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Full text of "Colonial records of Pennsylvania"

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384, 
757-1762 



©ENgALOGY COLLECTION 



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flTlfllllSfilViMTiY r.^ LIC LIBRARY 



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Digitized by the Internet Archive 
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LQ/4n/a/ OecshJj or r& 
MINUTES 



OF THE 



PROVINCIAL COUNCII 



PENNSYLVANIA, 



FROM THE ORGANIZATION TO THE TERMINATION 
OF THE PROPRIETARY GOVERNMENT. 



PUBLISHED BY THE STATE 



VOL. VIII. 



CONTAINING THE PROCEEDINGS OF COUNCIL FROM JANUARY 13tM> 
1757, TO 4th OF OCTOBER, 1762, BOTH days included. 



HARRISBURG : 

PRINTED BY THEO. FENN & CO. 
1852. 



CONTENTS. 

1209432 

A. 

Abercrombie, Major General, succeeds Lord Lowdon in commanding 
the American forces, 26 — letters, from him to Governor Dennyy 
20, 37, 69, 78, 141. 

Aejfc granting his majesty £1000, 68, 72, 303, 223— granting him 
£50,000, 481— granting him ^100,000, 483. Regulating night 
watches in Philadelphia, 321. For binding out at settling, such 
of the Nova Scotians imported into Pennsylvania, as are under 
age, 321. To continue an Act for the more easy recovery of le- 
gacies, 321. For regulating officers and soldiers pay, 333, 482, 
484. To prevent the exportation of bad timber, staves, &c, 335. 
For the more effectual suppressing of lotteries and plays, 339. 
For preventing the exportation of unmerchantable flour and bread, 
407, 548. For the relief of heirs and owners of land, and who 
have been naturalized, 545. 

Acquisitions, important to secure in western Pennsylvania, urged 
by the Governor, 327. 

Address of the Lieutenant Governor to the King, his majesty, 
561. 

Aid to carry on war vigorously against the French, and their allies, 
the Indians, applied for, 27, 65. 

Amherst, General, his letters to Governor Denny, 236, 261, 274, 
298, 316, 322, 331, 380, 381— to Governor Hamilton, 437, 448, 
■\ 452, 454, 503, 504, 578, 582, 590, 592, 602, 622, 628, 679, 
686, 687. 

Appy, a letter from to Governor Denny, 97. 

Ashenock, an Onondago chief, 652. 

Atkinson, a letter from, 58. 

Augusta Fort at Shamokin, 522 — Chickasalary arrives at, 458. 

Augus, Beaver, a chief, his letter to Governor Hamilton, 722 



iv CONTENTS. 

B. 

Beaver, Delaware chief, his speech, 306 — attends a treaty at Lan- 
caster, also deputies of other tribes, 721 — Burd's letter to him, 
334. 

Bedford, General Stanwix at, 376, 378, — Forbes recommends forces 
to be stationed here for the defence of the frontiers, 225. 

Benjamin, a Manakin Indian, resides near Bethlehem, 126. 

Bernard, Governor of New Jersey, letter from him, 140. 

Bills of credit, 351, 353, 460. To provent abuses in the Indian 
trade, 19, 25, 303, 329. To regulate the hire of carriages in his 
Majesty's service, 69, 548, 556. For extending several Acts of 
Parliament, 76, 100. For recording surveys, warrants, &c, 337, 
339, 347, 349, 354, 362, 369, 374, 553, 674. For Re-emissions 
and Loans, 343, 350, 362, 398, 402, 533, 535, 554, 588. To 
prevent hunting deer and wild beasts on Indian lands, 482, 484. 
To enable the owners of Greenwich Island to make embankments, 
482. To appoint agents to apply for, and receive shares and pro- 
portions of monies granted by Parliament to his Majesty's Colo- 
nies in America, 501. For the preservation of fish in the rivers 
Delaware, Susquehanna, and Lehigh, 582. For raising 300 men 
to relieve the posts or forts within the communication of Pitts- 
burg, 582. To enable owners of the meadow on Darby creek, to 
keep the banks, &c, in repair, 583. To make the river Susque- 
hanna navigable 584. 

Bill, Sock, of Conestogo, 116, 118, 122 — he resolves to join in with 
the French, 113 — is charged with murdering Chagrea, and a 
Dutchman, in Lancaster county, 135. 

Bork, Indian trader from Lancaster county, 143. 

Boscawen's letter to Governor Denny, 164. 

Bush Hill, an Indian conference at, 667. 

Burinal, commanding officer at Presque Isle, 311. 

Boyrie, Mons., a French subject, arrested, 714. 

Burd and Davenport, appointed commissioners to receive prisoners, 
776, 777. 

C. 

Caligh, Wanorum, ie. "matters of consequence," 119. 
Campbell's letter to Governor Denny, 291. 
Cant's letter to the proprietaries, 517. 

Carlisle, murder of Doctor John, an Indian, at, 455, 709, 712 — Fort 
here — Forbes recommends forces to be stationed here, 225. 

Carriages for his Majesty's services regulated, 69, 173. 



CONTENTS. v 

Chester county, inhabitants of distressed, 282. 
Children abducted by the savages, given up, 629, 728. 
Chillaway, an Indian, complains of aggrievances suffered, 489. 
Crown, supplies to, 64, 68, 80, 304, 325, 331, 332, 481, 529, 559, 

596. 
Committee appointed to attend an Indian treaty to be held with the 

North Western Indians, 720. 
Conference with Teedyuscung, king of the Delawares, 500. 
Condon, Peter, an English prisoner among the Indians, given up at 

Lancaster, 728. 
Conoy Indians, belong to the Northern Indians, 730. 
Cleghiccon's speech at the Lancaster treaty, 735. 
Commissioners appointed to receive Indian prisoners, 766, 767. 
Conference with the Indians — See Minutes of conferences. 
Connecticutt, inhabitants of come to Pennsylvania, agressing, 564, 

567, 568, 612, 620, 522, 626, 627, 663— Attorney General's 

opinion concerning them, 156. 
Conestogo Indians conference with, 45, 457 — threaten to leave Con- 

estogo, 103, 116 — Governor Denny promises them protection, 

123— M'Kee is sent to them, 113. 
Courts of judicature, supplementary act, 543. 
Croghan, Indian Agent, holds a conference with the Indians at 

Easton, 175— at Pittsburg, 389, 390. 
Croker, killed and scalped at Wyoming, 134. 
Cressap, Daniel, proposes, by permission, to provide the Indians 

with goods, &c, 754, 769. 

D. 

Davenport & Burd appointed commissioners to receive Indian pris- 
oners, 666, 667. 

Declaration of war against Spain, 703. 

D'Abrun, Mons., Envoy extraordinary from his Catholic majesty, 
18. 

Delancy, Governor, letters from, 146, 165. 

Delaware Indians at Beaver creek, intend to remove, 305 — treaty 

with them at Lancaster, 730. 
Desertion to be punished, 76. 
Diahoga Indians, very uneasy, 129. 
Dupue's report touching Connecticutt aggressors, 564. 
Durell's letter to Governor Denny, 289. 
Dougherty, Ann, an Indian prisoner, surrendered, 728. 



Ti CONTENTS. 

E. 

Easton, Indian conferences at, 175, 179, 190, 210, 630, 654. 

East Pennsborro, Proprietaries lands in, 475, 467. 

Eckoang, chief of the Minisink, 434. 

Egremont's letters to Governor Hamilton, 678, 685. 

Eleven Indian nations named, 418. 

Embargo laid on vessels, 39. 

Enlisting soldiers for Provincial service, 587. 

Estimate of arrears due Pennsylvania forces, 458. 

Enasquana, a chief of the Tuscarora Indians, 723. 

F. 

Fauquier, Governor of Va., letter to, from Governor Hamilton, 
779. 

Fitch, Governor of Connecticutt, his letter to Governor Hamilton, 
touching certain claims of land, 626. 

Forbes, Brigadier General, 27 — his letters to Governor Hamilton, 
touching raising forces, &c, 27, 59, 60, 79, 83, 110, 167, 225 
— his letters to General Amherst, 627, 654. 

Fort Du Quesne, a frontier post, 315, 318 — The French commander 
there appoints a great feast for the Indians, 119 — Expected at- 
tack from the Indians, 284 — a new site for a fort there, 392. 
Forbes recommends an increase of forces here, also, at Loyal 
Hanning, 225 — Forbes, Eli, missionary among the Indians at 
Onohoquage, 723. 

Forts west of Susquehanna, 225. 

Fort London, in Cumberland county, forty Cherokee Indians arrive 
at, 77. 

Franklin, Benjamin, his letter touching certain complaints, 279, 
299. 

French, apprehensive of a surprise, begin to evacuate their Forts 
at Niagara, Presque Isle, now Erie, Venango, now Franklin, 395 
— reports current, they were coming against for Allen, 51. 

Fraud, singular definition of by Teedyuscung, 246. 

G. 

Gachradodo, a noted Cayuga Indian, 729. 

Garrison returns of. at Pittsburg, 314. 

George, a Seneca Indian, a conspicuous character, 631, 656, 659 — 

proceeding against him, 11. 
George, King, the Sacond, notice of his death, 521. 
Gorden, Captain, arrives at Pittsburg to select a site for a new 

fort, 392. 
Great Seal, resigned by Hocklay, 335. 



CONTENTS. Tii 



H. 



Hambright, John, conference with Delawares, 750. 

Harris' Ferry, Six Nations Indians at, 721, 728. 

Harris, John, Indians suggest as a suitable person to keep pro- 
visions and clothes for them, 754, 768. 

Hamilton, Governor, 422-— his messages, see messages— his letter 
to the Governor of Connecticut, touching certain aggressions, 
568— to Sir William Johnson, 570. 

Harrison, Captain, sent to fort Allen, 51. 

Hatson, arrives from Margaret town, 499. 

Hendricks, Tobias, has care of Proprietaries land in Cumberland 

county, 475. 
Hickman, Indian interpreter, 293 — is killed in Tuscarora, Path 

Valley, 650. 
Holland, Indian Agent at, for Augusta, Shamokin, 499. 
Hocklay, resigns the Great Seal, 335. 

Holtomen, taken prisoner at South Branch, is given up at Lan- 
caster, 728. 
Homwhyowa, or Wolf King, a noted Indian, 135. 
Horsefield, Timothy, his letters, 85, 99, 353. 

Hughes, sent to Wioming with carpenters to erect dwellings for 

Indians, 134. 
Hunter's letter, 342. 
Hyndshaw's oath touching Connecticut intruders, 612., 

I. 

Indian Nations, names of which incidentally noticed, but occurring 
frequently : Coughnawagos, 35 ; Cherokees, 124 ; Chihohockes, 
176 ; Chippewas, 35; Chugnuts, 176 ; Conestogos, 122 ; Conoys, 
170; Delawares, 84; Kecopas, 39; Kuskushkies, 39 ; Mahowas, 
35 ; Mingoes, 209 ; Mohickins, 176 ; Mohocks, 144 ; Munsies, 
or Minnisinks, 176 ; Musquakes, 391 ; Nalashawanas, 35 ; Nan- 
ticokes, 176; Oneidas, 176; Onondagos, 156; Opies, 660; Ot- 
tawaws, 35; Pietoatomaws, 35 ; Pumptons, or Wapings, 176; 
Putawatimes, 391; Qusnaweesawes, 84; Saponys, 730; Senecas, 
130 ; Shockeys, 391 ; Toawaws, 35 ; Tuteloes, 176 ; Twightwees, 
35; Wiwatchtanis, 723 ; Wyondotts, 391. 

Indians arrived at Easton to attend a conference, 175, 179, 190, 210, 
630, 654— at Lancaster, 457, 721 — at Philadelphia, 32, 42, 59, 
86, 89, 91, 101, 122, 124, 149, 151, 211, 264, 270, 415, 424, 
463, 484, 490, 497, 586, 594, 614, 655, 698, 707, 709, 712. 



viii CONTENTS. 

Indians, Delawares and Shawanese, not to be relied on, favorable to 
the French, 294. 

Indians anxious for a personal interview with General Stanwix, 
301; Richard Peters' letter touching them, 305; Frederick Post 
sent to them, 341 ; the killed sentinels, 392 ; complaints of being 
defrauded by them, 489; message to those on the Susquehanna 
river, 131. 

Indian interpreters, Conrad Weiser for many years, 50; Samuel 
Weiser, 630 ; Moses Tattamy, 415 ; John Hickman, 293 ; Isaac 
Stille, 403 ; Andrew Montour, 618 ; Henry Montour, 383 ; 
Pumpshire, 156; David Seisberger, 633; Stephen Calvin, 156; 
Frederick Post, 341 ; James Sherlock, 630; Peggy, an Indian 
woman, 457; Hart, 135; Joseph Peppy, 630. 

Indian trade, abuses of, to prevent, 18, 71, 329. 

Indian nations, eleven of them named, 419. 

Instructions from King George to Governor Hamilton, 520. 

Inspectors, act directing their election, 549. 



Janvier, Provincial armourer, 79. 

John, Doctor, an Indian, with his woman and two children, killed 

near Carlisle, 455, 712. 
Joequanta's speech at Philadelphia, 652. 
Johnston, Sir William, his letter to Teedyuscung, 507. 
Jorachgnison, a Cayuga Indian, 118. 
Journal of Fredrick Post, 142. 

K. 

Kinderuntie, head warrior of the Seneca nation, his speech at Lan- 
caster, 766, 767. 

King's Supplies, 64, 68, 80, 304, 325, 331, 332, 481, 529, 559 
596. 

Kiceunochthe, a Shawanese warrior, 387. 

Killbuck, a Delaware chief, 386. 

King George's instruction to governor Hamilton, 520. 

King Thomas, an Indian chief, his speeches at Lancaster, 752, 
754, 755, 759, 765. 



La Beef fort, descriptions of, 312. 

La Marie, commander at Venango, 313. 



CONTENTS. ix 

Lancaster, Indian conference at, 457, 721. Soldiers quartered 
in private house to great annoyance of the people, 330. Priso- 
ners held by Indians, given up at, 728. Governor Hamilton 
held an Indian treaty, 721. 

Law maxim, " Land cannot pay two taxes," 327. 

Le Sarabrow, French commander at fort La Beef, 313. 

Libel, Rev'd W. Smith charged with, and arraigned for, 439, 450, 
456. 

Loans to Colonel Hunter, 343, 694. 

Lotteries & plays, attempted to be suppressed by law, 339. 

London Lord, is succeeded by General Abercrombie, 26, his letter, 
23. 

Land measured by " one and a half day's walk;" of which the In- 
dians afterwards complain bitterly, 250, 251, 708, 737. 

Le Roy, a French subject, siezed, 714. 

Letters from Amherst, 236, 261, 283, 285, 316, 381, 578, £90, 
592, 602, 629, 686, 687. From General Abercrombie, 26, 27, 
37, 69, 78, 141. From Governor Bernard of New Jersey, 140. 
Durell, 289. From Campbell, 291. From Appy, 97. From 
General Forbes, 27, 59, 60, 79, 110, 167, 225, 627. From 
Benjamin Franklin, 299. From Sir William Johnson, 507. 
From Lord London, 23. From Governor Denny, 56. From 
Timothy Horsefield, 85, 99, 353. From Hunter, 342. From 
Hart, 135. From Colonel Mercer to Richard Peters, 305, 291, 
393. From Monckton, 495, 509. From Captain Orndt, 401. 
From Richard Peters to Colonel Mercer, 309. From Lord Pitt 
to Governor Denny and Governor Hamilton, 18, 26, 27, 272, 
288, 315, 316, 451, 588. From Governor Ponneal of Massa- 
chusetts, 483. From Pownal, secretary to the Lords of trade, 
514. From General St. Clair to Governor Denny, 74. From 
Shippen, 113. From Reed, Spangenberg, 84, 304. From Wil- 
liam Thompson, 111. From West to Governor Hamilton 1 , 455. 
From Wraxwall, 155. From Wright, respecting the Conestogo 
Indians, 116. From Young, 226. To Vaudrevil, Governor 
General of Canada, 141. From Governor Hamilton to Col. 
Burd, 776. Same to King Beaver, 778. To Sharpe, Governor 
of Maryland, 779. To Governor Fauquire, 779. 

Loyal Hanning attacked by the Indians, 212 Forbes recommends 
the stationing here two hundred men, 235. 

Lloyd taken a prisoner by the Indians, in Little cove, 728. 

M. 

Men for the defence of frontier settlements, where necessary to be- 
stationed, 225. 



x CONTENTS. 

Mahoowa Indians reside on an island in the Lakes, 55, 
Maquas or Mohock Indians, not sincere or in earnest, 128. 
McKee sent to the Conestogo Indians, to enquire whether thej i®* 

tend to remove, 113. 
Mercer, Colonel, appointed to command the troops on the Ohio 
river, 292 — holds a conference with the Indians at Pittsburg, 
293— his letters to Richard Peters, 305, 391, 393. 
Message from Governor Denny to Teedyuscung and other Indians 
at Wyoming, 129 — to the Susquehanna Indians, 131 — to Tech- 
tama and Homwhyowa, and Delaware Indians, 135. 
Messages from Governor Denny to the General Assembly, 1, 13, 
29, 41, 61, 62, 66, 72, 81, 166, 169, 227, 237, 275, 
286, 303, 317, 327, 330, 361, 373, 382, 391. 
from Governor Hamilton, 423, 226, 437, 448, 449, 478, 
481, 495, 509, 512, 513, 515, 521, 522, 559, 560, 574, 
577, 578, 579, 581, 583, 593, 603, 605, 611, 662, 666, 
674, 676, 678, 681, 693, 695, 710, 775. 
from the General Assembly to Governor Denny, 37, 39, 

58, 65, 71, 102, 229, 240. 
from the same to Governor Hamilton, 396, 425, 428, 446, 

510, 559, 584, 596, 692, 714, 715. 
from the Proprietaries, Thomas and Richard Penn, to the 
Assembly, 276. 
Mmisink Indians, suggested how to succeed with them to secure 

their aid against the French, 416. 
Minutes of Conference with the Indians at Easton, 175, 179, 190, 

192,195,199,200,205 ; 
209, 210, 630, 654. 
on the east side of Nesco- 

pekun mountains 132. 
at Burliugton, N. J. 156. 
at Bush Hill, near Phila- 
delphia, 667. 
at John Hambright's 750, 

751, 752. 
at Lancaster, 457, 721, 
725,729,734,736,740, 
741,744,750,752,757, 
759, 765, 766. 
at Philadelphia, 32, 42, 
59, 86, 89, 91, 101, 
122, 149, 151, 211, 
264, 270, 415, 424, 
463, 484, 490, 497, 
586, 594, 614, 655, 
698, 707, 709, 712. _ 
at Slough's house in 
Lancaster, 722, 72S. 



CONTENTS. xi 

Monckton's letters, 495, 509. 

Miskapalathy, or the Red Hawke, his speech at Lancaster, 736, 737. 

Missionary at Onohoquage, in Lower Tuscarora, 722. 

Money struck for the King's use, 40. 

Moore, charged with publishing a libel against the Governor and 

Assembly, 1, 11 — proceedings against him, 161. 
Moore, Thomas, taken by the Indians at the Potomac, surrendered 

at Lancaster, 728. 
Mutiny, military officers attempt it, 282. 

N. 

Nalashawawna Indians live north of New England, 35. 
Nanticoke Indians, conference with, 668, 730. 
Negroes, duty imposed on, 575, 601. 
Neverville killed, 393. 

Niagara Fort taken by the English, 393, 395, 396. 
Northern Indians, a conference with, at Lancaster, 752. 
Nutimas, Isaac, comes to Bethlehem, 353. 
Nuntian, Indian chief of the Opey tribe, 668. 

0. 

Officers' pay, act relative thereto, 333. 

Opey nation of Indians going to settle at Wyoming, 606, 610, 668. 

Orndt, Captain, his letter to Governor Denny, 401. 

Onangintolany, Teedyuscung's son, 9. 

Oneida and Onondago Indians, treaty with, at Lancaster, 729, 741 

Oswegatchie and Indian settlements, 503. 

Ottawan Indians, live north-west from Fort Detroit, 35. 



Peace between the English and Indians materially affected by the 
Mohocks, Oneidas, Senecas, Onondagos, Cayugas, and Tuscaro- 
ras, 746. 

Paughawe, a distinguished chief of the Twightwee nation, 724, 

Papounan, a notable Indian chief, 649. 

Peepy, Joe, a Delaware Indian, conference with, 580, 661. 

Peters, Richard, his letter to Colonel Mercer, 309. 

Pixtoatoman Indians, live west of Fort Detroit, 35. 

Pisqueton, an Indian chief, his speech, 174. 



xii CONTENTS. 

Pitt's letters, 18, 26, 27, 272, 288, 315, 316, 451, 588. 
Pittsburg, site selected for a new fort at, 392, 427 — conference with 

the Indians held by Stanwix, 64, 68, 80, 429 — stores kept at to 

supply the Indians, 739. 
Philadelphia, women greatly insulted and rudely assaulted, 672 — 

Indians meet at to hold conferences, 32, 42, 59, 86, 89, 91, 101, 

122, 149, 151, 211, 264, 270,415, 424, 463, 484, 490, 497, 

586, 594, 614, 655, 698, 707, 709, 712. 
Plantation affairs, touching them, 552, 567. 
Ponneal, Governor of Massachusetts, his letter, 483. 
Pownal, Secretary to the Lords of Trades, letter from, 514. 
Plays and lotteries attempted to be suppressed by law, 339, 533. 
Post, Frederick, interpreter and Indian agent, instructions to, 132, 

142, 341, 469. 
Pratt, Attorney General, his opinion concerning Connecticut claim- 
ants, 156. 
Presque Isle, French Fort at, 312 — garrison at, 311 — French send 

away their stores, 381 — they evacuate the Fort, 395. 
Prideaux, General, killed, 380. 
Prisoners held by the Indians, delivered by them, 414, 485, 728, 

750. 
Proclamations by Governor Hamilton, 412, 456, 518, 558, 663, 

672, 706. 
Pumpshire, an Indian interpreter, 156. 
Proprietaries of Pennsylvania, never forced a purchase of lands 

from the Indians, 763, 764. 

Q. 

Quahanoguesie Indians, live west of the Allegheny mountains, 96 — 

a message sent to them, 97. 
Quakers, address from them concerning their severe sufferings, 239 

241, 243. 
Quartering soldiers in private houses, to the great annoyance of the 

people of Lancaster, 330. 

R. 

Ravages and depredations committed by Indians, 99. 

Reading, petition from the citizens, setting forth the distressed state 
of the people, 99. 

Re-emitting bills, 357, 362, 398, 402, 533, 535, 551, 558. 

Religion, christian, Teedyuscung's approved of, and profession, 48. 



CONTENTS. xiii 

Report of the Sheriff of Northampton county, relative to Connec- 
ticut claims in Pa., 564. 
of a committee to inquire into the complaints of Indians at 
the Easton conference, 246, 249, 257, 261. 
Remonstrance from the Assembly against Governor Denny, 74. 

Resolutions appointing Benjamin Franklin and Mr. Charles, agents 
for Pennsylvania, in England, 512 — for raising and clothing 
forces to prosecute the campaign of 1758, 52. 

Road from Lancaster to Carlisle, petitioned for, 676. 

Rogers, Esther, Jacob, & Richard, abducted from Virginia by the 
Indians, and surrendered at Lancaster, 728. 

S. 

Sawnaughakey, a chief of the Twightwee nation, 724. 

•Schools among the Indians, 48. 

St. Clair, appointed by General Amherst to settle certain accounts, 

322 — his letter to Governor Denny, 71. 
Seneca Indians attend a treaty at Lancaster, 730. 
Seneca George, a noted Indian, 631, 656, 659 — proceedings against 

him, 11 — his speech at Lancaster, 756. 

Schedule of Deeds, Treaties, &c, with the Indians, 259, 260, 261. 
Shingas, a noted Indian, his letter to Governor Denny, 690. 
Shahaise, an old Conestogo Indian, 113, 116, 123 — would never 

leave Conestogo, 117 — his speech at Philadelphia to Governor 

Denny, 118. 
Smith, Reverend William, complaints against him, 438 — charged 

with publishing a libel against the Governor and Assembly, 11, 17. 
Soldiers at Shamokin, the Six Nations desire them to be removed, 

753. 
Shippen writes to Governor Denny, 113. 
Spangenberg, Reverend, his letters, 84, 304. 
Stanwix, General, appointed to succeed General Forbes, 298 — holds 

conferences with the Indians at Pittsburg, 64, 68, 80, 429 — his 

letters to Governor Denny and Hamilton, 146, 341, 343, 352, 

376, 379, 427. 
Supply bills, 64, 68, 80, 304, 325, 331, 332, 481, 529, 559, 596. 

Surveys, bills relative thereto, 337, 347, 349, 354, 361, 363, 374, 

553,674. 
Stille, Isaac, an Indian interpreter, 403, 724. 



Taxing Proprietaries' lands in Cumberland, complained of by them, 

&c, 472. 
Taway Indians, killed several sentinels near Pittsburg, 392. 



xiv CONTENTS. 

Techtama, an Indian, a message from, 135. 

Teedyuscung, one of the most noted Kings of the Delaware In- 
dians, his interviews with Governor Denny, 9, 29, 32, 44, 89, 

, 101, 114, 344, 403, 405— with Governor Hamilton, 435, 463, 
497, 500, 594, 654, 667, 707 — Governor's message to him, 
129 — attends the treaty at Lancaster, 730 — also at Hambright's, 
750. 

Thomas, a Warrior,- and Oneido chief, 269. 
Thompson, William, letter from him, 111. 
Tidd, Mary, and her child, taken near Samuel Depuies, delivered at 

Lancaster, 750. 
Tingoocqua's speech, 417. 

Tomago, alias Beaver, a chief of the Ohio Delaware Indians, 723. 
Tokahaio, a noted Cayuga chief, 633, 643, 757. 
Totyonontonha's speech at Philadelphia, 698. 
Traders to the West Indians, 576. 
Trent, a bill for his relief, afterwards disallowed, 320. 
Tulpehocken Indians commit depredations, and steal horses, 401, 

406. 
Tuscarora Indians attend at the Lancaster treaty, 723. 
Twightwee chiefs attend a treaty, 724. 

U. 

United Brethren, a petition in their behalf, 304. 

V. 

Vaudrevil, Governor General of Canada, a letter to him, 141. 

Vanellen, a young woman abducted by the Indians, afterwards sur- 
rendered, 485. 

Venango, Fort at, 313 — French in great confusion there, 392 — 
they evacuate the Fort, 485. 

W. 

Wagons that had been taken into pay of the Crown, were destroyed, 

282. 
Waggoner, Captain, at Pittsburg, 293. 
War declared against Spain, 703. 
Ward, Captain, at Pittsburg, 293. 

Warrants, land, &c, bills relative thereto, 337, 347, 349, 354, 362, 
369, 374, 553, 674. 



CONTENTS. xv 

Washington, George, Colonel, a letter from him to Governor Denny, 
56. 

Weiser, Conrad, an Indian Interpreter, 50, 118 — too much indis- 
posed to go to Shamokin, 458 — present at the conference at 
Easton, 125 — his memorandum of news, 118. 

West's letter to Governor Hamilton, 455. 

Western Indkns, conference held with them at Lancaster, 737. 

Wicacoa Fort reinforced, 39. 

Williams, Elizabeth, and Henry Williams, I&dian prisoners, given 

up, 750. 
Wioming Indians, message to them, 129 
Wiwachtanies' Chiefs attend treaty at Lancaster, 723. 
Women grossly assaulted in Philadelphia, 672. 
Wranwall, a letter from, 155. 
Wright directed to supply the Conestogo Indians, 123 — his letter 

torching tliem, that tkey are about leaving their town, 116. 

Y. 

York, Thomas, authorised to sell Provincial ship-of-war, 574, 583. 
Young, letter from, 226. 



MINUTES 



OF THE 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL OF PENNSYLVANIA. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Friday the 13th January, 

1757. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esquire, Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

William Till, Richard Peters, "| 

Robert Strettell, Benjamin Chew, L^ SC(U i re g 

Benjamin Shoemaker, * John Mifflin, f " 

Joseph Turner, J 

The Minutes of the preceding Councils were read and approved. 

The Committee reported to the Council, that they had inspected 
the Council Books an4 the Votes and Proceedings of the House, 
and examined every thing therein relating to Impeachments, and 
had drawn up an Answer to the Assembly's Message, which was 
submitted, and after some Amendments, approved, and the Secre- 
tary was directed to carry it to the House ; the same was ordered 
to be entered, as follows : 
" Gentlemen : 

" All 1 intended by my Last Message to you was, to shew you I 
had paid great regard to the Remonstrance made to me by the late 
Assembly of this Province against Mr. Moore, and had taken the 
proper Steps to enquire into the Truth of the many Petitions ex- 
hibited against him; and further, to acquit myself from any Charge 
of Delay on that Occasion. 

" I did not take upon me to require of you the Causes of his 
being arrested and Imprisoned, nor do I think it now becomes me 
to enquire whether the Address you mentioned contains libellous 
Matter against the Late Assembly, or if it does, whether you, who 
(as you are pleased to say), in the Character of the Late Assembly, 
presented the Address against Mr. Moore, can, in your present capa- 
city, as a new Assembly, take Notice of and punish the Author 
Vol, viii. — 1. 



2 MINUTES OF THE 

of it. Yon no doubt will Judge how far your legal Power extends ? 
and take care to confine Yourselves within the Limits by which it is 
circumscribed. You ought, and I am perswaded will, Support your 
own dignity and Legal Rights, in which you will always find me 
ready, if necessary, to join and Act in Concert with you, so far as I 
have Power to do it. 

u I cannot help observing that from Several parts of your Last 
Message you seem apprehensive that in the Steps taken by me to 
bring the Complaints against Mr. Moore to a full hearing, I have 
attempted to Establish a new Judicature, unknown to the Constitu- 
tion, and that a Concern for my Honour obliged you to inform me 
that all Hearings and Trials before the Council, where they assume 
a Voice in the Judical Determination, is an high Infringement of 
the Rights of the People, a Violation of the Charter of the Pro- 
vince, and an innovation in the Constitution. I am much obliged 
to you, Gentlemen, for the Concern You express for my Honour, 
but I cannot conceive what could give rise to your Apprehensions. 
A Concern for my own Honour and that of the Council lays me 
under the Necessity of telling you that your fears had no just Foun- 
dation, that in no one instance since my Accession to this Govern- 
ment I have ever, by myself, or in conjunction with my Council, safe 
as a Court of Judicature, or given any Judicial Determination. 

" On Considering the Matters complained of in the Late Assem- 
bly's Address against Mr. Moore, I could not be so absurd as to 
Suppose that I had a Judicial Power to arraign, try, condemn, and 
punish him, for the offences therein charged upon him. Indeed, 
the only particular charge alledged against him was that of Extor- 
tion, an Offence very Criminal in its Nature, and for which (if Guilty) 
he ought to be severely punished, but I well knew that a Positive 
Act of Assembly of this Province annexed a penalty to that Offence, 
and directed the Mode of Trial therein, and that without assuming 
a Power of Dispensing with Law, I could not sit in a judicial Capa- 
city on his Trial. However, as the Office in which it is said he had 
misbehaved himself was held under this Government, I thought it 
aDuty I owed to Justice and to the Publick to Satisfy myself of his 
Guilt or innocence, that if he could not clearly acquit himself from 
the Charges T might, by depriving him of his Commission, at Least 
put it out of his Power to commit the like Offences for the Future. 
To this end only I appointed Monday last for the Hearing, and de- 
sired the Assistance of my Council. If, in this, I have violated the 
Charier, and been guilty of an Innovation in the Constitution, and 
erected a New Court of Justice, I leave you and the World to 
Judge 

"I have very carefully considered, as well as the Shortness of Time 
would admit, that Part of your Message wherein y< i a -sert that the 
Power of impeaching is incontestably in the Asser-.My by the 
Charter of Privileges and an established Law of tbis Province, and 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 3 

the Power of Determining such impeachments in the Governor 
alone, and I do assure that if I could be as fully convinced as you 
seem to be that I am Legally vested with so Supreme a Power, I 
would not hesitate one moment to take upon me the exercise of it. 
Give me Leave to observe to you, Gentlemen, that in the Estab- 
lishment of so transcendent a Power in the Single person of a Gov- 
ernor of this Province, so widely differing in its present Frame and 
Constitution from that of our Mother Country, especially in the 
Branches of the Legislative Body, the Lives, Liberties, and Pro- 
perties of every Freeman in it are deeply interested in it. I agree 
with you that Impeachments are Warranted by the Usage of Par- 
liament and Customs of our Mother Country, but you will Please 
further to Consider that the Parliament of England Consists of 
Three different Bodies and Estates, namely, the King, Lords, and 
Commons, each of which have, inherent in them, distinct Preroga- 
tives, Privileges, Powers, and Jurisdictions, which I conceive they 
do not derive under any Positive Laws made for that Purpose, but 
such their Rights are originally founded in the Nature of their 
institution, and the Principles of an English Government. The 
Commons have an undoubted Right to impeach Criminals for such 
high Crimes and Misdemeanors as they cannot be called to an 
Account for in the ordinary and established Courts of Justice ; 
and it is as undoubtedly the Right of the House of Lords only to 
hear, try, and Pass Sentence of Death, or otherwise, as they see 
occasion, against such Offenders. The Legislature here consists of 
two Parts only, the King's Representative, and the representatives 
of the People, without any middle State, Resembling the House of 
Lords, between them ; and neither of the Branches of the Legisla- 
ture of this Province have any other Powers or Jurisdictions but 
those which are expressly delegated and granted them. Admitting, 
therefore, for Argument's Sake, the Words of the Charter and Law 
of the Province you refer to in their full Latitude and Extent, 
which are, that the Assembly shall have power to chuse a Speaker, 
and other their Officers, and shall be Judges of the Qualifications 
and Elections of their own Members, Sit upon their own Adjourn- 
ments, appoint Committees, prepare Bills in order to pass into Laws, 
impeach Criminals, and redress Grievances, and shall have all other 
Powers and Privileges of an Assembly, according to the Rights of 
the Freeborn Subjects of England, and as is usual in any of the 
King's Plantations in America; yet it does not follow that the Gov- 
ernor of the Province has the Power of hearing, trying, and passing 
Sentence on such impeachments. No such Jurisdiction is given 
him by the Words of the Charter, or elsewhere, that I can find, on 
the Strictest Scrutiny j Nor does it seem "to me, for the Security of 
the Lives and Liberties of the Good People of this Province, that 
their Governor alone, or any one Man Living, should be invested 
with so high a Trust. Power has in it great Allurements, and when 
offered is seldom refused, but I have the Pleasure to find, that a 



4 MINUTES OF THE 

preceding Governor of this Province had Virtue enough to decline 
acting as a Judge in a case of Impeachment under the present 
Charter. 

" Be pleased to remember, Gentlemen, that the Freedom and 
Happiness of an Englishman consists in a great Measure, in the 
most inestimable Privilege of being tried by his Equals in every 
case that affects his Life, Liberty, Character, or Fortune ; and that 
to deprive him of that Right against Law, or without Clear Law, is 
the Highest injury that can possibly be done him, and that who- 
ever, in such a Case, under an English Constitution, takes away 
the Life of a Subject, is answerable for his Blood, and Guilty of 
Murder. These considerations, among others, have such Weight 
with me, that I dare not accept of the Power you offer me, as the 
sole Judge in impeachments, till it is demonstrated to me that the 
Law has invested me with it ) when that is done, I will chearfully 
comply with what my Duty requires of me ; but till then you will 
excuse me if I decline any such Jurisdiction, least I may justly 
subject myself to the Charge of Establising a New Judicature, 
usurping an illegal Power, infringing the Liberties of the People, 
and in short, of Subverting the Constitution. 

" Permit me now to remind, you Gentlemen, that the Defence 
and Protection of this Province greatly depends on your attending, 
without Loss of Time, to the Several Weighty Matters recom- 
mended, recommended to you in my Messages of the Seventeenth 
of October, and Third of this Instant ; and therefore, I again most 
earnestly entreat you that every Consideration of less moment and 
Publick Concern, may in your deliberations give place to them, 
and that you will defer all other Matters to more Leisure and Con- 
venient Season. 

" WILLIAM DENNY. 

" January 13th, 1758." 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Thursday, the 18th January, 
1758.^ 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esquire, Lieutenant Gov- 
crnor. 

Richard Peters, Esquire. 
Yesterday Two Members waited on the Governor with the fol- 
lowing Message, which was read and ordered to be entered : 

A Message to the Governor from the Assembly. 
u May it Please your Honour : 

" We cannot help expressing our Surprize that you should be at 
a Loss to conceive what could give rise to our apprehensions that 



, PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 5 

you had attempted to establish a New Court of Judicature, un- 
known to the Constitution. For the cause we think we could 
safely appeal to your Honour's Heart, but we know we can to your 
expressions. In your Message, of the Ninth instant, you expressly 
inform us that common Justice required that no man should be 
condemned unheard in any Matter that affected his Life, Fortune, 
or Character, and therefore declared your design of giving William 
Moore an Opportunity of making his Defence ; That from the 
moment you received the Address of the late Assembly for his 
Removal, you were determined on a full and close inquiry into the 
Charges against him, to make a Publick Example of him as far as 
your Power extended ; And that to that End you had Appointed 
the same Day for Hearing all the Proofs in the Case, after due 
Notice given to the Parties and their Witnesses, and accordingly 
attended with your Council in the Council Chamber. Certainly we 
should be incredulous indeed and very defective in our Apprehen- 
sions, did not these Positive Declarations prevail on us to believe 
you did attempt to set up a New Judicature ; and had not our Ser- 
geant-at-Arms for a very high Misdemeanor arrested the person 
intended to be tried, that attempt had been fully executed. If the 
issuing process to convene the parties before your Honour and, 
your Council, the giving of orders for the Summoning of Wit- 
nesses by the Sheriff and his Deputies, in order to hear all the 
Proofs in the Case, & thereupon to acquit or condemn the person 
charged, and a Meeting at the Council Chamber for that Purpose, 
are not evident Proofs of such Attempt, we leave the impartial to 
determine. 

* These are what your Honour calls proper Steps to enquire into 
the Truth of the many Petitions against William Moore, though 
you are pleased to declare that you could not be so absurd as to 
suppose you had a Judicial Power to arraign, Try, Condemn, and 
Punish. If you did not intend to arraign, why was the party 
charged to come before your Honour and Council ? If not to try 
or judicially determine, where was the use of Witnesses ? If not 
to condemn or acquit, what could you mean by the Intimation that 
no man should be condemned unheard ? If not to Punish, how 
could you make a publick Example of him ? or if no Judicial De- 
termination was to be had thereon, what could be the design of 
hearing the Proofs, and giving the Party an Opportunity of making 
his Defence ? 

" As to the propriety of these Steps, we beg leave to remark that 
they are not supported by our Charters, or the Laws of the Con- 
stitution, nor by any Precedent in our Mother Country, and have a 
Tendency to institute an Authority never attempted by our Gracious 
Sovereign, or any of his Councils; Steps that may be of Danger- 
ous consequence to the Lives, Liberties and Properties of the Peo- 
ple ; and should your Honour and Council Pursue them, we Know 



6 MINUTES OF THE 

not where they may end, For if you and your Council may, without 
the Shadow of Law, institute a full and close enquiry, at which you 
are to hear all the Proofs, and Examine the Witnesses upon Oath, 
give the Party charged an opportunity of making his Defence, and 
of being acquitted or Condemned, in this case, you may with the 
same Kind of reason and Degree of Law do it in every other, and 
at Last determine not only Matters which affect the Properties, but 
the Liberties and Lives of the Subject, and that without the Secu- 
rity which ever must attend an antecedent Trial before, and Im- 
peachment by the delegates of the People. Wherever a Person in 
a judicial Capacity breaks over the Verge and Confines of Law, he 
may rove in the field of Oppression and never stop, his Power be- 
comes Transcendent and unconfined indeed; Your Honour will, 
therefore, excuse us for Thinking that in the Establishment of a 
Power so unlimited, the Lives_, Liberties and Properties of the Peo- 
ple are very intimately concerned, and may be more essentially 
affected than where they cannot be tried by the Impeachment of 
their Representatives. 

" We have again considered, and still persist in our request, that 
you would either remove William Moore from his Publick Offices, 
or permit us to impeach him of the many heinous Misdemeanors 
charged against him, some of which are not cognizable in the ordi- 
nary Courts of Justice ; We have no doubt respecting our Eight to 
impeach, nor are we Obliged to your Honour for admitting it, For 
argument Sake only. The Charter of Privileges and a Law of the 
Province are declarative of it in too explicit Terms to admit of the 
least doubt with the meanest and most prejudiced capacity, and we 
still are of Opinion, that your Honour ought to Determine on such 
an Impeachment; By the Royal Grant the Governor and Assembly 
here are Constituted the Two Branches of the Legislative Authority, 
the one holding his Power under the Crown, the other deriving their 
Authority from the People, and a Negative on our Laws is reserved 
in the Crown, each of which we agree have inherent in them, dis- 
tinct Prerogatives, Privileges, Powers, and Jurisdictions, founded in 
the Nature of their Institution and the Principles of an English 
Government ; and that to the Powers of each are annexed certain 
Requisites not expressly granted by the Royal Charter, which are to be 
exerted occasionally, for the necessary Support and exercise of their 
respective Jurisdictions for the Peace and Safety of the Province. 
The Governor here may be deemed to Supply a middle state, and 
from the Nature of his Institution must be invested with these 
Powers and Requisites J and we apprehend ought, and was intended, 
to Supply the Place of a House of Lords in an Inferior Degree, with 
respect to Hearing and Determining on Impeachments. This can- 
not be denied, consistent with the Freedom and Principles of an 
English Government, where the Right of the Commons to redress 
Grievances is one of the most essential Checks in the Constitution. 
Without this Power in the Governor, there must be a manifest 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 7 

Failure of Justice. The Proprietary Officers and others may be 
Guilty of the most Atrocious Offences, not cognizable in the ordinary 
Courts of Justice, and the Government will be destitute of the Means 
of punishing them, Which would be such a defect in our Constitu- 
tion that common Sense forbids the Supposition. Of this opinion 
was a former Assembly of this Province on the like occasion, where 
they assert that the Power of impeaching Criminals is incident to 
the Legislative Authority, for the Common Safety, and that the 
Ends of Government cannot be answered without it; And in pur- 
suance of this opinion they resolved, N. C. D. : 

" 'First. That the Present Constitution of this Government, which 
Tests the Legislative Authority in the Governor and Representatives 
of the People of this Province, does well Warrant us to impeach, 
and the Governor to Judge of such Impeachments. 

" ' Secondly. That the Council having, by our Constitution, no 
share in the Legislative Authority, ought not to sit with the Gover- 
nor Judicially upon such Impeachments/ 

u But your Honour is pleased to say that no such Jurisdiction is 
given you by the Charter, or elsewhere, that you can find. We 
agree that it is not expressly, but contend that it is implicity granted 
to you as the Middle State of our Legislature, and founded in the 
very Nature of your Institution. If you have no other Powers or 
Jurisdiction but those which are expressly delegated and granted, by 
Virtue of what express Authority or Power of altering and amend- 
ing Bills passed by the Assembly, and of putting an absolute Nega- 
tive on them, with other Powers and Rights belonging to the House 
of Lords alone, and no more expressly granted than the Power of 
Judging on Impeachments ? It cannot be by Virtue of your Repre- 
sentation of the Crown, because His Majesty never exercised such 
Powers ; And therefore we Confess we cannot understand why you 
should be so fond of assuming the one and fearful of the other. 
We hope it cannot proceed from an inclination to screen Yv 7 icked 
Ministers from Justice, and to render ineffectual an essential and 
invaluable Power of the Constitution. 

" We beg leave further to remark, that the Governor's assuming 
a Power to determine on the Impeachments of the Assembly cannot 
be attended with the Least Insecurity to the Lives and Liberties of 
the People; But on the Contrary, the Invaders of their Liberties 
and their Oppressors by this means will be brought to Justice, who 
otherwise would oppress on with Impunity, and the Distressed Sub- 
ject be without Redress. Your Honour will remember that ante- 
cedent to any Impeachment before you, the Grand Inquest of the 
Province, The Representatives of the People, his Peers and Equals, 
must be made sensible of his Guilt. A Sheriff may be corrupted, 
a jury packed, a Court who hold their Commission during Pleasure 
may be influenced, but it unnatural to presume that the Represen- 
tative Body of the People should be partial, corrupted, or do injus- 



8 MINUTES OF THE 

tice. Besides, your Honour lias the Same Power which you are so 
fearful of assuming, whenever a Bill of Attainder or Disability is 
presented for your Approbation ; and in that case the Lives, Liber- 
ties, and Properties of the People are as much in your Hands as in 
the case of Impeachments with this Difference only, that' in the first 
you may Determine on the Report of the Assembly only, but in the 
Latter there must be a judicial and Solemn Hearing. 

" We are sorry we cannot see the Virtue of refusing to determine 
on the Impeachment of the Assembly any more than that of in- 
stituting a New Court of Judicature without their Assent. The 
Instance you give us of a Preceding Governor's Virtue in declining 
to act as a Judge in a case of Impeachment must certainly arise 
from your not being acquainted with his Character. He was a Gen- 
tleman remarkable for being destitute of every Virtue, either Moral, 
Political, or religious. The Government was in a continual Fer- 
ment during his whole Administration ; The Rights of the People 
in perpetual Jeopardy by his Arbitrary and unjust invasions. He 
was charged by the Assembly with being Guilty of Frequent and 
notorious excesses and Debaucheries, not fit to be rehearsed, and 
that his Behaviour was offensive to God Almighty, Dishonourable 
to the Queen, and Encouraging all manner of Wickedness, and 
upon their Complaint removed from his Government. Whence we 
are induced to believe that this Gentleman's declining to determine 
on impeachments did not proceed from any Disrelish he had to 
Power, or from his Virtues, either Publick or Private, but from a 
determined Resolution to protect a Favourite. 

" Had your Honour, upon the Address of the Late Assembly, 
founded upon the most impartial Enquiry, paid that Regard to it, 
and the Examinations of many disinterested Witnesses laid before 
you, which we humbly conceive you ought to have done, and removed 
William Moore, this dispute about your Power to determine on 
Impeachments had not happened; But, may it please the Governor, 
when we perceive you are deaf to the Address of that Assembly, 
regardless of the Affidavits laid before you, instituting a New 
Court of Judicature for his Tryal, without the Assent of the Repre- 
sentatives of the People, and in the mean Time permitting him to ex- 
ercise all the Powers of his Offices, and the means of his former oppres- 
sion, to the great Terror and anxiety of the People, who continue to 
exhibit to this House fresh Complaints against him, We cannot be 
silent. We beg leave to say, it is usual with the Crown to remove 
wicked Ministers on the Address of the Commons ; Sometimes when 
that Address is founded on rumour only, and often when on an 
Examination before the House. And a former worthy Governor of 
this Province, when he was about to Pass a Bill of Disability, re- 
quired no other Satisfaction of the Guilt of the Person than what 
he collected from a Conference with a Committee of Assembly. It 
is well known, that the Complaints against this Gentleman are not 



PKOVINCIAL COUNCIL. 9 

of a late Date only; your Honour is the Third Governor to whom 
the People have applied for redress against his Oppression, but as 
yet remain without relief. 

"We, therefore, entreat Your Honour to Consider, that the 
Principle Powers of our Assemblies are those of making Laws, 
granting Aids to the Crown, and redressing the Grievances and 
Oppressions of the People. The first, you well know, is highly 
invaded and greatly diminished by Arbitrary Proprietary Instruc- 
tions, now in your Possession, which you have declared you are 
bound to Obey. The Second has been greatly violated by the fre- 
quent and constant Amendments in our Money Bills, directing the 
Assemblies as to the manner, Measure, and Time of Granting Sup- 
plies; insomuch, that tho' they have not admitted such Amend- 
ments, yet they have often been necessitated, for the preservation 
of the Country, to Frame New Bills agreeable to them. And 
should your Honour persist in refusing to remove William Moore, 
on the Address of the late Assembly, and the earnest Solicitations 
of this, and will not exercise your Power of determining on the 
Articles of Impeachment we are ready to exhibit against him, the 
Third and last, that of redressing Grievances, will, in a great 
measure, be rendered ineffectual; A failure of Justice must ensue 
in the Government; Wicked Ministers and Majestrates may Oppress 
the Subject and Distress the Poor, with impunity; That important 
Check, in the Constitution, on the Actions of Wicked Officers, who 
hold their Commiss ns- during pleasure, will be wanting; The three only 
essential and important Branches of the Assembly's Authority will 
be manifestly violated; The whole Powers of the Constitution be 
vested in the Hands of the Governor, and our excellent mixt 
Frame of Government totally dissolved. 

" Under these circumstances, we entreat your Honour would con- 
sider with what Spirit or Pleasure can the Assemblies of this Pro- 
vince give, or the People pay, their aids to the Crown. We are a 
faithful and Loyal People, Solicitous of assisting in the General 
Defence of America, as well as in that of our own Particular Pro- 
vince; we are willing and ready to grant Supplies, if our Gov- 
ernors would leave us in the Possession of anything worth De- 
fending. Redress our Grievances, relieve our fellow-Subjects from 
Oppression and Slavery, restore the Constitution, and every thing 
your Honour can reasonably ask will chearfully be granted. 
" Signed by order of the House. 

"THOMAS LEECH, Speaker. 

"January 17th, 1758." 

Teedyuscung, Tapiscawung, Pamylachad, Onangintolany, or 
John, Teedyuscung' s Son, attending without, were sent for into 
Council, and the Governor acquainted Teedyuscung that he ex- 



10 MINUTES OF THE 

pected to have seen him on Monday according to Appointment ; 
but was glad to see him now, and ready to hear his Business. 
Teedyuscung thanked the Governor, and spoke as follows : 
" Brother : 

" I wipe your eyes that you may see clear, and behold our Wives, 
children, and Grand Children, as long as the World endures." 

A String. 
" Brother : 

" This is to remind the. Governor of the Union of Hands, entered 
into first by the late Governor Morris at Easton, with the Ten Con- 
federated Nations, their Uncles, the Six Nations, and this Govern- 
ment, which has been happily confirmed in the Treaties held since 
your Arrival. I don't doubt but you will still assist in preserving 
that Union, and continuing the mutual Affection and Friendship 
then engaged to one another." 

A String. 
y Brother : 

" I now confirm the Union and good Harmony established be- 
tween us, and assure you, I do it not only y/ith my Mouth but my 
Heart, and with the greatest sincerity." 

A String. 
u Brother : 

" We were told in one of your Speeches that you were rich, 
tho' the Indians were poor ■ and therefore, I entreat you to enable 
me to make the Fire that was kindled at Easton blaze up high, 
that it may be the better seen by all tho Indians, and that they 
may be brought to join in this good Work, which will be attended 
with Expence, and this, as I have it not myself, must be provided 
by you." 

A Belt of Eight Rows. 

The Governor made answer as follows : 

11 Brother : 

" I now in return wipe your Eyes, and assure you that I will af- 
fectionately remember your Wives and Children, and keep them in 
my mind to the latest Posterity. In Confirmation whereof, I give 
you this String." 

A String. 
''Brother: 

" You may be assured I shall use my utmost Endeavours to 
establish the Peace so happily concluded at Easton, between the 
People of this Province, and their Brethren, the Indians." 

A String. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. II 

"Brother: 

" I am sensible we are richer than yon, and therefore, I give you 
this Belt, promising that I will nse my best Endeavours with the 
wise Men that are now sitting to enable you to make the greatest 
Advantage of the present happy Peace, and to bring as many more 
Indian Tribes as you can influence into the Peace." 

A Belt. 

The Governor, in way of Conversation, told Teedyuscung that 
it would be proper for him to make known what he proposed further 
to do, that he might know what Sums to ask of the Assembly. The 
King answered that this Belt now given should be sent to Allegheny 
as the last was. He does not intend to put it into his Pocket, but 
to send it far and wide, as he did the other • That he could not now 
say what Expences the Journey would cost. 

The Governor, all being finished, wrote to the Commissioners as 
follows : 

" Gentlemen : Teedyuscung, in coming on this Visit, has incurred 
Expences for himself and Company, with their Horses, which you 
will please to defray. The particulars are given to them by Mr. 
Edmonds, and I think the charge reasonable, You will, besides 
this, gratify him and his Company to their Satisfaction for their 
Trouble." 

The Letter was given to Teedyuscung and he parted very well 
pleased. 

Mr. Edmonds acquainted the Governor that the Law allowed an 
Indian but a half gill of Rum in Twelve Hours, except at Treaties ; 
but when Teedyuscung gets Intelligence to Bethlehem, it is impos- 
sible to avoid giving him more, and desires to receive orders on this 
Head. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Wednesday the 24th J anuary, 
1758. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esquire, Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

William Till, Joseph Turner, ") 

Lynford Lardner, Richard Peters, > Esquires. 

Benjamin Chew, John Mifflin, J 

The Assembly having, hitherto, been employed in Examination 
of Witnesses against Mr. Moore, and Mr. Smith, the Provost, who 
are charged by them with abetting, promoting, and publishing a 
Libel against the late and present Assembly, and as they were 
in great Heats, and very intent on those Prosecutions, it afforded 
Time enough without Inconvenience to the Publick Business, to 
draw up a proper Reply to the assembly's long Answer of the 



12 MINUTES OF THE 

Seventeenth, and the Draught being now ready, it was examined, 
and after making some Alterations, agreed to as follows, and ordered 
to be entered : 

A Message from the Governor to the Assembly. 
11 Gentlemen : 

" I have taken into Consideration your last Message, not less re- 
markable for the great Freedom with which you are pleased to treat 
my character, than the Strangeness of the Doctrines contained in it, 
and the weak arguments brought to Support them. In my Message 
of the Thirteenth Instant, I flattered myself I had demonstrated to 
you and all the World, that your apprehensions of my having a 
design to establish a new Court of Judicature (in the Steps taken 
by me on the late Assembly's address to remove William Moore 
from his Publick Offices) were groundless and unjust, and I 
solemnly disclaimed any such Intention. But to my great astonish- 
ment, I find a considerable Part of your Message is taken up with 
trite Questions and Reasonings, tending to shew that I actually had 
such a Design ; and you do not scruple to assert, that had not your 
Sergeant-at-arms, for a very high Misdemeanor, arrested the Person 
intended to be tried, that attempt had been fully executed. In this 
you take upon you to Charge me with a direct Falsehood. 

4 

u I should be unworthy, indeed, of the Commission I have the 
Honour to bear under his Majesty, tamely to suffer such an indig- 
nity, without thus publickly expressing my Detestation of the 
Charge, and the just Resentment with which an Honest Heart must 
necessarily be inspired against the Authours of it. Had any one 
offered a like affront to you, Gentlemen, we, no doubt, should have 
heard enough of Breach Privileges ; but, for ought I know, you 
may claim a right of vilifying and abusing your Governors, as one 
among the many boasted Powers and Privileges of the Constitution 
you have already discovered. 

" The last Assembly, in their Address against William Moore, 
only desired that I would remove him from his Offices, on a suppo- 
sition, I presume, that he was Guilty of the Crimes laid to his 
Charge. It is not easy to conceive you could think, Gentlemen, 
that I would take this Guilt upon hearsay, nor yet upon a number 
of ex Parte Depositions, taken in the absence of Mr. Moore, who, 
I know, was not heard in his Defence before the House, nor any of 
his Witnesses examined on his behalf. It was my Duty to give him 
and his accusers a full hearing, face to face. I appointed a Day for 
that purpose, and, from the whole Tenor of my Conduct in that 
affair, I am persuaded that no impartial Person can be induced to 
think I had any thing in View but a full Examination of Wit- 
nesses, to satisfy my own Conscience whether he was a fit Minister 
of Justice, and Worthy any Longer to enjoy the Commission he 
bore under this Government; without taking such Steps, I might 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 13 

have been deemed arbitrary indeed. This is a Method that, since 
my arrival in this Government, I have taken, where complaints 
have been made to me against Justices of the Peace, one of 
whom I have actually removed in consequence of such Enquiry, and 
it is further supported by the Practice of Preceding Governors, to 
the great ease and Satisfaction of the People, who have repeatedly 
expressed their acknowledgements for the Trouble their Governors 
have taken, and the Justice done the Publick in such Cases. Rest- 
ing, therefore, under this perswasion, and a Consciousness of the 
rectitude and Sincerity of my own Intentions, I shall take no further 
notice of the unprovoked abuse and ill-Treatment of me in the first 
part of your Long Message. 

" It is very disagreeable to me, Gentlemen, that I am Laid under 
the necessity of saying so much. I can truly declare that I met you 
in Assembly determined to avoid, if possible, any Differences with 
you, and, notwithstanding the Ignominy with which you have at- 
tempted to load me, I still think myself indispensably obliged so 
far to suppress my just indignation as that it shall have no influence 
on my Publick Conduct with you, or interfere with what Duty I 
owe to his Majesty and the Good People he has been pleased to 
commit to my Charge. 

"I have, very closely attended to that part of your Message 
wherein you endeavour to manifest my Right, under the Charter 
and Laws of, the Province, to sit as a Court of Judicature on Im- 
peachments, and am so far from changing my first Opinion that I 
am still more confirmed in my Judgment that such a Power would 
be usurped by me, and the Act Arbitrary in the highest degree. 
You agree with me that in the mother Country the House of Lords, 
which is the middle State between the King and the Commons, hath 
the sole inherent Power of trying impeachments, and that the Legis- 
lature of this Province consists of Two Branches. You then add 
that the Governor here may be deemed to supply the Place of a 
House of Lords in an inferior Degree, and contend that tho' the 
Power of trying Impeachments is not expressly, yet it is implicitely 
granted to the Governor of this Province, as a Middle state of your 
Legislature, and Founded in the Nature of your Institution. 

" I must confess, Gentlemen, that your method of Reasoning on 
this Occasion is very Dark and mysterious; a middle state in a 
Legislature consisting of Two Estates only, or an intermediate 
Term between two that admit of no Third, is to me incomprehensi- 
ble. Arguments founded on no better Proofs than what you may 
deem might be the intent of the Charter; forced constructions and 
strained implications of Powers meant to be granted will weigh but 
little with me in a case so important and interesting as this is to 
the Lives and Rights of his Majesty's Subjects. Nay, if the Pro- 
prietary Charter was ever so express on this Head, yet it might, 
perhaps, with great Reason, be questioned whether, under the Royal 



14 MINUTES OF THE 

Grant, the Proprietary could Subject Englishmen to this Mode of 
Trial before a single Person acting at once in the several Characters 
of a Judge and Jury, so very diiferent from any Known to the 
British Constitution. At present, however, there is no occasion to 
go into the Discussion of this Point, as you acknowledge that neither 
by Charter or Law the Governor has such a Power expressly dele- 
gated to him. 

" But you are pleased to say that you propose to vest your Gov- 
ernor with the Power of a House of Lords only in an inferior 
degree. This is a mode of expression as unintelligible to me as 
some of your former ones. The Power, Gentlemen, necessary to 
any Judicature, or publick Body as such, is indivisible in its 
Nature ; it cannot be parcelled out into Parts, or if it could, I can 
hardly Look upon you as the Despensers of it. If a Governour 
could once persuade himself that it is necessary for the Safety and 
Peace of this Province that he should exercise the Power of a 
House of Lords in one case, he may in another, and if you consent 
to his exercising one Degree of that Power, he may think himself 
intitled to claim and exercise the Whole, and by this means may 
bring all Causes, both Civil and Criminal, before him in the Last 
instance, as is the case in the House of Lords, which is the Last 
and highest Court of Judicature in the Kingdom. Power, Gentle- 
men, once granted, is hardly ever to be regained ; and should I 
depart so far from my Duty as to accept of the extraordinary 
Power you now press upon me, or could I think any Governor or 
single Man would be permitted by the British Legislature to enjoy 
to both the Powers of the Crown and of the House of Lords in 
these Colonies, you and your Posterity might perhaps long have 
reason to repent the Kashness of the Offer. Will it not, Gentle- 
men, appear very extraordinary in the eyes of all Men, that you, 
who have been denying your Governors the Constitutional and 
essential Power of a Voice in the Appropriation of the Publick 
Money, and the Bight of appointing Militia Officers, should now 
all at once desire to invest me with a Power over the Lives, Liber- 
ties, and Fortunes of your Constituents, without the Aid of Juries, 
or the common proceedings of Justice. Such a Power may be 
safely vested in so numerous and August a Body as the House of 
Peers, whose independent Stations and high Characters set them 
far above corruption or party Views ; But in the Hands of a Single 
Man, Gentlemen, it might prove of ruinous and dreadful conse- 
quences. 

u That your Constitution is defective in many respects, I shall 
dispute with you ; but undoubtedly this would not be the way to 
mend it. For my part I have nothing in view but to exercise the 
little share of Authority it gives me, and to leave its Defects, where 
it has any, to be amended by the Wisdom of our Superiors. 

" The instance you give of a former Assembly's being of Opinion 
that they had a Bight to Impeach, and the Governor to Judge of 



PKOVINCIAL COUNCIL. 15 

such Impeachments, is no "better Proof than your own Opinion. 
It is a Rule that Long Custom and Usage are the best Expositors 
of every Law, and of the Sense of those who framed it; and in 
this case, it is very remarkable that you do not offer to produce a 
Single instance, since the Date of the Present Charter, where a 
Governor of this Province has dared to exercise the Jurisdiction 
you offer me, though greatly tending to aggrandize himself. 

" On the Contrary, I mentioned to you a former Governor of 
this Province who had the Virtue to refuse a Like Offer, and for 
that reason you fall upon his Memory in the bitterest Terms of 
reproach, declaring him destitute of every Virtue, Moral, Political, 
or Religious, and alledging in Proof thereof, that he was Charged 
by the Assembly with a Behaviour offensive to God Almighty ; If 
the Charges, Gentlemen, which are made by the Assembles of this 
Province against their Governors could be admitted as any Proof 
of their Guilt, it has been our Misfortune that this Province has 
scarcely had an honest or Good Governor in it. Mr. Evans in all 
his writings, shews himself to have been a Gentleman of Learning, 
and we know that he was supported in this Instance by the Advice 
and Assistance of an Able Council, and a Judge famous for his 
Integrity and his abilities in the Law. His Messages prove that 
he had Political Virtues, and Whatever you may be pleased to 
alledge to the Contrary, the Refusal mentioned above will ever be 
an Instance of his Moral Virtue. Almost every civilized Nation 
Suffers their Dead to rest in Peace, And surely, Gentlemen, it may 
be enough for you that you can use an unbounded Freedom in 
Calumniating your Living Governors, without raking into the Ashes 
of those who are no more. 

" But you are Pleased to remark further, that a Governor's as- 
suming a Power to Determine on the Impeachments of the Assem- 
bly, cannot be attended with the least Insecurity to the Lives and 
Liberties of the People, but will, on the Contrary, be the best 
means of bringing to Justice those who oppress the Subject. A 
Sheriff, say you, may be corrupted, a Jury packed, a Court who 
hold their Commissions during Pleasure, may be influenced, but it 
is unnatural to presume that the Representative Body of the Peo- 
ple should be partial, corrupted, or do Injustice. Is it Possible, 
Gentlemen, that you who consider yourselves as the Represen- 
tatives of Freemen and Englishmen can be serious in these Opin- 
ions; Can you be really desirous to destroy at once the great Bul- 
wark of English Liberty, and throw an Odium upon Trials by 
Juries, and the Judgment of our Peers, that inestimable Privilege 
purchased and preserved by our Fathers at so great a Price, and 
which neither ought, or can be taken away by implied Construc- 
tions ? If it be unnatural to presume that the Representative 
Body of the People, who do not act under the Tie of a Particular 
Oath, should be partial, corrupted, or do injustice; is it not yet 



16 MINUTES OF THE 

more unnatural and uncharitable to Suppose that in any Cause de- 
pending in a Court of Justice, a Sheriff who, as well as yourselves, 
in this Province is Elected by the People, may be corrupted, a 
Jury, against whom the indulgent Law gives the Party charged every 
just cause of Challenge, packed, and a Court influenced; all of 
whom, it is further to be observed, discharge their several Duties 
under a particular and solemn Qualification and Oath. What man 
would not rather Trust his Cause to a Number of his Neighbours 
and Equals, Chosen and Sworn for that particular Purpose, than to 
any standing Body whatsoever, whose Powers may be stretched to 
any Extent, being Uncontroulable and undefined by any express 
Law ? 

" Upon the whole, Gentlemen, give me Leave to tell you once for 
all that I neither will consent to take upon me the Powers you offer, 
nor yet to remove Mr. Moore from his offices, without a full Hear- 
ing, in order to satisfy my self of the Truth of the Charges against 
him, agreeable to the Practice of all preceding Governors of this 
Province on Complaints exhibited against Justices of the Peace. It 
will, therefore, be in vain for you to spend the publick Time in any 
further debates or Overtures on this Head. The late Assembly 
were so far from thinking such an Enquiry unreasonable that, at my 
Instance, they furnished me with Copies of the Petitions and Evi- 
dence exhibited in their House against him in his absence ; and it 
13 intirely owing to your Sudden and unexpected Determination of 
Changing the Late Assembly's Address to remove Mr. Moore into 
Articles of impeachment, and your Confinement of his Person, that 
Mr. Moore, if Guilty, is thus Long continued in his Commission. 
Had you permitted the Enquiry I proposed to go on, it would have 
been brought to a conclusion before now, the Publick would have 
been fully satisfyed, and a great deal of Time and expence saved to 
the Province. What may have been your motives in this Part of 
your Conduct I will not say ; but must confess they appear to me 
very extraordinary. 

" You are quite mistaken in asserting that a former worthy Gov- 
ernor of this Province, when he was about to pass a Bilkof Disability, 
required no other Satisfaction of the Guilt of the Person than what 
he collected from a Conference with a Committee of Assembly. The 
Council Books, which have been inspected on that Occasion, plainly 
shew that the Person against whom the Bill was preferred was called 
before the Governor in Council, the matter fully heard, and the 
Governor fully Satisfied of the Truth of the Facts set forth in the 
Bill, previous to his passing it. 

" A Governor must be made a very insignificant Person, Veed, 
if he was Obliged to yield implicit Obedience to the Address of an 
Assembly, which, as you say, may sometime be founded on rumour 
only, to remove or continue what Officers they think Proper, with- 
out satisfying his own Mind as to the Guilt or Innocence of the 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 17 

Persons. It is remarkable that you have formily put it among the 
List of your Grievances, that the Judges and Majestrateshold their 
Offices during the Pleasure of a Governor ; and now you desire that 
they should hold them during your Pleasure, and be continued or 
discarded agreeable to your directions, which must be the case if 
they are to be removed on your bare remonstrance against them. 
My motive for refusing the Power of Judging on Impeachments, 
does not arise as you insinuate, from any desire in me to screen Mr. 
Moore from Justice ; he is a Gentleman with whom* I have not the 
least Acquaintance, nor is he so much as personally Known to me. 

" You conclude, Gentlemen, by calling on me to redress Griev- 
ances, to relieve your fellow Subjects from Oppression and Slavery, 
to restore the Constitution, and then you promise that every thing 
I can reasonably ask will chearfully be granted me. Gentlemen, 
if your Constituents feel the Weight of any Grievances, I will 
chearfully Join in doing every Legal Act in my Station to redress 
them; but beyond the Limits of my just Power, I never will Ven- 
ture to go. I have neither Oppressed or enslaved your fellow Sub- 
jects, or invaded the Constitution ) when I am convinced of the 
Contrary, I shall think it my Duty, independent of any other con- 
sideration, to exert myself by all means in my Power, to apply a 
Remedy adequate to the evil. 

" You will suffer me, Gentlemen, to call on you in my Turn, if 
you are that Loyal and faithful People you profess to be, Solicitous 
of assisting in the General Defence of America, as well as in that 
of your own particular Province, to give some Immediate Proof 
thereof. Proceed to grand the necessary Supplies for the Current 
Year. Frame and pass effectual and Constitutional Bills to estab- 
lish a Militia Law, and regulate the Indian Trade. Attend to the 
Several Weighty Public Matters I have repeatedly recommended 
to you in my former Messages, and consider how unbecoming it is, 
to neglect these great Services, and employ yourselves, in new 
heats and Disputes, at a Time when publick Danger surrounds us 
on every side, and our vigilant Enemies, who indeed, threaten 
us with Oppression and Slavery, are every moment preparing to re- 
new their Cruelties and Barbarities on the Inhabitants of this and 
the neighbouring Colonies ; and unless measures are speedily taken 
to defeat their wicked Schemes, may too soon accomplish that 
Ruin from which nothing but Union and Vigorous Exertion of 
our Natural Powers can save us. 

"WILLIAM DENNY. 
"January 24th, 1758." 

The Secretary was directed not to deliver the Message to the 
Assembly till the Tryal of Mr. Smith, the Provost, should be over, 
as it would be to no Purpose to deliver it sooner. 

A Letter from the Secretary of State, by the Harriot Packet, was 

VOL. VIII. — 2. 



18 MINUTES OF THE 

read, informing the Governor that Monsieur D'Abren, Envoy Extra- 
ordinary from his Catholick Majesty, had lately delivered divers 
Complaints of Violence and Depredations committed in America, 
the same was order' d to be enter' d as follows : 

A Letter from Secretary Pitt to the Governor. 

" Whitehall, 16th September, 1757. 
" Sir : 

" Mons r - D'Abren, Envoy Ext" 7 - from his Catholick Majesty, having 
lately delivered divers Complaints of Violence and Depredations, 
particularly mentioned in the inclosed Paper, committed by his 
Majesty's Subjects in America against those of Spain, I am to 
inform you that the King, seeing with the Highest Disapproba- 
tion the daily Growth of such scandalous Disorders, and having 
nothing more at Heart than to Stop the Progress of Practices, 
which, if not repress'd, must involve his Majesty in odious Disputes 
with all the Neutral Powers of Europe, is Determined to exert the 
full Authority of the Law in vindication of the Justice of his 
Crown, and of the Honour of the British Nation, and in this View 
I am hereby to Signify to you His Majesty's Pleasure that you do 
enforce with the utmost Vigor the observance of the Add 1- Instruc- 
tions of Oeto br - 5th, To all Privateers, and employ uncommon care 
and Diligence effectually to Prevent, and if Possible to cut up by 
the Hoots all Excesses and enormities, alledged to be committed in 
Violation of the just Freedom of Navigation of his Catholick Ma- 
jesty's Subjects; And whereas, with regard to all Spanish Vessels 
bound to a Port of Spain in America, the Case of Contraband can- 
not exhibit, it being self-Evident that no effects whatever carried by 
a Nation to its own Ports can in any case fall under that Descrip- 
tion, it is his Majesty's Pleasure that you do give the strictest 
Orders that no Spanish Ship, under those Circumstances, be dis- 
turbed or Molested in their Navigation, and that in case of Outrages 
or Depredations committed on the Same, You do your utmost to 
discover all such Violaters of Justice & Disturbers of the Harmony 
subsisting between the Two Nations, and to bring the Same to con- 
dign and Exemplary Punishment. 

" I am, Sir, Your Most Obedient humble Servant, 

" W. PITT. 

"P. S. — Your Letter of April 9th, and one since without date 
have been received. 

Copies of the above Letter were ordered to be made and delivered 
to the Collectors and Judge of the Admiralty, and a strict Charge 
given that the Contents be complied with. 

The Commission for the County of Lancaster was signed, with a 
"Warrant to affix the Great Seal to it. The names and order of the 
Justices are as follows : 






PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 19 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Monday the 13th February, 

1758. 

PRESENT I 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esquire, Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Strettell, Lynford Lardner, *) 

Benjamin Shoemaker, Thomas Cadwalader, v Esquires. 

Richard Peters, John Mifflin, ) 

A Bill for regulating the Indian Trade was read, which was pre- 
sented last night to the Governor by Two Members ; Mr. Turner, 
Mr. Lardner, Mr. Chew, and Mr. Mifflin were appointed a Com- 
mittee to consider the said Bill, and the several exceptionable Parts, 
and prepare Amendments to be laid before the next Council. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Wednesday the 15th February, 

1758. 

PRESENT I 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esquire, Lieutenan* 
Governor. 

Robert Strettell, Benjamin Shoemaker,") 

Benjamin Chew, John Mifflin, (-Esquires. 

Thomas Cadwalader, ) 

William Peters, Esquire, was appointed Secretary and Clerk of 
the Council, in the absence of his Brother, who is gone to New 
York. 

The Committee appointed to consider the Bill for preventing 
Abuses in the Indian Trade, &**•' and make Amendments thereto, 
acquainted the Governor that they had considered on the Amendments 
proper to be made to it, which were read and approved, and ordered 
to be transcribed fair and delivered by the Secretary with the Bill 
to the House. The Amendments are as follows : 

Amendments to the Bill for preventing Abuses in the Indian Trade. 

il 1st Amend'- In the Title, Dele the Words [restoring and con- 
firming the Peace, and] and instead thereof insert the Words [se- 
curing and strengthening the]. 

" 2d Amend*- Dele also in the Title the Word [heretofore]. 

" 3d Amend*' page 4, lines 13, 14, 15. Dele the Words [Joseph 
Fox, John Hughes, John Baynton, Joseph Galloway, Isaac Zane, 
Able James, Samuel Wharton] in whose stead the Governor pro- 
posed to insert [William Coleman, Evan Morgan, Henry Harrison, 
Samuel Smith, Thomas Willing, William West, John Wilcox]. 



20 MINUTES OF THE 

"4th am'-' same page, lines 21, 22. Dele the Words [any thing 
herein contained to the contrary notwithstanding], 

" 5th am''' Antepenult Line. Dele the Words [Two and an half 
f) Centum]. 

" 6th Am t ' Antepenult and penult Lines. Dele the Words [Two 
and an half ^ Centum]. 

" 7th Am'-' Same page, last line. Dele the Words [Five ^ Centum] 
and instead thereof insert the Words [Two and an half <]p Centum, 
and no more], 

"8th Am* - - page 4 and 5. Dele from the Words [and], inclu- 
sive, in the last line of the 4 page, to the Words [Commission], in- 
clusive, in the 24 line of the 5 page, and instead thereof insert as 
follows, Viz t- : [and that during the Continuance of this Act, as 
often as there shall be occasion, one or more suitable Person or Per- 
sons shall be recommended by the said Commissioners for Indian 
Affairs, or of the Majority of them, or of the Survivors of them, 
to the Governor or Commander-in-Chief of this Province, who, if 
approved of by him, shall be Commissionated as Agent or Agents 
to carry on the Trade with the Indians]. 

" 9th Amen'-' Page 5, last line. After the Word [The] add as 
follows : [Governor and Commander-in-Chief of this Province, by 
and with the approbation of the]. 

"10th Am'-' Page 6, Line 1st. Dele the Word [who], and after 
the word [affairs] add [or a Majority of them, or the Survivors of 
them, which said Commissioners]. 

" 11th Am'-' Page 9, Line 21st. Dele the Words [Commissioners 
for Indian Affairs] and instead thereof insert the Words [The As- 
sembly of this Province for the Time being]. 

" 12th Am' - ' same Page, line 22. After the Word [appearing] 
add as follows, Viz'- : [To them on the Settlement of the said Com- 
missioners' Accounts]. 

" 13 Am'-' Same Page, line 24. Dele the Words [their Hands] 
and instead thereof insert the Words [the Hands of their Speaker]. 

" 14th Am'- Page 11, Line 20. After the Word [or] add [if 
Conscientiously Scrupulous of takin an Oath, then]. 

"15th Am'-- Page 11, Lines penult & Last. Dele the Words 
[said Commissioners for Indian Affairs, with the Assent of the 
Governor] and instead thereof insert the Words [Governor and 
Commander-in-Chief of this Province, with the Approbation of the 
said Commissioners for Indian Affairs, or a majority of them, or of 
the survivors of them]. 

"lGth Am'-' Page 12, Line 11. After the Word [Such] insert 
the word [Legal]. • 

" 17th Am'- Page 13, lines 20-21. Dele the Words [as they, 
with the approbation of the Governor, shall think most prudent 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 21 

and suitable] and instead thereof insert the Words [in manner 
aforesaid]. 

" 18th Am'-' Page 14, line 7. Dele the Words [Commissioners 
their]. 

"19th Am'" Page 15, line 15. Dele the Words [by them], 

"20th Am*-' Same Page, line 10. After the Word [the] add 
the Words [Governor and Commander-in-Chief of this Province, 
and the said]. 

"21st Am'-' Page 16, line 6. After the Words [aforesaid] in- 
sert this Clause, Viz** : [And be it further enacted by the Authority 
aforesaid, that during the Continuance of this Act, any of the Per- 
sons herein appointed, or that hereafter shall be appointed Commis- 
sioners for Indian Affairs shall be elected Members of Assembly of 
this Province, that then such Person or Persons so to be elected 
shall thence cease to be Commissioner or Commissioners for Indian 
Affairs, and others shall be appointed in their stead, by Act of 
Legislature of this Province; and in the mean Time, until such 
Appointment, the other Commissioners herein before nominated and 
appointed for Indian Affairs, or the Majority of them, or of the 
Survivors of them, shall, and they are hereby authorized and im- 
powered to Act as Commissioners for Indian Affairs, and shall have 
the same Powers and Authorities as are herein before given to all 
the said Commissioners by this Act nominated and appointed, any- 
thing herein before mentioned or contained to the Contrary thereof 
in any wise notwithstanding]. 

" 16th February, 1758." 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Saturday the 18th February, 

1758. 

PRESENT I 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esquire, Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Strettell, fj 

Joseph Turner, J ™ 

t? • • n-L >Esquires. 

.Benjamin Uhew, { ^ 

John Mifflin, J 

The Governor received this morning, by Two Members, the 
Assembly's Answer to the Amendments made by his Honour on the 
Sixteenth, to the Bill for preventing Abuses in the Indian Trade, 
which were read and considered, and ordered to be entered. 

A Reply thereto was ordered to be drawn up, to be laid before 
the next Council. 



22 MINUTES OF THE 



" Answer to the Governor's Amendments sent down to the House, on 
the Bill for preventing Abuses in the Indian Trade, &ca. 

" Amend 1 - 1st. The House adhere to the Bill. 

" 2d. The House adhere to the Bill. 

" 3. Rejected unanimously; but the House have named Nine Com- 
missioners, instead of those inserted in the Bill, Viz'-: John Rey- 
nolds, Plunket Fleeson, Daniel Rundle, Thomas Wharton, Peter 
Chevalier, jun r -> Thomas Coombs, Joseph Richardson, Merch'-' Enoch 
Story, & James Pemberton. 

" 4. The House adhere to the Bill, being of opinion, that re- 
taining the Words [anything herein contained to the contrary not- 
withstanding] will prevent the necessity of repeating the Words 
["or a Majority of them, or the Survivors of them] in many Parts 
of the Bill. 

" 5th. The House agree to the Governor's Amendment. 

H 6. The House agree to the Governor's amendment. 

" 7. The House agree to the Governor's amendment. 

" 8. The House adhere to the Bill. 

" 9. The House agree to the Governor's Amendment. 

"10. The House agree to the Governor's Amendment. 

" 11. The House agree to the Governor's Amendment. 

" 12. The House agree to the Governor's Amendment. 

"13. The House agree to the Governor's Amendment. 

"14. The House agree to the Governor's Amendment. 

"15. The House adhere to the Bill. 

"16. The House adhere to the Bill, with the Addition of these 
Words, Viz 1 -: [consistent with these Act] to be inserted after the 
Word [directions] in Page 12, Line 12. 

" Amen'- 17. The House adhere to the Bill. 

" The House adhere to the Bill, and instead of the Governor's 
proposed Amendment, have added the following Clause to be in- 
serted in Page 7, after the words [publick Interest], Viz' - : [And 'be 
it enacted by the Authority aforesaid, that the said Commissioners, 
or any or either of them, shall not directly or indirectly buy, sell, 
barter or exchange, or Trade with any Indian or Indians, on his or 
their own Account, or on the Account of any other Person or Per- 
sons whatsoever, nor suffer any Person under his or their Directions 
so to do, during the Continuance of this Act, but for the Account 
of the Province only, under the penalty of one hundred Pounds for 
every such offence, to be recovered in the Same manner the other 
Fines and Penalties inflicted by Virtue of this Act are directed to 
be recovered, one-half thereof to the Informer, or the Person that 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 23 

shall sue for the same, And the other half to he applied to the uses 
of the said Indian Trade']. 

" Amend*- 19th. The House adhere to the Bill. 
"20. The House adhere to the Bill. • 
"21. Rejected, N. C. D. 

" Signed by order of the House. 

"CHARLES MOORE, Clk. of Assembly ." 



MEMORANDUM. 

On* the Twentieth of February, the Governor, by the Secretary, 
sent the following Letter from Lord Loudoun to the House, with a 
Verbal Message that his Honour earnestly recommended the House 
would take the Contents thereof into their immediate Consideration : 

A Letter from Lord Loudoun to Governor Denny. 

"New York, February 13th, 1758. 
"Sir: 

" As I am directed by his Majesty to apply to the several Gov- 
ernments in North America, for such aid and assistance as are 
necessary for carrying on a War in this country, which is Likewise 
fully expressed in the Several Letters Transmitted by his Majesty's 
Secretaries of State, down from Sir Thomas Robinson's Letters to 
them of the 26th of October, 1754, To this Time, directing that 
they should correspond and Co-operate with his Majesty's Comman- 
ders-in-Chief for the Time being, in North America, and that they 
will use their utmost endeavours to Induce their Councils and As- 
sembly s to give the necessary orders for raising their Quotas of 
Men with the greatest Expedition, so that they may be ready to 
march to such Places as the Commander-in-Chief shall direct. 

" In Consequence of which Orders, I do now apply to you to use 
your utmost endeavour with your Council and Assembly, to Fur- 
nish a Body of Eight Hundred Good Men, and that as many of 
them as possible should be used to ranging to act in Conjunction 
with his Majesty's Forces the next Spring in carrying on Vigorous 
and Offensive Measures against the Enemy, over & above what is 
necessary for the Defence of your own Forts on the Frontiers of 
your Province, and that this Body should be ready to March by the 
Beginning of April. 

" A* this will Occasion the raising an additional Number to what 
your Province now have, I would propose to you that the Addition 
should be raised only for the Campaign, and to be dismissed at the 
end of it, by which means I am of opinion that it will not only be 
less expensive to the Province, but you will the Sooner Compleat 



24 MINUTES OF THE 

your Quota with Good Men, as they will be enabled to return to 
their own Habitations in the Winter. 

" I am the further induced to expect that they will readily com" 
ply with this request that 1 will, as soon as they join his Majesty's 
Forces, supply them with the King's Provisions at the Expence of 
the Crown, which will greatly ease the Province in that Material 
Article, and as the Service will be an immediate Benefit and Security 
to your Province. 

"I need use no Arguments to induce you, who are so well 
acquainted with the Interest of this Country, to use your utmost 
endeavour to forward this Measure, so essential for carrying on the 
War & the safety of your own Province. 
" I am, with Regard, Sir, 

" Your most Humble Obedient Servant, 

"LOUDOUN." 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Monday, 27th February, 1758. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esquire, Lieutenant 
Governor. 

Joseph Turner, Lindford Lardner, ") 

Benjamin Chew, John Mifflin, > Esquires. 

Thomas Cadwallader, j 

The Reply to the Assembly's Answer to the Governor's proposed 
Amendments to the Bill for Preventing Abuses in the Indian Trade 
was read and approved, and the Secretary directed to return the 
Bill to the House with the Governor's Amendments, as follows : 

" Reply to the Assembly's Answer to the Governor's Amendments to 
the Bill for preventing Abuses in the Indian Trade. 
" Amend' - 1st. The Governor adheres to the Amendment. 
"2d. The Governor adheres to the Amendment. 

"3d. The Governor rejects Seven of the Persons named by the 
Assembly, To wit : Plunket, Fleeson, Daniel Rundel, Thomas Whar- 
ton, Thomas Coombs, James Pemberton, Enoch Story, and Peter 
Chevalier, jun r - and in their stead recommends to the House the 
following Gentlemen, Viz'- : William Coleman, Evan Morgan, Wil- 
liam Cox, Amos Strettel, Thomas Gorden, Redmond Cunningham, 
and John Rhea. 

"8th. The Governor will withdraw this amendment, provided the 
words [Governor and] are inserted after the word [by] in the first 
line of Page 5, and the Word [three] in the 3d and 17th lines is 
altered to the Word [Six], and the Words [Governor and] are in- 
serted in the 15th Line of the same Page after the Word [the]. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 25 

" 15th. The Governor will adhere to this Amendment. 

" 16. The Addition proposed by the House, being virtually the 
Same with the Amendment proposed by the Governor, he Con- 
sents thereto, and withdraws his Amendment. 

" 17th. The Governor adheres to his amendment. 

" r 18th. The Governor adheres to his Amendment, & rejects the 
addition proposed. 

" 19th. The Governor adheres to his Amendment.* 

" 20th. The Governor adheres to his Amendment. 

"21st. The Governor adheres to his Amendment. 

" Amend 1 - 22d. Page 16, Line penult. Dele the Word [Five] 
and insert [Three]." 



MEMORANDUM. 

On the Twenty-Eighth of February Two Members waited on the 
Governor with an Answer from the House to the Governor's Reply 
to the Assembly's Answer to his Honour's Amendment to the Bill 
for Preventing Abuses in, in the Indian Trade, which follows in 
these words : 

u Answer to the Governor's Reply to the Assembly's Answer to his 
Honour's Amendments on the Bill for Preventing Abuses in the 
Indian Trade, for supplying Indians, Friends and Allies of 
Great Britain, with Goods at more easy rates, <fcc a - 
" Amend 1, 1st. The House adhere to this Bill. 
" Amend*- 2d. Adhere to the Bill. 
" 3d. Adhere to the Bill. 
" 8th. Adhere to the Bill. 
"15th. Adhere to the Bill. 
" 16th. Adhere to the Bill. 
" 17. Adhere to the Bill. 
"18. Adhere to the Bill. 
" 19. Agree to the Governor's Amendment. 
"20. Adhere to the Bill. 
"21. Reject it, N. C. D. 
" 22. Agree to the Governor's Amendment. 
" Signed by order of the House. 

" CHARLES MOORE, Clk. of Assembly." 



26 MINUTES OF THE 

At a Council held at Philadelphia, Tuesday, 7th March, 1758. 

present : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esquire, Lieutenant 
Governor. 

Benjamin Shoemaker, Robert Strettel, ^ 

Richard Peters, Benjamin Chew, I -^ 

Lynford Lardner, Thomas Cadwallader, f ^ S( l uires - 

John Mifflin, J 

The Governor received this morning by express, Two Letters 
from the Secretary of State, Bated at Whitehall the 30th Decem- 
ber, 1757, which were read, considered, and ordered to be entered. 

" Whitehall, 30th December, 1757. 
"Sir: 

"The King having Judged proper that the Earl of Loudoun 
should return to England, and his Majesty having been pleased to 
appoint Major Gen 1, Abercrombie to Succeed his Lordship as Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the King's Forces in North America, with the 
same Powers and Authorities, I am commanded to signify to you 
his Majesty's Pleasure that you do apply to & correspond with 
Major Gen 1 - Abercromby on all Matters relating to the King's 
Service ) & that you do Obey such orders as you shall receive from 
him, in the same manner as you were directed to do with regard 
to the several former Commanders-in-Chief in North America, and 
you will from time to time give Mr. Abercromby all the Assistance 
& Lights in your Power, in all matters relative to the Command 
with which the King has honoured him. 

" And I am particularly to signify to you his Majesty's Pleasure 
that in case Major Gen 1, Abercromby, or the Commander-in-Chief 
of his Majesty's Forces, shall at any Time apply to you to lay 
an Embargo on all Ships within your Province, you do strictly 
comply with the said request for so long a time as the Commander- 
in-Chief shall desire. 

u The King having resolved to send a considerable Squadron of 
Ships of War the Ensuing Year to North America, I am further to 
signify to you his Majesty's Pleasure that you do from time to time 
transmit to the Commander-in-Chief of the King's Ships in North 
America, all intelligence relative to his Department in the same 
manner as you were directed to do by my Letter of the 19th of last 
February to Vice Admiral Holbourn, & it is also the King's Plea- 
sure that you do on any application from the Commander-in-Chief 
of the King's Ships, use all Legal methods to supply him with such 
a Number of Sailors and Workmen from your Province as he shall 
at any time require for his Majesty's Service. 

" I am, Sir, your most Obedient humble Servant, 

"W. PITT." 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 27 

" Whitehall, 30th December, 1757. 
" Sir : 

" His Majesty having nothing more at Heart than to repair the 
Losses and Disappointments of the Last inactive and unhappy 
Campaign, and by the most Vigorous and extensive Efforts to 
avert, by the Blessing of God on his Arms, the Dangers im- 
pending on North America, and not Doubting but all his faith- 
ful & brave Subjects there will chearfully co-operate with and 
second to the utmost the Large Expence and extraordinary Suc- 
cours supplied by this Kingdom for their Preservation and Defence, 
And his Majesty Considering that the Several Provinces from Penn- 
sylvania, inclusive to the Southward, are well able with Proper En- 
couragement to furnish a Body of several Thousand Men to join the 
King's Forces in those parts for some offensive operation against the 
Enemy; And his Majesty not judging it expedient to limit the 
Zeal and Ardour of any of his Provinces by making a Repartition 
of the Forces to be raised by each respectively for this most im- 
portant Service, I am commanded to Signify to you the King's 
Pleasure that you do forthwith use your utmost Endeavours and In- 
fluence with the Council and Assembly of your Province to induce 
them to raise with all Possible Dispatch as Large a Body of Men 
within your Government as the Number of its Inhabitants may 
allow, and forming the Same into Regiments as far as shall be found 
convenient ; that you do direct them to hold themselves in readiness 
as early as may be to march to the Rendezvous at such Place or 
Places as may be named for that Purpose by Brigadier General 
Forbes, appointed to Command his Majesty's Forces in those Parts, 
in order to proceed from thence in Conjunction with a Body of his 
Majesty's British Forces, & under the Supreme Command of Briga- 
dier Forbes, appointed as above so as to be in a Situation to begin 
by the first of May if Possible, or as soon after as shall be any way 
practicable, such offensive Operations as shall be judged by the said 
Commander of his Majesty's Forces in those Parts most expedient 
for annoying the Enemy, and most efficacious towards removing & 
repelling the Dangers that threaten the Frontiers of any of the 
Southern Colonies on the Continent of America. And the better 
to facilitate this Important Service the King is pleased to leave it 
to you to issue Commissions to such Gentlemen of your Province 
as you shall Judge from their Weight and Credit with the People 
and their Zeal for the Public Service may be best disposed and 
enabled to quicken and Effectuate the Speedy levying of the Greatest 
Number of men. In the Disposition of which Commissioners I 
am perswaded you will have nothing in View but the good of the 
King's Service and a due Subordination of the whole when joined 
to his Majesty's Commander. And all officers of the Provincial 
Forces as high as Colonels inclusive are to have Rank according to 
their Several respective Commissions in Like manner as is already 



28 MINUTES OF THE 

given by his Majesty's Regulations to the Captains of Provincial 
Troops in America. 

" The King is further pleased to furnish all the Men so raised as 
above with Arms, Amunition, & Tents, as well as to order provisions 
to be issued to the Same by his Majesty's Commissaries in the same 
Proportion and manner as is done to the rest of the King's Forces; 
and a Sufficient Train of Artillery will also be provided at his 
Majesty's Expence for the Operations of the Campaign. The 
Whole, therefore, that the King expects & requires from the Several 
Provinces is the Levying, Cloathing, and Pay of the Men ; & on 
these Heads also, that no Encouragement may be wanting to the 
full Exertion of your Force, the King is further most graciously 
Pleased to permit me to acquaint you that Strong Recommendations 
will be made to Parliament in their Session next Year to grant a 
proper Compensation for such Expences as above, according as the 
active Vigor and Strenuous Efforts of the Respective Provinces 
shall justly appear to merit. 

" Altho' several Thousand Stands of Arms will be forthwith sent 
from England, to be distributed to the Troops now directed to be 
raised in the Southern & Northern Provinces, yet as it is hoped that 
the Number of Men levyed in all Parts of America may greatly 
exceed the Quantity of Arms that can at present be supplied from 
England, It is his Majesty's Pleasure that you do with particular 
.Diligence immediately collect and put into the best Condition all 
the Serviceable Arms that can be found within your Government, in 
order that the Same be employed as far as they will go in this 
Exigency. 

" I am further to inform you that similar Orders are sent by this 
Conveyance to Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina & South Carolina. 
The Northern Governments are also directed to raise Men in the 
Same Manner, to be employed in such Offensive Operations as the 
Circumstances & Situation of the Enemy's Possessions in those 
Parts may point out, which it is hoped will Oblige them so to 
divide their Attention and Forces as will render the several 
Attempts more easy and Successful. 

" It is unnecessary to add any thing to animate your Zeal in the 
Execution of his Majesty's Orders on this Great Occasion, where 
the Safety and Preservation of America, and of your own Province in 
Particular, are at Stake, and the King doubts not, from your Known 
Fidelity and attachments, that you will employ yourself with the 
utmost application and Dispatch in this urgent and dangerous 
Crisis. 

" I am, Sir, your most Obedient Humble Servant, 

"W.PITT." 

The following Message was drawn up and approved, and if the 
Assembly was still Sitting, as it was late, the Secretary was ordered 



PKOVINCIAL COUNCIL, 29 

to Deliver it to-night, if not, to-Morrow Morning, with a Copy of 
the Letter last above entered, from Secretary Pitt, and the Governor 
being informed the House was risen ; the Message was dated the 
Eighth : 

u Gentlemen : 

" I have ordered to be laid before yon a Letter I received from 
his Majesty's Principle Secretary of State, which contains Matters 
of the utmost importance to his Majesty's Service, the common 
Concern of his Dominions on this Continent, and more particularly 
the Security and Protection of this and the Southern Provinces." 
The vigorous Efforts determined on by his Majesty the ensuing 
Campaign to repair our late Losses and to secure us from the 
future Designs of his Enemies, give the most convincing Proofs of 
his Royal Care and paternal Regard, and must neceesarily inspire 
every Loyal Heart to make the most grateful Returns. I cannot, 
therefore, doubt a ready and chearful Compliance on your Part, 
with the most reasonable Demands made of this Province by his 
Majesty in the Secretary of State's Letter. On an occasion so 
interesting, I must in the Warmest Terms press you, Gentlemen, to 
use Vigor, Unanimity, and Dispatch in your Councils, that nothing 
may be wanting towards the immediate Execution of such Offensive 
Measures as the Commander-in-Chief may judge necessary for his 
Majesty's Honour and Interest, in which you may assure yourselves 
of my most Hearty Concurrence. 

"WILLIAM DENNY. 
" March 8th, 1758/' 

The Secretary was ordered to carry down to the House the Indian 
Trade Bill, with a Message, that the Governor adhered to his Amend- 
ments, and would not pass the Bill unless they were all agreed to 
by the House. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Monday the 13th March,, 
1758. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esquire, Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Strettell, Richard Peters, ] m 

Lynford Lardner, Benjamin Chew, J ^ s( l mTe ^ 

Teedyuscung coming to Town on Saturday with three Indian 
Deputies from Diahoga, the Governor sent the Secretary this morn- 
ing with his Compliments to them, and by a String of Wampum he 
wiped off the Snow out of their Eyes and Ears, cleaned their 
Throats, & ca - Teedyuscung did the same to the Governor by an-, 
other String, and Twelve o' Clock was appointed to receive them and 



30 MINUTES OF THE 

hear what they had to say. A little before Twelve Moses Tatamy 
and Isaac Stille, the Interpreter, came with a Message to thee Gov- 
ernor that Teedyuscung had forgot to acquaint the Secretary this 
morning that the Deputies had very weighty Matters to communi- 
cate, and he would bring his Clerk with him if the Governor had 
no Objection. They were desired to wait till the Council should 
consider the Design of bringing a Clerk, and it took up a good 
while in considering it in all its Lights ; at length the Governor was 
advised to say to them that he was waiting to receive his Brethren, 
the Indians, in Council, in the same manner as has been usual be- 
tween their and our Ancestors, and to hear what they have to say 
to him ) That this is not a publick Treaty, and none have ever been 
admitted into private Conferences between the Governor of this 
Province and the Indians but the wise men and Counsellors on both 
sides, and his Honour thinks himself obliged to follow the antient 
Custom. % 

The Two Indians were called in, and the above was given them 
in answer. It was now a Quarter past one. In half an hour Moses 
Tatamy returned with a most insolent Answer from Teedyuscung, 
that he was tired with waiting, was at Dinner, and would bring his 
Clerk or not speak at all to the Governor. Moses was told that the 
Governor would let Teedyuscung know what he would do and when 
he should come. 

A Bill entituled an Act for granting to his Majesty a Duty of 
Tonnage upon Ships and Vessels, and also certain Duties upon 
Wine, Rum, Brandy, and other Spirits, and a Duty upon Sugar for 
supporting and maintaining the Province Ship of War for protect- 
ing the Trade of this Province, and other Purposes for his Majes- 
ty's Service, was presented to the Governor for his Concurrence on 
Saturday Afternoon the Eleventh Instant, and was read for the first 
time. 

The Council adjourned to the Afternoon, half an hour past five, 
and Summons's were ordered to be sent to every Member to attend. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Tuesday the 13th March, 
1758, P. M. 

present: 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esquire, Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Strettell, Lynford Lardner, ~\ 

Joseph Turner, Benjamin Chew, > Esquires. 

Richard Peters, John Mifflin, J 

The Tonnage Bill was read a second Time, all were of opinion 
that Trade should be the last thing Taxed ; that an Exemption from 
Duties and the Freedom of the Port had more than any thing con- 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 31 

tributed to the encrease of our Trade, and they were afraid this 
would divert it ; They observed that the Tonnage was high and 
would be very severe on Coasters that came here from Boston, 
Rhode Island and other Places many times in a Year ; On these 
and other Considerations they advised the Governor to confer with 
some Members of the House on the general Scope of the Bill, not 
to insist on it, but only to recommend it to the House to consider 
those Things and to try all other Duties, and this more sparingly. 

The Governor related to the Board the Insult he had received 
from the late Commissioners, and their Treatment of the Two Com- 
missioners who were of the Council, refusing to pay several Matters 
that were agreed to, ordering Things without his Privity or Con- 
sent, &c a, > and doing Business without giving Notice to the Two 
Members of Council of their Meetings ; On these Representations, 
which were confirmed by Mr. Lardner and Mr. Miflin, it was unan- 
imously agreed that their Names should be struck out as Commis- 
sioners, and the House be told the Reasons of it, and desired to 
insert other Names. It was further observed that they were mem- 
bers of the House, and too much employed to do the Publick Busi- 
ness well j Mr Hugh Davy being nominated in the Tonnage Bill as 
Collector of the Duties was objected to. 

The Bill was committed to Mr. Chew, Mr. Turner, and Mr. 
Mifflin, to be considered farther and report thereon; And the Sec- 
retary was ordered to lay it before the Collector, who was desired 
to let th£ Governor know if there was, any thing therein contrary 
to the Laws of Trade. 

The Governor related to the Council what passed this Forenoon 
between his Honour and Moses Tatamy, who was sent by Teedyus- 
cung to let the Governor know he would not deliver any Message 
unless he might be allowed to bring his Clerk with him. 

The Secretary was desired to set this Matter in its true Light to 
the Indians in private Conversation, and as Mr. Logan was said by 
one of the Members to be in Town, he was desired to assist in it, 
or to take it upon himself, as he was better acquainted with these 
Indians, but it was unanimously agreed that the Clerk should not 
be permitted to sit in Council. If Teedyuscung desired a publick 
Conference, and there should not appear any thing against it, after 
he had related his Message to the Governor in private, or with his 
Council, he might be indulged with one in the Council Chamber in 
the State House, and then his Clerk might come, as well as any 
other Persons Inhabitants of the City. 

The Names of the Indians. 
Teedyuscung, Cap'- Harrison, 

Samuel Evans, Moholiecan, 

Moses Tatamy, Willemegihany, 

Isaac Stille, Gelapamind. 

Episcaha, 



32 MINUTES OF THE 



At a Conference in the Council Chamber, at the State House in 
Philadelphia, Wednesday the 15th March, 1758. 

present : 
The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esquire, Lieutenant 
Governor. 

Benjamin Shoemaker, ~\ 
William Logan, > Esquires. 

Richard Peters, j 

The Speaker, with several Members of the Assembly, and many 
of the Inhabitants of the City. 

Indians. 
Teedyuscung, Tepiscaway, Willymegahany, 

Moses Tatamy, Mohowliekon, Gillapawmen, 

Cap 4- Harrison, 

Sundry other Indians. 

Isaac Stille, Interpreter. 

Teedyuscung' s Speeches were taken down by the Secretary, and 
read, Sentence by Sentence, to the Indians. The whole was after- 
wards settled by Mr. Logan and the Secretary the same Day, and 
are as follows : 

Teedyuscung, addressing himself to the Governor, said : 
u Brother : 

"I hope your wise men of the Council and Assembly are now 
present to hear what we have to say." On which they Governor 
answered him they was, and told him that he was now ready to hear 
what he had to say. 

Teedyuscung then taking out a Large Calumet Pipe filled it with 
Tobacco, and rising up said : 
" Brother : 

"The Governor and all your wise men present, hearken to what 
I am now going to say : At the Treaty at Easton, you desired me to 
hear you and publish what passed there to all the Indian Nations. 
I promised you to do it ; I gave the Halloo and published it to all 
the Indian Nations in this Part of the World, even the most distant 
have heard me. The Nations to whom I published what passed 
between us have let me, Teedyuscung, know that they had heard & 
approved it, and, as I was about so Good a Work, they sent me this 
Pipe, the same that their Grandfathers used on such Good occasions, 
and desired it might be filled with the same Good Tobacco, and that 
I, with my Brother, the Governor, would Smoke it. They further 
assured me that if at any Time I should perceive any Dark Clouds 
arise, and would Smoke but two or three Whiffs out of this Pipe, 
these Clouds would immediately disappear." 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 33 

Teedyuscung then lighted the Calumet Pipe that was Sent to 
them from the Indian Nation, first smoaked out of it himself, then 
gave to the Governor, who, with the Council and Members of As- 
sembly, smoaked it. 

Teedyuscung then proceeded, and taking hold of a Long Belt said : 
" Brother : 

"I desire you would hear me, and I hope all who are present will 
attend to what I am going to say to the Governor. 
" Brother : 

"I told you when we Consulted together I would not do as had 
been done heretofore. I would not hide or conceal any part of it 
in my Bosom, but would hold it up and Publish it, that all the 
World may hear and see it, and this I shall ever continue to do. 

