoku,268. 
tile). Aixi 

1 1 i) S/ni b 

! in . abingoto. 
874. 

B ii iia- 
IWT1 .kaii- 

||i in k ilxuii. ( .»:i3. 
Do (Office), Y*l 

iu, I SOUL' 

1091. K 

ijoza- 

Bat. cooj \ja, 313. 844. 

10, I fence* 
form oftbe rarb Keri, to 

ba ; 

Sink ihi 
But. /. #. except. Yori, Nokosh'te, 

Bat adv Bakari, '.»/»*>. 980. 

Buy. K • K atle 

koi, 16 8 

vV 1 ring, K..I oaaareta k'te kd 
Katteki oaaaj. 591 

By. N.. lo. 717. 958. 969. De, 

196. 
By the day. Iri ni, 16. 
By the job". Uke ai ni, 16. 
By this time. Ima wa, 670. 
By mistake. Chingai de, 5 1 7. 



Call Yonde ku dasare, Yonde'Came. Mairimash'te, K'te 139 

koi, 48. 49. J222. 382. 

Call. (To name.) Nadzkeru, Na- Came across it. Yukiawasete 

dzkemas', 1156. | 427. 

Called (Is ) To mooshimas', Toiu, Came intoport. Niu shin itashima- 

2.134. 808. 1138 n sh ' ta > Minato ni haitta, 554. 

Called. (Came to see.) Mimai ku^'^A Dekiru > 5 ' 50 ' 

dasaremash'ta, Mimatte Icare Can be made. lVkuraremas',Ts'. 

I kurara, ru, 1090, 



sur 



g 



Can tell why. Toite kikasa reams', 

Hanash'te kikaseru, 1 2 J 3. 
Can do- Itasaremaoh'oo, Shirare- 

yoo, 1157. 
Cane. Tszye, 1087- 519- 
Can get Motomeraremas', Erare- 

ru, 1256. 

Cannot. Dekimasenu, Dekinai, or 

Dekinu, 417.475. 474- 516. 

511.513. 563- 568. 759- Nan 

inasenu, Naranu, 418. Itash'- 

kanemasenu, 513. 

Cannottell. Hanasaremasenu, 440- 

„ lift. Motaremasenu, Mo tar e- 

nu, 479. 
„ stay. Oraremasenu, Orarenu, 

469- 
„ tell apart. Wakeraremasenu, 

Wakerarenu, 481. 
„ keep out of mind- Waszrare- 

masenu, 498- 
„ do- Ts'tomaremasenu, Ts'to- 

maranu, 523. 
„ get on without. Nakute wa 

narimasenu, 558- 
„ see/, e. perceive. Wakarimas- 

enu, 578. 
„ have. Uketoraremasenu, Uke 
torarenu, 1086. 
Cannot help, i e. prevent. F'sen 
gu koto nga dekimasenu, or 
Dekinu, 474. 
„ help. i. e. remedy- Naosz koto 
nga dekimasenu, or Dekinu, 
475. 
,, trust. Nakasete okaremasen' 
or okarenu, 1261. 
Captain (of a vessel.) Sen-doo, 550. 
Care. Yoo-jin. 875. d84- Yoo-j'oo 

1268. 
Care (Not.) Kamaimasen', Ka- 
mawanu, 246. 250. 321. 437 
467- O kamai Nasaremasenu, 
321- Tonj'aku itas himasenu, 
467. 

Careful (Is) Yoo-jin nasaremas 1 , 
Yoo-jin wo szru, 300- 



Carelessly (Without forethought). 

En-rio nashi ni, 281. 
Cares Mi wo iremas', or Ireru, 

909. 

Carpenters. Daiku, 547. 953. 
Carries on his back- Ssh'otte aruki- 

mas, or Aruku, 942- 
Carry- Mochimas', Motsz, 519. 
Carry back- Mochi nasarete. o ka- 

en nasare, Motte kaere, 56. 
Carry to-.-E motte oide nasarete 

kudasare, E mctte yuke, 57. 

59. 

Carry in. Uchi e irero, 58- 
Cart. Kur'ma, 30. 
Cash. Zeni, 448. 867- Kane, 1086. 
Cat- Neko, 961. 
Catch. Toru koto, 78 
Caught. Torimash'ta, Totta, 961, 
Cause. Moto, 716. 
Chair. Isz. Kiyokuroku. 39. 
Chair-bearers. Ninsoku, 825. 
Charcoal. Szmi, 183. 
Charge (Have a ) Clromen ni shi- 

rush'tearu, 432. 
Change. Kikaeru, 493. 
Cheap. Yaszu, Yaszi, 156. 
Cheaper. Yas'ku, withyori before 

it, 60. 
Cheapest. Ge-jiki, Yaszi, 822. 
Cheat. Damashi, Dam.isz, 234. 
Chest. Bdko, 1027. 
Child. Kodomo, 4. 123. 1016. Ko, 

615. 922. 
Children. Kodomo shiu, 11. 364. 

847. 995. 
Chin. Ango, 955. 
Chinese, (people). Poojin, 208. 

1223. 
Chinese, (adj). Morokoshi, 89 r . 
Choice (the thing chosen). Katte 

no wo, S'kina, wo, 880. 
Cinnamon. Keihi, N6kkei, 938. 
Clean. Kirei, 693. 
Clever. Hatszme, Rikoo, 229. 
Clock, Tokei, 86. 478. 967. 1053. 

1206. 1207. 






m 



Cl08 a ; li:m:i>lli — . or. Sashi 

Cloth juatte iru koto aro, I! 

Kimono. 



1044 



Comini i\ 

h'oo 
Km ii 333. 

! [ajimrmaah 1 ta 1 Ha- 
jhneta, 
Committed Han kin 1 sep'puku 
wo i!;imit maeh'ta, Han wo 

Common. 'Vs/iw ni. 10 

apartment (Middle), Doono ma. 



77 1 I 
Clotbi, Tamo 

1 

Club i 

I 

I 

Cock's combs. K 

1026. 

■ !7. 

Cold | "kikaze, 

nun, sam I oruplaint (legal). Uttee, 

dud n. BfimoeniyOkonai, L258. 
Hmiii, 765 Samaahto, lit, Confeaaea Arawa ni nooanimae f , 

cool: Akiraka ni itta. 'J- 

Collector. I 311. nder. Kanngaetegorannaiare, 

Comb, v Koahi de nade tdke na« B fceM 

, or — nade ukero, 62 Com • ). Omowaremai, 0- 

Comb. n B luuwanru. Bl. 

CoBM ' 61 ('"lit: 

64 66. I :♦. 70. Cool (Let us.) Sz.lzinimash'od, Sz- 

K04 .lzil.no, 7 

Come. (Haw) Kimash'ia, K'ta, Coolies. Ninaoku.. 49. 199. 1071. 
li»7 1 . 1 1G3. O ide nasarcma- Copper-mine. DoOzan, Akangane no 
sh' 1 den tokoro, 2. 

Come. (By ship) Watarimas', Wa- Corea. Cb'oseu, 1078. 

taru, 119 Corect (by writing.) kakenaoshi 

Come. (Did not). O ide nasarema nasare, Kake naosc. 597. 

aenanda, Konakatta, 1233. Cough. Seki, 228. 
Come. (Will). O ide nasaru, Kuru Count. Kadzoete go ran nasare, 

darod, 500. O idenasaremas', Kadzoete miro. 76. 

Kuru, 1 183. Counting. Kadzoete. 871. 

Come (to), lit coming:. O ide na Country. Kuni,96. 135. 752. as dis- 

saruwo. Kuru no wo, 11 S J tmguished from the town, No, 

Kurukoto, 203. 710. 

Come. (I beg you to). O ide nasa Coun tries (Some.) Nisankoku. 791. 

rete kudasare, K'te kurero. Cover. Kakete oke, 77. 

522. Covered. Mabure ni nari nasareta, 

Come to. I. e. Become. Narimash'-i Mabure ni natta, 237. Hari- 

ta, natta, 658. mash'te, Hatte, 1085. 

Come back. Kaeru, 161. Kaeri- Coward. Okubioo Okubioa mono, 

mas', 863 336. 

Come to the point, (in speaking). Cowards. Okubioo mono. 890. 

Sashi atatte iri yoo no koto, Cranes. Szru, 78. 



'210 



J) 



Crape. Chirimen, 79. 

Credit (To sell on). Kakeuri, 495. 

Credit (Sales on). Kakeuri, 8123. 

Cross. (To step over.) Matangi. 132. 

Crimson. Hi, 551. 

Cure. Naorimas', Naoru, 1042. 

Curse. Waruku in. 724. 



Cut in two. K'tte f ' tatsz ni nasare. 

mash', K'tte f tatsz ni Shiro, 

80. 
Cut [Have]. Kiri-kidz wo koshirae- 

mash'ta, or koshiraeta, 46. 

Cuttlefish. Tako. 81, 



I) 



Dances, lit. the verb dance. Hane- 

maszru, Hanera, 732. 
Dancing-girls. Ukareme, 1073. 
Dangerous. Kidzkai, 683. Abunoo, 

Abunai. 870. 
Dark. Kuroo, Kurai, 676. 
Day. Hi, 329. Jitsz. 1055. Nichi, 

1059. 
Day before yesterday, Issaku ji- 
tsz 1194. 
Day-break. Yoake, 241. 423. 
Day laborers. Yatoibito, 549. 
Days' work. Ichi nichi no hi-yo;-. 

544. 
Dead. Shinimash'ta, Shinda, 47. 
Nakunari nasaremash'ta, Shi- 
nareta, Sh'kio, Goo kio asoba- 
saremash'ta, Go seiki nasare- 
mashta, 201. 
Deaf. Mimi to-oo or to-oi, 412. 
Deaf and dumb. Oshi. 265. 
Deal (trade.) with. Uri-kai szru ko 

to, 259. 
Dearest, (in price.) Takoo, Takai, 

823. 
Debt. Sh'yak' kin, 278. 567. 
Decomposed. Kusaru no. 821 
Deed. Ji. 142. 
Deeds [of conveyance]. J'oomon, or 

Yudzri J'oomon, 797. 
Deep. F'koo, F'kai. 1010. 
Deeply [Very much]. Taiso ni, 278 
Deer. Sh'ka. 790. 
Defaced [Will be]. Szrete mie na- 
ku narimas', Szrete mie nai, 
693. 
Degraded. Ochi no, 825. 



Delicacy, (as an eatable.) Koi>bu- 

tsz, 81. 
Deliver, (as goods). Yokosz, 785. 
Delusion. Mayoi. 914. 
Denies that he did it. Itashimase- 

nu to osshivarimas', Shimase- 



iiyarimas , 
nu to iimas', 254. 
Deposite. Osamemas', Osameru, 

811. 
Desk. Tskue, 831. 
Despitefully. Hidoku, 724. 
Detest. Kirai de gozarimas', Kirai 

dr. 804. 
Dictionary. Jibiki, 1036. 
Did. (used as a principal verb.) I- 

tashimash'ta, Shi nasatta, 644. 

Nasaremash'ta, Sh'ta, 1210. 
Differ. Chingaiinaszru, Chingaimas' 
232. Chingau, chingaimas, T000 
Difl'er [Does not.]. Chingaimasenu, 

Chingawanu. 911. 
Difference. Chingaimas', Chingau, 

1112. Kamai, 620. 
Dig. Lit. Digging. Hotte, 798. 
Dinner. Hiru gohan, Hiru meshi, 

88. 166. 190. 
Directions. Ho", 407. 
Distinguished. Kaku betsz szngu- 

rete 792. 
Ditch. Dobu, 690. 
Divide. Wari nasai*e, Wari nasae, 

89. 
Do. [Principal verb] Nasaremash', 

Shiro, 20. 93. 94. Nasarema- 

sh'oo, Szru, 72. 586, 579. 592, 

Nasarete, Sh'te, Lit. Doing, 

91. Nasai, 93, Nasaremase, 



D 



2n 



Shir... \<^. I 1199. 

and paarim. 

■ 
attribute • 

of at. • ! 'nnintr 

a ii< liiYe. e. g. 

115. 117 

127 \ N naiiu. 

102 



Ifotte 

0*ld» ia>li 

ta— . M ih'ta — . 

II 

,j and Coebiraenu, 
1017. 

[not; in OOOking M i to6- 

-niu. Hi iil'.-i tn.-raiiu, 

1007, 



lariraaaenu rtainljr ;• 

I),. 

I 1 ! 

zarimash 

Dq I , ■ .: t .]. Nas.v 

; n. 

Do [good as a i \ K szri ni 

1 1:» r . 

Do good to. I I 

r. • 

Dogs. Inn. 

D - ru, 1 1 19. 



doi 

'•saa- 

thai it should be done. 

\\r i\ • ■ i iUfr 

: Illl nf tin- 

rerb 

in \ l»*t. [tatt * 

[Will not i:<'t it]. Shimai ni 
wa narimai 1 mai. Shimai in 

ru mai. Qi a itive future. 

\.< 
Door. To, 1 16. 

Doors, i, t houses N ' and 

Ken, 810. 

12. 



Doing [of]. Lit. That I will do. I Doubt Utangai 



3 
Dollar. Dors, 3. 1015. r_ 

I aremaah 1 

ta. Ts'kur.' a. 24. Shimai 
nvmash'ta, Shimai 

Done with. [Done using]. Ts'katte 

o shimai nasarem 

katte shimatta. 193. Tskaina 

sareta, Ts'katte ahimattara 

117 
Done, [get it]. Deki angarhnaa' 

Deki angaru, 1 17 'J. 
Done [with it]. Tskurase too, Ts'- 

kurae 
Done. [made]. Ts'kurimash'ta. Ts - 

kutta. 57 



Doubled [ Baal [obi bal di nan- 

niash'ta. I< hi hai ni natta. 9 11. 
Down. Sh'tani. L081 
Down in. NL 61 

any. Tombo, 697. 
n. Irui no koto. Kimono. 

250. 
Dress, v. Kimono wo kiinas', 251. 
Drinking. Nomi nasarete, Nonde, 

305. 
Drowned. Deki shishimash'ta, Szi- 

shi shimash'ta, 108 
Drunk. Sake niyotte 252. Sake 

ni yoiinas', Sake niyoo, 257. 
Dry. [Very], Midz nga nai, 68' 
Dry [In order to]. Hosh'te, 781. 

Hosz Tameni. 865. 



212 



E 



Ducks [a species of wild ones], 
Kamo, 790. Tame ones. Aki- 
ru, 817. 

Dumb. Oshi, 133. 

Dutch [men]. Oranda jin, 1089. 



Dyers. Kooya Sh'yoku nin, Some 
mono szru h'to, 134. 
Dying. [Withering as a tree], Kare, 
1038. 



K 



Each. Ono ono no. 135. Dztsz, 171. 
Each kind. Iro iro — dztsz, 411. 
Each other. Aitangai ni, Tangaini, 

1068. 
Early. Hayaku, 63. 
Earlier. Hayaku, 1233, 
Earthquakes. Jishin, 136. 



kotoba, 95. Ye, 713. 
English [people]. Ingirisz no hito. 

943. 
Enough. [Tobe]. Tarimas', Tariru, 

664. Neg. form. Taranu, Fu- 

soku, 973. 977. Dake, Lit. 

sufficient quantity. 1097. 



Easy. Yaszu, Yaszi. 1. Yasashiu, Enter a complaint. Uttae mooshi 



Yasashii, 63'/ 
yaszi. 923. 



923. 997. Ta 



Eat. Tabe. 610. and in teg. form, 

1056. also, angari 1056. Anga 

ri nasarete, Kunte, 993. 
Eating. Tabemas' koto Taberuko 

to, 314. 
Eggs. Tamango. 76. 367. 878. 
Either. Doredemo, 1254. 
Elephant. Dzoo. 84. 
Else. Hoka no, 704. Hoka, 1 122. 

Hokanokoto. Lit. other thing. 

321. 
Empty, v. Akete kudasare, Akero. 

137. 
Empyricism. Jiikangennario"ji, 

788. 

End. n. Kangiri, 596. Lit. Limit. 
End of the month, i e. the last day, 

Misoka, 434. 
End. v. Lit. to affix to the end 

Sh'ta ni ts'ku, 980. 
Enemy, [in war]. Teki, 952. 
Enemies. [Personal]. Ada kataki 

ni szru mono, 724. 
England. Ingiran, 138. IngiiszNg- 

oku, 792. Ingirisz no kuni 

1061. 



English [language]. Ingirisz no Example. Giooj'oo. 827 



mas', Uttae ni szru, 585. 

Entrance [Front]. Manguchi, 376. 

Envelope [Letter]. Jioobukuro. 

185. 
Equal. Ichi yoo, anaji koto. 1043. 
Erasure. Kesh'ta tokoro, Under- 
stood before Ue ni. 597. 
Errors. [Since there are]. Machi- 

ngatte orimas' kara, Machi- 

ngatte iru kara, 812. 
Europe. Yoropa, 791. 
Even, [of numbers]. Ch'oome. 608. 
Evening. Ban, 333. 459. 
Events [At all]. Dzchi, 575. 1110. 
Eventually. Shi jiu wa, Tsziniwa. 

