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II. PETER SCHUYLER (Continued) : i 


The Saratoga Patent, 95 

Kinderhook, ......... 129 

Two Tracts on the East of the Hudson, .... 130 

Westenhook Patent, 131 

The Oriskany Patent, 133 

The Mohawk Lands, 134 








VI. PHILIP SCHUYLER, SECOND : . . . . . .284 

Nicholas De Meyer, 288 

Hendrick Van Dyck, ....... 293 


Harmanus Schuyler, . . . . . . . 319 




Dirk Wesselse Ten Broeck, 328 

Anneke Jans, 337 

The Fort Family, 367 

Genealogical Table of the Fort Family, . . . .371 

Nicholas Bleecker, Jr., . . . . . . . 377 












INDEX, 499 


PETER SCHUYLER (Continued}. 

THE relations between the Earl of Bellomont and Colo 
nel Schuyler were formal, but not cordial from the first. 
Schuyler was a friend of Fletcher s, and an opponent of 
the party that Bellomont had espoused. This was enough 
to make the one suspected and the other distrusted. As 
time passed, Bellomont s suspicions became so strong that 
they appeared as truth, and yet there was no foundation for 
them. Colonel Schuyler was more than an ordinary man 
in many respects. He understood the Indians, and how 
to deal with them, better than any man of his time ; he 
was kind and brave, virtues greatly respected by the Five 
Nations. Bellomont s jealousies were fed by persons in 
Albany, who aspired to the positions and dignities so long 
held by Schuyler ; but his friends were numerous and 
influential, and, although he was indifferent to personal 
attacks, they rendered him a hearty support, and by their 
friendship sustained him against the secret intrigues of 
his enemies. When Bellomont s mind had become thor 
oughly poisoned, he slandered Schuyler without stint in 
his letters to his government, and attempted to dispense 
with his services in his management of Indian affairs. He 
chose as his friends and advisers men of his own faction, 
who bowed submissively to his imperious will. " Colonel 
Schuyler," it was affirmed by Colonel Smith, member of 
the Council, " was above all men the most dear to the 


Five Nations, not only from his long acquaintance with 
them, but by his personal conduct and valor in the late 
war, engaging with them and for them against the 
French." Yet in his last conference Bellomont had neg 
lected and insulted him ; he had conducted his negotia 
tions without his advice. The unfortunate results were 
soon apparent. Against his commands the sachems went 
to Canada and made peace. They were well-nigh lost to 
the English ; and Bellomont expressed the opinion that 
they were irrecoverably lost. Had he lived, and spent a 
year in Albany, his prophecy might have become a reality, 
His sudden death, on March 5, 1701, may have been a 
blessing to the province. At all events, Colonel Schuyler 
retained his place in the Council, which he would not 
have done had Bellomont lived a few days longer. 

After the earl s death, Lieutenant-Governor Nanfan be 
ing in the West Indies, the government devolved upon the 
Council, of which Colonel Smith was the senior member. 
Livingston, who was appointed councillor by Bellomont, 
and had supported his measures, now transferred him 
self to the opposite faction. The Leislerians, however, 
retained a majority of the members, who insisted that the 
Council should administer the government, and not the 
senior member. Schuyler and Livingston adhered to 
Smith, and, being in a minority, refused to sit in Council. 
The Assembly, then in session, declined to legislate, but 
adjourned from day to day. The differences and confu 
sion were only settled by the return of Nanfan. 

Lieutenant-Governor Nanfan arrived in New York from 
Barbadoes on May 19, 1701. He informed the Lords of 
Trade, that through the prudent management of the 
Council the public peace had been preserved, and that 
the affairs of the province remained as they were at the 
time of the late Governor s death, with little alteration. 


He reported the Five Nations to be in good disposition at 
present, and, to confirm them in their "obedience," he had 
appointed a time to meet them in conference, when he 
proposed to distribute in presents a part of the 800 
lately received from England. In consequence of the 
differences prevailing in the Assembly, he had dissolved 
it, and had ordered a new election. He made several 
fair promises, especially to use his best efforts to recon 
cile the prevailing differences by impartiality in the ad 
ministration of justice, without regard to persons or 
parties. It will soon be seen how well he redeemed his 

The Commissioners for Indian Affairs, by direction of 
Nanfan, sent Johannes Bleecker, Jr. and David Schuyler 
to Onondaga, to notify the Five Nations of the coming 
conference, and to observe the transactions of the French 
emissaries there with the Indians. They .left Albany on 
June 2, 1701, and arrived at Onondaga on the loth. On 
the i4th, in the evening, some Seneca sachems having ar 
rived, a meeting was held by the Onondagas and Senecas 
to take into consideration the subject of religion. Bello- 
mont had sent them a belt, proposing to settle Protestant 
ministers among them when the fort should be built. 
Callieres had also sent a belt, offering to furnish them 
with Jesuit priests, who would live among them without 
the protection of a fort. Both belts hung in the council- 
house, and the question now to be decided was, which 
should be accepted ? Dekanissora, the mourning hermit, 
had laid aside his weeds, and resumed his old vocation of 

1 A son of David Pieterse Schuyler, and believed to be a first cousin of 
Colonel Peter Schuyler. He was a merchant of Albany, and had trans 
actions with Canadian traders. His acquaintance with the Five Nations 
and their country was limited, but he was a friend of Bellomont and 
Nanfan. He was afterwards mayor of Albany. 


ambassador and orator. He had recently returned from 
the Canadian court, and occupied the whole session re 
counting his experiences and adventures. Nothing was 
said about the belts of religion. 

Dekanissora related, that when he arrived at Montreal 
the governor received him kindly, and kissed him on both 
cheeks. While conversing with the governor a stranger 
entered the room, to whom he was introduced as the great 
hero whose picture was to be seen in all the Paris print- 
shops. He had dined with the governor at his table, as 
also with a clergyman, who had requested him to sit for 
his portrait. The governor made him several presents, 
including a double-barrelled gun, a laced coat and hat, a 
handsome shirt, and a lot of tobacco. After spending six 
days in feasting, sight-seeing, and picture-making, he took 
his leave of the governor, who said that he would not de 
tain him, knowing quite well he should be at home, or all 
would run to confusion. Callieres was untiring in his 
attentions to the great orator, and when he left ordered a 
canoe with three Frenchmen to convey him up the river 
from Montreal to above Fort Frontenac, and not to allow 
him to paddle, "which they punctually obeyed." The 
contrast to Bellomont s treatment of Sadakanahtie is 
striking. The reception of M. Maricour shortly afterward, 
compared to that of Colonel Romer, is equally significant. 

Bleecker and Schuyler, four days after Dekanissora s 
jubilant speech, desired a meeting of the sachems, but 
they excused themselves, because there was not a " full 
house." While they were talking, a messenger came to 
announce the arrival of M. Maricour at Caneenda, eight 
miles distant on the lake, and desired some squaws to be 
sent for the baggage. The sachems immediately left with 
a great company to greet him. They returned the next 
day " with great triumph, undej- the French flag." The 


day after there was a public meeting of all the sachems, 
and Dekanissora narrated his negotiations with the gov 
ernor of Canada on his late visit, asserting, however, that 
he did not act in a public capacity, but rather as a private 
individual. M. Maricour informed the sachems that he 
had come to tell them that the governor of Canada would 
expect them at Montreal in thirty days, and to procure all 
the French prisoners among them. He also told them 
some news : The king of Spain was dead, and the dauphin s 
youngest son would succeed him, about which there was 
likely to be a "great ado." 

Finally, when the question as to which religious belt 
they would accept could be deferred no longer, Dekanis 
sora came to Bleecker and Schuyler for advice. He said 
that there was a great difference of opinion among them 
some will have a priest on one side of the castle and a 
minister on the other side. He was told that this would 
cause confusion, and advised to allow no priest in the 
country ; that they should behave like men, remembering 
their former courage and famous deeds, and not cringe 
to the French. The chief replied: "We fear the French 
will make war on us, and we shall then fade away, like 
the Mohawks. You may promise assistance, but what 
does that avail, so long as you do not give it?" In the 
night the old chief came again, and said that they were 
yet divided, and that he was so troubled that he had not 
slept for two nights. 

On the 22d, at a meeting, when the French gentlemen 
and the English envoys were present, Dekanissora said : 
" We are desired by both parties to become Christians, 
and we see the belts hanging before us. You make us 
mad, and we know not which side to choose. But I will 
now say no more about it, and take the belts down and 
keep them, because you are both dear with your goods. 


We are sorry we cannot pray, but we have come to this 
conclusion : We will take a priest or minister of the party 
who sells his goods the cheapest. Our sachems meantime 
are going, some to Albany, others to Montreal, and we 
will think about it until winter. We have a suspicion 
that there will soon be another war between your nations, 
but we tell you both that we shall keep the peace." 

M. Maricour caused considerable commotion in the 
village by his efforts to secure the prisoners. In the pres 
ence of David Schuyler, Dekanissora told him some plain 
truths, which brought to his rescue Father Bruyas, who 
poured oil on the troubled waters, by promising to re 
turn several prisoners at their next meeting at Montreal. 
When the matter was settled, the chief called the priest 
aside, and confidentially told him that he was going to 
Albany within ten days, and would not be at Montreal. 
Shrewd orator and diplomat ! He had just received rich 
gifts from Callieres ; he would now get more from the 
English, and enjoy Nanfan s hospitality. 

The conference of Nanfan with the Five Nations lasted 
nine days, in July, 1701, resulting chiefly in a deed to the 
king of the Indian hunting-grounds between Lakes On 
tario, Erie, and Huron, which they had conquered from 
the Hurons sixty years before. 1 A worthless present, ex 
cept as giving a claim in Canada, for the country had re 
cently been settled by other tribes under French protec 

Meanwhile other sachems went to Canada, and at a 
solemn council received back the Iroquois prisoners from 

In the latter part of August, Nanfan having been in 
formed that there were French agents in the Indian 

1 See also, for further details, vol. i., pp. 261-2. 


country, again sent Captain Bleecker and David Schuyler 
to Onondaga to watch their proceedings and oppose their 
designs. There was fear of another war in Europe, in 
which it was believed that the English and French would 
be involved. The Canadians, remembering the calamities 
they had suffered from the warlike Iroquois, now tried to 
establish a good understanding with them, in order to pre 
serve the peace it had taken so many efforts to make. For 
this purpose they sent the men most influential with them, 
including priests and missionaries, to persuade them to 
remain neutral, and let the French and English fight, if 
they would, without involving themselves in the quarrel. 
Bleecker and Schuyler tried without success to alarm 
them, by reminding them of former injuries and the per 
fidy of the French, desiring them to hold no communica 
tion with their old enemies. The Five Nations were de 
termined to adhere to the treaty, and keep on friendly 
terms with Canada, although they would try to hold fast 
the covenant-chain with Corlaer. After the arrival of 
Lord Cornbury, in May, 1702, there were no efforts to 
shake the resolution of the Five Nations, and for eight 
years or more the borders were quiet, the French hold 
ing their own Indians to a strict observance of the treaty- 
requirements, and forbidding all expeditions against the 
English of New York, lest the wrath of the dreaded Iro 
quois should be aroused. 

Nevertheless, there was not peace between the factions 
of New York. Nanfan s administration was short and 
stormy. It commenced serenely, but ended in a tempest. 
His promise to restrain the strife of parties was not long 
remembered. He soon became a violent partisan. The 
Assembly had become anti-Leislerian, and was dissolved. 
At the next election, after a heated contest, Nanfan and 
the Leislerians secured eleven of the twenty-one members. 


When they assembled, Abraham Gouverneur was elected 
speaker, by one majority, over William Nicoll. The mi 
nority submitted, and with the majority appeared before 
the governor, to announce their choice of speaker and 
have it approved. The Leislerians, either fearing that 
their small majority might not be sufficient on some 
questions coming before the Assembly, or from party 
spirit, unseated Dirk Wessels, of Albany, and William 
Nicoll, of Suffolk, for non-residence. The one lived a 
part of the time on his farm in Dutchess County, while 
the bulk of his property and his city residence were in Al 
bany. The other had a large landed estate at Islip, Suf 
folk County, on which he often resided, while his law of 
fice and city residence were in New York. The other 
members of the minority, sympathizing with the expelled 
members, and believing the action of the majority to be 
unfair, seceded from the Assembly. New elections were 
ordered in place of Nicoll and the retiring members, but 
Ryer Schermerhorn was admitted in place of Wessels 
without another appeal to the people. 

At the election of aldermen and assistants in the fall, 
there was another contest. Thomas Noell was appointed 
mayor by Nanfan, and after taking the oath of office, on 
October 14, 1701, went to Trinity Church and attended 
worship, according to usage, after which he proceeded 
to the City Hall to organize the Common Council, by ad 
ministering the usual oaths to the newly elected aldermen 
and assistants. The Leislerians declined to take the oath, 
alleging that they had already taken it before the old 
mayor. The City Hall was filled with spectators, friends 
of the different candidates, and as it had always been the 
practice for the new mayor to administer the oaths, and 
never for the old one, a great commotion \vas raised. The 
mayor, to quiet the people present, which had become a 


mob, retired from the chair, and thus dissolved the warring 
factions. It \vas charged that some of the aldermen and 
assistants sworn in by the old mayor were not duly elected, 
and a mandamus was served on Mayor Noell, forbidding 
him to recognize them as duly elected until there should 
be a scrutiny, and the question should be decided by the 

The mayor ordered a scrutiny to be made by two of 
each party. The Leislerians refused to serve, but the 
others went on. They visited every man who cast a vote 
at the election, and learned from his own lips for whom 
lie voted, and whether lie was entitled to a vote according 
to law ; and then reported the result to the mayor. The 
south ward was the first to be scrutinized. Rip Van Dam 
and Mathew Ling were the committee. Their report is 
interesting, as showing the number of voters in a ward of 
the city of New York at that time, in contrast with the 
present, and in other respects. Brandt Schuyler was the 
anti-Leislerian candidate, and Nicholas Roosevelt the 
Leislerian, for alderman. 

The report first gives the names of those w T ho voted for 
Brandt Schuyler, as follows : 

Inhabitants who are freeholders or freemen [Then follow 
the names, indicating their nationality Dutch, English, 
French, etc.] Forty-one in all. 

Inhabitants wJio pay taxes Five. 

Inhabitants taxable Seven. 

Inhabitants neither free nor paying taxes Five. 

Inhabitants under age by confession One. 

Those who voted for Nicholas Roosevelt : 

Inhabitants who are freeholders or freemen Thirty-seven. 
[The names are given, showing them to have been mostly 
Dutch, with a sprinkling of English and French.] 

Inhabitants who pay taxes Two. 


Inhabitants neither free, nor paying taxes Two. 
Inhabitants under age by their own confession Four. 
Inhabitant of another ward by confession One. 
Inhabitant freeholder voted for himself, Nicholas Roose 

Brandt Schuyler did not vote. He was more modest 
than candidates in later days. 

The committee reported that Brandt Schuyler \vas duly 
elected, although the retiring mayor had awarded the 
election to Roosevelt, and sworn him into office. 

There was a like result in the east and west wards, 
which were also disputed. The committees found in favor 
of John Hutchings, anti-Leislerian, in the west ward, 
against David Provoost, Leislerian ; for William Morris 
in the east ward, against Captain Johannes de Peyster, 

When the case reached the courts, Justice Atwood, 
Leislerian, confirmed the findings in the south and west 
wards, but seated De Peyster in the east, leaving the board 
equally divided between the two parties. According to 
Valentine s Manual, Roosevelt and Provoost were alder 
men for the south and west wards for the year 1701-02. 
This may be accounted for by the death of Brandt Schuy 
ler, and the conviction of Hutchings for treason, early in 

The contests in the Assembly and in the Board of 
Aldermen caused, as may be imagined, great excitement, 
not in the city of New York only, but through the whole 
province. It was nothing, however, compared to that oc 
casioned by the arrest, trial, and conviction of Nicholas 
Bayard 1 and Alderman Hutchings for high treason. Bay- 

1 Nicholas Bayard was one of three brothers, who with their widowed 
mother came to New York about 1647. His mother was a sister of Peter 
Stuyvesant, director-general. He was employed in the colonial secretary s 


ard had not forgotten his cruel treatment by Leisler and 
the injustice of Bellomont. When it was known that 
Lord Cornbury would succeed the dead Lord Bellomont, 
Bayard put three addresses into circulation for signatures. 
One was to the king, a second to Parliament, and a 
third to Lord Cornbury. Hutchings kept a tavern, where 
Bayard and his friends made their headquarters. The 
addresses exposed the wrongs and weaknesses of the late 
governor, but expressed unfeigned loyalty to the king. 
They were numerously signed by the leading men of the 
city and province, but they gave umbrage to Nanfan 
and his Council, now strengthened by Justice Atwood and 

office ; and on January 7, 1658, petitioned the director-general and Council 
for a salary. He said that he had served for a considerable time as a 
clerk, writing in Dutch and English, without compensation, and then asked 
to be paid for his services. His petition was granted, and his salary was 
fixed at " six guilders a month from the first of July last, provided he con 
ducts himself vigilent and diligent." On March I, 1663, he sent in an 
other petition on the subject of wages. He said that he had served three 
years in the secretary s office as a Dutch and English clerk, on ten guilders 
a month, and asked to have his salary advanced. His request was thought 
to be reasonable, and his pay was put at fourteen guilders a month. His 
father was a clergyman, who had not neglected his education. He had 
been taught the English language, and this obtained for him a position in 
the secretary s office, where a knowledge of English had become essential. 
AVhen the English took possession, it was equally important that their 
secretary should have a clerk acquainted with the Dutch language ; and 
thus Bayard was retained in the office. Two years afterward he was ap 
pointed clerk of the courts, and in 1685 he was appointed mayor of the 
city and a member of the king s Council for the pi ovince. He found 
time, in the intervals of official duties, to conduct a mercantile establish 
ment, in connection with a brewery, and rapidly rose to wealth and in 
fluence. He possessed some traits of character in common with his uncle, 
" Peter the Headstrong," which brought him into collision with his neigh 
bors, and were the source of more than ordinary trouble. He was an 
honest man in his views of public affairs, but too unyielding to be popular. 
Balthazar Bayard, brother of Nicholas, settled in New Jersey, and Peter, 
the third brother, in Delaware. The latter s descendants have long held a 
leading position in that little State, whose people can claim descent from 
almost as many nations as New York 


Thomas Weaver, who termed them libellous, seditious, 
disloyal. Although the new Attorney-General Broughton 
could not find anything in the papers of the character al 
leged, Nanfan and his Council determined to prosecute the 
promoters of the petitions, several of whom were arrested. 
Bayard and Alderman Hutchings were tried and con 
victed of treason, and Bayard was sentenced to be hanged. 
He appealed to the king, but his appeal was refused until 
he had made concessions acknowledging his guilt. The 
trial was unfair and oppressive to the defendants ; it was 
hurried on to its end in the last days of Nanfan s adminis 
tration, the prosecutors apparently fearing the arrival of 
the new governor before their purpose was attained. 

Viscount Cornbury was appointed governor of New 
York on June 13, 1701. He did not arrive until May 3, 
1702. His delay in coming gave rise to the reports that 
his appointment had been reconsidered, and that Nanfan 
was to be left in the administration of the government. 
His arrival was a surprise to some, and a relief to all ; 
most believed that any change of rulers would be a 
blessing. Cornbury investigated the case of Bayard and 
Hutchings, and reported the facts to his government. It 
was found that the addresses, for the signing and circula 
tion of which they had been convicted and condemned, 
had not been before either the grand or petit juries, and 
that many irregularities had been committed on the trial. 
Their sentence was reversed, and they were restored to 

Lord Cornbury reported the province to be in a deplo 
rable condition, the people rent in factions, a large public 
debt, the soldiers in rags, and the forts and fortifications 
in ruins. His reflections on the misgovernment of Bello- 
mont were quite as severe as the latter s on that of 
Fletcher. It had been a time of peace, and yet nothing 


had been done to put the country into a state of defence, 
except to build a new magazine over tfie gates of the fort, 
under the direction of Colonel Romer. The great guns 
were dismounted. The militia had not been mustered 
since Fletcher s time. Only one militia regiment in the 
province \vas in serviceable condition that of Colonel 
Schuyler in Albany. " In the whole province beside 
there is nothing like militia. It is a thing forgot." 

Like his predecessors, Cornbury became a partisan, and 
joined the anti-Leislerians. Within a month after his ar 
rival, he suspended five Leislerians from the Council, and 
appointed men of his own party to the vacancies. This 
was not a wise beginning. Since the death of Leisler, 
every governor had been instructed to promote the pros 
perity of the colony by all the means in his power, and to 
this end they had been charged to heal the exciting dif- 
erences among the people and quiet party strife. And 
yet each one, in a short time after commencing his ad 
ministration, became a factionist. 

Before Cornbury could meet his allies, the Five Na 
tions, and renew the covenant-chain, he received the news 
of the king s death, on March 8th, and directions to pro 
claim Queen Anne. This was done with the usual formal 
ities on June iyth, after which he paid a flying visit to 
East and West Jersey, and then hurried up to Albany to 
keep his appointment with the Indians. He arrived on 
July 5th, some days before the time fixed for the confer 
ence. Meantime some of the proselytes of Canada, who 
were in Albany on a trading visit, called on him, and ex 
pressed the hope that he would not interfere with the 
privilege they had enjoyed since the war, of coming to 
Albany to sell their beavers and procure goods in ex 
change. They also wished to know what his lordship 
would do in reference to the Indians in case of a war 


between England and France, which was daily expected. 
The governor of Canada had told them that he wished 
them to remain neutral. Cornbury, in his reply, said that 
he would not be first to begin hostilities, and that so long 
as they were quiet, and made no attacks on the English, 
they could enjoy their present privileges. 

In his address to the sachems of the Five Nations, 
Cornbury informed them that there were rumors of war, 
and as the governor of Canada wished his Indians to take 
no part in the strife, so he advised them to retain a peace 
able attitude, and not to be the first aggressors, but to be 
on their guard. Thus the peace, as between the Indians 
attached to the rival nations, was recognized and approved. 
For the relief of the frontiers, and of the whole province, 
a great point was gained. Without the employment of 
Indians, raids from Canada were not expected. The 
safety of the Canadian borders from the scalping parties 
of Iroquois was assured. The Indian peace was a bless 
ing to both colonies. 

Cornbury distributed a large amount of presents, con 
sisting chiefly of guns, ammunition, clothing, and a belt 
of five hundred guilders in strung wampum. The reply 
of the sachems was more cordial and less critical than to 
Bellomont and Nanfan, although their beavers presented 
in return were less than half the quantity. They were 
greatly pleased to know that they were not expected to 
"lift the hatchet" in the coming war, but if the "French 
and their Indians begin, we will then consult the breth 
ren." In conclusion, they said: "We are glad to see 
Quidor at your side, and that all dark clouds are now 
happily dissipated ; we see that things are running in 
the right channel, when those who have always had the 
management of our affairs have your lordship s favor." 
In a private meeting with Lord Cornbury, the sachems 


again requested that Robert Livingston should be sent to 
England as their agent, to which Cornbury made a vague 

Altogether the conference was satisfactory ; but while a 
large number of sachems were in Albany, others were in 
Canada making arrangements to receive Jesuit mission 
aries. Those in Albany made solemn promises not to 
permit French priests to live among them, and asked for 
Protestant ministers. These the English governors, one 
after the other, had promised, but had failed to send. 
The Indians seemed desirous of Christian instruction, and 
would gladly have received Protestant teachers, whc 
were not sent until long years after, and then only one or 
two to the Mohawks and Oneidas. The Jesuits were more 
willing to live among the Indians, and conform to their 
habits and manner of living, than were the Protestants. 
The one could not forget the refinements of home, and 
required some of the conveniences of civilized life a 
house to himself, and the society of a wife, or congenial 
companionship ; the other could forget the family circle, 
or the barren comforts of the cloister, and accept with 
out regret the fare and lodgings of an Indian cabin. The 
one by precept and example strove to raise the savage to 
his own plane of civilization and Christianity ; the other 
lowered himself to the position of the savage, and by 
personal self-denial sought to win converts to his creed 
with the least possible change in their habits and man 
ner of life. The one wanted protection and safety ; the 
other took his life in his hands, and threw himself on the 
care and generosity of those among whom he lived. It 
was not singular that, at a time when there were no mis 
sionary societies or missionary funds, there were so few 
Protestant missionaries, or that there were so many priests, 
among the Indians. 

l6 WAR. 

After the convention adjourned, Cornbury laid the first 
stone of the new fort to be erected on the hill at Albany, 
and hoped that " it would be breast-high before cold 
weather." He visited Schenectady, Half Moon, and Nis- 
kayuna, saw the neglected condition of their fortifica 
tions, and made arrangements for their repair. 

War was declared by England against France on May 
4, 1702, on account of the disputes relating to the succes 
sion to the Spanish crown. Long before there were ru 
mors that war was inevitable. In view of this contingency, 
the French in Canada had industriously labored to repair 
their fortifications from Quebec to Fort Frontenac, and 
had spared no effort to secure peace with the Iroquois. 
In New York, on the other hand, nothing had been done. 
The stockaded forts had been allowed to rot away, guns 
to be dismounted and the soldiers to desert for want of 
subsistence, the militia to be neglected, and the Five Na 
tions to be insulted. Cornbury, in view of the situation, and 
of the great expense of putting the frontiers in a proper 
state of defence, exclaimed, " better drive the French 
from Canada, and thus secure the whole continent. It 
can be done by fifteen hundred men from England and 
eight fourth-rate frigates, joined with what forces can be 
raised in this province." 

The Canadians advised the conquest of New York and 
New England. Before entering upon such an enterprise, 
the Iroquois must be " annihilated, and that forever." 
Then three thousand men and five ships of war could 
ravage the coasts of New England, destroy every town, 
including Boston, burn New York, and lay Albany in 
ashes. M. d Iberville, a French officer of some ability, 
laughed at this project as visionary, and proposed another. 
He pledged his reputation, that he could overrun New 
England and New York with eighteen hundred men, who 


should leave Quebec about December ist, and march 
across the country into Maine, whence, " always under 
cover," he would leisurely proceed to put his plan into 
execution. Seventy-five years later, General Arnold did 
not find the march across the country, by the route 
D Iberville proposed, a holiday excursion. The French 
never attempted to carry out their plans, and it was sixty 
years before Cornbury s project for the reduction of 
Canada was realized, although several attempts were 
made at a large expenditure of blood and treasure. 

A year later, Cornbury reported Fort Anne in Albany 
to be in progress, the fort at Schenectady repaired, and 
new stockaded forts built at Half Moon, Niskayuna, 
and Schaghticok e, at a cost of ^80 currency. One was 
also ordered to be built at Saratoga, " the northern 
most settlement of the province." There were apprehen 
sions of a French invasion, in force or by detachments, 
in the winter of 1702-03, and the Assembly made an ap 
propriation of ;i8oo for the maintenance of one hundred 
and fifty militia and thirty scouts. The service was per 
formed at the expense of New York alone. The danger 
was believed to be imminent, and the other colonies were 
asked to contribute, but they all declined, declaring the 
while their great loyalty. 

The records relating to Indian affairs from the spring 
of 1703 to the close of Cornbury s administration are 
meagre and unsatisfactory. Robert Livingston was forced 
to sail for England, June, 1703. He was absent several 
years, and on his return was not permitted to resume his 
duties. Hence, owing also to the loss of the books kept by 
the commissioners for Indian affairs, our sources of infor 
mation are limited. The colonial documents, the minutes 
of the Council, and the legislative proceedings indicate 
considerable activity on the part of Colonel Schuyler 
VOL. II. 2 


among the Five Nations. In August, 1703, he was re 
quested by the Council to visit Onondaga, to arrange for 
a conference with Cornbury at Albany ; and at the same 
time to learn why the French priests were allowed to 
reside among the Indians in violation of their engage 
ments. Although we find no report of his journey, we 
learn that he was not successful in persuading the Indians 
to send away the " black gowns." The French party was 
too powerful. Cornbury held a convention with the 
sachems in September, but there is no report of the pro 
ceedings preserved. Again, in the following summer, 
Colonel Schuyler was at Onondaga, and Cornbury met the 
Indian sachems at Albany. Schuyler on this visit made 
another effort to have the priests expelled, but without 
success. On his return to Albany, he met in the Mohawk 
country some French proselytes, whom lie induced to 
carry belts of peace to several of their villages, for the 
purpose of inducing them to stop their incursions into 
New England. When the French governor learned of 
these negotiations, he was at unusual pains to have the 
proselytes surrender the belts, and they were subsequently 
returned to Schuyler by the missionaries of Onondaga. 

No attacks had been made by the French on the fron 
tiers of New York since the beginning of the war. They 
were restrained by their fears of the Iroquois, and for no 
other reason. Before peace had been made with them the 
sachems insisted that the English, not only of New York, 
but of New England, should be included, to which Cal- 
lieres had assented. New York was saved from a border 
war by the Indian allies. French promises, however, 
were violated in a part of the country beyond the reach of 
the dreaded Iroquois. The border settlements of Maine, 
New Hampshire, and western Massachusetts were laid 
waste by the eastern Indians led by French officers. It 


was for the relief of those distant settlements that Schuy- 
ler sent his peace-belts to the proselytes of Canada, some 
of whom were eastern Indians. It was for the purpose of 
keeping up this kind of warfare that the French govern 
or recovered the belts, and caused them to be returned 
to Schuyler. 

An Onondaga chief of the French faction reported to 
the Marquis de Vaudreuil, who was appointed governor of 
Canada after the death of Callieres, that Peter Schuyler 
would not be sorry to have a sort of truce, " but it must 
include the English of Boston." He replied, that " he 
would not send any party toward Orange (Albany) out 
of regard to Peter Schuyler." This he did, as he in 
formed the king, " for fear of drawing on a war with the 
Iroquois." In a conference with some Iroquois sachems, 
in August, 1705, he was reminded of what he had prom 
ised as to the English. " Nevertheless," said the sachems, 
"we see our brothers of the Sault and the Mountain, who 
ought to be neutral like us, go to the war against the 
English." Vaudreuil said that he had never promised not 
to strike the English of Boston, only Corlaer and Peter. 
As to the latter, he had kept his engagement ; as to -Bos 
ton, he would fight them long as the war lasted. 

Later in the same year, through the efforts of Schuyler, 
Governor Dudley, of Massachusetts, made an attempt to 
secure peace or neutrality with the Indians under Frencli 
control. For this purpose he drew up the articles of a 
treaty, and delegated Samuel Vetch, a merchant of Boston 
and son-in-law of Robert Livingston, to submit them to 
Vaudreuil. The latter amended them by adding others, 
and returned them to Dudley. The treaty was not signed, 
probably because the amendment covered a larger field 
than was intended, and committed the governor of Massa 
chusetts to many things beyond his control. Although 


Vaudreuil admitted that the war as waged was not glorious 
or profitable, and only resulted in the desolation of some 
poor families, he continued to prosecute it as before, while 
Peter Schuyler did not cease his efforts to relieve New 
England from the horrors and cruelties committed by 
French barbarians on the unprotected settlers on her 
borders. In answer to Vaudreuil s letter accompanying 
the belts returned by the French proselytes, he wrote, 
October 7, 1708 : 

" In regard to the belt I sent for the purpose of pre 
venting the Indians taking part in the war which is wag 
ing against the government of Boston, I must admit that 
I did send it from an impulse of Christian charity. I 
could not help believing that it was my duty toward God 
and my neighbor to put a stop, if possible, to those hea 
thenish and barbarous cruelties which have been but too 
frequently wreaked on the unfortunate people of the 
province. You \vill pardon me, if I tell you that I am dis 
gusted when I think, that a war which is carried on by 
Christian princes, who, by the example and the practice 
left by their noble ancestors, are bound to observe the 
most rigid rules of honor and generosity, should degener 
ate into savage and reckless barbarity. I cannot conceive 
how it is possible to put an end to the war by such means. 
I wish everyone were of my opinion on this subject ; some 
there are, and I doubt not but there must be many others. 
I should be very glad to induce you to participate in my 
sentiments, which are prompted by a principle of gener 
osity and honor." l 

Lord Cornbury visited Albany in July, 1708, for the 
purpose of meeting the sachems of the Five Nations, who, 
he had been informed, wished to see him. He had been 
misinformed ; they were not there. Writing home, he 
urged, as he had urged before, that presents be sent them, 

1 N. Y. Col. Doc., ix., 8 1 8. 


in order to retain them in the English interests. None had 
been given them since the first year of his administration, 
six years previously. It seemed now that there was more 
urgency than ever. In his speech to the Assembly he 
called their attention to the same subject. As none had 
been given them in six years, and as no provision had 
been made in England for them, he believed it to be im 
perative, to save their going over wholly to the French, 
that an appropriation should be made for the purpose 
of making them a liberal donation. Subsequently, at the 
request of the Assembly, he laid before them a list of arti 
cles to be presented to each nation, and to the River In 
dians, amounting in all to ^600. In his message on this 
topic, he said that there had been advanced by the com 
missioners of Indian affairs, over and above all former 
appropriations, 200. 6. o, which should be provided for. 
He also recommended an appropriation for the support of 
one hundred and fifty men, and for spies and scouts on 
the frontiers, during the ensuing year. Lastly, he recom 
mended to their "favorable consideration, the case of Colo 
nel Schuyler, who, by being well known to all the Indians, 
is put to great expense by their coming to his house, 
which they use as freely as if it were their own." 

The committe to whom the governor s message was re 
ferred reported an appropriation of ^450 for presents to 
the Five Nations, ^200 for " spies and incidentals," and a 
fund for the support of sixty men on the frontiers for five 
months. The report was embodied in a bill which was 
enacted on September i8th. 

The colonial documents are silent as to any further pro 
ceedings on the subject. If Lord Cornbury had met the 
Indians in council, and distributed the presents, it is prob 
able that he would have mentioned it in some of his subse 
quent letters. A French officer at Montreal was informed 


late in the fall, by an Indian, that Peter Schuyler, in be 
half of Cornbury, had made a present to the Iroquois of 
fifty pieces of cloth, fifty guns, ten barrels of powder, lead, 
stockings, knives, hatchets, and other articles. Ten days 
after the story was confirmed by another Indian, who added 
that the English were making preparations to strike the 
French the next year. " This is settled," said the Indian. 
As Lord Cornbury referred to the hardships of Colonel 
Schuyler, it will not be inappropriate to give some further 
information as to his financial transactions with the gov 
ernment. His intimate relations with the Indians sub 
jected him to a large expense not chargeable to the public 
accounts ; but his advances for their services as spies and 
messengers were frequent during the long war in Fletch 
er s time, when the funds in the hands of the Board for 
Indian Affairs were exhausted. Long before the close of 
that war its credit also was ruined. When Livingston 
made his first trip to England, no one in the province dare 
undertake the subsistence of the troops and wait for his 
pay. Schuyler was induced to do it, and at a price below 
that formerly paid, on assurances of assistance from New 
York merchants. His means and credit, as Bellomont re 
marked, were on the verge of ruin, when Livingston re 
turned and again became the contractor for subsistence. 
During Bellomont s and Nanfan s administrations, Schuy 
ler had been enabled to procure only ^300 on account. 
When Cornbury came, he submitted his accounts to the 
Council for adjustment and liquidation. The committee, 
after a thorough examination, audited them in full, and 
recommended their payment. As the treasury was too 
poor to meet the draft, warrants were drawn in small 
amounts in anticipation of taxes and revenue, with which 
he settled the accounts of merchants who had aided him 
to support the troops. Some were drawn on the collector 


and receiver-general, who for some unknown reason re 
fused to pay them ; others were refused payment by the 
treasurer. It finally resulted in the recall of all. Schuy- 
ler s accounts were again submitted to the Council, and a 
new committee was appointed to examine them, who, like 
the former one, reported them correct in every particular. 
New warrants and drafts were made, but he did not re 
ceive pay in full until the close of 1704. Lord Bellomont, 
among his other slanders of Schuyler, accused him of im 
proper charges in his accounts against the government. 
Truly, Colonel Schuyler found the public a poor and un 
grateful debtor. 

War had existed between England and France during 
the whole of Cornbury s administration, but he had man 
aged to maintain the peace with Canada, and there had 
been no attacks on the frontiers of the province. In the 
preceding war, the experience of the people, and of their 
allies, the Five Nations, had taught them prudence, and 
not to involve themselves in the quarrels of kings three 
thousand miles away. They had endured untold suffer 
ings scores of English had been murdered, dwellings 
burned, fields laid waste, the country depopulated, and 
the people reduced to poverty. The Five Nations had 
suffered still more. Their numbers had been reduced, 
and their villages destroyed ; they were now cowards, and 
no longer the brave and warlike nations of ten years be 
fore ; they, in fact, had ceased to be a " barrier," except 
in name, between the English and the French. To sus 
tain the cost of the war, and retain the allegiance of the 
Five Nations, the province had spent a large amount of 
money and had burdened itself with debt. The mother 
country had given little relief, and the sister colonies still 
less ; the daughter and sister had been left to struggle on 
alone the best she could. It is not strange that, in the 


next war so soon succeeding the first, the colony should 
have desired neutrality, and spared no effort to maintain 
it. The Canadians were equally desirous of peace, and 
directed their chief efforts to secure the friendship of the 
Iroquois, while they incited the eastern Indians to raids 
on the frontiers of New England, who had no Indians to 
take up their quarrels, no Indian nations to be a "bar 
rier." Their Indians had been exterminated to give room 
for white men, who were not a " bulwark or defence." 

New England turned for relief to the Five Nations, and 
complained that New York would not suffer them to fight 
their battles. Massachusetts, the greatest sufferer, having 
never found it convenient to render New York any sup 
port in men or money, now affected to be greatly injured 
by the peace on the borders of her sister colony, while 
her own were open to the enemy and suffering from his 
scalping parties. In a paper drawn by Governor Dudley, 
and sent to his agent in England, he says, " This prov 
ince (Massachusetts) and New Hampshire have been sin 
gled out and made the butt of the present war, while 
New York has not rendered any assistance, nor have the 
Five Nations been encouraged to begin hostilities. That 
government has enjoyed profound peace, and would not 
listen to our application to direct the Indians to take up 
arms against the French." Another elaborate paper was 
prepared, to show the sovereignty of England over the 
Five Nations, and its duty in requiring them to take part 
in the war for the relief of those who were its "butt." 
These representations were finally successful, as we shall 
see, but not while Cornbury was governor. 

His administration was nearing its end. It cannot be 
praised as a wise and successful one ; save in his measures 
to maintain the peace with the northern neighbors, there is 
nothing which deserves commendation ; on the contrary, 


there is much to be condemned. Personally, he was noble 
by birth and title, but ignoble in character and habits ; in 
religion he was a bigot. He assisted to divest the people 
of Jamaica, L. I., of their church and parsonage in a most 
iniquitous manner, and turn them over to the Episco 
palians. He prosecuted two Presbyterian ministers for 
preaching without his license, and, although acquitted 
by a jury, they were compelled to pay, not only their own 
costs, but the costs of the prosecution. He insisted that 
none should be allowed to preach or teach without his 
license, although the Dutch, at the time of the surrender, 
were guaranteed religious liberty. He was said to be 
sordid and avaricious. Lewis Morris, in a letter to the 
secretary of State, arraigns him for bribery and corruption 
as governor of New Jersey, and closes his scathing letter 
with these words : 

" I must say something of him, which perhaps nobody 
else will think it worth while to tell. He dresses publicly 
in woman s clothes everyday, and puts a stop to all public 
business while he is pleasing himself with that peculiar 
but detestable magot." 

He was a cousin of Queen Anne, and, bearing some re 
semblance to her, showed his loyalty in this ridiculous 
manner. 1 He was chased away from England by his 
creditors, and by his creditors in New York detained " on 
the limits " until, succeeding to the earldom of Clarendon, 
he managed to escape, leaving several poor tradesmen the 
worse for his patronage. 

Another noble lord was appointed to succeed him on 
March 28, 1708 John, Lord Lovelace, who arrived in 
New York on December 18, 1708. His administration 

1 There is a portrait of Lord Cornbury dressed as a lady in the possession 
of Lord Hampton, at Westwood Park, near Droiiwich. Others are also 
in existence. 


was brief and uneventful. He died on May 6, 1709, while 
the Assembly was in session. Lieutenant-Governor In- 
goldesby was in New Jersey, and for three days Colonel 
Schuyler, as senior member of the Council, was at the 
head of the government. 

The seven years of peace on the frontiers had proved a 
blessing to the impoverished people. Trade had revived, 
agriculture had prospered, and many of the self-banished 
families had returned to their old homes and friends. 
This state of peace and prosperity was not to last. Mas 
sachusetts, unable to induce the Five Nations to enter a 
campaign against the eastern Indians, or to gain the con 
sent of Cornburyto have them embroiled in a strife which 
would bring ruin and desolation on the frontiers of his 
province, had appealed to the crown. Samuel Vetch, a 
Boston merchant, went to England, and, being a son-in-law 
of Robert Livingston, gained easy access to men near the 
throne. He, in common with Livingston and almost all 
New England and New York, believed that the conquest 
of Canada could be easily effected, and at little expense. 
A few ships of war and a few hundred men could do the 
work in a short campaign. He was successful in im 
pressing the government with his convictions, and it was 
resolved to undertake the enterprise. 

On the first of March, 1709, circular letters in the name 
of the queen were addressed to the governors of New 
York, New England, and Pennslyvania, announcing that 
she was fitting out an expedition against the French in 
Canada, who had been very troublesome of late years to 
her subjects in those colonies, according to certain pro 
posals of her " trusty and well-beloved Colonel Vetch," 
and they were required to give assistance in the manner 
he should propose. 

The minister instructed Lord Lovelace, that it was re- 


solved to attack Montreal and Quebec at the same time, 
the first by an army of fifteen hundred men by way of 
Albany and Lake Champlain, the second by a squadron 
of ships carrying five regiments of regular troops and 
twelve hundred Massachusetts militia. It was designed to 
have the aid of the Five Nations against Montreal, and 
for the purpose of enlisting them in the enterprise Colo 
nel Schuyler was to be employed, as "well qualified for 
the service, and a very proper person to be employed in 
the expedition." 

Colonel Vetch appeared before the Council in New 
York on May lyth, and presented his instructions. He in 
formed the Council that the New England provinces had 
entered into the design with much zeal, and had now ex 
ceeded what was required of them, so anxious were they 
to have the expedition succeed. The New York Assembly 
was then in session, and there was no delay in making the 
necessary arrangements for a full compliance with the 
queen s demands. In New Jersey and Pennsylvania Colo 
nel Vetch was less successful. Both colonies declined to 
render any assistance. 1 

Colonel Nicholson, formerly lieutenant-governor of 
New York, was placed in command of the forces against 
Montreal, and Colonel Schuyler was made his lieutenant, 
commanding one of the two New York regiments. At the 
request of Nicholson, the Indian allies were attached to 
the regiment of Colonel Schuyler, " as he is a person 
known to have the greatest influence over them in war 
or other affairs." 

As soon as Colonel Vetch made known to the Coun 
cil the orders of the queen, they directed Major John 
Schuyler and Captain Abraham Schuyler to go to Onon- 

1 New Jersey reconsidered her refusal, and contributed ^3,000. 


daga and invite the Five Nations to a conference in 
Albany, when the presents brought over by Lord Love 
lace would be distributed. It was hoped by these means 
that they could be induced to break their neutrality and 
join the expedition. Colonel Schuyler was requested to 
send some of their chiefs to Boston to have a sight of the 
men-of-war when in harbor. But the Five Nations were 
reluctant to begin another war. The French during the 
peace had kept their priests and agents among them, and 
had attached many of them firmly to their interests. 

The Schuylers " sang the war-song in the Onondaga 
village," and induced one of the French priests to go to 
Montreal. After his departure, they convinced the other 
priest that his life was in danger, and that his only way of 
escape was to go with them to Albany. The priest placed 
himself under their protection, and then the English fac 
tion among the Indians burned the now empty missionary 
house and chapel. The Schuylers returned to Albany, 
having been only partially successful in their mission. 
They reported that the Senecas and Cayugas had been 
prevailed on by the French to remain neutral. Major 
Dirk Wessels was then directed to visit those nations, and 
use his great influence over them. 

New York had not fully recovered from the last war, 
and was still heavily in debt. That she might perform 
her allotted part in the present expedition, the Assembly 
passed an act authorizing an issue of " bills of credit," or 
paper money, to be redeemed within a given time by 
taxes. She raised four hundred and eighty-seven men and 
officers, besides volunteers ; she built a fortified store 
house at Saratoga for the storage of supplies for the 
army, and almost entirely at her own expense, Fort 
Nicholson (now Fort Edward), Fort Schuyler (now Fort 
Ann), a block-house at Fort Miller, and another at Still- 


water. Although she preferred to remain neutral, as in 
the first years of the war, when this expedition was or 
dered, she made her preparations without delay, and con 
tributed more than any other colony to the expense. 
New York also built one hundred boats and one hundred 
canoes, at the same time obtaining the assistance of five 
hundred warriors of the Five Nations, and supporting 
their wives and children. 

Colonel Schuyler was early at his post. The land forces 
were to meet at Albany, and then march to the head 
waters of Lake Champlain, where they were to wait 
until after the fleet had sailed from Boston toward Que 
bec. Schuyler wrote from the great carrying-place, on 
June 29th, to the commissioners in charge of the expedi 
tion, that he had not yet received the promised stores, but 
believed they would arrive in due time. He was then 
sending off his brother, Major Johannes Schuyler, in 
charge of two hundred and twenty-eight men, whites and 
Indians, to Otter Creek, to intercept a party of the enemy 
on their way to the Connecticut River. He had been in 
formed by Indian spies that an expedition had been or 
ganized at Montreal to harass the settlements of Western 
Massachusetts, which w-as then on the march. 

The governor of Canada received early intelligence of 
the warlike preparations in New York. His agents were 
quickly put to work among the Iroquois, to hold them to 
their pledges of neutrality, as the most important matter, 
and first to be attended to. The defences of Montreal 
were repaired, farmers were warned to remove their fam 
ilies and effects to places of safety, measures were taken 
to abandon Fort Froritenac as untenable, for it was be 
lieved that a long and sanguinary war was imminent. 
The surprise occasioned by the " war-song" at Onondaga 
had hardly subsided, when Vaudreuil learned from his In- 


dian spies that the English were building boats and cart 
ing supplies to their camp on Wood Creek, so that they 
would be quite ready to march on Montreal as soon as 
the fleet arrived at Boston. Being himself prepared to 
march with 1,500 men, French and Indians, he resolved 
not to await an attack from the enemy, but to begin work 
at once by marching to the head-waters of Lake Champlain 
and attacking the English before they had concentrated 
their forces. The project was no sooner conceived than 
he began to put it into execution. M. de Ramesay was 
intrusted with the command of nearly 1,500 troops, and 
directed to surprise the English on Wood Creek and de 
stroy their forts and stores. This force arrived within a 
short distance of Crown Point, when they were discovered 
by Major Johannes Schuyler. After some skirmishing, 
they retreated, thinking it not wise or safe to proceed. 

Lieutenant Barent Staats, of an Albany company, was 
taken prisoner by the French near Fort Nicholson, early in 
the following October. On his examination by Vaudreuil, 
he gave him some information, showing that it would 
not have been an easy task to drive the English from 
their position and to destroy their stores. He said that 
as soon as they received notice of Ramesay s approach to 
Crown Point, they mustered within an hour 1,000 Eng 
lish and 200 Indians at the fort, which was strengthened 
with an abattis of fallen trees, and that three days after 
they were joined by 350 Iroquois from all the nations ex 
cept the Senecas. At the present time, he said, there was 
a large force of men at the most advanced fort, called 
Fort Peter Schuyler ; and seven companies of regulars 
of fifty men each, with militia, at Fort Nicholson. They 
were becoming impatient of waiting for the ships. Gen 
eral Nicholson had left the army in command of Colonel 
Schuyler, and had returned to Albany. Schuyler and the 


New York militia were disposed to abandon the expedi 
tion, as it was now late in the season, but the Boston peo 
ple wished to retain the forts for future use, if possible. 
They all united, however, in anathemas on the head of 
Colonel Vetch, and wished him hanged, being the cause 
of this great expense. 

The ships did not arrive at Boston, as had been pro 
posed, some disasters to the allies in Europe having made 
it necessary to retain them at home. Colonel Schuyler at 
last retired, destroying Forts Peter Schuyler and Nichol 
son on his way. Those places were of no account unless 
they were garrisoned. This could not be done for the 
want of funds. 1 To have left them standing would not 
have been good policy, for they would have afforded an 
advantage to the French as places of safety to their scalp 
ing parties. Thus the second attempt for the conquest 
of Canada proved a disastrous failure. 

Colonel Vetch was so sanguine of the success of his 
plans, that he wrote to Secretary Boyle from New York, 
in June, asking that he might be appointed commandant 
of Quebec after its reduction. He was not a man of much 
ability, but an enthusiast, who had succeeded in pressing 
his projects on the British ministry. He was afterward 
governor of Annapolis (Port Royal) for a brief period. 

Colonel Schuyler s disappointment at the result of the 
late expedition was very great. As a witness of the hor 
rors of the former war, he could not but dread their repe 
tition ; and since the commencement of the present war, 
he had exerted all his influence with the Five Nations 
and the Canada proselytes to preserve a strict neutrality. 
In these efforts he had been seconded by Lord Cornbury 
and the French governors. He believed neutrality to be 

1 The cost to New York of this projected invasion was ,18,000. 


a measure at once humane, and the most conducive to the 
prosperity of the province, enabling the people to pro 
gress in wealth and civilization. It was his conviction, 
however, that there could be no permanent peace so long 
as the French were unchecked in their ambition to found 
a great empire in the western hemisphere. The two na 
tions in Europe, although separated by the sea, were at 
peace only for brief intervals. In America, with only an 
imaginary line to divide them, there would be danger of 
constant war until one was conquered. He believed that 
Canada could be subdued in one short, sharp campaign 
by the English colonies alone, if they were united and 
determined. But as they could not be induced to make 
the effort, he looked to England to furnish the men and 
means. When, therefore, Colonel Vetch brought the 
news that England had determined on the invasion of 
Canada by sea and land, and for this purpose would fur 
nish ships of war and several regiments of troops, Schuy- 
ler entered vigorously into the plans of the campaign. 
Its failure made the disappointment all the more severe, 
because, in addition to the large debt incurred, the fron 
tiers were again exposed to the torch and scalping-knife, 
while the Five Nations were wavering in their allegiance, 
looking upon the French as formidable enemies, and the 
English as incompetent protectors. 

That the expenses of the late expedition might not be 
entirely lost, Schuyler and Nicholson concluded to go to 
"England and urge the queen s ministers to another effort. 
In imitation of the French, who on several occasions had 
sent prominent Indian chiefs to France to become ac 
quainted with her glory and power, they conceived it to 
be prudent and wise to take over a delegation of Indian 
sachems, in order to show them something of the strength 
and wealth of England. As the Mohawks were the most 


attached to English interests, and the most reliance could 
be placed upon them, five of their sachems were selected, 
three of whom were nominally Christians, and had some 
knowledge of the English language. 1 They were pro 
vided with an interpreter, Captain Abraham Schuyler, and 
arrangements were made for their comfort on their voy 
age. One, however, sickened and died before reaching 
England. The Assembly was in session when Schuyler s 
proposed voyage to England was made known, and they 
passed the following resolution, in which the lieutenant- 
governor and Council concurred : 

" Resolved, that the humble address of the lieutenant- 
governor, Council, and General Assembly of this colony, 
to the queen, be committed to the charge and care of 
Colonel Peter Schuyler, to be presented by himself to her 
sacred majesty, he being a person who, not only in the 
last war (when he commanded the forces in chief at Can 
ada), but in the present has performed faithful service to 
this and the neighboring colonies, and behaved himself in 
the offices with which he has been intrusted with good 
reputation and the general satisfaction of the people." 

Schuyler and his party sailed for England in December, 
1710, and were absent seven months. 

The arrival of the Indian chiefs in London caused an 
unusual sensation. The newspapers of the day contain 
full descriptions of their persons, their Indian names, 
their titles, their dress, their entertainments, their prog 
ress through London, and their reception by the queen. 
They were entertained at the public expense, and lodged 
in handsomely furnished apartments in the house of an 
upholsterer, named Arnc, in King Street, Covent Garden. 

1 An Onondaga sachem, addressing Governor Hunter, August, 1710, 
said : "Some of our brethren have been in England lately, and although 
they were natives of the Mohawk nation, yet we are as well satisfied as if 
they had been one from each of the Five Nations, being all united." 
VOL. II. 3 


One was termed the " Emperor of the Mohawks," and the 
others " Kings." They were dressed in rich apparel ; they 
were driven about the city and adjacent country in coaches 
with livery ; they visited the dockyards and arsenals, 
were taken aboard the men-of-war and heard the roar of 
their artillery. Nobles and statesmen entertained them at 
their tables. Their first audience with the queen was 
with all the formality and courtesy conceded to princes of 
the highest rank. They were conducted to St. James in 
coaches by Sir Charles Cotterel, and introduced to her 
Majesty by the Duke of Shrewsbury. Their speech on 
this occasion was as follows : 

" GREAT QUEEN We have undertaken a long voyage, 
which none of our predecessors could be prevailed upon to 
undertake, to see our Great Queen, and relate to her those 
things which we thought absolutely necessary for the good 
of her, and us her allies, on the other side of the water. 

" We doubt not but that our great queen has been ac 
quainted with our long and tedious war, in conjunction 
with her children, against her enemies the French ; and 
that we have been as a strong wall for their security, even 
to the loss of our best men. We were mightily rejoiced 
when we heard our great queen had resolved to send an 
army to reduce Canada, and immediately, in token of 
friendship, we hung up the kettle and took up the hatchet, 
and with one consent assisted Colonel Nicholson in mak 
ing preparations on this side the lake ; but at length we 
were told that our great queen, by some important affairs, 
was prevented in her design at present, which made us 
sorrowful, lest the French, who had hitherto dreaded us, 
should now think us unable to make w T ar against them. 
The reduction of Canada is of great weight to our free 
hunting, so that if our great queen should not be mindful 
of us, we must, with our families, forsake our country and 
seek other habitations, or stand neuter, either of which 
will be much against our inclinations. 


" In token of the sincerity of these nations, we do in 
their names present our great queen with these belts of 
wampum, and, in hopes of our great queen s favor, leave it 
to her most gracious consideration. 

After two or three weeks more in England, the party 
prepared to leave for home. Before their departure they 
addressed a formal letter to the queen, and another to the 
Privy Council, signed with the totems of their tribes, or 
clans. I am indebted, for copies of these letters, to the 
papers of General Philip Schuyler, now in possession of 
his grandson, George L. Schuyler, Esq., of New York. 
That to the queen is as follows : 

" GREAT QUEEN The Indian sachems, who have re 
ceived high honor from our great queen in a full answer 
to their proposition concerning war and religion, do beg 
leave before their departure to express their satisfaction 
in prayers for her long and prosperous reign, and in as 
surance that we, her allies, will endeavor our people 
may continue faithful to the worship of Jesus Christ, and 
to our great queen in opposition to the French, which will 
be in great measure effected by the endeavors of Ana- 
dagariax (Colonel Nicholson), so well known and beloved 
among us. And our desire is that our brother Quidor 
may humbly present this as our minds accordingly." 

The mark of ^~ / ^^__^^ Hendrick and John. 

The mark of )>^\ I Brandt. 

The mark of ^A O~7 >O Etawa Caume. 


Their farewell address to the Lords of the Privy Council 
was as follows : 

" To the R l . Hon ble the Lords of her Majesty s most 
Hon ble Privy Council. 

" The Indian Sachems cannot repass the great waters 
from these large and flourishing kingdoms without express 
ing a just resentment and admiration for the signel favours 
done em by the nobles, especially of the Great Queen s 
court and council, the continance of which they will en 
deavour to deserve by a strict observance of what is ex 
pected by their offering their belts of Wampum, and which 
shall be further explained by Anadagariax (Colonel Nich 
olson) as the pleasure of the Great Queen. 

" Our desire is that our brother Quidor may deliver this 
as our minds." 

[Signed in the same way as that addressed to queen.] 

Each of the Five Nations was divided into three tribes, 
or clans, called the Wolf, the Bear, and the Tortoise. 
When attaching their signatures to deeds or other papers, 
they made a figure of the animal, called a totem, repre 
senting the tribe to which they belonged. Although they 
could not write, some of them became very expert in 
drawing the animals. Hendrick and John belonged to 
the Wolf tribe. They were nominal converts to the 
Christian religion, and having been given Christian 
names when they were baptized, they dropped their old 
Indian appellations. Brandt also had been baptized, and 
as Brandt was a Christian name adopted by one Mohawk 
family, it remained unchanged. They were all known in 
England by their Indian names of many syllables, but 
when signing these addresses used their Christian names. 
Etawa Caume was yet a heathen. They were all Mohawk 
sachems, and not "common Indians," as Cadwallader 
Golden calls them. Hendrick was afterward known as 
" King Hendrick," and was with Sk William Johnson at 


the battle of Lake George. He was then an old man of 
large and portly figure. He was dressed in the uniform 
of a British officer ; unable to inarch on foot, he went 
into battle on horseback, and was a prominent mark for 
French sharpshooters. He fell early in the battle. At a 
little roadside tavern near the spot where he was killed 
some of his bones are still exhibited. 

The sachems remained in London several weeks after 
their audience of the queen, enjoying the pleasures of 
the city and the hospitality of the nobles. They em 
barked on a man-of-war, the Dragon, and sailed for home 
on May 8th, landing at Boston on July 15, 1710. 

Schuyler and Nicholson had accomplished all they had 
wished. They had shown the English Government the 
importance of preserving the friendship of the Five Na 
tions. To do this, missionaries must be sent to them to 
give them religious instruction ; forts for their security 
must be erected among them ; more than all, Canada 
must be conquered, the sooner the better. The govern 
ment resolved to send missionaries, erect forts, and make 
another effort in the near future for the subjugation of the 
French in North America. 

The queen offered to confer on Colonel Schuyler the 
order of knighthood, but he respectfully declined the 
honor. He accepted, however, his portrait, painted by 
her order; a gold snuff-box, and some pieces of silver 
plate ; and for his wife, a diamond brooch and earrmgs. 1 

Cadwallader Colden, in a letter to his son, written in 
1759, long after Schuyler s death, accuses him of imposing 

1 The picture, in good preservation, is in the family of his eldest lineal 
descendant ; a silver punch-bowl is in possession of another Schuyler 
family, and some of the diamonds are owned by a lady of another name 
living in New Jersey, Mrs. Livingston Miller. Other diamonds and plate 
are not traceable. Only a few years since the Schuyler diamonds were 
sent to an Albany jeweller to be reset. 


grossly " on the queen and the British nation, by carrying 
to England five or six common Indians, and making them 
personate, one the emperor of the Five Nations, and the 
others the kings of each nation." Golden had allowed his 
rancor to an old opponent to get the better of his memory 
and of his good sense. The actual rank of these Indians 
was perfectly well known to the English Government, and 
they were dubbed kings simply in conformity to an old 
custom, just as now every petty negro chief on the Gold 
Coast is called a king. In the same way, a century earlier, 
Powhatan had been styled emperor, Pocahontas, princess, 
and the subordinate chiefs of the Virginia Indians, kings. 1 
The visit of the Indian sachems, as I have said, excited 
interest in London. Steele took them as a text for an 
essay in the Tatler (No. 171), and Addison for one in the 
Spectator (No. 50). Steele tells how 

1 We find some interesting notices of these Indians in Narcissus Luttrell s 
Brief Historical Relation of State Affairs, under the year 1710. 

" TJnirsday 20 Aprill. Four Indian sachems, or kings of the 5 Indian 
Nations, lately arrived here, offering their services to assist her majestic 
against all her enemies in those parts, and secure her from the French 
in and about Canada in America, had yesterday audience of the queen, 
and accepted very gratiously: her majestic ordered them presents, the 
lord chamberlain to entertain them at her charge, and that they be shown 
what is remarkable here : tis said they l goe over and have a view of our 
army in Flanders." 

" Saturday 22 Aprill. Yesterday the 4 Indian kings went in one of 
the queen s barges, and took a view of Greenwich hospital, as also the 
dock and yard at Woolwich : afterwards were splendidly treated on board 
one of her Majesties yatchts : this day saw the banquetting house and 
chappel at Whitehal, and mightily pleased with their kind reception. Tis 
said the queen has ordered some land forces to be sent to the West Indies 
with those kings and seize upon the French settlement about Canada." 

" Thttrsday 27 Aprill. The same day (the 26th) the 4 troops of guards 
of horse, with the grenadeers, were reviewed in Hyde Park by the duke of 
Ormond &c. when were present the four Indian kings." 

"Saturday 29 Aprill. Yesterday the New England and New York 
merchants treated very splendidly the 4 Indian kings, to each of whom 
the Archbishop of Canterbury has presented an English Bible, and they 
will speedily return home." 


-"these just and generous princes, who act according to 
the dictates of natural justice, thought it proper to confer 
some dignity upon their landlord (an upholsterer) before 
they left his house. One of them had been sick during 
his residence there, and having never before been in a 
bed, had a very great veneration for him who made that 
engine of repose, so useful and so necessary in his dis 
tress. It was consulted among the four princes by what 
name to dignify his great merit and services. ... It 
was therefore resolved to call their landlord Cadaroque, 
which is the name of the strongest fort in their part of the 

Addison, writing the next year, uses them to introduce 
a satire on England. With regard to this paper, Swift 
writes to Stella, in his journal on April 28, 1711 : 

" The Spectator is written by Steele, with Addison s 
help : tis often very pretty. Yesterday it was made of a 
noble hint I gave him long ago for his Tatlers, about an 
Indian, supposed to write his travels into England. I re 
pent he ever had it. I intended to have written a book 
on that subject. I believe he has spent it all in one 
paper, and all the tinder-hints there are mine, too ; but I 
never see him or Addison." 

These Indian sachems also gave the name to that club 
of bullies, the Mohocks, who disturbed the streets of Lon 
don in 1712, and twice served as themes for papers in the 
Spectator (Nos. 324 and 347). 

During Schuyler s absence, Ingoldesby s commission as 
lieutenant-governor had been revoked and a new governor 
had been appointed, who had arrived before him. There 
had been three needy lords successively in the guberna 
torial chair, two of whom had died before they had time 
fully to develop their fitness for office, and the third had 
been recalled because of his incapacity. The queen and her 
ministry now invoked the aid of one of the middle class to 


assist them in the government of a colony torn by fac 
tions, and far from prosperous, owing chiefly to the un 
wisdom of its lordly governors. 

Colonel Robert Hunter was appointed governor of New 
York and New Jersey on September 9, 1709. He was 
Scotch by birth, and when a boy had been apprenticed to 
an apothecary ; he had not fancied the business, and, 
leaving his master, had entered the army. By his fine 
personal appearance and accomplishments, he had soon 
found patrons, who secured his rapid advancement. He 
was a gallant soldier, and had distinguished himself in the 
operations of the army in Holland. Becoming disgusted 
with the treatment he received from his general, he re 
turned to England, and soon after was appointed the suc 
cessor of Lord Lovelace. He arrived in New York on 
June 14, 1710, and assumed the duties of a troublesome 
office. His term was extended to July 21, 1719, and on 
the whole he proved to be the best English governor who 
presided over the affairs of the colony. He doubtless met 
Colonel Schuyler in England, and began a friendship 
which lasted through his term of office. 

Governor Hunter made it one of his first duties to con 
fer with his Indian allies, who were duly requested to 
meet him at Albany within forty-five days. He was 
prompt to the appointment, and arrived at the council- 
house on August 7th. He was met as soon as he landed 
by the sachems who had just returned from England, and 
by some others, who requested him to prohibit the sale of 
rum during the conference. Certainly their morals had 
not been corrupted by their entertainment at the tables of 
the nobility. He gave them assurances that rum should 
not be sold during the stay of their countrymen. 

The conference with the Five Nations, the River In 
dians, the Schaghticokes, and the Christian Mohawks con- 


tinued through two weeks, and passed off satisfactorily to 
all parties. Hunter distributed in public a large amount 
of presents which he had brought with him from Eng 
land, and in private he gave to the principal sachems, 
instead of laced coats and hats, an unusual quantity of 
ammunition and other warlike appliances. 1 The Indians 
made few presents in return, because they were poor, 
having hunted little for two years on account of the war. 
They expressed themselves well pleased with the reception 
given to their sachems in England, and requested espe 
cially that they might be supplied with missionaries and 

Toward the close of the session, a letter was received 
from Governor Dudley, of Massachusetts, earnestly re 
questing Governor Hunter to take some measures with 
the Five Nations, for the purpose of having them chastise 
the Eastern Indians for their inhuman barbarities on the 
frontiers of New England. Hunter referred the letter to 
the Indian board, with directions to consult the sachems. 
The commissioners could not prevail upon the Indians to 
do anything more than to send belts to the proselytes 
of Canada and remind them of their former promise of 
neutrality. In making their report, the commissioners re 
minded the governor that there was no money in the 
treasury, nor were there sufficient arms and ammunition 
for the defence of the frontiers. It was therefore better 
to avoid any measure causing extra expense until the 
Assembly had made an appropriation. 

In November Governor Hunter presented a letter from 
the home government to the Council, then in secret ses- 

The governor also distributed the medals of the queen, "with her royal 
effigy on one side, and the last gained battle on the other," one to each 
nation; also, "her picture on silver, twenty to each nation, to be given 
to the chief warriors." 


sion, which stated that another expedition would be under 
taken against Canada in the following spring, and direct 
ed preparations to be made in the province to assist in 
the undertaking. Secrecy was enjoined, lest the enemy 
should become aware of the intention, and be prepared to 
meet the invaders. The Assembly was then in session, 
and Colonel Schuyler was appointed to confer with them. 
Such an important State secret, necessarily divulged to 
the Council and Assembly, could not be kept. During 
the winter it leaked out in whispers, and soon reached the 
ears of the French officials in Canada through their prose 
lytes, who still visited their old Mohawk friends, and did 
some shopping by the way at Albany. 

Toward the last of April, 1711, a letter was received by 
Governor Hunter from the commissioners for Indian af 
fairs, to the effect that there were two French officers and 
thirty men in the Indian country, and that the sachems 
of Onondaga desired the immediate presence of Colonel 
Schuyler. Hunter, by advice of Council, commissioned 
him to go to Onondaga, and gave him instructions. He 
received his commission on April 3oth, and the next day 
began his journey. He was accompanied by Captains 
Roseboom and Bleecker ; his nephew, Nicholas Schuy 
ler, then nineteen years old ; four men, and nine In 
dians, with the interpreter, Van Eps. On his arrival at 
the Christian Mohawk village, he learned that the French 
at Onondaga were preparing to build a house. At the 
second village the sachems gratefully accepted the queen s 
arms, to be affixed to the gates of their castle, but de 
clined to send any one with him to Onondaga. Mean 
time, Laurence Clasen, an interpreter, who had been sta 
tioned at Onondaga, arrived in Albany, and informed the 
Indian board that the French had made several proposi 
tions to the Five Nations, warning them not to take up 


the hatchet at their peril. Should they listen to the gov 
ernor of New York, and engage in the war, they would 
certainly be destroyed. They were counselled to remain 
quiet, and take no part in active hostilities. The French 
officer closed his speech with a present, chiefly in ammu 
nition, to the value of ^600. The interpreter also told 
the board that the French were engaged in building a 
block-house thirty feet long, with loop-holes. In other 
words, they were erecting a fort, and, having brought on 
their household furniture, they had come prepared to 

Schuyler arrived at the Oneida castle on the 6th, and at 
his request three sachems and several warriors joined his 
party. The next day he met some Indians, who told him, 
that as soon as the French officer heard he was on the 
way, he had stopped work on the block-house, and had re 
tired to the lake, where his canoes were stored. Schuyler 
arrived at Onondaga in the evening, and was cordially re 
ceived by the sachems of the English faction. The next 
day the sachems of the Five Nations were convened in 
council. They expressed great concern about an appar 
ently authenticated report, that the English had resolved 
to drive them out of their country in order to take. posses 
sion of their lands. They then told him a long story of 
what had been said to them by the French officer, and 
their reply. According to their own report, they remind 
ed the Frenchman that while the French had often treach 
erously injured them, Corlaer and Quidor had been true 
to them. 

Schuyler said that he had come at their request, to con 
sult with them as to what the French had proposed to 
them. He was well satisfied with their answer to the French 
propositions, and said that the false report as to taking 
their lands needed no reply, for they themselves did not 


believe it. " But how happens it, brethren, that you have 
permitted the French to build a fort in your midst ? Why 
are you so blind, that you do not see its consequences on 
your liberty and welfare ? For your own sakes it should 
not be permitted. As your friend, I am determined it 
shall be broken down before I go." 

The next morning the sachems told him that he was at 
liberty to tear down the block-house. If he resolved to 
destroy it, they would send word to the Frenchmen, who 
were still lingering at the lake. " Do as you choose," said 
he, "but tell them that I am now engaged in its demoli 
tion ; " and he immediately gave directions to his men and 
Indians to pull down the fort and destroy the materials, 
together with those provided for the chapel. After the 
work was done, the sachems told him that, now that they 
had consented to all his measures, they hoped to be able 
to get some powder at reasonable prices, for without it 
they could neither hunt nor lift the hatchet. 

Joncaire, a French officer, was in the Seneca country 
with several men, engaged in building a chapel and a fort 
for a permanent residence. As soon as he heard of what 
had been done at Onondaga, he sent his men away, but 
remained himself, as he had been adopted by that tribe, to 
watch events. For this time the French were defeated in 
their plans to secure control of the Iroquois. 

Schuyler returned to Albany on May i5th, having been 
absent a fortnight. He showed his usual courage, both in 
undertaking the journey and in the work that he per 
formed. The French had acquired much influence over 
the Onondagas, Senecas, and Cayugas, and had a strong 
party among them. They were in the Indian country with 
a number of men ; they were confident of success, and not 
easily intimidated. The Mohawks were cowed, and re 
fused to send any men to aid in Schuyler s undertaking. 


He took with him only a small party to meet his antago 
nists, and he could not well judge of the result. It might 
be discomfiture and death. His success was due to his 
courage and prudence ; and he raised himself still higher 
in the estimation of the Indians. 

In his report to Governor Hunter, he said that he had 
incurred some private expenses, and had made some 
pledges to certain sachems, which he was not in a position 
to bear or redeem. He had never been a rich man. His 
recent voyage to England with the Indian chiefs, made at 
his own expense, had exhausted his ready money. He 
now asked the governor to protect his promises, and 
cover his expenses from the treasury. Besides the pres 
ents he carried with him, he had promised to the sachems 
two hundred pounds of powder, thirty shirts, and two 
pieces of strouds. While at Onondaga, Schuyler notified 
the sachems that Governor Hunter would meet them in 
conference at Albany in June. The records of the confer 
ence are not preserved ; but we learn that it was satisfac 
tory to the governor. The covenant-chain was renewed ; 
fair promises were made to obey the queen s commands, 
and not to leave home without consent. On his way back 
to New York. Hunter met an express sent by Nicholson 
from Boston, with letters from England, containing the 
queen s instructions relative to the expedition into Can 
ada. The sachems were in Albany when he left, and, sup 
posing them to be there still, he sent a message to have 
two of each nation remain until further orders. At New 
York he gave directions to have the army supplies got in 
readiness, and then hastened to New London to attend a 
congress of the colonial governors to concert measures for 
the expedition. The congress was in session only two 
days. Of the army directed toward Montreal, New York 
was required to furnish nearly one-half. It was arranged 


that Colonel Vetch, who was governor of Annapolis, 
should have an opportunity of participating in the glory 
of the campaign by the appointment of a deputy. Colonel 
Schuyler, a member of the congress, hurried home to call 
another conference with the Five Nations, and to direct 
them to bring down their warriors with all their canoes. 
Everything was astir, but quietly, to be in readiness when 
the fleet should arrive. There was more confidence than 
ever before in the success of their plans. 

Hunter met the Assembly of New York on his return, 
and soon afterward that of New Jersey. Much had to be 
done in a short time, owing to the long passage of the ship 
which brought the queen s instructions. Provisions for 
the land and sea forces were required, and they could 
not be purchased without appropriations ; Indians had to 
be managed, boats and canoes to be built. Hunter was 
a busy man. The New York Assembly appropriated 
10,000 for the expenses of their quota, which they 
thought was out of all proportion to the others ; and in 
deed it was. The New Jersey Assembly appropriated 
^5,000. The quota of New York was made up of 350 
whites, 150 Indians, and 100 Palatines. Before the end 
of July the New York troops were raised and equipped ; 
three hundred and fifty batteaux were built, each carrying 
six men with their rations, and all the supplies provided. 
On August 9th, in order to hold a conference with the 
Five Nations, Governor Hunter left for Albany, in com 
pany with General Nicholson, who had been again se 
lected to command the army. The Indians were a little 
late in their appearance, but on August 24th they came, 
" a jolly crew," eight hundred strong. All the cantons 
were represented, and came in the best of spirits. Large 
presents were made to them, and they entered on the cam 
paign with their old-time ardor. 


The land forces for this expedition were made up of 
Colonel Ingoldesby s regiment of regulars and Palatines, 
600 ; Colonel Schuyler s regiment of provincials, Palatines, 
and Indians, 550 ; Colonel Whiting s regiment of Connect 
icut levies, 360 ; Five Nation Indians and their allies, 800 ; 
in all 2,310 men a large army compared to Winthrop s of 
twenty years before. 1 The army was marched to the old 
camping-ground, Wood Creek, the head-waters of Lake 

The forces to operate by sea against Quebec consisted 
of five thousand troops from England and Flanders, under 
command of General Hill, twelve men-of-war, forty trans 
ports, and six store-ships, with a train of artillery, mili 
tary stores, and other equipments. The fleet sailed from 
Boston on July 28th, and on August i4th was in the mouth 
of the St. Lawrence, all in good condition. On receipt of 
this intelligence, Hunter wrote a hopeful letter to Secre 
tary St. John, giving a brief account of all that had been 
done to make the expedition a success. His next advices 
dashed his sanguine hopes. General Hill, under date of 
August 25th, informed him that the fleet had met with a 
serious disaster. It had been driven on the north shore 
of the bay, and although the war-ships escaped, eight 
transports and a store-ship, with eight hundred men, were 
lost. At a council of w r ar after the disaster, it was decided 
to abandon the enterprise and to return home. 

The disaster to the fleet was not the only misfortune 
of this ill-starred expedition. General Hill and Admiral 
Walker had directed Governor Hunter to send them an 
additional stock of provisions, that in case they were 
obliged to winter in Canada they might not starve. 

1 Smith, in his History of New York, says that the army numbered 
4,000 men evidently a mistake. Hunter is the best authority. 


Hunter loaded three transports with supplies, and put 
them under convoy of a ship of war. They were wrecked 
on Cape Breton, and wholly lost, with all the officers, ex 
cept two, and one hundred seamen. 

General Nicholson, learning that the fleet had returned 
home, retired with his army from the camp on Wood 
Creek to Albany, and disbanded the troops, retaining one 
hundred and fifty men to guard the frontiers. Hunter 
met the Indians at Albany on their homeward march, and 
gave them assurances of continued friendship and protec 
tion. Having broken the peace by taking up arms, and 
joining the army for the invasion of Canada, they feared 
the vengeance of the French, and asked that the long 
neglected forts at Albany and Schenectady might be re 
paired, and new ones erected in their countries. This was 
promised ; and Hunter at once gave his directions for the 
repairs of the old forts, and entered into contracts for 
building one in the Mohawk country and another at 

The frontiers were now open to the scalping parties of 
the French and Indians. The truce of neutrality was 
broken, and soon the old work of cruelty and death be 
gan. Hunter had hardly reached the capital when he 
received a letter from the Indian commissioners, giving 
him a circumstantial account of the inhuman murder of 
men, women, and children at Schaghticoke by a party of 
French proselytes. During the years of neutrality farmers 
had ventured to live on their farms in houses partially 
fortified. The conviction that the late expedition would 
be successful had been so general, that after the truce had 
been broken these isolated families had taken no precau 
tions for their safety, and since the army was disbanded 
there had been little time for them to decide what to do. 
Hunter s intelligent mind was active in devising measures 


of relief from such barbarous visits, and quick in putting 
them into execution. There were no other tragedies of a 
like character enacted on the frontiers thereafter during 
the war. 

Notwithstanding failures and misfortunes, and a heavy 
debt, the Council and Assembly united in an address to 
the queen, praying that the effort for the subjugation of 
Canada might be renewed. It was also understood in 
Canada, that the English intended to make another trial, 
and to this end Colonel Nicholson had again gone to 
England. The governor of Canada was informed by the 
French minister, that Nicholson s mission would be in 
vain. The minister knew whereof he spoke, and that 
peace was only a question of time. The European bellig 
erents were becoming exhausted by the ten years war, in 
which no party had gained any great advantage, and evi 
dences were multiplying that the war must soon close for 
want of men and money. 

It was no surprise to Governor Hunter, when, on Octo 
ber 18, 1712, he received orders for a cessation of hostili 
ties. It was time, both for his own relief and for that of 
the people. His own private fortune and credit were ex 
hausted. He had hitherto carried on the government 
without any public money. The Assemblies had refused 
to make appropriations for his salary and contingent ex 
penses, except on conditions which he could not accept. 
Hunter had also expended large sums in the support of 
the Palatines, the drafts for which the government at 
home had allowed to be protested. The people of the 
province rejoiced that they were again permitted to pursue 
their usual occupations untrammelled by the requisitions 
of war. There was now no fear of military drafts to crip- 
pie commerce ; no fear of cruisers and privateers to inter 
fere with the voyages of merchant ships ; the husbandmen 
VOL. 114. 


no longer hesitated to cultivate their fields and reap their 
harvests by reason of lurking scalping parties lying in 
wait around their dwellings and ripening crops. The 
treaty of peace, signed at Utrecht, on April 13, 1713, gave 
great joy to an impoverished province. The colony en 
joyed rest for thirty years, until the beginning of the Old 
French War (so-called) of 1744, or the third of the French 
and Indian wars against the English in America. 

As soon, however, as hostilities had ceased, new troubles 
arose with the Indians. On the borders of North Caro 
lina lived a large tribe of savages, called the Tuscaroras. 
They were related to the Five Nations, and in their war 
with the English of Carolina they called their relatives 
from the north to their assistance. The Five Nations 
were still under apprehensions of entire destruction by 
their allies, the English, and their fears in this regard 
were kept alive and stimulated by the French residents in 
their countries, who encouraged them to accept the invita 
tion and go to -the relief of their kinsmen. A general 
council of Indian tribes, including the Five Nations, was 
held on the Susquehanna River, which the people of Al 
bany considered to be of evil omen, and they were alarmed 
at the outlook. The Common Council petitioned the gov 
ernor to take some means to pacify the Indians. To this 
end, they asked that Colonel Peter Schuyler be restored 
to his place as chairman of the Board of Commissioners 
for Indian Affairs. 1 They alleged that Schuyler "is much 
esteemed by the Indians, and has great influence on them." 
At the same time the commissioners wrote to Hunter, 
that they were informed that the Five Nations were going 

1 While Colonel Schuyler was in England, in April, 1710, Lieutenant- 
Governor Ingoldesby had reorganized the board, and left Schuyler off 
doubtless on account of his absence, 


south on the war-path, having procured powder from the 
French, and that it was feared they would join the Tusca- 
roras against the English ; that, moreover, they had for 
bidden any of their nations to visit Albany, believing what 
the French had told them as to the designs of the English 
on their country. These letters, after being read in Coun 
cil, were sent to the Assembly, with their opinion, that 
" it was absolutely necessary to send some men of credit 
among them with a present, to renew the covenant-chain." 
The Assembly promptly appropriated ;ioo one-half for 
the expense of the mission, and the rest for a present. 
The governor wrote to Schuyler, enclosing instructions, 
and directed him to go to Onondaga; for, said he, "we are 
of opinion you are the properest person to be employed 
in this affair." Hunter also said that he and the Coun 
cil considered the business of great importance, and 
hoped that he would be successful in quieting the excite 

No records of Colonel Schuyler s negotiations during 
this visit to Onondaga are preserved. We learn incident 
ally that he left Albany on June 24th, and that before he 
reached Schenectady he met Dekanissora, who told him 
that the Mohawks Were greatly excited over the death of 
some friends, who had been killed by the English ; that 
they were proposing to destroy the Christians, and had sent 
to the other nations for assistance. This intelligence was 
so alarming, that as soon as Schuyler s letter reached him, 
the governor hurried up to Albany to investigate the affair. 
On his return to New York, July iyth, he reported to the 
Council, that the Albanians were not greatly excited, and 
had no fears of an Indian war ; there had been a drunken 
row between a few soldiers and Mohawks, involving the 
death of an Indian and the wounding of others, but the 
other four nations knew nothing of the- affray, and were 


quiet. He also informed the Council, that he had reor 
ganized the Indian board, and restored Colonel Schuyler 
to his old position. The restoration of Schuyler to the 
board, all things considered, was a compliment to his 
ability and efficiency as a member. It had been done at 
the request of the Albany city government, the commis 
sioners, the Council, and the Assembly a majority of all 
these bodies being opposed to him politically. 

In August following, the governor communicated to the 
Council Colonel Schuyler s journal of proceedings with 
the sachems of the Five Nations. Unfortunately it has 
not been preserved. The records of 1712 have little of 
interest relating to the Indians. We learn only, that 
throughout the year there was more or less excitement 
among them, occasioned chiefly by the lying stories of 
the French. The presents made them by New York were 
few and of little account. They were threatened as usual 
with an invasion by the French. They were not permitted 
to render any assistance to their friends, the Tuscaroras, 
but were given some ammunition when they proposed a 
raid against some Indians in alliance with the French. 

Early in the following year, news was received from 
North Carolina, that there had been a great battle between 
the English and Tuscaroras, in which about eight hundred 
of the latter were killed, and that the remnant of the tribe 
had fled. Believing that this intelligence would cause 
some excitement among the Five Nations, the Council 
agreed upon a policy not fair, because it lacked the ele 
ment of truth. It was decided to tell their allies that the 
Tuscaroras had been the aggressors, while the English had 
acted on the defensive. It w r ould have been more truthful 
to tell them that the Carolinians wanted to possess their 
lands by the " crowding process," to which the Indians 
were averse, and hence the collision. Another sop was 


offered them, far more effectual than a lie. The Carolin 
ians had rescued one of their nation from a southern 
tribe, where he had long been held a prisoner, and he was 
to be returned to his home. 

The Tuscaroras, after their defeat and the slaughter of 
their warriors, sought asylum in the country of the Five 
Nations, to which Governor Hunter was at first opposed ; 
but his consent was finally secured, and after long nego 
tiations they settled near Oneida Lake, and became the 
sixth nation of the confederacy. There was excitement 
among the Five Nations when they heard of the slaughter 
of their cousins, and, believing that their old enemies, the 
Flatheads, had rendered assistance to the English, they 
were resolved to chastise them, and prepared for their 
march. It was difficult to divert them from their purpose. 
Messengers and a few presents were sent to them, and the 
governor himself desired to visit them in order to reason 
the case with them. He was unable to do so for want of 
means to procure presents. This trouble continued until 
October, when Hendrick Hansen was able to report that 
" all things were well with the Onondagas on my recent 

At last, on October 29th, the welcome news was re 
ceived that the treaty of peace between England and 
France had been signed. Although more than a year had 
elapsed since Hunter had been directed to cease hostili 
ties, and a full year since the governor of Canada had been 
informed that there was an armistice, to continue four 
months from August nth, the French had continued to 
send out scalping parties against New England. Their 
pertinacity in this regard caused Governor Dudley, of 
Massachusetts, to make another appeal to Hunter to in 
duce the Five Nations to engage in a war with the eastern 
Indians. Hunter laid the application before the Assembly, 


who declined to make an appropriation for the expenses 
of such an expedition, and the affair was dropped. But 
now that the peace was a known fact, the Canadians had 
no pretence for continuing hostilities, and the whole 
country enjoyed repose. 

Hunter had completed the fort and church-building 
among the Mohawks ; the missionary had arrived and 
was at his post ; and the governor was enabled to report, 
two days after he had received the news of peace, that 
"the Indians are quiet." 

The management of the Indians was a difficult task. 
They were as fickle as children, and, like children, made 
to believe any falsehood, however preposterous. The 
French were always busy circulating reports to the preju 
dice of the English, and it required skill to disabuse their 
minds. Their excitement in reference to the Tuscaroras 
was hardly allayed, when another question required set 
tlement. The Indian men, when not engaged in war or 
hunting, were idle, and, like the Athenians of old, fond 
of news. Designing persons, taking advantage of this 
peculiarity, could easily stir up a commotion by relating 
some absurd stories by way of news. 

In the spring of 1714, the Indian board wrote to Hunter, 
that there was to be a meeting at Onondaga, in the near 
future, of the Five Nations and of all the Indian tribes as 
far south as Carolina. It was to be secret, and it had 
been decided, that any one revealing its proceedings 
should suffer the penalty of death. The writer added, 
that they had procured a trusty Indian, in consideration of 
two barrels of powder and lead in proportion, to attend 
the meeting, and acquaint them with all its transactions. 
They were so fearful of compromising the li trusty In 
dian," that they dare not name him. It afterward trans 
pired that he was no other than Hendrick, the Mohawk 


chief, who in London four years before had been called 
the Emperor of the Five Nations. 

Hendrick attended the meeting and made a report, 
which was of sufficient importance to induce the Assembly 
to make an appropriation for presents to the Indians. 
Before, however, the bill was passed, they were startled 
with a message from the Indian board, that " the Mohawk 
warriors were about to start on the war-path," but in what 
direction was a secret "carefully guarded." The Indians 
had received no presents in three years, and, as those were 
the means relied on by the English to retain their friend 
ship, they had begun to feel that they were neglected. 
The French were not slow to seize on this neglect to 
arouse their fears and awaken their suspicions that their 
old allies had some evil designs. Hunter admits, that " all 
had run to confusion on the frontiers." It was time that 
the old remedy for such evils should be applied. 

Runners, with wampum, were despatched to the Five 
Nations, calling a convention at Albany in September. 
Punctual to the time, the principal sachems were at the 
place appointed. Dekanissora opened the proceedings 
with a speech of welcome, and then questioned the gov 
ernor as to the reports which occasioned alarm and un 
easiness among them. He said that it had been reported, 
all the English colonies from New England to Carolina 
had combined for their extermination. He added, that 
it was no vague rumor, for the report came to them au 
thenticated by two belts, a " long one and a short one." 
It caused much excitement and confusion, but gained 
credit and belief, " because the powder grows dearer 
every day." Powder was the Indian s staff of life. With 
out it, he must go hungry and naked ; with it, he killed 
the game he ate, and the animals whose skins furnished 
him with clothing. 


The governor assured them that the report was utterly 
false, and, to prove his assertion, he presented them with 
one hundred bags of powder, twenty-five cases of lead, 
twenty guns, and numerous other articles. He then in 
quired who it was that had brought those two belts which 
Dekanissora had mentioned as confirmatory of the false 
reports ? into whose hands were those belts given ? who 
had them now ? To these questions no answers were 
given. And hence the suspicion arises, whether the secret 
meeting, the young men adorned with war-paint, the un 
known destination of the warriors, the excitement, and 
the confusion, were not Indian stratagems to call the Eng 
lish to the duty of furnishing another instalment of pres 
ents ? 

The conference resulted to the satisfaction of both par 
ties. The sachems were cordial in their thanks to the 
governor for his happy solution of all their mental diffi 
culties, and the governor again congratulated himself that 
he had quieted the commotions. Before leaving for their 
homes, the sachems informed the governor that the 
Tuscaroras had come to shelter themselves among the 
Five Nations. " They were of us, and went out from us 
a long while ago. They are now returned, and promise 
to live peaceably." 

Important letters had been received for the governor 
while he was at Albany, which he communicated to the 
Council on his return. The good Queen Anne had de 
parted to her rest, and George, elector of Brunswick, had 
ascended the throne. A week later he was proclaimed 
king with the usual formalities. When Hendrick heard 
of the queen s death, and of George s accession to the 
crown, he went on a visit to the governor, as bearer of 
despatches from the Five Nations. They kindly sug 
gested, that a chief of each nation should be sent in a 


ship of war to England, that they might offer their con 
gratulations to his Majesty, and return their fealty. Since 
his visit to England, poor Hendrick had a longing to re 
new his royal experiences and again enjoy the hospitalities 
of the nobles. The governor was kind and courteous, but 
there were no public vessels then in the harbor, and he 
knew not when one would arrive. He would represent 
the wishes of his allies to the king, and if he requested 
them to come he would send for them, and make proper 
provision for their comfort on the passage. Hendrick was 
satisfied, of course, but returned to his wigwam with no 
certain hope that he would ever again behold the splendors 
of the court or take an airing in the royal coach. 

By the peace of Utrecht, it was understood that the 
French surrendered all claim to the Iroquois country, and 
it was supposed that thereafter they would cease to meddle 
in the affairs of that people. The French gave a different 
interpretation to the articles of the treaty bearing on that 
point, and continued their old practices. Jesuit priests 
and other agents still resided among the Five Nations. 
Their sachems were bribed with presents, and seduced by 
solicitations to go to Canada and confer with the gov 
ernor. Hunter was alarmed. He sent a commissioner to 
Canada to complain and protest. In one of his letters, re 
ferring to this subject, he exclaims : " Happy he who has 
nothing to do with these colonies ! Upon the foot they 
stand ; they run the risk of an entire and speedy ruin." 

Hunter was unhappy in many things. He was finan 
cially embarrassed, owing to his efforts to sustain the Pal 
atines according to his instructions. He was politically 
embarrassed in his unwearied efforts to conform to the 
requirements of his position relating to legislation. Al 
though a good churchman, he was embarrassed by the 
clergy in demands that he could not grant. He had dis- 


solved three Assemblies, and was on the eve of dissolving 
another, because he could not induce them to frame their 
legislation in the interests of what he conceived to be good 
government. He had enemies both here and in England, 
who were planting thorns in his side ; their unjust asper 
sions on his administration called for frequent explana 
tions, which it galled his sense of honor to be compelled 
to give. Politically he was more inclined to favor the old 
Leislerians than their opponents, particularly in his ap 
pointments to office, although in the main he was impar 
tial and judicial. 

In July, 1715, he secured from the Assembly an act which 
afforded him some relief financially. It was the result of 
a compromise, such as has been the basis of a great deal 
of legislation from that time to the present. This Assem 
bly, like former ones, was disposed to be sparing in its 
appropriations for the support of government, and had a 
bill under consideration for that purpose, which Hunter 
could not in honor approve. There was another, kno\vn 
as the Naturalization bill, which a majority of the House 
was exceedingly desirous should become a law. The gov 
ernor caused them to understand that their pet measure 
would not be approved, unless they were more liberal in 
the treatment of the government. They were quick to 
.discover their own interest, and agreed to settle a sufficient 
revenue for five years. This was the first time that he had 
been gratified with any part of his salary since he had en 
tered on his office. The Lords of Trade, referring to the 
act, said, that " after many years struggle for bread, Briga 
dier Hunter got the Assembly to settle a revenue for five 
years, owing chiefly to the labors of Mr. Lewis Morris, for 
which he had rewarded him by appointing him chief jus 
tice, in place of Mompesson, deceased." 

This appointment called out a memorial to the Lords of 


Trade from Mr. Charles Lodvvik, then a resident of Lon 
don. Mr. Lodwik had been a merchant of New York, and 
in Leisler s time had been one of the militia captains, the 
same who had demanded the keys of the fort from Lieu- 
tenant-Governor Nicholson. After removing to London, 
he kept up a correspondence with his friends in New 
York, who gave him information as to passing events re 
lating to public men and personal friends. It nowhere 
appears that Colonel Schuyler was one of the latter, al 
though some of Schuyler s friends were among his cor 
respondents. The jealousy of parties was so intense, that 
slight omissions in courtesy, or the employment of individ 
uals of one faction instead of those of the other, caused 
suspicion and remark. Lewis Morris affiliated with the 
Leislerian party, and his appointment to the judgeship was 
offensive to members of the other party, who, as lawyers, 
felt themselves doubly slighted by the advancement of a 
layman to that high position. Schuyler s health was 
broken to such a degree that he could not endure the 
fatigues and privations incident to long journeys in the 
Indian country. The employment of other men for such 
duties of late gave occasion for some super-serviceable 
friend to imagine that he was neglected. 

Lodwik, in his memorial, informs the Lords of Trade, 
that, having resided seventeen years in New York, he 
naturally takes an interest in matters relating to its pros 
perity. He has been informed, that trade has fallen off 
by reason of French intrigues among the Five Nations, 
whose affection for the English has grown cold, and in 
danger of being wholly diverted from their allegiance. 
He modestly suggests that the French should be forbidden 
to meddle in their affairs, and passes on to observe, that 
all treaties with the Five Nations for many years have 
been made with the assistance of Colonel Schuyler, for 


whom the Indians always had a great affection, and would 
be displeased were he not to appear at their conferences ; 
and adds : " There are reports here that the governor 
there has been pleased to slight that gentleman in par 
ticular." Lodwik sought to cover his real design, and 
after this long preamble comes to the point of his me 
morial : " Governor Hunter has appointed as chief justice, 
in place of Mr. Mompesson, deceased, one Lewis Morris, 
a gentleman never bred to the law, only because he is the 
governor s favorite. Through his ignorance of law, he 
may commit some fatal errors. It is better to appoint a 
thorough lawyer, and the people of the province will be 
more pleased." 

Lodwik and his correspondents did not succeed in their 
effort to displace Morris, or lessen Hunter in the esteem 
of his superiors. The memorial was sent to Hunter by 
the Lords of Trade, with assurances of their continued 
regard, and a copy of their report to the minister, in 
which they fully endorsed his appointment of Morris. 
Hunter, in his reply to this flattering letter, said that he 
had shown the memorial to the Council, all the members 
of which expressed surprise, and denied having given any 
information to Lodwik on which he could base his asser 
tions. Hunter added, " there are few instances in which 
we have differed in opinion, and none of any personal dif 
ference with Colonel Schuyler." " He was never slighted, 
but favored and encouraged." In reference to this memo 
rial and the use of his name, Colonel Schuyler assured the 
governor that Lodwik had no authority for his assertions, 
and he was ready, if required, to declare in his own name 
that it was a false accusation. 

This was in 1715. Three years afterward Lodwik re 
newed the charge, and then Hunter wrote to Schuyler on 
the subject, for the purpose of procuring his denial over 


his name. Schuyler, in his reply, declared explicitly that 
the accusation that Hunter had slighted him, or in any 
way had treated him with neglect, was false. On the 
other hand, he was under great obligations to him for his 
" extraordinary respect and friendship." 

Four days after the date of Lodwik s memorial in Lon 
don (August 27, 1715), Hunter held a convention with the 
Five Nations at Albany, assisted by Colonel Schuyler as 
usual. The chief topic of discussion was the Carolina 
war. The year before the governor had induced them to 
lay aside their intention of making war on the Flatheads of 
the south, but now he desired them to take an active part 
and punish those treacherous Indians. He told them that 
the reason why the Flatheads were butchering the English 
of Carolina was that the English refused to assist them in 
their war against the Five Nations. 

Dekanissora, in his reply, said that they had been in 
formed that the war had been begun for other reasons 
than those assigned by the governor ; that when the Eng 
lish were fighting the Tuscaroras, they had desired the as 
sistance of the Flatheads, and as an inducement had offered 
to supply them with powder at lower rates, but that after 
the Tuscaroras were subdued and dispersed they had sold 
their powder at higher rates than before ; that the Flat- 
heads had resented this breach of faith, and had turned 
their hatchets against the men for whom they had fought 
the year before. Nevertheless, if the governor would 
brighten and sharpen their hatchets, now rusty and dull 
for want of use, by a liberal supply of powder and guns, 
they would engage in the war, and teach their old enemies 
to remain quiet and no longer annoy the English. 

The governor complied with the terms ; and in the fol 
lowing October the Indians sent messengers to Albany, 
to inform the commissioners that thev had fulfilled their 


engagement, and had sent a fighting party against the 
Flatheads, as also eight orators, with many presents, to 
negotiate a peace. The war-party returned the next 
spring with " several scalps and some prisoners." 

Meanwhile Hunter s representations to his government 
as to the necessity of giving more attention to the Five 
Nations, particularly as to presents from the king, attracted 
attention, and were attended with favorable results. The 
Lords of Trade reported to Secretary Stanhope that they 
had referred to their books to learn what had been done 
theretofore. They found that New York had always been 
reputed the frontier of the English colonies in North 
America, and that the Five Nations were the only barrier 
between the French and the English provinces south of 
New York. These Indians were the most warlike people 
on the continent, and "were capable of turning European 
interests to whichever side they inclined." Inasmuch as 
the French were obtaining a great influence over them, 
and seemed likely to detach them from the English, they 
recommended that a present to the amount of ^800 
should be sent to them by the king. 

It was nearly two years before the presents were ready 
for distribution, which took place at a conference held at 
Albany, in June, 1717. Dekanissora was the chief speaker 
on the part of the Five Nations, but presented no belts, 
alleging that they were too poor to buy them. He again 
referred to the reports current among them, that the Eng 
lish colonies had combined to destroy them. This was an 
old story, but nevertheless repeated at every conference. 
It may have been for the purpose of securing presents, as 
in time of peace there was less need of their services, con 
ferences were not so frequent, and gratuities less ; or it 
may have been that their minds, through its constant 
iteration by the French, had become possessed with this 


idea to such an extent they could not divest themselves of 
the thought. 

The next year, in August, the Indian board reported 
that the Indians were again greatly excited, and on the 
same old subject. The sachems then in Albany demanded 
the governor s immediate reply as to the truth of the re 
ports. They were also in need of guns and ammunition 
for their hunting. The governor went up to Albany with 
out delay, and appeased the excitement. This was Briga 
dier Hunter s last conference with the Five Nations. He 
made certain propositions to the Indians, to which they 
declined a reply until the next year. Governor Hunter 
was not there to receive it. He was wearied with the cares 
of office, and had determined to go " home." His ad 
vances for the Palatines, and for other purposes, had not 
been repaid, and there seemed to be no possibility of ef 
fecting a settlement without his personal presence ; he 
was in affliction by the death of his wife ; he was annoyed 
by his enemies in England, who kept up a constant fire 
of misrepresentations, to which the government too often 
gave a willing ear ; he had been away from friends and 
congenial society for nine years, and was homesick. He 
did not resign, but asked for and obtained a leave of ab 
sence ; he kept his intentions a secret until he was ready 
to embark. He delivered to Colonel Schuyler, who, as 
oldest member of the Council, would be entrusted with 
the government in his absence, his own commissions and 
instructions as his guide in the administration on July 13, 
1729. He then took leave of the Council, which was cor 
dial, if not affecting, and went aboard the ship of war 
which was to convey him home. 

Colonel Schuyler had just recovered from a tedious ill 
ness, and had regained to some degree his old-time spirit 
and activity. The day after his arrival in New York, 


shortly before the governor left, a letter was received from 
the Indian board, which informed them that Dekanissora 
had appeared in Albany with the news that the French 
were building a fort at Niagara. The orator added that he 
was only a private person, and could accept no belt or 
message on the subject. He had no doubt, however, that 
if the governor would use the same methods as in the de 
struction of the block-house at Onondaga, this fort might 
in like manner be destroyed to the satisfaction of all con 
cerned. The "same methods" could not now be put in 
requisition. Hunter was ready to leave for England, and 
Colonel Schuyler must remain in New York. There had 
been such reports before, which proved to be mere rumors. 
The Council, thinking perhaps this might be one of the 
same kind, and that Dekanissora was after an annual pres 
ent, directed the interpreter to visit the Indian country, 
w T ith sixty pounds worth of presents, and forbid the work 
to be done. He was not successful in his mission. The 
fortified trading-house remained, and became a fort ; it 
gave the French more influence among the Indians, and 
cut off from Albany a large amount of trade. 

Brigadier Robert Hunter did not return to New York. 
He found the province in a low condition, and the people 
rent into divisions and factions ; he left it peaceful and 
prosperous ; party spirit had been subdued, and factions 
reconciled ; he did more to quiet the people than any or 
all of his predecessors. They openly chose sides with one 
or the other, and thus made matters worse. Hunter, lean 
ing to the Leislerians, did not quarrel with their oppo 
nents ; he patronized both, and judiciously compelled 
them to be quiet. 

In the absence of the governor, and of the lieutenant- 
governor when there was one, the government devolved 
on the eldest councillor with the title of president. There 


had been at various times lieutenant-governors, but after 
Ingoldesby s commission was revoked no one had been 
appointed to that position, which consequently left the 
administration to the eldest councillor in the absence of 
the governor. Hunter had not resigned, but was absent 
on leave of absence ; how long he would be gone \vas 
not known, but it was his intention to return after he had 
arranged his private affairs. 

Schuyler entered upon the duties of president on July 
21, 1719, w T hen, at a meeting of the Council, Governor 
Hunter s commission and instructions were read, and he 
took the oaths of office. Tlie Council minutes and other 
records indicate that Schuyler began and executed his 
trust with a fixed purpose to be faithful to his duties and 
instructions. The book of Council minutes, numbered 
twelve, contains the records of his administration from 
July 21, 1719, to September 5, 1720, inclusive. The rec 
ords are full and minute, more so than those of any one 
who had preceded hirn. They show that a majority of the 
Council was always present, whose opinions were always 
sought and given on all business of importance, including 
that of lands. He introduced some new features into the 
minutes of Council, which were an improvement on the 
old methods, particularly to the student of history. There 
tofore, when communications were received from the com 
missioners of Indian affairs, a simple record was made : 
" they were read, and ordered on file." When the gov 
ernor met the Indian sachems in conference, on his re 
turn to the capital, he reported verbally to the Council, 
and a note to that effect was made. Now the letters and 
the proceedings of the president s conference with the 
Five Nations, lasting eight days, are recorded in full ; as 
also a full list of the presents distributed. Such records 

were novel, but were adopted by succeeding governors. 
VOL. II. 5 


The governors were always instructed to make frequent 
reports of all matters relating to the colony, and es 
pecially to send copies of the Council records at stated 
periods to the parent government. Many of them had 
neglected their duty in this regard, for which they had 
been sharply reproved. Even Brigadier Hunter was oc 
casionally reminded that he had not complied with his in 
structions on these points. Schuyler was particular to 
send the required reports and records, so that no com 
plaints were made ; he knew that he was closely watched 
by political opponents and others jealous of his position 
and reputation, who would report anything that seemed 
like an infraction of his instructions ; this knowledge 
made him the more careful. Hunter had filled the va 
rious civil offices with his friends, and after several dis 
solutions had secured an Assembly subservient to his will. 
When he left for home with the expectation of returning, 
he desired that there should be no change in his absence, 
and was especially solicitous that the Assembly should not 
be dissolved, either by proclamation or by limitation of 
adjournment. It was well known that the president held 
the doctrine, that on the appointment of every new gov 
ernor the Assembly called by his predecessor was legally 
dissolved. Such had been the custom, and usage made 
the law, if not the legislature. Hunter had prorogued the 
Assembly to May i, 1720 ; should it not again be pro 
rogued by proclamation previous to that date, in the ab 
sence of the governor, it would be dissolved. 

The president s opponents and the spies over his con 
duct were not required to wait more than two months 
for an occasion to make such representations as were 
calculated to arouse Hunter s suspicions that Schuyler in 
tended to make some radical changes in the government. 
The mayors and sheriffs of New York and Albany were 


annually appointed by the governor on September 29th, as 
provided by their charters. Dr. Johnston, mayor of New 
York, had served five years, and Robert Livingston. Jr., 
mayor of Albany, nine years ; botli appointed by Hunter. 
In the place of Johnston Schuyler appointed Jacobus Van 
Cortlandt, and in place of Livingston Myndert Schuyler. 
He reappointed Farmer, Hunter s appointee, sheriff of 
New York, and Gerritt Van Schaick in place of Samuel 
Babbington, sheriff of Albany. The new officials were all 
men of character and position ; some of them, if not all, 
were friends of Hunter. There were good reasons for the 
changes, as we shall see, and as the politics of the new 
were the same as that of the old officers, there was little or 
no change in policy. The change of men, however, was 
sufficient cause of complaint. 

Members of the Council and "others " immediately de 
spatched letters to Hunter, which alarmed him lest the 
" president should break into the measures that he had 
with so much labor settled for the peace of the country." 
Having begun with a change of the principal magistracy, 
his correspondents expressed the belief that Schuyler 
would follow it up by changing all the rest, and then, to 
put a finishing touch to his innovations, he would dissolve 
the Assembly, " the most dutiful to their sovereign, and 
the most attentive to the interests of the colony that the 
colony could ever boast of." Hunter, on the receipt of 
these alarming letters, memorialized the Lords of Trade, 
reciting the facts, and suggesting immediate instructions 
be sent to the president to make no other changes than 
"such as shall be thought by the Council to be absolutely 

The Lords of Trade the next day sent a note to Mr. 
Secretary Craggs, requesting the order to be made, as 
Hunter had suggested. Only three days afterward (there 


was no red tape about this business) Secretary Craggs 
wrote to Schuyler, as follows : 

"Whitehall, Dec. 26, 1719. 
" Sir, 

" The King having received information that you 
have begun to make such alterations in the magistracy as 
may be prejudicial to his Majesty s service, if your further 
proceedings therein be not prevented, I am hereby to sig 
nify his Majesty s express commands, that you do not 
make any other alterations than such as shall be thought 
by the Council to be aboslutely necessary, and particu 
larly that you do not dissolve the present Assembly, or 
suffer it to be dissolved. 

" I am, 


"Your most 

" humble servant 
" To Peter Schuyler Esq. 

"President of the Council of 

"New York." 

Within a month after the appointment of the mayors 
and sheriffs, the nerves of " some of the Council and 
others," but more especially of the "others," received 
another severe shock. This time death, and not the lim 
itation of terms, created a vacancy in an important office, 
for which there was more than one candidate. Augustine 
Graham, surveyor-general, having died, Schuyler, by ad 
vice of the Council, appointed Allan Jarret to the vacant 
place. This was a sore disappointment to one of the 
" others," who quickly notified Hunter of the president s 
presumption in the selection of a man whom Hunter him 
self had appointed to run the boundary line between New 
York and New Jersey. Another missive of Mr. Secretary 
Craggs soon followed : 


"Whitehall, Feby. 2, 1720. 

"I am hereby to signify the King s pleasure to 
you, that you do forthwith constitute and appoint D r . Cad- 
wallader Golden his Majesty s Surveyor General of all the 
lands within the province of New York in the room of Au- 
gustin Graham, deceased. 

"I am 

"Your most humble Servant, 

" Gov r of New York " J. CRAGGS." 

" or the commander in chief. 

At a meeting of the Council, on April 21, 1720, the 
president presented these letters, and another directing 
him to admit Francis Harison, Esq., as member of the 
Council. Mr. Harison was immediately admitted, and 
took the oaths of office. A few days afterward the presi 
dent addressed the following letter to the Lords of Trade. 
It serves to show the reasons why some changes in the 
magistracy were made, and is a justification of his action 

"In New York, 27, April 1720. 
" To the Lords of Trade, 

" My Lords, 

" Having on the i6th inst. 

with a letter from his Excellency, Brigadier Hunter, dated 
the 1 8th February last received the following orders, to 
wit : A warrant under the Privy seal to swear and ad 
mit Frances Harison Esq. one of the Council of this 
Province : His Majesty s order signified by M r . Secretary 
Craggs, that no alteration should be made in the magis 
tracy, but such as the Council shall think absolutely ne 
cessary, and to prevent the present Assembly s being dis 
solved ; Another to constitute Doc. Cadwallader Golden, 
Surveyor of lands, I judge it my duty to acquaint your 
Lordships, that these orders were punctually complied 


with. M r . Harison accordingly took his place at the 
Council board, M r . Golden has a commission under the 
seal of the Province, and a proclamation is issued to ad 
journ the Assembly to the second Tuesday of June next. 

"As I had reason to believe my administration would 
be of no long duration, I was desirous of keeping it in the 
same state it was left to me, and therefore avoided perhaps 
more than any other person in that station would have 
done, to make alterations in its officers, and those few that 
were made I gave account of to his Excellency on the 31"* 
of October last, as by the enclosed extract of my letter to 
him may appear, to which I crave your Lordships refer 
ence. 1 

** And to clear myself of any misrepresentations on this 
score, I take leave to remind your Lordships, that the 
mayors of New York and Albany are (as may appear by 
minutes of the Council) annually appointed on the 29th 
September by the Governor, or commander in chief, and 
tho they happen to be continued they must be appointed 
de novo, and have a commission every year. Nor was it 
ever looked upon an alteration if it happened on the days 
prescribed by their charters. As to the mayor of this city, 
I had no other motive in it than those hinted at in said ex 
tract ; z nor any views, but that the public should be prop 
erly attended. Of him of Albany it was upon his own im 
portunity, nor can it be suspected that I had any other 
inducement, since he is my own son-in-law, and one for 
whom I have a great affection. 

"As for my appointing Capt. Jarret Surveyor General 
of lands in room of Col. Graham, deceased, I conceive 
myself well warranted therein for the reasons I gave your 

1 Unfortunately the extract is not with the public documents. It might 
clear up some matters which are now subjects of surmise. I have no 
doubt that his explanations were satisfactory to Hunter, if not to Golden, 
one of the "others." 

2 Dr. Johnston was about to take up his residence in New Jersey. This 
may have been made known to the president himself, without wishing it to 
become public. If so, it was a sufficient reason to appoint another. 


Lordships on the 31 October last, to which I crave your 
Lordships reference. 1 . . . 

" Your Lordships 

" Most humble and obedient 
" Servant to command, 


In a letter to the Lords of Trade, November 21, 1719, 
he had informed them, that although he had ordered a 
commission for Jarret, he had postponed it, because there 
were several candidates, until he had the opinion of the 
Council, who by a majority concurred in his selection. 
It seems, however, that Golden was Hunter s candidate, 
and he secured the prize. It is fair to conclude that Col- 
den s dislike to Schuyler grew out of the controversies re 
lating to this appointment. Schuyler was too independ 
ent to conciliate him, and probably had reason to despise 

It is quite evident that the president w r as justified in his 
appointments, and his explanations must have put a dif 
ferent face upon them than they were made to bear by 
the representations of "some members of the Council 
and others." 

Schuyler s letters to the Lords of Trade were frequent, 
but have not all been preserved. He kept them ac 
quainted with the affairs of the province, and all his more 
important transactions ; he transmitted copies of the 
Council, records, which contained the conferences of the 
Indian board with the sachems of the Five Nations, the 
journals of his agents among them, and his own conven 
tion with them ; he was punctual in the fulfilment of 

1 The letter to which reference is made recites that he had appointed in 
place of Colonel Graham, surveyor of lands, lately deceased, Allan Jarret, 
a man agreed on all hands to be the most competent in the province for 
the position, and so recommended to Governor Hunter for ascertaining 
the bounds between New York and New Jersey, as honest and capable. 


his instructions in all these particulars. The business of 
greatest importance transacted during his administration 
was that relating to the Indians. They had been restless 
during the last years of Hunter s stay in the province, and 
although he could say with truth that all was quiet when 
he left, their uneasiness was soon again apparent. They 
were not well affected toward the English, and especially 
toward those of the southern colonies. French interests 
were becoming stronger year by year ; the peace afforded 
a fuller scope for the intrigues of that restless people, 
who, from Fort Frontenac, and now from Fort Niagara, 
had easy access to the four western cantons. 

Several sachems held an interview with the commission 
ers of Indian affairs on September 25, 1719. They de 
clared with emphasis that they were troubled about the 
alarming reports, which came to them from the south, 
that the English were coming with an army resolved to 
destroy them. These reports were confirmed by the 
French. Many of their people believed them, "because 
the governor (Hunter) has gone without letting us know, 
and Colonel Schuyler, who is in his place, has also gone 
without letting us know." They wished Colonel Schuy 
ler to visit them later in the fall, that an inquiry might be 
made into the alarming reports, and to quiet, if possible, 
the minds of their people. 

The commissioners soothed them with presents, assur 
ing them that the reports were false, and promising to 
send a smith into their country to repair their guns and 
axes. They also told them that Governor Hunter had not 
left without "letting them know," for he had sent a mes 
sage by some Cayuga sachems, with wampum, to inform 
them of his intentions. But they could not promise them 
a visit, from Colonel Schuyler, whose duties required his 
presence in New York. The sachems came again in No- 


vember, hoping, they said, to meet Colonel Schuyler, but 
learning that he was indisposed, they desired to see their 
friends, the commissioners. They again complained of 
the neglect of the southern governors. It was true that 
these gentlemen had neglected to send them presents, and 
hence the alarming reports from that quarter. In refer 
ence to their complaints, the president wrote to the Lords 
of Trade : 

" They look upon themselves as slighted by his maj 
esty s other governments to the southward, and though 
this government uses its utmost efforts to prevent them 
from going to war against Indians that live that way, it is 
possible that such neglect may at one time or another 
occasion consequences which are much easier prevented 
than redressed." 

During the following winter the French kept several 
agents, besides the priests, among the Five Nations, who 
found means to have some individuals appointed sachems 
who favored the French interests, in place of those friend 
ly to the English. To put a stop to these proceedings, 
Schuyler directed two of the commissioners to visit the 
Indian country, with proper presents, and rectify -the 
abuses. The mayor of Albany, Myndert Schuyler, and 
the late mayor, Robert Livingston, Jr., were selected for 
this delicate mission. These gentlemen left Albany on 
April 27, 1720, and arrived in the Seneca country on May 
1 2th. They were successful in persuading the Senecas 
not to send out war-parties against the southern Indians, 
and to keep the peace with the western tribes. Some 
days later representatives of all the nations were present, 
and it was agreed that the French ought not to be per 
mitted to remain at Niagara, and some of their chiefs were 
sent for the purpose of having the fort demolished, but 


were unsuccessful. The commissioners, however, induced 
the Senecas to restore Blawbeck, a man friendly to the 
English, to his sachemship. Otherwise little was accom 
plished. The Senecas, if not the Cayugas, were evidently 
drifting to the French. In consideration of the reports 
brought back by the commissioners, Schuyler wrote ear 
nestly to the English Government, that they should de 
mand the recall of the French agents, and the demolition of 
the fort at Niagara, as contrary to the treaty of Utrecht. 

About a month after Livingston and Schuyler had pre 
sented the report of their visit to the Seneca nation, the 
commissioners of Indian affairs wrote to the president, 
that there was a pressing necessity of a conference with 
the Indians by the governor, if he should have arrived, or 
by himself. If the Five Nations were not to be wholly lost 
immediate measures should be taken to conciliate them, 
and disabuse their minds of the false impressions made by 
the priests and the Canadians. This letter was presented 
to the Council, who at once voted ^400 for presents, and 
authorized a conference in September. 

A few days before the sachems were expected in Al 
bany, Robert Livingston addressed to Schuyler a memo 
rial, which contains some thoughtful suggestions. He said 
that he had been in the country over forty-five years, but 
had never known the colony in a more melancholy and 
distracted condition. Affairs at Albany were so deplora 
ble, that it was on the verge of ruin, and if not speedily 
remedied, it, as well as the whole country, would be in 
volved in destruction. The reasons for this state of 
things he summed up under three heads : 

1. The incursions of the Five Nations on the southern 
colonies, which had become unendurable. 

2. The French fort and trading-house at Niagara. 

3. The supplying the French and their Indians with 


English goods, by which the Five Nations were furnished, 
and the trade of Albany ruined. 

He proposed, that at the coming conference the Five 
Nations should be prevailed upon to desist from their 
southern expeditions, and be induced to go to Virginia and 
make a treaty with the governor. He believed that the 
great confidence they had in Quidor s affection, and the in 
fluence he had over them, would induce them to adopt his 
advice. On the second point, he suggested that a sachem 
of each nation should be persuaded to form a party 
for the destruction of the buildings at Niagara ; and added, 
that as this fort had been built during his administration, 
it would place him in a secure position should he have it 
demolished, as he had always been considered a person 
having a most powerful influence over the Five Nations. 

Thirdly, he proposed to stop all goods going to Canada 
for three months, and for this purpose to post a guard at 
the carrying-place. 

He was convinced that the Council would freely assist 
him in these measures; for "the affairs are come to a 
crisis we must do or die." 

It seems that the boast of Governor Hunter, " all was 
well in the province when I left," was not welf founded. 
Indeed it was not, for the French had begun their fort at 
Niagara before he left, and he had despatched agents to 
hinder them. It was the same old uneasiness that broke 
out afresh, and which was beyond the power of the 
colonial government to allay. Had the crown furnished 
its governors \vith money and priests, as did the French 
to the Canadian governors, they could have closed the 
Indian country against all intruders. It required thirty 
years more of time to a\vaken the British Government, 
and bring them to understand the true situation. It then 
cost much blood and treasure to remedy the evils, which 


might have been prevented in time at small cost of life 
and money. 

As the new governor had not arrived, the president held 
a conference with four of the Five Nations and with the 
River Indians in September, 1720. The Senecas were not 
represented, for the French had obtained such an influ 
ence over them that they did not accept the wampum in 
viting them. The proceedings of the conference were of 
the usual kind. The covenant-chain was renewed and 
brightened ; the Indians were required not to molest the 
Indians at the south under English protection, and to con 
fine their journeys southward to the country west of the 
mountains ; they were advised to listen no longer to the 
French, " who had burned their castles and destroyed 
their corn," nor suffer them to build forts among them. 
To all this they readily assented. Presents were given to 
them, but they gave none in return, for they had none to 
give, and they were not the proud people of thirty years 
before ; they were poor in furs, because the French had 
shut them out from their hunting-grounds, and now they 
depended on presents for their living. 