" Brother : 

" You may remember I promised I would Give a Halloo ; I have 
done it, and all the Nations you see represented by this Belt, which 
I now hold in my Hand, have heard whatever you and I have talked 
together when we were promoting the Good Work ; I have made 
all these Nations as One Man. All the Indian Nations from the 
Sun Rise to these beyond the Lakes, as far as the Sun setts, have 
heard what has passed between you and me and are pleased with it, 
and they have said to me, ' Now, Brother Teedyuscung, we see that 
you and your Brothers, the English, have been talking about what is 
good; We, therefore, send you this Belt to Let you Know that we, 
the Nations who Live some of us at the Sun Rise, and others at the 
Sun sett, have taken hold at the two Ends of this Belt, and we desire 
you and your Brothers, the English, to take hold of the Middle, and 
always, when you are Consulting about what is Good to hold it fast, 
as our Lives and Safety will intirely depend upon it/ " As he was 
giving over the Belt to the Governor, he further said : 

"Now Brother, the Governor: 

" As Ten Nations joined before, and now Eight more have taken 
hold of the Covenant Chain, we make, in all, now Eighteen Nations 
who have hold of this Belt." 

Gave a Belt of Ten Rows, which had in the Center of it two 
figures of Men taking One Another by the Hand, which Teedyus- 
cung said was represented himself and the Governor ; at Each End 
of the Belt were two figures, representing the Sun Rising and the 
Sun Sett, and between these figures were Eight figures in White 
Wampum, representing the Nations who had taken Hold of it. 

Then Teedyuscung proceeded and Said : 
" Brother : 

" Hear me, and all that are present take Notice. 

" You know I told you at Easton that all the Power was in my 
vol. vin. — 3. 



34 MINUTES OF THE 

Hands, and as I held what was Good in my hand, I told yon I 
would hold it up, and if I saw any that were Willing to Live 
Quietly and Peaceably, I would deliver it into their Hands, and all 
the World should see to whom I did deliver it. 
" Brother : 

" I am heard now by all the Indians, and they are pleased, and 
have said to me, Brother Teedyuscung, You are now promoting 
what is Good ; We have looked and Enquired who has been the 
Cause of the Darkness; There are Three concerned, English, 
French & Indians. We have found one of these three have been 
the Cause of it, and he shall die. After a Pause Teedyuscung said 
Something was forgot, and added That the Man is a Frenchman. 
" Brother : 

" There is a Good Deal of News going backwards and forwards, 
but tho' it be so, I have stopped his Ears and blinded his Eyes, so 
that the News runs right before his Breast, he shall Hear Nothing of 
it, That is, tho' the Indians who have Joined me Live behind the 
French, must pass by them to come to us, Yet they shall know 
nothing of what Passes Between us. 

" Now, Brother, as I have blinded the Eyes of the French and 
stopped their Ears, I hope you will do the same." 

Gave a Belt of 12 Rows. 
u Brother, And all present attend to what I am going to Say : 

" You may remember you told me I was so Capable a Man as 
you were ; I see you tell true, you are really a Greater Man than 
I, and these Words Encouraged me. I have also received Encour- 
agement from the Indian Nations. Now, Brother, Press on with 
all your might in Promoting the Good Work we are engaged in ; 
Let us beg the God that made us to bless our Endeavours, and I 
am Sure if you Exert your selves, and God will grant a Blessing, 
we shall Live." 

Gave a Belt of 8 Bows. 
" Brother, the Governor, and all present : 

" The Indians who Live back Encourage you and me; they have 
seen us Hold Councils together, and they press us on to Execute 
what we have begun. They have said to me : ' Do you, Teedyus- 
eung, and your Brothers Press on and don't be discouraged. It is 
a Work of Great Moment which You have undertaken. When 
you begin a Great Work, you Can't expect to finish it all at Once ; 
therefore do you and your Brothers Press on, and let nothing Dis- 
courage you till you have intirely finished what you have begun/ 
Now, Brother, As for me, I assure you I will Press on, and the 
Contrary Winds may Blow strong in my face, yet I will go forwards 
and never will turn back, but Continue to Press forward untill I 
have finished ; & I would have you do the Same. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 35 

* Brother : 

" One Word more ; I earnestly desire you to Press on ; Let us 
proceed in the Good Road and finish the Work we have undertaken. 
I desire you Would Open and Clear your Eyes and Look upon our 
Wives and Children with Pitty and Compassion, and finish the 
Work as Soon as you can. Tho' you may Hear Birds Singing on 
this Side and that Side, you must not take Notice of that, but Hear 
me when I speak to you, and lay it to Heart, for you may always 
depend that what I say shall be true." 

A Belt of 7 Rows. 

Then he arose and taking the Governor by the Hand, said : "At 
Present I have no More to say, but when I hear any News you 
also shall hear it, for your Ear and mine are One." 

The Governor Replied to Teedyuscung and Said : 
u Brother Teedyuscung : 

" I thank you for what you have now said j as it is a Matter of 
Great Consequence, I will take time to Consider, and will Let you 
when I am ready to return an Answer." 

N. B. — The Eight Indian Nations mentioned are — 
The Ottawaw's, who Live N. W f - of Fort de Troit. 
Twightwees, . ^qq* q 

Chippewa ws, -*- ' w KJ ^at O , C- 

Toawaws, live S 0- of Lake Erie. 
Caughnawagos, 

Mahoowa, live on an Island in One of the Lakes. 
Pietoatomaws, live Westward of De Troit. 
Nalashawawna, live N 0, of New England. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Thursday the 16th March, 

present : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esquire, Lieutenant 
Governor. 

Robert Strettell, Benjamin Shoemaker, ) v 

John Mifflin Thomas Cadwalader, J ^ s( l mres - 

A Bill Entituled "An Act for granting a Duty of Tonnage upon 
Ships and Vessels," & ca -> was again read. The Committee having 
drawn up a Message proper to be sent along with the Bill to the 
House, and likewise a Paper of Amendments agreeable to what 
was given them in Instruction the Last Council, the same were read, 
and some alterations made, and then agreed to. 



36 MINUTES OF THE 

A Message from the Assembly in Answer to the Governor's Mes- 
sage which Accompanied Secretary Pitt's Letter was read in these 

Words : 

u May it Please Yonr Honour : 

" It was with Hearts filled with Loyalty and Gratitude to our 
most gracious Sovereign that we received his Royal Orders for the 
most vigorous and extensive Efforts for the Defence of his American 
Dominions in general and of this Province in Particular. After 
the last inactive and unhappy Campaign, as well of the King's regu- 
lar Troops as of the Military Force of this Province, the vigorous 
Measures His Royal Wisdom is determined to prosecute against the 
common enemy cannot but give us the most Sensible Pleasure. 
This we esteem one among many demonstrative Proofs of his Ma- 
jesty's royal Care and Paternal Regard for His Subjects in this Part 
of his Dominions ; and we should think ourselves wanting in our 
Duty to the best of Kings did we not embrace this Opportunity to 
return him our most humble and sincere Thanks for the gracious 
Protection He Hath hitherto afforded us in common with the rest 
of his American Colonies, and for His mild and paternal Instruc- 
tions which he hath transmitted to us in His Secretary of State's 
Letter. 

" We are Sensible that Vigour, Unanimity, and Dispatch in the 
Colonies are absolutely necessary to Crown with Success his Ma- 
jesty's Measures for their Protection and Defence j and your Honour 
may assure yourself that Nothing on our Parts which can be ex- 
pected from the most loyal, zealous, and faithful Subjects shall be 
wanting to co-operate with His Majesty's Forces in their offensive 
Operations in these Parts of His Majesty's Dominions. 

'•At the time your Honour laid before us the Secretary of State's 
Letter, of the 30th of December last, we were upon a Bill for 
granting a Sum of Money to His Majesty's use for fitting out the 
Provincial Ship of War for protecting our Trade, which now lies 
before you for your Assent ; and upon His Excellency the Earl of 
Loudon's Application, had further resolved, by a Land Tax, to 
furnish the Crown with Seven Hundred Men for the ensuing Cam- 
paign; besides the Forces we judged necessary to remain in Garri- 
son on our Frontiers, referring your Honour to your other Govern- 
ment to compleat of Eight Hundred Men, requested of you by his 
Lordship ; but upon receiving the above mentioned Letter, we are 
determined to comply with His Majesty's most gracious Demand of 
this Colony, and to encrease that Number, as far as the present 
distressed Situation of the Province, and Abilities of its Inhabi- 
tants will permit; and we are accordingly preparing a Bill to be 
presented to your Honour for that Purpose, to which we hope you 
may be at Liberty to give your most hearty Concurrence, not 
doubting your Honour will think it your Duty to apply to your 



* PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 37 

other Government to exert themselves on this extraordinary Occa- 
sion. 

" Signed By Order of the House. 

"THOMAS LEECH, Speaker. 
" March 14th, 1758." 

The Secretary was ordered by the Governor to deliver to the 
House a Copy of the Conference held yesterday with Teedyuscung 
and other Indians in the Council Chamber, which was done accord- 
ingly. 

The Governor after the Council broke up, gave orders to the 
Secretary not to carry the Bill, Message and Amendments to the 
House, but to detain them to be. considered in a full Council. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Saturday, 18th March, 1758. 
present : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esquire, Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Joseph Turner John Mifflin, > E ireg 

Thomas Cadwalader, S 

The Governor informed the Board that last Night he received 
by Express from New York a Letter from General Abercrombie, 
dated the fifteenth Instant, which was read and ordered to be en- 
tered; the Council approved of his Honours laying an Embargo on 
all Shipping in this Port; and the Secretary was ordered to deliver 
the said Letter to the House with a Verbal Message that " General 
Abercrombie, His Majesty's Commander-in-Chief in North America, 
having Signified by his Letter of the fifteenth Instant to the Gov- 
ernor, received by Express last Night, that his Majesty's Service 
requires an Embargo to be forthwith Laid on all Ships and Ves- 
sels in this Port, his Honour has Accordingly done it. And I am 
Commanded by his Honour to Lay that Letter before you for your 
immediate Consideration, and he most earnestly recommends it to 
you to comply with the Demand therein made with the utmost 
Dispatch." 

Ji Letter from General Abercrombie to Governor Denny. 

"New York, March 15th, 1758. 
"Sir: 

" By Circular Letters from Mr. Secretary Pitt (bearing date at 
Whitehall, December 30th, 1757) to all his Majesty's Governors 
on the Continent of North America, from Pennsylvania inclusive 
to the Southward, which Letters arrived here on the 4th Instant, 
by the Squirrel Ship of War, and were immediately forwarded to 



38 MINUTES OF THE 

you by Express from Lieutenant Governor De Lancey, you will 
find, Sir, that the King having Judged Proper that the Earl of 
Loudoun should return to England, His Majesty at the same time 
was Pleased to appoint me to Succeed his Lordship as Commander- 
in-Chief of the King's Forces in North America, with the same 
Powers and Authorities; and you will likewise find that in Pursu- 
ance of that Appointment it was his Majesty's Pleasure that all 
the Governors on the Continent should apply to and Correspond 
with me on all Matters relating to the King's Service ; In conse- 
quence of which Pleasure so signified to you, and repeated to me, 
I am to recommend to you to use your utmost endeavours & In- 
fluence with the Council and Assembly of your Province to induce 
them to raise with all Possible dispatch at Large a Body of Men 
within your Government as the Numbers & Situation of its In- 
habitants may allow, all which has already strongly been recom- 
mended to you by his Majesty's Secretary of State, as likewise 
several other Matters contained in that same Letter, which for the 
sake of brevity, I shall avoid repeating & solely refer myself to as 
it is so full that 1^ do not think it can want any Additions ; so far I 
will venture to go for your further Guidance as to fix the Number 
of Provincial Troops that may be wanted for his Majesty's Service 
in those Quarters to Six Thousand, to be furnished by Virginia, 
Maryland & Pennsylvania, in such proportions & upon the Terms 
set forth in the above Quoted Letter of Mr. Secretary Pitt te His 
Majesty's Governors in North America. 

" I am at the same time to acquaint you that as it is absolutely 
necessary for his Majesty's Service, that an immediate Embargo 
should be Laid on all Ships in the different Ports of the respective 
Provinces in North America, and as you have already been fore- 
warned that whenever such directions should be Transmitted to you 
by His Majesty's Commander-in-Chief in these Parts, you should 
without any the least Difficulty comply therewith, I make no doubt 
that upon receipt thereof, you will forthwith Publish the said Em- 
bargo, which is to hold Good until such time as you receive Notice 
from me to take off the same, which you may depend on being 
transmitted to you as soon as his Majesty's Service will allow of it. 

"I have nothing further to add, but to desire that you will give 
me the Earliest notice Possible, of the Success you meet with in 
your Application to your Council and Assembly, and what Resolu- 
tions they are, or are likely to come to, upon the Subject of the 
Troops to be raised by them, conformable to His Majesty's direc- 
tions, especially, as the Season is so far advanced, and there is no 
time to Loose. 

" I am with Great regard, Sir, 

" Your most Obedient Humble Servant, 

"JAMES ABERCROMBIE. 

" P. S. — The Embargo took Place in this Port yesterday." 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 39 

The G-overnor then issued Orders under his Hand and Seal at 
Arms, for an Embargo to be laid on all Ships and Vessels, as well 
to Abraham Taylor, Esqr., Collector of his Majesty's Customs at 
Philadelphia, as to William Till, Esqr., Collector at New Castle, 
and to the Collectors of his Majesty's Customs, or the Gentlemen 
Officiating as Principal officer of the Customs at Lewes. 

A Letter was wrote by the G-overnor to the Commanding Officer 
of General Otway's Regiment, requiring him without Delay, 
to reinforce the Guards at the Fort at Wiccacoa, and to use his 
utmost Endeavours to prevent any outward bound Vessels from 
Passing the said Fort, until further Orders ; and he was acquainted 
that the Captain of the Fort, Mr. Samuel Mifflin, had his Honour's 
Directions to Obey the Officer's Orders on this Occasion. The 
Governor likewise wrote to the same Effect to Samuel Mifflin, 
Esqr., Captain of the Fort at Wiccacoa. 

The other Business was postponed till a further Council, to be 
convened on Monday next. 

Yesterday Two Members waited on the Governor with the fol- 
lowing Message : 

" May it please your Honour : 

"We 'find, by the Minutes of your Conference with Teedyus- 
cung, on the fifteenth Instant, which you were pleased to lay before 
us Yesterday Afternoon, that far Distant Tribes of Indians have 
freely entered into our Alliance, and waited for nothing but the 
faithful Performance of the Articles of Peace, stipulated on your 
Part at the Treaty held at Easton, to Join heartily in the British 
Interest. 

" On this important Occasion, when the Peace of this and the 
Neighbouring Colonies, and the Success of his Majesty's Arms in 
the Ensuing Campaign, seem deeply interested in your Delibera- 
tions, we do assure you, that to Effectuate these Good Purposes, 
and strengthen your Hands, we will chearfully contribute every 
thing which can be reasonably expected from us, to confirm the In- 
dians in their Good Dispositions towards us ; and we think it our 
indispensable Duty to put you in mind of your promises to 
them, that we may heartily join in demonstrating our good Faith 
by our Actions, and Making it their true Interest to preserve a 
Perpetual Intercourse and Peace with us, and all other his Majesty's 
Subjects in North America. 

" Signed by Order of the House. 

" THOMAS LEECH, Speaker. 
" March 17th, 1758." 

Then was read the Ratification of the Act of Assembly for 
Striking Thirty Thousand Pounds, and granting the same to the 



40 MINUTES OF THE 

King's use, passed in September, 1756 ; which was ordered to be 
entered as follows : 

" [L. s.] At the Court at Kensington, the 8th Day of July, 1757. 

" PRESENT I 

" The King's most Excellent Majesty. 

" Lord President. 
" Duke of Newcastle, Earl Thomond, 

" Earl of Holdernesse, Viscount Barrington, 

"Earl Gower, Mr. Secretary Pitt. 

" Whereas, in Pursuance of the Powers granted to the Proprie- 
taries of the Province of Pennsylvania, by Letters Patent under the 
Great Seal, the Deputy Governor, Council, and Assembly of the 
said Province, did, in September, 1756, pass An Act, which hath 
been transmitted, and is entituled as follows, Viz'- : 

" ' An Act for Striking the Sum of Thirty Thousand Pounds in 
Bills of Credit, and giving the same to the King's Use, and for 
providing a Fund to sink the Bills, or to be emitted by laying an 
Excise upon Wine, Bum, Brandy, and other Spirits.' 

" His Majesty this Day took the said Act into his Boyal Consid- 
eration, and having received the Opinion of the Lords Commissioners 
for Trade and Plantations, and Also of a Committee of the Lords of 
his Majesty's most Honourable Privy Council thereupon, Is hereby 
pleased to declare His Approbation of the said Act; And Pursuant 
to His Majesty's Boyal Pleasure thereupon expressed, the said Act 
is hereby confirmed, finally Enacted, and ratified accordingly, 
Whereof the Deputy Governor, Council, and Assembly of the 
said Province of Pennsylvania, and others whom it may concern,, 
are to take Notice, and Govern themselves accordingly. 

" W. SHABPE." 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Monday the 20th March; 

1758. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esquire, Lieutenant 
Governor. 

Robert Strettell, Benjamin Shoemaker,^) 

Joseph Turner, Richard Peters, ^Esauires 

Lynford Lardner, Benjamin Chew, f ^ 

Thomas Cadwalader, J 

The Secretary acquainted the Governor and Council, that Mr. 
Logan had Endeavour'd to Learn the Sentiments of the Indians 
with respect to an Answer to Teedyuscung's Speeches, and to get 
Intelligence from them of the State of Indian Affairs; but thro 7 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 41 

Indisposition, had not so much Conversation with them as he de- 
sired for this purpose, and that he remained still Indisposed, which 
was the Reason of his Absence. 

A Draught of an Answer to Teedyuscung's Speeches was read, 
and the Secretary was desired to confer with Mr. Logan on the 
Answer, and they to Consult with Teedyuscung on the same. 

The Message and Amendments to the Tonnage Bill were again 
read, considered, settled, and Ordered to be entered, and sent to the 
House, by the Secretary, with the Bill. 

Amendments to the Bill entituled " An Act for granting to his 
Majesty a Duty of Tonnage upon Ships and Vessels; and also cer- 
tain Duties apon Wine, Rum, Brandy, and other Spirits, and a Duty 
upon Sugar, for supporting and Maintaining the Provincial Ship of 
War for protecting the Trade of this Province, and other Purposes, 
for his Majesty's Service." 

" 1st Amend*' Page 16, Line 6. Dele the Words [Hugh Davy], 
in whose stead the Governor desires the House will insert some 
other Person more fit for the Office of Collector. 

"2. Page 18, Line 13. Dele the Word [Five] and instead 
thereof insert the Word [Three]. 

" 3. Page 19, Line 7. Dele the Word [another] and instead 
thereof insert the words [some other person to be approved of by 
the Governor and Commander-in-Chief of this Province]. 

"4th. Same Page, Line 9. After the Word [who] insert the 
Words [when so approved of]. 

" 5th. Same Page, Line 11, 12. Dele the Words [Hugh Davy]. 

" 6th. Page 20, Lines 9, 10, 11. Dele the Words [Joseph Fox, 
John Hughes, William Masters, Joseph Galloway, and John Bayn- 
ton], in whose stead the Governor desires the House to Propose 
Five others, not Members of the House of Assembly. 

" Page 21, Line 14. Dele the word [Ten] and insert the Word 
[Five]. 



A Message from the Governor to the Assembly. 
u Gentlemen : 

" When I consider that this Province, in a great Measure, owes 
its quick Rise and flourishing State to Commerce and the great En- 
couragement given to Trade, I cannot avoid expressing my Appre- 
hensions to you lest the Bill lately presented to me for laying a 
Duty on the Tonnage of Vessels may prove very injurious to your 
Constituents in its Consequences. I, therefore, could have wished 
you had at least fallen on Measures of laying Taxes that might have 
come in Aid and lessened the Weight of the Burden that by this 
Bill will be imposed on Trade. However, as you have considered 



42 MINUTES OF THE 

this Matter, and think Such a Bill necessary, I have sent it down 
with such Amendments as appear to me Proper and reasonable. 
You will observe that I have struck out of the Bill such of the 
Commissioners as are Members of your House, who, I must further 
inform you, have, on several Occasions heretofore in the Course of 
their Conduct as Provincial Commissioners, treated me with so 
much Disregard that it is impossible I can for the future transact 
any Business with them. 

"WILLIAM BENNY. 
"March 20th, 1758." 

A Petition of John Miller against Justice Thomas Holiday was 
read, and it appearing to be a complaint of an expressive and extor- 
tionate nature, it was thought proper that it should be recommended 
to Two Justices and Two of the most reputable Inhabitants of Lan- 
caster County to examine into the Complaint and report thereon to 
the Governor. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Wednesday the 22d of March, 

1758. 

PRESENT I 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq/- Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Strettell, Joseph Turner, ") 

Benjamin Shoemaker, Richard Peters, ! -p • 

William Logan, Thomas Cadwalader, [ ^ 

Lynford Lardner, J 

The Draught of the Governor's Answer to Teedyuscung's Speech 
of this day Seven night was read, and after some Alterations settled. 

The Governor and Council adjourned to the Council Chamber. 

The Secretary was directed to acquaint the House that the Gov- 
ernor would in a Quarter of an Hour deliver his Answer to the 
Indians, and that they might be present, if they pleased. The 
Speaker and Assembly, and several of the Inhabitants of the City 
came into the Council Chamber, and when the Indians were seated 
the Governor, addressing himself to Teedyuscung, spoke as follows : 
" Brother Teedyuscung : 

" I have with great attention considered what you said on Wednes- 
day last, and as it was an affair of such great Importance, I con- 
sulted my Council, and also laid it before the Assembly. I desire 
you, and the rest of your Brethren, the Indians, would carefully at- 
tend to what I am going to say." 

A String. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 43 

" Brother Teedyuscung, all your Councellers that are with you, 
and also the Messengers from the Ohio, hear me : 

" The other day you put me in mind of what passed at Easton at 
the last Treaty, and I find that you remembered your promise very 
well; I find, also, by what you have said, that you have published 
the Treaty of Peace far and Wide into every part of the Indian 
Country, and that to your own and our great Satisfaction, those 
Indian Nations have accepted the Peace Belt, and have sent to you 
the Calumet Pipe, that from Old times have been made use of on 
such Good Occasions, and desired you to fill it with good Tobacco, 
and Smoak it with your Brother at Philadelphia, and always to 
smoak it with me whenever any dark Clouds should at any time 
arise," 

After a little pause, the Governor says, "Is not this, Brother, the 
Purport of what you said Yesterday V and then waits a little for 
the Answer, and when given he proceeds : 
" Brother : 

" This news gives me and all of us the greatest Pleasure, and we 
receive it from your Hands as a token that you are a faithful Agent 
and Friend of Pennsylvania, and have done the utmost in the dis- 
charge of your Trust. 
u Brother : 

" I smoaked with a great deal of Pleasure out of the Pipe that 
the far Indians, formerly our good Friends, sent you on this Joyful 
Occasion, and found the Tobacco exceeding good ; and I must now 
desire you, for them, as you Represent them, to spoak out of my 
Pipe, in which I have also put some very good Tobacco, such as our 
Ancestors used to smoak together, and was at first Planted here 
when this Country was settled by Onas. We have found by 
experience that whatever Nations smoaked out of it two or three 
hearty Whiffs, the Clouds that were between us always dispersed, 
and so they will again, as often as they arise, if these Indians will 
smoak heartily of it. 

Here the Governor smoaked and gave it to Teedyuscung. 

The Governor proceeded, and taking hold of Teedyuscung' s First 
Belt, 



" Brother Teedyuscung : 

" You refreshed my Memory as to what was said at the Last 
Treaty, that Things should be done no more in private, as had 
been done heretofore ; and that you would not conceal any part of 
it, but publish it before all the World. 

" You also put me in mind of your promise of giving a Halloo 
that might be heard by the most distant Nations, and that you have 
done it accordingly ; and that all the Nations represented by this 
Belt I now hold in my hand have heard you ; and know and approve 



44 MINUTES OF THE 

of every thing that has been done by us, and thafc you have made 
all those Nations as one Man." 

Here the Governor made a Pause, and then Proceeded : 
" Brother : 

" You also put me in mind by it, that these far Indians have 
sent Messages to you, heartily Congratulating you on the good 
Work you have begun with the English, and Encourageing you to 
perfect it, saying that their and our Lives depended upon it." 

The Governor then laid down Teedyuscung's Belt, and taking 
up the great Belt, said : 
i( Brother : 

" His Majesty, King George, embraces these Eight Nations and 
receives them with open Arms into the Union established between 
you and us. I now look upon the union to consist of Eighteen 
Indian Nations. And by this Belt of Wampum I, in behalf of the 
G-overnment and People of Pennsylvania, thank You for the Good 
and kind part you have taken, and Confirmed all that you have 
done, and shall look upon these Indians all as the Hearty Friends 
and Allies of the English. I think with them that our Lives and 
Safety depend upon our mutual Sincerity and Care, and assure you 
that I shall hold it fast with all my might and as long as the Sun 
-endures. " 

Gives the Peace Belt. 
u Brother Teedyuscung : 

" You put me in mind of what passed at Easton when you ac- 
quainted me that full Power was in your Hands, and that you had 
made the best use of it ; and thereupon the Indians have sent you 
Messages expressing their high Satisfaction, and desiring you to press 
on. They tell you further that they have enquired who has been 
the Cause of the Darkness, and said there were three concerned in 
it, English, French, and Indians, and have found that one of these 
three had been the cause of it, and added that it was the French, 
and agreed that he should die ; and have thereupon stopped all Cor- 
respondence with him ; have blinded his Eyes and stopped his Ears, 
that tho' Messengers go thro' his Country to and from you, Teedy- 
uscung, and the English, yet he shall know nothing of the Matter. 

" Brother : 

" I am glad you found out among yourselves that the French 
were the Cause of the Darkness that overspread this Country. The 
King of England found it out long ago, and therefore made War 
against them. This step that our Brethren, the Indians, made is a 
wise and Prudent Step. I am convinced by it that the same good 
Sense that has been among your Ancestors is not Extinguished, but 
remaincth with you still. I embrace this good Article of News. 
It shall be recorded in our records ; and I thank them and you very 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 45 

kindly in behalf of all his Majesty's Subjects. I assure you by 
this Belt that we on our side will also blind his Eyes and stop his 
Ears that he shall never know what passes between us, even tho' 
Our Messengers should be Obliged to go across his own Country, 
In Confirmation whereof I give you this Belt/' 

Here gives the Belt. 
" Brother Teedyuscung : 

" You desired that all that were then present might hear, and 
you put me in mind that I told you I was stronger than you, and 
that you agree to it, and that my Words gave you Encouragement ; 
and you desired me to Press on the Good Work we were engaged 
in and exert myself to the utmost, saying nothing should dis- 
courage you, and that if we joined heartily together, and the Good 
God that made us woulcl give it his Blessing, we might promise our- 
selves Success. 

" Brother : 

" I acknowledge what you said was true ; I have not forgot what 
I said of your Ability. I shall renew what I said then, and say 
now again that we are well able. I am pleased that you offer to 
join with us in Prayers to the Most High for Success on our En- 
deavours. Do you continue to do your part, and nothing shall be 
wanting on mine. I have the pleasure to acquaint you that the 
Representatives who are now Present have assured me that towards 
bringing to perfection the great and good Work of Peace which we 
are now Engaged in, and to confirm his Majesty's Indian Allies in 
their good Dispositions towards us, they will chearfully strengthen 
my Hands, and do everything which can be reasonably expected 
from them. And having received these great Encouragements you 
may depend upon it that the Government will not fail to perform 
all their Engagements, and to consult and Promote the good of the 
Indians in every respect." 

A Belt. 
" Brother Teedyuscung : 

" You acquainted me that the Indians who Live far back have 
sent Messengers to you to encourage you and me in the good Work 
we have begun, and said that they had seen us sitting in Council 
together, and tho' it should be a Work that would require some 
time before it might be perfected, they entreated we might not be 
tired. 

"You further assured me on your Part, that you would press on 
and go thro' with it, tho' contrary Winds might blow strong in your 
face, And earnestly persuaded me to do the same ; You added one 
word more, and earnestly desir'd me to proceed in the good Road 
and finish the Work we had undertaken. You begged of me to 
open and clear my Eyes, and Look upon our Wives and Children 



46 MINUTES OF THE 

with Pitfcy and Compassion, and for their sakes finish as soon as 
Possible. 

" Brother : 

" I am very glad that our good undertaking reached to such dis- 
tant Indians ; It was always my thoughts that they would one day 
repent that they lent their Ears to the French King who poisoned 
them ; I am very glad that by the Divine favour, this happy Day 
is come so soon, and that these remote Indians are so earnest for us 
to proceed, that it seems they would Look upon it as a Misfortune, 
if the Work should not he soon finished ) I assure you, brethren, 
by this Belt, that I look upon this to be a most important Work, 
the most so, that men can be engaged in ; that Nothing shall be 
wanting on my part, tho' contrary winds should throw Hail, Snow, 
and Bain in my face it shall not stop me ; My eyes are even looking 
upon our Poor Wives and Children, and for their sakes nothing 
shall be left undone that is in my Power, I pray the great God 
that made us, to bless our mutual Endeavours and crown the good 
Work with success. In confirmation of what I say, 

" I give you this Belt of Wampum. 

" Brother : 

" I agree with you that there are bad Birds in almost every Bush, 
and that their Chirping ought not to be minded. Tho' there should 
be a Thousand Birds on both sides the Boad, yet the Traveller, who 
is intent on getting to the end of his Journey, will not hearken to 
them. I shall, therefore, disregard every thing but what will pro- 
mote the main Point — Peace and the good correspondence that is 
between us. This chirping of Birds must not discourage Mes- 
sengers sent to and fro; only let us take care that we send Men who 
are faithful, and love to speak truth ; for as you say you hear with 
our Ears, so we hear with yours ; And a great deal depends on the 
Characters of the Messengers, and their regular proceedings. I 
desire you by this String of Wampum to remember this." 

A String. 

" Brother : 

u You have made use of a great many Messengers, and they have 
gone to different Countries and different Tribes of Indians. I 
desire to know the names of your Messengers, and of the Indian 
Nations they have been sent to, that they be put upon our Records, 
and the Messengers rewarded for their Trouble." 

A String. 

The Governor concluded with saying, " I have now fully Answered 
what you said to me, and I desire to know if you have any thing 
farther to propose." 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 47 

Whereupon Teedyuscung arose, and spoke as follows : 
" Brother : 

u Hearken to me. What you have told me, Brother, I have really 
felt at my Heart; It is nothing hut good and right, and I will 
accept it. 

" Brother, and all you, my brethren, take notice what I am going 
to say to you. 

u I am not going to say any thing New, but only to Put you in 
Mind afresh of what we proposed, and what passed at Easton. 
" Brother : 

" When I Look and Consider what we did Discourse about at 
Easton, and when I Look on our Wives and Children, I can find no 
better way than this, and what must be done if you will now Act 
according as we Proprosed. This matter affects my Heart, and lies 
deeply there, and I hope it will affect yours Likewise. 
" Brother : 

" Now you must Consider I have a Soul as well as another, and 
I think it proper you should Let me have two Ministers to teach 
me, that my soul may be instructed, and Saved at Last. 
" Brother : 

" And I desire, moreover, two Schoolmasters, for there are a great 
many Indian Children who want Schoolmasters. One, therefore, is 
not sufficient to teach them all, so that they may be sufficiently 
instructed in the Christian way. 
" Brother : 

" I have a Body as well as a Soul. I want two Men to instruct 
me and show me the Ways of Living and how to conduct temporal 
affairs, who may teach me in every thing to do as you do your- 
selves, that I may Live as you do, and likewise who may watch 
over me and take care of my Things that no Body may cheat me. 

" Brother : 

" I hope you will heartily join in this which I have now said, I 
desire you and I may now lay the Foundation of this good Work 
upon a Rock and not upon the Sand; For if we don't build it on 
such a good Foundation it will tumble to Pieces. 

" I have not told you all fully, I have only mentioned some short 
Heads of what I intended to say ; I have here but few Councellors, 
but we have consulted together and have put down at Large in 
writing our whole Mind, and this paper will show it." 

Here he desired a Paper, which was read in these Words. 
"Brothers : 

'' We formerly told you that we desired to be instructed in the 
Principles of the Christian Religion and requested that we might 



48 MINUTES OF THE 

have Ministers and Schoolmasters supported among us for that 
purpose. We now renew our Request, and as many of our Breth- 
ren are ready to lay hold on the Chain of Peace, we think it neces- 
sary to inform you that Less than two Ministers besides School- 
masters will be insufficient for that Purpose, and tho' we expect our 
brethren the English will support them, yet as they are designed 
for the Benefit of us and our Children, we Judge it both reasonable 
and necessary that we should have Liberty to chuse them ourselves, 
after having made the best inquiries we are able into the Charac- 
ters of those who are to Watch for our Souls, and to whose care our 
eternal Interests are under God to be committed. This, Brothers, is 
an Affair that Deserves your most Serious attention, and we hope it 
will be seriously Considered by our brethren, the English. 
" Brothers : 

"You are wise men, You tell us the Christian Religion is Good, 
and we believe it to be so, partly upon the Credit of your Words 
and partly because we see that some of our brother Indians who 
were Wicked before they became Christians, Live better Lives now 
than they formerly did. But, Brothers, we have got Bodies as well 
as Souls, and tho' our time in this World is Short, it is nevertheless 
necessary to provide for ourselves and Families while we are in it ; 
this is what our own reason and experience teacheth us and we are 
confirmed in our Sentiments by the universal Practice of Chris- 
tians as well as Indians, And since we see that our brethren the 
English Manage the Affairs which concern their Worldly Estates 
and Interests with more Wisdom than the Indians do, our next 
request is that our brethren will Support two honest Men amongst 
us to be our Councellors and Instructers in temporal Affairs, and at 
the same to be the Guardians of our Interest, And that we may be 
the more certain that we are not deceived by our Councellors, we 
think it necessary to have the choice of them ourselves. We De- 
sire to have two, that if one of them should prove a dishonest Man 
the other may prevent his imposing on us, And we hope our brethren, 
the English, will put the Support of our Councellors on such a 
foundation as will Leave them under no temptations to betray our 
Interests for the sake of their own temporal gain, and as an addi- 
tional Security for their Acting Honestly we shall judge it neces- 
sary before admitting them into our Service that they Solemnly 
Swear after the English Manner, that they will Conscientiously 
perform the trusts reposed in them, according to the best of their 
Skill and understanding. 
" Brothers : 

" These are things that appears to us so just and reasonable, that 
we hope our brethren, the English, who profess to have a sincere 
regard both for our temporal and eternal Interests, will readily agree 
to them. A Friendship that is founded on Justice and equity, 
where a proper regard is had to the Interests of both Parties, may 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 49 

reasonably be expected to prove durable, and such we desire may 
be the Friendship between us and our brethren the English. But 
a Peace that is founded on Injustice and deceit, must end whenever 
the fraud is discovered. 
" Brothers: 

" These are things that Lay heavy on our Hearts. Let them sink 
deep into the Hearts of our Brothers, and if they act conformable 
to these sentiments, both they and their Children, as well as we and 
our Children, will feel the good effects of them till the Sun ceases 
to shine, and the Rivers to Run. 

his 

11 Teedy S uscung. 

mark. 

After the Paper was read, he added : 
"Brother: 

" Here is a Messenger who came from a great distance, He will 
wait for your Answer, that he may have good News to carry to the 
Indians, and as he has a great way to go, I desire he may be dis- 
patched as soon as Possible. " 

To which the Governor replied : 
| Brother : 

" I shall take your request into Consideration, and give you an 
answer with all possible dispatch, and at the same time I shall have 
some other things to say to you/' 

The Secretary was then ordered to make out a fair Copy of the 
Minutes of Conference with the Indians, and carry them to the 
House, with the following Message : 

" G-entlemen : 

" I Lay before you the Minutes of yesterday 7 s Conference with 
Teedyuscung. You will find at the Close, he reminded me of the 
Promises made to him at Easton, of an Allowance for Ministers and 
Schoolmasters for the use of the Indians, when they should be set- 
tled at Wioming ; and has now made a further request, that two 
Persons might be allowed them, for management of their affairs in 
general. As they only stay in Town to receive my Answer, I de- 
sire you will enable me, as soon as may be, to give them a Satis- 
factory One, that our Friendly Indians may see the Government 
does not refuse them any reasonable request. 

"WILLIAM DENNY. 
" March 23d, 1758." 

VOL. VIII. — 1 



50 MINUTES OF THE 

At a Council held at Philadelphia, Saturday the 25th of March, 

1758. 

PRESENT ! 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esqr., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Richard Peters, ") ^ 

T r i t i r Esquires. 

Lyntord Lardner, j ^ 

Teedyuscung and the Indians. 

Conrad Weiser, Esqr., Interpreter. 

The Governor informed the Board that two Members had waited 
on him on the Twenty-Third, with a verbal Message from the 
House, in Answer to his Message to the Assembly of that Day, 
that the House were of Opinion the Requests of the Indians were 
of great Importance to his Majesty's Service; and that they con- 
cieved the enacting a Law for regulating the Indian Trade, was the 
only means to enable the Governor to fulfil his Promises to the said 
Indians at Easton, and the Requests they have since made of this 
Government; and therefore, the House inclined to reconsider the 
Indian Trade Bill lately offered to his Honour, and sent it up again 
for his Assent. 

A Paper delivered last night to the Secretary by Teedyuscung, 
was read in these Words, and ordered to be entered : 
a Brother : 

" I would have this Messenger, who came with me, dispatched as 
soon as possible, to carry back to the Indians the good news of 
what we have Now done. 
" Brother : 

" You must have heard that the Cherokees are come down to go 
to War. Now, as several of our Friends who have joined with me 
Live near, and some among, the French, it is necessary the Mes- 
senger should be sent before to tell them to seperate from the 
French, that they may not be cut of with them. 
" Brother : 

" I would have you also dispatch a Messenger immediately to the 
Cherokees to inform them what is done, and to stop them, For if 
any mischief is done It will not be said the Cherokees did it, but[ 
that you have done it, who hired and sent them, and this will undoj 
all that we have done. But when the Indian Nations are informed' 
of the Peace we have made, then all those Indians will come and 
join the Cherokees and be all Friends with the English, and allj 
together will go against the French." 

Being asked what sort of Message can be sent to the Cherokees! | 
that will not do harm, for should any Indians come down with| 
French Men at their Head, as they have always done, what theni 
must be done ? 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 51 

Teedyuscung replied : 

" I would, therefore, have the Messenger sent as soon as possible^ 
to prevent any of the Indians joining with the French." 

He farther said : 
" Brother : 

" Here is our Messenger between us both ; I leave it to your Gene- 
rosity what you shall give him. When a Man is travelling he must 
eat and Drink. He may also Loose his Horse, which is the case 
with this Man, who Lost a very stately Horse in coming down j all 
these things should be considered. There were nine other Messen- 
gers who came with this Man; all these should be rewarded; they 
make in all Ten — Three here and Seven at Bethlehem. 

" Brother : 

" Since I have been in Town I have been obliged to run in debt 
at two or three Houses in Town in treating my People. I hope you 
will enable me to discharge it. 
f Brother : 

" I recommend my Interpreter to you. I hope you will reward 
him. 
f Brother : / 

u I have to inform you that upon intelligence received that the 
French were coming against Fort Allen, I sent Captain Harrison 
and three other Indians to the Assistance of that Place ; they were 
there on Service Ranging in the Woods two Weeks. I desire they 
may be rewarded for their Service. 

" I desire you will order the Messengers' Guns to be mended at 
Bethlehem." 

" The above was delivered to the Secretary, who was desired to 
send it immediately to the Governor by Teedyuscung. 

"ISAAC STILL, Interpreter. 

" The Messenger and Moses Tatamy being present. 

" f CHA S - THOMPSON." 

A Draught of a further Answer to Teedyuscung was read & set- 
tled. 

A Message from the Assembly delivered by two Members yes- 
terday in the afternoon, was read as follows : 

A Message from the Assembly to the Governor. 
u May it please your Honour : 

" We beg Leave to observe that by the Minutes of the Confer- 
ences laid before us from time to time, since the Treaty at Easton, 
it does not appear that any effectual Measures have been taken to 
recover our Fellow Subjects from the Captivity they are under with 



52 MINUTES OF THE 

the Indians with whom a Peace has been long since concluded, nor 
even to remind them of their Engagements to restore them ) We, 
therefore, think it our Duty to recommend it to your Honour be- 
fore the Indians depart from this City, to make some enquiry after 
the Captives, and to take such Measures as shall be most likely to 
restore them to their Country, Families, and Friends j We also 
think it absolutely necessary for the welfare of this Province, and 
the promotion of his Majesty's Indian Interest in America, that a 
friendly and kind Invitation should be given to the Chiefs of each 
of the Eight Tribes of Indians that have by a late Messenger 
shewn an inclination to enter into an Alliance with his Majesty, 
and to take up Arms against his Enemies, that some of them would 
when it was convenient to them, take an Opportunity of Visiting 
this Government, and further ratifying the great Work of Peace so 
happily begun, and now almost perfected ; The good Effects this 
Province has already felt, and his Majesty's Interests in general is 
like to receive from the late Conferences with them, are such Proofs 
of the Good Policy of such an Invitation that we hope we need not 
add anything further to enforce it. 

" Signed by order of the House. 

" THOMAS LEECH, Speaker. 
" March 24th, 1758." 

Another Message from the Assembly delivered at the same time 
in Answer to the Demand made by General Abercrombie was read, 
together with the resolves of the House, which were ordered to be 
entered : 

" Resolved, That immediate Provision be made for raising, pay- 
ing and Cloathing Two Thousand seven hundred effective Men, 
Officers included, to act in Conjunction with a Body of his Ma- 
jesty's British Forces, and the Forces of Maryland, Virginia, and 
the Lower Counties on Delaware, in such offensive Operations as 
shall be carried on and prosecuted by his Majesty's Commander-in- 
Chief in these parts during the ensuing Campaign. 

u Resolved, That the Men already raised, and in the Pay of this 
Government, be a part of the Number to be furnished by the fore- 
going Resolve. 

" Resolved, That it is the Opinion of this House, that there be al- 
lowed to each able Bodied Man entering Voluntarily into the said 
Service, the Sum of Five Pounds, as a Bounty for his Enlistment. 

" Resolved, That it is the Opinion of this House, that there be 
allowed to each Officer properly Authorized, the Sum of Twenty 
Shillings for each able Bodied Voluntier he shall enlist into the 
said Service." 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 53 



A Message from the Assembly to the Governor. 
** May it please your Honour : 

" We, his Majesty's faithful and Loyal Subjects, the Representa- 
tives of the People of this Province, taking into our Considerations 
the Demands of our most gracious Sovereign, and being sincerely 
disposed to comply with them to the utmost of the Abilities of this 
young Colony, and conscious that we cannot do his Majesty, and 
the Good People of this Province, a more effectual Service than by 
joining, with Vigour and Resolution, in the Offensive Operations, 
planned by our Sovereign, for the Protection and Defence of his 
American Subjects, have chearfully agreed to raise, clothe, and Pay 
Two Thousand Seven Hundred Men for this great and necessary 
Purpose, in full hope that, Under the Blessing of Divine Provi- 
dence, His Majesty's Arms will be crowned with Success, and Peace 
be once more restored to this unhappy and distressed Province. 

" In doing this, we have not so much attended to the Poverty 
and inability of our Constituents, as to their present imminent 
Danger, the Necessities of the Times, and the great Prospect there 
is of relieving them from their Present unhappy Circumstances, by 
one united and Vigorous Effort. And therefore animated with a 
Zeal for the Execution of his Majestic' s Orders, in which the 
Safety of this Colony, and the preservation of America, are so inti- 
mately concerned, we have agreed to furnish on this interesting and 
important Occasion, more men than a full Share, according to the 
Proportions required of this Province, Maryland and Virginia, not- 
withstanding the Country has been drained of its Single Men (our 
servants not excepted), by the great Numbers that have been en- 
listed into his Majesty's Service, and many others that have entered 
on board the Privateers of this and the neighbouring Provinces. 

"It is also the Opinion of this House that Five Pounds be 
given as a Bounty to every able Bodied Man that shall voluntarily 
enter into the Service of the Province, and Twenty Shillings to the 
Officer for every such Man he shall enlist. 

" The House, earnestly solicitous that this Province may be dis- 
tinguished among the Colonies for its Loyalty, Ardour, and Zeal in 
Promoting so great an undertaking for the Defence and preserva- 
tion of America, beg Leave to recommend it to your Honour that 
you would exert your utmost endeavours, and Leave no method un- 
essayed that may tend to raise the Men in such Time that they may 
be ready to March to the Place of rendezvous by the first of May, 
agreeable to His Majesty's Royal Orders; To accomplish which we 
apprehend nothing can so effectually contribute as a strict and 
speedy Compliance on your Part with His Majesty's wise and gra- 
cious Commands, in issuing Commissions to such Gentlemen of the 
Province as shall be judged from their Weight and Credit with the 
People, and their Zeal for the Publick Service, may be disposed and 



54 MINUTES OF THE 

enabled to quicken and effectuate the speedy levying of the greatest 
Number of Men. We know from experience, on the One Hand, 
that unless the Officers are such as are agreeable to the People, no 
Bounty that the Province is able to pay will procure the Number 
of Men wanted in Time; and, on the other, if his Majesty's Royal 
Command is pursued, it will greatly facilitate this important Ser- 
vice. 

"Signed by order of the House. 

" THOMAS LEECH, Speaker. 
"March 24th, 1758." 

Then the Governor having called the Indians into Council, and 
addressing himself to Teedyuscung, spoke to them as follows : 
" Brother : 

" I fully expected I should now have been able to have given you 
an answer to the request you made respecting the assistance to be 
wanted from this Government, in being supplied with proper 
Ministers, Schoolmasters, and Council at your Indian Towns ; I laid 
your request immediately before the Assembly, and they sent me 
Word that as it was an affair of such importance they would take 
time to consider of it Well, and give me an Answer; this they have 
not yet done, and as you have acquainted me that your Messengers 
are very uneasy to return to inform the Indians of what has passed 
here, I must for the present defer giving you an Answer to what 
you then desired; but you may depend upon it, that every thing 
this Government engaged to do at Easton they will faithfully per- 
form. What they are now Considering is only the method of doing 
it. This is my Answer to what you mentioned the other day. 

" Brother Teedyuscung : 

" You may remember I told you on Wednesday last, that altho' 
I had thankfully Answered the Messages you had brought me from 
the Indian Country, Yet I had something more to say to you. 

" Brother : 

" I think proper that our Peace Belt that I gave you the other 
Day should be sent with the greatest Dispatch, and in the safest 
Manner you can, to the Indian Towns on the Ohio, and the other 
Towns who have no entered into our alliance, that they may be 
fully informed of what has passed between us here, and the Good 
Work we have done. Take this my Calumet Pipe with you for 
our Friendly Indians to smoak out off. It is the Pipe our Old Pro- 
prietor, William Penn, smoaked in on his first Arrival into this 
Country, with all the Indians that then Entered into a Covenant 
Chain with him, and has been preserved by his Order to this Day 
for that good Purpose. I recommend it particularly to the Dela- 
wares, our Brethren, and their Grand Children, the Shawonese, to 
smoak out of it heartily, as it has now been filled with the same 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 55 

good Tobacco, and they, the Delawares and Shawonese, will then re- 
member their Mother Country, for the Ground in Pennsylvania is 
the Ground they came out off. 

" Brother : 

" You Know when they first left us they went only a Hunting, 
tho' at two great a Distance from us, to a Place where an Evil 
Spirit Reigned, where they lost themselves by the Instigation of 
that Evil Spirit, whose cunning and Power they could not resist. 

" Brother : 

" I cannot help thinking but their Thoughts must be often bent 
towards their Mother Country, as it is most Natural for all sorts 
of People to Love that Ground best from which they first Sprung. 
" Brother : 

" We remember very well how kindly you received our Fore- 
fathers when they first arrived in this Country. You secured their 
Ship to the Bushes and kindled up a fire for them ; You enter- 
tained them with the Best you had, and you must remember the 
Mutual Friendship that subsisted between us since that time, and 
hope these black Clouds that came from the North will be now 
intirely Dispelled, as the greatest part of them already are. We 
shall then see one another with a great Deal of Pleasure, and the 
Sooner it is done the better, and I assure you nothing shall be 
wanting on my Part towards perfecting this good Work. 

" In confirmation of which I give you This Belt. 
•* Brother : 

" I must put you in Mind at this Opportunity of our Children 
that yet remain among the Indians. I should be extremely glad to 
see as many of them as you can possibly bring, and as you are a 
wise man you know that will give great Satisfaction to me, my Coun- 
cil, Assembly, and all the good People of this Province." 

A Belt. 
li Brother : 

u You may remember that at first, when the Clouds were begin- 
ning to be dispelled, a little foot-Path was opened by Fort Allen to 
Wioming for our Messengers to pass thro' with Messages, but as 
now the Clouds are intirely dispelled between us and the Indians on 
Susqueannah, I think it necessary to Open a great Road, that is, 
from Diahogo and the Heads of the Susqueannah down to Fort Au- 
gusta, called by the Indians Shamokin, where you will always find 
a Kind reception, Entertainment, and Protection in your Road, to 
Philadelphia." 

A Belt. 

N. B. — Teedyuscung expressing some dissatisfaction at this Pro- 
posal, the Governor added that it was only a proposal for him to 



56 MINUTES OF THE 

Consult the Indians at Wyoming upon, and then he might give au 
Answer after knowing their Minds. » 

" Brother : 

" I have now done, and shall, without delay, lay before His Ma- 
jesty's Commander-in-Chief and Sir William Johnson, the Gentle- 
man appointed to transact Indian Affairs in this District, all that 
has passed between us, and I make no doubt but the Resolutions of 
the Indians with regard to the French will be very agreeable to 
them, and they will immediately transmit it to his Majesty, who 
will be exceedingly pleased." 

The Governor ordered the Secretary to prepare a Draught of a 
Letter to Collonel Washington, or the Officer Commanding the 
Forces in Virginia, agreeable to Teedyuscung's Request of yester- 
day, and it was agreed such a Letter should be sent by express. 



MEMORANDUM. 

On the Twenty-Sixth the Letter to Collonel Washington was 
signed and sent by express, and ordered to be entered as follows : 



A Letter from Governor Denny to Collonel W< 

" Philadelphia, 25th March, 1758. 
" Sir : 

" Several accounts have been brought daring the Winter as if there 
was a disposition in the Western Indians to return to their Old 
Friends, the English ; and as there has been little or no mischief 
done on the Frontiers of this and the Neighbouring Provinces of 
late it is not unlikely but the Indians are changing every Day in 
our Favour. 

" We have no small Confirmation of the truth of these Accounts- 
by some Messages which have been delivered to me, a belation 
thereto you will find in the inclosed Paper, besides what Teedy- 
uscung has said in Publick. From the Mouth of the Messengers who 
came directly from the Ohio by the Way of Diahoga they expressly 
declare that since the Peace Belts sent b} r these Indians who were 
formerly our Friends, have been so Kindly received by this Gov- 
ernment, they are sure that on their receiving this News they 
shall be sent back immediately with an Account of their seperating 
from the French and coming to join our friendly Indians. 

n A few Days ago letters arrived here from Winchester informing 
that several Parties of Cherokees were come there and were pre- 
paring to go against the French and the Indians on the Ohio ; these 
Messengers were some how or other made acquainted with this, and 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 57 

they no sooner heard it than Teedyuscung with them came in a 
formal Manner with the following Address : 
" ' Brother : 

" ( You must have heard that the Cherokees are come down to go 
to War. Now as several of our Friends who have 'joined with me 
live near, and some among the French, it is Necessary the Mes- 
senger should be sent before to tell them to seperate from the French 
that they may not be cut off with them. 
" <■ Brother : 

" ' I would have you also dispatch a Messenger immediately to 
the Cherokees to inform them of what is done, and to stop them; 
for if any Mischief is done it will not be said the Cherokees did it, 
but that you have done it who hired and sent them ; and this will 
undo all that we have done. But when the Indian Nations are 
informed of the Peace we have made, then all those Indians will 
come and join the Cherokees and be all Friends with the English, 
and altogether will go against the French/ 

" I have reason to believe that the Cherokees hate the Delawares 
and Shawanese, and do not desire they should become our Friends, 
but would have them all destroyed, having Long born them great 
Enmity ; so that it is a nice point how to Communicate this News 
to them without giving them disgust ; and if any of the early 
Parties of the Cherokees take miff and should return disgusted 
they may turn back many other Parties that may be on their Way 
to join his Majesty's Forces. 

" As this ill Consequence can, I Think, be well avoided, if pru- 
dence be observed in the Communication of this News, In Com- 
pliance with Teedyuscung's Request, I send this Express, desiring 
that the whole matter may be related to the Cherokees, and they 
be requested to have regard thereto in their Scouting Parties. 

"I am persuaded there is a good Disposition in several Indian 
Tribes, lately our Bitter Enemies, towards the English; and as it 
would be a great misfortune, that they should be in any wise dis- 
couraged or disturbed, I hope you will find a way of engaging the 
Cherokees to attend severally, to the request made by Teedyuscung 
and these Indians. 

" I beg the favour to know what numbers of Cherokees are al- 
ready come, and how many more are expected, and in what manner 
they will dispose of themselves, till the Rendezvous of the King's 
Forces. 

u I am, Sir, Your very humble Servant, 

"WILLIAM DENNY." 



58 MINUTES OF THE 

At a Council held at Philadelphia, the 27th of March, 1758. 
present : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esquire, Lieutenant 
Governor. 

Robert Strettell, Joseph Turner, *) 

Richard Peters, Lynford Lardner, > Esquires. 

Benjamin Chew, Thomas Cadwalader, j 

A Return of a Court for the Tryal of Negroes, was made by the 
Judges, by which it appears, that at Newtown in Bucks County, a 
Negro Man, named Christmas, was Condemned for Burglary, and 
Mr. Grraydon, in behalf of the Court recommended him to mercy, 
informing the Governor by Letter, that he was a new Negro, and 
could not speak to be understood in his Defence. 

All the Council were unanimous, that he was a proper Object of 
the Governor's Mercy, and the Secretary was ordered to make out 
a pardon for him, but not to deliver it till the Negroe's Master en- 
gaged to have him transported to some other Country. 

A Letter from Captain Christopher Atkins, dated the 24th In- 
stant, on Board the Charming Polly, armed Sloops, lying at Reedy 
Island, was read in these Words : 



-} 



" Charming Polly, Arm'd Sloop, 
" Lying at Reedy Island, Philadelphia River, 
" the 24th of March, 1758. 
"Sir: 

"Agreeable to my directions from Commodore Durell, Esqr., 
Commander-in-Chief of his Majesty's Ships and Vessels in North 
America, I am to acquaint you of my Arrival in the Above Sloop, 
under my Command, to inforce the Embargo on the Shipping of 
this Port, at the same time with my Compliments, as a King's 
Officer, and am with all due respect, 

" Sir, Your most Obedient and very Humble Servant, 

" CHRISTOPHER ATKINS. 
"P. S. — Since I wrote this I have met with three or four sail of 
Vessels in the Bay of Delaware, Outward bound to different Parts ; 
one ship bound to Teneriff, One Brig to Antigua, Sturgis, Master, 
an other Brig to Halifax, and a Schooner to Jamaica, Hugh Wright, 
Master, all which Vessels I have brought back with me to Reedy 
Island, where I intend to detain them till I hear your Orders. 

" Must further beg leave to acquaint your Excellency that the 
General and Commodore at New York are very strict in inforcing 
the Embargo and preventing Vessels from eluding it j they having 
sent for two Privateers up, and Several Merchant Vessels who were 
Loading at the Watering Place. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 59 

"By General Abercrombie's Directions, Collonel Haldiman has a 
Copy of my Orders. " 

And whilst the Letter was reading a Petition was presented to 
the Governor in Council by William Fisher, Redmond Canyngham, 
John Nesbitt, and Amos Strettell, setting forth the Difficulties they 
laboured under in not having their Vessels permitted to proceed on 
their Voyages, they having been cleared and sailed before the Em- 
bargo was laid. With these Petitions came Mr. Thomas Willing, 
Samuel Carson, Mr. Williams, and Captain Blair, who, as Well as 
the petitioners, made Application to the Governor for an Order to 
Mr. Atkins to suffer their Vessels to proceed on their Voyages, all 
having been cleared and sailed before the Embargo. 

The Matter being considered, the Council were unanimously of 
Opinion that these Vessels could not Legally be stopped, and ad- 
vised the Governor to recommend it to Mr. Atkins immediately to 
discharge them, that they might proceed to their respective Ports ) 
and the Governor wrote to the Officer accordingly. 

The Governor received Two Letters from General Forbes, the one 
dated the twentieth, the other the twenty-third Instant, both which 
were read and ordered to be entered : 

A Letter from General Forbes to Governor Denny. 
"Sir: 

" I have the favour of yours of the 17th, and make no manner 
of doubt of your doing of every thing in your Power in forwarding 
His Majesty's Service, and therefore must beg that the Officers 
and Soldiers raised in Pennsylvania for the Service are Able Bodied 
good Men, capable of enduring fatigue, and that their Arms be the 
best that can be found in the Province; As Carpenters and Axe 
Men are absolutely necessary upon Many Occasions, I must recom- 
mend the sending as many of those as can be conveniently got into 
the Troops. 

" And likewise that the Province will raise fifty good Men, well 
mounted upon light Serviceable Horses, and every way accoutred 
to serve in Conjunction with those to be furnished by the other 
Provinces as a Body of Light Horse, from whom I expect very Im- 
portant Service. 

" As the Roads from Lancaster to Williams' Ferry upon the Po- 
tomack may want considerable repairs and widening of them for 
the Carriages of Cannon, &c'' , •' I have therefore wrote to the Gov- 
ernor of Maryland for that Purpose, In order that those roads may 
be repaired by the Inhabitants of the 2 Provinces of Pennsylvania 
and Maryland, living near those parts. 

"As I propose Assembling the Regular Troops, and those of 
Pennsylvania, at Conegochieque, about the 20th of April j You will 
therefore give Orders for all Manner of Diligence to be used in 



60 MINUTES OF THE 

raising the Numbers that your Province is to send, who shall he 
payed at the rate of 4 pence ^ Diem, in lieu of provisions from 
the time they begin their March; until that they are furnished with 
Provisions from the King's Stores. 

" I am informed that the Inhabitants upon the Frontiers of your 
Province being much used to hunting in the Woods, would conse- 
quently make good Rangers, In which case I am to beg you will 
give your direction for the forming some of your properest Men 
into Companys of Rangers with good Officers, who are well ac- 
quainted with the Country, to Command them. 

" If it could possibly be contrived to find some Intelligent 
Person who would venture up to the Ohio, either as a Merchant or 
a Deserter, & would bring us Intelligence what was going on in 
those parts, I should certainly reward him handsomely. Perhaps 
such a one might be found in some of your Provincial Companies 
up a Fort Loudoun, &c a- ' &c a> 

" I should be obliged to you if you will give orders to send me 
some Account of what provincial Troops you have now on Foot, 
and where they are for the present, as likewise what Numbers (in 
the whole) your Province is to raise for the Service of the present 
Year. 

" I must beg the favour that you will Order your Secretary to send 
the Inclosed Packett by an Express to Virginia, And I shall have 
the Honour to be with great regard, Sir, 

" Your Most Obedient & most humble Servant, 

"JO. FFORBES. 

"New York, March 20th, 1758. 

"P. S. — I have this moment an Express from Fort Edward, 
acquainting me of One of your Scouting Parties of 180 Men having 
been attacked by a Thousand of the Enemy's Indians, Canadians, 
&c a- ' near Tionderoga, in which we have lost 130 Men ; the Party- 
behaved most Gallantly, but were overpowered by Numbers." 



Another Letter from General Forbes to Governor Denny. 
" Sir : 

" As there will be a Number of Waggons and Carriages wanted 
in the Province of Pennsylvania, and as the Inhabitants may be 
backward in furnishing of them, altho' to be payed for them with 
ready Money, I therefore take this Opportunity of letting you know 
that Press Warrants will be necessary all over the Province, In 
order that if you are not vested with the Power to grant such War- 
rants, that you will apply to the Assembly to grant theirs, and fix 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 61 

prices upon the Different Carriages and Horses. I have the 
Honour to be, Sir, 

" Your most Obedient and most humble Servant, 

"JO. FFORBES. 
"New York, March 23d." 

The Council taking the within Letters into Consideration, it was 
agreed that Extracts of the said Letters should be sent to the House, 
and a Message to the Assembly was drawn at the Table, and agreed 
to, and the Secretary ordered to deliver it with the Extracts. 

The Secretary was directed to make a fair Copy of the Indian 
Minutes of the Twenty-Fifth, and carry them to the House, with 
the following Message, But Mr. Peters acquainting the Governor 
that a Quorum of the House had not met, the Messages were 
ordered to be dated on the Twenty-Eighth, and entered : 

A Message from the Governor to the Assembly. 
u Gentlemen : , 

"I- have ordered the Secretary to lay before you Extracts of 
Letters I lately received from Brigadier General Forbes, containing 
Demands of several important Matters to be done by this Province 
for the facilitating and forwarding the Expedition to the Westward, 
and earnestly recommend it to you to take the same into your Con- 
sideration, and make Speedy Provision for this necessary Service. 
The Mayor has acquainted me that Quarters are demanded for One 
Thousand and Seventy-two Men, including Forty Officers, of which 
Two Hundred and Twelve are already in Town, and the rest expected 
in a Day or two. As the Publick Houses in the City and Suburbs 
cannot at most contain more than Six Hundred, I desire you would 
be pleased to give Directions that the Barracks be forthwith made 
ready, and furnished with such necessaries as are required in 
Quarters, and particularly that a proper quantity of Straw and 
Wood be ready against the Arrival of the other Troops. 

" Some time ago I desired one of your Members to acquaint the 
House that the Act for Quartering of Soldiers would expire at the 
end of this Sessions, that it Might be renewed, and I now remind 
you that this is the Case with respect to the Act for regulating Car- 
riages to be employed in his Majesty's Service. A Number of 
Waggons will be wanted for the expedition, which will make it 
necessary for you to fix the Prices of Carriages and Horses, without 
confining the Hire, as in the late Act, to the inhabited Parts of the 
Province, or limiting it to a Day or any certain Time. 

Many of the Arms given to the provincials being very bad and 
unfit for use, I propose to Supply them out of the Publick Magazine 
in this City, and desire you would make provision for the Expence 
that will attend the Carriage of them. 

"WILLIAM DENNY. 

"March 28, 1758." 



62 MINUTES OF THE 

A Message from tlie Governor to the Assembly. 
t{ Gentlemen : 

" Before I received your Message of the Twenty-fourth Instant, 
in Answer to mine of the Day before, I intended to have spoke to 
Teedyuscung, and to have taken my leave of him in Publick, but 
on his acquainting me that the Messengers had heard of the Arrival 
of some Parties of Cherokee Warriors in Virginia, and were uneasy 
to be dispatched, that they might put the Indians who sent them on 
their Guard with respect to these parties, I did not think it proper 
to detain them for a formal Conference, but gave them my Answer 
as soon as it could be got ready. 

"You will see. by the Minutes now laid before you that I re- 
minded Teedyuscung of the Prisoners remaining among the Indians, 
assuring him it would give great Satisfaction to me, the Council, 
Assembly, and all the People of the Province, to see as many of 
them brought here as was possible. This I said in the presence of 
the Messengers and other Indians. 

" To himself much more was said, intending it should likewise 
be said in their presence j but he advised me to the Contrary, tell- 
ing me, that the Messengers would return instantly with agreeable 
Answers from the Indians, and till then, no more need be said, and 
it would do more harm than Good. 

"No Opportunity has offered since the Treaty of Easton, for my 
taking any Measures respecting the restoring of the Prisoners, 
more than reminding Teedyuscung of his engagements on this Ac- 
count, which I have not failed frequently to do, tho' not formally, 
as that would have answered no Purpose. The very first Oppor- 
tunity that Offers with these, or any other Indians, shall be very 
heartily embraced, and the matter urged upon them with all the 
Zeal and Care in my power. 

"Not knowing how far an Invitation to the Chiefs of these eight 
Tribes of Indians, who, it seems, lives at great Distances from one 
another, might interfere with the Measures taken by his Majesty's 
Commander-in-Chief, or Sir William Johnson, the Superintendant 
of Indian affairs in this District, I have not ventured to make it, 
but have transmitted to the General Copies of the Conferences and 
of your Message, and mentioned the advantages that would arise 
from such Invitation, desiring his advice therein. 

"I have likewise dispatched a Messenger to Colonel Washing- 
ton, or the Commanding Officer of the Virginia Forces, at Win- 
chester, with an account of these Conferences, and the good Dispo- 
sition of the Indians, and desired it might be forthwith Communi- 
cated to the Chcrokees, and they be requested to have regard 
thereto, in their future Excursions. 

"WILLIAM DENNY. 

" March 28th, 1758." 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 



MEMORANDUM. 

On the Twenty-Ninth, the Governor, by the Secretary, sent down 
a verbal Message to the House, that Colonel Halderman had waited 
on his Honour, and requested an Hospital for a Number of Sick 
Soldiers, ordered to this City ; Twenty-Five of whom, are already 
arrived and in immediate want thereof, and the rest expected to- 
morrow. Also, Quarters for a Body of his Majesty's Troops, com- 
ing here in a few Days, whom all the Publick Houses in the City 
and Suberbs have not sufficient Room to accomodate. That his 
Honour had applied to the Mayor to provide an Hospital for the 
said purpose ; but he being unable to procure the same, the Gov- 
ernor now recommends the provision of one to the House, and that 
they would also give orders, to have the Barracks made ready, and 
furnished with proper Quantities of Straw and Wood, for Quar- 
tering the said Troops. 

And on the same Day Two Members from the House waited on 
the Governor with the following verbal Message that the House 
desirous that the Waggons and Carriages which may be expected of 
this Province by his Majesty's Commander-in-Chief, for carrying 
on and facilitating the Expedition to the Westward, should be pro- 
cured in due Time, and with as much ease and Conveniency to the 
Inhabitants as possible, recommend it to the Governor to write to 
Brigadier General Forbes, that he may acquaint the Governor in 
Time with the Number of Waggons, Carriages, and Horses, that 
will be wanted, and that his Honour would, as Soon as Notice be 
given to him thereof, take the Necessary Steps, and employ such 
persons, who, from their Weight and Influence with the People, 
can procure them with Expedition, and will cheerfully undertake 
that Service, if requested by the Governor. 

To which the Governor was pleased to say, that he could not tell 
what Number of Carriages and Horses might be wanted for the 
Expedition to the Westward but he would write to General Forbes 
by the first Opportunity. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, the 31st of March, 1758. 

present : ^ 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esquire, Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Strettell, Joseph Turner, *) 

Richard Peters, Benjamin Chew, [■ Esquires. 

John Mifflin, Thomas Cadwalader, J 

The Governor informed the Board that on the Twenty Ninth 
Two Members waited on nim with a Bill Entitled " An Act for 



64 MINUTES OF THE 

granting to his Majesty the sura of One hundred thousand Pounds 
& for striking the same in Bills of Credit in the manner herein- 
after directed and for providing a Fund for sinking the said Bills 
of Credit, by a Tax on all the Estates, Real and Personal, and Tax- 
ables within this Province," which was read, and Mr. Peters and 
Mr. Chew were appointed to examine the Proprietary Instructions 
and Letters on the Subject with the former Messages, and to make 
Report thereon and upon the Bill against to-morrow Morning. 
Extracts of Proprietary Letters to Mr. Peters were read and de- 
livered to the Committee. 

The Governor declared he would not do Business with the late 
Provincial Commissioners, and was surprized to find that their 
Names were inserted in the Supply Bill after what he had said in 
his Message of the Twentieth; He said it looked as if the Assembly 
had a mind to affront him and to throw this in the way that the 
Bill might not Pass, as they might well think the Governor would 
not consent to their appointment, he gave particular reasons for his 
refusal which were taken down by the Secretary and he desired 
they might be mentioned in the Message. 

It was unanimously agreed that the parts relating to the Pro- 
prietary Estates should be struck out of the Bill, and an Offer 
made to the Assembly to have the Proprietary Estate taxed in a 
seperate Bill in which Commissioners were named and agreed on. 

It was further thought proper that their should be two Setts of 
Duplicates of the Assesments made, one of which to be delivered 
to the Governor and the other to the House. 

Mr. Chew and Mr. Peters were desired to prepare a Message, and 
the Amendment agreeable to the Sentiments of the Governor and 
Council, against to-mprrow morning, to which Time the Council ad- 
journed. 

A Bill was presented last Night by two Members to the Governor 
for his Concurrence, Entituled " An Act for regulating the Officers 
and Soldiers Commissionated and raised by the Governor for the 
Defence of this Province," was read, and being found to be the 
same, except a very small necessary alteration, with the Act passed 
in the last year, it was agreed to, and ordered to be returned to 
the House with a Message that the Governor would pass it. 

Another Bill Entituled " An Act for Extending several Sections 
of an Act of Parliament passed in the Thirtieth Year of the pre- 
sent Reign, Entituled ' An Act for punishing Mutiny and Deser- 
tion, and for the better Payment of the Army and their Quarters/ M 
presented last Night to the Governor, was read & Amended. 

The Governor informed the Council that Colonel Haldeman had 
Acquainted him that the Owners of the Ship King of Prussia and 
the Brig Concord, which were taken into the Transport Service had 
nailed down Hatches and discharged their Captains, and he desired 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 65 

tlie Governor's Advice and Assistance. After reading what was in 
the Books on this Subject, and Considering the Matter, the Secre- 
tary was directed to let Colonel Haldyman know the steps necessary 
to be taken. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Saturday the 1st of April, 

1758. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esquire, Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Strettell, Benjamin Shoemaker, ) p SQU : res 

Richard Peters, Thomas Cadwalader, ) * ' 

The Governor laid before the Board a Message from the Assem- 
bly presented last Night by Two Members, which was read and or- 
dered to be entered as follows : 

A Message from the Assembly to the Governor. 

u May it please your Honour : 

"The House taking into their Consideration your Honour's 
Message of the Twenty-Eighth Instant, and the request made by 
Brigadier General Forbes, and being sincerely desirous that every 
Measure may be taken that may tend to Expedite and facilitate the 
important Operations now carrying on against our common Enemy, 
beg leave to recommend it to your Honour that you would Comply 
with the General's request in furnishing him with fifty good Men, 
well Mounted on tight Serviceable Horses, out of the Men directed 
to be raised by the Bill now before you, and that you would forth- 
with issue your Orders to the Sheriffs of the Several Counties, 
directing them to give Notice to the Overseers of the Roads where 
the King's Troops are Likely to March, to amend such of them as 
are in the interior Parts of the Province, and to Widen and repair the 
Road from Lancaster, leading towards Williams' Ferry on Potomack, 
fit for the Carriages of Cannon, &C*' agreeable to the General's 
Directions ; and that the same may be done in Time, we apprehend 
it will be expedient that Orders should be given to a proper 
Number of the Troops in the pay of the Province, to assist in this 
necessary Work, in the County of Cumberland, as many of its 
Inhabitants have been driven from their Plantations; And with 
respect to Carpenters and Axe-Men, we are informed there are many 
among the men already in the Province Service, but should it, on 
Enquiry, prove otherwise, we doubt not your Honour will take the 
Necessary Steps to procure them. 

"We have now before us a Bill for regulating the Hire of 
Vol. viii. — 5. 



66 MINUTES OF THE 

Carriages, which we expect will be presented to-morrow to your 
Honour for your approbation. 

" Signed by Order of the House. 

" THOMAS LEECH, Speaker. 
" March 31st, 1758." 

Mr. Peters acquainted the Governor and Council that Mr. Chew 
was necessarily engaged in striking some Juries against the next 
Supreme Court, but that the Committee had considered what was 
delivered them in charge, and had drawn up a paper expressing 
their Sentiments on the Occasion, which was read, together with 
the Supply Bill. 

The Governor repeated what he had said at last Council, and 
insisted that the Reasons of his Objections to the Commissioners 
should be set forth at Large in the Message, and the Council 
agreeing to it, Mr. Peters was desired to let Mr. Chew know this, 
that the Message might be framed accordingly. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Monday the 3d of April, 

1758. 

PRESENT ! 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esquire, Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Strettell, Joseph Turner, ") 

Richard Peters, Benjamin Chew, > Esquires. 

John Mifflin, Thomas Cadwalader, ) 

The Minutes of the preceding Councils were read and approved, 

A Message and Amendments of the Supply Bill having been 

prepared, the same were read and with some Alterations agreed to, 

and the Secretary was ordered to deliver them to night to the 

House. 

Mr. Mifflin declared that the Charges laid against the Commis- 
sioners in the Message were true, and that the Proofs would be 
very clear. 

A Message from the Governor to the Assembly. 
11 Gentlemen : 

" I have considered the Bill for granting to his Majesty the Sum 
of One Hundred Thousand Pounds, and for striking the same in 
Bills of Credit, and for Providing a Fund for sinking the said Bills 
of Credit by a Tax on all Estates real and personal, and Taxables 
within this Province, and have given it all the Dispatch, which the 
Length and Importance of it would admit of, and now return the 
Bill to you, with a few Amendments. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 67 

" You will find that I have struck out such parts as relate to the 
assenting and Taxing the Proprietary Estate in Common, and in the 
same mode with the rest of the Inhabitants of this Province. You 
are not, however, to understand by this that I mean, or wish to 
exempt their Estate from being taxed. This is what they them- 
selves do not desire. On the Contrary, they are willing that every 
Tract of Land within the Province, surveyed and appropriated for 
their use, should bear an equal and proportionable share of any 
Burthens that may be imposed on the People in the necessary De- 
fence of this and His Majesty's other Colonies. By the Bill the 
Estates of the People are to be rated and assessed by Assessors 
elected by them for that Purpose. 

" This mode you think a very equitable one, and that it would 
be unreasonable that the People should be taxed by any others than 
such as they chuse and approve of. I conceive, Gentlemen, the 
same Justice is due to your Proprietaries, and that it would be 
equally unreasonable their Estate should be assessed and valued by 
Persons, in whose Nomination, or Appointment, they, or their 
Deputy, have not the least Share, This would be to exclude them 
from the Rights and Advantages you think ought to be granted to 
the meanest of His Majesty's Subjects. I should have Amended 
the Bill on the above plan with regard to the Taxation of the Pro- 
prietary Estate, and propose Commissioners to be inserted for that 
Purpose, had I not been apprehensive that it might have retarded 
the passing it at a Time, when our Duty to our gracious Sovereign, 
ourselves, and our Country, require it should not be delayed a Single 
Moment. But I now offer you that, if a seperate Bill of this sort 
is approved of by you, I will, on my part, chearfully concur with 
you in it. 

" Having, in my Message to you of the Twentieth of last Month, 
relating to the laying a Duty on Tonnage, &c a -' objected to five of 
the Commissioners named therein, and declared to you that they 
had on several Occasions heretofore, in the Course of their Conduct 
as Provincial Commissioners, treated me with so much Disregard, 
that it was impossible I could for the future transact any Business 
with them, I cannot but express my Astonishment to find that they 
are, notwithstanding, named as Commissioners in this Bill. I 
would fain hope, Gentlemen, this was not intended to obstruct the 
passing a Bill so necessary at this critical Juncture. It is with 
great Reluctance I am once more obliged to inform you that I 
never can consent to their being again appointed Provincial Com- 
missioners. Besides their Extraordinary Behaviour towards me, 
and the strong Objections I have often urged against appointing 
any of your own Members to be Commissioners, I must acquaint 
you that they, on several Occasions, have laid out and expended 
divers Sums of the Money heretofore given, by Act of the Legis- 
lature, to His Majesty's use, without previously obtaining my 



68 MINUTES OF THE 

Consent or. even consulting me, which was a manifest Violation of 
their Trust, und expressly contrary to the Directions of the Law. 
They have, moreover, had meetings among themselves without 
Summoning or giving Notice to Mr. Lardner and Mr. Mifflin, their 
Brother Commissioners, who are first named in the Law, and had 
equal Power arid Trust with them. They have likewise neglected 
to inform me of the state of their Accounts, or how they have ap- 
plied the King's Money, though I long since demanded it of them ; 
so that I know not to this Day in what manner it has been ex- 
pended, or what New Contracts may have been made by them. 
At the late Treaty held at Easton, wherein Peace was concluded 
with the Indians, being informed that they had bought, with the 
money veil for His Majesty's Use, a parcel of Goods and brought 
them to that Place to be disposed of in presents to the Indians, I 
demand 1 of them a List of such Goods, and the amount of them, 
that I might be enabled therefrom to form a better Judgment how 
to conduct myself towards the Indians, or what expectations to give 
them on an Occasion so interesting to his Majesty and this Pro- 
vince ; in Answer to which they were pleased to tell me that they 
would in due time prepare and lay before me a List of such Goods. 
This, however, was delayed a long Time, and was all the Satisfaction 
I could obtain from them, till after the Conclusion of the Treaty. 
Under these Circumstances, I should be inexcusable to his Majesty 
and the Publick in vesting with new Powers Persons who in so 
many Instances have acted in direct Opposition to their Duty pre- 
scribed by the Law by which they were appointed. I am therefore 
under the disagreeable Necessity, Gentlemen, of insisting that you 
insert in the Bill some other Persons in their stead, well qualified 
for so high a Trust, which, in so populous a Country as this is, I 
presume you can be at no Loss to do. 

" I shall have regard to the General's Bequest of furnishing him 
with Fifty Light Horse out of the Men directed to be raised by the 
Bill, as soon as that Bill shall be passed into a Law, and hope you 
will give it all possible Dispatch, as the Season for Action i3 ad- 
vancing very fast. The several Matters requested by you in your 
Message of the Thirty-first of last Month shall have my Particular 
Attention. 

"WILLIAM DENNY. 

"April 3d, 1758." 



"Amendments to the Bill Entitulcd l An Act for granting Hia 
Majesty the Sum of One Hundred Thousand Pounds, and for 
strikin the same in Bills of Credit in the Manner hereinafter 
directed, an I for providing a Fund for Sinking the said Bills of 
Credit by a Tax on all the Estates, Real and personal, and Taxables 
within this Province.' 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 69 

" Page 4, Line 4. Dele the Word [not]. 

" Page 12, Line 1st, 2d, & 3d. Dele the Words [what quit- 
rents they respectively are liable to pay to the Proprietaries Yearly 
within this Province]. 

" Same Page, Line 10th, 11th, & 12th. Dele the Words [and 
also an Account of all such located Lands as belong to the Honour- 
able the Proprietaries of this Province, or either of them]. 

** Page 17th, Line 9. After the Word [cause] insert tlio Word 
[Two]. 

"Page 18, Line 4. Dele the Word [all] and instead thereof in- 
sert the Words [One of]. « 

" Page 18, Line 5. Between the Word [before] and the Words 
[Assembly] insert the Words [the Governor, and the other before]. 

" Page 33 & 34. Dele the Words [Joseph Fox, John Hughes, 
William Masters], in the last line of the 33d Page, and the Words 
[Joseph Galloway and John Baynton, Esquires], in the First Line 
of the 34th Page. 

"Page 34, Penult Line 8, last Line. Dele the Words [Joseph 
Fox, John Hughes, William Masters, Joseph Galloway, and John 
Baynton.] 

" Page 36, Line 3d. Dele the Words [with the Consent of the 
Governor] He not having received from the Commissioners a State 
of their Accounts." 

The Bill extending the Sections of the Act of Parliament for 
Mutiny and Desertion was ordered to be delivered to the House 
with One Amendment, viz 1, : 

" Page 4, Line 10. After the Word [shall] read [by a certificate 
returned to the Mayor of the City under the Hand of the Com- 
manding Officer of His Majesty's Regular Forces for the Time 
being within the said City of Philadelphia appear to]," and the Bill, 
for the Regulation of the Officers likewise, with a Verbal Message 
that the Governor would pass the said Bills whenever the House 
presented them to him for that Purpose. 

A Bill Entituled " An Act to regulate the Hire of Carriages to 
be employed in his Majesty's Service," presented to the Governor 
last Saturday by Two Members for his Concurrence, was read, and 
the Secretary was directed to Consult Sir John St. Clair, who was 
expected in Town to-day, on the said Bill. 

The following letter from General Abercrombie was read and or- 
dered to be entered : 

A Letter from General Abercrombie to Governor Benny: 

"New York, March 27th, 1758. 
"Sir: 

" I was yesterday favour' d with your's of the 22d acquainting me 



70 MINUTES OF THE 

that since the Embargo had been laid you had not been permitted 
an}'- Vessels to Sail except such as are loaded by the Contractors 
for the use of His Majesty's Squadrons in America & the West 
Indias, and the Garrison at Halifax. If none of the Vessels under 
these Circumstances are yet sail'd I must beg that you will detain 
them untill such time as there be a proper Convoy Appointed to 
take them in Charge, otherwise they may fall into the Enemies 
hands, from whence much worse Consequences must ensue than by 
their being detain'd so short Time; besides, the Contractors are 
willing and desirous to wait for this Convoy. 

I shall wait with Impatience for the Answer of your Assembly, 
which I hope will Correspond with their Message to you of the 14th. 
I return you thanks for the List of the Ships and Vessels in your 
Port, And am, with great regard, 

" Sir, Your Most Obedient Humble Servant, 

« JAMES ABERCROMBIE." 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Thursday the 6th of April, 

1758. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq r - Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Strettell, Benjamin Shoemaker, *> 

Richard Peters, Benjamin Chew, > Esquires. 

John Mifflin, Thomas Cadwalader, ) 

The Minutes of the preceding Council were read and approved. 

The Governor informed the Council that yesterday afternoon the 
supply Bill was returned to him by Two Members, with a Verbal 
Message that they were Commanded by the House to acquaint His 
Honour that the House adhered to the Bill; On which the Gover- 
nor desired the Advice of Council ; the Proprietary Instructions, 
the Governor's Message, with the Bill and Sundry other Messages 
were consulted, and after long Consideration it was unanimously 
agreed that they should be returned, with a Message setting forth 
the Governor's Surprize that the Offer made to concur with the As- 
sembly in Taxing the Proprietary Estate by Commissioners, to be 
nominated on both sides, was rejected; That he would pass a Bill 
formed in the same Manner as the supply Bills were formed since 
the Contest began about taxing the Proprietary Estate, and to re- 
mind the Assembly that he had called upon them in October, Janu- 
ary, and again in March, on receiving the Secretary of State's Letter 
to raise the Supplies, and with such a Message the Council advised 
the Governor to adhere to his Amendments. Accordingly, Instruc- 
tions were given to Mr. Chew and Mr. Peters to prepare such Mes- 
sage, to be sent to-morrow morning, with the Bill, to the House. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 71 

An Indian Trade Bill having been presented to the Governor 
yesterday by Two Members, the same was read, and the House 
having had a regard to the Amendments proposed to former Bills 
for the Indian Trade, and none of the Commissioners named being 
Members of the House, the Council advised the Governor to pass it 
if he was satisfied that the Thousand Pounds, said to be laid out 
for Indian Goods, were actually laid out, and the Goods sent to 
Mr. John Carson, Agent, at Fort Augusta j accordingly, the Secre- 
tary was ordered to return the Bill to the House, with a Verbal 
Message, that the Governor would Pass it so soon as he should be 
satisfied the Thousand Pounds were laid out. The Bill for punish- 
ing Mutiny and desertion was likewise delivered to the Governor 
with an Amendment. 

The following Letter from Sir John S f - Clair was read, ordered to 
be entered, and laid before the House : 

" Philadelphia, April 5th, 1758. 
"Sir: 

" As the Season of the Year is so far advanced, no manner of 
stop ought to be made which might retard our Military Operations, 
and as so much depends on Conveying quick Intelligence from 
one place to another throughout the Colonies, The Commanding 
General of his Majesty's Forces has ordered me to make Application 
to your Honour, that you may give such directions as shall seem 
proper to you for Establishing two good Horses at each of the 
following Stations, viz t- : Trenton Ferry, Philadelphia, New Castle, 
Dover, Lancaster, & York. I have made application to the other 
Governors, that the same may be done all over the Provinces. 
As this requires immediate Dispatch, I must entreat your Answer 
as soon as possible. I am, with the Greatest respect, 

u Your Honour's most Obedient and most Humble Servant, 

"JOHN S T - CLAIR. 

"P. S.— I hope the Post thro' Carlisle to Winchester will be 
■continued." 

Sir John S 4, Clair and Colonel Haldiman made grievous Com- 
plaints about the ill Accomodation of the Forces in the Barracks ; 
and Sir John said he J had no Objection to the passing the Waggon 
Bill, tho' it might have been better drawn. 



MEMORANDUM. 

On the Sixth, at Night, Two Members of the House waited on 
the Governor with the following Message : 

A Message to the Governor from the Assembly. 
<Li May it please your .Honour : 

u Upon considering the Request made by Sir John S f - Clair to 



72 MINUTES OF THE 

your Honour, that you would establish two good Horses at Trenton 
Ferry, Philadelphia, New Castle, Dover, Lancaster, and York, we 
think it so reasonable and necessary for his Majesty's Service, that 
we earnestly request the Governor to take the proper Measures to 
comply therewith at the several Places within this Government. 
To defray the Expence of this and other necessary Transactions for 
the King's Service, a Bill now lies before your Honour for your 
concurrence, to which we earnestly desire the Governor's Assent, as 
the Season for military Operations advances fast. 

" Signed by order of the House. 

" THOMAS LEECH, Speaker." 



MEMORANDUM. 

On the Seventh the Governor, by the Secretary, sent down to 
the House the Bill for regulating the Hire of Carriages, with a 
Verbal Message that he was ready to pass the same when presented 
to bim for that purpose. The Secretary was likewise directed to 
return the supply Bill to the House, and to acquaint the House 
the Governor adhered to his Amendments. That his Honour had 
summoned the Assembly of the Lower Counties to meet on Monday 
next at New Castle, where his Presence would be required. At 
the same Time the Secretary was ordered to deliver to the House 
the following Message : 

JL Message from the Governor to the Assembly. 
" Gentlemen : 

" I received Yesterday, by two of your Members, the Bill for 
granting to His Majesty the sum of One hundred Thousand 
Pounds, &c a> ' with a verbal Message that the House adhered to the 
Bill, which is all the Notice you have been pleased to take of the 
Amendments, or my Message of the Third Instant, sent with them. 
When I reflect that the wise and vigorous Measures formed by our 
most gracious Sovereign for the protection of his Subjects in these 
Colonies must be defeated, and thereby this and the neighbouring 
Provinces again be exposed to the cruel Incursions of our merciless 
Enemies, unless the supplies demanded of each Government for 
carrying into Execution the Plan of Operations concerted by his 
Majesty are granted, I cannot but be greatly concerned that a Bill 
so important in its Consequences should be obstructed or meet with 
the least Delay. Give me Leave to observe to you, Gentlemen, 
that the Taxation of the Proprietary Estate hath already been the 
Subject of much Altercation, in which a great deal of precious 
Time has been lost. To sollicit and bring this unhappy Contest to 
a final Decision befor our Superiors, An Agent hath been appointed 
and sent Home, on the part of the Assembly, and in the mean 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 73 

Time the Dispute hath been permitted to sleep, and a supply Bill 
passed by the Legislature^wherein the Proprietary Estate hath 
been altogether exempted. This being the Case, I was not a little 
surprized to find a Foundation laid for new Debates by a clause in- 
serted in the above Bill for taxing the Proprietaries, and that too 
at a Time when Unanimity and Vigor in our Councils are so ab- 
solutely necessary. Permit me to remind you, Gentlemen, that our 
indispensable Duty to the best of Kings, a regard to our own Interest, 
and every Motive that can actuate British Subjects and Lovers of 
their Country, demand it of us on the present Occasion, to bury or at 
least Suspend all former Heats, and to guard against every thing 
that can possibly impede the vigorous Efforts His Majesty is de- 
termined to make against His Enemies the Ensuing Campaign, on 
the Success of which the very being of this Province may depend. 
That nothing might be wanting on my part, I have offered every 
thing in my power consistent with my Duty. So far from being 
desirous to exempt the Proprietary Estate from bearing a Share in 
the Publick Burthen, I proposed to you in my last Message to 
concur with you in taxing all the located and appropriated Tracts, 
provided Commissioners were appointed in the Bill for that pur- 
pose, such as should be approved of by both of us ; and I intended 
if any Difficulties should arise about the Commissioners further to 
propose that an equal Number should be nominated by you and me. 
This was a proposal so equitable that I did not doubt your Ac- 
ceptance of it ; and I am at a loss to know what reasons could move 
you to reject it. I once more make you the like offer, and hope 
on Considering the Matter you will either concur with me in it or 
suffer the Bill to pass as others of the like Kind heretofore have, 
exempting the Proprietary Estate till the point is settled and ad- 
journed on the other side of the Water. It would be very disa- 
greeable to me to enumerate the Reasons I gave you in my former 
Message for Objecting to five of the Persons named in the Bill for 
provincial Commissioners ; they are so strong and full that it is 
unnecessary to say any thing in Support of them. I cannot help 
Lamenting it, however, as a Publick Misfortune, that you did not 
turn your Attention to the raising Supplies for the Service of the 
current year before the Season was so far advanced. You must do 
me the Justice to acknowledge that I have not failed frequently to 
put you in mind of the necessity of making such timely Provision. 
I pressed you on this Subject in my Message to you of the Seven- 
teenth of October last, at your first Meeting, and at your next meet- 
ing, in My Messages of the Third, the Thirteenth, and Twenty- 
fourth of January, and Eighth of March, when I laid before you 
the Letter I received from His Majesty's principal Secretary of 
State. It may not yet be too late to exert ourselves and do every 
thing incumbent on us to comply with His Majesty's just and rea- 
sonable Demands. But if any charge of Delay should be imputed 



74 MINUTES OF THE 

to this Province it is a great Satisfaction to me that no part of the 
Censure can justly lie at my Door. 

"WILLIAM DENNY. 
" April 7th, 1758." 



At a Council held at the State House, Saturday the 8th Day of 
April, 1758, P. M. 

PRESENT ! 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq'- Lieutenant Gover- 
nor. 

Robert Strettell, Joseph Turner, \ -™ 

Eichard Peters, Lynford Lardner, j * 

Three Bills were compared by Mr. Peters and Two Members of 
Assembly, and found to agree, Viz 1, : " An Act for regulating the 
Hire of Carriages to be employed in His Majesty's Service;" "An 
Act for regulating the Officers and Soldiers Commissionated and 
raised by the Governor for the Defence of this Province ;" and 
" An Act Entituled ' An Act for Preventing Abuses in the Indian 
Trade, for supplying the Indians, Friends and Allies of Great Bri- 
tain, with Goods at more easy Bates, and for securing and strength- 
ening the Peace and Friendship lately concluded with the Indians 
inhabiting the Northern and Western Frontiers of this Province/ " 

The Governor having this morning received a Remonstrance from 
the House with the Supply Bill, the same was read and ordered to 
be entered as follows : 

" May it Please your Honour : 

"We, His Majesty's most Dutiful, faithful, and Loyal Subjects, 
the Representatives of the People of this Province, in General As- 
sembly met, do hereby earnestly remonstrate to your Honour, 

" That on the Eighteenth of March your Honour laid before us 
a Letter from General Abercrombie, containing the first Notice we 
had of the Number of Troops that was expected from these Colo- 
nies, and in a few Days after we resolved to furnish and Pay as large 
a proportion of Men as this Province could possibly Supply, Thir- 
teen Hundred whereof are now ready to Join the King's Forces, 
and on the Twenty-ninth of the same Month we presented to your 
Honour a Bill granting One Hundred Thousand Pounds to the 
King's Use for this Purpose, which you have thought proper twice 
to reject, notwithstanding the Season for Military Operations is so 
far advanced that His Majesty's Service must be greatly injured and 
retarded thereby. 

" That the mode proposed by your Honour of taxing the Proprie- 
tary Estate is without Precedent in our Mother Country, anti-con- 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 75 

stitutional, and inconsistent with the Rights of the people ; That 
His Majesty and the Peers of the Realm of Great Britain do not 
insist upon a Right of appointing Commissioners with the other 
Branch of the Legislature for taxing their Estates, but, on the Con- 
trary, have wholly left to the Commons the Right of nominating 
Commissioners in their Supply Bills, which admit of no Amend- 
ments, and, therefore, we can only Look on this proposal as calcu- 
lated to exempt the Proprietary Estate from bearing an equal and 
Just proportion of the Necessary Taxes at this critical and important 
Juncture, contrary to Justice and Equity. 

" That we have, from a spirit of Loyalty and Gratitude to the 
best of Sovereigns, in Pursuance of his most gracious and paternal 
Requisition, at a Time when the People are labouring under an 
heavy Burthen of Taxes, agreed to furnish and pay Two Thousand 
Seven Hundred Men, in order to assist his Majesty's regular Troops 
in the Offensive Operations He is resolved to prosecute for the 
Defence of this and his other Colonies ; and to enable your Honour 
to discharge your Duty herein to the Crown, we have presented a 
Bill, granting One Hundred Thousand Pounds to his Majesty's 
Use, for this purpose. 

" That the Right of granting Supplies to the Crown is in the 
Representatives of the People alone, as an essential part of our 
Constitution, and that the Bill is framed agreeable to Justice and 
Equity in all its Parts, as well with respect to the Proprietaries 
as other, and not repugnent to the Laws of our Mother Country, but 
as nearly agreeable thereto as our different Circumstances will admit. 

" That as the Bill presented to your Honour was a free gift of 
the People of this Province to the Crown, at the Special Request 
of His Majesty, for the General- Defence of America, we appre- 
hend that the Governor's refusing to permit us thereby to grant 
Supplies for the Defence and protection of the Colonies, unless we 
exompt the Proprietary Estate from paying its just proportion, is 
inconsistent with his Duty to the Crown, the Height of Injustice, 
Ingratitude to the best of Kings, and an arbitrary invasion of the 
Rights of the People. 

" The House is resolved to adhere to the Bill, and preserve their 
own and the Rights of their - Constituents, and therefore they once 
more present this Bill to your Honour, for your assent ; and, in the 
name of our most gracious Sovereign, and the Distressed and 
Oppressed People we Represent, we insist that your Honour accept 
of the Number of Men granted, and the Supplies offered to the 
Crown for raising and paying them, and give your assent to the Bill 
we now present, as you shall answer the rejecting so considerable 
an Aid, in the present important Operations, to His Majesty and 
His Parliament. 

" Signed by Order of the House. 

"THOMAS LEECH, Speaker. 

"April 8th ; 1758." 



76 MINUTES OF THE 

The Secretary was sent to the House with the Supply Bill, and 
the following verbal Message to the House that " the Governor re- 
turns the Bill, intituled 'An act for granting to His Majesty the 
Sum of One Hundred Thousand Pounds, and for striking the 
same in Bills of Credit in the Manner herein after directed, and 
for providing a Fund for sinking the said Bills of Credit, by a Tax 
on all the Estates, real and personal, and taxables within this Pro- 
vince ; ' and Commands me to acquaint the House, that he will not 
pass it, for the reasons given in his Messages; but adheres to his 
Amendments, with the unanimous Advice of his Council, and that 
he will transmit to His Majesty a Copy of the Bill, with his Rea- 
sons for rejecting it." 

The Bill Entituled " An Act extending the several Sections of the 
Act of Parliament for Punishing Mutiny and Desertion," having 
been laid before Colonel Haldiman and Sir John St. Clair yester- 
day, and they were desired to Visit the Barracks and give their 
opinion if they could hold Twelve Men in each Barracks. Colonel 
Haldiman and Sir John St. Clair with Colonel Fletcher waited on 
the Governor, and Colonel Haldiman delivered the Governor a 
Letter wherein he set forth that no more than Eight Men could con- 
veniently be put into one Boom in the Barracks. And the Bill 
when sent up again to the Governor was altered, the Word Twelve 
being interlined in the Eleventh Line of the Fourth Page, and 
likewise the Words Each of Seven in the next line; whereupon the 
Governor yesterday sent to the House Colonel Haldiman' s Letter 
with the following verbal Message : "that the Governor returns the 
Bill Entituled ' An Act for extending several Sections of an Act 
of Parliament passed in the Thirtieth Year of the present Reign, 
entituled ' An Act for punishing Mutiny and Desertion, and for the 
better payment of the Army and their Quarters/ ' and observes 
that it is not the same which was presented to him at first, and will 
pass it if the Word [Eight] be inserted instead of the Word 
[Twelve] in Page 4, Line 11, as Colonel Haldiman has declared to 
his Honour that no more can conveniently be put into one Room 
without endangering the Health of the Soldiers." 

The Bill was returned the same Day by the House with a Verbal 
Message that the House desired of the Governor that Ten might 
be inserted instead of Eight for each Room ; whereupon his Honour 
sent the Request to Colonel Haldiman, and received a Letter in- 
sisting that the Rooms in the Barracks will not accomodate more 
than Eight in each without endangering the Lives of the King's 
Troops. Which Letter was sent to the House with the Bill and a 
verbal Message that the Governor adhered to his Amendments. 

The Assembly having sent a Message to the Governor that the 
Bills to which he had given his Assent would be engrossed and 
ready to be passed at Four o' Clock this afternoon, the Secretary was 
directed to acquaint the House that the Governor required the At- 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 77 

re [tendance of the Speaker and the House in the Council Chamber, 
and the Speaker, with the House attending, Three Bills, One En- 
tituled " An Act for preventing Abuses in the Indian Trade, for 
supplying the Indians, Friends and Allies of Great Britain, with 
Goods at more easy Rates, and for securing and Strengthening the 
Peace lately concluded with the Indians Inhabiting the Northern 
iand Western Frontiers of this Province;" another entituled "An 
Act for regulating the Hire of Carriage to be employed in his Ma- 
jesty's Service;" And the other, entituled " An Act for regulating 
the Officers and Soldiers Commissionated and raised by the Governor 
for the Defence of this Province," were enacted into Laws, and 
Mr. Lardner was appointed to see the Great, Seal Affixed to the 
If Laws, and deposited in the Roll's Office with Two Members of the 

I House. 
Mr. William Coleman having been recommended by the Chief 
Justice and several other Gentlemen to supply the place of Third 
I Judge, in the Room of Caleb Cowpland, Esquire, deceased, he was 
I unanimously approved, and his Commission ordered to be prepared. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Sunday the 16th of April, 

1758. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq r - Lieutenant Gover- 
nor. 

Joseph Turner, 
Richard Peters, 



Robert Strettell, \ ™ 
Thomas Gadwalader, j J * 



The Governor having received, by Express from Lieutenant Colo- 
nel Armstrong, an Account of the Arrival of Forty Cherokees at 
Fort Loudoun, in Cumberland County, with an earnest request that 
as they wfire come naked and without Arms, Matchcoats and Fuzees 
might be brought up immediately for them ; he desired the Council 
to consider what step could be taken to provide and send up what 
was wanted. 

The Secretary had, by order of the Governor, communicated the 
Letters to S r - John S n Clair, and desired to know if he would order 
these Indians should be furnished with Guns and Matchcoats, and 
a little Leather to make Moccasins. S r - John answered that the 
Assembly and People of this Province had such singular and un- 
reasonable Nations of Indians, and particularly the Cherokees, that 
he would not have any thing to do with them, nor order the Indians 
the things wanted. 

Mr. Hockley was applied to and desired to Furnish the Commis- 
sioners with Two or three Hundred Pounds, which Might be laid 
out on this Occasion. But he absolutely refused, saying he had no 



78 MINUTES OF THE 

money of the Proprietors on the Quit-Rent Fund in his Hands, and 
that the annual Payments did not amount to Forty Pounds in the 
Counties of Chester, Bucks, and Lancaster, and that scarce any One 
paid their Quit-Rents. 

A Letter from General Abercrombie came to the Governor in 
Council, and was read in these Words : 

"New York, April 13th, 1758. 
" Sir : 

" I shall, for the present, only acknowledge the receipt of your 
Letter of the 9th, without entering into a Detail of the Particu- 
lars; which, from the disagreeable Circumstances you Labour 
under, thro' the Obstinacy and perverseness of the Assembly, 
require some further Deliberations. I shall accordingly consult 
with Brigadier General Forbes, whom I propose to send to Phila- 
delphia, so that he may be there on or before the 18th Instant, 
which I see is the Day appointed for the Assembly to meet again; 
by which Time I hope they will be convinced of their Error, and 
come prepared to raise all difficulties that may retard or obstruct 
the Operations of the Ensuing Campaign. Should I be deceived 
in my Expectations, Brigadier Forbes will advise with you in what 
is proper to be done to prevent the fatal Consequences that must 
ensue from so glaring an Inactivity, in which should they persist, 
I shall not fail to represent it to the King, that His Majesty may 
be acquainted with their Dilatoriness in the present Critical Crisis, 
that requires the utmost Vigor, Dispatch, and Unanimity. 
" I am, with great Regard, Sir, 

" Your most Obedient Hum 6, Serv'-' 

"JAMES ABERCROMBIE." 

It was recommended to the Governor to send Copies of the Let- 
ters to General Abercrombie, and to represent the Necessity of the 
Crown's making immediate Provision for the Cherokees, wherever 
they should arrive. 

A Petition of Francis Ingliss, who has been kept in Jayl above 
a year, was read, and the Council unanimously agreed that he 
should be discharged on giving Security for his good behaviour and 
working in the City. 

The following Message to the Assembly was agreed to, ordered 
to be entered, and the Secretary directed to deliver it to the House, 
on their Meeting upon the Eighteenth, with Copies of Colonel 
Armstrong's and Mr. Thompson's Letters to the Governor : 

Jl Message from the Governor to the Assembly. 
" Gentlemen : 

" Lieutenant Colonel Armstrong has informed me by express, of 
the arrival of Forty Cherokees at Fort Loudoun, and that more are 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 79 

daily expected, and desires lie may receive my immediate Directions 
in what manner they are to be treated and supplied, as they are come 
without Arms or Cloths. The Commander-in-Chief is made acquainted 
with their Arrival, and I have requested, that as these Indians come 
for the General Service of the Colonies, his Excellency would be 
pleased to order Provision to be made for them; but there not being 
Time to wait the General's Answer, without running too great a 
risque of disgusting these Friendly Warriors, I earnestly desire you 
would enable me forthwith to send them the Necessaries mentioned 
in the Letter now laid before you. 

"WILLIAM DENNY. 

"April 18th, 1758." 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Thursday the 20th of April, 
1758. 

PRESENT I 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esqr., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 



The Governor having received a Letter from Brigadier General 
Forbes, the same was read in these Words : 



Joseph Turner, Richard Peters, > -^ . 

