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VOL. X— 177S-I776. 


JosEPiius Daniels. Printer to the State. 


Copyright, 1886, by William L. Saunders, Secretary of State, 
for the benefit of the State of North Carolina. 

« cc c c 



In less than a week after the Mecklenburg Declaration, the King's 
Governor in North Carolina had fled from iier capital to the guns of 
a man-of-war; in thirty days from that date a meeting of delegates 
from the counties in the Cape Fear section was held and an associa- 
tion formed, in which the delegates declaring their selves "justified 
before God and man in resisting force by force," bound them- 
selves by every tie of religion and honor to stand ready whenever 
the Continental or Provincial councils should deem it necessary, to 
go forth and, if need be, to sacrifice their lives and fortunes to secure 
their country's freedom and safety; in fifty days a public call was 
made for the election of delegates to a new Congress to be held at 
Hillsborough, and as affairs of the last importance would be sub- 
mitted to it, a large representation of the people was said to be 
desirable; in sixty days Governor Martin having stopped at Fort 
Johnston, opposite to which the Cruizer was then lying, Colonel 
John Ashe at the head of a large body of armed men drove him 
aboard the Cruizer, dismantled the fort and carried away the guns; 
in ninety daj's from the Declaration, in spite of a furious proclama- 
tion from Governor Martin, issued from the deck of the (yuizer, for- 
bidding the people to elect members to the new Congress, and 
otfei'ing an ample reward for the arrest and delivery to him of the 
leaders in sedition, as tlie assembling of that body, he said, would 
bring the affairs of the province to a crisis, elections were openly 
held throughout tlie entire province, delegates were duly chosen, 
and the Congress met in open session at the time and place 
appointed. Everybody understood what was the nature of the 
affairs to be submitted to the Congress, and appreciated their vital 
importance, and, as desired, an unprecedented ly large number of 
delegates was elected to consider them. Two hundred and fourteen 
delegates were elected in all, one hundred and eighty-four of whom 


were present. Every one of the thirty-five counties, into whicli the 
province was then divided, was represented, and every borough town 
without a single exception. The Congress was in session just twenty 
days, and was busy enough. Within fortj^-eight hours after their 
organization a "test," solemnly binding the members under the 
sanction of virtue, honest}' and the sacred love of liberty and country, 
to maintain and support all and every the acts, resolutions and reg- 
ulations of the Continental and Provincial Congresses, was reported 
and adopted; and • f the one hundred and eighty-four members 
present, just one hundred and eighty-four signed it. On the fourth 
day of the session it was agreed to meet North Carolina's share of 
the expenses of the Continental Government, and a committee was 
appointed to re2:)ort a plan of provincial government, rendered nec- 
essary, it was said, by reason of " the absence" of Governor Martin. 
On the fifth day Martin's proclamation forbidding the Congress to 
meet, was ordered to "be burned by the common hangman." On that 
day also a census was ordered to be taken and reported before the 
1st November. On the eleventh day it was resolved that tlie 
colony be immediate!}' put in a state of defense, and that one thou- 
sand regular troops be raised forthwith for the Continental Line. On 
the seventeenth day an issue of $125,000 in provincial currency was 
ordered. On tlie twentieth day, looking forward to a long war with 
blockaded ports, liberal bounties were offered for the production at 
home, not merely of munitions of war, but of articles necessary tor 
everj'-day home life. 

By way of putting the colony in a state of defense, six battalions 
of minute inen, one for eac'.i district, each battalion to consist of ten 
companies of fifty men each, were raised, in addition to whicli the 
militia was at once re-organized and put on a war footing as far as 
possible. The troops for the continental line consisted of two regi- 
ments of regulars of five hundred men each. 

The currency, issued no longer in pounds, but in dollars, it will 
be noticed, was to be of various denominations, ranging from a 
quarter of a dulhir to ten dollars, and for its redemption a tax of 


two shillings on every taxable per nnnum for nine years, unless 
the issue should be redeemed in less time, indicating that the popu- 
lation at that time was estimated to be somewhere about three hun- 
dred thousand souls. 

How far the Congress went in the way of stimulating home pro- 
ductions can be seen from the following list of the bounties they 
offered : 

For every one hundred weight of saltpetre £ 25 

For first five hundred weight of gunpowder "200 

For first rolling and slitting mill for preparing iron to make 

nails 250 

For first fifty pairs of cotton cards 50 

For first one hundred pairs woollen cards 50 

For first 25 dozen pins - 50 

For first 25,000 needles 50 

For first steel furnace 100 

For first paper mill 250 

For first 25 yards best linen 50 

For first best woollen cloth 100 

For first salt works on the seashore 750 

For first furnace for pig iron and hollow iron — • 500 

Whatever may have been the case with the Regulators, the Hills- 
borough Congress was certainly not content with merely tearing 
down an old government, but resolutely and at once proceeded to 
build up a new one. Indeed, it may be said almost that a new gov- 
ernment had for twelve months past been building itself up. Every 
county almost had its Safety Committee, and nothing needed to be 
done, practically, but to provide supervising tribunals. This was 
done by creating a Committee of Safety of thirteen members for 
each district, and a central one for the province, called the " Provin- 
cial Council," clothed with ample powers. In its action in this regard, 
the Congress evidently had in mind the action of the British Par- 
liament in supplanting King James with the Prince of Orange. The 
Parliament, in order to make a vacancy for William to fill, declared 


that James had "abdicated" the throne, when, in truth, there was 
nothing further from his intention than that. The Congress at Hills- 
borough said there was a "silence of the legislative powers of the 
government," and ascribed it " to his excellency the Governor 
refusing to exercise the functions of his office by leaving the Prov- 
ince and retiring on board a man-of-war, without any threats or 
violence to compel him to such a measure." The impudence of this 
is simply sublime. Governor Martin was at the time actually in the 
province. He had left NewBern, the seat of government, under cir- 
cumstances that, to say the least, made his departure expedient. 
The "horrid r&solves" of Mecklenburg had been published to the 
world. He had been denounced as an inciter of slaves to rebellion 
against their masters, as an enemy of America in general, and of 
North Carolina' in particular, and, indeed, almost as hostis Itumani 
generis. Colonel Ashe, with a regiment of Cape Fear men at his 
back, had forced him to go aboard the Cruizer ; and finally his proc- 
lamation, denouncing both the election of the delegates and the meet- 
ing of the Congress, had, by order of the Congress, been burned by 
the common hangman. And this is what the Congress called refusing 
to exercise the functions of his office and leaving the province ! A 
".silence of the legislative powers" of government being thus ascer- 
tained, tlie Congress proceeded to break it with clank of sabres, 
with the rattle of musketry and the roar of cannon, witli horse, foot 
and dragoons, and for seven years they kept up the racket. To say 
nothing of its unblushing untruth, nothing can equal the impu- 
dence of this i^erformance, perhaps it would be more becoming to 
say the grim humor of it, save to shower a man with cologne, and 
then to hang him for smelling sweet! 

In spite of all these tilings, however, Mr. Bancroft, in some of 
the earlier editions of his History, said the most remarkable subject 
brought before the Convention was Franklin's plan of a confed- 
eracj', and that "the moderating prudence of Johnston" interposed 
just as it was about to be adopted, and persuaded North Carolina 
to "forego the honor of being the first to declare for a permanent 


Federal union," a paragraph that, with its implied reflection, it is 
gratifying to know he became unwilling to stand by, and omitted 
in his final edition. It is very true that Franklin's plan of gen- 
eral confederation, sent down by the Congress at Philadelphia 
for the consideration of that at Hillsborough, in order that instruc- 
tions might be given the North Carolina delegates in the next 
Continental Congress, was rejected. This plan, however, as was 
expressly stated when it was presented, was sent down from Philadel- 
phia, not as having any endorsement from the Continental Congress, 
or from the North Carolina delegates in tliat body, but merely for 
consideration at Hillsborough on its merits solely. After due reflec- 
tion, each member having been provided with a copy of it, the plan 
was formally declared to be "not at present eligible," and not only 
that, but the delegates to Philadelphia instructed not to consent 
to any plan of confederation which might be offered in the next 
Congress, before the same had been approved by the Provincial 
Congress. Many considerations, doubtless, influenced the Congress 
in coming to the conclusion that Franklin's plan of confederation 
was not "eligible," sufficient, if not chief among them, for a people 
of the jealous habit of North Carolina, being the fact that under its 
operation the balance of power would rest unqualifiedly in the 
Northern colonies, at whose mercy North Carolina would be, if she 
was a member of such a confederation, as can be seen by reference 
to the seventh article of the proposed plan, an objection to which 
Governor Martin expressly refers in one of his dispatches. It seems 
to have been equally unsatisfactory to the colonies generallj^, for no 
single one of them ever endorsed it, and indeed no serious effort 
was ever made to have it adopted. What was the controlling- 
reason for tlie rejection of the plan does not appear from our records, 
but it is by no means surprising tliat it was rejected, for, as we now 
well know, it was the fixed haVjit of our ancestors to scrutinize 
with very jealous eye any new form of government before putting 
themselves at its mercy, a habit that doubtless suggested to the 
Congress the propriety of putting a limitation upon their delegates 


in that regard, and this they did by taking from them the power 
to bind the province by any form of confederation before approved 
by themselves, a power they persistently kept in their own hands. 

But these were not the only things worthy of note that were done 
at the Hillsborough Congress. For example : On the very first day 
of its session the Congress adopted, with some parade, a resolution 
declaring that the Regulators, "and every one of them," ought to be 
prptected from every attempt to punish them by any means what- 
soever, and that the Congress would to their utmost protect them 
from anj^ punishment because of the late insurrection, or anything 
in consequence thereof The Congress then appointed Maurice 
Moore, Richai'd Caswell and the Rev. Mr. Patillo and others a com- 
mittee to confer with all persons who had religious or political 
scruples in the premises and to induce them to unite heartily with 
Congress for the maintenance of the constitutional privileges of 
America. But what a vast amount of assurance it must have 
required for Maurice Moore and Caswell and Patillo to attempt to 
IDersuade the Regulators that the oaths they had been forced to take 
at the point of the bayonet after the battle of Alamance were not 
binding on their consciences ! Patillo was one of the Presbyterian 
divines who, in 1768, united in a pastoral letter to the people of 
their faith denouncing the Regulators as criminals. Caswell's bay- 
onets had forced the oaths down their throats, and Moore had 
declared twelve of the Regulators, when on trial before him for 
being in the battle, to be guilty of treason, and had sentenced them 
to be hung, and six of them were hung. But for downright assur- 
ance perhaps the proceedings of that same Congress in urging Gov- 
ernor Martin's absence as a justification in setting up a rebel gov- 
ernment was its equal. 

The die was now cast, and North Carolina at last a self-govern- 
ing commonwealth, whose rights and liberties and privileges her 
I^eople were ready to defend with their fortunes and their lives, and 
all this by the most deliberate, well-considered action on tlie part 
of that same people, after a campaign of forty days, in which dele- 


gates, in numbers without a parallel then or since, were elected, 
nobody being taken by surprise, but everybody knowing that the 
Assembly of the men thus elected would bring matters to a crisis. 
And this was done full eight months before the Continental Con- 
gress advised the colonies to change the form of their governments. 
It is worthy of note, too, that both New Hampshire and Massachu- 
setts, following the example of North Carolina, justified the changes 
the}' made at subsequent periods by reason of the flight of their 
Governors. The more the action of this great Hillsborough Con- 
gress is studied, and the events immediately preceding, the more 
wonderful seems the deliberate, well-considered, resolute boldness 
of our ancestors.- 

But it is not wise to look at events from our own standpoint alone. 
Let us see, then, how affairs in North Carolina looked to Royal Gov- 
ernor Martin, as may easily be done, by glancing at his proclama- 
tions and dispatches. The outlook was by no means pleasant. 
Without a man or a gun for attack or defense, he early found himself 
obliged to send his wife and children to the more loyal clime of New 
York, and betake his own person aboard a British ship, first a fugitive 
and then a prisoner, charged with inciting to rebellion the slaves of 
the East, while his master, the King, was seeking to bring down upon 
the people the savages of the West, found himself declared an 
enemy of the province in particular, and of America in general, for- 
bidden communication with the people and actually cut off from 
all communication with them by the committees, who stopped and 
examined his correspondence, and who, by their spies and emissaries, 
kept strict and vigilant watch upon every avenue of communication 
leading toward him, and, searched, abused and stripped of every 
paper every one seeking to see him, and who suppressed his proc- 
lamations, not suffering them to be published or circulated. He saw 
congresses, conventions and committees constantly usurping kingly 
authority, and everywhere supreme and omnipotent, and lawful gov- 
ernment everywhere completely annihilated. He saw, too, the people 
everywhere banding together in associations and binding themselves 


under the most solemn and sacred obligations to go forth at the call 
of continental or provincial authorities, ready to sacrifice their lives 
and their fortunes in obedience to their edicts; gross invasions and 
usurpations of the King's lawful prerogative, by the aijpointment of 
military officers; the propagation of the most scandalous and mon- 
strous falsehoods about the best of Kings, whose virtues, by univer- 
sal acknowledgment irradiated, with unexampled lustre, his imperial 
diadem ; a letter signed William Hooper, Joseph Hewes and Richard 
Caswell, the preposterous enormity of which could not be adequately 
described or abhorred, he said, the genuine source of foul streams of 
sedition ; the most infamous resolves of a set of people styling them- 
selves a Committee for the Countj^ of Mecklenburg, most traitorously 
declaring the entire dissolution of the laws, government and constitu- 
tion, and setting up a system of rule and regulation repugnant to the 
laws and subversive of the King's Government; the treasonable 
proceedings of an infamous committee at NewBern, at the head of a 
body of armed men, in seizing and carrying off six pieces of cannon 
belonging to the King ; the overt act of high treason of Colonel 
John Ashe, and other evil-minded conspirators, who wantonly, in 
the dead hour of night, set on fire and reduced to ashes all that was 
combustible in the King's fort, and who, on the next day, returned 
and burned everything in and around the fort that had escaped the 
flames the night before; worse than all, the proposition for the 
Hillsborough Congress, subversive of the whole Constitution, a most 
daring attempt to stir up unnatural rebellion in the province, and 
that would bring matters to a crisis; and, worse than all, he saw 
that Congress actually assemble in the broad, open day-time, and 
proceed to work in such an extravagant spirit as to bring about all 
the evil consequences apprehended from it. And sadder still, per- 
haps, to see, he saw that, in the face of all these enormities, although 
some were dissatisfied about the distribution of power and command 
under tlieir new government, the people generally were united on 
points of opposition to Britain ! 


The new Government, with ample powers and a full complement 
of officers, thus sprung full-grown as it were into being, moved 
along steadily and did its appointed work regularly. Under its 
direction the orders given for raising troops were executed with 
such dispatch that in less than sixty days after the adjournment of 
the Congress Colonel Howe, with the first Regiment of Regulars, 
was near Norfolk, in Virginia, defending that State against the 
British under Lord Dunmore. How well our brethren over the 
Northern line appreciated his services w ill appear from the follow- 
ing resolution, unanimously adopted on 22d December, 1775, by the 
Virginia Convention then in session at Williamsburgh, to-wit: 

"Resolved unanimously. That the thanks of this convention are 
justly due to the brave officers, gentlemen volunteers and soldiers 
of North Carolina, as well as our brethren of that province in gen- 
eral, for their prompt and generous aid in defence of our common 
rights against the enemies of America and of the British Constitu- 
tion; and that the president be desired to transmit a copy of this 
resolution to Colonel Howe." 

Nor was this all. At the same time that we were taking care of 
ourselves and sending a regiment of Regulars to help the Virgin- 
ians, we sent 700 militia under Colonels Polk and Rutherford, and 
220 Regulars under Colonel INIartin to South Carolina, to put down 
a rising of Tories there, that was too strong for our Southern neigh- 
bors to manage by themselves. It will be seen from the above that 
North Carolina was the first to send troops beyond her borders for 
the common defense against the British, just as twenty years before 
she had been the first to send them beyond her own borders for the 
common defense against the French and Indians. And by a singu- 
lar coincidence, in both instances she sent troops to Virginia. All 
this was six months before the Philadelphia Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. "\^erily the Hillsborough Congress had done its work 
well. The Continental Congress evidently thought so, for John 
Penn, one of our delegates there, wrote to General Thomas Person, 
under date of 14th FeT)ruary, 177G, saying: "I have the pleasure to 


assure you that our Province stands high in the opinion of Congress. 
The readiness with which you marched to ^'irginia and South Caro- 
lina hath done you great credit." 

In the fall of the year 1775 a vigorous campaign against the Car- 
olinas was determined upon in England, in deference to the oft 
repeated and urgent solicitations of the Royal Governors in these 
provinces. The brunt of it of course fell upon North Carolina, as 
perhaps was natural, in consequence of Governor Martin's assurances 
that a large number of people in the province, especially the Scotch 
and Regulators were ready to take up arms in behalf of the King. 
The Scotch on the upper Cape Fear w^ere especially cultivated to 
that end by emissaries of the Crown, some of them officers of the 
British army, who had for months been among them for that pur- 
porse, under the pretext of visiting their friends and kindred. The 
programme as to North Carolina was that Sir Henry Clinton with a 
British fleet and seven regiments of Irish Regulars were to be at 
the mouth of the Cape Fear at the opening of the year 1776, and 
there to form a junction witli the large body of Scotchmen and other 
disaffected persons in the interior, who, according to Governor Mar- 
tin, were impatiently waiting to enlist under the old flag. In fur- 
therance of his part of the plan, on the 10th -January, 1776, Gov- 
ernor Martin issued orders for the erection of the King's standard, 
which "Brigadier General Donald McDonald, of his Majesty's forces 
for the time being in North Carolina," proceeded to do at once. The 
plan was a well digested and formidable one for the subjugation of 
North Carolina. Its defect was that it made no calculation upon 
such resistance as it encountered from our new government. By 
the time, however, General McDonald with his Tories was ready to 
take up his march down the river to join General Clinton and his 
Irish regiments. Colonel James Moore of the Second Regiment of 
Regulars, then at \\'ilmington, appeared at Cross Creek and began 
to concentrate troops in McDonald's front. A very brilliant cam- 
paign under Colonel Moore, of near a month's duration, ensued, that 
culminated in the battle of INIoore's Creek on the 27th February, 


1770. The troops that took part in the campaign were drawn from 
above Greensboro to the westward, and from below NewBern to the 
east, points some two hundred miles apart. There were mounted 
men, infantr}' and artillery engaged in the campaign. The first 
order issued bore date the 3rd February, and the campaign closed 
victoriously' on the 27th. The immediate field of operations was from 
Fayetteville to Moore's Creek bridge, some sixty miles up and down 
the Cape Fear. Our troops actually engaged in the battle numbered 
about 1,000 men. The enemy were variously reported to be from 
1,500 to 3,000 in number. " Fifteen hundred rifles, all of them excel- 
lent i^ieces, 350 guns and shot bags, 150 swords and dirks, two med- 
icine chests immediately from England, one valued at £300 sterling, 
thirteen sets of wagons with complete sets of horses, a box of Johannes 
and English guineas, amounting to £15,000 sterling, and 850 com- 
mon soldiers, were among the trophies of the field." Bancroft SEys 
that " in less than a fortnight more than 9,400 men of North Caro- 
lina rose against the enemy, and the coming of Clinton inspired no 
terror; that North Carolina had men enough of her own to crush the 
insurrection and guard against invasion ; and that as they marched 
over their piney forests they were persuaded that in their own woods 
they could win an easy victory over the British Regulars, and that 
the people spoke more and more of independence; and the Provin- 
cial Congress at its iuipending session was expected to give an 
authoritative form of the prevailing des res." 

It seems scarcely probable at first glance that North Carolina could 
have put so large a number of men so quickly into the field in that 
day, and naturally enough, Mr. Bancroft, in his last edition, modi- 
fies the statement made in former editions by saying it was " rumored ' 
that 9,400 was the number. But while tliis is, doubtless, an over- 
estimate, it is perhaps not as much so as at first glance it might 
seem. At least, the figures given in I he letter of Colonel Purviance 
of 24th Febiuary would indicate that somewhere near 6,000 men 
were actually on duty at various points, in consequence of the 
attempted junction between General Clinton and the Highlanders. 


For this great victory the Provincial Council, then in session, with 
Cornelius Harnett at its head, on the 4th March, that is to say on 
the Monday after the fight at Moore's Creek, formally gave thanks 
as follows: 

Resolved, That the thanks of this Council be given to Col" James 
Moore and all the Brave Officers and Soldiers of every denomina- 
tion for their late very important services rendered their Country in 
effectually suppressing the late daring and dangerous insurrection 
of the Highlanders and Regulators, and that this Resolve be pub- 
lislied in the North Carolina Gazette. 

And all this was done in a C'luntry without a railroad, without a 
steamboat, without a telegraph, even without mails, and that, too, 
with as little excitement and confusion, and with as much prompt- 
ness and ease as if war had been our normal condition. There was 
not a liitch or a break in any combination or arrangement that was 
made, but everything went like clock-work. It is wonderful to 
think of, scarcely credible to us of the present day, who have seen 
something of war and tlie difficulties in the way of succfssful com- 
bination, even with modern facilities and under the most favorable 
circumstances. And all this was done full four months before tlie 
Philadelpliia Declaration. Is not the testimony it bears conclu- 
sive as to the efficiency ( f the new experiment of .self-government 
in North < arolina? Not a man, or a gun, or a dollar beyond her 
liorders came to lior help. 

In the Summer of 177(), the Cherokee Indians agreed with the 
IJritisli, that upon the appearance of Sir Peter Parker and his fleet 
off the Carolina coast, they would fall upon the people on tlie frontiers 
of \'irginia and the two Carolinas, while Sir Peter Parker and his fleet 
were to make an attac'k, or at least a demonstration, from the coa^t. 
True to tlieir engagements tlie Indians, liaving lieard that the 
British Heet had arrived off <']iar'eston, poured down upon the 
frontier of Scjuth Carolina and massacred every one who fell in 
their power, without nction of age or sex. The gallant defense 
of Sullivan's Island, and the repulse of Sir Peter Parker in the 


harb u' of Charleston, prevented further outrages and frustrated for 
the time, the further execution of the plan agreed upon. It might, how- 
ever, be put into execution at any time unless the power of the Chero- 
kees was at once effectually broken, and to this end, expeditions were 
simultaneously sent into the Cherokee country from both the Caro- 
linas and from Virginia. South Carolina sent some 1,150 men under 
Colonel AVilliamson; Virginia sent some 1,500 men under Colonel 
Christian; while North Carolina sent 2,800 men under General 
Rutherford, besides some three or four hundred under Colonel Wil- 
liams who united with the forces under Colonel Christian, so that 
North Carolina sent more men than both the other States put 
together. The Indians ded before them; all their towns, howevrr, 
were burned and their cattle killed and all their gi-owing crops 
destroyed, so that nothing was left either for food or for habitation. 
The power of the nation was forever broken, and the Cherokees 
were soon glad to make peace on any terms. 

In April, ! 775, the British Parliament, in order to punish the 
colonies for the " disorders that prevailed " in them, passed an act 
cutting off their trade and commerce with Great Britain and the West 
Indies, as tiiey said it was " highly unfit that they should enjoy the 
same privileges and advantages of trade that his Majesty's faithful and 
obedient subjects enjoyed." This act, which was to take effect on the 
■20th July, 1775, was directed by name against each one of the colo- 
nies save New York, Georgia and North Carolina, a circumstance that, 
unexplained, may, i;erhap.s, cause some misapprehension, as to North 
Carolina, at least. The exclusion of North Carolina from the act of 
Parliament was a-s great a surprise within her own borders as else- 
where, and was resented here as an insult and a gross indignity. The 
Committee at Wilmington, on the '20th July, the day the act was to 
go intd ciperation, furnially and unanimously resolved that the excep- 
tion of tiiis colony f>ut ol the said act was a base and mean artifice 
to seduce tiiem into a desertion of tiie common cause of America, 
and t lat Xnrtli Carolina, refusing to accept advantages so insidiously 
thrown out, would continue to adhere strictly to tlie plans of the 


Continental Congress, and thus keep up a perfect unanimity with 
her sister colonies. 

As to the way our exclusion canie to be made, we know more than 
our ancestors, and the facts seem to be about as follows : The Assem- 
bly had sent to Messrs. Elmsly and Barker, our agents in London, 
a petition for presentation to the King, through the usual channels, 
which they said contained, among other things, " indirect reflec- 
tions on the Parliament, or tlie ministry, at least," and so the 
agents, in the place of the petition, substituted " a memorial in more 
decent terms," and the result was, that when the Restraining Bill was 
introduced a few days later it did not include North Carolina. Mr. 
Elmsly, in a letter to tSamuel .Johnston, under date of 7th April, 
1775, giving an account of the matter, says: "Whether you will 
thank us lor this distinction or not, whether it will not be considered 
opprobrious instead of honorable, whether Mr. Barker and myself 
will be censured or not, as having been, in all probability, instru- 
mental in bringing it about, I do not pretend to say. But in our 
defence, or rather in mine, for it was with much reluctance he con- 
sented to sup])ress the petition, you will take notice that when your 
memorial was presented we had no idea that such restraining bill 
was intended ; on the other hand, should tlii.s exemption be received 
favorably, give us no credit for it : for had it not been fur a tender- 
ness we had for the reputation of your Assembly, as having been 
long members of it, your petition, exceptionable as it is, should 
have been presented. * * * * But on account of both put 
together, it was agreed to sup[>ress it and to sulistitute a memorial 
in its room, and keep the whole a secret, and I am not sure Mr. 
Barker would not be dissatisfied if he knew that this matter had 
been conununicated even to you, therefore, I pray, say nothing 
about it." 

During the first months of the year 17T() the Continental Con- 
gress was almost at a standstill, unwilling, indeed, to recede, yet 
seemingly reluctant to go forward and take the final plunge. Talk 
ab )ut liberty and freedom was plenty enough, but when it came to 


tlie irrevocaijlo act of .■reparation and the measures necessary to 
accomplish it, the Continental Congress, very naturally, jaerhaps, 
dallied and dawdled and hesitated. Delegates, too, dilFereu^or they 
said they differed, as to the ne.xt stej), some declaring that a declara- 
tion of independence ought to come first, others that foreign alli- 
ances ought first to be made. The advocate^; of the latter course 
said that while it was easy enough to declare independence, it would 
be verj'- difficult, if not impossible, to accomplish it by their own 
unaided efforts. The question of forming foreign alliances therefore 
became a burning one ; to make them was palpable treason ; not to 
make them was failure. The next step unquestioiiably would put 
in jeopardy certainly their lortunes and possibly tlieir "sacred "' lives 
as well. At this juncture the matter was brouglit to the attention 
of the people in North Carolina. 

On the 14l]i of February, Mr. Penn, one of the delegates to the 
Continental Congress, wrote to Tliomas Person, a member of tlie 
Provincial Council, saying; '■ Matters are drawing to a, crisis. Tliey 
seem determined to persevere, and are forming alliances against us. 
Mu^t we not do something of the like nature? Can we hope to 
carry on a war without luning trade or commerce somewherf? Can 
we ever pay any taxes without it ? Will our paper money depreciate 
if we go on emitting? These are serious things, and require y(jur 
consideration. The consequence of making alliances is, periuips, a 
total separation witii Britain, and witliout something of that .sort we 
may not be able to procure what is necessary for oui defense. * * * 
If 3'ou find it necessary that tlie convention sliould meet sooner than 
May, let us know of it, as 1 wi.'^h t;) return at that time."' 

On the od of March the Provincial Council, Tliomas Person being 
one of i:s members, ordered the next session of Congress to be held 
at Halifax on liie "id April. ()n Thursday, the 4th, the provin- 
cial delegates met. On the evening of Sunday, 7tli April, the 
Philadelphia delegates reached Halifax. On Monday, the Sth, 
Messrs. Cornelius Harnett, Allen .Jones, Thomas Burke, Abner Na,sli, 

•John Kinchen, Thomas Person and Thomas .Jones were appointed a 
VOL. X — 2 


special committee to take into consideration " the usurpations and 
violences attempted and committed by the King and Parliament of 
Britain against America, and the further measures to be taken for 
frustrating the same, and for the better defence of the province." 
The committee was an exceptionally strong one, every memljer of it 
having a notable record, unless it be Mr. Kinchen, of Orange, about 
whom not much is now known, save that he was a lawyer and lived 
in Plillsborough. The fact, however, that he was put upon that 
ccjinmittee is strong proof that he was a strong man, for it was a 
committee upon which there was no room for mere hgure heads. 
( )u Friday morning, the 12th, the committee reported that in their 
opinion tlio House should enter into the following resolve, to-wit : 

"Resolved, That the delegates for this colony in the Continental 
Congi'ess be empowered to concur with the delegates of the other 
colonies in declaring Independency, and forming foreign alliances, 
reserving to this colony the sole and exclusive right of forming 
a constitution and laws for this colony, and for appointing dele- 
gates from time to time (under the direction of a general representa- 
tion thereof) to meet the delegates of the other colonies for such 
purposes as shall be hereafter pointed out." 

And thereupon, as the .Journal of the Congress states, the resolu- 
tion was unanimously adopted. 

This was the first authoritative, explicit declaration, by more than 
a month, by i\ny colony in favor of full, final separation from 
Britain, and the first like expression ou the vexed question of form- 
ing foreign alliances. It is in commemoration of this fact that our 
State fiag bears upon its field the legend, " 12th April. 177(1." 

North Carolina, already an independent sovereignty under a 
government of her own creation, was more solicitous about con- 
tinuing tlie separation between herself and the mother country than 
aliout any order of jirecedence in the ways and means leading 
thereto. In order, however, that Ihere might be no doubt in the 
premises, her Congress CDvered the .whole ground by 


not merely for independence, but in a plain, manly way for the 
only means in siglit of making it good. 

But there were more difficult problems before the Congress than any 
involved in the question of "independency and foreign alliances," 
for as to that, the people were of one mind, and quite readj^ to 
declare it whenever notified that the time had come to make it 
expedient to do so. As to the constitution, however, they were not 
of one mind, and it was quite true, as Governor Martin said, that while 
they were generally united as against Great Britain there were dif- 
ferences of opinion as to the distribution of power and command 
under the new government. Shortly after the Congress met, in 
A]iril, 1776, a committee was appointed to ^irepare and repf)rt a con- 
stitution. But the attempt to form a constitution soon developed 
material differences in the views of the Congress. The differences 
were not greater, perhaps, than were to be expected among men on 
any subject at a period when general thought had so recently been 
directed to it that time had not been afforded to apply to mere 
speculation and theory the usually needed correction of practical 
experience. It must be remembered, too, that when the Congress, 
met, democrats of all sliades were mere theorists, without any prac- 
tical experience. A portion, a minority, however, of the Congress 
I'avored a strong government, a representative republicanism, so to 
speak, modeled as nearly as possible upon that of Great Britain. 
Another portion, more advanced in pure democracy, perhaps, 
favored a simpler form of government, and one more directly 
responsible to the people. Of the first, Samuel Johnston and Allen 
•Jones were, perhaps, the most conspicuous leaders, and to the second 
belonged Richard Caswell, Willie Jones, Thomas Person and a 
majority of the Congress. That tiie majority was witli Caswell'and 
Willie Jones is apparent from the fact that just then for the Provin- 
cial Council, with Samuel Johnston at its head, the Congress substi- 
tuted a Council of Safety, with WilHe Jones for its chief. The 
little difierence in the powers- of the two bodies, no greater,^ 
indeed, than that in tiieir names, makes it apyiarent that the change 


•\vas made for the purpose of securing a government whose pcrsoinirl 
should be in accord with the majority of the Congress. One of the 
questions that perplexed patriots in that day in America generally, 
one too, that was keenl}' contested, was whether the legislative 
power should be vested in a single body or in a Senate and House 
of Representatives. On the one side it was said that tlie great law- 
making power should be "so near the people as to be an image of 
their thoughts and wishes, so numerous as to appear to every voter his 
direct counterpart, so frequently renewed as to insure swift respon- 
sibility," and this, it was thought, at first at least, by very many, 
would be best met by a single House of Representatives. This view 
had the w'eight inseparable from the sanction of Benjamin Franklin's 
great name, while the opposing one had that of .John Adams. 
Franklin held that as the will of the nation was one and indivisi- 
ble such should be the character of the body that declared k. 
Pennsylvania and Georgia framed their constitutions, in the first 
instance, upon this principle. Other provinces, on the other hand, 
because attached to the double system, or, perhaps, more conserva- 
tive, jtossibly, divided the law-making branch of the government 
into two houses, intending each to Ije a check upon the other. The 
tendency to pure democracy, in tliis regard, at least, was early 
abandoned u\ North Carolina, as in the first draft of a constitution 
submitted to the Congress, in April, 177G, it was expressly provided 
that the law-making power should be confined to two houses, that 
is to say, a Senate and House of Commons. 

Other cjuestions were, whether the cliief officers of the new State 
should be chosen by the people directly, or in some other mode, and 
what were to be tlie lengtlis of terms for wiiicli they were to be 
elected. Another question tliat caused much bitterness was tliat relat- 
ing to the election of magistrates, wlm, under the proposed system, 
would constitute the County Courts. It does not appear, however, 
that there was any material diiference in the Congress as to the 
mode of electing tlie liiglier judges or as to their tenure of office. 
Perhaps, and naturally enougli, the experience of the colony under 


Royal rule had brouglit onr ancestors to be of one mind on this 

Much heat was evolved by some of these differences. Some of 
the provisions of the proposed constitution indeed gave such umbrage 
to Samuel John.ston, at the outset, that he declared it would be 
impossible for liiin to take part in the execution of it; but jNIr. 
Johnston, as was well known, had been faithful to the province as 
against Great Britain and, as was well known also, was as honest 
and true as he was able and obstinate, and so the patient majority, 
with generous forbearance wisely gave him time for the better 
judgment that is sure to come from calm reflection and sober sound 
thought, with such men. 

The result of it all was that in the wise conservatism, for which 
our ancestors were specially noted in that day, it was deemed expe- 
dient to postpone the formation of the permanent constitution to a 
new Congress to be chosen for that especial purpose. A constitution 
could have been adopted as easily by the Congress of April, 1776, as 
by that of December, had it chosen to do so; the majority, however, 
preferred, in deference to the feelings of the minority, not to exercise 
the power it possessed. How great was the reward for sucli a gener- 
ous exercise of wise conservatism the sec[uel shows. 

On the 'Jth of August, 1776, the Council of Safety being in session, 
among other resolutions on various subjects, passed one recommend- 
ing to the good i^eople of this State to pay the greatest attention to 
the elections to be held, on the 15th of October ensuing, for delegates 
to represent them in the new Congress, and to have particularly in 
view the important consideration that it would be the business of 
the delegates then chosen, not only to make laws for the good of 
government, but also to form a constitution for the State; that this 
last as it would be the corner-stone of all law, so it ought to be fixed 
and permanent, and that according as it was well or ill ordered, it 
would tend, in the first degree, to promote the happiness or misery 
of the State. 


At the election, Samuel Johnston, a candidate for the Congress, 
from the county of Chowan, was defeated. The contest was a very 
bitter one, and waged especially it was said against Mr. Johnston. 
Mr. Johnston's party friends were very angry at the result, which 
they were pleased to attribute, as much to outside interference, as to 
home prejudice ; they especially resented as an act of unfair partisan- 
ship the resolution above referred to. At least this is the statement 
made by Mr. Jones in his "Defence 6J Nercth Carolina." It is difficult to 
understand, however, how a resolution so brief, so innocent in itself, 
and s:) exceedingly appropriate to the occasion, could be construed 
into an act of partisanship ; but Mr. Jones was himself a partisan in 
this regard, and his extravagance, certainly of language and possi- 
bly of statement also, make it impossible to follow him without 

Bat if the North Carolina constitution-makers of 1 77G were tlieo- 
rists only, in mere matters of democracy, upon the vital points of 
government in general they had well defined views that had come 
to them from practical experience, that were, so to speak, tlie har- 
vest of their long colonial seed-time. Chief among these, were : 1st, 
tiiat the people, each and every one of them, had certain unalien- 
able rights that no government could abridge or take away, and that 
these rights ought to be set forth in plain, unmistakable terms in the 
fundamental law ; 2d, that the legislative and judicial departments 
ought to be emancipated from control by the executive. The legis- 
lature they inclined naturally enough, perhaps, to magnify unduly, 
having long felt it to be their only protection from oppression, and 
their judiciary, too, they were determined should no longer be sub- 
ject to the whim or caprice of a governor; and if dependent at all 
should, like the legislature, be dependent on the people. Other 
points were minor points, upon which public thought had not yet 
crystalized. So that while differences might as to tlicse last, 
there was perhaps unanimity enough on really vital principles, a 
state of things that made compromises not very difficult among 
earnest iiatriots. And so, in .spite of all tiie heat envolvcd from time 


to tiiue; in spite of the defeat of Mr. Johnston, and the bitterness it 
was said to have provoked in the bosoms of his friends, an accom- 
modation was reached, some how or other, before the Congress met, 
so that when itdid meet, the leading man of tlie minorit}^ proposed 
for its President the leading man of the majority, and from that 
time harmony prevailed far beyond anything that could have been 
expected ; even \h. Johnston, who was present, on other business, it 
was said, and in con.stant consultation with the, no longer 
declared his inability to take part in the new government, but con- 
tented himself with .saying, that while none of the new constitutions 
were good, ours would perhaps " do as well as tliat adopted l)y any 
other colony." He was not pleased however. 

The new Congress met, an ', on motion of Allen Jones, Caswell 
was made President, and straiglitway a committee appointed to 
report a bill of rights and State constitution. After some three 
weeks' con.sideration the committee reported, and the bill of rights 
was adopted, so far as ap[>ears, without any change, on the 17th of 
December. On the next day the constitution was read, paragraph 
by {jaragraph, amended, though in \vh;it way does not appear, and 
at once pas,sed. The committee tluit drafted the bill of rights and 
constitution consisted of Richard Caswell, Thomas Person, Allen 
Jones, John Ashe, Abner Xas'n, Willie Jones, Thomas Jones, Simon 
Bright, Christopher Neale, Samuel Ashe, William Haywood, Griffith 
Rutherford, Henry Abbott, Luke Sumner, Thomas Respess, Jr., 
Archibald McLaine, Isaiah Hogan, and Hezekiah Alexander. Under 
the new constitution the Government consisted of three branches, 
'executive, legislative and judicial. The executive was stripped of 
much of the power exercised by colonial governors, being deprived 
of the veto power, and all power over the legislature. Indeed, but 
little power of any .sort was left to him. With the legislature it 
was different, as to it was given, in general terms, authority to do 
everything that was not .specially prohibited to it. It met on a day 
fixed by law, and adjourned at its own will and not that of the Gov- 
ernor. Tlie minority of each house could adjourn from day to day, 


and prorogations were no longer in order. The old trouble about 
" the quorum" was cut up by the roots, by an express provision that 
no business should be done in either house without the presence of 
a majority of its members. In addition to the law-making power, 
the legislature was entrusted witli the election of all the principal 
officers, from tlie Governor down. It was composed of two houses, the 
Senate, or Upper House, chosen by freeholders, and the Commons, 
or Lower House, chosen by general suffrage. One great difficulty 
in this regard all along had been to provide some safeguard against 
usurpation of power by the legislature. That finally adopted seems 
to have been in accordance with, if not in consequence of, a sug- 
gestion of Samuel -lohnston, who, on this point, was certainly with 
the popular current, that the only check on the representatives of 
the people in a democracy, was the people themselves, and that, as a 
consequence, elections should be frequent. And so all elections, 
save those for the Secretary of State and the Judges, whether by the 
people or the Legislature, were annual. Popular elections, however, 
whether frequent or unfrequent, do not seem to have found as nnich 
favor in those days in North Carolina as in modern times, tlie only 
elections of that sort under the new constitution being tliose for 
members of the As.sembly. To the judicial branch, as to the execu- 
tive, comparatively little power was apparently given, as the right of 
that branch of tlie government to nullify the action of the legislature 
by declaring it unconstitutional, had not then been evolved, its dis- 
covery, or invention, as the case may be, being of a later date. The 
Judges, however, were^ given life-tenures, and thus made independ- 
ent, and paid by fixed salaries and not fees in cases depending before 
them, as in colonial days. 

By tlie provision giving to each county one member in the Upper 
House and two members in the Lower House, the great old-time 
inequality in legislative representation, was done away with, in a 
measure, fo tliat the Albemarle counties no longer sent five members 
while other counties sent only two. The adjustment, however, was not 
entirely equitable, for although some of tlic counties contained only 


some 4,000 people, otI>ers litul as many as 15,000. The representa- 
tion from the smallest county was equal to that of the largest. 

Another provL-jion, most conspicuous, perhaps, by reason of its 
entire absence from the constitution, was one directing the mode of 
taxation. It will be remembered that in colonial days there Avas no 
property tax, but only a poll-tax, and that this worked hardly in 
the interior counties. That the omission of a provision for a prop- 
erty tax, was not accidental, was evident from the fact that three 
members of the committee that reported the constitution were espe- 
cially and particularly instructed to procure a provision for a prop- 
erty tax, and their failure to do so was doubtless in consequence of 
one of the many compromises found necessary to be made in 
framing a constitutio^kthat -would be agreed to. It was asking- 
more, perhaps of the East, that a provision for a property tax should 
be inserted in the constitution, than tlie members from that section 
were willing to concede, an<I so the whole question was left open for the 
arbitrament of the future, by no ineans an unwise thing at times. 
To one familiar with the history of Xorth Carolina it is easy to see 
that colonial experience dictated most of these changes. 

But in spite of Mr. Johnston's opinion that none of the constitu- 
tions of that day could be good, most of them seemed to work well 
enough in practice. Especially was this the case with ours, for it 
proved .so satisfactory that it was allowed to remain without any 
change whatever for fifty-nine years. Of the declaration of rights 
it is perhaps sufficient to say that of its twelve clauses for the pro- 
tection of individual rights eleven were embodied in the fiv. t ten 
amendments to the Federal Con.stitution. 

How circumstances do alter cases. In 1775 and 1 776, when slavery 
prevailed more or less in every colony and Royal governors sought 
to create servile wars as a means of subjugation, it was v\ith one 
consent denounced as a sufficient ju.stification for separation from 
Great Britain. In the late war between the States, to say nothing 
of the John Brown raid, it was thought perfectly right and proper 
for the President of the Northern States to issue a proclamation 


declaring all the slaves to be free and putting them into uiilitaiy 
service. There were then no slaves, or comparatively none, in the 
Northern States. That a servile war did not follow tlie emancipa- 
tion proclamation was certainly not owing to the Federal authori- 
ties, but to the good and kindly feeling of the slaves them- 
selves If the Royal governors were so far wrong in 1775, how 
could the Northern States' authorities be right in 18G2? ■ 

The history of tbs- Watauga settlement set forth in the petition of 
the people there for recognition as a part of the body politic of 
North Carolina is of peculiar interest, as it was the beginning of 
what is now the great State of Tennessee. Promptly recognizing 
their claim to be citizens of North Carolina, the Council ordered elec- 
tions to be held there for delegates to the CoagTcss to frame the State 
Constitution, and delegates were accordingly elected and took their 
seats as members of the Congress and j.iarticipated in the great work 
of framing our constitution. 

Historians usually speak of the men who fought at Moore's Creek 
under McDonald as the Scotch and Pegulators, creating the impres- 
sion, whether intentionally or not, that they were in nearly, if 
not cjuite, equal proportions. The facts, however, seem scarcely to 
ju.stify this assumption. Governor Martin, however, in his report, says 
nothing about the Regulators, but speaks of them as "the High- 
landers and about one hundred of the country people." Colonel 
Purviance says there were " not 200 of the old Regulators among 
them." From the list of the prisoners, too, reported to the Congress 
at Halifax, it would seem that tliere were only two companies that 
could by any means be credited to the Regulators. Nor must it be 
assumed tliat all who were in the expedition to Moore's Creek 
from Oiangc and Guilford were Regulators, for old Parson Mickle- 
john was caught red-handed, and certainly he was not one of the 
Regulators, but one of Tryon's right-hand n.ien against them, turn- 
ing upon them the thunders of tlie church, while his chief 
employed all the weai>ons known to carnal warfare in his day. 


Certainly, from the records at this time, at least, it would seem 
that the doubts of those who hesitate to accept the statement that 
the great body of the Regulators became Tories have some founda- 

Many things, po.ssibly, strike the student of our records with sur- 
prise, but none, perhaps, more than the ignorance of our delegates 
to the Continental Congress for near twelve months after their first 
appointment as to the advanced state of feeling among their con- 
stituents on the great cjuestions then pending. Among other things 
that contributed to this result, doubtless, was the infrec[uent com- 
munication between North Carolina and Philadelphia, the lack of 
newspapers to gather and print the news of current events, and a 
want of apjsreciation of the intelligence and patriotism of the people, 
and an undue impatience of zeal, perhaps. But whatever the cause, 
our delegates seemed not to realize that any advance had been made 
in public sentiment after they left the province, and comparing 
their constituents at a former date with the people immediately 
under their observation at Philadelphia at a later one they thought 
them laggards. It must be remembered, too, that while neither of 
our delegates was a native all of them were from the coast-line set- 
tlements of the East. Hooper, then of Wilmington, had not been 
in the province ten years when he was sent to Philadelphia, and a 
part, at least, of that time he spent among the Scotch on the Upper 
Cape Fear. Neither Caswell i'rom Doblis, nor Hewes from Chowan 
county was a native, though Caswell had been much longer resi- 
dent here than either Hooper or Hewes. The latter was a plain 
man of business atEdenton, of local importance and local acquaint- 
ance, who had just come into public notice, and whose life was more 
or less clouded by 'the death of his fiancee, to whom he was devo- 
tedlj' attached. Caswell, a Marylander by birth, had, within less 
than twelve months before his appointment as a delegate, been a 
judge under a purely prerogative appointment b}' Governor Martin, 
which for the time, at made him unpopular. Under Tryon, 
Martin's predecessor, he had been his staunch supporter and a spe- 


cial favorite. From their letters and addresses one v/ould think the 
people of North Carolina were laggards at the start in the race for 
freedom, who constantly needed to be urged on by tlie people at Phil- 
adelphia. Hapi)ily our records show such a different state of things 
that the wonder now is how it was possible for those gentlemen to 
be so ill informed. , 

For example, on the 10th .June, 1775, our three delegates in Phil- 
adelphia, Richard Caswell, Joseph Hevres and William Hooper, 
united in an address in which they said the people of North Car- 
olina alone, in all America, were " supine and careless" amid the 
stirring events taking place around them; and then, as if to arouse 
them from their lethargy, reminded them of the efforts to raise the 
negroes and to turn the Indians loose upon the frontiers ; pointed 
out the hopelessness of any good to come from their exclusion from 
the British Restraining Act, and urged them to organize the militia, 
and look well after the gun|X)wder in the province, all of which was 
very handsomely l>ut, and would luive been verj' patriotic and very 
appropriate if it fjad been true.- The statement, however, was not 
true. The truth is, as our records plainly show : 

1. TJiat the people Avere aware of the efforts to excite the negroes 
to insurrection, and had taken such precautions in the premises that 
when an extended insurrection was attempted a few weeks later, it 
was j)romptly sujiprejsed before any mischief was done. 

2. That the ijeojde were well aware also of the threatened Indian 
troubles, and on the 1st June the Committee in Rowan County, that 
then covered the Indian frontier, ordered the purchase of powder 
and lead for the use of the militia, that they might be "provided 
against the incursions of the Indiuns on the frontier, that seemed 
then probable." 

3. That the people had not the least expectation of any benefit 
from their exclusinn from the British Restraining Act, as they had 
not the least expectation to allow it to operate here. On the con- 
trary they constantly avowed an unalterable purpose to stand by the 
other colonies in every event, and regarded the insidious attempt to 


detach Uk^iii from the common cause as an insult and an indignity. 
The delegates, however, were as ignorant of the causes of the exclu- 
sion of North Carolina from the operation of the R'jslraining Act, as 
they were of its possible effect upon our people. Messrs. Elrasly and 
Barker, our agents in London, who unwittingly brought about the 
exclusion, had a better appreciation of the temper of our people, for 
when they found what they had done they were extremely solicit- 
ous that their handiwork in bringing about tlie result should be 
kejit a profound secret, nothing being further from their intention 
than such a result. 

4. That the organization of the militia was well looked after, and 
the l)est possible provision made for supplies of ammunition. The 
Rowa:i militia companies were live, active organizations as early as 
23d September, 1774, and as early as .".th January, 1775, the Com- 
mittee at Wilmington was openly seizing all tlie powder within its 
reach. Before the 10th March the peoi)le in Brunswick and New 
Hanover met and chose field oflBcers for a regiment, and Colonel 
Howe was drilling men in Brunswick, after which Colonel Ashe, 
who had thrown up a commi-ssion under Martin and accepted one 
from the people, appeared in \Yilmington. at the head of some 400 
or oOO armed men, " threatening witli military execution " those who 
refused to .sign the As.sociation. In Mecklenburg Coun.ty the militia 
was organized under Committee rule on May, and orders were that 
day issued by the Committee for them to arm and " hold themselves in 
readiness " for such service as might be required of them by the prov- 
ince or by the County Committee, and to that end, that powder and 
lead be at once purcha.sed. In Rowan, all that was needed for active 
service in the field was a supply of ammunition for which we have 
already seen orders were at once issued. On the Sth .June the militia in 
Craven County were being organized. Meanwhile, the signing of 
associations "binding the })eople to be prepared with arms to array 
themselves in companies'' had progressed so far that on the I6th 
June Governor Martin issued a formal proclamation from Fort John- 
ston forbidding it any longer to be dont 



Doubtless if our records had been more genei'ally }ireserved the 
array of testimony would be much fuller, but even as if is we have 
covered nearly the entire State. Unfortunately ibr us, in many 
respects, our ancestors were careless about their records, so careless, 
indeed, tliat we have been obliged to supply many missing links 
very largely by copies from the Britisli Public Record Office in Lon- 
don, sometimes by copies from original documents transmitted from- 
time to time by the governors, but ofttimes- by copies from publica- 
tions in one of tlie two newspapers then printed in the province- 
Certainl}' a scant supply. Especially is this true as to county meetings. 

On Stli July, near three weeks after the address was issued, Hewes 
and Hooper v,'ere still uninformed of ©vents in North Carolina, and 
consequently still unhappy. -Just then they were "alarmed," as Hewes 
wrote to .Johnston, by the contents of the intcrcppted letter from 
General Gage to Governor Martin, and that fiom Martin to Henry 
AVhite, of New York. They feared Nortli (Carolina might not main- 
tain a bold front in the face of the dangers that threatened her. 
Caswell, it seems, was not tliere. Ilewes, in his letter, went over the 
familiar ground about negro insurrections, Indian inmi'sions, and 
the hke. Not content with tliis, he and Iloojter, under the influence 
of the fresh alarm, prevailed upon the Presbyteiian ministers at 
Philadelphia ■' to write to the congregations and ministers of their 
sect in North Carolina," to set their brethrc n right in North Caro- 
lina, and '•ap[)lied to the Dutcli Lutherans and (,'alvinists to do the 
same fur their sect." 

Meanwhile, before Plewes's letter was well out of Philadelphia, 
the call fir the Hillsborough Convention tn meet mi the :iOtli .Vugust 
had Ijeen issued. The people for we(>ks had been elamnring for one 
at an earlier day. The clamor began with (uivernor Martin's flight in 
May, if not hetbre. The Connnittceat Wilmingtt)n im l.'lth July wrote 
to Mr. Moderator .Inhnston, who then had control of the mattei', saying: 
"Our people are continually clamoring fiii' a Provincial Coiucntion. 
They hope everything from its innuediate session, fear everytliing 
from its delay. We join our wishes to tlios ■ (if the peojile, and 


adjure yon, by your love of your country, to call a rrovincial f'on- 
vcntion at an early ilay, so sliall tlie minds of tlie peo[)le l)o calmed 
and proper measures (tho' late) be taken to api'ly remedys to all (Uir 
])olitical inconveniences. We think it necessary to apprize you that 
the general opinion of this part of tlic couutrj- is ihat a number of 
-men should be raised and kept in jiay for the defence of the coun- 
try. This can only be done by a convention, and that convention 
alone can f;rll upon a proper mode of paying them." Could a people 
be called careless and supine who were clamoring for the immediate 
call of a convention to raise a standing army at their own 
In tiie matter of calling the convention, Mr. .Johnston was in a 
dilemma. Any convention would be composed very largely of 
members of the Assembh', and Martin had ordered an Assembly to 
meet in XewBern on 14th July, while the April convention had 
ordered tlie, next convention to meet in Hillsborough. It would not 
do td call a convention at Hillsborough wliile the Assembly was in 
session at XewBern, and Johnston had no authority to change the 
place of meeting from Hillsborough to XewBerj. And so, as we 
have said,l:e was in a dilennna. This much in justice to Mr. John- 
ston, and wit'i all tlie delay, only .some four months ela[..sed between 
the adjournment of the last convention at XewBern an 1 the open- 
ing of that at Hillsborough, time well .spent, if, indeed, time were 
needed, in bringing our people to one mind as to the mode of taking 
into tlieir own hands the sceptre Martin was no longer able to wield. 
I>onking back, even after this long lajise of time, it can scarcely 
fail t'l iir(:)vi>ke a feeling of irritation that our delegates, from any 
cause, shnuld liave doni^ sucli great injustice to tlieir constituents, 
our ancestiirs. men wlio were sujierlily grand in their courage vvlien, 
in 1774. they resjionded so |Mnmptly 1o the first call to inaugurate 
a system n popular guvei'nment that, in less than thirty days from 
the dryin.g of the ink U|i()n it, delegates to the convention thus 
callid, the hi>t purely po;ular a<semi)lage that was ever called or 
that ever met in .\merica, were formally elected and reaily to meet 
at the time and place appointed : ukmi who were grander still when, 


six months later, they sent their second convention to show such bohl 
and contemiDtuous defiance to Royal authority ; men who were yet 
, still grander when, another six months having passed, they sent 
their third convention, in unprecedentedly large numbers, to enable 
tliem to take the entire government into their own hands, many 
months before any other colony dared to do so ; me)i who were yet 
even grander still, if possible, when, another six months having 
elapsed, and seeing ditl'erences and hot blood, 2)erhaps, among good 
men upon minor points, as it were, where only harmony and kindly 
feeling ought to prevail, in their magnificent self-control and rare 
equipoise, generously put oft' for another six months the making of 
the permanent constitution, in order tliat they might come to o'.ie 
mind after sober, serious reflec!tion. Even at this laic day, we say, 
it makes the blood hot to know tliat such men were misrepresented 
and mistrusted by their delegates. But neither of their delegates 
was a native, and neither they nor their ancestors had been taught 
in the schools in which the North Carolinians of an older date had 
learned the lessons of practical republicanism. 

Our records liear us out in tlie declaration tJiat Irum sheer ign(jrance 
alone coulJ have arisen a fear that either the Scotch-Irish (ir the 
German population of Central and Western North Carolina were 
less patriotic, less intelligent or less courageous than their Iji'ethreu 
of Englisli descent in the coast-line settlements of the East. Vet it 
was as to these very people especially that our <lek'gates had their 
doubts. The Philadelphia Presbyterian Pastoral, in its very o[iening 
sentence, tells "the ministers and Presbyterian cungregalions in 
North Carolina " that th^ Philadel(>hia folks were very much hurt 
" to hear that they were somehow led aside from the cause of h'eedom 
and liberty." How strange it sounds, ami how absurd to hear the 
people of Mecklenburg and Rowan called laggards in the cause of 
freedom and liberty! The Philadelphia i'olks, liowevei', were not to 
])lame for the pastoral, but Messi's. Hooper and He a es, who pre- 
vailed upon them to write it But, tlien, neither of the delegates was 


a "Western man, neither of them a native, and neitlier of them a 

But " many men of many minds," as the old saying goes. Hooper 
and Hewes, in Philadelphia, felt gloomy and despondent because 
they -feared the outlook was unfavorable for the success of the 
great cause to which, heart and soul, they were devoted. Mar- 
tin, on the other hand, on the ground, felt gloomy and despond- 
ent because the outlook, a^ he saw it, was bad for royal rule. And 
how different, too, the people of North Carolina appeared to .John 
Harvej' on the one side, and Caswell and Hewes and Hooper on 
the other. Harvey's grand, instantaneous reply that "then the 
people would call an a.ssembly themselves," showed his perfect conti- 
dence in them, while the utterances of our delegates showed their 
want of it. And Harvey was right, and Caswell and Hewt.s and 
Hooper were not the only i"!ien in North Carolina prepared to do or 
die in defence of the cause. 

The delegates were all from the East, as we have seen, one from 
the northern, one from the middle, and one from tlie southern sec- 
tion of it. With the power the Eastern counties tlien exercised in 
all legislative bodies in North Carolina, how the West could be 
excluded from rei)resentation by what may be called, perhaps, the 
accustomed .sectional combination, is easily seen. Certainly it was 
not for want of suitable men that no delegates was chosen from the 
West. The mere mention of the names of such men- as Thomas 
Person, of Granville ; Thomns Hart, John Kiuchen, Francis Nash 
and Thomas Burke, of Orange; Alexander and Francis Martin, of 
Guilford; Waightstill Avery, McKnitt Alexander and Ephraim Bre- 
vard, of Mecklenburg; Samuel Spencer, of Anson; .James Macay, 
Samuel Young and \\'iliiam Kennon, of Rowan, makes the sugges- 
tion absurd. But political wrongs, like others, usually avenge them- 
selves, and so for this unreasonable, unfair exclusion of a Western 
man from the delegation, the State suffered in reputation. 

The exclusion, we know, caused trouble and disaffection at the 
time, as well it might, for, as our records show, it gave to the 

vol,. X — .'5 


expressed liope on the part of the friends of the King, a vain hope, 
however, as the event proved, that the Western counties would 
manifest their disapprobation in a material, practical way. Instead, 
however, of sulking in their tents the Western people continued, as, 
they began, active, zealous workers in the cause of freedom and lib- 
erty, and in time they had their reward. Time proves all things, and 
it needed not much time after the struggle for freedom and for inde- 
pendence began, to show what was the worth and what was the tem- 
per of the people of the Center and the West. How patriotic the feel- 
ing among them was, and liow thoroughly united they were, is appa- 
rent from the fact that in spite of all the threats and all the induce- 
ments held out to them, "not more than a hundred people of the 
country " could be enlisted under the King's banner in February, 
1776, the rest being "Highlanders," new-comers, not yet incorporated 
into the body politic, in sentiment, at least, of North Carolina. 

Why delegates were chosen from the East, rather than from the 
^^'^est, may, as we have seen, be understood, but why in the East 
where there were so many natives fully competent, among the 
eai'liest and most pronounced advocates of all popular measures, 
none should be chosen is, to say the least, a matter for surprise. 
On file Cape Fear there was .John Ashe, a man of mature age, for 
years Speaker of the Assembly and a leader in all popular measures, 
whether supported by arms or by argument; Harnett, the younger 
a great civilian and a recognized popular leader; Howe, another 
popular leader and one of the most brilliant men ever born on 
North Carolina soil, a brilliant speaker, an incomparable writer, and 
a great soldier; James Moore, another great soldier, cut off in his 
prime, all men of education and political experience. 

On the Roanoke and the Albemarle there were four of the same 
name, all distinguished for their patriotism and their zeal in the 
cause of their country, Willie Jones, of Halifax; Allen Jones, of 
Northampton; Thomas Jones, of Chowan, and Joseph Jones, of 
Pasquotank, of whose services our records are full : and then, too, 
there was Sanuiel Jo'.niston, who, though he was not a native, had 


come here so young, and had Hved here so long, that, as he said, he 
had become imbued with all the feelings and prejudices of a native; 
there was Benbury, too, while of Harveys and Blounts there was 
no lack in the Albemarle, who, with Coor and Cogdell on the Neuse, 
and Simpson and a Haywood or two on the Pamlico, and Campbell 
and Dawson of Bertie were, to say the least, the equals in every 
respect of Hewes. 

But so it was; the East and the West were no nearer unified in 
1774 than they were in 1771. Hooper, Hewes and Caswell had not 
ceased to regard tlie Regulators, wlio, with their sympathizers, cov- 
ered well-nigh every constable's district in the Center and West, as 
red-handed traitors. In less than twelve months, however, the Con- 
A'ention stood before them, hat in hand, as it v\'ere, and when Caswell 
resigned his place as delegate to take that of Treasurer, appointed 
John Penn, the countyman and personal friend of the noted Regu- 
lator Thomas Person, in his stead, and in less than two years only 
one of the three delegates was from the East. 

Verily by the time the Convention met at Hillsborough, the world 
of Hooper and Hewes and Caswell had moved, for they were all 
there. Light had broken in upon their darkened horizon, and no 
more Philadeliihia pastorals and no more desponding addresses were 
given to the public. And verily that Hillsborough Convention was 
the dawn of a new era in many ways in North Carolina, conspicuous 
among them being a due appreciation by the East of the worth and 
numbers of the people of the West, and, in consequence, the begin- 
ning of a genuine fraternal feeling for them. 

War is not always altogether bad in its consequences. It was 
worth much trial and tribulation, much sorrow and suffering to 
bring about a genuine fraternal feeling between the hitherto indif- 
ferent and unacquainted sections of the province. And so, calami- 
tous as was our late war, it brought about a more thorough and 
cordial unification of tlie various sections in the State, than probably 
would have been reached in a full centurv, if then ; a result that 


is worth more tlian tongue can tell or money compute to those who 
love North Carolina. 

After all said and done, however, it must be remembered that 
Hewes and Hooper were both professed advocates of all popular 
measures as Governor Martin reported, and possibly what was true 
of Hooper, as said by a great admirer, was true of all of them, that 
though sometimes desponding there was never any wavering. It 
must be remembered, too, that " independency " and democracy were 
not in that day as nearly convertible terms as may now be supposed ; 
that, in fact, to many patriots, denjocracy did not seem to be a neces- 
sary or even a desirable consequence of independence and separa- 
tion from England, and that to these, confidence in the masses was 
a plant of truly slow growth. Hooper, for example, like Johnston, 
though an early and a-'staunch patriot, was, perhaps, never a demo- 
crat, while the people of the Center and West were both patriots and 
democrats, as democracy went in those days. Doubtless, liowever, 
democracy to-day has a much more advanced signification than it 
had some hundred years ago and more, throughout America. 

Another thing that will perhaps surprise the student of our his- 
tory, is the rare control in which our ancestors held themselves in 
the perilous excitement that possessed them in the years just pre- 
vious to the adoption of their State Constitution. From tlie da}' 
on which Harvey boldl^y announced that the people would call an 
Assembly themselves, scarce a month passed that did not witness 
some palpable progress, some tangible step in advance toward the 
overthrow of British rule and the establishment of popular govern- 
ment in its stead. And yet, with all this steadj^, positive advance, 
every step forward was so deliberately taken that there was never 
any desire even, to take one backward. 

The Convention of August, 1774, while it was the first body of 
its kind ever assembled in America, and while it certainly showed grit 
enough and to spare, showed deliberation also, for althougli it met 


ill ample time, it did not meet until some four montlis had elapsed 
after the necessity for it to meet had been presented to the people. 

The Convention of April, 1775, the Mecklenburg Declaration of 
20th May, and the action of the NewBern Committee on the morn- 
ing of the 23d, in the matter of the dismounted guns, it must be 
admitted, showed, possibly, more audacity than deliberation. But 
then, the two latter events occurred just after American blood had 
been spilled on American soil by a ruthless British soldiery. 

The Hillsborough Congress, in its meeting as well as in its action, 
was thoroughly characteristic. There was no haste, indeed there was 
delay, as it seemed to many, in its call, and yet it met only some 
four months after the April Convention adjourned, quick enough, it 
would seem to us, and yet too slow, it would seem, for the impatient 
souls of that day. The whole ground of disruption, new gov.ernment, 
peace and war was gone over in the space of twenty days. Tlje 
matter of arranging a new home government was disposed of in a 
week, but when a plan for a new outside government, in the place of 
the one just gotten rid of, was proposed under auspices that would 
have been most enticing to a people who had lost their heads, 
so to speak, in their zeal for separation from Britain, it was at 
once laid aside to give time to provide each member with a copy 
for serious individual examination and consideration. This, of 
itself, was no light task, as the manuscript consisted of four pages 
of closely written foolscap, of large size, and one hundred and 
eightj'-four members had to be supplied in a very small village 
where clerical labor was scarce. The result was that the Con- 
gress not only voted the plan " ineligible," but, seeing for the first 
time the possibility that North Carolina might be carried into an 
unsuitable confederation by her delegates at Philadelphia, proceeded 
to strip them, in so many words, of the power to do so. So, too, 
while providing a home government, they made only a temporary 
one, knowing full well that a permanent one was a work of time, by 
no means to be gone into lightly or unadvisedly. 


Six months later, at Halifax, they set about the task with abund- 
ant resolution, but seeing the difTerences it engendered and having 
tune to spare, they deliberately postponed the matter for another six 
montlis. Meanwhile, the time having come for it, they passed inside 
of four days a resolution for "independency and foreign alliances," 
thereb}' placing North Carolina in the very forefront of the colonies 
on that most vital question at that most critical time. Surely so 
much calm deliberation was never so judiciously mingled with such 
ready, bold action, on such an important occasion. 

And this wise conservatism, this moderating influence had its 
origin, strange to say, in an omnipotent majority, that was fully con- 
scious of power. There was a minority, however, of high character 
and decided views, conspicuous among whom was Samuel Johnston. 
Mr. Johnston was a good man and true, but obstinately fixed in Iris 
opinions, and one who, when thwarted, would sulk in his tent and 
talk indiscreetly. Allen Jones was another good man and true, but 
unlike Johnston, in that he never soured and never sulked, but kept 
straight on to the end, always at work for the cause somewhere, 
either in camp or council. Over such men as these the majority 
sought no personal triumph, no personal victory. All the triumpli 
they sought was that of the great cause in which the minority, as 
the majority well knew, were also thoroughly enlisted; and so they 
did not press them, but gave them time; but while thus forbear- 
ing they were none the less resolute and determined, and tightened 
their grip on the temporaiw government. The feeling was doubt- 
less quite warm, indeed it has been said that without democracy 
independence would have had no attraction for Willie Jones and 
Thomas Person, and it might have been easily retorted, and with 
no more truth, that with it independence had no attraction for John- 
ston and Allen Jones. The moderation of Willie Jones and Person in 
their treatment of the minority generally, and in the make-up of the 
Con.stitution especially, .shows that noither side, perhaps, went to the 
extremes, that historians and partisans of a later generation would 
have us believe. 


The truth is, tliat being as deliberate and self-contained as they 
were resolute and determined, when it was necessary to take the 
lead, they went to the forefront unhesitatingly, but recognizing tliat 
different temperaments make men travel at different gaits, they, at 
other times, purposelj^ held back the main body, for the slower of 
thought and slower of gait to catch up, so that the entire province, in 
one united column, might reach the great goal for which thej^ had 
set out, in close order and without any straggling. And so, too, 
having always in view the ultimate success of their cause, they cheer- 
fully subordinated all temporary considerations to that end, and in 
order to secure unity in essentials, willingly tolerated differences in 
non-essentials. In a word, they were always ready to act or not to 
act, as the exigency of the occasion demanded, to further the great 
cause, and this, too, without a single reporter or historian and with 
only two weekl}' newspapers in all the province to herald to the 
world what they did or what they refused to do. Their self-control 
was admirable. 

But the repulse of tb.e British at Charleston on the "iStli June, 
17711, deserves more than a passing notice here, for that brilliant 
result was accomplished, in part, at least, by North Carolina Troops, 
for there, as generally elsewhere, a full proportion of the troops 
engaged were North Carolinians Brigadier Generals Moore and 
Howe were there with the first regiment of North Carolina Regulars, 
under Colonel Francis Nash, and the second under Colonel Alex- 
ander Martin. 

General Charles Lee, who was chief in command, highly compli- 
mented them to the President of the Virginia Convention, saying 
that he knew not wliich corps he had the greatest reason to be 
jjlea.sed with, Muhlenberg's Virginians or the North Carolina troops, 
lioth being regulars. The point of this compliment was, first, that it 
was written to a Virginian, and second, tliat of all the Virginia regi- 
ments, Muldenberg's was ' the most complete, the best armed, best 


clothed and best equipped." * In a report to General Washington 
General Lee speaks of them as "admirable soldiers." 

And yet, with all this high praise, it is said the commanding Gen- 
eral failed to do full justice to the North Carolinians, especially to 
Lieutenant Colonel Clark, of the First North Carolina Regulars, who, 
with some two hundred men, was assigned to the duty of defending 
the rear approaches to the fort. 

And so we have another instance of the efficiency of the tempo- 
rary government established at Hillsborough. In a short twelve 
months it sent troops once to the lielp of ^'^irginia and twice to that 
of South Carolina, fought the battle of Moore's Creek, and sent 
some 3,000 men against tlie Cherokees. Within tlie year it put near 
10,000 men into service in the field, certainly a very large propor- 
tion of its fighting population in so short a time. 

.And now the self-imposed task, begun some eleven years ago, is 
finished. All that I care to say is that I have done the best I c«uld 
that coming generations might be able to learn what manner of 
men their ancestors were, and this I have done without reward or 
the hope of reward, other thaia the hope that I might contrilnite some- 
thing to rescue the fair fame and good name of North Carolina from 
the clutches of ignorance. Our records are now before the world, 
and any man who chooses may see for himself the character of the 
people who made them. As for myself, when I search these North 
Carolina scriptures and read the story of her hundred years' struggle 
with the mother country for Constitutional Government and the no 
less wonderful story of her hundred years' struggle with the savage 
Indian lor very life, both culminating in her first great revolution ; 
and then coming down to her .second great revolution, when I 
remember how the old State bared her bosom to that mighty storm, 
how she sent her sons to the field, until both the cradle and the 
grave were robbed of their justi-ights; how devotedly those sons 

*Ba! croft. 


stood before shot and shell and the deadly bullet, su that their bones 
whitened every battle-field; when I remember how heroically she 
endured every privation, until starvation was atlier very doors, and 
until raiment was as scarce as food, and with what fortitude she met 
defeat, when, after Appomattox, all seemed lost, save honor ; especially, 
when I remember how, in the darkest of all hours, rallying once more 
to the struggle for Constitutional Government, she enlisted for the 
war of Reconstruction, fought it out to the end, finally wresting glo- 
rious victory from the very jaws of disastrous defeat, I bow my head in 
gratitude and say as our great Confederate commander, the immor- 
tal Lee, said, when, watching the brilliant fight some of our regi- 
ments were making, at a critical time in one of his great battles, he 
exclaimed in the fullness of his heart, 

"God bless old North Carolina." 

The Editor begs leave again to render his sincere acknowledg- 
ments to his Excellencj' Governor Fowlc, and to Major S. M. Fin- 
ger, Superintendent of Public Instruction, for their continued cor- 
dial and highly appreciated co-operation in this publication. To 
Captain S. A. Ashe for much very valuable assistance rendered in 
many ways and at many times, he is sincerely grateful, as also to a 
young friend who promises to do credit to North Carolina as well as 
to himself, Collier Cobb, Esq., late of Harvard College. 

lie J^.lax^^^U^^ 

\ol. X — 4 



[From the Court Records of Rowan County.] 

Transcript of the Minutes of a Court of Oyer and Terminer for the 

Sahsbury District. 
North Carolina — To wit: June 1", 1775. 

Proclamation being made and silence being commanded, the King's 
commission of Oyer & Terminer was publicly read, in which com- 
mission Alex. Martin, Esquire, was nominated one of the .Judges of 
a Court of Oyer & Terminer appointed by act of Assembly of said 
province, to be hdd at Salisbury, on the first day of June in the 
XV year of tlie reign of Our Sovereign Lord; CJeorge third, King of 
Greit Britain etc, for the Counties of Rowan, Anson, Mecklenburg, 
Tryon, Surry and Guilford. 

The Honorable Alexander Martin, Esq'' took the oath prescribed 
by law for tlie qualification of public o(Jicers and an Oath of office 
and repeated and subscribed the Test, took his seat and proceeded 
to bu.siness. 

The Court appointed Adlai Osl)orne Esq' Clerk of the Court, who 
qualified according to law. 

Benjamin B. Boote Esq" produced a Deputation from Thomas 
McGwire Esq"" his Majesty's Attorney General for the Province of 
North Carolina, a})pointing the said B. B. Boote, Dei)uty Attorney 
for the Crown for the District of Salisbury, who qualified by taking 
the oath prescribed by law for the qualification of public officers, 
an oath of office and subscribing the Test. 

The Sheriffs of the several Counties of the District of Salisbury, 
being called and required to make return of the several venires and 
other process from the said Counties and returnable here this day, 
Thomas Harris high sherift' of ^lecklenburg failed to appear and 
make return of the process to him directed — 

Therefore ordered by the Court, that the .said Thomas Harris be 
fined £50 for his not attending and that lie be cited to show cause 
&c next Court. 

The Sheriff of INIecklenburg returns the venire. 

VOL. X 1 


Thursday June 1" 1775. 

Be it remembered that this day several Recognizances were 
returned into Court and entered up, as pr. Docket following. 

Tlie following J'eaire was returned by the Sheriffs of the several 
Counties, viz : 


1. Moses Winsley 

2. Will Davison 

3. Sam' Harris 

4. Geo. Hen. Berger 

5. Griffith Rutherford 
0. Will Alexander 

7. John Dickey 

8. Geo. Davison 

9. Sam' Reed 

10. John Sloan 

11. Sam' Young 

12. James IVPCay 


1. John Cole.son 

2. Charles Robison 

3. James Cotton 

4. Solomon Gross 

1. Will. Moore 

2. Fred" Hambri, 

3. James M^Intire 

4. Moses Moore 


o. James ^Pickett 

6. Will. Coleson 

7. Buckner Kimball 

5. John M^Kinney 
(!. Will. Gilbert 
7. Abram Kerkendoll 
S. James .Johnson 


1. Sam' Freeman 

2. Tho' Poindexter 

3. John Armstrong 

4. James Glenn 







Tiioe. Blair 
Edward Gilbert 
Benjamin Sterrett 
James Plunter 

5. AVill Coker 

6. Joseph Nations 

7. Elia Turner 


5. James .\l°Cuiston 
G. Ralph Gorrell 
7. Daniel Gillespie 


Hezekiah Alexander 
Robert Harris 
Adam Alexander 

5. John M-^Culloh 

6. Charles Polk 

7. Aaron Huston 

4. John M'Knitt Alexander 


Of the foregoing jurors, Tho' Poindexter & Jolm M'lntire were 
excused from attending. 

Ordered by the Court that James Cotton, Abram Kerkendoll, 
James Glenn, Elias Turner, Joseph Nations, Benjamin Sterrett, 
Hezekiali Alexander, Aaron Huston, Adam Alexander, John 
^I°Knitt Alexander, and John M°Culloh, be fined each £o nisi, for 
not attending this Court as jurors agreeable to summons. 

Ordered by the Court, That William Johnston and James Ross, 
committed to the Gaol of the District of Salisbury on a Hue & Cry, 
and charged with having robbed the store of John Cox within the 
District of Beaufort in the Province of South Carolina, be trans- 
mitted by a jiroper officer and Guard to the aforesaid District of 
Beauibrt, there to lie dealt with as the law directs. And that a 
Smooth Gun, a man's Saddle and a man's White Hat, found in 
possession of the said William & James & known to be the property 
of the said John Cox be delivered up by the Sheriff of Rowan, or 
any other officer who may have them in possession. 

Be it remembered, That Sam' Luckey, Joseph Erwin, Jno. Morri- 
son, William Young, Arthur O'Neal and Tho' Winkler (Constables), 
ai)peared at this Court agreeable to notice to them directed and 
offered reasons for their not attending tlie last (_'ourt as Constables, 
which were adjudged I)y tliis Court sufficient and their fines were 
remitted. Also Jno. Idereal, Sheriff, Alex. Dobbins, Jno. Freeman 
and Chas. Polk, jurons. 

Then this honorable Court adjoui-ned till tomorrow 9 o'clock. 

Friday, June ■2'' 1775. 
This Honorable Court met according to adjournment. 
And the following Grand Jury was empannelled and sworn, viz: 
L Griffith Rutherford 10. John Sloan 

2. Moses Winsley 11. William Alexander 

3. Geo. Hen. Berger 12. Samuel Young 

4. Geo. Davison 13. James .McCay 

5. John Coleson 14. John Dickey 

6. Moses Moore 15. William Gillbert 

7. Samuel Freeman Ki. John Arm.strong 
S. James Hunter 17. .James M°Cuiston 
9. Ralph Gorrell IS. Charles Polk. 

Be it remembered, That tliis day liichard Travillian, Hugh Bow- 
man, and Aquilla Sherrell (constables , appeared on notice of a 


sci. fa. fine, entered against them last Court, and showed cause, and 
their fines were remitted. 

WilHam Sliores, Rice jNIaderas and .James Finley, summoned to 
give evidence on behalf of our Lord the King vs. Oliver Wallace 
and the subpoena returned executed, the said Witnesses were called 
and failed to appear. Ordered by the Court that an attachment for 
a contempt issue vs. the said William, Rice and James, returnable 
to this Court, for their contempt in not attending agreea]:)le to sum- 

Dom. Rex ^ 

■vs. Wndictment, An Assault, of last Court. 

John Whitacre j 

Defendant charged — pleads not Guilty. 
The following jury, viz: 

1. Will. Davison 7. Buckner Kimball 

2. Sam'l Harris 8. Will. Moore 

3. Sam'l Reed 9. Fred'k Hamright 

4. Charles Robison 10. James IVrintire 

■ 5. Sol. Gross 11. John M'lvinney 

G. James Pickett 12. James Johnston 

being empaneP and sworn on the issue of traverse, find the defend- 
ant not guilty. 

Tlien this honorable Court adjourned till two o'clock r. m., 

When this honorable Court met according to adjournment. 

Several recognizances were returned and entered up as pr. Docket. 
Several indictments presented to the Grand Jury, were returned and 
docketed, as pr. Docket of Indictments of this Term following. 

Dom. Rex ^ 

vs. ■ Indictment for a Robbery. 

Stephen Herring] 

The following jury were empanelled and sworn, viz: 

1. James Johnston 7. Fred. Hamright 

2. Charles Robison 8. Will: Coker 

3. William Moore ■ 9. Sam'l Harris 

4. SoL'mon Gross 10. John M'Kinney 

5. Will. Davison 11. Geo. Cathey 
(3. James Pickett 12. Thos. Allison. 

Find the Prisoner, Stephen Herring, guilty of the Felony and 
Robbery in manner and form as charged in the indictment. 


Motion in arrest of Judgment by W" Kennon, Counsel for the 

Dom. Rex ^ 

vs. y Indictment for a Robbery. 

Jo.seph Pettoway | 

The following Jury were empanelled and sworn, viz: 

1. William Davison 7. Solomon Gross 

2. Will. Coker 8. Fred. Hamright 

3. Tho' Ellison 9. Sam'l Harris 

4. Charles Robison 10. James Johnston 

5. James Pickett 11. Geo. Cathey 

6. Will Moore 12. Edward Gillbert 

And find the Prisoner Joseph Pettoway guilty of the Robbery in 
manner and form as charged in the indictment. Motion in arrest 
of Judgment by Counsel for the Prisoner. 

Tho' Blair, one of the venire, fined £3 for absenting himself with- 
out leave of Court. 

Then the Court adjourned till tomorrow 9 o'clock. 

Saturday, June 3'''' 1775. 

This honorable Court met according to adjournment. 

Tho' Blair appeared and his fine remitted. 

Sundry recognizances entered into as per Docket of Recognizances. 

om.^ ex j Indictment found last Court for passing Coun- 

T -D*' . . 1 . terfeit Money. 

James Patterson ) -^ 

Charged and pleads not guilty. 

The following Jur}^ was empaneled and sworn, viz: 

1. .James Reed 7. Dan'l Gillespie 

2. Tho^ Blair S. Will Coker 

3. Cha° Robison 9. John Carson 

4. Solomon Gross 10. Geo. Cathey 

5. Edward Gillbert 11. .James Patterson 
G. Sam'l Harris 12. Joseph Hughes 

And find the prisoner, James Patterson, not guilty of the Felony 
in manner and form as charged in the indictment. Then the pris- 
oner was discharged by proclamation and to be. set at liberty on 
payment of fees. And the said James Patterson came into Court 
and prayed to be admitted to the benefit of an Act of Assembly 


made for the Ijeucfit of insolvent debtors, and took the oath pre- 
scribed by said law and was discharged. 

Dom. Rex ] 

vs. y Indictment for Horse Stealing. 

William Woodliff j 

Charged and pleads Not Guilty. 

The following Jury empanl"* and sworn, viz: 

1. Charles Robison 7. James Johnston 

2. Sam'l Reed 8. Will Moore 

3. Solomon Gross 9. Tho' Blair 

4. Dan'l Gillespie 10. John M'Kinny 

5. James Pickett 11. Geo. Cathey 

6. Will Coker 12. Christopher Eller 

And find the prisoner Will. Woodliff not guilty in manner and 
foi'm as charged in the indictment. 

Afterwards, to-wit, this term the said William Woodliff came into 
Court and prayed to be admitted to the benefit of an Act of Assem- 
bly made for the relief of insolvent debtors, and having taken the 
oath by said Act prescribed was discharged. 

Dom. Rex ] 

vs. V Indictment for Grand Larcenv. 

Thomas Ward j 

Charged and pleaded Not Guilty. 

The following Jury empannelled and sworn, viz : 

1. William Coker 7. James Pickett 

2. William Moore 8. Will Davison 

3. John M'Kinny 9. Tho' Ilamright 

4. Charles Robison 10. Dan'l Gillespie 

5. Solomon Gross 11. James Johnston 

6. Edward Gillbert 12. Geo. Cathey 

And find the defendant Thomas Ward Guilty. And that the 
goods charged in the indictment to have been stolen are but of the 
value of eleven pence sterling. Then this honorable Court pro- 
ceeded to give judgment on the above verdict according to law, 
to-wit: That the prisoner Thomas Ward receive 39 lashes on his 
bare back, w^ell laid on at the jjublic Whipping Post, and that the 
sheriff' of Rowan put this sentence in execution immediately and 
that the prisoner be committed till fees and prison charges are paid. 

Be it remembered, that sundry indictments were returned l)y the 
Grand Jury and docketed as liereafter. 

Thesi this lionorable Court adjourned till Monday 8 o'clock. 


Monday June 5"' 1775. 

This honourable Court met according to adjournment. 

The Jury who pa.ssed on the trial of Oliver "Wallace at June Court 
of Oyer 1774 being called ; On examination that they could not 
agree on a verdict, and that they did not separate till after that 
Court had adjourned, till the December Court following. They are 
discharged by this Court without fine. 

An attachment of Friday this Term vs. Will Shores, Rice Maderas 
and James Finley, is this day returned executed. Parties discharged- 

On motion. That a new Inquest should pass on Oliver "Wallace 
for that the jury sworn on that trial at June Court of Oyer 1774 
departed without giving a verdict. Ruled by the Court a new inc^uest 
be awarded. Then the Attorney for the Crown entered a nolle prose- 
qui as to the first indictment, and Oliver "Wallace was charged on 
an indictment for murder, found by the Grand Jury this term. 

Dom. Rex ^ 

■?'.«. V Indictment for Felony & Murder. 

Oliver Wallace j 

Charged and pleads Not Guilty. 

The following Jury were impanelled and sworn : 

1. George Cathey 7 Will. Brandon 

2. Fred'' Hamright 8. Joseph Atkins 

3. Sam' Harris > 9. Joseph Rogerfe 

4. Will. Coker 10. INIichael Holtzhouser 

5. Thos. Blair 11. Benj" Robison 

6. Henry Sloan 12. Jacob Brown 

And find the prisoner at tlie bar, Oliver Wallace, Guilty of tlie 
Felony and Murder as charged in the indictment, and that he had 
no lands &c. 

Motion in arrest of Judgment b}' the Counsel for the prisoner. 

Then this honorable Court adjourned till to-morrow at 8 o'clock. 

Tuesday June G"" 1775. 

This honorable Court met according to adjournment. 

Sundry Indictments were returned into Court by the Grand Jury, 
and docketed. Also sundry Recognizances acknowledged in Court 
by which the parties are bound to appear next Court, as pr. Docket. 


Dom. Rex ~| 

vs. V Indictment for Murder. 

David Jones, j 

Charged and pleads Not Guilty. 

The following Jury empannelled and sworn, viz: 

1. James Pickett 7. Solomon Gross 

2. Edward Gillbert 8. Will. Davison 

3. Fred'' Hamright 9. Thomas Blair 

4. Charles Robison 10. Will. Coker 

5. Sam' Harris 11. James Johnston 

6. John M°Kinny 12. John Trite 

And find the Prisoner David Jones Not Guilty of the felony and 
murder in manner and form as charged in the indictment. 

David Jones was discharged by proclamation. 

Ordered that an attachment issue vs. John Oneal for a contempt 
in not attending this Court and giving evidence on behalf of our 
Sovereign Lord the King according to subpoena against him returned 
here executed. 

Ordered by the Court that the friends of Oliver Wallace, Joseph 
Pettoway and Stephen Herring be admitted, one at a time to visit 
them in Gaol, and that the Sheriff attend and be carefuland search 
all persons before they are admitted. 

Ordered by the Court that a silver watch the property of John 
M'Farland, found with Joseph Pettoway and now in the hands of 
John Shields, be restored to the said John M°Farland on his making 
oath to his property. 

The Sheriff of Mecklenburg County is excused from the fine laid 
on him of Thursday of this Term. 

On motion of the Attorney for the Crown, Oliver ^\'allace, con- 
victed of Murder, Joseph Pettoway and Stephen Herring, convicted 
of Robbery, were brought to the bar of the Court, and each being 
required to show reason why sentence should not be passed against 
them according to law, Reasons were adduced by the counsel for the 
prisoners and overruled by the Court. 

Then this honorable Court proceeded to pass sentence on Oliver 
Wallace, Joseph Pettoway and Stephen Herring, in the following 
manner : 

That you Oliver Wallace be taken from hejice to the place from 
whence you came and from thence to the place of execution and 
there to be hanged by the neck till you are dead, dead, dead. 


That you Josepli Pettoway be taken from hence to the place from 
whence you came, and from thence to the place of execution, and 
there to be hanged by the neck till you are dead, dead, dead. 

That you Stephen Herring be taken from hence, to the place from 
whence you came and from thence to the place of execution and 
there to be hanged by the neck till you are dead, dead, dead. 

And that the Sheriff of Rowan put this sentence in execution on 
Friday the 30"' day of June Instant between the hours of eleven in 
the forenoon and four in the afternoon of the same day, and that 
the posse of the County of Rowan attend and guard at the execution. 

Then this Honorable Court adjourned till the 1" day of Decem- 
ber next. 

[From MS. Records ix Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee in RoMan County. 

.June 1'' 177o. 

At aTnieeting of the Committee on th.e 1^' of June 1775. 
Samuel Young, Chairman. 
James Macay, Clerk. 

Resolved, That Messrs George Cathy and John Montgomery carry 
an Express to Col. Walker requesting him to take into his possession 
a certain Quantity of powder now in possession of Comrade Hilde- 
brand, and on his Refusal to act agreeable to his Majestys Proclama- 
tion and the Acts of Assembly of this Province, that the Bearer of this 
Rec[uest immediately return his answer to Will. Berry, that he return 
it to Chris"' Beak man, and in case of refusal he do forthwith take in 
possession the said powder, or take sufficient Securitj' of said Hilde- 
brand that he will not remove said powder out of the County, or 
sell it to our enemies, nor take advantage of the present difficulties 
by raising the price on those who purchase of him. 

Resolved, That Messrs Sam. Young and Christ" Beakman and 
James Macay be a Committee to draw up an address to the several 
Militia Companies of the County to be signed by them. 

Resolved, That Robert King, John Oliphant and David Caldwell 
settle with ^ilaxwell Chambers, the former Treasurer. 

Resolved, That the sum of two pounds be collected from each Com- 
pany to defray the expense of the Delegates for the Continental 


and Provincial Congresses, and tliat the surplus money be applied 
to the contingent expenses of the common cause. 

Resolved, That M' Sam. Young be Treasurer, that lie receive the 
sums raised of each Company, and that he pay the several Delegates 
for their services. 

Resolved, That Maxwell Chambers be publicly advertised in the 
Soutlt Carolina Gazefte as an Enemy to the common cause of Lili- 
erty, for raising the price of his goods higher than he sold at a year 
past, contrary to the Direction of the Continental Congress. 

Resolved, That Hugh Montgomery be brought before this Com- 
mittee, to answer a charge of selling Powder at a higher price than 
had been set on it by this Committee. 

Let it be remembered that M' Montgomery on his appearance 
generyusly acknowledged his Trespass of the Resolve, and declared 
his Intention to do so no more. 

Resolved, That the several Militia Companies raise such Sums of 
Money as may .serve their several purposes in case of any Emer- 
gency, that part of said sums be applied in providing powder and 
Lead that they may be provided against the Incursions of the 
Indians on the frontier which seems at present probable. 

Resolved, That James Macay be Clerk of thi& Committee, and act 
as such during pleasure. 

An to tlie Several Militia Captains and their Companies. 


We, his Majesty's Loyal subjects the Committee of the County of 
Rowan propose to your Consideration and Assent, the following 
things : 

That his Majesty George the third is lawful and rightful King of 
Great Britain and the Dominions thereunto belonging. 

That by the Constitution of our Government we are a free People, 
not subject to be taxed by any power but that of that happy Con- 
stitution which limits both Sovereignty and Allegiance, which 
defends us from being taxed by any Man or set of Men without Rep- 
resentation and Consent, and declares it illegal for any to dispose of 
others property in a different way. 

That it is our Duty to defend the Succession of his present Majesty 
and the illustrious Hanoverian line — likewise the happy Constitu- 
tion under which we live, and that it is our Duty to Surrender our 


lives, before our Constitutional privileges to any set of Men upon 
earth. "We bespeak such of you as may be of a diflerent Opinion 
to consider the Bill of Rights and the Compact on whicli the Con- 
stitution is founded, that you may see to wliat end different princi- 
ples may lead. 

Each Captain and such of his Company as tliink it their Duty to 
hand down unimpaired to posterity the Rights and Privileges tlieir 
ancestors through seas of Blood handed down to tliem, are desired 
to join their hands hereto. 


Gentlemen, the alarming state of American freedom being in the 
Consideration of all Committees from the Continental Congress now- 
sitting at Philadelphia, to the smaller kind through the Provinces, 
We a Committee for the County of Rowan now at Salisbury desiring 
a communication to be lield up betwixt the several Committees that 
the greater unity may he in supporting the common cauee, in par- 
ticular desiring the correspondence of your Committee considering 
our profession and intention for protestantism are the same, we 
request that we may have an account of your proceedings, promis- 
ing you a like Return. We beseech you likewise that with us you 
would lift your Hearts in undissembled prayers to the Disposer of 
all Events, that He would by his providence interpose against 
the Counsels of designing Men, tliat we may have our Constitution 
as contained in the Magna Charta, the charter of tlie forest, the 
Habeas Corpus Act and the charter we brought over with us handed 
down unsullied to posterity, and that under God the present House 
of Hanover in legal succession may be the Defender of it. 

By order of the Committee. Signed by 


[Reprinted from American Archives. Vol. 3. P. 924.] 

Extract of a Letter to a Gentleman in New York, dated North Caro- 
lina, June 7, 1775. 

We are much alarmed liere witli the intentions of Administration ; 
and unless affairs take a turn in our favour very shortly, we shall 
expect the worst effort of its villainy, that of sjiiriting up an enemy 


among ourselves, from whose barbaritj', if roused, the most dreadful 
consequences will follow. Our Governour has sent his family to 
New York, and being greatly disgusted with the people of Newbern, 
has taken up his residence in Fort Johnston, at the mouth of Cape 
Fear River, which he has chosen as a place of retreat from popular 

Our brethren in the Colonies may be assured that we never shall 
be bribed, by tlie benefit of an exclusive trade, to desert the common 

[From MS. Recoeds in Office of Secretary of State. J 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee at Wilmington. 

Tuesday, June 7"', 1775. 

At an occasional meeting of the Committee. 

Present: Cornelius Harnett, Esq., Chairman; Arch. McLaine, Jno. 
Quince, James Walker, Jno. Ancrum, Wm. Purviance, Jno. Robeson, 
Andrew Ronaldson, James Blythe, William Ewins, Rob't Hogg. 

W^hereas the Continental did resolve, in the words fol- 
lowing, viz: 

And we further agree and associate that we will have no trade, 
commerce, dealings or intercourse whatever with any colony or prov- 
ince in North America which shall not accede to or shall hereafter 
violate this association, and whereas the Parliament of Great Britain 
in pursuance of their plan for subjugating and distressing the colonies 
have pa.ssed a bill for depriving our Brethren in New England of 
the benefit of fishing on their own coasts, therefore resolved that 
all exportations from this town and county for the Army and Navy 
in America, Newfoundland or to the Northern colonies from whence 
any supplies of provisions can be had for these purposes, ought in 
the opinion of this committee immediately to be suspended, and 
that it be accordingly recommended to ever}' merchant immediatel)' 
to suspend all exportations to those places, until the Continental shall give further orders therein. 

Paid to James Harper his account for two expresses sent b}' him 
to Brunswick and Newbern, £4.0.0. 

The committee then adjourned to the next meeting, 


[Reprinted from American Archives, Vol. 3. Page 933.] 

Petition of Donald APLeod, Esquire. 


OF New York in body convened: 

The Petition of Donald M°Leod, Esquire, late from Scotland, most 
humbly sheweth : 

That yesterday your said petitioner presented a petition before 
this honourable body, and as to the contents of which he begs leave 
to give reference. That since, a ship arrived from Scotland with a 
nufliber of Highlanders passengers. That your petitioner talked 
to them this morning, and after informing them of the present 
state of this as well as the neighboring Colonies, they all seemed 
to be very desirous to form themselves into companies wi^h the pro- 
viso of having liberty to wear their own country dress, commonly 
called the Highland habit, and moreover to be under pay for the 
time they are in the service for the protection of the liberties of this 
once happy country, but by all means to be under the command 
of Highland Officers, as some of them cannot speak the English 
language. That the said Highlanders seem very desirous of being 
commanded by your petitioner, provided an answer shall be given 
them very soon, as their intention is not to stay here any considera- 
ble time. That the said Highlanders are alread}' furnished with 
guns, swords, pistols and Highland dirks, which in case of occasion 
is very necessary, as all the above articles are at this tnne very diffi- 
cult to be had. Therefore may it please your Honours to take all 
and singular the premises under your serious and immediate con- 
sideration ; and as your petitioner wants an answer as soon as jjossi- 
ble, he further prays that as soon as they think it meet, he ma}' be 
advised. And your petitioner, as in duty bound, shall ever pray. 


City of New York, .June S"" 1775. 


[Fro.m MS. Records in Offile of Secret.^ry of State.] 

Letter from the Safety Committee in Newberii to Sam' Johnston Esq. 

New Bekx the S''' June 1775. 

The Committee of Craven County and Town of New Bern agree 
in opinion with our Southern friends in calling a Convention as 
soon as convenient. Also joyn Avith them and this province in 
general for condolence for the loss of our old friend Col. Harvey 
regretting the loss as they do. [See p. ]285, Vol'. IX. — Editok.] 

In Craven Committee. R. COGDELL, Chairman. 

[On tlie same sheet is the following note Ironi R. C. — -Editor.] 

You have herewith enclosed a copy 'of a letter from Mr Caswell 
to Col. Thonjpson at Beaufort by a vessel from Philadelphia. Also 
send you the late proceedings of our Committee & our Association, 
which is now signing in every part of this county & our militia are 
forming into companys and choosing their officers. The Governor 
has left the town and gone it is said to spend some time with Mr 
Hasell. We have sent the same proceedings to every county in 
the province, a few days ago those for Edenton and their neighbor- 
ing eountys were sent forward by a person who was going into Bertie 
countv. R- C. 

[From MS. Records in Office op Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee in Pitt County. 

^L\RTl^•BoKouo^ 10"' June 177r). 

The Committee tlien Met. 

Present, John Simpson, chairman ; John Hardee, Robert Salter, 
James Lanier, Jas. Lockheart, George Evans, Jas. Gorliam, Edmund 
Williams, Benjamin May, William Robeson, Amos Atkinson and 
William Ihyant. 

Whereas it is thought expedient that a number of Members be 
added to the present Committee, 

Ordered, that the chairman give notice to the i'reeholders of the 
countv to meet at the House iif John Lesslio in .Mailinborough on 



tlie 23'' Listant, tlien and there to elect ami choose such persons as 
tliey may think proper for carrying into Execution the Resolves of 
the Congress. 

The Resolves of the Craven County Committee were produced & 
read, which were then approved of by this Conmiittee. 

The Committee then adjourned to the 23'^ of this Inst. 

[FR'^m MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee at \\'ilmington. 

Wji mixgtox, June 12''' 1775. 
I do voluntarily and solemnly swear, u|)on the Holy Evangeli.sts 
I if Almighty- Cod, that I will not reveal or make known to any per- 
son or persons whatsoever, any Intelligence, circumstauce, matter 
or thing, which the majority of the Committee present shall think 
necessary to conceal, and which the Committee by the Chairman, 
Deputy Chairman, or other pre.siding member shall order and direct 
to be ke])t secret. 


















[Repeinted from the American Archives. Vol. 3. P. 974 ] 

Copy of the Litercepted Letter from Governor Martin to Henry 

Cape Fe.\r, North Carolix.a, June 13, 1775. 
My Dear Sir: 

I take the liberty to enclose herewith a letter to Mrs Martin, 
whose safe arrival I am most anxious to learn, the winds having 
been easterly almost ever since her departure. 

I shall be extremely obliged to you if you can contrive to send 
me, with the royal standard I mentioned to you some time ago, or 
without it if that is not to be had, a good tent and markee, of the size 
of the Colonel's tent in the Armj', witli a tent-bed to fit the boot of 
it, and furniture, viz: mattres.s, bolster and pillows; to be sent by 
any vessel bound to Cape Fear River, or in default thereof to New- 
bern, directed to the care of Mr Cornell. 

I should rejoice to see a prospect of a happy termination of the 
present deplorable times, that more or less threatens the happiness 
of every man throughout the British Dominions. 

My compliments and warmest good wishes attend yow and Jtlrs 
White and all your family — and I am, dear Sir, ever yours, 


The Honourable Henry White Esq., New York. 

P. S. I forbear to give you your due additions on the outside of 
my letter, to obviate prying curiosity. 

[B. P. R. O. Am. & W. IND.: No. Carolina. No. 3-33.] 

A Proclamation by Governor Martin. 

Whereas I have received certain Information that sundry ill dis- 
posed persons have been, and are still going about the County of 
Brunswick and other counties of this Province, industriously j)ropa- 
gating false, seditious and scandalous reports, derogatory to the 
honor and ju.stice of the King and his Government, tending to 
excite the most unnatural jealousies and suspicions to create discord 
among the People, and to alienate their atlections from His Majesty, 


giving out that the Parliament of Great Britain and the King's 
Ministers have formed designs to enslave His Majestys American 
subjects, by imposing upon tliem grievous and intolerable taxes, 
without the consent or participation of their Representatives in 
General Assembly, by vacating the Royal Grants under which the 
people hold their lands, and by depriving them entirely of the use 
and benefit of provincial Assemblies, and all other the Rights and 
Privileges, they have heretofore enjoyed. 

And whereas, I have undoubted information, that these evil 
minded persons, by such, and numberless other, most wicked, vile, 
false, and inflammatory suggestions, and insinuations, of the like 
nature, are endeavouring to engage the People to subscribe papers 
obliging themselves to be prepared with Arms, to array themselves 
in companies, and to submit to the illegal and usurped authorities 
of Committees, covering their flagitious, and abominable designs 
with pretended apprehensions of intestine insurrections, and profes- 
sions of duty and allegiance to the King, in order the more effectually 
to deceive and betray the innocent and unwary people into the most 
flagrant violations thereof. 

And whereas, among other wicked devices, calculated to mislead 
and impose upon the People, it is attempted to infuse into their 
minds the belief that the Parliament and His Majesty's Ministers are 
pursuing measures against America contrary to the sense of His 
Majesty, and subversive of his Government; and that the illegal 
combinations which the People are invited to enter into are intended 
to support His jMajesty against the evil designs of the said Parlia- 
ment and jNIinisters. 

And whereas the incendiaries who spread these false and seditious 
reports, where they fail by such base deceits and artifices to seduce 
His Majesty's Loyal and faithful subjects to join in their licentious 
and criminal combinations proceeded to the extravagance of tlireat- 
ening individuals with tarring and feathering, with seizing their 
lands and properties and making division thereof among the 
deluded followers, and menacing them even with death, if they 
should persevere in their duty to their sovereign, and the laws of 
their Country, to the great terror and dismay of many of His Maj- 
esties said loyal and faithful Subjects; I have thought it proper, and 
indispensiblj^ necessary, in discharge of my Duty to the King and to 
His Majesties Subjects within this Province, to issue this Proclama- 
tion, to prevent their being misled to ruin and destruction, by such 

VOL. X — 2 


false, seditious, infamous and groundless reports and suggestions, 
that are the base contrivances of desperate, unprincipled, ignorant 
and abandoned men, to make the People instrumental to the horrid 
purposes of their own lawless ambition, to which they are seeming 
to sacrifice the dearest Rights and Privileges of the People, while 
they are pretending to defend them from invasions and encroach- 
ments that are meditated only by themselves. And I do hereby 
solemnly assure His Majesty's Peoj^le of this Province, that the 
King, His Parliament, and Ministers, so far from being divided in 
their councils as has been falsely represented to the People by fools 
of faction, are in the strictest harmony, and pursue the plans con- 
certed for the safety and welfare of the Empire, with the utmost 
unanimity and firmness. That with regard to taxation in America, 
it appears by a late resolution of the House of Commons, which has 
been made public, to be the sense of that Branch of the British 
Parliament, that the King's Subjects in the Provinces of America 
should be required to tax themselves by their respective General 
Assemblies, only their contingent proportions towards defraying the 
charge of the general defence of the British Empire, according to 
their several circumstances and abilities, and for their own civil 
Government and the Administration of Justice, the generosity and 
equity of which propositions, founded on the equal protection that 
the fleets and armies of His Majesty afford to the Subjects in the 
Euroj^ean and American Dominions, can never be denied, nor such 
contribution refused, upon any principle of reason or justice, by the- 
People of America, while they wish to enjoy the blessings of the 
British Constitution, and the advantages of British Trade, that can 
only be preserved by the superior power and strength of the Empire 
and its constant readiness to resist the attemjDts of the jealous and 
powerful states of Europe, that are ever vigilant to reduce her power, 
and to abridge her commerce, which is the gi'eat source and sup- 
port of it. And I do further assure the good People of this Prov- 
ince that there is nothing more foreign to the intentions of His 
Majesty, Plis Parliament and Ministry, than the designs, falsely 
and groundlessly imputed to them, of vacating the Royal Patents, 
under which the King's Subjects hold their lands, and of resuming 
the same, and of depriving them of the use and benefit of Gen- 
eral Assemblies; and that such reports are base artifices, calcu- 
lated by the promoters of sedition, to seduce the peojile from their 
Duty, and to delude them into their dangerous combinations and 


confederacies which are repugnant to every idea of liberty, and sub- 
versive of the British Constitution. And I do moreover think it 
my duty, in tenderness to the people of this Province, and to pre- 
vent their being deceived and deluded by the tools of sedition, to 
their ruin and destruction, to declare to them that they can only 
hazard the loss of their lands by following the wicked and pernicious 
counsels of the abandoned inventors of those unparalleled false- 
hoods, which are contrived to involve them in crimes of the most 
dangerous nature that will inevitably expose them, not only to the 
forfeiture of their lands and properties, but to the loss of life, and 
everything they hold dear and valualjle. 

Wherefore I do most earnestly exhort and advise all His Majesty's 
liege Subjects within this Province, firmly and steadfastly to with- 
stand and resist all attempts of the seditious to seduce them from 
the duty and allegiance they owe to His Majesty, and the Laws, 
and Constitution of their Country; and that thej' do by no means, 
degrade themselves by submitting to the Regulations of Committees, 
or any other such illegal, usurped, unconstitutional authorities what- 
soever; Hereby most solemnly pledging myself to the people of this 
Colony for His Majesty's most gracious protection of all his dutiful 
and faithful Subjects, in the free and full enjoyment of all their 
constitutional Rights, liberties and privileges; and I do hereby 
strictly charge and command all His Majesties Justices of the Peace, 
Sheriffs and other officers and Ministers to be aiding and assisting 
•to the utmost of their power, in counteracting and opposing all Pro- 
moters of Sedition, and Disturbers of the Peace and tranquility of 
this Colony. 

Given under my Hand and the Great Seal of the said Province, 
at Fort Johnston, this sixteenth day of June 1775, and in the 
fifteenth year of His Majesty's Reign. 


By His Excellency's Command, 

Alexander Maclean pro. James Biggleston, D. Sec. 

God save the King. 


[B. P. R. O. Am. & W, IND. No. 233.] 

Address of the North Carolina delegates in the Continental Con- 
gress to the Committees of the several Towns and Counties of 
the Province of North Carolina appointed for the purpose of 
carrying into Execution the Resolves of the Continental Congress. 


When the liberties of a People are invaded, and Men in authority 
are laboring to raise a Structure of Arbitrary Power upon the Ruins 
of a free Constitution; when the first Minister of Britain exerts 
every Influence that private address or public violence can give 
him to shake the Barriers of personal Security and private Prop- 
erty it is natural for us Inhabitants of America deeply interested in 
the event of his Designs to be anxious for our approaching Fate 
and to look up to the Sources which God and the Constitution fur- 
nish to ward off or alleviate the impending Calamity. 

Thus circumstanced the Inhabitants of the United American 
Colonies by their Representatives met in Congress at Philadelphia 
in September last devised a plan of commercial Opposition as a 
peaceful Expedient to bring about a Reconciliation with the parent 
State upon Terms constitutional and honorable to us both. A 
most humble and dutiful Petition to the Throne accompanied it. 
The first of these has not had sufllcient time to work the Effect 
proposed by it. The latter however flattered with a gracious recep- 
tion upon the first Introduction to the Throne was afterwards buried 
in a- Mass of useless Papers upon the Taljle of the House of Com- 
mons and shared the common Fate of American Remonstrances 
and Petitions — to be rejected and forgot. 

To the woeful Catalogue of Oppressions recited in the Proceed- 
ino's of the late Congress are now superadded Bills passed in Par- 
liament for prohibiting the Fishery of the New England Colonies 
and restraining the Trade of other Colonies to Great Britain 
Ireland and the British West Indies. The Minister still continues 
to pour Troops into the Town of Boston. Some have lately arrived 
and many more are hourly expected, thus reducing that once flour- 
ishing City to a Garrison dealing out from thence his Instruments of 
Tyranny and'oppression to overawe and enslave the other Colonies_ 
His Designs have hitherto proved unsuccessful. Heaven seems to 


have assumed the protection of the injured insulted Colonists and 
signally to have appeared in their Favour: when in the last Battle 
at Lexington six hundred raw, undisciplined Provincials defeated 
eighteen Hundred regular Troops and pursued them into their 

No engagements are sufficiently sacred to secure the performance 
of them when the Fears or Expectations of the General make it 
convenient for him to dispense with them. After the most solemn 
Comj^acts to the contrary the Lihabitants of the Town of Boston 
are doomed to suffer the most abject distress from the want of the 
common necessaries of Life confined within the Walls of the City 
and not permitted to seek a Refuge amongst their neighbors in the 
Country. These are the miseries which they suffer for their brave 
Defence of the common cause of British America. They were des- 
tined as a first victim to ministerial Tyranny. But Fellow Subjects 
think not that his Schemes are to end here. No, if success should 
strengthen his hands the Inhabitants of the Southern Colonies 
would soon feel the Weight of his Vengeance. 