During the conference, Hendrick was restored to his 
chieftainship. Four years before he had been degraded, 
and made the common. Indian he was when Golden "saw 
him in the crowd." His forced retirement from office 
taught him some useful lessons, and later he became one 
of Sir William Johnson s heroes. Before the president left 
for New York, the authorities of Albany presented an 
address, in which they gave a true statement of the situa 
tion. Its main features were the same as contained in 
Livingston s memorial ; it was probably drawn by the 
same hand. These documents prove conclusively that 
the relations with the Five Nations had become serious 
and alarming. The truth was that the French com- 


manded respect by their activity in extending their set 
tlements, and by the building of substantial forts for 
the protection of their citizens and their Indian friends, 
by their military display, and their fondness for glory. As 
a rule the king of France was liberal to the colonists of 
New France ; he supplied them with soldiers from year 
to year, and with military stores ; he sent over some of 
of his choicest troops, and the best officers of his army ; 
he gave them money to build forts, and guns to equip 
them ; he furnished presents for the Indians, and allowed 
them to be carried, at times, by skilful agents to the 
wigwams of the natives ; he gave them missionaries in 
such numbers that every tribe and village had a priest. 
Frenchmen were encouraged to live among them, and 
become sachems by adoption. Favorites of any particular 
nation or tribe were allowed to remain, and were not with 
drawn at the caprice of governors. 

Meanwhile the English did little or nothing to con 
ciliate and attach the Indians to their nation. A few 
presents were occasionally furnished by the king and dis 
tributed by his governors. The English built no forts, and 
suffered the old to go to decay ; they sent over few recruits, 
and allowed the four companies of soldiers stationed in 
the province to be reduced to half their number by death 
and desertion, and even these were badly paid and poorly 
clothed ; they sent no ministers to live among their hea 
then subjects, and instruct them in the Christian religion ; 
they kept no agents in the Indian country to watch thcir 
intercsts arid direct their councils. Their sole depend 
ence for holding their fickle allies to their allegiance was 
the distribution of Indian goods mainly furnished by the 
province ; their governors and other officials, both mili 
tary and civil, were not appointed on account of their 
fitness, but rather as a means to give them bread. 


The difference between the two nations, and their modes 
of dealing with the native population, was so great that it 
could not but be observed by the dullest savage. The 
Five Nations were too quick witted not to appreciate it, 
and gradually inclined to the most active and showy nation. 
Had it not been for the large gratuities occasionally fur 
nished them, the fears of the Albanians would have been 
realized the Indians would have been lost to the Eng 
lish. Had this "barrier" been removed, the dreams of 
Frontenac and others would have become facts New 
York would have become a dependency of France. 

The president returned to New York from his confer 
ence with the Indians, and communicated to the Council 
his proceedings on September pth. Six days later he pre 
sided for the last time, when he further adjourned the As 
sembly to the second Tuesday of October. In his last 
letter to the Lords of Trade, he said that he was about to 
go to Albany to meet the sachems, and after the confer 
ence he would write to the governor of Canada in refer 
ence to his unwarrantable proceedings at Niagara. He 
concluded his letter by saying : "The affairs of the prov 
ince being still in perfect tranquillity, I make no doubt of 
preserving them in the same good posture until the gov 
ernor s arrival. I take leave to assure your lordships that 
this will be the highest satisfaction imaginable to me." 

After William Burnet had taken the oaths of office, 
Schuyler handed him the seal of the province, the keys of 
the fort, and the papers pertaining to his office, of which 
there were two lists, one of those received from Brigadier 
Hunter, the other of those since received. Among the 
papers were three counterfeit notes of the province, two 
of four pounds each, and one of forty shillings. He re 
mained in New York until October 6th, when he returned 
home, having attended the Council for the last time. 


When Hunter left New York for England, he expected 
to return soon ; but he was tired of the position, and within 
a few months made an arrangement with Burnet, then a 
government official, to exchange places. His administra 
tion had been a successful one in many respects, and he 
retired with honor ; he retained to the end the confidence 
of his superiors, who continued to consult him about the 
affairs of the province, and placed much reliance on his 
judgment and recommendations. 

William Burnet was appointed governor of New York 
on April 19, 1720, and arrived September iyth following, 
when he took the oaths of office, and entered upon duties 
new to him, but for which he had been prepared in a cer 
tain sense by his friend Hunter. New as they were, and 
strange as were the men and all things surrounding him, 
he did not doubt his own abilities to meet every emer 
gency with credit to himself and friends. He was self- 
conscious, and never forgot " I am governor." 

On the third day after his arrival, the great problem of 
his administration was forced upon his attention. Blaw- 
beck and other Seneca sachems, who had not been present 
at the last conference, came to New York, and had an au 
dience of the governor and Council. They had been de 
tained by the French partisans of their nation, who seemed 
determined that none of their sachems should go to Al 
bany. The difficulties interposed were finally overcome, 
and they began their journey, but arrived too late, for 
Quidor had gone to New York. Unwilling to go home 
without an interview, although their share of the presents 
was ready for them, they followed the president. On 
reaching New York, they found to their surprise that the 
expected governor had arrived, and were happy to be the 
first of the confederates to see him. 

Blawbeck, in his speech, referred to the encroachments 


of the French, and lamented that they had been allowed to 
build forts on territory belonging to his nation. He also 
condemned the trade conducted by the people of this 
province with their ancient enemies. Burnet, never before 
having seen these " English subjects and allies," and know 
ing little of Indian politics, was embarrassed and awkward. 
He answered briefly in a non-committal way, seeming cold 
and distant ;but his first letter home urged that the Indian 
presents might not be delayed, although he did not men 
tion his first audience to the forest kings. 

After the Assembly adjourned, on November 191)1, Bur- 
net wrote a jubilant letter to the Lords of Trade. Hunt 
er s legislature had given him a five years support, and in 
other respects had followed his recommendations. In this 
letter, speaking of the Assembly, he said, " I found that 
the president and six others of the Council combined to 
have a new Assembly." In a private conversation, finding 
them unyielding, he threatened them with the exposure of 
certain "unwarrantable proceedings," upon which Schuyler 
and four others desired leave of absence. They did not 
yield their convictions, nor were they intimidated by the 
threats, but, being unwilling to legislate with an Assembly 
they believed to be illegal, they desired to relieve them 
selves from responsibility ; they knew that the governor 
could suspend them, and they chose that alternative rather 
than act against their judgment. The president returned 
to his home in Albany. Burnet said that they asked for 
leave of absence, " that they might reserve themselves to 
oppose me on other occasions." How so ? Could they 
not oppose him on other occasions without a leave ? But 
for the discouragement of such attempts, he asked that 
two of these gentlemen be dismissed from the Council, 
to wit, Peter Schuyler and Adolph Philipse, for several 
reasons : 


1. Because, after Brigadier Hunter s departure, the presi 
dent made several alterations in the affairs of the govern 
ment, and threatened a dissolution of the Assembly ; and 
this he did by advice of Philipse. 

2. Schuyler, by advice of Philipse, granted away several 
tracts of land, contrary to instructions. 

3. Schuyler, by concurrence of Philipse, sought to 
alienate the minds of the people from Hunter s adminis 

4. In case of his (Burnet s) death, the province would 
come under the same administration, and be in the utmost 
confusion ; and the president, being a weak, ignorant man, 
is easily prompted to do wrong by Adolph Philipse, who 
has always been an enemy to Brigadier Hunter. 

Burnet should certainly have added a fifth reason, the 
most potent of all, that two gentlemen, Scotchmen, the 
countrymen of Hunter and Burnet, were solicitous to 
fill the places of Schuyler and Philipse, who were Dutch 
men they were James Alexander and Cadwallader Golden. 

These were not Burnet s real reasons ; they were sup 
plied by the hand of another, also a Scotchman. Had he 
carefully read the Council minutes and other public records 
for the thirty previous years, he must have come to other 
conclusions. The records of Schuyler s administration 
show that he was more painstaking and methodical than 
others, not excepting even Hunter and Burnet. His let 
ters to the Lords of Trade show that his reasons for the ap 
pointment of a few persons to office in the place of others 
were eminently just and proper. The documents show that 
he was not the ignorant man alleged, and was not governed 
by Philipse ; they show that on some questions of im 
portance he and Philipse were widely apart ; they show 
that he alienated no lands except by advice of the Coun 
cil : that every application for land was referred to a com- 
YOJ, II. -6 


mittee, and passed all the legal preliminaries, before a 
patent was granted. It has been said by an English gov 
ernor, that the king had no more loyal subjects than the 
Dutch residents of New York. This was pre-eminently 
true of Peter Schuyler and Adolph Philipsc. It is not at 
all probable, judging from the records, that they sought to 
alienate the minds of the people from Hunter s policy or 
administration. The whole public life of Peter Schuyler 
shows that he was not a weak and ignorant man ; he was 
brave to a fault, and wise in council. He had not the 
same advantages of education as Burnct, yet his letters to 
the Lords of Trade compare very favorably with Burnet s. 
His letter to the governor of Canada on the barbarities 
of Indian wars has become historical. 

Burnet recommended Schuyler s removal from the Coun 
cil for ignorance and incapacity. Why, then, did he leave 
him at the head of the Indian board ? There is hardly a 
doubt that Burnet w r as unduly influenced in this recom 
mendation by his Scotch countrymen, one of whom, in his 
histories and other writings, reveals his feelings toward 
Schuyler in insinuations and charges which we know to 
be ungenerous and untrue. The king s letter approving 
the removal of Schuyler and Philipse from the Council 
was not received until the following August. Before this 
time the other disaffected members made their peace, and 
held their places at the board. Schuyler did not consider 
the reasons for his removal of sufficient consequence to 
require an answer ; he may not have been served with a 
copy, as custom and instructions required. It is possible 
he never knew the reasons, as there is no mention of it. 
Be that as it may, he showed that he was above resent 
ment, leaving his vindication to the future ; he met the 
governor at the Indian board as though nothing had oc 
curred to mar their friendship. 


Burnet was jubilant over his success with the Assembly, 
not only in procuring five years salary (" the main act," 
as he puts it), but because an act had been passed, on his 
recommendation, prohibiting trade with Canada, which he 
believed would promote the Indian trade of the colony. 
French traders were unable to procure Indian goods so 
easily and cheaply as from New York and Albany mer 
chants. Without this means of supply, the Indian trade 
must come directly to Albany, whose merchants would reap 
the profits, and not Canadians. The Assembly also made 
an appropriation for building and repairing fortifications. 

Burnet proposed, when he received the king s presents 
for the Indians, " to go into the Indian country through 
the Five Nations, and give them the presents at their own 
homes," and when he got to the Senecas he would propose 
to build a fort at Niagara, "and leave a whole company of 
soldiers to guard it ; " and then he would build a small 
fort at Onondaga. How sanguine, and yet how ignorant ! 
In less than a year he was better informed, and saw the 
insuperable difficulties in the way of performance. He 
did not deliver the presents at the doors of the wigwams, 
nor build a fort at Niagara, nor even a small one at Orion- 
daga. The king did not even approve the act which was 
designed to furnish the money for these splendid projects. 

The governor did not find it convenient to meet the 
sachems of the Five Nations at Albany until he had been 
in the province quite a year ; assisted by Colonel Schuy- 
ler and the Indian commissioners, he met them in conven 
tion on September 7, 1721. His speech was long, and, un 
like some by former governors, full of metaphors and 
allusions to their ancestors ; he spoke to them as children, 
and with an assumption of knowledge and authority ; he 
insisted that they should not suffer the French agents and 
priests to live among them, nor keep up a correspondence 


with them ; he directed them not to go to war against 
the southern Indians, nor molest the southern colonies ; in 
their journeys south they must not cross the river Potomac, 
or the mountains which bound Virginia on the west. To 
all his propositions they yielded a cheerful consent, even 
to the degradation of Dekanissora from his sachemship, 
as a French spy, for he had told them of the large quantity 
of presents he had in hand for them. They hailed with 
delight his proposal to make a settlement of ten persons 
at Irondequoit, on the south shore of Lake Ontario. 

After the sachems had concluded their usual reply, they 
congratulated the governor on his recent marriage. 1 As 
a token of their joy on the occasion, " w r e present a few 
beavers to your lady for pin-money, and say withal, it is 
customary for a brother on his marriage to invite his 
brethren to be merry and dance." The governor thanked 
them, and ordered some barrels of beer. 

He then distributed the presents, among which were one 
thousand pounds of powder, two hundred pounds of lead, 
ten cases of bullets, fifty guns, and various other articles, 
amounting in all to a generous gratuity. To the principal 
sachems he gave guns, powder, shirts, rum, laced hats, 
laced coats, etc. In his report to his government, he nat 
urally said nothing of the merrymaking over his marriage. 

Burnet s anticipations of a royal progress through the 
Indian country, bearing presents to the doors of the na 
tives, resolved themselves into the old matter-of-fact cus 
tom of calling the sachems to Albany, and letting them 
carry their presents to their own cabins. His proposed 
fort at Niagara, to be occupied by a whole company of 
soldiers, dwindled down to a settlement of ten young men 

1 He married a daughter of Abraham Van Home, a New York merchant, 
who was afterward raised to the Council on Burnet s recommendation. 


sixty miles from the great falls for one year. The little 
fort at Onondaga was not built until some years later. 

He did not prolong his stay at Albany. After the con 
ference, lasting only three days, with his young wife and 
new councillors, he went down to Livingston s manor- 
house, where he finished the business which it would have 
been better to have transacted at Albany. At a meeting 
of the Council, on September 2ist, held at Livingston s 
manor, his excellency gave it as his opinion, that a " man 
of distinction " should be placed in command of the com 
pany to be stationed at Irondequoit, with which the Coun 
cil concurred. The question of salaries was discussed, and 
it was finally agreed to pay to the man of distinction, as 
commandant, ^50, and each of the others ^25. Besides 
this, they were to be allowed to trade in the Seneca 
country (not in the other four cantons) on joint stock ac 
count. With this little company they concluded to send 
a smith and helper, whose emoluments would be derived 
from the Indians. When all these preliminaries were set 
tled, the Council presented the name of Peter Schuyler, 
Jr., second son of Colonel Schuyler, for the high position 
of commandant, with the rank of captain. 1 The governor 
graciously approved the nomination. Peter Schuyler, Jr., 
was then at the age of twenty-three, and had already be 
come a man of " distinction " in the opinion of the gov 
ernor and his councillors. 

Burnet takes no little credit to himself for the appoint 
ment of young Schuyler. He wrote to the Lords of 
Trade : 

" And because the late President of the Council Peter 
Schuyler s son first offered his services to go at the head 

1 The other members of the company were Jacob Verplanck, lieutenant ; 
Gillcyn Verplanck, Johannes Virger, Jr., Harmanus Schuyler, Johannes 
Van den Bergh, Peter Groenendyck, and David Van der Heyden. 


of the expedition I readily accepted him and have made 
him several presents to equip him and given him a hand 
some allowance for his own salary and a commission of 
Captain over the rest that are or may be there with him 
and Agent to treat with the Indians from me for purchas 
ing Land and other things which I the rather did that I 
might show that I had no personal dislike to the family." 

The reasons for the appointment, and manner of giving 
them, are rather amusing. Had the governor said that he 
was appointed because he \vas the son of Peter Schuyler, 
whose name had more influence with the Indians than 
other men of distinction, he would have been truthful and 

The Five Nations, ever since the peace they had con 
cluded with the French, had been losing ground and be 
coming daily more dependent on the Europeans, by whom 
they were surrounded. Their friendship, however, was 
sought the same as before. They now, and for many 
years to come, were considered a protection to the Eng 
lish colonies from their ambitious neighbors, and their 
name alone filled their weaker countrymen with fear ; 
they still roved through the countries they had con 
quered, gathering tribute and enforcing their supremacy ; 
they had not laid aside the trade of war, but when thus 
engaged made long journeys to reach their enemies. The 
Flatheads living in Georgia were their hereditary foes, 
not because they came north to fight them, but rather 
because they had not yet been subdued. The Five Na 
tions were always ready to strike their blows, but to do 
so they had to march many hundreds of miles to reach 
the enemy whom to strike. Their war-path led through 
Pennsylvania and Virginia, whose settlers and friendly 
Indians often suffered at their hands. The eastern In 
dians submitted to their dictation as a conquered people, 


and were in much dread of them, although, more by in 
stigation of the French than from their own choice, they 
continued their barbarous war on the New England settle 

The governors of Pennsylvania and Virginia protested 
against the injuries inflicted on their people, and asked 
for redress. Massachusetts continued to seek the inter 
position of the Five Nations against their eastern enemies. 
Hence it was arranged to have a conference at Albany 
with the governor of New York, at which the governors 
of the other colonies should be present, and make their 
own propositions. The appointment was for August 27th, 
but there were few of the sachems in attendance. They 
were not prompt, as the year before, but kept the govern 
ors waiting more than a week. On September loth, after 
Virginia and Pennsylvania had made their treaties, there 
was a session at which all the governors were present. 
Burnet congratulated the sachems on the progress which 
had been made in coming to a true understanding as to 
their mutual interests and responsibilities. He then ap 
pealed to them to stop the war which the eastern Indians 
were making on New England. He also asked their as 
sistance in sustaining the law to prohibit the Canada 
trade in Indian goods, saying that there was a fine of ^100, 
besides the goods, payable to the man who should detect 
any one engaged in the unlawful traffic ; and for their 
encouragement to keep their engagements, and to pro 
mote the trade with the far Indians, he had despatched 
Major Abraham Schuyler, 1 their old friend, to reside in 
the Seneca country, adding. " I doubt not you will em 
brace him as a brother." 

1 He was appointed by the Council, August 28, 1722, to command a 
company of eight, besides a smith and helper. He and his company were 
commissioned on the same terms as Peter Schuyler, Jr s., the year before. 


The sachems replied that they would by some means 
endeavor to put a stop to the barbarous war waged by the 
eastern Indians on New England. As to their intercourse 
with Canada, they could not see any evil consequences, 
now in time of peace, because of their visits on business or 
pleasure. And as to their assistance in enforcing the 
prohibitory law, they declined altogether ; they desired 
" to be excused from intermeddling." Shrewd sachems ! 
Although they had often asked that the trade might be 
stopped, now that they knew the law was not altogether 
popular, they considered it a matter to be left to the 

The governors of Virginia and Pennsylvania laid at the 
feet of the warriors large presents, and the convention ad 

Colonel Schuyler rendered assistance throughout, ap 
parently as cheerful and ready in the discharge of his 
duties as though he were not face to face with men who 
had disparaged his services and undermined his position. 
The next year, 1723, his youngest son, Jeremiah, was ap 
pointed captain of the company detailed for a year s resi 
dence in the Seneca country. Peter Schuyler s name was 
worth something to conjure with. 

Burnet s Indian policy was of a mixed character. In 
some respects it was excellent ; in others far from wise. 
The law shutting off the direct trade with Canada in In 
dian staple goods was a good one, and for the true inter 
ests of the province. It soon began to bear fruit. So 
long as Canadian traders could buy their goods for the 
Indian trade at Albany and New York, they could supply 
the distant tribes lying on the great lakes and rivers of 
the west "at their doors," and thus prevent them from 
coming east with their furs to exchange for clothing and 
other articles, which to them had become a necessity. 


After the enactment of the law, enforced by severe penal- 
tics and a guard of soldiers at the great carrying-place, it 
was difficult, if not impossible for a time, for the Cana 
dian merchants to procure the goods, even in small quan 
tities, much less than was required to supply the demand. 
The more remote Indians were the first to feel the scarcity, 
and were forced to take a long journey to procure them. 

In May, 1723, eighty men, besides women and children, 
of the far Indians appeared in Albany for purposes of 
trade, but first held a conference with the commissioners 
of Indian affairs. Colonel Schuyler, the chairman, asked 
them a few questions, to which they replied. 

They said that they were of that nation living at Michil- 
limakinac, where the French had a small fort and mis 
sionary station. Instead of belts of wampum they brought 
the calumet, the pipe of peace, which they always smoked 
before entering upon negotiations, and desired that, ac 
cording to their custom, the members of the board would 
each take a whiff. They represented six villages, and 
brought a letter from Captain Abraham Schuyler, then 
stationed among the Senecas ; they were desirous of 
forming an alliance with the Five Nations, and of entering 
into the covenant-chain with them and the English. 

They had come to Albany because they were told in 
their own country, by those who knew, that they could 
get better prices for their furs and could buy goods at 
cheaper rates than were paid or furnished b} the French. 
It was a long journey, but, as time was of little value to an 
Indian, their success in their trade was an abundant re 
ward. The commissioners treated them with much kind 
ness, and after their speech of welcome made them pres 
ents, providing food for them while in the city and on 
their journey home. 

The visit of these savages from countries so remote, 


with their strange apparel and pipe of peace, made a 
sensation in Albany. Governor Burnet improved the oc 
casion to write to the Lords of Trade, claiming that it was 
only the beginning of the large trade to be drawn to Albany 
by his prohibitory law. He said that they were now incor 
porated with the Five Nations, as the seventh nation, the 
Tuscaroras having been admitted as the sixth. There 
after the Iroquois were termed by the English the Six 
Nations, but not the Seven. 

Peter Schuyler did not live to meet the Indians at an 
other conference. He died in February, 1724, and was 
buried in a vault under the Dutch Church at Albany. 

His chief service to his country was in his management 
of Indian affairs, which continued for nearly forty years. 
During this time his prudence in council and his acknowl 
edged authority among the Five Nations saved the prov 
ince from serious disasters. To him the people were in 
debted for peace and prosperity for the first eight years 
of the long war from 1702 to 1713 ; to his timely warnings 
several villages and settlements of Massachusetts attrib 
uted their safety from the tomahawk and scalping-knife. 
For a time Massachusetts forgot that he was a Dutchman. 

As soon as he became of age to enter into public life, he 
seems to have been more useful as an agent to transact 
this peculiar business than any of his contemporaries, and 
from the time he was appointed mayor by Governor Don- 
gan until his death, except for a brief interval, he was at 
the head of the Indian board. His maternal grandfather 
a-nd his father laid the foundation for his success in this 
branch of the public service. It had been their policy to 
deal with the Indians as men, and not as brutes ; in all 
their intercourse with them they were guided by the 
principles of kindness and justice, and never took advan 
tage of their ignorance to wrong them. Peter Schuyler 


pursued the same line of conduct, and thus in time ac 
quired an influence over them inferior to none who suc 
ceeded him. He never conformed to their habits, or 
mode of life, or forgot that he was a Christian ; occasion 
ally he admitted their sachems to his table, and treated 
them as men entitled to the courtesies of civilized life ; 
he contracted no morganatic marriage with an Indian 
beauty, that through her family and friends he might 
strengthen and extend his influence ; he did not paint 
and dress himself as an Indian brave, and as such sink to 
their level. When he led eight hundred Indian warriors 
into Albany, and passed in review before Governor Hunt 
er, he was dressed in the uniform of a militia colonel, and 
not in the war-paint and feathers of an Indian chief. He 
preserved his own self-respect and the affections of his 
family by appearing what he was, while he strove by ex 
ample and instruction to temper the cruel dispositions of 
savages with mercy and to soften their character with 
Christian virtues. As in the time of his father, his large 
farm-buildings were always open for their accommodation, 
and his granaries and store-rooms were never locked 
against their hunger. He was not loved by the Mohawks 
alone, although his intercourse with them was more fre 
quent because they \vere near, but the sachems and war 
riors of the more distant cantons sought his hospitality, 
and at times were welcome guests on his farm for weeks. 

The Indian mode of fighting did not indicate courage, 
yet the confederates were among the bravest people of 
the world ; courage was with them a cardinal virtue, which 
they admired in others as in themselves. Perhaps the 
known bravery of Peter Schuyler gave him as much in 
fluence as his kindness and benevolence. They had 
known him lead his men to the attack when the odds 
were against him, and "push the enemy by mere strength 


of arm " when to falter would have been disaster and 
death ; by their side they had known him endure hunger 
and fatigue while pursuing their fleeing enemy. They 
had seen his courage in battle, and knew him to be brave ; 
and for this they admired and loved him. 

For more than twelve years, to the time of Bellomont, 
the expenses of Peter Schuyler ssuperintendency (if I may 
so term it) were economical and moderate. For the most 
part the province furnished the Indian presents and pro 
vided for contingencies, while the commissioners served 
without salary. The return presents by the Indians were 
the perquisites of the governor, sometimes amounting to 
a handsome sum, measured generally by those received. 
Bellomont presented a much larger gratuity than had 
been customary ; his example was followed by succeed- 
ceeding governors, vying with each other, until the cost 
to the people became excessive and burdensome. After 
a time the superintendent was paid a salary, and the ex 
penses of the Indian bureau formed a large item of the 
annual budget. 

Peter Schuyler s fame was not confined to New York or 
the English colonies. He was well known in Canada for 
his upright and benevolent character, for his courage and 
his influence over the Iroquois, His correspondence with 
the French governors, and his efforts in the cause of 
humanity by the cessation of a barbarous war, were re 
ported to their government. Although an uncomprising 
enemy, they esteemed him worthy the highest honor, and 
were surprised that his merits were not recognized by 
the British crown. Years after his death the Marquis 
de Beauharnois, governor of Canada, in one of his de 
spatches, reported, " beyond a doubt the King of England 
has granted Lake Champlain to the children of Sieur Peter 
Schuyler." He knew that Peter Schuyler had earned a 


recognition, and believed the idle story that his reward 
for faithful services had been bestowed upon his children. 

Schuyler s memory was long held in grateful remem 
brance by the Five Nations. In 1754, a Mohawk chief, in 
a council with Lieutenant-Governor de Lancey, said that 
the reason why they were so divided, and the French had 
gained so much influence among them, was because they 
were neglected. " When you neglect business, the French, 
never quiet, take advantage of it. We remember how it 
was in former times, when we were strong and powerful. 
Colonel Schuyler came frequently among us, and by this 
means we were kept together." Fifty years after his 
death, when the commissioners appointed by Congress, at 
the beginning of the Revolution, proposed a conference 
with them, they insisted on the presence of his descend 
ants, and one of the commissioners, addressing them, 
said : " We, the deputies of Congress and the descendants 
of Quidor, congratulate you on your arrival." 

The only opinion adverse to the merits of Peter Schuy 
ler came from his enemy, Cadwallader Golden, to which 
allusion has before been made. After William Smith had 
published the first volume of his "History of New York," 
Colden took exceptions to some of the statements, and 
asked to have them suppressed or modified. This Smith 
refused to do, as he maintained their accuracy. Colden 
thereupon, in order to clear himself at least to his own 
family, wrote several letters to his son containing severe 
criticisms on Smith s history. These were published, with 
other of Colden s papers, by the New York Historical 
Society, in 1868. 

Under the date of September, 1759, Mr. Colden wrote : 

" Mr. Smith makes much mention of Col. Peter Schuy 
ler on several occasions that had you known him as I did 


you would pay little regard to Mr. Smith s characters 
whether in panegyric or Satyre. Col. Schuyler was a 
plain country farmer who had on some occasions given 
proof of his courage. This with strong connections be 
tween that family and some of the Mohawk tribe gave him 
a considerable interest with the Mohawks but as to the 
other tribes it was in no respect such as Mr Smith repre 
sents it. His whole exterior and deportment had much of 
the Indian mixed with the sullen Dutch manner. He was 
no way distinguished by abilities either natural or ac 
quired and you may judge of his sense of honor by his 
being prevailed upon by Mr. Nicholson to join with him 
in the grossest imposition on the Queen and the British 
nation by carrying to England five or six common In 
dians and making them personate one the Emperor of the 
Five Nations, and the others the kings of each nation." 

These statements need no further refutation. They are 
inserted by way of contrast. 

Peter Schuyler left no will. He disposed of his large 
estate to his heirs a year or more before his death, ap 
parently to avoid the risk of misunderstandings among 


Among the large tracts of land granted by colonial 
governors to individuals or companies, there are some 
which have become historical, while the most are interest 
ing only to the families and descendants of the first pro 
prietors. Peter Schuyler, like many others, had large 
transactions in lands. Unlike his brothers-in-law, Van 
Cortlandt and Livingston, he had no ambition to be a 
landgrave or a manorial lord. He made few purchases on 
his own individual account, but in company with friends, 
or on their behalf, he was interested in several tracts, 
some of which were of more than usual proportions. 


There is a kind of fascination in studying the history of 
a given property, whether lands or houses, and tracing it 
down from the first possessor, through its various changes 
of ownership and conditions, to the present time. It is 
all the more interesting in this country, because there are 
no laws of entail to preserve it in one line of succession. 
It is a marvel to find any real estate which has been in 
the same family two hundred years, and a greater wonder 
to find an individual owner who for two hundred years or 
more can trace his title to the Indian deed given to his 
ancestor. However pleasant the study to one fond of an 
tiquarian research, the minute history would be tiresome 
to the general reader. This I shall not attempt, but will 
give only a few data of Peter Schuyler s lands, which may 
be of service to the antiquarian who may wish to prose 
cute the work. Some of the grants to him and his part 
ners were classed by Lord Bellomont as extravagant ; one 
of them was annulled. 

The Saratoga Patent. 

On July 26, 1683, four Mohawk sachems appeared be 
fore Captain Gervis Baxter, commander of the troops sta 
tioned at Albany, and certain magistrates of Albany, 
Schenectady, and Rensselaerwyck, and declared that they 
had sold to Cornells Van Dyck, Jan Janse Bleecker, Peter 
Philipse Schuyler, and Johannes Wendell, a certain parcel 

of land called Ochserantogue, otherwise called Sarach- 

" beginning at the uppermost limits of the land bought 
from the Indians by Goose Gerritse and the late Philip 
Pieterse Schuyler, there being a kill called Tioncende- 
houeve, reaching northwards on both sides of the river to 
the end of the land of Sarachtoge aforesaid, bordering on 
the kill on the east side of the river, called Dionoendo- 


gcha, and keeping along the same the same length on the 
west side over against the kill, reaching westward through 
the wood as the Indian owners will designate, and the 
same eastward through the woods, with all the islands in 
the river by said lands. This the sellers do, being the 
lawful owners and proprietors of the aforesaid land, and 
they acknowledge to have received therefor full and satis 
factory payment." 

On November 4, 1684, Governor Dongan granted a 
patent for this tract, as above described, to Cornells Van 
Dyck, John Johnson Bleecker, Peter Philipse Schuyler, 
Johannes Wendell, Dirck Wessels, David Schuyler, and 
Robert Livingston, for which they were to pay an annual 
rental to the crown of twenty bushels of wheat. 

The deed and patent include the land on both sides the 
Hudson River from the southern starting-point, now 
known as Mechanicsville, to the northern limit, now 
known as Battenkill, estimated at the time to be a tract 
twenty-two miles north and south and twelve miles east 
and west. Eight years before some Indians from New 
England had been located on the east side of the river, 
whose territory was bounded north by the Hoosac River, a 
part of which was included in this patent. These In 
dians, afterward known as the Schaghticokes, claimed the 
ownership of the land they occupied, and subsequently 
sold portions to the city of Albany, Hendrick Van Rens- 
selaer and Peter Schuyler. The proprietors of the Saratoga 
Patent, in their first division, evidently recognized for 
the time the claims of the Schaghticoke Indians, leaving 
the question for subsequent adjustment. 

In the spring of 1685, the patentees made a division of 
the arable or low lands lying near the river, leaving the 
uplands to be surveyed and divided at some future time. 
For this purpose they selected five uninterested men to di- 


vide the bottom-lands into seven equal parts, as to value 
and location, and not as to extent and size. Their report 
was incorporated in an indenture by the patentees, made 
and signed after they had drawn lots for their respective 

Lot i began " at the foremost land on the west side 
of the kill, where we slept during the winter s night, and 
ran northward along the river to a post on the bank 
marked No. i, thence from the bank through the first flat 
to a marked oak tree, in the bosket marked No. i." The 
owner of No. i is to have the privilege of locating two 
acres on No. 2, on which to erect his homestead, but not 
till after the owner of No. 2 has made his choice. 

Lot 2 began at the north line of No. i, and extended 
northward " to a tree on the bank of Doove Kill marked 
No. 2, and thence into the woods. 

Lot 3 began at Lot 2, and ran northward to a tree 
marked No. 3, the owner to have the privilege of erecting 
his homestead on No. 4, "it being understood he must 
remain one hundred rods south of the homestead of No. 4." 

Lot 4 began at the limits of No. 3, and ran along the 
river to Fish Kill, or outlet of Saratoga Lake. 

Lot 5 was "all the land lying north of the Fish Kill to 
the northern boundaries of the patent, including a meadow 
on the west side of the river above " The Stillwater." 

1 i. In a petition of the owners of the patent, in 1743, Doove Kill is called 
DOOTS Gat. The Germans in Burgoyne s campaign crossed the river on 
September 15, 1777, and encamped at night at Dovogafs house, now 
Coveville, near the junction of Doove Kill with the Hudson River. There 
has been some speculation as to the origin of the name, one v/riter assert 
ing that it was called Dovecot (dove place), because it was a resort for wild 
pigeons in ancient times. It is now what is known as a cove. Undoubt 
edly it was once a channel of the river divided from the main stream by an 
island, which in process of time was joined at its upper end to the main 
land. The Dutch at first named it Doove Kill, but when they found it was 
not a kill, or creek, gave it the more appropriate name of gat, gut or cove. 
VOL. II. 7 


Lot 6 began at Batten Kill, on the east side of the Hud 
son, and ran south on the river to Titmouse Kill, to which 
were added two flats below No. 7 and opposite Nos. 2 
and 3. 

Lot 7 began on the south side of Titmouse Kill, and 
ended at a small creek by a grove. 

"All the lands in the patent not now allotted," the 
agreement recites, " shall remain common property, pro 
vided that everybody may run his line two hundred rods 
back into the woods for the entire breadth of his lot." 
The indenture then gives the result of the allotment : 

"The lots were chosen without evil design and cunning, 
the children of the seven partners drawing seven tickets 
out of a hat, and were distributed as follows : 

" Lot i fell to the share of Peter Schuyler. 

" Lot 2 fell to the share of Jan Jansen Bleecker. 

" Lot 3 fell to the share of Dirck Wessels. 

" Lot 4 fell to the share of Johannes Wendell. 

" Lot 5 fell to the share of Robert Livingston. 

" Lot 6 fell to the share of David Schuyler. 

"Lot 7 fell to the share of Cornells Van Dyck. 

" Thus done and chosen without craft or cunning, with 
which we all declare ourselves to be satisfied." 

The country on the east side of the river was moun 
tainous, with much broken and untillable land, while on 
the west side there were large arable plains, from which 
the hills swept off in gentle slopes to the boundaries of 
the tract, covered with the best of pine and other timber. 
The land was valuable for agricultural purposes after the 
timber was removed, and was intersected by several large 
streams, affording unfailing power for mills of various de 
scriptions. Lot i began on the south side of the creek 
which flows into the Hudson at Mechanicsville, and prob 
ably included the present site of Stillwater. Peter Schuy- 


ler was fortunate when one of his children drew the 
" ticket from the hat." 

The patentees took immediate steps to improve their 
property ; but as it was situated far from Albany, and ex 
posed to the incursions of the Canadian savages, their 
progress was slow. It was the policy of the French to 
permit none but Catholics to settle in Canada, and to 
banish any Protestants who might find their \vay to the 
country. The province of New York, being more accessi 
ble than other parts of the continent, was the asylum of 
the banished Huguenots, and several of them found a 
home at Albany or in its vicinity. A few families were 
induced to settle on the lands of the Saratoga Patent. 
After they were thus located, it was suspected, and with 
good reason, that the Canadian Government caused some 
of its friends to emigrate as refugees among them, and, 
acting the part of spies, to keep them acquainted with 
what was occurring in the neighboring colony. 

In March, 1686, David Schuyler sold his seventh share 
to Peter Schuyler and Robert Livingston for ^55 16 o; 
Livingston taking the part opposite to his own fifth share, 
and Schuyler the part lying opposite to Lots 2 and 3. On 
this latter a French family, known by the name of Du- 
bison, was then living. 

Cornelis Van Dyck died early in 1687, and by his will, 
dated November 5, 1686, gave his Lot 7 to his son Hen- 
drick, who, on October 27, 1706, conveyed it by deed to 
his son Cornelis. 

Johannes Wendell, owner of Lot 4, died in 1691. By 
his will he gave his share to his eldest son, Abraham, who, 
in 1702, conveyed it to Johannes Schuyler in considera 
tion of ^125. 

In December, 1695, Peter Schuyler sold to his brother 
Johannes, for "a considerable sum of money," one of the 


Hats he had bought of David Schuyler, with two hundred 
rods of woodland in rear, on which had " formerly lived 
Symon Janse Post, and Fransorra," a Frenchman. 

In February, 1698, Peter Schuyler bought of Taspela- 
let, a Schaghticoke Indian, all his land on the east side of 
the river, " known as Schaghticoke," for a "valuable con 
sideration." This land was included in the Indian deed 
and Dongan s patent, but, as the Schaghticoke Indians 
claimed it by right of possession since 1675, it was thought 
advisable to extinguish their title by purchase in a quiet 

About the same time Hendrick Van Rensselaer bought 
of the Schaghticokes a tract six miles square, for which 
he received a patent from Governor Fletcher, on March 
29, 1698. It is possible that he made this purchase in the 
interests of the patentees. Be this so or not, it created a 
great commotion among the citizens of Albany. By its 
charter of 1686, the city was granted the privilege of buy 
ing five hundred acres of land at Schaghticoke, whenever 
it was convenient and wherever it might be located. 
When Van Rensselaer s purchase was known, the Common 
Council held a special session to discuss the situation. It 
was claimed that the patent interfered with the rights of 
the city, although no purchase or location had been made. 
The Common Council offered to compromise the affair 
in three different ways, none of which were acceptable, 
but finally Van Rensselaer offered to take ^100 for his 
purchase. To this the city would not agree, and threat 
ened to apply to Lord Bellomont, the new governor, to 
have the patent vacated. Bellomont was much perplexed, 
and proposed an amicable adjustment. His advice was 
adopted, and on August 8, 1699, Van Rensselaer passed 
his patent over to the city. 

Four years afterward, 1703, Peter Schuyler presented 


to the Common Council his deed of Schaghticoke re 
ceived from the sachem Taspelalet, with an account of his 
payments. How this was settled is uncertain, as the rec 
ord is not complete. 

On February 28, 1707, the city made the purchase of all 
Schaghticoke from two Indians, who professed to act for 
seven others. The city fathers assigned as a reason why 
they had not transacted the business before, that the In 
dian owners had been long from home and had just re 
turned. They now resolved to apply to Lord Cornbury 
for a patent, but objections were interposed by the paten 
tees of Saratoga, which had to be quieted before a patent 
could be granted. A year later the controversy had not 
been settled, and Evert Bancker was appointed a commit 
tee to confer with the patentees, and offer, as a compro 
mise of all questions in dispute, a division line commenc 
ing on the north side of the mouth of Schaghticoke Creek, 
and thence running due east. 

Meantime, on November 20, 1707, the patentees applied 
to Lord Cornbury for a new patent, against which the 
mayor and Common Council remonstrated. The business 
was deferred from time to time, until in June, 1708, a 
new patent was ordered, on the basis of an agreement 
bet\veen the city of Albany and the patentees of the 
Dongan patent. In order to effect a full settlement of 
the controversy, the city was obliged to pay some diff 
erence, of which there was still due, July n, 1710, more 
than ^38, and as there was no money in the treasury, fifty 
acres of land were offered for sale to meet the liability. 
The debt was finally paid in the following December. 

Johannes Schuyler sold the flats and woodland he had 
bought of his brother Peter, estimated to contain one hun 
dred and eighty acres, on July i, 1700, to Dirk Van der 
Hayden for ,120. Van der Flayden five years afterward 


bought ten acres of woodland adjoining, and stipulated 
to pay one bushel of wheat yearly as quit-rent for both 

I have now traced the changes in the proprietorship of 
the Saratoga Patent from 1684 to 1708, when a new patent 
was issued by Lord Cornbury. David Schuyler s seventh 
share was now vested in Peter Schuyler and Robert Liv 
ingston, Cornells Van Dyck s in his grandson of the same 
name, and Johannes Wendell s in Johannes Schuyler. 
The city of Albany, by shrewd and persistent management, 
had obtained possession of Schaghticoke, a strip of land 
extending from the northern line of the Half Moon pat 
ent to the Schaghticoke Creek, now Hoosac River, on the 
north. A farm of about two hundred acres had been sold 
to Van der Hayden, which, however, was included in the 
limits of the new patent. 

On October 29, 1708, a patent passed the seals, in which 
the boundaries of the land are more definitely given ; and 
its legality was never afterward questioned. It recites 
the grant of 1684, the division of the lowlands along the 
river of 1685, the changes in the ownership, and bounds 
the tract as follows : 

" Beginning at the south side of the confluence of the 
creek, called Tionoondeho\ve on the west side of the 
Hudson river, thence west along the south side of said 
creek six miles, thence northerly by a line parallel to the 
course of the river to a point opposite the mouth of the 
creek on the east side of the river, called Dionoondehowe, 
thence east to the river six miles, thence on the east side 
of the river six miles, which is computed to be twenty- 
two English miles more or less from the place of begin 
ning, thence southerly parallel to the course of the river 
six miles distant, until the line comes opposite the mouth 
of Schaghticoke Kill which bounds the patent of Henry 
Van Rensselaer, now belonging to the city of Albany." 


Of the tract of land within these limits three-fourteenths 
are assigned to Peter Schuyler, the same to Robert Liv 
ingston ; and to Jan Jansen Bleecker, Johannes Schuyler, 
Cornelis Van Dyck, and Dirck Wessels two-fourteenths 

Dirck Wessels, owner of Lot 3, in his will, dated Feb 
ruary 4, 1715, gave two-thirds of his share, valued at 
.125, to his son Wessel ; and one-third, valued at ^75, to 
his daughter Gertrude, wife of Abraham Schuyler. He 
directed that " none of my lands shall be sold to stran 
gers, but shall remain in my family for all time." Wessel, 
in March, 1719, conveyed his two-thirds to his son, Dirck 
Ten Broeck. In April, 1736, the widow of Abraham 
Schuyler conveyed her third to her son, Dirck Schuyler, 
who sold it, in June, 1738, to his cousin, Dirck Ten Broeck, 
for ^"250. Dirck Wessel s share in the original patent was 
now in the hands of his grandson of the same name. 

Robert Livingston s son, Gilbert, became embarrassed 
in business, and for the purpose of enabling him to pay 
his debts, his father gave a deed of trust to Philip Living 
ston of his three-fourteenths, with authority to sell and 
apply the proceeds to the liquidation of Gilbert s debts, 
after which the residue of the land, if any, should be 
made over to the beneficiary, Gilbert. Philip, as trustee, 
sold the part his father had bought of David Schuyler, on 
the east side of the river next to Batten Kill, to John 
Schuyler, Jr., for ^200. This, with money realized from 
the sale of some lots in New York, enabled Gilbert to set 
tle with his creditors, and become the owner of his father s 
original share on the west side the river. Subsequently 
Robert Livingston redeemed the one-fourteenth from 
John Schuyler, Jr., and divided it between his daughters, 
Mrs. Vetch and Mrs. Van Home. 

Peter Schuyler, before his death, gave his three-four- 


teenths fo his daughter Margaret, wife of Robert Living 
ston, Jr. His brother Johannes, while living, divided the 
lowlands of his two-fourteenths between his two sons, 
Philip and John, Jr. Jan Jansen Bleecker left his share in 
the patent to one or more, but to whom I have not learned. 
As to the Van Dyck share, I have seen no trace after the 
second patent. 

The long peace after 1713 enabled the proprietors to 
improve their property. Settlements were made along 
the river, and little villages sprang up at "The Stillwater" 
and Fish Creek, where at an early day flour and saw mills 
were erected. The land was not sold, but let on long leases ; 
on account of the abundance of timber, the lumber trade, 
next to that of agriculture, was the most prosperous busi 
ness. The products of the field and forest were floated 
down the river in rafts or batteaux, and found a ready 
market at Albany or New York, whence the surplus \vas 
sent to the West India Islands. 

After the original patentees were all deceased, 1 in June, 
1743, the then proprietors of the Saratoga Patent, or a 
majority of them, initiated proceedings for a division of 
the lands. It was fifty-eight years since the allotment of 
the arable lands had been made, and there had been no 
other division. The Assembly had made several efforts to 
enact a law for the partition of estates held in common, 
but had not succeeded in passing an act acceptable to the 

On June 6, 1743, the proprietors of five-sevenths of the 
Saratoga Patent sent a petition to the sheriff of Albany, 
asking for a partition, as provided by law, by a jury of 
nine disinterested and substantial freeholders. The peti 
tion contained a brief history of the patent, the boundaries, 

1 Johannes Schuyler and Cornells Van Dyck, named in the second pat 
ent, were still living. 


the first patentees, the first division, the second patent, and 
the then proprietors. It was signed by Dirck Ten Broeck l 
and Gilbert Livingston, 2 each holding two-fourteenths ; 
Gerrit Van Home 3 and Margaret Vetch, 4 each one-twenty- 
eighth ; Philip J. Schuyler and the executors of John 
Schuyler, Jr., 5 each one-fourteenth ; and by Margaret Liv 
ingston, 6 three-fourteenths. Cornells Van Dyck and the 
heirs of Jan Jansen Bleecker did not sign the paper. 

No action seems to have been taken on this petition, 
and in 1750 John R. Bleecker made a survey for the own 
ers, and divided the tract into twenty-eight lots, extend 
ing from the river to the outer bounds. To a map of this 
survey was attached a contract for a division of the prop 
erty, executed June i, 1752, and recorded in July, 1763. 7 
It was signed by John Glen for the heirs of Jan Jansen 
Bleecker, deceased ; Killian de Rider for the heirs of Cor 
nells Van Dyck, deceased ; Gerardus Groesbeck for the 
heirs of Dirck Wessels Ten Broeck, deceased ; and John 
Van Rensselaer for the heirs of Peter Schuyler, deceased. 
The shares owned by the heirs of Robert Livingston and 
Johannes Schuyler were not represented. 

The greater portion of the lands in the province not 
occupied by the Indians was held by large proprietors, 
either as individuals or in companies, to whom they had 
been granted chiefly by the early English governors before 
1708. It was hardly possible for the children and grandchil- 

1 Grandson of Dirck Wessels Ten Broeck, original patentee. 

2 Son of Robert Livingston. 

8 Grandson of Robert Livingston. 

4 Daughter of Robert Livingston. 

5 Sons of Johannes Schuyler. 

6 Eldest daughter of Peter Schuyler. 

7 This map, by some unknown means, was conveyed to Europe. Only 
a few years since it was found at a paper-mill at Fort Miller, four miles 
from the land covered by the survey, in a bale of foreign rags. It was in 
a good state of preservation. 


dren of the first proprietors, under the existing laws, to 
agree upon divisions, and the Legistature had passed en 
abling acts to make such partitions more easy and effectual. 
This had been done repeatedly by the Assembly, whose 
bills were sometimes passed by the Council, but they were 
vetoed by the governor or crown. A law for the " easier 
partition of lands " was enacted in 1726, to which Mr. Col- 
den, the surveyor-general, \vas opposed. Although Gov 
ernor Burnet approved the law, and solicited its approval 
by the crown ; and although his successor, Montgomerie, 
before he left England, memorialized the Lords of Trade 
in its favor, Mr. Colden s reasons against it prevailed, and 
it was vetoed. 

In 1762, a bill for the same purpose, and containing 
similar provisions, passed both houses of the Legislature, 
and was approved by Mr. Golden, then lieutenant-governor. 
He did it with a sort of mental reservation, and wrote to 
the Lords of Trade that he stood alone and could not re 
sist the pressure. The law-officers of the crown did not 
approve the law, but do not appear to have reported 
against it. It was probably under this law that the final 
proceedings were taken for a division of the Saratoga 

In 1768, the heirs of Margaret Livingston made a divi 
sion of her portion of the patent, which remained the 
same as in 1743, three-fourteenths. Philip Schuyler, after 
ward the general, now came in for an additional slice 
of the tract ; through his father and uncle he had ac 
quired a seventh part, now through his wife he gained 
possession of a fifth of Peter Schuyler s original seventh. 

General Philip Schuyler, by his will, dated June 20, 1803, 
gave to his grandson, Philip, son of John Bradstreet Schuy 
ler, deceased, that portion of the Saratoga Patent situate 
at Schuylerville, on which were mills and factories ; to his 


son, Philip Jeremiah, Lots 22, 23, and 44, with two mill- 
seats on Batten Kill ; to his son, Rensselaer, Lot 41 and 
four other farms ; and the residue of the Saratoga tract to 
his five daughters, or their heirs. 

Philip Schuyler, grandson of the general, improved his 
princely estate by the erection of other mills and factories. 
But his affairs became embarrassed, and in a monetary 
crisis he lost the whole. 

While there are isolated farms in possession of descend 
ants of the first patentees, not a foot of the soil is now 
owned by a Schuyler, although some of Peter Schuyler s 
descendants through the female line, under other names, 
may reside on homesteads within the bounds of the patent. 

Having completed the narrative of the Saratoga Patent, 
as it relates to the first proprietors and their descendants 
imperfectly, it is true I now turn to its general history, 
which may contain some items worthy of attention. 

About two years after the date of the first patent, and 
after settlements had been begun, Governor Dongan made 
an arrangement with the patentees to occupy it, tempora 
rily at least, for an Indian settlement. It was estimated 
that there were about seven hundred of the Five Nations, 
of whom the majority w r ere Mohawks, settled in Canada. 
They were the proselytes of Jesuit missionaries, and were 
termed by the English and Dutch the "Praying Indians." 
Their withdrawal from the province had weakened the 
Five Nations as a barrier, and had added strength to the 
Canadians ; besides this, the emigration, which still con 
tinued, diminished the trade of Albany and lessened the 
profits of its merchants. It was desirable, for these and 
other reasons, to induce those self-expatriated natives to 
return, and to put a stop to the desertion of others ; they 
seemed inclined to return to the province, provided a place 
could be assigned them where they would not be in direct 


contact with their heathen countrymen, who were now 
much addicted to the use of rum, and when drunk offered 
them many insults ; they also made it a condition, that in 
case of their return they should have the means of reli 
gious instruction, by priests residing among them. Don- 
gan, himself a Catholic, readily consented to these condi 
tions ; and so great was the anxiety of the people, that the 
citizens of Albany petitioned the governor to make an 
arrangement to settle them at Saratoga, where they would 
be at a distance from their unbaptized brethren, and serve 
to block the war-path of the French. 

The project was not successful. Instead of the prose 
lytes, some French refugees settled along the river within 
the limits of the patent. More than sixty years afterward, 
Lieutenant-Governor De Lancey revived the project, and 
wrote to the Indian commissioners on the subject. They 
replied that " there was no convenient place at Saratoga 
for a castle, although the widows Schuyler and Ten 
Broeck were willing to dispose of their lands." 

In 1689 there had been several families living on the 
tract. Jacob Leisler termed them papists, who had set 
tled there for some bad design, still preserving their re 
lations with Canada. The same suspicion had found 
lodgment in the minds of Albanians, and in view of the 
unsettled times (August i, 1689), war having been de 
clared between England and France, they concluded that 
it would be wise to arrest "those Frenchmen living toward 
Stilhvater and Saratoga." La Fleur, Villeroy, and De la 
Fortune were brought to Albany, and examined by the mag 
istrates on the charge of holding correspondence with Can 
ada. La Fleur was confined in the "chamber of Arnout 
Cornelise, until witnesses come from Sarachtoge," and the 
others " to stay in town until further orders." Anthony Les- 
pinard, a resident of Albany, was also arrested. After a 


detention of four days they gave bonds for good be 

Lespinard had resided in Albany since 1674, and was 
engaged in the bakery business " for both Christians and 
Indians." In 1687, he and Jean Rosie, another French 
man, were sent by Governor Dongan as bearers of de 
spatches to the governor of Canada. While at Montreal, 
Rosie reported that Lespinard was quite intimate with the 
governor and other officials, being an old acquaintance, 
for he had visited Canada before. He had been in Mon 
treal in the previous year looking after a son, who was at 
a Jesuit school. He was deceased before 1697, when his 
widow, then a resident of New York, made deeds of his 
property at Niskayuna, which he had contracted to sell 
to Rosie in 1688. His family became highly respectable, 
and his memory is perpetuated by a street which bears 
his name. 

La Fleurwas a soldier at Fort Frontenac in 1684. Two 
years afterward he was in charge of the block-house 
which La Salle had built at Niagara, whence he came, 
without leave, to Albany, and took up his residence at the 
" Stillwater, near Saratoga." Soon afterward he was ar 
rested for having contraband goods in his possession, and 
for trafficking in them with the Indians ; he was tried 
before a jury, of which Lespinard was one, and convicted. 
His goods, consisting of two hundred and thirty-four 
guilders in wampum, nine pairs of stockings, and eight 
deer-skins, were confiscated. He obtained a mitigation 
of his sentence by pleading ignorance of the laws. 

Villeroy, alias Pierre de Garmo, escaped from Canada, 
leaving some debts behind him. A Montreal merchant, 
writing to Major Baxter, commandant of Albany, in Au 
gust, 1683, said : " I learn you are going to do justice to 
some French vagabonds, among them one Villeroy, who 


left these parts considerably in debt." Baxter obliged 
him to make a deposit of money sufficient to liquidate his 
indebtedness before he would allow him to become a 

These persons, arrested on suspicion of correspondence 
with the enemy, it is only fair to say, were Protestants, 
and earned the reputation of good citizens. They signed 
the famous address to the king, in 1701, for the promotion 
of which Nicholas Bayard was tried and convicted of 

In September, 1689, a message was brought to the Al 
bany convention, that three persons at Bartol Vrooman s 
house at Saratoga had been killed by French Indians. 
Lieutenant Jochem Staats and ten soldiers were imme 
diately despatched to the place, with orders to build a fort 
around Vrooman s house, and occupy it until relieved. 
Staats was directed to employ some Schaghticoke In 
dians as scouts, and thus protect the infant settlement from 
further harm. The fort, as it was called, was erected, but 
Leisler thought it was a trap, in which his friend Staats 
and his men would be caught and sacrificed. When Gen 
eral Winthrop was on his march, in August, 1690, for the 
invasion of Canada, he spent a night at Saratoga, where 
was a " block-house occupied by some Dutch soldiers." 
There Dirck Wessels, recorder, and a " volunteer com 
pany of the principal gentlemen of Albany " joined him. 

In 1691, Major Peter Schuyler, on his way "to strike a 
blow " in Canada, encamped his little army around the 
block-house of Saratoga, and was detained some time by 
" foul weather." The fort and farms were subsequently 
deserted, on account of their distance from Albany and 
the great expense in keeping up the communications. 

In 1698, after the close of the war, Colonel Romer, the 
engineer, reported to Lord Bellomont that Saratoga was 

FORT. 1 1 1 

an important frontier post, which he was unable to reach 
on account of high water, but that he had learned that the 
farms, seven in number, and the fort, built in Leisler s 
times, were entirely ruined in the late war. On this ac 
count, and because the French claimed the country west 
of the Hudson, the settlers had not returned. He recom 
mended the building of a small fort of palisades, with a 
stone tower in the centre, " to maintain possession, and to 
encourage the farmers to rebuild their houses." 

Nothing was done by Bellomont, and after his death 
Lord Cornbury, who visited the locality, proposed to build 
a " stockaded fort, and occupy it with an officer and thirty 
men." He thought that such a fort, in connection with 
those at Albany, Schenectady, Canastagione (Niskayuna), 
and Half Moon would effectually secure the frontiers. In 
the next year, 1703, he reported to the Lords of Trade, 
that the old frontier forts were repaired, a new one built, 
and another soon to be erected at Saratoga. " There are 
but a few families there," he added, "but they will desert 
unless protected ; besides, a fort will give great satisfac 
tion to the Indians." 

In 1704, Mr. Congreve, an English agent, reported that 
the frontier forts, including that at Saratoga, were not in 
order, but it was proposed to repair them, adding, " It is 
to be feared, however, no men will be raised to man them 
as usual." Through the valley of the Hudson to the great 
carrying-place (Fort Edward), Nicholson and Schuyler led 
their army for the invasion of Canada, in 1709 ; by the 
same route the army inarched in 1711. Saratoga was then 
a depot for supplies. We learn little of Saratoga for the 
next eleven years, until Philip Livingston, in 1722, pre 
sented a bill for materials used in rebuilding the fort. 
Meantime some Schaghticoke Indians had made a small 
settlement near the old fort, but on hearing that the French 


were about to attack them, they anticipated the blow, 
abandoned their village, fled to Canada, and made their 
submission to the enemy. 

The Marquis de Beauharnois, governor of Canada, 
commenced the erection of Fort St. Frederick on Crown 
Point, Lake Champlain, in 1731, by advice of the French 
Government, which had not renounced its claims to the 
country first discovered by Champlain. The possession 
of this place gave the French much advantage in time of 
war. Had the authorities of New York been alive to its 
importance, they would have made some efforts to pre 
vent the old enemy locating so near their borders, and on 
ground belonging to their allies, the Five Nations ; but 
New York was without a governor, and Rip Van Dam, 
the president, could do no more than make a feeble pro 
test. Colonel Cosby, the succeeding governor, was too 
much occupied in acquiring a fortune, by means lawful 
and unlawful, to give serious attention to public affairs, 
and the French were allowed to remain unmolested to 
complete their fortifications. Fort St. Frederick gave 
them a new base of operations, whence their scalping 
parties, with comparative ease, could annoy the frontiers 
of New York, Massachusetts, and New T Hampshire. 

It was not probable that the peace made at Utrecht 
would continue forever, and at last it began to penetrate 
the minds of the English authorities that something 
should be done for the protection of the border settlers. 
The fort at Saratoga, rebuilt in 1722, had been allowed to 
decay and go to ruin ; it became apparent that a new 
one of larger proportions should be erected, substantial 
enough to resist any ordinary attack, and large enough to 
accommodate the people as a place of refuge. It was 
the only place of any importance between Crown Point 
and Albany ; the population had largely increased during 


the years of peace, and the business interests were impor 
tant. The Legislature of 1739 was induced to make a lib 
eral appropriation ; the fort was rebuilt, and occupied by 
a garrison. It was none too soon. The war of the Aus 
trian succession began in Europe in 1740, involving the 
English and the French, whose colonies could not escape 
its consequences. 

In March, 1744, a project \vas set on foot by New Eng 
land and New York for the capture of Fort St. Frederick. 
Troops were raised for this purpose, and began their 
march, but, as in 1690, 1709, and 1711, the expedition was 
abandoned before reaching the enemy. The fort at Sara 
toga was now an object of solicitude, and the Assembly 
asked Governor Clinton to strengthen its garrison by a 
detachment of troops. Clinton promised, but did not 
fulfill ; he excused his neglect by alleging that it was 
difficult to procure the consent of the militia to occupy 
that position. Before November, 1745, the fort was va 
cated by the few men who had garrisoned it, because, 
as Clinton said, it was untenable, for there was no oven 
or well within the walls, the block-houses were without 
floors, the roofs were decayed, and there was no place to 
keep the powder dry. It seems incredible that no efforts 
were made to repair the fort and make it defensible ; 
the people must have been infatuated to remain on their 
farms, in isolated dwellings, with an enemy ever on the 
alert for mischief only two days march from their doors. 
When it was seen that the government had failed in its 
duty, ordinary precaution should have prompted them to 
have repaired the fort and block-houses as a refuge for 
themselves and families. They trusted to Providence, and 
slept as securely as though the enemy were beyond the sea ; 
they had a rude awakening. 

Before daybreak on the morning of November 28, 1745, 
VOL. II. 8 


the settlers were aroused from sleep by the war-whoop of 
five hundred French and Indians. I will let the adjutant 
of the army tell the story of the expedition. His report, 
in the form of a journal, is among the papers of the late 
General Schuyler, and has never been published. It is an 
official document, and was doubtless preserved among the 
archives until the conquest of Canada, when it fell into 
the possession of General Schuyler, as one interested in 
the property destroyed, and as the nephew and heir of a 
brave man among the killed on that occasion. The au 
thor s name is not known : 

M. de Beauharnois, governor of Canada, organized an 
expedition against the settlements on the Connecticut 
River, consisting of about 300 miltia and 200 Indian prose 
lytes of different nations, of whom the Iroquois were the 
more numerous. M. Marin was put in command. He left 
Montreal on November 4, 1745, to join his troops in camp 
near Fort Chambly. At Ash Island, the general rendez 
vous, he informed his Indians of their destination through 
Otter River to the Connecticut. To this they subsequently 
objected, on account of the difficult navigation of the river 
and the lateness of the season, but suggested Saratoga as 
more accessible, and less likely to be prepared for an at 
tack, than the villages on the Connecticut. After consult 
ing with his officers, Marin gracefully consented to the 

The army arrived at Fort St. Frederick on the i3th, where 
the final preparations were made for the march on Sara 
toga. They started on the 2oth, and landed in the evening 
at a point about four miles below Ticonderoga, where they 
spent the night. The next day they left the canoes in 
charge of a detachment from the fort, and plunged into 
the woods. Owing to the fault of the guides, they crossed 
and recrossed the outlet of Lake St. Sacrament (Lake 


George) seven times before discovering the trail they 
were to follow. Their route was east of the lake. On 
account of the hills, ravines, and mountain streams their 
march was toilsome and dangerous. They approached the 
Hudson on the 2yth near the great carrying-place (Fort 
Edward), where John Henry Lydius, a son of Dominie 
Lydius, of Albany, had a farm, and a house of larger pro 
portions than usual for the time. 1 It was important for 
the success of the raid that the Saratogans should have 
no intimation of their presence in the neighborhood, and 
unless the inmates of Lydius house could be secured they 
would give the alarm. An offer was made by an Indian, 
to approach the house without arms as a friend, and thus 
capture the inmates before the army left the woods, where 
they were as yet concealed. The stratagem was success 
fully and easily accomplished, for there were only a hired 
man and a boy at home, Lydius and his family having 
retired to Albany for the winter. The Indians captured 
three men in a house near by, who, with two Schaghticoke 
Indians taken the day before, and Lydius hired man and 
boy, were bound and confined in a room of the house, a 
guard of twenty men being placed over them. After these 
arrangements, the army took up its line of march down 
the east side of the river, having first received general ab 
solution from the priest, who remained with the guard 
and the prisoners. The journalist will tell the remainder 
of the story : 

" M. Marin embarked in a canoe with several officers 
and Indians (at Lydius house). M. de St. Pierre was in 

1 Lydius abjured Protestantism for the sake of a Catholic wife, a resident 
of Canada ; but he refused to conform to the Roman Catholic religion. 
He had a considerable influence with the Indians, and for a while was the 
agent of Massachusetts among them. He was not fully trusted either by 
the English or the French. 


command of those marching by land. On the way the 
Indians captured six or seven men in a house on our (the 
west) side of the river. They were sent to keep company 
with the other captives at Lydius . Two leagues from 
Saratoga we met a man and his wife, who with a team 
were carrying some sacks of flour. M. de la Colombiere, 
with the Indians, stepped forward to stop them, and took 
hold of the woman, who made some resistance. The In 
dians thought that they had a right to dispute the pos 
session of her, and finally she and her husband were given 
to Atagaronche, who undertook to take them both back 
to join the other captives. M. de la Colombiere for the 
time contented himself with one of the horses, which he 
mounted, and travelled with more ease. Thus far not a 
single person had escaped us. As the woman left us, she 
said : * You are going to Saratoga, but you will find in 
the fort two hundred men, who are awaiting you with 
resolution. This induced M. Marin to wish all the 
French to keep near him, in order to be prepared to get 
possession of the fort, if what this woman said should 
prove true. The two Schaghticokes whom we had cap 
tured told us that there was no one in the fort. 

" M. Marin, who had descended the river in a canoe, 
in order to become acquainted with it, so that he might 
find a place for his whole command to cross, gave us a 
rendezvous at a certain point, but, as we did not know the 
place, we wandered so far that we had great trouble in 
finding one another again, and should not have succeeded 
had it not been for Beauvais, who made great exertions to 
bring us together. Night had overtaken us. However, 
we reached the place where M. Marin had arranged to be 
with M. de St. Pierre at the appointed hour. He had 
with him the Hurons and the Iroquois, but only a small 
number of officers and French. M. St. Luc de la Corne, 
who was there, took several persons over, and as soon as I 
had crossed with him, I gave all my attention to the work 
of assisting every one to cross. It was done very quietly. 
Happily we found ourselves near an island and a water- 


fall, whose sound mingled with the noise we made in 
crossing the river. The Nipissings and Abenakis fol 
lowed the eastern shore of the river, under the lead of 
Messrs, de Comtemanche and Niverville, with a few 
French volunteers. 

" November 28th. It was about midnight when we all re 
joined the commandant, and we awaited the order for de 
parture, which was to be given between two and three 
o clock. The night was extraordinarily cold, and had it 
riot been for a little fire, which the bed of a creek sheltered 
by two hillocks enabled us to make, some would have run 
the risk of freezing their feet, as we all had wet feet. We 
dried ourselves, however, and awaited comfortably enough 
the order to march. At two o clock, Beauvais, who for his 
conduct and capacity merited the esteem of good people, 
made a reconnoissance. On his return we began to move 
quietly, and in good order, with all the officers at their 
posts. \Ve marched through the woods about a league, 
along a very good road, and then came to the houses. 
When we reached the first one, M. Marin ordered me to 
detail four Frenchmen and ten Indians to go and invest it, 
but did not permit them to attack it until daybreak, which 
was the time when we were all to make the attack together. 
We had not gone more than an eighth of a league, when 
they fired a gun and uttered their death-yells, rushing to 
the assault. The Abenakis, who until then had awaited 
the signal, took upon themselves to make the attack, and 
from that time it was not possible to exercise any con 
trol. However, we went on to the edge of the wood in 
good order. 

" M. de Beauvais having told M. Marin that we were 
discovered, he directed us to follow him. We passed a 
very rapid river, 1 for which we were not prepared, and 
came to a saw-mill, which two men (a negro and a Dutch 
man) were running, and in which there was a large fire. 
M. de St. Ours and M. Marin s son were disputing the 
possession of the negro with an Indian, although another 

1 Fish Creek. 


Indian said that it was Marin who had captured him. 
His father, with whom I was, told him this was not the 
time to dispute about prisoners, and that it was necessary 
to go on and take others. A large party attacked a black 
smith s house on this side of the river, when a native un 
fortunately killed a child twelve or fourteen years old. 
It was doubtless the darkness of the night and the fear of 
the river that separated us. 

"Coming out of the mill, we went to the house of a man 
named Philip Schuyler, a brave man, who would not have 
been seriously incommoded, if he had only had a dozen 
men as valiant as himself. M. Beauvais, who knew and 
liked him, entered the house first, and, giving his name, 
asked him to give himself up, saying that no harm would 
would be done him. The other replied that he was a dog, 
and he would kill him. In fact, he fired his gun. Beauvais 
repeated the request to surrender, to which Philip replied 
by several shots. Finally Beauvais, being exposed to his 
fire, shot and killed him. We immediately entered, and 
all was quickly pillaged. This house was of brick, pierced 
with loop-holes to the ground floor. The Indians had 
told us that it was a sort of guard-house where there were 
soldiers. In fact, I found there twenty-five pounds or 
more of powder, but no soldiers. We made some servants 
prisoners, and it was said that some people were burned 
who had taken refuge in the cellar. 

" We burned no more houses before reaching the fort, 
as this was the last. We had captured everybody, and 
had no longer any cause to fear lest any one should go 
and warn the fort of our approach. It was at quite a con 
siderable distance from the houses where we had been. 
We found no one in it. We admired its construction. It 
was regularly built, and some thought one hundred men 
would have been able to defend it against five hundred. 
I asked M. Marin if he wished to place a detachment 
there ? He replied that he was going to set fire to it, and 
then told me I might go and do my best. This permis 
sion gave several of us the pleasure of taking some pris- 


oners, and it did not take us long to gel possession of 
all the houses below the fort, breaking in the doors and 
windows in order to get at the people inside. However, 
every one surrendered very peaceably. We had never 
counted on the facility with which all the houses were 
taken and the pillage accomplished. We set fire to every 
thing good and useful ; for instance, more than ten thou 
sand planks and joists, four fine mills, and all the barns 
and stables, some of which were filled with animals. The 
people who were in the fields were in great part killed by 
French and Indians. In short, according to our estima 
tion, the Dutch will not repair the damage we caused short 
of two hundred marks. The barns were full of wheat, 
Indian corn, and other grain. The number of prisoners 
amounted to one hundred and nine, and about u dozen 
were killed and burned in the houses. Our achievement 
would have been much more widely known and glorious, 
if all the merchants of Saratoga had not left their country- 
houses, and gone to spend the winter at Albany ; and, I 
may add, had we met with more resistance. 

"Our expedition ended at eight o clock, when M. Marin 
issued orders for all to commence the retreat. That night 
we made our camp at Ten Acres in the Woods. The In 
dians, by consent of M. Marin, slept at the house of Ly- 
dius, and joined us early in the morning of November 29th. 
We reached Fort St. Frederick December 3d, and Mon- 
treal December 7th." 

Governor Clinton, of New York, in a letter to the Lords 
of Trade, November 30, 1745, O. S., said : "I received an 
account on the ipth hist., by express from Albany, that a 
party of French and their Indians had cut off a settlement 
in this province called Saratogue, about fifty miles from 
Albany, and that about twenty houses, with a fort (which 
the public would not repair), were burned to ashes, thirty 
persons killed and scalped, and about sixty taken prison 


The controversy relating to this disaster between Gov 
ernor Clinton and his Assembly was long and bitter. The 
governor threw the responsibility upon the Assembly, be 
cause they had made no appropriations for the repair of 
the fort. The Assembly accused the governor of incom 
petence and dereliction of duty, for withdrawing the gar 
rison instead of re-enforcing it. As described in his re 
port by the French officer, the fort was not untenable. 
In October of the previous year, the chief of the Canadian 
proselytes made a careful examination of it, and reported 
that it was about the same size as the fort at La Prairie, 
with a building in each bastion to accommodate the in 
habitants in times of danger. A large garrison could have 
been furnished from the forces then in and around Albany, 
who themselves could have made all needed repairs from 
the abundance of materials near at hand. Governor 
Clinton was without excuse for his neglect of this impor 
tant post. He was at variance with the Assembly, and 
was controlled by a man as opinionated and headstrong 
as himself ; if they could not have their own way, they 
leaned back in the harness, and would do nothing. How 
ever, Clinton was not alone to blame. The Assembly was 
under the leadership of a man of a strong will and a bit 
ter enemy of the governor. Under his manipulation the 
House was factious and unreasonable. 

Governor Clinton was not slow to see his error, and, 
calling his Council together for advice, ordered the fort to 
be rebuilt without delay. At a session of the Assembly in 
the following December, he asked for an appropriation to 
cover the expenses. The Assembly responded by a grant 
of ^150. Before June, 1746, the new fort was built, and 
occupied by a garrison. It was located on the east side of 
the Hudson, just south of Batten Kill, and named Fort 
Clinton. It had an unfortunate history, Situated as it 


was on the extreme frontier, with the well-appointed Fort 
St. Frederick in such close proximity, it should have been 
strongly built, and of sufficient dimensions to accommo 
date a large number of men. On the other hand, it was a 
small structure of wood, and not well built at that. Lying 
near the enemy, it was subject to the frequent visits of 
scalping parties, who so harassed the soldiers in garrison 
that they feared to appear outside the walls. Add to this, 
that the stores were insufficient, and that the men suffered 
from want of provisions and medicines. 

M. St. Luc de la Corne, one of M. Marin s officers, and 
a fearless partisan, led a party of over two hundred French 
and Indians to the vicinity of the fort, and, watching his 
opportunity, killed over thirty of the garrison and took 
forty prisoners. Only a short time before, a small scalping 
party killed four and took four prisoners at the very gates. 
Captain Livingston, who was commandant from November, 
1746, to March, 1747, said in one of his intercepted letters, 
that the fort was in a most miserable condition, and in want 
of everything, with only one hundred men fit for duty. 

Colonel Peter Schuyler, of New Jersey, was stationed 
there with his regiment in the early fall of 1747, but for 
want of rations was obliged to withdraw. The Assembly 
then urged Governor Clinton to send supplies from Al 
bany, and garrison it with the men who had been raised 
to capture Crown Point. This he refused to do, but di 
rected Colonel Roberts, commandant at Albany, to make 
an examination ; and if he did not not think it defensible, 
to remove the cannon and stores, and then burn it. The 
fort was burned. Great was the astonishment of a 
French scouting party to find it " no more." Happily, 
the belligerents of Europe were becoming exhausted, and 
made peace in the following year. 

During the few years of peace which followed, the 


French pursued their old policy of grasping the greater 
part of the continent, and continued their aggressions on 
the English settlements, in spite of the treaty stipulations. 
Their Indians, officered by Frenchmen in Indian costume, 
continued their raids on the English of Nova Scotia and 
northeastern Maine. They erected forts on the Ohio and 
its tributaries in territory belonging to Pennsylvania and 
Virginia, and assaulted an English trading-post, making 
prisoners of its occupants. They strengthened the works 
of Forts St. Frederick and Niagara, and continued their 
intrigues with the Five Nations. England at last learned 
the value of her North American possessions, and saw 
that unless effectual resistance were offered to the pre 
tensions of the French, her possessions would be confined 
to a narrow strip of country along the ocean. Without 
declaring war, the English ordered their navy to make 
reprisals by seizing all the French ships met on the seas. 
They sent a fleet to intercept and capture a French fleet 
bearing stores and re-enforcements to Canada, and sent out 
General Braddock, with a few regiments of regulars, with 
instructions to arrange with the colonies for the capture 
of the French forts on the Ohio and Forts Niagara and 
St. Frederick. To General William Johnson was assigned 
the task of taking Fort St. Frederick, or Crown Point. 
Troops from Massachusetts and Connecticut formed a 
part of his army. Colonel Lyman, of Connecticut, pre 
ceded the general on the march, and at the great carry 
ing-place had nearly completed a fort, afterward named 
Fort Edward by Johnson, before his general s arrival. At a 
council of war it was decided to march on Crown Point by 
way of Lake St. Sacrament, and Johnson moved his army 
to the head of that beautiful sheet of water, where a few 
days after lie won his title and some renown by the defeat 
of Dieskau, the French general. 


Fort Clinton, burned in 1747, had not been rebuilt. 
After the erection of Fort Edward, a fort at Saratoga was 
of little consequence. It was no longer the extreme 
frontier position, and henceforth became a depot for sup 

In 1756, war had been declared, and an English general 
had been put in charge of the army to capture Crown 
Point, and from thence march against Montreal. But 
General Winslow, after assembling an army of seven thou 
sand men, decided that he was not strong enough to ac 
complish the task, and the effort for that year was laid 
aside. Winslow probably built the fort known by his name 
at Stillwater, opposite the mouth of the Hoosac River. 

In 1757, the incompetence and cowardice of the English 
general, Webb, who was at Fort Edward with four thou 
sand men, occasioned the surrender to the French of Fort 
William Henry, built by Sir William Johnson after the 
defeat of Dieskau, in 1755. 

In 1758, General Abercromby, at the head of a large 
army, marched through Saratoga to Lake George, whence 
he proceeded down the lake in boats to its outlet, and 
thence through the woods to Ticonderoga, where he was 
defeated by Montcalm with much slaughter. He retreat 
ed precipitately, and hardly stayed his flight until he 
reached the fort at Albany. 

In the next year, 1759, General Amherst occupied Ti 
conderoga and Crown Point without resistance, the 
French retiring as he approached. The cautious Amherst 
proceeded no farther. He had engaged to meet General 
Wolfe before the walls of Quebec, but sent messengers in 
stead to tell him that he was unable to keep the appoint 
ment. The year following he marched to Oswego, and 
thence down the St. Lawrence to Montreal, while Colonel 
Haviland went down Lake Champlain, driving the enemy 


from their forts, and arrived opposite Montreal shortly 
before his general. The French governor capitulated, and 
surrendered all Canada to the English. Thenceforth, for 
fifteen years or more, Saratoga enjoyed immunity from 
scalping parties and the march of armies. 

These French and Indian wars taught the English colo 
nies some useful lessons. They learned that the British 
generals were many of them ignorant of their profession, 
and incompetent to accomplish results ; the inferior 
officers proud and supercilious ; the rank and file no more 
courageous than themselves, though better disciplined and 
better uniformed. They learned to be self-reliant and in 
dependent They learned too the absolute necessity of 
acting together and in harmony. When the time was ripe, 
they pronounced for freedom, with entire confidence of 
ultimate success. 

In 1775, troops were again on the march for the inva 
sion of Canada, and for seven years the valley of the upper 
Hudson was the theatre of war. The Green Mountain 
Boys, under Ethan Allen, obtained possession of Forts Ti- 
conderoga and Crown Point before General Philip Schuy- 
ler was placed in command of the northern department, 
and he made them the base of his operations for the cam 
paign. There the army for the invasion of Canada, com 
posed of militia and volunteers, under General Mont 
gomery, second in command, were assembled, with Albany 
as headquarters. Montgomery pushed his way to Quebec, 
laid siege to that important fortress, and fell in an assault 
on its walls. The next year his army was pushed slowly 
back to Ticonderoga. In 1777, Burgoyne, the new British 
general, captured the latter place, and resumed his march 
on Albany. His progress was slow, although for several 
weeks he encountered no effectual resistance. The route 
of General Schuyler s retreating army, and of its pursuer, 


from Fort Edward, was the same as that trodden by hostile 
feet for an hundred years. 

Burgoync s army crossed the Hudson River not far 
from the spot where M. Mann and his party crossed in 
1745, just above Batten Kill, and encamped on the hills 
of Saratoga just north of Fish Creek. He occupied the 
summer residence of General Schuyler, on the south side 
of the creek, as his headquarters. When all the army had 
reached the western bank, the bridge of boats was de 
stroyed, and the advance was begun. At night an en 
campment was made at Doove Gat. The next day, Bur- 
goync, at the head of several regiments, led his army tw r o 
and a half miles in search of the rebels, whose drums 
calling the men to arms he had heard in the morning. 
He was slow in his search, as though in no great haste to 
find them. The next day he made a further advance of a 
few miles, and found the rebels. They stopped his further 
progress, after a severe battle on September i9th. The 
battle was not decisive, and on October yth another w r as 
fought, in which the English were defeated, and forced to 
retreat. They halted at their old camping-ground north 
of Fish Creek, and Burgoyne spent the night in the house 
where he had established his headquarters on his advance. 
He was now within the toils of the rebels, and unable to 
make his escape. After a few days hesitation, he sent an 
officer to General Gates to open negotiations for sur 
render. The treaty was signed on October i6th, and the 
next day the English army piled their arms on the mead 
ow 1 " north of Fish Creek and west of the Hudson River, 
and as prisoners of war began their march to Massachu 

The first encampment of the British army after crossing 
the Hudson, and their last encampment on their retreat, 
where they "piled their arms," were on that portion of the 


Saratoga Patent allotted to Robert Livingston in the divi 
sion made by the seven partners in 1685. The general s 
headquarters were on Lot No. 4, assigned to Johannes 
Wendell. Their second camp, at Doove Gat, was on Lot 
3, drawn by Dirck Wessels. The battles of September 
i9th and October 7th were fought on Lot 2, which Jan 
Jansen Bleecker obtained. The fortified camp of General 
Schuyler at Stillwater, whence General Gates marched to 
the battle-fields, was on Lot No. i, beginning on the kill, 
"where we slept that winter s night," which had been 
drawn for Peter Schuyler. 

The decisive battle of the American Revolution, one of 
the few decisive battles of history, was fought on the Sara 
toga Patent 

I cannot leave Saratoga without an effort to contribute 
something for the true location of the forts on that historic 
ground. There is some confusion on this point, even 
among the residents of the locality. Although the whole 
tract covered by the patent was known as Saratoga, the 
name was more especially applied to the locality now 
known as Schuylerville, while other portions of the tract 
received other names, as Stillwater and Doove Gat. Johan 
nes Wendell drew Lot 4, on which was a fine water-power, 
bordered by timber-lands. He was a man of enterprise, 
and doubtless began the development of his property 
as soon as the division was made. That Bartel Vroo- 
man s house was on Wendell s property, is fairly proved 
from the journals of Winthrop and Peter Schuyler of their 
campaigns of 1660 and 1691. The Albany Convention had 
ordered it to be fortified in 1689. General Winthrop left 
Albany on August ist, and spent the night at the "Still 
Water." The next day he arrived at Saratoga, "about 
fifty miles from Albany," where was a block-house occu 
pied by Dutch soldiers. Peter Schuyler left Albany on 


June 2ist, and stopped at the Stilhvater, "twenty-four 
miles from Albany," where he stayed two days, and on the 
24th he marched to Saratoga, "sixteen miles " from Still- 
water. On June 26th he reached the great carrying- 
place (Fort Edward), "ten miles" from Saratoga. 

The block-house, or fort, at Saratoga, was on the south 
side of Fish Creek, as that was Wendell s north line. Jo 
hannes Schuyler, who succeeded Wendell in the ownership 
of Lot 4, was also a man of energy and enterprise, and 
he continued to make improvements by the erection of 
mills and the cultivation of the soil. Robert Livingston, 
whose lot was on the north side of Fish Creek, had larger 
interests in his manor, to which he gave his time and at 
tention. His property at Saratoga remained in its natural 
state for many years. The journal of the French officer, in 
1745, proves beyond a question that the fort was on the 
Schuyler property. The French came from the north, and 
after passing one house reached the end of the road, when 
M. Marin made a rush for the fort. To reach it he had to 
cross a rapid river. After crossing this rapid river, he first 
came to a saw-mill, and then to Schuyler s brick house, 
beyond which was the fort and the principal settlement. 
Sauthier s map, in 1779, locates Schuyler s mill on the 
south bank of Fish Creek, and the village of Saratoga 
some distance south of that, while Fort Hardy appears 
opposite the mouth of Batten Kill. When the fort was re 
built, in 1739, it was without doubt on the spot where the 
block-house had been erected in 1689 ; it was there when 
burnt by the French, 1745. There is no question as to the 
location of Fort Clinton, built in 1746, and burned the next 
year east of the river and south of Batten Kill. 

The saw-mill referred to by the French journal probably 
stood on the south side of the creek, near where the canal 
now crosses it, and the brick Schuyler house on the bluff 


south of the mill, fronting the river. The house when 
rebuilt, and which was ruthlessly burned by Burgoyne, 
occupied nearly, if not quite, the same position. The 
present " Schuyler mansion " (so-called) is situated several 
rods west from the original location. Schuylerville, the 
present village, lying north of the creek, is in a better 
location, by reason of the canal, for commercial purposes, 
than the site of the old village of Saratoga. 

The good people of Schuylerville point with pride to 
the place just east of the village where the army of Bur 
goyne laid down their arms, and call it old Fort Hardy. 
But was there a fort by that name in that locality ? Lieu- 
tenant-Governor De Lancey wrote, in December, 1754, 
" from Albany northward toward Canada there is no fort. 
We had one before, and in the last war, at Saratoga, which 
was abandoned and destroyed, so that the country lies en 
tirely open." Hendrick, the Mohawk chief, in a speech at 
Albany, in 1745, said : "We had determined to take Crown 
Point, but you burnt your fort at Saratoga, and ran away. 
Look at your country ! You have no fortifications, and it 
is but a step to Canada." Governor Hardy wrote, in No 
vember, 1755, "the two forts (William Henry at Lake 
George, and Fort Edward) are sufficient, I trust, to main 
tain the advanced frontier." Nothing was said of Fort 
Hardy. General Schuyler wrote to Washington, in July, 
1777 : "Of Fort Edward there is nothing left but ruins. I 
have frequently galloped my horse in on one side and out 
at the other. As for Forts Miller, Saratoga, and Stillwater, 
there is not a trace left, although they still retain their 

If there ever was a fort named Hardy in the place in 
dicated, he was a poor engineer who placed it in that 
position. Only a few rods away a curious individual, 
standing on the hills, could observe all that was passing 


within the walls. It is probable that during the last 
French war, and in the time of Governor Hardy, an en 
trenched camp, as a depot of troops and supplies, may 
have been established, and after a time called Fort Hardy. 
As a fort for military defence it was hardly possible. Had 
there been a regular fort of that name where Sauthier 
places it on his map, we should be able to learn some 
thing about it in the historical records, 


On November 3, 1685, Peter Schuyler received a patent 
from Governor Dongan for eight hundred acres of land, 
previously purchased from the native proprietors, lying 
south of the manor of Rensselaerwyck, extending to the 
great Kinderhook Creek, about two thousand paces over 
the New England path. 1 

Richard Nicolls, the first English governor, granted to 
Evert Luycas and Jan Hendrix Bruyn two parcels of 
land on the east side of Hudson River, south of a point 
known as Kinderhook (the children s point), and near the 
bouwery of Captain Abraham Staats. Subsequently he 
granted to the same parties, with Dirck Wesselse and 
Peter Van Alen as partners, another parcel of land ly 
ing south of the last-mentioned tract. In 1671, Governor 
Lovelace granted to Bruyn another small tract adjoining. 
Peter Schuyler s purchase in 1685 filled the gap between 
these several tracts and Van Rensselaer s manor. 

Several families having settled on these lands, the pro 
prietors petitioned for a grant of incorporation as a town- 

1 The "Boston and Albany Railroad now follows the route of the In-idle- 
path, through the woods to New England two hundred years ago, as far as 
Kinderhook, and perhaps farther. The Indians sought the easiest routes 
over the mountains from place to place. 
VOL. II. 9 


ship. A patent was accordingly issued by Governor Don- 
gan, on March 14, 1686, 

" for all that tract of land on the east side of the Hudson 
River, lying at a place called Swart Hook, running north 
on said river four English miles to David Hook, thence 
east into the woods with the same breadth to the land of 
Dirck Wesselse and the high hills eight English miles, 
thence south to the falls of Major Abrahamse (Staats), 
there being thirty-one freeholders, to whom is granted the 
aforesaid tract of land, to be divided according to previous 
agreement ; and erected into one township, to be called 
the town of Kinderhook." 

Two Tracts on the East Side of Hudson River. 

Governor Dongan, on June 2, 1688, issued a patent of 
confirmation to Peter Schuyler for two tracts of land on 
the east side of Hudson River, for which a patent had 
been previously granted by Governor Lovelace. The 
first tract is described as beginning opposite Magdalen 
Island, thence running east to a small lake, thence north 
to a point in a due east and west line from Sawyer s Creek 
(south line of Livingston s manor), thence west to the 
river, and along the river to the place of beginning. 

The second tract began at the long reach on the river, 
and was bounded south and east by a creek flowing into 
the river (Wappinger Creek), and north by lands of Robert 

Schuyler sold the north half of the first tract on June 5, 
1689, to Harme Gansevoort, for 9. In 1704, Gansevoort 
sold it to Harmen Janse Knickerbocker for ^150. Knick 
erbocker resided for a time near Stillwater, and was of the 
same family as the Schaghticoke Knickerbackers. The 
two branches do not spell the name alike ; one using an <?, 


the other an a, in the third syllable. Schuyler, 1698, sold 
a third of the remaining half, with a third of a saw-mill he 
had recently erected upon it, to Tjerch Clausen De Witt, 
of Kingston, for 60. How he disposed of what was left 
I am unable to learn. 

The tract on the long reach he sold, August 30, 1699, to 
Robert Sanders and Myndert Harmense (Van der Bogert), 
who owned the tract adjoining north, on which the city 
of Poughkeepsie now stands. The consideration is not 

Some doubts having arisen as to the validity of the old 
patents, Lord Cornbury, in 1704, granted confirmatory 

The Kingston records show that Schuyler was interested 
with Jan Jansen Bleecker and Jochem Staats in a tract of 
land called Wawarsinch, his third of which he sold, in 
February, 1695, to Major Jacob Rutse for ^70. 

The Westenhook Patent. 

Among the records of the Albany County clerk s office 
are three Indian deeds, dated October i, 1703, October 2, 
1703, and April 2, 1704, given to Colonel Peter Schuyler, 
Major Dirck Wessels, Captain Jan Jansen Bleecker, and 
Mr. John Abeel, conveying the tract of land lying east of 
Kinderhook and south of Rensselaerwyck. The land de 
scribed by the first deed was on Westenhook Creek, a 
branch of the Housatonic River, which gave its name 
to the whole tract, Westenhook. The consideration ex 
pressed in the deeds was the sum of " one hundred and 
eighty-two and a half beavers and twelve otters." 

The grantees associated with themselves Ebenezer Wil 
son, Peter Fauconier, Doctor Daniel Cox, Thomas Wen- 
ham, and Henry Smith, gentlemen holding official posi- 


tions in the province. A patent passed the seals on March 
6, 1705, but, inasmuch as the patentees were unable to 
make the required improvements, on account of the French 
and Indian war, a new patent was issued in 1708, granting 
to each of the partners one-ninth of the land when divided. 

Like other large tracts held in partnership, it was a long 
time before the division was effected. Meantime, Fauco- 
nier sold his undivided share to Philip and Robert Liv 
ingston, for ^450. When this sale was effected, in Sep 
tember, 1742, seven of the nine original owners were dead. 
On July 14, 1760, a partition was effected by their de 
scendants. The description of the tract contained in the 
deed of partition is the same as in the patent, but differs 
from that in the deeds of the native proprietors. In this 
respect it is like other conveyances of land in those 
times made to cover a greater territory than was appar 
ently asked for in the application for the grant. The 
bounds were : on the north by Rensselaerwyck, east by 
Massachusetts, \vest by Kinderhook, and southerly by 

Peter Schuyler s one-ninth was now, in 1760, vested in 
his daughter, Margaret Livingston, still living, at the age 
of nearly eighty years ; his son-in-law, John Lansing, now 
an old man, and his grandson, Barent Staats, each a third. 

One-half of Dirck Wessels ninth was allotted to seven of 
his great-grandchildren, among whom was General Abra 
ham Ten Broeck, for many years the manager of the Van 
Rensselaer manor and its representative in the Assembly. 
The other half was vested in eight sons and daughters of 
Philip Livingston, the second proprietor of the manor, 
among whom were Philip, one of the signers of the Decla 
ration of Independence, and William, the Revolutionary 
War governor of New Jersey. 

John Abeel s ninth was equally divided between two 


sons and two sons-in-law. Jan Jansen Bleecker s ninth 
was vested in six of his descendants, each a sixth share. 
Ebenezer Wilson s ninth belonged to the Bayard family of 
New York. The ninth originally held by Peter Fauconier 
was divided between the families of Philip and Robert Liv 
ingston, sons of Robert Livingston the first. The ninth 
of Daniel Cox was allotted to three of his children in un 
equal proportions. Thomas Wenham s ninth belonged to 
the estate of John Wenham, deceased. Henry Smith, one 
of the original patentees, was still living at Brookhaven, 
L. I., and held his ninth in his own possession. 

The Oriskany Patent. 

Certain sachems of the Oneida nation, on July 19, 1704, 
gave a deed to Colonel Peter Schuyler, Colonel Thomas 
Wenham, and George Clark, for two tracts of land the 
first, beginning at the mouth of Oriskany Creek, and ex 
tending up the creek four miles, and two miles on each 
side ; the second, beginning on the Mohawk River at the 
mouth of Oriskany Creek, and running up two miles in 
breadth on each side of the river to the Oneida carrying- 
place, " where the path begins," and thence two miles on 
each side of the path to a swamp. For these tracts a pat 
ent was issued, on April 18, 1705, by Lord Cornbury, to 
Thomas Wenham, 1 George Clark, 2 Peter Schuyler, 1 Peter 
Fauconier, 3 and Roger Mompesson ; l to each one-fifth, at 
the annual rent of ten shillings. On Sauthier s map it is 
named " Oriskany Patent, granted to Thomas Wenham & 

Why the purchase of these lands was made at that time 
is a question which will admit of speculation, but of no 
satisfactory solution. They were not required for settle- 

1 Members of the Council. 2 Secretary of the province. 3 Naval officer. 


inent in the near future, and were remote from civiliza 
tion. Schenectady was the western frontier of the prov 
ince, only a few farms being cultivated on the Mohawk 
west of that village ; all beyond was yet a wilderness, oc 
cupied by the Mohawks and kindred tribes. The Oriskany 
Creek afforded water-power for mills, and the Oneida 
carrying-place was at a point where the waters began 
their eastward and westward courses, while not far off, 
among the hills at the south, \vere the sources of the Sus- 
quehanna and Delaware Rivers. Perhaps the speculative 
gentlemen, looking off into the future, imagined that their 
purchase might become the site of a great commercial 
emporium. It was then a place through which passed all 
eastward bound and westward bound traffic of the prov 
ince, transferred from boats to human shoulders across 
the neck of land between the Mohawk River and Onei 
da River, or Wood Creek. The city of Rome, situate on 
that neck of land, preserves some of the features of the 
ancient commerce, being a place of transfer. If the 
tracts did not become a great commercial centre, they are 
immortalized in history by the battle of Oriskany and the 
siege of Fort Stanwix. 

In what way Peter Schuyler disposed of his interest in 
the patent I have not learned, except that after the Rev 
olution Governor William Livingston, of New Jersey, was 
the owner of Schuyler s share. 

The Mohawk Lands. 

The transaction I am about to relate caused unusual 
excitement in the province, and because of its importance 
I have reserved it for the last, although it was prior in date 
to some others already mentioned. 

On September 19, 1695, Dominie Dellius,. minister of 


the Dutch Church in Albany, sent the following paper to 
Governor Fletcher : 

" May it please your Excellency, 
" Humbly sheweth 

" Godfrey Dellitis, Pieter Schuyler, Dirck 
Wessels, Evert Banker make their humble application to 
your Excellency to give them leave to buy of the Maquas 
a parcel of land lying upon the Schenectady river two 
miles on every side from a place called Ovakkie to another 
place named Onnawadago. 

"The humble petitioners beg your Excellency s favor to 
grant them the time of seven years to make the purchase, 
which will oblige them always to pray for your Excel 
lency s prosperity &c. 

" By your Excellency s 

" Most obedient Servant 

" Dellius." 

No formal action seems to have been taken on this pe 
tition ; for what reason does not appear. But the next 
year Dellius procured a patent, in his own name, for a 
large tract of land, extending from Batten Kill north to 
near the mouth of Otter Creek, on the east side of Lake 
Champlain, said to contain 620,000 acres. The land be 
longed to the Mohawk nation, but was not occupied ex 
cept for hunting-grounds. 

On February 6, 1697, a petition, signed by Peter Schuy 
ler, Dellitis, Dirck Wessels, and Evert Bancker, was pre 
sented to the governor and Council, asking leave to pur 
chase a tract of land on Schenectady River, " two miles 
on each side and fifty miles long." It was drawn by 
Dellius, who seemed to be the chief promoter of the 
project. The petition was read in the Council the follow 
ing June, and leave was granted, " provided Judge Pin- 
horne be included in the purchase." In July, a deed,. 


signed by " Dirk, called Rode," chief sachem, and seven 
other Mohawks, one of whom was Hannah, conveyed to 
Colonel Peter Schuyler, Dominie Godfrey Dellius, Major 
Dirck Wessels, and Captain Evert Bancker a tract of land 
fifty miles long and four miles on each side of the river, 
with this proviso : " It is the true intent and meaning of 
this instrument, that if we or any of our posterity shall 
have occasion or need of any part of said land, we or they 
shall have provision for our planting and occupancy." 

The chief sachems of the Mohawk nation attached a 
certificate, that the deed had been interpreted by Hilliche 
Van Olinda, 1 the legal interpretess, before they signed it. 
Dirck, called Rode, the chief sachem, had been baptized by 
Dellius in 1695, and his age was entered at eighty years. 

This deed was presented to the governor and Council 
on July 3 1, 1697, who ordered a patent to issue, with a quit- 
rent of one beaver-skin yearly for seven years, and there 
after five beaver-skins annually. 

On the same day a patent passed the seals, to William Pin- 
horne, Peter Schuyler, Godfrey Dellius, Dirck Wessels, and 
Evert Bancker, describing the tract as in the deed, except 
the four miles on each side of the river were changed to 
two ; and except in another particular, which of itself was 
sufficient to vitiate the instrument. It was absolute and 
not conditioned, making no reservation for the occupancy 
of the Indians, at the present time or for the future. 
Had it conformed to the deed, there could not have been 
the valid objections to it which were afterward urged. 
Perhaps no land-patent caused so much excitement as 

1 Her mother was a Mohawk woman and her father a white man. After 
spending some years with her mother s tribe, she was taken into a Chris 
tian family, when she became a Protestant, and was received into the 
Dutch Church. She afterward married Van Olinda, and was long em 
ployed as interpretess. 


this, not only in Albany, but in New York, and even in 
England. Why it did not conform to the deed is a ques 
tion difficult to answer. It is fair to suppose that it was 
not so intended by the gentlemen to whom the deed was 
given, but was changed at the suggestion, or through the 
influence, of Judge Pinhorne, a member of the Council. 

When it was known in Albany that such a patent had 
been granted, the Common Council resolved that " it was 
a great prejudice to the city arid county," and desired a 
public meeting of the citizens to be held, " to have a right 
understanding of the matter." The mayor, Dirck Wessels, 
appointed such a meeting to be held on January 28th. 
Schuyler, Dellius, and Wessels attended the meeting, and 
were interrogated as to the "patent, and the ground 
thereof." An effort was made to have them assign it to 
the city, but without success. Coming to no conclusion, 
the meeting adjourned to February 4th, when for the 
third time the " commonalty rehearsed their grievance." 
At the suggestion of the mayor, a committee was appoint 
ed to confer with the patentees, and the meeting adjourned 
to the yth. At the time appointed, the committee reported 
that they had had no interview with the patentees, but 
that the mayor had informed them that Dominie Dellius 
would do nothing until he had consulted Judge Pinhorne 
and Mr. Bancker, who were in New York, and that Colonel 
Schuyler had said, ** he thought the patent was as safe in 
his hands as in the city s." The Common Council then 
appointed Alderman Hendrick Hansen and Assistant-Al 
derman David Schuyler a committee, to lay their griev 
ances before the governor. 

On their return the committee reported, May 7th, the 
petition they had presented to the late Governor Fletcher 
and Council, and their order in reference to it. They also 
reported the address and petition which they had pre- 


sented to the new governor, Lord Bellomont, who ordered 
a hearing before himself and Council. The report of the 
committee was approved by the Common Council, who 
"resolved, they will effectually prosecute the said affair 
until they have perfect relief from the violence done them 
in taking the Mohawk land," and appointed "Jan Janse 
Bleecker, recorder, and Robert Livingston, to prosecute 
the same, and procure the best counsel they can." 

Jan Janse Bleecker and Ryer Schermerhoorn, members 
of Assembly from Albany County, presented a memorial 
"on behalf of themselves and their constituents," to Lord 
Bellomont and the Council, asking to have the patent va 
cated. Hendrick and Joseph, two of Dellius converts, 
who had signed the deed, were sent to New York, to be 
examined by the governor. They said they had not sold or 
givenaway their land ; they had never intended to alienate 
the soil, but that the pretended purchasers had used artifice 
to circumvent them, by saying they would keep their land 
for them ; they now wished the patent annulled or va 

Schuyler and Wessels saw their mistake, and were 
prompt to correct it, so far as they were concerned. 
Among the best friends the Indians ever had, they had 
consented to take a trust deed of their land, and- hold it 
for their use as therein expressed. The Mohawks were 
selling their land at intervals, in small tracts, to specula 
tors, who would soon be in possession of the whole. As 
their friends, they sought to save the nation from ruin. 
The omission in the patent of the trust, and the conditions 
of the deed, was not of their procurement. Before March 
of the following year they surrendered their interests, de 
claring that " it was their true intent and meaning, the 
land should be preserved and kept for the Mohawk 
nation, and should it be otherwise, it would be a great 


discouragement to the Indians and the trade of Albany. 
They therefore freely and of their own accord surrender 
whatever interests they hold under the patent." 

Early in May, 1699, the Council passed a bill vacating 
the patent. It was carried to the Assembly, and passed 
by that body on the i3th, with an amendment prohibiting 
Dellius from longer officiating in the church at Albany, 
in which the Council concurred. The Council stood three 
to three on the amendment. The governor gave the cast 
ing vote, and then signed the bill, an assumption of au 
thority not warranted by his instructions or by parliamen 
tary law. Although the act was not approved by the crown 
until June, 1708, it quieted the excitement, and satisfied 
the small speculators. 

Peter Schuyler was not a favorite of Bellomont s. He 
had been an active opponent of Leisler, and had always 
opposed the policy and measures of the party who sus 
tained him ; he was too thoughtful and independent to 
change his politics with the change of governors ; he was 
the one man in the province who understood the Five 
Nations, and the methods to be pursued in dealing with 
them. Bellomont was a bitter partisan, and had little pa 
tience with his opponents. He was supremely vain, and 
could not brook contradiction, or receive advice, if it 
did not square with his own opinions. Men who would 
not yield their own convictions to his, and pour the in 
cense of flattery into his ears, could not be his friends. 
Men who \vere regarded by the Indians with equal or 
more affection than himself stood in his way, and must be 
removed. He could not forgive Schuyler, because he was 
regarded by the Mohawks, notwithstanding his connection 
with this patent, with reverence and brotherly kindness, 
as they esteemed his friendship of more value than that of 
the governor s. 


It is quite natural, under such circumstances, that Bello 
mont should seize upon Schuyler s connection with the pat 
ent, and make it the pretext of doing him all the injury he 
could, both here and in England. Although Schuyler had 
resigned his interest, the governor to the last used it to his 
disparagement. From this he passed to his other land 
transactions, charging him with having vast tracts twenty 
miles square, calling him a " mighty landgrave," " a large 
land-owner with no tenants," and all the while holding 
out the idea that it was through Fletcher he had procured 
his patents. 

The truth is, Peter Schuyler was a small land-owner 
compared to several others, who were Bellomont s friends 
and favorites. In Bellomont s time he held three-four 
teenths of Saratoga, eight hundred acres in Kinderhook, 
and one-twentietli of a small tract on the east side of the 
Hudson south of Livingston s manor. Besides this, not 
a foot of the lands he now owned, or had sold to friends 
at nominal prices, had been granted by Fletcher, but by 
Dongan several years before Fletcher s administration. 

The history .of the Mohawk Patent would not be com 
plete without some notice of the patentees aside from 
Peter Schuyler. Of Dirck Wesscls I shall have occasion 
to speak hereafter. 

William Pinhorne, an Englishman, came to this province 
with Sir Edmund Andros, in 1678, and settled in New York 
as a merchant. He was elected speaker of the Assembly 
in 1685, and the next year was appointed an alderman by 
Governor Dongan under the new charter of the city ; he 
was a member of the Council, and one of the judges of 
the court which tried and convicted Leisler of treason ; 
he was recorder of the city, and judge of the Supreme 
Court. He lost these various positions by removal from 
the province, but on his return, in 1693, he was restored to 


the Council and to his seat on the bench. Bellomont, who 
said, " The English here (New York) are so profligate I 
cannot find a man fit to be trusted that is capable of busi 
ness," removed him from the Council and the court in 
1698. He then retired to his estate in New Jersey, and 
was appointed to the offices in that province from which 
he had been suspended in this; but in 1713 he was dis 
missed from all his employments on demand of the Assem 
bly. He died in 1719. 

Gerrit Bancker, the father of Evert, came to New Am 
sterdam before 1660, and removed thence to Fort Orange, 
where he accumulated a considerable estate. After his 
death, before 1691, his widow (Elizabeth Van Eps) re 
turned to New York, and, like many women of the period, 
engaged in trade. She died in 1693, and left a large estate 
for the times to her son Evert and her daughter Anna, 
wife of Johannes de Peyster. 

Evert Bancker remained in Albany after the death of his 
father, and prosecuted his business as a merchant. He 
was an alderman, and ex officio commissioner of Indian 
affairs ; he was appointed justice of the peace in 1694, 
and when Governor Fletcher reorganized the Indian board, 
in 1696, he was one of its five members. He was mayor 
of Albany in 1695, 1707-8, master in chancery in 1705, and 
member of the ninth Assembly. 

When quite a young man he was elected an officer of 
the church. While serving in this capacity, Dominie 
Dellius was settled as co-pastor, and they became confi 
dential friends. It was not singular that he should have 
been placed on the Board of Indian Affairs with his pastor 
and other officers of the church, and with them should 
have been interested in the Mohawk land-grant. 

The Assembly presented charges against him on ac 
count of this transaction, and denounced him in severe 


words, but the persecution did not seriously affect his 
reputation either at home or with the government. In 
1703 he was again elected alderman, was appointed mayor 
in 1707 by Lord Cornbury, and was restored to the Indian 
board in 1710 by Governor Hunter, by whom he was also 
made one of the managers of the Canada expedition. 

When he was over sixty years old, he was appointed by 
Governor Burnet resident commissioner among the Sene- 
cas, a position of responsibility, attended with self-denial 
and danger. The next year he commanded the newly 
erected trading-house and fort at Oswego, and was sum 
moned by a French-Canadian officer to demolish the 
block-house and other structures, and withdraw from ter 
ritory claimed by his master, the King of France. He 
was not frightened, and kept possession. 

Evert Bancker died in Albany in 1734, leaving five sons 
and one daughter. Three of his sons resided in New 
York. They were prominent merchants, and connected 
by marriage with the leading families of the city. Their 
sons, in the Revolutionary War, were active and efficient 
supporters of the patriot cause. The Banckers were of a 
good family in Holland. 

Rev. Godfrey Dellius came to Albany in 1683, as col 
league of Dominie Schaets, then seventy-five years old, 
minister of the Dutch Church in Albany. He was a man 
of fine education, acquainted with several languages, and 
soon mastered another, the Mohawk. When he first came 
he wrote his name Ge. Dell, Godfrey Dell, or simply 
Dell, but, following the fashion of the day among his 
countrymen, he Latinized it into Godofredus Dellius. He 
introduced some new features in the records of his church, 
which have been of much value, particularly to geneal 
ogists. He soon became interested in missionary work 
among the Indians, and to facilitate his work he learned 


their language. He baptized his first Indian convert in 
the latter part of 1689, and six months afterward eleven 
more. Among these was the celebrated Hendrick, termed 
"Emperor" in England, and "King" in Sir William 
Johnson s time. His Indian name, as Dellius wrote it, 
was Tejenihokarawe (open the door) ; as spelled in the 
Annals of Queen Anne," Tee-Yee-Neeu-Ho-Ga-Prow ; in 
the Tatler (1710), Tee-Yee-Neeu-Ho-Ga-Row, and by other 
writers each in a different way. From 1692 to 1698, in 
clusive, Dellius baptized one hundred and five Indian 
men, women, and children, among whom was the old Mo 
hawk chief, Rode, named Dirk in baptism. 

In politics Dellius was a warm supporter of the Albany 
Convention, and an uncompromising opponent of Leisler. 
When the latter secured the control of the city, he retired 
to Boston to avoid arrest. After Leisler s fall he re 
turned, and was received with hearty congratulations, es 
pecially by the Mohawks. 

Bellomont, on his first arrival, treated Dellius with con 
sideration, and joined him with Colonel Schuyler in an 
embassy to Frontenac, governor of Canada. This was 
done at the request of Schuyler, because he understood 
French. He made a favorable impression on Frontenac 
as an agreeable gentleman, "zealous in the execution of 
his instructions." The excitement in Albany over the 
Mohawk grant divided the church into angry parties, the 
Leislerians becoming so embittered that they filled Bello- 
mont s ears with their complaints and slanderous accusa 
tions against their minister. Dellius was high-minded, 
and, conscious of his good intentions, refused to con 
ciliate them by explanations and apologies, or to make 
court to the governor, who consequently became a bitter 

Bellomont recommended to the Assemblv, which con- 


vened in March, 1699, an investigation of Indian affairs for 
the correction of abuses. The committee of grievances, 
Abraham Gouverneur, chairman, reported that, after a 
full investigation, 

" we are of opinion that the said patent (for the Mohawk 
land), as well as the manner of obtaining it, is a great in 
justice to the Indians ; and therefore move that Mr. God 
frey Dellius, Mr. Evert Bancker and Mr. William Pin- 
horne, some of the patentees (Colonel Schuyler and Major 
Wessels having resigned their interest therein), be re 
quired forthwith to attend this house, and show cause, if 
any they have, why the said patent should not be vacated, 
and make answer to such objections as shall be made 
against them for the illegal practices that were used by 
them in obtaining it." 

It was accordingly ordered that the speaker issue his 
warrant to compel their appearance on April i3th next. 
The committee was also directed to report articles of com 
plaint or accusation against them. On April i3th the 
committee reported that Dellius, Bancker and Pinhorne, 
had by fraudulent means, induced eight Mohawks to sign 
the deed ; that the Mohawks had only intended to sign a 
deed of trust, instead of a deed in fee, 1 and hence Dellius 
and Bancker had betrayed the trust reposed in them by 
the Indians, and had also betrayed their trust by taking 
into partnership William Pinhorne. 

Dellius and Bancker appeared before the house on April 
i yth, demanded a copy of the complaint, and gave in their 
answer on the i9th, to which, on the 25th, the committee 
made their " replication." It was then ordered that Del 
lius and Bancker appear for a hearing at ten o clock the 
next morning. 

1 The Indian deed on record in Albany is a deed of trust. Did the 
committee have a copy with the trust clause omitted ? 


Unfortunately the records of the Assembly from April 
25th to the end of the session are lost, and we are unable to 
learn any further proceedings in the trial. The journals 
of the legislative council inform us that a bill was intro 
duced into that body for " vacating extravagant grants of 
land made by Colonel Fletcher," among them the Mohawk 
Patent, which passed that house on May i2th, and the 
Assembly on the i3th, with an amendment to the effect, 
that Mr. Dellius having been the main instrument in pro 
curing the patent, " he ought to be and is hereby sus 
pended from the exercise of his ministerial function in the 
city and county of Albany." The amendment was agreed 
to by the Council, and the bill was signed by the governor 
on May i6th. 

After the lapse of nearly two hundred years, the student 
of those times must give a different verdict on Dellius 
character and works than that of Bellomont and his 
Assembly. Dellius saw the Mohawk nation fast disap 
pearing before the steady advance of the whites, and their 
lands being gradually absorbed by farmers and specula 
tors. The religious sentiment first awakened by the Jesuit 
missionaries had made a deep impression upon some of 
them, and more especially upon their women. Under its 
influence many had emigrated to Canada to receive in 
struction in the Christian faith, and had refused all in 
ducements to return, unless they were provided with a 
home apart from their heathen countrymen and furnished 
with Christian teachers. Their pride as a nation had 
been broken by French invasions. The English seemed 
powerless to protect them, or to furnish them with mission 
aries, for although the latter had been often promised 
by the English governors, none had come. One by one, 
and family by family, they still emigrated to Canada, 
leaving a country superior in climate and in many other 
VOL. II. 10 


respects to that of their new home. Rum was making 
fearful havoc in their ranks ; for this they would barter 
their furs, and when these failed their lands, to unprin 
cipled traders and speculators. Their chief sachem often 
protested against this abuse, but without effect ; the evil 

Dellius sympathies were awakened in their behalf. He 
learned their language, and put himself into direct com 
munication with them. Availing himself of their strong 
religious sentiment, he instructed them in the Protes 
tant faith ; they listened, and many of them joined his 
church. It would seem at this time, that had there been 
two or three men with Dellius spirit and activity to go 
and live among them, as did the Jesuits, the whole nation 
might have been converted to Christianity. The impres 
sions made by Dellius were not transient, for many, if not 
all, of his converts lived exemplary lives, and remained 
true to the faith he taught them. When Dellius left, the 
work of evangelization among them soon ceased. His 
successor in the church baptized a few Indian converts, 
Dellius catechumens, and the work of the Albany church 
among them was finished forever. When the passions of 
the hour had time to cool, there were but few, both whites 
and Indians, who did not regret Dellius departure. 

Dellius nature was sympathetic, and he was ever ready 
to render assistance to those in distress. Much as he dis 
liked the religion taught by the Jesuits, and much as he 
was opposed to them as missionaries among the Five Na 
tions, he was ever ready to afford them relief when suffer 
ing for the necessaries of life. Some of them had been 
captured by the Iroquois on their raids, and remained as 
captives, although permitted to teach. Such were in want 
of many things which they could not procure from Canada 
in time of war. To one such, Milet, in the Oneida coun- 


try, Dellius had sent delicacies, and afterward purchased 
things for him at his request. This led to a correspond 
ence with him and his superiors in Canada, in which on 
the one side there was nothing but kindness, and on the 
other expresions of gratitude and thankfulness. But so 
passionate were men at that time, that his enemies made 
this an accusation against him, none more notably than 
the governor. 

After the Legislature had deprived him of his pastorate, 
Mr. Dellius was satisfied that his work in his adopted 
country was done, and he prepared to leave for the father 
land. Previously to his departure, in June, 1698, several 
of his Indian converts called to take their leave. There 
were present at the farewell interview, Johannes Schuyler, 
Wessel Ten Broeck, Killian and Henry Van Rensselaer, 
officers of the church ; they also happened to be justices 
of the peace. At the conclusion of the interview, they 
gave a certificate to the effect, that the Indians said they 
were grieved to see him go away ; that they had not 
caused it, but others, " who have led us as by a cord ; " 
that they had always resolved to be true to him, and asked 
his forgiveness for the evil they had done him ; and that 
he willingly and promptly forgave them. 

Two days afterward, Dellius enemies caused a meeting 
of the justices of the city and county to be called. With 
a copy of the certificate before them, they proceeded to 
examine Hendrick and other Indians touching its state 
ments. The Indians admitted its truthfulness, except in 
one particular they did not say, " others led them as by 
a cord," but Hilli, the interpretess, had used those words 
as coming from them. According to the facts elicited by 
this examination, designed to invalidate the certificate, the 
last interview between the missionary and his Indian con 
verts was tender and affecting. Some one asked him why 


he went away. He replied : " My brethren that live here 
bring many wicked reports into my house that is the 
cause of my going away." Turning to Hendrick, for 
whom he seemed to have a peculiar affection, he asked : 
" Do you love me ? " " Yes," he answered, " I ever loved 
you since we have been praying Indians." Gideon, pre 
senting him with a beaver, said : " I am grieved to my 
soul that you are going away. Will you come again, 
when this evil is over ? " He answered, " I will never for 
get you." 

Few men of his time in the colony had a more enviable 
reputation for capacity and benevolence ; no one made a 
deeper impression on the public mind ; no one was more 
reverentially regarded by the Indians than Dellius. There 
can be little doubt that he sought to save their lands 
for their own use ; he saw how fast they were being 
taken from them, and he made his first effort to save their 
homes on the banks of their beautiful river, where were 
their villages and their planting-grounds. When this ap 
parently failed, he procured a patent of their hunting- 
grounds to the east of Hudson River and Lake Cham- 
plain, that, when they lost their home lands, the remnant, 
whom he hoped to have Christianized, might have a place 
to live on not too remote from civilization. A year later 
he secured their homestead by a trust-deed to himself 
and others, their friends. Had it not been for the self 
ishness of one man, who thrust his name into the patent 
and changed its tenure, all might have been secure against 
the ravings of disappointed and designing men. 

The justices who signed the certificate as to the last 
meeting of Dellius with his Indian converts were sum 
moned before the governor and Council in New York to 
answer for this grave offence. After a hearing, they were 
all suspended from office. Bellomont treated the minister 


of the Protestant French Church at New Rochelle with 
much cruelty, because " he attached his signature to an 
ecclesiastical certificate which the churches and pastors of 
the province had given to Sieur Dellius, minister of Al 
bany, who had not the good fortune to please his Lord 
ship : " he deprived him of the pittance the province had 
pledged him as salary. Truly, the governor and his 
friends were the " angry people," and not their opponents, 
as they charged. Bellomont railed against Dellius, and 
even pursued him to his home across the seas with infa 
mous scandals, but good people grieved. Mr. Vesey, the 
Episcopal clergyman of New York, prayed in his pulpit 
for Dellius prosperous voyage, and that he might be pre 
served from the wrath of his enemies. His voyage was 
fortunate and he arrived safely in Holland. He was cor 
dially received by his brethren in the ministry, and was 
assigned to an important church, where he closed his life 
and labors. 



[Furnished by John C. Schuyler, of West Troy, N. Y.] 

5. PETER SCHUYLER, b. September 17, 1657, d. February 19, 1724, 
m. i, in 1 68 1, Engeltie Van Schaick, d. 1689. 

12. MARGARITA, b. November, 1682. 

m. August 26, 1697, Robert Livingston, Jr. 

13. PHILIP, bp. October, 1684, d. y. 

14. ANNA, bp. September 12, 1686, d. at age of 12. 

15. GERTRUDE, bp. August 17, 1689, d. y. 

5. PETER SCHUYLER, 1 m. 2, September 14, 1691, Maria Van 

16. GERTRUDE, bp. February u, 1694. 

m. June 13, 1714, Johannes Lansing. 

17. PHILIP, bp. January 15, 1696, d. s. p. 1758. 

m. December 29, 1720, Margarita Schuyler (360), d. 
August 28, 1782, in her 83d year. 

1 8. PETER, JR., bp. January 12, 1698. 

m. November 4, 1722, Catherine Groesbcck. 

19. JEREMIAH, bp. January 12, 1698, twin with the last, buried at the 

Flatts, December 10, 1753. 
m. Susanna , a French lady of New York. 

18. PETER SCHUYLER, JR., and Catherine Groesbeck. 

20. PETER (second jun.), bp. February 20, 1723. 

m. Gertrude Schuyler (362). He was buried 
at the Flatts, September 2, 1753. 

21. ELIZABETH, bp. January 3, 1725. 

m. January 1 1, 1747, Robert Sanders. 