421. 
Ever. [Hitherto]. Ima made, 184. 

194.Konomai,Maikata, 1049. 
Ever since. Yori, 1 39. 
Every. Mina mina, 144. 
Every body. Donata mo, Daremo, 

140. 
Every thing. Mina mono, 778. 
Evil. Ash'ki, 143. Aku, 142. 872. 
Exactly. Tangawadz, Chingai na- 

ku, 36. Ch'odo, 1026. 

Exactly noon. Mahiru, Nitchiu, 
634. 



213 



001 

i laaanoun 

1 !•"• 

• Machinaoarn, M 
Ki pond I limn Kin agin no dt oga, 
197 

i 

Spending money, - J. 



Toite ktkaaeru oaro, Lit 
<n will confer the favor 
rolaming, 
Expressed, [imaantara, [ttara,869, 
tion. Mneaboritoro koto, 1 1 1. 
4 2 6 H - dE 
in.*, ind Mi -k'karhi 28! 

Mf-kachi. 



I 

Fail (to business). Bnoean aroitoo- 

hiinas". B 
Fair \\i atlnr. T. i.ki. I : 
Fall. Odii: 
Fall (Lft it). O otoahi nasa 

Falling (in price). Rangatn orimaa 1 

Sangatte ini. 

Family. Kauai. 

Far (How.) Iku H bodo, Nani h<> 

do, • 

Fanners. H'vak 

Farthest Tosko. r06. 

ioned (Old.) Mukashi noka- 
taohi do, Mukashi do katade, 

Haya,919. 1257. Jikmi, ! 
Father. Chichi, 188. 353. 359. 889. 

KM 
Fault. Tesmi, 898. Ochi do, 1226. 
Ajamachi, 322. 

Favorite, adj. Ichitan aishi, Ichi 
ban kawaingarn, 1016. 

Feather. Tori no ke, 631. 

Feed. Kuwasero, 146. 

Feel better. "Kokoro yoo gozari 
Baas', Kokoro yoi, 580. 

Feel (the pulse). Shall I. Ukangai- 
lnash'oo. Miyoo, 844. 

Feel (one's way). Sangutte yuki- 
mas*. Sangutte yukee; 676. 



FelL Oohimash'ta, Oohita, 971. 

ttida, 262. 

Follow. Ht.. iriwa, li Ml. There 

appi equi- 

■' 
;il. f Religions]. tf atom, 782. 

ague. ( >k'»ri no yamai, 
212. 

hi, 076. 
Field [Rioo]. T... 7& 687. 
Fifty. Gojin, 084. 

in. <*»17. 
Fill. Ippai i» ire nasaro, [ppai ire- 

ro, 149. Hall-full. Hambun 

ire nasaro, Hainbun irero. 150. 

In-. 151. 
Finally. Tori ni, Bbimai oi, 303. 
Fine. t. e. Minute. Saimatsz ni, 

Komaka ni. 938. 
Fine. i. e. handsome. Kirei, 343. 
Fine. i. e. slender. HosoO, Hosoi, 

1041. 
Fined. Karioo kin toraremash'ta, 

Karioo kin torareta, 287. 
Find. i. e. by searching. Tadznete 

kuda sare — . Tadznete ku- 

re — . 54. 
Find out. Goran nasare, Mi nasai, 

175. 
Find. i. e. furnish. Dashimas', Da- 

sh'te, 520. 
Find [Will]. Mieinash'oo, Mieyoo, 

1087. 



14 



V 



Find [Shall] i. e. shall meet with. 

Awaremash'oo, AwareyoP, 

1191. 
Find [Not]. Miemasenu, Mits'ke- 

ranu, 54*2. 
Find out [can]. Kanngaite nasare- 

te shiremas', Kanngaite shi- 

reru, 52. 
Find Do [not], i. e. do not see, or 

meet with. Me ni kakarimas- 

eru, Awanu, 564. 
Find it bad. Lit. if it is bad, on 

using it. Mochi nasarete, 

Moshi warui naraba. Mochii- 

temoshi warui naraba, 590. 
Finger. Yubi, 460. 741. 
Finished. Shittai ni narimash'ta, 

Deki augatta, 602. 
Fire, a conflagration. Kaji, 774. 
Fire. Hi, 793. 
First cost. Moto ne, 927. 
First rate. Ichiban yoroshii, Ichi- 

ban yoi, 929. 
First, adv. Hajimete, 1048. 
Fish. Sakana, 490. 
Fit [Does not.] Chingatte orimas", 

Chingatte iru, 93 \ Aimasenu, 

Awanu, 1003. 
Five. Go. 700. 
Fix. Oki nasare, Oke 153 
Fixed. Iioo. 3. 
Flannel. Shirorash'a, 542. 
Flatter, 

1259. 
Flaw. Kidz. 1054. 
Fleas. Nomi, 804. 
Flogging. Tatakare nasarete. Ta- 

takarete, 247. 
Flowers. Hana, 859. 969. 
Fly. i. e. To go without any cer 

tain direction. Yuku e wo Sa 

damemasenu, Yuku e wo sad 

amenu, 834. 
Flying. Hingioo szru. Tobu, 582 
Follow. Lit, followed. S'h'tangai- 

mash'ta, Sh'tangatta. 950. 
Fond of. Tszite.210. 8'ki. 343. 



Foot. Ashi, 237. 

Foolishly. Mudani, 243. 

For. prep. Ni, 129. 246- 250. 155. 

826.1056 1122 1159. 1162. 

Yue 287. Tszmori ni. i. e. 

for the value of, 517. Tame 

ni, 827. De, 645. 822. 
For. conj. Kara, 25. 26. 673. 
For fear' of. Osorote, 888. 
For [a purpose]. Tame ni, 1160. 
For the sake of. Tame ni, 788. 
For nothing. [Gratuitously]. Tada, 

1256. 
For sale. Uru tame ni, 1208. 
For what they will fetch. Sooba 

ni naratte, 839. 
Forbidden. Kin zei de, Naranu, 

407. 
Fore shoulder. Kata, 759. 
Foreign. Gai, 60. 
Foreigner. Gai koku nolrto, 713. 

1123. 
Forgot. Waszreta, 478. 
Forgotten [Have]. Shitsz nen ita- 

shimash'ta, Waszreta, 451. 
Found. Yuki awasete mimash'ta, 

or mita, i. e. incidentally 430. 

Tadzue idasaremash'ta, Sa- 

ngashi dash'ta, i- e- found, by 

searching- 195- 
Found out. Kanngai idashimash'ta, 

Kanngai dash'ta, 473. 
Foundation, [of a house]. Jingioo, 

712- 
Fourfooted. Yotsz ashi aru, 789- 
Four- [persons]. Yottari, 681- 
Four. Yotsz, 760. 
Four voyages- Yo tabi yuki-kae, 

Yo tabi yuki-ki, 1061. 
Fowls- [Domestic] Niwatori, 1066. 
Frequent. Ori ori, 136- 
Friend. HoOyuu, Hoobai, 932. 
From- Yori, 637.1192- Kara, 407. 

1192- Instrumental, De. 886. 
From — and upwards- Saki yori, 

1073. 
Front entrance- Manguchi, 376- 



I 

- i '• 
B86 LO 
Pmiti Kudau 

r i \ \ 

Fuel. Szuii t.tki 

Fuji;, 



•ji;. 



iki. Full / | with. .at | blank spa«v- 

Full grown (not) Bin*, Ookiku 

liar Ilina is a 

chic) 

157 
Furnit D 



G 



Gained Tokn iro iiaaarenaan'ta, 

kn iro ill I 

G 

rmin Okatawa, HHo wn, 

111! 

l.iii.M Okata tachi. H'tsta.hi. 

LO 
i 
If 01 

\ - \ form. 

\ . N . -Jl 

■ . • . ■ (So as M.it to). Numiu 
yoO ni. 77 

i( in it). Nuraahi 

a : L09. 

QtK [Can. J Mot,.iiuTarciii;i>'. Kra 

| Did.) Motomete o ide m 
maah'ta, Motomete k'ta, ll'.«7. 

Jk'te shiinai nasaiv. 

Sh te shimai, 101. Deki ang- 

arimas". Shi angaru. 1172 

Shiinai ni liarimaa', Shiniai 

ni nam, 12< '>•">. 
Get a living. Kurashi aaaaremaa', 

Kurasz.Lit. pass one's time. 

872, 
Get hurt. Kenga wo itashimaszru, 

Kenga wo Barn, 722. 
Get through, i. e, finish. Shimai 

953. 
Get out of my way. Waki e yore, 

Lit. (Put yourself) to one side, 

162. 



Sh'taku iroahu L59. 

I •' 

1 n. 

< lit the anionnt. Kanj'oo |hj Q 

re K.u'i "i, shiro, 7 s 7. 
Gettii 

[nrentmg. Kannma 

iiia>liiina>'. Kannma 
ig w.ll. \ u:i. Lit. 

that hfl will <M well. 986. 

Girl Onango 615 

(iirth llaraohi. J 

imprrativ I Kn.i .i-armia.-ir. 
Kii'hi-.ii. L67. 1T'». An-.iia-. 

I !■ - 169. 

Jan naaare, fare, 171. Ange 
oaaai, 172 

; ill us been). Mi hanasa- 

it m:i>h't;i. Mi hanasaivta,958. 

Glad (To be). Tai kei ni dzonji- 
nias'. Yorokotra, 572 Yoroko- 
bi, 687- 

Go (Do not). Oide nasaruna, Yu- 
kuna, 124- 

Go- Imperative. Yuki nasare, Yu- 
ke, 173. Itte, Lit. going. 175. 

Go (Shall). Mairimaah'oo, Yukoo 
468- 575- Yuku 609622. 680, 
1214- 575- 1110- Mairimas', 
1110. 609. Mairu, 680- Mait- 
te yoroshiu gozarimas 1 , Itte 
yokaroo, 1190. 

Go around- Mawari nasare, Mawa- 
ri. 575- 



216 



G 



Go home (May)- Uchi c kaeru ko-|Good as it was before. Moto no 
to nga yoroahiu gozarimas'J toori ni. In the original man- 

Uchi e kaeru koto nga yoi, tier, a-;-.'. 



1245- 
Go off. as a gun, neg. verb . Hasshi 

masenu, Hassenu, 1108- Posi 

tive form. Hasshiru. 
Go on. Achira e oide' nasaru nga 

yoroshiu gozarimas', or Yoi, 

1231. 
Go to bed- nenasare, Nero, 778. 
God. Kami, 180. 
Going. Yuku koto, 786. 
Going to — . Expression of the im- 
mediate future- Tadaima, with 

the fut. verb ending sh'oo or 

oo, e g, 561. The verb ending 

alone is often sufficient- See 

the next word. 
Going to do. Nasaremash'oo, Szru 

1141. The phrase nochini, in 

the sentence referred to, aids 

the expression of futurity. 
Gone Absent from the house, Ku 

sz, 260. 
Gone, i- e Has become nothing. Na- 

ku narimash'ta, Naku natta 

965. 
Gone (Am). Itte kimas'. Itte kuruj 

862. 
Gone (Has) Oide nasaremash'ta 

331- 332- 1187- Mairimash'ta 

1187. Itta, 331. 332. ^ 

Gone out. as a lamp does, Kiema- Q row . Lit spring up- Heemaszru 

sh'ta, Kieta, 946. Ha«ru, 545. 752. Haete ori- 

Good. Koo, 142. Yorosh'ki, 307. mas', Haete oru, 717. 

Yoki, 307. 856- Yoroshii, 591. Grows thin i e. lean- Yaseru, 146. 

684 988- Yo, in the word yo- Grows worse and worse. Tsnorima- 

kereba, 591- Yoroshiu, 610- szru, Tsznoru, Lit. increases, 

684- 752- 910- Yorosh' ku, 1 143. 

907- 993. 1033- 1054- 1056 Guest- Okiaku sama, 776. 

Yohu, 1033. 1054- 1056. Yoi, Guilty. Tszmi am, 182. 

Gun. Teppoo, 612. 1108- 



Good boy. Bznawo ni. Lit- rightly 
Otonash'ku Lit like a man 
82. 

Good for nothing. Yaku ni tachi 
masenu, Yakuni tatanu, 1023 

Good hand- %■ e. shilful. J'oodz 
306- 

Good looking- Yorosh'ku miemas 
Yoku mieru, 1033. 

Good natured. Niuwa ni, 337. 

Goods- Shiromono, 323. 810. Shi- 
na, 785. 

Got through (Have). Lit. have pass- 
ed the summit of. Koemash ? ta, 
Koeta- 574- 

Governor. Bungioo. 585- 

Governs. Osameraremaszru, 180. 

Grapes. Budoo, 389- 983- 

Grass. KVa, 888. 

Great. Ooki ni, Lit, greatly, 913. 
914. 

Great deal. Dai ji ni. Lit. (He 
takes it) for a great afiair, 
276. 

Great wedding. Go konrei, 985. 

Great while ago. Oo mukashi. 931. 
Greater part. Taingaiwa, 959. 

Grind- Hiite ko ni shiro, 181. 

Grooms- M'makata- 825- The com- 
mon term is Bettoo, or Ku- 



856. 610. 910- 988- Hoshiu, 
Hoshii, 663- Hoshiu, Lit. De- 
sirable- 



Gunpowder. Enshioo, 183- 
Gutter. Dobu, 800. 



II 



217 



D 

l! k 

bu d 
! I ad i Knd - Kurero, Lit 

II k:m,693 

11.11. 

II • I • 

Sandj Ti'fau %■•<». 'iV'kai ii. , 

Hang Kakete, Lit. hanging. 805. 

Sappeni (If any thiir.. 

in • Kish'te 

wa, Moshi m uga a- 

ru t<>, Iffoabi mo no ko tonga, 
tit <>r casua- 
lty an. I Arrniavli'tr wa, and 
aru to, bota Minify, if there 

be rjr.o 
Harbor MinaJ 

Hani (in a nnetannn ) Katoo, Ka 

Hard [Difficult] Mudzkashi 

kui. Mudzkashii, 

Hark! O kiki nasa. K 186. 

187, 

Hat Kaniurimoiio. \'<- Kafa 
moii". 92 

Bate. (Jramiril, 721 liniinaszru, 
Kiraiiuas\ 1068. 

Have- Qoaarima*', ISO. 192. 540. 
489 4!»1 541. This word is 
really the verb to be, but by 
difference of idiom between 
English and Japanese, it is 
often used where we use have. 
The same is true of aru- Aru 
192- 540. 432. For the neg. 
forms of Gozarimas, and aru, 
viz : Gozarimasenu, and Nai, 
See 448. 507 570- 579. 

Have an eye to. O mi mawari kuda- 
sare, Mi mawari nasai, 199. 

Have been, «. e. gone. Mairimash'- 
ta TttA, 543- Interrog. Oide 



rnnas > 

a k i l-M 
n ill VYadiraimash'ta, 

W ad/ratta. i 

doiM with. <> t>'kai nasarcta, 
-hi niattara. 1 I . 
:m«)t) Uketorar* ma.-mu, 

nu, 1086. 

irimasenamla, 
i hi 
1 1 : hiiua.sh'ta, 

Mil : 162 
N ol kakariinase- 

I nu. 1 19. Hai ken lt.t 
.shiiuaM'nan.la. Minakatt I 

Earing 1" imaahHa kara, 

Sad tin- bonof to lee <> me ni 

kak;iiinia>h'ta 1048k Atta. 
Lit. |.:ive m.-t 1048. 

II. kno I; U) 20] Ann okata, 204. 
ad passim* 

A tan, a. 2 

Sealed, pea* v [enaaaVaa, [eta, 

,.r 

Health. V. 1 _'<)8. Lit. care of 

- life 
Hear (Did) Kiki nasaremash'ta, 

Kiita, 85, 86. 87. 
Sear (To} Kiku to, Kikeba, 688. 
Heard. Kikimash'ta, r Kiita, 420. 
I (Never). Kikimasenu, Ki- 

kanu, 57-; 
Heart (By) Sora de- Lit. in the 

air, /• e. with the face turned 

up. 1263. 
Hearts. Kokoro, 950. 
Heaven- Ten. 180. 
Heavy. Omoi, 1065- 
Help. (Can ?) S'ke inooshima-sh'oo, 

Tetszdawoo, 52- 
Help [Shall 1?] Tetszdaiwo Itashi- 

mash'oo, Tetszdai wo Shiyoa. 

483- 843. 
Help. Imperative. Tetszdai wo Shi- 

ro, 178- Tewo kashi nasarete 



218 



If 



kudasaremash' Te wo kash'te 
kurero. Lit. by lending a hand 
confer a favor. 346- Tetszdai 
nasarete kudasare- Tetszdatte 
kurero. 347. 