The Provinces of New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Connecticut 
in Imitation of their Massachusetts Brethren, have enlisted Bodies 
of Troops preparing for the last Extremity and determined to live 
free or not at all. New York has to the disgrace of those who would 
represent her as inimical to the Liberties of America boldly stood 
forth determined to brave every Extremity rather than submit to 
the Edicts of a ilinister or desert the protection of their constitu- 
tional Rights and Privileges ; New Jersey, Pennsylvania and the 
Provinces to the Southward have taken an honorable share in the 
line of Defence armed and equipped to avert the Calamity, dreading 
a civil War as the most awful scourge of Heaven and to plunge 
their swords in the breasts of their Fellow Subjects as the greatest 
of all human Calamities and the most painful Exertions of human 
Fortitude, but determined at all Events to suffer the Excess of 
human Misery rather than be brought to the. feet of an insulting 

North Carolina alone remains an inactive Spectator of this general 
defensive Armament. Supine and careless, she seems to forget even 
the Duty she owes to her own local Circumstances and Situation. 
Have you not Fellow Citizens a dangerous Enemy in your own 
Bosom and after Measures whicli the Minister has condescended to 
in Order to carry into Execution his darling Schemes do you think 


he would hesitate to raise the hand of the servant against the mas- 
ter? Doctor Johnston a pensioned Tool of the Ministry in a Pam- 
phlet intituled "Taxation no Tyrannj'," speaks the Intentions of 
Administration in a language too plain to leave anything to doubt. 
The Slaves should be set free, an "Act which the Lovers of Liberty 
must surely commend, if they are furnished with arms for defence 
and utensils for Husbandry and settled in some simple form of 
Government within the Country they may be more honest and 
grateful than their Masters," are the words of this prosiituted Court 

Have we not been informed that the Canadians are to be 
embodied and the Indians bribed to ravage the Frontiers of the 
Eastern Colonies ? Lias not General Carlton already given a speci- 
men of his power by forming a Canadian Regiment of Men inimical 
to our Liberty and Religion ? Can you think that your Province is 
the singular object of ministerial favour and that in the common 
crush it will stand secure? Be assured it will not. The Bait the 
Minister has thrown out to you is a delusive one, it leads to Destruc- 
tion. Have you not by various public Acts declared your resolution 
not to be bound to ministerial Shackles, but that you will live in 
a free Constitution or perish in the Ruins of it? Do you imagine 
that after this you are his Favourites ? You are not. Do you ask why 
then you are exempted from the Penalties of the Bill restraining. 
Trade ? The Reason is obvious — Britain cannot keep up its Xaval 
Force without j'ou ; you supply the very sinews of her strength. 
Restrain your Naval Stores and all the Powers of Europe can scarcelj' 
supply her ; restrain them and you strengthen the hands of America 
in the glorious contention for her liberty. Through you the -Minis- 
ter wishes to disunite the whole Colonial Link; we know your virtue 
too well to dread his success; you have the Example of New 
York to animate you, she spurns the proffered Boon and views the 
exemption of that Province from the Restraining Bill as the Smiles 
of a Minister who looks graciously in her face while he stabs her to 
the heart. 

It becomes the duty of us in wh^m you have deposited the most 
sacred trusts to warn you of your danger and of the most effectual 
means to ward it off. It is the Right of every English Subject to 
be prepared with Weapons for his defence. We conjure you by the 
Ties of Religion Virtue and Love of your Coftntry to follow the 
Example of your sister Colonies and to form yourselves into a 


Militia. The Election of the officers and the Arrangement of the 
men must depend upon yourselves. Study the Art of Military with 
the utmost attention, view it as the Science upon which your future 
security depends. 

Carefully preserve the small quantity of gunpowder .which you 
have amongst you ; it will be the last Resource when every other 
means of Safety fail you — Great Britain has cut you off from fur- 
ther supplies. We enjoin you as you tender the safety of your- 
selves and Fellow Colonists as you would wish to live and die free 
that j'ou would reserve what Ammunition j^ou have as a sacred 
Deposit. He in part betrays his Country who sports it away, perhaps 
in every Charge he fires he gives with it the means of preserving 
the life of a fellow being. 

We cannot conclude without urging again to you the Necessity 
of arming and instructing yourselves to be in readiness to defend 
yourselves against anj^ violence that may be exerted against 3'our 
Persons and Properties. In one word fellow subjects the ^Crisis of 
America is not at a great distance. If she falls Britain go Hand 
in Hand with her to Destruction. Everything depends upon 3'our 
present Exertion and prudent perseverence, be in a state of Readiness 
to repell every stroke that though j-ou must wound and endanger 
her, strengthen the hands of civil Government by resisting every 
Act of lawless power, stem Tyranny in its commencement, oppose 
every effort of an Arbitrary Minister and by checking his licentious- 
ness preserve the liberty of the Constitution and the honor of your 
sovereign, look to the reigning Monarch of Britain as your rightful 
and lawful sovereign, dare every danger and ditfi-cultj' in support of 
his person crown and dignity and consider eveiy man as a Traitor 
to his King who infringing the Rights of his American Subjects 
attempts to invade those glorious Revolution j^rinciples which placed 
him on the Throne and must preserve him there. 

We are Gentlemen 
Your most obedient and very humble servants 



Philadelphia June 19'^ 1775. 


[From MS. Records in Office op Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committees for tlie District of Wilmington. 

At a general meeting of the several committees of the District of 
Wilmington held at the Court House in Wilmington, Tuesday the 
20th of June, 1775. 

For the County 'of New Hanover — Present: Cornelius Harnett, 
Francis Clayton, George Moore, sen., Jno. Ashe, Jno. Quince, Wm. 
Ewins, James Walker, James Blythe, John Devane, Wm. Jones, 
Long Creek, Wm. Jones, W. T., John Ancrum, James Moore, Rob't 
Hogg, Alexander Lillington, Wm. Robeson, Sam. Swann, Fred. 
Jones, sr., Jno. Colvin, Jno. Hollingsworth, Sam. Ashe, Geo. Mer- 
rick, And'w Ronaldson, Arch'd Maclaine, James Wright, Jno. Mar- 
shall, Sampson Moseley, Tho. Devane. 

For the County of Brunswick — Rich'd Quince, ser., Rob't Howe, 
Thos. Davis, Rob't Ellis, Rich'd Quince, jr., Parker Quince, Wm. 
Lord, AVm. Cains, Tho. Allen, Step. Daniel, Wm. Davis, James 

For Bladen County — Nath'l Richardson, Thos. Owens, Walter 
Gibson, Thos. Brown, Faithful Graham. 

For Duplin — Charles Ward. 

The Committee having met agreeable to summons, they proceeded 
to choose a Chairman ; accordingly Richard Quince, Sr. was unani- 
mously chosen. . 

A letter from the Committee of Cross Creek was read, and an 
answer was ordered to be wrote by the Chairman to the said 

The Governor's Proclamation, dated at Fort Johnston, the 16th 
inst. was ordered to be read. 

On motion. Ordered that a committee be appointed to answer the 
said Proclamation; and that Robt. Llowe, Arch. McLaine, and 
Samuel Ashe, be a committee for that purpose. 

On motion, for leave to ♦Elletson to import his house 

servants from Jamaica, not exceeding six in number. 

It was carried against the motion, by a great majority. 

The Committee then adjourned to 10 o'clock to-morrow. 


Wednesday, 10 o'clock. 

The committee met according to adjournment. 

On motion, ordered, That CorneHus Harnett be appointed to 
write to the committee of Cumberland County, to secure the Gun- 
powder that may be in that county, for the use of the public : 

On motion. For the more elTectually disarming and keeping the 
negroes in order, within the County of New Hanover, 

It was, unanimously agreed, by the members of the committee, 
for said county, to appoint Patrols to search for, and take from 
Negroes, all kinds of arms whatsoever, and such guns or other 
arms found with the Negroes, shall be delivered to the Captain of 
the company of the District in which they are found — to be dis- 
tributed by the said officers, to those of his company who may be 
in want of arms, and who are not able to purchase: and that the 
following persons be Patrols, as follows : 

From Beauford's Ferry, to the end of Geo. Moore's District — 
Sam'l Swann, Thos. Mosely, Geo. Palmer, Henry Beauford, Wm. 
Robeson, Luke Woodward. 

Burgaw — Sampson Moseley, William Moseley, Jno. Ashe, jr. 

Black River — Geo. Robeson, Thos. Devane, Jno. Colvin, Thos. 
Corbit, jr., Benjamin Robeson, James Bloodworth. 

Welch Tract — Barnaby Fuller, Geo. McGowan, Wm. Wright, 
Martin Wells, Morgan Swinney, David Jones. 

Beatty's Swamp, to Perry's Creek — Elisha Atkinson, Bishop 
Swann, Aaron Erskins, Peter jNIcClammy, Jno. Wa'tkins, Edmond 
Moore, Jno. Lucas. 

Perry's Creek to Baldhead — James JMiddleton, Charles Morris, 
Jno. Nichols, Samuel Marshall, Joseph Nichols, James Ewihg, George 
Stundere, Jas. Jones. 

Long Creek — Wm. Jones, James Ratcliff, John Kenner, Thos. 
Bloodworth, Wm. Heunepy, Jno. Marshall. 

liolly Shelter — Thos. Jones, Edward Doty, Henry Williams, 
Thos. Simmons, .Jno. Simmons, Joshua Sutton. 

Resolved, That the following Association, formerly agreed by the 
Committee of New Hanover county, stand as the Association of this 
Committee, and that it be recommended to the inhabitants of this 
District, to sign the same, as speedily as possible, and that the same, 
with this Resolution, be j^rinted in the public Newspaper. 



Unanimoushj agreed to, by the inhabitants of Neiu Hanover County, 
in North Carolina, 19th Jtme, 1775. 

The actual commencement of Hostilities against this Continent 
by the British Troops, in tl:ie bloody scene, on the 19th April last, 
near Boston: The increase of arbitrary impositions from a wicked 
and des2:)otic ministry; an-d the dread of instigated insurrections in 
tlie colonies, are causes sufficient to drive an oppressed people to the 
use of arms. "We, therefore, the subscribers, inhabitants of New 
Hanover County, having ourselves bound hj the most sacred of all 
obligations, the duty of good citizens towards an injured couiitiy; 
and, thorouglily convinced that, under our present distressed cir- 
cumstances, we shall be justified, before God and j\Ian, in resisting 
force by force: Do unite ourselves under ever}" tie of religion and 
honor and associate as a band in lier defence against every foe; 
hereby solemnlj' engaging that wiienever our Continental or Pro- 
vincial Councils shall decree it necessary we will go forth and be 
ready to sacrifice our lives and fortunes to secure her freedom and 
safety. Tliis obligation to continue in full force until a reconcilia- 
tion shall take place between Great Britain and America, upon con- 
stitutional principles, an event we most ardently desire and we will 
hold all persons inimical to the liberties of the Colonies, who 
shall refuse to subscribe this Association. And we will in all things, 
follow the advice- of our Committee, resiiectiug the purposes afore- 
said, the preservation of peace and good order, and the safety of 
individuals and private property. 

The Coitimittee appointed to answer tlie Governor's Proclamation, 
of the 16th inst., returned the following answer, which was read 
and ordered to be printed in the public jiapers and in hand bills. 

At a General meeting of the several committees of the District of 
Wilmington, held at the Court-house, in Wilmuigton, Tuesday, 20th 
June, 1775. 

Whereas, his Excellency, Josiah Martin, Escj., hath by Proclama^ 
tion, dated at Fort Johnston, the^l6th day of June, 1775, and read 
this day in the committee, endeavored to persuade, seduce, and 
intimidate the good people of the province, from taking measures 
to preserve those rights, and that liberty, to which, as the subjects 
of a British King, they have the most undoulited claim, without 
which, life would be but futile considerations, and which therefore. 


it is a duty they owe to themselves, their Countrj', and posterity, by 
every effort, and at every risk, to maintain, support, and defend 
against anj' invasion or encroachment wliatsoever. 

And whereas, manj^ unconstitutional and oppressive acts of Par- 
liament, invasive of every right and privilege, and dangerous to the 
freedom of America, have laid the people of this colony under the 
fatal necessity of appointing committees for the several Districts, 
Towns, and Counties of this province, who were instructed, carefully 
to guard against every encroachment upon their invaluable rights, 
and steadily oppose the operation of those unconstitutional acts, 
framed by a wicked administration entirely to destroy the freedom 
of America : and as among other measures, those committees found 
it absolutely necessary, either by themselves, or by persons appointed 
under them, to visit the people and fully to explain to them the 
nature and dangerous tendency of those acts, which the Tools of 
administration, were by everj^ base art, endeavoring to prevail upon 
them to submit to : and as his Excellency has endeavored by his 
Proclamation, to weaken the influence,- and prejudice the characters 
of those Committees, and the persons appointed under them, b}^ 
wantonly, cruelly, and unjustly, representing them as ill-disposed 
people, propagating false and scandalous reports, derogatory to the 
honor and justice of the King; and also, by other illiberal and 
scandalous imputations expressed in the said Proclamation : We, 
then, the Committees of the counties of New Hanover, Brunswick, 
Bladen, Duplin and Onslow, in order to prevent the pernicious 
influence of the said Proclamation, do, unanimouslj^ resolve, that 
in our opinion, his Excellency Josiah Martin, Esq, hath by the said 
Proclamation, and by the whole tenor of his conduct, since the 
unhappy disputes between Great Britain and the colonies, discovered 
himself to be an enemy to the happiness of this colony in particu- 
lar, and to the freedom, rights and privileges of America in general. 

Resolved, nem. con. That the said proclamation contains many 
things asserted to be facts, which are entirely without foundation ; 
particularly the methods said to have been made use of, in order to 
compel the people to sign an Association against any invasion, 
intestine insurrection, or unjust encroachments upon their rights 
and privileges; no person having signed such Association but from 
the fullest conviction that it was essentially necessary to their free- 
dom and safetv: and that if his Excellencv founded such assertions 


upon information, it must have been derived from jaersons too weak 
or wicked to have any claim to his credit or attention. 

Resolved, nem. con. That it is the opinion of this Committee, that 
America owes much of its present sufferings to the information given 
by Governors and men in office, to administration, who having 
themselves adopted belief from improjDcr informants, or, in order to 
sacrifice to the pleasure of the ministry, have falsely represented, 
that Llis Majesty's American subjects were not generalty averse from 
the arbitrary proceedings of a wicked administration, but that the 
opposition, made to such unconstitutional measures, arose from the 
influence of a few individuals upon the minds of the people, whom 
they have not failed to represent as " false, seditious, and abandoned 
men ; " by tliese means, inducing the ministry to believe, that the 
Americans would be easily brought to submit to the cruel imposi- 
tions so wickedly intended for them ; that his Excellency's procla- 
mation is evidently calculated for this purpose, and is also replete 
with the most illiberal abuse and scandalous imputations, tending 
to defame the characters of many respectable persons, who zealously 
attached to the liberty of their country, were pursuing every lauda- 
ble method to support it. 

Resolved, nem. con. That the resolution respecting America, intro- 
duced by Lord North, into the British House of Parliament, which 
his Excellency, in his proclamation, alludes to, is such a glaring- 
affront to the common sense of the Americans, that it added insult 
to the injury it intended them : That Lord North, himself, when he 
introduced it, declared to the House, that he did not believe America 
would accept of it, but that it might possibly tend to divide them, 
and if it broke one link in " their chain of Union, it would render 
the enforcing his truly detestable acts the more easy ; therefore, 

Resolved, That this was a low, base, flagitious, wicked attempt to 
entrap America into Slavery, and which they ought to reject with 
the contempt it deserves ; that the uncandid and insiduous manner 
in which his Excellency has mentioned the said resolution, is a poor 
artifice to seduce, mislead, and betray the ignorant and incautious 
into ruin and destruction, by inducing them to forfeit the inestima- 
ble blessings of freedom, with which nature and the British Consti- 
tution have so happily invested them; and also, indisputably proves, 
that his Excellency is ready to become an instrument in the hands 
of administration to rivet those chains so wickedly forged for 


Resolved, nem. con. That at this alarming crisis, when the dearest 
rights, and privilegea|Of America are at stake, no confidence ought 
to be reposed in those, whose interest is to carry into execution every 
measure of administration, however jirofligate and abandoned ; and 
who though they are conscious those measures will not bear the 
test of enquiry and examination, will and endeavour to gloss over 
the most palpable violation of truth with plausibility, hoping, 
thereby, to blind, mislead and delude the people; that this Com- 
mittee therefore, earnestly recommend it to the other committees of 
this province, and likewise to all our Brethren and suffering fellow 
subjects thereof, cautiously to guard against all those endeavours, 
which have been, or shall be made to deceive them, and to treat 
such attempts as wicked efforts of the Tools of Government calculated 
to throw this Country into confusion, and by dividing to enslave it. 

The committee adjourned till a meeting occasionally. 

Account of money received, at this committee : 

"£ s. d. 
From Bladen county, by the hands of Mr. Richardson, in 

good bills 36 11 2 

One Bill counterfeit of 2 

From Cornelius Harnett, for sundry subscriptions to pur- 
chase gunpowder 49 15 6 

From Wm. .Jones, L. C. by the hand of R. Hogg for do— 10 

do. Jno. Slingsby do-- 5 

do. Doct. Cobham do__ 2 10 

do. R'd Bradley do-_ 10 

100 IG 8 
Money paid for Sundries : 

Paid 350 lbs. Gunpowder in the hands of Burgwin, Hum- 
phrey & Co. pr. Rec't 52 10 

P'd .Jno. Slingsby for 50 ibs. Gunpowder in his hands 7 10 

P'd Wm. Grant to pay for cleaning out the court-house-_ 2 G 

60 2 6 

[From the National Journal, Washinc4Ton, D. C, 15th August, 1825.] 

The Cumberland County Association, 

The following political compact is said to have been entered into 
hy a number of citizens of Cumberland County, North Carolina, 


shortty after the battle of Lexington in 1775, and tlie original manu- 
script is in possession of the editor of the Cheraw Intelligencer. It is 
a document worthy of preservation as illustrative of the spirit of the 
times in which it was produced. 

[The Association was the same in text Avith the one adopted at 
Wilmington. See ante page 2G. — Editor.] 

The signers of the Cumberland Association were — 

" Robert Rowan 
Lewis Barge 
Maurice Newlan 
Lewis Bowell 
Martin Leonard 
Theophelus Evans 
Thomas Moody 
Joseph DeLesting 
Arthur Connue 
John Oveler 
David Shepherd 
Micajah Terrell 
Peter Masser 
John Wilson 
Thos Cabeen 
Thos Rea 
Danl Douse 
James Emmet 

James Dick 
Aaron Vardey 
John H Wenson 
One'rs West 
Wm Bathgate 
George Fletcher 
Charles Stevens 
James Pearl 
John Parker 
Walter Murray 
Thos White 
Joshua Hadlej' 
John .Jones 
Wm Blocker 
Robt Council 
Sam HoUingsworth 
James Giles 
John Clendenin 

Robert Carver 
Sam'l Carver 
George Barns 
James Edmunds 
John Caraway 
Wm Gillespy 
Wm Herin 
Philip Herin 
David Evans 
Robert A'arner 
James Gee 
John Elwell 
Benj Elwell 
David Durm 
Wm White 
Simon B .uday 
Joseph Greer 
Robert Greer " 

[From MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

North Carolixa \ 
[Beaufort County.] J 

Know all men by these Presents, that we Alderson Ellison, Fran- 
cis Jones and John Fowler, all of the County and Province afore- 
said, are held and firmly Bound unto his Excellency, Josiah Martin, 
Esq', Governor and Commander in Cliief in and over the said Prov- 
ince, in the sum of one Thousand Pounds sterling, money of Great 
Britain, to Ijc i)aid to his said Excellency the Governor or liis suc- 
cessors to the which Pavment well and trulv be made an<l we Ijind 


ourselves and each of us our Heirs, Ex" and Adni" jointly and sev- 
erally firmly by these Presents sealed Avith our seals and dated this 
20"' day of June Anno Dora. 1775. 

The Condition of the above obligation is such that whereas the 
abov^ Bounden Alderson Ellison is Constituted and appointed 
Sheriff of the County of Beaufort by Commission from the Gov- 
ernor under the seal of the Province dated the 28"' day of Jiafch 
last. If therefore the said Alderson Allison shall, well and truly 
collect and receive all such Publick Taxes and dues as are or which 
shall be appointed by Act of Assembly to be paid by the Taxable 
persons within his Bailiwick during his continuance as Sheriff 
thereof, and shall duly account for and pay the same to such Person 
or Persons and at such times as by law are or shall be Limited and 
Directed, then the above Obligation is to be Void and of None Effect 
otherwise to remain in full force and effect. 

Signed, sealed and delivered in open Court in presence of 
Tho° Respess, Jun' 

IB. p. R. O. Am. & Vv^ IND, : Vol. 232.] 

Letter from Thomas Macknight Esq., to Mr Josejih Jones.* 

I embrace the only opportunity you ever gave me of thanking 
you for pulling off the masque in your repeated attempts to injure 
me ami for submitting your accusation fairly to the tribunal of the 
impartial public. Had your omduct been equally open on a late 
occasion I have reason to believe the Convention of North Carolina, 
would not have been led by the warmth of their zeal for the glorious 
cause of liberty to have imputed to me, Intentions foreign to my 
heart and destructive to my interest and much less to have censured 
me for these with a severity due only to actual guilt But as this 
letter is intended for the public suffer me here to do justice to many 
respectable members of the Convention who were willing to accept 

* TheVirgini.-i G zette of Julv 5th. 177). 


of my conformity to the association; who disapproved tlie severity 
of the censure : and who Knowing my sentiments, continue to think 
favourably of my Affection to the cause of American LibertJ^ Let 
me also express my obligation to the people of Currituck and Com- 
mittee of Pasquotank for the Testimony they have borne of niy 
conduct which must have weight with the public in my favour, and 
let them be assured that it shall be my continued endeavour to jus- 
tify to the world the opinion they entertain of me : and I shall ever 
think myself under great obligations to certain Members of the 
Committee who, forgetting private differences and disregarding your 
malicious endeavours to prejudice them against my conduct at the 
Convention, enquired into the circumstances of the affair with a 
judicious and manly freedom and concurred in determining to bear 
public testimony in my behalf notwithstanding the arts that were 
used to dissuade them from this by some Members, who at the same 
time acknowledged that disregarding the sentence of the Convention 
they approved of my conduct, should have acted as I did and were 
ready to subscribe a declaration equally favourable to me in their 
private capacities and as about two to one of the Members present 
concui'red in jiublishing their sentiments of my conduct as a Com- 
mittee it is but reasonable to infer that had they all attended there 
would have been a proportionable majority in favour of the measure 
instead of 22 to 14 against it as you insinuate in your nota bene. 

I am now to answer your strictures bearing date the 15* of Maj^ 
and published in the Norfolk Gazette of the 15* of June; where it 
is evident that either your confession of your last words cannot be 
truth: nor do I believe it possible for you to reconcile them in your 
djdng speech. In the first you say, "that you heard me offer to 
subscribe the association;" in the last "that some of the members 
proposed that I might sign," and that I only "seemed to agree to 
it." Here is an evident contradiction: evasions will not do before 
the bar of the public; and your acknowledgement " that you did tell 
the Committee something to that effect" hath drawn the rope harder 
round your own neck ; you have kicked the stool from under you, 
and rendered it impossible for your friends to cut you down from 
the ignominous situation, in which you are exposed; for were your 
veracity unimpeached amongst your neighbours yet the weight of 
evidence which is against you must lead the public what to think 
of your regard to truth and to recollect the proverb that a certain 
kind of men "'had need of good memories." 


You insinuate that I withdrew immediately after having refused 
to sign "the journal of the Continental Congress" which you say 
some of the Members i? reposed. Here you contradict yourself again 
as a Member of the Convention, for in the state previous to the 
resolve wherein you censure me you have declared that it was the 
association approved of by the Continental Congress which I refused 
to sign and thereupon withdrew. But in justice to the Convention 
I must declare that I did not believe a Member thereof, yourself 
excepted, was capable of projsosing that I, who was not a delegate 
to the Continental Congress should sign the "journal"- of that 
respectable body. The circumstances and motives of my withdraw- 
ing are published and supported by testimony which hath not been 
contradicted as to your objections the Press is open — try whether 
they will be treated with less contempt by the imperial world than 
they met with from the Committee of Pasquotank when stated bv 
you to them on the 19"' of April. You say that from the "com- 
mon stream of my behavionr you believe I never intended to sign 
at any event and that you are of the same opinion still." Your 
opinion can make but little weight with the public. The impartial 
will expects facts whereon to found their judgment of me and 
those who are acciuainterl with you will not be very ready to adopt 
your opinion of the man to whom your hatred is so notorious. 
But surely it ill l^ecomes you who have been accused before the 
Committee of observation for an actual violation of the 0'" ai'ticle 
of the association in selling gunpowder at a most extravagant price 
which accusation is su[iported by undoubted te-stimou}' — it ill 
becomes you I say who have violated the association notwithstand- 
ing you highh' approve of it, to find fault with nie that have 
strictly conformed to it though I did not highly approve of it. 
Read the resolution of the present Congress bearing date the 27"' 
of May, observe that no more is required than conformity to the 
association, compare the prudence of the Congress in this and the 
humanity of the other parts of that resolve with your own temper 
which has in the cool hours of reflection endeavored to execute a 
ijunishment the condemnation to which was scarce excusable on 
the score of sudden passion reverberated from bosom to bo.som in a 
popular Assembly. 

You seem to exult at having discovered my behaviour to be 
ec|uivocal and disingenuous about the 28"' of April as if that would 
vindicate you for concurring to censure me on account of a similar 
VOL. X — 3 


charge about the beginning of the month, whether that charge was 
well founded or not. Are you ignorant that a crime committed 
subsequent to an unjust judgment will by no means extenuate 
that injustice. If you wish to vindicate yourself to the world for 
concurring in the censure follow the rules prescribed by the Con- 
gress — publish the truth of the case, the particulars of that disin- 
genuous and equivocal behaviour which manifested my intentions 
to'be inimical to the cause of American Liberty and which warrants 
you to declare me " a pest of society, a tool of ministerial vengeance 
and an usurper of all good," and M'hich I presume you think will 
vindicate the fruitless attempts to stimulate the people in these 
counties to tar, feather and burn me, together W'ith my property as 
a sacrifice to your implacable resentmeni, To what purpose but to 
irritate people at a distance to commit some act of violence on me 
when opportunity should serve have malicious reports been spread 
"tliat I had induced the people in this country to acknowledge in a 
petition to the King that we were willing to pay Avhatever taxes the 
Parliament should impose on us, Declaring the acts of the Conti- 
nental Congress unjust and tyranical, and that I had actually raised 
and embodied a great number of men ready to act as Government 
should direct." You have denied being the author of these " attempts 
and reports" and they are ascribed to you notwithstanding, and I 
think I am furnished with such evidence as will vindicate a legal 
prosecution as soon as our Superiour Courts of justice are opened. 
Other satisfaction you have refused on account of your wife and 

Let me now examine my behaviour about the 2S"' of April which 
you alledge was equivocal and disingenuous, you have descended to 
particulars and thereby put it in my power to expose the f\ilsehood 
of your charge. It is true that five ^Members of the Convention 
have declared to the world " that they heard me offer to subscribe a 
promise tliat I would conform to the Continental association, but 
many Members insisting that I should subscribe a declaration that 
I highly approved of it and threatening to witlidraw if I was 
indulged with leave to sign any other declaration than this, occa- 
sioned my withdrawing from the Convention on which the vote of 
censure passed against me." The Freeholders of Currituck in their 
publication of the 28"' of April are evidently speaking of this dec- 
laration of highly approving &c: when they declare it consistent 
-with their ideas of freedom for rejiresentative bodies to endeavour 


to force, an individual to "subscribe a declaration" contrary to his 
conscience and avowed sentiments, nor is there any insinuation in 
that j^iece that an attempt was made to force me to sign the asso- 
ciation or journal of the Continental Congress which you say I 
must have informed them of, nor do the Committee" of Pasquotank 
insist that I "offered to suljscribe the journal of the Contitiental 
Congress" as you have falsely declared in the 4* paragraph of 
your strictures. They have said that you confessed to them on the 
19"" of April that you heard me in the convention offer " to sign 
the association " and you have given it under your hand to the 
public on the lo'" of May that you "did tell them something to 
that effect." If your confession then is the truth how much more 
are you to blame than such Members of the Convention as were 
unacc^uainted with this offer but if it is a lie you are the author of it 
to the Committee. As it was a circumstance in my favour not 
mentioned by the five Members as it came from you a declared 
enemy of mine the Committee believed that the force of truth only 
extorted it from your lips and published it to the Avorld as a cor- 
roboration of their opinion that the Convention was too sev^e 
upon me. You feel the effects of your confession, you would gladly 
retract it, you have endeavoured to swallow it up and to give us 
something else in its room. Your attempts however are in vain but 
the tortures you now feel are on account of j'our detection, contrition 
for the offence is a sentiment your breast admits not of. Were 
your genius and abilities equal to the enmity of your di-sposition 
you would avoid such palpable contradictions but how came they 
to escape the correction and prefacer of your last words? Let him be 
more attentive to your dying speech else your character will be 
brande<l past a possibility of redemption if that is not already the 

Have you read the declarations of the Freeholders of Currituck? 
In what part of it do they say tliat the whole proceedings of the 
Convention are tyrannical and ought to be rejected on account of 
that body's attempting to force me to sign the journal of the Con- 
tinental Congress? These assertions of yours must be owing to 
ignorance, procure some friend if such you have to read and explain 
the matters contained in that publication that you may get some 
idea of them before you make any more strictures for the public 


On the whole then this equivocal and disingenuous behaviour 
which you exult in having detected ajipears to be your own now 
exposed to public view, for after having concurred in declaring on 
the 6"' of April that I refused to sign the association with the other 
Members of the Convention and thereupon withdrew,^ you next con- 
fessed before the Committee of Pasquotank on the 19'" of April that 
you heard me offer to subscribe the association in the Convention. 
On the 15"' of May you unsay all this and tell quite a different story 
by saying that some of the Members proposed I might sign the 
journal of the Continental Congress, but that I only seemed to agree 
to it: went with a seeming intention to sign but all on a sudden 
declined and withdrew, and to complete the matter you very mod- 
estly recjuest the public to think with you that this proves me 
equivocal and disingenuous. Should " ministerial vengeance" stand 
in need of " a tool " to say and unsay whatever suits its purposes 
you have shewed by this specimen where it may be supplied, but 
you have discovered the weakness of your head so exceedingly 
plainly that you can never expect to be employed except in the 
loAvest department and on the dirtiest occasions; you have a talent 
for abuse but it is vulgar abuse and some of your expressions are 
difficult to be understood, " Ijut I will not usurp all good " from you. 

If I dared however to soar after you in the regions of shnile I 
would remark that yours of the fly and the web might be rendered 
more just by comparing yourself to the spider, and the fate of your 
w'eb (in which you have endeavoured to entangle me) of strictures 
resembles the fate of those webs which are sometimes spun by that 
malevolent and venomous reptile and to his great mortification are 
torn to pieces by the innocent fly which he had destined for his 
prey. On such an occasion the good natured spectator is pleased 
with the little flys escape from the lurking villainous spider who 
then retires from public view into his dark and dirty receptacle to 
brood over his base designs, and the humane public will " not be 
sorry that your son hcnito of tar and feathers, your intended Auto Da 
Fe and your strictures designed to injure me have failed of this 
intended effect. 

Notwithstanding your unremitting endeavours to hurt me I 
would not willingly injure you in the smallest degree. Nothing but 
the grossest misrepresentations of my conduct in a matter of general 
concern could have forced me to this method of self defence which 
in proportion as I am exculpated from the odium you have endeav- 


oured to affix ou my public character must be injurious to yourself. 
Remember that I am not accused of violating the association, that 
for my actions I acknowledge myself accountable to the community 
but my opinions are my own ; I intruded them not on the public 
till properly called upon as the deputy of freemen to deliberate with 
others on the measures proper to be used for establishing and pro- 
curing our rights and liberties on a lasting and solid foundation ; on 
such an occasion I spoke my sentiments of a particular measure; 
they were offensive. I was called upon to subscribe a declaration 
contrary to these sentiments; I refused; I withdrew from a body 
where freedom of sentiment was disagreeable to great numbers : on 
my withdrawing I was censured as an enemy to American Liberty. 
It produced no bad consequences; those who were warmest through 
an honest zeal for liberty on cool reflection perhaps thought they 
had been too severe but you, animated by personal pique and resent- 
ment, have embraced the long wii^Jied for moment to gratify your 
revenge; at least you have endeavoured to do it; you have failed 
and exposed yourself to contempt and detestation.' Such men as 
you are improper guardians of liberty, such principles as yours 
used in its defence destroy its very essence. I take my leave of you 
here and beg pardon of the public for this intrusion on its patience. 

Xorth-Carolina, Belville, June 21" 1775. 

[From MS. Records ix Office of Secretary of State.] 

Election of Safety Committee in Pitt County. 

Martinborough, June 23'' 1775. 

The freeholders of the County of Pitt appeared and elected the 
following persons to be added to the Committee of this county, viz': 

Robert Grimmer, Richard Rives, Simon Pope, .John Ems, Benja. 
Brown, James May Jr., John Page, Jesse Jolley, John Robson, John 
Bowers, Absalom Rogers, Godfrey Standlej', Parker Lai'z, Solomon 
Shepperd, Robert Hodges, George Porter, Mathias Moore, John 
Hatton, Levi Andrews, "William Ozljourne, Edm* Andrews, Mathew 
• Stokes, Jonah Litel, John Mooring, John Cason, John Barber, Sam' 
Barrow, Nath' Nobles, Hilliary Cason, Richard Grist, Lazarus Pierce, 
William .Jones, Dempsie Grimes, William Burney, Dennis Cannon, 


Arch"* Adams, James Brooks, Jacob Blount, Tho' "Wolfenden, George 
Moye Sen"', Thos. Goff, George Blair, John Tilman, Arthur Forbes, 
Henry Ellis, Mathew Sturdevant, Nathaniel Moore, John "Williams, 
Rich'' Williams, Allen Suggs, Joel Suggs, Benjamin Dupree, John 
Joiner, Will" Graves, John Enloe, John Lesslie, Benjamin Barrow, 
Timothy Harris, John Fry, John Moye, Abraham Adams, John 
Fleming, Isaac Stocks, Benj" Blount, Rich'' May, Edward Moore, 
Josiali Askey, W" Baldwin, Samuel Warrin, Thos. Hardee, Nath' 
Godle}', James Jones, Simon Jones, Henry Jones, Roland Dixon, 
Jolm Hardee Jun'', Thos Albritton, John Wallace, John Brinkley, 
"\ym "Wiiitefield, John Grist, Walter Dixon, Thos. Gwaltiney, Henry 
Williamson, Howell Hodges, John Smith, Thomas Braxton, John 
Dowdey, Reuben Powell, Jonah Knox, George Falkner. 

[B. P. R. O. Am. & AV. I:to. : No. Carolina. No. 233 ] 


At a Council held at Fort Johnston in North Carolina the 25"" 
June 1775. 


His Excellency the Governor. 
r James Hasell President William Dry "| 
The Hon'"» ^ John Rutherford and - J-Esq'-^ 

( Lewis DeRossett Thomas IM'Gwire j 

His Excellency addressed the Council in the following Terras : 

Gentlemen -of His Majesty's Honorable Council, 

The seditious Combinations that have been formed, and are still 
forming in several parts of this Colonj^ and the violent measures 
they pursue in compelling His Majesty's Subjects by various kinds of 
intimidations, to subscribe Associations, inconsistent with their Duty 
and allegiance to their Sovereign, The oljliging People to frecjuent 
meetings in Arms, bj^ the usurped Authority of Committees, the 
recent Assemblage of a Body of armed Men, in the town of Wil- 
mington for the purpose of awing Flis Majesty's Loyal Subjects 
there into submission to the dictates of an illegal and tyranical 
tribunal erected there under that name, and the late most treason- 
able publication of a Committee in the Count}' of Mecklenb urg 


explicitly renouncing obedience to His Majesty's Government and 
all lawfull authority whatsoever are such audacious and dangerous 
jaroceedings, and so directly tending to the dissolution of the Con- 
stitution of this Province, That I have thought it indispensably my 
Duty to advise with you on the measures proper to be taken for the 
maintenance of His Majesty's Government, and the Constitution of 
this Country, thus flagrantly insulted and violated. On my part 
Gentlemen the idea I have of the sacred trust I hold under the 
King, and my sense of Duty to my Royal Master, will suffer me to 
omit no exertion in my power that can be conducive to these ends, 
and I trust Gentlemen that I may expect from your Duty to His 
Majesty and zeal for his service, and the good of your Country, not 
only your best advice, ]>ut your utmost influence in this alarming 
conjuncture to carry into execution most effectually the measures 
you may advise, for the support of the Rights of His Majesty's 
Crown, for the security and welfare of the People, and for the main- 
tenance of tlie Laws and Constitution of this Province. 

To which tlie Council replied : 

"The unhappy situation of this Province renders it impossible for 
His Excellency to take any other steps than those he has already 
taken to suppress the disturbances he so ju.stly complains of." 

The Governor read to the Council that part of His Majesty's Com- 
mission that vests him with military powers, and afterwards repre- 
sented to the Board, that Militia Commissions had been i-ssued to 
very few Counties since the last Militia Lavr passed, owing to the 
default of the Colonels in general, to make proper return of the 
officers, and desired their advice on the expediency of issuing Militia 
Commissions to the Countys at large, or to any particular Counties 
supposed better affected to Government than the rest, in tliis time of 

The opinion of the Council is, that his Excellency issue Militia 
Commissions to the Countys at large. 

The Governor further acquainted this Board, that Captain Collet 
Giovernor of Fort .Johnston had represented to him that the said 
Fort was in no state of defence, that the Estaljlisliment of the Gar- 
rison consisting of 25 men only, is reduced by desertion to less than 
half that number, and that it is also destitute of powder, & in no con- 
dition to afford a sure protection to the valualjle Artillery belonging 
to His Majesty in the said place in case of an attempt upon it, and 
desired the sentiments of the Council, on the expediency of his 


taking any measure for putting the Fort in a state of defence, by 
furnishing it with Ammunition, and raising men to strengthen the 
Garrison, observing at tlie same time that there are no funds allotted 
in this Country for such exigencies, nor any other resource that he 
knew, but to make application if the Council should advise such 
charge to be incurred, for money to defraj' the same to General Gage, 
Commander in Chief of His Majesty's Forces in America, or to the 
Lords Commiss" of his Majesty's Treasury'. 

It is the unanimous opinion of the Council, that His Excellency 
apply to General Gage or to the Lords of the Treasury for i\Ioney 
to defray the expences of repairing the Fort, and raising and main- 
taining a Garrison for its defence, the same being necessary for the 
protection and security of the Commerce of this River. 
• The Assembly having already declared their intention of discon- 
tinuing the present Establishment, His Excellency asked the opinion 
of the Council on the expediency of meeting the Assembly at the 
time fixed by the Writs of Election. ' 

Their unanimous opinion is, that the meeting be postponed to a 
future day, as from the example of the other Colonies there is not 
any probability of their proceeding to business. 

JO. MARTIN, Governor. 

[Reprinted from American Archives. Vol. 3, Page 1854.] 

Extract from tlie Proceedings of the Continental Congress. 

Monday, -June 26"\ 1775. 

The State qf North Carolina being taken into consideration the 
Congress came to the following resolutions: 

Whereas, It is represented to this Congress that the enemies of the 
liberties of America are pursuing measures to divide the good people 
of the Colony of North Carolina and to defeat the American Asso- 
ciation ; 

Resolved, That it be recommended to all in that Colony who wish 
well to the liberties of America to as.sociate for the defence of Ameri- 
can liberty and to embody themselves as militia under proper ofiicers. 

Resolved, That in case the Assembly or Convention of that Colony 
shall think it absolutely necessary for the support of the American 
Association and safety of the Colony to raise a body of forces not 


exceeding one thousand men this Congress will consider them as an 
American army and provide for their pay. 

[B. P. R. O. All. & W. I.ND.: No, Carolixa. Vol. 222.] 

Letter from Governor Martin to the Earl of Dartmouth. 

North Carolina 

Fort Johnston 30'" -June 1775. 
My Lord, 

Since I had the honor of representing to your Lordship the State 
of this Country in my Dispatch N° 33 various circumstances have 
occurred of which I think it my duty to give your Lordship the 
best account my information enables me to lay before you. 

On Tuesdaj' the 23^ of May a day when a set of People, calling 
themselves a Committee met at New Bern a motley mob, without 
any previous notice of their purpose, appeared coming towards my 
House. I did not see them until they were near my door, and 
supposing they were the committee of whose meeting I had heard, 
I directed my Secretary, if they announced themselves by that 
name to signify my resolution not to see them, he came to me how- 
ever with a message from this body, importing that they were the 
Inhabitants of the Town of New Bern who were come to wait upon 
me, and requested to be admitted to speak to me, I directed them 
to be shown into an Apartment below stairs, and immediately went 
down to them. M' Abner Nash an Attorney, and the oracle of the 
Committee appointed in that Town, whom I have before had occa- 
sion to mention to your Lordship, as a principal promoter of sedition 
here, came forward out of the crowd, and presenting himself before 
me said he had been chosen by the Inhabitants of Newbern then 
present to signify their purpose in waiting upon me, that it was in 
consequence of a general alarm, the People of the place had taken 
that morning at my dismounting some pieces of old cannon which 
lay behind my house, and, which had occasionally been made use 
of on rejoicing days; that this circura.9tauce had caused alarm, 
because the Governor of Virginia had lately deprived the People of 
that Colony of their Ammunition, and tliat the Inhabitants therefore 
requested, and hoped I would order the Guns to be remounted, and 
restored to the same order they had been in until that morning. 


Unprepared as I was My Lord, for such a visit, and filled with 
indignation at the absurdity and impertinence of the cause of it, 
assigned by 'M' Nash, and satisfied also that it was a mere pretext 
for insulting me, I replied, that the visit of the inhabitants of New- 
berne, and the motives of it I thought very extraordinary. That 
the Guns which I had dismounted belonged to the King, and that 
I was duly answerable to His Majesty for any disposition I made of 
them, but being at the same time inclined to quiet the minds of 
the Inhal:)itants of Newbern, and to give them everv reasonable 
satisfaction, I then declared to them that I had dismounted the 
Guns, and laid them on the ground because the carriages were 
entirely rotten and unserviceable and incapable of bearing the dis- 
charge of them on the King's birthday that was at hand, and for 
the celebration of which I was making the usual preparation of 
those Guns. M'' Nash said he was persuaded, the Answer I had 
condescended to give would be very satisfactory to the Inhab- 
itants of New Bern, and bowing retired with his molj. I must 
confess to your Lordship the reason I assigned for dismount- 
ing those guns, was really but one of ni}- motives, and that I 
had another which I did not think fit to communicate upon that 
occasion. I had received for some weeks l)efore repeated advices of 
a design concerting in the Committee of that Town, to seize those 
guns by force, and my principal object in throwing them off .the car- 
riages, at the time I did it (although it was reallj- necessary and 
intended for the other avowed purpose) was to make the removal of 
them more difiicult in case of such an attempt, and to procure 
thereby more time to defend them, or at least to parley about them. 
A day or two after this studied insult a certain old soldier arrived 
at New Bern from New York, wlio having been instructed with the 
Execution of a Commission of importance in this Country, came to 
me and told me, after communic.£iting his own business, and Ijcing 
assured of my best assistance, that he had learnt on Board tlie King's 
Fisher Sloop of War at New York, that she had Arms and Annnu- 
nition on Board, intended to be sent to me b\' the first opportunity 
that offered, in consequence of an application I had made for such 
aids to General Gage, and that Lieutenant Governor Colden at New 
York who had received Dispatches from the General to me, which 
were supposed to refer to those Stores, and committed them to the 
Post, was under the greatest anxiety for their safety, having discov- 
ered that the Committees had proceeded in some places to the 


extravagance of violating Letters sent by that channel. L'pon inter- 
rogating his intelligence about the manner in wliich it \ras designed 
to convey the Arms and Ammunition to me, which he mentioned, I 
found him altogether uncertain, whether they were to be sent by a 
]NLan of War, or a Merchant's Vessel, and that he encouraged appre- 
hensions of the latter by observing it might happen from the mis- 
taken opinion the People held in the Northern Provinces of the 
universal Loyalty and good disposition of the Inhabitants of this 
Colony. Thus My Lord I had to expect on the one hand, that my 
correspondence with General Gage, would be at once betrayed, and 
to fear at the same time, that the expected Stores might come in a 
Merchant's ^"essel to New Bern, where I had not a man to protect 
them, and that they must of consequence fall into the hands of the 
mob, which was continually watching every movement about my 
house, and Ijy which possible accident all my good purposes would 
be defeated. On the other hand I was to apprehend either of those 
cases, would furnish reason for insult to me, and my family at least, 
and might probably become a pretext for seizing my person and 
detaining me, according to the design avowed in all the Colonies, 
continually of making themselves eventually Masters of the King's 
Servants among them, and the more probably too, as a most infa- 
mous report had lately been propagated among the People, that I 
had formed a design of Arming the Negroes, and proclaiming freedom 
to all such as should resort to the King's Standard. It was therefore 
immediately necessary to take some measures to prevent if possible 
the Military Stores falling into the hands of the Mob, and to obviate 
any ill consequences that might arise from the promulgation of my 
correspondence with General Gage. Accordingly I determined after 
revolving the matter a moment in my mind, to relieve myself from 
all embarrassments tliat the sufferings of my family might expose 
me to, by sending them instantly to New York, which would at the 
same time furnish me with a certain unsuspected opportunity of 
writing to prevent any hazard of the Arms and Ammunition if they 
were not already sent away; place M" Martin and my children in 
safety, and leave me at liberty to pursue such measures as occasion 
might call for. This purpose I executed immediately, writing to 
General Gage of my situation, and I set out almost at the same time 
for this place, M-here one of His Majesty's Sloops of ^\'ar is stationed, 
intending as well as the security of my person in all events that I 
c 'uld not yet expose witli any possible advantage to His ^Majesty's 


Service, as to employ the most effectual means with the assistance of 
Capt. Parry Commander of the Cruizcr Sloop of War, to secure the 
Arms and Ammunition if they should be sent away before my 
advices, dispatched with my family, should reach New York, and 
lest my further precaution of posting my Secretary at Ocracock 
Inlet, the first entrance to the Port of New Bern, to bring any "N^essel 
that should arrive there with those Stores round to the Man of "War 
in this River should prove ineffectual. Accordingly on my arrival 
here on the 2'' instant, I communicated to Capt. Parry the circum- 
stances I have here related to your Lordship, suggesting my wishes 
at the same time, that he could spare from his Ship a sufficient force 
to waylay at Ocracock the A^essel I had reason to expect with Mili- 
tary Stores, in order to compel her in case of necessity to bring them 
round here to be lodged in safety on board His Majesty's Ship under 
his Command. Captain Parry to whom My Lord, I owe it in justice 
to say that he embraces with the utmost alacrity every occasion to 
promote the King's Service, instantly seeing the importance of the 
object of my concern, assured me of his most willing and effectual 
assistance and accordingly without loss of time, detached an officer 
and a party of men well armed, in a little schooner to secure that 
point. Since my first intelligene-e I have heard nothing to be 
dej^ended on relative to the Arms and Ammunition, but I am in 
hopes, from comparison of dates, that the letters from General Gage, 
which caused M' Colden and myself so much anxiety, were what 
I have since received a few, that contained nothing more than 
an Account of the Affair of the 20"' of April between a Detachment 
of the King's Troops and the People of the neighborhood of Boston 
which reached me in little less time than two months after the event, 
and too late to operate against the infamous and false reports of that 
transaction which were circulated to this Distance from Boston in 
the space of 12 or 13 days, and had already like all first impressions 
taken deep root in the minds of the vulgar here universally and 
wrought a great change in the face of things, confirming the sedi- 
tious in their evil purposes, and bringing over vast numbers of the 
fickle, wavering and unsteady multitude to their party. This was 
an effect to be apprehended, and it will be the same unquestionably 
in all future occurrances, unless a regular communication is estab- 
lislied, by which the Accounts transmitted by the King's General 
and Admiral of their oi:)erations may anticipate the gross and abomi- 


nable forgeries of the New England People, and I have accordingly 
represented the expediency of it to General Gage. 

My removal from New Bern it appears My Lord, was prudential 
and well timed, for I received advices from thence yesterday that I 
should have been insulted at least on Friday last tlie day of the 
General Election of Assembly men, when a mob was stimulated Ijy 
some of the Leaders in sedition, after being inflamed with liqueur, 
to seize and carry off the cannon behind mj' house, which the}^ like- 
wise made some slight attempt to break into, after repeatedly demand- 
ing the Keys of it in vain of my servants, who in consequence of 
my orders (having notice of the intention of the rabble) had sj^iked 
the guns, to the great disappointment and discomfiture of the 

Soon after my arrival at this place my Lord many of the poor 
ignorant People in the Neighbourhood came to me in the last state 
of terror and dismay, making Representations such as I have set 
forth in the Proclamation enclosed, which I thought it necessar}' to 
issue to counteract as far as I was able such vile impositions and 
menaces as the Committee men were employing to deceive the King's 
Subjects, and seduce them from their duty. The Newspaper enclosed 
will show your Lordship that the same spirit of sedition and extrava- 
gance that gave cause to that Act of Government, has produced an 
impudent and formal contradiction of the undeniable truths it con- 
tains, under the authority of a Committee proving irrefragably that 
People embarked in a bad cause, scruple not to avail theinselves of 
the basest falsehoods -and calumnies to support it. According to 
custom, and as the last resort of malice and falsehood, your Lordship 
will find this Publication prescribes me as an Enemy to this Province 
in particular, and to America in General, a sentence that L must 
expect to suffer in common with every Servant of His Majesty, and 
with every other Subject, whose sense of duty to His Sovereign and 
the State does not permit him to take part in the most unprovoked, 
& unnatural Rebellion that has ever been known. Still, my Lord, 
I hold my former opinion, that if my hands were strengthened with 
the aids I have required of General Gage, I could not only main- 
tain the Sovereignty of this Province to His Majesty, with the power 
I could collect immediately among the Emigrants from the High- 
lands of Scotland, who were settled here, and immoveably attached 
to His Majesty and His Government, that I am assured by the best 
authority I may compute at 3000 effective men, but should be able 


to draw together under that protection, out of the interior Counties 
of this Province, where the People are in General well atfected, and 
much attached to me, at least two thirds of the fighting men in the 
whole Country, which may be co-mputed according to my best infor- 
mation to exceed Thirty Thousand and with which I could effect- 
ually restore order here and in South Carolina, and hold Virginia 
in such awe as to prevent that Province sending any succour to the 
Northward, added to which such a head made here against rebellion, 
would draw over to it such multitudes of well affected Subjects of His 
Majesty from other Colonies who only want countenance to induce 
them to take an open part in favour of Government as would put 
it in my power to reduce to order and obedience every Colony to the 
Southward of Pennsylvania for although Virginia and Maryland 
are both verj^ populous, the whites are greatly outnumbered by the 
Negroes, at least in the former and in the latter they are a very 
great proportion of the whole number of Lihabitants, a circumstance 
that would facilitate exceedingly the reduction of those Colonies, 
who are very sensible of their weakness, arising from it. Here the 
proportion of Blacks to Whites throughout the Province is very 
small, for the greater numljer of them are to be found in two or 
three Counties in this Southern part of it. I do not apprehend that 
the gross amount of Negroes in this Colony will be found to exceed 
ten Thousand. 

As I fear the busy scene in. wliieli General Gage is at this time 
em})loyed, may not afford him leisure to attend minutely to objects 
at this distance, I should ardently wish, that the importance of my 
proposition above mentioned, may be taken into consideration by 
your Lordship, and submitted to the King, and in case of its meet- 
ing with His Majesty's Royal Approbation, that the sup})lies of arn:s 
and ammunition I have requested of General Gage should be sent 
in a fourfold proportion to mo from England immediately. Ten 
Thousand Stand of Arms at least with jiroper Accoutrements may 
be disposed in hands that would make a good use of them, and I 
should wish them to be accompanied with six liglit field pieces, 
six Pounders with all their atterail, and good store of Ammunition, 
some pairs of Colours, Drums, etc, and such a suirijly of money as 
might be necessary for the sujiport of such a force. 

I beg leave again My Lord most heartily to offer my humble 
Service to His Majesty to raise a Battalion of a Thousand High- 
landers here, for the restoration of the Rank of Lieutenant Colonel 


I had the honor to hold in the Army in the year 1709, when the 
total loss of ni}^ health obliged me to quit the Service, and I am 
the more encouraged to hope for His Majesty's gradous acceptance 
of my Service in a Military Character at this time, when it becomes 
essentially necessary to exercise Military Power in support of the 
high Civil office in which His Majesty has bceii pleased to place me 
in this Country. If I am so happy to meet with His Majesty's 
approbation of this proposal, I would most humbly beg leave to 
recommend M"" Allen McDonald of Kingsborough to be Major, and 
Captain Alex"* M°Leod of the Marines now on half pay to be first 
Captain, who besides being men of great worth, and good character, 
have most extensive influence over the Highlanders here, great 
part of which are of their own names and familys, and I should 
flatter myself that His Majesty would be graciously pleased to per- 
mit me to nominate some of the Subalterns of such a Battalion, 
not for pecuniary consideration but for encourag.ement to some 
active and deserving young Highland Gentlemen who might be 
usefully employed in the speedy raising the proposed Battalion. 
Indeed I cannot help observing My Lord, that there ar» three or 
four Gentlemen of consideration here, of the name of ^PDonald, 
and a Lieutenant Ales'* McLean late of the Regiment now on half 
pay, whom I should be happy to see appointed Captains in such a 
Battalion, being persuaded they would heartil;/ promote and do 
credit to His Majesty's Service. 

The Minutes of Council held at this place the other day, will 
make the impotence of Government here as apparent to your Lord- 
ship, as anything I can 'set before you. The Board have been 
afraid to take a becoming part, I firmly believe from apprehensions 
of personal injury and insult, and accordingly have taken as little 
notice as possible of the matters I submitted to their consideration. 
The .situation in which I find myself at present is indeed My Lord 
most despicable and mortifying to any man of greater feelings thaji 
a Stoic. I daily see indignantly, the Sacred Majesty of m}' Royal 
Master insulted, the Rights of His Crown denied and violated. His 
Government set at naught, and trampled ujwn, his servants of 
highest dignity reviled, traduced, abused, the Rights of His Sub- 
jects destroyed by the most arbitrary usurpations, and the whole 
Con.stitution unhinged and prostrate, and I live alas ingloriously 
only to deplore it. 


The Resolves of the Committee of Mecklenburgh, which your 
Lordship will find in the enclosed Newspaper, surpass all the horrid 
and treasonable publications that the inflammatory spirits of this 
Continent have yet produced, and your Lordship may depend its 
Authors and Abettors will not escape my due notice, whenever my 
hands are sufficiently strengthened to attempt the recover}' of the 
lost authority of Government. A copy of these Resolves I am 
informed were sent off by express to the Congress at Philadelphia 
as soon as they were passed in the Committee. At Wilmington, the 
principal Trading Town in this Province, and where there are many 
British merchants settled particularly Scotch, there is a noble and' 
honest dormant spirit nurtured among them, that has as yet given 
them weight and consequence, and preserved them from injury, of 
which I shall be able I make no doubt greatly to avail myself on a 
proper occasion. 

A ]\r John Ashe, heretofore Colonel of the jMilitia of the county of 
New Hanover, but who had lately formally declined that appointment 
by letter to me on pretence of age and Business and requested me to 
appoint another person, appeared at Wilmington a fortnight after 
such resignation at the head of a body of between four and live 
hundred men, menacing the Peojile above mentioned with military 
execution, if they did not inimediately subscribe an Association 
dictated by the Committee, which they had refused until that time, 
and being interrogated for his Authority for such arbitrary proceed- 
ings, he pointed to the men he had assembled. His cowardly intim- 
idations of these individuals so far answered his purpose that they 
were obliged to sign what their consciences revolted at and abhorred, 
but it produced the good effect at the same time of uniting them 
more firmly in opposition to such dangerous extravagancies, and 
they have since formed themselves into a 'Company for the purpose 
of mutual protection and» defence. 

The South Carolina Congress hath sent recruiting parties into 
this Province to raise Men, but I hope thej' will be disappointed in 
their expectation of great succour from hence, and I shall leave no 
means untried to defeat their purposes. The lenity of Government 
hath Ijeen such to that people that they forget entirely their own 
weakness and are blustering treason, while Charles Town, that is the 
head and heart of their boasted Province, might be destroyed by a 
single Frigate, and the Country thereby reduced to the last distress. 
I lament to say it, my Lord, and most sincerelj' grieve to see occa-' 


sion for it, but I must avow to your Lordship it is to me at this time 
evident, and out of all doubt, that reason and argument can never 
restore the just power and authority of Government in America. 
The People now freely talk of Hostility toward Britain in the lan- 
guage of Aliens and avowed Enemies and I fear the means that 
British spirit at last resorts to for tlie chastisement of her more 
natural foes can onlj^ now reclaim her most unnatural children in 
these Colonies to a proper sense of their duty ; and I must add too, ni}' 
Lord, that in charity to them and in duty to my King and country 
I think myself bound to give it as ray sincere opinion that the rod 
of correction cannot consistently with the good and interest of either 
be longer spared. If it is*an oliject to reclaim the Colonies of America 
to obedience to the just authority of His Majesty, and the Parlia- 
ment of Great Britain, humanity as well as policy, in my mind, my 
Lord, urges that the work be set about with the vigour becoming 
the glorious and invincible spirit of the British nation, and without 
a moment's delay. Altho' by my separate Dispatch of the IS"' of 
May, I had given mj- humble opinion to your Lordship, that the 
meeting of the Assembly of this Province in order to bring under 
its copsideration the Resolution of the House of Commons of the 
27"' day of February last (while the Philadelphia Congress was 
sitting, and which was not enjoined b}' your Lordship's dispatches 
referring to that Resolution) would be to no sort of purpose, yet see- 
ing soon afterwards that His Majesty's-Governors in other Provinces 
had called the respective Assemblies, expressly with that Design, I 
issued the Writs for calling an Assembly which had been postponed 
by the advice of the Council on account of the heat prevailing in the 
Province at the time of the Dissolution of the late Assembly', and 
the General Election was accordingly made on the 23'^ of last month, 
since which, as your Lordship will see on the Minutes of tlie Coun- 
cil, that Board has upon me principles of my first opinion stated to 
your Lordship in my sepai-ate Dispatch above referred to^ advised 
me to prorogue the new elected Assemblj' which I have therefore 
prorogued to the 12"" da}- of September next, before which I have 
no doubt I shall have good reason to prorogue it further. 

I am bound to return your Lordship my best acknowledgements 
for the attention you have been pleased to give to my representations 
of the misconduct of the members of the Council here, at the same 
time I must freely own to your Lordships that I fear it will be difficult 
to reform that Body effectually at this time, some of whose delin- 

VOL. X — 4 


quency I have heretofore had the greatest reason to complain, have 
by their loyal adherence toGovernment in this time of disaffection, 
restored themselves to my regard, and I believe it may be difficult 
to find fitter people to .supercede the others. I must indeed except 
jVP Dry, Collector of the Customs at this Port, whose imprudence 
and absurdity is such as I fear will compel me in spite of all allow- 
ance that I can make for his simplicity, and weakness, to disgrace 
him, his extravagances as they are continually^ reported to me by 
credible authorities being of a nature that it will be impossible 
for me longer to overlook consistently with the Duty I owe to the 
King and to Llis Majesty's Service. 

I have the honor etc 


[From MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee at Wilmington. 

xVt an occasional meeting of the Committee June 1775. 

Present: Cornelius Harnett, Chairman; Rob' Hogg, Arch'' Mac- 
laine, .James Walker, W" Ewins, Jaines Blythe, Sam' Marshall. 

Mr James Elletson Bowen applied to this Committee for leave to 
land sundry Household Furniture &c, imported in the ship Success 

Edmund Cheeseniaii Commander the property of Elletson, 

who is coming to reside in this province. The said Bowen being 
sworn upon tlie holy Evangelists of Almighty God declared the list 
of Furniture &c, delivered !o the Committee by him is solely for 

the use of Elletson and that no part of it is or was intended 

for sale and that if on opening the packages any merchandise 
should be found, he will immediately acquaint the Committee there- 
with, to be disposed of as they shall direct. 

Rob' Hogg, a member of this committee, desired to withdraw 
liimself from farther attendance as he is going to the back country. 

The Committee then adjourned until the next occasional meeting. 


[B. P. R. O. Am. & W. IND. Vol. 333.] 

A Circular Letter* to the Committee of South Carohna. 

Charles Toavn, .June 30'^ 1775. 

This year will bo^a grand ejDoch in the history of Mankind. In- 
this conspicuous and ever memorable year, America has been abased 
and Britain has disgraced herself in an unexampled manner. All 
the guilt of all the English Ministers of State from the Reign of the 
First William to the conclusion of the late War does not equal the 
guilt that British Ministers have incurred since the latter period. 
The Measure of their iniquity appears now full. They seem fixed 
in the pursuit of their plan to enslave America, in order that they 
might enslave Great Britain; to elevate the Monarch, that has been 
placed on a throne only to govern under the law into a throne above 
all law. But divine Providence has inspired the Americans with 
such virtue, courage and conduct, as has already attracted the atten- 
tion of the universe and will make them famous to the latest Pos- 
terity. The Americans promise to arrest the hand of tyrann}^, and 
. to save even Britannia from shaekles. 

In a former letter we declared to you, that there was " but little 
probability of "deciding the present unhappy public disputes by the 
specific measures we have hitherto pursued." Our ideas were just, 
and v,-ith the deepest grief, yet firmest resolution, y:e now announce 
to you, that the sword of civil war, is not only actually drawn, but 
stained with blood ! ! The King's troops have at length commenced 
hostilities against this continent, and not confining their ungenerous 
attacks against men in ^rms defending their properties, they have 
slaughtered the unarmed, the .sick, the helpless; having long indis- 
criminately oppressed they have now ma.ssacred our fellow subjects 
in Massachusetts" Bay. Mark the Event! The enormities were 
scarcely perpetrated when the divine vengeance pursued the guilty, ' 
even from the rising up of the sun, until the going down of the same: 
the King's troops were discomfited; they fled before our injured 
friends. The night saved them from total destruction. 

But see in what manner the American Civil War commenced ; and 

*The Cape Fear Mercury. 28th July, 1775. 


we lay before you the case, as stated by General C4age, on the one 
part, and by the Voice of America on the other. 

The General sent a detachment of about 800 soldiers into the 
Country to seize and destroy the property of the people of Massa- 
chusetts Bay. This Detachment, on their way to" Concord, at Lex- 
ington saw "about 200 Men drawn up on a green, and when the 
Troops came within a 100 yards of them (a situation out of the line 
of their march) they began to file off." The soldiers upon "observ- 
ing this," ran after them to surround and disarm them. Some of 
them who had jumped over a wall, then fired four or five shots at 
the Troops, and "upon this" the soldiers "began a scattered fire, and 
killed several of the Country People." Clear as it is even from this 
state, that the King's troops by running after actually attacked the 
Provincials peaceably filing off, yet General Gage has the integrity 
to entitle his narrative of this unfortunate affair " a circumstantial 
account of an attack on his Majesty's troops by a number of the peo- 
ple of Massachusetts Bay." But Men will cease to be surprised at 
this when they are told the General makes no scruple to violate even 
a solemn engagement. After the General's defeated troops returned 
to Boston, he declared that if the inhabitants of that devoted City 
would deliver up their arms, he would permit them to retire from 
the Town Avith their effects. They delivered up near 3000 stands of 
arms, and to this day they are in shameful breach of the capitulation, 
detained in captivity patiently enduring the calamities of famine. 

However the ^^oice of America thus describes the commencement 
of this unnatural war : About eight or nine hundred soldiers came 
in sight just before sun rise, of about 100 men, training themselves 
to ams as usual ; and the troops running within a few rods of them, 
the commanding officer called out to tlje militia, "disperse you 
rebels, damn you, throw down your arms and disperse." Upon which 
the troops huzza'd — immediately one or two officers discharged their 
pistols, and then there seemed to be a general discharge from the 
, whole body. Eight Americans were killed upon the spot, and nine 
were wounded. The soldiers in a few minutes resumed their march 
to Concord, and there speedily destroyed a considerable quantity of 
flour and other stores belonging to the public. Another party of 
]\Iilitia about 150 men alarmed at such violences had assembled near 
a bridge at Concord. The soldiers fired upon them and killed two 
men. It was this repeated act of hostility that roused the Americans 
to repel force by force. They now returned the fire — beat the King's 


troops out of the Town and compelled them to retreat to Lexington 
where they met a reinforcement of 1000 fresh men and two pieces 
of cannon. The Militia being, Ijy this time, increased in their num- 
bers they soon dislodged the Troops from this post: who during the 
remainder of the da}-, made a precipitate retreat through the Ameri- 
can fire, and gained a place of safetj- under cover of the night: in 
this battle of Lexington, the Americans had 39 men killed, and 19 
wounded. The King's troops left 266 men, killed, wounded and 
missing ; and by subsequent accounts, it appears that, in consec^uence 
of that action. General Gage's army has sustained a diminution of 
1000 men by death, wounds, prisoners, desertion, surfeits and other 
incapabilities of service. For the Troops being four and tw(*nty 
hours on duty, marched, fought and fled 43 miles in that time 
M'ithout the least refreshment. Let it be remembered that these 
ISOO British Regulars consisting of the picked 'Men of the whole 
army — grenadiers light infantry, and marines carefully prepared 
for the expedition were defeated and driven by about 1200 Ameri- 
can militia brought to repel an unexpected attack and marched in 
accidental parties upon the spur of the occasion. Let it be delivered 
down to Posterity that the American Civil War broke out on the 
ID"" day of April 1775. An Epoch that in all probability will mark 
the declension of the British Empire. • 

Such an important Event as the actual Commencement of civil 
war, caused the convention of the Congress, on the first of June, in 
order that some jirovision might be made against impending calami- 
ties. The Congress rose on the 22°'^ inst: and it is our duty to inform 
you, and through you the public at large of the material transac- 
tions of this important session. 

As a first step for our defence it was thought expedient to unite 
the inhabitants of the Colonj' "as a band in her defence against 
every foe" and to this purpose on the fourth day of June, imme- 
diately after the celebration of divine service, in congress an asso- 
ciation was signed by all the members present solemnly engaging 
their lives and fortunes. In the space of four days, the association . 
was voluntarily subscribed by almost every inhabitant in Charles 
Town and transmitted into the country. For our most effectual 
defence it was thought a body of regular Troops ought indispensibly 
to be raised without delay. Accordingly the Congress raised two 
regiments of foot consisting of 1500 rank and file; and one regiment 
of horse composed of 450 privates, for this service and contingent 


expenses for one year tlie congress voted the sum of one million 
currency. The levies are now raising and the money is now issuing 
under the orders of the council of safety in whom the congress have 
have not only vested the whole power over; and direction of the 
regulars; the militia who when called into service will be entitled 
to pay, and the treasury; but have "authorized them to do all such 
matters and things" relative to the strengthening securing and 
defending the colony "as shall by them be judged and deemed 
expedient and necessary." 

The Militia have power to form select companies of horse and 
foot, and to officer them provided tliey have the approbation of the 
Coifncil of Safety. 

In order to form magazines of grain, an embargo has been laid 
upon all rice and corn. 

To give proper force and effect to the resolutions the respective 
district and parochial Committees are impowered to take cognizance 
of and to question those persons who shall presume to violate or 
refuse obedience to the authority of the Congress; and to declare 
sucli persons "objects of the resentment of the public;" this eflfect- 
ually exposes them to be treated as Enemies to the liberty of 

The names of those persons who shall refuse to associate are to be 
laid before the general committee who are to enquire of tlie parties 
touching their refusal. 

Several resolutions of the present Continental Congress have been 
recognized; one of them declares "that no bill of exchange, draught 
or order of any officer in the army or navy, their agents or con- 
tractors be received or negotiated or money supplied to them, by 
any person in America" and that no provisions be furnished for 
the use of the British army in Massachusetts Bay or for vessels 
transporting British Troops or warlike stores for such troops to 
America or from one part of it to another. 

For the better defence of our Liberties and Properties, the Absentees 
holding estates in this Colony are called home; and persons now in 
the Colony are prohibited from departing without permission of the 
general committee. 

To endeavour to obtain pardon for our past offences and to pro- 
cure the favor of heaven the 27'" day of July is appointed to be 
observed as a day of solemn fast, prayer and humiliation before 
Almightv God. 


Experience having demonstrated that a long continuance of a 
representation of a free people is dangerous to their Lii.ierties; a 
new general election of Members of Congress and of district and 
parochial committees except for Charles Town is ordered to be held 
on the eighth and ninth days of August next; the Members are to 
serve during one year after their first meeting in Congress, and the 
present committees throughout the Colony are to continue to exer- 
cise their functions until the meeting of the new Congress. 

And, to the end that his Excellency tlie Governor might not receive 
any unfavourable impression of tlie conduct of the congress, and that 
their proceedings might " stand justified to the world " they presented 
to his Excellency an address and declaration "that tlie hands of the 
King's ministers having long lain heavy, and now pressing us with 
intolerable weight, solely for the preservation, and in defence of our 
lives, liberties and projierties, we liave been impelled to associate 
and to take up arms." Your Representatives in Congress, also "con- 
scious of the justice of our cause and the integrity of our views," 
readily professed loyal attachment to our sovereign, his crown, and 
dignity; and sensible of tlie public rights, the equal compact between 
King and people, religiously determined to do their duty, and to 
trust "the event to providence," they generously and constitutionally 
declared " they preferred death to Slaveiy." 

Such have been the most weighty proceedings in the last Session 
of Congress. They were " the result of dire necessity " and of cool 
deliberate counsels, of which the public good was the only object. 

Your Representatives having taken such important and justifiable 
steps, to place your lives, liberties and properties in a state of some 
security against the iron hand of tyrrany, do you second their 
laudable endeavours and exert everj' faculty of body and mind to 
discharge the great duty you owe to yourselves and to posterity? 
To this end vie with each other in your endeavours to cause the 
resolves of the congress to be punctually obeyed, and to bring to con- 
dign punishment those who like paracides sliall dare to attempt 
to attempt to contravene the measures which are now formed to 
defend the liberties of your Country. 

Having thus endeavoured concisely to represent the commence- 
ment of tliis cruel civil war and the situation of our domestic polity 
as some barrier against impending calamities allow us to draw your 
attention to the progress of the war near Boston : and to the late 
advices from England. 


After the action of Lexington the people of the four New Engkind 
Governments assembled near Boston to the number of 50,000 men; 
but as they soon found that General Gage was resolved to keep close 
in his entrenchments and knowing the general congress was about 
to sit, thej^ sent home almost their whole army ; and reserved only 
about 9000 men, as a corps of observation: which by posting them- 
selves in lines near Boston were sufficient to keep the General so 
much in awe as to prevent his sending any more detachments into 
the Country. In these positions, the General waited for his expected 
Reinforcements from England ; and the American army, for direc- 
tions from the general congress. Neither seemed to have any design 
of attacking the other. But the Americans did not misspend their 
time. They sent off two small Detachments, in the most private 
manner, from two different quarters, and after a march of upwards 
of 300 miles, they at the same instant on the 10"" of May together 
surprised entered and took Ticonderoga and soon after Crown Point 
two most important Forts, that command the communication by the 
Great Lakes between Canada and the Sea Coast Colonies. By this 
expedition the Americans have gained 200 pieces of large cannon, 5 
mortars, sundiy Howitzers, 50 swivels and a considerable quantity 
of ammunition; and to secure these passes they have garrisoned 
them with 1 500 men. * 

During this time 'the state of the positions at and near Boston had 
not undergone any material change ; and the people in the Country 
thought there could be no illegality in considering their Property 
still as their own; and using it accordingly. But it seems the law 
in this case had undergone a material alteration since a- military 
Governor, commanding a large army, had taken post in the unfortu- 
nate town of Boston. For now, to exercise the right of ownership 
over property, is to draw upon the party, the fire of the King's troops. 
On the third day of this instant about thirty men forded and landed 
upon Hogg and Noddle's islands situated in Boston harbour and 
about three miles from the town; in order to drive off some live 
stock, which they had a Right to remove. But they no sooner began 
to remove their property than they were fired upon by an armed 
schooner and a slooj) dispatched from Boston and forty marines 
that were stationed upon the islands to guard the stock against the 
lawfull owners. However the Country people, notwithstanding this 
opposition, killed and removed part of the stock. By this time they 
were attacked by a large number of marines, sent from the men of 


war in the liarbour; and daring the action, both parties received 
reinforcements; so that it is said, the regulars had 1000 men, and the 
Americans 700.^ngaged. Notwithstanding such disproportion, the 
Americans beat the Troops off the islands, burnt the schooner and 
so disal>led the sloop that they were obliged to be towed away. 
Killed 30 of the enemy, wounded 50, took four double fortified four 
pounders, 12 swivels and drove off the stock without the loss of a 
man, having only five men wounded. 

Flattering as the conduct of the brave men of NeAV England has 
made the situation of the American cause it would be injustice in 
us silently to pass by the conduct of New York and Georgia. The 
first has now taken a decisive step in support of the common cause. 
They have taken the spare arms from the regular troops that were 
there stationed, and they have put themselves into a formidable 
posture to receive about 2000 men daily expected to arrive there 
from England. The people of Havaunah have just signed an associa- 
tion ; they have formed a committee and have summoned a con- 
gress to meet on t!ie 4'" day of July; they have made generous 
collections for the relief of Boston; in short every appearance in 
that quarter prognosticates that Georgia will fully atone for her mis- 
conduct owing to the little Arts of a few misguided and unprincipled 

If we state tlie substance of our advices from England we need 
only say that on one side stand our unfortunate and deceived sover- 
eign his ministers of state the profligate part of the nobility and 
the corrupt majority of the house of commons: these drag an army 
to blow up the blaze of a civil war. On our side the favour of the 
Almighty stands confessed; a prince of the blood roj'al; the most 
illustrious, powerful and virtuous among the nobility; the most 
eloquent and popular men among the commons ; the city of London, 
the body of the English nation are advocates for, and affectionate 
friends to the people of America and liberty. 

In a former letter we acquainted you that notwithstanding Lord 
North's conciliatory motion, as he termed it, on the 2^"" of Feljruary, 
by which to screen us from military execution his lordship in effect 
very friendly demanded that we should engage to tax ourselves in 
such sums at such times and for such purposes as could be agreeable 
to Parliament, that is in plain English — the minister: a demand 
which Governor Alartin in a late false and scandalous proclamation 
bearing date the 16"" dav of June glosses over bv fraudulentlv stating; 



it that we are " required to tax ourselves by our respective general 
assemblies, only our contingent proportion (of which he cautiously 
took care not to inform the public that thej^ are not t© judge) towards 
defraying the charge of the general defence of the British Empire 
according to our circumstances and abilities (of which his Excellency 
prudently avoided to mention, that the parliament or rather the 
minister was to be tlie only arbiter) and for our civil government." 
that is, for such patriotic officers as his Excellency * * * " the gen- 
erosity and equity of wliich propositions," he very mode.stly adds, 
" can never be denied," but which the Americans, with one voice, 
declare to be cruel, iniquitous and inadmissible. We say that we 
informed you notwithstanding this conciliatory motion (made with- 
out the least serious intention of a proper reconciliation) a bill on 
the eighth of March, passed the house of Commons and received the 
royal assent on the thirtieth, by which the New England Govern- 
ments were cut off from their fishery, the natural claim of mankind 
to the gifts of Providence on their own coast, as especially intituled 
by their charters which have never been declared forfeited, by which 
law those Governments are so restrained in their exports and imjiorts 
that if they persevere in their loyalty to the confederated Colonies 
they would be as they now really are cut off, in efil-ct from all man- 
ner of trade and be totally blockaded. We also told you, that " if 
the lilockade of Boston alone roused the whole continent to their 
rescue and support, how vigorous ought we to exert ourselves, now 
that four entire provinces are blockaded." But if you v\'ere filled 
with just resentment because your distant friends and compatriots 
were so oppressed with new injuries, how must you feel now wlien 
the oppression is brought to your own door, and this colony is cut 
off from all manner of trade — equally with New England? By 
an act of Parliament passed the 15''° of April New Jersey, Pennsyl- 
vania, Maryland, Virginia and South Carolina are deeply affected ; 
and the British Parliament now attempt to compel the united Colo- 
nies to submit to slavery, not only by force of arms, but by a measure, 
which till now, has never disgraced the hist'ory of mankind. When 
the diabolical Act respecting the New England governments was in 
the house of lords the illustrious patriots there made a protest against 
it " because to attempt to coerce by famine the whole body of the 
inhabitants of great and populous provinces, is without example in 
the history of this or perhaps any civilized nation ; and is one of 
those unliappy inventions to which parliament is driven by the diifi- 


culties which multiply upon us, from an obstinate adherence to an 
unwise plan of government." But when this second fomine act 
passed the house of lords, the patriots, now fully convinced of the 
inefficiency of argument made their Protest, without deigning to 
assign one reason: a silence more expressive and poignant, than any 
form of words they could have arranged. 

The lord Mayor, aldermen and livery of London on the 10'" of 
April last, presented an aildress, remonstrance and petition to the 
King declaring "their abhorence to tlie measures which have been 
pursued and are now pursuing to the oppression of our fellow sub- 
jects in America: measures big with all the consequences that can 
alarm a free and commercial people," and they tell the King "they 
plainly perceive that the real purpose is to establish arbitrary power 
over all America." But the throne being surrounded by evil coun- 
sellors, and the Americans being by them traduced to the sovereign, 
he gave the following unfavourable answer to the city of London: 

" It is with the utmost astonishment that I find any of my subjects 
capable of encouraging the rebellious disposition which unhappily 
exists in some of my colonies in North America. Having entire 
confidence in the wisdom of my parliament, the great council of the 
Nation, I will steadily pursue those measures which they have recom- 
mended for the support of the constitutional Rights of Great Britain 
and the protection of the commercial Interests of my Kingdom." 

But the wicked ministers not content with hardening yet again 
the King's heart against his American subjects, they persuaded him 
to outrage the Rights of the City of Loudon because she stood 
before the throne in favour of America. For the very day after his 
]\Iajesty caused it to l)e notified to the Lord Mayor that "he will not 
receive on the throne any address, remon.strance and petition but 
from the body corporate of tlie city," and thus was it cfesigned to 
prevent the lord mayor, aldermen and livery of London from speak- 
ing to the King upon the subject of American calamities. The Lord 
Mayor "in extreme astonishment and grief" at this violation of a 
mos-t important right of the city was indefatigable in his researches 
into the law and records upon that subject, and in an excellent letter 
to the lord chamberlain of the King's household, in answer to the 
above notification by him, tlie lord mayor thus expresses himself: 

" And therefore I presume to lay claim, on behalf of the livery of 
London, to the ancient privilege of presenting to the King on the 
throne any address, petition or remonstrance. In this manner have 


the addresses of the livery constantly been received both by his 
present Majesty and all his royal predecessors, the Kings of England. 
On the most exact research I do not find a single instance to the con- 
trary. This immemorial nsage, in the opinion of the ablest lawyers, 
gives an absolute right ; and is as little subject to controversy as 
any f;iir and just prerogative of the crown : Other rights and privi- 
leges of the city have been invaded by despotic nionarchs by several 
of the accursed race of the Stuarts, but this is not part of our his- 
tory. It has not even been brought into question till the present 
inauspicious era. I have an entire confidence that a right left unin- 
vaded by every tyrant of the Tarquin race will be sacredly preserved 
under the government of our present sovereign because his Majesty 
is perfectly informed that in consequence of their expulsion his 
family was chosen to protect and defend the rights of a free people 
whom they endeavored to enslave. 

" Important truths my lord were the foundation of the last hum- 
ble address remonstrance and petition to the King respecting our 
brave fellow subjects in America. The greatness as well as good- 
ness of the cause and the horrors of an approaching civil war justi- 
fied our application to the throne. I greatly fear your lordship's 
letter immediately following his Majesty's unfavourable answer to 
the remonstrance will be considered as a' fresh mark of the King's 
anger against our unhappy brethren as well as of his di.spleasure 
against his faithful citizens of his Capital." 

Thus fellow citizens, it is evident by the clearest demonstration 
that our Rights are not to be recovered by humble a,ddresse.s, remon- 
strances and petitions to the throne. Meditate upon the King's late 
answer; reflect upon the immediate outrage on the city of London, 
say does not the one exclude every ray of hope of an equitable 
accommodation by peaceable applications ? Is not the other a les- 
son in ierrorcm to such of our friends in England as may be inclined 
to interceed in favour of America ? But difficulties ever animated 
and invigorated those who had virtue to stand up in defence of 
public rights and success almost ever attended such a conduct. We 
are nov/ to act in defence of all that is held dear and valuable. 
Americans, let us at least approve ourselves worthy of enjoying the 
rights of mankind. 


[From MS. Records in Office of Secret.\ry of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee in Pitt Count} . 

Martinbokough 1" July 1775. 

The Committee of tlie County met according to order a.s before 
mentioned and has entered into the following association: 

We the freeholders and inhabitants of the county of Pitt and 
town of Martin, being deeply affected with the present alarming 
state of this Province and of all America — Do Resolve that we 
will pay all due allegiance to his majesty King George the third 
and endeavor to continue the succession of his crown in the Illus- 
trious house of Hanover as by law established, against the present 
or any future wicked ministry, or arbitrary set of men whatsoever, 
at the same time we are determined to assert our rights as men and 
sensible that by the late acts of Parliiment the most valuable Lib- 
erties and priviledges of America are invaded and endeavor to be 
violated and destroyed and that under God the preservation of them 
Depends on a firm union of the Inhabitants and a sturdy sj^irited 
observation of the Resolutions of the Generel Congress, being shocked 
at the cruel scenes now acting in the Massachusetts Bay and deter- 
mined never to become slaves to anj' power upon earth, we do 
hereby agree and associate under all tyes of Religion, Honour, and 
regard for Posterity that we will adopt and endeavour to execute the 
measures which' the General Congress now sitting at Philadelphia 
conclude on for preserving our constitution and opposing the execu- 
tion of the several arbitrary Illegale acts of the British Parliament 
and that we will readily observe The Directions of our General Com- 
mittee for the purpose aforesaid, the Preservation of Peace and Good 
Order and Security of Individuals and private property. 

(Signed) JOHN SIMPSON, Ch'n. 

Amos Atkinson Bay Brown John Robson 

Robert Grimmer Thos. Wolfenden James Lanier 

Wm. Travis James May, Jun' Jesse Jolly 

Rich^ Rives George Moye James Lockhart 

Dennis Cannon W" Bryan Godfrey 

Simon Pope Benj" May Thomas Goff 

Archibald Adams Will" Robson Robert Salter 

John Evans Arthur Forbes Pat'' Lacev 



Mathias Studivant 
John Williams 
Edmund Williams 
Allen Sugg 
James Gorham 
Joel Sugg 
David Perkins 
Geo. Evans 
John Fry 
' William Graves 
Mathias Moore 


William Osburn 
Jno. Enloe 
Marcus Stokes 
Jno. Fleming 
Sam'l Barrow 
Richard Grice 
Rich"* Moye 
Nathan Godley 
Lazarus Pearce 

Edward Salter 
Thos. Hardee 
James Armstrong 
Henry Jones 
John Hardee, Jun' 
Robert Dixson 
Fred" Gibble 
William Jones 
Thomas Albriton 
John Hardee 
William Whitfield 
Walter Dixson 
Lemuel Cherry 
Henry Williamson ' 
Dempsie Grimes 
Thomas Gualtney 
John Lesslie 
John Smith 
Richard AVilliams 
Abraham Adams 
Joseph Gainer 

John ]\Ioye 
Sol. Shepherd 
James Hancock 
John Cason 
John Moring 
Samuel Warren 
William Granbray 
Peter Rives 
Howell Plodges 
James Brooks 
William Burney 
John Tilghman 
Absalom Rodgers 
Robert Hodges 
Benjamin Blount 
George Moye, J' 
John Moye, J"' 
John Barber 
Henry Ellis 
Jolm Bowers 
Geo. F 

Resolved, that the following Rules may be Observed by this Com- 
mittee, viz: 

Any member having a motion to make to Address the Chairman. 

No member to Interrupt another member when speaking. 

No member to speak more than twice on any one Debate without 

Any member to speak as short and Concize as tlie Nature of the 
Debate will admit. 

That any nine persons of this Committee may sitt & Do Business 
in answer & forwarding Dispatches & twenty one may do any 

That the Chairman may sign the proceedings on Behalf of tlie 

That the Chairman have power to Convean the Committee on 
occasion of any Emergencie. 

That the Chairman call any member to order when out of Rule_ 

In case the Chairman be Absent at any meeting of the Committee, 
the Committee may chuse a president, to Act on his Behalf. 


Resolved, That the following persons be ai)pointed Patrolers to 
Search all suspected places &g and finding anj' Negro Slave or 
Slaves from their Masters Lands without a pass from his j\Iaster 
Mistress or Coroner to take the said Slave or Slaves and give them 
Thirty nine Lashes or Less if they think proper, and if anj^ Negro 
Slave be found with am/ fire arms or ammunition in his or her 
possession that the said Patrolers may seize and take away nay 
such arms and seli them at Public Sale, first being advertised ten 
Days — the money arising from such sales to be paid into the hands 
of the Churchwardens of St Michaels Parish for the use and benefit 
of said Parish. 

Drawn out — Amos Atkinson, Robert Grimes, Richard Rives, 
Simon Pope, James May, .Jun., .Jno. Robisou, Markers Stocks, Robert 
Sanders, Absalom Rogers,' Edm"* Adams, Samuel Warren, -Jonas 
]\Iaj-, to act in Capt. Atkinson's Comp'y. 

Drawn out — Charles Waldrum, William Osbourn,. Godfrey Stan- 
sell, Sion Andrews, John Jolley, John Barnes & Fredrick Bryant, 
John Worsley, Edward Moore, Jas. C. Moore, Henry ]\Ioore, to act 
in Capt Daniels' Company. 

Josiah Knox, David Perkins, W". ( lemmons, Peter Jolley, Abra- 
ham < ongleton, .James Griffin, Aaron Dudley, in Perkins District. 

Joseph Garner, Will" Crawford, James Williams, Seth Lanier, 
W" Lanier, Jun., James Latham, in one Company. 

John Knowis, Jun., Griffin Floyd, Jacob Brown, Josiah Littel 
Jun., Thos. Williams, Jun., & John Dowdy in one Company. 

Matthew Hodgee, Robt. Hodge.s, James Crimean, Jno. Brinkley, 
Charles & .Jno. Whitehead, George Littel, John Smith, Kelley Ca.son, 
Jos. James, James Gorham, in one Company. 

Robert Daniel, Jun., Robert Salter sent John Little, William 
Baldwyn, Edmon Williams, John Flemming, John Cason, William 
Robson, Samuel Barrow, Ilillery Cason, George Pierce, John Hill, 
Israel Harden, Rich'' Grist, Lazarus Peine, John Godley, Benjamin 
Grist, Nathan Godley, John Salter, Jas. Salter, Edward Salter, James 
•Jones, John Watkins, James Armstrong, as far as Chicod. 

William Jones, Rolin Dixson, Jas. Burt, V\'alter Dixson, George 
Flemin, Frederick Gibble, John Simpson, George Albritton, Tlios. 
Albritton, Richard Albritton, Abraham Adams, in one Comp'y. 

John House, Jun., Arch' Adams, Daniel Cherry, Jcseph HarcTee, 
William Barney, Isaac Stocks, Jas. Hencock, Dennis Cannon, Nath' 
Cannon, W. J. Cannon, Wm. Williams, Jas Brooks, in one Comp'y. 


John Enloe, Isaac Hardee, Jun'', Thos. Goff, William Grovy, John 
Lesslie, William Tison, Jonath" Tison, Luke Beats, Geo. Falkner, 
John Fry, George Evans, Thos. Wolfenden^ Arthur Forbes, Richard 
Moye, William Furnay, John Moye Jun', George Moye Sen', Samuel 
Staflbrd, George Blan, Cornelius Tison, in one Company. 

Elias Godley Joel Sugg, Samuel Tress, Edward Sturdevant, Stert 
Dupree, Benja. Dupi'ee, Allen Sugg, George Sugg, Nattf Lanier, Geo. 
Wolfenden, Benjamin May, Richard Williams, Samuel Tison, John 
Joyner, Hy. Williamson, Nath. Moore, Shad'' Eason, Solomon Ward, 
John Williams, Jun' James Lockheart, in one Comj)any. 

Resolved, That John Lesslie, Clerk, furnish each Company of 
Patrolers with a List and a copy of the above Resolve for a Rule of 
their conduct. 

Resolved, That the Captains of the Different Companies call their 
nlen together in Order the}^ should choose their Officers. By request 
of the Chairman. 

Resolved, That the Reverend Mr Blount Preach in the Court 
House of Martinborough on 

Resolved, That the 20"' da}^ of this Instant, be Observed as a Day 
of Publick Fasting and Humiliation agreeable to the appointment 
of the Continental Congress, & that the Reverend JMr Blount By 
Desire of the Chairman to Preach a Sermon at Court house in Mar- 
tinborough Suitable to the Occasion. 

This Cominittee Adjourned until the 29"' of this Instant. 

J0H:N SIMPSON, Chairman. 

[From MS. Eecords in Office of Skceetary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee at Wilmington. 

Monday July S"" 1775. 

At an occasional meeting of the Committee. 

Present: Cornelius Harnett, Chairman; Francis Clayton, Deputy 
Chairman; Arch'd I\Iaclaine, Jno. Rob^on, Jno. Aucrum, Wm. 
Ewins, James Walker, Sam'l Marshall, Tim. Bloodworth. 

Whereas, it was Resolved, at a se.ssion of the Honorable Conti- 
nental Congress, now^ assembled at Pliiladelphia, That Thursday 
the 20"' July next should be held as a day of fasting and prayer. 


It was unanimously agreed to in committee met at Wilmington, 
that the humble observance of that day should be warmly incul- 
cated on every inhabitant of this province and that the following 
resolve of the Honorable Continental Congress should be made 

Ordered, That two hundred copies of the said resolve be printed 
in hand bills and distributed through this Colony. 

On motion, ordered, That the chairman of the Committee write 
to Allen McDonald, of Cumberland County, to know from himself 
respecting the reports that circulate of his having an intention to 
raise Troops to support the arbitrary measures of the ministry 
against the Americans in this colony, and whether he had not made 
an offer of his services to Governor Martin for that purpose. 

Ordered, That the following agreement be put up at the court house : 

Whereas, several members of the Wilmington Committee seem 
to find it inconvenient to give their attendance with that punctuality 
that the present exigence of affairs now demand and as it has been 
the practice of all the Northern Colonies since American politics 
have been drawing towards their present crisis, to re-elect their com- 
mitteemen, for these reasons and that the people may have an 
opportunity of confirming or annulling their former choice, it has 
been unanimously agreed to in committee held this day at Wilming- 
ton to make the al)ove public and request the attendance of all the 
inhabitants qualified to vote for members of the Assembly, to meet 
at the court-house on Thursday next and elect a committee to rep- 
resent said town, as it has been thought tliat the present committee 
is not sufficiently numerous it is recommended to the Electors to 
take the augmentation of the future one into consideration. 

The committee then adjourned till the next occasional meetino- 

[Froh MS. Records i\ Office of Secretary of State.] 

Letter from the Safety Committee at New Bern to the Safety Commit- 
tee at Wilmington. 

New Beex, 3'' -July, 1775. 

AVe send you lierewith inclosed a letter from the Congress to the 
several Committees in this Province which was sent us by M' Caswell 

VOL. X — 5 


and reprinted here also a Proclamation of a Fast intended to be kept 
on the 20* of July List. M'' Caswell desired we should send to the 
following Counties Viz', Carteret Beaufort Pitt Hyde Edgecomb Hal- 
lifax Northampton Bute which Counties we have sent to also to 
Dobbs Johnston Onslow and now to you. We expect I\P Hooper 
has sent the same for you to furnish the southern Counties and that 
jVr Llewes would send the same to Edenton and the adjacent Coun- 
ties. I\P Caswell mentioned to us that he would send by a man who 
was going from Philadelphia to Mecklinburg County the same for 
the Western Counties. If they are not come to hand you will 
endeavor to send Copies to y'' Neighbouring Counties. We hope the 
Fast will be Religiously observed. We have taken the Cannon from 
the Palace which we found sjjiked up and brought them to the Court 
House. Gen' Gage's Letter to Gov'' Martin was known by L. G. Berry 
before the Committee got it. We have therefore ordered it to be 
published as we thought it would open the Eyes of the people. 

We send you enclosed a late acco' of a Battle which happened the 
16'" of June. We are Gentlemen your obed' Serv". 

By order R. COGDELL, Chairman. 

N. B. AVe have joined you in a Letter to if Johnston to Call a 
Convention at Hillsborough as it was proposed. 
A true Copy. Witgraves, Clk. ]S[. Com. 

[B. P, R. O, Am. & W. IND.: No. Carolina. No. 222.] 

Letter from the Earl of Dartmouth to Governor Martin. 

Whitehall July 5"' 1775. 

I shall hope to be able by a Store Ship that will sail for A'irginia 
in a few days to write you fully upon the state of the ' Province 
under your Government and upon the variety of matter contained 
in your late Dispatches N"' 29, 30, 31 & 32. 

In the mean time I take the. chance of a Conveyance to 3'ou by 
the Carolina Packet, to acquaint you, that in consequence of the 
Advices received from all Quarters, that not only the four New 
Eno-land Governments are in Arms, but that almost every other 
Colony has catchcd the ilame, and a spirit of Rebellion lias gone 


forth that menaces the subversion of the Constitution, it is the 
King's firm resolution, that the most vigorous efforts should be 
made, Ijoth by sea and land to reduce his Rebellious Subjects to 
obedience, and the proper Measures are now pursuing not only 
for augmenting the Army under General Gage, but also for making 
such addition to our Naval strength in North America as may 
enable Admiral Graves to make such a Disposition of His Fleet, as 
that besides the Squadron necessary for the New England Station, 
there may be seperate Squadrons at New York, within the Bay of 
Delaware, in Chesapeake Bay, and upon the Coast of Carolina. 

After what has passed there can be no doubt what ought to be 
the plan of operations for the Squadron upon the New England 
Station and I think it necessary to acquaint you, for your own 
Information, that Admiral Graves will be instructed to exert the 
most vigorous efforts for suppressing the Rebellion now openly 
avowed and supported in that Country, and to seize and detain all 
Ships and Vessels belonging to the Inhabitants thereof, such only 
excepted as are the Property of Persons who are Friends of Gov- 
ernment and have shewn an Attachment to the Constitution. 

There is still some room to hope that the Colonies to the South- 
ward may not proceed to the same lengths with those of New Eng- 
land, it is however His Majesty's Intention; that the Commander 
of the se})erate Squadrons I have mentioned should be instructed 
to prevent all Commerce between the Colonies within their respect- 
ive stations, and any other Places than Great Britain Ireland and 
His ^lajesty's Islands in the West Indies, that they should receive 
on Board and give pr(.)tection to any officers of the Crown, who 
may be compelled by the violence of the People, to seek for such 
an Assylum, and to proceed as in the case of a Town in actual 
Rebellion against such of the Seaport Towns being accessible to the 
King's Ships, as shall hereafter offer any violence to the King's 
officers, or in which any Troops shall be raised or Military Works 
erected other than by His Majesty's Authority or any attempt made 
to seize or plunder any public Magazines of Arms or Ammunition. 
With regard to the plan of operations to be adopted by General 
Gage', it must depend upon his own Judgment, and the opinion of 
the able Generals with him, and therefore I have only to add, that 
it is His Majesty's express Command, that you do exert every 
Endeavour, and employ every means in your power to aid and sup- 


port him and Admiral Graves, in all such operations as they may 
think proper to undertake for carrying the King's orders into full 
execution, and restoring the Authority of His Majesty's Government. 

[From MS. Records in Office of Secretary oe State. 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee at Wilmington. 

Wednesday, July 5"', 1775. 

At an occasional meeting of the Committee. 

Present : Cornelius Harnett, Chairman ; Francis Clayton, Deputy 
Chairman; Arch'* Maclaine, James Walker, John Ancrum, Samuel 
Ashe, John Ashe, James Blythe, John Quince, W" Ewins, Tim. 
Bloodworth, W" Purviance, W" Jones, Samuel Swann, Joel Parish, 
An. Ronaldson. 

A letter of the 27th June last, was received from the committee of 
intelligence, in Charlestown, S. C, by Captain Charles Cotesworth 
Pinkney, and read this day, rec[uesting that this committee may 
give proper countenance to Captain Pinkney and such officers as 
accompany him, being sent with an intention to raise men for the 
defence of American Liberty 

Piesolved, therefore, That the Chairman of this Committee be 
impowered to write to the Committees of the several counties and 
towns in this Province, earnestly recommending their aid and assist- 
ance to the officers from South Carolina, in raising such numbers of 
men as may be necessary to complete their levies now raising for 
the common defence and support of the Liberties of America, and 
to express the sense this Committee has of the noble and patriotic 
conduct of our sister Colony in the common cause. 

On motion. Resolved, That the exportation of all kinds of Pro- 
vision to the Island of Nantucket, should be stopped until further 
orders by the Continental Congress, and it is recommended to the 
merchants of this port to observe the same. 

John Thally was sent for and appeared before the committee' 
when he solemnly declared that he had never by any means what- 
soever endeavored to alienate any person or persons from their duty 
in support of the general cause; and desired an advertisement which 
he signed to be put in the Mercury. 

The committee then adjourned till next occasional meeting. 


Thursday, July 6'" 1775. 

At an election for committee men for the town of Wilmington, 
agreeable to a Resolve, of the late committee on Monday the 3"* inst, 
the following persons were duly elected to represent the said town : 

Cornelius Harnett, Francis Clayton, Archibald Maclaine, William 
Hooper, James Walker, John Ancrum, John Quince, John Robeson, 
Wm. Purviance, Wm. Ewins, A. Ronaldson, James Blythe, Peter 
Mallett, William Wilkinson, Adam Boyd, Hy. Toomer, James Tate, 
John DuBois, John Forster, Doc't Jas. Geekie, Frans. Brice, Caleb 
Grainger, William Campbell. 

[B. P. R. O. Am. & W. I.VD.: No. Caeolixa. No. 223] 

Letter from Governor Martin to the Earl of Dartmouth. 

North Carolina, Fort Johnston, July 6"", 1775. 
My Lord, 

I have the honor to inform your Lordship that I received your 
several Dispatches by the Sandwich Packet yesterday, through the 
hands of Captain Tolemache Commander of His Majesty's Ship 
Scorpion, who has touched' here on his way from Charles Town to 
Boston, for the sole purpose of delivering them, and giving me oppor- 
tunity to communicate with General Gage which I have long wished 
for in vain, no mode of communication by sea having been yet 
Established by the Admiral or General, while all intercourse with 
them by land is entirely cut off, by the vigilance of the Committees 
appointed all over the Continent, which no Messenger or letter can 
escape, an omission greatly to be lamented, as it may be attended 
with the worst consequences to His Majesty's Service. A Servant of 
mine whom I had dispatched from hence to the Post Office at Wil- 
mington for my letters three days ago, was stopped by the Commit- 
tee of the little Town of Brunswick who obliged him to swear that 
he had no Letters for me before he was suffered to proceed. I can- 
not adequately express to your Lordship the indignation I felt on 
hearing from Captain Tolemache at the time of his delivering your 
Lordships Dispatches to nie that they had been violated before they 
came to his hands by the Mob at Charles Town, which was certified 
upon the covers by ]\r Roupell the Deputy Post Master Creneral there, 
in these words, " Opened by the Committee of Inspection at Charles 


Town. G. Roupell," wlio writes to me also more particularly of this 
enormity, that is a most astonishing instance of licentiousness which 
I dare say your Lordship will hear of with no less amazement than 
I should have felt, if M' Roupell in whose Custody some private let- 
ters of mine, that I sent lately to him by water to be forwarded, were 
violated by the Committee, had not in his letter relating that xevy 
extraordinary occurrence informed me that he had apprehensions of 
like violence being done to the Public Dispatches which should 
come by the Mail then in expectation, which the event has proved 
was but too well grounded, and which I confess I wonder a man of 
his prudence and integrity did not guard against by opening the 
Mail on Board one of His j\Lijest3''s Ships in the Harbour, as he has 
since resolved to do for the security of the future dispatches of Gov- 

I think it proper, that your Lordship may be able to determine 
whether any of your dispatches to me b}' the Sandwich Packet have 
been suppressed by the violators of them at Charles Town, to inform 
your Lordship that I have received by her jNIail Duplicates of your 
Lordship's seperate Dispatch of the 3'^ of March, and of the two 
Circular and Private Dispatches referring thereto, of the same date, 
together with a duplicate of your Lordship's Dispatch N" 15, origi- ~ 
nal and duplicate of your Lordship's Letter signifying the King's 
pleasure concerning the authority of the Commander in Chief and 
the Major Generals and Brigadier Generals of His INIajesty's Forces 
in America, and three letters from M" Pownall covering Duplicates 
of the Addresses of the two Houses of Parliament to the King, and 
His Majesty's most gracious answer thereto, & printed Copies of 4 
Acts of Parliament, the Proclamation of the States General prohib- 
iting the exportation of military Stores and 20 Printed Copies of 
General Burgoj-ne's Speech. The vast advantages My Lord that I 
apprehend are to be made of the strength which this Province yields 
within itself, for- the support of His Majesty's Government, not only 
here but in the neighbouring Provinces are in my opinion of the 
greatest importance and such as I think I cannot sufficiently recom- 
mend to your Lordship's attention, wherefore and as it is scarcely 
possible to state all the present circumstances of this Country at 
large, in a letter in such manner as to satisfy all inquiries, and to 
obviate all objections, I have engaged M' Alex' Schaw whom I 
have now the honor to introduce to your Lordship to charge himself 
with this Letter, and my Dispatch No. 34. This Gentleman, I can 


assure your Lordship with the utmost confidence, is quahfied by his 
intelhgence, his candour and his accurate observation, during some ■ 
months that he has resided in tliis Colony, to give your Lordship 
every information tliat you can desire relative to its present condi- 
tion and circumstances. 

jNP Schaw My Lord is an officer in the Customs in the Island of 
St. Christoi^hers, from which he has been absent by leave on his 
private concerns here, and was preparing to return to it, when Cap- 
tain Tollemache's arrival presented me with so fair an occasion to 
emploj' him advantageously for His Majesty's Service, that I could 
not resist it, and having verj' readily oljtained M'' Schaw's consent 
to undertake anything wherel^y I should think he could in the least 
advantage His Majesty's Service, and given him my assurance that I 
was persuaded the King and the Lords of the Treasury would 
acquit him of any neglect of his office while he was employed so 
much more importanth' in the cause of Government, nothing 
remained but that I should engage Capt° Tollemache to stay 48 
hours beyond the time he had appointed for his departure for my 
Dispatches and i\r Schaw's necessary preparation, which that officer 
most politely agreed at my request to do, since it would in my opin- 
ion be for the advancement of His Majesty's Service. I beg leave 
therefore My Lord, to refer your Lordship to jNI' Schaw for all infor- 
mation that may be vranted relative to this Colony firmly trusting 
that your Lordship will find him as intelligent and satisfactory in 
all respects as I think him. 

I most humbly pray His Majesty's and your Lordship's forgive- 
ness for observing on the King's Pleasure that the Major Gen- 
erals and Brigadier Generals orders should be supreme in military 
Affairs througliout America (although I shall not fail most dutifully 
to obey it) will bear somewhat hard upon me, who have already 
had the honor to serve His Majesty in the Rank of Lieutenant Colo- 
nel, am now actually honored with the highest station in this Prov- 
ince, and the King's immediate Representative, and am able by my 
own influence, and weight in the country to collect within it a power 
that I may presume to say no other officer can, and with which I 
will engage to maintain His Majesty's Government here in all 
events, besides doing much more extensive service, if I am properly 
supported, and I most humbly submit my case to my Royal j\L^ster's 
most gracious consideration, with the most perfect resignation to 
His Majesty's Justice. I have the honor to be 



[From MS. Records in Office of Secretary of .State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee at Wilmington. 

Friday .July T"' 1775. 

At an occasional meeting of the Committee. 

Present : Cornelius Harnett, Francis Clayton, Archibald Maclaine, 
James Walker, Jno. Ancrum, .Jno. Quince, Jno. Robeson, Wm. 
Ewins, A. Ronaldson, Peter Malette, Wm. Wilkinson, Adam Boyd, 
Hy. Toomer, James Tate, Jno. Dubois, Jno. Foster, Jas. Geekie, 
Francis Price, Caleb Grainger, Wm. Campbell, Wm. Miller. 

The new committee having met agreeable to a summons, pro- 
ceeded to choose a Chairman and Deputy Chairman: Accordingly 
Cornelius Harnett Esquire was unanimousl_y chosen Chairman and 
Mr Francis Clayton, Dej^uty Chairman. 

On motion Resolved unanimously as the ojjinion of this Com- 
mittee that the immediate call of a Provincial Convention is a 
measure absolutelj^ necessary and that the Chairman do recommend 
the same to Samuel Johnston Esq. 

On motion Resolved unanimously that every T\'hite man capable 
of bearing arms, resident in Wilmington shall on or before Monday 
the 10* instant, enroll himself in one of the two companies there 
and that every man of the above description, who has not signed 
the Association, apply to the subscriber, in whose possession for that 
purpose it is, and subscribe the same. A neglect of the above will 
be considered by the Committee as a declaration of intentions 
inimical to the common cause of America; and the Committee 
further direct, that no master shall prevent his apprentices or 
servants from complying with the Resolution — to be signed by the 

On motion, Ordered, that Cornelius Harnett, Arch'd Maclaine, 
Fr's Clayton, Adam Boyd, and John Ancrum, be a committee of 
Correspondence till the next monthly meeting of the Committee 
for the Town and County. 

On motion. Ordered, that the Committee of Intelligence dravr up 
a Resolution to hold James Hepburn up to the public, as inimical 
to the liberties of his country and the common cause of America, 
which is as follows: 


Whereas, this committee hath received information from uudoubted 
authority, that James Hepburn of Cumberland county, attorney at 
law, did lately apply to the committee of that county, for orders to 
raise a Company "under the Militia law, to preserve the Independence 
of the subjects, and the dignity oj the Government," and afterwards 
declared that, had the application met with success, the Company 
was intended to act against the American cause. And, whereas, 
Oath has this day been made by .James Clardy, of Bladen county, 
that the said James Hepburn, in conversation with the said Clardy, 
after inc[uiring what officers had been chosen for the county of 
Bladen, and asking if tlie said Clardy was not a committee-man, 
said, in derision, that these were fine times when the country was to 
be governed by Committees; and, in order to intimidate the said 
James Clardy, and other the good people of this Province, falsely 
and maliciously asserted that there were 50,000 Russians in his 
Majesty's pay, and that they had embarked, or were to embark 
immediately, in order to subdue the Americans: and, whereas, it is 
notorious that the said James Hepburn, hath very lately been with 
Governor ]\fartin at Fort Johnston, in company with some gentle- 
men lately settled in this Province, as it is said, and universally 
believed,' to offer their services to the said Governor, and to obtain 
his orders for raising mercenaries to suppress the noblest struggles 
of insulted liberty. It is, therefore, 

Resolved, unanimouslj^. That the said James Plepburn, is a false 
scandalous, and seditious incendiary, who, destitute of property and 
influence, as he is of principle, basely and traitorously endeavors to 
make himself conspicuous in favor of tyranny and oppression, in 
hopes, by violating the primary and fundamental laws of nature 
and the British Constitution, to raise a fortune to his fomily upon 
the subversion of Liberty, and the destruction of his country. 