John Mifflin, Thomas Cadwalader, J ° 

ved a Letter from Brigadier Gene 

these Words : 

" Philadelphia, April 20th, 1758. 
"Sir: 

"As the Situation of these Provinces is such at this Critical 
Juncture as requires all possible Means to be exerted to clear this 
Province of the Enemy who have at this Time invaded it, and as 
there is a great Scarcity of Arms for that purpose, I am under the 
necessity of requiring of your Honour that you will give orders for 
I delivering to me Two Hundred and Eighteen Light Fuzees, which 
I are in your Store, as likewise as many of the 165 Arms as are found 

I" to be serviceable after they are Surveyed. 
" There will remain in your Store more Arms than will Compleat 
J the Forces proposed to be raised by this Province, besides 2,000 
I Arms, which I have an Account of being embarked for the Service 
1 of this Expedition. I am, with the greatest regard, 

" Your Honour's most Obedient and most Humble Servant, 

"JO. FFORBES." 

And by Advice of Council an order was signed by the Governor 
| to Thomas Janvier for the Two Hundred and Eighteen light 
Fuzees, in these Words : 

" To Thomas Janvier, Provincial Armourer : 

" You are hereby directed to deliver to Brigadier General Forbes 



80 MINUTES OF THE 

or his Order, for his Majesty's Use, Two Hundred and Eighteen 
light Fuzees, which are in the Provincial Magazine. Dated at Phila- 
delphia, this Twentieth Day of April, in the Year 1758. 

"WILLIAM DENNY." 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Friday the 21st of April, 
1758. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esquire, Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Joseph Turner, Richard Peters, ") 

Lynford Lardner, Benjamin Chew, > Esquires. 

John Mifflin, Thomas Cadwalader, J 

The Minutes of the preceding Councils were read and approved. 

A Bill presented yesterday to the Governor by two Members for 
his Concurrence entituled " An Act for granting the Sum of One 
Hundred Thousand Pounds to His Majesty's Use, and for striking 
the same in Bills of Credit, and for continuing the several Acts of 
Assembly of this Province hereinafter mentioned for sinking the 
Bills of Credit so to be struck at the Times and in the manner 
herein after directed and appointed," was read. It was observed 
that the Bill where the taxation was mentioned was extremely ob- 
scure; that there were many References to former Acts, a new 
Clause respecting the taxation of located unimproved Lots in the 
City and other Boroughs and Towns ; that there were Clauses in 
which the Governor was made to say that the Hundred Thousand 
Pounds was expended with his Consent, and that the same Com- 
missioners were appointed, and that not by Name, but a Reference 
to former Acts, and that Certificates from the former Commiss"' 
only were to be given, by which it should what Contracts were made 
and debts incurred chargeable on the Publick. In all which Par- 
ticulars it was agreed the Bill ought to be amended. Mr. Chew 
was asked if the Clause respecting located unimproved Lots in City 
and Towns did not Subject the Proprietor's Estate by the Non 
Obstante ; he said it did not, or if it did in strictness it was too 
mean & low to be admitted in any Court of Law. Mr. Peters, Mr. 
Lardner, & Mr. Chew were appointed a Committee to make 
Amendments to the Bill and draw up a Message.. 



MEMORANDUM. 

In the afternoon the Governor sent the Secretary to the House 
with the following Amendments to the supply Bill, and a Verbal 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 81 

Message that the Governor returns the Bill Entituled " An Act for 
granting the Sum of One Hundred Thousand Pounds to his Ma- 
jesty's Use," & ca- ' with Amendments, and Commands me to acquaint 
the House that he has received from Mr. Lardner an account of 
the Sum of Two Thousand Pounds, expended by him for the use 
of the Provincial Frigate ) but has not received from Mr. Fox and 
Mr. Baynton, their Accounts of the Sum of Five thousand, Three 
Thousand Seven Hundred, and Eight Thousand Pounds, paid into 
their Hands in Virtue of Orders drawn on the Trustees of the 
Loan Office. 

The Governor desires the House will furnish him with a List of 
the Orders mention' d in the Bill to be drawn on the Provincial 
Treasurer. 



, ) 

ider, j 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Saturday the 22nd of April, 
1758. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq r > Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Strettell, Joseph Turner, 

Bichard Peters, Lynford Lardner, J- Esquires. 

John Mifflin, Thomas Cadwalad( 

The Governor informed the Council that the Bill was returned 
to him last Night in an Hour after it was sent, with a Message 
that the House adhered to it, and desired he would pass it as it 
stood. The Matter was seriously deliberated upon, and in the 
Conclusion it was the unanimous Opinion Of the Governor and 
Council that it should be passed, and a Message drawn, setting 
forth the Reasons at large for doing so, which was prepared, and 
sent along with the Bill to the House. 

A Message from the Governor to the Assembly. 
ic Gentlemen : 

" During the Course of your late Sessions, I have had too fre- 
quent Occasions to lament the Melancholy State of this distressed 
Country — the unseasonable Animosities wherein you have been en- 
gaged — your particular ill treatment of myself, and your unaccount- 
able Delays — to turn your Attention to the important Concerns of 
this present Campaign, till it is almost too late to be of any real 
use. 

" You have now been sitting near four Months, with an inter- 
mission only of Ten Days; during which Space you have been 
repeatedly called upon for the necessary Supplies of the Current 
Year. You have had the Secretary of State's Letter on that and 
other important Subjects laid before you; you have seen the 
Assemblies of the Provinces around you meeting, and with exem- 
VOL. VIII. — 6. 



82 MINUTES OF THE 

plary Zeal and Dispatch furnishing their respective Contingencies, 
and returned to their Several Homes, while your part, to the un- 
speakable Detriment of the General Service, remains yet undeter- 
mined and unsettled. It is true, you have not been wanting in 
Professions of Loyalty, Duty, and Zeal ; and if these could pass 
for real Merit, you have suffered none to excel you. But actions 
speak louder than words j and how far your Actions and Profes- 
sions have corresponded, need hardly be shewn. 

" Three Months of your sitting were expired before I received 
any Money Bill from you, and the first you sent me was so framed 
that you knew I could not pass it, being only calculated to keep up 
Disputes, altho' the Season was too far advanced to admit of that 
Delay, and the Operations of the Campaign in these parts in a 
great Measure suspended on our Account. 

" My principal Objections to that Bill, as appears from my Mes- 
sages of the Third and Seventh Instant, were two. The first re- 
lated to the unjust Method proposed for taxing the Proprietary 
Estate ; and the Second to the Appointment of the Provincial Com- 
missioners from among the Members of your own House, account- 
able only to yourselves a Practice liable to so many glaring Excep- 
tions, that it must require an extraordinary Degree of Hardiness 
even to propose it. 

" The Former of these points you have given up in the present 
Bill, which I received the Twentieth Instant, having totally ex- 
empted the Proprietary Estate, and chusing rather to deprive your 
Constituents entirely of the Benefit that would arise from an equal 
Taxation of that Estate, than not Subject it intirely to your own 
Mercy in the Mode you propose. 

" As to the Latter point, although I refused your Bill yesterday 
on that Score, yet you adhere to it, and seem determined to see the 
Province brought to the utmost Destruction, and all the Measures 
concerted by our gracious Sovereign, for our P.elief, defeated, rather 
than the Fingering the Publick Money should not be in a few lead- 
ing Men of your House, who, in various Instances have abused 
their former Trust, disregarded me and acted in open contempt of 
Law. 

" These are hard Charges, Gentlemen, but I have made them 
publickly, and if these Men regarded their own Characters, or if 
you had that regard which might have been expected for the Honour 
of your House, you would either have Obliged them to exhibit their 
Accounts, when required, or you would have left them out of the 
present Bill, and inserted some other unexceptionable Men in their 
Stead ; But all this you have still declined to do, and what renders 
the matter still more Suspicious, is your inserting a Clause in the 
Bill, notwithstanding my repeated Protestations and Objections to 
the Contrary, intimating, that they have, with my Consent, already 
'expended the Sum of One Hundred Thousand Pounds. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 83 

This, Gentlemen, is indeed a short Way of settling Accounts, 
and is One of the boldest Impositions that perhaps was ever offered 
to a Governor. From your Obstinacy, and the hard Necessity of 
the Times, I am reduced to this Dilemma; I must subscribe my 
Name to a falshood. Shelter these Men under an Act of Assem- 
bly, and preclude myself and the Publick from calling them to a 
future Account, or Suffer all the Measures concerted for your 
Safety to stand still, the numerous Body of Indians come to our 
Assistance to return Home, and the present Campaign to be as in- 
active as the former, — so far, at least, as regards the farts these 
Southern Colonies are to act. — and how fatal that might prove to 
the grand Cause of Liberty and Religion, which ought to be so 
dear to us, is but too obvious. The expence of the Mother Coun- 
try and the Neighbour Colonies to strike a decisive Blow now h 
too great to be continued ; and if the present Opportunity is 
neglected, we may wish in vain to recal it when it will be too 
late. 

" Wherefore, under these Considerations, and to shew my Regard 
for his Majesty's Service, I do agree to pass your Bill as it stands, 
if you think proper still to adhere to it, and shall be ready to 
attend you for that purpose in the Council Chamber, at any Time 
you will appoint this Day, in order that there may be no further 
Delays. But, I must do it with a Solemn Protestation to all the 
World, that it is Contrary to my Conscience, and in Violation of 
Truth, that I am obliged to say that the former Hundred Thousand 
Pounds is Expended with my Consent; not to mention the Ob- 
scurity of the Bill, and other material Objections, which I waved 
for the sake of Dispatch. 

"WILLIAM DENNY. 

"April 22d, 1758." 

The Governor laid before the Council a Letter from Brigadier 
General Forbes, which was read in these words : 

"Philadelphia, April 21st, 1758. 
"Sir: 

"I am extremely sorry that any just request of mine to you, aa 
first Majestrate, should meet with obstructions that I neither could 
forsee nor suppose ; particularly as I had signed a receipt for the 
Arms I had demanded, according to your desire; and by which re- 
ceipt of mine, I certainly showed the Necessity that I was under 
for such an application, in order to support His Majesty's Measures 
for the general welfare of North America, and for the immediate 
protection of this Province in Particular. Such a refusal of what 
is the undoubted Right of the King to demand, or the Officer Com- 
manding his Majesty's Subjects under Arms in the Province, is 
what I am astonished at; and as the Service is pressing, and will. 
admit of no delay, I must beg, Sir, you will send me an answer in 



84 MINUTES OF THE 

writing, as soon as possible, whether you are to deliver to my 
orders the Fuzees demanded, or riot. 

" I have the Honour to be, with the greatest regard, 

" Sir, Your most obedient and most hum. Servant, 

" JO. FORBES." 

Thomas Janvier was immediately sent for, and declared that Mr. 
Hughes, Mr. G-alloway, Mr. Baynton, and Mr. Masters, forbid him 
to deliver the two hundred and Eighteen Fuzees on the Governor's 
Order and the receipt Indorsed. He was ordered preremptorily to 
deliver the Fuzees directly, and the Governor would indemnify 
him. 

The following Letter from Mr. Horsfield, by Mr. Spangenberg, 
was delivered in Council and read in these Words : 

" May it Please Your Honour : 

u Sir : I received a Letter from Robert Strettell, Esquire, ad- 
vising that when Teedyuscung was Informed of the Murders lately 
committed he engaged to send a Party of his Young Men to Join a 
Party of Captain Ornd'3 Soldiers to range on the Frontiers, and, if 
possible, to take some of them or Retake some of our People the 
Enemy had carried off; Desiring I would hurry Teedyuscung* s Party 
to Fort Allen, I went to him and reminded him of his promise, and 
desired he would send his Young Men to the Fort as quick as pos- 
sible, which he promised he would do, but that he must first keep 
a Council with his People to make out who to send. He spoke 
something of the Last Messengers that came down, and seemed dis- 
satisfied with them, in particular Daniel, the last that Came. * I 
don't know (says he) what this is; they say they bring good News; 
all is well and at Peace ; and now I hear they kill White People. 
I don't know how this is.' Tuesday morning Last he came to my 
House with a Company of Indians, having several Belts and Strings 
of Wampum, which he spread on a Table and began to deliver his 
Message, and he appointed Five Indians to go to the Allegheny, 
Viz*-' Hans Jacob, his own son, who he made Captain, Amos, an- 
other of his Sons, Christian, Isaac, and John. 

" He then took some Strings of Wampum in his hand and spoke 
in the Indian Language, which Augustus Interpreted : 

" c This String of Wampum I now send with my Son to Allegheny. 
I want to know what is to be done, and what you are doing ? 

" ' Now, you Three Nations at Allegheny, Delawares, Shawanes, 
and Qusnaweesawes, and you, Kastaruga, the Captain, you know 
all the News at Allegheny, and how matters stand there. Two 
times I received good news from you that all was well and in good 
Peace, but now lately I hear that certain Indians have killed many 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 85 

"white People, which I can't see through. I want to know how this 
is Circumstanced/ 

u He then took a Belt, 

"Saying, 'Now, this, my Son, the Captain, shall go and tell aU 
the Captains at Allegheny, that they shall sit down and be still, and 
shall not do any mischief, nor murder any of the English or White 
People, for here amongst the English are many Indians Living, and 
if you are not still you will break the Peace and do much Mischief 
amongst us; you must hear the words he brings and take good 
Notice.' 

" He then took the second Belt. 

" t Give Ear you three Nations and take notice ; I have heard good 
News from you, which you sent, that we should take hold of the 
Belt at both ends and keep it fast; we have taken hold and held it 
fast, you say we must take hold in the Middle, and the English 
must take hold in the Middle with me and hold fast ; we did so, I 
and the English with me, and we held fast and was glad for it was 
good News.' 

" He then took the third Belt. 

" ' This Belt I send to Allegheny to the three Nations. My 
Friends all of you I tell you, you must move further off; if you 
live near the French, go away, live further off. and then I will reach 
out my hand to you to come down. By this Belt I further tell you, 
you shall not let the French know what words I sent, they shall not 
hear or know what Words I sent ; you must keep it Private and come 
away and stop their Ears and Eyes that they neither Hear nor see, 
nor know what we are doing or what passes amongst us ;' he then 
desired they might be supplied with some necessaries, which was 
done;. I wrote to Captain Orndt desiring him to let them have some 
Powder, Lead, and Provisions. One of them having a very poor 
Shirt on Teedyuscung took his own new one from off his Back and 
gave it him, he also gave each of his Sons a Dollar and sent them 
away in high Spirits. 

" I do assure your Honour I never was so much convinced of 
Teedyuscung' s Zeal for the English Interest before ; he charged me 
to write to the Governor and let him know what he had done ; he 
sends his Compliments to your Honour, to your Council, and to the 
Gentlemen Commissioners, and says he will do all in his Power to 
keep the Peace. There is a rumour bro't by an Indian, Two or 3 
Days past from Fort Allen, who says an Indian came out of the 
Woods and reported the 80 French Men was coming down to Mur- 
der ; but as Cap*- Orndt takes no notice of it in his Letter to me 
Dated Yesterday, I imagine it is groundless. 

" I am your Honour's most Humble Serv*' 

"TIMOTHY HORSFIELD. 

" Bethlehem, April 19th, 1758." 



86 MINUTES OF THE 

A Message was delivered to the Governor by two Members from 
the House that as the Supply Bill underwent no Corrections, and 
was a fair Copy; if the Governor pleased it might have the Great * 
Seal affixed to it, without being copied, and that the like has been 
done at other Times, where Dispatch was necessary. The Gover- 
nor and Council went immediately into the Council Chamber and 
the Secretary was sent to the House with a Verbal Message, that 
the Governor desired the Attendance of the Speaker and the House 
in the Council Chamber; they accordingly waited on the Governor 
and the Bill Entituled " an Act for granting the Sum of One Hun- 
dred Thousand Pounds to his Majesty's Use, and for striking the 
same in Bills of Credit, and for continuing the several Acts of 
Assembly of this Province herein after mentioned for sinking the 
Bills of Credit so to be struck, at the Times and in the manner 
herein after directed and appointed/' was enacted into a Law. 

Mr. Lardner desired an Entry might be made that he would not 
consent, on any Account, to be a Commissioner. 

Mr. Peters and Mr. Lardner, with Two Members of the House, 
flaw the Seal affixed to the Bill, and it was lodged in the Roll's 
Office to be recorded. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Wednesday the 26th of April, 

1758. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esqr., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Strettell, Lawrence Growden, \ -& 

Benjamin Chew, Thomas Cadwalader, J * 

Teedyuscung coming to town on Monday, the tenth Instant, 
with a Messenger dispatched from the Council of the Indians at 
Seekaughkoonta, after the Governor had set out to meet the 
Assembly of the Three Lower Counties, the Council had a Con- 
ference with the Indians, which was read, and ordered to be entered 
as follows : 

"At a Conference with the Indians in the Council Chamber, 
Philadelphia, April 12th, 1758. 

"PRESENT: 

« ROBERT STRETTELL, Esquire, President. 
"William Logan, Lawrence Growdon, " 

"Benjamin Shoemaker, Benjamin Chew, 

" Joseph Turner, Thomas Cadwalader, 

"Lynford Lardner, 

" Several Inhabitants of the City. 



Esquires. 



* 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 87 

" Indians : 

<( Teedyuscung, King of the Delawares. 

" Essoweyoualund, alias Daniel, a Messenger of the Wanami 
Nation. 

u Tepiscahung and one other Indian. 

" Isaac Still, Interpreter. 

" Mr. William Peters, Secretary for the Province. 

" Charles Thompson, Secretary for Teedyuscung. 

" The President, addressing Teedyuscung, said : 
t( e Brother Teedyuscung : 

" l The Day before yesterday I received a Letter from Timothy 
Horsefield, of Bethlehem, informing me you were coming down 
here, with some other Indians, on Business of Importance with this 
Government, and having heard yesterday you were in Town, as the 
Governor is gone to Newcastle, I immediately called these Gentle- 
men, together, who are now present, and who are of his Council, to 
acquaint them of it. On which we desired William Logan to see if 
he could find you, and know on what Business these Indians were 
come. He told us he could not meet with you, but that the Indian 
Messenger, Daniel, had informed him he was come from the Indian 
Country on Publick Business, and desired to be dispatched. I 
must, therefore, let you know, that as the Governor is absent, he 
has left us to Act in his place, and we are now ready to hear what 
you have to say to us/ 

" A String. 

li Then Teedyuscung, arising, said : 
"'Brother: 

" ' I desire you and all my Brethren present would hear me. 

" ' You may remember, Brother, when we held a Council at 
Easton you desired me to hear you. I did hear you, and, therefore, 
I gave a Halloo, and after I had given One Halloo all the Indians 
heard it and turned about and saw me, Teedyuscung, and my Breth- 
ren, the English, holding our Heads together in Council. 

" i Brother : now these Indians back desire us both, Viz'-- Eng- 
lish and Indians, to press on heartily, and they said we will clear 
your Eyes that you may see clearly. There are many sorts of Wind 
come and blow dust in the Eyes. We wipe the Eyes both of Teedy- 
uscung and the English, that you may see our Wives and Children. 
We Clean your Ears that you may hear us who live back, and we 
have made One Messenger to do our Business. Now, here he is. 
The Reason of this Second Messenger's coming is because the other 
staid a long Time/ 

" A String. 



88 MINUTES OF THE 

" ' Brother, and all you, my Brethren, hear me. 

" ' You may remember at Easton when Governor Morris wasj| 
here, you said to me, ' Brother, I am able — you are weak. I would 
have you, tho' you are weak, to do all in your Power, and as I told 
you I am strong, I will always help you in promoting this Good 
Work/ Now, Brother, I have done the utmost in my Power, and 
have helped you, and all the Indians far back have heard me. I, 
therefore, desire you, as you are strong, to press on in promoting 
this good Work, so that we may build this Peace on a firm Founda- 
tion, as it has been formerly, and let us look up to God for a Bless- 
ing, so that this Peace may always stand firm.' 

" A String. 

" ' Brother, and all you, my Brethren, hearken to what I am 
going to say. 

" i I desire, you, Brother, to press on in this good Work we have 
undertaken ; you know I am weak j this Business is very heavy ; 
without you help me I cannot do it. But if we both lay our hands 
to it and join heartily we can easily perform it. All the Indians 
round about from Sun rise to Sun set look to us, and are ready to 
join in the Good Work and help us. You see all these Nations of 
Indians have heard me when I gave the Halloo, and have turned 
their Eyes, and are now ready to join Hands with us and help in 
the Good Work/ 

" A String. 

" c Hear me Brother, and all you my Brothers. 
" < Brother : 

" ' I tell you, you and I are about a very good Work. Now, 
Brother, all the Indians a great way off have seen us about that 
good Work ; But yet I see you look towards the Westward and 
keep your Eyes to the Westward. I desire you, Brother, you 
would leave that peice of Meat for me. You see I have it between 
my Arms and betwixt my Legs. Leave it for me to eat it and I 
shall take it Bit by Bit, and I hope I shall in a Little Time eat it 
all. It is not only I that tell you this ; all the Nations I mentioned 
before say the same. 

" Being asked what he meant by the Peice of meat Teedyuscung 
replied : ' I desire you and the rest of the English not to trouble 
yourselves to go against the Ohio ; I will do it myself. They are 
all within my Dish ; Leave them for me. I will give them one 
Blow, and if any escape that I will drive them to the Sea for You.' 

"A Belt of 7 Rows. 
" ' Brother and all you my Brothers hearken : 

" ' I have looked above me, and then all over the World. What 
makes me look is to see from whence so much Mischief sprung 
from; and I will take Notice of all those that pretend to join us ; 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 89 

and if I find they do not do right I will run my Hand down their 
Throat and bring up their Heart and lay it before you, for may be 
it was they that did this Mischief. I dont tell you so myself, but 
all the Nations I mentioned before tell you the same/ 
"A String. 

" < Brother : 

" ' I have told you all that I intended at present to say to you. 
I would have you consider it, and if you find any part of it wrong, 
I hope, as we are Brothers, you will speak out and tell me what does 
not please you that I may also consider it ; and I desire you would 
dispatch us as soon as possible. 

" ( I hope, Brother, you will take notice of this Messenger, and 
I beg you would dispatch him as soon as possible that he may re- 
turn quickly ; the other Messenger was detained too long/ 

'" The President said : 

" i Brother ^Teedyuscung : 

" ' What you have said is very agreeable to us, and gives us 
Pleasure. The Council will immediately take it into Consideration 
and give you an answer as soon as we have considered it, and dis- 
patch you as soon as possible/ 

" Then Teedyuscung said : 

" < Brother : 

" * The next Time we meet I shall talk freely about our private 
Affairs, namely, about our Building and settling at Wioming/ ?/ 



" At a Conference with the Indians in the Council Chamber, 
Philadelphia, April 13th, 1758. 

" PRESENT I 

"ROBERT STRETTELL, Esquire, President. 

" Benjamin Shoemaker, Lynford Lardner, \^ 

" William Logan, Thomas Cadwalader, j JjiS( l mres - 

" A Number of Inhabitants of the City. 

" Indians : 
11 Teedyuscung, King of the Delawares. 
" Essoweyaualund, alias Daniel Tepiscahung. 
" Teedyuscung's Two Sons and Nephew. 
" Isaac Still, interpreter. 
" Secretaries as before. 



90 MINUTES OF THE' 

u The President, addressing Teedyuscung, said : 
" < Brother : 

" ' You desired us yesterday to consider what you then said to us, 
and if we thought any thing wrong, as we were Brethren, to speak 
out freely, and tell you so ; Your advice is very good ; This is the 
Way one Brother ought to treat another ; our Hearts should be laid 
open to each other, that no Doubts or Suspicions may lurk there to 
disturb our Friendship j We will on this and every other Occasion 
Act with Openness and Sincerity towards you and all our Brethren, 
the Indians. 

" < Brother : 

" i Agreeable to your Advice, we now freely tell you, that we do 
not well understand your Meaning in desiring us not to turn our 
Eyes to the Westward, nor trouble ourselves to go against the Ohio, 
but leave it for you to do, and that you will strike One Blow, and 
drive them into the Sea. We must inform you that we shall be 
Obliged to follow the Orders of our great King in carfying on the 
affair, and as we are his Servants, we dare not disobey his Commands. 
Besides, Brethren, we do not desire you, who are one Flesh and 
Blood with us, to engage in any Dangers in which we do not Share 
with you \ The Work can be more easily and safely accomplished 
by both of us than by one without the other. Our Enemies are 
now murdering our Brethren on our Borders, and while we are 
men we cannot sit still with our Hands tied, and let them cut our 
Throats. We, therefore, desire you will fully explain yourself on 
that Head before we give you an Answer to what you said to us 
yesterday/ 

"A String. 

" To which Teedyuscung replied : 

u ' Well, Brother, I hope you will hear me, and you, my Brothers, 
take Notice of what I am going to say. 

« < Brother : 

" ' You may remember at Easton I told you I put out my hand, 
and took hold of you by one Hand, and that the Mohock took hold 
of you by the other, and that you were in the middle between us. 
Now I am sorry to hear Mischief has been done back. I can 
neither see nor hear who has done it, tho' I have still hold of your 
Hand all this Time. Now I tell you, Brother, as I have taken hold 
of your Hand heartily, I will look and search diligently who has 
done it, and I will stand by you and go with you wherever you go, 
and where your Bones lie, there mine shall also lie; for we are 
Brothers, and I will always stand by you and die by you. I don't 
tell you this from my lips, but from my Heart, and my Actions 
shall shew it.' 

u The President taking Notice that Teedyuskung had not given 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 91 

an answer to that part respecting the going against the Ohio, where- 
upon Teedyuskung arose and said : 

" < Brother : 

" < When I came from Home I thought we should have been able 
to have done that Work by ourselves, but now I see so much Mis- 
chief done, I do not think it prudent to undertake it myself, nor 
would I by any means hinder you from going, but I will heartily 
join with you, and we will go together. 

" < Brother : 

" ' Now I have told you I will die with you, and where your Bones 
lie there my Bones shall lie also; I further tell you, as soon as I go 
home this my Messenger shall carry the News to all the Indian Na- 
tions that we will join with our Brothers the English, and go with 
them, and where their Bones lie there ours shall lie also.' 

" Then the President said : 

" ' Brother Teedyuscung, and our Brethren the Indians : what you 
have now said sufficiently explains what you said yesterday on this 
Head, and I am much pleased with it and thank you for so favourable 
an Explanation ; we will now immediately proceed to Consider a 
full Answer to what you said yesterday, and will let you know when 
we are ready and hope it will not take up much Time/ 

" Teedyuscung being asked whether it would be agreeable to him 
to receive an Answer this afternoon, replied, ' as the Business is 
weighty and requires haste, I shall be ready to hear you whenever 
you please.' " 



"EODEM DIE.— P. M. 
" The Conference continued. 
il Present the same as in the Morning. 
" The President addressing himself to Teedyuscung said: 

" ' Brother Teedyuscung, and our Brethren the other Indians : 
I desire you will now attend to what I am going to say to you, and 
consider it as if it came from the Governor's Mouth. 
" ' Brother Teedyuscung, and our Brethren the other Indians : 

" ' Yesterday, you told me that you had, agreeable to your Pro- 
mise at Easton, given an Halloo ; that the Indians all around us 
had heard you; that they had seen you and me sitting together in 
Council ; that they approve of what we are about, and desire us 
both to press heartily on, in prosecuting the Business we are en- 
gaged in ; that they will do all they can to keep our Eyes clear, 
that we may see their Wives and Children, and our Ears open, that 
we may hear what they, who live back, have to say to us. That 
they have appointed one Messenger to do our Business, and that it 



92 MINUTES Otf THE 

is our Friend Daniel, who is come Down ; that the reason of his 
being sent was on Account of the other Messenger staying so 
long. 

"' Brother: 

"'It gives me and the rest of my Brethren great Pleasure to 
hear that you had performed what you undertook at Easton, and 
that what passed there was agreeable to the Indians, and that they 
approved of our Proceedings. You may assure all the Indians, 
nothing shall be wanting on my part to accomplish the good Work 
begun, and hope you will continue your good Resolutions to give 
me your assistance. I look on your Wives and Children with Com- 
passion and Pitty, as I well know they must live very uneasy, untill 
the great and good Work we are now engaged in be fully compleated. 
It, therefore, highly concerns us both to leave no stone unturned 
till it be so. I am sorry the Messenger was detained so long on 
his Journey. You know he met with many Difficulties in coming 
down, by the Deep Snows and bad weather, that he could scarce 
travel. Their sending this Second Messenger on the same Account, 
is a Proof of their good Disposition; and I desire you, by this 
String of Wampum, to thank them for their care/ 

" A String. 
"'Brother: 

"'By this String, you put me in mind that you were told, in 
Governor Morris' Time, that you were weak, and that I were 
strong; that altho' you were weak, yet I would have you do all 
that was in your Power, and that, as I was strong, I would always 
help you in promoting this good Work. You told me, also, that 
you had used your utmost Endeavours to assist me, and that all 
the Indians back heard you, and now desire that I would press on 
and build this Peace on a firm Foundation, as it had been formerly, 
and Look up to God for a Blessing, that the Peace might stand for 
ever. 

" ' Brother : 

" ' I remember well what was told you by Governor Morris 
respecting my Ability, and the Promises that were made you of 
doing all that was in my Power towards promoting this good 
Work; and I now assure you I continue in the same Resolution, 
and am determined to assist you to the utmost of my Abilities, and 
shall always depend upon the Assistance of my Brethren, the In- 
dians, in joining me in fixing the Foundation of this peace we are 
so happily engaged in on so secure a Rock, that it will last as long 
as the Sun continues to give its Light; and in order to do this more 
effectually, as you have told me that you are poor, I shall take an 
opportunity seriously to Consider in what Particulars I can be of 
most Service to you/ 

"A String. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 93 

"'Brother: 

" ' You repeat your desire that I would press on this good "Work, 
and inform me that you are weak, that the Work is heavy, and that 
unless I help you you cannot life it ; you tell me I can do it, and 
that if you join me in it, it can easily be done j that all the Indians 
from the Sun rise to the Sun set have heard your Halloo, and have 
their Eyes upon us, and are ready to join us to lift it up. 
" ' Brother : 

" { Iam very sensible the good "Work we are engaged in is a very 
weighty one, and of the greatest Importance to you and us, and that 
it requires us to join our utmost Strength to carry it on, and accom- 
plish it in the happy manner we both desire. 

" ' It gives me great Satisfaction to hear you say the most distant 
Indians are ready and willing to join us in it. This Account gives 
me fresh Encouragement to continue my Resolutions of acting to 
the utmost of my Abilities, and you may be assured I shall do 
every thing in my Power to bring this good Work to a happy Issue. 
I desire you will join me in Prayers to the Almighty God to give a 
Blessing to our Endeavours. Let us in all our Proceedings have 
our Eyes fixed upon him. Let us act honestly and sincerely with 
each other, that we may have some Ground to hope for his Assist- 
ance, for without it all we can do will be in vain/ 

" A String. 
" < Brother : 

u ' By this Belt you told me yesterday that the Work we engaged 
in is good, that all the Indians afar off have seen us about it, but 
that you yet perceive we keep our Eyes looking to the Westward on 
the Expedition formed against the Ohio, and desired us not to 
trouble ourselves about that affair, but to leave it to you, and that 
you would do it for us ; that you had it in your Power to do it, 
and that you would give them one Blow, and that whoever shall 
Escape you would drive them into the Sea. And by this Belt you 
told me to-day that when you came from Home you thought you 
should be able to have performed what you yesterday proposed, but 
that you have since you come to Town heard there were Enemies 
doing us Mischief at this Time on our Frontiers, and that you 
judged it not prudent for you to undertake it yourself, but that you 
would join the English heartily in it, and would die with us in the 
Undertaking, and wherever our Bones lay your' s should also lie 
with them, And that you would immediately send Word back by 
Daniel to let all the Indians know this was your Resolution. 
«< Brother: 

" * I acknowledge the Work we are engaged in to be good, and 
am pleased the distant Indians have seen us consulting on it, and 
are pleased with it. What you have observed of our turning our 
Eyes to the Westward, and that we are concerned to prosecute that 



94 MINUTES OF THE 

Expedition, is true. We look on the generous Offer you made yes- 
terday of doing tha£ Business for us as a great Mark of your Sin- 
cere Dispositions to his Majesty, and your hearty Attachment to the 
English Nation. We know it is a great Undertaking, and think 
you have acted very prudently in reconsidering that Matter, and 
now heartily thank you for your kind Offers to assist us in it. Our 
great Enemy, the French, have for a long Time been making En- 
croachments on these Lands, and are determined to keep possession 
of them if they can ) And as our great and wise King has found 
that they will not hearken to any thing he has said to them on this 
head, he has now, at a very great Expence, sent over into this 
Country a great Number of Officers and Soldiers to drive them off. 
When they will set about it is uncertain, but as you have been so 
kind as to Offer to join us in such an Expedition, when the Com- 
manding Officer is ready to undertake it, we will acquaint him of 
your good Intentions, and he will send Notice to you. It will be, 
therefore, absolutely necessary you immediately send Word to all 
the Indians who have now joined with us, and make them fully ac- 
quainted with the Engagements you have entered into on their Ac- 
counts, and that you and we expect they will fulfil them/ 

" A Belt. 
"' Brother: 

" * You tell me you have looked above and all over the World to 
find out from whence the Mischief that has been amongst us arose, 
that you have now found it out, and shall take Notice of all such 
as have pretended to be our Friends, that if you find any of them 
deceitful, you will run your Hand down their Throats, and pul up 
their Hearts and lay them before us, and that in this all the Indian 
Nations, who have joined you and us have agreed. 

"< Brother: 

" ( I am glad you have taken so much pains to find out the Cause 
of this Mischief, and that you are determined still to search it out 
to the Bottom, and see if any such who pretend to be our Friends 
have any Hand in it. This is a very prudent Resolution and I 
desire you would pursue it, for if there be any among you who 
carry Two faces, and act deceitfully, they are much more dangerous 
to both of us than our open Enemies, and if not found out, will 
ever be throwing Logs in the great Road, that has been now opened 
between us, towards perfecting this great and good Work of Peace, 
I assure you I shall use the same Care on my part to find out such 
Enemies amoogst us, if there be any. 
, " * Brother : 

I have now answered every Part of what you said to me yester- 
day. I do not observe that you have said any thing that was 
wrong ; if I had, I should have Endeavoured to set you right, as 
Brethren ought to do with one another I am sensible of the Neces- 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 95 

sity of dispatching this Messenger. I shall do every thing I can to 
forward it, and I now desire, if you find I have omitted giving you 
a full answer on every Head, that you would, like a Brother, open 
your Mind freely to me, and tell me so, for you must be sensible 
the greater Freedom we use with one another on affairs of such 
Importance as the great Work we are at present engaged in, the 
greater Probability there is of finishing it speedily to the satisfac- 
tion of both of us.' 

"A String. 

" Teedyuscung making no Answer, the President proceeded and 
said. 
"'Jrother: 

" ( As I have now answered what you said to me yesterday, If 
you have nothing further to say to me on the Head I have some 
other Business to lay before you/ 

"To which Teedyuscung replied: ( I have nothing to object to 
what you have said. It is a full Answer to what I said Yesterday ? 
and all quite agreeable/ 

" The President resuming his Discourse, said : 
jj ' Brother Teedyuscung : 

" i I am sorry to inform you that I hear there are now some In- 
dians on our Frontiers and in Lancaster County, on Swahatawro 
Creek, murdering our people and carrying off some scattering Fami- 
lies. This, Brother, will, I am afraid, be attended with very ill 
Consequences unless we can find out who they are. It highly con- 
cerns you to join me in endeavouring to know of what Nation these 
People are, and to bring some of them in, that I may be able to 
know who sent them there. These may, perhaps, be some of the 
People who have pretended to be our Friends ; but whether they be 
or not we must find them out ; and as you have now taken hold of 
our Peace Belt, and have engaged for the Indians on Sasquehannah 
that they will not suffer any Enemy Indians to hurt me, I desire 
that you will immediately go to Bethlehem yourself, where I under- 
stand you have some young Men, and send a Party of them out to 
Scour our Frontiers and take some of them Prisoners ; Or if you 
are not able to take them, that you will endeavour to bring back 
our People they have carried off; and I will immediately give 
Orders for a Party of our Soldiers there to join. This Conduct 
will convince me and my People that you are in earnest in this great 
and good Work we are now engaged in/ 

"A Belt. 
" < Brother : 

" ' The Accounts you have mentioned to me from time to time 
of the several Tribes of Indians joining us in the good Work we 
are engaged in has given me great Pleasure. You told me by your 



96 MINUTES OF THE 

last Messenger that you were now become Eighteen Tribes or Na- 
tions, and are now grown very strong. I desire you will acquaint 
such of these Tribes who have joined you that I with great Pleasure 
take them by the Hand, and that I shall be very glad to see some 
of the Chiefs of each Nations in this City, that I may see and hear 
them, and take them in my Arms. They will then have an Oppor- 
tunity of Confirming by their own mouth what you have said to 
me; which will afford me great satisfaction. I desire you will make 
them acquainted with the Engagements you entered into with me 
at Easton in their behalf of returning all our Prisoners they had 
in the Indian Country. And as our People are Strangers to the 
Woods, and will not be able to find the Roads to the Inhabitants, 
this will be a very good Opportunity of having them conducted 
safely; and I shall depend on their bringing with them all our 
People they can collect/ 

" A Belt. 

" Teedyuscung having received the Belt arose and said : 

" i Brother, hearken, I shall only speak a few words, and all you 
present take Notice. 
" y Brother : 

u ( Since I have taken hold of the Covenant Chain, as I consider 
myself as one with you, I can do no other than as you have said. 
Were my Wife and Children among you I should be very uneasy 
and want to see them ; I will therefore use my utmost Endeavours 
to collect as many of your People that are Prisoners in the Indian 
Country as I can, and will bring them down to you ; Brother, now I 
think we have really finished our Agreements and we are one ; But 
tho ' we are one, I will not give myself up intirely to you ; I will not 
inlist under your Captains or officers, but I will have Captains of my 
own ; Here my Son is one of my Captains ; we will join with you 
but we will have Captains of our own ; As you know I am but weak 
and Poor, I hope you will Pay my People who shall go out along 
with you. 

" It being late, the Conference ended ; and as Teedyuscung was 
in haste to dispatch the Messenger, and sent out some of his Young 
Men to scour our Frontiers, he sat out next morning for Bethlehem, 
without saying anything of his Private Affairs and Settlement at 
Wyoming, as he intended." 



Extract of a Letter dated Tuesday, April IStJi, 1758. 
" Teedyuscung dispatched his Son John Jacob as Captain, and 
four more Indians, Viz* 1 : his Son Amos, Paul and his Brother 
John, also Isaac, all Delawares, to the three Indian Nations over Al- 
legheny, Viz'- : Delawares, Shawanese ; and Quahanoquesie, of which 
last Castareega is Chief. 



* PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 97 

"1st. Delivered Four Strings to acquaint said Nations that he had 
twice reeeiv'd good News from them, and lately heard they inclined 
to be at Peace with the English ; but now he hears of fresh mur 
ders being committed, which two Contraries he cannot reconcile or 
see thro', and therefore desires to know the reason. 

"2d. A Large Black Belt, with five strokes across, made of white 
Wampum, at which Teedyuscung said : 

" t Hark, Men of Allegheny ; you sent me word you had laid hold 
of the two ends of the Peace Belt, and I and the English should 
lay hold of the Middle, which we have done, and held, and do hold 
it still fast ; Therefore, I must desire all your Captains to sit quiet 
at Home, and not partake of these Evils, or murder English any 
more; For indeed, we are many Indians that live here amongst 
them. By such doings you may hurt the Chain of Peace/ 

"3d. A White Belt, with black strokes across, set with black Wam- 
pum, at which he said : 

" ' My Friends and Brethren, Shawanese and Delawares : 

" ' You live near the Others, and if any of you live nigh the 
French, move a little further from them, and take each other by 
the Hand, and let all your Chiefs come, and I will take them by 
the Hand and go with them to the Governor, where they shall hear 
Words with their own Ears for themselves/ 

"4th. A White Belt, set with black Wampum across, and said : 

" \ Hereby I require and charge all Indians, here and there, not to 

acquaint the French any thing of Transactions here ; but to stop 

their Ears and Eyes, that they may neither hear nor see what 

passes amongst us.' " 

Then were read the following Letters, and ordered to be entered : 

" Extract from a Letter from Sir William Johnson to M. Gen'* 
Abercrombie, dated at Fort Johnson, 13th April, 1758, received 
22d, in the Morning, by the PosL 

"I shall endeavour all in my Power to get as many Indians as I 
possibly can to join his Majesty's Forces, both this way and to the 
southward, for which Purpose I shall send Mr. Croghan, as soon 
as he returns from the German Flats to Philadelphia (in the mean 
while, I think Governor Denny should loose no Time in sending 
Invitations^ to them Indians, who are inclined to Peace, to come to 
Philadelphia), with proper Instructions and Directions to assist and 
co-operate with Governor Denny, in bringing about and settling a 
Peace with the Ohio and Western Indians, and try if he can get a 
Number of them to join Brigadier General Forbes; and endeavour 
to persuade the rest to lie still if possible, which (from the Steps 
I have lately taken), I am in hopes he will be able to accomplish. 
The Cherokees will, I am positive (by what they promised me last 
vol. vni.— 7. 



93 MINUTES OF THE 

fall when here), join us heartily, if we do not by neglect, or some 
mismanagement, overset the good Disposition they then were in, 
which I hope will be guarded against and prevented, as there Al- 
liance is, in my Opinion, a Matter of the utmost Consequence, par- 
ticularly to the Southern Governments, which, I think, should not 
stick at any thing now to engage them heartily. 

" J. APPY, Secretary." 



" Bethlehem, April 23d, 1758. 
"Sir: 

" This Morning a Soldier came from Fort Allen, with a Letter 
from Cap'- Orndt, directed to you or Mr. Edmonds, wrote last 
Night, in which the Captain gives you an account of the Trouble 
he had with Teedyuscung's Messengers, and that he could not get 
them from the Fort sooner than Yesterday Morning ; and that they 
came back again towards Evening, telling the Captain they would 
not carry the Message ; one of them said he had dream'd that two 
Indians had poisoned them, and they would die if they did go — 
forcing, at the same time, their Belts and strings of Wampum 
upon Mr. Orndt to send them to Teedyuscung again ; yet he kept 
them, and only desired you, or Mr. Edmonds, to acquaint Teedy- 
uscung of the Behaviour of his Messengers. Edmonds acquainted 
Teedyuscung directly of it; he proposed to send a Young Man 
of his to bid the Messengers proceed in their Journey, &c a - But 
Mr. Edmonds told him that would be to no purpose — his Captains 
would not hearken to the Message of a lad — it was needful that he 
did go himself and look after things ; to which he at last agreed, 
upon Condition that Edmonds should go with him ; And so they 
both set out for Fort Allen about 9 o'Clock. This Morning, Mr. 

proposed to take the Captain's Letter along to you; but 

when sent for, Mr. Edmonds was gone already, and his Wife said 
he had, in the Hurry, taken the Letters along. I thought it, 
therefore, needful to acquaint you, nevertheless, of the Contents, 
as you may have an opportunity to acquaint the Governor of it. 
The Captain complains, also, that those Indians who were to range, 
did nothing but Drink, and were continually Drunk — they having 
brought whole Casks of Rum from Easton. One thing more I 
must tell you, The Lieutenant from Fort Allen was here, yester- 
day, in his private affairs; he reported that a Couple of Indiana 
were come from the Susquehannah some Days ago, and that since 
their Arrival the Messengers look'd much confused, and as if they 
were knock'd on the Head ; in short, things Look very suspicious, 
and as if some evil spirit did work and rule again amongst the 
Savages ; which we have so much Reason to believe, as an Indian 
from above has secretly told his Friend, here in Bethlehem, there 
would be bad Times again, beseeching him, at the same Time, to 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 99 

retire from these parts. If not the Lord was on our side — in Dis- 
tress our strong Defence and Armour — we should should be in 
great fear; but as we are under his Protection, he will keep a good 
Watch, that we may not be surpriz'd; and I hope the last Murder 
on Swatara has put all our Neighbours upon their Guard ; for, as we 
know nothing certain, we can no body tell of it. 
" Your Family is well. 

" I am, with much respect, Yours, 

"JOHN EDWIN." 



" May it Please Your Honour : 
"Sir: 

" I came to Town last Night, pretty late, and thinking it not 
Convenient to trouble you to-Day, I beg leave to inform your 
Honour, that Teedyuscung, a Day or two after he had dispatchM 
his Two Sons, &c a -> to the Alleghena, Sent Five other Indians to 
range on our Frontiers, in Company with some of Cap*' Orndt's 
Men ) this he desired I would inform you of, and that he intends, 
very soon, to pay you a Visit (nay, he would fain come with me), 
to conclude about going to Wyoming & 

"I am your Honour's most Hum. Serv' - ' 

"TIMOTHY HORSFIELD. 
" Philadelphia, April 23d, 1758." 

Benjamin Shoemaker, William Logan, and Richard Peters were 
appointed a Committee to Consider the Intelligence contained in 
the said Letters, and what is proper to be done in Consequence 
thereof, and to make their report thereon as soon as possible. 

A Recommendation by the Commissioners under the Act for 
preventing Abuses in the Indian Trade, &c a -' of John Carson, 
Francis Campble, and Nathaniel Holland, to be Agents at Fort 
Augusta, and to be Commissionated accordingly, was read & Con- 
sidered, and Francis Campble is approved of and appointed to be 
the Indian Agent at Fort Augusta, and to be Commissionated ac- 
cordingly, of which the Commissioners aforesaid are to have notice. 

A Petition to the Governor from several of the Inhabitants of 
the Town of Reading and others in the County of Berks was read, 
setting forth the great Distress of that County from the Ravages 
lately committed therein by some Indians, and praying for a speedy 
Reinforcement; the same was taken into Consideration and upon 
application to General Forbes a Company of One Hundred High- 
landers were ordered into that part of the Province for their Pro- 
tection and Security. 



100 MINUTES OF THE 



MEMORANDUM. 

On the Twenty-Seventh, Two Members waited on the Governor 
with the Bills for granting to his Majesty a Duty of Tonnage, &c a, » 
for his Concurrence; and at the same time presented to his Honour 
the Bill for Extending several Sections of an Act of Parliament, &c a ' 
intituled "An Act for Punishing Mutiny and Desertion/' and de- 
sired his Assent to it as it now stood. 



MEMORANDUM. 

On the Twenty-Eighth, the Governor by the Secretary sent down 
to the House the Bill for granting to his Majesty a Duty of Ton- 
nage, &c*' with a Verbal Message that his Honour was ready to 
pass the same whenever presented to him for purpose. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Saturday the 29th of April, 

1758. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY Esq., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Strettell, Lawrence Growden, | ™ . 

Benjamin Chew, Thomas Cadwalader, J S( l mres - 

The Governor having last Night received a Letter from Brigadier 
General Forbes, requiring the Appointment of a Provincial Trea- 
surer, or Paymaster, to attend him, with a Sum of Money, Subject 
to his orders, for defraying Contingent Expenses, the same was 
laid before the House with a Message desiring the House would 
enable the Governor to return a Satisfactory Answer to the General. 

The Governor at the same time sent a Message to the House at 
the Instance of General Forbes, Earnestly recommending it to them 
to provide a Barrack-Master, who might be accountable for the 
Care of the Barracks, and for the Several things therein. 

The Governor returned the Bill Entituled " an Act for Extend- 
ing Several Sections of an Act of Parliament, passed in the Thir- 
teenth Year of the Present Reign, Entituled ' an Act for Punishing 
Mutiny and Desertion, and for the better Payment of the Army 
and their Quarters/ " with his Assent to it. 

The Bill was laid before the General, and the hardships likely to 
be put upon the Magistrates from the Loose Expression in the Bill 
that the Magistrates shall not give Billets for Quarters on Public 
Houses, unless the Rooms in the Barracks were Compleatly filled, 
and the General was requested to give an order mentioning the Num- 
ber of Soldiers to be Lodged in each Room, but the General declined 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 101 

giving such Order, saying that they would hold more in one part of 
the * * * than in another, and that no inconvenience could 
arise to the Magistrates, as it would be his Care in all Cases of that 
sort to interpose, and indeed he did not believe they would be put to 
the tryal in the Ensuing Winter. 

The said Bill was compared by Mr. Peters on the part of the 
Council, and Mr. Roberdeau and Mr. Saunders on the part of the 
Assembly, together with the Bill Entituled " An Act for granting 
to his Majesty Duty of Tonnage upon Ships and Vessels, and also 
certain Duties upon Wine, Rum, Brandy, and other Spirits, and a 
Duty upon Sugar, for supporting and maintaining the Provincial 
Ship of War, for protecting the Trade of this Province, and other 
Purposes for his Majestie's Service. 

The House was required to attend the Governor in the Council 
Chamber, in order to pass these two bills into Laws, and accord- 
ingly waiting on the Governor, they received his Assent ; and were 
enacted, Sealed, and Enrolled. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Tuesday the 2d of May, 1758. 
present : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Strettell, Joseph Turner, ~) 

Lynford Lardner, Richard Peters, I Esquires. 

John Mifflin, Thomas Cadwalader, J 



Teedyuscung, ) Indians . 
Teepyuscung, j 

Isaac Still, Interpreter, 



The Council was called, at the Instance of Teedyuscung, the 
Delaware Chief; who, addressing himself to the Governor, spoke 
as follows : 

" Brother : 

" I have no new matter to lay before you ; I only come to re- 
mind the Governor of some things, already agreed upon, that 
remain to be done. The Indians want to see the Houses built at 
Wioming, and then they will remove there. All the Indians ex- 
pect that the Houses shall be built this Spring ; and if they be 
not, they will blame me much, and say it is my fault. I therefore 
press you to^ order the Men who are appointed for this Business to 
go upon it directly. Summer approaches, and it is Time to plant 
our Corn ; this is all I have to say." 

A String. 



102 MINUTES OF THE 

To this the Governor answered : 
" Brother Teedyuscung : 

"I am always glad to see you; Your request shall be taken 
into Consideration. I shall communicate it to the King's General, 
who is now in this City preparing for an Expedition against the 
Enemy, and likewise to the Assembly, who are now sitting; and, 
as soon as I have consulted with them, I will give you an answer." 

The Governor then entered into Conversation with Teedyuscung 
on the late Mischiefs that had been done by the Indians on the 
Frontiers, at Berks County, and desired to know if he had learned 
what Indians were concerned in them. To which he answered, 
that he could not tell who they were ; He knew nothing about it. 
He had sent a Letter to the Governor, setting forth all that he 
knew j he had sent his Two Sons to the Ohio to demand the Cause 
of these Murders; he had received Belts from these Nations, 
acquainting him they were all Brothers, from Sunrising to Sun- 
setting; he could not, therefore, account for this last Mischief, 
Being asked how long it would take to finish the Buildings at 
Wioming, supposing the same Number of Hands as went before, 
he said Three Weeks. He reminded the Governor that they might 
have Two School Masters, Ministers, and Couneellers. 



Wednesday, A. M. 

MEMORANDUM. 

On the Third, Two Members waited on the Governor, with the 
following Message, and acquainted him that the House inclined to 
adjourn to Monday the Fourth Day of September next; to which 
his Honour was pleased to say, that he had some Business to lay 
before the House, and would acquaint them therewith, by the Sec- 
retary, in the Afternoon. 

A Message to the Governor from the Assemoly. 
•' May it Please Your Honour : 

"At this Time of General Calamity and Distress of the Colonies,, 
when every Liberty, both civil and religious is at Stake, we were de- 
termined to wave every Thing that might tend to create new Dis- 
putes between the Two Branches of the Legislature, and therefore 
have postponed answering your several Messages, and rather sub- 
mitted, for a Time, to lay under the load of Reflections and Cal- 
umny they contain, than by any Mean3 impede his Majesty's 
Service, or obstruct the generous Measures he has been pleased to 
concert for our Preservation and Defence. But the aids are now 
granted to the Crown, and your Message of the Twenty-second Ult. 
is of such an uncommon and extraordinary Nature, a Regard for 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 103 

our Characters, Truth, and the Public Welfare, will no longer per- 
mit us to be silent; tho' the Passion and Injustice it contains are 
so evident, 'tis more than probable that it will ever carry with it a 
full remedy against the unhappy disposition your Honour has dis- 
covered to deprive us of our just Rights as a Branch of the Legisla- 
ture, and as far as lies in your power, to ruin our Reputations as 
Individuals, by Calumniating and condemning unheard, particular 
Members of our House, without the least Foundation. How far this 
Conduct corresponds with the large Professions of Justice you made 
in the Case of William Moore, that you would condemn no Man 
unheard, nor without giving him and his Accusers a full hearing 
Face to Face, we leave your Conscience and reason to determine, de- 
claring that they appear to us the most glaring Contradictions. 

" You have been pleased to lament the Melancholy state of this dis- 
tressed Colony, and the unseasonable Animosities we have been en- 
gaged in, at which we cannot help being surprised, since it is known 
to almost every Inhabitant, that you have long had it in your Power 
to relieve us, in a great Measure, from the first, and in no small 
Degree, contributed to the Second. Actions speak louder than Words. 
To these we appeal ; will it not appear strange, that this Govern- 
ment, entrusted to your Honour's Care and protection, has expended, 
since your Administration, upwards of One Hundred Thousand 
Pounds in supporting three Battallions of Troops under your com- 
mand, and yet has received very little Defence against the Depre- 
dations of the most barbarous and cruel Enemy ? Was your 
Concern as Sincere as you profess, would you have acted in Violation 
of the Law, pointing out the only effectual Mode of Defending the 
People, in not issuing orders for making Incursions into the Enemy's 
Country ? Would you have neglected the Military Service, upon 
which the Lives of Thousands depended ; permitted the Officers and 
Men to remain inactive in the Forts ) suffered the Inhabitants to be 
murdered and Captivated from Time to Time, when every Means 
in your Power ought to have been exerted for their Defence and 
Preservation ? These are facts so Notorious, so sensibly felt by our 
bleeding Fellow Subjects, that we cannot but doubt of the Sincerity 
of your Concern at a Distress, the Continuation of which has too 
long been owing to your own Neglects and Omissions. 

" As to the Animosities you are pleased to say we have been en- 
gaged in, we know not what they mean, unless it be the trying and 
punishing the Author and Abettor of the most Virulent Libel 
that ever was published against the Representatives of a People and 
Rights of Government. To enquire into and punish this insolent 
Attack on the Rights of the Subject was our indispensible Duty. 
This was concluded long before the Demands of the Crown, made 
by Secretary Pitt's Letter, were communicated to us, and, therefore, 
could not impede or affect our Aids to his Majesty for the ensuing 
Campaign,, but rather proved advantageous to the Common Cause, 



104 MINUTES OF THE 

by preventing the House from rising before we had received the 
Secretary of State's Letter. However, insolent as this attack and 
virulent as the Libel was, your Honour and some of your Council 
thought fit to take the Authors under your Protection, and, there- 
fore, we are not surprized at your thinking the Enquiry unseasonable, 
Since it is natural for a man to call every Measure so that tends to 
Support those Eights which he has so frequently Shewn a Disposition 
during His Short Administration to Abridge and Destroy. 

u Your Honour is next pleased to say, that we have delayed to 
turn our attention to the Important Concerns of the Present Cam- 
paign, a groundless charge and not more easily made than refuted. 
The first intimation we had of the Operations to the Westward, and 
of the Assistance expected from us, was by Lord Loudon's Letter, 
laid before the House the Twentieth of February j immediately 
thereupon our proportion of the Eight Hundred Men demanded was 
resolved on with great cheerfulness, and the Necessary Sum for their 
Support Voted. On the Eighth of March we received his Majesty's pa- 
ternal and animating Instructions, informing us of the Measures he 
was determined to pursue for the preservation of this and his other 
Colonies, and desiring us to exert the Strength and Abilities of the 
Province on this important Occasion. It was with impatience we 
waited to know what Part it was .expected we should act in these 
interesting and necessary Operations ; but we did not receive the 
least intimation of it before the Eighteenth of March, when Gen- 
eral Abercombie's Letter was laid before us mentioning the Number 
of Troops required of this District of the Colonies, and therefore 
could not come to any determinate and certain Conclusion before. 
Eleven Days after we presented your Honour with a Bill for fur- 
nishing Two Thousand Seven Hundred Men to act in Conjunction 
with his Majesty's Troops to the Westward. 

" A Bill in its Nature reasonable and just, adapted to the Circum- 
stances of the Province, and a Bill which your Duty to his Majesty, 
and the People entrusted to your Care, would have Obliged you to 
pass, had those sacred Obligations been constrained to Submit to 
the most tyranical and unjust Proprietary Instructions. Had your 
Honour passed this Bill when presented, as you ought to have done, 
we should have been the first of the Western District, who had given 
exemplary Proofs of an hearty Zeal for his Majesty's Service, and a 
Chearful Compliance with his Gracious Demands. But this reason- 
able Bill you thrice rejected, as you inform us, by the unanimous 
Advice of your Council, and was resolved, by taking an Advantage 
of our present bleeding and distressed Situation, either to exempt 
the Proprietaries from bearing their just proportion of the Tax, to 
defend their own Estates, or effectually to prevent us from com- 
plying with the most Interesting Demands of the Crown. So that 
it seems his Majesty's Province would have been defenceless, his 
gracious Demands rejected, and the glorious Plan concerted for the 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 105 

Defence of these Colonies frustrated, had the Representatives of the 
People, with the same Inflexibility, adhered to their natural Rights 
and Privileges as your Honour has to the Slavish Instructions of 
the Pro nrirtaries, impracticable in themselves, arbitrary in their Na- 
ture and abhorrent to every Rule of Common Justice. Thus all 
the Delay from that Time can be only imputable, with Justice to 
your Honour and Council who have been so regardless of his Majes- 
ty's interest and Service, and so fearful to infringe the Proprietaries 
Instructions, as to reject a reasonable and most necessary Bill at 
this critical Juncture, because their Estates were to bear a pro- 
portion of the Tax, to defend their own Property. 

"Your Honour further asserts, That the first Bill we sent you was 
so framed, we knew you could not pass it. How you should be ac- 
quainted with our Knowledge and Thoughts, we cannot conceive. 
We beg leave to inform you, ihat in this, you are under a great 
Mistake ; we well knew your Honour is bound to Obey such Instruc- 
tions, from Time to Time, as are given you by the Proprietaries, 
which are liable to alterations and changes ) and therefore we could 
not kno w but you might have received Orders to have passed a Bill, 
in which their Estates were included, And we could not suspect 
that his Majesty had a subject so destitute of Loyalty and Gratitude 
to the best of Kings, and regardless of every Rule of common jus- 
tice and Equity, as to continue their Instructions to the Contrary. 
Is it possible that the Proprietaries can still insist that their great 
Estates' should be protected at the Expense of his Majesty and every 
person within his Dominions capable of paying Taxes ? Could we 
conceive that they would venture to claim a Privilege no Peer of 
the Realm, nor even Royalty itself ever pretended to ? If these 
things are reasonable, then, we might have known that the Bill we 
presented was such as your Honour could not pass; if otherwise, we 
ought to have been well acquainted with the Proprietaries unjust 
Disposition, as you seem to be, to have believed it. 

" But your Honour would fain perswade the World, that you are 
not against Taxing the Proprietary Property, and are pleased to 
say, that one of the principal objections to this Bill related to the 
unjust Method proposed for taxing their Estates. Let us enquire 
what this unjust Method was. In the- Bill the return of Property 
was to be procured and made by the Constables of the respective 
Townships, and ass'ors, the latter of whom were to be Freeholders, 
and chosen by the People. By them, and the County Assessors, 
the Estates of the Proprietaries and all others were to be taxed, by 
the same Method and Rule and in the same Proportion. These 
have ever been Men of Character and Integrity; and being under 
the awfui Obligation of an Oath or solemn Affirmation, to discharge 
their Duty, no one can presume they would do any man Injustice in 
the Taxation. But surely our Proprietaries, in the Characters of 
private Subjects may venture to submit to a Mode of Taxing, at- 



106 MINUTES OF THE 

tended with equal security and Equity, with that by which the 
Peers of Great Britain, and their Gracious Sovereign, are, by a long 
Line of Precedents, rated and assessed. All Money Bills take their 
Rise with the Commons. Supplies cannot be raised without their 
Grant. The King and the House of Lords do not pretend to the 
Right of amending Money Bills; They ever submit their Estates 
to be assessed and rated by Persons chosen by the Commissioners, 
who are nominated by the Commons, and have no Voice in the 
Election, or Negative on such Persons; where then is the essential Dif- 
ference between, or greater Security in their Mode of Taxing, than 
pointed out in our Bill ? 'Tis really no more than the Commis- 
sioners, who are nominated by the Representatives of the People, 
choose the Assesors in the one case, and in the other they are Elected 
by the People themselves. But nothing less will satisfy the Pro- 
prietaries, than the investing their Deputies with a share in the 
Nomination and Appointment of the Assesors. We entreat your 
Honour would inform us what Share would Satisfy them, Is it a 
single Vote ? Or do they claim as many Votes as all the rest of 
the People in the Province, Or one-half of the choice ? or are we to 
present to your Honour Bill after Bill, alter and change the As- 
sesors therein to be named, untill we shall fix on such Persons as 
you shall approve of, and such as will nearly answer all the Pur- 
poses of totally exempting the Proprietaries' Estate in the Bill. This 
would be giving you the sole Nomination of them, for we can see no 
Difference between a Persons choosing an Assesor himself, and hav- 
ing a Power to reject until the person he likes be presented to him. 
If either of these be the meaning of your Message, you will excuse us, 
if we say, the proposal is anti-constitutional, and without precedent 
in our Mother Country, and is the more unreasonable in our Pro- 
prietaries as it is claiming a Right which the Nobility of the Realm, 
or his Majesty himself do not pretend to. And as your Honour must 
know we cannot consent to it, consistent with our Duty to the Peo- 
ple we represent, it must be mere Evasion and Illusion, calculated 
only to exempt the Proprietary Estate from bearing a just propor- 
tion, and to throw an additional Weight of Taxes on our Mother 
Country, the distressed Freemen of this and the Neighbouring 
Provinces. This will appear still more evident, when the Part of 
the Proprietaries' Estate, which your Honour proposes to tax in this 
extraordinary Way, is Considered. You assert that the Proprieta- 
ries are willing that every Tract of land within the Province, sur- 
veyed and appropriated for their Use, should bear an equal and 
proportionable Share of any Burthens that may be imposed on the 
People, in the necessary Defence of this and his Majesty's other 
Colonies. And is this all the Property the Proprietaries will suffer 
to be assessed for the immediate preservation of their own Fortunes ? 
Must the High Quit Rents arising from several Millions of Acres, 
the large Estate in Ground-Rents, and their other considerable 
Property in this Province, be exempted from bearing a proportion- 



PKOVINCIAL COUNCIL. 107 

able Part of this necessary Burthen ? This would be truly the Case, 
should we lose all Sense of our Constituents' Rights, and agree to be 
the extraordinary Mode proposed by your Honour, for nothing else 
is to be taxed but the located and appropriated Lands. After men- 
tioning these Facts, how weak and absurd appears your assertion, 
that we chose rather to deprive our Constituents of the Benefit that 
would arise from an equal taxation of these Estates than not sub- 
ject it intirely to our own Mercy in the Mode we proposed, What 
great Benefit could flow from so small a part of their Estates, when 
by much the greater Share was to be exempted ? And in what 
manner can it be said with truth, we were determined to subject 
them to our Mercy ? We had no share by the Bill either in the 
rating or Levying the Money. That Matter was left to the Com- 
missioners and Assesors,who were to be sworn or solemnly Affirmed, 
to do equal Justice ; nor could the Representatives of the People 
interfere therein. 

"Your Honour's Second Objection to our Bill related to the Ap- 
pointment of the Provincial Commissioners from among Members 
of our own House, accountable only to ourselves. If this Practice be 
liable to so many glaring exceptions, why did you not obect to it in 
the late Supply Bill passed in your other Government ? Why did 
you Consent that Six Members out of their House consisting of 
Eighteen only should be Commissioners, and yet object to five being 
Chosen out of the Members of our House consisting of Six, and 
thirty joined with two of your own Council? Why does it require 
an extraordinary Degree of Hardiness in us even to suppose it, and 
not in the Assembly? Is it not as reasonable in one Government 
as the other ? Does the Soil, Climate, or Nature of the Country 
make that Practice just and equitable there, which is not so here ? 
Why did you not object to this Practice in the former Law for 
granting Money to the Crown ? But this Strange Conduct of your 
Honour we leave to be accounted for, whenever you shall think 
yourself capable of reconciling the most evident Contradictions. 

" With the same Degree of Reason and Justice, you next assert 
that 'we seemed determined to see the Province brought to the 
Utmost Destruction rather than that the Fingering of the Public 
Money should not be in a few leading Men of our House/ This 
it is true is a hard Charge as you say; But we have been of late so 
used to receive high Accusations from our Governors, which upon 
a little Examination have proved groundless, that with the sensible 
Part of Mankind they are looked upon as things of little Meaning. 
As to the leading men of our House, we know of none such ; here 
every man is left to the free Exercise of his own Reason and 
Judgment. We are not confined to the Instructions, or Directions 
of any Man or Sett of Men, and we sincerely wish for your own 
Sake, the sake of the People we represent, and of his Majesty's 
Service, you were as dependant of and free from the leadings and 



108 MINUTES OF THE 

Direction^ of a few ruling Men of your Council and Proprietary 
Instructions as we are from any undue Influence whatever. By 
the Bill the Commissioners are not to finger one farthing of the 
Public Money, and their Power only extends to draw Orders on the 
Trustees for the Purposes mentioned therein with your approbation, 
and the Money is to be paid by the Trustees to the Persons in 
whose Favour they are Drawn. The great relish for fingering Public 
Money, we apprehend, is rather to be found with the Governor, and 
we should be glad his connections were such with the People that 
we could safely confide in him. But when he looks on himself only 
as a Passenger, and regards not whether the Barque entrusted to 
his Care shall sink or Swim, provided he can by any means reach 
the shore, it is our indispensable duty to take every Measure in our 
Power to preserve that Economy and Public Justice in the Laying 
out and Appropriating the People's Money for which this Govern- 
ment has ever been so very remarkable. 

" As to the Commissioners, we shall only say that they have ever 
been reputed Men of Integrity, and are well acquainted with our 
Publick Affairs, from long Experience. They have satisfied us of 
their Innocence with respect to the Charges you have made against 
them in the most loose, general, and unjust Manner. And we 
think ourselves obliged to return them our Thanks, for the great 
Pains they have taken, the Time they have spent, and for their 
prudent Conduct in the faithfull Discharge of the Duties enjoined 
them, by the late Act for granting One Hundred Thousand Pounds 
to the King's Use. Being convinced of this, we are not surprized 
to find your Honour's Indignation and Resentment so remarkably 
exerted against that part of our Bill nominating the same Gentle- 
men Commissioners, where the fingering the Money is no more in 
your Power than in theirs ; this we Suspect will ever be the case, 
till a Sett of Men can be found agreeable to your Honour's Mind, 
who may be less exact and careful of, and more profuse with, the 
publick Interest. The Commissioners, in the early part of our 
Session, laid their Accounts before us, which have been for some 
Time in the Hands of a Committee, and will be settled as soon as 
possible. What, therefore, your Honour means by obliging them 
to exhibit their Accounts when required, we cannot understand, any 
more than we can your Design or merit, in declaring with a Solemn 
Protestation to all the World, that the Passing our Bill was Con- 
trary to your Conscience, and that in violation of Truth you were 
obliged to say that the former Hundred Thousand Pounds was ex- 
pended with your consent. Did you ever attempt to make out this 
assertion ? Did you ever point out the Sum that was not expended 
with your consent ? Does your Honour think every Declaration of 
yours is to pass with us for Solemn and incontrovertible Truths, 
sufficient to condemn and destroy the Reputation of Men of whose 
Iutegrity and Fidelity to the Publick we have had manifest proofs ? 
We are sorry for the Governor and amazed at this part of his Mes- 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 109 

sage, and could wish sincerely for his own Sake that he had re- 
considered the Bill, without that Bitterness and passion which 
appears too much to have blinded his Judgment in these Solemn 
Assertions which can do him no Credit, with respect either to his 
Moral, religious or Political Reputation. 

" Thus having answered all the material parts of your unkind Mes- 
sage, filled with the Grossest Invectives and Misrepresentations, we 
must assure you, that we are desirous to submit our Merit to the 
Test of our Actions. Every Thing has been done for the good of 
our Constituents and his Majesty's Service, that your Honour would 
permit us to do ; & many things further, equally necessary, which 
your Honour has obstructed, we would have done. It would be 
happy for Pennsylvania, could you with equal safety, appeal for a 
Justification of your Conduct to the same Test. Have you not sup- 
ported a Man in his Acts of Extortion, Oppression, and Tyrany, over 
the Poor Inhabitants of Chester County, against the Solemn Exam- 
inatione and Remonstrance of the Representatives of the People 1 
Are not the Widow and Fatherless groaning under his arbitrary 
Measures, and yet remain without Hopes of Relief? Have you not 
continually usurped an arbitrary Power of amending our Money Bills, 
and thereby repeatedly violated one of the most essential Rights of 
the People ? Have you not rejected a reasonable Bill for furnishing 
the Crown with Two Thousand Seven Hundred Men for the recov- 
ery of the Proprietaries' Fortunes from the Possession of the Enemy ? 
because their Estates were to bear a reasonable Proportion ? Have 
you not retarded and obstructed the granting Supplies to the Crown, 
by tenaciously adhering to your Instructions ? Have you not had 
under your Command Fourteen Hundred Men, & yet permitted the 
most trifling Parties of Indians to depopulate a great Part of the 
Province, captivate and murder the Inhabitants, while our Troops 
have been inactive in our Forts ? Have not orders for making In- 
cursions into the Enemy's Country, tho' expressly directed by the 
Law, being intirely neglected ? Has a Single Party been sent out 
on this Account, or one of the Enemy been killed or taken Prisoner 
since your Administration, tho' our Frontiers have been almost Contin- 
ually bleeding by their merciless Hands ? Have not the People, thro' 
this unhappy Neglect, been surprised and murdered in their Beds, 
who otherwise might have had timely Notice of their Approach, and 
defended themselves ? In short, what Protection or Defence has this 
unhappy Colony received from the large Sums of Money it has gen- 
erously granted ? These are the unhappy Marks of your Honour's 
Regard for his Majesty's Service, which the Good People of this 
Province have fatally felt, at a time when their Representatives 
have been exerting the Power and Strength of the Province almost 
beyond what it could bear, to relieve them from the Butchery and 
Ravages of the Most barbarous Enemy, whose Blow has fallen the 
heavier on us thro' the Frauds and injustice they declare they have 



110 MINUTES OF THE 

received from the Proprietaries, and their Agents, with regard to 
their Lands. 

" Signed by order of the House. 

"THOMAS LEECH, Speaker. 
"May 3d, 1758." 

The Governor received the following Letter from General Forbes : 
" Sir : 

" Finding that the Storeship with the Tents, Arms, &c a -» has not 
arrived from England with the Transports, I applied to General 
Abercrombie, to know how I was to proceed with regard to Gamp 
Necessaries, and his answer is : 

" ' With regard to Camp necessaries for the Provincials, they 
must be furnish'd by the different Provinces; those to the North- 
ward have agreed to it, and their Troops are to come provided with 
them at their Expence.' I must therefore beg leave to Know the 
Resolution of the Province upon this Subject directly. 

" Upon your Application, I promised to send an Hundred of the 
Royal Americans up towards Reading, but as these Companies are 
very Sickly, coming from Carolina, and very much want some Days 
of Rest and Refreshment, I must, therefore, beg you will excuse 
me from my Promise, and in their Room you may send some of 
the new raised Provincials, which will answer every purpose fully 
as well. 

" I should be glad to know your Opinion of the Party of Chero- 
kces at Carlisle, whether they should be allowed to proceed, or 
turned another Way. I should likewise want to know how far the 
Province thinks themselves Obliged to take Care of those Indians 
by Presents, Cloathing, &c a- 

" I beg, Sir, that the Orders about the Light Horse may be given 
as soon as possible j And that you will likewise be so good as to 
order the Horses to be placed, for the Conveying Intelligence thro' 
your Counties, according to the plan given to you by the Quarter- 
master General. 

" I really think Teedyuscung's Demands ought to be agreed with, 
as he has the Publick Faith for the making such a Settlement, i 
altho' I would parry off all Convoy of Troops, as Axmen and Car- 
penters will Answer all his purposes, and I think that he and his 
Tribes ought to be our Guards for those Back Settlements this < 
Summer, as we shall want all the Troops somewhere else. 

"I am, Sir, with great Regard, Your Most Obedient & most 
Hum. Serv 1 ' 

"JOHN FORBES. | 

"Philadelphia, May 3d, 1758." 

The Secretary was directed to carry the^ Above Letter from I 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. Ill 

General Forbes to the House, together with a Letter from Captain 
William Thompson to Colonel Armstrong, and a Message in these 
Words : 

" Gentlemen : 

"I lay before you a Letter I have just now received from General 
Forbes, on which I desire to know your Resolutions before you rise, 
that I may be enabled to give him a proper Answer. 

"Teedyuscung has renewed his Request to have the Houses 
finished at Wyoming, for which this Government stands engaged. 
I propose sending the same Gentlemen that were appointed last 
Year, and shall recommend it to the Commissioners to defray the 
Expences that will attend the Execution of this Commission. 

"WILLIAM DENNY. 

"May 3d, 1758." 



A Letter to Colonel Armstrong from Captain William Thompson, 

"York Town, 26th April, 1758. 
"Sir: 

" The Cherokees and Catawbas that left Fort Loudoun to go to 
War, Marched in Company 'till they crossed Juniata, at which 
Place some Misunderstanding that Happened amongst them occa- 
sioned the Four Catawbas to return to the Fort ; But the Cherokees 
proceeded towards Fort Du Quisini, by the Franks Town Road. 

" They proposed, being out twelve or Fourteen Days, and said 
if their Brothers of Pennsylvania had any Inclination to hold a 
Treaty with them, they were sure a Present would be sent them by 
the Time they return' d. 

" As I have not as yet received any Orders concerning them, nor 
do I know if the People in this Province will incline to treat with 
them, I can't determine what is best for me to do, as it is at my 
own risque I have furnished them with Provisions and what Drink 
was Necessary for them since they came into this Province. And 
I have reason to Doubt the Accounts will not be Answered, as I 
have not been paid for a Horse and a Riffle Gun, which I gave to 
the Cherokees last Year by Colonel Stanwix's and Your Orders. 

" I will set off for Fort Loudoun to-morrow, and will be glad to 
know, as soon as possible, what his Honour the Governor and the 
Assembly intends to do with them. 

"I am, Sir, Your most Obedi' 1 hum 6 - Servant, 

"W M - THOMPSON." 



112 MINUTES OF THE 

Two Members waited on the Governor with a Message from the 
House in these Words : 

" May it please Your Honour : 

u We much approve of your designs in sending the same Gen- 
tlemen that were appointed last Year to finish the Houses begun at 
Wioming, at Teedyuscung's Request, and as the more expeditiously 
this Measure is executed, the sooner we shall have an Indian Bar- 
rier in that Quarter, we hope no Time will be lost in Dispatching 
them. 

"With respect to the General's Demand of Tents, Arras, Camp 
necessaries, &c a -' for the Provincials, we beg leave to obsrve that 
by his Majesty's Royal Instructions, by his Secretary of State, the 
whole that the King expected or required from us, was the levying, 
Cloathing, and paying the Men ; in Consideration of which we have 
supplied as large a Number of Men as the present Circumstances 
of our Constituents would admit. The supplies in the Bill are ap- 
propriated to these purposes, which we are^very apprehensive they 
will fall short of answering ; and as we presume the General must 
be invested with Powers to supply these things, agreeable to the 
Royal Promise, in case of any accident, we doubt not he will 
chearfully comply with it. 

" As we understand the Cherokees are invited by the Crown to 
assist in the general Defence of the Colonies, which receive an 
equal Benefit from their Services, we are of Opinion they should 
either be maintained, Cloathed, &c a, > by the Crown, or at the general 
expence of the Colonies, and not by this Province only; which 
must appear the most reasonable to your Honour, as you know this 
Government has very lately expended large Sums of Money in 
Indian Affairs, from which the Other Provinces have received equal 
Advantages, tho' they have not contributed any Thing towards the 
Expence thereof. 

" Signed by order of the House. 

"THOMAS LEECH, Speaker. 
" May 3d, 1758." 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Friday the 5th of May, 1758. 
present : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esqr., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Joseph Turner, John Mifflin, *) 

Lynford Lardncr, Richard Peters, (- Esquires. 

William Logan, Thomas Cadwalader, ) 

Conrad Weiser, Esquire. 

Information being given to the Governor that an Indian, William 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 113 

Sock, with his Comrade, had for some time been tampering with 
the Conestoga Indians, and that they were, at the Instance of these 
two Indians, proposing to remove from the Manner, his Honour 
had wrote a Letter to Mr. James Wright, to inquire into the 
Affairs, and to invite Sewaise and these Indians to come and see 
him. 

A Letter from Mr. Shippen, of Lancaster, on this Subject, was 
read in these words : 

" Lancaster, the 3d of May, 1758. 
" Honoured. Sir : 

"I take the Liberty to acquaint your Honour that the Cones- 
togoe Indians are going to leave their Town. I had my informa- 
tion last night from Mr. Ross, of the blue Rock. He tells me, 
that last Thursday they sent Mr. McKnee to acquaint him they 
wanted to have a Conference with him, and when he came to them, 
they said they had nothing at all against him, for he had always 
been very kind to them in supplying them with all necessary pro- 
visions, but that they had been lately at Philadelphia, on a Visit to 
the Governor, to beg a few Cloaths, and particularly Leather for 
Moccosins, as they were Naked and barefotted, but that he had (to 
use their own phrase) broken his Word with them, for after having 
detained them a good many days in Town, he sent them packing 
away in the same destitute Condition in which they came ; And 
that seeing this was the Case, and they were not allowed to hunt 
for Deer among the Inhabitants, They were forced to go into the 
Wilderness to seek Cloathing for themselves and Families; and 
they proposed to go a little beyond Fort Augusta, and there to build 
Indian Cabbins. Rut as they intended to return in the Spring, 
they desired Mr. McKnee might be permitted to remain in their 
Town, and plant Corn, to be divided between his and their 
Families, when they come back, and as a Token of their Friendship 
with the English, Old Sohaise gave him a String of white Wampum. 
And then Mr. Ross answered, and assured them he would supply 
their Wants immediately from Lancaster. Yet, notwithstanding 
this Declaration, they said they were resolved to keep there Reso- 
lution. Then he let them know, if they would not be pers waded 
to accept of his Offer, he hoped they would accept of some Reef 
and Flour for their Journey, and as it would be unsafe for them to 
pass thro' the Country without an Escort, he would employ Mr. 
McKnee to go with them to Hunter's Fort, to which they readily 
agreed. That on Saturday Mr. McKnee came to Mr. Ross again, 
and told him that the Indians were divided in their Council, 
whether to go off a Hunting or to stay and Plant their Corn, but 
that he understood by Retty Sock that Billy Sock (her son) and 
some of the Young Men were absolutely resolved to go [take her 
own words] and help the French, May be the English. Since 
VOL. VIII. — 8. 



Ill MINUTES OF THE 

/ 

which Time Mr. Ross has heard nothing of them. However, tho' 
it be a busy Time with me, As I think this Affair of very great 
Consequence to the Province, trifling as the Number of those 
Indians may be, I have thought proper to Yisit them immediately, 
and shall use my utmost endeavours to appease them & keep them 
back. * 

" I am, with due respect, Your Honour's Most Obedient Hum. 
Serv'-' 

" EDW D SHIPPEN." 

The Governor received an answer from the Commissioners 
, respecting Teedyuscung's Demands, which being read, and the 
Indians who were attending with Charles Thompson called in, The 
Governor spoke to them as follows : 
" Brother Teedyuscung : 

" All that you requested will be chearfully complied with, and 
with the utmost Dispatch. Mr. Hughes, one of the former Com- 
missioners, who lives in Town, has acquainted me that he is willing, 
and will soon be ready to go. Notice shall be sent to the other 
Gentlemen, who all live in the Country. You may be assured that 
this Business shall be performed to your satisfaction. 
" Brother : 

" I desire, on your return to Bethlehem, you will not fail to send 
your Indians to scout and range in the places where the Enemy In- 
dians are know to the Province, and that they may be 

directed to use their utmost Endeavours to bring in a Prisoner. 
"Brother: 

"You may remember that I promised you and Moses Tetamy, 
at Easton, that who was committed on Suspicion of having mur- 
dered Indians, they should be tried according to our Laws. I now 
acquaint you that the Forms prescribed by our Laws have been ob- 
served with respect to ; And no being offered, he 

could not be found guilty. I am informed he is a , and, 

therefore, I propose sending him out of the Country. 
"'Brother: 

"I have now finished all I have to say to you at present." 

Teedyuscung replied to the Governor's Speech in these Words : 

" Brother : 

" I thank you for your kind Answer to my request about Wio- 
ming. 

" Brother : 

" Be not discouraged ; I assure you of Success if you press on. 
For my part, I shall never let it drop ; I will do my utmost En- 
deavours so as neither one nor two Men shall ever Erect this good 
Work. I know there are a great many flying Stories and a great 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 115 

'deal of bad News; Nevertheless, let us press on. I would have 
i you Consider I have not all the Indians at my Command ; there 
f are many Indians still in the French Interest, and here and there 
some may be found among us who pretend to be our Friends, but 
4 whose Hearts are not true ; Therefore, if you desire it, I will go 
! myself, or send some sober Indians back, in order to find out who 
[ has done this Mischief; and if you desire it, you may send a white 
man with my Indians, who will see and Judge for himself. 
| " Brother : 

" As to the Boy who is in Jayl, as nobody was present when the 
I fact was done, he ought not to be condemned to Death ; if he be 
J sent out of the Country, it will do very well. I desire no more ; 
:,' I have now done." 

The Governor let him know he took very kindly his proposal of 
going himself or sending some of his discreetest people to find out 
i the Indians who had done the late Mischiefs. He added, that he 
might depend on his Suffering nothing to discourage him from 
bringing the present good Work they were engaged to a good 
issue ; and that this Government would faithfully perform all their 
Engagements, and promote, in every respect, the Good of the In- 
dians. 

Teedyuscung, as he was rising to shake hands with the Governor, 
paused a little and said : 
"Brother: 

"I never did ask a- favour of you before now, and as this is my 
first Request, I desire it may be granted. There is an hearty, 
stout Man, very healthy, and One who looks as if he was fit for 
Business, and such we want; I desire he may be made a Captain 
in Your Army; his Name is James Perry." » 

The Governor said he was sorry Teedyuscung did not apply 
Sooner; All the Captains' Commissions in the Province Service 
were rilled up, but. if he would raise some good men to Serve the 
King, he would give him a Lieutenant's Commission. For whick 
Teedyuscung returned the Governor thanks, and said he would 
talk with him ; he was not of his Acquaintance, but he was taken 
with his Military Appearance. 

The Consideration of the Intelligence respecting the Conestogoe 
Indians was resumed, and a Letter read that was wrote to Mr. 
James Wright, requesting him to sift this Matter, and to invite 
Sewaise, the head Man of the Conestogoes, to bring Will Sock 
and the other Indian to see the Governor; and Mr. Weiser was. 
requested to lay in Town, in order to interprete for the Conestogpa 
Indians. 



116 MINUTES OF THE 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Monday the 8th of May, 

present : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esquire, Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Strettell, Joseph Turner, ") 

William Logan, Richard Peters, V Esquires. 

John Mifflin, Thomas Cadwalader, ) 

The Governor, on Saturday, received an answer from James 
Wright, to his Letter relating to the Conestogoe Indians, which 
was delivered by Sohaise, Will Sock, and a Cayagu Indian called 

The Letter was read and ordered to be entered as. follows : * 
"May it please the Governor : 

" In pursuance of the Direction thou wast pleased to send me, I \ 
went to the Conestogoe Town and delivered the String of Wampum 
and Message. Bill Sock and the Stranger (who is a Cayagu) agreed 
to wait upon the. I gave no Encouragement to any other Indian 
to go; but this Day Chagree and Shahaise came to my House, and 
told me they would take the Journey with their Brothers ; as I be- 
lieve Shahaise to be an honest Man, and a hearty Friend to the 
English, I made no objection.' 

"I have had a good deal* of discourse with these Indians, and 
particularly with Shahaise, who said he would tell me what the 
Stranger and Sock told him; and as well as I could understand his 
broken English it was this, that the Six Nations, with all the Tribes 
in Friendship with them, have had long and general Councils, and 
the result of them was, that they would send some of their Chiefs 
to the French and some to the English, and demand to have Bound- 
aries fixed betwixt each Nation and themselves ) that if the French 
on their part refused to comply with this Demand, they would then 
join their whole Force with the English against them ; and though 
he would not say it, yet it is reasonable to conclude they came to 
the same Resolution in regard to the English. He mentioned the 
Twightwees and some other Nations, and said there were several, of 
which he knew not the J^gmes, who had Entered into this Confeder- 
acy. What I have wrote he repeatedly told me, so that I cannot 
mistake ; as Shahaise has been intimate with me many Years, per- 
haps he may have spoken with more freedom than he would do in 
any other place, or then the others may do. 

" As to any other Intelligence they may be able to give, I can- 
not learn anything at all from them ; neither did I chuse to ques- 
tion them too strictly, for fear of giving them Occasion to think 
themselves suspected, and perhaps preventing them from Comply- 
ing with thy request. As to these Conestogoes selling their Corn, 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 117 

I 

, they have usually done it, when they have more than they want for 
food, to purchase little necessaries; I have heard some time ago 
that a part of their Number designed to leave their Town, and a 

| part of them to stay, which is still their Intention ; but they were 
purposed to go away privately, for about a week ago they gave a String 

1 of Wampum to Thomas McKnee, with a request that he might 
carry it to the Governor, and acquaint him that a Number of them 

! were going towards Shamokin to get some Deer, as they could not 
Hunt with any safety in these parts, were barefoot, and in want of 
Cloathing for themselves and their Families, but that they left their 

' Corn-fields and Cabbins, and should return next Spring; but, not- 
withstanding these assurances, I am of opinion the younger part of 
those who go will not return to settle among us, as indeed their way 

: of living will scarce admit of it, for however kind the Government 

i may be to them, yet Hunting is their Natural Employment, and 

1 that they have not dared to follow for two years past, except about 
my Brother's House and mine. 

" Shahaise, I am perswaded, will never leave this place, at least 
he assures me he will not, and that some others will stay with him j 
i and as for them that go, I really think they do not remove from any 
Dissatisfaction to the English, or evil Designs, but only for the rea- 
■ son they assign, as Thomas McKee tells me they are certainly in 
I want of Cloathing (which I hope the G-overnment will be so good 
1 as to take Notice of). McKee likewise" tells me the Indians had 
desired him to meet them in Philadelphia, if he could, least they 
should not be understood; the Cayagu would not wait till he could 
go with them, but he purposes to be in town in a few Days. 

* The people are so prejudiced against Indians in general that J 
i j thought it necessary to procure a Substantial Man to take care of 
I these down. I heartily wish tJieir Journey may be Satisfactory to 
I thyself and of service to the Publick. 

" And am thy respectful Friend, 

"JAMES WRIGHT. 
" May 4th, 1758." 

The Indians were sent for, and after the usual Salutations the 
j Governor made the following Speech : 

1 " Brethren, and Brother Sohaise : 

" I have been informed that some of our Brethren of the Cones- 

; togoe Town were moving away with their Wives and Families, and 

I selling their Corn and Improvements. As you had not given me 
any notice of this, I was much Concerned to hear it, and therefore 
sent my Brother Sohaise a String of Wampum to invite him here 

1 to see me, that I might hear from him the truth of this story ; and 
if it was so, whether that they were moving from any invitation 
of your Brethren, the Indians, or from any Dissatisfaction with us; 



118 MINUTES OF THE 

and I now desire Yon, by this String of Wampum, to open Your 
Minds freely to me." 

A String of Wampum. 
" Brother: 

" I was also informed that one of your Brothers of the Conestogoe 
Town had been in the Six Nations Country, and was lately returned 
■' from thence, and he brought with him one of our Acquaintance of 
the Six Nations. I therefore desire you will inform me what News 
he has brought from thence, and what passes among our Brethren 
there." 

A String. 

Sohaise consulted with the other Indians, and after a short pause 
return'd an Answer as follows : 
u Brother, the Governor : 

" You say you have sent for me and my Friends to learn from us 
if we were leaving your Town, and if so, whether any offence had 
been given us. 
;l Brother: , 

"We are neither leaving our Town, nor have we taken Offence at 
anything; all that is in it is, that some of our Indians have a mind 
to go on Susquehannah, partly to Hunt and partly to trade, that 
they may provide necessaries for their Families. If the Indians 
had a mind to go quite away from their Brethren, and leave the 
place, it would have been my Duty, and I certainly should have done 
my Duty in giving notice to you of such a Design. But it is not 
so ; and as to myself, were all to go, I would not go with them ; I 
would stay where I am. You were intirely misinformed, depend 
on the Truth of what I say. 
"Brother: 

" Before we set out we held Consultation at ; Thomas 

M'Kee was present; he is expected in Town every moment; when 
he comes I shall speak again, having some things to say to you." 

Chagrea, Will Sock, and the Cayuga Indian, let the Governor 
know, that at the Instances of Conrad Weiser, who was in haste to 
return home, they had told him all the News of what had passed in 
the Indian Country, and that he had put it down in writing, and 
had read it over to them, and they desired it might now be read in 
Council, which was done in these words : 

" Memorandum of the News Will Sock, and a Cayuga Indian 
named Jorachgnison, both lately come from the Six Nation, taken 
the 6th of May, 1758. 

" Will Sock said for certain, that he came from an Indian Village 
called Canowarookary, not far from Canasatagy, the Chief Town of 
the Senecas, where all the Councillers of the Six United Nations 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 119 

Sat, and were deliberating affairs concerning the present War, as 
far as concerned the Indians j that they had Concluded to send Mes- 
sengers to all the Indian Nations living on the Waters of Ohio, 
S u Lawrence, and Susquehannah River, to desire them to desist 
from making Use of their Hatchet, for the future, against the 
English and French, and to send a third Message to the Delawares 
and Shawanese on Ohio, they had sent two before, to lay Down 
their Hatchet immediately, and in case they should refuse, to strike 
them. And that Messengers would be sent to the Governor of 
Canada, and to S r ' William Johnson, not to Employ any Indians for 
the future, in the War, but to decide their quarrels among them- 
selves, or to some such purposes. 

" That a large Visit was intended to Pennsylvania, and many of 
the Chiefs of the Six Nations included, to talk over Matters of 
great Consequence, in their Language called Caligh Wanorum. 

u But it appeared very likely that the Six united Nations would 
not much Longer observe a Neutrality, but take up the Hatchet 
against the French as soon as they could prevail on their Allies, to 
whom they had sent messengers to perswade them to come into their 
Measures. 

"The aforesaid Indian further informed me for a Truth, on which 
might be depended, that some time this Spring news was brought 
to Canasatagy by creditable Indians coming from Ohio to the fol- 
lowing purport, viz" : 

/•'That the French Commander at Fort Du Quesne, on the River 
Ohio, sent Messengers some time last fall to the Indian Nation liv- 
ing on the other side Lake Erie, to invite them to a great Feast which 
he had, or would make for them, at his Fort; That, according to 
that invitation, some of the Chiefs of the Wiontots, Onigh-Cal- 
liackon and the Qisagechroanu, came, and the French Commander 
spake to them to the following purport : 

" l Children, your Father, Onontio, has roasted a Big and flit Bear 
for you; a Bear that has been very mischievous, but at last got 
killed ; and I now desire you to Eat heartily of it,' and so throwed 
down some Belts or Strings of Wampum on the Ground. 

" N. B. — That it is an Old Custom with the Northern Indians to 
throw down the Wampum by which they are desired to take up the 
Hatchet, and those that incline takes up the Wampum, then they 
agreed to comply with the Request. 

"After some pauses the French Commander said: 'Children, 
what I mean by the Big Fat Bear is the united Nations whom 
Onontio has condemned to die, and desire that you, his Children, will 
assist in destroying them.' 

" The Indians were desired to consult and give their Answer 
Seperate — Each Nation Answer for themselves ; which being agreed 
upon, they came in a Body to the Commander with their Answer 
to the following purport : 



120 MINUTES OF THE 

" * Father : (the Wiontots spoke first), I heard and Considered 
well what you said to us about your feast. I won't Eat of it; and 
I will lie with the United Nations. Take your feast to yourself/ 
and therewith kick'd the Wampum with his foot towards the Com- 
mander. 

" After him the Onigh Calliakon answered and said : 
" i Father, we won't Eat of your Roast, it is quite Burned ; your 
Fire was too Hot, and you was Drunk when you kindled it, you 
must Eat the Roast yourself, it stinks ; and therewith he gave the 
"Wampum a harder kick and Kicked it toward the Commander's 
feet. 

"The Third Speaker of the Quisagechroanu made the same 
Answer, with this Addition : 

Ui Father: Since the Time you stop' t our Trade and Corres- 
pondence with the English our Brich Cloth is so much worn that 
we Can't cover our Nakedness no more, and our Women can't cover 
their Thighs, and are ashamed to walk about. We are now grown 
very poor, notwithstanding your great Promises what you would do 
for us Eat Your Roast yourselves ;' and then kicked the Wampum 
with his foot as far as under the Commander's Seat, or before his 
feet. 

" The French Commander after a long pause replied : 

" ' Children : I believe what you said to be true. I have made 
a large fire and burned the roasted burn Meat. I shall take better 
Care the next time. You must take no offence at this spoiled Feast.' 

" These Indians further inform'd me that when they came down 
Susquehannah River they saw 18 Indian Warriors from Ohio about 
the Mouth of the Creek called Shochary, on the West Side of that 
River, with 8 Scalps and Three Live Prisoners, all little Children, 
one of them a girl about 13 or 14 Years of Age ; that the Warriors 
spoke pretty rough to these Indians, and put them in some fear ; 
that about that Place the Enemy Indians crossed Susquehannah 
often, and that the said Company of Indians were all Delawares and 
Shaw;mese. 

" They told me over and over that the Six Nations would never 
join the French, that as soon as they had strengthened themselves, 
and secured the Assistance of their Allies, they would fall upon the 
French. 

"That a Delaware Family that came from Tinogan had settled 
on Susquehannah River between Wyoming and Fort Augusta, and 
moue would soon follow, but would not be Commanded by Teed- 
yuscung who is reported as one that wants to make English Men 
of the Indians and bring them under the English Government, and 
reign over them as his Vassals ; that his way of acting was disa- 
greeable to the Indians about Tiahogan. But because for the Good 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 121 

Work of Peace they suffer themselves to be advised by him. That 
the Indians about Tiahogan are well affected to the English, and no 
danger of Breaking with them again. 

" That Some Time after the Treaty with the said Three Nations 
several sorts of Indians gathered about the Fort in great numbers in 
the Indians Cabins, and the French Commander invited the Old 
Men to come into the Fort, where they accordingly came, and the 
Commander -asked them whether they were a Complete Council. 
Answered Yes. 

",He the Commander said, ' Children, I am Exceedingly glad to 
see you about my Fort, and so many of your Young Men, *vill there- 
fore give them a Drink of Good Wine, which will Signifie the Blood 
of the Six Nations which I desire you will order them to Drink.' 
Whereupon a Barrel of Red Wine was presented and brought forth 
to the Young Men in the Indian Cabins, and the Young Men re- 
joiced at it, and beat out one of the Heads and fell to Drinking. 
After a while the Old Folks came out, and saw them Drinking, told 
them it was given them by the Commander, as the Blood of the Six 
United Nations, at which they all started, and did send their Old 
Men to the Commander back to let him know that the Six Nations 
were the Support and Defendants of all the Indians in North America 
and with them and in their side of the Question they would Die ; 
they thanked their Father Onontio for the Wine. 

l ' This news was confirmed by three Indians of the Wiontots Na- 
tion sent this Spring to the Six Nations Country, in particular to 
Onontago, by the French Commander on Ohio, as spies, to discover 
their Strength, who told to the Onontayers their Errand and what 
they came for and made great complaint of the Dearness of the 
'French Goods, and Mischievous design, and desired the Onontayers 
would erect a Trading House in their Town for the English, And 
they the Wiontots and many others would come and Trade there; in 
particular they wanted a Smith; they put the Onontayers in a way 
how to begin this with safety. They gave a large Belt of Wampum 
by -which they desired an English Trading House at Onondago; 
that the Onondagos had already sent Deputies to Sir William John- 
son to Consult with him about the affair, in order to bring it about 
as soon as possible. 

"CONRAD WEISER. 

" N. B. — That when this was told me by the Indian before named, 
Shahaise, Chagrea, and Seneca George were present, to whom I did 
read it; George understands pretty much of the English Language; 
so does Will Sock; and all said it was right Interpreted." 



122 MINUTES OF THE 

At a Council held at Philadelphia, Friday the 12th of May, 
1758. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esqr., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

William Logan, Richard Peters, Esquires. 

The Indians, Six Nations. 
Conestogos. 
4 Shahaise, 

Will Sock, 

Seneca George, 
Chagrea. 

A Cayuga Indian. 

Thomas McKee, Interpreter. 
" Brother : 

"When the two Indians, Will Sock and the Cayuga, came'to 
Conesgoe, we sent for Thomas McKee and desired him to carry a 
Message to the Governor at Philadelphia; it was to this purpose: 

" We let the Governor know that most of the Indians who now 
live at Conestogoe, intended to remove thence to a place at some 
distance above Shamokin; that where they were at present their 
Women could get no Cloaths, nor their Young Men go a Hunting ; 
it was, therefore, determined that the Women should take some 
Kegs of Liquor with them and sell them for Skins, that would pro- 
cure their Women Cloaths, and the Young Men with their Hunt- 
ing, would supply themselves with Shoes and other necessaries. 
But as they only intended to be absent one Winter, they desired 
the Governor, by Thomas McKee, not to think any thing a miss of 
them, for that they had no bad designs. They said it only was, that 
no Cloaths being given them they were become Naked, and this 
Measure of going above, thinking, for a while, would procure them 
Cloaths and other necessaries ; at the same time let the Governor 
know, that aa a fire was kindled at Conestogoe that had burnt a 
long while, and he was born there and lived there all his life, he 
would not go with the other Indians, but stay and lay his Bones at 
Conestogo; this, he added, was the purport o'f one-half of the 
string. The other half was that the Women left their Houses, 
Hogs, and Cornfields, and desired they might be put under the 
Care of Thomas McKee. They further desired that he might be 
ordered to plant Corn and take care of their Houses and Cattle ; 
for which he should allowed one-half, and the Indians were to have 
the other half." 

Thomas McKee said that this is the String which the Conestogo 
Indians sent by him, and gave the String of Wampum. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 123 

Shabaise proceeded : 
u Brother : 

" When this Speech was delivered to Thomas McKee, we had 
not received the Governor's Message. After Mr. Wright had de- 
livered us your Message, we considered among ourselves, and came 
to a resolution to alter our purpose and stay at Home. Our Women 
not being able to provide themselves with Matchcoats and Mocca- 
sins and other necessaries, was the only reason that induced them 
to go to Shamokin; but now all that was over, and. on what the 
Governor had said to them, by Mr. Wright, they were determined 
to stay." 

A String. 

The Governor made Answer : 
" Shahaise and the other Conestogo Indians : 

" I am very well pleased with the Account you have given of 
your Intention to remove; and much more so, that you altered 
your Fvesolution. 

" The Conestogo Indians may Depend on my protection, and that 
I will supply their Wants, so as not to put them under the neces- 
sity of removing. Shahaise's determination to stay, even if the 
others should had gone, shews his Love towards his Brethren, and 
discovers a -particular Regard. 

"I have directed Mr. James Wright to supply you with Pro- 
visions, from time to time, as usual, and shall also earnestly recom- 
mend it to the Commissioners to send you some necessary Clothing; 
at present, you who are come down shall receive a small Present." 

Shahaise then Complained of Abraham, who had planted Indian 
Corn and sowed Hemp in a Piece of their Ground for Several 
Years, for which he promised to give them every year a Piece of 
Linnen, but had not paid them for Two Years past. He desired 
he might be made to do them Justice. The Governor charged 
Thomas McKee to apply to Abraham, and if he did not im- 
mediately pay them the Arrears to let him know and he would order 
him to be sued and Oblige him to give a Compensation for the Land 
agreeable to his Engagements. 

Chagrea informed the Governor that he was inlisted and had 
served in the Garrison at Fort Augusta, and that there were Six 
months' pay due to him, which he desired might be paid him off. 

The Governor directed the paymaster, Mr. Young, to settle k 
pay off Chagrea, which was done. 



124 MINUTES OF THE 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Thursday the 1st of June, 

present : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esqr., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Strettell, William Logan, ) ™ 

Richard Peters, Thomas Cadwalader, J ^ s( i uires - 

Brigadier General Forbes & Major Halket. 

12 Cherokees, ) T •,. 
a n ? Indians, 

beneca George, ^ 

Wheunclowo, speaker for the Cherokees. 

John Hart, Interpreter. 

A Letter from the Governor of Louisiana was delivered by Captain 
Viviat, Commander of a Flag of Truce that arrived the 26th of May 
from New Orleans, together with a Roll of the Prisoners and the 
Commission for a Flag of Truce, all which was read. 

Yesterday Twelve Cherokees arrived in Town from Winchester, 
conducted by a Son of Seneca George; they brought Passports 
with them from S T - John S f - Clair to the General, and from the 
Officer Commanding at Winchester to the Governor. By these 
Passports it appeared that only four Cherokees were deputed by 
their Nations, and that the rest were at Winchester before he came 
and had joined themselves to them without Knowledge of S r - John' 
S 1 - Clair. 

The General was invited to Council and took his place next to 
the Governor. 

The Governor spoke as follows : 
w Brethren and Warriors of the Cherokee Nation : 

"I bid you welcome in the Name of his Majestie's General and 
myself. If there can be any thing in which we can do you service 
it will give us pleasure if you will be pleased to communicate it." 

A String. 

Wheunclowo made Answer: 
" Brothers : 

" I am not a Chief Man myself, I am deputed by the Chiefs of 
my Nation to travel this Way. I am extremely glad at the good 
reception I have met with from you our Brethren. The Chiefs of 
my Country desired me to attend carefully to all the Speeches that 
should be made to me by you our Brethren, and to remember 
them. 

" Brother : 

"When I passed by last fall, the Secretary who sits there 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 125 

desired me not to go to War, but to be careful, and return with 
such Messages as the Chiefs should send in Answer to what I 
carried to them from the Six Nations and their Brethren. 

" I assure you that the Warriors now present received a Message 
from the King of Great Britain to come to War against the French, 
and on receiving this Message, they have come with minds Exas- 
perated against the French, and wherever they see a 'Frenchman 
they will, knock his Brains out. They are now come so far on the 
Road against the Enemy, and as soon as they arrive in the 
Mohock Country, they will Joyn their Brethren, the Mohocks, and 
Fight with the English against the French^ Some of these now 
present are very good Warriors, they have already killed two of the 
Enemy, two Shawonese." 