Help (Pass food at the table). Ange 
nasarete kudasare, Kuwa- 
sh'te kurero- 348 

Help it. i- e. prevent it. F'sengu 
koto, 474. 

Help it. i- e. remedy it- Naosz koto 
475. 

Helping oif with baggage- Ni-ngo- 
shirai no teszdai de, Ni wo 
ts'kutte yarn node, 428- 

Here- Kokoni, 139- 225. 230 263 
266- 350. 351. 367- 381. 779 
862 863- and Koko ni im 
tead of As'koni in 682. Koko 
e, 203. Koko. 349- Kochira 
e 382- Kokode wa, 1030- 

Here and there. Achi kochi, 430. 

High. Taka, 966- 

High time. Jikoku nga, 680- 

High water. Michi shiwo, 601. 

Him. Ano o katani, Ano h'to ni, 
Dat. 169. Ano okata wo, Anc 
h'towo, ace- 527- and passim 

His. Ano h'to no. 359. Ano o ka 
tano, 357- Are no 357. and 
passim. 

Himself. Karada, (#• e- body). 305. 
Jibun, Temai, 318. H'toride 
i. e. alone, 289- 

Hoe- Kuwa, 1024. 

Hog. Buta, 840. 

Hold. (Contain). Hairinias', Hairu, 
Lit. enter. 396. 

Hold- v. Mamorimas , , Mamoru, 
Lit Guard- Keep one to a 
thing, 809 

Hold, (of a ship). Soko, 653. 

Holes- Ana, 798. 

Home- adv. O taku e, 224. Uchi 
e, 327- 364- lye made, Uchi 
made, 518- 

Honest. Sh'oojiki, 330- 



Horse- M'ma. 723 146 316. 360. 

919. 934. 937. 1031- 1118- 
Horses. M'ma, 205- 759- 994- 
Horsefeed- M'ma no tabemono, 

M'ma no kuimono, 752. 
Hot. Atszu, Atszi, 647. Atszkute, 

699. 
House- Taku, 602- Uchi 602- 740. 

757.801.1032. 1057.1ye,740 

757 796- 1032. 611. 884. 

942'. 1057 361. 
Houses- lye. 797. 
How- Nani- Lit. what 366- 
How (In what way) Dono yoo ni 

383. Doo, 383- 369- 390. 743. 

Ikanga, 390. Nani to. 369. 
How. For what reason. Nani go 

yoongaarimashte Lit. Having 

what business? Nani nga atte, 

385. 
How. Nani wo sh'te. Nani wo to 

sei ni sh'te. Lit- Doing what ? 

399- 
How- Nani wo kangioo ni sh'te. 

Lit. Doing what for a business, 

372. 
How- (What condition). Inaya, Am- 

pi, 841. 
How far? Iku ri hodo, Nani hodo, 

400- 
How long? (hereafter). Itsz made, 

370- 373- 401. 405- Itszngo- 

ro, Itsz no koro, 381- Itsz 

ngoro mada, 401. 
How long? (of length). Nangasa 

Nani hodo, 371. 386. Nanga- 
sa dore hodo, 386 Nan ngen, 

374-375. 
How long? (of time past ) Nani 

hodo. 381. 382. 
How many? Iku tsz. 367. 395. 

Iku hodo, Ikura ni, 402. 
How many days? Ika hodo, 403. 
How many kinds? Iku shina ho- 
do, 388. 
How much? Ikura. 37. 368. 387. 

391. 394. 398. Nani hodo de. 



It 



tig 



i e. At what price, 3(55. 379. Human. H tono, 406, 

. Humble K . i lerikudaru, 

S i 
Qgu Hun I red ll . 

Mow thick' is. numerous end Hungry. Kuafku, N. 11. i 
troublesome, Ookute uttoshiu. 

Hunting. Kni. 107. 
1! i N I •'- ■• . • Hurry (lii a) lM»iiu r i,Isonga. 



I W ii and 

[china l Lit one bu 

04, 

360. 

raio, useless, M 

M 

If. .N \ 

584. 586 588 

II not. Nukereb s . Naku 

Ignorant. I I 598. 

III (Hare been) \\ aHzraimas 

W i *6. 

Illness. Biooki 
Immediately Bzngu ni. 176. 

Imported, \V itariiiia . ■ I. \I 

komu. [Better Szmi korr.u] 

Impossible to rocover. Naorare 
mis' mii. 650. The idea of 
in possibility, is expressedly 
the fut. potential, neg. verb. 

Improve, aratameru k->to, 591. 

Impudent. Haji wo shiranu, 221 

In. Ni. 78. 80.96 114. 158. 342 
427. 503. 653 to 656 781 
836 954. 1174 Naka ni, Lit 
io the midst of, 717. De, 81 
156. 395. 560 569 600. 725 
731.738. 752. 7 ul. 803. 811. 
825. 82 t. 

In. adv. Uchi e. 58. 

In all. Hokoradz de, 3D5. 



Rioobun no angarid 

Indian corn. 'J 

Moi ikoshi, 181. 
In Japan. Nippon de, 761. 

In Japanese, w 

kuni nn I Nip- 

poo de a ippoo 

. itoba de, - 

i ii. It i ni ii:i:i>", 305. 

Ink. Bxrai, E 

Ink-stone. Szdzri i>hi. 164. 

In large quantities, < ><»ku. 8'^4. 

Inn. I l.it.iiiL'oyi. 

I 830. 

Inside out (Jrangae, 1082. 1 27 0. 

Instructions, Oshie, 888. 

In strumetit (Musical). Narimono, 
1138. 

Intelligent Hakush'ki, Mono wo 
shiru, 599. 

Interest. Ri kin, Ri, 1109. 

In the least. Skoshi mo, 535. 

In the Ions: run. Nangaku wa, 
671. 

In this way. Kono toori ni, 503. 

Iron. Tetsz. 21. 1208. 

Is. Imas', Iru 64. Gozarimas', 1. 
and passim. I final in the 
word yawarakai, 148. is the 
root form of the continuative 
verb iru to be. and is the 
equivalents /*. in the English 
sentence. This is a usual m> 



220 



de of expressing the copula, 
when it is followed by a pre- 
dicate adjective in English. 
The i is appended to the root 
form of the adjective in Japa- 
nese. 
It. Are wa, 97. Kore wa, 101. 



Sore wa, 198. A no koto wa 
390. There is no exact equiv- 
alent to it in Japanese. The 
above references areto Demo- 
nstrative pronouns. 
Its own [Said of a country]. Jiko- 
ku no, Lit. own country's, 135. 



Jacket. Haori. 222. 

Japan. Nippon. 60. 78. 81. 718. 
725.7_8.753.76l.803.825. 

Japanese [people]. Nippon no h'to 
98. 1174. Wajin, 141. Nip- 
pon jin, 569. 

Japanese [pertaining to Japan] 
Nippon no, 158. 836. Wa- 
kokuno, 732. 

Japanese [Language]. Nippon 
366. 369. Nippon no kotoba, 
828.713. Wango,713. 

Japanese characters, i. e. letters. 
Nippon Moji. 731. 

Japanese fashion. Nippon no yo°, 
836. 



Japanese religious festivals. Wa 
Koku no Matszri, 732. 

Jest. Jordan, 494. 

Jewels. Tamar no kazari, 689. 

Job [By the]. Uke ai ni, 16. 

Joke. Jordan. 637. 

Jokes. J'oodan, 688. 

Joyfully. Yorokonde, Lit. rejoici- 
ng, gerund, ive, 950. 

Jump. Koe te oide nasaremase, 
Koete oide, 690. 

June. J : yun. 691. 

Just. adv. Ch'odo. 910. 962. 1013. 
1039. 

Just now. Sahi hodo, S'ak'ki,225, 



K 



Kanagawa, Kanangawa. 1077. szrarenu, Lit. cannot forget. 

Keep. ( Deposite. ) Okimash'te, Oite.t 498. 

gerundive, s, from verb, oki, Keep out of my way. Sochira e o 

614. nokeasobasare, Sochira e no- 

Keep (Employ). Ts'kaimash"o6, ke, 696. more properly, Get 

Ts'kavvoo. Fut. of Ts c kae. ! out of my way. 

589. Keep (time). Aimas', Au 7 104, 

Keep clean. Kirei nish'teo mochi Keep to yourself. Himitsz nish'te 

nasare, Kirei ni motte, 693, ! o oki nasaremash'. Naish'oo 
Keep house. Kanai no koto wo, nish'te oke, 695- Lit. Put it 

nasaremas',Kanai no kotowoj in a secret place. 

szru. 289. | Kernel. Tszbu, 112. 

Keep on. Kore kara nasaremash', Kill. Koroshimas', Korosz, 1075. 

Kore kara shiro, 694. Koroshi nasare, Korose, 697. 

Keep out of. Detearukinasaruna, Kind (This) Kono yoona shina, 

Oete arukuna. 692. Konna shina, 1236. 

Keep out of mind (Cannot), Wa- Kinds, Rui. 388. Iroiro. 411. 






K 
kc; 

Mmjimash'ta, Bhta 
B 

ShY 

• iru. 1 « »< ». 
K I , • nirj. i c. (til 

Osahi.-uimii.vir. L . 1 160. 
K oiv [will let you] Moftfthi an- 



Lit. will 
tell, n: 

\\ a 

--iiinin;i>rir.Si.i- 
7 1 I 

ibirano, 
•mi, Bh'tto iru 

! 

not. Shirimasemi, 21 i 
i 9. Di njin 
Shirenu,2l I 

1002. 



Ltmp. Tomotl 

L.n.l. 'IVohi. ; ■.. 707 

12 

I ■ ! • 

Bit 

I. 54 <'.■:•>. 06, 

in, 803. 
Last. v. Said of ■ thin 

Mochimas'. Motsz. »'» , J"». 

Last day of the moiilli. M 

Last month. Sen ngetsz, Oil. 

Last night Saknhan, 478. Sakuv.i. 

667. 699. Yuube 478. 667. 

099. 
Late. Adv. Osoku, 325. Nangaku, 

515. 
Late. Adj. Osoo, Osoi, 1161. 
Late riser. Asane, Asanebo, 240. 
Laughable. Okashiu, Okashii, 

^688. 
Laughing. Warai nasaremas' 

Warau, 1140. 
Law. Hatto, 7. 320. Hoo, 930. 
Laws. Hatto, 135. 
Learn. Oboeru, 234. Sh'ungioo 



nosii. Keiko ihiro, 126 

k ti , 280. 

htaoold, 
nns:i ih*te oke, L29. 

■ . i). PenniatioD. Yurushima* 
\ mi, i e. not to 

I]. ( >ite < >i<le nnsarema- 

sh'ta, Oid« itta, 1203. 
! m [Ofplanla]. II.-., S00. 
Leave nit. Y.mir nusaimash', Ya- 

inero. 121 
Leave-open. Ake hannsh'te, Lit. 

Leaving open. 1115. 
Leave-for [Entrust to]. Tanomi 

mooshimas', Tunomii, 529. 
Left, participle. Nokosh'te, 976. 
Left, behind [by mistake]. Wasz- 

rete mairimash'ta, Waszrete 

k'ta, 557. 
Left handed, flidari kiki, 335. 
Left off. Yame nasarela, Yam eta, 

35. 
Left open [Is]. Hiraite gozari- 

mas', Aite arimas, 1037. 
Left to itself. S'tete okimas' to, 

S'tete oki to, 143. . 

Leisure, Tetszngoo. 23. 
Lend. Kash'te kudasare, Kash'te 

kurero, 700. Kasztameni Ka- 

sooto, Lit. to lend. 1218. 



2±1 



Let hirn do. Sase nasare, basero, 

704. 
Let him ride. Nose nasare. Nose, 

711. 
Let it alone. Yoshi nasaru, Yose, 

701. 
Let it be. Yoshimash'te, Yosh'te, 

702.Okiasobasare, Oki nasai. 

707. 
Let it fall. Otosh' nasareta, Otosh'- 

ta, 312. 
Let me know. Osshiarimas', Je, 

1169. 
Letter. Tengami 57. 1166. 
Letters. Ji, 693. 
Let us cool. Szdzmimash'oo, Szdz 

mod, 709. 
Let us do. Itashimaszru, Szru. 

706. 
Let us see. Go ran nasare, mi na- 
sai, 67. 
Let us take a pipe. Lit a whiff. 

Ip'puku tszkamatszrimashoo, 

Ip'puku nomimash'oo, 708. 
Let us take a ride. M'ma ni notte 

Kakemash'od, M'ma ni notte 

demash'oo, 710. 
Let who will say it. Dare demo 

sono yoo ni mooshimaszru 

Dare demo sono yoo ni moo- 

sz. 703. 
Let you know [Will]. Mooshi an 

gemash'oo, Iwoo, 1178. 
Level, v. Taira ni katamero, 712, 
Lexicons. Jibiki. 713. 
Lies. n. Itszwari, 26. 
Lift. Mochi angete. Lit. Lifting. 

714. 
Lift [Cannot]. Motaremasenu, Mo- 

tarenu, 479. 
Lift [To]. Mochiangemas, Mochi- 

anguru, 681. 
Cight. n. Akari, 38. 
Light, v. Akari wo ts'ke asobasa- 

remash', Akari wo ts'kero. 

715. 



Light, adj. Karuu, Kami, 631. 
Lightning. Inabikuri, 716. 
Lights. Akari, 776. 
Like. adj. Yoo ni, 871. Sooni. 

919. Nile. 292. 1045. Onajiko- 

to, 1039. Onaji tokoro, 912. 
Like. v. Ki ni irimas', Ki ni iru, 

464. Yorokobimas', Yoroko- 

bu, 698. S'lvi ni narimas'. S'- 

ki ni naru 510. 
Likely. Soo, 920. 
Lilies. Yuri, 717. 
Lions. Shishi. 
Listen. Ohanashi wo uketamnwa- 

ru, Hanashi wo kiku koto, 

885. 
Little. S'koshi, 151.346.429.528. 

987. 1091.1238. Shibaraku, 

[of time]. 1091. Chitto, 987. 
Little less. Mod chitto herash'te, 

Moo s'koshi herasn'te, 485. 

Herash'te, Lit. Diminishing. 
Little (time). Shibaraku, S'koshi, 

1091. 
Live. i. ^.Reside. Oidenasaremas, 

Iru,295.Szmatteoidenasare- 

mas'.353.Szmatte oraremas'. 

309. 310. Szmatte orn, 308. 

309. Oraremas'. 308. Szmatte 

iru, 310. 311. 353. 1198. O 

szrr.ai nasaremss', 1198. 
Live [Does not]. Oszmai nasare- 

masenu, Szmawanu, 1069. 
Living. Imas'to. Iru to, 660. Oide 
nasarete wa, Ite wa, 682. 



Tamanq-nsz- 



Loaded. (as a gun). 

ri komete. 612. 
Lock v. J'oo wo oroshi asobasare. 

J'oo wo nasare, 719. 
Locust. Semi, 837. 
London. Rondon, 799. 
Long [in time]. Hisash'ku, 120. 

621. Nangaku, 120. 236. 

Nanga, 236. 
Long [in distance]. Tooku, 1103. 

Error in rendering it long 

time. 



M 






Long* Mo lit- 

in 

. 

19. 

I . 

rlosniu j . IIo- 

i [In the] i wa, 

671, 

hi do o t 

: do 

! 

lor. | 

mai 

Lookout (15,- on the). < > ki v. 

Ln. (i. e. concern). 

km. 

Looks lik \ 
di miero, 

To mie 
rn, *.'.'.">. 
Look them over. Mi irakete nasa- 
remas\ Mi wakete, 720. 



Loo* Vnru- 

l, Son wo 
Neg. rut.ofthe 

. I!». 

^ i.tii- 

121. 

irete 

- 

\;ikusarcmas\ 

( I lave). Son wo hasarema- 
i, Son wo ih'i 
remanh'ta, Nakuabha. 
N leu oarunasn'ta. Fnn- 

i."t i. Nuketa, Lit. li 

Lost [If it is]. Moshi ashioaj nasu- 
M in. Nakusz 

. !» H» 
Louder. Koe wo angete, 806. 

Kawaingare, 72 l. 
Low water. II ki shiwo, 601. 
Lunatics. KiVljingaimonOjKichin- 

•\.i 795, 
Lying. Uso \V6 ii, 918. 



M 



Made. Tskuren, OO.Ts'ku 'Main road. Hon doo, Kai dod, 



rimes'. Ts'kuru, 79. IVkure- 



596. Kai signifies 
Koshiraemas' 



mash'ta. Kozhiraeta, pass. v. Make 

1 026. Itashimash'ta, Sh'taJ qq 

1061. 