Ordered, that this Resolve, and this Preamble upon which it is 
founded, be published ; in order that the Friends to American Lib- 
erty may avoid all dealings and intercourse with such a wicked 
and detestable character. 

The committee then adjourne.;! till the next occasional meeting. 

WiLMiXGTOX, 7"" July, 1775. 

We could have wished you had sent us a few more copies of the 
printed letter sent by our delegates to the several committees in this 


province, as we have been obliged to make several MS. copies for the 
sake of dispatch. 

The resolve for appointing, a fast we had printed and distributed 
last week, even to some of the western counties. 

We should have imagined that M" Berry would rather have con- 
cealed than published Gen' Gage's letter but as it was known, we 
must approve of your publication. 

AVould to God the accounts you sent us of the battle raay be true. 
It furnishes a new reason for holding a Convention, and we earn- 
estly entreat you to push that matter, that the province may imme- 
diately be put in a state of defence. We are with respect Gentlemen 
your obedient servants, A. MACLAINE 

Committee of Intelligence. 
To the Committee at New Bern. 

[Reprinted Fitoji American Aechives. Vol. 2, Page 1G09.] ■ 

In Provincial Congress. New York. 
July 8'^ 1775. 

CTOvernor Martin's intercepted letter to Henry White of Ne^v York. 

New York Congress to Charles Thomson, 


The Congress received yours of July V^, enclosing Governor Mar- 
tin's letter to Mr Henry White, dated June 13* [see page 16 ante. — \ 
Editor], and immediately appointed a Committee to confer v\-ith 
him on the subject. From the answers he gave to the Committee) 
and a letter received from him (a copy of which is enclosed), the 
Congress are fully satisfied that Mv White's conduct in this matter 
has lieen unexceptionable, and such as becomes the character of a 
good citizen. . I am. Sir, &c., 

By Order P. ^^ B. LIVINGSTON, 


To Charles Thomson, Esquire. 


Saturday, July 8•^ 1775. 

Thi-ee gentlemen of the Provincial Congress called upon me with 
an intercepted letter from Governor Martin of North Carolina dated 
the IS"" June, to send him a royal standard from hence. They 
desired to know if I had complied with his request, and whether I 
could inform them respecting the measures he was now pursuing; 
in answer to which I have to observe, that he some time ago wrote 
to me to send him such a standard, which I declined to do, lest it 
might be disagreeable to the people of this place, and wrote him to 
that purpose ; which letter I apprehend miscarried, or he must have 
received it before the thirteenth of last month. With regard to the 
steps he has now taken in his Government, I am utterly unac- 
quainted with; he has not communicated to me any particulars. 
Governor ^Martin is a gentleman I am intimately acquainted with, 
and have transacted business for him ever since he has been at North 
Carolina; which accounts for his applying to me for the above 

I imagine it vrill be believed I did not solicit the commission. 

■I am, Sir, &c, 


To Peter X. B. Livingston, Esquire. 

[B. P. R. O. A;.i. & W. L\D.: Vol. 22i.] 

The Twelve United Colonies by their Delegates in Congress to the 
Inhabitants of Great Britain. 

Friexds, Couxteymex axd Bketheex, 

By these and every other appelation that may designate the ties 
which bind us to each other, we entreat your serious attention to 
this, our second attempt, to prevent their dissolution. Remembrance 
of former friendships, pride in the glorious achievements of our 
coumion Ancestors, and affection for the heirs of their virtues hath 
hitherto preserved our mutual connection, but when that friendship 
is violated Ijy the grossest injuries, when the pride of Ance.stry 
becomes our reproach and we are no otherwise allied than as tyrants 
and slaves, when reduced to the melancholy alternative of renounc- 


ing your favour or our freedom cau we hesitate about the ch.oice? 
Let the spirit of Britons determine. 

In a former address we asserted our riglits, and stated thejnjuries 
we had then received. We hoped that the mention of our wrongs 
would have roused that honest indignation which has slept too long 
for your honor, or the welfare of the Empire. But we have been 
permitted to entertain this pleasing expectation ; every day brought 
an accumulation of injuries,- and invention of the Ministry has 
been constantly exercised in adding to the calamities of our Ameri- 
can brethren. 

After the most valuable right of legislation was infringed, when 
the poAvers assumed by your parliament, in which we are not repre- 
sented, and from our local and other circumstances, cannot properly 
be represented, rendered our property precarious; after being denied 
that mode of trial to which we have long been indebted for the 
safety of our persons, and the preservation of our liberties; after 
being in many instances divested of those Laws which were trans- 
mitted to Us by our common Ancestors, and subjected to an arbi- 
trary code, compled under the auspices of Roman tyrants; after 
annulling those Charters, which encouraged our predecessors to 
brave death, and danger in ever^^ shape on unknown seas, in deserts 
unexplored, amidst barbarous and inhospitable nations! when, with- 
out the form of trial, v.'ithout a public accusation whole Colonies 
were condemned! their Trade destroyed, their Inhabitants impov- 
erished; when soldiers were encouraged to imbrue their hands in the 
blood of Americans by offers of impunity; when new modes of 
trial were instituted for the ruin of the accused, where the charge 
carried with it the horrors of conviction; when a despotic Govern- 
ment was established in a neighbouring Province, and its limits 
extended to every of»our frontiers ; we little imagined that anything 
could be added to this black catalogue of unprovoked injuries; but 
we have unhappily been deceived, and the late measures of the 
British ministry fully convince us that their object is the reduction 
of these colonies to slavery and ruin. 

To confirm this assertion let us recall our attention to the affairs 
of America, since our last Address, — let us combat the calumnies 
of our enemies ; and let us warn you of the dangers that threaten 
you in our destruction. Many of your fellow subjects, whose situa- 
tion, deprived them of other support, drew their maintenance from 
the sea; but the deprivation of our liberty being insufficient to 


satisfy the resentment of our enemies, the horrors of famine were 
superadded and a British parliament, who, in better times, were 
the protectors of innocence, and patrons of humanity, have witli- 
out distinction of any age or sex, robbed thousands of food, which 
they were accustomed to draw from that inexhaustible source placed 
in their neighbourhood ])y the benevolent Creator. 

Another act of your legislature shuts our ports and prohibits our 
trade with any but those States, from whom the great law of self 
preservation renders it absolutely necessary we should at present, 
withhold our commerce. But this act (whatever may have been its 
design) we consider rather as injurious to your opulence than to 
our interest. All our commerce terminates with you: and the 
vrealth we procure from other nations is soon exchanged for your 
superfluities. Our remittances must then cease with our Trade 
and' our refinements with our affluence. We trust however that 
laws which deprive us of every blessing but a soil which teems 
with the necessaries of life and that liberty which renders the 
enjoyment of them secure will not relax our vigour in their defence. 

We might here observe on the cruelty and inconsistencj' of those 
who while they publickly brand us with reproacliful and unworthy 
epithets endeavour to deprive us of the means of defence by their 
interposition with foreign powers and to deliver us to the lawless 
ravages of a merciless soldiery. But happily we are not without 
resources and though the timid and humiliating applications of a 
British Ministrj- should prevail with foreign nations j'et industry 
prompted by necessity will not leave us without the necessary 

We could wish to go no farther and not to wound the ear of 
humanity leave untold those rigorous acts of oppression which are 
daily exercised in the Town of Boston did we not hope that by 
disclaiming their deeds and punishing the perpetrators j^ou would 
shortly vindicate the honour of Ihe British name and re-establish 
the violated laws of justice. 

That once populous flourishing and commercial Town is now 
garrisoned by an army sent not to protect but enslave its inhabi- 
tants. The civil government is overturned and a militarj- despotism 
erected upon its ruin.s. Without law, without right, powers are 
assumed unknown to the constitution. Private propertj^ is unjustly 
invaded. The Inhabitants daily subjected to the licentiousness of 
the soldiery are forbid to remove in defiance of their natural rights 


in violation of the most solemn compacts. Or if after a long and 
wearisome solicitation a pass is procured their effects are detained 
and even those who are favoured have no alternative but jjoverty 
or slavery. The distress of many thousand people wantonly deprived 
of the necessaries of life is a sul)ject on which we would not wish 
to enlarge. 

Yet we cannot Ijut observe that a British Fleet (unjustified even 
by acts of your legislature) are daily employed in ruining our com- 
merce, seizing our ships and depriving whole communities of their 
daily bread. Nor will a regard for your honor permit us to be silent 
while British troops sully your Glory by actions which the most 
inveterate enmity will not palliate among civilized nations, the 
wanton and unnecessary destruction of Charlestown, a large, ancient 
and once populous Town, just before deserted by its Inhabitants who 
had fled to avoid the fury of your soldiery. 

If you still retain those sentiments of compassion by which 
Britons have ever been distinguished — If the humanity which tem- 
pered the valour of our common ancestors has not degenerated into 
cruelty, you will lament the miseries of their descendants. 

To what are w"e to attribute this Treatment? If to any secret 
principle of the constitution let it be mentioned ; let us learn that 
the government we have long revered is not without its defects and 
that while it gives freedom to a part it necessarily enslaves the 
remainder of the empire. If such a principle exists, why for ages 
has it ceased to operate? Why at this time is it called into action? 
Can no reason be assigned for this conduct? Or must it be resolved 
into the wanton exercise of arbitrary power? And shall the descend- 
ants of Britons daily submit to this? No, Sir! We never will while 
we revere the memory of our gallant and virtuous ancestors, we 
never can surrender those glorious privileges for which they fought, 
bled and conquered. Admit that your fleets could destroy our 
Towns and ravage our sea coasts, these are inconsiderable objects, 
things of no moment to men wliose bosoms glow with the ardor of 
liberty. We can retire beyond the reach of your navy and without 
any sensible diminution of the necessaries of life enjoy luxury which 
from that period you will want, the Luxury of being Free. 

AV^e know the force of your arms, and was it called forth in the 
cause of justice and your country we might di-ead the exertion, but 
will Britons fight under the banners of tyranny? Will they coun- 
teract tlie labours and disgrace the victories of their ancestors? 


Will they forge chains for their posterity? If they descend to this 
unworthy task will their swords retain their edge, their arms their 
accustomed vigour? Britons can never become the instruments of 
oppression till they lose the spirit of freedom by which alone they 
are invincible. 

Our enemies charge us with sedition, in what does it consist? in 
our refusal to submit to unwarrantable acts of injustice and cruelty? 
If so shew us a period in your history in which you have not been 
equally seditious. 

We are accused of aiming at independence, but how is this accu- 
sation supported? By the allegations of your j\Iinisters, not by our 
actions. Abu-sed, insulted and contemned, what steps have we pur- 
sued to obtain redress? AYe have carried our dutiful petitions to 
the throne — we have applied to your justice for relief, we have 
retrenched our luxur}' and withheld our trade. 

The advantages of our commerce were designed as a compensa- 
tion for your protection; when you ceased to protect for what were 
we to compensate? 

What has been the success of our endeavours? The clemency of 
our sovereign is unhappily diverted, our petitions are treated with 
indignity, our prayers answered by insults. Our application to you 
remains unnoticed and leaves us the melancholy apprehension of 
your wanting either tlie will or the [)Ower to assist us. 

Even under these circumstances, what measures have we taken 
that betray a desire of independence? Have vre called in the aid 
of those foreign powers who are the' rivals of your grandeur? When 
your Troops were few and defenceless did we take advantage of their 
distress and dispel them our Towns? Or have we permitted them 
to fortify to receive new aid and to acquire additional strength ? 

Let not your enemies and ours persuade you that in this we were 
influenced by fear or any other unworthy motive. The lives of 
Britons are still dear to us. They are the children of our parents; 
an uninterrupted course of mutual benefits had knit the bonds of 
friendship. When hostilities were commenced, when on a late occa- 
sion we were wantonly attacked by your troops though we repelled 
their assaults and returned their blows yet we lamented the wounds 
they obliged us to give nor have we yet learned to rejoice at a vic- 
tory over Englishmen. 

As we wish not to colour our actions or disguise our thoughts, we 
shall in the simple language of truth avow the measures we have 


pursued the motives upon which we have acted and our future 

When our late petition to the throne produced no other effect than 
fresh injuries and votes of your legislature calculated to justify every 
severity, when your fleets and your armies were prepared to wrest us 
from our properties to rob us of our liberties or our lives, when the 
hostile attempts of General Gage evinced his designs we levied 
armies for our security and defence, when the powers vested in the 
Governor of Canada gave us reason to apprehend danger from that 
quarter and we had frequent intimations that a cruel and savage, 
enemy was to be let loose upon the defenceless inhabitants of our 
frontiers we took such measures as prudence dictated, as necessity 
will justify. We possessed ourselves of Crown Point and Ticon- 
deroga. Yet give us leave most solemnly to assure you that we 
have not yet lost sight of the object we have ever had in view, a 
reconciliation with you on constitutional principles, and a restoi'a- 
tion of that friendly intercourse which to the advantage of both we 
till lately maintained. 

The Inhabitants of this Country apply themselves chiefly to agri- 
culture and commerce. As their fashions and manners are similar 
to yours, your markets must afford them the conveniences and lux- 
uries for which they exchange the produce of their labours. The 
wealth of this extended Continent centres with you and our Trade 
is so regulated as to be subservient onlj^ to your Interest. You are 
too reasonable to expect that by taxes (in addition to this) we should 
contribute to your expence to believe after diverting the fountain 
that the streams can flow with unal:)ated force. 

It has been said that we refuse to submit to the restrictions on our 
commerce. From whence is this inference drawn? Not from our 
words, we having repeatedly declared the contrary, and we again 
profess our submission to the several acts of trade and navigation 
passed before the year 1763, trusting nevertheless jn the equity and 
justice of Pai'liament that such of them as upon cool and impartial 
consideration shall appear to have imposed unnecessary or grievous 
restrictions will at some happier period be repealed or altered. And 
we chearfully consent to the operation of such acts of the British 
Parliament as shall be restrained to the regulation of our external 
commerce for the purpose of securing the commei'cial advantages of 
the whole empire to the mother country and the commercial benefits 
of its respected Members, excluding every idea of taxation internal 


or external for raising a revenue on the subjects in America without 
their consent. 

It is alleged that we contribute nothing to the common defence. 
To this we answer that the advantages which Great Britain receives 
from the monopol}" of our trade far exceeds our proportion of the 
expence necessarj' for that purjiose. But should these advantages 
be made inadequate thereto let the restrictions on our trade be 
removed and we will cheerfully contribute such proportion when 
constitutionally rec^uired. 

It is a fundamental principle of the British Constitution that every 
man should have at least a representative share in the formation of 
those laws by which he is bound. Were it otherwise the regulation 
of our internal policy by a British Parliament who are and ever will 
be unacquainted with our local circumstances must be always incon- 
venient and frequently opp)re.ssive working our wrong v\'ithout yield- 
ing any possible advantage to you. 

A plan of accommodation (as it has been aljsurdly called) has been 
proposed by your Ministers to our respective assemblies. Were this 
proposal free from every other objection but that which arises from the 
time of the offer it would not be unexceptionable. Can Men delib- 
erate with the bayonet at their breast ? Can they treat with freedom 
while their Towns are sacketl, when daily instances of injustice and 
oppression disturb the flower [free] operations of reason. 

If this proposal is really such as you should offer and we accept 
why was it delayed till the nation was put to useless expence and we 
were reduced to our present melanchol\- situation ? If it holds forth 
nothing why was it proposed ? Unless indeed to deceive you into a 
belief that we were unwilling to listen to any terms of accomn:oda- 
tion. But what is submitted to our consideration? We contend for 
the disposal of our property. We are told that our demand is unrea- 
sonable; that our assemblies may indeed collect our money but that 
they must at the same time offer not what your exigencies or ours 
may recjuire but so much as shall be deemed sufficient to satisfy the 
desires of a Minister and enable him to jirovide for favorites and 
dependants. (A recurrence to your own treasury will convince you 
how little of the money already extorted from us has been applied 
to the relief of your burthens). To suppose that we would thus 
grasp the shadow and give up the substance is adding insult to 

VOL. X — G 


We have nevertheless again presented an humble and dutiful 
petition to our sovereign and to remove every imputation of obsti- 
nacy have requested his majesty to direct some mode by which the 
united applications of his faithful colonists may be improved into a 
happy and permanent reconciliation. We are willing to treat on 
such terms as can alone render an accommodation lasting, and we 
flatter ourselves that our pacific endeavours will be attended with a 
removal of tlie troops, a repeal of those laws of the operation of which 
we complain on the one part and a dissolution of our army and com- 
mercial associates on the other. 

Yet conclude not from this that we propose to surrender our prop- 
erty into the hands of your rainistrj^ or vest your parliament with a 
power which may terminate in our destruction. The great bulwarks 
of our constitution we have desired to maintain by every temper- 
ate, by every peaceable means, but your ministers (equal foes to 
British and American freedom) have added to their former oppres- 
sions an attemjjt to reduce us l)y the sword to a and abject sub- 
mission. On the sword therefore we are compelled to rely for pro- 
tection Should victory declare in your favor, yet men trained to 
arms from their infancy and animated by the love of liberty will 
aiford neither a cheap nor easy conquest, of this at least we are 
assured that our struggle will be glorious our success certain since 
even in death we shall find that freedom whicli in life you forbid 
us to enjoy. 

Let us now ask what advantages are to attend our reduction? 
The trade of a ruined and desolate country is always inconsideral^le, 
its revenue trifling, the expence of subjecting and retaining it in 
subjection certain and inevitable. What then remains but the grati- 
fications of an ill judged pride or the hope of rendering us subserv- 
ient to designs on your liberty. 

Soldiers who have sheathed their swords in the bowels of their 
American brethren will not draw them with more reluctance against 
you. When too late you may repent the loss of that freedom which 
we exhort you while still in your power to preserve. 

On the other hand should you prove unsuccessful, should that 
connection which we most ardently wish to maintain 1)6 dissolved, 
should your Ministers exhaust your treasures, waste the blood of 
your countrymen in vain attempts on our liberty, do they not deliver 
you weak and defenceless to your natural enemies? 


Since then j-our liberty must be the price of your victories, your 
ruin of your defeat, what blind fatality can urge you to a pursuit 
destructive of all that Britons hold dear ? 

If you have no regard to the connection that has for ages subsisted 
between us, if you have forgot the wounds we received in fighting 
by your side for the extension of the empire, if our commerce is an 
object below your consideration, if justice and humanity have lost 
their influence on your hearts, still motives are not wanting to excite 
your indignation at the measures now pursued. Your wealth, your 
honour, j'our liberty are at stake. 

Notwithstanding the distress to which we are reduced we sometimes 
forget our own afflictions to anticipate and sympathize in yours. 
We grieve that rash and inconsiderate councils should precipitate 
the destruction of an empire whicli has been the envy and admira- 
tion of ages and call God to witness that we would part with our 
property, endanger our lives and sacrifice everything but liberty to 
redeem you from ruin. 

A cloud hangs over your heads and ours. Ere this reaches you 
it may probably have burst upon us. Let us then before the remem- 
In-ance of former kindness is obliterated once more repeat those 
appellations which are ever grateful in our ears. Let us entreat 
Heaven to avert our ruin and the destruction which threatens our 
friends, brethren and countrymen on the other side the Atlantic. 

By order of the Congress. JOHN HANCOCK, President. 

Attested by Charles Tpiomson, Secretary. 

Philadelphia, July S•^ 1775. 

[From MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee of Rcwan Countv . 

July 8'" 1775. 
At a Meeting of County Committee on the S'" Day of July 1775 
Will. Kennon Esq"' Chair" 
Adlai Osborne E.sq"^ Clk. 
Resolved, That it be recommended to the Inhabitants of Rowan 
County that the several Militia Companies meet together, and each 
choose a Committee Man, whicli Committee so chosen shall meet at 


Salisbuiy the first of March next, and then have power to elect 
Deputies who are to meet at New Berne or elsewliere, and vote for 
Delegates for the General Congress to meet at Phikidelphia the 10"" 
of May next ; and that it be recommended to the Inhabitants of 
Rowan to impower their Committee at their first Meeting to Resolve 
what Number of said Committee may proceed upon Business, and 
particularly that the said Committee make such Resolves or adopt 
. such Measures as may enforce the observation of the Resolves of 
the General Congress and most effectually secure to America her 
natural and political privileges. 


[Reprinted from the American Archives. Vol. 2. Page IGOP.] 

North Carolina Delegates to New York Congress. 

Philadelphia, .July 8"' 1775. 

The Committee of this City a few days ago, transmitted to you 
an original letter from Governor Martin to Henry White, Esquire, 
from the contents of which it is very obvious that Governor Martin 
has formed designs very inimical to the friends of America. From 
authentick information we learn, that he is to receive a supply of 
gun powder from General Gage via New York, and that he has sent 
from North Carolina a cutter armed to receive it. She is a small 
boat, rigged like a schooner, mounts a few swivels, and is commanded 

by a Mr , the Lieutenant of the Fanwns Man-of-War; the 

vessel was formerly purchased in New York Ijy Captain Collet. We 
in particular desire, in case she should arrive in j^our port, to know 
what steps you may think prudent to secure her and her Cargo. 
She is probably to receive the gunpowder from the Asia, or the other 
men-of-war lying in your harbor. 

We are Sir, W|ith great respect, 

Your most obedient servants, 



[From MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Letter from Mr Hewes to Samuel Johnston Esq. 

Philadelphia 8" July 1775. 
Deak Sir, 

Since my last b}- M' Underbill I am favoured with yours of 
the 11"" of June, tbe death of our old friend Col" Harvey has given 
me real uneasiness, be will be much missed, I wish to God he could 

have been spared and that the G r and Judge H d had been 

called in his stead. 

I wrote a long letter to R Smith on the 20"" of June and for- 
warded it by a Vessel to Currituck, tbe injunctions of Secrecy being 
then in part taken off I gave him some account of our proceedings 
in Congress, we have agreed to emit paper Bills of Credit to tbe 
amount of two Millions of Dollars, for the redemption of which 
every Colony is bound Jointly & severally, the Quota of each Prov- 
ince to be settled in proportion to the number of souls it contains, 
and to be sunk in .seven years in the manner most agreeal^le to 
their respective assemblies or Conventions, to raise an Army of 
Fifteen thousand men (those already raised in tbe Eastern Colonies 
to make part of it) Ten thousand to be employed near Boston, & 
five thousand in New York, on Hudson River, the Lakes &c, so 
stood the first Resolution, we have since resolved to employ an 
additional number so that I expect the whole will exceed Twenty 
thousand men, we have appointed as you will see by the News- 
papers a General & Commander in Chief a immber of Majors 
General & Brigadiers General, All the other officers are to be 
appointed by the Provincial Conventions, we have Resolved to 
petition the King, to address the People of England, also the peo- 
ple of Ireland, to write a Letter to the City of London, and to the 
Inliabitants of Jamaica, we have published a manifesto or declara- 
tion of War. Caswell set off about ten days ago to meet the 
Assembly which you say is expected on the 1 2"" of this month, he 
carried most of the Resolves with him and will give you a par- 
ticular account of our proceedings, before he left us we wrote a 
Circular Letter to the Committees of our Province, since his depart- 
ure the Congress received a Copy of a Letter from General Gage to 
Governor INIartin forwarded by tbe Provincial Convention of New 
York, also a Copy of Governor Martin's Letter to LTenry White Esq' 
of New York delivered to us by the Committee of this City, these 


Letters have alarmed Hooper & my self, we have sent Copies of 
them to the Committees of Edenton & Wilmington, we have pre- 
vailed on the Presbyterian Ministers here to write to the Ministers 
and congregations of their Sect in North Carolina,* and have also 
made api:)lication to the Dutch Lutherans & Calvinists to do the 
same, these people are all staunch in our cause and have promised 
to set their Brethren in North Carolina right, if the Governor 
attempts to do anything he ought to be seized, and sent out of the 
Colony so should the Judge, the powers of Government must soon 
be superseded and taken into the hands of the People, administra- 
tion has even tried to let loose the Indians on our Frontiers, to 
raise the Negroes against us, and to destroy our Trade, Block up our 
Harbours, made mean concessions to all the European Powers to 
prevail with them not to furnish us with Arms and Ammunition, 
and have sent a formidable armj' to cut our throats, and then abuse 
us with the names of Rebels & Cowards. 

I have sent R Smith a few Copies of a Sermon preached by 
Smith the Provost of the College, it is much liked here. I have 
also sent him several Magazines, newspapers and our declaration of 
War, and Rules & articles of War &c, &c, to these I must refer you 
for news & amusement. Hooper thinks Congress will break up the 
latter end of next week. I think otherwise, perhaps not before the 
last of August, but this is only guess work. I hope by your influence 
and example you will drive ever}' principle of Toryism out of all 
parts of your province. I consider myself now over head & ears 
in what the ministry call Rebellion, I feel no compunction for the 
part I have taken nor for the number of our Enemies lately slain 
in the Battle at Bunkers Hill, I wish to be in the Camp before Bos- 
ton tho' fear I shall not be able to get there 'till next Campaign. 
General Howe says the Americans fought more like Devils than 
Men, he never knew nor heard of such a Carnage in so short a time, 
he confesses that if their reinforcements had come up fifteen min- 
utes sooner the British Troops would have been all cut off. It is 
reported liere that Genei'al Burgoyne is among the Dead, but we 
have no certainty of it. 

I hope your family & Connections are all well, my best Compli- 
ments to them. Hooper Joyns in this with 

Dear Sir, Your most obed hum scr 


* See post page 2S3.— Editor. 


[From MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee in Pitt County. 

Maktixeoeough, Saturday, .July S"' 1775. 

Tlie Committee of tliis County meat this Day and lias resolved as 
under mentioned Viz: 

Resolved, that the Patrolers [have power to] shoot one or any 
number of Negroes who are armed and doth not willingly surrender 
their arms, and that they have Discretionary Power, to shoot any 
Number of Negroes above four, who are off their IMasters Planta- 
tions, and will not submitt. And the Damage that Owners of any 
Negro who shall be killed or Disabled in consequence of this Resolve 
to be paid by Poll Tax on all the Taxable Negroes in the County. 

The Committee is adjourned till Monday week, .July the 17"' 1775. 

.JOHN SIMPSON, Chairman. 

[B. p. R. O. Am. & W. IXD. Vol, 232.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee at Wilmington. 

In Committee, July 10"' 1775. 

Whereas, from undoubted intelligence it is manifest that Governor 
Martin hath used his utmost endeavours to erect the King's standard 
in this Province, and to procure experienced Officers to lead the dis- 
affected persons therein, against the friends of American Liberty; 
in consequence of whicli, the Committee of Craven County have 
forbid all persons whatsoever from communicating personally, or 
bj' letter with the said Governor. 

Resolved therefore, that no person or persons shall, on any pre- 
tence whatsoever, either personally or by letter or message, hold any 
correspondence or communication with Governor Martin without 
first applying to this or some other Committee and having a sanc- 
tion for so doing. THOMAS CRAIK, Sec: 


[From MS. Records ix Office op Secretary of State.] 

Form of notice for calling the Hillsborough Convention. 


Li pursuance of the Trust which devolves on me by the much 
lamented death of our late v/orthy Moderator, I am to recjuest the 

favour of you to Summon the Freeholders of the County of 

to meet at such convenient time & place as you may appoint to choose 
and elect proper persons to serve as Delegates in a provincial Con- 
vention to be held at Hillsborough on the twentieth day of August 
next; and as affairs of the last importance to this province Avill be 
submitted to their Deliberation, I would recommend that the num- 
ber of Delegates for each County should not be less than five. 

I am with great respect, S. .J. 

[10'^ July] Edenton, 1775. 

Sheriff^ of 

[From MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of Committee of Safety in Tryon County. 

Edenton, 10"' .July, 1775. 
To the Committee of Tryon County, 

Gentlemen : 

Li pursuance of the trust which devolves on me by the much 
lamented death of our Late worthy Moderator, I am to request the 
favour of you to Summon the Freeholders of the County of Tryon to 
meet at such Convenient time and ]3lace as you may api^oint, to 
choose and Elect proper persons to -serve as Delegates in a provincial 
Convention to be held at Hillsborough on the Twentieth Day of 
August next; and as affairs of the last Important to this province 
will be submitted to their deliberation I would Recommend that the 
Number of Delegates for Each County should not be less than five. 
I am with Great respect Gentlemen your most Obd't Servant, 


Pursuant to the aforesaid Letter, 

At an Election for Delegates to attend at a provincial Convention 
to be held at Hillsljorough on tlie Twentieth Day of August next; 


It appears by the Polls that John Walker, Joseph Harden, and Will- 
iam Graham, Robert Alexander and Frederick Hambriglit, Esquires, 
were the Candidates that had the greatest number of votes. A Gen- 
eral voice for William Kennan Esquire. 
Committee adjourned till August 14"", 1775. 

[From MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee at Wilmington. 

Wednesday, July 12*, 1775. 

At an occasional meeting of the Committee. 

Present: Francis Clayton, Deputy Chairman; Arch"* Maclaine, 
James Walker, Caleb Grainger, Wm. Campbell, Wm. Ewins, Adam 
Boyd, Dr. Geekie, J. Ancrum, Peter' Malett, Andrew Ronaldson,Wm. 
Purviance, Henry Toomer, .James Blythe, Timothy Bio dworth, Jno. 
DuBois, John Robeson. 

On motion. Ordered that it is the opinion of the Committee a list 
of all the white male inhabitants of this town from 16 to 60 years 
of age should be taken and tliat John DuBois, James Blythe, Henry 
Toomer and Andrew Ronaldson take such a list and make return to 
this Committee or to the Secretary as soon as possible. Also a list 
of all the free mulattoes and negroes in the said town. 

The Committee then adjourned till the next meeting. 

fB. P. R. a Am. & W. IXD. No. 322.] 

Letter from the Earl of Dartmouth to Governor Martin. 

Whitehall, 12'" July, 1775. 

This dispatch which encloses a triplicate of my letter of the S"" 
in.stant will be transmitted to you by Lord Dunmore under whose 
care it is sent by a Store Ship having on Board 3000 stand of Arms 
with Ammunition and other ]\Iilitary Stores, a part of which arms 
His Lordship is instructed to deliver to your order from a hope on 
one hand that Lieutenant Colonel Macleane will be able with your 
assistance to raise a Battalion from amongst the Highlanders in 


North Carolina, and an apprehension on the other hand that Gen- 
eral Gage may not be able to supply all the Arms that may be 
necessary on such an occasion. 

The King received in the most gracious manner your offer of 
raising a Battalion of Highlanders under your own Command as a 
further Evidence of your Zeal and Attachment, but as the Rules 
which His Majesty has adopted in respect to His Arm}^ will not 
admit of your being restored to the Rank you held when you relin- 
quished that Line of Service in 1769, the Command of which Corps 
must of necessity be given to Lieutenant Colonel Macleane in conse- 
quence of the Plan His Majesty lias already approved, in the Execu- 
tion of which His ]\Lajesty has the fullest confidence that you will 
give Lieutenant Colonel Macleane every assistance and. supj:iort in 
your power. 

It is with great Satisfaction, I see by your last Letters that the 
Western Counties have given further assurances of their Loyalty 
and Attachment to Government. 

This favourable disposition cannot be too much encouraged, and 
as you will receive herewith a Power, under the Great Seal, to 
pardon all those who were concerned in the Rebellious Insurrections 
in 1770, Herman Husbands only excepted, I trust it Avill liave a 
very good Effect, and that I shall hear by your next Letters that 
they have entered into that Association, which was recommended 
in my Dispatch to you of the 3'^ of May. 

Should that measure have taken Effect and should Lieutenant 
Colonel Macleane have been able with your assistance to have formed 
a Battalion from amongst the Highlanders, I hope His Majesty's 
Government in North Carolina may be preserved, and His Governor 
and other officers not reduced to the disgraceful necessity of seeking 
protection on Board the King's Ships. 

With regard to the Public Transactions in the Colony as stated 
in your Letters N"' 29, 30, 31 and 32, 1 can only say that His Majesty 
entirely approves the whole of your conduct. After such extraordi- 
nary and unwarrantable Proceedings of the Assembly, their Disso- 
lution was the only step by which the Dignity of Government could 
be vindicated, and there seems to he no other or better mode of pro- 
viding for the Administration of Justice both Civil and Criminal 
than that which you have suggested, and which having tlie Prece- 
dent of New York to supi)ort it, will I trust be submitted to, if not 
from a spirit of obedience at least from consideration of the total 


Anarchy and confusion that must arise from the want of sucli 
Institution. And it is with real satisfaction I observe that the mem- 
bers of tlie Council geem at lengtli to be awakened to a just sense 
of their Duty, and have given you the support which you had so 
great a Right to expect from them. 

I have the satisfaction to acquaint you that the King approves 
what 3'ou propose respecting those Persons who deriving their 
Titles to Lands from Grants of the Governor of No. Carolina are 
now become Inhabitants of So. Carolina by the removing- of the 
Boundary Line. His Majesty is sensible of the Injustice of com- 
pelling them to take out fresh Grants from that Government, and I 
will not fail to give Instructions to the Governor of So. Carolina 
upon this point by the first favouraljle opportunity that offers. 

I am &c., 

[Froji MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Letter from Safety Committee in Wilmington to Samuel Johnston Esq. 

"WiLMixGTOx, -July 13''', 1775. 

We have wrote by this conveyance, to the committee of the town 
of Xewbern, Inclosing copys of sundry papers, among others a letter 
from Lord Dartmoutli to Governor jNIartin; theyl no doubt forward 
duplicates to Edenton, from them youl learn how good a friend he 
is to the libertys of this province. 

Our situation here is truly alarming, the Governor collecting men, 
provisions, warlike stores of every kind, spiriting up the back coun- 
ties, and perhaps the Slaves, finally strengthening the fort with new 
works, in such a manner as may make the Capture of it extremely 
difficult. In this Situation Sir, our people are Continually clamour- 
ing for a provincial Convention. They hope every thing from its 
Immediate Session, fear every tiling from its delay. We have a 
number of Enterprising young fellows that would attempt to take 
the fort, but are much afraid of having their Conduct disavowed by 
the Conventieu. 

We a Committee appointed for the purpose of Intelligence in this 
town, join our wishes to those of the people, and adjure you by your 
love of your Country to call a provincial Convention at an early day; 


so shall the minds of the people be calmed and proper measures 
(tho late) be taken to apply remedys to all our political Inconven- 
iences. We have seen your Extracts from the li^tters of our delegates, 
Mess" Hooper & Hewes, & think they by no means intend to put off 
the meeting of the Convention until their return, altho they suppose 
one to be then ilecessary. 

When you have any thing to Communicate to this part of the 
province, youl please address the Subscribers, who are your most 
obedient servants, FRANCIS CLAYTON 

Committee of Intelligenca 

We think it necessary to apprize you that the general opinion of 
this part of the country is, that a number of men should be raised 
and kept in pay for the defence of the country. This can only be 
done by a convention, & that convention alone can fall upon a 
proper mode of paying them. We therefore mention it as a reason 
why the convention should be summoned, to consider of that, as well 
as other matters. ■ " A. MACLAINE 


[From MS. Records ix Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee in Rowan Count3^ 

At a meeting of the Committee Juh^ 15"' 1775. 

A Proclamation being read from his Excellency Josiah Martin 
dated June IG"' 1775, The Committee judging it entirely false in 
its Tenor and in its Nature of mischievous Consequence, A cor- 
rujat gloss upon the diabolical Measures of a debauched Ministry, 
tending to seduce the Minds of the populace and bring them off 
from their true Interest in opposing the cruel Measures of an unjust 

Resolved, Therefore unanimously tliat an advertisement be made 
setting forth the dangerous tendency of said proclamation, and that 
a copy of the same be transmitted to the several Militia Captains of 
this County. 


Information beino- made to the Committee tliere was a strong 
suspicion Benjamin Booth Boote had received letters from his Excel- 
lency of same Tenor with said Proclamation, 

Resolved therefore, unanimously, that Benjamin B. Boote be sum- 
moned before the Committee, and demanded to produce said letters. 

Resolved, That if he refuses to produce said letters, or denies the 
receiving them force shall be used, and diligent search made in 
order to procure them. 

Ben. B. Boote being first invited and afterwards summoned to 
appear before the Committee and continuing obstinate declaring 
his Resolution neither to appear or deliver up the letters. 

Resolved, in consequence whereof that W" Temple Coles be Cap- 
tain of the Youth in Salisbury to guard the House of Ben. B. 
Boote and that they prevent the conveyance of all sustenance to 
him until he deliver up the aforesaid letters — be it remembered he 
acknowledged the Receipt of letters from ye Governor — and that 
they search all other places suspected to conceal said letters, and 
that the letters, if received be given into the hands of Adlai Osborne 
Esc|'' or John Louis Beard until the next setting of the Committee. 

[Feoh MS. Kecords in Office of Secretaky of State.] 

Proceedings of tlie Safety Committee at "Wilmington. 

Saturday .July l.j"" 1775. 

At an occasional meeting of the Committee, 

Present: Cornelius Harnett, Chairman ; John Robeson, W"" Wil- 
kinson, John Foster, W" Campbell, Arch'^ Maclaine, W" Purviance, 
AV"" Ewins, Timothy Bloodworth, .James Blythe, Peter INIallett, 
Henry Toomer, .James Geekie. 

Resolved unanimously That a reinforcement of as many men as 
will voluntarily turn out, be immediately dispatched to join Colonel 
Howe who is now on his waj' to Fort Johnston and that it be recom- 
mended to the Captains of the Independent and Artillery Com- 
panies in Wilmington and the officers of the several companies in 
this county to muster their men and immediately equip those who 
are willing to go on that service. 

The committee then .adjourned to the next meeting. 


[From MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Letter from Colonel John Simpson, Chairman of Safety Committee 

in Pitt County, to Colonel Richard Cogdell, Chairman of Safety 

Committee in Craven County, Reporting an Intended Negro 


Chatham, -July 1.5"" 1775. 


Having leisure I sit down to inform you of the occurrences since 

my last. Our committee met the Inst, when the Express 

arrived from M' Edward Salter giving us account of a discovery 
that was made in Beaufort County by one of M' Bayner and one of 
Capt. Respess negro men unto Capt. Thomas Respess of an intended 
insurrection of the negroes against the whole people which was to 
be put into execution that night. We immediately sent off an 
Express to Tarborough to alarm the inhabitants there. We then 
proceeded to business and appointed upwards of one hundred men 
as patrolers and passed a resolve that any negroes that .should be 
destroyed by them or any person in company with them in appre- 
hending should be paid for by a tax on the negroes in this county. 
We then separated to sound the alarm thro' this c- unty and to 
apprehend the suspected heads. By night we had in custody and 
the gaol near forty under proper guard. Sunday the Committee sett 
and proceeded to examine into the affair and find it a deep laid Hor- 
rid Tragick Plan laid for destroying the inhabitants of this province 
without respect of persons, age or sex. By negro evidence it appears 

that Cap' Johnson of White Haven, who hath just Loaded his 

Brigg witli Navall Stores for that port, in consort with Merrick, a 
negro man slave wlio formerly Belonged to Major Clark a Pilot at 
Okacock but now to Cap' Nath Blinn of Bath Town propagated the 
contagion, * * The contagion has spread beyond the waters 
There are five negroes * , * * were whipt this day by order. 

Monday. — The Committee sat. Ordered several to be severely 
whipt and sentenced several to receive SO lashes each to have both 
Ears crap"" which was executed in presence of the Committee and a 
great number of spectators. In the afternoon we rcc'' by express from 
Coll. Blount * * Qf * =!: negroes being in arms on the line of 
Craven and Pitt and prayed assistance of men and ammunition 
which we readily granted. We posted guards upon the roads for 


several miles that night. .Just as I got home came one of M' Nel- 
son's sons from Pometo (near M' Harlan's mill) and informed me 
of 250 negroes that liad been pursued for several days but none 
taken nor seen tho' they were several times fired at. Had he been 
at Martinborough he would have received pay for his negroes. On 
Tuesday we sent off two companies of Light Horse, one to Lower 
and one to Upper Swift Creek Bridge in order to find from whence 
tlie report arose and found the author to be a negro wench of Will- 
iam Taylor's on Clayroot, with design to kill her master and mistress 
and Lay it upon those negroes. She has received severe correction. 
Since that we have remained as quiet as we could expect from the 
nature of things. We keep taking up, examining and scourging 
more or less every day ; from whichever part of the County tliey 
come they all confess nearl}^ the same thing, viz' that they were one 
and all on the night of the S"" inst to fall on and destroy tlie family 
where they lived, then to proceed from House to House (Burning 
as they went) until they arrived in the Back Country where they 
were to be received with open arms by a number of Persons there 
appointed and armed by Government for their Protection, and as a 
further reward they were to l:)e settled in a free government of their 

Cap' .Johnson its said was heard to say that he'd return in the 
fall and take choice of the Plantations ujwn this River. But as it 
hath pleased God to discover the plot. It is of the Lord's mercies 
that we are not consumed; Let us therefore Beseech Him to con- 
tinue our very present help in every time of need. I promi&'pd 
myself the pleasure of seeing some of my friends in Newberh this 
week notwithstanding the Prorogation, but cannot get my family so 
composed as I could wish, to leave them. 

This week I expect will compleat our private musters for making 
choice of their Caj^tains, &c. On Monday next our Committee meets 
to proceed on real Business. 

We must find out some plan to circumvent the operation of the 
aforementioned accursed plan or we shall become an easy prey. My 
compliments to Coll. Caswell and all enquiring friends. 

I am with great regard. 

Your Hum.. Serv., 


P. S. In disarming the negroes we found considerable ammunition. 


[B. p. E. O. Am. & W. ISD.: No. Carolina. No. 223.] 

Letter from Governor Martin to the Earl of Dartmouth. 

Cruizer Sloop of War ix Cape Fear River, 

N" Carolina, July 1G'^ 1775. 
My Lord, 

Since the departure of M' Schaw who way charged with my Dis- 
patches to your Lordship N° 34 and 35, Duplicates of which are here- 
with enclosed, I have the honor and satisfaction to acquaint your 
Lordship, that by the j\Iaster of a "N^essel arrived immediately from 
Boston, I have learnt that Major General Howe, at the head of three 
Thousand of His Majesty's Troops, attacked, forced and defeated a 
Bodj' of Fifteen Thousand of the Rebels, intrenched upon the heights 
near that Town, on Saturday the ■17'''' day of last month, and that 
this Detachment of the Royal Army, having killed, wounded and 
taken Prisoners near 3000 of the enemy, with the loss of near 500 of 
its own numbers, had taken up their ground, and was encamped 
upon the Field of Battle. This Account my Lord is no other than 
the relation of the Master of the Ship, who unfurtunatelj^ for the 
cause of Government here, brings no more authentick report of this 
important event than his own Story, which from the appearent 
honesty of the man, and the probability of his narrative, I am will- 
ing to believe. I cannot help lamenting however My Lord, that we 
h^ve not received by that or some other Channel a certain and full 
account of this interesting Affair, which your Lordship will perceive 
b}' the enclosed printed Paper, that is circulated about this Country 
from South Carolina with the utmost diligence, is travested, discol- 
oured and disg^iised, by all the Arts of disengenuity and misrepre- 
sentation to inflame the minds of the People here, and to promote 
the black and -horrid purposes of that unprincipled and unnatural 
Rebellion, which, by the cherishing aid and clamours of the Dema- 
gogues in Britain, as much, or more than by those of New England, 
it at last worked up to declare itself by ojien & daring hostilities. 
These encouraging false reports My Lord, operate most fatally upon the 
people here, and if means are not employed to make them acfjuainted 
with the truth of such occurrences more expeditiously than has been 
done heretofore, thej' will be gained over universally by falseliood, 
to the congenial Standard of Rebellion. 


I am still waiting My Lord v.'ith eager expectation of those Sup- 
plies from General Gage which are indispensible to my availing 
myself for His Majesty's Service, of the strength this Country now 
affords, that is daily and hourly falling off, consuming and moulder- 
ing away before the Industry, and address of the Leaders of Sedition 
here, who have cut off in great measure my intercourse with the 
People of the interior Country, upon vrhom I depend, and who are 
still nevertheless able and willing to open their way to me, whenever 
I can assure them of the necessary means to make them respectable, 
of which they are now totally destitute. It is rumoured that a letter 
from General Gage to me is intercepted, and in the liands of a Com- 
mittee at Wilmington, wherein the General in Answer to my requi- 
sition of Arms and Ammunition says, that he cannot furnish rac 
with the former, but vv'ill endeavour to send me a supjjly of the latter, 
which if true is most discouraging intelligence indeed. 

Since my former Letters to your Lordship the continual reports 
of the People designing to make themselves Masters of Fort John- 
ston, & Captain Collet's just and well grounded Representations that 
he would not pretend to hold the place, with only three or four men 
that he could depend upon, against a multitude said to be collecting 
to attack it, determined me to dismount the Artillery that is consid- 
erable in value, and to lay it under cover of the Gniizer's Guns. I 
have also my Lord withdraAvn the little remainder of the Garrison, 
with the shot, and movable Stores, and shipped them on Board the 
vessel lately arrived from Boston, to take a lading of Naval Stores 
here, pursuant to a charter party, but the person to whom she is 
addressed having refused to load her, because she had been emjaloj'ed 
as a Transport in the King's Service to carry artillery to Boston, the 
Master as a matter of favour to me, has received the remnant of the 
Garrison of Fort Johnston, and some of its Stores on Board, while 
he laj's here to accomplish the Days of his Charter Party engage- 
ment, after which if no change of circumstances happens in the 
mean time, I shall think it necessary to engage the Vessel in the 
King's Service, for the purpose above mentioned, in which I hope 
j'our Lordship will hold me justified. 

Fort Johnston My Lord, is a most contemptible thing, fit neither 
for a place of Arms, or an Asylum for the friends of Government, 
on account of the weakness and smallness of it, so that the keeping 
of it is of little consequence, and the King's Ai'tillery which is all 
that is good aljout it, will be as well secured under cover of the 

VOL. X- 


Craizer's Guns, at less charge, as upon the Walls of that little 
wretched place; if I could furnish it with a sufficient Garrison, 
which I could now only collect out of the Highlanders upon whom, 
bj' drawing forth a number of them for such a service, I should 
immediately turn the resentment of the whole Country, before they 
ar3 provided with the means of defence, and by that step perhaps 
frustrate my best and fairest expectations, formed upon the strength 
and good dispositions of that people in this Colon3^ A further cogent 
reason v;ith me for disarming Fort Johnston was, that its Artillery 
which is heavy might in the hands of the Mob, be turned against 
the King's Sliip, and so annoy her as to oblige her to quit her 
jireyent station which is most convenient in all respects. 

Having an opportunity of writing safely by a passenger in a 
Merchant's Ship, I could not let it escape me without giving your 
Lord.ship the Accounts contained in this letter rel tive to the opera 
tions of the Array at Boston, which I hope are better confirmed to 
your Lordship by this time, and that they will be soon succeeded, 
according to my belief and persuasion, by certain assurances of His 
Majesty, of the entire and complete redaction of New England, and 
the utter extinction of Rebellion in America which the power of 
Britain now vigorously excited, cannot fail soon and fully to effect. 

Hearing of a Proclamation of the King, proscribing John Han- 
cock and Sam' Adams of the Massachusetts Bay, and seeing clearly 
that further proscriptions will be necessary before Government can 
be settled again upon sure Foundations in America, I hold it my 
indispensable duty to mention to your Lordship, Cornelius Harnett, 
John Ashe, Robert Howes and Abner Nasli, as persons who have 
marlvcd themselves out as proper objects for such distinction in this 
Colony by their unremitted labours to promote sedition and rebel- 
lion here from the beginning of the discontents in America, to this 
time, that they stand foremost among the patrons of revolt and 
anarchy. Robert Howes is commonly called Howe, he having 
impudently assumed that name for some j^ears past in affectation of 
the noble family that bears it, whose least eminent virtues liave been 
ever far beyond his imitation. 

I have long impatiently expected with the poor [people (who feel 
themselves sorely oppressed by it) the Royal disallowance of tlie 
present wretched system of Courts here, which I hope will be accom- 
panied witli the King's Disallowance of the Slieritis Law also. 

I have the honor to be etc., 



[From MS. Records in Office op Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee in Pitt County. 

Maetinborougii 17"" July 1775. 

The Committee met according to Adjournment being the 17"' of 
this Instant. 

Present: Amos Atkinson, Thos. Hardee, Sr., Sam'l Cherry, Matthias 
Moore, Thos. Gualtney, Benj. Brown, .Jno. Fleming, Markus Stocks, 
Robt Salter, .Jno. Barber, W" Osburn, Jesse Jolley, Benj. May, Par- 
ker Sasser, Jno. llardee, Jr., Jno. Evans, Peter Rives, Sim" Pope, 
Robt Grimes, Jno. Tulman, W" Robeson, God'y Stancell, Robert 
Hodges, Benj. Blount, Geo, Falkner, Richard Rives, Tim" Brooks, 
W" Bryant, Howell Hodges, AVilliam Granbray, Edward Salter, 
James Armstrong. 

Capt. Amos Atkinson appeared in this Committee and Regularly 
Cleared himself of the Accusations Lodged against him on the 
Tenth of March 1775. 

Also Mr Solomon Shepard was Acquitted at the same time of 
aforesaid Allegations 

According to a Resolve made on tlie first Day of this Instant, On 
account of the Different Com, anies Belonging to the same, For 
Chusing of Captains and olher Officers, which Officers are chosen 
as under n.ientioned by their Companies &c. and approved of by 
the Committee. 


Capt. Amos Atkinson. George Porter, Capt. 

Robert Grimes, Lieutenant. Jesse Jolley, Lieutenant. 

Simon Pope, Ensign. Edward Moore, Ensign. 

Robt, Daniel, Jr., Capt. Benj. May, Capt 

W" Robson, Lieutenant. Sam'l Tra^s, Lieutenant. 

John Cason, Ensign. Thos. Wallace, Ensign. 

Henry Ell s, Capt. .James Armst ong, Capt. 

Arthur Forbes, Lieutenant. Samuel .Jones, Li.utenant. 

Sam'l Stafford, Ensign. Rolin Dixon, Ensign. 


Capt. Jno. Hardees Comp'y meat & Choose the Different ofacers 
as undermentioned in Too Companies. 
W" Burney, Capt. W" Tillghman Capt. 

Isaac Hardee, Lieutenant. Sam'l Cherry, Lieutenant. 

Isaac Hardee, Ensign. Natli'l Cannon, Ensign. 

July 21=' 1775. 
The Committee adjourned until the 29* 1775 of this Instant. 

JOHN SIMPSON, Chairman. 

[B. P. R. O. Am. & W. IND.: No. Carolina. No. 333.] 

Letter from Governor Martin to the Earl of Dartmouth. 

Cbuizer Sloop of War in Cape Fear River, 
No. Carolina, July 17*, 1775. 
My Lord, 

I have the honor to acquaint your Lordship, that seeing disorder 
gaining ground here veiy fast, and that it will be absolutely neces- 
sar}^ for the support of His Majesty's Government, to put the friends 
of it in this Colony in motion, as soon as I am provided with those 
means that are necessary to employ their strength with efi'ect, and 
finding my self under the necessity, pursuant to His Majesty's Royal 
Instructions, of advising with the Council almost in every case that 
can occur, whereby my best concerted mc asures for the King's Ser- 
vice may be betrayed and defeated, by the indiscretion or treachery 
of any Member of that Body, I have thought it indispensibly my 
Duty, under these critical circumstances, to suspend M' Dry Collector 
of the Customs at Fort Brunswick in this Province from his Seat in 
the Council. The motives My Lord which have influenced me to 
take this step, are M'' Dry's extreme weakness and indiscretion, which 
render him altogether unfit for, and unworthy of any particii^ation 
in the Councils and Administrations of Government at all times, as 
I have before had the honor to represent to your Lordship but I 
have other more peculiar reasons for suspending him, now that I 
shall be obliged to entrust the most confidential and secret, as well 
as most momentous affairs of Government with the Council, founded 
on his notorious unreserved and frequent avowals of his inclinations 


and favour to the present unprincipled revolt in America, by which 
imprudence and extravagence, so inconsistent with his interest as 
well as his duty, I am sure he has astonished even the foremost 
Leaders of sedition. His alisurd conversations and declarations 
being of late repeatedly reported to me, I have been induced by my 
respect and regard for his family connections, and by feelings of 
tenderness that his good nature and unbounded hospitality have 
excited in me, to admonish him twice very recently of the impru- 
dence and baseness of such a conduct, and of the inevitable conse- 
c^uences of his persisting in it. 

Yet My Lord in sjjite of these friendly warnings I have credible 
information that j\r Dry who denied to me every charge I brought 
against him (though I confess not vv'ith that hardness which candor 
and truth inspire) has since given greater proofs of his indispo- 
sition to the cause of Government, and I have evidence of his folly 
transporting him so far as to toast success to the Arms of America 
at his own house where he had shamelessly invited some People 
from South Carolina, knowing them to be sent hither in the char- 
acter of recruiting officers to raise men to act against His Majesty's 
Government, which last unpardonable and traitorous display of 
his mind, at once finally determined me to suspend him from the 
Council, and if your Lordship had not given me reason in the case 
of ^P ]Malcom to sujipose that my powers from His Majesty do not 
extend to the suspension of officers of the Customs, I should have 
thought it no less fit and projier to susj^end M" Dry from his office 
of Collector. 

My reasons My Lord for doing this Act of myself and without 
the participation of the Council according to the Rules presci'ibed 
by His Majesty's Royal Instructions, were that in the present cir- 
cumstances of things, from the remoteness of their residence, the 
difficulty of communication on account of the vigilant impertinence 
of Committees, the obnoxiousness of the Chief Justice to the j\Iob, 
and the infirmity of M' Cornell who lives also as far off, I am not 
able to draw together more than four or five Members, who although 
convinced of M' Dry's general disqualifications, and his present par- 
ticular misbehaviour, would find themselves embarrassed to decide 
unfavourably upon him, upon the principle of his espousing Amer- 
ican licentiousness, lest it should expose them to its abuse and fury, 
of which there is but too probable danger, in which case I should 
think mj-self still obliged to do of myself what I have now done to 


save them from the difficulty and hazard, that might attend their 
concurrence in my resolution. 

I have only to add My Lord, that I hope the measure I have 
taken with M' Dry will meet with the King's approbation as well as 
that of your Lordship in assurance that it is the pure result of my 
sense of duty to my Royal Master, and the Welfare and Dignity of 
His Government, and the truest devotion and attachment to His 
Majesty's Service. I have the honor &c 


[B. P. R. O. Am. & W. Ind.: No. Carolina. No. 222.] 

Letter from "The People" to Governor Martin. 

BnuxswicK, .Julv 16"' i 775. 

As the Establishment of Fort Johnston was intended to protect 
the Inhabitants of Cape Fear River from all invasions of a foreign 
Enemy in times of War, and during tl)e Peace has been supported 
at a very great expence to this Province, and not only to prevent 
contagious and infectious disorders, but to aid and support the 
Trade and Navigation thereof, and where as by the conduct of the 
Captain of the said Fort most of these salutary ends have been 
entirely defeated, and added to this as by incontestible proof, we 
can make appear that not only the private property of individuals 
has been cruelly and illegally invaded and detained by the most 
atrocious injuries, were by the said Captain intended and in some 
degree carried into execution contrary to every princi[)le of justice 
and humanity, and dangerous to the lives and property of the 
Inhabitants of this Province, we herewith beg leave to lay before 
your Excellency a state of some of those facts which have come to 
our knowledge, Viz his wanton detention of Vessels applying for 
Bills of health, his threats of vengeance against Magistrates whose 
opinion in the execution of their office he happened to disapprove, 
his sitting at defiance the High Sheriff of the County in the execution 
of his office, and treating the King's Writs served on him for just 
debts (which both as a Subject and a Soldier it was his duty to obey) 
with the shamefull contempt of wiping his backside with them, 
His unparalleled Injustice in detaining and Embezzleing a large 


quantity of goods which liaving been unfortunately wrecked near 
the Fort, had from every principle of humanity the highest claims 
to his attention and care for the benefit of the unhappy sufferers, 
who legally demanded and frequently solicited in their behalf, his 
base encouragement of Slaves eloped from their Masters, feeding 
and employing them, and his atrocious and horrid declaration that 
he would excite them to an Insurrection. 

These circumstances Sir, and many others too tedious to enumer- 
ate, could not but excite the indignation and resentment of the 
publick, but grievous as they were we would for a time still have 
submitted to them in firm reliance, that the first meeting of an 
Assembly w'ould have relieved us, but upon being informed of 
Captain Collet's intention of dismantleing the Fort, erected and 
supported at the real expence of this Colony for its Protection and 
Defence, we collected ourselves together in order to prevent it, but 
finding upon enquiry that he had already dismantled it nothing- 
more is left us than to recover the Cannon thrown over the walls 
and left in a situation which must entirely ruin them, to a place 
where attention and care shall preserve them for His Majesty when 
His service shall require them, because with that M'e conceive the 
safety of this Province is intimately connected, with this intention 
we shall proceed to Fort Johnston and that our conduct may not 
be misunderstood by your Excellency we have thought proper to 
give you this information and persuade ourselves we shall not meet 
obstruction from any person or per.sons whatsoever in the execution 
of a design so essential to His Majesty's Service and the Publick 

N. B. A Fresh instance of his violence in Captain Collet has now 
come to our knowledge, a glaring invasion of private property in 
unwarrantably seizing a Quantity of Corn, the more inexcusable as 
provisions have never been withheld from him whenever he would 
pay for them, which provisions so seized we beg your Excellency 
would order him to restore to the proper owner, as also any Slave or 
Slaves the property of other persons which he now harliours and 
detains. We are your Excellency's 

Most obedient Humble Servants, 



[B. P. R. O. AM. & W. Lnd.: No. Carolina. No. 222.] 

To the People who send a letter to Governor Martin bearing date the 
10"" instant by Nathan Adams, a Pilot. 

Ckuizer Sloop of Wae, 
9 o'clock at night, July IS*, 1775. 

I have received this minute a Letter signed "The People," repre- 
senting many unwarrantable proceedings of Cap' Collet, which it 
would have been always my Duty to enquire into, and to prevent as 
far as lay in my power, if I had been made acquainted with them 
timely. In all cases where his indiscretions have come to my knowl- 
edge, I have interposed my advice and authority, and I j^ersuade 
myself not without effect, as well appears by his delivering up the 
"Wines he has detained in his possession. There are other allegations 
against him in the letter I have received of most heinous nature of 
which I never heard one word before, of his unjustifiable seizure of 
the Corn, I have been informed and highly disapproved, and remon- 
strated it, and shall use my utmost authority to make him 
restore it. 

The charge of encouraging Negroes to Elope from their Masters, 
and of exciting them to insurrection. Captain Collet most solemnly 
and absolutel}' denies, and I should hope it is founded on report and 
not in fact. 

The dismounting of the King's Artillery, in Fort Johnston, has 
been done by my Authority and by Virtue of the Powers vested in 
me by His Majesty, from conviction that it was expedient for the 
King's Service, and it will be my Duty as you may be assured it will 
be my care to prevent any injury happening to them where they are 
laid for the present. I must therefore hope and desire that j'ou will 
not under the mistaken belief of Captain Collet having dismounted 
the Cannon in Fort Johnston of himself proceed in your present 
design of removing them, as you will thereby do violence against 
LawfuU Authority which it will be inconsistent with my Duty to 
permit, and which cannot fail to draw upon you Plis Majesty's high- 
est displeasure. For these reasons I do most earnestly advise, exhort 
and intreat you to desist from your purpose. As 

Your sincere friend and well wisher. 


[B. P. R. O. Am. & W. IND. Vol. 222.] 

Proceeclino-s of the Safety Committee at New Bern. 


Committee Chamber Newbern 

.July 17"" 1775. 
The following letter from General Gage to his Excellency Gov- 
ernor ^lartin Avas intercepted and has fallen into the hands of the 
committee of this Town and County of Craven. It appears to have 
been written in answer to a letter wrote by the Governor to General 
Gage of the 16* of March last in solicitation of arms and ammu- 
nition to be sent him to this Town. The profound silence and 
C[uietness in which this province was then in could give little occa- 
sion for the introduction of arms and ammunition among us and 
as his Excellency seems to have early concerted schemes hostile to 
the liberties of the people of this Province the Committee think it 
expedient to publish a matter so very alarming and whereby the 
lives perhaps as well as liberties of this people would have been 
in the greatest danger had the Governor's plan of operations 



Boston April 12"' 1775. 

Your letter of the IG"' March I have had the pleasure to receive 
and am glad to hear many of the people in your province are 
beginning to find they are misled and that they seem inclined to 
disengage themselves from the arbitrary power of the Continental 
Congress and of their Committees. I wish I could say as much of 
the people of this Province who are more cool than they were, but 
their leaders by their arts and artifices still keep up that seditious 
and licentious spirit that has led them on all occasions to oppose 
Government and even to acts of rebellion. The late accounts from 
England have embarrassed their Counsels much. They have applied 
to the New England governments and doubtless will to those of 
the Southward to assist them, but I hope the madness of the latter is 
wearing off and that they will get no encouragement from thence. 
This Province has some time been and now is in the new fangled 


legislature termed a Provincial Congress who seeni to have taken 
the Government into their hands. What they intend to do I can- 
not pretend to say but they are certainly much puzzled how to act. 
Fear in some and want of inclination in others will be a great bar 
to their coming to extremities though their leaders use every meas- 
ure to bring them into the field. 

I am sorrj' it is not in my power to supply you with the number 
of arms you request. I have them not to spare in the present con- 
juncture of the service here. I may assist you with some powder 
but can get no safe oj^portunity from this to send it to you. I shall 
order you a supply b}' way of New York, and whatsoever may be 
in my power to assist you to keep up the present good disposition of 
the loyal pai't of your Province I shall be happy to do and am 
sorry I cannot at present do more. 

I have the honor to be &c 


[C. p. R. O. Am, & W. IXD. : No. Carolina. No. 2i2 ] 


At a meeting of the Council on board His Majesty's Sloop Criiizcr 
in Cape Fear River on Tuesday thel^"' July 1775. 


His Excellency tlie Governor. 

qi- ^ TT,,, 1,1, f James Hasell and 1 -r. 

the Hon""- t • r> i-> <. tic ,■ Esnun'es. 

[ Lewis DeKosset John Sampson J '■ 

The Governor having informed the Board that he had received 
advices that the People of the County of Bladen were persuing the 
Example of the People of IMecklenburg whose treasonable proceed- 
ings he had communicated to the Council at the last meeting, desired 
the advice of Council on the measures expedient to be taken to 
counteract such unwarrantable and dangerous extravagencies, and 
to check and prevent the growth of that spirit of disorder which at 
this time unhappily prevails in great part of the Province and 
especially in the County of Mecklenbui'g and the Counties on the 
Sea Coasts particularly evinced by tlie meetings wliich have been 
held, among the People for the choice of Military Officers by which 
they have usur}ied the undoubted Prerogative of the Crown, and 


the frequent Assemblings of the People in Arms by the invitation 
of officers so illegally constituted. 

To which the Council replied that it is their opinion that the 
deluded Peojile of this Province (who have followed the Example 
of the ueighljouring Colonies) will see their error and return to their 
allegiance, whereas every violent measure mu3t increase tlie disturb- 
ances and be attended with the most fatal consequences. 

•James Hasell is of opinion that His Excellency should take every 
lawfull measure in his power to suppress the unnatural Rebellion 
now fomenting in Mecklenburg and other parts of the Province in 
order to overturn the Constitution and His just prerogative. 

The Governor informed the Board that in consequence of the just 
Representations of Captain Collet Governor of Fort .Johnsto.i, that 
the Garrison of that place was reduced to no more than three or 
four men that he could deisend upon, and that he had received 
advice of a considerable bod\' of the People of the County being 
collecting in order to attack the place, he had thought it advisable 
for the preservation of His Maje.sty's Artillery to dismount the Guns 
in the Fort and to lay them under the protection of the Guns of 
His Majesty's Ship of War and to withdraw the little remnant of 
the Garrison the shot and small Stores and to place them in security 
on board a Vessel lying under the protection of the King's Ship. 

The Council approved of the steps His Excellency had taken for 
the preservation of His Majesty's Artillery. 

Francis Parry E.sq" Commander of His Majesty's Sloopi Cnuzcr 
representing to the Governor in Council that seamen were contin- 
ually offering to enter on board the King's Ship under his Com- 
mand, whom he could not take as he had his complem' of Men, and 
who v.'ould enlist under the Standard of Rebellion for the sake of 
the bounty money given, and ir.ight and probably would be 
employed against the King's Ship if as was reported, the People 
meditated an Attack upon her. 

The Governor and Council taking into consideration the repre- 
sentation of Captain Parry were unanimously of opinion that if he 
found it consistant with His Majesty's Service it would be advisable 
to retain the men who offered themselves on Board His Majesty's 
Ship under his Command until they could be otherwise provided 


[B. P. R. O. Am. & W. IND.: No. Carolina. No. 233.] 

Letter from C^overnor Martin to the Earl of Dartmouth. 

Cruizer Sloop of War in Cape Fear River, 
No. Carolina, July 20^ 1775. 
My Lord, 

I 'have embrassed the moment only that the immediate departure 
of a Vessel afi'ords me to acquaint your Lordship that I received 
about 9 o'clock at night on the IS"" inst. a letter signed " The Peo- 
ple," by the hands of a Pilot who confessed he received it from M' 
John Ashe, a copy of which letter and of my answer thereto I have 
the honor herewith to lay before your Lordship. At between 2 and 
3 o'clock the next morning an officer of the Cruizer came down to the 
Cabin where I was to inform Captain Parry that Captain Collet's 
house in Fort Johnston was on fire. The necessary preparations 
were immediately made for the Security of His Majesty's Ship and 
covering the Artillery on shore in case the People should attempt to 
possess themselves of it, during which no creature was to be seen, 
and all the buildings in the Fort, which being of wood burnt like 
tinders, were entirely consumed. Early in the morning of yesterday 
a body of Men with three stands of colours was seen in motion on a 
point of land aljout 2 miles above the Ship, which soon afterwards 
entered the Woods and disappeared, until between 7 and 8 o'clock 
when we discovered a large part}' at some distance, and some lesser 
parties about the Fort which a few of the People soon afterwards 
entered and with a degree of wanton malice not to be described set 
fire to everything that had escaped the flames the preceding night, 
which indeed was nothing but a Centiy Box, and some of the Para- 
pets of wood work that Captain Collet had newly raised ujjou the 
defences of the place. These proceedings however to the last degree 
violent, extravagant and provoking, I did not think My Lord of con- 
sequence sufficient to justif}' me in commencing hostilities against 
the People so long as they forebore to touch the Jving's Artillery, as 
I had no men to land I could do it with so little elfect, and as all the 
material damage that the Fort could sustain had been effected in the 
night by persons yet undiscovered. Some of the Trucks of the Gun 
carriages, which owing to Captain Collet's oversight, were not cm- 
barked as I directed with the shot and other small Stores, the rabble 


removed four or five hundred yards from where thej' lay and left 
them. These I hope to recover to day and get them on Board Ship. 

After sauntering about the Fort, and its neighborhood till between 
2 and 3 o'clock in the afternoon, this rabble which amounted as 
nearly as I can learn to about 300 men, with a savage and barbarian 
wantonness, disgracefull to humanitj^ set fire to a large barn, stable 
and coach house, and a new small dwelling house together with sev- 
eral outhouses that Captain Collet had built for his own convenience 
on the King's Land belonging to the Fort, without the works, and 
immediately after completing this desolation retired by the route 
they came. 

The pretence for these shamefull and extravagant outrages is 
annamosity to Captain Collet, whose zeal for the King's Service, and 
natural vehemence and impetuosity of temper, I fear have trans- 
ported him to some great indiscretions, but I am confident to no vio- 
lences that can justify such barbarian vengeance. 

M' John Ashe and IsL' Cornelius Harnett were ring leaders of this 
savage and audacious Mob, concerning which my present informa- 
tion enables me to add nothing furthur. 

I have the honor etc, 


[Reprinted froji American Archives. Vol. I. Page ITIC] 

An Act to Restrain the Trade and Commerce of the Colonies of 
New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, ^"irginia and South Caro- 
lina to Great Britain, Ireland and the British Islands in the West 
Indies, under certain conditions and limitations. [To take effect 
20* July 1775.] 

Whereas by an Act made in the twelfth year of the reign of King 
Charles the Second entituled "An Act for encouraging and increasing 
of Shipping and Navigation," and bj' se\^eral subsequent Acts of 
Parliament which are now in force, it is amongst other things, 
enacted that for every Ship or Vessel which shall load any com- 
modities in those Acts particularly enumerated at any British 
Plantation being the growth, product or manufacture thereof, Bonds 
shall be given with one surety to the value of one thousand pounds 
if the ship be of less than one hundred tons and of the sum of two 
thousand Pounds if the Sliip l)e of greater burthen, that the same 


commodities shall be brought by such Ship or Vessel to some other 
British Plantation or to some Port in Great Britain. 

And Avhereas by several other Acts of Parliament which are now 
in force no commodities of the Growth, Product or Manufacture of 
Europe (except Salt for the Fisheries, Wines of the ^Madeiras and 
Azores and Western Islands, and Victual and Linen cloth from Ire- 
land under the restrictions in such Acts particularly mentioned) can 
be imported into any Plantation, Colony, Tei-ritory or place belong- 
ing to his Majesty in Asia, Africa or America, but what shall be 
bona fide and without fraud laden and shipped in Great Britain and 
carried directly irom thence. 

And whereas during the continuance of the Combinations and 
Disorders which at this time prevail within the Colonies of New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia and South Carolina to the 
obstruction of commerce of these Kingdoms and other his Majestys 
Dominions, and in breach and violation of the laws of this Realm 
it is highly unfit that the inhabitants of the said Colonies should 
enjoy the same privileges of Trade and the same benefits and 
advantages to which his Majesty's faithful and obedient subjects are 

Be it therefore enacted by the King's most Excellent Majesty by 
and with tb.e advice and consent of the Lords, Spiritual and Tem- 
poral, and Commons in this present Parliament assembled and by 
the authority of the same, That from and after the twentieth day of 
July one tiiousand seven hundred and seventy live and during the 
continuance of this Act no Goods, Wares or Mei'chandises which are 
particularly enumerated in and by the said Act made in the twelfth 
year of King Charles the Second or any Act being the Growtlj, 
Product or Manufactures of the Colonies of New Jersey, Pennsyl- 
vania, Maryland, Virginia and South Carolina in North America or 
any or either of them are to bo brought to some other British Colony 
or to (ireat Britain or any such enumerated CJoods, Wares or Merchan- 
dises, which shall at any time or times have been imported or brought 
into the said Colonies or any or either of them shall be shipped 
carried or conveyed or transported from anj' of the said Colonies 
respectively to any Lan<l, Island, Territory, Dominion, Port or place 
whatsoever other than to Great Britain or some of the British Islands 
in the West Indies to be laid on shore there and that no other Goods, 
Wares or Merchandises whatsoever of the Growtli, Product or Manu- 
iactnrcs of the Colonics hereinbefore mentioned or which shall at 


any time or times have been imported or brought into tlie same 
shall from and after the said twentietli day of July and during the 
continuance of this Act be shipped, carried, conveyed or transported 
from any of the said Colonies respectively to any other Land, Island, 
Territory, Dominion, Port or place whatsoever except to the King- 
dom of Great Britain or Ireland or to some of the British Islands 
in the West Indies to be laid on shores there, any law, custom or 
usage to the contrary notwithstanding. 

VIII. And whereas it is the intent and meanino- of this Act 
that the several prohibitions and restraints hereinbefore enacted 
should be discontinued and cease so .soon as the Trade and Com- 
merce of his Majcstys subjects may be carried on without inter- 
ruption within the said Colonies; be it therefore enacted by the 
Authority aforesaid That whenever it shall be made to appear 
to the satisfaction of his Majesty's Governor or Commander in 
Chief and the majority of the Council of Colonies of New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia and South Carolina tliat peace 
and obedience to the laws shall be so far restored within the said 
Colonies or either of them that the Trade and commerce of his 
]\Iajestys subjects may be carried on without interruption within the 
same and that Goods Wares and Merchandises have been freely 
imported in the said Colonies or either of them froiu Great Britain 
and to expose to sale without any let hindrance or molestation from 
or by reason of any unlawful combinations to prevent or oljstruct 
the same and that Goods Wares and Merchandises have in like 
manner been exported from the said colonies or either of them 
respectively to Great Britain for and during the term of one calen- 
dar month preceeding that then and in such case it shall and may 
be lawful for t!ie Governor or Commander in Chief with the advice 
of the Council of such Colonies respectively by Proclamation under 
the seal of such respectively to notify the same to the several officers 
of the Customs and all others and after such Proclamation or Proc- 
lamations have been issued as aforesaid shall be discontinued and 
cease (except sucli as hereinafter provided) and all Officers of 
his Majestys Customs and all other persons having charge of the 
execution of this Act having received due notice of such Proclama- 
tion are herein' directed and required to yield and pay obedience to 
such Proclamation and to proceed in the discharge of their respect- 
ive duties in ailniitting to entry clearing and discharging all Sliips 
and Vessels and Goods Wares and Merchandises into and oiit of 


such respective Colony in like manner as if this Act had never 
been made, anything herein contained to the contrary notwith- 

[From MS. Records ix Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee at Wilmington. 

Thursday, .July 20*, 1775. ' 
At a monthly meeting of the Committee of the town of "Wilming- 
ton, and count}^ of New Hanover. 

Present: Cornelius Harnett, Chairman; Francis Clayton, Deputy 
Chairman ; Fred'k Jones, Sr., Alexander Lillington, Wm. Wilkinson, 
John Forster, Jno. Colvin, Jno. Flollingsworth, Thos. Devane, Jno. 
Devane, Henry Toomer, Jno. Ashe, Sam'l Ashe, James Geekie, Jno. 
Ancrum, James Moore, Wm. Perviance, Francis Brice, Adam Boj-d, 
Archibald McLaine, James Tate, Wm. Campbell, And'w Ronaldson, 
Peter Mallett, John Robeson, James Blythe, Sam. Swann, Wm. Jones, 
W. T., Wm. Jones, L. C, Joel Parrish, James Walker, Wm. Ewins, 
Thos. Bloodworth. 

Visiting Members. 

From Cumberland County — Farc^uicr Campbell, Rob. Cochran. 

From Duplin Countj' — James Moore, Jno. James, Alex. Outlaw. 

From Onslow County — Jno. Ashe, and Jno. Gibbs. 

From Bladen County — Thos. Robeson, Thos. Owen, Walter Gib- 
son, Wm. Salter, James Council, Evan Ellis, Peter Robeson, Rob. 
Stewart, James Ptichardson, Jno. King, James White, Rob. Wells. 
Thomas Brown, Wm. Stewart. 

Joseph Preston being brought before the Committee and examined 
declared on oath, that it was in common report that John Collet, com- 
mander "at Fort Johnston, had given encouragement to negroes to 
elope from their Masters and promised to protect them. 

The Committee then adjourned until 7 o'clock to morrow. 

Friday, July 2P', 1775. 

The Committee met according to adjournment. 
Present as before. 

On motion, ordered, -That the Committee of Litelligence of tliis 
town, write to the Committee of Cumberland, and congratulate them 


on the favorable disposition of their Committee and county to sup- 
port the common cause of America. 

On motion, Resolved, That application be made to Mr. Samuel 
Campbell for the Muskets he has in his possession, the property of the 
public, in order that they may be lodged with the Secretary of this 
committee, to be distributed to those who may be in want of arms. 

This Committee having taken into consideration an act of the 
British Parliament for restraining the trade of the Colonies of New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania, the counties of Newcastle, Kent and Sussex, 
on the Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and South Carolina, to Great 
Britain, Ireland and the British West Indies, wliich is to take place 
this day [see page ante, 109. — Editor]; it is 

Resolved, unanimouslj', that the exception of this colony, and some 
others, out of the said act, is a base and mean artifice, to seduce them 
into a desertion of the common cause of America. 

Resolved, that we will not accept of the advantages insidiously 
thrown out by the said act, but will adhere strictlj' to such plans as 
have been, and shall be, entered into by the honorable continental 
Congress ; so as to keep up a perfect unanimity with our sister colonies. 

The inhabitants of Poole (a seaport in the British channel) having 
manifested themselves, not only inimical to America; but lost to 
every sense of honor and humanity, by petitioning Parliament to 
restrain the New England fisheries; by which inic^uitous act, the 
virtuous inhabitants of those colonies, are cruelly deprived of the 
means of procuring a subsistence ; and rendered almost dependent on 
the bounty of their neighbors; in testimony of our resentment of a 
conduct so injurious to our fellow-citizens, and so disgraceful to human 
najture; we unanimously Resolve, not to freight, or in any maimer 
employ any shipping, belonging to that town ; and that we will not 
carry on any commercial intercourse or communication with the 
selfish people of Poole. 

Whereas, it appeared, upon incontestible evidence, that John Col- 
lett, connnander of Fort Johnston, was preparing the said fort [under 
the auspices of Governor Martin] for the reception of a promised 
reinforcement, which was to be employed in reducing the good peo- 
ple of this province, to a slavish submission to the will of a wicked 
and tyrannic Minister; and for tliis diabolical purpose, had collected 
several abandoned profligates, whose crimes had rendered them 
unworthy of civil society; and that the said commander, had wan- 
tonly detained vessels, api)lying for Bills of Health, thereby defeat- 
VOL. X — 8 


ing the salutary purj^oses for which the Fort had been established 
and continued — had threatened vengeance against magistrates, wliose 
official opinion he chose to disapprove — had set at defiance the high 
sheriff of the count}', in the execution of his oflfice, and treated the 
King's writs, Avhen served on him for just debts, (which both as a 
soldier and a subject, it was his duty to obey) with the shameful con- 
tempt of wiping his b — k s — de with them — had with the most 
unparalleled injustice, detained and embezzled a large quantity of 
goods, which having been wrecked near the Fort, had the highest 
claim to his attention and care, for the benefit of the sufferers; in 
whose behalf, many and repeated apjilications had been legally made, 
in vain, to the said commander — had contrary to every principle of 
honor and honesty, most unwarrantably seized, by force, a quantity 
of corn, the private property of an individual; an act of robbery the 
more inexcusable, as provisions were never withheld from him, when- 
ever he would pay for them — had basely encouraged slaves from 
their masters, paid and employed them, and declared openly, that he 
would excite them to an insurrection: It also appeared that the 
said John CoUett, had further declared, that, as soon as the expected 
reinforcement should arrive, the King's standard would be erected, 
and that, to it should be invited all those (as well slaves as others) 
who were base enough to take up arms against their country. 

The Committee of Nevr Hanover and Wilmington, having taken 
these things into consideration, judged it might be of the most per- 
nicious consequences to the people at large, if the said John Collett 
should be suffered to remain in the Fort, as he might thereb}^ have 
op[)ortunity of carrying his iniquitous schemes into execution. This 
opinion having been communicated to the officers, and the commit- 
tees of some neighboring counties, a great many volunteers were 
immediately collected ; a party of whom reached Brunswick, when 
accounts were received, that the said commander had carried off all 
the small arms, ammunition, and part of the Artillery, (the property 
of the Province) together with his furniture, on board a Transport, 
hired for that purpose, there to remain until the reinforcement should 
arrive, and then again take ppsses.sion of the Fort: the original design 
being thus frustrated, but the different detachments having -met at 
Brunswick, about 500 men marched to tlie Fort, and burnt and 
destroyed all the Houses, &c., in and about the same; demolished, 
as far as they could, the back part of the Fortification, and cO'ectually 
dislodged that atrocious Freebooter. 


Resolved, therefore, that the thanks of the Committee be given to 
the officers and soldiers who, with such ready alacrity, gave their 
attendance to effect a matter of so much real importance to the public. 

The Committee then adjourned to the next meeting. 

Extract from the Cape Fear iMercuri/ of Friday, 28"' July 1775, 
appended to the above. 

As this party was returning from the Fort they were met by a 
detachment of near 300 men from Bladen County who had turned 
out at a minute's warning and we are well assured the people were 
in motion in several other counties at a greater distance. This 
we mention with pleasure as a proof of the readiness of the peo- 
ple upon any emergency in defence of their rights and privileges. 
Besides the honorable testimony given to the officers and soldiers by 
the Committee of New Hanover and Wilmington of their approba- 
tion we have the best authority to say that the enterprise in which 
they so chearfully embarked has been apfirovcd of by several very 
respectable Committees in this Province. 

The loss of the Americans in the late battle near lk)Ston l)y the 
return made to General AVashington is 138 killed, 301 wounded and 
7 missing. This may be depended on. *, * * 

[Reprinted from the American Archives. Vol. 3. Page 1C97.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee at Newbern. 

, Newrerx, Noi;th Carolix.v, July 21" 1775. 

Agreeable to an order of the honoraV;le the Continental Congress, 
yesterday, the 20"" instant was observed as a day of fasting, humilia- 
tion and prayer to humble ourselves before God and to deprecate his 
impending judgments now held over this land for our sins and 
offences. Divine service was performed in the church and a very 
animating and spirited discourse suitable to the occasion was read 
by a member of the Committee, to a very crowded audience, who 
were assembled on the occasion. A deputation from tlie Committee 
had been ordered, previous to the day, to wait on the Reverend M' 
JariKS Rccd, Member of the Parish, to request and entreat him to 


perform divine service in liis chureli on the fast day and deliver a 
sermon: but their entreaties were vain, he giving as a substantial 
reason, that as he was one of the missionaries of the honorable 
Society for Propagating the Gospel in Foreign Parts, he should ren- 
der himself obnoxious to the Ministry and of course lose his mission. 

The Committee taking into consideration the unaccountable 
behaviour and conduct of I\P Reed, in deserting his congregation yes- 
terday, when almost all ranks and denominations of Christians 
among us were assembled at the church by order of the Continental 
Congress, to humiliate ourselves before God, by fasting and prayer, to 
avert from us his heavy judgments now hanging over us; have 

Resolved that tlie Vestrj^ of this Parish be earnestly requested to 
suspend the said Jcmes Reed from his ministerial function in the 
said parish and tliat they immediatel}' direct their church-wardens 
to stop payment of the said W Reed's salary as minister of the said 

In General Committee, 
Newberk, July 23'', 1775. 

The Sekct Committee having passed a vote of censui'o on the 
Reverend M' James Reed, for refusing to perform divine service in 
his church on the da}' set apart by the Continental Congress for a 
fast, a motion was made tliat the said suspension be agreed to; 
whereupon it was 

Resolved unanimously, that the said suspension be confirmed. 

[Fkom MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Letter from Samuel .Johnston to the Committee at Wilmington. 

[Edenton] 21" July 1775. 

Immediately on advice of the prorogation of the Assembly I 
consulted such of the members as happened to be in town on their 
way to New Bern about fixing a time for the meeting of the Con- 
vention wlio were unanimous that the 20"' of August was as soon 
as due notice could be conveyed to the several Counties. I con- 


curred the more readily with them as Mr Hewes iu his last letter 
expressed his desire that Mr Harvey should summon the Conven- 
tion to meet some time in August. Had it not been expected by 
every one that the Assembly would have met at New Bern on the 
12* of this month the Convention might have met earlier but I did 
not think mj^self at liberty to alter the place appointed by the last 
Convention and that many members of the Assembly would proba- 
bly be chosen to serve in Convention made it I thought impossible 
that they should both meet at the same time and the uncertainty 
how long the session [of the Assembly] would last rendered it 
difficult to iix on a time for a meeting of the Convention. Neither 
did I imagine that anything in the Letter from our Delegates pre- 
cluded us from meeting in Convention before the rising of the 
Congress but it was apparent that a Convention must necessarily 
meet in August and if it had likewise met in July I am afraid the 
second meeting would have been too thin to have answered any 
important purpose to the publick ; as it is I have the greatest reason 
to hope for a very numerous meeting. I took the liberty from a hint 
given me by Mr Hooj^er to recommend to the several Counties to 
increase the number of their Delegates, but this is a matter entirely 
discretionary. A vessel from New York to this place brought over 
two officers who left at the Bar to go to New Bern, they are both 
Highlanders, one named McDonnel the other McCloud. They pre- 
tend they are on a visit to some of their countrymen on your river 
but I think there is reason to suspect their errand of a base nature. 
The Committee of this town have wrote to New Bern to have them 
secured. Should they escape there I hope you will keep a good 
lookout for them. I doubt not the prudence of the Gentlemen 
with you will have suggested the necessity of securing the High- 
landers and that proper measures have been adopted for that 

[B. P. R. O. Am. & W. IXD. Vol. 379.] 

Letter from Mr Stuart, Lidian Agent, &c., to the Earl of Dartmouth. 

Saixt Augustixe 21" July 1775. 
^Iy Loed, 

Since my letter of 20"" May N^ 27, I have not been honoured with 
any of your Lordship's Commands. 


About the time that mj'- last letter was written I had information 
from several Friends of an Intention in the Leaders of the Opposition 
in Carolina to seize mj' person to prevent my making use of my Influ- 
ence with the Indian Tribes, in the Southern Department to coun- 
teract their views in case any orders I had already received or might 
receive should render my doing so necessary for the good of His 
Majesty's Service and in order to give a colour for their doing 
so a Rej^ort was propagated everywhere throughout the Province 
that I had sent to call down the Cherokee and Catawba Indians 
which so irritated the People as to render my Friends apprehensive 
that my jjerson was in danger. At the same time it was given out 
that the Negroes were immediately to be set free by Government 
and that Arms were to be given them to fall upon their Masters. 
As nothing can be more alarming to the Carolinas than. the Idea of 
an attack from Indians and Negroes, the Leaders of the disaffected 
Parties easily can-ied into execution their plan of arming the People 
and giving such a turn to their Disjiosition as might favour their 
views which were to receive the sanction of a Provincial Congress 
to meet the first of June. 

Although I was then extremely ill and confined to my bed an 
Idea that my falling into their hands might prove detrimental to 
His Majesty's service determined me to remove to Georgia which I 
undertook and arrived there about the beginning of June. I begg 
j'our Lordshij^'s permission to submit the inclosed Copies of my cor- 
respondence with the Committee of Intelligence (as they stile them- 
selves) and of three other Letters whicli will shew your Lordship their 
Intentions and how narrowly I escaped falling into the hands of an 
incensed Mob at a time when my state of Health rendered me very 
incapable of Ijearing rough usage; my Family and Property are 
still in their Power, the latter they threaten to confiscate and I 
anxiously wish the former from amongst them altho' I hope their 
Sex and Innocence will intitle them to mild Treatment from a People 
among whom they have lived so long respectablj'. I begg leave to 
assure your Lordship that no consideration shall induce me to aban- 
don the trust reposed in me. The Persecution I meet with is not 
for anything I have done but for what I may do. 

My intelligence from every part of the District represents the 
Indians as extremely pacifick and well disposed. In, the Cherokee 
Nation two Persons employed to carry Letters from Virginia were 
killed near their Towns. M" Cameron demanded satisfaction which 


the ruling Chiefs consented to give and tlie Murtherers will certainly 
be brought to Justice. From the Creek Nation we have Intelligence 
that a Party was actually set out for the Cherokee Towns to com pleat 
the satisfaction stipulated by the Treaty of Savannah by putting to 
death the two IMutherers Houmackta & Sophia who had found 
means of escaping thither. 


I have the honor etc., 


[Reprinted from the American Archives. Vol. 

Letter from Governor Martin to Lieutenant Colonel James Cotton 
of Anson County. 

Ckuizer Sloop of War Cape Fear River, 

July 21", 1775. 

I have received your letter of the fifteenth instant by Mr Cun- 
ningham, and highly approve your proper and spirited Conduct, 
while I cannot sufficiently express my indignation and contempt of 
the proceedings of Captain- General Spencer, and his unworthy 
Confederates. You and the other friends of Government, have only 
to stand your ground firmly, and unite against the seditious as 
they do against you, in firm assurance tliat you will be soon and 
effectually supported. I wait here to forward the purposes of the 
friends of Government, or I would have been among you. At a 
proper season you may depend I shall render myself among you, 
and in the meantime let nothing discourage you. The spirit of 
rebellion has lately received a most severe check in New England, 
and I have not the least doubt that all that Country is, by this 
time, entirely reduced by His Majesty's Army, which by my latest 
advices, was carrying on its operations with the utmost vigour. 

Major Snead may be assured of my attention to all his wishes at 
a proper time. 

I beg my compliments may be presented to Colonel McDonald, 
and am Sir, vour most humble servant 



[From MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Minutes of a meeting of the Freeholders in Tryon County. 

NoKTH Carolina 1 -r, , ^ ^- i.- 

Tryon County. / P^i's^^^^t to ^otlce. 

At a meeting of the Freeholders of the County of Tryon at the 
Court House of said County on the Twenty Sixth Day of .July one 
thousand seven hundred and seventy five; in order to elect a Com- 
mittee for said County, 

The Following persons were chosen to wit: 

For Captain Beatey's Company — Thomas Beatey, David Jenkins, 
Jas. Johnston, Jacob Forney. 

Captain Carpenter's Company — Thomas Espey, "\^alentine ^lau- 
ney, Nicholas Friday. 

Captain Coburn's Company — James Coburn, Robert Alexander. 

Captain Harden's Company — Joseph Harden, Benj. Harden, 
Davis AVhitesides. 

Captain Hambright's Company — Frederick Hambright, James 

Captain Hampton's Company — Andrew Hampton, .John Morris, 
George Russell. 

Captain Barber's Company — Charles M'Lean, John Robinson, 
John Barber. 

Captain Magnes' Company — William Graham, James ]\PAfee, 
Perrigreen Magnes. 

Captain Paris' Company — George Paris, Ambrose INIills. 

Captain Aaron Moore's Company — John "Walker, John Beeman, 
George Black. 

Captain Baird's Company — Andrew Neel, James Baird, W" Pat- 

Captain M°Ivinney's Company — John ^PKinney, Jonas Bedford. 

Captain Kuykendall's Company — Abraham Kuykendall, W" 
Thomason, Robert ]\PMinn. 


[B. p. R. O. Am. & W. IXD. Vol. 223.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee in Wilmington. "* 


In consequence of a letter from Samuel .lohnston E.sq" appointing 
the 20"" August next for the meeting of the Provincial Convention 
at Hillsborough and recommending that five delegates at least 
should be sent bj" each county : 

Resolved that Tuesday the 8'"" day of August be appointed for an 
election of additional Delegates for the County and Town and that 
the Freeholders do attend at the Court House in AVilmington for 
that on the said S"" day of August next. 

By order of the Committee. 


[From M3. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Minutes of a General -Meeting of the Freeholders in Pitt County. 

Maktixeorough, .July 29"" 1775. 

According to Adjournment the Committee met it Proceeded as 
Follows, viz : 

Agreeable to Notice, The Freeholders of this County met and 
elected Col" John Simpson, Geo. Evans, W™ Bryant, James Gorham, 
and Edward Salter to attend at Hillsborough on the Twentieth day 
of August next, then and there to sit in General Convention of this 
Province to consult and Adopt such measures & plans as they and 
the rest of the Members in Provincial Convention may think Bene- 
ficial & Serviceable to this Country it Province in General, &c. 
Test: JNO. LESSLIE, Clerk. 

At a General Meeting of the Freeholders of this County, George 
Evans and Edward Salter who were some time past elected to meet 
in Convention, Informs that the Circumstances will not admit their 
attendance. They were then Discharged and Robert Salter and James 
Latham was then elected to attend, in conjunction with John Simp- 

*The Cape Fear Mercury of 28th July, 177.5. 


son, James Gorham, W" Brj-ant, Deputies in Provincial Convention 
at Hillsborough on the 20* of this Instant, then and there to con- 
sult and adopt such measures & matters as they may think Bene- 
ficial for the just Charter Rights & Liberties of this Country in par- 
ticular, the Continent in General. 

Proceedings of the Safety Connnittee in Pitt County. 

Martinbokough 29"' July 1775. 

As there was manj" subscriirtions in this County for the Relief of 
the poor at Boston, and some of the Receiver.? that have Received a 
part, Resolved that those Receivers that who have paid [ ] 

contributions [ ] Repaj' what they have received, To the 

persons and Deliver into their Committees an account thereof. 

The Committee being informed that the Vestry of this County 
had made a certain Contract & Agi'eement v/ith the Reverend Nath' 
Blount to serve this Parish the Term of Twenty years, wliich has 
much Divided the United plans of this County, The Committee 
Recommends that the Church Wardens advise Mr Blount in answer 
to his Letter, That the People Desires he ma}' withdraw from his 
Agreement as the only method to Unite People of the County. 

Mr George Evans is unanimou.sly chosen Chairman in absence of 
Col° Simpson. 

The Committee is adjourned till the 9'" day of Sep' 1775. 


[Reprinted from American Archives. Tol. S. Page 17.;7,] 

Letter from a gentleman in North Carolina and one of the Delegates 
of the Congress to a principal House in Edinburgh. 

Edextox July 31" li75. 
Gentlemen : 

"We wrote to you the seventeenth instant, since which we have 
not been honoured with any of your favours. With this you will 
receive a bill of lading for the Cargo of the Brigantine Chaniditg 
Betsey, John Boyle Master (by whom this goes), which you will 
please to dispose of to the best advantage for our interest, and place 
the nett proceeds to our Credit with you. You will observe the brig 


has only six lay days, and beg the favour you will have her dis- 
charged, so as we may not be subject to damage. 

We expect to send you another vessel with such another Cargo 
before the exportation is stopped, which will be the tenth of next 
September; but we shall write you more at large by a ship to sail 
from hence to London in about two weeks. All our remittances 
must hereafter be by bills; we have laid ourselves out to remit you 
in that way, as all . other is now in a fair way of being entirely 
shut up. We are in a terrible situation indeed; all trade here is 
now at an end, and when it will again be revived God only knows. 

Every American, to a man, is determined to die or be free. We 
are convinced nothing can restore peace to this unhappy C ountry, 
and render the liberties of yours secure, but a total change of the 
present ^Ministry, who are considered in this Country as enemies to 
the freedom of the human race, like so many Master devils in the 
infernal regions, sending out their servant furies, to torment wherever 
they choose their infernal vengeance should fall. 

Permit us, dear Sir, as you have exerted yourselves, to try another 
effort to save from destruction the once, and but lately, most flour- 
ishing Empire in the world. 

We do not want to be independant; we want no revolution, 
unless a change of Ministry and measures would be deemed such. 
We are loyal subjects to our present most gracious Sovereign in sup- 
port of whose crown and dignity we v\-ould sacrifice our lives, and 
willingly launch out every shilling of our property, he only defend- 
ing our liberties. 

This Country, without some step is taken, and that soon, will be 
inevitably lost to the Mother Country. We say again, for the love 
of Heaven, for the love of liberty, the interest of posterity, we con- 
jure you to exert yourselves. Petition again; the eyes of our most 
gracious Sovereign may yet be opened, and he may see what things 
are for his real interest, before they are eternally hid from liis eyes. 
We can vouch for the loyalty of eveiy one in this part of the 
Province. We beg your pardon for troubling you on the subject of 
politicks so much as we have done; but we hope you will excuse us, 
when we tell you our all depends on the determination of Par- 

We have the honour to be, Gentlemen, your Uiost obliged hum- 
ble servants. 


[From MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee at ^A'ilmiiip-ton. 


Monday, July 31", 1775. 

At an occasional meeting of the Committee. 

Present : Cornelius Harnett, Chairman ; Francis Clayton, Deputy 
Chairmaii; Henry Toomer, Wm. Purviance, James Blythe, Wm. 
Ewins, Wm. Wilkinson, John Forster, Tim. Bio idworth, Wm. Camp- 
bell, Jno. Ancrum, Peter Malette, Andrew Ronaldson, Jno. DuBois, 
Adam Boyd, Francis Claj ton. 

The Chairman presented to the Committee, a letter from Mr. 
Rowan, inclosing one of the Governor's to a certain Lieut. Col. James 
Cotton ; it was 

Resolved, unanimously, Tliat the Committee apiprove of I\Ir. 
Rowan's conduct ;. and that the Committee of Intelligence be requested 
to write to him on the subject. 

Mr. Boyd -read a letter from the Governor, requesting him to print 
an account of a late engagement at Bunker's Plill between the King's 
troops and provincials : craved their opinion respecting the above 
publication ; it was 

Resolved, unanimously, That he should acquaint the Governor, 
that the Committee would not admit the seperate publication in 
hand bills; but that if it was agreeable to him, it might be printed 
in the Mercury. 

Whereas, we have learned from undoubted authority, that Gov- 
ernor Martin intends going into the back country, to collect a num- 
ber of men, for the purpose of disturbing the internal peace of this 
province — 

Resolved, That the Governor's going into the back country may 
be of great prejudice to this Province, as it is in all probability he 
intends kindling the flames of a Civil war, and that the Committees 
of the different counties should be advised of his intentions and 
requested to keep a strict lookout, and, if possible, to arrest him in 
his progress. 

The cdmmittee then adjourned to the next meeting. 


fB. P. R. O. Am. & W. IxD.: Xo. Carolina. No. 222.] 

Depositions about affairs in Anson County. 

Ox Board His Ma.jesty's Sloop Cruizee, 
In Cape Fear River, 

This 12"' day of August, 1775. 
No. Carolina — Ss. 
Samuel Williams deposed upon the Holy Evangelists of Almighty 

God in manner and form following, viz', 

About two mouths ago he the said Sam' Williams was at a meet- 
ing of people in Anson County at John AValls on Hedgecock Creek 
where Colonel Sam' Spencer was persuading the People to sign the 
Association of the Congress and the People speaking of the Oath of 
Allegiance that part of them had taken, the said Spencer said that 
His Majesty George the Third had broke his Coronation Oath and 
by that he thought the People were absolved by such an example. 
Some time after he saw a number of People assembled at the Court 
house where they chose a Committee of 19 men, and that Thos. Wade 
and Dav" Love 2 of the Captains and in the said Committee made 
use of all their Interest to enlist men for the use of the Congress, and 
that he hath since heard they have enlisted vast numbers. He came 
down about the 7'" of July with a Petition to Governor Martin then 
at Fort Johnston from many persons in his County and on his return 
staid l3ut one night at home, but he had a letter to M' McDonald 
which he carried to Kingsborough, and while at his house he received 
a message from his wife and informed him that near 30 men had 
beset his house and burst open the door in search of him, and that 
they were armed with guns and other weapons, and that she under- 
stood they intended to kill him for bringing up the account of the 
action at Boston, which they said was a.most infamous lye, and that 
he was the Author. On j\Ionday July he was at a great meeting of 
people at one M' M°Caskets, when a large number of armed men 
came upon them in order to take them said to be about 200 men, the 
greater part from South Carolina, the Principals were Captain Philip 
Pledger, Cap' G. Hicks and Sam' Wise, and of our County Tho' Wade 
and Dav'' Love. 

He stood at some distance and received them as they past by 
(undiscovered) when they carried away Wilson Williams to one 


Will" ^Lisks and there obliged him to sign and swear allegiance to 
them, and that they likewise took away IVfColson and Colonel Cot- 
ton. He .remained in the Woods till he heard of Colonel Cotton's 
escape from them, when he joined him and made the best of our way 
on board the Cruizcr, as our persons were much in danger for Dav'^ 
Love and Samuel Spencer had several times threatened liim with 
seizing and selling his Estate for the Support of the American Troops, 
provided he did not join them, and furthur this Deponent saith not- 
(Signed) SAM' WILLLIMS. 

On Boakd His Majesty's Ship Cruizek, 
IN Cape Fear River, 

This 18'" day of Aug' 1775. 

Jacob Williams, Planter in Anson County, bein.g duly sworn on 
the Holy Evangelists of Almighty God, deposeth and saith that 
about the 25"" of last May as he was on the Road to South Carolina 
one Samuel Wise, appointed by the Committee of Divers persons 
disaffected to Government, came up to him in a violent manner, 
called him damned scoundrel, swore he liad a great mind to kill 
him, saying he was surprised that he would be against the country, 
and some days after one Donaldson came, together with two other 
persons, took him in custody and carried him by force before several 
persons who called themselves Committee Men, confined him as 
th(>ir prisoner two days and two nights and read over several papers 
and endeavoured to persuade him to join with them, and when 
they had examined him and found he would not concur with their 
measures and answer such questions as tliey asked they set him at 
liberty. After he was discharged he was returning home and stop- 
ped at a house to sleep, and after being there some time after dark 
came one .Joseph Pledger, John Andrews and four other Persons 
unknown to the Deponent, took liold of him by force in a violent 
manner and carried him into the Woods; the Deponent told them 
he l>elieved they intended to kill him, they answered they intended 
to treat him as an Enemy to the Country and ordered the Deponent 
to strip; took off his coat and began to tye him but after much 
threatening they released him and the Deponent was informed they 
intended to take him again dead or alive; one David Love asked 
the Deponent if he had signed tlie Protest against the Proceedings 
of the Continental Congress, he answered he had, upon which the 
said Love replied, you are an Enemy lor that he himself had 


engaged in behalf of the Congress; he then said Lord North was a 
Roman Catholick, that the King's crown tottered upon his shoulders, 
for he had established the Roman Catholick Religion in the Prov- 
ince of Quebeck, and that the King and Parliament did intend 
to establish Popery on all the Continent of America, and that the 
King was forsworn; that on the 20"' of June last Tho" "Wade, Tav- 
ern Keeper of Anson Court House, said to the Deponent that the 
King and Parliament had Established the Roman Catholic Religion 
in the Province of Quebeck and did intend to bring in Popish Prin- 
ciples into America, and that tlie King had forfeited his Coronation 
Oath and that they the Congress intended to Rule the People of 
America by way of a Continental Congress and by Provincial Con- 
gresses and by Committee; that the Deponent saw him with a 
cockade in his hat and that he was listing Men as fast as he could. 
And further this Deponent saith not. 


, Ox Board His Majesty's Sloop Ckuizer, 
In Cape Fear River, 

This 13"- August, 1775. 
N° Carolina— Ss. 

.James Cotton of Anson County, being sv.-orn of the Ploly Evan- 
gelists of Almighty God, deposeth and saith, That on the second 
Tuesday of July last past, a Company of People stiling themselves 
a Committee for the County of xVuson to the number of about tliirty 
met at the Court House of .said County, and did then clioose Rich* 
Farr and some other person to deliver the following Message, viz: 

That the Committee presented their Compliments to me and 
desired to see me ; on which I waited on them. Samuel Spencer 
their chairman arose and said M' Colson this Committee has sent 
for you as one of the Burgesses of the ^bunty to acciuaint you with 
our proceedings and to endeavour to get your approbation, the 
Resolves of the Continental Congress being by him read. M' Thos. 
Wade stood up with an audible voice read the Resolves of tlieii- 
Committee, then the}' demanded of me whether I could sign them 
and how I approved of them. I would by no means be persuaded 
by them, but told them, in the Court House that they would be all 
deemed Rebels and their Principals would be hanged; they answered 
me that if I did not join with them they should be under the abso- 
lute necessity of proceeding against me according to the Directions 


prescribed to them by the General Congress, but that they would 
give me two weeks to consider upon the matter ; for which favour I 
returned them no thanks. I tarried some time with them in the 
Court House to observe tlieir proceedings, which was as follows, viz, 
Tho' Wade spoke and said, Col. Spencer you have been an old Field 
officer, you shall be our CajDtain General ; Spencer replied, anything 
Gentlemen that I can oblige you in I am ready. "William Thomas 
another Member of Committee said, Martin has turned M' Wade 
and Col. Medlock out of Commission let us appoint them our Cap- 
tains, which was accepted of by them. Then I retired from their 
Company, a few minutes after one of the Committee came to me 
and told me he heard Rich'' Farr just now say if he could get me 
before the Court House near So. Carolina he would be my butcher, 
the Committee sending many Newspapers and other writings to me 
by way of Instruction during the sitting of the Court in order to 
convince me of my error till Friday night, when I left them and 
exhorted some of them then present to desist from their wicked 
practices or they would repent when it was too late. 

On the 2^ Tuesday following very early in tlie morning a certain 
Dav* Love came into raj bed-room (being admitted by one of my 
Servants) with a rifle gun, and all other necessary Accoutrements 
and told me the Committee had sent for me, and that he was Cap- 
tain of a Company which he had out of doors and was determined 
to carry me nolens volens, to them at Masks ferry on Pedee that 
morning. I arose out of my bed from \ny wife, and looking out 
of doors I saw William Love, .John Luellen, Will" Thomas, Sam' 
Curtis, W"' Covington, and some other persons -whom I know not. 
All appeared as well accoutered as the former, they immediately all 
rushed into the house and told me to prepare to go with theui, I 
told them as they were all so well armed, I would carry my Weapons 
for War also, which they all forbid. I finding it was out of my power 
to withstand prepared to go with them in the meantime one of 
my Negroes in a fright was about to run away to alarm the neigh- 
hood of their Proceedings when one of the said Company espied him 
Cocked his Gun at liim and swore he would kill him if he did not 
return. I hearing of the uproar ran out of the house and rebuked 
the villain sharply for daring to jiresent a loaded Gun at any per- 
son about my house, telling him I had a great mind to send him 
to Gaol, the new Captain told me I must consider myself as a 
Prisoner and not as a Magistrate, at which I persisted no i'urther. 


Cap' Love immediately turned Iiiiiiself about to his Company and 
said now you see Gentlemen that Governor Martin and his damned 
officers will set the Negroes on to kill us etc. Then we all imme- 
diately rode away. I appeared to them Chearful, we stopped 
about 5 miles from my house there I gave them some rum then 
we rode about ten miles further to the house of Jno. Smith (adju- 
tant) where I employed them drinking cyder, in the meantime I 
was informed by Smith that four Thousand Men were come from 
So. Carolina to Masks ferry to join the Anson Committee and to com- 
pel the officers of the County to join with them or to take them 
Prisoners and oarrj' them to Cha' Town, and that .John Colson was 
already taken. I spoke to a man who lodged at Smith's one Rich* 
Downs to walk aside and speak a word with me which he did; I 
then ran away from my Keepers, and know not that I have seen 
them since. I travelled as secretly as possible home that night 
but darst not tarry armed mj-self and slept in the woods adjacent. 
The next day INP Smith sent up my horse & saddle by his son 
who told me Capt° Love had offer'd a large reward for anybody 
that would take me and tye me and carry me before the Commit- 
tee, and that each of the Men offered five pounds also. Major Sam' 
Snead's son Israel came and told me he was at Masks ferry and 
that the So. Carolina rebels were only 219 and that there was about 
120 of our County on the day aforesaid. I then sent orders to 
some of the Militia Caj^t' to call their Companys together to sup- 
press the present invasion, but through fear and treachery' they 
disappointed me, about 40 men attended several daj's and nights to 
defend me during which time as I suppose the Rebels laid my 
corn fields flat to the ground in manj' places, and there was an 
appearance of many men and horses by their tracks; on the Satur- 
day evening following at one of my neighbours Plantations I saw 
in the twilight of the evening a Man seperate himself from aI)out 
seven others without a hat a handkerchief tyed about his head, 
and made towards the place I stood with a Gun in his hand, 
imagining his design I fired at him whether I hit I know not, 
immediately I heard them ride away etc. I have camped in the 
Woods ever since until I arrived on board this Vessel on Sunday last, 
and further sayeth not. (Signed) JAMES COTTON. 