A String. 
" Brothers : 

" They were promised Cloathing and all necessaries if they would 
go to War. They now acquaint you that they have received 
nothing at Winchester, and expect to receive what is proper for 
them as Warriors here." 
A String. 

The General ordered the Interpreter to tell the Indians that they 
should be Cloathed, and Provision made for them in their Journey 
whenever they inclined to proceed. 

The Cherokee Deputy replied, that they would stay this Night 
and to-morrow, and go on the next Day after, and all the other 
Indians that were in Town would go with them, which was agreed 
to. 

The Governor acquainted the Council that he had received a 
Letter by the Richard and William, Captain Daily, from the Pro- 
prietors, giving their Assent to his passing a late supply Bill, and 
it" gave the Governor much Satisfaction that the Bill passed was 
agreeable to the minds of the Proprietors. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Monday the 5th of June, 

present : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esqr., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Strettell, Joseph Turner, ^ 

William Logan, Richard Peters, [ ™ 

Benjamin Chew, John Mifflin, f^ S( i mres - 

Thomas Cadwalader, J 

The Governor acquainted the Council, that he had summoned 



126 MINUTES OF THE 

them, at the desire of the General, to Consider of proper Messages, 
to be forthwith sent to the Senecas and to the Susquehannah 
Indians, who were grown dissatisfied, and were for leaving their 
Habitations, especially our Old Friend, Packsinosa, and his Family 
and Friends; That what gave them disgust at present was their 
having heard that the Cherokees were sent for°oy their Brethren, 
the English, 'to cut them all off the Susquehaunah, & that the 
English was going to Settle and Build a $ort at Wyoming. 

This account was brought by Benjamin, a Mohiccon, on the 29th 
of May, to Bethlehem, and being presented to the Governor, and 
by him communicated to the General, he was of Opinion that not a 
moment should be lost, but Messengers should be dispatched forth- 
with, as well into the Tweetwee Seneca Country as to all the 
Nations, those in particular who lived on the Susquehannah, 
inviting them to come here forthwith, and let their Brethren know 
what Means they were finally determined to take. 

The General said he would come to Council and join in the 
Messages, and procure Messengers, as he understood there were 
some in Town to be got, white 5len as well as Indians, would go 
to the Ohio, and into the Indian Country. 

Information of Benjamin, an Indian who came to Bethlehem, May 
the 29th, 1758, Viz'-i 

" Benjamin, a Mahakin Indian, living near Bethlehem, got Words 
from his own Sister, a Widow, with Three Children, living at Ceninga, 
the Nanticokes Town, that he should come up there and fetch her 
to Bethlehem to her Friends here. He accordingly set off here 5 
Weeks ago, and was 12 Days on his Journey thither. From here 
to Wioming he saw no Indians, yet heard some at a little Distance 
from him, but had no mind to shew himself unto them. 

" Near Diahogo he found Old Paxnous, with his Sons, Sons-in- 
Law, and whole Family. Paxnous asked Benjamin whither he was 
going, and on hearing that he would fetch his Sister at Ceninga, 
he told him he would hardly find her there; all the Indians were 
in a great Hurry to remove from the Susquehannah, because they 
had heard the English had very bad Designs against the Indians, 
and those who did not fly from the Susquehannah would all be 
murdered. Benjamin asked Paxnous whither he was going with 
his Family. He answered, to his Land at the Ohio, where he was 
born, and told him many things he had heard against the English, 
in Favour of the French. They had also heard the English would 
settle Wioming under a pretence, it should be for the good of the 
Indians ; but their Intentions were quite the Contrary, they would 
build a Fort there and take the Lands from the Indians; but their 
project would certainly fail them, as there would be Indians enough 
to watch them. Benjamin tried to pacify him, and told him what 
Teedyuscung had made out with the Governor, and all what they 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 127 

intended was out of Love to the Indians, but Paxnous was quite 
Deaf to hear any thing in Favour of the English, and said, they 
pretend well and mean ill, but the 5 Nations think quite otherwise 
than thou. One of the Company replied to Benjamin's words 
about Wioming ; I could never believe it so bad as we have been 
told that it was. Paxnous also told him that he was lately called 
to a great Council |t Onondago, at which it would be determined 
what side they should take, and by that Resolution they would 
then abide, but as he had already resolved to move to Ohio, so he 
was not gone to Onondago. 

" Paxnous and his Eldest Son tried thereupon to perswade Ben- 
jamin to go along with them, but he hastened as much as possible 
to reach Ceningo in fear to miss his Sister. 

"At his arrival there, he heard that none of the Indians would 
plant there this Summer, and that many had moved already nearer 
the French for fear of the English, but when he told them the real 
Intent of the English with Wyoming, and that it was quite Con- 
trary to that what they had heard, they resolved to stay and plant 
again. As long as he staid at Ceninga they had every Day new 
accounts and Stories of the bad Designs the English had against the 
Indians, and many Warriors, Maquas or Mohocks, passed thro' 
there at that Time. Several Nanticokes spoke to some to take away 
their prejudice that they had against the English, but it availed 
nothing; they seined much incessed at it that the English had 
called the Cherokees and Catawbas into their Country merely 
against the Indians, but they would watch them, and it should not 
go well with them. He also was told the Maquas did make very- 
big Eyes; that so many English did go to the Ohio, and they 
would send as many Warriors there as they could spare. 

" When he was about to set off from Ceninga with his Sister, the 
Indians told him it would be impossible for him to reach Fort Allen 
without being intercepted or murdered by the French and their In- 
dians, of which a good many were gone to them parts; but when he 
persisted in his Resolution, his own Brother and another Indian , 
resolved to accompany them, to see them safe to Bethlehem. 

"In coming down the Susquehannah, about 12 Miles above Wio- 
ming, they saw 4 Canoes made of Bark and Two Floats, in which, as 
he thinks, some Indians crossed the River, who would repass it soon 
again, because the Canoes were hid under the Bushes. He saw 
afterwards 3 Indians each leading a Horse without Saddle, not far 
this side the River, and a Woman of his Company, who walked just 
then to cut off an Elbow of the River, met Five More who belonged 
to one Company with the other Three. One of the Five spoke to 
the Woman and told her they had taken no Scalps & hurted nobody, 
but had only stolen some Horses and by the Course, they had come 
from Broaclheads, 



128 MINUTES OF THE 

"They met also a Maqua Indian coming from Shomokin; he 
asked them if they had seen any thing strange upon the Road, and 
when they told him of the Canoes and Floats he said he had also 
seen some Floatages below AYioming; there would soon be Mischief 
done. 

" At Wioming Benjamin did not go to the White People there, 
but met Teedyuscung not far from there, with wiiom he sat down 
and related unto him all what he had heard and seen at Diahoga, 
Ceninga, and on his Way, at which he seemed quite amazed, partic- 
ularly that the Maquas did now act in such a manner, when they 
had given him commission to make Peace and he having sent them 
Word they would come and Build in Wioming, and that there was 
nothing bad in it but all good ; he said he would keep a good look 
out, and if any one did attack one of his Brethren the English, 
him he would attack again; he would go himself to the Five Nations 
and search for the Evil which had possessed them, and if he did find 
that he was not Strong enough to withstand the Evil, he would re- 
tire again to the English, to their Enemies he never would go again. 

"P. S. — A few Indians at Ceninga, told Benjamin they did not 
think that the Maquas or Mohocks were in Earnest to help the 
French on the Ohio, but rather believed it to be a Stratagem to Se- 
duce the French and to get Admittance into the Fort, for the good 
of the English." 

The Above Intelligence being considered, it was the unanimous 
Opinion of the Council, that the Difficulties attending the Governor's 
procuring Persons to go as Spies or Messengers on any Occasion 
would be very great, unless a Sum of Money could be lodged in the 
Governor's hands for that purpose, in which case Mr. Weiser, Mr. 
Logan, or Mr. Peters could, from their long Acquaintance with In- 
dian Affairs, find some other Indians who would undertake the 
Journey, if they were before hand promised a Compensation for 
their Trouble. Whilst the Council was deliberating on Messages 
proper to be sent to the Indians, and on the means of conveying 
them, The General came to the Governor and Conferred with him 
on these matters. After which the Governor acquainted the Coun- 
cil that the General pressed the Messages and would join them. 
Draughts of which being prepared were read and approved, and it 
was likewise agreed that the General should join in them and En- 
deavor to get Messengers to go with them forthwith. 

Mr. Logan and Mr. Peters were appointed a Committee to con- 
fer with the General on the Indian Message and it was recom- 
mended to them to take the assistance of Mr. Weiser. 

The Cherokee Deputy being seized with a Violent Pleurasie, Mr. 
Peters was desired to take all Opportunities of getting from him 
the purport of his Message, least if he died they should be lost. 

Francis Campbell having declined to Accept the Commission of 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 129 

Indian Agent at Fort Augusta, The Commissioners appointed by the 
Act of Assembly to Trate with the Indians, presented the Gov- 
ernor on the 30th of May the nomination and recommendation of 
several Persons, one of which the Governor was to fix upon for an 
Agent at Fort Augusta, and the Governor having advised with the 
Members of Council, Commissionated Nathaniel Holland. 



At a Council, &c a " Thursday, 22d June, 1758. 
The Messages to the Seneca Indians & to Teedyuscung were read 
& ordered to be entered as follows : 

u A Message from the Governor of Pennsylvania to Teedyuscung, and 
the Indians at Wioming. 

" ' Brother Teedyuscung and all our Brethren the Indians settled 
at Wioming, hearken to what your Brother the Governor of Penn- 
sylvania says to you/ 

" A String. 
" ' Brother : 

" * I am informed that the Indians about Diahoga and Osaningo 
are very uneasy with respect to two matters j One, that great Num- 
bers of Cherokees and other Southern Indians, should come so far 
North ; The other that we have assisted you in settling at Wio- 
ming. Now, Brother, in respect to the Cherokees, they came from 
their Country at the Invitation of his Majesty and the Southern 
Provinces, to help the English General in the present Expedition 
against the French, and we can assure you that Notwithstanding the 
reports that have reached your Country, these Indians are not come 
on any evil Design to hurt you, but to help their Brethren, the 
English ' } had it been otherwise, you would have heard from us, for 
we would never suffer them to hurt you/ 

" A String. 
" 'Brother: 

Ui I have the pleasure to assure you that there is now in this City 
a Deputation of Cherokee Indians on their Way with Messages to 
the Six Nations and they have likewise a particular Message to you 
and the Delawares. They tell us all is good News for you and us. 
But the Cherokee entrusted with the Messages is taken sick in this 
Town and cannot yet proceed on his Journey. 

(H As to the other part, respecting the Building of Houses at 
Wioming, you are so well acquainted with our motives and good 
Intentions that you are quite able to answer for this Measure to the 
Six Nations or any other Indians who think amiss of it, and we de- 
sired you will take all possible care to set this matter in a true Light 
everywhere, as it is entirely done at your request and for the good 
VOL. vin. — 9. 



130 MINUTES OF THE 

of your Indians ; And that as soon as we have the opportunity, we 
have been some time past expecting, of seeing and Conversing with 
them, we will fully adjust this Matter both to your and their Satis- 
faction. 

<* ' Brother : 

" ' As a mark of the Confidence we place in you, and as a full 
proof of the good Intentions of the General and Commander-in- 
Chief of the Army of our great King, whom you saw when you 
were last in this City with me, in the Messages that will be delivered 
you along with this, and hopes you will approve of them, and either 
deliver them 'yourself or send them by trusty Persons to Diahoga, 
and order it so that the part which relates to your Brethren on the 
Ohio be sent forward to them by the fittest Persons that can be got, 
and with the utmost speed. If you find we have omitted any thing 
that is necessary, which you are assured will promote the good Work 
of Peace, we desire you will add it. 

" ' Brother : 

" 'As the Road of Correspondence by way of Wioming is open, 
and we arc convinced of your Sincerity in doing us all the Service 
in your Power, we now send you some white Men with those Mes- 
sages, that they may be truly and fully explained to you, and we 
depend on your protecting and seeing them safely conducted thro' 
the Indian Country/ 

"A string. 

<(. ' Brother : 

"'We know that the Senecas are your particular Friends. We 
would therefore have you send this Belt as an invitation to them in 
our Name, that some of their Chief Men may come along with you 
to confer on Various matters relating to the public Good. You may 
assure them that we are determined to fulfill all our Engagements 
and will put into our Pipe some good Tobacco and smoak together, 
and we earnestly press them to come by this Belt, and desire you to 
join another of your own to it to Strengthen our Bequest.' 

" A Large Belt. 
< " Brother : 

" i As I hear there are many Parties of Indians scattered up and 
down in the Woods near Wioming, I desire you will endeavour to 
call them together, and to find out what Errand they are come upon, 
and send one or more of your Indians immediately off to me with 
the Accounts, and he shall be satisfied for his Trouble. 

" < Brother : 

" * I desire you will inquire of the Indians at Diahogo what is 
become of Essaway-wolling (Daniel) and the Belts that were sent 
by him into the Indian Country, as you may remember we particu- 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 131 

larly, by one Belt, invited the Senecas down here; having heard 
nothing from him, we are afraid those Messages are lost. 



a ( 



Brother 



" ( It may not be in our power to restrain the Cherokee parties 
when out of our Sight, from going beyond the Limits assigned 
them, as some of the Young Warriors are rash and headstrong. 

" ' I desire, therefore, you will caution our Friendly Indians of 
this ; and press them to keep on this side of the Susquehannah, if 
they come Lower than Fort Augusta, and not to go over the West 
Branch of Susquehannah/ " 



a A Message from the Governor of Pennsylvania and the General 
and Commander-in- Chief of his Majesty's Forces destined to the 
Westward, to the Susquehannah Indians. 

" ( Brethren : 

" ' You who live on and near Susquehannah, and all those who 
incline to live in Peace with the English, and are willing to pro- 
mote and strengthen the peace among the other Indians, hearken to 
this Message, which we are going to deliver to you in behalf of the 
Governor of Pennsylvania and the General and Commander-in-Chief 
of His Majesty's Army in these Parts.' 

"A String. 
iC ( Brethren : 

" ' You know how cruelly the French on the Ohio, and the In- 
dians under their influence, have murdered the King of Great Britain's 
Subjects and Children, in the Provinces of Virginia, Maryland, and 
Pennsylvania, which has iAduced His Majesty to send a great Num- 
ber of Troops to chastise the Children of the French King and their 
Indians. The Southern Indians, out of regard to the King of Great 
Britain, and at the Request of the Southern Provinces, are Come to 
help us and revenge the Blood of the English spilt by the French 
and their Indians. 

" < Brethren : 

u ' Out of Brotherly Love to you our Friends, we have sent this 
Belt on purpose to acquaint you with our Proceedings, and desire 
you would send privately to your Friends and Relations at Ohio, to, 
come away to your Towns and there sit still. If they will do so we 
will take care that neither they nor you shall be hurt; we should be 
sorry that any of those who have an inclination to come home to. 
their Native Country, and live in Peace with us, should suffer; and 
therefore as these Southern Indians who are now with the King's 
Army are very numerous and exasperated against the French and 



132 MINUTES OF THE 

their Assistants, we send you thi3 Belt and earnestly press yon to 
come away/ 

" Here give a White Belt, wone that has Little Black in it. 
' t Brethren : 

" ' You know a great deal of Pains has been taken by this Gov- 
ernment and some of your Nations, in order to dispel the Clouds 
that arose from the North and darkened our Country. We some- 
times thought that they were entirely Dispelled, but we find here 
and there a Cloud, and we do not as yet see clearly one another's 
Faces. We therefore invite you to come down to us as quickly as 
you possibly can, and you will find us willing to talk over every 
thing, and clear up the Sky intirely that all darkness and Clouds 
may be dispelled.' 

" A String of Wampum of Seven or Eight Rows." 

The Governor informed the Council that the Messages were sent 
by Frederick Post, one of the Brethren of Bethlehem, a German 
who had resided in the Indian Country for some Years before the 
War, was well acquainted with the Susquehannah Indians and talked 
the Delaware Language ; that he was fortunately in Town, when it 
was under Consideration by whom to send the Messages, and kindly 
offered his Service to carry them, which was accepted j and Mr. 
Charles Thompson offering likewise to go with Frederick Post, it 
was agreed to, and a set of Instructions given them which were 
read. 

These Messengers set out directly and went as far as the Nesko- 
pekan Hills, where meeting with some Indians coming to Bethlehem 
they were informed of several Parties of Enemy Indians skulking 
up and down in the Woods; were advised to proceed no farther, but 
to send for Teedyuscung and deliver him the Messages there, which 
was accordingly done, and they returned without going further. 
On the 16th Instant they made a report to the Governor of their 
Journey, and deliverd the Minutes of the Conference between them 
and Teedyuscung, which were read and ordered to be entered as 
follows : 

" At a Conference held on the East Side of the Nescopekun 
Mountains, about 14 or 15 Miles from Wioming, Monday, June 
12th, 1758, between Charles Thompson, Frederick Post, Messen- 
gers from the Government of Pennsylvania, and Teedyuscung, King 
of the Delawares. 

" At which were present : 

u Tepiscahung, Memenwoot, or Cap'- Augustus, Mampoohalind, or 
David, Pemelaweghink, or Samuel Evans, Alamercchum, or Jona- 
than, Nalananguenund, or Paulus, & Hanas, Delawares; Kulpoowa, 
Welawamick, or Moses, Gootamek, or Moses, Jun r -> Queasekomen, 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 133 

or Adolph, and Akowan, Mohicons"; Kelkapugh, or Isaac, a Captain 
of the Munseys, Moses Tetainy, Isaac Still, Interpreter. 

" After Charles Thompson and Frederick Post had delivered 
the Messages from the Government, Teedyuscung took a String 
and said : 

a l Brother, the Governor : 

"'I am glad to see your Messengers in the Woods, and am glad 
to hear and receive such great and good Words here in the wild 
Bushes. 

" ' You may remember, Brother, I have often told you we have 
one Ear which has two openings j One comes out here, the other 
where you Live j when I hear of anything you shall hear it ; this 
makes me tell your Messengers to go back from this place, and not 
to go forward. 

Ui Brother, the Governor: what makes me not invite your Mes- 
sengers to my House, is that I don't yet know the Design of these 
Indians that lie squatting in the Bush j and if any ill should befall 
these Messengers, that might darken the Heavens and make great 
Clouds between us. 

« e Brother : 

" { I often told you, when we first began to make Peace, nor did 
I speak from the Lips, but from the Heart, that every thing should 
be published, and the Peace between us made known ; and that if 
any body gave you a Blow not to impute it to me. 

" ' Now Brother, when I live here I am very uneasy, even at 
Night I cannot enjoy rest; I see a great deal of Mischief done, and 
some who have done the Mischief came past my Door ; now I am 
afraid if your People follow them, and comes as far as where I live 
and find me, they will think it was I did it, and so fall upon me.' 

"4 Strings. 
u * Brother, the Governor : 

" ' The Indians have sent to see what was doing at Wioming, and 
they have sent me word that a great Number will be with me in 
Eleven Days, and many of those all this Summer, all the Wanamis 
and Mohiccons, and many others having resolved to come and live 
with me. 

" ( Now, Brother, I desire to know what I shall do, I have no 
Provisions for them. I beg you would help me, and if you will 
give me any assistance of that sort, I desire I may have it from 
Shamokin, not from Fort Allen j my Young Men can soon go down 
the river in Canoes and fetch it from Shamokin, but the to 
Fort Allen is very Difficult. I desire I may have some Indian 
€orn with the Flour. I am likewise in want of Powder and Shot, 
and beg you would send me some. 



134 MINUTES OF THE 

" ' Brother, the Governor : 

" ' I would chearfully go with your Messages, which arc good, 
but I every day expect Messages from different Parts: however, I 
will send by some trusty Persons, and I assure you the Sonecas' 
Belt shall be delivered to the Chief Man in Eight Days. I have 
already sent a Belt to the Senecas, and every Day expect an A .nswer. 
We must have a Treaty this Summer ; Of the Six Nations I can 
now promise ; the Onondagos will come ; of the rest I c :ai say 
nothing till the return of the Messengers/ 

"3 Strings. 

" As the Messengers were preparing to set out, Teedyuscung came to 
them, and asked whether Mr. Hughes had delivered to the Governor 
the French Colours which he (Teedyuscung) had taken from Will Sock. 
They told him they did not know. He then desired them to ask the 
Governor whether he had received them, and whether he had given 
Will Sock those Colours, or whether he kept two sorts of Odours. 
If, said he, the Governor has two sorts of Colours, and gives one 
sort to one Indian and another to another, that will bleed con- 
fusion.^ 

On the 2d Instant Mr. Hughs and Mr. Pawling return e I from 
Building the Houses at Wioming, and on the 7th Mr. ] iughes 
waited on the Governor, and presented him the Report of their 
Proceedings, which was read in these Words : 

" Sir : 

" On the 15th of May I proceeded, agreeable to your Honour's 
Request, to Build and Plant for the Indians at Wioming; and at 
Bethlehem I met my Companion, Mr. Pawling, and the next day 
we march'd with between Fifty and Sixty Carpenters, Masons and 
Labourers, and after a very Fatigueing Journey, arrived at V ioming 
on the 22d, and the next Bay we put the Hands to Work. Bi; t as the 
Battoes did not arrive from Fort Augusta at the Time appointed, we 
were brought to very short allowance in Provisions, k&- Im od, for 
Several Days we had no Bread at all, which created a good (leal of 
Uneasiness amongst the Men. But, however, we kept the B isiness 
going forward as well as we could, until the 27th, when Joseph roker, 
one of our Masons, was kilPd and Scalped by Six of the Ihiemy 
Indians ; this misfortune made our People very uneasy. Bi t how- 
ever, the Battoes arrived next day with Provisions, which e cabled 
us to carry on the Work untill we finished Ten Houses, mosfcty 20 
feet by 14 in the Clear, And one of them 24 by 16 of pared 
Logs, and Dovetail'd. We also plow'd some Ground for I cm to 
plant in^ and we Split some Rails to Fence it; After whi* i they 
thought it proper to let us. know that as it was late in the -eason, 
and the Grass grown very high, So that the Ground wheu plow'd 
was not fit for Planting, but in a few Places, such as Old Toy ns and 
the Like, we might return untill a more favourable Oppc^ iunity ; 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. . 135 

which we complied with on Friday the 2nd of June, and got Safe 
home Tuesday Evening following. 

"I send you a French Flag which Teedyuscung took from 
Will Sock and his Companions. They came up to us as Friends, 
altho' I now understand they murdered Chagrea and the Dutch 
Man in Lancaster County, but we knew nothing of that, and there- 
fore treated them as Friends, and Teedyuscung gave them an Eng- 
lish Flag. 

u I am, Sir, your Hm 1, Serv*-' 

"JO H - HUGHES. 
" Phil*-' June 7th, 1758." 

Mr. Peters laid before the Governor and Council the Interpreta- 
tion of the Message which the Cherokee has to deliver to Teedyus- 
cung, in Answer to one given by Teedyuscung to the Cherokee, as 
he was returning from the Six Nations to Kiowies last fall • he had 
another Belt from the Cherokee Town to the United Body of the 
Six Nations. Mr. Peters added that the Interpretation was taken 
while the Cherokee was in his perfect Senses, by Hart, the Inter- 
preter, who subscribed to the Truth of it. It was read and order- 
ed to be entered. 

41 A Message from Techtama and Homiohyowa, or the Wolf King, 
the Two Chiefs of the Cherohees, to the Delaivares, as it was 
delivered by Lowe, the Messenger, at Philadelphia , to Mr, 
Peters and Israel Pemberton } June 20th, 1758,* 

u John Hart, Interpreter. 
*.' ( Nephews : 

u • We some time ago received a Belt from you at which we were 
glad, and are exceeding desirous to hear again from you. 

" ' Before this Belt came we had not heard from you a long time, 
and would be glad to hear oftener, and promote a good understand- 
ing with you. 

" l Nephews : 

u ' We should be glad yon would come to our Town to see us, 
It is a great while since we saw you. The King of this Town called 
the Wolf, in particular, will be glad to see you. 

" ' We have to acquaint you that we have received a Tomhawk 
from our Elder Brother, the English, and are going along with 
them to the war against the French, and the Indians that are his 
Allies. 

"<Wq are going to war along with our Brothers, the English, 
but, as for you, you need not be uneasy or apprehensive of our doing 
you any mischief, for we love you as ourselves from the Heart, and 
will not hurt you, for we look upon you as ourselves. 



136 MINUTES OF THE 

" ' Nephews : 

" ' Our Eldest Brothers, the Six Nations, have likewise given us 
a Tomhawk and desired us to join with our Elder Brothers, the 
English. But we desire you would be under no apprehensions, for 
we do not intend to hurt you, our Nephews, at all. 

" ' Nephews : 

" ! Listen to us. We do not desire you should go to War at all, 
Formerly you used to Wear a petticoat, and did not use to go to- 
War, and we do not now desire you to go to War j you may stay at 
Home and we will fight for you ; we are resolved to go to war along 
with our Brothers, the English, that you need not go to War. 

" < Nephews : 

teH We are sorry there should have been a kind of Shyness 
between us and you for a good While past, we earnestly desire we 
may make a firm and lasting Peace. We suppose other Indians 
may envy our Peace, Friendship and good Understanding, and tell 
strange Stories, but we desire you, our Nephews, may not give 
Credit to such. When we speak to you we shall send you Belts, 
and unless you receive Belts from us, we desire you would take no 
Notice of the idle Reports you may hear. But when we send you 
our Belts we desire you then may regard what we send. 

" ' Nephews : 

" ' We earnestly request that you would come and see us the 
Ensuing Spring, at some of our Towns, that we may have the 
Opportunity of conversing more freely than we can at this Distance 
from each other. 
u ' Nephews : 

" ( We desire you to tell your Women to be industrious & plant 
Corn, for they may do it safely, that they may have Enough for 
themselves when you come to see us, and Provisions for your 
Journey. 

Ul Nephews: 

" ' We, your uncles, the Cherokees, have a real Love and Regard 
for our Elder Brothers, the English, and we hope and desire you 
may have the same Love for them that we have. It is out of our 
particular Love and regard for them that we join in the War with 
them. We have already demonstrated our affection for our Elder 
Brothers, the English, by killing 20 Frenchmen, 12 Tawas, and 2 
Shawanese. 
" ' Nephews : 

11 ' We, the Chiefs of the Cherokees, will wait and smoke our pipe 
in expectation of our Nephews coming to see us. We will en- 
deavour to keep the Road clear for our Nephews, the Lenopis, to 
pass, and we hope you will come, and we shall be glad to see you. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 137 

" f Nephews : 

" ' You know or can have a clear guess how many of your Coun- 
try People are Leiving on the Ohio among the French. We earnestly 
desire you would endeavour to bring them away, for the Tomhawk 
we have received from our Elder Brother, the English, is exceeding 
Sharp. It is a good Tomhawk; we are afraid we shall kill some of 

your in a Mistake, which we shall be very loath to do. For 

which reason we desire you to bring them away if possible, that so 
they may join with the English. Why do your People stay there 
to help the French when they get nothing from the French ? They 
should come and settle with you and leave the French. We again 
request you to bring away the Lenopis and leave none there but the 
Shawonese and Tawas. Let them remain there. They are in Al- 
liance with the French, and are firm friends of the French. As 
for our Parts, we have had War Time out of Mind with the Tawas, 
and intend to continue the War with them and the Shawanese on 
the Ohio. Why do your people Continue with the French who 
give them nothing ? 

'' t Nephews : 

" ' We hope when you come to our Towns in the Spring to see us ; 
you will bring us the good News that you have removed your Breth- 
ren from the French and Shawanese and Tawas> the friends of the 
French on the Ohio. We shall smoke our pipe and wait impatiently 
for this good News, and Endeavour to keep, the Road clear 'till you 
come/ 

" Here delivered the Belt. 

" Being asked to whom he would have the Belt delivered, he said 
to the Chief of the Delawares. Being asked his name, he said he 
did not know ; but desired to be informed who it was that sent a 
Belt last Fall to the Cherokees, and being told by Mr. Peters that 
it was Teedyuscung, he desired this Belt might be sent to him, and- 
as soon as it could. 

" He likewise desired that the Chief of the Delawares might be* 
informed that as he had another Belt for the Six Nations he in- 
tended as soon as he was recovered to go with that by water Via 
New York. And as he cannot go with this Belt to the Lenopi he 
hopes what he now sends will be satisfactory. 

" The above is a true Interpretation. 

"JOHN HART." 

The Message to Teedyuscung from the Cherokees being Judged 
to be of very great Importance, and what would be of good Service 
at this Time to remove the wrong Notions entertained of the Chero- 
kees by the Susquehannah Indians ; Frederick Post was employed 



138 MINUTES OF THE 

to go with it to Teedyuscung, The Governor writing the following 
Letter to Post by way of Instructions : 

" Philadelphia, June 20th, 1758. 
"Sir: 

"The Cherokee Messenger recovering of his Indisposition, I 
caused him to be examined as to the Belt he has to deliver to the 
Delawares, and I inclose you a Copy of the Interpretation, which 
as you know was taken in the presence of Mr. Peters and Israel 
Pemberton. 

" The Cherokee gave the Belt, desiring it might be sent to Teedy- 
uscung, and as it is of so important a Concern, I earnestly desire 
you would take the Charge of it and deliver it yourself to him at 
Wioming, or if upon your arrival at Fort Allen you shall find it not 
Safe to go farther, you may employ one or more trusty Indian to 
carry it, taking care that they thoroughly understand the full Sense 
of it. 

"Please to let Teedyuscung know that the Cherokee is oblig'd to 
go to the Six Nations by Way of New York as soon as he is well. 

" I thank Mr. Thompson and you for your Diligence and Care in 
the Execution of the Trust reposed in you, and for your full and 
Satisfactory Account of your Proceedings. 

" You will be .pleas'd to return my Thanks to Teedyuscung for 
the Assurances he gave of sending forward the Messages. His 
Continuance at Wioming is of great Service. His uneasiness at 
the Mischief done shows a sincere affection, and his giving us from 
time to time information of the Motions of the Enemy Indians is 
a farther Confirmation of it. I shall make known the Steps taking 
by him to bring about a Peace, and hope that none will hurt him in 
reverse for what others do, or at least I will try my Endeavours to 
prevent it. 

" Orders are sent to Shamokin, and you have Duplicates of them 
to send by Way of Wioming, that a Supply of Provisions be 
delivered to Teedyuscung' s Messengers, and a further Order shall 
be sent to give them a proper Quantity of Powder and Lead.. 

" No Flag was given by me to Will Sock, the one got by Teedy- 
uscung is not an English one. The General has made, as he tells 
me, an alteration in the Fly, and if one of the New Flags can be 
got here, it shall be delivered to you now, if not, one shall be sent 
as soon as possible. 

"By a mere accident, the Indian Store at Augusta is Shut; the 

Agent, on the passing of , oblig'd to come to this City. 

But he shall be sent to Augusta again in a very short time, & 
Goods will be sold as before ; of this you make mention, if you 
think it necessary, or if any Notice be taken of it to you. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 139 

" I wish you a good Journey, and desire you will apply to the 
Commissioners for your Expence. 

" I am, S r -' your most Humble Servant, 

" WILLIAM DENNY. 
" To Mr. Frederick Post." 

Captain Hewet, the Commander of a French Vessel that was 
taken in the Bay by the Privateer Spry, made complaint to the 
Governor that "he was unlawfully taken, being in Commission as a 
Flag of Truce to carry some English Prisoners, about Twenty, to 
New York, and that he put into Delaware Bay by Stress of 
Weather, or for want of Provisions, and prayed the Governor 
would discharge the Ship, and suffer him to proceed to New York. 
The Captain being sick sent his first Lieutenant with a Letter, 
under seal, directed to Governor Delancey, which he said was from 
the Governor of Cape Francois. The Governor returned the Letter, 
declaring he had nothing to do with it, on which the Lieutenant 
broke it open and read it. Its purport was, that Captain Huet was 
sent as a Flag of Truce with Twenty Prisoners. But it appearing, 
on Examination, that the Captain had broke bulk, and had sent up 
here great Quantities of Sugar and other valuable commodities, and 
was on a Trading Scheme, The Governor dismissed the Petitioner, 
and left him to the decision of the Court of Admiralty whether he 
was or was not a lawful Prize. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Wednesday the 5th of July, 

PRESENT 1 

The Honourable W T ILLIAM DENNY, Esqr., Lieutenant Governor. 
Robert Strettell, Richard Peters, ) -™ 

Lynford Lardner, Thomas Cadwalader, ^ * 

A Letter of the 22d June, from Governor Bernard to the Gov- 
ernor, was read in these Words : 

" Sir : 

"I take the first Opportunity upon my arrival into the Western 
parts of New Jersey, to inform your Honour that I have pur- 
suant to his Majesty's Commission, taken upon me the Government 
of New Jersey, and shall be glad to receive your Honour's Com- 
mands for his Majesty's Service. 

" I have had the mortification immediately upon my arrival to 
have advice of an incursion made upon our Province, attended as 
usual by great ^Barbarities, by Indians who are suspected to be of 
those who made a peace with your Honour's Province. I have for 
the present taken Measures to put a Stop to these disorders. I shall, 



140 MINUTES OF THE 

in the next place, endeavor to prevent them for the future, by meana 
of Peace, in which I shall be glad to be assisted by your Honour, 
If these fail, I shall immediately endeavor to pursue our Enemies 
into the Heart of their own Settlements. I think- it would be of 
use for these two Provinces to act in Concert on this Occasion, and 

shall do all that I can to make such a of good effect. 

u I had the pleasure to spend some agreeable Hours with your 
Honour at Colonel Robinson's, when I believed neither of us im- 
agined that we should so soon be neighbours in this part of the 
World. I hope we shall cultivate this advantage with mutual 
pleasure. 

" I proceed to Burlington to Night, and am, S r,) your Honour's 
most 

" Obedient Hum. Servant, 

« FRA. BERNARD. 

" Trenton, June 22d, 1758. 

" P. S. — I hope to stay at Burlington all to-morrow." 

On receiving this Letter, the Governor had a Consultation with 
the General, in which it was thought proper to invite Mr. Bernard 
to a Conference on Indian Affairs, whereupon, he returned by Gov- 
ernor Bernard's Express, an Answer to his Letter. 

Whilst the Governor was writing the Letter he received Intelli- 
gence from Captain Busse, and from Captain Read, that there were 
several parties of Enemy Indians on the Frontiers of Berks County, 
that on the 13th, they had taken and carried away the wife of John 
Franks with Three Children, 6 Miles from Fort Henry, and like- 
wise had killed the Son of Jacob Snabelee, who was found scalped, 
with 6 Shot in his Body. 

Justice Read writes that on the 18 th of June, Bernard Long was 
killed riding along the Waggon Road, about a Mile from his House. 
On this Intelligence the Governor added a postscript to Governor 
Bernard's Letter by the advice of the General. 

In Consequence of this Letter, Governor Bernard came to Town 
next morning at 11 o'clock. The Indian Papers containing all 
Indian Transactions since the Commencement of the War were laid 
before him, and Copies given him of all the Transactions, and in 
the Conferences held between the General and the two Governors, 
it was agreed that Mr. Bernard should recommend it to the Com- 
missioners for Indian affairs, who waited for his return, to con- 
sent that he should send a Message to the Minisinks and Pump- 
ton Indians, inviting them to come to Burlington, and promising 
to redress injuries if any they had. The next Day Governor Ber- 
nard returned home, and on the 26th of June, passports were made 
out, at the request of Governor Bernard, to Moses Tetamy and 
Isaac Still, the Messengers employed to carry to the Minisink In- 
dians Governor Bernard's Invitation. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 141 

The Sick Cherokee being recovered, he proceeded to Sir William 
Johnson, having first given to the Secretary the Interpretation of 
the Belt which he was carrying to the Six Nations j which was read, 
and Likewise the Letter wrote by the Governor to Sir William 
Johnson, along with the Cherokees. 

The Governor having received a Letter from General Abercom- 
bie, inclosing the Declaration of the Setting aside the Capitulation 
made at the surrender of Fort William Henry, the same was read 
and ordered to be entered : 

M General Order from Major General Abercombie, declaring the 
Capitulation of Fort 'William Henry to he void : 

« Fort Edward, June 25th, 1758. 

" The Enemy having become Masters of Fort William Henry, 
by virtue of a Capitulation made upon the 9 th of August last • 
which Capitulation they immediately broke, in a most Notorious 
and flagrant manner, by murdering, Pillaging, & Captivating many 
of his Majesty's good Subjects, in Violation of the said Capitulation, 
as well as of the Laws of Nations. Upon these Considerations, and 
in Honour and Justice to his Majesty's Arms, Major General Aber- 
combie hereby declares the said Capitulation to be null and Void ; 
and that all Officers and Soldiers serving the 9th of August last, 
at Fort William Henry, are hereby empowered, and Commanded 
to serve in the Same manner as if no such Capitulation had ever 
been made, All which Major General Abercrombie has notified to 
the Governor General of Canada, signifying to him at the same time, 
that if any of His Majesty's Subjects supposed to be Comprehended 
in the said Capitulation, may fall into the Enemy's hands, and Vio- 
lence follows thereupon, that he will retaliate on the Persons of the 
French Prisoners now in his hands, as well as on all such as shall 
be taken hereafter by Sea or Land. 

" The above to be published at the Head of every Corps in his 
Majesty's Service in North America." 



Extract of a Letter from his Excellency Major- General jibercrom- 
bia, Commander-in-Chief of all his Majesty's Forces in North 
America. 

" To his Excellency the Marquis de Vaudrevil, Governor- General 

of Canada, bearing date at Fort Edward, June 26th, 1758 ; 
"Sir: 

"I have the Honour of your Excellency's Letter of the 4th of 
June, with Sundry Enclosures in relation to the Capitulation of 
Fort William Henry made the 9th of August last. Without en- 
tering into a Discussion of Particulars, Give me leave to acquaint 



142 MINUTES OF THE 

Your Excellency that a Breach of that Capitulation of the part of 
the Forces of the King, your Master, immediately after the Sur- 
render of that Fortress was so notorious, Contrary to the good Faith 
which subsists amongst all Nations, that in Honour and Justice to 
the King, my master, who has entrusted me with the Command of 
his Troops in North America, I think myself obliged to look upon 
that Capitulation as Null and Void, which I have signified to all 
his Majesty's Governors and Commanders by Sea and Land in North 
America. . 

" I perswade myself that upon due Consideration your Excel- 
lency will be convinced of the Justice of my Proceedings in respect 
to the Capitulation, and that nothing can induce you so far to lay 
aside Humanity as to offer the least Violence on the Person of any 
of His Majesty's Subjects, Civil or Military, Comprehended in that 
Capitulation, that may unfortunately fall into your hands, as I must 
myself be obliged as well as all his Majesty's other Commanders 
both by Sea and Land to make Retaliation on all subjects of his 
most Christian Majesty that are now prisoners amongst us or who 
may hereafter fall into our hands. 

" Allow me further to acquaint your Excellency that I am de- 
termined to carry on the War with all possible Humanity, agreeable 
to the Intentions of the King, my Master, and Nothing shall en- 
gage me to pursue contrary [Measures but a failure in that respect 
on the part of the Troops of the King, your Master." 

A Complaint being made by Reily, the Constable of Uwchland 
Township, Chester county, against Justice Lightfoot, for discourag- 
ing him in the Execution of his Office, in the impressing Horses for 
the King's Service, and making him pay an Exorbitant Price for 
the pressing of a Saddle, And this day being appointed for the 
Hearing, the Parties who attended were called in and after a full 
Examination, it not appearing that Justice Lightfoot was much to 
blame, he was dismissed without Censure. 

Frederick Post returned last Night from Wioming, and made a 
report to the Governor in Writing, of his Journey, which was read 
and ordered to be entered as follows : 

" Journal of Frederick Post's Journey from Philadelphia to Wio- 
miiiy, June the 20th, 1758. 

" The 20th. Received an Order and Message from his Honour 
the Governor to Teedyuscung at Wioming. 

"21st. Set out from Philadelphia. When I was come within 
12 Miles of Bethlehem, met with a Violent Gust of Thunder and 
Rain, which obliged me to stay there that Night. 

"22d. Came to Bethlehem. I met with the same Company of 
Indians which accompanied Mr. Thomson and me from Wioming. 
I enquired of them when they intended to return there ; they told 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 143 

me in Three or Four Day's Time. I enformed them that I had a 
message from the Governor and Cherokee Indians to Teedyuscung, 
and desired them to accompany me, to which they agreed. 

" 23d. Set off from Bethlehem, and met with Lieutenant Pe- 
terson with a scouting party from Allimingle, who informed us that 
Levan's Servant had been fired at by seven Indians, near the place 
we must pass by, and painted the Danger of our Undertaking in 
very frightful Colours. My Company being tired, we put up Five 
miles this Side of Fort Allen. 

"24th. We came to the Fort; they told us the same Story, on 
which my Company concluded to stay there that Day, and to set off 
early next morning. Farther they told me, l Brother, we assure you 
that it will not be long befor the War be quite over. For there are 
"but few whom the Devil rides that can't be easy;' that the others 
often made hard Complaints against them, to bring them to Reason. 

" 25th. Sunday we crossed Nishewatshowall, the other Side 1 of 
Meskonekek Creek, and came that Day 4 Miles the other Side of 
Quackkek. The Indians killed a Bear about a Gun Shot off from 
our Lodgings. 

"26th. Near Taquchsekkachkawad our People Shot a Deer, 
divided it into pieces, to every Man his portion, and after dining here 
we went over Moshowatshong and Neskopekok River. From here 
onward my Companions would not have me go foremost. We lodged 
that Night on a Hill. There was a Violent Gust of Rain, and we had 
no other Cover over us but the Heavens, and all that fell from 
thence came upon us. 

" 27th. We made a great fire, and dried our Cloaths, &c a - My 
Companions desired of me to know the Contents of my Message 
before we came to the Town. I acquainted them with it, and they 
seemed well Satisfied. 

" About 2 o'Clock we came to Town. My Indians called out, on 
which there started out a great Number of Indians out of the 
Houses, many with painted Faces, and upwards of 40 Strangers, of 
Different Tribes, some of whom I knew. I observed that they are 
upon their Guard, and have Scouts out. We went to Teedyuscung' s 
House, which was as full as it could hold. He told me that some 
of their People were gone to Shamokin a little before our arrival. 

" I met there a Captive Woman, Cobus Decker's Daughter, from 
the Jersey, near Minnisink, and an Indian Trader, Lawrence Bork, 
of Lancaster County, who has been with them the whole Time of 
the War. When we had been a while there, Teedyuscung called 
the Men together. First I told them, in general, the intents of my 
coming, and told Teedyuscung my Instructions, and gave him the 
Governor's Answer, with a String of Wampum, with which they 
all seemed well pleased. I then read to them the Cherekees' 
Speech, and repeated it Three Times, that they might get the full 



144 MINUTES OF THE 

meaning of it. Augustus interpreted it, and they were well pleased, 
and Satisfied, and very, very attentive to the Words which they had 
heard, and returned many Thanks for the same. Then delivered 
the Belt. Then Teedyuscung shewed me Two Chiefs and several 
other Indians from Allegheny, who purposed to go down to Phila- 
delphia, but the idle Reports which they had all along heard had 
made them suspicious and afraid. I told them that I was glad to 
see them, and as I had been twice married amongst them, I had a 
great Love towards their Nation, and would speak very free with 
them, and they might believe me. 

" After we had discoursed a while together they shook Hands 
with me, and told me, 'Brother : we are very glad to see you, and 
have long time wished to see some of the Inhabitants of Pennsylva- 
nia with whom we could speak ourselves, For we cannot believe all 
that we hear, and know not what is true and what is false/ Then 
the rest of the People, Women and Children came to see me, and 
welcomed me to their Town. But, unhappily, a. Woman had brought 
5 Gallons of Rum of Some Body (I did not know his name but 
supposed he was a Jew) in Easton with which most of them got 
drunk, Two Beat their Wives almost to Death, And I know that 
those who suffer such abuse must Sigh and groan to God against 
those who sell them the Liquor. 

" 28th. The Indians from Allegheny came early to Visit me, in- 
vited me to their fire, and to breakfast with them on Bear's meat 
and Turkey. 

"At Breakfast they asked me many Questions, which I gave 
them a true Answer to. They said that the Indians, thro' the many 
idle reports they had heard from time to time, were grown jealous 
of the English, and could not believe that they would make Peace 
with them, and hence were resolved to stay with the French. That 
they were sorry that they had gone to War against the English, and 
wished often to have seen some Messengers from the Government 
with whom they could have spoken, for then they had long left off 
the War against them. 

" They complained strongly that they never had heard any Satis- 
factory Account of the Peace made at Easton, nor any Treaties that 
had been held, nor received any Belts 'till now lately. They all 
passed by the Mohocks but did not go into any of their Towns. I 
assured them the English were not in fault, for they had often sent 
the Messages, Belts and Invitations to them that they might come 
down and speak together. 

" Kutaikund, one of their Chiefs, who lives this side the Alle- 
gheny, said that he was very Old, but those two who are just now 
come from the Allegheny (pointing to Kikiguskund and Pisqueton) 
wish to know the truth of affairs ; then Lifting up his Hands to 
Heaven, wished that God would have Mercy upon them and help 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 145 

them ancl bring them and the English together again, and establish 
an everlasting Ground and Foundation for Peace between them. He 
wished further that God would move the Governor and People's 
Hearts towards them in Love, Peace and Union. For he hoped 
without fail that a firm and Everlasting Peace would be established,, 
and an end put to all the War and Strife. He said further, that it 
would be well if the Governor sent somebody with them at their re- 
turn Home, for it would be of great consequence to them, who live 
above Allegheny, to hear the Governor's mind from their own 
Mouths. The above mentioned Chiefs told that at the French Fort 
at Ohio there were 1,100 French Soldiers, but almost starved with 
Hunger ; had not the Mohocks helped them, the most of them must 
have left the place. 

" Their Provisions they got from the Mississippi, which was but 
very little. They told the Indians— ' Children : the English have 
almost beat me. I have nothing to live on ; But for all we are 
Men, and will hunt ; if we can get nothing else we will live on 
Meat as long as we can. If the English come too strong upon me 
I will Leave the Place. I am but weak, and I should loose a great 
Many Men/ I enquired about the Indians that fell on the Mini- 
sinks, and was informed that three Parties were returned back ; 
One Party had two Wounded, and the other had each of them lost 
one. 

"29th. We set off from Wioming, in all about 50, and came that 
Day about 20 Miles, and Slept in the Open Air that Night. 

" 30th. About 8 Miles the other side Fort Allen we met with 
the Indian Messengers with a Message from the Governor of the 
Jerseys. They sat all down by their fires, and the Messenger ac- 
quainted them with his Message ; upon which they discoursed 
together upon the Matter ; but all were at a Loss to know who this 
Nation of Pomton Indians is to whom the Message is sent, unless 
it be a Nation settled somewhere near the Mohock's River, which is 
now with Sir William Johnson. At Night arrived at Fort Allen. 

"CHRISTIAN FREDERICK POST." 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, in y B State House, Friday the 
7th of July, 1758.* 

* Here follows a Blank in Council Book of Five Pages. 
VOL. VIII.— 40. 



146 MINUTES OF THE 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Friday the 14th of Jisfy*, 
1758. 

PRESENT 5 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq r - Lieutenant Got- 
ernor, 

Robert Strettell,, Benjamin Shoemaker,.^ 

Joseph Turner, William Logan^ 

Richard Peters, Lynford Lardner ? £-Esq rei 

Benjamin Chew r John Mifflin, 

Thomas Cadwalader, J 

The Governor informed the Council that last Night be »e«eive(J 
by Express, a Letter from Governor Delancey, inclosing the Copy 
of a Letter to Mr. Delaneey from Brigadier General Stanwix ; and 
on receipt thereof, had immediately laid an Embargo on the 
Ports within this Government,, and had forwarded the Intelligence 
by Express to General Forbes ; the Letters were read and ordered 
to be entered : 

A Letter from Governor Delancey to Governor Denny. 

" New York, the 12th of July,. 1758'. 
« Sir : 

" I received the Letter, of which the inclosed! is a Copy, yesterday 
Sn the Evening. 

u I have, by the- Advice of his Majesty's Council, laid an Em- 
bargo on all Vessels except Coasters, until further Order, hoping 
that you will think it expedient to take the like Measures until we 
shall be able, from further Intelligence, to Judge of the State of 
our Army. I am just setting off for Albany, 

"T am, sir, your most Obedient and most Bumble Servant, 

" JAMES DELANCY. 

" P, S. — Lord How was killed in the Skirmish on Landing, od 1 
which we gained some advantage, having taken 140 prisoners, Eight 
of whom are Officers ; but since, in attacking their advance Post,, 
our affairs went ill } the particulars we know not, otherwise than 
tinted in General Stanwix' s Letter," 



Copy of a Letter from Brigadier Gen v ' Stanvrix to Governor 

Delancey. 

" Albany, the 9th of July, 1758, at Midnight. 
"Sir: 

" As affairs have not turned out so prosperously as we had wished, 
and that it may, perhaps, be necessary to raise the Militia, I am 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 147 

to desire that, immediately upon receipt hereof, you will order them 
to be raised, and yourself proceed here forthwith, to give the neces- 
sary directions for raising those in these Quarters j as this is pres- 
sing, I shall not enter into a detail of what has happened, being in 
hopes to see you as soon as possible. 

" Poor Lord Howe is killed j the G-eneral on that Occasion justly 
says, all the Advantage we have gained is nothing in Comparison to 
his Loss. His Excellent qualities as a Soldier, as well as in every 
other respect, is sufficiently known. I had such assistance from him 
that I both feel and Lament his Loss in a particular Manner. 

" I am, Dear Sir, your most Obedient and most humble Servant, 

"JOHN STANWIX." 

Orders were sent to the Commanding Officer at the Barracks, 
to place a G-uard at Weccacoe Fort, and Mr. Anderson was em- 
ployed to assist and to have Cannon charged in order to bring to all 
Sea Vessels that should Attempt to break through the Embargo. 

Lawrence Burk was Examined, and Robert Taylor and Francis 
Innis and Sister was Examined as to the Character and Behaviour 
of Lawrence Burk, who all Spoke much in his favour, particu- 
larly with the respect to his treatment of a Young English Child 
that was given to his Indian Wife, and it appears when he could 
not prevail on the Indians to abate their Cruel usage of the Child, 
that he advised them to sell it to the Commander of the French 
Fort at Niagara, and accordingly they sold the Child, and it was 
well used and afterwards was seen in good Health at Montreal. 

Great Pains were taken with Pisqutomen and Keekyuscung to 
prevail with them to go as quick as possible to the Ohio, and to Ob» 
serve what was doing at Fort Duquesne, and to send off a trusty 
Messenger from Beaver Creek, with an Account of the Motions of 
the French and the Disposition of the Indians. At length they 
Consented to go, and it being a matter of vast Consequence that 
the Conferences should be known at Ohio, with all possible Care 
and Dispatch, as well as that the General ought to be furnished 
with true Intelligence. 

Frederick Post was desired to accompany the Indians, and he rea- 
dily consented to go. He desired some other White Men might be 
joined with him, as it was a Journey of much Consequence and 
— —Danger. This was thought reasonable, and he afterwards 
came to acquaint the Governor that Charles Thomson offered 
his Service to go with him. The Governor objected to this, and 
told him he might take any other Person, or, if he would get some 
when he came to Bethlehem, he might apply to Mr. Spangenberg, 
to whom he should have a Letter to spare him one or two of his 
best Indians. Mr. Post approved of this and was Satisfied to go 
with Pisquetomen and Isaac Still, 



148 MINUTES OF THE 

The Secretary was ordered to take care that a Copy of the Con- 
ferences should be given to Mr. Post, and all the Belts and Strings 
of Wampum delivered with the Several Speeches should likewise 
be delivered to him, Pisquitomen, Isaac Still, and the Messenger. 
And Mr. Post was desired to take an abstract or short Memorandum 
of the Conferences, but not to take the Conferences at large with 
him for fear of Accidents & their falling into the Enemy's hands. 

A Girl who was said to be taken on Yellow Breeches Creek was 
delivered up by Daniel, who came to Town after the Conferences. 
The Girl was obstinate, would neither tell her name nor Speak a 
Word, and made great resistance to her being delivered up. 

Mr. Logan was kind Enough to get her placed at his Mother-in- 
Law's, Mrs. Emblyn, where she will be well taken care of. 

A Petition was presented by Captain Huet, Commander of the 
Flag of Truce lately condemned in the Admiralty, requesting the 
Governor would be pleased to order that the Sailors should have an 
Allowance for their Support and Lodging. 

The Council was always of Opinion that all French Men, let them 
be brought or come into the Town either by private Ships of War 
or by Passes from the Neighboring Provinces, should be confined in 
the Jayl, and it would have been Constantly done if the Commis- 
sioners would have Consented to Allow them any thing, as all Eng- 
lish Prisoners taken by Privateers were always confined in the Jayles 
in France, and Supported at the King's Expence. It was said the 
People murmured exceedingly that Frenchmen should be permitted 
to Walk the Streets, View the Harbour and Fort, and go where 
they pleased. It was, therefore, thought advisable for the Governor 
to write once more to the Provincial Commissioners. 

Frederick Post was dispatched by Mr. Logan and Mr. Peters. 

We delivered to him printed Copies of Conferences at Easton 
and Lancaster, and Copies of the present Conferences, All the 
Belts and Strings delivered in Conferences, having first Numbered 
them and referred to the particulars with each Belt and String, and 
put Labals on them. James, the Indian, agreed to go with him, 
and an Horse was got for James. The Indians gave the Governor 
a List of Prisoners, which was copied and delivered to Mr. Post. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 149 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, on Friday the 4th of August, 

1758. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esqr., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Joseph Turner, Benjamin Chew, T E ires> 

Richard Peters, J * 

Indians, 

John Hudson, a Seneca. 

Sam, or Sogongwogay. 

Hans Jacob, 

5 Minnisink Indians. 

On the 3d instant five Minnisink Indians and a Seneca Indian 
Hans Jacob, Teedyuscung's Son, and an Elderly Delaware came to 
Town, waited on the Governor, and the next day acquainted him 
that they were two distinct Companies, and came on different Er- 
rands. The Seneca was sent by three Chief Men, heads of the 
Senecas, Cayugas, and Minnisinks, to acquaint their Brethren that 
they had received several Belts from them, and particularly some 
in April last, by Wossaweelu, or Daniel, and were determined to 
Come, and had sent him beforehand with a Short Answer; that 
calling at Teauchkung, an Indian Town on the Cayuga Branch, he 
Light of Sogonawaypy, or Sam, and brought him with him for a 
Companion, and that Hans Jacob, Teedyuscung's Son, joined them 
at Wioming, and had no Business here that he knew of. That the 
Five Minnisink Indians were sent to the Governor of the Jerseys 
with an Answer to the Message sent by Moses Tetamy. The 
Seneca Indian said he met with the Secretary at Bethlehem and 
told him he had matters of great Consequence from the Seneca 
Nation, and desired him to send a Messenger for Conrad Weiser to 
meet him in Philadelphia in order to Interpret his Messages ; and 
he was sorry not to find him here, for he did not chuse to deliver 
his Message without his Assistance. He was told that Mr. Weiser 
was sent for, but was from home and could not come in time. 

The Minisink Indians, as Moses Tetamy informed the Governor, 
Considered the Seneca as a Man sent to hear what they should 
say, and in their Turn wanted to hear what he had to say, 
and were loath to proceed to Burlington untill they knew the pur- 
port of His Messages. They asked the Governor's advice if they 
should go to Burlington or stay here ; they would do either as he 
should advise them. There appeared to be a Mutual Jealousy, and 
neither cared to be the first Speaker. 

The Governor, by the Advice of Tetamy, let the Indians know 
that he would call his Council to day and give the Minnisinks an 
Answer. 



150 MINUTES OF THE 

Moses Tetamy having reminded the Governor that they expected 
the usual Ceremonies would be observed towards them, of wiping 
the Sweat from their Bodies, he made the following Speech to them : 
" Brothers : 

" As you are Messengers, and have come a great way through 
the Woods, I Brush the Briers from your legs ; I anoint the Bot- 
tom of your feet ; I wipe the Dust out of your Eyes and Throat ; 
I clear your Bodies from the Sweat and Dust, and I heartily bid 
you welcome." 

4 Strings of Wampum, 

" Brothers, the Minisink Indians : 

"Yesterday you asked my advice what you should do; whether 
stay here or go to Burlington. You know you were not sent to me, 
but to the Governor of Jersey, and you have an answer to the Belts 
he sent. 

" The reason why you came through this Province, is because 
the road to the Indian Country, since the War, lies through this 
Province ; and at the Instance of the Governor of Jersey, I gave 
those passports that you have with you, to engage safety and pro- 
tection to whoever should be sent. You needed not to have come 
to this City, there is a shorter Road to Burlington. 

" I was glad that your nation accepted Governor Bernard's Belts. 
They told Moses Tetamy, that the Messengers would, by a certain 
time, be at Fort Allen with another j and he was now going to Fort 
Allen to meet you; but fortunately he has Light of you here; will 
take you by the Hand, as it is his Duty, and Conduct you to Bur- 
lington, where the Governor, Council, and Assembly, are now sit- 
ting. I therefore advise you, by all means, to go forthwith to Bur- 
lington. I am myself going there to Visit the Governor at his 
Request by Letter which I received the other Day, and shall be glad 
if I can be of any Service to you." 

The Indians seemed in great Confusion and desired to be alone; 
They were an hour in Consultation keeping the Governor and Coun- 
cil Waiting. At length they came into Council and John Hudson 
acquainted the Governor that he was much Disappointed in Conrad 
Weiser's not coming, but he believed his Message could be inter- 
preted by Moses Tetamy and Sam, and therefore he inclined to 
deliver it; and as all he should say was very good, and related to 
all his Brethren, he desired the Governor would sit in the state 
House that the People might hear his good News; To which the 
Governor agreed, and ordered the Council to be summoned at 10 
o'Clock to-morrow morning in the State House. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 151 

Ai> a Conference with the Indians in the Council Chamber at 
Philadelphia, August the -5th, 1758. 

present : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq*-' Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Joseph Turner., Richard Peters, 

JSenjamia Chew, 

Several of tiae Inhabitants of the City, 

Indians. 

Eyendeegen or John Hudson, a Seneca Messenger from Tagegh- 
slasa ; Sogongwypy or Samuel, a Delaware from Teamchkung on the 
Cayuga Branch, 

Hans Jacob, Teedyuseung' s Son- 

Five Minisimk Indians, Viz 1 - : Benjamin, Waloopies, 

Moses Tetamy, Interpreter for the Belawares, there being an In- 
terpreter for the Six Nations or Mingo Language in Town. 

John Hudson from Modesty declined speaking and employed 
Sogongwpy to speak for him, who arising said : 
< l Brother : 

" Hear me, I will speak to you ; here are my Uncles, the Five Na- 
tions 5 They have four fire places, at which they received the Belts 
you sent by Essoweyowalland or Daniel. 

•" Brother : 

(t The five Nations desire you. not to be uneasy, they say they are 
going to Johnson, who is going to War. We are, say they, going 
to him, When we come back to our fire places, we will smoak and 
look down towards you. Wheia we return from Johnson we will 
•come to you and speak to you fully. There were seven or eight 
from his Town with you at Easton, but they had little to say then 9 
because o« Cousin Teedyuseung was busy, and we had not time to 
say any thing. We only came to hear him, now when we come we 
will speak for ourselves fully." 

Some Questions being asked about Teedyuseung' s being busy, 
the Seneca said " Teedyuseung put the Five Nations behind hrs% 
and when they came home reported what he had said. 

"Now here is our Belt, with it I take you by the Hand and desire 
you to meet me at the New Council Fire kindled at Easton." 

A Belt of Eight Bows. 

Then taking cut a String he said t 

" Teedyuseung sends you this String and speaks as follows : 
** Brother : 

4( I have often told you to hear me, and to speak loud. Here are 



152 MINUTES OF THE 

my "Uncles the five Nations and I am five Nations, which make Ten 
Nations. As you have said you were Strong, I desire you would 
now exert yourself and speak louder that all the Nations may hear 
you." 

A String. 

After this the Seneca said he would go with his Cousins, the 
Munseys, to Burlington. He said he did not know when he set 
out that they would go any further than this Town. But now, as 
they must go to Burlington, he would go with them, and Samuel 
will return home. He further added, that the Indians only waited 
for him to return; that when he returned home, Three Chiefs 
would immediately rise, and come to meet the Governor at Easton, 
where they should expect to see him ; that as soon as they were to 
come, they would send down a Messenger before them to the Gov- 
ernor, that he might also arise and come and meet them. The 
Three Chiefs that will come are, Eghkoohunt, the Munsy Chief, 
Tagheshata, of Megachtinna, the Seneca Chief, and Kabatoodo, the 
Cayuga Chief. He ended with saying they were only Messengers, 
and had delivered the Messages sent them ? and now had no more to 
say. 

Hereupon the Governor, taking a String, said : 
" Brother : 

" I receive the Belt from the Three Chiefs rexj kindly. There 
Message is very good and agreeable. I will wait for their Mes- 
senger to come, and let me know when they will be at Easton, and 
I will meet them there/' 

A String. 

" I desire you will let Teedyuscung know that I am much obliged 
to him for his Message, and shall act as he desires." 
Another String. 

When the Governor had delivered the Strings, the Seneca Mes- 
sengers said he was desired to say by word of mouth, without 
Strings, that not only the Three Chiefs he mentioned would come, 
but also many other Chiefs from the Nations in Friendship with 
these. He added, that he would let the Governor know beforehand 
by word of mouth what is intended to be said at Easton He said, 
" the Chiefs had ordered, after he had delivered the Belts, then to 
speak this, and to let the Governor know how it is with them since 
these Troubles began. The Six Nations are the Heads of all the 
Nations here. When these Troubles began, many Belts and Strings 
came from the Indian Nations beyond them, saying, why don't you 
do something ? Why don't you Speak ? The french are coming, 
and will take all our Land from us. Why do you set still ? Such 
Messages were often sent. Now, Brother, I was with the Three 
Chiefs when they took out a Belt from under them, and more than 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 153 

a fathom long, which they valued much. It was their Old Antient 
Belt, the Confederates or Union Belt, which tied them together. 
They desired me to tell you that they had sent to these Nations 
who sent us the Belt, to assure them we will not sit still any longer. 
But since you desire it, we will all join, and do what you desire. 
We see the French have been the Occasion of all the Mischief. 
The English have been in Confusion, but we will all arise and 
attack the French, and drive them away. I don't say these things 
of myself, the Chiefs ordered me to tell you so. Two Days after 
these Belts were sent to the Nations, we set out for this place. I 
have further to inform you that just before we came away, Johnson 
sent a Hatchet to the Six Nations and they have accepted it." 

The Governor acquainted the Council that Mr. James Pemberton 
had introduced to him a French Merchant who was sent by a Cap- 
tain of a Spanish Privateer that had taken the Ship Hannah, be- 
longing to him and others, to negociate her Ransom; that Mr. 
Pemberton was inclined to pay the Ransom money, but found it 
attend d - with some difficulties, being advised that if it were paid 
here & that Privateer should be taken with the Hostages on Board, 
the Vessel taking it would be intituled to Salvage. Some further 
Difficulties, likewise, were about Getting the Hostages Home. Mr. 
Pembertop desired the Governor be pleased to mention this affair 
Candidly to the Governor of Louisiana, to whom he was informed 
the Governor intended to write by Captain Viviat, the Flag of Truce 
now here from the Mississippi. Mr. Chew was Consulted with on 
the part of Mr. Pemberton and the Government. 

Captain Viviat being ready to sail, his dispatches were ordered to 
be prepared by the Secretary. 

The Governor and Council having received information that some 
of the principal Men of Jersey were averse to pacifick Measures, and 
extremely exasperated against the Indians, and the Governor being 
quite unacquainted with Indian Business, and having invited the 
Governor to come and see him, the Governor was advised, tho' 
much indisposed, to take this Opportunity of paying Mr. Bernard 
a Visit, and Mr. Turner, Mr. Peters, and Mr. Chew, who are ac- 
quainted with most of the Members of Council, and some of the 
Assembly offered their Service to accompany the Governor, which 
was kindly accepted. 

The Governor having received a Letter from Sir William John- 
son inclosing his Speech to the Delaware Indians living on the 
Ohio, the same was read and ordered to be entered as follows : 

" Sir William Johnson's Speech to the Delaware Indians living on 
the Ohio and those parts, sent this day by Joseph Peppy, a Dela- 
te are Indian. 

" Fort Johnson, July 21st, 1758. 

" ' Brethren : 

" l Since the War broke out between the English and French, I 



154 MINUTES OF THE 

have given several Belts of Wampum to your Brethren living on 
the Susquehannah River to he sent you in my Name, and also in the 
Name of your Uncles the Six Nations, to call on you to come away 
from the Ohio and those parts, and to return to your former settle- 
ments on the Susquehannah River, where your Brethren still remain ; 
but I fear some evil Spirit has taken my Belts and put them under 
ground, and that they were never delivered to you, for I find you 
still remain on the Ohio, and I have never had any answer from you 
to any of my said Belts. 
" ( Brethren : 

" ( This Spring I gave another Belt to some of your Flesh and 
Blood, who come to this Council fire from Oksiningo, repeating the 
above call to you and which they promised should be sent to you. 

" ' Your Uncles, the Cayugas, who were lately here, told me they 
had some time ago sent you a Belt desiring you would leave the 
Ohio and come and live with the rest of your Brethren on the 
Waters of the Susquehannah. 

ti( I have just now also heard a Speech which your Uncles the 
Cherokees, some of whom are now come to this Council fire to talk 
with your Uncles, the Six Nations, and their Brethren, in this 
Speech your Uncles, the Cherokees, by a Belt of Wampum, desire 
you would come away from the Ohio, as they Declared War against 
the French and their Indians, and have joined their Arms with 
their Brethren, the English ; they are, therefore, afraid they might 
meet with some of you in that Country and by mistake hurt you, 
which they would be sorry for, as they have a great kindness and 
regard for your Nation. 
" * Brethren : 

" ' The Times are Troublesome, and I see black Clouds gathering 
over the Ohio. I therefore send this Belt for the last Time, and 
your Uncles, the Six Nations, join me in it, to advise you to get out 
of the Way, and come with all your Families and live with the rest 
of your Brethren on the Waters of the Susquehannah, which you 
will find safe and pleasant, and have ground enough to plant on. 

" ( It is not good at any time for Brethren to be seperated at so 
great a Distance from each other as your people now are, more es- 
pecially at such times as these. 
l(( Brethren: 

" c I hope you will listen to the many Calls which have been given 
you from time to time, by all your Friends. They wish you well 
and mean for your good. Don't listen to the Evil minded People 
who want to shut your Eyes from seeing what is good, and deceive 
you with lying Speeches. 

u ( Your Uncles, the Six Nations, and your Brethren living on the 
Susquehannah River, are invited to a great Meeting by the Governor 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 155 

of Pennsylvania. I would have your Chief Men go thither, and 
they will hear things for their good, and I hope such as will open 
their Eyes to see what is their true Interest. Your Brethren, the 
English, have their Arms Open to receive you. If you will not 
hearken to all the Messages which have been sent, and the Several 
Warnings which have been given you, all your Friends will look 
on you as a head-strong, deluded people, and you may perhaps repent 
of it when it will be too late. 

" * Regard, therefore, the Words I and your Brethren of the Six 
Nations now speak to you, and let your advice and Call be now 
heard and Complied with. 

" i We give you this Belt of Wampum to Confirm all we have 
said/ 

" A true Extract from the Records — Examined by me, 

" PETER WRAXALL, Sec*- f In. Aff" 

Don Antonio Sais, Captain of the Spanish Vessel hired by Cap- 
tain Bowne to bring here the Effects saved from on Board an Eng- 
lish Ship belonging to Merchants here, which was Stranded on a 
Maroon Island near Cuba, having signified to the Governor that he 
was ready to sail, His Honour the Governor wrote a Letter to the 
Governor of the Havannah and gave the Captain of the Spanish 
Vessel a Passport. 

The Governor further informed the Council that he was Embar- 
rassed with Applications from Masters of Dutch Vessels who were 
brought in here by Private Ships of War, Some of which were 
acquitted in the Admiral try, and others were not so much as libelled 
in that Court; that petitions were preferred to him requesting Leave 
to sell Vessel and Cargo, or both, and that not Understanding these 
matters he had Consulted Mr. Taylor, the Collector, who was of 
Opinion that if such Vessels were bought by any of his Majesty's 
Subjects they would not, by the Laws of trade, be entituled to a 
Register, and that this might open a Door to Fraud, and breaking 
of the Laws of Trade. The Governor therefore asked the advice 
of his Council what was proper to be done on such Applications. 

Mr. Chew, the Attorney General, agreed that a Register ought 
not to be granted on a bare License of the Governor to the Dutch 
Owner or Captain to sell the Ship. That nothing less than a De- 
cree in Admiraltry would justify the granting a New Register; but 
as to any part of the Cargo, it might, if of a perishing Nature, or 
to defray Necessary Expences, be permitted to be Sold. 



MEMORANDUM. 

On the 11th of August, 1758, The Governor delivered to Cap- 
tain Viviat his Dispatches, Viz 1, : A Permit to take on board cer- 



156 MINUTES OF THE 

tain things therein Specified, and a Passport ; A Roll or Certificate 
of four French Prisoners to take with him in Exchange for the 
four English Ones he brought; * * * * a Letter to his 
Excellency Louis De Kerberee, Governor of New Orleans. 

Captain Viviat was ordered to stay until he could be convoyed 
by a Letter of Marque ; and on the 13th of August, Captain At- 
kins letting the Governor know that he was ready to sail, having a 
pretty good Force on board, and a Letter of Marque, the Governor 
Acquainted Captain Viviat that he might go on Board when he 
pleased, and sent a Letter by him to Captain Atkins. 



MEMORANDUM. 

The Governor, attended by Mr. Chew, Mr. Turner, and Mr. 
Peters, waited on Governor Bernard at Burlington and assisted in 
the Councils relating to the Minisink Indians. On the Governor's 
Return to Philadelphia, he received Intelligence that a party of 
French and other Indians were met on their march to the Minisinks 
and other Parts of Jersey, upon which his Honour immediately dis- 
patched an Express to Governor Bernard with the Intelligence, 
and on the Tenth Instant received an Answer of thanks, and soon 
after a Copy of the Indian Conferences held at Burlington, which 
were read and ordered to be entered as follows : 

"At a Conference held at Burlington, on Monday the 7th day 
of August, A. Domini, 1758. 

"present : 

" His Excellency FRANCIS BERNARD, Esqr., Governor. 
" James Hude, Richard Saltar, ") Esquire3, of his 

" Andrew Johnson, L. M. Ashfield, [■ Majesty's 

" Peter Kemble, Samuel Woodruff, ) Council. 

" Charles Read, ") 

" John Stephens, > Esqrs., Commissioners for Indian Affairs. 

" William Forster, ) 

"Indians: 

" SHESC?! } "-.*- from the Minisink MaDS - 

" Jandahass, a Delaware Indian who came with the Minisink 
Indians. 

"John Pumphire, Interpreter. 

" Moses Tetamy, ) . . . 
"Stephen Calvin, {Assistants. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 157 

"His Excellency sat holding 4 Strings of Wampum in his 
Hand, and spoke to them as follows : 
" < Brethren : 

" ' As you are come from a long Journey through a Wood full of 
Briars, with this String I anoint your Feet and take away their 
Soreness/ 

" Then threw off a String. 

" \ With this String I wipe the Sweat from off your Bodies/ 

" Then threw off a Second String. 

u ' With this String I cleanse your Eyes, Ears, and Throat, that 
you may see, hear, and speak clearly. I particularly anoint your 
Throat, that every Word you say may have a free passage from your 
Heart/ 

" Then threw off a Third String. 

" ( And with this String I bid you heartily Welcome/ 

" Then delivered all the four Strings. 

" His Excellency then informed them that he should be ready to 
hear what they had to say in answer to the message he had sent to 
their Chiefs as soon as would be Convenient to them, when they 
informed him they would be ready in the Afternoon." 



" Monday Afternoon. 

" Present as in the Morning. 

u The Indians being informed that the Governor was ready to 
hear them, Benjamin, on Behalf of the Minisink Indians, holding 
a Belt in his Hand, said : 

" < Brother : 

" l At first when your Messengers came to us at Assiniske (27 
Days since), our Antient people were glad to hear them, and our 
young Men, Women, and Children Rejoiced at the Tidings. 

" ' We know you are great and Strong, and we took it kindly. 
All our friends and relations were in Sorrow, and pitied the Condi- 
tion of the Women and Children who are going up. The kind 
Words of our Brethren, the English, we sent to our Uncles, the 
Mingos, and one of them is come down here to the place of our 
Meeting, to be a Witness of what passes between us/ 

" Then John Hudson, the Seneca above-mentioned, spoke as 
follows : 

" < Brother : 

" ' In Confirmation of what has been said to you, I, who am the 
Seneca, am by this Belt to inform you that the Munseys are Women 



158 MINUTES OF THE 

and cannot hold Treaties for themselves ; therefore I am sent to 
inform you that the Invitation you gave the Munseys is agreeable 
to us ; and we have taken hold of your Belt, and I desire you may 
write down my attending here the while I am here. I have left my 
Family in Danger of being cut off by our Enemies (the French). 
" < Further, Brother : 

u 1 1 have told you your Belt was agreeable, and received by us 
as an Earnest of your Friendship. But tho' we are glad of this 
Opportunity of Speaking with you, yet I am to inform you that it 
is not agreeable to Our Chief Men and Counaellers to have a New 
Council fire kindled or the Old one removed to this side of the 
River from Pennsylvania, where it hath always been kept Burning. 
The Reason is this : we know the Strenth of the Water, and that 
when the Wind and tide is strong it Roars that we cannot hear, so 
that it is proper we should have the Council fire on the other Side 
of the River nearer to us. 
"'Brother: 

" ' I think this is a good reason why it should be so; for 'though 
we should speak loud the Distant Nations will not hear us if the 
roaring Waters are between us. We therefore hope, as the Council 
fire is Kindled and kept Burning in the Forks of Delaware by the 
desire of all our Nations, we shall see our Brother, the Governor, 
there. 
" < Brother : 

" ' We attend to the Words we heard from you; you say you are 
a man of Strength, and we believe you are. 

"'lama man as well as you. I know of no Nation Stronger 
than you ; And our Chief Men and Old Councellors are willing to 
meet you at the Forks of Delaware, and to Confirm our Alliance 
and brighten the Chain of Friendship more Clear than it has here- 
tofore been. 

" ' This Belt Confirms what I have said.' 

" He then delivered to the Governor a Belt, on one side of which 
are three figures of Men in Black Wampum representing the 
Shawanese, Delawares, and Mingos, living on the Ohio. On the 
other Side Four figures representing the United Councils of the Six 
Nations in their own Country. By their being now joined in this 
Belt, he declared it expressed their Union, and that the Western 
Indians having Consulted their Uncles, now joined in sending it in 
pursuance of a Belt of Invitation sent them above a year since by 
George Croghan on behalf of the English. 

"Then Benjamin, on behalf of the Messengers, said : 
" < Brother : 

" * Our Antient People and Chief Men are glad to hear of the 
Kind disposition of the English. We believe you are wise and 



PKOVINCIAL COUNCIL. 159 

Strong, and for the good of our Wives and Children, for whose pro- 
tection we are concerned, that they may have some good and lasting 
Settlement made for them to the latest Posterity, We should be 
glad of the Opportunity in order to obtain it to see all our Brethren; 
the English, together. Our Chief Men and Old Councilors are 
making ready to come to the Council fire in order to settle all 
matters which have been cause of uneasiness between us. We 
believe your Professions are Sincere, and that you will agree upon 
what is most for the good of both you and us, and we shall be ready 
to be advised by you, as we think you are wise. We are glad to 
have an Opportunity of Conversing with you without Interruption; 
tho* the Sun is Low, But we hope our and your Antient and Wise 
Men will have the happiness of Consulting freely together for the 
good of one another before it be dark, and that we shall meet one 
another with Sincerity and truth; as we expect the Blessing from 
Above to attend us therein. 

" ' And I am directed to inform you, that the Indian Nations will 
be next full Moon after this at the Forks of Delaware, and will 
send the Governor word beforehand of the particular Day they will 
be there, and of their Nations and Numbers, and so you may make 
it known to whom you think proper ; that they may be present at 
our Meeting.' 

"There are two Nations besides the Munseys parties to this 
Message. 

" The Senecas, whose Chief man is Tagee-iskatt-a, and lives at 
Mahakensink ) The Cayugas, whose chief man is Eshakanata -, The 
Chief Man of the Munseys is Ego-ho-houn. " 



" The Conference continued till Tuesday; August the 8th, 1758. 
" present: 

" His Excellency the Governor, The Gentlemen of the Council; 
and the Commissioners for Indian Affairs, the Indians and the 
Interpreters. 

" As Yesterday. 

"His Excellency delivered the following Answer to what the 
Indians said Yesterday : 

" ' Brethren : 

" 1 1 am glad to hear that our Offers of peace and amity have 
been well received by your people, and that they are disposed to 
brighten the Chain that heretofore had held us together, and to 
restore that brotherhood that had for many years Subsisted between 
us. Of late a great Darkness had overshadowed the Land ; but we 
hope that the Sun is up that will disperse the Clouds that have hin- 



160 MINUTES OF THE 

dered us from Seeing one Another, and make all our future days 
bright and pleasant. 

" ' We agree with you that it would be best for us all to meet at 
the great Council fire that is kindled on the Forks of Delaware ; it 
is on many Accounts proper, and the particular Circumstances of 
this Province make it most agreeable to us. We differ from the 
Neighbouring Provinces in many things. We have bounds set to 
our people beyond which they neither can nor Desire to pass; they 
are Content with the Cultivation of their Lands, and seek not for 
Extraordinary Gains by following trade out of their own Country ; 
as we have had little intercourse with your people, we can have little 
cause of Contention with them. The Encroachments of unbounded 
Settlers and the Tricks of unfair Traders cannot be charged on us. 
All we have to do is to Offer your People our Friendship, which if 
you will Sincerely and heartily accept of, it shall endure to you & 
your Children as long as the Sun shall shine or the River on whose 
Banks we meet shall flow. 
" ' Brethren : 

" ' I speak the Words of Justice and Benevolence, and not of 
Fear. It is well known to many of you that as our People are in- 
dustrious and hardy, are also bold and resolute. If they are attacked 
they give shott for Shott and Blow for Blow j but we should be 
Sorry that this their Warlike Spirit should be turned upon you, our 
Antient Friends and Brethren. No ! let it be Exerted against the 
French who are the Common Enemies of us, of you, and of all 
people that would be free and Independant. 
" ' Brethren : 

" t What I speak to you I speak to those that sent you ; And say 
to our Brethren that we are honest and Sincere in our Profession to 
them, and hope they will be so in what they Profess to us. But as 
we have been Struck without having injured any one, we shall ex- 
pect that they will give us a proof of their good intentions towards 
us by bringing with them all the Prisoners that have been taken 
from us. Those among you who are Husbands and Fathers can 
best tell what our People must feel who have had their Wives and 
Children taken from them. We also expect that untill we shall 
all meet at the great Council fire, and those our Mutual Offers of 
Peace and Friendship shall be brought to a Maturity by a Solemn 
and Publick Treaty, you will not Suffer your own People to Com- 
mit Hostilities against us, nor any others to pass by you without 
giving us Early Notice to prepare ourselves against them. 

" < Brethren : 

u ' The great God whom we serve, and who protects us and gives 
us all the Blessings of Life which we enjoy, hath Commanded us to 
be just and Benevolent to all Mankind. We are desirous to be so. 
And if we can be assured that your People will live on Terms of 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 161 

Friendship with us, the Lowest person among you shall receive no 
hurt from our People that we can prevent or redress. Of this I 
will give your People further assurance when we meet at the Coun- 
cil fire. In the mean time, I confirm what I have said by these Belts.' 
" His Excellency then delivered one Belt to the Seneca and one 
to Benjamin, the Musey Messenger.'' 



At a Council held at the State House, Thursday the* 24th of 
August, 1758. 

present : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esqr., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Benjamin Shoemaker, Joseph Turner, *) 

Richard Peters, Lynford Lardner, I Esquires. 

Benjamin Chew, Thomas Cadwalader, ) 

This Day being appointed by the Governor for the Hearing of the 
Petitioners against Mr. Moore and his Defence, the Petition of Mr. 
Moore, the Governor's Letter to the Sheriff, and the Sheriff's 
Answer were read. ' $ 

v The Parties with their Witnesses attending, and a great Number 
of the Inhabitants, the Doors were then opened, and the Parties 
were told that the Governor was ready to hear all persons concerned, 
and on their coming into Council the Governor spoke as follows : 

" There are several Complaints against Mr. Moore for Male Prac- 
tices as a Magistrate. I sit here as my Predecessors have done, 
not to determine as a Court of Judicature, but to satisfy my own 
Conscience of the Truth or falsehood of the Charges. I am now 
ready to hear anything that the Complainants have to offer or that 
Mr. Moore can say in his own defence." 

The Examinations were taken down by Mr. Chew, and it growing 
late in the Afternoon, the Council was adjourned to 10 o'Clock to- 
morrow morning. * 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Friday the 25th of August, 

1758. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esqr., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Benjamin Shoemaker, Joseph Turner, ^ 

Richard Peters, Lynford Lardner, y Esquires. 

Benjamin Chew, J 

Mr. Moore attending, and the Petitioners against him, with a 
VOL. VIII. — 11. 



162 MINUTES OF THE 

Considerable Number of Inhabitants, the Doors were opened, and 
the Governor proceeded in the Examinations, which lasted till 6 
o'Clock in the Evening, and then no more appearing, the Council 
was adjourned till Eleven o'Clock to-morrow morning. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Saturday the 26 of August, 

1758. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esqr., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Benjamin Shoemaker, Richard Peters, "\ 

Lynford Lardner, Benjamin Chew, V Esquires. 

Thomas Cadwalader, J 

The Examinations taken the two preceding Days were read, and 
the Governor asked the opinion of his Council as to the Charges 
against Mr. Moore, and all concurring in Sentiment, that Mr. 
Moore had purged himself from every one of them, and appeared to 
them to be perfectly innocent, the Governor declared the same, and 
that he never heard a more clear and full defence, and in vindica- 
tion of Mr. Moore, the Governor, after ordering the Doors to be 
opened, that all present might be Witnesses of his Opinion of the 
Charges, he addressed Mr. Moore to the same effect. 



MEMORANDUM. 

This Day the Cherokees returned from Sir William Johnson, and 
brought with them several Mohocks, among whom was Scarrogudy's 
Wife, and all her Children. The Secretary sent his Chaise for the 
Sick Cherokee. The Cherokee Messenger came with Strings of 
Wampum for the Governor, letting him know that he had made 
application to Sir William Johnson for Guns, and was told that they 
were all delivered out to the Warriors. He was taken into the 
Store, and showed that there was none there. Sir William Johnson 
desired them to apply to the Governor of Pennsylvania for Guns, 
and they would give them as many as were wanted. He further 
desired Horses for four or five of his Company, besides a good one 
for himself, and Waggon to carry their Things. The Governor 
paid them a Visit, and promised to recommend their several 
Requests to the Commissioners. 

The Secretary was ordered to go and Confer with the Commis- 
sioners on the ill Consequences that would attend the refusing those 
Requests, though they were unreasonable, and Sir William Johnson 
was highly to blame. He accordingly went on Tuesday, the usual 
Time of meeting, but there was no Word. The Governor desired 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 163 

the Clerk to Summons the Board to meet next Day, and Mr. Peters 
went there, and in the Governor's name entreated these things 
might be provided. Mr. Fox, Mr. Hughes, and Mr. Baynton were 
only there, and they said they could give the Governor no Answer, 
not being a Board. Israel Pemberton was with them. The Gov- 
ernor, by the Secretary, condoled with a String of Wampum the 
Death of Annaly, which was kindly taken. The Commissioners, as 
Hart informed the Governor, gave him Forty Pounds to provide 
"Waggon and Horse for the Lame Cherokee. A Message was 
delivered by Mr. Hart from Scarrogudy's Wife, who presented him 
with her Husband's Calumet Pipe, and desired he and the Indians 
might Smoak in it together ; that she intended to have gone into 
the Cherokee Country, but had altered her mind, and would stay 
here with her Children. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Monday the 4th of Septem r ' 

1758. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esqr., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Strettell, Richard Peters, Esquires. 

i The Assembly being to meet according to Adjournment this Day, 
The Governor proposed to consider the Draught of a proper Message 
to the House, relating to Indian affairs, but the other Members not 
attending, it was postponed. 



MEMORANDUM. 

On Tuesday, the 5th, a Message was delivered from the House 
by two Members, that the House met last Night according to their 
Adjournment ; that they did but just make a Quorum, and 
intended to adjourn till the 11th Instant, if the Governor had no 
Objection. Whilst the Members were with the Governor, Captain 
Wallace, Commander of the Port Mahon, delivered to the Governor 
a Letter from Admiral Boscawen, desiring assistance for some 
recruits towards Manning the Fleet, adding, if he would send him 
Three Hundred, he should be enabled to send to Philadelphia the 
jEccho of Thirty-Two Guns. 

The Letter was immediately sent to the House by the Secretary^ 
with a Verbal Message, Strongly recommending it to the House to 
enable him to send the Number Wanted. 



164 MINUTES OF THE 

A Letter from Admiral Boscawen to Governor Denny. 

" Namur, Louisbourg Harbour, 7 
the 5th of August, 1758. J 
"Sir: 

" As the great Trade of the Colony of Pennsylvania is a Nursery 
for many able and good Seamen, and as Trade depends much on 
destroying the Enemies' Privateers, I hope for your assistance for 
some Hecruits towards manning the Fleet under my Command, 
and if you would send me Three Hundred I should thereby be 
enabled to send to Philadelphia the Eccho of Thirty-two Guns taken 
here, and will appoint her to- that Station directly as soon as you 
will furnish Men for that Service. I send the Port Mahon under 
the Command of Captain Wallis, who is a very discreet Officer, 
with this. He has my Orders to receive any men you may raise 
for his Majesty's Service. I am told the Merchants, Planters, and 
Gentlemen of the Assembly will be ready to give their assistance 
on this Occasion. 

il I am, Sir, your most Obedient Hum 6- Serv t- ' 

"E u - BOSCAWEN.' 7 

The same Day a Verbal Message was delivered to the Governor 
by Two Members in these Words : " Upon considering the Ad- 
miral's Letter, laid before us by your Secretary, we apprehend it is 
not Expected that the Recruits therein mentioned should be at the 
Charge of this Government. Besides, we have already granted such 
aids to the Crown at the particular Requisition of the Secretary of 
State, and at a great Sixpence to the Province fitted out a Ship of 
War, now on a Cruise, for the Protection of our Trade, that it is 
not in our power to Comply with it under our present Circumstances; 
The Publick Fund being nearly Expended, and many of the Troops 
in the Service of the Crown yet unpaid. The Application we ap- 
prehend is to your Honour for your assistance as executive part 
of Government to the Gentlemen Commissioned by the Admiral 
for that Purpose. " 

And then they acquainted the Governor that the House had ad- 
journed to the Eleventh Instant. 

A number of Soldiers' Wives belonging to the First and Second 
Battallion, and Otway's Regiment, petitioned the Governor for 
Relief. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 165 

At a Council held at Philadelphia, Monday the 11th of Septem- 
ber, 1758. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Strettell, Benjamin Shoemaker, "J 

Joseph Turner, Richard Peters, I Esquires. 

Benjamin Chew, John Mifflin, J 

The Letter of Admiral Boscawen and the Assembly's Message 
were read, and the council were of Opinion that the House should 
be desired again to consider this Request and grant it. # 

A Letter from Governor Delancy, of the 4th of September, in 
Answer to the Governor of the 30th of August, was read in these 
Words : 

* New York, the 4th of September, 1758. 
« Sir : 

" I had by the last Post the favour of your Letter of the Thir- 
tieth of August, inviting me to a Meeting to be ljeld with some 
Indians the middle of this month at Easton. The Notice is so 
short that I cannot possibly call the Assembly together to provide 
for the Expences of such an Interview, for I know that a Governor 
can have little Weight with Indians, unless he has presents to 
throw into the scale, and as the King has placed the sole agency of 
Indian affairs into Sir William Johnson's Hands, I choose to de- 
cline going to this Interview; besides, from a Letter I received on 
Saturday from General Abercrombie, I judge my presence abso- 
lutely necessary in this Province. However, I wish you all imma- 
ginable Success from this meeting j for my part, I have very little 
Faith. Indians are always ready to receive presents and give back 
Promises. May your Conferences produce the Effects which are 
iioped for from them. 

u I am, Sir, Your most Obedi'- and Hum 6, Serv t; 

"JAMES DELANCY." 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Tuesday the 12th of Septem r " 

present : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esqr., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Strettell, ) ™ . 
Richard Peters, '^quires. 



166 ■ MINUTES OF THE 

A Message to the Assembly was prepared, read, approved, and 
sent to the House by the Secretary in these Words : 

" Gentlemen : 

" The Honour and Interest of this Province are so deeply con- 
cerned in the late Request made by Admiral Boscawen to furnish 
him with a Number of Seamen, that I cannot avoid recommending 
it strongly to you to reconsider the matter. You will please to re- 
member that his Majesty, in a Letter from Mr. Pitt, his principal 
Secretary of State, bearing date the thirtieth Day of December last, 
laid before you in March, Signified to me His Royal Pleasure that 
all Legal Methods should be used to supply the Commander-in- 
Chief of his Ships in North America with such a Number of Sailors 
from this Province as he should at any time require for His Ma- 
jesty's Service. When, therefore, I received the Admiral's Letter 
generously offering that the Eccho, a Ship of Thirty-Two Guns, 
should in return for a Supply of the Seamen demanded be immedi- 
ately stationed here for the Protection of our Trade, I made no 
doubt of your readily acceding to so advantageous a Proposal. 

" You are pleased to say that it is not in your Power to comply 
with this Requisition, because the Province hath been at a very 
great Expence in fitting out a Ship of War, now on a Cruize for 
the Protection of your Trade, and the Public Funds are near ex- 
hausted. 

" Gentlemen, when you Consider that a Man of War Stationed 
on your Coast will render for the future the Province ship useless, 
that the great Sums necessarily expended in supporting her will be 
saved, and at the Same Time your Trade will be more effectually 
Secured. I am perswaded you will agree with me that it is your 
Duty as well as your real Interest to fall on proper Means to furnish 
the Admiral with the Number of Seamen he demands without 
Delay. 

" New Funds will be wanting to Supply the Deficiency of those 
already raised ; but it is certain that the Taxes hereafter to be im- 
posed will be easier on the People if by the Measure proposed the 
heavy Expences of Supporting the Province Ship can be saved to 
them. 

" I have the pleasure to acquaint you, that from the present face 
of things Indian Affairs seem to have a very favourable appearance. 
Since your adjournment in May last, I have been particularly atten- 
tive to improve every Opportunity that has Offered to reclaim such 
of them as have joined our Enemies, and of Conciliating the affec- 
tions of the Indians in general. Several Messages and Conferences 
have passed between us, in consequence of which a general meeting 
has been agreed upon to be held at Easton, and I have lately re- 
ceived Intelligence that many are already arrived on our Frontiers,, 
and great Numbers are Assembling together and may be daily ex- 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 167 

pected there. At this Treaty the Governor of the Jersey has by 
the particular desire of the Indians agreed to attend ; and in order 
to make an extensive as well as durable Peace with the Indians in 
general, I have invited the Governors of New York, Maryland, and 
Virginia, and Sir jVilliam Johnson to favour me with their presence 
and Assistance. 

"A very .Considerable Expence must necessarily attend this 
important Transaction, which the Commissioners have agreed with me 
to defray out of the last Sum granted to his Majesty by this Province. 
I hope every Hand and Heart will be united in endeavouring to 
bring to a happy Issue this Treaty, so interesting to his Majesty's 
Service, and the Colonies in general. 

"WILLIAM DENNY. 

" September the 12th, 1758." 

The Governor received a Letter from Major Orndt, acquainting 
him that One Hundred and Twenty-Eight Indians were arrived at 
Fort Allen, and intended to stay there. The Letter was sent by 
the Secretary to the Provincial Commissioners. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Wednesday the 15th of Sep- 
-tem r -' 1758. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esqr., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Benjamin Chew, Richard Peters, Esquires. 

A Letter from General Forbes to the Governor was read ia these 
words : 

" Fort Loudoun, Septem"' 3th, 1758. 
^Sir: 

" I have the Honour of laying before you the Situation of His 
Majesty's Affairs under my Directions in these Southern Provinces 
at this Critical Juncture, and at the same time to shew you how 
much it depends on you and the People of this Province to assist in 
carrying on a Service which his Majesty has so much at Heart, or 
by their Neglect and Obstinacy have it in their Power to render 
every step that has been taken (for the safety of these Colonies) 
fruitless and to no Purpose, but to expend a very great Sum of 
Money. 

" The laying in Provisions for the Support of the Army I 
attempted to do without even being obliged to impress any Carriages. 
The Quantity of Provisions to have been Collected at our principal 
Magazine has fallen greatly short of what I had reason to expect, 



168 MINUTES OF THE 

because most of the Waggons were not Loaded with more than 
Fourteen Hundred Weight, and took a Third more time in the Car- 
riage than they ought to have done, which obliged us to break in 
upon the Stock of Provisions laid in at Ray's Town, while the 
Troops were opening a Road over the Mountains, and Securing its 
Communication, which is now effectually done to within Forty 
Miles of the French Fort, so that if the Inhabitants who have 
Waggons are not obliged to furnish a Sufficient Number of them, 
who, in one Trip to Ray's Town, might Transport the Quantity of 
Provisions wanted, and where they may receive payment for the 
Trip at a just and equitable Price, to be fixed by Authority, in Pro- 
portion to the Quantity of Provisions so delivered and to the Length 
of the Journey that they make, the Expedition cannot go forward ; 
nor can I maintain the Ground I am already Master of, but shall 
be Obliged to draw off my Master's Forces to the Inhabited Parts 
of the Country, and take Provisions and Carriages wherever they 
can be found. The Evil which will Attend this Procedure is, that 
the Innocent must Suffer with the Guilty, and the Exigence- of the 
Case is so pressing as to admit of no delay. 

" I know there has been several Complaints made of the Scarcity 
of Forrage, and that several Waggoners has been abused by Officers. 
If there was any Scarcety of Forrage, it was owing to the Want of 
Waggons for its Transport; and no Driver ever made his Complaint 
but the Person who abused him was punished, so that I am induced 
to believe every Complaint of that kind is without foundation, and, 
therefore, shall not further insist on a detailed account of the 
Infamous Breach of Contract on the Part of the Inhabitants. 

" I have sent to Philadelphia the Quarter Master General, who 
will explain to you fully the Situation of the Army. I should be 
sorry to employ him in executing any Violent Measures, which the 
Exigency of Affairs I am in at present must Compel me to do, if I 
am not relieved by a Speedy Law for the Providing the Army with 
Carriages, or a general Concurrence of Magistrates and People 01 
power in those Provinces in assisting, to their utmost, to provide 
the Same, and that with the greatest Diligence. 

" Every thing is ready for the Army's Advancing, but that I 
cannot do unless I have a Sufficient Quantity of Provisions . in the 
Magazines at Ray's Town. The Road that Leads from the advanced 
Posts to the French Fort may be opened as fast as a Convoy can 
march it. Therefore my movement depends on his Majesty's Sub- 
jects entering chearfully in carrying up the necessary Provisions. 
The new Road has been finished without the Enemies knowing it, 
The Troops having not suffered the least insult in the Cutting it. 

u And as one Trip of the Waggons will be sufficient for carrying 
up Provisions to Ray's Town, they shall be paid off at that Place 
for the Weight they carry and discharged; When they arrive at 
Ray's Town I shall have nothing to do ; but proceed with the Army 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 169 

under my Command, which hitherto have exerted themselves with 
_the greatest Vigor and Spirit, in the great Labour they have under- 
gone; I have done every thing in the Power of Man, to carry on 
this Expedition with Vigor, if any stop is made to it now, there 
can be no part laid to my Charge. For this stop you know I have 
long dreaded, as Six Weeks ago I wrote circular Letters to the 
Different Magistrates to give all their Aid and Assistance in pro- 
curing Waggons io the Contractor's Agents for Transporting Pro- 
visions, and that nothing has been neglected that Occur to me for 
Expediting this so necessary Branch of the Service. 

"I need not repeat to you the care I have hitherto been at to pre- 
vent our Parties from falling upon the Indians, lest, by mistake, it 
might have fallen upon those who are any wise well disposed to us, 
and who are, I hope by this time at Easton to meet you, where I 
hope you will as soon as possible bring things to an Issue, letting 
the Indians know that the Regard I had for them has been the 
only reason why I had not long ago fallen upon their Towns, Wives 
and Children, but that now I could no longer Stop from putting in 
Execution the Orders of the King, my master, against his Enemies, 
and all who joined with them. 

" As you will see Mr. Croghan, you will be so good as to send 
with those who will follow up to me as soon as possible, and pray, 
as soon as you can form any idea how matters are likely to turn out, 
let me know by Express; And I beg your Sentiments as to my 
Proceedings, if God grant us success against the Enemy; You see 
the Difficulty of leaving a Garrison there, and you know how your 
Province have put it out of my power of leaving any of their 
Troops after the first of December, So I am really at a Loss what 
step I must take. 

" I have the honour to be, 

" Sir, your most Obed t- and Hum e - Serv'*' 

"JOHN FORBES. 
" P-. S. — As I am willing to embrace every Measure for Carrying 
on the Service, I have wrote to Several of the Members of the As- 
sembly,, to desire their assistance in relation to Carriages, as I sup- 
pose you may think it proper to Lay my Letter before them." 

The Secretary was ordered to deliver the Letter, with the follow- 
ing Message, to the House : 

A Message from the Governor to the Assembly. 
"Gentlemen : 

" I lay before you a Letter from General Forbes, which I have 
just received by Express. You will thence collect the Situation of 
Affairs under his Direction, and I most earnestly entreat you will 
consider it, and on this pressing Occasion, do every thing in your 
Power to promote the King's Service, by falling on- the most speedy 



170 MINUTES OF THE 

and effectual method for Supplying the King's Army with Car- 
riages, for want of which the General is in the utmost Distress. 

"WILLIAM DENNY. 
" September the 13th, 17-58." 



MEMORANDUM. 

On the Fourteenth,' the Governor sent to the House, by the Secre- 
tary, Copies of the Conferences lately held with the Indians, and 
his Honour's Message to them; and on the same day received a 
Message from the House, by two Members, in these Words : 
" May it please your Honour : 

" We have considered your Honour's Message of the twelfth 
Instant, so far as it relates to Admiral Boscawen's Requisition of a 
Supply of Seamen from this Colony, as Recruits towards manning 
the Fleet under his Command, and have reconsidered the Secretary 
of State's Letter of the thirtieth of December, 1757, to which you 
have been pleased to refur us in your said Message, and are of 
Opinion, that if it was expected we should recruit His Majesty's 
Fleet at the Expence of this Province, we are at present so circum- 
stanced, that it is not in our power to comply with it. Your 
Honour must be Sensible, that the Sitting of this Assembly must 
soon tirminate, and the large Grant we have already made to His 
Majesty for the Service of the Current year, is almost expended ; 
what little remains, we apprehend, will be taken up in defraying 
the Expenees of the ensuing Treaty at Easton, which tho' for the 
immediate Service of the Crown, and the general Interest of the 
Colonies, is likely to become principally, if not wholly, a Charge 
upon this Province. 

" Signed by order of the House. 

" THOMAS LEECH, Speaker. 

" September the 14th, 1758." 



MExMORANDUM. 

On the Fifteenth, Two Members waited on the Governor with 
the following Message from the House, and acquainted his Honour 
that Mr. Norris, Mr. Fox, Mr. Hughes, Mr. Roberdeau, Mr. Gal- 
loway, Mr. Masters, Mr. Strickland, and Mr. Gibbons, were ap- 
pointed by the House to be a Committee to attend at the Ensuing 
Treaty at Easton : 

A Message to the Governor from the Assembly. 
11 May it please your Honour : 

" In Answer to that part of your Message, of the Twelfth In- 
stant, relating to Indian Affairs, we heartily approve of the general 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 171 

Meeting, which has been agreed upon to be held at Easton, as the 
most probable means of regaining and confirming the Antient 
Friendship and Alliance of the Natives to the British Interest ; to 
which end this Province hath exerted itself in a particular Manner, 
and at a very great Expence. 

"In an affair so interesting to our most Gracious Sovereign, and 
the British Nation, we sincerely hope, with you, that every Hand 
and Heart will be united in bringing this Treaty to an happy 
Issue. 

u Signed by order of the House. 

" THOMAS LEECH, Speaker. " 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Wednesday the 20th of Sep- 
tem r > 1758. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esqr., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Strettell, Richard Peters, Esquires. 

A Bill, intituled "a Supplement to the Act, intituled 'an Act 
for regulating the Hire of Carriages to be employed in his Majesty's 
Service,' " being presented to the Governor, last Night, it was read, 
approved, and sent to the House with a Message that the Governor 
would be in the Council Chamber, ready to enact it into a Law, at 
half an hour past Twelve a' Clock, 

The Governor, with the Council, went to the Council Chamber, 
and his Honour sent a Message to the House by the Secretary, 
requiring their attendance in order to enact the said Bill into a Law. 
The House accordingly attending, the Bill was passed, sealed, and 
Lodged in the Roll's Office. 

A Letter from the Governor a Jamaica was read, and a Warrant 
Issued thereupon by Mr. Strettell against the Officers of the Stan- 
wix Privateer. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Thursday the 21st of Septem 1 "' 

present : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esqr., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Richard Peters, John Mifflin, ") ™ 

Benjamin Chew, > j Esquires. 

Edward Shippen, Judge of the Admiraltry. 

Captain Stevenson and four other of the Officers of the Stanwix 



172 MINUTES OF THE 

being apprehended and committed to Jayl, were brought to the 
Governor's in order to be examined. The Examination of Captain 
Stevenson was taken, subscribed, and Signed by the Governor. 

Captain Samuel Mifflin, Captain William Dowel, and Mr. Judah 
Foulk appeared as some of the Owners of the Stanwix, and declar- 
ing that the Proceedings in Admiraltry respecting the Capture of 
the said Jamaica Flag of Truce were copied and sent under the 
Great Seal of the Admiraltry and in the Hands of some of the 
Owners, Time was given for them to produce the Copy, and Cap- 
tain Stevenson and the men were set at Liberty on Captain Dowel's 
becoming Security that they should appear on demand before the 
Governor for further Examination. 