Ts'kurareniash'ta, Ts'kurare 

ta. pass, v. 1<>07. Ts'kuri na- 

Raremaah'ta, Koahiraeta, 1211. 
Made (Can be). Ts'kurareinas\ Ts'- 

kurareru, 1090. Tskuru koto 

dekiniaszru, or dekiru, 765. 
Made it good. i. e. repaired. Nao-JMake it up. Ts'kunaimash'oo, Ts'- 



the sea. 
Ts'kuru, 
Ts'kurimash'od, Ts'ku- 
roo. fut. 386. Root of Ts'ku- 
tte, 619. 
Make hitn do it. Sase nasaremash', 
Sase nasai, 730. 

Make it good. Madoi nasare, Ka- 
warieoo dase. 593. 



shimash tn. Naosh'ta, 532 



kunoo. 588. 



224 



M 



Make out your Bill. Uketori nga- 

ki wo o d'ashi nasare, Uketo- 

ri wo o dashi, 729. 
Make sure of. Pzebi motome oki 

tai, Dzehi tome te okitai, 728. 
Makes nothing of. Naingashiro ni 

nasaru, Arunganashi ni szru, 

1062. 
Make the most of. Dai ji ni o ts'- 

kai asobatare, Da iji ni ts'kai 

nasare, 727. 
Make up your mind. O kime na 

sare, Kimero. 72. 
Making. Ts'kuri nasaremas', Ts'- 

kuru, 155. 
Man. H'to, 130-908. 911. 1143- 

H'tori, 989. 
Manners- Fuudzoku, 356. 
Manure. Koyashi, 748. 
Many (as). Ikutszdemo, 19. 882. 
Many, i e. A great number. Ama- 

ta, Iroiro. of many sorts, 983. 
Many (How)? Ikutsz, 367. 
Many a time. Ikutabimo, 1 kudo- 
mo, 543. 
Mark. i. e. write. Kaite kudasare- 

mase, Kaite kudasare, 731. 
Market. Ichi, 427 
Market price. Sodba, 1115. 
Married. Lit. have a wife. Go shi 

nzo wa gozarimas', Kami 

Ban wa arimas'. Niooboo wa 

aru, 12. 
Married. Said of women. Yome 

iri wo itashii 
Masks. Men, 732. 
Master. Danna, 172 
Matched. Nite orimas', Lit. are 

alike. 994. 
Match (Is no). Oyobimasenu, O- 

yobanu, 1031. 
Material, n. Sh'osh'ki, 520 
Matter. Koto, 75. 923. 
May. auxil. v. This is expressed by 

ookata, signifying, probably 



iri wo itashimash'ta, 1073. 



prooaon 
together with" the fut» verl 
ending Sh'o& or o°, See. 648 



Also by the fut. verb, ending 
with the interrogative Ka. 
See. 673. 

May I ? i. e. Is it well to do so & 
so. Yoroshiu gozarimas'ka? 
733. 734. Yoika?734. 

Me. Watak'shi, 51. 54. 74 and 
passim. 

Meal (a). Meshi', Go zen, 173. 

Meaning, i. e. intention, Kokorodz- 
ashi, 903. 

Meaning, i. e. sense. Giri. Wake, 
1142. 

Meant, (was), i. e. The intended idea 
was, Kaitakokorogozarimas', 
Kaita ki da, 937. 

Meant well. Kokorodzashi wa yoro- 
shiu gozarimash'ta, Kokorodz- 
ashi wa yoroshii, 313. 

Meat Niku, 1006.— 1008. 

Medicine. K'szri, 145. 350.454. 
826 846 Yakushiu, 826. 

Meet. [Did]. O ai nasaremash'ta, 
Atta, 600. 

Memory. Oboe, 491. 

Men. H'to. 825. Okataf'tari, 1068, 
H'to tachi, 1075. 

Mend. Naoshi nusaru, Naosz ko- 
to wa, 55. 

Mended. [Get it]. Naosase, 179. 

Mend, (with the needle). JNui nao- 
sh'te kurero, 735. 

Mere. Bakari. Lit. only, 657* 

Merits. Koo, 408. 

Messenger. Ts'kaino mono, Ts'kai, 
472. 1260. 

Middle aged. Chiu nen, 302. 

Middle compartment. Doonoma, 
654. 

Might, n. Sei. 819. 

Military class. Bushi wa, 888. 

Milk. Chichi, 998. 

Mind- v. i. e. care for. Kamai, Ka- 
man, J 10. 

Mind. f. e. attend to. Lit. do. Na- 
sare. 737, 

Mine. pron. Watak'shi no, Ore 
no, 355, Washi no, 361. 



N 






! 

\l ike a. M ichiof it, 918. 

17. 
| M ichio 

■ I :;. 

rimas, t Ihiogai d 

be- 

t\\ 

61 » 788, i ! ". 1194. 
1218 i- 

\-\u.\. l\;iii«-liako. 8< 

. 81, 

. 

601. 

More. M;iti;i. I, I y« t. Still, 

1\ ■•. | :.• R :. I! 

this, 1167. Mo*. 1 

: 619. Lit Much, 

than. /'. <•. a greater quant- 
ity, Dumber, amount than, Yo- 
ri- j ri — 00 

or o*i, 1064. 

More than (i certain time). Yori 
saki ni, wa. 674. i. c. Beyond. | 

M in 1 more, the more. Shidai ni. 
Liuaccording as, 500. 5l0.i 
Here the meaning is, accor-l 
ding as I become accustomed 
[Narete]. to usingand eating 
&c. Dandan.Lit. step by step, 
or by degrees, 509. 510. 

Morning. Asa. 63. 553. 



d 

I 
. Hah*, i 
I 

umaszru, 
Sashi da>hiii 
M i i o more from 

bom ! 

.-. 1 102. 
Much 1 1 \;uii 

hobo. Lit. what quantity or 
amount 1 

, 398. 

JToa ni tak 1 

K : :. &4 

Mud. Dor. 

Murders, I I 

BfusicaJ instrument. Narimono, 

1 1 
[Of necessity]- Kanaradz, 

676. 
Must |( tf obligation]. K'tto, 621. 

672. 143. 1244. 

Must. [Of certainty]. Tash'kani, 

642. K'tto, 670. 
My. Watak'shi no, Ore no, 355. 

V V isbi no, 446. Washi nga. 

740. and passim. 
Mind. (To my). Watak'shi no o- 

mo" to^ri ni, washi no omoo 

todri ni, 1026- 
Mvself. Watak'shi nga ji shin, 

4. 



X 



Name. Na, 731. 1130. Sei-mei,' tai. Thesearethe desiderative 
1165. forms of the verb. Itasz, to 

Nation. Kuni, Lit. country. 755. | make or do. 1032. 

Nearsighted. Kin-ngan,Chika me, Needed. Iriyos, 713. 

271. INeglect.n. Yudan, 1027. 

Needs. Too, the termination of I- Neglected. S'tete okimas' to, or oku 
tash'too. and Tai thatofltash'- " to. 4. 



226 







Neighbors. Tonari no kata, Ton 

ari no h'to, 1070. 
Never. Tszi ni, 234. 564. 916. 
1094, Kesh'te arumai, There 
never will be. Kesh te signifi- 
es, positively, 916.Mada, with 
a neg. following, 449. 476. 
573. Doomo, with a neg. fo- 
llowing. 917. So also Itasz- 
mademo, 1265. 

Never mind. i. e. do not be conce- 
rned. Kinikakenasaruna, Ki 
ni kakeasobasaremaszna,742. 

New. Shin-ki ni, Lit. newly, or 
anew. 7. Atarashii, 222. 602. 
Medz:ashii, 943. 

New-comer. Hajimete o ide nasa- 
reta o kiyaku, Hajimete kta 
kiyaku jin, 257. 

News. Medzrashii koto, 1009. 
1126. 

Next. Rai. Lit, the coming. 531. 

Next (The) person. T^zngi no h'to, 
968. 

Next. i. e, after this. Kono tszngi 
no, 1153. 1214. 

Next week. Kono tszngi no nano 
ka. 985. 

Night (Last). Saku ban, Yuube, 
478. Saku ya, Yuube, 582 
667. 699. 

Night (to). Kon ya, 1106. 

Nine. Ku, 645. 

Nine o'clock. Itsztsz doki han 
Lit. half past 5. 639. 

No. Iiye 745. 746. 

Nobody. H'to with, the following 
neg. 747. 



Noise. Hibiki. 186. Oto, 1150. 
No match (Is). Oyobimasenu, Oy- 
obanu, 1031. 

Noon. Nitchiu, Mahiou. 634. 

No one. Dare mo with a neg. after 
it. 744. 

Not. Na, the neg. imper. ending. 
andNutheneg. indie, ending. 
See Samaszna, and nasaruna 
125. Also, Shiri masenu, and 
Shiranu, 214. and the same 
passim. Also Mai the ending 
of neg. fut. verbs. e. g. Gozari- 
mas' mai, Arumai, 916. and 
passim. 

Not at all. S'koshi mo, with a neg. 
following, 912. 

Not enough. Fusoku, Taranu, 
977. 

Note of hand. Sh'oomon, 1181. 

Nothing. Nani mo, with neg. fol- 
lowing. 748. S'koshi mo, with 
neg- following. 507. Nashi, 
658. Nai,1029. 

Not natives. Oranai, Inai, 718. 

Not quite enough. S'koshi fusoku, 
S'koshi taranu, 974. 

Now; Ima, 74- 263. «25. 561. 638. 
694. 749. 750-885. 

Now [Just]. Tadaima, 531. 561. 
581. 885. 

Now a days Konongoro, Kono se- 
tsz, 1119. 

Now and then. Tabitabi, 527. Lit. 
once and again- Oriori, 838. 

Numerous. Tak'san, 738. Ooku 
767. 



Nutmegs. Nikudzku, 751. 







Oaths. Chikai, 753 



Of. (Among). Uchi de. 754. 

Of a size Onajikoto ni ookiu. — , 

Onajikoto ni ookii, 107 2. 
Objection. Sawan, 5/0. Sasawan, ;oil Ab 803 %J± JQ04 10g5 

57 1. 



Oats. Karasz mungi, 752. 



O'clock. Doki, 638. 639- 
Odd, (number). Tammei, 608. 



Oiled paper. Tooyun, 77. 
Old. (Twenty years). Hatachi 
848. 1073. 



v ehi w:i 



chi 

780. 
Lit, n: 
dire ii i _ 

i, 1 173. 
ido. 583 Lit. one time. 

I/. 

h'to tabi 

! • : 1267 H'totsz, 54. 

of things long 
ler, 51. 758. Ippiki, 

tax. 878. 

Only, adv. Sac. 748. 
1< 

ijjh for on 
i domo no dake, Id 
Only one (The). ngiri, 

Onioni 

Open. 1037. 

Opinion. I taonji, ( >m<>o k< 

-53. 
Opium. Aheo. i 

•. 
Or. I Also 

repeated, GUI. 608. and 
sim. 
red. i. e. Sent an order 
for &c.Chiumon itashimash'- 
Ihiomon Sh'ta, 556. 
Ordinary. Tszne no, 871. Tada 

no, ^7 1. 
Orphans. Minashingo. 763. 
Other. Sen. i. e. former. 580. Ta. 
69. Hoka no, 416. 



1089, 

i 

< >ur. \\ I shi- 

; U75, 

< Nttdone ( ■ ■* orunt- 

;' print. I tzeppan itasbima- 
i I Lanwa aaka Darin 
01 1. 

Out ofn^bt Mir nakti n:irimash'- 

\ ie uaku natt i. '.» K). 
Out of these. Kono ocbide, 

< Nitron. Yori saki ni hai 

\ tfuko* ui 2 

M '.'!»(» 

d. Nambeti de« 

7:;«'. TiIm t;.l»i. Do-do, 
108 

i itashi na- 

uash'te. Oolvij watash'ta. 

1267, 

inn with. TaiSOft ni orima- 
>zru, Taisoo iru, 74n 

Overtaken. Oi ts' kimash'ta. Oi 
toziti 512. 

Owe. Sh'ak'yoo nga gozarimas' 
Kari nga aru, 867. Hiyoo wo 
yanmasenii, Hiyoo wo yara- 
nu, Lit. have not paid him 
&c. 544. Karite orimas', Ka- 
rite iru, 1255. 

Own. Go ji bun no, Jishinno, 13. 
Jikoku no, 135. 



K% e r L V; 812 ' l Paid off - Tema *° Varimash'ta or 

1 aid for. Tr anmash'ta, Yalta, 548. Yalta, 547. Hiyoo wo m:na 

Kai nasaremasfna. Ydta, yarimash'ta, or Yatta, 549 

>>-'• Pail. Oke. 179. 



/ 



228 



Patience. Kan-nin, 470. 
Pantomimes. (Lit. to act them.) 

Odori. 732. 
Paper. Kami. 765.832. 1085. 
Paper. (A writing.) Kahits'ke, 852 
Papered door, or moveable parti- 
tion. Karakami, 768. 
Pardon. Go-men. 526- 626. 
Parlor. Ozash'ki. 702. 
Parlors. Zash'ki, 158. 
Particular (To be). Nen wo irete, 

623. 
Pass. [To band]. Angero, 766. 
Pass, (as current coin.) Tszyod 

itashimas', neg. form, 1030. 
Passing. (Going by.) Toorimas'. 

^ooru. 1077. 
Passions. J'od, 872- 
Past. Szngi, 636. 
Pay. v. Hairimas', Yarimas' 729. 
Pay. (If you do not). Kaishi na- 

sareneba, Hersai seneba, 585. 

Yarimasenu naraba, Yaranu 

nara, 1086. 
Pay. n. Hiyoo, 1071. 
Payable. Kaisz yoo ni, 1 1 81- 
Pay-day. Watasz toki- i. e. paying 

time. 1076. 
Pays. (for). Dashi nasaremas', 

Dasz. 520. 
Pear. Nashi. 733. 
Pencils. Fude. 51. 
Penknife. Kong-atana. 1203. 
People H'to, 133. 584. 599. 871 

Ano katatachi, or FTto tachi, 

1087. Mono, Nin, 598. 
Persecute. Gai j'ama wo szru, 724. 
Persons. Mono, 182. 
Pick (Will take my). Erande to- 

rimash'oci, Yondon ni shiyoo. 

533. 
Pick out. Tori s'te nasarimash'. 

Tori s'tero, 720. 
Picture. Edz, 805. 
Picul. Hiak'kin, 990. 
Piebald. Buchi no, 711. 
Piece (of money). Gin, 613. 



Pigeons, (wild.) Yamabato, 790. 

Pinks. Nadesh'ko, 717. 

Pipe. (Lit. a whiff*) Ippuku, 708. 

Pirates. Kai-dzoku, 767. 

Pistols. Tanengashima, 98. 

Pits. Tane, 119. 

Pity (a).Dzannen, Kuchioshii.659. 

Place, no. Tokoro. 121. 349. 

Plain, adj. Akiraka, 629. 

Plainly, (clearly, o~: intelligibly.) 

Wakaru yoi> ni. 857. 
Play (Wishes to). Asobi nasareta- 

ngaru, Asobi tan^aru. 264. 
Play (Do not). Asobuna, Asobi 

nasaruna, 107. 
Play things Mocbiasobi, 123. 
Pleasure (At).Katte shidai ni, 14 1. 
Plenty. Ooi hodo, t>84. 
Pocket-book. Kamiire. 291. 
Polite. Rei ngi tadashiu, Rei ngi 

nga tadashii 233. 
Poor. adj. riinkiu, Bimboo, 293. 

939.Madzsh'ki,939. Yasete. 

said of the soil. 1050. 
Poor (The), n. Hinmin, 41. 
Port. Shin, [a Chinese word. The 

Jap. equivalent is Minato.] 

554. 
Portrait. E-szngata, 932. 
Positive, (in opinion). Ga nga tsz- 

yoo, Ga nga tszyoi, 598. 
potatoes. J'angatara imo, 17- 
Pots. Kama, 830. 
Pounded. Tszite.Lit.pounding. 938. 
Power. Ken. 888. 
Practice, v. Szru. 788. 
Precept, n. Okite. 887. 
Prefer. Ki ni irimas ' Ki ni iiu. 

1200. 
Present [For the]. Tadaima. 702. 
Pretending. Toboketa koto- 231. 
Pretty. K;rei, 922. 
Price. Nedan. 3. 591. 944. Ne. 

538. 944. 
Price [Market]. S'ooba, 1115. 
Printed. Kaihan ni narimash'fca. 

Han ni natta, 1188. Kai sig- 






Q 



uifies corrected, .»s> io» a utw . uu 

.•ilr On). B W 

I 

I ! 