N. B. I have often heard that the Rebels said thej' would burn 
up my houses and Mill, drive awaj' my Negroes and Stock and 
that I should not tarry with them nor my family. 
VOL. X — 9 


B. P. R. O. Am. & W. IND.: No. Carolina. No. 232.] 

Depositions about the burning of Fort Johnston. 

Samuel Cooper Master of the Ship Unitij belonging to riyniouth 
in the Kingdom of Great Britain being sworn on the Holy Evangel- 
ists of Almighty God, Deposeth and Saith, 

That on or about the 17"" day of July last he this Deponent together 
with Captain Cheeseman Master of the Brigantine Success coming in 
this Deponents boat from Wilmington to the Flatts in Cape Fear 
River it being the same day on which a certain Colonel Ashe sailed 
for Brunswick in Roger's Sloop, which had been presided for the pur- 
pose of carrying him and a number of armed men. They overtook 
t'ne said Sloop and a certain M' Robinson as this Deponent hath 
heard and being informed then on board the said sloop, hailed this 
Deponent's boat and informed them that Colonel Ashe desired they 
■would come alongside and drink some Toddy which they complied 
with. That while this Deponent and his Company were on board the 
said Sloop the persons appearing to be officers and part of the armed 
men then on board her in general avowed that their Expedition 
was with intent to take His Majesty's Fort Johnston and the said 
Robinson in the hearing of Col. Ashe and the other officers requested 
this Deponent's people in the Boat' (being four in number) to hold 
themselves in readiness to assist in the glorious Enterprize or words 
to that effect and asked if they would go with them, his people replied 
they had fought for their King on board a Man of War and when 
they chose to fight it should be there again. This Deponent saith, 
that while they were drinking some Toddy, the said Robinson said 
he would give them a Toast and accordingly said Damnation to all 
Tories and that Tory the Governor, meaning the Governor of Fort 
Johnston, Captain Collet, and if you want fresh provisions we will 
send you his Quarters (meaning the Governors) up to the Flatts. 
This Dei^onent furthur saith that about midnight of the IT"" afore- 
said a certain Captain Smith brought a letter on board this Depo- 
nent's Ship and having procured a light this Deponent read the 
contents and found the substance thereof to be, that Colonel Aslie 
requested the Masters and Commanders of the Ships at the Flatts to 
assist him with what Boats, Men and Swivil Guns they could spare, 
in tlie glorious cause of libei'ty, which letter was signed John Ashe. 


And this Deponent further saith that on the 16"" of the said month 
of- July, this Deponent gave leave to his Mate Boatswain and Car- 
penter to go to Brunswick to see an old shipmate on board one ot 
the Vessels then lately arrived from England, saith he was informed 
that on their return they were ordered by a person on board a small 
schooner full of armed men to bring too which thej' neglecting they 
were fired upon by scJme of the armed people and not bringing too 
were again fired at, they then thought it more safe to go alongside 
the Schooner, and severely reprehended them for so cowardly an act 
as firing on an unarmed Boat, the fellows excused themselves by 
saying they had no intention to hurt them but only to frighten them 
as they knew they were Englishmen and would be frightened at a 
flash in the pan, they then forced this Deponent's People to land the 
armed Men with their Boat. 
(Signed) SAM' COOPER. 

William Todd Commander of the Ship Duke of York of and 
belonging to Whitehaven in the Kingdom of Great Britain and 
being duly Sworn on the Holy Evangelists of Almighty God, 
deposeth and saith : 

That on the 9"" of .July being on his way to Wilmington to advise 
AP Cruden of his arrival in Cape Fear River, he called at Bruns- 
wick and was there asked to dinner by M' Dry, Collector of His 
Majesty's Cu.stoms at that Port. That he accepted his invitation 
accordingly, and after dinner he heard with astonishment the said 
M"' Dry toast three several times "success to the American Arms," 
adding that he wished ardently from his soul they might conquer. 
That he this Deponent drank his glass twice, without repeating any 
Toast, but being asked at tlie third rou)id whether he had any objec- 
tion to the Toast he drank it fearing his opposition might prove 
injurious to the owners of his Ship. That on the 17"" of the last 
month (July) this Deponent being in bed on board liis Ship lying 
at the Flatts was waked by one of his People about midnight and 
told there was a man come on board who wanted to see him. That 
this Deponent immediately got up and went on Deck where he 
was presented by a person (of the name of Smith as he has been 
informed) with a letter which he told him was from Col. Ashe, 
which this Deponent read and found it addressed to all Captains and 
Masters of Ships lying at the flatts purporting tliat they were 
requested to send all their men, boats and several guns to assist in 


their glorious design of burning the Transport with fire rafts which 
they had prepared for that purpose, adding tliat he hoped the Mas- 
ter of Ships would not be wanting in giving the utmost assistance 
upon the occasion, that those who went upon the Expedition should 
be well rewarded. This Deponent declared that the above men- 
tioned was signed John Ashe, which having read three times over 
and asked leave to keep it or to take a copy of it which was refused, 
he returned it to the messenger who brought it desiring him to make 
the Deponents compliments to Col. Ashe and to let him knovr that 
he could not conveniently spare his men, boats or swivil guns ; that 
if his men chose to go upon the intended service he could not con- 
trol them, but it was out of his power and he could not command 
them to go, and that if Colonel Ashe meant to employ force to take 
his boats he had not strength to withstand his superior force, upon 
which answer the Messenger retired from his this Deponent's ship. 
And further this Deponent saith not. 

Edward Cheeseman, Commander of the Brigantine Success off and 
belonging to the Port of Pool in Great Britain, being duly sworn 
this 1" September 1775, on the Holy Evangelists of Almiglity God, 
deposeth and saith, 

That on the IG"" day of July last; he the Deponent together witli 
Captain Cooper of the Ship Unity and M"' Bowan, were going from 
Wilmington to the Flatts and overtook Col. Ashe, who had embarked 
before them at Wilmington with a party of armed men on board 
Roger's boat which was pressed for that purpose; that on coming up 
to the said Sloop they were hailed by a person on board her and 
invited to go alongside to drink some Toddy with Col. Ashe; that 
the Deponent and his companions aforementioned went on board 
the said Sloop and while they were there they heard the purpose of 
their Expedition declared to be to take or to destroy Fort Johnston 
and His Majesty's Sloop Cruizcr; that a certain person on board of 
the name of Robinson as this Deponent thinks, in the hearing 
of Col Ashe and his officers, desired the seamen in Captain Cooper's 
Boat to hold themselves in readiness to assist them in the glorious 
enterprize, which they refused, etc. The Deponent further declares 
that the same person after asking him and Captain Cooper whether 
they wanted any fresh beef, and being answered in the affirmative, 
said they would send them the quarters of the Governor to the 


shipping at the fiatts for fresh provisions: And further this Depo- 
nent saith not. 

John Martin Commander of the Ship Liberty, Property of and 
belonging to the Port of Belfast in the Kingdom of Ireland, being 
duly sworn this 4"" September 1775 on the Holy Evangelists of 
Almighty God, deposeth and saith, 

That he the Deponent a daj' or two before the destruction of Fort 
Johnston hy the People headed by John Ashe heard them gascon- 
ading and boasting of their intended expedition to destroy Fort 
Johnston, His Majesty's Sloop Cruizer and the Transport on board 
which Captain Collet and the Garrison of Fort Johnston was 
embarked, which last seemed to be the principal object of their 
rage. That on Monday morning the 17"' day of July last about 2 
o'clock a certain person named Smith came on board the Deponents 
Ship lying at the Flatts and asked for the Master. That the Depo- 
nent being informed thereof by his Mate, rose from his bed and 
directing a light to be struck desired the Messenger to walk down into 
the Cabin, where he delivered a letter to the Deponent signed John 
Ashe Col. and directed to all Masters of Ships then lying at the 
Flatts the substance of which was that Col. Ashe required them to 
send all the boats and men they could spare immediately to assist 
in the glorious enterprise they had in hand. That Smith the 
bearer of the letter told the Deponent they were preparing Fire 
Rafts and wanted the Ships boats and hands to tow them down the 
river. That the Deponent after perusing the Letter several times 
told Smith the messenger that he had business enough for his 
Boats and Men that he could not answer for the Disj^osition of his 
People but believed the}' would not willingly engage in the pro- 
jected Expedition in which opinion he was afterwards confirmed by 
the unanimous Declaration of his Crew. 



[From MS. Records ix Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee in Rowan County. 

At a meeting of the Committee for the County of Rowan August 
1=' 1775. 

Moses "Winslow, Chairman. 
James Macay, Clk. 

On Motion Resolved, That Col Kennon i\r Avery and M' Coles 
be admitted to seats in this Committee. 

Resolved That a friendh* address be sent to the Inhabitants of 
tire fork of Yadkin in order that a confei-ence may be had with 
them on Frida}' next. 

Resolved That Messrs Avery, Sam' Young and W^'Shar}! be a 
Committee to draw up said address. 

M' Cook the Baptist Preacher appearing before the Committee 
and in the most explicit and humiliating Terms professing his Sor- 
row for signing the protest against the Cause of Libertj^ which 
lately circulated in the fork of the Yadkin — and other parts of his 
conduct in opposing the just Rights and Liberties of the Nation in 
general and American Liberties in particular and intrcating for 
Information relative to the present unhappy Disturbance. 

Resolved That Messrs Samuel Young and Will Sharp wait on 
]\r Cook, and give him all the information in their power. 

Resolved That one thousand A'olunteers lie immediately embodied 
in this County, elect their Staff Officers and be ready at the shortest 
Notice to march out to Action. 

Resolved That Messrs Sam' Young, James Macay and W" Sharp 
be a Committee to draw up an address to the several Militia 

Which being done, was read, and is as follows — 


"We the Committee for the County of Rowan, and Town of Salis- 
bury having received a letter from the honorable Continental Con- 
gress recommending to this County immediately to form a part of 
the Men able to bear arms into Regular Companies for the Defence, 
of this Province, against the Tyranny and Designs of the Kings 
Ministers to undo him and us. 


Thus far the Recommendatiou of the Congress which we are 
further led most anxiously to engage in from having now in our 
possession letters directed by Lord Dartmouth the Kings Secretary, 
and General Gage his Commander at Boston, declaring their inten- 
tion to attack this Province by arming one part of us under British 
Officers against the other, by which cruel means each Neighbour- 
hood would be engaged in bloody Massacre with its adjacent in 
that bitter scourge to humanity, a Civil War — Brother against 
Brother, and Son against the Father; letting loose upon our defence- 
less frontier a Torrent of Blood by the Savage rage of Indian Bar- 
barity, who are ordered a supply of Arms and Ammunition by 
Lord North immediately to attack us, and repeat the inhuman 
Cruelties of the last War, Ripping Infants from the wombs of their 
expiring mothers, roasting Cliristians to Death by a slow fire. But 
let us cpiit a subject disgraceful to Christianity and rouse like one 
Man in Defence of our Religion from Popery, our Liljerty from 
Slavery, and our lives frum tormenting Death. 

We exhort that each Captain do ^nlist as many Men within his 
company or elsewhere, as in his power, who are to form themselves 
into companies of 50 men or more. Choose their officers, and be 
supplyed with ammunition for tlie purposes above said, vrithin 
their County and frontier. 

And-it is most earnestly recommended that the}' do as quick as 
possible improve themselves in the discipline and Exercise. 

Resolved, That all powder in this town be taken into the posses 
siou of .this Committee. 

Resolved, That Hugh j\Iontgomery, Maxwell Chambers, Will. 
Nisbit, Matthew Troy, and M' ]\Iitchell be required to declare on 
Oath to this Committee what quantity of powder, lead and flints is 
in their possession, and that they may deliver the same to the order 
of this Committee. 

Resolved, That M' Matthew Troy, do deliver unto this Committee 
all the powder in his custody, the property of John Kelly, and that 
the Committee indemnify W Troy for said action. 

Resolved, That a copy of the above Resolve signed Ijy all tlie 
members be given to M' Troy as the Obligati )n of this Committee. 

Resolved, That .John Work deliver to the order of the Committee 
one Quarter cask of powder, and all the lead and flints in his pos- 
session, and that the Committee pay for the same the price set upon 
these articles. 


Resolved, That George Henry Barringer Esq', David "Woodson, 
Richard Shaver, attend on Lewis Jefre, and by order of Committee 
require him to deliver to them the powder and ammunition in his 
possession, and that this Committee obligate themselves to pay for 
the same. Also that they wait on Frederick Fisher for the same 

Be it remembered that the Day before a Petition was presented 
by Doctor Newman and others against the seeming abitrary conduct 
of Col° Kennou and others in the case of Dunn and Boote. 

Resolved, That the Petition presented by Doctor Newman be 

After a long Debate, the question was put — discharged in the 
petition — 

1". Whether the malice &c was proved ? 

Answered in the Negative. 

2°*. "Whether there was a Necessity for taking Dunn et Boote? 

Answered iu the Affirmative. * 

3'*, When taken whether to be removed? 

Answered in the affirmative. 

4'". And if removed whether to South Carolina. 

Answered in the Affirmative. 

5"". Whether the Conduct of Col. Alartia and others be a prece- 
dent for the future in all cases of the like Nature? 

Answered in the Negative. 

G"" Whether the Conduct of Col" ]\Iartin and others merited the 
Thanks of this Committee considering the alarming Situation of 
the Provinces in general? 

Answered in the affirmative. 

Resolved, That John Oliphant, James Patterson, William Neal, 
Gilbraith Falls, declare in oj^en Committee that the Determination 
relative to their Dispute falling iu favor of either party, shall be no 
let or Cause of Division with them in support of Right and Liberty. 

W^hereas from the late contradictory and equivocal Behavior of 
Cap' Oliphant it appears he cannot be entrusted to execute the late 
Resolve of this Committee with respect to embodying Volunteers — 
and said Captain refusing to act any longer in that caj^acity — 

Resolved, That Captain Oliphants' Companj^ meet as soon as 
possible, elect proper officers, and that the Captain so appointed is 
hereby directed to execute the Resolve of this Committee, relative 
to raising and embodying "\^olunteers. 


Resolved, That the 5"' Day of this Listant a Poll be opened for 
the Election of the Town of Salisbury, and that they elect one oi- 
more Delegates to sit in the Provincial Congress. 

Resolved, That the Poll open immediately, and that the County 
choose their Delegates. 

Resolved, That the 14"' of this Instant .Jonathan Hunt and Sam' 
Bryans meet this Committee and make oath to the signers of the 
papers by them produced. 

Resolved, That Sassinfield and Company come before this Com- 
mittee the l-t"" Instant in tlie same manner and on the Terms that 
Jonathan Hunt, the Bryans and others came liefore this Committee 
on the 4"' Instant. 

Ordered that M' James Macay serve Sassinfield's Company with a 
copy of the foregoing Resolve. 

Resolved, That Ca})tain \\'ill Davison take into his custody the 
powder, lead and flints in the possession of John ^^'ork, and dispose 
of the same according to the order of Committee. 

Resolved, That Christopher Beakman take into his Custody the 
powder, lead and flints now in the possession of Conrad Hildebrand 
and dispose of the same at the order of Committee, and for the 
security of payment to Conrad Hildebrand he deliver to him at the 
receiving of it an Order on this Committee, which shall be accepted 
by us. 

Resolved, That fur the Time being each Militia Company pay 
their quota of Expense according to the Number of Taxables. 

Resolved, That for the Time being each Militia Company shall 
send two Members to Committee. 

Resolved, That Robe t King, William Shark and James Wallace 
be a Committee to make a Register of the past Resolves of this 
Countv Committee. JAMES MACAY Clk. 

[Reprinted from American Archives. Vol. 3. P. 8 ] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee at New Bern. 

Committee Ch-^mber, August 2'', 1775. 

The following Letter was wrt)te by his Excellency Governor 

Martin, to the Honourable Lewis Henry DeRosset, Esq. in answer 

to an information given him of his being charged with giving 

encouragement to the Slaves to revolt from their masters. As the 


substance of this Letter is very alarming, his Excellency therein 
publickly avowing the measure of arming the slaves against their 
masters, when every other thing to preserve the King's Government 
should prove ineffectual, the Committee have ordered the said Letter 
to be published as an alarm to the people of this Province against 
the horrid and barbarous designs of the enemies, not only to their 
internal peace and safety, but to their lives, liberties, properties, and 
every other human blessing. 

FoiiT Johnston, June 24"' 1775. 

I beg leave to make you my acknowledgements for your Com- 
munication of the false, malicious, and .scandalous report that has 
been propagated of me in this part of the Province, of my having 
given encouragement to the negroes to revolt against their masters; 
and as I persuade myself j'ou kindly intended thereby to give me 
an opportunity to refute so infamous a cUarge, I eagerly embrace 
this occasion, most solemnly to assure you (hat I never conceived a 
thought of that nature. And I will further add my opinion, that 
notliing could ever justify the design, falsely imputed to me, of 
giving encouragement to the negroes, but the actual and declared 
rebellion of the King's subject.s, and the failure of all other means 
to maintain the King's (iovernment. 

Permit me therefore Sir, to request the favour of you to take the 
most effectual means to prevent the circulation of tliis most cruel 
slander, and to assure everybody with whom you shall communicate 
on this subject, that so far from entertaining so horrid a design, I 
shall ever be ready, and heartily disposed to concur in any measures 
that may be consistent with prudence, to keep the negroes in order 
and subjection, and for the maintenance of peace and good order 
throughout the Province. 

I am, with great respect Sir your most obedient and liumble 
servant JO. MARTIN. 

The Hon. Lewis H. DeRossett Es |. 

Resolved unanimously. That his Excellency Governor Martin, 
by the whole tenour of his conduct since the unhap})y differences 
between Great Britain and her Colonies, has manifested himself an 
enemy to American liberty, and the rights and blessings of a free 
people; and that by Irs many wai.ton exeitions of power as 


(ioveriior of tliis Proviiu-e, liis hostile and dangerous Letters to 
the Ministry and General Gage, replete with falsities and misrepre- 
sentations of the true state of the Province, he has proved himself 
to liold principles abhorrent to tlie rights of humanity, and justl}' 
forfeited all coniidence M'ith the people of this Government. 

Resolved unanimously. That notwithstanding tlie very great pains 
that have been taken by those who call themselves friends to 
Government, and their favorable exj^lanations of the emphatical 
words between turned commas in the body of the above Letter, to 
make them speak a language diflterent from their true import, they 
contain, in plain English, and in every construction of language, a 
justiticatiuii of the design of encouraging the s'aves to revolt, when 
every other means should fail to preserve the King's Government 
from open and declared rebellion; and the publick avowal of a 
crime of so horrid and truly black a complexion, could only 
originate in a soul lost to every sense of the feelings of humanity, 
and long hackneyed in tlie detestable and wicked purpose of subju- 
gating Colonies to the most abject slavery. 

J5y order R. COGDELL, Chairman. 


Letter from the Earl of Dartmouth to Lord Dunmore, Governor of 


Whitkhall .Vugust 2'\ 1775. 
V.Y Liiiiii: 

The hope you held out to us in your letter of the 1" of May that 
with a supply of arms and ammunition you should be able to col- 
lect from the Lidians negroes and other persons a force sufficient if 
not to subdue rebellion at to defend Government was very 
encouraging but I find by your letters delivered to me by Lieuten- 
ant ( ollins that you have been obliged from the violence of the times 
menaced by one branch of the Legislature and .abandoned l.>v the 
other to yield up all the powers of government and to retire your- 
.self on board the Foivey. I have the Kings command to send you 
His Nhijestys leave to return to England which togetiicr with this 
letter and commission to .Mr Corbin to administer Government 
dur ng your absence will be delivered to you by Captain Atkins of 
His Majestys ship Acleon who goes convoy to tiie Maria store-ship. 


At the same time it is left to your Lordships discretion to use this 
leave of absence or not as you shall see occasion for, relying upon 
your firmness I have still a hope that with the supply of arms now 
sent you and with the assistance of a greater naval force the Kings 
Government in Virginia may yet be maintained and should this 
happily be the case it will not be necessary that Mr Corbin should 
be informed of his Majestys intention in his favour. 

I am my Lord &c 


[Reprinted from the American Archives. Vol. o. P. 6.] 

Letter from the Earl of Dartmouth to General Gage. 

Whitehall, August 2, 1775. 
Sir : 

It being His Majesty's intention that we should have, if possible, 
in North America, early in the next S[)ring, an army of at least 
twenty thousand men, exclusive of Canadians and Indians, the 
proper steps are now taking for such arrangements as may be neces- 
sary to this object; and I have this day signified, His Majesty's com- 
mands, that the 4'^ 5'^ T\ 8'^ W\ 14"", 16'", 2■2'■^ 23'^ 2(;'\ io'\ 38'", 
40'", 43'^ 44'", 45'", 47'", 49'", 52"", G3'", (U"' and 05'" Regiments be 
augmented so that each company shall consist of three Sergeants, 
three Corporals, two Drummers, and fifty-six private men, besides 
commissioned officers. And tliat each of tlie above mentioned 
twenty-two Battalions be augmented witli two companies, each to 
consist of one Captain, one Lieutenant, one Ensign, three Sergeants, 
three Corporals, two Drummers, and fifty-six j)rivate men. 

* * ■{■ "* -x- * -y- -if * 

The steps which you say the rebels have taken for calHiig in the 
assistance of the Indians, leave no room to hesitate upon the pro- 
priety of you pursuing the same measure. For that jniipose I 
enclose to you a letter to Col. Johnston, containing His Majesty's 
commands for engaging a body of Indians, and shall l>y tlie first 
ship-of-war that sails after the Cerberus send you a large assortment 
of goods for presents, which you will contrive the means of .safely 
conveying to the Colonel. 


[From the Court Records of Rowan County.] 

NOETH CaROLIXA 1 . . rn -, . 

Rowan County, j * 

At an Inferior Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions begun and 
held at the Court House in tlie town of Salisbury in and for the 
County of Rowan on tlie first Tuesday in August in the year of our 
Lord one thousand seven hundred and seventy-five before Alexander 
Osborn Esq and his Companions, Justices afsigned to keep the peace 
&c. in said County. 

Present, Daniel Little Esquire. 

Silence being cojamanded his ]\[ajesty's commission of the peace 
was publickly read and the following persons, viz: John Oliphant, 
"Will: T. Coles and William IVPBride Esquires, named in said Com- 
mission, took the oaths prescribed by Law for the qualification of 
public officers and an oath of office, and repeated and subscribed 
the Test and then proceeded to Business. 

* * * * -s- * * 

Wednesday Aug' 2"" 1775. 

The Worshipful Court met according to adjournment. 
Present: John Oliphant, Will. T. Coles, Will. iAI'Bride, E.squires.. 
Waightstill Avery Esq. is appointed Attorney for the Crown in 
the absence of John Dunn Esq'' D. Attorney. 

[Reprinted from the American Archives. Vol. 3. P. l-iO.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee at Xewbern. 

Ix Committee, August 5. 1776. 

From the late conduct of Governor ?klartin at Fort JohiLston, and 
intelligence since received liy this Committee, it appears he intends 
erecting a King's Standard, and commencing hostilities against the 
people of this Province. 

It is, therefore. Resolved, That no person or persons whatsoever, 
have'any correspondence with him, either by personal communica- 
tion or letter, on pain of being deemed enemies to the liberties of 
America, and dealt with accordingly. And that no person or per- 
sons presume to remove him or themselves from hence to Core Sound, 


or any other part of the Province where the Governor resides, with- 
out leave of this Committee, as he or they will not be suffered to 
retui'n here. 

Bv order: R. COGDELL, Chairman. 

B}^ a gentleman just come to Town from Cape Fear, we have a 
certain account that the armed force which lately went down to burn 
Fort Johnston, have effected the same by destroying all the houses, 
and rendering the Fortress entirely useless. Captain Collet, who 
commanded that Fort, it is said had a number of slaves, which he 
had instigated to revolt fi'om their masters, actually concealed in the 
Fort, which were again recovered by their several owners; for this 
treachery they burnt his dwelling-house, with all his furniture, and 
everything valuable he had not time to get on board the Man-of-war. 

[Reprinted from the American Archives. Vol. 3. Page 40.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee in Northampton County: 

At a meeting of the Committee of the County aforesaid, the 5* 
day of August, 1775: 

The Rev. j\Ir Charles Edward Taylor, Chairman : 

This Committee, taking into their consideration the clandestine 
manner of Anthonj'- Warwick's conveying powder from A^irginia 
to Hillsborough, and also examining witnesses and papers relative 
thereto, do 

Resolve, That the said Anthony Warwick has violated the Associa- 
tion in a flagrant manner, and showed himself in the highest degree 
an enemy to the rights and liberties of America ; and the Committee 
do consider him as an object to be held in the utmost detestation by 
all lovers of American freedom. 

Ordered, That the Clerk of this Committee do transmit a copy of 
the above resolve to Dixon and Hunter, to be published in their 
Gazette. EATON HAYNES, Clerk to Committee. 


[From MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedinp-s of the Safety Committee at Wilmington. 


Tuesday, August S'\ 1 775. 

At au occasional meeting of the Committee. 

Present: Cornelius Harnett, chairman: Francis Clayton, de2:)uty 
chairman; Arch'd Maclaine, James Geekie, John Robeson, John 
DuBois, Francis Brice, Wm. Ewins, Samuel Collier, Timothy Blood- 
worth, John Hollingsworth, Sampson ]\Ioseley, Thos. Nickson, .John 
Campbell, Caleb Grainger, Andrew Ronaldson, Adam Boyd, William 
Lillington, P. i\Lallett, James Tate, Samuel Ashe, John Forster, Will- 
iam Wilkinson, W° Campbell. 

A letter from James Hepburn was received with some others and 
read to this Committee wherein he begs to be restored again to the 
favor of the public. 

Ordered that James Hepburn transmit to this Committee a Depo- 
sition certified by a Magistrate, respecting the matters with which 
he stands charged, a recantation of his conversation with James 
Clardy, and sign the Continental Association. 

At an election held this day for additional Delegates for this 
town and county, to represent them in General Convention to be 
held at Hillsborough on the 2&*' inst: Arch'd McLaine, Esq., for the 
town, and W" Hooper, Alex. Lillington and James Moore, Esqs., for 
for the county, were duly elected by the Freeholders, as additional 
Delegates, with Cornelius Harnett, Esq., for the town, George Moore, 
John Ashe and Samuel Ashe, Esq", for the county, chosen on a • 
former election, to represent them in the aforesaid Convention. 

The Committee then adjourned to the next meeting. 

[B. P. R. O. Am. & W. IND.: No. Carolina. No. 222.] 

Governor Martin's " Fiery " Proclamation. 

A Proclamation. 
Whereas I have seen a publication in the C'ajie Fear Mercury 
which appears to be proceedings of a General Meeting of People 


stiling themselves Committees of the District of "Wihnington signed 
Richard Quince Sen' Chairman, in which the well known and incon- 
testible facts set forth in my Proclamation bearing date the 12"" day 
of June last are most daringly and impudently contradicted, and 
the basest and most scandalous Seditious and inflammatory false- 
hoods are asserted evidently calculated to impose itpon and mislead 
the People of this Province and to alienate their affections from His 
Majesty and His Government and concluding in the true spirit of 
licentiousness and malignity that characterizes the production of 
these seditious combinations with a resolve declaring me an Enemy 
to the Literests of this Province in particular and America in Gen- 
eral an impotent and state device that the malice and falsehood of 
these unprincipled censors have suggested, and which is their last 
contemptible Artifice, constantly resorted to and employed to cul- 
minate and traduce every man, in every rank and station of life, 
who opposes their infamous and traite ous proceedings 

And whereas b}^ the evil, pernicious and traiterous Councils and 
influence of the well known Leaders of these seditious Committees, 
a body of men v.-as assembled in Arms in Wilmington on the 16"" 
or 17"' day of July last, for the purpose as was professed in a letter 
signed the People, sent to mo on the night of the IS"" of the same 
month, by a certain John Ashe (who presumed insidiously to 
employ the more respectable name of the People to cover his own 
flagitious Designs) of removing the King's Artillery from Fort John- 
ston under the pretence of preserving and securing the same for 
the use and service of His Majesty, and iiref'-cing this Declaration 
with sundry complaints of violence and misbehaviour on the part 
of John Collet Esci" Governor and Cap'° of tlie said Fort Johnston, 
many of which it was in my power and it would have been my 
Duty to have redressed, if they had been rejiresented to me, which 
letter signed the People I thought it proper to answer and to dis- 
suade the deluded multitude from involving themselves in the 
criminal enterprize of removing the King's Artillery, which had 
been dismounted by my authority and not by Cap' Collet as had 
been pretended in order to deceive the People into a violence so 
dangerous and unwarrantable, and I am to lament that my said 
letter in Answer to the People produced no other or better effect than 
to prevent their Execution of the criminal intention of removing 
the King's Artillery which was all that their letter to me avowed, 
and tliat they i)rocoed under the lead of the said Jolni Ashe and other 


the evil minded Conspirators against the j^eace and welfare of this 
Province, to the said Fort Johnston and wantonly in the dead hour of 
night set on fire and reduce to ashes the houses and buildings within 
His Majesty's said Fort that had been evacuated and disarmed and 
was entirely defenceless, and that they returned the next day and 
completed before my face the destruction of the wooden defences of 
the Fort to which the fire had not extended, burning the liouses 
and desolating everything in the neighbourhood of the place with 
a degree of wanton barbarity that would disgrace human nature in 
the most savage state and was an overt act of high treason against 
His Majesty Avhich justified my immediate vengeance restrained by 
pity for the innocent, misguided and deluded people whom I con- 
sidered as tlie blind instruments of their atrocious leaders who, 
defeated in the still more "fiagitous designs thej' meditated, of which 
I have the fullest evidence and already involved in guilt of the 
blackest dye themselves it might be presumed urged on the people 
to every enormity that might make them appear principles in their 
own treason instead of blind Instruments thereof and by extending 
the guilt among many screen themselves from the penalties which 
they had wantonly incurred, nothing doubting at the same time 
that cool and sober reflection would justly turn the resentment and 
indignation of the people against the wicked contrivers and pro- 
moters of the violences into which they had been betraved to the 
disgrace of their country and humanity and that they would expiate 
their own guilt by delivering up their leaders to receive the condign 
punishments that the Laws inflict on such atrocious offenders, but 
havin.g seen v>-ith astonishment a Publication in the Cajje Fear 
Mcro'.rij of the 28"' day of the last month in which a set of People 
stiling themselves the Committee for the Town of Wilmington and 
County of New Hanover have to obviate the just effects tliat I 
expected from the return of reason and reflection to the jieople 
most falsely, seditiously and traitorously asserted "That Cap' Collet 
was under my auspices preparing Fort Johnston for the reception 
of a promised Reinforcement which was to be employed in reducing 
the good people of this Province to a slavish submission to the will 
of a wicked and tyranic Minister, ayd for this diabolical purpose 
had collected several abandoned profligates whose crimes had ren- 
dered them unworthy of Civil Society," etc., intending by various 
false pretences therein set forth to justify the enormities into which 
they Iiail plunged the innocent people who I am confident were for 


the most part straDgers to all the ostensible motives to the outrages 
they were hurried on to commit and which according to the acknowl- 
edgement of this despicable seditious meeting had no better founda- 
tion than resentment to Captain Collet, an individual whose offences 
the Law's power and that Avhich I derive from His Majesty were 
competent to correct in a legal way, and seeing that the said Com- 
mittee as it is called have artfully by insidious compliments and 
flattery and by their contemptible applause of the outrages and 
A'iolences perjDetrated in and about Fort Johnston endeavoured 
to reconcile the minds of the People to Treason and Rebellion 
in order to avert from their own heads the just wrath with 
which a due sense of those crimes would naturally inspire the 
People against the infamous persons who had baselj^ betraj'ed them 
into offences of so heinous and dangerous a nature. And whereas 
I have also seen a most infamous publication in the Cape Fear Mer- 
cury importing to be resolves of a set of people stiling themselves a 
Committee for the County of Mecklenburg most traiterously declar- 
ing the entire dissolution of the Laws Government and Constitution 
of this country and setting up a system of rule and regulation repug- 
nant to the Laws and subversive of His Majesty's Government, and 
another i^ublication in the said Cape Fear Mercury of the 14"' of last 
month, addressed "To the Committees of the several Towns and 
Counties of North Carolina appointed for the purpose of carrying 
into execution tlie Resolves of the Continental Congress" bearing 
date at Philadelphia June 19"' 1775 signed W" Hooper, Joseph 
Hewes, Rich'^ Caswell, the preposterous enormity of which cannot 
be adecjuately described and abhor'd it marks the Assembly from 
whose Members it comes to be the genuine Source of tliose foul 
streams of sedition which through the channels of committees have 
overflowed this once happy land, and at this moment threaten it with 
every species of misery ruin and destruction. This publication begins 
with a recital of the most unparrellelled falsehoods that ever dis- 
graced a sheet of paper, witness the infamous misrepresentation of 
the affair at Lexington (which must be also wilful) and the notori- 
ously false position that Britain cannot support her Navy without 
the aid of North Carolina Commodities calculated to gull the people 
into a surrender of all the benefits of Commerce to the idle and 
absurd Speculations and decrees of the affectedly omnipotent Con- 
gress at Philadelphia, it proceeds uiwn these false and infamous 
assertions and forgeries to excite the peojile of North Carolina to 


usurp tlie prerogative of the Crown ]>y forming a Militia and 
aj^pointing officer,-; thereto and finally to take up arms against the 
King and His Government, impudently reprehending the people of 
this Colony for their inacdvity in Treason and Rebellion and con- 
cluding with a most contradictory insidious and nonsensical jargon of 
exhortation to the people affronting to and inconsistent with reason 
and common sense to exert themselves for the preservation of Britain 
to strengthen the hands of Civil Government to preserve the liberty 
of the Constitution to look up to the reigning Monarch of Britain as 
their lawful and rightful Sovereign and to dare every danger and 
difficulty in support of His Majestys Person Crown and dignity 
after monstrously in the same breath urging the people to the distress 
and ruin of Britain to the subversion of all Civil Government to 
open rebellion against the King and His authority, and in the most 
pointed Terms prompting them to arms and resistance thus 
speciously attempting to reconcile allegiance and revolt and 
insidiously inviting the people to actual rebellion under the mark 
and guise and profession of Duty and Respect, a shallow conceal- 
ment of horrid treason that I have no doubt every honest man will 
explode and treat with its merited contempt and abhorrence, while 
no man can wonder at the absurdity of this address as it must 
invariably attend every like attempt to reconcile things in reason 
an'd nature inconsistent. The treasonable proceedings of an infa- 
mous Committee at New Bern at the head of a Body of armed 
jNIen in seizing and carrying off six pieces of Artillery the property 
of the King that lay behind the palace at that place repeated 
insults and violences offered to His ^Majesty's Subjects by these 
little tyrannical and ai'bitrary Combinations and among others to 
some of my own Servants who liave been stopped when employ'd 
on mj' business and forcibly detained and searched, the unremitting 
assiduity of those engines of sedition to sow discontent and dis- 
affection and the base artifices they emploj' to alienate and prejudice 
the Minds of His Maj'-" Subjects by confidently and traiterously 
propogating the most base scandalous and monstrous falsehoods of 
the Kings religious and political principles and of ill designs of 
His Majesty's ^linisters daring thus to defame and traduce even 
the sacred character of the best of princes whose eminent and 
distinguished virtues by universal acknowledgement erradiate with 
unexampled lustre his Imperial Diadem, and whose piety and 
strict and inviolable regard to the happy Constitution of His King- 
VOL. X — 10 


doms in Church and State and to the welfare of all His People 
stand confessed and admired throughout the world and confound 
and reprobate the infamous, traitorous and flagitious falsehoods and 
forgeries to which faction hath upon every occasion resorted to prop 
and support the most unprincipled and unnatural Rebellion that 
was ever excited in any part of the world upon which the light of 
Civilization had once dawned. The dangerous illegal and uncon- 
stitutional measure to which the People are invited by an Advertise- 
ment I have seen signed Sam' Johnston of Electing Delegates to 
meet in Convention on the 20* instant at Hillsborough that is sub- 
versive of the whole Constitution of this Country, and evidently 
calculated to seduce and alienate His Majesty's faithful and loyal 
Subjects in the Interior and Western Counties of this Province 
whose steadfast duty to their King and Country that hath' hitiierto 
resisted all the black artifices of falsehood, Sedition and Treason, 
and hath already upon mj^ Representation received the King's 
most gracious approbation and acceptance which I am authorized 
and have now the" high satisfaction to signify to His Majesty's 
faithful Subjects throughout this Province and particularly to those 
in the Counties of Dobbs, Cumberland, Anson, Orange, Guilford, 
Chatham, Rowan and Surry, who have given me more especial and 
public testimonials of their loyalty, fidelity, and duty and to give them 
assurance of His ]Majesty's most firm support which I am confidant will 
not only confirm the good dispositions of this faithful people and 
strengthen them to battle and defeat every effort of sedition and 
treason but prompt them also to resist their first approaches by with- 
standing the now meditated and insidious attempt of the intended 
Provincial Convention, to steal in upon them the spirit and erect 
among them the standard of Rebellion under the cloak and pre- 
tence of meeting for solemn deliberation on the public welfare. And 
I have no doubt that they will convince the traiterous contrivers 
and abettors of this Plot of the vainness of their traiterous Devices 
to sow sedition and disaffection in that land of loyalty by indignantl}' 
spurning from them the said intended Provincial Convention con- 
trived for the instruments of their seduction and not suffering its 
corrupted breath to pollute the air of their country now the pure 
region of good faith and incorruptible loyalty, to whose virtuous 
Inhabitants I trust is yet reserved the glorious achievement of crush- 
ing unnatural rebellion and delivering their country from lawless 
power and wide spreading anarchy of restoring and preserving in it 


the free and happy Constitution of Britain with all the train of 
envied rights and blessings which belong to that great and admired 
sj'stem of true and generous liberty now most alarmingly threatened 
with overthrow by rebellious republican and tyrannical factions 
throughout America. To the end therefore that the People of this 
Province at large may be made acquainted with the enormities, out- 
rages and violences and disorders hereinbefore recited which mani- 
festly tend to the destruction of their peace and welfare, and to the 
utter subversion of his Majestys Government and the Laws and Con- 
stitution of this country, and that I may faithfully discharge my 
Duty to the King and to Llis Majestj's People of this Province 
whose welfare and prosperity have ever been my constant study, and 
in order fully to forewarn the people of the Dangers and Calamities 
to which the men who have set themselves up for leaders in sedition 
and Treason are courting them to support them in their flagitious 
enormities or to screen themselves from the penalties to which they 
know they are become liable by extending their crimes among num- 
bers of their innocent fellow Subjects for whom I have every tender 
feeling of pity, compassion and forgiveness, I have thought it 
proper to issue this proclamation hereby to exhort His Majesty's 
Subjects the People of this Provmce as they tender the invaluable 
Rights, Liberties, and privileges of British Subjects that they do 
seriously reflect upon and consider the outrages a"nd violences into 
which the innocent inhabitants of many parts of this Province 
and in the Counties of Duplin, New Hanover, Craven and 
Brunswick in jiarticular have been betrayed by the Seditious 
Artifices of certain traiterous persons who have presumed to 
take the lead among them and to attend to the obvious and 
ruinous consecjuences of following the wicked and flagitious 
Councils of men wlio intent only upon romantic schemes 
and their own mistaken Interests and aggrandizement are cajoling 
the People by the most false assertions and insinuations of oppres- 
sion on the part of His iNIajesty and His Government to become 
Instruments of their base views of establishing themselves in 
Tyranny over them treacherously aiming by specious jDretences of 
regard to their rights and Liberties that have never been invaded or 
intended to be invaded to delude the People to work their own 
Destruction in order to gratify for a moment their own lust of power 
and lawless ambition that vrould undoubtedly carry them if they 
could possibly succeed to reduce the people upon whom they now 


call and rely for support iu their criminal Designs to the most 
slavish submission to that very arbitrary power to which they would 
now climb upon the shoulders and by the assistance of the People. 
Let the people best consider coolj^ and dispassionately the cause in 
wijich their infamous leaders would engage them they will see it 
from the beginning of the discontents in America founded in erro- 
neous principles and to this day supported by every art of falsehood 
and misrepresentation their best coloured and most sj^ecious Argu- 
ments fraught with sophistry and illusion have shrunk back from 
the light of truth and vanished confounded before the standard of 
right reason. Yet still unabashed the Tools of sedition have impru- 
dently and unremitingly imposed falsehood after falsehood upon the 
innocent people extravagantly prophaining even the most sacred 
name of the Almighty to promote their flagitious purpose of excit- 
ing Rebellion until they have shaken the Allegiance and Duty of 
great numbers and actually involved some of the People in the 
most horrid crimes against their Sovereign and the Laws and Con- 
stitution of their Country. And I do hereby most espeiially 
admonish His Majestys fixithful Subjects in this Colony, that the 
holding what is called a Provincial Convention at Hillsborough in 
thejieart of the Province is calculated to extend more widely the 
traiterous and rebellious designs of the Enemies of His Majesty 
and His Government, and the Constitution of this Province, and 
particularly to influence, intimidate and seduce His Majestys Loyal 
and Faithful Subjects in that Neighbourhood from their Duty to 
their King & Country which they have hitherto so faithfully main- 
tained, for the furtherance of which purposes a certain Richard 
Caswell, one of the three Persons deputed by a former illegal Con- 
vention in this Colony to attend a Congress no less illegal at Phila- 
delphia is sent an Emissary from that Assembly that hath so lately 
denounced ruin and destruction to America to forward and super- 
intend this meeting at Hillsborough and to enflame it with the 
fatal example of the Philadelphia Congress, a part which he has 
entered upon with the most active zeal after -having often declared 
his principles averse to the cause in which he is engaged, thus 
exhibiting himself to the world a monstrous engine of double treason 
against his own conscience and against His King and Country. 
And whereas I consider this a most o;_en and daring attempt to stir 
up unnatural Rebellion in this Colony against His Majesty and His 


I do hereby tidvise forewarn and exhort all His Majesty's Subjects 
within this Province to forbear making any choice of Delegates to 
represent them in the intended Convention at Hillsborough as they 
would avoid the guilt of giving sanction to an illegal Assembly 
•acting upon principles subversive of the happy Constitution of their 
Country and that they do by every means in their power oppose 
that dangerous and unconstitutional Assembly and resist its baneful 

And whereas in order to encourage the people to proceed in the Trea- 
sons to which thej' have been blindly influenced and misled by the 
Persons who have set themselves up for leaders among them, it has 
been represented in order to enflame and render the People desperate 
that they have offended past forgiveness and that having no mercy 
to hope for from the King their better chance is to prosecute their 
Treasons to ojaen Rebellion and resistance of His Majesty and His 
Government, I think it proper in tenderness and pity to the poor 
misguided multitude and to obviate this abominable design of 
engaging them more deeply in transgression hereby to offer promise 
and to declare to all each and every of them His Majesty's most 
gracious pardon for all violences done and committed to the date 
hereof on their return to their Duty to the King and obedience 
to lawfull Government and renouncing their seditious and treason- 
able proceedings and I hereby offer ample reward and encourage- 
ment to the People or any of them who shall yield and deliver up 
to me the fev\' principal persons who seduced them to the treasonable 
outrages hereinbefore recited to be dealt with according to Law. 

And whereas, the People in many places have been seduced to 
the choice and appointment of Military officers among themselves 
which is an usurpation and invasion of His Majestj^'s just and law- 
ful prerogative. And whereas no person whatever is entitled to 
hold exercise or enjoy any Commission or Authority over the j\Iilitia 
of this Colony but such as are Commissioned by His Majesty or His 
Governor of this Province. And whereas a certain John Ashe 
hereinbefore named who lately resigned to me his Commission of Col- 
onel in the Militia of the County of New Hanover has presumed to 
influence and conduct a body of armed men of the said County a*ad 
other adjacent Counties to the most daring and treasonable outrages 
and a certain Robert Howes alias Howe hath also presumed without 
Commission from me or any lawfull Authority to take upon himself 
the stile and title of Colonel and to advertise and summon the 


Militia of tlie County of Brunswick to meet in order to be trained 
to Arms, I do hereby forewarn tbe People against any and every 
such Election of officers to which they are invited and caution them 
against any obedience and regard to any Persons Avho have been 
or may be so chosen and appointed hereby declaring every sucl* 
Election illegal unconstitutional and null and void to all intents 
and purpose. And that the said .John Ashe and Robert Howes 
alias Howe before mentioned and both of them and everj' other per- 
son and persons who hath or have presumed to array the Militia 
and to assemble men in Arms within this Province without my 
Commission or Authority have invaded His Majesty's just and Royal 
Prerogative and violated the Laws of their Country to which they 
will be answerable for the same. And whereas, it is out of doubt 
that a majority of the People of this Colony left to follovi' the 
impulses of their own hearts and understanding are loyal and faith- 
ful Subjects to His Majesty and true and firm friends to the Consti- 
tution and Laws of their Country. And whereas, it appears that 
the assembling Convention at Hillsborough will bring the Affairs of 
this Country to a Crisis which will make it necessary for every man 
to assert his principles, I do hereby conjure the good people of this 
Province as they tender & regard the blessings of British Subjects 
that they do firmly persist and persevere in their Duty and alle- 
giance to His Majesty, hereby assuring them in the King's name 
and by Llis Majesty's Authority of his firm and determined resolu- 
tion to maintain his faithful Subjects in the full and free enjoyment 
of all their religious and Civil Rights, Liberties and Privileges and 
of His ]\Iajesty's utmost Encouragement to them in the defence and 
support thereof against all Enemies, Rebels and traitors whatsoever. 
And I do hereljy strictlj^ require and Command all Plis IMajesties 
Justices of tbe Peace, Sheriflfs and other officers, and all other His 
]\Lajesties liege Subjects to exert themselves in the discovery of all 
seditious Treasons and Traiterous Conspiracies, and in bringing to 
justice the principals and accomplices therein. And I do further 
strictly enjoin them to give all manner of aid, countenance, assist- 
ance and protection to all His Majesty's loyal and faithful People, 
and all persons are hereby required to take notice and govern them- 
selves accordingly. 

Given under my hand and the Great Seal of the said Province on 
board His Majesty's Sloop in Cape Fear River, this S"' day 


of August Anno Dom: 1775, and in the 15"' year of His Majesty's 
Reign. JO. MARTIN.^ 

By His Excellency's Command: 


God save the King. 

[FEOii MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Co]nmittee at AVilmiugton. 

Wedxesd.vy, Aug. Otli, 1775. 

At an occasional meeting of the Committee. 

Present : Cornelius Harnett, Chairman ; Archibald Maclaiue, John 
Robeson, James Geekie, John For.ster, Adam Boyd, Peter Mallett, 
Francis Price, Jno. DuBois, Tim. Bio dworth, Thos. Bloodvrorth, 
Henry Toomer, James Blythe, "Wm. Purviance, Jno. Ancrum, Jas. 

Wliereas, the late Continental Congress, in the fourth article of 
their Association for themselves and their constituents, agreed that 
the earnest desire thej had, not to injure their fellow subjects in 
Great Britain, Ireland and the West Indies, induced them to sus- 
pend a non-exportation, until the 10th day of September, 1775; at 
which time, if the said acts and parts of acts of the British Parlia- 
ment thereinafter mentioned, should not be repealed; they would 
not directly or indirectly export any commodity what.soever, to 
Great Britain, Ireland or tlie West Indies, except rice to Europe. 
And, whereas, information hath been made to the committee, that 
several merchants and traders, in the town of Wilmington, under- 
stand the said article, in this sense, that is to say, that if any ship 
or vessel should, before the said 10th day of Sept., begin to load, 
time and liberty would be allowed to complete the loading, at any 
time, however extended, after the said 10th day of September, 
which would be a flagrant infraction of the said Association. 

Resolved, therefore, That no ship or vessel, on auj' pretence what- 
ever, shall take on 'board any merchandises or commodities from 
and after the 10th day of September next; nor shall any person or 
persons presume to ship any goods, wai'es, or merchandises, on board 
of any ship or vessel, from and after the said 10th day of Septem- 
ber, on pain of the displeasure of the public. 


[Reprinted from the American Akchites. Vol. 3. Page 75.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee at Xewbern. 

Committee Chamber, Newberx, 

August 10'" 1775. 

The following Letters'*' have fallen into the hands of this Com- 
mittee. Their alarming tendency sufficiently apologizes for their 
publication. As Governor Martin stands singl}-, as a Provincial 
Governor, in his unremitting ardour to commence hostilities against 
this Province, are ministerial orders to him different or his officious 
zeal to injure the people of his Government prompted by any 
malevolent principles? 

[B. P. R. O. Am. & W. IND. Vol. -J-ii.] 

Extracts from the Cape Fear Mercury of 11'" August, 1775. 

About three weeks ago Governor IMartin called a Council, but a 
few days prior to their meeting, he wrote a letter to the hou"'' jNP Dry, 
.susjDended him from that Board, without giving him the least 
opportunity for justifying himself. 

We are told this suspension was occasioned by M' Dry maintain- 
ing his usual connections and intercourse with some of his friends, 
who have declared in favour of American Liberty. A suspension 
of this sort will be deemed by all good men, much more honour- 
able than an appointment to the Council. 

At an election of Delegates on the eighth inst. for the Town of 
Wilmington and the County of New-Hanover on the recommen- 
dation of Samuel Johnston Escp, moderator, Archibald ^Maclaine 
Esr| for the town, William Hooper, .James Moore and Alexander 
Lillington Escf' for the County, were chosen additional Delegates to 
represent this Town and County in general Convention to be held 
at Hillsborough on the 20"" instant, with Cornelius Harnett Esc^. 

*For the intercepted letter .see ante page 10. — Editor. 


for the town, and George Moore, John Ashe and Samuel Ashe 
Esq"' chosen at a former Election for the Count}-. 

The Rev"* M' Reed of Newbern, refused to preach on the general 
fast day, tho' particularly applied to for that purpose, winch so 
offended his parishioners, that we hear, they have dismissed him 
from his parochial charge there. 

Letter from General Lee, to General Burgoyne upon his arrival in 

Philadelphia, .June 7* 1775. 
My Dear Sie, 

We have had twent}^ .different accounts of your arrival in Bos- 
ton, which have been as regularly contradicted the next morning; 
but as I now find it certain that j'ou are arrived, I shall not delay a 
single instant addressing mj-self to you. It is a duty I owe to the 
friendship I have long and sincerely professed to you: a friendship 
to which you have the strongest claims from the first moments of 
our acciuaintance. . There is no man from whom I have received 
so many testimonies of esteem and affection; there is no man 
whose esteem and affection could, in my opinion, have done me 
greater honour. I entreat and conjure you therefore, my dear Sir, 
to impute these lines not to a petulent itch of .scribbling, but to the 
most unfeigned solicitude for the future tranquility of your mind, 
and for your reputation. I sincerely lament the inftituation of the 
times, when men of such a stamp as M" Burgoyne and M' Howe 
can be induced into so impious and nefarious a service by the 
artifice of a wicked and insidious court and Cabinet. You, Sir, 
must be sensible that these epithets are not -unjustly severe. You 
have yourself experienced the wickedness and treachery of this 
Court and Cabinet. 

You cannot but recollect their manoeuvres in your own select 
Committee, and the treatment yourself, as President, received from 
these abandoned men. You cannot but recollect the black business 
of S' A^incent, by an opposition to which you acquired the highest 
and most deserved honour. I shall not trouble you with my opin- 
ion of the right of taxing America without her ovv-n consent, as I am 
afraid, from what I have seen of your .speeches, that you have ali'eady 
formed your creed upon tins Article; but I will boldly affirm, had 


this right been established by a thousand statutes, had America 
admitted it from time immemorial, it would be the duty of every 
good Englishman to exert his utmost to divest Parliament of this 
right, as it must inevitably work the destruction of the whole 
Empire. The malady under which the State labors is iudisjiutably 
derived from the inadequate representation of the subject, and the 
vast pecuniary influence of the Crown. To add to this pecuniary 
influence and incompetency of representation, is to insure and pre- 
cipitate our destruction. To wish any addition can scarcel}' enter 
the heart of a citizen who has the least spark of public virtue, 
and who is, at the same time, capable of seeing consequences the 
most immediate. I appeal, Sir, to your own conscience, to your 
experience and knowledge of our Court and Parliament; and I. 
request j'ou to lay your hand upon your heart, and then answer 
with your usual integrity and frankness, whether, on the suppo.sition 
America should be abject enough to submit to the terms imposed, 
you think a single guinea raised upon her would be applied to the 
purpose, as it is ostentatiously held out to deceive the People at 
home, of easing the jMotlier Country? or whether you are' not con- 
vinced, that the whole they could extract would be applied solely to 
heap up still further the enormous fund for corruption, which the 
Crown already possesses, and of which a most diabolical use is made. 
On these jirinciples I saj', Sir, every good Englishman, abstracted 
of all regard for America, must oppose her being taxed bj' the Brit- 
ish Parliament; for my part I am convinced that no argument, not 
totally abhorrent from the spirit of liberty and the British Constitu- 
tion, can be produced in sup^iort of this right. But it would be 
imjiertincnt to trouble you upon a subject which has been so amply, ^ 
and, in my opinion, so fully discussed. I find a speech given as 
yours in the public papers, that it was by the King's 'i:>o.sitive com- 
mand you embarked in this service. I am somewhat pileased that 
it is not an office of your own seeking, though, at the same time, I 
must confess, that it is very alarming to every virtuous citizen, Avhen 
he sees men of sense and integrity, because of a certain profession, 
lay it down as a rule, implicitly to obey the mandates of a court be 
they ever so flagitious. It furnishes, in my opinion, the best argu- 
ments for the total reduction of the army. But I am running into 
a tedious essay, whereas I ought to confine myself to the main 
design and purpose of this letter, which is to guard you and your 
Colleagues, from those prejudices, wliich the same miscreants, who 


have infatuated General Gage and still surround him, will labour to 
instil into j-ou against a brave, loyal and most deserving people. 
The avenues of truth will be shut u\) to you. I assert Sir, that even 
General Gage will deceive you as he has deceived himself; I do not 
saj^ he will do it designedly. I do not think him capable but his 
mind is totally poisoned, and his understanding so totally blinded 
by the society of fools and knaves that he no longer is capable of 
discerning facts as manifest as the noonday sun. I assert Sir, that 
he is ignorant, that he has been from the beginning consummately 
ignorant of the jirinciples, temper, disposition and force of the Colo- 
nies. I assert Sir, that his letters to the ministry, at least such as the 
public have seen, are one continued tissue of misrepresentation, 
injustice and tortured inferences from misstated facts. I affirm. Sir, 
that he has taken no pains to inform himself of the truth; that he 
has never conversed with a man who has had the courage or 
honesty to tell him the truth. I am apprehensive that you and 
your Colleagues may fall into the same trap, and it is the 
apprehension that you may be inconsiderately hurried, by the 
vigour and activity you possess, into measures which may be 
fatal to many innocent ilidividuals, may hereafter wound your 
own feelings and which cannot possibly serve the cause of those who 
sent you, that has prompted me to address these lines to you. I 
most devotedly wish that your industry, valour, and military talents, 
may be reserved for a more honourable and virtuous service against 
the natural enemies of your Country, to whom our court are so 
basely complacent, and not be wasted in ineffectual attempts to 
reduce to the wretchedcst state of servitude, the most meritorious 
part of your fellow subjects. I say Sir, that any attempts to accom- 
plish this purpose must be ineffectual. You cannot possibly succeed. 
No man is better acquainted with the state of this continent than 
myself. I have ran through almost the whole Colonies, from the 
North to the South, and from the South to the North. I have con- 
versed with all Orders of men, froni the first estated Gentleman to 
the lowest Planters and Farmers, and can assure you that the same 
spii'it animates the whole. 

Not less than an hundred and fifty thousand gentlemen, yeomen 
and farmers are now in arms, determined to preserve their liberties 
or perish. As to the idea that the Americans are deficient in cour- 
age, it is too ridiculous and glaringly false to deserve a serious 
refutation. I never could conceive upon what this notion was 


founded. I served several campaio-ns in America the last war and 
cannot recollect a single instance of ill beliaviour in the Provin- 
cials, where the Regulars acquitted themselves well. Indeed we 
well remember some instances of the reverse, particularly where the 
late Colonel Grant, he who lately pledged himself for the general 
cowardice of America, ran away with a large body of his own regi- 
ment, and was saved from destruction, by the valour of a few Yir- 
ginians. Such preposterous arguments are only proper for the 
Rigbys and Sandwichs, from whose mouths never issued, and to 
whose breasts truth and decency are utter strangers. You will 
much oblige me in communicating this letter to General Howe, to 
whom I could wish it should be considered in some measure 
addressed as well as to yourself. M' Howe is a man for whom I 
have ever had the highest love and reverence. I have honoured 
him for his own connections, but above all for his admii'able talents 
and good equalities. I have courted his acquaintance and friendship 
not only as a pleasure but as an ornament; I flatter myself that I 
had obtained it. Gracious God ! Is it possible that M' Howe should 
be prevailed upon to accept such an Office! That the brother of 
him to whose memory the much injured people of Boston, erected a 
monument should be employed as one of the instruments of their 
destruction. But the fashion of the times it seems is such, as ren- 
ders it impossible he should avoid it. 

The commands of our most gracious Sovereign are to cancel all 
moral obligations, to sanctify every action, even those that the satrap 
of an Eastern despot would start at. I shall now beg leave to say a 
few words with respect to myself and the part I act. I was bred up 
from my infoncy with the highest veneration for the liberties of 
mankind in general. What I have seen of Courts & Princes con- 
vinces me that Power cannot be lodged in worse hands than in 
theirs ; and of all Courts I am persuaded that ours is the most cor- 
rupt, and hostile to the rights of humanity. I am convinced that 
a regular plan has been laid, indeed every act since the present 
accession evinces it, to abolish even the shadow of liberty from 
amongst us. It was not the demolition of the tea, it was not any 
other particular Act of the Bostonians, or of the other provinces 
which constituted their crimes. But it is the noble spirit of liberty 
manifestly pervading the whole continent, which has rendered them 
the objects of Ministerial and Royal vengeance. Had they been 
notoriously of another disposition, had they been Jtominesad scrvitn- 


duicm parcdi, they might have made as free with the proijerty of the 
East India Company as the felonious Nortli himself with impunity. 
But the Lords of S' Tames's and their mercenaries of S' Stephen's, 
well know, that as long as the free spirit of this great Continent 
remains unsubdued, the progress they can make in their schemes of 
universal despotism will be but trifling. Hence it is that they wage 
inexpiable war against America. In short this is the last asylum of 
persecuted liberty. Here should the machinations and furj- of 
her enemies prevail, that bright Goddess must fly off the face of the 
earth and leave not a trace behind. These, Sir, are my principles; 
this is mj^ persuasion and consequentially I am determined to act. 

I have now, Sir, onh' to entreat that whatever measures j'ou pur- 
sue, whether those which your real friends, myself amongst them, 
would wish, or unfortunately those which our accursed misrulers 
shall dictate, you will still believe me to be personally, with the 
greatest sincerity and affection Yours, &c., 


[From MS. Records ix Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee at Wilmington. 

Friday August 11, 1775. 

At an occasional meeting of the Committee. 

Present: Cornelius Harnett, Chairman; Adam Boyd, Thomas 
Devane, Timothy Bloodworth, W" Campbell, John Forster, James 
Geekie, John DuBois, William Wilkin,son, Francis Brice, James 
Blythe, John Ancrum. 

On application made by John Giftard, from the Committee of 
Wake for a supply of Gunpowder. 

Ordered, that the Committee of Intelligence write to tlie Commit- 
tee of Wake, and acquaint them of our inalnlity to supply them 
with Gunpowder at this time: that whenever we liave any to sj^are 
they may depend on our assistance. 

Whereas, this Committee has transmitted to the Committee of 
Cumberland, sundry papers that were thought necessary to • be 
kept secret, and at the same time inclosed with them the opinion of 
this Committee and the Oath of Secrecy, which this Committee have 


reason to believe they have neglected, by which means the contents 
of the said papers have transpired. 

Resolved, therefore, that this Committee cannot for the future 
transmit to the Committee of Cumberland, any papers of a secret 
nature, untill we are satisfied that the Oath of Secrecy has been 
taken by that Committee of Intelligence. Write to them accordingly. 

Resolved, That Messrs. John Robeson, W" Campbell and W"" 
Wilkinson, be appointed to collect and take into their possession all 
carriage guns and swivels, whether the property of the public or of 
private persons, for which they are to give such sufficient receipts as 
are necessary. 

[Reprinted from American Archives. Vol. 3. Page 100.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee at New Bern. 

Newbekn August 14"", 1775. 

Wher. as, all those who have wot subscribed tlie Articles of 
Association, have sufficiently testified to the publick that they are 
enemies to the liberties of America ; and as the principles of self- 
preservation make it absolutely necessary that they should be 
deprived of their Arms, therefore, it is 

Ordered, That the Captains of the several Companies in this 
County and Town require of all such suspected persons as well 
their Fire-Arms as Swords, Cutlasses &c. &e., and all Gun jiowder. 
Lead and other Military Stores; and that the said several Captains 
be empowered to give receipts for all such Guns &c. &c. and deliver 
them out to such persons of his or their Company not having Arms 
&c. &c. as may be willing to serve in the American Cause. 

By order: R. COGDELL, Chairman. 

[From MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee at Wilmington. 

Thursday, August 17"', 1775. 
At an occasional meeting of the Committee. 

Present: Francis Clayton, Deputy Chairman; Wm. Campbell, 
John DuBois, Henry Toomer, Caleb Grainger, John Forster, AVm. 


"Wilkinson, \Ym. Ewins, James Blythe, Sam'l }Jarshall, James Tate, 
Wm. Piirviance, John Ancrum, Peter Mallett, Fran's Bricc, Andw. 

On intelligence from Richard Quince, Esq., concerning a quantity 
of gunpowder being sold by a negro in this town; on examination 
of the parties it appears that one Peter Brown must have been privy 
to tliis aftair; and that a negro called Nicholas was the negro who 
sold the powder. 

Resolved, That the said Peter Brown shall give security for his 
appearance when called on by this Committee, when he produced 
William jNIiller and Thos. Brown as his securities; and the said 
Peter Brown became bound for his apjjearance in the penal sum of 
£50, and each of his securities in the sum of £25 proc. money, to 
be forfeited on failure of the said Brown's appearance, when called 
upon by this Committee. 

Resolved, That the said negro (Nicholas) be sent to Gaol till the 
exaniination of Sparrow. 

Thursday Afternoon. 

At an occasional meeting of the Committee. 

Present: Francis Clayton, deputy chairman; Will. Campbell, Jno. 
DuBois, Henry Toomer, Caleb Grainger, John Forster, Will. Wilkin- 
son, Wra. Ewins, James Blythe, Samuel Marshall, James Tate, Will. 
Purviance, John Ancrum, Peter Mallett, Francis Brice,' Andrew 

A letter was produced from Richard Quince, intimating some 
alarming information made in Brunswick, relative to the Governor's 
wicked intentions. 

Resolved, that Mr. J. Ancrum and ]\lr. J. DuBois wait on the 
Committee at Brunswick, to procure a certain account of that infor- 
mation, that proves satisfactory to this Committee; that a letter be 
wrote to the Brunswick Committee, informing them that Mr. Ancrum 
and Mr. DuBois were sent to get the account or information on oath, 
till which was done, this Committee could not comply with the 
request of sending down men for the protection and safety of the 
inhabitants of Brunswick, as the intelligence from thence was so 
imperfect that it was impossible to act with propriety. 

The Committee then adjourned. 


Friday Mokxixg, Aug. 1S'^ 17:5. 

At au occasional meeting of the Committee. 

Present: Francis Clayton, Deputy Chairman; Wm. Purviance, 
.James Tate, Thomas Bloodworth, .James Blythe, And'w Ronaldson, 
Timothy Bloodworth, Jno. Robeson, Wm. Ewins, Wm. Wilkinson, 
John Forster, Wm. Campbell, James Walker, Peter Mallett, Fran's 
Brice, Caleb Grainger, Henry Toomer. 

Several letters were received, that had been taken from an express, 
sent by his Excellency to the back country with dispatches ; those 
of any importance were taken to the Congress by Col. James Moore. 

A letter was read from the Governor to Dr. Cobham, desiring he 
would send down some particular medicines. 

Resolved. That Dr. Cobham be desired not to send the medicines, 
which he readily agreed to on being called into Committee. 

Mv. Samuel Campbell waited on this Committee, and produced an 
instrument of writing, styled by the Governor a Proclamation : the 
said piece was read by Fran's Clayton; after which, it was ordered 
to be kept in the possession of this Committee. 

The committee then adjourned. 

Fridaj' Afternoon, 3 o'clock. 

At an occasional meeting of the Committee. 

Present: Francis Clayton, deputy chairman; Will. Purviance, 
Jas. Tate, Thos. Bloodworth, James Blythe, And. Ronaldson, Tim. 
Bloodworth, John Robeson, Wm. Ewins, John DuBois, Will. Wil- 
kinson, John Forster, Wm. Campbell, James Walker, Peter jShillett, 
Frances Brice, Caleb Grainger, Henry Toomer, John Ancrum. 

On motion. Ordered, that Lt. Col. Cotton be sent for, and escorted 
here by a Guard for that purpose — who attended accordingly. 

After his examination, he was remandoil to confinement. 

Mr. Williams, sen., was then ordered in and attended — passed 
examination, and remanded back to confinement. 

On motion. Ordered, that Mr. Clayton write to Bladen a letter of 
thanks to that Committee for apprehending the above men. 

The Committee adjourned till 9 o'clock tomorrow morning. 

S.VTUKDAY Mokxixg, 9 o'clock, 19'" August, 1775. 

The committee met according to adjournment. 
Present: Francis Clayton, Deputy Gliairman: John Forster, Peter 
Mallett, A. Ronaldson, .James Blythe, Tim. Bloodworth, Thos. Blood- 


worth, John Ancrum, "Wm. Campbell, John DuBois, Wm. Ewins, 
Jno. Robeson, Fran's Brice, James Walker, Wm. Wilkinson, Henry 

Mr. Cotton, Mr. Sam'l "Williams, and his son Jacob Williams, 
being ordered before this committee; they all, and voluntarily, of 
their own accord, signed the Association entered into by the inhab- 
itants of this county; and readily took an Oath drawn -up by the 
deputy chairman. 

The said James Cotton, Sam'l and Jacob Williams, very cheer- 
fully consented to go to the Congress, to be held at Hillsboro' on 
the 21st inst., there to pass whatever examination may be thought 
proper bj' the said Congress. 

Ordered, That they be attended by a few gentlemen who are going 
to Hillsborough ; and that the deputy chairman write to the Con- 
gress, giving an account of these men, since they were taken in 
Bladen County. 

Captain Thomas Fitch appeared before the committee, and swore 
on the Holy Evangelists of Almighty God, that the cargo he had 
on board the schooner Swallow, was not intended, nor should not be 
landed at any Port, except in some of the West India Islands; and 
that he is to proceed to Hispaniola, and from thence to Jamaica. 
Ordered, that the certificate produced by Captain Fitch, from 
Humphrey and Jewkes, be filed among the committee papers. 

Saturday Evening, S o'clock. 

At an occasional meeting of the committee. 

Present: Francis Clayton, Deputy Chairman; Wm. Wilkinson, 
James Blythe, Wm. Ewins, Llenry Toomer, Jno. DuBois, Jno. 
Forster, Fran's Brice, AVilliam Campbell, John Ancrum, Peter 

Ordered, That Mr. Cotton, and the two Williamses be allowed to 
go up to the Convention b}' the way of >^ Creek. * 

The committee then adjourned. 

[From MS. Records in Office of Secret.\ry of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee in Tryon County. • 

Met according to adjournment. [14 August, 1775.] 
Present: .John Walker, Chairman; Thos. Beatey, David .Jenkins, 
VOL. X — 11 


Jacob Forney, Thomas Espe}', A'^alentine Mauney, James Coburn, 
Robert Alexander, Joseph Harden, Benjamin Harden, Frederick 
Hambright, James Logan,'Andrew Hampton, John Morris, Charles 
ArLean, John Robinson, William Graham, James M°Afee, George 
Paris, John Beeman, George Black, Andrew Neel, James Baird and 
David Whitesides, wlio took the necessary Oaths for their Qnalifica- 

Andrew Neel was duly elected Clerk of the Committee. 

Resolved, That Col. Charles M°Lean serve as Deputy Chairman 
in the absence of Col. Walker. 

Resolved, That each Company elect three members of Committee 
for this County who on a Debate, are each man to have his vote. 

Resolved, That this Association be signed by the Inhabitants of 

Tryon County, [viz] : 

An Association. 

The uniirecedented, barbarous and bloody actions committed by 
the British Troops on our American Brethren near Boston on tlie 
19* of April & 20"' of May last, together with the Hostile operations 
& Traiterous Designs now Cari'ying on by the Tools of Ministerial 
Vengeance & Despotism for the Subjugating all British America, 
suggest to us the painful necessity of having recourse to Arms for 
the preservation of those Rights & Liberties which the principles of 
our Constitution and the Laws of God, Nature, and Nations have 
made it our duty to defend. 

We therefore, the Subscribers Freeholders & Inhabitants of Tryon 
County, do hereby faithfully unite ourselves under the most sacred 
ties of Religion, Honor & Love to Our Country, firml}^ to Resist 
force by force in defence of our Natural Freedom & C onstitutional 
Rights against all Invasions, & at the same time do solemnly engage 
to take up Arms and Risque our lives and fortunes in maintaining 
the Freedom of jjur Country, whenever the Wisdom & Council of 
the Continental Congress or our Provincial Convention shall Declare 
it necessary, & this Engagement we will continue in and hold sacred 
'till a Reconciliation shall take place between Great Britain and 
America on Constitutional principles whicli we most ardently desire. 
And we do firmly agree to hold all sucli persons Inimical to the 
liberties of America, who shall refuse to subscribe to this Association. 

Signed by 
John Walker Jacob Forney Peter Sides 

Charles McLean Davis Whiteside William Wliiteside 



Andrew Neel 
Thomas Beatty 
James Coburn 
Frederick Hambright 
Andrew Hampton 
Benjamin Hardin 
George Paris 
William Graham 
Robt. Alexander 
David Jenkins 
Thomas Espey 
Perrygreen Mackness 
James McAfee 
William Thomson 

John Beeman 
John Morris 
Joseph Harden 
John Robison 
Valentine Mauny 
George Black 
Jas. Logan 
Jas. Baird. 
Christian Carpinter 
Abel Beatty 
Joab Turner 
Jonathan Price 
Jas. Miller 
John Dellinger 

Geo. Dellinger 
Samuel Barbender 
Jacob Moony, Jun 
John Wells " 
Jacob Cortner 
Robert Hulclip 
James Buchanan 
Moses Moore 
Joseph Kuykeudall 
Adam Simms 
Richard Waffer 
Samuel Smith 
Joseph Neel 
Samuel Loftree 

Resolved ncm. con. That we will Continue to profess all Loyalty and 
attachment to our Sovereign Lord King George the Third, His 
Crown & Dignity, so long as he secures to us those Rights and 
Liberties which the principles of Our Constitution require. 

Resolved, and we do Impower every Captain or other Officer in 
their Respective Companies to raise sufficient force in order to detain 
and secure all powder and Lead that may be removing or about to 
be Removed out of the County; and that they do prevent any of 
such powder and Lead from being sold or disposed of for private 
uses; but to be under the direction of this Committee until the 
Delegates shall return from the provincial Convention; Provided 
nevertheless that this Resolution is not meant to hinder any jsersons 
Inhabitants of other County's from Carrying powder and Lead 
tlirough this County to their respective abodes unless there is just 
Cause to suspect that they Intend such Powder and Lead for Inju- 
rious purposes; then and in such case notice is jio be given to the 
Committee of the County in which such per.son resides, that they 
make such order thereon as to them shall seem proper. 

Resolved, that Mr Daniel M^Kissick do make application to the 
Council of Safety of Charles Town for 500 weight Gun powder 600 
weiglit Lead, and 600 Gun Flints to be distributed under the direc- 
tion of this Committee when it shall be judged necessary. 

Resolved, That we do Recommend to the Captains of the Several 
Companies in this Regiment to call together their men in order to 
collect wliat money they can conveniently to provide powder and 


Lead, And that they make due return of what money is received 
to the Committee at next meeting. 

Resolved, That this Committee meet at the Court House of this 
County on the 14"' Day of September next there to Deliberate on 
such matters as shall be Recommended by Our Provincial Con- 

Signed by JOHN WALKER, Chairman. 


NoKTH Carolina, 

Pursuant to a Resolve of the late Convention, Mr Samuel John- 
ston summoned a meeting of the delegates at Hillsborough on the 
20"' day of August, 1775, at which time the members from a majority 
of the Counties and Towns not appearing he adjourned the Con- 
gress till to-morrow morning 10 "Clock 

Monday August 21" 1775. 

At a General meeting of Delegates of the Inhabitants of this 
Province, at liillsborough the twenty first day of August A. Dom. 
1775 aforesaid 

For Anson County — Thomas Wade, Samuel Spencer, William 
Thomas, David Love, William Picket. 

Beaufort — Roger Ormond, Thomas Respess, Jr., John Patten, 
John Cooper. 

Bladen — William Salter, Walter Gibson, Thomas Owen, Thomas 
Robinson, Jun', Nathaniel Richardson. 

Bertie — William Graj', Jonathan Jaycocks, Charles Jaycocks, 
William Brimage, William Bryan, Zedekiah Stone, Thomas Ballard, 
Peter Clifton, David Standley, John Campbell, Jolm Johnston. 

Brunswick — Robert Howe, Robert Ellis, Parker (Quince, Thomas 
Allon, Roger Moore. 

Bute — Green Hill, William Person, Thomas Eaton, Rev'' Henry 
Patillo, Jethro Sumner, Josiah Reddick. 

Craven — James Coor, William Bryan, Richard Cogdell, Joseph 
Leech, Jacob Blount, Edmond Hatch. 


Carteret — John Easton, William Thomson, Brice Williams, Solo- 
mon Sheppard, Enoch Ward. 

Currituck — Thomas Jarvis, Gidion Lamb, James Ryan, James 
White, Solomon Perkins. 

Chowan — Samuel Johnston, Thomas Jones, Thomas Benbury, 
James Blount, Thomas Hunter, Josiah Granbery. 

Cumberland — Farcjuard Campbell, Thomas Rutherford, Alexan- 
der M°Kay, Alexander M°Ahster, David Smith. 

Chatham — Elisha Cain, Richard Kennon, Matthew Jones, Jedu- 
than Harper, John Birdsong, Ambrose Ramsey, Joshua Rosser, 
Robert Rutherford, John Thompson, William Clark. 

Duplin — James Kenan, William Dickson, Thomas Graj"-, Richard 
Clinton, Thomas Hicks. 

Dobbs — Richard Caswell, Simon Bright, James Glasgow, Abra- 
ham Sheppard, Spyers Singleton, George Miller, Andrew Bass. 

Edgcombe — Robert Bignal, Henry Irwin, Duncan Lamon, 
Thomas Hunter, Tho' Harminson Hall. 

Granville — Thomas Person, John Penn, John Williams, John 
Taylor, Memucan Hunt. 

Guilford — Alexander Martin, Ransom Southerland, James Park 
Farley, Thomas Henderson, William Dent, George Cortner, Nathan- 
iel Williams. 

Hyde — Joseph Hancock, John Jordan. 

Hertford — William Murfree, Lawrence Baker, Matthias Brickie, 
Day Ridley, George Wynns. 

Llalifax — Nicholas Long, James Hogan, David Sumner, Jolin 
Wel^b, John GJeddy. 

Johnston — Benjamin Williams, Samuel Smith, Needham Bryan, 
William Bryan, John Smith. 

]\Iecklenburg — Thomas Polk, John Phifer, Waightstill Avery, 
Samuel Martin, James Houston, John i\IcNitt Alexander. 

Martin — Kenneth INIcKinzie, Whitmill Hill, John Everit, Wil- 
liam Slade, Jolin Stuart, William Williams. 

New Hanover — George Moore, Alexander Lillington, Samuel 
Ashe, William Hooper, James Moore, John Ashe. 

Northampton — Jeptha Atherton, Allen .Jones, Howell Edmunds, 
Drewry Gee, Samuel Lockhart. 

Onslow — Isaac Guion, Henry Rhodes, Edward Stark ey, John 
Spicer, John King. 


Orange — Thomas Bourk, John Kinchen, Thomas Hart, John 
Atkinson, John WilUams. 

Perqnimons — Benjamin Harvey, Andrew Knox, Miles Harvey, 
Thomas Harvey, William Skinner. 

Pasquotank — JosejDh Jones,. Thomas Boyd, Devotion Davis, 
Edward Everigin, Demsej^ Burgess. 

Pitt — John Simpson, Robert Salter, William Bryan, James Gor- 
ham, James Latham. 

Rowan — Matthew Locke, James Smith, Moses Winslow, Samuel 
Young, William Kennon, William Sharpe, Robei't Lanier. 

Surry — Joseph Williams, William Hill, Martin Armstrong, 
Joseph Winston. 

Tyrrell — Joseph Spruill, Jeremiah Frazier, Peter Wynne, Stevens 
Lee, Thomas Hoskins. 

Tryon — John Walker, Robert Alexander, Joseph Hardin, Will- 
iam Graham, Frederick Hambright, William Kennon. 

Wake — Joel Lane, John Hinton, Theophilus Hunter, Michael 
Rodgers, Tignal Jones, John Rand, Thomas Hines. 

Bath Town — William Brown. 

Edenton — Joseph Hewes, Jasper Charlton. 

New Bern — Abner Nash, James Davis, William Tisdale, Richard ' 

Wilmington — Cornelius Plarnett, Archibald Maclaine. 

Brunswick — Maurice Moore. 

Halifax — Willie Jones, Francis Nash. 

Hillsborough — William Armstrong, Nathaniel Rochester. 

Salisbury — Hugh Montgomery, Robert Rowan. 

Campbelton — James Hepburn. 

The respective Counties and Towns having certified that the pre- 
ceeding Persons wei'e duly elected Delegates to represent the said 
Counties and Towns in General Congress, to be held at Hillsborough 
the 20"" day of August instant, pursuant to which the following 
Persons appeared, to wit, 

Thomas Respess Roger Moore Jacob Blount 

John Patten Green Hill John Easton 

William Gray William Persons Brice Williams 

Charles Jaycocks Robert Alexander Solomon Shepherd 

William Bryan William Graham Enoch AVard 

Zedekiah Stone Frederick Hambright Samuel Johnston 



John Johnston 
Robert Howe 
John Jordan 
Lawrence Baker 
Mattiiias Brickie 
Alexander Martin 
Thomas Henderson 
Nathaniel Williams 
Joseph Hancock 
AVilliam Sharp 
Robert Lanier 
Joseph AVilliams 
Nicholas Long- 
James Hogan 
Thomas Eaton 
Henr}' Patillo 
Jethro Snamner 
Kenneth j\rKinzie 
Whitmill Hill 
William Williams 
George Moore 
Alexander Lillington 
Samuel Ashe 
William Hooper 
James Moore 
John Ashe 
Allen Jones 
Isaac Guion 
James Gorham 
James Latham 
iMatthew Locke 
James Smith 
Moses Winslow 
Samuel Young 
William Kennon 
Robert Ellis 
Parker Quince 
Thomas Allou 
Day Ridley 
John Walker 

William Kennon 
Josiah Reddick 
James Coor 
AVilliam Bryan 
Richard Cogdell 
Richard Ellis 
Cornelius Harnett 
Archibald Maclaine 
Thomas Benbury 
James Blount 
James Kenan 
William Dickson 
Thomas Gray 
Richard Clintoii 
Thomas Hicks 
Richard Caswell 
Simon Bright 
James Glasgow 
Abraham Shejjpard 
Spyers Singleton 
Robert Bignal 
Duncan Lam on 
AVilliam Bryan 
Josiah Granberry 
John AVebb 
John Geddy 
John Atkinson 
AVilliam Salter 
AValter Gibson 
Thomas Owen 
Thomas Roberson J" 
Nathaniel Richardson 
Thomas AVade 
Samuel Spencer 
David Love 
AVilliam Picket 
Elisha Cain 
Richard Kennon 
Matthew Jones 
Ambrose Ramsey 

Thomas Jones 
Thomas Person 
John Penn 
John Taylor 
Memucan Hunt 
Thomas Hart 
John AVilliams 
Benjamin Harvey 
Andrew Knox 
Miles Harvey 
Thomas Harvey 
AVilliam Skinner 
John Simpson 
Robert Salter 
Drewry Gee 
Howell Edmunds 
Samuel Lockhart 
Jeremiah Frasier 
Joseph Spruill 
Peter AA^ynne 
Robert Rowan 
James Hepburn 
Thomas Rutherford 
Alexander MMlister 
Farcjuard Campbell 
Alexander MTvay 
Joseph Jones 
Demsej' Burgess 
John Thomjison 
Samuel Martin 
James Houston 
James H. Hall 
AVilHam Hill 
Jasper Ciiarlton 
Joseph Leech 
Maurice Moore 
AA^illie Jones 
Francis Nash 
AVilliam Armstrong 
Nath' Rochester 



Joseph Hardin 
David Sumner 
Beujamin Williams 
William Bryan 
John Smith 
Joel Lane 
John Hinton 
John Rand 
William Brown 
Joseph Hewes 
James Davis 
William Tisdale 
Michael Rogers 
Tignal Jones 
John CoojDer 
Needham Bryan 

Robert Rutherford 
William Clark 
Theophilus Hunter 
Thomas Polk 
Thomas Boyd 
Devotion Davis 
Edward Everigin 
Henry Rhodes 
Edward Starkey 
Thomas Burke 
John King 
John Kinchen 
Gideon Lamb 
Waightstill Avery 
Martin Armstrong 

Hugh Montgomery 
David Smith 
John Williams 
Henry Irwin 
Thomas Hines 
John Phifer 
Jno. M^Nitt Alexander 
James White 
Ransom Sutherland 
Jas. Park Farley 
William Dent 
George Cortner 
Joshua Rosser 
Joseph Winston 
John Birdsong 

Col" Richard Caswell proposed for president Samuel Johnston, 
Escjuire ; who was unanimously chosen President, and Mi'. Andrew 
Knox was appointed Secretary, and Mr. James Glasgow an assistant, 
Francis Lynaugh and Evan Swann, Doorkeepers, during the con- 
tinuance of the Congress. 

Resolved, That Col° Francis Nash wait on the Rev"* George 
Micklejohn, and request him to attend and perform divine service ; 
pursuant to which he attended oj^eued the Congress by reading 
prayers in the Church at Plillsborough. 

The Congress having been informed that John Coulson, of Anson 
County, charged with dangerous practices against the Liberties of 
America, was now in Custody in this Town ; 

Resolved, that Messrs. Samuel Spencer, John Patten, John Johns- 
ton, Walter Gibson, Robert Ellis, Richard Cogdell, Solomon Shep- 
jiard, James White, Thomas Benbury, David Smith, Thomas Graj', 
Simon Bright, Henry Irwin, Memucan Hunt, Alexander Martin, John 
Jordan, Lawrence Baker, Nicholas Long, Benjamin Williams, Will- 
iam Williams, John McNitt Alexander, William Hooper, Allen 
Jones, Richard Kennon, Henry Rhodes, John Williams, Miles Har- 
vey, Robert Salter, William Sharp, Robert Lanier, William Kennon, 
John Rand, Joseph Hewes, William Brown, William Tisdale, Cor- 
nelius Harnett, Maurice Moore, Willie Jones, Fi'ancis Nash, Hugh 
Montgomery, and Jet!iro Sumner, be a Committee to enquire into 


the Conduct of the said John Coulson, and make report to this 
Congress to morrow morning. 

Resolved, That Mr. Hooper, Mr. Howe, i\lr. Burke, Mr. Willie 
Jones, Mr. Maurice Moore, Mr. Allen Jones and 'Slv. Penn, be a 
Committee to prepare a Test to be signed by the ilembers of this 

Whereas it is Manifest that endeavours have been used by Ene- 
mies to the Liberties of Amei'ica, to persuade several of the Inhabi- 
tants of this Province who were engaged in the late Insurrection, 
that they remained s.till liable to be punished, unless pardoned by 
his Majesty, and that pardons can only be obtained on Condition 
that they shall, when required, take Arms, and act offensively, 
against such persons as shall be devoted to destruction for having 
taken an Active Share in defence of American Liberty; And 
whereas it is well known that no punishment can now lawfully be 
inflicted on any persons concerned in the said Insurrection, whether 
mentioned in the Act of Outlawry on that Occasion or not. 

Resolved, therefore that the late Insurgents and every of them 
ought to be protected from every attempt to punish them by any 
ISIeans whatever, and that this Congress will to their utmost protect 
them from anj' injury to their persons or property which may be 
attempted on the pretence of punishing the said late Insurrection, 
or anything in consec[uence thereof. 

Resolved, That ^Ir. Maurice Moore, Mr. Caswell, Mr Thomas Per- 
son, ^Ir AVilliam Kennon, Mr Knox, Mr Locke, The Rev'' Mr Patillo, 
Mr Burke, Mr Hunt, 3Jr Benjamin Harvey, Mr Thomas Jones, Mr 
Penn, and i\Ir George Moore be a Committee to confer with such of the 
Inhabitants of the Province, who entertain any religious or political 
Scruples, with respect to associating in the common Cause of 
America, to remove any ill impressions that have been made upon 
them by the artful devices of the enemies of America, and to induce 
them by Argument and Persuasion, heartily to unite with us for the 
protection of the Constitutional rights and privileges thereof. 

Resolved, That The Rev"* ]Mr. Henry Patillo be desired to read 
prayers to the Congress every morning, and the Rev* jNIr Charles 
Edward Taylor every evening, during his stay here. 

The Congress adjourned till Tomorrow Morning 10 O'Cclock. 


Tuesday August 22"' 1775 

The Congress met according to adjournment 

The several proceedings of the Continental Congress, viz. 

A Declaration by the Representatives of the LTnited Colonies of 
North America, in General Congress at Philadelphia in July last, 
setting forth the Cause and necessity of taking up Arms. 

The twelve United Colonies of North America, by their Represen- 
tatives in Congress to the people of Ireland. 

The Opinion of the Congress on the Resolution of the House of 
Commons of Great Britain of the 20"' of Fehy. 1775. 

The address of the Congress to the Lord ]\Iayor of London. 

A Resolve of the Congress relative to the Culture of Salt Petre, 
and tlie several Methods of making Salt Petre, recommended to the 
Inhabitants of the United Colonies by their Representatives in Con- 
gress, and sundry Resolves of the Congress, were laid before this 
Congress, and ordered to be read ; and were read accordingly. 

Mr. Llarnett from the Committee to enquire into the conduct of 
John Coulson, reported their proceedings thereon, which was con- 
curred with by the Congress. At the same time the said John Coul- 
son gave into Congress the following declaration, to wit, 

"I, John Coulson do, from the fullest Conviction solemnly and 
sincerely declare, that I have been pursuing measures destructive of 
the Liberties of America in General, and highly injurious to the 
peace of this Colony; and truly Conscious of the heinousness of my 
Guilt, do now publickly confess the same; and do solemnly and 
sincerely promise, that I will for the future support and defend, to 
the utmost of my power, the Constitutional Rights and Liberties of 
America; and in order to make atonement for my past Guilt 
that I will make use of every effort in my })ower to reclaim those 
persons who I have seduced from their duty, and also to induce 
all other persons over wliom I have influence, to aid, support, and 
defend, the just Rights of America. In Witness whereof I have 
hereto set my Hand, this 22'^ of August, 1775. 


Resolved, That the said John Coulson be discharged from his 
attendance on tliis Congress. 

Whereas there are several offenders against the Continental 
Association now confined at Wihiiington, it is resolved that an 
Express be immediately sent from this Town to Wilmington, re piir- 


ing the Committee of Wilmington to deliver all such Delinquents as 
may be in Custody to a Guard directed to receive the same and safely 
to convey such delinquents from County to County in the most expe- 
ditious manner, that the}^ may be brought before this Congress, in 
Order that their Demerits may be strictly enquired into, witli such 
papers as were found in their Custody. 

Resolved, That the Thanks of this Congress be given by Mr 
Spencer to the Gentlemen "\^olunteers of Anson County, who brouglit 
John Coulson in Cusiod}' to this Congress. 

The Congress adjourned till Tomorrow morning 9 o'clock. 

Wednesday August 2.3^'' 1775. 

The Congress met according to Adjournment. 

The Association entered into by the General Congress at Phila- 
delphia on the 20* day of October 177i and signed by the members 
thereof was read. 

Resolved that this Congress do highly approve of the said Asso- 
ciation and do for themselves firmly agree and promise to adhere 
thereto, and do recommend it to their Constituents that they like- 
wise adhere firmly thereto. 

The Committee dfrected to prepare and bring in a Test for the 
Members of the Congress to sign, report that they had prejiared a 
Test, which they begged leave to lay before the Congress for Appro- 

Ordered, the same be read; wliicli was accordingly read, ap}!roved 
of, ordered to be entered on the .J<-ui'nal and signed. 

We the Subscribers professing our Allegiance to the King, and 
Acknowledging the constitutional executive j_ ower of Government, 
do solemnly profess, testify and declare that we do absolutely 
believe that neither the Parliament of Great Britain, nor any Mem- 
ber or Constituent Branch thereof, lave a right to impose Taxes 
upon these Colonies to regulate the internal police thereof; and 
that all attempts by fraud or force to establish and exercise such 
Claims and powers are "\"iolations of the peace and Security of the 
people and ought to be resisted to the utmost. And that the people 
of this province, singly and collectively, are bound by the Acts and 
resolutions of the Continental and the Provincial Congresses, 
in both they are freely represented by persons chosen by themselves; 
And we do solemnly and sincerely promise and engage, under tlie 
Sanction of virtue, honor, and the sacred Ldve of Libert}-, and our 


COLONIAL records: 

Country, to maintain and support all and every the Acts, Resolu- 
tions and Regulations, of the said Continental and Provincial Con- 
gresses, to the utmost of our power and Abilities. In Testimony 
whereof, we have hereto set our Hands this 23'^ of August 1775. 


Nathaniel Richardson 
William Gray 
C. W. Jaycocks 
William Bryan 
Zedekiah Stone 
John Johnston 
Thomas Owen 
Thos. Robeson, Jr. 
Thomas Alien 
Roger Moore 
Green Hill 
William Person 
Henry Patillo 
Thomas Eaton 
Jethro Sumner 
Josiah Riddick 
James Coor 
William Bryan 
Richard Cogdell _ 
Jacob Blount 
John Easton 
Brice Williams 
Solomon Sheppard 
Enoch Ward 
James White 
Thomas Jones 
Thomas Benbury 
James Blount 
Josiah Granbury 
Thomas Rutherford 
Alex'^ M°Alister 
Farquard Campbell 
David Smith 
Alexander M°Kay 

Robert Howe . 
Parker Quince 
Robert Ellis 
Samuel Johnston 
Thomas AVade 
Samuel Spencer 
Thomas Person 
John Williams 
John Taylor 
Memucan Hunt 
Alex. Martin 
Ransome Sutherland 
James P. Farley 
Thos. Henderson 
AVilliam Dent 
George Cortner 
Nathaniel Williams 
Joseph Hancock 
John Jordan 
Lawi'ence Baker 
Mathias Brickie 
Day Ridley 
Nicholas Long- 
James Hogan 
David Sumner 
John Webb 
John Geddy 
B-njamin Williams 
William Bryan 
John Smith 
Thomas Polk 
John Phifer 
J"" McNitt Alexander 
Kenneth M^Kinzie 

David Love 
Wilham Picket 
Thos. Respess, Jun' 
John Fallen 
William Salter 
AValter Gibson 
John Atkinson 
John Williams 
Benj. Harvey 
Andrew Knox 
Miles Harvey 
Thos. Flarvey 
AVilliam Skinner 
Thomas Boyd 
iTevotion Davis 
Edward Everigin 
John Simpson 
Robert Salter 
AVilliam Bryan 
James Gorham 
James Latham 
jNIatthew Locke 
James Smith 
Moses AVinslow 
Samuel Young 
AA^illiam Kennon 
AA^illiam Sharp 
Robert Lanier 
Josejih AVilliams 
Joseph Spruill 
Jeremiah Fraser 
Peter AVynne 
John AValker 
AA^illiam Kennon 



Elisha Cain 
Richard Kennon 
]\Iatthew Jones 
Ambrose Ramsey 
Robert Rutherford 
William Clark 
James Kenan 
Thomas Gray 
William Dickson 
Richard Clinton 
Thomas Hicks 
Richard Caswell 
Simon Bright 
James Glasgow 
Abraham Sheppard 
Spyres Singleton 
Robert Bignal 
Henry Irwin 
John Penn 
Robert Rowan 
James Hepburn 
Willie Jones 
Francis Nash 
William Armstrong 
Nathaniel Rochester 
Hugh Montgomery 
John Thompson 
Joseph Leech 

Whitmill Hill 
William Williams 
George Moore 
Alex' Lillington 
Samuel Ashe 
William Hooper 
James Moore 
John Ashe 
Allen Jones 
Howell Edmunds 
Drewry Gee 
Samuel Lockhart 
Isaac CtuIou 
Henry Rhodes 
Edward Starkej^ 
Jolm King 
Thomas Burke 
John Kinchen 
Thomas Hart 
Demsey Burgess 
Samuel Martin 
James Houston 
Tho= H. Hall 
William Hill 
Duncan Lamon 
Joshua Rosser 
Jasper Charlton 

Robert Alexander 
Joseph Hardin 
William Graham 
Fred'' Hambright 
Joel Lane 
John Hinton 
Theophilus Hunter 
Michael Rogers 
Tignal Jones 
John Rand 
Thomas Hines 
William Brown 
Joseph Hewes 
James Davis 
AVilliam Tisdale 
Richard Ellis 
Cornelius Harnett 
Archibald Maclaine 
Maurice Moore 
John Cowper 
Needham Bryan 
Gideon Laml) 
Waightstill Avery 
jNIartin Armstrong 
John Birdsong 
Joseph Winston 
Joseph Jones 

Resolved, That his honor the President, Mr. Harnett, Mr. Caswell, 
Mr. Hewes, Mr. Nash, Mr. Willie Jones, and Mr. Young be a Com- 
mittee of Secrecy, for the purpose of procuring Arms and Ammu- 
nition, and to report to this Congress what sums of money will be 
necessary for that purpose. 

Resolved, That Mr. Maclaine, Mr. McAlister, i\Ir. Farquard Camp- 
bell, Mr. Rowan, Mr. Thomas Wade, Mr. Alexander McKay, Mr. 
John Ashe, Mr. Spencer, Mr. Gibson, Mr. Kennon and Mr. Hepburn 
be a Committee to confer with the Gentlemen who liave lately 
arrived from the highlands in Scotland to settle in this Province, 
and to explain to them the Nature of our Unhajspy Controversy 


with Great Britain, and to advise and urge them to unite with the 
other Inhabitants of America in defence of those rights wliich they 
derive from God and the Constitution. 

Resolved, That Mr. Maurice Moore, JNIr. Hooper, Mr. Howe, Mr. 
Caswell and i\Ir. Hewes be a Committee to prejDare an Address to 
the Inhabitants of the Province of Nortli Carolina, stating the 
present Controversj^ in an easj' familiar stile and manner obvious to 
the very meanest Capacity, calling upon them to unite in defence of 
American Liberty, and vindicating, from a necessity to which 
Administration has reduced us, the taking up Arms, and assuming 
the Controul of the Militia, and ascribing the silence of the Legis- 
lative powers of Government to his Excellency the Governor refus- 
ing to the Functions of the office by leaving the Province 
and retiring on Board a Man of War, without any threats or vio- 
lence to compell him to such a measure. 

The Congress adjourned till Tomorrow morning 9 o'Clock. 

Thursday August 2-1"' 1775. 

The Congress met according to Adjournment. 

Resolved, That Doctor Burke be added to the Committee to pre- 
pare an address to the Inhabitants of this Province &c. 

Resolved, That such Gentlemen as have in their possession any 
Letters or other Papers respecting the Common cause of American 
Liberty, lay the .same before tlie Congress, and several Letters and 
other Papers were accordingly brought up to the Table read and filed. 

Whereas the Continental Congress hath thought it necessary for 
the preservation of American Liberty, that an Army should be em- 
bodied, and the sum of three Millions of Dollars be emitted for the 
j>urpose of supporting such Army, and hath pledged tlie faith of the 
United Colonies for the redemption of the same. 

Resolved unanimously^ That the Inhabitants of North Carolina 
will pay their full proportion of the expence so incurred, and will 
make provision for the redem[)tion of such part of the sum so emit- 
ted as shall be alloted by the Continental Congress for this province 
to Redeem, in jn-oportion to the number of its Inhabitants. 

Resolved that his Honor the President Messrs ^^'illiam Hooper, 
Josepih Hewes, Richard Caswell, Samuel Spencer, Thomas Respess, 
AValter Gibson, AVilliam Gray, Robert Howe, Thomas Ea'on, James 
Coor, .lohn Easton, James White, '1 homas Jones, Alexander MMlis- 
ter, Richard Kcnnon, Thomas Gray, Henry Irwin, John Penn, 


Alexander Martin, Joseph Hancock, Matthias Brickie, John Webb, 
William Brj-an, Thomas Polk, Whitmill Hill, Samuel Ashe, Allen 
Jones, Henry Rhodes, Thomas Burke, Benjamin Plarvey, Demsey 
Burgess, Robert Salter, Matthew Locke, Josejih Williams, Peter 
Wynns, William Kennon, Joel Lane, William Brown, James Davis, 
Archibald Maclaine, Maurice Moore, James Hepburn, Willie Jones, 
Hugh Montgomery, and Francis Nash, be a Committee for the 
purpose of preparing a plan for the regulation of the Internal 
peace, order and safety of this Province, and making such an 
arrangement in the Civil i^olice of this Province, as may tend 
to suppl}^ in some measure the defect of the executive powers 
of Government, arising from the absence of His Excellency Gov- 
ernor Martin, and tliat this Committee take into consideration 
the propriety of appointing a Committee of Safety, the members to 
compose it, the manner and time of choice. Qualification of Electors 
and Elected, The number of which these shall consist, the powers of 
these Committees, also the mode to be observed in calling provincial 
Conventions, the time of Election, place where to be held. Qualifica- 
tion of Electors and Elected, the number which every Town and 
County are to send as Delegates, to represent them in such Conven- 
tion, the Powers which this Convention are to Exercise. And further 
to re})ort the necessity, if any there be of forming other Committees 
than before mentioned and every civil power necessary to be formed 
in order to relieve this Province in the present unhappy state to 
wliich Administration has reduced it. 

The Congress taking under consideration the State of the province 
and the expediency of employing a Military Force for its defence 
against foreign and domestic Invaders. 

Resolved, That it lie over until Tomorrow. 

A Draught of Articles of Confederacy, proposed for the Considera- 
tion of the several Colonies in North America was brought into 
Congress to-wit : 


The provincial Congress of North Carolina are to View the fol- 
lowing articles as a Subject which will be proposed to the Conti- 
nental Congress at their next session ; it therefore becomes the duty 
of the provincial Delegates now assembled, to instruct the Gentle- 
men whom they shall make choice of to Represent them in the irext 
Continental Congress, what they are to express to be the sense of 
this province. Their former Delegates, beg that this plan may be 
considered not as having had the sanction of the Continental Con- 


gress, or Recommended by them, or as expressing the Sentiments of 
the Delegates who Represented this province in the last Continental 
Congress, but wish they may be dispassionately Debated and 
approved or Condemned upon their own Intrinsick merits. 

Article 2'' 

The Said United Colonies .hereby Severally enter into a firm 
League of Friendship with each other, binding on themselves and 
their posterity for their common defence against their Enemies, for 
the Security of their Liberties and properties, the Safety of their 
persons and Families and their mutual and general Welfare. 

That each Colony shall enjoy and Retain as much as it may think 
fit of its own present Laws, Customs, Rights, privileges, and pecu- 
liar Jurisdictions, within its own limits, and may amend its own 
Constitution as shall seem best to its own assembly or Convention. 

Article 4"' 

That for the more Convenient management of General Interests, 

Delegates shall be annually elected in each Colony to meet in 

general Congress, at such time and place as shall be agreed in the 

next preceding Congress only where particular circumstances do not 

make a deviation necessary. It is understood to be a Rule that each 

succeeding Congress is to be held in a different Colony till the 

whole number be gone through and so in perpetual Rotation and 

that accordingly the next Congress after the present shall be held at 

Annapolis in Maryland. 

Article 5"' 

That the power and duty of the Congress shall extend to the 
determining on War and peace, the entering into Alliances, the 
Reconciliation with Great Britain, the settling all disputes between 
Colony and Colony (if such should arise), and the planting now 
Colony's where proper. The Congress shall also make such General 
ordinances, necessary to the general welfare, particular assemblies, 
cannot be competent to. Viz' : Those that may Relate to our general 
Commerce or general Currency, to the establishment of posts the 
Regulation of Common Forces. The Congress shall also have the 
appointment of all officers. Civil and military, appertaining to the 
general Confederacy, Such as general Treasurer, Secretary &c. 


Article 6"' 

All charges of War and other general cxjsences to be incurred for . 
the general Welfare, shall be defrayed out of a common Treasury, 
which is to be supplied by each Colony in proportion to its n amber 
of male Polls between 16 and 60 years of age, the taxes for paying 
that proportion are to be laid and levied by the laws of each Colony. 

Article 7"' 

The number of Delegates to be elected and sent to the Congress by 
each Colony shall be regulated from time to time by the number of 
such polls returned, so as that one Delegate be allowed for every 5000 
polls, and the Delegates are to bring with them to every Congress 
an authenticated return of the number of Polls in their respective 
Colonies Avhich is to be taken for the purpose above mentioned. 

Article 8'*' 

At every meeting of the Congress one half of the Members returned, 
exclusive of proxies, shall be necessary to make a cj^uoruni, and each 
Delegate at the Gongress shall have a vote in all Cases, and if neces- 
sarily absent shall be allowed to appoint anyother Delegate from 
the same Colony to be his proxy, who may "\^ote for him. 

Article 0"" 

An executive Council shall be appointed by the Congress out of 
their own Body, consisting of (12) persons, of whom in the first 
appointment one third viz' (4) shall be for one year; (4) for two 
years; (4) for three years, and as the said Term expires the vacancies 
shall be filled up by appointments for three years, whereby one third 
of the members will be changed annually, and each Person who 
has served the said Term of three j^ears as a Councillor shall have 
a respite of three years before he can be elected again. This Council, 
of Avhom two thirds shall be a Quorum, in the recess of the Congress 
is to execute what shall have been enjoined thereby; to manage the 
general Continental business, and Literests; to receive applications 
from Foreign Countries; to prepare matters for the consideration of 
the Congress; to fill up dyw km.) Continental Offices that fall vacant, 
and draw on the general Treasurer for such monies as may be neces- 
sary for the general Services and appropriated by the Congress to 
such Services. 

VOL. X — 12 


Article 10"" 

Xo Colony shall engage in an offensive War witli any Nation of 

Indians without the consent of the Congress or general Council 

above mentioned, who are first to Consider the Justice and necessity 

of such a plan. 

'Article 11"" 

A perpetual alliance offensive and defensive is to be entered into 

as soon as may be with the Six Nations, their Limits ascertained 

and to be Secured to them, their Lands not to be encroached on, 

nor any private or Colony purchase made of them hereafter to be 

held good, or any Contract for Lands to be made but between the 

great Council of the Indians at Onondago and the general Congress; 

the boundaries and Lands of all the other Indians shall also be 

ascertained and secured to them, in the same manner; and persons 

appointed to reside among them in proper Districts, who shall take 

care to prevent injustice in the Trade with them and be enabled at 

our general expence by occasional small supplies to relieve their 

personal wants and distresses, and all purchases fr&m them shall be 

by the Congress for the general advantage and benefits of the 

United Colonies. 

Article 12"' 

As all new Institutions may have imperfections which only time 
and experience con discover, it is agreed that the general Congress 
from time to time shall propose such amendments of this Constitu- 
tion as may be found necessary, which being approved by a majority 
of the Colony Assemblies, shall be eciually binding with the rest of 
the Articles of this Confederation. 

Article 13'" 

Any and every Colony from Great Britain upon tlie Continent of 
North America, not at present engaged in our A,ssociation may upon 
application and joining the .said Association, be received into the 
Confederation, Viz': Quebec, S' Johns, Nova Scotia, Bermudas and 
the East and West Floridas, and shall thereupon be intitled to all 
the advantages of our Union, mutual assistance and commerce. 

These Articles shall be proposed to the several Provincial Con- 
ventions or Assemblies to be by them Considered, and if approved, 
they are advised to impower their Delegates to agree and ratify the 
same in the ensuing Congress, after wliicli the Union thereby estab- 


lishe<:l, is to continue firm 'till tho Terms of reconciliation j^roposed 
in the Petition of the Congress to tlie King are agreed to; 'till the 
acts since made restraining the American Commerce and Fisheries 
are repealed ; 'till reparation is made for the injury done to Boston 
by shutting up its Ports, for burning .Charles Town, and for the 
expences of this unjust War, and all the British Troops are with- 
drawn from America. On the arrival of these events the Colonies 
are to return to their former Connection and Friendshii:> with Great 
Britain, but on failure thereof, this Confederacy to be perpetual. 

"Whereas it has pleased God to bless these Countries with a most 
plentiful Harvest, whereby mucli Corn and other provisions can be 
spared to Foreign Nations who may want the'same — 

Resolved, That after six months from the 20"" July instant, being 
the day appointed by a late Act of Parliament of Groat Britain for 
restraining the Trade of the Confederate Colonies, all the Customs 
Houses therein (if the said Acts be not first repealed) shall be shut 
up and all the Officers of the same be discharged from the execution 
of their several functions, and the Ports of the said Colonies are 
hereby declared to be thenceforth open to the Ships of every State 
in Europe that will admit our Commerce and protect it, who may 
bring in and expose to sale free of all duties, their respective pro- 
duce and manufactories, and every kind of merchandize, excepting 
Teas and the merchandize of Great Britain, Irela)id and the British 
West India Islands. 

Resolved, That we will to the utmost of our power maintain and 
support tliis Freedom of Commerce for two years certain, after its 
Commencement, any reconciliation between us and Great Britain 
notwithstanding, and as much longer beyond that Term as the late 
Acts of Parliament for restraining the Commerce and Fisheries or 
disallowing the laws and mattei's of any of the Colonies shall con- 
tinue unrepealed. 

Ordered that the Secretary furnish the delegates for each County 
with a Copy thereof. 

Mr Thomas Craike is appointed a Clerk to assist the Secretary, to 
Expedite tlie business of the 

The Congress adjourned till Tomorrow jNIorniug 9 "Clock. 


Friday, August 25"' 1775. 

The Congress met according to adjournment. 

A Paj^er purporting to be a Proclamation issued by his Excellencj' 
Josiah Martin dated on Board his Majestys Ship Cruizcr, at Cape 
Fear River, the eighth of August instant, directed to the Moderator 
of the Provincial Convention of Hillsborough, being read ; 

Resolved unanimously. That the said Paper is a false Scandalous, 
Scurrilous, malicious, and sedicious Libel, tending to disunite the 
good people of this province, and to stir up Tumults and Insur- 
rections, dangerous to the peace of His Majesty's Government, and 
the safety of the Inhabitants, and highly injurious to the Characters 
of several Gentlemen of acknowledged ^^irtue and Loyalty; and 
further that the said pa23er be burnt by the common Hangman. 