Whilst the Council was sitting, a Bill intituled " An Act for the 
Continuance of an Act of Assembly of this Province Intituled ' a 
Supplementary Act to the Act intituled ' An Act for preventing 
the Exportation of Bread and Flour not Merchantable, and for the 
New Appointment of Officers to put the said Law in Execution," ; 
and was presented by two members of the House for the Governor's 
Concurrence, and read. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Monday the 25th of Septem r ' 

1758. 

PRESENT I 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esqr., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

William Till, Robert Strettell, ") 

Richard Peters, Benjamin Chew, V Esquires. 

John Mifflin, ) 

A Letter from Mr. Weiser was read, wherein he gives an Ac- 
count of the ill behaviour of Teedyuscung and the Indians at Easton, 
and upon Consideration of the ill Consequences that may attend 
such irregularity, it was unanimously judged proper that some per- 
son should immediately be sent who can keep the Indians in order; 
and Mr. Peters was requested to undertake this as being acquainted 
with the Indians, and used to their Manners and tempers, and Mr. 
Peters consented to so. 

A Proclamation was issued prohibiting the Sale of Rum to the 
Indians, which was ordered to be printed, and Mr. Peters had direc- 
tions to serve the Magistrates of the County of Northampton with 
it, and to affix Copies at all publick Places in the said County. 



MEMORANDUM. 



On Tuesday, the Twenty-Sixth, the Governor, by the Secretary, 
sent to the House the Bill intituled " An Act for the Continuance 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 173 

of an Act of Assembly of this Province, intituled ' A Supplementary 
Act to the Act intituled 'An Act for preventing the Exportation 
of Bread and Flour not merchantable/ and for the new appointment 
of Officers to put the said Law in Execution/ " with a Verbal Mes- 
sage that he would pass the same into a Law as soon as presented 
to him for that Purpose. Upon which Two Members waited on 
the Governor to acquaint him that the Bill would be ingrossed by 
Five o'Clock in the afternoon, and his Honour desired them to 
acquaint the House that he would be in the Council Chamber at 
Five o'Clock. But the Secretary being obliged to go out of Town 
Suddenly on some important Business, the Governor sent a Verbal 
Message to the House that He would be at the Council Chamber 
to-morrow morning at Eleven o'Clock; and on the Twenty-Seventh 
the Governor sent a Message to the House by the Secretary requir- 
ing the Attendance of the Speaker and the Members in the Council 
Chamber, and Mr. Speaker, with the whole House, attending, the 
said Bill was enacted into a Law, had the great Seal affixed to it, 
and was deposited in the Roll's Office. 



MEMORANDUM. 

On the Twenty-Eighth a Bill, in addition to the Act intituled 
" An Act for regulating the Hire of Carriages to be employed in 
his Majesty's Service," was presented to the Governor by Two 
Members for his Concurrence, and on the Twenty-Ninth the Gov- 
ernor returned the Bill to the House, with a Message that he would 
attend the House at Half an hour after Twelve o'Clock, in the 
Council Chamber, to enact the same into a Law; and accordingly 
the Secretary was sent to require the attendance of Mr. Speaker 
and the House in the Council Chamber, who waited on the Gover- 
nor, and the Bill was enacted, sealed, and enrolled. 



At a Council held at the State House, Wednesday the 3d of Oc- 

to r -> 1758. 

PRESENT I 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq r '> Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Strettell, Benjamin Chew, ^ 

Benjamin Shoemaker, Lynford Lardner, '. -, 

William Logan, Joseph Turner, ^squires. 

John Mifflin, • J 

Several of the Inhabitants. 

The Governor acquainted the Council that having been informed, 
that Pisquitom, an Indian, who was sent with Frederick Post to 



174 MINUTES OF THE 

Allegheny some time since, was returned from thence and had 
something of Importance to Communicate to him, he had called 
them together, and after reading several Letters and conferring about 
Indian Affairs, the Governor desired Mr. Logan to go to know of 
the Indians, whether the Matters they had to communicate and 
deliver to him, were of a Publick or Private Nature. 

Mr. Logan returned and reported that he had been with the In- 
dians, who told him that what they had to say they were directed 
to deliver in Publick that every Body might hear it, and they were 
admitted accordingly. 

The Governor welcomed them and told them he was ready, and 
should be glad to hear what they had to say. 

Then Pisquitom said : 
" Brother : 

" 'Tis now Twenty-Five days since we left Cuskushki, that the 
Indians had met and sat in Council there;" that they had there de- 
livered him tlie several Strings and Belts in the same manner as 
they now lay before him on the Table, and that the Substance of 
all which is continued in the Paper which he now delivers to tha 
Governor; But the Paper which they delivered being only a Letter 
from the Commanding Officer at Shamokin, and was the Paper they 
refered to, they were desired to deliver what they had to say from 
their Memory, but answered that he depended upon that Paper to 
Assist his Memory in what he had to say, he could not do without 
it; Whereupon the Governor proposed to them that they should 
defer delivering what they had to say to their meeting the Govesnor 
at Easton, to which place he intended to set off in a Day or two, 
and where they would also see who they supposed had the paper 
they wanted, they expressed themselves well pleased with the Gov- 
ernor's Proposal, and desired to set off for Easton to-morrow 
morning. 

Then the Governor returned them thanks, on behalf of the Gov- 
ernment, for the great Fatigue and Difficultys they had gone 
through in their Journey, and assured them they should be well 
rewarded and taken care of whilst in this Town. 



At a Meeting held at Easton, on the 7th of October, 1758. 
present : 
The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esquire, Lieutenant Gov- 



ernor. 



Lawrence Growden, Benjamin Chew, ^ 

Richard Peters, John Mifflin, V Esquires. 

Lynford Lardner, J 

The Governor and Council coming to Town this Afternoon, 
Teedyuscung, accompanied with Moses Tetamy, Daniel, Teedyus- 



PKOVINCIAL COUNCIL. 175 

cung, and Isaac Still, waited on his Honour, and made the usual 

Salutations. 

"Brother: 

"I am glad to see you here again; you may remember that we 
have already made Peace, and you desired me to halloo aloud, and 
give notice of it to all the Indians round about. 

" I have spoke loud and raised my Voice, and all the Indians 
have heard me, as far as the Twigh twees, and have regarded it, 
and are now come to this Place. 

"I bid you welcome, and join with me in casting up our Eyes 
to Heaven and* praying the Blessing of ihe Supream Being on our 
Endeavours. 

" According to our usual Custom, I with this String wipe the 
Dust and Sweat off your Face, and clear your Eyes, and pick the 
Briars out of your Legs, and desire you will pull the Briars out of 
the Legs of the Indians that are come here, and anoint one of 
them with your healing Oil, and I will anoint the other." 

A String. 

The Governor returned him thanks for the Visit, and his good 
advice, which he promised to comply with, and appointed a Meet- 
ing in the Morning for that Purpose. 



At a Conference held in the Town of Easton, on the 8th of Oc- 
tober, 1758. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esqr., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Lawrence Growden, Lynford Lardner, *) E Members of the 
William Logan, Benjamin Chew, > A , n M 

| Eichard Peters, John Mifflin, j pernor s Council. 

Isaac Norris, John Hughes, 1 Esq r, 'Committeeofthe 

Joseph Fox, Daniel Koberdeau, y House of Bepresen- 

Joseph Galloway, Amos Strickland, J tatives. 

Charles Bead, ) Esq"-' Commiss"- for Indian affairs in the Province 
Jacob Spicer, $ of New Jersey. 

A Number of Magistrates and Freeholders of this and the Neigh- 
bouring Provinces, and of the Citizens of the City of Philadelphia, 
chiefly of the People called Quakers. 

^ George Croghan, Esquire, Deputy Agent for Indian Affairs under 
Sir William Johnson. 

Indians of Several Nations, viz*-: 

Mohocks. — Nichas, or Karaghtadie, with one Woman and two 

Boys. 



176 MINUTES OF THE 

Oneidoes. — Thomas King, Anagaraghiry, Assanyquou, with Three 
Warrior Captains, Six Warriors, and Thirty-three Women and 
Children. 

Onondagoes. — Assaradonguas, with nine men ; and nine Women 
and Children. 

Senecas. — Takeghsado, Tagshata or Segachsadon, Chief Man, 
with seven other Chiefs, Thirty-Seven other Men, Twenty-Eight 
Women, and Several Children. 

Tuscaroras.- — Unata, alias Jonathan, with Five Men, Twelve 
Women and Two Children. 

Nanticokes and Conys, now one Nation. — liobert* White, alias 
Wolahocremy, Pashaamokas, alias Charles, with Sixteen Men, 
Twenty Women and Eighteen Children,. 

Kandt, alias Last Night, with Nine Men, Ten Women and One 
Child. 

Tuteloes. — Cakanonekoanos, alias Big Arm, Asswagarat, with 
Six Men and Three Women. 

Chugnuts. — Ten men, and Twenty Women and Children. 

Chehohockes, alias Delawares and Unamies. — Teedyuscung, with 
Sundry Men, Women and Children. 

Munsies or Minisinks. — Egohohowen, with Sundry Men, Women 
and Children. 

Mohickons. — Abraham, or Mammatuckan, with Several Men, 
Women and Children. 

Wapings or Plimptons. — Nimhaon, Aquaywochtu, with Sundry 
Men, Women and Children. 

Conrad Weiser, Esq 1 "*' Provincial Interpreter. 

Captain Henry Montour, Interpreter in the Six Nations and 
Delaware Languages. 

T G ^ Qfii * Vm? C Delaware Indians. — Interpreter in the Delaware 

Moses Tetany, J L ™S ua S e - 

The Governor opened the Conferences with the following Cere- 
monies, addressing himself to All the Indians present of Every 
Nation : 
" Brethren : 

M It gives me great pleasure to see so many of you, and of so 
many different Nations, at this Council fire. I bid you heartily 
Welcome. 
" Brethren : 

" With this String I wipe the Sweat and Dust out of your Eyes 
that you may see your Brethren's Faces and look Chearful. With 
this String I take all Bitterness out of your Breast, as well as every 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 177 

thing disagreeable that may have gathered there, in order that you 
may speak perfectly free and open to us. With this String I gather 
the Blood, and take it away from the Council Seats, that your 
Cloths may not be stained nor your minds anyways disturbed.' ' 

Three Strings. 

Mr. Weiser interpreted the Substance of this Speech, and? saying 
his Memory did not serve him to remember the Several Ceremonies 
in, Else on this Occasion, he desired Nihas, a Mohock Chief, to do 
it for him, which he did, and it was afterwards interpreted by Cap- 
tain Henry Montour in the Delaware Language to Teedyuscung and 
the Delawares. 

After a short pause Tagashata, the Seneca Chief, rose up, and 
repeating, as usual, each Paragraph distinctly as spoke by the Gov- 
ernor, he returned Thanks, and went through the same Ceremonies 
to the Governor, Council, and People of the Province, adding on 
the last String, that their Great Grandfathers had told them that 
they had made a Road for them to travel to their Brethren the 
English, and that whenever it should be stopped they would become 
a poor People. They were very glad to find the Road open to their 
Brethren, and should take care to preserve it so on their side. 

Three Strings. 

After Mr. Weiser had delivered this in English, and it was in- 
terpreted in the Delaware Language by Moses Tetamy, Takeaghsado, 
or Tagashata, proceeded : 
"Brother Onas: 

"By this Belt you sent an invitation to us to come to Penn- 
sylvania, which reached our Towns about the time that the Leaves 
put out last Spring, but we were then so much alarmed by the 
French, wh« were near us, that we could not then leave our Country. 
Some little Time ago we received another Belt from Sir William 
Johnson, which he informed us was sent to him by you to be for- 
warded to us, to enquire into the Reasons why we did not Come to 
you according to your first invitation, and Sir William Johnson de- 
sired us to come here to meet you in Council, upon which we 
immediately arose and came as soon as we could to your Council 
Fire, and now we are here as you see/ 7 

Two Belts. 
" Brother : 

" Here is another Belt, by which we were invited lately to come 
to a Council fire that was kindled in an Island near the Sea. This 
surprized us, as we had never heard of a Council fire in an Island.* 
We know of no Council fires but the Old Council fire a Philadelphia 
and the great Council fire at Albany.'' 

Here he laid the Belt on the Table. 

♦Meaning Burlington. 
VOL. VIII. — 12. 



178 MINUTES OF THE 

Then taking four other Strings of Wampum, he said, " these were 
sent to us by Nihas, the Mohock Chief, with a Message that he 
was arrived in this Province, and desired we would Comply with 
the Invitation, and come down." 

Here he laid the four Strings on the Table. 

Nifcias having acknowledged the Message, and taken up the 
Strings, Tcegashatae concluded, saying, " these are your Belts, by 
which we were invited to this Council fire, and as we are now come, 
we return them, and desire to see the Belts that were sent by us, 
particularly one," on which were several Images of Men holding 
each other by the Hand. 

The Governor replied, " that he would enquire for the Belts sent 
by them, and they should be returned." 

The Substance of these last Speeches of Tagashata was Inter- 
preted to Teedyuscung and the Delawares. 



October the 9th, 1758. 
This morning his Excellency, Governor Bernard, arrived at Easton, 
and desired a Meeting of the Indians, in order to make them the 
usual Complements, but was acquainted by Mr. Weiser, that they 
were then in Council, deliberating on Matters necessary to be 
adjusted before the meeting. 



October the 10th, 1758. 
The Indian Chiefs continued in Council the greatest part of this 
Day, and desired the Governors would not be impatient. 



October the 11th, 1758. 
This Morning the Indian Chiefs communicated to the Governors, 
by Mr. Weiser, the Business they had been consulting upon, and 
said they had concluded to speak to us this forenoon. The Gover- 
nors waited till One o'Clock, expecting the Indians to meet them, 
being told that they were gathering together for that Purpose, but 
they not coming, and several Messages sent to hasten them, it was 
agreed to meet punctually at Four o'Clock. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 179 

At a Conference held at Easton with the Indians, Octo r - 11th, 
1758, P. M. 

PRESENT : 

Governor DENNY, with his Council, and the Several Pennsyl- 
vania Gentlemen as before. 

Governor BERNARD. 
Andrew Johnson, Jacob Spicer | j Tndian Com 

Charles Read, William Foster, I H^ for j 

John fetevens, J ' 

Tagashata, the Indian Chief, Intending to speak first on behalf of 
the Indians, had laid some Belts and Strings in order on the Table. 

As soon as the Company sat down, Teedyuscung, holding out 
String, said he had something to deliver, and desired he might be 
heard first of all, Mr. Croghan requested to know if what he was 
going to say was the result of the Delaware Council, and if it was 
their desire it should be spoke first, but no Answer was given him 
to this. Governor Bernard signifying his desire to bid the Indians 
welcome and just mention to them the Business he came upon, it 
was agreed he should speak first, which he did as follows : • 

" Brethren : 

" I am glad to see so many of you met together to cultivate Peace 
with your Brethren and Old Friends, the English. I heartily bid 
you welcome, and wish that the good Work for which you are now 
assembled may prosper in your Hands, and have that Success which 
your wise Men and all that wish you well may desire, as a thing 
much to your Advantage. 

" The Situation of the Province over which I preside, and the 
disposition of its People, have hitherto afforded very little Occasion 
for Treatys with the Neighbouring Indians ; but having some Months 
ago Sent a Message to the Minisinks, I received a Message from 
our Brethren the Senecas and Cayugas, wherein they take upon 
them to Answer my Message to the Minisinks, and desire that I 
would meet them at the Council fire burning at this place. 

"It is not usual for the King's Governors to go out of their Pro- 
vinces to attend Treaties j but I am glad to have an Opportunity 
of shewing my good Disposition to establish Peace and Friendship 
with my neighbours, and therefore I have waved all forms, and am 
come here according to the invitation I received at Burlington. 

" To you, therefore, our Brethren, the Senecas and Cayugas, and 
your Nephews, the Minisinks, I now speak, and desire that yot* 
would take into your most serious Consideration, my Message to 
the Minisinks, your Message to me, and my Answer thereto, and 
let me know what we are to Expect from you. 



180 MINUTES OF THE 

" What is past we are willing to forget ; but I must remind you 
that if you are disposed to be our friends for the future, you should 
give us that Proof of your Sincerity which I have desired in my 
Answer to your Message, and return us the Captives that have been 
taken out of our Province, and are now within your Power ; this 
should be one of the first Steps, and will be the best that can be 
taken towards restoring and confirming that Brotherly Love and 
Friendship between us, which I am convinced will be for the Mutual 
Benefit of all Parties." 

This was interpreted in the Six Nation Language by Mr. Weiser, 
and in the Delaware by Mr. Stephen Calvin, the Indian School- 
master in West Jersey. 

Then Teedyuscung spoke : 
" Brethren : 

" I desire all of you who are present will give Ear to me ; As 
you, my Brethren, desired me to call all the Nations who live back, 
I have done so; I have given the Halloo, and such as have heard 
me are present. Now, if you have anything to say to them, or 
thejp to you, you must sit and talk together. 
" Brethren : 

" I sit by only to hear and see what you to say to one 
another, for I have said what I have to say to the Governor of 
Pennsylvania, who sits here ; he knows what has passed between 
us. I have made known to him the Reason why I struck him. 
Now I and the Governor have made up these Differences between 
him and me, and I think we have done it, as far as we can, for our 
future Peace." 

A String. 

The above speech was interpreted in the Six Nation Language. 

Tagashata then rose up and spoke : 
JJ Brethren, the Governors, and your Councils : 

" It has pleased the Most High that we meet together here with 
chearful Countenances, and a good deal of Satisfaction; and as 
publick Business requires great Consideration, and the Day is 
almost spent, I chuse to speak early to-morrow morning." 

The Governor answered, that they should be glad to give all 
the Dispatch possible to this good Work they were engaged in, 
and desired the Chiefs would fix the Time of meeting ; but they 
declined it, saying, they were unacquainted with Hours, but would 
give Notice when they were ready. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 181 



At a Conference held at Eastern, on the 12th of October, 1758. 
present : 
The Governors. 
The Gentlemen of their Council, And others, as before. 

Tagashata, the Seneca Chief, taking the Strings and Belts of 
Wampum, which Governor Bernard gave Yesterday, repeated, ac- 
cording to the Indian Custom, the particulars of his Speech, and 
then added : 
" Brethren : 

" We approve of every Article mentioned to us, yesterday, by 
the Governor of Jersey — all that he said was very good ; we look 
upon his Message to us as a Commission, and request from him 
that we should bring Matters to a good Conclusion with our 
Couzins, the Minisinks. They, themselves, sent for us to do the 
same thing, on their Behalf; and at their request we came here, 
have taken it in hand, and will use our utmost Endeavours to 
bring about the good work which Governor Bernard desires; and 
do not doubt but it will be done to his entire Satisfaction. 

u Brethren : 

" I now speak at the request of Teedyuscung and our Nephews, 
the Delawares, living at Wioming and on the Waters of the Biver 
Susquehannah. 
" Brethren : 

" We now remove the Hatchet out of your Heads that was struck 
into them by our Couzins, the Delawares ; it was a french Hatchet 
that they unfortunately made use of, by the Instigation of the 
French ; we take it out of your Heads and bury it under ground, 
where it shall aways rest and never be taken up again ; Our Couzins, 
the Delawares, have assured us they will never think of" War against 
their Brethren, the English, any more, but employ their thoughts 
about Peace, and Cultivating Friendship with them, and never Suffer 
Enmity against them to enter into their Minds again. 

" The Delawares desired us to say this for them by this Belt."" 

A Belt. 

tl Brethren : 

" Our Nephews, the Minnisink Indians, and three other different 
Tribes of that Nation, have at last list'ned to us and taken our 
Advice, & laid down the Hatchet they had taken up against their 
Brethren, the English, They told us they had received it from the 
French, but had already laid it down and would return it to them 
again. 

" They assured us they would never use it any more against you, 
but would follow our Advice, and entreated us to use our utmost 



182 MINUTES OF THE 

Endeavours to reconcile them to you, their Brethren, declaring they 
were Sorry for what they had done, and desired it might be for- 
gotten and they would forever cultivate a good Friendship with 
you; These declarations were made by the principal Warriors of 
Four Tribes of the Minisink Indians at giving us this Belt. 

A Belt. 

Then taking Eight Strings of black Wampum, he proceeded. 

11 Brethren : 

" We let you know that we have not only brought about this 
Union with our Nephews on the Waters of the River Susquehan- 
nah, but also have sent Messages to our Nephews, the Delawares 
and Minisinks, and to those likewise of our own Nations, who are 
on the Ohio under the influence of the French ; We have told all 
these that they must lay down the French Hatchet, and be recon- 
ciled to their Brethren, the English, and never more employ it 
against them, and we hope they will take our Advice ; We, the 
Mohocks, Senecas and Onondagas, deliver this String of Wampum 
to remove the Hatchet out of your Heads that has been struck into 
them by the Ohio Indians, in order to lay a Foundation for Peace." 

Eight Strings of Black Wampum. 

Tagashata sat down and then the Cayuga Chief, Tokaaio, arose 
and said. 
"Brethren : 

" I speak in behalf of the younger Nations, part of and con- 
federated with the Six Nations, Viz'-: The Cayugas, Oneidoes, 
Tuscaroras, Tuteloes, Nanticokes, and Conoys. 

" A Road has been made from our Country to this Council Fire 
that we might Treat about Friendship; and as we came down the 
Road we saw-that (by some misfortune or other) Blood has been 
spilt on it. By these Strings we make the Boad wider and Clearer. 
We take the Blood away out of it, and likewise out of the Council 
Chamber, which may have been stained. We wash it all away and 
desire it may not be seen any more, and we take the Hatchet out of 
of your Heads." 

Gave three Strings. 
" Brethren, the Governors, and all the English : 

" I now confine myself to the Cayugas, my own Nation. 

" I will hide nothing from you, because we have promised to 
Speak to each other from the Bottom of our Hearts. 

"The French, like a thief in the Night, have stolen away some 
of our Young Men and misled them, and they have been concerned 
in doing Mischief against our Brethren, the English. 

" We did not know it when it happened, but we discovered it 
since. The Chiefs of your Nation held their young men fast, and 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. . 183 

would not Suffer them to go out of their Sight ; but the French 
came and stole them away from us, and corrupted them to do Mis- 
schief. We are sorry for it; we ask Pardon for them, and hope 
you will forgive them. We promise they shall do so no more, and 
now, by this Belt, we take out of your Heads the Hatchet with 
which they struck you/ 7 

A Belt of Ten Rows. 

He added, he had found out that some of their Young People had 
been concerned in stricking us four times. 



At a Conference with the Indians held at Easton, Octo r - the 13th, 

1758. 

PRESENT I 

Governor DENNY. 
Governor BERNARD. 

The Same Gentlemen, Indians, Interpreters, &c a ' as before. 
As soon as the Indians had taken their seats Governor Denny 
made the following Speech : 

"Brethren, Chiefs and Warriors of the United Nations, and 
others your Brethren and Nephews now met here : 

" Agreeable to your Request at our first meeting, I now return 
you the Belt which the Young Seneca Indian brought me, with 
your Answer to the Invitation I gave you to come down to this 
Council Fire." 

Here his Honour returned the Belt. 
"Brethren: 

" I invited you to come down to the Council Fire kindled at this 
Place by me and your Nephew, Teedyuscung, with a design to Lay 
before you Matters of the greatest Consequence to you and us. I 
am now about to communicate them to you, and to Answer all that 
has been said by you to me since our meeting together. I, there- 
fore, by this String, Open your Ears that you may hear clearly and 
carefully attend to what I shall say to you." 

A String. 
u Brethren : 

u I must first put you in mind, that perfect Peace and Friendship 
subsisted between you and your Brethren, the English in this Pro- 
vince, from our first Settlement among you, and that whatever little 
Disputes happened between your People and ours, they were amica- 
bly settled and adjusted by our wise Men at our Council Fires, ac- 
cording to an agreement made by our Proprietary William Penn ; 
and your Fathers. 



184 MINUTES OF THE 

" Had this wise Agreement been carefully observed, as it always 
ought to have been, our late unhappy Differences had never arose. 
But what is passed cannot be recalled, and shall be forgotten. Let 
us both resolve never to be guilty of the like Error for the future." 

A String. 
" Brethren : 

" You gave us yesterday these two Belts, in behalf of your 
Nephews, the Delawares and Minisinks, and joined with them in 
taking out of our Heads the Hatchets with which we had been 
struck, acquainting us, that these Hatchets were given to your 
Nephews by the French, and that they would not use them any 
more against us, but were heartily disposed to Cultivate Friendship 
with us for the future. 
u Brethren : 

u We accept your Belts ; we thank you for the Pains you have 
taken in enquiring of your Nephews into the true Cause why they 
struck us. 

" Now that the Hatchets are taken out of our heads, and we are 
reconciled, we desire that your Nephews, the Delawares and Mini- 
sinks, will conceal nothing from you and us that ever did, or now 
does, lie heavy on their minds, that the end of this meeting may be 
answered, which was, with your assistance, to put Matters that have 
at any time disturbed their Minds on such a just and reasonable 
footing, that the Peace between us may never be interrupted, but 
continue firm to the remotest Ages." 

Two Belts. 
" Brethren : 

u By these eight Strings of black Wampum, you, the Mohocks r 
Senecas, and Onondagoes, told us that You had not only brought 
about an Union with the Delawares and Minisinks, on the Waters 
of the River Susquehannah, but had also sent Messages to the 
Indians now on the Ohio, as well those of these two Nations, as 
those of the Six Nations, under the French influence, desiring them 
to lay down the Hatchet, and enter again into Friendship with their 
Brethren the English, and on their behalf you have taken the 
Hatchet out of our Heads, so far as to lay a Foundation for a future 
Peace. 
(t Brethren, the Mohocks, Senecas, and Onondagoes : 

" This was a friendly Part, and we flatter ourselves they will 
hearken to you, as there are now Deputies here from those Indians 
on the Ohio, with Messages to us, which will be delivered in Pub- 
lick. 

" We accept your Strings and approve your taking the Hatchet 
on the behalf of the Ohio Indians, out of our Heads, so far as to 
make it the Foundation of a future Peace. 

Nine Strings. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 185 

" Brethren, the Cayugas, Oneidoes, Tuscaroras, Tuteloes, Nanti- 
cokes, or Conoys, the younger Nation who are parts of and united 
with the Six Nations. • 

" By these strings you say, that as you came down the Road 
which has been opened from your Country to this Council Fire, you 
saw Blood lately spilt upon it, and have washed it away, not only 
out of the Road, but out of the Council Chamber, least that should 
have been stained." 
"Brethren: 

" We join by these Strings with you in removing the Blood, we 
bury it deep in the earth." 

Three Strings. 
"Brothers, the Cayugas: 

" With this Belt you justly Lament the folly of your young Men, 
who have suffered themselves to be stolen away from you by the 
French, and then, at their Instigation, to strike us ; you take the 
Hatchet out of our Heads, you ask Pardon for them, and desire we 
will forgive the Mischief they have done us, and both you and they 
promise never to Hurt us more. 

" Brethren : 

" We accept the Belt in their Behalf, and give you this Belt in 
token of our Friendship and Reconciliation." 

A Belt. 
" Brethren : 

"You may remember that the Day before Yesterday, your 
Nephew, Teedyuscung, told me by this String, that he had already 
said to me at our former* Meetings, every thing he had to say, and 
had made me acquainted with the Cause why he had struck us, and 
that I knew what had passed between us j That we had made up 
all Differences, and had done it as far as we could, for our future 
Peace. 

" That at my Request, he had given the Halloo, and brought down 
to this Place you who heard him, and are now present, and that he 
would sit by and hear what he said together. 
" Brethren : 

" As there are a great many of you here who were not present 
at our former Meetings, I think it proper, for your information, to 
give you a short account of what has passed between your Nephews, 
the Delawares, and us. 

" About three years ago your Brethren, the English, living on 
the Borders of this Province were struck on a sudden, at a time 
when they were in profound Peace with you, and following the 
Business, Suspecting no Danger. Many were killed, and others 
carried away Captives. 



186 MINUTES OF THE 

" We were surprized, and did not know who struck us, but sent 
Messengers up the Susquehannah as far as the Six Nation Country, 
to enquire whence the Blow came, and for what reason. 

" On the return of these Messengers, we were informed that the 
Hatchet had been struck into our Heads by our Countrymen, the 
Delawares and Shawanese. 

" Sometime after this Discovery was made, a Cessation of Hostili- 
ties was brought about by the Six Nations, at our Request, made 
to them for that purpose by Sir William Johnson ; and upon our 
Invitation, our Brother Teedyuscung came down, with a Number 
of Delawares and other Indians, to a Council Fire kindled at this 
Place, where we have since had several Meetings. 

tt At one of these Meetings, Teedyuscung told us that the Cause 
of the War was, their foolish Young Men had been perswaded by 
the Falshearted French King to strike their Brethren, the Eng- 
lish; and one reason why the Blow came harder was, that the 
Proprietaries of this Province had taken from them, by Fraud, the 
Ground we now stand on, and all the Lands lying between Tohicon 
Creek and Wioming, on the River Susquehannah. 

u At last all blood was Wiped away and buried under Ground, 
the Peace Belts were then exchanged between us and our Brother 
Teedyuscung, who then told us he acted in behalf of Ten Nations, 
and promised to bring in and restore to us all our Fellow Subjects 
that had been carried off Prisoners by them. 

" For the Truth of this short Relation, I refer you to our Bro- 
ther Teedyuscung, who will confirm it to you more particularly." 

A Belt. 
u Brethren : * 

u To continue our Friendship, it is absolutely necessary to pre- 
serve Faith, and keep the Promises we make with each other. 

" I will speak plainly to you, and from the Bottom of my Heart, 
as one Friend ought to another, that nothing may lie heavy on my 
Mind to disturb me hereafter; and I expect the same Openness 
and Freedom on your Parts. 

" I desire, therefore, to know the Reason why our Flesh and 
Blood, who are in Captivity, and in your Power, have not been de- 
livered to us, according to the Promise made us by our Brother, 
Teedyuscung, in behalf of all the Indian he represented; and what 
is become of those Belts we gave him to confirm the Peace and that 
Promise ; for, till that Promise is complied with, we can never 
sleep in Quiet, or rest satisfied in the Friendship of those we de- 
tain our Children and Relations from us." 

A Belt. 

After the Governor had done Speaking, the United Nations 
gave the usual Shouts of Approbation, with great solemnity, each 
according to Rank. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 187 

Then Governor Bernard delivered the Belts requested by the 
Senecas, Cayugas, and Minisinks, and spoke as follows : 
" Brethren : 

" The Governor of Pennsylvania has given a particular Answer 
to what has been said to us both. So far as his answer relates to 
the Province over which I preside, I confirm what has been said by 
this Belt." 

A Belt. 

Previous to what follows, it is necessary to observe that Pisquito- 
men and another Ohio Indian, having come to Philadelphia last 
Summer, acquainted the Governor that the Indians in those Parts 
had not received any account of the late Transactions with this 
Government; nor any Message from it, and that they might be per- 
swaded to Lay down their Hatchet ; the Governor therefore took 
that Opportunity to send a friendly Message to those Indians by 
Pisquitomen, and appointed Mr. Frederick Post, a German, who 
understood the Delaware Language, to attend him, and acquaintj;he 
Indians at the Ohio of the Peace made by the Susquehannah Dela- 
wares, and other Indians, and the Disposition of this Government to 
forgive what was past, if they would return to their Antient Al- 
liance. This Message was accordingly delivered and an answer re- 
turned by Frederick Post, Pisquitomen, and Thomas Hickman, an 
Ohio Indian, who having came down together as far as Harris' 
Ferry, Frederick Post went to wait on General Forbes, and left the 
two Indians to proceed with the Message, who being now arrived at 
Easton, Pisquitomen, who had the particular Charge of it, intro- 
duced it as follows : 
" Brethren : 

" When I was at Allegheny, the Chief Men sat together as we do 
here now. I was employed by the Governor, Teedyuscung, and 
Israel Pemberton, these three men, pointing to them, and the Chief 
Men told me, that when I should come among the English Inhabi- 
tants, I must shake hands for them with the Governor, Teedyus- 
cung, and Israel Pemberton [here he shook Hands with them], and 
that what they had to say was written down in a Paper, which he 
then produced, and said they desired it' might be read in Publick. 
Now, you, Gentlemen, who are Head Men, sent Frederick Post 
with me, desiring me to take and carry him in my Bosom there, 
and when I came there to introduce him to the Publick Council, I 
did this, and have brought him back safe again. 

Then taking a Belt and three Strings of "Wampum, which were 
delivered with the Paper, he said he would interpret them, but as 
all that was said was truly set down in the writing, it was not 
necessary ; Let it be read. t 

Then Pisquitomen delivered the Paper with the Belt, and three 
Strings of Wampum, who P on being asked afterwards to whom they 



188 MINUTES OF THE 

were sent, answered, one was sent to the Governor, another to 
Teedyuscung, and another to Israel Pemberton. The Message was 
read in these Words : 

" The Indians speak now. Brethren, hear what I have to say. 
" Brethren : 

" It is a good many Days since we have seen and heard of you 
from all sorts of Nations. 
" Brethren : 

H This is the first Message which we have seen and heard of you ; 
we have not yet rightly heard you. 

" Brethren : 

" You have talked of that Peace and Friendship which we had 
formerly with you. 
"Brethren: 

" We tell you to be strong, and always remember that Friendship 
which we had formerly. 
u Brethren: 

"We desire you would be strong, and let us once more hear of 
our good Friendship and Peace we had formerly. 
"Brethren: 

"We desire you to make haste, and let us soon hear of you 
again/ ' 

Gave a String. 
" Brethren : 

"Hear what I have to say; look Brethren; since we have seen 
and heard of you of all sorts of Nations, we see that you are sorry 
that we have not that Friendship we formerly had. 

"Look Brethren; we at Allegheny are Likewise Sorry that we 
have not that Friendship with you we formerly had. 

" Brethren : 

"We long for that Peace and Friendship we had Formerly. 

" Brethren : 

"It is good that you have held that Friendship which we had 
formerly amongst our Fathers and Grandfathers. 
" Brethren : 

"We must tell you we will not let that Friendship quite drop 
which was formerly between us. Now, Brethren, it is three years 
since we dropped that Peace and Friendship which we formerly had 
with you. Now, Brethren, that Friendship is dropped and lies 
buried in the Ground where you and I stand in the middle between 
us both. Now, Brethren, Since I see you have digged up and re- 
vived that Friendship which was buried in the Ground ; now you 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 189 

have it; hold it fast: Do; bo strong, Brethren, and exert your- 
selves, that the Friendship may be well established and Finished 
between us. 
" Brethren : 

" If you will be strong it is in your Power to finish that Peace & 
Friendship well. 

" Now, Brethren, we desire you to be strong, and Establish and 
make known to all the English of this Peace and Friendship that 
it, over all, may be well established, as you are of one Nation and 
one Colour in all the English Governments. 
" Brethren : 

" When you have made this Peace, which you have begun, known 
every where amongst your Brethren, and have finished and agreed 
every where together on this Peace and Friendship, then you will be 
pleased to send it to me at Allegheny. 
" Brethren : 

" When you have settled this Peace and Friendship, and Finished 
it well, and you send it to me, I will send it to all the Nations of 
my Colour ; when I receive of you. the Answer, and I have looked 
that every thing is well done. So that I can send it to the Nations 
of my Colour, they all will join to it ; and we all will hold it fast. 
" Brethren : 

u When all the Nations join to this Friendship, then the Day will 
begin to shine clear over us; when we once hear more of you, and 
we join together, then the Day will be Still, and no Wind or Storm 
will come over us to disturb us. 

" Now, Brethren, you know pur Hearts and what we have to say; 
be strong. If you do so, every thing will be well, and what you 
have told, you in this all the Nations agree to join. 

" Now, Brethren, let the King of England know what our Minds 
are as soon as possible you can." 

Gives a Belt of eight Rows. 

Received the within Speech from the underwritten, who are all 
Captains and Counselors, Viz t- : 

Beaver King, Owahanomin, Macomal, 

Shingas, Cockquacaukeheton, Popauco, 

Delaware George, Cuhshawmehwy, Washascantant, 

Pisquitom, Kekeknapalin, Joh. Hickman,' 

Tassacomin, Captain Peter, Kill Buck. 

The above names is of Captains and Counselors. After this was 
interpreted in the Six Nation Language, and in the Delaware, the 
Three Strings were delivered to the Governor, Teedyuscung, and 
Israel Pemberton. 

As the Governor was going to close the Conference, Nichas, the 



190 MINUTES OF THE 

Mohock Chief, spoke for some Time with great vehemence, pointing 
to Teedyuscung, and Mr. Weiser was ordered to interpret it, but he 
desired to be excused, as it was about Matters purely relating to 
the Indians themselves, and desired Mr. Montour might interpret 
it. After some pause, he said, perhaps it might be better if it was 
interpreted to the Governors' Councils and Commissioners in a 
private Conference. Mr. Weiser was desired to mention this to the 
Indians, and know of them what they would chuse should be done, 
whether it should be interpreted now or at a private Conference, 
and they answered now; but soon after they said, that at the 
Request of Mr. Weiser, they consented that it should be interpreted 
in the Morning at a private Conference. 



October the 14th, 1758. 
The Indians declined meeting to-Day. 



At a private Conference with the Indians on the 15th of October, 

1758. 

PRESENT I 

Governor DENNY, His Council, and the Committee of Assembly. 

Governor BERNARD and the Jersey Commissioners. 

Chiefs of the Mohocks, Senecas, and Onondagoes; Chiefs of the 
Oneidoes, Cayugas, Tuscaroras, Nanticokes, or Conoys, and Tuteloes. 

Nichas, the Mohock Chief, stood up, and directing his discourse 
to both Governors said : 
" Brothers : 

"We thought proper to meet you here to have some private dis- 
course about our Nephew, Teedyuscung. 

" You all know that he gives out he is a great Man, and Chief of 
Ten Nations — this to his Constant Discourse. Now I, on behalf of 
the Mohocks, say we do not know he is such a great Man. If he 
is such a great Man we desire to know who made him so. Perhaps 
you have, and if this be the case tell us so. It may be the French 
have made him so. s 

" We want to enquire and know whence his greatness arose." 

Tagashata, on the Behalf of the Senecas, spoke next. 
" Brethren : 

" I, for my Nations, say the same that Nichas has done : I need 
no repeat it. I say we do not know who has made Teedyuscung 
this great man over Ten Nations, and I want to know who made 
him so." 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 191 

Assarandonquas spoke next on behalf of the Onondagoes. 
" Brethren : 

" I am here to represent the Onondagoes, and I say for them that 
I never heard, before now, that Teedyuscung was such a great Man, 
and much less can I tell who made him so. No such thing was 
ever said in our Towns as that Teedyuscung was such a great Man/ 7 

Thomas King spoke next. 
" Brethren, the Governors, and all present : 

u Take notice that I speak in behalf of Five Nations, who have 
their Deputies here present, Viz'*: The Oneidoes, Cayugas, Tus- 
caroras, Nanticokes, and Conys, who have joined together and now 
make one Nation, and Tuteloes. We Five are all connected toge- 
ther, and if any thing is said to one of us it is Communicated to 
the rest. 

" On their Behalf I now tell you we none of us know who has 
made Teedyuscung such a great Man. Perhaps the French have, 
or perhaps you have, or some among you, as you have different 
Governments and are different People. We, for our parts, intirely 
disown that he has any Authority over us, and desire to know from 
whence he derives his Authority." 

A Belt. 

Tokaaio, the Cayuga Chief, spoke: 

" Brethren : 

u I speak now to you on behalf of the Nations just now men- 
tioned to you ; you may remember that you said the other Day you 
could not be easy without your Prisoners were returned. We have 
considered this, and I now assure you that they shall be returned. 

" We speak from the Bottom of our Hearts ) we will look care- 
fully into all our Towns for them. You shall have them all. We 
will keep none. If there be any of them that have gone down our 
throats we will throw them up again. You told us a Tender Father, 
Husband, Wife, Brother, or Sister, could not sleep sound when they 
reflected that their Relations were Prisoners. We know it is so 
with us, and we will therefore use our Endeavours to make your 
Hearts Easy, and we give you this Belt as a Promise that we will 
perform our Words." 

A Belt. 

Nichas spoke next in behalf of the Mohocks, Senecas, and Onon- 
dagoes. 

" Brethren : 

" I speak now on behalf of my own Nation, and my two other 
Brethren, Deputies of the Senecas and Onondagoes. We remember 
you desired us to leave nothing in our Hearts, but speak open on 
every matter, and you said you would do the same to us. 



192 MINUTES OF THE 

" You told us, that you could not sleep sound whilst your Pri- 
soners were detained from you, nor could you have any confidence 
in the Friendship of those who did detain them. We of these three 
Nations promise, that we will use our best Endeavours to make you 
easy; When we return, we will enquire of every Town for the 
Prisoners ; We will call our Councils, and lay what you have said 
before them, and make diligent Enquiry for them through all our 
Towns, and all that we can find you shall see. 

" If any of them are gone down our Throats, we will heave them 
up again. - " 

A String of Seven Rows. 



At a Conference with the Indians on the 16th of October, 1758. 

present : 

The Governors and the Gentlemen of their Councils, &c a - 

The Minutes of the preceding Conferences were read and ap- 
proved. 

Those of Yesterday's private Conference were read, at the par- 
ticular Desire of the Chiefs of the Eight Nations, and interpreted 
to Teedyuscung and the Delawares in the Delaware Language by 
Mr. Stephen Calvin. 

The Governors then spoke separately, Governor Denny beginning 
as follows : 

" Brethren, the Mohocks, Onondagoes, Senecas, Oneidoes, Ca- 
yuga s, Tuscaroras, Nanticokes, and Tuteloes : 

" In a Conference held with you yesterday, you told me, that we 
know your Nephew, Teedyuscung, gives out that he is a great Man, 
and Chief of Ten Nations, and that this was his constant Discourse. 
By this Belt, therefore, you denied him to be so great a Man, and 
desired to know of me who made him so, or gave him Authority 
over you. 
" Brethren : 

"I will answer you truly, and tell you in a few Words all that I 
know of the Matter. I have already informed you that after the 
Delawares had Struck us, you, our good Friends, the United Na- 
tions, advised them to sit still and do us no more mischief; and that 
soon after this we invited the Delawares to meet us at a Council 
Fire kindled at this Place. 

" We received an Answer to our Message from Teedyuscung as 
a Chief among the Dejawares. At the Time appointed he came 
and told us that he represented Ten Nations, amongst which the 
United Nations were included; that he acted as a Chief Man for 
the Delawares, but only as a Messenger for the United Nations, who 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 193 

were his Uncles and Superiors, to whom he would faithfully carry 
every thing that should be transacted between us that they might 
do as they saw Cause. 

" We believe what your Nephew told us, and, therefore, made 
him a Counsellor and Agent for us, and desired him to publish to 
all Nations of Indians what we did at our Council Fires, and to let 
them know we were sincerely disposed to be at peace with them, 
u Brethren : 

" I can only speak for myself, and do assure you that I never 
made Teedyuscung this great Man, nor ever pretended to give him 
any Authority over you ; and I must do him Justice to declare to you 
that at our former publick Treaties Teeclyuscung never assumed 
any such Power; but on many Occasions when he spoke of you 
called you his Uncles and Superiors. 

" I never shall attempt to nominate or impose a Chief on any 
Indian Tribe or Nation, but on all Occasions will pay due regard to 
those who are chosen by their Countrymen. 

" If any others have made Teedyuscung so great a Man as to 
set himself above you I am sorry for it. It is more than I know, 
and they who have done it must answer for themselves. 

I should be greatly concerned that any uneasiness should arise 
among you, and hope you will guard against it, and preserve that 
Harmony which ought to subsist between Friends and Relations. 
u Brethren : 

" By this Belt and String you promised me to make Diligent 
Search in your Towns for our Flesh and Blood who are Prisoners 
among you and return them to us. 
" Brethren : 

" We have always found you honest and punctual in the per- 
formance of your Promises. Your Words, therefore, give me great 
Comfort and fill all our Hearts with Pleasure. 

" We rely upon you that no Time may be lost in fulfilling an 
Engagement on which our Peace and Quiet so greatly depend/' 

A Belt and String. 

The Governor Bernard spoke : 
" Brethren of all the Confederated Nations : 

" As you proposed your Question concerning Teedyuscung sepa- 
rately I think it proper to give you a separate Answer thereto. 

"I know not who made Teedyuscung so great a Man, nor do I 
know that he is any greater than a Chief of the Delaware Indians 
settled at Wioming. The Title of King could not be given him by 
any English Governor, for we know very well that there is no such 
Person among Indians as what we call a King ; And if we call him 
so ; we mean no more than a Sachem or Chief, I observe in his 
vol. vni.— 13. 



194 MINUTES OF THE 

Treaties, which he has held with the Governors of Pennsylvania 
(which I have perused since our last meeting), he says he was a 
Woman till you made him a Man by putting a Tomahawk in his 
hand, and through all those Treaties, especially at the last held in 
this Town, he calls you his Uncles, and professes that he is de- 
pendent on you, and I know not that any thing has since happened 
to alter his Relation to you. I therefore consider him to be still 
your Nephew. 

" Brethren : 

" I heartily thank you for your kind Promises to return the 
Captives which have been taken from us. I hope you will not only 
do so, but will also engage such of your Allies and Nephews who 
have taken Captives from us to do the same. That you may be 
mindful of this, I give you this Belt." 

A Belt. * 

After the Governors had done speaking, and their Answers were 
interpreted in the Six Nation and Delaware Languages, the Indian 
Chiefs were asked if they had any thing more to say, upon which 
Tagashata arose and made a Speech to his Couzins, the Delawares 
and Minisink Indians, directing his discourse to Teedyuscung : 

" Nephews : 

" You may remember all that passed at this Council Fire. The 
Governors who sit there have put you in mind of what was agreed 
upon last year. You both promised to return the Prisoners. We, 
your Uncles, put you in mind of this Promise, and desire you will 
perform it. You have promised it, and you must perform it. We 
your Uncles have promised to return all the English Prisoners 
among us, and therefore we expect that you our Cousins and Nephews 
will do the same. As soon as you come home we desire that you 
will search carefully into your Towns for all the Prisoners among 
you that have been taken out of every Province, and cause them to 
be delivered up to your Brethren. You know that this is an Article 
of the Peace that was made between you and your Brethren, in 
Confirmation of which you received a large Belt; of which Belt we 
desire you will give an Account, and let us know what is become of 
it, and how far you have proceeded in it." 

A Belt. 

After this was interpretted in the Delaware Language it was ob- 
served that there was no Minisink Indians Present. The Governors 
desired Mr. Read and Mr. Peters would procure a Meeting of the 
Chiefs of the united Nations with the Delawares and Minisinks, 
and cause the speech of Tagashata to be interpretted to the Mini- 
sinks in the presence of their Uncles. 

Robert White, the Nanticoke Chief, arose and said, he was going 
so -speak in the Behalf of Seven Nations, and, directing his Discourse 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 195 

to the Governors; he delivered himself in the English Language as 
follows : 
" Brethren : 

"It is now more then two Years past since we heard of our 
Cousins, the Delawares, taking up the Hatchet against the English. 
At the first Sir William Johnson sent a Message to the Head 
Nations, and when they received it, they sent one to us at Otsa- 
ningo, telling us, that as we lived close by our Cousins, they 
jdesired we would invite them to meet at our Town, and accordingly 
Vo invited them, and they came to a great meeting at our Town of 
Otsaningo. We then gave our Cousins a Belt of a Fathom long, 
and Twenty-five Rows in Breadth, and desired them to lay down 
the Hatchet that they had taken up against the English, and to be 
easy with them, and if they would follow this Advice, we told them 
that they would Live in Peace until their Heads were white with 
Age, otherwise it might not be so with them. 

" Not hearing from our Cousins for some time, What they did in 
Consequence of this Belt, we sent them two other belts, one of 
Sixteen, and the other of twelve Rows, desiring them once more to 
be easy with their Brethren, the English, and not to strike them 
any more, but still we heard nothing from them. Indeed some 
time afterwards we understood the Delawares should say that the 
Indians at Otsaningo had grey Eyes, and were like the English, 
and should be served as Englishmen ; and/ we thought we should 
have the Hatchet struck into our Heads. We now want to know 
what is become of these Belts ; may be they may be under Ground, 
or they have swallowed them down their Throats. 
"Brethren : 

" As our Cousins have been loath to give any Answer to these 
Belts, we now desire they may let us know, in a Publick Con- 
ference, what they have done with them." 

A String. 



October 17th, 1758. 
The Indians were in Council all Day, and acquainted the Gover- 
nors that they could not be ready to meet before morning. 



At a Conference held at Easton on the 18th of October, 1758. 

present : 

The Governors, Council, Gentlemen, and Indians, with the Inter- 
preters as before. 

Mr. Read and Mr. Peters acquainted the Governors, that at a 
meeting of the Chiefs of the Older and Younger Nations with the 



196 MINUTES OF THE 

several Tribes of the Delaware and Minisink Indians on Monday 
Night, the Speech of Tagashata, delivered that morning in the Pub- 
lick Conference, respecting the giving up the Prisoners, was inter- 
preted in the Delaware Language by Stephen Calvin, and another 
Belt, on the part of the Governor, being joined to Tagashata' s Belt, 
they were both delivered to the Delaware and Minisink Chiefs, to 
enforce the Matter. When this was done, Tagashata spoke to the 
Minisink Chief, Egohohowen, saying, "we were told by you that 
you had delivered up the English Prisoners, and we believed you. 
But our Brethren have told us that they were not delivered up, and 
therefore we earnestly desire that they may be made easy on this 
Article. You know, Cousins, that their Hearts will always be in 
Grief till they see again their Flesh and Blood. It is natural that 
they should be so. It would be so with us if it was our case. We 
desire you will be extremely carefull to perform this matter fully 
and soon. Let there be perfect Peace over all the English Country, 
And now let it be published, that we may all live in Peace, and with 
Satisfaction, now and for ever. I told you, Egohohowen, when 
you was in my Town, to bring with you the English Prisoners, and 
that our Brethren would expect it. I wish you had done it. 
Bu,t, however, do it now with all speed, and it will be well." 

Egohohowen answered, "it is true I was at my Uncle's Fire, and 
I believe he desired me to bring the Prisoners down, but I suppose 
it was not interpreted to me, for I did not understand it clearly, but 
I now understand it." 

The Minisink and Delaware Indians were desired to collect all 
their Warriors together, and give them these Belts, and receive 
from them their answer, it being necessary they should concur 
heartily in whatever should be concluded. 

JNichas, the Mohock Chief, acquainted the Governors, that, as 
Counsellors, they had finished, having nothing to propose at this 
present meeting. The Warriors were to speak now, and Thomas 
King was appointed to deliver their Words, who thereupon arose, 
and began with an Exhortation, as well to all concerned in Publick 
Affairs, Governors and their Councils, and Indian Chiefs and their 
Councils, as to Warriors of all Nations, White People and Indians, 
desiring all present to attend carefully to what was goin to be 
related as matters of great Consequence, which would serve to 
regulate the Conduct of English and Indians to each other. He 
added, that the Beason going to be made had taken a great deal of 
Trouble to put it into order, and it was made on Information given 
by the Several Indians now present, who were acquainted with the 
Facts. " Brethren, we, the Warriors, have waited some time, in 
Hopes our Counsellors would have taken this matter in hand; but 
as they have not done it, we have, at their desire, undertaken it, and 
they have approved of every Thing. I say, the Counsellors of the 
Five Younger Nations, as well as the three Older Nations have 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 197 

-•approved of what the Warriors are going to relate ; and take 
Notice, that the Speech is not only the speech of all the Warriors 
of the elder and younger Nations, but of our Cousins, the Dela wares 
•and Minisinks." 

This was interpreted in the Delaware Language, and Thomas 
King then proceeded, directing his Speech to the Governors and all 
the English upon the Continent. 

■" Brethren : 

" You have been inquisitive to know the cause of this War, you 
have often enquired among us, but perhaps you did not find out the 
true Cause of the Bitterness of our Hearts and may Charge us 
wrong, and think that you were struck without a cause by some of 
our own Warriors, and by our Cousins ; But if you Look a little 
about you, you Will find that you gave the first Offence; For in 
Time of Profound Peace, some of the Shawanese passing through 
South Carolina to go to War with the Enemies, were taken up and 
put in Prison ; The English knew they were going to War, and 
that they used to do it every Year; and yet, after they had per- 
swaded them in a Friendly way into their Houses, they were taken 
up and put into Prison, and one who was an Head Man of that 
Nation, lost his Life, and the others were severely used ; This first 
raised ill will in the minds of the Shawanese, and as the French 
came a little after this happened to settle on the Ohio, the Shawa- 
nese complained of it to them, and they made an artful use of it, 
set them against the English and gave them the Hatchet. Being 
resolved on Revenge they accepted it, and likewise spoke to their 
Grandfathers, the Delawares, saying, l Grandfathers, are not your 
hearts sore at our being used so ill, and at the Loss of one of our 
Chiefs? Will not you join us in Revenging his Death?' So by 
Degrees our young Men were brought over to act against you j On 
Searching Matters to the Bottom, you will find that you in this 
manner, gave the first Offence ; This we thought proper to let you 
know, It may be of Service -for the future; You may be induced 
by this to take better care in Conducting your Business in Council 
so as to guard against these Breaches of Friendship, or, as soon as 
they happen in Corresponding immediately with one another, and 
with the Indians who are in anywise concerned on such Occasions." 

Eight Strings of Black Wampum. * 
4i Brethren : 

" This was the Cause of the Shawanese, that I have just now 
related; another of the like Nature had since happened to the Sen- 
■ecas, who had suffered in the same. 

" About three years ago eight Seneca Warriors were returning 
from War through Virginia, having Seven Prisoners and Scalps 
with them ; at a place called Green Briar, they met with a Party 
of Soldiers, not less than One Hundred and Fifty, who kindly in- 



198 MINUTES OF THE 

vitecl them to come to a certain Store, and they said they would 
supply them with Provisions, and accordingly they travelled two- 
Days with them in a Friendly Manner, and when they came to the 
House they took their Arms from the Senecas ; The head men 
cryed out here is Death, defend yourselves as well as you can, which 
they did, and two of them were killed on the Spot, and one, a 
young Boy, was taken Prisoner; This gave great offence, and the 
more so as it was upon the Warriors road and we were in perfect 
Peace with our Brethren. It provoked to such a Degree that we 
could not get over it. 

" Brethren: 

"You have justly demanded your Prisoners; it is right; and we 
have given you an Answer. And therefore as we think this young 
Boy is alive, and somewhere among you, we desire you will enquire for 
him. If he be alive return him ; if you have swallowed him down 
your Throats, which perhaps may be the case, let us know it and 
we will be content. His Name is Squissatego." 

Six Strings of White Wampum. 
" Brethren : 

" We have one Word more to mention of the same Nature, and 
which was the very cause why the Indians at Ohio left you. 

" Brethren : 

" When we first heard of the French coming to the Ohio we 
immediately sent Word to the Governors of Virginia and Pennsyl- 
vania ; we desired them to come, and likewise to supply us with 
such Things as were proper for War, intending to defend our Lands, 
and hinder the French from taking the Possession of them ; But 
these Governors did not attend to our Message. Perhaps they 
thought there was no foundation for our Intelligence. The French 
however came and became our Neighbours, and you neither coming 
yourselves, nor assisting us with Warlike Stores, our People, of 
necessity, were obliged to Trade with them for what we Wanted, as 
your Traders had left the Country. The Governor of Virginia took 
care to settle on our Lands for his own Benefit; but when we wanted 
his assistance against the French he disregarded us." 

A Belt. 

" Brethren : 

" At this Treaty you justly demanded to see your Flesh and 
Blood. We have pressed this on our Cousins,*the Minisinks, and 
they, by this String, desired us to assure you, the Governors, 
that they would make strict search in their Towns, and Sincerely 
Comply with your Request, and return all the Prisoners in their 
Power/' 

Two Strings of black and white Wampum. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 199 

Then directing his discourse to the Governor of the Jersey he 
proceeded : 

<l Brother, the Governor of Jersey: 

" Our Cousins, the Minisinks, tell us they were wronged out of 
a great deal of Land, and the English settling so fast they were 
pushed back, and could not tell what Lands belonged to them. If 
we have been drunk tell us so. We may have forgot what we sold, 
but we trust to you, the Governor of Jersey, to take our Cause in 
Hand, and see that we have Justice done us. We say that we have 
here and there Tracts of Land that have never been sold. You 
deal hardly with; you claim all the Wild Creatures, and will not 
let us come on your Land to hunt for them. You will not so much 
as let us peel a Single Tree. This is hard, and has given us great 
offence. The Cattle you raise are your own • but those which are 
Wild are still ours, and should be common to both; for our Nephews, 
when they sold the Land, did not propose to deprive themselves of 
hunting the Wild Deer or using a Stick of Wood when they should 
have Occasion. We desire the Governor to take this Matter into 
his Care, and see Justice done in it." 

Two Strings of White Wampum. 
" Brethren : 

" All that has been said has been of one Nature, that is, of mat- 
ters that are Subjects of Dispute ; this that I am going to speak 
upon now is of another nature." 

Then directing himself to the Governor of Pennsylvania, said : 

" We must put you in mind that, four years ago, you bought at 
Albany a large Tract of Land over Susquehannah, extending from 
the Mouth of John Penn's Creek to the Ohio. The Proprietaries" 
Agents then paid One Thousand Pieces of Eight for the part which 
was settled by your People, that have since been driven off and 
killed. We acknowledge to have received Payment for those Parts 
which were settled, but for the other Part that we have not received 
Payment for, that we re-claim. Our Warriors 'or Hunters, when 
they heard that we had sold such a Large Tract of Land, disap- 
proved our Conduct in Council, so now we acquaint you, that we 
are determined not to confirm any more, than such of the Lands as 
the Consideration was paid for, and were settled, tho' included in 
the Deed j they are our hunting Grounds, and we desire the request 
may be granted, and Notice taken that it was made in open Con- 
ference." 

Three White Strings. 

Then Thomas King sat down. 

The Six Nation Chiefs being asked if they had any thing to say ? , 
answered, that they had done ; and having eased their minds of all 
that lay heavy upon them, they would return home. 



200 MINUTES OF THE 

The Governor promised attentively to Consider what was said, 
and give them an Answer. 

Teedyuscung then arose and spoke : 
" Brethren : 

" I should have said Something at the Time our Uncles laid be- 
fore you their Grievances, or Causes of Complaint, in Behalf of my 
Countrymen who lived near Goshen. About three years ago Nine 
of their People were killed at Goshen, when they were in Peace. I 
will not take upon me to say that the Land had never been sold,, 
but there wa3 no Dispute about this at that time. I very believe 
that they killed those nine Indians, for no other Reason than be- 
cause they were hunting on that Land. I speak to all the English 
when I mention this, as what was very wrong." 

Three White Strings. 
" Brethren : 

" One of the Waping Tribes, or Goshen Indians, tells me, that 
as soon as those Nine Men were killed, he went, with three Belts 
and Tears in his Eyes, to George Freeland's, in order to have the 
matter made up, but he never received an Answer to this Bay, tho* 
he told him that he would send the Bets to the Governor, and as- 
soon as he should receive his Answer he would send for him and let 
him know it, but he has never yet received an Answer. 
" Brethren : 

" I give you this String to enquire what became &£ the three 
Belts, and what answer was made to them." 

Three Strings of White Wampum, 
u Brethren : 

" You may remember we made Peace last year, and a Peace Belt 
was made, a Fathom long, and of Fifteen Rows. Mr. Croghan was 
present ; so were some of my Uncles, and the Minisinks. They all 
saw it. You have asked me what is become of that Belt, and how 
far it went. I wiH tell you : I sent it up the Susquehannah to Dia- 
hogo j from thence it went to Assintzin j thence to Secaughkung-. 
The Chief men there got together to Consider what was best to be 
done with it. They all concluded that it should be sent to our 
Uncle. He is a Man, and often told us he ought to see Things 
first, and Consider what is to be done. The Senecas had the Belt 
first, and then all the United Nations afterwards ; they had it almost 
a Year. Now it is come back, and in Lapackpeton's Hands, who- 
is one of the Delawares, and lives at Secaughkung. How far the 
Peace Belt went, I don't know, but I suppose it went through all 
my Uncles, and I assure you I will do as my Uncles does. He has 
promised you he will deliver up all your Captives, and I assure I 
will do so-, wheresoever I Sad them in all my Towns. Four Tribes 
now present have agreed to this, Yiz'-> Delawares, Unamies, Mohfc- 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL, 201 

cons, and Wappings, who are settled as far as Secaughkung. This 
Belt confirms my Words." 

A Belt. 
" Brethren : 

" I did let you know formerly what my Grievance was. I told 
you that from Tohiccon, as far as the Delawares owned, the Proprie- 
taries had wronged me. Then you and I agreed that it should be 
laid before the King of England, and Likewise you told me you 
would let me know as soon as ever he saw it. You would lay the 
Matter before the King, for you said he was our Father, that he 
might see what was our Differences, for as you and I could not decide 
it, let him do it. Now let us not alter what you and I have agreed. 
Now, let me know if King George has decided the Matter between 
you and me. I don't pretend to mention any of my Uncles' Lands. 
I only mention what we, the Delawares, own, as far as the Heads of 
Delaware. All the Lands lying on the Waters that fall into the 
Susquehannah belong to our Uncles/' 

A Belt. 

Teedyuscung then took up another Belt, designing to speak to 
his Uncles, the United Nations, but whilst he was delivering the 
above, their Chiefs had one after another left the Council, seemingly 
much displeased ; he, therefore, declined speaking it. 



October the 19th, 1758. 
The Governors having prepared their Answers, desired the In- 
dians to meet, but they continued holding private Councils among 
themselves all that day till late in the afternoon ; and as the Gov- 
ernors were going to the Place of Conference, the Indians sent Mr. 
Weiser out of Council to desire they would defer meeting till the 
next morning, their own private Business not being finished. 



At a private Conference with the Indians held at Easton, Octo- 
ber the 19th, 1758, P. M. 

PRESENT I 

His Excellency, Governor BERNARD. 

The Commissioners of New Jersey. 

The Chiefs of the United Nations, and of the Minisinks and 
Wapings. 

George Croghan, Deputy to Sir William Johnson. 

Andrew Montour, His Majesty's Interpreter. 

Stephen Calvin, Interpreter of the Minisink and Waping Lan- 
guage. 



202 MINUTES OF THE 

His Excellency, reciting the Request of the United Nations to 
him, to do Justice to their Nephews, the Minisinks, concerning their 
Claims to Lands in New Jersey, said, he would make diligent En- 
quiry what Lands were remaining unsold by them j but as that 
would be a Work of Time and Expence, he wished that some means 
could be found to give them Satisfaction at this Meeting. The 
People of New Jersey said they had bought all, or the greatest 
part of the Minisink Lands, and the JViinisinks said they had a 
great deal of Land unsold. 

He could not tell who was in the right, but would suppose there 
were some lands unsold ; and upon that Supposition, would give 
them some Money by way of consideration for them, if they would 
propose a reasonable Sum, and desired they would advise about it, 
and give an Answer. 

The United Nations said it was a very kind Proposal, and recom- 
mended it to the Consideration of the Minisinks. 

The same Day, Teedyuscung waited on Governor Denny at his 
House, bringing with him Isaac Still for his Interpreter, and his 
Grandson ; and in the presence of Governor Bernard, Mr. Andrew 
Johnson, and Mr. Peters, acquainted the Governor that the Dela- 
wares did not Claim Lands high up on Delaware River ; those 
belonged to their Uncles; and he thought proper to let the Gover- 
nor know this, that there might be no Misunderstanding of what 
he had said in the Publick Conference. 



At a Conference with the Indians, held at Easton, October the 
20th, 1758. 

PRESENT : 

The Governors, Council, Gentlemen, and Indians, with the In- 
terpreters as before. 

Governor Denny desired to know of Teedyuscung if he pro- 
posed to speak, as the abrupt departure of the Six Nation Chiefs 
from the Conference yesterday had prevented him from finishing 
what he had to say. 

Then Teedyuscung arose, and addressing himself to the Six Na- 
tions, said : 

" Uncles : 

"According to our Old Custom, we used to speak to one another 
at Home j but we are now met upon Business; I must speak to 
you in the presence of the English Governors, and what I shall 
say I desire both you, the English, and my Uncles who are here, 
will attend to." 

A Belt. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 203 

" Uncles : 

" I take this opportunity of speaking to you in the Presence of 
our Brethren, the English, and two of their Governors : please to 
take notice what I am going to say. 
" Uncles : 

" You may remember that you have placed us at Wioming and 
Shamokin, places where Indians have lived before. Now I hear 
since, that you have sold that Land to our Brethren, the English. 
Let the matter now be cleared up in the Presence of our Brethren, 
the English. 

"I sit here as a Bird on a Bow; I look about and do not know 
where to go \ let me therefore come down upon the Ground, and 
make that my own by a good Deed, and I shall then have a Home 
for Ever; for if you, my Uncles, or I die, our Brethren, the Eng- 
lish, will say they have bought it from you, & so wrong my Pos- 
terity out of it." 

A Belt. 

Governor Denny then requested the attention of the Indians, 
and Spoke : 

u Brethren, Chiefs and Warriors of the Six United Nations, and 
your Nephews, here assembled : 

" I am much obliged to you for the Account you gave me the 
Day before Yesterday of the True Cause of the Bitterness of your 
Hearts towards us, and the Reasons which induced some of your 
Young Men first to strike us, and others to side with the French on 
the Ohio. 

u The Advice you gave us to take better care, and guard against 
any Breach of Friendship between us for the future, is very kind 
and wholesome ) we will join with you, and Endeavour to prevent 
the like Evils for the time to come. 

" I promise you that I will immediately send to the Governor of 
Virginia to enquire after the Seneca Boy, Squissatego, who you 
say was left a Prisoner in his Country, and if he is alive, you may 
depend on his being returned to you." 

A Belt. 
" Brethren : 

" By these Strings you put me in mind that the Proprietaries, 
Four Years ago, bought of you, at Albany, a large Tract of Land 
over Susquehannah, from the Mouth of a Creek called Kayarondin- 
hagh or John Penn's Creek to the Ohio, and were paid by the Pro- 
prietaries' Agents One Thousand Pieces of Eight, as the Considera- 
tion Money, for such Parts as were settled by our People ; but that 
as your Warriors disapproved of your Conduct in Council for making 
that Sale, you now reclaimed such of the Lands contained in that 
Grant as you have not received a Consideration for. 



204 MINUTES OF THE 

" Brethren: 

" The Proprietaries of this Province have on all Occasions mani- 
fested their particular Regard for you. They prefer your Friend- 
ship and the Publick good to their own Private Interest. Their 
former Conduct gives you no Room to doubt the Truth of this. 
What I am about to tell you is a further Confirmation of it. There- 
fore give me your Attention, and listen to what I shall say. You 
may remember that at a Treaty you held with your good Friend, 
Sir William Johnson, three Years ago, some of your wise men told 
him that there were some among them who were dissatisfied with 
the sale of the above Lands made by them at Albany, and were 
desirous that part of it should be reserved for them, though the 
Proprietaries had purchased it fairly of them and paid One Thou- 
sand Pieces of Eight, which was all they were to receive till our 
People settled to the Westward of the Allegheny or Appalaccin 
Hills. Sir William Johnson represented this matter to the Pro- 
prietaries in your Behalf, whereupon they chearfully agreed to re- 
lease to you all that part of the Purchase you have reclaimed ; and, 
by a Letter of Attorney, empowered Richard Peters and Conrad 
Weiser to execute a Deed to you for those Lands, on your Confirm- 
ing to them the Residue of that Purchase. On this Subject, there- 
fore, you will please to Confer with them and Settle the Boundaries 
between you, that they may release the Lands to you accordingly 
before you leave this Place, and set your Minds at Ease." 

A String. 
11 Brethren : 

"I thank you for the Pains you have taken with your Nephews 
to prevail with them to return us such of our Brethren as are Pris- 
oners among them, and we depend on the Speedy Performance of 
their Promise. 

" Brethren : 

" I have something to say to you which is of the Utmost Impor- 
tance to us all. It requires your particular Attention and Consid- 
eration. Providence has brought you and your Nephews together 
at this Meeting, Face to Face with us, that every thing may be set- 
tled; and nothing remains, not so much as a doubt, to create any 
uneasiness in our Hearts hereafter. You know, Brethren, that 
there is an Old Agreement between the Proprietaries and you, that 
you will not sell any of the Lands lying within this Province to any 
but them, and they never take Possession of Lands till they have 
bought them of the Indians. You know, also, that the United 
Nations have sold Lands to the Proprietaries which your Nephews, 
the Delawares, now claim as their Right. This is the Case with 
Regard to some Part of the Lands lying between Tohiccon Creek 
and the Head of the River Delaware, which Teedyuscung, in your 
hearing, the Day before Yesterday, said the Proprietaries had de- 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 205 

frauded him of. The Proprietaries are desirous to do Strict Justice 
to all Indians; but it cannot be supposed they can know in which 
of you the Right was vested. It is a matter that must be settled 
among yourselves; till this is done there will probably remain some 
Jealousy and Discontent among you that may interrupt both your 
and our future Quiet, which we should guard against by all means 
in our Power." 
A String. 

" Brethren : 

" I now acquaint you that a Store of all Sorts of Goods for your 
use is opened at Shainokin, where the Indians may be Supplied at 
the most reasonable Rates with any goods they may want; and the 
best Prices will be given to you for such Skins, Purs, and Peltry 
as you shall bring them. Another Sftore is intended to be opened 
at Port Allen, and you may depend upon it that such Persons will 
be placed there who shall use you with the Strictest Justice in all 
their Dealings." 
1 A String. 

" Brother Teedyuscung : 

" As I understood at our last Meeting that you were prevented 
at that Time by the absence of some of the Six Nation Chiefs, 
from finishing. what you then had to say, I defer answering, for the 
present, such parts of your speech as relate to me. But I shall 
soon take an Opportunity of doing it." 

This was interpreted to the Delawares by Isaac Still. 

After the Governor had done speaking, Tagashata and Nichas 
arose and said they did not Rightly understand that Paragraph 
relating to the Lands, and requiring them to Settle Matters among 
themselves; they said the Governor h^d left Matters in the Dark, 
they did not know what lands he meant. If he meant the Lands 
on the other side of the Mountain he knew the Proprietaries had 
their Deeds for them, which ought to be produced and shewn to 
them. Their Deeds had their marks, and when they should see 
them they would know their marks again. 

And then Conrad Weiser being desired to bring the Deed, Gov- 
ernor Bernard informed the Indians he was going to speak to them, 
on which they acquainted him, that they chose to be spoke to by 
one Governor only at a Conference ; for that when they both spoke 
their Belts were mixed, and they were thereby confused in their 
•Councils; Whereupon he deferred his Speech to another Time. 

The Deed was then produced to the Indians, and Nichas said, 
""this Deed we well remember; we know our Chiefs who Signed it, 
some of them are present now ; we sold the Land, ai^l were hon- 
estly paid for it; the Land was ours, and we will justify it." They 



206 MINUTES OF THE 

were desired to take it with them into their Council room and Con- 
fer on it, and settle the matter among themselves. 
The Conference then broke up. 

Teedyuscung having yesterday requested of the Governor, that 
two Belts, which he then presented to him, might be sent as their 
joint Belts to the Ohio Indians. 

This Day the Chiefs of the United Nations, and Teedyuscung, 
had a meeting with two Members of Governor Denny's Council, at 
which the following intended Answer from Governor Denny to the 
Ohio Indians, being first Interpreted to the Indians, was considered, 
settled, and approved by all present : 

Governor Denny's Answer to the Message of the Ohio Indians, 
brought by Frederick Posf } Pisquitomen, and Thomas Hick- 
man. 

u By this String, my Indian Brethren of the United Nations and 
Delawares join with me in requiring of the Indian Councils, to 
which these following Messages shall be presented, to keep every 
thing private from the Eyes and Ears of the French." 

A String. 
" Brethren : 

" We received your Message by Pisquitomen, and Frederick 
Post, and thank you for the Care you have taken of our Messenger 
of Peace, and that you have put him in your Bosom, and protected 
him against our Enemy Onontio, and his Children, and sent him 
safe back to our Council Fire, by the same Man that received him 
from us." 

A String. 
" Brethren : 

" I only sent Post to peep into your Cabbins, and to know the 
Sentiments of your Old Men, and to look at your Faces, to see 
how you look. And I am glad to hear from him that you look 
Friendly, and that there still remains some sparks of Love towards 
us. It is what we believed beforehand, and therefore we never let 
Slip the Chain of Friendship, but held it fast on our Side, and it 
has never dropped out of our Hands ; by this Belt we desire you 
will dig up your end of the Chain of Friendship that you suffered, 
by the Subtilty of the French, to be buried." 

A Belt. 
" Brethren : 

" It happened that the Governor of Jersey was with me, and a 
great many Indian Brethren, sitting in Council at Easton when 
your Messengers arrived, and it gave Pleasure to every one that 
heard it; antl it will afford the same Satisfaction to our Neighbour- 
ing Governors and their People, when they come to hear it; I 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 207 

shall send Messengers to them & acquaint them with what you 
have said. 

" Your requesting to let the King of England know your good 
Disposition, we took to Heart, and shall let him know it, and we 
will speak in your Favour to His Majesty, who has for some time 
past looked upon you as his lost Children; And we can assure you 
that as a Tender Father over all his Children, he will forgive what 
is past, and receive you again into his Arms." 

A Belt. 
" Brethren : 

" If you are in earnest to be reconciled to us, you will keep your 
Young Men from attacking our Country, and killing and carrying 
Captive our Back Inhabitants \ And will likewise give orders that 
your People may be kept at a Distance from Fort Duquesne, that 
they may not be hurt by our Warriors, who are sent by our King 
to Chastise the French, and not to hurt you ; Consider the Com- 
manding Officer of that Army treads heavy, and would be very 
sorry to hurt any of his Indian Brethren." 

A Large Belt. 
" And Brethren : 

"The Chiefs of the United Nations, with their Cousins, our 
Brethren, the Delawares, and others now here, jointly with me send 
this Belt, which has upon it two figures that represent all the Eng- 
lish and all the Indians now present taking Hands and delivering 
it to Pisquitomen, and we desire it may be likewise sent to the In- 
dians who are named at the End of these Messages,* as they have 
all been formerly our very good Friends and Allies, and we desire 
they will go from among the French to their own Towns, and no 
Longer help the French. 
" Brethren on the Ohio : 

" If you take the Belts we just now gave you, in which all here 
join, English and Indians, as we don't doubt you will, then by this 
Belt I make a Road for you, and invite you to come to Philadel- 
phia to your first Old Council Fire, which was kindled when we 
first saw one another, which fire we will kindle up a gain and re- 
move all disputes, and renew the Old and first Treaties of Friend- 
ship; This is a Clear and open Road for you ; fear, therefore, noth- 
ing, and come to us with as many as can be of the Delawares, 
Shawanese, or of the Six Nation Indians ; We will be glad to see 
You j we desire all Tribes and Nations of Indians who are in Alli- 
ance with you may come ; As soon as we hear of your coming, of 
which you will give us timely Notice, we will lay up Provisions for 
you along the Road." 

* Sastaghretsy, Anigh Kalichon, Atowayteany, Towigh Towighraano, 
Geghdageghroanno, Oyaghtanont, Sisaghroano. 



208 MINUTES OF THE 

A Large White Bolt, with the Figure of a Man at Each End, 
and Streaks of Black, representing the Road from the Ohio to Phila- 
delphia. 

" Brethren : 

The Six Nation and Delaware Chiefs join with me in those Belts 
which are tied together, to Signify our Union and Friendship for 
each other; with them we jointly take the Tomahawks out of your 
Heads and bury them under Ground. 

" We Speak loud, so as you may hear us; you see we all stand 
together, joined Haud in Hand." 

Two Belts tied together. 

The Indian Chiefs being asked if it would not be proper to insert 
in the Message an Account of the Situation of our Army to the 
Westward, and to desire them to join the General against the French, 
they replied that they would by no means advise this Government 
so soon to press them to take up the Hatchet', because the Wounds 
were not yet healed, nor Peace made, which must be done first. 
They said further, that as the French had many Indians fighting for 
them, and they, by Intermarriages, were related to the Indians who 
sent the Messages, it could not be expected they would easily be 
perswaded to join the English, lest they should kill their own Flesh 
and Blood, adding, that the only proper Measure that could now be 
taken was to advise them to sit still and keep out of the Way, and 
this Advice they believed would be hearkened to. 

Then they desired that at least two of our Inhabitants might 
accompany Pisquitomen and Thomas Hickman, the Two Messengers. 
to Ohio. The Six Nation Chiefs promised to send Two of their own 
People with them, and Teedyuscung said he would send one, if not 
two, Delawares. 



At a private Conference with the Indians held at Easton, October 
the 21 st, 1758. 

present: 

His Excellency, Governor BERNARD, and the Jersey Commis- 
sioners. 

Thomas King, Chief of the Oneidoes. 
Tagashata, Chief of the Senecas. 
Tokaaio, Chief of the Cayugas. 
Egohohowen, Chief of the Minisiuks. 

Nimhani, Chief of the Wapings, with other Indians of the Several 
Nations. 

George Croghan, Deputy to Sir William Johnson. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 209 

Andrew Montour, His Majesty's Interpreter to the United Na- 
tions. 

Stephen Calvin, Interpreter of the Delaware and Minisink Lan- 



His Excellency informed them that he met them to agree about 
the Price of the uncertain Claims of the Minisinks, Wapings, and 
other Indians, Claimants of Land in the northern parts of the Pro- 
vince of New Jersey, and desired that it might be considered, that 
they knew not what they sold, and he know not what he brought ; 
therefore the Price ought not to be large. 

That they might propose a Sum to him, or he would make an 
offer to them j or it should be left to their Uncles to consider a 
Price as would please them best. 

The Mingoes, or Six United Nations, by Thomas King, said that 
the United Nations had no claims to the Lands of the Minisink, 
or others, their Nephews, on the East Side of Delaware, and should 
therefore leave the fixing a Price to them. 

Then the Minisinks and Wapings withdrew to consult upon it ; 
and being returned, Egohohowen, the Minisink Chief, said they 
would chuse the Governor should make an Offer, as they might 
perhaps demand too much. 

His Excellency, having consulted the Commissioners, offered 
them Eight Hundred Spanish Dollars for their claim in New 
Jersy as an extraordinary Price. 

The Minisinks said they should be glad of the Opinion of their 
Uncles in the Matter. 

The Mingoes, or United Nations, by Thomas King, said that it 
was a fair and honourable Offer, and that if it were their own Case, 
they would chearfully accept of it ; but as there were a great 
many Persons to share in the Purchase Money, they recommended 
it to his Excellency to add Two Hundred Dollars more ; and if 
that was complied with, the Report of it would be carried to all 
the Nations' and would be a proof of the A ffection and Generosity 
of their Brethren, the English, on this Occasion, and would be 
very agreeable to them. 

His Excellency desired to know of the Minisinks, and other In- 
dians, if they approved of the Proposal of their Uncles, and they 
informed him that they did. 

The Governor, after Consulting the Commissioners, said it was 
more than he intended to give; but as the United Nations had 
given themselves the Trouble of being Mediators between them, 
he could not refuse their Recommendations, and was glad of the 
Opportunity he had of showing his regard to the United Nations, 
and his Benevolence to the Minisinks, and other Indians who had 
VOL. VIII. — 14. 



210 MINUTES OF THE * 

resided in the Province where he presided,, and therefore eomplie<j 
with their Request. 

His Excellency then desired them to remember that this Con» 
sideration Money was to be in full for the Claims of all the Mini* 
sinks and Waping Indians, and all others who Claim any Lands iij 
a Map, which Was laid before them at the same Time, which ir* 
eluded all the Lands from the Lin® between the Provinces of Ne\J 
York and New Jersey, and Down Hudson's river to the Mouth o! 
Kariton ; up the same to Laametang Falls on the North Branch o£ 
Rariton River ; and thence on a Strait Line to Pacoqualin Moun 
tain, wheie it joins on Delaware River; and thence up the Dela 
ware to Cushyhink ; and recommended it to .them to have respect 
to this in the Division of the Consideration Money. 

Then Tagashata, the Seneca Chief, arose, and addressing himself 
to the Minisink and other Indian Claimants, spoke as follows : 

u My Nephews : 

" I desire you will now give over all Thoughts ©f y«wr Land, and 
that we may hear no more Complaints about it. 

"Now You must remember the Friendship between you and 
your Brother, and transmit it to your Children, and make them 
acquainted with the actions of this Day. I recommend this- to you, 
not from my Lips only, but from the Bottom of my Heart. I hope 
it will also make a deep impression in your Hearts. 

" It seems as if your Grandfathers had not told you all of th<3 
Treaties they used to have with their Brethren, but carried them 
with them to the Grave. But we hope you will not do so, but 
carefully inform your Children of your Agreements. We have given 
you this Advice, and hope you will follow it. We also expect you 
will take Care of your Young Men,, that they do no more Violence 
to their Brethren, the English." 

Egohohowen then addressed himself to the Governor, and desired 
to be heard. 

il Brother : 

" We are now thoroughly satisfied, and we still retain a Friend^ 
ship for our Brethren, the English, and we desire that if we should 
come into your Province to see our Old Friends, and should have 
•Occasion for the Bark of a Tree to Cover a Cabbin, or a little 
Refreshment, that we should not be denied, but be treated as 
Brethren, and that your People may not look on the Wild Beasts 
.of the Forests or Fish of the Waters as their sole property, but that 
we may be admitted to an equal Use of them." 

The Governor answered, that as soon as he got home, he should 
issue a Proclamation, to Notify to the People of his Province that 
he had made Peace with them, and to order that, for the Future, 
ihey should be treated as Brethren, which he hoped would be done ; 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 211 

but desired that they would not go into those parts where they had 
lately committed Hostilities till the People's Passions were cooled, 
for he could not be answerable for his People's Behaviour whilst 
their Losses were fresh upon their Minds. 



On the 21st of October the Members of the Pennsylvania Council. 
received a Message from Mr. Weiser, that the Chiefs of the United 
Nations were met in Council with their Nephews, the Delawares, at 
the House of Nicholas Skull, and that the Delaware had something 
to say to their Uncles, which they desired some of the Members of 
that Council, and Commissioners, should be Witnesses of and hear. 

Messieurs Growdon, Chew, and Mifflin attended accordingly, 
with Messieurs Galloway, Pox, and Hughes, Commissioners, and 
Israel Pemberton, Isaac Zane, and some other Quakers.; who were 
present at this particular Request of the Delawares. 

PRESENT J 

All the Six Nation Chiefs, 

Teedyuscung. 

Tapiscawen, alias Samuel Davis, 

Nowallkeeka, or Four Steps. 

Compass* 

Awehela, alais James Davis, 

Lappink. 

Neccochoon, Munsey Chief. 

Moses Tetamy. 

Conrad Weiser, Andrew Montour, Isaac Still, Interpreters. 

Teedyuscung, on Behalf of the Delawares, arose and spoke m 
follows : 

" Uncles :— 

" I desire you will hear me ; We have gone so far at this Treaty, 
as to talk of Lands ; I, therefore, thought proper to meet you. 
here, to let you know that I have Consulted with all my Brethren, 
your Cousins, here present, about the Deed you, our Uncles, Signed 
to the Proprietaries of Pennsylvania, shewn to us Yesterday, for 
the Lands beyond the Kittocktinny Hills. 

" We have seen the Deed, and know it well. Nutimus, one of 
our Chief Men, has signified it; and here sits one of our men, 
named Philip Compass, who was present when the sale was made ; 
and remembers that Nutimus, our Chief, received Forty-four Dollars 
as his Part, or Share of the Consideration Money. We agree to it, 
and acknowledge that the Land was fairly Sold. We give it up, 
and now confirm it. Let there be no difference, nor any tfi&g 



212 MINUTES OF THE 

more said about it. This is not the Land I have disputed with my 
Brethren, the English. That Land lies between Tohiccon Creek 
and the Kittoch tinny Hills." 

Gave a Belt. 

Tokaaion, the Cayuga Chief, stood up and spoke as follows, ad- 
dressing himself to Tecdyuscung : 

" Cousin : 

" I thank you for your Openness and Honesty on this Occasion, 
freely to declare the Truth. We wish our Brethren/ the English, 
naming the Governors of Pennsylvania, Virginia, Carolina, and 
Jersey, were so honest and precise. 

u They have called us down to this Council Fire, which was kin- 
dled for Council Affairs, to renew Treaties of Friendship, and 
brighten the Chain of Friendship. But here we must hear a Dis- 
pute about Land, and our Time is taken up, but they don't come to 
the Chief point. 

"The English first began to do Mischief; we told them so; 
They only thanked us for our Openness and Advice, and said they 
would take Care for the future, but healed no wounds. In short, 
when they speak to us, they do it with a Shorter Belt or String 
than that which we spoke to them with ; tho' they can make Wam- 
pum, and we cannot. 

"They ought not thus to treat with Indians on Council Affairs. 
Several of our Strong Belts are lost in their Hands intirely. I 
fear they only speak from their Mouth, and not from their Heart." 

On the Same Day, P. M., Pisquitomen and Thomas Hickman, 
came to take their leave of the Governor, accompanied with Cap- 
tain Bull, William Hayes, and Isaac Still, the Persons appointed 
to attend them to the Ohio, who were particularly recommended 
to their Care and Protection by a String of Wampum. 

The Belts and Strings were numbered, as well in the written 
Paper containing the Message, as on Labels tied to each of them,* 
and delivered to Pisquitomen, and the Written Message was deliv- 
ered with the Passports, to Captain Bull. 



The 22d of October, the Six Nation Chiefs held a private Coun- 
cil, and named Two of their People to send to the Ohio, Viz' - : To- 
jenontawly, Cayuga Chief, and the youngest Shick Calamy, who 
joined Pisquitomen, and set off this afternoon. As they were set- 
ting out, Mr. Frederick Post arrived with news from General 
Forbes, that a Large Body of French and Indians having attacked 
his advanced Post at Loyal Hanning, were repulsed with great Los3 
on their Side, which news he Communicated to the Indians. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 213 

At noon the Governor being prepared for a Conference, proposed 
a meeting of the Indians, which they desired might be deferred till 
the Morning. 



October the 23d, 1758. 
This Morning one of the Seneca Chiefs died ; Condolence Cere- 
monies, and Presents being made as usual, he was decently interred, 
a Number of the Inhabitants attending the Funeral. This took up 
the Forenoon. 



At a Conference with the Indians the same Day, P. M. 
. present: 

The Governors, and the Gentlemen of their Councils, &c a -' as be- 
fore. 

The Minutes were read, and approved, to the End of the Pub- 
lick Conference on Friday last, after which Governor Denny spoke: 
"Brethren : 

" By this Belt we heal your Wounds, we remove your Grief; we y 
take the Hatchet out of your Heads ; we make a deep hole in the 
Earth, and bury the Hatchet so low, that no Body shall be able to 
dig it up again." 

A Belt. 

"Brethren : 

" Now we have healed your Wounds, we, by this Belt, renew all 
our Treaties; we brighten the Chain of Friendship; we return to 
our first Affection ; we confirm our Antient Union ; we put fresh 
Earth to the Boots of the Tree of Peace, that it may bear up against 
every Storm that can blow, and live and flourish to the End of 
Time, whilst the Sun Shines and the Bivers run. • And we desire 
you would publish it among your own, and all other Indian Nations 
who are your Friends and Allies, and engage them to join with you 
in a firm Peace with his Majesty, and all his Subjects, in whose be- 
half I give you this Belt." 

A Large Peace Belt. 
<( Brethren : 

" We now open a Road to the Old Council Fire, which was kin- 
dled by you and our Fathers in the City of Philadelphia. 

" Be assured that you will always find this Road open, easy, and 
pleasant to travel in, and for the future, whenever Occasion Calls, 
we shall be glad to see you there." 

A Belt. 



214 MINUTES OF THE 

i( Brethren of the United Nations, and all our other Brethren, 
jour Cousins and Nephews : 

" We thank you for the Care and Diligence with which you have 
attended to the several Matters recommended to you in these Con- 
ferences, which has yielded us Abundance of Satisfaction. 

" This Treaty will convince all our Enemies that we are now united 
in the firmest Band of Amity, and whilst we join our Strength 
together, it will not be in their Power to hurt either you or us." 

A Belt. 
" Brethren : 

" As a Token of the Love we, your Brethren of this Province, 
bear to you, I shall make a Present of a Quantity of Goods, which 
we have prepared for you, and desire your Acceptance of them ; 
sensible of the approaching Season, and of the many Difficulties you 
live under from the Present War, We give it with an hearty good 
will." 

Here his Honour delivered a List of the Goods, and desired Mr. 
Weiser and Mr. Montour would interpret it to them at a proper 
Time. 

Invoice of Indian Goods brought to Easton. 

3 Groce of narrow-starred Gartering. 

4 Ditto of Broad Star. 
2 Ditto of Middle Star. 

4 Ditto of Narrow Scotch. 
2 Ditto of Middle Turkey. 
2 Ditto of broad Turkey. 

4 Ditto of best Scotch. 

5 Ditto of mixed figured. 

2 Ditto of narrow Calimancoe. 
2 Ditto of broad Calimancoe. 
2 Ditto of spotted. 
2 Ditto of Leaf. 

1 Ditto of London lettered. 

2 Ditto of Plad. 

3 Ditto of middle Scarlet. 

4 Ditto of broad Scarlet. * 

3 Ditto of Superfine. 

2 Ditto of Boys' lettered. 
2 Ditto of broad white Lettered 
2 Ditto of Couloured pidgeon. 
2 Ditto of Camblet. 
33 Painted Looking Glasses. 
8 Pieces of Red Stroud. 

4 Ditto. 

14 Ditto of mazarine Blue 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL 2$j 

1 Piece of mazarene Blue. 

2 Ditto Black. 

1 Ditto red and o-ne blue. 

2 Pieces of 6 qrs. blue DuffiL 
"2 Ditto of 7-8ths Ditto. 

1 Nap Ditto. 

1 Piece of stamped Serge. 
1 Piece of red Half thicks* 
1 Piece -of Brown Half thicks, 
:2 Ditto of white Ditto. 
1 Piece of blue broad Clotk 

5 Laced Coats. 
8 Plain Ditto, 

SO Pair of* Shoes. 

3 Dozen and one pair of Womens 5 worsted Stoekra'gs. 
1 Ditto of yarn Ditto. 

4 Pieces and 2 Bandanoe Handker fe 
1 Ditto Lungee Romals. 

1 Ditto XkUou Ecsmals. 
4 Ditto of Nonsog&retties, 
-8 lb Coloured Thread. 

•3 Dozen and ten Worsted Caps. . 

2 Ditto of Knives. 

1 Ditto of Tobacco Boxes. 

1 Ditto >©f coarse Linnen Handler*" 5, 

4 Pieces of figured bartering. 

-4 Ditto of blue and white flower' d Handkerchiefs. 

-3 Dozen and tea plain Hats. 

'2 Dozen of Tailors' Shears. 

6 Gun Locks. 

I Bunch of black Beads. 

j8 Grace a&d an Half of Sleeve link Buttons. 

4 Dozen of Ivory Combs. 

I G-roce of Women's Thimbles. 
l f 00 Blankets. 
T6 ! Match-coats. 
-246 Plain 'Shirts. 
187 Ruffled Ditto. 

u Brother Teedyuscung : 

w By this Belt you put me in mind that we formerly referred our 
Dispute about Lands to our Father, King George, and you desire to 
.fcnow If he has decided It 

u Brother % 

M You should Consider the Circumstances of the at airs of you*" 
Father, King George. His Majesty lives at a very great Distance 
irom py is now engaged in War witfe the French ; and the Business 



216 MINUTES OF THE 

of War takes tip a great deal of Time and Attention ; besides m 
Time of War we have but few Opportunities of hearing from him. 

" As yet I have had no answer relative to your Affairs. You 
may depend upon it as soon as I receive one it shall be communi- 
cated to you ; And I can assure you the Proprietaries have pressed 
Dispatch, and will do every thing in their Power to bring it to a 
speedy Determination/' 

A Belt. 

Then Governor Bernard, requesting the attention of the Indians, 
addressed them as follows : 
" Brethren of the United Nations : 

" By this String you spoke on Behalf of our Brethren, the Mini- 
sinks, & said that they were wronged in their Lands; that the 
English settled so fast that they continually were pushing them ; 
and when they asked for their Lands they were told that they had 
sold their Lands, and had got drunk and forgot it. If they had 
swallowed their Lands they must be content; but they did not 
believe that they had swallowed all, but that some was left. They 
desired that I would enquire after their Lands that were left, and 
do them Justice. 
" Brethren : 

" I am glad I have an Opportunity, in the presence of so many 
Nations, to express the Desire I have of doing justice to every one. 
The Throne of the Great King is founded on Justice, and I* should 
not be a faithful Servant to him if I neglected to give redress to all 
Persons that have received Injuries from the People over whom the 
King has placed me. 

" I have therefore, had a Conference with the Minisinks, in the 
Presence of some of their Uncles, and have come to a full Agree- 
ment with them, the Proceedings of which are now ready to be 
read to you. 
" Brethren : 

" I have another Proofs to give you of the Uprightness and Jus- 
tice of our Province ; We have come to an Agreement with the 
Delaware Indians, and other Indians, for the uncertain Claims they 
had on the southern Parts of our Province, I hereby produce the 
Deeds that have been executed on this Occasion, that the Subject 
of them may be explained to you and be had in perpetual Kemem- 
brance by all the Nations present, and I desire that you may re- 
member that, by these two Agreements the Province of New Jersey 
is intirely freed and discharged from all Indian Claims, In Con- 
firmation of which I give you this Belt." 

A Belt. 
•' Brother Teedyuscung : 
" By this String you tell me, that after the killing the nine In- 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 217 

dians near Esopus, you carried three Belts to George Freeland wlio 
undertook to give them to the Governor, and you ask what is be- 
come of those Belts. 

"Brother: 

" I can only say that I never heard of those Belts before, nor do 
I know what Governor George Freeland undertook to carry those 
Belts to; The Proper Governor was the Governor of New York, 
for in his Province was this Mischief committed j And probably 
the Governor of New York had these Belts, for I have heard that 
he Issued a Proclamation for apprehending the Perpetrators of this 
Fact. This Fact has been blamed by all good and wise men, and 
I am glad that it was not done by the People of my Province j I 
will acquaint the Governor of New York with what you have said 
upon this Occasion, and I will enquire after those Belts and give 
you an Answer." 

A String. 

Governor Denny being Obliged to return to Philadelphia on 
urgent Business, took his leave of the Indians. 
u Brethren : 

" It gives me great Pleasure that the Business of this Treaty has 
been carried on with so much Satisfaction. 

" I am sorry I am now to inform you that I am obliged to leave 
you, haying received last Night an Express from General Forbes, 
who is now near Ohio ; My Business calls me to Town ; I shall, 
therefore, leave Mr. Logan and Mr. Peters to transact the remain- 
der of the Business, and doubt not but they will act to your Satis- 
faction. 

"I assure you of my Affection for you, and wish you all manner 
of Happiness." 

Teedyuscung arose, and desired to be heard on behalf of the 
Wapings or Wapinger Indians, called the River Indians, living 
near Esopus, and produced a Short, broad Belt of White Wampum, 
having in the Center two Hearts of a Reddish Colour, and in 
Figures, 1745, wrote after the following manner, 17 V v 45. The 
Belt had a round Circle Pendant, representing the Sun. He then 
produced two Certificates, one from Governor Clinton, and the other 
from Governor Hardy, both which were much in Favour of the 
Wapinger Tribe of Indians. He said the Belt was given them by 
the Government of New York, and represented their Union, which 
was to last as long as the Sun should continue in the Firmament. 

Teedyuscung addressed Governor Bernard, desiring, by a String 
of Wampum, that he would extend his Protection to the Tribe of 
the Wapings, and. as their Chief was old and infirm, he requested 
the favour of a Horse to carry him Home, which was readily 
granted. • 



218 MINUTES OF THE 

Takeaghsado, or Tagashata, made the same request to Governor 
Denny, which was likewise granted. 

The Six Nation Chiefs consulted together, and in a little Time 
Nichas, in their. Behalf, returned an Answer to the Speeches of the 
Governors, laying the Belts and Strings upon the Table in y e order 
they were delivered, and repeating distinctly what was said on each 
of them. At the end of every Article he returned Thanks, and 
expressed the Highest Satisfaction, particularly on the ratifying the 
Peace, and the large Belt given thereupon, which he said should 
be sent to all the distant Nations, to whom it would be very 
agreeable. He likewise promised, that every thing transacted in 
these Conferences, which again he said had afforded him great 
Pleasure, should be laid before the great Council at Onondago, 
whose Answer should be carefully transmitted. He thanked the 
Governor, Bernard, for making up all Differences between the Gov- 
ernment and the Minisink Indians so much to their Satisfaction. 
He made an Apology for the want of Wampum, and the Exchange 
of other Belts, to give in Confirmation of their Performance of the 
several Things mentioned in the Governor's Speeches, agreeable to 
Indian Customs; Then wished Governor Denny a good Journey. 



October the 24th, 1758. 

Mr. Peters and Mr. Weiser, the Proprietary Agents, held a 
private Conference with the Chiefs of the United Nations at the 
House of Adam Johe, in Easton, at which were present : 

William Logan, Esqr., of the Council. 

George Croghan, Esqr., Deputy Agent to Sir William Johnson. 

Charles Swain, Esqr., Prothonotary of Northampton. 

Mr. Henry Montour, Interpreter, and Mr. John Watson, Sur- 
veyor in the County of Bucks. 

And there were present the following Indians : 

Kuriahtaaty, Chief of the Mohocks. 

Seguehsonyont, Chief of the Oneidoes. 

Nichaquantaqueah, Chief of the Tuscaroras. 

Assaradungua, Chief of the Onondagoes. 

Tagashata, Chief of the Senecas, 

Tokaaio, Chief of the Cayugas. 

Conniack, Chief of the Conoys. 

Robert White, Chief of the Nanticokea. 

Several other Indians. 

Mr. Peters and Mr. Weiser, in Virtue of a Power of Attorney 
from the Proprietaries of Pennsylvania to thein, under the great 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 219 

Seal of the Said Province, having previously settled with the In- 
dian Chiefs, the Limits of the Lands to be released by the said Pro- 
prietaries, and of the Lands to be confirmed by the United Nations, 
the Proprietaries' relase, and the Indians' Deed of Confirmation 
were read and interpreted ; and the Indians expressing their Satis- 
faction at every part thereof, and particularly with the Limits, as 
described in the Draught annexed to their Confirmation Deed, they 
were both executed in the Presence of William Logan, George 
Croghan, Henry Montour, Charles Swaine, and John Watson, who 
subscribed their Names, as Witnesses thereto. A Belt was given to 
the Indians at the Delivery of the Release ; and it was agreed that 
both Deeds should be produced at the next Pnblick Conference, in 
order to be acknowledged. 



On the 25th of October, the Indians were employed all Day in 
dividing the Presents among their Several Tribes. 



At a Conference held at Easton with the Indians, October the 
26th ; 1758. 

PRESENT : 

His Excellency, Governor BERNARD. 
William Logan, George Croghan, } 

Richard Peters, Conrad Weiser, LEsauires 

Andrew Johnson, Charles Swaine, f ^ 

Charles Read, Major Orndt, J 

John Stephens. 

The Sheriff and his Officers. 

Mr. John Watson. 

The Chiefs of the United Nations, and of the other Nations of 
Indians, Moses Tetamy, and James Davis, and several other Dela- 
ware s. 

The Secretary having observed to the Six Nation Chiefs, that 
the Governors were charged by Tokaaio, with having omitted some 
things in their Answers, and desired to know what they were ; 
Thomas King said they were afterwards supplied, and recommended 
some things to be more particularly mentioned than they had been ; 
and agreeable to this Advice the following Speech was spoke by 
the Members of the Pennsylvania Council : 
" Brethren : 

" As we have settled all Difficulties, and Confirmed the Antient 
Leagus of Amity, and brightened the Chain of Friendship, we now 
clean the Blood off your Council Seats, and put them in order, that 



220 MINUTES OF THE 

when you hold Councils at Home, you may sit as you formerly used 
to do in your Seats, with the same Peace and Tranquility/' 
A String consisting of one Thousand grains of Wampum. 
t( Brethren : 

" With this String of Wampum we condole with you for the loss 
of your Wise Men, and for the Warriors that have been killed these 
troublesome times, and likewise for your Women and Children ; 
and we cover their Graves decently, agreeable to the Custom of 
your Forefathers." 

A String of one Thousand Grains of Wampum. 
" Brethren : 

u We disperse the dark Clouds that have hung over our Heads 
during these Troubles, that we may see the Sun Clear, and Look 
on each other with the Chearfulness our Forefathers did." 

A String of One Thousand Grains of Wampum. 

Mr. Peters and Mr. Weiser produced the Confirmation Deed, 
executed by the Chiefs of the United Nations, as before set forth, 
which the Indian Chiefs acknowledged to have been their voluntary 
Act and Deed, and that they clearly understood the Contents thereof, 
together with the Limits described in the Draught annexed to it, 
and the same being handed from Indian to Indian, it was re-deliv- 
ered to the Proprietaries' Agents. 

After which the Indian Chiefs produced the proprietary Deed of 
release executed by Mr, Peters and Mr. Weiser, the Proprietary 
Agents, who acknowledged it to be their Act and Deed, in Behalf 
of their Constituents, and re-delivered it to the Indians, together 
with the Belt, 

His Excellency, Governor Bernard, produced the following Deeds : 
one executed by five Indian Attorneys, appointed by a Council of 
the Delaware Nation, for all the Lands lying in New Jersey, South 
of a Line from Paoqualin Mountain, at Delaware River, to the Falls 
of Laometung, on the North Branch of Rariton River, and down 
that River to Sandy Hook, dated the 12th of September last, with 
Endorsements thereon, made by Teedyuscung, Anawalleckon, and 
Tepascouon, signifying their Agreement thereto, and acknowledge- 
ment of their having received Satisfaction thereon, witnessed by 
three chiefs of the United Nations, who, in Behalf of the United 
Nations, approved the Sale, and also by several English Witnesses. 