:. 1014. and 



I (At i) 

Lit . 11 
- 
Pron - i i > 

"i • i-hi 

in - • i Sbima- 

nr ibrt, 88 I r: 
id. Lit. thi 

j I 

( tolen) N "tt.o- 

lio. ' *0\ tlbfl no r.i' 
•tin. . n ^ hi, 

:. ( .> iawi 



Put (Shal 
II 

Sbirnatte 

Sin 

K ■ . • ;.. li i . of K-i- 

Pui-in urn Shi- 

i te IrarorO] 1 1 i 
Pol in writing' Yaknsoku tig 
wo 5lii ii », Lit. make 

a u i itten 
Pal off Nobs nas&ri m oh", Nobs 
I mobs a 
N 

i it. 128 1. 
them in public Put on- <> ki oasare, Kiro 7, I. 



pl teed i 
. 7 
Poll efl 
Pull an. Nuite, t:er. from Naki 

. 
Pulse, (ul the wrist). Miaku, 84-1. 



.', K ibi i 
K ibimask'ta, 
K »b'ta947. 

i ni sh te H'to- 
tn ni sh'te, 787. 



n 



Quack doctors. Demoiau'a, 
Quadrupeds. Shi-soku 7 39 
Quails. Ud 
GUiaked. Yuriraash'ta, 

95 1 . 
Quality (not of the same). 

25 
Queen. Niyotei 792. 
ns. Niyotei, 79 1. 
Queue li. Keshte kudasare 



788. Question, v. Oki ki nasare, Kihi- 
nn, 3 
Quick. Hsyakn 33. 163. 795. 
Yutta. Isoide, 774. 

Quickly. Hayaku, 522. 
FudooQuit. Uero. Lit. Go out of. 796. 

Quit claim deeds. Kokenjoo. This 
is preferable to the term Yu- 
dzri j'odmon, 797. The latter 
793. signifies, a will or testament. 



R 



Rabbits- Usangi- 798. 

Boro 799. 
Ram u Shiineri, i. e a sprinkling 
528. Ame. 971- 



Rained- Ame nga furimash'ta, Ame 

nga f tta, 687- 
Rained [Has not] Ame nga furi- 

masen', or furanu, 686. 



j 



ii 



230 



Raise [Will]. Mash'te angemash'- iiem ember . Oboete oide nasare- 

oo, Mash'te yaro°. 531. mas', Oboete iru, 97- Oboete 

Raise [To produce]- Dehimaseif, o ide nasare, Oboete iru, im- 

Dekinai, neg. v 748. per. 809.. 

Rake up. Kumade de kaki yosete, Remit. Ts'kawashi nasaremash'. 

800. Yokose. 810 

Ran away with. Hashiraremash'ta, Rents- Nen-ngu, 811. 

Hashirareta, pass, v- The text Repairs. Sliufku, 1032. 

is wrongly printed. Hashirase- Respectable. Tattomu beki, 317. 

maslrta is a causative verb-jRespected. [are]. Uyamaimas', U- 



360- The sense is, He was run 

away with by the horse &c. 
Ransack. Sangase. 801- 
Rap. Otodzrero. 802. 
Rapeseed. Na-tane, 803. 
Rate [First]- Ichiban yoroshii, no, 

Ichiban yoi no, 929. 
Rate [at this rate]. Sono yod ni, 

Sonnani- 12G5. 
Rather. Yori — yoroshii, yori — yoi, 

■419. 
Rather [a little, or slightly]. S'- 

ko shi, 1019. 
Rather than. Yori — mashi, 873- 
Rationale. Ri, 456. 
Rats. Nedzmi, 740. 804. 961. 
Reach, v. Todoku, Oyobu, 511. 

Nobash'te, 805. 
Read. Oyomi nasare, Yome, 806 

807. O yomi nasaru, Yomu, 

1241. 
Read through [Have]. Yomi owari 

mash'ta, Yonde shimatta, il5. 
Read [To]. Yomu, 1228. 
Reading- Yomu koto, 1269. 
Ready. Sh'taku, 88- 160. 159. 

190- 536- 1169. 
Ready money. Gen khi, 822. 
Really- Makotoni, Tash'kani, 101. 
Receipt. Uketori ngaki, Uketori, 

170- 
Recover. [Get well]. Naori, 920- 
Recover. [Cannot]. Naomi-ciiias'- 

mai. Naoru mai, 650. 
Regarded( Are.) To Omoimas', 825. 
Reign, v. Osameru, 791, 
Reindeer. Oojika, 808- 
Relatives. Shin-rui, 763. 



yamau, 888- 
Rest n. (Remainder) Ato wa, 154. 

Hokano wa, 954. 
Rest, v- Kiusoku nasaremash', Ya- 

szme, 772. 
Return. (Shall). Kaeri nasaru, 

Kaeru, 1171. 
Ribbon. Sanada himo, 552. 
Rice. Koine, 811. 813. 1090. 1096. 
Rice. (Boiled). Gohan, 348- Meshi 

348. 1052. 
Ricefield. Ta, 687. 
Rich, (said of soil). Koete, or Ko- 

yete, 1051. 
Ride. (Let us take a). M'ma ni 

notte, kakemash'oo, or 

demashoo, 710. M'ma ni notte 

oide nasare, M'ma ni notte 

• yuki nasae. 66. 

Ride. (Let him). O nose nasare, 

Nose. 711. 
Ride. (To). Noru. 870. 
Ride too fast. M'ma wo hasiraseru 

koto nga haya szngimas', or 

szngiru, 1257. 
Ride too fast (Do not). M'ma nga 

haya szngiru hashirase nasa- 

runa, or hashiraseruna, 123. 

Right- n. Gi. Doo in wake, 1167. 

Michi, 304. 
Right- adj- Yorosh'ku, 220. Yoro- 

shiu, Yoi, 604- 893. Makoto, 

Hontoo, 894. 
Right- (In the). Yoroshiu, Yoi, 275. 
Ring- v. Fure, 814. 
Rioo. Rioo, 432. 1267. 4 bu. 
Rip. Toke- 815- 



•J 1 



U:ih:i. I.ii 

819 
Rub. \ S/.rin:.: \ _•;>. 

Ruler J'oOngi. I 



,i!i Jik'shima&hta, -J iku 
ih'ta, BIG, 

I 
I. • I. - S ,12 
140 
Road [on the] Mi. hi de, 

M :-iiil';it.i. 7 17 
* Aburi DIOBO ni Shiro. 817 

Koll Dp. Maki Ugl 






over N demos' 



i-li- [Has] i 

i'-'kat- 
-7 I. 



Saddle M'iiki M k 

Said [Nerer]. Mooshiina* 
;7ii. 

[la]. Iwaremas . Iwarmi 
Sail 
Sail v Finn- ni N.itt.- • •idenasaru. 

Fune ni DOtta iku.l . 
Bailon. l-'um- 1. 
Sake, [a liquor] Bai 

Bala IFOTJ. I'm taim-ni. IS 
Sake. Uriinas' wa, Urn wa, 

Balea on credit. Kakeuri wa, v ^;. 

Salmon. Sh'aka. 
Salt. Shiwo, 632, 960. 
Saltpetre, Sh'ooseki, 183. 
Same. Dod, 25. Onajikoto, 406. 

941. 
Sandalwood. Biakudan, 82G- 
Save. [Set aside]. Shimatte o oki 

nasare, Shimatte oke, 8°. 7. 
Savor. Aji. 633. 
Saw- Mimash'ta, Mita, 1049- 
Say. Mooshimas'. 3G6, 1174. Moo 

shiniaszru, Moosz, 703. Iu 

366- 1174. Hanashimas', Ha 

nas', 1135. Hanashi nasare. 

Hanase, 828, Itta. Moosh'ta^ 

Lit. have said- 934. 
Say (did]. Ooserareniash'ta, Itta 

82. 1154- 
Says. Osshiarimas', Iu, 245. 281 



What he — ). BJ d ko- 

li). 

Oi Hi 

I In - ; i. Ohitta, 

S30. 

ii'tc kudasare, 
K.-dzri oV IB, 881. 

of paper. Haugami 
Beribble. i wo nasare, 

Karingaki wo shiro, 882, 

Scuds. Ukingumo, 834. 

Skulking. Kakurete orimas', Kaku- 
rete oru- 1116- 

Seal in blood. Keppan, 461. 

Seal up. Fuu-in wo nasare, mash', 
Fuu-in wo shiro, 835. 

Seam. Nuime- 815. 

Sea-sick. Fune ni Yotta, Fune ni 
oimash'ta, 908. 

Seat yourself. O szwari nasare, 836. 

See (Let us). Go ran nasare, Mi 
nasae, 67- 837. Miro 837- 

See (To). Lit- in seeing, or when I 
see. Me ni kakarimash'te, Mi- 
te, 572. Mireba, 970. Go ran 
nasareta, Mita, Lit- when you 
have seen. Toki — when- 1179- 
Had the honor to see. O me ni 



kakarimash'ta, 1048. Atta, 

Lit. have met, 1048. , 
See. Pres- indie. Micmas', Mieru, 

530. 
Sue (To think). Omoimas', Omoo, 

571. Lit- I think , nai to, that 

there is no — fee- 
See into, i- e- understand, Wakari- 

mas', Wakatta, 750. Neg. form 

of the same, 126 
See. (To visit). Mimai Mimatte, 

1175. 
See to- *. e- Attend to. Ki wo ts'ke- 

te Kudasare, Ki wo ts'kero, 

838- Mamoru, 1224. 
Sce(to Will). Sashidz wo itashima- 

sh'oo, Sashidz wo shiyou, 452- 

MimashV, Miyoo, 488. 
Seeds- Tane. 200. 
Seen (Is not). Miemasenu, Mienu. 

pass v. 158- 
Seen (Have not). O me ni kakari 



Yatta, 472- 1217. Ts'kawa- 

sh'ta, 1217. 
Separated- lledatte 1103. 
Servant. Kodzkai, 48- 1266- 589 
Servants. Kodzkai, 548. 
Service [At your]. The language 

of an inferior to his superior, 

when receiving an order- Ka- 

sh'koniarimash'ta, 29. 
Service [divine]- Ongami, 190. 
Set a going. Ungokashimash'ta. 

Ungokash'ta, 1206- 
Set — on. Keshikaki nasare, Ke- 

shikake, 840, 
Set on end O tate asobasamash', 

Tatero, 714. 
Set on fire [Will]. Yak i mas', Ya- 

kudzo, 884. 
Settle accounts. Kanj'oo wa o tate 

nasarete, Kanfod wa tatte, 

1184 
Settled (not) [Become clear]. Odo- 

miniasen', Odomanu. 1044. 



masen, Minn, 449. Hai ken Set up in business. Akinai wo ha- 
itashimasenanda, Mi nakatta.l ji me sa semash'ta, Akinai wo 
455- hajime saseta, 359. 

Seen (Have). Hai ken itashimash'- Seven. Sh'chi. 1002. 

ta, Mita, 462. Several persons H'tobito, 842. 

Seldom- Tamani, 230. Several times. Iku tabi mo, Nan 

Selfish. Wangamamano, or simplyj do mo, 329. 

Wangamama, 319. Shake. Furi nasare, 846. 

Sell- Utte kudasare, 839. Shame- (It is a). Haji nasaru, nga 



Sell- Pres. indie- O uri nasaremas', 
Uru, 365. 

Sell on credit (Do not). Kakeuri 
wa Itashimasenu, or Senu, 49-5. 

Send. Watashi nasaru 
1260. 

Send for (Will). Tori ni ts'kawase- 
mash'oo, Tori ni yaroo, 489. 

Send (me) word. Ts'kai wo j ya- 
ri nasarete,— O ki kase nasa- 
re. Ts'kai wo yatte kikasete 
kure. Lit. By sending a 
messenger, causeme to hear, 
or inform me &c. 841. 



yokaroo, Hajiru nga yoi Lit. 

it were well for him to be as- 
hamed. 
Shave (G-oing to). Szrimash'oo, 
Watasz. Szr o , 561. 

Shave- Indie, pres- Sorimas', 1073 
She. Ano onango- 847, 848- 
Sheets [wholej. Matto;} sh'te iru 

kami. Mattaki kami, 832. 
Shimoda, name of a place on cape. 

Idz. 1095. 
Ship. Fune- 331. 530- 550. 900 

1061- 1088, and Sen in Ha- 

sen 1088. 



Sent [have]- Ts'kawashimash'ta, Shirtings. Kanakin, 889 






Sli >i\s. Kutes, 

Shop. V I ikami, 

Shotf 

Short iwora \\ Ml - L Semai, 

Sl.-.rt ti»..r 8 k i.i. 671. 1012 Ohiiaa, Ohiieai, 2" 

Slim I ; i ; | .« -r.itiv, • Tiitcte kndasaiv Sm:ill DOl Roti 

Nurinia>'. Nuni. 1' 

Smell' Kaidi miro- Kaide go ran 

Shut / §, in that >tatc. Shin. 

Smoke \ Tabakowo o noun 
ki. 840 i>". or Nouro, 9ft 

Mini. MeJmaitnbori, 
Biekneai B ''son 

Of • kr llchi. I 

uiua>h'ta. KoJ aki Si.ak- B 
ta, i e. tin <1 ■ ~ SottO \<><> ni. Lit in that nian- 



k'wai, %• e- eorry, repentant of. 
S'nk (Was taken), Wadarai nasa- 

ri'ii. 

77 
Suit- (this) T.n.ai ni. 808 

Side [Tin' other! Saki i 
:;n. 

Sign, v Sei moi-ngaki wo nasare 

S-iinri po ■ ' 
Sign i. e an omen Zompin, 1111 
Signing with mic's blooa< Kcj.j.an 

1 n ■union iiiiamni, 

szru, 753. 
Signs- (manual). Temane. 133. 
Silk. Kinu. (manufactured). 
Silken threads. Kinu ito, 79. 
Since- Yori, 382- 
Stogie- B'totee, 112. 
Sinks, v. Shidzmimas, shidzmu 

1065. 
Sir- Danna, 733- 
Sit up. (Cannot). Okite wa irare- 

lnasen', Okite irarenu, 515- 
Sit still. Go an dza wo nasare, 853 
Sixteen. Jiu roku, 760- 
Sixth. Roku, 691. 
Sixty. Roku jiu, 686- 
Sketch, n- Gaku, 927- 



ner, <t way, l 17 i v 1 511 
Konna ni, 184 
Sonne ni, 59 1. ECono \<>o uj, 
604 1161. Kayoa oj, 

in- 1101. Koo, 

111- - ) 414 121. HI 
i-7 m 641 648 

717 ll-j s in 121. 

441 168 166 648 747. 1 162. 

Sono toi>-ri ni, 422 Sono 
. koto, 176, Sonne koto, 

476 KayoOna koto, 1243. 

Koo iu koto, 1248 
Keppan Soft- Yawaraka, Yawarakai, 148. 
Soil (Do not). Oyongoshi nasaru- 

na, Yongoszna. TJ-J. 
Soil n- Denji- 1050- 1051. 
Sold (Can be). Uraremas', 60. 
Some. S'koshi, 154- 411- 859- Ni 

san. Lit. two or three, 791. 
Some more- Mada kore wa, 1237. 
Some other time Ta jitsz, Mata 

konda, 69- 
Something- Mono- 943- 
Something in (or mixed with) it. 

Mazemono- 1004. 
Sometimes- Toki doki, 480- 
Some time or other, i. e after this. 

Saki e yotte, 677- 
So much- Sono yoo ni> So6. 111. 



234 



S 



Sore dake, 855. Kore hodo, 
990. Sonna ni tanto, Sono 
yo« ni ooku, 1261- 

Son- Go shisoku, Mus'ko. 1230. 

Soon. Kin jitsz, Sono uchi ni, 70. 
Jikini, 820. Hayaku, 585. 

Soon (Pretty). Mo s'koshi nochi ni, 
Oshits'ke, 1075, 

Sort of a- Yoona, 1143. 

So that- Yoo ni- Lit- in such a way 
that &c 77. 

Sovereign (As a). Tami wo osame- 
ru michi, Lit. [In] the way of 
governing [the] people. 792. 
Spare-. Idzri nasarete, Idztte, 
402- Note. Idzn', is a corrup- 
tion of Yudzri, which signifies 
to bequeath, or to give for a 
consideration, either money or 
some thing in exchange. The 
sentence were better rendered 
by Kash'te kudasaremash'oo 
or Kash'te Kurero. 

Spare [Can you not]- Kudasarema 
senu ka? Kurenu ka, 51. 

Speak- Hanashi nasare, Hanase 
857. 

Speak of [Cannot]. Moosaremase- 
n', Iwarenu, 901. 

Spends. Ts'kai nasaru, Ts'kau, 
243. 

Spend — thrift. Fu shimatsz, 209. 
Lit. not an economist. 

Spent (Has). Ts'kai hatashimash'- 
ta, Ts'kai ts'kush'ta, 211. 

Spoiled. Kowashi nasaremash'ta 
Kovvash'ta, 1248. 

Spoken [Have].0 hanashi mooshi 
mash'ta, Hanash'ta, 577. 

Spoon. Saji, 195. 801- 

Spoons. Saji, 758. 

Squalls. Hayate, 860- 

Stand- O tachi nasaremish'. Tate 
861. 