The Order of the day being read. Resolved, the same lie for con- 
sideration till Monday next. 

The Petition of Frances Dunn and Dorothy Boote being read. 
Resolved, that the same lie on the Table for Consideration. 

Mr Joseph Williams a Delegate for the County of Surry has leave 
to absent himself from the Congress for ten days. 

Resolved, That Mr Harnett, Mr Willie .JoneSj Mr Knox, jNIr Locke, 
Mr Caswell, Mr Thomas Person and Mr John xishe be a Committee 
to take into Consideration and report a state of the Public Fund. 

Resolved, That Mr Cogdell, Mr Green Hill, Mv Martin, Mr Tay- 
lor, Mr Patillo, Mr Tiiomas Jones, Mr John Kinchen, ~Mr Thos. 
Hall, Mr Locke and Mr Skinner be a Committee of Intelligence, to 
receive all Petitions respecting the return of delegates and report 
thereon to this Congress. 

Resolved, That all those Gentlemen possessed of any Intelligence 
respecting Indian Aflfairs, furnish Willie Jones Esquire, one of the 
Commissioners for the Southern Department,with the same in writing. 

Resolved that it be recommended to the Committees of the several 
Counties and Towns, in this province, to obtain an exact List of the 
Inhabitants within their respective Counties and Towns, distin- 
guishing in such List the Number of White Male Persons between 
the Age of Sixteen and fifty Years, the Number of Males above 
fifty and under Sixteen, the Number of White Women, the 
Number of Female Children, The number of Black male Slaves 
being Taxables, the number of Female Slaves who are Taxa- 
bles, and the number of Slaves who are not taxables, and that 
such Lists be returned certified by the Chairman of the Com- 


mittee to the president of this Congress, ou or before the first 
daj' of November next. 

Mr Edward Everigin has leave to absent himself from the service 
of this Congress. 

]\Ir James Green is appointed an Assistant Clerk to this Congress. 

Adjourned till 5 "Clock this Afternoon. 

Friday 5 "Clock p. m. 

The Congress met according to adjournment. 

Mr Robert Lanier is appointed to serve on the Committee to pre- 
pare a plan for the Internal peace of this province, in the room of 
Mr .Joseph "Williams, who has leave of absence. 

Resolved, That the Commanding Officei: of the Independent Com- 
pany of the Town of Hillsborough, disj^atch four of the said Com- 
pany to proceed from this place towards Wilmington until they 
meet with a certain James Cotton, of tlie County of Anson, who it 
is said is in Custody of certain persons, in order to be brought before 
this Congress, and to assist in bringing the said James Cotton before 
the Congress. 

The Congress adjourned till Monday idorning 9 "Clock. 

Monday xiugust 28"" 1775. 

The Congress met according to adjournment. 

Resolved that on Friday next the Congress Resolve itself into a 
Committee, to take under Consideration the paper laid before the 
Congress purporting to be a Confederacy of the LTnited Colonies. 

The Committee appointed to receive Intelligence and Petitions, 
&c., Reported that they had taken into Consideration the several 
matters laid before them, which they begged leave to lay before the 

Ordered the same be read. Read the same and is as follows : 

Report of the Committee of Intelligence Elections &c. 

The Petition of Frances Dunn (Wife of John Dunn) and Dorothy 
Boote (wife of Benjamin Boote) being referred to this Committee, 
and the Allegations therein contained examined into; it ajjpeared to 
us, that from the notorious inimical Conduct of the said John Dunn 
and Benjamin Boote, mentioned in said Petition to the cause of 
America, the apprehending and sending the said Dunn and Boote 
to South Carolina was necessary and justifiable, in these times of 


General clanger, and as to the future disposal of said Dunn and 
Boote, Ave submit to the consideration of this Honorable Congress. 

The Petition of a number of Inhabitants of the Town of Salisburj', 
respecting the Election of said Town, being also referred to this 
Committee: it is our opinion that the several matters contained in 
the said Petition, as objections to the Election of a Member for the 
said Town to sit in provincial Congress are groundless and that the 
said Election is good and valid. 

The information of Thomas Wade, Thomas Polk and John 
Walker, relative to the hostile intentions of Governor Martin, 
Indians, and others laid before this Committee in writing; it is our 
Opinion that the matter therein contained is of so serious and 
important a Nature, that we beg leave to submit it to the Considera- 

tion of this honorable Congress. 


Resolved that the same lie on the Table for Consideration. 

James Cotton, Samuel Williams and Jacob Williams of Anson 
County who stood charged with acting in opposition to tlie Liberty 
of America, and of endeavouring, by Persuasion and otherwise, to 
induce others to Act against the Resolutions of the Continental and 
Provincial Congress, were brought to the Bar of this Congress by a 
party of the Hillsborough Independant Company, and after being 
severally examined. 

Resolved, That the said James Cotton, Samuel AVilliams and 
Jacob Williams be discharged and set at Libert}' and that Certifi- 
cates issued from this Congress to intitle them to the protection of 
all persons espousing the cause of American Liberty, they having 
made a Solemn recantation of their former Principles. 

The Congress adjcurned till Tomorrow j\Iorning o'Clock. 

Tuesday August 29'^ 1775. 

The Congress met according to Adjournment. 

Mr. President laid before the Congress a letter from the Committee 
of Intelligence of Charles Town South Carolina, inclosing Remon- 
strances or Petitions from John Dunn and Benjamin Boote, now 
under Confinement at Charlestown, which was read, and, on motion 
ordered to lie on the Table for Consideration. 

Also Letters from Governor Martin to Benjamin Boote 10"" July 


From Governor Martin to Col° Cotton 2r' July 1775. 

Likewise an address from Rowan County to Governor Martin. 

From the Committee of Meclclenburg to the Committee of Cam- 
den a Letter of Intelligence, 

And Dunn and Bootes and advertisement, wliich were 

On motion ordered that the Election of delegates to attend the 
Continental Congress at Philadelphia in September next come on 
next Saturday. 

The order of the day being read for taking under Consideration 
the State of the j^rovince, and the expediencj' of employing a I\Iili- 
tary force for its defence against Foreign and Domestic Invasion, 
Resolved, That the same be deferred till Thursday next. 

Whereas some doubts may arise respecting the Construction of 
the fourth Article of the Continental Association relating to Expor- 

Resolved that it is the opinion of this Congress, that no shi}) or 
vessel shall clear out, or take on Board any part of their Cargoes 
after the tenth day of September 1775; but that vessels actually 
laden or their Cargoes on Board lighters, and cleared out before that 
day, ma}' sail at any time after. 

Mr. Caswell from the Committee ajipointed to take into Considera- 
tion and report a state of the public Funds reported as follows, viz.: 

Whereas in order to make a proper and correct state of the public 
Funds, it would be necessary Your Committee should have 
recourse to the public Accounts which are in the hands of the 
Treasurers, and to the Estimates of Public AlloM^ances and Jour- 
nals of the Assembly, which cannot conveniently be had here; they 
have therefore proceeded on the best information they have been 
able to obtain, and find that there are divers large sums of money 
due from sundry sheriffs, and other Collectors, a great part of which 
in the opinion of your Committee will be lost to the public unless 
some method is immediately fallen upon to inforce the payment of 
the same, which your Committee earnestly recommend to tlie atten- 
tion of the Congress. 

That there are also divers sums of money due from the Public to 
Individuals, and no money in the hands of the Southern Treasurer 
on the Contingent Fund to discharge the same; what may lie in the 
Northern Treasury on that fund Your Committee have not been 
able to inform themselves. 


That since the passing a resolution in tlie Assembly, that the 
Rum Duties, and the one Shilling Tax for sinking the Old Bills, 
should cease, the law imposing the same having had its effect, 
sundry sums have been paid for such duties to the Collectors, and 
to the Sheriffs, for the said Tax. Your Committee are of Opinion 
that the money received on the former, should be returned to the 
persons from whom the same was received, and also that the latter 
be either returned to the persons from whom received or allov>'ed 
them in the i^ayment of any Future Tax. All which is submitted 
to the Consideration of the Congress. 

R* CASWELL, Chairman. 

Ordered the same lie for Consideration until Saturday next. 

The Congress taking into consideration the Letters from the Com- 
mittee of Intelligence of Charlestown, the remonstrances of Benja- 
min Boote and John Dunn, and the Petitions of Frances Dunn 
and Dorothy Boote, and the several Papers relative thereto. 

Resolved that the President of the Congress by Letters addressed 
to the Committees of Intelligence of South Carolina, thank them 
for their friendly interposition in behalf of this Province, bj' receiv- 
ing and securing the Persons of John Dunn and Benjamin Boote, 
thereby disappointing the endeavours of those men to defeat the 
American Association, in support of their just rights and privileges 
and requesting of the said Committee to detain the, persons of the 
said Dunn and Boote, within that Province till the Inhabitants of 
North Carolina by their delegates again meet in Convention, or till 
they make such recantations of their j^rinciples as shall be satisfac- 
tory to the Committee of Charlestown; that this province will on a 
similar occasion be ready to render a similar service to their worthy 
Neighbours of the fourth province; in the mean time that they 
pledge the Credit of this province to reimburse tlio Expences which 
they may beat by reason of such detention; and express at the 
same time that we have the fullest Confidence, that the same 
humanity which has distinguished the proceedings in that province, 
will actuate them in this Instance. 

Resolved that no jierson whatsoever charged with being an 
Enemy to the American Cause shall be carried out of this j^rovince 
privatel}', or by any Act of Violence, except bj' the directions of a 
Committee dulj' impowered to take Cognizance of the Offence with 
which they are charged, and who shall, ujion fair and candid hear- 


ing thereupon tliiuk such measure prudent just and necessary; 
but as the particular Circumstances wliich attended the seizure of 
Boote and Dunn rendered a previous appHcatiou altogether imprac- 
ticable to any Committee appointed for the purposes of Examina- 
tion, we acknowledge ourselves under the greatest obligations to 
the Persons who have rendered the signal service to tiiis province, 
of removing from amongst them men who were exerting their 
utmost endeavours to defeat the attempts of the virtuous inhabi- 
tants of this province to preserve inviolate the rights of the British 

Ordered, That William Hill, William Gray and Zedekiah Stone, 
be added to the Committee of Conference. 

The Congress adjourned till tomorrow morning 9 "Clock. 

Thursday August .31" 1775. 

The Congress met according to adjournment. 

The Order of the Day being read for taking under consideration 
the state of the province, and the Expediency of employing a mili- 
tary Force for its defence against foreign and domestic Invasion, 

Resolved, that His Majesty's faithful and loyal subjects in this 
Colony, are reduced to a dangerous and critical situation, by the 
attempts of a British Ministry to carry into execution, by force of 
Arras, several unconstitutional and oppressive Acts of the British 
Parliament, for laying Taxes, and for altering and changing the 
Constitution and internal police of the United Colonies, in violation 
of the natural rights of the Colonists. 

Resolved, that hostilities being actuall}^ commenced in the jNIassa- 
chusetts Bay by the British Troops under the Command of General 
Gage, and a number of Inhabitants of that Colony actually destroyed, • 
the Town of Boston having been long occupied as a Garrison Town, 
and as if in an Enemy's Country, the Inhabitants thereof treated 
with a severity not to be justified towards declared Enemies ; Rein- 
forcements being also threatened, and every day expected to add to 
the misery of that wretched people and to Execute the cruel deter- 
mined measures of Administration against this and the rest of the 
United Colonies: And whereas His Excellency Governor Martin, 
hath taken a very active and instrumental share in opposition to the 
means which have been adopted by this and the other United Colo- 
nies for their common safety, as well to disunite this from the rest as 
to weaken the Efforts of the Inhabitants of North Carolina to pro- 


tect their Lives, Liberties and Properties ngainst any force ^Yhich 
may be exerted to injure them, or for the express purpose of com- 
pelling us to submit to the operation of the Acts; that therefore for 
the express and sole purpose of securing and defending this Colony, 
preserving it in safety against all attempts to carry the said Acts 
into Execution by force of Arms, this Colony be immediately put 
into a state of defence. 

Resolved, That this Congress think it absolutely necessary for the 
support of the American xVssociation and safety of the Colony, to 
raise a Body of Forces, consisting of one thousand men; and upon 
the Faith of the Resolve of the Continental Congress, this Congress do 
Resolve that one thousand men be immediately raised and embodied. 

Whereas the Committees of Mecklenburg, Rowan, Bladen and 
Cumljerland, have respectively purchased of sundry persons Gun- 
powder, and agreed to pay such price as should be ascertained hj 
this Congress for the same. 

Resolved, That the Committees of Mecklenburg and Rowan pay 
to the persons from whom they received powder, the sum of five 
shillings proclamation money per i»ound; and the Committees of 
Bladen and Cumberland four shillings per pound, for all the Gun- 
powder they have purchased as aforesaid. 

Ordered that Mr John Walker, and ^Ir .John Hardin, have leave 
to ab.sent themselves from the service of the Congress. 

The Congress adjourned till Tomorrow Morning 9 "'Clock. 

Friday September V^ 1775. 

The Congress met according to Adjournment. 

The Order of the day for taking into Consideration the jjaper laid 
before the Congress purporting to be a Confederacy of the United 
Colonies, being called was ordered to lie over till Monday. 

]\Ir John Birdsong, Mr Robert Alexander, Mr Samuel Spencer 
and Mr James White have leave to absent themselves from this 

The Congress taking into Consideration the Arrangement of the 
Military Troops ordei'ed to be raised in this Province as part of and 
on the same establrshment with the Continental Army and the 
api)ointment of OfHcers to command the said Troops, 

Resolved, That they be divided into two Regiments consisting of 
five hundred men each and that four hundred, part of the first Regi- 
ment, be stationed in the District of AVihninoton, two hundred in 



the District of Salisbury, two hundred in tlie district of New Bern, 
and two hundred in the district of Edenton, and that the whole 
number composing the said two regiments, and every of the above 
divisions, shall from time to time be disposed of as this Congress or 
Council of Safety shall direct 

Resolved that the following officers be and they are liereby ap- 
pointed to command the first Regiment, viz. 

James INIoore Esq', Colonel 
Francis Nash Esrf, Lt. Colonel Clark Esq^ Major 

Mr William Williams, Adjutant. 

William Davis 
Thomas Allon 
Alfred Moore 
Caleb Grainger 

John Lillington 
Joshua Bowman 

Captains in the First Regiment. 

William Picket Henry Dickson 

Robert Rowan 
John Walker 

George Davidson 


William Berryhill 
Hector McNeill 

Law^rence Thompson Absalom Tatum 

Thomas Hogg 

Neill McAlister 
Maurice Moore, Jr. 
John Taylor 
Howell Tatum 


James Childs 
Henry Neill 
Berrvman Turner 

William Green 

Hezekiah Rice 
William Brandon 
William Hill 

George Graham 
Robert Rolston 
Henry Pope 

For the Second Regiment. 

Robert Howe Esq', Colonel 
Alexander Martin, Lt Colonel. 

John Patten Esq., Major. 

Dr. Jno. White, 1st Capt. and Adjt. 

Captains in the Second Regiment. . 
James Blount John Armstrong Charles Crawford 

IMichael Payne Henry Irwin Toole Nathaniel Keais 

Simon Bright Hardy Murphree John Walker 

John Grainger 
Clement Hall 
William Fenner 
Benjamin Williams 


Robert Smith 
Edward Vail, Jr. 
.Jolni Williams 

John Herritage 
Joseph Tate 
James Gee 


Henry Vipon James Cook William Caswell 

Whitmill Pugii John Woodhouse Benjamin Cleveland 

John Oliver William Gardner Joseph Clinch 

Philip Low 

The Captains to take rank from the time their respective Compa- 
nies shall be completed, to be certified under the hand of one or 
more Magistrates of the County, where the men maybe raised; and 
in case two or more Companies be completed in one day, or any dis- 
putes arise about rank, that it be determined by a Court Martial. 

Doctor Isaac Guion is appointed Surgeon to the first Regiment 

Doctor William Pastuer Surgeon to the Second Regiment. 

The Congress adjourned till Tomorrow Morning "Clock. 

Saturdaj^ September 2""* 1775 

The Congress met according to adjournment. 

The Southern Treasurer informed the Congress, that he had 
advanced, agreeable to the directions of the house of Assembly, 
about nine hundred pounds, to the delegates who attended the two 
former Congresses; that some Counties had not paid their first pro- 
portion of that sum, and that only one County had paid the last 

Resolved, That such of the Counties from which the Treasurer 
had not received the said first proportion, immediately pay him 
the same; and that the Treasurer return the money he hath received 
for the last proportion directed to be paid him as aforesaid, to the 
County from which he received the same. 

It is therefore Resolved, That the Treasurer be allowed so much 
of the money as he has advanced to the delegates aforesaid, as shall 
not be replaced by the sums paid, or to be paid him, of the first 
Twenty pounds directed to be raised in the several Counties in this 
province, and the same shall be allowed in his Accounts with the 

Mr Boyd laid before the Congress two hundred pastoral Letters 
from the Synod of Philadelphia addressed to the Inhabitants of 
this province, which were dispei'sed among the members. 

Resolved, that the said Adam Boyd bo allowed the sum of 

Proclamation money to be paid by the Public Treasurers or either 
of them, and be allowed in their accounts with the Public. 


Resolved, That the Thanks of tliis Congress be given to William 
Hooper, Joseph Hewes, and Richard Caswell, Esquires, for their 
Patriotic and Faithful discharge of the important Trust reposed in 
them, as delegates on the part of this Pros'ince at the late Continental 

In consequence whereof, the President returned them tlianks in 
the following manner. 


The honourable and patriotic conduct you have i:)ursued in Dis- 
charge of the high and important Trust unanimously committed to 
you, with the most unlimited Confidence, by the late Convention of 
this Province has justified and done honor to their choice, and now 
calls forth the grateful thanks of your fellow Citizens, which thanks, 
in order that the most honourable Testimonj' of your conduct may 
be Transmitted to Posterity the Congress have commanded me to 
deliver in this Place. 

"I do accordingly, with the greatest jDleasure, return you the 
thanks of this Congress in behalf of their Constituents, for the 
manly, spirited and patriotic discharge of your duty as Delegates 
in representing this Province in the Grand Continental Congress at 

To which the delegates returned the following answer: 

"We the delegates of this Province to Whom our Fellow Citizens 
thought fit to Consign with the unlimited Confidence, the 
great and important charge of representing them in the late Con- 
tinental Congress, beg leave to express our most sincere thanks for 
the honourable Testimony which thro' you, they have thought fit to 
render of our services in that Capacity. 

"With hearts warmed with a Zealous love of Liberty, and desir- 
ous of a reconciliation with the parent State upon Terms just and 
Constitutional, we flattered ourselves that the Integrity of our 
motives would plead an excuse for our want of Abilities and that 
in the Candour and Charity of our Constituents, our well meant, 
however feeble endeavors, would find their Apolog}'. Our Expecta- 
tions are more than, answered, and this public approbation of our 
Conduct, the greatest reward a subject can receive or a people 
bestow, will stimulate us, whether in private or public life our Lot 
shall be cast, to imitate the virtues of our patriotic Fellow Citizens 
and to be distinguished by our usefulness in society, as we have this 


day been by the honors with which they have marked our former 

"While our hearts overflow with gratitude to this respectable 
Assembly, we cannot omit to offer our Acknowledgements to 
you, honored Sir, for the polite manner in wliich you have been 
pleased to convdy to us the Sense of this House; and to congratulate 
them that their Councils are Conducted under the Au.spices of a 
Character so justly esteemed, and wliich adds Dignity to the Seat in 
whicli he presides." 

Resolved that William Hooper, .Joseph Hewes, and Richard Cas- 
well, Esquires, be, and are hereby, appointed delegates in behalf of 
this province for the Term of one Year to attend the General Con- 
gress held at Philadelphia on the fifth day of September instant, or 
at any other time and place that shall be appointed for that purpose. 
And that they are hereby invested with such powers as may make 
any Acts done by them, or any of them, or consent given, in behalf 
of this Province (not inconsistent with such instructions as may be 
given by this Congress) Obligatory upon every Inhabitant thereof; 
and that eacli of them be })aid five liundred pounds proclamation 
money, on performing tlie services aforesaid, to be paid by either of 
the Treasurers out of anv monies in their hands; and this Congress 
engage to indemnify such Treasurer or Treasurers for the money 
they may advance on that account. 

Ordered that Devotion Davis, Michael Rogers and Joseph Spruill 
have leave of absence during tliis session. 

The (Jrder of the Day for considering the Report of the Commit- 
tee relative to the State of the Public Funds being read, was ordered 
to lie over till Monday next. 

The Congress adjourned till Monday Morning 8 "Clock. 

Monday September 4"' 1775. 

The Congress met according to adjoarinncnt. 

His honor the president laid before tlic Congress a letter from Mr 
Biggleston the Governor's Secretary asking the favour of this Con- 
gress to give Sanction and Safe Conduct to the removal of the most 
valuable Effects of Governor Martin on Board the Man of War and 
his Coach and Horses to Mr Farquard Campbell's. 

Resolved, That if .\!r Biggleston should tliink proper to remove 
on Board the Man of War all tlie Governor's Effects as well as His 


Excellency's Coach and Horses as every Artiele thereof, this Con- 
gress is ever ready to give thein, as to all other private property 
every safeguard and Security in their power to pi'event their receiv- 
ing any Molestation or injury, however ideal the fears of Mr Big- 
gleston in this instance may bo of meeting any inter: uption in 
carrying sucli designs into Execution; but as Mr Farquard Campbell 
a Member of this Congress has expressed a sincere desire that the 
Coach and Horses should not be sent to his House in Cumberland 
and is amazed that such a proposal should have been made without 
his approbation or privity, they conceive they can by no means 
suffer the Coach and Horses to be removed to Cumberland County. 
This house further take this opportunity to express their surprise at 
his Excellency the Governor liaving deserted the palace, as he might 
have enjoyed all the conveniences of the same in a state of perfect 
security without insult or injury to his person or property. 

Resolved, That Farquard Campbell, Esquire, hath, in the opinion 
of this Congress, conducted himself as an honest member of Society 
and a friend to the American Cause; and that any Confidential 
Expressions that have been dropped by Governor Martin, or any of 
his Friends, with respect to any reliance they may have upon the 
Services of the said Farquard Camptbell against the American cause 
have been without any encouragement from the said Farquard 
Campbell, but have been made use of in Order to bring his character 
into distrust, and lessen the esteem which for his faithful services he 
deserves from the Inhaliitants of this Province. 

Resolved that the Secretary give Certificates to such of the pro- 
testors as, from a Conviction of the evil of their past Conduct, have 
or shall hereafter sign the A.ssociation or Test entered into by the 
members of this Congress during this Session, seting forth that they 
are accepted as friends to American Lil^erty. 

Ordered, Mr. Ilambright have leave to alxsent himself from the 
services of tliis Congress. 

The Order of the Day being read for taking into Consideration a 
paper, purjiortinga Confederation of the United Colonies; Resolved, 
The Congress Resolve itself into a Committee of the whole house. 

The Congress resolved itself into a Committee of the whole house 
accordingly and unanimously chose the Reverend Mr. Patillo ( hair- 
man ; and after some time spent therein, came to a Resolution 


On Motion Mr. President re.sumed the Cliair, and Mr. Chairman 
reported as follows, to wit : 

That the Committee have taken into Consideration the Plan of 
General Confederation between the United Colonies and are of 
Opinion that the same is not at present Eligible. And it is also the 
Opinion of the Committee that the Delegates for this province onght 
to be instructed, not to consent to any plan of Confederation which 
may be offered in an ensuing Congress, until the same shall be laid 
before and approved by the Provincial Congress. 

That the present Association ought to be further relied on for 
bringing about a reconciliation with the parent State, and a further 
Confederacy ought only to be adopted in Case of the last nece.ssity. 

Then on Motion, Resolved, The Congress do approve of the above 

The Congress Adjourned till Tomorrow Morning 9 o'Clock. 

Tuesday September S"" 1775. 

The Congress met according to Adjournment. 

On Motion, Ordered, That the Rev"* Mr. Patillo, Mr. Baker, Mr. 
Thomas Harvey, Mr. Miles HSrvey, JNIr. Geddy, Mr. William Bryan, 
]Mr. .Jethro Sumner, and Mr. Matthias Brickie have leave to absent 
themselves from the Service of the Congress. 

On Motion, Ordered, That Mr Willie Jones, Mr Nash and ^Ir 
John Ashe, be a Committee of this Congress to make an Arrange- 
jnent of minute men for the Safety of the province, and report their 
proceedings to this Congress. 

On motion. Ordered, That Mr Skinner, JNIr Starkey, Mr Locke, 
Mr Caswell, Mr Thomas Person, Mr Burke and Mr Coor, be a Com- 
mittee of Wa^vs and Means and that they make Report of their 

Mr Caswell from the Committee of AVays and Means, reported as 
follows, viz: That it is the Opinion of your Committee, that the 
Expences of the one thousand men to be raised and paid at the 
Expence of the Continent, ought to be defrayed out of the fund 
provided for that pjurpose by the Continental Congress, and that the 
provincial Congress or such Officers as they shall impower do draw 
for one hundred thousand dollars immediately, and for other sums 
as there may be occasion afterwards. 

That it is the Opinion of your Committee Sixty thousand pounds 
be Emitted in paper Bills of Credit, to be applied towards defraying 


the Expence of tlie Militia aud Minute Men, for purcliasiug Arms 
and Ammunition, and paying Bounties for the Encouragement of 
]\Ianufactures, expresses and other contingencies; This Sum to be 
sunk hy a Tax of two Shillings every year on each Taxalile Person 
in this Province, to commence for the year 1777 and continue for 
seven years after its commencement. 

RICH" CASWELL, Chairman. 

Ordered, The said Report lie for further consideration. 
The Congress adjourned till Tomorrow morning 9 o'clock. 

"Wediiesday September G"' 1775. 

The Congress met according to Adjournment. 

Resolved, That Mr Penn, Mr Harnett, Mr Webb, Mr Blount, Mr 
Locke and Mr Coor be a Committee to recommend proper j^ersons 
for Commissaries for the several Troops. 

The aforesaid Committee returned, and reported that several Gen- 
tlemen had offered themselves as candidates, which they approved 
of, and recommended that the house should make choice of four of 
the said Gentlemen for that purpose. 

Pursuant to which Mr William Kennon was appointed Commis- 
sary for the district of Wilmington, Mr Robert Salter Commissary 
for the district of Xew Bern, Mr Andrew Knox Comniissary for the 
district of Edenton, and Mr Rol^ert Lanier Commissary for the dis- 
trict of Salisbury. 

Ordered, That j\Ir Needham Bryan, j\Ir Ilinton, Mr .Jacob Blount, 
Mr William Bryan and Mr Duncan Lamo}a have leave to absent 
themselves from the Services of this Congress. 

Mr Archibald Maclaine, chairman from the Committee appointed 
for the purpose of preparing a plan for the regulation of the Inter- 
nal Peace, order and Safety of the Province, and making such 
arrangements in the civil police of this Province, &c., laid the same 
before the Congress, which was read. 

Ordered, the same be committed to a Committee of the whole 
house tomorrow morning. 

The Congress-adjourned till Tomorrow morning 9 o'Clock. 

Thursday September 7"" 1775. « 

The Congress met according to adjournment. 
VOL. X — 13 


The house taking into consideration the Report of the Committee 
of Ways and Means, came to the following Resolutions, to wit : 

Resolved, That a Sum not exceeding one hundred and twenty five 
thousand Dollars, be emitted by this Congress in Bills of Credit, for 
the defence of this Colony. 

Resolved, That this Province be pledged for the redemption of the 
Bills of Credit now directed to be emitted. 

Resolved, That the number and denomination of the Bills be as 
follows, viz: 

4000 of i of a Dollar is.^_- . 1000 Dollars. 

4000 -I of a Dollar is 2000 

4000 i Dollar is 4000 

4000 2 Dollars SOOO 

4000 3 Dollars 12000 

4000 4 Dollars 16000 

4000 5 Dollars 20000 

4000 8 Dollars . 32000 

3000 10 Dollars 3000O 

Resolved, That the form of the Bills be as follows. 

North Carolina Currency 
No. Dollars 

This Bill entitles the Bearer to receive Spanish milled dol- 
lars or the value thereof in Gold and Silver according to the Reso- 
lution of the provincial Congress held at Hillsboro the 2P' day of 
August 1775. 

Resolved, That IMr. Samuel Johnston, Mr Richard Caswell, ^Ir 
Richard Cogdell and Mr Andrew Knox or the survivors of them, be 
a Committee to get proper plates eng^raved, and to provide paper 
and to agree with an Engraver to stamp or print the said Bills and 
to Frame Devices for the same; and that they be and are hereby 
fully authorized to superintend the press, to have the oversight and 
care of Stamping or printing the Bills of Credit so to be struck, and to 
number and sign the same; and after numbering and signing them, 
shall deliver the same to the Treasurers or one of them, taking his 
or their Receipts for the Bills so delivered; and that they be allowed 
the sum of fifty [lounds each for such services. 


Resolved, That the said sum bo sunk by a tax of two shilhngs 
eveiy year on each taxable person within this province, to commence 
for the year 1777, and continue for nine years unless the monej'' 
should be sooner sunk. 

Resolved, That if any person shall refuse to receive the Public 
Bills of Credit by this Congress directed to be emitted, in payment 
of any debt or demand, or shall refuse to give them credit, or shall 
speak disrespectfully of the said Bills, or shall offer a greater sum of 
the said bills in exchange than at the rate of eight shillings for a 
dollar, such jjerson shall be treated as an enemj' to his country, and 
it is recommended to the inhabitants of this province to have no 
further connection or dealing- with him. 

Resolved that where any person shall be accused of counterfeiting, 
altering, or erasing any Bill or Bills of Credit of this Province 
emitted by virtue of the Resolves of this Congress, or shall know- 
ingly pass or utter or with intent to pass or utter, shall offer the 
same to any Person or persons Oath being made thereof, or sufficient 
pregnant circumstances made appear, before any three members of 
tlie Committee of the County, where he shall be apprehended, or the 
nearest Town, such person shall by the said Members of Committees, 
be committed to the Gaol of the district, where the offence is sup- 
posed to be committed, there to remain until the next meeting of the 
Committee of Safety thereof. And the said Committee shall inquire 
into the Truth of the Accusation, and if it shall aj^pear to Twelve 
of them that there is sufficient proof to convict him, he shall be 
remanded to prison, there to remain until a convenient j^ower shall 
be established for hearing and determining the matter, agreeable to 
the Constitutional mode heretofore used in all capital cases. And 
if he shall be convicted on such future hearing, or shall stand mute, 
or challenge more than twenty of the Petit Jury, he shall suffer 
Death as a felon, without Benefit of Clergj-. But if tlie said Com- 
mittee shall be of Opinion that there is not sufficient proof to con- 
vict him, he shall be discharged; and the j^ersons who shall first 
commit him, sliall take necessary measures to compel the Witnesses, 
as well for as against liim, to appear at the meeting of the said 
Committee of Safet}^ and give Testimony. 

Resolved, That Mr Samuel Johnston, Mr Ricliard Caswell, Mr 
Richard Cogdell, and Mr Andrew Knox shall previously to their 
takicg upon them the trust reposed in tliem by the above Resolve, 
enter into Bond with good and sufficient Security, in the sum of 


Ten thousand pounds proclamation monej', each, payable to the 
members of the provincial Council, for the use of this Province, 
with condition tliat he shall duly and faithfully execute and dis- 
charge the said Trust reposed in him according to the true intent 
and meaning of this Congress : Which bond shall be lodged with 
the provincial Council, and in case of a breach in the condition 
thereof, may be put in suit and recovered to the use of this province, 
and if any of the Commissioners appointed as aforesaid should die, 
remove out of the province, or refuse to act, the surviving Commis- 
sioners, or a majority of them, shall appoint others or another in 
the room of him or them so dying, refusing to act or removing, 
which Commissioner or Commissioners so appointed, shall enter into 
Bond as aforesaid. And such Commissioner shall, before his enter- 
ing into Office, take the following Oath, to wit : 

" I, A. B., do swear, upon the Holy Evangelists of Almighty God, 
that I will in consequence of the Trust reposed in me by the Pro- 
vincial Congress of this Province faithfully execute the same, that 
I will not stamp, sign, or emit, or knowingly suffer to be stamped, 
signed or emitted more Bills than such as have been described by 
the said Congress, and as soon as such Bills are emitted, that the 
plates used in stamping the same shall be destroyed." 

Resolved, That the Treasurers be allowed, for receiving and pay- 
ing away the said Bills one per cent. 

The Report of the Committee appointed to bring in a [)lan for 
regulating Minute Men and Militia being taken into consideration. 

Resolved, That the Province be divided into six districts, as they 
stood heretofore under the Superior Court Law, viz., Edenton, Hali- 
fax, Hillsborough, AVilmington, New Bern and Salisbury districts. 

That a Battalion consisting of ten Companies, of Fifty men rank 
and file, each, be raised in each district; and a Colonel, Lieutenant 
Colonel, Major, Ten Captams, Ten Lieutenants, Ten Ensigns, Twenty 
Serjeants, Ten Drummers and Ten Fifers be allowed for every Bat- 

That the Field Officers for each and every Battalion be recom- 
mended by the several districts, and appointed by the Congress ; and 
that the number of men to be enlisted in the several Counties in the 
different districts, be also recommended by the several districts, as 
nearly as may be to the number of effective Men in each County. 

That the Field Officers in each district appoint a suitable pcr.son 
or persons in each County to enlist Minute Men, which said jNlinute 


Men, when tlieir Companies fire compleated, shall choose their Cap- 
tains, Lieutenants and Ensigns ; and the said Captains, Lieutenants 
and Ensigns of each Company shall appoint their respective non- 
commissioned Officers. 

That the Field Officers and Captains of each district appoint an 

That the persons appointed to enlist ]\Iinute' Men in each County, 
may take Volunteers, coming of their own accord from other Counties; 
but shall not go into any other County to enlist, without permission 
of the Committee of such County in writing. 

That when any Company is compleated, and the Officers chosen, 
the Captain shall give notice to the Chairman of the County Com- 
mittee, who shall thereupon call the Committee together to review 
the said Company, at such place as the Chairman shall think proper. 
And the Committee, or a ^lajority of them, finding the Company 
complcat with able and proper men, shall grant a Certificate thereof 
to the Captain specifying the County and day, by which Certificates 
the Priority or Rank of the Captains in the different Battalions shall 
be determined, and that the precedence or Rank of the different Bat- 
talions be determined also as they are soonest embodied, which shall 
be ascertained and certified by the Members of the Provincial Coun- 
cil for the respective districts wdiere such Battalions belong: Should 
two Captains' Certificates bear date the same day, the Members of 
the provincial Council for the district shall decide between them ; 
should two Battalion or Colonejs' Certificates bear the same date the 
provincial Council shall determine the rank. 

That the Provincial Council enter the returns or Certificates of the 
County Committees and the Committees of safety in a Book for the 
purpose, and issue Commissions accordingly. 

That the Captains, or jiersons appointed to enlist, in enlisting 
Men, give a preference to those who have guns of their own ; but if 
it be found necessary to take such as have none. 

That then the Captains certify the same to the Committees of the 
Countys to which they belong who shall thereupon borrow such 
guns as are fit for Service, giving receipts, describing such Guns, 
and the value thereof; to the owners, that they may hereafter get 
them again or the value of them. And the said Committees, shall 
take Receipts in the like manner of the Captains for Guns thus 
supplied, which receipts shall be transmitted to the provincial Coun- 
cil; and the Captains shall produce such Guns, when demanded. 


pay the value of them, or shew that they have been lost Ijy unavoid- 
able accident to the public. 

That an allowance be made after the rate of ten Shillings per 
Annum for a good smooth bore or Musket, and twenty shillings for 
a Rifle, to the owners for tlie use of tlieir Guns, in the Case above 

That the Minute Men as soon as they are enlisted and approved 
by Companies as above be embodied in Battalions at or near the Towns 
aforesaid, in the different districts, there to continue in training 
successively for fourteen days, Sundays inclusive, and that each and 
ever}^ Minute Man be allowed one days pay for every Twenty miles 
in travelling to and from the place of training by Battalions. 
After this, that the different Companies in their respective Counties 
muster at least once a fortnight, on such days, and at such places as 
their Captains shall direct. 

That the Adjutant for each district be employed for six months 
and allowed the sum of fifteen pounds per month, and attend in 
the different Counties to his district belonging, by Rotation, and the 
Field Officers in eacli district, shall have power to remove such 
Adjutant for Misbehavior and appoint another in his stead. 

That the Officers and men, Avhile training by Battalions, and 
when called into actual Service have pay as follows, A Colonel per 
day fourteen Shillings three farthings. Lieutenant Colonel Eleven 
shillings and five pence. Major nine shillings and six pence. Captain 
five shillings and eight pence half penny. Lieutenant five shillings 
and nine pence three farthings, Ensign two shillings and ten pence 
farthing, Sergent two Shillings and three pence farthing, Corporal 
Drummer and Fifer two shillings half penny a private man one 
shilling and ten pence three farthings. 

That the special Committee hereinbefore mentioned appoint a 
Commissary of Musters for every district and shall be allowed eight 
pence per daj' for victualing each and every man. 

That a Bounty of twenty five Shillings be allowed for every pri- 
vate man, and non-commissioned Officer to buy a hunting Shirt, 
Leggin.s, or Splater dashes and Black Garter.?, which shall be the 
Uniform; and that the Manual exercise for the said Minute Men be 
that recommended by His Majesty in 1764-. xVnd if any Officer or 
Minute Man, shall refuse or neglect to attend Battalion dut\-, he 
shall forfeit two days pay for every day he is absent, giving to the 
delin(]uent the privilege of making excuse any time during Batalion 


Exercise or training, which Excuse shall be allowed or disallowed 
by a Court Martial consisting of the Field Officers aud Captains to 
each Battalion belonging, the same to be levied on the Estate of the 
delinquent, by any person or persons bj' the said Court appointed, 
and applied according to Act of Assembly for regulating the Militia. 

That each and every Company make such regulations as to them 
shall seem best, for non-attendance, disobedience, and misbehavior, 
at Musters by Companies; provided that the Commanding Officer 
or Captain may, if found necessary, give leave of absence to any 
Inferior Officer or private man, the first in Battalion dut}-, the last in 
Company Musters. That the Minute Men be enlisted for six Months, 
and whenever called into Actual Service, be Subject and bound bj' 
the Rules and Regulations for the Continental Ai'my provided by- 
the Continental Congress; And if any Officer or Minute Man dur- 
ing his attendance on training duty by Battalions shall refuse to 
obey the Commands of his Superior Officers, or behave refractorily 
or indecently, such offender shall and may be confined for any time 
not exceeding Twenty four hours, and fined in any sum not exceed- 
ing fourteen days pay, as shall be determined by the Judgment of 
a Court Martial to be held as aforesaid; the fines to be levied and 
applied as herein before directed. 

That in Case of Insurrections Invasions or other Emergancy such 
Captain or Captains, as may be nearest to the Scene of Action or 
first informed of the danger, shall have power to order all or part 
of his or their Men as may be necessary into immediate Service, and 
shall give notice to the Colonel or Commanding Officer of the 
Battalion to which he or the}' belong, and the Colonel or Command- 
ing Officer shall upon such information from a Captain, or in the 
first instance, have power to order all or every part of the Battalion 
as he shall think proper into service, and March them to any part 
of his di.strict; but he shall give notice to the Committee of Safety 
of his district, and shall be subject to their Orders when convened: 
But as soon as the provincial Council shall meet, the power of the 
Committees of Safety shall cense with respect to such Battalion, and 
the Colonel or Commanding Officer thereof, shall be subject to the 
controul of the said Council. 

That the Regular Officers shall take rank of the ]\Iinute Officers 
of the same Rank, and the Minute Officers shall take Rank of the 
Militia Officers of the same Rank; but the Minute Men shall not be 
under the Command of the Militia Officers, nor the Militia under 


the Command of the Minute Officers unless when drawn in actual 
Service. ^ 

That a Colonel of the Minute J.Ien shall take rank of a Lieutenant 
Colonel of the Regulars, a Colonel of the Militia take rank of a Lieu- 
tenant Colonel of the jNIinute Men. And that every Officer or Min- 
ute Man who shall refuse or unreasonably delay conforming to the 
above directions with respect to Insurrections &c'', shall for such 
refusal or delay suffer such punishment (death exceptedj or pay.such 
fine, as shall be adjudged by a Court Alartial," consisting of the Field 
Officers and Captains to his Battalion belonging; provided, that if 
any Officer shall think himself aggrieved by the decision of such 
dourt Martial, he may appeal to the provincial Council Avhose deter- 
-mination shall be final. The said Fines and Forfeitures to be levied 
and applied as hereinbefore directed. 

And with respect to the Militia your Committee have further 

Resolved, That the Field Officers be appointed by Congress, the 
Caj^tains, Lieutenants and Ensigns, by the Committee of their respec- 
tive Counties; and the Committees shall certify the Names of the 
Officers so elected to the Provincial Council that Commissions may 
issue accordingly. 

That the Colonel or commanding Officer in each County have 
power to#order two General Musters in every year and that the 
Captains shall muster their companies once a month; the Officers 
and Soldiers being subject to the same Fines and punishments for 
non attendance, &c% at these Musters as are directed by Law for 
regulating the Militia. 

That an Adjutant be appointed by the Field Officers of each 
County who shall attend every General and private muster of his 
said county, and shall be paid Eight Shillings per day for every day 
he attends, to be certified by the commanding officer of their i-espec- 
tive regiments or companies. 

That the Committees of Safety in their respective districts, upon 
any emergency, have power to order the INIilitia into service, their 
power to cease, however, in this respect as soon as the provincial 
Council shall meet and issue orders, and that in other respects the 
Militia be regulated by the Law for that purpose provided, except 
wherein it is or may be contradictory to the Resolutions of the Con- 

And provided also that every public ferry keeper shall set over 
ferry free every person who sliall attend Musters as JNIilitia or Minute 


Men, at all such times as they shall be called upon by their respec- 
tive Officers. 

The Order of the day that was referred to a Committee of the 
■ndiole house was laid over till to-morrow. 

Resolved, That Mr. Johu Ashe be allowed four pounds for so 
much advanced by him to Stephen Jackson, a messenger appointed 
by the Congress to take and bring in custody James Cotton and 
others before this Congress. 

The Congress then adjourned till To-morrow jNIorning 9 "Clock. 

Friday, September 8"", 1775. 

The Congress met according to adjournment. 

Resolved that Mr. AVillie Jones, Mr. Burke, Mv. Thomas Person 
and Mr. Long be a Committee to state and settle Mr. James Davis' 
Account for services done as printer to this province. 

Mr. Hooper laid before the house an Address to the Inhabitants 
of the British Empire; and the same being read, was unanimously 
received, and is as follows, viz, 

Fkiexds and Fellow Citizens, 

"The fate of the contest which at present subsists between these 
American Colonies and the British Ministers who now sit at the 
helm of i^ublic affairs, will be one of tlie most imj^ortant Epochs 
which can mark the Annals of the British history. Foreign Nations 
with anxious expectation wait the result, and see with amazement 
the blind infatuated Policy which the j^resent Administration pui'- 
sues to subjugate these Colonies, and reduce them from being loyal 
and useful Subjects to an absolute dependance and abject Slavery, 
as if the descendants of those Ancestors, who have shed Rivers of 
Blood and expended JMillions of Treasure, in fixing upon a lasting 
foundation the Liberties of the British Constitution, saw with envy 
the on:e happy .state of this Western Region, and strove to exter- 
minate the patterns of those Virtues which shone with a Lustre 
which bid fair to Rival and Eclipse their own. 

"To enjoy the Fruits of our own honest Industry; to call that our 
own which we earn with the labour of our hands and the sweat of 
our Brows; to "regulate that internal j^olicy bj' which we and not 
they are to be affected ; these are the mighty Boons we ask. And 
Traitors, Rebels, and every liarsli appellation that Malice can dictate 
or the Virulence of language express, are the returns which Ave 


receive to the most humble Petitions and earnest supplications. AVe 
have been told that Independance is our object; tliat we seek to shake 
off all connection witla the parent State. Cruel Suggestion ! Do not 
all our professions, all our actions, uniformly contradict this? 

" We again declare, and we invoke that Almight}' Being who 
searches the Recesses of the human heart and knows our most secret 
Intentions, that it is our most earnest wish and prayer to be restored 
with the other L'^nited Colonies, to the State in which we and thej^ 
were placed before the year 1763, disjiosed to glance over any Regu- 
lations which Britain had made previous to this, and which seem to 
be injurious and oppressive to these Colonies, hoping that at- some 
future day she will benignly interpose and remove from us every 
cause of complaint. 

"Whenever we have departed from the Forms of the Constitution, 
our own safety and self preservation have dictated the expedient; and 
if in any Instances we have assumed powers which the laws invest 
in the Sovereign or his representatives, it has been only in defence 
of our persons, properties and those rights which God and the Con- 
stitution have made Unalienably ours. As soon as the cause of our 
Fears and Apprehensions are removed, with joy will we return these 
powers to their regular channels; and such Institutions formed from 
mere necessity, shall end with that necessity that created them. 

" These expressions flow from an affection bordering upon devotion 
to the succession of the house of Hanover as by law established, 
from Subjects who view it as a Monument that does honor to human 
nature; a Monument capable of teaching Kings how glorious it is to 
reign over a free People. Those are the heart felt effusions of Men 
ever ready to spend their Blood and Treasure when constitutionally 
called upon, in support of the Succession of His Majesty King George 
the third, his Crown and dignity, and who fervently wish to Trans- 
mit his Reign to future ages as the Ord of common happiness to his 
people. Could these our Sentiments reach the Throne, surely our 
Sovereign would forbid the horrors of War and desolation to intrude 
into this once peaceful and happj' Land, and would stop that deluge 
of Iiuman Blood which now threatens to overflow this Colonj^, Blood 
too precious to be shed but in a common cause against the common 
enemy of Gireat Britain and her sons. 

"This declai-ation we hold forth as a Testimony of Loyalty to our 
Sovereign, and Affection to our parent State, and as-a sincere earn- 
est of our i^reserit and future intentions. 


"We liope hereby to remove those impressions which have been 
made by the representations of weak and wicked men to tlie preju- 
dice of this Colonj^ who thereby intended that the rectitude of our 
designs might be brouglit into distrust; and sedition, Anarcliy, and 
confusion, spread through this loyal province. 

" We have discharged a duty which we owe to the world, to our- 
selves and posterity ; and may the Almighty God give success to the 
means we make use of so far as they are aimed to produce just, law- 
ful, and good purposes, and the Salvation and happiness of the 
whole British Empire." 

Resolved, That the Treasurers, or either of them, draw on the 
Continental Treasurer, out of the sum directed to be drawn out of 
the Continental Funds for the use of the Army five hundred pounds 
for each of the three delegates appointed to attend the Continental 
Congress in behalf of this province, instead of the like sum ordered 
to be paid them out of the Provincial Treasury'. 

Resolved, That the Continental Troops to be raised in this province 
be kept in pay three months, unless the provincial Council should 
judge it necessary to continue them longer; and the said Cmincil are 
empowered- to disband them at any time before or after the term of 
three mouths, when they shall judge that the'r service is unneces.-rary. 

Mr John Walker is appointed Captain of a company in the Hills- 
borough district, in the room of Mr John Williams who resigned. 

Resolved, That the recruiting officers of the Continental Army, to 
be raised in this province advance to each non commissioned officer 
and soldier, who shall be enlisted forty shillings in part of his first 
Month's pay; That ten shillings be allowed to each Captain, Lieu- 
tenant or Ensign, for every man which they shall respectivel}' enlist 
and enrol as a Soldier in the said Service, as a full compensation for 
their Expenses in recruiting tlieir men. 

Resolved, That Samuel Johnston, E,squire, be, and is hereby 
appointed Treasurer for .the Northern district, and Richard Cas- 
well, Esciuire, be and is hereby appointed Treasurer for tlie South- 
ern district; which said Treasurers respectively are invested with 
the same powers and Authorities, and infilled to the same Emolu- 
ments, and liable to the like Fine,s, Penalties, and Forfeitures, as 
Treasurers were by an A ct of Assembly of this province, passed in 
the Year 1 773, intituled An Act for appointing public Treasurers, 
and directing their duty in Office. Ami that each of them before 


they eater on the Execution of the said Office, shall give Bond and 
sufficient Security, in the Sum of Fifty thousand pounds proclama- 
tion money to the provincial Council. 

, Mr Farquard CamiDbell and Mr King have leave to absent them- 
selves from the services of this Congress. 

Mr Caswell informed the Congress that as they had done him the 
honor of appointing him Treasurer of the Southern district of this 
province, and one of the Signers of the Public Bills of Credit, his 
attending those duties would render it entirely out of his power, to 
attend the Continental Congress as one of the Delegates of this 
Province; he therefore requested this Congress would be pleased to 
appoint some other Gen'tleman in his stead. 

Whereupon it is Resolved, That John Penn, Esquire, be and he 
is hereby appointed a Delegate in behalf of this Province, in Con- 
junction with William Hooper, and Joseph Hewes, Esquires, and 
that he be invested with the same powers, and entitled to the same 
Allowance, that the said Richard Caswell would have been vested 
with, and intitled to, under a former resolution of this Congress. 

Resolved, that the Secretary, as soon as this Congress rises, deliver 
the Journals to Mr James Green, who is directed to Transcribe a 
fair Copy immediately, and deliver it to Mr. James Davis, who is 
desired to j^rint the same and send a copy to each of the Members 
of this Congress as soon as j^ossible. 

Mr Wade laid before the Congress a Letter from John Coulson 
with a Recantation and Association entered into and signed by a 
number of the people called protestors with which the house is 

The Congress Adjourned till Tomorrow Morning 6 "Clock. 

Saturday September 9"' 1775. 

The Congress met according to Adjournment. 

The house taking into Consideration the Appointment of the 
Field Officers of the Minute Men, came to. the folio-wing Resolution: 

Resolved, That the following persons be appointed, to wit, 

Edenton District — Edward Vail, Colonel ; Andrew Knox, Lieut. 
Colonel; Caleb Nash, Major. 

Halifax District — Nicholas Long, Colonel; Henry L'win, Lieut. 
Colonel ; Jetliro Sumner, Major. 

Salisbury District — Thomas Wade, Colonel ; Adlai Osburn, Lieut. 
Colonel; Joseph Hardin, Major. 


Hillsboro District — Jones Thackston, Colonel; John Williams, 
Lieut. Colonel ; James Moore, Major. 

New Bern District — Richard Caswell, Colonel; William Bryan, 
Lieut. Colonel ; Jones Gorham, Major. 

Wihnington District — Alexander Lillington, Colonel; Robert 
Ellis, Lieut. Colonel ; Samuel Swann, Major. 

And that the following persons be Field Officers of the Militia. 

Currituck County ^ Samuel Jarvis, Colonel; Dennis Dauge, 
Lieut. Col"; Taylor Jones, first Major; John Nicholson, second 

Pasquotank County — John Lowery, Colonel ; Isaac Gregory 
Lieut. Colonel ; Demsey Burgess, Major ; Joshua Campbell, second 

Perquimons County — Miles Harvey, Colonel ; AVilliam Skinner, 
Lieut CoP ; Thomas Harvey, first Major ; Richard Clayton, second 

Chowan County — Thomas Bonner, Colonel ; James Blount, Lieut 
CoP; Thomas Benbury, first Major ; '.Jacob Hunter, second Major. 

Bertie County — Thomas Wliitmill, Colonel ; Thomas Pugh, Lieut 
CoP ; James Moore, first Major ; Arthur Brown, second Major. 

Hertford County — Benjamin Wynns, Colonel; Matthias Brickie, 
Lieut CoP; Lawrence Baker, first Major; George Lyttle, second 

Tyrrel County — Edward Buncombe, Colonel ; Benjamin Blount, 
Lieut CoP; James Long first Major; Joseph Spruill, second Major. 

Martin County —William Williams, Colonel; Whitmill Hill, 
Lieut Col° ; Thomas Wiggins, first Major ; Kenneth MTvinzie, second 

Halifax County — John Bradford, Colonel ; William Alston, Lieut 
CoP, David Sumner, first Major; Egbert Haywood, second Major. 

Northampton County — Allen Jones, Colonel ; William Eaton, 
Lieut CoP ; Jeptha Atherton, first Major ; Howell Edmunds, second 

Edgecombe County — William Haywood, Colonel; Sherwood 
Haywood, Lieut CoP; Joseph Moore, first Major; Henry Home, 
second Major. 

Bute County — William Person, Colonel; Phil. Hawkins, Lieut 
CoP; William Alston, first Major ; Thomas Sherwood, second Major. 

An.son County — Samuel Spencer, Colonel; Charles Medlock, 
Lieut CoP; James Auld, first Major, David Love, second Major. 


Mecklenburg County — Thomas Polk, Colonel ; Adam Alexander, 
Lieut Col" ; John Phifer, first Major ; John Davidson, second Major. 

Guilford County — Ransom Sutherland ; Colonel; .James Martin, 
Lieut Col"; John Paisley, first Major; John Tate, second Major. 

Tryon County — AVilliam Graham, Colonel; Charles Maclaine, 
Lieut Col°; Thomas Beaty, first Major; Fred'k Hambright, second 

Surry County — Martin Armstrong, Colonel; Joseph Williams, 
Jjieut Col"; William Hall, first Major; Joseph Winston, second 

Rowan County — Griffith Rutherford, Colonel; Francis Locke, 
Lieut. Col°; John Ddbbin, first Major; James Brandon, second 

Craven County — Joseph Leech, Colonel ; John Bryan, Lieut. Col" ; 
John Benners, first Major; Fred'k Becton, second Major. 

Carteret County — William Thomson, Colonel; Solomon Shepherd, 
Lieut. Col"; Thomas Chadwick, Major; Malichi Bell, second 

Beaufort County — James Bomer, Colonel; Thomas Bomer, 
Lieut. Col°; Roger Ormond, first Major; William Brown, second 

Hyde County — Rotheas Latliam, Colonel ; Benj* Parmerlin, Lieut. 
Col°; William Russell, first Major; Thomas Jones, second Major. 

Johnston County — Needham Bryan, Colonel; William Bryan, 
Lieut. Colonel ; John Smitli, first Major ; Samuel Smith, Jun"', second 

Dobbs County — Abraham Sheppard, Colonel; Thomas Torrans, 
Lieut. Colonel ; Martin Caswell, first Major ; W" McKinnie, second 

Pitt County — John Simpson, Colonel; Robert Salter, Lieut. Colo- 
nel; George Evans, first Major; James Armstrong, second Major. 

Brunswick County — John Davis, Colonel ; Thomas Davis, Lieut. 
Colonel; Rich* Quince, Jun', first ]\Lijor; Parker Quince second 

Onslow County — William Cray, Colonel ; Henry Rhode.s, Lieut. 
Colonel; Thomas Johnston, first Major; James Howard, second 

Duplin County — James Kenan, Colonel; Richard Clinton, Lieut. 
Colonel ; Thomas Routledge, first Major ; James Moore, second 



Cumberland County — Thomas Rutherford, Colonel; Alex' 
McAllister, Lieut Colonel, Duncan M'Xeill, first Major; Alex' 
]\PDonald, second Major. 

Newhanover Couuty — William Purviauce, Colonel; Sampson 
Moseley, Lieut Colonel ; William Moseley, first Major; John Devane, 
second Major. 

Bladen Count}' — Thomas Robeson, .Jun', Colonel ; Thomas Brown, 
Lieut Colonel ; Thomas Owens, first Major ; .James Richardson, second 

Orange County — John Hogan, Colonel; John Butler, Lieut 
Colonel; Will™ Moore, first Major; Nath' Rochester, second Major. 

Granville County — Jo.seph Taylor, Colonel; Charles R. Eaton, 
Lieut Colonel; Samuel Smitli, first Major; William Williams, sec- 
ond Major. 

Wake County — John Hinton, Colonel; Theophilus Hunter, 
Lieut < olonel ; John Hinton, Jun', first Major; Thomas Hines, 
second Major. 

Chatham County — Ambrose Ramsey, Colonel ; .Jeduthan Harper, 
Lieut Colonel ; Mial Scurlock, first Major ; Elisha Cain, Second 

And the Proportion of the Minute ]\Ien to be raised in each 
County is as follows, viz, 


one Company. 


two Companies, 













Bertie, , 

■ two 





























New Hanover 










Try on, 








Surry, ' 







Resolved, That on the death, Refusal to act or Removal out of 
the Province of any of the Officers appointed or hereafter to be 
appointed for the Minute i\Ien, that the Committee of Safety for the 
district shall appoint some person or persons to supply the place 
of such Officer or Officers. 

The Congress adjourned till 10 "Clock. 

Saturday 10 "Clock. 

The Congress met according to Adjournment. 

Agreeable to the Order of the day, the House Resolved itself into 
a Committee of the whole house to take into Consideration the report 
of the Committee appointed for the jiurpose of preparing a plan for 
the Internal Peace, Order and Safety of this Province, and made 
choice of Mr William Kenan, Chairman, and after some time .spent 
therein, Mr. President resumed the Chair, and the Chairman 
reported as follows, viz', 

Resolved, That it be recommended to the Congress to appoint in 
each district of this Colony a Committee of Safet}^ to consist of a 
president and twelve other Members, who shall sit every three 
Months at the principal Towns witliin their respective districts, viz', 
Wilmington, New Bern, Edenton, Halifax, Hillsborough and Salis- 
bury, and as often at other times within their respective districts as 
they may judge expedient and necessary; and shall under the Con- 
troul of the provincial Council hereinafter mentioned, direct the 
operations of the Militia and such other Forces as are and may be 
employed for the safety, protection and defence of this Colony, 
within their Respective Jurisdictions, and receive Informations and 
censure and punish delinquents either in the first In.slancc, or as a 
Superintending power over the Town and County Committees, such 
Committees of Safetj^ to be Elected in Congress by Ballot by the 
Members of the respective districts. 

That it be recommended as aforesaid to Elect by Ballot Thirteen 
persons, two to be named by the Members of each district and one 
by the Congress, who shall be stiled the Provincial Council ; and 
they or a IMajority of them shall certify the Appointment of Officers 
in the Army during the recess of Congress and fill up "\''acancics, 
and grant Certificates which shall be in the following form ^"iz' : 


North Carolina, 

Li Provincial Council, 

This is to Certify That was appointed (Captain 

Lieutenant or Ensign, as the case may be, of Cap' 

Company) in the Regiment of Foot of the American Army of 

this Province commanded by CoP this daj- 

of 1775. 

That the Qualification and Test to be taken by Members of the 
Congress shall also be taken by Members of the Provincial Council 
and Committees of Safety, before they be allowed to Act. 

That the Provincial Council or a Majority of them, as aforesaid, 
shall be vested with full power to suspend any Officer in the Army 
or Militia when they shall deem it necessary for the public Service 
and shall within thirty days after such Suspensions order a Regi- 
mental Court Martial to sit for the trial of such Officer, the sentence 
of such Court Martial to be final, unless otherwise determined by 
the Congress. 

That the Provincial Council, and the Committees of Safety, in 
Subordination thereto shall have the direction, Regulation, Main- 
tenance and Ordering of the Army and of all Mihtary establish- 
ments and Arrangements subject however to the Controul of the 

That the Provincial Council shall have full power to call for the 
Militia as in cases of Alarms and to carry the Acts of Assembly now 
or lately in force with respect to the Militia into Execution ; and 
shall liave Authority to reject such Officers chosen Ijy the people as 
they shall disapprove; to remove Officers upon Complaint, to fill up 
A^acancies, and to make out appointments for such as shall have 
their approbation. 

That in general the provincial Council be empowered to do and 
Transact all such matters and things as they may judge expedient 
to strengthen, secure and defend the Colonj^, so as the same shall 
not extend to altering or su.spendiug any Act or Resolution of the 

That tlie said Council be empowered and authorized to draw on 
the Treasury for all sums of money necessary for the public service, 
specifying for what particular Service each sum of money shall be 
applied, for which they shall be accountable to this Congress. 

VOL. X — 14 


That the Provincial Council shall meet at Johnston Courthouse 
on the third Tuesday in October next and once every three months, 
or oftener if necessar}', at that or such other places as they may 
think proper; and may adjourn from time to time as they may judge 

That the members of the Provincial Council shall be allowed for 
their Expences in travelling to, from and attending at the Council on 
the Public Service ten shillings per day, and also for their Feriiages. 

That in case of a Vacancy in the said Council, during the recess 
of the Congress, the members of the Committee of Safety of the 
district wherein such Yacancj^ shall happen, shall nominate some 
l^roper person to fill up such Vacancy to be chosen by Ballot. 

That no person holding a Military Office, from -which he receives 
or expects profit, or any person holding a lucrative Office under any 
"of the Military Commanders in particular or the Array in general, 
shall be capable to act as a member of the Provincial Council, or of 
any of the Committees of Safety or a representative of the people 
in Congress (Officers and Commanders of the Militia onlj' excepted). 

That a ]\Iajority of the Members of each of the Committees of 
Safety be a Quorum. 

That the Provincial Council and the Committees of Safety in their 
respective districts shall have full power and Authority to compell 
all debtors who are Suspected of an Intention to remove themselves 
out of this Colony (such Suspicion being first Sworn to before such 
Council or Committee) to give Security to their Creditors, and in 
default thereof, to the persons or Effects of sucli debtors at 
the Option of the Creditors to be seized and safely kept until such 
security be given, or the Creditors otherwise satisfied ; and that the 
County Committees have the same power to grant remedies in like 
cases in all demands of Twenty pounds and under, and the Com- 
mittees of Safety shall also have power and authority to call all 
persons liable for public Monies to Account and by distress of their 
Estates and Imprisonment of persons to compel payment thereof, 
to the end that the Treasury may be supplied with money for the 
present Exigencies of the Colony, without Burthening tlie people. 

That the power of the different Committees of Safety and the 
Provincial Council shall continue during the recess of the Congress, 
and until it shall be otherwise determined therein: and tliat all 
the proceedings of the said Committees of Safety and Provinci 1 
Council shall be laid before the Congress for tlieir Inspection. 


That on the third Tuesday in October in every year the Free- 
liolders in each County throughout this province, shall meet at the 
Court liouse of such County, and in the presence of three inspectors, 
to be appointed by the Count}' Committee or Candidates or any 
two of such inspectors shall proceed to choose any Number of Persons 
not exceeding five, to represent them in Congress for one year; in 
the same manner, and under the same regulations and restrictions 
as near as may be, as directed by an Act of Assembly of this Prov- 
ince, intituled an Act to Regulate Elections. 

And at the same time the Freeholders in each town wliich hath 
usually been represented by a Member in the General Assembly, or 
such other Persons as are by Law intitled to vote for j\Iembers of 
Assembly shall also in like manner in presence of three Inspectors 
to be appointed by the Town Committee, elect a Member to repre- 
sent them in Congress under the same rules and regulations, as 
near as may be, as have been usually observed in electing Members 
to sit and vote in General Assembl3^ 

And the Person or Persons wlio shall appear to have t!ie greatest 
Number of Votes shall b}' the Secretary of the Committee be 
returned duh' Elected to serve in Congress. 

Provided, That nothing in the above resolve shall be deemed to 
Alter the Mode of voting observed in this and the last Congress, by 
Counties and Towns. And provided likewise that no returning 
Officer shall be admitted to sit and Vote-in Congress. 

And whereas a great part of the Lands situate in that part of Lord 
Granville's Territoi'ies comprehended in tlie counties of Bute, Gran- 
ville, Wake, Chatha.n, Orange, Guilford, Rowan, Surry and also 
Mecklenbuig Count}", have been long settled by substantial In- 
habitants who have not been able to acquire legal Titles of Free- 
liold to their Land yet ought of right to have votes in all Elections, 

Resolved, Tliat all liousc holders in the said counties who have 
improved Lands in possession, except such as hold land by lease for 
years or at Will, from or under any Freeholder shall vote in all 
Elections for the said Counties in like manner as Freeholders in the 
other counties in this province, anything in the aforegoing resolu- 
tion to the contrary notwithstanding. 

That the Secretary or Clerk of each respective Committee shall 
give notice of each annual Election at the most public places Avithin 
their respective County and town, at least twenty days before the 
time of such Election. 


That the Congress of this Colony shall be annually held, on the 
tenth day of November, at such place as the preceeding Congress 
shall agree, unless for special reasons otherwise directed by the 
provincial Council; and the said Council shall ascertain the time 
of holding the next Congress. 

That the Delegates so elected and qualified -when met in Congress 
shall before they enter upon any Public Business, in the presence of 
at least three Members of the Provincial Council, repeat and sub- 
scribe the following Test, to wit: 

"We the subscribers professing our Allegiance to the King and 
Acknov.'ledging the Constitutional executive power of Government, 
do solemnly profess testify and declare, that Ave do abs-^lutely believe 
that neither the Parliament of Great Britain, nor any Member or 
Constituent Branch thereof, hath a right to impose Taxes upon these 
Colonies or to regulate the internal police thereof, and that all attempts 
by fraud or force to establish and Exercise such claims and powers 
are violations of the peace and security of the iseoj^le, and ought to 
be resisted to the Utmost and that the people of this province, siiiglj^ 
and collectively, are bound by the Acts and Resolutions of the Con- 
tinental and jirovincial Congresses because in both they are freelj^ 
represented by j^ersons chosen by themselves; And we do solemnly 
and sincerely promise and engage, under the sanction of Virtue 
honor, and the sacred Love of Liberty and our country, to maintain 
and support all and every the Acts, Resolutions, and Regulations of 
the said Continental and provincial Congresses to the utmost of our 
power, and Abilities. In Testimony whereof We have hereunto set 
our hands this day of 177--. 

That there be in each County a Committee of not less than twenty 
one persons who shall be Freeholders, a majority of whom shall be 
a Quorum. 

That there be in each, of the Towns of Edenton, New Bern and • 
Wilmington a Committee to consist of fifteen persons, and in every 
other Town in this Colony liaving a right of representation a Com- 
mittee consisting of seven members qualitied as before mentioned ; 
the majority of the said Town Committees respectively to be a 

That every person having a right to vote for delegates to sit in 
Congress, shall have a right to vote for Committeemen. 


That the Electors before they shall be suffered to vote, and the 
Elected before they shall sit and act, shall swear if required to their 

That there be a new Election of Committees yearly, on the day 
fixed for electing delegates to sit in Congress, and the same mode 
shall be pursued in electing Committee men as delegates. 

That the Committee of every Town in this Colony may Act in 
conjunction and be consolidated with the Committee of the County 
in which it is situated. 

That every County and Town Committee shall meet on the first 
day of their respective Courts, at their several Court houses, or such 
other place as -they may think proper, and as much oftencr as they 
may judge necessary'. 

That the different Committees within their respective .Jurisdic- 
tions shall execute all such Orders as may be received by them from 
the Committees of Safety, and the Provincial Council ; shall super- 
intend the observance of the General Association, And the Resolves, 
Orders, and directions of the Continental and Provincial Congresses. 

That each Town and County Committee maj^ make such further 
Rules and Regulations, within their respective districts as to them 
shall appear necessary, so that they do not presume to inflict Cor- 
poi'al punishment on any Offender whatsoever, imprisonment only 

That no person in this province shall presume to Commeiace any 
Action whatsoever, in any Court of Law or before any Magistrate in 
this province, from and after the tenth day of September Instant, 
without Application to and leave from the Committee of the County 
in wliich liis Debtor resides, nor shall any Suit then depending be 
proc'eeded on without the Approbation of such Committee. But 
Execution shall not hereafter issue in any Case whatever, till the 
provincial Congress shall make further Order therein. 

That all Sales by virtue of Mortgages and Letters of Attorney, 
ai'e comprehended within the intent and meaning of the foregoing 

That the resj^ective Town and County Committees shall imme- 
diately after their Nomination and Qualification, elect by Ballot out 
of their own Members seven Persons, to Act as a Committee of 
Secrecy, Intelligence and Observation, who shall correspond, with 
the Provincial Council, the Committees of Safety and the other 
Committees in this and the Neighbouring Colonies, and shall have 


power to take up and Examine all suspected Persons, and if neces- 
sary, send them to the provincial Council or the Committees of 
Safety for their respective districts. 

Then, on Motion, Resolved, The foregoing Report be concurred 

The Committee appointed to settle j\lr. James Davis's Accounts, 
reported as follows, viz': 

Your Committee are of Opinion that the Charge of Seven hundred 
and fifty pounds Salary for three years if due, is a charge against a 
particular Fund, which the Treasurers appointed by Act of Assem- 
bly are Accountable for; that tlie other charges are for Services 
done for the public, which that Salary was originally intended to 
Compensate and for which your Committee think is sufficient Satis- 
faction, because the same Individuals constitute the jjublic, whether 
rej)resented in Assembly or Congress. 

In Congress, Concurred with. 

Resolved, That a Sum not exceeding one thousand pounds, be 
advanced by either of the Treasurers to Mr. Willie Jones, one of the 
Superintendants appointed for the Southern District by the General 
Congress, to be laid out in part or in the whole at his discretion in 
presents to the Indians and for his own Expences, and that he be 
accountable as aforesaid to this Congress. 

Resolved, That the following Persons be a provincial Council, 
to-wit : 

The Honble Samuel Joluiston Esquire, Cornelius Harnett, and 
Samuel Ashe, Escjuires, For the district of Wilmington. 

Thomas Jones and Whitmill Hill Esquires, For the district of 

Abner Nash and James Coor Esquires, For the district of New 

Thomas Person and John Kinchcn Esquires, For the district of 

Willie Jones and Thomas Eaton Esquires, For the district of 

Samuel Spencer and Waightstill Avery Esquires, For the district 
of Salisbury. 

Resolved, That the Committees of Safety for the several districts 
in this Province be composed of the following persons, to v,-it, 

For the district of Wilmington — Frederick Jones, Sampson Moseh', 
Archibald Maclaine, Richard Quince, Thomas Davis, William Cray, 


Henry Rhodes, Thomas Routledge, James Kenan, Alexander Mc- 
Alister, George Mjdne, John Smith and Benjamin Stone. 

For the district of Edenton — I^uke Sumner, William Gray, John 
Johnston, Thomas Benbury, Gideon Lamb, Joseph Jones, Miles Har- 
vey, Lawrence Baker, Kenneth INIcKinzie, Stevens Lee, Charles 
Blount, Isaac Gregory and Day Ridley. 

For the district of Hillsborough — William Taylor, Joseph Taylor, 
Samuel Smith, John Atkinson, John Butler, William Johnston, John 
Hinton, Joel Lane, Michael Rogers, Ambrose Ramsey, Mial Scur- 
lock, John Thompson and John Lark. 

For the district of New Bern — John Easton, Major Croom, Roger 
Ormond, Edwaid Salter, George Barrow, William Thomson, William 
Tisdale, Benjamin Williams, Richard Ellis, Richard Cogdell, Will- 
iam Brown, James Glasgow and Alexander Gaston. 

For the district of Salisbury — John Crawford, James Auld, Heze- 
kiah Alexander, Benjamin Patten, John Brevard, Grifiith Ruther- 
ford, William Hill, .John Hamlin, Charles Galloway, William Dent, 
Robert Ewart and j\Iaxwell Chambers. 

And for the district of Halifax— James Leslie, John Bradford, 
David Sumner, Allen Jones, William Eaton, Drury Gee, John Nor- 
wood, the Rev* Henry Pattillo, James Jvlills, William Bellamy, Will- 
iam Haywood, Duncan Lamon and John Webb. 

The Congress adjourned till To-morrow Morning 6 "Clock. 

Sunday, September lO"', 1775. 

The Congress met according to Adjournment. 

Whereas, the Independent Companies now suljsisting in this 
Province may probably interfere witli the regulars and Minute 

Resolved, That the same be and they are hereby dissolved, but 
any Person or Persons, after the Regular and Minute Men are com- 
pleted, may, with leave of the Committee of the County wherein he 
or they reside, form an Independent Companv or Companies, subject 
to the regulations of such Committee. 

Resolved, That it be recommended to such of tlie Inhabitants of 
this Province as may not be provided with Bayonets to their Guns 
to procure the same as soon as possible, and be otherwise provided 
to turn out at a minute's warning. 

Whereas the Majestrates nominated in the last Commission of peace 
issued bv his Fxcellencv for the Countv of Pitt liave refused to 


Qualify, for motives laudable in themselves, but since it is absolutely 
necessary that Courts should be held in every County for the Probate 
of Deeds, Wills, granting Administrations, Guardianships, &c'. 

Resolved, That it be, and is hereby recommended to the Majes- 
trates in the said Commission mentioned, to Qualify and hold Courts 
under the same. 

The Congress taking into Consideration the Encouragement of 
Manufactures within this Province, entered into the following Reso- 
lutions viz' 

Resolved, That the sum of twenty five pounds be paid^ for every 
hundred weight of good Merchantable Saltpetre, that shall be made 
and Manufactured in this province and delivered to the Provincial 
Council within the space of six months from this time, and that 
the sum of Twenty pounds be paid for every hundred weight of 
good Merchantable Saltpetre, that shall be made and manufactured 
in this province and delivered to the said Council within six months 
nex^t following and so in proportion for any greater Quantity. 

Resolved that the sum of two hundred pounds be paid for the 
first five hundred weight of good Merchantable Gunpowder, equal 
in goodness to Gunpowder imported from Great Britain at the 
price of Eighty five Shillings Sterling per hundred weight, that 
shall be made and manufactured *vithin this Province, and delivered 
to the provincial Council within the space of six months from this 
time and that the Sum of one hundred and fifty pounds be paid 
for the second five hundred Weight of good Merchantable Gun- 
powder that shall be made and manufactured in this Province and 
delivered to the said Council within twelve months next following 
and so in proportion for any greater Quantity. 

Resolved that a premium of two hundred and fifty pounds be 
given to the first person who shall erect and build a rolling and 
slitting mill for the purpose of preparing Iron to make Nails, and 
which Mill shall be actually set to work and five Tons of Iron Slit 
out within this Province, and approved of by the Provincial Coun- 
cil, within two Years from this time; and that the sum of two 
hundred pounds be given to the Person who shall erect and Build 
a second Rolling and Slitting Mill, for the purposes aforesaid, and 
which mill shall be actually set to work and five Tons of Iron Slit 
out within this Province, within two years from this time. 

Resolved, That a Premium of Fifty pounds be given to the per- 
son who shall first make in a workmanlike maimer fifty pair of 


Cotton Cards of AVire made and drawn in this Province equal in 
goodness to Cotton Cards imported from Great Britain of the price 
of two Shillings Sterling per pair; also the like premium to the 
person who shall iirst make in a workmanlike manner, one hun- 
dred pair of AVoolen Cards equal in goodness to "Woolen Cards 
imported from Great Britain of the price of fifteen pence Sterling 
per pair, the same to be delivered to and approved of by the pro- 
vincial Council, within Twelve Months from this time. 

Resolved, That a premium of fifty pounds be given to the first 
person wlio shall make in a workmanlike manner twenty five dozen 
pinns, each dozen to contain twelve thousand of Wire drawn in the 
province to be equal in 'goodness to pinns imported from Great 
Britain of the i^rice of seven shillings and sixpence Sterling p r 
dozen, the same to be delivered to and approved of by the provincial 
Council within twelve months from this time. 

Resolved, That a premium of Fifty pounds be given to the first 
person who shall make in a workmanlike manner, twenty five thou- 
sand Xeedles, sorted, such as are had from Great Britain from 
Number one to Number twelve inclusive, to be equal in goodness to 
Needles imported from Great Britain of the price of two shillings 
and six pence Sterling per thousand; the same to be delivered to 
and approved of by the provincial Congress within twelve months 
from this time. 

Resolved, That a premium of One hundred pounds be given to 
the first person who shall erect and build a Furnace for manufac- 
turing of good Merchantable Steel equal in goodness to Bristol Steel, 
and which Furnace shall be actually set to work, and one Ton of 
good Merchantable Steel as aforesaid, at least be produced to the 
provincial Council and approved of by the said provincial Council 
within eighteen months from this time ; and that the sum of twenty 
five pounds be given to the person vrho shall erect and build a 
second Furnace for manufacturing good and Merchantable Steel 
equal in goodness to Bristol Steel, and which Furnace shall be 
actually set to work and one Ton of good ^Merchantable Steel as 
aforesaid, at least l)e produced to the provincial Council, and 
approved of by the said Council within the time aforesaid. 

Resolved, That a premium of two hundred and fifty pounds be 
given to the first person who shall erect and build a mill for manu- 
facturing of Brown, whited Brown, and good writing paper, and 
which mill shall be actually set to work, and thirty Reams of Brown, 


thirty Reams of whited Brown, and thirty reams of writing paper, 
at least be produced to the provincial Council, and approved of by 
the said Council witliin eighteen months from this time; the Brown 
paper to be of equal goodness to Brown paper imported from Great 
Britain of the price of two Shillings and six pence Sterling per Ream, 
the whited Brown equal in goodness to whited Brown paper impor- 
ted of the price of three Shillings Sterling per Ream, and writing 
paper equal in goodness as aforesaid to Eight Shillings Sterling per 

Resolved, Tliat a premium of Fifty Pounds be given to the per- 
son, who shall produce to the provincial Council the finest piece of 
linen to contain twenty-five yards at least, no less than one yard 
wide, and not of less value than imported Linen of the price of 
three shillings sterling per yard, being the first cost in Great Britain, 
the same to be produced to the said Council and approved of within 
twelvemonths from this time; And tliat the sum of twenty five 
pounds be given to the person who shall produce to the said Coun- 
cil, the next best piece of Linen of the same length and width, and 
not of less value than imported Linen of the price of two shillings 
and six pence sterling per yard, being the first cost in Great Britain; 
tlie same to be produced to the said Council and approved of within 
the time aforesaid. And that the sum of twenty pounds be given 
to tlie person who shall produce to the Council the third best piece 
of Linen, of the same length and Vt'idth, and not of less value than 
imported Linen of the price of two shillings sterling per yard being 
the first cost in Great Britain; the same to be produced to the said 
Council and approved of within the time aforesaid. 

Resolved, That a pren:iium of one hundred pounds, be given to 
the person who shall produce to the provincial Council six pieces of 
woolen cloth, well dressed, each piece to contain twenty five yards 
at least, not less than three quarters of a yard wide and not of less 
value than imported cloth of the price of four shillings and six 
pence sterling per yard, being the first cost in Great Britain the 
same to be produced to the said Council and approved of within 
twelve months from this time. 

Resolved, That a jn-emiura of seven hundred and fifty pounds be 
given to any Person who shall erect and build prober works for 
Manufacturing common Salt on the sea shore for the purpose of sup- 
plying this province with that useful Article upon proper proof be- 
ing made for the provincial Council that such Works are actually 


erected and proper for the purpose, aud at the same time produce to 
the said Council fifty Tons of good Merchantable ground or blown 
Salt within eighteen months from this time. 

Resolved, That a premium of one hundred pounds be given to 
the person, who shall refine the greatest ciuantity of Sulphur, in 
such manner so that the same may be used in the making and 
manufacturing of Gun Powder wlio shall produce the same to the 
provincial Council within eighteen months from this time; and that 
no person shall be entitled to the above premium he produces 
before the said Council one thousand Weight of the said Sulphur. 

Resolved, That a Premium of five hundred pounds be given to 
any person who shall erect and build a Furnace for Manufacturing 
good ]\Ierchantable Pig Iron and hollow Iron ware, and other arti- 
cles necessary for the use of the Inhabitants of this Province to be 
l^roduced to tlie provincial Council within two years from this time; 
and also full proof must be made to the said Provincial Council that 
such furnace actual!}- is erected and proper for the above mentioned 

Resolved, That each and every person who shall entitle him or 
herself to any of the said Premiums and who shall have obtained 
a certificate of the same under the Hands aud Seals of the Provin- 
cial Council or a Majorit}- of them, and upon such certificate or 
certificates being produced to any one of the Treasurers of this 
Province, the sum expressed in such certificate or certificates shall 
be immediately paid by such Treasurer. 

The Congress resumed the Consideration of the Report of the 
Committee to state the public funds. 

Resolved, the Consideration of the said Report, lie over to the 
next Congress. 

Resolved, That, Mr. Richard Caswell, Mr. James Davis, and Mr. 
James Green Jun'' revise and correct the Journal of this Congress. 

Whereas many Persons in this province are doubtful whether 
they ought to pay their public Taxes now due, in order therefore to 
remove their doubts and to enable the Sheriffs of the several Coun- 
ties within this jsrovince to collect the same. 

Resolved, That this Congress recommend to the people to pay up 
all Taxes due before the present time, but no further until further 
Orders except County and parish Taxes. 

Resolved, That Mr. Andrew Knox be allowed seventy five pounds 
as Secretary to this Congress; That the Treasurers or either of them 


pay him the same and be allowed in their Accounts with the 

That ^Ir. James Green .Jun"' be allowed the sum of Fifty pounds 
as an Assistant to this Congress, to be paid by the puljlic Treasurers 
or either of them. 

That Mr. Thomas Craike be allowed the, sum of Fifty pounds, as 
an Assistant to this Congress; to be paid by the public Treasurers 
or either of them. 

That Francis Lynaugh and Evan Swann doorkeepers to this Con- 
gress, be allowed the sum of Thirty pounds each, for their Attend- 
ance on this Congress, and that Francis Lynaugh be allowed a fur- 
ther sum of three pounds for extra Services to the Congress. 

That Lewis Coffee be allowed the sum of three pounds for going 
Express on the services of this Congress and that the Treasurers or 
either of them pay him the same and be allowed in their Accounts 
with the public. 

Ordered that the foregoing Orders and Resolutions bo signed and 
Certified as the Acts of the Congress by 


By Order 

Andrew Kxox, Secretary. 

[From MS. Kecords in Office of Secretary of St.vte.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee of "Wilmington. 

Monday, 21^' August, 1775. 

At a monthly meeting of the Committee, present, Francis Claj^- 
ton, Deputy Chairman; W" Purviance, Fred'' Jones, Sampson 
Mosely, W" Campbell, J. Hollingsworth, Sam Marshall, And" Ron- 
aldson, Tim. Bloodworth, Thos. Nixon, AV"" "Wilkinson, Henry 
Tooraer, John Forster, John DuBois, John Robeson, Francis Brice, 
Sam' Swann, Peter Mallett, James Tate. 

On motion made whether Cai>tain Maclean (who has shown him- 
self inimical to the Liberty of America) should not in a limited 
time depart this Province, 

Resolved, That if Captain Maclean does not come into this Com- 
mittee and make a recantation of his sentiments in regard to Amer- 
ica within thirty days from this date, that he be ordered to depart 
this Province. 



[From JIS. Records ix Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings oftlie Safety Conmiittee in Pitt County. 

i\L\.RTiNBO ROUGH, 23'' August, 1775. 

We the subscribers j^rofessing our allegiance to the King and 
acknowledging the constitutional executive power of Government, 
do solemnly profess and testify and declare that we do absolutely 
believe that neither the Parliament of Great Britain nor any mem- 
ber or constitutional branch thereof have a right to impose taxes 
upon these colonies to regulate the internal policy thereof and that 
all attempts by fraud or force to establish and exercise such claims 
and powers are violations of the peace Security of the people and 
ought to be resisted to the utmost, and that the jieople of this prov- 
ince, singly and collective!}^ are bound by the acts and resolutions 
of the Continental and provincial Congresses, because in both they 
are freely represented by persons chosen by themselves and we do 
Solemnly and Sincerely promise and engage under the sanction of 
virtue, honor, and the sacred love of liberty and our country, to 
maintain and support all and every the acts resolutions and Regu- 
lations of the said Continental and provincial Congresses to the 
utmost of our jjower and abilities. In testimony whereof we have 
hereto set our hands this 23d day of August, 1775. 

Signed : 
Isaac Noble, 
Joseph Hickman, 
Abram Rodgers, 
John Rodgers, 
Robert Sanders, 
John Perry, 
Rich^ Rives, 
James Little, 
James Everette, 
Henry Barnhill, 
John Ward, 
W" Bell, 
W" Stafford, 
Geo. Harreass, 
Benj. Hing, 

Peter Albritton, 
Matthew Cartwright, 
Obed Eason, 
Thomas AValston, 
Thomas Wallis, 
David Williams, 
Matthew Laffoor, 
John Jenkins, 
Israel Mobley, 
Rich ^loye, 
John Frye, 
David Peebles, 
Sterling Dupree, 
W^ Clark, 
W" Corhctt, 

Jacob Blount, 
Joseph Oliver, 
Moses Tison, 
Xoah Tison, 
Shadrack Moore, 
John Mills, 
James J. Williams, 
AV" Clemin, 
AV" Mills, 
Benj. Arrington, 
John Harrelle, 
Charles Hardell, 
Thomas AAliitfield, 
Absalom Garom, 
Joseph AVaIze, 



Owen Craney, 
Abraham Belcher, 
Peter Cartwiight, 
David Hines, Jr., 
Jesse Proctor, 
Abner Easoii, 
Hugh Craney, 
Elige Ward, 
Christopher Ward, 
Christopher IMercer, 
James Lanier, 

AV" Daldum, 
Peter Rieves, 
John Tison, 
Benjamin Brown, 
Jonathan Jolly, 
John Jolly, 
Solomon Charry, 
Thomas Carson, 
Daniel Buntin, 
Phillip Pipkin, 

Richard Williams, 
Thomas Mercer, 
Nathaniel Moore, 
George Sugg, 
Solomon Albertson, 
Trustrum Rodgers, 
J"" Baptist Cartwright 
George Spell, 
Jesse Summerlin, 
John Houed, 

[B. p. R. O. Am. & W. IND. Vol. 332.] 

* An Address to the Ministers and Presbyterian congregations in 

North Carolina. 
Reverknd and Respected Friends and Brethren : 

In this day of trouble aud rebuke, it greatly adds to our distresses, 
to hear that you are somehow led aside from the cause of freedom 
and liberty, by men who have given you an unfair representation of 
the debate now subsisting between the parent country and her Colo- 
nies. We are neither disloyal to our King, nor attempting, nor- 
desiring to set up Governments independent of Britain, as they assert ; 
we only desire to maintain the rights and privileges of English- 
men, but not to be their slaves, nor obliged to give them our money 
as oft as, and in what quantity, they please to demand it. And if 
any persons inform you, that this is not the great cause of our strug- 
gle at tins critical juncture, they are guilty of falsehood and mis- 

Our Continental Congress, in their Address to the King and the 
People of England, declare, "That we want no new Priviledges; let 
us continue connected with them as we were before the Stamp-Act, 
and we demand no more." 

And our Synod, in their last meeting in Xew-York, published a 
pastoral letter to all the congregations under their care, which we earn- 

* See ante page 86.— Editor. 


estly recomnieiul to your serious perusal. Li it, they declare in the 
sixth page, that the opposition to the present administration " does 
not in the least arise from disaffection to the King, nor from a desire 
of separation from the parent State." 

As you and we are under the Pastoral Care of that venerable 
Body, we doubt not. but you will pay all due regard to their direc- 
tions, and to this their public testimony, w"' we send you herewith, 
and to our friendly exhortations. 

You may be easily informed by the Parliamentary debates, and 
bj^ many Public Papers, that the grand debate is, whether the Eng- 
lish Parliment in which we have no representation, has a power to 
tax us, or to have and dispose of our money without our consent. 
The tax they laid upon tea was but a trifle, but, if the}* have a right 
to lay three pence a pound on tea, they have the same right to 
laj' as much on .salt, and soap and candles, as is done in some op- 
pressed countries; they have the right to tax our windows, and our 
lands, as in England, and our hearttes as in Ireland. Nay, they 
claim a right to tax us as much, and in what manner they please, 
without knowing whether we are able to bear these burdens, and 
without having any representatives to pjlead for us, or to mitigate 
our grievances. 

If they have this right, will they not use it with the utmost 
severity? They will easily persuade the People of England that we 
are rich, and able to bear the heaviest burdens, and they will cer- 
tainly believe it ; since the more we are taxed, the lighter will be 
their burdens; and while we are worth a groat, a rapacious Minis- 
ter, with a band of needy Dependants and Pensioners, will find 
reason and pretences to stri]) us of everything, and to make us their 
hewers of wood and drawers of water. And when our oppression 
becomes intolerable, to whom shall wc complain, or who will 
onr grievances? not the British Parliament, for they will be our 
oppressors: nay, they do plead that they have a right to be our 
oppressors; not our King, because he will, probably, be led to ratify 
all the Acts of Parliament, to tax us; and to resist will be counted 
rebellion: and what shall we do? Shall we now admit that they 
have a right thus to tax, and to enslave us? God forbid: and tliis 
occasions our present struggle for liberty, which we are fully per- 
suaded you will cmtend for, as firmly as we do, when you are 
rightly informed, and will not give up your property to such as have 
no right to demand it, 


That we have no Representatives in Parliament is evident beyond 
contest — and if we must give our money as oft as it is demanded by 
them, where is our English libert}-? To take any man's money, 
without his consent, is unjust and contrary to reason and the law of 
God, and the Gospel of Christ; it is contrary to Magna Charta, or 
the Great Charter and Constitution of England ; and to complain, 
and even to resist such a lawless power, is just, and reasonable, and 
no rebellion. 

But it is said, that the Parliament of England has supreme power, 
and that no one ought to resist. This we allow, while thej- make 
Acts that are reasonable, and according to the British Constitution ; 
but their power has bounds and limits, that they must not exceed: 
they are limited by the Laws of God and of reason; they are limited 
by the fundamental laws of the Constitution, and by the Great 
Charter of England. They may not enact that the King shall take 
the money of his Englisli subjects without their consent. They 
may not enact that English Subjects shall be deprived of a trial by 
Juries. Would they adventure to pass such unconstitutional Acts, 
all England would complain and remonstrate; and if the}' did not 
repeal them, tliey would pull down the parliament house over tlieir 
ears. And have we not the same rights and privileges? and are v:e 
such dupes' or slaves, that we dare not plead for them and endeavour 
by every lawful way to preserve them? That we have those rights 
and that we are now wronged and injured by a tyrannical ^Minister, 
and a pensioned and corrupt house of Commons, is allowed, is 
strongly affirmed by many of the greatest and best men in Eng- 
land, by many of the greatest and best men in the House of Lords 
and Commons; that we are wronged and injured, is believed and 
insisted on by the greatest and best men of all religious denomina- 
tions on the Continent of America, who are firmly united in this 
glorious struggle for liberty : and shall it be said that you, our 
friends and brethren, shall desert us in the mighty contest, and join 
with our enemies; will you strengthen the enemies of the British 
Constitution, and join with them to fasten on our chains, and to 
enslave us forever? If we are now wrong in our conduct, our fore- 
fathers that fought for liberty at Londonderry and Enniskillen in 
King James' time, were wrong; nay, they were rebels, when they 
opposed, and set aside that bigotted Prince, and the Stewart family, 
and set the Brunswick family on the throne of England. But we 
hope such language will never be heard fi'om the mouth of a 


Protestant, or from an English subject, and much less from anyone of 
our denomination, that have ever maintained the Revolution Prin- 
ciples, and are tirmly devoted to the present reigning family, as 
the assertors of the Britisli privileges and English liberty. 

It is said, that the Minister has given up the claim of taxing us, 
and offers to the Colonies, that if we will give all our Governors and 
subordinate Officers, as great salaries as the Parliament think 
proper, which is one waj' to oppress; and if every Province will 
offer them as much money as they think sufficient, they will leave 
us the privilege of taxing ourselves to pay it. This is their pacific 
scheme, and their great favour. But if they have a right to our 
money on all occasions, till thej^ say they have enough, where is 
our right, or what property have wo more than slaves? If they 
demand a million from the Colonies this year, they have the same 
right to ask two next year; and to double that sum the next time, 
and so as long as they please, and if we refuse to pay it, they will 
extort it by all manner of Taxes; and if we remonstrate, we will 
be counted seditious; and if we resist this lawless power we will be 
voted rebels; and fleets and armies be sent (as at pre.sent) to burn 
our cities, to destroy our commerce, to seize our' lands, and to put 
us to death. This is our mournful condition at jiresent, notwith- 
standing all our prayers and remonstrances: and either we must 
offer our necks to the yoke, and give up all to the minister, as the 
traveller does to the armed highwayman, as oft as he asks it; or 
thus be involved in misery and distress. Tiiey also claim a power 
to make Laws to bind us in all cases whatsoever; by virtue of 
this Power they have established popery in Quebec and the arbi- 
trary Laws of France; and why may they not do the same in 
Pennsylvania or North Carolina? By this power they have stopped 
the [lort of Boston, and ruined that once fiourisliing city, for the 
offence of a few rioters, without having heard those injured citizens 
in their own defence ; and why may they not easilj^ find pretences 
to destroy by the same power, the trade and buildings of New- York 
and Pliiladelphia, or Charlestown in South Carolina? By this 
power they have made an act to prevent the Northern provinces 
from fishing; and why ma}' they not (by the same) destroy all our 
manufactories, and make it unlawful to weave linnen or woolen 
cloth, or to make anything for our home consumption? This 
power they have claimed and exercised respecting our hats and 
slitting mills &c. They have broken in part (by this power) the 
VOL. X — 15 


Charter of the Goverument of the Massachusetts Baj^; and why may 
they not do the same by all the chartered Governments, and destroy 
the Charters of Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Maryland, and all the Char- 
ters in any of the other Provinces? And then what security can we 
have for our lands and improvements, and privileges which we hold 
under these Charters? Certainly if they can disannul Province Char- 
ters, they can disannul all our deeds and patents for lands or for any 
other privileges : and if we sliall be tlius oppressed, as many thousands 
are at this instant, to whom shall we complain, or what shall we do? 
If complaints, petitions and remonstrances, could have done us 
any service, we had not been involved in all the calamities that we 
feel, and that we fear. For all tlie united Provinces have (by their 
Congress) petitioned our King, desiring his friendly interposition 
with the Parliament in our favour, and a redress of our grievances; 
he did not deny that the people might (by their delegates) make 
their distresses known, he graciously received tlie petition of our 
Congress, and laid it before the Parliament, but they were deaf to 
our cries. Tlie Assembly of Jamaica laid our grievance.-? in a most 
manly, rational and pathetic manner, before the throne and Parlia- 
ment; for which wo owe them our most hearty tlianks; but they 
were disregarded: and many merchants and manufacturers and 
London (one of the foremost cities in the world) interposed in our 
favour, but without success. By the advice of the Minister, our 
Governors invited our different A.ssemblies to lay our grievances 
before the King and Parliament, assuring them that they would be 
graciously received. The Assembly of New Yor^ did so in very 
huml>le terms, but tlieir complaints were rejected by the British 
Parliament; ti'ansports, men of war and new forces were sent to 
oblige the Colonies to swallow the bitter pill. 

AVhat shall we then do .in these days of trouble and distress? We 
must put our in God, who is a present help in time of tiouble, 
but we musi depend on Him in tlie use. of means; we must unite, 
if possible, as one man, to maintain our rights, not by lire and 
sword, or by shedding the blood of our fellow subjects, unless we 
be driven to it in our own defence; but by strictly observing .tuch 
resolutions neither to export nor import goods, as may be recoui- 
menib'd by our General Congress. This honor"' body of Delegates 
are higldy applauded by some of the greatest and wi.'-est men in 
Euiiland and France, for their wisdcim, tirmness and moderation ; 
though they may be abused by .some men that depend on the fa»-our 


of the prime Minister, and his wicked Associates. And you are now 
called to strengthen their hands by sending your delegates to your 
own Provincial Congress, and to every County Association, and to 
act on all occasions that part which you think most just & reason- 
able. But above all, we exhort & beseech you, not to imbue your 
hands in the blood of your fellow-subjects in the same Province; 
lest you bring an everlasting reproach on yourselves, and posterity, 
and on us, who, we hope, you esteem as your brethren. If you be 
deluded and led into these rash and bloody measures, which God in 
His infinite mercy forbid, you will effectually prevent our missiona- 
ries from visiting you, as ministers of the Gospel of peace. If you 
now desert the cause of lilierty; if you suffer yourselves and your 
children, and children's children, to be stript of all the well earned 
fruits of honest industry, at the will of a Minister or his placemen 
and friends; if a'ou will ofter yourselves to voluntary slaver}', and 
desert the loyal sons of liberty of all denominations in this most 
honourable and important contest, we can have no fellowship with 
you; our soul shall weep for you in secret, but will not be able any 
longer to number you among our friends, nor the friends of liberty, 
■and of the house of Hanover, nor among the friends ©f the British 

AVe heartily and affectionately recommend vou to God for light 
and direction, and entreat you to join with us in prayer, that the 
Most High may turn the hearts and overrule all the determina- 
tions of those who now contend with tlie American Colonies. .Join 
witli us in humiliation and repentance, for our sins, that have jiro- 
voked God to give us up to the counsels of wicked men; and join 
with our General Congress in taking such measures as may convince 
our adversaries that their ways are unjust and destructive to the 
liberty, and the peace, and hapi)iness of Great Britain and lier 

Believe no man that dares to say that y.-e desire to be independent 
of our ^lother Country; we honor and esteem them as our bretbren 
and our friends and fellow subjects, but refuse to be their servants 
or slaves. 

Listen not to them who abuse our General Congress, or our poor 
distressed brethren at Boston, who are contending for American lib- 
erty, and now bear the burden and heat of the day; but above all 
listen not to their bloody Counsels who would e.Kcite you to draw 
your sword to enslave your fellow subjects in North Carolina and 


make your Province a field of blood. We conclude with liearty 
prayers for your temporal and everlasting welfare, and for a speedy 
and honorable decision of our contests with Great Britain on con- 
stitutional i.rinciples: and beg leave to subscribe ourselves, with 
great respect, your friends and brethren in the Lord Jesus Christ. 
Signed at Philadelphia this 10"' day of July, 1775, b}' 


[From MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee in Surry County. 



August 2o''' 1775. 
North Carolina \ 
Surry County, j 

Committee met according to ajipointment 25"" August 1775. 

Present: Benjamin Cleaveland, John Hamlin, Jesse ^A'alton, 
Samuel Freeman, Benjamin Herndon, Charles Lynch, John Arm- 
strong, James Hampton, Richard Gorde, Augustus Blackburn, 
James Doke, Matthew Brooks, John tludsbeth, George Lash, John 
Snead, Malcom Curry. 

Benjamin Cleaveland was elected Chairman. 

Resolved, We think j^roper to Declare our disapprobation and 
Abhorrance of certain papers by the name of Protests Ac, signed 
and transmitted to Gov' Martin in opposition to the common cause 
of Liberty; some of which Papers contain many Falsehoods and 
matters of Encouragement to the most wicked j\Iinisters and Tools 
of Government in their most wicked Measures and designs ; the said 
papers being calculated to Divide the good People of this Province 
and destroy its internal peace and Occasion the Eftusion of Blood. 

Resolved, We Determine by all Lawful ways and means to Dis- 
countenance and suppress such mischievous and baneful Papers and 
all such coml^inations against tlie common cause of American Lib- 


erty; and do our utmost Endeavours to support the Congress in 
Defending our Just Rights and Liberties. 

Resolved, That whatever Britains may claim as theii- Birth Right 
we may justly claim as our Birth Right; and that all the Natural 
Rights of British Subjects are confirmed to us by Charter and the 
Faith of Kings and the free Constitution of Great Britain and this 

Resolved, That those who nov\' would subject all America or this 
Province to a Dependency on the Parliament of Great Britain are 
guilty of a very Dangerous Innovation injurious to the Crown and 
iuconsistant with the Liberty of the American Suljjects. 

Resolved, That by the Law of Nature and the British Constitu- 
tion no man can be Legally Taxed or have his property taken from 
him without his consent, given by himself or his Rei^resentatives. 

Resolved, That the late Acts of the British Parliament for raising 
a Revenue in America by laying Taxes on us without our Consent 
and against our Protestation, are Opposite to our Ideas of Property, 
and inconsistant with the spirit of the Constitution, and does in Fact 
at one Stroke Deprive this whole Continent of all i^roperty; and of 
their most invaluable Rights and Liberties. 

Capt Charles Lynch and Mr William Merridith, Members of the 
Committee, came in and took their seats. 

Resolved, That this Committee highly ajiprove of the Proceedings 
of the Continental Congress held in Philadelphia in Sepf last, and 
that we will endeavor to carry their Recommendations into Execu- 

Resolved, That the "Worthy Delegates who represented this Prov- 
ince in said Congress Deserve our warmest and most Grateful thanks 
for the faithful Discharge of their Office and that Col° Armstrong 
present them in our names and in behalf of this coij,nty. 

The Committee Adjourns till to-.niorrow 7 O'clock. 

FFroji MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.! 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee in Surry County. 

Satued.w, August 26"' 1775. 

Committee met according to adjournment. 

Resolved, That the Different Captains of this County do call their 
Companies together at their Usual places of Exercise on Saturday 


the 2°^ Day of Sept' in Order to cliuse three in each respective Com- 
pany as Committee men and those men truly Elected shall meet in 
Committee on Wednesday the 20"" of September next at the Court- 
house in said County. 

Resolved, That a part of tliis Committee, viz: Charles Lynch, 
John Armstrong and Matthew Brooks be appointed to wait on the 
INIoravians in order to Procure Ammunition if any found. Also 
that Tragot Bagge, Jacob Bloome and George Houzar, appointed of 
the Moravian Congregation to set as a Committee with us at this 
meeting, do give a more Satisfactory Answer for their non attend- 
ance and give in the same personally at our next meeting the 20* 
September next. 

Resolved, That we for ourselves and do recommend it to others to 
Issue no warrant for Debt or Executions except such that have been 
obtained already before this Date, and if any Debtor is likely to 
remove himself so that there is just cause to believe the Creditor 
will loose his Debt he shall or may apply to the Committee of the 
District the Delator lives in, and which will take it in hand to secure 
the Debt by taking security or stoping a reasonable part of his 
effects for the same. 

Resolved, That Benjamin, Cleaveland, Jesse Walton and Benj. 
Herndon, wait on Mr Charles Gordon to secure all the Ammunition 
they shall find in his possession. 

Resolved, Likewise if any Person of this Committee should find 
out any Ammunition in this County they shall be justifial;>le in 
securing the same for Public Service by giving Security to the Pos- 
sessor thereof. 


William Lexoik, Clk. 

[B. P. R. O. Am. & W. IND.: No. Carolina. No. 222.] 

'Letter from Governor j\Iartin to the Earl of Dartmouth. 

CiiuizER SLoor OF Wak in Cape Peak River, 

No. Carolina, August 2S"', 1775. 
My Lord, 

Since my Di.s])atch No. 38, giving your Lordship an Account of 
the outrages committed at Fort Johnston, I received l»y a tender 


from New York on the 22'"' of last month, the Duphcate of your 
Lordship's Dispatch No. 16, which from its date must have accompa- 
nied your letter by the May mail, that were violated by the Com- 
mittee at Charles Town, as I have formerly represented, and was 
there with held, as appears evidently I think from the allusion to its 
contents in the Publication of the Committee at Wilmington in the 
enclosed Paper of the 2S"' day of last month. I learn that the June 
mail is since arrived at Charles Town, and I flatter myself that the 
Postmaster persuant to my advice has lodged your Lordship's dis- 
patches to me in security on Board His Majesty's Shij^ stationed 
there, but I have been deterred from sending for them as yet, by a 
strange and almost incredible rumour, that there are armed ^"essels 
fitted out by the People of Charles Town, constantly cruizing off 
that place, of force superior to any '\''essel I can get to send for them 
at present. 

The encouragements which your Lordship's Letter above referred 
to authorizes me to hold out to the King's Loyal Subjects in this 
Province, I have taken every measure in my power to communi- 
cate to proper persons, but unfortunately before it reached my hands 
the Committee had so effectually possessed themselves of every 
Avenue into the Country by their Spies and Emissaries, who keep 
the most strict and "\"igilant watch upon every road and communi- 
cation which leads- towards me, that I have found myself defeated 
in almost every attempt I have made to correspond with the well 
affected people in the upper Countrj-. All of them who have come 
down here to consult me about their safety, have been intercepted 
coming or going, and searched, detained, abused, and stript of any 
Papers they have had about them except a Messenger from a con- 
siderable Body of Germans, settled in the County of Mecklenburg, 
who brought me a loyal declaration against the Very extraordinary 
and traiterous resolves of the Committee of that County, of which 
I had the honor to transmit a copy to your Lordship with my last 
Dispatches. The same ill fortune has attended my latest attempt to 
counteract the. d sign of a Convention at this time assembled at 
Hillsborough, by a Proclamation of which your Lordship will 
receive a Copj' herewith, the Messengers employed to circulate it in 
the Country having been all intercepted, which I the more lament as 
I think it might have produced good effects upon the minds of the 
People, and that I have much reason to apprehend the difficulty of 
communication which becomes' daily greater and greater, will 


■ totally cut me off from all intercourse with the Interior parts of it 
hereafter until I am able by force to lay it open. 

Thus My Lord I am reduced to the deplorable and disgraceful 
state of being a tame Spectator of Rebellion spreading over this 
Country, which might have been surely and effectually maintained 
for the King by the strength I could have collected within itself, if 
I had lieen provided but six weeks ago with Arms, Ammunition 
and money; with these aids My Lord, I am confident I could have 
entered the Country, and made myself entirely the master of it by 
this day, but without them I considered the attempt to draw the 
King's Loyal Subjects together ill armed, or wholly unarmed as 
they are, destitute of Ammunition, and without both the means of 
defence and support, to act against an increasing and spreading 
revolt, that had actually enlisted half the Country on its side, by 
terror or persuasion, and M-liich according to my information is 
well supplied with warlike stores, that have been secretly from time 
to time imported into this Province, would have been only to sac- 
rifice the friends of Government and to disgrace myself without a 
chance of rendering Service to His Majesty. Every device My 
Lord has been practiced by the seditious Committees to inflame the 
minds of the Inhabitants of this Country, and their endeavours 
have been strenuously abetted by the Delegates sent to the Pliila- 
delphia Congress, and your Lordship will see by their letter pub- 
lished in one of the enclosed papers, but most of all by the return 
of Richard Caswell one of the members of this Province, he has 
promoted the present Convention with all his might, and remains 
here to superintend its movements, and no doubt to inflame it with 
the extravagant spirit of that daring Assembly at Philadeliihia. 
At New Bern I am credibly informed, he had the insolence to repre- 
hend the Committee of that little Town, for suff'ering me to remove 
from thence, this man My Lord who at his going to the first Con- 
gress and after his return from it, appeared to me to have embarked 
in the cause with a reluctance that much extenuated his guilt, in 
my estimation, shows himself now the most aclive fool of sedition 
although his professions are according to my information still 
averse to his ostensible conduct and character, which at this crisis 
of Affairs serve but to aggravate his guilt and infamy. 

The influence of Committees, My Lord, hath been so extended 
over the Inhabitants of the Lower part of this Country, since my 
Representations to your Lordship liy M' Scliaw, and they are at tliis 


clay to the distance of an hundred miles from the Sea Coast, so gen- 
erally possessed with the spirit of revolt that I consider it no longer 
possible to avail myself of the power of the friends of Government 
in the interior parts of it without the aid of two Battalions to force 
a communication with them. I regret incessantly the loss of the 
opportunity which the circumstances of this country so long afforded 
me to maintain it in jjeace and f;ood order by its own strength, 
while I have only the consolation to know that it has proceeded 
from no neglect or omission or want of exertion on my part, and 
the well grounded hope that my Royal Master and your Lordship 
are assured of my best humble endeavours for His Majesty's Ser- 
vice, from the accounts I have had the honor to transmit to your 
Lordship from time to time. 

I made application to General Gage for Arms and Ammunition 
so long ago as the month of March last, to which I have received no 
answer, but through a Newspaper, in which I have seen a letter 
said to be taken from one from the General to me, that was inter- 
cepted from Charles Town, that I believe to be genviine, and which 
justifies me in the conclusion that my fair and long cherished hopes 
of redeeming and maintaining this Country for His jMajesty have 
been frustrated by the General's want of power to assist me with the 
necessary means. 