1 According to the records of the church, (5) Peter Schuyler had a daughter named 
Maria, bp. May, 1692. Her sponsors were Arent Schuyler, Margarita Schuyler fher 
grandmother), and Hendrick Van Rensselaer. She married Abraham Staats, and had 
two sons, Peter and Barent, and a daughter, Annatje. She died before her father. It 
was her son, Barent, who married (28) Magdalena Schuyler, and is mentioned in the will of 
(17) Philip Schuyler.-G. W. S. 


22. STEPHANUS, bp. October 3, 1728, d. y. 

23. STEPHANUS, bp. December 13, 1729, d. y. 

24. STEPHANUS, bp. April 2, 1732, d. October 6, 1798. 

m. Engcltie Van Vechten, d. April 22, 1792. 

25. PHILIP, bp. April 22, 1736, d. June 3, 1808. 

m. April 21, 1765, Annatje Wendell, d. December 5, 

26. MARIA, bp. December 20, 1738, d. y. 

27. JOHANNES, bp. August 14, 1743, d. y. 

19. JEREMIAH SCHUYLER and Susanna . 

28. MAGDALEN A, bp. November 10, 1723. 

m. November 2, 1743, Barent Staats. 

29. MARIA, bp. April 17, 1726. 

m. May n, 1745, Nicholas Cuyler. 

30. PETER, bp. September 22, 1728, d. y. 

31. THOMAS, bp. December 15, 1734, d. y. 

32. MARGARETA, bp. September 3, 1738. 

m. Gooscn Van Schaick. 

20. PETER SCHUYLER and Gertrude Schitylcr* 

33. PETER, d. January 4, 1792. 

in. January 17, 1767, Gertrude Lansing, 

34. CORNELIA, bp. July 26, 1746. 

m. Walter Livingston. 

24. STEPHEN SCHUYLER and Engcltie Van Vechten. 

35. PETER S., bp. May 14, 1758, d. November i, 1832. 

m. December 5, 1789, Catharine Cuyler, d. September 
28, 1855. 

36. GERTRUDE, bp. January 4, 1760, d. July 5, 1787. 

37. REUBEN, bp. June 10, 1762, d. May 23, 1842. 

m. I, Sara Fort. 

m. 2, Elizabeth Truax, d. May 27, i83& 

38. PHILIP S., bp. August 31, 1763, d. July 20, 1844. 

m. July i, 1789, Rachel Van den Bergh, d. March 20, 

39. CATHARINE, b. October 9, 1765, d. y. 

40. JOHN, b. May 23, 1768, d. May 15, 1843. 

m. I, Anna Cuyler, d. 1815. 
m. 2, Maria McCoun, d. 1832. 

41. JEREMIAH, b. September 27, 1771, d. 1854. 

m. fane Cuyler, d. 1832. 

25. PHILIP SCHUYLER and Annatje Wendell. 

42. CATHARINE, b. March 23, 1766. 

m. Abraham Van Vechten. 

Daughter of John Schuyler, Jr., and sister of General Philip Schuyler. 


43. HARMANUS, b. 1769, d. October 13, 1822. 

m. i, October 2, 1790, Mary Staats, d. March 24, 


m. 1 2, February 16, 1797, 1 1 ester Beekman. 
m. 3, Mary Dean, d. December 28, 1810. 
m. 4, Sarah Packivood. 

44. ELIZABETH, b. May 4, 1771. 

m. James Van Ingen. 

45. GERTRUDE, b. June 26, 1773. 

m. James Van Ingen. 

46. PETER P., b. July 15, 1776. 

m. an adopted dau. of General dishing. 

47. MARIA, b. September n, 1778, d. January 21, 1815. 

48. STEPHEN P., b. November 17, 1780, d. February 5, 1846. 

m. Angelica Schuyler (71), d. January 30, 1880. 

49. ARIANTIA, b. September 15, 1782. 

m. Jacob Van Orden, of Catskill, N. Y. 

50. LUCAS, b. March 9, 1785, d. s. p. October 21^1809. 

33. PETER SCHUYLER and Gertrude Lansing. 

51. ANNA, bp. February 26, 1769, d. y. 

35. PETER S. SCHUYLER and Catharine Cuyler. 

52. ENGELICA, b. September 8, 1790, d. September 24, 1793. 

53. SUSANNA, b. April 17, 1793, d. September 17, 1796. 

54. ENGELICA, b. January 25, 1795, d. July 10, 1796. 

55. ENGELICA, b. July 18, 1797, d. y. 

56. ENGELICA, b. October i, 1798, d. December 12, 1812, 

57. JOHN CUYLER, b. December i, 1801, d. April 22, 1882. 

m. September 24, 1828, Anna Maria Schuy- 

58. STEPHEN R., d. November 26, 1877. 

m. i, January 30, 1838, Catharine Elizabeth Schuy 
ler (80), d. May 21, 1849. 
m. 2, November 16, 1854, Catharine Boyd. 
37. REUBEN SCHUYLER and Sara Fort. 

59. SARA, b. March 8, 1785, d. y. 

37. REUBEN SCHUYLER and Elizabeth Truax. 

60. STEPHEN V. V., married and settled in Mobile, Ala. Nothing is 

known of his family. 1 

1 (60) STEPHEN VAN VECHTEN SCHUYLER married Martha Vincent Brown, from Penn 
sylvania, and removed to Mobile, Ala. Their children were : 
60 a. MARY ELIZABETH, m. Samuel C. Muldoiv. 
60 b. ANGELICA, m. i, George G. Gazzam. 
m. 2, Temple Taylor. 

60 c. REUBEN VAN VECHTEN, m. , and is now residing in the State of New York. 

G. W. S. 


61. ABRAHAM, m. Lazira Sanders. 

62. ANGELICA, d. January 22, 1848. 

38. PHILIP S. SCHUYLER and Rachel Van den Bergh. 

63. GERTRUDE, m. January, 1836, Abraham Ten Eyck, Jr. 

64. RACHEL, m. Isaac D. F. Lansing. 

65. STEPHEN, b. October 27, 1794, d. s. p. October 4, 1857. 

66. ANGELICA, m. January, 1826, Sanders Lansing. 

67. ABRAHAM, b. September 5, 1799, d. s. p. October 21, 1869. 

68. LUCAS, b. November 20, 1801, d. May 4, 1852. 

m. September, 1825, Angelica Lansing. 

69. ANNA MARIA, m. September 24, 1828, (57) John Cuyler Schuyler. 

40. JOHN SCHUYLER and Anna Cuyler. 

70. ANGELICA, m. i, C4arkson Crosby. 

m. 2, John Taylor Cooper. 

41. JEREMIAH SCHUYLER and Jane Criyler. 

71. ANGELICA, m. Stephen P. Schuyler (48). 

72. CORNELIUS, b. July i, 1795, d. February, 1878. 

m. 1817, Harriet HillJiouse. 

73. ANN JANE, b. May 28, 1797, d. y. 

43. HARMANUS P. SCHUYLER and Mary Staats. 

74. MARY, b. July 8, 1791, d. y. 

75. PHILIP, b. January 26, 1793, d. y. 

43. HARMANUS P. SCHUYLER and Mary Dean. 

76. MARIANNA, b. July 27, 1800. 

m. John Vrcedenburg. 

43. HARMANUS P. SCHUYLER and SaraJi Pack-wood. 

77. PHILIP PIETERSE, d. unmarried in Texas. 

78. THOMAS, m. Angelica Aspinwall. 

79. RICHARD, d. unmarried in Texas. 

80. CATHARINE ELIZABETH, m. Stephen R. Schuyler (58). 

46. PETER P. SCHUYLER and Miss Gushing. 

81. ANN, m. Dr. Simpson. 

82. WILLIAM CUSHING, d. s. p. m. 1879, Margaret Sickles. 

83. MARIA, m. John Doane. 

84. PHILIP, d. y. 

85. HENRY. 

86. FRANCES, m. Samuel Eddy. 

48. STEPHEN P. SCHUYLER and Angelica Schuyler. 

87. PHILIP LUCAS, d. s. p. aged 43 years. 

88. JANE, d. y. 

89. ANNA, d. y. 

90. ANGELICA, d. y. 

91. JEREMIAH, d. y. 


92. CHARLES, d. y. 


94. CATALINA, m. Frederick Van Valkenberg. 

57. JOHN C. SCHUYLER and Anna Maria Schuyler. 

95. PETER, d. April 9, 1865. 

m. November, 1853, Elsie A. Jauncy. 

96. RACHEL, d. February 13, 1834. 

97. PHILIP, d. November 18, 1833. 

98. CATHARINE, d. June i, 1855. 

99. RACHEL, d. June 13, 1851. 

100. PHILIP ; residence, Watervliet, Albany County, N. Y. 

101. ANGELICA, d. August 31, 1880. 



104. STEPHEN ; residence, Watervliet, Albany County, N. Y. 

58. STEPHEN R. SCHUYLER and Catharine E. Schuyler. 

105. PETER, d. s. p. July 3, 1860. 

106. JOHN, d. y January 31, 1854. 

107. MARY HOOK, d. May 16, 1842. 

108. RICHARD PHILIP, m. September i, 1875, Susan Drake ; resi 

dence, Watervliet, N. Y. 


109. ELIZABETH, d. y. 

68. LUCAS V. V. SCHUYLER and AngcRca Lansing. 

in. RACHEL, m. George B. Wilson. 

112. ALIDA. 

113. GERTRUDE, m. Rev. Charles D. Cooper. 

114. PHILIP, d. y. 

115. GERRIT L., m. Eliza L. Hunt ; resides in Watervliet, N. Y. 

116. PHILIP S. -, resides in Watervliet, N. Y. 

117. ISAAC L., m. April 12, 1883, Elsie Ctiylcr Evertsen ; residence, 

Manchester, Vt. 

72. CORNELIUS SCHUYLER and Harriet HiWwuse. 

118. HARRIET, m. Edward C. Delavan, of Albany, the great tem 

perance reformer. 

119. JANE CUYLER, m. Robert P. Me Master. 

120. CORNELIA LOUISA, d. y. October 9, 1828. 

121. THOMAS HILLHOUSE ; residence, Albany, N. Y. 

122. CAROLINE TIBBETTS, m. James Davis. 

123. EDWARD HENRY, d. y. January 29, 1835. 

124. JEREMIAH CUYLER, d. y. January 26, 1835. 

125. SARAH HILLHOUSE, m. October 12, 1882, Ira Kingsley Martin. 


78. THOMAS SCHUYLER and Angelica A spin-wall. 

126. HARMANUS, m. Ella Drake ; residence, West Troy, N. Y. 

127. SARAH, m. John Burroughs. 

128. MARIA, d. y. 

129. CLARKSON CROSBY, m. Catharine Sccnnlle. 

130. FRANK, m. October 12, 1882, Nellie Kenyan; residence, "West 

Troy, N. Y. 


95. PETER SCHUYLER and Elsie A. Jauncy. 

132. WALTER JAUNCY, d. y. 

108. RICHARD PHILIP SCHUYLER and Susan Drake. 

133. STEPHEN REUBEN, b. November 15, 1876, d. y. 

134. JANE DRAKE, b. December 22, 1879. 

135. CATHARINE, b. November 23, 1882. 


THE preceding genealogical table shows that the de 
scendants of Peter Schuyler are not numerous. The mor 
tality of those at an early age is very noticeable. Of the 
one hundred and twenty-four names in the list, forty-two 
are of children who died before they reached the age of 
fifteen years. At least ten, of whom five were males, died 
unmarried. Several others died in early manhood, leaving 
small families. The living male descendants at the pres 
ent time number not more than ten. of whom four of 
mature years are unmarried. 

Very few of his family in the direct line emigrated far 
from their old home. I have been able to trace only four : 
(46) Peter P., who settled at Natchez ; (60) Stephen, who 
resided at Mobile, and the brothers, (77) Philip Pieterse 
and (79) Richard, who died in Texas. Most of them lived 
and died on the lands acquired by Philip (Pieterse) Schuy 
ler, known as the " Flatts," with Winter s plantation and 
the farm given to (18) Peter and (19) Jeremiah Schuyler 
as their mother s share of the manor of Rensselaerwyck. 
When they died they were buried in the private cemetry 
near the old house. Besides the forty-four graves in that 
old burial-place marked by monuments, there are many 
others without a stone or tablet to indicate whose remains 
lie below. Here were buried the three sons of Peter 
Schuyler Philip, Peter and Jeremiah ; and his only adult 


grandsons Peter, Stephen, and Philip. Indeed, all his 
descendants in the male line, except the four emigrants to 
the south, were until quite a recent period buried here. 

Although this "place of graves" had been in use 
several years, it had not been formally detached from 
the farm and set apart for a burial-place ; but when (17) 
Philip Schuyler made his will, he gave the ground for that 
use and no other. 

" It is my will," he said, " that the present Burying 
Place be forever kept and appropriated for that use and 
no other, and I do hereby devise the said ground contain 
ing one acre for the Burying Place for all the descendants 
of my father Peter Schuyler dec d and of my father-in-law 
John Schuyler dec d and such other persons as my beloved 
wife, or my brothers Jeremy and Peter, or their heirs, shall 

This burial-place is now included within the limits of 
West Troy. Fearing lest it may be disturbed, various 
members of the family are depositing their dead in the 
Albany Rural Cemetry. From present appearances, this 
interesting spot will soon be a thing of the past. Rather 
than have the dead with their monuments removed, and 
this consecrated ground occupied for other purposes, it 
should be surrounded with a solid wall. In its centre 
should be placed a block of granite, inscribed, " Here lie 
the remains of four generations of Schuylers, the descend 
ants of the great Quidor of the Five Nations." 

Peter Schuyler s first wife, Engeltie Van Schaick, was 
the daughter of his father s old friend, Goosen Gerritse 
Van Schaick, by his second wife, Annatje Lievens. After 
her death he married Maria, daughter of Jeremiah Van 
Rensselaer, son of the first patroon, who for many years 
had charge of the colony of Rensselaervvyck. Her brother 


Killian, in the settlement of his grandfather s estate, ob 
tained possession of the manor and of the Claverack tract 
for himself, two brothers, and two sisters, of which his 
sister Maria s two sons, Peter and Jeremy, eventually ob 
tained a farm of three or four hundred acres only as their 
mother s share of the vast estate. This was the second in 
a long succession of marriages between the Schuylers and 
Van Rensselaers continued to the present generation. 

PHILIP SCHUYLER (17) held a prominent position in the 
province many years. He succeeded his father as com 
missioner of Indian affairs, but not to his influence among 
the Five Nations. They respected him for his high char 
acter and integrity, but did not defer implicitly to his 
counsel. He was not so much in the confidence of the 
governors as his father had been, and hence his influence 
was weakened among the Indians. He was not in favor 
with Governor Clinton, because in the Assembly he was 
independent, and acted rather with the party opposed to 
the governor, which was under the leadership of James 
de Lancey. 

In August, 1747, while Colonel Schuyler was in New 
York attending the Assembly, his family was in peril from 
scalping parties of the French Indians, who were in the 
neighborhood, and had killed a white man and an Indian 
on the road between Albany and Schenectady, besides a 
large number of cattle on the deserted farms at Canas- 
tagione. By order of Governor Clinton, the troops which 
had been posted north of Albany, except those in Fort 
Clinton at Saratoga, were transferred to a camp at Green- 
bush, where they were of little service in case of a sudden 
attack on the northern suburbs of Albany. 

Colonel Schuyler s house at the Flatts, where his family 
resided, was stockaded and made defensible. " It could 
contain a hundred men at least." When the troops were 


about to leave the vicinity, Mrs. Schuyler and her friends 
made earnest appeals to the commanding officer to leave 
some of them at her house, if only for a short time, until 
she could remove her eifects to the city ; but in vain, the 
officer alleging that the orders of the governor were im 
perative. When these facts were known in New York, the 
Council presented an address to Clinton, urging him to 
reconsider his orders and encamp the troops at the Flatts, 
being a better site for a camp and a far better position 
for the protection of the frontiers. He gave an evasive 
reply, but left the troops at Greenbush. Later in the 
season he destroyed the fort at Saratoga, leaving the 
northern frontiers down to Albany open to the enemy. 

The Assembly charged that the governor " was di 
rected by the counsels of a man obnoxious to them, who 
by low, wicked acts disturbed the peace of the people," 
referring to Cadwallader Colden. It is quite probable 
that this gentleman advised the removal of the troops 
stationed at the Flatts because of his dislike to Colonel 
Peter Schuyler. The historian Smith remarked, " Colonel 
Philip Schuyler unwisely joined the opposition to Clin 
ton." He could not certainly with self-respect attach 
himself to the governor s party, while it was controlled by 

Colonel Schuyler was fortunate in his domestic rela 
tions, except that he was not blessed with children. At 
the age of twenty-four years he married his cousin, Mar 
garita Schuyler, the "American lady" of Mrs. Grant, with 
whom he spent thirty-four years of uninterrupted happi 
ness. He had a house in town, but lived much of the 
time on his farm at the Flatts. He died on February 16, 
1758, and was buried in the private cemetery near his 
house, where his monument, erected by his widow, still 
stands in good preservation. 


His will is dated June 28, 1748, and was admitted to 
probate on August 29, 1766. His large landed estate, 
all of which he had received from his father, he dis 
tributed among his brothers and sisters, or their heirs. 
To his brothers, Peter and Jeremy, he gave his wearing ap 
parel. To his sister, Gertrude Lansing, and her son Peter, 
he gave each ^50 ; and to his nephew, Peter Schuy- 
ler, he gave his "two large silver salt-cellars." " To 
my two sisters, Margrita Livingston and Gertruy Lansing, 
and my nephew, Barent Staats, Jr.," J he gave his ninth 
share in the patent of Westenhook, each a third. Barent 
Staats, Jr., was required to pay from his share, " to his 
sister, Anna Van der Poel, 2 the sum of fifty pounds." 
After making provision for the " Burying Place," he be 
queathed to his wife a farm on the Mohawk River oppo 
site Canajoharie, all his personal estate after the payment 
of his debts and funeral expenses, and the use of the 
Flatts farm during life. He gave to his brother Jeremy 
the island, and to his brother Peter the remainder of the 
farm, both to come into possession after the death of his 
widow. To this point all his bequests were confined to 
his own family, but before closing he left a token of re 
membrance to one bearing his own name, a favorite 
nephew of his wife, Philip Schuyler, the future general, 
giving him a piece of woodland lying on the west side of 
the river north of his farm. 

1 He was junior to one of the same name, a cousin of his father s. 

2 Anna Staats married Johannes Van der Poel, May 5, 1743, and was 
his second wife. Hon. Aaron Van der Poel, of New York, supposed she 
was a daughter of "Dr. Samuel Staats, who married a sister of Aunt 
Schuyler." The will of Philip Schuyler shows this to be an error. She 
was doubtless the daughter of Abraham Staats, who was Dr. Samuel s 
nephew. She was a niece by marriage of Aunt Schuyler (" The American 
Lady "), and a second cousin by blood. 


PETER SCHUYLER, JR., (18) in his youth was active and 
enterprising. When Governor Burnet made the experi 
ment of establishing a fort among the Seneca Indians to 
counteract the efforts of the French to bring that nation 
more under their influence, he resolved to send ten men 
to Irondequoit for a year, and selected Schuyler as their 
captain. He was young, but bold and fearless. He ac 
cepted the position without hesitation, knowing that it 
was one of peril and self-denial, among barbarians, far 
away from civilization and the comforts of home. In 
after years he suffered from deafness, and \vas obliged to 
confine himself to the superintendence of his farm. He 
was much esteemed by his family and friends, who called 
him Pedrom ; he lived to an advanced age, and died in 
the midst of the Revolutionary strife. He alone of his 
father s sons continued the direct line of that branch of 
the family. 

JEREMIAH SCHUYLER (19) seems to have led a quiet life, 
residing on his farm near the old homestead. He married 
a French lady of New York, whose family name is not 
known, and had five children. His only sons, Peter and 
Thomas, died in childhood. His three daughters married, 
but died in early life. He did not long survive them. 
Mrs. Grant, in the " American Lady," gives a sad picture 
of the lonely widow confined to her bed with an incurable 
illness, bereft of husband and children, with none but ser 
vants or distant relatives to administer comfort and conso 

PETER SCHUYLER (20) was the third of the name, and, 
being the eldest in the direct line, it was supposed that 
he would inherit the bulk of his uncle (17) Philip s landed 
estate. If such were the wishes of friends, they were 
doomed to disappointment, as seen by the will, made five 
VOL. II. ii 


years before his death. He married his second cousin, 
the favorite niece of his uncle Philip s wife. He died 
early in life, at the age of thirty. 

STEPHEN (24) and PHILIP SCHUYLER (25) were quiet farm 
ers, contenting themselves with the produce of their lands 
and seldom appearing in public life. Philip was the colo 
nel of a regiment in the Revolutionary War, but I have 
been unable to learn any details of his services. 

PETER SCHUYLER (33), the fourth of the name, was State 
Senator from the w r estern district, which then included Al 
bany County, from 1787 to 1791, and was elected for an 
other term, but died the day before the house convened. 
He was twice on the Council of Appointment, 1787 and 
1791. His uncle, the general, was in the Senate and on 
the Council at the same time. Being quite young, and 
with little experience in public affairs, he was regarded by 
his uncle as a sort of pupil, who was bound to look to him 
as his guide and instructor in political matters. Peter had 
some of his uncle s spirit, and, being of the eldest line, he 
was disposed to resent the uncle s patronage and act on 
his own convictions. In fine, they did not agree, although 
they were of the same political party. 

His grandfather had given him the farm on which he 
lived, but he wanted a wider field, and removed to Cana- 
joharie, taking with him the family papers and relics, the 
" heirlooms " of the great Quidor, among which were the 
portrait, silver vase, and diamonds presented by Queen 
Anne in 1710. After the death of his first wife, he mar 
ried a lady "outside the family circle." He \vas the first 
to take up his residence " so far from home," and after 
his death, without children, the relics were scattered, and 
some of them lost. General Schuyler, almost the only one 
of that generation of Schuylers who cared for such things 


and had some taste for genealogy, recovered some of the 
papers and the silver vase, which are now in the posses 
sion of his grandson, George L. Schuyler, of New York 
City. The life-size portrait, painted by the court painter 
of Queen Anne, was returned to Peter S. Schuyler (35), 
then the eldest in descent, and is now in possession of 
the family of the late John C. Schuyler (57). The "dia 
monds " were retained by the second wife. Nearly a hun 
dred years after his death they were sent to a jeweller in 
Albany to be reset. Peter Schuyler (33) was buried in 
the cemetery at the Flatts, and a monument placed over 
his grave. 

PETER P. SCHUYLER (46) entered the army of the United 
States, as an Ensign of the Second Infantry, in July, 1797. 
He was promoted to be Second Lieutenant in the Third 
Infantry, July, 1798; First Lieutenant, March 2, 1799; 
Regimental Quartermaster, November, 1799; Assistant 
Military Agent at Mobile, May, 1802 ; Captain, Second 
Infantry, December, 1803 ; Colonel of the Thirteenth In 
fantry, March 12, 1812 ; Adjutant-General for Military 
District No. i (Massachusetts and New Hampshire), April 
28, 1813 ; and resigned, June 15, 1815. He was also Treas 
urer of the State of Mississippi, and died at Natchez of 
yellow fever. His family returned to Albany. 

Several other members of the family held responsible 
positions. Jeremiah" Schuyler (41) was member of Assem 
bly, 1810, and sheriff of Rensselaer County, 1813 to 1815. 
Harmanus P. Schuyler (43) was sheriff of Albany County, 
1800. John C. Schuyler (57) was member of Assembly, 
1836. Cornelius Schuyler (72) was sheriff of Rensselaer 
County, 1837 to 1840, and member of Assembly from 
Saratoga County, 1855. 



NOTHING is known of his early life. At the age of 
twenty-two years he married Cornelia, youngest daughter 
of the old burgomaster, Oloff Stevense Van Cortlandt, of 
New York City, July 12, 1682, and immediately afterward 
we find him in the mercantile business in that city ; and 
he soon took a leading position among its business men. 
As others of his time, he found leisure to discharge the 
duties of some minor offices of the church and city. "He 
was a thorough Dutchman, and adhered to the " Nether 
Dutch Church," in which he soon became an office-bearer. 
Two years after his marriage, he was commissioned as 
second lieutenant in one of the militia companies, of which 
Jacob Leisler was captain. A few years afterward he was 
promoted to the captaincy of another company. 

In politics he was active and vigorous. There were two 
political parties then as now, but by what names they 
were known cannot be determined. 

Under the Dutch the province had been governed by a 
director-general and Council appointed by the West India 
Company, and, when it passed into the hands of the Duke 
of York, by a governor and Council of his appointment. 
There was no Assembly or Legislature elected by the 
people, although in critical times the director-general had 
been forced to ask the people to select eight or ten 
men to form an advisory board. At first the Duke of 


York, being opposed to popular assemblies, administered 
the government by a governor and Council. In after 
years he directed Governor Dongan to call an Assembly, 
whose bill of rights did not please him, and it was dis 
solved. The old method was pursued until, as James II., 
he lost his crown. William III., his successor, authorized 
Colonel Sloughter, in his instructions of November, 1689, 
to revive the Assembly. Before his arrival Jacob Leisler 
assumed control, and first caused a committee of safety, 
and subsequently a Council and Assembly, to be chosen 
by the people. Leisler s proceedings placed the old Coun 
cil and their friends in opposition. Office-holders are not 
friendly to changes and revolutions to measures which 
deprive them of their positions. Then, if not before, the 
political parties were distinctively known by party names 
Leislerian and anti-Leislerian. 

Brandt Schuyler belonged to the latter, and was not an 
inactive partisan. Leisler had possession of the fort, and 
thus controlled the city. He and his friends were now in 
power, and opposed the change ; they sought to hold 
their places against all comers. Besides the military arm, 
they used the cry of " No popery" with much effect. The 
people were mostly ardent Protestants, and their fears 
were easily excited. It was known that King James was 
a Roman Catholic, who had sought to reinstate the old 
religion in its old place in the English realm, arid, as 
Governor Dongan was a Catholic, it was believed that he 
had been pursuing the same policy in New York, by ap 
pointing adherents of the Catholic faith to office. Al 
though the late councillors and their adherents were mem 
bers, and some of them officers, of the same Protestant 
Church to which Leisler belonged, they were cried down 
as " papists," and persons dangerous to the religion and 
liberties of the people. False alarms were raised to excite 


the populace, and, to procure the arrest of obnoxious indi 
viduals, some of whom were thrown into prison. 

On one such occasion, in August, 1689, Brandt Schuyler 
and several others were arrested in the night, and detained 
until morning. This alarm was occasioned by a man on 
horseback, who did not stop when hailed. He was sup 
posed to be Sir Edmund Andros, late governor, escaped 
from his Boston prison. After the capture and examina 
tion of a few Harvard College students, who had accom 
panied the post-rider on a pleasure trip through New 
England to New York, and learning that Sir Edmund was 
nowhere to be found, Leisler graciously released the 
prisoners. A year later, a commotion was raised by a 
proclamation of Leisler, who then assumed to be lieuten 
ant-governor, requiring the militia to complete the city 
fortifications. Leisler had recently incarcerated some of 
his leading opponents in the dungeon of the fort, and he 
now imagined that he saw indications of a purpose on the 
part of the prisoners friends to assault the fort for their 
rescue. He appeared in the streets armed, and by his 
blustering soon collected a crowd around him, composed 
of friends and foes. His arrogant manner provoked some 
of the crowd to jostle him, and perhaps to strike him ; he 
charged that one John Crooke " stroke him with a cooper s 
adze, intending to murder him." He defended himself 
until the soldiers of the fort came to his rescue, by which 
means "his majesty s government was saved from destruc 
tion." He immediately issued another proclamation, re 
citing that " some of the head leaders were secured in the 
fort," but that as others had absconded, he enjoined the 
justices of the peace, the sheriff, and military officers to 
arrest them. Among the persons named in the proclama 
tion was Brandt Schuyler. In the protracted investiga 
tion which followed, the only evidence implicating Schuy- 


lor was that of Conrad Ten Eyck, who swore that he saw 
him and others "running toward the bridge (over Broad 
Street), saying they would fetch the prisoners out of the 

It does not appear that all of the offenders named 
were arrested. If the proclamation was meant in earnest, 
they succeeded in concealing themselves ; but if it was in 
tended only for cifect on the popular mind, they remained 
within doors a few days, and then attended to their busi 
ness as usual. Poor Bayard and Nicoll, the " head lead 
ers," were secure in the dungeon, and were not released 
until Governor Sloughter s arrival. 

Shortly after Leisler s execution, Bayard, Schuyler, and 
other leaders of their party, were appointed a court-mar 
tial to try the officers and privates of the militia com 
panies who had thrown off all military discipline and 
followed .Leislers fortune s. Had their proceedings been 
preserved, they would have thrown more light on the 
history of the times, at least on the story of individual 
actors in that stormy period. 

From the time of Leisler s fall until May, 1698, seven 
years, the anti-Leislerian party were in power. Schuy 
ler was elected an alderman of the city, and held the 
office by subsequent elections until 1697. He lost his 
election in 1698, but succeeded the next year, in spite of 
the governor s opposition. In 1694 he was appointed 
justice of the peace, and from 1695 to 1698 he was mem 
ber of the Assembly. 

When Lord Bellornont assumed the government, there 
was a change in majorities. He was a Leislerian, and 
threw all his influence on the side of his party friends. 
With a powerful advocate in the gubernatorial chair, the 
courage of the Leislerians revived, and they pushed their 
opponents to the wall. The old Assembly was dissolved, 

1 68 NANFAN. 

and a new one was elected, in which they had a majority. 
Bellomont s administration was so partisan, that he lost 
his popularity, and drove some of his friends into the op 
position ranks. The original anti-Leislerians were not 
conciliated, and were unwearied in their efforts to influence 
the home government against him. These efforts were 
not without some apparent success, for in about eighteen 
months after his arrival, it began to be whispered about 
that he would soon be recalled. His death (March 5, 1701) 
made a vacancy before his opponents could anticipate it 
by removal. 

The opposite party were now quite sure that the next 
governor, whoever he might be, would favor their faction. 
Nor were they mistaken. So sure were they, that before 
Bellomont s burial a prominent member of the opposition 
wrote to the English ministry, recommending certain of 
his friends to the Council, under the firm belief that the 
Leislerians would be removed. Among the names was 
that of Brandt Schuyler. There is little doubt that had 
he lived he would have reached that position sooner or 
later. It was the highest in the province to which a native 
New Yorker could then aspire. 

Lieutenant-Governor Nanfan was a brother-in-law of 
Bellomont, and was firmly attached to his party. He was 
in the West Indies when the governor died, but on his re 
turn succeeded to the government. His short adminis 
tration was decidedly partisan, and became notorious by 
the trial and conviction of Nicholas Bayard and Alderman 
Hutchings for high treason. Nanfan was ambitious, and 
would have been greatly pleased to be left, for a time at 
least, the acting governor of the colony. He was profuse 
in pledges to the ministry to be impartial in his adminis 
tration, and for a while seemed to regard his promises. He 
appointed Thomas Noel, an anti-Leislerian, mayor of the 


city, and Abraham Gouverneur, Leislerian, recorder, in 
October, 1701. But he soon forgot his pledges, and, under 
the manipulation of the Council, became arbitrary and 
reckless. It was during his administration, as we have 
seen, that Brandt Schuyler had such an exciting contest 
to secure his seat in the Common Council. He won the 
place, but did not live to enjoy it. 

In the fall of 1698, the friends of Leisler made applica 
tion to the officers of the church for permission to bury 
his remains in the graveyard of the church. Their reply 
is worth preserving, as showing how neatly they extricated 
themselves from a dilemma. The congregation was di 
vided in politics ; the minister and leading members being 
anti-Leislerian, while many influential men belonged to 
the opposite party. There was great bitterness between 
the two factions, and it was difficult to please both, how 
ever the officers might decide. They gave the following 
reply to the application : 

" Because we are pressed by both parties in the congre 
gation, and wishing to preserve peace in our church, we 
cannot consent thereto, but we shall not hinder it. 




The graveyard surrounded the church, and was not diffi 
cult of access. "We shall not hinder it " was interpreted 
to mean the remains of Leisler and Milborne may be 
buried there, if you take the responsibility. They were 
accordingly disinterred at night from the foot of the gal 
lows on which they had been executed, and by torchlight 
deposited in the cemetery of the Nether Dutch Church of 
New York. The proceeding caused an unusual excite 
ment, and aroused afresh the old animosities. Even the 


governor, Lord Bellomont, watched the proceedings, and 
made mention of them in a letter to the Lords of Trade. 

Brandt Schuyler died in the prime of life, ere he had 
reaped the full reward of his business enterprise, or 
reached the goal of his political ambition. I have not 
been able to learn the exact date of his death. His name 
is attached to the petition of the Protestants of New York 
to King William III., dated December 30, 1701, and that is 
the last time that it appears in the records to which I have 
had access. His will is dated January n, 1700, to which 
is attached a codicil, dated " 25th Anno Dom. 1702," the 
month being omitted. The will w r as not offered for pro 
bate until April 18, 1723. It is probable that he died soon 
after signing the codicil, in the winter or early spring of 
1702, as may be inferred from other papers in my pos 
session. He left three minor sons to the care of their 
widowed mother. 



6. BRANDT SCHUYLER, b. December 18, 1659. 

m. July 12, 1682, Cornelia Van Cortlandt, 
bp. November 28, 1655. 

136. PHILIP, bp. November 6, 1683. 

m. August 28, 1713, Ann Elizabeth Staats, bp. Decem 
ber 21, 1690. 

137. OLOF, bp. December 19, 1686, cl. s. p. 

138. JOHN, bp. January 15, 1690, cl. s. p. 

136. PHILIP SCHUYLER and Ann Elizabeth Stoats. 

139. JOHANNA, bp. October 17, 1714. 

140. BRANDT, bp. July 21, 1717, cl. August 15, 1752. 

m. April 16, 1741, Margareta Van Wyck. 

141. SAMUEL, bp. June 7, 1719. 

140. BRANDT SCHUYLER and Margareta Van Wyck. 

142. JOHANNA, m. William Lupton. 

143. CATHARINE, m. Cornells Switz. 

144. SAMUEL, m. June 27, 1770, Elizabeth Clapper. 

145. ANN ELIZABETH, m. March 29, 1769, John J. Bleecker. 

144. SAMUEL SCHUYLER and Elizabeth Clapper. 

146. ELIZABETH, m. Rev. Gerardns Citypers. 

147. CATHARINE, m. Cornells Van Alen. 

148. MARGARET, m. George I/arson. 

149. ANNA, m. John Elting. 

150. PETER CLOPPER, m. Lamb, d. s. p. 

151. SAMUEL, d. s. p. in West Indies. 

152. ABRAHAM LEFFERTS, m. Elizabeth Voris. 

152. ABRAHAM LEFFERTS SCHUYLER and Elizabeth Voris. 

153. ELIZA, m. Edward Van Olingen. 

154. SAMUEL, m. Catharine W. V. Boyd. 

155. MARIA, m. Rev. J. S. Davis. 

156. CORNELIUS V. A., m. Eliza Shaw. 

157. ABRAHAM L., died in infancy. 

158. PETER C, m. Hannah C. Icings land. 

159. JANE ANN, m. David Miller. 


It is seen by the foregoing table that the descendants 
of Brandt Schuyler (6) are very few. The reasons are ob 
vious : the families were not large, and for four genera 
tions there was only one in each to continue the line of 
direct descent. 

The wife of Philip Schuyler (136) was the daughter of 
Samuel Staats, of New York, who was a prominent man 
in the politics of his times. He was a leading adviser of 
Jacob Leisler, and a member of his Council. Under the 
administrations of Slough ter and Fletcher he was in re 
tirement. Bellomont made him a member of his Council, 
1698, in which he retained a seat until June, 1702, when 
he was removed by Lord Cornbury. He was restored to 
the Board by Governor Hunter, in 1710, and remained a 
member until his death. Staats was undoubtedly a shrewd 
politician. Before Leisler s fall he had withdrawn from 
his Council, and thereby escaped trial for treason, fur 
which others less conspicuous were tried and convicted. 
It is curious to observe how quickly the political animosi 
ties of those days were forgotten by families apparently 
the most antagonistic. Dr. Staats was one of Leisler s 
main supporters when Brandt Schuyler and Stephanus 
Van Cortlandt were arrested and prosecuted, and yet with 
in a few years their sons married his daughters on the same 

Professor Pearson, in the "First Settlers of Albany," 
says : "It is said that Samuel Staats learned his profession 
in Holland, and on his return settled in New Amsterdam. 
When the province surrendered to the English, in 1664, he 
went back to Holland, where he remained until 1688, and 
then returned to New York." 

Gouverneur Kemble said that Dr. Staats first wife 
" was an East Indian Begum, or Princess, whom he married 
while holding an appointment in India, obtained for him 


by William of Orange, and with whom and his children he 
returned to Holland, and thence to New York." 

He was only seven years old when the English took 
possession of New York, and twenty-two when his first 
child was baptized in the Dutch Church of that city. Pro 
fessor Pearson s authority is not trustworthy, or the doc 
tor was precocious. Mr. Kemble was misled, probably by 
some family tradition, for Samuel Staats first wife, and 
the mother of his children, was plain Johanna Rynders, of 
Albany, whose father was a smith, and not a prince. 
Family traditions are oftentimes curious and interesting, 
but seldom trustworthy. 1 

Dr. Samuel Staats died September 27, 1715, as recorded 
by Isaac Gouverneur, his son-in-law, in his Bible, which 
adds: " His age was 58 years in the month of May last past." 

BRANDT SCHUYLER (140) died at an early age. The fol 
lowing notice of his death was contained in the Weekly 
Post Boy, August 17, 1752 : 

" Monday last departed this Life, after a very lingering 
Illness, Brandt Schuyler Esq. Deputy Mayor, and Alder 
man of the South Ward of this City ; in which last Post 
he had been successively chosen for several Years past." 

His widow, in the following October, advertised to sell 
a farm or plantation of eighty acres, situated near Green 
wich on the North River, "with the stock of cattle and 
horses ; and a fine young negro fellow used to the farm." 

ANN ELIZABETH SCHUYLER (145) was born after her 
father s death. At an early age she developed a taste for 
literature and a talent for making verses. Colonel Stone, 

1 Another and probably equally veracious tradition is that the Staats 
family are descendants from a certain Rear-Admiral Joachim Ghyse, who 
captured a Spanish fleet, and as a recompense: was given the name of 
Staats and a coat of arms engraved on a gold gorget. 


in his "Life of Joseph Brant," relates the story of her 
flight from the Indians in 1777, and in a foot-note says : 
" It was taken from Kettell s biographical sketches of 
American poets. Her memoirs and her poems were pub 
lished many years ago, but I have sought in vain among 
the libraries and among the Bleeckers to obtain a copy." 
More fortunate than Mr. Stone, I have been able to pro 
cure a perfect copy, containing an engraved portrait of 
the author by Tiebout. It is a duodecimo volume of xvii. 
an d 375 pages, the title of which reads : " Posthumous 
Works of Ann Eliza Bleecker, in Prose and Verse. To 
which is added, A Collection of Essays, Prose and Poet 
ical, by Margaretta V. Faugeres. New York. T. & J. 
Swords. 1793." 

On the fly-leaf is written, " Jn. Allan, 1802." Be 
sides the publishers address and a list of subscribers, 
among whom was DeWitt Clinton, it contains the me 
moirs of Mrs. Bleecker, written by her daughter, Mrs. 
Faugeres ; the works of Mrs. Bleecker, consisting of two 
prose articles of some length, one the " History of Maria 
Kittle," the other the " Story of Henry and Anne," both 
narratives of facts in the lives of two of her neighbors at 
Tomhanack ; several letters addressed to friends and rel 
atives ; and thirty-six poetical pieces, the longest of 
which, "Joseph," occupies fourteen pages. Of the 375 
pages in the book, the contributions of Mrs. Faugeres 
cover 113. 

The story of her own life, as gathered from her me 
moirs and letters, is quite as interesting and pathetic as 
anything she wrote. 

Although unborn when her father made his will, Anne 
Elizabeth (changed to Ann Eliza) Schuyler shared by that 
instrument equally with her brother and sisters in the 
estate, which was considerable. She was less than seven- 


teen years old when, on March 29, 1769, she married John 
J. Bleecker, of New Rochelle, a great-grandson of Jan 
Jansen Bleecker, of Albany, the American ancestor of the 
numerous families of that name. His grandmother was 
Catalyna, daughter of David Schuyler and Catalyna Ver 

Soon after their marriage they removed to Poughkeep- 
sie, where they remained about two years, when they 
removed to Tomhanack, now Schaghticoke, where Mr. 
Bleecker possessed some landed property. He built a 
house in a pleasant locality, commanding delightful pros 
pects and surrounded by forest trees, in which he settled 
his little family. He had studied law, but had abandoned 
the profession and engaged in agriculture, as more con 
genial to his tastes. He was a kind and affectionate hus 
band, and encouraged his wife to cultivate her literary 
tastes. Their fortune enabled them to live in a style be 
coming their education and acquirements, without refer 
ence to the economies of ordinary farmers. They were 
fond of their friends, and their house was always open for 
their entertainment. For a few years their lives flowed on 
in uninterrupted enjoyment. But the country was in the 
throes of revolution, and they could not long escape the 
vicissitudes of war. Their retreat lay in the patli of ar 
mies, and was soon invaded by the enemy. 

When Burgoyne, on his march down the Hudson, ap 
proached their neighborhood, with swarms of savages on 
his wings, Mr. Bleecker hastened to Albany to obtain ac 
commodations for his family until the danger was past, 
leaving his wife and two young children to the care of his 
servants and neighbors. He had hardly been gone a day 
when Mrs. Bleecker, while at the breakfast-table, received 
intelligence that Burgoyne s Indians were within two 
miles, burning the dwellings and killing the people. A 


mother s instinct to protect her little ones deprived her of 
reflection. Without stopping a moment to order a car 
riage, or make the slightest preparation for a journey, she 
took her youngest child on her arm, and the other, a girl 
of four years, by the hand, and fled, accompanied only by 
a young servant-girl. She joined a throng of fugitives, all 
so intent on their own safety that they did not observe, or 
apparently care for, the poor mother and her children. 
When worn down with anxiety and fatigue, she procured 
a place in a wagon for the little ones, and herself walked 
by their side. At last she reached Lansingburgh, where 
she had friends and acquaintances, among whom she had 
hoped to find a temporary resting-place. Some of them 
had enjoyed her hospitality, but they declined to receive 
her when she knocked at their doors. At last a rich old 
acquaintance admitted her to sleep in his garret, with a 
pair of blankets and the floor for her bed. Poor mother ! 
she could not sleep, but sat and wept through the night. 
In view of this dismal night, she afterward exclaimed, 
in a letter to a friend, " Curst be the heart that is callous 
to the feelings of humanity." Her husband met her in the 
morning and conveyed her to Albany. Unable to find 
suitable lodgings in the city, they took passage on a ves 
sel, hoping to find some place of rest and safety farther 
down the river. On their way the youngest child sick 
ened and suddenly died. It was buried on the bank of 
the river, in a coffin prepared from a dining-table. The 
mother s heart was well-nigh broken, but there were other 
trials in store for her. 

They arrived at Red Hook, and were received in the 
house of a relative. Here she met her mother, who had 
been spending some weeks with her at Tomhanack, and 
had left her just before her flight. She was now wasted 
to a shadow by her sorrows and afflictions, which had 


been more than she could bear, and died within a few 
days in the arms of her daughter. Not long afterwards 
Burgoyne and his army surrendered to the patriots, and 
Mr. Bleecker with his family set out on their return to 
their desolate and plundered home. They arrived in Al 
bany in time to stand by the deathbed of Mrs. Bleecker s 
only remaining sister, Mrs. Switz. 

They arrived at Tomhanack late in the fall, and passed 
the winter in tolerable comfort, although the Indians had 
spared little in their house or fields. 

The capture of Burgoyne relieved the country from 
pressing danger, but did not wholly secure the northern 
frontiers. They were yet open to the incursions of small 
parties of Indians and tories, who came for plunder and 
for prisoners. It was the policy of the British to keep 
the northern borders in constant alarm by parties from 
Canada, and thus, by detaining the men to guard their 
own homes, weaken the armies of the patriots. Such 
plundering parties were made up chiefly of tories and dis 
affected persons, who had fled to Canada. They knew 
the houses where the most plunder could be found, and, 
disguising themselves as Indians, they would steal through 
the forests, and suddenly swoop down on some unguarded 
neighborhood, committing acts of more savage cruelty 
than the savages themselves. 

In the winter of 1779, thirty of these miscreants fell 
upon some of the inhabitants of Tomhanack, and then 
followed a scene of terror impossible to describe. Mr. 
Bleecker was much from home on the public service, be 
ing an ardent lover of the- liberal cause, leaving his fam 
ily to the care of servants. On this occasion they fled as 
before, but with more method and preparation. They 
reached Coeymans in safety, and found asylum with a 
distant relative of Mrs. Bleecker s grandmother, Anne 
VOL. II. 12 


Elizabeth Staats, wife of Philip Schuyler, for whom she 
was named. They returned to Tomhanack in the spring, 
but they lived amid danger and excitement. 

In August, 1781, Mr. Bleecker, on returning from the 
harvest-field toward the close of the day, was taken by a 
few tories and British soldiers within sight of his house. 
His captors hurried him into concealment, and then 
showed their orders from Colonel St. Leger for his cap 
ture. They had been on the watch several days from their 
hiding-place overlooking his farm, and had become so im 
patient of the delay that they had resolved to take him 
from his bed that same night. They securely bound his 
arms with cords, and obliged him to accompany them 
through the forests, travelling at night and lying con 
cealed by day. On the fourth day, when they imagined 
themselves secure from pursuit, a party of Vermonters 
unexpectedly pounced upon them, and compelled them to 
surrender. Meantime, Mrs. Bleecker sat waiting for the 
return of her husband from the harvest-field, until becom 
ing alarmed she sent out a messenger, who soon returned 
with the intelligence that he had found the team tied to a 
tree, but could find no trace of Mr. Bleecker. His poor 
wife, believing that he had been captured, alarmed the 
neighbors, who searched in vain. Despairing of ever see 
ing him again, she retired to Albany, and was kindly re 
ceived by sympathizing friends. On the sixth day after 
his capture her husband joined her ; her joy was over 
whelming. The reaction brought on a fever, followed by 
a long and severe illness, from which she never fully re 

They again returned to Tomhanack ; but they were 
never safe. In the following summer another attempt 
was made to capture Mr. Bleecker. A party of five men, 
headed by a notorious tory, lay concealed three days near 


their house, but were frightened away before they could 
accomplish their purpose. With failing health Mrs. 
Bleecker assumed an air of cheerfulness, and corre 
sponded with her friends as usual. Her kind husband 
tried every expedient to counteract the disease which 
was slowly wasting her strength and life. She accompa 
nied him on journeys of business or pleasure into Vermont 
and western Massachusetts, but all without avail. Con 
scious that she had not long to live, she wrote a pathetic 
farewell letter to her brother, in May, 1783, in which she 
recounted some of her past experiences and sufferings, 
and said she had "given her little history, that you may 
see I die of a broken heart." 

As a last expedient, Mr. Bleecker took her to New York, 
peace having been made, although the British troops had 
not yet left the city. He had hoped a visit to her old 
home might have a favorable influence on her health and 
spirits, and perhaps snatch her from the grave. It was a 
sad disappointment. A large part of the city had been 
devastated by fire early in the war, and still lay in ruins. 
The houses of parents, relatives, and friends were gone, 
and she with difficulty found the places where they had 
stood. Her relatives and old friends had not yet returned 
from the various parts of the country in which they had 
found refuge when the British army had occupied the 
city. Some were dead, while a few had left the country 
never to return. There were none to greet her with a 
kindly welcome, and she turned away with a heart more 
sad and heavy than when she arrived. She returned to 
her country home, where after a few months she quietly 
closed her eyes in the " sleep that knows no waking." She 
died at the early age of thirty-one years. 


ARENT SCHUYLER, the fourth son of Philip Schuyler and 
Margarita Van Slichtenhorst, was born in Beverwyck, June 
25, 1662. Nothing is known of his boyhood or education. 
He received sufficient instruction in the schools to fit him 
for a business life, and it is probable that, like the young 
men of his time, he completed his education on the lakes 
and rivers, among the forests and mountains of the inte 
rior, on trading tours with the Indians. 

In July, 1684, having fitted himself to pursue the busi 
ness of a merchant, and having acquired some capital with 
which to commence, he began his preparations for mar 
riage and housekeeping. He bought a house on Pearl 
Street, " where the eagle hangs out," of his mother, for 
two hundred beavers, to be paid in two instalments. He 
already occupied the house, and instead of a door-plate he 
hung out a live eagle in a cage for his name, Arent mean 
ing eagle. He married Jenneke Teller, on November 26, 
1684. She was the daughter of William Teller, who had 
come from Holland in 1639, and had settled in Albany, 
where after a few years of employment by the West India 
Company he engaged in trade, which he followed for fifty 
years, and then removed with his sons to New York. A 
few months after his marriage, Arent Schuyler and his 
wife made a joint will, which, written in Dutch, is pre 
served among the original records of Albany. They ap 
peared before a notary public, who wrote : 


" The worthy Mr. Arent Schuyler and Jenneke Teller, 
lawfully wedded husband and wife, living here in Albany, 
both sound in body and mind, able to walk and stand, 
memory and speech unimpaired, who together having 
meditated on the certainty of death, and the uncertainty 
of the hour of it, and moved by their mutual affection and 
love, have directed, without being persuaded or influ 
enced by anybody, to have their last will and testament 
drawn up. 

* They first and above all commend their souls to God 
Almighty, and their bodies to a Christian burial. 

"They desire that the survivor shall remain possessed 
of and inherit all the estate and personal property, house, 
lot, movables and immovables, jewels, silver and gold, 
coined and uncoined, linen, wool, merchandise, furniture, 
and all and everything, which they now possess, or may 
hereafter possess (may he or she remarry or not), without 
being held to pay over to the parents, friends, or anybody 
else, even a stiver s worth, much less to deliver an inven 
tory, or to give security, for the survivor shall remain ab 
solute heir, administrator, and executor of the entire es 
tate, even as if they were still both alive." 

After making provision for any children that "hereafter 
may be born," and prohibiting any interference by the 
magistrates or orphan-masters, they declare this to be 
their last will and testament, and sign, " Arent Schuyler, 
Yenke Teller." 

For the next five years Arent Schuyler is supposed to 
have been actively engaged in his business, meantime dis 
charging some of the public duties of a good citizen. At 
one time he served on a committee for providing fuel and 
other comforts for the houses occupied by the Indians 
on their trading expeditions to Albany. He was one of 
the committee to raise funds by subscription to erect 
fortifications and prepare defences against expected at 
tacks of the enemy. He actively participated in the pro- 


ceedings of the Albany Convention in opposition to the 
pretensions of Jacob Leisler. 

After the destruction of Schenectady, in 1690, the Al 
bany Convention surrendered the fort and city to Leis 
ler, but its supporters were none the less active in the de 
fence of the province against the encroachments of the 
French. Leisler s commissioners sent out a small detach 
ment of soldiers to take a position at Crown Point and 
watch the motions of the French. Shortly afterward 
Captain Abraham Schuyler, with nine whites and some 
friendly Indians, was directed to proceed to Otter creek 
and remain four weeks, keeping close watch of the lake 
and surrounding country. Arent Schuyler joined this 
party, and while on duty volunteered to lead a company 
of scouts into Canada. The scouting party consisted of 
eight Indians, Schuyler being the only white man. They 
went through the lake and forests, and down the river 
Sorel to Fort Chambly, and under its walls they "killed 
two, and took one Frenchman prisoner." He was the 
first man of the English or Dutch to lead a hostile party 
from this province into Canada. Hitherto the Five Na 
tions had fought the French without the aid of their Eng 
lish allies. Thenceforward the war was conducted mainly 
by the English. Arent Schuyler s courage and success 
on this occasion gained him credit, and prepared the way 
for his advancement. He was commissioned a captain, 
and soon acquired considerable reputation in his new pro 
fession. In August, 1692, information was received by 
the acting governor, Ingoldesby, that a delegation of 
southern Indians, who had been at war with the Five 
Nations, was on the way to visit their enemies and sue 
for peace. They had arrived at the Delaware River, and 
were waiting for permission to continue their journey. 
The governor and Council considered this an important 


business, which required wisdom in its management, on 
account of the sensitiveness of the Five Nations to out 
side interference in their affairs. They finally concluded 
that Captain Arent Schuyler, who was then in New York, 
should be despatched to meet them, and conduct them 
to the governor and Council. Fie was provided with in 
structions, and with the usual belts of wampum, as well as 
with letters of credit to the governor of Pennsylvania to 
cuvcr extraordinary expenses. Only six days afterward 
he returned with the " far Indians, called Shawanoes, and 
some Senecas, who had been travelling together for nine 
years." He had been expeditious, considering the state 
of the country and the absence of roads. His itinerary 
and expense account give some interesting information 
as to the country and his route. On August i3th, he 
charges an item for ferriage at Elizabethtown ; on the 
i4th, lodging and horse-hire ; on the i5th, for horse-hire 
to the Falls (Trenton) and a guide to the Indians ; on 
the 1 6th, for two Holland shirts to be given to the In 
dian chiefs, expenses for self and Indians at Raritan, and 
expenses at Woodbridge ; on the iyth, for horse-hire from 
Benjamin duet s to Elizabethtown, when he settled with 
Mr. Whitehead, \vho had been his guide to the Falls and 
back ; on the i8th, his expenses at Elizabethtown, and 
ferriage from Davitt s. At Ne\v York he charges for 
" butcher s meat, crackers, and peas," furnished the In 
dians by direction of the governor. After his arrival he 
was charged with the duty of providing for the wants 
.and comforts of the Indians, and purchased for their use 
"fourteen gallons single beer, fish, bread, and oysters." 
When they were ready to leave, he furnished them with 
provisions for their journey to the Minisink country, and 
a belt of wampum to be sent to the Five Nations to an 
nounce their coming to Albany. The most singular feat- 


ure of the account was its small amount only ^12. 5. n. 

The report of his first interview with these Indians, on 
the Delaware River, is an interesting document to the an 
tiquarian. Space forbids its insertion at length. I only 
indicate a few points. The same formalities were observed 
as in negotiations with the Five Nations. He addressed 
them as brethren, and presented a belt at the end of each 
proposition. In turn, they addressed him as Corlaer, as 
though they were speaking to the governor of New York. 

" Brethren, 

"The Governor was pleased to hear that you were 
come to make peace with the Indians under his govern 
ment. He has sent me to conduct you to him, when he 
will send you to the Five Nations at Albany. [A belt.] 

" Brethren, 

" The Governor promises to protect you on your journey 
from all harm, and will use his best efforts to procure 
for you a lasting peace." [A belt] 

Matiset, supposed to be a Minisink sachem, replied : 

" Father Corlaer, 

"For three years I have been wandering, and at last 
came to the head of the lakes, where the French have a 
small fort commanded by Mons. Tonti. He inquired of 
me, what I was doing there ; and whither I was going ? I 
told him I was going to my country, and to my Father 
Corlaer. Do you not know, said he, your father Corlaer 
is dead ? I have killed him, and burnt his country. 1 
Therefore, Sachem Matiset, tarry with me ; and as a token 
of my friendship, I give you my coat with silver lace. I 
answered, the coat will not make me a sachem here. I 
will rather go to my land, and see for myself, whether my 

1 Probably meaning the Seneca country, which Tonti assisted Denon- 
ville to invade in 1687. 


father Corlaer and my brethren are dead. There will I 
again make my fire. Mons. Tonti again said, you have 
queer notions in your head. Certainly you have some 
new design. But let me tell you this, you and all the Shaw- 
anoes you take with you will be killed. Then said I, I 
fear you not, for to-morrow I will leave for New York. 
Then spoke the sachem of the Shawanoes : I will stop 
Mons. Tonti s ears. I will go with you; and where you 
lead I will follow. To him I answered ; That is good. 
My land shall be your land. The Shawanoes replied ; but 
I fear the Mohawks. Why fear ? said I. Corlaer is my 
father, and the Dutch are my friends. But said he, where 
is your land ? I have been everywhere, and have found 
no good land. Minisink, I replied, is my land. There 
shall we live. My brethren, the Dutch, live in New York, 
and they are good. When you see them, you will know 
they are good. He answered, if they are good, as you 
say, then surely we will go with you, and live in your 

When these Indians arrived in New York, they had an 
interview with Ingoldesby and the Council. They re 
hearsed the story told to Captain Schuyler, Matiset being 
the chief speaker, the Shawanoes only saying, that they 
had come to see the country, and, if they liked it, to open 
the way for their nation. They were satisfied, and now 
desired that some Christians should be appointed to go 
back with them to their country, and conduct their whole 
nation hither with all their possessions. The next day In 
goldesby gave them another reception, and a cordial invi 
tation to return with all their tribe, and settle permanently 
in the province, promising them a hearty welcome, and 
all the protection that they might require. After dis 
tributing suitable presents, they were dismissed, appar 
ently pleased with Matiset s Dutch friends. A few days 
later it was determined in Council, that their request to 


have some Christians accompany them home should be 
granted, and Captain Arent Schuyler was commissioned 
to raise a company of thirty men for this purpose. 

Governor Benjamin Fletcher arrived on August 28th, 
and continued the negotiations with the stranger Indians. 
Their arrival and reception was soon made known to the 
Five Nations, who were suspicious of the object. Major 
Peter Schuyler wrote to the governor acquainting him 
with the suspicions of " our ancient allies," and warning 
him to proceed cautiously. A letter was immediately de 
spatched, assuring the Five Nations that it was not intend 
ed to make any treaty, much less a peace, without their 
consent. Not long afterward some Indians, who had for 
merly lived on the Hudson River, probably at Esopus, 
called to see the governor* They had been long absent 
from their native country, living among the Shawanoes. 
They now announced their intentions of settling at the 
Minisink, where the fires of their relatives yet burned, and 
they asked the like privilege for the far Indians, whom 
they had brought with them, for they had been adopted 
by the Minisinks, their friends and relatives. The gov 
ernor replied, that if they first made peace with the Five 
Nations, he would extend his protection over them. He 
therefore advised them to go, without delay, and arrange 
terms with the Five Nations, when all would be well. 
With the Minisinks there was already a chain of friend 
ship, which he would firmly maintain. 

The governor went to Albany, in the latter part of Sep 
tember, to confer with the Five Nations. On his return 
to New York, he informed the Council that the Iroquois 
and the Shawanoes had buried the hatchet. 

Captain Schuyler organized a company of Dutchmen to 
accompany the Shawanoes back to their home far in the 
southwest, and placed it under the command of Arnout 


Cornelise Viele, a brave man, and one acquainted with the 
Indian language. We shall learn something of this expe 
dition hereafter. 

Arent Schuyler commanded a company of militia in the 
campaign, February, 1693, when the French and Indians 
were driven from the Mohawk country by Major Peter 
Schuyler. In the pursuit, Captains Arent Schuyler and 
Mathews led the advance, and, having overtaken the 
enemy, would have attacked him, had they not be,en pre 
vented by the Mohawk warriors, who feared that their 
women and children, then prisoners to the French, might 
be sacrificed. At the close of this campaign Arent Schuy 
ler had" been engaged in military affairs over three years, 
during which time his business had been neglected, and 
probably ruined. The war continued, and Albany, as a 
frontier town, was still exposed to the raids of the enemy, 
requiring the utmost vigilance of its citizens to protect 
themselves from impending danger. The old factions, 
quieted for a time, broke out afresh. Trade was de 
stroyed, and the bonds of society were loosed. All things 
considered, his native city was no longer a desirable resi 
dence for an enterprising young man with a growing 
family, and he accordingly sought a more desirable lo 
cality. His brother Brandt and his sister Gertrude were 
married and settled in New York, as were also several 
members of his wife s family. He resolved to join them, 
and to begin life anew. He removed to New York before 
February, 1694, and resumed his business as a merchant. 

Arent Schuyler was well acquainted with the Indian 
languages as spoken by the Five Nations, and other tribes 
along the Hudson, with whom the Dutch and English had 
frequent intercourse. He knew their habits and customs, 
and in other respects was well adapted to negotiations with 
them. These qualities commended him to the lieutenant- 


governor and Council as a fit person to meet the Shawa- 
noes on the Delaware River and conduct them to New 
York. He had accomplished the whole business relating 
to these Indians so well and satisfactorily to the authori 
ties, that his services were again called into requisition in 
a similar capacity. The French, ever active and solicitous 
to extend their influence among the various native tribes, 
and thus gain positions at different points, declined no 
undertaking however hazardous to secure their objects. 
Wherever there was an apparent opening for a priest or 
fort, they sent their emissaries to explore the ground. 
Whenever the opportunity was presented, in war or peace, 
to damage their hereditary enemies, the English, they im 
proved it. 

At a Council held on February 3, 1694, Governor 
Fletcher presented a communication from Governor Ham 
ilton, of New Jersey, announcing that there were one hun 
dred Frenchmen and fifty French Indians in the Mini- 
sink country to debauch the Minisink Indians. The re 
port did not seem credible, as the country of the Mini- 
sinks, lying on the Delaware and Minisink Rivers, was 
remote from Canada, with that of the Five Nations lying 
between. It was considered prudent, however, to send a 
trusty messenger for more certain intelligence, as there 
was no knowing what the Canadians might undertake. 
Arent Schuyler was selected for this delicate and some 
what hazardous mission. 

He was instructed to proceed forthwith to the Minisink 
country, and learn whether there were any French or 
French Indians there ; if any, how many, and what their 
business. If he found any considerable numbers, he was 
to return, with all possible despatch, and report to the gov 
ernor ; if only a few, then he was to induce the Minisink 
Indians to take them prisoners, and send them to New 


York. He started on his journey at once, although it was 
late in the afternoon, stopping over night at Bergentown, 
where he hired two men and a guide. Thence to his desti 
nation the country was wild, and occupied by the native 
population. The next day he reached an Indian village, 
eight miles beyond the Hackensack. The third day he 
travelled northwest thirty-two miles through snow and 
sleet, and the next day crossed the Neversink, camping at 
night within half a day s journey of the Minisink village. 
He arrived at his destination on the fifth day in the morn 
ing, and learned that there were no French there, nor had 
there been. " But should any come," said the Indians, 
"we \vill report to the governor." He left on his return 
the same day, and arrived in New York on the loth, hav 
ing been absent about six days. 

While at Minisink he learned some news of a gratify 
ing character. A few days before his visit, three white 
men and two Shawanoes Indians had stopped there, on 
their way to Albany, to procure ammunition for Arnout 
Viele, who was on his return with seven hundred Shawa 
noes laden with beaver and peltries. Viele had been absent 
about fifteen months, and was not expected home until 
the next June. This was the first news from him since he 
left with the Shawanoes delegation. He did not arrive as 
soon as he was expected by the report of his messengers. 
It was not until August that he reached the Minisink 
village, and thence proceeded to Kingston, w r here Fletcher 
met him and gave audience to the Indians. The story 
they told was a sad one. They had been pursued by their 
enemies, who had interfered with their hunting, despoiled 
them of their furs, and killed some of them, as well as 
same of Viele s men. They had now arrived, not laden 
with the riches they had promised, but poor, unable even 
to purchase ammunition, much less to pay the money ad- 


vanced to their sachems two years before. The governor 
answered them kindly, and encouraged them to hope for 
better times. Three months later he received them un 
der the protection of the government, and supplied them 
with means to pursue their hunting. The Five Nations 
gave them lands on the Susquehanna River, on which 
they settled and remained until their lands were sold out 
to Pennsylvania. They then removed to the Ohio. A cen 
tury later, their great warrior-chief, Tecumseh, repaid the 
debt of his ancestors to the Dutch of Albany by waging a 
barbarous war against their countrymen of the west. He 
finally fell in battle by the hand of a future vice-president 
of the United States. 

Arent Schuyler s public career closed with his mission 
to the Minisinks, except that in 1709 he was requested 
by the governor of New Jersey to summon the Minisink 
sachems to a conference at Perth Amboy. He continued 
his residence in New York until 1701-2, when he removed 
to Pompton Plains, N. J. Like other prosperous men of 
the period, he gave attention to real estate as an invest 
ment of surplus capital. In 1685 he procured a license 
to purchase a tract of land not far from Kingston. In 
1691, with his brother-in-law, Caspar Teller, and Samuel 
Bayard, he obtained leave to buy of the Indians fifteen 
hundred acres on the west side of Hudson River, at a 
place called Dan s Chamber (Danskamer, or Dance Cham 
ber). Three years afterward, Caspar Teller being dead, 
he and Bayard petitioned to have the land surveyed, wish 
ing to build saw-mills and prepare timber. In 1695 ne 
with Samuel Bayard and Anthony Brockholls, procured 
a patent for 5,500 acres of land at Pequannock (Pompton 
Plains). One can easily imagine, that on his journey to 
the Minisinks, the year before, he had seen the beautiful 
plains, surrounded by high hills and traversed in various 


directions by small rivers, and had then formed the plan 
of making a portion of them his own. He doubtless 
believed it one of the most desirable localities in the 
neighborhood of New York, and induced his friends Bay 
ard and Brockholls to join him in founding a new set 
tlement. In 1696 an Indian sachem deeded to him a 
thousand acres of land on the Minisink River, for which 
Governor Fletcher granted him a patent in 1697. 

The precise date of Schuyler s removal from New 
York to Pompton is not known. His son William was 
baptized in New York, on June 2, 1700, and, as a resident 
of New York, signed a petition of the Protestants to 
the king in December, 1701. He was living at Pompton 
when he made his second will, on October 18, 1706. 
Brockholls, one of his partners in the Pompton lands, 
may have preceded him a few years. Party politics were 
exceedingly bitter. Under the administration of Bello- 
mont, the Leislerians made matters warm for their oppo 
nents, among whom were classed the adherents of the 
Roman Catholic faith. There were then only ten persons 
of that religion residents of New York, of whom Brock 
holls was one. They found their position so uncomfort 
able that several of them removed from the province, 
Brockholls seeking refuge in the wilds of New Jersey. 

Schuyler s wife, Jenneke Teller, died in 1700, and in 1703 
he married Swantie Dyckhuyse (marriage-license dated 
December 12, 1702). After the birth of their first son, 
John, he made his second will, in which he devised a 
house on Broadway, New York, to his wife Swantie for 
life, and after her death to his son John. To his eldest 
son, Philip, he gave ^50. The remainder of his estate 
he divided equally among all his children Philip, Mar 
garet, Casparus, Johannes, " and such others as might be 
born to him." He continued his residence at Pompton 


until 1710, when he moved to a large farm which he had 
purchased from Isaac Kingsland on New Barbadoes Neck, 
on the east side of the Passaic River, three miles above 
Newark. On this property a copper-mine was discovered 
by a negro slave, who, being offered as a reward anything 
lie might ask, requested that he might have all the tobacco 
he could smoke, and nothing else, except "to live with 
massa till I die." The mine proved a source of much 
wealth. The ore was shipped to England for smelting, as 
there were no reduction works in this country. 

Schuyler hitherto had been prosperous and independ 
ent, but now he was rich, and not unwilling that his friends 
and neighbors should know it by his outward display. He 
built a house, which for those days was palatial, situated 
on an elevation not far from the river. He purchased 
more lands, and surrounded his residence with drives and 
parks, in which were kept large numbers of deer. When 
he removed from Pompton, he gave his farm, and his un 
divided share of the lands he held with Bayard and Brock- 
holls, to his eldest son, Philip. He now bought lands near 
Bordentown, on which he settled his second son, Casparus ; 
lands on the Rahway at Elizabethtown, which he gave to 
his son Peter ; lands at Elizabethtown Point, w r hich he 
gave to his son Adoniah ; houses and lots in New York 
City, gifts to his daughters Eve and Cornelia. He made 
loans on mortgages, which became the dowries of his 
\vidow and daughters. The homestead, with its lands and 
parks, he reserved for his favorite son, John. 

His prosperity could not close his doors to sickness and 
death. The wife of his youth had died. Three of her six 
children had followed her, or gone before. And now his 
second wife, the mother of his five younger children, died 
at the age of thirty-eight years. After a time he soothed 
his grief, forgot his former political animosities, and mar- 


ried his third wife, Maria, daughter of Robert Walter and 
granddaughter of Jacob Leisler. The date of this mar 
riage is not known, but is supposed to have been not long 
before the date of his third will, December, 1724. 

When he made his third and last will, he had a much 
larger estate than twenty years before, when the second 
was executed. In this he leaves to his son Philip one- 
third of twelve hundred acres of land at Pompton and Pe- 
quannock, held in common with Samuel Bayard and the 
heirs of Anthony Brockholls, with twenty-five pounds in 
cash ; to his son Casparus, to whom he had made a deed 
of gift of five hundred acres of land at Wingworth Point, 
on the Delaware River within the township of Borden- 
town, five shillings ; to his son John, the homestead farm, 
with all the personal thereon and in the house ; to his son 
Peter, his large house and grounds in Elizabethtown, with 
seven hundred and eighty-seven acres of land near the 
Railway River ; to his son Adoniah, his " large house and 
tract and pieces of land, and the house and small pieces 
of land at Elizabethtown Point ; " to his daughters Eve 
and Cornelia, the house and two lots on Broadway, New 
York, with an Indian slave woman to each ; to each of the 
four children of his eldest daughter, Margaret Oliver, de 
ceased, ,250 ; to each of my sons " who may be born of 
my present wife, the same in amount as to each of my 
sons John, Peter, and Adoniah ; and to daughters that 
may be born, the same as to my daughters Eve and Cor 
nelia ," to his wife Mary, besides what was given her 
in the marriage-contract, the use of his carriages and 
horses, house and farm-slaves, until the marriage of John, 
when, if she wished to live apart, his executors were di 
rected to provide for her " suitably and sufficiently ; " 
lastly, to his sons John, Peter, and Adoniah, the profits of 
the mine, share and share alike. 
VOL. II. 13 


His accumulations during the next six years were large, 
and on October 30, 1730, he made a codicil to his last will, 
in which there are some changes and other bequests. He 
gave to Casparus, in addition, 50 yearly for life ; to his 
wife, ,2,500, besides the ,1,500 in the marriage contract ; l 
to Eve and Cornelia, each ,3,000 and one-half of the 
house and lot in Smith s Fly, New York ; to his grand 
son Arent, son of Philip Schuyler, ^1,000, payable at his 
majority. He revoked the item devising to John all 
the slaves and other personal property on the home 
stead farm, and divided them equally between John, 
Peter, Adoniah, Eve, and Cornelia. The will and codicil 
were proved in New York on November 22, 1730, and in 
New Jersey on June 14, 1732. 

He left no legacies outside of his family. Benevolent 
societies had no existence, the Church being the medi 
um through which eleemosynary contributions were dis 
pensed. Its benevolence was chiefly confined to the poor 
of its individual congregations. Whatever Arent Schuyler 
did in this direction was done while living. He was an 
officer in the Reformed Dutch Church, which, soon after 
his settlement on the Passaic, he had assisted in organiz 
ing at Belleville. To this church, in 1729, he gave ,150 
as the commencement of a fund for the pastor s salary, to 
which he added soon after another gift of ,300. After his 
death, his widow and five children, in respect to his 
memory, each contributed to the fund ,50. In 1739 John 
added ,150, raising the total amount of the fund to ^850. 
At the time of this last gift, an arrangement was made be- 

1 Maria, or Mary, Walter, widow of Arent Schuyler, married secondly, in 
December, 1736, Archibald Kennedy, the receiver-general and collector of 
customs of New York. She made her will on April 9, 1764, which was 
proved May 23, 1764. Kennedy was a connection by marriage of Governor 
Burnet, whose father, the Bishop, had married a daughter of the Earl of 


tween the church and the donor, by which the right to 
vote on calling a minister, as also the right to sign the 
call, was given to Colonel John Schuyler and his succes 
sors forever. The consistory bound themselves and their 
successors not to invite a clergyman of another denomina 
tion to occupy the pulpit without his or their consent, 
provided always that they were members of the Dutch 
Church. In subsequent years differences arose about these 
arrangements, which resulted in Colonel Schuyler s with 
drawal from the church, leaving the fund, however, as it 
was. He united with the Episcopalians, for whom he 
erected a house of worship in the same village. 

It has been often said that Arent Schuyler was the an 
cestor of the New Jersey Schuylers. This is not true in 
fact. He was indeed the ancestor of many of them, but 
not of all. Dirck Schuyler, a son of Captain Abraham 
Schuyler, of Albany, was living in New Brunswick, N. J., 
in 1738, engaged in business as a merchant. Quite recent 
ly his father s Dutch Bible was discovered in possession 
of a descendant in the female line. It contained interest 
ing records, which were published in the New York Genea 
logical and Biographical Record. Schuyler families are now 
living in New Jersey, others in Montgomery County and 
elsewhere in the State of New York, whose fathers or 
grandfathers emigrated from New Jersey, none of whom 
are Arent Schuyler s descendants. He had five sons, who 
married and settled in their father s adopted State. Their 
descendants are numerous, some living in their native 
State, others widely scattered through the United States, 
England, and Australia. 



7. ARENT SCHUYLER, b. June 25, 1662, cl. November, 1730. 
m. November 26, 1684, Jenneke Teller. 

1 60. MARGARETA, bp. September 27, 1685. 

m. Charles Oliver, m. 1. dated November 7, 1704. 

161. PHILIP, bp. September n, 1687. 

m. Hester Kingsland. 

162. MARIA, bp. October 6, 1689, d - 7- 

163. JUDIK, bp. March II, 1692, d. y. 

164. CASPARUS, bp. May 5, 1695, d. April 13, 1754. 

m. I, Jane . 

m. 2, Mary , d. December, 1773. 

165. WILLIAM, bp. June 2, 1700, d. y. 

7. ARENT SCHUYLER, m. January, 1703, Swantie Dyckhuyse. 

165. JOHN, m. Anne Van Rensselaer. 1 

166. PETER, m. I, Hester Walter. 

m. 2, Mary . 

167. ADONIAH, m. Gertrude Van Rensselaer.* 

1 68. EVE, m. Peter Bayard. 

169. CORNELIA, m. Pierre de Peyster. 

I6i. PHILIP SCHUYLER and Hester Kingsland. 

170. JOHANNA, b. September 2, 1713. 

m. Isaac Kingsland. 

171. ARENT, b. February 23, 1715. 

m. I, Helen Wagenen. 
m. 2, Rachael . 

172. ISAAC, b. April 26, 1716, d. y. 

173. PHILIP, b. December 23, 1717. 

m. . 

174. ISAAC, b. September 8, 1719. 

m. . 

1 Daughters of Patroon Killian Van Rensselaer, of Albany. 


175. ELIZABETH, b. February 22, 1721. 

m. Rev. Benjamin Van der Linde. 

176. PETER, b. June 7, 1723. 

m. Mary Ogden, d. s. p. 

177. HESTER, b. April 12, 1725. 

m. Tennis Dcy. 

178. MARIA, b. September n, 1727. 

179. JENNEKE, b. October 6, 1728. 

m. Board. 

180. JOHANNES, b. June 4, 1730, d. y. 

181. CASPARUS, b. December 10, 1735. 

m. Brocas. 

164. CASPARUS SCHUYLER and Jane . 

182. ARENT, m. I, Jennet te . 

m. 2, Jane Pratt I. 

165. JOHN SCHUYLER and Anne Van Rensselaer. 

183. ARENT, b. October, 1746. 

m. November 2, 1772, Swan Schuyler (188). 

184. MARY. 

166. PETER SCHUYLER and Hester Walter. 

185. CATHARINE, m. Archibald Kennedy^ she d. s. p. 

167. ADONIAH SCHUYLER and Gertrude Van Rensselaer. 

1 86. RENSSELAER, lieutenant in the English army, d. s. p. before 


187. MARY, m. Captain Henry St. John? of the British navy, d. 1780. 

188. SWAN, m. Arent Schuyler (183). 

189. JOHN, m. February 16, 1769, Mary Hunter. 

190. PETER. 

191. ADONIAH, m. Susan Shields, of England. 

192. PHILIP, d. s. p. 

171. ARENT SCHUYLER and Helen Van IVagenen. 

193. PHILIP, m. . 

194. ADONIAH, m. Bogart. 


195. PHILIP, m. i, Berry. 

m. 2, Eve . 

196. GARRIT. 

197. SALLY, m. Mandemlle. 

198. POLLY. 

174. ISAAC SCHUYLER and - . 

199. PHILIP, m. Duryea. 

1 Son of the receiver-general and collector of the port of New York. 
8 Third son of John, tenth Duron St. John of Bletsho. 


181. CASPARUS SCHUYLER and Brocas. 

200. HETTY, m. William Coif ax. 1 

182. ARENT SCHUYLER and Jennet te . 

201. AARON, 2 m. i, Ann Wright. 

m. 2, Esther Dey. 

202. JOHN, d. s. p. 1796. 

203. ANN. 

204. PETER. 

205. ABRAHAM, buried September 29, 1767. 

206. CHARLES, d. y. 

182. ARENT SCHUYLER and Jane Praul. 

207. MARY, b. October 3, 1768, d. November 20, 1768. 

208. CHARLES, b. May 19, 1770. 

209. ABRAHAM, b. December 12, 1772. 

183. ARENT SCHUYLER and Swan ScJniyler. 

210. ANN, d. July 20, 1783, aged seven years. 

211. JOHN A., b. April, 1779. 

m. I, Eliza Kip. 

m. 2, Catherine Van Rcnsselaer.^ 

189. JOHN SCHUYLER and Mary Hunter. 

212. ADONIAH, b. December, i, 1769. 

213. MARY, b. November 7, 1770. 

214. ANTHONY HUNTER, b. September 3, 1772. 

215. JOHN RENSSELAER, b. March 7, 1774. 

216. ARENT, b. February 10, 1776. 

m. Ann Miller. 

217. PHILIP HENRY, b. September 21, 1777. 

218. PETER, b. March 12, 1780. 

m. . 

219. RENSSELAER, b. September 29, 1782. 

220. GERTRUDE, b. March 24, 1784. 

221. SWANTIE, b. December 17, 1786. 

222. JAMES, b. February 12, 1789. 


223. PETER, m. and settled at Booneville, N. Y., where he died. 

224. ARENT, m. Garrison. 

22$. LEONORA, m. Post. 

1 Captain of Washington s Life Guards and grandfather of Schuyler Colfax, late vice- 
president of the United States. 

2 Here we find Arent erroneously translated into English by Aaron. It really corre 
sponds to Arnold. 

3 Daughter of General Robert Van Rensselaer, of Claverack, N. Y. 


194. ADONIAH SCHUYLER and Bogart. 

226. CORNELIUS, m. Mersalis. 

227. LEONA, m. Quackenbush. . 

228. ARENT, d. y. 

229. ELIZABETH, m. Boyd. 

195. PHILIP SCHUYLER and I, Berry. 

2, Eve . 

230. JACOB. 

231. GERRIT. 

232. SALLY. 

233. SAMUEL, d. May n, 1867. 

m. I, Anna Schuyler. 
m. 2, Lydia Hilts. 

234. PHILIP. 

235. BETSY. 

236. ANN. 

237. POLLY. 

238. PEGGY. 

199. PHILIP SCHUYLER and Duryea. 

239. ISAAC. 

240. JOHN. 

201. AARON SCHUYLER and Ann Wright. 

241. ANN, b. August 20, 1774. 

242. JENNET, b. June 20, 1776. 

m. Thomas Machin. 

243. SARAH, b. July 3, 1778. 

m. John Suit on. 

244. AARON, b. January 19, 1780. 

245. JOHN, b. March 13, 1783. 

201. AARON SCHUYLER and Esther Dcy. 

246. ANTHONY DEY, b. October 18, 1785. 

m. October 25, 1810, Susan Ridge. 

247. PETER, b. August 29, 1788. 

m. Caroline Brother. 

211. JOHN A. SCHUYLER and Eliza Kip. 

248. ARENT SCHUYLER, b, November 25, 1801. 

m. April 24, 1828, Mary Caroline Kingsland. 

249. HARRIET ANN, bp. February 17, 1803. 

m. Smith W. Anderson. 

211. JOHN A. SCHUYLER and Catherine Van Renssclaer. 

250. JOHN A., d. November 21, 1855, in hi^44th year. 

m. Frances Elizabeth Bleccker. 


251. ROBERT V. R., d. February 19, 1855. 

m. September 9, 1851, Kate Manchini. 

252. JACOB R. , m. November 18, 1847, Susanna Edwards. 

253. CATHERINE GERTRUDE, m. October 4, 1838, Henry S. Craig. 

216. ARENT SCHUYLER and Ann Miller. 

254. MARY M., m. Crownings/iield, of Massachusetts. 

255. LETITIA C, bp. October 7, 1804. 

m. George Powis. 

256. JOHN RENSSELAER, m. - . 

218. PETER SCHUYLER and . 

257. PETER, b. in New York, January 27, 1809. 

258. ELIZA, b. New York, September 9, 1810. 

259. JAMES, b. New York, May 31, 1812. 

260. ROBERT H., b. New York, June 3, 1814, d. y. 

261. ROBERT, b. New York, August 9, 1816. 

262. MARY GERTRUDE, b. in New York, August i, 1817. 

263. RENSSELAER, b. New York, March 4, 1821. 

264. AMOS S. M., b. New York, December 5, 1824. 

223. PETER SCHUYLER and . 

265. PHILIP, m. in Booneville, N. Y. He had one son and three 

daughters. Parents and children, except one 
daughter, Airs. Louisa Bamba, of Lynn, Mass., 
were deceased before February, 1879. 

224. ARENT SCHUYLER and Garrison. 

266. ARENT. 

267. PETER. 

Names of three daughters not given. 

226. CORNELIUS SCHUYLER and Mersalis. 

268. MARY, m. Voorhis. 

269. ELIZABETH, m. Dr. Williams. 

270. HARRIET. 

233. SAMUEL SCHUYLER and Anna ScJmyler. 

271. JOHN, b. May 5, 1806 ; residence, Ames, Montgomery County, 

N. Y. 

272. PHILIP, b. June 15, 1808, d. August 12, 1848. 

233. SAMUEL SCHUYLER and Lydia Hilts. 

273. SAMUEL, b. July 25, 1814. 

274. ANNA, b. October 4, 1816. 

275. MARY, b. November 3, 1818. 

276. ELIZA, b. November 2, 1820. 

277. HARRIET,, b. May 5, 1822. 

278. HARMAN, b. June 31, 1824 ; residence, Sharon Springs, N. Y. 


279. NORMAN, b. October 25, 1826 ; residence, Orange, Schuyler 

County, N. Y. 

280. EFFY, b. March 24, 1879. 

281. DORMAN, b. September 18, 1831 ; residence Orange, Schuyler 

County, N. Y. 

282. DANIEL, b. February 6, 1834. 

283. PETER, b. June n, 1836. 

239. ISAAC SCHUYLER and . 

284. PHILIP. 


244. AARON SCHUYLER and - . 

286. AARON. 

287. RANDALL, residence, Michigan. 

245. JOHN SCHUYLER and - . 


290. MARCUS, residence, Ohio. 

291. MARY, m. William Hoyt. 

292. JANE, m. Jared D. Turrel. 

293. ELIZA, m. David Searles. 

294. SARAH, m. Abel Vannatta. 

295. JOHN. 

296. SUSAN, m. Thompson. 

297. AARON, president of Baldwin University, Ohio. 

298. PETER. 

246. ANTHONY DEY SCHUYLER and Susan Ridge. 

299. WILLIAM RIDG, b. July 22, 1811, d. February 18, 1882. 

m. May 30, 1844, Clara Eastman. 

300. MONTGOMERY, b. January 9, 1814. 

m. I, September 7, 1836, Sarah Sand ford, d. 

September 18, 1841. 
m. 2, October 10, 1843, Lydia Eliza Roosevelt, 

d. October 10, 1852. 
m. 3, May 29, 1854, Sophia Elizabeth Norton. 

247. PETER SCHUYLER and Caroline Brother. 

301. ANTHONY, b. July 8, 1816. 

m. I, December 23, 1839, Eleanor Johnson, d. 1849. 
m. 2, January 5, 1860, Mary Hall Allen. 

302. MARY, d. 1860. 

m. Edgar H. Hurd. 

303. MARGARETA, m. Edgar H. Hurd. 


305. PETER, m. Harriet Bostwick. 

306. CAROLINE, m. Rev. Duncan C. Mann. 


248. ARENT HENRY SCHUYLER and Mary C. Kingsland. 

307. HENRY K., h. March 5, 1829. 

m. Ellen Valentine. 

308. JOHN ARENT, b. February 19, 1831, d. June 15, 1870. 

m. January 14, 1863, Kate Manchini, widow of 
Robert V. R. Schuyler (251). 

309. SMITH A., b. November 18, 1832, d. June 26, 1870. 

m. Bessie Kneeland. 

310. EDWIN N., d. y. 

311. HARRIET A., b. August 29, 1836. 

m. Sidney E. ScJiicjfelin. 

312. SARAH K., b. August 8, 1838. 

m. S. V. C. Van Rensselacr. 

313. ARENT H., b. August 8, 1840, d. September 20, 1863. 

314. RICHARD K., b. June 24, 1842. 

315. MARYC, d. y. 

316. CATHERINE GERTRUDE, b. August 17, 1846, d. December 16, 


251. ROBERT V. R. SCHUYLER and Kate Manchini. 

317. VAN RENSSELAER, b. July 27, 1852. 

252. JACOB R. SCHUYLER and Susanna Edwards. 

318. SARAH E. 

319. RUTSEN V. R., m. February 4, 1873, Harriet A. Alii lick. 


321. SUSANNA E. 

322. EDWARDS O. 

323. ANGELICA V. R. 

256. JOHN RENSSELAER SCHUYLER and , Canoga, N. Y. 

324. JAMES MUNROE, d. July 12, 1873, a g ed 33 years. 

325. ANN A., b. 1844. 

326. JOHN RENSSELAER, b. 1846. 

327. JOSEPHINE, b. 1849. 

259. JAMES SCHUYLER and , California. 

328. JAMES WESLEY, b. March 25, 1840, in New York. 

329. CHARLES RENSSELAER, b. July 10, 1842, in New York. 

330. WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON, b. June 10, 1845, U1 New York. 

331. MARY ELIZABETH, b. October 22. 1847, in New York. 

332. MARIA, b. June 10, 1850, in New York. 

263. RENSSELAER SCHUYLER and , Seneca Falls, N. Y. 

333. ROBERT ARENT, b. November 3, 1848. 

334. MARY ELIZABETH, b. December 19, 1852. 

335. JUDITH GERTRUDE, b. July 18, 1856. 


297. AARON SCHUYLER and - . 

336. CLARA, m. J. T. Rowes. 

337. MARY, m. E. E. Phillips. 

338. LELIA, professor in Baldwin University, Ohio. 

299. WILLIAM RIDG SCHUYLER and Clara Eastman. 

339. WILLIAM HENRY, b. August 27, 1845, Marshall, Michigan. 

340. SANDFORD EASTMAN, b, August 14, 1850. 

34cw. ANTHONY DEY, b. June 22, 1853, d. August 24, 1871. 

300, MONTGOMERY SCHUYLER and Sarah Sandford. 

341. MARY LOUISA, b. September 15, 1837, d. March 25, 1840. 
341*7. SARAH, b. October 10, 1838, d. August 17, 1839. 

34i/>. ANTHONY DEY, b. March 20, 1841, d. July 31, 1841. 

300. MONTGOMERY SCHUYLER and Lydia Eliza Roosevelt. 

342. MONTGOMERY ROOSEVELT, b. February 18, 1845. 

m. February 21, 1870, Lclia Roose 

343. FRANK HAMILTON, b. September 16, 1849, cl - March 4, 1851. 

344. Louis SANDFORD, b. March 2, 1852, d. September 17, 1878. 

300. MONTGOMERY SCHUYLER and Sophia Elizabeth Norton. 

345. WILLIAM RIDG, b. May 4, 1855. 

m. December 24, iSSi, Sarah Ann Remington. 

346. ELLEN GLASGOW, b. July 29, 1857. 

347. WALTER NORTON, b. February 9, 1859. 

348. PHILIP, b. September 4, 1861. 

348-7. MARY BERTHA, b. October 15, 1864. 
348^. GERTRUDE LINDELL, b. March 10, 1868. 
348^. EUGENE PASCHAL, b. February 19, 1870. 
348^. SOPHIA NORTON, b. October 3, 1872. 

301. ANTHONY SCHUYLER and Eleanor Johnson. 

349. CHARLES B., b. May 6, 1841. 

350. ELENOR, d. y. 

351. MONTGOMERY, m. September 16, 1876, Katherine Beeckman 


352. BEN, d. y. 

301. ANTHONY SCHUYLER and Mary Hall Allen. 

353. MARGARET A, b. January 24, 1861. 

354. HAMILTON, b. April 3, 1862. 

355. ANTHONY, b. May 20, 1868. 

307. HENRY K. SCHUYLER and Ellen Valentine. 

356. ARENT, b. September, 25. 1860. 

357. CAMPBELL V., b. July 2, 1864. 


345. WILLIAM RIDG SCHUYLER and Sarah Ann Remington. 
345<2. MONTGOMERY, b. January 25, 1883. 
345 & REMINGTON, b. July 8, 1884. 

35 1. MONTGOMERY SCHUYLER and Catherine Beeckman Livingston. 
35 la. MONTGOMERY, b. September 2, 1877. 

35 1 PHILIP LIVINGSTON, b. February 24, 1880, d. June 29, 1880. 
351^-. ROBERT LIVINGSTON, b. February 26, 1883. 


SWANTIE DYCKHUYSE, the second wife of Arent Schuyler, 
must appear on these pages as an orphan. I have been 
unable to find any trace of her family, and only one of 
the name, among the records of New York or Albany. 
Among the marriage-licenses granted by Lord Cornbury, 
and bound up with other records in New York City, is one 
of date December 12, 1702, "Arent Schuyler and Swantie 
Dyckhuyse." I imagine that her family lived on Broad 
way, New York, and that she inherited the house on that 
street which her husband left to her for life, and then to 
their son John, in his will of I706. 1 

PHILIP, Arent s eldest son, married Hester Kingsland, 
daughter of Isaac Kingsland, of New Barbadoes Neck, of 
whom his father bought the farm at Belleville. He occu 
pied the homestead at Pompton, and cultivated the soil of 
his "native acres." He had considerable influence among 
his neighbors, and was their representative in the Legisla 
ture several terms. He had twelve children, three of whom 
died in infancy or childhood. Five sons and four daugh 
ters survived him, and had families. His descendants are 
very numerous, a few only of whom, a family of sisters, 
remain on the old place. Others are so widely scattered 
that it is difficult to find them, or to identify them when 

1 John Tunisse Van Dyckhuyse, a magistrate of Flatbush, was com 
plained of by Gerard us Beeckman for abuse and defamation, March 27, 
1693. Doc. Hist., ii., 414. 


found. They were mostly farmers, and, when their own 
locality was occupied, they emigrated to other parts of the 
country as they were opened to settlement. Some re 
turned to New York after the Revolution and settled in 
the Mohawk Valley, from which the Indians had removed 
to Canada, and others elsewhere in the State, while others 
followed the tide of emigration farther west. A grand 
daughter of Philip Schuyler, Hetty, the only child of Cas- 
parus (181), acquired some reputation as the wife of Will 
iam Colfax, Captain of "Washington s Life Guard, and the 
grandmother of a future vice-president of the United 

CASPARUS SCHUYLER (164) had his home on the Delaware 
River, remote at the time from his father s family and 
relatives, and for a hundred years or more his descendants 
were little known by others of the name. In the church 
yard of St. Mary s, Burlington, N. J., stands a simple stone, 
inscribed, " In memory of Gasperus Schuyler who De 
parted this life April 13, 1754 aged 59 years" ; and in the 
parish register is entered, "Buried 1773 Decmr 30 Mary 
widow of Casparus Schuyler." 

He appears to have had only one child, a son, named 
(182) Arent after his grandfather. Arent in his will, dated 
May 7, 1774, mentions five sons and one daughter, among 
them Aaron, the eldest, one of whose sons emigrated to 
Ohio and two to western New York. The descendants of 
these three brothers have vindicated their blood, and made 
their name respected in theology and literature. Two 
hold high positions in the Church, one is president of a 
college and author of several educational works, and an 
other is editor of a metropolitan journal. 

JOHN SCHUYLER (165) occupied the homestead at Belle 
ville, and with his brothers Peter and Adoniah worked the 
copper-mine which his father s negro had discovered. 


The produce of his large plantation and the output of the 
mine gave him a splendid income. The superintendence 
of his business gave him full employment congenial to his 
tastes. It was sought to engage him in public life by ap 
pointing him to the governor s Council, but this failed of 
its object, for after a brief term of service he resigned. 

PETER SCHUYLER (166) was the best known of the family. 
The fine estate inherited from his father was largely in 
creased by his marriage to Hester Walter, the daughter of 
a rich New York merchant residing on Hanover Square. 
His elder brother, John, superintended the mine, and he 
was left at leisure to turn his attention to other objects. 
Unlike many men in similar circumstances, he did not sur 
render his life to dissipation or genteel idleness, but im 
proved his estate, and took upon himself a share of the 
public burdens. He was interested in military affairs, and 
qualified himself to assume command of troops, should 
the necessity occur. While the French were seated on 
the continent, no permanent peace could be expected, and 
it became the duty of every good citizen to be prepared to 
defend his country from their encroachments. New Jer 
sey s geographical position rendered her comparatively 
secure, but in time of war she was required to render as 
sistance to her sister colonies, especially to New York, on 
whom the chief burden of defence always rested. 

When the European war of 1744-48 began, it was seen 
that the colonies could not escape its influence, and that 
they must be prepared to share in its fortunes. The sub 
jugation of Canada w r as believed, as in former times, to 
be the only way to secure a permanent peace. Measures 
were accordingly concerted between the English Govern 
ment and her provinces for another effort to conquer their 
troublesome neighbors. Canada was to be invaded by sea 
and land. Five hundred men were to be furnished by 


New Jersey as her quota to the army. Peter Schuyler 
was authorized to recruit the men, and was then commis 
sioned, on September 7, 1746, as their colonel commandant. 
He left Amboy on September 3d, and arrived at Albany 
on the pth. England failed to keep her engagements, and 
the expedition was abandoned. Governor Clinton, how 
ever, declined to disband the forces which had been as 
sembled, until he had received instructions from the king ; 
neither did he pay them, nor furnish them with supplies. 
His reasons for this unfair treatment were frivolous " if " 
said he, "they receive their pay they will desert." Colo 
nel Schuyler s regiment suffered greatly for the want of a 
surgeon and medicines, as well as for clothing and rations. 
He wrote to the governor of New Jersey, that unless they 
were paid their dues and better provided for they would 
desert with arms and baggage. Governor Hamilton hast 
ened to assure him that he had that day ordered "two 
speckled shirts and one pair of shoes for eacli man." 
Nothing w r as said about other necessary clothing, provi 
sions, medical attendance, or pay. The men were not com 
forted, and arranged for an indignation meeting. The 
time had come when something more effectual had to be 
done for the honor of the service and for humanity. 
Colonel Schuyler could not be an indifferent spectator 
while his fellow-soldiers were suffering for want of means 
for their own support and that of their poor families at 
home he paid his men in full out of his own resources. 
This drew from Governor Clinton a sharp rebuke, "for," 
so he wrote to Schuyler, "it was not proper, since, in the 
opinion of his majesty s Council of this province, the re 
taining the greatest part of the arrears due till his ma 
jesty s pleasure be known is the most effectual method to 
prevent desertion." Later Clinton wrote to his govern 
ment, complaining that Schuyler, having paid his men in 


full, had caused dissatisfaction and almost mutiny among 
the other " levies," so that he had been forced to pay them 
each forty shillings, and promise them twenty shillings a 
month thereafter. 

Subsequently Schuyler was assigned with his regiment 
to Fort Clinton, at Saratoga, which he occupied until he 
was forced to abandon it for want of provisions in the fall 
of 1747. The peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1748, terminated 
the war, when Schuyler returned to his home and to more 
congenial duties. 

The peace was of short duration, and in 1754 the war 
was renewed. Schuyler at the head of his regiment again 
took the field, and was stationed at Oswego. After the 
defeat of Braddock, the western frontiers of New Jersey 
were exposed to Indian raids. Schuyler was recalled with 
half his men to occupy the block-houses erected along the 
Delaware River for the protection of his own province. 
In the following spring he returned to Oswego ; and when 
that fort was captured by Montcalm, in 1756, he and half 
his regiment were surrendered prisoners to the French. He 
was taken to Montreal, and thence to Quebec, where he 
remained until October, 1757, when he was released on 
parole. With a Frenchman and two Indians he traversed 
the wilderness to Fort Edward, whence he proceeded to 
New York, arriving on November ipth. There was great 
joy expressed, and the city was illuminated in his honor. 
On his arrival home a salute of thirteen guns was fired ; 
and the next evening, at Newark, the houses were illumi 
nated, cannon were fired, and bonfires kindled. These 
unusual festivities terminated with a supper, toasts, and 
wine. A month later, when on his way to Trenton, the 
good people of Princeton tendered him a hearty welcome, 
and sang his praises in an original poem. Wherever he 
went he was greeted more as a conqueror than a prisoner 


on parole. Why this general joy ? As a soldier he had 
done his duty, but had gained no laurels in battle. He 
had been unfortunate in the only contest in which he had 
been engaged, not from any fault of his own, it is true, 
but from the fortune of war. He was beloved by those 
who knew him, and his assured safety was cause of rejoic 
ing on the part of his friends. But this was not all. While 
in Canada he had shown himself to be a true philanthro 
pist. He was surrounded by hundreds of poor prisoners, 
some taken, like himself, after a contest at arms, others 
torn from their New England homes by cruel savages ; all, 
or nearly all, without money or means to procure the neces 
saries of life, while some were toiling in an ignoble bond 
age. His captors knew him to be rich, and did not hesi 
tate to supply him on his drafts with all the funds that he 
required ; the money thus procured he unselfishly dis 
tributed among his more unfortunate countrymen without 
regard to their places of birth. He knew no difference be 
tween Jerseymen and those from other provinces ; they 
were all alike his countrymen and entitled to his sympa 
thy. He befriended the New England mother and her 
helpless children, once in possession of a happy home, now 
the slaves of heartless savages, and bought their liberty. 
The soldier in rags he clothed in comfortable garments ; 
lie fed the hungry, some of them at his own table. His 
sympathizing nature and his unselfish charity gave him 
renown and a place in the hearts of his countrymen. It 
was for this, and not for martial prowess, that he was 
feasted and entertained. 

His leave of absence on parole expired before he was 
able to make arrangements for his exchange. " The 
king," so wrote Secretary Pitt, " has a true sense of the 
active zeal of Colonel Schuyler, and saw with concern his 
disagreeable situation from the difficulties which have 


arisen with regard to his exchange." The governor of 
Canada demanded his return, and he again surrendered 
himself to his captors. Colonel Bradstreet, in the August 
preceding, by a rapid march from Albany to Oswego, 
which the French had destroyed and abandoned, and 
thence by boats across the lake, had surprised and capt 
ured Fort Fronteriac, taking over a hundred prisoners, 
who were released on parole. There was now a fair pros 
pect of securing Schuyler s release, and he accordingly re 
ceived from the English General Abercromby full au 
thority to negotiate an exchange of prisoners, officer for 
officer, and man for man. He was successful, and effect 
ed the exchange of a number equal to Bradstreet s pris 
oners, of himself for the commandant of Fort Frontenac. 
He immediately left for home, and arrived at Fort Ed 
ward on November n, 1758, with eighty-nine men, women, 
and children, some of whom had been ransomed from 
captivity by himself at a "high price." Two years before, 
when first a prisoner in Canada, he had procured the 
liberty of several captives, among whom were Mrs. Jemima 
Howe and three of her children, of Hinsdale, N. H., for 
whom he paid twenty-seven hundred francs. The Indians 
who captured Mrs. Howe had sold her to a Frenchman. 
She was separated from her children, and held as a ser 
vant. Her position soon became exceedingly trying and 
uncomfortable, for both her master and his son were per 
sistent in dishonorable proposals. When her situation 
came to the knowledge of Schuyler, he called on the gov 
ernor, and through his intervention released her from 
servitude, and rescued her from her would-be lovers by 
the payment to the Frenchman of a handsome profit on 
his original investment. 

Now again, while busy in his negotiations, he had an 
other opportunity to exercise his benevolence. In a skir- 


mish with the enemy north of Fort Edward, Major Put 
nam, the future Revolutionary general, was captured by 
the Indians, stripped of his clothing, and otherwise in 
humanly treated, and in this sorry plight compelled to 
follow his captors to Montreal. There Schuyler met him, 
and saw his forlorn condition. He procured him cloth 
ing, and furnished him with means to make him comfort 
able. In time he procured his exchange and sent him 

It is only just to say that the English Government re 
paid him in part for his expenses in behalf of the cap 
tives, and that the province of New Jersey refunded a por 
tion of his advances for the pay of his regiment. 

In the campaign of 1759, Schuyler and his " Jersey 
Blues " were again in the field. Toward the close of the 
year he returned to his home, and spent the winter with 
his family. In the spring he rejoined the army under 
General Amherst, and participated in the events which 
closed with the complete conquest of Canada. He en 
tered the city of Montreal with the victorious armies, and 
appeared on the streets where he had so recently walked 
a prisoner in the martial bearing of a conqueror. 

At the close of the war he returned to his beloved 
Peterboro , on the banks of the Passaic, but did not live 
long to enjoy the blessings of the peace which he had 
helped to secure. In less than two years he died, at the 
early age of fifty-two years. 

Peter Schuyler s family was small. His daughter Cath 
erine was his only child, to whom, by his will, he gave 
the bulk of his large estate. Her mother, Hester Walter, 
seems also to have been an only child, for Catherine was 
sole heiress of her grandfather, John Walter, a man of 
large property. She was also the heiress of Richard 
Jones, another relative, who left her, besides personal 


property, some farms on the Raritan River. Her father, 
grandfather and Mr. Jones all died within a short time 
of each other, and she suddenly became possessed of an 
estate equalled by few in either province. Possessed of a 
comely person, with an education and accomplishments 
as good as the schools could give, she was considered a 
prize of no mean order among the marrying men of her 
acquaintance. Captain Archibald Kennedy, of the royal 
navy, commanding the ship Coventry, lying in the harbor 
of New York, was the successful suitor, and married her 
before June^, 1765. 

Her grandfather, John Walter, was a grandson of Jacob 
Leisier, portions of whose estate came finally into her pos 
session. Her real estate at the time of her marriage with 
Kennedy consisted of a large house and lot on Hanover 
Square, lately occupied by John Walter, deceased ; two 
other houses on Hanover Square ; a dwelling-house and 
warehouse on a lot bounded on one side by Wall Street, 
and on another side by the East River ; a lot 30 feet front 
on Crown (Liberty) Street ; four houses and lots on Water 
Street ; a lot 40 by 80 feet on Coenties Slip ; three other 
dwellings and lots on Water Street ; a dwelling and lot 
corner of Wall and Burnet Streets ; a dwelling and lot on 
the east side of Broadway ; thirty-three lots on Chatham, 
Frankfort, and other streets, "distinguished on a map of 
lots made by Jacob Leisier." All these houses and lots 
were in the city of New York. In New Jersey she owned 
the homestead farm, called Peterboro , now East Newark, 
containing over nine hundred acres ; all the right and title 
of her late father " in two cedar swamps and meadows 
lying near the Island Succocus ;" as also her father s share 
in the commons of Bergen Township ; four hundred acres 
of farming land on the south side of the Raritan River ; 
also a share in six hundred and forty acres adjoining the 


last-mentioned land ; her father s share in a tract of land 
called the Ash Swamp ; several dwellings and lots in 
Elizabethtown ; and, lastly, her father s third share in the 
copper mine at Belleville. The amount of her personal 
estate is not known, but it must have been considerable. 
It will be seen that Catherine Schuyler was rich. 

After her marriage with Kennedy, she made a trust 
deed to James Duane, June 13, 1765, of all the above enu 
merated property, conditioned, that when called on he 
should convey it to Archibald Kennedy and Catherine 
Schuyler Kennedy, with a provision that the survivor of 
the two should possess the whole. Two days later James 
Duane made a deed of the property to Kennedy and his 
wife, containing the clause that it should belong to the 
longest liver, w T hether husband or wife. Before January 
21, 1768, Catherine had died, leaving no children, and her 
husband w T as in possession of an estate which had been 
accumulating in different hands for several generations. 
Lieutenant-Governor Colden said, in 1765, that " Archi 
bald Kennedy possessed more houses in New York than 
any other man." He owned the greater part of them 
by right of his wife. 

A few years after the death of Catherine Schuyler, 
Kennedy married her cousin, Anne Watts, on April 27, 
1769. He was in command of the ship Coventry, lying in 
New York Harbor, when the " stamps " were received 
from England, and was requested by Lieutenant-Governor 
Colden and the Council to take them on board his vessel 
for safety, until the excitement in the city subsided. He 
declined to receive them. For this, and other acts not 
considered strictly loyal, he was removed from command. 
After losing his ship, he retired to Peterboro, resolved not 
to lose his estate, if it could be avoided. After the Revo 
lution fairly began, the Committee of Safety, having reason 


to suspect that he was inimical to the patriot cause, ordered 
him to retire to the county of Sussex and remain within 
a mile of the court-house. He obeyed without a mur 
mur, and bore his banishment like a philosopher. He 
was quiet and well behaved, and after a few months \vas 
permitted to return to his home. Later he went to Eng 
land, and succeeded his kinsman in the earldom of Cas- 
silis. He saved his American property and transmitted 
it to his sons, who in 1803 appointed Robert Watts their 
agent to sell it. 

In the colonial documents (X., 776) there is a foot-note 
by the editor, giving a short biographical sketch of Col 
onel Peter Schuyler, which is erroneous as regards his 
daughter Catherine. She is said to have married Archi 
bald Kennedy, receiver-general and collector of customs. 
The latter gentleman came to New York in 1714, with 
letters from the Earl of Stair to Governor Hunter. He 
was soon after appointed to office, and held from that 
time to his death some of the most lucrative positions in 
the province. In 1761 he applied to Governor Monckton 
to be relieved from the Council, of which he was a mem 
ber, on account of his age. Less than two years later 
Governor Golden announced his death as having occurred 
on June 14, 1763. It was Mary Walter, the widow of 
Arent Schuyler, whom this gentleman married. Their 
marriage-license is dated June 14, 1736. She survived 
him many years, and in her will she mentions the fact 
that when she married him she was the widow of Arent 

Colonel Peter Schuyler was twice married first to 
Hester Walter, second to Mary - . In his will he 
made provision for his "wife Mary," but far from liberal 
considering his w r ealth. He left her "furniture for one 
room, two slaves, and fifteen hundred pounds in cash." 


His daughter Catherine, in her deed to James Duane, 
mentioned " Hester Schuyler, her late mother." 

ADONIAH SCHUYLER (167) left the copper mine to be 
managed by his brother, and established himself as a mer 
chant in the city of New York. He soon became a man 
of large wealth, and enjoyed a high social position. He did 
not confine himself to merchandise, but was engaged in 
other enterprises. He added to the value of his large 
landed estate at Elizabethtown Point by the establishment 
of a ferry to Staten Island, the charter of which is a curi 
ous document, containing a tariff of charges carefully 

He died before May, 1762, leaving seven children. Two 
of his sons, Rensselaer (186) and Adoniah (191), entered 
the British service ; the first as lieutenant in the army, the 
latter as midshipman in the navy. Rensselaer died young 
and unmarried ; Adoniah was taken to England by his 
brother-in-law, the Honorable Captain Henry St. John 
(son of John, tenth Baron St. John of Bletsho), and put into 
the navy, where he rose to the rank of captain. He mar 
ried Miss Susan Shields, of Plymouth. His descendants 
settled in Cornwall, and the tombs of many of them are to 
be seen at Falmouth. Several of them were captains of 
the once famous line of packets sailing between Falmouth 
and Lisbon. One of the daughters of Adoniah married 
into the Graham family, of Scotland, and one branch of 
the male descendants emigrated to Australia, where they 
are said to be still living. The only ones of the male line 
now living in England are Adoniah Graham Schuyler, 
captain in the Duke of Cambridge s Own (Middlesex) 
Regiment ; and his brother Edward E. S. Schuyler, cap 
tain in the Prince of Wales Own (West Yorkshire) Regi 
ment, in the British army. 

The American descendants of Adoniah Schuyler (167) 


are numerous. His widow married Robert Livingston, 
the third proprietor of Livingston manor. 

ARENT SCHUYLER (183) succeeded his father to the home 
stead at Belleville shortly before the Revolutionary War. 
I have a manuscript copy of parts of a journal kept by 
Isaac Bangs, a graduate of Harvard College and an offi 
cer in a Massachusetts regiment stationed in New York in 
1776. He and two other officers were detailed, with eighty 
men, to go into New Jersey and cut timber with which to 
obstruct the harbor against the enemy s vessels. Work 
was begun in a cedar swamp a short distance west of the 
Hackensack River, belonging to Mr. Schuyler. The offi 
cers made him a visit on the day of their arrival, and found 
him friendly and courteous. On their way the guide con 
ducted them to the celebrated copper mine, the works of 
which were in ruins, having been burned by a discharged 
workman four years before. They spent the night with 
him, and a day or two afterward dined with him by ap 
pointment. Schuyler returned their visits, spending some 
time on each occasion at their camp. As they were all 
young fellows and college graduates, they forgot the criti 
cal situation of the country, and gave themselves up to 
the enjoyment of the hour. One day Schuyler came di 
rectly after breakfast, and made " a day of it," not leaving 
until night; "during which time," says the journalist, 
" many decanters of wine suffered shipwreck, manybowles 
of grog were poured down our thirsty bellies, nor was 
eggpop forgot among our dainties. Spent the whole day 
very agreeably." The next morning Mr. Bangs enters on 
his journal, "Slept very ill." 

On June 28th Lieutenant Bangs finished his business, 
and prepared to return to his regiment, but as it was after 
"sunset" he accepted Mr. Schuyler s invitation to spend 
the night with him. The next morning Schuyler lent him 


a horse, and accompanied him in his chaise to New York, 
where they parted with expressions of mutual regard. 
The journal then proceeds : 

" Since I have had occasion to speak frequently of Mr. 
Schuyler I must give a small Detail of his family, which 
consisted of Himself, Wife, one small Daughter, a Mother 
and Miss Polly, his Sister, about 13 or 14 years old, be 
sides a Brother of his Wife and his Family, who fled from 
New York ; What can be said of one may be justly appli 
cable to all viz : considering all Circumstances they are as 
agreeable People as ever I had the Pleasure of being ac 
quainted with. Mr. Schuyler (though a Gentleman of 
Liberal Education not more than 27 years of age, and one 
of the first Estates in the Province) yet he inspects every 
nook on his Farm which is vastly extensive. Mrs. Schuy 
ler (his Wife) tho not beautiful in her outward Form, is 
possessed of such a beauteous Mind as must make her 
agreeable to every one that hath the pleasure of being 
acquainted with her. She as doth her Husband, taketh 
Pleasure in regulating the Affairs of their Family, which 
by her Diligence and Care, is kept in the neatest order ; 
and the greatest Harmony and Decorum may be observed 
in every Department of the whole. Besides the Persons 
before mentioned which compose the Family are about 
50 or 60 Blacks all of whom except those who are neces 
sary for Domestic Service live in a large convenient House 
built for that Purpose without the Gate ; in the House 
every servant hath their particular sphere to act in, I 
never saw more than 2 in the House otherwise than in the 
Kitchen, and those were waiters. Those who live in the 
Out House each have their particular Departments and 
regular hours to work in, their victuals is cooked at cer 
tain Hours by their own cookes, to which they are regu 
larly called by a Bell which Rings in the Morning for the 
Servants to turn out to their work and for Breakfast for 
Dinner at the proper Time for them to leave their Work 
and again at 8 in the evening for each to repair to their 


House after which no Noise is heard. Notwithstanding 
they have so large a Family to regulate Mrs. Schuyler 
also seeth to the Manufacturing of suitable clothing for all 
the Servants, all of which is the Produce of their own 
plantation, in which she is helped by her mamma and Miss 
Polly, the whole is done with less combustion and Noise 
than many Families who have not more than 4 or 5 Per 
sons in the whole Family ; this whole Family seems ever 
to be still and quiet and serene, notwithstanding its mag 
nitude and the multiplicity of Business which they have 
to transact. What added to my surprise after observing 
the regulations of this wonderful Family was to under 
stand that Mrs. Schuyler was born of and brought up in a 
Rich and genteel Family in the City of York where her 
Education must have been so vastly different and noways 
connected with the Life she now leads nor does she cast 
off the Mien and Behaviour of the genteel bred woman 
but the whole family live and dress in a very genteel man 
ner so far as gentility is consistent with Reason. Mr. and 
Mrs. Schuyler seem always to be at leisure and never dis 
turb company with being busied and hurried more than 
if they had nothing to do. It is not from any Parsimonius 
Views that Mr. Schuyler and his Wife employ themselves 
in many Matters which is uncommon in People of their 
Fortune, but they often told me when I expressed my sur 
prise at it, that this was their greatest pleasure, and they 
would both in passionate Terms lament and pity the Fate 
of those People of Fortune who were blinded by their 
Education as not to discover some such Expedient to em 
ploy those many leisure Hours which they are daily rack 
ing their Inventions to kill and which nevertheless hang 
heavy on their Hands. Nor do either of them wholly 
slight the diversions of the Town, but frequently were 
they wont while the Town was in Peace, to spend a few 
days at a time in the City and sometimes they make small 
Excursions in the Country. 

"Mr. Schuyler s Mansion House is a large, grand and 
magnificent building, built partly of stone and the rest 


brick most beautifully situate upon an eminence on the east 
Bank of what is called Passaic River ; on the west side of 
the River by the Water is the Road which leads to Hack- 
ensack, Albany etc. by which are a considerable number 
of Buildings and two Churches, the one a Dutch and the 
other an English Church built by Mr. Schuyler s Father. 
These together with the Buildings standing by a straight 
and level road and the beautiful Groves on the Eminences 
on the West afford a most delightful Prospect from the 
Groves of Mr. Schuyler s House. On the back part of 
the House is a large neat Garden built partly for Orna 
ment and partly for Convenience. At the back of the 
Garden is a prodigious high Hill covered with Woods the 
House has a sufficiency of out Houses on the South and 
on the North, at a little distance are his Barns sufficient 
to accommodate his Farm which by accounts is three 
miles across, in fine the situation of this Gentleman s 
Dwelling both for Convenience and Please is the best I 
ever beheld. On the East of his House at the Distance 
of about f of a Mile he hath two Parks in which are about 
150 or 160 Deer but I could not get a sight of them 
as they never come out of the Woods except in the 

" Mr. Schuyler was descended from the Family of 
Schuylers which rendered so much good Service to N. 
England as mentioned in Hutchinson s History, there are 
many of the same Family at Albany now and at New 
York. This Gentleman s Grandfather in but tolerable 
Circumstances moved from Albany to the place above 
described. (The Township is called New Barbadoes) and 
here he accidentally discovered the Copper Mines now 
possessed by his Grandchild out of which he got great 
Wealth and the family carrying on the Works have made 
daily additions to the Estate till they have all the lands 
contiguous and are now immensely Rich. The whole 
Family have been noted for their Liberality to the Pub- 
lick, but especially to the Poor and Indigent, and it is re 
markable that of the great Number I daily while there 


heard speak of the Family, none spoke otherwise than 
with respect and Love. 

" What could hinder this Man from being happy, unless 
he had a most discontented mind ? A Man that in Mr. 
Schuyler s Scituation could not be happy deserves no 
longer to continue on the Earth. I remember once to 
have asked him if he thought himself Happy, he replied 
Yes. I then asked him if he thought any Man more 
happy than himself? he calmly answered that possibly 
some might be, for he had his gloomy Hours, but that 
the Man that was more Happy than himself was Happy 
indeed, but that he imagined and made no doubt that 
many were as happy. This last part I doubt of, for tho 
some have to outward appearance sufficient to make them 
happy, yet few have that Temper and disposition and 
Temper of Mind which is the chief Blessing enjoyed by 
this Gentleman. Without making any more Remarks 
(for I cant do justice to what I have endeavoured) I must 
declare the few Days spent in this Family to be the most 
happy of any that I was ever sensible of enjoying in my 
Life. While I was with him we contracted a most inti 
mate Friendship, and he on parting desired me to visit 
him as often as possible, and on his part engaged to do 
the same he also made me a very generous offer with re 
gard to being innoculated with the Small Pox which I 
believe I shall accept when I have served my Country 
through this Campaign. As I returned to New York I 
saw the Signals for the arrival of more than 20 Ships 
hoisted on Staten Island. July 29, 1776." 

ARENT SCHUYLER (171) was arrested, on July n, 1777, 
and locked up in the Morristown jail, as a disaffected 
person. After a month s detention he took the oath of 
loyalty to the patriot cause, and was released. He is the 
only one of Philip Schuyler s descendants bearing the 
name, so far as I have discovered at the present writing, 
who seemed to halt in loyalty to his country. 

AARON SCHUYLER, LL.D. (297), is the author of several 


educational works on logic and mathematics, which have 
a deserved popularity in the Western States. 

REV. MONTGOMERY SCHUYLER, D.D. (300), is rector of a 
Protestant Episcopal Church in St. Louis, Mo. 

REV. ANTHONY SCHUYLER, D.D. (301), is rector of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church of Orange, N. J. 