Stay. Matte o ide nasare, Matte 
iro, 862. 863. Oide nasare- 
mash', Iro, 1244- 



Stay (Cannot). Oraremasen, Ora- 



•enu, 469. 
Stern, n- Tomo. 655. 
Stick to. Yamedz ni nasare, Ya- 

medz ni shiro, 587. 
Still, i. e- quiet. Shidzka ni, 31. 
Still, i. e> yet. Mada, 105- 1101. 
Still, i. e- even.. Nawo, 1011- 
Still (Be), i*. e- Oo not speak. 

Odamari nasare, Damare, 

31. 
Stingy. Shiwoo, Shiwai, 285. 
Stir, v- Kaki mawashi nasare, Ka- 

ki mawase, 116- 
Stone- Ishi, 646. 
Stop. Tomern, 360. 
Stopped [Has]. Tomarimash'ta, 

Tomatta, 967. 
Storehouses. Kura, 811. 
Strange. Ayashii, 864. 915- Kik'- 

wai no, 915- 
Stranger. Riosh'ku wo sh'te, Lit. 

performing the part of a 

traveller, cr one who is not 

at home. 492. 
Straw. Wara. 765. 
Street. Machi, 940. 
Stretch. Hare. 865. 
Strike [Did]. O buchi nasarema- 
sh'ta, Butta, 1137- 
String the bow. Yudzruwo o Ka, 

ke nasare, or kakero, 866. 
String. To put on a string, as cash. 

Sashi niotooshi nasare, Sashi 

ni toose, 867. 
Strive with all your might. Chi- 

kara wo ts'kush'te o ts'tome 

nasare. Hone wo otte ts'torne- 

ro, 868- Sei d'ash'te, would 

be preferable to chikara wo 

ts'kush'te. 
Strong. Ts'yoo, 244. 
Struck. Tatakimash'ta, Butta, 202, 
Study. Manabeba, Manande, Lit. 

if he study, and By studying, 

869. 
Stumbling. Ts'madzite hizaoru, 



285 



l 

bit h 
Stupid. < .ud. in, 284. Nil mi, L094 
ii the 

n» of the 

371 

Sub I G Ivii na>are. Heif'Uu 

•biro. 

Sue I 

['• \\:i. 

Kono yo° 

Suddei.lv- Kiwaka ni, Km ni, 
8G0. 

iru,Soko- 
Dl 

I I 

£] in iihnash'o". I\ 
ni i. 



Sim i mshine, 692. 

781 Hi 964, 
m [ By]. Hi n.> .1.' in, 242. 
818. 

i 

I li wa Lrimai '. Hi wa 
iru. 

Suppose. < tooimas', < >moti, 1 1 1 

i ka in >h'!:.\ 14. l':i 

Bh'ka m. 

I In in < rimes', I [en 

ni tin) "'. 177 1 1- ii iii omot* 
1 • lorokimesh ta, 1 1 do- 
roil 
Suspect [i>i<l not] CJts igsimssen, 

j aw a hakalla. 
Swallow, w. N'omikomi, Nomiko- 

in... 1 19- 
Syllables. On. Lit. sounds, 871. 



Table Dai. 7S0. 966. 1028. 1087. 
Taikui, Bit 

.*!•"• 2. Ow tchinasare, 37" 

Tore, 
380. 881 882 L264 

Take (Do not). O tori nasaruna. 

Toruna. 129. 
Take [may I]': Karite yoroshiu gO- 

zarimas'. Karite yoi, 734- 
Take a ohair. Koehi wo o ksJce na- 

. Koebi WO kakero. 77<». 

Take a pipe (Let us). Ippuku ts'ka- 
iBStsnimaah'oO, Ippuku no- 
niimash'oo, 708- 

Take a ride (Let us). ftfma ni o no- 
ri nasarete o ide nasare, M'nia- 
ni notte Yuki nasai, 66. M - 
ma n i notte kakeniash'oo, M'- 
ma ni notte demash'o'', 710. 

Take a walk- Oasobi ni o ide nasa- 
re, Asobi ni yuki nasai, 68. 

Take away. Motte oide nasare- Mo- 
tte yuke, 876- 



Take ba<-k (Will) aketorimaah'oa, 
ETkHoi 

Take ir.'inash'. 

Yoojiu wo slilro. ^7"> SH4. 

Take care of. Bodateru, Kuwasen, 
The latter El the neg. 
form of Kuwaseru, to take 
ling. 

Take down. Totte kudasare, Totte 
kurero, 805. 

Take good care of. Dai ji ni nasa. 
remash', Dai ji ni Shiro, 879. 

Take (It will). Itash'too gozarima- 
a\ Sh'tai, 681. 

Take my pick (Will). Erande tori- 
mash'oo, Yori dorinishiyoo, 
533- 

Taken- Torimaszra- Lit tlieytake. 
The verb here is active, the 
Japanese often avoiding the 
use of the passive in this way. 
It is also impersonal, no sub- 
ject being expressed- 

Taken up- Mochi nushi nga goza- 



236 



T 



riraas', Mochi-nushi nga aru, 
Lit. there are owners &c 940. 
Take up . .room (Do not). Haba 
wo nasareniaszna, Haba wo sz- 
runa, 111. 
Taking (Have been). Nomimash'ta, 
Nonda, Lit. Lave been drin- 
king- 454- 
Takes more (It). Ooku irimash'oo, 

Ooku iru de aroo, 619- 
Takes up too much time. Hi kadz- 
nga Kakari szngimas', Hi ka- 
dz nga aniari ooi, 651- 
Take time to think- Toku to kan- 

ngaite, Kanngaite, 513. 
Take turns. Kawari-ngawari, Ka- 

wari atte, 1106- 
Take up with. Yoo ni tatemaszru 
Yoo ni tateru, 1105- Lit- put 
to use- 
Talk- Oshiemas', Oshiero, 133-0- 
hanashi nasare, Hanase, 885. 
Tanned. Kuroku narimas', Kuroku 

naru, 692- 
Taller- Sei nga tako", Sei nga ta- 

kai, 746. 
Tallow. Roo- 886. 
Tallow-tree. Haji no ki, 886- 
Taught- Oshiemash'ta- Oshieta. 

1216. 
Tea- Ch'a, 388. 

Teach- Oshiemas', Oshieru, 502 

The past tense of this verb is 

used in the text- because it is 

the only finite verb there 

Oshie nasare, Oshiero, 887 

Teachers. Shi wa, Shi sh'oo, 888. 

Tears. Namida, 971- 

Tell- hanashi nasare, Hanase, 74. 

889- 
Tell- (Did you?). Ossh'iyarimash'- 

ta- ka, Hanash'ta ka- 83- 
Tell them apart (Cannot). Mi wa- 
keraremasenu, Mi wakerarenu, 
481- 
Tell (Can)- Toite kikasaremas', 
Hanash'te kikasareru, 1213- 



Tell [Cannot]. Hanasaremaseuu- 

tJanasarenu, 440- 
Tell (To). Iu koto, 450. 
Ten. Jiu, 407- 432. 890- Jik, 310- 
Ten thousand. Ichi man, 324. 
Than- Yori, 60. 156 314. 
Thank (Would) Aring ato^ dzonji- 

mas', Aringatoo, 506 
Thank you. Ariugatoo gozarimas', 

Katajike nai, 89 L. 
That- pron- Sore wa, 5, and passim. 

Are wa, 17"), and passim. 
That. adj. Sono, 75, 76- and passim. 

Ano, 76- 12 o and passim. 
Theft- Nuszmi, Dorobod, 269. 
Them- Sore wo, Korewo, Lit. these, 

and those. 298, and passim- 
The other side of. Saki ni, i- e. 

beyond, 311. 
There. As'ko e- 124. As'ko ni, As 



oko ni, 267- 



Mukooe, 325. 



Things- F-Coto 
Think. Oboshimesz 



These. Kore 1067 and passim. 
They. Ano okata ngata, Ano h'to 

tachi, 275. 
Thick- ?'• e. Numerous and troubl- 
esome, Ookuteuttoshiu'O^ku- 

te urusai, 397. 
Thing. Koto, 573. Shina, 1063- Mo- 
no, 756. 

754. 

Omou, 393. 

1239- Omoinias', Omoo, 421. 

463. 589. Dzonjimas , , 463. 

485- Oboshimesz koto, Omou 

koto, 864- Oboshimeshimas 1 , 

Omou. 1131- 1148- 
Think (Cannot)- Omowaremasenu, 

Omowarenu, 487, 
Think (Not). Dzonjimasenu, Omo- 

wanu, 468. 747. Omoimasenu, 

747- 
Thinks a great deal of. Chinch'oo, 

itasaremas', Dai ji ni szru, 

276- 
Thinks nothing of .Nani mokamai- 

masenu, Nani mo kamawaru, 

277- 



T 



:.r 



Think [Will] (taoimtth'o 

da- 
Thirty. San jiu. 1057. 

WO, 

ami passim- 
adj. Km. ml passim. 

ing. J\..n,i 
- tffl -»t : Tmiai hi. :. - 
Thoroughly. Shim-mam-, Lit- to the 

Thousand. Sen. 11 J 

Thousands. Si man Lit Beftttl 

t* it thousands. ' 
•II. 
Threads I to 79. 
Thr.r S, 'tsf, 980. 

Three hundred. Sam biaku 
Through, i r to the end of his 

work, Shimai, 953. 
Throw. Nange. 7 

Throw av isaremash', S r 

Miaszru. S'tera, 

ro, 800- 

Thrown l so of 

tlu-wrb S'te, used attribu 

ti\. 
Throw overboard. Dashimas', Das 

555. 
Thunder. Kami-nari. Lit- the noise 

or voice of the gods. 716. 
Thundered- Rai nga itashimash'ta, 

Kami-nari nga, natta. 6( 
Tide. Shiwo no michi hi, 1213. 
Tigers. Tora. 718. 
Tightly [or much] twisting. Ooku 

yori wo kakete. Tanto yori 

wo kakete, 79. 
Till. Made- 730- 759. 801- 863. 
Time. Toki- 536- Jikoku. Jibun, 

609- 
Time. Lit. day, Jitsz- 69. 
Time. Lit. Leisure- Hima, 579- 
Time i- e- turn. J'yumban, 622- 
Times. Tabi, Do. 138- 329- 543. 
To- [Denoting direction.] E or Ye, 

194. The y is not heard at 



STedo, •_'<»» 1061 1077 1089, 

ami passim 

To [Denoting the Dativ.e relation j, 

Ni. \~'l ami passim- S c 

tinn 1 f«»r th€ same 

parp 

for the pur 

or/Sr. Tame ni. i 1 

To-'(di'h«»tihL' "/' /") Madf. «>r BS, 

To bo had, l" '••• bought 

form of the \>tIi Kai.t.. l»uv, 
17- 
To-dav- Kou ni. hi. :;:;:» 104 in. 

687. 7K' 

1244, Kin. 889, 687. 7m. 

W6. 958. i I'll. 

Mihhash'ti\ 

710- WonilTtota ni. 7^7. 

Told. Mooslii anp'ta. Hanash'ta, 

695. Bbnadumaabta, liana. 

Sh'ta. B4& 1056* Ilanashimo 

Osh'ta. I« 

Tomorrow. Mi ►*, niehi, 61. 63. 
702. 785. 786. 1076. 
1102- Ash'ta, 63. 675. 7<»l'. 
7-»',. 1076. 1102. Mioo, alone, 
signifies to-morrow, in the 
expressions, Mioo ban, Mioo 
asa, To-morrow evening, To- 
morrow morning. Mioo nichi, 
Lit. signifies to-morrow's day. 

Tonakai. The Ainos' name for a 
reindeer, 808. 

To-night. Konya. 1106. 

Too. Amari, 107. 999. 1012. Sz 
ngiru, 127. 1005 .Szngimas', 
999. 1005. 1012. 

Too fast. Haya szngiru, 127. 1257. 
Haya szngimas, 1257. 

Took. Uke torimash'ta, Uke totta, 
517. 

Took him up. (Struck a bargain) 
Te wo uchimash'ta, Tewout- 
ta, 538. 



23s 



Too loud. Gold szngiru koe wo 
sh'te, 1241. 

Too much. 0^> szngimas', Szngiru, 
]242. 

Too much, (in price). Dai bun taka- 
ku, Taisoo takakii, 1246. 

Tooth. Ha. 4-24. 617. 

Tooth ache. Hanga itamhnas', Ha 
nga itamu, 413. Ha no itami 
1042. 

Touch at. Angarimash'te, s'koshi 
tomarimash'oo, Angatte s'ko 
shi tomaroo, 1095. 

Touch (Do not). Ts'ke nasaruna, 
Ijiruna, 106. 

Town. i. e. the business part of it. 
Kooekiba, 542. 

Trade [Do not]. Kaueki wo nasa- 
runa, Kaueki wo shi nasaruna, 
130. 

Travellers. Noboru h'to Lit. peo- 
ple that are going up. 1077. 
Tabibito, is the common term 
for a traveller. In the sentence, 
294, the idea of A great travel- 
ler, is expressed thus. Sh'o 
koku wo hiroku o menguri na- 
sareta. h'to, or Kuninguni wo 
hiroku mawatta h'to. i. e. a 
man who has extensively gone 
about various countries. 

Tree. Ki, 708. 709. 1018. 1038. 
1133. 

Tribute. Mitszngi. 1078. 

Trick. Tawamure. J'oodan. Lit 
a joke, or jest. 297. 

Trial. [Judicial]. Gim— mi, 207. 

Troops (Our). Mi-kata, Lit. Our 
side. 952. 

Trouble- (Pains). Sekkaku tan sei 



659 Shinroo wo tskush'ta. K 1 1 

koro wo ts'kuslrta, 661. 662. 
Troubles. Kuroo. 939. 
Trowsers- [Loose]. Hakama, 772. 
True. Makoto, 603. 642- 643. 902. 

Hontou, 643. 902. 
Trust [Cannot]. Makasete okare 

masen', Makasete okaranu, 

1261. 
Try. Kokoro mi nasare, Kokoro 

miro, 1079. 
Turn. Mawash'te. Lit. turning 

around. 1083. 
Turn bottom upwards. Kaesh'tc. o 

oki nasare, Kaesh'te oke 1080. 
Turn in side out. Urangai sh'te, o 

oki nasare, Urangai sh'te oke, 

1082. 
Turn out, i. e. eventuate. Natta, 

Narimash'ta, 890. 
Turn over. Ka'esh'te o oki nasare, 

Kaesh'te oke, 1084. 
Turn upside down. Tie wo sh'tani 

sh'te o oki nasare, Ue wo sh'- 

ta ni sh'te oke, 1081. 
Turn out [Will not] i. e. result.Na- 

rimas'mai, Naru mai, 431. 
Twenty or thirty. Nisanjiu, 1057. 

Twenty years old. Hatachi, 

848. 1073. 

Twice. Ni do, 471. 583. 945. 
Twins. Ftango, 995. 
Twist. Yorimas', Yoru, 347. 
Two .F'ta, 514. Ftatsz, 618. 737. 

760. 992. Ni h'ki, 205. H'ki 

is the classative for animals. 
Two things. F'ta yaku, Lit. two 

offices. 523. 
Two thirds. Sam bu no ni, Sam bu 

ni, 982. 
Typhoon, Taifun, Oo kaze, 1239. 



Umbrella. Karakasa, 557. 
Umbrellas. Karakasa, 1085. 
Undersell. Yas'ku uru koto, 301. 



Understand (Cannot). Wakarima 

sen, Wakaranu, 456. 
Understand. (Did not). Wakarima- 



Heiiaii'l.-' V\ 
Understand (Docs Dot). Wakimae- 

a, Shiran u 

tunatrlv 

A book i 

M more oolloquial ()ria>li'ku. 

Aiiiiku. 1 17>. 

Unto hi ante. ■' 

Utiles*. Thii ia expressed ool 

l. hilt )>Y the i 

minatrnn ** with narabt f'«»! 
lowing meani or I f 

it Km 

Unwell Jibun dm a>hiu. .1 

nga waruku. I 
Unwholesome (Aw not), Pah 

sll'tc III" 

DM ataranu. Lit 1*n eating Of 

Unwilling (la). EConemann, [ranai, 
Up. 1 



up. tirely. Shiniai, doI 

ahimae, u in the text, 1 I, l-'>. 

Up (I ). Angatte nasare- 

lnashta. Angatte itt:i. 

l"]» (Have come). •*, e, out of the 
ah ia. Deta,200. 
Upside I ih'U ni. 1081 

Up to. Ni. 80. E or V»', 1077. 
Upwards, I I and above \ 
man \ I b, 848, Saki 

I 
Up with it. i: ;; op, Oahi 
.in. 

Watak'ahi domo, 60.87, 
and paaaim. 

M Omoehii 

in. Bfochiiru, 1 120. 766, 

T>'kai)u;i.-/ni. v 

; Lshirai, 7ii » 

np. Ta'katte ahimaimaeh'ta, 

ihimatta, ! 