It is much to be lamented, My Lord, that effectual steps have not 
been taken to intercept the supplies of war -like stores that I am 
informed are frec[uently brought into this Colony, and I suppose 
into the other Provinces. The Coast of this, that is of great extent, 
would employ three or four cruisers to watch it properly, while there 
is only a sloop of eight guns, in which I am embarked, that is not 
sufficient to attend to the smugglers in this River alone where she is 

Your Lordship will observe in the advertisement of the committee 
of Xewbern, herewith enclosed, that I am charged with a design of 
erecting The King's Standard and commencing hostilities against 
the People of this Province. This charge, my Lord, is founded 
upon a letter of mine to M' White, my agent at Xew York, inter- 
cepted and opened by the Congress at Philadelphia, wherein I 
rec^uested that Gentleman to send me a Royal Standard and same 
camp equippage, thinking it proper to make such provision, in case 
the circumstances of this country should render it absolutel}' neces- 
sary, and General Gage should put it in my power, by furni-shing me 


with necessary supplies of Arms and Anmuuiitiou to take the field 
to maintain the King's Government. Tliis committee have surely 
most inadvertently discovered their own disloyalty and the empti- 
ness of their uniform and constant professions of Duty to His Maj- 
esty b}^ their inference and apprehensions from my supposed inten- 
tion of erecting the King's Standard, of a design in me to commence 
hostilities against the People of this Province, and the Resolves of 
proscription formed thereupon, for if they were loyal Subjects (as 
they, like their fellows in the other Colonies in declared rebellion, 
profess themselves to be) where would be the guilt of erecting the 
King's Standard among them, or what the grounds for their appre- 
hensions from it, since that Ensign could be raised only for the sup- 
port and not for the annoyance of the King's friends? But it would 
seem, my Lord, that the fatal disorders prevailing on this Continent 
have introduced a total perversion of language; the enigma arising 
out of a comparison of tlie terms of this advertisement with the 
loyal professions of the people of America, Your Lordship will 
see unriddled in the Cape Fear Mcrcurij of the 11"' instant inclosed, 
where the friends of Government are stiled disaffected jiersons, 
which, thougli not ungrammatical, is certainly in common accephi- 
tion a term strictly applicable only to themselves ; but this is the 
work of revolt all over America, where the present contention is 
affectedly called a strife with the Parliament or Ministry of Great 
Britain abstracted by tlie King who is absurdly as falsely repre- 
sented to be out of the question. Thus the King's Troops, Generals, 
Governors are stiled, Parliamentary or Ministerial as these Terms 
happen to be deemed most reproachfull by those who employ them. 
The reference to my behaviour at Fort Johnston in the New Berne 
Committees Advertisement I learn is an allusion to the imputations 
of the Wilmington Committee in the f\rpe Fear Mcrniry enclosed of 
the 28'" day of July. 

I have received a letter from Lieutenant Col" iVllen Miiclean in 
whicli lie informs me that he is detained at Boston by (General 
(rage and has sent the Dispatches for me with wliicli your Lord.ship 
charged him by a gentleman who is since arrived in this Province 
and gone into the Country, and whom I have not seen. 

Captain Collet, representing to me shortly after the outrages com- 
mitted at Fort Johnston by the mob, (hat he had the utmost reason 
to apprehend the leaders in tliat violence were concerting to emjiloy 
some legal process against liim foi' debts lie owed here in order to 


get him into their hands to deliver him over to the enraged people, 
asked my permission to go to Boston, which I could not under such 
circumstances refuse him, and he accordingly sailed on the 21" day 
of July with his little Garrison, carrying with him the carriages 
Trucks, shot and small stores belonging to Fort Johnston in a trans- 
port on Board which he had embarked some days before. This gen- 
tleman, I am sorry .to find n:>y Lord, had been hurried by his 
vehemence and impetuosity of temper to many unwai'rantable 
extravagancies, and according to my information he has involved 
himself in debt so deeply that he will never be able to shew his face 
again in this Countrv, to which I tlierefore wish he mav never 
return, at least until he is able to do justice to his creditors, and to 
make his peace with the people now to the last degree exasperated 
against him. 

The probaljility of the C'/7a';cr being compelled to leave her .sta- 
tion here for M-ant of provisions, or to cruize for smugglers or Pirates, 
and the certainty in that case of the xVrtillery belonging to Fort 
Johnston falling into the hands of the mob, determined me some 
weeks ago to .spike the Guns, and to burn the carriages that were 
rotten and utterly unserviceable. The Winutes of a Council held 
here on the IS"" da}- of July of which I transmit a copy herewith, 
will show your Lordship how little that Board was acquainted with 
the temper of the people of the country, who committed the mon- 
strous outrages at Fort Johnston the very next morning after a 
Majority of the Council had given their judgment that they wcmld 
see their error, and return to their Duty, and declared tliemselves 
against any rigorous measures which indeed they knew I had not 
power to emplo}-. I have once since summoned the Council to con- 
sider of the steps proper to be taken, upon the Representations of 
John Cotton, Lieutenant Colonel of the iNlilitia in the County of 
"Anson, and Samuel and Jacob Williams (who being compelled to 
leave their habitations and families there, came down here to advise 
with me) but circumstances not admitting of the attendance of a 
sufficient number of Members at the time I had appointed those peo- 
ple resolved to return to their homes, since which I hear thej- have 
been intercepted on their way, and brought back by a party of 
Armed men to the Committee of Wilmington their depositions here- 
with enclosed will make your Lordship acc^uainted with their cases. 

The result of the Convention now sitting at Hillsborough will 
show the state of this Country clearly, and I fear will manifest tlie 


fatality of suffering faction to get to such a head here, which it has 
been impossible to prevent, without drawing together and arming 
the friends of C4overnment which I have not had the necessary 
means to effect. The few people who steal down to me in spite of the 
Committees interdicts, represent the Inhabitants of the lower parts 
of this Country so generally disaffected and infatuated to such a 
degree of madness, the influence of the seditious demagogues, that 
the loyal Subjects among them are in fear of their lives, if they 
utter a word against their proceedings or even contrary to their 

The Scotch i\Ierchants at Wilmington who so long maintained 
their loyalty have lately been compelled ostensibly to join in sedi- 
tion by appearing under Arms at the Musters appointed by the 
Committees, although they are still at heart as well affected as ever. 
In short My Lord everything now convinces me that the time for 
restoring Lawfull Gevernment in this Province, by its own internal 
strength, is past and gone. I hoped if ray Proclamation of the S"" 
instant had circulated, it might at least have had the effect to _ sus- 
pend for a time the progress of revolt among the Inhabitants of the 
interior Country, whom I much fear will be seduced and alienated 
by the influence and artifices of the Convention now held in the 
heart of their Country, and I know not another Act of Government 
I can do with the leastprospect of advantageing His Majestys Ser- 
vice until I am supported by Troops. 

]\P Cornell, a Member of the Council of this Province, who is I 
believe the most opulent Meroh.ant in it representing to me lately 
that he had reason to believe he would be compelled if he stayed 
here to give liis credit to the Paper money intended to be emitted by 
the Continental Congress, as well as the Provincial Convention which 
will be against his conscience and principles, as well as injurious to 
his Interest, and having therefore desired my leave to go to Eng- 
land, I have granted it to him and I must do this Gentleman My 
Lord the justice to say that he has borne his part in the Council 
with great propriety since the death of his son in Law, M' Edwards 
the late Deputy Auditor who certainly influenced him to the delin- 
quent behaviour of wliich I formerly accused him to your Lordship 
with others in his private capacity too. Since that time he has mani- 
fested the firmest attachment to (Tovernment, and a just indignation 
against the Proceedings of the .seditious upon all occasions. 


A M' Pryce arrived at New Bern since I left that place, invested 
witli deputations as Provincial Secretary and Deputy Auditor, but 
alarmed with the disorder of that place, and disgusted with the cli- 
mate, he returned to England immediately without writing to me 
or giving me opportunity to see him. I confess My Lord I was 
chagrined to find that my Reconnnendation of a Deputy to M' 
Cholmondely had not been accepted, not so much because it was a 
disappointment to the party recommended, but as it is a circum- 
stance that lessens my consec^uence as the King's Governor here, 
among the People, to see that I have not power or interest enough 
to make even a Deputy to a sinecure Patent ofhcer. 

The sundry depositions of Masters of Ships enclosed will show 
your Lordship the motives & designs of the Rabble who did the 
Violence at Fort Johnston, that of i\P Todd refers also to a remark- 
able extravagance of M' Dry's which is still better confirmed to me 
by the Testimony of a Gentleman of consideration who was present 
at the time. _ I have the honor to be &c., 

JO. ]\L\RTIN. 

[N. C. Letter Book. S. P. G.] 

Letter from Rev. Mr. Earl to the Secretary. 

N" Carolina, near Edextox, SO"" August, 1775. 
Reverend and Dear Sir, 

Your favor of the IS"" March last by the Reverend Mr. Pettigrew 
have received, acquainting me of the Society's permission to remove 
to some more wholesome climate for the re-establishment of my 
health, for which I return them m}- very hearty thanks as well as to 
you, Sir, for your very kind and friendly application in my behalf. 

I should have gone to some of the Northern Colonies before this 
time had it not been for the war-like and uncj^uiet situation of this 
whole continent, where there are not, bj' the lowest calculation, less ^ 
than 150,000 men under arms, which they are daily augmenting, 
and which would render traveling extremely di.sagreeable, especially 
to an unhealthy person, and therefore chose rather to rely on the 
Almighty Author of Life and Health for sanitary means than under- 
take a journey under these circumstances. 


The situation of tlie clergy in this part of the world is at present 
truly critical, on account of the difRculty of comporting themselves 
in such a manner as to give no umbrage to the Inhabitants. Some 
of them have been suspended, deprived of their Salaries, and, in the 
American manner proscribed by the Committees, and thereby ren- 
dered incapable of getting anv settlement in any part of the united 
Colonies, and all this on account of charges against them of opposing 
the general cause of America, and how far they are to blame I am 
not able to determine, but verily believe that if the most learned 
and eloquent Divine in England was to endeavor to dissuade the 
Americans from their present Resolutions he could make no impres- 
sion upon them, but contrarywise rather inflame them, so tenacious 
are they of the measures they have adopted. 

The Reverend ^Ir Reed, the Society's very worthy Missionary at 
Newbern, has been treated in the manner I mentioned. The Con- 
tinental Congress directed that tlie ■20th of last ^lonth should be 
observed throughout the Continent as a day of humiliation, fasting 
and prayer, to dejirecate the Calamities that threaten the British 
Em[iirc in America, and Mr. Reed was waited upon some days 
before hand l:»y a Deputation from the Con:mittee to request him to 
officiate on that day, which he refused, alleging that lie should 
thereby incur the displeasure of Government, ui)on which the com- 
mittee desired that the Vestry should suspend liim and tliat the 
church-wardens should not pay him his Salary, wliieh, I hear, was 
immeiliately complied with. 

As for my ov\'n part I have as yet kept clear of any censure 
among my parishioners, and I never introduce any Topic into the 
Pulpit except exhortations and i:)rayers for peace, good order ami a 
speedy reconciliation witli Great Britain. 

1 liavc since my last to you Iiaptizcd in this parish thirty-six 
white and twelve black infants and two black adults, and likewise 
bajitized several Infants that were brouglit to me from neighboring 

I have drawn on the Society's Treasurer for half year's .salary, 
which will be due on the 29"' Sept' next, which I was obliged to 
anticipate, as all communication lietween tJreat Britain ami the 
Colonies will l>c at an End ten days from this tiim.-. I am, 

Vo'y" Sir Yours ^tc\ 



[Reprinted From Wheeler's History of Xoktii Carolina.] 

Instructions for tlie Delegates of Mecklenburg County proposed 
to the Consideration of the County. 

1 You are instructed to vote that the late^ Province of North 
Carolina is and of right ought to be a free and independent state 
invested with all the power of Legislation capaljle of making laws 
to regulate all its internal policy subject only in its external con- 
nections and foreign coinmerce to a negative of a continental Senate. 

2 You are instructed to vote for the Execution of a civil Govern- 
ment under the authority of the People for the future security of all 
the Rights Privileges and Prerogatives of the State and the private 
natural and unalienable Rights of the con.stituting members thereof 
either as Men or Cliristians. 

If this should not be confirmed in Congress or Convention — 

3 You are iirstructed to vote that an equal Representation be 
estalilished and that the Cjualifications recpiired to enable any per- 
son or persons to have a voice in Legislation may not be secured to 
high but that every Freeman who shall be called upon to supjiort 
Government either in person or property may be admitted thereto. 
If this sliould not be confirmed protest and remonstrate. 

4 You are instructed to vote that Legislation be not a divided 
right, and that no man or body of men Ije invested with a negative 
on the voice of the People duly collected and that no honors or 
dignities be conferred for life or made hereditary on any person or 
persons either legislative or executive. If this should not Ijc con- 
firmed — protest and remonstrate. 

5 You are instructed to vote that all and every person or persons 
seized or possessed of any estate real or personal agreeable to the 
last establishment be confirmed in their seizAires and posses.sion to 
all intents and purposes in law who have not forfeited their light to 
the protection of the State by their Criminal practice towards the 
same. If this should not be confirmed — protest. 

C You are instructed to vote that Deputies to represent this State 
in a Continental Congress be appointed in and by the supreme 
Legislative body of the State the form of nomination to be sub- 


mitted to if free and also that all offieers the influence of whose 
office is equally to extend to every part of the State be appointed in 
the same manner and form — likewise give your consent to the 
establishing the old political divisions if it should be voted in con- 
vention or to new ones if similar. On such establishments taking 
place 3^ou are instructed to vote in the general that all officers who 
are to exercise their authority in any of the said districts be recom- 
mended to the trust only by the freemen of the said- division — to 
be subject however to the general laws and regulations of the State. 
If this should not be substantially confirmed — protest. 

7. You are instructed to move and insist ,that the people you 
immediately represent be acknowledged to be a distinct county of 
this State, as formerly of the late province with the additional privi- 
lege of annually electing their own officers both civil and military, 
together with the elections of Clerks and Sheriffs by the freemen of 
the same. The choice to be confirmed by the sovereign authority 
of the State, and the officers so invested to be under the jurisdiction 
of the State and liable to its cognizance and inflictions in case of 
malpractice. If this should not be confirmed — protest and remon- 

8. You are instructed to vote that no Chief Justice, no Secretary 
of State, no Auditor General, no Surveyor General, no practicing 
lawyer, no clerk of any court of record, no sheriff and no person 
holding a militar\' office in this State shall Ite a re}iresentative of 
the people in Congress or Convention. If this should not be con- 
firmed — contend for it. 

9. You are instructed to vote that all claims against the public, 
except such as accrue upon attendance upon Congress or Conven- 
tion, be first submitted to the inspection of a committee of nine or 
more men, inhabitants of the county where said claimant is a resi- 
dent, and without the approbation of said committee it shall not be 
accepted by the public; for which purpose you are to move and 
insist that a law l)e enacted to empower the freemen of each count}' 
to choose a committee of not less than nine men, of whom none are 
to be military officers. If this should not be confirmed, pi'otest and 

10. You are instructed to refuse to enter into any combinations of 
secrecy as members of Congress or Convention and also to refuse to 
subscribe any ensnaring tests binding you to an unlimited subjection 
to the determination of Congress or Convention. 


1 1 . You are instructed to move and insist that the pubHc accounis 
fairly stated shall be regularly kept in proper books open to the 
rnspection of all persons whom it may concern. If this should not 
be confirmed — contend for it. 

12. You are instructed to move and insist that tlie ] ower of 
County Courts be much more extensive than under the former con- 
stitution, both with respect to matters of property and breaches of 
the peace If not confirmed — contend for it. 

13. You are instructed to assert and consent to the establishment 
of the Christian Religion as contained in the Scriptures of the Old 
and New Testaments and more briefly comprised in the 39 Articles 
of the Church of England excluding the 37"" Article together with 
all the Articles excepted, and not to be imposed on dis.senters, by the 
act of toleration and clearly held forth in the confession of faith 
compiled by the Assembly of divines at "Westminster, to be the 
Religion of the State to the utter exclusion forever of all and every 
other (falsely so called) Religion, whether Pagan or Papal, and that- 
the full, free and jjeaceable enjoyment thereof be secured to all and 
every constituent member of the State as their unalienable right as 
Freemen without the imposition of rites and ceremonies whether 
claiming civil or ecclesiastic power for their source and that a con- 
fession and profession of the Religion so established shall be neces- 
sary in qualifj'ing any person for piublic trust in the State. If this 
.should not be confirmed, protest and remonstrate. 

14. You are instructed to oppose to the utmost any particular 
church or set of Clergymen being invested with power to decree rites 
and ceremonies and to decide in controversies of faith to be submit- 
ted to under the influence of penal laws. You are also to oppose 
the establishment of any mode of worship to be supported to the 
opposition of the rights of conscience together with the destructioii 
of private p.roperty. You are to understand that under modes cf 
worship are comprehended the different forms of swearing by law 
required. You are moreover to oppose the establishing an ecclesi- 
astic supremacy in the sovereign authority of the State. You are to 
oppose the toleration of the popish idolatrous worship. If this should 
not be confirmed, protest and remonstrate. 

15. You are instructed to move and insist that not less than four 
fifths of the body of which you are members shall in voting be 
deemed a majority. If this should not be confirmed, contend for it 

VOL. X — 10 


IG. You are instructed to give j'our voices to and for every motion 
and liill made or brought into the Congress or Convention v.'here 
they appear to be for pubHc utility and in no ways repugnant to tlie 
above instruction. 

17. Gentlemen the foregoing instructions you are not only to look 
on as instructions but as charges to which you are desired to take 
special heed as the general rule of your conduct as our Representa- 
tives and we expect you will exert yourselves to the utmost of your 
ability to obtain the purposes given you in charge and wherein 
you fail either in obtaining or opposing you are hereby ordered to 
enter your protest against the vote of the Congress or Convention as 
is pointed out to you in the above instructions. 

[B. P. R. O. A>l. & W. IND. Vol. 279.] 

Circulars to the Governor of North Carolina and otlier Governors. 

Whitkhail, September o'", 1775. 

As it is of great consequence to His Majesty's service in the i)res- 
ent state of affairs in North America that His Majesty's Shijis of 
War stationed there should not be employed in any other services 
than those to which they are appointed by the Admiral I am com- 
manded by the King to send to j-ou his Majesty's pleasure that you do 
not take upon you to send to England any such Ships that may be 
stationed within the Limits of your Government with any Dispatches 
unless such Dispatches are of the most pressing nature and no 
vessel can be otherwise procured in which an Officer may l)e sent 
home with them. I am, Ac, 

I am directed by the P^arl of Dartmouth to inclose to you His 
Majesty's Proclamation of the 23"* of last month for suppressing 
Rebellion and sedition which you will cause to be made publick in 
such manner as has been usual on the like occasions. 

I am, &c., 



[Reprinted from the American Archives. Vol. 3. P. 679] 

Extract of a letter from Newbern in North Carolina dated Septem- 
ber 9* 1775. 

Our Convention will rise next wpek. They have agreed to raise 
one thousand men, to be stationed as follows: two hundred at New- 
bern, two hundred at Edenton, two hundred at Salisbury and four 
hundred at Cape Fear. j\Ir James Moore and Mr Robert Howe of 
Cape Fear, are appointed Colonels; Francis Nash and Alexander 
Martin, of Hillsborough and Salisbury, Lieutenant-Colonels ; Thos. 
Clerk, of Hillsborough, and .John Patton, of Pamlico, Majors; D' 
White of Cape Fear, Adjutant. 

There has been a conference held with tlie Chiefs of the Regula- 
tors. They have some scruples about the oath administered to them 
by Governor Tryon ; but some of them have signed the Test or 
Association, and are now signing, and we appreliend no danger from 

[From MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

PTOceedings of the Safety Committee in Pitt Count3\ 

M.\KTiNBOROUGH 9"" Sept. 1775. 

According to adjournment the Committee meat. 

Present: Geo. Evans chairman; John Williams, Rich* Williams, 
Parker Lassee, Rich'' Moye, W™ Robson, James Lockhart, Robert 
Grimes, James Lanier, Joel Sugg, Mathew Sturdevent, Ed'' Moore, 
Peter Reeves, Henry William.son, George Falkner, Thos. Woolfend, 
Henry Ellis, Arcli'' Ailams, John Bowers, Geo. Moye, Allen Sugg. 

Ordered, That John Tyson Esq, meat the next sitting of Conmit- 
tee to answer The Different Allegations lodged against him and that 
James Lanier write said Tvson to Inform him of next meetincr. 

Ordered, George Williams appointed in place of John Hardee, 
Jun"', Pattaroler, Thos. Slaughter, Benj. King, Isaac Hardee, son of 

Ordered, That John Hardee, Jun', appear Before this Committee 
next raeating to answer a complaint lodged against him. To appear 
next meeting. 


Ordered, That no Person act in any Publick Cappasity without 
^ning the Association. 
John Lesslie, Secretai-y. 

signing the Association. GEO. EAMNS, J^ Cliair. 

B. P. R. O. Am. & W. IxD.: No Carolina. No. S23.] 

Letter from Governor ^lartin to the Earl of Dartmouth. 

Cruizer Sloop of "War in Cape Fear River, 
No. Carolina, Sept^ 12"', 1775. 
]\Iy Lord, 

I do myself the honor of writing to your Lordship by the present 
opportunity, although I have nothing authentic to add to my late 
representations of the state of this conntrj', in relation to the dis- 
orders that now most unhappil}^ prevail in it. as in all other the 
Provinces of this Continent,- because I would not omit to give your 
Lordship the latest advices, and that I know not, as my communi- 
cation with Charles Town is totally cut off, when I may have oppor- 
tunity to avail myself of the Packet or to communicate with your 
Lordship by any other, channel, if I miss this, that a merchant ship 
bound to Plymouth now affords me, it being the last vessel that will 
go from hence to England, until peace is restored here, if the people 
persist in tlieir present humour of conforming to the decrees of the 
Philadelphia Congress, and rejecting the favour that Government 
has shewn them by the exception of this Province in tlie Act 
restraining the Trade of many otlier of the Colonies. 

The spirits of the loyal and well affected to Government droop 
and decline daily ; they dispair, my Lord, of succour and support, and 
for the preservation of their persons from insult, and their property 
from confiscation, which has been threatened to those who do not join 
in all the measures of the seditious Committees, they indignantly 
and reluctantly yield to the overbearing current of revolt rather 
than side with it, or oppose themselves to it, at the hazard of every- 
thing that is dear, without the least prospect of successful resi.stance, 
a piteous necessity that, while I lameiit and dejjlore it, I know not 
how to Ijlamc'; it is the cvimbinod inlkience of self-preservatiun and 
interest to which they submit, and \\-Iiich are the most domineering 
and ascendant principles in human nature. Thus, My Lord, the 
authority the edicts and ordinances of Congresses, Conventions and 


Committees are established supreme- and omnipotent by general 
acquiescence or forced submission, and lawful Government is com- 
pletely annihilated. It is rumoured that the Convention now held 
at Jlillsborough hath, after obstinate resistance of the Delegates 
from the Western Counties, voted the raising a Thousand Men, to 
be kept in constant training and pay, and the striking a large sum 
of Paper Money for their support. M"' Johnston, tlie Deputy Naval 
Officer, is the Moderator of this Convention, of the proceedings of 
which I am not able at jiresent to give your Lordship any intelli- 
gence from such authority as I can depend upon. It is said and I 
believe it is true, that the three Delegates from the Congress at Phil- 
adelphia attend this Convention, that supreme Council being 
adjourned to October or November, in order to reconcile the People 
to the restraints laid upon their Trade hj the Resolves of that body. 
I hear it is given out that unless Britain accedes to their Terms 
within a few months, they will o^^en their Ports to foreign nations, 
and utterly exclude her from any participation of their commerce, 
and strange. My Lord, as it may seem, even this Gasconade is not 
too preposterous to be received by the ignorant multitude, and it 
makes impressions accordingly, serving the purpose of cherishing 
revolt and holding the People together until experience shall evince 
the futilit}- of their Machinations. If peace, My Lord, be ever 
restored here (which Heaven grant speedily) there are many objects 
that will deserve, in my poor judgment, immediate attention and 
remedy, among them, first, upon the maturest consideration, I am 
sure it should be a maxim to establish Courts of -Justice originally, 
by the Power of the Prerogative and not to suffer the Assembly to 
meddle in the first constitution of them. Another will be the aboli- 
tion of the office of Clerk of the Pleas, and vesting in His Majesty's 
Governor the power of appointing Clerks of the County Courts as 
in New York, which would prove a source of useful and necessary 
influence, exceedingly wanting to the Governor of this Colony. The 
appointment of Sheriffs ought, for like reason and for the public 
good, to be in the same hands, as it appears the Lords of Trade 
have thought heretofore. These officers throughout the Country are 
generally if not universally Leaders in the present seditions. I 
sometime ago recommended M' Strudwick, the present Clerk of the 
Pleas, to the Lords of the Treasury, as a fit and proper person to 
supercede M" Rutherford in the office of Receiver General of His 
Majesty's Revenues here, for which he is in every respect utterly 


disqualified, and if their Lordsliii>s shall be pleased to grant that 
appointment to M' Strudwick he conld not murmur at the abolition 
of the much less profitable office of Clerk of the Pleas, which he 
cannot make conducive to the Service of Government at all, and 
veiy little to his own interest, as he has often acknowledged to me. 
The infamous Henderson, and his Associates, of whose Vast pur- 
chase of lands in the Indian Country on the Frontiers of this 
Province, I informed your Lordshijj some time ago, have according 
to my latest information, obtained from that people a cession of no 
less than thirty five millions of acres of land, an immense Territory 
to which tliey allure Settlers very fast; my intelligence runs that 
the}' have already drawn a thousand people there from Virginia 
and this Province, and that they have sold the lands of which they 
have got possession at first, at the rate of five Pounds but lately at 
the advanced price of Twenty five jiounds Virginia money per 
thousand Acres. If this monstrous usurpation of the Crowns 
Dominion is suffered your Lordship will see, it cannot fail to induce 
the worst Consequences, and I therefore hope it will have a timely 
attention, and because it is an invasion of Lord Granville's proprie- 
tary rights, that will be exceedingly injurious to the interests of that 
nobleman and his family, for if this Land once becomes settled the 
occupants will hold it rather by their own strength, and tlie false 
titles derived from the present invaders for which they have paid so 
roundly, than repurchase it from the lawfull proprietor, but 
abstracted of private considerations of this nature I conceive it an 
object of great public importance, to prevent the Establishment of 
tliis Colony of freebooters, now without the jurisdiction of any of 
the Colonies. The adventurers in this scheme already boast that 
they have reimbursed themselves all their Charges, and have money 
in bank. I have the honor to be etc., 


P. S. — I have tlie honor to transmit to your Lordship a material 
piece of evidence against ]\P Dry in the Deposition of M' John 
Stephen, Purser of the Cruizer Sloop of War. -Your Lordship will 
also receive herewith two more Dei)ositions of Masters of Sliips, with 
regaril to M' Ashes expedition to Fort Johnston. 


[From MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety CoininitteL' in Tryon County. 

[14"" September ITTo.] 

Met according to adjournment. 

Present: Charles McLean, Chairman ; Thomas Espey, Fetty Mau- 
ney, Frederick Hambright, George Russel, John Morris, Robt. 
M'Minn, Abraham Kuykendall, John Robeson, John Barber, George 
Black, James Logan, James M'Afee, Andrew Neel, Andrew Hamp- 
ton, AV"; Thomason, Nicholas Friday, Benj Harden, Perrygreen 

Whereas, Captain Andrew Hampton a Member of Committee of 
this County hath made application to this Committee for Liberty 
to apply to the Council of Safety of Charles Town for what Gun- 
powder Lead and Flints can be purchased for the sura of Eight 
pounds Seventeen shillings & six pence, Proc. Money of North 

We therefore recommend that the said Capt. Hampton or such 
person as he shall entrust may receive the said ammunition as lives 
on the Frontiers of this County & muc'i exposed to the Lisults of 
the Savages. 

Resolved, That tliis Committee adjourn & meet at the Court 
House on the fourth Tuesday of October next there to deliberate on 
such matters as shall be judged necessary. 


[B. P. R. O. Am. & W. I.Ni).: Xo. Caroli.n-a. No. 223.] 

Letter from the Earl of Dartmouth to Governor Martin. 

AVhitehall 15"" Sepf 1775. 

I liave received from the hands of M'' Burgwine your dispatches 
numbered 34, 35, 36, 37 & 3s, the two first being Duplicates, the 
orieinals of which vou mention to have been trusted to M' Schaw, 
who has not yet appeared. 

The King gives full Credit to your Assurances of the unavoidable 
necessity you was under of seeking refuge on Board the Cruizer 
Sloop of War, and the reasons you a.«sign for submitting to the more 


humiliating Disgrace of seeing His Majesty's Fort Johnston burnt 
by the Rebels in Gun shot of His Majesty's Ship, deserve attention. 

In such a situation I must confess to you, that I think you are too 
sanguine in your exj^ectatious of being able, if properly sujiported 
in the manner you suggest to induce a large party of the Inhabi- 
tants of North Carolina, to take up arms in support of Government, 
but as you speak with so much confidence upon the subject it has 
been thought proper to order 10,000 Stands of Arms and Light 
Field Pieces, to Ije immediately sent to the Commander in Cliief with 
directions that if upon later and consequently better intelligence of 
the State of North Carolina, he shall judge it practicabls to effect 
what you suggest, he do, provided His Majesty's- service in other 
respects will admit of it, send a Detachment of his Army, not less 
than one complete Battalion to Cape Fear under the Command of an 
able and Intelligent Officer, and with the Arms and Artillery I have 

If these directions should be carried into Execution and the 
measure proposed take place, it will be your duty to exert yourself 
with all possible vigour and activity in order to secure its success, 
and I am persuaded you will find that the Power and Authority of 
your Commission as Governor are fully sufficient for that purpose 
without restoring you to the Military Rank you thought fit to sell, 
■which I must again repeat is a request that cannot be complied 
with as it would be an injury to all those officers, who have now 
that Rank. With regard therefore to the Highland Emigrants from 
North Britain, you will not fail to pay a due attention to what I 
have recommended to you upon that suly'ect in my letters numbered 
15 and 19, and in case Lieu' Colonel Maclaine's plans should fail 
the next most desirable object'will be, to engage those Emigrants as 
Recruits for the American Army in General. 

You certainly have done well in suspending M"' Dry from his seat 
at the Council without communicating j-our reasons to the other 
Members, and I make no doubt that the Lords of the Treasury to 
whom I .shall communicate your Letter on that subject will remove 
him from his office as Collector. I am, etc., 



[FR05I MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Letter from Thomas M°Kuight to Samuel Johnston Esq. 

Belville 17"' Se])f 1775. 
Dear Sii;, 

I have just now liad an opportunity of seeing a letter from Boston 
dated August the ll"' in -which are some extracts of letters inter- 
cepted from one of the ^L' Adames to M' Warren, president of the 
Massachusetts provincial Congress — a copy of which I have inclosed 
and have left this letter open that M' Iredell may have an oppor- 
tunity of perusing it before he forwards this to you, should it be in 
his power before your return home. You'll observe that this is only 
for your own information because by some 'twould be deemed 
inimical to su.spect M' Adams capable of such intention. Should 
you however believe the letter to bo genuine as I firmly do, it may 
incline you to examine the truth of my suspicions, that there is, and 
has been from the beginning of the dispute, a fixed design in some 
peoples breasts to throw off every connection with G. B. and to act 
for the future as totally independant ; now however suitable this 
may be to the Northern provinces, I cannot think it adapted to our 
circumstances — but notwithstanding I am convinced no such designs 
are harboured in this jiri^vince, I cannot help thinking we are grad- 
ually and step by step drawn in to second them as effectually as if 
we had been originally concerned in the plan. My ideas of the 
interest of this Province prevents me from joining in measures of 
violence which tend to separate us from Great Britain forever, or may 
precipitSte us into that very state which we wish to guard against. 
I am very far however from pretending any right to judge for the 
community, or dictate to a single member of it, but surely I ought 
not to be blamed for declining to be active in measures which I 
cannot approve — but the violence of the times may increase to such 
a degree as will scarcely permit a man to remain passive without 
being exposed to the attacks of his private enemys under the cloak 
of zeal for the cause of liberty — and when in his own defence he 
offers to the publick the reasons which influence his conduct, that 
very step to which necessity impells him is adduced as evidence of 
his latent designs to hurt the cause by arguing against some of the 
means used to promote it; but why do I say such may be the case? 


It lias already been mine — and attempts to injure me in my person 
& property have been made and countenanced not only by a Persons 
& Jones, but by men whose general character entituled me to expect 
from them humanity as well as justice — men who ought to have 
been satisfyed after having done all that lay in their power to take 
away my character & deprive me of the advantages of society ; their 
endeavours however give me less uneasiness than your last letter 
by which I find myself susj)ected of somewhat that indangers the 
loss of your good o}iinion. Why did you not point out especially 
what ])revented your subscribing yourself as sincerely mine as 
usual, that I might have known what part of my conduct was nec- 
essary to justify or alter? You have known Tny sentiments from 
the beginning of the aiiair; they have been uniform and consistent 
with my conduct. I believed they were your.s as well as mine — if you 
have changed thi-m I am unacquainted with your motives. I know 
you disdain duplicity of conduct, and notwiihstanding the apparent 
current in favor of violent proceedings yrai would despise me for 
chiming in with these without being convinced of their rectitude. 

My heart assures me I have done nothing to forfeit your friend- 
ship—I still rely on it; tell me therefore your Opinion of the steps 
taken in the other Colonies, as well as of those intended to be pur- 
sued in this — -and above all let me know what conduct you think 
an honest man in my circumstances can pursue. 
I am Dear Sir, 

Your most obed' hum'''" serv' 

"The business I have had upon my mind has been as great tt 
ini porta ct as can be trusted to man, and the difficulty ct intricacy 
of it as prodigious. When 50 or 00 men have a constitution to 
form for a great Empire, at the same time that they have a Country 
of 1500 miles extent to fortify, millions to arm & train, a naval 
Power to begin, an extensive commerce to regulate, a standing 
army of 27000 to raise, pay, victual & officer; those 50 or GO men 
are to be i)itied." 

" We ought to have settled a month ago the legislative, executive 
& judicial power of tlie whole Continent, and have completely 
moilelled the Constitution — tu have raisej a naval Power, and 
opened all our juirts wide — to have arrested every friend of Gov- 
ernment on the Continent, and held them as hostages for the Poor 


victims in Boston and then ojiened the door as wide as possible 
for peace & reconciliation; after this they might liave petitioned, 
negotiated, addressed ifec" ifec" if they would — Is all this extrava- 
gant? is it wild? is it not the soundest policy?" 

We have a Continental Treasure to establish a paymaster to 
chuse, and a Committee of Correspondence & Safety. Shall I hail 
you Speaker of the House, or Councellor, or what? What kind of 
an Election had vou? What sort of magistrates do vou intend to 
make? Will your new Council and executive feel bold or irres- 
olute? Will your Judicial hang, whip, tine, & imprison without 
scruple ? 

(N. B. His letter is to J\? Warren Pres' of the Prov' Congress.) 

In Conclusion there is this stricture upon General Colonel Lee. 

"You observe in your letter the oddity of a great man: he is 
a queer creature, but you must love his dogs if you love him, and 
forgive a thousand whims for the sake of the Soldier & the Scholar." 

[From BIS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of tlie Safety Committee in Surry County. 

Wednesday Sept' 20"' 1775. 

Committee met according to Adjournment. 

Present: Benjamin Cleaveland, Ch"; .Jesse Walton, Jolm Hamlin 
Sam'l Freeman, George Wheatley, John Hudspeth, Paul Pattrick, 
Richard Goode, Joseph Winston, James Hampton, George Lash, 
John Pinckley, Frederick Alberton, David Martin, John Parks, 
David Allen, Matthew jNIoore, John Dunkin, William Hickman, 
Jacob Ferree, William Brown, James Jones, William Hall, J.ames 
Doak, Elijah Isaacs, Thomas Johnson, Joseph Phillips, Charles 
Waddle, John Armstrong. 

Resolved, that as Mr Jolm Hamlin Refuses to Act as one of the 
Sub Committee of Safety for this County that we Recommend Mr 
W" Hall in his stead. 

Resolved, That we will Agreeable to the Resolves of tlie Con- 
tinental Congress suppress all Immorality and "N^ice, all kinds of 
sporting Gaming, Betting or Wagering whatsoever. 

Committee Adjourns Till Tomorrow 6 Oclock. 


[From MS. Records in Office of Secret.^ry of St.vte.] 

Procee lings of the Sa-fety Committee in Rowan County. 

Salisbury September 20"', 1775. 

Tlie Committee for the County of Rowan met accordiug to 

Present : Samuel Young in the Chair, James Brandon, Clerk ; Alex- 
ander Osl:)orn, .John Brevard, Gritfith Rutherford, William Alexander, 
Francis j\I°Corkle, James Wilson, Joseph Dixon, Nunan Steel, John 
Montgomery, David Caldwell, John Nesbett, James Smith, George 
Davidson, William Davidson, William Gant, Samuel Harris, Peter 
Mull, Joseph Lawrance, Ephriam M°Clain, John Davidson, William 
Cowan, Jun", Robert j\Ioore, John Hardin, Josiah Black, Jacob 
Nicholas, Mathias Barringer, Peter Ager, Thomas Blackshier, Isaac 
Wilcockson, Hugh Brevard, John Lewis Beard, Christ' Beekman. 

Josiah Black and John Hardin contending for the Captains Com- 
mition of a vacancy on the Cautaba river, 

Resolved, That they return home and give public notice to the 
Inhabitants of the district to meet at William Walkers on the fifth 
day of October next to choose and elect their Officers, and that 
Christopher Beekman is directed to see said election regularly and 
justly carried on, and that James Greenlee and Andrew Work be 
the Clerks for said Election, who are directed to deliver the polls of 
said Election to Christopher Beekman, who shall make due return 
thereof to the Committee in Salisbury — and that the Bounds of 
said district shall be as follows, viz: to start upon the Cautaba river 
half a mile above Joseph Dobson's, running thence to John Ken- 
nedy's on Silver Creek, thence up said Creek to the Tryoii line, 
thence down said line oposit to Wliitner's bottom on Jacobs River, 
thence to Silver Creek Rode, thence to Jacob Ferriberry's upon the 
Main Cautaba river, thence u]) said river to the beginning. 

Number of Taxaljles given in by the following Captains, Viz: 

Ca2)tain M'Cray's Company . — 91 

Capt. Archibalds do 144 

Capt. Berkley's do 150 

Capt. W°' Davidson's do ^ 115 

Capt. M'Corkle's do 04 

Capt. Robinson's do 113 


Capt. Mathias Barringer's Company 88 

Capt. Beckman's do 114 

Capt. Dickson's do 11(J 

Adjourned to the 21" after 6 o'clock in the morning. 

The House met according to adjournment. 

Mr. John Work complained that David Vance is indebted to him 
by note near fourteen Pounds proc. Resolved that the said .John 
Work demands this debt of th^e said David ^^ance, and upon non- 
payment thereof to demand Securit}' for the payment of the same 
in three months from the date thereof, and upon refusal to apjily to 
the Clerk of the Court for the ordinary [irocess for tlie recovery of 
the same. 

Whereas Captain George Davidson hath been charged I_)y some 
persons "with supplying the Cherokee Indians with Ammunition. 
But upon examination of the evidences find that the accusation is 
false and groundless. The said Captain Davidson is by this house 
thought clear of the above charge. 

Whereas, Robert Latta complained to tliis Committee that sundry 
persons is Indebted to him & will not pay their accounts. 

Resolved, That the said Robert Latta again make demand of each 
person his debt, & upon non-payment, to demand Security for the 
payment of the Same on the 'first day. of November next. Upon 
failure thereof he is hereb\' authorized to sue for the same. 

Resolved, That Captain Brevard cite John Perkins to appear 
before the next Committee in Salisbury to give an account of his 
political sentiment relative to American freedom. 

Resolved, That Captain Dixon, John Brevard, Captain Davidson, 
Col° Osborn, Col° Rutherford, James Kerr, William Alexander and 
James Brandon be a Committee to attend at Adam Terrence's on the 
25"" Instant, before whom a certain James Garniss shall be caused 
to appear by Capt William Davidson to render an account of his 
political sentiments relative to American Liberty and be subject to 
the determination of said Committee. 

Resolved, That Capt William Davidson give notice to .John Oli- 
phant to apjiear before next Committee in Salisljury to render an 
account of some late conduct in opposition to American ]\Ieasures. 

Resolved, That the Chairman of this Cohamittee address to the 
Committee of Safety in Charles Town, Requesting them to send us 


as large a quantity of Gun jjowder as they can conveniently spare, 
for the safety and defence of this County. 

And the Credit of this Committee is hereby pledged for the pay- 
ment of the prime cost and a reasonable advance to ^Lltthe^v Locke, 
William Nesbit or .Jas. Brandon for purchasing & bringing up the 

Resolved, That this Committee will pay John Work the sum of 
five Shillings- "5? pound for the Gunpowder and lOd. "i^ lf> for the lead 
mentioned in last Committee Resolve against the first of Feb'y next. 


James Brandon, Sec'y. 

Pursuant to Order of last Conmiittee, the following members 
appeared at Adam Terrence's on the 25"' of Sep., 1775, viz, 

John Brevard, Chairman; Griffith Rutherford, Geo. Davidson, 
Joseph Dickson, W" Alexander and James Kerr. 

After maturely examining & hearing the Culprit, James Garniss, 

Resolved, That altho' the sai<l James Garniss has said some 
things disrespectfully of the Measures pursuing for the preservation 
of American freedom. He has heartily professed his sorrow for the 
same and has signed the Test proposed by provincial Congress. 

Signed by JOHN BREVARD, Clk. 

[From JI.'S. Office of Secret \ky of Siwte. 

Proceedings of the Safety Connnittee in Surry County. 

Thursday Sejit^ 21^', 1775. 
Committee met according to Adjournment. 

Rules w Committee. 

Resolved, That Every person keep their Seats. 

2. And when. they make a motion they shall rise up and address 
the Ch". 

3. And that he shall put the (Question and the Votes be taken. 

4. Only one to sjicak at a time. 

5. And if one makes a motion and not Seconded for it not 1 e 


('). And that no member of this Comfnittee shall Depart without 

7. And that any Member Behaving Disorderly either by Getting 
Drunk, Swearing or any other Vice, shall be lined and subject to 
the same penalties as officers of the Court and no notice taken of 
tlieir Motion until satisfaction is made to the Committee, And the 
fines Applyed as other fines of like nature for the L^se of the Parish. 

Resolved, That for a Committee of Secrecy and intelligence, this 
Com'" has truly Elected John Hamlin Ch", .Joseph Winston, Richard 
Goode, Jesse Walton, Joseph Phillips, -James Doak and ^Latthew 

Resolved, That those who stand in opposition to the Common 
Cause, shall have no benefit of the proceedings of this Committee. 

The Committee Adjourns till further Orders. 


Bv Order, \W Lenoie, Clk. 

[From JIS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Pioceedings of the Safety Committee of Pitt County. 

Martixbokough, Sept. ■23'''', 1775. 

The committee met and agreed the Resolve that was passed in 
Hillsborough should be entered vcrlifdim as under mentioned. 

JOHN SIMPSON, Chairman. 

NuiiTii Cakolixa, 

Resolved it be Recommended to the Committees of the several 
Countys and Towns in this Province to Obtain an E.xact list of the 
Inhabitants within their respective Counties and Towns — Di.stin- 
gui.shing in such lists the N" of white male Persons Between the ages 
of 1() and 50 years, the N° of males above 50 and under 16 years, the 
N° of white women, the N° of Eema'.e children, tlie N" of black 
male slaves being taxables, the N° of Females who are taxables & 
the N° of slaves not ta.xables. And that such list be returned certi- 
fied by the Cliairman of tiie < ommittee to the President of the Con- 
gress on or before the first day of November next. 

In Coni;ress at Hillsboroug'i Aug' 25"' 1775. 

By Order ANDREW KNOX, Sccv. 


According to the Resolve of Congress at Hillsborough, the Com- 
mittee met and resolved that the Cajatain of each Company should 
give directions to Seroents to warn in a just list of what number 
their Family contains, white and Black, male and Female, with 
their ages. 

The Committee of this County is adjourned untill Monday week 
the 2"'' day of Octolier 1775. 


Minutes of a Meeting of the Proprietors of Transylvania. 

25"' September 1775. 

At a meeting of the Proprietors of Transylvania, held at Oxford, 
in the County of Granville, on Monday the twenty-fifth day of Sep- 
tember Anno Domini 1775. 

Present: Colonel Richard Henderson, Colonel Thomas Hart, 
Colonel John Williams, Captain .John Luttrcll, William Johnston, 
James Hogg and Leonard H. Bullock. 

Colonel Henderson being unanimously chosen President, they 
took into their consideration the present state of the said Colony, 
and made the following Resolve, viz : 

Resolved, That Colonel John Williams be appointed Agent for 
the Transylvania Company to transact their business in the said 
Colony; and he is accordingly invested with full power, by letter of 

Ordered, That Mr. Williams shall [iroceed to Boonesborough, in 
the said Colony, as soon as possible, and continue there until the 
twelfth day of April next; and to be allowed, for his services, one 
hundred and fifty pounds. Proclamation money of North Carolina, 
out of the profits arising from the sale of lands, after discliarging tlie 
Company's present engagements. 

N. B. — In case the Settlement should be Ijrokcn up by attack of 
Indians, or other enemies, ,so as to render it impossible for Mr Will- 
iams to continue there and execute the trust rejjosed in him, it is 
agreed by the Company, that he shall still be paid the above salary, 
at the expiration of three years. 

Resolved, That Mr. Williams be emixiwored to appoint one or 
more Surveyors, and the other officers of the Land Office, for tlie 
said Colonv, as he may find it necessary. 


Clerks, Surveyors, and Chain-Carriers, to be sworn before they act. 

Resolved, In case of the death or removal of Mr. Williams, that 
Colonel Richard Henderson, Captain Nathaniel Hart, and Captain 
John Luttrell, or any one of them, be and are hereby, declared 
Agents for the said Company, with the same powers as are given to 
Mr. Williams, until a new appointment shall be made by tlie Pro- 

Resolved, That the Agent shall not grant any Lands adjoining- 
Salt springs, gold, silver, copper, lead, or sulphur mines, knowing 
them to be such. 

Resolved, That a reservation to the Proprietors, of one half of all 
gold, silver, copper, lead, and sulphur mines, shall be made by the 
Agent, at granting deeds. 

Resolved, That the Agent shall take a counterpart of all deeds 
granted by him, and shall transmit them to the Proprietors, residing 
in the Province of North-Carolina, to be audited, with his other 
proceedings, by the Company. 

Resolved, That all surveys shall be made by the four Cardinal 
points, except where rivers or mountains so intervene as to render it 
too inconvenient; and that in all cases where one survey comes 
within the distance of eighty poles from another, their lines shall 
join witliout exception; and that every survey on navigable rivers 
shall extend two poles out for one pole along the river ; and that 
each survey not on navigable rivers shall not be above one-third 
longer than its width. 

Resolved, That a present of two thousand acres of Land be made 
to Colonel Daniel Boone, with the thanks of the Proprietors, for the 
signal services he has rendered to the Company. 

Resolved, That the thanks of this Company be presented to 
Colonel Richard Calloway, for his spirited and manly behaviour in 
behalf of the said Colony; and that a present of six hundred and 
forty acres of Land be made to his youngest son. 

Resolved, That James Hogg, Esq., be appointed Delegate to repre- 
sent the said Colony in the Continental Congress, now sitting at 
Philadelphia ; and that tlie following Memorial be presented by him 
to- that august body. 

To THE Honourable the Continental Congress now Sitti;s'g at 


The Memorial for Richard Henderson, Thomas Hart, John Wil- 
VOL. X — 17 


liams, Nathaniel Hart, John Luttrell, William Johnston, James- 
Hogg, David Hart, and Leonard Henl}' Bullock, Proprietors of 
Transylvania, sheweth : 

That on the seventeenth dav of March last, for a larw and valua- 
ble consideration. Your Memoiialists obtained from the Cherokee 
Indians, assembled at Watauga, a grant of a considerable territory 
now called Transylvania, lying on the South side of the river Ohio. 

They will not trouble the honourable Congress with a detail of 
the risks and dangers to which they have been exposed, arising 
from the nature of the enterprise itself, as well as from the wicked 
attempts of certain Governors and their emissaries; they beg leave, 
only, to acquaint them that, through difficulties and dangers, at a 
great expense, and with the blood of several of their followers, they 
have laid the foundation of a Colony, which, however mean in its 
origin, will, if one ma}' guess from present ap[)earances, be one day 
considerable in America. . 

The Memorialists, having made this purchase from the Aborigines 
and immemorial possessors, the sole and uncontested owners of the 
country, in fair and open treaty, and without the violation of any 
British or American law whatever, are determined to give it up 
only with tlieir lives. And though their Country be far removed 
from the reach of Ministerial usurpation, yet they cannot look with 
indifference on the late arbitrary proceedings of the British Parlia- 
ment. If the United Colonies are reduced, or will tamely submit 
to be slaves, Transylvania will have reason to fear. 

The Memorialists by no means forget their allegiance to their 
Sovereign, whose constitutional rights and pre-eminences they will 
support at the risk of their lives. They flatter themselves that the 
addition of a new Colony, in so fair and equitable a way, and with- 
out any exj^iense to tlie Crown, will be acceptable to His Most Cra- 
cious Majest}', and that Transylvania will soon bo \vorihy of liis 
Royal regard and protection. 

At the same time, having tlieir hearts warmed with the same noble 
spirit that animates (lie United Colonics, and moved with indigna- 
tion at the late Ministerial and PaiJiamcntary usurpations, it is 
the earnest wish of the Proprietors of Transylvania lobe considered 
by the Colonies as brethren, engaged in tlie same great cause of 
liberty and of mankind. And, ;is l)y reason of several cirt-umstancos, 
needless to be here mentioned, it was impossible for the Proiirietors 
to call a convention of the settlers in such time as to iiave their con- 


currence laid before this Congress, they here i^ledge themselves for 
them, that they will concur in the measure now adopted by the 

From the generous plan of liberty adopted by the Congress, and 
that noble love of mankind which appears in all their [iroceedings, 
the Memorialists please themselves that the United Colonies will 
take the infant Colony of Transylvania into their protection ; and 
they, in return, will do everything in their power, and give such 
assistance in the general cause of America as the Congress shall 
judge to be suitable to their abilities. 

Tlierefore the Memorialists hope and earnestly rec|uest, that Tran- 
sylvania may be added to the number of the United Colonies, and 
that .James Hogg Esq. l>e received as their delegate, and admitted 
to a seat in the honourable the Continental Congres.s. 

By order of the Projirietors. 



Pesolved, That Mr. Hogg be empowered to treat and contract with 
any person or persons who may incline to purchase Lands from the 
Company, and that he be allowed his expenses for transacting the 
above business. 

Resolved, That the united thanks of this Company be presented 
to Colonel Richard Henderson, Captain Nathaniel Hart, and Captain 
John Luttrell, for their eminent services and publick .spirited con- 
duct, in settling the aforesaid Colony. 

Resolved, That from this time to the first day of June, one thou- 
sand seven hundred and seventy-six, the Lands in I he .said Colonv 
shall be sold on the following terms: No survej^ of Land shall con- 
tain more than six hundred and forty acres, (except in juirticular 
cases); and the purch.ser shall pay for entry and Avarrant of survey 
two dollars; for surveying the same and a plot thereof, four dollars; 
and for the deed and plot annexed, two dollars. And also shall 
pay to the said Proprietors, their .Agent, or Receiver for tlie time 
being, at tlie time of receiving a deed, two pounds ten shillings 
sterling for each hundred acres contained in such deed; also an 
annual quit-rent of two shilling.s, like money, for every liundrcd 
acres, commencing in tlie year one thousand seven hundred and 
eighty. And that any person who settles on the said Lands before 
the first day of June, one thousand seven liundred and seventv-six, 
shall have the privilege, on the aforesaid conditions, of taking up 


for himself any quantity not above six hundred and forty acres; 
and for each taxable person he may take with him, and settle there, 
three hundred and twenty acres, and no more. 

Resolved, That Colonel Richard Henderson survey and lay off, 
within the said Colony, in such places and in such quantities as he 
shall think proper, not less than two hundred thousand acres, here- 
after to be equally divided amongst the copartners, or their repre- 
sentativcH, according to their rateable part, (as fully set forth in the 
Articles of Agreement entered into by the copartners;) and that each 
copartner be permitted, by himself or his deputy, to make choice of, 
and survey in one or more jilaces, any quantity of vacant Land in 
the aforesaid Colony, for his or their particular use ; but not above 
two thousand acres, and that agreeable to the aforesaid rateable pro- 
portions, unless on the same terms, and under the same regulations 
and restrictions as laid down for other purchasers. 

Resolved, That not more than live thousand acres shall be sold 
to any one person who does not immediatelj^ settle on the said Land ; 
and that at three pounds ten shillings sterling per hundred, and not 
more than one hundred thousand acres in the whole on these terms. 

Resolved, Tliat the Agent deliver what money he may have 
received for the sale of lands to Colonel Thomas Hart, when he 
leaves the said Colony, and that Colonel Hart pay what money may 
be due from the Company to the people at Watauga on his return ; 
and that the remainder be applied to the payment of the Company's 
other -debts. 

Also that the Agent take the first safe opportunity of remitting 
what further sums he may receive thereafter to AVilliam .Johnston, 
Treasurer, to be by him applied towards paying off the Company's 

Resolved, That William Johnston be impowered to bargain and 
contract with any jaersons inclining to purchase lands in the said 

Ordered, That Mr. Johnston do in behalf of the Proi)rietors, 
accommodate Mr. Peter Hay, merchant, (at Cross Creek, Cumber- 
land County, North Carolina), witli a present of one thousand acres 
of Land in the said Colony, for his friendly behaviour towards the 
Company ; or in lieu thereof, that ]\L-. Hay be permitted to i)urchase 
ten thousand acres, witliout being obliged to settle the same, at two 
pounds ten shillings, sterling, per hundred acres, subject to office 
fees and quit- rents. 


Resolved, That a present of six hundred and forty acres of Land 
be made to the Reverend Mv. Henry Patillo, on condition tliat he 
will settle in the said Colony. 

Resolved, That the Agent duly attend to the above Resolves, 
unless when the interest of the Company makes the contrary neces- 

By order of the Proprietors : 


[From MS. Records in Office of Secretary op State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee in Pitt County. 

Martinborough, Monday 2"'' October, ] 775. 

The Committee met this day aforesaid according to adjournment. 

Resolved, That the Chairman agreeable to a Resolve of tli'e 
provincial Convention lately held at Hillsboro, Advertise the free 
holders of this County to appear at the Court House in Martin- 
borough on the third Tuesday in October, then to elect any number 
of persons not exceeding five to represent this County the next 
provincial Congress, and also at the same time to elect twenty-one 
or more Proper Persons to act as a committee of said County for the 
ensuing year. 

Whereas John Tison who has acted in many instances prejuditially 
to the Just Rights of America being called upon by this Committee 
to answer for his conduct in that Respect hath Exhibited the follow- 
ing confession as his own acts and Deeds viz, 

I John Tison of my own free will and consent do sware on the 
Holy Evangelist that I will not hereafter, Directly or Indirecth' do 
anything that shall be injuriously to my Country knowingly or 
willingly, and that I am willing to conforme to the Association as 
far as I have seen, that is now in this County. All this I do sware 
in the true faith of a Christian — so help me God. 

Signed by, JOHN TISON. 

Being present. 

James Lanier, Peter Rives, John Hardee, .Jun. appeared and Dis- 

This Committee adjourned to the Third Tuesday in October. 



[Fbom MS. Records in Office of Secretaby of State.] 

Proceeiings of the Safety Committee at Wilmington. 

At an occasional meeting of the Committee. 

Present: Cornelius Harnett, Chairman; Tim Bloodworth, A. Lil- 
lington, Jno. Devane, John Hollings worth, James Moore, A. Ronald- 
son, ^^"m. "Wilkinson, Wm. Ewins, Win. Campbell, "Jno. Ancrum, 
Win. Purviance, Adam Boyd, Caleb Grainger. 

Whereas it appears to this Committee that several vessels cleared 
out by the officers of His Majesty's customs, are still remaining in 
this river. 

Resolved, That every vessel now in the river of Cape Fear, loaded 
and cleared out as above (before the lO"" day of Sept. last) do pro- 
ceed on their respective voyages within ten days from this date. 

It appears to this Committee that Moses Buchanan is confined in 
the County Gaol by virtue of a writ served on him (since the lO"" 
day of September last), at the suit of Robert Baniierman, contrary 
to a Resolve of the Congress of this Colony, lately held at Hillsboro, 
prohibiting the commencement of any civil suits without the consent 
of a Committee. 

Ordered, That in pjursnance of such Resolve, that the said 
Moses Buchanan be discharged from his confinement. 

[B. P. R. O. Am. & W. IND.: No. Carolina. No. 223. 

Letter from Governor Martin to Samuel Johnston Esq. 

Cruizer Sloop of War in Cape Fear River, 

October 7'" 1775. 


Notwithstanding the respect I have entertained for your private 
character, notwith.standing my repugnance to oppose to its merits 
your conduct in public and political transactions, during the present 
unnatural, unhappy and much to be lamented contest between 
Great Britain and her Colonies, which my long forbearance 
towards you must have evinced, you have reduced me to the neces- 
sity I wishe<l to have avoided of choosing between the two disagree- 


able alternatives of testifying my disapprobation of your conduct 
officially, or taking upon myself the guilt of conniving at the 
undutiful behaviour of one of the King's servants, which last being 
utterly inconsistent with my ideas of the duty I owe His Majesty, I 
cannot hesitate to make my election of the former, however painfull 
my respect for M' Johnston makes that decision. 

I have seen with astonishment your late appearance in the con- 
spicuous character of Moderator of a popular Assembly unknown 
to the Laws and Constitution of this Province and summoned and 
convened by yourself. And I have seen with greater surprise if 
possible, your' acceptance of the appointment of Treasurer of the 
Northern District of this Colony, unconstitutionally and contrary to 
all Law and usage conferred u]ion you by this Body of your own 
creation, on whose other acts so derogatory to the just authority of 
the King and so utterly subversive of the Constitution of this 
Country, I siiall not here enlarge, although I do most sincerely & 
unceasingly deplore them. 

Your Conduct in these instances Sir I am bound to consider such 
manifestations of your undutyfulness to His IMajesty and His 
Government and such an avowal of your participation in the present 
fatal disorders of this Country as render it altogether unfit, and 
inconsistent with my duty to the King to permit you to continue 
Deputy Naval Officer of this Province: and I am to inform you 
that I have accordingly appointed M' Archibald Neilson to super- , 
sede you as Deputy Naval Officer of this Colony, from which Office 
you are hereby suspended until Llis Majesty's royal pleasure shall 
be known. I am Sir &c., 


[From MS. Records in Office of Secretary op State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee at "Wilmington. 

October IP" 1775. 

At an occasional meeting of the Committee. 

Present: John Ancrum in the chair; A. Maclaine, James Geekie, 
John Forster, Wm. Ewins, P. Mallutt, A. Ronaldsou, Adam Boyd. 

Col. James Moore having applied to this Committee for 150 lbs. 
gunpowder, and 6 cwt. of lead or ball for the use of the troops under 
his command : 


Ordered that the above quantity of ammunition be delivered to 
Col. Moore or his order as he may have occasion for the same. 

Mr Samuel Southerland applied for leave to import a cargo of 
salt from the AVest Indies, whereupon the question being put, this 
committee declined giving any opinion and referred it to the Com- 
mittee of Safety. 

[B. P. R. O. Am. & W. IND.: No. Cakolixa. No. 222.] 

Letter from Governor Martin to the Earl of Dartmouth. 

N° Carolina Cruizer Sloop of War, 

In Cape Fear River, Ocf 16'" 1775. 
My Lord, 

Since my last letter to your Lordship I hk,ve had the honour to 
receive your Lordship's Dispatches N°' 17 and 18 by the return of 
an Express Boat which I ventured to send to Charles Town about a 
month ago in expectation of the arrival of a Mail from England. 

Pursuant to his Majesty's Commands signified to me by your 
Lordship's dispatch of the former number your Lordship may 
depend I shall make the Resolutions of the Lords of Trade on the 
representations of the Assembly's Agents touching the Law of 
Attachments and the proposed provisions in the Court Law to which 
they refer my absolute rale and guide with regard to those points 
whenever they shall again be agitated in the Legislature of this 
Province of which I most sincerely wish I could see a nearer prospect. 

The account which your Lordship is pleased to give me by your 
Dispatch N" 18 of the King's firm resolution to pursue the most 
vigorous measures by sea and land for reducing his Majesty's rebel- 
lious subjects on this Continent to obedience cannot but afford satis- 
faction to every faithful subject of his Majesty as it is certainly a 
determination founded in humanity as well as good Policy, for the 
longer the present prevailing spirit of Rebellion is suffered to 
triumph without clieck, the more widely it will spread and the more 
blood it will cost to subdue it. I most sincerely deplore at the same 
time the miseries that impend the People of this vast continent in 
general owing to the fatal influence of a few ungovernable turbulent 
and factious spirits who have astonishingly had tlie address to 
involve this multitude of people by fallacious and specious alarms 
in the guilt of Rcl)ellion to support themselves in the prosecution 


of their owu horrid schemes and devices from which if the real 
ends and objects of the Contrivers were discernible to them I do 
firmly believe the People of America in general would turn with 
abhorence and aversion, but there is a fascination belonging to the 
word Liberty that beguiles the minds of the vulgar beyond the 
power of antidote. 

Your Lordship may depend I will not fail in the strictest observ- 
ance of His Majesty's commands to exert every endeavour and to 
employ every means that shall be in my power to aid and support 
General Gage and Admiral Graves in all such operations as they 
may think proper to undertake for carrying the King's orders into 
full execution and restoring tlie authority of his Majesty's Govern- 
ment, at the same time I grieve to be obliged to acknowledge to 
your Lordship that I have not the least power at present to assist 
their operations. 

The Provincial Congress lateh' held at Hillsborough has produced 
all the ill consequences that I apprehended from it, I beg leave to 
refer your Lordship for such of its proceedings as have been made 
publick to the Cape Fear Mercuries of the 15*, 22°* and 29"' of Sep- 
tember herewith enclosed which discover but too plainly the 
extravagant spirit that jjrevailed in that Assembly. My private 
Informations of its temper differ widely, on the one hand I learn (and 
from authority to which I am inclined to give the greater credit) 
that the measures of raising troopes met with warm opposition from 
the Delegates of the Western Counties and that it was carried 
against them by the rule of taking the votes by Counties, of which 
those upon the Sea Coast and in the midland Country formed a 
great majority in favour of it, much owing to the influence of the 
.candidates for military honours in this Southern part of the Prov- 
ince and more to their thirst for the profits with which they expected 
them to be accompanied. On tlie other hand I hear that the oppo- 
sition of the Western Counties was only to the number of Troops 
intended to be raised, first proposed at three thousand men, which 
ceased on the reduction of the number to one thousand and that 
they concurred in every other measure at which if it Ise true I can- 
not indeed greatly wonder when I consider the extreme ignorance 
of the Inhabitants of that part of the Country and the arts imployed 
to Seduce them by the inflammatory Spirits who have taken the 
lead in all the popular Assembly's of this Colony. According to my 
information a Committee was appointed by this Provincial Congress 


to gain over the late Insurgents in tlie Western Counties, who had 
heretofore made to me the strongest professions of their loyalty and 
duty to the King and of their resolution to support his Majesty's 
Government as also to treat with the Cherokee Indians, and my 
intelligence runs that tliis Committee received assurances from the 
former tliat they would observe a strict neutrality, but I can learn 
nothing of its success with the Indians. I have heard too My Lord 
with infinitely greater surprise and concern that the Scotch High- 
landers on whom I h^id such firm reliance have declared themselves 
for neutrality, which I am informed is to be attributed to the 
influence of a- certain M' Farquhard Campbell an ignorant man 
who has been settled from his childhood in this Country, is an old 
^Icmber of the Assembly and has imbibed allthe American popu- 
lar principles and prejudices. By the advice of some of his Countr}-- 
men I was induced after the receipt of your Lordship's letter No. 16 
to communicate with this man on the alarming state of the Country 
and to sound his disposition in case of matters coming to extremity' 
here, and he expressed to me such aljhorence of the violences that 
had been done at Fort .Johnston and in other instances and discov- 
ered so much jealousy and apprehension of the ill designs of the 
Leaders in Sedition here, giving me at the same time so strong 
assurances of his own loyalty and the good dispositions of liis 
Countiymen that I unsuspecting his dissimulation and treachery 
was led to impart to him the encouragements I was autliorized to 
hold out to his Majesty's loyal Subjects in this Colony who should 
stand forth in support of Government which he received with much 
seeming approbation and repeatedly assured me he would consult 
with the principles among his Countrymen witliout whose concur- 
rence he could i)romise nothing of himself, and would acquaint me 
with their determinations. From the time 'of this conversation 
between us in July I heard nothing of M"' Campbell until since the 
late Convention at Hillsborough, where he appeared in the Character 
of a Delegate from tiie County of Cumberland and there, according 
to my information, unasked and unsolicited and without jirovoca- 
tion of any sort was guilty of the base Treachery of promulging all 
I had said to him in confidential secrecy, which he had jiromi.scd 
sacredly and inviolal)ly to observe, and of the aggravating crime of 
falsehood in making additions of his own invention and declaring 
that he had rejected all my propositions — fortunately however he 
could discover nothing new: for tlic jiulilic here were already fully 


acquainted with tlie contents of youi' Lordship's letter, to whicli my 
conversation with ]\r Campbell referred, Copies of it having been 
circulated here by the Committee of Charles Town who intercepted 
and detained the Original. 

Thus my Lord I have the mortiiication to see all the fair promis- 
ing advantages which this Country atibrded me for supporting His 
Majesty's Government wrested from me by the machinations of sedi- 
tion for want of all the necessary means to use and improve them. 
Seven months have elapsed since my first application to General 
Gage for arms and ammunition in all which time I have not received 
the shadow of supj^ort while the busy spirit of Faction has had full 
opportunity to play off all its artifices and to counteract all my 
endeavours for his Majesty's service and the present state of affairs 
here evinces its fatal success. Still My Lord if I ever am supported 
I shall not fail to employ every effort to regain my lost ground which 
may not yet be impossible altho I confess nothing can be more dis- 
couraging than my present prospects. I wish my Lord not to be 
understood bj' this representation to impute in any sort or degree 
the disappointment of my Avell founded, expectations o^f maintainmg 
the King's Government in this Country to neglect or remissness on 
the part of General Gage for I am verj' confident from my own 
knowledge of that Gentleman and his zeal for his Majesty's service 
I should have wanted no aid which he could have afforded me for 
the advancement of the public service, my design and meaning is 
only to account to your Lordship for the misfortune of losing this 
Colony and to shew that the present total subversion of order and 
Government in it has been wholly owing to my want of all the 
means to use and improve timely those advantages by which. 
I have so long flattered your Lordship as well as myself I should 
be able to retain it, in a state of obedience to lawfull authority and 
Government. After all however I am yet induced to hope that if 
the present unnatural contest should continue and Government shall 
think proper to try effectually its strength in this Province it will be 
found that the Scotch here have only been dormant for want of 
sujiport and that they have not lost their loyalty or love for tlieir 
Mother Country and if it is thought advisable My Lord to aid me 
with two Battalions I would humbly recommend that they be of 
Highlanders of which we have these in a large body raising in 
Britain rather than any other Troops not only because they will 
recruit here with greater facility but as they will be the sure means of 


restoring ami establisliing the good dispositions of the large Body 
of their Countiymen settled in this Province and I must add with great 
submission that I think the recovery of this Colony which by these 
means will be easily effected is an object of vast consequence and 
highly deserving attention if the accommodation I most ardently 
wisli for does not soon take place which I know not upon what prin- 
ciple to expect. 

I transmit to your Lordship herewith enclosed a North Carolina 
Gazette of the G"" instant containing in the iirst page a very extraor- 
dinary Plan of confederation for the united Colonies which was 
introduced to the late Congress at Hillsborough I am well informed 
by IVP William Hoojier a native of Boston who was the 'author of 
the very inflammatory letter addressed to the Committees here, 
which I transmitted to j'our Lordship some time ago that is said to 
have been the first cause of violence in this Country and which 
was signed by him and the other two Delegates from this Colony to 
the Continental Congress who all returned from Philadelphia to 
attend this provincial meeting. lam glad to see My Lord there 
was temper and moderation enough in that Assembly to reject this 
proposition for the present and I am highly pleased with the 
restrictions laid on the Delegates to the Congress which I am willing 
to consider a good presage. This Plan it would seem ]My Lord 
must have come with some sort of recommendation from the Phila- 
delpliia Congress but perhaps not in its aggregate capacity not- 
withstanding the disavowal in the preface to it, For your Lordship 
will observe towards the conclusion it is said These Articles sJiall be 
postponed to the several Provincial Conventions or Assemblies dx: a 
language of authority one cannot suppose the Delegates of North 
Carolina to hold alone. I confess I think this Piece bears strongly 
the impression and characters of New England manufacture and 
craft for the principle of Population on which the great governing 
power is to be pro[)ortioned and formed however speciously equita- 
ble will forever in the nature of things secure the balance to the 
Northern Colonics which consequently if this Plan could be estab- 
lished would give law to the Southern Provinces and finally subju- 
gate them as is the object and ultimate design I must suspect of 
the N. England lust of domination but however right or wrong these 
my conjectures may be the Paper in question like many of the 
publications of the Continental Congress has so much of tlie appear- 
ance of .system and breathes .so strongly tlie spirit of indopendance 


that with the best inclinations to construe the designs of the Leaders 
of American Politics in the most favorable and liberal manner it is 
difficult for the most impartial and unprejudicial mind to believe 
their uniform professions and declarations against any views of that 
nature, it is nevertheless far from me and my intentions to judge them. 
Heaven knows what are the real views of them at large! I for my 
part deplore most sincerely the unnatural subsisting contest and 
most fervently pray for a just constitutional honorable and speedy 
termination of it devoutly wishing that the late Petition of the 
Continental Congress to his Majesty which discovers much more of 
temper and respect than their former applications may open a waj' 
to this most desirable event. 

Among other Institutions of the late Provincial Congress your 
Lordship will observe it has appointed a Provincial Council which 
is vested with supreme power during the recess of that Assembly. 
In this select bodj^, consisting of thirteen members, there are no less 
than seven Attornies, all of whom are most infamous or most con- 
temptible characters except M' Samuel Ashe and IVP Samuel John- 
ston, who have the reputation of being men of integrity. Among 
the rest of its members there are scarcely any of good principles or 
character, and some of them are despicable to the last degree. 

AP Samuel .John.stou having summoned and convened the late 
Congress at Hillsborough and jjresided therein, and having also 
accepted the office of Treasurer of the Northern District of this Col- 
ony under the appointment of this unconstitutional Assembly of 
his own creation, in open violation of an Act of the Provincial Leg- 
islature, by wliich Treasurers are appointed and actuallv existing. 
I have thought it high time and indispensiblj^ my dut}^ to supersede 
him as Deputy Naval Officer of this Province, and I have accord- 
ingly appointed M' Archibald Neilson, a gentleman well qualihed 
by his knowledge, integrity and good principles to act in that Office 
until His Majesty's Pleasure shall be known. He is indeed the only 
capable person that, in my present state, cut off from all intercourse 
with the country, I can appoint, or with whom I can connnunicate 
upon the subject. I do not think, however, that I could at anj- time 
make a better choice in this Province, and I have therefore recom-. 
mended M'' Neilson to M' Turner, the Patentee of the Naval (Office 
of this Colony (now residing in England) for his confirmation, and 
I beg leave to express my wishes that if it Ke proper and consistent 
your Lordship may be pleased to interpose your authority with him 


to ratify my appointmeut of this Deputy, lest, ignorant as lie is of 
the People of this Countr}^ he shall make clioice of an improper 
person. M' Neilson, the Gentleman of my nomination, oflers and 
will secure to AP Turner in the most acceptable manner the same 
consideration of his Office that he received from M' Johnston. 

It has transpired but does not appear in the proceedings of the 
Provincial Congress held at Hillsborough printed in the enclosed 
Papers that it voted the sum of sixty thousand Pounds to be forth- 
with struck and issued in Paper Bills for the support of their mili- 
tary establishment and that ten thousand pounds more are to be 
lent from the Bank formed by the Continental Congress at Phila- 
delphia. All of which is to be sunk by a Poll Tax to be levied 
hereafter on the Inhabitants of this Province which bids fair I think 
to create schism wherever the collection of it is set on foot. 

It is possible' also that the resentment of M' John Ashe occasioned 
by his disappointment of the Cliief command of t!ie military estab- 
lishment formed by the Provincial Congress will cause .some division 
here for it seems he and his friends are raising men of their own 
authority in opposition to M' James Moore his brother in Law who 
is appointed .Military Chief under the Congress. 

Cut off as I am from intercourse with the Country mucli of what 
I write to your Lordship is neces.sarily only from hear-say and report 
of the best authentication I can procure and compared and selected 
with the greatest caution, I am therefore to request that your Lord- 
ship will be plea.sed to consider what I write from information only 
with all proper allowance. 

If I may hazard opinions of my own under these circumstances 
I must say that I think there is no j. resent appearance or probability 
of the divisions arising in the Country turning to the advantage of 
Government For however some of tlie People are dissatislifd among 
themselves with regard to the distribution of power and command 
under tlieir own new institutions of Government, they seem gener- 
ally united on tlie points of opposition to Britain and if it is in con- 
templation to carry them against the now collected resistance of the 
Colonies which I maj' infer from your Lordship's letters is deter- 
• mined 1 am satisfied it can only lie effected by the immediate and 
vigorous opci'ations of a great army unless the Colonists in general 
can be made to understand and to consider more favorably the jus- 
tice and e(|uity and moderation of the claims and proportions of 
Parliaraeiit which will be impracticable wliile the clamours of oppo- 


sition in England continue so openlj- to cherish and encourage 
violence in America. Lideed My Lord in every light that I am 
able to view and consider the present state of affiiirs, I tliink it is to 
be feared at the extremity to which the Americans have carried 
their resistance and inflamed as they are with high and false ideas 
of their own strength and consequence (borrowed more I believe 
from the gasconadings of their abettors in England than formed 
upon their own vain computations) that nothing can restore the just 
authorit}' of Government over this Continent but the energy of 
Britain's force and power. The restraints of Trade that have been 
highly expedient, proper and necessary will doubtless by slow o})ora- 
tion produce effect in time if foreign States and foreign Wars do not 
interpose but they will never cure the instant fatal growing distemper 
of rebellion or alter the principles of it, nor do the}' promise to be the 
means of conciliating the atfections of this People, and whatever 
measures the wisdom of Government shall employ for reducing the 
Colonies to present obedience the more pleasing task of reconciling 
them to it lastingly as I humbly and perhaps ignorantly conceive 
will be accomplished only by some great act of state deciding all 
claims with precision and settling a permanent and just system of 
political relation and dependance between the parent state and her and glorious work but pregnant 
with difficulties many of which it is probable my sliort sight does 
not comprehend. 

Your Lordship will see under the New Bern Articles in the 
enclosed Papers to what malicious oblociuy and rejjroach I am ex- 
posed here. These animadversions I apprehend are the overflowings 
of the patriotism and good nature of AP Abner Nash whose name I 
have before had occasion to mention to your Lordship. I should 
not aim to draw your Lordship's attention for one moment to objects 
of so little consequence as myself and the unjust censure thrown out 
here against me (while even the sacredness of Majesty in the most 
virtuous & excellent Prince in Christendom does not exempt our most 
Gracious Sovereign from the violent and opprobrious slanders) 
but to shew your Lordship how impotent and unavailing are the only 
means now in my power to resist tlie workings of sedition and 
rebellion. ]\Iy proclamations not suffered to be published or circu- 
lated among the people are suppressed by the Committees wlio rep- 
resent them t « the public as best serves their own seditious purposes. 
This ]\P Nash's commentary in the enclosed papers upon my last 


act of Govermneiit of that nature (of which I have ah-eady trans- 
mitted copies to your Lordship will evince) and that they produce 
no other effect than to draw forth the foulest abuse of such insolent, 
malevolent disingenuous and unprincipled censures. The strictures 
of the same man on my letter to M' De Rosset (that was written in 
Council and unanimously approved b}' the Board) printed also in 
the enclosed papers Avill likewise shew j'our Lordship his skill 
and dexterity in misrepresentation and perversion of the truth 
and his premises and conclusions Avill sufficiently display his 
candour his charity and loyalty. The patriots here in general I am 
told speak with much respect of my character and conduct as Gov- 
ernor of this Province condemning only the too officious zeal which 
they say I have discovered in resisting their measures since the com- 
mencement of the jJi'eseiit disorders in America and which they 
alledge has transported me beyond the bounds of my necessary duty. 
I am little hurt I confess My Lord by this condemnation having the 
entire approbation of my own conscience and I hope a reasonable 
confidence that ray Royal Master and those to whom I am responsi- 
ble will do rae the justice to believe I have discharged my duty 
faithfully and to the utmost of my power the feebleness of which I 
am most to lament that has not permitted me to do more. 

In cases of seizures made by the King's ships it is to be appre- 
hended it will be very difficult if not impracticable to form Courts 
of Vice Admiralty for their Tryal in this Province as well as in 
other of the Colonies, for want of communication with the proper 
officers. In that event j'our Lordship knows that Officers of the 
navy will be exposed to prosecution for detaining beyond a sliort 
limitation of time vessels they may seize under the late act of Par- 
liament restraining the Trade of some of the Colonies, which are 
thereby directed to be tried as other seizures, in the Courts of Admi- 
ralty, unless in their special cases, and when the proceedings of such 
Courts shall be opposed and obstructed, as will probably happen, 
some jirovision is made by Law for their indemnification. 

M' Alexander M'^Gregor, late Master of the Snow Belief stranded 
here in the month of March last, gave me about a fortnight ago a 
detail of Ca]ifain Collet's proceedings with regard to his Cargo, 
upon wliicli be laid in claim as a. Salvager, and liy this man's 
account, as well as from other circumstances that have come to my 
knowledge, I am bound to conclude that M' Collet's conduct on the 
occasion was exceedingly injurious and unjustifiable. I recom- 


mended to Captain Collet on his first report of the case to me at New 
Bern to take the Attorney General's opinion and advice for his rule 
and guide, and to be governed by them minutely, or he would cer- 
tainly subject himself to prosecation and very probably to great dam- 
ages. He accordingly did advise with the Attorney General, I am 
informed, but followed, nevertheless, his own judgment, which, by the 
representations of M' McGregor, I fear was formed more upon views 
to his own gain and interest than upon any principles of justice, ec|uity 
and charity, all of which the nature of the case ought to have excited 
in the strongest manner. I much lament My Lord that I have so 
much reason in this aflliir and on other accounts to alter my favor- 
able sentiments of Captain Collet, of whom and of his principles I 
was wont to think highly. 

I hear that the thousand men now raised or raising here, called 
Regular Troops and formed into two Battalions, are to be disposed as 
follows: Three hundred men are to be encamped on the East Side 
of the River at a place called Barnard's Creek about three miles 
below Wilmington. One hundred on the West Side of this River 
about four Miles above Fort Johnston. Two hundred men are to 
be quartered at New Bern, the like number at Edenton, and the 
remaining two hundred in the back Country, where it is proposed, 
I understand, to raise the whole number. 

In a North Carolina Gazette of the 29"' of September your Lord- 
ship will see a most pompous display of discoveries of military 
stores in and about my house at New Bern, almost every article of 
which the author of this abuse, I am persuaded, well knows to be 
old stores deposited there by Governor Tryon after his expedition 
against the Regulators which it seems my servants in their abundant 
caution, had buried as described iu the News Papers to keep them 
out of the hands of the Mob. Of mine or of my provision there was 
nothing among them but two Kegs containing between forty and 
fifty pounds of Gunpowder (called c|uarter casks iu the News Paper) 
which I had bought and intended for Saluting the King's last 
birthday and which on my previous and necessary departure from 
New Bern I directed to be put away in some place of security. 

The same paper contains an advertisement of a set of people for- 
merly mentioned by me to your Lordship who are, it appears, auda- 
ciously settling very rapidly a Colony which they liave called Tran- 
silvania on the Frontier of this Province and Virginia where as I 
have before represented they have made, a fraudalent and illegal 
VOL. x — IS 


purchase of an immense country from the Cherokee Indians, great 
part of which I have reason to believe falls within the limits of the 
Proprietar}^ of the Earl Granville to whose rights it will be very 
injurious and I am persuaded your Lordship will think with me, 
that such a Colony of freebooters cannot but be of the most danger- 
ous tendency' to the public interest. I am assured that this com- 
pany of adventurer's has sent a Delegate to represent their new 
Colony at the Congress now held at Philadelphia. 

I have now and then My Lord the heart breaking pain to hear 
the murmurings and lamentations of a loyal subject who steals 
down here to unbosom his griefs to complain of the want of sup- 
port from Government and to enquire when it may be expected, 
and while I labour to console and encourage him under his suffer- 
ings I am doubly sensible of the humiliation of my own impotent 
and disgracefull condition and circumstances, my feelings of which 
and for the dignity of his Majesty's Government it is impossible for 
me to express or describe to your Lordship. 

I hope your Lordship will have been aware of the impossibility^ 
of my collecting in these times of distraction the necessary mate- 
rials for making that full representation of the state of the Trade 
and circumstances of this Colony which your Lordship recpiired by 
\our circular letter so long ago and that your Lordship will accord- 
ingly have made every allowance for my delay to execute his 
Majesty's commands to me thereupon. 

At the restoration of Peace and good order under the just 
authority of his Majcstys Government hi this Colony I consider it 
My Lord first most essentially and above all things necessary 
towards the improvement of that most desireable court to the 
stability of these blessings and to the utmost advantage for the 
welfare and happiness of this People to erect b}^ authority of the 
King's Royal Prerogative a compleat and permanent system of 
Courts for the Administration of Justice not only upon the just 
and generous principle of imparting to his Majesty's subjects here 
those great securities of life, liberty and property that flow from 
this source to which they are entitled under the British Constitution 
and which are the grand ends and objects of all civil Government 
but as the only sure and effectual means of confirming to them its 
most inestimable rights, for late experience has manifested such 
strange and extravagant caprice in tlie Assembly of this Province 
with regard to these primary institutions of Jurisprudence that to 


reason from what has been it may be fairly inferred that branch of 
the Legislature will be brought with difficulty if ever to adopt any 
durable system for the distribution of justice and if this great 
ground work of all regular Civil Polity is suffered longer to depend 
on Acts of the Provincial Legislature I think it is to be expected to 
concur only in erecting Temporary Judicatures as heretofore at the 
expiration of whose terms the Colony will relaixse from the operation 
of like causes into the same deplorable and disgraceful state to 
which it has been recently reduced by the perverse adherance of 
the Assembly to inadmissible innovations that actually for some 
time put a total stop to all legal proceedings here and still stagnates 
the cause of Justice in the narrow channels formed by those strange 
inadec|uate and ineffectual Court Laws to which I assented only in 
the last necessity and for the sake of preserving some shadow of 
Justice and order in this Countrj^ after the failure of my utmost 
efforts to obtain more firm and permanent establishments for their 
support and maiutenance. Of these My Lord wliich have far out- 
lived their intended term (owing to the accident of the last meeting 
of the Assembly proving no Session) I have long and continually 
expected the Royal disallowance that is yet necessary to open the 
way to the measure I have so much at heart and that will be so 
eminently conducive to the happiness and prosperity of this Country. 
In this event and at the arrival of the happy period above men- 
tioned, that is so sincerely the object of my wishes, I shall not onh* 
think myself authorized by your Lordship's sentiments heretofore com- 
municated to me, but I shall consider mj'self called upon in the strong- 
est manner by my duty to the King and the State, to his Majesty's 
peojile in this Colony and their most important interests, to embrace 
that critical moment to employ the means in my power to prevent 
as human prudence may the return of those great calamities and 
evils of which I here have been witness, that have proceeded from 
the want of some settled Plan for the Administration of Justice and 
which are and ever must be more or less incident to every State and 
Colony under like circumstances. For this great purpose for the 
reasons I have here enumerated to your Lordship, and because I am 
persuaded it will be tlie first and greatest improvement that can be 
made in the Civil Polity' of this Province, I shall think it proper b}^ 
Ordinances to be made with the advice of the Council, pursuant to 
the Powers granted to me in that behalf by his Majesty's Royal 
Commission, to erect Sufficient Courts of Justice throughout this 


Colon}' as was done at New York early in the establishment of 
English Government, and has been practiced continually since to 
the present day on the erection of new Counties in that Province 
where the people have been ever wisely satisfied with those Institu- 
tions enjoying under them the benefit of a better administration of 
Justice than any other Colony. To Courts once and irrevocably estab- 
lished upon this basis the Provincial Legislature My Lord will no 
doubt soon see the expediency of giving full effect by passing a 
proper law for determining the qualifications and enforcing the 
attendance of Jurors and it may be allowed to form such other regu- 
lations as the peculiar circumstances of the Colony shall require 
while these original contributions for the distribution of Justice will 
remain impregnable and the great rights of the subject be for ever 
secured indefeasible to and no longer depending on the versatility and 
caprice of an uninformed Popular Assembly and the Colony will 
be thus delivered and freed from those periodical convulsions 
distractions and embarrassments which have ever attended and it 
may be believed will evermore attend the expiration of the laws 
appointing Courts of Justice in this Province. Thus My Lord these 
great Institutions of civil polity will stand here on the firm founda- 
tions where the British Constitution has placed them and where they 
ought forever to remain on the ground of most sacred obligation and 
first duty of the Prince to his subjects for by that most wise and 
admirable system and for the good of the people the King is enacted 
the ever living Fountain the ever flowing Spring and source of 
hcavcn-born Justice and his Courts of Judicature are the great and 
well contrived channels by which Majesty disposes its benignant 
streams that thus unremittingly descend in constant regular and 
uniform currents of beneficence from the Sovereign to Ins People. 
From the date of such establishments as I propose it may be pre- 
sumed this Colony will take some form of Constitution which with 
proper care and attention may no doubt be shaped and moulded to 
a good one but without such fundamental institutions and while the 
first i>rinciples of Government and good order unfixed and liable to 
perpetual mutation and total subversion, I do not think it can be 
said ever to have any Constitution at all. This point My Lord ap- 
pears to me an object of such vast importance to the welfare and 
happiness of this Province and so essential to the dignity and sta- 
bility of Government in it that.I accordingly to press it to your 
Lordship's consideration flattering myself that I may receive Jiis 



Majesty's and vour Lordship's approbation of my intention before 
occasion offers to carry it into execution. 

While I look forward and wonder in pleasing contemplation into 
times of Peace very different also from the present, I have a thou- 
sand speculations about the future Government of these Colonies. 
Among other regulations that have occurred to me to be proper I wish 
to submit to your Lordship's consideration the expediency of admit- 
ting well chosen Judges of the Law Courts to sit with the Provincial 
Councils in their Legislative Capacity without vote as the Judges of 
England do in the House of Lords for the purpose of giving their 
advice upon laws in their formation which I think may prevent 
much error and impropriety. 

With all submission My Lord I most humbly conceive too that 
the appointment of Judges here during good behaviour may be a 
consideration worthy of Government not only as it is essentially 
necessary to compleat and give perfection to the system I have in 
view to establish for the administration of Justice, but as the certain 
effectual and perhaps only means to induce the Assembly to make 
honorable, suitable, permanent seltlements upon those important 
Offices, and if such a measure shall be adopted I would humbly 
recommend that in aid of jM' Howard his Majesty's present Chief 
Justice of this Province, from [four] able and sufficient assistant 
Judges should be sent from England, a less number than which I 
do not think adequate to the business of this extensive Province. 

Another most important object that I am bound to recommend to 
your Lordship's attention is the reform of the Court of Chancery 
here that can never answer the end of a remedial Court of Equity 
while the Council makes a part of it not only from the connection 
of its Members who are people of the Country with the suitors who 
come into that Court and the bias too naturally arising out of that 
circumstance, but from the difficulty if not impossibility of keeping 
open daily that source of redress owing to the wide dispersion of the 
Members of the Council and their reluctance to give their time and 
attention to that elemosynary business for which they have no sort of 
allowance or recomj^ence. The Right or rather claim of the Council 
to sit in the Court of Chancery here has no other foundation that I 
have been able to discover (besides usuage that can hardly deserve 
any consideration in this infant and unformed Colony) than an 
implication of a Chancery Court then existing x-omposed of the 
Governor and Council in a Provin [provisional] clause for cases where 


the Governor should be a party in any suit to be found I think 
(speaking from memory as I have not the book in my power) in a 
mutilated Act of the j'ear 1715 Litituled "An Act concerning appeals 
and Writs of error," near the beginning of the Printed Code of the 
laws of this Province I had the honour to present to j-our Lordship 
some time ago, to which I beg leave to refer you, and if that be 
deemed a just ground for the Claim of the Council and there is 
none other, I should for the reasons I have assigned to your Lord- 
ship most humbly advise its disallowance, which would revert the 
Chancer}^ Powers in the King's Governor solelj', in whom alone they 
can reside usefully and beneficially to the People; the reform made, 
it may also be adviseable to give the greater facilitj^ to the business 
of the Court of Chancery here to appoint a Master of the Rolles as 
has been recently done at N. York, for whom at the return of Peace 
and order it may not be difficult to induce the Assembly to make a 
suitable and permanent provision. 

As his Majesty has thought proper by his Royal Instructions to 
invest power in the Governor with the advice of the Council to set- 
tle fees for all Officers and that the Assembly in the Province hath 
taken upon itself to establish fees by laws that have most injuriously 
annexed fees to some services far exceeding their merit and value 
and alloted none to others of the higliest dignity and that are of 
greatest profit and emolument in other parts of his Majesty's 
Dominions I submit to your Lordships consideration the expediency 
of disallowing all the Laws establishing fees in this province and 
omitting them to be settled upon a just and reasonable footing by 
the Governor and Council but this My Lord is a tender subject for 
me to touch and what I have here proposed I presume only to sug- 
gest as a salutary regulation and agreeable to his Majesty's Instruc- 
tions without a sinister thought to my own advantage as I firmly 
trust and hope your Lordship will do me the justice to believe. 

As it may be very material to his Majesty's service that I should 
know how far the Charters granted to tlie Lords Proprietors of this 
Province were affected b}- the Surrender of their rights to the Crown, 
and whether they were or not by that Act in legal continuation alto- 
gether and absolutely abrogated and annulled, I beg leave to entreat 
your Lordship's full information on this head. 

I have the honour to be &c., 



[From MS. Records in Office of Secret.vrt of St.\te.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee in Wilmington. 

Monday, October IG'" 1775. 

At an occasional meeting of the Committee. 

Present: .John Ancrum, in the Chair; A. Maclaine, P. Mallett, 
W. Ewins, F. Brice, J. Forster, W. Wilkinson, A. Ronaldson, Jas. 

On application from Capt. M°Gill of the sloop Ranger for permis- 
sion to clear out his sloop in ballast. Ordered that Capt. M°Gill have 
leave to clear out for the port of New York only and that he be 
allowed to take on board any quantity of deer skins he may choose. 
Grant paid Ss. 

On application from Alex. Hostler Ordered that the jsaper 
imported in Capt. Weir's and now in the bauds of Adam Boyd be 
sold at Vendue for the use of the Press only or be immediately 
delivered to A. Hostler to be reshipped. 

Ordered that Francis Brice be appointed secretary to this Com- 
mittee during the absence of Thomas Craike. 

[From MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee in Rowan County. 

October 17* 1775. 

Pursuant to a Resolve of Congress held at Hillsborough in the 
Province of North Carolina on the 20"' of August 1775, The Free- 
holders and householders in the County of Rowan appeared at the 
Court-house in Salisbury on Tuesday the 17* of October in the 
same year when the following gentlemen were duly Elected Mem- 
bers for the Committee in said County, Viz — 

William Alexander, Josiah Rouncifer, Sam'l Young, John Archi- 
bald, John Purviance, Christ' Beekman, Matthew Locke, Moses 
Wiusley, John Harden, Hugh Brevard, David Smith, Israel Cox, 
Jonathan Hunt, Charles M'Dowel, ^^lathias Barringer, Robert Moore, 
John Brevard, John Dickey, Robert Holmes, Gilharth Falls, Griffith 
Rutherford, Robt King, Sam'l Reed, John Lopp, William Sharp, 
James Smith, Hugh Montgomery, John Lewis Beard, David Rob- 



ison, Francis M'Corkle, William Moore, William Davidson, Thomas 
Whitson, George Henry Barringer, John Sloan, John Montgomery, 
Alexander Dobbins. 

The said Committee met on Tuesday evening the 17"" of October 
1775, when the following Members were present, 

W° Alexander, Josiah Rouncifer, Samuel Young, John Archibald, 
John Purviance, Christopher Beekmau, John Harden, Robert j\Ioore, 
John Brevard, John Dicky, Griffith Rutherford, Robert King, Sam- 
uel Reed, William Sharji, James Smith, Hugh Montgomery, John 
Lewis Beard, David Robison, John Sloan, John Montgomery, Alex- 
ander Dobbins. 

The Committee proceeded to choose a Chairman and Secretary — 
When Mr Samuel Young was chosen Chairman, and Mr W" Sharp 

Pursuant to a Resolve of last Committee John Perkins appeared. 

Resolved, That the said John Perkins lias given such account of 
his political sentiments relative to American freedom as is satis- 

Resolved, that the principles upon which, and the measures 
Christopher Beekman pursued in obtaining the appearance of John 
Perkins before this Committee was reasonable and Justifiable. 

The Committee adjourned till tomorrow morning 7 o'Clock. 

The Committee met according to adjournment. 
Pursuant to Resolve of last Congress the Number of Souls in 
Rowan County appears as followeth — 

CoMi"'ANiE8— Names. 







O ^ 

lo 53 


<X> T^ 


> G 




r-" tc 



-71 '^ 

















O I — I 


Capt. Knox 

Capt. Dickson 

Capt. Davidson (up River) 

Capt. M'Conrys 

Snow & Rocky Creeks 



















A letter from William M°Bride Esq'' directed to the Chairman and 
Gentlemen of the Committee in Rowan County, l>eing read. 


Ordered, that the Letter lie on the Taljle for consideration one 

On motion Resolved, That when a Creditor makes it appear on 
oath, that he hath by advertising or otherwise given sufficient 
Notice to his Debtor or Debtors for all sums under five pounds, to 
come in and make payment or give sufficient security for the same, 
and it appearing that the Debtor or Debtors Refusing or neglecting 
to comply, it is the opinion of this Committee that it will be sufficient 
evidence to give leave to bring suits. 

The order of the day being read, for taking into Consideration 
M' M-Brides Letter, 

Resolved, That M' Locke by Letter addressed to him and the 
people up the River, inform them the proceeding of last provincial 

Pursuant to order of last Committee Samuel Lowrie appeared. 

Resolved, That he have till the first Tuesday in next month to 
Determine on his political sentiments, relative to American freedom, 
and that he appear before the Committee at that time. 

Resolved, That it be recommended to the several Militia Compa- 
nies who have not yet cordially imbodied themselves and chosen 
officers, to adhere as near as may be to the Districts prescribed 
b}' last Court Martial. 

Resolved, That the several Militia Companies in this County, be 
sufficiently notified by their old officers when there has been no 
election, and by their new ones where they are appointed, to meet 
some Day before the next Committee to sign the Test appointed by 
Congress ; and all mistriable persons neglecting or refusing to sign 
the Test aforesaid, shall be Noticed by one of the Officers to appear 
before the said Committee to show cause for such refusal or neglect, 
and return the Test signed to Committee. 

A Petition signed by 22 members of the South Divi-sion of Capt. 
Berkeley's Company praying a new Election of Officers, being pro- 
posed and read — Resolved, That the prayer of said petition be 

On Motion Resolved, That the secretary of this Com. provide 
paper, write certificates (leaving a blank for the date and bearer's 
name) for such friends to Liberty who may apply for the same, affix 
the Committee seal thereto, and distribute a sufficient number 
amongst Samuel Young, Christ' Beekman, Matthew Locke, John 
Purviance, .John Archibald, James Smith, Charles McDowell, John 


Brevard, Hugh Montgomery, Who shall be accountable to the secre- 
tary for the sum of 8'' for each certificate, otherwise return the same, 
which is the sum allowed the secretary for said service. 

Resolved, That Messrs. Samuel Young, John Archibald, John 
Montgomerj', Jonathan Hunt, Robt. King, Matthew Locke, Samu' 
Reed, James Smith and William Sharp, shall attend at M' Jonathan 
Hunt's, on Tuesday the last Instant to confer with the inhabitants 
of the forks of Yadkin on the subject of American freedom. 

Resolved, That the Chairman of this Committee by Letter ad- 
dressed to the several Committees of Petersbourgh, Campbelton, 
Chowan, George Town, Cambden and Charles Town, desiring them 
by no means to purchase any sort of produce or other article, or sell 
any manner of articles, or necessary, to any person, or persons from 
the County of Rowan, unless they first produce a certificate signed 
by the Secretary, and impressed with the seal of the Committee in 
said County. 

Resolved, That M' Samuel Young have leave to bring suit against 
James Fitzpatrick, Debt above ^£5. 

The Committee adjourned till Tuesday the 7"' of next month. 

Minutes read and signed by order of Committee. 


AV" Sharp, Sec'y. 

[From MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee at Wilmington. 

WiLMixcjTOx, Tuesday 17"" October 1775. 

Present: John Ashe, John Devane, W" Jones S', W"" Jones J^ 
Charles HoUingsworth, Timothy Bloodworth. 

Ordered, that Francis Brice be appointed to keep the poll for the 
election of delegates and appointment of Committeemen for the 

At an election this day agreeable to a Resolve of the late Congress 
of tliis Colony for the appointment of delegates to re23resent this 
town and county in Congress the ensuing year, Cornelius Harnett 
Esq. was duly elected as a delegate to rcjiresent this town ami Sam' 
Ashe, John Ashe, Sampson Moseley, John HoUingsworth and John 
Devane, Esq", were also duly elected to represent the county. The 


Committee for tlie town and county wore also nominated agreeable 
to a Resolve of the said Congress. Those for the town were John 
Ancrum, James Walker, John Quince, Peter j\Iallett, W° Campbell, 
Sam. Campbell, W° Ewins, Henry Toomer, Jolm Slingsby, William 
■Wilkinson, John Forster, James Geekie, John Robeson, Charles 
Jewkes, Andrew Ronaldson. 

[From MS. Records in Office of Secretary of St.^te.] 


North Caeolixa — 

At a Provincial Council held at the Courthouse in the County of 
Johnston, the eighteenth day of October, in the year of our Lord 
one thousand seven hundred and seventy-five. 

The Provincial Congress having by Resolve nominated the follow- 
ing persons to be a provincial Council, to wit. 

For the district of Wilmington — The Honorable Samuel Johnston 
Esquire, Cornelius Harnett, Samuel Ashe, Esquires. 

For the district of Edenton — Thomas Jones, Whitmill Hill, Esq". 

For the district of New Bern — Abner Nash, James Coor, Esc{". 

For the district of Hillsborough — Thomas Person, John Kinchen, 

For the district of Halifax — Willie Jones, Thomas Eaton, Esq". 

For the district of Salisbury — Samuel Spencer, Waightstill Avery, 

Pursuant to which Samuel Johnston, Cornelius Harnett, Samuel 
Ashe, Thomas Jones, Whitmill Hill, Abner Nash, James Coor, Thos. 
Person and John Kinchen, Esquires, ajspeared and subscribed the 
Test directed by the Congress, and took their seats accordingly. 

The Council then proceeded to the choice of a President, when 
Cornelius Harnett Esquire was Unanimously chosen, and at the 
same time James Green Junr. appointed Clerk. 

Certificates from the Chairman of the Committee of Dobbs 
County were laid before the Council whereby it aj^pears that ^Ir. 


Jesse Cobb was elected Captain, William Cobb Lieutenant, and 
Richard Caswell Junr. Ensign of the first Company of Minute 
Men; Certified the 23'''' day of September last. 

Mr George Miller Caj^tain, Mr Benjamin Exum Lieutenant, and 
David Jernigan Junr. Ensign, of the Second Company of Minute 
Men, Certified the 2fc)"' day of September last. 

Mr. John Garland Captain, Mr. William Kilpatrick Lieutenant, 
and Mr. John Granger Ensign of the third Company of Minute 
Men certified the 4"' day of October instant. 

The Council taking the same into Consideration, 

Ordered, That Commissions i.ssue immediatel}' to the said Cap- 
tains, Lieutenants and Ensigns. 

The Council adjourned till 4 "'Clock. 

The Council met According to Adjournment. 
■ The Counties of Wake and Tryon having failed to Elect delegates 
agreeable to the Resolution of the late provincial Congress by reason 
of the Freeholders not receiving timely notice of the daj- appointed 
for that purpose. 

Resolved, That the lirst day of November ne.xt the Freeholders 
in Wake County, and on the twenty eighth day of November next 
the Freeholders in Tryon County shall meet and Elect delegates 
and Committee men for their respective Counties in the same man- 
ner and under the same regulations and restrictions as directed by 
Resolve of the late Congress. 

The Council adjourned till to morrow morning 10 "Clock. 

Tluirsday the 10'" October 1775. 

The Council met according to Adjournment. 

Waightstill Avery Esquire one of the Members for the district of 
Salisbury appeared. 

Resolved, That the Treasurers or either of them pay into the 
hands of Col" William Kennon, Commissary to the first Regiment 
the Sum of one thousand pounds proclamation money to enable liim 
to purchase provisions for the same, and that they be allowed in 
their Accounts with the Public. 

Resolved that the Treasurers or either of them pay into the hands 
of Mr. Andrew Knox Commissary for Edenton district the sum of 
five hundred pounds proclamation money to enable him to purchase 
Provisions for the troops and tliat they be allowed in their Accounts 
with the Public. 


Resolved, That the Treasurers or either of them pay into the 
hands of Mr Robert Salter Commissary of New Bern district the 
sum of five hundred pounds proclamation money to enable him to 
purchase provisions for the troops and that they be allowed in their 
Accounts with the Public. 

Resolved, That the Treasurers or either of them pay into the 
hands of Mr Robert Lanier Commissary of Salisbury district the 
sum of five hundred pounds proclamation money to enable him to 
purchase provisions for the Troops, and that they be allowed in 
their Accounts with the Public. 

Resolved, That Colonel William Kennon be appointed Commis- 
sary to tlie Battalion of Minute Men for the district-of Wilmington. 

Resolved, That Mr .John Coart be appointed Commissarj^ to the 
Battalion of Minute Men for the district of New Bern. 

Resolved, That Mr Andrew Knox be appointed Commissary to 
the Battalion of Minute Men for the district of Edenton. 

The Council adjourned 'till 4 "Clock. 

The Council met according to Adjournment. 

The Council adjourned 'till Tomorrow Morning 10 "Clock. 

Friday October 20'" 1775.- 

The Council met according to Adjournment. 

Samuel Johnston, Esquire, one of the Committee to get proper 
plates engraved, and to provide paper and agree with an Engraver 
to Stamp or print the Bills of Credit, and to frame devices for the 
same, informed the Council that the Committee had employed 
Mr William Tisdale at New Bern for the above purpose and had 
agreed to give him one hundred pounds. 

Resolved, That the Treasurers or either of them pay-to Mr Will- 
iam Tisdale the above sum of One hundred pounds, and that they 
be alloM'ed in their Accounts with the Public. 

At the same time was laid before the Council an Account of the 
paper and other stationery, provided for the above purpose, amount- 
ing to twenty two pounds four sliillings. 

Resolved, That the Treasures or either of them pay the same out 
of the Monies in their hands and be allowed in their Accounts ^\■hh 
the Puldic. 


Resolved, That William Kennou, Esquire, be appointed Commis- 
saiy to the Battaliou of ^linute ]Men for the district of Salisbury. 

Willie Jones, Esquire, one of the Council for the district of Hali- 
fax appeared, subscribed the Test, and took his seat in Council. 

Thomas Eaton, Esquire, one of the Council for the di.strict of 
Halifax appeared, subscribed the Test, and took liis seat in Council. 

Resolved, That Commissions do issue signed by the President to 
the Minute and Militia Officers, in the several districts and Counties 
within this province. 

Resolved, That the one thousand Troops raised in this Province 
on the Continental establishment, be supplied with one Blanket, a 
Hunting Shirt, Splatter dasher, and Garters, so as not to exceed the 
sum of Forty Shillings for each Soldier; this Council being of 
Opinion that the same. is absolutely necessary, and was intended by 
the late Provincial Congress. 

The Council being informed, That the Minute IMen, directed to he. 
raised in some of the Counties in this province, cannot be enlisted 
in time to answer the intention of the Congress. 

It is therefore, Resolved, That the Field Officers of any district, 
in M-hich the Counties or any of thtm have not or cannot speedily 
raise their Company or Companies by the Congress directed to be 
raised in such Counties; may appoint suitable persons in any of the 
other Counties within their respective districts, to enlist Minute Men 
sufficient to complcat their Battalions, and sucli Minute Men shall 
be formed into Companies, choose their Officers, and be subject to 
the same Rules, Orders and Discipline, and entitled to the same pay 
as other Minute Men raised in this province. 

And whereas it will be impossible for one person to attend the 
several Counties in some of the districts, and perform the duties of 
an Adjutant to the Minute Men on account of the great extent of 
such districts, 

Resolved, That the Field Officers and Captains or a Majority of 
them in any of the districts where they Judge it necessary, shall 
appoint tv/o Adjutants to the Minute Men of their respective dis- 
tricts, shall direct their duty and apportion their pay so that the same 
does not exceed the duty or pay of one Adjutant appointed agree- 
able to the Resolution of the Provincial Congress, and that the Fer- 
riages of the Adjutants in attending the musters shall be paid by 
the public. 


And also whereas it may be found impracticable at last to com- 
pleat the Battalions in some of the Districts, 

Resolved, That the Field Officers and Captains in such case shall 
call together such jMinute Men as shall enlist to the place and pro- 
ceed to training in the manner by Congress directed, and they are 
directed under these circumstances to proportion the pay of the 
Adjutant or Adjutants to the Services which he or they are to render. 

Resolved, That Mr. Thomas Picket be appointed Ensign in Cap- 
tain William Picket's Company of the first Regiment in the room of 
James Childs resigned. 

Tilghman Dickson Lieutenant in Henry Dickson's Company of 
the first regiment in the room of Hezekiah Rice resigned. 

John Brown Ensign in Cap' Alfred Moore's Company of the first 
Regiment in the room of John Taylor resigned. 

Thomas Standing Ensign in Captain Michael Payne's Comj^any 
of the second Regiment in the room of Whitmill Pugh resigned. 

Joseph M'Clammy Ensign in Captain Henry Irwin Toole's Com- 
pany of the second Regiment in the room of Joseph Clinch resigned. 

William Gardner Lieutenant in Hardy IMurfree's Company of the 
second Regiment in tlie room of Jolm Williams resigned. 

Joseph Worth Ensign in Captain Hardy Murfree's Company of 
the second Regiment in the room of William Gardner promoted. 