REV. Louis SANDFORD SCHUYLER (344), was born on 
March 2, 1852. He graduated at Hobart College in 1871, 
was ordained a Deacon of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 
in St. Louis, Mo., on September 21, 1873, and a Priest on 
March 5, 1876. Earnestly and sincerely pious, he devoted 
himself to the service of his Church, for a time as an as 
sistant to Bishop Doane at Albany, but chiefly in mission 
work at St. Louis. His piety was of the fervent and as 
cetic type, and in the autumn of 1877, he went to England 
for the purpose of joining the Brotherhood of St. John 
Evangelist at Cowley. His health proved too delicate to 
permit of his carrying out his purpose, and he soon re 
turned. For a time he had charge of a parish in Newark, 
N. J., but on September 4, 1878, learning that there was a 
call for a clergyman at Memphis, where the yellow fever 
was then raging, he hastened to that city. He arrived on 
the evening of September 8th, threw himself at once into 
the work, and was soon attacked by the fever, of which he 
died on September i7th. Of such are the saints. 

MONTGOMERY SCHUYLER (351) is a journalist well known 
by his contributions to monthly periodicals, and by his 
connection with the New York World and the New York 
Times. He is now managing editor of Harper s Weekly. 


JOHANNES SCHUYLER, the sixth and youngest son of Philip 
Schuyler and Margarita Van Slichtenhorst, 1 was born on 
April 5, 1668, and was fifteen years old when his father 
died. He began at an early age to take an interest in 
public affairs. In 1689 he joined the convention which 
assumed the government of Albany and its dependencies 
in opposition to Leisler. In the next year he was a vol 
unteer in the army of General Winthrop for the invasion 
of Canada. It was seen, when it was decided to abandon 
the enterprise, that the confidence of the Five Nations in 
the English to assist them in their long war with the 
French was shaken. To give them courage arid to retain 
their alliance, some means had to be devised to prove 
that their English friends were not devoid of valor and 
were willing to join them in a raid against their enemies. 
Hitherto the Indians had fought their battles alone and 
unaided by the active co-operation of white men. Now 
it had to be made apparent that their English allies could 
fight as well as talk. 

Johannes Schuyler, although young, was brave and en- 

1 Philip Schuyler, the fifth son of Philip Schuyler and Margarita Van 
Slichtenhorst, is the ancestor of my branch of the family, and is next in 
order for consideration ; but, as it is my purpose to speak also of his fe 
male descendants to a limited extent, I shall conclude what I have to say 
in reference to the other branches, and leave Philip s history and genealogy 
for the last, giving to their descendants a new series of numbers. 


terprising. He was acquainted with the Indian character, 
and knew their mode of fighting. When others of more 
age and experience held back, he volunteered to lead a 
company into the enemy s country and do all the damage 
possible. His service was accepted by the general, who 
conferred upon him the temporary commission of cap 
tain. Twenty-nine whites and one hundred and twenty 
Indians volunteered under his command. Winthrop, from 
his limited stores, supplied him with canoes, arms, and 
provisions. From his journal of the expedition, we learn 
that he left camp on August 13, 1690, and on his way 
down Wood Creek met Captain Glen returning from 
a scout, of whose men thirteen whites and five Indians 
joined his company. Two days afterward he was within 
three miles of Crown Point, and fast approaching that 
part of the lake supposed to be occupied by the enemy. 
As their success depended measurably on the secrecy of 
their movements, they now resolved to remain in camp 
during the day and march only by night. The point of 
attack was not yet settled, whether Fort Chambly, or La 
Prairie, or the farming settlements on the south bank of 
the St. Lawrence not far from Montreal. It was a ques 
tion of some importance as to which of these places should 
be made the objective point. A council was called of the 
officers and chiefs, who determined by a majority to at 
tack La Prairie. Belts were then passed between the In 
dians of different tribes to ratify the decision and to stand 
by each other, followed by a hand-shaking all around 
among Christians and Indians. 

When they arrived at the River Chambly, their scouts 
reported that they had discovered on the west shore 
traces of the enemy, and the place where fourteen pris 
oners captured in New England had recently been bound 
to stakes, but had not seen anything more to indicate the 


presence of enemies. They now concealed their canoes 
and some provisions, began their march across the country 
in the direction of La Prairie, and toward evening ar 
rived in the vicinity of the fort. They camped in the 
forest, and early the next morning their scouts reported 
the people to be leaving the fort for their work in the 
fields. Captain Schuyler wished to capture this working 
party, and directed his forces to take up a position be 
tween the fort and fields before beginning the attack. He 
was disappointed, for his Indian allies no sooner saw the 
French at work than raising the war-whoop they rushed 
upon them. Instead of capturing the whole party, as was 
intended, he took prisoners only nineteen, after killing 
six, the others escaping into the fort. His loss was only 
one man, an Indian. 

After the fight was over and the prisoners secured, 
everything outside the fort, including dwellings, barns, cat 
tle, grain, and hay, was destroyed. The fort fired alarm- 
guns, which were answered from Montreal and Chambly. 
The prisoners informed him, that while an invasion was 
expected the French had eight hundred men in the fort, 
but, learning that Winthrop had retired, and their scouts 
reporting no enemy approaching, they had been with 
drawn the day before. 

Schuyler, unable to persuade his Indians to join in 
an attack oil the fort, ordered a retreat. With no enemy 
in sight, and safe from immediate pursuit, on reaching 
the woods he halted, and the men sat down to rest. 
While eating their lunch they were amused with the 
music of the great guns fired from the several forts. They 
reached their canoes without being molested, and arrived 
at Albany on August 3oth. He saved the first expe 
dition against Canada from utter contempt. Leisler, in 
his report to the English Government, refers to Schuy- 
Voi, II. 15 


ler s exploits with some satisfaction, but suppresses his 

In the spring of 1691, Captain Schuyler and a party of 
Indians, with some whites, made another invasion into 
Canada. They were within a short distance of Montreal, 
when some Indian deserters gave notice of their approach, 
which enabled the farmers to take refuge in the forts. 
The French troops had been withdrawn to Quebec, and 
the country around Montreal was stripped of its defend 
ers. Outside of the walls of the fort the invaders found 
no opposition, and destroyed everything within their reach. 
These raiding parties continued their depredations until 
midsummer, inflicting an immense amount of damage and 
reducing Canada to a state of famine. 

Johannes Schuyler, having been appointed a lieutenant 
of a cavalry company, actively participated in the cam 
paign against the French, who invaded the Mohawk coun 
try in January, 1693, and rendered, with his company, 
material assistance in driving them across the Hudson. 
By his marriage, in 1695, with a sister of Dr. Samuel 
Staats, a prominent member of the Leislerian party, he 
won the confidence of that faction, and lost, for a time, 
that of their opponents, with whom he had hitherto affili 
ated. Soon after his marriage he was elected an alder 
man, and by successive elections held the office several 
years. The Earl of Bellomont took him into favor, and 
employed him on several occasions for delicate and im 
portant business. When the Five Nations were agitated 
over the question of their countrymen still held as pris 
oners in Canada, notwithstanding the peace of 1697, 
Bellomont saw the necessity of making some demonstra 
tion in their favor. He ordered Major Wessels to attend 
their conference at Onondaga, and despatched Schuyler 
with letters to Count de Frontenac. Schuyler was in- 


structed to urge upon the count a surrender of the Indian 
prisoners, in accordance with the terms of the treaty ; and 
also to learn, if possible, the intentions of the French as 
to their threatened invasion of the Indian country, as well 
as their strength and the state of their preparations. Im 
mediately on his arrival at Quebec he called and delivered 
his despatches to the governor, who on reading them 
" seemed much displeased," but said, " I am not afraid." 
A day or two afterward they had another interview, when 
Frontenac asked him about the strength of Bellomont s 
government. Schuyler s reply, that he could raise a hun 
dred thousand men, at first may seem grossly exaggerated. 
But as all New England, New Jersey, and New York were 
under Bellomont s control for military purposes, and as he 
had declared that he would arm every man, if need be, it 
seems less unreasonable. In all their subsequent discus 
sions, Schuyler maintained his positions with dignity and 
ability. The count treated him with politeness, and gave 
him a dinner, at which were present the chief officers and 
dignitaries of Canada. 

On his return Schuyler made his report to the governor 
and Council, on October 6th, and was warmly congratulated 
on his success. At the suggestion of Bellomont a gratuity 
was voted to him, " in consideration of his extraordinary 
diligence and his wise observations while in Canada." 

Frontenac, however, was not diverted from his previous 
views and measures as to his treatment of the Iroquois. 
He sent a courteous letter to Bellomont, but said that he 
was determined to pursue unflinchingly the course he had 
marked out for himself, and that all attempts to thwart 
him would prove useless. He was then seventy-eight 
years old, and did not live to carry out his policy. The 
shadow of death was then upon him, and three months 
afterward he died. 


In the following winter, 1699, the eloquent Dekanissora 
and another sachem came to Albany on business of import 
ance. They informed the commissioners for Indian affairs 
that they had resolved to send a deputation to Canada 
to procure the release of their countrymen from their long 
imprisonment, despairing of anything effectual being done 
in this regard by the English. More than this, they had 
been informed by M. Maricour that Johannes Schuyler 
on his late visit in Canada had secured them faster than 
ever ; yea, he had "clinched them with silver nails," and 
had insulted their whole nation by comparing them to 
negro slaves. This report of what Schuyler had said and 
done in his official capacity created excitement. A special 
meeting of the commissioners was held, at Schuyler s re 
quest, which was attended by six French gentlemen then 
in Albany. Schuyler appeared before them, and most 
emphatically denied the words and acts attributed to him. 
He pronounced the story a most malicious falsehood. If 
Maricour was the author of it, he was neither a gentleman 
nor an honest man. The French gentlemen admitted that 
the story was false, and said that M. Maricour was not its 
author, but that it was rather the invention of the Indians. 
There were some French Indians at the meeting, who ex 
pressed the opinion that the scandal had been put into 
circulation by the Iroquois themselves for their own sin 
ister purposes. Confronted by such testimony, Dekanis 
sora said that he was satisfied that the story was false, 
and that Schuyler should be exonerated from all blame. 

Bellomont s visit to New England made him acquainted 
with the Indian question as affecting that portion of his 
master s dominions. The powerful Indian nations occu 
pying Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island had 
been annihilated, or brought into subjection, but the Abe- 
nakis, or eastern Indians, under the influence of the 


French, still kept up a desolating war on the settlements 
of Maine and New Hampshire. Bellomont conceived the 
project of detaching them from French influence, and 
thus giving peace to the borders. In a letter to the Lords 
of Trade, September 30, 1698, he says : 

" I have in view to make a peace with the Eastern Ind 
ians, who during all the late war, have been such a 
scourge to the New England colonies, and that by means 
of one Schuyler, a. Dutchman, a man very popular with 
the Schaghticoke Indians, who were driven out of New 
England some years since, and being related to the East 
ern Indians, are held in much esteem by them. This 
Schuyler will soon visit the East, and take with him some 
Schaghticoke sachems, by whose means he is confident he 
can prevail on those Eastern hostiles to make a perpetual 
peace. And further he hopes to induce them to come and 
make a settlement in this province among their kindred." 

The Schaghticokes were the remnant of a New England 
tribe who, in the war of 1675, made their way west, arid 
procured a small territory from their kindred, the Mohe- 
gans, or River Indians, situate on the east side of the 
Hudson above Albany. They were never numerous ; so 
few, indeed, that they had more land than they needed, and 
had sold portions of it to the city of Albany, to Hendrick 
Van Rensselaer, and others. They professed to be sub 
ject to the English, and had often met them in council, 
professedly to " brighten the covenant-chain," but really 
to receive the presents distributed on such occasions. 
They were never considered efficient or trustworthy allies. 
From time to time some of them would emigrate to Can 
ada, until in 1754 the few remaining were carried off by a 
war-party of their friends. Had Bellomont succeeded in 
removing any considerable number of the Abenakis to 
Schaghticoke, it is doubtful whether they would have 


proved a source of strength more likely of weakness. 
They were thoroughly under French influence, many of 
them being proselytes of the Jesuits having a settlement 
in Canada. It is more than probable that they would 
have proved a scourge rather than a blessing. 

It is not known whether Schuyler visited the eastern 
Indians, as he proposed, but it is fair to infer that nego 
tiations had been opened with them, and some influence 
had been used to induce them to consider the subject ; 
for in August, 1700, ten or twelve of their sachems, one 
of whom spoke good English, were in Albany at a con 
ference with the Five Nations, whence they proceeded to 
the Mohawk country and made their submission, wishing 
to be received as allies, and pledging themselves to aban 
don the French and be at peace with the English. Bello- 
mont assumed much credit to himself for this apparent 
success in his plans. He wrote to the Board of Trade : 

" This submission proceeds from my management. It 
is a lucky thing ; and the people of New England have 
reason to bless God that they are forever hereafter secure 
from Savages who have been a cruel thorn in their sides." 

How mistaken in his forecast of the future ! for a little 
later they renewed the barbarous war, which lasted, with 
short intervals of peace, more than forty years. 

In October following news was brought to Albany that 
the French, notwithstanding the peace, had treacherously 
attacked a hunting party of the Five Nations, and killed 
or captured the whole number. Johannes Schuyler was 
despatched to New York to report the news of the out 
rage to the governor. On this visit the Abenaki business 
was again discussed, and some definite plan of operation 
was agreed on. The governor wrote to him on November 
7, 1700 : 


" I promised you when we parted, I would send you my 
instructions, as to what you were to do in relation to our 
Indians, and as to the Eastern Indians, and also as to the 
French Bushlopers. But I consider a letter from me is 
to the full as good as any instructions I can send you." 

In January, 1701, Bellomont again wrote to the Lords of 
Trade : 

"I design to invite the Eastern Indians to settle at 
Schaghticoke, and make a perpetual league between them 
and our Five Nations. For this purpose I make use of 
Colonel Schuyler s brother." 

The governor now proposed to employ him as his confi 
dential agent, in his negotiations with the eastern Indians 
and in other affairs, but did not wish his correspondence 
to go on the records of the Council, that publicity might 
be avoided. His letter, before referred to, continues : 

"Try by all means by your messengers chosen from the 
Schaghticoke Indians to bring the Eastern Indians, and 
settle them at Schaghticoke. Try to have some of their 
sachems visit me in New York and meet some of the Five 
Nations. Ail your expenses shall be repaid with thanks. 
Should you succeed, I shall not consider the best service 
I can do you misbestowed. I desire you will encourage 
the Frenchmen who come to us from Canada. It will be 
a great service to the King and country. Assure the 
Eastern Indians, I will give them good presents, when they 
come to see me." 

Schuyler replied on January yth : 

" Since the receipt of your Lordship s letter, I have been 
trying to procure the Indian messengers, but could not till 
now, as they were off hunting. On the 17. December last, 
I learned some had returned home, when I visited them, 
and arranged for a meeting at my house in Albany. They 


met me according to appointment. When I made known 
to them your Lordship s wishes, they were delighted that 
your Excellency took so much interest in them. With 
your patronage they expect to become a great nation. 
Instead of three, they propose to send four messengers, 
but desire a few days time in order to select the proper 

A month later he wrote : 

" The messengers were selected according to promise, 
and being supplied with every thing requisite for the jour 
ney, they left on the 12. January last, bearing your belt 
and message to the Eastern Indians. The deep snow pre 
vented my journey to Canada, as I had intended. That 
business waits for a more favorable opportunity." 

Bellomont replied on February 29th. 

" I am mightily satisfied with your proceedings in the 
Eastern question. If you succeed, you will do the King a 
valuable service, for which I will take care that you are 
suitably rewarded. Take good care of Louis Goselyn, the 
Frenchman, and pay him twenty pieces of f, all in one sum 
on my account." 

Schuyler answered on March i4th : 

" Nothing has been heard from the Indian messengers 
since they left. I trust on their return, they will bring 
satisfactory information. As for Louis Goselyn, I find 
him to be a civil young man. He intends to visit your 
Excellency soon, and for that reason have given him no 
money, only some clothing." 

Nine days before this letter was written Bellomont had 
died. The intercourse between Albany and New York in 
the winter season was infrequent and uncertain, Indian 
couriers being chiefly employed as mail-carriers. The 
death of the governor interrupted, if it did not terminate, 
the negotiations with the eastern Indians. When Schuy- 


ler received the intelligence of Bellomont s death, he ad 
dressed a letter to the Council, with which he enclosed 
the correspondence and other papers relating to that busi 
ness. After due consideration, the Council directed him 
to proceed in accordance with the instructions which he 
had received. 

The Indian messengers returned after a prolonged ab 
sence, and reported to Schuyler : That at the end of sixty- 
three days from the time they left Albany they reached 
the first castle of the eastern Indians, and found only one 
sachem at home, the others being absent hunting ; that 
they delivered their message with the belt to him, and it 
was kindly received, but he could give no definite answer 
until the absent sachems returned from the woods ; that 
he engaged to forward the belt and message to the other 
villages of his nation, and assured the delegates they 
might expect an answer by the next new moon. What that 
answer was, if ever sent, is not known. Domestic affairs 
occupied the attention of the acting governor, Nanfan, to 
the exclusion of other business, and negotiations with the 
eastern Indians were suffered to sleep and be forgotten. 
They had been undertaken to secure quiet and safety to 
the border settlements of New England, and although 
they were apparently fruitless, Schuyler did not lose his 
interest in behalf of the people he had sought to protect. 

Hutchinson, the historian of Massachusetts, while accus 
ing the Albanians of trading on the sufferings inflicted by 
the French and Indian scalping parties, also said : 

" Some of the best people of Albany detested the infa 
mous traffic, particularly Col. John Schuyler, who, by 
means of Indians in the English interests, informed himself 
of the intended expeditions, and gave frequent notice to 
our people on the frontiers. But many inroads he had it 
not in his power to discover." 


He gave timely notice of the intended attack on Deer- 
field by a party of 300 French and Indians ; but the peo 
ple neglected their watch, and were destroyed to the 
number of 47 killed and 147 taken prisoners. Two years 
later he warned the people of New England that 270 men 
had left Canada for some unknown destination. They ap 
peared at Dunstable, on the Merrimack, where they burned 
a fort in which were twenty soldiers ; and at Reading, 
only eighteen miles from Boston, where they surprised a 
woman and eight children, killing the woman and three 
children and carrying off the others. These efforts to 
shield the settlers of New England from the tomahawk 
and scalping-knife were not limited to a few years, but 
were continued until age and infirmities compelled him to 
desist. In 1724 the governor of Massachusetts proposed 
to hold a conference at Albany with the sachems of the 
Mohawk proselytes residing in Canada, deputies of the 
Five Nations being present and assisting, for the purpose 
of conciliating them and cementing a friendship with the 
English. This conference could be held only by the con 
sent of the governor of New York, which was readily given 
by Governor Burnet. Massachusetts appointed as com 
missioners to manage the negotiations John Stoddard, of 
Boston, member of the Council, and Colonel John Schuy- 
ler, of Albany. His services must have been appreciated, 
and his ability recognized, to have obtained for him this 
honorable and responsible position. 

The negotiations were managed by the deputies of Mas 
sachusetts assisted by the cpmmissioners of New York, 
and were in some respects successful. The Canada Ind 
ians promised " not to make war on Boston any longer," 
and the Five Nations undertook to restrain the eastern 
Indians from further hostilities. It was a time of peace 
between the English and French crowns, but the Cana- 


dians, regardless alike of the peace and of humanity, stimu 
lated the Abenakis to war, and furnished them with sup 
plies and volunteers. Jealous lest the English should ap 
proach too near their frontiers, they hoped by means of 
these savages to expel them from the country east of the 
Kennebeck River. In this they had the approval of their 
king and government. 

In the following September Commissioner Stoddard 
again came to Albany, to receive the report of the sachems 
of the Five Nations who had been on a mission to a sec 
tion of the Abenakis domiciled in Canada. They reported 
that they had had an interview with the Abenaki sachems 
at Montreal in presence of Vaudreuil. the governor, and 
that they flatly refused to cease their war on New Eng 
land, until the English abandoned all claim to their lands 
and restored to liberty their countrymen, who they al 
leged were unjustly detained as prisoners ; nor would 
they come to treat with them, either at Boston or Albany, 
but if they wanted peace they must come to Montreal, 
and treat in presence of " Father Onontio " (the French 
governor). These forest warriors, under the eyes of On 
ontio, assumed a lofty carriage, but, like all the native 
races, after years of bloodshed they were at last obliged 
to submit. 

After the sachems had delivered their report, Governor 
Burnet and Mr. Stoddard urged the Five Nations to make 
war on these haughty and unrelenting Indians, and oblige 
them to accept terms of peace. But no argument, no per 
suasions could induce them to take up the hatchet. They 
said that England and France were at peace ; that there 
was now an open path from Canada to Albany on the one 
hand, and to the Five Nations on the other. Should they 
strike the Abenakis, they would be embroiled in war with 
the Canadians. They did not want war with the French, 


for, said they, "We know what whipping and scourging is 
from the governor of Canada. We have tried three times 
to have them make peace with you, and have failed. We 
would have you try it now yourselves, and see what you 
can do." 

Massachusetts acted on their advice, and did "try it." 
The next spring, in March, 1725, Mr. Dudley, son of the 
governor, and two other deputies from Massachusetts, 
arrived in Montreal. On their journey they had been 
joined at Albany by Colonel John Schuyler, whose pres 
ence in Canada with the deputies was considered of great 
importance. Many of the Schaghticoke Indians had emi 
grated to Canada, and were living in the Abenaki villages 
on the St. Lawrence. They still retained a great affection 
for their old friend and patron. It was supposed that 
through them he might exert a good influence over their 
hostile relatives. The deputies, in their interviews with 
Vaudreuil, demanded that he should deliver up the pris 
oners taken by the Indians from New England ; and that 
he should render no further assistance to those savages, 
but compel them to stop the war. 

Vaudreuil hypocritically replied that the war was not 
his ; nor did he hold the prisoners, except such as had 
been purchased from their captors by the French ; that 
they themselves must treat with the Abenakis. For this 
purpose he sent for their sachems, that the negotiations 
might be conducted in his presence. The sachems were 
proud and defiant as usual, and would not listen to any 
terms, except those proposed by themselves. Schuyler 
had visited them privately the night before, but had been 
unable to impress them favorably toward a peace. They 
were too near the person of Onontio to be open to argu 
ment or conviction. 

In 1709, when a second expedition for the invasion of 


Canada was being arranged, Schuyler was sent to Onon- 
daga to enlist the Five Nations in the project. He found 
there some Frenchmen, who became nervous about their 
own safety and fled in various directions. A Jesuit priest 
put himself under his protection, and with his servant ac 
companied him to Albany. His mission was successful, 
and the Indians participated in the operations of the cam 
paign, such as it was. Subsequently Schuyler had com 
mand of some forces which were sent down on the east side 
of Lake Champlain to observe the enemy, and intercept 
a war-party supposed to be on its march toward the Con 
necticut River. His command did not come into contact 
with the French, but did efficient service in deterring them 
from a march on the headquarters of the English at Fort 
Ann, where they might have inflicted serious damage by 
superior numbers. Toward the close of operations, Lieu 
tenant Barent Staats, a nephew of Schuyler s wife, was 
taken prisoner by an Indian scout and carried to Mon 
treal. The Jesuit and his servant being yet in Albany, 
Schuyler proposed to go to Canada and exchange them 
for Staats. The arrangement was consummated, and 
Staats after a short captivity returned to his friends. 

Johannes Schuyler, whatever may have been his politics, 
was held in much estimation by his fellow-citizens. He 
was elected to the Common Council for several successive 
years, and was mayor of the city from 1703 to 1706. He 
was elected to the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Assemblies, 
serving from September i, 1710, to March 3, 1713. While 
mayor and alderman he was ex-officio member of the 
Board for Indian Affairs, and at other times held the posi 
tion by appointment, serving in such capacity altogether 
eighteen years. 

The land transactions of Johannes Schuyler were con 
siderable, but not as extensive as those of his brother 


Peter, and were small compared to those of his brothers- 
in-law, Stephanus Van Cortlandt and Robert Livingston. 
He purchased about two thousand acres on the south side 
of the Mohawk River east of Schenectady, which was 
named Rosendale. He was one of the company which 
procured a patent for land in the Schoharie Valley, named 
Huntersfield for the governor, Robert Hunter. He also 
owned the half of a tract of land of two thousand acres on 
the east side of the Hudson River, " on both sides of a 
brook called Tomlinack," and was interested more or less 
in some minor tracts. His most important purchase was 
made in 1702 of Abraham Wendel, to whom it had been 
devised by his father a seventh share in the historical 
Saratoga Patent. 

The outlet of Saratoga Lake, the northern boundary of 
this purchase, afforded a fine water-power, which Schuy- 
ler improved by the erection of mills. The hills near by 
were covered with forests of pine, and the rich soil of the 
intervals along the river was well adapted to agricultural 
purposes. Lying remote from the settlements in the vi 
cinity of Albany, the mill operatives and their families re 
quired supplies at a price only to be afforded by produc 
tion in their neighborhood. Hence, with the artisan came 
the farmer, and a little village soon sprang up on the bluff 
near the Hudson and south of Fish Creek, or outlet of 
Saratoga Lake. It was protected against the attacks of 
enemies by a small fort built of earth and wood, but large 
and strong enough for the safety of the inhabitants when 
threatened by an enemy armed with bows and arrows or 
shot-guns. The settlement had been begun and the fort 
built before Schuyler became the owner of the land ; he 
only pushed the work more vigorously and successfully. 
On the bluff a short distance south of Fish Creek he 
erected a strong brick house, with loop-holes, to supple- 


ment the fort for the protection of his superintendents 
and laborers. When age unfitted him for active employ 
ments, he gave the improved property to his sons, except 
ing the grist-mill, which he reserved to himself. Here 
Philip, his eldest son, took up his residence, and person 
ally superintended the farm and mills ; he remained at 
his post in the fall of 1745 after many of his neighbors 
had retired to Albany for the winter. Here he was killed, 
while bravely defending his little garrison from the as 
saults of the French, and his body consumed in the fire of 
his own dwelling. His fate and the manner of his death 
were unknown to his friends, until the discovery of the 
French officer s journal, before quoted, revealed them. 1 

Johannes Schuyler had four children, two sons and two 
daughters. He buried his wife in the church at Albany, 
June, 1737. Four years later his youngest son, John, Jr., 
was buried at the Flatts, where his grave, covered with 
a sandstone slab, is yet seen. It once contained a metal 
tablet, which has disappeared long since, leaving to stran 
gers no evidence as to whose remains are buried beneath. 
His eldest son, Philip, as we have seen, was killed at 
Saratoga, November, 1745. His eldest daughter, Marga 
rita, married her cousin Philip, eldest son of Colonel 
Peter Schuyler. She is known as the "American Lady." 
She lived until the close of the American Revolution, and 
was buried beside her husband, but no stone marks her 
grave. His youngest daughter, Catalyntje, married Cor- 
nelis Cuyler, a prominent citizen of Albany. 

Johannes Schuyler survived all his brothers and his own 
sons. He died in 1747, and was buried in the church on 
March 2d. His will was dated February 25, 1742, in which 
he gave to his son Philip the grist-mill at Saratoga for his 

1 See pages 114-119. 

240 HIS WILL. 

right of primogeniture, reserving to the children of his 
son John the right to grind, for their own use only, " toll 
free." He also gave to Philip the farm at Saratoga, then 
in his possession, one-half of the saw-mill, and all the " ne 
groes and wenches on the farm, except my negro boy 
Mink." He also to gave to Philip the dwelling-ho.use in 
Albany he then occupied, and half of his undivided 
seventh part of the lands in the Saratoga Patent, out of 
which legacies he must pay to his two sisters ^50 each. 
He had given to his son John one hundred and sixty acres 
of the Saratoga Patent, to which he adds ten acres of wood 
land. To his daughter Margarita, wife of Colonel Philip 
Schuyler, he gave a picture of himself and wife in one 
frame ; and to his daughter Catalyntje, wife of Cornelis 
Cuyler, a large linen-press, for " keepsakes." The remain 
der of his household effects he directed to be divided into 
five parts, one each for his four children and one for his 
stepdaughter, Sara Wendel, wife of Jacob Glen. To his 
daughters he gave each ^475 in cash. The remainder of 
his estate was to be equally divided between his four chil 

His son Philip having died at the hands of the French, 
without children, his gifts to him reverted to his estate. 
He must have become satisfied of his fate, for three 
months after his death, February 25, 1746, he added a 
codicil to the will, giving his daughter Margarita a life 
interest in his dwelling-house, and after her death to his 
daughter Catalyntje in fee. He makes no- other changes, 
and his seventh of the Saratoga Patent remained intact, 
except the small farms he had given to Philip and John, Jr. 

The estate of Johannes Schuyler was large for the times. 
He had been a prosperous merchant, and besides his real 
estate had accumulated much personal property. He 
owned a seventh of the Saratoga Patent, estimated to 


contain about 18,000 acres, as Mr. Bullard says, "of the 
fairest land on the continent," less the farms he had given 
to his sons ; a tract of land of nearly two thousand acres 
on the Mohawk River below Schenectady, less a small 
farm that he had sold ; twenty-five hundred acres in the 
Schoharie Valley ; two thousand acres in the Mohawk 
Valley, not far from Amsterdam ; and one thousand acres 
on the east side of the Hudson, not far from the Van 
Rensselaer manor, besides his dwelling and other real es 
tate in the city. 

His residence was on the south side of State Street, 
opposite North Pearl Street, Albany ; and adjoining to 
the east was the residence of his son John. When South 
Pearl Street was opened his own house was removed, but 
the other is still standing, situate on the southeast corner 
of State and South Pearl Streets. It is one of the few old 
structures left in the city ; the most have fallen before 
the march of improvements. It is a fact worth noting, 
that the house where General Philip Schuyler was born 
and lived in his youth, and the house where he spent his 
married life and in which he died, are still well preserved ; 
the former occupied for business purposes, the latter as a 

VOL. II. 16. 



10. JOHANNES SCHUYLER and Elizabeth Staats. 

358. PHILIP, bp. December 25, 1695, d. s. p. November 17, 1745, O. S. 

359. JOHANNES, bp. October 31, 1697. 

m. Cornelia Van Cortlandt. 

360. MARGARITA, bp. January 12, 1701. 

m. Philip Schuyler (17). 

361. CATALYNTJE, bp. March 5, 1704. 

m. Cornelius Cuyler. 

359. JOHANNES SCHUYLER and Cornelia Van Cortlandt. 

362. GERTRUDE, b. August 18, 1724. 

m. I, Peter Schuyler (20). 

m. 2, December 4, 1760, Dr. John Cochran. 

363. JOHANNES, b. December 30, 1725, d. s. p. November, 1746. 

364. STEPHANUS, b. September 30, 1727, d. y. 

365. CATHERINE, bp. July 14, 1728, d. y. 

366. STEPHANUS, b. December 20, 1729, d. y. 

367. PHILIP, bp. October 17, 1731, d. y. 

368. PHILIP, bp. November n, 1733. 

m. Catherine Van Rensselaer. 

369. CORTLANDT, bp. July 9, 1735. 

m. Barbara . 

370. STEPHANUS, bp. August 14, 1737. 

in. Lena Ten Eyck. 

371. ELIZABETH, bp. October 8, 1738, d. y. 

372. OLIVER, bp. February 22, 1741, d. y. 

368. PHILIP SCHUYLER and Catherine Van Rensselaer. 

373. ANGELICA, bp. February 22, 1756. 

m. John Barker Church. 

374. ELIZABETH, b. August 7, 1757. 

m. Alexander Hamilton. 

375. MARGARITA, bp. September 24, 1758. 

m. Stephen Van Rensselaer. 


376. CORNELIA, bp. August i, 1761, d. y. 

377. JOHN BRADSTREET, bp. October 8, 1763, d. y. 

378. JOHN BRADSTREET, bp. at home, July 23, 1765. 

m. Elizabeth Van Rensselaer. 

379. PHILIP JEREMIAH, b. January 20, 1768. 

m. I, Sarah Rutsen. . 

m. 2, Mary A. Sawyer, of Newburyport, 

380. RENSSELAER, b. January 29, 1773. 

m. Eliza Ten Broeck. 

381. CORNELIA, b. December 22, 1776. 

m. Washington Morton. 

382. CORTLANDT, b. May 15, 1778, d. y. 

383. CATHERINE VAN RENSSELAER, b. February 20, 1781. 

m. I, Samuel Malcolm. 
m. 2, James Cochran. 

369. CORTLANDT SCHUYLER and Barbara . 

384. JOHN CORTLANDT, d. s. p. last of December, 1793. 

m. Angelica Van Rensselaer. 
Other children who returned to Ireland with their mother. 

370. STEPHANUS SCHUYLER and Lena Ten Eyck. 

385. JOHANNES, b. January 5, 1764. 

m. Catharine Cttyfer, d. 1853, at Whitesboro , N. Y., 
aged 8 1. 

386. TOBIAS, b. November 27, 1766, d. y. 

387. PHILIP, b. January 24, 1768, d. y. 

388. TOBIAS, b. May 20, 1770, d. s. p. July 2, 1804. 

389. HENRY TEN EYCK, b. December 30, 1772. 

m. Sarah Visscher* 

390. PHILIP VAN CORTLANDT, b. July 30, 1775. 

m. Cynthia Carpenter. 

391. CORNELIA, b. November 30, 1777, d. y. 

392. BARENT, b. April 12, 1780, d. s. p. February n, 1833. 

393. STEPHEN VAN RENSSELAER, b. October 3, 1784. 

m. . 

394. CORTLANDT, d. s. p. July 31, 1858. He was buried from his 

residence in Tivoli Hollow. 

378. JOHN BRADSTREET SCHUYLER and ElizabethVan Rensselaer. 

395. PHILIP, b. October 26, 1788. 

m. Grace Hunter. 

396. STEPHEN VAN RENSSELAER, b. May 4, 1790, d. y. 


397. PHILIP P., m. Rosanna Livingston. 

398. CATHERINE, m. Samuel Jones. 


399. JOHN R., d. y. 

400. ROBERT, m. Lucinda Wood. 

401. STEPHEN V. R., m. Catherine Morris. 


402. WILLIAM, d. aged 22 years, unmarried. 

403. SYBILL, d. y. 

404. GEORGE L., b. June 9, 1811. 

m. I, Eliza Hamilton. 

m. 2, Mary Morris Hamilton. 

385. JOHN S. SCHUYLER and Catharine Cuyler. 

405. STEPHEN, d. y. 

406. STEPHEN, d. s. p. at Schenectady, N. Y. 

407. ABRAHAM, d. s. p. at Whitesboro , N. Y. 

408. CUYLER NICHOLAS, d. s. p. at Whitesboro , N. Y. 

409. HELEN. 

410. BARENT, m. Mercy Knrney. 

411. MARGARET, m. William Palmer. 

412. JOHN, m. Elizabeth Edick. 

413. HENRY, d. s. p. at New Hartford, N. Y. 

414. CORNELIA VAN RENSSELAER ; resides at Whitestown, N. Y. 

389. HENRY TEN EYCK SCHUYLER and Sarah Visscher. 

415. CORNELIA, d. y. 

416. AGNES, d. y. 

417. SARAH, d. y. 

418. JOHN, d. January I, 1816, aged 12 years. 

419. STEPHEN ; resides near Montreal in Canada. 

420. HELEN, d. y. 

390. PHILIP VAN CORTLANDT SCHUYLER and Cynthia Carpenter. 

421. JOHN C, m. . 

422. HELEN, m. Ransom Stone, Oneida, N. Y. 

423. ANN, m. Smith ; resides in Wisconsin. 

424. STEPHEN V. R. ; resides in Oneida, N. Y. 

425. PHILIP CORTLANDT ; resides in Rice County, Minn. 

426. ABIGAIL, m. Ira Hitchcock. 

393. STEPHEN V. R. SCHUYLER and . 

427. CORTLANDT, d. s. p. 

428. HELEN, d. y. 

429. ADELA. 

395. PHILIP SCHUYLER and Grace Hunter. 

430. RUTH, m. 7\ W. Ogden. 

431. ELIZABETH, m. R. H. Ogden. 

432. GRACE. 

433. CATHERINE, m. Rev. John Bolton. 


434. HARRIET. 

435. LETITIA, m. C. H. de Luze. 

436. FANNY. 

437. JOHN. 

438. MARY. 

400. ROBERT SCHUYLER and Lucinda Wood. 

439. JuLiAW., m. Rev. W. O. Lamson. 

440. ROBERT, m. . 

441. LOUISA F., m. Mars. 

442. KATHARINE, m. Grosvenor. 

443. GEORGE W., m. Magdalina Coster. 

/M/|. WILLIAM S. ; killed in the civil war, at Cold Spring, Va. 

401. STEPHEN V. R. SCHUYLER and Catherine Morris. 

445. STEPHEN, d. y. 

446. SARAH R., d. y. 

447. GEORGIANA, d. y. 

404. GEORGE L. SCHUYLER and Eliza Hamilton. 

448. PHILIP, m. Harriet Lowndes, wid. of Eugene Langdon. 



410. BARENT SCHUYLER and Mercy Kurney. 

451. JOSEPH, m. and resides at Hamilton, N. Y. 

452. NANCY ; resides in Utica, N. Y. 

412. JOHN SCHUYLER and Elizabeth Edick. 

453. ROBERT ; killed in the civil war, at the battle of the Wilderness. 

454. JOHN ; resides in Geauga County, Ohio. 

455. HENRY; resides in Geauga County, Ohio. 

421. JOHN C. SCHUYLER and - - ; removed to Wisconsin. 

456. PHILIP ; resides in Rice County, Minn. 
457- J OHN > m - 

457. JOHN SCHUYLER and ; resides in Rice County, Minn. 

458. PHILIP. 

459. ADELA. 


JOHANNES SCHUYLER S wife, Elizabeth Staats, was the 
daughter of Doctor Abraham Staats, who came to Bever- 
wyck, in 1642, with Dominie Megapolensis, sent out by 
Killian Van Rensselaer to his colony. Besides practising 
at his profession, Dr. Staats engaged in the Indian trade, 
and shipped large quantities of furs to Holland. He took 
up a tract of land on the east side of the Hudson River, 
lying along the Kinderhook Creek, which was long known 
as Captain Abrahamse s (Staats) Kill. He also engaged in 
the transportation business, commanding his own sloop 
plying between Beverwyck and Manhattan, and in this 
way was better known as captain than as doctor. He had 
four sons and one daughter. Two of his sons were physi 
cians, one of whom was the well-known Doctor Samuel 
Staats, of New York. Elizabeth Staats, when Schuyler 
married her, was the widow of Captain Johannes Wendell 
and the mother of eleven children. Her youngest son, 
Jacob, by her first husband, removed to Boston, and sur 
prised the Yankees that a Dutchman could become a lead 
ing merchant and politician in that town. 

JOHN SCHUYLER, Jr. (359), died too early in life for the 
full development of his abilities, just as he had begun a 
career which gave promise of great usefulness, wealth, 
and high social and political position. He succeeded his 


father, with whom he had been in partnership, in the mer 
cantile business about 1733, and the same year was ap 
pointed, with J. De Peyster, a commissioner to furnish 
supplies to the forts at Oswego, which position he held 
several successive years. He was elected an alderman of 
the first ward in September, 1738, and again in 1739. He 
took a seat at the Board for Indian Affairs in December 
of the latter year. President Clarke appointed him mayor 
of Albany, and he "took the oaths appointed bylaw" on 
October 31, 1740. He died a year later, and was buried at 
the Flatts on November 6, 1741. 

Schuyler began to make investments in lands as soon as 
he acquired surplus capital. In December, 1722, he 
bought of Philip Livingston, trustee, a portion of the Sara 
toga Patent, lying on the east side of the Hudson and 
bounded north by the Batten Kill. On August 10, 1738, 
the land commissioners issued to him, Jacob Glen, and 
Arent Bratt a certificate of survey of a tract of land which 
they had purchased by license of the Indians, situated on 
the north side of the Mohawk River, beginning below the 
Little Falls, extending west to Canada Creek, and thence 
north along the creek thirty miles, thence east twelve 
miles, and thence south to the place of beginning. It was 
a large tract, too large for three men, for it exceeded the 
limits prescribed by law. When the patent was issued, a 
year later, two thousand acres were granted to each of the 
parties. In 1740 Schuyler and five others procured a title 
from the province for twelve thousand acres, lying on the 
east side of the Hudson above the Saratoga Patent, of 
which he had an equal share. 

If John Schuyler, Jr., left a will, I have been unable to 
find it. Although he died before his father, arid could not, 
therefore, add his paternal patrimony to his own property, 
he left a very respectable estate to his own family. 


Cornelia Van Cortlandt, the wife of John Schuyler, Jr., 
was the youngest daughter of Stephanus Van Cortlandt 
and Gertrude Schuyler (3). By the terms of her father s 
will, she shared equally with her ten brothers and sisters 
in his large estate. One of the brothers dying unmarried, 
he devised by will his share to the other ten heirs. Van 
Cortlandt was one of the richest men in the province ; 
besides his manor, which was found by accurate survey to 
contain over 86,000 acres, he possessed lands on the Wap- 
pinger Creek, lands in New Jersey, lands and houses in 
New York City, and much personal property. Cornelia 
Schuyler, after her husband s death, procured a patent, on 
July 1 6, 1742, for thirteen hundred acres of land on the 
east side of the Hudson, near Fort Miller. Thus it will 
be seen that in her own right she possessed a considerable 
estate. She made her will on November 29, 1758, to which 
she added a codicil on August 26, 1760, giving to her son 
Philip ^30 in satisfaction of his birthright as eldest son ; 
to her sons Philip and Stephen, a farm on the east side of 
the Hudson, next to Philip Verplanck s, to be equally di 
vided between them ; to her daughter Gertrude, widow of 
Peter Schuyler, two houses and lots on Queen (Pearl) 
Street, New York, to which she added in the codicil ^700 
for her use during life, and therewith ^1,000 additional to 
be divided between her two children, Peter and Cornelia ; 
and to her son Cortlandt, then an officer in the army, sta 
tioned at Cork, Ireland, ^1,800, which she considered 
equivalent to each of the farms devised to the other sons. 
The residue of the estate was to be divided equally be 
tween the four children. The will was proved on Novem 
ber 24, 1762. 

MARGARITA SCHUYLER (360), like her grandmother, 
Margarita Van Slichtenhorst, for whom she was named, 
was a very remarkable woman. She had no children, 


and her well-trained servants relieved her from the cares 
of the household. She was fond of reading, and had 
leisure to indulge her taste ; as there were few novels and 
no popular magazines, her studies were confined to history, 
religion, and politics, in which she made great proficiency. 
She had numerous relatives residing in New York, and, as her 
husband was a member of the Assembly for several years, 
she frequently accompanied him to the capital, where she 
enjoyed the best society of the province. At home she en 
tertained often and liberally. The best citizens of Albany, 
and English officers stationed on the frontier, considered 
it a privilege to attend her receptions. Many of the offi 
cers sought her society for the knowledge she could impart 
on the situation of the country past and present, and be 
cause of her general information. She was on intimate 
terms with Lord Howe, who fell at Lake George in Aber- 
cromby s campaign, and with other officers of a like char 
acter, who were often at her table. In her early years she 
possessed a graceful form and figure, but after middle life 
she became large unusually so ; her conversation, however, 
lost none of its charm and vivacity. Wherein the summer 
of 1763, Colonel Bradstreet announced to her that her 
house was on fire, she did not lose her self-possession, but 
ordered her servants to remove her in her chair to the 
lawn, where she sat with perfect composure while direct 
ing the removal of the furniture. 

Having no children of her own, she took an unusual 
interest in those of her relatives. Her husband s brothers, 
Peter and Jeremiah, lived not far from her residence at 
the Flatts, and their children she. regarded as her own, as 
she did those of her brother and sister. The future gen 
eral was one of her favorite nephews, and her frequent 
guest. Her interest in the young people was unfailing, 
assuming the tenderness of a mother ; but when she came 


to make her will she showed that there was a difference 
in her love for the one and the other. She directed her 
estate to be divided into tea parts, one each for the four 
children of her brother and the six children of her sister, 
Mrs. Cuyler. Not one of her husband s nephews or nieces 
received anything by which to bear her in remembrance. 

She had associated so much with English officers, civil 
and military, that when the revolutionary agitations be 
gan her sympathies were found to be with the crown, but 
she was not a Tory in the broad sense of the word. She 
took middle ground, and hoped that a way might be found 
for reconciliation. She loved her country and her rela 
tives, and did not wish to see them involved in civil war. 
She lived long enough, however, to know that the Ameri 
can cause had been successful, and that the war was virtu 
ally at an end. 

She died, on August 22, 1782, in the eighty-second year 
of her age, and was buried in the private cemetery at the 
Flatts between the graves of her long-loved husband and 
her brother John. No stone or other memorial marks her 
resting-place. But Mrs. Grant, of Laggan, a Scotch lady, 
has erected a monument to her memory more enduring 
than brass or marble, in " The Memoirs of an American 
Lady." l 

CATALYNTJE SCHUYLER (361) married Cornelius Cuyler. 
The Cuyler family was of German origin. Hendrick 
Cuyler, a tailor, came to Albany about 1664. His son 
Johannes was a merchant, and a man of much prominence 
in business and political circles ; he was an alderman, com 
missioner of Indian affairs, and mayor of the city. His 
wife was a daughter of Dirck Wesselse Ten Broeck. His 

1 When this book is reprinted its errors of genealogy should be corrected 
in footnotes. It could be done quite easily. 


son Cornelius was also a merchant, and for many years 
held a leading position in the city of his birth. He was 
mayor for four years by successive appointments, and a 
member of the Board of Indian Affairs for fourteen years. 
His children intermarried with the Van Cortlandts and 
other highly respectable families. 

One son of Cornelius Cuyler and Catalyntje Schuyler, 
also Cornelius, born at Albany in 1741, became a general 
officer in the British army, colonel of the Sixty-ninth 
Foot, and governor of Kinsale. He distinguished himself 
by the capture of Tobago, and on October 29, 1814, was 
created a baronet. His eldest son, Charles, the second 
baronet, was also in the Sixty-ninth Foot and a major-gen 
eral. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Charles Henry 
Johnes, who had served in important colonial offices in 
Trinidad and Honduras. Another son is a clergyman ; 
and another, George Augustus, a colonel of the Bengal 
Staff Corps. 

GERTRUDE SCHUYLER (362) married, first, Peter (20) the 
eldest son of Peter Schuyler, Jr., [Pedrom] (18), and sub 
sequently Dr. John Cochran. 

The remote ancestors of Dr. John Cochran were Scotch. 
The branch from which he derived descent removed to 
the north of Ireland in 1570. His father, James, and two 
brothers emigrated, and settled in Chester, Pa. He stud 
ied medicine at Lancaster, and, after bei> ^ admitted to 
practice, volunteered as surgeon s mate in the northern 
army in the last French and Indian war, and accompanied 
Colonel Bradstreet on his march against Fort Frontenac 
in 1758. In this expedition he became acquainted with 
Philip Schuyler (368), and on his return to Albany 
with his sister Gertrude (362), then a young widow. After 
his marriage, on December 4, 1760, he removed to New 
Brunswick, N. J., and engaged in the practice of his pro- 


fession. In the winter of 1776 he offered his services to 
Congress in the hospital department. In April, 1777, on 
the recommendation of General Washington, he was 
appointed surgeon-general, and assigned to duty in the 
northern department. In June, 1781, he was promoted to 
the position of director-general of the hospitals of the 
United Colonies. After the war he resided at Albany, and 
some years before his death removed to Palatine, N. Y., 
where, in April, 1807, he died. He was buried at Albany, 
but in 1875 his remains, with those of his wife, were re 
moved to the Forest Hill Cemetery, Utica. 


PHILIP SCHUYLER (368) married Catherine, daughter of 
John Van Rensselaer, of Claverack, who was a son of Hen- 
drick, himself a grandson of Killian, the first patroon of 

Philip Schuyler s family group is one which will at 
tract the attention of every intelligent reader, It in 
cludes one of the first four major-generals appointed by 
the Congress of the confederated colonies when the War of 
Independence began ; a member of the British Parliament ; 
the first Secretary of the Treasury of the United States ; the 
first major-general commanding the Union armies on the 
northern frontiers in the War of 1812, who was also the 
last patroon of Rensselaerwyck ; one of the first men who 
received the name of Washington at the. baptismal font ; 
a son of a Revolutionary general ; the son of one of the 
first surgeon-generals appointed by Congress ; and a mem 
ber of the Fifteenth Congress. 

Philip Schuyler s biography has been written by a promi 
nent historian, and has been often sk^tche . in essays and 
public addresses. His eminent services 10 his country are 
well known ; his fame is established, and becomes brighter 
as years roll by. It is not my purpose, therefore, to give 
an extended account of his life, which would be superflu 
ous. I shall only indicate some points which will serve to 
clear up several matters of doubt, and perhaps be of ser 
vice to future writers. From my earliest recollections, I 
have heard him referred to. by one who knew him well, as 


a man of wonderful executive ability, of broad philan 
thropy, of ardent patriotism, and of great confidence in 
the future greatness of his country. Since the time when 
I have been able to form an estimate of my own in the 
light of history, my early impressions have been confirmed 
and strengthened. 

The genealogical table will clear away the confusion 
which has existed as to his family. He was neither a son 
nor a brother of the celebrated Colonel Peter Schuyler, 
the Quidor of the Indians, as some writers have stated, 
but his nephew in the second degree. Hereafter, writers 
like Chancellor Kent and Mr. Lossing need have no doubt 
as to his American parentage. 

As to his fortune, and how it was acquired, there seems 
to be still less knowledge, although in certain quarters 
there is some importance attached to the question. Mr. 
Lossing, in his " Life of General Philip Schuyler," says that 
he inherited his fine estate at Saratoga " from his uncle 
Philip, killed by the French in 1745. 

Judge Jones, in his " History of New York during the 

1 In this connection he makes other mistakes, which it may be well to cor 
rect. Referring to the destruction of Saratoga and the death of General 
Schuyler s uncle, 1745, he says that "his brother, Colonel Peter Schuyler, 
who had been Indian commissioner for many years, importuned Governor 
Clinton for three hundred men to defend the frontier, and also to have 
the fort rebuilt and garrisoned." Colonel Peter Schuyler, long an Indian 
commissioner, had been dead more than twenty years, and was not his 
brother, as seen by the table. Colonel Peter Schuyler, of New Jersey, had 
occupied the old fort with his Jersey Blues, and had abandoned it as un 
tenable. He was not an Indian commissioner, ncr a brother of Philip 
Schuyler. Perhaps he meant Colonel Philip Schuyler of the Flatts. But 
he was not a brother, only a cousin. In a foot-note, Mr. Lossing says that 
"Fort Saratoga stood upon a hill upon the east side of the Hudson oppo 
site Schuylerville." Not so ; the fort which the French destroyed stood 
on the west side of the Hudson, south of Schuylerville. The new fort, 
which Governor Clinton caused to be built in 1746, stood on the east side 
of the river, and was destroyed by Clinton s orders in the next year, 1747. 


Revolutionary War," says that " Colonel Bradstreet, then 
quartermaster and commissary in that part of the province, 
appointed Schuyler his deputy, and as such he was con 
stantly employed. By this means, from moderate circum 
stances, he became rich. His father, having little personal 
estate, sold provisions." Now, Judge Jones is not good 
authority, but, as the New York Historical Society has 
given his history a quasi endorsement by its publication, 
his insinuations as to Schuyler s integrity in the use of 
public money should be shown to be false. It is true that 
he was appointed commissary under Bradstreet to supply 
the garrison at Oswego, on the recommendation of the 
general commanding, but he resigned the next year. A 
year later he again entered the army, and accepted the 
position of deputy commissary. He continued in the ser 
vice to the end of the campaign, which resulted in the 
conquest of Canada. Colonel Bradstreet had been quar 
termaster and commissary for several years. It was now 
necessary to settle with the government and account for 
the large sums of money which had passed through his 
hands. This accounting could be done better in England 
than in the colony, but as his own health was broken he 
delegated Schuyler to transact the business. He reposed 
implicit confidence in his ability and integrity, having 
known " his zeal, punctuality, and strict honesty in his 
majesty s service." He sailed from New York on this 
business in the spring of 1761, and accomplished his task 
to the satisfaction of his principal and of the government. 
It appears that he was in the commissary department only 
about three years too short a time to have made much 
money from the position, even had he been disposed to 
abuse his trust. The testimony of Bradstreet as to his in 
tegrity, and the satisfactory adjustment of the accounts, 
effectually dispose of Judge Jones insinuations. His fort- 


une was acquired by legitimate means, as I shall now 
proceed to show. 

When Philip Schuyler reached his majority, he re 
nounced his right of primogeniture, and decided to have 
the landed estate to which he was entitled by law, as well 
as the personal estate of his parents, divided equally be 
tween himself, his brothers, and his sister. Nevertheless, 
his share of the estate, when it was divided, constituted a 
respectable property, as must appear from the history of 
his family for three generations. He belonged to an in 
dustrious and saving race, who, by their business abilities 
and economy in expenditures, had laid the foundations of 
large estates. Philip Schuyler inherited the wisdom and 
the ability to increase his patrimony without resorting to 
questionable methods. 

His uncle Philip (358), from whom Mr. Lossing says he 
inherited the fine estate at Saratoga, possessed only a mod 
est property, which he devised by will to his sister Marga 
rita (360) and to four nephews John (363) and Philip 
(368) Schuyler, John and Philip Cuyler. The estate of 
his father, after 1747, included a one-third share of his 
grandfather s property, and remained undivided more than 
twenty years. On July 20, 1762, his brother Cortlandt, 
residing in Cork, Ireland, gave a power of attorney to 
some friends in Albany for the purpose of making a par 
tition among the heirs ; and also authorized them, in case 
of his mother s death, to make a like division of her estate. 
This paper was proved in Albany, on February 8, 1763, by 
"Archibald McElroy, peruke-maker, late of Coleraine, Ire 
land." His mother meantime had died, and her will had 
been proved. The attorneys, therefore, made division of 
both estates, and the heirs, Philip (368), Cortlandt (369), 
Stephen (370), and Gertrude (362), came into possession 
of their respective shares. In what property these shares 


were constituted, I have been unable to learn. From the 
fact that Philip Schuyler about this time controlled the 
Saratoga lands, I infer they were* assigned to him as his 
portion in part. 

A few years later, in 1768, the heirs of Robert Livingston, 
Jr., whose wife was the eldest daughter of Colonel Peter 
Schuyler, to whom her father had given his three-four 
teenths of the Saratoga Patent, made division of their 
lands. Philip Schuyler, by right of purchase, came in for 
nearly four thousand acres, and in July of the same year 
bought another share of nearly four thousand acres. A 
little later the heirs of Jacob Glen transferred to him an 
other lot lying within the bounds of the patent. Philip 
Schuyler (17), his uncle by marriage, left him by his will 
(proved in 1766) a part of the old Schuyler homestead, 
near the present village of West Troy ; and his aunt, Mar 
garita (360), Philip Schuyler s widow, by will made him 
one of her ten legatees in 1782. By his wife, Catherine 
Van Rensselaer, he came into possession of a part of the 
large estate of her father how much I do not know. Thus 
far I have been able to trace a large amount of property 
which came into his hands by inheritance, and some by 
purchase. There may have been more, but I have failed 
to discover it. Enough has been shown to prove that he 
was by no means a poor man, when, in 1763, having retired 
from all other employments, he began to develop his Sara 
toga lands. These were the most valuable of his posses 
sions. On the premises was an unfailing water-power 
of capacity sufficient for the operation of various kinds of 
mills. The country abounded in pine and hard-woods of 
the best quality, and the soil of the intervales along the river 
and water-courses was rich. There was a ready market 
at New York and in the West Indies for all his productions 
at highly remunerative prices. He now increased his 
VOL. II. 17 


facilities for the manufacture of flour and lumber, and 
brought a larger acreage under cultivation. He built a 
flax-mill, the first of the kind in America, for which he re 
ceived a medal from the Society for Promoting Arts, and 
put up a summer mansion near the site of the one de 
stroyed in 1745, on the bluff overlooking the valley of the 
Hudson. So large were the productions from his mills 
and plantations, that to send them to market economically 
he established a transportation line between Albany and 
New York, consisting of a schooner and three sloops. The 
freight was brought from Saratoga to Albany in boats and 
rafts, and then shipped in the larger vessels. He lived 
more than half the year on his estate, giving his personal 
attention to his extensive and lucrative business. Such 
were the means and methods by which he acquired his 

Philip Schuyler occupies a position so prominent in the 
history of his country, that any sketch of his life, however 
brief, would be imperfect, did it not trace the steps by 
which he reached his eminence. The history of his family 
is contained in the preceding pages, as well as that of the 
means by which he acquired his estate. It remains to 
outline his public career. 

His education was obtained in the schools of his native 
city, supplemented by an attendance of not more than two 
years at a select school at New Rochelle, taught by a Hu 
guenot minister, where he studied French and the higher 
mathematics. Although interrupted by a prolonged at 
tack of an hereditary disease, the gout, he acquired a fair 
amount of book-learning, comparing favorably with that 
procured in the colleges of the time. After leaving school 
he spent a few years in the acquisition of that kind of 
knowledge which best fitted him for a business life, partly 
in a mercantile establishment, and partly on trading ex- 


cursions into the interior among the Indians. His personal 
appearance was striking, and his manners pleasant and 
attractive. His family position and his own accomplish 
ments gave him access to the best society of the province, 
while the entire absence of affected superiority made him 
popular with all classes of men. 

At the beginning of the last French and Indian war, 
when he was twenty-two years old, he was authorized by 
Lieutenant-Governor De Lancey to recruit a company of 
men for the army. The ranks were soon filled, and Schuy- 
ler was commissioned their captain. He joined the army 
of Sir William Johnson, destined to operate against Crown 
Point ; and was in the battle of Lake George, September 
8, 1755, in which the French were defeated and their 
wounded general made a prisoner. A few days after the 
battle he returned to Albany to get married. The next 
winter he was in Fort Edward, where his fidelity and effi 
ciency commended him to the notice of the commanding 
general. In the following spring he accompanied Colonel 
Bradstreet with supplies to Oswego. On their return they 
were attacked by a superior force, which they repulsed 
with loss. On this occasion he showed unusual courage 
and humanity in rescuing a wounded Frenchman from 
abandonment and consequent starvation. He and Brad- 
street, with eight men, reached an island in the Oswego 
River, from which they drove thirty of the enemy. They 
held their position until they were about to be cut off, 
when they retreated to their boats. The wounded French 
man begged to be taken with them, but the boat being too 
small to accommodate him, Schuyler took him on his back, 
swam across the stream to the shore, and placed him in 
the hands of the surgeon. The wounded man recovered, 
and was allowed to return home. More than twenty years 
afterward, when General Schuyler was in command of the 


Northern Department, the Frenchman managed to procure 
an interview, and thanked him as the preserver of his life. 

The military operations of the year were not favorable 
to the English, owing chiefly to the incapacity and slow 
ness of their generals, and Schuyler, becoming dissatis 
fied, resigned from the army. In the spring of 1758 he 
again accepted service under Colonel Bradstreet, to whom 
he was warmly attached, as deputy commissary, with the 
rank of major ; but at the close of the war he again re 
signed, and for a few years gave his undivided attention 
to his private business. His affairs frequently called him 
to New York, where he met the governor and other pro 
vincial officials on business or in society. 

The French and Indian wars had taught the colonists 
the use of arms, and inspired them with courage to defend 
their rights by whomsoever assailed. They had learned 
that English officers were frequently incompetent, and 
English soldiers not invincible. The wars, until the last, 
had been maintained largely at their own expense in men 
and money ; and whatever successes had attended the 
English arms had been mainly achieved by themselves. 
The last war, culminating in the fall of the French power 
on the continent, had been sustained in a great measure 
by the British crown. The English Government had fur 
nished troops and money to prosecute it to a successful is 
sue, and now resolved to replenish its treasury by taxing 
the colonies. The colonists claimed the rights of English 
men, and resisted the execution of laws which they had 
had no voice in framing. These views and the measures 
of resistance had the hearty sympathies of Major Schuyler. 

In 1767, a new regiment of militia was organized in the 
territory lying north of Albany, of which Philip Schuyler 
was appointed the colonel, not on account of his "social 
position," but on account of his fitness. He was on inti- 


mate terms with Sir Henry Moore, the governor, who knew 
quite well Colonel Schuyler s political sentiments, and by 
this appointment may have sought to detach him from the 
patriots then fast rising into prominence. Were this the 
motive of the appointment, the governor soon saw its fu 
tility. Early the next year the Assembly was dissolved, 
because it would not legislate according to the wishes and 
recommendations of the governor, and writs were issued 
for a new election. At the solicitation of friends, Colonel 
Schuyler consented to be one of the candidates of the city 
and county of Albany. Of the twenty-seven members com 
posing the Assembly, Albany was entitled to two, chosen 
by the freeholders. The election resulted in favor of his 
ticket; and, with Jacob H. Ten Eyck, the other member, 
he took his seat at the first session, in October, 1768. 

The country was now on the verge of revolution. Eng 
land insisted on taxing the colonies in various forms for 
the purposes of revenue, and the colonists persisted in 
their determination to resist the laws made by a parlia 
ment in which they were not represented. The govern 
ing classes readily submitted to the unjust enactments so 
long as their salaries were paid, but a large majority of the 
people was opposed to their enforcement. Notwithstand 
ing Colonel Schuyler s social position with the former, 
being connected by blood with several of them, his politi 
cal convictions jind sympathies were with the latter. In 
the Legislature he joined the opposition, and steadily acted 
with the people s representatives. One of his earliest acts, 
outside of politics, was the introduction of a bill for the 
preservation and translation of the Dutch records of the 
city and county of Albany. It passed both houses, and 
was signed by the governor on December 31, 1768. 

1 The law was never enforced as to the translation. A century later, 
many of the records were translated by Professor Pearson, of Union Col- 


The Assembly did not meet the expectations of the royal 
governor, and he dissolved it on January 2, 1769. A new 
election was ordered, when Colonel Schuyler and his col 
league were again returned, but the new house contained 
some new men, who strengthened the party of the admin 
istration. Two or three years later, two new counties 
were organized, whose members adhered to the royal 
cause and swelled the loyalist majority. The opposition, 
however, under the leadership of Colonel Schuyler and 
George Clinton, the future governor of the State, undis 
mayed by the number of their opponents, assumed a firmer 
.stand in favor of human rights, and by thus doing inspired 
courage and hope among their constituents. Agitation 
against the acts of Parliament gathered strength, until it 
was proposed to hold a Congress, composed of delegates 
from all the colonies, for consultation on the state of the 
country. Colonel Schuyler was solicited to represent the 
city and county of Albany, but his health was such that 
he could not attend. Twelve colonies sent deputies, and 
their proceedings, though careful and conservative, were 
satisfactory to the friends of liberty. 

The next year it was proposed to hold another Conti 
nental Congress, and since the New York Assembly refused 
to appoint delegates, as had been done by other colonies, 
the people, determined to have a representation, called a 
provincial convention to take this and other matters relat 
ing to their welfare into consideration. The convention 
met in New York on April 2oth, and was attended by 
forty-two delegates chosen from the several counties of 
the province. Colonel Schuyler was one of the depu 
ties from Albany. The session lasted only three days. 

lege, and published by Joel Munsell, as a private enterprise. Nearly three 
thousand pages are yet in the original. It seems a pity that the city of 
Albany cannot spend a few hundred dollars to complete the work. 


Twelve delegates, among them Colonel Schuyler, were 
appointed to the Congress, any five of whom could rep 
resent the colony. Meanwhile the country was rapidly 
d rifling toward war. The convention had adjourned, and 
the country members were on their way home, when the 
news of the skirmish at Lexington was received in New 
York. It was quickly sent to all parts of the province, and 
created intense excitement. The Legislature being sub 
servient to the royal cause, the patriots could not look to 
them for leadership in this alarming crisis, nor could they 
trust them for future legislation. They resorted to the 
revolutionary measure of calling a Provincial Congress, 
which should assume the functions of government. After 
its meeting in New York, on May 23, 1775, the Colonial 
Legislature did not hold another session. 

Colonel Schuyler took his seat in the Continental Con 
gress on May i5th. That body proceeded cautiously, but 
effectively, in its measures of preparation for the impend 
ing conflict. They saw the need of an army, and resolved 
to call twenty thousand men to the field. They appointed 
Colonel George Washington commander-in-chief, four 
major-generals, and several brigadiers. The major-gener 
als were Artemas Ward, of Massachusetts ; Charles Lee, an 
Englishman and a soldier of fortune ; Philip Schuyler, of 
New York ; and Israel Putnam, of Connecticut. With the 
exception of Lee, none of these generals had any experi 
ence in what may be termed civilized warfare. They were 
militia officers, and whatever they knew of military science 
they had learned in the French and Indian wars, under in 
competent English generals. But they were the best that 
the country could produce. They possessed bravery and 
discretion qualities which, judging by the past, did not 
exist to any considerable extent in the English command 
ers to whom they would be opposed. In time they would 


learn the art of war, when they would become more than 
a match for their opponents. 

Major-General Schuyler was put in command of the Nor 
thern Department, or rather of the province of New York. 
Owing to the fact that New York had always been a royal 
province, whose governor and other civil officers were ap 
pointed by the crown, it contained more loyalists, or Tories, 
in proportion to its population, than any of the other colo 
nies. The bulk of the inhabitants were on Long Island 
and in the immediate vicinity of the capital, where the in 
fluence of the crown officers was strongest and the Tories 
most numerous. They en joyed the highest social position, 
and, with the exception of the four powerful families, the 
Van Cortlandts, the Livingstons, the Van Rensselaers, and 
the Schuylers, they possessed the largest amount of wealth. 
The Six Nations of Indians lived within the borders of New 
York, in war a power to be dreaded. For thirty years or 
more Sir William Johnson had been their superintendent. 
He was a loyalist of the most pronounced type. With large 
amounts of money placed at his disposal, he had secured 
their steady attachment to the English interests. He was 
now dead, but his son and nephew had succeeded to his 
place in the affections of those wild warriors. The John 
sons also had a large tenantry of Scotch and Irish, who 
were more subservient than the Indians. The position of 
the province in reference to Canada was the same as in the 
wars with the French. It might be invaded by the enemy 
from two directions from the north through Lake Cham- 
plain to the valley of the Hudson, from the northwest 
through the country of the Six Nations to the Mohawk 
Riven On both routes the country was sparsely settled, 
and between them intervened a savage wilderness. Al 
bany, as a century before, was the base of supplies, and 
the forts, which were relied upon to obstruct the march of 


an enemy, were each over a hundred miles distant. Sup 
plies and ammunition were conveyed in small boats up 
the rivers, and in wagons around the falls and rapids. It 
will be seen that the work of supplying the garrisons was 
one of great labor and expense. The army before Boston, 
under General Ward, was adopted by Congress, and Wash 
ington, the commander-in-chief, was directed to assume 
the command. General Schuyler was left to his own re 
sources. It has been said by an eminent historian, that 
" Schuyler owed his place to his social position, not to his 
military talents." It might be asked, which of the gener 
als appointed by Congress, except Lee, owed his place to 
military talents ? Were they not all appointed rather for 
their fitness than for any other reason ? If social positions 
controlled the appointments, why was not a Jay, or a Van 
Cortlandt, a Livingston, or a Van Rensselaer, named in 
stead of Schuyler ? Those families had social position 
equal to the Schuylers, and greater wealth. No ; Mr. Ban 
croft is mistaken. Schuyler was chosen because of his 
eminent fitness. True, he had little experience as a sol 
dier, but he had unquestioned capacity as an organizer, 
much experience in business requiring executive ability 
of the highest order, the unquestioned confidence of the 
public, and ardent love of his country. There was a great 
work to do, more important than fighting the preparation 
for fighting. Congress was wiser than Bancroft, and ap 
pointed almost the only man in New York, or New Eng 
land, who could successfully perform the work assigned 
to him. There was no army in the Northern Department ; 
Schuyler had to raise one. There were no military sup 
plies ; he had to provide them. Little money was given 
him ; he had to procure what was lacking. Forts Ticon- 
deroga and Crown Point had been seized by Ethan Allen 
and his Green Mountain Boys ; he had to garrison and de- 


fend them. Fort Stanwix was small and inadequate ; he 
had to enlarge and rebuild it. The Five Nations were in 
alliance with the English ; he had to conciliate them with 
presents, and oblige them to remain neutral. Sir John 
Johnson and his bands of Tories, unless watched and dis 
persed, would prove a serious embarrassment ; he had to 
\vatch and disperse them. Who other than General Schuy- 
ler could have performed this great amount of work as 
well as he ? None other. Congress knew their man, and 
" social position " had little or nothing to do with his ap 

The invasion and conquest of Canada had been a favor 
ite project with New England and New York for seventy 
years before it was finally subdued. The project was now 
revived. It was thought to be a favorable opportunity, 
because the Canadian French were restive under English 
rule, and were supposed to be ready to throw off the yoke 
of their conquerors. The English forces were not strong, 
and were poorly prepared to defend their extensive fron 
tiers. It was believed that an American army could march 
on Montreal with little opposition, and, after taking that 
city, capture Quebec, before re-enforcements could arrive 
from England. To make sure of this stronghold, another 
army could march through the wilderness of Maine and 
co-operate with the first. The project commended itself 
to Congress, and they determined to make the effort. It 
devolved on General Schuyler to organize the army of in 
vasion byway of Lake Champlain, and on the commander- 
in-chief that by way of Maine. The first was placed under 
the command of General Montgomery, and the latter 
under that of General Arnold. Montgomery, laboring 
under much embarrassment for want of men and from 
bad discipline among the troops, captured the outlying 
forts, and entered Montreal in triumph. He appeared be- 


fore Quebec early in December, some three weeks after 
Arnold, emerging from the wilderness, had taken posses 
sion of the "Plains of Abraham," where General Wolfe, 
sixteen years before, had fought and fallen. The two 
wings, when united, formed an army much too small and 
too poorly equipped for the capture of the strongly forti 
fied city. If taken, it must be taken by assault ; the at 
tempt was made, but failed. Montgomery was killed and 
Arnold wounded. The next spring the Americans re 
treated, and were slowly driven out of Canada, notwith 
standing the extraordinary efforts made by Schuyler to 
re-enforce them ; they had to recede before superior num 
bers. He was seriously embarrassed for the want of hard 
money, which Congress did not supply, and without which 
it was impossible to subsist an army in an enemy s country. 
When it was seen that Canada must be evacuated, Schuy 
ler undertook to keep possession of Lake Champlain, and 
thus prevent an invasion of New York. During the spring 
and summer of 1776, he employed a large force of work 
men in building batteaux at Lake George, and at White 
hall in the construction of sloops and gondolas, which 
were armed and equipped as vessels of war. The fleet 
was put under the command of General Arnold. In a 
battle on the lake he was outnumbered and beaten, with 
the loss of his fleet taken by the enemy or destroyed by 
himself. Forts Ticonderoga and Crown Point were now 
the only obstacles in the way of the victors ; but the Eng 
lish retired into Canada, and gave the Americans time to 
strengthen these defences. 

General Schuyler had enemies and rivals. He was a 
man of pronounced convictions, and tenacious of military 
order and discipline ; he had offended the officers and 
men of the New England contingents by insisting on these 
cardinal virtues of a well-regulated army. Others were 


envious of his reputation, and some aspired to his position. 
They made their influence felt in Congress, which became 
dissatisfied with his conduct of the war, and virtually su 
perseded him by the appointment of General Gates to the 
command of the army in Canada, in March, 1777. There 
was no army in Canada, but Gates and his friends assumed 
that he was in command of the northern army, now in the 
forts on Lake Champlain. General Schuyler was in Kings 
ton, whither he had gone to consult the provincial con 
vention on matters relating to his department, when the 
news of Gates appointment was received. The conven 
tion, resenting the indignity, immediately appointed him 
a delegate to Congress, in which he took his seat shortly 
afterward. At his request, a court of inquiry into his con 
duct was appointed. While they were preparing to inves 
tigate, he assumed command of the Pennsylvania militia, 
and performed much useful work. 

The committee made their investigations, and their re 
port was so favorable that Congress was satisfied that it 
had made a mistake. It defined the Northern Department 
to include within its limits the forts on Lake Champlain, 
of which General Schuyler was in command. On his re 
turn to Albany he found that Gates had lingered in Al 
bany, and that nothing had been done to render the de 
fences more secure. Valuable time had been lost. It was 
known that the English were preparing for the invasion 
of New York on both the routes heretofore indicated, and 
Schuyler set to work to render the attempt abortive. 
Meanwhile a State constitution had been adopted, and a 
State government organized. Schuyler was put in nomi 
nation for governor, but, believing that the office would 
interfere with his military duties, he declined to be a can 
didate. He devoted his time and energies, as well as much 
of his personal estate and resources, to protecting the 


newly organized State from a successful invasion. As 
Fort Ticonderoga was believed to be the key to the situa 
tion, he sought to make it impregnable. His efforts were 
useless. It was evacuated by General St. Clair on July 6th, 
greatly to the surprise of Congress and of the country. 
But Schtiyler did not despair. With only fifteen hundred 
men at Fort Edward, and with a small supply of warlike 
material, he believed that he could effectually prevent the 
enemy from reaching his objective point, provided he 
were furnished with re-enforcements and supplies. He 
removed the cannon from the fort on Lake George, broke 
up the roads, obstructed Wood Creek with fallen trees, 
compelling Burgoyne to move so slowly that the Ameri 
cans had time to recover from the depression consequent 
upon the loss of Ticonderoga. He earnestly entreated 
Congress, the commander-in-chief, and the New England 
colonies to hasten forward detachments of regular troops 
and militia. With these on the ground, he predicted that 
Burgoyne would not see Albany in this campaign. Con 
gress was slow to act. Washington could not weaken his 
own army by detachments, and New England was dissatis 
fied. Re-enforcements in sufficient numbers did not ar 
rive, and Schuylerwas obliged to retire before the advanc 
ing foe. Fort Edward, owing to its situation, could not 
be defended, nor was there another point short of Still- 
water where he could make a stand and maintain his posi 
tion. For want of men that position could not be re 
tained, and he retired to the mouth of the Mohawk River, 
where a small army could hold a much larger one in check. 
Schuyler s choice of the place where to make a final stand 
was a wise one, showing him to be a skilful strategist. 
Nearly a century later, General Winfield Scott, reviewing 
the ground, said that it was "the true strategic point for 
the defence of Albany and the lower Hudson." 


Here troops began to arrive, and Schuylcr soon found 
himself strong enough to advance to his former position 
at Stillwater. Meantime the tongue of slander and de 
traction was doing its work. The New England delegates 
in Congress took up the voice, and insisted on a change of 
generals for the Northern Department. They were the 
friends of Gates, and had been instrumental in securing 
his former appointment to the army in Canada. They 
now declared that the New England militia would not 
serve under Schuyler, thus betraying their want of patriot 
ism. They finally accomplished their purpose, and Schuy 
ler was superseded by Gates, not, however, before the bat 
tle of Bennington had been fought, and the siege of Fort 
Stanwix had been abandoned. These two affairs had a 
marked influence on Burgoyne, and were decisive of his 
campaign. Had Schuyler been left in command, the result 
would have been the same. Burgoyne would have sur 
rendered, but probably not on the easy terms he obtained 
from Gates. General Schuyler did not retire in disgust, 
but believed it to be his duty to render all the assistance 
in his power to his successor ; by his influence among the 
Indians of the Six Nations, and by the pledge of his per 
sonal responsibility for supplies, he made it the more easy 
for Gates to win the great victory. 

Meantime he solicited an inquiry into his conduct, and 
would not entertain a thought of resignation until he had 
had an opportunity to vindicate his reputation before a 
court-martial. He was well assured in his own mind that 
such a tribunal would acquit him of any blame for the 
evacuation of Ticonderoga and his conduct of the cam 
paign. He felt sure that he had prepared the way for vic 
tory, while another had gathered the laurels. After much 
solicitation, Congress was induced to order a court-martial, 
composed chiefly of New England officers and only one 


from his own State. He conducted his own defence, pass 
ing in review the whole history of his operations during 
the campaign. After a session of three days, the court 
unanimously found that he was not guilty of any neglect 
of duty, and therefore acquitted him with the highest 
honor. The verdict was subsequently confirmed by Con 
gress. He then resigned from the army, and retired to 
private life. He did not, however, forget his duty to his 
country, but while the war continued rendered many im 
portant services. The finding of the court-martial was 
accepted as final, and Schuyler s detractors were silenced. 
During the thirty remaining years of his life, in the midst 
of fierce political strife and excitement, there were no in 
sinuations, not even a whisper, to his prejudice. Writers 
like Chancellor Kent, Chief-Justice Marshall, Jared Sparks, 
Washington Irving, and Mr. Lossing have praised his gen 
eralship and done justice to his memory. 

It remained for Mr. Bancroft, sixty years after Schuyler s 
death, to discover that he was a coward. What, the friend 
and correspondent of George Washington a coward ! Im 
possible ! Washington never lost confidence in his friend, 
and did not believe him a coward. In 1781, General and 
Mrs. Washington were sponsors at the baptism of Schuy 
ler s youngest child ; with him, two years later, he visited 
the battle-fields of Saratoga ; with him he retained the 
most friendly relations to the day of his death. Did Mr. 
Bancroft suspect that his charge was a reflection on the 
character of the man whom he seeks to exalt above all 
others ? Washington was too pure a patriot, and too self- 
respecting a man to associate with one whose cowardice 
might have proved the ruin of his country. If there be 
anything in blood, Schuyler s descent from a brave nation 
and a brave race disproves the charge. "His patriotism 
so sincere," other words of Mr. Bancroft, " that he willingly 


used his credit, influence, and connections to bring out the 
resources of his native province," " His humanity so great, 
lie brooked no delay in adopting measures for the relief of 
the sick," "Always on the alert to send help where it was 
wanted," " He loved his country more than his own rank 
or fortune," these truthful utterances of Mr. Bancroft 
prove him to have been no coward. Of what coward can 
sucli things be said in truth ? His moral heroism in the 
Legislature, when contending for the rights of the people 
against the tyrannical edicts of the government, prove that 
he was no coward. His determination not to resign when 
superseded, until a court-martial had investigated his con 
duct, shows his nerve in the presence of enemies. His 
whole life brands the charge of cowardice with falsehood. 

Perhaps Mr. Bancroft s New England education, and his 
New England prejudices against the Dutch, had an in 
fluence upon his pen. Perhaps his great devotion to 
Washington, as the hero of his history, impelled him to 
cast aspersions upon every man, however pure and noble, 
who might share in the glory of liberating his country. 
Whatever the motive, he uttered the slander without due 
reflection, and on insufficient authority. When challenged 
to produce his proof, he presented extracts from letters 
and documents, which, when read in their connection, 
utterly fail to sustain the accusation. 1 

General Schuyler retired from the army, but did not 
leave the service of his country. In various capacities 
and in various ways he contributed to the final success of 
the patriot cause. He had the satisfaction of knowing 
that his services were appreciated and acknowledged. 
He retained his position on the Board for Indian Affairs ; 

Prefer the reader to Correspondence and Remarks, upon Bancroft s 
History of the Northern Campaign of 1777, and the Character of Major- 
General Philip Schuyler. By George L. Schuyler. New York, 1867. 


like his ancestors, he was a friend of the Indians, by 
whom he was much esteemed. He served three terms in 
the State Senate, and in 1789 he and Rufus King were 
elected the first United States Senators from New York 
under the Constitution of 1787, the adoption of which by 
his State he was largely instrumental in securing. He 
was surveyor-general of the State from 1781 to 1784, and 
a member of the commission to adjust the boundaries 
between New York and Massachusetts. The final report 
defining the boundaries is in his handwriting. In the 
spring of 1797 he was again chosen to the United States 
Senate ; but ill health compelled him to resign soon after 
taking his seat. He was a warm friend of internal im 
provements, and as early as 1776 had estimated the cost 
of a canal connecting the Hudson with Lake Champlain. 

The deatli of his son-in-law, Alexander Hamilton, was a 
severe shock to his system, and he did not long survive 
him. He died on November 18, 1804. It was left for a 
granddaughter, Mrs. Miller, a daughter of Cornelia Schuy- 
ler and Washington Morton, to erect his monument, in 
1871, in the Albany Rural Cemetery, where his remains re 
pose. It is of granite, thirty-six feet high, bearing the 
simple inscription, 


Born at Albany, 

Nov. 22, 1733. 

Died Nov. 18, 1804. 

As to General Schuyler s land transactions, I have been 
unable to learn that they were large outside the Saratoga 
Patent, much of which he obtained. I find only one pat 
ent issued to him personally. There may have been others 
VOL. II. 18 


granted to companies in which he was interested. 1 On Sep 
tember 22, 1789, he procured a patent for forty-five acres of 
land in two parcels on the outlet of Lake George, which 
afforded him a valuable water-power. General Schuyler 
in his business enterprises was careful to secure such val 
uable property. Besides the outlet of Saratoga Lake, he 
owned two mill-privileges on Batten Kill, which he gave 
to his son Philip Jeremiah, and now he possessed the 
power of which another lake was the reservoir. 

General Schuyler s will, written, as he says, "by my own 
hand," bears date June 20, 1803, and was proved March 
2, 1827. It covers several folio pages of the records. 

He devises to his grandson Philip, son of John Brad- 
street Schuyler, a portion of his Saratoga estate on Fish 
Creek within certain bounds ; to his sons Philip Jeremiah 
and Rensselaer, other portions of his Saratoga property ; 
the residue of said estate he divides equally between his 
five daughters, or their heirs ; to his daughter Cornelia he 
also gives $2,000, and to Catherine $5,000, cash. All the 
rest and residue of his estate was to be equally divided 
among his children and his grandsons Philip Schuyler and 
Stephen Van Rensselaer. 

If doubts or differences should arise among the heks, 
in order to avoid lawsuits, he recommends that reference 
should be made to his friends, Hon. James Kent, Hon. 
Jacob Radclift, Egbert Bensen, Esq., Abraham Van Vcch- 
tcn, Esq., and John V. Henry, Esq., or any three of them. 

The executors were his sons Philip Jeremiah and Rens 
selaer, and sons-in-law John Barker Church, Alexander 
Hamilton, and Stephen Van Rensselaer. 

It has been remarked that General Schuyler did not 
cease his efforts in behalf of the patriot cause after he re- 

1 At the time of his death he owned 6,697 acres of land in seven differ 
ent land companies, which were appraised by his executors at $52,445. 


signed his commission and left the army, but continued 
his efforts to make that cause a success. In this work he 
was ably supported by other prominent citizens of Albany 
and vicinity. They employed secret agents to observe the 
movements of the enemy, to procure intelligence of organ 
ized expeditions against the northern frontier, and to make 
regular reports to their principals. They were so successful 
in learning the designs of the English, and in concerting 
measures to render them abortive, that the British officers 
commanding in Canada at last determined to gain posses 
sion of their persons and to hold them as prisoners, believ 
ing that thus they could better accomplish their purposes of 
murder and pillage. Colonel St. Leger, who had fled from 
before the walls of Fort Schuyler, scared away by the 
strangely significant gestures of one man supposed to be 
demented, seems to have been detailed to take charge of 
this peculiar warfare, and organize the parties for the cap 
ture of these marked individuals. We have seen that one 
such party carried off Mr. Bleecker from his home at 
Tomhanack ; and he was not the only one thus kidnapped. 
The party sent against General Schuyler was not so 
successful. The story has been told so often, that it has 
become familiar to the readers of the history of those times ; 
but I now repeat it, that it may be compared with the ver 
sion as given by one of the actors in the drama. I give 
it in the words of a recent writer : l 

" The General had been warned of attempts that would 
be made to capture him, and he had several guards about 
the place. A band of Tories and Indians organized them 
selves under Waltermeyer at the Whitehall farm, and 
burst in upon the general s premises while the guards 
were asleep. Their arms had been removed to the cellar 
by Mrs. Church through a mistake. General Schuyler 

1 Magazine of American History for July, 1884. 


retreated to an upper room, and fired a pistol to alarm the 
garrison, half a mile distant. The family were all gathered 
in the room with the General, when their babe, Catherine, 
was missed. Mrs. Schuyler attempted to go after her, but 
was detained by her husband. The daughter Margaret 
slipped by, and felt her way through the darkness to the 
cradle on the first floor. Although the enemy had en 
tered the house, no one saw her till she had reached the 
stairs on her return. An Indian then threw a tomahawk, 
which cut the dress of the girl and buried itself in the rail 
ing of the stairway, where the mark is still visible. The 
girl fled to the upper room, having told the raiders that 
the General had gone to alarm the town. The raiders 
continued to plunder, until the sound of the General s 
voice above appeared to be giving orders to some of his 
followers outside. They then fled with what they had se 
cured, and with three of the General s guard, and they did 
not stop short of Canada. None of the stolen plate was 
ever returned, but some of it was afterward used in Can 
ada, with the comment, This came from General Schuy 
ler s house. " 

All the versions of this affair I have seen are by Ameri 
can writers. I now give another, as told to me by Mr. 
Alexander Murdoch, of Ithaca, a Scotchman by birth and 
education : 

"In 1829-30, while I was an apprentice in Scotland, I 
became acquainted with John McDonald, who was a pen 
sioner and blind, having lost his sight in Egypt. He had 
spent most of his life in the army, and had fought in the 
four quarters of the globe. He was an intelligent man, 
and fond of relating his experiences when he could find 
ready listeners. He lived only two doors from our shop, 
and was a frequent visitor. In moments of leisure we 
encouraged him to tell his stories of army life. He had 
served all through the American Revolution, and had a 
large fund of anecdotes relating to that stormy period. 
As I had resolved to make the United States my future 


home, I listened with more than usual interest to every 
thing relating to the country and people. 

<; One of his many stories of adventure referred to an 
attempt to capture General Schuyler, of Albany. The 
party organized for this purpose was composed of picked 
men from his own Highland regiment, and he was selected 
as one of them. It was known that the Schuyler mansion 
was situated outside the city, surrounded with trees and 
a garden attached filled with shrubbery. The party was 
guided by an Indian, who had often visited the General, 
and had been treated with great kindness by himself and 
family. He was familiar with the grounds and all the ap 
proaches to the house. For his treachery to his friends, 
he received the bribe of a gun, a keg of rum, and a roll of 
tobacco. When the party had arrived within a few miles 
of the house, they concealed themselves, and waited till 
they were assured the General was at home. After learn 
ing this fact, they left their hiding-place late in the after 
noon, and silently stole their way through the woods, ar 
riving near the mansion unobserved not long after dark. 
McDonald and five others were detailed to enter the 
house, and others posted near the doors and windows. 
The leader of the band, with arms concealed under his coat, 
took position not far from the front entrance. The squad 
of six men gained access through the rear entrance on the 
ground floor in perfect silence, but, as they approached the 
stairway leading to the rooms above, a bayonet became 
detached and fell to the floor with a ringing noise. Imme 
diately a young woman with a light in her hand was seen 
on the landing, and, discovering the strange visitors, she 
gave an alarm. The General flew to the attic, from which 
he fired his heavy pistols, apparently a preconcerted signal 
of danger, for by the trampling of feet and mingled voices 
it was quickly learned a crowd of armed men was rapidly 
approaching. The invading party hastily retreated into 
the darkness, and finally reached Canada in safety. The 
Indian guide, however, fell into the hands of the Ameri 
cans, and was promptly executed." 


CORTLANDT SCHUYLER (369) at an early age entered a 
regiment of the English army then stationed in this 
province. Not long afterward his regiment was ordered 
to Ireland, where Schuyler caused some sensation, both 
because he was more than ordinarily fine looking and be 
cause it was something new to see a man from the back 
woods of America in the royal uniform. From his nativ 
ity, and his personal appearance, he was called by his ac 
quaintances the " Handsome Savage. His good looks and 
shoulder-straps soon made an impression on the ladies, one 

of whom Miss Barbara , of Cork accepted his offer 

of marriage. He remained abroad several years, but re 
turned with his family before July, 1764. He had won his 
promotion to a captaincy, but apparently resigned about 
the time he came back to America, or soon after. All his 
family, except his aunt, "The American Lady," were in 
sympathy with the republicans then demanding better 
laws or independence. Without doubt his correspondence 
with friends at home, especially with his brother Philip, 
had led him to suspect that the agitation would end in 
war, and, rather than be in a position where he might be 
required to fight against his land and kindred, he left the 
army, and resigned his flattering prospects in the future. 
Not thus acted his cousin, Cornelius Cuyler, whose father 
had bought him into the army about the time that Schuyler 
had entered " without money and without price." Cuyler 
retained his place, and in a few years after Schuyler left 
rose to the rank of major-general. 

In July, 1764, Captain Cortlandt Schuyler bought from 
the city of Albany eleven acres of land, "and one rod for 
broken land," on " Gallows Hill," for ^200 and an annual 
rent of fifty shillings. Four years later he took on lease, 
from Patroon Van Rensselaer, a farm of six hundred acres 
on the west side of the Hudson River, bounded north 


by Normand s Creek, and afterward known as Crystal 
Hill. He resided on this farm on October 2, 1773, and 
soon after lost his life by a fall from his horse while 
hunting. Had he lived he would in all probability 
have occupied a prominent position in the army of the 
Revolution. He was a trained soldier, and just the kind 
of man much wanted to organize the troops and conduct a 
campaign. His widow and several children (how many I 
have not been able to learn) returned to Ireland, where, 
it is said, some bearing the name still reside. 

His eldest son, John Cortlandt (385), married Angelica, 
daughter of Henry J. Van Rensselaer, and resided in 
Watervliet, where he died the latter part of December, 
1793. In his will, dated December 27, 1793, and proved 
January n, 1794, he gives to his wife ^1,400 for her right 
of dower ; to his mother, Barbara, ^500 in lieu of dower 
for lands received from his father ; to brothers and sisters 
(without naming them) the residue of his estate. The 
executors were " Mother Barbara " for real estate in Eu 
rope ; " Father-in-law Henry J. Van Rensselaer " and 
"Uncle Stephen J. Schuyler " for real estate in America. 

The Crystal H ill farm was bought of the executors, on 
February 10, 1794, by Major James Van Rensselaer for 
^300. Since the latter s death the farm has been divided, 
and the old mansion turned to strange uses. 

Very little is known of STEPHANUS SCHUYLER (370). He 
was assistant alderman for a year or two, and then appar 
ently removed from the city in 1765, for his name no 
longer appears in the records. To what place he went, 
or where he resided the remainder of his life, I do not 
know. It is probable that he took up his residence on 
one of the many tracts of land belonging to his family in 
the neighborhood of Albany. He was a member of Assem 
bly fur that county from 1777 to 1779, and a colonel of a 


regiment attached to General Ten Broeck s brigade in the 
Revolutionary War. These were the only public positions 
he held. He seems to have led a quiet life, without aspi 
rations for a large fortune or political preferment, con 
tented with the estate received by inheritance and the 
position of a private citizen. He was executor of the will 
of his aunt, "The American Lady," and of that of his 
nephew, John Cortlandt Schuyler, showing that he was 
esteemed by his friends for his probity and business ca 
pacity. His descendants are widely scattered, some resid 
ing in Oneida County, N. Y., others in Ohio and Minne 
sota, while some are in Canada. None, however, linger 
about the home of their ancestor. One of his sons, Bar- 
ent, was an officer in the United States Army, War of 1812- 
15. Several of his grandsons were soldiers and officers 
in the late civil war, of whom three brothers enlisted in an 
Ohio regiment, and were on the field when Lee surrendered. 

Stephanus Schuyler died on December 24, 1820, at the 
age of eighty-four years, having survived his illustrious 
brother, the General, about sixteen years. His wife, Lena 
Ten Eyck, was of an old Dutch family, whose ancestor, 
Counraad Ten Eyck, resided in New Amsterdam, and fol 
lowed the trade of tanner and shoemaker. Her father, 
Barent Ten Eyck, was a merchant of Albany. 

ANGELICA SCHUYLER (373) married John Barker Church, 1 
an English gentleman, who before and after marriage re- 

1 In the Life of General Schuyler and elsewhere this name is written 
John Carter Church, but his secretary called him John Barker Church, and 
it was so written by his father-in-law in his will. Mr. Lossing, referring to 
the fact that he came to this country under an assumed name, says, "why 
he dropped his family name is not known." It may not be amiss to tell 
the story as told me. He had been engaged in a duel, or some youthful 
escapade, and, wishing to avoid arrest, he left his hat nnd broken sword in 
the street, and fled by a ship ready to sail to America. Some time after 
his marriage lie was recognized in New York by an English officer, when, 
concealment being no longer necessary, he assumed his proper name. 


sided many years in this country, and was engaged in bus 
iness operations requiring a large capital and superior 
abilities to manage. My father was for a time his private 
secretary, and resided in his family. His only duty was 
to copy the letters Mr. Church had written before break 
fast, and mail them. After this was done, he was free to 
employ his time as he chose. He spent an hour or two 
each day in the saddle, his employer keeping a horse for 
his individual use. He led an easy and pleasant life, one 
to which he frequently recurred in after years. Mr. 
Church made several voyages to England, but never with 
his family in company. They sailed in another ship. He 
assigned as a reason for such arrangement, that in case 
one vessel suffered shipwreck a part of the family would 
be safe in the other. Mr. Church finally returned to his 
English home, and became a member of Parliament. His 
eldest son, Philip, inherited a large tract of land in Alle- 
ghany County, N. Y., to which at an early day he removed 
with a young wife, cutting his own road from Bath to the 
Genesee River, where he located a village, and named it 
for his mother, Angelica. 

ELIZABETH SCHUYLER (374) married Alexander Hamilton, 
whose life, like that of the " Father of his Country," " is 
written in the hearts of his countrymen." When a boy he 
came from the West India Island of Nevis to complete his 
education. While a student in Columbia College he be 
came interested in the questions of English taxation and 
American independence. He embraced the popular cause, 
and in the press and on the platform he rendered impor 
tant service. When it came to blows he volunteered in the 
ranks of the patriots. He raised a company of artillery, 
and was made its captain. In the campaigns of Long Isl 
and and of New York he showed more than ordinary abil 
ity. He attracted the observation of Washington, who 


was so much pleased with his character and acquirements 
that he made him one of his aids, and employed his pen 
in his extensive correspondence. When he resigned this 
position he again sought service in the army. At York- 
town he led the assault on one of the two redoubts which 
formed the key to the enemy s position, and captured it 
with little loss. With a few months study of the law he 
was admitted to the bar, and soon acquired an extensive 
practice. As a statesman he had no superior, and as a 
financier few were his equal. The first Secretary of the 
Treasury of the United States, he adopted a system of 
finance which lifted the country from insolvency and re 
stored its credit at home and abroad. As a lawyer Aaron 
Burr was his only rival, who, despairing of becoming his 
superior, resolved to kill him. For this purpose he prac 
tised with the pistol, and when an expert he seized on 
some flimsy pretext to challenge him to the " field of 
honor." Hamilton, with his undoubted courage, was not 
brave enough to decline. At Weehawken, on the Jersey 
shore, he offered his body as a target to the murderer s 
weapon. He fell at the first fire with a mortal wound, 
and died the next day, in the forty-eighth year of his age. 
Burr became a fugitive and vagabond, living to old age. 

The husband of MARGARITA SCHUYLER (375) was Stephen 
Van Rensselaer, the last patroon of Rensselaerwyck ; and 
the wife of her brother, JOHN BRADSTREET SCHUYLER (378), 
was Elizabeth Van Rensselaer, his sister. 

PHILIP JEREMIAH SCHUYLER (379) married Sarah Rutsen, 
of an old Kingston, N. Y., family, intermarried also with 
the Van Rensselaers. She was probably a daughter of 
Colonel Jacob Rutsen. 

Eliza Ten Brocck, wife of RENSSELAER SCHUYLER (380), was 
a daughter of General Abraham Ten Broeck and Elizabeth 
Van Rensselaer. 


CATHERINA SCHUYLER (383) married, first, Samuel Mal 
colm, son of General Malcolm of the Revolution ; and 
subsequently James Cochran, son of John Cochran, sur 
geon-general, mentioned above as the husband of Gertrude 
Schuyler (362). 

JOHN CORTLANDT SCHUYLER (384) married Angelica Van 
Rensselaer, of the Claverack family, niece of General 
Schuyler s wife and a descendant of Colonel Peter Schuy 

HENRY TEN EYCK SCHUYLER (389) married Sarah, daugh 
ter of Nanning Visscher and Agnes Van Buren. Harman 
Visscher, the American ancestor of the family, was a car 
penter in New Amsterdam in 1649, whence he came to 
Beverwyck, and was made the village surveyor in 1666. 

Cynthia Carpenter, the wife of PHILIP V. C. SCHUYLER 
(390), is a new name in the Schuyler nomenclature. I know 
nothing of her family, but imagine that they may have 
lived at Catskill. Among the papers on file in the office 
of the Court of Appeals is an inventory, made by John 
Schuyler, of the effects of Mr. Carpenter, a former resident 
of that place. The estate was large, and consisted mostly 
of notes and other obligations, many of which were inven 
toried as " bad." 

GEORGE L. SCHUYLER (404) married two daughters of 
James A. Hamilton, a son of Alexander Hamilton. They 
were great-granddaughters of General Philip Schuyler. 



" Philip was lost in the woods after he had sustained a se 
vere conflict with the French and Indians, and was never 
heard of." Mrs. Chancellor Livingston, 1795. 

" PHilip left no descendants." Rev. G. C. Schenck. 

" Philip lost in the woods, and never heard from." Ma- 
turin L. Delafield. 

"Philip, d. s. -p." Winfuld. 

"Philip was lost in the woods." Lossing. 

"Philip had no children, and was murdered at Saratoga, 
1745." S. Alofsen. 

"Philip was killed in battle." Mrs. Booth. 

"Philip settled in Albany." Mrs. Lamb. 

PHILIP SCHUYLER (9) accomplished so little in his life 
that it is no marvel he should soon have been forgotten, 
or confounded with other Philips after the lapse of a few 
years. It will appear, nevertheless, that he had no con 
flict with the Indians, was not lost in the woods, was not 
killed in battle, and did not die without posterity. 

His name appears so seldom in the records that my 
sketch of him must necessarily be very brief. Pie alone 
of the five brothers has no history. He left Albany before 
1686, and probably took a position in some mercantile es 
tablishment in New York. In 1687 he married the daugh 
ter of Nicholas De Meyer, and soon after removed to Kings 
ton, where he engaged in trade and milling. His father- 
in-law had a large property at Kingston, and he doubtless 
occupied a portion of it for his residence and business 


purposes. After the death of De Meyer he sold his build 
ings, including the " bolten mill," to Louis Du Bois for 
" nineteen hundred scheppels of wheat." He returned to 
New York, and in March, 1693, he and his wife united 
with the Dutch Church by letter from the church at Kings 
ton. Before April, 1699, he was a resident of Albany, on 
Yonkers (State) Street. In 1703 he appears in Schenec- 
tady as commandant of the fort, with the rank of lieuten 
ant. He was afterward termed " captain " by courtesy. 

He served in the fort only about three years, but con 
tinued to reside in Schenectady the remainder of his life. 
In politics I have been unable to determine his position. 
He seems to have passed through the troublesome times 
of Leisler unmolested and unknown. His only acts which 
have the appearance of any political significance, were 
certifying to the Assembly, in April, 1699, that he had 
served their citation on Dominie Dellius and Evert Banck- 
er to appear at their bar to answer to the charge of 
fraudulently procuring a deed of the greater part of the 
Mohawk land, and of signing the address of certain Al 
banians to the Earl of Bellomont, August, 1700. Some 
might infer from this that he had a leaning to the Leis- 
lerians ; but how, then, shall we interpret the fact that in 
the next year, 1701, he signed the address to the king, for 
the circulation of which Nicholas Bayard was tried and 
convicted of treason ? 

In lands he took very little interest. While his brothers 
and other friends were buying and selling the public lands, 
he seemed to hold himself aloof, and made no ventures in 
that direction. He did, indeed, before he had reached his 
majority, in 1685, a year after Robert Livingston received 
his first patent for two thousand acres of land on Roelof 
Jansen s Kil, petition the governor for leave to buy " a 
certain piece of woodland commonly known by the name 


of Roelof Jansen s Kill." His petition was granted, pro 
vided he took out a patent before the last day of the en 
suing August. Nothing came of it, and no patent was 
issued. It is probable that Robert Livingston did not 
wish any interference with his plans and intentions. 

Apparently he made no farther efforts to become a 
landed proprietor until July, 1711, when the Mohawk 
chiefs gave him a deed for about two thousand acres of 
land adjoining the Schenectady Patent on the east, bound 
ed south by Van Rensselaer s manor. I have a traced 
copy of this deed, made from the original in the secretary s 
office, signed by the celebrated "King Hendrick," Gideon, 
and others, with the totems of their clans. He applied to 
Governor Hunter for a patent, but for some reason now 
unknown it was not granted. In 1714 he again petitioned, 
but with no better success than before. A year later the 
tract was surveyed by his son Nicholas, " D. C. Surveyor 
at Schonaghtaday," and its bounds described, "east by 
Schonahtady, south by lands of Killiaan Van Rensselaer, 
west by lands of Cornells Switz." He then wrote to his 
friend, Mr. Wildman, of New York, that every objection 
had been answered, and every obstacle removed, urging 
him to press the matter before the governor and Council. 
He did not succeed. The business then rested until 1722, 
when he made a last effort, with a like result. Meantime 
his brother Johannes secured a patent for nearly two 
thousand acres lying northeast and adjoining this for 
which Philip applied in vain. It was reserved for the 
Dutch Church in Schenectady, for whom it was obtained 
by patent, August, 1738. If the Indians had a right to 
dispose of their lands to whom they chose, Philip Schuy- 
ler and his heirs were the rightful owners in equity and 
fairness, the governor s patent to the church to the con 
trary notwithstanding. 


It seems singular that, while Philip s brothers and 
brothers-in-law found little difficulty in procuring patents 
for lands whenever they asked for them, he alone should 
be unsuccessful, and not be able to own an acre. The 
reasons cannot now be satisfactorily explained. Philip 
Schuyler died on May 24, 1724, at Schenectady. He left 
no will ; his estate, whatever it was, going to his only son 
and to his widow, who had a house and lot on Front Street, 
which she occupied in February, 1726. 

Philip Schuyler was twice married. His first marriage 
is recorded in the Dutch Church of New York as follows, 
translated from the Dutch : 

"July 25. 1687, Philip Schuyler, young man, of New 
Albany, to Elizabeth De Meyer, young maid, of Ne"w 
York, the first residing at New Albany, the second here." 

His second marriage is recorded in the Dutch Church 
of Albany : 

" 19. May 1719. Capt. Philip Schuyler, widower of Eliza 
beth De Meyer, and Mrs. Catharine Schierph, widow of 
Ritsiert B rower, after having been proclaimed three times, 
were united in matrimony in presence of J. Staats, J. Rose- 
boom and J. Schuyler, elders, at the bride s residence." 

The record of Philip Schuyler s marriage in New York 
is in conflict with my sketch of his life in one particular. 
The record states that he resided at Albany at the time of 
his marriage, 1687, and I say that he had left Albany be 
fore 1686, and lived in New York and Kingston for sev 
eral subsequent years. My authority is contained in the 
Albany city records. On June 27, 1699, a committee re 
ported the names of such persons who were then residents 
of Albany, but who " were not actually inhabitants of the 
city when the charter was obtained," 1686. Among the 
names so reported was that of Philip Schuyler, and he 


was not yet " possessed of his freedom." He may not 
have been in New York any considerable time before his 
marriage, and still considered Albany his residence. 

As this is my own branch of the Schuyler family, it is 
my purpose to give brief sketches of my maternal ances 
tors, however far back I may find them. This line of in 
quiry will lead me into many of the Dutch families of the 
"Olden Time," and serve to make the reader acquainted 
with some names almost forgotten, as well as to refresh his 
memory with those of some celebrities. The first in order 
is the father of Philip Schuyler s first wife, 


De Meyer was not a Dutchman. In the records of his 
marriage he is called Nicholas Meyer Van Hamborg. In 
the tax-list of the same year he appears as Nicholas Van 
Holstein, and in various legal papers and other records 
he is named Nicholas de Meyer Van Holstein. He signed 
himself N. D Meijer. When he came to NewNetherland is 
not known, but probably not long after 1650. He was a 
taxable inhabitant of New Amsterdam in 1655, and was 
then rated among the well-to-do citizens. 

June 6, 1655, he married Lydia, daughter of Hendrick 
Van Dyck, a former military and civil officer of the West 
India Company. According to tradition, as recorded in 
the Valentine Manuals, the wedding ceremonies were en 
livened by a scene not usual on such occasions. A former 
suitor of the bride intruded himself among the guests, and 
forced a quarrel on the bridegroom, with whom he carne 
to blows. He was thrust out from the house, but the fes 
tivities, so rudely interrupted, came to an end, and the 
company dispersed. 

De Meyer had come to New Netherland to improve his 


fortunes, and did not suffer the unfortunate occurrence at 
his wedding, or the excitement of the military preparations 
for the subjugation of the Swedes on the Delaware, or the 
Indian invasion and its calamities, to divert him from his 
purpose. He prosecuted his business with energy and 
success. In 1658 he added the manufacture of flour to 
his merchandise, and bought of Jacob Van Couwenhoven 
a " stone house, mill, and lot," situate on what is now 
known as South William Street, propelled not by water or 
steam, but by the only power known in fatherland, the 
winds. His business transactions required the assistance 
of notaries and lawyers, who sometimes charged him more 
than legal fees a practice not unknown to the profession 
in these days. He was not disposed to submit to such 
" extortions," as he termed them, and complained to the 
director-general and Council. On one occasion he made 
an exhibit, which is curious and instructive and is as fol 
lows : The legal fees were 

For a petition 3 guilders, charged by the Notary 14 guilders. 

For a written conclusion. ... 3 " " " " 12 " 

For a replication 2 " " " " 12 " 

For a deduction 6 " " " " 12 

For inventory of documents. 3 " " " " 12 " 

His operations were extended over the province, and in 
1 66 1 he owned real estate taken for debts in Albany, and 
claims secured by mortgages against several persons of that 
city and Schenectady. The next year he bought some land 
at Haerlem, and began farming, employing an overseer, 
who was unfaithful and absconded in his debt. In Decem 
ber, 1663, he was at Wiltwyck (Esopus) buying grain for 
his mill. The Indian war in that locality had obliged the 
authorities to make some stringent regulations for the se 
curity of the lives and property of the people, among them 
an order forbidding any one to go to the redoubt on the 
VOL. II. 19 


river without an escort. On December 2d the lieutenant 
commanding reported, " that Jeronimus Ebbing, Nicholas 
De Meyer, and Frederick (Philipse), the Hon ble Com 
pany s late carpenter, went down unescorted to the Re 
doubt with six wagon loads of grain." Nicasius de Sille, 
the fiscal, immediately lodged a complaint against them, 
and demanded that a fine of twenty guilders each should 
be imposed. After hearing their defence the court de 
ferred sentence until the lieutenant had made a farther 
report. The records are silent as to any other action. 

In 1664 he was one of the schepens (aldermen) of the 
city. When the English ships appeared in the harbor, 
and Colonel Nicoll summoned New Amsterdam to surren 
der, he took an active part in bringing about the transfer 
of all New Netherland to the English crown. The pro 
ceedings by the West India Company in Holland on the 
loss of their possessions gave De Meyer and his wife some 
notoriety. The Company complained to the States-Gen 
eral of their director-general, whom they had so long sus 
tained against the charges brought against him by Van 
der Donck and the best citizens of the colony, alleging 
that he had betrayed his trust, and had lost the province 
without a proper defence. In his justification Stuyvesant 
produced several good and weighty reasons for his action, 
and among them, that the citizens were in danger of being 
plundered by the soldiers, who were supposed to be their 
defenders. For the truth of this allegation it was proved 
that the soldiers had said : " We know well where booty 
is to be got, and where the young women reside who wear 
chains of gold ; " " and on one occasion a troop of soldiers 
had collected in front of De Meyer s house in order to 
plunder it, but were prevented by the burghers." On the 
other hand, the Company proved that the " wife of De 
Meyer, on her way out of the fort, said she wished to be 


on her guard whenever she saw soldiers ; now, the rascals 
will fight as they have nothing to lose, while we must lose 
all our property in case of a collision." 

De Meyer took the oath of allegiance to the English in 
the following October, and prosecuted his business as 
usual with uniform success. He visited Holland in 1668, 
and with other New Yorkers freighted a ship with mer 
chandise for New York, but, when she was about ready to 
sail, there came an order in Council of the English Gov 
ernment prohibiting farther traffic between Holland and 
her former colony. The charterers petitioned for relief, 
and were so far successful that the order was modified in 
favor of their ship for that voyage only. The extent and 
prosperity of De Meyer s business may be inferred from 
his presenting for record, two years later, to the court of 
sessions at the little village of Gravesend, sixteen mort 
gages and deeds, amounting to " nineteen thousand guild 
ers, seven hundred schepels of wheat, two hundred and 
forty blades of tobacco, and three farms." 

After the Dutch had regained possession of New York, 
in 1673, they saw the importance of placing it in a com 
plete state of defence against any assault of the English. 
For this purpose a large amount of money was required, 
which could only be furnished by the citizens. To raise 
it by tax would be oppressive, to borrow* it on the faith of 
the government impossible ; and the governor and Coun 
cil resorted to the expedient of a forced loan by the most 
affluent inhabitants. A commission was appointed to 
compile a list of the "best and most affluent persons," 
with a valuation of their estates, and their report is among 
the records of the State. There are sixty-two names on 
the list, with the valuation of their estates in Holland cur 
rency. Frederick Philipse is assessed at 80,000 guilders ; 
De Meyer and Cornelis Steenwyck at 50,000 each ; Jeroni- 


mus Ebbing, 30,000 ; Olof Stevense Van Cortlandt, 45,000 ; 
Jacob Leisler, 15,000 ; and Nicholas Bayard, 10,000. The 
majority were placed at less than 5,000, while some were 
as low as 1,200. Nearly all were Dutch, very few English 
names appearing on the roll. 

Two years later, when the province had been returned 
to the English, a tax was levied to pay the city debts and 
for other purposes. There were now three hundred names 
on the list, several of them were English and assessed for 
considerable amounts. Cornelis Steenwyck now leads in 
valuation, being assessed at ^4,000 ; while Philipse falls 
into the second class, being rated the same as Leisler, Van 
Cortlandt, and two others, at ^3,000 ; Nicholas Bayard 
pays on only ^1,500, and Ebbing on ^1,000. De 
Meyer s name is not on the list. As mayor he signed the 
warrant of the collector, but escaped taxation. Did the 
assessors omit him out of respect to his office ? or did 
his official position enable him to avoid the tax ? 

De Meyer was appointed mayor by Governor Andros, 
and served one year, 1676, having previously been an al 
derman for three years. He was nominated to the Coun 
cil by Governor Dongan in 1687, and appointed by the 
king in January, 1689, but did not take the oath of office, 
for he died before the arrival of Governor Sloughter, in 
March, 1691. In politics he was opposed to Leisler, but, 
like his friend, Philipse, he was too rich to be active and 
pronounced. Already old, he did not wish to endanger 
his estate. In the riots of 1690 Leisler s soldiers were dis 
posed to make him a visit, but were resisted by one Palm 
er, who stood within the door, with sword and pistol in his 
hands, and bid them be off. De Meyer was an officer in 
the militia, and rose to the rank of major. He and his 
family were members of the Dutch Church in regular 


He was twice married ; first to Lydia Van Dyck, and sec 
ondly to Sarah, widow of John Wickleson. He had three 
sons and three daughters baptized in the church, but in 
his will he mentions only five children. His will is dated 
May 4, 1689, and was proved on March 31, 1692. He be 
queaths to his " wife Sarah, widow of John Wickleson," all 
whatsoever he had agreed to in the marriage-contract. The 
remainder of his estate, " whether here, in England, Hol 
land, or elsewhere," he divides equally between his chil 
dren William, Henricus, Anna Catrina, Deborah, and 

William De Meyer resided at Kingston, and Henry was 
a prosperous merchant of New York. Their descendants 
are said to be quite numerous. 

Lydia Van Dyck, the mother of Nicholas De Meyer s 
children, carries me back another generation, to relate 
some incidents in the life of her father, Hendrick Van 
Dyck, who is an historical character of no enviable repu 
tation. I hope to make it appear, however, that he was 
not so black as historians have painted him. 


Came to New Netherland, in 1639 or 1640, in the ser 
vice of the West India Company as ensign commandant 
of their troops. Under the unwise administration of 
Kieft, the Indians became very troublesome and hostile. 
Early in the year 1642, Kieft determined to chastise them, 
and for that purpose organized an expedition to penetrate 
their country and destroy their villages. Van Dyck was 
placed in command of eighty men, and with a guide 
marched into what is now Westchester County, where 
he was assured that he should find the enemy. Before 
he reached the Indian village, a dark and stormy night 


closed around him. The guide lost his way, and Van 
Dyck his temper; a halt was ordered, and finally a re 
treat. He returned to New Amsterdam without having 
seen an Indian, and apparently without result. Not so, 
however, for the Indians soon discovered how narrowly 
they had escaped destruction, and made overtures for 

Kieft was not satisfied with his abortive attempt to 
chastise the savages for their alleged perfidy and atroci 
ties. The next year these same Indians, and others liv 
ing farther north, were driven from their villages by a 
raid of the Mohawks. They fled to the Dutch for safety, 
and encamped at Corlaer s Hook and at Pavonia. Kieft, 
believing that his time had come for vengeance, without 
giving any notice to the farmers and outlying settlements, 
and against the advice of the best men in New Amster 
dam, directed two detachments of citizens and soldiers to 
fall on the unsuspecting Indians in the night and butcher 
them in their sleep. A large number of savages men, 
women, and children were killed at both encampments. 
This perfidy against a people who in time of peace had 
sought protection and safety, aroused the anger of the 
neighboring tribes, and they combined to exterminate the 
Dutch. In a brief time the farms and plantations were 
burned, and the people who were not killed or captured 
fled for safety under the guns of Fort Amsterdam. The 
Indians were bold and watchful, keeping their enemies 
shut up in narrow limits. Van Dyck, while stationing 
the guard not far from the fort, was shot and wounded in 
in the arm, narrowly escaping death, the bullet having 
grazed his breast. 

The next year, 1644, was made memorable by the 
slaughter of large numbers of the savages on Long Isl 
and and on the eastern borders of Westchester County. 


After a raid against the Indians on Long Island, in which 
over a hundred of them were killed, one hundred and 
thirty troops were put under the command of Captain 
Underbill, of New England, now in the Dutch service, as 
he had been years before in Holland, and of Ensign Van 
Dyck, with orders to penetrate into the country on the bor 
ders of this province and Connecticut, and to destroy a 
large Indian village said to be situated a few miles north of 
the sound. They landed at Greenwich, and the next day 
took up their line of march to the interior. Their guide 
was faithful, and conducted them straight to the Indian 
camp. They cautiously approached it on a bright, moon 
light night, but, being discovered, they rushed forward and 
completely surrounded it before the Indians had time to 
fly. The savages fought with desperation, and in a brief 
time one hundred and eighty of their warriors lay dead 
upon the snow outside their cabins. The torch was then 
applied, and the village, with its living occupants men, 
women, and children was burned to the ground. Five 
hundred Indians were killed some writers place the num 
ber at seven hundred ; only eight escaped. The loss of 
the Dutch was slight, fifteen being wounded. 

This severe chastisement lowered the pride of the sav 
ages, and they sued for peace. Kieft lent a willing ear to 
their solicitations, and in the following year concluded 
with all the Indian tribes a peace which continued until 
1655. Meantime Van Dyck returned to Holland, and on 
June 28, 1645, was appointed fiscal of New Netherland. 
Kieft had proved himself incompetent, and the Company 
resolved to recall him. Petrus Stuyvesant was appointed 
to his place. But there were various delays, and the new 
officials did not sail from Holland until the close of the 
year 1646. On the voyage, for some unknown reason, 
Stuyvesant treated Van Dyck rudely and impolitely. At 


one time, when Van Dyck proposed to take his seat with 
the Council on shipboard, Stuyvesant repulsed him with 
the remark, " Get out ! When I want you I ll call you." 
At Curacoa he confined him on board the ship for three- 
weeks, while others, even the meanest soldiers, were al 
lowed to land. Van Dyck believed that this was done, 
lest he, by virtue of his office and according to his instruc 
tions, should interfere in some business which Stuyves 
ant preferred to do alone. On their arrival at Manhattan 
the director-general pursued the same course of treat 
ment. He did not consult him as member of Council, ex 
cept when it suited his pleasure or convenience. He in 
terfered with the higher duties of his office, and assigned 
him work which a slave could perform, and in various 
other ways made his official life a burden. 

When Adrian Van der Donck was in Holland, as repre 
sentative of the people of New Netherland, to solicit a bet 
ter government, he sharply assailed the acts and characters 
of the colonial officials none more than those of Stuyve 
sant and his secretary, Van Tienhoven, and said of Van 
Dyck, in July, 1649 : 

" Director Stuyvesant excluded him twenty-nine months 
from the Council board, for the reason among others, as 
his Honor stated, that he could not keep a secret. He 
also declared that he w r as a villain, a scoundrel, a thief. 
All this is well known to the Fiscal, but he dare not adopt 
the right course in the matter; and in our opinion, tis not 
advisable for him to do so ; for he is a man wholly intol 
erable alike in words and deeds. His head is a trouble to 
him, and his Screw is loose, especially when surrounded 
by a little sap in the wood." 