Another Deed, dated the 23d of October Instant, at Easton, from 
the Chiefs of the Munseys and Wapings, or Pumptons, Sixteen in 
Number, and included all the remaining Lands in New Jersey, be- 
ginning at Cushetung, and down the Division Line between New 
Jersey and New York to the Mouth of Tappon Creek, at the North 
or Hudson's River, and down the same to Sandy Hook, then to the 
Mouth of Rariton, then up that River to Laometung Falls, then on 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 221 

a Strait Line to Pasqualin, where it joins on Delaware River, and 
lip Delaware to Clishetung, endorsed by Ninihani, a Chief of the 
Pumptons or Wapings, who was sick at the Execution thereof, and 
approved by the United Nations, which was testified by three of 
their Chiefs signing as Witnesses, and Governor Bernard desired all 
present might take Notice of the Same, The Indian Title to all 
the Lands in the Province of New Jersey "being conveyed thereby ; 
which being interpreted in the Six Nation and Delaware Languages, 
His Excellency addressed the Indians as follows : 

" Brethren : 

" I am very glad this good Work has been so happily finished- 
I came among you wholly unacquainted with your Farms, and 
therefore if I have omitted any Ceremonial, you will readily excuse 
me. But in whatever I have been deficient, I am sure I have not 
wanted a good Heart towards you. 

" The Circumstances of our Province have hitherto rendered us 
unable to give you any great Proofs of our Regard for you j but I 
shall endeavour to perswade my people to do you good Service for 
the Future by openning a Communication with you, which, if 
rightly managed, will be much to the Advantage of both people ; 
And, for my own part, I shall be always ready to do you Justice, 
and desire that whenever you have cause of Complaint against my 
People, you will take care to Signify it to me." 

A String. 

The five Nation Chiefs have laid all the Belts and Strings on the 
Table that were delivered at this and the last Conference. The 
Cayuga Chief, Tokaaio, desired the Governors and all present would 
hearken to what Thomas King was going to say on Behalf of the 
United Nations (now Eight in Numbers) ; on which Thomas King 
arose, and taking up the first Belt, which was given by Teedyus- 
cung when he requested a Deed for the Wyoming Lands, he 
addressed the Delawares, Teedyuscung not being present, as fol- 
lows: 
" Cousins : 

" By this Belt Teedyuscung desired us to make you the Owners 
of the Lands at Wyoming, Shamokin, and other places on the Sus- 
quehannah River; in answer to which we, who are present, say 
that we have no power to convey Lands to any one, but we will 
take your Request to the great Council Fire for their Sentiments, 
as we never convey or sell Lands before it be agreed in the great 
Council of the United Nations. In the mean time you may make 
use of those Lands in Conjunction with our People, and all the 
rest of our Relations, the Indians of the different Nations in our 
alliance ;" which being interpreted in Delaware, the String of 
Wampum was given to Moses Tetamy and James Davis to be de- 
livered to Teedyuscung, as he was not present. 



222 MINUTES OF THE 

Then taking up each Belt and string, in the order it was deliv- 
ered in this and the last Conference, he proceeded to repeat dis- 
tinctly what had been said under each Article, returning Thanks 
for all those good Speeches, which he said were extremely agree- 
able. He made particular mention of the Large Peace Belt, saying 
11 that the Nations were vastly pleased that all the Antient Treaties 
made there, at Albany, and elsewhere, where renewed, as well as 
that the Old Council Fire at Philadelphia was kindled again, and a 
good Road made to it, that might be travelled without Danger ; 
these in Particular, as well as every other matter transacted at 
these Conferences, we will make known to our own Nations, and to 
every other in Friendship and Alliance with us ; and we are sure 
they will be very well received." 

" Then addressing Governor Bernard, they thanked him for his 
farewell Speech, saying it was a very kind one, and that they 
were very glad at his having been present and given his assistance 
at this Treaty, which had given them an Opportunity of gaining 
an acquaintance with him, which they would ever remember with 
Pleasure. After a Pause, he desired to be excused in mentioning 
something that had been omitted by the Governors and their Coun- 
cils. You have forgot to bring your ammunition, of which we 
always used to receive a sufficient Quantity, not only to serve us in 
our Journey, but Support us in our Hunting Season, that we might 
be enabled to make provision for our Families j You have given us 
Gun locks without Guns, which are of no manner of use to us, and 
therefore, this must surely have been forgot, as it is impossible for 
Indians to Subsist without Guns, Powder, and Lead, of which we 
received none. 
" Brethren : 

"As many of us are old and infirm, we desire our Brethren will 
be so good as to furnish us with a Number of Waggons to carry 
such of us as are not able to walk with the Goods you have been 
pleased to give us, as far as Wioming, where we have left our Ca- 
noes, and then we will discharge the Waggons. We further desire 
a Supply of Provisions may be put into Waggons enough to serve 
us till we get to our respective Habitations. 

" He then took up the Proprietary Release, and returned Thanks 
for it. He said that when the United Nations first made the Re- 
quest to Sir William Johnson to be transmitted to Onas, they had 
no doubt; but Onas would comply with it, having always found him 
ready to grant all their Requests ; with him we have never had any 
Difference, he has always settled our Affairs without giving us any 
Trouble, and to our Satisfaction; We heartily thank Onas; This 
act confirms us in the good Opinion we have always had of him." 

Then addressing himself to the Delawares, with a String of 
Wampum, he spoke as follows : 

"This serves to put Teedyuscung in mind of his Promises, to 



PKOVINCIAL COUNCIL. 223 

return the Prisoners; Remember Cousin, you have made this Pro- 
mise in our Presence; you did it indeed before, and you ought to 
have performed it, it is a shame for one who calls himself a great 
Man to tell Lies ; Let us, as Counsellors, perform our Engagements 
and Promises; Cousin, you must not now fail to perform your 
Word; we are all one People, and we must all of us be punctual 
in the performance of our Engagements." This was interpreted in 
the Delaware Language, and the String was given to Moses Teta- 
my for Teedyuscung. He then said the united Nations had finished 
what they had to say. 

Looking round the Room, he espied Mr. Vernon, the Person who 
had the Care of furnishing the Indians with Provisions, and he de- 
sired that, now Council Business was oyer, he might be ordered to 
take the Lock off the Rum, and let it run freely, that, as they were 
going away, their Hearts might be made glad, and we could very 
well spare it, as it was of no use to us. 

Some Wine and Punch was then ordered in, and the Conferences 
were concluded with great Joy and mutual Satisfaction. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Wednesday the 25tl#of Octo- 
ber, 1758. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esquire, Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Strettell, Benjamin Shoemaker, ""} 

William Logan, Joseph Turner, I ™ 

Lynford Lardner, Benjamin Chew, [ ™ 

John Mifflin, Thomas Cadwalader, j 

The returns of the Sheriffs and Coroners, for the Counties of 
Philadelphia, Bucks, Chester, Lancaster, York, Cumberland, Berks, 
and Northampton, and the three Lower Counties of Newcastle, 
Kent, and Sussex, were read, and the following Persons Commis- 
sionated. 

[Omitted in Council Book,] 

Mr. Frederick Post who had been sent by General Forbes, and 
by the Governor, among the Indians on the Ohio, to gain Intelli- 
gence, being returned, waited on his Honour, and presented him 
with a Copy of his Journal, which was read in Council, and the 
same was ordered to be lodged among the Council Papers. 

\ 



224 MINUTES OF THE 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Monday the 6th of Novem- 
ber, 1758. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esqr., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Strettell, Lynford Lardner, ") 

Richard Peters, Thomas Cadwalader, > Esquires. 

John Mifflin, ' ) 

A Letter from General Forbes, dated the 22d of October, was 
read in these words : 

"Raystown Camp, October 22d, 1758. 
" Sir : 

"The Heavy Rains that have fallen of late has rendered the 
Roads almost Impassable for Carriages; these few Days past of 
dry Weather have given things a more favourable Aspect, and every 
thing is in Motion, the last Division being to March from hence 
to-morrow. 

" My State of Health continues precarious, but not so bad as to 
occasion any stop to our Operations, which must now come to a 
speed}?- Conclusion on account of the Advanced Season of the year. 

" Whatever the Fate of the Army may be it is impossible to 
foresee, but whether we are successful or not it is necessary for me 
to leave as large and extensive a Barrier as possible to cover the 
Province of Pennsylvania. 

" The Number of the King's Troops that I have under my Com- 
mand does not exceed Twelve Hundred Men, the greatest part of 
which I must send down to the Inhabited Parts of the Country to 
recruit and fit themselves out for the unsuing Campaign ; for were 
I to leave the whole during the Winter in the uninhabited parts of 
the Country, these Corps would not be in a Condition to march on 
Service early in the Spring. 

" I shall lay before you the Posts that are proposed to be kept 
up, which are new in possession of us, leaving it to you and the 
Assembly of your Province to judge of their Importance to them, 
and to know how far they can contribute in Men and Expences for 
the Supporting of these Posts, and making the Soldiers' Lives com- 
fortable, without which no real Service can be expected from them. 

" I have received no Answer from you relating to Fort Duquesne, 
if it should please God to grant Success ; but whether that Fort is 
taken or not, the Forts of Loyal Hannon, Cumberland, Raystown, 
Juniata, Littleton, Loudoun, Frederick, Shippensburgh, and Carlisle, 
ought to be Garrisoned, beside those on the other Side of the Sus- 
quehannah. I have wrote to Mr. Fouquiere to know what assistance 
I may have from the Colony of Virginia, which I do not expect will 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 225 

be very great, not even to Garrison Fort Cumberland, their Fron- 
tiers are so extensive that Augusta County will require Two Hundred 
Men to Garrison its Forts ; Winchester, with the south Branch of 
Potomack, Three Hundred Men more, to which Colonel Washing- 
ton's Regiment will not amount at the End of the Campaign. I 
have nothing to expect from Maryland, as I am told they'have 
abandoned Fort Cumberland and Fort Frederick. 

" It will easily occur to you the Things that will be necessary for 
making the Soldiers' Lives Comfortable in this severe Climate during 
the Winter. The most necessary are, a second Blanket in lieu of 
a bed, a Flannel Jacket, a new pair of Breeches, two Pair of 
Stockings, and a pair of Shoes. 

" I should be glad to know, without Loss of Time, how far your 
Assembly will go in putting it in my power to maintain the Ground 
that is Gained. If they do nothing for the Safety of the Province, 
I am certain it is not in my Power to defend them during the 
Winter with the strength that I shall have left and which I must 
expect will daily diminish. 

" To Cover the Country between Susquehannah and Potomack, 
and to secure the Communication to the advanced Posts will require, 
In my Opinion, Twelve Hundred Men, stationed in the following 
manner, Yiz f - : 

" At Loyal Hannon 300 

" At Ray's Town 200 

" At Fort Cumberland ----- 200 

" At Fort Frederick - - - - - 100 

" At Juniata - - - - - - 100 

" At Littleton - - ----- 100 

"At Loudoun ------ 100 

" At Shippensburg and Carlisle - 100 



"1,200 Men, 
"I must intreat you to return me an Answer to this Letter as 
soon as possible, as it is a Matter of the greatest Consequence to 
the Colonies. 

" I am, with the greatest Regard, Sir, 

" Your most Obedient and Hum 6, Servant, 

"JOHN FORBES." 

The Council unanimously advised the Governor to call the As- 
sembly together by Summons to meet on Wednesday the fifteenth 
Instant \ and the Secretary was directed to prepare Writs for that 
Purpose. 

The Governor likewise directed the Secretary to order the Pay- 
master to prepare an Estimate of the Arrears that would be due to 
the Provincial Troops on the first of January next. 
VOL. viii. — 15. 



226 MINUTES OF THE 

The Minutes of the Indian Treaty lately held at Easton were 
produced and ordered to be printed Time enough to have a Copy 
laid before the Assembly at the Meeting. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Thursday the 16th of No- 
vember, 1758. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esqr., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Benjamin Shoemaker, Richard Peters, *) -p 

Lyoford Lardner, John Mifflin, ) ° 

The Governor acquainted the Council that two Members delivered 
him last Night a Message that the House was met agreeable to the 
Governor's Summons and desired a sight of one of the Summons's 
which the Governor promised to send this Morning; and the Sec- 
retary was accordingly sent with one to the House. 

"Then was read the Governor's Speech to the House, which was 
approved ; and the Paymaster having delivered to the Governor an 
Estimate of pay, which will become due to the Provincial Forces 
by the First Day of January, 1759, the same was likewise read, 
and ordered to be entered as follows : 

" Estimate of Pay that will become due to the Provincial Forces 

by the First Day of January, 1759, as by their last Pay Rolls } 

vizt. : 
" To Twenty-Five Old Companies, from the First 

of October, 1758, to the First of January, 

1759, exclusive of Draughts in the Light Horse, 

and about Seventy Men at Fort Augusta, £9,115 

" To two Troops of Light Horse Men, from the 

First of October, 1758, to the First of January, 

1759, 889 

" To a Detachment at Fort Augusta of the Old 

Companies, about Seventy Men, from the First 

of June, 1758, to the First of January, 1759, 1,660 

" To Twenty-Three Companies new Levies, Viz'- : 

Eleven Companies from the first of September, 

Seven Companies from the first of August, and 

five Companies from the several Dates of their 

respective in listments, after a Deduction of 

Seven Pounds advance Money ^ Man, and three 

Months Pay to the Officers, there will remain 

due to them by the first Day of January, 1759, 14,000 

"To staff Officers from the first of October, 1758, 

to the first of January, 1759, , 358 

£26,022 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 227 

" N. B. — The Calculation for the new Levies not to be depended 
on as exact, but as nearly so as I could possibly make it, they hav- 
ing not been all paid up to one Day, nor the Seven Pounds ad- 
vance; advance Money all deducted; that depending on the several 
Dates of their Enlistments. 

"JAMBS YOUNG, Paymaster." 

The Governor received a Message by seven Members, that the 
House had met on the Fourteenth of October, and chose a Speaker, 
and had afterwards adjourned on Account of the Governor's being 
then at Easton, and now desired to know when and where they 
might present their Speaker j His Honour was pleased to say that 
he could be in the Council Chamber at Twelve o' Clock, and they 
might present their Speaker to him there. Accordingly, the Gov- 
ernor and Council repaired to the Council Chamber, and Isaac 
Norris being presented as the Speaker elected, he was approved, 
and proceeded to request the usual Privileges, the Governor having 
declared they were the Rights of Assembly. His Honour then 
made the following Speech, which was ordered to be entered in these 
words : 
"Mr. Speaker, and Gentlemen of the Assembly: 

" I have ordered the Secretary to lay before you a Letter I lately 
received from General Forbes, the Importance of which will, I am 
perswaded, convince you of the Necessity I was under to convene 
the House on the Occasion. 

" The advanced Season and late heavy Rains render it doubtful 
whether the General will be able to accomplish the Reduction of 
Fort Duquesne this Campaign. His Zeal and personal Bravery 
will, I doubt not, induce him to attempt every wise and prudent 
Measure practicable to make an Acquisition that will be attended 
with so many Advantages to His Majesty and his Colonies. It will, 
however, at all Events, be absolutely necessary for him to maintain 
this Winter the advanced Post he has possessed himself of, fortified, 
whereby he will be in a Condition not only to make an Attempt 
very early in the Spring, but will be the better enabled in the mean 
time to cover and protect this and the neighbouring Provinces from 
the cruel Incursions and Ravages of the Enemy. To these Ends 
his Letter will inform you the General expects to be supplied with 
Twelve Hundred Men and Necessaries for their comfortable Sup- 
port during the Winter, and that he desires to know, without Loss 
of Time, how far the Assembly of this Province will Contribute 
towards furnishing him with those Aids. I must, therefore, press 
you to take this Matter into your immediate Consideration, and give 
me your answer, that I may have it in my Power to communicate 
your Resolutions to the General with that Dispatch the Severity of 
the Season and his critical Situation require. 

" But if General Forbes should be fortunate enough to take Fort 



228 MINUTES OF THE 

Duqucsne, I think it will be for the Interest of this Province to 
Garrison that Fortress with our Provincials, as thereby we may have 
an opportunity of Establishing a Trade and a lasting Friendship 
with the Indians, without which, it is much to be feared, the French 
and their Emissaries will still maintain such an Influence over the 
Warriors of the Several Nations as to excite them to renew their 
Barbarities against the unhappy People on the Frontiers. 

u I must also inform you that the Provincial Commissioners have 
reported to me that the last Sum granted to His Majesty by the 
Legislature of this Province is near exhausted, and that Consider- 
able arrears are due to the Forces, as you will see by the Paymaster's 
Estimate, now laid before you. I do not doubt, therefore, you will, 
in the most Speedy and Effectual manner, raise the Supplies neces- 
sary for this Service. 

" 1 have the Pleasure to acquaint you that at the late Treaty at 
Easton there was a numerous appearance of Indians, consisting of 
Deputies from the Six Nations and other Tribes, a general Peace 
was concluded, and I flatter myself every thing done on my part to 
their Satisfaction. They solemnly promise, immediately on their 
return, to restore to us all the Captives they have taken from us, 
and, from their Candour and Openness during the Course of the 
Treaty, the Concern and Sorrow they repeatedly expressed for the 
Mischief done by their foolish young Men, who were seduced and 
misled by the French, the many professions of Friendship and Love 
for their Antient Brethren, the English, we have the greatest Reason 
to believe them once more sincerely attached to the British Nation. 
I have also prevailed with them to exert their influence with the 
Indians in the French Interest settled on the Ohio to withdraw 
themselves from our Enemies and return to their Former Friendship 
with us, and have joined with them in sending proper Messages on 
the Occasion, which I hope will be attended with Success. 1 have 
ordered the Minutes of the Several Transactions to be laid before 
you, and hope my Conduct therein will meet with your Approba- 
tion. 

"November the 16th, 1758." 

The Secretary delivered to the Speaker the foregoing Letter from 
General Forbes, the Paymaster's Estimate, and the printed minutes 
of the Conferences lately held at Easton, 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Saturday the 2d of December, 
1758. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq'-' Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Strettell, 1 

Richard Peters, > Esquires. 

Benjamin Chew, J 

The Governor acquainted the Council, that on Wednesday the 
Twenty-Second of last Month Two Members delivered him a Mes- 
sage in answer to his Speech, which was read in these Words : 
" May it please your Honour : 

" We have carefully weighed your Speech, recommending to our 
Consideration General Forbes' Demands of this Province, and we 
apprehend, was he sufficiently acquainted with the Circumstances 
and Abilities of the People of this Young Colony, the large Aids 
they have already* granted on many Occasions to the Crown, and 
the Load of Debt they now labour under by means thereof, he could 
not reasonably expect them to bear the additional Burthen of 
defraying the extraordinary expence that must attend the Support- 
ing of Garrisons in Forts, and at Posts so very distant from the 
inhabited Parts of the Province as many of those are mentioned in 
his Letter to your Honour, which, as we are well informed, are 
usually Garrisoned by the King's Troops in other Colonies. How- 
ever, we are so well acquainted with the Circumstances of the People 
we represent, that we are of Opinion a Burthen of that Sort, added 
to the Sum they now owe, would be too heavy for them to bear. 

" Your Honour will further be pleased to Consider the great In- 
conveniency which must attend the raising Supplies at this unusual 
season of the l^ear, before we have received the least Intimation of 
the Measures His Majesty shall be pleased to concert for the com- 
mon safety and Protection of the Colonies, or can form any Idea of 
the part it will be necessary for this Province to take therein. It 
is now not more than Seven Months since the last Aids were gran- 
ted to the Crown, and a very heavy additional Tax imposed on the 
People, from an expectation that, by one vigorous Effort of this and 
our Neighbouring Colonies, His Majesty's General. in this District, 
would have been enabled to strike a decisive Blow, which would 
relieve them from the like Grievous Burthen for the future ; And 
should we, at this Juncture, grant further Supplies, and impose 
further Taxes upon our Constituents, in all probability when we 
shall be made acquainted with His Majesty's intended Operations 
in the next Campaign, mere Aids may be demanded, and will then 
become more necessary. 

" We are, therefore, induced to postpone the raising of Supplies 
until our next meeting, when we expect we shall have an Opportu- 



230 MINUTES OF THE 

nity of taking into our Consideration, as well the Aids necessary to 
pay off the arrears due to the Forces, as to defray the Expences of 
the ensuing Year. 

" Signed by order of the House. 

, "ISAAC NORMS, Speaker." 

A Bill Intituled "A Supplement to the Act intituled l An Act 
for granting to his Majesty a Duty of Tonnage upon Ships and 
Vessels, and also certain Duties upon Wine, Rum, and Brandy, and 
other Spirits, and a Duty upon Sugar, for the Supporting and main- 
taining the Provincial Ship of War, for protecting the Trade of this 
Province, and other Purposes for His Majesty's Service/ " was de- 
livered to the Governor last Thursday Night for his Concurrence, 
and was read over Twice and amended only in one Place, Viz*- : 
After the word Act, in Page 19, Line 15, insert the Words [Law, 
usage, and Custom]. 

Mr. Chew acquainted the Governor that as he was coming to 
Council several reputable Merchants of the City informed him that 
they thought the Bill for granting a Duty on Tonnage, k^ a great 
grievance, and were preparing Petition to the Governor, praying 
that his Honour would not give his assent to the Bill till their 
Reasons against it were first heard. On this Information, Mr. Chew 
and Mr. Peters were desired to inform themselves of this Matter, 
and if it should be found that many considerable Merchants requested 
this by Petition, the Bill should then be kept under Consideration ; 
if not, that then the Secretary should carry the Bill to the House, 
with a Message that his Honour would pass it upon the foregoing 
amendment being allowed. 

A Petition, signed by Twenty-Four considerable Merchants, was 
presented to the Governor, and thereupon the Secretary was sent to 
the House with a verbal Message that many reputable Merchants 
of the City having presented a Petition to his Honour against the 
Bill before him, he has the said Petition now under his Consid- 
eration. 

Upon which Message, Two Members waited on the Governor 
from the House to acquaint him that the House met again in the 
Afternoon, and proposed to adjourn to the Fifth of February next, 
and desired to know the Governor's Resolution on the Bill before 
him, to which his Honour answered that he would give it all the 
Dispatch in his Power, having the Bill much at Heart, as a Bill 
very much concerning the Publick, and that he wanted to hear 
what the Merchants had to say against it. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 231 

At a Council held at Philadelphia, Tuesday the 5th of December, 

1758. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esqr., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Strettell, Benjamin Shoemaker, ") 

Joseph Turner, Richard Peters, I -™ • 

Lynford Lardner, Benjamin Chew, j "^ 

John Mifflin, Thomas Cadwalader, J 

The Merchants who presented their Petition last Saturday having 
desired the Governor would be pleased to appoint a Time for hear- 
ing their Objections against the Tonnage Bill, Twelve o' Clock this 
Day was appointed, and the Council being convened on this Occa- 
sion, Two Petitions of the same Tenor, signed by a great Number 
of Merchants of this City, were read. 

Then Mr. Samuel Mifflin, Mr. "William Cox, Mr. John McMi- 
chael, and Mr. Edwin Shippen, Junior, appeared and acquainted 
the Governor that they were appointed a Committee by the Mer- 
chants to offer their Reasons in Objections to the Bill, and having 
reduced them to writing, the paper was presented by Mr. Shippen 
to the Governor and read. 

The Governor was pleased to assure the Merchants that he was 
& always would be disposed to encourage the Trading Interest, and 
support it on all Occasions, and would immediately Consider the 
Reasons they had offered against the Bill. 

Then the Bill was read ; and it was agreed, after Considering the 
Objections of the Merchants thereto, that a proper Message should 
be drawn and sent to the House with the Bill and Petitions of the 
Merchants. 



MEMORANDUM : 

In the evening, Two Members waited on the Governor from the 
House to know if his Honour had come to any determination on 
the Bill before him ) to which his Honour was pleased to say that 
the House should receive a Message from him in the Morning. 

And accordingly, on the Sixth, the Secretary delivered to the 
House the Bill Intituled " A Supplement to the Act intituled { An 
Act for granting to his Majesty a Duty of Tonnage upon Ships 
and Vessels, and also certain Duties upon Wine, Rum, Brandy, and 
other Spirits, and a duty upon Sugar for supporting and maintaining 
a Provincial Ship of War for protecting the Trade of this Province 
and other Purposes for his Majesty's Service/ " with Two Petitions- 



232 MINUTES OF THE 

to his Honour from a Number of Merchants of the City, a paper 
referred to therein, and a Message in these Words : 
" Gentlemen : 

" I have ordered the Secretary to lay before you a Petition, pre- 
sented to me by a great Number of the Merchants of this City, 
remonstrating against the Bill intituled ' A Supplement to the Act 
intituled ' An Act for granting to his Majesty a Duty of Tonnage 
upon Ships and Vessels, and also certain Duties upon Wine, Rum, 
Brandy, and other Spirits, and a Duty upon Sugar, for supporting 
and Maintaining the Provincial Ship of War for Protecting the Trade 
of this Province and other Purposes for his Majesty's Service/' as 
very injurious to the Trade of this Province in general, and partial 
and unequal in the mode of raising the Tax imposed for the Sup- 
port of the Province Ship of War. I must acknowledge that many 
of the Reasons assigned by them appear to me of great Weight ; 
and as a matter of this Importance, in which the well being of this 
Colony is so nearly concerned, cannot be too well deliberated upon, 
I return you the Bill, and desire you will take it again into your 
Serious Consideration, together with the Petition now laid before 
you. For my own Part, I assure you it will give me great Pleasure 
to contribute every thing I can towards the Protiction.of the Trade 
of this Province, and you shall always find me ready to concur with 
you in such means of doing it as you who are better accquainted 
with the Circumstances of your Constituents shall, on reconsidering 
the Matter, judge most equal and impartial. 

"WILLIAM DENNY. 

"December the 6th, 1758." 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Monday the 11th of Decem- 
ber, 1758. 

PRESENT : 

* The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq 1 "' Lieutenant Gov- 



ernor. 



Robert Strettell, Joseph Turner, ^| 

Benjamin Shoemaker, Lynford Lardner, ( ^ 

Richard Peters, Thomas Cadwalader, p s( l mres - 
John Mifflin, J 

The Governor having received by Express a Letter from General 
Forbes, the same was read in these Words : 

" Fort Duquesne, or now Pittsburg, the 26 Nov r -> 1758. 
- Sir : 

u I have the Pleasure and Honour of Acquainting you with the 
Signal Success of his Majesty's Troops over all his Enemys on 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 233 

the Ohio, by having obliged them to Burn and abandon their Fort, 
Duquesne, which they effectuated upon the 24th Instant, And of 
which I took Possession with my little Army the next Day, — The 
Enemy, having made their escape down the River, part in Boats and 
part by Land, to their Forts, and Settlements on the Mississippi being 
abandoned, or at least not seconded by their Friends, the Indians, 
whom we had previously engaged to act a neutral part, And who 
now seem all willing and ready to Embrace His Majesty's Most 
gracious Protection. 

" So give me leave to congratulate you upon this publick event 
of having totally expelled the French from this Fort and this pro- 
digious tract of Country, and of having in a manner reconciled the 
various Tribes of Indians inhabiting it to His Majesty's Gov- 
ernment. 

u I have not time to give you a detail of our proceedings and 
approaches towards the Enemy, or of the Hardships and Difficulties 
that we necessarily met with ; all that will soon come out, but I 
assure you, after receiving the Ground & Fort, I have great reason 
to be most thankful for the part that the French have acted. 

" As the Conquest of this Country is of the greatest Conse- 
quence to the adjacent Provinces, by securing the Indians, our real 
Friends, for their own Advantage, I have therefore sent for their 
Head People to come to me, when I think in few Words and few 
Days to make every thing easy J I shall then set out to kiss your 
Hands, if I have Strength enough left to carry me through the 
Journey. 

" I shall be obliged to leave about Two Hundred Men of your 
Provincial Troops to join a proportion of Virginia and Mary land- 
ers, in order to protect this Country during Winter, by which 
Time I hope the Provinces will be so sensible of the great Benefit 
of this new Acquisition, as to enable me to fix this noble, fine 
Country, to all Perpetuity, under the Dominion of Great Britain. 

" I beg the Barracks may be put f in good repair, and proper 
Lodging for the Officers, and that you will send me, with the great- 
est Dispatch, your Opinion how I am to dispose of the rest of your 
Provincial Troops for the ease and Convenience of the Province 
and the Inhabitants. 

11 You must also remember that* Colonel Montgomery's Battalion 
of Thirteen Hundred Men, and Four Companies of Royal Ameri- 
cans, are, after so long and tedious a Campaign, to be taken care 
of in some Comfortable Winter Quarters. 

" I kiss all your Hands, and flatter myself that if I get to Phila- 
delphia, under your Cares and good Company s, I shall yet run a 
good Chance of re-establishing a Health that I run the risque of 



234 MINUTES OF THE 

ruining to give your Province all the Satisfaction in the Power of 
my weak Abilities. 

• I am, Sir, with great Esteem and regard, 

" Your most Obedient and Hum 6- Servant, 

" JO. FORBES. 
" P. S. — Lniust beg that you will recommend to your Assembly 
the building of a Block House and Saw Mill upon the Kisskamini- 
ties, near Loyal Hannon, as a thing of the utmost Consequence to 
their Province, if they have any intention of profiting by this Ac- 
quisition. 

" I send the New Levies to Carlisle, so beg you will loose no 
Time' in sending up Mr. Young, the Commissary, to clear them." 

Then was read a Letter from Colonal Burd in these Words : 

u Camp at Loyal Hannon, the 2nd of December, 1758. 
" Sir : 

" I have the pleasure to inform you that on Friday last, our Army 
being within Ten Miles of Fort Duquesne, the Enemy thought 
proper to blow up the Fort, and went off Bodily in their Battoes. 
They intirely destroyed the Works and rendered every thing use- 
less. 

u I shall be glad to receive your Instructions concerning the Re- 
cruiting my Battalion. I shall march down myself with the Gene- 
ral and Colonal Bouquet, and should be glad to hear from you upon 
my March that I might give the necessary orders; and beg that 
you will believe me with great Esteem, 

" Your Honour's most Obedient & most Hum ,e - Servant, 

"JAMES BURD." 

The Council was of Opinion that the General's Letter contained 
such important Requests as made ifc necessary for the Governor to 
call the Assembly, who had adjourned to the Fifth of February ; 
and the Secretary was accordingly directed to issue Summons's for 
their meeting on the Twentieth Instant. 

The Commissioners appointed by the Act for preventing abuses 
in the Indian Trade, & ca -> recommended Robert Tuckness, Abel 
Janny, and Benedict Dorsey as Suitable Persons for Agents at Fort 
Allen. The first named Robert Tuckness was unanimously ap- 
proved. 

A Letter from Don Francisco Caeriejas, Governor of Monto 
Cristo, dated the First of October, was read in these words : 

" Sir : 

" As Two Privateers from your Honour's Government, the One 
named the Spry, a Ship, Captain Spring, and the other a Schooner 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 235 

named the Knowles, Captain Turner, have had the Boldness, in 
Contempt of the Spanish Flag, to carry off a Snow from this Port 
named the Prussian Heroe, John Campbell, Master, whilst she was 
at Anchor, and consequently under the Protection of this Govern- 
ment ; and as I have continually in my Government a Considerable 
Number of EDglish Vessels, which the French, our near Neighbours, 
may come and carry off, encouraged by these Examples, I thought 
it necessary to advise your Honour of this Proceeding, requesting 
at the same Time you would be pleased to compel the above-named 
Privateers to restore the said Snow, as it is not permitted any Pri- 
vateers to search and examine into what passes in Spanish Harbours, 
especially considering the good Harmony and Correspondence which 
subsists between the two Crowns, and that your Honour would be 
pleased to Command the Captains of Privateers of your Govern- 
ment not to meddle with Traders in this Port, and to confine them- 
selves to those they met with at Sea, where they have a Right. 1 
hope your Honour will consider the Contents of this my Letter, and 
be pleased to give Orders agreeable to my request, otherwise these 
Practical Proceedings are capable of breaking that good Harmony 
and Union which at present Subsists. I offer myself to the Dis- 
position of your Honour; you may command me and be assured of 
my Obedience. 

"I kiss your Hands, and am your Honour's most affectionate 
Humble Servant, 

"DON FRANCISCO CARILJAS. 

" St. Ferdinand of Monto Cristo, the 1st of October, 1758." 

The Secretary was directed to deliver a Copy of the said Letter 
to the Owners of the Spry, and of the Knowles, Privateers, in order 
that they might be able to draw up a state of the Case to be con- 
sidered by the Governor. 

It being the unanimous opinion of the Governor and Council, 
that a Day should be appointed for a general Thanksgiving, it was 
recommended to the Secretary to prepare a Draught of a Proclama- 
tion, which was done and approved, and the Twenty-Eighth Instant 
fixed for the Day. 

Ordered, That there be printed One hundred and fifty of the 
Proclamations, and that the same be dispersed among the Ministers 
of all Perswasions, English and Germans. 



236 MINUTES OF THE 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Thursday the 21st of Decem- 
ber, 1758. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esqr., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Richard Peters, ~) 

John Mifflin, v Esquires. 

Thomas Cadwalader, ) 
General Forbes' Letter of the 20th of November was again read, 
and a Letter from General Amherst, in these words : 

"New York, December the 13th, 1758. 
" Sir : 

" The King having been pleased to appoint me Commander-in- 
Chief of all his Majesty's Forces in North America, and having at 
the same time signified to me his Royal Pleasure, that I should 
Correspond with and apply to all his Governors on the Continent 
for their Aid and Assistance in carrying on the Services pointed out 
to me, I am, in Obedience to those Commands, to acquaint you, 
that altho' I have not yet any particular Orders relative to the 
Operations of the Ensuing Campaign, I imagine they will require 
the same Number of Provincial Troops that were voted by the re- 
spective Provinces and Colonies this year ; and it will likewise be 
necessary, in order to carry those Operations the more effectually 
into Execution, that those Troops should be at the place of Rendez- 
vous as early in the Spring as possible ; I would therefore recom- 
mend it to you, if the Troops raised by your Province for the 
Service- of the last Campaign are not already disbanded, that you 
would move your Assembly to continue them in their Pay during 
the Winter, which will not only be a great Saving in Point of Time, 
but, by what I can understand, a great Saving of Expence to the 
Province ; Wherefore, I should hope you will the more easily suc- 
ceed in your Application. But if it should so happen, that before 
the receipt of this Letter, those Troops had already been disbanded, 
in that case, I must desire that you will lose no Time in using your 
Influence with your Assembly, to move them to order New Levies, 
and to cause these to be provided with the Usual Necessaries, and 
to be ready by the Time the Season will admit their taking the Field. 

" Having also received His Majesty's Orders to recruit and com- 
pleat the Regiments now serving on the Continent, I am likewise 
to beg your Countenance and Protection to the Officers I shall have 
Occasion to send, as well as to those that have already been sent by 
my Predecessor on that Service j and that you will be aiding and 
Assisting unto them in the execution thereof. 

"I am, with great Regard, Sir, 

" Your most Obed'- Hum 6 - Servant, 
"JEFF. AMHERST," 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 237 

The Draught of a Message to the Assembly on the said Letters- 
was read and approved, and ordered to be wrote fair. 

Last Night' Two Members waited on the Governor, to acquaint 
him that the House were met agreeable to his Summons, and re- 
quested his Honour would be pleased to furnish the House with a 
Copy of the Writt by which they were called. And the Secretary 
was 'directed to carry to the House, the following Message, the 
Letters from General Forbes and General Amherst, with one of the 
Summons's : 

A Message from the Governor to the Assembly, 
" Gentlemen : 

" I have the Pleasure to Lay before you a Letter I lately received 
from Brigadier General Forbes, with the interesting and important 
Account of his Success in the Expedition against his Majesty's 
Enemies to the Westward, An Event which, it is true, has been 
purchased at a Considerable present Expence, but when the Con- 
sequences are cooly weighed and Considered, of suffering the 
French to lay the Foundation of our Future Slavery, by possessing 
themselves, and fortifying the back Parts of his Majesty's Colonies 
on this Continent, and to keep open a Communication between their 
Settlements from Canada to the Mississippi, I am perswaded every 
real Friend of Liberty will think this Conquest could not have been 
jfcoo dearly bought. 

"Under Divine Providence, and the Courage, Prudence, and 
steady Conduct of the General, who is known, during the Cam- 
paign, to have struggled with and surmounted Difficulties almost 
insuperable, under the severest Indisposition of Body, the Success 
of this Expedition is owing to the good Effects of our Several 
Treaties and Negotiations with the Indians on the Ohio, who were 
determined, by the Messages sent them from the last Treaty at 
Easton, to withdraw themselves, and observe a Neutrality. 

"The great Advantages that will attend this success of his 
Majesty's Arms, will be sensibly felt by all the British Colonies, 
but none so much as this Province, whose Inhabitants have been 
the most exposed to the Incursions and Cruelties of the French and 
their Allies from that Quarter. It is not, however, to be expected 
that our Vigilant and crafty Enemies will permit us long to remain 
in the quiet and undisturbed Possession of the Country, which they 
have been compelled to abandon to us. Common Prudence, there- 
fore, as well as a Sense of Duty to our Sovereign and ourselves, 
demand of us to lose no Time in preparing to repel any attempts 
they may make next Spring to retrieve their Losses. In the mean 
Time, also, it highly behooves us, by every probable Expedient, to 
confirm the Indians on the Ohio in their Present good Dispositions, 
and conciliate their Affections to His Majesty, His Subjects, and 
Government. To effect this, much remains to be done; Yet 



238 MINUTES OF THE 

wavering in their Minds, & probably not unanimous in their 
Councils on this new Turn of Affairs, they will be liable to be again 
poisoned and misled by the French, unless we speedily evince to 
them that a firm Reliance may be had on our Friendship, and that 
we are able and willing to protect them against the French. 

" You will find by the General's Letter, dated at Fort Duquesne, 
that he had determined to leave Two Hundred of our Provincial 
Troops to join a proportionable Number of Virginians and Mary- 
landers to protect the Country, and he desires my advice how 
to dispose of the rest of the Provincials for the ease and Conve- 
niency of the Province and Inhabitants. It was not in my power 
to comply fully with the General's Request without previously 
knowing what Number of Troops you will agree to support the 
ensuing year j I was therefore under the Necessity of convening 
you before the Time of your adjournment, to deliberate on this 
and the other important Matters I have above mentioned to you. 

" General Forbes is of opinion that the Building of a Block 
House and Saw Mill upon the Kiskemontias, near Loyal Hannon, 
will be of the utmost Consequence to this Province; and, at this 
pressing Instance, I recommend it to you to make speedy Provi- 
sion for so necessary a Work. 

" I have appointed Indian Agents to reside at Fort Allen, and 
in any Place that shall be thought most proper over Susquehannah. 
And the Commissioners under the- Act of Assembly for preventing 
Abuses in the Indian Trade, &c a -' have, with my a j probation, 
already sent up Quantities of Indian Goods, which will, I hope, 
have a very good Effect on our New Friends, and be a Means of 
disposing them to continue hearty in His Majesty's Interest. 

" I must also inform you that I have very lately received a 
Letter from General Amherst, dated the Thirteenth Instant, which 
will be laid before you by the Secretary, wherein his Excellency 
informs me that though he has not as yet any particular Orders 
relative to the Operations of the ensuing Campaign, he imagines 
the same Number of Provincial Troops will be required that were 
voted by the respective Colonies this year; and that it will like- 
wise be necessary, in order to carry those Operations the more 
effectually into Execution, that those Troops should be at the 
Place of Rendezvous as early in the Spring as possible. He there- 
fore recommends it to me, if the Troops raised by this Province 
for the Services of the last Campaign are not already disbanded, 
that I would move you to Continue them in their Pay during the 
Winter, which will not only be a great saving in point of Time, 
but, by what he can understand, a great Saving of Exp nee to the 
Province. But if it should so happen that the Troop* should 
have been already disbanded, in that Case he desires J would lose 
no Time in using my Influence with you to order New Levies, and 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 239 

to cause them to be provided with the usual Necessaries, and to be 
ready by the Time the Season will admit their taking the Field. 

" Before I received the General's Letter, I had given Orders for 
the Discharge of the Companies which were inlisted for the Cam- 
paign Only, and sent the Paymaster to adjust their Accounts, that 
every Man might receive, with the Discharge, a Certificate of the 
Sum due to him, on which he might, perhaps, obtain Credit for the 
purchase of Necessaries. The Paymaster is likewise directed to 
appoint some Proper Person to receive and take Care of the Arms, 
Accoutrements, and Blankets of every Soldier before he is dis- 
charged. 

" The Reasons assigned by General Amherst, for keeping up the 
Provincials raised for the Service of the last Year, are so Cogent 
and judicious, that it would be vain for me to add anything in Sup- 
port of them. *I hope, therefore, you will take his Excellency's 
Requisition into your Serious Consideration, and enable me to give 
him a Speedy Answer. 

"Before' I conclude, Gentlemen, I must remind you, that Large 
Arrears are due to the Troops in Pay of the Province, more than 
the last Sum raised for his Majesty's Use, will, as I am informed, 
be Sufficient to Discharge, and beg you will Consider that it is the 
Honour, as well as the Interest of this Province, that means should 
be found for the speedy Payment of this Debt. 

"WILLIAM DENNY. 

"December the 21st, 1758." 



An Address from the Meeting of Sufferings, dated the Fourteenth 
Instant, signed by their Clerk, James Pemberton, was read in these 
words : 

" To WILLIAM DENNY, Esquire, Lieutenant Governor of the 
Province of Pennsylvania, and the three Lower Counties of 'New- 
castle, Kent, and Sussex, upon Delaware, 

" The Address of the Meeting for Sufferings of the People called 
Quakers, for the said Province and New Jersey, met at Phila- 
delphia, the 14:th of the 12th Month, 1758, 
" Respectfully Sheweth : 

" That we have been lately informed that a report of a Commit- 
tee of thy Council, appointed to enquire into the Complaints of the 
Indians at the Treaty of Easton, the 8th of November, 1756, hath 
been some Months past drawn up and laid before the Governor, and 
since transmitted to England, and that there are some Matters al- 
ledged therein, in which the Reputation and Interest of our reli- 
gious Society are immediately concerned. We, therefore, request 



v 



240 MINUTES OF THE 

the Governor would be pleased to order a true Copy thereof to be 
made out and communicated to us, in order that we may have an 
Opportunity of perusing the same, and be more perfectly acquainted 
with the Contents thereof. 

" Signed in behalf and by appointment of our said Meeting, 

"JAMES PEMBERTON, Clk." 

The Report of Council referred to in the said Address is a report 
made, by the Council on the Sixth of January, 1758. After Con- 
sidering the Address and the manner in which the said Report was 
cited, a Draught was made of the Governor's Answer, and kept 
under Advisement for further Consideration. 



MEMORANDUM. 

On the Twenty-third a Verbal Message from the Governor was 
sent to the House by the Secretary, with a Letter from Colonel 
Peter Schuyler, inclosing a Demand of Sums expended by him in. 
Canada on Prisoners belonging to Pennsylvania, and the Secretary 
was ordered by the Governor to request the House would repay 
that Gentleman. On the same Day, in the Afternoon, the Gov- 
ernor received a Verbal Message, by Two Members, that the House 
inclined to adjourn to the Fifth Day of February next, and at the 
same time they delivered a Message to the Governor in these 
words : 
" May it please your Honour : 

" The Advices of the Success of His Majesty's Forces employed 
in the Reduction of Fort Duquesne, which you have been pleased 
to lay before us in your Message of the Twenty-first Instant, are 
so interesting and important, as well to the Peace of this and the 
Neighbouring Provinces, as to the British Interest in General, that 
we shall not fail to do everything which can be reasonably expected 
from this young Colony, in frustrating the Ambitious Views of the 
French to destroy our Settlements, and extend their own from 
Canada to the River Mississippi ; and we hope the Success of our 
late Campaign under General Forbes will greatly contribute to this 
good End. 

" This Happy Event, we agree with your Honour, under Divine 
Providence, and the Courage, Prudence, and steady Conduct of the 
General, is owing to the good Effects of the several Treaties held 
with the Indians at the Expence of this Province, and especially 
to the late negotiations and Messages with those on the Ohio, be- 
fore and since the last Treaty at Easton, by which they were in- 
duced to withdraw themselves from the French, and Observe a 
Neutrality; in Consequence whereof the Enemy have been neces- 
sitated to abandon the Fort from whence they have so frequently 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 241 

distressed our Frontier Settlements, and those of the Neighbouring 
Colonies. 

" The regaining the Indian Affections, from which we always ex- 
pected the most 'natural Barrier and Security of the extended 
Western Boundary of this Colony, has been and will still continue 
the object of our Strictest Attention, and we shall, whenever we 
receive sufficient Information of the Disposition of the Indians on 
the Ohio, and the Treaty held with them by order of General 
Forbes, exert our best Abilities to render it their true Interest to 
join cordially with us, and by all means in our Power endeav6ur to 
receive & effectually Secure that Friendship which happily sub- 
sisted between them and us, will within these few years, from the 
first Settlement of this Province. 

** In expictation of a vigorous effort to be made upon the Enemy 
in the next year, and at the Requisition of his Excellency, General 
Amherst, we shall continue the Fourteen Hundred Old Troops in 
the Pay of the Province till our next Meeting, at which Time we 
hope to receive further Information from our Most Gracious Sov- 
ereign of the intended Operations of the Ensuing Campaign. 

" Your Honour's Care to Discharge the New Levies in persuanee 
of their Agreement, and the Method you have taken to grant them 
Certificates for their Arrears, are very agreeable to us, as thereby 
the public Faith will be preserved, should the last supplies fall 
short, till this Debt can be provided for in the Aids to be granted 
to His Majesty for Defraying the Expences of the ensuing Year. 

" We return your Honour our Thanks for your ready Concur- 
rence with the Commissioners of the Indian Trade, in providing an 
early supply of Goods for our Indian Allies, which we hope will 
have a good effect ; and if the Act for preventing Abuses in the 
said Trade, should, on Experience, and a larger Extension of our 
Trade, require any Alterations, or a larger Stock, we shall, on all 
Occasions, be willing to make such Alterations or Amendments to 
that Act, as may render it effectual. 

" Signed by order of the House. 

"ISAAC NORRIS, Speaker. 

" December the 23d, 1758." 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Wednesday the 10th of Janu- 
ary, 1759. 

PRESENT I 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esqr., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Lynford Lardner, John Mifflin, Esquires. 
The address of the Meeting of Sufferings, presented the Four- 
vol. viii. — 16. 



242 MINUTES OF THE , 

teenth of December, was again Considered, and a Draught that 
was kept under advisement was Amended and agreed to, in these 
words : 

" Gentlemen : 

" After Teedyuscung had in the Treaty at Easton, publickly 
charged the Proprietaries of this Province with defrauding them of 
their Lands, I desired the Council to examine into the State of the 
Indian Treaties, Purchases, and all other Transactions with them, 
for my own satisfaction ; and they were kind enough to do it, and 
to make a Report to me of their Examinations, which fully convinced 
me of the Falsehood of the Charge. 

" This Report I transmitted to the Proprietaries at London, to- 
gether with Copies of the Deeds and other Papers referred to 
therein; and as this Matter principally affects those Gentlemen, 
who are to make their Defence against this Charge before His Ma- 
jesty, you will easily perceive that I cannot, consistent with my 
Trust, order you the Copy you desire. 

" I can only say that there is not the least Reflection in it upon 
any Religious Society, and I conceive the meeting of Sufferings 
have nothing to do with it. If they think otherwise, I refer them 
to the Proprietaries. 

"And Am, Gentlemen, 

" Your Most Humble Servant, 

"WILLIAM DENNY. 

" Philadelphia, the 10th of January, 1759. 

" To Moses Forster, Owen Jones, Joshua Morris, Thomas 
Lightfoot, and the other Members of the Monthly meeting of 
Sufferings." 

The Secretary being indisposed, Mr. Richard Tea, his Clerk, was 
sent with the Answer to Owen Jones, and he was ordered to ac- 
quaint him that the Governor desired when those Gentlemen, or any 
other Members of the Society should have Business with him, they 
would let the Secretary know it before hand, that his Honour might 
appoint the Time when he would chuse they should wait on him. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Saturday the 20th of Janu- 
ary, 1759. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esqr., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Strettell, Benjamin Shoemaker, ~) 

William Logan, Richard Peters, > Esqrs. 

Benjamin Chew, John Mifflin, ) 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 243 

A Second Address from the Meeting of Sufferings presented to 
the Governor the Thirteenth Instant, was read in these Words : 

" To WILLIAM DENNY, Esquire, Lieutenant Governor of the 

Province of Pennsylvania, and the Council of the said Province, 

u The Address of the Meeting for Sufferings, of the People called 

Quakers, in the said Province and New Jersey, 
<{ Respectfully Sheweth ; 

" That we have Seriously considered the Answer given by the 
Governor the Tenth Instant, to our Address presented on the Four- 
teenth of last Month, and believe it to be our Duty, in Justice to 
ourselves and our Friends, whomever are appointed to represent, 
Now to renew our Request to the Governor and his Council, to 
favour us with a Copy of the Report of the Committee of Coun- 
cil appointed by the Governor to enquire into the Complaints 
pf the Indians at the Treaty of Easton the 10th of November, 
1756 ; And we humbly desire that our Address may be again Con- 
sidered and our Request granted, that we may have an Opportunity 
of vindicating ourselves from the Aspersions cast on us, and of 
giving a true account of our Conduct and Proceedings in the late 
Negotiations of this Government with the Indians," by which we have 
no doubt of being able to obviate any Cause of objections thereto, 
and making it evident to our Superiors and all others that we have 
acted through the Course of our Transactions in the Fear of God, 
with Loyalty to our most gracious King, and the most sincere Con- 
cern to put a Stop to the Ravages, Distresses, and Blood Shed, which 
prevailed on our Frontier Inhabitants, and to promote the Interest 
and Peace of our Country. We are the more earnestly engaged to 
urge this Request, as we have received undoubted Intelligence from 
our Friends in London, that though the Name of our Religious 
Society may not be Expressly mentioned in the said Report of 
Council, yet it evidently appears to be designed to lay on us the 
whole Blame of the late Indian Ravages, as a Paragraph of the 
said Report communicated to us is to the following Effect : 

" ' We cannot But impute the said Teedyuscung's making the 
base Charge of Forgery against the Proprietaries to the malicious 
Suggestions and management of some wicked People, enemies to 
the Proprietaries, and Perhaps it would not be unjust in us if we 
were to impute it to some of those Busy, forward People, who, in 
disregard of the Express Injunctions of His Majesty's Ministers 
against it, and your Honour's repeated Notices thereof served on 
them, would nevertheless appear in such crouds of the late Indian 
Treaties, and there shew themselves so Busy and active in the 
management and Support of the Indians in their Complaints against 
the Proprietaries.' 

" We are Conscious of our Innocence, and that we are not justly 
chargeable with any to the Injury of the Proprietaries of thia Pro- 



244 MINUTES OF THE 

vince, either in their Reputation or Interest, and it is now too gene- 
rally known here to need any Proof to be offered, that many of us 
have used our Endeavours, as far as we could consistent with our 
Stations, and a due Regard to the Authority of the Government 
under which we live, for the resting and confirming the Peace of the 
Province, but as the Insinuations of our Influencing the Indians to 
Complain of Injustice and fraud committed by the Proprietaries or 
their Agents, are made use of to render us obnoxious to our Supe- 
riors in England, We are desirous of receiving from the Governor 
and Council the whole of these Charges in such manner that we 
may acquit ourselves, and by manifesting the Integrity of our Prin- 
ciples and Practices, prevent the Injuries which, by this private 
attack on our Characters, seem to be intended against our Interest 
and reputation as a Religious Society. 

" As the Governor, on a former Occasion, gave us assurance that 
he would Countenance and protect us in our religious and Civil 
Rights and Liberties, and that no act should be done during his 
Administration, by which either of them should be affected, without 
our being timely acquainted therewith, and a full opportunity given 
us of our being, heard in our own Justification. We .therefore de- 
sire the Governor and Council will, on this Interesting Occasion, 
grant us a full Copy of the said Report of Council, &c a -> and there- 
by indulge us with the Common Rights of Englishmen, of being 
heard before we are Condemned. 

u If the Proprietaries were here, we should make our application 
to them agreeable to the Governor's directions ; but as it is not 
practicable to do it without defeating our Intentions' of doing our-| 
selves Justice in a proper Way and Time, We desire the Governor 
and Council may not be displeased with this Application, but may 
give it the most Charitable Construction, and grant this our Rea- 
sonable Request. 

" Signed by appointment, and in behalf of said Meeting held at 
Phil a > 13th of the 1st Month. 

"JAMES PEMBERTON, Clk." 

Whilst the address was reading, a Servant came to tell the Gov 
ernor that Mr. Hugh Roberts and Mr. Abel James were waiting 
The Secretary was ordered to know what they wanted, and on ac- 
quainting the Council that they waited on the Governor and Coun- 
cil for an Answer to their Address, and, if it was agreeable, they 
would beg Leave to say something in Support of the address, or 
something to that Purpose, The Governor returned them an An- 
swer, that the Address was under Consideration, and the Answer 
should be sent to Mr. Roberts this Day. 

Mr. Shoemaker and Mr. Logan having perused the Report of 
•Councils which lay on the table, declared that this was a Transaction 
utterly unknown to them, and that the Secretary had never given 



% 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 245 

them Notice that such Report was Drawn. Mr. Shoemaker said 
further, he did not so much as know that the Council were any way 
concerned in this inquiry, for that it was committed to James Ham- 
ilton, William Logan, and himself, and they had met several Times 
and did not agree to any Report. Mr. Shoemaker and Mr. Logan 
likewise said, that they had never heard of a Report being made 
by the Council, till they were told it by some Friends, that a Re- 
port was sent by the Governor to the Proprietor, in which their 
Society was abused; and that some People here had procured a 
Copy of it from London, that their Characters suffered on this Ac- 
count, it being known that they were of the Committee appointed 
to enquire into the Causes of the Complaint and Charge of Forgery 
made by Teedyuscung at the Treaty of Easton in November, 1756, 
and therefore they desired that their Ignorance of this Transaction 
might be entered, which was agreed to. They were further desired 
to draw up their own Sentiments and Accounts of it, in order T^hat 
it might be inserted in the minutes. 

They were told that at the very first Council, when this Enquiry 
was requested to be' made by the Governor, all the Members of 
Council were desired to assist, but as they, Mr. Shoemaker and Mr. 
Logan, were men of Leisure, and held no Offices under the Proprie- 
taries, it was particularly recommended to them to assist in making 
the Enquiry; That long time elapsing and nothing done, it was 
mentioned at the next Council held after the Treaty at Easton, in 
July and August, 1757, and the uneasiness the Governor was under 
at this Delay, appearing very great, he then and repeatedly after- 
wards desired all the Members would give their attendance and go 
through with it, and that accordingly the Members frequently met 
at the Secretary's, Mr. Shoemaker being sometimes present, and the 
Indian Deeds and other Papers relative thereto were read and ex- 
amined, and abundance of Conversation passed; but coming to no 
Conclusion, & more Time still elapsing, a Report was drawn up by 
the other Members and the Council regularly summoned in order to 
have the same read ; and it was accordingly very carefully read in 
Council, examined, and approved. 

The Secretary was then ordered by the Governor to sign the fol- 
lowing Letter to Mr. Hugh Roberts in Answer to the Second 
Address of the meeting of Sufferings : 

" Philadelphia, the 20th of January, 1758. 

"I am Commanded by the Governor to acquaint you and the 
other Gentlemen who delivered the second Address of the meeting 
of Sufferings that he has already returned an Answer to their Re- 
quest, and does not incline to give any other. 

" I am, Sir, your most Hum 6, Servant, 

« RICHARD PETERS, Secretary. 
V To Mr. Hugh Roberts.' 7 



246 MINUTES OF THE 

The Report of Council of the Sixth of January, 1758, above 
mentioned, not, being entered in tins Council Minutes, tho same is 

now ordered to be entered as follows: 

"To the WmmahU WILLIAM DUN NY, E%quiir€, Lieutenant 
Governor and (■onnnamler-in-Chief of the Provinee o/Pwtoyl* 

vani'd and Counties of IVeteeastUj l\<nt, ami Su$86X f Upon Dela- 

\odre t 

u The Report of the Committee of the Council appointed to enquire 
into (In Oomplainte of the Indians at the Treat// at Huston the 

h'o/hth bat/ of November) 17.%: 
" May it please your Honour: 

11 Agreeable to the Order of Council, appointing ns a Committee 

to eoQuire Into the protended Causes assigned by tho Indians at the 
said Treaty for their striking the Eriglishj and destroying ho many 

Of our back Inhabitants, and their Complaints <>(' Injustice said to 
bo done them by tho Proprietaries in Home of their Indian I'ur- 

ohases, we have carefully looked into and Considered the same, and 

alHo the Proprietaries' Deeds lor their several Indian Purchases, 

from the first Settlement of the Province down to this Time, with 

Other, the Instruments, Hooks, Papers, and Fvidences which could 
furnish us with any Lights into the A Hair. 

" We eoneeive the Substance of Tecdyuseung's (marge and Com- 
plaints ( made on behalf ol the Delaware Indians, fljO*" at the said 
Treaty) may be reduced to these Five Heads: 

" 1st, That the (J round he then stood on (the Land in the Forks 
of Delaware) was bis Land and Inheritance, and was taken from 
him by Fraud, and when he said this Ground, he meant all tho 
Laud between Tohiccon Creek and Wioming. 

"'Jd. Being called on to explain what he meant by Fraud, ho 
answered, when a Man had Liberty to Purchase Land, and he took 
an Indian Deed tor it, and then dies, after his Death his Children 
Forgo a Deed like the True one, with the same Indian Names to it, 
whereby they take Lands from the Indians which they never sold, 
this is Fraud. 

"Ild. That when one King has Land beyong the Kiver, and 
•AOther King has Land on this side, both bounded by Uivcrs, 
Mountains, and Springs, which cannot be moved, and the Proprie 
taries, greedy to purchase Lands, by o( one King what belongs tO 
another, this also is Fraud. 

"1th. Being liked if he had been used in that Manner, he 
attSWered, 'yes, I have been served so in this Province; All the 
Land from Tohiccon, the great Mountain, to Wioming, has been 
taken from me by Fraud J For when 1 agreed to sell the Land to the 
Old Proprietary by the Course of the Kiver, the Young Proprietaries 
came and got in, run out by a Straight Line by the Compass, and by 
that means took iu double the Quantity intended to be void.' 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. '247 

"5th. That, the Indians had been ill treated by the Out Settlors, 
in being refused the Liberty of cutting firewood, and molested in 
their Hunting. 

" In answer to which OhargeB we observe, in general, that upon a 
diligent Inspcctionand Examination of all the Proprietaries' Deeaa for, 
their Several Indian Purchases, and of other original Instruments and 
Papers relating thereto, or Authentic Copies or them, and also of the 
Council Beoki and other Minutes and ht?idenoes on the Subject, 

wo find that all tlio Proprietaries' Transactions with the Indians, 
more especially in their Purchases, have been always managed with 
great Justice, Candour, and Kairness, and that all imaginable Cau- 
tion and Care wen 4 constantly taken by the Proprietaries and their 
Agents to have all their Bargains and Healings with the Indians 
clearly explained to them by Interpreters, cither ot their own 

Choosing, or with whom they were well acquainted, and in whom 
they were an iutiro Confidence, and that when the Agreements were 
so explained and fully understood by the Indians, the same Care 
and Caution Were USed with respeot to the Peods, which were always 
well interpreted and explained to them, and then executed by tho 
Indians in the most Solemn and Publiek Manner, and Witnessed 
by persons of undoubted Character and Veracity ; And not content 
with having one Peed for each Purchase, we find the Proprietaries 
got many o( them ratified and Confirmed by the Proper Owners of 
the Land and their Successors, over and over, by subsequent Peeds 
executed in the most, Solemn and Publiek Manner. 

4k And with respect to the Consideration OX Value paid for the* 
several Purchases, which Teedyuscung says was sometimes but 
trilling and not Sufficient, wo are oi' Opinion that Considering it is 
the Settling, Cultivation, and Improvement of those Lands (which 
at the Time oi' the Purchase from the Indians were all a Wilder- 
ness) that Principally make their Value, we cannot but think that 
the Consideration Or Value paid the Proprietaries on thole pur- 
chases was reasonable, and as we believe, always at least equal to, 
and generally much exceeded the Consideration paid by the Neigh- 
bouring Provinces on their Purchases from the Indians, and a great 
Part was generally paid in ("ash, and the rest ehietly in valuable 
Woolen and Linen Indian Goods, and such parts as were not so 
paid Were laid out in the Purchase o( other Commodities equally 
suitable and agreeable to the Indians. 



"Notk. — Tho Consideration in the Deed of Release, dated the 17tli Sep- 
tember, 171S, [from the Delaware Chiefs for all tho Lands between the 
Rivers Delaware and Susquehannah, from Dnek Creek to the Mountains on 
this Side Leiheigh ) is hut small, hut that Deed was only a kind of quit 
Claim for the Lands which had been sold and fully paid for before. See 
■Tinted Copy Of Indian Treaty in June, L798, in whieh (Vi\. 1° & 13) • 
Copy of this Deed is inserted, with a full Acknowledgment by Sassoonnn 
& Opokasset, Two of the Parties to it, & the other Indian then present, of its 
being genuine and fair, and that they hud been paid for all tho Lathis theiem 
mentioned. 



248 MINUTES OF THE 

" Before we enter upon a particular Answer to this Charge 
against the Proprietaries, we think it necessary to premise and 
observe, that the Indians being utterly unacquainted with read- 
ing- and Writing, keep no Records of their Sales of Land, or 
other Transactions; and that, therefore, their Knowledge of 
what their Ancestors did, being only traditional, is imperfect, 
and often very erroneous ; a most glaring Instance whereof, appears 
in the present Complaints against the Proprietaries, in their Igno- 
rance (if it is real) with respect to the Purchase made of their An- 
cestors by the Old Proprietor, Mr. Penn, of the Land in and near 
the Forks of Delaware, to which they now pretend to set up their 
Claim, tho' it was actually and fairly sold by the Indian Owners 
thereof, so long ago as the Year 1686, as we expect fully to make 
appear to your Honour ; and then the whole of the said Charge 
against the Proprietaries will be fully answered and Confuted. 
For as to such parts of the Complaint as may be thought to effect 
or extend to the Proprietaries' Purchases in general, we think they 
are fully answered by our foregoing general Observations of all tho 
Proprietaries' Indian Purchases appearing fair and just, and pre- 
suming that general Charges can be no otherwise answered than by 
general Answers. 

" To proceed then with our particular Answer, We learn from 
Antient Books and Minutes, found amongst the Proprietaries' 
Deeds and Papers relating to the Transactions of those Times (Ex- 
tracts or Copies whereof are hereto annexed), that the Purchase of 
*the Land in the Forks of Delaware, & ca -> was made in the Absence 
of the Old Proprietor by Captain Thomas Holme, his Surveyor 
General and principal Agent for Land Affairs, and one of the Pro- 
vincial Council, for a full and large Consideration of Cash and valua- 
ble Goods ; and that the Original Deed, which was dated the 28th 
August, 1686, was executed and delivered to him for the Use of the 
Proprietor, and a Copy thereof soon after sent by him to the Pro- 
prietor in England. The Original of that Deed we understand is 
lost, but the said Antient Copy being preserved, and found amongst 
the Proprietaries' old Papers in England, was brought over here by 
Mr. Thomas Penn in 1732, as appears by a Letter of his to the 
Secretary, which we have seen ; and being proved to be the Hand- 
writing of Mr. Philip Thlehnman, then a noted Clerk in the Sec- 
retary and Land Offices (who dyed in the year 1687), and in whose 
Hand many of the Warrants, Entries, and Papers of those Times 
in both the said Offices appear to be wrote ; and the said Copy being 
endorsed by the said Captain Holme himself, and attended with 
other Corroborating Circumstances and Proofs; particularly, some 
Entries in an Antient Diary of William Markham, Esquire [some- 
time Secretary, and afterwards Lieutenant Governor of the said 
Province, and one of the Provincial Council], which mention the 
said Mr. Markham and Captain Holmes treating with the said 
Delaware Indians for the Purchase of the said Lands in the Forks, 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 249 

just before the Date of the said Deed of the 28th August, 1686. 
These reasons joined with the Proofs hereto annexed [to which we 
refer your Honour"], induce us to Look upon the said antient Copy of 
the said original Lost Deed to be as authentic in Law, and as much 
to be regarded as the said Original itself. Besides, we find that this 
Purchase in 1686, was allowed to be fair by the Delaware Indians 
themselves, at a Treaty held on Purpose to settle the Dispute be- 
tween them and the Proprietaries about these Lands, at Philadel- 
phia in August, 1737, when they signed a Deed of Confirmation for 
the same ; and the Proprietaries, out of their Generosity, and in 
Compassion to the Indians' Poverty (and not as any further Con- 
sideration, as appears in Mr. Allen's Part of the annexed affidavit, 
N. 10), them made those Indians a handsome Present of Goods. 

M The said Copy thus appearing to us to be genuine, fair, an- 
tiently wrote, and by the Proper Persons whose Business it was to 
write and transmit it to the Old Proprietor, we, therefore, cannot 
but impute the said Teedyuscung's making that base Charge of 
Forgery against the Proprietors (for which we suppose this Copy, 
being offered instead of an Original Deed, was the sole Foundation), 
to the malicious Suggestions and Management of some wicked 
People, Enemies to the Proprietaries, who had come to the Knowledge 
of that Circumstance of the said Deed's being lost, and that there 
was nothing but a Copy of it now to be found, which they would 
have it believed to be a forged one, being ignorant that the truth 
and Fairness of the said Copy would be so well proved; and per- 
haps it would not be unjust in us if we were to impute it to some 
of those busy forward People who, in disregard of the express In- 
junctions of His Majesty's Ministers against it and your Honour's 
repeated Notices thereof served on them, would nevertheless appear 
in such Crowds at all the late Indian Treaties, and there shew them- 
selves so busy and active in the management and support of the 
Indians in these Complaints against the Proprietaries. 

" Presuming then that the Charge of Forgery mentioned in our 
Second Head of the Indians' Complaint is fully answered, and that 
by the said Proofs of the Genuineness of the said Copy, and by 
the said Deed of Confirmation of that Purchase of the said disputed 
Lands the Proprietaries' Title thereto from the Indians appears to 
be good and fair. We shall now [after referring your Honour for 
the Description of the Land granted by the said Deed in 1686, and 
Confirmation Deed in 1737, which is in the same Words in both to 
the hereto annexed Copies No. 1 & No. 8], go on to state and An- 

" Note. — If the Indians (who, as we have observed before, are so very 
Ignorant and illiterate) could be supposed capable of distinguishing betwerc 
a Copy and an Original Writing, we think that if they had thought it false 
or forged they would have spoke of it when this Copy was, for want of the 
Original, we imagine, shown and explained to them at the said Treaty at 
Philadelphia in August, 1737, and not have declared themselves fully satis- 
fied therewith, as expressed in the Minute of that Treaty, [whereof a Copy 
is hereunto annexed with the affidavit, No. 10]. 



250 MINUTES OF THE 

swer the Several Objections to which the said Deeds for that Pur- 
chase may be thought liable. 

" The principal Objections we Conceive are : 

" 1st. That Blanks are left for the Course and Distance of the 
Southerly Side Line of the Tract granted, and for the Head Line, 
which being so left Blank, the One and Half Day's Walk could not 
sufficiently supply and cure that Defect in the Deed. 

"2nd. If it could, yet that the One and Half Day's journey re" 
quired and directed by the Deeds to be gone for ascertaining those 
Lines was not fairly performed by Yeates and Marshall in 1737, 
for the Reasons the Indians gave, as mentioned in Marshall's affi- 
davit, Viz'- : 

" < That instead of beginning at Wright's Town and going back 
into the Woods a North Westerly Course, as they did, they should 
have gone along by the Courses of the River Delaware or the near- 
est path to it ; That they walked too fast, and should not have kept 
Walking constantly, but have frequently stopped to Smoke a Pipe, 
& ca - ; And that the Length of the Walk was unreasonable and ex- 
travagant. 

" In answer to which Objections, we beg leave to observe, that in 
the Mont next after the Date of the said Confirmation Deed, and 
in Pursuance of the Agreement therein specified, the said One and 
Half Day's walk was regularly performed in the Presence of Mr. 
Eastburn, the then Surveyor General, since deceased; Mr. Timothy 
Smith, the then High Sheriff of Bucks county, in which those 
lands lay, who were appointed, by and on the Part of the Proprie- 
taries, to superintend and see the same fairly performed, with Mr. 
Scull and divers other Persons, and of some Delaware Indians ap- 
pointed by their Chiefs for that Purpose j and after the same had 
been fairly performed, as set forth in the hereto annexed affidavits 
of Edward Marshall, the Survivor of the Walkers, Mr. Scull, the 
Present Surveyor General, the said Mr. Smith, and several others 

" Note. — Tho> the said Marshall, Scull, Smith, &ca., differ in their Evi- 
dence in some not very material Circumstances, except that of the Indians 
expressing Dissatisfaction with the Watch, the Time, as mentioned by one 
or Two of the Witnesses, but contradicted by much the greater Force, par- 
ticularly by those who we think most worthy of Credit, yet they all agree 
that the Walk was fairly performed in Eighteen Hours, with the necessary 
Intermissions only of One Night's Rest, and meal Times : and being greatly 
surprized that these Affadavits of so many of the principal Men Present at 
the Walk should be so diametrically opposite and contradictory to the Re- 
port of the Four Provincial Commissioners who attended your Honour at 
the said Treaty at Easton, which we see subjoined to the Assembly's 
printed Publication of that Treaty, in which Report those Commissioners 
take upon them to assert [' that the Transaction of that Walk was at that 
Treaty universally given up as unfair and not to be defended, even from 
the Accounts of some of our own People who were present at the Walking,' 
and that * even the Secretary, tho' he said he believed that Satisfaction was 
afterwards made the Indians, and that this was the only Instance in which 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 251 

present thereat [to which we refer your Honour for the Particulars 
about the said Walk], the said Mr. Eastburn laid down the Tract, 
Course, Beginning and End of the said Walk in a fair Map which 
he drew of the contiguous Lands, &c a -' in order to ascertain and 
compleat the Extent and description of the said Disputed Lands, 
in the parts for which Blanks had been left, untill the said One 
and Half Day's Journey or Walk should be performed, and the 
said Map was accordingly lodged and is now found with the Pro- 
prietaries' Indian Deeds, as mentioned in the hereto annexed affi- 
davit, No. 10. 

" But perhaps it may be objected that Mr. Eastburn took more 
Liberty in his May than he was warranted to do by the said Deeds 
for that Purchase, in making the Head Line to run at Right 
Angles with the Line or Course of the Walk : To obviate and 
Answer which Objection, and also those against the Place of Be- 
ginning the Walk, and Course of it, &c a -' we observe, that after the 
Description in the Deed has carried the Boundary Line of this 
Purchase from the Spruce Tree away to the White Oak marked P, 
and so Westward to Neshameny Creek (being so far the Line of 
the Contiguous Purchase in 1682), it goes ' on thus from which 
said Line, the said Tract hereby granted, does extend itself back 
into the Woods as far as a Man can go in One Day and an Half 
and bounded on the Westerly Side with the Creek called Nesha- 
meny, or the most Westerly Branch thereof so far as the said 

any Foundation of Complaint had ever been given them, yet he allowed 
this to be unworthy of any Government;'] he, after finishing the Examina- 
tions of all the Persons present at the said Walk, who we could learn were 
now to be had, desired the Secretary to inform us whether those or any 
other Persons present at the Walk were examined on Oath at the said 
Treaty at Easton, or on what else it was that those Commissioners founded 
those positive Assertions of theirs that the said Walk was then universally 
given up as unfair and not to be defended, when the direct Contrary so 
clearly appeared to us by the Affidavits of all those Persons at it, and whose 
Testimony only was worth regarding : To which the Secretary answered 
that none of those or any other Persons were to his Knowledge examined 
on Oath or otherwise about the said Walk at the said Treaty, but that some 
Persons who dined there with the Governor, taking upon them to speak of 
the unfairness of the Walk with great Positiveness, and as a thing certain, 
and allowed by all or most of those present at it, and particularizing many 
aggravating Circumstances of the Fraudulent and unjust performance of 
it, and throwing out some Insinuations and Reflections against the Proprie- 
taries as if they were privy to it, he believes he might say if those things 
were true, such a Procedure was unworthy of any Government, but avers 
that he, not being concerned in these Proprietaries* Affairs till after that 
Transaction, was an absolute Stranger to it, and that any thing he might 
say about the Proprietaries making the Indians Satisfaction, for it was not 
from any Knowledge he had of the Fact (for that he knew nothing at all 
about it), but merely from his Opinion of their Strict Regard to Justice ; 
and in Short, that tho' these Gentlemen had in their said Report pronounced! 
so positively about that affair, he believes it could only be founded upon the 
said Table Talk and Loose Hear-say, and that, in fact, they knew no more- 
of it than he did. 



252 MINUTES OF THE 

Branch does extend, and from thence by a Line [Blank in the 
Deed, but, as we construe, is to run parrallel with and] to the ut- 
most Extent of the said One and Half Day's Journey, and from 
thence by a Line [Blank in the Deed] to the aforesaid River Dela- 
ware, and from thence down by the Several Courses thereof to the 
first-mentioned Spruce Tree,' the Place of Beginning. And on 
comparing and Considering the several Parts of the said Descrip- 
tion, and that of the Contiguous Purchase on the South Westerly 
Side thereof, between Neshameny and Pennapeck, &c a- ' made by 
Four Several Deeds, all dated the 23d June, 1683 [of which Deeds 
we have also annexed a Copy, No. 11], we think it clearly appears 
that the Walk might, consistently with the Deed, have begun at 
the End of the said Line running Westward from the said White 
Oak to where it strikes Neshameny, which would have been more 
in favour of the Proprietaries, than beginning it at Wright's Town, 
as it would have made the Walk Considerably shorter, and that the 
South Westerly Side Line, from the utmost Extent of the most 
Westerly Branch of Neshameny, was to be a parrallel with the 
Course of the Walk which, according to the Words of the Deed, 
was to be back into the Woods as far as a Man can go in One Day 
and an Half In order to understand and settle what Course the 
Indians and Proprietaries meant by those Words [back into the 
Woods], We had Recourse to the other Purchase Deeds, where we 
find those words frequently used to Signify or denote the Line that 
was to run back into the Country from or at Right Angles with 
the general Course of that Part of the River Delaware from New- 
castle to the Bend of the River above Pennsbury, where the Dela- 
ware Indians then lived, and where the new Settlements and cleared 
Lands were then encreasing and spreading each Way from the 
City. Which General Course of the Delaware being from , about 
North-East to South-West, a Line at Right Angles from it back 
into the Woods must Consequently be North Westerly, as it is ex- 
pressly called in the Deed for the Purchase of the Land between 
upland or Chester, and Dublin or Pennapeck Creeks, dated the 
30th July, 1685 (a Copy whereof is hereto annexed and marked 
No. 12) ; from whence it necessarily follows that the Course of the 
said Walk, and of the South Westerly Side Line of this Disputed 
Purchase, from the utmost Extent of the most Westerly Branch of 
Neshameny (which was to be settled and determined by the Course 
of the Walk), must be North Westerly, as Mr. Eastburn has laid 
it down in his Map, and exactly corresponds with the Line of the 
next Contiguous Purchase, on that Side, between Neshameny and 
Pennapect. 

'? And then as the Deed requires that the Head Or Cross Line 
shall go directly from the End of the said South Westerly Side 
Line, and of the Walk to the River Delaware in One Line or Couse, 
as we understand it, we cannot but think as Mr. Eastburn did, that 
it is most rational and Equitable that the said Head or Cross Line 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 253 

should Run at Right Angles from the Course of the Walk and End 
of the South Westerly Side Line (that being the Medium and with- 
out favouring One side or the other). And especially when it is 
considered that the Kittatinny Mountains are made the Boundary 
of the Proprietaries' New Purchase in 1749 (in which Nutimus and 
another Delaware Chief also joined with the Six Nations), of the 
Lands to the North Westward of those Mountains, which run near 
at right Angles with the Course of the walk, and, therefore, we 
conclude must be the most Proper Boundary of the said Purchase 
in 1686, as well as that of the said new purchased Tract on the 
other Side of those Mountains. See Copy of Deed for Purchase 
in 1749, No. 21. 

" As to the Indians insisting that the Walkers should have begun 
at and gone up a long Delaware Side, we shall only add to what we 
have observed on that Head before, that the Deed expressly says 
the finishing and Closing Line of the Description is Down by the 
Several Courses of Delaware to the place of Beginning, at the 
Spruce Tree. This may Serve to shew the Ignorance of the In- 
dians and the Wickedness of those who put them on making so 
unjust and groundless a Charge. 

" And it appears to us equally absurd and rediculous in the In- 
dians to say, that instead of its being a Journey as far as a Man 
can go in One Day and an half, as the Deed expresses, it should 
only be an idle, trifling Walk, such as a Person would take who 
had little else in View, but to sperfd the Time in Pleasure, killing 
Game, and every now and then setting down to smoak his Pipe ; 
And as it was not to be such a Walk, but a real Day and Half's 
Journey on an Affair of so much Consequence as the settling the 
Boundaries of so large a Purchase, and considering that according 
to the Natural Construction of those Words [a Journey as far as a 
Man can go in a Day and an Half], the Walkers were not strictly 
to be confined to Walking, tho' by the Affidavits of the said Per- 
sons present it appears they did; we think the Length of the Walk 
(especially stopping at the Kittatinny Mountains, where, according 
to Mr. Thomas Penn's Directions, as mentioned in Mr. Smith's 
Deposition, and where, by the said Purchase in 1749, that Head 
Line was fixed as aforesaid), it being only, as we are well informed, 
about Forty Seven Miles from Wright's Town to those Mountains, 
was not at all extravagant or unreasonable and ought not to have 
been objected to, as we find most of the Deeds for the Prior Pur- 
chases fix the North Western Boundary at Two full Days Journey 
with a Horse from the River Delaware. 

" For Answer to the Third Head of the Complaint, and supposing 
it to allude, as we apprehend it does, to the Proprietaries' Purchases 
from the Six Nation Indians j we find by several Minutes of Coun- 
cil [particularly the Entries in the Council Journals, Book D, Fol. 
121, &c a -' a Copy whereof is hereto annexed, marked No. 137], and 



254 MINUTES OF THE 

other Proofs, that the Delaware Indians had, before the Settlement 
of Pennsylvania, been conquered by the Five, now Six Nation In- 
dians, and that they were, and continued ever since, their Tributa- 
ries and Dependants, and were looked upon to have no Right to sell 
any Lands within this Province by the said Confederate Indians of 
the Six Nations, who thereupon repeatedly forbid and caution the 
Old Proprietary And his Sons, against purchasing any lands from 
the Delaware Indians, and therefore the Old and present Proprie- 
taries, not only took Deeds for all their lands bought of the Indians 
from the Delaware, Susquehannah, Schuylkill, and all other Indians 
who claimed the right of Possession, as well particular Chiefs and 
Possessors of large Tracts and Districts, as the Sachems and Heads 
of the several Communities of those Indians, and paid for many of 
the Purchases Two or Three Times over on taking the Deeds of 
Confirmation thereof. But they also took Deeds for many of their 
Lands from the Six Nation Indians, that they might the better 
guard against any Cavil with any of the Indians about those Lands. 

" We don't find that any of the Proprietaries' Indian Purchases 
were ever run out by a Compass, nor can we' apprehend that it 
Could be of any use in laying them out, as they seem all to be 
described in the Deeds by natural Bounds ; and therefore we are 
very much at a Loss to understand what Teedyuscung means by 
that part of his Charge against the Proprietaries (in our Fourth 
Head), wherein he Complains ' that when he (meaning, we suppose, 
the Ancestors of the Present Delaware Indians) had agreed to sell 
the Land to the Old Proprietary by the Course of the River, the 
young Proprietaries come and got it run out by a Straight Line by 
the Compass, and by that means took in double the Quantity intended 
to be sold/ Unless t he alluds to the Circumstance of a Compass being 
used in the going the said One and Half Day's Walk, as mentioned 
in one or two of the Depositions of the Witnesses whom we examined 
about the walk, particularly Marshal, who says he carried a Compass 
at the Time of his going the Walk. But besides his being Contradic- 
ted in that Circumstance by almost all the rest of the Witnesses, we 
think it very improbable that he should, as it must so much retard 
his Walking if he stopped frequently to make any use of it, that he 
could not possibly Walk so far in the Eighteen Hours, as he says 
in his Deposition he did j and further, we find by Mr. Smith's Depo- 
sitions, there could be little or no Occasion for Marshal's carrying 
or using a Compass, for that in order to prevent the Walkers 
loosing themselves and Wandering out of the Way when they 
quitted the great Road and old Paths, the Proprietaries' Agents had 
sometime before the going the walk, tried the Course, and previously 
marked the Trees to direct the Walkers where they were obliged by 
the Course of the Walk to leave the great Road and Old Paths, 
which indeed, as it appears by almost all the Evidence, was very 
little, till they came near the Kittatinny mountains, where they 
should have stopped, as we have before observed. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 255 

" In the Year 1740 and 1741 we find that the said Nutimus, and 
some others of the Delaware Indians (notwithstanding their said 
Deed of Confirmation in August, 1737, for the said Purchase of the 
said Land in and near the Forks), made a Complaint about the 
White People's settling those disputed Lands, but did not make any 
objection to, or so much as mention the said Walk, pretending* or 
affecting to be quite ignorant both of the said Deed in 1686, and 
of their own said Deed in 1737, and only said they had never sold 
the Proprietaries that Land. 

" In Consequence of which Complaint, and of their appealing to 
or desiring to have their Uncles, the Six nation Indians, present 
when the pretended Causes for that Complaint were examined into, 
We find that at a Treaty held in Philadelphia in July, 1742, with 
the Six Nation Indians, at which there was a numerous appearance 
of them, with their Chiefs, and the Dela wares, as well from 
Shamokin, with their Chiefs, as those from the Forks of Delaware, 
with their Chiefs also attending, the said Complaint was fully 
enquired into in the presence of the said Six Nation Indians, and 
after hearing every thing that the Complainers had to say in support 
of it, and what the Agent of the Proprietaries had to say in their 
Vindication, and perusing and carefully Considering the Proprie- 
taries' Purchase Deeds, relating to that Disputed Land, and after 
the Indian Chiefs of the Six Nations had by themselves considered 
it, and with the Assistance of their Interpreter, Mr. Weiser perused 
and fully examined the Delawares and their own Letters on the 
Subject, with the Draught of the Land, and the Proprietaries' 
Deeds and Writings relating thereto, which were all laid before 
them, they, moved with a Proper Spirit of resentment and Concern 
which such base Conduct of their Couzins, the Delawares, had raised 
in them, declared to the Governor and Council that they saw with 
their own Eyes, and were fully convinced, ' that their said Cousins 
had been a very unruly People, and were altogether in the wrong/ 
and then their famous Speaker, Canasatego, applying himself to the 
Delawares, with a Belt of Wampum in his Hands, reprimanded 
them in a most warm and pathetic Speech, which is so strong, 
expressive, and pertinent to the Subject of this Enquiry, that we 
could not omit inserting the following Extract from it, Viz*- : 

(t f Let this Belt of Wampum serve to chastise, you ought to be 
taken by the Hair of the Head and shaked severely till you recover 
your Senses and become Sober; you don't know what Ground you 
stand on, nor what you are doing. Our Brother Onas' [meaning 
the Proprietor] Cause is very just a^d plain. On the other Hand 
your Cause is bad; your Heart far from being Upright; and you are 
maliciously bent to break the Chain of Friendship with our Brother 
Onas and his People. We have seen with our Eyes a Deed signed 

«**See Copies of minutes of Council, with their Letter of the 21st November, 
1740, and Governor Thomas' Answer of the 27th March, 1741, No. 14. 



256 MINUTES OF THE 

by nine of your Ancestors above Fifty Years ago for this very Land, 
and a release signed not many years since by some of yourselves and 
Chiefs now living to the Number of Fifteen or upwards. But how 
came you to sell Land at all ? We conquered you ; we made Women 
of you ; you know you are Women, and can no more sell Land than 
Women; nor is it ft you should have the Power of selling Lands 
since you would abuse it. This Land that you claim is gone through 
your guts; you have been furnished, with Cloaths, Meat, and Drink 
by the Goods paid you for it, and now you want it again like 
Children as you are.'* 

" And after upbraiding them with Selling the Land without their 
Privity or giving them any part of the Purchase Money, and with 
their having, in their Excuse, told them a Blind Story that they 
had sent a Messenger to acquaint the Six Nations with that Sale, 
but that he never arrived; and charging them with being dishonest 
and greedy to hear and receive slanderous Reports of their Brethren, 
the English. He charges them to remove instantly off the Land to 
the other Side of Delaware, where they came from. But on reflec- 
tion that they might have sold that Land too, he assigns them two 
Places to go to, either to Wioming or Shamokin, that their future 
Behaviour might be the easier and better observed by their Uncles, 
the Six Nations; and then orders them to depart the Council. 

"Accordingly, we find the Delawares (acquiescing and satisfied 
with their Uncles' Judgment and Determination of their Differences 
with the Proprietaries about the said Land) did, in obedience thereto, 
settle on the River Susquehannah at Wioming, Shamokin, and other 
Places thereabouts, taking with them Several Jersey and Minnisink 
Indians, and Continue ever since (till their late Ravages upon our 
Borders) to live in Harmony with the Six Nations, and a Kind and 
Friendly Intercourse and good Agreement with the People of this Pro- 
vince, carrying on a considerable Trade with them, and thereby supply- 
ing themselves with all the necessaries and Conveniences of life without 
ever Complaining or expressing any Dissatisfaction about the said 
Land. And we find by the Council Minutes, that in the Year 1754, 
when some of the People of Connecticut setting up a Claim to the Wio- 
ming Lands, sent some Persons to the Susquehannah to view the 
Country, who were imprudent enough to make Draughts of the 
Lands and Rivers in the presence of the Indians, and to make some 
Attempts to Corrupt our Back Inhabitants, and engage them to 
purchase from them and to join with them in settling the Wioming 
Lands. Governor Hamilton coming to the Knowledge of these 
Pretentions and Designs of the New England People, and being 
apprehensive of the bad consequences that might attend these new 
Claims, and the imprudent conduct of these People, sent Mr. 
Weiser and his Son to Shamokin and Wioming to those Indians 

u *See this Speech and Transaction in the printed Treaty in July, 1742, 
No. 15, and in Colden's History of the Five Nations, Page 77, &ca. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 257 

with Friendly Messages to be delivered at their Towns on Susque- 
hannah to enquire after their Health, and to acquaint them that 
something had been insinuated to him as if they had Cause of Com- 
plaint against some of our Inhabitants ; and if they had to impart 
their Grievance to him assuring them Justice should be done to 
their Satisfaction. See Copy of Minutes of Council, No. 16. 

" This Message was taken very kindly by those Indians j and 
they, in consequence thereof, in April ,1755, came to Philadelphia 
to make their Acknowledgements for that Favour, as they esteemed 
it ; and tho' so fair an Opportunity was given them to have signi- 
fied to the Governor their Dissatisfaction about the said Land pur- 
chased by the Proprietaries in 1686, or any other cause of uneasi-» 
ness if any they had entertained or conceived against the Proprie- 
taries or people of this Government j yet they made not the least 
Mention of any, but on the Contrary did by their Speaker, the said 
Teedyuscung, then give this Government the most Solemn and full 
Assurances of their Warmest Affections and most earnest desire 
of renewing, establishing and Continuing to the end of Time that 
Covenant of Friendship which the Old Proprietor, William Penn, 
had so happily settled with their Ancestors and those of their 
Uncles, the Six Nations. See Copy Minutes of Council, No. 17. 

" And in the Treaty held at Philadelphia in August, 1755, with 
the Owendates, accompanied by Scarroyady, Chief of the Six Na- 
tions, and some other Indians, just after the unhappy Defeat of 
General Braddock, we also find that these Delawares were then so 
far from having any thoughts or just cause to fall out with us, that 
after expressing some resentment for their not being asked to join 
the English in that Expedition, they, by Scarroyady, promised in 
the strongest Terms that if we would give them the Hatchet they 
would most heartily join us and their Uncles, the Six Nations, 
against the French. See Copy minutes of Council, No. 18. 

" Besides what appears on the Subject in the said Treaty in Au- 
gust, 1785, we further observe, that at a subsequent Treaty or 
Conference at Philadelphia, the Eighth of the following November, 
with Scarrooyady, Andrew Montour, and Jagrea, Scarrooyady ac- 
quainted the Governor that the Speaker and House of Assembly 
(convened by the Governor at the Instance of Scarrooyady, to be 
present on that Occasion), that he was sent on Purpose by all the 
Nations of Indians on Susquehannah (then our hearty Friends and 
Allies, and at the Head of whom were these Delawares), to renew 
their Application and earnest request to us, to give them the Hatchet,, 
and to aid, protect, and join with them against the French, and that he 
came ' to obtain our explicit Answer, whether we would fight or no/ 
and after he had used many other Arguments, he addressed himself 
to the Governor and Assembly in these words : [< Brethren : I must 
deal plain with you, and tell you if you will not fight with us, we 
VOL. vin. — 17. 



258 MINUTES OF THE 

will go somewhere else.. We never can or ever will put up the Af- 
front. If we cannot be safe where we are, we will go somewhere 
else for protection, and take care of ourselves] ; ' and tho' the Gov- 
ernor at the close of that Conference, after he had dismissed the 
Indians, did in the most Pressing manner entreat the Speaker and 
Assembly to return to their House, to consider well what the In- 
dians had said on that Important Occasion, and to Strengthen his 
Hands, and enable him to make a proper Answer to what they had 
then proposed and expected of us ; and letting the House know 
that without their Aid he could not do it; Yet we find that noth- 
ing could prevail with the Assembly to agree to our giving the 
. Hatchet to the Indians, and joining them against the French. The 
Consequence whereof was, that the Governor was obliged to let the 
Indians go away dissatisfied, & soon after the Delawares joined the 
Enemy, and began to fall upon and destjoy our Frontier Inhabi- 
tants. See Copy, Minutes of Council, No. 19. 

" And thus this grand Crisis was neglected, and that critical and 
most favourable Opportunity of keeping these Indians in our Inte- 
rest (when they with such earnest and repeated Solicitations and 
Importunities Courted and pressed us to it), and of Preventing a 
great part of the fatal Mischiefs that have since befallen this unhappy 
country, was lost ! 

" As to the fifth Head of the said Indians' Complaint, that they 
have been ill-treated by the out-Settlers, in being refused the Lib- 
erty of cutting Firewood, and interrupted in their Hunting, we 
being Strangers to the Facts can only say, that nothing of this kind 
appear to us to have been done with the Privity of the Proprie- 
taries or this Government, and in general believe, that they 
have been extremely well treated by the People of this 
Province. There may, perhaps, have been some few rash 
indiscreet Person in the back Parts, who may have had Differences 
with some of the Indians, and if that has been really the Case they 
should have complained of it to the Government, where they knew 
from manifold Experience, they might be sure of always meeting 
with the Redress and full Satisfaction for any Injuries they might 
have Sustained, whether of a Publick or private Nature, and not 
have resented it and taken their own Revenge in so unjust and cruel 
a Manner against the whole Province. 

" Upon the Whole it is very evident to us, and so we presume it 
must appear to all unprejudiced Persons, that there is not the least 
Shadow of Foundation for any part of the Complaint made by 
Teedyuscung, on behalf of the Indians against the Proprietaries, 
we must, therefore, attribute his exhibiting that false and ground- 
less Charge against them to some undue Influence, or to the Diffi- 
culty he was under to invent any other plausible Excuse for the 
cruel Murders and horrid Devastations committed by them on our 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 259 

back Inhabitants, and for their base ungreatful Breach of Faith, 
and the many Treaties made and so solemnly and frequently re- 
newed with us, even so lately as the Spring before they committed 
those shocking murders and cruelties on our Borders ; And we can- 
not but think that instead of this False Cause which Teedyuscung 
has thought fit to assign for their taking part with the Enemy 
against us, he might with greater Truch have mentioned that of our 
refusing or neglecting (tho' so frequently and earnestly requested) 
to afford them Protection and give them the Hatchet, and to join 
and go out with them against the French, as we have before observed. 
But the People who have since that Time appeared so indefatigably 
industrious to engross all the Management of the Indians to them- 
selves (in which your Honour iflust be sensible, as well as we, they 
have too well Succeeded), were chiefly the same who made up a 
great Majority of the Assembly at the Time when the House from 
their avowed religious Principles, or from what other Motives they 
best knew, refused or declined to concur with the Governor in giving 
up the Hatchets to and joining with those Indians against the 
Enemy, and as they cannot but be conscious that they justly deserve, 
and must have incurred great Blame on that account, if the Indians 
should have given that for the Reason of their joining with the 
French against us, We are better able to account for these People 
being so numerous at all the late Indian Treaties, and upon all 
Occasions so very forward and anxious to ingratiate themselves 
with the Indians ; and for Teedyuscung's choosing to offer these 
imaginary Reasons for their Quarrel with us, rather than the 
True one, 

" We are, Sir, 

H Your most Humble Servants, 

"JOSEPH TURNER, 
"LYNFORD LARDNER, 
"BENJAMIN CHEW, 
"JOHN MIFFLIN, 
"THOMAS CADWALADER. 
"Read and approved in Council, the 6th January, 1758. " 



The Schedules annexed to the foregoing Report : 

Page. 
" No. 1. Antient Copy of Indian Purchase Deeds of 28th 

of August, 1686 - - - - - 1, 2, 3 
" No. 2. Minutes of Indian Land Treaty, 24th April, 

1737 - - - - - - - 7,8,9 

"No. 3. Old Mr. Hamilton's Sketch of Draught) of that 

Land, -*-...„ \\ 



260 MINUTES OF THE 



Page. 



" No. 4. Depositions of persons present at the Walk, 
Septem r < 1737, Viz 1 -: 

Nicholas Scull 15 

Edward Marshall - - - - • - - 16 

Alexander Brown 19 

Timothy Smith 21 

John Hyder 24 

Epraim Goodwin 26 

" No. 5. Copy Benjamin Easburn's Map, and the one and 

Half Day's Walk, and Lands adjacent - 33 

" No. 6. Extracts Secretary Markham's Diary for 1686 - 36 

" No. 7. Minutes of Council, 2d August, 1686 - 40 

" No. 8. Indian Deed 25th August, 1737, of Confirma- 
tion of Deed 28th August, 1686 - • - - 44 
"No. 9. Indian Deed of 15th July, 1682, and Counter- 
part executed by Governor Markham - 52 
Richard Peters' Affidavit to prove said Deed - 60 
" No. 10. Mess™- Allen, Hamilton, Bichard Peters, and 
Nicholas Scull's Affidavit, proving said pre- 
ceding Deeds and Papers, from No. 1 to No. 
9, therein referred to - - - - 64 to 74 

" No. 11. Copys 4 Several Indian Deeds, all Dated 23d 

June, 1683 ------ 80 

Affidavit, Bichard Peters to prove them - 84 

"No. 12. Copy Indian Deeds 30th July, 1685 - - 88 

Affidavit, Bichard Peters to prove - 92 

" No. 13. Copy Minute of Council, 22d July, 1707 - 96 

Ditto, 19th May, 1712 - 98 

Do. 14 Octo r - 1712 - 102 

" No. 14. Copy Minutes of Council 26th March, 1741 - 108 

And of Delaware Indians, & Letters to Gov r " 

Thomas, &c a * 110 

And his Answer 112 

And their Answer to him, the dispute about the 
Lands to the five Nations at the Treaty at 

Philadelphia - 116 

" No. 15. Copy Indian Deed for Biver Susquehannah, and 

Landson both Sides, dated 11th October, 1736 118 

And probate thereof - . - - - 122 

And Deed of Confirmation thereof, dated 25th 

Octo r -1736 ------ 124 

Probate thereof, p r - Conrad Weiser - - 126 

Copy of Six Nation Indians petition or request 
to Thomas Penn, Esq r - f} Conrad Weiser, the 
19th November, .1736, requesting (interalia) 
that our Proprietaries would Purchase no 
Lands of the Delawarcs, for that they have 
no right to sell, nor good Designs - - 128 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 261 

Page. 

Copy Conrad Weiser's Affidavit to prove Indian 
Deed of 11th & 25th, and proving said Peti- 
tion of 19th November, 1736, signed then at 
his House, 1736 130 

"No. 16. Minutes of Council, 6th April, 1754, with Gov- 
ernor Hamilton's Message % Mr. Weiser to 
Susquehannah Indians, offering to redress any 
Grievances they had to complain of - 134 

Mr. Weiser's report thereon in Minute Council 

7th May, 1754 135 

" No. 17. Copy Minutes of Council at Indian Treaty, or 
friendly Conference with Delawares, &c a *' 14th 
April, 1755 

" No. 18. Minutes of Indian Treaty or Conference with 
Scarroyady, the Owendats, and some others 
of the Six Nation Indians, 7th August, 1755 146 

" No. 19. Do. 8th November, 1755, with Scarrooyady and 

Jagrea - 158 

" No. 20. Copy Governor Morris' Message to the Assem- 
bly, in Consequence of said Treaty, for us to 
support and join the Indians against the 

French 165 

And of Assembly's answer thereto - - - 167 

"No. 21. Copy Indian Deed of 22d August, 1749 - 170 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Tuesday, February the 6th, 
1759. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esqr., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. • 

Robert Strettell, Richard Peters, | -p S(m : reg 

Joseph Turner, Lynford Lardner, j " 

The Governor laid before the Board two Letters he had received 
from General Amherst, which were read and ordered to be entered : 

A Letter from General Amherst to Governor Denny. 

"New York, December the 30th, 1758. 
"Sir: 

" I received with great Pleasure your Letter of the Twenty-Fifth 
Instant, accompanying your Message to the Assembly and their 
Answer, Both which are so satisfactory and so promising for the 
good of the Service in general, that I should think myself wanting 
in point of Acknowledgement were I not to make you the most 
early Return for the Same. 



262 MINUTES OF THE 

" The Ready compliance of the Assembly at my Requisition to 
Continue the Fourteen Hundred Old Troops in the Pay of the Pro- 
vince till their next meeting, likewise merits my warmest Thanks, 
which I must beg to convey to them through your Channel, with 
the further Assurances of my taking the first Opportunity to lay 
before His Majesty this mark of their Loyalty and Zeal. 

" I am also much obliged to you for the Copy of Brigadier Gen- 
eral Forbes' Letter ; but am sorry to find he was so much indisposed 
as not to be able to travel from Loyal Hannon. I hope he will 
have recovered, and that I shall soon have the Satisfaction of Con- 
gratulating him on his return to Philadelphia. 
" I am, with great Regard, Sir, 

" Your most Obedient hum'- Servant, 

"JEFF. AMHERST." 



Another Letter from General Amherst to Governor Denny. 
" New York, 13th January, 1759. 
" Sir : 

" Yesterday I had the pleasure of your Letter of the Eighth 
Instant by Lieutenant Colonel Morris, acquainting me with your 
being to meet the Assembly of the Lower Counties on the Twenty- 
Second of this^Month, and that as you have experienced their Loyal 
Affection to His Majesty's Person and Government you flatter your- 
self they will chearfully raise Supplies for the Service of the Cur- 
rent year to the utmost of their Abilities. I wish you, Sir, at that 
Meeting all imaginable Success, and from your Experienced good 
opinion of them, make no doubt but I shall have the Satisfaction 
of Congratulating you thereupon, and of returning them my Warm- 
est Thanks. 

M Lieutenant Colonel Morris having represented to me that some 
small Difficulties had arisen at Philadelphia in relation to Quarter- 
ing, I take this Opportunity of transmitting to you a Copy of the 
Agreement entered into between the Deputy Quarter-Master Gen- 
eral for the King and the Select Men of Boston, which I have 
made a standing rule for all the other Provinces and Colonies on 
the Continent, who now one and all comply therewith, and do as I 
have no reason to think that Pennsylvania would be deficient in 
their Care of and regard for the Troops sent for their Defence and 
Protection, I make no Doubt that upon sight of the before men- 
tioned agreement they will chearfully comply with it, and cause 
every difficulty that may have arisen immediately to Subside. 
" I am, with great Regard, Sir, 

" Your most Obed'- Hum e - Servant, 

"JEFF. AMHERST." 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 265 

Two Members having waited on the Governor Yesterday to 
acquaint him that the House were met, his Honour directed the 
Secretary to deliver to the House the said Letters from General 
Amherst, and also a Copy of the Agreement mentioned in the 
General's Letter of the Thirteenth of January, with a Verbal 
Message, that the Governor recommend to the House the immediate 
Consideration of the distressed state of the Provincials, who are 
now on Duty in the Several Garrisons of the Frontiers. His 
Honour likewise desires a Sufficient Number of Blankets may be 
forthwith sent, and the Soldiers enabled to Provide for themselves 
such Necessaries as are absolutely wanted in this Severe Season. 



MEMORANDUM. 

On the Seventh Two Members waited on the Governor to 
acquaint him that the House had referred to the Provincial Com- 
missioners to make Provision for the Troops, agreeable to his 
Honour's verbal Message of Yesterday; that as no Advices had 
been received from Great Britain, relating to the Plan of Operations 
for the Ensuing year, the House inclined to adjourn to the Twenty- 
Fifth Instant, if the Governor had no Objection. His Honour was 
pleased to say, he was glad the House had ordered a proper supply 
of Blankets for the Troops, and that he had no objection to the 
proposed Time of adjournment. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Tuesday the 13th of February ,. 
1759. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esqr., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Stretteli, Benjamin Shoemaker, *\ 

Joseph Turner, Richard Peters, > Esquires. 

Lynford Lardner, Thomas Cadwalader, j 

The Governor informed the Council, that as soon as he returned 
from Newcastle he was acquainted by Mr. Croghan and Mr. 
Montour, that several Indians were in Town who lived near the 
indian Town Bouclones, on the Head Waters of the Ohio, and that 
Tottinyanhiago and the youngest Shick Calamy, called John Petit, 
who bad been dispatched with the Messages to the Ohio Indians 
from the Treaty at Easton, were likewise here, with Thomas King, 
and another ^Warrior who had assisted General Forbes at the Close 
of the Campaign, and tho' their Business was principally with the 
General, they would be glad to Wait on the Governor. The Secre- 
tary was sent to them with the Governor's Compliments, and s 



264 MINUTES OP THE 

kind Message to enquire after their Health and Accommodations; 
and that he would be glad to see them the next Day, which was 
Tuesday the Third Instant. 

Accordingly they came on that Day, when they expressed great 
uneasiness at their being detained in Town by the General, who 
was indisposed, and had let them know that when the Governor 
came to Town he would speak to them, and desired the Governor 
would remind him of their being here and that they wanted to 
speak with him and their Business required Dispatch. 

" At their Instance, he pressed the Governor from time to time 
to hear what they had to say, but being too much indisposed he had 
desired Mr. Peters to examine into their Errand and take it down 
in Writing, and to Put some Questions to them, and be very Exact 
in taking down their Answers, which was done as follows : 

" On Thursday the Eighth of February, 1759, Richard Peters, 
at the Request of General Forbes, with the Approbation of the 
Governor, held a Conference with the Indians. 
"present: 

" Tottinyantringo, a Cayuga Chief; John Petit, or the Youngest 
of the Shick Calamys, Mes 515 - sent from Easton Treaty. 