And in case of the death or resignation of Lieutenant John 
Grange, That Henry Vipon be appointed Lieutenant, and John Sit- 
greaves Ensign in Captain John White's Company of the second 
Regiment in the room of Henry Vipon promoted. 

Resolved, That John Bryan, Esquire, be appointed Colonel of the 
Militia for the County of Craven. 

Resolved, That Lehansyus D'ekeyser be appointed Adjutant in the 
first Regiment and Ensign in Captain John Walkers's Company in 
the room of Berrymau Turner resigned. 

Resolved, That Samuel Johnston Esq'' be appointed paymaster of 
the Ti'oops stationed in the district of Edenton, as also to the ^Minute 
Men in the said district; first entering into Bond to this Council 
with sufficient security in the sum of ten thousand pounds procla- 
mation money. 

Resolved that Richard Caswell Esquire l>e appointed paymaster 
of the troops stationed in the district of New Bern, as also to the 
Minute Men in the said district first entering into bond to this Coun- 


cil with suflEicient security in the sum of ten thousand pounds proc- 
lamation money. 

Resolved, That Samuel Ashe Esq' be appointed paymaster of the 
Troops in the district of Wilmington, as also to the Minute Men in 
the said district, first entering into Bond to this Council with 
sufficient security in the sum of ten thousand pounds proclamation 

Resolved that Matthew Locke, Esq', be appointed paymaster of 
the Troops stationed in the district of Salisbury, as also to the Min- 
nie Men in the said district first entering into Bond to this Council 
with sufficient security in the sum of ten thousand pounds procla- 
mation money. 

Resolved, That the next Congress shall be held at the Town of 
Halifax, the first day of May next, unless otherwise determined 
hereafter by this Council. 

Resolved, That the next privincial Council shall be held at the 
Court House in the County of Johnston, the seventeenth day of 
December next ; but that the President may call a Council sooner 
if he should find it necessary. 

Resolved, That Samuel Johnston Esquire be empowered and he 
is hereby required to send an express to the delegates of this province 
at Philadelphia, and that the Treasurers or either of them pay him 
the expences thereof and be allowed in their Accounts with fhe 

Resolved, That Abner Nash, and James Coor Esquire, or either 
of them, be empowered to Charter one or more vessels, and agree 
with Masters and sea men at the port of New Bern, and load the 
same to such parts as they shall judge expedient, and with such 
Articles they may think proper; not exceeding the sum of One 
thousand pounds proclamation money, in order to procure Arms 
and Ammunition, for the use and Protection of this province, the 
same to be at the Hazard, risk and expences of this province. 

Resolved, That Mr. President, Richard Quince, and John Forster 
Esquires, or either of them; be impowered to Charter one or more 
vessels and agree with Masters and Sea men at the port of Wilming- 
ton and load the same to sucli parts as they shall judge expedient, 
and with such Articles, they may think proper; not exceeding tlie 
sum of one tliousand pounds proclamation money in order to pro- 
cure Arms and Ammunition for tlie use and protection of this 


province, the same to Le at the hazard, risk and Expeuce of this 

Resolved, That Whitmill Hill, Esquire, be impowered to Charter 
a vessel, and agree v\-ith one or more Masters and Seamen at the 
port of Edenton, and load the same to such parts as he shall judge 
expedient and Avith such Articles as he may think proper, not 
exceeding the sum of on^ thousand pounds i^roclamation money in 
order to procure Arms and Ammunition for the use and protection 
of this province, the same to be at the hazard, risk and Expence of 
this province. 

Resolved, That Mr Memucan Hunt be appointed Commissary to 
the Battalion of Minute Men for the district of Hillsborough. 

Resolved, That Nathaniel Rochester, Esquire, be appointed pay- 
master to the Battalion of Jilinute Men in th© district of Hillsbor- 
ough ; first entering into bond in the sum of five thousand pounds 
proclamation money. 

The Council adjourned 'till Tomorrow morning 10 "Clock. 

Saturday 21" October 1775. 

The Council met according to Adjournment. 

Resolved, That in case any Troops should attempt to land in a 
hostile manner in any part of this province, the Commanding Offi- 
cers of the two Battalions of the American Army raised in this 
province, do immediately oppose the same to the utmost of their 

Resolved, That tiie President of this Council correspond from 
time to time with the Councils of Safety within the Colonies of Vir- 
ginia and South Carolina or with the proper Boards chosen and 
appointed in those Colonies. 

Resolved, That the paymasters now appointed are not to be con- 
sidered as Military Officers under the Order direction or control of 
, the Commanding Officers of the two Battalions of the American 
Army raised in this Province, and that their said apiDointment does 
not in the Opinion of this Council disqualify them from sitting at 
the Board, and ought not to disqualify them from sitting in the 
Provincial Congress in case they should be elected members of the 

Resolved, That ]Mr Cullin Edwards be apj^ointed Commissary to 
the Battalion of Minute Men for the district of Halifax. 

VOL. X — 10 


Resolved, That Mr Joseph John Williams be appointed paymaster 
to the Battalion of Minute Men in the district of Halifax, first 
entering into bond in the sum of five thousand pounds proclama- 
tion monej'. 

Resolved, That Colonel Robert Howe employ proper persons to 
make Carriages for six of the Cannon Guns now at New Bern, 
mount and unspike the same for the use of the province; and that 
Richard Caswell Esquire Treasurer of the Southern district advance 
a sum sufficient to paj' the expences thereof so that the same does 
not exceed the sum of Fifty pounds proclamation and be allowed in 
his accounts with the public. 

Resolved, That Col° James Moore employ proper persons to make 
Carriages for six of the Cannon now lying at Wilmington, mount 
and unspike the same for the use of the province ; and that Richard 
Caswell, Esquire, Treasurer of the Southern district advance a sum 
sufficient to pay the expences thereof so that the same does not 
exceed the sum of Fifty pounds proclamation money and be allowed 
in his Accounts with the public. 

Whereas some Counties have through mistake elected Committee- 
men and delegates previous to the seventeenth day of October, the 
day by Congress appointed — 

Resolved, That it is the Opinion of this Council that such Com- 
mittees ought to be held legal, and to act in the same manner as if 
they had been chosen on the proper day; and that the delegates 
elected as aforesaid ought to be admitted to their seats in Congress : 
Provided that there was no fraud in the election of such Committees 
and delegates. 

And whereas other Counties for want of the proceedings of the 
Congress have not yet chosen Committeemen and delegates. 

Resolved, That such Counties may hold their Elections of Com- 
mitteemen and delegates at any time between the seventeenth of 
October and the first of January next under the rules and restric- 
tions by Congress directed, and that it is the opinion of this Council 
that such Elections ought to be as valid as if they had been held on 
the said seventeenth of Octoljcr. 

The Council acljourned 'till 4 "Clock. 

The Council met according to Adjournment. 

Resolved, That Samuel Johnston, Esquire the Northern Treas- 
urer, pay into the hands of Mr Nathaniel Rochester the sum of 
two thousand one liundred and fifty pounds for the use of the min- 


ute men, and for the purchase of Drums and colors &c% in the dis- 
trict of Hillsborough and that a warrant for that j^urpose issue 
signed by the President, and that the said Treasurer be allowed in 
his Accounts with the public. 

Resolved, That Samuel Johnston Esquire, the Northern Treas- 
urer, pay into the hands of Mr. Joseph John Williams the sum of 
two thousand one hundred and fifty pounds for the use of the Min- 
ute Men, and for the purchase of Drums, Colours (fee", in the district 
of Halifax and that a warrant for that purpose issue and be signed 
by the president, and that the said Treasurer be allowed in his 
Accounts with the public. 

Resolved, That Richard Caswell Esquire, the Southern Treasurer, 
j^ay into the hands of Samuel Ashe Esquire, the sum of ten thousand 
five hundred pounds for the use of the regular Troops and Minute 
Men and for the purchase of Drums, Colours cfec" in the district of 
Wilmington and that a warrant for that purpose issue, and be signed 
by the i^resident, and be allowed in his Accounts with the public. 

Resolved, That Richard Caswell, Esquire, the Southern Treasurer, 
pay into the hands of Matthew Locke Esquire the sum of five 
thousand two hundred and fifty pounds for the use of the regular 
troops and Minute Men and for Colours Drums etc" in tlie district 
of Salisbury and that a warrant for that purj^ose issue and be 
signed by the President, and be allowed in his accounts with the 

Resolved, That Richard Caswell Esquire pay the troops now at 
New Bern and the IMinute ]\Ien to be hereafter raised for that dis- 
trict fr.m time to time as the same shall become due and to 
purchase Drums Colours &e", and be allowed in his Accounts with 
the public. 

Resolved, That Samuel Johnston Esquire, pay the troops now at 
Edenton, and the Minute Men to be hereafter raised for that dis- 
trict from time to time as the same shall become flue and to 
purchase Drums, Colours etc", and be allowed in his accounts with 
the public. 

Resolved, That Mr. Lewis Williamson deliver up to Messrs Cum- 
niing, Warwick and Company or their Agents, the Books of 
Accounts of the saiil Cumming, Warwick and Company, which he 
has in his pos.session. 

Resolved, That Richard Caswell Esquire pureliase from David 
Baron of Newbern all the new .serviceable Guns, and all the Gun- 


powder he may have for sale at the lowest price they can he had for; 
and that he deliver them to Colonel Robert Howe for the use of His 
Regiment who is to account for the same with the next provincial 
Congress, and that he be allowed in hisAccounts with the public. 

Resolved, That Commissions be issued to a Captain, Lieutenant 
and Ensign in the room of Captain John Walker, Lieutenant Robert 
Smith and Ensign James Cook all of Col° Howes Regiment and who 
have all resigned or refused to act under their Commissions. 

Resolved, That the Captains of the Companies in the regular 
Regiment shall report to the several Committees of the Town and 
Counties in the district, where they are stationed the number of men 
in their Companies who are unarmed, who shall thereupon borrow 
sucli C4uns as are fit for service, giving Receipts, describing such 
Guns and the value thereof to their owners, that they may hereafter 
get them again or the value of them and the said Committees shall 
take receipts of the Captains for the Guns thus supplied, which 
receipts shall be transmitted to the provincial Coancil, and the Cap- 
tains shall produce such Guns when demanded, pay the value of 
them, or shew that they have been lost by unavoidable accident to 
the Public ; and that an allowance be made after the rate of ten 
shillings per Annum for a good smooth bore and twenty shilling for 
tt Rifle, to the owners for the use of their Guns in the case above 

Resolved, That Richard Caswell, Esquire, Treasurer of tlie Soutli- 
eru district pay into the hands of Abner Nash and James Coor 
Escjuires or either of them the sum of one thousand pounds for pur- 
chasing arms and Ammunition to be accounted for at the next 
provincial Congress and that the said Treasurer be allowed in his 
accounts with the public. 

Resolved, That Samuel Johnston, Esquire, Treasurer of the North- 
ern district pay into the hands of Whitmill Hill Esquire the sum of 
one thousand [)0unds for purchasing Arms and Ammunition to be 
accounted for at the next provincial Congress; and that the said 
Treasurer be allowed in his accounts with the public. 

Resolved, That Richard Caswell, Esquire, Treasurer of the South- 
ern district pay into the hands of Mr. President Richard Quince 
Sen", and John Forster Esquires, or either of them the sum of one 
thousand pounds for purchasing Arms and Annnunition to be 
accounted for at tlie next provincial Congress and that the said 
Treasurer be allowed in his Accounts witli the public. 

The Council Adjourned "till 4 "Clock Tomorrow Morning. 


October 22'* 1775. 

The Council met according to Adjournment. 

Resolved, That the Sheriff of .Johnston County innnediately take 
into his possession all the real and personal estate of .John Gresham, 
unless he gives bond with good and sufficient security in the sum of 
two hundred and twenty pounds, payable to the Justices of the 
Inferior Court of Johnston County and their successors; Conditioned 
that he the said John Gresham shall well and truly settle with the 
said Court the Accounts of the Estate of Sill Johnston deceased, and 
pay into the hands of the Guardians to the Orphans of the deceased, 
all such sums of money which shall l^e directed by order of the said 
Court to be paid to the said Guardians; and that the said Sheriff 
shall keep the said Estate in his hands unless such bonds and 
security is given until the meeting of Johnston Inferior Court, and 
then deliver the same up to the Justices of the said Court, that they 
may make such order concerning the same as to them may seem 
just, it having on Oath been made appear to this Council, that the 
said John Gresham, was about to leave the province in a private 

Resolved, That Samuel Ashe Esquire pay into the hands of 
Thomas Eaton Esquire, for the use of Captain "William Green, one 
hundred and twenty pounds to be applied to the enlisting of regu- 
lar Soldiers, and be allowed in his accounts with the jjublic. 

The Council being informed that discontents had taken place, 
among the people in the County of New Hanover, arising perhaps 
from mistakes and misrepresentation, and that in consequence 
thereof they had publicly protested against the proceedings of the 
late Congress, 

Resolved, That this Council do highly disapprove of such Con- 
duct as tending to create divisions which may prove prejudicial to 
the cause of Liberty, and they do therefore recommend to Mr. Presi- 
dent Samuel Ashe and John Ashe Esquires to explain the proceed- 
ings of the Congress to the people above mentioned and endeavour 
by argument and persuation to promote that harmony which is so 
essential for the preservation of the rights of America. 

AVhereas the mode by Congress provided for securing debts due 
from persons susi^ected of an Intention to abscond is found defective, 
as no apjjlication can be made but in term time or at the sittings of 
the Committees. Resolved, That the Committees of Safety and 
County Committees in their respective jurisdictions maj' make such 


other and further reguhitions witli respect to this point as to them 
shall appear necessary. 

Resolved, That the Colonel of each regular Regiment in this 
province have power to appoint a Clerk, by warrant under their, 
hands to each Regiment who shall receive the same pay that Clerks 
upon the Continental establishment receive for their service. 

Resolved, That the Committees of the several Counties and 
Towns, and the Committees of Safety for the several districts of this 
province be required to exert their utmost influence to forward and 
hasten the minute service, and procure the several Battalions of 
Minute Men to be compleated with all possible dispatch ; and that 
the Militia be immediately embodied, and Adjutants employed to 
instruct them in Military discipline agreeable to the Resolutions of 
the Provincial Congress; the same being of very great importance 
to the public safety. 

"Whereas, it appears to this Council that the great extent of Rowan 
County is very inconvenient and burthensome for the Militia 
thereof to Assemble at any one place therein and that a division of 
the Rowan Regiment would ease the inhabitants and encourage 
Military discipline, therefore 

Resolved, That the Regiment of Militia in the said County of 
Rowan shall be divided by a Line, Beginning at the Catawba river 
where Lord Granville's South line crosses the same, thence running 
up the said river in the middle of the main stream thereof to the 
mouth of the lower Creek thence a due North course to the dividing 
Ridge, between the waters of the Catawba and Yadkin rivers, and 
that all the Militia of said County on the West side of said Line^ 
shall be, and is hereby made and established, a new and distinct 
Regiment, and shall be known and distinguished by the nanie of the 
second Regiment of Rowan Militia. 

Resolved, That Commissions issue to the Field Officers of the sec- 
ond Regiment of Rowan Militia. 

Resolved, That it be, and is hereby recommended to the Commit- 
tees of Safety, who have not yet met, to meet in their respective Dis- 
tricts on or before the last Tuesday in November next. 


By Order. Jas. Greent, Jun", Clerk. 


[From 5IS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of Safety Committee in Pitt County. 

October 24'", 1775. 

At a meeting begun at the Court house in the Town of Martin- 
borough on the 24"' Day of October Anno Dom 1775, Benjamin 
Bowers Sheriff Returned that at an Election held on the 17'" of 
this Inst, the following persons ware Elected as a Committee for 
this County for the Ensuing Year, A^iz, 

John Simpson, John "Williams, C4eorge Moye, William Travis, 
Rich" Grist, Arthur Forbes, James Gorham, Edw* Williams, William 
Robson, Godfrey Stancill, Simon Pope, Benj. May, James Lanier, 
AVilliam Jones, Dennis Cannon, James Latham, David Perkins. 
Robert Salter, Jesse Jolley, George Evans and Thos. Wolfenden. 

Whereupon the following persons to witt appeared — 

John Simpson, Jas. Gorham, Godfrey Stancill, John Williams, 
George Moye, Rich'' Grist, Arthur Forbes, Edw" Williams, W" Rob- 
son, Simon Pope, Thos. Wolfenden, 

And proceeded to Choice of a Chairman, Col" John Simpson was 
proposed and approved of & Chose Thos. Wolfenden their Clerk. 

Tlie List proposed by the provintial Congress held at Hillsborough 
on the 21"^ of Aug last was Read & approved of by this Committee. 

Thos. Williamson, James Gorham, John Barber, William -Jones, 
John Jones, Richard Grist, Edward Williams, David Perkins, John 
Williams, George Evans, Thos. Wolfenden, James Lanier, James 
Latham, Simon Pope, Arthur Forbes. 

BeLJamin Bowers Sheriff Returned that at Election held on 
the 17'" of this Inst, at Martinborough that John Simpson, Edw* 
Salter & William Robson was Elected to Represent this County in 
provintial Congress the Ensuing year agreeable to the Directions of 
the Lax provintial Congress held at Hillsborough. 

The Committee adjourned till tomorrow. 

The Committee mett according to adjournment, October 25'", 1775. 

Ordered that a general permission is given to all persons to 
present or warn overseers of Roads for Neglecting their Duty. 

On motion Capt. John Cooper have leave to bring sute against 
John Knox & to AYarrant Pattrick Robin Jr, Ordered that any 


three of this Committee may Receive Complaints from any person 
and give a Certificate to a majestrate to grant. 

Ordered that the following persons be chosen a Select Committee 
of Secrecy, intelligence, and observation, Mr Artliur Forbes, Geo. 
Evans & Thos. Wolfenden. 


[From MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee in Tryou County. 

[2^"' October 1775.] 
Met according to adjournment. 

They proceeded and chose W" Graham Esq. Chairman. 

Present : John Walker, Andrew Neil, James Baird, George Paris, 
John Morris, Andrew Hampton, members of the old Committee ; & 
Alexander Gilliland, John Dellinger, Robert Armstrong, Robert 
Parks, John Scott J'' & John Earle members of the new Committee. 

Committee adjourned till to-morrow morning at 8 o'clock. 

Met according to adjournment. 

Present: William Graham, Chairman; Robert Parks, James 
Coburn, John Earle, Geo. Paris, John Scott, John Dellinger, Nicholas 
Friday, Andrew Hampton & Alexander Gilliland. 


We the subscribers professing our allegiance to the King and 
acknowledging the Constitutional Executive jiower of Government, 
do Solemnly profess, Testify & Declare, that we do absolutely believe, 
that neither the parliament of Great Britain nor any member or 
Constituent Branch thereof hath a right to impose Taxes ujion these 
Colonies to regulate the Internal police thereof and that all attempts 
by fraud or force to establish & exercise such claim & power arp viola- 
tions of the peace & security of the people, and ought to be resisted 
to the utmost, and the people of this province singly and collectively 
are bound by the Acts and Resolutions of the Continental and 
Provincial Congresses, because in both thoy are freely rej^resented 
by persons chosen by themselves, and we do solemnly and sincerely 
promise, and engage under the Sanction of Virtue, Home and the 
Sacred Love of Liberty and of our Country, to maintain and supjiort 


all and every the Acts, Resolutions & Regulations of the said Conti- 
nental and Provincial Congresses to the utmost of our power and 
abilities. In Testimony we have hereunto set our hands tlie 25"' 
day of October, A. D. 1775. 

John Dellinger Joseph Hardin 

John Morris Jolin M'Kinney 

David Jenkins Thomas Townsend 

James Logan John Ashley 

W" Gilbert William Yancey 

John Earle Frederick Hambright 

Robert Parks Francis Armstrong 

Alexander Gilliland James Baird 

John Scott Robert Armstrong 

James Coburn William Moore 

Andrew Hampton Nicholas Walton 

Robert xVlexander .lonathan Potts 

Robert Porter George Potts 

Resolved by this Committee that any two members thereof upon 
application made upon Oath to them of any person or persons who 
is Debtor is about to abscond, Remove or otherwise to defraud his 
Creditors of his Debt, may grant a certificate of the same to the 
Clerk of the County who is hereby directed to proceed in the usual 
forms of Law against such Debtor. 

Resolved, Tliat Debts Recoverable before Magistrates be under 
the same Restrictions as the above Resolve. 

Resolved, That when any absconding Debtor or Debtors hath left 
any goods in the County behind him on a2:)i3lication of his or their 
Creditor to any two of the Committee as aforesaid on Oath to the 
amount of his or their Debt, the said Two shall grant an order to 
such person as they shall Depute for that purpose to seize the goods 
to the amount of the said Debt and Deliver them into the possession 
of the said Creditor or C: editors, who shall give Bond & Security to 
the said Committee to Deliver or otherwise to be accountable for the 
Same when called for in Law or otherwise. 

Resolved by this Committee, and it is hereby Recommended to all 
the good people of this County not to construe the Association to 
Break off all Dealings or Commerce with such persons who refuse 
to subscribe the same, so as to extend to anv Acts of luhuraanitv or 


Coerce them by famine, such as refusing to grind at Mills, or refus- 
ing them the necessaries of life. 

.Jolni Price came into Committee & made oath that he is Credibly 
Informed that Benj. Kuykendall his Debtor is about to remove him- 
self out of this County. It was therefore ordered, that the Clerk of 
the Court issue a Writ against the Body of the said Debtor so as to 
hold him to Bail. 

Committee Adjovirned till the. fourth Tuesday of January Next. 


[From MS. Records ix Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee at Wilmington. 

Wednesday, October 25'" 1775. 

At an occasional meeting of the new Committee. 

Present: John Ancrum, Charles Jewkes, John Slingsby, Peter 
Mallett, Henry Toomer, Wm. Campbell, James Geekie, John Forster, 
Wm. Ewins. 

The Committee proceeded to choose a chairman, and deputy chair- 
man ; the c{uestion being put, John Ancrum was chosen as chair- 
man, and James Walker, deputy chairman. 

Samuel Campbell appeared, and declined serving as a committee- 
man as it would be very inconvenient for him to attend. Andi'ew 
Ronaldson also declined serving, as he was not allowed to be a Free- 
holder at the election, therefore, had no right to be committee-man. 
The Committee nominated, in their room, John Du Bois and John 
Kirkwood, who being sent for readily agreed to serve in Committee. 

This Committee then proceeded to appoint a Committee of Secrecy 
and Correspondence. John Aucrum, James Walker, Wm. Camp- 
bell, Charles Jewkes, John Slingsby, John Du Bois, and Peter Mal- 
lett, were accordingly nominated. 

On motion. Ordered, that the paper now in the hands of Adam 
Boyd, be sold to-morrow morning, at 11 o'clock; that J. Slingsby, 
Wm. Campbell and Peter Mallett see that the same is sold. Also; 
Ordered, that one ream of paper be purchased for the use of this 
committee only. 


]\ronday, October 3U", 1775. 

At ail occasional meeting of the Committee. 

Present: John Ancrura, chairman. .Jolm Slingsliy, John Forster, 
John Kirkwood, John Du Bois, William Campljcll, James Geekie, 
^A'illiam "Wilkinson. 

On motion, Ordered, that John Ancrum, John Du Bois, John 
Kirkwood and James Geekie, take a list of the inliabitants of Wil- 
mington, agreeable to a Resolve of the Congress of this Colony, 
lately held at Hillsborongh ; and that they make a return of the 
same at the next meeting of this committee. 

[B. P. R. O. Am. & W. IND.: No. Carolina. No. 223.] 

Letter from the Earl of Dartmouth to Governor Martin. 

Whitehall, 27'" October, 1775. 

The advantages that may attend the sending immediately a Force 
to the assistance of the Friends of Legal Government in the Four 
Southern Provinces of Virginia North and South Carolina, and 
Georgia, are so apparent, and have been so fully stated, by yourself 
and the Governors of the other 3 Provinces, that the King has 
thought fit to order, tliat a Body of His Majesty's Forces, consisting 
of seven Regiments should prepare to embark at Cork about the 1^' 
of December, in order to proceed -n-itli two companies of Artillery 
and a proper number of Battalion Guns, Howitzers, etc to Cape Fear 

You will see bj^ the enclosed copy of a Letter to lyLijor General 
Howe, that this separate corps is to be commanded by one of the 
several officers with him, and it will also fully instruct you as to the 
whole pjlan and conduct of the expedition, and I have only to add, 
that any corps of Provincials that may be formed upon tliis occasion, 
must be raised bj- your authority, and commanded by you as 
Provincial Colonel, with the same pay as a Colonel upon the Briti-sli 
Establishment, but without any Rank in the Army or claim to half 
pay, which for reasons I have already given cannot be allowed. 

You will observe that in the Letter to Major General Howe, the 
propriety of sending Pilots with the Ship tliat carries the General 
officer to C'ape Fear River is particularly pointed out, but as it may 


be uncrtain whether Pilots well acquamted with the Coast of North 
Carolina can be procured at Boston or New York, it will be very 
necessary that you should, with as much secrecy as possible, engage 
a proper number to be put on board the Vessels that will beoi'dered 
(in conformity to the Instructions already given) to cruize upon the 
coast until the Fleet and Transports shall arrive. I am also com- 
manded by the King to suggest to you the great advantage and 
utility that will attend the procuring, if practicable, a number of 
carriages and draft Horses, for the use of the Troops, in an}' opera- 
tions they may find it necessary to carry on, and from what you 
have said of the Disposition of some of the Back Counties, I should 
hope it may not be impracticable, if managed with secrecy and 

The Parliament met yesterday, and inclosed I send you His JMaj- 
esty's Speech to botli Houses, together with their addresses in return 
thereto, which I trust will have the effect to convince the rebellious 
Inhabitants of the Colonies of the firm Resolution of every Branch 
of the Legislature to maintain the Dignity and Authority of Parlia- 
ment, desirous at the same time to receive with all proper indul- 
gence the submission of any Colony that shall be inclined to return 
to its Duty and Allegiance. I am etc., 


[Reprinted from American Archives. Vol. 4. Page 556.] 

Letter from Silas Deane to James Hogg about the New Colony of 

November 2d, 1775. 

At the time of granting the New England Charters, the Crown of 
Great Britain had no idea of any real interest or property in the 
American lands. The Pojie, as Vicar of Christ, pretended, very 
early, to have an ab.solute right, in fee simple, to the earth and all 
that was therein, but more particularly to the Countries and persons 
of liereticks, which he constantly gave away among his favourites. 
When the Crown of Great Britain threw off its submission to the 
Pope, or, in other words, by .setting itself at tlie head of the Church, 
became Pope of Great Britain, this old, whimsically arrogant Nation 
was, in degree, restrained; and Queen Elizabeth, in the Year 1579, 
most graciously gave to Sir Walter Raleigh all North An:erica from 


the latitude 34° nortli to 48° north; and extending West to the 
great Pacifick Ocean; to which immense territor}' she had no more 
right or title than she had to the Em})ire of China. 

On Sir Walter's attainder, this was sujiposed to revert to the 
Crown, and in 1606, James I, in consequence of the same principle, 
granted the South part of the above, to a Company then called the 
London Company; and in 1620, granted the northernmost part to a 
Company called the Plymouth Company, containing within its 
bounds all the lands from 40° to 45° north latitude, and west to the 
South-Seas. This Company granted, 1631 to certain persons, that 
tract described in this Charter, which you will see was very liberal, 
and rendered them (as in reality they were) independent of the 
Crown for holding their lands; they having, at their own expense, 
purchased or conquered them from the natives, the original and sole 

The Settlement of Connecticut began in 1634 when they came 
into a Voluntary Compact of Government, and governed under it, 
until their Charter, in 16G2, without any difficulty. They vrere 
never fond of making many laws; Nor is it good policy in any 
State, but the worst of all in a new one. The laws, or sin;ii!ar ones 
to those which I have turned down to, are necessary in a new 
Colony, in which the highest wisdom is to increase, as as pos- 
sible, the inliabitants, and at the same time to regulate tliem well. 

The first is to secure the general and inalienable rights of man to 
the settlers; without 'this, no inhabitants, worth having, will adven- 
ture. This, therefore, requires the Closest and earliest attention. 

Next to this, is the mode or rule by which civil actions may be 
brought, or the surest ways and means by which 'every individual 
may obtain liis right. 

Then a provision for the safety of the Community against liigh 
handed offenders, housebreakers, ifec. 

There are two ways of regulating a Community; one by correct- 
ing every offender, and the other to prevent the offence itself; to 
effect the latter, education must be attended to as a matter of more 
imptortancc tlian all the laws which can be framed, asit is better to 
be able to prevent, than after, to correct a disease. 

Peace officers will be necessary, and these ought to be chosen by 
the people, for tlie people are more engaged to support an officer of 
their own in the execution of his trust, than they will ever be in 
supporting one forced upon tliem. 


Some regulation of civil courts ought early to be made ; the most 
simple and least expensive is best; an honest judge will support 
his dignity without a large salarj^, and a dishonest one can have no 
real dignity at any rate. The General Assembly must be the 
supreme fountain of power in such a state, in constituting which, 
every free man ought to have his voice. The elections should be 
frequent, at least annually; and to this body every officer ought to 
be amenable for his conduct. 

Every impediment in the way of increase of people should be 
removed, of course marriage must be made easy. 

Overgrown estates are generall}^ the consecpience of an unequal 
division of interest, left by a subject at his decease. This is pre- 
vented by an equal or nearly equal right of inheritance. This 
has taken place in all the New England Colonies, and in Penn- 
sylvania to their great emolument. 

All fees of office ought to be stated and known, and they should 
be stated as low as possible. 

Some crimes are so dangerous in their tendency, that capital pun- 
ishments are neces.sary; the fewer of these, consistent with the 
safety of the State, the better. 

There ought to be some terms on which a man becomes free of 
the Community'. They should be easy and simple; and everyone 
encouraged to qualify himself, in character and interest, to comply 
with them; and these terms should be calculated to bind tlie per- 
son in the strongest manner, and engage him iu its interest. 

A new Colony, in the first place, should be divided into .small 
townships or districts, each of which ought to be empowered to reg- 
ulate their own internal affairs; and to have and enjoy every liberty 
and privilege not inconsistent with the good of the whole. 

Tenure of lands is a capital object, and so is the mode of taking 
out grants for, and laying them out. If individuals are permitted 
to engross large tracts, and lay them out as the}^ please, the popula- 
tion of the country will be retarded. 

Precarious must be the possession of the finest country in the 
world, if the inhabitants have not the means and skill of defending 
it. A militia regulation must, therefore, in all prudent policy, be 
one of the first. 

Though entire liberty of conscience ouglit everywhere to be 
allowed, yet the keeping up among a j^eoplc a regular and stated 


course of Divine worship has such beneficial eifects tliat tlie encour- 
agement tliereof deserves the particular attention of the magistrate. 

Forms of oaths are ever best, as the}- are concise, and carry with 
them a solemn simplicity of appeal to the Divine Being; and to 
preserve their force, care should be had to avoid too frequent a repe- 
tition of them, and on ordinary occasions. 

The preservation of the peace being the capital object of govern- 
ment, no man should be permitted, on any occasion, to be the 
avenger of the wrongs he has, or conceives he has, received; but, if 
possible, ever}' one should be brought to submit to the decision of 
the law of the country in every private as well as publick injury. 

Providing for the poor is an act of liumanity; but to prevent 
their being numerous and burdensome to the society is at once 
humane and an act of the highest and soundest policy; and to effect 
it, the education of children, and the manners of the lower orders 
orders are constantly to be attended to. 

As, in a well ordered government, every one's person and property 
should be equally secure, so each should .pay equally, or on the 
same scale, for the expenses in supporting the same. 

Li a new and wild country, it will be deemed, perhaps, impossi- 
ble to erect schools ; but the consequences are so great and lasting 
that every difficulty ought to be encountered rather than give up so 
necessary, so important an institution. A school will secure the 
morals and manners, and at the same time tend to collect people 
together in society, and promote and preserve civilization. 

The throwing a country into towns, and allowing these towns par- 
ticular privileges like corporations in England or America, tends to 
unite the people, and, as in the least family there is, generally, the 
best economy, so these towns will conduct the internal and domes- 
tick prudentials better than larger bodies, and give strength, sound- 
ness and solidity to the basis of the State. 

Sir, you have in the foregoing, the outlines of the policy of the 
Connecticut Government, in as conci,se a view as I could ; the great 
and leading principles of which will, I conceive, apply to any new 
State; and the sooner they are applied the better it will be for the 
health and prosperity of the rising community. 

An equal and certain security of life, liberty and property ; an 
equal share in the rights of legislation and an equal distribution of 
the benefits resulting from Society ; with an early attention to the 
principles, morals and manners of the whole, are the great first 


principles of a good government, and these well fixed, lesser matters 

will easily and advantageously adjust, as I may say, themselves. I 

am far from thinking our system is entirelj^ fit for you, in e\evy 

point. It has grown up and enlarged itself; as we have grown. Its 

principal features are worth your attending to; and, if I had leisure, 

would point out, more particularly, which part I think you might 

adopt immediately, what additions are necessarj', and why some 

parts should he rejected. But I will, if possible, give you after your 

perusal of 'this, the general heads of what, from my little reading 

and observation, I think to be the most simple, and consequently, 

the best plan of Government. 

I am, Sir, yours 

Thursday morning, November 2, 1 775. 

Two laws, I see I have run over without noting upon; the one is 
for punisliing vagaljonds, by setting them to hard labour. The 
other, for the punishment of theft, which you may think too light, 
but I think too severe ; or, in other words, I would avoid infamous 
punishments, such as cropping, branding, whipping, &c., and sub- 
stitute hard labour in their stead. 

[From MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee at Wilmington. 

Friday, November d'^, 1775. 

On application from Mr John Hunt, the Committee met. 

Present: John Anci'um, chairman ; Peter jMallett, John Slingsby, 
W" Wilkinson, John Forster, John DuBois, William Ewins, Henry 

Mr John Hunt came in and produced two Letters to His Excel- 
lency, recommending said John Hunt as Register for Granville 
county ; and the Rev Mr W" M'Kensie as a clergyman for said 
county. On examination of John Hunt on oath, found he had no 
other paper for the Governor; therefore. 

Ordered, That Mr .Jolni Hunt be allowed to go down to his Excel- 
lency on board the Cruizer, to obtain such paper from the Governor 
that lie may have occasion for, relative to the Register's Office; and 


that on his return he shall produce what papers he may receive 
from the Governor to this Committee. Grant was paid. 

On apphcation from j\Ir Peter Mallett, Ordered that if Adam 
Boyd does not pay P. Mallett (on Monday next or before) for the 
paper sold some days ago, as well as what paper A. Boyd has in his 
hands, that P. Mallett have leave to dispose of the same on Tues- 
day next, or any time after to such person who may choose to pur- 
chase it. 

[Reprinted from American Archives. Vol. 4. P. 37.] 

Proceedings of South Carolina Provincial Congress in the matter of 
John Dunn of Salisbury, N. C. 

November G"" 1775. 

"Mr Lang declared, that on the 31" of October, being at Mr Hat- 
field's Tavern, he heard a stranger to him, who he since finds is the 
Mr Dunn in ciuestion, arguing warml}^ in favour of Ministerial 
measures. He cannot remember the wbole of the conversation, but 
recollects particularly, that Mr Dunn declared we (meaning plainly 
from the run of his discourse, the Americans) had no right to pre- 
scribe to the Prince and Parliment! And by way of burlesque, that 
he, Mr Dunn, was a tory, and had called his stray dog 'Tory ' ! and 
that through the whole of his discourse, he so spoke as highly 
offended him, Mr Lang, although he did not know the restrictions 
which at that time lay upon Mr Dunn. 

"D' Burke witnesses, that Mr Dunn appeared to him to be much 
in liquor, and spoke somewhat in favour ofthe American cause, but 
at different times did so speak against it, as that nothing but drunk- 
enness could excuse him. 

"Upon the whole, your Committee are of opinion, that his impru- 
dent conduct was, in a great degree, the result of intoxication, and 
recommend it to the Congress, that Mr Dunn be admonished to be 
more cautious for the future." 

Ordered, That Mr Dunn be summoned to attend this Congress, 
at their meeting to-morrow. 

Mr John Dunn, summoned to attend this day, was called in and 
reprimanded from the Chair in words to the following purport : 
VOL. X — 20 


"Mr Dunn: You was sent to this Colony as a jDerson inimical to 
the liberties of America; and as so obnoxious a person, you have 
been for some time held in close confinement in Charlestown, by 
jjublick authority. Upon your j)ressing entreaties to the late C4en- 
eral Committee, you was lately enlarged upon your i^arole, having 
first voluntarily taken an oath to observe a conduct of strict neu- 
trality, and that you neither would directlj^ or indirect!}', in any 
shape interfere in the present unhappy dispute between Great Britain 
and America. You have been charged before this Congress with 
liaving violated that oath; and the Coinmittee appointed by this 
Congress to examine you on that subject and hear your defence, have 
thereon reported in such terms as induced the Congress to order . 
your attendance to-daj^, and to direct me to I'epreliend your jiast con- 
duct; to admonish you to more strict observance of your e^igage- 
ment; and to declare to you, that if you transgress again, you will 
be committed a close prisoner to the connuon jail." 

After which ]\Ir Dunn was dismissed. 

[B. P. R. O. All. & W. Ind.: No. Carolina. No. 2-32.] 

Letter from Earl of Dartmouth to Governor Martin. 

Whitehall 7"" Nov' 1775. 


Since my Letter to you of the 27"' of last month inclosing Copy 
of my Dispatch to Major General Howe, of the 22"'' of tliat month, 
the plan and object of the intended Expedition to the Southward 
to which that Disjiatch refers, have been very naturally [maturely] 

It has been found upon full Examination that the Entrance and 
Navigation of Cape Fear River are at least very hazardous if not 
impracticable to Vessels of a large Draught of water, and conse- 
quently that Troops disembarked within tliat River could receive 
no protecton in their landing from Ships of \\'ar. It is thought 
advisable however, that they should j^roceed according to their 
original destination from a hope, that although it maj^ be imprac- 
ticable for tjje fleet to cover and assist the landing of so large a 
Body as seven Regiments yet tlio disembarkation of a small part 
may be affected, in case you shall be of opinion that they will not 
be opposed, and that they will be joined liy any con>ideral)le 


number of well disposed persons, so as to accomplish the restoration 
of Government, but if such landing either of the whole or of any 
part, cannot be effected, without hazard of opposition, and there is not 
a certainty that they would be immediately joined by such a number 
of the well disposed Lihabitants, as would when once assembled 
under the countenance of the King's Troops be able to maintain 
themselves and support the King's Government, no possible advan- 
tage could attend any Effort in North Carolina and in tliat case the 
General who commands the Exj^edition, and who will probably be 
arrived off Cape Fear River by the time this Letter reaches you 
will be instructed to proceed with the whole Body of the Forces 
under his Command to Charles Town, in order to try wliat may be 
effected there towards restoring Government in South Carolina, for 
it is necessary I should again state to you that this enterprize is 
entirely formed upon tlie assurances given bj^ yourself and the rest 
of His Majesty's Governors in the Southern Provinces, that even 
upon the appearance of a Force, much inferior to what is now sent, 
the Friends of Government would show themselves, and the Rebel- 
lion be crushed and subdued. 

If we are deceived in this expectation and these Assurances, or if 
the Friends of Government when collected in Arms, shall not find 
themselves strong enough to support that Government without the 
assistance of regular Troops, the Expedition will be of little avail 
and all that will be left to the King's General to do, will be to 
place the Army under his Command in some secure situation until 
the season of the year will admit of their going with safety to join 
General Howe, which juncture will most probably be effected with 
greater facility and much earlier than it could be done from hence. 

If the General who is to have the Command of these Troops, should 
be at Cape Fear when you receive tliis, or Ijefore the Troops arrive, 
you will communicate this letter to him, apprising him at the same 
time that he will receive full Instructions from me, by the Com- 
manding officer of the Regiments that are .sent out. 

If you should be of opinion after all that I have stated of the 
difficulty in respect to landing Troops in North Carolina, that a part 
of the Force sent out may be employed there to effect, and the 
General should concur in that opinion^ the utmost activity in Prepa- 
ration will be necessary, and you should loose no time in sending 
Emissaries amongst the Inhabitants of the well-disposed Counties 
with Authority and Commission to the piincipal persons of Trust 


and Confidence for raising and embodying as many men as can be 
procured, and informing them of His Majesties Litentions of sup- 
plying them with Arms and giving them the same pay as the 
Regular Troops, as soon as thej' come down, which the}' should be 
encouraged to do, as soon as they hear of the arrival of the Troops 
upon the Coast, bringing down with them Horses and "Waggons for 
the use of the Army, for which they will be very liberally paid and 

These Emissaries should also be instructed to assure tlie Men so 
raised, that they will not be obliged to serve out of the Province, 
v.'-ithout their Consent, nor any longer than the present troubles con- 
tinue. And it may not be improper to engage for a remission of all 
arrears of Quit Rents and for Grants of Land to such as shall enter 
into this Service, in proportion to their Rank and Merit, with an 
exemption from the payment of anj' Quit Rents for twenty years 
from the date of the Grants. I am etc., 


[Reprinted from American Archives. Vol. 3. P. 1385. 

Proclamation by Lord Dunmore, Governor of ^'il■ginia. 

A Proclamation. 
As I have ever entertained hopes that an accommodation might 
have taken place between Great Britain and this Colony, without 
being compelled by my duty to this most disagreeable, but now 
absolutely necessary step, rendered so by a body of armed men, 
unlawfully assembled, firing on His Majesty's Tenders; and the for- 
mation of an Army, and that Army now on their march to attack 
His Majesty's Troops, and destroy the well-di.sposed subjecls of this 
Colony: To defeat such treasonable purposes, and all such traitors 
and their abettors may be brought to justice, and that the peace and 
good order of this Colony may be again restored, which the ordinary 
course of the civil law is unable to effect, I have thought fit to issue 
this my Proclamatipn, hereby declaring that until the aforesaid 
good purposes can be obtained, I do in virtue of the power and 
authority to me given by His Majesty, determine to execute martial 
law, and cause tlie .same to be executed throughout this Colony. 


And to the end that peace and good order may the sooner be 
restored, I do require every person capable of bearing arms to resort 
to His Majesty's standard, or be looked upon as traitors to His ]\laj- 
esty's crown and Government, and thei'eby become liable to the pen- 
alty the law inflicts upon such offences — such as forfeiture of life, con- 
fiscation of lands, etc., &c., and I do hereby further declare all indented 
servants, negroes or others (appertaining to Rebels), free, that are 
able and willing to bear arms, they joining His Majesty's Troops, as 
soon as may be, for the more speedily reducing this Colony to a 
proper sense of their duty to His Majesty's crown and dignity. 

I do further order and require all His Majesty's liege subjects to 
retain their quit-rents or any other taxes due, or that may become 
due, in their own custody, till such time as peace may be again 
restored to this, at present, ni' st unhappy Country, or demanded of 
them for their former salutary purposes, by officers properly author- 
ized to receive the same. 

Given under my hand, on board the Ship William, off Norfolk, 
the 7* dav of November, in the sixteenth year of His Majesty's reign. 

God Save the King. 

[From MS. Records in Office of Secrf.t.^rt of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee in Rowan County. 

Nov 7'" 1775. 

The Committee of the County of Rowan met 7"' of November 
1775, according to adjournment. 

Present: M' Samuel Young Ch"; Griffith Rutherford, Jonathan 
Hunt, David Smith, .James Smith, Josiah Rouncifer, John Dickey, 
John Brevard, John Losse, Thomas Whitson, ]\Iatthew Locke, John 
Lewis Beard, Hugh Montgomery, William Sharp, Robt. Moore, John 
Archibald, Robert King, William Moore, Samuel Reed, John Pur- 
viance, Alexander Dobbin. 

Pursuant to Resolve of last Committee a number of Capt James 
Smith's Company being cited, appeared, three of whom signed the 

Ordered, That the remainder have till to-morrow morning to con- 
sider of the matter. 

The Committee adjourned till to-morrow mrirning 8 o'clock. 


Wednesday 8'^ Nov' 1775. 

The Committee met according to adjournment. 

James Hemphill has leave to bring suit against Francis Bishop. 
Debt under £5 one. 

James Hamilton lias leave to bring suit against Thomas Bailee 
for Assault & Battery. 

Resolved, That M' Joseph Hughes be admitted to the same privi- 
leges as those who sign the Test, on account of some extraordinary 
circumstances attending him. 

Resolved, That all suits now depending in the Inferior Court, in 
the county of Rowan, ought to be tr3'ed as soon as possible, but no 
Execution Issue without leave. 

Resolved, That an}' tlirce members of this Committee may give 
leave to creditors to bring suits, and issue orders to detain the bodies 
or goods of such as are about to remove out of the County, in the 
same manner as this Committee could do when constituted. And 
any three members proceeding as aforesaid shall make due return 
in writing to the next ensuing Committee. 

Robert Yv ilson has leave to bring suit against "William Martin for 
Debt under £5. 

William Durham, agreeable to citation appeared before the bar of 
this Committee to render an account of his political sentiments, 
relative to American freedom. 

Ordered, That he have till tomorrow morning 8 o'clock to con- 
sider of the matter and that he then appear before the Committee. 

M' James Smith, Chairman of the Committee appointed to sit at 

Col Hunt's the last of last month, Reports that, either through dis- 

' affection to American Measures, or want of Notice, or Neglect, the 

people failed to appear, whereby the design of your Committee is 


Resolved that M" John Brevard, John Dickey, Moses Winsley and 
Hugli Brevai'd, or any three of them attend at Capt W^illiam David- 
son's on the 20"' Instant to see that the company of jMinute Men 
whom he has enlisted arc embodied, and able, effective men, and 
make rejaort to the next Committee. 

Resolved, That M' Thomas M°Guire raise a sufRcieht guard of 
men, and compell the ajipearance of Alexander Allison and John 
Hale. before this Committee at next session to render an account of 
tlicir political sentiments, relative to American freedom. 


Wliereas William Spurgeon and Matthias Sappiufield continues 
incorigible enemies to American Measures for the defence of their 
freedom, therefore 

Resolved, That Col. Martin Dispatch two officers, with a sufficient 
number of soldiers and take the Bodies of the said Spurgeon and 
Sappinfield,'and them_, or either of them bring before this session of 
Committee, or otherwise have them confined in the conmion gaol of 
this county until the next sitting of the same. 

.Jacob Beck being brought to the bar of this Committee to give an 
account of his political sentiments, ordered, That he have till to- 
morrow morning to consider of the matter, and Capt. David Smith 
is surety for his appearance. 

Adjourned till to-morrow morning 9 o'clock. 

Thursday 9"' November, 1775. 

The Committee met according to adjournment. 

Dennis Burgess has leave to take possession of a sufficient quantity 
of the goods & chattels of Thomas Bidwell (who has absented him- 
self from this County) as security for a debt under £20. 

Resolved, That it is the opinion of this Committee that it was not 
the design of the provincial Congress to restrain plaintiffs from 
bringing suits for trespass with force and Arms Assaults, Batteries, 
Slanders, and such like Torts and injuries, or compell the plaintiff 
in such cases to make a previous application to the Committee. We 
do therefore allow such suits to be commenced, and proceeded upon 
a^far as judgment, without such application. 

Resolved, That John Bones be appointed door-keeper for this 
Committee & that he be paid by the members thereof three shillings 
per day. 

Ordered, That Col Adlai Osborne deliver to Col Martin a c^uarter 
cask of gun powder and 50 ifcs of lead out of the publick Magazine 
of this County, and take a receipt for the same in behalf of this 

Resolved, That Cai^tain David Smith have leave to ab.sent him- 
self from this Committee, and take and bring back the body of 
Jacob Beck, who failed to appear agreeable to the order of the Day. 

Ordered, That Col° Adlai Osborn deliver Capt. David Smith one 
pound of powder and two l^-s of lead out of the magazine and take 
his receipt. 

Resolved that Cajit. Dickson's Company choose proper officers, and 


return their names to next Committee for approbation, and the Com- 
pany be subject to the officers so elected. 

Resolved, That the Chairman of this Committee by letter addressed 
to Col. Hunt, And" Hunt, James Bryans .Juii'' and John Johnston, 
directing them to advertise all the friends to American Liberty in. 
the forks of the Yadkin to meet at John Johnistou's on' the last Fri- 
day of this month to. Elect proj^er officers for one or more Militia 
Companies, and that it be recommended to Col" Rutherford to attend 
at the same time, to render all the friendly services in his power to 
obtain so desirable an end. 

Resolved, That M'' Moses Winsley take into his possession the 
guns, powder and other ammunition in the hands of John Work & 
give him an obligation in behalf of this Committee for the payment 
of the same at the price directed by Congress, and this Committee 
does obligate themselves to indemnify IM' Winsley for the same. 

Resolved, That Col" Rutherford, Matthew Locke, Maxwell Cham- 
bers, Matthew Troy, Samuel Young, James Smith, a,nd William 
Nesbit be a Committee of Secrecy, Intelligence and Observation for 
the county of Rowan and Town of Salisbury. 

A Letter from Benjamin Booth Boote dated Charlestown, October 
31", 1775, directed to this Committee, purporting that the General 
Committee of Charles Town has offered to release the said B. Booth 
Boote and John Dunn, Esq", on condition that the said Boote and 
Dunn would promise to observe a strict Neutrality with respect to 
the Common Cause, and also indemnify the persons most active in 
sending the .said Boote & Duim in So. Carolina, and further jfir- 
porting that said Boote & Dunn would not agree to the latter condi- 
tion. Also desiring this Committee to make provision for his famih' 
in case he is not released. 

Resolved, That it is the opinion of this Committee that the Resolve 
of the Provincial Congress, communicated to the Committee of 
Intelligence of So. Carolina respecting said B. Booth Boote should 
be observed. That the conditions mentioned in said Boote's Letter 
is unnecessary, since this Committee consider the Honour, not only 
of this county, but the Province, engaged to indemnify those wlio 
conveyed the said Boote out of the province. 

Resolved, That the said Boote's family be provided for at the dis- 
cretion of tlie Town Committee of Salisburj'. 

Ordered, That the Secretary of this Committee certify a copy of 
the aforesaid Letter and order thereon, and direct the same to the 
General Committee in Charles Town. 


A letter from the Hon"" Alexander M'Cullocli, Esq'', dated Hali- 
fax County, Sept. 26"', 1775, directed to the Chairman of this Com- 
mittee, expressing the most generous sentiments in support of Amer- 
ican freedom, and defending himself against a charge of undue 
influence on the minds of Messrs Frohock and Kerr, being read. 

Resolved, That the Committee entertain the most grateful sense 
of the kindness of the author of so friendly and spirited a perform- 
ance, and esteems Messrs Frohock & Kerr nothing the less on 
accoiwit of the calumny of wicked and designing persons. 

The Committee adjourned till to-morning at 9 o'clock. 

[Repkixted from the American Archives.' Vol. 3. P. 1400] 

Letter from the Earl of Dartmouth to Major-General Howe. 

Whitehall, November 8"" 1775. 

Since my letter to you of the 22'"' of October, triplicate of which 
I enclose, the plan, the object, and the probable effect of the intended 
expedition to the Southern Provinces, have been maturelj^ consid- 
ered, and the King has thought fit that the force should be aug- 
mented by an addition of the Twenty-Eighth, and Forty -sixth Regi- 
ments; so that the whole will consist of seven Regiments. 

It has been found, upon examination, that Cape Fear River will not 
admit ships of a large draught of water, on account of its bar; so 
large a body of troops, therefore cannot receive from the fleet that 
is to accompany them that protection and assistance which is neces- 
sary in their disembarkation, and consequently there is much 
doubt whether the object of sending a force there can be accom- 
plished. As my letter to you, however, directs that the General 
Officer who is to have the command should repair to Cape Fear, the 
Regiments from hence will be directed to proceed thither, and the 
Commander-in-Chief will be instructed to confer with Governor 
Martin, and consider whether it will be j^racticable to effect any 
essential service in North Carolina, with such a part of the Army 
as can be conveniently landed. 

Should that be the case, he will proceed with the rest of the 
troops, or otherwise with the whole of them, to South Carolina, and 
after advising with the Governour upon the best means of exe- 


cuting the service he is sent upon, according to the instructions he 
will receive from me, he ■will either land tlie troops at Cliarlestowu 
or proceed to Port Royal harbour. 

The enclosed Copies of my letters of yesterday "s date to Gov- 
ernour Martin, and Lord William Campbell will not only point out 
to you the orders I have given to them, respecting this expedition 
but will also explain to you our ideas of the possible advantage 
that is to be expected from it. I say of the possible advantage, 
because the effect of it is very precarious. 

If however, it should succeed according to the assurances that 
have been given us in encouraging the friends of Government to 
stand forth in the defence of the Constitution, and in enabling them 
to wrest the sword out of the hands of the Rebels, it will be a great 
point gained. But even if it should fail of that consequence, it can 
have no effect to weaken the operation to the northward, as there 
are many situations in the Southern Provinces where the Army 
may be posted with great security, and with every advantage of a 
healthy climate, until the season arrives I'or their joining the body 
of forces under your Command — a junction that will be made 
with greater advantage, and at a much earlier period than it could 

be from England. 

I am ifcc. 

[Fhom MS. Records in Ob'fice op Secretary of State.] 

Letter from Joseph Hewes to Samuel Johnston Esq. 

PiiiLADELPHi.v 9'" Nov. 1775. 
Deak Sir, 

It is now I imagine near three weeks since your Provincial Coun- 
cil broke up and I take it for granted you have sent an express with 
the account of your deliberations to your Delegates here; we expect 
it dayly and are Anxious for its arrival. I hope you have fallen on 
some method to furnish your Soldiers witli Arms and Ammunition; 
those articles are very scarce throughout all the Colonies. I find 
on enquiry that neither can be got here, all the Gunsmiths in this 
Province are engaged and cannot make Ai-ms near s-o fast as they 
are wanted. Powder is also very Scarce notwitlistanding every efl'ort 
seems to liave been exerted botli to make and import. The Con- 


gress exert every Nerve to put the Colonies into a proper state of 
defence; four Regiments are ordered to be raised on Continental 
Pay for the defence of South Carolina and Georgia; it is expected 
the two Regiments with you will be continued and kept up the same 
as other parts of the Army. One Regiment is now raising in this 
Province and two in New Jersey on the same establishment. Twenty 
thousand j\Ien are to be kept up near Boston and Five thousand on 
the Lakes, Canada, etc. The whole Army to be enlisted to the 31" 
of December 177G, unless discharged sooner by Order of Congress. 
The Pay of the Captains, Lieutenants and Ensigns is increased, 
they are now allowed as follows, a Captain 261 dollars, a Lieutenant 
18 dollars, an Ensign 13J dollars per Calendar month. The Rations 
allowed the Soldiers thro' the whole Army you have as follows: 

One pound of Beef or f lbs. of Pork, or 1 lb of Salt Fish '§ day 
each man ; 1 fo of bread or Flour ; 3 pints of Peas or Beans '^ Week 
or Vegetables in proportion, rating Peas or Beans at 6s "^ Bushel ; 1 
j^int of milk ^ man ^ day or at the rate of A of a dollar "p pint; J 
pint of Rice, or one pint of Indian meal ^ man "^1 week ; one c|uart 
of Spruce Beer or Cyder '^ man, or 9 gallons of Molasses '^ Company 
of 100 Men "§ week; 3 fts. of Candles to 100 men "§ week for guards; 
2-4 fes. of Soft Soap or 8 lbs. hard Soap for 100 men ^ week. 

I doubt not you will find it necessary to come into a new agree- 
ment with your Commissaries, for it will be but Just and right to 
give your Soldiers the same allowance that is given to those in other 
places. It is also recommended that all the Soldiers be put into 
some Uniform, that the Public purchase the Cloth and have it made 
uji, and that it be diecounted out of each Man's Pay at the rate of 
10s '^ month. The Soldiers near Boston we are told are well pleased 
with this regulation. 

Several other matters which together with some Ships and Vessels 
that are fitting out at the Charge of the Continent will enhance our 
expences amazingly, by which you may Judge we have but little 
expectation of a reconciliation — I can assure you from all the 
accounts we have yet received from England we have scarcely a 
dawn of hope that it will4ake place. 

M' Middleton and M' Rutledge two of the Delegates for South 
Carolina set out for that Province on Sunday last, they intended 
[going] thro' Halifax and carried a Letter for you from the Presi- 
dent enclosing a resolution respecting Trade. 


I have enclosed some Newspapers in a Letter to M' Smith, to them 
YOU must look for News. I hope all your Family are in good health, 
my Compliments to them, you and they have always the best 
wishes of, Dear Sir, 

Your most Obed' hum"* Serv' 


Nov. 10"" Since, writing the above a Ship arrived from Loudon 
and brings papers to 12'" Septem'. No answer is to be given to the 
Petition of the Congress, as the King did not receive it on the 
Throne. Parliament prorogued to the 20"' Oct. J. H. 

[From MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee in Rowan County. 

Friday 10* Novem' 1775. 

Tlie Committee met according to adjournment. 

Ordered, That Charles Purviance have leave to bring suit against 
John Oliphant, Debt under £o. 

Resolved, That this Committee will be accountable to M" Troy for 
20 lbs. of lead, at lOd bo' by M' Osborne in behalf of this Committee. 

Whereas by virtue of sundiy Executions the Sheriffs have exe- 
cuted goods before tlie returns to Nov' Term and the same still 
remains unsold. 

Resolved, That the Clerk have leave to Issue orders of sale, that 
the Sheriffs may sell such goods as were under Execution before said 

Ordered That Nathaniel Tenpennj^ have leave to get Execution 
against Henry Libby Herman Butner, and Isaac Enochs. 

Cap' David Smith returned with the Body of Jacob Beck before 
this Committee; from his notorious contempt of this Committee and 
Opposition to American Measures, •• 

Resolved, That he be immediately committed to gaol, and that the 
Surety Draw and sign his mittimus in tlie name of this Committee. 

Resolved, That Wilson and Samuel Hillis have leave to take into 
their possession a sufficient quantity of the effects of John Cliam- 
bers, if to be found in this county as security for a debt of £2 18d. 


Ordered that Joseph Irwin have leave to obtain a summons from 
a Magistrate to cause German Baxter to api:)ear and make oath 
what part of the Estate of Joshua Todd (who is out of the county) 
is in his possession, and Joseph Irwin may take the same into his 
possession as security for a debt of ten pounds. 

Ordered, That Joseph Irwin has leave to bring suit against tlie 
adm" on the Estate of Robt. Luckie, Deceased, for a Debt of £5, 6s, od. 

Resolved, That the Chairman of this Committee by letter addressed 
to the Committees of Brunswick, Wilmington and Cross-creek rec- 
ommending to them to use everj' endeavour to prevent every person 
from this county or the neighbouring, conamunicating with the Gov- 
ernor, or Traveling that way without a proper permission. 

Resolved, That James Carroll has leave to bring suit against 
James Brooks for a Debt under £5. 

Resolved, That James Irwin has leave to bring suit against Abra- 
ham Little for a debt under £'20. 

Col" Martin brought Matthias Sappinfield to the Bar of this Com- 
mittee, and after some time spent, he cheerfully signed the Test, pro- 
fessed his hearty approbation of the Anierican Measures, and who 
signed and swore to the same declaration that was signed and sworn 
by John Colesou in Provincial Congress. 

Jacob Beck being again brought to the Committee Bar, cheerfully 
signed and sworn as above. 

Resolved, That the said Sappinfield & Beck be discharged from 
their attendance on this Committee. 

Resolved, That it be recommended to Col° Martin or the Com- 
mander of the regular Troops in the District of Salisbury, that so 
long as they continue in Rowan County in all cases of impressment 
of horses or other necessaries, that application be first made to a 
Justice of the Peace or any three members of Committee. 

The Committee adjourned till to-morrow morning 9 o'clock. 

11'" of Nov. 1775. 

The Committee met according to Adjournment. 

Robert Latta came into Committee and acknowledged the receipt 
of fourteen pounds ten shillings supposed to be counterfeit from 
Col" Adlai Osborn agreeable to order of Committee. 

A petition was preferred, signed by S inhabitants of the South 
Fork of Yadkin, part of Capt. Morrison's Company — & read. 


Resolved, That the said petition & order of last Committee be 
continued untill next Committee & the jiarties appear. 

William M'Bride being sent for appeared under Guard at the bar 
of this Committee for contempt offered to the same. 

Ordered that he be reproved in the name of this Committee by Mr 

From the contradictory and equivocal behaviour of William 
M°Bride before this Committee, 

Resolved, That it is the opinion of this Commitiee that the adver- 
tisement charging Capt. Thomas Whitson M'ith falsehood &c. and 
signed William APBride is a false & scurrilous performance and the 
Author thereof ought to be treated with every mark of disrespect. 

The following is a State of the amounts of the Several Militia 
Companies that have- contril)uted towards defraying tlie contingent 
expenses. Viz — paying Delegates &c. 

Ordered that each Militia Comj^any as soon as possible pay up 
their arrears so as to make four pound each agreeable to' order of 
Committee, and that a further Tax be immediately collected of 
sixpence from each Taxable to paj' Delegates for going to Hillsbor- 
ough & otlier small contingencies. 







Lewis Beard 

G. H. Barringer 





Davidson, Jan, 







Purviance -__. 



•James Smith _ 
David Smith __ 


Davidson, Jun 





OJ <s '§ 



£ s. d.'£ s. d. 

1 (J 
11 31 8 9 







10 90 9 3 






























£ s. d. 

1 15 

2 15 



2 10 

4 5 


1 15 6 

16 6 

16 6 

17 6 

2 10 
1 15 

1 12 

2 10 

3 17 6 



£ .s. d. 

14 14 
10 0. 

12 9 




16 6 

5 9 



2 8 

2 10 

3 19 





A List of Officers nominated by this Committee to be returned to 
Provincial Council agreeable to Resolve of Congress — 




James Purviance 

•John Purviance 

William Waugh. 

Chrisf Beekman 

W" Beekman 

Bolser Sigman. 

David Caldwell 

Hugh Hall 

John Rosebrough. 

Chas. McDowell 


John Simpson. 

.Tohn ITarden 

Geo. AValker 

John Graham 

Francis Ross 

Benj Baker. 

John Work 

William Neil 

Paul Cunningham. 

Jesse Harris 

Benj" Davis 

Rich'' Quick 1 Commis 

David Smith 

Peter Hedrick 

J no Conger J maJeoui. 

Patrick Morrison 

Walter Sharp 

James M'Gahev. 

Geo. Henry Bar ringer 

Windell Miller 

Heurv Ful wider. 

Rudolph Conrad 

John Sigman 

Jno. Sigman, B. Smith. 

Jacob Eagle 

Henry Miller 

Even Davis. 

The Committee adjourned till the 6"" of Feb'y next. 

SAMUEL YOUNG, .Chairman. 
W"" Sharp, Sec'v. 

[Reprinted from the American Archives. Vol. 4. Page 46.] 

Proceedings of South Carolina Provincial Congress. 

November lO"" 1775. 

Ordered, That Mr President do sign and issue Commissions 
appointing Ezekiel Polk Esq, to be Captain, and Samuel Watson 
and William Polk, to he Lieutenants of a Company of "^'olunteer 

Commissions were accordingly made out for the said Officers, 
signed, and dated tl:e 3"^ instant in the form following. 

South Carolina — In Provincial Congress. 

To Edward Blake Esq: You are hereby nominated and appointed 
Captain of a Company of volunteer Rangers in the service of this 
Colony, subject to the orders of Congress, and in their recess to the- 
Council of Safety. 

This commission to continue during pleasure. 

Dated in Congress November 3'', 1775. 

Bv order of Congress 



[From MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safetj' Committee iu Pitt County. 

NovembtT li'\ 1775. 

The Committee met according to Adjournment. 

Mr. Chairman Informed the Committee that part of a Quantity of 
Powder & Ball which this Committee contracted with Capt. Paul 
White to Import was come to hand. 

Ordered that the Committee of Secrecy, Intelligence & observa- 
tion, Secure the same in such jilaees as they may think proper & 
give notices thereof to the Committee of Safety for this District. 


[B. P. R. O. Am. & W. IND.: No Carolina. No. 3,33.] 

Letter from Governor Martin to tl^.e Earl of Dartmouth. 

N" Carolina Ckuizer Sloop of War in Cape Fe.\r River, 

November 12"', 1775. 
My Lord, 

I have the honour to inform your Lordship that I received on the 
2S"' day of last month from the Post House in Wilmington a 
Packet from your Lordship's Office beai'ing the most palpable evi- 
dence of violation and no Post mark whatever but (Hampton 25 6) 
written on the npj^er corner of the cover. This being the name of 
the first Town within the Capes of Virginia I am led to conclude 
that tlie Packet I have received is part of what your Lordship 
taught me to expect by your last dispatches by a store ship that was 
about to sail for that Province which being there put on shore has 
fallen into the hands of the Committees who have transferred it 
from one to the other after purloining it of what they have thought 
meet until it has been finally deposited in the Post Office at Wil- 
mington as it carries no marks of the intermediate Post Offices at 
Norfolk, Suffolk, Edenton and New Pern ; I shall use my utmost 
endeavours to discover by what means and through what channel 
this Packet came to the Post Office at AVilmington, and if I am able 
VOL. X — 21 


to ascertain that point, of which I own I have no great hopes, it 
may be possible to trace back its wliole progress to the first violation. 

I am the more exccedingh' to lament the violation of these Dis- 
patches if they came by the store ship to Virginia, as your Lord-- 
ship's letter N° 18, by the South Carolina Packet, gave me room to 
exjiect that you w ould write to me fully on the state of this Province 
by that conveyance, for in that case if your Lordship executed your 
purpose the most material of your disj^atches have been withheld 
from me by the violators of the Packet I have received, the contents 
of wliich that have come to my jjands in this strange manner and 
condition being only your Lordship's circular letter notifying the 
death of the Queen of Denmark, N" 17 of your Lordship's Dis- 
patches with Extracts from the .Journals of the Lords Commissioners 
of Trade and Plantations therein referred to (the Duplicate of wliich 
■I have acknowledged to have received by the South Carolina Packet 
some time ago) and two circular letters from AP Pownall bearing 
date the 5* of xVpril and 27"' of May (the last being a duplicate), 
enclosing printed co;.>ies of the King's Speech to both Houses of Par- 
liament at the close of the preceding session and two ac's of the 
same, the one for encouraging the Fisheries carried on from Great 
Britain and Ireland and the British Dominions in Europe, the other 
to restrain the Ti-ade and Commerce of tlic Provinces of Massachu- 
setts Bay, New Hampshire &c: to Great Britain, Ireland, etc., and 
to prohibit such Provinces and Colonies from carrying on any 
fishery on the banks of New Foundland &c: under certain condi- 
tions and limitations. 

I flattered myself that my representations to your Lordship of the 
violences wliich had been done by Congresses and Committees 
throughout this continent would have arrived timely t> [)revent 
your Lordship trusting your dispatches to any other conveyances 
than the Packets to South Carolina, the ordinary channels of your 
Lordship's correspondance (whose letters for me are lodged by my 
discretion on board the King's ship there), or by his Majc-^ty's ships 
bdund tliithei', or to tliis Port. 

The disaster I have now related to your Lonlship will I trust 
however obviate accidents of the like nature in future, fur your 
L>rdship may dej»end that the post hero is no safe conveyance at 
])rescnt for tiie most jirivate and uninteresting U'tters to tlu- < )llicers 
of (lovernment, and that every letter to them mure particularly 
such as I have lately received from your Lordshi]) (violated as I 


have described) bearing all the usual official forms of address pass 
as certainly into the hands of Congresses and committees as if they 
were expressly directed to them. 

Witli ^"irgiuia I have no communication at all the distance being 
too great to send tliither such a Dispatch boat as I am able to pro- 
cure here. I would therefore humbly recommend that your Lord- 
ship's Dispatches to me which shall not be sent hither directly by a 
King's ship should go by such conveyance or by the Packets to 
Charles Town (with direction that thej^ be lodged on board his 
Majesty's ship stationed there) that is not a third part of the distance 
from hetice and whence I am able to obtain them with safety and 
certainty by a boat though only at the mon,strous expenceof Twenty 
live pounds for each, trip which I have already paid twice that I 
have sent there for your Lordship's dispatches and which might be 
saved to me if your Lordship shall think proper to direct the men 
of War to send a Tender here with such despatches as may arrive 
from time to time, but if your Lordship shall on anj' emergency find 
it expedient to send your dispatclies to me by the route of ^'irginia 
or any other channels, they should be expressly directed to be con- 
veyed from thence by one of the King's ships and by no means to 
be committed to the Post, 

>ince mj' last letter to your Lord.siiip I am informed by a person 
who has seen a Draft cf the lands unlawi'ully and fraudulently pur- 
chased by Henderson ;ind his associates from the Cherokee Indians 
and which they have called Transilvania comprehends, as they have 
laid it down, a Tract of no less tlian ninety miles in length and 
twelve miles in breadth within tiie bounds of Lord Granville's Pro- 
prietary in this Province and as my Informer says that tliej' have 
not set off a full degree of Latitmle to Lord Granville in this Draft, 
it is i>robable they liavo not extended his Proprietary to its due limits 
to the northward and that they have therefore trespassed beyond 
what they admit upon his Lordsliin's right. I loarn further that a 
M'' James Hogg one of the Partiu-rs in this feloi.ious undertaking is 
gone to treat with a body of Two tliousand People who are coming 
from Connecticut to settle in this new forming Colony and that he 
is also the per.son intended torejiresent this Territorj^ in the Conti- 
nental Congress, these adventurers expecting by this piece of 
flattery and address and their Delegates' influence to engage that 
Assembly to make the ratification of their lawless invnsion of the 
Indian lands under a fraudulent purpose a stipulation in any further 


proposition of accommodation with Great Britain. It i.-, said thi.s 
infamous Company of land Pyratcs iiere [liave] already Sdld large 
tract.s of land at high prices. 

The success of this enterprise, I understand, has given encourage- 
ment to another project of the like nature now carrying into execu- 
tion by a company of people under tiie auspices of M' Richard Ca.s- 
well, who is at the head of it, and was late one of the Delegates 
from the Province to the Continental Congress. My information 
goes that he and his Confederates (whose names I have not heard) 
are fitting out a vessel at New Bern to be sent up the Mississippi 
with chosen persons, to regulate with the Indians a pufchasc of 
lands lying to the westward of the Territory of Richard liendersou 
and his Company, and I have no doubt if some effectual stop is not 
put to these daring usurpations that such Adventurers will possess 
themselves soon of all the Indian Country. 

On the 21" of last month a bodj' of 172 Highlanders, Men, 
Women and Children, arrived here in the ship George, from Scot- 
land, and on the application to me for leave to occujiy the vacant 
lands of tiie Crown in this Province, when they have all relations, 
and on the most solemn assurances of their firm and unalterable 
loj'alty and attachment to the King, and of their readiness to Liy 
down their lives in the support and defence of his Majesty's Govern- 
ment, I was induced to Grant t'leir request on the Terms of tiieir 
taking such lands in the proportions allowed by his Majesty's Royal 
Instructions, and subject to all tlie conditions prescribed by them 
whenever grants ma)' be passed in due form, thinking it more 
advisable to attach these people to Government by granting as mat- 
ter of favour and courtesy to them what I had not power to j)revcnt 
than to leave them to possess themselves by violence of the King's 
lands, without owing or acknowledging any obligation for them, as 
it was not only the means of securing these People against the 
seditions of the Rebels, but gaining so much strength to Govern- 
ment that is ec|ually important at this time, without making any 
concessions injurious to the rights and interests of the Crown, or that 
it has eflfectual power to withhold, and I therefore flatter myself I 
shall be justified in this step b}' his Majesty's approbation. I think 
my Lord, with submission, that the expediency of making some rule 
of favour and indulgence in granting lands to these emigrants not 
extending to the encouragement of future emigrations may be 
worthy his Majesty's Royal consideration. 


I have the satisfaction, I think on good inforniation, to assure 
your Lordship that tlie Scotch liighLanders here are generally and 
aknost without exception staunch to Government, and on the same 
authority I am persuaded to helieve that loyal subjects yet abound 
and infinitely outnumber the seditious throughout all the very pop- 
ulous Western Counties of this Province. I am also told for a cer- 
tainty that their indignation against the late Congress held at Hills- 
borough ran so high that they would have brok- it up if they had 
been jirovided but v>'ith a small quantity of ammunition and had 
found themselves of defence to remit tlie vengeance they might have 
expected in consequence of so open and declared an opposition to 

Captain Alex' APLeod, a Gentleman from the Highlands of Scot- 
land and late an Officer in the ^Marines who has been settled in this 
Province about a year and is one of the Gentlemen I had the honor 
to recommend to your Lordship to be appointed a Captain in the 
Batallion of Highlanders, I proposed with his Majesty's permission 
to raise here found his way down to me at this place about three 
weeks ago and I learn from him that he as well as his father in law, 
M' Allan McDonald, proposed by me for Major of the intended 
Corps moved by my encouragements have each I'aised a company 
of Highlanders since which a ALnjor JPDonald who came here some 
time ago from Boston under the orders of General Gage to raise 
Highlanders to form a Batallion to be commanded bv Lieu' Coll. 
Allan M'Lean has made them proposals of being appointed Captains 
in that Corps, which they have accepted on the Condition that his 
Majesty does not approve my proposal of raising a Batallion of 
Highlanders and reserving to themselves the choice of appointments 
therein in case it shall meet with his Majesty's approbation in sup- 
port of that measure. I shall now only presume to add that the taking 
away those Gentlemen from this Province will in a great measure if 
not totally dissolve the union of the Highlanders in it now held 
together by their influence, that those people in their absence may 
fall under the guidance of some person not attached like them to 
Government and that such a Batallion as I have proposed to raise 
\^11 not only be signally usefull and necessary to restore the authority 
of Government in this Colony at present but it will ever be main- 
tained by such a regular military force as this established in it that 
will constantly reunite itself with the utmost facility and conse- 


quentl}' may be always maintained upon the most respectable 

From Cap' M'^Leod, who seems to be a man of observation and 
intelligence, I gather that the inconsistency of Farquhard Campbell's 
conduct (that I have formerly mentioned to your Lordship and of 
which I now exhibit to you the proofs in a Cape Fear Mercury of the 
21°' day of October herewith enclosed) has proceeded as much from 
jealousy of the Superior consequence of this Gentleman and his 
Father in law with the Highlanders here as from any other motive. 
This schism is to be lamented from whatsoever cause arising, but I 
have no doubt that I shall he able to reconcile the interests of the 
parties whenever I have power to act and can meet them together. 

By the concurring Testimony of a variety of people it would 
appear that the spirit of opposition begins to droop and decline 
here and that some of the foremost promoters of sedition waver and 
seem ready to withdraw themselves from the combinations they 
have taken so much pains to form, nay indeed I have heard that 
one of the principal and most guilty of the Rebels here has latelj'^ 
declared he never expected to see matters in this present state, 
that the American's hopes of their opposition to the claims of Parlia- 
ment proving successful were formed upon the belief that Britain 
would recede from her pretensions on some expediency arising out 
of the abridgement of her Commerce the clamours of her Manu- 
facturers her aversion to rigour towards the Colonies or from the 
discontents excited in her own bosom by the Partisans of America 
or the -prevalence of opposition in Parliament all of which had 
failed them, that America after all their boasting was in no condition 
to wage war against the Power of Britain and that he would gladly 
for his part sacrifice four fifths of his fortune to bring about an 
accommodation. This My Lord however was the language of a most 
unprincipled man of notorious and profound dissimulation and 
falsehood and held before an Officer in the King's service possibly 
only with design to beguile and deceive. But if I could believe 
that their system of opposition was tottering and ready to fall to 
pieces (which I really think the conviction of their impotence to 
remit successfully will only dissolve) I should still be of opinion 
that the first symjjtoms and appearances of return to obedience 
should be trusted with caution as arising more from fear than 
affection and a }iroper sense 'of dutv; that no professions should be 
regarde<l or advances received ntlier than unconditional submission 


and that any less certain presages of tlieir desire of reconciliation 
should in no sort abate the vigor of Britain's resolutions and 
preparations to assert Her supreme authorit}- but rather stimulated 
her exertions to establish her force here in such strength as may 
command the terms on which she may think it reasonable and 
proper to insist in firm assurance that the evidence of her superior 
power alone will effectually eradicate the principles of the present 
horrid Rebellion and give permanent peace to this continent. 

It is confidently reported that the continental congress hath sent 
an Agent to the Court of France of tlie name of INPIntoch the 
truth of which your Lordship will easily learn. 

I have seen with great satisfaction in the Public Papers a Procla- 
mation by the King for suppressing Rebellion and sedition bearing 
date the 23"^ of August last which I hope will jjroduce great and 
good effect; among others more momentous I expect it will give 
weight to a proclamation I have lately issued to prevent the circu- 
lation of the Paper Bills emitted here by the late Provincial Congress. 

The Scorpion Sloop of War arrived here yesterday from Boston 
and brought me letters of old date from General Gage discouraging 
my expectations of any aids from him. This ship is come to relieve 
the Cruizer Sloop which is certainly in too bad condition to proceed 
to Boston at this season of the year and is neces.sary as well as the 
Scoiyioii and may be usefully employed here to guard against the 
introduction of military stores that I learn are very difficient among 
the Rebels here who are in constant expectation of supplies by ves- 
sels which have been sent for them. These circumstances I have 
represented to Captain Thornborough of Charles Town who is the 
commanding Officer of the King's Ships in the Southern Provinces 
at present, and I hope he will order things accordingly. I have also 
advised that a Transport which General Gage has sent here under 
convoy of the Scorpion to recover the Artillery from Fort Johnston 
should remain here till the Spring after receiving those stores on 
board as her return to Boston at this time of year will be veiy 
hazardous and uncertain. 

A sliip is this moment arrived from Scotland with upwards of 
one hundred and thirty Emigrants Men, AVomen "Viiid Children to 
whpm I shall think it proper (after administering the Oatli of Alle- 
giance to the Men) to give permission to settle on the vacant lands 
of the Crown here on the .same principles and conditions that I 


granted that indulgence to the Emigrants lately imported in the 
ship George. 

I have the h nour to be, &c., 


[From MS. Eecords ix Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee at Wilmington. 

Monday, November 13* 1775. 

At an occasional meeting of the Committee. 

Present: John Ancrnm, Chairman; Charles Jewkes, 'John Fors- 
ter, James Geekie, William \Mlkinson, Ilenr}- Toomer, Peter Mal- 
lett, John Kirkwood. 

Mr. Chairmaii produced a Letter from Rich'' Quince, Esq., of 
Brunswick, purporting that a Man of War and a Ship, with Trans- 
ports (or Troops), were arrived at Fort Johnston. 

On reading the above Letter it was Ordered, that Messrs. Forster, 
Mallett, Wilkinson and Jewkes, go round the town and examine the 
arms that may be in each Family; after reserving one gun for each 
white man that may be in the House, the remainder shall be valued 
by the above Gentlemen, and a receipt given for them, mentioning 
their value. Those who have new Guns to disirose of shall be al- 
lowed three for one (in order to obtain an immediate sup[)ly of arms 
on this immergent occasion) a receipt shall also be given for such 
Guns on account of the public, and for the use of the first Regi- 
ment under the command of Col. James IMoore. 

On application from Capt. John Walker Ordered, that 5G pounds 
of Gunpowder, and 221 pounds of Lead, be immediately delivered 
to Capt. Walker to be sent to the Camps at Bernard's Creek, and 
Capt. A\'alker's receipt for the same. 


[B. P. R. O. Am. & W. IND. Vol. 280.] 

Talk delivered by the Commissioners appointed bj'^ the Continental 
Congress for managing Indian Affairs as related by Lecofl'ee, who 
was present at Augusta. Interpreted by.Samuel Thomas. 

This Talk was delivered by one Hamilton a lawyer, and inter- 
preted by one Forrest, to the Creek Indians, in presence of Galphin, 
Rae and some others who they called Beloved Men, all the Back 
Settlers were present at the Plantation of Rae, Elbert & C° in 

AVe are all very glad you are come our great Friends and Red 
Brothers. We the Great Beloved Men of Virginia. Carolina and 
Georgia sent our Interpreter up to your Nation with good Talks to 
all the Chiefs and head men of the Upper and Lower Creeks, that 
they might come down to us to see each other and renew our old 

We want to let you know the intentions of Captain Stuart, and 
when you hear what he has said you can then judge whether he is 
your friend or not. We thought none of you would have come 
down as his beloved I\Ian was trying all he could to stop 3-ou and 
ordered our Interpreter to be taken, he does not want you should 
come to us, for fear we .should tell you the truth. We are the 
Beloved Men of this Land, the Red People are Masters of it — we 
therefore consider ourselves one people. We always sent our Traders 
with goods into your Nation to supply the wants of your women 
and children. But now our King wants to make us poor if he can 
and has tried to distre.?3 us by stopping our ships and preventing any 
goods & ammunition being sent us. But we do not value that, we 
have plenty of ammunition and can make our own cloaths here, 
and you our Friends and Brothers will know this soon. We have 
always beat the King's Troops they liave no chance with us, we will 
soon have ships at Pensacola and S' Augustine and Mobile, which 
are all the places the King has. You will now hear the intents of 
Captain Stuart — he Avants to blind you and get you to join the 
King's Troops against us. This is his Talk wrote by his hand and 
sent to tlje King's warriors, but we took the ship it was in and every- 
thing on board. AVe made a slave of his Talk as we were the best 
warriors — here he says he intends to make peace with the Choctaws 


and Creeks, and then lie will set all the Red men on the Frontier 

You may now know he is not your friend for he wants to run 
you into danger that you may get killed. We know the Indians 
are a people that love their young men and don't want any of 
them killed, therefore we don't ask you to join us. 

He says some of the Lower Creeks' Chiefs were down last winter 
with him, and that the Cus.sata Ki ig, tlie Pumpkin King and the 
Chihasau Warrior have promised him to help the King against us. 

Now that we have told you all his Talks, you will consider the 
matter, and I think you had best send Taitt out of the Nation, as 
the Land is yours you can turn him out of it. There has been 
nothing but disturbance ever since he came into your Nation. You 
must neither join the King's Troops nor us, as you are between us 
you must not let them come past your Nation to us, nor do V\-e want 
to march thro' your Towns as it might surprize your women, chil- 
dren and young men. This is our desire, and you our Red Brothers 
and Friends see all our Talks are very white and good, altho' our 
old trading path is shut u|> v\-e will Ikivc it ojxni again when the 
dispute 'twixt tlie King and us is settled. We hope you'll give ear 
to these Talks. 

The Chawokly Warrior tlien said — 

"I have heard your Talks and they are good, now I am going to 
speak to you — I have been one day considering on the matter, it is 
our way when we go in publick Com; any to give over mourning. 
Now I say if you intend the path 'twixt this and our Nation should 
be white, you must give sati faction for my relation, whom soine of 
your People have killed, or blood will be spill'd ; I tell you so now, 
but if vou give satisfaction it will be straight as formerlv." 

Galphin then told him he should liave satisfaction and desired 
two of his people should stay to see tli;' white man killed. 

A Talk iVom the Rebel Connnissioners to tlie Creeks. 

8ai.isi!uj;y in North C'Aitoi.i.vA, 13"' Nov", 1773. 

Friends and ]>i;uiiieks, 

^^'e \nci here in consequence of our being cliosen by the Provinces 
in America from Ivist Florida to Canada as Comnii.ssioners to super- 
intend Indian All'airs for the Southern District, and as we have 


taken a great fatigue and trouble upon ourselves in riding so fa* 
and leaving our Houses and Plantations to serve you all and to 
endeavour to keep you supplied with goods and ammunition as 
formerly, We hope you will continue our stedfast friends and brothers 
as you always have been. We have for the purpose of preserving 
peace & friendship between you and us, determined to hold a Con- 
gress at Augusta the first of i\Iay next, when and where we do 
request the pleasure of seeing a few. of your beloved Headmen, 
such as you may think proper to send down in order that they may 
then send up a Talk from us to you. 

From the Talks you have had from the Beloved Men in Georgia 
and j\Ir Galphin you have been repeatedly told the nature of the 
disputes between the father and his children. We hope it will soon 
be over, & we desire you to have no concern in it. Further, as you 
promised to ]\Ir Rae and Mr Holmes when they were in the Nation 
that you would have no bad Talks, we beg you will punctually 
continue in that determination. You know well that there are bad 
people amongst us, as there are amongst you, and as we are chosen 
by all the Beloved Men to act as your Friends and Brothers, we 
accordingly do wish you may give credit to no other Talks but such 
as you from time to time get from some of us and signed with some 
of our names, by vrhicli means we shall always be able (we hope) 
to keep the path open between us and you. 


[From MS. RECoaDS ix Office uf Secret.vey of State. 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee at Wilmington. 

Wednesday, November loth, 1775. 

At an occasional meeting of the committee. 

Present: John Ancrum, Chairman; Wm. Wilkinson, John 
DuBois, Henry Toomer, John Forster, Wm. Ewius, James Geekie, 
John Kirkwood, Charles Jewkes. 

Mr Timothy Bloodworth came in with a mes-sage from the County 
Committees, desiring that both the committees should be united; 


and that this committee send a member to the next meeting of the 
County Committee, to signifj' the opinion of this committee relative 
to ilieir uniting. 

Resolved, That it i^ the ojiinion of tiiis committee, that for the 
good order and safety of tlie county and town, a union should be 
effected between the two committees: Ordered, That all the mem- 
bers of this committee, attend at the next meeting of the County 
Committee, to acquaint tliem with tlie ojiinion of this committee. 

Ordered, That notice be given to the white male inhabitants to 
meet on Monday next, at 10 o'clock, in the forenoon, at the Court 
House, to form themselves into companies of Mili4:ia, agreeable to a 
Resolve of the Congress lately held at Hillsborough; and that it be 
recommended to the inhabitants to have the officers chosen to each 
respective company on the same day. 

Thursdaj', IGth, 1775. 

Whereas this committee inadvertently nominated John DuBois 
and John Kirkwood as members of this committee, in the room of 
Samuel Campbell and Andrew Ronaldson, who' declined serving in 
committee, instead of giving notice to the Freeholders to choose 
other persons in their place: Resolved, that the said nomination be 
void, and that the Order relative thereto be rescinded; and as many 
members have since declined serving. Ordered, that the Secretary 
issue notice thereof to the Freeholders, summoning them to meet at 
the Court House, to-morrow morning, at 10 o'clock, to appoint others 
in the place of those who declined. 

[From MS. Records in Office of Si-cret.^ry of State.] 

Letter from Samuel Johnston to Governor Martin. 

Boston Nov' 1G'\ 1775. 


I have this day had the honour of receiving your Excellency's 
Letter signifying that you had been pleased to suspend me from 
acting as Deputy to M' Turner in the Naval Office, with the reasons 
for such removal, and it gi-ves me pleasure that I do not find neg- 
lect of the duties of my Office in the Catalogue of my Crimes. 


At the same time that I hold myself obliged to j'our Excellency 
for the polite manner iu which you are i)leased to express yourself 
of my private Character, you ■will pardon me for saying that I 
think I have reason to complain of the invidious point of view in 
which you place my publick Transactions, wlien you consider tlie 
late meeting of the Delegates or Deputies of the Lihabitants of this 
province at Hillsborough, « Body of )ny oirn Creadon, your Excel- 
lency cannot be ignorant that I was a mere instrument in this 
Business under the direction of the people, a people among whom I 
have long resided, who have on all occasions placed the greatest 
Confidence in me, to whose favourable Opinion I owe everything I 
possess and to whoyi I am bound by Gratitude (that most powerful 
& inviolable tie on every honest mind) to render every service they 
can demand of me, in defence of what they esteem their just rights, 
at the risque of my Life & property. 

You will further. Sir, be pleased to understand, that I never con- 
sidered myself in the honorable light in which you place me, one of 
tiie King's Servants; being entirely unknown to those who have the 
clisj^osal of the King's favors, I never enjoyed nor had I a right to 
expect, any Office under his Majesty; the Office which I have for 
some years past executed under the Deputation of M' Turner was 
an honest purchase for which I have punctually paid an annual 
sum, which I shall continue to pay till the expiration of the Term 
for which I should have held it agreeably to our Contract. 

Permit me, Sii", to add that had all the King's Servants in this 
Province been as well informed of the disposition of the Inhabitants 
as they might have been and taken the same pains to promote & 
preserve peace, good order & obedience to the Laws among them, 
that I flatter myself I have done, the Source of your Excellency's 
unnecessary Lamentations had not at this day existed, or had it existed 
it would have been in so small a degree that e'er this it would have 
been nearly exhausted; but. Sir, a Recapitulation of Errors which 
it is now too late to correct would be painful to me and might 
appear impertinent to your Elxcellency, I shall therefore decline the 
ungratefull Task, and beg leave, with all due respect to subscribe 
myself Sir 

Your Excellency's 

Most obedient humble servant 


[From MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee at ^Mlmi^g•ton. 

Friday November 17'^ 1775. 
Agreeable to the notice of yesterday the Freeholders met at the 
Court House and elected Cornelius Harnett, Arch'' ]\Iaclaine, John 
DuBois, John Dunbibin, John Kirkwood and Hereld Blackmore 
to serve in Committee in place of James Walker, William Campbell, 
Samuel Campbell, Andrew Ronaldson, John Quince and John 
Robeson who declined servin<r. 

[Reprinted froji American Archives. Vol. 4. Pace 50 ] 

Proceedings of South Carolina rrovincial Congress in the matter of 

Benjamin Boote and John Dunn. 

November 17"', 177.'). 

Read a Letter from Messrs. Dunn ;ind Boote respecting their 
maintenance, dated yesterday. 

Resolved, That John Dunn and Benjamin Booth Boote, Esquires, 
be allowed the sum of forty shillings currency each, for their daily 
support and maintenance. 

( )v(ki-ed. That Mr President do issue his Warrant on the Treasury 
for the payment of the last montii's lodging and board of the said 
Messrs. Dunn and ]>uote, amounting to one hundred and twelve 
jjounds currency. And a Warrant wa,s issued accordingly. 

[From MS. Records in Office of Secretary of .State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee at Wilmington. 

Saturday Xovember IS"', 1775. 

Present: John Ancrum, chairman; Cornelius Harnett, A. JMaclainc, 
John Forstcr, \\'illiam Wilkinson, Henry Toomer, Charles Jewkes, 
AMlliam Ewans, .James Gei.kie, Peter Mallutt. 

Resolved, That no vessel whiitcvi'r shall load any cargo to anv 
part of the world from this ],ort uiitirfurther ordei's from tliis Com- 
mittee or some su]>crinr power. 


I Reprinted from the American Archivcs. Vol 4. Paoh GO. 

I'l'Dceedjiigs of South Carolina Provincial Congress applying ibi* 

Troops irom North Carolina. 

November 111"', 1775. 

Orileretl, That Air. President be desired to instruct Colonel Kich- 
ardson to apply to Colonel Thomas Polk of North Carolina, for the 
assistance of the six Companies under his command to be in the 
pay of this Colony, if he shall adjudge such assistance necessary. 

Adjourned to nine o'clock to morrow morning. 

[From M.S. Riic^'UDS in Office of Secretary of State. 

Proceedings of tlie Safety Committee at Wilmington. 

Monday, November 20th, 1775. 

At an occasional meeting. 

Present: John Ancrum, Chairman. Cornelius Harnett, Wm. 
Wilkinson, Henry Toomer, V\'m. Ewins, .John DuBois, .lohn Fors- 
ter, Jas. Geekie, Joiui Kirkwood, .John Dunbibin, Arch'd Maclaine. 

On motion, Wm. Wilkinson chosen Deputy *'hairman, in [ilace of 
James Walker, who declined serving in committee. 

A Loiter was produced from l^icliard Quince, >Sr., of Brunswick, 
informing that the committee of that town were of opinion that a 
battery might be raised to" defend the town; and requested that the 
Cannon be sent from hence for that purpose. 

Ivosolved, That the. carriage guns be sent down, and delivered to 
Col. James Moore. 

On application from Air. Sam. Camjibell, for leave to send down 
provisions to the CViuV Man of War, Resolved, That (as the Com- 
mander of the Sloop hath tired a mnnber of times on the troops 
under the command of < ol. Moore, without their giving any provo- 
cation for such conduct) no provisions of any kind be sent down to 
the Crviscr or any other Ship belonging to the Navy, till further 

This Committee taking into consideration the danger with which 
the inhabitants on Cape Fear River are threatened by the King's 
Shi[)S now in the harbor; and the open and avowed contempt and 



violation of justice, in the conduct of Governor Martin, who, with 
the assistance of said Ships is endeavoring to carry off the artillery, 
the- property of this Province, and the gift of his late ALijesty of 
blessed memory, for our protection from foreign invasions, have 

Resolved, Tliat Messrs. John Forster, William Wilkin.son and ' 
•John Slingsljy, or any one of them be impowered to procure neces- 
sary vessels, boats and chains to sink in such part of the channel as . 
they or any of them may think proper; To agree for the purchase 
of such boats and other materials as may be wanted, and have them 
valued, that tlie owners may be reimbursed by the public. And it 
is further ordered that the said John Forster, &c., do consult the 
committee of Brunswick on this measure and request their concur- 

Ordered, That the Committee of Litelligence write to Col. Howe, 
and the connnittee of Newbern, inform them of the dangerous situ- 
ation of the inhabitants of Cape Fear, and request an immediate 
supply of gunpowder, to be sent by wagons or carts over land. 

[Reprinted from American Archives. Vol. 4. P. 03.] 

Proceedings of South Carolina Provincial Congress. 

In Congress Wednesday, November 22d, 1775. 
Read a Letter from the Committee of Rowan County, North Car- 
olina, dated October 23d, J 775, recommending that no trade or inter- 
course be carried on with persons who cannot produce certificates of 
their being friends to the American cause. 

[From MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee at Wilmington. 

Friday, November 24'" 1775. 

At an occasional meeting of the Committee. 

Present: John Ancrum, chairman; Cornelius Harnett, IT. Toomer, 
John Kirkwood, James Geekie, Arch'' Maclaine, Charles Jewkes, 
W"" Ewins, John DuBois. 


Ordered, That the Committee of Intelligence write to the Chair- 
man of the Countj^ Committee requesting him to procure all the 
fire arms he possibly can for the use of Provincial Regulators; as 
by information from Col. Moore it is imagined that the Men of War 
now at Fort Johnston have an intention to attempt burning Bruns- 
wick and afterwards proceed to this town. 

Ordered that the Committee of Intelligence write to the Commit- 
tee of Safety for the District of Salisbury informing them of the 
danger the inhabitants of Cape Fear are in, from the Ships of War 
now in i^je harbor and requesting them if they can do it with 
safety to themselves to order down the troops stationed in that part 
of the colony armed as complete!}' as jiossible. 

Ordered That the Resolve of this Committee forbidding vessels to 
load in this Port be delivered to Captain Batchelor and that he be 
informed if he perseveres in loading his vessell he will be treated 
as an enemy of American Liberty 

Ordered, that Messrs. Samuel A die, Frederick Jones, Robert 
Shawe, Benjamin Stone, William Lord, William Hill, Richard 
Quince, Junior, Richard Bradley, William Purviance, and John 
Smith, be requested to attend in this town on the 29th da^^ of 
November, instant, in order to value the houses, buildings, and 
other improvements therein, that may be liable to be destroyed, and 
that they or any three of them, do value the same upon oath, and 
make a return thereof to this committee under their hands. 

Ordered, that this committee purchase up what lead may be found 
in this town, and that the same be run into balls of different sizes, 
as soon as possible, and that Solomon Hewitt be employed in making 
the same, as also cartridges; and that this committee also purchase 
what Salt Petre and Brimstone may be had. 

This Committee being informed that the above Solomon Hewitt 
has in his possession two 2 pound pieces: Ordered, that he produce 
the same to this committee, as soon as possible. 

[From MS. Records ix office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of Safety Committee at Halifax. 

Halifax — ss: 

In Committee of Safety, Nov' 28"", 1775. 

Ordered that Major Jethro Sumner raise what Minute Men & ^'ol- 
unteers he can & follow Col° Long with the utmost Dispatch. 
A Copy. By Order OROOND DAVIS, Clk. 

VOL. X — 22 


[Reprinted from the American Archives. Vol. 3 P. 1933.] 

Extracts from the Proceedings of the Continental Congress. 

Friday, November 24"", 1775. 

On motion made, Resolved, That a Committee of three be appointed, 
to take into consideration the State of North Carolina, and report to 
Congress, what in their opinion is necessary to be done for its safety 
and security. 

Tuesday November 28'", 1775. 

The Congress then took into consideration the Report of the Com- 
mittee on North Carolina, which being read, and debated by para- 
graphs. Congress came to the following Resolutions: 

Resolved, That the two Battalions which the Congress directed to 
be raised in the Province of North Carolina be increased to the Con- 
tinental Establishment, and kept in pay at the expense of the L'nited 
Colonies for one year from this time, or until the further order of 
Congress, as well for the purpose of defending the good people of 
that Colony against the attacks of Ministerial oppression, as assist- 
ing the adjacent Colonies. 

That application be made to the Councils of Safety of the Province 
of Pennsylvania and South Carolina, for so much Gun powder as 
can be spai'ed for the immediate supply of North Carolina. 

Resolved, That the Delegates of the Colony of North Carolina be 
directed to purchase a number of Drums, Fifes and Colours, suita- 
ble to the said Battalions, and that the President be directed to 
draw on the Continental Treasurers for a sum not exceeding three 
hundred dollars, for the payment thereof. 

That tlie Convention or Committee of Safety of North Carolina 
be desired to employ immediately all the Gunsmiths in that Colony 
in the making of Muskets and Bayonets, of the size and in the man- 
ner recommended by Congress the 4"' of this instant, November. 

That two Ministers of the Gospel be applied to, to go immediately 
amongst the Regulators and Highlanders in the Colony of North 
Carolina, for the purpose of informing them of the nature of the 
jn-e.sent dispute between Great Britain and the Colonies; that the 
gentlemen to be employed be allowed each Ibrty Dollars per month 
for tlieir services, and that the Delegates of the said Colony be 
empowered to ajtply to and procure jici'sons proper fur this business. 


Tlwt it be recouiraeiuled to the Convention or Committee of Safety 
of North Carolina in case the method of defending the said Colony 
by minute-men be inadequate to the purpose, to substitute such 
other mode as to them shall appear most likely to effect the security 
of that Colony. 

Wednesday Noveniber 29*, 1775. 

The Committee to ■whom the Petition of Donnham Newton was 
referred Iiave had the same under tlieir consideration and come to 
the following Resolutions: 

Resolved, That the said Donnham Newton sliould be permitted to 
expoi't on board his vessel on the terms proposed in his petition 
such Provisions of Flour and Pork as he shall think proper. 

Resolved, That the said Donnham Newton should give bond with 
two sufficient sureties in a penalty equal to double the value of the 
cargo he shall have laden on board his vessel the condition of which 
bond shall be that the said Donnham Newton shall on or before the 
lo'* day of Februarj^ next import into the port of Neivbern in the 
Colony of North Carolina and there deliver to the Commanding 
Officer of the Continental Troops in that Colony good Muskets and 
Bayonels or Gunpowder to the full amount of the proceeds of such 
cargo; and that on giving such bond he shall receive from this Con- 
gress a permit to be signed by the President allowing him to export 
said cargo. 

On motion made Resolved, That the executing the above business 
and taking the bond from Donnham Newton be referred to the Com- 
mittee who brought in the foregoing Report. 


Proceedings of South Carolina Provincial Congress in the matter of 
Messrs. Boote and Dunn. 

In Congress Wednesday November 29"", 1775. 
Ordered, That Mv President be requested to transmit to the Coun- 
cil of Safety at Salisbury in North Carolina a copy of the Petition 
and Remonstrance of Messrs. Dunn and Boote, desiring to know 
their pleasure therein. 


[Reprinted from a Lecture Delivered Before the New York Historical 
Society in January, 1803, by Hon. Wm. A. Graham.] 

About the same date [December, 1775] an expedition under 
Colonels Martin Polk and Rutherford marched from the Western 
j^art of the State against the Tories (called Scovilites, after tlie name 
of a Royalist eniissar}') in the Northwestern section of South Caro- 
lina; and in connection with the troops of that State under General 
Richardson and Colonel Thompson, drove' the Tory Conimanders, 
Cunningham and Fletcher from the siege of the \'illage of Ninety- 
Six, and on their retreat surprised and defeated them, with the cap- 
ture of four hundred of their followers. This is known in tradition 
as the Snow Camji Campaign, from the violent snow storms with 
which its camps were visited. 

[Reprinted from Ramsay's History of the Rrvolution in South Carolina. 

Pages 70 and 76.] 

Major Williamson was reduced to the necessity of retreating into 
a stockade fort in which he and his party were confined without any 
water, till after three days by digging the}' obtained a scanty sup- 
jjly. The royalists possessed themselves of the gaol of Ninety-Six 
and from that station fired into the fort, but very little execution 
was done. After some days the assailants hoisted a iiag and pro- 
posed a truce. * * * Both parties once more dispersed and 
retired to their homes. * * * 

The Provincial Congress did not rest their cause on reasoning- 
alone, but enforced their measures with an army sufficiently numer- 
ous to intimidate o])position. They sent a large body of militia and 
new raised regulars, under the command of Colonels Richardson 
and Thomson. They were also joined by seven hundred militia of 
North Carolina, commanded by Colonels Polk and Rutlierford, and 
two hundred and twenty regulars commanded by Colonel Martin. 
Li a little time, Congress had an army of several thousand men 
under tlieir direction and iiistruclimi.s, "to ai)prt'hond the leaders of 


the party wliich had seized the powder, and to do all other things 
necessary to suppress the present and prevent the future insurrec- 
tions." Colonel Richardson proceeded in the execution of these 
orders with great moderation and propriety. A demand was made 
that the persons who had seized the powder should be delivered up 
to the justice of their country. They easily carried every point, 
seized the leaders of the Ro^'alists and dispersed their followers. 

[Reprinted from the American Archives. Vol. 4. P. 78.] 

Proceedings of the Virginia Convention at Williamsburgh in regard 

to troops in North Carolina. 

December 1"', 1775. 

A letter from Colonel Woodford, of the Second Regiment, was 
laid before tlie Convention, and read ; representing the situation of 
the Tro 'ps under his command, and of those under Lord Dunmore; 
that he had received an offer of assistance from the commanding 
officer of the Troops stationed in North Carolina, not far distant, 
which he had hitherto declined to call for, thinking the force he 
had at present sufficient, but that he would take his measures as 
circumstances should occur. 

Resolved, That the President be required, in a Letter to Colonel 
Woodford, to be sent bv express, to desire he will risk the success of 
his arms as little as possible, and, if there is not a moral probability 
of security with the Troops he hath, he will embrace the offer of 
assistance from those of North Carolina, by sending immediately 
for them. 

Talk from the British Commiysioners to the Creek Nation. 

Welcome Headmen & Warriors, Welcome to East Florida 
all ])resent of the Creek Nation. 

Friends .vnd Brothers : 

That I now see you gives me great pleasure, tc shake hands with 
you ; to smoak out of the same pipe & eat out of the same dish. 

There is more Satisfaction in this meeting, because you are intro- 
duced to me that I may always know you, by the Great King's 
beloved Man, M' Stuart, the SupiM'intendent. His kindness & 


Friendship the Nation has very long experienced, his talk has been 
always true talk. He never told you a lie ; he has many good old 
Friends amongst you that he Esteems ; He has a strong affection 
for the young generation that are rising up under them. I will imi- 
tate Mr Stuart in these good qualities, in true talks & Love for the 
Creek Nation. 

When I left my Native Country, when I took leave of the great 
King & the people of England, I was commanded to affirm to the 
Creeks that the Great King George regarded their Nation with equal 
tenderness as his own faithful white people, and as his real Chil- 
dren ; That I was to show to tliem all marks of my Friendship, as 
a testimony of his Majesty's Friendship) & as the favour & affection 
of the people of England. Tliese commands I shall exactly observe 
on all occasions. I now embrace you : I hold you fast by the hand 
in the name of the Great King George & all the jieople of England, 
as his dear Children and their beloved Brothers. Now that I behold 
a part of the Creek Nation I am induced by my own feelings, by a 
natural impulse of inclination to love them ?\\. The Rev'* Old 
Men, the Spirited Countenances of the Warriors & the chearful, 
lively faces of the young people fill me with affection that I seem 
as one of the Nation. 

The great King's subjects have settled in America as many years 
ago as all the hairs on your beards at a vast Expence of Money, as 
much in Comparison as the sands of the Sea Shore. They have 
had a constant jjrofusion of all necessary supplies sent to them, as 
much as all the F'eathers on all the birds, from the Great King it 
his Royal ancestors & the people of England. These people of 
America, descendants of the same Country, England, in whose 
veins run the same blood, whose flesh & bone are from the same 
fore Fathers ; they could not iiave lived without the kindness and 
benefaction of the Great King, our Common Father, and the Englisli 
Nation, who fouglit Victorious Battles for these very people in the 
heart of the French & Spanish Kingdoms- — drove them out of 
America purposely for the enjoyment of peace of the Great King's 
Subjects in America, that they might live like brothers M-ith the 
Red people in happiness & Peace. 