Stuyvesant, apparently to justify his treatment of Van 
Dyck, accused him of drunkenness and inattention to the 
duties of his office, which called out a rebuke from the 


Company, in which they allude to his " respectable friends." 
Van Dyck, forbearing as he was, and, above all things, de 
siring peace and harmony in the official family, at last be 
gan to feel that he was being pushed to the wall by his 
enemies without cause. He had held aloof from the op 
position against the director-general, and had not united 
with Van der Donck and other leading men in their cele 
brated remonstrance on the condition and misgovern- 
ment of New Netherland. But now, in 1650, he joined 
the vice-director, Van Dincklage, in an energetic protest 
against the " excesses of Director Stuyvesant." For this, 
although other reasons are assigned, he was arbitrarily 
dismissed from his office on March 29, 1692. 

The long-suffering fiscal was now fairly aroused. In 
his Defence, a very able paper, addressed to the States- 
General, he assails the administration of Stuyvesant as 
autocratic and arbitrary to the last degree. With bitter 
sarcasm he exposes Stuyvesant s pretensions of having dis 
missed him "for the good of his Lords Superiors," and then 
having appointed such a man as his secretary, Van Tien- 
hoven, in his place. 1 He denies that he was the author of 
the lampoon which was made the excuse for his dismissal, 
and asserts that it was concocted in the office of Van Tien- 
hoven by himself and clerk for this very purpose. He 
denies the testimony of certain witnesses against him, and 
charges, as can be proven, that they were the creatures of 

1 Van Dyck sent with his Defence sworn statements as to the immo 
rality and general bad character of Van Tienhoven, which must have made 
a profound impression on the Lords Superiors. They directed Stuyvesant 
to dismiss him from office, and when at a later period they found that he 
was still retained, they wrote to Stuyvesant : "We are greatly surprised 
you can plead his cause so earnestly. This has displeased us ; and our 
displeasure must increase, if, contrary to our instructions and orders, you 
continue to employ him for any purpose whatever." Van Tienhoven soon 
after disappeared. It is supposed that he drowned himself. 


the director-general and his secretary, and unworthy of 
belief. As Stuyvesant had reported that he was dismissed 
on account of misbehavior, by the advice and consent of the 
select-men whose names were signed to the paper notify 
ing him of his dismissal, he asserted that the select-men 
had held a meeting in August, at which they declared by 
resolution that " no complaints were ever made to them 
by the commonalty of misbehavior, and they themselves 
had nothing to say against him or his conversation." They 
also said that they refused their consent to his dismissal, 
and did not sign the paper. 

He closes his defence with a letter from the Company 
to him, written before their knowledge of Stuyvesant s 
action in his case, in which they give him some sharp re 
bukes for his alleged delinquencies ; and his reply. In 
this letter he gives conclusive evidence that his " screw " 
was not loose, or surrounded by "sappy wood." It is 
keen, incisive, ironical. His Defence is long and able. It 
shows him to have been a man of more than ordinary abil 
ity and of good education. He does not deny that he has 
faults, but exonerates himself from the charges preferred 
against him, and places Stuyvesant and his friend, Van 
Tienhoven, on their defence. The proofs against the latter 
were so full and convincing that the Company ordered 
him to be dismissed from his employments. Stuyvesant 
was retained, and Van Dyck was not restored. Hence 
forth he did not " trouble himself with the cares of office," 
but lived many years in private life as an " honorable 

The Indian invasion of New Amsterdam in 1655 was 
the occasion of bringing Van Dyck s name again into 
prominence. Historians, from O Callighan and Brodhead 
to Mrs. Booth and Mrs. Lamb, in their narratives of that 
disastrous war, have made him the responsible cause. 


While Stuyvesant was on his expedition against the 
Swedes of Delaware, the Indians living on the river to the 
north formed an encampment on Manhattan Island, and 
early in the morning of September 15, 1655, five hundred 
warriors landed from sixty-four canoes near the fort, with 
in the city limits, and began a search for " Indians from 
the North." (More likely they were searching for rum.) 
They broke into houses before the occupants were out of 
their beds, and in some instances abused the people by 
words and blows. La Montagne and Van Tienhoven, to 
whom Stuyvesant had committed the government in his 
absence, sent for the chiefs to meet them in the fort. 
During the conference, which does not seem to have been 
unfriendly or exciting, the Indians promised to withdraw 
to Nutten Island, that collisions with the citizens might 
be avoided. But, being joined by another detachment of 
two hundred, they did not keep their promise, but lin 
gered in the streets and on the river-shore until evening. 
It is quite certain that they did not remain a whole day, in 
a town where rum was kept in every house and place of 
business, without getting more or less intoxicated. Be 
tween eight and nine o clock they made a rush up Broad 
way, and passing the house of Paulus Leendertsen Van der 
Grist, who was standing with his wife before the door, 
threatened to kill him, but passing on they wounded Van 
Dyck with an arrow, as he was standing in his garden- 
gate. They were evidently on a drunken frolic, caring 
little for consequences. Their assault on Van Dyck and 
his neighbor caused an alarm, and the cry was raised, 
" The savages are murdering the Dutch ! " when the citi 
zens, seizing their arms, hastily assembled at the fort. 
The Indians, after their rush through the streets, returned 
to their landing-place. The armed citizens were then 
permitted to leave the fort and assault them, and in the 


conflict which ensued two Dutchmen and three Indians 
were killed. The savages took to their canoes, and, smart 
ing under their loss, they passed over the river and at 
tacked the Dutch, whom they now looked upon as ene 
mies. They laid waste the farms on the New Jersey 
shore and on Staten Island, killing fifty of the inhabi 
tants and making more than an hundred prisoners. The 
loss in property of the Dutch was estimated at more than 
200,000 guilders. 

Several historians, in their narratives of these events, 
apparently without consulting the original records, attrib 
ute the invasion to Hendrick Van Dyck as the cause, but 
cite no authority. 1 They say that he killed a squaw whom 
he caught stealing peaches from his garden, and that he shot 
her as he would a dog. The story is embellished with inci 
dents according to the imaginations of the several writers. 
Some relate that the Indians, to the number of nineteen 
hundred or two thousand, landed from sixty-four canoes," 
for the purpose of taking vengeance on Van Dyck for the 
murder of the Indian woman. Most confine themselves 
to the fact of wounding him with an arrow, but one, more 
daring than the rest, says that they killed him. 

The accounts given by the actors and their contempo 
raries are doubtless more trustworthy than those of writ 
ers two hundred years afterwards. La Montague and Van 
Tienhoven, members of the Council, were on the spot, 
and active participants in all that occurred before the In 
dians passed to the west shore of the river. The latter 

1 Not one of the numerous authors telling the story, whose books I have 
read, give their authority ; not one refers to the records. The charge 
against Van Dyck may be true, but I have failed to find the proof. 

2 These canoes must have been much larger than the average to hold 
thirty persons each. Few would accommodate more than ten individuals 
each ; the more usual size would not hold as many. "Two thousand war 
riors in sixty-four canoes" discredits the story. 


was a bitter enemy of Van Dyck s, and had no reason to 
shield him from blame or responsibility. In their letter 
to the director-general, written the day after the affair, 
they say that many Indians from the upper and lower 
Hudson had made an assault on the Dutch, and had 
" wounded Hendrick Van Dyck, standing in his garden- 
gate, with an arrow, but not mortally, and came very near 
cleaving Paulus Leendertsen s head with an axe as he stood 
by his wife." No reason is assigned for the sudden out 
break or for the assault. If they were seeking Van Dyck 
to kill him, why did they try to kill his innocent neighbor, 
and only slightly wound him, the offender ? If it were 
Van Dyck they were after, why did they not seek him out 
during the day, and after killing him depart ? He did 
not seem conscious of their hate or of his own danger, or 
he was brave thus to expose his person at his garden-gate. 
Perhaps he was watching his peaches ! 

On receipt of this disastrous intelligence, Stuyvesant 
hastened his return from the Delaware to console and en 
courage the poor people, "his subjects." After he had 
had abundant time to investigate all the circumstances re 
lating to the invasion on October 3ist, he and his Council 
wrote to the States-General and the Company, giving a 
detailed statememt of the irruption, in which they say : 
" On September i5th, at a very early hour, sixty-four ca 
noes full of savages arrived in the neighborhood of the 
city," and then go on to relate the occurrences of the day, 
including the wounding of Van Dyck and the threatening 
of Leendertsen, but do not refer to the number of the In 
dians or the cause of the sudden outbreak, except that it 
was " in keeping with their insolence and treachery ever 
since the peace of 1645, having killed ten persons and de 
stroyed much property." 

A few days later the director-general submitted to the 


Council, for their written opinions, the question of imme 
diate war against the Indians, the community being di 
vided on the subject some urging a war of extermination 
to begin at once, while others were in favor of delay for 
thorough preparation. Stuyvesant, as was his custom, 
gave his own views and conclusions on the questions sub 
mitted, in which he says : " We agree with the general 
opinion, that the Indians upon their first arrival had no 
other intentions than to fight the Indians on the east end 
of Long Island, and that careless watching and all too 
hasty inconsiderateness of some hot-headed individuals 
diverted them and gave them a cause for their subsequent 

La Montagne thought that there was sufficient cause for 
war, "by the unseasonable gathering here of nineteen 
hundred savages, of whom eight hundred were already 
here, to attack fifty or sixty," but they had "given more 
than sufficient cause heretofore by murdering ten of our 

Van Tienhoven believed there was cause for war for sev 
eral reasons, but more especially " because that on Sep 
tember i5th, early in the morning, five hundred of them, 
all in arms, landed from sixty-four canoes w r ithin the city 
limits, and, being joined during the day by two hundred 
more, they ran through the streets in crowds, searching 
houses, beating the people, wounding Van Dyck, and 
threatening to kill Paulus Leendertsen." 

De Sille was absent with the Delaware expedition, and 
had little to say except to agree with the director-general 
in his opinion. All agree, however, that it was not a fit 
ting time to begin hostilities, as there should be time given 
in which to make preparations and receive an answer 
to their appeal to the States-General and the Company. 
There is not an intimation by any one, that the Indians 


came to wreak their vengeance on Van Dyck, or that he 
was the cause of a visitation which proved so disastrous. 
Considering his relations with Stuyvesant and Van Tien- 
hoven, it is remarkably strange that, had he been the re 
sponsible cause, they should not have arraigned him in 
their letters, or in their own confidential communications 
with each other. That Stuyvesant did not hold him cul 
pable further appears from a letter of the Company in re 
ply to one of his, under date of December 19, 1656. Re 
ferring to Van Tienhoven, they say : " Any one who will 
reflect upon his late transactions as to the savages will 
confess that, being very drunk, he was the chief cause of 
that doleful massacre. It is quite clear he might have pre 
vented it." How should the Company have spoken so 
emphatically, unless they had received reliable informa 
tion from Stuyvesant or some one else ? Such must have 
been the sentiment of the community at the time. 

In a postscript to the same letter, they write : " We un 
derstand, from letters and oral reports brought to us by 
private persons, that the late Attorney-General (Fiscal) 
Van Dyck was the first cause of this deplorable massacre, 
by murdering a squaw who stole some peaches or other 
fruits from his garden. If this is the truth, then we are 
greatly surprised it was not mentioned in your letters, not 
even with a single word much more so, that he was not 
punished as a murderer. To this we call your prompt at 
tention, and recommend his execution." It will be noticed 
that the Company say, if these reports are true, Van Dyck 
should be punished, but they do not recall or modify their 
charge against Van Tienhoven as the responsible party. 

In the light thrown upon the subject by these letters 
and records, there can be little doubt that the Indians did 
not visit New Amsterdam with hostile intentions, but 
merely stopped on the war-path against their enemies on 


Long Island far refreshments or other purposes. Van 
Dyck may have killed a squaw, as charged, for Indian 
life, from the beginning, in New England and elsewhere 
on the continent, until now, has been considered cheap ; 
nor could the Indians have seriously blamed him, judging 
him by their own law of retaliation. They would have 
been likely to have thought the woman s death was some 
compensation for the ten lives of Dutch men and women 
they had wantonly taken since the peace. I cannot but 
think that the accusation against Van Dyck was an after 
thought of the real culprit to shift the responsibility from 
his own shoulders. 

As to the number of the invaders, it is clear that the 
authors who have placed them at nineteen hundred or two 
thousand are in error, and particularly those who term 
them warriors all armed. It is true, La Montagne says 
" nineteen hundred gathered here, of whom nearly eight 
hundred were already here." This sentence can only be 
explained or understood by supposing the "here" first 
used to mean Manhattan Island, and the second "here " to 
mean New Amsterdam. This interpretation is sustained 
by Van Tienhoven, who expressly declared " there landed 
from sixty-four canoes about five hundred men," and 
adds, " in the evening they were joined by two hundred 
more," making the whole number "nearly eight hundred," 
as estimated by La Montagne. The conclusion is, that they 
formed an encampment on the island of Manhattan be 
longing to the Dutch, "without previous notice," of nine 
teen hundred men, women, and children, whence their 
warriors, in detachments of five hundred and two hundred, 
started on an expedition against the Long Island Indians. 
It is surprising that anyone should have put the number 
of the invaders at " about two thousand armed warriors in 
sixty-four canoes ; " equally marvellous that, in the face of 


the records and all other authors, it should be said that they 
" killed Van Dyck." One cannot but wonder that, if there 
were nineteen hundred, coming with hostile intent, they 
should have been driven off by " fifty or sixty " citizens ; 
for these were all, capable of bearing arms, who had been 
left by Stuyvesant to defend the city. 

Van Dyck was living at least thirty years afterward, 
having survived his great opponent, Stuyvesant, many 
years, and nearly all the associates of his early life. After 
the death of his wife, Deivertje, he married, in May, 1675, 
the widow of Jacob Van Couwenhoven. In 1680 he made 
a deed of a part of his Broadway property to his son Cor 
nells. He was not idle when out of politics, but was 
known as a thrifty man, dealing in real estate and loaning 
money. If he had loved the bottle, as Stuyvesant charged, 
he reformed and became a good citizen, living to a good 
old age. In his will, dated August 13, 1685, and proved 
March 20, 1688, he mentioned one son and three daugh 
ters. His son Cornelis was a physician, and settled in 
Albany. He died at an early age, leaving two sons, both 
of whom adopted the profession of their father. Their 
descendants are numerous, and it is now difficult to dis 
tinguish them from those of the same name, whose ances 
tors settled, one in Delaware, and another on Long Island. 
VOL. II. 20 


[Direct line.~\ 

1. PHILIP SCHUYLER and Margarita Van Slichtenhorst, m. in Bever- 

wyck (Albany), December 12, 1650; had ten 
children, of whom Philip was the eighth, and 
the fifth son, who was born February 8, 1666, 
and died May 24, 1724. He married, 

1st, Elizabeth De Meyer, in New 

York, July 25, 1687. 
2d, Mrs. Catharine Schierph, 
widow of Ritsiert Brotiwer, 
in Albany, May 19, 1719. 

2. PHILIP SCHUYLER and Elizabeth De Meyer. 

3. NICHOLAS, b. in New York, September n, 1691, d. July 3, 1748. 

m. i, December 2, 1714, Elsie Wendel. 
m. 2, Mary Stephenson. His first wife d. April 8, 
1744 ; his second survived him. 

3. NICHOLAS SCHUYLER and Elsie Wendel. 

4. ELIZABETH, b. September 4, 1715, d. December 5, 1795. 

m. Jochim Staats. 

5. PHILIP, b. October 17, 1717, d. s. p. April 29, 1739, at Oswego. 

6. ARIANTIA, b. March 6, 1720, d. October 17, 1763. 

m. fCillian Van Rensselaer. 

7. HARMANUS, b. January 27, 1722, d. September 27, 1722. 

8. CATHARINE, b. August n, 1723, d. at an advanced age. 

m. John Jacob Lansing. 
Q. A DAUGHTER, b. August 18, 1725, d. next day. 

10. HARMANUS, b. April 2, 1727, d. September i, 1796. 

m. September 24, 1754, Christina Ten Broeck. 

11. JOHANNES, b. January 3, 1733, d. s. p. October 28, 1755. 


10. HARMANUS SCHUYLER and Christina Ten Broeck. 

12. NICHOLAS, b. June 13, 1755, d. s. p. November, 1824. 

m. August 13, 1782, Shinah Simons, at Lancaster, 

13. SAMUEL, b. November 17, 1757, d. s. p. January, 1832. 

14. ELSIE, b. February 5, 1760, d. 1838. 

m. I, June 15, 1783, Dr. Nicholas N. Bogart, of New 

m. 2, June 24, 1789, James Van Rensselaer. 

15. DIRCK, b. November 29, 1761, d. s. p. June, 1811. 

16. JOHN H., b. July 30, 1763, d. August 18, 1846. 

m. I, June 6, 1786, Hendrika Fort. 

m. 2, June 10, 1800, Annatje Fort, d. January, 1851. 

17. MARIA, b. February I, 1766, d. October 18, 1767. 

18. PHILIP, b. December 12, 1767, d. August 25, 1769. 

19. MARIA, b. April 25, 1769, d. March 25, 1812. 

m. I, November 22, 1793, David Van Rensselaer. 
m. 2, January I, 1800, Nicholas Ten Broeck. 

20. PHILIP, b. August 21, 1771. 

m. Mary Palmer. 

16. JOHN H. SCHUYLER and Hendrika Fort. 

21. HARMANUS, b. March 7, 1787, d. May 14, 1853. 

m. August, 1813, Eleanor Speer. 

22. JACOB FORT, bp. June 3, 1789. 

m. , went to New Orleans, and not heard 

from after 1822. 

23. NICHOLAS, bp. February 27, 1791, d. s. p. December, 1812. 

24. ALEXANDER HAMILTON, b. September 12, 1792, d. March 4, 1853. 

m. November 7, 1813, Eleanor Giltner. 

25. JOHN BRADSTREET, b. July, 1794, d. 1839. 

m. September, 1818, Esther Mandeville. 

26. HENRIETTA ANN, b. August 2, 1796, d. Nov. 21, 1875. 

m. Philip S. Van Rensselaer, d. May, 1862. 

16. JOHN H. SCHUYLER and Annatje Fort. 

27. PETER QUIDOR, b. April 21, 1801, d. 1860. 

m. September 10, 1829, Maria Ten Broeck. 

28. JAMES VAN RENSSELAER, b. June 27, 1802. 

m. February 13, 1829, Mrs. Julia 
Me Chain K etc ham. 

29. HENRY TEN BROECK, b. April 12, 1804. 

m. January 8, 1851, Sarah White, d. 1875. 

30. PHILIP CHURCH, b. October 13, 1805, d - J ul Y l6 ^72. 

m. I, January 13, 1832, Lucy M. Dix, d. 1855. 
m. 2, May, 1860, Louisa Bigelow. 


31. ABRAHAM FORT, b. August 20, 1807, d. y. 

32. GEORGE WASHINGTON, b. February 2, 1810. 

m. April 18, 1839, Matilda Scribner. 

33. CATHERINE ANGELICA, b. December 17, 1812. 

m. October 18, 1848, Nicholas Bleecker. 

34. REBECCA SARAH MARGARET, b. March 2, 1815. 

20. PHILIP SCHUYLER and Mary Palmer. 

35. CHRISTINA, b. May 28, 1803, d. 1822, unmarried. 

36. BERIAH PHILIP, b. February 24, 1806, d. April, 1822. 

37. DEBORAH PALMER, b. April 8, 1808. 

m. Dr. Jra Dimmick. 

21. HARMANUS SCHUYLER and Eleanor Speer. 

38. NICHOLAS, b. August 5, 1815, d. s. p. 1833. 

39. MARY, b. March 15, 1817. 

m. November 3, 1839, Abraham Van Home. 

40. JOHN, b. January 8, 1819. 

m. October 6, 1841, Caroline Vanatta. 


42. ALEXANDER HAMILTON, b. September 14, 1822, d. a prisoner of 

war in Andersonville prison, 
m. 1853, Abby Clap p. 

43- HENRY TEN BROECK, b. May 3, 1824, killed in Grant s cam 
paign in Virginia. 
m. 1856, Atnina Monroe. 

44. A DAUGHTER, d. y. 

45. A DAUGHTER, d. y. 

46. SPEER, b. July n, 1831. 

47. CHEERY ANN, b. February 26, 1833. 

m. October 27, 1851, Edwin E. Southwell. 

48. RACHEL, b. April 14, 1835. 

49. ARIANTIA, b. June 23, 1837. 


50. A DAUGHTER, d. y. 


51. HENRIETTA, b. August i, 1814. 

m. December 2, 1832, Abel Burritt. 

52. CORNELIA, b. May 15, 1817. 

m. September 9, 1835, Schuyler Van Rensselaer. 

53. JANE, b. January 25, 1819. 

m. February 19, 1851, Robert Schackelton. 

54. SUSAN, b. May 2, 1821. 

m. January I, 1845, Grant Wheeler. 

55. PHILIP CHURCH, b. August 6, 1823. 

m. June 28, 1854, Ann 


56. JAMES FORT, b. May 29, 1828. 

m. March I, 1851, Catherine Smith. 

57. JULIA, b. May 30, 1831. 

m. July 4, 1851, Earl Lucas. 

25. JOHN BRADSTREET SCHUYLER and Esther Mandeville. 

58. RENSSELAER, b. July 4, 1819. 

59. CHARLES W., b. July 7, 1820. 

m. Rundle. 

60. CATHERINE, b. 1825. 

m. J. IV. Marcelhis. 

6 1. AMOS, b. 1831, d. s. p. 1843. 

62. GEORGE W., b. 1834. 

m. C. E. McDowell. 

27. PETER QUIDOR SCHUYLER and Maria Ten Broeck. 

63. JOHN EDWIN, b. September 16, 1831. 

m. April 27, 1871, Ann E. Stevenson. 

64. NICHOLAS TEN BROECK, b. December 4, 1833. 

m. September 24, 1871, Martha A. 

65. ANNE H., b. October 18, 1835. 

m. May 27, 1868, George W. Bodle. 

28. JAMES V. R. SCHUYLER and Mrs. Julia McChain Ketcham. 

66. ANN ELIZA, b. November 24, 1829. 

m. June I, 1847, Edward Stoddard. 

67. EVELINE FORT, b. September 22, 1831, d. y. 

68. JOHN JAMES, b. July 12, 1833, d. s. p. 

69. LUCY ANNE, b. January, 1835, d. y. 


70. SAGE WHITE, b. July 15, 1854. 

71. KATE WHITE, b. Jirly 4, 1856. 

m. October 17, 1877, William A. Church. 

30. PHILIP C. SCHUYLER and Lucy M. Dix. 

72. SOPHIA ANGELICA, b. November 15, 1832, d. March 28, 1837. 

73. SUSAN MANN, b. May 6, 1834. 

m. September 17, 1855, Marcus Lyon. 

74. PHILIP CHURCH, b. December 4, 1835. 

m. June 5, 1867, Lucy Sophia Hurd. 

75. GERRIT SMITH, b. April 24, 1837, d. August i, 1838. 

76. LUCY MATILDA, b. December 6, 1838. 

m. Sept. 26, 1860, Dr. Edwin P. Sheldoit, d. 
May 3, 1862. 


77. FREDERICK, b. June i, 1841, d. in Dakota, June 16, 1884. 

m. May 3, 1865, Nellie M. Far man. 

78. SARAH, b. December 31, 1842. 

m. December 25, 1862, Warren W. H. Lawrence. 

79. HOWARD, b. December n, 1844, d - December 3, 1883. 

m. February 5, 1875, F ann y Kemble Brannan. 

80. JAMES Dix, b. May u, 1848. 

32. GEORGE W. SCHUYLER and Matilda Scribner. 

81. EUGENE, b. February 26, 1840. 

m. July 13, 1877, Gertrtide Wallace King. 

82. MARTHA, b. August 3, 1842. 

m. December 29, 1864, Chaitncey L. Grant, Jr. 

83. EVALYN, b. October 6, 1846. 

m. March 30, 1871, Charles Ashmead Schaeffer. 

84. WALTER SCRIBNER, b. April 26, 1850. 

m. December 20, 1883, Mary Miller Gat 

85. KATE BLEECKER, b. June 10, 1853, d. April i, 1859. 

40. JOHN SCHUYLER and Caroline Vanatta. 

86. HARMON, b. January 22, 1843. 

87. GEORGE EDWARD, b. August 6, 1844, d. 1865. 

88. MARY ELIZABETH, b. June 25, 1846. 

89. SARAH, b. April i, 1848. 

90. OREN A., b. September 22, 1856. 

91. ADELBERT, b. May 14, 1864. 

42. ALEXANDER H. SCHUYLER and Abby Clapp. 

93. WILLIAM, b. 1854, 

94. SAMUEL, b. 1857. 

95. CHARLES, b. 1860. 

96. HARMON, b. 1863. 

43. HENRY T. B. SCHUYLER and Amina Monroe. 

97. ALARIC, b. November 8, 1857. 

98. LIONEL V., b. November 28, 1863. 

99. HENRIETTA, b. March 25, 1855. 

m. December 20, 1872, George Besimer, 

100. FORT A., b. September 25, 1856. 

101. ERMINA, b. April 26, 1859, d. y. 

102. PHILIP NORMAN, b. January 17, 1863. 

103. ALLAN A., b. August i, 1865. 

104. FREDERICK J., b. September 29, 1869. 


56. JAMES FORT SCHUYLER and Catharine Smith. 

105. ELLA, b. December 27, 1851. 

106. ADA, b. May, 1857. 

107. MINNIE, b. 1863. 


108. JOHN, b. 1861. 

109. EMMA, b. 1862. 
no. FREDERICK, b. 1864. 
in. FRANK, b. 1866. 

59. CHARLES W. SCHUYLER and Sarah Rundle. 

112. ANN JENETTE, b. 1852. 

113. GEORGE W., b. 1856, d. y. 

114. CAROLINE A., b. 1862. 

62. GEORGE W. SCHUYLER and C. E. McDowell. 

115. MARY L., b. April 25, 1865. 

116. EUGENE L., b. October 16, 1871. 

64. NICHOLAS T. B. SCHUYLER and Martha A. Griffin. 

117. BENJAMIN G., b. June 27, 1872. 

118. LUCY A., b. October 20, 1875. 

119. MARTHA E., b. May 6, 1877. 

74. PHILIP CHURCH SCHUYLER and Lucy Sophia Hurd. 

120. GENEVIEVE, b. November 7, 1868. 

121. LUCY CORBETT, b. March 19, 1871. 

122. EMILY FAILING, b. November i, 1872. 

77. FREDERICK SCHUYLER and Nettie M. Farmon. 

123. FLORENCE, b. September 2, 1866, d. December 21, 1877. 

124. PHILIP CHURCH, b. January 31, 1869, d. March 27, 1869. 

125. FREDERICK, b. June 16, 1870. 

126. WALTER, b. July 3, 1874. 

127. A SON, b. June, 1877. 

79. HOWARD SCHUYLER and Fanny Kemble Brannan. 

128. ADELE AN DREE, d. y. 



NICHOLAS SCHUYLER (3) was a surveyor, and apparently 
confined himself strictly to the business of his profession. 
Lands under the old titles were not definitely bounded, 
and after a while every landholder found it necessary to 
have his limits accurately defined by a competent surveyor. 
Schuyler was among the first on the upper Hudson who ac 
quired sufficient knowledge of civil engineering to qualify 
him to run the lines and determine the boundaries as laid 
down in the deeds. For a time after his marriage he re 
sided in Albany, but soon removed to Schenectady, a more 
central point for his business ; yet his services were in fre 
quent request by the Albanians. The city itself, whose 
lands at Schaghticoke were sold or leased in small parcels, 
after a time found it necessary, in order to quiet conflict 
ing claims, to have the farms accurately surveyed, and fre 
quently called upon him for his services. He was the first 
named to run the lines in the division of the famous Sara 
toga Patent. 

Before he had reached his majority he accompanied his 
uncle, Colonel Peter Schuyler, in April, 1711, to Onondaga, 
and assisted in the demolition of the block-house which the 
French had recently erected. It was an exciting experi 
ence, and gave him a foretaste of Indian life, without, how 
ever, drawing him away from the profession he had chos 
en. In 1727 he was elected to represent Schenectady in 


the Assembly of the province. This Assembly, the nine 
teenth, held only one short session, and was dissolved. 
Governor Burnet was not pleased, because in a series of 
resolutions it had presumed to attack the Court of Chan 
cery, in which, as its presiding judge, the governor, al 
though no lawyer, delighted to show his varied learning. 
He summarily dismissed the members to their homes, and 
called an election for a new house, which he was not per 
mitted to meet. He was sent to govern New England. 

Schuyler had not lost his taste for adventure, and in his 
intervals of leisure from his professional duties, like other 
young men of his J:imes, used to go on trading expeditions 
among the Indians. On such journeys, in almost unknown 
regions and among the free traders of the forests, his 
tastes were gratified. More than this, he was successful 
in his ventures. 

Governor Burnet s law prohibiting trade in Indian goods 
with Canada was ve ry obnoxious to New York importers 
and Albany merchants. They had no compunctions of 
conscience in evading its provisions when opportunities 
offered. Harmanus Wendell, one of Schuyler s brothers- 
in-law, although classed as a shoemaker, was also a trader. 
At one time he had in store a large stock of goods such 
as were required for the Indian trade by Canadian mer 
chants, and wished to dispose of them, law or no law. The 
Indian proselytes living near Montreal, in time of peace, 
were the camels of the desert, the freighters between Al 
bany and Canada, and, like camels, they required drivers 
or conductors. The Montreal merchant, when he wanted 
goods from Albany, hired some Indians, with their chief, 
and sent them to his correspondent in the latter city, who 
packed the goods on their backs, or in their canoes, and 
despatched them home under conductors of his own selec 
tion. A guard-house had been established near the great 


carrying place, on the route usually taken by the caravans, 
to intercept the forbidden trade, to arrest the carriers, and 
to seize the goods. 

On October 8, 1724, the governor, in New York, received 
a letter from the officer of the guard, stating that he had 
seized fifty-eight pieces of strouds, on the way to Canada, in 
charge of Nicholas Schuyler, Jacob Wendell, " and another 
whose face he could not see," with thirty Indians. After 
taking possession of the goods, and stamping on each 
piece the " broad arrow," they were forcibly taken from 
their custody by Schuyler and his company and carried 
off. The letter was accompanied with fin affidavit of the 
sergeant of the guard, to the effect that, on first arresting 
them, he said to Wendell that he was sorry to see him 
there, who replied that " he had not been there but for his 
father." Harmanus Wendell was examined, so wrote the 
Commissioners of Indian Affairs, and admitted that he had 
sold to Schuyler and his son Jacob a parcel of strouds, and 
thought that perhaps they were for Canada. On being 
made acquainted with the facts, the Council ordered all 
the culpable parties to be prosecuted and punished accord 
ing to the law. 

Nothing more relating to the business appears in the 
Council minutes until three years later. Meantime the 
offensive law had been modified or repealed. The Assem 
bly, of which Nicholas Schuyler was a member, was then 
in session. The governor, in his message, had called upon 
them to provide means to liquidate the debt which he had 
incurred in the establishment of a fortified trading-house 
at Oswego, the cost of which, ^6,682, had far exceeded 
the estimates and the money provided by a former Legis 
lature. He \vas in a dilemma, for, contrary to law, he had 
proceeded w r ith the work when the appropriation was ex 
hausted, and had created a debt which he said that he 


had paid out of his own pocket He now appealed to the 
Legislature to reimburse him. The Committee of Ways 
and Means, Robert Livingston, chairman, took a favorable 
view of the case, and reported a bill for his relief. The 
province was in debt, and it would not be prudent to raise 
the money by tax. Other means must be devised. Ap 
propriations to encourage the Indian trade, for securing 
the Indians to the British interests, for maintaining proper 
persons in the Indian country each contributed a few 
hundred pounds ; the remainder on hand of fines and for 
feitures for trading with the French contrary to law, and 
the money yet to be collected for fines and forfeitures, 
helped ; and, lastly, Nicholas Schuyler and Jacob Wendell 
offered to pay ^200 for their transgression of the prohibi 
tory law, provided that their bonds were cancelled and 
the Legislature relieved them from all further costs and 
litigation. The bill was enacted into a law, Governor 
Burnet was relieved from his embarrassment, the trading- 
house in due time became a fort, Schuyler and Wendell 
were discharged from their bonds, and Harmanus Wen 
dell and his correspondent, Adolph Philipse, of New York, 
paid the bills. 

Nicholas Schuyler, as an engineer, was employed in 
building Fort Clinton, at Saratoga, in 1746, but his bill for 
services was not fully paid until after his death. His pro 
fession did not often bring him before the public, and his 
name only occasionally appears in the records. None of 
his letters and private papers are known to be in existence. 
Consequently there are no materials for an extended no 
tice. He died on July 3, 1758, and his will is filed in the 
clerk s office of the Court of Appeals. He disposed of his 
estate impartially among his children, having first pro 
vided liberally for his widow. 

His old Dutch Bible came to my hands a few years 


since. One cover and the entire book of Genesis were 
gone. Of course whatever records were on the first fly 
leaves and there is reason to suppose they were full 
were lost beyond recovery. In other parts of the book I 
found his own family records, and those of his son Har- 
manus. 1 It was originally bound in boards covered with 
leather, " elaborately tooled," and finished with brass cor 
ner pieces and clasps. It must have been when new a very 
handsome book. It has been repaired, and is now in con 
dition to last two centuries longer. 

The title-page of the New Testament is so different 
from that of our English versions that a translation of it 
may be interesting : 

" The New Testament, or the Books of the New Cove 
nant of Our Lord, Jesus Christ. Published by authority 
of the High-Mighty Lords, the States General of the 
United Netherlands, and in conformity with the Decrees 
of the National Synod, held at Dordrecht, in the years 
1618 and 1619. Faithfully translated out of the original 
Greek into the Netherland language. To which is added 
a commentary on the obscure passages, explaining them 
with corresponding texts ; and also a New Register. By 
the general orders of the Netherland Church corrected 
from errors in printing. Amsterdam. Aart Dirksz Oos- 
saan, Bookseller, on the Dam, 1687." 

On this title-page is an engraving representing the four 
Evangelists with their emblems, and the Apostle Paul, 
grouped around a table on which are books and writing 
materials. There are no other engravings or maps in the 

ELSIE WENDEL was the daughter of Jeronimus, son of 
Evert Janse Wendel, an emigrant from Emden. He re 
sided for a time in New Amsterdam, and there married in 

1 See Appendix. 


July, 1644, Susanna du Trieux. He removed to Albany 
about 1658, where he engaged in the business of a cooper. 
Wills and other legal papers of the early days make known 
the trades, professions, and business pursuits of the first 
settlers. It is no disparagement to families of the present 
day to have it known that their first American ancestors 
were artisans, tradesmen, or farmers, and it is a false pride 
to conceal the fact. It was not the rich and noble who 
for the most part sought homes in the New World. Some 
there were who were forced to flee from persecution, and 
found a home in the wilds of America. Some few endeav 
ored to become the founders of colonies, and were gener 
ally disappointed. The less ambitious farmers and trades 
men prospered in their new homes, and many of them 
laid the foundations of eminence and wealth for their 
descendants. They were the founders of families. 

Albany for more than a hundred years was the centre 
of the Indian trade, and the base of military operations. 
Hence several trades, which were a necessity, were the 
sources of large profits. Coopers were required to supply 
the large demand for the small portable kegs for rum car 
ried by the traders into the interior, or by the Indians on 
their return home from Albany. Blacksmiths drove a 
flourishing trade in the manufacture of Indian axes or 
tomahawks, or as gunsmiths in repairing Indian guns. 
Shoemakers were indispensable to provide the citizens 
and soldiers with shoes, and bakers to supply them with 
bread. Many persons with capital embarked in these 
various kinds of business as the surest road to wealth. 
But although men of position they were always designated 
in their title deeds and contracts by the business they fol 
lowed, and they did not hesitate to term themselves such 
in their wills. It was only in the third or fourth genera 
tion that the word " gentleman " began to be used. 


Evert Wendel, the emigrant, had six sons, three of 
whom added another / to their names. After a time some 
of the family changed to Wandel. Two of Evert s sons 
were merchants, and two others wrote themselves "shoe 
makers." The father of Elsie Wendel was a shoemaker 
and tanner. His bark mill and tan vats were on Fox s 
Creek. His baptismal name was Jeronimus, which he 
changed to its equivalent, Hieronimus, which in the next 
generation became Harmanus. 

Captain Johannes Wendell, a merchant, was the most 
prominent of the six brothers. Having married a daugh 
ter of Dr. Abraham Staats, he was connected with some of 
the leading men of the province, and in politics was a 
Leislerian. He was twice married, and by his second 
wife, Elizabeth Staats, he had eleven children. He died 
in middle life, and his widow married Johannes Schuyler, 
the grandfather of General Philip Schuyler. Jacob, his 
youngest son, at an early age was placed with John Mico, 
of Boston, where he made his permanent home. He mar 
ried Sarah, daughter of Dr. James Oliver, and became a 
leading merchant in that city of tradesmen. He rose to 
eminence in a commonwealth of eminent men. He was 
made a colonel of the Boston regiment of militia, no mean 
position at the time, a member of the King s Council for 
the province of Massachusetts, and Avas often employed in 
other public business, more especially in affairs relating to 
the Indians. 1 

1 Sir Jonah Barrington says : " Dress has a moral effect on mankind. 
Let any gentleman find himself with dirty boots, old surtout, soiled neck 
cloth, and a general negligence of dress, he will in all probability find a 
corresponding disposition, by negligence of address." We should prob 
ably feel the force of this could we but see one of the "solid men of Bos 
ton " of olden time, as he came down State Street at the hour of high 
change, then 12 -o clock. His appearance would cause as much or more 
excitement than that of the Turkish ambassador who recently made us a 


Elizabeth, daughter of Abraham Wendell, brother of 
Jacob, married Edmund Quincy of Boston. Both uncle 
and niece had large families, and their descendants are 
among the best citizens of New England. Among them 
are the great orator and anti-slavery agitator, Wendell 
Phillips, and Oliver Wendell Holmes, the " Autocrat of the 
Breakfast Table." 

One of Elizabeth Wendell Quincy s daughters married 
Jonathan Sewall, Chief-Justice of Lower Canada. Her 
youngest daughter, Sarah, married John Hancock, presi 
dent of Congress and first signer of the Declaration of 
Independence. 1 


HARMANUS was the youngest but one of his father s 
eight children, and the only one of the four sons who 
married and had a family. He was born at Schenectady, 
where he spent his boyhood. His education, whatever it 
was, was acquired in the school of his native town. When 
of sufficient age he was placed with a jeweller in Albany, 
and after serving his apprenticeship, he established him- 

visit. Colonel Jacob Wendell, merchant, who died in 1761, is thus de 
scribed : "His dress was rich, being a scarlet embroidered coat, gold 
laced cocked hat, embroidered long waistcoat, small clothes, with gold 
knee-buckles, silk stockings with gold clocks, shoes with large gold or 
silver buckles, as the importance of the occasion or business demanded, 
full ruffles at the bosom and wrists, and walking with a gold-headed cane. 
Now we have a portrait of one of the old school gentlemen of a century 
ago." Boston Newspaper. 

1 "Resolved, that Colonel Hughs, Deputy, is hereby licensed and per 
mitted to export out of this State twenty barrels of flour for the use of the 
Hon bl John Hancock and his family." Minutes of the Council of Safety 
of New York, 1778. 

A Mr. Hewes mai ried Sarah, second daughter of Jacob Wendell, and 
is probably the Colonel Hughs mentioned in the permit. It is evident 
there was a scarcity of breadstuffs in Massachusetts, and that John Han 
cock was indebted to his relationship to the Wendells for his bread. 


self in business on the corner of State Street and North 
Market Street, now Broadway. 

He was elected constable of the first ward in September, 
1 7 q 2, and assistant alderman in 1759. Philip Schuyler (the 
general) represented another ward of the city about the 
same time in a like capacity. Neither of them rose to 
the dignity of an alderman. In colonial times the sheriffs 
were appointed annually by the governors. It was an office 
of influence and responsibility. Albany County occupied 
a large territory all the settled parts of the colony north 
and west of Ulster and Dutchess, including the present 
State of Vermont. Then, as now, there were many aspi 
rants for the position. In the spring of 1761, the sheriff 
of Albany was seized with a mortal sickness, and some 
weeks before his death the politicians were canvassing for 
his successor. The Assembly was in session at the capi 
tal, and before the adjournment the members from Albany 
got a pledge from Lieutenant-Governor Golden that, on 
the death of the sheriff, he would appoint Guisbert Mer- 
selius, who was also endorsed by the mayor of the city 
and the judges of the courts. Colden s friend, Sir Wil 
liam Johnson, had a candidate, and felt sure of his ap 
pointment as soon as he named him. He waited, however, 
until death had made a vacancy before he urged his candi 
date. Before his letter was received, General Monckton 
called on Mr. Golden, and informed him that the sheriff 
was dead, and that General Amherst desired the appoint 
ment of Harmanus Schuyler to fill the vacancy. The 
name of the candidate and his endorsers must have pro 
duced a cold chill, and caused some degree of perplexity, 
as the venerable governor called to mind what he had said 
and written about another Schuyler only two years before, 
and what he had so recently promised the members of 


With trembling hand he immediately wrote to General 
Amherst that he was already committed, assuring him at 
the same time that "although Schuyler s character might 
be as little known to the one as to the other, if he con 
tinued to desire it, he would appoint him, notwithstand 
ing inconveniences might arise." To Sir William John 
son he wrote that however much he wished to oblige him, 
"after Generals Amherst and Monckton had expressed a 
wish for Schuyler s appointment, he had no choice left." 

Schuyler s appointment was made in Council on June 
17, 1761. He must have bowed with unusual grace to the 
mayor, when on June 23d following, at a meeting of the 
Common Council of w r hich he was a member, he produced 
his commission, and took the oaths of office. His ap 
pointment was all the more gratifying, inasmuch as he 
had not been a candidate, and had not solicited the office. 
It is in vain to inquire what had induced the generals to 
make a personal recommendation of Schuyler. Both oc 
cupied a high position ; the one had recently received the 
surrender of the French territories in America, the other 
was soon to be commissioned governor of the province. 
They may have known him and liked him ; or they may 
have been acting on the suggestions of the lady of the 
Flatts, Colonel Philip Schuyler s widow, who at that time 
was in high favor with the English generals, on account of 
her many estimable qualities of mind and heart. A letter 
from Van Schaick to Johnson speaks of the influence of 
Colonel Bradstreet. 

The new sheriff acquitted himself to the acceptance of 
the people, and no particular " inconviences arose," except 
perhaps to the governor from the Assembly. Schuyler 
was reappointed from year to year until 1770, when he re 
moved to Stillwater. He had the courage to face the most 
trying occasions in the discharge of his duties. It may be 
VOL II. 21 


interesting to his descendants to give two or three instances 
of his coolness and pluck. 

The territory now forming the State of Vermont was 
claimed both by New York and New Hampshire. The 
one issued patents for large tracts of the lands to specu 
lators with few or no tenants ; the other, for small farms to 
actual settlers. It was long an unsettled question to 
which of the two provinces the prize would finally fall. 
It was only solved in the time of the Revolution, when the 
inhabitants organized an independent government and 
demanded admission to the sisterhood of States. For 
many years, however, the contest was waged by letters 
between the governors, by proclamations and counter- 
proclamations, and by appeals to the crown. Persons 
were arrested by both parties as trespassers, carried far 
from home, and lodged in jail. The strife increased in 
violence and culminated in riots and the use of arms. 
The Vermonters, not contented with the territory claimed 
by New Hampshire, invaded that which had been long 
held as a part of this province and occupied for years. 
They took forcible possession of farmer s houses, and 
turned the occupants out of doors. On one occasion the 
sheriff of Albany was notified that a farmer at Hoosac 
had been dispossessed, and that others were threatened 
with a like treatment. Acting by authority of the gov 
ernor, he went to Hoosac, taking with him a justice of the 
peace. The day after he arrived was Sunday, and its 
quiet was not disturbed. Early the next morning the 
New Hampshire officers began operations by putting two 
farmers and their families, with their effects, out of their 
houses, and then hastily retired, before the sheriff, stop 
ping a short distance off, was notified. But he found 
their trail, pursued and captured four of their leaders, and 
triumphantly bore them off to the Albany jail. 


Two years later there were riots on the Livingston 
manor, occasioned by men from Massachusetts who claimed 
the land. A warrant was placed in the sheriff s hands for 
the arrest of the chief rioter. Knowing the desperate 
character of the men with whom he had to deal, he called 
for the assistance of a posse. On approaching the house 
of the rioter, he found him and his friends to the number 
of thirty behind a barricade, all armed with clubs, and 
defiant. When ordered to surrender he refused, and 
threatened death to any one who should attempt to cross 
his intrenchment. The sheriff did not parley, but imme 
diately leaped over the barricade. The posse followed him, 
and for a time the strife was fierce and bloody. Clubs 
and pistols were freely used, resulting in the death of one 
man on each side. The rioters took refuge in the house, 
and, barring the doors, deliberately fired on their oppo 
nents, wounding seven of them. The sheriff was foiled. 
He had no means to storm the fort, and was obliged to 
leave the field without his man. 

In an affray in the neighborhood of Albany a man was 
killed. It was supposed that the crime was committed by 
a negro of desperate character, who remained on the farm 
where he worked. A warrant for his arrest was placed in 
the hands of a deputy, who reported that the negro, a 
large, powerful fellow, threatened death to any one who 
attempted to take him, and that he could not arrest him 
except at the risk of his life. Another deputy was alike 
unsuccessful. The sheriff himself then took the warrant. 
He found the culprit on the barn floor thrashing, who 
rushed toward him with his heavy flail uplifted, as if to 
strike. The sheriff withdrew his hand from behind him 
and showed a pistol. The flail fell to the floor, and the 
desperado quietly submitted his hands to the shackles. 

In 1770 Harmanus Schuyler disposed of his business 


in Albany and removed to Stillwater, where he bought a 
farm with water-power on the river. He erected mills, and 
until his death transacted an extensive business. I visited 
the place some twenty-five years ago, but there was noth 
ing left to mark the spot, except the dug-way from the 
road high up on the bank down to the water. 

In February, 1776, Harmanus was appointed by General 
Schuyler Assistant Deputy Commissary-General of the 
Northern Department, and was stationed at Lake George 
in charge of the men engaged in building boats for the 
use of the army. His letters thence to General Schuyler 
give us a vivid conception of the poverty of the country, 
and how poorly it was prepared to enter upon the war for 
independence with a rich and powerful kingdom ; and of 
its entire dependence on the commanding general for all 
the materials required in the work of preparation. His 
letters from Lake George are from February 8 to April 
24, 1776. His first letter begs for two or three kegs of 
nails absolutely required to complete the workshop. He 
then asks for some good axes, those on hand having " no 
steel in them," for grindstones, for camp-kettles, a black 
smith, a stick of sealing-wax, some pitch and oakum, and 
various other articles, all of which should have been fur 
nished by the commissary-general. That officer, however, 
had not the money to procure them, and hence he wrote 
to the general, who alone had the money or credit for the 
occasion. Nails were ordered from Canada, and the first 
three sleigh-loads received proved to be useless they 
were too small or too large. Finally, he wrote : " The men 
plague my heart out for their pay. Do send me at least 
ten pounds, with which to make them easy for the time." 

He was at Skenesborough (Whitehall) from June to 
September, building a larger class of boats, called gondo 
las and galleys. Here his want of supplies was greater 


than before. Every letter (there are fourteen in all) begs 
for something now for some fresh meat and a little salt ; 
then for pease and rum, for pitch, oakum, nails, tools, pro 
visions. Again, he urgently asks for nails, iron, steel, 
oakum, cordage, pitch, and tar ; and a few days later he 
writes : " This is the third time I have written for supplies, 
and have received none : " " We have now twenty-five 
blacksmiths, but tools for only four fires." At another 
time he writes : "We have now fifty-five blacksmiths, but 
the most of them are sick, as are also a great many car 
penters. Out of fifty men under Captain Titcum only ten 
are able to work." He wrote to Colonel Wynkoop at Ti- 
conderoga for men to work on the vessels, and received 
the reply : "I have not men enough to keep the guard." 
We learn that General Arnold was at Skenesborough su 
pervising the work, and directing as to the size and num 
ber of vessels. We also catch a glimpse of other officers 
of the army, all busied in preparations to meet the English 
fleet on the lake. It was all in vain. The little fleet built 
under so many difficulties, and at so much expense, was 
destroyed by the British in the following October. 

His last letter from Skenesborough is dated September 
2, 1786. His robust health was broken at last. He and 
his son Dirck were sick with the fever which had proved 
so disastrous to the workmen all through the month of 
August. He was unable to resume his duties for several 
weeks, but toward the last of October we find him at Still- 
water superintending the transportation of supplies to 
Fort Edward and Lake George. There was a depot for 
provisions at Stillwater. From thence they were forward 
ed by boats to Fort Edward while the river was open, and 
by wagons and sleighs when it was closed. Here he found 
the transportation facilities entirely inadequate, and ap 
pealed to the general for more boats and wagons. It was 


not in vain, for a few days later he reports, " Forwarding 
goes on briskly." But now comes a letter from Captain 
Varick at Fort Edward, asking for at least forty wagons 
for use at his station. " They are difficult to get," he re 
plied, " but I will try." He then hastened over to Schaght- 
icoke to borrow or hire them from the farmers, but with 
indifferent success. On November 23d he wrote : "A drove 
of fat oxen is passing for Fort Edward. I want one for 
my family, and would be pleased to have it on account of 
my rations ; but if not so, I will pay the cash." 

On December yth the river was closing, and there were 
still three hundred barrels of flour in store, which had to 
be sent forward by land. There was the rub. The roads 
were bad, and wagons could not be procured. Later there 
was a call for one hundred tons of hay. He scoured the 
country, and could find only thirty-six tons, of which 
twenty-three tons were sent by sleighs to Lake George, 
and thirteen tons to Ticonderoga. The balance of the or 
der could not be had short of Bennington. 

Harmanus Schuyler retired from the service when his 
friend the General was superseded by Gates. However, 
he encouraged his sons of sufficient age to offer their ser 
vices to their country. The eldest was studying medicine 
when the war began, and was attached for a time to the 
medical staff of Dr. Stringer, and afterward was the sur 
geon of Colonel Hazen s regiment. Samuel, the second 
son, on account of his imperfect vision, could not serve in 
the ranks, but was a clerk in the Commissary Department. 
The third son, Derick, less than fourteen years old at the 
beginning of the war, was made a second lieutenant in one 
of the companies of the New York line, as soon as his age 
would permit it. The other sons were too young to render 
any service. 

Harmanus Schuyler died at Stillwater, on September i, 


1796, in the seventieth year of his age, leaving a widow 
and seven children. His will is dated August 10, 1796. 
In some respects it is singular. He released his eldest 
son from the payment of the considerable sums of money 
advanced to him, and now gave him his silver tankard. 
To his wife he gave the income of his whole estate, real 
and personal, " during her natural life." After her death, 
his daughters, Elsie and Maria, were to receive each ^"250 
which he had invested in United States bonds ; and to his 
son John he gave his " negro boy Peet." The residue of 
his estate, real and personal, he gave to his youngest son, 
Philip, subject to the payment of ^300 to his son John, 
and ^250 to Samuel, and to an annuity of ^7 to Derick 
for life. He did not follow the old Dutch custom of 
dividing his estate equally among his children, nor the 
English usage of giving the real estate to the eldest son, 
but gave to one of his children, the youngest, much the 
largest share. Doubtless he had reasons for such a dispo 
sition of his property, but they are not known at the 
present day. 

CHRISTINA TEN BROECK, my grandmother, the wife of 
Harmanus Schuyler, carries me back to the early days of 
the colony on different lines, through the Ten Broecks to 
the Van Rensselaers and Van Btirens, and through the 
Van Rensselaers to the noted Anneke Jans. Her father, 
Samuel Ten Broeck, was the second son of Dirk Wesselse 
Ten Broeck and Christina Van Buren. Her mother was 
Maria, daughter of Hendrick Van Rensselaer and his 
wife, Catharine Van Brugh, who was a granddaughter of 
Anneke Jans. Of her father little is known, but her 
grandfather Ten Broeck was a prominent man, and from 
the time he was appointed Recorder of Albany to his 
death, his name is of frequent recurrence in the annals of 
the city and province. I have already told the story of 


Hendrick Van Rerisselaer, but the history of his wife s 
grandmother is interesting chiefly because her " heirs " so 
persistently for more than a hundred years sought to re 
claim a portion of the property belonging to the rich cor 
poration of Trinity Church, New York. 


Ten Broeck is a name which gives occasion for specu 
lation. Was it the true surname of a, family, or was it as 
sumed by a section of a family known by another name ? 
It has been claimed that Wessel Ten Broeck, merchant of 
Munster, Westphalia, came with Director Peter Minn it in 
1626, and settled as a merchant at Fort Orange (Albany). 
I have been unable to verify it. The earliest date at 
which the name appears in the records was June 21, 1663, 
signed to a contract, Dirk Wesselse ten Broeck. Ten 
Broeck first appears in the records of the Dutch Church 
of New York, October i, 1671, when Wessel Wesselsen 
ten Broeck was recorded as a godfather. A year later 
Hendrick Wesselsen ten Broeck acted in the same capac 
ity. In 1674, the latter had a child baptized by name 
Wessel, and Dirk Wesselse ten Broeck was its godfather. 
In October, 1673, Wessel Ten Broeck was appointed by 
Governor Colve a schepen at Kingston. In all proba 
bility this was the Wessel Wesselse ten Broeck who was 
in New York in 1671, for we do not meet with him again 
in the latter city, and he had now taken up his permanent 
residence in Kingston. These three, Dirk Wesselse, Hen 
drick Wesselse, and Wessel Wesselse ten Broeck, were 
probably brothers, and the only ones, so far as I have been 
able to learn, by the name Ten Broeck then in the country. 

1 Vessell then broke. Jacob Leisler to the Governor of Boston, October, 
1689. Dirk Ten Breeches. Washington Irving. 


Whether they were emigrants, or whether they assumed 
the name to distinguish them from others of the same 
family, is an unsolved question. There were several Wes- 
scls and Wesselses in New r York, and some in Albany, 
who were among the early settlers. One Wessel Wesselse 
of Oyster Bay, L. I., October 4, 1677, mortgaged a house 
and lot on Broadway, New York, "late in possession of 
Dirk Wesselse," and all the estate due him by virtue of 
the last will of Wessel Wesseise, " my father," for thirty- 
six pounds, which when paid would be in full settlement 
for all claims, from the beginning of the world to the 
present time." January 17, 1700, one Hendrick Ten Broeck 
"son and heir of Hendrick Wesselse Ten Broeck, quit 
claimed a fifth share in a piece of land, known as the 
* shoemaker s land, " to one Lodwick. The Hendrick Wes 
selse ten Broeck first named had no son by name Hen 
drick, but his contemporary, Hendrick Wesselse, had a 
son by that name. These references indicate a proba 
bility that the Wessels, or Wesselses, and Ten Broecks were 
originally the same family. Yet it is possible that Ten 
Broeck was a Dutch name known in Holland, and that the 
three brothers were immigrants. 

Dirk Wesselse Ten Broeck, as commissary, justice, re 
corder, mayor, member of Assembly, ambassador, wrote 
his name Dirk Wesselse. When mayor he was known and 
addressed as Dirk Wessels, while his son, an alderman, 
and sitting at the Council Board with his father, was 
written Wessel Ten Broeck. To land contracts, deeds, 
and to his will, he wrote his name in full, Dirk Wesselse 
ten Broeck, the ten always with a small /. In his will he 
wrote the full names of his children, the ten the same as 
in his own signature. In history and politics he is only 
known as Dirk Wessels. Most readers of the city and pro 
vincial records often meet the name Dirk Wessels, and do 


not dream that he was the ancestor of General Abraham 
Ten Broeck of Revolutionary fame, or of that other Ten 
Broeck who made himself famous on both sides the Atlan 
tic as the breeder and owner of race-horses. 

When Pieter Van Alen, tailor and trader in Beverwyck, 
was about to sail for the fatherland in August, 1662, he 
gave a power of attorney to his servant, Dirk Wessels, to 
transact all his business in his absence. He was then only 
twenty years old, but competent for the duties of the trust. 
The next year he bought a house, married, and commenced 
business as a "free merchant." He bought the house situ 
ated on the north side of Yonker s Street, now the site of 
the Mechanics and Farmers Bank, of the " heirs " of An- 
neke Jans for four hundred dollars, payable in beavers, 
and signed the contract Dirk Wesselse ten Broeck. His 
name for the next twenty years seldom appears in the rec 
ords. He wisely devoted himself to his business, which he 
managed with tact and judgment, and succeeded in plac 
ing himself among the foremost merchants of Albany. It 
is said, but without sufficient proof, that he exported in 
one year five thousand beaver skins, an unusually large 
number for one man to handle. 1 

His education was equal to that of his contemporaries, 
and included a knowledge of the Indian languages, with 
out which a man could not transact his business, as then 
conducted, with ease and facility. After he had gained a 
solid position in his community, and was in possession of 
a respectable estate, he began to attract the attention of 
the colonial governors as one fitted for public office. In 

1 There is a paper on file among the city archives without an original 
date, showing the number of beavers shipped by different parties, in which 
Derik Wessils appears to have been the shipper of five thousand. It was 
written by Johannes Dyckman, who on account of insanity was removed 
from office in 1655, when Dirk Wesselse Ten Broeck was only thirteen 
years old. Derik Wessils must have been another man. 


1676, Governor Andros made him n commissary, the duties 
of which were not onerous, and did not interfere with his 
regular business. Eight years later Governor Dongan 
appointed him a justice of the peace. From this time 
until a few years before his death, he was much employed 
in the public service. Pie was named in the charter of 
July 22, 1686, one of the first aldermen of the city, and in 
October following he was appointed recorder in place of 
Isaac Swinton. He held this office until 1696, when he 
was chosen mayor, being the fourth since the organization 
of the city government. Besides these municipal offices, 
he was elected member of the first Assembly in 1691, and 
re-elected to the second, third, fourth, and fifth. He was 
again elected to the eighth, but was refused his seat by 
the Leislerian majority, for non-residence, as was alleged. 
He had bought a farm in the Livingston manor, on which 
he lived a part of the year, but kept up his residence and 
business in Albany as formerly. The parties were so evenly 
divided in the Assembly, eleven to ten, that the majority 
were unwilling to run the risk of falling into the minority 
by sickness or death, and hence seized upon a flimsy ex 
cuse to exclude Wessels and Nicols, and to seat their own 
partisans in their place. Dirk Wessels was also a member 
of the Indian Board for several years, was four times ap 
pointed political agent to Canada, and was frequently sent 
among the Indians of the Five Nations on important pub 
lic business. His influence with the Indian allies was sec 
ond only to that of Peter Schuyler. In all these various 
offices of trust and dignity he served without reproach, 
showing himself to be a man of rare ability and ready 
resources for all contingencies. The only thing alleged 
against him during his public career with any semblance 
of truth, was his association with Peter Schuyler and 
others in the patent for the Mohawk lands, as a wrong to 


a nation which had always been the firm ally of the English. 
Although there can be little doubt that the transaction on 
the part of all engaged in the affair, except Pinhorne, was 
not for personal gain, but was in the interest of the Indians 
themselves, it was a mistake so far as they were concerned ; 
and Wessels, like Peter Schuyler, as soon as .he understood 
by the public clamor that his motives were not appreciated, 
renounced all connection with it. 

In politics Wessels was anti-Leislerian, but was never a 
bitter partisan, nor an uncompromising opponent. When 
the interests of the province required it, he could over 
come his prejudices, and act in concert with his political 
foes. Fie was a member of the Dutch Church, and for 
many years an officer. But an exemplary Christian life 
did not shield him from Jacob Leisler s vituperative tongue 
and pen. His opposition to usurped authority was enough 
to condemn him in the estimation of the usurper. Leisler 
said of him, " He is a person who formerly professed popery, 
and recanted a Protestant, and been employed by our late 
papist governor dongan for ambassador to Canada, and 
understood not one word of french." 

Ten Broeck in common with his well-to-do friends and 
neighbors, bought lands from the Indians for investment 
and on speculation. His first purchase was made in 1680, 
of four flats or plains lying on Kinderhook Creek, " one 
Dutch mile from Jan Tysen Goes, (which name was after 
ward changed to Hoes) with the woodland extending to 
the high hills." He was one of the seven partners in the 
Saratoga Patent, and one of the seven partners in the 
great Westenhook patent, lying east of Kinderhook and 
along the sources of the Housatonic River. In 1694 he 
bought of Robert Livingston two tracts of land within the 
bounds of Livingston manor one of six hundred acres on 
the Hudson, the other of twelve hundred acres on the 

TEX liROECK. 333 

Roelof Jansen Kil, about six miles inland. On the latter 
he built a dwelling house and barns, and called it his 
" Bouwery." He did not at first make it his permanent 
residence, but lived in Albany, and there prosecuted his 
business and various employments as formerly. Toward 
the close of life, he transferred his business to others, and 
retired to his Bouwery to spend his last years in superin 
tending the improvements on his farms. 

In his domestic relations he seems to have been fortu 
nate and happy. He had a family of thirteen children 
six sons and seven daughters. Two of the sons, Manasseh 
and Ephraim, twins, died in infancy ; the others survived 
him, and are named in his will. They were all married, 
and most of them were settled in Albany and its vicinity. 
Two years before his death, he calmly inventoried the re 
sults of his business life, and recorded them in his will. 
In an old Dutch Bible, possessed by one of his descend 
ants, we read, " September 13, 1717, my father, Dirk Wes- 
seise, fell asleep in the Lord, at his Bouwery on Roelof 
Jansen s Kil. The Lord give him a blessed resurection." 

His will, written by himself in the Dutch language, is 
dated February 4, 1715, and was proved on February 6, 
1718. He divided his large estate equally among his 
eleven children, according to the valuation made by him 
self of its several parts. Two-thirds of his seventh share 
in the Saratoga Patent he gave to his eldest son, Wessel - 
the other third to his daughter, Gertrude, wife of Abra 
ham Schuyler ; to his sons Samuel and Tobias, his farms 
in the Livingston manor ; and to his son Johannes, the 
homestead in Albany and the lands in Kinderhook ; all to 
be reckoned as part of his estate at the value he placed 
upon them. He directed his other lands and property of 
whatever kind to be sold, and, when all this was done, an 
equal distribution to be made among his children, after 


the death of his widow, who while she lived was to have 
entire control of the estate. In conclusion, he enjoined 
upon his heirs " that none of his real estate should be sold 
to strangers, but should remain in his family for all time." 
This injunction was observed by the next two generations, 
but thereafter the lands gradually passed into the hands 
of strangers, until very little is now in his family. John, 
the son and heir of Tobias, sold his half of the manor farm 
to his cousin, Dirk Wesselse, son of Samuel, and removed 
to New Jersey. He is the ancestor of the horse-loving 
and horse-racing Ten Broecks of Kentucky. Dirk, the 
eldest son of Wessel, was mayor of Albany in 1746-7, and 
his son Abraham was the Revolutionary general, and also 
mayor of Albany in 1796-7. The latter married a daugh 
ter of Patroon Van Rensselaer, and had charge of the vast 
estate during the minority of the last patroon. 

There are few among my various ancestors \vhose his 
tory I have studied with more interest than that of Dirk 
Wesselse Ten Broeck. I learned that his grave was still 
to be seen on his old bouwery, now in the town of Cler- 
mont, Columbia County, and I resolved to visit it, if for 
nothing else, that I might say I had stood by the grave 
of the grandfather of my grandmother. The early Schuy- 
lers and their families had been buried beneath the floors 
of city churches, or in the grounds surrounding them, 
which had been removed and obliterated by the march of 
improvements ; even that of my grandfather had suffered 
a like fate. I could not visit them. 

With a relative as mentor and guide, I left Nassau on 
a bright summer morning. Our route was by quiet roads, 
far from the hum of cities and the screech of locomotives, 
through a charming country, full of interest to one whose 
forefathers had purchased it from the Indian proprietors 
two hundred years ago. It led along the shore of the 


pretty Kinderhook Lake, through the thriving villages of 
Valatie and Kinderhook, by the modest brick house built 
by a Van Buren, where Martin the Fox, was born ; by 
the famous Lindenwald (so named, although there is not 
a linden tree on the place), where ex-president Van Buren 
found a pleasant retreat from his political contests and 
successes ; over the old race-course of the Livingstons 
and Ten Broecks ; past country seats surrounded by r an 
cient trees ; to Claverack, the summer family seat of the 
younger branch of the Van Rensselaers ; thence through 
splendid farms to Clermont, and the grave of the grand 
old man of two centuries ago. 

The private cemetery, in which repose the remains of 
Dirk Wesselse Ten Broeck and his wife, Christina Van 
Buren, surrounded by the graves of several generations, 
is situated on the second terrace or bluff above the little 
river, known as Roelof Jansen s Kil, 2 in the midst of forest 
trees, enclosed with a permanent fence, and tenderly 
cared for by a descendant in the sixth generation, Mrs. 
Harold Wilson. It is the only portion of the old Bouwery 
in possession of the " family." Its location, for a prospect 
of picturesque beauty, is unsurpassed, and there is no ap 
parent reason why it should be disturbed for centuries. 
On the terrace below is the fine old brick mansion built 
by Ten Broeck, beyond which is the valley of Roelof Jan- 
sen s Kil, and over the river the hills rise in terraces, 
dotted with groves of native trees and pretty villas. Up 
and down the valley for long distances you catch glimpses 
of sparkling water through the shrubs and trees on the 
banks of the river. The house is isolated, far from any 

1 In politics Martin Van Buren was called "The Fox." 

2 It is said the river was named for the first husband of Anneke Jans, 
who in the early days on his small vessel, was ice-bound, and forced to 
spend the winter among the Indians of that neighborhood. 


road, and unseen, except from the opposite hills, until by 
a private lane you reach the terrace of the cemetery. 

Broeck s wife Christina, came to Rensselaerwyck in 1631, 
and settled on a farm belonging to the manor. He and 
his wife died in 1648, and were buried on the same day. 
He left four children, the eldest of whom, Martin, bought 
of Ten Broeck a farm at Kinderhook, for which a deed 
was given to him after the latter s death, on August 10, 1 703. 
The farm-house is situated on a slight elevation near the 
creek and the village of Kinderhook. Here one of the most 
noted presidents of the nation was born and brought up. 
He acquired his academic and legal education in his 
native village, and never lost his affection for the place of 
his birth. Toward the close of his life he returned to its 
neighborhood to spend his last years, and die among the 
friends of his youth. 

Ten Broeck had great confidence in hiswafe. She must 
have been a woman of more than ordinary ability. Al 
though she was about his ow r n age when he wrote his will, 
he appointed her sole executrix of his entire estate, and 
placed the entire income at her disposal. She could not 
sell the lands, and in case "she should marry again" (he 
must have smiled at the thought) then she must surrender 
the trust to his sons. 

The Van Burens probably came from Buren in Gelder- 
land. On a map of that province, published in 1654, 
Buren is represented as a fortified town, near which is the 
castle of the Counts Buren a title at that time belonging 
to the house of Nassau. There was another emigrant 
from Holland by the name of Van Beuren, whose descend 
ants have dropped the first <?, and now write their name 
like that of the former family. The two families can trace 
no kinship one with the other. 



Or ANNA IANS, as she wrote her name in small Roman 
capitals, on June 21, 1642, to an obligation to provide for 
the children of her first husband, is an ancestor whose 
history is interesting, not only to her descendants, but to 
others who know something of the persistent efforts of 
her " heirs " to recover possession of a valuable property 
in the city of New York, now, and for nearly two hun 
dred years, held by Trinity Church. Roelof Jansen, her 
husband, came to Rensselaerwyck with his family in 1630, 
among the first emigrants sent out by the Patroon Van 
Rensselaer. He was employed as a farmer on a salary of 
180 guilders a year. When his term of service expired, 
in 1636, he removed to New Amsterdam, and secured a 
ground-brief, or title, for sixty-two acres of land, bounded 
west by the Hudson River, north by " old Jans land" 
and the swamp, east by the present Broadway, and south 
by the Company s farm. He immediately commenced im 
proving the farm by clearing the land for tillage, and the 
erection of a building, but did not live to prosecute the 
work. He died within a year, leaving Anneke a widow 
with five young children. 

Soon after March, 1638, Anneke Jans married the Rev. 
Everardus Bogardus, minister of the Dutch Church in New 
Amsterdam, the first settled pastor in the colony. She 
now entered a sphere of more activity and usefulness. 
From the house of a tenant-farmer she entered the home 
of an educated man, who, as pastor of the church, was 
equal in position and influence to any in the colony. Her 
marriage with the dominie, encumbered as she was with 
a family, and with no earthly possessions except a few 
acres of wild land, which was so abundant and cheap that 
it might be had for the asking, leads one to the conclusion 
VOL. II. 22 


that she must have been more than an ordinary woman ; 
and our curiosity is excited to learn something of her 
family and previous history. But there is little to learn. 
We only know that she was the daughter of Tryntje Jansen, 
or Tryn Jonas as she was called, a professional midwife, 
employed by the West India Company for their colony of 
New Netherland on a moderate salaiy, and that she had a 
sister Maritje. 1 Within a brief period these sisters and 
their families were connected by marriage with all the 
leading families of the province. 

We do not know who was the husband of Tryntje Jan- 
sen ; nor do we know the date of her arrival in New Am 
sterdam. She was probably a widow. In February, 1644, 
she received a patent for a lot of ground on Pearl Street, 
south of the fort, on which she built a house. From this 
time until her death, in 1648, we frequently meet her name 
in the records of the period. Her daughter Anneke was 
married, as we have seen, when she came to Rensselaer- 
wyck, and must have preceded her mother by several 
years. Maritje may have immigrated with her fust hus 
band, Tymen Jansen, a ship carpenter, in 1633. Her daugh 
ter, Elsie Tymens, was first married in January, 1652. 

Anneke Jans by her first husband, Roelof Jansen, had five 
children Sara, Tryntje, Sytje (or Fytje), Jan, and Annatje 
on whom, before her marriage with Bogardus, in 1638, 
she settled two hundred silver guilders each, out of their 
paternal estate. The record of the transaction having 
been lost, she again appeared before the secretary of the 
colony, on June 21, 1642, and executed a duplicate, in 
which she also agreed to give the children "a decent edu- 

1 After the death of Tryntje Jansen, her daughters, Anneke and Maritje, 
gave a power of attorney to a friend in Holland to collect from the Com 
pany the balance of salary due their mother, amounting to "249 guilders, 
2 stivers, and 8 pennies." 


cation and respectable trades." By her second husband, 
Dominie Bogardus, she had four sons Willem, Cornells, 
Jonas, and Pieter. 

Sara Roelofs married, first, Dr. Hans Kierstede ; secondly, 
Cornells Van Borsum ; and, thirdly, Elbert Elbertsen. The 
eldest of Dr. Kierstede s ten children, Hans, Jr., married a 
daughter of Govert Lookermans, whose sister, Anneke 
Lookermans, was the wife of Olof Stevense Van Cortlandt, 
the ancestor of the Van Cortlandts. Blandina Kierstede, 
a daughter of Dr. Hans, married Petrus Bayard, a nephew 
of the old Director-General Stuyvesant. Petrus Bayard 
became a sort of heretic in his religious belief, and fol 
lowed his co-religionists, the Labadists, to their settlement 
in Delaware. He is the ancestor of the Delaware and 
Pennsylvania Bayards, several of whom have risen to emi 
nence. Two of Dr. Kierstede s children married Kips, a 
name well known in the church. Another married Wil 
lem Teller, whose father was a prominent merchant of Al 

Tryntje Roelofs married, first, Lucas Rodenburgh, vice- 
director of Curacoa ; and, secondly, Johannes Van Brugh, 1 
a merchant and magistrate of New York. One of Van 
Brugh s daughters married Teunis de Key, a name for 
merly well known in the business circles of the metropolis. 
Catherine Van Brugh married Hendrick Van Rensselaer, 
grandson of the first patroon ; and her brother Peter mar 
ried Sara Cuyler, of Albany. Hendrick Van Rensselaer s 
eldest son, Johannes, married Engeltie Livingston, a grand 
daughter of Colonel Peter Schuyler. Another son, Kil- 
lian, married Ariantia, daughter of Nicholas Schuyler. 

1 A wedding present " September 12, 1658, sent from Curacoa by ship 
Deimen, Captain Priens, to the newly married couple, Johannes Van Brugh 
and Mrs. Rodenburgh : I keg salt, I keg preserved lemons, I keg lemon- 
juice, a parrot, and 12 paroquets, all marked ~\ff" 


One of his daughters, Maria, was the wife of Samuel Ten 
Broeck, second son of Dirck Wesselse Ten Broeck. Jo 
hannes Van Rensselaer was the father of Catherine, wife 
of General Philip Schuyler. Peter, son of Johannes Van 
Brugh and Tryntje Roelofs, had an only daughter, Cathe 
rine, who married Philip Livingston, second proprietor of 
the Livingston manor. 

Sytje Roelofs married Peter Hartgers, and had two 
daughters. She died before her mother. Jan Roelofs 
was killed by the French at Schenectady, in February, 
1690, and left no posterity. Annatje Roelofs, youngest 
child of Anneke Jans by her first husband, probably died 
young, as nothing is known of her after 1642, and she was 
not named in her mother s will. 

William Bogardus was twice married, and had nine chil 
dren. His second wife was Walbugh, daughter of Nicasius 
de Sille, attorney-general of New Netherland, 1656-1664; 
he was portmaster of the province in 1687. Cornelis Bo 
gardus married Helena Teller, whose sister Yenke was 
the first wife of Arent Schuyler, of New Jersey, and whose 
brother married a daughter of Olof Stevense Van Cort- 
landt. Cornelis died in 1666, leaving one son, Cornelis. 
Jonas Bogardus died unmarried. Peter Bogardus married 
Wyntia Bosch, and had eight children ; he was a trader 
and magistrate of Albany. Cornelis, son of Cornelis Bo 
gardus, married Rachel De Witt, of Kingston ; and An 
thony, son of Peter, married a Knickerbocker. 

Maritje Jans, sister of Anneke, married, first, Tymen 
Jansen ; second, Dirck Cornelisse Van Wenveen ; third, 
Govert Lookermans, in his day the most active and enter 
prising merchant of New Amsterdam, and supposed to be 
the richest man in the province. By her first husband she 
had one daughter, named Elsie, known in after years as 
Elsie Tymens ; by her second husband she had one son, 


Cornells Dirckse, and by Govert Lookermans a son, 

Elsie Tymens married, first, Peter Cornelisse Van der 
Veen, a trader of New Amsterdam, who is said to have 
built the first brick house in the city and the first ship of 
any considerable size in New Netherland. She married, 
secondly, Jacob Leisler, on April n, 1663. Only three 
years before this marriage, Leisler had left Holland as a 
common soldier in the service of the West India Company. 
He must have possessed some personal attractions, that on 
leaving the ranks he was able to win the affections of a 
woman who, as heir of her late husband s fortune and 
business, and related to the more prosperous classes, 
could have looked higher. He must also have possessed 
more than ordinary ability and aptitude to business, to 
have become within a few years one of the most prosper 
ous merchants in the colony. 

Jacob Leisler and Elsie Tymens had seven children, two 
sons and four daughters. The sons died unmarried. Their 
eldest daughter, Susanna, married Michael Vaughton, a 
friend of Governor Dongan and half brother of John 
Spragg, secretary of the province. Catherine was the 
wife of Robert Walter, mayor of New York and member 
of the King s Council. Their eldest daughter, Elizabeth 
Walter, married Captain John Wendell, of Albany, brother 
of Jacob Wendell, an eminent merchant of Boston. Maria 
Walter was the third wife of Arent Schuyler, and, after his 
death, she married Archibald Kennedy, the receiver-gen 
eral and collector of customs. John Walter, son of Rob 
ert, had an only daughter, Hester, who became the wife of 
Colonel Peter Schuyler, of New Jersey, and their only 
daughter, Catherine, married Archibald Kennedy, Jr., who 
in time succeeded to the earldom of Cassillis. Mary, third 
daughter of Jacob Leisler, married, first, Jacob Milborne, 


her father s secretary ; and, secondly, Abraham Gouver- 
neur, whose family, in time, became intimately related to 
the Morris family, of Westchester. Hester, the fourth 
daughter of Leisler, married Barent Reynders, a mer 
chant of New York and brother-in-law of Dr. Samuel 
Staats. One of their daughters married, first, Nicholas 
Gouverneur, and second, William Provoost. Another 
daughter was the wife of Nicholas Bayard, grandson of 
the Nicholas Bayard whom Jacob Leisler had so long 
held a prisoner in irons. 

Maritje Jansen s son by her second husband is little 
known. Her son, Jacob Lookermans, was a physician, 
and settled in Maryland, where he became a planter. It 
is said that his direct line has died out. 

Govert Lookermans was a widower, with two daughters, 
when he married the sister of Anneke Jans. His first wife 
was Ariantje Jans, probably a relative of his second. His 
eldest daughter, Maritje, married Balthazar Bayard, an 
other nephew of Petrus Stuyvesant, and had seven chil 
dren. His second daughter, Jenetje, married Dr. Hans 
Kierstede, Jr. 

Subsequently the De Lanceys, the De Peysters, the Jays, 
and others married into the families already named, so 
that the blood of Anneke Jans and her sister is mingled 
with almost all the old families of this State, New Jersey, 
and Delaware. Many a proud scion of these old houses, 
when tracing back his pedigree, hoping to find in the 
dark ages some knight or nobleman with whom to con 
nect his name, is confronted halfway by the midwife of 
New Netherland. 

Tymen Jansen, first husband of Maritje Jans, procured 
a patent for a piece of land containing 646 square rods, 
lying on the northerly side of Pearl Street, then fronting 
on the East River, including Hanover Square, a point of 


land projecting into the river. He erected a dwelling- 
house, which he occupied until his death. It was the resi 
dence of his widow when she married her second hus 
band, and there she continued to live until again a widow. 
She married, thirdly, Govert Lookermans, who now as 
sumed control of the property. He sold some of the 
ground to other parties, and in 1667 procured a patent in 
his own name for the remainder. Meantime Elsie Ty- 
mens had married, had lost her husband, and had finally 
married Jacob Leisler. While Lookermans lived, the 
family connection the Bayards, the Kierstedes, the Van 
Cortlandts, and the Leislers were on friendly terms, serv 
ing each other as sponsors on baptismal occasions, and 
performing other acts of neighborly kindnesses. After 
his death which occurred in 1670, there were disagree 
ments and contentions in reference to the property, which 
resulted in acrimonious suits before the courts. Looker- 
mans died without a will, and, as his own estate was 
mixed up with that which justly belonged to his wife 
and her daughter, Elsie Tymens, it was difficult to deter 
mine the rights of either. His own children claimed the 
whole, to the exclusion of Elsie Tymens, to whom the 
most valuable portion of the estate really belonged, as 
only heir of Tyrrien Jansen, although the title stood in the 
name of Lookermans. This controversy about property 
undoubtedly had its influence in the political troubles of 
subsequent years, when Leisler and the Bayards were ar 
rayed against each other. The suits at law terminated 
only with Leisler s political fall and death. It was one of 
the notable cases of those early times, arraying one-half 
of the community against the other half, and was kept in 
the courts for over twenty years. 

Rev. Everardus Bogardus, the second husband of An- 
neke Jans, was a man of fair ability, and fearless in the 


discharge of his duties, as he understood them. He was 
no respecter of persons, not sparing the highest officials 
when their delinquencies deserved rebuke. By his direct 
methods and plainness of speech he incurred the displeas 
ure of Director Van Twiller and his Council, who called 
him rude and unmannerly. He esteemed Director Kieft, 
and treated him courteously, until he had caused the In 
dians, who had fled from their enemies to Manhattan for 
safety, to be slain at night in their encampments. Bogar- 
dus called it murder, and pronounced the anathemas of 
the divine law against the cowardly offender. Kieft was 
highly indignant, and had the minister summoned before 
himself and Council, to be tried for speaking ill of those 
in authority. Bogardus declined to appear before a court 
composed of his accusers, but was willing to be tried by 
a tribunal of disinterested persons, either here or in Hol 
land. It did not suit Kieft to send him home for trial. 
It was more likely that he himself would be tried, and 
not the minister. He kept up the dispute, and pelted the 
poor dominie from time to time with paper missiles from 
the Council. Olof Stevense Van Cortlandt, one of the 
Council, felt aggrieved at something the minister had said, 
and sued him for slander. Both trials proceeded side by 
side for years, until the latter case was referred to Dominie 
Megapolensis, of Rensselaerwyck, who found, on investi 
gation, that there had been a misunderstanding of some 
particular points, which were explained and the parties 
were reconciled. Kieft was glad to let the more impor 
tant matter drop, and himself be reconciled to the fearless 
preacher. But Bogardus was weary of so much strife, 
and resigned his pastorship ; he wanted change, and re 
solved to take an ocean voyage to soothe his nerves and 
regain his usual health. From that time to the present a 
voyage to Europe has been the great remedy for over- 


worked clergymen. About the same time Director Kieft 
was recalled, and they sailed on the same vessel, The 
Princess. There were on board other persons whom Kieft 
had injured, and whom Stuyvesant had banished for speak 
ing evil of dignitaries. They were on their way to the 
fatherland to present their grievances to the Lords Supe 
rior and procure redress. The voyage was prosperous 
across the Atlantic, but, when all were rejoicing on their 
near approach to their old home, the pilot erred in his 
reckoning, and the ship was wrecked on the English coast, 
in September, 1647. Bogardus and Kieft, with seventy- 
nine others, perished in the sea. The two men who had 
been banished were rescued, and bore the news of the 
shipwreck to Holland. 

Anneke Jans remained in New Amsterdam until the 
summer of 1651, when she removed to Beverwyck, and in 
the following year bought a lot on the north side of Yon- 
ker s Street, now the site of the Mechanics and Farmers 
Bank, on which she built a comfortable house, which she 
occupied until her death. Her will, written in Dutch, and 
dated January 29, 1663, is among the notarial papers in 
the clerk s office of Albany. She was suffering from a 
mortal illness, but her mind was unclouded. She remem 
bered the stipulation with reference to her eldest children, 
into which she had entered before she married Dominie 
Bogardus, and now, first of all, she directed that they 
should be paid the one thousand guilders then prom 
ised them ; that all of her unmarried children should 
receive portions equal to those of the marrried ones ; 
that five silver mugs should be provided for five of her 
grandchildren ; and that the residue of her estate should 
be divided equally among her seven living children and 
the heirs of her deceased daughter, Sytje Hartgers. She 
appointed no executors, but left her heirs to manage and 


distribute the property according to the terms of the 

As there was no inventory, we do not know in what the 
estate consisted, aside from three parcels of land, the house 
hold furniture, and the apparel and jewelry of the testa 
trix. The realty consisted of the house and lot on Yon- 
ker s Street, Albany ; a farm of one hundred and thirty 
acres on Long Island, near Hell Gate, known as the Domi 
nie s Hoeck ; and a farm of sixty-two acres on Manhattan 
Island, known as the Dominie s Bouwery. 

Within a few months after the death of their mother, 
the heirs named in the will commenced their duties as 
administrators of the property. They sold the house on 
Yonker s Street to Dirck Wesselsc Ten Broeck, for one 
thousand guilders in beavers, payable in three instalments. 
Before the deed was given, in July, 1667, Cornells Bogar- 
dus had died. His brothers, Peter and Jonas, signed the 
instrument for themselves and as attorneys for the others. 
There never has been any question about the validity of 
the sale, although the property has become very valuable. 

The heirs were now in possession of sufficient means to 
pay the minor legacies, as well as to the four children of 
Roelof Jansen the one thousand guilders to which they 
were entitled. They were in no haste to dispose of the 
other lands belonging to the estate, but waited for an ad 
vance in values. Not so, it appears, with others ; for in the 
Council minutes of 1670 we have an account of a transac 
tion so curious that I am tempted to relate it. The heirs 
of Anna (Jans) Bogardus lodged a complaint before the 
governor and Council, to the effect that a Mr. Sharp had 
sold their farm on Long Island, the Dominie s Hoeck, at 
public auction, for which he had no authority ; and they 
now besought the Council for redress. Mr. Sharp was 
accordingly summoned before the board to make his de- 


fence. He could only say that he was drunk, and did not 
know what he was doing. The court was not long in an 
nouncing its decision that Sharp must payback to Nicho 
las Bayard all the pluck money, the costs incurred, and two 
hundred guilders damages ; while the heirs were to be at 
liberty " to do with their own as they please." The farm 
was eventually sold to Captain Thomas Lawrence, to whom 
a patent was issued in December, 1677. 

The farm of sixty-two acres on Manhattan Island pos 
sesses unusual interest on account of its present great 
value, and of the efforts made from time to time for nearly 
two hundred years to wrest it from the possession of its 
legitimate owners. 1 Without its history no biography of 
Anneke Jans would be complete. After her marriage 
with Dominie Bogardus, he assumed its management. In 
May, 1639, he let it to Richard Brudnell for a tobacco 
plantation, at a yearly rental of three hundred and fifty 

1 In the patent of Governor Nicolls (March 27, 1667) the farm is thus 
described: "The limits whereof did then begin from the fence of the 
house by the strand side so running north east to the fence of old Jan s 
land it s in length 210 rods, then going along the fence of the said Old Jan s 
land south east it reacheth to a certain swamp and is in breadth 100 rod, 
and striking along the swamp southwest it s in length 160 rod. And from 
the swamp to the strand going west it s in breadth 50 rod the land lying 
on the south side of the house to the fence belonging to the Company and 
so to the east side begins at the fence and goes south to the posts and rails 
of the Company s land without any hindrance of the path it s in breadth 
60 rod in length on the south side along the posts & rails 160 rod on the 
east side to the entrance of the Chalke Hook in breadth 30 rod and along 
the said Chalke Hook on the north side to the fence of the land before 
mentioned going west is in length loo rod amounting in all to about 62 

The plan of this farm on the map of New York, in "Valentine s Man 
ual " for 1853, is incorrect. A satisfactory idea of it can be gained from 
the plan in the interesting article of Mr. J. W. Gerard, on "Anneke Jans 
Bogardus and her Farm," in Harper s Monthly for May, 1885. I* ma y ^ )e 
proper to state that what I have said on this subject was written at least a 
year before the publication of Mr. Gerard s article. 


pounds of tobacco. Included in the lease was a stipula 
tion that he should furnish the tenant with a gun and 
water-hound, and receive therefor one-third of the game 
taken. Brudnell was not successful in raising tobacco, 
or in killing ducks, for three years afterward Bogardus 
let the farm to Rufus Barton for a term of five years, at 
the nominal rent of two capons per annum. Before 1651 
there had been another change of tenants, and Egbert 
Wouterson had planted corn and pumpkins in its fields 
and shot game in its swamps and woods. 

In November, 1651, Govert Lookermans, Hans Kier- 
stede, and Peter Hartgers, all relatives of Anneke Jans," 
acting as her attorneys, leased the farm for six years from 
the following May to Evert Pels, at two hundred and 
twenty-five guilders and thirty pounds of butter a year. 
There was then an old house on the place, sadly dilapidated, 
which the tenant was required to repair at the expense of 
the landlord, but he might build a new one if he chose. 

After the English came, in 1664, the governors, for the 
sake of the fees, required the owners of lots and lands to 
surrender their old titles and procure new ones under the 
new seal of the province. In compliance with this rule, 
the heirs procured a patent from Governor Richard Nic- 
olls, in March, 1667. Four years afterward (March 9, 
1670-71) they sold the farm "for a valuable consideration" 
to Governor Francis Lovelace, Nicolls successor. This 
deed was signed, either personally or by attorney, by all 
the heirs except one. Cornelis Bogardus had died in 1666, 
and neither his wife (Helena Teller) nor his son (Cornelis) 
joined in the conveyance. 1 

1 Philip Pieterse Schuyler was the administrator of the estate of Cornelis 
Bogardus, and as such sold his "household stuff" at public auction on 
September 14, 1666. It brought, altogether, 2,014 guilders, 15 stivers, sea- 
want currency. 


The West India Company, after the purchase of Man 
hattan Island, set apart a small tract of land, situated north 
of the present Fulton Street, between Broadway and the 
Hudson River, for the use of their directors-general, which 
was called the Company s Bouwery. As this was public 
property, it was confiscated by the English, but reserved 
as before for the use of the governors, and called the 
Duke s Farm. When the Duke of York became king, it 
formed part of the royal domain, and was called the King s 
Farm. When Queen Anne was on the throne, it was the 
Queen s Farm. As the Dominie s Bouwery was next ad 
joining on the north, Governor Lovelace occupied both 
places as one. When he retired, and was succeeded by 
Governor Andros, it was found that he had misappropri 
ated the revenues of his royal master, and was a defaulter 
for a large amount. The bouwery was taken in part pay 
ment of the debt, and added to the original farm reserved 
for the governors, and the whole was then called the 
Duke s Farm. Its use and rentals inured to the benefit 
of the governors for the time being, and were a part of 
their perquisites. They were not large, 1 but, such as they 
were, they were by no means despised by the impecunious 

In 1697, a short time before Governor Fletcher retired, 
and after he knew that his successor had been appointed, 
he gave a seven years lease of the King s Farm to Trinity 
Church, at a rental of 12 a year. He did this on the 
plea that, as a lover of the church, he wished to aid the 
only English church in the province, which had been re 
cently established and was struggling for existence amid 
poverty and a population attached to other organizations. 

Governor Andros leased the farm in 1677 ^ or a term of twenty years, 
at a yearly rental of sixty bushels of wheat. 


Governor Bellomont was not pleased with this disposi 
tion of his perquisites, and, as Fletcher had made some ex 
travagant grants of land, he recommended that both the 
lease and the grants should be vacated. His recommenda 
tions were approved by the home government, and he was 
directed to have the Legislature act in the premises. This 
was done, and a vacating act passed in March, 1699, which 
was sent to the king for approval. The great landed pro 
prietors and the church made a vigorous opposition, and 
by their agents, assisted by Fletcher, then in England, pre 
sented specious arguments against the act, and induced 
delay. So strong was the opposition, that the act was not 
finally approved until nine years later, on June 26, 1708. 

Meantime Bellomont had died, and Lord Cornbuiy had 
been appointed governor. The noble lord was a staunch 
churchman, and sought to promote the interests of his 
church by all the means he could employ, some of which 
were questionable as to their Christian character. By his 
inspiration the Legislature of 1702 repealed the vacating 
act, by a law whicli was operative in the colony until ve 
toed by the crown. Although Bellomont had prohibited 
the use of the farm to the church after the vacating act, 
Cornbury restored its possession by a new lease, in May, 
1702, to run during his term of office. The farm was not 
then a source of large income, having been sublet by the 
church for only 20 a year, but it was steadily advancing 
in value, even for farming purposes, and in 1704 it was 
sublet to George Ryers for ^30 annually. 

The vacating and repealing acts were sleeping quietly 
in the pigeon-holes of the ministers, and it began to ap 
pear that they would sleep forever. The friends of the 
church were stimulated to take another step much more 
important to their future than a seven years lease, or a 
lease for any definite time they applied for a patent. 


Their petition was favorably considered, and on July 5, 
1705, the attorney-general was directed to prepare a pat 
ent to the "Rector and Inhabitants in Communion with 
the Church of England for the Queen s farm and the lot 
of ground near the church known as the Queen s garden," 
which passed the seals on November 23, 1705. It reserved 
to the queen a quit-rent of three shillings a year. The 
grant was subsequently confirmed by the Legislature. All 
questions as to the farm now seemed to be settled in favor 
of the church. But there were other trials in store for 

The English ministers at last resolved to act, and the 
bills sent over for approval were dragged from their hid 
ing-places and laid upon their table. The repealing act 
was vetoed, and the vacating act approved. Here was a 
new dilemma, and for a time, at least, it was believed that 
the church had lost her hold on the farm. Lord Love 
lace, who succeeded Cornbury, and, after his death, Lieu- 
tenant-Governor Ingoldesby, seem to have had possession. 
When Governor Robert Hunter arrived, in 1710, the 
church again petitioned to him for the farm, and he gave 
them the use of it for his term of office only. In Novem 
ber, 1715, the rector wrote to a friend in London, urging 
him to appeal to the bishop to have the affair of the farm 
adjusted before a new governor came. He said that the 
property at present was of small account, yielding only 
^30 per annum, but that in a few years it would be much 
more considerable ; " it deserves the utmost efforts to se 
cure it for the church, which may be easily effected at 
present, but hereafter not." Through the representations 
of the bishop and other friends, the government withdrew 
its opposition, and Trinity was allowed to remain in quiet 
possession. She did not even pay the quit-rent of three 
shillings a year, for when an attempt was made to collect 


it, as from other parties, she sent a petition to the queen 
praying that the proceedings might be stopped, and this 
was granted in 1714. Subsequently, however, though at 
long intervals (1738, 1750, 1768, 1786), the rent was paid in 
full, and in 1786 the quit-rents were commuted by the pay 
ment of a fixed sum to the State. 

Trinity remained in undisturbed possession of the farm 
until about 1746, when Jacob Brower, a descendant of the 
Cornelius Bogardus who had not joined in the deed to 
Lovelace, took forcible possession of a portion, it then 
having been leased to Adam Vandenburgh. Brower was 
evicted, and Vandenburgh was put again into possession. 
In 1749 Cornelius Brower began an action of ejectment 
against Trinity Church for the recovery of the farm, but 
after two years he was nonsuited. His attorney was Will 
iam Smith, the father of the historian, and there is some 
reason to believe that Brower was incited to his actions by 
parties who had no interest in the matter, except jealousy 
of the growing wealth and power of the Episcopal Church. 1 
At all events, Brower, with Smith s help, began another 
action for ejectment in 1757, which was tried before the 
Supreme Court of the province, on October 24, 1760, by a 
struck jury, and on a view ; and a general verdict was 
found for the church. The case was tried before Judge 
David Jones, all the other judges being members of the 
church corporation, and therefore interested in the event. 

In 1767, Cornelius Bogardus, a great-grandson of the 
Cornelius whose share in his mother s estate had not been 
extinguished by the Lovelace deed, sold one-sixth of his 
eighth share in the dominie s farm to Isaac Teller, a rela- 

1 Judge Thomas Jones, in his History of New York, vol. i., pp. i-io, 
charges William Livingston, William Smith, Jr., and John Morin Scott, 
all Presbyterians, who were Brewer s counsel, with getting up this suit for 
their own purposes. 


tive, who agreed to prosecute for the recovery of the whole 
eighth, bearing his own expenses. 1 What came of this 
suit I have been unable to learn. 

The church was burned in the great fire that devastated 
New York soon after it was occupied by the British, in 
1776. At the close of the Revolution, in January, 1784, 
the Committee of Safety of New York removed the old 
civil wardens and vestry of the church, on the ple,a that 
they were inimical to the liberties of the State, and vested 
the real and personal estate of the corporation in James 
Duane and eight other persons until further legal provi 
sion should be made. Such provision was made by an 
act passed by the Legislature in April, 1784. Taking ad 
vantage of the general confusion, the relaxation of civil 
authority, and the popular enmity against the church, 
Cornelius Bogardus (probably the same who sold a sixth of 
his patent to Teller) effected a lodgment upon a portion 
of the farm which was at the moment neither city nor 
country, where lands were waste and where the enclosures 
had been partly destroyed during the war. He took pos 
session of a small house on the farm (which was taken by 
the city in 1790 for the purpose of widening Chambers 
Street), which had just been vacated by a tenant of the 
church. He also similarly put his son John and his 
brother Lew T is into possession of small wooden houses on 
the outskirts of the farm, one of which, situated on what 
was aftenvard St. John Square, was known as the possession 
house, and was enclosed with a substantial fence. The 
church, on the advice of two of the best lawyers in the city 
Morgan Lewis and Aaron Burr caused the fence to be 
destroyed in the night, when Bogardus was off his guard. 
Bogardus retaliated on the fence built by the church, and 

1 This deed is dated January 28, 1767, and is recorded in the Book of 
Deeds, No, 18, p. 133, in the office of the Secretary of State, Albany. 
VOL. 1 1. 23 


there were quarrels and fights, which did not always termi 
nate without bloodshed. Cornelius Bogardus was duly 
evicted by the courts, and left New York in 1786. It is 
alleged that he was bought off by the church for ^700. 
The various intrusions of his son John after that date did 
not have even a color or claim of right. He gained an 
entry by taking leases from persons who held under the 

The example, however, was contagious, and other per 
sons squatted on the farm, under the pretence of being 
heirs. A Mrs. Broad settled on a piece of ground near 
North Moore Street, called The Fort, which was surround 
ed by a breastwork and trench, and drove away the people 
who came to take earth from the banks of the fort by throw 
ing boiling water on them. A certain William Malcolm, 
who also claimed to be an heir, was evicted in 1786. One 
of his descendants subsequently began a suit by writ of 
right for some land near Chambers Street. This was tried, 
in 1807, before Justice Tompkins, and decided in favor of 
the church. 1 

The church had now another interval of peaceful pos 
session, but in 1830 John Bogardus, just mentioned, then 
an old man, brought suit in chancery for the recovery of 
one-thirtieth of the farm, together with his proportionate 
share of all back rents and profits. He died in 1833, and 
Nathaniel Bogardus was substituted as complainant. The 
theory of Bogardus contradicted itself. On the strength 
of the signature of Cornelius Bogardus being wanting to 
the deed to Governor Lovelace, it was claimed that the 
church was a tenant in common with him and his heirs. 
There being five heirs of Cornelius Bogardus, the com 
plainant might on this principle have asked for one-for- 

1 James Jackson, ex dem. Richard M. Malcolm and others, against Martin 


tieth, or one-fifth of one-eighth share ; but he claimed to 
be also one of the heirs of Jans Roelof and Jonas Bogar- 
dus, two sons of Anneke Jans, who had died intestate and 
without issue, although they had joined in the deed to 

John Bogardus had able lawyers, but little money, with 
out which not much could be accomplished against a cor 
poration controlling millions. Money must be had by 
some means, so his lawyers said, and some device must be 
resorted to for its procurement. Concealing the fact that 
the suit had been commenced for the recovery of only a 
part of the property, which, if successful, would inure to 
the benefit of only a few of Anneke s descendants, they 
sent out agents and issued circulars calling upon all her 
heirs to contribute toward the expense of the suit, as 
though all were equally interested. According to their 
representations, there could be little or no question but 
that the trial would result in their favor, and there would 
be millions to divide, making them The stratagem 
was successful pockets were opened. One lady even sold 
her grandmother s silver teaspoons in order to contribute 
to the fund. Money was procured sufficient to satisfy the 
lawyers, and the suit went on from year to year, from 
court to court, " dragging its slow length along." When 
the money was short the suit stopped for a time, and it 
was not until 1847 that judgment was finally given for the 
church. Many old documents had been produced, and the 
evidence had been heard of many old and well-known 
residents, whose recollections went to times before the 
Revolution. Vice-Chancellor Sandford, in delivering his 
decision, said : 

" Now that I have been enabled to examine it carefully, 
and with due reflection, I feel bound to say that a plainer 
case has never been presented to me as a judge. Were it 


not for the uncommon magnitude of the claim, the appar 
ent sincerity and zeal of the counsel who support it, and, 
in fact (of which I have been oftentimes admonished, by 
personal applications on their behalf), that the descendants 
of Anneke Jans, at this day, are hundreds, if not thousands, 
in number, I should not have deemed it necessary to de 
liver a written judgment on deciding the cause. 

" A hearty dislike to clothing any eleemosynary institu 
tion with either great power or extensive patronage, and a 
settled conviction that the possession by a single religious 
corporation of such overgrown estates as the one in con 
troversy, and the analogous instance of the Collegiate 
Dutch Church, is pernicious to the cause of Christianity, 
have disposed me to give an earnest scrutiny to the de 
fence in this case ; as, in the instance of the Dutch Church, 
they prompted me, in my capacity of counsel, to more 
zealous efforts to overthrow their title to the lands devised 
by Jan Haberdinck. But the law on these claims is well 
settled, and it must be sustained in favor of religious cor 
porations as well as private individuals. Indeed, it would 
be monstrous, if, after a possession, such as has been 
proved in this case, for a period of nearly a century and a 
half, open, notorious, and within sight of the temple of 
justice, the successive claimants, save one, being men of 
full age, and the courts open to them all the time (except 
for seven years of war and revolution), the title to lands 
were to be litigated successfully upon a claim which has 
been suspended for five generations. Few titles in this 
country would be secure under such an administration of 
the law ; and its adoption would lead to scenes of fraud, 
corruption, foul justice, and legal rapine far worse in their 
consequences upon the peace, good order, and happiness 
of society than external war or domestic insurrection. 

"The bill must be dismissed with costs." 1 

1 Sandford s Chancery Reports, vol. iv., pp. 633-672. The report of 
this case gives a very good history of the various preceding attacks on the 
title. See also 4 Paige, 178, and 15 Wendell, in, and the note of Bishop 
De Lancey in Thomas Jones History of New York, vol. i., pp. 402-413. 


While the preceding suit was going on, one Jonas Hum 
bert, claiming to be an heir of old Anneke, began, in 1834, a 
suit in chancery, maintaining that the Dominie s Bouwery, 
i.c. y the farm of sixty-two acres left by Anneke Jans, had 
never properly formed part of the Queen s Farm, and had 
therefore never been included in the grant to the church, 
and that the sole real basis of any claim of the church was 
the alleged purchase, in 1785, of the rights of Cornelius 
Bogardus for ^700, by which it had come to be tenant in 
common with the. heirs. This case, after being decided in 
favor of the church, was appealed to the chancellor, and 
subsequently to the Court of Errors, where the judgment 
was finally affirmed in 1840. 

Nine other suits were begun in 1847, in the Supreme 
Court, by another Cornelius Brower, an "heir," in which 
the plaintiff was nonsuited. 

One Kiersted brought an action for the same purpose, in 
1851, in the Court of Common Pleas, and another, in 1852, 
in the Supreme Court. The former suit was abandoned ; 
the latter was decided, in 1856, against the plaintiff. 

The heirs, full of Dutch blood and Dutch obstinacy, 
were not yet satisfied. Legal technicalities might defeat 
their attempts to get " their own " again, but, at all events, 
the church had no right to it. The grant of Lord Corn- 
bury being, in their belief, void, all that had then belonged 
to the crown now belonged to the State, and those pleas 
which had been so effectual against them could not hold 
against the People. Once the title of Trinity disproved, 
there would be time enough to settle the boundaries be 
tween the Queen s Farm, which would remain to the State, 
and the Dominie s Bouwery, which would come to them. 

1 See Paige s Reports, vol. vii., pp. 195-198, and Wendell s Reports, 
vol. xxiv., pp. 587-640. 


This was not the first time that such an attempt had 
been made. When Trinity Church was reorganized by 
the Legislature, in 1784, numerous petitions were present 
ed on the subject, and among them one from the descend 
ants of Anneke Jans. On November 22, 1784, a commit 
tee was appointed by the House to examine the laws and 
records, and to report on the crown lands the King s Farm 
and Garden, and all other lands conceived to belong to 
the State. On February 17, 1785, the committee reported 
in favor of a bill authorizing the attorney-general to pro 
ceed, without delay, to recover the King s Farm and Gar 
den and establish the People s claim. A petition was re 
ceived from Trinity remonstrating against this action, and, 
although the bill w r as passed by the House, it never be 
came a law. 

The question apparently arose again in 1836, for the 
commissioners of the land office in that year signed an 
opinion and a statement of facts that Trinity had "a valid, 
subsisting, and absolute title to the lands referred to." 

In 1854, however, the "heirs" began again, and Mr. 
Rutger B. Miller, in behalf of himself and his associates, 
succeeded in making an arrangement with the commis 
sioners of the land office, by which the attorney-general 
was directed to bring a suit against the church, provided 
that the State should be indemnified against any expense, 
and that evidence should be first presented showing the 
title of the State. Miller s offer was to carry on the suit 
at his own expense, on condition that one-quarter of the 
estate recovered should be given to him. After some hesi 
tations the suit was begun, but the bargain had to be aban 
doned, as it was shown to be contrary to the constitution, 
which appropriates all escheated estates to the Common 
School Fund. It took the form of an action of ejectment 
to recover a lot of land on Murray Street ; and, as this did 


not form part of the Anneke Jans farm, there was no em 
barrassment of the decision of the point of law by outside 
matters. The case was tried in 1859, and the people were 
nonsuited. This judgment was affirmed at the General 
Term, and again, in 1860, by the Court of Appeals, the 
court of highest resort. 1 

Perhaps the most amusing attempt to get possession of 
the Trinity Church property, though not connected di 
rectly with the heirs, was the suit brought in 1871, in the 
Superior Court of New York, by Rev. David Groesbeeck, 
against Mr. William E. Dunscomb and the Rev. Morgan 
Dix. Mr. Groesbeeck demanded that a receiver should be 
appointed to take charge of the property of the church, on 
the grounds that he is a successor of the original corpora 
tors (how he does not show) ; that the " trust estate " has 
been diverted from the purposes of the founders, which 
were " to prevent the increase of vice and immorality in 
the city of New York, and not merely to support the para 
sites of any sect ; " " that the Jewish rabbi and his congre 
gation contributed funds to build the original parish church 
of Trinity ; " that u he is of the same faith, baptism, and 
communion as the wardens and vestrymen of Trinity on 
February 4, 1714 ;" that " he is a Protestant, a Trinitarian, 
and a believer in the doctrines of the Christian commu 
nion, as established by the synod or ecumenical council (!) 
of Dort ; " " that he has taken the sacrament in a chapel 
of Trinity ; " that " he is, and long has been, ready, will 
ing, and anxious, being a Protestant minister of the gos 
pel, and without a church edifice, to preach in said parish 
church ; " that the property of the church is being wasted 
" in seeking to acquire and establish * a political weight, 
and boasting thereof, in having threatened the Legislature 

1 Smith s Reports of the Court of Appeals, vol. viii., pp. 44-67. 


of the State with contempt, in having neglected to provide 
for the poor of the parish, while pampering the pride of 
the worldly-minded and laying up treasures on earth in 
bonds and mortgages," and in preaching blasphemies and 
heresies ; that stipends and salaries are paid for preaching 
such blasphemies ; that the communion of Roman Catho 
lics and Protestants is denied, and the services of the Greek 
Church admitted; that the establishment of "houses of 
able-bodied young women " is advocated ; that vice and 
immorality have been allowed to increase ; and that the 
defendants refuse to return the farm to the heirs of Anneke 

The defendants demurred to this complaint, on the 
ground that there was a defect of parties in the omission 
of Trinity Church, and that there were no facts stated suf 
ficient to constitute a cause of action. The demurrer was 
very naturally allowed, and as the judge was "satisfied 
that the plaintiff s notions as to his rights and remedies 
were wild, visionary, and absurd," he thought he did " an 
act of great kindness to him " in dismissing the complaint 
altogether, and not allowing him to amend it. He thought 
too that the costs and allowances should be made large 
enough to deter men from that kind of litigation. 1 

It might naturally be supposed that all legal remedies 
had been exhausted. But no. In 1877 a certain Rynear 
Van Giessen, claiming to be a descendant (of the seventh 
generation) of Anneke Jans, presented to the surrogate of 
Albany County a family Bible and a pair of gold earrings, 
which it was asserted had belonged to Anneke Jans, and 
applied for the appointment of administrators of her 
estate. This application was refused by the surrogate. 
The question was argued on appeal before the General 

1 Howard s Practice Reports, vol. xli., pp. 302-345. 


Term of the Supreme Court, in 1879, and finally before 
the Court of Appeals, in 1881, when the decision of the 
surrogate was fully sustained. 2 

In colonial times the Legislature enacted laws to quiet 
titles to lands. It may come to pass that our State 
Legislature will have to act in this case, and make it a 
misdemeanor for anyone to attempt to disturb the 
church in her possession of Anneke s farm or any part 

Suppose that the heirs should gain possession, of what 
particular advantage would it be to them ? Suppose that 
the heirs had increased in the same ratio as in the first two 
generations, and that the sixty-two acres of land, with their 
buildings, were worth sixty million dollars a liberal esti 
mate, after deducting for streets they would have about 
two hundred dollars each ! The heirs, in their excitement 
(1830-1847), did not sit down and figure out this problem, 
but rushed up and down through the State, searching 
church and municipal records for a pedigree, and ready 
to sell their grandmothers spoons to obtain the where 
withal to contribute to the funds, lest they should be left 
out when the grand division should be made ! 

In view of the repeated decisions of the highest judicial 
tribunals, and of their publicity, any lawyer who can now 
advise or encourage the descendants of Anneke Jans to 
waste their money in any proceedings to recover this 
property must be considered as playing on the ignorance 
of simple people, and as guilty of conscious fraud, and of 
an attempt to obtain money under false pretences. 

As one of the heirs, I rejoice that the property is in the 
possession of a church, which has used and will use its in- 

1 See New York Reports, vol. Ixxxiii. (Court of Appeals, Sickels), pp. 
348-358, Rynear Van Giessen vs. Samuel Bridgford. Also, 18 Hun, 80. 


come to build churches and colleges for Christian and edu 
cational purposes, and not in the hands of a corporation, 
which would use it to swell individual and private fortunes. 
It is to be hoped that it will remain in the hands of the 
present owners so long as they use it wisely. I am the 
more free to express such a wish, as I personally do not 
belong to the Episcopal Church. 

NICHOLAS SCHUYLER (12) was educated a physician, and 
in the first year of the Revolutionary War was on the staff 
of the medical director of the Northern Department, Dr. 
Stringer. He was afterward appointed surgeon of Colo 
nel Moses Hazen s regiment, with which he served to the 
close of the war. 

After his marriage to Shinah Simons, member o a 
prominent Jewish family of Philadelphia, on August 13, 
1782, he returned to his home at Stillwater, and engaged 
in the practice of his profession. When the county of 
Rensselaer was organized, he was appointed its first clerk, 
on February 18, 1791. He then removed to Troy, the 
county-seat, and entered upon the duties of his office, al 
though he did not wholly give up the practice of medi 
cine ; he was clerk of the county fifteen consecutive 
years. Having no children, he was indifferent to the ac 
quisition of an estate, and cared only to accumulate suffi 
cient to carry himself safely through the journey of life. 

For his services in the war, the State assigned to him 
four lots of land of five hundred acres each, three of which 
were located in Onondaga County and one in Cayuga. 
One of the lots was reclaimed by the State as part of the 
saline district, but was not replaced by another. He was 

1 Columbia College was founded on the avails of a lottery, but her great 
wealth is deiived from a liberal slice of the King s Farm, bestowed by Trin 
ity Church, by a deed dated May 15, 1755. 


not worried, and made no claim. It was evident to the 
most short-sighted, that lands situated as were his military 
lots would soon become valuable for farming purposes, 
as emigration from the Eastern States to the unoccupied 
lands of New York was very large ; but he did not see it, 
or, If he did, it made little impression on him, for he sold 
his lands for a nominal consideration. 

His wife inherited a large tract of land lying in one of 
the Southern States, which in a few years would have been 
a fortune to him, but he never troubled himself about it, 
and it passed out of his possession. Toward the close of 
life, having lost his wife and being lonely, he removed, 
with his adopted daughter (Henrietta Schuyler (26)),to the 
residence of his brother-in-law, Major James Van Rensse- 
laer, at Crystal Hill, three miles south of Albany on the 
river. There, in congenial society, he passed the last few 
years of his life happy and contented. 

SAMUEL SCHUYLER (13), because he had been a clerk in 
the Commissary Department, was called captain by cour 
tesy. He never married, and lived for the most part with 
his relatives, now with one, and now with another. For 
a few years he was the guest of my father, when I was a 
boy. He was very short-sighted, and quite irascible in 
temper. His young nephews soon found out his weak 
nesses, and would often provoke him with their practical 
jokes and harmless tricks, for which, when caught, their 
backs were made to smart ; but as soon as he had vindi 
cated himself the tempest subsided, and he was all kind 
ness and generosity. Politically he was a Democrat, the 
only one in his family ; he held to the faith so firmly, 
that no amount of argument or ridicule could shake his 
hold. Although his sight was very defective, his chief en 
joyment was in reading. The Bible and Edwards " His 
tory of Redemption " were his favorite books. On bright, 


sunny days of winter he would sit by the hour near a 
window, with one of those books before his face and the 
other by his side. He had a long nose, which appeared 
the longer by the loss of teeth, and, when the light began 
to fade, it was used as a pointer to trace the printed lines. 
Poor Uncle Sammy ! Often in these latter years I think 
of thee ! Thy years, though many, were not fortunate. 
Thy life was one of faith, and when thou w r ast summoned 
thou wast ready ! Thou hast gone to thy rest, and art no 
longer troubled by wicked boys ! 

ELSIE SCHUYLER (14) was married to her first husband, 
Dr. Bogart, in June, 1783. After a brief pleasure trip, she 
returned to her father s at Stillwater, to make her final 
preparations for a permanent residence with her husband 
in New York. Her mother embraced the opportunity to 
visit, with her younger children, some relatives living at a 
distance, and she was left alone with the servants to care 
for the house. While so employed she received a call 
from some distinguished visitors, who sought entertain 
ment for the night. General Washington, in company 
with Governor Clinton, left the encampment of the army 
at Newburgh about the middle of July, for the purpose of 
inspecting the battle-fields of Saratoga and the Mohawk 
Valley. At Albany he was joined by General Schuyler, 
and on horseback the company proceeded on the journey. 
On their arrival at Stillwater, General Schuyler conducted 
them to the residence of Harmanus Schuyler to spend the 
night. Their visit was unexpected, but Elsie was self-pos 
sessed, and did not allow herself to be disconcerted, and 
received them with graceful courtesy ; she was dignified 
in manner, and possessed more than ordinary beauty of 
person. She appreciated the honor of having Washington 
for her guest, but made no effort at display ; she gave 
him the simple and substantial fare of her father s house, 


and lodged him in a clean and comfortable room. After 
breakfast the next morning, as her guests were about to 
leave, Washington, in his habitually grave and courteous 
manner, took her hand and raised it to his lips. It was a 
kiss never to be forgotten. Nearly fifty years afterward, 
when languishing in her last illness, her youngest nephew, 
who had never before seen her, called to pay his respects. 
When taking leave, he approached her bedside, and was 
about to kiss her on her lips, she held up her hand, and, 
said, " Not my lips, George, but my hand, once kissed by 
Washington." l 

DIRCK SCHUYLER (15) was named for his great-grand 
father, Dirck Ten Broeck. In time the name was changed 
to Derick. In the allotment of lands to the Revolutionary 
soldiers by the State of New York, he drew two lots of 
five hundred acres each, both lying in the present town of 
Ithaca. One was sold at a low price ; the other, after April, 
1811, was the homestead of my father. Derick did not 
marry, but died a bachelor in the forty-ninth year of his age. 

JOHN H. SCHUYLER (16), the H. standing for Harmanus, 
to distinguish him from other Johns, received a fair edu 
cation in the best English schools of Albany, and was 
prepared with reference to the mercantile business. On 
leaving school, instead of entering a counting-house, as 
was intended, he became the private secretary of John 
Barker Church, with whom he spent several years. As a 
relative of Mrs. Church, he was received into the family, 
and accorded more privileges than were usually granted 
to young men of that position. Mr. Church resided in 
New York, but his business frequently called him to 
Philadelphia and Boston, usually accompanied by his 

1 Some years since this anecdote appeared in the Magazine of American 
History, over the signature of a well-known author, without credit to the 
original source. I now reclaim my own. 


secretary. Schuyler soon became accustomed to the best 
English society in the country, and to its usages. Unlike 
most young men of Dutch descent in his time, he spoke 
English without an accent, and easily passed, when occa 
sion offered, for a genuine Yankee. 

After some years of such employment, he returned to 
Stilhvater, and, without experience or training, engaged 
in mercantile pursuits. For a time he prospered, but his 
want of commercial knowledge was a serious hindrance 
to his ultimate success. He finally gave up the shop, 
and engaged in farming. Fortune was not propitious, 
and in the spring of 1811 he removed, with all his fam 
ily, to the present town of Ithaca, N. Y. He settled on 
Lot No. 57, containing five hundred acres, and situated 
two and a half miles west from the village. It was one 
of the military lots assigned to his brother Derick. The 
country was new and sparsely settled ; it was almost a 
wilderness. For the want of good roads, and the facili 
ties of travel, it was farther removed from the old set 
tlements on the Hudson than are Dakota and Wyoming 
at the present time. The family, so far removed from 
their old friends, died out of their remembrance, except of 
those nearly related. We have seen how Philip, the great 
grandfather of John H. Schuyler, was supposed to have 
left no posterity. So now, the line was again believed to 
have become extinct. Mrs. Cochrane, the youngest daugh 
ter of General Schuyler, writing to a friend from Oswego, 
on November 12, 1845, said : "I remember Mr. Harmanus 
Schuyler, a distant relative, who had been sheriff of Al 
bany County many years before I saw him, and that is 
fifty years ago ; not one of his children, and he had many 
survive." She was mistaken, poor lady, for John, the 
fourth son, was still living, surrounded by eight living 
sons and three daughters, with numerous grandchildren. 


As Harmanus Schuyler (10) was the only one of his 
brothers to continue the direct line, so was John the only 
one of his six sons to hand down the name and pedigree 
of his branch of the Schuyler family. There seems little 
danger now that it will be reduced to such extremities. 
As a farmer John was a failure. He had been accustomed 
all his life, up to his removal to Ithaca, to the unpaid labor 
of slaves ; he never afterward could adapt himself to cir 
cumstances, and earn his bread by the sweat of his brow. 
In a few years the title to his farm was questioned by a 
land speculator, who had bought the soldier s right from 
an agent whose power of attorney had been revoked, with 
a full knowledge of the fact. But he got his fraudulent 
title on record first, and by this means succeeded in his 
suit of ejectment. Several years afterward the case was 
again taken into the courts by Schuyler s son Philip (30), 
and the former verdict reversed. The farm came back 
into the family, and its original occupant spent his last 
years on the homestead. John H. Schuyler married suc 
cessively Hendrika and Annatje Fort. 