:1 ( Is). V.-iku ni taehimss', Ya 

kn ni tat**, ( .M»J 

Use (Of), 5Taku ni, x*<Xtoi, 



V 



Vaccination. In 

Value. Dai-kin. *10. 

Varnish. Uruahi, 

Velvet. Bin 

Venture (Ata). Lit. rjght ar m 

D/elii. 7' 

Very, Hanahada, 144. 215. 574. 
752, 915. 1041, 1074. Tai, 
574Tanto,904.Ookini,585. 



Chi j. 015,1041. 1074 Taboo 
ni, 635. 1010. 
glaoVTaikei ni, 574. 
Very mneh. Ynku, 1045, 

: 

Victoria, Biktoria, 79l\ 
Vinegar. 8s, 101 
K,„.. B07. 

Vuki-kar. Vuki-ki,106l. 



\V 



* Krabnn, 531, Kinkin, 531.) rima> Samaszna, 125. 

m . ™t . . . mk 'Walk (Let's take a). Asobinio ide 

\\ ait. O niacin nasai. Matte iro. _ * «» . ,- . »« 

, Qqj nasare, Asobim yuki nasai, 68. 

Waiting. Machi mooslrte Matte,j Walk ( Cannot )- Ayumaremasenu, 
514. Maehi nasaru, H Arnkaremaaen, 850- 

1121. Walk in. Oangari, nasare, Haire, 

Wake np (Do not.) Samaahi naaa- 769 



240 



W 



Want! v. Oiri nasaremas', Iru, 37, 

371. Oiri-yoo de gozarimas' 

384. Hosshii. 504. Iri-yoo 

541. Iru, 1013. 
Want [Do not]. Irimasen, Iranu, 

453. 499. 581. 
Wants. Tangaru.264. 
Warm. Atataka, 1100. 
Warped. Soriniash'ta' Sotta, 1028. 
Wash. Arai nasare, Arae, 1092 
Waste [Do not]. Tsziyashi nasaru- 

na, Tsziyaszna, 113. 
Watch, n. Tokei, 104, 539. 
Watching. Ban. HOG 
Water. Midz, 793. 859. 998 

10G5. 
Way. i. e. Manner. Tobri, 503. 

Yoo, 619. 
Way (You are in my). J'ama ni 

naru, 796. 
Way (Their own). Wanga mama, 

Lit. my way. 364. 
Wear, (as a sword). Sashimas', 

Sasz, 141. 
Weather. Hiyori, Tenki, 845. 
Wedding. Konrei, 985. 
Weigh. Hakari ni kakeru, 17^. 
Weight. Mekata, 391. 
Well. n. Ido. 1010. 
Well. adj. i. e. in good health. Go 

ki ngen yoroshiu, Kawaru 

koto wa nai, 9. Kibun nga yo- 
roshiu, 409. 
Well. adv. Yoroshiu, Yoroshii, 

623. 313. Yorosh'ku, Yoku, 

410. Yoku, 273/316. 
Well. i. e. abundantly. Tak'san, 

146. 
Well. i. e. cured. Naosz. 759. 
Well as we can.Chikara nooyoba 

dake, 1099. 
Well-bred. Rei ngi nga tadashiu, 

Rei ngi nga yoku sh'tte, 213- 
Well brought up. (Has been). Yo 

ku sodateraremash'ta, Yoku 

sodateraru, 936. 
Well done (Not). Yoku ts'kurie- 



masen, Yoku koshiraienu } 
1017. 

Well dressed. Yoroshii if ku wo 
o ki nasaremas', Ii kimono 
wo kimas'. 251. 

Well matched. Yoku niteorimas', 
Yoku nite iru, Lit. look very 
much alike, 994. 

Well roasted (Not), viz" as coffee. 
Mada nama iri, Lit. still raw 
roasted., 1025. 

Well settled [Not], as coffee. Ma- 
da yoku odomimasen, Mada 
yoku odomanu, 1044. 

Well then. Sayod nara, Son nara, 
An eliptical expression, for, 
if it be so, or since things 
rire so — then something fol- 
lows. 1104. 

Went- Mairimash'ta, Itta, 518. 
Ma iru signifies, to go, or 
come. 

Wet [Let it not get]. O nurashi 
nasaruna, Nuraszna, 109. 

What? Nani, 72. 175. 186. and 

passim- Doko no, Lit. which, 

600. Nanzo, 1126- 1163. 

Do6, Lit. how?, 1151. Naze. 

Lit. Why? 1152. 

What else? Nanzo hoka ni, 1122. 

Whatever. Doo-demo. Lit. how- 
ever. 1110. 

What for? Naze, 1116. 1137. Na- 
ni yue, Doo iu wake, 1 1.25. 
Nani no tame ni, i. e. for 
what purpose? 1160. 

What interest? Ri kim wo nambu, 
1109. 

What is the matter with — ? Do6 
ka nasaremash'ta ka, Doo ka 
sh'ta ka, 1 129. Doo sh'te ka- 
yoo ni nasaremash'ta ka, Do 
6 sh'te soo natta ka, 1 108. 

What is that to — ? Doo iu wake 
de kamai nasaru ka, Doo iu 
wake de kamau ka, 1155. 
Doo iu wake, signifies, why, 



v\ 



241 



or, on what account, ai 

m.-i arnone. 

What.. doki, 1148. 

What i N mi DO gi, I 

\vak»\ I {( 

1 1 18. 

\Vii:it they will (etch (For). Soo- 
ba in nai 



Whence.*' 1197. 

re from? Idzku yori, Doko 

kara, i i 

Whether or no- Dzehitomo, 333. 

Which? Dochira, 620. 111 

1201. 1802. 1204. 1205. 

Dochi 1205. Doo,(>. 



Whet to da Do* th 1 Wtich you please. Oboshimashi 

182 dj Kanaimaah'ta no, Iv i oi it- 

Whet a.wbatcoi tano, I u.th..t which hat sui- 

iii- Mid does suit your taste. 

i in im, 1 1 881, 

[tez,1168,U70,1178 ll-i. Whil i 574, Aide, 874. 
1188, 1184, itszngoro made/While [A greet], Hieaah'ku, 338. 

ni,orsiinp!v Itsz ngoro, li71 Wl. \ grant], Oomu k:i- 

shi. I 

madi 1 180. Win: [ \j S*koahi mo, 669. 

When. conj. adv. Toki. Lit. timeJwhi 1208. 1207, 1208. 



iiTi. 1175. ins. n::» 



i. Nochi ni, Lit 
is. also. Atode, 1176* In 
1 169, this idea is expressed 
by the conjunctive form or 
mode of the verb Dekimas', 
viz; Dekimash'taraba. i. t 
wlif-n [you] have finished sh'- 
take nga, your preparations 
So also in 810, Uri nasareta- 
raba, means. When, or as soon 
as you have sold &c. Id 725, 
Nukereba signifies, When 
they have not any — [relativ- 
es]." In 569 also, Hanashima- 
shtaraba, and Hanash'tara. 
mean If, or when 1 speak. 



Whenever. Itsz nite mo, 65. By 
contraction, this becomes Itsz- 
demo. 

Where? Dochira no, 1185. Dochi- 
rade, 1186. 1188. 1189. Do 
chira,1191. Dochira ni, 11 94. 
Dochira e, 1193. Doko. 1191. 
Dokoe, 1187. 1190. 1193. j 
1196. 1203. Doko de, 1189.J 
1186. Dokoni, 1194. 1195. 
M9S. Doko kara. Lit. 



1209. 1210- 1211. 1212. 
1218. 121 sim. Do- 

nata, 1200. 1210. 1211. 1215. 
1216. 1217, 1818. 1219. dec. 

Dochira, Dochi, Lit. which, 

705. 
Wholesome. Hara no tame ni 

narimas', Hara no tame ni 

naru, 521. 
Whom? Donata wo, Dara wo, 

1222, and passim. Nani wo, 

Lit. what? 122 
Whose? Dare nga, Dare no, 1224. 

and passim. Donata no, 1225, 

and passim- Tare no, 1132. 
Why? Nani yue, 1231, Naze, 

1231. 1232. 1233. 1234. 



Naze ni, 1232, 1233. 1234. 

Wide. Haba. Lit. Width, 375. 

Wide (Ho\v)?Nanngen-ken.376. 
Lit. How many measures 
(ken) of 6 feet? 

Wife. Tszma, 357, 792. Note, 
Different terms are used for a 
wife according to the rank of 
the persons addressed, or 
spoken of, whose wives are 
referred to. The following is 



M2 



\V 



a lilt of terms used as afore- 
said. Thus — The emperor's 
is called Ko*>ngo. His second 
ji) rank viz: 

K'ampak'us is called Mando- 
koro. The Taikun's — Midai. 
The 6 highest Daimios — Go- 
renchiu, The other Daimios', 
Okusama. Wives of the Hata- 
moto, or Taikun's retainers- 
Okusama. Wives of the Samu 
rai, Go shinzo. Wives of 
Commoners, o kamisan. The 
Daimio calls his own wife 
when speaking of her, Saij'o 
and Tszma,or when speaking 
to his servants, Oku, The 
Taikun speaks of his wife as 
Midai. The common people 
call their own wives, Nio°- 
boo. 

Wild. Yatara ni, i. e. in no regular 
order,scattered hereand there. 
Yamikumo. i. e in no certain 
place, but just as it may hap 
pen, 717. 

Wild. i. e. without planting. Ma- 
kadz ni. 752. 

Will. aux. v. Made by the ful 
ending oo or sh'oi\ See the 
last words in the 2 sentences 
483, and futures passim. 

Will do. i. e. is well. Yoroshiu 
gozarimas', Yoi, 8. 
Will not do. Dekimasen,de 
hinai, 90G. 

Wind. Kaze. 380. 947. 1093. 

Windows. Mado. 851. 

Wind up [a clock]- Kakeru koto, 
478. 

Wink. n. Mebataki, 20. 

Wish to get it done [If you]. Na 
saretakuba. Conditional, and 
desiderative form of the verb 
Nasaru, So also Shimai taku 
ba. 587. 



202. The latter is L)e instru- 
mental. 
With. i. e. in company with. To 

to mo ni, 71. 
With all [one's] might- Chikara 

wo Ts'kuslvte. Hone wo otte, 

868. 
Without. Nakute wa, Nakereba, 

632. Both signify lit. If there 

be not. 
Woman. Onango, Onna, 849. 
Women, Onango. 
Wood. Ki. 1065. 
Word. i.e. a written one. Monji. 

597. 

Word. Yakusoku, /. e. promise. 505. 
Words. Mooshimas' koto, Kuchi, 

911. Kotoba, 1036. 
Work. n. Shingoto. 189. 764. 

Nasaru koto, Szru koto, 358. 

Shikata, 996. 997. 
Work [a day's], lchi nichi no hi- 

yo6, 544. 
Work [The pay for]. Tema, 520. 
Work in the garden. Hatakewo 

ts'kurimas', Hatakewo ts'ku- 

ru, 480. 
Worn [Not]. Ts'kemasenu, Ts'- 

kenai, Lit. do not wear. 689. 

Kaburite, Lit. putting on the 

head, 732. 
Worse. Nawo waruu, Nawo wa- 

mi. 1011. 
Worse and worse. Shidai ni Wa- 

ruku, 4. 
Worst. Itatte warui, Ichiban wa- 

rui, 272. 754, 896. 
Worst. [The most difficult part]. 

Nan j'o. 574. 
Worth [Is]. Ts'kaimas' tokoro 

nsra — o-ozarimas', Ts'kau to- 



With. Dp. 



by means of. 40. 



koro nga — i, Its utility is — 

&c. 1064. 
Worth much [Is not]. YoOni tatsz 

koto wa s'ku nakute, Ts'kau 

koto nga s'kunakute, 1164. 
Worth the trouble. Shinroo wo 

tsMcush'ta dake no koto nga 



•_T: 



jo/jh V\ .1 217. 

[koto] Of the vain- \ 8 ■ \ 

1 it. Cat , vrite, V.I 

Wl 

Writing, K . B ku koto 



ol toe trouble [shinroft] 

I upon it (• 

nega< 

A 

> Yabul 



Muttoe 

koehixna, B95' Chi- 

I 



E 



tola H 

J N.n Li 

Years old [Twenty]. II 

I 

J lay. Btknjitat, . r >. r >i. 809. 

191. 
Yielding, Fynn. 

. 10 ami passim. Omai 
.10 and passii 
ma ! j. The first 

oft! 

the othe • in the 

order in which th 

each other. The honorific pre- 



0) before a verb, or I 
a noun, oftes talc- the 
place of the, prODOOD of the 

i.aml frequently 

being 

r I from the use 

of the above prefixes, or the 

or some thin lt already laid. 
Your. Omai do. 1 1 .and 

passim. 

. ita go jihnn no. 
< >mai jishin no 18 anil pa> 
hid. 






Wherever in this rohnne the French ii oeeara, it ihould 1»<- i dou- 
bled, exeep4 in ilu- eaae of un= lo-oo. The Roman munben below 
refer feO tin- pogei in the / i Grammar, and tin* 

Arabic Ignrei to the lin- - m a 









R 



II 


5 


Sliimuii 


Sliimau 




\-l 


kai tut 


kai. tut 


l\ 


■1 


• 


rerb 




1 - 


mk 1 

i t.mi mono 


s takoremaa 1 

t tai ooo 






\ 


U 


Both 


tire l.ntli 






• •Hi 


offiee, 


VI 




i 


Ni \va 


Ml 


1, 


ii. Appending 


uaraii, appending 


Mil 


1 


MM Dgumo 


A ma Dgumo. 




11 


U.l 


Kiku \\a 




■_'•• 


Kiki ni w.i- 


Kiku ni ui 




"l 


<^K « £ &c. 


1 ^ K £ ot 


I 


VI 




Sasliiatattc 




17 


Elorobi, to go to 


I [orobi, to go to ruin 






Modi 


M mdi 


XI 




Yillitr 


[ate "i- In.- 






Shift, going 


Sh'te, doing 


XII 


7 


dzongimas' 


• l/.oiijiin 


XIII 


16 


iB ded 


it In- regarded 


XIV 


4 


to speak. The phrase 


to Bpeak; the phrase 




12 


foia 


ula 




35 


i ui 


Y"lt)l' 


XV 


43 


Vonval 


vowel 


XVI 


20 


Kuru. t<> bito 


Kuu, to bite 




21 


Tsuru & Tsurareau 


T.-zru & r I\zrareru 




22 


.rou 


Tszreru 


XVI 


23 


Tsz.~ 


Tavern 




26 


Skurareru 


S k u w a rem 


XVII 


9 


boues-the 


bones, the 


XVIII 


13 


llarac, to pay 


Harai, to pay 


XIX 


13 


M..v«»wananda 


-Yiayowananda 




16 


Kurunanda 


Kurananda 




26 


T ski, to 


Tske 




27 


Tobinakatta 


Tobanakatta 



Page j Line 



For 



Read 



XX 


1 


dz 


dzi 




9 
19 


brielfly 
Ttasz 


briefly 
Itasz 




10 


Ttashimas' 


Itashimas 1 




21 


Kikaemas 


Kikoemaa' 


XXI 


29 


miako 


Miako 


xx r i 


22 


Dikineba 


Dekineba 




42 


kaisanu 


Kaisanu 


XXIII 


5 
13 


although it 
mine domoshiru. 


although. It 
minedomo shiru, 




14 


kikane 


Kikane 




24 


examples 


example 


XXIV 


40 


• Grozarimaszeba 


Gozarimaszreba. 




41 


Areniash'tareba 


Arimash'tareba 


XXV 


3 


Arimash'oo, keredomo 


Arimash'oo keredomo 


XXVI 


13 


mimaszedomo 


mimaszre domo. 


XXVII 


2 
12 
26 


purpose as mi ni 

preceeding 

Korosareraidearoo 


purpose, as mi ni. 
preceding 
Korosareru de aroo 




35 


Keredomo 


Keredomo 




37 


Korosarareba 


Korosarureba 


XXVIII 


4 


Korosare taroo ka 


Korosare taroo ka 




9 
15 


Infinitive, ni 
Korosamash'te 


Infinitive Korosare ni 
Korosarem ash'te 




32 


Misatareba 


Misetareba 


xxv iii 


42 


Miserataraba 


Misetaraba 


XXIX 


22 


mi v. r. taku 


mi v.r. and taku 


XXX 


16 


pharsc 


phrase 




21 


naru maimono 


narumai mono 




22 


Moshisoni 


Moshi sono 




23 


mode of the verbs 


mode of the verb 




33 


Miako k'akaide 


Miako Kakaide, 




38 


Kakadzniita 


Kakadz ni ita 


XXXI 


40 
4 


Kakadzniyoo 
Kakiwashimai 


Kakadzni iyoo 
Kaki \va shimai 




5 


Kakaredomo 


Kakaredomo 




9 


Kakiwashimai 


Kaki wa shimai 




23 


Kakimai 


Kakemai 




26 


Kakanaideiru ko'. 