AVhat is the grateful return made to the Great King & peo[)le of 
England for these unexampled benefactions & Protection; for the 
blood of Engli.shmen, .spilt in defence of these very people; for the 
immense treasure spent for their happiness & Security? Let me tell 


you ; I will not deceive you ; I will not lie. The great King & jtco- 
plc of England desire only the people of America to Establish peace 
among themselves, to fix a regular & Orderly Govei'nment that the 
good people ma^^ be protected; that the bad people may be punished. 
They are desired to raise Mone^'- for their Own Use, their own honor 
& dignity, to preserve their regular forms of CJovernment. The 
Great King promises them to jtrotect them by his warriors both by 
land & sea. But a part of these people in America have seperated 
themselves froui the gi'eat King's good Subjects ; they are no 
more Reckoned their Brothers; they are turned basely wicked 
and unnatural, as if the Son should fall upon the Father & 
beat him ct Rob him, & as if a bad Brother should forsake his 
Own Brothers ct family Seeking to kill them: They are become 
ungrateful; they ai-e turned thieves & Robbers; they are hateful & 
Odious in the sight of all honest good Men; they throw away 
the good advice & love of the great King; they insult the great 
Kings Friends & all good jieople; they rob them & want to drive 
them out of America ; they luive their Own private & secret very bad 
Reasons for endeavouring to do so, which they are too wicked & 
Cunning to let be known to you, because if they did let you know 
their bad intentions, you wou'd take up the hatchet against them. 
But I know all their wicked designs. Depend then on the Great 
Kings favour & his friends who will give you timely Notice of 
their wicked, secret intentions against you, & against the great 
King & the people of England. If they had it in their power 
they would kill & destroy all the Kings good people & altho they 
pretend to Love & be friends to the red people they would kill & 
destroy them afterwards. The great King by the means of his 
power & his good people has prevented these bad people from falling 
upon & killing his Red Children for several years; they are indeed 
most wicked. They have robbed the Ships tliat were loaded with 
necessaries & Ammunition for the red people in hopes that the 
red people might think the great King had forsaken them : they 
are jealous of the favours the great King has shown to the Red 
people; they robb'd M' Stuart of all liis supplies at Charles Town 
that came from the great King for the of the Red people, & 
did also the same at Savannah, They robbed me of a great 
quantity of powder out of the Shin et took great quantities of the 
strands & necessaries out of Ships coming to East Florida that 
were all for the great Kings Red Children. Thev shou'd have .sent 


all -these stolen goods tj you; they robbed Carr, a Trader & one 
of the red people that was going from S' Augustine with presents 
from me of some things & some powder & Ball I sent to some of 
the Head men & the Cussata King. Tliey took away the talks sent 
by M' Stuart and they Opened them & read them. We have not 
heard vrhat is become of the Talks. Believe me they are a most 
Villainous people. If they now give you any necessaries they are 
those which they have Stolen from the great King & his Friends. - 
They may now give you these things, as they have stole them; 
but in time to come they will not have it in their power to give 
you anj' strands, Blankets, Ammunition, or other necessaries as tlie 
great King has stopped sending them any for themselves. But the 
great King & people of England will never alter in affection for 
the red people but love them as the Mother the Child lugging the 
Nipple. They will always supply the Great Kings Red Children 
with what they want as the hand furnishes the Mouth with the 
Nourishment it requires to support the body. Our red Brothers 
shall be Cloathed in all Colours like the birds in the Air. The 
great King is now sending Great Armies of his Land & Sea War- 
riors like the Trees in the Woods, for tlie Guard and protection of 
his good white subjects that have not joined with these bad unnatu- 
ral Subjects & to punish the Rebellious white people who will go 
on in their wickedness until these Armies Arrive, When they are 
punished it will all then be peace. I entreat you Friends & Brothers 
to beware of those bad people; they go about with false talks; 
they have lies ready in their Mouths; they pretend to be able to 
do great things; they make great promises wliich they cannot 
perform. Such Men are a reproacli & disgrace to all mankind, 
they are despised & hated by all good Men; they have great Art & 
Cunning & will deceive you; if you listen to them they will pretend 
they arc great Men ^ have power; when they are not, but the 
worst of the people. Therefore my Friends & my Brothers give 
then\ no Credit, lean not your Ears towards tliem, nor Ijelieve any 
talks but those which come from the gi'eat Kings Governors & his 
beloved Men & those Men which are employed by the beloved Man 
M' Stuart. Once more let mo declare to you that the great King & 
the peojile of England hold all tlie Red people fast by the hand 
as the head of a Man holds fast to the body; they will never let it 
go; they will never forsake you, more tlian the head can forsake 
the body & botli live. As a testimony of tlie great Kings favour 


& the affection of the people of England some presents are now to 
be distributed amongst you by the beloved j\Iau M'' Stuart his 
Majestys Superintendant — Consider me then as the great Kings 
Representative in this Land. If the Red people have Enemies 
they shall also be my Enemies; if thej- have friends, they shall 
be my friends, those people who wou'd deceive them I shall set 
my face against. I will always love the Red 2:)eople as brothers 
born of the san:ie Mother; that sucked the Milk of the same breast, 
laughing <& smiling on the Mothers Countenance. I will join with 
them against all their Enemies, & the great King's Enemies; and 
my last Breath shall say Oh! save all the Great Kings Friends. 


[From MS. Records is Office of Secret.\ry of State.] 

Proceedings of the Committee of Safety at Wilmington, 

Thursday, December 7, 1775. 

At an occasional meeting of this Committee. 

Present: John Ancrum, chairman, AYilliam Wilkinson, deputy 
chairman; Charles Jewkes, .John DuBois, Will. Ewins, John Slingsby, 
James Geekie, John Kirkwood, Jona. Dunbibin, Archibald Maclaine. 

On application from William Gibbs, for leave to charter a vessel 
in this .River, to load with naval stores, that he has at Cape Lookout 
and Bogue, and intends to bring round here, if allovred by this com- 
mittee, he having already obtained permission from the Committee 
of Safety for the District of Xew Bern, to ship a quantity of Naval 
Stores that he had cast away on the 2d September last. It is the 
opinion of this committee, that should Mr Gibbs charter Capt. 
Bachelor's vessel, (or any other vessel) to load with Naval Stores, 
that the vessel shall not take said cargo on board in this river. 

Ordered, that Messrs. Henry Young, Geo. Hooper, William Whit- 
field, Philip Jones, David Girdwood, and Richard Rundle, be 
requested to join the gentlemen formerly chosen to value the houses, 
&c., in town, and that they be desired to meet for that purpose on 
Tuesdav, the 12th inst. 



Proceedings of Virginia Convention at Williamsburgh in the matter 
of certain Scotcli immigrants en rorife for North Carolina. 

Thur.sday December 14, 1775. 

The President h\id before the Committee a letter from Colonel 
Woodford enclosing a Petition from the poor Inhabitants of the 
Town of Norfolk requesting his protection; also a Petition for sun- 
dry distressed Higldandcrs latelj' removed irom Scotland, praying 
that tliey might be permitted to go to Cape Fear in Xoiili Carolina^ 
tlie place wliere they intended to settle, together with sundry other 
papers which were read. 

Resolved Tliat tlie President be desired to write to Colonel Wood- 
ford directing * * * that lie take the distressed Hk/hlauders 
with their families under his protection, permit them to pass by 
land unmolested to Girolina and supply them with such provi.sions 
as they may be in immediate want of. The President also laid 
before the Convention a Letter from Colonel Howe of North (_'aro- 
lina informing him that he had joined Colonel Woodford with the 
troops under his command and should be happy to afford him his 
best assistance. 

Rcmleed That tlie President be desired to write to Colonel Howe 
acknowledging the receipt of his obliging Letter and thanking liim 
for his good intentions toward the Colon v. 

I Fk(jm JLS. Rec'c-irds in Office of Secretary of State.! 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee in Pitt County. 

MAirriNr-oiiouGii December IG"' 177"). 

The Committee met. 

Whereas the Committee of this County on the 17"' day of .July 
last made a contract with Capt. Panic White iov the Import;ition of 
Powder and Lead, which contract has been comjJicd with on the 
part of said Capt. Paule A\diite, who hath laid his account belbre this 
Committee, wherein it appears tliat the vessel was seized on account 
of the jiowder, &c., but has delivered the powder and Lead itc. 



The Sloop TempcrancC'whieh was seized on account of powder & 
Lead sent to the AVest Indies as ^ agreement with the Committee, 

To 717 ibs. of powder @ 5= £179 5 

To 1,782 ft)s. of Lead («; 63= 56 2 6 

To 8 casks for the Lead (5 2' 1 6 

To 2 hogsheads for the powder (nl." 1 2 

£237 5 1 

75 pr. ct. advance f? agreement 177 19 2 


£415 4 -8 

£8(J5 4 8 

The above account was Rendered by Capt. Paule White which is 

Ordered that the president of this Committee transmitt a copy of 
the above accounts, and the agreements (with Capt. "White Relitira 
[relating] thereto) to the provincial Council of this province for 
their ajiprobation. 

Ordered, That leave is given to overseers of Roads to warrant all 
people not complj'ing with their Duty. 

On motion John Bowers complained to tin's Coinmiltce, and made 
it appear that John Brady is indebted to him by note of hand three 
pounds two shillings proc. money, with [ ] that the said 

John Brady hath removed himself out of this county and it being 
made known to this Committee that Mr James Brady and Willi\im 
Brady are Indebted unto Jolm Brady a sum sufKcient to discharge 
the above note, recommended that James and W" Brady discharge 
the above debt. 

Recommended that all merchants and traders will not sell salt 
above five shill' a bushel in this County unless any person or per- 
sons send their vessel hereafter in Ballast with Cash in order to 
Import that article, who will be Encouraged with a generous price. 

The Committee being Informed that Capt. White hath a Quantity 
of powder ordered that Col" Robt. Salter & Arthur Forbes wait on 
said Capt. White and secure the same for the of the Publick. 



[B. P. R. O. Am. & \V. IxD.: Xo. Carolina. Xo. 280.] 

Letter from M'' Stuart to the Earl of Dartmouth. 

S.uxT AuGUSTiXE, 17'" Dec*"", 1775. 
My Lokd, 

•X- * * * * « ■?:- 

I found no argument prevail so much \vith the Indians as telling 
them that whilst the present Disturbances continued they could not 
expect to be supplied with ammunition and other necessaries from 
Carolina and Georgia and that it would be their own Interest to 
join His Majesty's faithfull subjects in restoring Government and 
good order. I humbly submit to your Lordship's superior Judgment 
the proi:)riety of stoppicg all supplies of ammunition and Indian 
Goods to the above mentioned provinces for the present. 

* * * * -K- * * 

Sir James AV right in a late letter informs me that the Continen- 
tal Congress has appointed Mess" George Galphin, Edw* Wilkinson 
and M' Rea of Augu.sta all three Traders to superintend Indian 
Affairs in the Southern District and that they were gone to Salisbury 
to meet the Commissioners of the Northern District to consult upon 
the measures to be pursued. 

I have the honour, &c., 


[From MS. Records ix Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of tlie Safety Committee at "Wilmington. 

Tuesday December 19"', 1775. 

Present: John Ancrum, Chairman; Wil. Wilkinson, Deputy 
Chairman ; Arch'' ]\Iaclaine, John Forster, James Geekie, John Kirk- 
wood, William Ewins, John Dunbibin. 

Ordered that Ralph Millar be immediately supplied with 25 fcs 
of Salt Petrc 7 ibs Brimstone and a large Mortar and Pestle to ena- 
ble him to make Gunpowder which he is to produce to the Commit- 
tee and tliat he be also supplied with 20 yds of Osnaburg and two 
two small weights ; that F. Price shall jirocure the above articles 
and have them sent up to John Nichols' Landing in Bladen for 
said Millar. 


[From MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 


North Carolina. 

At a Provincial Council held at the Courthouse of Johnston the 
eighteenth clay of December in the year of our Lord one thousand 
seven liundred and seventy-five, 

The honorable the President and ten members appeared and look 
their seats in Council, to-wit : 

Samuel Johnston, Thomas Jones, Samuel Ashe, Jas. Coor, Thomas 
Eaton, Abuer Nasli, John Kinchen, Whitmill Llill, Waightstill 
Avery'; and Thomas Person, Esquires. 

The Council adjourned till tomorrow morning 9 "Clock. 

Tuesdav 19" December 1 

t lO. 

The Council met according to adjournment. 

Samuel Spencer, Esq., one of the members of Council, appeared, 
repeated and subscribed the Test and took his seat. 

The Sheriff of Halifax County brought before tliis Council a cer- 
tain Walter Lamlj with several affidavits accusing him with sundry 

And whereas this Gouncil thinking it jiroper that tlie witnesses 
should personally api)ear against the said Lamb do tlierefore Order 
that Mr Branch the aforesaid Sheriff take into his Custody the said 
Lamb, unless he shall give sufficient security to appear before the 
said Committee of Safetj' for the district of Halifax by them to be 
tried, acquited or punished as they shall think necessary. 

The Sheriff of Halifax County brought before this Council a cer- 
tain George Massingbird with an Affidavit accusing him of having 
made use of some words disrespectful to the Cause of America. 

And whereas this Council thinking it proper tliat the witnesses 
should personally appear against the said George Massingbird, and 
he appearing to be truly .sen.sible of his past ill Conduct, and having 
taken an Oatli satisfactory to the Council do therefore. Order tliat 
the said George Massingbird be discharged from Custody. 


The Council being informed, That Roger Ormond, Esquire, one of 
the ]\Iembei's of the Comniittte of Safety for the district of New 
Berne is dead, 

It is therefore Resolved, Thai John Simpson Esquire, of the 
Countj' of Pitt be, and is hereby appointed a member of the said 
Committee for the district aforesaid ; in the room of the said Roger 
Ormond, and that he the said John tSimjison be admitted to take his 
seat accordingly. 

Tiie Council Adjourned till Tomorrow Morning 9 "Clock. 

Wednesday •Ji)'" December 1773. 

The Council met according to Adjournment. 

Resolved, That the payma.ster of Hillsborough district iiay unto 
Messrs. Natlianiel Rochester and William Johnston seventy pounds 
seven shillings and four pence proclamation money for one hundred 
and fifty jiounds of gun powder, four hundred and seventy six 
pounds (if Bar lead and one tiiousand (Jun flints jiurchssed by 
them pursuant to a Resolve df the Committee of Orange County, 
and that the .>^aid Ammunition be lodged in the hands of William 
Johnston and that the said j)aymaster take his Recei})t for the same 
to lie j)roduced whenever <leniande(l Ijy the public. 

Resolved, That Lehansyn Dek ysei- Adjutant in the first Regi- 
ment of Regulars, raised in this province under the Command of 
Col" James Moore be allowed Adjutants pay from the fifteenth day 
ofSej)tember last inclusive, he having performed duty from that 

It appearing to this Council That the Measures concerted for the 
defence of American Liberty liave been connr unicated to the preju- 
dice of tlie ])ul)lic, 

Reso'vt.Ml, That it lie reconnneiided U) the Committees of Wilming- 
tiiii and I5runswiek and to the commanding OtHcer of ihe detach- 
ment stationed on Ca|>e Fear river to their utmost endeavours 
to cut olf all manner of pei'sonal Commmiication Ijetween Mis 
I%xc(.dlency (iovernor Martin and the Oliicers of the Shijis nf A\'ar 
with the Inhabitants of this Province on any jirete.xt whatever ; and 
tl]at tlie utmost caution be used in supplying the lSiii|is of War with 
the Provisions that they may be conveyed in such njanner as to 
pre\'en( any intelligence from being disclosed by the persons con- 
vcN'inij tlic said I'rovisions. 


I'rovided, That nothing in the above Resolve shall be construed 
to prevent any person corresponding by letter with Governor Martin 
or the Ships of War, such letters being first laid before the Commit- 
tees of the said Tovrns, or either of them, or the Commanding Officer 
aforesaid and approved of by them. 

Provided, nevertheless, That the Committee of Safety for the dis- 
trict of Wilmington should they think it necessary, are hereb}'' 
imjiowered to cut off all supplies of Provisions to any of tlie Ships 
of War lying in Cape Fear river. 

Resolved, That the Treasurers or either of them pay into the 
Hands of William Kennon Esquire, Commissary to the first Regi- 
ment of regular Troo[)s in this Province the sum of two thousand 
jiounds, for purchasing provisions for the use of said Troops, to be 
accounted for with the Provincial Congress, and that they be allowed 
in their Accounts with the public. 

Resolved, That Mr. President write in the name of this Board to 
the Council of Safety of South Carolina, requesting them to supply 
this Province with two thousand weight of gun powder, to be deliv- 
ered to Waiglitstill Avery Esquu-e or his Order who is hereby ap- 
pointed to wait upon them or impov>'er some other person for that 
purpose to receive the same, and that this Board will pay for all 
powiler delivered to the said Waightstill Avery in consoc[uence 
of tliis Order and that the Treasurers, or either of them be ordered 
to give a dr.iught on the Continental Treasury for the amount. 

Resolved, That Matthew Troy be appointed to employ pro[)er [>er- 
sons to make Carriages for and mount four of the Cannon now at 
New Bern and remove them to Salisbury for the defense of this 
Province, to be accounted for. And that the Treasurers or either of 
them [lay into the liands of tlie said Matthew Troy the sum of forty 
pounds for the above service and be allowed in their accoun.ts with 
the public. 

Resolved, That the Treasurers or either of them pay into the 
hanils of Abner Nash and -James Coor Esquires, one hundred 
pounds to be api)ropriated by them towards compleating the fortifica- 
tions now erecting at Hanging Point on Neuse River, and be allowed 
ill their Accounts with the public. 

Resolved, That tlie Treasurers or either of them jmy intu tlie 
hands of Samuel Ashe Esquire, one hundred pounds to be appro* 
priated by him towards com^ leafing the Fortifications now erecting 


at Du Boises Mill on Cape Fear river, and be allowed in their 
Accounts with the public. 

The Council Adjourned 'till Tomorrow jNIorning 9 "Clock. 

Thursday, 21" December. 
The Council met according to adjournment. 

To Either of the PruLic Theasureks: 

You are to pay unto James Davis, printer, two hundred and fifty 
pounds proclamation money, being for one year's salary due to him 
the first day of this Instant, as public printer to this province, accord- 
ing to Act of Assembly for that purpose, for which. This shall be 
your Warrant. 

Resolved, That Robert Smith Esc|uire be appointed payma.ster of 
the Troops stationed in the district of Edenton, as also to the Minute 
men in the said district, in the room of Samuel Johnston, who 
resigns, he first entering into Bond to this Council with sufficient 
security in the sum of ten thousand pounds proclamation money. 

This Council taking into consideration the necessity of fitting out 
Armed Vessels for the protection of the Trade of this Pro\'ince, that 
there be three Armed Vessels fitted out with all dispatch, to wit, 
one at Cape Fear, one at New Bern and one at Edenton, do Resolve, 
That. Mr President, Samuel Ashe, Richard Quince, Robert Ellis 
Esquires, and Captain John Forster, or any three of them, are 
appointed Commissioners at Port Brunswick ; Abner Nash, James 
Coor, Joseph Leech, James Davis, Richard Ellis, Esquires, and 
Messrs. John Green, David Baron and John \\'right Stanley, or a 
Majority of them, are appointed Commissioners at Port Beaufort, 
and Samuel Johnston, Tiiomas Jones, Joseph Montfort, Robert 
Hardy, Robert Smith Esquires, and Mr John Norcomb, or a Majority 
of them, are appointed Commissioners at Port Roanoke, and that 
the said Commissioners do innnediately purchase, arm, man and 
victual in a sufficient manner at each of tlie above mentioned 
Ports one good and substantial Vessel, and to reconunend projier 
Officers to tliis Council and to .station them at such place or places 
as they may think proper, prudent and necessary in order to protect 
the Trade and Commerce of this Province, the whole under the con- 
'troul of tlie provincial Congress and Council. 


Resolved, That Abner Nash and James Coor Esquires, or either 
of them be impowered to charter one or more Vessels and agree 
with ^Masters and Seamen at the Port of New Bern, and load the 
same to such parts as thc\" may judge expedient, and with such 
Articles as they may think proper, not exceeding the sum of five 
hundred pounds proclamation money, in Order to procure Arms and 
Ammunition for the use and protection of this Province, the same 
to be at the hazard, risk and expence of this Province. 

Resolved, That Mr President, Richard Quince, Sen", and .John 
Forster, Esquires, or either of them, be impowered to charter one or 
more ^"essels, and agree with Masters and Seamen at tlie Port of 
AA'iimington and load the same to such parts as they sliall judge 
expedient and with such articles as they may think proper not 
exceeding the sum of five hundred pounds in order to procure 
Arms and Ammunition for the use and protect'on of this province 
the same to be at tire hazard, risk and expence of this Province. 

Resolved, That Whitmill Hill, Esquire, be impowered to charter 
one or more Vessels and agree with Masters and seamen at tlie port 
of Edenton and load the same to su'^h parts as he shall judge expe- 
dient and with such articles as he may think proper not exceeding 
the sum of five hundred pounds proclamation money in order to 
procure Arms and Ammunition for the use and jirotection of tins 
Province the same to be at the hazard, rislv and expence of this 

Resolved, Tliat -James Geekie be appointed Surgeon of tlie first 
Regiment of tlie Continental Army of tliis Province in the room of 
Dr. Isaac Guion who neglects his dut}'. 

Resolved, That Richard Caswell Esquire, of the Southern district, 
pay into the hands of Abner Nash and .James Coor Esquires or 
either of them, the sum of five liundred pounds for purchasing 
Arms and Ammunition to be accounted for at the next Provincial 
Congress, and that the said Treasurer be allowed in his Accounts 
with the Public. 

Resolved, That Samuel .Johnston Esquire, Treasurer of the North- 
ern district pay inti the hands of Whitmill Hill Esquire the sum 
of five hundred pounds for purchasing Arms and Ammunition to 
be accounted for at the next Provincial Congress, and that the said 
Treasurer be allowed in his accounts with the public. 

Resolved, That the Treasurers or either of them pay into the 
hands of Mr President and Richard Quince Sen'' and .John Forster 
VOL. X — 23 


Esquires or either of them the sum of five hundred pounds for pur- 
chasing Arms and Ammunition to be accounted for at the next 
Provincial Congress and that the said Treasurers be allowed in their 
Accounts with the Public. 

Resolved, That the Treasurers or either of them pay to Doctor 
\Mlliam Pasteur the sum of Seventy-five pounds for Medicines fur- 
nished the second Regiment of Continental Troops in this Province 
and that the said William Pasteur account with the next provincial 
Congress for the said sum and that they be allowed in their Accounts 
Avith the Public. 

It appearing to this Council that .John Simpson, Edward Salter 
and Robert Salter Esquires in behalf of the Committee of Pitt 
County, had agreed and executed Bonds with a certain Paul White 
for a Quantity of powder and lead, and at the same time undertook 
to indemnify the said Paul AVhite in his Vessel during the comple- 
tion of the Voyage. And whereas the said Vessel on her Arrival at 
Occacock Bar, was taken by a Cutter belonging to some of His 
Majesty's Ships of "War and detained as a prize but the Ammunition 
saved by taking out the same at Sea, 

Resolved, That John Simpson, Edward Salter and Robert Salter 
be allowed the sum of eight hundred and sixty pounds four shillings 
and eight pence, to enable them to comply with their Contract with 
the said Paul White ; and that the Treasurers or either of them pay 
them the same and be allowed in their Accounts with the Public. 

Resolved, That the next Provincial Council shall be held at the 
Courtliouse in the C'ounty of Johnston the seventeenth day of iMarcli 
next, but that the [iresident may call a Council sooner if he should 
lind it necessary. 

Whereas it appears this Province may soon be invaded by the 
British Troops and the Inhabitants be destitute of sufficient arms for 
defence of their lives liberties and properties. 

It is therefore Resolved, That Mr Thomas Jones, Mr Whitmill 
Hill and Mr Luke Sumner for Edenton, Mr Abner Nash, Mr James 
Coor and Mr David Baron for New Bern, Mv John Kinchen, Mr 
Jolui Butler and Mr Memucan Aunt for Hillsboro, Mr President, ^Ir 
Sanuiel Ashe, Mr William Campbell and Mr James Kenan for ^^'il- 
mington, INIr Samuel Spencer, Mr Waightstill Avery, Mr CJrifKth 
Rutherford, Mr Christopher Beckman and Mr Raljih Gorrell for 
Salisbury, Mr Willie Jones, Mr TJiomas Eaton, Mr ^\■iUiam Alston 
(son of PhiliiO, l^L' Joseph John Williams, INIr Eaton Ilayiies and 


^Ir Duncan Lamon for the district of Halifax, or any of them, be 
and they are hereby impowered and required to purchase materials 
and em2iloy proper persons to make and mend Guns and Bayonets 
and also to purchase good serviceable Guns, Gun Barrels, Stocks and 
Locks, Lead and Flints and have them repaired for the use of this 
province, for which purpose, tlie Treasurers or the paymasters or 
•either of them are directed to furnish any of the above Persons with 
money, out of the public Treasury as occasion may require ; Pro- 
vided the Amount to be paid to the persons in either of the districts 
does not exceed the sum of three hundred pounds, for which they 
are respectively to Account with the next Provincial Congress. 

Resolved, Tljat two Battalions of Minute Men, be immediately 
embodied in the district of Salisbury in the same manner as directed 
by the Congress and that the following persons shall be and are 
hereby appointed Field Officers of said Battalions viz' 

Of the first Battalion — Grifiith Rutherford, Colonel ; John Phifer, 
Lieutenant Colonel ; John Paisley, Major. 

Of the second Battalion — Thomas Polk, Colonel ; Adam xVlex- 
ander, Lieut Colonel ; Charles Maclaine, Major. 

And that the Commissions issue accordingly. 

The petition of William Gibbs being read praying leave to ship a 
Quantity of Naval Stores which suffered in the late hurricane, and 
the same being taken under consideration was rejected it being incom- 
patible with the Resolves of the Continental Congress. 

Resolved, That William Hooper, Joseph Hewes and John Penn 
Esquires, delegates for this Province at the Continental Congress in 
Philadelijhia do purchase one waggon and four good horses in the 
Province of Pennsylvania and hire a careful person to bring the 
.same to Edenton in this Province with the Gun powder. Drums, 
Colours and Fifes procured by them for the use of the Continental 
Troops stationed in this Province, and that the said delegates are 
imjiowered to call upon the Continental Treasurer for the amount 
of the purchase of the waggon and horses and paying the person to 
be employed by them to bring the same, to be cliarged to the 
Account of this Province. 

The Council adjourned till tomorrow morning 9 "Clock. 

Friday 22'"' December 1775. 

The Council met according to Adjournment. 

It having been made appear to this Council, That the late Elec- 


tioiis for Delegates and Committee Men for the County of Onslow 
were unduly made, and that the Committee so unduly Elected have 
refused to subscribe the Test, 

Resolved, That the said Elections be set aside, and that the Elec- ■ 
tion for delegates and Committee Men for the said County of Onslow 
be held on the third Saturday in January next and that Thomas 
Johnston Esquire give at least Twenty da.js notice of this Order 
previous to the said Election and that he take the poll and make the 
proper return. 

Whereas the County of Surry have failed to elect delegates and 
Committee Men on the day appointed by Congress for that purpose, 

Resolved, That William Shei^jiard Esquire be commanded to 
notify the Freeholders and house holders, to meet at the Court 
House on the second Tuesday in February next, then and there to 
Elect any number of Freeholders, or house holders, not more than 
five, to represent them in the next Congress, and any number of 
Freeholders or house holders, not less than twenty one, to serve as 
Committee Men; it being in the OjDinion of this Council agreeable 
to the intention of the last Congress. 

Resolved, That the Treasurers or either of them pay to Adam 
Boyd the sum of Twenty pounds for two hundred Pamphlets 
delivered to the Congress at Hillsborough and be allowed in their 
accounts with the public. 

Resolved, That Mr. Jeremiah ]\?Caffety be allowed the sum of 
seventy four pounds eight shillings and nine pence proclamation 
money for two hundred and ninety seven pounds and three quarters' 
of a pound of Gun powder taken and received by Colonel Thomas 
Polk and Major John Phifer to bo accounted for by them at the next 
Congress, and by them served out to the Trooj^s who lately marched 
from the Western Counties of this Province against the Insurgents 
near Ninety six in South Caroliiia and tliat the Treasurers or either 
of them pay the same and be allowed in tlieir accounts with the 

Resolved, That James Mansfield be allowed the sum of five 
pounds eleven shillings and six pence proclamation money for tak- 
ing care of the sick Soldiers at ('a})e Fear and that the Treasurers 
or either of them pay him the same and be allowed in their accounts 
A\'itli the public. 

Resolved, That the Treasurers or cither of tlicni pay into tlie 
hands of Col° Henry Rhodes the sum of twenty one pounds nine 


shillings for Gun powder and lead purchased in Onslow County for 
the use of the province; and that the said Henry Rhodes do deposit 
the said powder and lead in some secure place until furtlier orders 
from this Council or the Provincial Congress. 

It appearing to this Council that James Kebble of Onslow Count j', 
at present is inimical to the Cause of Liberty, 

Resolved, That it is the Oiiinion of this Council that the said 
Kebble is an improper person to hold any Commission in the 
Militia of the said County. 

Whereas, it Appears to this Council tliat from the natural situa- 
tion of Pasquotank County, being divided by a very wide river, 
that the calling of General jMusters at the Court House of that 
County is burthensome and troublesome to the Inhabitants of the 
same, and that a division of the Pasquotank Regiment would ease 
the Inhabitants and encourage military discipline. 

Therefore Resolved, That the Regiment of ^lilitia in the said 
County of Pasquotank shall be divided by Pasquotank river, and 
that all the INIilitia of said County on the Northern side t)f said liver, 
shall be and is hereby made and» established a new and distinct 
Regiment, and shall be known and distinguished by the name of 
the second Regiment of Pasquotank Militia, and that Commissions 
issue accordingly. 

Resolved, That Colonel Henry Rhodes be and he is hereby 
appointed to pay for and receive into his Custody all the powder in 
the County of Onslow secured in the hands of Individuals for the 
use of the public and keep the same till further Orders. 

Resolved, That the dividing line between the first and second 
Regiments of Rowan Militia shall hereafter be continued from the 
mouth of lower Little river, a due North course to the line of the 
County of Surr^^, it appearing to the Council to be more convenient 
to the Inhabitants. 

Resolved, That Richard Quince be allowed the sum of two hun- 
dred and one pounds, three shillings and six pence Proclamation 
money for four hundred and sixteen and one half of a pound of 
Gunpowder, two thousand five hundred and thirty-one pounds of 
Lead, and one hundred and ninety-three pounds of saltpetre for the 
use of the public; and that the Treasurers or either of them pay 
him the same and be allowed in their accounts with the Public. 

Resolved, That William Hill be allowed the sum of Thirty-seven 
pounds two shillings and eight pence proclamation money for fifty 


weight of CTunpowder, eight hundred and fourteen pounds of Buck- 
shot for the use of the public, and delivered to Colonel Nash ; and 
that the Treasurers or either of them pay him the same and be 
allowed in their Accounts with the Public. 

Resolved, That the Committee of AVihnington be allowed the sum ■ 
of eighty-three pounds fifteen shillings and ten pence proclamation 
money for thirty-one Guns, stocking four Guns, repairing three Guns, 
and twelve Gun Locks for the use of the first Regiment under the 
command of Colonel Mo6re, and that the Treasurers or either of 
them pajf him the same and be allowed in their Accounts with the 

Resolved, That the Committee of Wilmington be allowed the 
sum of one hundred and fifteen pounds three shillings and three 
pence, for seven hundred and thirty three pounds and one half 
pound of powder, and seventy three pounds of lead and ball, for 
the use of the Public; and that the Treasurers or either of them 
pay them the same and be allowed in their Accounts with the 

Resolved, That the Committeg of Wilmington be allowed the 
sum of seven pounds one shilling proclamation money, for two 
Muskets, rejiairing one gun and two gun locks, for the first Regi- 
ment on account of tlie Public and that tlie Treasurers or eitlier of 
them pay the same and be allowed in their Accounts witli the 

The Council adjourned till Tomorrow Morning 9 "Clock. 

Saturday 23'''' December 1775. 

The Council met according to Adjournment. 

Resolved, That the Treasurers or either of them pay to Doctor 
James Geekie the sum of Fifty pounds to enable him to purchase 
Medicines for the use of the first Regiment of tlie Continental 
Troops in this Province, and that tlie said James Geekie account 
with the next Provincial Congress for the said sum, and tliat tliey 
be allowed in their accounts with the Public. 

Resolved, That each of the Public Treasurers be impowered to 
draw on tlie Continental Treasury for any sum not exceeding Ten 
thousantl dollars each towards defraying tlie cxpence of the Troops 
on the Continental establishment in this Province. 

Sundry Resolves of the Continental Congress respecting Regula- 
tions and Arrangements of the two Battalions of tlie Continental 


Army raised in this Province Ijeing communicated to this Council 
by the delegates of this Province in the said Congress, 

Resolved,' That Copies of the said Resolves be delivered to the 
Colonels of tlie respective Battalions, and tliat it be recommended 
to them that they witli all convenient speed call General Court 
Martials to form their respective Regiments agreeable to the said 

And as the number of Captains agreeable to the said Resolutions 
must necessarily be reduced. This Council will recommend it to the 
Provincial Congress, that in case any of the said reduced Captains will 
act as Lieutenants in the service, that an allowance be made them 
out of the public Treasury of this province sufficient to malce their 
pay equal to a Captain, and to retain their rank. And, as on the 
said new arrangement there may be several vacancies of Ensigns, 
this Council recommend it to the Court Martial to encourage proper 
persons to fill such vacancies, to assist in recruiting their respective 
Regiments, which services will be considered by this Council in 
filling up the said vacancies in proportion to the number they shall 
respectively recruit. 

It is further recommended to the Commanding Officers of the said 
Battalions, that they, as soon as may be, dispatch proper officers on 
recruiting parties to the Western Counties of this Province, in order 
that their full complement of Men may be compleated with all dis- 

Resolved, That a sum not exceeding eighty pounds proclamation 
money, be applied by Samuel Johnston Esquire, Treasurer of the 
Northern district, for the purpose of erecting a breastwork in the 
Town of Edenton, for the defence of the said Town ; and tliat the 
said Treasurer be allowed the same on settling his Account with the 

Resolved, That it be recommended to all Friends to American 
Freedom to purchase all the powder, saltpetre and sulphur in their 
power for the use of the public, and lodge the same with the several 
ToAvn and County Committees, in this Province and that the said 
Committees appoint a proper person in each Town and County to 
take care of tlie above mentioned Articles and taking Receipts for 
the same, and to be paid for by the public, and tliat a sum not 
exceeding half a dollar be given for saltpetre. 

The Council adjourned till tomorrow morning 9 "Clock. 


DecemVjer 24"^, 1775. 

The Council met according to Adjournment. 

Resolved, That the paymaster be directed to furnish a sum not 
exceeding sixty pounds to the Captain of each Company to be by 
him paid to such persons as may be sent out on recruiting parties, as 
advance money for the new recruits at forty shillings a man. 

Whereas Governor Martin hath distributed great numbers of Tor}' 
Pamphlets in the Western parts of this Province where the people 
are not well informed, 

Resolved, That the Continental delegates from this Province be 
immediately informed thereof and desired to secure the best pam- 
phlets that can be had for the true information of the people to 
Counteract and frustrate the wicked and diabolical stratagems of 
Governor Martin and other Tools of a corrupt ]\Iinistry. 

Resolved, That one-fourth part of the powder and lead lodged in 
the hands of* Mr William .Johnston of Hillsborough bj' resolve of 
this Council be delivered to Mv Thomas Person in order for the use 
of the Public, and that the said Johnston talve his receipt for the 

Resolved, That the Commanding Officer of the first Regiment 
send an Officer with Twenty-five privates to George Town as an 
escort to. protect the Ammunition to be purchased, by a resolve of 
this Council, for conveying the same from thence to Cape Fear. 

Resolved, That tlie Paymasters in the several districts where the 
Continental Troops are stationed do immediately purchase cloth 
and have the same made up into Cloaths, to wit, Coats, Waistcots 
and Breeches for such of tlie men in the two Battalions of Conti- 
nental Troops not already provided witli Cloathing, and that tlie 
Amount thereof be discounted out of each man's pay at the rate of 
ten shillings per month. 

Resolved, That the sum of two thousand pounds l^e paid into the 
Hands of Samuel Ashe Esquire, paymaster of the Troops stationed 
at Cape Fear, by tlie Southern Treasurer, for the purpose of ]nir- 
chasing Cloaths cfec" for said Troops, and that he account for the 
same to t;lie next Congress; and bo allowed in his- Accounts witli the 

Resolved, That the sum of one thousand pounds be jiaid into the 
Hands of Robert Smith Esquire, paymaster of the Troops stationed 
at Edeiiton, by the Northern Treasurer, for the purpose of pur- 
chasing Cloth Ac" for said Troops, and tliat he account for the 


same to Ihe next Congress, and be allowed in his acconnts with the 

Resolved, That the sum of one thousaml pounds be paid into the 
hands of Richard Caswell Esquire, paymaster of the Troops stationed 
at New Bern, by the Southern Treasurer, for the purpose of pur- 
chasing Cloaths &c* for said Troops, and that he account for the 
same to Congress at its next meeting, And he be allowed in his 
Accounts with the Public. 

Resolved, That the Northern Treasurer pay into the hands of 
jNIatthew Locke, paymaster of the Regulars and Minute INIen, in the 
District of Salisbury, the further sum of two thousand pounds, to 
enable him to pay off and clothe the Continental Troops, and pay 
the Minute INIen, to be accounted for at the Congress ; and he be 
allowed in his Accounts with the Public. 

Resolved, That j\Iatthew Locke, paymaster of Salisbury district, 
be directed to purchase all the ammunition he can procure, and for 
"all sums advanced in this service he shall be allowed" in his settle- 
ment with the Public. 

Resolved, That the Paymasters of the Continental Troops stationed 
in this i^rovince do immediatel}^ procure Cartridge Boxes, and 
HaA^ersacks, for the use of such of the Troops as are not already 
sujiplied with them; and that the paymasters be allowed for the 
same in the settlement of their respective Accounts with the Public. 

The Continental Congress having recommended to this Council 
additional rations for the Troops stationed in this Province, viz' : 
Three pints of peas or beans per week, or vegetables equivalent, 
rating the peas or beans at a dollar per Bushel ; One pint of milk 
per day, or at the rate of iV of a dollar per pint; half a pint of rice 
or one pint of Indian Meal per man per week; one cjuart of spruce 
beer or cyder per man or nine gallons of Molasses per Company of 
one hundred men per week ; three pounds of candles to one hundred 
men per week for Guards; twenty four pounds soft, or eight pounds 
of hard soap for one hundred men per week. 

The Council having taken the same into Consideration, Resolve, 
That the several Commissaries to the Continental Troops do supply 
them with the above mentioned rations, and that they respectively 
be allowed for each man so to be supplied, per day, the additional 
sum of two pence, and that the said Commissaries be allowed for 
the same in the settlement of their respective Accounts with the 


Resolved, That the Treasurers or either of them pay to William 
Chew the sum of Fort}- pounds and eight pence proclamation monej' 
for conveying a packet from the Continental Congress to this Board, 
and carrying back answers to the same, and be allowed in their 
Accounts with the Public. 

Resolved, That the several Members of the Committee of Safety 
for the district of Salisbury be required to meet on the first Tues- 
day in February next for the dispatch of Public Business. 

Resolved, That the Northern-Treasurer or tlie paymaster of Salis- 
bury district pay Mr "Waightstill Avery the sum of twenty five 
pounds towards defraying his Expences to South Carolina on the 
Business of this Province. 

Resolved, That in Case any of the Continental Troops should 
be stationed in either of tlie Towns in this Province, The Committee 
of such Town is hereby impowered and required to provide for 
them suitaljle Barracks during their stay in such Town and report 
to the next Congress the time such Barracks shall have been occu- 
pied, that the members thereof may make such allowance as they 
shall judge necessary. 

Resolved, That it be recommended to the several Town and 
County Committees in thi^ Province immediately to furnish the 
Captains of each JMinute and Militia Company in their respective 
Counties with Copies of the Test signed and recommended by the 
late Provincial Congress, and present the same to the Men under 
their Command for their Approbation and also to return a list of all 
those who neglect or refuse signing the same to the said Committee 
to be by them transmitted to the Provincial Council at their next 

Resolved, That it is the Opinion of this Council, that no person 
or persons shall be iatitled to any benefit or relief against any 
Debtor, as directed Ijy the Provincial Congress, unless such iierson 
or persons so ai)]3lying shall at least ten days jirevious to such ajipli- 
cation have subscribed the Continental Association, and the Test as 
signed and recommended by the late Pi'ovincial Congress held at 
Hillsborough. ' CORN= HARNETT, President. 

By Order J.\s. Gukex -Jun-- Clerk. 


[Feoji MS. Records ix Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Coinmittee at "Wilmington. 

Wednesday Dec. 20"', 1775. 

Present: William Wilkinson, Deputy Chairman; Arch'd McLaine, 
John Forster, Henry Toomer, Charles .Jewkes, John Kirkwood,Wm. 
Ewins, Harrall Blackmore, Jona. Dunbibin. 

On application made by Jona. Dix, and David Thompson of the 
I\Lissachusetts and Rhode Island government, for a pass to travel to 
their respective families; as the said Dix and Thompson, have not 
given a satisfactory account of themselves to this Committee ; and 
as there are some circumstances that make them appear inimical to 
the American Cause; 

Ordered, That the said J. Dix and David Thompson be put under 
guard of Captain Dixon's Company till inciuirj- shall be made 
about them ; and an order of this Committee shall be -passed for 
their releasement. 

[From MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee at Wilmington. 

Friday Dec. 22"*, 1775. 

Present: William Wilkinson, Deputy Chairman; Arch'd McLaine, 
John Forster, Henry Toomer, Charles Jewkes, John Kirkwood, Wm. 
Ewins, John DuBois, James Geekie. 

On examination of Jona. Dix and David Thompson (who were 
put under a guard on the 20"';) also tlie papers they had in 
their possession (by which nothing could be done to prove them our 
enemies,) and their readiness to take and sign an oath administered 
by the Chairman, declaring themselves friends to America; there- 

Ordered that the said Jonathan Dix and David Thompson be 
immediately released, and that a Copy of the Oath taken by them 
be delivered by the "Secretary, to enable them to pursue their jour- 
ney .without anv further hindrance. 


[Reprinted from the American Archives. Vol. 4. P. 95] 

Resolutions of the Virginia Convention giving thanlcs to tlie North 
Carolina Troops. 

[Wiluamsburgh] Friday December 22'', 1775. 

Picsolved uncDiiinoiisbj That the Thanks of this Convention are 
justly clue to the brave officers, gentlemen volunteers, and soldiers 
of North Carolina as Avell as our brethren of that Province in gen- 
eral, for their prompt and generous aid in defence of our common 
rights against the enemies of America and of the British Constitu- 
tution; and that the President be desired to transmit a copy of this 
Resolution to Colonel Howe. 

[B. P. R. O. Am. & W. IND.: No Carolina. No. 332.] 

Letter from Lord George Germain to Governor Martin. 

Whitehall Dec' 23'", 1775. 


Lord Dartmouth having in his Letter of the 7"' of November 
fully instructed you upon all points relative to the Object and Plan 
of the intended Expedition to the Southern Colonies, it only remains 
for me to acquaint you, that the Armament is now ready to proceed 
upon that Service. It consists of seven Regiments, wanting only 
three Companies of the 4G"', a detachment of Artillery equal to 
three Companies, under the command of Lord Cornwallis, and is 
accompanied by a Naval Force, consisting of His Majesty's Ships 
Bristol, Acteon, Boreas, Soletay, Si/rcn, Sphyiix, and Deal Castle, the 
IlawJc S\ooY> aijd Tliundcr i?om&, commanded by Sir -Peter Parker. 

If this Dispatch should reach you before the arrival of the Arma- 
ment, whicli is however uncertain, you will exert every Effort to 
carry into Execution the orders contained in Lord Dartmouth's Let- 
ter above mentioned of which for fear of Accident I enclose a copy, 
and will take every necessary preparatory step for collecting a Corps 
of Provincials to serve with the King's Troops and to join them 
upon tlieir Landing. I am etc., 



[Reprinted from American Archives. Vol. 4. Page 453.] 

Letter from Col. Howe to the President of the A'irginia Convention. 

Norfolk, December 25"", 1775. 

Ye.sterday, by a flag of truce, I received a letter from Captain 
Bellew, copy of which I have the honour to transmit you, with a 
copy of those I have written to him, Though Colonel Woodford and 
myself were sensible it was our duty to withhold from him, as much 
as in our power lay, those supplies he wished to obtain. Yet the 
moderate conduct he has pursued, and the sentiments of humanity 
by which he seems to be actuated, induced us to delay an answer 
till to-day, and to couch it in terms which cannot but show him, 
that occasion, not inclination, had influence upon our conduct. 
Captain Bellew's letter was brought us bj^ one of his Lieutenants; 
he expressed for himself and every officer on board, the reluctance 
they should feel, if compelled by necessity, they should be obliged, 
by marauding parties, to snatch from the indigent farmers of this 
Colony those provisions they were so willing to purchase. I thought 
proper Sir, to give you this information; and through you, Colonel 
Woodford and myself beg leave to submit it to the consideration of 
your honourable Board, whether we are to show any indulgence to 
those people, and, if we are, to what bounds we are to extend it. 

Major Ruffin, and about one hundred and eighty Minute-Men, 
arrived last night; it was a seasonable relief to our Soldiers, almost 
worn out with duty this very bad weather. 

I was honoured with your letter j^esterday, and are made happy 
to find our jiroceedings are approved of. The order it conveys, and 
all others which we may receive, we shall endeavour to execute with 
the greatest punctuality. 

[Reprinted from American Archives. Vol. 4. P. 474.] 

Correspondence between Colonel Howe and Lord Dunmore in regard 
to an exchange of prisoners. 

Letter from Col. Howe to the President of the A'irginia Convention. 

Norfolk, December 28"", 1775. 
I am at present. Sir, so indispensably engaged, that I have not 
time to be so particular as I could wish, had I anj-thing of impor- 


tance to communicate; but, except some salutes from the men-of-war, 
matters remain just as they were when I wrote j'ou last. Xo 
effectual steps have been taken in respect to the exchange of pris- 
oners, for which the enclosed copies of letters between Lord Dun- 
more and myself will, I hope, account in such a manner as to leave 
me, in the opinion of your honourable body, free from blame. 

Letter from Lord Dunmore to Colonel Howe. 

Spiip Duxmoke, Dec' 25'*, 177o. 
Sir : I have this moment received yours of the 2-4"', and in com- 
pliance with your request, have empowered the bearer, Mr Laurie, 
to agree to any one of your Lieutenants in our custody, being ex- 
changed in place of 'Mv Batut, Lieutenant of the Fourteenth Regi- 
ment, and to an equal number of your privates, in lieu of those of 
the Fourteenth with you now. 

I am, Sir, your most obedient, humble servant, 

To Robert Plowe Esquire. 

Letter from Colonel Howe to Lord Dunmore. 

Norfolk, December 25"' 1775. 
My Lohd, 

Desirous as we are to regain our friends in your custody, and to 
return to the army the ofticers and men of their corps, who have 
fallen into our hands, we can, by no means, submit to place the 
officers and soldiers of the army, who have been taken in battle, 
upon a footing with those officers of Militia and the peasants, that 
you have thought pi'oper to deprive of their liberty. We have, 
since our march from the Great-Bridge, taken a number of those 
who were in action at that place; among them, some wlio acted 
under your Commissions as field-officers; tliose I conceive, may be 
equitably exchanged for those of the same rank in j'our hands; and 
reluctant as I am to continue in confinement either your prisoners 
or ours, T shall consent to no exchange but such as equity shall war- 
rant. 1 beg leave to refer you to Mr Laurie for particulars. I should 
be glad to be favoured with a list of the prisoners you have in your 
hands, the rank they bear, and the manner in which they were taken. 

T am my Lord, your Lordship's most obedient, humble, servant, 

To ilis Excellency Lord Dunmore. 


Letter from Lord Duiimore to Colonel Howe. 

Ship Duxmoke, December 20"', 1775. 

Yours of night I received, and really am at a los.s to know 
what your meaning is; you certainly, when you proposed an exchange 
of prisoners, could never have meant to pay your own people so 
poor a compliment, as not to look upon those whom the Convention 
thought pi'oper to aj^point to hold military commissions, in any 
other light than officers; those j'ou talk of as officers of militia and 
peasants, whom you say I have thought proper to deprive of their 
liberty, come under that predicament, and were taken armed against 
their liege SoA^ereign. If the rank of officers in each armj' is not to 
be our guide, I own I am at a loss to know by what rule we are to 
be governed in exchange of prisoners. 

I am Sir, Your humble servant, 


To Robert Howe, Esq., in Norfolk. 

Letter from Colonel Howe to Lord Dunmore. 

Norfolk, December 27'\ 1775. 
Mv Lord: 

I was not understood by your Lordship last night, and it gives 
me concern. You do me justice, however, when you suppose I 
could not mean, even by implication, to degrade any commissions 
issued by Conventions who.'?e authority I acknowledge, whose 
appointment I honour, and to whose service I have devoted myself. 
I am, I find, to inform your Lordship of what I really thought you 
before acquainted, that Conventions, from the fatal necessities of the 
times, have been comiielled to estaldish three different military 
bodies: Militia, Minute Battalions, and Regular Regiments; and 
that they have made a distinction in the rank of each. What I 
.said, therefore, in respect to militia officers, was not without its pro- 
priety, had my meaning extended no further than as to their rank. 
You, my Lord, sometimes affect .so much to despise any rank derived 
from Conventions, that courtes\' itself cannot induce you, even in the 
common forms of address, to admit those appellations which they 
liave fixed to particular characters. Circumstances, however, at 
other times have so far an influence upon j-our Lordship as to pre- 


vail upon you not only to admit that rank, but to endeavour to carry 
it higher than even the Conveiitions intended. 

A Colonel in the Minute Service ranks only with a Lieutenant 
Colonel of the Regulars ; a Colonel of Militia, only with a Lieuten- 
ant Colonel of Minute Men. This must make it plain, that a 
Militia Lieutenant, though your Lordship had taken him in battle, 
cannot be deemed an , equitable exchange, for a Lieutenant of Reg- 
ulars, much less, my Lord, if a man should have been torn from 
his farm, and arbitrarily deprived of his liberty, because a Conven- 
tion had nominated him an officer, without his having done any 
one act that could warrant his seizure, or continue liis confinement 
longer than despotism prevails over rights and privileges. In this 
case I might, indeed compassionate his fate, but should betray the 
confidence reposed in me by my country, should I attempt to 
release him by a prisoner of equal rank taken in battle, who it 
would be my duty to consider as a pledge in my hands, for the 
redemption of some brave man, that by the chance of war may 
happen to be captivated. 

The Conventions in order to establish a Militia, have appointed 
Captains in particular districts to train and exercise, in arms, all 
persons from sixteen to sixty years of age, without instructing or 
directing them to act against Government; these may meet and go 
through the manual exercise, and then return home, surely without 
the least guilt. Six months after, should some or all of these peo- 
ple be taken from their ploughs, made prisoners, and offered in 
exchange for those that are prisoners of war, could an officer be 
justified, who admitted of such an exchange? or would you, my 
Lord, should we seize upon the persons of the peasants, who come 
iiato this town every day, and who attend to your Proclamation, 
and subscribed your Test, admit of them in exchange for our 
officers and men, Mdio you assert were taken in arms? Infiirmation 
had given me to think, and till your last letter, I had no reason to 
doubt, that some of these officers and men you offered us, were 
such as I have described; and it was to that I alluded when I said, 
that I could not put those prisoners, tak^'U in battle, U[)on a footing 
with the Militia officers and peasants, wh ;m you my Lord, had 
thought proper to deprive of their liberty. I was explicit, I thought, 
when I told your Lordship, that I looked upon those oflicers, who 
under your appointment, fought at the (ireat Bridge, though taken 
since the action, as prisoners, who would be equitably ollered in 


exchange for those of ours of the same rank taken by you; and 
when I desired an exact list of the men in your custodj', the rank 
they bore, and the manner in which they were taken, I imagined it 
would be granted me; I wish now to obtain such a list, my Lord; 
and if I do, you will find that I shall not degrade those Commis- 
sions issued by Conventions, the rank of which you seem so desirous 
I should maintain, but join you heartily, if you choose it, in one 
measure at least, that of returning to their friends such prisoners as 
we have of yours, and restoring to the bosom of their country 
those that you have torn from it. 

I have not had it in my power, till within this hour, to answer 
your favour of last night; the delay you will jjlease to excuse. 
I am, my Lord, your Lordship's 

most obedient humble servant 


To His Excellencv Lord Dunmore. 

[Reprinted from the American Archives. Vol. 3. P. 1963.] 

Extract from the Minutes of the Continental Congress. 

Friday, December 29"", 1775. 
Resolved, That the C'olonies of Virginia, Maryland and Xoith 
Carolina, be i^ermitted to export produce from their respective 
Colonies, to any part of the world, except Great Britain, Ireland, the 
Islands of Jersej', Guernsey, Sark, Alderney, and Man, and the 
British West India Islands, and in return to import so much Salt 
from any part of the world, not prohibited by the Association, as the 
Conventions or Councils of Safety' of the two former Colonies, and 
the Provincial Council of the other sliall judge necessaiy, for the 
use of the inhabitants thereof, now suffering great distress by the 
scarcity of that necessary article, proper caution being taken to pre- 
vent any abuse of this indulgence, by exceeding in the quantities 
exported or imported, and that no Provisions, Slaves, or Naval 
Stores be exported, if other Commodities may answer the purpose. 

VOL. X — 2-4 


[Reprinted from the American Archives. Vol. 4. P. 476. 

Extract of a Letter received at Hull, in England, from a gentleman 
in North Carolina, Dated December 20, 1775. 

Our Provincial Convention, at their last meeting appointed Com- 
mittees of Safety, consisting of thirteen members of each of the six 
districts of the Province; and these Committees, by authority of tlie 
Convention, elected a Provincial Council, consisting likewise of thir- 
teen. The Legislative, Judicial, and Executive powers of Govern- 
ment, are now entirely in the hands of the said Council and Com- 
mittees. Governor Martin is still on board the Cruizer, Sloop-of- 
War, from which he issued a proclamation, forbidding a meeting of 
the Convention, which they resolved was a false, scandalous, scurri- 
lous, and malicious libel, tending to stir up tumults and insurrec- 
tions, dangerous to the peace of His Majesty's Government, etc., and 
ordered it to be burnt by the common hangman, which was accord- 
ingly done. They appointed two Treasurers, and ordered them to 
draw on the Continental Congress at Philadelphia for one hundred 
thou.sand dollars, for the pay and maintenance of three thousand 
Minute-Men; and to replace that sum, they have issued paper ])ills 
of credit for one hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars, and laid 
penalties on those who should speak disrespectfully of the bills, or 
offer them at less than eight shillings for a dollar. 

The Minute-Men are to be trained eveiy day, Sundays not 
excepted ; the uniform is a liunting-shirt, leggins, or splatter dashes, 
with garters. To encourage the supplying ourselves with what we 
used to import from Great Britain, they have voted large 2:>remiums 
to any person or persons who shall erect furnaces for refining iron, 
slitting mills, steel furnaces, and also for the making of cotton cards, 
needles and pins; the refining of sulphur, and making saltpetre 
and gunpowder in this Colony. 

The following is a copy of a Test drawn uji by the Convention, 
signed by themselves, the Provincial Council, Committees of Safety, 
&c., &c., Viz: 

"We, the subscribers, professing our allegiance to the King, and 
acknowledging the Constitutional Executive power of Government, 
do solemnly profess, testify and declare, that we do ahsolutely believe 
that neither the Parliament of Great Britain, nor any constituent 


member thereof, have a right to impose taxes on these Colonies to 
regulate the internal policy thereof; and that all attempts, by fraud 
or force, to establish and exercise such claims and powers, are viola- 
tions of the peace and security of the people, and ought to be resisted 
to the utmost. And, that the people of this Province, singly and 
collectively, are bound by the acts and resolutions of the Continental 
and Provincial Congress; because, in both they are freely repre- 
sented by persons choses by themselves. 

" And we do solemnly and sincerely promise and engage, under 
the sanction of virtue, honour, and the sacred love of liberty and 
our country, to maintain and support all and every the acts, resolu- 
tions and regulations of the said Contiirental and Provincial Con- 
gresses, to the utmost of our power and abilities. 

" In testimony whereof," &c. 

The former* Convention voted fifty thousand pounds for raising 
and embodying one thousand men, to be employed in tlie common 
cause, which were accordingly raised. A body of five hundred of 
them are now encamped near Wilmington. It is reported that many 
of them desert. 

We have but little communication with the neighbouring Prov- 
inces owing to the distracted state of the whole Continent; and what 
we hear is not always to be depended upon. The last accounts from 
Virginia say, that Lord Dunmore does not lose ground; and since 
his proclamation, oftering freedom to indented servants and slaves, 
many people have joined him to save their property. He seized a 
printing press at Norfolk, which he employs for his own purjjoses ; 
and, by the means of Negroes and others, continues to circulate his 
proclamations and intelligence througli the country. It is said that 
Colonel Henry, with a large body of men is gone against him; and 
a General from the American camp, at Cambridge, in Massachusetts 
Bay, is expected on the same service. 

* Error. 


[Reprinted from the American Archives. Vol. 4. P. 479.] 

Correspondence between Captain Bel lew and Colonel Howe. 

Cajitain Bellew to Colonel Howe. 

Ship Livekpool, off Norfolk, December SO"", 1775. 

As I hold it incompatible with the honour of my commission to 
suffer men, in arms against their Sovereign and the Laws, to appear 
before His Majesty's ships, I desire you will cause your sentinels, in 
the town of Norfolk to avoid being seen, that women and children 
may not feel the effects of their audacity ; and it would not be im- 
prudent if both were to le^ve the town. 

I am sir, your most humble servant, 

To Robert Howe, Esq. 

Colonel Howe to Captain Bellew. 

Norfolk, December 30"', 1775. 

I am too much of an officer to wish you to do anything incom- 
patible with the honour of your commission, or to recede myself, 
from any point which I conceive to be my duty. Under the influ- 
ence of reciprocal feelings consequences may ensue which either, 
perhaps, would choose to avoid. Our sentinels have received orders 
not to fire at your boats, or any other, unless approaching the shore 
in a hostile manner. If they exceed this order, we would punish 
them ourselves; or if you do it, we shall thank you for it. If, how- 
ever, your resentment extends farther than merely to them, I should 
wish the inhabitants of the town who have nothing to do in this 
matter, may have time to remove with their effects. And, as to the 
rest, I should be unworthy of the respect of a man of your character, 
if I consulted anything but my duty. 

I am sir, your most obedient, liumble servant, 


To Henry Bellew, Esq. 


[Reprinted from the American Archives. Vol. 4. Page 543.] 

Report from James Hogg, Agent for Transylvania, to Colonel Rich- 
ard Henderson. 

Dear Sir: 

On the 2'' of December I returned hither from Philadelphia ; and 
I have now set down to give you an account of my embassj^, which 
you will be pleased to communicate to the other gentlemen, our 
co-partners, when you have an opportunity. I waited for Messrs. 
Hooper and Hewes a day and a half at Richmond, but they were 
detained by rainy weather for several days, so that they did not 
overtake me till I was near Philadelphia, where I was kept two days 
by heav}- rain, though thej' had it dry where they were. It was the 
22'' day of October when we arrrived at Philadelphia. In a few 
days the}' introduced me to several of the Congress gentlemen, 
among the first of whom were, accidentally, the famous Samuel and 
John Adams; and as I found their opinion friendly to our new 
Colony, I sliowed them our map, explained to them the advantage 
of our situation, &c., &c. They entered seriously into the matter, 
and seemed to think favourably of the whole; but the difficulty that 
occurred to us soon appeared to them. "We have petitioned and 
addressed the King," said they, " and have entreated him to point 
out some mode of accommodation. There seems to be an impro- 
priety in embarrassing our reconciliation with anything new; and 
the taking under our protection a body of people who have acted in 
defiance of the King's proclamations, will be looked on as a con- 
firmation of that independent spirit with which we are dailj'' 
reproached." I then showed them our memorial, to convince them 
that we did not pretend to throw oS our allegiance to the King, 
but intended to acknowledge his Sovereignty whenever he should 
think us worthy of his regard. They were pleased with our memo- 
rial, and thought it very proper ; but another difilculty occurred. 
By looking at the map they observed that we were within tl>e Vir- 
ginia Charter. I then told them of the fixing their boundaries, 
what had passed at Richmond in March last, and that I had reason 
to believe the ^"irginians would not oppose us; however, they advised 
me to sound the Virginians, as they would not choose to do anything 
in it without their consent. All tlie Delegates were, at that time, so 


much engaged in the Congresses from morning to night that it was 
some days before I got introduced to the Virginians; and before 
then I was- informed that some of them had said, wliatever was 
their ov\-n opinion of the matter, tliey would not consent that Tran- 
sylvania should be admitted as a Colony, and represented in Con- 
gress, until it originated in their Convention, and should be approved 
by their constituents. Some days after this, I was told that Messrs. 
Jefferson, Wythe, and Richard Henry Lee were desirous of meeting 
with me, which was accordingly brought about; but, unfortunately, 
Mr Lee was, by some business, prevented from being with us, though 
I had some conversation with him afterwards. I told them that the 
Transylvania Company, suspecting that they might be misrepre- 
sented, had sent me to make knojvn to the gentlemen of the Con- 
gress our friendly intentions towards the cause of liberty, &c., &c., 
but said nothing of our memorial, or my pretensions to a seat in 
Congress. They said nothing in return to me, but seriously exam- 
ined our map, and asked many questions. They observed that our 
purchase was within their Charter, and gently hinted, that by virtue 
of it, they might claim the whole. This led me to take notice, that 
a few years ago, as I had been informed, their Assembly had peti- 
tioned the Crown for leave to purchase from the Cherokees, and to 
fix their boundaries with them, which was accordingly done, by a 
line running from six miles east of the long island in liolston, to 
the mouth of the Great Kanawha, for which they had actually paid 
twenty -five hundred pounds to the Cherokees; by which purchase, 
both the Crown and their Assembly had acknowledged the property 
of those lands to be in the Cherokees. Besides, said I, our settle- 
ment of Transylvania will be a great check on the Indians, and 
consec^uently be of service to the Virginians. 

They seemed to waive the argument concerning the right of 
property; but Mr Jeflferson acknowledged, that in his opinion, our 
Colony could be no loss to the A^irginians, if properlj^ united to 
them; and said, that if his advice was followed, all the use they 
should make of their Charter would be, to prevent any arbitrary or 
oppressive Government to be established within the boundaries of 
it; and that it was his wish to see a free Government established at 
the back of theirs, properly united with them; and that it should 
extend Westward to the Mississijiiii, and on each side of the Ohio, 
to their Charter line, But he would not consent tliat we should be 
acknowledged by the Congress, until it liad the approbation of 


their Constituents in Convention wliicli he thought might l)e obtained ; 
and that, for that purpose, we sliould send one of our Company to 
tlieir next Convention. Against this proposal, several objections 
occurred to me, but I made none. 

This was the substance of our conference, with wliicl; I acquainted 
our good friends, Messrs Hooper and Hewes, who joined me in 
opinion that I should not push the matter further; and they hinted 
to me, that, considering the present very critical situation of 
affairs, they -thought it was better for us to be unconnected with 
them. These gentlemen acted a most friendly part all along, and 
gave a favourable account of our proceedings Indeed I think the 
Company under great obligations to them, and I hope they will 
take it under their consideration. I was frequently with parties of 
the Delegates, who, in general think favourably of our enterprise. 

All the wise ones of them, with whom I conversed on the 
subject, are clear in opinion that the property of the lands are 
vested in us by tlie Indian grant; but some of them think, that b}- 
the common law of England, and by the common usage in America, 
the sovereignty is in the King, agreeable to a famous law opinion, 
of which I was so fortunate as to procure a copy. The suffering 
traders, and others, at the end of last war, obtained a large tract of 
land from the Six Nations, and other Indians. They formed them- 
selves into a company, (called, I believe, the Ohio,) and petitioned 
the King for a patent, and desired to be erected into a Government. 
His Majesty laid their petition before Lord Chancellor Camden and 
Mr Charles Yorke, then Attorney-General, and afterwards Chancellor. 
Their opinion follows : 

"In respect to such places as have been, or shall be acquired bj" 
treaty or grant from any of the Indian Princes or Governments, 
your Majesty's letters patent are not necessary; the property of 
the soil vested in the grantee by the Indian grants, subject only 
to your Majesty's right of Sovereignty over the settlements, as 
English settlements, and over the inhabitants as English subjects, 
who carry with them your Majesty's laws wherever they form Colonies, 
and receive your Majesty's protection by virtue of your Royal char- 
ters." After an opinion so favourable for them, it is amazing that 
this Company never attempted to form a settlement, unless they 
could have procured a charter; with the hopes of which, it seems, 
they were flattered, from time to time. However our example has 
roused them, I am told, and they are now setting up for our rivals. 


Depending on this opinion, another company of gentlemen a few 
j'ears ago, purchased a tract between the forks of the Mississippi and 
Ohio, beginning about a league below Fort Chartres, and running 
over towards the mouth of the Wabash; but whether or not their 
boundary line is above or below the mouth of the "\\'abash, the gen-' 
tlemen who showed me their deed could not tell, as it is not men- 
tioned, but is said to terminate at the old Shawanese town, suj^posed 
to be only thirty-five leagues above the mouth of the Ohio. And 
the said company purchased another larger tract, lying on the Illi- 
nois River. It was from one of this corajpany that I procured a 
copy of the above opinion, which he assured me was a genuine one, 
and is the very same which you have heard was in possession of 
Lord Dunmore, as it was their company that sent it to him, expect- 
ing he would join them. 

I was several times with Mr Deane of Connecticut, the gentleman 
of whom ]Mr Hooper told you, when here. He says he will send 
some i^eople to see our country ; and if their report be favourable, 
he thinks many Connecticut people will join us. 

This gentleman is a scholar, and a man of sense and enterprise, 
and rich ; and I am apt to believe, has some thoughts of heading a 
party of Connecticut adventurers, providing things can be made 
agreeable to him. He is reckoned a good man and much esteemed 
in Congress ; but he is an enthusiast in liberty, and will have noth- 
ing to do with us unless he is pleased witli our form of Government, 
He is a gi'eat admirer of the Connecticut Constitution, which he 
recommended to our consideration, and was so good as to favour me 
with a long letter on that subject, a copy of which is enclosed. You 
would be amazed to see liow much in earnest all these .speculative 
gentlemen are about the plan to be adopted by the Transylvanians. 
They entreat, they pray, that we may make it a free Government, 
and beg that no mercenary or ambitious views in the Proprietors 
may prevent it. Quit-rents, they say, is a mark of vassalage, and 
hope they shall not be established in Transylvania. They even 
threaten us with tlieir opposition, if we do not act upon liberal prin- 
ciples when we have it so much in our power to render ourselves 
immortal. Many of them advised a law against Negroes. 

Enclosed I send you a copy of a sketch by John Adams which I 
had from Richard Henry Lee. 


[Journals Board Trade. Vol. 83.] 


At a meeting of His Maj. Com" for Trade and Plantations. 

Monday, May S'^ 1775. 

M' Jenyns :\P .Jolliffe 

i\r Keene M' Greville 

The Earl of Dartmouth one of His ^laj. principal Secretary s of 
, State attends [p. 57] Read a ^Memorial of Thomas Barker and 
Alexander Elmsly on behalf of the Assembly of North Carolina 
prajang that certain alterations may be made in the Laws of that 
Province with repard to Attachments, County Courts and Fees, and 
submitting to the consideration of the Board the draught of a Bill 
for establishing a Superior Court which the Assembly desire the 
Governor may be instructed to pass into a Law. 

Ordered that the above jMemorial and the Bill accompanying it 
be referred to M" .Jackson for his opinion in point of law upon those 
parts which relate to Attachments and the extension of the juris- 
diction of the Inferior Courts and that he be desired to make his 
Report before IS"" May on which day it was agreed to take this 
matter into further consideration, and it was ordered that Messrs. 
Barker and Elmsly should have notice to attend on that day. 

[P. 59.J 

Thursday, May 1V\ 1775. 

^Villiam Palmer Escp to be appointed of the Council of North 

Carolina in the room of Robert Palmer Esq. who has desired leave 

to resign. 

[P. 64.] 

Thursday, :May 1 8'^ 1775. . 
This day being appointed for taking into consideration the Memo- 
rial of ^lessrs Barker & Elmsly Agents for the Assembly of North 
Carolina in tlie matters referred to in the said Memorial the report 
of M" Jackson upon those points of it which relate to Attachments 
and to the extension of the jurisdiction of the Inferior County Courts 
was read and M' -Jackson and their Lordships after full consideration 
came to the following resolutions thereupon A'iz : 


First. That it would not be advisable to allow Attachments of the 
effects of persons not residing within the Province or within the 
adjoining Provinces of South Carolina & ^"irginia in the manner 
proposed by the Assembly of North Carolina except only when 
proof should be made that the Defendant in any action the cause 
of which arose in Great Britain, Ireland or any.other of the Planta- 
tions, had removed from his usual place of abode in order to avoid 
payment of his debt, and tliat in allowing Attachments in cases of 
Defendants residing in the adjoining Colonies of South Carolina & 
^"irginia, due provision should be made by Law for giving such 
persons timelj=' notice of the process. 

Secondly. That it would not be advisable on any pretence to admit 
of the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court being limited or to allow 
a jurisdiction in the Inferior County Courts in Civil actions beyond 
what was suggested in Lord Dartmouth's letter to Governor Martin 
of 4^" Aug. 1773. 

Thirdly. That it might be advisable that Governor Martin should 
have the King's permission to assent to such a Regulation of the 
Fees to the Chief Justice as the Assembly should propose whenever 
a suitable permanent Salary should be annexed to that Ofhce 1_)y 
Act of the Legislature there. 

There being no reference from the Privy Council of the matter to 
which the above Resolutions refer. Lord Dartmouth was requested 
to lay the said Resolutions before his Majesty to the end that such 
Instructions might be given tliereupon to Governor Martin as to 
His Majesty should seem meet. 

[P. 133.] 

Tuesday, November '2V\ 1775. 
The Secretary laid before the Board Letter from Governor Martin 
to the Board dated 24"' March 1775, containing an account of the 
state of His ]\Iaj. Council for North Carolina and recommending 
persons fit to supply vacancies at that Board. 

[P. 137.] 

List of the Council. 

Ordered that the Draught of a Representation to his Majesty be 
prepared, proposing that Wm. Dry Esq. one of the Council of the 
Province of North Carolina may be removed from his seat at that 


[P. 147.] 

The Secretary laid before tlie Board the following, Yh : ' 
Letter from Josiah Martin to the Earl of Dartmouth. 
]\Iinutes of Council 8—26 March 1774. 

D" from 20'" April to 25'" August 1774. 
D" from 8'" Oct. 1774 to 24'" April 1775. 
Journal of Assembly 4 — 8 April 1775. 
List of patents granted at July Court of Claims 1774. 

D° in FeV & ALarch Court of Claims 1775. 
Copy of a Bill entitled an Act for the more regular & effectual 
payment of the Quit Rents due and owing in the Province of Xorth 
Carolina &c. 


[Reprinted from the American Archives. Vol. 4. P. lGi7 

Extract from the Minutes of the Continental Congress. 

January 1, 1776. 

****** -X- 

Resolved, That it appears the British Ministry and their Agents 
have meditated, and are preparing to make attacks upon Charles- 
town, in South Carolina, and several jjlaces in A'irginia, and prob- 
ably in North Carolina; and that it be recommended to the Conven- 
tions or Committees of Safety of the two former Colonies, and to the 
Provincial Council of the other, by all po.ssible means, to make a 
vigorous defence and opposition.; and that it be further recommended 
to the Committee of Safety of Virginia, and the Provincial Council 
of North Carolina, to meet together and confer and conclude upon 
such operations as they may think most for their mutual interest. 

[Reprinted from the American Archives. Vol. 4. Page .538.' 

Extract of a Letter from Colonels Howe and Woodford to the Vir- 
ginia Convention, dated Norfolk, ten o'clock, p. Ji. Jan'' 1", 1770. 
Between three and four o'clock, a severe cannonade began from 

all the shipping, under cover of which they landed small parties, 


and set fire to the houses on the wharves. The wind favoured their 
design'and we beUeve the flames will become genei'al. 

In the confusion which they supposed would ensue, thej'^ frequently 
attempted to land; but this, by the bravery of our officers and men, 
we have hitherto prevented, with only a few men wounded on our' 
side, and we persuade ourselves, with a good deal of loss on theirs. 
Their efforts and our opposition, still continue. We have stationed 
ourselves in such a manner as will, wo believe, render everything 
but burning the houses ineffectual. We wait with impatience your 
further orders, and are Respectfully &c. 

[Repeixted from the American' Archives. Vol. 4. P. 103.] 

Extract from the Proceedings of the Virginia Convention. 

Tuesday January 2""^ 177G. 
* * * * * _ * * * * 

The President laid before the Convention a Letter from Col. 
Howe, and also a letter from Col. Woodford, informing the Conven- 
tion they had received Petitions from several of the pei'sons who 
had joined Lord Dunmore, and were on board the Vessels in the 
harbour at Norfolk, desiring that they might have leave to return, 
as their wives and children were greatly distressed. That they had 
given for an answer, the women and children were at liberty to 
come on shore, and should receive assistance and protection, but 
not to, be at liberty to return or give intelligence to our enemies; 
that the men should have no other violence offered them than to 
remain prisoners till they could be fairly and impartially tried by 
their Country for taking arms against it. 

Which being read, 

Resolved, That this Convention will immediately resolve itself 
into a Committee on the said Letter. 

The Convention accordingly resolved itself into the said Commit- 
tee, and after some time spent therein, j\Ir President resumed the 
chair, and Mr Mercer reported, that the Committee had, according 
to order, had under their consideration, the Letter from Col. Howe 
and Col. Woodford, and had conic to the following Resolution there- 
upon; whicli he read in his place, and afterwards delivered in at 


the Clerk's table, where the same was again twice read, and agreed 
to by the Convention. 

Resolved, That the Convention do highly approve of the offer 
made by Colonel Howe and his Officers to the distressed women 
and children now on board the vessels in the harbour at Norfolk, 
and the terms offered to those who have taken up arms against this 
Country; and that Col. Howe be requested to repeat the same, in 
the name of the Delegates and Representatives of this Colony. 

[Reprinted from the American Archives. Vol. 4. P. 538.] 

Extract of a Letter from Colonel Howe to the ^"irginia Convention, 
dated Norfolk, January 2""', 1776. 

The Cannonade of the town began about a quarter after three, 
yesterday, from upwards of one hundred pieces of cannon, and con- 
tinued till near ten, at night, without intermission ; it then abated a 
little, and continued till two, this morning. LTnder cover of their 
guns they landed, and set fire to the town in several places near the 
water, though our men strove to prevent them all in their power; 
but the houses near the water being chiefly of wood, they took fire 
immediately, and the fire spread with amazing rapidity. It is now 
become general, and the whole town will, I doubt not, be consumed 
in a day or two. Expecting that the fire would throw us into con- 
fusion, the3' frequently landed; and were every time repulsed, I 
imagine with loss, but with what loss, I cannot tell ; the burning of 
the town has made several avenues, which yesterday they had not, 
so that thejr may now fire with greater effect; the tide is now rising, 
and we expect at high water another cannonade. 

I have only to wish it may be ineffectual as the last; for we have 
not one man killed, and but a few wounded. I cannot enter into 
the melancholy consideration of the women and children running 
through a crowd of shot to get out of the town, some of them with 
children at their breasts; a few have, I hear, been killed; does it not 
call for vengeance, both from God and man ? 

It is but justice to inform you, that I had the pleasure to find 
every officer ready to execute orders at a moment's warning, and that 


the men behaved with steadiness and spirit. Colonel Stevens went 
down at my command, and headed some men near the water, where 
he engaged a party who had landed, with a spirit and conduct of a 
good officer. Of my friend, Colonel AVoodford, it is almost needless 
to speak, but I cannot avoid expressing that I received from him 
every assistance which conduct and sjiirit could give me. 

[Reprinted from the American Archives. Vol. 4. P. 558.] 

Letter from Colonel Williams, at Boonesborough, to the Proprietors, 
in regard to the Colony of Transylvania. 

BooxESBOKouGH, January 3, 177G. 

In my last, of the 27th instant, I promised in mv next a more 
circumstantial account than I was capable then of giving, under 
the confused situation of mind I was then in, occasioned by the 
unhappy catastrophe of my brother's death, which happened but a 
few hours before that. To comply in some measure with that prom- 
ise, and to discharge a' duty incumbent upon me, as well as the 
promptitude of mind I feel to discharge that duty, I cheerfully 
enter on the task, and endeavour to render some account of what I 
have been after since my arrival at this place, now upwards of a 
month since; and as the ])rimitive intention of sending me to Tran- 
sylvania was to establish a Land Office, appoint the necessary officers 
to the said office, surveyors, &c., upon the best footing in my power, 
and to make sale of the lands within the said Colony, upon such 
terms as might be most advantageous to tlie Proprietors and satis- 
factory to the inhabitants thereof; my first step was to fall on some 
metliod of appointing a person to the office of surveyor, who shall 
give general satisfaction to the people; I thought none more likely 
to do so, than calling a Convention and taking their recommenda- 
tion for the person wlio I would appoint. From the dispersed situ- 
ation of the peojjle, and the extreme badness of the weather, we 
failed in convening a majority; however, I took the sense of those 
who appeared, and who unanimously recommended Colonel John 
Floyd, a gentleman generally esteemed, and I am "[lersuaded, truly 
worthy, and him I have commissioned surveyor of the Colony at 


present, though, perhaps, it may be advisable, at a future day, to 
divide the Colony into two districts, and to appoint another surveyor 
to one of the districts. The Entering Office I have disposed of to 
^Ir Nathaniel Henderson, and the Secretary's to Mr Richard Har- 
rison; though upon consideration, I have thought that the numer- 
ous incidental expenses were so great that some way ought to be 
fallen upon to defray them without breaking in upon the moneys 
arising from the sale of the lands, and that the two dollars for enter- 
ing, ifec, and the other two for filling up the deeds, counterparts, 
annexing seals and plots, &c., was more money than the services of 
those offices absolutely required; I, therefore, have reserved out of 
each office, one dollar, to answer the purpose of defraying those 
extraordinary expenses; and the offices are left well worth the 
acceptance of persons capable of filling them with credit. The 
number of entries on our book is now upwards of nine hundred, a 
great part of which was made before I came to this place, when 
people could make entries without money and without price ; the 
country abounded with land-mongers ; since there is two dollars 
exacted on the entry made, people are not quite so keen, though I 
make no doubt but all who can comply with the terms will endeavor 
to save their lands ; and as many people who have got entry on the 
book are now out of the country, and cannot possibly pay up the 
entry money immediately, I have thought proper to advertise that 
every person who has made entry on the book, and paid n'o money, 
that they come in and pay up the entrance money by the first of 
April, and take out their warrants of survey, or their several entries 
will, after that time, be considered as vacated, and liable to be 
entered by any other person whatever. 

The surveyors have now begun to survej^ and some few people 
have been desirous of getting out their deeds immediately ; but they 
generally complain of a great scarcity of money, and doubt their 
being able to take their deeds before next June, or even before next 
fall ; though in a general way, people seem to be well reconciled to 
the terms, and desirous to take up on them, except some few whom 
I have been obliged to tamper with, and a small party about Har- 
rod.sburg, who, it seems, have been entering into a confederacy not 
to hold lands on any other terms than those of the first year. As 
this party is composed of people, in general, of small consequence, 
and I have taken some steps to remove some of their principal ob- 
jections, I make no doubt but to do all that way; and for that pur- 


pose have formed a design of removing myself, with the office to 
Harrodsburg, some time in February next, unless I should find, 
from a trip I purjiose immediately taking there, that I cannot do it 
with safety. The principal man, I am told, at the head of this con- . 
federacy, is one Hite ; and him I make no doubt but to convince he 
is in an error. Among other things, one of the great complaints 
was, tha tthe Proprietors, and a few gentlemen, had engrossed all 
the lands at and near the Falls of the Ohio, which circumstance I 
found roused the attention of a number of people of note ; I, there- 
fore, found myself under the necessity of putting a stop to all 
clamours of that kind, by declaring that I would grant no large 
bodies of land to any person whatever, which lay contiguous to the 
Falls ; which I have done in a solemn manner. 

This I am far from thinking will be injurious to the Proprietors, but 
quite the reverse ; and a circumstance which will render more general 
satisfaction, and be of as much utility to the Colony, as any step 
heretofore taken. You will observe that I am going on to justify the 
measure before I inform you what it is. But to be brief, it is this : tlie 
Falls, it is certain, is a place which, from its situation, must be the 
most considerable mart in this part of the world ; the lands around 
are generally rich and fertile, and most agreeably situated ; which 
had occasioned many people to fix their affections on that place, 
many applications have been made for large grants, at and about 
that place, and refused. Since which, twenty thousand acres, and 
upwards, have been entered there for the Company ; forty thousand 
or fifty thousand more, in large tracts, by a few other gentlemen ; 
a partiality was complained of; a general murmuring ensued. Ui)on 
considering the matter, I thought it unjust; I thought it a disad- 
A'antage to the partners in general, and that some step ought 
to be taken to pacify the minds of the people. I, there- 
fore entered into a resolution that I would grant to no one man^ 
living within a certain distance of the Falls, more than one thousand 
acres of land, and that to be settled and improved in a certain space 
of time, under the penalty of forfeiture; that every person who had 
more entered than one thousand acres, miglit retain his one thousand 
out of which spot he pleased; that the several ofiicers, who have 
claims there, may each, on application and complying with our 
terms, be entitled to a one thousand within his survey. That a 
town be immediately laid out, and a lot reserved to each proprietor, 
and then the first settlers to take the lots they may choose, enter 


and improve; which improvement must be done in a certain limited 
time, or the lot forfeited, and again to be sold, &c. These proposals 
seem to have given general satisfaction, and everj- one who had 
entered large quantities within these limits, gives it up with the 
greatest alacrity ; and I am in hopes it will meet the general appro- 
bation of the Company; if so, I shall be happy; if not, I shall be 
very sorrj-, though the necessity must justify the measure. 

The Falls of Ohio is a place, of all others, within the Colony, will 
admit of a town, which, from its particular situation, will imme- 
diately become populous and flourishing ; the land contiguous thereto 
rich and fertile, and where a great number of gentlemen will most 
certainly settle, and be the support and protection of a town at that 
place; a place which should meet with everj^ encouragement, to 
settle and strengthen, inasmuch as it will, most certainly, be the ter- 
rour of our savage enemies, the Kickeboos Indians, who border 
more nearly on that place than any other part of the Colony; and 
as I think it absolutely nece.ssary that the aforesaid proposed to^vn, 
at the Falls, to be laid off'the ensuing Spring, if I find it practica- 
ble, to raise a pa^'ty about the 1" of March and go down and lay out 
the town and stake it off; though this will in a great measure depend 
upon the future tranquility of our situation between this and then, 
for I assure you the little attack made upon us bv the Indians the 
23'''' of last month, has made many people, who are ashamed to 
confess themselves afraid, find out that their affairs on your side 
the mountains will not dispense with their staying here any longer 
at present; and I am well convinced, once they get there, that every 
alarm, instead of precipitating, will procrastinate their return. 
When I mention the little attack made on the 23'' of last month, in 
this cursory manner, it is because I have heretofore sent you a par- 
ticular account of that massacre, in a letter of the 27"" ult. Though 
as that letter may fail, and not get to hand, I will now endeavour 
to briefly relate the circumstances: 

On Saturday, about noon, being the 23'', Colonel Campbell, with a 
couple of lads, (Saunders and ]\PQui'\niey) went across the river. 
On the opposite bank they parted. Campbell went up the river, 
about two hundred Yards, and took up a bottom. The two lads, 
without a gun, went straight up the hill. About ten minutes after 
they parted, a gun and a cry of distress was heard, and the alarm 
given that the Indians had shot Colonel Campbell. We made to 
his assistance. He came running to the landing, with one shoe off, 


and said he was fired on by a couple of Indians. A partj' of men 
was immediately dispatched, under the command of Colonel Boone, 
who went out, but could make no other discovery than two Moccasin 
tracks, whether Indians or not, could not be determined. "We had 
at that time, over the river, hunting &c., ten or a dozen men, in 
different parties — part, or all of whom, we expected to be killed, if 
what Colonel Campbell said was true; but that, by many, was 
doubted. Night came on ; several of the hunters returned, but had 
neither seen nor heard of Indians nor yet of the two lads. We con- 
tinued in this state of suspence till Wednesday, when a party of 
men sent out to make search for them, found M^Quinney, killed and 
scalped, in a corn-field, at about three miles distance from town, on 
the north side of the river. Saunders could not be found, nor has 
yet been heard of. 

On Thursday', a ranging party of fifteen men, under the command 
of .Jesse Benton, was dispatched to scour the woods, twenty or thirty 
miles round, and see if any further discovery could be made. To 
those men we gave two shillings per day, and five pounds for every 
scalp they should produce. • 

After they went out, our hunters returned, one at a time, till they 
all came in safe, Sanders excepted, who no doubt has shared 
M°Quinney's fate. 

On Sunday the 31" day of the month, our rangers returned, with- ■ 
out doing anything more than convincing themselves that the 
Indians had, immediately on doing the murder, ran off far north- 
ward, as thej^ discovered their tracks thirty or forty miles towards 
the Ohio making that way. 

On the above massacre being committed, we began to doubt that 
there was a body of Indians about, who intended committing out- 
rage on our inhabitants. However, we are perfectly satisfied since, 
that their number was only six or seven men, who set off from the 
Shawanee town before the treaty at Fort-Pitt, with an intent, as they 
termed it, to take a look at the white people on Kentucky; and 
King Cornstalk, at the treaty, informed the Commissioners on this, 
and said, for the conduct of these men, before they returned, he 
could not be responsible for that he did not know but tliat they 
might do some mischief, and that if any of them should get killed 
by the whites, he should take no notice at all of i<!. 


For this, we have undoubted authority, and do not, at present, think 
ourselves in any greater danger here than if the above massacre had 
not have been committed. 

Another circumstance is, that our ammunition grows scant. I do 
not think there is enough to supply this place till the last of March ; 
supposing we should have no occasion of any to repulse an enemy. 
If we should, God only [knows] how long it will last. 

If any powder can possibly be procured, it would certainly be 
advisable to do it; if not, some iier.son who can manufacture the 
materials we have on the way, for the purpose of making powder. 
Most part of those are at the block-house, or at least within two or 
three miles of that — the in Powell's Valley. Those (if we had 
any person who knew how properly to manufacture them into gun- 
j)owder) it would be necessary to have at this place. We have no 
such person, and of course they Avould be of but little service here. 
Notwithstanding, I should have sent for them before now ; but peo- 
ple here expect the most exorbitant wages for trivial services. Not 
less than a dollar a day will do for anything, which will prevent 
my sending till I find the necessity greater, or men to be hired 

[Reprinted from the AiiERiCAX Archives. Vol. 4. P. 539.] 

Letter from Colonel Howe to the Virginia Convention. 

Norfolk, .lanuary 4'^ 1776, 3 o'clock P. M. 
About quarter past three on Monday afternoon, the whole fleet 
began a heavy cannonade, which lasted seven hours, without any 
intermission, and, indeed, continued off and on, till last night, 
since which we have b(?en tolerably quiet. Under the fire of their 
ships, they landed in many places, and set fire to the houses on the 
wharves. In these attempts, many of them, we are certain were 
killed, and never failed being repulsed by our peojjle. We had not 
a man killed, and only five or si.x wounded, one supposed mortally; 
and two or three women and children are said to be killed. Provi- 
dence certainly interfered in our iavour, or more lives must have 
been lost. They once landed and got into the streets with field- 
pieces, .but were beat back with loss, and no execution done by 
their fire. Nine tenths of the town are destroyed, but the fire is 
now out. 


[From MS. Recobds in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee at Wilmington. 

Fridaj', .January o"", 177G. 

At a meeting of tlie Committee. 

Present: .John Ancrum, Cliairman ; W"" Wilkinson, Deputy 
Chairman ; A. Maclaine, John l^rster, W^" Ewins, Jona. Dunbibin, 
Henry Toomer, John DuBois, James Geekie, John Kirkwood, li. 

The trade of this port depending so much upon good Pilots, and 
the Ships of War in the Harbor having already one or more of the 
Branch Pilots in their custody, and the Captain of the Scoiyion 
exacted from Thomas Bridges (another of the said Pilots) his Parole 
of Honor to return on board of the said ship, with an intention as it 
is conjectured, not only to deprive the good people of this Colony of 
all l^enefits of Trade, but to pilot our enemies up the River when it 
shall be thought expedient to destroy the property of the inhalji- 
tants. It is the opinion of this Committee that all the pilots of this 
river be immediately secured and that Col. Moore be requested to 
take them into his custody; and it is 

'Resolved, That as soon as the said pilots shall be safely secured, 
that notice be given to the Captain of the Scorpion, that the said 
Thomas Bridges is detained by order of this Committee. 

Ordered, That two companies of Militia of this town, ai)pcar on 
the usual place of parading properly armed and accoutred on next 
Monday week, as well every other inhabitant that has not drawn in 
either of the said companies, and that they do dravr before the above 
day, and that the Test prescribed by the* Provincial Council be 

Ordered that Messrs. Wilkinson and Toomer provide a house in 
this town as an additional Btirrack for the Regulars under the com- 
mand of Col. Moore, to be appropriated to the use of an Hospital 
and that nurses be provided to take care of the sick. 


[Froji MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Committee of Safety at Wilmington. 

Saturday, January 6"", 1776. 

At a meeting of tlie committee. 

Present: John Ancrum, chairman; W. Wilkinson, deputy chair- 
man; A. JMaclaine, John Forster, Will. Ewins, John Kirkwood, 
John DuBois, James Geekie, Ilerrall Blackmore. 

Mr. W. Campbell came into committee and presented a Letter 
from the Governor, rec^uesting Mr Campbell to send down two or 
three barrels of flour, a tub of butter, and some vegetables. 

Ordered, that ]\Ir Campbell have leave to send down two barrels 
of flour, a tub of butter and some vegetables for His Excellency. 

A. Maclaine produced a letter from the Governor to Capt. Maclean, 
ordering him as an half pay officer, to embark for England, and 
Capt. Maclean was of opinion, that should he wait on His Excel- 
lency, he might obtain leave to continue in this Province some time 

Resolved, that Capt. Maclean shall not have leave to wait on the 
Governor, but that he may write to the Governor, and that he shall 
shew the Letter to this committee, pursuant to a resolve of the Pro- 
vincial Council. 

Ordered, that the custom house officers do not clear out any ves- 
sels from this port hereafter, without leave from this committee, or 
some superior power, and that the officers be served with this order. 

Pursuant to an order of this Committee, empowering certain per- 
sons therein named, or any tliree of them, to value the houses, 
buildings and enclosures in the town of Wilmington ; a paper has 
been returned by seven of the said, purporting to be a valuation of 
the buildings, &c., in the said town ; but as it appears that several 
of the said houses and buildings have been omitted ; that many of 
the fixtures, particularly those in the Strll-house of Harnett and 
Washington, have been totally overlooked ; and the said valuers 
declared that they did not include the fences and inclosures in their 
valuation ; this Committee have 

Resolved, That the said valuation is incomplete, inasmuch that 
this order has not been complied with; and it is further 


Resolved, That John Cheeseborough, Andrew Ronaldson, James 
Blythe, Geo. Jacobs, Malatia Hamilton, VCm. Purviance and Henry 
Button, (or any three of them), be empowered to value all the said 
houses, buildings and inclosures in the said town, on oath ; and that 
they be sworn before they enter upon said business; and that they 
value the houses of C. Harnett, Esq., above the town, and those of 
Wm. Hooper Esq., and the late Dr Green, below. 

[From MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Letter from Josejili Hewes delegate in the Continental Congress to 

Samuel Johnston. 

Philadelphia 6"" Jan- 177G. 
Dear Sir, 

I wrote to you two days ago by two ]\Iinisters of the Gospel who 
are sent by order of Congress to the '^^^estern parts of North Caro- 
lina, where some of the inhabitants we are told are pursuing meas- 
ures hostile to the friends of America, they are to endeavour to 
prevail on those people by reason and argument to become active 
in support of those rights and privileges which belong to them in 
common with the rest of the Inhabitants, I hope their well meant 
endeavours will be useful to our Province, 

In your favor of the 5* of November tlie only one I have received 
from you I observe the plan you adopted to get arms and ammu- 
nition and your wish that the general Association had not been 
infringed. I have often wished the same thing, the Congress having 
adopted and pursued a similar mode and on a much larger scale, 
however, altho we have not yet reaped much advantage from it. I 
have altered my mind on that subject and am now perfectly recon- 
ciled to it from a Conviction that our utmost efforts in every way 
will barely furnish us with a sufficient quantity of those necessary 

Some of the Zealous City politicians are alarmed at the arrival of 
a Lord Drummond who came to Town a few days ago. it seems he 
is son to the Earl of Perth, has lived several years in New York 
Government, is possessed of a Landed Estate in New Jersey, went 
to England in November 1774, came out to Boston in a Man of 
War in August last, from thence in the same conveyance soon after 


to New York. Hail he left the Title of Lord behind him he might 
have walked the streets of this City a long time unnoticed, now the 
Ej'es of all are upon him and consider him as a Suspicious Char- 
acter. In private company I am told he says he was several 
months in London and frequently in company with Lord North, 
that the ministry are heartily tired of the controversy between 
Great Britain and the Colonies, but the pride of the people of Eng- 
land will not suffer them to relax, he thinks the matter might be 
easily settled; if America would consent to give a very small sum 
annually so as to save appearances, England would repeal all the 
obnoxious acts and give up more than we ask, he says, Lord North 
was astonished at the LTnion and Strength of the Colonies, declared 
he did not think it was possible for sucla things to be brought about, 
that he had no idea of such resistence. Some people think this Lord 
is employed to make overtures to the Congress, others imagine he is 
only to sound some of the leading I\Iembers & endeavour to find 
out the whole scope design and Views of the Congress, certain it is 
he has had private conferences with several Characters of the first 
distinction among us, I dont find he has yet Closeted anj^ of the 
wise men of the East, however I am not certain of it, my indispo- 
sition has kept me from Congress for two days past in which time I 
have seen very few members. 

A report prevails this day in Town that by some late advices 
received to the eastward from England the ^Ministry are determined 
to send a large Army to America early in the Spring and land it in 
this Province in order to subdue it at all events considering it the 
most active in the present Rebellion, this like many other reports, 
the talk of a day, wants confirmation, tho all accounts agree (except 
what comes from the Lord above mentioned) that administration 
will make one grand eftbrt in the Spring to subdue the Colonies, 
therefore it becomes necessary for us to provide for the event, we 
have Fifty three Regiments raised and raising each to consist of 728 
men officers included, to this Strength j'ou may add twice the num- 
l)er of Regiments of well regulated Militia, some of our Regiments 
are in Canada and more must be sent there. I will trespass no 
longer upon your patience than to request you to present my Com- 
pliments to M" Johnston and famih'. 
I am Dear Sir 

Your mo. obed. hum Serv 



[B. p. R. O. Am. & W. IND. Vol. 280.] 

Letters from .John Stuart, Indian Agent etc., to the Earl of Dartmouth. 

Saint Augustine, G"" .Jan''^, 1776. 
My Lord, 

The Commissioners appointed by the Continental Congress to 
manage Indian Affairs in the Southern District have returned from 
Salisbury in North Carolina Avhere they met and consulted with the 
Commissioners appointed for the Northern District, the result of 
which is to call a meeting of the Cherokees at Fort Charlotte the 
16"^ of April and of the Creeks at Augusta in Georgia the 1" of 
May. I liope my Influence will prove superior to theirs and I shall 
employ it all in counteracting them. I submit abstracts of Sir 
James Wright's Letters containing the above Intelligence. 

I have the honour &c., 


Saint Augustine, S'" .Jan'^ 177G. 
My Lord, 

Since my letter N° 33, dated 5"' current, I have received Dispatches 
from j\r Cameron in the Cherokee Nation with Intelligence that 62 
Cherokees are within a day's journey of this place on their way to 
see me. 

By the enclosed Extracts and Copies of different letters I liope it 
will appear that M^ Cameron has exerted a great deal of influence 
and address with much sjjirit and Judgment. The offers which he 
rejected as well as the threats thrown out against him have proven 
equally ineffectual for preventing his doing his Duty and faitlifully 
discharging the trust reposed in him. [The Cherokees under the 
trying circumstances of hunger and nakedness stand firm in their 
attachment to his Majesty and reject all the temptations thrown in 
their view. The Talk given to tlie party sent her* as well as their 
undertaking so long a journey at this season shows their Fidelity to 
His Majesty and confidence in me. Nothing in my power shall be 
wanting to reward and encourage their disposition. 

The Commissioners for Indian Affairs appointed by the Conti- 
nental Congress havi' it in charge to seize the persons of the Super- 


intendauts and their Dejiuties. The Complement I shall return if 
in my Power. 

I find it Avill be absolutely necessary to employ proper persons to 
assist the Agents in the different Nations in supporting the King's 
Interest and carrying his Orders into Execution, for eveiy practica- 
ble measure will be pursued by the Rebels to debauch the minds 
and alienate the affections of the Indians.] 

I have the honour etc., 


[From MS. Records in Office of Secretary of State.] 

Proceedings of the Safety Committee at Wilmington. 

Tuesday, January 19th, 177G. 

At a meeting of this Committee. 

Present: William Wilkinson, Deputy Chairman ; Corn's Harnett, 
A. Maclaine, Jno. Forster, John Kirkwood, Will. Ewins, H. Black- 
more, Jona. Dunbibin. 

Resolved, that Jacob Phelps, one of the pilots in this river, be 
emploj^ed with his boat, to carry freight and passengers between 
Wilmington and Brunswick, and no further, without permission; 
and that the said J. Phelps do not presume to take any passengers 
or freight, without the leave of one of the two committees of the 
said towns, or the commanding officers of the forces at Brunswick 
or Wilmington ; and it is recommended to the people in general, 
that they employ the said Jacob Phelps' Boat only, as a passage 
boat ; and it is further Resolved, that no other person, but such as 
the said Phelps may employ, shall have liberty to carrj- any freight 
or passengers to Brunswick, withotit the leave of this committee, or 
the commanding officer at W^ilmington, to the end that such persons 
as may have inimical designs against the country, may be prevented 
from carrjnng intelligence to the Governor or Ships of War. 

Resolved, that Jonathan Swain, another of the pilots, have liberty 
to remove with his familj^ from his usual place of residence, about 
two or three miles back ; that Benjamin Bill may be employed, if 
he thinks proper, on board the Provincial Ship, but that he shall 
not have liberty to go to his usual place of residence, and that 
Thomas Gallowav continue at some convenient place near the New 
Inlet, in order to be ready to pilot in any vessels which may be 


allowed to trade in this province, and that it be recommended to the 
Provincial Council and Committee of Safety for Wilmington district, 
to make an adequate allowance to the said Thomas Galloway 
towards the maintenance of his family. 

Ordered, That Mr. John Forster, receive all the Saltpetre, Lead- 
and Brimstone, in "Wilmington, and that he give receipts for the 
same : And that -is. per lb. be allowed for all saltpetre. 

[Reprinted from American Archives. Vol. 4. Page 452.] 

Extract of a Letter from, a Midshipman on Board His Majesty's 
Ship rWer, commanded by Captain Squire, dated .January 9"' 17G6. 

December 9. — Our troops, with about sixty townsmen from Xor- 
folk, and a detachment of sailors from the ships, among whom I had 
the honour to march, set out from Norfolk to attack, once more, the 
Rebels at the Great-Bridge, who had been lodged there some time, 
and ];)ad erected a breastwork ojiposite to our fort on their side of 
the river, ^^'e arrived at the fort half an hour after three, in the 
morning, and after refreshing ourselves, prepared to attack the Rebels 
in then' intrenchments. 

Captain Squire, ever read}' to assist my Loi'd in the publick cause, 
liad sent his gunners and men to manage two pieces of caimon who 
were in the front, and ordered to begin the attack. But how can it 
be supposed, that with two hundred men we could force a strong 
intrenchment, defended bj' at least two thousand? Yet this was 
attempted, and we marched up to their works with the intrepidity 
of lions. But alas! we retreated with much fewer brave fellows 
than we took out. Their fire was so heavy, that, had we not re- 
treated as we did, we should every one have been cut off. Figure to 
yourself a strong breastwork built across a causeway, on which six 
men only could advance abreast; a large swamp almost surrounded 
them ; at the back of which were two small breastworks to flank us 
in our attack on their intrt nchments. Under these disadvantages, 
it was impossiljle to succeed ; yet our men were so enraged, that all 
the entreaties, and scarcely the threats of tlieir officers, could pre- 
vail on them to retreat, which at last they did. The cannon were 
secured within the fort. Wo had sixty killed, wounded, and taken 
prisoners; among wliom were the gallant Captain Fordice of tiie 


Grenadiers of the Fourteenth Brigade, Lieutenants Najiier and 
Leshe, and Lieutenant Batut wounded and taken prisoner; men all 
universally esteemed, and for whom all shed tears; we set out on 
our return to Norfolk ahout seven o'clock in the evening, at which 
place we arrived at twelve, and the soldiers were embarked on board 
vessels prepared for that purpose. 

December 14. — The Rebels having now nothing to obstruct their 
passage, arrived and took possession of Norfolk, and in the evening 
saluted us with a volley of small-arms; which, the next morning, I 
was sent on shore to their Commander, to inform him that, if an- 
other shot was fired at the Otter, they must expect the town to be 
knocked about their ears. 

January 9. — The detested town of Norfolk is no more ! Its de- 
struction happened on New Year's day ! About four o'clock in the 
afternoon the signal was given from the Liverpool, when a dreadful 
cannonading began from the three sliips, which lasted till it was too 
hot for the Rebels to stand on their wharves. Our boats now landed 
and set fire to the town in several places. It burnt fiercely all night 
and the next day ; nor are the flames yet extinguished ; but no 
more of Norfolk remains than about twelve houses, which have 
escaped the flames. 

[B. P. R. O. Am. & W. IND.: No. Carolina. Vol. 222.] 

Letter from Maurice Moore to Governor Martin. 

Wilmington, January 9'*', 1776. 


It appears from the King's speech to Parliament of the 20"' of 
October last, that every military operation which will probably be 
pointed against America in the Spring, are founded on the principal 
of retaining the constitutional dependance of the Colonies, and pre- 
venting them from establishing an iudependant Empire of their 
own. I am further confirmed in this opinion by a passage in Lord 
North's speech to the House of Commons (which D' Cobham assures 
me he saw) in which he says that administration wishes, for no 
more than that the Colonies should be put upon the same footing 
they were in the year 17G3. If I am right in my construction of 
His Majesty's speech, I wish your Excellency would give this 
unhappy Colony an opportunity of renouncing every desire of 


independancy on the parent state, and asking the favoui* of its sov- 
ereign, and a reconcihation with their fellow-subjects at home on 
the terms Lord North says administration will be satisfied with. I 
verily believe, Sir, should your Excellency think it proper to call an 
Assembl}^ it will be found to be the sense of this Province, that it 
is the duty of all the Colonies to submit and to return with cheer- 
fulness to the same political condition they were in in the year 
1763. I wish your Excellency would favour me witli your senti- 
ments on the subject of my letter as soon as may be. 
I am, Sir, your Excellency's 

Most obed' & most hum'"''' servant, 


[Reprinted from the American Archives. Vol. 4. P. 116.] 

Proceedings of the Virginia Convention, thanking North Carolina 
for military assistance. 

"Wednesday, January 10"", 1776. 

The President laid before the Convention a Letter from the Coun- 
cil of Safety for the Province of North Carolina, informing the Con- 
vention that they had sent orders to Col. Howe, commander of the 
Troops at Norfolk, to remain in this Colony with the Carolina 
Troops as long as the public service might require, or until it should 
be absolutely necessary to recall him for the defence of their Prov- 
ince, and had directed him to receive all his orders respecting his 
operations whilst in this Colony from the Convention or Committee 
of Safety. 

Ordered, That the President be desired to write to the Council of 
Safety of North Carolina, acknowledging the receipt of their very 
polite Letter, and thanking them for the assistance afforded this 
Colony against the enemies of America. 

[Reprinted from American Archives. Vol. 4. P. 980.] 

A Proclamation by Governor Martin. 

Whereas a most daring, horrid and unnatural Rebellion has been 
exerted in the Province against His Majesty's Government, by the 


base and insidious artifice of certain traitorous, wicked and desiirn- 
ing men, and the same is now openly avowed and declared, and 
actually threatens the sole subversion of the laws and Constitution 
of the .said Province, and the liberties and privileges of His Majestj''s 
subjects, inhabitants thereof, I have thought fit to issue this Procla- 
mation, hereby to signify to all His JNIajesty's liege subjects within 
this Province, that I find it necessary, for the safety and preserva- 
tion of the riglits, civil and religious, and for the n:iaintenance of 
His Majesty's Government against the said desperate, unnatural 
Rebellion, to erect His Majesty's Royal standard and to collect and 
unite the force of His INIajesty's people under tlie same, for the pur- 
pose of resisting and subduing, with the assistance of the Almiglity, 
the said impious and unnatural Rebellion, and to restore the just 
rights of His INIajesty's Crown and Government, and the liberties of 
his people ; and I do hereby exhort, require and command in the 
King's name, all His Majesty's faithful subjects, on their dut}' and 
allegiance, forthwith to repair to the Royal standard, hereby promis- 
ing and assuring every aid, encouragement, and support to all such 
as shall come to vindicate and support the violated laws and Con- 
stitution of their country; &t the same time pronouncing all such 
Rebels as will not join the Royal banner, Rebels and Traitors; their 
lives and properties to be forfeited. All such as will join shall be for- 
given any past offences, even admitting they had taken up arms, 
not doubting that every man who knows the value of freedom and 
the blessings of a British subject, will join his heart and hand to 
restore to his country that most glorious, free and happj^ Constitu- 
tion and form of Government, which the most desperate and aban- 
doned Traitors only can wish to disturb or alter; or, in times of 
danger, like the present, forbear to hazard everything that is dear 
to support it. 

Given under my hand and seal-at-arms, on board His Majesty's 
Sloop Scorpion, in Cape Fear River, this 10"" day of January 1776, 
and in the sixteenth year of His jMajesty's reign. 

God save the King. 


[B. P. R. O. All. & W. IND.: No. Carolina. Vol. 322.] 

Letter from Governor Martin to Maurice Moore Esq. 

ScoKPiox Sloop of War in Cape Fear River, 

January 11'" 1776. 

I have received your Letter of the 9"" inst: by M"' London, which 
as the letter of an individual uj^ion a very great and important pub- 
lic business, I answer as such, wLshing at the same time you had 
informed me whether you have any, and what authority from the 
People of this Country to desire an opportunity through the General 
Assembly to express their duty to their Sovereign, and desire of His 
Majesty's favour, & to renounce the design of indepeudance; as it 
would have brought the consideration of such a measure as calling 
the Assembly more immediately to my miiid. 

The King's speech of the 2(3"' day of October last to which 3'our 
letter refers, is full of magnanimity and benificence, and with the 
utmost stretch of tenderness widely opens the gates of mercy to 
receive His ^lajesty's deluded subjects in America, who sliall return 
to their allegiance and to obedience to lawful Government. On my 
part I do assure j'ou I shall be most happy to give the People of 
this Country every opportunity to avail themselves of the royal 
benignity; but I can make to mj'self no rule of conduct upon Lord 
North's speech seen by D' Cobham in a Newspaper, nor propose any 
particular terms of accommodation, other than submission to the 
constitutional powers of Government except what were contained in 
tlie resolution of the Hi use of Commons in the last Session of 

If the People of this Colony are desirous to return to their duty 
to their Sovereign, they will furnish me with the best, evidence of 
such good inclinations by instantly dissolving all the combinations 
of rebellion among them; disbanding th6 men they maintain in 
arms to resist His ]\Iajesty's authority (who arc now actually 
employed in doing the most violent and oppressive injuries to tlie 
King's loyal and faithfull people) and by restoring tlie powers they 
have usurped to the cliannels of lawful Government ; that are pre- 
liminary stipulations on which I shall insist previous to the con- 


sideration of calling an Assembly, and which a Peoiile disiiosed to 
return to their duty cannot hesitate to comply with. 

While I am upon the jjleasing subject of reconciliation with you, 
I cannot forbear adding one word more. I am in sj^ite of all the 
misrepresentations of passion and party as sincere a friend to the 
real interests of America, upon constitutional principles, as the most 
zealous of her patriot sons. I therefore tremble for the ruin to which 
they are precij)itating her, they are urging on a most dreadful crisis, 
that must involve this Continent in calamities beyond the compute 
of human imagination: I wish therefore in tenderness to the People 
of this Country in whose fate I feel myself more peculiarly inter- 
ested, that they may consider timely and without a moments delay, 
the dangerous principles on which they stand, and of the glory and 
advantage thej' may obtain by taking the lead in returning to their 
duty, and restoring peace to this unhappy land. 

Perhaps a personal communication with you may lead me to a 
better Knowledge of the present dispositions of the People of this 
Country than I can receive from your letter. And if you are of 
that opinion I shall lay every avenue open and give every facility to 
the meeting any propositions which may tend to the restoration of 
Peace to this Province. I am Sir, &c., 

JO. MAR rix. 

Letter from Governor Martin to Lord George Germain. 

LoNCi Island, near Xew York, 

May 17'" 1777. 
My Lord, 

I have the honor to inform your Lordship, that on a review of 
my Carolina Papers, which mj^ returning health has enabled me to 
make, I have met with a kind of conciliatory overture, that I 
received in the month of January 1776, and as I have heard it has 
been misapprehended l:iy some persons here, I think it pr