The first trustworthy information relating to the ances 
tor of the Forts is found in a deed for a farm at Canasta- 
gione, situated on the north bank of the Mohawk in the 
southeast corner of the present town of Clifton Park, 
Saratoga County. It is dated June 10, 1684, and was given 
by the administrators of Teunis Wielemse Boots, deceased, 
to Jean Forte, alias Liberte, "for all the land and real es 
tate which the said Boots possessed in his lifetime at that 
place, together with house, barn, stacks, orchard, and lots, 
which said land has now been inhabited by the said Lib 
erte for three years, being satisfied with it, as if he owned 


it hitherto." 1 Why the alias I am unable to explain. He 
was a Frenchman, and may have fled from the military 
despotism of Canada, and, having gained his liberty, he 
may have adopted the word as one of his names. It was 
one of the royal ordinances for the government of Canada, 
that Protestants should not be permitted to live on its soil. 
When any, in their ignorance of the law, found their way 
thither, they were required to conform to the established 
Catholic religion, or leave the country. Some did con 
form for the time being, to avoid greater evils, but em 
braced a favorable opportunity to remove to other parts. 
Before 1700 there were several such men in Albany and its 
vicinity. Usually they married in the families of the com 
munity, and became prosperous citizens. 

There may have been other reasons why Jean Fort 
adopted the alias. It was not uncommon in those days to 
have two surnames, or for members of the same family to 
take different names. He may have come to this country 
through Holland, as did many of his countrymen and men 
of other nationalities. His name is variously written in 
the documents, not by himself, as Le Fort, La Fort, de 
Fort, but never without the alias Liberte. He or his fam- 

1 A singular, and in some respects an amusing, mistake has been made as 
to the first American ancestor of the Forts. Professor Pearson, in his 
Genealogy of the First Settlers of Albany, introduces Jan Fort Orangien, 
who married Marie Grande, in New Amsterdam, November 24, 1641, as 
the first of the family, of whom Jan Fort, alias Liberte, is supposed to 
be a son. A gentleman of New York, whose family had intermarried with 
the Forts, prepared a genealogical chart, on which Jan Fort Orangien ap 
pears as the first ancestor of that kindred family. Had these authors been 
better acquainted with the provincial records, Jan Fort Orangien would 
not have occupied the position assigned him. He was a native African, 
and after serving the West India Company faithfully for nineteen years, 
was manumitted, with others, on February 25, 1644, by Director Kieft. He 
probably had served the Company at Fort Orange (Albany) long enough to 
get his name. The Forts are not a mixed race ; they have a very fair com 


ily may have been in the province prior to the date named 
in the deed for the farm. Jean de Frote (Forte ?) joined 
the Dutch Church in New York, on October 7, 1663, after 
which the name does not again appear in the church rec 
ords or elsewhere. Jacob (one of the most usual names 
in the Fort family) Le Fort was one of the creditors of 
Joshua Green, in New Amsterdam, in August, 1668. Noth 
ing more is known of him. Marcus Lafort applied for 
letters of naturalization in May, 1693. It is not known 
whether they were granted, or what became of him. Bar 
tholomew La Fourt, an alien, had his goods seized by the 
collector of customs, in 1701. Whether he procured the 
release of his property, and remained in the country, or 
returned to the place whence he came, is not known. 

The wife of Jean Fort was Margriet Rinckhout, but the 
date and place of their marriage are unknown. The 
brothers Daniel and Jan Rinckhout were in Albany about 
1653. Daniel died in 1662, at the age of thirty-two years, 
and in his will left his house and all other property to his 
brother Jan, except twenty-five guilders to a brother in 
Pomeren, Holland. He could not have had a family, or 
he would have mentioned them in the will. Jan Rinck 
hout, a baker by trade, had a family of two children at 
least a daughter Gertrude, married to Simon Groot, of 
Schenectady ; and a son Juriaen, residing in New York in 
1703. Jan Rinckhout bought a farm at Schenectady, and 
in 1670 his wife let his bakery in Albany to Antony Lespi- 
nard, the ancestor of the New York Lispenards. Rinck 
hout became a recluse, living and dying alone in a hut on 
his farm. Jean Fort s wife may have been Jan Rinckhout s 
daughter, and yet, by comparing the dates, she was quite 
as likely to have been his sister, and married to Fort in 

Jean Fort, alias Liberte, made his will on November 3, 
VOL. II. 24 


1706, in which he names his children Anna, Johannes, 
Abraham, Nicolas, Jacob, Mary, Daniel, and Isak. The 
last was baptized in the church at Albany on September 3, 
1699. The will was proved on Octobler 3, 1707. 

The settlement at Canastagione, on the north bank of the 
Mohawk River, was somewhat distant from another of the 
same name on the south side, now Niskayuna. It was 
made by seven farmers Jean Fort, Jean Rosie, another 
Frenchman, often employed as an interpreter on the mis 
sions to Canada ; Dirck Arentse Bratt, two brothers Jan 
and Reynier Quackenboss, and the brothers Gerrit Ryckse 
and Maas Ryckse Van Vranken. The farms were located 
on the interval along the river, each having about the 
same frontage ; behind was an unbroken forest. The near 
est neighbors were across the river, some three miles dis 
tant, and at Half Moon, on the same side, about five miles 
below. The settlers chose the wilderness, where they 
could hold their lands in fee, rather than settle on the 
manor of Rensselaerwyck under long or perpetual leases. 

In 1703 Jean Fort sent a petition to the governor for 
some of the wild land back of his farm, but was not suc 
cessful. Three years later the seven farmers joined in an 
arrangement to procure what Fort had individually sought 
in vain. They entered into an agreement with Colonel 
Peter Schuylerto procure for them a patent from the gov 
ernment for a tract of land one mile in depth lying back 
of their farms, for which they stipulated to pay him 
^50 on delivery of the patent. The instrument was 
signed by the several parties except Fort, whose wife 
signed her own name, " Margret ye wife of Jan Fort Lib- 
erte." The paper is still preserved uncancelled by one of 
the descendants of Schuyler. The patent was granted on 
April 20, 1708, and the next year the parties released to 
each other one-seventh of the whole. 


The settlement, being on the borders of civilization, was 
not safe from the incursions of unfriendly Indians, and of 
their savage allies, the Canadian French. Gradually the 
Rosies, the Bratts, and the Quackenbosses withdrew to 
safer localities. The Forts and Van Vrankens tenaciously 
retained possession of their paternal acres. It is shown 
by a map of Albany and vicinity, published in 1851, that 
these families still maintained their ground, and were nu 
merous in the country for miles around. The Forts early 
established a ferry across the river and opened a road di 
rect to Albany. The ferry is known to-day as Fort s Ferry. 

The homestead was not large enough to accommodate 
the six sons of the original proprietor. Two of them, 
Abraham and Isak, bought farms in Schaghticoke, and 
Jacob settled in Half Moon, on the borders of Stillwater. 
He paid for his farm ^80, and a yearly quit-rent to An 
thony Van Schaick of a " half skippel of wheat and six 
pence currency." 


i. JEAN FORT, alias Liberte, and Margriet Rinckhout. 


3. JOHANNES, m. Rebecca I an Ant-werpen. 

4. ABRAHAM, m. Anna Barber Chile. 

5. NICHOLAS, m. J\Iaritje Van Antiverpen. 

6. JACOB, d. May 17, 1760. 

m. I, January 14, 1726, Sara de Wandelier, 
m. 2, Maritje Oosterhout. 

7. MARY, m. Johannes Vedder. 

8. DANIEL, m. Gerritje Van den Bergh. 

9. ISAK, m. i, Jacomyna {Joan} Viele. 

m. 2, Sara Viele. 

6. JACOB FORT and Sara de Wandelier. 

10. ELIZABETH, b. March 5, 1727. 

m. Jacob J. Van Woert. 

11. JOHANNES, b. October 22, 1728, d. s. p. 


12. ABRAHAM, bp. February 3, 1731. 

m. i, November 18, 1752, Sara Van Woert, d. No 
vember 22, 1754. 

m. 2, July I, 1758, Eva Bennewe, d. September 4, 

13. MARGARET, bp. March 24, 1734. 

14. HARMAN, bp. January 8, 1737. 

m. September 6, 1760, Rebecca Van Woert. 

15. LEENDERT, bp. July 6, 1744, d. s. p. 

12. ABRAHAM FORT and Sara Van Woert. 

16. MARGARET, b. November 16, 1753, d. July 2, 1757. 

17. A DAUGHTER, b. November 18, 1754, obt. 

12. ABRAHAM FORT and Eva Bcnneive. 

18. SAARTJE (Sara), b. December 18, 1759. 

m. Wynant Van der Bergh. 

19. JACOB, b. May 22, 1763, d. October 20, 1839. 

m. September 7, 1783, Anna Vrooman. 

20. ANNATJE, b. June 30, 1767. 

m. June 4, 1787, Peter Van Ness. 

19. JACOB FORT and Anna Vrooman. 

21. JENNY, b. December 21, 1784, obt. 

22. JANE, b. January 18, 1797. 

m. Henry P. Van Rensselaer, of Claverack. 

23. ABRAHAM, b. January 2, 1799. 

m. Abby Rogers, d. s. p. in Virginia. 

24. EVELINE, b. April 22, 1801. 

m. Douw Van Vechten. 

14. HARMAN FORT and Rebecca Van Woert. 

25. HENDRIKA, b. June 6, 1761. 

m. June 6, 1786, John H. Schuyler. 

26. SARA, b. January n, 1763. 

m. Dr. Reuben ScJiuylcr, of the Flatts. 

27. JACOB, b. July 22, 1764, d. s. p. October 14, 1804. 

28. MARITJE, b. May 3, 1766, obt. 

29. MARGRETA, b. June 24, 1768, d. y. 

30. ANNATJE, b. March 29, 1770. 

m. June 10, 1800, John //. Schuyler. 

31. MARITJE, b. December 18, 1771, obt. 

An old Dutch Bible in good preservation, originally be 
longing to Jacob Fort (6) and now in possession of John 
Van Rensselaer, of Cambridge, N. Y., one of his descend- 


ants, contains many valuable records, on which I have 
freely drawn in the preceding pedigree. It also contains 
a paper written in 1835, by Mrs. Abby Rogers Fort, giv 
ing the genealogy of the Fort family. It states that " the 
family was originally French, and the true name Le Forte. 
They emigrated to Holland at the time of the persecution 
of the Huguenots, and Jacob Le Forte emigrated from 
thence to this country about the beginning of the eigh 
teenth century. He had six sons, John, Nicholas, Daniel, 
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob." The writer had taken some 
pains, by correspondence and personal interviews with 
members of the family, to get at facts. She did not suc 
ceed in getting the true name of the first American ances 
tor, but she gave the names of his sons correctly. An- 
natje Fort (30), when speaking of her family, always said 
that the name was Le Fort, of French origin, and that the 
family came through Holland to this country. 

The Dutch Bible of Harman Fort (14), printed in 1736, 
by Pieter and Jacob Kuer, Dordrecht, is now in my pos 
session. It is a thick folio volume bound in boards cov 
ered with tooled leather, and finished with eight brass 
corner-pieces and two clasps. Besides the text in two 
columns to the page, there are marginal references and 
voluminous foot-notes. It contains maps of Asia Minor, 
of Egypt, of the countries traversed by the children of 
Israel in their forty years wanderings, of the Holy Land, 
of the countries visited by the Apostles in their missionary 
tours, and a plan of Jerusalem with the front elevation of 
Solomon s Temple. There were originally at least twenty- 
two pages of plates, each containing six illustrations, three 
by three and a half inches, engraved by D. Jonkman ; 
but having passed through many hands, and amused sev 
eral generations of children, it now contains only eleven 
plates, or sixty-six distinct pictures, which are quaint and 


amusing. The family records once within the covers are 
sadly mutilated, and many of them lost. When it came to 
my hands, a few years since, more than half the leaves were 
loose and misplaced, and the title-page to the Old Testa 
ment missing. I put it in the hands of a careful binder, 
who restored it to its original condition, preserving all the 
old binding. With careful usage it may go down the ages. 
From the records in these two old Bibles I have mainly 
prepared the Fort pedigree. 

It will be noticed that the direct line of Jean Fort s 
fourth son, Jacob, is extinct. The last of the name died 
in Virginia during the civil war. He was engaged in a 
large and profitable business when the war commenced. 
Not wishing to lose his all, he remained, but did not join 
the rebel ranks. Jacob (27), the only son of llarman 
Fort, was the first sheriff of Saratoga County, 1791-93. 
(The name is erroneously printed Ford in the civil list.) 
He died at the age of forty years, and was never married. 

In the old French and Indian war of 1744-48, the people 
on the borders were exposed to great dangers and hard 
ships. The almost uninterrupted peace of fifty years, since 
1697, had made them careless and indifferent as to their 
defences. The old fort at Canastagione had rotted down 
and disappeared. The French had erected Fort St. Fred 
erick at Crown Point, which gave them command of the 
Lakes Cham plain and George and of the upper Hudson. 
The English, in consequence of the chronic quarrels be 
tween the governors and the Legislature, neglected to 
fortify any point on the borders to hold the French in 
check, but left the settlements north of Albany undefend 
ed and open to the incursions of the enemy. Suddenly 
the peace of Europe was broken, and all North America 
became involved in the horrors of a savage war. Scalping 
parties from Canada swooped down upon the defenceless 


settlements of New York and New England, killing and 
capturing the terror-stricken inhabitants. The farmers of 
Canastagione were especially unfortunate. 

In the year that Saratoga was destroyed, 1745, several 
persons were killed, and others carried to Canada to suifer 
a long imprisonment. Three of Jean Fort s sons and two 
grandsons were among the unfortunates. Johannes (3) 
died in prison at Quebec, on December 7, 1746, and his 
brother Abraham (4) died in the same prison a year later. 
Jacob (6) fared better ; he succeeded in regaining his lib 
erty, and returned to his family, but nothing was heard of 
his son, whose fate was unknown. Simon, a son of Nicho 
las (5), was a mere boy when carried off. He was adopted 
by an Indian woman, one of the Mohawk proselytes, in 
place of her own son, killed on an expedition. After the 
war, in June, 1750, Governor Clinton sent commissioners 
into Canada to effect an exchange of prisoners. They 
could not procure Simon s release, although Captain Van 
Schaick offered the Indian mother six hundred francs for 
his ransom. She said that she was much attached to him, 
and regarded him as one of her own children, but if she 
were obliged, by the commands of the French governor, 
to give him up, her friends would follow them and cause 
them to feel her resentment. On appealing to him to 
leave the Indians and return to his family, he replied that 
he was attached to his new friends, and, having become a 
Catholic, he preferred to remain with them. In the fol 
lowing autumn his father was more successful, and pro 
cured his release at an expense of ^50. Simon returned 
home, and twelve years later married a daughter of his 
neighbor, Van Vranken. 

Ilarman Fort (14) was a merchant in Waterford, N. Y., 
in the full tide of a successful business when he died, at a 
comparatively early age. His wife had died a few years 


before. Their children were left to the care of relatives. 
Only one of them, Annatje, lived to old age ; she died in 
Ithaca, N. Y., January 12, 1851, nearly eighty-one years old. 

-MARIA SCHUYLER (19), "Aunt Polly," as she was famil 
iarly called, lost her first husband within a few years after 
marriage. Her second marriage was happy. Her hus 
band had a pleasant place south of the city of Hudson, the 
land running down to the river. She lived to enjoy her 
surroundings only a few years, and died in giving life to 

PHILIP SCHUYLER (20), the youngest of the family, suc 
ceeded to his father s property and business. He married, 
on May 22, 1797, Mary, daughter of Beriah Palmer, who 
came with a church colony from Canaan, Conn., 1762, and 
made a settlement at Stillwater. For more than a hun 
dred years the people of Connecticut had made repeated 
efforts to gain a foothold in the beautiful valley of the 
Hudson. At last it was effected. Were the members of 
this colony the descendants of those who, a hundred years 
before, negotiated with the Mohawks for the purchase of 
Half Moon, and failed because Philip Pieterse Schuylerand 
Goosen Gerritse Van Schaick were too quick for them ? 

I have been able to procure but little information re 
lating to this member of the Schuyler family. His mar 
riage and death are not recorded in the family Bible. 
These dates were furnished by a correspondent, who knew 
more about him than any living Schuyler. His death oc 
curred in 1807, at the early age of thirty-six years. His 
wife did not long survive him. Their orphan children 
found a home with their mother s relatives. Two of them 
died at an early age. The youngest, Deborah, married 
and had two children, of whom I have been unable to 
gain any information. 


(22) both served in the War of 1812. 

PHILIP CHURCH SCHUYLER (30) was a devoted adherent of 
the anti-slavery cause, removed to Kansas in 1855, and threw 
himself warmly into the struggle for making it a free State. 

GEORGE WASHINGTON SCHUYLER (32) graduated at the 
University of the City of New York in 1837. He studied 
theology, but subsequently, in order to extricate a brother 
from difficulties, engaged in business at Ithaca, N. Y. He 
was elected treasurer of the State of New York on No 
vember 3, 1863, and served for two years. He was ap 
pointed superintendent of the Banking Department of the 
State of New York on January 3, 1866, and served until 
February 14, 1870. He was a member of the Assembly of 
1875, and chairman of its Committee on Banks and Bank 
ing, when he obtained the passage of the General Savings 
Bank Law, and of a law for the protection of railway 
employees. He was subsequently, from January i, 1876, 
to May, 1880, Auditor of the Canal Department, and was 
the first to propose making the canals free waterways by 
the abolition of tolls a recommendation which was subse 
quently effected by a constitutional amendment. As au 
ditor he was at the same time one of the New Capitol 
Commissioners. He has been a trustee of Cornell Uni 
versity from its foundation, and was its treasurer (without 
salary) from 1868 to October, 1874, when he resigned. 
He married, in 1839, Matilda Scribner. The genealogy 
of the Scribner family is inserted in the APPENDIX. 


The husband of Catherine Angelica Schuyler (33) was 
descended from Jan Jansen Bleecker, the ancestor of the 
Bleecker families in America, who, in 1658, at the age of 


seventeen, emigrated to Albany from Meppel, in the Neth 
erlands. According to the custom of his native country, 
he had been taught a trade, which he abandoned soon 
after his arrival for the more profitable business of a mer 
chant. He married Margarita, daughter of Rutger Jacob- 
sen Van Schoenderwoert. In his business he was more 
than ordinarily successful, and soon became a leading 
man in his community. He made large purchases of 
lands, usually in company with others, which laid the 
foundations of considerable estates for the enjoyment of 
his posterity. He was one of the seven partners in the 
famous Saratoga Patent, some portions of which are yet 
in the possession of his descendants. He w 7 as named one 
of the first aldermen, and also " chamberlain," or treasurer, 
in the charter of Albany of 1686. In 1690 he w r as a mem 
ber of Leisler s Assembly, and also represented his county 
in the Sixth and Seventh Assemblies, 1698-1700. He was 
recorder in 1696, and mayor in 1700. He died on No 
vember 21, 1732, in his ninety-second year, leaving a family 
of four sons and four daughters. Two of the sons, Nicho 
las and Henry, died unmarried. The other two and sev 
eral of their descendants have held prominent positions in 
the professional and political circles of the province and 

Johannes, the eldest son of Jan Jansen Bleecker, suc 
ceeded his father as mayor of Albany in 1701, having pre 
viously served one year as recorder. When eighteen years 
old he w r as on a trading expedition, in company with others, 
among the Indians of the Northwest, and was taken pris 
oner by the French. He was carried into Canada, but 
was released arid returned to his home in the following 
year, 1687. He was acquainted with the Iroquois lan 
guage, and was often employed in negotiations with the 
Five Nations. His son Nicholas married Margarita Rose- 


boom, on April 10, 1728, and had several children, one of 
whom, Johannes, married Margarita Van Deusen. The 
latter had a family of two sons and three daughters. Mar 
garet, the eldest daughter, married John Van Schaick. 
Harriet married Rev. John B. Romeyn, D.D., a prominent 
Presbyterian clergyman, of New York City. Elizabeth, 
the third daughter, married Rev. Jacob Brodhead, D.D., a 
distinguished minister in the Reformed (Dutch) Church, 
and father of the late J. Romeyn Brodhead, the historian, 
of New York. His son Henry married Mary Storm, and 
died in his thirtieth year, leaving one daughter. Nicholas 
Bleecker, Jr., the youngest of the family, married, first, 
Catharine Staats, daughter of an old Albany merchant ; 
and, secondly, Catharine A. Schuyler. By his first wife he 
had one daughter, Margaret, who married Anson Bangs, 
lately deceased. She and her two sons, Bleecker and An 
son, reside in Brooklyn, N. Y. Nicholas Bleecker, Jr., as 
he always wrote his name, was long connected with the 
old Bank of Albany, as one of its most faithful and trusted 
officers. He was deputy State treasurer from 1864 to 
1867. As a man he was modest and unobtrusive ; he had 
a high sense of honor, and in all the relations of life he 
bore himself without reproach. He died at an advanced 
age, like many of his family in preceding generations. 

Rutger, youngest son of Jan Jansen Bleecker, was also 
the recorder of Albany, and mayor 1726-28. He married 
Catalina, daughter of David Schuyler and his wife, Cata- 
lyn Verplanck, and then the widow of Johannes Abeel, 
by whom he had four children. His only daughter, Mar 
garita, married Edward Collins, only son of John Col 
lins and his wife, Margarita Schuyler. His eldest son, 
John, married Elizabeth Staats. Their son Rutger mar 
ried Catharine Elmendorf, and had Elizabeth, who married 
Peter Brinckerhoff, of New York ; Maria, who married 


Morris S. Miller, of Utica ; Blandina, who married Hon. 
Charles E. Dudley ; John R., who married, first, Eliza 
Bridgen, secondly, Mrs. Hetty Linn. Mr. Dudley was a 
State senator, mayor of Albany, and United States senator. 
Mrs. Dudley, in memory of her husband, founded the 
Dudley Observatory at Albany. John R. Bleeckerhad six 
children, the youngest of whom, Mary, married the Hon. 
Horatio Seymour, late governor of the State of New York. 

Jacobus, or James, second son of Rutger Bleecker, the 
elder, married Abigail Lispenard, of New York, and had 
several children, one of whom, John J., married Ann Eliza 
Schuyler, the poetess, daughter of Brandt Schuyler, of New 

ALEXANDER HAMILTON SCHUYLER (42) entered the army 
early in 1863, as did also his brother HENRY (43). Their 
regiment was sent to the front when General Grant en 
tered on his Virginia campaign. Alexander was taken 
prisoner by the Confederates, and sent to the military 
prison at Andersonville, where he w r as attacked by fever, 
and died from want of proper medical treatment and ordi 
nary care. His sufferings, as related to me by a compan 
ion, were terrible. I never think of them without a feeling 
of horror and indignation, that men claiming to be Chris 
tians should have permitted them. Henry was never heard 
of alter the campaign began. It is supposed that he 
was killed in battle, but how and where he died is un 
known. He lies among the unrecorded dead. 

JOHN EDWIN SCHUYLER (63) was with the army under 
General Banks before Port Hudson and on the Red River. 
He had read for a physician, and was well qualified for 
an assistant in the hospital department. He remained 
with his regiment through the war, and at its close he was 
honorably discharged. He was frequently under fire, but 
escaped without a wound. 


son, N. Y., but emigrated to Kansas in 1859, where he was 
engaged in farming when the civil war began. He en 
listed in the Second Kansas Infantry Regiment, which 
shortly afterward participated in the battle of Wilson s 
Creek. He was wounded, but was enabled to leave the 
field with his regiment. After his discharge, in Septem 
ber, 1861, he enlisted, the following October, in the Second 
Kansas Cavalry, and was appointed orderly sergeant in 
Company H, in which position he remained untilJanuary, 
1864. He was then appointed a captain in the Second In 
fantry Regiment of Arkansas Volunteers. A few months 
previously the commissioned officers of his regiment had 
united in a petition to have him appointed to a vacant 
captaincy in the Second United States Cavalry, but, hav 
ing no friends at headquarters to push his claims, the ap 
pointment was given to another. He served through the 
war, and was honorably discharged, on August 8, 1865, at 
Clarksville, Ark. 

One of his exploits is worthy of record. I give it in his 
own words, as contained in a letter years afterward, in an 
swer to one of mine asking for information : 

" I can only speak from memory, as all my papers relat 
ing to my campaigning were lost in the battle of Saline 
River, on the retreat of General Steele from Camden to 
Little Rock. General Blount was in command of the 
Union Army when the battle of Fort Wayne, Ind. Ter., 
was fought. He had five regiments of infantry, three of 
cavalry, and two batteries. It was his intention to sur 
prise the enemy, and for this purpose we made a night 
march. At daybreak the general at the head of the cav 
alry, with Captain Rab s battery, advanced rapidly, and 
when near Fort Wayne formed the line of battle. Four 
companies of the Kansas cavalry, dismounted, Captain 


Crawford commanding, were on the right, myself acting 
as left guide. We charged on the run, when a battery of 
four large guns opened on us. Without wavering we 
rushed on through brush and undergrowth, which par 
tially concealed us. After traversing about four hundred 
yards, we reached the battery, and, mounting one of the 
guns, I called for assistance to run them to the rear. 
This was quickly rendered, and \vc secured the four guns 
with one caisson. It was hot work, the enemy s bullets 
flying thick around us, but it was finished before our 
officers comprehended the situation. The loss of the bat 
tery was a serious blow to the rebels, who, whites and In 
dians, were in large force under command of General 
Cooper. They soon retreated from their position, and 
left the field to the Union boys. In less than an hour 
after the command was given to charge, the battle was 
over, and the enemy flying in all directions. I had com 
mand of the captured guns while the officers of my regi 
ment were trying to secure my promotion. They failed, 
and I surrendered them to another." 

FREDERICK SCHUYLER (77) was one of the Kansas boys 
who volunteered at the commencement of the war. In 
the battle of Wilson s Creek he was shot in the chest, and 
left on the field by his company on their retreat, supposed 
to be mortally wounded. Captain Conrad, of the regular 
army, an old acquaintance, found him braced against a 
tree with the blood oozing from his wound ; but, perceiv 
ing that he had more life and strength than was at first 
supposed, he assisted him to mount a mule, and conducted 
him within the Union lines. His wound was dressed, and 
after a few days lie was carried in an ambulance to St. 
Louis, and placed in the hospital. When he had suf 
ficiently recovered to perform some clerical work, he was 
employed in the office of the adjutant-general of the State. 


He was a good penman, and, being a man of fine personal 
appearance and of gentlemanly manners, he quickly won 
his way to higher positions. He was first appointed assist 
ant adjutant-general, with the rank of captain, and then 
lieutenant-colonel of a cavalry regiment. Subsequently 
he received the commission of inspector-general of the 
State troops in the field, with the rank of colonel. He re 
tired from the service a year after the end of active hos 
tilities, and returned to his home in Kansas. He died in 
Dakota on June 16, 1884. 

HOWARD SCHUYLER (79) was a few months past sixteen 
years of age when he volunteered as a private soldier in 
a Kansas regiment, in May, 1861. Under General Lyon 
he was in the battles of Forsyth, July 25th ; Dug Springs, 
August ist, and Wilson s Creek, August 10, 1861. In the 
last he was slightly wounded in the hand, and his clothes 
were pierced with five bullets. His regiment, having 
served its term of six months, was disbanded, and he 
joined the Eleventh Kansas Infantry early the next year. 
His regiment was attached to the army of General Blount, 
then in Arkansas, and participated in the battles of Cane 
Hill, November, 1862, and of Prairie Grove, in the follow 
ing December. In January, 1863, he was commissioned 
first lieutenant for bravery in the field, but declined the 
position, because of his youth and inexperience. In June 
following he was appointed second lieutenant in the artil 
lery, which he also declined. Three months afterward he 
accepted the commission of captain in the Eleventh United 
States Colored Troops. His reasons for this, and its out 
come, I will give in his o\vn words. They reveal the high 
character of a man not yet twenty years old : 

"These (colored) regiments at that time were in great 
disfavor and bad odor. I had faith in being able to make 
them good soldiers, and I certainly worked hard to that 


end. Their officers were not treated at all times with the 
courtesy which I thought their past services entitled them 
to. Although I think I was not personally unpopular, yet, 
being young and hot-headed, the constantly recurring 
slights to the corps involved me in many unpleasant 
scenes. On this account I at last tendered my resigna 
tion ; and, unwilling to desert the cause while there was 
need of every man, I was returned, at my own request, to 
the ranks of my old company. Not long after I was sum 
moned before an examining board, on whose report the 
Secretary of War commissioned me first lieutenant in the 
Fourth Arkansas Cavalry. I may say to you that the 
board reported me for higher rank, but it \vas thought 
that I was not old enough. My company had no captain, 
and I was its commanding officer for several months, 
when I was considered of sufficient age to be made its 
captain. Such are the ways of the service ! " 

In May, 1865, he was recommended to a majority, but, the 
war corning to a close, he was mustered out of the service 
before he reached a higher grade or the twenty-second 
year of his age. Fie was offered a commission in the 
regular army, but declined to accept it. Soon after re 
turning to his home he joined the Engineer Corps of the 
Kansas Pacific Railway, and assisted in its survey and 
construction until it was completed to Denver. He then 
aided in the organization of the Denver & Rio Grande 
Railway Company, and was made its secretary and treas 
urer. In its service he visited Europe, to examine the 
narrow gauge railways, and to interest foreign capitalists 
in its construction. He remained with the company three 
years, when he was appointed chief engineer of the North 
Pacific Coast Railway. After the completion of this road 
he was engaged in various other enterprises, in all of 
which he proved himself to be the right man in the right 


place. When the Mexican Central Railroad Company was 
organized, he was appointed chief engineer and superin 
tendent of construction, on a salary of ten thousand dollars 
a year. With his family he removed to the city of Mex 
ico, and entered on his exacting duties. For two years he 
was thus employed, devoting all his energies to the work, 
and more hours of each day than his naturally strong con 
stitution could endure. The climate of that country is 
not favorable to men born in the North, and this, with his 
incessant labor and exposures, soon undermined his health. 
He was obliged to quit his work, and in other countries 
seek to shake off the disease which had fastened on him. 
He came to the North, and, after spending a short time in 
his native village, he sailed for Europe. He placed him 
self in the care of skilled physicians, who did all that 
science and experience could suggest to save his life. It 
was in vain. He died at Davos-Platz, Switzerland, on De 
cember 3, 1883. 

Many years ago Howard Schuyler related to me some 
incidents of his experience on the plains while employed 
in railroad engineering. Among them was one which, for 
the danger of the situation and the presence of mind, com 
bined with courage, which extricated him from the toils 
of hostile Indians, has few parallels in history or romance. 
He promised to give me all the details in writing, but his 
busy life did not afford him the leisure. Happily, his 
brother James, who was one of his party, has supplied the 
omission. The following account was published in the 
Evening Post, of New York, on March 22, 1884 : 

" In a recent letter from , he informs me of your 

request that I should write out in detail the story of How 
ard s miraculous escape from the Indians, as I had nar 
rated it to you. If it is a matter of interest to you, it will 
certainly be a pleasure to me so to do. 
VOL. II. 25 


"In the month of June, 1869, when the grass and flowers 
on the plains of Kansas and Colorado were nearly knee- 
high, the result of unusually abundant rains, which left 
clear pools of water in all the little arroyos, a corps of 
Kansas Pacific engineers, under the leadership of Howard 
Schuyler, were engaged in making certain preliminary sur 
veys in the vicinity of the terminal town of Phil Sheridan, 
near the border line of the two States. They had been 
out on a trip of several months in the direction of Denver, 
and had returned to the end of the track to begin the defi 
nite location, which we afterward carried through to Den 
ver. At this time I had been with the party some two or 
three months, taking my novitiate in engineering, and was 
occupying the position of rodman. Prior to commencing 
the location, we were running some rapid trial lines north 
of Sheridan, and by June ipth were some fifteen or twenty 
miles out in a rolling country, where the heads of the 
Smoky Hill and Republican Forks of the Kansas River 
interlock. On the evening before our camp had been 
brought up to the end of our work, and we started out 
bright and early on this memorable Saturday morning, so 
that by 10 o clock we were several miles away from camp. 
In all our work we had been accompanied by an escort of 
fifteen infantry soldiers, under the charge of a lieutenant, 
acting in the capacity of a camp-guard, who, while they 
w r ere very useful in guarding our base of supplies, were 
of no protection to us in the field. Our party numbered 
thirteen all told, two of whom remained in camp as cook 
and teamster. The working party was therefore reduced 
to eleven, including Howard, whose custom it was to ride 
several miles ahead looking out the line and indicating it 
by building sod-mounds two or three feet high with a 
shovel. We followed from one mound to the next, meas 
uring angles and distances and levelling the ground. Our 


progress was almost as rapid as a man would walk at a 
moderate pace, and we were exceedingly vulnerable to at 
tack, as we were all separated, strung out over a distance 
of a mile or more, while Howard was always out of sight 
and several miles ahead ; but, having been out several 
months without seeing any Indian signs, we had no suspi 
cion of danger, and did not dream there were any Indians 
in the country. We afterward knew that they had been 
watching us some days, and were simply waiting for the 
most favorable opportunity to make the attack," having evi 
dently planned to kill Howard first, and then come back 
along the line, picking off the rest of the party one by one. 

11 In pursuance of this plan they lay in wait until they 
had cornered him in a trap, when they fired a shot, striking 
his horse in the hip ; and, looking around, he saw a long 
line of the red-painted devils on three sides of him, while 
on the fourth, in the direction of his party, was half a mile 
or more of broken ground, cut up by deep, narrow ravines. 
It took but a moment to decide his line of action. Putting 
spurs to his horse, he turned to the only loophole of es 
cape, and, to the surprise of the Indians, went leaping over 
the ravines, one after the other, at the risk of his life, but 
with the assurance that they could not follow him, as none 
of their ponies were equal to the work, and to keep up the 
pursuit they were obliged to make a long detour. 

" Having once got clear of the broken ground, Howard, 
looking back, found himself well ahead, and was congrat 
ulating himself on so easy an escape, when he saw directly 
before him, springing out of the grass, a formidable array 
of Indians intercepting his flight ; those pursuing in the 
rear closed up, and* almost before he could realize the 
situation, he found himself again entrapped, this time by 
a line of Indians that entirely encircled him, numbering 
about a hundred, as nearly as he could judge. They 


rapidly narrowed the limits of the circle, and began taunt 
ing him with all manner of insults, and telling him of the 
tortures that awaited him, and of the slow roasting that 
they proposed to give him. For several minutes he sat on 
his horse trying to reconcile himself to the certainty that 
death was before him, but when the first struggle was over 
all trembling ceased, and with as true an aim as ever hunts 
man levelled at a deer, he drew up his rifle, and fired at the 
nearest man, killing him instantly. Earlier in the fight he 
had realized that he was more lightly armed than usual, 
having that morning left his belt, with a brace of pistols 
and a box of cartridges, in camp to be cleaned, taking 
only his Winchester carbine, carrying twelve shots. He 
now determined to sell his life as dearly as possible, and, 
counting every shot, to be sure that he saved one for him 
self as a last resort in case of capture, since death by his 
own hand was preferable to slow torture. Twice more 
he shot in quick succession with fatal effect, when he sud 
denly put spurs to his horse and dashed through their 
line. At this moment there was a general scramble and 
rush for him, some trying for him with their spears, others 
seizing his legs and striving to unhorse him. He succeed 
ed in the twinkling of an eye in throwing them all off, and 
even killed a second man riding at his side, putting his 
gun against his (the Indian s) body and blazing away, the 
blood spurting over Howard s buckskin leggings, saddle, 
and horse. The instant he freed himself from them and 
got clear alone on open ground ahead of them, where they 
were not in danger of killing each other in shooting at 
him/they fired a volley of bullets and arrows at him. None 
of them hit him, and up to this moment he was entirely 
unharmed. Had his horse been equally fortunate, this 
would doubtless have ended the fight, as the horse was a 
fine, high-spirited animal, superior to any of the Indian 


ponies. But the first shot, received at the beginning of 
hostilities, had cut a small artery, and from this the blood 
was pumping out a steady stream that, together with his 
violent exertions, was fast sapping his strength. The In 
dians, seeing this, were encouraged to continue in pursuit, 
and their leader, mounted on an American stage-horse 
(stolen the day before at a stage-station a few miles back, 
which they had burned, murdering all the inmates), suc 
ceeded so well in keeping pace with him, that Howard 
could almost feel the breath from the nostrils of his pur 
suer s horse. Thus they rode, nose to tail, for a mile or 
two, the Indian occupying the time in shooting at How 
ard. Three pistols, six-shooters, he emptied, and bullets 
flew around poor Howard on every side. Four more en 
tered the poor horse, already so badly wounded, a bullet 
pierced Howard s clothes at his side, another cut the strap 
of his field-glass, which was lost ; another cut off his spur, 
bruising the heel slightly, but not drawing blood ; a fourth 
pierced the wooden breech of his rifle, as he carried it in 
his hand, alomst striking it from his grasp ; others struck 
the saddle : and, in short, they seemed to strike everywhere 
but where they were aimed. All this time How r ard was 
endeavoring to reach over his shoulder and get a shot at 
the Indian, but at every such movement the savage slipped 
tinder the belly of his horse and was out of sight, except 
a hand on the mane and heel on the back. Finally, all 
ammunition exhausted, the Indian resorted to his spear, 
and with the wooden handle gave Howard one or two se 
vere raps on the head, trying to knock him out of his sad 
dle, without avail ; but at last Howard s horse, that had 
been tottering shakily from loss of blood, fell on his knees, 
and the Indian rushed up to end the contest. At that in 
stant the horse struggled to his feet again, and Howard 
saw that his opportunity had come, his foe was at his side, 


and he quickly thrust his rifle against the Indian s body 
and fired, blowing a hole through that seemed as large as 
one s arm. The Indian shrieked, leaped out of his saddle, 
and fell to the ground on his face, dead. 

" Looking about, Howard saw the remainder of the band 
following at a prudent distance, for by this time they be 
gan to look upon him as a god, invulnerable to all their 
weapons. When at last the poor horse fell prostrate, and 
apparently dead, they all flocked up to make a final dis 
position of their troublesome enemy. But Howard, un 
daunted, lay quietly down behind the body of his horse, 
and when they came within short range, took deliberate 
aim and fired, killing another man. This unlooked-for 
disaster completely demoralized them, and they fled in all 
directions. Within three minutes not an Indian was in 
sight. He turned his attention to his horse, loosened the 
girth to take off the saddle, and was surprised when the 
animal drew a deep breath and struggled to his feet. He 
then led him slowly to where the rest of the party had 
made a stand about their wagon and as he approached 
from one direction, I came up limping fronr the other, 
with a bullet in my right leg. The Indians had paid their 
gentle attentions to the rest of us during the time Howard 
was having his fight, but fortunately not in force, and we 
succeeded in getting together at the wagon, without the 
loss of a man, I being the only one wounded in the whole 
engagement. As soon as Howard joined us we started on 
the retreat for camp, the Indians harassing us the whole 
way. They would form in single file or all abreast, and 
charge as though they were going to ride right over us, 
but on getting within short range would wheel and retire, 
after discharging a volley of shots that would tear up the 
earth all around us. This was most terrifying to me, a 
boy fresh from school, who had never experienced any 


sort of warfare, and had never even seen a gun fired by 
one man at another ; but Howard, who had gone through 
four years of the war of the rebellion, and had seen three 
years or more of border warfare with Indians, was quite 
exhilarated by the excitement. He gave them a chal 
lenge by walking alone several hundred yards away on 
one side. They charged, but retreated when he kneeled 
and fired. 

" Arriving at camp, after an hour s ride and running fight, 
we found the escort thoroughly alarmed, and just starting 
out to pick up our dead bodies, for they had seen so many 
Indians about that they made sure we were all killed. It 
was a scene of mutual rejoicing and congratulation, as we 
had feared that they had met an untimely fate. A hasty 
council of war w~as held as to what was to be done. We 
were unanimous in the opinion that it was folly to con 
tinue work without a larger escort and a personal body 
guard, besides, it was necessary that my wound should be 
dressed. Consequently, it was decided to turn our faces 
in the direction of Sheridan, which we did, arriving there 
late in the afternoon, the Indians following us all the way 
seeking an opportunity to attack us again. With them it 
had become a question of revenge, as they had lost heavily, 
while we had escaped entirely. 

" The horse that carried Howard so nobly through this 
fight ultimately recovered. Three of the five bullets were 
extracted. I afterward took him home to Burlingame, 
where he was carefully fed and pampered for some years 
till he died. 

" I recovered from my wound very quickly, and within 
six weeks rejoined the party, receiving promotion to the 
first place in the corps that of transit-man which I oc 
cupied until the road was completed. 

" Our miraculous escape was long the subject of wonder 


on the frontier, where it was regarded as the most marvel 
lous on record, as we fought against such fearful odds. I 
hope the narrative as I have written it will be intelligible. 
I fear I have not made it as clear as I could orally. It 
always excites me to think or tell of it." 

EUGENE SCHUYLER (81) graduated at Yale College, in 
1859, and, after a further course of study there, was the 
first to receive the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, in 1861. 
After studying law at Columbia College (LL.B. in 1863), 
he began the practice of law in New York, devoting his 
leisure to literary pursuits. In 1867 he entered the for 
eign service of the United States, and was successively 
Consul at Moscow, 1867-69 ; Consul at Reval, 1869-70 ; 
Secretary of Legation at St. Petersburg, 1870-76 (during 
which term he was several times Charge d Affaires for long 
periods) ; Secretary of Legation and Consul-General at 
Constantinople, 1876-78; Consul at Birmingham, 1878-79 ; 
Consul-General at Rome, 1879-80 ; Charge d Affaires and 
Consul-General at Bucharest, 1880-82 ; Minister Resident 
and Consul-General to Greece, Serbia, and Roumania, 
1882-84. In 1873, while on leave of absence, he made a 
long journey of eight months through Central Asia. In 
the summer of 1876 he was sent to investigate the Turkish 
massacres in Bulgaria, and his reports did much to influ 
ence the subsequent history of that country. He also as 
sisted in preparing a constitution for Bulgaria. In 1881, 
as Plenipotentiary for the United States, he concluded 
and signed commercial and consular treaties with Rou 
mania and Serbia. 

Besides being an occasional contributor to various re 
views and journals in America and England, he edited 
Porter s "Selections from the Kalevala " (1867), and has 
published a translation of Turgenef s " Fathers and Sons " 
(1867); "Turkistan: Notes of a Journey in Russian 


Turkistan, Khokand, Bukhara, and Kuldja" (1876) ; a 
translation of Count Leo Tolstoy s " The Cossacks " 
(1878); and Peter the Great" (1884). He received the 
honorary degree of Doctor of Laws from Williams College 
in 1882, and from Yale College, his alma mater, in 1885. 
He has at various times been elected corresponding mem 
ber of the Roumanian Academy, member of the Royal 
Asiatic Society, of the Societe Asiatique, and of the Royal 
(London), the Imperial Russian, Italian, and American 
Geographical Societies ; of the American Historical Asso 
ciation, and of other learned societies, and has received 
decorations from the governments of Russia, Greece, 
Rou mania, Serbia, and Bulgaria. 

He married, in 1877, Gertrude Wallace, daughter of the 
late Charles King, President of Columbia College, himself 
a son of Rufus King, one of the first senators from New 

WALTER SCRIBNER SCHUYLER (84) "was graduated from 
the Military Academy on June 15, 1870, and assigned to 
the Fifth Cavalry as a second lieutenant, and was pro 
moted a first lieutenant July 29, 1876. He joined at Fort 
D. A. Russell, Wy., on October pth, 1870, where he served 
on escort duty with a surveying party during the summer 
of 1871, until December, 1871, when he accompanied the 
second detachment of the regiment, by the way of San 
Francisco and the Gulf of California, to Arizona, and ar 
rived at Camp McDowell in February, 1872, where he had 
station, with occasional tours of detached duty, until June. 
He then entered upon a tour of field service, which con 
tinued, with few interruptions, until February, 1875. He 
participated in all the Apache campaigns of that period, 
and was engaged in the brilliant action at Muchos Ca 
nons ; the affairs on the Santa Maria, Sycamore Creek, and 
in the Red Rock country ; the actions (commanding) on 


Pinto Creek, on Lost River, on the Black- Mesa, on the 
east branch of the Verde River, on Cave Creek, on Canon 
Creek, in the Superstition and Arivaipa Mountains, near 
the Gila River, in the Mazatzal Mountains, on the west 
side of the Four Peaks, in the Four Peaks, and near the 
north peak of the Mazatzal Mountains. He superin 
tended the removal of the Apache Yuma Indians from 
Camp Date Creek to the Verde Reservation, in May, 1873, 
and was in charge of the agency for several months. He 
was among the most active, untiring, and successful of the 
young officers who participated in the Apache campaigns 
of 1872-75, and was twice nominated to the United States 
Senate to be a brevet first lieutenant, to date from Sep 
tember 25, 1872, for gallant conduct in the engagement at 
Muchos Canons ; a brevet captain, to date from June 26, 
1873, for gallant conduct in the engagement on Lost River ; 
a brevet major, to date from April 28, 1874, for gallantry 
in the action at Salt River ; and a brevet lieutenant-col 
onel, to date from May 14. 1874, for gallant conduct in the 
engagement in the Red Rock country. 

" He availed himself, in April, 1875, of a leave of absence, 
and visited Europe, and upon his return to the United 
States rejoined at Fort Hays, Kan., in March, 1876, and 
served as acting regimental adjutant until June ist, when 
he was appointed an aide-de-camp for Brigadier-General 
George Crook, and immediately proceeded to Fort Fetter- 
man ; whence he made a daring march, with a few men, 
across the country, which was infested with hostile Sioux, 
to Goose Creek, Wy., \vhere he joined the general and 
participated in the Big Horn and Yellowstone expedition, 
and was engaged in the skirmishes at Slim Buttes, Dak. 
He participated in the Powder River expedition during 
the winter of 1876-77, and was engaged in the brilliant 
action at Bates Creek (north branch of Powder River), 


where he was distinguished for good judgment and con 
spicuous gallantry. He served with the expedition against 
the hostile Utes of Colorado during the march from Raw- 
lins, Wy., in October, 1879, to the relief of the besieged 
troops on Milk Creek, Col., and participated in raising the 
siege and action at that place on the 5th. He was on a 
leave of absence from January, 1880, to January, 1882, 
when he was relieved, at his own request, from duty as 
an aide-de-camp for Brigadier-General George Crook, and 
joined his company at Fort Sidney, Neb." l 

At Sidney he remained, performing the routine duties 
of garrison life, until April, 1883, when he changed sta 
tion, marching with his troop, via Cheyenne and Fort 
Laramie, to Fort McKinney, Wy. In July of that year he 
was detailed as commander of an escort to conduct a party 
of officers to and through the Yellowstone National Park. 
Returning from this expedition, he was (September) de 
tailed as Professor of Military Science and Tactics at Cor 
nell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

He was married on December 20, 1883, to Miss Mary 
Miller Gardiner, of Geneva, N. Y. 

1 Price s " Across the Continent with the Fifth Cavalry." 




As Philip Schuyler had only one child, this table begins 
with the daughters of his son Nicholas. It is by no means 
perfect, as I had not the leisure to prosecute rny inquiries 
to the extent necessary to make the work complete. 

NICHOLAS SCHUYLER (3) had three daughters, to wit : 

4. ELIZABETH, m. Jochem Staats. 

6. ARIANTIA, m. Killian Van Rensselaer. 

8. CATHARINE, m. Johannes Jacob Lansing. 

Jochem Staats, son of Barent, son of Jochem, son of Dr. 
Abraham Staats, the emigrant of 1642. His grandfather, 
Jochem, adhered to Jacob Leisler, and by him was com 
missioned a captain. When Albany finally submitted to 
Leisler, he was put in command of the fort. 

The following genealogical table is copied from the 
family records contained in an old Dutch Bible, now in 
possession of one of the Staats families. 

4. ELIZABETH SCHUYLER and Jochem Staats. 

130. BARENT, b. November 8, 1741. 

m. Annatje Winne. 

131. NICHOLAS, b. September 26, 1743. 

m. Mallykin {Maria) Saulsbury. 

132. GERRIT, b. January 27, 1745 ; d. y. 

133. ELSIE, b. October 6, 1747. 

m. William Saulsbury. 


134. NELTIE, b. February 17, 1750. 

m. John Amory. 

135. GERRIT, b. March 2, 1752. 

m. Elizabeth Loiv. 

136. PHILIP, b. July 26, 1755. 

m. Annatje Van Alstyne. 

137. JOHANNES, b. November i, 1756. 

m. Jane Shauts. 

138. ANNATJE, b. December 7, 1759 ; d. February 26, 1794, un 

130. BARENT STAATS and Annatje Winne. 

139. JOCHEM, b. April 27, 1769. 

140. DAVID, b. September 19, 1771. 

141. CATHALYNA, b. January n, 1774. 

142. GERRITJE, b. April 18, 1777. 

143. ELIZABETH, b. May 3, 1779. 

131- NICHOLAS STAATS (a colonel in the Revolutionary War) and 
Mallykin {Maria) Saulsbury. 

144. WILLIAM, b. June 16, 1773. 

145. JOCHEM, b. January 25, 1777 ; d. y. 

146. JOCHEM, b. August 25, 1778. 

134 NELTIE STAATS and John Amory. 

147. ELIZABETH, bp. June 28, 1772. 

135- GERRIT STAATS and Elizabeth Low. 

148. CORNELIS, b. August i, 1780. 

149. MARIA, b. February 22, 1781. 

150. ELIZABETH, b. April 26, 1782. 

151. SAMUEL PROVOST, b. September 6, 1784. 

13* PHILIP STAATS and Annatje Van Alstyne. 

152. ELIZABETH SCHUYLER. b. March 14, 1789 ; d. unmarried, Sep 

tember 13, 1851. 

153. ABRAHAM P., b. February n, 1791, 

m. Barthia Leggeit. 

154. JOCHEM P., b. May 7, 1793. 

m. Catherine Brcese. 

155. BARENT P., b. September 25, 1796. 

m. I, Maria Gourley. 
m. 2, Maria Winne. 
m. 3, Caroline Porter. 

156. PETER, b. May 8, 1800 ; d. y. 

157. PETER P., b. January 20, 1803. 

m. Hetty Platt. 

158. PHILIP P., b. May 23, 1807. 

m. A Id rich. 


153. ABRAHAM P. STAATS and Barthia Leggett. 

159. PHILIP, b. January 25, 1814. 

160. RACHEL, b. January 23, i8 i6. 

161. ANNA MARIA, b. January 13, 1818. 

m. John Van der Burgh. 

162. JOHN T., b. March 16, 1820. 

m. and has three children. 

163. ELIZABETH, b. March 17, 1822 ; obt. 

154. JOCHEM STAATS and Catherine Breese. 

164. ELIZABETH, b. April 9, 1818. 

m. John Miller, 

165. CATHERINE, b. October 30, 1821. 

m. Peter Van Wie. 

166. ANNA ABEEL, b. July i, 1824. 

m. Barent Winne. 

167. JOHN, b. December 7, 1826. 

m. Sarah Jessup. 

168. BARTHIA, b. January 26, 1829. 

169. JOCHEM, b. October 14, 1831. 

m. Catherine Miller. 

170. PHILIP, b. August 28, 1833. 

m. Laura Sprague. 

155. BARENT P. STAATS and Maria Gourly. 

171. HELEN, d. y. 

172. HELEN, m. Samuel Stokes, of Canada. 

155. BARENT P. STAATS and Maria Winne. 

173. JOHN, d. y. 

174. ANNA, m. Peter Sickler. 

157. PETER P. STAATS and Hetty Platt. 

175. SARAH ANN. 

176. ELIZABETH, m. Richard Dodge. 


178. PHILIP. 



181. EDWARD, d. y. 

182. MARY. 

183. HETTY, m. George Hay wood. 

184. EDWARD. 

158. PHILIP P. STAATS and - Aldrich. 

185. PETER. 


187. JOCHEM. 

188. WILLIAM. 


The members of the Staats family are numerous and 
widely dispersed. It is quite apparent t-hat the preceding 
table comprises only a small part of them. The time 
necessary to make a perfect list I could not well afford. 
Enough has been done to point the way to others, who 
may have leisure and inclination to pursue the work. I 
am indebted to Mrs. Hetty Platt Staats and her family for 
the little accomplished, and I hold their courtesy in grate 
ful remembrance. It was a surprise to us all to learn that 
she and my wife were related to each other in the same 
degree as her deceased husband and myself on the one 
side from Yankee blood, and on the other Dutch. 

KILLIAN VAN RENSSELAER, the husband of Ariantia 
Schuyler, was the youngest son of Hendrick, son of Jere 
miah, son of Killian Van Rensselaer, the first patroon of 
Rensselaerwyck. His mother was Catherina, daughter of 
Johannes Pieterse Van Brugh and Catherina Roelofse, 
daughter of Anneke Jans, the celebrated, whose mother, 
Tryntje Jans, was among the earliest settlers of New Am 

The following table is taken from a Van Rensselaer 
"chart made by my father, Robert S. Van Rensselaer, 1796 
continued by his son Philip, Albany, N. Y., 1847." " Pre 
sented to Walter Van Rensselaer, New Orleans." 

Robert S. Van Rensselaer had spent several months in 
Holland, where he had collected materials to form the 
chart down to the American branch of the family. I may 
have erred in the order of birth, as there were no numbers 
on the chart to guide me. 

6. ARIANTIA SCHUYLER and Killian Van. Rensselaer. 

189. HENDRICK, m. i, September 19, 1764, Alida Bratt. 

m. 2, Nancy G. Simmons. 

190. PHILIP, m. February 15, 1768, Maria Sanders. 

191. CATHERINE, m. William H. Ludlow, d. s. p. 

192. NICHOLAS, m. Elsie Van Buren. 


193. MARIA, m. Leonard Gansevoort. 

194. KlLLIAN, m. Margarita Sanders. 

195. ELSIE, m. Abraham A. Lansing. 

189. HEKDRICK VAN RENSSELAER and Alida Bratt. 

196. KILLIAN, d. y. 

197. HENRY, d. y. 

198. CATHERINE, m. Cornelius Schermerhorn. 

199. SOLOMON, m. Arietta Van Rensselaer. 

200. PHILIP, m. I, Anne Marselius. 

m. 2, Scobry. 

201. JOHN, m. Maria Lansing. 

202. NICHOLAS, m. Nancy Ten Eyck. 

189. HENDRICK VAN RENSSELAER and Nancy G. Simmons. 

203. DAVID, in. Lydia Carter. 

204. KILLIAN, m. Mart Jut Ross. 

205. MARTHA, d. y. 

206. HENRY, m. Cornelia Van Alstyne. 

207. STEPHEN, m. Bonnell. 

190. PHILIP VAN RENSSELAER and Maria Sanders. 

208. ELIZABETH, m. Peter E. Elmcndorf. 

209. ROBERTS., m. Catherine Nicholas Bogart. 

210. ARIETTA, m. Solomon Van Rensselaer. 

211. PETER S., m. Sally Hand. 

212. KILLIAN, d. y. 

213. PHILIP P., m. Catherine Lansing. 

214. MARIA M., m. Jacob S. Glen. 

215. SCHUYLER, m. Rebecca McCartey. 

216. SANDERS, m. Abby McCartey. 

192. NICHOLAS VAN RENSSELAER and Elsie Van Buren. 

217. KILLIAN, m. i, Catherine Whitbeck. 

m. 2, Jane Bogart. 

218. MAGDALEN A, m. Peter Buckman. 

219. ARIETTA, m. Abraham Whitbeck. 

220. CORNELIUS, m. I, Eveline Gansevoort. 

m. 2, Maria Genet. 

194. KILLIAN VAN RENSSELAER and Margarita Sanders. 

221. JOHN S., m. Anna Duncan. 

222. WILLIAM, d. s. p. 

223. DEBORAH, d. y. 

224. RICHARD, m. i, Elizabeth Van Rensselaer. 

m. 2, Matilda Van Rensselaer. 
22$. BERNARD, m. i, Elizabeth Hun. 

m. 2, , d. s. p. 


193. MARIA VAJST RENSSELAER and Leonard Gansevoort. 

226. MARIA, m. Abraham Hun. 



229. ELIZABETH, m. T. Ross. 


231. RACHEL. 

232. EVELINE, m. Jacob H. 7 en Eyck. 

233. ANN. 

234. ELSIE, d. y. 

235. RENSSELAER, d. in Louisiana, 1839. 

236. ELSIE, m. R. M. Cuyler. 

195. ELSIE VAN RENSSELAER and Abraham A. Lansing. 

237. ABRAHAM Douw, m. Christina Voorhis. 


239. ARIANTIA, d. y. 

240. CATHERINE, m. February 13, 1804, Philip P. Van Rensselaer. 

241. ARIANTIA, m. 1801, Herman Knickerbackcr. 

242. KILLIAN V. R., d. y. 

243. MAGDALENA, d. y. 

244. MAGDALENA, d. y. 

245. GERRIT, d. y. 

246. KILLIAN V. R., m. Amanda Carter, d. December 18, 1874, aged 

80 years. 

246. KILLIAN V. R. LANSING and Amanda Carter. 

247. ELSIE. 


249. ABRAHAM A., m. Cornelia Schoonmaker. 

250. KILLIAN V. R., JR. 



199. SOLOMON VAN RENSSELAER and Arietta Van Rensselaer. 

253. ADELINE. 

254. ELIZABETH, m. Richard Van Rensselaer (224). 

255. RENSSELAER, m. Mary G. Foreman. 

256. MATILDA, m. Richard Van Rensselaer (224). 


258. HARRIET MARIA, m. Peter Elmendorf. 

259. CATHERINE VISSCHER, m. Bonney. 

201. JOHN VAN RENSSELAER and Maria Lansing. 

260. JOHN. 

261. HENRY. 

1 Nos. 226 to 252 are taken from the Lansing family Bible. 

VOL. II. 26 


262. STEPHEN. ^ 

263. KILLIAN, d. y. 

264. MARY ANNE. 

265. CORNELIA, m. Thum, of Philadelphia, Pa. 

202. NICHOLAS VAN RENSSELAER and Nancy Ten Broeck. 


203. DAVID VAN RENSSELAER and Lydia Carter. 

267. HENRY, m. Elizabeth Scudder. 

268. MARTHA. 

269. LYDIA. 

270. DAVID C. 


204. KILLIAN VAN RENSSELAER and Martha Ross. 

272. EDWARD A. 


273. EUGENE. 

209. ROBERT S. VAN RENSSELAER and Catherine N. Bogart.* 
213. PHILIP P. VAN RENSSELAER and Catherine Lansing. 

274. MARIA, m. David Woodhouse. 

275. ABRAHAM L., m. Clarissa Caswell. 

276. ELSIE L., m. Timothy G. Abrahams. 

277. ARIETTA, m. Robert Holmes. 

215. SCHUYLER VAN RENSSELAER and Rebecca McCartey. 

278. SARA MARIA, m. John W. Wickham. 

279. SANDERS, m. Melissa Haywood. 


216. SANDERS VAN RENSSELAER and Abby McCartey. 

281. SARAH, m. John W. Wickham. 

282. FAYETTE. 

283. REBECCA. 



286. ARIETTA. 

220. CORNELIUS VAN RENSSELAER and Eveline Cansevoort. 



221. JOHN S. VAN RENSSELAER and Anna Duncan. 

289. MAUNSELL, m. Sarah Anne Taylor. 

1 As Catherine Bogart was a granddaughter of Harmanus Schuyler (10), I have placed 
this family among his descendants. 


290. MARGARET, m. Joseph Rtissell. 

291. CHARLES, d. s. p. 

292. ANN ELIZA, m. Alex. H. Hough. 


294. ARIETTA LETITIA, m. Leonard Kip. 


296. LOUISA. 

224. RICHARD VAN RENSSELAER and Elizabeth Van Rensselaer. 

297. MARIA ELIZABETH, d. unmarried. 

255. RENSSELAER VAN RENSSELAER and Mary G. Foreman. 

298. SOLOMON. 

267. HENRY VAN RENSSELAER and Elizabeth Scndder. 



275. ABRAHAM L. VAN RENSSELAER and Clarissa Cos well. 

301. PHILIP P. 


279. SANDERS VAN RENSSELAER and Melissa Haywood. 


W. L. Stone, in " Burgoyne s Campaign," says of the 
Van Rensselaers, that " they consisted of eighteen males 
in 1776. During the war every adult, except two old men, 
and all minors, except four boys, bore arms at one or 
more battles during the Revolutionary struggle." Of the 
eighteen males, sixteen belonged to Hendrick s branch ; 
and of these, five were of Killian s (6) family. 

HENDRICK VAN RENSSELAER (189) was a colonel in the 
Revolutionary army. He and Colonel Long were directed 
by General Schuyler tojiold the enemy in check at Fort 
Anne until the cannon and armament of Fort George could 
be removed to a place of safety. The English, under Colo 
nel Hill, were in pursuit of the patriots from Lake Cham- 
plain up Wood Creek, and on their approach to Fort Anne 
Van Rensselaer and Long sallied from the fort, on the 
morning of July 8, 1777, and attacked them so vigorously 
that they were obliged to retire to a stronger position on 


a hill. Here they. were again attacked with such impetu 
osity that, had it not been for the timely arrival of succor, 
Hill must have surrendered or retreated in confusion. 
The English had had enough, and in the following night 
retreated, leaving their wounded on the field. Colonel 
Van Rensselaer was so severely wounded that he was 
obliged to retire from the service. After his death the 
ball, which he had carried for more than thirty-five years, 
was extracted from his thigh-bone. 

PHILIP VAN RENSSELAER (190) was engaged in the com 
missary department, where he rendered efficient service. 

NICHOLAS VAN RENSSELAER also held the grade of colo 
nel, and was in the decisive battles on the heights of Still, 
water. After the surrender of Burgoyne, he was de 
spatched by General Gates to convey the intelligence to 

KILLIAN VAN RENSSELAER (194) was one of the minors 
referred to by Mr. Stone. After the war he studied law, 
and became a prominent man in the profession. He was 
elected to Congress five successive terms, and was an effi 
cient member. 

SOLOMON VAN RENSSELAER (199) is an historical character. 
As a captain of cavalry he participated in the battle with 
the Indians on the Maumee River, in 1794, and was shot 
through the lungs. He recovered from the wound, and 
in 1812 he accompanied General Stephen Van Rensselaer 

to the northern frontier. At the battle of Queenstown he 

received six wounds, and was disabled. His recovery was 

slow, but he regained his health, and rendered other im 
portant services to his country. 

not married when her father made his will. It was a long 
time before I could trace her. In Pearson s " First Set 
tlers of Albany," I found that John Jacob Lansing married 


a Cathalyna Schuyler (about 1747), and that a Rev. Nicho 
las Lansing died at Tappan, September 26, 1835, aged 
eighty-seven years. I acted on this clue, although I was 
by no means certain that Cathalyna was Nicholas Schuy- 
ler s daughter Catherine. After inquiries among various 
Lansing families of Albany, who knew nothing of John 
Jacob, I chanced to inquire of an English gentleman re 
siding at Yonkers, whether he could give me the address 
of anyone at Tappan ? He gave me the name of an ac 
quaintance living at Closter, an adjoining town. I wrote 
to him, and received in reply that he had heard Dominie 
Lansing preach in Dutch, but Knew nothing of his family. 
He referred me, however, to Lansing Zabriskie, Esq., of 
Jersey City, who might solve my questions. 

In reply to my letter, Mr. Zabriskie wrote : " Nicholas 
Schuyler had three daughters, one of whom, Catherine, 
married John Jacob Lansing ; " and then gave the names 
of their children, and whom they married. As to Elsie 
Lansing, who married - Dickinson, and had several 
children, he "believed them all to be dead." Subsequently 
I learned that there was a lawyer by the name of Dickin 
son living at Nyack, near Tappan, who informed me that 
the Dickinsons were not " all dead." 

From these two gentlemen I have received the following 
names of descendants of Catherine Schuyler : 

8. CATHERINE SCHUYLER and Johannes Jacob Lansing. 

304. NICJLAAS, bp. September n, 1748. 

m. Dickinson, d. s. p. 

305. LENA, bp. November 4, 1750. 

m. I, John Zabriskie. 
m. 2, AbraJiant Oothout. 

306. JACOB, bp. August 12, 1753. 

m. and had a daughter, who died unmarried. 

307. PHILIP, bp. November 28, 1756. 

308. ELSIE, bp. July 15, 1759. 

m. Charles Dickinson, brother of Nicolaas (304) wife. 


305. LENA LANSING and John Zabriskie. 

309. SARAH, m. Abraham Van Dtisen ; descendants live at Adrian, 


310. CATHERINE SCHUYLER, m. Walter Van Vcchtcn ; had one 

daughter, and resided at Brooklyn, N. Y. 

311. JOHN L., m. Sarah Banca. 

305. LENA LANSING and Abraham Oothout. 

312. LANSING ; residence, Schenectady, N. Y. 

311. JOHN L. ZABRISKIE and Sarah Banco.. 

313. JOHN B. 

314. ABRAHAM O. 

315. MARY A. 

316. CATHERINE SCHUYLER, m. Henry Starr, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

314. ABRAHAM O. ZABRISKIE and - . 

317. LANSING. 

308. ELSIE LANSING and Charles Dickinson. 

318. CHARLES, d. s. p. 

319. CATHERINE, d. s. p. 

320. JOHN, d. s. p. 

321. DORCAS, m. Rev. Joshua Boyd ; had one child, d. y. 

322. CORNELIA, d. s. p. 

323. CORNELIUS, m. . 

324. JACOB, m. ; had one son, d. unmarried. 


325. WILLIAM, m. ; has a large family. 

326. DORCAS, m. John C. Gale / lias several children. 

327. ROBERT, m. ; has two children. 

328. SOPHIA, m. ; has two children. 

329. MARCENA M., m.; has eight children. 

330. CHARLES, d. s. p. 

331. JOHN JACOB, d. s. p. 

332. ANN ELIZA, m. William Depue ; has two children. 

333. CORNELIA R., m. William S. Kelly ; has four daughters. 

JOHN JACOB LANSING was a son of Jacob, son of Gen-it, 
Jr., son of Gerrit Lansing, an early emigrant to New Netli- 
erland from Hasselt, in Overyssel, who died in Albany 
before October 3, 1679. John Jacob resided on the west 
side of Broadway, near Maiden Lane, Albany, and was a 
merchant. He had been twice married, and was twice a 
widower, before he married Catherine Schuyler. Mr. 


Dickinson sent me a photograph of Lansing from his por 
trait, painted when he was nearly ninety years old. He 
sits with his arm resting on a table, dressed in black, with 
a cocked hat and knee-breeches. The traditionary pipe 
and snuff-box are absent. Lansing died at the age of 
ninety-two years, on April 19, 1808. 

ABRAHAM O. ZABRISKIE (320) was lately Chancellor of 
New Jersey. 

HARMANUS SCHUYLER (10) had two daughters, Elsie and 

14. ELSIE SCHUYLER, m. June 5, 1773, Dr. Nicholas N. Bogart, of 
New York, d. September 26, 1783. 

334. CATHERINE NICHOLAS, b. April 16, 1784. 

m. October, 1801, Robert S. Van Rens- 

334. CATHERINE N. BOGART and Robert S. Van Rensselaer. 

335. PHILIP, m. Harriet Morehouse. 

336. JAMES, d. s. p. 

337. NICHOLAS, m. Catherine Ten Broeck. 

338. SCHUYLER, m. I, Cornelia Schuyler. 

m. 2, Maria Wareing. 

339. CHRISTINA, m. James H. Osborn. 

340. WALTER, m. Erne line L. Gladding. 

341. JOHN CORTLANDT, d. y. 

342. ANGELICA, d. unmarried. 

343. HARRIET MARIA, m. Putman. 

335. PHILIP VAN RENSSELAER and Harriet Morehouse. 

344. JAMES. 



338. Schuyler Van Rensselaer s children are among the 
descendants of John H. Schuyler. 

339. CHRISTINA VAN RENSSELAER and James //. Osborn. 

347. CATHERINE, m. William N. S. Sanders. 

348. ELIZABETH, m. Dr. Charles A. Devendorf. 

349. AUGUSTA, m. Archibald Thompson, d. s. p. 

340. WALTER VAN RENSSELAER and Emeline L. Gladding. 





347. CATHERINE OSBORN and IV. N. S. Sanders. 



348. ELIZABETH OSBORN and C. A. Devendorf. 



357. WALTER. 

I have been unable to trace the pedigree of Dr. Nicho 
las Bogart, the first husband of Elsie Schuyler (14). Her 
second husband, Major James Van Rensselaer, was the 
son of Johannes, the son of Hendrick, the son of Jeremiah, 
the son of Killian Van Rensselaer, the first patroon. He 
was an officer in the Revolutionary War, and served with 
out pay. He was on the staff of General Montgomery, and 
was near him when he fell, mortally wounded, before the 
walls of Quebec. His mother was a granddaughter of 
Colonel Peter Schuyler. 

14. ELSIE SCHUYLER, widow of Dr. Nicholas N. Bogart, m. June 3, 
1789, James Van Rensselaer. 

358. PHILIP SCHUYLER, b. April 18, 1790, d. y. 

359. CHRISTINA SCHUYLER, b. August 10, 1791, d. unmarried. 

360. MARGARET SCHUYLER, b. June 21, 1793, d. y. 

361. CORNELIA MARIA, b. November 17, 1794, d. y. 

362. HARM ANUS SCHUYLER, b. July 30, 1796, d. y. 

363. PHILIP SCHUYLER, b. November 28, 1797. 

m. Henrietta A. ScJniyler. 

364. HARMANUS NICHOLAS SCHUYLER, b. August 24, 1799, d. y. 

365. JAMES, b. June 14, 1801, d. s. p. 

363. The children of PHILIP S. VAN RENSSELAER are 
placed with the descendants of JOHN H. SCHUYLER. 

19. MARIA SCHUYLER m. I, David Van Rensselaer, d. s. p. 
m. 2, Nicholas Ten Broeck, by whom 

366. MARIA HOFFMAN, b. April 27, 1801. 

m. Peter Quidor Schuvler. 

367. HARMANUS SCHUYLER, b. February 25, 1804, d- V- 


368. JOHN JEREMIAH, b. August 8, 1806. 

m. Helen Ten Broeck. 

369. DAVID V. R., b. February 25, 1808. 

m. Jane Douw. 

370. CHRISTINA JANE, b. February 4, 1809, d. January n, 1831. 

m. Dr. Knickerbocker. 

371. ANN CATHERINE, d. y. 

366. Maria H. and P. Q. Schuyler s children are among 
the descendants of John H. Schuyler. 

Nos. 368 and 369 were married and had children, but I 
have been unable to procure their names. The posterity 
of Maria Schuyler (19) is not numerous. Her first husband, 
David Van Rensselaer, was a son of Hendrick, son of Hen- 
drick, son of Jeremiah, son of Killian Van Rensselaer, the 
first patroon. Her second husband, Nicholas Ten Broeck, 
was a son of John, son of Johannes, son of Dirck Wesselse 
Ten Broeck. 

JOHN H. SCHUYLER (16) had three daughters, the eldest 
of whom, Henrietta Anne (26), alone has living descend 

26. HENRIETTA A. SCHUYLER and Philip S. Van Rensselaer. 

372. MARY ELIZABETH, b. March 2, 1828, d. November 9, 1877. 

m. July 27, 1850, Samuel H. Gardiner, d. 
December 25, 1864. 

373. JAMES C, b. June 9, 1831, d. s. p. September 25, 1882. 

m. August 7, 1866, Anna Jenkins. 

374. GRATZ, b. April 17, 1834. 

m. Kate Van Rensselaer. 

375. HENRIETTA ANNE, d. y. 

372. MARY E. VAN RENSSELAER and Sannul H. Gardiner. 

376. HENRIETTA SCHUYLER, b. September 29, 1852. 

377. MARY MILLER, b. November 9, 1854. 

m. December 20, 1883, Walter S. Schuyler (84). 

378. FANNY FOY, b. August 5, 1859. 

374. GRATZ VAN RENSSELAER and Kate Van Rensselaer. 

379. ELIZABETH RUTGERS, b. June 30, 1857. 

m. George Hull. 

380. CORTLANDT SCHUYLER, b. November 22, 1859. 


381. JOHN, b. April 4, 1862. 

382. MARGARET, b. December 26, 1865. 

383. PHILIP SCHUYLER, b. October 19, 1870, d. 1885. 

39. MARY SCHUYLER and Abraham Van Home. 

384. NICHOLAS HARMANUS, b. June 21, 1841, d. s. p. February 13, 

1863, in the Union army, War of the Rebellion. 

385. PHEBE JANE, d. s. p. August 18, 1863. 

386. ELEANOR AUGUSTA, b. April 22, 1846. 

m. /. P. Baker. 

387. JOHN SCHUYLER, b. April, 1849. 

388. SARAH M., b. 1852. 

m. September 27, 1874, B. A. Roun. 

389. RACHEL C, b. November 28, 1855. 

in. M. F. Paine. 

390. ALICE E., b. January 28, 1859. 

386. ELEANOR A. VAN HORNE and /. P. Baker. 

391. NICHOLAS HARMANUS, b. December 16, 1871. 

389. RACHEL C. VAN HORNE and M. F. Paine. 

392. EDWIN L., b. April 2, 1872. 

393. JENNIE M., b. June 16, 1874. 

47. CHEERY ANN SCHUYLER and E. E. Southwell. 

394. ELLA R., b. November 22, 1852. 

m. February 19, 1878, Edwin A\ Young, 

395. SCHUYLER E., b. August 13, 1854. 

396. GEORGE A., b. May 7, 1858. 

397. CAPTOLA ELIZABETH, b. September 17, 1860. 

398. MERLIN DERBY, b. August 9, 1867. 

399. AMBROSE NICHOLAS, b. January 21, 1870. 

400. BURT FRANK, b. April 4, 1872. 

51. HENRIETTA SCHUYLER and Ab el Burritt. 

401. WILLIAM, b. April 13, 1836. 

402. GEORGE H., b. April 24, 1838. 

403. SUSAN CORNELIA, b. December 13, 1843. 

52 CORNELIA SCHUYLER and Schuyler Van Kensselaer a 

404. WALTER A., b. November 24, 1836. 

m. Jennie Van Hovenburgh. 

405. SCHUYLER, b. February 22, 1839, d. s. p. 1858. 

406. JOHN, d. y. 

407. FANNY, b. March 19, 1841, d. s. p. 1863. 

408. CORNELIA, d. y. 

53. JANE SCHUYLER and Robert Shackelton. 

409. GEORGE EUGENE, b. December 24, 1853. 


54. SUSAN SCHUYLER and Grant IV heeler. 

410. PHILIP, b. November 19, 1845. 

m. Marv E. Stewart. 

411. MARY ELLEN, b. November 6, 1847. 

412. AMY ANN, b. December 4, 1849. 

m. Philip Barton. 

413. WILLIAM A., b. June 25, 1853. 

414. SCHUYLER V. R., b. June 19, 1855. 

415. HIRAM A., b. September 29, 1857. 

416. GEORGE W., b. March 7, 1860, d. y. 

417. LINDA H., b. September 3, 1861. 

418. FREDERICK W., b. June 13, 1867, d. y. 

57. JULIA SCHUYLER and Earl Lucas. 

419. CLARENCE, b. April 7, 1853. 

420. ELLA, b. 1856. 

410. PHILIP WHEELER and Mary E. Stewart. 

421. Louis A. 

422. FORT. 


424. An infant, not named. 

60. CATHARINE SCHUYLER and /. W. Marselis. 

425. ESTHER ANN, b. February 10, 1846. 

in. I, July 4, 1868, Henry Delline. 

m. 2, January 8, 1870, Thomas Arnold. 

426. JUDSON, b. June 17, 1848. 

427. FRANCES, b. June 9, 1850. 

m. Joseph Beers. 

428. LOUISA, b. November i, 1853. 

429. JOHN SCHUYLER, b. February 14, 1859. 

430. GEORGE E., b. 1862. 

431. VICTOR C., b. October 16, 1867. 

425. ESTHER ANN MARSELIS and Henry Delline. 

432. MARY, b. May 18, 1869. 

425. ESTHER ANN MARSELIS and Thomas Arnold. 

433. JACOB A. 

65. ANNE H. SCHUYLER and George W. Bodle. 

435. EDWIN S., b. May 26, 1876. 

66. ANN ELIZA SCHUYLER and Edward Stoddard. 

436. HERMAN G., b. July 6, 1848. 

437. ADA M., b. February 23, 1851. 

438. ALBERT R., b. December 21, 1852, d. y. 

439. SCHUYLER E., b. March 22, 1865. 


71. KATE W. SCHUYLER and William A. Church. 

440. EDITH SCHUYLER, b. January 31, 1879. 

73. SUSAN M. SCHUYLER and Marcus Lyon. 

441. LUCY, b. July 9, 1858. 

m. December 29, 1883, Walter Kerr. 

442. LAURA, b. October 28, 1865. 

443. PHILIP SCHUYLER, b. September 30, 1867. 

444. MARY, b. September 7, 1870. 

445. NEWELL, b. September 20, 1874. 

78. SARAH SCHUYLER and W. If. Lawrence. 

446. SCHUYLER, b. February 13, i864. 

447. HOWARD, b. July 6, 1868. 

448. CORTLANDT, b. August 3, 1870. 

82. MARTHA SCHUYLER and Chauncy L. Grant, Jr. 

449. SCHUYLER, b. August 22, 1865. 

450. Louis BEDELL, b. May 24, 1867. 

451. A SON, not named, b. February 5, 1869. 

452. MAURICE VIELE, b. March 22, 1870, d. June 23, 1872. 

453. CHARLES SCHAEFFER, b. July 6, 1872. 

454. EDWARD HARGIN, b. April n, 1875. 

455. WALTER SCHUYLER, b. January 24, 1878. 

456. EUGENE SCHUYLER, b. November 28, 1884. 

83. EVELYN SCHUYLER and Charles A. Schaeffer. 

457. ELIZABETH ASHMEAD, b. February i, 1872. 

458. EUGENE SCHUYLER, b. February 5, 1876, d. June 22, 1879. 

459. GEORGE SCHUYLER, b. July 8, 1878. 

460. GERTRUDE KING, b. December 27, 1882. 

SAMUEL H. GARDINER, who married Mary E. Van Rens- 
selaer (372), was the son of Jeremiah W., son of Jere 
miah, son of Jeremiah, son of Lion, son of Lion, son of 
David, son of Lion Gardiner, the first English proprietor 
of Gardiner s Island. 

MARCUS LYON, who married Susan M. Schuyler (73), 
graduated at Yale College in 185 2, -has practised law, and 
is now county judge of Tompkins County, N. Y. 

CHARLES A. SCHAEFFER, who married Evelyn Schuyler (83), 
is the son of the Rev. Charles W. Schaeffer, D.D., of Phil 
adelphia. He graduated at Union College, studied in Eu 
rope, and is professor of chemistry in Cornell University. 












1712 On the 4th of May my mother, Elizabeth Schtiyler, 
went to bed sick, and on the i3th of the same month 
fell asleep in the Lord. She was buried on the i6th 
in the church at Schenectady. 

1689 April 21. My wife Elsie Wendell was born in Al 

1691 Sept. 18, I, Nicholas Schuyler was born in New 

1714 Dec. 2. I, Nicholas Schuyler entered in the state 
of matrimony with Elsie Wendell married in Al 
bany by Petrus Van Driessen, preacher at Albany (i). 


1715 Sunday, Sept. 4. My daughter Elizabeth was born 
in Albany, baptized by Dom. Van Driessen on the 
i8th ditto. Her godfather was father Philip Schiry- 
ler, and her godmother Margarita Livingston (2). 

1717 Saturday, Oct. 26. My son Philip was born in Al 
bany, baptized by Doin. Van Driessen on the 2yth. 
His godfather Harmanus Wendell, his godmother 
Ariantie Wendell. 

1720 Sunday, March 6. My daughter Ariantie was born at 
Schenectady, baptized on the same day by Thomas 
Brouwer. Her godfather my father, and her god 
mother my mother Catharine. 

1722 Saturday, Jan. 27, my son Harmanus was born at 
Schenectady, baptized on the 28th by Thomas Brouw 
er. His godfather brother Johannes Symonsen, his 
godmother Sister Hester Beekman (3). 

1723 Tuesday, Augt. n. My daughter Cathrina was born 
at Schenectady, baptized the same day by Thomas 
Brouwer. Her godfather Jacobus Van Dyck, and 
godmother Hester Groot (4). 

1725 Thursday, Augt. 18. Was born a daughter, who 
died in a short time, and was buried on the i9th at 

1727 Sunday, April 2, my second Harmanus was born at 
Schenectady, baptized on the 3 d by Thomas Brouwer. 
His godfather my uncle John Collins, and his god 
mother my Aunt Margrita Collins. 

1733 Saturday, Feb. 3. My son Johannes was born at 
Schenectady, baptized the 4th by Reinhart Ericksen. 
His godfather Johannes Wendell, his godmother 
Ariantie Wendell. 

1724 May 24. My father Philip Schuyler fell asleep in 
the Lord, and was buried in Schenectady. 


1722 Sept. 27. My son Harmanus fell asleep in the Lord, 
and was buried at Schenectady. 

1739 April 29. My son Philip Schuyler went to bed ill, 
at Oswego, N. Y., and died the same day. He was 
buried May i, age, 21 yrs. 6 mos. 3 dys. 

His Epitaph. 

Take notice all who here pass by, 

As you are now, so once was I, , 

But now I am as you must be, 

Prepare yourselves to follow me. 

1744 Sunday, Apl. 8. Between 9 and 10 o clock my wife 
fell asleep in the Lord after one day s illness. 


1748 July 3. Father Nicholas Schuyler went to rest in 
the Lord at the age of 57 years. 

1755 Oct. 28. My brother Johannes Schuyler went to the 
Lord, and was buried on the 31. at the age of 22 

1756 Apl. 5. Father Samuel Ten Broeck died, and was 
buried on the 7th. 

1771 July 31. Mother Ten Broeck died in Claverack, at 
the age of 82 years. 

1729 Nov. 19. My wife Chrijstina Ten Broegk was born 
at Claverack, according to the records of her father, 
baptized at Albany by Peter Van Drissen. Her god 
father Johannes Ten Broeck, her godmother her 
aunt Gertrude Schuyler. 

1754 Sept. 4. I, Harmanus Schuyler, entered the state of 
matrimony with Chrijstina Ten Broeck, married at 
Claverack by Domine Vrelenhuyse of Albany (5). 


1755 June 13. Sunday. My son Nicholas was born in 
Albany, baptized on the 22d. His godfather my 
brother Johannes Schuyler, his godmother my sister 
Elizabeth Staats. Baptized by Dom. Vrelenhuyse. 

1757 Thursday, Nov. 17. My second son Samuel was 
born, baptized on the Lord s day, the 20. by Dom. 
Vrelenhuyse. His godmother his grandmother 
Maria Ten Broeck, for godfather his uncle Dirck 
Ten Broeck. 

1760 Tuesday, Feb. 5. My daughter Elsie was born at 
2 o clock in the morning at Albany. Baptized on the 
9th of March by Dominie Fremont of Claverack. 
Her godfather John A. Lansing, her godmother my 
sister Catrina (6). 

1761 Nov. 29, about 3 o clock in the afternoon my third 
son Dirck was born in Albany, baptized on the 6th 
Dec. by Dom. Westerlo. His godfather his uncle 
Killian Van Rensselaer, his godmother his aunt Ari- 
antie Van Rensselaer (7). 

1763 Saturday, July 30. My fourth son John was born in 
Albany, baptized the 7th day of August, by Dom. 
Westerlo. His godfather Jochem Staats, his god 
mother Elizabeth Richards (8). 

1766 Saturday, Feb. i. My second daughter Maria was 
born in Albany, baptized by Domine Westerlo. Her 
godfather Hendrich Van Dyck, her godmother Mar- 
greta Van Dyck (9). 

1767 Oct. 1 8. My daughter Maria fell asleep in the 

1767 Saturday, Dec. 12, my fifth son Philip was born in 
Albany, baptized by Dom. Westerlo. His godfather 
Vuckert P. Douw, his godmother Anna Douvv. 


1769 Tuesday, April 25, my third daughter Maria was 
born. Her godfather Hendrich Van Dyck, her god 
mother Margreta Van Dyck. 

1769 Augt. 25. My son Philip fell asleep in the Lord. 

1771 Augt. 21. My sixth son Philip was born on Wednes 
day. His godfather Col. Philip Schuyler, his god 
mother Mrs. Catherine Schuyler (10). 

1782 Augt. 13. My son Nicholas Schuyler was married 
to Shinah Simons in Lancaster, Pa., by Rev. Mr. 
Muhlenburgh. Her age 20 years and six months. 

1783 June 15. My daughter Elsie was married to Nich 
olas N. Bogart of New York, in Stillwater by Mr. 

1783 Sep. 26. Died, Nicholas N. Bogart, aged 22 years 
6 months and 22 days. 

1784 April 1 6. Was born my grand child Nicholas Cathe 
rine Bogart on Friday 2 o clock christened by- Mr. 
James Dempster ist June. His godfather Nicholas 
Schuyler, his godmother Shinah Schuyler. 

1786 June 6. My son John Schuyler was married to Hen- 
drika Fort at Half Moon by Domine De Ronde. She 
is 25 years of age (n). 

1787 March 7. My grandson Harmanus was born at 5 
o clock in the afternoon. Baptized by Dom. De 
Ronde at Whitsuntide. Godfather and mother, my 
self and wife Christina. 

1789 June 26. My eldest daughter Mrs. Elsie Bogart was 
married to James Van Rensselaer. 

1793 Nov. 22. My daughter Maria was married to David 
Van Rensselaer of Schaghticoke, at Stillwater by 
Domine De Ronde. 
VOL. II. 27 


The following records in the same Bible are in English, 
and made by different hands : 

1796 Sep. i. Died my father Harmanus Schuyler, aged 69 
years four months and 19 days. 

1811 June. Died Derick Schuyler, son of Harmanus and 
Christina Schuyler, at Ballston, N.Y., in his 49th year. 

1812 March 25. Died at Claverack, Maria Ten Broeck, 
daughter of Harmanus and Christina Schuyler, aged 
42 years and 1 1 months. 

1824 November. Died, Nicholas, son of Harmanus and 
Christina Schuyler, at Albany in his yoth year. 

1832 January. Died, Samuel, son of Harmanus and Chris 
tina Schuyler, at Albany aged 73 years. 

1838 . Died at Albany Elsie Van Rensselaer, 

daughter of Harmanus and Christina Schuyler, in 
her 78th year. 

1846 Augt. 18. Died in Ithaca, N. Y., John H. Schuyler, 
son of Harmanus and Christina Schuyler, aged 83 
years and 19 days. 

In an unfamiliar handwriting, alone by itself, stands the 
following : 

Ira Dimick was bora July 18. 1806. 

Deborah Palmer (Schuyler) Dimick was born Apl. 8. 

Philip Schuyler Dimick, born June 15. 1831. 
Susan Ann Dimick, born Oct. u. 1835. 

On the cover of the Bible is a note in Dutch, giving the 
text of a sermon preached by * Mister Condit, Jan. 2. 1739, 
First Corinthians 15-4." 

Also, "the month of June 1775 was tne hottest of the 
year ; as was also June 1793." 



T. REV. PETRUS VAN DRIESSEN succeeded Dominie Lydius 
in the church at Albany, and, like his predecessors, gave 
more or less instruction to the Mohawk Indians. He 
soon became convinced that, if anything effectual was to 
be accomplished among them, they must have a church 
building of their own and a more steady ministry. He ob 
tained leave to build a church, but did not for the time 
succeed in securing funds for its erection. 

The church in Albany, built in 1656 of wood, had be 
come too small for its requirements, and was much out of 
repair. It was determined to build a new one of brick on 
the site of the old, in State Street, at the intersection of 
Broadway. This was completed in 1715. The dominie 
records in the baptismal books, in October of that year, 
that his son Hendrick " was the first child baptised in the 
new church." 

2. MARGARITA LIVINGSTON was the eldest daughter of 
Colonel Peter Schuyler, and the wife of Robert Living 
ston, Jr. 

3. JOHANNES SYMONSEN (Veeder) married Susanna Wen 
dell, and Johannes Beekman married Hester Wendell, 
sisters of Elsie, wife of Nicholas Schuyler, hence the 
terms brother and sister. 

4. JACOBUS VAN DYCK was a grandson of Hendrick- Van 
Dyck, attorney-general of New Netherlands, and a nephew 
of Nicholas Schuyler s mother. He was a physician in 
practice at Schenectady. 

5. The name of THEODORUS FRELINGHUYSEN, pastor of 
the Dutch Church of Albany, is not correctly spelled in 
the record. He was the son of Rev. Theodorus Jacob 


Frelinghuysen, who came to this country in 1720 as a 
missionary to the Dutch churches in Central New Jersey. 
He was well educated, and had served the church in Em- 
den, Holland, two years before he was selected for his life- 
work in New Jersey. His zeal and enthusiasm were in 
exhaustible, and enabled him to surmount the difficulties 
incident to a new country, among a people who had not 
enjoyed the advantages of education and discipline. The 
church organizations were dispersed through an extensive 
territory, and the greater part of them were without a set 
tled ministry. Mr. Frelinghuysen encountered much op 
position, but, in spite of it, was successful in winning his 
way to the hearts of the people, and gathered large num 
bers into the churches to which he ministered. 

He had five sons, all of whom embraced the profession 
of their father. In some respects they had a remarkable 
history. It was the rule and custom of the Dutch Church 
in America, that all their ministers should be licensed in 
Holland. This was a great mistake, and retarded the 
growth of the denomination. In conformity with this 
rule, two of the brothers went to Holland for ordination. 
On their return home, in 1753, they both died at sea. An 
other, after completing his studies, found the church to 
which he was called unwilling to bear the expense of 
sending him to Holland, and they endeavored to have him 
licensed at home. After a protracted correspondence 
with the classis of Amsterdam, consent was obtained, but 
it was three years before he was ordained. He died two 
weeks afterward of the small-pox. A fourth brother vis 
ited Holland, and was ordained by the classis of Amster 
dam. He succeeded his father, who had died in 1747, as 
pastor of the Raritan and other churches, in 1750, but died 
four years after, away from home, while on a journey to 
attend an ecclesiastical assembly. He was the grand- 


father of the late Theodore Frelinghuysen, chancellor of 
the University of the city of New York. 

Theodore Frelinghuysen, eldest of the five brothers, 
having obtained his license in Holland, was settled over 
the church at Albany in 1745. He was a man of fine abili 
ties, eloquent in the pulpit, popular in the community, 
and of high moral character. He was greatly beloved 
by his people, and had an unquestioned influence with 
them ; not enough, however, to preserve the younger mem 
bers of his flock from the worldly gayeties and follies in 
troduced among the sober and sedate citizens by the 
officers of an English regiment quartered among them. 
Public balls were held, and an extemporized theatre was 
organized, in which the young officers were the actors. In 
spite of the good dominie s efforts in and out of the pul 
pit, the young people were in raptures over these new 
forms of amusement, and turned a deaf ear to his plead 
ings and warnings. Some of them in the near future 
had grave cause to regret that they had not heeded his 

One Monday morning Mr. Frelinghuysen found on his 
door-step a pair of shoes, a crust of bread, a piece of 
money, and a staff. He interpreted them as an allegori 
cal message to him to leave the city. He had a peculiarly 
sensitive nature, and the message, as he understood it, 
produced a profound impression ; he brooded over it, 
and at last resolved to leave his people for a time, until he 
could recover self-control and his usual flow of spirits. 
He determined on a voyage to the fatherland. But, while 
seeking relief from his cares, he was not unmindful of the 
interests of his beloved church on those western shores. 
He advised with friends, and it was decided that while in 
Holland he should make an effort to procure funds for 
the establishment of a seminary of learning, in which can- 


didates for the ministry could be educated without the 
risk and exposure of two voyages across the ocean. He 
sailed from New York in October, 1759, and this is the 
last positively known of him. By some it was said that 
he was lost at sea on his outward voyage ; by others, that 
he reached Holland, transacted his business, and on his 
return home wrote to his wife from London. But noth 
ing more was heard of him, and his fate remains a mystery. 
Among the deeds in the secretary s office, Albany, is 
one signed by Theodore Frelinghouse, on October 16, 
1757, conveying to Henry Van Schaick his whole estate, 
real and personal ; particularly a farm of two hundred 
acres, situate on the road between New Brunswick and 
Trenton, " between the three-mile run and the six-mile 
run ; " his share in a house in New Brunswick, and his half 
share of a tract of land six miles square, lying between 
the Schoharie and Cherry Valleys, for the consideration 

On October 21, 1757, Elizabeth and Theodorus Freling 
house, " minister of God s Word," in consideration of 
^7,000, conveyed to Philip Johnse Schuyler (the future 
major-general) all their estate, particularly the estate 
" which the said Elizabeth had received from her grand 
parents, Captain Lancaster Syms and Catherine, his wife, 
from her uncles and aunts, and from her brother." The 
next day, for the like consideration, Philip Johnse Schuy 
ler deeded the same property to Rev. Theodorus Freling 

6. FREMONT is so spelled in the record, but in the Church 
Manual it is " Fryemoet (Frymuth) Johannes Casparus." 
In the record it is probable the spelling conformed to the 
pronunciation. He was Swiss by birth, and he or his fam 
ily may have subsequently changed the orthography and 
made the name Fremont. Was he the ancestor of General 


John C. Fremont, who in 1856 was the Republican candi 
date for President of the United States ? 

7. REV. EILARDUS WESTERLO was born and educated in 
Holland. He was only recently licensed when he re 
ceived a call from the church in Albany, then without a 
pastor by the disappearance of Mr. Frelinghuysen. He 
was only twenty-two years old, but by his character, abil 
ity, and attainments gave promise of future usefulness and 
influence. He possessed unusual prudence and tact for 
one of his age, united with Christian meekness. He was 
soon recognized as a power for good, not only in his 
church, but in the community and the surrounding coun 
try. His learning and abilities were admitted by ministers 
of other denominations to be of a high order, and they 
treated him with marked respect. His thirty years min 
istry covered the most trying and exciting period of 
American history, beginning at the time when the contest 
between England and France for the possession of the 
continent was settled, extending through the stormy years 
preceding the War of Independence, through the long war, 
and after the peace during the years of strife and uncer 
tainty, until the States were united by the Constitution of 
1787 into a nation. He espoused the patriot cause, and 
gave it his warmest support. He stood in line with his 
countrymen and their descendants. He was no exception 
to the rule that the Dutch were the uncompromising op 
ponents of the English Government and the firm sup 
porters of the revolution. Dominie Westerlo s fortunate 
marriage with an estimable lady undoubtedly contributed 
in no small degree to his influence and success as a pastor. 
She was the daughter of Philip Livingston, one of the 
signers of the Declaration of Independence, and the 
widow of Patroon Van Rensselaer. 

8. JOCHEM STAATS was uncle by marriage of the child, 


and Elizabeth Richards was a sister of his grandmother. 
She was a daughter of Hendrick Van Rensselaer and 
Catharine Van Brugh. 

9. HENDRICK VAN DYCK was a physician, whose father, 
grandfather, and great-grandfather were also physicians, 
and practised in Albany. He was in the fifth generation 
from Hendrick Van Dyck, a former fiscal of New Nether- 

10. PHILIP, sixth son of Harmanus Schuyler, was born 
at Stillwater, to which place his father had removed from 
Albany about a year before. Colonel Philip Schuyler, his 
godfather, four years later was appointed a major-general 
in the Revolutionary army. Mrs. Catherine Schuyler, the 
colonel s wife, was daughter of John Van Rensselaer, of 
Claverack, and a first cousin of the child s mother. 

11. REV. LAMBURTUS DE RONDE was one of the ministers 
of the Dutch Collegiate Church of New York. He was a 
Whig in the Revolution, and when the British entered 
New York, after the battle of Long Island, he retired to 
Schaghticoke, where he resided through the war and until 
his death, in 1795. Passing through Schaghticoke in the 
summer of 1881, I called on Mr. Knickerbacker at the old 
homestead of the Knickerbackers, and was courteously 
shown through the private cemetery of his family. Among 
the costly and handsome monuments erected to the mem 
ory of various members of the family for several genera 
tions was one over the remains of Mr. De Ronde. In a 
few words Mr. Knickerbacker told me ks history. 

It is a practice of the New York Collegiate Church to 
mark the graves of their deceased pastors with memorial 
stones. Not many years ago they resolved that the grave 
of De Ronde, if it could be found, should not be an excep 
tion. A committee of the consistory was appointed to 
carry out their wishes, which, in pursuance of their instruc- 


tions, visited Schaghticoke to find the grave of their an 
cient pastor. His body had been deposited in one of his 
own fields, and not in the church graveyard. There was 
no one living to point out the exact spot. The field had 
been cultivated for scores of years, and all evidences of a 
grave had been long since obliterated. It seemed a diffi 
cult business to find the object of their search, until they 
learned that underlying the surface, only a few inches 
below, was soft shale rock. It was seen at once that the 
grave could be found, but only by feeling for it with iron 
bars. Men were immediately set to work to feel over 
acres of ground with iron fingers. An old gray-headed 
man chanced to pass along the road, and stopped to learn 
the object of such unusual work. He told them that when 
a small boy he had seen the dominie buried. He located 
the grave in a particular part of the field, but could not fix 
the exact spot. The men commenced work in the locality 
indicated, and in a short time one of the bars sunk to its 
haft. The ground was excavated, and the grave was found. 
A few bits of bone were discovered and reverently gathered 
up. They were deposited in the Knickerbacker cemetery, 
and a marble monument was erected over them.. 



SOME years since, a gentleman placed in my hands a 
manuscript entitled " Family Register, from a Dutch 
Bible," which, from its references to various families, in 
cluding the Schuylers, may be of some value to genealo 
gists. It is a copy of the records contained in a Bible be 
longing to the late Mrs. Henrietta Listen King, widow of 
Charles King, late President of Columbia College. She 
was a daughter of Nicholas Low, a descendant of Cor 
nelius Low, Jr., who came into possession of the Bible in 
November, 1729. 

The Bible had suffered the fate of many others, and had 
lost some of its records. Isaac Gouverneur, its original 
owner, had four children baptized in the Dutch Church of 
New York before the date of the first record of the regis 
ter. He had doubtless recorded their births and baptisms, 
but, being on the missing leaves, they do not appear on 
the register. They were : 

JOHANNA, bp. April 15, 1705. 
MAGDALINA, bp. August 25, 1706. 
SAMUEL, bp. February 29, 1708. 
MARGRITA, bp. September 2, 1709. 

Isaac Gouverneur was the youngest of the two sons of 
Nicolas Gouverneur and Machtelt de Reimer. They were 
of French extraction, but emigrated to New Amsterdam 
through Holland. His brother Abraham made the name 
known to history, as one of Jacob Leisler s chief sup 
porters, Isaac being too young at the time to take any 
active part in politics. Later, when the Leislerian party 


was in the ascendancy under Lord Bellomont, he confined 
himself to his mercantile pursuits, in which he was very 
successful. On July 24, 1704, he married Sarah, daughter 
of Dr. Samuel Staats ; of whose estate he and Andries 
Coeymans were the executors. His portrait is among the 
family pictures of one of the Morris family of Morrisania, 
N. Y. 

The Register. 

In this year of our Lord Jesus Christ 1709, on the 3. of 
October, departed this life our son Samuel, and was buried 
in our Dutch Church, near to my wife s mother. 

In the year of our Lord 1711, on the 31. of March, Sat 
urday afternoon, between 2 and 3 o clock, was born a 
Daughter, was named Alida, in good health, and was bap 
tized by the Reverend Galterus Du Bois, Comper. For 
godmother Alida Gertrude has presented her for baptism. 

Died 2. September 1758, New Style, 

In the year of our Lord Jesus Christ 1713, on the 7. of 
August, on Tuesday morning, at 9 o clock, was born our 
second son, and was named Nicholas was baptized by 
the Reverend Gait. Du Bois Godfather father Staats, 
Godmother sister Maria Gouverneur (i). 

In the year of our Lord Jesus Christ 1714, on the 14. of 
October, Thursday evening, between 8 and 9 o clock, was 
born our fifth daughter, and called Sarie was baptized by 
the Reverend Galterus Dubos Godfather Stephanus Van 
Cortlandt, Godmother Johanna Staats (2). 

In the year of our Lord Jesus Christ 1715, on the 27. of 
September, our father Samuel Staats died, on Tuesday 
afternoon, at 2 o clock. He was buried in the Dutch 
Church near his wife. His age was 58 years in the month 
of May last past (3). 

In the year of our Lord 1716, on the 5. of March, on 
Monday morning, at six o clock, was born our sixth daugh- 


ter, and was called Gertrude was baptized by the Rev 
erend Dubos. Godfather Philip Schuyler, Godmother 
Elizabeth Schuyler (4). 

In the year of our Lord Jesus Christ 1720, on the 24. of 
February, on Wednesday morning at 6 o clock, was born 
our son, and named Samuel. Godfather Andries Coey- 
mans, Godmother Tryntje Staats Baptized by the Rev 
erend Galterus Dubos, in our church (5). 

In the year of our Lord Jesus Christ 1721, on the 27. of 
September, on Wednesday at 1 1 o clock in the evening, 
died my Mother, aged 77 years, eight months and nine 
days, and was buried in our church. 

In the year of our Lord Jesus Christ 1721, on the 3. of 
October, on Tuesday morning between 6 and 7 o clock, 
was born our fourth son, and was called Isaac. God 
father John Shraat, Godmother Mientje Seeger Reynders. 
Baptized by Rev ! Galterus Dubos. 

In the year of our Lord Jesus Christ 1723, on the first 
day of September, on a Saturday, was born our fifth son 
Gerbrant Abraham. Godfather Nicholas Gouverneur, 
Godmother Gertrude Rynders. Baptized by the Rev? 
Hendrikns, in Coeymen s church (6). 

In the year of our Lord Jesus Christ 1726, on the 8. of 
November, on Tuesday, between n and 12 o clock, died 
my dear and affectionate wife, and was buried in our 
Dutch Church, close and along side of her father s grave (7). 

In the year of our Lord 1728, on the 5th of August, on 
Tuesday, at 2 o clock, died my dear and affectionate 
father ; and was buried in our Dutch Church alongside of 

In the year of our Lord 1741, on the 2. of May, died 
Mr. Abraham Gouverneur, son of Isaac Gouverneur (at 
the house of John Broughton) and was buried in the vault 
of Andries Coeymans. 


In the year of our Lord 1729, on the 9/20 November, I, 
Cornelius Low Jr. purchased this present Bible from the 
Executors of my father-in-law Isaac Gouverneur, deceased, 
for two golden pistoles, or f56. (currency) (8). 

On the 20/31 March J-f-jj-jj, on Thursday at 4 o clock in 
the morning, I, Cornelius Low Jr. was born in the city of 
New York, and there baptized by Pastor John Heermans 
Godfather Grandfather, Godmother Grand Mother Hf. (9). 

On the 9/20 April 1704, on Monday at 4 o clock in the 
afternoon, was born my wife, in the city of New York, (at 
the house of Thorn Lewis) and was baptized by Father 
Dubois ; Godfather her grandfather Doctor Staats, and 
Godmother her grand Mother Nissepat (10). 

On the 10 21 May 1729, on Saturday evening at 9 o clock, 
I, Cornelius Low Jr. entered into the state of marriage 
with Johanna Gouverneur performed by Pastor Dubois at 
the residence of her father. 

On the 2/13 May 1730, on Saturday night between n 
and 12 o clock, our first son was born, at the Raritan Land 
ing, in New Jersey ; and died on the 4th of the same 
month, at 2 o clock on Monday morning ; he lived about 
26 hours, and was buried in the vault of Mr. Delabogtealn, 
near his house. 

On the 2/13 of April 1731, on Thursday, at 3 o clock in 
the morning, was born our second son, at the Raritan 
Landing, and was baptized in the 3^ Mile Run Church, by 
Pastor Cornells Coens, minister of Aquackanonck, on the 
15 the June following ; he was named Isaac ; Godfather 
Brother Nicolaas Gouverneur, Godmother Sister Magda- 
lenaHall (n). 

On the 9/20 January 1732/3, on Sunday evening, be 
tween 10 and ii o clock, was born our first daughter at 
the Raritan Landing, and was baptized in the Middletown 
Church at the Neversink, on the 4th of February follow- 


ing, by Pastor Haeghoort, minister there, and was named 
Sarah. Godfather brother Abraham Low, Godmother 
sister Margareta Gouverneur. 

On the 13/24. July 1734, on Saturday morning at about 
2 o clock, was born our second daughter, at the Raritan 
Landing, and was baptized in the 3? Mile Run Church, on 
the 13. September following, by Pastor Haeghoort, min 
ister at Nevisink, after the sermon by Pastor Dubois, min 
ister at New York ; and was named Margaretta. Godfather 

brother Roger French, Godmother sister A . Died 

July 8. 1755 in New York, and was buried in the old 

On the i. January 1735/6, on Thursday night at about 12 
o clock, was born our third son, at the Raritan Landing, 
and was baptized in the old Church at New York by Pastor 
Boel, on the 14. of March was named Cornelius. God 
father Lewis Morris jr. Godmother sister Sarah Gouver 
neur. Died on the 3. of October 1769, and \vas buried at 
Brunswick (12). 

On the 2/13 August 1737, on Tuesday at about 2 o clock 
in the afternoon, was born our fourth son, at the Raritan 
Landing, and was baptized in the German church at 
Second River by Pastor Haeghoort, minister there, on the 
18. September following, and was called Samuel. God 
father brother John Low, Godmother his wife Sarah Pro- 

Was shot dead on Lake Ontario, on the 24. June 1756, 
in the vicinity of an island near Quadraques. 

On the 19/30 March 1738/9, on Monday at about 5 o clock 
in the morning, was born our fifth son, at the Raritan 
Landing, and was baptized in the German church at 
Second River, by Pastor Haeghoort, minister there, on 
Easter day, being the 22. day of April following, and was 
called Nicolas. Godfather brother Wilhelmus Low, 
Godmother sister Gertrude Ogden. 


On the 8/19 October 1741, on Thursday morning, at 
about half an hour before ten o clock was born our sixth 
son in my new house on the Mountain, at the Raritan 
Landing, and was baptized by Pastor Haeghoort at his 
house on Second River, on the 24. January 1741/2 ; and was 
called William. Godfather brother Samuel Gouverneur, 
Godmother Johanna Van Courtlandt (13). 

On the 26 March (6 April) 1743, on Saturday evening at 
about 9 o clock, was born our seventh son in my house on 
the Mountain at the Raritan Landing, and was baptized in 
the German Church at Second River by Pastor Haeghoort 
on the 12. June, and was called John. Godfather Brother 
Isaac Gouverneur, Godmother Maria Maghtilda, the wife 
of Nath: Gouverneur. 

On the 10/21 December 1743, on Saturday at about 3 
o clock in the afternoon, died our youngest son John, and 
was buried in the vault of Hendrick Vroom. 

On 18/29 February 1744/5, on Monday morning at 4 
o clock, was born our third daughter, at the Landing, and 
was baptized in the German Church, on the Church lot of 
Millstone, on the 4th of April by Pastor Arondeus ; and 
was called Johanna. Godfather brother John Broughton, 
Godmother Maria Morris, wife of Thomas Lawrence 
J r - 

On the 22. of December /2 January 1746/7 on Monday 
morning at 8 o clock, was born our fourth daughter, at the 
Landing, and was baptized on the 5. of April, in the barn 
of Arie Moolman, by our Pastor Arondeus, and was 
named Gertrude. Godfather David Ogden, Godmother 
Gertrude Coeymans jr. 

On the 20. September /i October 1747, on a Sunday 
morning about half past 2 o clock died my daughter Ger 
trude, and was buried in the vault of Henry Vroome. 


On the 4/15. January 1747/8, on Monday evening at half 
after eight o clock, was born our fifth daughter, at the 
Landing, and there baptized on the 21. February follow 
ing, by Pastor Arondeus, and was named Gertrude. God 
father my son Isaac, and Godmother my daughter Sarah. 

On the 29. August /io September 1748, on Monday at 6 
o clock died my very beloved and affectionate father, Cor 
nelius Low, and was buried in Newark. His age was 78^- 
years less seven days. 

On the i/i2 December 1749, on Friday about 4 o clock 
in the afternoon, died my son William, and was buried in 
the vault of Henry Vroome. 

On the 18/29. December, 1751, on Wednesday about 
noon, died my daughter Johanna, and was buried in the 
vault of Henry Vroom. 

On the i8th of March 1761, died my very dear and af 
fectionate mother Margareta Low ; and was buried (along 
side of my father) at Newark Aged 82^- years. 

On the 17. October 1763, died my very dear and very af 
fectionate wife Johanna Low; and was buried in the vault 
of Henry Vroom. 


1. MARIA GOUVERNEUR was a daughter of Jacob Leisler, 
and married, first, Jacob Milborne ; and, secondly, Abra 
ham Gouverneur, brother of the child s father. 

2. STEPHANUS VAN CORTLANDT was the fourth son of the 
first proprietor of the Cortlandt manor, who had married 
the child s aunt, Catalina Staats, about a year before the 

3. This is the first authentic record I have seen of the 
death and age of DR. SAMUEL STAATS. It serves to put to 


rest the hypothetical stories of his marriage to an East 
India Begum, and his return to Holland after the English 
came, 1664, where several of his children were born and 
educated. As I have given some account of him on an 
other page, it only remains to say something more of his 

It is said that he had nine children, but I have found 
only six, all daughters, four of whom were baptized in the 
church at New York : 

SARAH, m. June 24, 1704, Isaac Gotiverneur. 
GERTRUDE, m. r, May 25, 1711, Peter Nagle. 

m. 2, June 13, 1716, Andries Coeymans. 
CATALINA, m. August 28, 1713, Stephen Van Cortlandt. 
ANN ELIZABETH m. August 28, 1713, Philip Schuyler. 
JOHANNA, m. June 26, 1717, Anthony White. 
TRYNTJE, m. March 17, 1723, Lewis Morris, Jr. 1 

In 1716 Philip Schuyler had leave to purchase a tract 
of land near Schoharie for " himself and the rest of the 
heirs of Dr. Staats." The next year a survey was ordered 
of said tract for Rip Van Dam and "Philip Schuyler for 
himself and the rest of the heirs of Samuel Staats, de 
ceased." On August 6, 1724, Lewis Morris, Jr., and An 
dries Coeymans petitioned for a warrant of survey of about 
two thousand acres of land near Schoharie, " purchased of 
the Indians by Philip Schuyler and Rip Van Dam." On 
July 20, 1726, a patent having been issued for 3,500 acres, 
the parties in interest agreed upon a division. It then ap 
peared that there were six others besides the "heirs of 
Samuel Staats " who were partners in the land, and it was 
agreed " that, as all the parties had borne an equal share 
of the expense in procuring the patent," the tract should 
be divided into seven shares, one of which was allotted to 

1 Catalina is Spanish, and Tryntje is Dutch ; both are Catherine in 

VOL. II. 28 


the heirs of Samuel Staats, to \vit : Lewis Morris, Jr., An- 
dries Coeymans, Ann Elizabeth, widow of Philip Schuy- 
ler, deceased ; Isaac Gouverneur, Stephen Van Cortlandt, 
and Johanna (Hannah) White, -widow of Anthony White, 
each of whom was entitled to one-sixth of the one-seventh 
of the 3,500 acres (Deeds, No. 12, Secretary s Office). 

4. PHILIP SCHUYLER was the oldest son of Brandt Schuy- 
ler and Cornelia Van Cortlandt. The godmother was his 

5. ANDRIES COEYMANS was the son of Barent Coeymans, 
a miller, who came to Beverwyck in 1636, and had charge 
of Patroon Van Rensselaer s mills for about nine years, 
after which he prosecuted the business in different local 
ities on his own account, until 1673, when he purchased a 
tract of land below Albany, having a frontage on the 
river of ten miles and a depth of twelve miles west into 
the woods. It is now known as the town of Coeymans. 
Andries Coeymans chose a safer locality than the frontiers, 
and, like many others of his neighbors, he removed to New 
Jersey. He settled on the Raritan, where he had pur 
chased a large tract of land. 

6. NICHOLAS GOUVERNEUR was the son of Abraham 
Gouverneur and Mary Leisler. Gertrude Rynders was 
the daughter of Barent Rynders and Hester Leisler. Soon 
after this date they were married. Coeyman s church 
probably refers to the church in which Andries Coey 
mans worshipped. There was no church at Coeymans on 
the Hudson until 1793. 

7. The record of his wife s death was the last made by 
Isaac Gouverneur. The next was made by one of his 
children, recording his death ; and that which follows notes 
the death of his fifth son, Gerbrant Abraham. 

8. The first notice we have of CORNELIUS Low, Sr., is 
the record of his marriage in the Dutch Church of New 


York: " Married, July 5. 1695, Cornelius Louw of the 
Esopus to Margareta Van Borsum of New York, both re 
siding here." His wife was a daughter of Tymen Van 
Borsum and Grietje Fockens. 

His name appears only occasionally in the public rec 
ords ; often enough, however, to indicate that he was a 
prosperous merchant. His thirteen children were bap 
tized in the Dutch Church, as follows : 

1. Tymen, February 23, 1696. 

2. Petrus, October 17, 1697. 

3. Cornelius, March 31, 1700. 

4. Johannes, September 9, 1702. 

5. Margreitje, July 16, 1704. 

6. Elizabeth, July 21, 1706. 

7. Abraham, August u, 1708. 

8. Hendnck, May 14, 1710. 

9. Elizabeth, October i, 1712. 

10. Wilhelmus, November 27, 1714. 

11. Annatje, October 10, 1716. 

12. Maria, July 9, 1718. 

13. Helena, September 14, 1720. 

There were four other families by the name of Low in 
New York who had children baptized in the church dur 
ing the above period, and another, Anthony Low, owned 
a sloop plying between New York and New Plymouth, in 
1690 ; but whether they were related I have been unable 
to learn. 

Cornelius Low, Jr., removed to Raritan, N. J., where he 
resided until his death. He was a surveyor, and assisted 
in denning the bounds of some important estates. The 
names of his sons afterward appear among those of 
Kingston and its vicinity. 


9. The church record of the baptism of CORNELIUS Low, 
JR., differs in some particulars from the record made by 
himself. Rev. Galterus Du Bois was the pastor of the 
church, and not John Heermans, whose name does not ap 
pear among the ministers of the Reformed Dutch Church 
in the manual. Jan (John) Heermans and his wife, Eliza 
beth Blausjan, are recorded as his sponsors, and not grand 
father and grandmother. Probably the Bible record was 
made from memory, which was at fault. 

10. MACHTELT DE REIMER, after the death of Nicholas 
Gouverneur, her first husband, married Jasper Nisse- 

n. The godparents were the brother and sister of the 
child s mother, Magdalena Gouverneur having married 
John Hall. 

12. LEWIS MORRIS, JR., was the second proprietor of the 
manor of Morrisania. His grandfather, Captain Richard 
Morris, came to New York in 1670, and engaged in busi 
ness. He purchased a farm of five hundred acres "on the 
main" opposite the village of Harlem, on which he built 
a dwelling-house and other structures. Both he and his 
wife, who was a lady of fortune, died in 1672, within a few 
months of each other, leaving an only son not yet a year 
old, whom Mathias Nicoll, secretary of the province, 
termed " one poor blossom, of whom yet there may be 
great hope." The child s uncle, Colonel Lewis Morris, of 
Barbadoes, arrived in September, 1673, assumed the guar 
dianship of his nephew, and administered the estate left 
by his brother Richard. He took possession of the farm, 
and made it his home. He purchased more lands of the 
Indians, and procured a patent from Governor Andros for 
about two thousand acres, including the farm of his de 
ceased brother. Dying without direct heirs, his nephew 
Lewis came into possession of his estate, and, in 1697, re- 


ccivcd letters patent from Governor Fletcher erecting it 
into the "lordship, or manor, of Morrisania." 

In his early years Lewis Morris, now proprietor of a 
manor, then a "poor blossom," did not give " great hope " 
for the future. He was restive under control, and on one 
occasion his offence against his uncle s authority was so 
flagrant that, to escape his displeasure, he ran away. He 
spent some time in Virginia, and then wandered off to the 
West Indies, where he supported himself with his pen. 
After some years of Bohemian life, he returned to his 
uncle, and was cheerfully forgiven all his past offences. 
He married a daughter of James Graham, attorney-general 
of the province, and settled down to serious work. His 
education was defective, but, by the force of his genius 
and his strong will, he rose to eminence in the provinces 
both of New York and New Jersey. For nearly twenty 
years he was the chief justice of the one, and for many 
years the governor of the other, while a member of the 
king s Council in both. Few men, if any, exerted a greater 
influence among the people, or in the councils of these 

Lewis Morris, Jr., inherited his father s talents, and his 
eccentricities as well. He was much in public life, and 
held several high positions. In politics he affiliated with 
the old Leislerians, or, as they termed themselves, the party 
of the people. He married, first, Tryntje, youngest daugh 
ter of Dr. Samuel Staats, by whom lie had three sons and 
a daughter. His second son, Staats Long, entered the 
English army, and rose to the rank of general. By mar 
riage with the Dowager Duchess of Gordon, he was con 
nected to the higher nobility of Scotland, and was assured 
of a higli position in his profession. Lewis Morris, Jr., 
married, secondly, Saric Gouverneur, whose baptism is 
recorded in the register, and who, as godmother, stood 


with him at the baptism of Cornelius Low. Their eldest 
son was the well-known jurist and statesman, Gouverneur 

13. JOHANNA, daughter of Stephen Van Cortlandt and 
Catalina Staats. 

14. MARIA, daughter of Lewis Morris, Jr., and Tryntje 
Staats. She was married, in May preceding, to Thomas 
Lawrence, Jr., of Philadelphia. 