" Thomas King, Warrior and Oneido Chief. 

" Canawaago, the Chief of the .Indian Deputies near Bowlunce, 

" A Cherokee Deputy, sent from the Cherokees with the Army 
under General Forbes to Bowclunce, before the Reduction of Fort 
Duquesne. 

" George Croghan, Esquire, Indian Agent to Sir William Johnson. 

"Andrew Montour, Interpreter. 

" 1st Question. ' Where do these Deputies live, when did they 
leave their Town, and where did they come from last V 

" Answer. ' We live on Ohio, about Ninety Miles above Venango, 
and we left our Towns along with the Cherokees, in Number Forty, 
above two Months ago, and we called at Venango, and thence came 
the straight Path to Fort DuQuesne, without calling anywhere else/ 

"2d Question. ' What is the Business you were sent upon, and to 
what People V 

"Answer. ' Before we left home we heard that the French had 
abandoned Fort Duquesne, and the English had taken Post there, 
and that Deputies from the Six Nations were transacting Business 
with the Delaware and Shawanese, which was the Reason of our 
setting off from home to hear what news was passing between the 
English and Indians about Fort Duquesne ; We were Thirty of our 
own Nation when we sat out, and Ten Delawares, Of which Thirty 
we present are five, and the rest are waiting for our Return at Fort 
Duquesne/ 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 265 

" ' In our Way to Fort Duquesne, we called at Venango, where 
we saw the principal Officer who commanded lately at that Fort, 
and Forty French Soldiers with him, and no more/ 

" 3d Question. ' What is the Reason that you did not return to 
your Own Country from Pittsburg, as the Commanding officer there 
had, at your request, related what had passed between the English 
and the Delawares, and between the Six Nation Deputies and the 
Indians At Kushkuski, and the other Town on Beaver Creek V 

" Answer. ' When we came to Pittsburgh and found that the 
Deputies of the Six Nations, and the English General were gone to 
Philadelphia, we held a Council, at which it was determined that 
Deputies should be sent down after the Six Nation Deputies; and the 
General, in Order to know what was to be done this next Spring, 
and what the Six Nations had. transacted at the last Treaty at Eas- 
ton, that we might take Measures accordingly; and further, that 
we might send answers to several Messages which we had received 
from the Southern Indians, by one of them who is now present, 
which we could not do till we should hear from the Mouths of 
the Deputies of the Six Nations, and of the General, what is really 
agreed on between them and the other Indians. You must be sen- 
sible that this is a Matter of vast Importance for us to know with 
Truth and Certainty, as the French are our near Neighbours, sur- 
rounding us on all sides, and urging us to join them. This made it 
necessary to know the particulars of the Treaty at Easton, and on 
what Footing Peace was established between the Indians and English.' 

" i This is what we had in Charge from our Towns, and we told it 
to the Commanding Officer at Pittsburgh, who wrote it down, and 
we are now sent to receive the Answers from the Mouths of the 
General and the Six Nations Deputies : and we would further be 
glad to know, what was put down in Writing by Colonel Mercer, 
and sent to the General, that if it be wrong, as we had very bad 
Interpreters, it might be set right/ 

" ' May it not be the shortest way, as Andrew Montour can inter- 
pret well, for you to relate what you really came about, and if you 
think so, please to relate it/ 

" They grew tired, and being hungry, wanted Dinner. Postponed 
till to-morrow Morning Nine o' Clock. " 



" The Conference continued on Friday, 9th of February, 1759. 
" present: 
" The same as before. 
" And the other four Deputies from the Canawaago with another 
Indian called Assarago, who came to Town last Night. 
" Tottinyantungo, Speaker. 



266 MINUTES OF THE 

u He repeated, according to the Indian Custom, what had been said 
yesterday, adding a few more particulars, Vizt. : 

" That when they came to "Venango, the Commanding Officer 
made a Speech to them and gave three War Belts : one to the Sha- 
wanese, one to the Delawares, and one to the Six Nations, telling 
them that the English had drove them from Fort Duquesne, and 
desired them to take the Hatchet against the English, and revenge 
their injuries upon them ; but they rejected the Belts fend the 
Hatchet, and declared they would go and see with their own eyes, 
likewise know for certain what was doing at Fort Duquesne; that 
there were six Nation Deputies with the English General, and with 
them they would talk, & afterwards take their Measures according 
to what they should be informed of. They were well pleased with 
the reception given them at Pittsburg, and the whole Party having 
held a Council, these five were appointed to follow the Six Nation's 
Deputies and the General, and learn from their own Mouths what 
had passed, and what the English General determined to do, and 
what was the Resolutions of the Six Nations thereupon. They ad- 
ded, 'We have often heard that the English had since the present 
War retained a great Regard for the Indians, and as we have always 
preserved an affection for our Brethren, the English, We come now 
to tell them so, and to know if what we have heard of their regards 
from the Indians be true. 

" ' This is the Substance of our Business, and we are ordered to 
return in Twenty-Five Days, the French being very industrious in 
making Interest with all the different Indians, and endeavouring to 
turn them in their favour, for they will certainly make an attack 
early in the Spring. 

" * We, therefore, desire to be satisfied by the General in these tyo 
Articles : 1st. To be informed what was agreed upon at Easton 
between the Six Nations, Delawares, and English. Secondly, 
What further measures the English General will take in the Spring, 
and what part the Six Nations will take therein/ 

"4th Question. 'Does the Cherokee return to his Country from 
this Town, or go back with you to your Towns, and what were his 
Messages he brought to you V 

" Answer. ( He was sent to know what we and the Six Nations 
would do in the Spring, for their People were determined to do the 
same. This was all his Errand, and we have several Messages from 
the Southern Indians to the same Purpose. We think the Indians 
of all Nations will follow the Determination and Example of the Six 
Nations ; and therefore, we are under a necessity of knowing the 
General's Resolutions and those of the Six Nations, in order to re- 
turn our Answers. The Cherokee is to return with us to our 
Town, where we left his Uncle, who are both to be dispatched home 
with the Determinations of our Councils/ " 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 267 

The General finding himself worse, and unable to speak, wrote a 
letter to the Governor by Lieutenant Grant inclosing what he would 
chuse should be said in his Name to the Indians j and the Governor 
acquainted the Council they were now called to Consider it. 

The Speeches were read, and as it is intirely a Business with the 
King's General, the Governor and Council were of opinion that 
from the necessity of the Affair it might be proper if the Governor 
would be pleased to gratify the General's Request and to Send for 
the Provincial Commissioners and Confer with them. 

The Provincil Commissi^iers attended the Council, and after 
long discourse they were ofWpinion that since the General was not 
able to speak, and it might be of bad Consequence to send these 
Indians away dissatisfied for want of Presents, if no Method could 
be fallen upon to make the General sensible that it was his Business 
to make these Reports, they, the Commissioners, would provide 
them. 

Then the Indians were sent for, but were too much in Liquor 
to come into Council. 

The Speeches were agreed to be delivered in the name of the 
General as follows : 

" Brethren : 

" I was from Day to Day in hopes of the General's recovery 
that he might have met you face to face, and in person proceeded 
on the Business you came to transact ; but the State of his health 
continues so weak that he cannot come abroad ; but as you have 
signified to me that any longer delay would be extremely danger- 
ous, I have sent for you at his request, and am now about to speak 
to you on his behalf, and desire you will be attentive and hearken 
to what I shall say to you." 

A String. 

t( Brethren, from Canawaago and the Neighboring Towns : 
"You have acquainted the General that the Indians at Cana- 
waago and places adjacent were informed of the Reduction of Fort 
Duquesne by the English, and likewise, that Deputies from the Six 
Nations were arrived from the Treaty at Easton in the Delaware 
Towns with Messages to all the Indians living in those parts ; and 
that on this Intelligence forty of your People were dispatched to 
talk with these Six Nation Messengers and with the English Gen- 
eral, and to know from them the particulars of that Treaty and of 
the Messages sent to the Delawares; and to be informed what 
measures would be taken by the English the Ensuing Year, and 
what part the Six Nations would take therein. 

" You further acquainted the General, that these forty Indians 
finding, when they came to Pittsburg, that He, as well as the 
Deputies of the Six Nations, had left the Place ; and were returning 



268 MINUTES OF THE 

home, held a Council, and sent you, who are five of them, after the 
General and Six Nation Deputies, and ordered you to confer with 
them, and be satisfied in these matters. > 

" Brethren : 

" I have repeated the particulars of your Business as they have 
been taken down from your own Mouth, but if any part has been 
mistaken or omitted, please to point it out, that it may be 
amended. 

" Brethren : 

" The Indians at Canawaago shew0 their prudence and good 
disposition in sending some of their own people to hear with their 
own Ears and see with their own Eyes, and to be satisfied of every 
thing from the Mouths of the General and the Deputies of the Six 
Nations. They might otherwise have been imposed upon by false 
Relations. 
" Brethren : 

"It is very true that a great Treaty was lately held at Easton, 
in behalf of all his Majesty's Subjects, with the Delawares, 
Unamies, Mohiccons, and Minisink Indians. 

" That the Six Nations were first of all made acquainted with 
our intention to hold this Treaty, and invited to it, and that in Con- 
sequence of this Invitation some of the principal Chiefs of those 
Nations were sent to attend, and assist in it, and in Conjunction 
with these Chiefs, Peace was confirmed between the English and 
those Indians, and sundry matters transacted, of all which an 
Account was sent by these, our Brethren, to the Delawares, Shawa- 
nese, and other Indians on the Ohio, and as I understand the whole 
has been faithfully related to you by these, our Brethren, I desire 
you will give entire Credit to it, as they are of your own Nations. 

" The Six Nations further joined with us in sending Messages 
to the Ohio Indians to withdraw from the French, and to cease 
doing any further mischief the English, and to return to their old 
Friendship and alliance with them. This Belt confirms my Words. 

" Brethren : 

" On the approach of the English Army to Fort Duquesne, the 
French Commander, rather than fight, chose to abandon the Fortifi- 
cation and run away, on which the General took Possession of that 
Place, and immediately sent Messengers to the neighbouring In- 
dians of all Nations to assemble and come and confer with him 
there; it unfortunately happened that the General was so ill that 
he could not wait for their coming, and therefore, impowered the 
Gentlemen who was next in Command to assure them that his Ma- 
jesty did not send his Forces to hurt the Indians, or to take their 
Lands from them, but to drive the French away, and to recommend 
it to the Indians, for whose Service and Protection this Armament 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 269 

was made to send the French away from the other parts of the Ohio 
and Oblige them to destroy their Forts and leave the Country. 
" Brethren : 

" If the Indians will follow this good advice and remove the 
French themselves, they will convince the English of their Sin- 
cerity. If they incline to do this, and the French should pay no 
regard to what the Indians say to them, or prove too strong for 
them, the General will be ready to come to their Assistance, for he 
is determined the French shall not remain in that Country, and will 
never let them rest till they abandon all their Forts." 

A Belt. 
" Brethren : 

" The General knows the French have told the Indians that the 
English intend to cheat them of the Land on the Ohio, and settle 
it for themselves, but this he assures you is false. The English 
have no intention to make Settlements in your Hunting Country 
beyond the Allegheny Hills, unless they shall be desired for your 
Conveniency to Erect Store Houses in order to establish and carry 
on a trade which they are ready to do on fair and just terms; And 
in the mean time a quantity of Goods has been sent to Fort Du- 
quesne, for the present Trade with their Brethren, and more shall 
be sent if the Indians desire it, and the Weather will admit. 
" Brethren : 

" The General gives you the Strongest Assurances that all such 
Indians as shall be disposed to join his Majesty's Forces shall be 
well Supported and furnished with eyery thing necessary for War- 
riors, and for any particular Services that an Indian shall be em- 
ployed to do, he shall be rewarded to his Satisfaction. 
" t By General Forbes' Order, 

"JAMES GRANT, Lieutenant 62d Regiment." 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Wednesday the 14th of Feb- 
ruary, 1759. 

present : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esqr., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Strettell, Richard Peters, ] -L 

Lynford Lardner, Thomas Cadwalader, | ^ S( l uires - 

A Petition from the Neutral French, setting forth the present 
Distresses of those Poor People, was read \ Mr. Hughes only atten- 
ding as Commissioner, it was recommended to him to speak to Mr. 
Lardner, that they might be taken care of; and they were desired 
to enquire of the Overseers of the Poor, what had actually been 
done for them. 



270 MINUTES OF THE 

The Indians came into Council, and the Speech agreed to yester- 
day was delivered to them. 

After the Governor had finished, the Cayuga Chief conferred 
with the principal Indians and Thomas King, and after some time 
spent in Consultation, the Indians, by Thomas King the Speaker, 
returned the Governor thanks for his Speeches, repeating them one 
by one, and said they were very agreeable. 

They complained that they had not been supplied with Liquor, 
not one Person having ordered them a Tub of Punch all the Time 
that they had been in town. 

That they inclined to go home to-morrow, but being told that 
some Cloaths and proper Necessaries were preparing, they agreed to 
stay longer, and it was recommended to Mr. Hughes to use all the 
Dispatch possible. 



MEMORANDUM. 

On Monday, the Nineteenth, the Presents were delivered to the 
Five Indians from Canawaago, or Boucaloonce, by the Secretary, 
Joseph Fox, and John Hughes. 

A Passport and Letter was delivered to Ensign Biddle, and he 
was ordered to conduct the Indians to Fort Pittsburg. 



MEMORANDUM. 

On Tuesday, the Twentieth, Andrew Montour waited on the Se- 
cretary in the Morning, to acquaint him that the Indians had said 
a great deal to him, and were very much dissatisfied. What he 
said was reduced to Writing, sent to the Governor, and to Governor 
Glenn, for General Forbes, to Colonel Boquet, and to General Am- 
herst, in these words: 

" Andrew Montour came to tell the Governor that the Messen- 
gers from Boucaloonce, or Canawaago, were very uneasy, and ap- 
prehended that it would hurt the English Interest very much at 
this Critical Time should they return with such general answers as 
they have got, and nothing more precise be said to them. At pre- 
sent, they neither know what will be done by the army, nor what 
is desired of the Indians, both which all the Indians on the Ohio 
and parts adjacent, wait to know, and expect the Messages by 
them, and if they should return without them, the cannot be An- 
swerable for the Consequences. For the Indians, if kept any 
Longer in this State of uncertainty, will be constrained to join the 
French, which they have no mind to do, provided the English 
General will engage their Services by open and affectionate Mes- 
sages. Why is this not done ? They are acquainted the General 
is Sick j Is there no Body else to do the King's Business ? 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 271 

" They lore their Brethren, the English, and to them they are 
Sincere. They intend this Morning to dispatch two of their In- 
dians with .Messages to all the Indians on the Ohio, setting forth 
their kind reception, and the reasons why they stay so long, and 
desiring them in the strongest Terms not to Suffer the French to 
strike the English at Pittsburg, or any where else, but to wait till 
their return, and till they shall hear what the English say to 
them, which they hope will be sent by them j they will wait, tho' 
with reluctance, some time longer for these Messages. 

" They say further, that it is absolutely necessary Andrew Mon- 
tour should be ordered to go with them, and empowered to deliver 
with them whatever Messages were sent to the Indians, as he is 
every where known and confided in, and they had it in charge to 
desire he might come with them. They further beseech the Person 
who is first in Command, to be open and let them know his Pur- 
poses, and what he expects from the Indians who are dispersed to 
take any reasonable part he shall ask of them. 

" Andrew Montour told the Indians he was an Officer, and Sub- 
ject to the General's Orders, and could not Consent to go with 
them, except by written Orders from him. Ensign Biddle will 
conduct the Indians if the Governor Pleases. 

" On reconsidering the matter, the Indians from Canawaago 
thought it best to wait till General Amherst should come to Town ? 
as he was daily expected, and to sent off two of their Young Men 
to acquaint their People with the present General's Indisposition, 
and the expectation of the Commander-in-Chiefs coming to this 
City, and that they would stay to speak with him, so that only two 
went away under the care of Ensign Biddle." 



At a Council held at Philadelphia. Monday the 26th of February, 
1759. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY Esq., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 



Robert Strettell, ) „ . 
Richard Peters, J Es ^ uires - 



A Letter from Secretary Pitt of the Ninth of December last, 
received by Doctor Hack from General Amherst, and the General's 
Letter to the Governor, were read and ordered to be entered. The 
Secretary was desired to form a Message upon these Letters to be 
laid before the Assembly, who were to meet this afternoon on their 
own adjournment, which was accordingly drawn, approved, ordered 



272 MINUTES OF THE 

to be transcribed, and delivered in the morning to the House, with 

the above Letters : 

A Letter from Secretary Pitt to Governor Denny. 

" Whitehall, December 9th. 1758. 
"Sir: 

"His Majesty having nothing so much at heart as to improve 
the great and important advantages gained to last campaign, as well 
as to repair the Disappointment at Ticonderogo ; and by the most 
Vigorous and extensive efforts to avert, by the Blessing of God on 
his arms, all Dangers which may threaten North America from any 
future Irruptions of the French; And the King not doubting that 
all His faithful and brave subjects there will chearfully Co-operate 
with, and Second to the Utmost, the large Expence and Extraor- 
dinary Succors Supplied by this Kingdom for their preservation and 
Defence. And His Majesty considering that the several Provinces, 
from Pennsylvania inclusive to the Southward, are well able, with 
proper Encouragement, to furnish a Body of Several Thousand 
Men to join the King's Forces in those parts, for some offensive 
operations against the Enemy; And his Majesty not judging it 
Expedient to limit the ZeaJ and Ardour of any of His Provinces 
by making a Bepartition of the Forces to be raised by each respec- 
tively for this most important Service, I am commanded to signify 
to you the King's pleasure, that you do forthwith use your utmost 
Endeavours to Influence with the Council and Assembly of your 
Province to induce them to raise, with all possible Dispatch within 
your Government, at least as large a body of Men as they did for 
the last Campaign, and even as many more as the Number of its 
Inhabitants may allow, and forming the same into Begiments as far 
as shall be found Convenient, that you do direct them to hold them- 
selves in readiness, as tarly as may be,*to march to the B.endezvous 
at such Place or Places as may be named for that Purpose by the- 
Commander-in-Chief of His Majesty's Forces in America, or by 
the Officer who shall be appointed to Command to King's Forces in 
those Parts, in order to proceed from thence in Conjunction with a 
Body of his Majesty's British Forces, and under the Supreme Com- 
mand of the Officer to be appointed as above, so as to be in a Situa- 
tion to begin by the first of May, if Possible, or as soon after as 
shall be any way practicable, such offensive Operations as shall be 
judged by the Commander of his Majesty's Forces in those parts 
most expedient for annoying the Enemy, and most Efficacious 
towards removing and repelling the Dangers that threaten the 
Frontiers of any of the Southern Colonies on the Continent of 
America, and the better to facilitate this important Service. The 
King is pleased to leave it to you to issue Commissions to such 
Gentlemen of your Province as you shall Judge from their Weight 
and Credit with the People, and their Zeal for the Public Service, 
may be best disposed and enabled to quicken and effectuate the 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 273 

Speedy levying of the greatest Number of Men, In the Disposition 
of which Commissions I am persuaded you will have nothing in 
View but the Good of the King's Service, and a due Subordination 
of the whole when joined to his Majesty's Commander, and all 
Officers of the Provineial*Forces as high as Colonels inclusive, are 
to have Rank according to their Several Respective Commissions, 
agreeable to the Regulations contained in his Majesty's Warrant 
of the 30th of December, last year. 

" The King is further pleased to furnish all the Men so raised as 
above, with arms, ammunition, and Tents, as well as to order Pro- 
visions to be issued to the Same by his Majesty's Commissaries in 
the the same Proportion and manner as is done to the rest of the 
King's Forces, And a sufficient Train of Artillery will also be pro- 
vided for at his Majesty's Expence for the Operations of the Cam- 
paign. The whole, therefore, that the King expects and requires 
from the several Provinces, is the Levying, C loathing, and pay of 
the Men, and on these Heads also, that no Encouragement may be 
wanting to the fullest exertion of your Forces, His Majesty is 
further most graciously pleased to permit me to acquaint' you, that 
strong Recommendations will be made to Parliament in their Ses- 
sion next Year, to grant a proper Compensation for such Expences 
as above, according as the active Vigour and Strenuous Efforts of 
the respective Provinces shall justly appear to merit. 

"It is His Majesty's Pleasure that you do, with particular Dili- 
gence, immediately collect and put into the best Condition all the 
Arms issued last Campaign which can be any way rendered Ser- 
viceable, or that can be found within your Government, m order 
that the Same may be employed as far. as they will go in tikis Exi- 
gency. I am at the same time to acquaint you, that a reasonable 
supply of Arms will be sent. from England, to replace such as may 
have been lost, or have become unfit for future Service. 

"I am further to inform you, that Similar Orders are sent by 
this Conveyance to Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and South 
Carolina. The Northern Governments are also directed to raise 
Men in the same Manner, to be employed in such offensive Opera- 
tions as the Circumstances in those parts may point out, which it 
is hoped will oblige them so to divide their attention and Forces 
as will render the several Attempts more easy and Successful. 

u It is unnecessary to add any thing to animate your Zeal in the 
Execution of his Majesty's Orders on this great Occasion, where 
the future Safety and welfare of America, and of your own Province 
in particular, are at Stake ; And the King doubts not, from your 
known Fidelity and Attachment, that you will employ yourself with 
the utmost Application and Dispatch in this urgent and decisive Crisis. 
" I am, Sir, Your most Obedient Humble Servant, 

" W. PITT/' 
VOL. VIII. — 18. 



274 MINUTES OF THE 

A Letter from General Amherst to Governor Denny. * 

New York, 16th February, 1759, 

"Sir: 

" I yesterday had the Honour of receiving a Letter from Mr. 
Secretary Pitt, bearing date the 9th of December last, signifying 
to me that His Majesty had Judged it expedient to Dispatch his 
Orders to the Several Governors in North America for Levying the 
same or a greater Number, if Possible, of Men than they did for 
the last Campaign, and at the same time enclosed to me the Copies 
of his Circular Letters to the Northern and Southern Governors on 
that subject, wherein the King's Directions are so fully stated, that 
I can have little else to add, than my most earnest recommendations 
to you forthwith to use your utmost Endeavours and Influence with 
the Council and Assembly of your Province, to induce them to 
raise with all possible dispatch within your Government, at least 
as large a Body of Men as they did for the last Campaign, and 
even as many more as the number of its Inhabitants may allow, in 
which I should hope you will prove the more Successful, as I have 
already prepared you for it so long ago, as by my Letter of the 
13th December last. 

" As I propose to begin the Operations of the ensuing Campaign 
so soon as the season will permit me, and, if possible, much earlier 
than the first of May. I must, notwithstanding Mr. Pitt's Letter, 
desire- that the Troops of your Province may be ready by the tenth 
.of April at furthest. 

u I must likewise particularly recommend to you the Strict and 
immediate Observance of His Majesty's directions relative to the 
.collecting and putting into the best Condition, all the Arms issued 
last Campaign, and that have not been returned, which can be any 
way rendered serviceable, or that can be found within your Govern- 
ment, in order that the same may be employed as far as they will 
go in this Exigency. 

" And as most People in North America have arms of their own, 
which, from their being accustomed must be more agreeable and 
proper for them, I do as an Encouragement for their Coming pro- 
vided with them, engage to pay for every one of those they shall 
so bring, and that may be spoilled or lost in actual Service, at the 
jate of Twenty-five Shillings a Firelock, which I understand was 
.allowed last Campaign. 

" I am, with great Regard, Sir, 

" Your most Obe'- Hum 6, Servant, 

"JEFF. AMHERST/' 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 275 



A Message from the Governor to the Assembly. 
" Gentlemen : 

"I now lay before you a Letter I lately received from one of his 
Majesty's principal Secretaries of State, dated the Ninth Day of 
December last, wherein he is graciously pleased to signify his Reso- 
lution to improve the great and important Advantages gained the 
last Campaign, as well as to repair the Disappointment at Ticon- 
deroga, and by the most vigorous and extensive efforts to avert, by 
the Blessing of (rod on his Arms, all Dangers which may threaten 
North America from any future Irruptions of the French, and that 
his Majesty not doubting but all his brave Subjects there will 
chearfully co-operate with, and Second to the utmost, the large Ex- 
pence and Extraordinary Succors Supplied by the Kingdom of Eng- 
land, for their Protection and Defence; and his Majesty consider- 
ing that the Several Provinces, from Pennsylvania inclusive to the 
Southward, are well able, with proper Encouragement, to furnish a 
Body of several Thousand Men to join his Majesty's Forces in 
those parts, for some offensive operations against the Enemy, has 
therefore signifyed to me his Pleasure, that I should forthwith 
use my utmost Endeavours and Influence with you, to Induce you 
to raise, with all Possible Dispatch, within this Province, at least 
as large a Body of Men as you did for the last Campaign, and even 
as many more as the number of its Inhabitants may allow, to hold 
themselves in readiness to march as early as may be to the Rendez- 
vous, at such place or places as may be named for that Purpose by 
the pommander-in-Chief of his Majesty's Forces in North America, 
or the Officer who shall be appointed to command the King's Forces 
in those parts, to proceed, in Conjunction with a Body of His Ma- 
jesty's British Troops, so as to begin as soon as practicable, such 
Offensive Operations as shall be judged, by such Commander of His 
Majesty's Forces, most Expedient for annoying the Enemy, and 
most efficacious towards removing and repelling the Dangers that 
threaten the Frontiers of the Southern Colonies on this Continent. 
His Majesty is further pleased to furnish all the Men, so raised, 
with arms, Ammunition and Tents, as well as to order Provisions 
to be issued for the same by his Majesty's Commissaries, in the 
same Proportion and Manner as is done to the rest of the King's 
Forces, and a Sufficient Train of Artillery will also be provided, at 
his Majesty's Expence, for the Operation of the Campaign. The 
whole, therefore, that the King expects from you is, the Levying, 
Cloathing, and Pay of the Men; and that no Encouragement may 
be wanting to the fullest Exertion of your force, His Majesty is 
further most graciously pleased to acquaint me, that Strong recom- 
mendations will be made to Parliament, in their Sessions Next Year^ 
to grant a proper Compensation for such Expences, according as the 
active Vigour and strenuous Efforts of the respective Province shall 
justly appear to merit. 



276 MINUTES OF THE 

" Gentlemen : — In obedience to the King's Commands I do most 
earnestly recommend it to you to take these matters into your im- 
mediate Consideration, and loose no Time in complying with the 
Reasonable Requisitions His Majesty makes of you. A Sense of 
Duty to the best of Kings ; the Preservation of your own Liberties 
and Possessions, which his Majesty is wisely and vigorously en- 
deavouring to support and transmit to your Posterity, are motives 
that must inspire you with the highest Zeal; and the example of 
the Parliament of Great Britain, unanimously concurring with his 
Majesty's Measures, must animate you to exert yourselves to the 
utmost of your Power on this interesting Occasion, and, I doubt 
not, will induce you chearfully to raise the Supplies required of you. 
I also lay before you a Letter from General Amherst, Commander- 
in-Chief of all His Majesty's Forces in North America, requesting 
that the Forces raised by this Province may be in readiness by the 
Tenth of April, at which Time he proposes to take the Field. I 
must, therefore, press you to use Dispatch in your Councils, that such 
Advantages as the General may reasonably expect to reap from 
opening the Campaign so early may not be frustrated. 

" WILLIAM DENNY. 

" February 27th, 1759." 

The Governor then laid before the Board a Message from the 
Honourable the Proprietaries to the Assembly, with their Answer 
to a Paper intituled Heads of Complaint, presented to them by 
Benjamin Franklin, Esquire, together with the said Heads Of Com- 
plaint, all which Papers his Honour had received by the Packet 
from the Proprietaries, and by a Letter from them was directed to 
lay before the House. They were ordered to be entered in the 
Minutes of Council, and the Secretary was directed to deliver them 
£ to the House with the foregoing Letters and Message : 

A Message from the Honourable the Proprietaries, Thomas and 
Richard Penn, Esquires, to the House of Representatives of the 
Province of Pennsylvania. 

tl Gentlemen : 

" In the Month of August, in the last year, Mr. Franklin de- 
livered to us a Note or Billet intituled Heads of Complaint. When 
first delivered it was a blank Paper, neither dated, Signed, or ad- 
dressed to any Person ; but a few Days after he did sign it, and set 
a Date to it of the Twentieth of August. 

" It appeared to us to be very short and general, and to allude 
to Sundry Transactions in Pennsylvania, which were to be sought 
for in your Votes, and without the aid whereof it was not possible 
to guess at the meaning of Mr. Franklin's Note. 

" Whether such a Paper was delivered to him of his own Choice, 
or by direction, he best knows ; but we believe it is the first of the 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 277 

kind on any such great Occasion ; and you will give us leave to 
acquaint you, that the importance of the matter, the preservation 
of Order and Decency between the Assembly and us, and the Ne- 
cessity and usefulness of a free Intercourse between us and them, 
seemed to require a very different Representation. 

" However, we overlooked that Piece of Disrespect, and applied 
ourselves to Select from all your Publick Votes and Transactions 
what we judged might be the intent and meaning of the said Paper; 
and as we found the most Material Parts thereof consisted of mat- 
ters wherein the Powers of Government and the Rights and Preroga- 
tives of the Crown (intrusted to us) were concerned, we thought it 
right, and so acquainted Mr. Franklin to take the Opinions and 
advice of his Majesty's Attorney and Sollicitor General thereon, 
that, we might act with the greatest Caution and Security in mat- 
ters of such great importance. 

" At the Time Mr. Franklin delivered us his Paper, the Long 
vacation was begun, and the Lawyers gone into the Country; but 
the first Day the returned to Town we laid all those Matters before 
the Gentlemen for their Opinions, which were so long delayed by 
means of an obstruction given by one of your Agents, that we 
could not obtain the same for a whole Year (wanting eight days 
only) after the Papers had been laid before them. 

" As soon as we had been advised by those Gentlemen, we re- 
turned our Answer in Writing, signed by our Agent, to Mr. 
Franklin ; and now send you hereto annexed a Copy of the said 
Heads of Complaints, and our Answer thereto. 

"We are always ready to receive Representations from the 
House of Representatives on any matter that requires redress. As 
to the Legal Rights of Government, or the Powers and Preroga- 
tives of the Crown, we must support them as a duty which we owe 
to the Crown, to the Nation in General, and to the Inhabitants of 
the Province in particular. 

" As to those matters which concern our Property, we have a 
right, and are so advised, to prevent any Injury being done thereto, 
and are not to be deterred from taking the necessary Care therein 
by those Misrepresentations of and unjust Charges against us, 
which have been repeatedly printed, and are even glanced at in the 
Heads of Complaint presented to us, as if we had refused to con- 
tribute a reasonable Proportion to the Defence of the Country; 
and Injury the greater, because those who uttered it knew that we 
had contributed a very considerable Sum to the Expence of the 
War, and, in the Opinion of many People, and from all the In- 
formation we can procure, more in proportion than any Person in 
the Province. 

" As to any matters which may relate to yourselves, we are ready 
to receive the fullest Information, and also to enter into free Con- 



278 MINUTES OF THE 

ferences on all the Several Subjects with any Persons of Condour 
whom you shall Authorize and impower for that Purpose ; which 
matter we the rather mention to you in regard that we having 
ordered to settle the Draught of a Supply Bill, which Mr. Franklin 
he excused himself from joining therein, as not having Power to- 
enter into Terms with respect to that one Single Measure. 

"We shall always be open to Kepresentations and conviction, 
and we see no matters remaining but such as may, by the desirable 
Methods of free Conferences with Persons of Candour, and em- 
powered for that Purpose, be well settled to mutual Satisfaction on 
both Sides, and to the Welfare and Happiness of the Province, 
which we have most affectionately at Heart. 

" As Mr. Franklin's Paper contained an Expression of desire that 
Harmony might be restored between the Several Branches of the 
the Legislature, and we are certain you cannot wish it more ardently 
than we do, we choose to mention what appears to us to be the 
readiest, the easiest, and the most desirable Method of obtaining 
that happy End. 

"THOMAS PENN. 

" RICHARD PENN. 

"London, November 28th, 1758." 



11 Heads of Complaints. 

" 1st. That the reasonable and necessary Power given to Deputy 
Governors of Pennsylvania by the Royal Charter, Sections fourth 
and fifth, of making Laws, with the advice and Consent of the As- 
sembly, for raising Money for the Safety of the Country and other 
Public uses, according to their best discretion, is taken away by 
proprietary Instructions, inforced by penal Bonds, and restraining 
the Deputy from the use of his best Discretion ; tho', being on the 
Spot, he can better Judge of the Emergency, State, and Necessity 
of Affairs, than Proprietaries residing at a great distance, by means 
of which Restraints Sundry Sums of Money granted by the Assem- 
bly for the Defence of the Province have been rejected by the 
Deputy, to the great Injury of his Majesty's Service in Time of 
War, and Danger of the Loss of the Colony. 

" 2d. That the Indubitable Right of the Assembly to judge of 
the mode, measure,, and Time of granting Supplies, is infringed 
by Instructions that enjoin the Deputy to refuse his assent to any 
Bill for raising Money, unless certain Modes, Measures, and Times, 
in Such Instructions directed, made a part of the Bill ; whereby 
the Assembly, in time of War, are reduced to the necessity of either 
losing the Country to the Enemy, or giving up the Liberties of the 
People, and receiving Law from the Proprietary ; and if they 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 279 

should do the latter in the present Case, it would not prevent the 
former, the Restricting Instructions being suc*h as that, if complied 
with, it is impossible to raise a Sum Sufficient to defend the 
Country. 

" 3d. That the Proprietaries have enjoined their Deputy by such 
Instructions to refuse his Assent to any Law for raising Money by 
a Tax, tho' ever so necessary for the Defence of the Country, unless 
the greatest part of their Estate is exempted from such Tax. This 
to the Assembly and People of Pennsylvania appears both unjust 
and Cruel. 

" The Proprietaries are now requested seriously to Consider these 
Complaints, and redress the aggrievances complained of in the most 
speedy and effectual Manner; that Harmony may be restored be- 
tween the Several Branches of the Legislature, and the Publick 
Service be hereafter readily and fully provided for. 

"BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, 
" Agent for the Province of Pennsylvania. 

" London, August 20th, 1757*" 



" Answer to the Heads of Complaint. 

u The Proprietaries of Pennsylvania have well Considered the 
Paper laid before them, called ' Heads of Complaint/ They have 
also taken the best Advice they could procure upon the Same ) and 
some Answer would have been given long since, had not one of the 
Agents prevented the Proprietaries from obtaining their Counsel's 
Opinion and advice thereon, 

" The Proprietaries could have wished, in order to that Harmony 
which they most Sincerely desire, that the House of Representa- 
tives had sent some address, Representation, or memorial, pointing 
out clearly and distinctly any Grievances they thought themselves 
under ; and that they had given as full Powers as the nature of 
such a Case would admit, to some person of Candour, to enter- 
into the detail and full Discussion of those several Matters, which 
seem to be alluded to in the Heads of Complaint. 

" Had those things been done, which the Proprietaries conceive 
to be the Common and ordinary Methods of proceeding in such 
Cases, may points might have been speedily adjusted to mutual 
Satisfaction, and particularly all such, wherein the Questions arise 
between the Proprietaries personally and the House of Represen- 
tatives, in which Instances the House may assuredly rely on the 
utmost Indulgences that can, with Justice or Reason, be desired. 

v " As to others wherein the Rights and Prerogatives of the Crown 
imtrusied to the Proprietaries may be affected, it is hoped the House:, 



280 MINUTES OF THE 

would not for their own Sakes, desire the Proprietaries to attempt 
to give up any of those. 

"It admits of observation, that the Heads of Complaint begin 
by transposing some parts of the Royal Charter, as if that had in 
explicit Terms, prescribed the discretion of the Assembly to be 
made use of in making Laws ; the Proprietaries desire to be per- 
fectly understood in this Matter, they do not so much as imagine 
but that the Representatives of the People will, and must use Dis- 
cretion in choosing, whether they will, or will not give their advice 
and Assent to any Law, but the Charter (when read in its own 
Language) gives the Power to make Laws to the Proprietary and 
his Deputy or Lieutenant, according to their best Discretions (al- 
ways with the advice and assent of the Representatives), and does 
not run in the terms set forth in the paper of Complaint. 

" Persons not well inclined to Governors or Government, may, 
indeed, desire that all Matters whatsoever, should be left to the 
Discretion of a Lieutenant on the Spot, whom the House might 
supply or not, j ust as he should yield up that Discretion of his, more or 
less, to them; but as long as Instructions are constantly given to 
every Person entrusted with the Government of any British Colony 
(and Bonds also required from every such Person for Observance of 
such Instructions), as long as Instructions are constantly given to 
all Persons whatsoever, executing even the regal Government of 
His Majesty's Kingdoms during the Royal absence ; as long as these 
Proprietaries are repeatedly Commanded by the Crown, upon the 
Nomination of each Successive Lieutenant Governor, to give In- 
structions to such Lieutenant, and as long as a Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor may by his Misbehaviour (if left entirely to his Discretion), 
bring the Proprietaries Estate and Franchise into Danger, so long 
the Proprietaries must contend to give Instructions to, and take 
Bonds from their Lieutenant Governor. 

" The particular matters wherein a Lieutenant Governor should 
be instructed, make a very different Consideration, wherein the Pro- 
prietaries, and such Persons authorized as aforesaid, might surely 
put the same upon a reasonable Footing. The Proprietaries, how- 
ever, cannot be of opinion, that their Instructions were such as 
would have made it impossible to have raised Sums Sufficient for the 
Defence of the Country, in addition to the Forces sent from Great 
Britain, supposing those Sums applied in a proper manner. 

" The Proprietaries conceive that the last Paragraph of the 
Complaint is extremely injurious to them, and very unjust, as it 
insinuates, that they would not Contribute their Proportion to the 
Defence of the Province. It is true they did Instruct their Lieu- 
tenant Governor not to assent to any Law, by which their Quitrents 
should be taxed j this they did, because they thought it not proper 
to submit the Taxing their Chief rents due to them as Lords of the 
Fee, to the Representatives of their Tenants j but that there might 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 281 

not be the least shadow of pretence for accusing them of Cruelty 
and Injustice, they ordered Five Thousand Pounds to be paid for 
the Publick Service, out of the arrears of that very Fund \ and 
they leave it to the world to Judge, whether it was not unjust and 
cruel in the late Assemblies, to tax them with refusing to contrib- 
ute, only because it was not done in the manner the Representa- 
tives of the People insisted on having it done. However, to take 
off all Pretence of Clamour, they are very ready to have the An- 
nual Income of their Estate enquired into, and are as ready to con- 
tribute, whatever the said Sum shall fall short of, their Proportion 
of what had been laid on the Inhabitants in General, for every part 
of their Estate that is in its nature taxable ; but as an equality is 
contended for, they do Expect, if they have contributed more than 
their Proportions, (which they believe they have very greatly), that 
the overplus should be returned to them ; and as the House of 
Representatives Contend for their Right in disposing of their Pro- 
perty, and do not represent the Proprietaries, so the Proprietaries 
conceive, and are advised, they themselves, and they only, have a 
Right to Judge when, and how, to dispose of their § Estates and 
Properties. 

" The Heads of Complaint conclude well, with Expressions of a 
Desire that Harmony may be restored between the several Branches 
of the Legislature, and the Publick Service be provided for — Pro- 
positions most desirable, and which the Proprietaries most willingly 
embrace with open Arms and with open Hearts, the Rights and 
Powers of the Crown, and the Executive Part of Government being 
preserved, and the Proprietaries reserving to themselves the Right 
of disposing of their Estate, there seems to be no such great Dif- 
ference in Opinions as to other Matters, but what might be adjusted 
in a reasonable manner with cool temperate Persons, fully authorized 
for the purpose. Plad such Power been lodged here it is possible 
many of the Seeming Differences would have been settled, but as 
the Agent, who delivered the Heads of Complaint, declined the 
settling here of the Draught of one single bill for raising a Supply 
on account of Want of Power so to do, as he alledged, The Pro- 
prietaries find themselves obliged to write to the House of Repre- 
sentatives, that in case they are so well and happily disposed they 
will forthwith Authorize and impower, in as good a Manner as the 
Case will admit, some Persons of Candour to enter into free Con- 
ferences, and adjust those other Matters in the most agreeable 
Manner, In which the Proprietaries assure the Representatives and 
all the good People of the Province they shall meet with the most 
Cordial and affectionate Concurrence of the Proprietaries as far as 
can, with Reason, be desired of them. 

" FERDINAND JOHN PARIS, 

" Agent for the Proprietaries of Pennsylvania. 
"London, 27th Novem r - 1758." 

t 



282 MINUTES OF THE 

At a Council held at Philadelphia, Saturday, March the 3d r 
1759. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esqr., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 



Robert Strettel, 1 ™ 
Richard Peters, J » 



The Governor laid before the Council the following address de- 
livered him last Night by Eight Members : 
" May it Please your Honour : 

"The Duty we owe to your Constituents, and the late great 
hardships imposed on them, put us under the disagreeable necessity 
of representing to your Honour, 

" That a Considerable Part of the Waggons taken into the Pay 
of the Crown for the use of the last Campaign are destroyed, or 
left behind ; that Numbers of the Pack Horses, as well as others 
belonging to* the Waggons, are dead, or have been lost in the Ser- 
vice j that most of those returned were rendered in a great Measure 
useless, and that the Owners of such Waggons and Horses still 
remain unpaid, to their manifest Inconvenience and Loss, especially 
as some of them have been obliged to advance large Sums of Money 
to the Drivers they employed, and for other Purposes, in fitting out 
and equipping their Horses and Carriages, according to their respec- 
tive Contracts. 

" That notwithstanding the Laws lately enacted in this Province 
for Supplying his Majesty's Forces with Horses and Carriages, when 
and wherever required, yet both Officers and Soldiers have paid so 
little regard thereto, in the manner of procuring them, that some 
have terrified, abused, and Insulted the Inhabitants in divers parts 
of the Province, where they have been employed in this Service. 

" That in Violation of a Possitive Act of Parliament for prevent- 
ing Mutiny and Desertion, and for the better Payment of the Army 
and their Quarters, several Sections of which have been extended 
hither by an Act of general Assembly, some of the Military Officers 
have attempted by Menaces and other illegal Methods to extort Billets 
from the Magistrates of the County and Borough of Lancaster for 
Quartering Soldiers on Private Houses, but failing of their Purpose 
have proceeded to open Violence, and thereby forced Numbers of his 
Majesty's Troops into the Dwelling Houses o£ the Inhabitants, tak- 
ing their Beds and other Necessaries from them for the use of the 
Soldiers, by which means One Family, in particular, have been 
obliged to give up their own House, with its Furniture, and seek 
for Lodgings for themselves in the Houses of their Friends. 

" We further take the Liberty to represent to your Honour that 
the distressed Inhabitants of Chester County, notwithstanding their 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 283 

repeated Representations to the Assembly of this Province, and 
their Complaints against the Arbitrary, unjust, and illegal Conduct 
of William Moore, Esqr., One of the Magistrates of the said County, 
are yet subjected to his Power, by his being continued in a Commis- 
sion which he has frequently exercised to the Terror and Oppression 
of the People. 

"These Aggrievances, may it please your Honour, are so well 
known, and so great, that we cannot but expect you will use your 
utmost Endeavours to relieve the Inhabitants of this Province under 
your Administration with all possible Expedition, and we shall pro- 
ceed in granting Supplies with the same Zeal and Unanimity we 
have hitherto done j and, according to our best Abilities, co-operate 
with and Second the large Expence and Extraordinary Succors 
granted by the British Parliament for Carrying on the Offensive 
Operations planned by His Majesty against His Enemies in North 
America. 

" By the Letters your Honour has been pleased to lay before us, 
from One of His Majesty's principal Secretaries of State and 
General Amherst, it is Evident that no Time ought to be Lost, and 
we therefore again intreat your Honour, that in Discharge of the 
Duty you owe to the best of Kings, and to the People of this Pro- 
vince, over which you preside, you would speedily and effectually 
redress our Aggrievances to the utmost of your Power. 
" Signed by order of the House. 

" ISAAC NORRIS, Speaker. 
"March 2d, 1759," 

Upon Considering the said address, it was the Opinion of the 
Council, the Governor should send General Amherst a Copy of the 
Address, and desire his Excellency to advise his Honour what 
should be done ; accordingly, the following Letter was drawn at 
the Table and Sent by Express to the General : 

A Letter to General Amherst from Governor Denny. 

"Philadelphia, March 3d, 1759. 
"Sir: 

"Inclosed is a Copy of an address, presented to me by the As- 
sembly, with regard to various grievances, which you will please 
to observe they insist should be redressed before they take the 
Supplies into Consideration. 

" I have already sent you General Forbes' Letter to me, of the 
Thirtieth of November, in which, after giving the agreeable News 
of the reduction of Fort Duquesne ; he makes a Demand of Quar- 
ters, and now sent you an Extract of my Ledger in Answer thereto, 
that you may be acquainted with the Places capable of receiving 
the King's Troops in a commodious manner. 



284 MINUTES OF THE 

" The Waggon Account, after General Braddock's Defeat, was 
settled by Gentlemen Commissioned by the Governor, at the Special 
Instance of General Shirley, and informed they settled that intri- 
cate matter impartially, and saved the Crown a large Sum of Money. 
If you approve of that method, or any other you please to name, it 
shall be followed, as far as concerns me, with all possible Expedition. 

" I also send a Copy of a Letter of mine to General Forbes, to 
desire him to reinforce the Garrison at Fort Augusta, which I think 
is an Affair of great Importance, that requires immediate Attention. 

" Colonel Boquet inform me that General Forbes promised to 
relieve the Several Garrisons on the Frontiers, and if they are not 
the Consequence will be that they will not be able to serve the next 
Campaign, especially the Provincials, who are neither paid nor 
cloathed. 

" According to the Advices of the Indians now here, it is to be 
feared that the French and their Indians will attack Fort Duquesne 
as soon as the River is clear of Ice, having their Magazines ready 
at Kuskusky, and Places adjacent, from whence your Excellency 
will see the Necessity of an immediate Reinforcement of the Gar- 
rison at Pittsburgh, that not being able to stand a regular 
attack. 

" As Carriages will be immediately wanted for the Support of 
the Troops there, I can assure you, that Such are in general the 
narrow Circumstances of the Country People, who are to Supply 
Waggons, that none can be got till former Accounts are dis- 
charged. « 

"General Forbes continues in a languishing Condition, and neither 
is, or will be able to do any Business. Affairs are in such a Situa- 
tion that I could Wish it was Convenient for your Excellency to 
Visit this place. If you cannot, please to send me your Orders 
and enable me to give an Answer to the Address by the return of 
the Express. I have the Honour to be your Excellency's 
(t Most Obedient & most Hum 6 ' Servant, 

"WILLIAM DENNY." 



MEMORANDUM. 

On the Seventh, Two Members waited on the Governor from the- 
House, with a Message that the House desired to know his 
Honour's Result upon their Address to him, delivered last Friday ) 
to which his Honour was pleased to say, that he had #ent a Copy 
thereof to General Amherst by Express, and as soon as" he should 
receive his Excellences Answer, which his Honour thought would 
be soon, he would send a Message to the House. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 285 

At a Council held at Philadelphia, Saturday, March 10th, 1759. 

present: 
The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esqr., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Strettell, Richard Peters, Esquires. 
The following Extract of a Letter from General Amherst to the 
Governor was read in these Words : 

" New York, March 7th, 1759. 
" Sir : 

" With your Letter of the third Instant, I also had a Copy of 
the Address presented to you by the Assembly with regard to 
various Grievances, which they expect should be redressed, before 
they take the Supplies into Consideration. 

" I must own, from what they owe to the best of Kings, to their 
County, and to themselves, I did not expect they would have started 
any Difficulties at this present important Crisis ; but, on the Con- 
trary, that as it is their Duty they would have most chearfully pro- 
ceeded on the Business so strongly recommended to them in Mr. 
Pitt's Letter, more especially, as Part of those Grievances are 
caused thro' the unhappy Indisposition of Brigadier Forbes (which 
could not be fore seen or prevented), who, had he been capacitated 
to attend Business, would, no doubt, have redressed them long ago, 
which under the present Circumstances, I intend doing myself so 
soon as I can get to Philadelphia, which will be in a few days. 
Meanwhile, I shall write to Sir John S n Clair to call in all the Ac- 
counts, and have them prepared for Examination, that no Time may 
be lost in clearing and settling them, upon which Assurances I trust 
they will no longer delay taking the Supplies into Consideration. 

u With regard to their Complaint against the Officers and Soldiers 
having been wanting in a due Regard to the Laws enacted for 
Supplying His Majesty's Forces with Horses and Carriages, and 
Quartering of the Troops, I must observe, that I believe they have 
themselves mistaken the Extent of those Laws; for it is not to be 
supposed that either the Officers or Soldiers would apply for more 
Carriages and Horses than the Service absolutely required, and 
where they could not obtain such upon a proper application, it was 
certainly their Duty, and incumbent on them, for the Good'of the 
Service, to impress them; And as to the Quartering of Soldiers on 
private Houses, that cannot either be avoided where there are not . 
Publick Ones Sufficient for the Reception & proper Accomodation 
of the Troops, which, I dare say, was the Case at Lancaster, If, 
therefore, the Magistrates refused them Billets, they could not do 
less than make their Quarters good, which is an old Practice wherever 
the seat of War lies. Nay, even in England, in case of a deficiency 



286 MINUTES OF THE 

of Publick Houses in the Country where is the Seat of the Chan- 
cellors, he would have Soldiers billetted on him; and he has him- 
self given it as his Opinion that it was legal so to do; and indeed 
how would it be possible to carry on the Service if such Provision 
was not made for the Troops, who, in default thereof, must perish 
in the Streets, and consequently be disabled from Answering the 
Ends they were raised for, all which speaks for itself. At the Same 
Time I would not have the Assembly believe that I mean to refuse 
them Justice, or to Screen the Troops, if they are guilty of any 
irregularities. On the Contrary, upon proper proof of such, I shall 
take Cognizance of it, and order them all the Satisfaction they may 
have a Right to Expect. 

" I agree with you in the importance of having a Garrison at 
Fort Augusta, but as that Garrison, as well as all the others upon 
the Frontiers of your Province, have constantly been garrisoned by 
provincial Troops, I shall expect that you will Garrison it with 
those of Pennsylvania, and that your Assembly will now out of 
hand remove the objection, that they will not be able to Serve the" 
next Campaign, by reason of their being neither paid "or clothed." 

Then the following Message was prepared and sent by the Secre- 
tary to the House, with a Copy of the Governor's Letter to General 
Amherst, and his Excellency's Answer : 

A Message from the Governor to the Assembly. 
" Gentlemen : 

"I lay before you a Copy of my Letter to General Amherst, in 
Consequence of your Address, and his Excellency's Answer, which 
I dare say will be agreeable to you, and I hope you will loose no 
more time in taking the Supplies into your Consideration. 

" WILLIAM DENNY. 
" March 10th, 1759/' 

A Recommendation, Signed by the Indian Commissioners, was 
presented to the Governor, wherein three Persons were nominated 
by them to his Honour as Suitable for Agents on the West Side of 
Susquehannah, the same being read, the Governor was pleased to 
prefer George Allen to the two others named in the Recommenda- 
tion, and he was Commissionated as Indian Agent in the Room of 
Robert Tuckness, who had resigned. 

A Letter from Chief Justice Holt was read, with some Deposi- 
tions respecting the Murder of the Under Sheriff of Worcester 
County, in Maryland. 

MEMORANDUM. 

On the Thirteenth, Two Members of Assembly waited on the 
Governor with a Message that the House requested his Honour 



84 








42 








30 








24 








12 









PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 287 

would be pleased to furnish them with an Estimate of the Pay that 
hath accrued to the Provincial Forces since the first of January, 
which the Governor promised should be prepared and laid before 
the House. 

MEMORANDUM. 

On the Fifteenth, the Secretary waited on the Speaker, and 
acquainted him that Orders had been given to the Paymaster to pre- 
pare an Estimate of Arrears due to the Forces from the first of 
January, and to deliver the Same to the House, which follows in 
these Words : 

" Estimate of Arrears due to the Pennsylvania Forces, from the 
first of January to the first of March, 1749, Viz*- : 

" 25 Companies Pay for two Months, £7,537 10 

" 2 Colonels, at fourteen Shillings ^ Day, for two 
Months, 

u 2 Lieutenant Colonels, at Seven Shillings ^ Day, 

" 2 Majors, at five Shillings f Ditto, 

" 2 Quarter Masters, at four Shillings ^ Ditto, 

" 2 Adjutants, at Two Shillings f Ditto, 

" 2 Chaplains, at Six Shillings and Eight Pence f 

Ditto, 40 

" 2 Surgeons, at Seven Shillings and Six Pence "p 

Ditto, 45 

" 1 Surgeon at Fort Augusta, at Seven Shillings 

and Six Pence, 22 10 

" 1 Commissary of Store at Fort Augusta, Ten Shil- 
lings f Ditto, 30 

£7,867 

"JAMES YOUNG, Paymaster. 

"Philadelphia, March 15th, 1729." 

And on the Same Day, Mr. Moore, Clerk of Assembly, delivered- 
the Governor the following Resolve of the House, relating to 
William Moore, Esquire, of Chester County: 

" Resolved, That as the Governor hath not been pleased to give 
any redress to, or even take Notice of an Aggrievance complained 
of in the Address lately presented to him by the Assembly, under 
which the Inhabitants' of Chester County have long suffered from 
his Continuance of William Moore in Commission as a Magistrate 
amongst them, the House will remonstrate to his Honour, at some 
more convenient Time, upon so manifest a Delay of that Justice 
and Protection which he has power to afford, and undoubtedly owes 
to the oppressed Inhabitants of the said County. 

" CHARLES MOORE, Clk. of Assembly." 



288 MINUTES OF THE 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Monday the 19th of March, 
1759, P. M. 

PRESENT I 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq r ;' Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 



} 



Robert Strettell, Joseph Turner, 

Richard Peters, Lyuford Lardner, J* Esquires. 

Thomas Cadwalader, 

A Letter from Secretary Pitt, of the Twenty-Ninth of December 
last, which came by the Packet that arrived, that arrived last Week 
at New York, was read in these Words : 

" Whitehall, 29th December, 1758. 
"Sir: 

" la transmitting to you the inclosed Duplicate of my letter of 
the Ninth Instant, I have the King's particular Commands to 
renew and enforce, in the strongest manner, the necessity of a 
punctual Compliance with the Orders therein contained, and }^ou 
will accordingly urge, in the most expressive terms, to the Council 
and Assembly of your Province the Importance of their exerting 
themselves in the present critical and decisive Moment, in which 
their own Interests and Security are so nearly concerned, that it 
would seem superfluous to add. The further motives of their Duty 
to the King, and of the gratitude they owe to this Country, for the 
very great Expence and Succours supplied for their immediate 
Defence, and for the future safety of all their Rights and Posses- 
sions in America, And the levying the Men to be furnished by the 
Several Provinces, without any Delay, and in such time that they 
may not fail to be at the Rendezvous that shall be appointed for 
them, so as to be ready to Commence the Operations by the first of 
May, is so essential, as well for preventing the Extraordinary 
Efforts, which it is supposed the Enemy is preparing to make, to 
stop the further progress of his Majesty's Arms in America as for 
pushing with Success the Ensuing Campaign; that it is the King's 
Pleasure that you do employ the utmost Diligence, and every meatts 
in your Power to forward and Expedite this Service in the most 
Effectual Manner, and to avoid any disappointment happening from 
the slowness of the Levies, or from the Men who shall be raised, 
not proceeding in due Time to the Rendezvous. With regard to 
the'Expcnces incurred by your Province for the last Campaign, I 
am further to acquaint you that as soon as the Agents of the re- 
spective Provinces, duly authorized, shall produce the necessary 
Documents, the same without delay be recommended to Parliament 
for a reasonable Compensation, agreeable to the Gracious Assurances 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 289 

which the King was pleased to allow me to give in my Letter of 
the Thirtieth of December, last year. 

"I am, Sir, Your most Humble Servt., 

" W. PITT." 

Two Letters from Admiral Durell, of the Fourteenth of February 
last, were read and ordered to be entered. 

A Letter from Admiral Durell to Governor Denny. 

"Princess Amelia, Halifax Harbor, 14th Feby., 1759. 
"Sir: 

" Herewith inclosed is a Letter I have wrote to your Honour and 
the Council of Pennsylvania, in hopes thereby to procure some Men 
for His Majesty's Service. If you should prevail in this matter, 
you will be pleased to appoint some Person to Pay the promised 
Bounty, and I will send Bills on the Navy Board for the Amount. 
" And also if no other way can be found to transport them to 
this place, desire that Passages, &c a-1 may be provided for them., 
which Expence shall be defrayed by Mr. Joseph Gerrish, the Naval. 
Officer at this Port. 

" I am, with great respect, Sir, 

" Your most Obed 1 - Hum 3, Servant, 

" PHI. DURELL." 



Another Letter from Admiral Durell to Governor Denny. 

" Princess Amelia, Halifax Harbor, 14th Feby., 1759. 
u Honourable Sirs : 

" As the equipping and compleatly Manning the Squdron under 
my command, so as to be ready for Service in the Spring, may be 
of the utmost Consequence to his Majesty's interest in general, and 
particularly to these, his Colonies; And as by Death, and some De- 
sertion, we have lost a considerable number of men since our being 
here, which requires to be recruited by a Supply of Seamen, if pos- 
sible to be got; If not, I shall be obliged to apply for Soldiers from 
some of the Regiments serving here, which I am apprehensive 
might Prove detrimental to the Operations by Land the ensuing 
Campaign. I therefore think it most conducive to the Good of the 
Service to make application to His Majesty's Governors and Coua 
cils of the Different Provinces for their Assistance in raising suck & 
Number of Seaman as they conveniently can, in such manner as 
will be most agreeable to their Several Governments. 

u And as I am sure the Governor and Council of the Province of 
Pennsylvania has His Majesty's Interest much at heart, am s&m 
vol. vin. — 19. 



290 MINUTES OF THE 

fied every thing in their Power will be done to forward this Service. 
On my Part, as an Encouragement, I promise that every able bodied 
Seaman who shall enlist to serve in His Majesty's squadron for the 
Term of Twelve Months or more, shall receive immediately Forty 
Shillings Sterling Bounty, and be punctuallye discharged at the Ex- 
piration of the Term inlisted for j And further, that theye shall not 
be carried either to Europe or the West Indias, but shall be dis- 
charged in some one of the Northern Colonies. 

" I am with great regard, Honourable Sirs, 

" Your Most Obed'- Hum 6 - Servant, 

* I " PHIL. DURELL." 

The following Letter from Governor Dobbs to the Governor, was 
read : 

"Sir: 

" As I am informed that the Merchants of Britain design to Pe- 
tition the Parliament this Ensuing Session, to lay open the Hud- 
son's Bay Trade, and get rid of that unjust monopoly, so prejudicial 
to the Merchants in general, and the Trade of Britain and the 
American Colonies, by preventing our Settling the Countries beyond 
that Bay, and extending fur Trade and Fisheries, This being a 
proper Time, while we have a Ministry Zealous to promote the 
British Commerce and Improvement of our American Colonies. 

"Having been informed that upon the former applications of the 
Merchants against the Hudson's Bay Company's Monoply, that the 
Northern American Colonies, if they had early notice, would have 
given Orders to their Agents to join the Merchants in their Petition. 
I think it my Duty to improve a Measure so beneficial to Britain 
and the Colonies by acquainting you with it, to have the sense of 
your Colony upon it, that if they approve of it they may add their 
Weight to the Merchants' Petition, in Case they find it proper to 
petition this Session. 

"I am, with great Esteem, Sir, 

" Your Excellency's most Ob'- Hum 6, Ser'-' 
"ARTHUR DOBBS. 

"Edenton, 7th December, 1758." 

Then was read the following Letter from Captain Campbell, Com- 
mander of the Nightingale Man-of-War : 

"Nightingale, Turtle Bay, New York, 16th March, 1759. 
"Sir: 

"I am to acquaint you that I have just received a Letter from 
Admiral Durell, Commander-in-Chief of his Majesty's Ships and 
Vessels in North America, informing me that he has wrote to 
^the several Governors and Councils on the Continent, in hopes there- 
by to get some Seamen to compleat his Majesty's Ships at Halifax, 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 1291 

■and directing me to "write to €iose near me on the same subject, to 
know whether his proposals have beep, agreeable to thern; and if I 
received any Encouragement to expect they will raise any Number, 
I a ordered by the Admiral to receive them on board the Night- 
ingale. I am, therefore, to beg that your Honour and the Council 
will report to -me .your resolutions with regard to the Admiral's 
proposals. 

■f I am your Honour's and the 'Council's 

** Most Obediect Humble Servant, 
" JAMES CAMPBELL," 

The Governor {proposed Mr. John Mola^d for a Member of Coun- 
cil, and all the Members said he was agreeable t© thein and would 
make a good Member. 

The Secretary was directed t© 'draw up. a Proper Message upon 
the Several Matters mentioned in the said Letters, and the follow- 
ing Message was agreed to ®t the Table, and the Secretary ordered 
to deliver it to 'the House to-morrow morning with the foregoing 
letters : 

A Message /mm ike Governor t&ihe Assembly. 

"" Gentlemen: 

"I lay before you a Letter from Secretary Pitt, of the Twenty- 
-Ninth of December last, 'communicating Kis Majesty's Commands 
"to renew and enforce in the Strongest Manner the Necessity of a 
punctual Compliance with his last orders, which have for some time 
been under your Consideration, and again assuring you that as sooa 
as the Agents -of the respective Provinces, duly authorized, shall 
produce the necessary documents, the same shall, without Delay, be 
recommended to Parliament for a reasonable Compensation. 

" I make no doubt but you will now use your utmost Dispatch m 
raising the Supplies, especially .as the Season is so far advanced, and 
the time very near that was appointed by <Greneral Amherst -for the 
Forces to be ready. 

" It cannot be expected that the recruits will 'be raised is Time, 
unless you ;give as large Bounty as other Provinces have done. 

41 1 likewise lay before you Admiral Burell's Letter from Halifax, 
of the Fourteenth Instant, wherein he informs me of his having 
lost a, .great -many men by Death and Desertion, and desiring my 
assistance, which I hope you will enable me to afford him, in raising 
a sufficient Number of Seamen to Man the Squadron under his Com- 
mand, which will be of the utmost Consequence to Ms Majesty's 
Interest in General, and particularly to these Colonies. 

41 G-overnor Dobbs "having received an Account that Application 
will be made >to lay open the 'Hudson jBaj Trade, has wrote a Let- 
ter to me on that Subject, which you will please to ►consider, and 
favour me with your Opinion upon it. 

■"WILLIAM DENNY. 

f. March 20th, 1759." 



292 MINUTES' 'OF THE" 

The Governor informed' the Council that Isaac Stille was returned 
.from the Ohio, and last from Pittsburgh, where he had accompanied 
some of the principal Indians, and they had held Conferences witfe 
Colonel Mercer, Commanding Officer, who had inclosed them in a» 
Letter to his Honour of the Eighth, of Janizary last,, which were read' 
in these Words: 

d Letter to Governor Denny from Colonel Mercer. 

" Pittsb¥kg~ 8th January 1759.. 
"Sir : 

"When- my Battalion marshed from Fort Ligonier to- be disbanded) 
at the End of the Campaign,. I did myself the honour' of writing yom 
by Ensign Warmsckrff. 

"Soon after this General) Forbes- t ho u g h* Proper to appoint me 
to take the Command of what Troops were left on the Ohio. What" 
discoveries of the Enemies-' Design and Temper of the Indians- 
this Station may afford me, I shall think it my Duty to communi- 
cate to your Honour. 

" The Intelligence- 1 have from every Quarter makes- it Evident 
fthat the French have not yet lost hopes of securing a Post here. 
They are extremely Busy m Collecting their Over Lake Indians and 
propose assembling them near to Kuskusky. For this Purpose they 
are now forming a Magazing of Arms and provisions near that place, 

" They have yet many friends among the Belawares and Shawa- 
nees 7 as appears by our not receiving the least Information of this- 
Design,, tho' it is formed in the Heart of the Delaware Country.,. 
and these Scoundrel's come in Shoals every Day, to live upon us,, 
pretending the utmost Friendship. They have indeed alarmed us 
with an Account of a Formidable Body of French' being at Venango 
and making preparations to fall down from thence upon us. This 
we find to be false, as the Deputies of the Six Nations, who are just 
come from thence, saw but a very inconsiderable Garrison there. 

" The minutes of some Conferences held with these Deputies, I 
have enclosed for your Honour's perusal. The Chiefs of the Six 
Nations come here to> Suppielate a powerfull Aid from the English. 
They appear to be under the greatest Anxiety least we should aban- 
don this country, for a very powerful Confederacy of the Over Lake 
Indians are set on by the French to cut them off as allies to the 
English, and should the Delawares and Shawanese join in this Con- 
federacy, as the Six Nations apprehend, their Ruin would soon be 
compleated. Two of their Chiefs go from hence to wait on the 
-General, in hopes he will immediately enter upon the most Vigorous 
.Measures for driving the Enemy intirely off from this country. 

" There is a great Demand for Indian Goods. I have refused 
treat Quantities of Skins and Furs ; a fair Trade Cannot be too 
soon begun. The General has, on my Remonstrances, ordered up 
% Reinforcement of Men to secure this Post, so that what Goods- 
may be sent will be in no danger of falling into the Enemy's Hands.. 



FROT1MGIAL 'COUNCIL. -2SI 

'"This garrison consists of Twq Hundred and Eighty j the Works 
;are now capable of some Defence, thd 5 huddled up in a very hasty 
snanner, the Weather being Extremely Severe. 

■"Lam. Sir, Your Honour's most Obed f - Sum 12 - Serv*-* 

" HUGH MERCER." 



JMimti&svf 'ConferenceeMeld at PMtsbutg with the Indians. 

January the Third, in the Evening, arrived two Indian -Runners, 
with 4i Stringe -of Black and 'white Wampum, -signifying to me that 
JNine Chiefs of the Six Nations, Shaxwanese, ®nd Delawares, from a 
'Town up the ©hio, about 'One Hundred miles above Venango, near 
5the Beucaleonce, would l he here 'to-morrow wit;h . Forty of their 
Attendance. -Accordingly, the fourth, in the Evening, they arrived. 
One of them producing Six Strings of Wampum, told us that he 
tcame from Weayough, the *King, -or great Chief of Kannawaago; 
4,hat these Men were his '.Counsellors. The®, taking the Strings ihe 
proceeded : 
•"feathers-^ 

" The Clomd that was Before out Eyes is new removed, and we 
see Clearly. Our Ears are opened, and we are ready to hear what 
you say; And every ill thing that was in .our Hearte is now removed^ 
And we come in Friendship to see jrom. I give this String in Be- 
.half of the -Six .Nations, Shawanesa, And 'Delawares.'^' 

Next Morning the following Chiefs being present with -the CJaaa- 
anandrag Officer and ^Captains Waggener and Ward, Vii" : 
Oannewaungh, Occondenagh, the Chief C'ounsef- 

Sagowinne, lor, 

Awinne Qms, Acquialingaish, 

Sonoyeyough, Oanigaatt, the White Mingo. 

<$wistogah, or Capfodsa Ureter. .Snake's Son, Interpreter inShawa- 
Teeanushategla, nee, 

-Jo. Hickman, Interpreter in Eng- 
lish. 

The 'Speaker taking out Five 'Strings mi Wampum said, -"our King 
.and great men at Canawaago heard that their Friends, the English 
and Delawares, had talked together, and we sre come to see and 
talk with yon likewise. We are sorry that we cannot understand 
one another, but as much as we can make plain to you we will let 
you know. The Delawares told us that they and their Brothers, 
the English, had become Acquainted, and had .-shaken Hands here, 
And we are come from our Town to become .acquainted with and 
.shake Hands with o&r Brothers likewise. We .represent three Na- 
tions—The Six Nations, Shawanese, and Delawares. We desire to 
;know of you what the English .said to the Delawares when jon first 
'Came there.'" 



214 



MINUTES" OF TEE 



The Sixth, in the forenoon, the Officers of the .Garrison: a&d cni 
above named Chiefs, «and a good many other Indians being present,,, 
the Commanding Officer presented them with Six Strings of Wam- 
pum', telling them that they were welcome;- that he was glad that 
they could see one another with Chearfu! Faces, and unite their 
Hands and Hearts so firmly as never to be Separated any more. 
Then he related to them the Substance of what Colonel Bonnet 
had delivered in tbis Treaty with the Delawares here, as fa»r as it 
could be- collected from one of the Delawaaes, Via*' : Kakauscung r 
who was present at the Treaty. The Chiefs than said they would 
speak to-niorrow whatever ohey bad further to say. 

In the Evening of the same Day Five of the head' Counsellors^, 
all of the Six Nations, came privately to the- Command in g Officer's 
Tent, who being present, with Captain Ward,, was informed by them 
they were to unbosom themselves,, and freely open their minds to 
us ; that what they had to say was all for our good, but it is to bo 
kept private frosa the Delawares and Shawanese % T thes. taking o^t 
Eight Strings of Warapum proceeded i 

u Brothers : 

" The Delawares and Shawanese a?e sot yet to be depended mpOEw 
They may tell whatever they know to the French.. 

"Brothers : 

" I am glad that we a?e of one mind — that we Have joined Hands. 
This Wampum is to assure you that my Heart is become one with, 
yours,, therefore be strong and be assured of my Friendship*. "" 

G-ave Eight Strings of Wampum. 

" Brothers : 

u I have listned attentively to your words ; they are good,, thej 
are gone down into my Heart, and are not to be removed. I re- 
turn you thanks for them by this String/'' 

Gave Six Strings. 

" Brothers r 

" Take good head to ^hat wo are to> say ; it is of the greatest im- 
portance, therefore Listen and be attentive. 

u Brothers • 

" Listen, I am hard pctt to it, the French are but a little way 
beyond my Town, perhaps they may come and kill me; I don'fc 
know how soon they may strike me. 
" Brothers r 

" Be strong, now is the time to drive them from this Country % 
tell your Great Man to be strong and come and fight them, that we 
may live in Peace as formerly. The French will talk to the Tau- 
ways and their other Indians and' set them on. They are so nigh 
that one of them, sits on my shoulders and the other on my arm ) but 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 2§5 

be strong, let your Men come soon and fight strong, for the French 
are not many. Write to the great Man, he must be attentive and 
Strong ; he must run and bring a great Body with him, otherwise 
both you and us will be killed ; a few men won't do, for there are 
many Indians now in their Town. 
" Brothers : 

" Listen to these words; they come from the Bottom of my Heart; 
we expect you will take Notice of them ; and not disregard our words, 
as you have done formerly. 
" Brothers : 

" Come immediately with a great many men, otherwise these will 
be the last words we shall speak, for both you and we shall be 
killed." 

Gave Six Strings, 
" Brothers: 

" The French say they have a House with Provisions stored up, 
and arms deposited at Kuskusky; they give out that they will soon 
be here, and say that you are bringing Flour and Meat to this Place, 
which will soon be their's. What we say comes from our Hearts. 
Be strong; they will be here in One Month, Perhaps in less. Do 
not lose a minute, for when you are Struck, we shall certainly be 
so too." 

Grave Five Strings. 

Then -taking up a long Belt he proceeded : 
"Brothers: 

"This Belt the French sent to invite me to come from my Town 
to 'Venango, and on my coming he said the English are come to 
Ohio ; go and discharge them from living here ; tell them to be 
gone. 

"Brothers: 

" I took the Belt to bring it here and tell you, but not a Word 
of it has entered my Lips; the Words it contain do not Concern 
me; I regard them not. 

" Brothers : 

" To-morrow I will talk of this before the Delawares and Shawa- 
nese ; you are not to mind what is said then, for it is out side of my 
Lips, but what is now said be attentive to, for it comes from my 
Heart. 

" Brothers : 

" To-morrow I will give you that Belt, to return home to your 
own Country, but you are to return it back to me, and tell me at 
the same time that you are resolved to stay here and fight the French 
till they are drove off from this Country." , 



29? MINUTES OF THE 

The Seventh, in the afternoon, the Officers of the G-arrison, and 
a good many Indians, one of the Chiefs of the Six Nations, taking 
out a Belt of Wampum, said : " We heard the English say when 
they came here that they came with an intent to Kill the French 
here, or to drive them away j and that as soon as the English had 
killed or drove off the French, they would return back to their Own 
Country. 

" Brothers : 

" Your great Man said that as soon as the French was drove en- 
tirely away from their Country, he would Send and invite, and bring 
all Sorts of Nations of Indians to this place, and there would estab- 
lish a Strong and lasting Peace and Friendship with all the Indians, 
and as soon as he had done this he would return home. 
44 Brothers : 

" We met yesterday and talked together in this place. The Six 
Nations, Delawares and Shawanese then join in a Strong Friendship 
with you, and now they say you must leave their place and go home, 
and when you are at home provide goods to send to Trade with us." 

Delivered the Belt. 

Colonel Mercer answered : 
u Brothers : 

" The great Man told you that when he had drove the French in- 
tirely out of this Country, he would then send for all the Indians 
and make a lasting Peace and Friendship with them, and afterwards 
go home. 

11 Brothers : 

"The French are not gone from this Country; they are just at 
our Door and give out that they will soon return to this Place. 
Our great Man's Words are true ; as soon as the French are gone 
he will make a Treaty with all the Indians and then go home, but 
the French are still here. 
" Brothers : 

" We know the French better than you do ; should we go now 
they would return immediately; our great Man has ordered me to 
stay here. If the French should come I will be strong and make 
them run away once more. 
" Brothers : 

" When the French came here they made us quarrel with our 
good old Friends, and by so doing they have hurt both you and us ; 
your Brothers, the English, are a great People, their Eyes are now 
opened, and while the Sun shines and the Rivers run, we will never 
Buffer a French iV.an to sit here. 
14 Brothers : 

44 1 return you this Belt ; what you have now said must be told 
to General Forbes ; if you have a mind to Send this Belt to him, I 
will send one along* with you." 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 297 

The Six Nation Chief said : 

" Brothers : 

" Listen and be attentive to what I say. I am sorry that you 
have returned the Belt which I gave you, but if you will give me 
one Cagg of Rum I shall feel perfectly well again." 

HUGH MERCER. 

Isaac Stille informed the Governor that the Indians in Conversa- 
tion told him they expected another Message from their Brethren, 
the English, to Fix the Time of meeting, and he thought the Mess- 
age ought to be sent off immediately. The Secretary was desired 
to prepare a Message to the House on the Occasion. , 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Friday the 23d of March, 
1759. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLAM DENNY, Esq r - Lieutenant Gover- 
nor. 

Robert Strettell, Benjamin Shoemaker, ) 

Joseph Turner, Richard Peters, I -™ i '•*■*• 

Lynford Lardner, Benjamin Chew, f ^ 

Thomas Cadwalader, J 

Two Members yesterday waited on the Governor, requesting he 
would be pleased to lay before the House Copies of such Confer- 
ences held by himself with the Indians in our Alliance, as well as 
those held with them by the late General Forbes; and the Secre- 
tary was directed to deliver to the House a Copy of Frederick Post's 
Journal on a Message to the Ohio, and Copies of all Conferences 
held with the Indians by himself and General Forbes since the 
Treaty at Easton in October last, which was done accordingly. 

The Governor informed the Council that Two Members of As- 
sembly had waited on him yesterday Evening, with a Message from 
the House, desiring him to be pleased to let them know who was 
appointed to the Command in this and the Southern Provinces; 
that they were alarmed with a Report, which generally prevailed, 
that Colonel Byrd, of Virginia, was come from New York, and was 
to command the Army on the Western Frontiers ; in which case 
they were apprehensive that it would be of no service to grant Sup- 
plies, as no one would enlist, and the Indians would take Umbrage 
at Seeing a Virginia Colonel in the Command at Pittsburg. The 
Governor answered that he had received no account from General 
Amherst relative to the Command, but expected Brigadier General 
Stanwix every Bay. That this Morning Two Members of the 
House were again sent by the House, to inform him they wera so 
very uneasy at hearing that Colonel Byrd was to Command, that 



298 MINUTES OF THE 

they were inclinable to Represent Matters to General Amherst, and 
desired to know if his Honour would join with them in the Repre- 
sentation, and if so, that one or more members of Council and As- 
sembly might be despatched forthwith to go to New York with the 
Representation. That they proposed making no mention of this 
matter in their Votes, but acting in it Privately, that no Umbrage 
might be given to General Amherst. 

On this Request the Governor said he called the Council, and de- 
sired to know their Sentiments upon it ; and as they were deliberat- 
ing thereupon, the Servant came to acquaint the Governor that 
General Stanwix was come to Town, and soon after the following 
Letter was sent to the Governor, which put an End to their Deli- 
berations, and the Secretary was directed to carry it to the 
House : 

A Letter from General Amherst to Gove? nor Denny. 

"New York, March 18th, 1759. 
" Sir : 

" It having become Necessary, by the Demise of Brigadier Gene- 
ral Forbes, that an Officer of Rank and Experience should, without 
Loss of Time, proceed to Pennsylvania, to take on him the Com- 
mand of His Majesty's regular Troops, and those to be raised by 
the Southern Provinces, to act in Conjunction for the Security and 
Defence of those Provinces, or otherwise as Opportunity shall Offer, 
or the Exigencies may require, I have thought it for the good of 
His Majesty's Service to appoint Brigadier General Stanwix to that 
Command, and he does accordingly set out to-morrow for Philadel- 
phia, to take upon him the Same. I am, therefore, to request of 
you that during such, his Command, you will, upon every Emer- 
gency, correspond and Co-operate with him in the same Manner as 
you are enjoined by Mr. Secretary Pitt's Letter to do with me, 
which must prove of great Benefit to the Publick Service, as from 
any removal from hence into the Back Country, whither I may be 
called soon, it might prove very prejudicial to the safety and Secu- 
rity of the Southern Provinces, to Wait for the Answers to any of 
those Letters you may have occasion to write to me in relation 
thereto ; and I have accordingly directed Brigadier General Stanwix 
to Correspond and Co-op'erate with you in like manner. 

" I have further desired Brigadier General Stanwix immediately 
to call in all the out-Standing Accounts of last Campaign, and to 
cause them to be settled and satisfied- in such a Manner that neither 
the Inhabitants nor the Crown may be Sufferers. 

"As this step might sufficiently evince the desire I have of doing 
the Inhabitants of Pennsylvania all the Justice that lies in my 
Power, I dare trust they will no longer be so blind to their own In- 
terest as to defer granting the necessary Supplies for the raising and 
maintaining the Body of Troops that it is expected they will fur- 
nish for the Operations of the ensuing Campaign. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL, 299 

a Brigadier General Stanwix will likewise consult you in" regard 
to Indian Affairs, and do his utmost in settling everything to their 
Satisfaction and His Majesty's Indian Interest, la which I must 
beg of you to give him all the Assistance he may stand in Need of, 
and to furnish him with all the Lights you are capable of from 
your experience in those matters. 

"I am, with great regard, Sir, 

u your most Obedient Hum 6, Seryant, 

"JEFF. AMHERST." 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Monday the 26th of March, 
1759. 

PRESENT I 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esquire, Lieutenant Goy- 
erner. 

Robert Strettell, Joseph Turner, *) 

Richard Peters, Lynford Lardner, ' V Esquires- 

Benjamin Chew, Thomas Cadwalader, ) 

The Governor laid before the Council a Bill intituled " An Act 
for granting to His Majesty the Sum of One Hundred Thousand 
Pounds, and for striking the same in Bills of Credit in the manner 
hereinafter directed, and for providing a Fund fox sinking the said 
Bills of Credit, by a Tax on all Estates, real and Personal, and 
Taxables within this Province/' presented to his Honour by Two 
Members last Saturday for his Concurrence, which was read; arid 
the Governor desired it might be immediately taken into considera- 
tion, it was again read Paragraph by Paragraph. The Secretary 
acquainted the Council, that he had, at the beginning of the Ses- 
sions, delivered a Message from the Proprietaries to the Assembly,, 
respecting their Taxation, and reminded the Governor of the Pro- 
prietaries' Letter to his Honour of the Twenty-Eighth of January ,> 
1758, which was formerly read in Council, wherein, after Several 
Conferences with Mr. Franklin, the Matter was so far agreed to as 
that the Proprietaries consented that the Governor might give his 
Assent to such a Law as passed the preceding year, and it was taken 
for granted that there would be the like Bills passed till the matters 
in Difference between the Proprietaries and the Assembly could be 
finally adjusted. 

The Proprietaries' Message to the Assembly of the Twenty- 
Eighth of November, 1758, And the Papers inclosed, viz*- : Heads 
of Complaints by Benjamin Franklin, and Mr. Paris' Answer to 
it, entered in Minutes of Council of the Twenty-Sixth of February 
last were read. Mr. Franklin's Letter on receiving the Answer 
was now likewise read, ordered to be entered, and follows in these 
Words : 



300 MINUTES OF THE 

u Gentlemen: 

" I yesterday received a Paper from Mr. Paris, containing your 
Answer to the Heads of Complaint, wherein I am informed that the 
Proprietaries, to take off all pretence of Clamour, are very ready to 
have the annual Income of their Estate enquired into, and are ready 
to contribute whatever the said sum [Viz 1 : Five thousand Pounds, 
by them formerly ordered to be paid] shall fall short of their pro- 
portion of what has been laid on the Inhabitants in general, for 
every part of their Estate that is in its nature Taxable ; but as an 
Equality is contended for, they do expect, if they have contributed 
more than the Proportions (which they believe they have very 
greatly), that the Overplus shall be returned to them. And as the 
House of Representatives contend for their Right in disposing of 
their Property, and do not represent the Proprietaries, so the Pro- 
prietaries conceive, and are advised, they themselves, and they only, 
have a Right to Judge when and how to dispose of their Estates 
and Properties. 

il As the Money granted last year is probably expended before 
this Time, and a New Supply Bill must come under Consideration 
in the Ensuing Winter Session, it seems necessary for preventing 
Delays prejudicial to His Majesty's Service, that this proposal should 
fee clearly understood by the Assembly. I therefore beg to be in- 
formed more explicitly of the following particulars : 

" First. In what Manner you are willing the annual Income of 
your Estate should be enquired into, and whether you will consent 
to a Law that shall direct such enquiry, and the mode of it. 

11 Secondly. What parts of your Estate you look upon to be in 
t&eir Nature Taxable, and what parts not Taxable. 

" Thirdly. Whether the proportion you propose to Contribute is 
to relate only to the Taxes that have been heretofore laid on the 
Inhabitants, and the Sums already raised and spent, or to those 
also that shall hereafter be found necessary to be laid and raised for 
the Defence of the Province in the ensuing and future years. 

a Fourthly. Whether it is proposed that the Assembly for the 
future do dispose of what the People pay for His Majesty's Service 
and the Proprietaries separately dispose of their Proportion, and 
that otherwise they will not contribute ; or what is the plain Inten- 
tion of those Expressions that relate to the Disposition of the Mo- 
ney. 

" As a Ship is just departing for Pennsylvania, I request as 
speedy an Answer as may be to these Points, they being of imme- 
diate Importance. The rest of the Matters contained in the Paper 
may he considered at another Time. Meanwhile, with due respect, 
u 1 am, Gentlemen, 

" Your most obed L and most hum 8 - Serv^ 
" 13. FRANKLIN, 
" Agent for the Assembly of Pennsylvania." 

« London, Nov r - 28th, 1758." 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. SOI 

Several Observations were made upon the Obscurity of tbe Bill 
in many Essential Parts, and upon tbe Confusion arising from tbe 
Multitude References to former Tax Acts. Instructions were gives 
to Mr. Cbew and Mr. Peters to amend the Bill, and to Draught a 
Message, making therein an Offer of the Quit-Rents and appropriate 
Tracts, to be taxed on a fair and equal Taxation, and that a sepe- 
rate Bill be prepared for that purpose. 

The Governor laid before the Board a Petition Frederick Post 
]had presented to him, setting forth bis desire of going with some others 
of the Unitas Fratrnm on the other side of the Allegheny Mountains? 
in the Service of the Gospel among the Indians, and praying His 
Honour to grant them Letters of Passport. The Council expressed 
a great Regard for Mr. Post ? and agreed unaaimously to grant bis 
Petition. 



MEMORANDUM. 

On tbe Twenty-Eighth Mr. Crogban, in Conference with the Gov- 
ernor, gave it as his Opinion, that there should no invitation be sent 
fixing the Time of meeting for the Ohio Indians. If any further 
Invitation was necessary, it should be general, intimating that we 
expected to see them, and leave the particular time to themselves? 
not knowing what time would suit the Indians who were so far dis- 
tant One from another. Mr. Croghan said further, that tbe Indians 
in Town were exceeding uneasy, and desired an Audience of Gene- 
ral Stanwix, on which the Governor wrote a Letter to the General, 
desiring him to give the Indians an Audience, and to make them 
presents to their Satisfaction. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Thursday tbe 29th of March. 
1759. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esquire, Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Strettell, Lynford Lardner, "J 

Joseph Turner, Thomas Cadwalader, V Esquires. 

Richard Peters, . J 

Tbe Amendments, and the Governor's Message to tbe Assembly? 
respecting the Supply Bill, were read, agreed to, and ordered to be 
entered, and tbe Secretary was directed to deliver them to the House 
this afternoon. 

Amendments to the Bill intituled a An Act for granting to Hi& 
Majesty the Sum of One Hundred Thousand Pounds, and for striking 
tbe same in Bills of Credit, in the manner berein after directed,. 



302 MINUTES OF THE 

and for providing a Fund for sinking the said Bills of Credit by a 
Tax on all Estates, real and personal, and Taxables within this 
Province :" 

il 1st Amendment. 

u Page 4, Line 3. Dele the Words [so as aforesaid], 

" 2d Amendment. 

" Page 4, 5. Dele the word [that], in the 11th Line of the 4th 
Page, to the Word [and], exclusive, in the 9th Line of the 5th Page, 
and instead thereof insert as follows, Viz 1 - : The Sum of Eighteen 
Pence in the Pound shall be levied on the clear yearly Value of the 
Estate, real and personal, within this Province, of all and every Per- 
son and persons (the Estates of the Proprietaries only excepted); 
that is to say, on the Clear yearly Rents of all such Lands as are 
leased, or set to Farm, and on the clear annual Income and profitts of all 
such improved Lands as are in the Cultivation and Possession of the 
Owners Thereof, and on the Interest of the whole personal Estate 
of every Person in this Province, to be estimated and Computed by 
the Assessors according to the best Information and Judgment 
therein : And Whereas, many valuable Tracts of Land in this 
Province, and Lots of Ground within the City of Philadelphia and 
the Several Towns and Burroughs within the Province, remain al- 
together unimproved, and in other Tracts of Land that are settled 
and have Plantations on them, there are, nevertheless, adjoining to 
such Settlements great Quantities of rough, unimproved Lands, 
which o ght to be charged with a proportionable and reasonable 
Share of the heavy Taxes laid on the Inhabitants. 

11 Be it therefore enacted by the Authority aforesaid. That all such 
unimproved Tracts of Land and unimproved Parts and Parcels of 
Land and Lots of Ground, shall be valued by the respective Asses- 
sors at the Price or sum of Money they in their Consciences shall 
Judge them to be worth, due regard being had to their Situation 
and Quality, and the Sum of Eighteen Pence in the Pound shall be 
levied yearly on the Interest of the Value of such unimproved 
Tracts and Parts or Parcels of Land and Lots of Ground, any thing 
in any former Law contained to the Contrary Notwithstanding. 

" The Governor conceives that the House, in that Part of the Para- 
graph proposed to be altered, which relates to the Taxing improved 
Lands and Personal Estates, intends the same thing as he does ; 
that is, to lay the Tax only on the Clear yearly Rents, Income, and 
Interest ; and proposes the foregoing Amendment only as a more 
full and Expressive for the direction of the Assessors, that they 
may not mistake the sense and meaning of the Act, but may do 
equal Justice to the People and go by one Rule throughout the 
Province, which he is well informed they do not now do. 

" He is also induced to Propose the Amendment, with regard to 
unimproved Lands, for the sake of Equality in the Taxation. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 303 

" 3d Amendment. 

" Page 14, Lines 9, 10, 11. Dele the Words [and what Quit- 
Rents they respectively are liable to pay to the Proprietaries within 
this Province]. 

"4th Amendment. 

" Pa. 16, Lines 2, 3, 4, 5. Dele the Words [and also an Account 
of all such Located Lands as belong to the Honourable the Proprie- 
taries of this Province, or either of them]. 

" 5th Amendment. 

"Pages 21, 22. Dele from the Word [and], in the Antipenult 
Line of Page 21, to the Word [notwithstanding], in the 10th and 
11th Lines of Page 22, inclusive. 

" WILLIAM DENNY. 

"March 29th, 1759." 



A Message from the Governor to the Assembly. 

" Gentlemen : 

"I have carefully considered the Bill intituled 'An Act for 
granting to His Majesty the Sum of One Hundred Thousand 
Pounds, and for striking the same in Bills of Credit in the manner 
herein after directed, and for providing a Fund for Sinking the said 
Bills of Credit by a Tax on all Estates, real and Personal, and 
Taxables within this Province/ and now return it to you with a 
few amendments, which I hope will receive your approbation. 

" I would willingly avoid any Dispute that might arise between 
us, and retard a Bill so necessary at this Juncture for his Majesty's 
Service, as well as the safety and Benefit of this Province ; where- 
fore I think it proper to inform you that the Proprietaries are ready 
and willing to Contribute their full proportion of the Sums already 
granted, or hereafter to be granted to His Majesty's Use, if, on a 
fair and equal Taxation of their Quit-Rents and appropriated Tracts, 
their former order for the Sum of Five Thousand Pounds shall be 
found to fall Short of such proportion. If you approve of this 
Offer, and will prepare^ Separate Bill for that Purpose, I will 
heartily concur with you in it, and shall be glad to put a final pe- 
riod to this Contest. 

" WILLIAM DENNY. 

" March 29th, 1759." 

A Bill intituled "a Supplement to an Act intituled ( An Act for 
preventing Abuses in the Indian Trade/ " presented Yesterday to 
the Governor by Two Members for his Concurrence, was read, and 
referred to further Consideration. 



304 MINUTES OF THE 

A Letter from Mr. Spangenburg of the Twenty-Sixth Instant, 
was read in these Words : 

"May it please your Honour: 

" Your Honour Lath shewn us so many favours that I need no 
Excuse for this my Letter, wherein I am humbly to acquaint your 
Honour that Mr. William Edmonds is going to bring in a Petition 
in the House of the Representatives of this Province, in behalf of 
the United Brethren, residing in Bethlehem, Nazareth, &c^ Re- 
questing the said House's leave to bring in a Bill for regulating the 
Tax, which the said Brethren are to Pay. Your honour may hear 
the Particulars thereof by the said Mr. William Edmonds. If Mr. 
Edmonds does succeed, and the said bill meets with your Honour's 
Approbation (which I hope it will, and pray it may), it will ex- 
tremely oblige us. May our good Lord Bless your Honour with 
Health and Prosperity, is the Humble Prayer of 

" Your Honour's most Hum 6, and most Obed t- Servant, 

" SPANGENBERG. 

"March 26th, 1759." 

Two Members waited on the Governor with a Bill for preventing 
the Exportation of bad or unmerchantable Staves, Heading, &c a- ' 
for his Concurrence, which was read in Council. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Saturday the 31st of March, 
1759. 

PRESENT I 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq'- Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Strettell, Joseph Turner, ~\ 

Richard Peters, Lynford Lardner, > Esquires. 

Thomas Cadwalader, ) 

The Governor informed the Council that the Supply Bill was re- 
turned to him by two Members in half an Hour after it had been 
delivered by the Secretary with his Message and Amendments, and 
that the Members delivered with the Bill a Message that the House 
adhered to their Bill. 

The Council was unanimous that the Bill should be immediately 
sent to the Assembly, with the following verbal Message by the 
Secretary : 

" The Governor returns the Supply Bill, and Commands me to 
acquaint the House that ho cannot give his Assent to it. He is, 
however, willing to Pass a Bill of the same Tenor with the one 
passed the last year, for granting to His Majesty the Sum of One 
Hundred Thousand Pounds." 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 305 

Tnen was read a Letter from Lieutenant Colonel Mercer to the 
Secretary, enclosing some Minutes of Conferences with Indians, 
both which were read and ordered to be entered as follows : 

A Letter to Mr. Richard Peters from Colonel Mercer. 

" Pittsburgh, the 1st March, 1759 . 
" Bear Sir ; 

" This goes by Isaac Stilie, who, together with the King Beaver, 
is returned from the Neighbouring Tribes with good Accounts of 
their readiness to aceept our offers of Peace. 

" Some Conferences held with the Beaver and with two Taway 
Indians, I have enclosed for the Governor's perusal, in Compliance 
with Stille's request, for I should not otherwise have given his Hon- 
our the Trouble of reading such trifles. 

"My principal aim in ail transactions with Indians is to convince 
them of the Sincerity of the Friendship we offer, and at the same 
time of our Ability to Command what we now put it in their Power 
to accept. It is pitty the goods have been so long detained, many 
Indians have carried back the Skins they brought to trade with, and 
row the Beaver is here, I am put to the necessity of letting the Ped- 
lars supply him with Sundry Articles ; this, tko' an illicit affair, 
there is no avoiding, as very little of the King's Goods suited him. 
The fewer present are made these people, the better encouraging a 
spirit of Industry appears to be the likelyest means of breaking them 
off from War, and closely connecting them with, us, who can at the 
■cheapest rate supply their Wants. 

" The Intelligence brought me is so various and Contradictory tlhat 
I begin to be ashamed of sending it further. It is, however, the 
General Opinion of the Indians that this Place will soon be attempted 
by the Enemy. A Train of Artillery and Considerable reinforce- 
ment from Niagara having crossed the Lake this Winter, as they 
say, if any Confidence is to be put in the Mingoes, I shall in a few 
Days know their Strength. 

"The Delawares at the Mouth of Beaver Creek intend to move 
to Kuskusky, they pretend, at our request ; but rather in my Opin- 
ion, thro' Diffidence of us, or to get out of the Way of Blows, if any 
are going, for depend upon it they are desirous of fighting neither 
■on the side of tne English nor French, but would gladly see 
both dislodged from this Place. It is true the Old thinking part 
'of the Tribe incline to us, while the young Villains who have swilled 
so much of our Blood, and grown rich by the plunder of the Fron- 
tiers, have still some French Poison lurking in their Veins, that 
might perhaps break out at a Convenient Opportunity. 

" These Circumstances demand our Pitty as well as Resentment, 

-and whatever Mollifying Methods lie in my Power, while it is 

thought proper to Honour me with the Command here, I shall not 

be wanting. It may not be amiss to inform the Commissioners for 

V0L. VIII,— 20, 



306 MINUTES OF THE 

Indian Trade that good Saddles, about Three Pounds In Philadel- 
phia, Wampum, and Silver Truck are frequently called for ; One 
fellow from Muskingham engaged me to write for two Negro Girls 
and a Boy about fourteen years old, to be paid for in furr ; if the 
Gentlemen think it necessary to look out for such and mention to 
their Agent the Price, the Furr will be brought here. 

" I cannot omit this opportunity of Signifying to you the Diffi- 
culties I am under of a Surgeon to attend our Sick 3 Mr. Johnson 
of the Virginia Regiment has been kind enough to attend them 
Mtherto. I hope the Governor and Commissioners will enable 
me to make him a Retaliation, as Two Hundred of our People are 
now here. One of the Surgeons in Pay of the Province should be 
ordered up. 

" As my knowledge of Publick Affairs scarcely extend without 
the Limits of Pittsburg, Whatever you are pleased to favour me 
with will be highly agreeable to, 

" Sir, Your most Obedient Humble Servant, 

" HUGH MERCER. 
'* Please to offer my Compliments to his Honour the Governor." 



" Minutes of Conferences held with Indians at Pittsburgh, Febuary 
Uth, 1759. 

" To-day Isaac Stille and a number of Delaware Indians came 
here and told me the Beaver, their King, would see me to-morrow. 

" Sunday the 25th, the Beaver, Delaware George, and Isaac Stille, 
with several other Indians, and the Gentlemen of the Garrison, being 
present, the Beaver spoke as follows : 

" l Brother : 

" < I am come to see you j I hope you have had your Health as I 
have had mine, and that you retain the same Sentiments of Friend- 
ship as heretofore. 

" * I have brought some of my young Men along with me, with 
their Skins and Furrs, in hopes that the Goods which you promised 
to send to trade with us are come. 

" ' You told us last Fall that Goods should be brought here to 
Trade with us, and that you were willing to make up all the Differ- 
ences which had unhappily fallen out between us. 

" f We look back to that strong Chain of Friendship which we 
and our Brothers held fast long ago; it was not our faults that it 
slipt out of our hands; we are glad that you have laid hold on it 
once more, and we are resolved to Hold it fast. 

" ' All I have at present to say is that your Speeches and Treaty 
of Peace are gone to distant Nations; they are passing from one 
io another, and I cannot tell how far they have gone yet. The 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 307 

Taways having heard of your intentions of making Peace with, 
us, and with all the Indians, have sent two of their Nation to see you 
and to hear your Words/ 

" Then producing a String of Wampum, he proceeded : 

" ' Brother, be attentive; 

" * You have stayed here this Winter, and you may possibly have 
heard something that has displeased you. Whatever ill has gone in 
your Ears and down to your Breasts, I intirely remove and put 
away by this String. 

" l It is possible you have heard some Words that have made you 
of another mind. I now make you of the same mind as when you 
first made the Treaty of Peace. 

" < Brother : 

11 ' You must be in earnest in your Treaty of Peace, for I shall 
do every thing in my Power among the Delawares to render it 
Effectual/ 

" Gave a String. 

" Then producing another String, Proceeded : 
" i Brother : 

M ' Listen a little to what I say. Your Nation and my Uncles, 
the Six Nations, came here together to make a Treaty of Peace. 

" ' Brothers : 

" * The Six Nations and you desired that I would sit down and 
smoak my Pipe at Kuskusky j what they desired me I intend to 
do, and shall remove from Sacunk to Kuskusky. I tell you this 
that you may think no ill of my removing from Sacunk to Kus- 
kusky, for it is at the great desire of my Brothers, the English, 
and my Uncles, the Six Nations, and there I shall always hear your 
Words/ 

" Gave the String." 



"Monday the 26th. 

" The Two Taways told me they wanted to go Home, upon which 
I told them that their coming here was extremely agreeable, as it 
testified their Desire of making Peace with the English. Thee 
taking out Some strings of Wampum, I desired them to be attentive, 
For what I was to say was addressed to their Chief Men, and to 
all the Taway Nation. 

"'Brothers : 

Ui I am come to this Place with a Friendly Disposition and 
hearty Desire to make Peace with all Nations of Indians. A great 



308 MINUTES OF THE 

while ago the English lived in the strongest Friendship with all the 
Indians. At Length the French came, and parted us from our 
good Friends. But now they are drove off; we put out of our 
Minds every ill Sentiment, and intirely Bury in Oblivion what has 
happened between us and the Indians during these few Years. 

"'All we desire of the Indians is to deliver up our People, now 
living among them, and to break off from assisting and fighting 
with the French. We do not offer Peace to the Indians thro' any 
apprehensions of their Power joined to the French, for we have this 
last Year defeated their United Forces in different Places; but know- 
ing the Indians have been deceived and many ill Impressions of us 
made upon them by our Common Enemy, We, therefore, out of pitty 
to them, and from the Remembrance of our Antient Friendship are 
now willing and ready to renew our former Friendship in the most 
Sincere and ample manner. The Speeches and Peace Belts of our 
great Men will arrive in your Nation by the time you get Home, & 
I hope your People will readily and joyfully accept of the Kind 
Offers their Brothers make them. Your great Men are to Consider 
that their Brothers, the English, from a few that came into America, 
are become a great People, every Day increasing in Numbers of 
Men and Warriors; so they should Weigh well whether it is their 
Interest to make us their Enemies for Ever, or now Joyfully accept 
the Peace we Offer them.' 

" Gave the String. 

" They appeared well satisfied, telling me that my Words should 
be conveyed safe to their Great Men/' 



" Thursday the 28th. 

" King Beaver, Kill Buck, Isaac Stille, and several Delaware 
Indians being present, with the Officers of the Garrison, I spoke to 
the Beaver : 
" t Brother : 

" ( Iam very glad to see you returned safe to your People; while 
you have been spreading the good News of Peace among the neigh- 
bouring Nations, I have been employed in Establishing and Con- 
firming it with the Delawares and all other Indians who came here. 
As soon as I understood that your People had dropt off from the 
French, that moment I put out of my mind every ill impression 
conceived against them, and have ever since retained the most 
Friendly Sentiments, and regard you as my Brother. The Goods 
for opening a Trade with the Indians are upon the Road, and will 
be up as soon as the Waggons can come along. This and every 
other Engagement your Brothers, tho English, have come under will 
be fulfilled in the most sacred manner, to your ample Satisfaction ; 
For our Friendship remains as strong as ever; nothing we have 
heard or seen has in the least lessened it. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 309 

'"Brother: 

" 'It is not the Desire of the English that you should move from 
Sacunk to Kuskusky. General Forbes, in his Letter, mentioned 
your sitting down & Smoaking your Pipe at Kuskusky, because he 
had heard of no other Great Delaware Town. Your Brothers, the 
English, desire to see you live in Peace and Happiness, either at 
Sacunk, Kuskusky, or wherever you think proper, and by no means 
intend to Limit you to one Place or another/ 

" Gave four Strings of Wampum. 
" ' Brother : 

" ' I am determined to Cultivate a Friendship with you and your 
People by a mutual Exchange of Good Offices. Whatever I hear 
that may be to your Advantage to know, I shall Communicate 
Freely, and Expect and Desire you will do the same by me. We 
have a Common Enemy to watch against. Observe and inform me 
of his Motions, and of your People who bring Intelligence that 
Concerns my Interest shall be well Rewarded/ 

" Gave Four Strings of Wampum. 
" < Brother : 

" ' Now the Country People are bringing up Bum and Whisky. 
It is very likely that the Indians will Drink too Much, and falling 
out with their Brothers here, may Occasion our Quarrelling, which 
I should be very Sorry for, and therefore I desire you would tell 
your People not to come in the Fort on these Occasions, or if they 
do, to Behave Civilly, and then they may depend on being treated 
as Friends and Brothers. None of my People shall begin a Quarrel, 
but you are to Consider that we are Warriors, and will not take any 
abusive Language or Behaviour. If such is given by the Indians 
when in Liquor, I cannot Protect them from being ill treated/ 

" Then I made the Beaver a Present of Sundry Sorts of Goods. 
He Expressed great Satisfaction, and told me he was immediately 
to set off to the Indian Nations over the Lake, and would use his 
utmost Endeavours to Establish the Peace every where. 