Kakanai de iru ka? 




34 


Infinative 


Infinitive 




39 


Kakanaidz 


Kakanai de 



KI-.KA1 V. 



Ptgt 


lim For 


Bmd 


XXXII 


15 


Koto <• v\ 


K ko e &c 








N'llll 




1!. 




>m>i i toru 






dame 


tain** 


XLI 




n;ik.» 


naku 




1-J 


pooriti 


puerile 




27 








:;i 


Tatt-mier 


Tattomu 


XI.IV 


20 


at a time, Two 


at :i time, tWO 


XLV 


8 


lelii man bu do Ban 


hi man bo no san 




26 


Tanamoro 


Tammono 




40 


l\« inc 


Koine 


XLVI 


34 


latt 


later 


XLVII 




lnachiru 


mahiru 




IS 


ken nithi 


bun niclii 




i-j 


to day mioo 


to day, Mioo niclii 




i.'. 


miobi 


nielii 




n; 


EDal \n.) nichi 


Shi |n.j and niolii 




•ji 


ochi (twice) 


iehi 






Insoka 


Misoka 




38 


toka 


to ka 


LI 


5 


nouns 


noun 




L6 


sadonn t<> 


Sadamcte 


LII 


7 


Kosh'ko ni 


aVko ni 




1-J 


from words 


form-words 


LIU 


36 


nete 


nite 


LIV 


3 


Sote 


Soto 




32 


euusility 


carnality 


LV 


29 


haredomo 


naredomo 


LVI 


31 


and in often 


and is often 


LIX 


38 


Akiredo 


Akindo 


LX 


99 


tozi ni 


tszi ni 


LXI 


30 


more 


mere 


LXII 


1 


Kukimas' 


Kakiiun- 



E It 11 AT A. 



The first numbers below refer to the No. of the sentence in the 
Alphabetical Part, and the next to the 1st, or 2nd, form of the same. 



No. 



For 



Read 



25 
16 
49 
51 
53 
66 
74 
79 

83 
87 
89 
98 
126 
151 
152 
169 
170 
173 
180 
190 
193 
201 
255 
269 
271 
275 
286 
287 
413 
417 
420 
424 
431 
432 
449 
468 
469 



1. 2. 

I. 2. 



i. 2. 
1. 2. 
1. 2. 



1 

1. 2. 

2 

1 



1 
2 

2 

2 

1 

2 

1 

1 

2 

2 

1 
1. 2. 
1. 2. 

2 
1, 2. 
1. 2. 



biyaku dztsz 


biyaku dora &c. 


nkeai ni 


uke ni 


ni jiu nin ni 


ni jiu nin ni 


7 f V 


9f9 


v W 


*ky 


»v 


9t 


9 V Vis 


V % Vis 


ni ? 


ft 7 f 


a — 


3 I) 


£^£ 


jr^rz 


no ano ( *f ) 


soo. if ty . 


itsz ni 


itsz tsz ni 


Nip'pon h'to. 


Nip'pon no h'to, 


get 


yet 


i v r> 


1 V & 


9 % • 


* f 


sam bu ni 


sam bu no ni 


Watak'shi no 


Watak'shini 


o yu ki 


o ide 


;> i/ tomi ni 


j$ ^y tomo ni 


sh' te 


sh'-te 


ts' ka-t-te 


ts'-ka-t-te 


ko-o 


go-o 


confesses 


confessed 


do-ro-bo 


do-ro-bo-o 


me-da 


me da 


to-o-ri 


do-o-ri 


!>& 


*t? 


S.S. 


7-^. 


i-ta mi-ma-s' 


i-ta-mi-ma-s'. 


so ii na-ni 


so-n-na-ni 


wa-ka ra &e. 


wa-ka-ra-na-kat-ta 


nu-ki-ta'-i 


nu-ki-ta-i 


ch'-o 


ch'-o-o 


ri-o 


ri-o-o 


o-no 


a-no 


£, mo 


%Z. *? nio-o 


%Z mo 


^, ^ mo-o 



For 






470 


1 


ko-to mo ko-n-ni-n 


to mod k'a-niii-n. 


189 


_ 


ghi-ra-nu 


.-hi -iv -mi 


409 








MM 


1 


o ki-ka-ae-tc 


U 


Ml 


a 


toll.) 


ao-no 




2 


VL-h 


a-e 




1 •_' 


ta-bi-ta-bi 


o-ri 




_ 


ma-sh'-te-ya-ro-o. 


ma ro -o 




1. 


no-o-shi-me-ah'-ta. 


na-o-j-hi inasli i 




1 


'; % 


x#x 




•J 


wa-ahi 


wa-Bhi no 


559 


1 


no 


hi 


569 


1 


toko 


t0 ki 


^\\> 


2 


to-no 


so-no 


585 


2 


uttae ni azru 


Utt;i 


588 


1 


ta'-ku-na-i-ma-ah'-o-o 


Ts'-ku no i ma-sh'-o-o. 


589 


1 


ts'kaemaah'oo 


ta'kaima>' 


590 


1 


torimasooo 


torimashiod 


591 


1. 


hlfl 




608 


1. •_' 




1 mo 


608 


l 2. 


ch'o-nni 


.-me 


630 




M-0 


■HI 


658 


i •_' 


ax-he- to 


81-1" 


• 


l 2. 


after "Nani ni" inaert 


de-ino 


668 


2 


ta-ke-te 


ts'-ke-te 


673 


2 


nia-shi-da 


maahi da 


682 


1. 2. 


a-i'-ko-ni 


k<» koui 


687 


2 


ha ji-nie-te 


ha-ji-ni. 


694 


1. 2. 


ku-sz-re-te 


ku-dz-re-te 


699 


2 


ts'-ka-n 


ts'-ka-nu 


705 


o 


to o-ku 


to-o-ku 


710 


1 


■f & de 


^>v & e 


711 


2 


ni-no-ru 


ni no-ru 


713 


1. 2. 


ko-o-j'-o-o 


ko-to-ba 


717 


2. 


ya-mi-ko-mo 


ya-ta-ra ni 


722 


1. 2. 


ts'-ke-na ke-re-ba. 


ts'-ke na-ke-ri-ba 


724 




yu-u 


i-u 


732 


1. 


odori hane maszru 


odorimaszru 


739 


1 


tsz-me-ta-o 


tsz-me-to-o 


743 


1. 2. 


koshirai sai 


koshirae sae 


749 


1. 


koshiraini 


koshiraera 



ERRATA. 



No. 



For 



Read 



754 


2. 


no koto 


ko-to no 




759 


1. 


ko-to 


ko-to nga 




767 


1. 


ka-i-zo-ku 


ka-i-zo-ku nga 




774 


1. 


ka-ji-da 


ka-ji da 




788 


1. 


i-i-ka-nge-n na 


i-i-ka-nge-n-na 




790 




after "wild boars" 


are abundant 


in the 








market in winter. 


791 


1 


Yo-ro-pa 


Yo-o-ro-pa 




792 




ngo-ku 


ko-ku 




792 




wo-o-sa-me-ru 


wo. o-sa-me-ru 




793 


2. 


hi-ni 


hini 




797 




yudzri j'o°mon 


ko-ke-n-j'-o-o 




816 


2. 


a-ta ra-nu 


a-ta ra-nu 




822 


1. 


ge ji-ki 


ge-ji-ki 




823 


1. 


ta-ka-o 


ta-ko-o 




831 


1. 


v ; 


') > 




855 


1. 


yo-ro-shi-i 


yo-ro-shi-u 




864 


1. 


oboshimeshi 


oboshimesz 




865 




kimono 


kimono wo 




868 


1. 


wo-o 


0-0 




884 


2. 


shi-ro-ki 


shi-ro ki 




885 




hanashinasare 


hanashi nasare 




890 


2. 


ma-shi-da 


ma-shi da 




900 


1. 2. 


mo-u 


mo-o 




902 


2. 


ho-n-to 


ho-n-to-o 




912 


1 


mo-o-na-ji 


mo o-na-ji 




932 


1. 


ga 


g° 




932 


2. 


e-sz nga-ta 


e-sz-nga-ta 




960 


2. 


nga-s'-ko-shi 


nga s'-ko-shi 




962 




ch'-o-do 


ch'-o-o-do 




963 


2. 


yo-ri-a-chi 


yo-ri a-chi 




975 


2. 


da 


aru 




993 


1. 


a-ngo-ri 


a-nga-ri 




1002 


1. 2. 


ri-o 


ri-o-o 




1004 


2. 


ta-che-ngi-e 


ta-chi-ngi-e 




1008 


2. 


ya-ke-da 


ya-ke da 




1013 


1. 2. 


ch'-o-do 


ch'-o-o-do 




1026 


1. 2. 


j> 






1030 


1. 


tsz-yo-o 


tsz-u-yo-o 




1030 


2. 


tsz-yo-e 


tsz-u-yo-o 




1035 


1. 


gozarimas' 


gozarimasenu 





KKRATA. 



No 


i 


For 


i<W 


1040 




mo 


ino-o 


1110 


1. 


nasarimas'k 


nasarnnas 


1115 


•j 


i ku-ta 


i-ku-ra 


!•_'».; 


1. 


kayo o-na 


ka vo una 


1205 


1. 


naivmM 1 


naninas 






Pag* 


No Of 


For 


RmhI 


175 


1\ 17 


cha \va 


cha wo 


•• 


•• 


ii. kaitai 


;:ii kaitai 


177 




koooki 


kock-ki 


L78 


N. 39. 


1- h 


K ? 


178 


r N 


*9£*9%f^* 


*****fcf^ * 








imas' 




1 8 


+1 


>^ 






ff^ 


*?> 


180 


r. 16 


BMTCUaih'oO 


QvenMihoo 


181 




kit., ft y ? t 


kiito & Y 9 % 


n 






y v 




N. 25. 


b'oo 


805 


182 




hoOyun 


hooyuti 






ftoti 


totte 


183 




•JO. 


I 30. 




F. 30. 


f -*- ? V * 


ah'te ^f 


j> 




?7?v;* 






I' 33. 


N. 31. 


186 


N.21. 


mino 


mi no, 


190 


r 18 


ll'vnkll & >J? 


so6, hyakn & \^ 


m 


N 


kara & f] J 


kura & ft 7 






ns- 


^75- 


194 


B l. 


+ 1Y 


•f-yh 


195 


B. 5. 


nangmochi 


nangamochi 


•• 


B. 13. 


dz to & X *? }* 


dzito & X -f J- 


196 


S. 18. 


fe ^ ^ ^ X 


=fc92^* 



11 yz/.v tfW Hecm 


Ptf?« 


| Line 


For Read 


ly7 
198 

109 


18 

1 


1266 Ft. 

after "written" insert 

zeni 


12.960 Ft. 

zeni. 



ERRATA. 

Index and Vocabulary. 



Line of Line of 
Page 1st col. ^nd col. 



For 



Read 



203 


1 




Pak'san. 


Tak'san. 


)j 


12 




Jtashimas' 


Itashimas' 


jj 


14 




moo sh'te 


moosh'te 


j> 


15 




Szozmeru 


Szszmeru 


>j 




12 


931 


1093 


204 


20 




under "ancient'' in- 










sert anchored, before 
"akari wo orosh'ta. 






39 




mono 


mo no 






24 


kooe ki 


kooeki 






31 


kik'e 


kike 


205 


4 




dzketemamotte 


dzkete mamotte 




32 




Ts wo atta 


Te wo utta 






29 


Atatamarimes' 


Atatamarimes' 


5) 




39 


Konomai 


Kono mai 


206 


15 




ji 


ii 




21 




Ita 


Ha 




36 




763 


673 


5) 


47 




kolo 


koto 






1 


niszru 


ni szru 






14 


kun 


kuii 


207 


10 




Yabarimaslrta 


Yaburimash'ta 


» 


20 




After "Build", &c. 
insert 673 




;j 


33 




ku dasare 


kudasare 




37 




Toiu 


Toiu 


207 


40 




Ts'kurara ru 


Ts'kurareru 


208 


36 




Nakasete 


Makasete 


)? 




31 


234 


334 


57 




38 


Poojin 


Too jin 


208 




43 


Nok'kei 


Nik'kei 


209 


5 




Tammons 


Tammono 


V 


11 




CoflFe and 


Coffee, and erase Cop 


1) 


15 




Samun 


pee. 
Samuii 


J) 


17 




755 


739 


J> 




9 


Hara kin'sep'p'uku 


harakirui, Sep'puku 


5) 




21 


omowaremai 


omowaremas' 


5J 




23 


Somuiti 


Somouite 



SBB ITA. 







Line of 






/V- 


1st. col. 


2nd. coJ. 


For 


Read 


1*10 


7 




in 


in 


>» 


9 




Han.ra 


H:iinru 


» 






st-iki 




» 






yudxri j V»inon 


koki-nj'od 


» 




5 


46. 


160. 


211 


1 








>• 


M 




(with it) 


(wish it) 


•» 




10 


1007. 


1006, 


•• 






in 


ni 






»•_' 




277 


219 






akiru 


ahiru 


U 


L8 




ktata 


kniitr 


» 






mgcnnario'ii 


lik:ingcnna riooji 


» 




17 


Anaji 


Onaji 


» 








d/.lii 


n 






dele. 




» 






111. 


III. 


»> 




n 




ss7 


218 


19 




>:in<_Mt.' 


Sangatte 
I< liihan 


j» 


34 




T<liitan 


»• 






Yukeo 


yuku 


»> 




jj 


ariwa 


mwi 


'2\\ 


10 




kakariniascru 


kakarimasenu 


H 


31 




Iiod 


Jiod 


214 




9 


osorote 


osor- 


216 


15 






H'to 






11 


141 


241 






42 


575 


595 


•Ji.i 


42 




yohu 


yoku 


jj 




22 


888 


Sf.S 


>: 




35 


Heemaszru 


Haemaszru 


j> 




42 


776 


766 


217 


8 




Ts 


Te 






41 


52. 


53. 


218 


45 




364 


1244. 


j» 




34 


Mada 


made 


» 




43 


Ika hodo 


Ik'ka hodo 


219 


9 




Watah'shi 


Watak'shi 


?> 


31 




expressedly 


expressed by 


» 


33 




591 


941 


» 




19 


Itama 


Itamu 



10 



ERRATA. 



For 



Line of 
1st col. 



Line of 
•2nd col. 



For 



Read 



Zi\) 




23 


209. 


309. 


55 




30 


21. 


821. 


220 




11 


Tamar 


Tama 


it 




13 


637. 


657. 


55 

5* 




16 

20 


gerund ive, 
Ch'odo 


gerundive 
Ch'oodo 


55 




22 


Sahi 


Saka 


221 


18 




oohina 


Ookina 


55 




27 


1115. 


115. 


222 




13 


After "shishi" insert 


718. 


223 




36 
4 


Tamangnszri 
349 dele. 


Tamangsiszri 


55 




9 


nasarete 


nasareta 


55 




30 


795. 


725. 


55 




41 


kawarieoo 


kawari wo 


55 




42 


Ts'kuuaimash'oo 


Ts'kunoimash'od 


224 




43 


kaman 


kamau 


225 


11 




637 & 638 


737 & 738, 


55 


21 




ne 


ue 


55 




22 


938 


738. 


55 




27 


621 


641. 


226 


9 




Itasz made mo 


Itsz made mo 


55 


44 




Tammei 


Hamme 


55 




4 


Mahiou 


Mahiru 


55 

227 


12 


43 


tooyun 
Once 


tooyuii 
One 


5' 




5 


1269 


1268. 


55 




17 


33 


533. 


55 




27 


nasaremash'te 


nasaremash'ta 


55 




32 


tozita 


tszita 


228 


5 




kahits'ke 


kakits'ke 


55 


20 




Hairimas' 


Haraimas' 




36' 




1087. 


1070, 


55 
•5 


40 


25 


yoridori 
41. 


yoridori 
40. 


229 


12 




782 


778. 


230 


2 




Dchimasen' 


Dekimasen' 


230 




2 


iru 


iro 


55 




13 


954. 


594. 


55 




38 


123. . 


127. 


55 




39 


in 


iu 











M 




Line of 


L M of 












/*r 


M 


282 






At'tt-r "aihamed" fro. 






11 




069. 




ii 


47 
















942. 




i.; 




M/n 


M/.ri 








• 











after •>liir., 




ii 










235 




ta 


after "expressed. 


797. 






40 


108. 


105, 


ii 




N 


kainawaru 


k:mi:i\v:nm 








674 




» 


33 








it 


7 


7 


sh'ta ni Dele. 




•i 




27 






m 


40 




oyoba 


oyobu 


Ml 


u 




DMOidi 


Hani-!' 


ii 




16 


noma kashi 


ukaslii. 






28 


KHn 




m 




45 


Life 





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