THE name was originally Scrivener, a professional writer, 
or conveyancer. There were at least four families in Eng 
land named Scrivener, who were the owners of consider 
able landed estates. The first of the name in America 
was Matthew Scrivener, a member of the Council of the 
Virginia colony in 1607. It does not appear that he had 
a family, although he was commended by Captain John 
Smith as "a very wise understanding Gentleman." He 
was drowned in the James River a year or two after his 

Benjamin Scrivener, of Norwalk, Conn., is reputed to 
be the ancestor of the Scribners in the United States. 
The little we know of him and his family is contained in 
the Norwalk town records, from which we learn that he 
married Hannah Crampton, March 5, 1680, and that he 
had four sons, of whom Matthew, the youngest, is the an 
cestor of the line now to be considered. 

Benjamin, the ancestor, adhered to the name Scrivener, 
for in a deed of land to his son Matthew, bearing date 
September 21, 1741, when he must have been over eighty 
years old, he signs Benjamin Scrivener. The town clerk, 
when recording the names of his grandchildren born after 
1742, wrote Scribner, doubtless by direction of their pa 
rents, From that time Scrivener disappears, and Scribner 
becomes the surname of all of Benjamin Scrivener s de 
scendants. Such changes were not unusual in those early 


Altliough we know nothing more of Matthew Scribncr 
than that he married Martha Smith, of Long Island, on 
November 10, 1742, and had nine children, whose names 
and dates of birth are registered among rhe muniments of 
Norwalk, we know the history of many of his descendants, 
much of which is exceedingly interesting, to which I shall 
briefly refer in my notes. 


i. BENJAMIN SCRIVENER and Hannah Cram ft on. 

m. at Norwalk, Conn., March 5, 1680. 

2. THOMAS, b. March 31, 1681. 

3. JOHN, m. March, 9, 1710, Deborah Lees. 

4. ABRAHAM, m. Sarah . 

5. MATTHEW, m. November 10, 1742, Martha Smith. 

3. JOHN SCRIVENER and Deborah Lees. 

6. MARY, b. March, 1711. 

m. October 9, 1744, Mica j ah Nash. 

7. REBECCA, b. October 12, 1712. 

4. ABRAHAM SCRIBNER and Sarah . 

8. ABRAHAM, b. June 28, 1745. 

9. SARAH, b. October 15, 1746. 

10. RHODA, b. October 18, 1748. 

11. ANN, b. April 7, 1751. 

12. LEVI, b. June 28, 1753. 

13. RACHEL, b. August 28, 1755. 

14. MOSES, b. June 30, 1757. 

15. JONATHAN, b. September 5, 1759. 

16. EZRA, b. June 19, 1761. 

17. ESTHER, b. August 3, 1763. 

18. SILAS, b. September 15, 1765. 

5. MATTHEW SCRIBNER and Martha Smith. 

19. NATHANIEL, b. December 23, 1743. 

m. Phebe Kellogg. 

20. MATTHEW, b. February 7, 1746. 

m. I, Abigail Rogers. 
m. 2, Porter. 

21. MARTHA, b. February 20, 1748. 

22. ENOCH, b. August 29, 1750. 

m. March 22, 1782, Betsy Benedict. 


23. ELIJAH, b. June 25, 1753 ; killed in battle in the Revolutionary 


24. JEREMIAH, b. December 15, 1755, d. y. 

25. KEZIAH, b. January 20, 1758. 

m. Thomas Haw ley. 

26. ABIGAIL, b. November 9, 1760. 

m. Edmonds. 

27. ELIZABETH, b. December 10, 1763. 

m. Dr. Spanlding. 

19. NATHANIEL SCRIBNER and Phcbe Kellogg. 

28. JAMES, m. i, . 

29. ELIPHALET, m. Bradley, of New Haven ; d. s. p. at Port- 

au-Prince, Hayti. 

30. JEMIMA, m. Samuel Penny, of New York City. 

31. JOEL, b. 1772. 

in. Mary Bull, of Milford, Conn. 

32. PIIEBE, m. I, William Waring. 

m. 2, Thomas Strong. 

33. MARTHA, m. Uriah Rogers Scribner. 

34. ELIJAH, d. in New York City, 1812, unmarried. 

35. ESTHER, m. Dr. David Morey Hale, of Indiana. 

36. NATHANIEL, m. May i, 1815, Elizabeth Edmonds. 

37. ANNA, d. unmarried, at Morristown, N. J. 

38. ELIZABETH, m. Dr. Jeremiah Wood, of Indiana. 

39. AUNER, m. Mrs. Deool. 

40. LUCINDA, d. y. 

20. MATTHEW SCRIBNER and Abigail Rogers. 

41. URIAH ROGERS, d. January 7, 1853, aged 75 years. 

m. I. Martha Scribner. 

m. 2, Betsey Hatvley, d. December 6, 1871, aged 
85 years. 

20. MATTHEW SCRIBNER and Porter. 

42. ELIJAH PORTER, m. Hannah Smith, d. s. p. 

43. SARAH, d. unmarried. 

44. CAROLINE, m. Kirkland. 

45. ABIGAIL, m. Kendall, of Virginia, 

46. SAMUEL, m. Julia Ambler. 

22. ENOCH SCRIBNER and Betsy Benedict. 

47. JEREMIAH, b. February 19, 1782. 

48. WILLIAM, b. June 14, 1783. 

49. MARY, 1). September 15, 1785. 

50. ClEORGE, b. March n, 1788. 


51. SALLY, b. September 14, 1790. 

52. CHARLES, b. March 24, 1793. 

53. JOSEPH, b. October 30, 1796. 

28. JAMES SCRIBNER and i, - . 

54. ALANSON, d. s. p. 

55. ISAAC, d. s. p. 


31. JOEL SCRIBNER and Mary Bull. 

57. HARVEY, b. August 3, 1798, d. s. p. February n, 1836. 

m. . 

58. WILLIAM AUGUSTUS, b. February 19, 1800, d. April 16, 1868. 

in. I, Caroline Matilda Chapman. 
m. 2, Harriet P. Hale. 

59. LUCY MARIA, b. July 29, 1802, d. unmarried. 

60. MARY LUCINDA, b. February 28, 1804. 

m. Dr. Asa he I Clapp. 

6 1. ELIPHALET, b. January 6, 1806, d. y. 

62. JULIA ANN, b. April 7, 1808. 

m. Rev. Leander Cobb. 

63. PHEBE, b. January 26, 1810. 

m. James C. Davis. 

64. HARRIET NAOMI, b. February, 1816, d. December 2, 1832. 

36. NATHANIEL SCRIBNER and Elizabeth Edmonds. 

65. LUCINDA, m. William C. Shipman. 

39. ABNER SCRIBNER and Mrs. Deool. 



41. URIAH ROGERS SCRIBNER and Martha Scnbner (33) were mar 
ried in the parish church (Congregational) at Green s Farms, Conn., 
October 30, 1803. 

68. ABIGAIL, d. y. 

69. MATILDA, b. July 26, 1809. 

m. April 18, 1839, George IV. Schnyler. 

41. URIAH ROGERS SCRIBNER and Betsey Haw ley. 

70. EDWARD, b. March 28, 1813, d. January 7, 1864. 

m. E. Gertrude Brown. 

71. JANE, d. y. 

72. MARIA, b. 1816. 

m. Z aim on S. Mead. 

73. JULIA, d. y. 


74. WILLIAM, b. January 20, 1820, d. March 3, 1884. 

m. i, Caroline R. Hitchcock. 
m. 2, Julia Say re. 

75. CHARLES, b. February, 1821, d. August 26, 1871. 

m. Emma Blair. 

76. HENRY, b. June 28, 1822, d. September 10, 1882. 

m. Abigail Farnhani. 

77. JANE, b. November 28, 1824. 

m. Samud P. Wisncr, d. 1885. 

78. JULIA, m. Clinton Hitchcock. 

79. WALTER, d. y. 

80. WALTER, d, October 15, 1873. 

m. Hattie Kimball. 

46. SAMUEL SCRIBNER and Julia Ambler. 

Si. JULIA, m. Rci\ Brings, of Baltimore, Md. 

82. MARY, m. Frederick Mead, of New York City. 

83. GERTRUDE, m. Rogers, of Baltimore, Md. 



Not long after his marriage, NATHANIEL SCRIBNER (19) 
removed to the present town of South East, Putnam 
County, N. Y., where he had purchased a farm. The 
country, though lying so near to the provincial capital, 
was comparatively new ; the whole tract now known as 
Putnam County having been in the possession of one 
man, Adolph Philipse, of New York, who held the land at 
prices too high for the encouragement of settlers. At the 
time Mr. Scribner settled in the place there were few in 
habitants, all farmers like himself, living at long distances 
from each other, and having only few of the conveniences 
and privileges of older communities. He built a large 
house not far from the church in which the Rev. Elisha 
Kent officiated so long that the country thereabout came 
to be known as " Kent s Parish." 

The Scribners were soon known to be very hospitable, 

Mr. Scribner resided in Baltimore the greater part of his life. 


and their house became the gathering-place for the wide 
ly scattered members of the congregation, who came to 
church, not in carriages, nor even in country wagons, for 
there w r ere no roads, but on foot and on horseback. In 
the interval between the two services they were accus 
tomed to assemble in Mr. Scribner s comfortable rooms, 
and spend an hour in conversation while partaking of the 
lunch they had brought from home, or more frequently of 
that provided by their host. In this way Mr. Scribner be 
came widely known and respected as a man and Chris 

When the War of Independence commenced, he was 
among the first to identify himself with the republican 
cause. He was commissioned a lieutenant on March 15, 
1776, and a few months later was promoted to a captaincy. 
Having early in the struggle received a wound in battle 
which disabled one of his arms, he was stationed with his 
company on the borders of the " Neutral Ground," not far 
from his home, and thus lost the opportunities which oc 
cur in the regular service for further advancement. At 
the close of the war society was disorganized and industry 
paralyzed, more perhaps in that section of the State than 
in any other, so that Captain Scribner found it necessary 
in his crippled condition to resort to other means than 
farming to gain suitable provision for his now large fam 
ily. Happily he was provided with a brain to devise 
other methods to secure an income, and a will to carry 
them out. He returned to Connecticut and built a tide 
water flouring-mill at Norwalk, which he sold. He then 
built a larger one, and a residence for himself at Compo on 
the Sound. It w r as so successful that he and some of his 
relatives were encouraged to build a large one at Mil- 
ford, which, on account of the mistakes of the millwright, 
proved a iailuic and his financial ruin. The law of im- 


prisonment for debt was in force, and, to avoid its penal 
ties, he concealed himself until an arrangement could be 
made with his creditors. This once happy and pious 
family was now separated, never again to be gathered 
under one roof. 

As soon as his affairs were settled, Captain Scribner be 
gan business anew, finding new fields for his business ac 
tivity. The prosecution of his plans required a journey 
to Georgia, and while travelling in that new and sparsely 
settled State he was struck down with fever. Unable to 
find proper accommodations, or to receive nursing and 
medical care, he soon yielded to the disease. He died in 
1799 among strangers, far from home, with no friend to 
perform the offices of affection at his bedside while living, 
or after death tenderly and reverently to commit his body 
to the grave. The letter announcing his death was carer 
fully preserved by his widow, and kept on her person 
until she died. 

PHEBE KELLOGG, the wife of Captain Scribner, was the 
daughter of Epenetus, son of Samuel, son of Daniel Kel 
logg, who settled in Norwalk, Conn., 1655, and died in 
that town in 1688. The family was one of the most re 
spectable of the many respectable families in that locality. 
Daniel Kellogg was a representative to the General Court. 

In many respects she was a remarkable woman. She 
had quick perceptions, and was ready with expedients 
to execute what her mind conceived. She faithfully and 
wisely watched over the morals and habits of her numerous 
children, while she did not neglect her more public duties 
to the church and society. She was really a " mother in 
Israel," and a true mother in her family. She had no time 
for idle amusements, but was fully occupied with her do 
mestic and other duties. The following anecdote illus 
trates some phases of her character : 


On one occasion, in the spring of the year, her husband 
returned home with a leave of absence from his company 
of four and twenty hours. She noticed that his stockings 
were much worn, and immediately directed her eldest son 
to clip some wool from the sheep in the field near the 
house. The wool so procured was quickly washed, dried, 
carded, spun, and by her own nimble fingers knit into a 
pair of long stockings, which were on the captain s feet 
before his furlough had expired. 

Some years after the death of her husband, in connec 
tion with three of her daughters, she opened a school for 
girls at Morristown, N. J., and was eminently successful. 
It was while she was thus engaged that some of her sons 
caught the "western fever." The territory of the north 
west had been opened for settlement. Its vast rivers and 
rich prairies presented an inviting field to the imagina 
tions of the young and enterprising. Some of her sons 
settled on the Ohio River, six hundred miles below Pitts- 
burg, Pa., and invited their mother and sisters to join 
them. It was a long and fatiguing journey for a wo 
man of her age to undertake. Nothing but a mother s 
love could have induced her to break up her pleasant 
establishment, surrounded with all the comforts of civil 
ized life, and go so far from home to encounter the priva 
tions of a new country just rescued from the savages. 
She made the sacrifice, and joined her children in New 
Albany, Ind., in the fall of 1815. Seven of her then nine 
living children were with her at the close of the following 
year. For the first time since the death of her husband 
they were reunited into one family. Mrs. Scribner was 
soon established in a large commodious house, where for 
twelve years she dispensed her old-time hospitality. She 
and three of her family organized the church, and com 
menced a system of religious effort which laid the founda- 


tions of a moral and educated society. She died on Sep 
tember 25, 1827, at the age of seventy-nine. 

Four of Captain Scribner s sons at one time were en 
gaged in the mercantile business in the city of New York. 
One of them, Elijah (34), died in early manhood, leaving 
his accumulations, which were considerable, to his mother. 
Another, Eliphalet (29), removed to Port-au-Prince, Hayti, 
and prospered in business until the negro insurrection 
deprived him of his property. He was one of the very 
few white men whose lives were saved by faithful 
blacks. The other two were among the founders of New 

JOEL SCRIBNER (31) and his brother-in-law, William 
Waring, with their families, removed to Cincinnati, O., 
in the fall of 1811, and established a business which was 
broken up the next year by the war with England. Mr. 
Waring was an officer of a cavalry company which vol 
unteered into the United States service and marched to 
the frontier. Nathaniel and Abner Scribner joined their 
brother Joel at Cincinnati in the fall of 1812, and together 
the three brothers went on horseback through Kentucky 
on an exploring tour, in search of a locality on which to 
build a town. They selected a site at the foot of the falls, 
or rapids, of the Ohio River, on the Indiana side, and pur 
chased the land. It was covered with a dense forest, and 
had no habitation nearer than across the river at the head 
of the falls. Early the next year they were at work clear 
ing the ground, laying out streets, and building a log- 
house, to which the families of Joel Scribner and Mr. 
Waring were removed before it was finished. In the fall 
of 1815 they were joined by their mother, their eldest 
brother, James, and sister Esther ; and the next year by 
their sister Elizabeth. Together they founded the city of 
New Albany, Ind., organized the First Presbyterian Church 


of four members, and a school since known as the Scrib- 
ner High School. 

The brothers Joel, Nathaniel, and Abner were the pro 
prietors of the land on which the city was built, but the 
other members of the family rendered them important as 
sistance in their enterprise. Nathaniel, the best qualified 
to conduct a large business, early fell a victim to fever, 
leaving his brothers to struggle on alone. Like many 
other premising undertakings, it put little money into the 
pockets of its projectors, who, after a few years, by an 
unfortunate endorsement for a large amount of money 
which they were obliged to pay, lost their entire interest 
in the lands of their original purchase. 

I cannot close this part of my sketch without giving 
some account of PHEBE SCRIBNER (32), the twin sister of 
my wife s mother. 

Like her mother, she was a w r oman of more than ordi 
nary ability, of deep-seated piety, and high personal in 
tegrity. Her life was full of the vicissitudes of fortune, 
as she sometimes enjoyed a handsome competence, and at 
others was reduced to the verge of poverty. But, however 
fortune smiled or frowned, she always bore herself as a 
Christian gentlewoman, and never lost confidence in an 
all-wise Providence. 

While her husband, Mr. Waring, was with the army on 
the frontiers she with her children accompanied her 
brother Joel and his family to the wilderness, where he 
and his brothers had resolved to build a city. It was her 
home for the most of her future life. At times, she was 
possessed of considerable property, acquired by her own 
industry and business enterprise. Her maternal love had 
such a strength and fervor that she was easily deceived by 
the false representations of the husband of her youngest 
daughter. He proved a scoundrel, and caused the luss of 


her whole estate. Instead of sitting down with vain lam 
entations, the brave woman went to work to discharge the 
obligations that she had incurred, and paid them in full, 
principal and interest, refusing all offers of a compromise ; 
after which she again acquired a respectable property. 

Like her mother, she taught her children " to fear the 
Lord and keep his commandments." Her eldest son, Jesse 
Waring, died at an early age ; her second, Nathaniel, re 
sided in New Orleans, and was a large proprietor in steam 
boats on the Southwestern rivers. Moses, her third son, 
was a prosperous merchant of Mobile, Ala. In the late 
civil war he was a pronounced Unionist, and when the city 
was captured by General Canby he was the first called in 
consultation by the Union general. George Waring, the 
youngest, settled in Little Rock, Ark., and was prosper 
ously engaged in trade until some unfortunate endorse 
ments ruined him. Before the outbreak of our late civil 
war he brought his family north and settled them in a new 
home, and then returned to arrange his business affairs. 
He died before he was able to rejoin his family. 

Her daughter, Martha Ann Waring, was educated in 
the first schools of Cincinnati, and on her return home 
was married to Captain Aquila Bartow, by whom she had 
one son, Morey Hale Bartow, now of New York City, and 
one daughter, who died in infancy. After the death of 
Captain Bartow she visited her friends in New York, 
where she was remarked as a beautiful and accomplished 
woman. She afterward married Benjamin Gonzales, an 
able civil engineer, by whom she had seven children, four 
of whom died young. Her eldest living daughter married 
George W. Foster, of Prairie du Chien, Wis.; Blanche, 
another daughter, is the wife of William M. Walker, of 
Logansport, Ind.; Ella, the youngest of her children, a high 
ly gifted and interesting girl, died at the age of seventeen. 
VOL. II. 29 


After the death of Mr. William Waring, his widow, 
Phebe Scribner Waring, married Thomas Strong, of New 
Albany, by whom she had two daughters, Maria Louisa 
and Cornelia. The first married Nelson Van Deventer ; 
the second was thrice married first, to Thomas Blum ; 
secondly, to Rodolph Walker; and, thirdly, to James Speak. 

Mrs. Phebe Scribner Strong survived all her father s 
family. She lived to a great age, retaining her mental 
faculties to the last. She died at the Tippecanoc battle 
ground, Indiana, in the house of her daughter, Mrs. Gon- 
zales, in her ninetieth year. 

The descendants of Captain Nathaniel Scribner in the 
direct line are not numerous. Of his six sons only two, 
Joel and Abner, transmitted the name. Joel is now repre 
sented by his grandson, Harvey Augustus Scribner, cash 
ier of the New Albany National Bank ; Abner by his sons, 
Bradford Scribner and General Benjamin Franklin Scrib 
ner, of Indiana. 

Of MATTHEW SCRIBNER (20) we only know that he was 
a graduate of Yale College, and a minister of the Gospel, 
settled over an orthodox Congregational church in Massa 
chusetts. Not one of his sermons in manuscript or print 
is known to exist, not even a letter, so that we can form 
no estimate of his abilities. 

Being the son of a farmer in moderate circumstances, 
he apparently secured the means to carry him through 
college by teaching. For some time before he entered 
Yale he was a resident of Elizabethtown, N. J., and was 
there a member of a society for mental improvement. 
When he left the place the society gave him a certificate, 
of which the following is a copy : 

" To all to whom it may concern. 

" Whereas Matthew Scribner hath been a member of 


the Society called Socialis Societas in Elizabethtown and 
during his residence among us hath behaved himself as 
becomes a Christian and a useful member of that Society ; 
and hath now removed from us, and we being willing to 
testify the regard and affection we have for him not only 
on the account of his publick Charactre but his personal 
merit and worth have unanimously voted that our Clerk 
do present this publick Testimony of our esteem and af 
fection for him 

" By order of the Society 

"John Jolive, Clerk. 
" October 7th, 1771." 

Mr. Scribner graduated from Yale College with the 
class of 1775. His diploma is on a bit of parchment eight 
by nine inches, and is signed by " N. Daggett, Praeses, 
Edvvardus Eclis, Eliph* Williams, Warharnus Williams, 
Noachus Wells, Nath 1 Taylor, Socii." 

Rev. Matthew Scribner married for his first wife a 
daughter of Dr. Uriah Rogers, of Norwalk, Ct. One of 
her sisters married Moss Kent, son of the Rev. Elisha 
Kent, of "Kent s Parish," the pastor of Captain Nathaniel 
Scribner. Mr. and Mrs. Moss Kent were the parents of 
the late James Kent, chancellor of the State of New York. 
Mrs. Scribner died while her only child, Uriah Rogers (41), 
was an infant. Her widowed husband, after some years, 
married, secondly, Miss Porter, of whose family I have 
been unable to learn any particulars. 

URIAH ROGERS SCRIBNER (41), when a young man, was 
for a time at Port-au-Prince/and was there attacked by 
yellow fever, from which his life was saved as by a mir 
acle. To all appearances he had ceased to breathe, and 
his physician pronounced him dead. Preparations were 
making for his burial, when his cousin came into the 
room ; and, not being satisfied, applied a test which proved 
that the doctor was deceived, and that there was yet life. 


Restoratives were employed, and lie was saved. With 
careful nursing he gradually recovered, and regained his 
usual health. He returned home and thence came to 
New York, where he engaged in the business of a jobbing 
merchant. With varying fortunes he continued steadily 
in trade, without any interruption, for more than fifty 
years. Sitting at his front window one day, and seeing an 
old gentleman passing, he remarked to me : "There is a 
man who, when I commenced business, was one of the 
most active and prosperous merchants of the city. He is 
now poor and dependent. Such is the uncertainty of 
trade in New York, that not more than one in ten of those 
who commence the mercantile business here are finally 
successful. Sooner or later the great majority drop out by 
the way." Fortune had moderately favored him, and when 
he died he was one of the few old merchants of the city. 

Uriah Rogers Scribner married for his first wife his 
cousin Martha, daughter of Captain Nathaniel Scribner. 
It was said of her that she was a very handsome woman, 
and as amiable as she was beautiful. On the threshold of 
a life which was full of hope and pleasant anticipations 
she died, leaving an infant daughter. 

Mr. Scribner married, secondly, another cousin, Betsey, 
only daughter of Thomas and Keziah Scribner Hawley, of 
Ridgeficld, Ct. Mr. Hawley was of an old Connecticut 
family, already connected with the Scribners through the 
Rogers family. Betsey Hawley was the youngest of five 
children. One of her brothers died young. The other 
three and herself lived more than ten years beyond the al 
lotted age of man. Her mother, Keziah, reached the age 
of ninety-seven, retaining her memory, es pecially of the 
Bible, to the last. After she was ninety-six she knitted 
a pair of fine cotton stockings for her daughter, then a 
woman of nearly threescore years. 


Uriah Rogers Scribner died at his residence, No. 751 
Broadway, New York City, on January 7, 1852. His wife 
and nine children survived him. 

EDWARD SCRIBNER (70) was engaged in the mercantile 
business from an early age. He died in New York City 
on January 7, 1864, leaving a widow and seven children. 

WILLIAM SCRIBNER (74) was a graduate of Princeton 
College, of the class of 1840, and after a regular course in 
theology he was admitted to the ministry of the Presby 
terian Church in 1844. In a few years, however, ill health 
obliged him to retire from the pulpit, but not from the 
work of a true disciple of the Master. He was the author 
of several religious books, some of which had a wide cir 
culation. He died at his residence, in Plainfield, N. J., on 
March 3, 1884, leaving a widow and five children. 

CHARLES SCRIBNER (75) was a graduate of Princeton 
College, in the class with his brother William. He com 
menced the study of the law, but, being of a delicate con 
stitution, he could not endure the confinement of an of 
fice, and sought a less sedentary occupation. He finally 
connected himself with Mr. Baker, already established in 
the publishing business in New York. After the death of 
his partner he greatly extended his business, becoming in 
a few years one of the most prominent men in the trade. 
He was thoroughly honorable in all his transactions, and, 
unlike many publishers, popular with authors. He estab 
lished the magazine known as Scribner s Monthly, which 
had a circulation at home and abroad inferior to only one 
in the United States. The death of his accomplished wife 
so affected his delicate nervous organization that his 
health, never robust, was slowly undermined. Notwith 
standing the best medical treatment, he was forced to 
leave his business and make a trip to Europe, hoping that 
travel and change might restore his wasting powers. At 


Luzerne, Switzerland, he was attacked with typhoid fever, 
to which, with little resistance, he yielded up his life on 
August 26, 1871. His brother William accompanied him 
on his journey, and was with him when he died. Three 
sons and two daughters survived him. His high reputa 
tion as a man and Christian was a precious inheritance, 
and to preserve his memory his sons continued his busi 
ness under the firm name of Charles Scribner s Sons. His 
wife was a daughter of John I. Blair, of Blairstown, N. J. 

HENRY SCRIBNER (76) for a time was engaged in the drug 
business in Ithaca and Watertown, N. Y., but, as its re- 
suits did not meet his expectations, he disposed of it, and 
with his young family removed to Des Moines, la., where 
he engaged in the lumber trade. The last one hundred 
and seventy miles of the journey was made in a wagon 
fitted up for comfort and convenience, and so arranged 
that he could stop on the prairies when night overtook 
him, and not suffer for the want of hotel accommodations. 
After thirty years of prosperity in his Western home he 
went to his rest, on September 10, 1882, leaving a widow 
with one son and a daughter. Like others of his family, 
he was a consistent Christian, being a member and an of 
ficer in one of the Congregational churches in the city of 
his adoption. 

WALTER SCRIBNER (80) was a druggist, for a time in part 
nership with his brother Henry at Watertown, and after 
ward alone in the city of Rock Island, 111. He eventually 
returned to New York City, and was employed as confi 
dential clerk in a large printing house. He died on Octo 
ber 15, 1873. His wife and two sons survived him. 

The direct line of Rev. Matthew Scribner is now repre 
sented by ten great-grandsons, all comparatively young, 
only two of whom are married. They are Charles Rogers 
and Rogers, sons of Edward Scribner ; John Hitchcock, 


Charles, and Henry, sons of Rev. William Scribner ; 
Charles and Arthur, sons of Charles Scribner ; George, 
son of Henry Scribner ; and Frederick and Frank, sons of 
Walter Scribner. 

For the data of the preceding sketch, relating to the 
Scribner genealogy and Captain Nathaniel Scribner s 
family, I am indebted to Mr. Morey Hale Bartow, of New 
York City. As a descendant of Captain Scribner, he has 
written con amore the pioneer history of New Albany, Ind., 
entitled " Contributions to the Pioneer History of Indi 
ana." He kindly placed the manuscript in my hands, with 
permission to use any portions I wished. I have not pre 
sumed to copy, but only to use its facts and hints in my 
own way. The history is so full of interest that it is to be 
hoped it will not long remain a manuscript only. I could 
not anticipate the pleasure of its readers by extracts. 



WHEN first I became interested in genealogy, it was my 
purpose to prepare a history of all the branches of the 
Schuyler family, but more especially those of Philip and 
David Schuyler, the first of the name known in America. 
But after two years, failing to procure answers to numer 
ous letters, particularly from those who by their names I 
thought belonged to David s line, I concluded that my 
promise of life was much too short for such a work, and I 
then confined myself almost wholly to Philip s branch ; 
preserving, however, all the letters and other information 
I had procured as to David s family and others, which I 
now put in the form of Appendices, hoping that some 
one may pursue and complete the work. 

Nearly seven years after the marriage of Philip Pieterse 
Schuyler in Beverwyck, David Pieterse Schuyler, from 
Amsterdam, Holland, was married in New Amsterdam, on 
October 13, 1657, to Catalijna, daughter of Abraham Isaacse 
Verplanck. This is the first notice that we have of him. 
How long he had been in the country is not known. He 
was doubtless a younger brother of Philip, and had fol 
lowed him, if he did not come with him, to New Nether- 
land, a land so full of promise to young men of energy 
and business enterprise. 

In the marriage records of the Reformed Dutch Church, 
New York, and in legal papers, such as deeds, contracts, 
bonds, etc., his name was written David Pieterse Schuyler; 


but he always wrote his own name without the Pieterse, 
David Schuyler, differing in this respect from Philip. The 
handwriting of the two was very unlike Philip s was 
flowing and easy, David s cramped and stiff. 

In May, 1660, David was a resident of Beverwyck, en 
gaged in trade, and signed a petition to the government 
that Christians should not be allowed to range the woods 
as brokers in the Indian trade, but that such employment 
should be restricted to the Indians. From this time until 
his death his name often appears in the records as a buyer 
and seller of real estate in the village, as surety for his 
friends, as an officer in the church, and as a magistrate in 
the city. 

On December 22, 1660, he bought a lot on State Street 
of Anneke Jans Bogardus, on which he built a house ; and 
five years later sold it to Mr. Van den Uythoff, a name 
which soon disappeared. In the deed, drawn by the no 
tary, he is termed the " Honorable David Pieterse Schuy 

On October 6, 1673, after the Dutch had retaken the 
province, acting Governor Colve, having changed the 
name of Albany to Willemstadt, appointed him a magis 
trate. Ten years later Governor Dongan appointed him 
justice of the peace, and in 1686 named him an alderman 
in the charter, to which position he was elected by the 
people three successive years. Having attained to this 
municipal dignity, he removed from his comparatively 
small and unpretentious house to one much larger and 
more pleasantly situated, on the bank of the river, at the 
corner of Broadway and Steuben Street. There were no 
railways, no stations, no docks, no canal basin, no pier with 
its mills and elevators, between his garden, planted with 
tulips and flowering shrubs, and the gently flowing waters 
of the Hudson nothing to intercept the view of the 


wooded hills beyond ; nothing but the low wooden walls 
of the city to shut out the prospect of the river valley up 
to the Stein Hoeck skirted by the low western hills. 

He was a member of the convention which assumed the 
government of the city in 1689, and gave it a hearty sup 
port in all its measures. He was in perfect accord with 
his nephew, Peter Schuyler, mayor of the city, and at 
tached his name to the energetic protest against the claims 
and pretensions of Jacob Leisler on January 13, 1690. It 
was one of the last acts of his life. He died in less than a 
month afterward, on a day of great excitement, caused by 
the destruction of Schenectady, on February 9, 1690. 

As a business man David Schuyler was successful. He 
had not the same dash and energy as Philip, and only once 
ventured into a speculation not directly connected with 
his business. In this he must have felt quite safe, when 
such men as Jan Jansen Bleecker, Peter Schuyler, Dirck 
Wesselse Ten Broeck, and Robert Livingston were his 
partners in the purchase of Saratoga. He was the first, 
however, and the only one of the partners, to dispose of 
his interest before a sufficient time had elapsed to esti 
mate the real value of the venture. He sold out in 1686 
for ^55 i6s. o^/., which, after all, was a fair percentage on 
the investment. 

I have said that he was a younger brother of Philip Pie- 
terse Schuyler. For want of positive evidence to this ef 
fect the relationship has been denied, while others claim 
that he was the elder brother. I have two letters in my 
possession, one from a descendant of Philip, the other 
from a gentleman who some years since was much inter 
ested in the Schuyler genealogy, in which the writers pur 
sue the same line of argument that they could not have 
been brothers, because their own and their children s 
names were so unlike, and for no other reason. If they 


had examined the reasons for the difference, and why 
some of them were alike, it is quite certain they would 
have come to different conclusions. 

Their own middle names, Pieterse, son of Peter, prove 
that their fathers names were the same. Each named 
one of his sons Peter for his father. Each named his eld 
est daughter Gertrude, presumably for his mother, as was 
the custom. Each named a daughter, the one Alida, the 
other Maria, for their wives mothers. Philip named two 
sons Brant and Arent for his wife s father. David named 
one son Abraham for his wife s father, and another Jaco 
bus, a Verplanck family name. Philip gave to one of his 
sons his own name, and to one of his daughters the name 
of his wife ; so did David. Philip called his eldest son 
Gysbert and his youngest Johannes ; and David named 
one son Myndert all probably family names on one side or 
the other. From this it is seen that they both followed the 
usual custom in naming their children for persons in their 
own or their wives families ; and that it was the intro 
duction of names belonging to the families into which 
they had married that caused the difference. It is well 
that they did not marry sisters, for had they done so, and 
had adhered to custom, the confusion caused by the same 
names in different families would have been inextricable. 

The relations between the two men were intimate and 
confidential. They were sureties for each other in busi 
ness transactions, and to some extent shared in the same 
enterprises. Their sons and daughters were sponsors for 
each others children, a strong evidence of relationship. 
Lastly, Philip, son of Philip Pieterse, when writing to Jo 
hannes Abeel, the husband of David Pieterse s youngest 
daughter, addressed him, "Cousin Abeel." There are 
three such letters among the manuscript documents in the 
office of the Secretary of State. 


There is no evidence, positive or inferential, that I have 
found showing that David was the oldest. On the con 
trary, it may be inferred from the facts that Philip was in 
the country several years before we hear of David ; that 
he was married seven years before him ; that he died 
nearly seventeen years before him ; that Philip s youngest 
child was past eleven years old when he died, while 
David s youngest at the same time was only five that he 
was the eldest. But the question is of no particular im 
portance, and may be suffered to rest. 

David Schuyler executed his will on May 21, 1688. He 
gave to his eldest son, Peter, his "house and lot on the 
hill," on the south side of State Street, a short distance 
above Pearl. To his wife he gave his "great messuage 
wherein I now dwell, situated in this city on the east side 
of the street next to the north gate (corner of Broadway 
and Steuben Street), to have and to hold for the space of 
ninety-nine years, or during her natural life." He directed 
that each of his minor and unmarried children should re 
ceive ^30, the same as the married ones ; the balance of 
the estate he left in trust to his wife, to be divided after 
her death equally among his eight children Peter, Ger 
trude, Abraham, Maria, David, Myndert, Cobus, and Cata- 
lyntje, the last four being minors and Maria unmarried. 
The will was proved on April n, 1691. 



1. DAVID SCHUYLER, d. February 9, 1690, and" Catalyn Ver Planck, 

d. October 8, 1708. 

2. PETER, b. April 18, 1659, d. March 7, 1696. 

m. Alida Van Slichtenhorst. 

3. GERTRUDE, b. September 19, 1661. 

m. IVilletn Claes Groesbeck. 

4. ABRAHAM, b. August 16, 1663, d. July 9, 1726. 

m. November 10, 1691, Gertrude Ten Brocck. 

5. MARIA, b. September 29, 1666. 

m. February 3, 1689, Dr. Hendrick Van Dyck. 

6. DAVID, b. June n, 1669, d. Dec. 16, 1715. 

m. January I, 1694, Elsje Rutgers. 

7. MYNDERT, b. January 16, 1672. 

m. October 26, 1693, R&cfal Cuyler. 

8. JACOB, b. June 14, 1675, d. March 22, 1707. 

m. I, Cathalyntia Wendell. 

m. 2, June 3, 1704, Susanna Wendell. 

9. CATLYN, b. January 14, 1678. 

in. I, April 10, 1694, Jo/iannes A bee!. 
m. 2, May 26, 1712, Rutger Bleecker. 

2. PETER SCHUYLER and Alida Van Slichtenhorst. 

10. GERRIT, m. September 28, 1703, Aagje de Grood, in New York. 

11. JOHANNES, bp. December 3, 1684, d. s. p. ; buried July 22, 1740, 

12. CATALINA, bp. October 10, 1686. 

m. Jacob Bogart. 

13. DAVID, bp. December 26, 1688. 

in. I, July 17, 1720, Anna Bratt. 

14. ALIDA, bp. January 21, 1693. 

15. PHILIP, bp. October 28, 1694. 

m. February 28, 1718, Sara Roosevelt, New York. 

16. PIETER, bp. August 9, 1696 ; living in Albany in 1764. 


4. ABRAHAM SCHUYLER and Gertrude Ten Broeck.^ 

17. DAVID, b. November 26, 1692. 

m. December 2, 1725, Maria Hansen. 

18. CHRISTINA, b. July 16, 1695. 

19. DIRCK, b. July 25, 1700. 

20. ABRAHAM, b. August 24, 1704. 

m. September 7, 1732, Catrina Staats. 

21. JACOB, b. March 19, 1707. 

m. November 12, 1735, Gecrtruy Staats. 

6. DAVID SCHUYLER and Elsje Rutgers. * 

22. CATHERINE, bp. November 25, 1694, d. y. 

23. DAVID, bp. April u, 1697. 

m. May 3, 1719, Elizabeth Marschalk, in New York. 

24. HARMANUS, bp. July 21, 1700. 

m. December I, 1722, in Albany, Jannetje Bancker^ 

25. CATHERINA, bp. December 19, 1703. 

26. MYNDERT, bp. October 7, 1711. 

m. June 21, 1735, in New York, Elizabeth Wessels. 
27 ANTHONY, bp. October 30, 1715. 

7. MYNDERT SCHUYLER and Rachel Ctiyler. 

28. ANNA, bp. February 28, 1697. 

m. November 24, 1715, John de Peyster. 

8. JACOBUS SCHUYLER and Susanna Wendell. 

29. CATALYNTJE, bp. April 21, 1706. 

10. GERRIT SCHUYLER and Aagje de Grood. 

30. ALIDA, November 19, 1704. 

31. JANNEKE, January 29, 1707. 

32. AEGJE, January 25, 1710, d. y. 

33. PIETER, January 9, 1712. 

34. AEGJE, March 20, 1715. 

35. JOHANNA GOERDA, June 2, 1717. 

36. MARIA, February 10, 1720. 

13. DAVID SCHUYLER and Anna BratL 

37. ALIDA, bp. February 12, 1721, d. y. 

38. PIETER, bp. March 10, 1723. 

m. June 9, 1743, Elizabeth Barbara Herkimer. 


39. JOHN, 


41. DAVID. 

42. PHILIP. 
^ 43. JACOB. 

J These children are all mentioned in Abraham Schuyler s will. 


44. ANNA. 

45. M ARC RET A. 

46. ALIDA. 


15. PHILIP SCHUYLER and Sara Roosevelt. 

48. SARA, bp. August 12, 1719. 

17. DAYID SCHUYLER and Maria Hansen. 

49. ABRAHAM, bp. November 15, 1734, d. y. 

50. ABRAHAM, bp. December 25, 1735. 

m. December 2, 1763, Eva Beekinan. 

51. HENDRICK, bp. February 8, 1738. 

20. ABRAHAM SCHUYLER and Catrina Staats. 

52. CHRISTINA, b. June 18, 1733. 

53. NEILTJE, b. November 30, 1735. 

54. GETANEE, b. December 18, 1738. 

55. ABRAM, b. April 8, 1741. 

56. ANNA MARICIA, b. March 13, 1743. 

57. ARRIETTA, b. June 7, 1746. 

m. CoeymanSt 

21. JACOB SCHUYLER and Gcertruy Staats. 

58. GEERTRUY, bp. May 2, 1736, d. y. 

59. GEERTRUY, bp. October 21, 1737. 

60. DIRK, bp. March 16, 1740. 

m. April 26, 1764, Maria Van Deusen. 

6 1. NEELTJE, bp. August 15, 1742, d. y. 

62. ANNA, bp. April 21, 1745. 

63. NEELTJE, bp. November 22, 1747. 

64. BARENT STAATS, bp. February 18, 1750. 

65. CHRISTINA, bp. December 24, 1752. 

23. DAVID SCHUYLER and Elizabeth Marschalk. 

66. ELIZABETH, bp. in New York, March 6, 1720. 

24. HARM AN US SCHUYLER and Jannetje Bancker. 

67. DAVID, bp. February 7, 1725. 

m. November 14, 1764, ElizabetJi Simmons. 

68. EVERT, bp. August 28, 1726. 

38. PIETER SCHUYLER and Elizabeth Barbara Herkimer. 

69. PETER, m. Catherine Herkimer. 

70. NICHOLAS, m. . 

71. JOHAN JOST (alias Hanyosl). 

50. ABRAHAM SCHUYLER and Eva Beekman. 

72. MARIA, bp. December 23, 1764. 

73. MARTIN BEEKMAN, b. March 2, 1767. 


74. DAVID, bp. April 2, 1769. 

m. I, Elizabeth Lawyer. 
m. 2, Margaret Marselus. 

75. GEERTRUY, b. July 16, 1773. 

76. HENDRICK, bp. September 10, 1775. 

55. ABRAHAM SCHUYLER (Judge) and . 

77. CATRIENA, b. May 25, 1762. 

78. ABRAHAM, b. May 10, 1764. 

79. ALTJE, b. July 13, 1767. 

50. CHRISTINA, b. February 20, 1771. 

51. JOHANNA, b. September 7, 1773. 

84. NEILTJE, b. February 25, 1776. 

60. DIRCK SCHUYLER and Maria Van Deusen. 

85. JACOBUS, b. July 29, 1768. 

86. CATHERINA, b. November 20, 1770. 

87. WILLIAM VAN DEUSEN, b. May 9, 1773. 

88. GEERTRUY, b. July 25, 1775. 

69. PETER SCHUYLER and Catherine Herkinier. 

89. PETER, d. in Cazenovia, N. Y. 

m. Sophia Cook. 

90. JOHN, m. Mary McCord. 

91. ABRAHAM, d. in Ontario County, N. Y. 

m. Sarah Souther land. 

92. JOSEPH, d. in Northumberland, Pa. 

m. Margaret McCord. 

93. ELIZABETH, in. Du Colon. 

94. NANCY, m. Mires. 

95. MARGARET, m. Solomon Moyer. 

96. SIMEON, m. Sarah Evans. 



98. PETER. 

99. HENRY. 


74. DAVID SCHUYLER and Elizabeth Lawyer. 

101. ABRAHAM, b. June 7, 1797, d. at Sackett s Harbor, N. Y., March 

31. 1865. 
m. Ann Maria Spraker. 

102. LAWRENCE LAWYER, m. Cornelia K. Sadalier. 

103. ANN ELIZA, b. February 6, 1801. 

m. November 23, 1822, Peter Hynds. 

89. PETER SCHUYLER and Sophia Cook. 

104. SOPHIA, m. Helm. 


105. MARTHA M., m. Stephen Grinnell. 



90. JOHN SCHUYLER and Mary Me Cord. 


109. CHARLES. 
no. JOHN. 

112. KATE. 

113. SARAH. 

91. ABRAHAM SCHUYLER and Sarah Souther land. 

114. ABRAHAM. 

115. NELSON. 

1 1 6. JULIETTA. 

92. JOSEPH SCHUYLER and Margaret Me Cord. 

117. JOSEPH. 

1 1 8. KATE. 

119. SARAH. 

96. SIMEON SCHUYLER and Sarah Evans. 

120. EVANS. 

121. WILSON W., m. Alice Bcnsen. 

122. JOSEPH. 


123. AARON. 

101. ABRAHAM SCHUYLER and Ann Maria Spraker. 

124. MARIA, b. March 20, 1819. 

m. July 1 8, 1838, Dr. John IV. Hinckly, of Albany. 

125. CAROLINE, b. July 27, 1822. 

m. October 31, 1850, Thomas Mulford Hunter. 

126. CORDELIA, b. July 29. 

m. 1857, IVilliam Stokes. 

127. ALONZO BEEKMAN, b. January i, 1826. 

m. August 7, 1851, Mila G. Bishop. 

128. VAN RENSSELAER, b. March n, 1830. 

m. November 17, 1850, Mary Hauck. 

102. LAWRENCE LAWYER SCHUYLER and Cornelia K. Sadalier. 



131. JANE. 

132. FRANCES. 


VOL. 1130 


127. ALONZO BEEKMAN SCHUYLER and Mila G. Bishop. 

134. BISHOP, b. March 28, 1854. -| 

135. JESSIE, b. April 13, 1857. ! Residence, 

136. BEECHER, b. July 17, 1859. j Sackett s Harbor, N. Y. 

137. ISABELLA, b. November 27, 1864. J 


138. FRANCES, b. September 28, 1851. \ Residence, 

m. Sept. 17, 1868, Granger Robins. > Sackett s Har- 

139. FREDERICK, b. September 28, 1851, d. 1867. ) bor, N. Y. 


PETER SCHUYLER (2) was a merchant in Albany, resident 
for a short time in Claverack, where his wife s father had 
a small tract of land. In 1685 he was appointed a judge 
of the court of Oyer and Terminer. He married Alicia 
Van Slichtenhorst, daughter of Gerrit Van Slichtenhorst 
and niece of Philip Pieterse Schuyler s wife. She was 
then a widow, her first husband, Gerrit Goosen Van 
Schaick, having died on November n, 1679. 

The date of his marriage is not known. He died sud 
denly, March 7, 1696, and left no will. His widow ap 
plied to the court in May following to have Abraham and 
David Schuyler appointed guardians of her children dur 
ing their minority. 

The records of baptisms in the Reformed Dutch Church 
of Albany previous to 1683 are lost, else doubtless we 
would have known that Peter Schuyler had a son David 
before Gerrit, the latter being named for his wife s father. 
It is probable that his eldest son died young, and he then 
gave to his fourth son the name of his father. 

ABRAHAM SCHUYLER (4) was for many years one of the 
most prominent men in Albany. He was much respected 
by the Indians of the Five Nations, with whose language 
he was familiar. At one time he resided among the Sene- 


cas as agent of the government, and they were so well 
pleased with him that they asked for his reappointment. 
Governor Burnet, suspecting them to have been influ 
enced by the traders, if not by Schuyler himself, refused 
their petition, and thus lost much of their respect. He 
was often employed in journeys to Canada on important 
public business, as also to Onondaga to attend Indian 
councils for the protection of English interests. He ac 
companied Colonel Peter Schuyler and the five Indian 
chiefs to England as interpreter. The day before he left 
Albany on his voyage he wrote his will, December 15, 
1709, and made no other before his death. He made this 
entry in his Bible : " 1709. Dec i6 th I went with Colo. 
Schuyler to England, and returned through the grace of 
God, July 26. 1710." (The record, as published in the 
Genealogical and Biographical Record, viii., 166, is incorrect 
in so far that it turns Colonel into Cornelius?) He was an 
alderman and justice of the peace, and held other official 
positions, in the city of Albany. Governor Burnet s re 
fusal to reappoint him Indian agent did not prevent him 
from visiting his old friends. Less than two years after 
ward he died among them, after a brief illness, on July 9, 
1726, " at Sonnock s Land." His wife was a daughter of 
Dirck Wesselse Ten Broeck. 

DAVID SCHUYLER (6) was a trader in Albany, and, being 
a man of better education or of more abilities than the 
average men of his time, when quite young was em 
ployed in the public service, both of the city and province. 
He was frequently in Canada on business of his own, and 
being quick-witted, he was enabled to communicate im 
portant intelligence on his return. Twice in one year, 
1701, he was commissioned a delegate to the Indian coun 
cils at Onondaga, to divert the Five Nations from a pro 
jected alliance with the French. He held the positions of 


alderman and justice of the peace in Albany several suc 
cessive years. In 1705 he was sheriff of the county, and 
the next year was appointed mayor of the city. The 
highest positions in the province would have been within 
his reach had his life been prolonged to the usual age. 
He died at the age of forty-six years, on December 1 6, 1715. 

After his death several of his sons, if not all. followed 
their maternal uncles, Harmanus and Anthony Rutgers, to 
New York. 

MYNDERT SCHUYLER (7), like his brothers, was much em 
ployed in the public service. Soon after he had reached 
his majority he was elected constable of the First Ward in 
Albany. A few years earlier, while yet a lad, he had shown 
his interest in politics by signing the protest against the 
governmental claims of Jacob Leisler. In 1701 he was 
elected to the Eighth Assembly, and was re-elected to the 
four following ; and again to the fifteenth, seventeenth, 
eighteenth, and twentieth. About twenty years of his life 
he thus spent in the service of the province. In 1710 he 
was appointed by Governor Hunter to the Indian board, of 
which he was a member, with two brief intervals, from 
that time to 1754. 

In 1713 he was employed by Governor Hunter on a 
mission to Canada ; and a few years later he and Robert 
Livingston, Jr., were despatched on important business to 
the Seneca Indians. In 1719 he was appointed by Presi 
dent Peter Schuyler mayor of Albany, and served two 
years. After an interval of two years he was reappointed 
to the position by Governor Burnet, and held the office 
another two years. 

He was also an honored officer in the church, having 
been elected a deacon and church-master in 1706. He 
was a captain in the" militia in 1710, and rose to the grade 
of colonel before 1754. 


While many of his friends and neighbors were speculat 
ing largely in lands, he was serving the public or quietly 
attending to his business as a merchant. Philip Pieterse 
Schuyler and his sons \vere large buyers and sellers of 
lands, but David Pieterse Schuyler and his sons had little 
to do with them. Myndert had a share in 10,000 acres of 
land on the Schoharie Creek, known as the Hunterfield 
Patent, and a share in 500 acres on the upper waters of 
Norman s Kil. These comprise his land transactions. 
His brothers bought even less. 

He was buried in the church on October 21, 1755, hav 
ing survived all his brothers and all the sons of his uncle 
Philip. He was the last of the second generation of the 
American Schuylers. 

His will is dated March 7, 1739, and was proved on July 
24, 1756. He had accumulated a very respectable estate, 
the use of which he left to his wife ; and after her death 
the " profits and income " to his daughter, Anna de Peyster, 
during life, after which it was to be divided equally among 
his grandchildren. He named as executors his wife and 
daughter, his son-in-law, John de Peyster, Rutger Bleecker, 
and Philip Schuyler (son of Peter). On July 28, 1741, he 
added a codicil. A grandson had been born, and named 
Myndert Schuyler. To him he left ^30, a silver tankard, 
his wearing apparel, gun, and " sword with silver handle ; " 
and directed that after his death "all his merchandise and 
shop furniture should be sold." 

His daughter Anna died five years before him, and of 
the five executors named in the will only one, John de 
Peyster, qualified. With him was associated his daugh 
ter, Anna de Peyster, the wife of Volkert Pieterse Douw, 
in place of her mother, apparently without question, as 
though she were the Anna de Peyster named in the will. 

JACOBUS SCHUYLER (8). Nothing more can be said of 


him than that he was elected constable of the Third Ward 
in 1697, and collector of the same ward in 1701 and 1702 ; 
that he served as sponsor on various occasions at the bap 
tism of his brothers and sisters children, and in 1704 was 
sponsor for Catalyntje, daughter of Colonel Johannes 
Schuyler ; and that he was twice married. His wives were 
probably daughters of Captain Johannes Wendell. He died 
at the age of about thirty-two years, leaving an only child. 

GERRIT SCHUYLER (10) removed to New York, where he 
married on September 28, 1703. In a deed, dated July 5, 
1721, their names are written Gerard Schuyler and Aagie 
De Grove. Their children were baptized in the Reformed 
Dutch Church of New York. 

DAVID SCHUYLER (13) was twice married. After the death 
of his first wife he removed to Canajoharie, where he had 
bought lands on which he supposed there were valuable 
mines. In May, 1754, he and his son Peter bought of the 
Mohawk Indians 43,000 acres of land on the west side of 
Lake Carijadarage, for which, in company with a few others, 
they procured a patent. The lake is now known as Schuy 
ler Lake, situated in Otsego County near Richfield Springs. 

One would infer from his will that David Schuyler was 
a man of extensive business and large property. He 
speaks of lands, mines, and minerals at Canajoharie, lands 
on Lake Canjadarage, his estate and claims in Albany and 
New York, and in the colonies of Rensselaerwyck and 
Surinam. His will is dated April 3, 1759, in which he 
names his eldest son, Peter, and his nine children by his 
second wife. He appointed seven executors, with Sir 
William Johnson at the head. When the will was proved, 
in April, 1764, all the executors declined to act, and Jo 
hannes Schuyler, having become the eldest son by the 
death of Peter, was appointed administrator. 

1 have been unable to procure any trustworthy informa- 


tion as to his family, except about Pieter (38). John (39), 
was made administrator of the estate, but nothing more is 
known of him. 

Mr. George Van Driessen, of Adrian, Mich., writes : 
" My grandfather on my mother s side was David Schuyler, 
who lived at Fort Herkimer." It is possible that he was 
David (41). 

Mr. Van der Kemp, the translator of the Dutch colonial 
documents, made in 1792 a journey from Kingston, N. Y., 
to Lake Ontario. His route was by way of Albany and 
the Mohawk Valley. When he arrived at Palatinetown 
he was entertained at the "mansion" of Mrs. Schuyler, 
widow of Colonel Philip Schuyler, who seemed to be a 
person of intelligence and was sprightly in conversation. 
She gave him much information on various topics of in 
terest, but especially as to the country through which he 
was travelling and the best houses on his road. She was 
doubtless the widow of Philip Schuyler (42). 

There is no trace of PHILIP SCHUYLER (15) in Albany 
after his baptism, and it is probable that he joined his 
brother Gerrit in New York. Although there is no au 
thority in the records for his marriage to Sara Roosevelt, 
the presumption is strong. At the time of the marriage, 
February 28, 1718, there were six others, and only six, of 
the same name, all of whom can be accounted for. 

Philip (9), fifth son of Philip Pieterse Schuyler, was a 
widower residing at Schenectady, and in May, 1719, mar 
ried his second wife. 

Philip (136), son of Brandt Schuyler, of New York, mar 
ried Ann Elizabeth Staats in August, 1713, and his wife 
survived him. 

Philip (161), son of Arent Schuyler, of New Jersey, mar 
ried Hester Kingsland in 1712, and she lived to an advanced 


Philip (358), son of Johannes Schuyler, of Albany, died 
a bachelor in 1745. 

Philip (13), son of Colonel Peter Schuyler, married his 
cousin, Margarita Schuyler. 

Philip (5), son of Nicholas Schuyler, of Schenectady, 
was an infant. 

It follows that Philip, son of Pieter Davidse Schuyler, 
must have been the Philip Schuyler who married Sara 

At the baptism of his child, junior is written after his 
name. This was done to distinguish him from Philip, son 
of Brandt. 

After the baptism of his child in the church at New 
York, I find no other trace of him. It is possible he re 
moved to New Jersey, where several descendants of David 
Pieterse Schuyler ultimately settled. 

Maria Hansen wife of DAVID SCHUYLER (17) was the 
daughter of Hendrick Hansen, mayor of Albany, 1698. 

DIRCK SCHUYLER (19) resided in New Brunswick, N. J., 
in June, 1738, and was termed a merchant in a deed con 
veying his mother s share in the Saratoga Patent, received 
from her father, which he had previously bought from his 
mother and brothers. He sold one-third of an original 
share (one-seventh) for ^250 to his cousin, Dirck Ten 
Broeck. If married, his wife is not mentioned in the deed. 

The marriage of ABRAHAM SCHUYLER (20) and Catrina 
Staats is recorded in the Reformed Dutch Church of Al 
bany, as also the baptism of their first child, but nothing 
more. It is probable that he then removed to New Bruns 
wick, N. J., where his father s Dutch Bible, containing his 
own family records, was found, in June, 1877, in posses 
sion of a female descendant. 

Catrina Staats was a daughter of Barent Staats, of Al 
ba nv. 


HARMANUS SCHUYLER (24) was admitted freeman of New 
York City in 1728. 

PIETER SCHUYLER (38) aecured two shares, or 4,000 
acres, in the land patent on Schuyler s Lake, his uncle, 
Peter P. Schuyler, of Albany, having transferred to him 
his allotment, as by agreement before the patent was is 
sued. He seems to have been an active business man, en 
gaged in various enterprises. He died in middle life, be 
fore his plans and business schemes were fully developed. 
His marriage into the Herkimer family allied him to the 
most influential Germans in the Mohawk Valley. His 
wife was the eldest of eight sisters, daughters of Johann 
Jost Herkimer, and was a sister of General Nicholas Her- 
kimer of Revolutionary fame. Schuyler s marriage is re 
corded in the Reformed Dutch Church of Albany. He 
died before June, 1764, as his brother John is then termed 
the eldest son of David Schuyler, deceased. 

JOHAN JOST SCHUYLER (71) was named for his maternal 
grandfather, Johan Jost Herkimer, one of the first settlers 
on the Upper Mohawk. The name was corrupted into 
Han Yost, or Honyost, by which appellation he is known 
in history. By several writers he is described as an igno 
rant, uncouth, half-witted being, but little removed from 
the savages with whom he mainly associated. I am in 
clined to doubt the truth of this description. His parent 
age was respectable, but, living on the borders of civiliza 
tion, where there were no schools, 1 he grew up in igno 
rance. On the one side were the Mohawk Indians, and on 
the other the Oneidas. In common with all the white 
settlers, both Dutch and German, he must of necessity 
have associated more or less with the savages, with whose 
customs and superstitions he was well informed. Unlike 

1 His uncle John signed his name with a mark. 


many, he adapted himself to the habits of the people 
among whom he lived. He availed himself of his knowl 
edge to gain the confidence of the Indians and win their 
respect. Knowing with what awe and affection they re 
garded the unfortunate who had not perfect control of 
their reason, he may have affected the part of one deficient 
in intellect in order to gain their confidence for the ac 
complishment of his own plans and purposes. 

He could not have been regarded by his friends and 
neighbors as the half-witted fellow painted by historians, 
or he w r ould not have been enrolled in the militia and 
made an officer in one of the companies. In October, 
1776, General Herkimer reported to his commanding of 
ficer, " Han Yost Schuyler and others have gone to the 
enemy." Lathrop Allen was more explicit. In a letter 
to General Schuyler, he said : 

" Hanjoost Schuyler, a sergeant in one of the ranger 
companies, Hanjoost Harkamar, son-in-law of the old 
widow Harkamar, and several others, after a consultation 
at Canajoharie Castle among the Indians and Tories, ab 
sconded to the enemy." 

We next hear of him in. company with Walter N. Butler 
and other Tories at the house of Mr. Shoemaker, situated a 
short distance from Fort Dayton, concerting measures to 
detach the inhabitants of the valley from the patriots, and 
thus compel Colonel Gansevoort to surrender Fort Schuy 
ler (Stanwix) to St. Leger. Colonel Weston, commanding 
at Fort Dayton, was apprised of the meeting, and, sur 
rounding the house, captured Butler and twenty-eight 
others, Han Yost among them. Butler and Han Yost were 
tried by court-martial, and sentenced to death. If a fool, 
why was he selected from the " twenty-eight others " to 
suffer the penalty of treason ? Why was not some promi- 


nent Tory, like Shoemaker, for instance, taken in place of 
the " half-witted ? " 

General Arnold, detached from the army at Saratoga 
for the relief of Fort Schuyler, now arrived with his troops, 
and began organizing the militia for a march against St. 
Leger. Johan Jost s mother and brother opportunely ar 
rived to intercede for his life. Arnold was obdurate for a 
time, but finally consented to spare his life, on condition 
that he should go to St. Leger s camp and induce him to 
raise the siege, but that meanwhile his brother Nicholas 
would be detained as a hostage for his fidelity. Whence 
came this apparently chimerical proposition ? Arnold 
could not have suggested it, for he was a man of some 
common sense. It must have originated with the " half 
witted," believing he could frighten away the Indians and 
thus compel the English to retire. It must have seemed 
to Arnold and his officers a fool s conception. What ! a 
fool, alone and unaided, accomplish that which an army led 
by the brave General Herkimer had attempted in vain ! 
For some reason difficult to understand Arnold consented, 
and Schuyler accepted the condition without a murmur. 
His only preparation for the work was to have his clothes 
riddled with bullets. In company with an Indian he 
started to perform a feat which should have won for him 
a nation s gratitude and covered his name with glory. 

Schuyler and his Indian ally approached St. Leger s 
camp from different directions, and first visited St. Leg 
er s Indians. With wise looks and gestures, more than 
with words, they gave the Indians to understand that an 
army more numerous than the leaves of the forest was 
approaching to destroy them. With mysterious hints they 
roused the imaginations of their hearers, and caused them 
to apprehend more danger than their words implied. 
There \vas great commotion ; Han Yost was hurried off to 


St. Leger s tent, followed by the Indian chiefs, where the 
story was repeated with additions designed for the Indian 
ear. The excitement increased, until great fear and dread 
pervaded the ranks of the soldiery. Leaving their tents 
and camp equipage, and throwing away their guns, the 
army began its retreat, which soon became a perfect rout. 
The army of the enemy was dissolved, and the siege was 
raised. According to history, it was the work of a fool. 
In truth, it was the work of a skilful man, who based his 
hopes of success upon his thorough knowledge of Indian 
character. His great exploit has not saved his name from 
obloquy, and the charge of Toryism has obliterated all 
sense of gratitude. His feat of heroism was one of the 
main factors in the victory of Saratoga. The defeat of 
St. Leger made it possible to capture Burgoyne. 

Schuyler returned to Fort Dayton, and Arnold, having 
received information from other sources that the siege 
of Fort Schuyler had been raised, released his hostage. 
" But," history goes on to say, " he was so imbued with 
his Tory principles that he again went oif to the enemy, 
and remained with them to the close of the war, when he 
returned to his former residence in the Mohawk Valley." 
When reading this bit of history, as related by several 
writers, I confess that I had my doubts as to his want of 
common-sense, and as to his want of loyalty to his country. 
I believed rather that he was shrewd, and brave, a true pa 
triot. In the Revolution, as in other wars, the generals 
employed confidential agents as spies, who gained access 
to the enemy s camp, and from time to time gave their 
employers important information. May not Johan Jost 
Schuyler have been so employed by General Schuyler or 
other American officers ? ! If he were a Tory, or an Eng- 

1 Mr. Lossing, in his Life of General Schuyler, changes the name from 
Hanyost Schuyler to Hon Yost Cuyler. 


lish spy, he had a singular way of serving his friends. If 
a Tory, he was the only one of the name. Notwithstanding 
the character given to him, he merits a monument to his 
memory, as one who alone routed an army, relieved a gar 
rison at a vital point, and made possible the victory of 
General Gates at Stillwater. 

Johan Jost Schuyler died about 1810. 

He probably married an Indian woman of the Oneida 
nation. Mr. Schoolcraft, in his Report to the Legislature, 
1846, refers to an Oneida Indian by the name of " Moses 
Schuyler, son of Hon Yost," and of another man of the 
same nation named Abraham Schuyler. Both were living 
at the time he made the census of the Indians in the State 
of New York, in 1845. 

Mrs. Cochran, youngest daughter of General Schuyler, 
said on one occasion that she had attended church in 
Utica, N. Y., and had sat at the communion-table with 
Oneida Indians by the name of Schuyler. 1 They were 
probably the descendants of Irian Yost. Other persons 
have also mentioned meeting Oneida Indians named 
Schuyler. Mr. Schoolcraft also says in his Report : 

" The last persons executed for witchcraft among the 
Oneidas suffered about forty years ago (1805). They were 
two females. The executioner was the notorious Hon 
Yost of Revolutionary memory. He entered the lodge ac 
cording to a prior decree of the Council, and struck them 
down with a tomahawk." 

This would show that he had been adopted by the 
Oneidas, and made one of their sachems. It is not prob 
able that they would have intrusted the execution of a 
capital sentence to a stranger. 

Lossing s Life of Philip Schuyler, vol. i., p. 67. 


DAVID SCHUYLER (74) resided for a time in Cobleskill, 
Schoharie County, N. Y., where he married, and where his 
children were born. After the death of his wife, in 1802, 
he removed to Albany, and thence to Johnstown, N. Y., 
where he died and was buried. His occupation was that 
of a merchant. 

WILSON W. SCHUYLER (121) was elected a judge of North 
ampton County, Pa., November, 1881. He is a graduate 
of Williams College, and was admitted to the bar in 1854. 



JACOB SCHUYLER, the ancestor of this branch of the 
Schuylers, with his large family of sons and daughters, 
emigrated from New Jersey, and settled in Florida, Mont 
gomery County, N. Y., in the year 1790. No one of his 
descendants traces their pedigree farther back than Jacob, 
who was born on March 24, 1734. As in many other fam 
ilies, there is a tradition, repeated with variations, that 
early in the eighteenth century three persons by the name 
of Schuyler, supposed to be brothers, came to this country 
from Holland, and settled in different localities, one in 
New Jersey, one in Delaware, and the third in Albany, 
N. Y. The different versions of the story, as given by dif 
ferent members of the family, indicate quite clearly that 
it is nothing more than a tradition, without a substantial 
basis, such as I have heard repeated by members of the 
other branches time and again. There is, however, abun 
dant evidence that Jacob came, with his family, from New 
Jersey to New York, at the time mentioned. 

Jacob is a name of frequent use by David Pieterse 
Schuyler and his descendants, derived originally from the 
Verplancks ; and, as some of David s grandsons removed 
to New Jersey early in the last century, I am strongly im 
pressed with the conviction that Jacob Schuyler, of Flor 
ida, N. Y., was a son of one of them. The date of his birth 
proves that he belonged to the generation of David s great- 
grandsons, the fourth of the American Schuylers. We know 
that Abraham and Dirck, sons of Abraham Davidse Schuyler, 


lived in New Brunswick. Of Johannes, son of Pieter Da- 
vidse, we have no trace, except that about fifty-six years 
after his baptism he was buried in the church at Albany, a 
proof that he had had a position and an estate entitling him 
to such a burial. Of his brother Philip, after the baptism of 
his child, we know nothing. We have only glimpses of Da 
vid, Harmanus, and Myndert, sons of David Davidse, and of 
their brother Anthony we have not the slightest trace. It 
is therefore quite legitimate to infer that some one of the 
seven or eight was the father of Jacob Schuyler, of Florida. 

It is possible that Johannes, son of Pieter Davidse, emi 
grated to New Jersey, where many of the Albanians 
sought a home, that they might own lands and secure 
safety for their families from prowling savages. Once in 
that land of hope and promise, all traces of them were lost 
from the records, church and municipal, of Albany, and 
only known to future generations by Bible and other fam 
ily records. The only reason why I suppose Johannes may 
have been his father, is the fact that he named his eldest son 
John. His eldest daughter and a few others may have been 
named for his wife s mother and her family, but the majority 
were given names which belonged to the Albany Schuylers. 

But it is idle to speculate. The question may be solved 
ultimately by an old Dutch Bible, now stored away in some 
closet or garret waiting for an antiquarian to bring it to 
light. The ancestors of the Mohawk Schuylers, whoever 
they may be, if they now take an interest in their descend 
ants, cannot be otherwise than gratified. They are a fine 
race of men. Farming has been, and is yet, their favorite 
business. But among them are individuals of other pur 
suits merchants, bankers, manufacturers, lawyers, doctors. 
The Mohawk Valley was soon too small to hold their won 
derful increase, and they overflowed its narrow limits into 
other parts of the State. 


I. JACOB SCHUYLER, b. March 24, 1734. 
m. Ere Swackhamer. 

2. ELIZABETH, b. March 10, 1755. 

3. CHRISTINA, b. September i, 1757. 

4. JOHN, b. March 2, 1758 ; was twice married, but to whom is not 

stated. He died in 1852, at his residence in Charlestown, 
Montgomery County, N. Y. 

5. CATHERINE, b. March 29, 1760. 

6. DOLLY (Dorothy), b. October 2, 1762. 

7. JACOB, b. February 2, 1764. 

m. Martha Fane her. * 

8. MARGARET, b. February 13, 1766. 

9. ANN, b. July 6, 1767. 

10. PHILIP, b. October 22, 1769. 

m. Mary Rinnan. 

11. SAMUEL, b. May 22, 1771. 

m. Abigail Fanchcr, b. November 25, 1772. 

12. EVE, b. September 14, 1772. 

13. WILLIAM, b. March 2, 1776. 

m. Alary Serviss. 

14. DANIEL, b. July 30, 1779. 

m. I, Anna Thomas. 
m. 2, Elane Hitts. 

4. JOHN SCHUYLER and . 2 

15. JACOB, b. 1782, cl. y. 

16. ANNA, b. 1783, d. January, 1810. 

17. WILLIAM, b. 1784, d. 1858; moved to Geddes, N. Y., 1825, d. 


1 8. JOHN, b. March, 1787, d. 1875 ; moved to Marcellus, Onondaga 

County, N. Y. 

19. EVA, b. March, 1791, d. 1863. 

20. SAMUEL, b. September, 1794, d. 1870 ; residence, Charlestown, 

Montgomery County, N. Y. 

1 From the Bible records of James H. Schuyler, of Amsterdam, N. Y. 

2 Records of Daniel J. Schuyler, of Three Mile Bay, N. Y., and Records of John W, 
Schuyler, of Geddes, N. Y. 

VOL. II. 31 


21. PHILIP, b. March, 1797, cl. 1869 ; residence, 1825 and later, 

Geddes, Onondaga County, N. Y. 

22. DANIEL J., b. 1806; residence after 1835 Three Mile Bay, Jef 

ferson County, N. Y., d. since 1878. 

23. GARRET L., b. April 6, 1809 ; residence, 1878, Esperance, Scho- 

harie County, N. Y. 

24. PETER, b. January 8, 1819 ; lived in Iowa in 1878. 

Garret L. (23) had one son and two daughters. Pieter (24) had 
one son, named John. 

7. JACOB SCHUYLER and Martha Fancher} 

26. RICHARD, b. Jurie 8, 1788. 

in. Kate McMaster. 

27. JACOB, b. August 26, 1789. 

m. . Mary Serviss. 

28. JOHN J., b. May 26, 1791. 

m. Susan Shaw. 

29. JEREMIAH, b. November 20, 1794. 

m. I, Evalina Fredericks. 
m. 2, Jemima Dorn. 

30. WILLIAM, b. May 27, 1798, d. y. 

31. THOMAS, b. April 22, 1802. 

m. Ellen Sheppard. 

Besides these six sons, there were nine daughters whose names 
were not given me. In November, 1877, all were deceased, ex 
cept Jeremiah, aged 83 years, and his sister Eve, aged 90 years. 

10. PHILIP SCHUYLER and Mary A innan* 

32. JOHN, b. September 15, 1791. 

33. EFFIE, b. September 23, 1793. 

34. ANNE, b. December 25, 1795. 

35. MARY, b. February 2, 1798. 

36. ELIZABETH, b. January 8, 1800. 

37. KATE, b. August n, 1802. 

38. JACOB R., b. December 24, 1804. 

39. PHILEMON, b. May 31, 1807. 

40. THOMAS R., b. August 18, 1809. 

41. SUSAN, b. July 14, 1812. 

42. EMMELINE, b. April 14, 1814. 

43. GEORGE A., b. April 28, 1818. 

m. Lucy A. Bellman. 

11. SAMUEL SCHUYLER and Abigail Fancher* 

44. JACOB, b. April 17, 1796. 

m. Mar ilia Lockwood. 

1 Bible Records. 2 Bible Records of George A. Schuyler, of Seneca Falls, N-Y. 

3 Bible Records of James H. Schuyler. 


45. SARAH, b. August i, 1798. 

46. RICHARD I., b. February 24, 1800. 

m. Gertrude V r ecder. 

47. EVE, b. October 26, 1801. 

48. ELIZA, b. January 31, 1804. 

49. WILLIAM, b. September 12, 1805. 

m. Jemima Twmcrnan. 

50. SAMUEL, b. August 22, 1808, d. y. 

51. ANN MARIA, b. May 15, 1810. 

52. JOHN ARDEN, b. January n, 1812. 

m. Frances Phipps. 

13. WILLIAM SCIIUYLER and Mary Serviss. 

53. WIN SLOW. 

54. JACOB. 

14. DANIEL SCHUYLER and i, Anna Thomas. 

2, Elane Hitts. 

55. JOHN. 

56. JACOB, b. May 29, 1840. 

57. DANIEL. 

Besides these three sons, there were thirteen daughters. 


58. JOHN W. 

59. DAVID M. 

1 8. JOHN SCHUYLER, JR., and . 

He had two daughters. 


63. JOHN S., d. about 1860. 

6 1. GARRET L. ; resided, 1878, in New York City. 

62. AARON ; resided, 1878, in New York City. 

63. ISAAC ; residence unknown. 

64. JACOB ; lived in Iowa, and had two daughters. 


Had one son and four daughters. 


65. ANNA, b. September 29, 1828. 

m. B. F. Austin, New York City. 

66. SARAH, b. October 9, 1830. 

m. E. B. Wynn, Watertown, N. Y. 

67. CLARISSA, b. December 12, 1832. 

m. C. IV. McKinstry. 

68. SEMANTHA, b. April 6, 1835. 

m. James A. Austin. 

69. JOHN, b. August 19, 1837. 


26. RICHARD SCHUYLER and Kate McMaster, of Mohawk Flats. 

70. JACOB, m. i, Harriet Wemple. 

m. 2, Counac. 

71. HAMILTON, m. Magdelain Narr. 

72. THOMAS, in. Maria Wemple. 

73. HIRAM, m. Elizabeth Narr. 

74. JOHN, m. Switz. 

75. JAY, m. Cor win. 

76. GEORGE, m. Elizabeth Davis. 

77. ALONZO, m. Sarah Wemple. 

Besides these eight sons, there were two daughters. 

27. JACOB SCHUYLER and Mary Serviss. 

78. GEORGE S., b. February 22, 1818. 

m. I, Clarissa Van ScJiaick. 
m. 2, Ann Olen. 

79. JAMES H., b. December 2, 1819. 

m. l, rntiiian. 

m. 2, Hannah Lasher. 

80. JACOB T., b. January 15, 1821. 

m. Abigail Martin. 

8 1. WILLIAM T., b. February 4, 1823. 

m. Ida Van Ever a. 

There is also one daughter. Family residence, Glen, Montgom 
ery County, N. Y. 

28. JOHN J. SCHUYLER and Susan Shaw. 

82. GEORGE. 

And three daughters. 

29. JEREMIAH SCHUYLER and Rvaline Fredericks. 

83. JAMES H., b. October 27, 1821. 

m. Harriet A. Ingham. 

84. JACOB, b. November 15, 1828. 

m. Maria JMabee. 
And four daughters. 

29. JEREMIAH SCHUYLER and Jemima Dorn. 

85. JOHN D., m. Anna Stewart. 

86. ANDREW J, 

87. FRANK H. 

And three daughters. 

31. THOMAS SCHUYLER and Ellen 

88. JACOB, m. Ann Shuler. 

89. RALPH, tn. Harriet Herrick. 

90. WILLIAM, m. Alar gar et Lockiuood. 
And four daughters. 



91. JOHN. 


93. F ATI MA. 

94. ANNA. 







100. MARY ANN. 

101. CHARLES. 

102. JACOB R. 

103. NANCY. 

43. GEORGE A. SCHUYLER and Lucy A. Bellman. 

104. MARY F., b. June 29, 1844. 

105. LODUSKY, b. March 23, 1847. 

106. GEORGE O., b. October 16, 1848. 

107. DENCY E., b. February 5, 1850. 

108. MINERVA A., b. July 22, 1854. 

44. JACOB SCHUYLER and Mar ilia Lock-wood. 

109. WALTER. 
no. JAMES. 

And seven daughters. 

46. RICHARD SCHUYLER and Gertrude Vceaer. 

in. HARVEY. 

112. HORATIO. 

113. WINSOR. 

114. SAMUEL. 

115. ALFRED. 

1 1 6. CHARLES. 

And seven daughters. 

49. WILLIAM SCHUYLER and Jemima Tttnnenzan. 

117. WILLIAM. 

118. CHARLES. 

And three daughters. 

52. JOHN ARDEN SCHUYLER and Frances Phipps. 

Iig. DUANE. 

120. SAMUEL. 

121. FRANCIS. 

122. PlIIl PS. 

And three daughters. 


56. JACOB SCHUYLER and Josephine SwartivooJ. 

123. JACOB, b. November 29, 1840. 

124. WILLIS B., b. September 4, 1864. 

56. JACOB SCHUYLER and Emily Sanford. 

125. SANFORD, b. May 28, 1872. 
And three daughters. 

58. JOHN W. SCHUYLER and - . 

126. WILLIAM A. 

127. O. P. 

128. ADELE. 

59. DAVID M. SCHUYLER and - . 

129. CHARLES; resides in Van Buren, and has two children, 1878. 

130. JAMES ; resides in De \Vitt, and has one child, 1878. 

78. GEORGE S. SCHUYLER and Clarissa Van Schaick. 

131. NEWTON. 

132. JACOB. 


134. FRANK. 

And three daughters. 

79. JAMES H. SCHUYLER and Put man. 

135. JACOB. 

136. JOHN. 


138. ELMER. 

And six daughters. 

80. JACOB T. SCHUYLER and A bigail Martin. 

139. MARTIN J., b. December 14, 1851. 

140. JACOB L., b. February 9, 1857. 
And six daughters. 

81. WILLIAM T. SCHUYLER and Ida Van Evcra. 

141. PETER. 

And one daughter. 

83. JAMES H. SCHUYLER and Harriet A. Ingham. 

142. FRANK. 

And two daughters. 

84. JACOB SCHUYLER and Maria Mabce. 

Two daughters. 

86. ANDREW J. SCHUYLER and Sarah Stearling. 


144. HIRAM. 


88. JACOB SCIIUYLER and Ann Shuler. 

145. FRANK. 

And two daughters. 

89. RALPH SCHUYLER and Harriet Herrick. 

146. EUGENE. 

147. IRXYAN. 

And two daughters. 

90. ^YILLIAM SCHUYLER and Margaret Lockwood. 

148. THOMAS. 

And two daughters. 

139. MARTIN J. SCHUYLER and . 

149. LESTER J., b. March 17, 1876. 

150. EDWARD F. T., b. September n, 1878. 

The Schuylers residing in the valley of the Mohawk are 
of different families, and unable for the most part to trace 
any kinship. Besides the known descendants of David 
Schuyler, and the "Mohawk Valley Schuylers," descend 
ing from Jacob Schuyler, there are the probable descend 
ants of Rev. Johannes Schuyler, others of Arent Schuy- 
ler s line, and probably some belonging to Colonel Peter 
Schuyler s family. It would require much patient work 
to separate them and place them in their respective lines. 
The labor is all the more difficult because many of them 
have followed the tide of emigration into parts of the 
State lying beyond, and from thence to the States and 
Territories of the West. The work involved so much time 
and labor that I gave it up, although with much reluc 



SHORTLY after I became interested in genealogy, I found 
in the colonial documents mention made of a " Mr. Schuy- 
ler, the Presbyterian minister of Schoharie." As he was the 
first of the name in the ministerial profession, I was curious 
to know not only to which of the Schuyler families he be 
longed, but also to learn something of his personal history. 
For this purpose I wrote to a friend in Middleburgh, Scho 
harie County, who placed my letter in the hands of George 
L. Danforth, Esq., whose tastes and acquirements admira 
bly fitted him for the work. After patient investigation, 
he replied to my inquiries as follows : 

" I find, by searching the records (in German) of the Lu 
theran Church at Schoharie, and those of the Reformed 
(Dutch) Church (in Dutch and German), and by an exami 
nation of the foundation-stones of the present Lutheran 
Church, and of the old Dutch Church, now called the Fort, 1 
as follows : 

1 This building was of stone, and completed in 1772-73. During the 
War of the Revolution it was occupied as a fort for the protection of the 
inhabitants from the murderous forays of the savages and their more sav 
age allies, the Tories. It served its purpose admirably. In the raid of 
Sir John Johnson and the Indian chief Joseph Brant, through the Scho 
harie Valley, in 1780, a feeble demonstration was made against the fort, 
and a cannon-ball was lodged in the cornice. The sharp-shooters stationed 
in the tower and a discharge of grape-shot drove off the enemy, who then 
pursued their march down the valley to the Mohawk. 

It was finally abandoned by the church, but in memory of its usefulness 
in the war it has been preserved, and kept in repair by a public tax, as a 


" Rev. Johannes Schuyler was pastor of the Protestant 
High Dutch Reformed Church of Schoharie from 1736 to 
1755, and from 1766 to 1779. 

" Although the book containing the marriage records 
was destroyed when the old parsonage was burned, it ap 
pears from other records that Mr. Schuyler married An- 
natje Veeder, of Schenectady, in 1743. 

"The book of Baptisms escaped destruction. It begins 
with the year 1731. Among the recorded baptisms are 
four children of Johannes Schuyler and Annatje Veeder, 
his wife, to wit : Gulielmus (William), Jan. i. 1748 ; Johan 
nes, Jan. 1751 ; Petrus, Jan. 3. 1753 ; Simeon, Augt 10. 


" On one of the foundation-stones of the Lutheran 
Church, erected 1750, is found JOH SCHUYLER, V.D.M. 
(minister of the word of God). 

" In the records of the Lutheran Church it appears he 
baptized a child in 1746 ; and on October 6, 1753, he 
married Christian Schulekaft (Schoolcraft ?) to Elizabeth 
Mag. Becker. 

" Here, too, is recorded his death : Died, April 16, 1779, 
Rev. Johannes Schuyler, at Schoharie, 69 years of age, 
and in the fortieth year of his service in this place. 

" On the east wall of the Old Stone Fort is found, near 
the door, cut in the stone : Johan 5 . Schuyler V. D. M. 1772, 
as also the names of Peter Schuyler and Philip Schuyler. 
The records show that Dominie Schuyler was buried under 
the pulpit. 

" Johannes Schuyler was the first Dutch minister or 
dained in this country. Previously to 1736 all ordinations 
were performed in Holland. By express permission of 
the Classis of Amsterdam Dominies Ericksen and Haeg- 
hoort were appointed to ordain Mr. Schuyler, and the cere- 
monument, and called the Old Stone Fort. It is finely situated on a bluff 
commanding an extensive view up and down the valley of Schoharie Creek, 
and surrounded by the graves of the fathers. The grounds are nicely kept, 
and shaded with native trees. It is a place of much resort, visited by 
strangers as one of the historical localities of the State. 


mony was performed in 1736. He immediately settled at 
Schoharie, where he remained until 1755. Under his pas 
torate the church formally ranged itself with the Reformed 
Dutch Church. Dominie Schuyler and his elders took an 
active part in the efforts to form an American ecclesiastical 
judiciary, which finally resulted in the formation of the 
General Synod. 1 

" For some reason not known, he resigned from the 
church at Schoharie, in 1755, and accepted a call from the 
churches of Hackensack and Scralenberg, N. J., where he 
remained until 1766, when he returned to the church of 
Schoharie, assuming, in connection with that charge, the 
pastorate of the church at Beaverdam. 2 It was toward 
the close of his second settlement that a new church was 
erected, now the Old Stone Fort. 

According to tradition Dominic Schuyler was a man of 
fine education and large attainments. He preached for an 
hundred miles around, and was the great Dutch dominie 
of this section of country ; as Peter Nicholas Somers, pas 
tor of the Lutheran Church from 1742 to 1786, was the 

1 The following letter from the manuscripts of Sir William Johnson (18, 
56) is interesting : 

" Sehonactenday FebJ" 4th 1747, 8 
"Col 1 Johnson 

"J f 

" Some Indians arc now att my House and they Tell me that M r Lydias 
Had promised they should have one Minister and they have appointed the 
Rev d M r . Schuyler of Schohary to come to them two 3 or 4 Time In one 
year and they together with the Christians are willing to pay their parts 
and also Desired me to go with them to the maquas to assist them what 
some they could make out they also spoke to M r Schuyler who is willing 
to Doe that service this I acquaint you and Desire your answer no more att 
present but am with Respect your most 

" humble serv 1 to Comand 


" I judge in my opinion that its more hononable for you than to lett M r 
Lydias thake that interest among them I leave you to judge." 

2 In the records of the German Reformed Church of Stone Arabia is this 
entry : Rev. Johannes Schuyler preacher of Stone Arabia and Schoharie, 
Oct. 27, 1743." W. V. Van Btnschoten, 


great Lutheran dominie. He was a faithful and beloved 
pastor, as well a true patriot and lover of his country. By 
his stirring sermons in the pulpit, and addresses on the 
platform, toward the close of life, he animated his breth 
ren for the Revolutionary struggle." 

Thus wrote my friend in June, 1877. Nearly a year 
after he gave me an address by which I was enabled to 
procure some information as to Dominie Schuyler s de 
scendants. But, before entering upon that part of the sub 
ject, some reference should be made to his pastoral rela 
tions with the churches of Hackensack and Scralehberg. 
All that can be said is contained in Corvvin s ** Manual of 
the Reformed (Dutch) Church " and Taylor s " History of 
the Classis of Bergen." 

It appears that before Dominie Schuyler left Schoharie 
his mind had undergone some change in reference to an 
American synod. He gradually shifted his position, and 
at last adhered to the opposite party in the Church. As 
such he received his call to Hackensack and Scralenberg, 
and soon thereafter organized a second church in each 
place. From the history of those churches, it is fair to infer 
that his position was not comfortable to himself or benefi 
cial to his flock. Divisions and contentions prevailed, not 
only in the church, but in families. Efforts were made for 
reconciliation and unity without avail. The fury of pas 
sion and prejudice required time to spend itself. Before 
this was done, Dominie Schuyler resigned and returned 
to his old field of labor. We hear nothing more of church 
difficulties. He had learned a useful lesson among the 
New Jersey Dutchmen, and resolved not to thrust his hand 
again in the fire ecclesiastical. Political questions arose 
involving the freedom of the country, and to them he de 
voted his talents and activities. 

For several years I have made persistent efforts to learn 


something more than what is contained in Mr. Danforth s 
letter and church histories as to the parentage arid per 
sonal history of Rev. Johannes Schuyler. I have written 
numerous letters, and have made three journeys, for the 
purpose of procuring information. Despite all my efforts 
the results are meagre. Mrs. Margaret Snell, of Herkimer, 
N. Y., a great-granddaughter of the dominie s ; and Dr. F. 
H. Roof, of Rhinebeck, one of whose ancestors was a 
sister of Mr. Schuyler, gave me about all I have learned, 
but not enough to satisfy my curiosity, or to determine 
the place he occupies in the Schuyler genealogy. 

When General Philip Schuyler was engaged in the 
work of the Inland Lock Navigation Company, according 
to Mr. J. R. Simms, the historian, he wrote a very compli 
mentary letter to Philip Schuyler, son of the dominie, 
born at Hackensack, N. J., promising him special remu 
neration for the assistance which he had rendered to the 
company. Mr. Simms added that he understood they 
were near relatives, the general and Philip s father being 
first cousins. They were, without doubt, relatives, but 
more distant than first cousins, even had they belonged to 
the same branch of the Schuyler family. But I have not 
found it possible to place them in the same line. It is 
probable that the dominie was a native of New Jersey, as 
would appear from the fact that he was ordained by New 
Jersey clergymen. Such also was the recollection of Mrs. 
Woods, of Cato, N. Y., a granddaughter of his sister, Mrs. 
Van Alstyne. Mrs. Woods, in 1878, was ninety years old, 
but with faculties unimpaired. He cannot, however, be 
placed in line with Arent Schuyler s descendants, and we 
are hence forced to the conclusion that he belongs to the 
family of David Schuyler, perhaps nearly related to Jacob 
Schuyler s family, of Florida, N. Y. 

Dr. Roof wrote to me that Elizabeth, a sister of Rev, 


Johannes Schuyler, born in 1720, was the wife of a pa 
ternal ancestor of his, Gosen M. Van Alstyne, of Canajo- 
harie, N. Y. In a book once belonging to Mr. Schuyler, 
but now to Dr. Roof, on the first page is the name of 
"Anna Schuyler," and on the last the record of the birth 
and baptism of Margaret, only daughter of Rev. Johannes 
Schuyler, who was born and baptized at Hackensack. 
She was married to Andries Van Wie, July 4, 1788, in 
Florida, Montgomery County, by Rev. John Damster. 
She had six children, and died in 1813. 

From the data given me by Mr. Danforth, Mrs. Snell, 
and Dr. Roof, I am enabled to give the following 


i. JOHANNES SCHUYLER and Annatje Veeder. 

2. WILLIAM, bp. January i. 1748. 

3. JOHANNES, b. January, 1751 ; d. in Manlius, N. Y., aged 81 years. 

m. r, Jannetje Vroonian. 
m. 2, . 

4. PETRUS> bp. January 3, 1753. 

5. SIMEON, bp. August 10, 1755. 


7. MARGARET, b. February 22, 1763. 

m. Andries Van Wie. 

3. JOHANNES SCHUYLER and Jannetje Vrooman. 

8. JOHN, d. in Danube, N. Y. 

m. Van Driessen, of Schenectady. 


9. PETER, d. s. p. in Danube, N. Y. 

10. GARRIT, d. s. p. 

11. ANNATJE, m. Hunter Van Alstyne. 

8. JOHN SCHUYLER and Van Driessen. 

12. JOHN J., m. ; removed from Herkimer to Marion, 

and Sodus, Wayne County, N. Y. 

13. HENRY J., m. ; removed from Herkimer to Syracuse, 

N. Y. 

14. MARGARET J., m. Snell; residence, Herkimer. 


12. JOHN J. SCHUYLER and . 

15. JOHN, m. . 

And two daughters. 

13. HENRY J. SCHUYLER and . 

1 6. A Son, d. y. 

17. ANNETTE, m. Cook, of Syracuse, N. Y. 

1 8. ADA, m. Dennison, of Syracuse. 

15. JOHN SCHUYLER and . 

19. JOHN. 

20. GEORGE. 

ANDRIES VAN WIE and Margaret Schuyler (7). 





25. PHILIP. 


This table embraces only the descendants of Johannes, 
second son of Rev. Johannes Schuyler, and the children 
of his daughter Margaret. All that I have been able to 
learn of his other children can be told in a few words. 
Of William, his eldest son, I have found no trace. Peter s 
name appears on the wall of the Old Fort, with his father s 
and his brother Philip s, but nothing more is known 
of him. Simeon is said to have perished in a winter s 
storm, while on his way from his home to Albany, and to 
have left no descendants. Philip was probably a " mas 
ter builder," who, according to the records, erected the 
German Church in Stone Arabia in 1788. The letter of 
General Schuyler, before referred to, would indicate that he 
had a knowledge of mechanics. It is not known that he 
had a family. Mrs. Snell supposed he might have re 
moved to Booneville, N. Y., where she knew that a 
Philip Schuyler had been in business, but I have since 
learned that the Booneville Schuyler was a descendant of 
Arent Schuyler, of New Jersey. 



IN July, 1879, a friend sent to me the names of the 
Schuylers contained in the Directory of Philadelphia. I 
wrote to three of the nine, and received an answer from 
one, Mr. David H. Schuyler. He informed me that his 
family was the only one in the city of Dutch extraction, 
the others being German, spelling their name in the same 
way as ours, but pronouncing it Shuler. He said that he 
was connected with the Albany Schuylers, but could not 
give me the names of the particular families with whom 
he claimed affinity. Subsequently his mother gave me more 
particulars. She said that the name of her late husband s 
grandfather was John Schuyler, whose wife was an Eng 
lishwoman named Jane Swain. That their eldest son, 
Philip Rensselaer, was born in Albany, moved with his 
father to Philadelphia, where he married Margaret May, 
had three sons, and died in 1857, at the age of seventy-six 
years. The names of his sons were John, William, and 
Philip Rensselaer, of whom the latter was her husband, 
and that her son s full name was David Henry Schuy 
ler. This was all I could learn in reference to the Phila 
delphia Schuylers. 

In connection with this family there is an anecdote 
which it may not be amiss to relate. 

In the battle of the Brandywine, September, 1777, the 
Honorable John Theophilus Rawdon, brother of Lord 
Rawdon, afterward Lord Hastings, Governor-General of 


India, was severely wounded. His leg was amputated, 
and for six months he was an inmate of Schuyler s house, 
in Philadelphia, where he received the best of care until 
he was fully recovered. More than an hundred years 
after, a grandson of this officer, Lord Arthur Russell, 
brother of the Duke of Bedford, met a member of the 
Schuyler family, and related the story, saying that the 
kindness of the Schuylers had not been forgotten, and 
that he had always been desirous of knowing the identical 
family, as gratitude to them had been inculcated in him 
from his infancy. 

Knowing these facts, I mentioned to Mr. David Henry 
Schuyler, in my correspondence with him, that I wished 
to learn the name of the Schuyler who had entertained a 
wounded English officer after the battle of the Brandy- 
wine, without giving any name or other clue to his iden 
tity. He replied that his great-grandfather, John Schuy 
ler, had married an Englishwoman, and that his house 
had been open to more than one sick or wounded officer, 
and added that he had an engraving of the house in which 
they had been entertained. 

In contrast with this, there is another fact which should 
be told. In the war of 1812-15, Philip Schuyler, eldest 
son of the man who had taken such good care of the Hon 
orable John Theophilus Rawdon, unfortunately was taken 
prisoner by the English, and sent to Dartmoor prison. 
He was enabled to survive its horrors, and return to his 
family, without meeting with any particular kindness from 
his captors. The Dartmoor prisoner, on his return, re 
sumed his business in Philadelphia, and accumulated a 
fine estate, which remains with his descendants. 



THERE are stiljl other Schuylers who can trace no rela 
tionship to the families mentioned in this book. Such 
perhaps are the Oneida Indians named Schuyler, whom 
I have thought possibly the descendants of Han Yost. 
Such certainly are the Schuylers living in several parts of 
the State of New York, who derive their descent from 
manumitted slaves of various branches of the family. 
Some of these arc, to their credit, men of wealth and 



Abeel, John, i. 398 ii. 131, 132, 379, 
459- 46i. 

Abenakis, the Indians, ii. 117, 228 
Sachems visit Albany, 230 refuse 
to stop the war, 235. 

Abercromby, General (Abercrombie) 
i. 153 ii- 123, 211. 

Abrahams, Timothy G.,ii. 402. 

Adams, John Quincy, i. 95, 96. 

Addison and the Spectator, ii. 38, 39. 

Adjutant of French Army, his jour 
nal, ii. 114. 

Adrian, Mich., ii. 471. 

Africa, i. 84. 

Albany, Fort at, i. 10, 314, 337 rec 
ords of, TOO, 101 fort below, 102 
Dutch of, 109 first church, 109 
second church, no ii. 419- a fron 
tier town, 304, 305 William and 
Mary proclaimed, 344 dread of 
Leisler, 345 Leisler attempts to 
gain control, 349 et seq. Rumors 
of the French, 346 appeal to New 
England, 347 preparations for de- I 
fence, 348 convention of, 352 re- j 
inforced by Connecticut, 352 mili- : 
tia reorganized, 368 smallpox, 372 . 
expedition against, 396 -council ; 
at, 415 convention, 421 et scq. 
census, 1689, 427 importance of : 
post, 430 alarms, 433 fortified, j 
434 conference, 443 consterna- j 
tion, 452 council, 476 decay of 
fortifications, 487 conference with 
Bellomont, 492 Common Council 
of, 50 authorities of, address Pres 
ident Schuyler, 76 privileged to 
buy part of Schaghticoke, 100 buys 
all Schaghticoke, 101 convention, 
126 Common Council excited, 137 
Rural Cemetery, 157, 273 not a 
desirable residence, 187 centre of 
Indian trade, 317 name changed to 
Willemstadt, 457 Albany County, 
267, 269, 282 ii. 320. 

Albanians arrest French refugees, ii. 

Aldrich, ii. 397, 398. 

Alexander, James, ii. 81. 

Algonquins, overwhelmed by Iro- 
quois, i. 312. 

Allan, John, ii, 174. 

Alleghany County, ii. 281. 

River, i. 310. 

Allen, Ethan, ii. 124, 265. 
, Lathrop, ii. 474. 

, Mary H. , ii. 201. 

, Judge William, i. 284. 

Allerton, Isaac, i. 91. 

Allyn, John, i. 366 Secretary of Con 
necticut, 368, 375, 376. 

Alofsen, S. , i. 181 ii. 284. 

Alrichs, Director, i. 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 
55, 57, 58. 

Altona, i. 52, 53, 61. 

Ambler, Julia, ii. 441, 443. 

Amboy, ii. 208. 

America, i. 34, 239, 243, 276, 316, 355. 

American Lady, the, i. 155-6 ii. 159, 
278, 280. 

Amersfoort, i. 28, 207. 

Amherst, General, ii. 123, 212", 320, 

Amory, John, ii. 397. 

Amstel, Fort, 51. 

Amsterdam, i. 49, 52, 57, 60,62, 78, 99, 
118, 178, 206, 208, 214. 

, Classics of, i. 239 ii. 420, 489. 

, Fort, surrender of, i. 84. 

, merchants of, i. 6, 8, 101, 102. 

Ancram, i. 283. 

Anderson, Smith W., ii. 197. 

Andros, Sir Edmund, Governor of 
New York, 1674-1682, 1688, i. 86, 
87, 108, I93ff, 218, 219, 238, 243, 274, 
293, 333. 334- 336, 337, 5O7 ii. 166, 
292, 331, 349, 436 letter to Schuy 
ler, 109 arrives in New York, 334 
arrested in Boston, 335. 

Andryesse, Myndert, i. 113. 



Angelica, N. Y. , ii. 281. 
Annapolis, ii. 31. 
Ann, Fort, i. 236,316. 
Anthony, Allard, i. 293. 
Anthony s Nose, i. 182, n. , 198. 
Anti-Leislerian, i. 260, 262. 
Anti- Remonstrants, i. 239. 
Anti-Rent Agitation, i. 284, 285. 
Antwerp, i. 208. 
Apache Campaigns, ii. 393, 394. 

Indians, ii. 394. 

Aquadarondes, Onondaga Sachem, i. 


Aravaipa Mountains, ii. 394. 
Archbishop of Canterbury, i. 265. 
Arizona, ii. 393. 
Arminians, the, i. 9, 239. 
Arms, Schuyler, i. in. Van Rens- 

selaer, 206. 
Arnhem, i. 207. 
Arnold, General Benedict, ii. 17, 266, 

267, 325, 475, 476. 

, Thomas, ii. 411. 

Arondeus, Pastor, ii. 431, 432. 
Argal, Governor, i. 89. 
Ashhurst, Sir William, i. 483. 
Ash Island, ii. 114. 

Asia Minor, ii. 373. 
Aspimvall, Angelica, ii. 153. 
Assembly, Provincial, i. 226, 262, 267, 

268, 269, 270, 271, 273, 279, 294. 
Assembly of New York, ii. 468. 
Atagaronche, ii. 116. 

Atchin, i. 208. 

Atlantic Ocean, the eastern boundary 

of Massachusetts, i. 78. 
Atwood, Justice, ii. 10, ii. 
Auditor-general, a sinecure, i. 430. 
Aunt Schuyler, ii. 160. 
Australia, ii. 216. 

Austrian Succession, War of, ii. 113. 
Autocrat of the Breakfast Table, ii. 


Babbington, Samuel, ii. 67. 

Backer, Jacobsen, i. 140. 

Baker, Mr., ii. 453. 

, J. P. ii. 410. 

Baldwin University, ii. 201. 

Baltimore, Lord, i. 53, 54, 55, 56. 
, Md., ii. 443. 

Bambar, Louisa, ii. 200. 

Banca, Sarah, ii. 406. 

Bancker, Evert, i. 453, 465 ii. 101, 
JSS- I 3 6 , 137, 138, 144, 285 charac 
ter of, 141. 

, Gerrit, ii. 141. 

, Jannetje, ii. 462, 463. 

Bancroft, George, i. 304 ii. 265, 271, 

Bangs, Anson, ii. 379. 

! Bangs, Bleecker, ii. 379. 

, Isaac, ii. 217 his journal, 218, 


Barbadoes, i. 64 ii 436. 
Barneveldt, i. 208. 

, Olden, i. 6, 9, 10, 28, 207. 

Barre, do la, M. i. 318-= expedition 

against Iroquois, 319, 320 relieved 

by Denonville, 325. 
Barrington, Jonah, Sir, ii. 318. 
Barton, Philip, ii. 411. 
, Rufus, ii. 348. 

, Captain Aquile, ii. 449. 

, Morey Hale, ii. 4^9, 455. 
Bates Creek, ii. 394. 
Bath, ii. 281. 
Batten Kill, ii. 96, 98, 107, 120, 125, 

127, 135, 247, 274. 
Baxter (Stuyvesant s secretary), 73. 

, Gervis, ii. 95. 

, Major, ii. 109, no. 

Bayard family, ii. 133, 343. 

, Ariantje, 293. 

, Balthazar, i. 293, 338 ii. n, 


Maritje Lookermans, i. 293. 
Nicholas, i. 193, 194, 197, 
34iff, 344, 378, 379 ii. no, 
295. 342, 347 arrested, 195, 
167 sketch of, 10 sentenced 

to death, 12. 

, Peter, ii. n, 196, 339. 

-, Samuel, i. 201 ii. 190, 193. 

i Beauharnois de, Marquis, ii. 112 as 
to Peter Schuyler s children, 92 
organized an expedition, 114. 

i Beauvais, ii. 116, 117, 118. 

i Beaverdam, ii. 490. 

! Beavers, as currency, i. 104. 

Becker, Elizabeth, Mag. ii. 489. 

I Bedford, Duke of, ii. 496. 

j Beeckman, Eva, ii. 463. 

Gerardus, i. 203, 377, 508 ii. 


-, Peter, ii. 400. 

Beekman, Col. Henry, i. 203, 290. 
, Hester (Wendell), ii. 152, 414, 


-, Johannes, ii. 419. 
, William, i. 53, 54, 58, 61, 62, 

Beeren Island, i. 311. 

Begum, East Indian, ii. 172, 433. 

Belleville (N. J.), i. 226 ii. 205, 217. 

Bellman, Lucy A., ii. 482, 485. 

Bellomont, Earl of, Governor of New 
York 1698-1701, i. 117, 192, 196, 199, 
234. 255-277, 427, 491, 508 ii. n, 
23, 95, no, 138, 139, 140, 141, 143, 
146, 149, 167, 226, 228, 285, 350, 427 
appointed governor, 461 antipa 
thy to Fletcher, 461 letter to Mon- 



sieur de Callieres, 463 letter from 
Frontenac, 465 complaints, 466 
reorganizes Board of Commission 
ers, 467 at Albany, 468 sharp letter 
to Frontenac, 469, 473 in Boston, 
475, 481 letter to Lords of Trade, 
482 et scq. instructs Indian Board, 
484 troubles, 487 ct scq. perqui 
sites, 494 complaints of Albany 
people, 495 wishes increase of sal 
ary, 496 lack of tact, 497 a blun 
der, 499 stupidity, 503 complaint 
against Schuyler, 505 slanders Col. 
Schuyler, ii. i thought the Five 
Nations lost, 2 died, 2 thinks New 
England should be grateful, ii. 230. 

Bcmis Heights, 291. 

Benckes, Gov., 507. 

Benedict, Betsy (Scribner), ii. 440. 

Bennewe, Eva, ii. 372. 

Bennington, ii. 27, 326. 

Bensen, Alice, ii. 465. 

Benson, Egbert, ii. 274. 

Bergen, classis of, ii. 491. 

Bergentown, ii. 189. 

Berkeley, Lord, i. 426. 

Berry, ii. 197. 

Besemer, George, ii. 310. 

Bethlehem, i. 32, 225. 

Bevenvyck, i. 99, 102, 106, 107, 108, 116, 
137, 138, 152, 171, 172, 175, 176, 178, 
211, 214, 215, 217, 218, 219, 225 ii. 
246, 283, 434, 456, 457 church of, 
i. no. 

Beversrede, Fort, i. 40. 

Bible Records of Nicholas Schuyler, 
ii. 413 of Harmanus Schuyler, ii. 
415 of Low Family, ii. 426. 

Bigelovv, Louisa, ii. 307. 

Biggs, John, i. 340. 

Big Horn Expedition, ii. 394. 

Birmingham, ii. 392. 

Bishop, Mila G., ii. 465, 466. 

Black Mesa River, ii. 394. 

Blairstown (N. J.), ii. 454. 

Blair, John I., ii. 454. 
, Emma, ii. 443. 

Blausjan, Elizabeth (Heermans), ii. 

Blawbeck visits New York, ii. 79 
speech to Gov. Burnet, ii. 79 re 
stored, ii. 74. 

Bleecker, Ann Eliza, her book, ii. 174- 

, Blandina, ii. 380. 

, Elizabeth, ii. 379. 

, Frances E., ii. 199. 

-, Harriet, ii. 379. 

126 131, 133, 138, 175, 377, 378, 

Bleecker, Capt. Johannes (John), i. 

347, 356, 473- 474 ii- 3. 4, 7, 42, 378. 

, John, ii. 379. 

, John J., ii. 171, 175, 177, 275, 

380 in the hands of tories, ii. 178. 

, John R. , 301 ii. 105, 380. 

, Margaret, i. 297, 300 ii. 379. 

, Margarita, ii. 379. 

, Maria, ii. 379. 

, Mary, ii. 380. 

, Nicholas, i. 474 ii. 308, 378. 

, Nicholas Jr., ii. 377-379. 

-, Rutger, i. 297, 300 ii. 379, 380, 

461, 469. 

i Block, Adriaen, his explorations, i. 7, 
8, 65. 

Island, i. 8. 

Bloem, Rev. Harmanus, i 129, 143. 
Bloemmart, Samuel, i. 12, 13, 210, 212. 
Blount, General, ii. 383. 
Blum, Thomas, ii. 450. 

Board, , ii. 197. 

of Control, for Palatines, i. 

for Indian affairs, ii. 22. See 

also Five Nations. 
Bodle, George W. ii. 309, 411. 
Boel, Pastor, ii. 430. 
Bogardus, Anneke Jans, ii. 337-362, 


, Cornelis, ii. 339, 340, 346, 348. 
, Cornelius, ii. 352, 353, 354, 

, Rev. Everardus, i. 190 ii. 337 

343. 344- 345- 347- 
, John, ii. 353, 354, 355. 

, Jonas, ii. 339, 340, 346, 355. 


, Lewis, H. 353. 
, Nathaniel, ii. 354. 
, Pieter, ii. 339, 340, 346. 
William, ii. 339, 340. 

Bogart, ii. 197. 

, Catherine Nicholas (334), ii. 

400, 402, 407, 417. 

, Jane, ii. 400. 

-, Dr. Nicholas N. , ii. 307, 364, 

407, 408, 417. 
Bohemia, i. 56, note, 

, Viscount Felyps of, i. 127. 

Manor, i. 56, note. 

Boisson (brandy), i. 125. 
Bolton, Rev. John, ii 244 History of 
Westchester County, i. 200. 

Bonnell, ii, 400. 

; Bonney, ii. 401. 

Booneville, N. Y., ii. 494. 

, Henry, ii. 378. . Booth, Mrs., ii. 284, 298. 

, Jacob, i. 301. I Boots, Teunis Willemse, ii. 367. 

, James, ii. 380. j Bordentown, ii. 192, 193. 

, Jan Jansen, ii. 05, 96, 104, 105, \ Basch, i. 208. 



Bosch, Wyntia, ii. 340. 

Boston, i. 66, 70, 72, 82, 83, 84, 168, 

247, 259, 289, 335, 432, 453 " J 9- 

234, 265. 

Boston Albany Railroad, ii. 129. 
Bostwick, Harriet, ii. 201. 
Boucherville, i. 440. 
Bouweries, i. 137. 
Bowier, Jonkheer ]an, i. 208. 
, jo 


(onkheer, Hugo Jan Jacob, i. 

-, Jonkheer Martin, i. 208. 
Bowman s Farm, i. 201. 
Boyd, ii. 199. 
Boyd, Catherine, ii. 152. 

, Catherine, W. V., ii. 171. 

, Rev. Joshua, ii. 406. 

Boyle, Secretary, ii. 31. 
Braddock, Gen., ii., 122, 209. 
Bradstreet, Col., ii. 249, 251, 255, 259, 

260, 321 captures Fort Frontenac, 
ii. 211. 

Brandt, an Indian, i. 299, 493. 
Branclywine, battle of, ii. 495. 
Brannan, Fanny Kemble, ii. 310. 
Brant, Gerritie, i. 114, 115. 
, Joseph, (Indian chief), 1.298 

ii. 174, 488. 
Bratt, the family, ii. 371. 

, Alida, ii. 399, 400. 

. Anna, ii. 461, 462. 

-, Arent, ii. 247. 

, Dirck Arentse, ii. 370. 

Brazil, i. 48. 
Breecker, i. 207. 
Breese, Catherine, ii. 397, 398. 
Bridgeford, Samuel, ii. 361. 
Bridgen, Eliza, ii. 380. 
Brinckerhoff, Peter, ii. 379 
British Channel, i. 264. 
Broad, Mrs., ii. 354. 
Broadway, New York, i. 118 ii. 305, 
457, 460. 

Brocas, ii. 197. 

Brockholles, Anthony, i. 507 ii. 190, 

I9 1 . J 93- 

Brodhead, Rev. Jacob, ii. 379. 
Brodhead, J. Romeyn, ii. 298, 379. 
Brook, Lord, i. 68. 
Brooke, Chidley, i. 192, 429. 
Brookhaven, L. I., ii. 133. 
Brooklyn, i. 28, 84, 192. 
Bromeling, Martin, ii. 354. 
Brother, Caroline, ii. 199. 
Brotherhood of St. John, ii. 222. 
Broughton, Att y Gen., ii. 12. 
Brouwer, Ritsert, i. 186 ii. 306. 

, Thomas, ii. 414. 

Brower, Cornelius, ii. 352, 357. 

, Jacob, ii. 352. 

Brown, Elizabeth Gertrude, ii. 442. 
, Martha Vincent, ii. 152. 

Browne, William Hand, i. 56, n. 
Brudnell, Richard, ii. 347. 
Bruyas, Father, ii. 6. 
Bruyn, Jan Hendrix, ii. 129. 
Bucarest, ii. 392. 
Buffalo, i. 230. 
Bukhara, ii. 393. 
Bulgaria, ii. 392, 393. 
Bull, Captain, i. 168, 352, 356, 357. 
, Mary, ii. 441. 

Bullard, Mr., ii. 241. 

Buren, village of, i. 100 ii. 336. 

, Counts of, i. loo ii. 336. 

Burgoyne, General, i. 204, 236, 287 
ii. 124, 125, 126, 175, 269, 270, 403, 
404, 476. 

Burgundy, Dukes of, i. 93. 

Burk, John, i. 390. 

Burlingame, Kanzas, ii. 391. 

Burnet, William, Governor of New 
York, i. 1720-28, 267, 270, 271, 
272, 273, 286, 290, 294, 297, 300, 508 
ii. 78, 79, 106, 142, 194, 234, 235, 
313, 467, 468 problem of his ad 
ministration, 79 complains of the 
Council, 80 reasons for suspending 
Schuyler and Philipse, 81 pur 
poses to carry presents to Indians 
and build forts, 83 conference with 
Indians, ib. married, 84 at Liv 
ingston s manor, 85 letter as to 
Peter Schuyler, Jr., ib. second 
conference with Indians, 87 Indian 
policy, 88, 90 in a dilemma, 314. 

Burr, Aaron, ii. 282, 353. 

Burritt, Abel, ii. 308. 

Burroughs, John, ii. 155. 

Bushwick, i. 29. 

Butler, Walter N., ii. 474. 

Buyck, Cors Jansen, i. 99. 

Buzzard Bay, i. 8. 

Cabots, expedition of, 2. 

Cadaraqui (Kingston), i. 355, 424, 435, 
437, 43 8 - 44. 44i- 476. 

Callieres, M. de, Governor of Canada, 
i. 448, 463, 473, 478, 490 ii. 3, 4, 6, 
18, 19. 

Calumet, pipe of peace, ii. 89. 
! Calvinists, i. 239. 

Cambridge, N. Y., ii. 372. 

Camden, Ark., ii. 381. 
| Canaan, Conn., 376. 

Canada, i. 92, 136, 155, 194, 224, 247, 
248, 249, 262, 204, 271, 276, 288, 290, 
291, 297, 304, 305, 306, 315, 317, 318. 
324, 325. 328, 331, 332, 333, 334, 33; 
349. 353- 367- 368, 374, 382-384, 395, 
459 ii. 264, 468 war a necessity 
for, 326 invasion by Schuyler, -$33 
et seq. expedition acrainst Alban^ , 



396 retreat to, 398 negotiations 
with Five Nations, 414 mat 05,419 
Jamine, 451 conquered, ii. 124, 
212 Creek, i. 118 ii. 247. 

Canadian French, ii. 266. 

Canadians incite Abenakis to war, ii. 


Canals, Erie and Champlain, i. 230. 
Canajoharie, ii. 160, 162, 470, 474. 
Canastagione, ii. 367, 370, 374, 375. 
Canby, General, ii. 449. 
Cane Hill, ii. 383. 
Caneenda, ii. 4. 
Canjadarage, Lake, ii. 470. 
Canoes, ii. 300. 

Capellen. See Van cter Capellen, 
Carpenter, Cynthia, ii. 243, 283. 

, Mr., i. 283. 

Carr, Sir Robert, i. 63, 64. 
Carter, Amanda, ii. 401. 

, Lydia, ii. 400, 402. 

Carteret, Sir George, i. 426. 
Casimir, Fort, i. 42, 43, 44, 46, 47, 48, 

49. Si- 

Cassilis, Earl of, ii. 194. 

, Earldom of, ii. 215, 341. 

Caswell, Clarissa, ii. 402. 

Catalina, Tryntje-Catherine, ii. 433. 

Catskill, i. 22, 177] !. 383. 
, Indians, i. 130, 225, 311. 

Catholics, only to settle in Canada, 
ii. 99. 

Caughwawaga, Cochniwaga, i. 298, 

Cayenquirago, i. 402, 403, 412, 415. 

Cayuga County, ii. 362. 

Lake, i. 306. 

Cayugas, the Indians, i. 306, 307, 309, j 
317, 328, 409,411. 

Cemetery (Schuyler s), i. 155 ii. 156. I 

, Forest Hill, ii. 252. 

Census of Albany, i. 427 of Five Na 
tions, ib. Superstition, 429. 

Central Asia, ii. 392. 

Chalke Hook, ii. 347. 

Chambers, Thomas, i. 121, 123, 128, 


Chambly, Fort, i. 384, 385, 386, 396. 
Charnplaiii, his first voyage on the 
St. Lawrence, i. i. 
, on the lakes, 310, ff. 
, canal, i. 230. 
, Lake, i. 247, 272, 305, 316, 346, 

367. 373. 384. 395- 
Chancery, Court of, ii. 313. 
Chapman, Caroline Matilda, ii. 442. 
Charles I. , i. 80. 
Chanes II., i. 78, 80, ^37, 238. 
Charles Scribner s Sons, ii. 454. 
Cherrv Valley, ii. 422. 
Chesapeake Bav, i. 4, 310. 
River, i. 56. 

Chester, Pa., ii. 251. 
Cheyenne, ii. 395. 
Christina, Queen, i. 34, 35. 

-, Fort, i. 35, 36, 38, 42, 44, 45, 

46, 47, 49, 52. 

Church, first in Albany, i. 109 on 
North Pearl Street, no on Bea 
ver Street, ib. bell, in of 1656, 
no, in Dutch, of Albany, in. 

windows, i. in. 

and State in New Netherland, 

i. 112. 

funds, i. 112. 

of Albany, ii. 419. 

of England, i. 237, 239, 240. 

, English, built by Mr. Schuy- 

ler, ii. 220. 

Episcopal, ii. 352. 

of New York, action as to bu 

rial of Leisler, ii. 169. 
, Reformed Dutch, endowed, ii. 


, Reformed Dutch, arrange 
ment with John Schuyler, ii. 195. 
-, John Barker, ii. 242, 274, 280, 

281, 365. 
, Mrs., ii. 275. 

-, Philip, ii. 281. 
-, William A., ii. 

309, 412. 

Cincinnati, O. , ii. 447, 449. 
Clapp, Abby, ii. 308. 

, Dr. Asahel, ii. 442. 

Clarendon, Earl of, i. 268. 
Clark, John, i. 81. 
Clarke, George, i. 508 ii. 133, 247. 
Clarkson, Secretary, i. 405. 
Clarksville, Ark., ii. 381. 
Classis of Amsterdam, ii. 489. 

of Bergen, ii. 491. 
Clausen, Laurence, interpreter, ii. 42. 
Claverack, i. 149, 177, 178, 224, 232- 

237, 245, 274, 280-282, 290, 346 ii. 

132, 158, 253, 283, 335, 466. 
Clermont, i. 280, 287 ii. 334, 335. 
Clifton Park, ii. 367. 
Clieter, Jan, i. 179. 
Clinton, DeWitt, i. 142 ii. 174. 

, Governor, writes that Sara 

toga is destroyed, ii. 119. 
, controversy with Assembly, 
ii. 120. 
, ordered fort to be rebuilt, ii. 

, George. Governor, i. 204,281, 
508 ii. 113, 121, 158, 208, 254, 262, 

364. 375- 

Clopper, Elizabeth, ii. 171. 
Closter, ii. 405. 
Cluet, Benjamin, ii. 183. 
Clute, Anna Barber, ii. 371. 
Cobb, Rev. Leander, ii 442. 
Cobleskill, N. Y.,ii. 478. 



Cochran, James, ii. 243, 251, 283. 

, Dr. John, ii. 242, 251-52, 283. 

, Mrs., ii. 366, 477. 

Cod, Cape, i. 65. 

Coens, Rev. Cornelis, ii. 429. 

Coeymans, Andries, ii. 427, 428, 433, 


, Barent Pieterse, i. 225 ii. 434. 

, Gertrude, Jr., ii. 431. 

Coeymans tract, i. 231 ii. 434. 

Coeymans village, ii. 177, 434. 

Coeyman s Church, ii. 428, 434. 

Cohasset, i. 91. 

Golden, Cadwallader, i. 118, 282, 299, 
388, 421, 508 ii. 36, 37, 69, 70, 71, 
76, 81, 106, 214, 215, 320, 321 an 
enemy of Peter Schuyler, 93 as 
historian, 354 land speculations, i. 
300 obnoxious, ii. 159. 
, Mrs., i. 300. 

Colendonck, i. 22, 23 

Colfax, Schuyler, ii. 198. 

, William, ii. 198. 

Collindale, i. 299. 

Collins, Edward, i. 296, 298, 300 ii. 
379 death, 301. 
, John, i. 170, 186, 296-301 ii. 

379. 4I4- 
, Margaret (Schuyler), i. 296, 

297, 298 ff. ii. 414 married, 301. 

, Samuel, 296. 

Colombiere, de la, ii. 116. 
Colonial documents, error of, ii. 215. 
Colonies, English, i. 421 on the Del 
aware, 33 et seq. quotas of men, 

Colonists resist unjust taxation, ii. 


Colonization, early, I. 
Colony, Zwaanendal, i. 13, 14, 16. 
, Rensselaerwyck, 14, 15. 

, Pavonia, 15. 

Colored troops, ii. 383, 384. 

Colve, Anthony, Director-General, 

1673-74. i- 293, 507 ii. 328, 457. 
Columbia College, ii. 281, 362, 392, 


Commissioners, boundary, i. 333. 
Committee of Ways and Means, ii. 

315 of Safety, i. 340 ii. 214, 353. 
Common School Fund, ii. 358. 
Communipaw, 31. 
Company, Commercial, for settling 

America, i. 2. 

, London, i. 3. 

, Plymouth, i. 3. 

, Dutch East India, i. 4. 

, for settling America, i. 6, 7, 8. 
, West India, chartered, i. 10 

its powers and privileges, ib. its 

field of operations, ib. 
Compo, Conn., ii. 444, 

Comtemanche, ii. 117. 

Congress at New London, ii. 45. 

, Continental, ii. 262, 266. 

Congreve, Mr., ii. IIT. 

Connecticut, i. 69, 71, 76-79, 81-85, 
96, 141, 168, 2^7-249, 347, 352, 369, 
37, 374. 394- 454 ii- 122, 295 
claims of jurisdiction, i. 30 colony, 
67, 68, 80 colonists seek removal 
of Dutch, 70 contribution to war, 
431 quota, 432 delegates, 422 
denies assistance to retake Cada- 
raqui, 442 fear of Dutch, 482 
General Court of, 87 reinforces 
Albany, 352, 366, 367, 368. 

River, i. 7, 65, 66, 71, 73, 85, 
86, 89, 304, 313 ii. 114. 

Conrad, Captain, ii. 383. 

Consistory, i. 240, 242. 

Constantinople, ii. 392. 

Convention of Albany, i. 349, 350, 351, 
352 provincial, ii. 262. 

Cook, Sophia, ii. 464. 

Cooper, Rev. Charles D., ii. 154. 

, General, ii. 382. 

, John Taylor, ii. 153. 

Coote, Richard, see Bellomont, Earl 

Copper Mine, Schuyler s, ii. 192, 217. 

Cork, Ireland, ii. 256. 

Corlaer, Indian name for Governor of 
New York, ii. 184. 

, i. 322, 355, 390, 470, 475, 477. 

Corlaer s Hook, ii. 294. 

Cornbury, Viscount (Edward Hyde), 
Governor of New York, 1702-08, i. 
263-268, 296 ii. 7, 11-13, J 6, 22, 
101, 131, 133, 142, 350, 351, 357 ap 
pointed Governor, 12 conference 
with Five Nations, 13 visits Sara 
toga, in. 

Cornelis (Indian), 298. 

Cornell University, i. 466 ii. 395, 

Cortlandt, see Van Cortlandt. 

, Col., i. 483. 

, Mr., i. 496. 

Manor, i. 199, 201, 294 ii. 432. 

Cornwall, ii. 216. 

Corwin, Manual of the Reformed 
(Dutch) Church, ii. 491. 

Cosby, Colonel William, Governor of 
New York, 1732-1736, 1.508 ii. 112. 

Cossacks, the, ii. 393. 

Coster, Magdalina, ii. 245. 

Cotterel, Sir Charles, ii. 34. 

Coudewater, Manor of, 208. 

Council, the, i. 239, 241, 242, 245, 252, 
2 54, 255, 256, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 
266, 267, 268, 269, 270. 272, 273, 275, 
286 address Governor Clinton, ii. 



Counts Buren, ii. 336. 
County of Buren, i. 208, 209. 
Courcelle, M. de, invades Mohawk 
country, i. 315 failure, 316, 317, 318. 
Courland, Dukes of, 187-189. 
Court of Appeals, ii. 383. 

of Common Pleas, ii. 357. 
of Errors, ii. 357. 
Coventry, ship, ii. 213, 214. 
Coveville, ii. 97. 
Cowboys, i. 202, 204. 
Cox, Daniel, ii. 131, 133. 
Craggs, Secretary, ii. 67, 68, 69. 
Craig, Henry S., ii. 200. 
Crailo, i. 206, 207, 208, 223, 224. 

- (Greenbush), i. 235. 
Crampton, Hannah (Scrivener), ii. 

430, 4-10. 

Crawford, Captain, ii. 382. 
Cregier, Martin, i. 54, 55, 144, 145, 

146, 147. 

Crevier, M. , tortured, i. 433. 
Cromwell, Protector, i. 76, 77. 
Crook, George, General, ii. 394, 395. 

, John, ii. 166. 

Croon, Dirk Janssen, i. no. 
Crown Point, i. 368, 463 ii. 30, 112, 
121-123, 224, 259, 374 captured, 
124 soldiers stationed at, 182. 
Crowningshield, ii. 200. 
Crosby, Clarkson, ii. 153. 
Croton River, i. 198. 
Crvstal Hill, ii. 279, 363. 
Curacoa, i. 135, 339 ii. 296. 
Curler, see Van Curler. 
Gushing, General, ii. 152. 

, Miss, ii. 153. 

Cuyler, Anna, ii. 151. 

, Catherine, ii. 151, 243. 

, Charles, ii. 251. 

, Charles Henry, ii. 251. 
, Cornelis, ii. 240, 242 his 
family, 250, 251. 

-, Cornelis, Jr. , General in British 

Army, ii. 251. 

, Cornelius, ii. 278. 

, George Augustus, ii. 251. 

, Hendrick, ii. 250. 
. Jane, ii. 151. 

, John, ii. 256. 

, Nicholas, ii. 151. 

, Philip, ii. 256. 

, Rachel, ii. 461, 462. 

-, R. M. , ii. 401. 

, Sarah, ii. 339. 
Cuypers, Gerardus, Rev., ii. 171. 

Daggett, N., ii. 451. 
Dakota, ii. 366, 383. 
Dale, Sir Thomas, i. 88. 
Danforth, George S., ii. 488. 

Dankers, i. 56, note. 

&. Sluyter, journal of, i. 

Dan s Chamber, Danskamer, 
chamber, i. 147 ii. 190. 

Dartmoor Prison, ii. 496. 

Dartmouth, i. 268. 

Date Creek, ii. 394. 

D Aux, Chevalier, i. 372. 

Davenport, Rev. John, i. 66, 80, 89. 

David Hook, ii. 130. 

Davids, Christopher, i. 121. 

Davis, James, ii. 154. 
, James C., ii. 442. 
, J. S., Rev., ii. 171. 

Davitt s, ii. 183. 

Davos-Platz, ii. 385. 

Dean, Mary, ii. 152. 

Declaration of Independence, signers 
of, i. 287 the instrument, i. 227. 

De Decker, John, i. 176. 

Deerfield, destroyed, ii. 234. 

De Grood, Aagje, ii. 461, 462. 

De Hulter, farm, i. 170 see Hulter. 

Deivertje, ii. 305. 

Dekanissora, Onondaga sachem, i. 
4:5, 416, 418, 424_2/, 437,458, 469,475, 
501 ii. 5, 6, 51, 55, 61, 62, 64,228 
at Quebec, 419 indignation, 444 
cause of agitation, 476 ill-assorted 
marriage, 489 fearful of poison, 
495 in disgrace, 504 relates his 
experience in Canada, 4, 5 de 
graded, 94. 

De Kay, Thomas, ii. 169. 

De Key, Teunis, ii. 339. 

Delabogtealn, ii. 429. 

De Laet, Johanna, i. 155, 219, 220. 

, Johannes, the historian, i. 14, 

210, 212, 219. 

, Johannes, Jr., i. 213, 219. 

Delafield, Maturin L., ii. 284, 

De la Fortune, ii. 108. 

De Lancey family, ii. 342. 

, Bishop, ii. 356. 

, James, Lieutenant-Governor 

of New York, i. 202, 281, 508 ii. 
108, 128, 158, 259. 

, Oliver, i. 202, 204. 

, Stephen, i. 201. 

De la Noye, Peter, i. 191. 

Delavan, Edward C. , ii. 154. 

Delaware, i. 56, 78, 394 see Swedes. 

Bay, i. 4, 8, 13, 33, 34, 58, 79, 

201 colonies on, 33-65 discovered 
by Hudson, 4. 

. country, i. 59, 60. 

-. River, i. 8, 14, 31, 38, 41, 45, 46, 
48, 49, 53- 55, 56, 63, 64, 71, 74, 85, 
92, 112, 132, 141, 292, 391 ii. 134, 
18}, 193. 209, 289. 

, fort on the, i. 10, 33. 

Dclawares, the, i. 121, 134. 



Delline, Henry, ii. 411. 
Dellemont, Marte, i. 160. 
Dellius, Dominie Godfrey, i. 299, 303, 
351, 407, 408, 453, 459, 461, 465, 493 
ii. 134, 148, 285 takes refuge in 
New England, 375, 381 petition, 
134, 135 land patent, 135 prohib 
ited from preaching, 139 mission 
ary work, 143 appeared before 
Assembly, 144 suspended, 145 
learned Mohawk language, 146 
farewell to Indian converts, ii, 148 
Commissioner to Frontenac, i. 
462, 466. 

De Luze, C. PI., ii. 245. 

De Meyer, Anna Catrina, ii. 293. 

, Deborah, ii. 293. 

, Elizabeth, i. 186 ii. 293, 306. 

, Henricus, ii. 293. 

, Nicholas, ii. 284 marriage, 
288 wedding festivities, ib. mer 
chant and miller, 289 complains of 
lawyers, ib. breaks the law, 289, 
290 prosecuted, 290 active in sur 
rendering New York to English, 
290 alderman, ib. he and his wife 
obtain notoriety, ib. house to be 
plundered, ib. extent of property, 
291, 292 appointed mayor, 292 
appointed councillor, ib. dead, ib. 
his will, 293. 

, William, ii. 293. 

Dempster, James, ii. 417. 

Denonville, Marquis, ii. 353 arrives 
in Canada, 325 prepares for war I 
on Senecas, 326 at Frontenac, 327 j 
expedition against Senecas, 328 
report to French ministry, 328, 329, 
330, 334 at Fort Frontenac, 435. 

Denver, ii. 384, 386. 

& Rio Grande Railroad, ^.384. 

Deool, Mrs., ii, 441, 442. 

De Peyster family, the, ii. 342. 

, Anna, ii. 469. 

, Catherine, i. 202. 

, Johannes, ii. 10, 41, 247. 
, John, ii. 462, 469. 

, Pierre, ii. 196. 

Depue, William, ii. 406. 

De Reimer, Machtelt, ii. 426. 

De Rider, Killian, ii. 105. 

De Ronde, Rev. Lamburttis, ii. 417, 
424, 425. 

De Ruyter, i. 135. 

Dervall, Johannes, i. 190. 

Des Moines, In., ii. 454. 

De Sille, Nicasius, ii. 302, 340. 
, Walburga, ii. 340. 

Detroit, i. 483. 

Deventer, i. 207. 

Devendorf, Charles A., ii. 407, 408. 

De Vries, David Pieterse, i. 16-18, 27, 

manager of Zwaanendal, 13, 14 
protest of, 19 ruined by Indian war, 
18 returns to Holland, ib. 
De Waag, man-of-war, i. 46. 
De Wandelier, Sara, ii. 371. 
De Winter, Bastiaen, i. 158. 
De Witt, John, i. 142. 
, Rachel, ii. 341. 
, Tjirck Claessen. 

142 11. 131. 

Dey, Esther, ii. 198. 

, Teunis, ii. 197. 

Dickinson, , ii. 405. 

, Ann Eliza (332), ii. 406. 

, Charles, ii. 406. 

, Cornelia R. (333), ii. 406. 

, Cornelius, ii. 406. 
, Dorcas (321), ii. 406. 
, Dorcas (326), ii. 406. 
Dieskau, defeated, ii. 122. 
Dimick, Deborah Palmer (Schuyler), 
ii. 418. 

, Ira, ii. 308, 418. 

, Philip bchuyler, ii. 418. 
, Susan Ann, ii. 418. 

Directors of New Amsterdam, 
-, list of, i. 507-509- 


Dirk, called Rode, ii. 136. 
Dirkse, Cornells, ii. 341. 
Dix, Lucy M., ii. 307. 

, Rev. Morgan, ii. 359. 

Doane, Bishop, ii. 222. 
, John, ii. 153. 

Dominie s Bouwery, ii. 346. 
Hoeck, ii. 346. 

Dominion of New England, i. 333, 335. 

Dongan, Colonel Thomas, Governor 
of New York, 1682-1688, i. 87, 166, 
192, 219, 245. 250, 274, 275, 277, 283, 
285, 293, 319, 323, 325, 327, 330, 337, 
363, 427, 507 ii. 96, 107-9, 129, 130, 
140, 165, 292, 293, 319, 323, 325, 327, 
33. 33 1 . 341. 457 spends winter at 
Albany, 331-3 relieved by Andros, 

Doove Gat, ii. 97, 125, 126. 

Kill, ii. 97. 

Dordrecht, ii. 373. 
Dorn, Jemima, ii. 482, 484. 
Dort, Synod of, ii. 359. 
Doughty, Rev. Francis, i. 29, 91. 
Douw, i. 138, 143. 

, Anne, ii. 416. 

-, Volkert Pieterse, ii. 416. 

Dovecot, ii. 97. 

Dragon, man-of-war, ii. 37. 

Drake, i. 304. 

, Ella, ii. 155. 

, Susan, ii. 154. 

Puane, James, ii. 214, 353. 
Dubeau, Captain, defeated, i. 455. 
Du Bois, Rev. Galterus, ii. 427, 428, 


Du Bois, Louis, ii. 285. 
Dubo, Louis, i. 140. 
Dudley, Charles E., ii. 380. 

, Governor, ii. 19, 24, 41 wants 
assistance, 53. 

-, Mr. , son of the Governor, visits 

Montreal, ii. 236. 

Observatory, ii. 380. 

Dug Springs, ii. 383. 
Duke of Cambridge, ii. 216. 

of York, i. 218 ii. 164, 349. 

Duke s farm, ii. 349. 

Duncan, Anna, ii. 400, 402. 

Dunkerkers, i. 13, 19. 

Dunscomb, William E., ii. 359. 

Dunstable, a fort burned at, ii. 234. 

Duryea, ii. 197. 

Dutch, the, i. 24, 32, 36, 38, 39, 40, 42, 
44, 47, 54, 63, 106, 107, 125, 126, 129, 
130, 131, 135, 148, 149, 151, 152, 163, 
305, 306, 308, 314, 320, 322, 330, 335, 
417 ii. 300 influence of, on Ameri 
can history, i. 87 supply Indians 
with weapons, 312. 

Bible and Records, ii. 315, 316. 

Colonial Records, translated, 

ii. 471. 

Church, i. 239, 240, 244 ii. 337, 
419, 420 at Albany, i. 158, 293, 303 
church property, 303 ii. 466- at 
New York, 380 ii. 456 of Schen- 
ectady, 286 at Schoharie, 488-491 
at Westminster, i. 238. 

Collegiate Church of New 

Edick, Elizabeth, ii. 244. 
Edmonds, Elizabeth, ii. 441, 442. 
Edward, Fort, i. 272, 373. 
j Edwards, Susanna, ii. 200. 
Eells, Edward, ii. 451. 
Egypt, ii. 276, 373. 
Elbertsen, Elbert, ii. 339. 
Elimburg, Fort, i. 38, 39, 42, 46. 
Elizabeth Island, i. 2. 
Elizabethtown, N. J., ii. 183, 192, 193, 

45. 45i- 
Elizabethtown Point, ii. 192, 193 

ferry, 216. 
Elk River, i. 55, 56. 
Elliott, Andrew, i. 509. 
Elmendorf, Catharine, ii. 379. 
, Peter, ii. 401. 
, Peter E., ii. 400. 

York, ii. 424, 425. 
language, i. 180. 

merchants, i. 4. 

minister, first ordained 

America, ii. 489. 

towns on Long Island, i. 30. 

East India Company, i. 31, 32, 

33- 34, 35, 36, 37, 39- 40, 41, 43, 44, 
49, 50, 52, 54, 55, 57, 58, 59, 60, 62, 
65, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 77, 93, 94, 
96 buys lands from the Indians on 
the Delaware River, 42 orders the 
Swedes to be driven from the river, 
45 furnishes a man-of-war, 46 on 
the verge of bankruptcy, 48. 

Dutchess Countv, i. 270, 282. 

Duval, Judic Henrietta, i. 208. 

Dyckhuyse, Swantie, ii. 191, 192, 205. 

Dyckman, Johannes, i. 103, 113, 175, 
176 ii. 330. 

East Indies, i. 258. 
Eastman, Clara, ii. 201. 
Eaton, Theophilus, i. 66. 
Ebbing, Jeronimus, i. 220 ii. 290. 
Ecker, Thomas, i. 179. 
Kddy, Samuel, ii. 153. 

Elting, John, ii. 171. 

Embassy, Dutch, to London, i. 238. 

Emden, ii. 316, 420. 

Emigration from Holland, i. 27. 

Endicott, i. 96. 

England, i. 71, 119, 194, 201, 205, 237, 
250, 251, 252, 254, 255, 257, 261, 262, 
263, 268, 269, 270, 277, 278, 289, 304, 
350, 384 begins to appreciate her 
colonies, ii. 122 escape to Hol 
land of non-conformists, i. 88 King 
and Queen, 335 meagre supplies, 
460 Protestant, 335 sends out a 
fleet, ii. 122 small aid to province, 
i. 430-1 strengthens military forces, 
432 visit of Mohawk chiefs, ii. 33- 
39 war with, of 1812, 447 war w ith 
France, i. 336. 

English, the, i. 9, 32, 37, 39, 41, 44, 45, 
47, 58, 60, 151, 153, 305, 306, 314, 
320, 325, 330. 

army, surrender, ii. 125. 

colonies, taught some lessons, 

n. 124. 

competition for influence with 
Indians, i. 480. 

Government, i. 323, 342 ap 
points boundary commissioners, 
333 policy with Five Nations, 1.321, 
322, 325. 

prisoners returned, i. 464. 

, profligate, ii. 141. 

traders captured by Denon- 

ville, i. 327. 

treatment of Indians, ii. 77. 

towns on Long Island, i. 30. 

Entail, laws abrogated by the Revo 
lution, i. 231. 

Episcopal Church, i. 203. 

Ericksen, Dominie, ii. 489. 
Reinhart, ii. 414. 

Eries (Indians) destroyed by Iroquois, 

i- 3 1 3- 
Erie Canal, i. 230. 



Erie, Lake, i. 261, 307, 313. 

Ernst Casimir of Nassau-Dillenburg, 

i- 43- 

Esopus, i. 31, 117, 169, 178, 190, 203, 
220, 247, 302, 347 289, 435. _ 

(Kingston), situation of, i. 31, 


, the new village, i. 120, 152 first 

fight at, 131 siege of, 132 treaty 
of peace, 135. 

Great, i. 137, 138. 

massacre, i. 141-143. 

war, i. 216. 

threatened, i. 438. 

Indians, i. 78, 134, 145 attack 

on, 147, 148 treat for peace, 150, 151. 
Europe, i. 321. 
Evans, George, i. 296. 

, Sarah, ii. 464, 465. 

Evening Post, ii. 385. 

Evertse, Jacob Cornells, Jr , i. 507. 

Kvertsen, Elsie Cuyler, ii. 154. 

Exchange Place, i. 118. 

Ezras (Indian), i. 298. 

Falmouth, ii. 216. 

Fancher, Abigail, ii. 481, 482. 
, Martha, ii. 481, 482. 

Far Indians, in Albany, ii. 89. 

Farmer, sheriff, ii. 67. 

Farmon, Nellie M. , ii. 309. 

Fathers and Sons, ii. 392. 

Fauconier, Peter, ii. 131-133. 

Faugeres, Margaretta, ii. 174. 

Fendall, Governor, i. 53, 54, 55, 56. 

Fenwick, George, i. 69, 70, 79. 

Fifth Cavalry, ii. 393. 

Fire Island Inlet (L. I.), i. 50. 

Fish Creek, ii. 104, 117, 238. 

Fish Kill, outlet of Saratoga Lake, ii. 

Creek, i. 201. 

Five Nations (Indians), i. 9, 136, 199, 
247, 248, 253, 260, 261, 263, 264, 265, 
268, 288, 353, 354, 380, 381, 390 _f, 
395, 402, 406, 408, 463, 4651!. 7, 23, 
32, 61, 122, 146, 157. 378, 466, 467 
Iroquois confederacy, 305, 306 
origin, 307 description, 308 num 
bers, 309 war practices, 310 fight 
with Cham plain, 311 acquire fire 
arms, 312 overwhelm Algonquins, 
312 destroy the Hurons and Eries, 
313 treaties with Dutch and Eng 
lish, 314 invasion of Courcelle, 315 
invasion of de Tracy, 316 con 
quests south and west, 318 inva 
sion of de la Barre, 318 et seq. 
claimed as vassals by French and 
English, 320 conferences with Eng 
lish, 321 conciliated by French, 321 

et seq. policy, 322 importance of 
board of commissioners, 324, 325, 
326 as galley slaves. 327 supplied 
with guns by the English, 328 at 
tack Fort Frontenac, 329 torture 
of prisoners, 329 invade Montreal, 
329 invade Montreal again, 330 
island of Jesus invaded, 330, 332, 333 
conference with Andros, 334, 337 
message to Frontenac, i. 371 coun 
cil at Albany, 381 et seq. letter from 
Fletcher, 409 council with Wes- 
sels, $ii,etscq., 414 mode of mak 
ing presents to, 422 convention at 
Albany, 423 peace with French, 
424 census, 1689, 427 conference 
at Albany, 443 memorandum of 
casualties, 446 destitution, 453 
presents from English, 454 demor 
alized, 456 report on, 457 to bury 
the hatchet, 459 friendship for 
Schuyler, 467 Bellomont s corre 
spondence, 469 negotiations with 
French, 472 et seq. release of pris 
oners, 476 et seq. threatened, 481, 
482, 483 reasons for deserting the 
Dutch, 484 estimate of French and 
English, 485 camp rumors, 486 
complaints of the French, 490 ask 
for Protestant minister, 493 chil 
dren under control of wives, 494 
sullen, 497 project of a fort among, 
501 et seq. lost, ii. 2 in good dis 
position, 3 tribal divisions, 36 iri 
council, 43 a jolly crew, 46 re 
lated to the Tuscarora Indians, 50 
going to war, 51 excited, 52 
wish to punish Flatheads, 53 to 
hold secret meeting, 54 shelter 
Tuscaroras, 56 only barrier, 62 
danger of being lost, 74 relations 
with, serious, 76 becoming weak 
er, 86 seven hundred in Canada, 
107 a belt to be sent, 183 give 
lands to Shawanoes, 190 to restrain 
Eastern Indians, 234 urged to war 
on Abenakis, 235 they decline, 235, 

Flatbush, i. 29 ii. 205. 

Flathead Indians, ii. 53, 61, 86. 

Flatlands (L. I.), i. 28. 

Flatts, the, i. 101, 154, 162, 224, 225, 
373 Mrs. Grant s description, 156 
bill of sale, 157 deed, 158. 

Flax Mill, ii. 258. 

Fletcher, Colonel Benjamin, Gover 
nor of New York, 1692-1698, i. 196, 
199, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 257, 
258, 265, 339, 393, 413, 421, 427, 442, 
443, 451 ff, 453, 466, 508 ii. 100, 
137, 140, 141, 145, 186, 349, 437 
gov. of Penn. and Del., i. 394 



at Schenectady, 402 recommends 
Schuyler, 403 energy, 404 coun 
cils with Indians, 405, 406 restores 
English prestige, 407 Schuyler s 
letter, 408 letter of Indians, 409 
council at Albany, 420 convention 
at Albany, 421 ct scq. changes in 
commissions, 431 writes of In 
dians, 434 promises, 438 indigna 
tion, 444 council at Albany, 454 
painful journey, 455 returns to 
New York, 458 entertains Indians, 
459 sends flag of truce to Canada, 
459 appoints day of thanksgiving, 
460 end of administration, 460 
antipathy of Bellomont, 461 visited 
by long-absent Indians, ii. 186. 

Flodder, Jansc, i. 104. 

Florida, i. 318. 

, N. Y., ii. 479, 492, 493. 

Flushing, i. 29. 

Fockens, Grietje, ii. 435. 

Fonda, i. 298. 

Ford, ii. 374. 

Foreman, Mary G., ii. 401. 

Forest Hill Cemetery, ii. 252. 

Forsyth, ii. 383. 

Fort, at Albany, i. 8 ii. 16, in. 

Anne, at Albany, ii. 17. 

Ann, ii. 237, 403. 

at Canastagione, ii. in. 

Chambey, i. 384, 385, 386, 396 
ii. 114, 224. 

Chambly, skirmish at, i. 440. 

Clinton, ii. 120, 123, 127, 158, 

209, 254, 315 burned, 121 de 
stroyed, 159. 

Crown Point, ii. 266. 

D. A. Russell, ii. 393. 

Dayton, ii. 474, 476. 

Edward, i. 272, 273 ii. 115, 

122, 123, 128, 211, 259, 269, 325. 

Elsinburg, i. 38, 39, 42, 46. 

at Esopus, i. 31. 

Fetterman, ii. 394. 

Frontenac, ii. 16, 211 to be 

abandoned, 29. 

George, ii. 403. 

Half Moon, ii. in. 

Hardy, ii. 127, 128, 129. 

Hays, ii. 394. 

Herkimer, ii. 471. 

Laramie, ii. 395. 

McKinney, ii. 395. 
Miller, ii. 128, 248. 

Nassau, i. 10, 33. 

Niagara, ii. 75, 83, 122. 

Nicholson, ii. 30. 

Onondaga, ii. 83. 

Orange, i. 32, 215, 216 ii. 


Fort Saratoga, ii. 17, 112, 128, 238 
abandoned, 113 well built, 118. 

at Schaghticoke, ii. 17. 

at Schenectady, ii. in. 

, the, at Schoharie, Ii. 488, 489. 
Schuyler, ii. 235 relief of, 474- 

Fort Sidney, ii. 394. 

Stanwix, ii. 134, 266, 270, 474- 


St. Frederick, 

112, 114, 

119, 122, 374 to be captured, 113. 
- , at Stillwater, ii. 123, 128. 

Ticonderoga, ii. 265 taken, 

124 abandoned, 269. 

. Wayne, ii. 381. 

William Henry, ii. 123. 

Fort, Family, the, ii. 367-376 their 
genealogy, 371. 

1 Abby Rogers, ii. 373. 

, Abraham (4), ii. 370, 371, 375. 

, Abraham (12), ii. 372. 

, Abraham (23), ii. 372. 

, Anna (2), ii. 370, 371. 

, Annatje (2), ii. 371. 

, Annatje (20), ii. 372. 

, Annatje (30), ii. 307, 367, 372, 

373- 376. 

, Daniel (8), ii. 370, 371. 

, Elizabeth (10), ii. 371. 

, Eveline (24), ii. 372. 

, Harman (14), ii. 372, 373, 374, 



, Henderika (25), ii. 307, 

372, 417- 

, Isak (9), ii. 370, 371. 

-, Jacob (6), ii. 370, 371, 372, 374, 


Jacob (19), ii. 372. 
, Jacob (27), ii. 372, 374. 
, Jane (22), ii. 372. 
, Jenny (21), ii. 372. 
, Johannes (3), ii. 370, 371, 
, Johannes (n), ii. 371. 
, Leendert (15), ii. 372. 
, Margaret (13), ii. 372. 
, Margaret (16), ii. 372. 
, Maritje (28), ii. 372. 


Peter Schuyler, ii. 30, 31. 

, Maritje (31), ii. 372. 

- , Margriet, ii. 370, 371. 

- , Margreta (29), ii. 372. 
-- , Mary (7), ii. 370, 371. 

- , Nicholas (5), ii. 370, 371, 375. 

- , Saartje (Sara) (18), ii. 372. 

- -- , Sara (26), ii. 151, 372. 

- -, Simon, ii. 375. 

Forte, Jean, alias Liberte (i), ii. 367, 

369- 370, 37i- 374- 
Forts at Saratoga, where located, ii. 


Foster, George W., ii. 449. 
Four Peaks, ii. 394. 



France, i. 325, 326, 353, 383, 384. 

, New, i. 315, 318, 319, 324, 325. 

, King of, relieves cle la Barrc, 

i. 325 instructions to Denonville, 


, Indians sent to, i. 334. 

-, war with England, i. 335. 

, Wessel s story of invasion, ; 


, help to Canada, i. 430. 

, annual supplies from, i. 460. 

Fransorra, ii. 100. 

Fredericks, Evalina, ii. 482, 484. 

Frederickstadt, i. 138. 

Freeman, Rev. Mr., i. 492. 

Freedoms and Exemptions, statute of, j 
i. ii, 171, 177, 209, 212. 

Frelinghouse (Frelinghuysen), Eliza- ; 
beth, ii. 422. 

Frelinghuysen, Theodore, ii. 422. 

, Theodore, chancellor, ii. 421. 

, Rev. Theodorus, ii. 415, 416, 


, Rev. Theodorus Jacob, ii. 419, ; 


Fremont (Frymoet), Job. Casparus, ; 
ii. 416, 419. 

, General John C., ii. 423. 

French, the, i. 136, 155, 161, 167, 169. 
194, 304, 35, SO 6 - 313, 314, 3 l6 , 317, 
3 2 9, 336, 337, 352, 39i, 483 in Can 
ada, 32 explorations, 320 policy 
with Five Nations, 321, 322, 326 
expedition against Senecas, 326 et 
sey. in consternation, 330 pre 
pare to attack Albany, 331 prison 
ers, 334 scenes at Onondaga, 372 
at La Prairie, 385 et sec/. loss, 
388 enterprise, 395 attack Mo 
hawks, 397, 399 loss in Mohawk 
expedition, 402, 407 ct seq. repair 
forts, 487 insincerity, 490 peace 
with, 423, 424 order of march, 
448 the emissaries, 458 prison 
ers, 462 continue the war, ii. 122. 

and Indians, i. 346, 348. 

agents, ii. 6. 

Canadians, i. 32, 247, 264, 291. 

Church, New Rochelle, ii. 149. 

government, claimed Lake 

Champlain, ii. 112 appoints boun 
dary commissioners, i. 333. 

proselytes, ii. 18 commit mur 
ders at Schaghticoke, 48. 

Protestants in Bushwick, i. 29. i 

refugees, ii. 108. 

Indians, ii. 158. 

reported in Minisink, ii. 188. 

and Indian War, ii. 259. 

, proposed Indian alliance with, 

ii. 467. 

, Roger, ii. 430. 

Friesland, i. 43, 207. 

Frontenac, Count cle, i 318, 330, 349, 
353- 355. 358, 37i- 375- 383, 389, 39* , 
395. 397, 407, 408, ai3, 415- 4*8, 424, 
462 ii. 143, 226, 227 sends delega 
tion to Onondaga, 372 receives 
Iroquois deputation, 419 influence 
over Indians, 420 sends envoys to 
Onondaga, 425 alarms Albany, 434 
restored to Canada, 436 activity, 
438 scouting parties, 439 ct scq. 
roast Iroquois, 440 reoccupies Ca- 
daroqui, 441 success of, 445 pre 
pares winter campaign, 446 ct seq,- 
bodily weakness of, 449 inhumanly 
of, 450 retreats, 450 roasts an In 
dian, 451 designs against New 
York, 453 receives flag of truce, 
459 receives commissioners, 464 
to Bellomont, 465, 468 receives 
letter by Johannes Schuyler, 470 
death of, 472 dreams of, ii. 78. 
-, Fort. See Kingston and Cada- 

raqui, i. 319, 326, 371, 419 Denon 
ville at, 327- -attacked by Iroquois, 
329 established, 435 destroyed, 
436 famine, 482. 

Frote, Jean de, ii. 369. " 

Frymoet, Johannes Casparus, ii. 422. 

Frymuth, ii. 422. 

Funerals, 112. 

Fur trade, the, 136. 

Gale, John C. , ii. 406. 
Gallows Hill, ii 278. 
Gansevoort, Ann, ii. 401. 
, Ariantie, ii. 401. 

, Catherine, ii. 401. 
, Colonel, ii. 474. 

, Elizabeth, ii. 401. 
, Elsie, ii. 401. 

, Eveline, ii. 400, 401. 

, Harme, ii. 130. 

, Johannes, ii. 401. 

, Leonard, ii. 400, 401. 

, Maria, ii. 401. 

, Rachel, ii. 401. 

, Rcnsselaer, ii. 401. 
Gardenier, i. 104. 
Gardiner, Fanny Foy, ii. 409. 

, Henrietta Schuyler, ii. 409. 

, Lion, i. 66, 68, 69, 89 ii. 412. 

, Mary Miller, ii. 310, 395, 409. 

, Samuel H. , ii. 409, 412. 
Gardiner s Island, ii. 412. 
Garmo, Pierre de, ii. 109. 

Garrison, , ii. 198. 

Gates, General, i. 287 ii. 125, 126, 268, 
270, 326, 404, 477 appointed to 
army of Canada, 268. 
, Sir Thomas, 88. 


Gassam, George G., ii. 152. 

Gelderland, i. 28, 163, 171,206 ii. 336 
History of, 171. 

Genealogical and Biographical Re 
cord, ii. 195. 

table, Fort Family, ii. 371 

Arent Schuyler, ii. 196 Brant j 
Schuyler, ii. 171 David Schuyler, j 
ii. 461 Jacob Schuyler, ii. 481 
Johannes Schuyler, ii, 242-245 
Peter Schuyler, ii. 150 -Philip 
Pieterse Schuyler, i. 185 Philip j 
Schuyler second, ii. 306 Philip j 
Schuyler second in the female line, 
396 Scribner Family, 440. 

Genesee River, ii. 281. 

Genet, Maria, ii. 400. 

Geneva, ii. 395. 

George of Hanover, King, ii. 56. 
, Lake, i. 312, 316, 395. 

Geographical Societies, ii. 393. 

Georgias, i. 92 ii. 86, 445. 

Gerard, J. W., ii. 347. 

German Flats, i. 306. 

Germans in the Mohawk Valley, ii. 


Germany, i. 276. 

Gerritse, Goosen. See Van Schaick. 
Ghyse, Joachim, Rear-Admiral, ii. 


Gideon, ii. 286. 

Gila River, ii. 394. 

Gilbert, Sir Humphrey, i. 2. 

Giltnar, Eleanor, ii. 307. 

Gladding, Emeline L. , ii. 407. 

Glen, Jacob, ii. 240, 247, 257. 

~ Jacob S., ii. 400. 

, Johannes, i. 474. 

, John, ii. 105. 

, Capt. Sander, i. 359, 362, 363 

ii. 224. 

Godyn, Samuel, i. 12, 13, 53, 210. 

Goes, Jan Tysen, ii. 332. 

Golden Otter, the ship, i. 338. 

Gomarists, the, i. 9. 

Gonzales, Benjamin, ii. 449, 450. 

Good Hope, Fort of, 65, 67, 77. 

Goods seized by guard, ii. 314. 

Goose Creek, ii. 394. 

Goossen, Geertjien, i. 115. 

, Gerrit, i. 115. 

, Sybrant, i. 115. 

, Anthony, i. 115. 

Gordon, Dowager Duchess of, ii. 437. 

Gosnal, Capt. Bartholomew, i. 2. 

Gourley, Maria, ii. 397. 

Gouverneur, Abraham, i. 340, 428 ii. [ 
342, 426, 428, 432, 434 elected ; 
speaker, ii. 8 reports on griev 
ances, 144 recorder, 168. 

, Alida, ii. 427. 

, Gerbrant Abraham, 11.428, 434. 

Gouverneur, Gertrude, ii. 428. 
, Isaac, ii. 173, 426, 428, 429, 

, Johanna (Low), ii. 429, 429, 

43 2 - 
, Magdalena (Hall), ii. 429, 436. 

, Magdalina, ii. 426. 

, Margrita, ii. 426, 430. 

, Maria, ii. 427, 432. 

, Maria Matilda, ii. 431. 

, Mary (Leisler), ii. 434. 

, Nathaniel, ii. 431. 

, Nicholas, ii. 342, 427, 428, 429, 


, Samuel, ii. 426, 427, 428, 431. 

, Sarah, ii. 430. 

, Sarie (Morris), ii. 427, 437. 
Governor s Island, i. ii. 
Governors of New York, list of, i. 507- 

Graham family, ii. 216. 

James, Attorney-General, i. 

192, 259 ii. 437. 
, Augustine, ii. 68 suspended, 

i. 496. 

Grande, Marie, ii. 368. 
Grant, Chauncy L., Jr., ii. 310. 

, Mrs., of Laggan, i. 155-156 

ii. 161, 250. 

Gravesend, i. 28, 91, 291. 
Great Carrying Place (Fort Edward), 

ii. in. 

Greece, ii. 392, 393. 
Greek Church, ii. 360. 
Green, Joshua, ii. 369. 

Mountain boys, ii. 124, 265. 

Greenbush, i. 225, 235, 346 ii. 159. 
Greenwich, i. 82 ii. 295. 
Bay, i. 73. 

Griffin, Martha A., ii. 309. 
Groenendyck, Peter, ii. 85. 
Groeneveld, manor of, i. 207. 
Groesbeck, Catherine, ii. 150. 

, Gerardus, ii. 105. 

, William Claes, ii. 461. 
Groesbeeck, Rev. David, ii. 359. 
Groot, Hester, ii. 414. 

, Symon, ii. 369. 

Grosvenor, , ii. 245. 

Ground Briefs, i. 116. 

Guard House at Carrying Place, ii. 

Guiana, i. 16. 

Guilder, the, i. ii value of, in Mas 
sachusetts, 2s. in 1646 = $5 now. 

Gustavus Adolphus, i. 34. 

Haarlem, i. 30. 

Hackensack, N. J., i. 17 ii. 490, 491, 
492, 493- 

River, ii. 217, 220. 

Haekinsackvs, the, i. 135. 
Haeghoort, Pastor, ii, 430, 431, 489. 



Hacrlem, ii. 289. 

Hague, The, i. 70, 208. 

Hale, Dr. David Morey, ii. 441. 

, Esther (Scribner), ii. 441. 

, Harriet P., ii. 442. 

Halfmoon, the ship, i. 4 Half Moon, 
the estate, i. 152, 153, 302, 390 ii. 

16, 370, 37i- 
Hall, John, ii. 436. 

(Gouverneur), Magdalena, ii. 

429, 436. 
Hamilton, Alexander, ii. 242, 273, 274, 

281, 283. 

County, i. 232. 

, Eliza, ii. 244. 

, Governor of New Jersey, i. 

422 ii. 208. 

, James A., ii. 283. 

-, Mary Morris, ii. 244. 

Hancock, John, ii. 319. 
Hand, Sally, ii. 400. 
Handsome Savage, the, ii. 278. 
Hannah, an Indian, ii. 136. 
Hanover Square, i. 338 ii. 207, 342. 
Hansen, Hendrick, i. 499 ii. 53, 137, 

, Maria, ii. 462, 463, 472. 

Hanyost (Schuyler), ii. 463, 473-477, 


Hardy, Governor, ii. 128, 129. 
Haring, ship, i. 187. 
Harison, Francis, ii. 69, 70. 
Harlem, ii. 436. 
Harper s Monthly^ ii. 347. 
Harper s Weekly, ii. 222. 
Harson, George, ii. 171. 
Hartford, i. 65, 66, 67, 71. 74, 77, 80, 

83, 190, 348 convention at, i. 73, 76 

treaty of, i. 41. 
Hartgers, Peter, ii. 340, 348. 

, Sytje, ii. 345. 

, Peter, ii. 348. 

Harvard College, i. 93, 227 ii. 217 

students captured, 166. 
Hastings, Lord, ii. 495. 
Hauck, Mary, ii. 465, 466. 
Haukens, Leonora, i. 208. 
Haverstraw, i. 295. 
Haverstroo, i. 201. 
Haviland, Colonel, ii. 123. 
Hawley, Betsey (Scribner), ii. 441, 

442, 452. 

, Thomas, ii. 441, 452. 

Haywood, George, ii. 399. 

, Melissa, ii. 402. 

Hazen, Colonel, ii. 326. 

, Moses, ii. 362. . 

Heathers, Mrs., i. 300. 

Heemstede, i. 29. 

Heermans, Augus-tine, i. 55, 56. 

, Ephraim, i. 56, ;/. 
, Jan (John), ii. 436. 

Heermans, John, ii. 429, 436. 

Hell Gate, ii. 346. 

Hendrick (Indian), i. 298, 299, 493 
ii. 36, 128, 138 secret agent, 54, 
55 visits Governor, 56 wishes to 
go to England, 57 restored, 76 
his Indian name, 143. 

Hendrikus, Rev., ii. 428. 

Henlopen, Cape, i. 12, 13, 53. 

Henry, John V., ii. 274. 

Herbitsen, Andries, i. no, 137, 138. 

Herkimer, Catherine, ii. 463, 464. 

, Elizabeth Barbara, ii. 462, 463. 

, Johann Jost, ii. 473, 474. 

, General Nicholas, ii. 473, 474, 


Herrick, Harriet, ii. 484, 487. 
Heyes, Captain, i. 13. 
Hieronimus, ii. 318. 
Highlands, the, i. 5, 201, 295. 
Hill, Col., ii. 403. 

, General, ii. 47. 

Hillhouse, Harriet, ii. 153. 
Hilliche, ii. 147. 
Hilts, Lydia, ii. 199. 
Hinckly, Dr. John W., ii. 465. 
Hinoyossa, i. 57, 58, 59, 60, 61 i. 62, 


History of Redemption, ii. 363. 
Hitchcock, Caroline E., ii. 443. 

, Clinton, ii. 443. 

-, Ira, ii. 244. 

Hitts, Elane, ii. 481, 483. 

Hobart College, ii. 222. 

Hoes, , ii. 332. 

Hollaendare, Peter, i. 37. 

Holland, i. 36, 43, 45, 49, 57, 58, 59, 
62, 64, 67, 70, 74, 84, 85, 87, 88, 89, 
90, 109, ii2, 114, 153, 157, 163, 171, 
175, 176, 177, 178, 180, 210, 243, 293 
-ii. 149, 291, 329, 345 contest with 
Spain, i. 4, 5 party strife in, 9 a 
refuge for the persecuted, 88 its 
educational system, 89 its enlight 
ened political and religious views, 
90 its commercial supremacy, 92 
municipal privileges of, 92, 93 love 
of learning in, 94, 95 Schuylers in, 
99 baptismal names in, 100. 

, University of, i. 237. 

-, Henry, Captain English army, 

i. 297. 

, Hitchen, English officer, i. 301. 

, Stadtholder of, i. 335. 

Holmes, George, i. 35. 

, Oliver Wendell, ii. 319. 

, Robert, ii. 402. 

Holy ,and, ii. 373. 
Honduras, ii. 251. 
Honyost. See Hanyost. 
Hooges, Antonide, i. 182. 
Hooker, Rev. Mr., i. 67, 89. 


Hoosac River, i. 233, 305. 

Horehill, Fort, i. 58, 64. 

Horekill, 13. 

Hottest month, 1775, 1793, ii. 418. 

Hough, Alexander H., ii. 403. 

Housatonic River, ii. 131, 332. 

House, Hendriek, i. 467. 

Howe, jemima, Mrs., ii. 211. 
/Lord, i. 155 ii 249. 

Hoyt, William, ii. 201. 

Huclde, Andries, i. 39, 40, 48. 

Hudson, Henry, i. 4, 5, 304, 310. 

City, i. 237. 

- River, i. 5, 7, 12, -4, 31, 38, 74, 
78, 79, 86, 87, 102, 121, 201, 209, 219, 
229, 232, 235, 245, 272, 274, 281, 305, 
306, 310, 311, 395, 401, 402, 426 ii. 

Hughs, Colonel, ii. 319. 

Huguenot, French, i. 201. 

Huguenots, i. 31, 49, 324 ii. 373. 

banished, ii. 99. 

settle near Albany, ii. 99. 

Hull, George, ii. 409. 

Humbert, Jonas, ii. 357. 

Hun, Abraham, ii. 401. 
, Elizabeth, ii. 400. 

Hungerford.Diecy, i. 192, 196. 

Hunt, Eliza L., ii. 154. 

Hunter, Grace, ii. 243. 

, Mary, ii. 197. 

, Col. Robert, appointed gov 
ernor, ii. 40 his first conference 
with Five Nations and others, ii. 40 
holds conference with Indians, 
46 directs forts to be built, 48 
loaded supply ships, id. not sur- i 
prised, 49 protects the borders, 
ib. hurries to Albany, 51 built 
forts, 54 at Indian conference, 56 
alarmed, 57 unhappy, ib. re 
plies to Hendriek, ib. makes a 
compromise, 58 last conference, 
63 goes home, 63 alarmed, 67 , 
arrangement with Burnet, 79. 

, Brigadier Robert, Governor 

of New York, 1710-1719, i. 267, 
268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 276, 277, 278, 
279, 280, 283, 289, 290, 299, 508 ii. 
33, 42, 45, 47, 60, 64, 66, 72, 75, 81, 
142, 215, 258, 286, 351, 468. 

, Thomas Mulford, ii. 465. 

Hunterfield patent, the, ii. 469. 

Hurd, Edgar H., ii. 201. 

, Lucy S., ii. 309. 

Hurley, i. 139, 162 . 

Huron, lake, i. 261, 311. 

Hurons, the, i. 311, 312 overwhelmed 
by Iroquois, 313. 

Hutchings, John, ii. TO, 12. 

Hutchinson, Mrs. Ann, i. 28, 91. 

, the historian, ii. 233. 

Hulter, Johan dc, i. 105, 122, 220. 
, Mme. de, i. 158. 

Hyde, Edward, i. 508. 

Iberville, M. d , ii. 16. 

Illinois River, i. 318. 

Indiana, ii. 447, 449, 450 pioneer 
history of, 455. 

Indian affairs, i. 322, 324, 331 com 
missioner of, 297 board of, 420 
board of commissioners reorgan 
ized, 452 board of commissioners, 
report, 457 board of commission 
ers, 472 commissioners report to 
Bellomont, 485 et seq. cost of ex 
pedition, 487 board of commis 
sioners, new instructions, 496 
board, 297 ii. 468. 

Indians, chiefs in England, ii. 34 
their address to the Queen, 
ib, names of, 36 farewell ad 
dresses, with their tokens, 35, 36 
couriers, 418 deeds, 117, 258 ii. 
131, 133, 135, 136, 140 defiance, 450 
fights, 439 et scq. fisheries, 485 
invasion, 1655, 298 mail carriers, 
232 names, 274 nations of New 
England, annihilated, 228 orators, 
466 proselytes, camels of the des 
ert, 313 slaves, 193 speeches, 412, 
413 trade, 102 ii. 457 war of 
1643, i. 18, 28 ii. 294 aid the Dutch 
against the Swedes, i. 40 sell lands 
on the Delaware to the Dutch, 42 
Abenaki, 447 Christian, 489 in 
crease, 492 Connecticut, 155 Del- 
awares, 314 drunken, 140 expen 
sive soldiers, 393 raids in Canada, 
396 the Five Nations, 247 fond of 
news, ii. 54 Highland, i. 198 Hu 
ron, 447 Illinois, march to attack 
Iroquois. 319 Long Island, 146, 
148 Mohawk, 102 Mohegan, 245, 
274 of New England, 312 Onon- 
dagas and Senecas, 288 praying, 
416 raids of, 31, 32 sale of lands 
in New Jersey, 24 Schaghticoke, 
233 Senecas, 290 survey of the, 
with whom the Dutch had to deal, 
304-335 want ministers, ii. 490. 

Ingham, Harriet A., ii. 484, 486. 

Ingoldesby, Richard, Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor of New York, i. 296, 377, 378, 
390, 395. 397, 398 ii- 26, 47, 351 
council at Albany, i. 390 bad mili 
tary policy, 399, 407 absence with 
out leave, 495, 508 commission re 
voked, ii. 39 Acting Governor, ii. 

Ingnosedah, 5. 299. 

Intolerance of New England, i. 28-30. 



Ireland, ii. 256. 

Irish, ii. 264. 

Irondequoit Bay, i. 327, 328 ii. 85. 

Iroquois, sovereignty over, i. 471 
must be destroyed ii. 16 termed 
Six Nations, ii. 90 confederacy, 
305. See Five Nations and Shawa- 
noes bury the hatchet, 186. 

Irving, Washington, ii. 271, 328. 

Island, Great, of the Flatts, i. 161. 

Israel, ii. 374. 

Ithaca, N. Y., ii. 366, 367, 454. 

ackson, James, ii. 354. 
acobites, i. 248, 
acob (Indian), i. 493. 
acobs, Maurice, his aliases, John 
Binchson and Long Finn, i. 64. 
acobsen, Rutger, i. no, in. 
acquet, Jean Paul, i. 47, 48. 
amaica, i. 205. 
, L. I., i. 29 ii. 25. 

Johnson, Captain, i. 373. 

, Elenor, ii. 201. 

, Sir John, i. 236 ii. 266, 488. 
, Sir William, i. 118, 299, 453 

ii. 36, 76, 122, 123, 259, 264, 320, 321, 

470, 490. 

Johnsons, the, ii. 264. 
Johnston. Andrew, i. 203. 
, Dr. Mayor, ii. 67. 

ohnstown, N. Y., ii. 478. 
olive, John, ii. 451. 
onas, Tryn, ii. 338. 
oncaire, builds a fort in Seneca coun 
try, ii. 44. 
Jones, David, ii. 352. 

, Judge, i. 280 ii. 254, 255. 

, Richard, ii. 212. 

, Samuel, ii. 243. 

, Thomas, ii. 352, 356. 

, William, i. 338. 

James I., i. 254. 

James II. , i. 193, 194, 330, 332, 333, 

334- 335- 336, 337. 35- 
James River, i. 3 ii. 439. 

Jans, Anneke, i. 235, 286, 338 ii. 327, 

335- 342, 399. 457 and her Bouwery, 
337-361 a widow, and marries a 
second time, 337 and sister Maritje 
families connected with others, 338, 
342 removed to Albany, 345 death j 
and will, ib. patent of her farm, \ 
347 her heirs sell herbouwery, 348 i 
her heirs get a new patent, ib. \ 
suits by her heirs to recover the 
farm, 352, 361 her heirs send out 
agents, 355 her Bible and rings, ; 

, Maritje, i. 338 ii. 338, 340, 342. i 

Jansen, commissary, i. 37, 38, 39. 

, Roelof, ii. 337, 346. 

, Tryntjeji. 338. 

, Tymen, i. 338 ii. 338, 340, 

342, 343- 
, Volckert, i. 138. 

Jarret, Allan, ii. 68, 70, 71. 
auncy, Elsie A., ii. 154. 
ay, ii. 265. 

, the family, ii. 342. 

Jealousy of English merchants, i. 191. 
Jenkins, Anna, ii. 409. 
Jersey Blues, ii. 212. 
City, i. 292. 

Jerusalem, ii. 378. 
essup, Sarah, ii. 398. 
esuits, the, i. 249, 313, 322, 324, 334, 
381, 407, 408 ii. 145 influence on 
Indians, i. 479 false reports, 492. 
Jesuit missionaries, i. 298. 
Jesus, Island of, i. 330. 

Jonkman, D. , ii. 373. 

Joris, Adriaaen, Director-General of 

New Netherland, 1623-24, i. 26, 


Joseph (an Indian), ii. 138. 
Judiciary Committee, i. 284, 285. 
Jurian, i. 408. 

Kansas, ii. 381. 

River, ii. 386. 

Kellogg, Daniel, ii. 445. 
, Epenetus, ii. 445. 
, Phebe (Scribner), ii. 440, 445- 


, Samuel, ii. 445. 

Kelly, William S., ii. 406. 

Kemble, Gouverneur, ii. 172. 
, Peter, i. 201. 

Kennebec River, i. 3, 305 ii. 235. 

Kennedy, Archibald, Receiver-Gen 
eral, ii. 194, 215, 341. 

-, Archibald, Captain, ii. 197, 

213, 2I 4, 34i 
Kent, Rev. Elisha, ii. 443, 451. 

, James, Chancellor, ii. 254, 271, 

, Moss, ii. 451. 

Kent s Parish, ii. 443, 451. 

Kentucky, ii. 447. 

Kenyon, Nellie, ii. 155. 

Kerr, Walter, ii. 412. 

Ketcham, Julia McChain. ii. 307. 

Kettell s biographical sketches, ii. 174. 

Kettle, the Great, i. 447. 

Khokand, ii. 393. 

Kidd, Captain William, i. 251, 256, 
257, 258, 259, 261. 

Kieft, William, Director General of 
New Netherland, 1638-47, i. 189, 
211, 215, 292, 507 ii. 293, 368 di 
rects Indians to be killed, 294 in- 



dignant, 344 lost at sea, 345 i. 18, 
19, 22, 26, 27, 28, 29, 34, 35 In 
dian War, 19 recalled, 20 orders 
the expulsion of the English from 
New Netherland, 37, 38, 91 com 
plains of the Connecticut colony, 

Kierstede, ii. 357. 

, Blandina, ii. 339. 

, Elizabeth, i. 290. 

, Dr. Hans, i. 339 ii- 339, 348. 

, Hans, Jr., ii. 342. 

, the family, ii. 343. 
Kievet s Hoeck, i. 65. 
Kimball, Hattie, ii. 443. 
Kinderhook, i. 346, 455 ii. 129, 130, 

131, 132, 140, 336. 

Creek, ii. 129, 246, 332. 

Lake, ii. 335. 

King, Charles, ii. 393, 426. 

, Gertrude Wallace, ii. 310, 393. 

, Hendrick, ii. 286. 

, Henrietta Liston, ii. 426. 

, Rufus, ii. 273. 393. 

of France, i. 410 treatment of 

Indians, ii. 77. 

of Spain, dead, ii. 5. 

William III., i. 192, 266, 267 

ii. 170. 

Kings County, i. 377. 
King s farm, ii. 349. 
Kingsland, Hannah C., ii. 171. 
, Hester, ii. 196, 205, 471. 

, Isaac, ii. 192, 196, 205. 

, Mary C., ii. 199 

Kingston, Canada, see Cadaraqui and 

Fort Frontenac, i. 31, 120, 179, 247, 

304, 318, 319, 355 ii- 131, 189, 282, 

284, 328. 

, N. Y., ii. 435, 471. 

Kinnan, Mary, ii. 481, 482. 
Kinsale, ii. 251. 
Kintekoye, i. 140. 
Kip, Eliza, ii. 198. 

, Jacobus, i. 294. 

, Johannes, ii. 169. 

, Leonard, ii. 403. 

, the family, ii. 339. 

Kispauw, Ann, ii. 308. 
Kling, Moens, i. 37. 
Kneeland, Bessie, ii. 202. 
Knickerbaker, Johannes, i. 234. 
Knickerbacker, ii. 424, 425. 

, Herman, ii. 401. 

. Jannetie, ii. 340. 

Knickerbackers of Schaghticoke, ii. 

Knickerbocker, Dr., ii. 409. 

, Harmen Janse, ii. 130. 

Konigsmark, Count, i. 64. 
Kouassaden, Oneida Sachem, i. 411. 
Krom Kil, i. 154, 159. 

Kuer, Jacob, ii. 373. 
, Pieter, ii. 373. 

Kuldja, ii. 393. 
Kurney, Mercy, ii. 244. 

Labadists, i. 56 n. ii. 339. 

Lachine, i. 446. 

Lady of the Flatts, ii. 321. 

Laet, Johanna de, i. 120. 

La Famine, i. 319, 327. 

La Fleur, ii. 108, 109. 

Lafort, Marcus, ii. 369. 

La Fourt, Bartholomew, ii. 369. 

Lake Champlain, ii. 123, 135, 237, 264, 

George, ii. 37, 114, 115, 123, 

259, 267, 269, 274 327. 

St. Sacrament, ii. 114, 122. 

Lamb, Mrs. Martha J., ii. 284, 298. 
La Montagne, Johannes, i. 114, 115, 

144, 216 ii. 299, 300, 302, 304. 
La Motte, Isle, i. 373. 
Lancaster, ii. 251. 
Langdon, Eugene, ii. 245. 
Lansing, Abraham A., ii. 400, 401. 

, Abraham Douw, ii. 401. 

-, Angelica, ii. 153. 

, Ariantia, ii. 401. 

, Catherine, ii. 400, 401. 

-, Elsie, ii. 405, 406. 

-, Gertrude (Schuyler) (16), i. 

161 ii. 151. 

, Gertrude (Schuyler), (33), ii. 


, Isaac D. F., ii. 153. 

, Jacob, ii. 405. 

, John (Johannes), ii. 132, 150. 

, John A., ii. 416. 
-, John Jacob, ii. 306, 396, 404, 


-, Killian V. R., ii. 401. 
, Lena, ii. 406, 407. 

, Maria, ii. 400. 

, Rev. Nicholas, ii. 405. 

, Peter, ii. 160. 

, Philip, ii. 105. 

, Sanders, ii. 153. 

Lansinburgh, ii. 176. 

La Prairie, i. 155, 374, 384, 385 ii. 

224, Schuyler s fight, 385. 
La Salle, i. 435 ii. 109. 
Law prohibiting Canada trade, ii. 83, 

87, 88 to preserve Dutch records, 

261 for division of estates, ii. 104, 

Lawrence, Thomas, ii. 347. 

, Thomas, Jr., ii. 431, 438. 

, Warren. W. H. , ii. 310. 

Lawyer, Elizabeth, ii. 464. 
Lee, Charles, ii. 263. 
, General, ii. 265. 



Lees, Deborah, ii. 440. 

Le Fort. La Fort, dn Fort, ii. 368, 

369. See Fort, the family. 
Le Forte, Jacob, ii. 373. 
Legal fees, and fees charged, ii. 289. 
Leggett, Barthia, ii. 397, 398. 
Leisler, Catherine, i. 340 ii. 341. 

, Francina, i. 340, 

, Hester, i. 340 ii, 342, 434. 

, Jacob, i. 167, 168, 169, 191, 

193 ff; 201, 202, 203, 241, 242, 245, 

246, 247, 249, 250, 255, 337 ff. t 348, 
349, 460, 461, 508 ii. ii, 108, no, 
139. 143, I 6 4. * 66 > 172, 182, 223, 225, 
285, 292, 293, 328, 332, 340, 343, 396, 
426, 428,432, 458, 468 letter to Alba 
ny, 355^ scq. fails to gain Albany, 
357,359, 366,367 his commissioners 
at Albany, 368 patriotism, 369 fits 
out man-of-war, 369 alliance \vith 
New England, 370, 372, 375 arbi 
trary policy, 376 et scq. trial, 379 
execution, 380 assumes to be 
lieutenant - governor, 341 procla 
mation, 342 arrest of Bayard, 344 
dread in Albany, 345 express 
from Albany, 346 history of, 337 
captain of the fort, 339 comman- 
der-in-chief, 340 letter to conven 
tion, 350, 351, 352, 354 his burial, 
169 made a map, 213 possessed 
attractions and ability, 341. 
-, Mary, i. 340 ii. 341, 434. 

-, Susanna, i. 3401}. 341. 

Leislerians, i. 255, 256, 262, 263, 354. 
Lespinarde, Antoni, i. 331. 
Lespinard, Anthony, of Albany, ii. 

108, 109, 369. 
, A., intimate with Governor of 

Canada, ii. 109. 
Lewis, Governor Morgan, i. 290. 

, Morgan, ii. 353. 

, Thomas, i. 340. 

, Thorn, ii. 429. 

Lexington, ii. 263. 
Leyden, i. 88, 95. 

, University of, i. 95. 

Lievens, Annetje, i. 114, 115, 116, 153. 

, janssen, i. 114, 
Limburg, i. 100. 
Lindenwald, ii. 335. 
Ling, Matthew, ii. 9. 
Linn, Hetty, ii. 380. 
Lisbon, ii. 216. 
Lispenard, Abigail, ii. 380. 
Street, New York, i. 331 ii. 

Little Falls, i. 486 ii. 247. 

Rock, Ark., ii. 381, 449. 
Livingston, the family, i. 243, 286 ii. 

264, 265, 335. 
, Alida, i. 164, 296. 

Livingston, Angelica, i. 290. 
- , Brockholst, i. 287. 

, Captain, ii. 121. 
-- , Catherine, i. 227. 
-- , Edward, i. 288. 
-- , Engeltie, i. 236 ii. 339. 

Gilbert, i. 287 ii. 103, 105. 
~ames, i. 290. 
anet, i. 290. 
ohn, i. 286, 287, 290. 
. John H., i. 287. 

, Katharine B., ii. 203. 
-- , Margaret, ii. 105, 106, 132. 

, Margarita, ii. 414, 419. 

, Maturin, i. 290. 
--- , Mrs. Chancellor, ii. 284. 

- , Peter, i. 290. 

- - , Peter R., i. 290. 

- , Peter Van Brugh, i. 287. 

, Philip, i. 160, 227, 243, 271, 

280, 286, 288 ii. 103, in, 132, 133, 
247, 340- 

, Philip (second), i. 287. 
-, Philip, signer of Declaration 

of Independence, ii. 132, 

-, Robert, i. 166, 170, 179, 185, 

243-291, 296, 348, 352, 366, 367, 381, 
383, 392, 405, 407, 417, 460, 461, 465, 
466, 467, 478, 482, 483. 496, 498 ii. 
2, 17, 19, 22, 26, 94, 96, 99. 103, 105, 
126, 127, 138, 238, 285, 286, 315, 
458 his career and family, 243-291 
to Onondaga, 484 end of career, 
273 history of Livingston Manor, 
274-282 etscq. his great prosperity, 
285 ct scq. arrival in Albany, 243 
marriage, 243 ct scq. prominent in 
Dutch church, 244 acquires an es 
tate, 245 financial success, 246 
advances money for defence of Al 
bany, 247 in New England, trouble 
with Leisler,248 returns to Albany, 
249 shipwrecked, 250 in England, 
ib. presents claim to the Lords of 
Trade, 251 cold reception in Al 
bany, 252 complains to Duke of 
Shrewsbury, 253 reply to report of 
the Council, 254 changes his poli 
tics, 255 relations with Capt. Kidd, 
256 et scq. Bellomont s charges, 
258 et scq. skill in Indian affairs, 
260 ct scg. Indians ask that he be 
sent to England, 262 sails for Eng 
land, 263 captured by privateer, 
264 reinstated by Queen Anne, 
266 befriended by Governor Hun 
ter, 267 elected to Assembly, 267 
ct scq. manor repatented, 269 
claims paid, 270 elected speaker, 
ib. his son appointed secretary of 
Indian affairs, 271 friendship of 
Governor Burnet, 272 sends to 



President Schuyler a memorial, 

Livingston, Robert, Jr., i. 161, 288, 
291 ii. 67, 73, 104, 150, 257, 419, 

, Robert, third proprietor of 
manor, i. 280, 281, 282, 283, 286, 287 
ii. 132, 133, 217. 

-, Robert James, i. 290. 

, Robert R., Justice of the Su 
preme Court of the Colony, i. 287. 

, Robert R., Jr., Chancellor of 

the State of N. Y., Minister to 
France, i. 287, 288. 
, Rosanna, ii. 243. 

, Walter, ii. 151. 

. William, i. 285, 287, 288 war 

>r of N 

governor of New Jersey, ii. 132, 



Lowressen, Sergeant, i. 129, 130. 
Low, families, ii. 435. 

, Abraham, ii. 430, 435. 

, Annatje, ii. 435. 

, Anthony, ii. 435. 

, Cornelius, Sr., ii. 430, 432, 434, 

, Cornelius, Jr., ii. 426, 429, 

435, 436. 

, Elizabeth, ii. 397, 435. 

, Gertrude, ii. 431. 

, Helena, ii. 435. 

, Hendrick, ii. 435. 

-, Henrietta Liston (King), ii. 

Manor, i. 297 ii. 130, 140, 323, 
331 history and description of, i. 

Lockwood, Margaret, ii. 484, 487. 

, Mar ilia, ii. 482, 485. 

Lodwick, Charles, ii. 59, 60, 329. 

London, i. 66, 237, 238, 258, 264, 268. 

, Bishop of, i. 265. 

Company, i. 3. 

Long House, i. 307, 308, 310. 

Long Island, i. 7, 24, 41, 50, 70, 73, 77, 
82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 91, 132, 141, 151, 
199, 245, 257, 337, 426 ii. 281, 294, 
302, 440 Dutch towns on, i. 427 
settlement of, 28-30 English towns 
on, i. 30. 

Sound, i. 65, 66, 70, 85, 86. 

Longueil, M. de, i. 483. 

Lookermans, Anneke, wife of Olof 
Stevense Van Cortlandt, i. 188 ii. 

. Govert, i. 188, 338 ii. 339, 

34 v 34i, 342, 343, 348. 

, Jacob, i. 339 ii. 341, 342. 

, Jenetje, ii. 342. 

, Maritje, ii. 342. 

Lords Majors, the directors of the I 

West India Company, i. 15, 18.- 

Superiors, ii. 297. 

of Trade, i. 197, 251, 256, 258, j 

259, 260, 261, 263, 264, 265, 268, 271 | 

recommend a present, ii. 62. 
Lossing, Benson J., ii. 254, 256, 271, 

280, 284, 476, 477. 
Lost River, ii. 394. 

Louis XIV., i. 333, 334, 396, 431, 436. 
Lovelace, John, Lord, Governor of 

New York, 1708-1709, i. 267, 508 

ii. 26, 27, 40, 351. 
, Colonel Francis, Governor 

of New York, 1667-1673, i. 152, 

225, 507 ii. 129, 130, 348, 349, 352, 



, Isaac, ii. 429, 432. 

1 Johanna, ii. 431, 432. 

, Johanna (Gouverneur), ii. 426, 

429, 43 2 - 

, Johannes, ii. 435. 

-, John, ii. 430, 431. 

, Margaretta, ii. 430. 

, Margareta (Van Borsum), ii. 

432, 435- 

, Margreitje, ii. 435. 

, Maria, ii. 435. 

, Nicholas, ii. 426. 

, Nicolas, ii. 430. 

, Petrus, ii. 435. 

, Samuel, ii. 430. 

, Sarah, ii. 430, 432. 
Tymen, ii. 435. 

, Wilhelmus, ii. 430, 435. 

, William, ii. 431, 432. 

Countries, the " University of 

war," i. 89. 

Louwrens, Andries, i. 127. 
Lowndcs, Harriet, ii. 245. 
Lucas, Earl, ii. 309. 
Ludlow, William H., ii. 399. 
Lupton, William, ii. 171. 
Lutheran Church, ii. 490, 491 at 

Schoharie, i. 488. 
Luttrell, Narcissus, account of Indian 

kings, ii. 38. 
Luycas, Evert, ii. 129. 
Luzerne, Switzerland, ii. 454. 
Lydius, Rev. John Henry, ii. 115, 419, 


Lyman, Col., ii. 122. 
Lynn, ii. 206. 
Lyon, General, ii. 383. 

, Lucy, ii. 412. 

, Marcus, ii. 309, 412. 

Mabee, Maria, ii. 484, 486. 
McCartey, Abby, ii. 400. 

, Rebecca, ii.4OO. 

McCord, Margaret, ii. 464, 465. 
, Mary, ii. 464, 465. 

McConn, Maria, ii. 151. 



McDonald, John, ii. 276. 
McDowell, C. E., ii. 309. 

, Camp, ii. 393. 
McElroy, Archibald, ii. 256. 
McGregor, i. 203. 
McMaster, Kate, ii. 482, 484. 

, Robert P., ii. 154. 

Machin, Thomas, ii. 199. 

Maastricht, i. 100. 

Magazine of American Histon 

Magdalen Island, ii. 130. 

Maine, i. 92, 305, 335, 375 ii. 18, 122. 

Malcolm, Richard M., ii. 354. 

, Samuel, ii. 243, 283. 

, William, ii. 354. 

Manchester, Earl of, i. 79. 

Manchini, Kate, ii. 200, 202. 

Mandeville, , ii. 197. 

, Esther, ii. 307. 

Manhattan, i. 5, 7, 12, 18, 29, 30, 35, 
36, 45, 46, 83. 91, 92, 96, 117, 128, 
137, 144, 145, 151, 172, 175, 188, 210, 
211, 302, 426 ii. 246, 299, 304, 347 
fort on, i. 10, 27 purchase of, n 
diversity of languages in, i. 27. 

Mann, Rev. Duncan C., ii. 201. 

Map of Saratoga Patent found, ii. 

Maquas, i. 298 et scq. See Mohawks. 

Marcellus, J. W., ii. 309. 

Maricour, M., i. 472, 479, 491 ii. 4, 
5, 6, 228. _ 

Marin, M., ii. 114-117, 125, 127 com 
mands an expedition, 114 retreats, 

Mars, ii. 245. 

Marschalk, Elizabeth, ii. 462, 463. 

Marselis, Esther Ann, ii. 411. 
, Frances, ii. 411. 

Marselius, Anne, ii. 400. 

Marselus, Margaret, ii. 464. 

Marshall, Chief Justice, ii. 271. 

Martin, Abigail, ii. 484, 486. , 
, Ira Kingsley, ii. 154, 

Maryland, i. 29, 52, 56, 62,339, 369, 370, 
372, 391. 393 45. 46, 412, 424, 483 
contribution to war, 431 quota, 

43 2 - 

Mason, Capt. John, i. 68, 89. 

Massachusetts, i. 66, 71, 73, 76, 77, 
78, 80, 82, 91, 93, 230, 231, 235, 248, 
280-282, 335, 347, 375, 394, 395 ii. 
18, 24, 26, 122, 323, 450 delegates, 
i. 422 frontier of, ii. 112 General 
Court of, i. 79, 83 proposes a con 
ference, ii. 234 quota, i. 432 war 
contributions, 432, n. , 438 Schuy- 
ler s letter about Schenectady mas 
sacre, 360 et sey. , 366, 367, 369, 370 
seeks aid from Five Nations, ii. 

Massacre at Schenectady, i. 358. 
Mathews, Capt., i. 399, 401 ii. 187. 
Matiset, Indian sachem, ii. 184. 
Maurice, Prince of Nassau, i. 9, 239. 
May, Cape, i. 12. 

, Cornells, Director-General of 

New Netherland, 1624-1625, i. 26. 
, Margaret, ii. 495. 

Mayflower, the, i. 91. 

Matazal Mountains, ii. 394, 

Mead, Frederick, ii. 443. 
, Zalmon S., ii. 442. 

Mechanicsville, i. 153 ii. 96, 98. 

Mechanics and P armers Bank, ii. 330. 

Megapolensis, Rev. Johannes, i. 27, 
109, 129, 182, 214 ii. 246, 344. 

Melyn, Cornells, i. 17, 18, 24 ar 
rives, 17 patent for Staten Island, 
18, 19 ruined by Indian w r ar, 19 
banished, 20, 21 returns, 20, 21 
compromise, 21. 

Memoirs of an American lady, ii. 250. 

Memphis, ii. 222. 

Mennonites, i. 58, 64. 

Meppel, ii. 378. 

Mercurius, ship, i. 48. 

Merrimack, ii. 234. 

Mersalis, , ii. 199. 

Merselius, Guisbert, ii. 320. 

Mexican Central Railroad, ii. 385. 

Mexico, city of, ii. 385. 

Michilimakinac, ii. 89. 

Mico, John, ii. 318. 

Micldlebiirgh, N. Y. , ii. 488. 

Milborne, Capt. Jacob, i. 169, 241, 242, 
249, 340, 367-380 ii. 341 , 432 J acob, 
arrives at Albany, i. 349 calls on 
the convention, 350 attempts to get 
possession of the fort, 351, 352 ap 
pointed Commander-in-chief, 370, 
377 trial, 379 execution, 380. 

Milet, Jesuit missionary, i. 406, 408, 
409, 411, 414, 425, 450 ii. 146. 

Milford, Conn., ii. 444. 

Military Academy, ii. 393. 

Militia, i. 439. 

Milk Creek, ii. 395. 

Miller, Ann, ii. 198. 

, Catharine, ii. 398. 

, David, ii. 171. 

, John, i. 202. 

, Morris S., ii. 380. 

, Mrs., ii. 273. 

, Rutger B., ii. 358. 

Millick, Harriet A., ii. 202. 

Mincees, i. 120. 

Minisink country, ii. 183. 

, village, ii. 189. 

Minister, insult to a, ii. 421. 

Ministers licensed in Holland, ii. 420. 

Minnesota, ii. 280. 

Minuit, Peter, Director General of 



New Nethcrland, 1626-1632, i. 26, 
33, 42, 507 ii. 328 appointed direc 
tor of Swedish West India Com 
pany, i. 34 erects a fort, 35 death, I 


Minqua Kill, i. 34. 
Minquas, the, i. 135. 
Mispath, i. 29. 

Missionaries, Protestant, i. 492. 
Missionary, among Mohawks, ii. 54. 
Mississippi River, i. 310, 318. 
Moanagh, i. 201, 295. 
Mobile, Ala., ii. 449. 
Mohawk Castles, i. 595 attack on, 


chiefs in England, ii. 467. 

Indians, excited, ii. 51 uneasy, 

55 selling land, 135. 

lands, ii. 134. 
patent, ii. 140. 

proselytes, ii. 234, 

River, i. 118, 209, 211, 298, 306, 
311 ii. 133, 134, 264. 

Valley, i. 236 ii. 206, 471, 473, 

Moore, Sir Henry, i. 508 ii. 261. 
Morehouse, Harriet, ii. 407. 
Morris family, ii. 342, 427. 

, Catherine, ii. 244. 
, Gouverneur, ii. 438. 

, Colonel Lewis, ii. 436. 

, Lewis, Jr., ii. 59, 60, 430, 433, 

43 6 . 437. 438. 

-, Lewis, on Cornbury, ii. 25 

appointed judge, 58. 
, Maria, ii. 431, 438. 
, Captain Richard, ii. 436. 
-, Richard, ii. 436. 

, Sarie (Gouverneur), ii. 427, 

, Staats Long, ii. 437. 
-, William, ii. 10. 

476, 488. 

Mohawks, the Indians (Maquas), i. 8, 
32, 106, 118, 121, 133, 135, 144, 145, 
150, 190, 211, 298, 306-15, 351, 354, 
357, 358, 360, 367, 372, 373, 382, 383, 
3 8 4- 395-99- 466, 4841}. 419, 470, 
473 invasions from Canada, 315 
ct scq. removal to Canada, 324, 
329, 332 Christian, 381 action j 
with French, 400 refuse to ad- i 
vance, 401 decrease, 491 Prot- i 
estant, 493 disappearing, ii. 145. 

Mohegan Indians, i. 65, 68, 120, 133, 
135- 155. 211, 245, 274 ii. 229. 

Mompesson, Roger, ii. 58, 60, 133. 

Monckton, Major Gen. Robert, Gov 
ernor of New York, 1761-1763, i. 
508 ii. 215, 320, 321. 

Monroe, Amina, ii. 308. 

Montcalm, ii. 123, 209. 

Montgomerie, John, Governor of 
New York, 1728-1731, i. 508 ii. 106. 

Montgomery County, N. Y., ii. 195, 

, General, i. 291 ii. 124, 266, 

267, 408. 
Montreal, i. 290, 305, 319, 321, 322, 

326, 330, 346, 357, 367, 375, 383, 389, 

39L 395- 407, 41, 459 ii- 2 7- i9> 
123, 224, 266, 313 base of opera 
tions, i. 430 Captain Schuyler s 
visit, 471 return of Cadaraqui 
expedition, 442 prisoners burned, 

, Island of, invaded bylroquois, 

i. 329 second invasion, 3 3O. 
Moody, Lady, i. 28, 91. 
Moolman, Arie, ii. 431. 

Morrisania, ii. 427, 456, 437. 

Morristown. N. J., ii. 446. 

Morton, Washington, ii. 243, 273. 

Moscow, ii. 392. 

Mother Barbara, ii. 279. 

Motley, J. L. (the historian), i. 92. 

Muhlenburgh, Rev. Mr., 11.417. 

Muldrow, Samuel C., ii. 152. 

Munsell, Joel, i. 182 ii. 262. 

Munster, ii. 328. 

Murray, John, Earl of Dunmore, 1.509. 

Naarden, i. 206. 

Nngle, Peter, ii. 433. 

Names of children, ii. 459. 

Nanfan, John, Lieutenant-Governor 
of New York, i. 260, 261, 262, 263, 
268, 470, 476, 478, 480, 481, 488, 508 
ii. 2, 6, 7, 8, 12, 22, 165, 233. 

Narragansett Bay, i. 8. 

Indians, 1/75. 

River, i. 66, 69, 80, 81. 

Narrows, the, i. 4. 
Nash, Micajah, ii. 440. 
Nassau, i. 102 ii. 334, 336. 
, Dillenburg, i. 43 n. 

-, Fort, i. 33, 35, 37, 38, 39, 40,41, 


, Prince Maurice of, i. 9. 

Nederhorst, Herr, i. 16. 
Negro, the, i. 137. 

slave, who wished to live with 

Massa, ii. 192. 

-, Schuyler s, ii. 497. 

Nelson, John, i. 

Nether Dutch Church, ii. 164, 169. 

Netherlands, the, i. 3, 89 ii. 378. 

Neutral Ground, ii. 444. 

Neutrals (Indians), i. 313. 

Nevis. Island of, ii. 281. 

New Albany, Ind., ii. 446, 450,455 

foundation of, 447, 448. 
New Amstel, i. 52, 53, 55, 58, 61, 63. 
New Amsterdam, i. 16, 25, 27, 31, 32, 



33- 34, 36, 38, 40, 44. 45, 47, 48, 51. 
52, 59, r >3- 72, 73- 74, 84, 91, ", " 8 , 
120, 121, 132, 135, 175, 176, 187, 189, 
215, 216, 292 ii. 283, 294, 304, 316, 
337 population of, i. 33 becomes j 
New York, 85 Indian outbreak, I 
122 surrender of, 190 invaded, 
ii. 298. 

Newark, bay of, i. 17. 

New Barbadoes Neck, ii. 192, 205. 

New Brunswick, ii. 251, 422. 

Newburg, i. 201. 

New England, i. 65, 72, 74, 76, 78, 84, 
88, 90, 92, 96, 194, 247, 248, 249, 258, 
304, 320, 333, 335, 406, 412 ii. 18, | 
24,269, 304 education encouraged, 
93, 95 intolerance of, 28-30. 

path, ii. 129. 

colonies, i. 169. 

, colonies form a confederation, 

i. 71 confederacy of, 89. 

, Albany appeals to, i. 347 et 


Newenhuysen, Dominie, i. 239, 240. 

New Gottenburg, i. 38, 39. 

New Hampshire, i. 91 ii. 18, 322 
frontiers of, 112. 

New Haven, i. 37, 41, 67, 71, 72, 74, 
76, 77, 79, 80 colonists aggressive, 

New Jersey, i. 24, 31, 80, 121, 195, 
199, 201, 203, 287, 333, 394, 454 " 
27 churches of, 420 contribution 
to war, i. 431 quota, 432 quota 
of, ii. 208. 
Historical Society, i. 180, 181. 

New London, i. 79. 

New Netherland, i. 23, 27, 32, 33, 34, 
37, 52, 58, 60, 63, 64, 65 /., 90, 91, i 
96, 112, 127, 137, 151, 171, 207, 210, j 
214 ii. 288, 295 named, i. 7, 8, 10 j 
directors of, 26 toleration in, 
30 population of, 31-33 limited i 
educational privileges, 93, 94 
council of, 137, 152. 

New Orleans, ii. 449. 

New Plymouth, i. 66, 73. 

New Rochelle, ii. 147, 258. 

Newspapers, substitute for, i. 104. 

New Sweden, i. 35, 36, 37, 38, 44, 47, 

Newtown, i. 29. 

New Utrecht, i. 24. 

New Village, i. 137-142, 147, 151-52. ; 

New York, a defence to colonies, i. 
394 always the frontier, ii. 62 a 
royal province, 264 builds forts, \ 
28,29 capture of, 63, 64-^census, 
1698, i. 427, 428. 

Bay, i. 4. 

, Central, i. 307. 

City, i. 367, 368, 372. 

New York, colony of, burden of de 
fence on, ii. 207 condition of prov 
ince, 426 contribution to war, 432 
council in, 462 history of, 280. 

frontiers, ii. 112. 

Historical Society, ii. 93, 255. 

not recovered from last war, 

ii. 28. 

, the province, i. 322, 323, 325 

Denonville s plan for conquest, 329, 
330, 331 boundary question, 333 
added to Dominion, 333, 335 popu 
lation Protestant, 336, 337 revenue, 
429 rumors of war, 451. 

State, i. So, 86. 

-, the city, i. 331, 332, 334. 

the revolution, i. 341 ct set/., 

346, 347, 348. 

Times, ii. 222. 

, Western, i. 204. 

World, ii. 222. 

Niagara, ii. 78 block-house at, ion. 

, fort, i. 325, 327, 328 abandon 
ed, 329. 

River, i. 313. 

Nicholson, Fort, ii. 31. 

-, Francis, Lieutenant-Governor 

of New York, i. 336, 338, 340, 356, 
508 ii. 27, 32, 34, 35, 36, 45, 46, 48, 

49- 59- 94. in- 
Nicoll, Anna, i. 224, 225. 

, Mathias, ii. 436. 

, William, i. 195, 197, 224, 344, 

378 ii. 8, 167, 331. 
Nicolls, Richard, Governor of New 

York, 1664-1667, i. 84, 86, io3, 152, 

190, 303, 507 ii. 129, 290, 347, 348. 
Nieuwport, battle of, i. 207 medal of, 


Nieverville, ii. 117. 
Nine men, the, i. 189. 
Nipissings, ii. 117. 

Niskayuna, i. 179, 369, 390 ii. 16, 370. 
Nissepat, ii. 429, 436. 
Noble, Robert, i. 282. 
Noel, Thomas, Mayor, i. 198 ii. 8, 


No Popery, ii. 165. 
Normand s Creek, ii. 279. 
Norman s Kill, i. 102 ii. 469. 
North America, i. 308. 
Northampton County, Penn. , ii. 478. 
North Carolina, i. 30*9 ii. 50. 
Northern Department, ii. 264, 270. 
North Pacific Coast Railroad, ii. 384. 
Norton, Sophia E. , ii. 201. 
Nova Scotia, i. 305 ii. 122. 
Norwalk, Conn., ii. 439, 440, 444, 445, 


Nutten Island, ii. 299. 
Nyack, ii. 405. 
Nykerk, i. 100, 171, 178, 206, 207. 



Oaken cabinet, history of, i. 104, 105. 
O Callaghan, E. B., i. 176, 179 ii. 

Ogden, Catherine, i. 205. 

, David, ii. 431. 
, Gertrude, ii. 430. 

, Mary, ii. 197. 

-, R. H., ii. 244. 

, T. W., ii. 244. 
Oghrecghhoonge, i. 299. 
Ohio, i. 92. 

River, i. 310, 318, 484 ii. 122, 
280, 446, 447. 

Olden, Barneveldt, John of, i. 207. 
See Barneveldt. 

, Manor of, i. 207. 
Old Jan s land, ii. 337, 347. 
Oliver, Charles, ii. 196. 

. James, ii. 318. 

, Margaret, ii. 193. 

, Sarah, ii. 318. 
Oneida, i. 353. 

Indians, i. 306, 307, 309, 317, 
406, 407, 408 ii. 473, 477, 497 sub- j 
mil to Vaudreuil, 450. 

Camping place, ii. 133. 

Osborn, Catherine, ii. 407, 408. 

, Elizabeth, ii. 407, 408. 

, James H., ii. 407. 

Osborne, Sir Danvers, i. 508. 
Os\vego, i. 301 ii. 123, 208, 255, 259. 

, captured, ii. 209. 

, trading house at, ii. 314. 
River, i. 448. 

Ottawa Indians, i. 410, 448. 

River, i. 313. 
Otter Creek, i. 368, 395 ii. 135. 
River, ii. 114. 

Oyster Bay, i. 30, 73. 

Paauw, Director Michael, i. 12, 15, 30. 
Pacific Ocean, i. 281 the western 

boundary of Massachusetts, 78. 
Packwood, Sarah, ii. 152. 
Paine, M. F., 11.410. 
Palatine, N. Y., ii. 252. 

settlement, i. 268, 277^ 278. 

town, ii. 471. 

County, ii. 280. 

Lake, i. 306, 309, 502. 

River, ii. 134. 

Onion River, i. 481. 

Onondaga, i. 307, 334, 352, 353, 370, 

371, 408, 410, 418, 425"- 3 12 - 467 ! 

burned, i. 449 council fire, 322 j 

council at, 372, 468, 475 fort at, 

Palatines, the, i. 276, 277, 278, 297 ii. 


Palls, kept by Dutch church, 
Palmer, Bcriah, ii. 376. 

, Mary, ii. 307, 376. 

, William, ii. 244. 


County, ii. 362. 

Indians, i. 288, 306, 307, 309, 

311, 317, 319, 328, 330, 332, 346, 409, 

411 excited, 481. 

Lake, i. 449. 

salt spring, i. 499 seeking site 

for fort, 500. 
Onontio, Indian epithet for Governor 

of Canada, i. 322, 355 ii. 235. 
Ontario Lake, i. 261, 306, 307, 311, 

318, 319, 326 ii. 471. 
Oosterhout, Maritje, ii. 371. 
Oothotit, Abraham, ii. 405, 406. 

, Lansing, ii. 406. 
Orange, Fort, i. 32, 78, 102, 108, 113, 

116, 120, 126, 130, 133, 137, 144, 172, 

176, 178. 

, house of, i. 100. 

, Prince of, i. 40, 43, 89, 208, 

238, 248, 335/1, 339, 350. 
Orangien, Jan Fort, ii. 368. 
Ordinations, ii. 489. 
Orehaoue, Iroquois chief, i. 436. 
Oriskany Creek, ii. 133, 134. 
, battle of, ii. 134. 
patent, ii. 133. 
Osborn, Augusta, ii. 349. 

Parkman, Francis, i. 355 n, 
Parliament, ii. 262. 
Passaic River, ii. 192, 212, 220. 
Patcoke (Claverack), i. 455. 
Patroon, i. 226, 227, 228, 231 last pat- 

roon, 231. 
Patroons, i. 11-27, 3. 3 1 - 

, charter granted, i. 209. 

, colony, i. 24. 

Patterson, Cornelia, i. 231. 
, Judge William, i. 231. 

Patuxent River, i. 55. 

Pawcatuck River, i. 81, 86. 

Paulus Hook, i. 292. 

Pavonia, i. 12, 17, 31 ii. 294 destruc 
tion of, 31. 

Peace of Ryswyk, i. 459. 

Pearl Street, New York, i. 200 ii-342. 

Pearson, Prof. Jonathan, ii. 172, 261, 

Pedrom, ii. 251. 

Pelham, i. 91. 

Pels, Evert, ii. 348. 

Penn, William, i. 64. 

Pennsylvania, i. 64, 92, 201, 394, 404, 
406 ii. 86, 87, 122, 190. 
militia, ii. 268. 

Penny, Samuel, ii. 441. 
Pequannock, ii. 190, 193. 
Pequod Indians, i. 65, 67, 89, 96 the 
nation destroyed by the Dutch, 68. 
Perrot, Isle, i. 448. 
Perth Amboy, i. 203 ii. 190. 



Peter the Great, ii. 393. 
Peterboro, X. Y., i. 291 ii. 212. 
Philadelphia, i. 33, 37 ii. 495. 

Schuylers, ii. 495, 496. 

Philipsburg, i. 23, 127. 

Philipse, Adolph, i. 273, 341^". ii. 315, 
443 suspended from council, So- 
loyal, 82. 

, Eve, i. 190. 

, Frederick, i. 23, 87, 127, 190, 

193 ii. 290, 291. 

Phillips. Wendell, ii. 319. 

, E. E., ii. 203. 

Phil Sheridan, town of, ii. 386. 

Phipps, Frances, ii. 483, 485. 
, Sir William, i. 422. 

Pieterse, Philip, i. no. 

Pinchon, Colonel, i. 422. 

Pinhorne, William, ii. 135, 136, 137, 
140, 144. 

Pinto Creek, ii. 394. 

Pirates, i. 257, 258. 

Pitt, Secretary, ii. 210. 

Pittsburg, Pa., ii. 446. 

Place of graves, ii. 157. 

Plains of Abraham, ii. 267. 

Plainfield, N. J. , ii. 453. 

Planck (Verplanck), i. 292. 

Platt, Hetty, ii. 397, 398. 

Ploeyden, Edward, i. 5. 

Plot, the great, i. 147. 
Pluck money, ii. 347. 

Plymouth, i. 3) 73, 76, 78, 79, 93, 95, 
114, 370, 372 ii. 216. 

Company, i. 3. 

Pocahontas, ii. 38. 
Pomeren, ii. 369. 
Pompton, N. J. , ii. 193, 205. 
Poppegaya, John, i. 43. 
Port-au-Prince, ii. 441, 447, 451. 
Porter, Caroline, ii. 397. 
, Miss, ii. 440, 451. 
Port Royal, i. 286, 367, 375. 
Portugal, i. 250. 

Post, , ii. 198. 

, Symon Janse, ii, 100. 

Potthook, i. 274. 

Poughkeepsie, ii. 131. 

Powder River, ii. 394. 

Powhatan, ii. 38. 

Powis, George, ii. 200. 

Prairie Grove, ii. 383. 

Praul, Jane, ii. 197. 

Praying Indians, or proselytes, ii. 107. 

Presbyterian Church, ii. 447, 453. 

Presbyterians, ii. 352. 

Pretty, Richard, i. 356. 

Price s Across the Continent, ii. 395. 

Priens, Captain, ii. 339. 

Prince Maurice, i. 208, 209 ship, 50. 

of Wales, ii. 216. 

Princess, the ship, ii. 345. 

Princeton, i. 227 college at, ii. 453. 

Printz, Lieut. John, i. 38, 44 appoint 
ed Governor of New Sweden, 38 

successful administration, 39 con 
troversies with the Dutch, 40 coun 
cil with the Dutch Governor, 42 

his retirement, 43. 

Prisoners tortured, i. 449. 

Proselytes, or praying Indians, ii. 32, 
107, 108. 

Protestant Church, ii. 165. 

Protestants, i. 239 ii. 99, 360 ban 
ished, ii. 99. 

Providence, i. 91. 
[ Provincial Congress, ii. 263. 

Provoost, David, ii. 10. 

, Johannes, i. 115, 243. 

, William, ii. 342. 

, Sarah, ii. 430. 

Putman, , ii. 407. 

Putnam County, ii. 443. 
, Israel, "ii. 212, 263. 

Pynchon, Col., i. 365. 

Quackenboss, the family, ii. 371. 

, Jan, ii. 370. 

, Reynier, ii. 370. 

Quackenbush, , ii. 199. 

8uaclraques, ii. 430. 
uakers, i. 405 persecution of, by 
Stuyvesant, 90, 91. 

Quebec, i. 248, 286, 291, 305, 317, 319, 
321, 322, 327, 355, 366, 367, 375, 391, 
408, 412, 418 jff. 459 ii. 16, 31, 47, 
123, 124, 266, 408 Captain Schuy- 
ler s visit to, i. 470. 

Queen Anne, i. 264, 265, 266, 269 ii. 
13, 25, 162, 349 fitting out an expe 
dition against Canada, 26 Indian 
medals, 41 dead, 56. 

Queen s farm, ii. 357 and garden, a 
patent for, to Trinity Church, 351. 
ueen s County, i. 376, 377. 
ueenstown, ii. 404 battle of, i. 230. 

Queen Street, New York, i. 200, 203. 

Quidor, Indian name of Peter Schuy- 
ler, i. 304, 354, 355, 415, 474, 4/7, 
488 ii. 14, 35, 36, 43, 79, 93, 157, 
162 confidence of Five Nations in, 
75 portrait of, 163. 

Quincy, Edmund, ii. 319. 

Rab s battery, ii. 381. 
Raclclift, Jacob, ii. 274. 
Rahway River, ii. 193. 
Raleigh, Sir W alter, i. 2. 
Ramesay, de, ii. 30. 
Ran tan, N. J., ii. 183, 420, 435. 
River, ii. 213, 434. 



Rawdon, Hon. John Theophilus, ii. 
495, 496. 

, Lord, ii. 495. 

Rawlins, Wy. , ii. 395. 

Reading, Indian murders at, ii. 234. 

Recorder of Albany, ii. 327. 

Rector Street, New York, i. 118. 

Red Hook, ii. 176. 

Reimer, Machtelt de, ii. 426, 429, 436. 

Relations of Anneke Jans, ii. 348. 

Remington, Sarah Ann, ii. 203. 

Remonstrants, i. 239. 

Rensselaer. See Van Rensselaer. 

Manor (Gelderlanci), i. 206, 207, 

Roelofsc, Catherina, ii. 399. 
Rogers family, ii. 452. 

, Abby, ii. 372, 373. 

, Abigail (Scribner), ii. 440, 451. 
-, Dr. Uriah, ii. 451. 

County, ii. 362. 

Institute, i. 230. 

Rensselaerwyck, i. 14, 15, 21, 26, 32, 
loi, 116, 120, 157, 167, 171. 172, 177, 

190, 211, 212, 214, 2l6, 217, 2l8, 220, 

228, 245, 302 ii. 129, 131, 132, 157, 

253. 3.44- 370, 470. 
Republican Forks, ii. 386. 
Resolution of Assembly, ii. 33. 
Restless, the ship, i. 7/8. 
Reval, ii. 392 
Revolution of 1688, i. 335. 
, the American, i. 120, 180, 202, 

204, 227, 228, 231, 237, 283, 287, 288, 

Reynders, Barent, ii. 342. 

, Mientje Seeger, ii. 428. 

Rhinebeck, i. 203, 290. 

Rhode Island, i. 21, 79, 80, 81, 82, 85, 

86, 369 quota, 432. 
Rich and noble, did not emigrate, ii. 

3 Z 7- 

Richards, Elizabeth, ii. 416, 424. 
Richelieu River, i. 316. 
Richfield Springs, ii. 470. 
Ricketts, Mary Walton, i. 205. 
Ridge, Susan, ii. 199. 
Ridgefield, Conn., ii. 452. 
Rinckhout, Daniel, ii. 369. 

, Gertrude, ii. 369, 371. 

, Jan, ii. 369. 

, Juriaen, ii. 369. 

, Margaret, ii. 369, 371. 

River Indians, i. 427. 

Roberts, Colonel, ii. 121. 

Robertson, James, i. 509. 

Robinson, Rev. John, i. 88, 95. 

Rock Island, 111., ii. 454. 

Rode, Mohawk chief, i. 423 ii. 143. 

Rodenburgh, Lucas, ii. 339. 

Roelof Jansen s Kill, i. 245, 274, 275 

ii- 285, 333, 235. 
Roelofs, Annatje, ii. 338, 340. 

, Jan, ii. 338, 340, 355. 

, Sara, ii. 338, 339. 

, Sytje, ii. 338, 340. 

, Tryntje, ii. 338, 339, 340. 

Roman Catholics, ii. 360. 
j Rome, City of, ii. 134. 
I Romer, Colonel, engineer, i. 499 ii. 
4, 13, no experience among In 
dians, 500 et seq. glad to get away, 

Romeyn, Rev. John B., ii. 379. 
Roof, Dr. F. H., ii. 492, 493. 
Roosevelt, Lelia, ii. 203. 

, Lydia E., ii. 201. 

, Nicholas, ii. 9, 10. 

, Sara, ii. 461, 463, 471, 472. 

Roseboom, Captain, ii. 42. 

j , Margarita, ii. 379. 

Rosendale. ii. 238. 
Rosie, the family, ii. 371. 

. Jean, i. 459 ii- i9. 37- 
Rosmalen, i. 208. 
Ross, Martha, ii. 400. 
-, T., ii. 401. 

Rotterdam, i. 253. 
| Roumania, ii. 392, 393. 
Roumanian Academy, ii. 393. 

Roun, B. A., ii. 410. 
j Rowes, J. T. , ii. 203. 

Royal Asiatic Society, ii. 393. 

" Royal Grant," i. 118. 

Russell, Joseph, ii. 403. 
, Lord Arthur, ii. 496. 

Rust Dorp, i. 29. 

Rutgers, the family, i. 106. 

, Anthony, ii. 468. 

, Elsje, ii. 461, 462. 

, Harmanus, ii. 468. 

Rutse, Major Jacob, ii. 131. 
Rutsen., Jacob, ii. 282. 

-, Sarah, ii. 243, 282. 

Rye, township of, i. 87. 
Ryers, George, ii. 350. 
Rynders, Barent, i. 340 ii. 434. 
, Gertrude, ii. 428, 434. 

, Hester (Leisler), ii. 434. 

-, Johanna, ii. 173. 

Rysingh, Johan, i. 44, 45, 46, 47. 
Ryswyk, treaty of. i. 459, 478 com 
missioners, i. 479. 

Sadakanahtie, Onondaga chief, i. 355, 
418, 458, 488, 493, 504 ri. 4 in 
Albany, i. 420 visits Fletcher, 438 
visits Albany, 471 speech, 477 a 
match for Bellomont, 495, 496. 

Sadalier, Cornelia K. , ii. 464, 465. 

St. Clair, General, ii. 269. 

St. Helen s Island, i. 326. 

St. Jan, church of, i. 207. 



St. John, Henry, Capt. , the Honor 
able, ii. 197, 216. 

, John, Baron of Bletsho, ii. 

197, 216. 

, Secretary, ii. 47. 

St. John s Square, ii. 353. 

St. Lawrence County, i. 232. 

River, i. 155, 305, 310, 312, 314, 
332, 366, 374, 391. 

St. Leger, Col., ii. 178, 275, 474-476. 

St. Louis, ii. 222, 383. 

St. Luc de la Corne, ii. 116, 121. 

St. Martyn, Yacht, i. 188. 

St. Mary s, Burlington, ii. 206. 

, Md. , i. 56. 

St. Michel, Cape, settlers carried off, 

St. Ours, de, ii. 117. 

St. Petersburg, ii. 392. 

St. Pierre, M., de, ii. 115, 116. 

St. Sacrement, Lake, i. 316, 384. 

Salem, N. Y., i. 37, 38. 
- Creek, N. Y., i. 38. 

Saline River, ii. 381. 

Salisbury, Bishop of, i. 238. 

Salmon Falls, N. H., i. 433. 

Salt River, ii. 304. 

Springs, i. 449. 

Sanders, Laura, ii. 153. 

, Margareta, ii. 400. 

, Maria, ii. 399, 400. 

, Robert, i. 347, 354, 371, 398, 
410 ii. 130, 131. 

, Robert, 2d, ii. 150. 

, William N. S. , ii. 407. 

Sandford, Sarah, ii. 201. 

, Vice-Chancellor, decides for 
Trinity, ii. 355, 356. 

San Francisco, ii. 393. 

Santa Maria, ii. 393. 

Santen, Lucas, i. 192. 

Saratoga, i. 373, 426 ii. 140 men 
killed, i. 347 a few families at, ii. 
in attacked, 113, 114 destroyed, 
119 battle at, 476. 

County, i. 153. 

Lake, ii. 238, 374. 

Patent, i. 287, 290 ii. 95, 106, 

238, 247, 257, 378, 458, 472 proprie- | 
tors divide, 96 partners shares, 98 
renewed, 102 new owners, 103 
to be divided, 104 general his 
tory, 107 decisive battle, 126. 

Saugerties, i. 149. 

Saulsbury, Mallykin, ii. 396, 397. 

, William, ii. 396. 

Sauthier s Map, ii. 127, 133. 

Savages murdering Dutch, ii. 299. 

Savings Bank Law, ii. 377. 

Savoy, Waldenses of, i. 49. 

Sawyer, Mary A. , ii. 243. 

Sawyer s Creek, ii. 130. 

Say and Sele, Lord, i. 68. 
Say-Brook, i. 66, 68, 69, 89. 
Sayre, Julie, ii. 143. 
Schackelton, Robert, ii. 308. 
Schaeffer, Charles Ashmead, ii. 310, 


, Rev. Charles W. , D. D. , ii. 412. 
, Elizabeth Ashmead, ii. 412. 
, Eugene Schuyler, ii. 412. 
, George Schuyler, ii. 412. 

, Gertrude King, ii. 412. 

Schaets, Rev. Gideon, i. 241, 303 ii. 


Schnghticoke, ii. 175, 312, 371, 424 
murders at, 48 Indians, i. 233, 305, 
405-406, 427, 480, 481 ii. 96, 229 
scouts, no flee to Canada, in, 

Schenck, Rev. G. C., ii. 284. 
Schenectady, i. 32, 109, 158, 168, 169, 
178, 194, 246, 296, 297, 304, 315, 316, 
347, 35i, 352, 357, 376, 380, 381, 390, 
393- 394- 39*> jf- 492 ii. 16, 134, 319 
destruction of, i. 358 ct scq., ii. 
458 Schuyler s letter, 360, 366 
survivors provided for, i. 368 de 
serters, 446 petition to Bellomont, 

Patent, ii. 286. 

River, ii. 135. 

Schennerhoorne, Jacob Jansse, i. no, 

JI 3- 

Schermerhorn, Cornelius, ii. 400. 
, Ryer, ii. 138. 

Schieffelin, Sidney E., ii. 202. 

Schierph, Catharine, i. 186 ii, 306. 

Schoenderwoert, Rutger, Jacobsen 
van, i. 105. 

Schoharie, ii. 422, 478, 488, 489, 490, 

Creek, ii. 469, 489. 

Tract, ii. 433. 

Valley, ii. 238. 

Schoolcraft, ii. 477. 

Schools, i. 302 ct scq. 

Schoonmaker, Cornelia, ii. 401. 

Schuiler, hamlet, i. 100. 

Schuiller, Picterson Philip van, i. 100. 

Schulekraft, Christian, ii. 489. 

Schuyler, Aaron (201), ii. 206. 

-, Aaron (297), ii. 221. 

, Abraham (4), 459 ii. 27, 28, 

33, 87, 89, 103, 182, 195, 333, 459, 
461, 462, 466, 467, 479 in Onondaga 
country, 27, 28 accompanies Mo 
hawk chiefs to England, 33 in 
Seneca country 87. 

, Abraham (20), ii. 462, 463, 

472, 479- 

, Abraham (50), ii. 463. 

, Abraham (91), ii. 464, 465. 
, Abraham (101), ii. 464, 465. 



Schuyler, Abraham, an Oneida In 
dian, ii. 477. 

, Aeltie van, 99. 

, Adoniah (167), ii. 216. 

, Adoniah (191), ii. 216. 

, Adonia Graham, ii. 216. 

, Alexander H. (42), ii. 380. 
, A .ida (Alyda), i. 4, 183, 184, 
185, 206, 243, 244 ii. 459. 

, Alonzo Beekman (127), ii. 

465, 466. 

, Andrew J. (86), ii. 484, 486. 

, Angelica (71), ii. 152. 

, Angelica (373), ii. 280. 

, Anna, ii. 199. 

, Anna (28), ii. 462, 469. 
, Anna Maria (69), ii. 152, 

, Annatje (Van Alstyne) (ii), 

ii. 492, 493. 
, Ann Eliza (Stoddard) (66), ii. 

309, 411. 
, Ann Elizabeth (Bleecker) 

(145), the poetess, ii. 173, 179, 380. 
, Ann Elizabeth (Staats), ii. 



428, 433, 434. 

, Anne H. (65), her children, 

ii. 411. 

, Rev. Anthony (301), ii. 201, 
203, 222. 

, Arent (7), i. 163, 164, 

185, 226, 244, 401 ii. 150, 
195- 340, 34i. 459. 47L 487- 492, 
494 Biography, 180-195 Married, 
180 bought a house where the 
eagle hangs out, ii. 180 his will, 
181 supported Albany Conven 
tion, ib. scouts in Canada, 182 
sent to meet Southern Indians, 
183 conducts the Shawanoes to 
New York, ib. interview with 
Shawanoes, 184 organizes a com 
pany, 186 in pursuit of French, 
187 removes to New York, ib. 
goes to Minisink country, 188, 189 
removed to Pompton, 190 re 
ceives land from Minisinks, 191 
makes a second will, 191 removes 
to Passaic River, 192 his copper 
mine, ib. third will, 193 codicil to 
will, 194 will proved, ib. ancestor 
of New Jersey Schuylers, 195 de 
scendants numerous/196 notes on 
his descendants, 205 widow mar 
ried Archibald Kennedy, 215. 

, Arent (171), ii. 196, 197, 221. 

-, Arent (183), ii. 197, 198, 217- 

Schuyler, Aunt, i. 155. See Schuyler, 
Margarita (360). 

, Barent (392), ii. 280. 

, Brandt (Brant) (6), i. 164, 167, 
183, 185, 190 ii. 164, 170, 171, 434, 
459, 471 a politician, 164, 165 
marriage, 164 biography, 164-170 
arrested by Leisler, 166 alder- 
manic contest, 9, 10, 169 member 
of court-martial, 167 an alderman, 
ib. recommended to the council, 
168 church officer, 169 death and 
will, ib. notes on the table, 172-179 
few descendants, 171. 

, Brandt (140), ii. 171 notice of 

his death, 173. 

Casparus (164), ii. 196, 197, 


Casparus (181), ii. 197, 198, 

, Caroline, (125), ii. 465. 
, Catalijna (Verplanck), ii. 456, 

, Catalina (12), ii. 461. 

, Catalyntje (361) (Cuyler), ii. 

242, 250, 470. 

, Catalina (Catlyn) (9), ii. 379, 


, Catherine (8), ii. 306, 404, 405, 

414, 4i6. 

, Catherine (60), ii. 309, 412. 

, Catherine (185) (Kennedy), ii. 

197, 212-215. 

, Catherine (383) (Cochran), ii. 
243, 283. 

, Catherine (Van Rensselaer), 
i. 236, 290 ii. 242, 340, 417, 484. 

, Catherine A. (33), ii. 377, 378, 

, Catherine Elizabeth (80), ii. 


Cheery Ann (47), ii. 308, 410. 

, Christina (Ten Broeck), ii. 

306, 327, 415, 417, 418. 

, Cordelia (126), ii. 465. 

, Cornelia, ii. 407. 

, Cornelia (52), ii. 308, 410. 

, Cornelia (381) (Morton), ii. 

219 description of his house and 
farm. 220 ancestors rendered ser 
vice to New England, 220. 

-, Ariaantje (Ariantia) (6), i. 236 

ii. 3<*>. 339. 399- 

243, 273. 

, Cornelia (Van Cortlandt), i. 

200 ii. 434. 

, Cornelius (72), ii. 153, 154, 

, Cortlandt (369), ii. 242, 243, 

256, 278 an officer in the English 
army, 278 the "handsome sav 
age," ib. 

- , Daniel (14), ii. 481, 483. 
, Daniel J. (22), ii. 481, 482, 

, David Pieterse, i. 100, 179, 

293 ii. 3, 96 9 8 . 99, I0 , I0 3. I 75. 



379, 456-460, 479, 492 his life. 456- 
460 his descendants, 461-478. 

Schuyler, David (6), i. 349 ii. 3, 4, 6, 
7, 137, 461, 462, 466, 467, 468 
mayor of Albany, i. 349 ii. 468. 

, David (13), ii. 461, 462, 470, 


, David (17), ii. 462, 463, 472. 

, David (23), ii. 462, 463, 480. 

, David (41), ii. 462, 471. 

, David (67), ii. 463. 

, David (74), ii. 464, 478. 

, David M. (59), ii. 483. 486. 

, Deborah (37), ii. 376. 

, Dirck (Derick) (15), ii. 307, 

326, 365, 416, 418. 

, Dirck (19), ii. 195, 462, 472, 


, Dirck (60), ii. 463, 464. 

, Edward E. S. , ii. 216. 

, Elizabeth (4), ii. 396, 414. 

, Elizabeth, ii. 492. 

, Elizabeth (347), (Hamilton), 

ii. 242, 281. 
, Elizabeth (De Meyer), i. 186 

ii. 287, 306, 413. 

Elizabeth (Staats), i. 186, 200, 

1 Schuyler, Harmanus (7), ii. 306, 414, 
415, 418. 

I , Harmanus (10), ii. 85, 163, 306, 

307, 319-327, 364, 366, 36711. 402, 
407, 414, 415 Asst. Alderman and 
Sheriff, 320, 321 removes to Still- 
water, 321 captures three trespass 
ers, 322 fight with rioters, 323 
captures a desperado, ib. Asst. 
Deputy Com. General, 324 letters 
to General Schuyler, ib. stationed 
at Lake George, ib. at Whitehall, 
ib. his letters to Gen. Schuyler, 
324, 325 at Stillwater, 325 death 
and will, 326, 327. 

j , Henrietta Ann (26), ii. 307, 

363, 408, 409. 
, Henry (43), ii. 308, 310, 380. 

j , Henry Ten Broeck (29), ii. 

307, 309. 

i , Henry Ten Eyck (389), ii. 243, 

244, 283, 

\ , Hester (Walter), ii. 196, 197, 

296 ii. 428, 434. 
, Elsie (Van Rensselaer), i. 236 

ii. 307, 327, 364, 407, 408, 419. 

, Elsie (Wendell), ii. 419. 

, Eugene (81), ii. 310, 391, 392. 

, Evelyn (81) (Schaeffer), ii. 

310, 412. 
, Frederick (77), ii. 310, 382, 


, Garret L. (61), ii. 483. 

, George A. (43), ii. 482, 485. 
-, George L. (404), i. 181 ii. 35, 

163, 244, 245, 272, 283. 

, George S. (78), ii. 484, 486. 

, George Washington (32), ii. 

308, 310, 377, 442. 

, Gen-it (of Cologne), i. 99. 

, Gerrit (io) f ii. 461, 462, 466, 

470, 471. 

-, Gertrude (Van Cortlanclt) (3), 

i. 167, 183, 185, 1 86, 187, 190, 203 

ii. 461. 
, Gertrude (Groesbeck), ii. 459, 


, Gertrude, ii. 415. 

, Gertrude (362), ii. 150, 242, 

251, 256, 283 
, Gertrude Wallace (King), ii. 

, Gysbert (2), i. 183, 185 ii. 

, Harmanus (21), ii. 307, 308, 

, Harmanus (24), ii. 462, 463, 

473, 480. 



Hetty (200) (Colfax), ii. 198, 
Howard (79), ii. 310, 311, 383- 
Jacob (i), ii. 479, 481, 487, 

, Jacob (7), ii. 481, 482. 

, Jacob (8), ii. 459, 461, 462, 469, 

j , Jacob (21), ii. 462. 463. 

[ , Jacob Fort (22), ii. 307, 377. 

acob (27), ii. 482, 484. 
acob (44), ii. 482 485. 
acob (56), ii. 483, 486. 
acob (84), ii. 484, 486. 
acob (88), ii 484, 487. 
acob T. (80), ii, 484, 486. 
ames (80), ii. 310, 385. 
James H. (79), ii. 481, 482, 
484, 486. 

, James H. (83), ii. 484, 486. 

j , James Van Rensselaer (28), ii. 

37, 309- 

j , Jane (53), ii. 308, 410. 

, Jeremiah (19), i. 154, 161 ii. 

88, 150, 151, 156, 161. 

, Jeremiah (29), ii. 482, 484. 

; .Jeremiah (41), ii. 151, 153, 163. 

, Johan Jost (Hanyost), (7), 

ii. 463, 473-477- 497- 
: , Rev. Johannes, ii. 487, 488- 


, Johannes (3), ii. 489, 493, 494. 

, John (4), ii. 481. 

; , Johannes or John (10), i. 155, 

163, 164, 170, 183, 186, 203, 244, 374, 
395, 398, 469-4741!. 28, 29, ioi, 105, 
127, 147, 157, 223-242, 283, 286, 318, 



459. 47. 47 2 bears despatches, 
qbgefsftj. returns, 471, 472 dele 
gate to Onondaga, 473, 474 sings 
the war song in Onondaga, 28 buys 
share of Saratoga Patent, 99 knew 
Indian character, 224 volunteered 
to invade Canada, ib. his fight 
with the French, 225 amused with 
the enemy s alarm guns, ib. in- ! 
vadesCanada again, 226 lieutenant 
of cavalry, ib. sent to Canada 
ib. argues with Frontenac, 227 
Indians present charges against 
him, 228 to be employed by Bello 
mont, 229 messenger to New York, 
230 receives letters from Bello 
mont, 231 is urged to have Abenaki 
sachems visit Bellomont, ib. writes 
to Bellomont, 231, 232 Bellomont is 
satisfied with him, 232 his messen- | 
gers to eastern Indians return, 233 I 
commissioner of Massachusetts, 234 
gives notice of Indian raids, ib. 
in Canada, 236 visited the Abena- 
kis, ib. goes to Onondaga, 237 
participates in the war of 1709, 237 
official position, 237 land trans- J 
actions, ib. improves his property 
at Saratoga, 238, 239 brick house 
at Saratoga, 238 his son Philip 
killed, 239 survives his family, ib. 
died, ib. his estate large, 240 
his will, 239, 240 notes on de 
scendants, 246. 

Schuyler, Johannes (ii), i. 414, 415, 

ohn (18), ii. 481, 483. 

ohn (39), ii. 462, 470, 471. 

ohn (90), ii. 464, 465. 

ohn (165), ii. 196, 197, 206. 
. ohn, Jr." (359), i. 203 ii. 103, 
105, 151, 246-247. 

, John (363), ii. 242, 256. 

, John Arden (52), ii. 483, 485. 

-, John Bradstreet (378), i. 227 

Schuyler, Rev. Louis Sandford (344), 
ii. 203, 222. 

, Magdalena (28), ii. 150, 151. 

-, Margaret (Van Slichtenhorst), 

i. 99, 158, 162, 166, 167-171, 182, 294 
ii. 150, 306. 
, Margaret (7), ii. 493, 494. 

Margaret or Margarita (ii) 

(Collins), i. 163, 164, 170, 184, 186, 
294, 298, 301, 303- -ii. 379. 

, Margaret (12) (Livingston), i. 

161, 288 ii. 150, 160. 
, Margaret (Snell) (14), ii. 492, 

493- 494- 
, Margaret (375) 

Van Rens- 

selaer, i. 231 ii. 242, 282. 

, Margarita (360), the Ameri 
can Lady," i. 155 ii. 150, 159, 248, 
250, 256, 257, 472. 

, Maria, i. 150 ., 161. 

, Maria (Van Rensselaer), i. 

150, 224, 225, 296. 

, Maria (5), ii. 459, 461. 

, Maria (17), ii. 416. 

-, Maria (19) (Van Rensselaer), 

ii. 106, 243, 282. 

-, John Cortlandt (384), ii. 243, 

279, 280, 283. 
, John Cuyler (57), ii. 150, 152, 

159, 154, 163. 

, John Edwin (63), ii. 309, 380. 

, John H. (16), ii. 307, 327, 365- 

372, 407, 416. 417, 418. 

, John J. (28), ii. 482, 484. 

, John W. (58), ii. 481, 483, 486. 

, John (of Philadelphia), ii. 495, 


, Joseph (92), ii. 464, 465. 

, Julia (57), ii. 309, 411. 

, Kate W. (71), ii. 412. 

, Laurence Lawyer (102), ii. 

464, 465. 

ii. 3 2 7, 376. 408, 417, 418. 

, Maria (124), ii. 465. 

, Martha (82) (Grant), ii. 310, 


, Martin J. (139), ii. 486, 487. 

, Mary (39), ii. 308, 410 

, Matilda Scribner (69), ii. 308, 

310, 442. 
, Rev. Montgomery (300), ii. 

201, 203, 222. 

, Montgomery (351), ii. 203, 204, 

-, Moses, an Oneida Indian, ii. 


, Myndert (7), i. 289, 290 ii. 

67, 73, 459, 461, 462, 468, 469 visits 
the Senecas, 73 Mayor of Albany, 
67, 468 Member of Assembly, 468. 

, Myndert (26), ii. 462, 480. 

, Nicholas, (3), ii. 42, 286 

306, 312-316. 396, 413, 415, 419, 472. 
-, Nicholas (3), D. C. Surveyor, 

286 a sketch, 312 Member of 
Assembly, 312, 313 fond of adven 
ture, 313 compromises, 315 en 
gineer, ib. death and will, ib. 
his Bible records, 413. 

Nicholas (12), ii. 307, 326, 

339, 362-363. 416, 417, 418. 

Nicholas Ten Broeck (64), ii. 

309, 311, 381, 382. 

, Peter (5), i. 99, 154, 155, 159, 

160, 161, 169, 170, 183, 185, 224, 236, 
244, 252. 266, 272, 288, 289, 290, 299, 
302, 505 ii. i, 149, 150, 187, 254, 
257. 3 12 - 33 1 , 339- 370. 383- 408, 419. 
487 birth, i. 302 de