"HUGH MERCER." 

Another Letter from Colonel Mercer, of the Eighteenth of March, 
to the Secretary, enclosing some Indian Intelligence received at 
Pittsburgh the Seventeenth of March, with a return of the Garrison 
at Pittsburgh, were read and ordered to be entered. 

A Letter to Mr. Richard Peters from Colonel Mercer. 

hi Pittsburgh, the 18th March, 1759. 
" Sir : 

" I had the pleasure to receive your Favour of the Twentieth of 
February, some days since, but deferred answering it till the return 



210 MINUTES OF THE 

of Teedyuscung's Son, who set off the Second Instant to stay at 
Prisque Isle. 

" He arrived yesterday with full and particular Intelligence, 
widely different from what I received a month ago, and had con- 
firmed since by Sundrie Indians, who pretended doing me a mighty 
favour in Communicating it. 

" How far this or the former Story come near the Truth, a few 
Weeks will discover. In the Mean Time, it is our Business to 
prepare for the worst, conscious we have to do with a Vigilant and 
active Enemy. Several French Officers and Traders have lived 
this Winter in the neighbouring Towns, and no Doubt endeavor to 
keep alive the Indian Interest by exagerated Accounts of their Force 
and Intentions. These will prove more useful to us probably than 
they intended, by giving Vigour to our Measures, which cannot be 
too soon entered upon. Inclosed for the governor's Perusal is the 
Intelligence by both, Shingas' Speech on his coming here a few 
Days since, and a return of the Garrison of Pittsburgh. 

" We have nothing to fear, in my Opinion, and as little to Loose 
from the Delawares, they chuse to lye by and wait the Event of 
this Summer's Campaign j they give assurances that all their Al- 
lies in the late War will follow their Example in Burying the 
French Hatchet. Three Chippeways, encouraged by the Kind 
treatment given the Taways whom they fell in with on their Way 
home, have come here two Days ago. I shall endeavour to send 
them home with suitable Impressions of us ; likewise Shingas ap- 
pears backward in going to Philadelphia, but tells me he waits for 
the Chiefs of other Tribes that live a great way off, and intends 
going down with them ; he does not guess at the Time. As soon 
I discover their intentions this Way, you small have proper notice 
of it ; The Captives will be detained to the last minute and many 
Secreted. 

" The Mingo fellow got here and were gone to their Town before 
your letter reached me ; they appeared in very good Temper, telling 
me they went home to bring their Chiefs here to hold a Council ; 
by the time their Messengers, left in Philadelphia, should arrive at 
this Place. 

" I am sorry that Pteturns of the Regiment have not been trans- 
mitted the Governor, but could not imagine that Colonels Armstrong 
and Burd would omit sending proper Keturns of their Battalions at 
the close of the Campaign, by which the Number of Pennsylvania 
Troops stationed at Pittsburgh must appear. Had the Governor 
been pleased to honor me with the least shadow of Orders, I should 
have been far from violating or neglecting them. 

" You will discover in Shingas' speech his attention to the Inter- 
ests of Trade ; every part of his Conduct here is of a Piece ; the In- 
dians are surprized, and so must every one be that offer repeated 
Promises of proper Assortments of Goods, being sent to barter with 
them on the Government's Account, none have yet appeared, 



PROVINCIAL - COUNCIL. 311 

though multitudes of pedlars come here with the Same Species car- 
ried on Horses. I dropt a Line to Mr. West regarding the Indian 
Trade. Course Goods will not do; such things as the Indians have 
formerly dealt in must now be more Showey and of the finest Sort., 
"The Price they don't Value, so they find it much the. Same down 
-the Country. 

" As soon as an Army marches up superior to the French force 
on the Lakes, you will have the Chiefs of these Ohio Indians and 
many Men go to treat at Philadelphia. The Safety of their Fami- 
lies will Induce them to Wait for ©rcr first taking Vigorous 
measures. I am, Sir, 

u Your most Hum 6, Obed* Serv^ 
" HUGH MERCER." 



11 Intelligence received the 17 th of March, 1759, ■at Pittsburgh. 

"Thorn. Bull, the Indian Employed to Spy at the Lakes, arrived. 
He set off from hence the Second Instant, and in two Days reached 
Venango; staid there that Night; next Day got to Cushtuloga's 
Town, and the Day after in the Evening Reached La Beef; Stayed 
there One Night, and Went on with three freneh Men to Prisque 
Isle next Day. At Prisque Isle the Garrison consisted of Two 
Officers, two Merchants, a Clerk, Priest, and One Hundred and 
Three Soldiers, as near as he could reckon by counting them in the 
Barracks, for they were not Employed about any Work. 

" The Commanding Officer's Name is Bwraol, with whom Bui! 
<was formerly well acquainted, and therefore not suspected his com- 
ing from us. He Treated him with great Openness, and told him 
that thirty Towns of the Waweaeteneius, Taways, Chepisaws, Tel- 
cnatenais, and French Mingoes, had Engaged to join the French 
and come to War here. He Saw Fifteen Hundred War Billets 
ready prepared for their Equipment. He, likewise, says (but 
whether the Officer told him, or he understood it from any other 
Person I cannot make out) that the Indians just Ready to sett off 
were stopt by the Belts and Speeches sent among them by the Eng- 
lish, and that they had resolved to desist till such time as they 
•came to Kuskusky to hear what we had to say to the Delawares, 
and their Resolution thereupon. By this they were to be guided, 
and if they found Peace Established, to take their Tomahawk out 
of their Young Men's Hands that yet inclined to the freneh, and 
follow the Ipxample of their Grandfathers the Delawares. 

"Accordingly a great Body of Fifteen Hundred of these over 
JLake Indians were soon Expected to arrive at Kuskusky. 

"The Officer told him that he had lately a Council with the 
Mingoes, and told them he was Sorry to See One-half of the Min- 
goes broke away to the English; he addressed them to leave the 
English^ and Oome and Sit by his Fire, as formerly. 



312 MINUTES OF THE 

u They Replied, that they took the Tomahawk out of their Hands 
and Buryed it; that they would do so by the English, and advise 
both to fight as formerly, Over the great Waters, without disturbing 
their Country; that they might Live in Peace with both; and that 
the English- should return home. The French replied, he would 
go home as soon as the English moved off. Burinal told him he 
had sent a Belt to the Delaware Chiefs. The Beaver, George, and 
Cuttighegan, to come and Council with him, and by Bull's account 
they were directed to set off about this Time. 

"The Fort is a square, with four Bastions, Square Log Work ; 
no plat Forms raised yet, so that they can't be used; Only a small 
Platform in each Bastion for a Centinel; no Guns upon the Walk, 
but four Four Pounders in One of the Bastions, not mounted on 
Carriages. The Wall only Single Logs; no Bank within or Ditch 
without; Two gates, of one Equal Size, about Ten Feet Wide, One 
fronts the Lake, about Three Hundred Yards Distance, the other 
the road to La Beef. The Magazine is a Stone House, eovered 
with Shingles & not sunk in the Ground, standing in the Bight 
Bastion, next the Lake, going to Prisque Isle from La Beef. The 
other Houses square Logs ; a Considerable Quantity of Indian 
Goods, but little Flour; Twelve Battoes are every day expected to 
arrive from Niagara with Provisions, the Lake being open to within 
Three Hundred yards of the Store. No Body of French is expected 
soon from Niagara, but about Five Hundred from a Fort on the 
Noith Side of the Lake Erie, in the Waweailuneus Country (which 
I have formerly heard of to be Built of Cedar Stockaids), were to 
have come along with the Indians above mentioned, and were still 
expected to Prisque Isle as soon as the Lake is clear of Ice. There 
was Four Battoes at Prisque Isle, and no Works carrying on but 
one small House in the Fort. He was requested to stay, or to 
return soon, as a great many Delawares were expected to be soon 
there to Council. 

" The Officers made him a Present of a Pair of Stockings. On his 
Desire to know the Number and Situation of the English here, Bull 
replied that he had not been here since last fall ; that we first Came 
when a few staid, but he heard since from the Delawares, that a 
great Number had since came up, and that they had erected a fine 
Fort. 

" Bull left that Place, telling the French that he was going to 
Wioming to see his Father, and got to La Beef that Night. 
The Fort is of the same Shape, but very small ; the Bastions, 
Stockaids, and joined by Houses for the Curtains, the Logs mostly 
rotten ; Platforms are erected in the Bastions, and Loop holes pro- 
perly cut. One Gun is mounted on One of the Bastions, and Points 
down the llivcr. Only one Gate, and that fronting this Way, or 
the Side opposite the Creek. The Magazine is on the right of the 
Gate, going in, part of it sunk in the Ground, and above is some 
Casks of Powder to Serve the Indians. Here are two Officers, a 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL, 313 

Storekeeper, a Clerk, a Priest, and One Hundred and Fifty Soldiers, 
the Men not Employed. At La Beef are twenty-four Battoes, One 
of them made lately, and One of them repaired lately. One Le 
Sambrow is the Commanding Officer. They hare a larger stock of 
Provisions here than at Prisque Isle. 

u He found at Venango two Officers and Forty Men, La Marie 
Commander. He does not know the Stock of their Provisions, nor 
where their Powder is kept, but gives the description of the Fort 
as I received formerly. Only two Battoes are at Venango, and 
Two he heard had late come there with Indian Goods. The Ohio 
is clear of Ice at Venango, and the French Creek is clear to La 
Beef. The Road is trod and good from Venango to La Beef, and 
from thence to Prisque Isle, about half a Day's Journey, is very 
Low and Swampy, and Bridged almost all the Way. He heard no 
news at Venango, only that Two French Men and Two Chipawas 
had gone from thence to take a Scalp at this Place, and that Twenty- 
Six Mingoes had passed by that Place lately, going to War against 
the Catawbas. 

" Delaware George and the other fellow, Bull thinks, will go 
to Prisque Isle; But the Beaver goes to the Forks of Siolas to 
Plant this Spring, and then return to Live at Kuskusky. French 
Creek Navagable for Battoes all Summer. Bull went from Venango 
to Kuskusky, and there met with some Chipawas coming here, and 
he accompanied them. There are only Two Men, Two Women, 
and some Indians' Children at Prisque Isle. Taways were at La 
Beef, and a few Delawares afc Venango. Custelogo not at Home. 
Some of the Works at Prisque Isle are upon the Decay, and some 
appears to be Lately done. 

''The above copied from my Journal is very incorrectly done, 
but nothing material Wron Worded, and I have not time to 
correct it, 

"HUGH MERCER." 



314 



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PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 315 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Monday, the 2d day of April, 
1759. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq r *> Lieutenant Gover- 
nor. 

Robert Strettell, Benjamin Shoemaker, ^ 

Joseph Turner, Richard Peters, I ™ • 

Lynford Larduer, Benjamin Chew, j ™ 

Thomas Cadwalader, J 

An Express having yesterday brought two Letters from Secretary 
Pitt, which came in the Halifax Packet, and likewise a Letter from 
General Amherst, the same were read and ordered to be entered. 

A Letter from Mr. Pitt to Governor Denny. 

" Whitehall, 23d January, 1759. 
"Sir: 

11 1 am now to acquaint you that the King has been pleased, im- 
mediately upon receiving the account of the Success of his Arms on 
the River Ohio, to direct the Commander-in-Chief of his Majesty's 
Forces in North America, and Brigadier General Forbes to lose no 
time in Concerting the properest & speediest means for compleatly 
restoring, if possible, the ruined Fort Duquesne to a defensible and 
respectable State, or for erecting another in the Room of it, of Suf- 
ficient Strength, and every Way adequate to the great Importance 
of the several objects of maintaining His Majesty's Subjects on the 
undisputed Possession of the Ohio ; of Effectually cutting off all 
Trade and Communication this Way, between Canada and the 
Western and Southern Indians ; of protecting the British Colonies 
from the Incursions to which they have been exposed since the 
French built the above Fort, and thereby made themselves Masters 
of the Navigation of the Ohio ; and of fixing again the Several In- 
dian Nations in their Alliance with and dependance upon His Ma- 
jesty's Government. And the Province under your Command is 
so particularly and nearly interested in the Speedy Execution of 
this great and Salutary Work, that it will be matter of no small 
Surprize, and must reflect the greatest Blame on their Conduct, 
should they in any point fail to assist, to the Utmost, the King's 
Officers who shall be Employed on this Occasion ; I have therefore 
the King's Commands to signify to you his Pleasure that you should 
use your utmost Endeavours with your Council and Assembly, to 
induce them to exert every Means in their Power for Collecting 
and forwarding the Materials of all Sorts, and the Workmen which 
shall be wanted, and which the Commander-in-Chief in North 
America, or Brigadier General Forbes shall require for the Service ; 
and that your Province do also furnish every Assistance of Men, 



316 MINUTES OF THE 

Cattle, Carriages, Provisions &c a ■» that shall be necessary for the 
Support and maintenance of the King's Forces that shall be em- 
ployed in this Essential Work, as well as in all farther Operations 
to be undertaken in those parts the Ensuing Campaign. 
" I am, Sir, 

il Your Most Obedient Humble Servant, 

" W. PITT." 



Another Letter from Mr. Pitt to Governor Denny. 

" Whitehall, February 5th, 1759. 
" Sir : 

u The King having been pleased to appoint Rear Admiral Saun- 
ders to be Commander-in-Chief of all His Majesty's Ships employed 
or to be employed in North America, I am to signify to you the 
King's Pleasure, that you do Transmit to Rear Admiral Saunders 
all intelligence relative to his Department in the Same Manner as 
you was directed to do, by my Letters of the Nineteenth of Febru- 
ary and Thirtieth of December, 1757, to the former Commanders- 
in-Chief of His Majesty's Ships, and it is also the King's Pleasure 
that you do on any Application from Admiral Saunders, or the 
Commandor-in-Chief of the King's Ships, use all Legal Means to 
Supply him with such a Number of Sailors and Workmen from 
your Province as he shall at any time require for his' Majesty's Ser- 
vice. 

u I am, Sir, 

"Your most Obed 1- Hum 6 - Serv'-' 
"W. PITT." 



A Letter from General Amherst to Governor Denny. 

" New York, March 28th, 1759. 
" Sir : 

u With my Dispatches from Mr Secretary Pitt, this Moment re- 
ceived by the Halifax Packet, came the enclosed for you, by which 
you will see that the King has been pleased to direct me and Briga- 
dier General Forbes to lose no Time in concerting the properestand 
speediest means for compleatly restoring, if Possible, the ruined 
Fort Duquesne to a Defensible and respectable State, or for Erect- 
ing another in the room of it, of sufficient Strength and every Way 
adequate to the great Importance of the Several Objects or main- 
taining His Majesty's Subjects in the undisputed Possession of the 
Ohio j of effectually cutting off all Trade and Communication this 
way between Canada k the Western and Southern Indians ; of pro- 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 317 

tecting the British Colonies from the Incursions to which they have 
been Exposed since the French built the above Fort, and thereby 
made themselves Masters of the Navigation of the Ohio ; and of 
fixing again the Several Indian Nations in their Alliance with and 
dependance upon his Majesty's Government, for all which wise and 
good Purposes, it is his Majesty's Pleasure that you should use your 
utmost Endeavours with your Council and Assembly, to induce them 
to exert every means in their Power for Collecting and forwarding 
the Materials of all Sorts, and the Workmen which shall be wanted, 
and which the Commander-in-Chief in North America or Brigadier 
General Forbes shall require for this Service ; and that your Pro- 
vince do also furnish every other Assistance of Men, Cattle, Car- 
riages, Provisions, &c, that shall be necessary for the support and 
maintenance of the King's forces that shall be employed in this 
Essential Work, as well as in all further Operations to be under- 
taken in those Parts the Ensuing Campaign. 

" These directions being so full and Explicit, leaves me Nothing 
to doubt, to add to them than my Warmest Wishes and Hopes, that 
they will meet with a vigorous and speedy execution, as well on 
the part of your Province as those of Virginia and Maryland, who 
are equally with you so particularly and nearly interested therein, 
and to whom the same is likewise recommended in the Strongest 
Terms. 

" And as I have already Signified to you that I had appointed 
Brigadier General Stanwix to succeed Brigadier General Forbes in 
the Command to the Southward, and desired you to Correspond and 
Co-operate with him in ever}'' Matter relative to the Service in those 
Parts, I am now to request of you that all the Aid and Assistance 
required of you by Mr. Secretary Pitt's within Letter in favour of 
the late Brigadier Forbes may be granted to Brigadier Stanwix to 
enable him in the most Expeditious Manner to Execute the before 
mentioned great and Salutary Work or any other that may be found 
Necessary for the good of the Service, and that you would look 
upon whatever he may ask or require of your Province, during his 
Continuance in that Command, as coming from myself. 
" I am, with great Regard, Sir, 

"your most Obed 1, Hum 6, Serv*' 

"JEFF. AMHERST." 

Secretary Pitt's Letters were again read and Considered, and 
the following Message was drawn at the Table, agreed to, and the 
Secretary directed to deliver it to the House this Afternoon with 
the foregoing Letters : 

A Message from the Governor to the Assembly. 

11 Gentlemen : 

" By the Halifax Packet I yesterday received a Letter from the 
Right Honourable Mr. Pitt, One of his Majesty's principal Secre- 



318 MINUTES OF THE 

taries of State, of the Twenty-Third of January, communicating to 
me his Majesty's Commands, which he was pleased to give upon 
receiving the Account of the Success of his Arms on the River 
Ohio. 

" As this Province the last year shewed great Zeal and Ardour 
in promoting the measures conducive to that happy Event, which 
his Majesty is now desirous of improving to the best Advantage, 
and as his Majesty's faithful Subjects in every part of his Do- 
minions will, no Doubt, vie with each other in Contributing their 
utmost to the vigorous Efforts of his Majesty for reducing his Ene- 
mies to reasonable Terms of Peace, I am perswaded you will exert 
yourselves in giving your best and readiest Assistance to Brigadier 
General Stanwix, who is appointed to Command in the Southern 
Provinces, and in Answering his Majesty's other just Expectations, 
so warmly recommended to you by His Majesty Minister and his 
Excellency General Amherst. 

" I also lay before you Mr. Pitt's Letter of the Fifth of February 
last, wherein his Majesty has been pleased to notify to me the ap- 
pointment of Rear Admiral Saunders to be commander-in-Chief of 
all His Majesty's Ships, employed or to be employed in North 
America; and further requiring me to use all legal Methods to sup- 
ply him with such a Number of Sailors and Workmen from this 
Province as shall at any time be applied for. This naturally leads 
me to remind you of an application made to me by Admiral Durell 
(who has the Command of the Fleet Hill the Arrival of Admiral 
Saunders) for a Supply of Seamen from this Province, which I have 
already communicated to you with his Letter. I must again press 
you to take the Demand into your immediate Consideration, and let 
me have your result upon it, so that I may be enabled to return 
him an Answer. 

"WILLIAM DENNY. 

"April 2d, 1759." 

A Letter of Mr. Robert Wood, first Clerk of the Secretary of 
State's Office, dated the Twenty-sixth of January last, notifying the 
Death of the Princess of Orange, and the Orders with regard to 
Mourning, were read. 



MEMORANDUM. 

On the Fifth of April, 1759, A Bill, entituled "an Act for 
granting to His Majesty the Sum of One Hundred Thousand 
Pounds, and for striking the same in Bills of Credit in the manner 
herein after directed, and for providing a Fund for for sinking the 
said Bills of Credit by a tax on all Estates, real & Personal, and 
Taxables within this Province," was sent up to-Day to the Governor 
for his Concurrence. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 319 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Friday the 6th of April, 1759, 
P. M. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq n > Lieutenant Gover- 
nor. 

Joseph Turner, Richard Peters, ) ™ 

Benjamin Chew, Thomas Cadwalader, j ° ires 

The second Supply Bill presented yesterday was red, first all over 
and then Paragraph by Paragraph. It was observed that all the 
Proprietaries' Estate, Real and Personal was Subjected to all the 
Taxes that had been raised, as well as the Present one proposed to 
be raised by the Bill, in Common with other Estates j and that as 
the Proprietaries were absent, they had not even an Opportunity of 
an Appeal before the Commissioners, which everybody else had, nor 
were there appeals so much as mentioned in the Bill. It was there- 
fore unanimously agreed to amend the Bill, striking out every thing 
that related to the Proprietary Estate. 

The Amendments were made and a Message drawn in these Words 
and Sent to the House by the Secretary : 

" Amendments to the Bill intituled ' An Act for granting to 
His Majesty the sum of One Hundred Thousand Pounds, and for 
Striking the Same in Bills of Credit in the manner hereinafter di- 
rected, and for providing a fund for Sinking the said Bills of Credit 
by a Tax on all Estates, Real and Personal, and Taxables within 
this Province/ 

" 1st Amend 1 ' Page 14, Line 14. Dele the Word [not] and in- 
stead thereof insert the Word [only]. 

" 2d Amend 1 - Page 14, Lines 9, 10, 11. Dele the Words [and 
what Quit-Rents they respectively are liable to pay to the Propria 
etaries yearly, within this Province]. 

" 3d Amendment. Page 15, Lines 2, 3, 4, 5. Dele the Words 
[and also an Account of all such located Lands as belong to the Hon- 
ourable the Proprietaries of this Province, or either of them]. 

4th Amendment Pages 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38. 
Dele from the Word [and] in the 13th Line of the 29th Page, to 
the Word [came] inclusive, in the 15th Line of Page 38. 

"WILLIAM DENNY. 

" 7th April, 1759." 



A Message from the Governor to the Assembly. 

"Gentlemen: 

"My Instructions do not permit me to accede to a Bill for the 
Taxation of any Part of the Proprietary Estate unless Commis- 



320 MINUTES OF THE 

sioners are therein appointed for that Purpose; nor can I conceive 
it reasonable that they should be obliged to submit their Estates to 
an assesment by Persons in whose Election or Nomination they have 
no Share, and be thereby excluded from a Privilege you have, with 
Justice, granted to all the Freeholders and Voters in his Province. 

" Every moment's Delay of the supply Bill at this Critical Junc- 
ture does great Violence to the Vigorous Plan of Operations con- 
certed by our gracious Sovereign for the Ensuing Campaign. I 
hope, therefore, you will no Longer retard it by insisting on a Mat- 
ter which I have no power to Comply with, but leave it to be ad- 
justed in a separate Bill, according to the Proposal I made you in 
my last Message on that Subject. 

"WILLIAM DENNY. 

"April 7th, 1759." 

The Repeals of the Act of Assembly, given to Mr. Croghan a 
Relief for ten Years was read in these Words: 

"At the Court at Kensington, the 16th Day of June, 1758. 

"present: 
"[l. s] The KING'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY. 
" Lord President, Earl Waldegrave, 

"Earl of Holdernesse, Earl Gower, 

" Earl of Rochford, Mr. Secretary Pitt. 

"Whereas, in Pursuance of the Powers granted to the Proprie- 
taries of the Province of Pennsylvania, by Letters Patent under 
the Great Seal, the Deputy Governor, Council, and Assembly of the 
said Province did, in December, 1755, Pass an Act which hath been 
transmitted, Entituled as follows, Viz f - : 

"'An Act for the Relief of George Croghan and William Trent, 
for and during the space of Ten Years.' 

" His Majesty this Day took the said Act into his Royal Consi- 
deration; and having received the opinion of the Lords Commis- 
sioners for Trade and Plantations, and also for a Committee of the 
Lords of His Majesty's most Honourable privy Council thereupon, 
is hereby pleased to declare his Disallowance of the said act; and 
pursuant to His Majesty's Royal Pleasure thereupon expressed, the 
said Act is hereby repealed, declared Void, and of none Effect ; 
Whereof the Deputy Governor, Council, and Assembly of the said 
Province, for the time being, and others whom it may concern, are 
to take Notice and Govern themselves accordingly. 

"F. VERNON." 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 321 

The Ratification of four act of Assembly was read, dated the Six- 
teenth of June, 1758, and ordered to be entered : 

" [l. s.] At the Court at Kensington, the 16th Day of June, 1758. 

"present: 

"The KING'S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY. 

u Lord President, Earl Waldegrave, 

" Earl of Holdernesse, Earl Grower, 

" Earl of Rochford, Mr. Secretary Pitt. 

" Whereas, in Pursuance of the Powers granted to the Proprie- 
taries of the Province of Pennsylvania, by Letters Patent, under 
the Great Seal, the Deputy Governor, Council, and Assembly of 
the said Province, did, in 1756 and 1757, pass four Acts, which 
have been transmitted, and are Entituled as follows, Viz'- : 

" ' An Act for regulating and continuing the Nightly Watch, and 
enlightening the Streets, Lanes, and alleys of the City of Philadel- 
phia, and for raising of money on the Inhabitants and Estates of 
the said City for defraying the. necessary Expences thereof.' 

" ( A Supplement to the Act entitled 'an Act for regulating and 
continuing the nightly Watch, and enlightening the Streets, Lanes, 
and Alleys of the City of Philadelphia, and for raising of money on 
the Inhabitants and Estates of the said City for defraying the neces- 
sary Expences thereof.' ' 

" * An act for binding out and settling such of the Inhabitants of 
Novia Scotia, imported into this Province, as are under Age, and 
for Maintaining the Aged ; Sick, and Maimed, at the Charge of this 
Province.' 

¥ i An act for the further Continuation of an act of General As- 
sembly of this Province, entituled l an act for the more easy recov- 
ery of Legacies within this Province.' ' 

" His Majesty this Day took the said Act into His Royal Con- 
sideration, and having received the Opinion of the Lords Commis- 
sioners for Trade and Plantations, and also of a Committee of the 
Lords of his Majesty's most Honourable privy Council thereupon, 
is hereby pleased to declare his approbation of the said Acts ; And 
Pursuant to His Majesty's Royal Pleasure thereupon expressed, 
the said Acts are hereby Confirmed, finally enacted, and Ratified 
Accordingly ; Whereof the Deputy Governor, Council, and Assem- 
bly of the said Province, for the time being, and all others whom 
it may concern, are to take notice, and Govern themselves accord- 
ingly- 

"F.VERNON." 



vol. vni. — 22. 



322 MINUTES OF THE 



The following Letter from General Amherst, of the Thirtieth of 
March, to the Governor, was read in these Words. 

" New York, 30th March, 1759. 
" Sir : 

" Agreeable to my Letter of the Seventh, I then wrote to Sir John 
St. Clair, to call in all the outstanding Accounts of Expences in- 
curred last year in the Expedition against Fort Duquesne, which I 
find has been done, but that they are of so intricate and complicated a 
nature as to require a very narrow Inspection to set them in such a 
Light as will Warrant the payment of them, with Justice to the 
Crown and the Persons concerned therein; for which purpose I am 
come to a Resolution to follow the Measure pursued in a similar 
Case, after the Demise of General Braddock, by appointing Com- 
missioners to inspect & settle the same ; and to prevent all partiality 
on either side, these Commissioners shall be two on the part of the 
Inhabitants, and two in Behalf of the Crown, who are to meet as 
often as possible, and with the utmost dispatch proceed to the Ex- 
amination of all such accounts as shall be brought before them; and 
that no time may be lost nor no pains spared in the Careful Inspec- 
tion of those Accounts, Each Two Commissioners shall be allowed 
a Clerk to Transcribe or take down whatever may be necessary to 
be committed to writing, during such their Examination, after which 
they will digest the whole and Report, likewise in writing, their 
Sentiments thereupon, Setting forth the Validity or Invalidity of 
the respective Claims, what part thereof may have been paid, and 
finally to dermine what may be still justly due, in which they Will 
have a strict Regard to the Rules of Justice and Equity; then 
agreeably to Such Report, what part thereof I think myself Au- 
thorized to Discharge, I shall do it without Delay j the remainder, 
if there should be any that I have reason to believe I cannot take 
upon me to acquit, I will readily transmit to the King's Ministers, 
for their decision. And this, I apprehend, you will own with me, 
is all I can do in a Transaction that happened before I was Hon- 
oured with the Command, to which, from the distance I have been at, 
I am an utter Stranger. 

The Two Gentlemen I have named in behalf of the Crown are 
Sir John St. Clair, Deputy Quarter Master General, who, from his 
Station in the Army, and his having been an eye Witness to the 
Whole, must be throughly inform'd of every thing, and be a Com- 
petent Judge of what may be justly due (unless Brigadier Stanwix 
should think Sir John can be more usefull in giving those Lights 
by way of Information to the Commissioners, in which case he will 
appoint another in his stead.) The other is Mr. Barrow, the Deputy 
Paymaster General, who being an Accomptant, must give great 
Ease to all matters of Calculation. I do accordingly write to Briga- 
dier General Stanwix to appoint them for to act in Conjunction 
with Alexander Stodman, Esq r -* of Philadelphia, George Stevenson, 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 323 

Esq r -> Chief Magistrate & Proto-Notary in the County of York, or 
Mr. John Inglis, likewise of Philadelphia, either two of which I 
must beg the favour of you to appoint in like Manner; and as this 
must for some time partly draw their Attention from their own 
Callings, which Merits Some Compensation, you may promise 
them such a reward as is usually given upon those Occasions, which 
I beg may be Lumped, and not at so much a Day, which would 
only tend to protract the Meetings. These Rewards will be paid 
by Brigadier Stanwix whom I have acquainted with the Whole, and 
have left it to him, if he knows of" any other Gentlemen than the 
above named. Three that are more Equal to the Task, and whom 
he shall chuse to Employ upon this Occasion, to name two such to 
you for your appointment, which you will please to Comply with; 
and in that Choice to assist the Brigadier with your Advice. 
u I am, with great Regard, Sir, 

" Your Most Obed'- Hum e - Serv'- 
"JEFF. AMHERST." 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Tuesday the 10th of April, 
1759. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq r - Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Benjamin Shoemaker, Joseph Turner, 1 

Richard Peters, Lynford Lardner, v Esquires. 

Benjamin Chew, Thomas Cadwalader, ) 

The Governor informed the Council that the Supply Bill was 
sent to the House on the Seventh Instant, with the Amendments 
and Message agreed upon at the last Council, and that it was that 
same Day returned to him by the House with a written Message, 
which was read in these Words : 

" May it please your Honour, 

": On the Twenty-Fourth of March last we sent you a Bill fo? 
granting to his Majesty the sum of One Hundred Thousand Pounds,, 
for raising, paying and Cloathing Two Thousand Seven Hundred' 
Effective Men, to act in Conjunction with a Body of his Majesty's 
British Forces, and the Troops of Virginia, Maryland and the Lower 
Counties, in such offensive Operations as shall be carried on and 
prosecuted by His Majesty's Commander-in-Chief in these Parts 
during the Ensuing Campaign, to which your Honour refused your 
Assent. 

" By your Message of the Twenty-Ninth of March you were pleased 
to inform the House that the Proprietaries were ready and Willing 
to contribute their full Proportions of the Sum granted, or to 'be. 



324 MINUTES OF THE 

granted to his Majesty's use, if, upon a fair and equal Taxation of 
their Quit Rents and appropriated Tracts, their former Order for 
the Sum of Five Thousand Pounds shall be found to fall short of 
such Proportions ; we thereupon immediately formed a new Bill, 
and complied with your Request as far as we could Conceive it Con- 
sistent with that Justice we owe to the Country we represent, and 
sent this Bill to your Honour on the Fifth Instant, so that if the 
Time presses, or His Majesty's Service receives any Injury, the 
Delay must arise from the Instructions wherewith our Proprietaries 
have thought fit to restrict your Honour in this most Necessary 
Article of granting Supplies to his Majesty at this Critical Junc- 
ture. 

* Your Honour has made no objection to our present Bill, except 
in that part only which regards the taxing the Proprietaries' Estate, 
which we have re-considered, and still think most equitable and 
Just, and have accordingly by an almost unanimous Vote of our 
House, adhered to the Bill, we do therefore once more send up this 
Bill for your Concurrence. 

" Signed by order of the House, 

" ISAAC NORMS, Speaker. 

"April 7th, 1759." 

The fl-overnor further informed the Council that General Am- 
fherst being now in Town, he had made him acquainted with the 
Nature of the Supply Bill and the Proprietary Instructions, and the 
Strong Objections he had to the Bill, as well for that it was unjust 
in itself as Contrary to those Instructions, and had furnished him 
with the Messages that had passed on this Occasion between him & 
the Assembly. That the General had sent for the Speaker and 
some of the Members, and had used his best Endeavours with them 
to pass such a Bill as had been agreed to for some Years past, but 
that finding them Obstinate, he had by his Brother let them know 
that he would withdraw the King's Forces, in case they did not 
raise the same Number of Provincials as served last Campaign ; 
that this Afternoon he received a second Message from the House, 
mentioning this Resolution of the General's, and pressing him no 
longer to refuse his Assent to the Bill, since if he did, all these 
k bad Consequences would lye at his door. Which Message was read 
in these words : 

" May it please your Honour : 

" The Bill for granting Supplies to His Majesty has now lain a Con- 
siderable Time before you for your Assent, and, as we are informed, 
•General Amherst is obliged to return in a few Days, we hope you 
will give him the Satisfaction of seeing with what Chearfulness we 
have granted all his Demands from this Province, especially as we 
Jaave reason to believe that if this Province does not furnish the 
same: number of Troops as last Year, the General is of Opinion the 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 325 

intended Offensive Operations, and building a proper Fort, and 
mailing Posts, effectually to cover the Country, cannot be carried 
on without weakening the Army that is to act elsewhere too much, 
and that he is therefore determined, if this Province does not exert 
itself in raising the same Number of Men as last Year, and that 
immediately, to give over the thoughts of acting on this Side, which 
cannot be done, without raising those Troops, with any Prospect of 
Success ; and that he will reinforce the Army to the Eastward with 
the Troops he intended to have detached to have acted here. 

" The Consequences of these Resolutions of General Amherst 
must unavoidably have great Weight with your Honour, and you 
will consider whether the Proprietary Instructions to refuse your 
assent to any Bill which shall Tax their Estates, except in the 
manner they have prescribed by a separate Bill, which we conceive 
is a mode unjust and unknown to a British Constitution, can vindi- 
cate your Conduct before our gracious Sovereign, and the Nation, 
who have granted such liberal Supplies for Support of their Colo- 
nies in America, which, if you continue to adhere to those Proprie- 
tary Instructions, rather than that the Estate of a Subject to the 
best of Kings shall be subjected to an equal Taxation, must fail as 
far as regards this Province. 

"We therefore call upon you, as the Time for opening the 
Operations of this Campaign will not admit of any further Delay, 
as you regard your Duty to the King, and to the Province over 
which you have the Honour to preside, that you will no longer 
refuse your assent to the Bill now laid before you. 
"Signed by order of the House, 

" ISAAC NORRIS, Speaker. 

"April 10th, 1759." 

The Governor addressing the Council expressed the great Diffi- 
culties he was under; if he broke the Proprietary Instructions he 
would incur their displeasure and Subject himself to the Penalties 
in his Bond of Performance. If he adhered to those Instructions 
there would be no Supplies raised, and in Consequence thereof there 
would be no Troops to defend the Province, by which means His 
Majesty's Subjects would be given up to be distressed as they had 
been in the beginning of the War, by the French and their Indians. 

He then desired the Members would in their Turns, give their 
Opinions as to what he should do, beginning with the youngest, 
which they did. In delivering of their Opinions it was observed 
that there was nothing new at this time more than in former years, 
and was the Supposed Obstinacy of the Assembly here, yet it could 
not be thought Right to make a Sacrifice of the Proprietaries to 
their Obstinacy, as the Governor was "well Satisfied that the Bill 
was unjust, and that as he had entered into the Strongest Engage- 
ment to perform what was given hirn in Instruction by the Proprie- 
taries^ he could neither Answer it to his Conscience or Honour, or 



MINUTES OF THE 

to his Trust or Interest, to give his Assent to the Bill. That this 
Obstinacy in the Assembly was only Supposed, and indeed it did 
not appear to them that it was anything more than Artifice, because 
all the World would blame them if any ill Consequences attended 
the not raising Supplies, as the Governor offered to pass such a 
Bill as had been agreed to ever since the War Commenced, and for 
them not to Pass such a Bill now, would be too great a Risque to 
run, and what they would not do if the Governor would be steady. 

That this Bill was infinitely worse than any that had been offered, 
since it Subjected the Proprietary Estate, Real and Personal, to all 
the Taxes which had been raised, from which they had been ex- 
empted in Former Acts, as well as to the present Tax, in Conse- 
quence of which they were to Pay more in One Year the Taxes of 
Four Years; and if these should be exorbitantly rated, it would 
not be in the Power of the Receiver General to raise the Money 
within the Time limited by the Act, and in that Case the Commis- 
sioners and Assessors might sell the Proprietaries' Lands, and so 
the Injury might become ten times heavier than the Exorbitancy of 
the Tax j indeed it could not be known to what Length matters 
might be carried, as they were chosen in a Time of Popular Rage 
and Fury and would Pride themselves in gratifying the Parties who 
were their Electors against the Proprietaries. 

That this Bill deprived the Proprietaries of the Common Rights 
of Englishmen, which was to be taxed by their Peers, in which 
they were to have a Choice, whereas it is well known that the Pro- 
prietaries have not the least Choice, and being absent, they have 
even a Double Injustice done them, in that Let the iniquity be as 
great as possible, neither they nor any for them can appeal, as no 
such provision is made in the Bill. 

That in all the Land Tax Acts made in Great Britain, Commis- 
sioners of good Estates and the best Credit are appointed, and all 
that the Proprietaries contend for is that the same Method should 
be observed in his Taxation. 

That the act is not Capable of being understood, and has been 
variously interpreted in different Counties by the Assessors and 
Commissioners, who have declared they do not understand it in 
those Clauses where the very Tax itself is laid, by means whereof 
such a Latitude is taken, as that in some Counties a Twelve Penny 
Tax does not amount to more than a Six Penny Tax of the pre- 
ceding year; and as to private people, some pay infinitely less, and 
some a great deal more than the Value of their Estates. 

That their are References in this Act to the County Levy Act, 
and to all the Acts that have passed wherein any Provincial Tax 
has been laid, which Occasions the utmost Confusion. 

That the Proprietaries have taken the Opinions of the attorney 
and Sollicitor General as to what part of their Estates is by Law 
Subject to be Taxed, and they are clear that no part of the Moneys 
■due to them for the Consideration of Lands on the Warrants granted 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 327 

in the Common Form ought to pay a Tax, from a known Maxim in 
Law, that the same Land cannot pay two Taxes, which would be 
the Case, as this Mony issues out of the Land that is Taxed in the 
Hands of the Debtor; and further, that unprofitable Lands and 
Lots ought not to be Subject to Taxation, and therefore as partizans 
have given out the several debts, and the Proprietary Lots and 
Lands, tho' they yield no profit, should be taxed here, would be 
another large Door open to injure the Proprietaries in a very Ex- 
traordinary Manner. 

And further, that as the Proprietaries have laid their Governor 
under these Instructions, they will be answerable for all the Con- 
sequences arising from his Obedience to them; and therefore he 
cannot incur the Royal Displeasure, especially as there is reason to 
think that those Instructions were given with the privily and ap- 
probation of the King's Ministers, at a Time when the Publick 
Distress was greater than it is now. And it was unanimously agreed 
to press the Assembly once more, and to return the Bill with a 
Message now agreed upon. 



MEMORANDUM. 

On Thursday the Twelfth, the Supply Bill was returned to the 
House by the Secretary, with a Message in these Words : 

" Gentlemen : 

" Before I take Notice of your two last Messages, of the Seventh 
and Tenth Instant, give me Leave to remind you that many months 
before I received your first Bill for granting the Sum of One Hun- 
dred Thousand Pounds to His Majesty, I repeatedly called upon 
you to raise such new Supplies as might be necessary to discharge 
the large arrears due to the Provincial Forces for their Service the 
last Campaign, and to secure our late Acquisitions to the West- 
ward, and to carry into Execution the Vigorous Measures concerted 
by our gracious Sovereign for the Protection of his American 
Colonies. I could not, however, obtain a Bill from you till the 
twenty-fourth of last March. I was sincerely disposed to forward 
so necessary a Bill, and therefore waved may Objections, that might, 
with great Justice, have made against many material parts of it, 
particularly the Clause wherein it was declared that the last One 
Hundred Thousand Pounds was expended by my Consent, where 
in fact no accounts have ever been produced to me, and I was an 
utter Stranger to them. On the Twenty-Ninth of the same Month 
I returned you the same Bill with but two principal Amendments; 
one Calculated to explain, and set in clear and explicit Terms the 
mode of Taxing the yearly Income or Value of the Estates of the 
People, which, in that Bill and all the former Laws was obscure ; 



328 MINUTES OF THE 

and liable to different Constructions and Interpretations, which must 
necessarily occasion Confusion, and the Taxes to be laid unequally. 

" The other Amendment I proposed was the Exempting the 
Proprietary Estate in that Bill ; but I at the same time acquainted 
you, by a written Message, that the Proprietaries were ready and 
desirous to Contribute their full proportion of the Sums already 
granted, or thereafter to be granted to his Majesty, if, on fair and 
equal Taxation of their Quit-Rents and appropriated Tracts, their 
former order of five Thousand Pounds should be found to fall short 
of such proportion, and offered to concur with you in a Separate Bill 
for that purpose. I had no other Motive in proposing a separate 
Bill and to expedite the supply Bill, which otherwise from such an 
Amendment as would include the Proprietaries Estate, and prescribe 
the Mode of Taxation, must be retarded, greatly to the prejudice of the 
Kings's Service, and the Common Cause. On receiving the same Bill 
from you a Second Time, I informed you, by a verbal Message, that to 
put an End to all Disputes at so critical a Season, I was willing to 
Pass a Bill of the same Nature and Import with the late laws for 
granting Supplies, passed in this Province in the preceding Years ; 
to this I conceived you would have no just Cause of Exception, as 
you knew those Laws had received the Royal Assent, and that the 
Agents for this Province in England, were instructed to procure 
the Decision of our Superiors there, what Parts of the Proprietary 
Estate was legally Subject to Taxation, and Settle the Mode of 
doing it. You were pleased, however, to send me up a New Bill, 
subjecting the Proprietary Estate to be rated by Assessors, chosen 
by the People only, in Answer to which, in a Message of the Sev- 
enth Instant, I expressly told you, that I was restricted by my In- 
structions, from giving my Assent to a Bill for the Taxation of any 
Part of the Proprietary Estate unless Commissioners were therein 
appointed for that Purpose, notwithstanding which, to my great 
Astonishment, you have returned me the same Bill, intimating in 
your Messages that you will Suffer this Province to be exposed to 
all the Dreadful Train of Miseries and Calamities that must inev- 
itably attend it, in Case His Majesty's regular Troops are withdrawn 
from it and our own Forces disbanded, and the vigorous Plan of 
Operations concerted by our gracious Sovereign for our Protection, 
and reduciDg his Enemies to reasonable Terms of Accommodation, 
to be defeated, unless I will pass the Bill, contrary to my Duty, 
Power and the Trust reposed in me. How far such a Conduct will 
be a proof of your Zeal and Chearfulness to Comply with the De- 
mands of His Majesty, I must Leave to His determination, if you, 
by adhering to this Bill, put me under the disagreeable Necessity 
of laying the matter before him. 

"In the present Critical Situation of Affairs, your resuming a 
Dispute which you have so often Waved in your former grants 
to the Crown, and which you know I have not Power to Settle with 
you on the Terms you insist upon, are but Weak Proofs of the Sin- 
cerity of vour Profusions. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 329 

"If the Proprietary Instruction is Injurious or Oppressive, can 
you be doubtful Gentlemen of Obtaining redress before his Majesty, 
by whom the Matter must be decided ? If you have no Such dis- 
trust, why do you unreasonably take this Occasion to obstruct the 
Passing so important a Bill ? It is true, Gentlemen, I dread the 
Consequences of your persisting in your late Resolution ; I am 
sensible that if you will not grant the Supplies expected of you, 
we shall not only be compelled to abandon Pittsburgh and all the 
advanced Posts we gained in that Quarter, at a vast expence to the 
Crown, the last Campaign, but vre shall lose all Credit with the In- 
dians, and our Frontiers must be again Naked and exposed to the 
Incursions and Ravages of our Enemies ) But if this unhappy 
Province must feel the Weight of these Miseries, I shall have the 
Satisfaction to Reflect, that I had done everything in my power for 
their protection, and that none of the Blood that may be spilt will 
Lie at my Door. 

" Before I conclude, let me remind you, Gentlemen, that the Lives 
of your Constituents are now in your Hands, and depend upon your 
final Resolution with Regard to this Bill ; that your Duty to his 
Majesty, yourselves, and your Country, demand of you, that the 
Supplies required of you be granted without further Delay, and 
that you ought no longer to insist on a Point which I have so fre- 
quently told you I have it not in my Power to comply with. 

" WILLIAM DENNY. 

* April 12th, 1759." 

The Bill intituled tl a Supplement to the Act intituled ( an Act 
for preventing Abuses in the Indian Trade, &c a- / " was likewise 
Sent to the House by the Secretary, with one Amendment thereon, 
and a Verbal Message that his Honour was ready to pass the said 
Bill whenever presented to him for that purpose. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Friday the 13th of April, 
1759, P.M. " ' . 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esquire, Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

William Till/ Robert Strettell, ) 

Benjamin Shoemaker, Joseph Turner, .' ™ 

Richard Peters, Lynford Lardner, ^squires. 

Benjamin Chew, Thomas Cadwalader, J 

The Governor laid before the Board the following address from 
the Assembly, presented to him on Wednesday by Two Members, 
which with the Affidavits, delivered therewith, were read. 



330 MINUTES OF THE 

A Message to the Governor from the Assembly. 

" May it please the Governor : 

" A Continuance of the distressed Situation and Circumstances 
of the Inhabitants of the borough of Lancaster, calls on us, in the 
most earnest manner, again to remonstrate to your Honour. 

"That in manifest Violations of the Sections of an Act of Par- 
liament, which have been extended here by an Act of General 
Assembly, and of other wholesome Laws, and the Civil Authority of 
the Government, the Military Officers have, by force, quartered a 
large number of Soldiers on the private Houses of that Burrough-, 
committing great outrages upon the People, by Seizing and depri- 
ving of their Possessions and Property, assaulting their Persons 
(Magistrates not Excepted), in a Violent Manner, and by obliging 
them to Pay sums of Money for their Quarters, or to receive the 
Troops into their Private Families, Notwithstanding the Magistrates 
offered to Provide them convenient Houses for the Accommodation 
of the rest of the Troops, which were not billited on the Publick 
Houses. 

" That this has been done in an unequal Manner to the great 
Terror of the Inhabitants, those whom the Officers have thought 
proper to favour have been favoured, and those whom they have 
thought proper to Distress have had a double Portion, tho' by no 
means so able to bear the Burthen as others who are exempted; 
that the Inhabitants still Continue under this grievous Jjoad and 
Oppression. 

" That there has not been the least Cause, or necessity, that we 
know of, to Justify these Arbitrary Measures ; a Cominooious Set 
of Barracks being erected near the City of Philadelphia, capable 
of receiving all His Majesty's Troops in the Province; that Build- 
ing them in that Place only was occasioned by the Officers refusing 
to Quarter them any where but in or near the said Cit} r , tho' for- 
merly warmly Solicited to Send a proportion of the Troops to Lan- 
caster in particular, and the Several other Towns in the Province ; 
otherwise a Part of the Barracks would have been Built in that 
Burrough. 

" That a Number of Rooms in the Barracks are now, and have 
been, during the Winter, empty and ready to receive all the Soldiers 
thus Oppressively, unnecessarily and illegally quartered in that 
place. 

" We are further obliged to remonstrate to your Honour, that the 
Loyal and affectionate Zeal the Inhabitants of the Borough and 
County of Lancaster have shewn for the Service of the Crown, in 
giving their utmost Aid and Assistance towards carrying on the 
Western Expedition, which has been happily crowned with Success, 
ought, in our Opinion, at least to have exempted them from Such 
Treatment. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 331 

"That the said Borough and County have Voluntarily furnished 
more than One-half of the Waggons required for Supplying the 
King's Troops with Provisions, for which the Deputy Quarter Mas- 
ter General declared they merited the thanks of the House. 

" That without this large Supply of Carriages, the Western Expe- 
dition must have failed and many ill Consequences attended the 
Military Operations in these parts. 

" After such Proofs of the Loyalty and Zeal of these People for 
the Service of the Crown, we cannot but apprehend the Oppression 
and Severe Treatment of that Borough will greatly discourage them, 
if not render them incapable of doing the same Service to his Ma- 
jesty for the future. 

"These Aggrievances are so great, and have been so long Con- 
tinued, that we entreat your Honour to Consider not only the ill 
Effects to the Inhabitants, but to his Majesty's Service, which a 
Continuance of them must occasion, and that you would exert your 
utmost endeavours to obtain that Relief which is due to the People 
entrusted to your Care and Protection. 

"Signed by order of the House, 

"ISAAC NORMS, Speaker. 

"April 11th, 1759." 

The Governor informed the Council that the Supply Bill was 
returned to him by the House, with a Verbal Message, Copy of 
which was delivered to the Governor in writing by the Two Mem- 
bers who brought the Bill, and it was read as follows: 

That the House have taken into their Consideration his Message 
of this Day, and addhere to the said Bill by an unanimous Resolve;; 
they therefore again return it to the Governor for his Assent, which 
should he continue to withhold, all the Consequences he has been* 
pleased to mention in his said Message that may attend his refusal,, 
will, in their Opinion, justly lie at his Door; and also, that the 
House have agreed to the Governor's Amendment on the Bill inti- 
tuled "A Supplement to the Act intituled 'an Act for preventing 
Abuses in the Indian Trade, &c./ " and have ordered the Same to- 
be engrossed accordingly, that it may be passed into a Law. 

The Message of the Governor to the House of yesterday was read, 
together with the Clause in -the Bill relating to the Proprietary Es- 
tate, and Likewise the following Letter of the Eleventh Instant, to 
the Governor, from General Amherst, which was ordered to be en- 
tered in these Words : 

"Philadelphia, April 11th, 1759. 
" Sir : 

" Finding, upon my arrival here, that the Assembly of this Prov- 
ince still continued to refuse passing the Supply Bill, unless you 
made such Concessions as you don't think you can, without devia- 
ting from the Proprietary Instructions and Endangering your Sure- 
ties for the due performance thereof, I accordingly took an Oppor- 



332 MINUTES OF THE 

tunity of Confering with the Speaker and Several of the Leading 
Men of the Assembly, to show them the Necessity of their passing 
the Bill agreeable to your Proposal and Instructions, which I did 
hope they would, under the present pressing Circumstances, have 
been sensible of, and have had influence enough to have brought 
the House to assent to; but having failed in my Expectation, and 
finding they continued obstinate in their former Resolutions, I sent 
them a Message, of which the inclosed is a Copy, setting forth, as 
you will See, the absolute necessity of their Complying with the 
Measure proposed, or, that I should be obliged to give over all 
thoughts of carrying the intended Offensive Operations, and the 
Building a Fort, which, I imagined, would have had great Weight 
with them, notwithstanding whieh, it seems they are still Deaf to 
all kind of Remonstrances, and persist in their Obstinacy ; But, as 
this must by no means prevent his Majesty's Instructions being put 
in Execution, and that they cannot be Complied with, unless the 
Supply Bill does Pass. I must, for the good of the Common Cause, 
and in order to enable me to Pursue His Majesty's Commands, beg 
of you, as I understand you did, upon a Similar Occasion, at the 
Request of the Earl of London, Wave the Proprietary Instructions, 
and give your Assent to the Bill as brought in by them, and I shall 
take the very first Opportunity of informing the King's Ministers 
with the Necessity of your so doing, that no Inconvenience may 
arise to you from the Same. 

" I am, with great Regard, Sir, 

" your most Obedient Humble Servant, 

"JEFF. AMHERST." 



MEMORANDUM. 

On Tuesday, the Seventeenth of April, the Supply Bill was re- 
turned to the House with a Message that his Honour would Pass it 
as soon as it should be engrossed, Compared and presented to him, 
and likewise that he would pass at the same Time the Supplement 
to the Act for preventing Abuses in the Indian Trade, that has been 
agreed to. Mr. Peters compared the said Bills with the fair Copies 
and found them to agree. At Five this Afternoon the Governor 
went to the Council Chamber, when the House by a Message from 
the Governor attended, and the Speaker presented a Bill intituled 
11 an Act for granting to His Majesty the Sum of One Hundred 
Thousand Pounds, and for striking the same in Bills of Credit in 
the Manner herein after directed, and for providing a Fund for 
sinking the said Bills of Credit by a Tax on all Estates, real and 
Personal, and Taxables within this Province." Also the Bill inti- 
tuled "a Supplement to the Act intituled 'an Act for preventing 
Abuses in the Indian Trade ; for Supplying the Indians, Friends 
and Allies of Great Britain with goods at more easy rates; and for 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 333 

securing and Strengthening the Peace and Friendship lately con- 
cluded with the Indians inhabiting the Northern and Western Fron- 
tiers of this Province. " To which Bills his Honour was pleased to 
give his Assent by enacting them into Laws, and they were sealed 
and enrolled. 

The Speaker then, in the Name of the whole House, presented 
his Honour with an Order on the Trustees of the General Loan 
Office for One,Thousand Pounds, which his Honour kindly accepted. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Friday, the 20th of April, 
1759. 

PRESENT I 



The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq'-' Lieutenant Gover- 
nor. 

Benjamin Shoemaker, Joseph Turner,") 

Lawrence Growden, William Logan, v Esquires. 

Richard Peters, J 

The Governor laid before the Council Three Bills presented to 
him for his Concurrence. One Entituled " an Act for regulating 
the Officers and Soldiers in the Pay of this Province." Another 
Bill Intituled " an Act for Regulating the hire of Carriages to be 
employed in His Majesty's Service. " Another Bill Entituled u an 
Act for Extending several Sections of an act of Parliament passed 
in the Thirty-second year of the present Reign, Intituled " an Act 
for punishing Mutiny and Desertion, and for the better payment of 
the Army and their Quarters." 

An Objection was made to the Expression in the Bill for Con- 
tinuing the Act of Parliament, viz' - : That no Quarters will be as- 
signed any where in the Province, unless Barracks were full, which 
were all read distinctly and Compared with the former Acts of the 
same Kind. 

The Governor laid before the Council, for their Consideration, a 
Bill that had been Presented to him by the Assembly, Entituled 
"An act to prevent the Exportation of bad and unmerchantable 
Staves, Heading, Boards, and Timber." After its being read Para- 
graph by Paragraph, it was observed by all the Council. 

1st. That the Bill was faulty for want of clear expressions in the 
most material Parts of it. 

2d. That the Demensions and Qualities of the Staves and other 
Scantling, to be allowed as Merchantable, were not properly de- 
scribed. 

3dly. That the Officer appointed by the Act was not acquainted 
with the Nature of the Duty required, and was in other respects 
likewise unqualified for the due Execution of his Office. 

4thly. That the Clause giving the Assembly the future Appoint- 
ment of the Officer, in Case of Death or removal, was invading the 



334 MINUTES OF THE 

Eights of Government by excluding the G-overnor from any Choice 
or Approbation of such Officer. That the Assembly had from time 
to Time, by divers Acts, reserved to themselves the sole Power of 
appointing Officers of great Trust and Profit, namely, the Trustees, 
Provincial Treasurer, &c a- ' and seemed to have in View the Aggran- 
dizing their own Power and weakening the Hands of Government 
by engrossing all Offices, and it was high Time to put an end to this 
growing Mischief, Destructive of the Royal Prerogative and of the 
Principles of an English Constitution. 

5thly. That in Case of any Dispute arising between the Officer 
and Possessor of any Staves, Judicious Persons were by the Bill 
dir:cted to be appointed by the County Magistrates only to deter- 
mine such difference, and the City Magistrates were excluded from 
Executing such Power, tho' most of such Disputes must Necessarily 
arise within the City where all Staves, &c a- ' are brought for sale. 

6thly. That fines for Offences committed within the Limits of the 
Corporation, were given to it by Charter to enable them to do seve- 
ral things necessary and useful! for the City, and that by this Bill 
the fines were taken from the Corporation and given to the Hospital 
contrary to the Charter of Privileges and all former Laws. 

Tthly. As the Bill affected the Trade of the Province, and there 
was.no pressing Occasion for it, it might be of use to take time and 
lay a Copy of the Bill before the Merchants for their Consideration; 
a Method that had often been taken and found of great Service. 

Sthly. That the Bill ought not to be perpetual but limited to a 
few Years, that Experience might discover in what respects it may 
hereafter be altered for the better. 

Whilst the Council was sitting, a Bill was presented to the Gov- 
ernor Entituled a Supplement to the Act Entitulcd an Act for grant- 
ing to his Majesty a Duty of Tonnage upon Ships and Vessels, 
and, also, certain Duties upon Wine, Rum, Brandy and other 
Spirits, and a Duty upon Sugar, for Supporting and Maintaining 
the Provincial Ship of War, for protecting the Trade of this Prov- 
ince, and other Purposes for his Majesties Service. 



MEMORANDUM. 

The Governor in the afternoon returned all the Bills before him 
to the House by the Secretary, with a Message that he would Pass 
them, when engrossed; compared and presented to him for that 
purpose. 



MEMORANDUM. 

On the Twenty-first of April, the Council was Summoned to at- 
tend at the State House on the passing the Bills, but no Members 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 335 

attended besides the Secretary. Such of the Bills as were engrossed 
were compared, and found right. The Secretary was sent with a 
Message to the House, that the Governor required their attendance 
of the Speaker and the House, in order to Enact into laws the Bills 
that had been agreed to. 

The Speaker with the whole House came, and the Bills were 
passed, Entituled as follows : 

" An Act to prevent the Exportation of bad or unmerchantable 
Staves, Heading, Boards, and Timber. A Supplement to the Act 
entituled an Act for granting to his Majesty a Duty of Tonnage 
upon Ships and Vessels; and, also, Certain Duties upon Wine, 
Rum, Brandy and other Spirits, and a duty upon Sugar, for Sup- 
porting and Maintaining the Provincial Ship of War, for Protec- 
ting the Trade of this Province, and other Purposes for his Majes- 
ty's Service." 

" An Act for Extending Several Sections of an Act of Parliament, 
passed in the Thirty-Second Year of the present Reign, Entitled 
an Act for punishing mutiny and Desertion, and for the better 
payment of the Army and their Quarters." 

u An Act for Regulating the Hire of Carriages, to be employed 
in his Majesty's Service, and an Act for regulating the Officers and 
Soldiers in the Pay of this Province.'" » 

Mr. Hockley having resigned the Great Seal, the Governor took 
it into his Possession, and ordered a Warrant to be directed to the 
Secretary, but never signed it. The Seals were put to the Laws in 
his presence, Mr. Leech and Mr. Baynton attending to seeing it 
done, and then were entered in a Book provided for this Purpose, 

The Assembly adjourned to the Twenty-first of May. 



•;1 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Friday, the 11th of May, 
1750. 

PRESENT, 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esquire, Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Stretell, 

Richard Peters, }► Esquires. 

Joseph Turner, 

The Records of the Supreme Court of Oyer and Terminer, en- 
forming the Tryal of James Jones and Joseph Powell were read, by 
which it appeared that they were both under Sentence of Death for 
Burglaries. 

The Judges, Mr. Allen and Mr. Coleman, came into Council and 
related the particulars of their Tryals. Being asked by the Gover- 
nor if they had any thing to say in favour of them, or either of 
them, they declared there was nothing occurred to them in which 
they could recommend them to Mercy. 



336 MINUTES OF THE 

The Judges having made their Report, the Governor asked the 
Opinion of the Council, and all agreeing that neither from their 
Characters, nor the Circumstances of their respective Trials, did 
there appear any thing that could induce them to consider them as 
fit objects of Mercy. 

A Warrant was ordered to be made for their Execution on Wed- 
nesday, the Twenty-third Instant. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Thursday, the 24th of May, 
1759. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq., Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Strettell, Joseph Turner, > ™ 

Lynford Lardner, Richard Peters, $ ' 

The Records of the Proceedings of the Court of Oyer and Ter- 
miner lately held for the Counties of Lancaster and York, by Mr. 
Allen and Mr. Growdon, Two of the Judges of the Supreme Court, 
wer^read, by which it appeared that at Lancaster, Margaretta Catha- 
rine Kirchin, a young Woman of about Seventeen years of age, was 
Convicted of the Murder of her Basterd Child, and under Sentence 
of Death. 

Two Petitions, one to the Governor, and the other to the Judges, 
Signed by a great Number of the most reputable Freeholders of the 
County and Borough of Lancaster, were read, and the Judges con- 
curring in Opinion with the Petitioners, that she was a proper ob- 
ject of Mercy, and it appearing from their relation of the Tryal, 
that it was not clear to them she murdered the Child, The Gov- 
ernor and Council were unanimous for a reprieve. 

It further appeared that John Jones was tryed, Convicted, and 
Sentenced to Death for Burglary, and the Judges declaring him to 
be of a very bad Character, and recommending it to the Governor, 
if he did not incline to Pardon, as he had broke some Goals, to 
order a strict Care of him. 

The Governor and Council were unanimous in Opinion that he 
was not a fit Object of Mercy, and a Warrant was ordered for his 
Execution on Wednesday, the Sixth of June. 

It further appeared that Durll, a Soldier in the Royal 

American Regiment, was under Sentence of Death for Murder. 

The Judges gave a very Minute Relation of the Particulars 
attending this Tryal, and the Council being asked their Opinion, 
did not think him a fit Object of Mercy; the Governor thought it 
proper to acquaint Brigadier General Stanwix with this Tryal, and 
the Certificate of the Court was given them by the Secretary, & the 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 337 

Circumstances as related by the Judges was told to him at the same 
time, and it was left under Advisement. 

It further appeared that at York Sentence of Death was pro- 
nounced on One Andrew Lutuk, for the Murder of his Wife, and 
the Judges declaring it was a most Cruel and barbarous Murder, all 
were of Opinion that the Sentence should be carried into Execution, 
and a Warrant was ordered to have it done on the Ninth of June. ' 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Monday, the 28th of May, 
1759. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq r " Lieutenant Gover- 
nor. 

Robert Strettell, Joseph Turner, "] 

Richard Peters, Lynford Lardner, V Esquires. 

Benjamin *Chew, Thomas Cadwalader, J 

A Bill Entituled "an Act for recording Warrants and Surveys, 
and for rendering the real Estates and Property within this Pro- 
vince, more secure, presented to the Governor on the Twenty-Sixth 
for his Concurrence, was read over, and had afterwards a second 
reading, Paragraph by Paragraph. 

Mr. Peters, the Proprietary Secretary, acquainted the G-overnor 
and Council that there were very few loose papers in the land Office 
Servicable to any Men's titles, Except the returns of Surveys from 
the Surveyor General's Office, which were generally forthwith ex- 
amined and confirmed by Patent, and an Entry of the Patent under 
general Heads was made in Strong bound Books, and the Patents 
recorded at Length in the Rolls Office before they were delivered to 
the Party • That these returns are regularly filed and preserved in 
the Land Office ; That the Surveyor General on receipt of any 
Warrants, which are Signed by the Governor as Commissioner of 
Property, directs Copies to his Deputy s, with Orders to Survey the 
Lands agreeable to the Warrants; That the Original Warrants are 
lodged and filed in an Alphabetical Manner in the Surveyor General's 
Office, And with the Deputies returns are and always have been in 
loose Papers. But as soon as the Party who obtained the Warrant 
offers to Discharge the Purchase Money due to the Proprietaries, a 
Return of such Warrants and Survey is made into the Secretary's 
Office and entered at Large by the Surveyor General in Strong 
Bound Books. So that there are two Entries at Length of all 
Returns of Surveys, One in the Surveyor General's Office and the 
other in the Body of the Patent, recorded in the Rolls Office, 
besides the Original Return filed in the Secretary's Office. 

Mr. Peters averred that all his Books were posted up to the 
Twenty-Second of April last; And Mr. Lardner, who had exam-. 
vol. viii, — 23. 



338 MINUTES OF THE 

ined them, declared it was true, and that the Office Books and Pa- 
pers were in good Order. 

Mr. Peters did further declare, that the Credit of the Proprie- 
tary Officers was unimpeaehed, and the Certificates of the Officers 
had always been received, and allowed on Evidence in Courts of 
Justice, aud that he had never heard of the least Imputation thrown 
upon the Probidy of the Officers, or their Want of Care in the pre- 
servation of the Office Papers. 

And Mr. Cbew, the Attorney General, declared, as he was fre- 
quently concerned in Land Causes in Several of the Courts of the 
Province and Counties, the Certificates of the Secretary and Sur- 
veyor General were always allowed as legal Evidence, and the Offi- 
cers in good Esteem. 

Mr. Peters further said that the Surveyor General was under 
Bond to the Proprietaries, and had taken an Affirmation of the pre- 
servation of the Papers belonging to his Office, and faithful Dis- 
charge of his Duty, and had taken and Subscribed the Affirmation 
to the Government, before Qoe of the Magistrates of Philadelphia 
City, before he entered upon his Office. That he, Mr. Peters, had 
likewise given Bond to the Proprietaries for the Preservation of the 
Papers, and the faithful discharge of his Duty. 

On Considering the Several Parts of the Bill, it was observed by 
the Attorney General, that if it was necessary to record Warrants 
and Surveys, and that the Recorder should give security and be, 
under a Qualification, there could be no Occasion to appoint a new 
Officer for such Purposes, when the Secretary and Surveyor Gene- 
ral might be enjoined to record all such Papers, and do every other 
Act required by this new Officer, without Multiplying Offices, 
which never fail to introduce Confusion and unnecessary Expence. 

That the Clause directing the Officer to record general and par- 
ticular Maps, Charts, or Draughts, made by any publick Surveyor, 
which shall be brought to him for that purpose, is, by design or 
mistake, vague or unlimited, and may extend to any Paper, though 
Forged or Fraudulently brought to him by a private Person The 
Mischiefs, Confusions, and evil Consequences of which ; in a Course 
of years, must be obvious on first view to every one. 

That the Bill directs that, in future, as soon as a Survey is made 
the Surveyor shall return the same into the Recorder's Office, there 
to be Recorded, which is irregular and Contrary to all order, and 
seems to imply that a bare Survey will give a Title, without Pay- 
ment of the Consideration Money, and is Subversive of the Pro- 
prietaries' Rights and Estate, it being Notorious that such Surveys 
pass for Nothing till the Terms of purchase are complied with, and 
the Survey accepted into the Secretary's Office, who is the Proprie- 
tary Agent, and the Person with whom the Purchaser makes the 
Contract, be it of what Nature it will. The Surveyor is no more 
than a Minister who executes the orders of the Governor, who is 
the Proprietary Commissioner of Property, by a Commission granted 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 330 

him for that Purpose. Either this Method is intended to defraud 
the Proprietaries, and utterly exclude the Governor from the Power 
given him, or, if the bare Survey gives no Title, the Recording it 
before the Transaction is Complete will Load the People with an 
useless Expence. 

That the Assembly give themselves the Power of Nominating 
the Officer, which is a Monstrous Invasion of the Rights of Gov- 
ernment. 

That the Bond given by the Officer is to be only One Thousand 
Pounds, And the Penalty on the Secretary or Surveyor General for 
every neglect or Omission in delivering a Paper in their Offices ia 
Five Hundred Pounds. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Tuesday, the 2d of June, 1759. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq r - Lieutenant Gover- 
nor. 

Robert Strettell, Benjamin Shoemaker, ^ 

Joseph Turner, Richard Peters, \ ™ 

Lynford Lardner, Benjamin Chew, [ .? 

Thomas Cadwalader, J 

The Bill for recording Warrants and Surveys &c a -' was again con- 
sidered. The Governor proposed, as it was intirely a Law Bill, to 
request the Advice of the Judges of the Supreme Court, and Mr. 
Moland, and Mr. Ross, two Gentlemen of the Law, and to desire 
the Same of Mr. Stedman, President of the Court of Common 
Pleas, of whose knowledge and Judgment in the Law he had heard 
a good Character. And this being approved by every Member of 
Council, the Attorney General was desired to request this favour 
of them, and to forward a Conference with them as expeditiously 
as possible. 

The Governor laid before the Board a Bill Sent up to him by the 
House, intituled " An Act for the more Effectual Suppressing 
of Lotteries and Plays," which was read and taken into Considera- 
tion. 

The Members of Council acquainted the Governor they had been 
well informed, and believed it to be true, that this Bill was princi- 
pally intended to destroy the College, Academy, and Charity School 
of this City, which was a most Noble and useful Institution • That 
some members of the House were known to have thrown all possible 
discouragements on it, and failing of Success they had probably 
fallen on this method to prohibit Lotteries, from which of Late the 
Academy had drawn its principal Support. 

That Eighty poor Boys and Forty poor Girls were instructed 
Gratis in the School to Read, Write, and Cast .Accounts, and the 



340 MINUTES OF THE 

Girls to Sew and do all Sorts of Plain Needle Work, under Two 
Masters and a Mistress. 

That in the Schools there were One Hundred and Thirty Boys 
who were instructed in the Greek, Latin, and English Tongues, and 
were likewise taught at the Same time Writing and Mathematicks. 

And that in the College there were above Twenty Students who 
were instructed by able Professors in all the higher Branches of 
learning Oratory, Euclid, Logic, E thicks, Natural and Experimental 
Philosophy; that the Expeuces of Professors and Masters were very 
great, amounting to Thirteen Hundred Pounds a Year, and that all 
the Sums they received, from Such Scholars as paid, did not Exceed 
Five Hundred Pounds a year, so that they were at an annual 
Expence of Eight Hundred Pounds, which at first they raised by 
Subscription; but this proving too heavy upon a few Individuals, 
who had Subscribed largely towards the Support of this Useful 
Siminary of learning, they have of Late Supported this Expence by 
Lotteries, which had been uprightly managed by people of the best 
Credit in the Province, and the Prizes always paid with the utmost 
punctuality and Honour. 

That there had been no Lotteries carried on in this Province 
other than for the most necessary and Charitable purposes, Viz*- : 
the Fortification of the City, the Defence of the Province in Time 
of War, and the finishing the Episcopal Church of this City, all 
which were managed with the greatest uprightness. 

Further, that the Enacting, ajudging, and declaring all Lotteries 
in General, whether publick or private, to be Common and Publick 
Nuisances, was a hiodi reflection on the Wisdom of the King, Lords, 
and Commons, who had frequently Erected them by Act of Parlia- 
ment for the publick Utility. 

But the Governor denied that this assertion was any reflection on 
the Parliament since Lotteries had been and might alwrys be 
erected by Act of Parliament, and in this Province, notwithstand- 
ing what is said here, any future Assembly might^create Lotteries 
for useful Expences. 

It was further observed, that the Prohibition of plays was a most 
unreasonable restraint on the King's Subjects from taking innocent 
Diversions, and that such an Act of this Province was passed in 
the Eighth Year of Her Majesty Queen Anne, when the Quakers 
made a Majority of the Assembly; but when it came before the 
Queen in Council it was disapproved, and Her Majesty Kepealed 
the Act on the Twentieth of October, One Thousaud Seven Hun- 
dred and Nine. 

• That the Laying a Fine on persons who should sell Tickets of 
Lotteries erected in any other part of the World would extend even 
to State Lotteries drawn in Virtue of Act of Parliament. 

That by an Act of Assembly of this Province, passed in the Thir- 
teenth Year of His present Majesty, entitutled " an Act for regulating 
Pedlars, Vendues, &c a " Lotteries are prohibited under the Penalty 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 341 

of One Hundred Pounds, One half to the Governor and the other 
half to the Informer. That this had the Effect intended by detering 
Persons from erecting Lotteries for private and bad Purposes, and 
no Lottery has been drawn since but for a Publick use, of which the 
present and preceding Governors have been so far convinced that 
they have both Licenced and encouraged them by Remitting their 
part of the Fine. This Act is therefore unnecessary, and should it 
take Place no Lotteries can be erected tho' for the most useful and 
Laudable Purposes. 

The Groverner informed the Board that having received the fol- 
lowing Letter from General Stan wix of the Thirty-first of last Month, 
he had directed the Secretary to lay the Same before the House, 
which had been done accordingly, recommending it to them to take 
the same into immediate Consideration, and the letter was now 
jead and ordered to be entered in these Words : 

" Philadelphia, May 31st, 1759, 
" Sir : 

"It being immediately necessary for his Majesty's Service, that 
the Hire, and impressing Horses and Carriages, should be settled 
Tby the Same Provincial Law as was past last Year, I must beg 
jou will acquaint the Assembly of the Necessity thereof, and I 
must entreat your further application to them, for the immediate 
accoutring two Tro >ps of Light Horse as the most necessary and use- 
ful Corps that can be brought into the Field for the Western Ser- 
vice. 

" I beg leave also to represent to you that it would be proper to 
direct the Commissioners for Indian Affairs, to send with all Expe- 
dition Frederick Post and Isaac Stille, with proper Messages' to the 
Indians ; at the same time ordering them to Proceed by the Way 
of Wyoming, and to take four or five of the best disposed and most 
faithful Indians with them from thence, such as King Teedyuscung 
shall recommend. 

"As these, are matters of the highest Import to His Majesty's 
Service and .the future Safety and Happiness of this Province, I 
doubt not but the Assembly will readily acquiesce in your Demands. 
u I am, Sir, your most Obdi'- Hum 6 - Servant, 
"JOHN STAN WIX:" 



MINUTES OF THE 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Wednesday the 11th of June ? 
1759. 

PRESENT ! 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq r - Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Strettell, Benjamin Shoemaker, V 

Joseph Turner, lliohard Peters, >• Esquires, 

Benjamin Chew, Thomas Cadwalader, ) 

Mr. Chew acquainted the Governor that the Bill for recording of 
Warrants and Surveys, and for rendering the real Estates and Pro- 
perty within this Province more secure, had been under the Con- 
fiideration of Mr. Coleman, Mr. Molaud, Mr. Ross, Mr. Alexander 
S ted man, and himself; And they all concluded in Opinion that the 
Bill, if Enacted into a Law, would prove injurious to the Inhabi- 
tants, and purposed to draw up their Reasons in Writing, and pro- 
posed to have them ready against to-morrow. 

A Bill intituled " an Act for Re-Emitting the Bills of Credit of 
this Province heretofore Re-Emitted on Loan, and for striking the 
further Sum of Thirty-Six Thousand Six Hundred and Jbifty Pounds, 
to enable the Trustees to Send Fifty Thousand Pounds to Colonel 
John Hunter, Agent for the Contractors, with the Right Honoura- 
ble, the Lords' Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury for his 
Majesty's Service," was presented yesterday to the Governor for his 
Concurrence, And the same having been sent to Brigadier General 
Stanwix and Colonel John Hunter for their perusal, Colonel John 
Hunter attended the Council, and after the Bill was read, he de- 
aired he might '.be indulged a longer Time for the Repayment of 
the money; And at the Instance of the Governor drew up his re- 
quest in Writing to be laid before the House r in these Words: 

" Philadelphia, June 11th, 1759. 
f'Sir: 

" Having been honoured with a sight of the Bill passed by the 
Honourable House of Assembly, wherein they are pleased to assist 
his Majesty with a Loan of Fifty Thousand Pounds Current Money 
of this Province, I am sorry to find that the Time limitted for the 
Repayment of this Sum is within the Space of Six Months, because 
I well know it will not be in my power to repay it in that time; 
nor do I think I can be justified to enter into any Engagements in 
behalf of the Right Honourable the Lords of his Majesty's Treas- 
ury, without time Sufficient being allowed me to lay such Engage- 
ment before their Lordships through the Hands of the Contractors, 
that their Lordships may also have time Sufficient to order (if they 
please) that the Sum in Sterling may be sent from England to re- 
deem the Bills that arc to be lodged in the Hands of the Trustees- 
as a Security for the Repayment of the aforesaid Fifty Thousand 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 343 

Founds Currency; all which I humbly conceive cannot be done iu. 
less than Twelve Months from the Receipt of the Money; and 
therefore pray that that Time 1 may be allowed me. 

" I am ordered by His Excellency General StaUwix to add that 
he will esteem it a favour if you will be pleased to use your interest 
with the Honourable house of Assembly, , to add Twenty-Five 
Thousand Pounds to the Sum they have been pleased to Vote, for 
the Assistance of His Majesty's Service, as he hopes that Sum 
would enable him to Grant his'Warrant to Continue the Payment 
•of the Sums due to those who have Demands for Services performed 
last Campaign, who remain in the utmost Distress for the Want of 
their Money. 

" I am with all due Respect, 

" your Honour's most Gbe'* Hum 6, Servant, 

"JOHN HUNIEPw 

•"'To the Honourable Denny, Esq." 

The Bill was then read Paragraph by Paragraph, and it wag 
•observed that it consisted of two Matters that had no Connection 
with one another, viz'-: The Re-Emition and the Loan to Colonel 
John Hunter, and that these two ought to be separated. As to the 
Loan the Council was unanimous that the Sum proposed, or even a, 
greater Sum might foe lent on its being repaid in the Time proposed 
by Colonel Hunter, and then Sunk without any prejudice to the 
Province or detriment to the Credit of our paper Money. And 
that alike request had been made by the General to the House, at 
the beginning of the Present Session., and rejected to the surprise 
of every Body. But now it appeared very plain that this was done 
with no other view than to tack it to the Re-Emission of their 
Paper Currency, thinking the Governor, who might with great 
Reason object to the Re-Emission, would be obliged to Grant it 
rather than loose the Loan of so much Money to the Agent, as the 
General would represent to the Governor that without such a Sum 
the King's Business could not go on ; but this was so shameful an 
Attempt that it was hoped the General would see through it, and 
discountenance it. 

Besides this so many other Objections occurred to the Council 
that there was not time to debate them, and, therefore, it was put 
off to. another Day, and Mr. Peters was desired to Compare the Re-" 
Emitting Act with, former A«ts, and to make his Report at the 
next Council. 

A Letter from Brigadier General Stanwix, of the ninth Instant,- 
was read in these Words : 

"Philadelphia, June 9th, 1759. 
"Sir: 

"Not being favoured with your Answer to my last Letter, desir- 
ing the Renewal of .the Law for impressing Carriages for His Mar 



344 MINUTES OF THE 

jesty's Service, I am under a Necessity of acquainting you that the 
King's Service is absolutely at a Stand, untill Waggons can be ob- 
tained for the Transportation of the Provisions, Ammunition, and 
Forage, requisite for the Western Army. I have taken all possible 
Methods to prevail on the Inhabitants of the Province to furnish 
Waggons for the above purposes, and have offered the most Advan- 
tageous Terms, ready Money, and every persuasive Argument I 
could devise; also, by appointing Persons of Reputation and Sub- 
stance to Contract with the People in each County, in whose hands 
I have lodged Money to enable them to fulfil my Engagements, who 
have already published Advertisements, a Copy thereof is hereunto 
annexed, which shall be inserted in the next Gazette. 

"Notwithstanding all these Steps have been taken, by the Re- 
turns made by those Gentlemen, I yet find, that on the Sixth In- 
stant there were only Seventeen Waggons from Bucks, Fourteen 
from Lancaster, and Six from Carlisle, that could be engaged in the 
King's Service. In excuse for their Backwardness,, the People al- 
lege that the Last Year's Services are not yet discharged, which is 
not my fault, as it is well known that every means in my Power for 
the raising Money to pay them has been taken, and that I have 
shewn my utmost readiness to Satisfy them, by paying the Con>- 
missioners' Certificates as fast as Money came in j so that unless, 
the Legislature no Longer Delays to oblige the Inhabitants by Law, 
under a proper Penalty, that can be instantly recovered by a Sum* 
mary Process, to furnish, upon the before mentioned Proposals^, 
which no reasonable Man can object to, a sufficient Number of Car- 
riages, the Advanced Posts must be abandoned, and that ( mtry 
lost, which has cost the King and the Colonies so much Blood and 
Treasure. 

"The Nature of this Expedition requiring the Service of Light 
Horse, and the - Experience of Last Campaign proving their Utility, 
I must desire you, in the Strongest Manner, to require the Assem* 
bly to raise again the Two Troops they furnished Last Yean and to 
Establish a Post for the Communication with the Western Army. 
" I am, Sir, Your most Obed 1 - and Hum e - Servant, 

"JOHN STANVVIX."' 

The Secretary was ordered to lay the said Letter bef. :e the 
House, and to acquaint them that the Governor very earnestly 
recommended it to them that the several Matters desired by ( neral 
Stanwix might be Complied with. 

Teedyuscung paid a Visit to the Governor, and after the usual 
Compliments, being asked if he had any thing to Commum .,e, he 
spoke as follows : 

" Brethren : 

"I thank you for your kind reception of me. I have no matter 
to speak upon of very great Moment at this Time} I cam-j priaoi- 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 345 

pally to see my Old Friends and to enjoy the pleasure of a little 
Conversation with them. 

" Brethren : 

" Agreeable to my Engagements at Easton, I have spread far 
and Wide the News of the Peace there concluded ; I have given 
the Halloo, and many distant Nations have heard it and let me 
know that the Peace was extremely to their Minds, and that they 
would heartily join in any thing done by the Governor, at Pennsyl- 
vania, and Teedyuscung. I shall still continue my best Endeavours 
to gain over to the Peace more of the Indian Nations as I have 
Opportunity." 

A Belt. 
"Brethren : 

"I received this String from the Unamies, on and beyond the 
Ohio, by which they assured me that they had heard of the good 
Work that was going on between me and the Governor of Pennsylva- 
nia, and that it gave them the utmost Satisfaction, and they would 
Concur with us in Establishing a firm Peace with their Old Friends 
and Brethren. 

"This is their String. 
" Brethren : 

" I received another String of Wampum from the Indian NaT 
tions, settled on the Heads of the Susquehannah (by his Description 
of the Place it seemed to be from the Nations settled on the Cayuga 
Branch), they likewise Expressed their Joy at the Conclusion of a 
Peace with their Brethren, the English, and said they would Batify 
what should be done by the Governor of Pennsylvania and Tady- 
uscung, and I now lay before you their String. These Indians 
desire the Governor would give them a Charge of Powder, for they 
were very poor and had not Powder enough to kill Deer for their 
Subsistence." 

A String. 

"Brethren: 

" What I hear from all Quarters is good; the Indians seem desi- 
rous to return to their Old Alliance with their Brethren. My 
Heart is all Good." 

The Governor thanked him for his kind Speeches, and said as 
he proposed to stay a little among his Friends, he would give him 
notice of the time when he should return him his Answer. 

At Mr. Peters's. 

Teedyuscung said he had omitted some things at the Governor's 
which he would recollect and tell to me. and after some pause he 
spoke as follows : 



346 MINUTES OF THE 

" Brother : 

"I must mend my Speeches to the Governor; I don't speak to 
you, I speak to the Governor; let him know what I say, and put it 
to the other things I spoke in Council. 
" Brethren : 

" Here are Two Mohiccons from the Susquehannah ; they came 
with me from Wioming; they brought me a Striug from the Mo- 
hiccons and Wapiugs, assuring me that they were heartily disposed 
for Peace, and would put themselves under Teedyscung, and join, 
with him and the Governor of Pennsylvania, in the good Work of 
Peace. I put them under the Wings of the Governor." 

A String. 
" Brethren : 

" I have a small Complaint to make. My Uncles, the Mohocks, 
have sold Lands that they have not the least Pretensions to, no, not 
the Value of a Hickory Nut. I mean the Minisink Lands. These 
always belonged to a Nation of the Delawares, and our Uncles had 
nothing to do with them, nor could not dispose of them. Our Na- 
tions are not displeased with our Brethren, only as we have not re- 
ceived a Consideration for them. Think with yourselves about it, 
and give us what you Please/' 

This, Isaac Stille says, was sent to Teedyuscung by Phillip Com- 
pass. 

" The Governor's Answer. 
" Brother : 

"X thank you for your assurances to Continue ^our best Endea- 
vours to bring as many Indian Nations into the Peace lately con- 
cluded at Easton, as you are capable to Influence. I give you this 
Belt to assure you that I am your hearty Friend, and shall take a 
pleasure in doing every good Office to the Delawares, Unamies, 
Opings, and all other Indian Nations that shall return natural Al- 
liance." 

A Belt. 

"I shall recommend the request of the Indians who are in Want 
of Powder, to the Provincial Commissioners, who set to-morrow, 
and Mr. Peters will acquaint you with their Resolution. I shall at 
at all times be glad to serve you or any Indians you recommend to 
me." 

A String. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 347 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Wednesday, the 13th of June, 
1759. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq r - Lieutenant Gover- 
nor. 

Robert Strettell, Joseph Turner, ~] 

Richard Peters, Benjamin Chew, \- Esquires. 

Thomas Cadwalader, J 

A Bill was yesterday presented to the Governor for his concur- 
rence, was read, Entituled " an Act for the Relief of the Heirs and 
Devisees, and Assigns of Persons born out of the King's Liegance, 
who have been Owners of Lands within this Province, and have 
dyed Unnaturalized," And it was referred to the Consideration of 
the Attorney General. 

Mr. Chew delivered a Paper containing the Observations made 
by the Gentlemen to whom the Bill for recording Warrants and 
Surveys, &c a> ' was referred, which was read in these Words : 
" Observations on the Bill entituled "an Act for Recording of 
Warrants and Surveys, &c, 

"Page 3d. All Warrants, Surveys, Books of Surveys, Maps, 
Charts, &c a ' made by any Public Surveyor or his Deputy, which 
shall be brought to the Officer, are by him to be recorded, &c a> 

"1st. Observa"- If Every Paper brought to the Officer, said to be 
a Survey, Map, or Chart, must, of Necessity, be entered of Record 
by him, without proof made of its being genuine and Authentick, 
and made under proper Power and Authority, the Real Estates of 
the Inhabitants of this Province would then be insecure and preca- 
rious indeed, and the basest Forgeries might be committed, without 
a possibility of their being detected, as the Originals when Recorded, 
are not by the bill directed to be secured in any Office. 

"Page 4th. Certified Copies of such recorded Papers are to be 
as good Evidence as the Originals themselves. 

" 2d Observa 11 - This Clause destroys a Sacred Law Maxim, Yiz'- 
That the best Evidence shall be given in every Case that the Na- 
ture of the Thing will admit of. To admit therefore, a Copy of 
a Copy when the Original may be in being, would be extremely 
Dangerous. Exemplifications of Deeds recorded, are, by an Act of 
this Province, made Evidence, but in that Case such Deeds must 
have been either proved to be genuine by the Affidavit of one of the 
Subscribing Witnesses, or acknowledged by the Bargainer himself. 
In the Opinion of good Judges, that Act has gone too far; And it 
were to be wished that in no Case a Copy should be admitted as 
Evidence but in Case of the Loss of the Original, agreeable to the 
above Maxim. 

"Page 5th. The Officer is empowered to sue for all Warrants^ 
Surveys, Maps, and Charts, &c a, > made and signed by any Surveyor 



348 MINUTES OF THE 

or his Deputy, which may be of use to any Person claiming any 
Bight to Lands, &c a -' and when recovered he is to record them. 

"3d Observa"- The Common Law has provided an equate 
Remedy for Persons whose Papers or Title Deeds are in the Posses- 
sion of another and detained from them by giving them an Action 
of Dcteinure against the Wrong doer, wherein on due Proof of the 
Plaintiff, will Recover Judgment for Delivery of Such, his Papers 
or Deeds, or on the Defendent's Default, much Damages as an 
honest Jury may think proper to give him ; wherefore, the above 
new and every Extensive Power given to the Officers seems quite 
unnecessary. But if it should be thought Expedient to constitute 
a Public Officer to sue for the redress of a private Damage or In- 
jury, he should not have it in his Power to vex and harrasa any 
Man, by bringing a Suit against him for any Map, Survey, or Pa- 
per, that might be of use to any Person or Persons having or Claim- 
ing any Right to Lands in (his Province. That would give too 
much Power to the Officer, which he might abuse, and introduce 
Multiplicity of Suits and an Endless Scene of Confusion. His 
Power of Suing should be Confined to such Maps, Surveys, or Pa- 
pers only as have been made by due Warrant and Authority, and 
such as are capable of being proved to be Authentick and are abso- 
lutely Material to the Title of Land granted to the Person or Per- 
sons requesting such Suit to be brought, or to some Person under 
whom they derive their Title. There should moreover be a saving 
Clause for Particulars, for a valuable Consideration, who are so 
much regarded that Evea in Equity they cannot be compelled to 
disclose any Papers or Deeds they may be possessed of that may 
impeach their Title. 

" Page 7th, 8, 9, 10, 11. Warrants, Surveys, and other Wai- 
tings, under which the Purchasers ot Lands hold and Claim, are said 
•to be in the Secretary's and Surveyor General's Offices / in loose 
Papers, which are saot recorded or entered in Books for tlufc Pur- 
pose, and are liable to be lost, and the Secretary and Surveyor 
General are not u«der Security or Oath for the faithful Discharge 
of their OfSces. To remedy whieh anew Officer is appointed 'to 
have free access to those Offices, and to record all Papers found 
there. 

Observation. The 'Secretary and Surveyor General undoubtedly 
ought to give good Security to the King in trust for the People, 
;and be under the tie of an Oath for the faithful Discharg of their 
Duty. It is, also, highly reasonable, and for the publick Advantage, 
that they should be enjoined by Laws., Kinder a Penalty, to Kecord 
all Warrants, Surveys, Draughts, and other Loose Papei * iri their 
'Offices, respectively in Books for that Purpose, and that th \ Offices 
should be erected into Publick Offices, and be free and o] m to the 
-Search of all Persons applying. This when done will fm , answer 
all the Ends proposed by the Bill in appointing a new i :'.icer to 
irecord such Survejs, Warrants, &(f , > as remain in the said Offices, 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 319 

unless it may be thought expedient in case of any accident, or loss 
of such Papers by Fire, &c'-' to have Duplicates taken and preserved 
in some other Place, but such Duplicates or Exemplications of 
them by no means ought to be admitted as Evidence, while the 
Originals are in being. 

" Page 13, 14. Every Warrant to issue in Future is to be sent 
to the new Officer as soon as it is obtained, and when the Survey is 
made the Surveyor, or his Deputy, is to make return of the Courses 
with a Map of the same, to the said Officer, to be recorded immedi- 
ately under Penalty of Fifty Pounds, &c a -' 

" Observation. Every Warrant granted by the Proprietaries 
Agent, or Commissioner of Property, is conditional, and by the 
Express terms of the Warrant is void unless the Terms of Pur- 
chase are complied with, and the Consideration Money paid by the 
Purchaser. The Contract is Executory, and no Title Vests till the 
Terms are jerformed, wherefore no survey should be entered or 
recorded till the Purchaser had Complied with his Agreement. Be- 
sides the Surveyor General's Business and Duty is to revise and 
examine the Works of his Deputy, and to Correct any Errors they 
may commit, which are as often to the prejudice of the Purchaser 
as the Proprietaries, and no Survey should be entered till he has 
examined it, and the Secretary or Proprietaries Commissioner of 
Property has certified that he has accepted and confirmed it. 
" Sir : 

" We have perused and attentively Considered the Bill referred 
to us by your Honor, entituled " an Act for recording Warrants 
and Surveys, &c a ''" And are of Opinion it is a Bill of the utmost 
Importance to the Freeholders of this Province, and deserves the 
greatest Care, Judgment and Skill in its Formation. We therefore 
have made the foregoing Observations thereupon, which we think 
very material, and are 

" Your Honour's most Humble Servants, 

" WILLIAM COLEMAN, 
" BENJAMIN CHEW, 
"JOHN ROSS, 
" June 12th, 1759. " JOHN MOLAND. 

" To the Honourable William Denny, Esq 1 "'" 

The Governor and Council approving the Remarks and Reason- 
ings of those Gentlemen, It was thought proper that the Bill should 
be returned with the following Message, which was delivered by 
the Secretary, together with the above paper of Observations. 

A Message from the Governor to the Assembly. 

" Gentlemen : 

" The Bill Entitutled " an Act for recording Warrants and Sur- 
veys, &c " appearing to be a Law Bill, I referred it to the Consid- 



350 MINUTES OF THE 

oration of several Gentlemen skilled in that Profession, who have 
made many Just Observations upon the Defects of the Bill, and 
reported that fchey are of Opinion such a Bill is of the utmost Im- 
portance to the Freeholders of this Province, and deserves the great- 
est Care, Judgment and Skill in its formation. I cannot therefore 
give my Assent to it as it now stands, but have ordered the Secretary 
to return it to you for your further Consideration, and lay before you 
the Gentlemen's Remarks upon it, that in a Case of so great Moment 
wherein the Estate of every Landholder is concerned, nothing may 
be neglected or omitted that may tend to Secure and Establish their 
Just and Legal Rights, and every provision may be made to guard 
against the Frauds of the artful and Evil disposed. 

•< WILLIAM DENNY. 
"June 13th, 1759. " 

The Re-Emitting Bill was read again, and Mr. Peters reported 
that he had compared all the Clauses relating to the Re-Emission 
witb former Re-Emitting Acts, and found of all them rightly tran- 
scribed except one, and that a very material one, which related to 
the Proprietaries, to whom in the former Acts an Allowance was 
made of a certain annual Sum as a Compensation for their Loss 
in receiving their Quit-Rents in paper Bills, at the Rate of the 
Queen's Proclamation, which were payable in Sterling. This Mr. 
Peters said was entirely omitted, and was a piece of down-right In- 
justice, inasmuch as if the Bill passed, the Proprietaries would be 
obliged to receive no more than Sixteen pence Currency for a Shil- 
ling Sterling, when every other Person in the Province for Bills of 
Exchange would get from Sixty to Seventy-five ^Q C*"' according to 
the Current Exchange. 

The Council concurred with Mr. Peters that this was a most fla- 
grant Act of Injustice, and then proceeded to mention many other 
Objections, Viz'- : That such a Wanton Re-Emission of Paper 
Money at a time when we had a'ready Three Hundred and Eighty- 
five Thousand Pounds in Paper Money, would greatly Sink their 
Value. And He recollected that when the Eighty Thousand Pounds 
was first Struck the Money Sunk in Value from fifteen to twenty- 
five ^ C' And tho' the late Additions to the Currency had not 
yet affected its Credit, it was owing to the great Demands for Sup- 
plying the Army in America, but if a Peace should in a few Years 
be Concluded, it was evident the Bills of Credit must sink in their 
Value, to the ruin of Merchants, Widows, Orphans and others, who 
were supported by Money placed at Interest. 

It was further urged that this was contrary to a Royal Instruc- 
tion founded on a warm Address of the House of Commons in the 
year 1740, and that it was Contrary to the Proprietary Instructions, 
which expressly forbid the Governor to lie-Emit Money for so long 
a Term. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 351 

And lastly, that there was. no necessity for a He-Emission at this 
Time, the Bills having a Currency for Three years yet to Come. 
The Assembly, therefore, could have nothing else in view by the 
present Bill than to gain to themselves the sole Disposition of the 
Interest Money, which amounted to near Fifty Thousand Pounds, a 
Sum almost equal to what was proposed to be lent to Colonel 
Hunter. 

The Governor reminded the Council of the several Letters re- 
ceived from his Majesty's principal Secretaries of State, and the 
Commanders in Chief of the Forces in America, and the Obliga- 
tions he was laid under to promote the King's Business. They 
knew as well as he, the Obstinacy of the Assembly, and that 
they would have things done in their own way or not at all. He 
was sorry for any injury that might be done to the Proprietaries, 
but their private interest was by no means to be put in Competi- 
tion with the Operations of the Campaign. After which his Honour 
ordered the Bill to be amended and made like former Acts in such 
Parts as related to the Proprietaries. And it was accordingly 
Amended and returned to the House with the Amendments, against 
the unanimous Advice of the Council, with the following Verbal 
Message. 

The Governor returns the Re-Emitting Bill with Amendments, 
and a Letter from Mr. Hunter, desiring an additional Loan of 
Twenty-Five Thousand Pounds, and that the Term of Twelve 
Months may be allowed for the Repayment of the Seven ty-five 
Thousand Pounds. 

If the House inclines to grant this request, the Governor will 
chearfully concur with them in such further Amendments as this 
will require. 

The Governor likewise lays before you a Letter from Brigadier 
General Stanwix, relating to raising two Troops of Horse, and ear- 
nestly recommends the General's proposals to the House. 

"Amendments to the Bill Entituled i an Act for Re-Emitting the 
Bills of Credit of this Province heretofore re-emitted on Loan, and 
for striking the further Sum of Thirty-Six Thousand Six Hundred 
and Fifty Pounds, &c a -' 

" Page 44. Dele from the Word [the] in line 4 to the word [ap- 
point] inclusive in Line 6, and instead thereof insert [as by Act 
or Acts of General Assembly of this Province hereafter to be 
made, shall be directed and appointed, and not otherwise.] 

u Page 48. After the Word Practice in the 6th Line insert as 
follows, Viz - : [And be it enacted by the Authority aforesaid, that 
the Bills of Credit, the Currency whereof is Continued by this Act, 
shall at all Times during their Re-Emission as aforesaid, that is to 
Say, until the Fifteenth Day of October, which will be in the year 
of our Lord, One Thousand Seven Hundred and Sixty-Nine ? be 



352 MINUTES OF THE 

accepted and taken by the Receiver General for the Time being, in 
discharge of such Quit-Rents as are now due, or shall become due 
to the Proprietaries of this Province on Grants of Lands or Lots 
which were made before the year Ooe Thousand Seven Hundred and 
Thirty-Two, in like manner as is provided by an Act of Assembly 
Entituled ' an Act for the more effectual preserving the Credit of 
our paper Money, &c a '' passed in the Twelfth year of the present 
Reign; and by the aforesaid Act passed in the Nineteenth year of 
the present Reign j and in Consideration of the Premises, the al- 
lowance of one Hundred and Thirty Pounds yearly, provided by 
the said acts, shall be continued and yearly paid as the said act 
directs, during the Re-Emission of the Bills of Credit aforesaid, 
that is to say, until the aforesaid Fifteenth Day of October, in the 
year of our Lord, One Thousand Seven Hundred and Sixty-Nine. ~| 

" WILLIAM DENNY. 
"June 13th, 1759." 



A Letter from General Stanwix to Gover. Denny. 

"Philadelphia, June 12th, 1759. 
"Sir: 

" Having considered your proposal to me this morning in regard 
to the Troops of Light Horse to be formed out of the Pennsyvania 
Provincials, so absolutely Necessary for his Majesty's Service, and 
particularly for keeping open the Communication between Fort 
Bedford and Pittsburgh, assisting in the Escourts of Convoys of 
Provisions, Stores, and Indian Goods, &c. : And whereas, last year 
the greatest part of the Horses, Saddles, and Briddles were lost, 
in my Opinion from the Campaign being extended to so great a 
Length, but am informed the Commissioners attribute the Loss to 
Carelessness or neglect somewhere ; and as the Assembly may be 
willing to raise, at my so often repeated request, two Troops of 
Horse, at Fifty each Troop, provided the Province can, in the En- 
suing Campaign, be secured against such Carelessness and neglect, 
in order, therefore, that this so essential piece of Service may be 
provided for by the Commissioners of this Province, I am content 
that all the Horses shall be appraised at an average, and I will 
undertake for His Majesty, that all such Horses, except such as 
shall be killed or unavoidably destroyed by the Enemy, shall be 
paid for agreeable to the appraisement by indifferent persons ; the 
remainder, after the Campaign, I undertake shall be delivered into 
the Hands of Persons appointed for the Commissioners, who shall 
receive them at Fort Bedford, the first Post of the Pennsylvania 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. S53 

Settlements on this side of the Allegheny Mountains, they giving 
receipts for the Same. 

u I am, with the greatest respect & Esteem, 

"Sir, Your most Gbed t- Hum 6, Servant, 

"JOHN STANWIX. 
" P. S.— -If any Horses remain that were in the Service last 
.year, I desire they may be put into the Light Horse this Campaign/" 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Saturday the 16th of Juna 
1759. 

Present : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esquire, Lieutenant 
Governor. 

Robert -Strettell, Richard Peters, 1| 

Lynford Lardner, Benjamin Chew, I Esquires.. 

Thomas Cadwaladcr, } 

A Letter from Mr. Horsield of the Fourteenth Instant was read, 
acquainting the Governor that Isaac Nutinaas, a Son of Old King 
Nutimas, who many years past lived at Nescopecken, but since the 
War has moved up the River to Di&hoga, <came yesterday to Beth- 
lehem, and in Conversation related he was pretty sure that the 
Indians would not do any Mischief on the Frontiers of this and the 
Neighbouring Provinces, but that they intended if possible to take 
one or more Forts on this side Fort Duquesne, and if they succeeded 
in taking one of the strongest Forts, the expect then to get much 
Provision and Ammunition, and doubt not but Pittsburgh and every 
other Fort to the Westward will fall into their Hands. They did 
not (Isaac added) intend to take a Fort by force, but by Stratagem. 

The Re-Emitting Bill being again seat to the Governor with a 
preremtory Message from the Assembly that they rejected the 
Amendments relating to the Proprietaries, the same was read in 
these Words. 

" The Assembly's Answer to the Governor's Amendments to the 
Bill Entituled ' an Act for Re-Emitting the Bills of Credit of this 
Province -heretofore re-Emitted on Loan, and for striking the further 
.Sum of Thirty-Six Thousand Six Hundred and Fifty Pounds, 
&c a -' 

"Page 44 — Line 4 to 6. The House unanimously adjure to the 
Bill. 

"Page 48, after the Word Practice, m the -6th Line. The House 
unanimously reject the Clause proposed to be added to the Bill."' 

In pursuance of Colonel Hunter's request to enlarge- the Time 
for redeeming the Bills of Exchange and Repayment of Money 
Lent, The House do agree to allow a Year, @r Twelve Months, 
VOL. viil.-— 23.* 



354 MINUTES OF THE 

instead of Six Months, as it now Stands limitted by the Bill, and 
that the Bill be amended accordingly. 

The further request of enlarging the Sum of Fifty Thousand 
Pounds is not agreed to by the House, who, in that respect, adhere 
to the Bill as it now stands. 

The Matter was again Considered, and the Governor was advised 
to reject the Bill. 

The Governor expressed great uneasiness at the disagreeable 
Situation he was in, being between his Duty to the King and People 
on one Side, and to the Proprietaries on the other Side j and pro- 
duced a Letter from Brigadier General Stanwix, advising him to 
Pass the Bill. 

It was observed that when this Letter was wrote the General 
could not be made acquainted with the peculiar Act of Injustice 
done to the Proprietaries, And that if he was informed of this he 
might withdraw his advice rather than be Accessory to so cruel a 
piece of Injustice. The Secretary was, therefore, ordered to ac- 
quaint the Brigadier General with this fresh Obstacle. 

It was observed by all the Members that such Letters from 
General Officers would not Authorize the Governor to give his As- 
sent to Acts which were unjust in themselves, and hurtful to the 
People, or justify him in breaking his Instructions from the Pro- 
prietaries. But the Governor was of a different Opinion. 

The Governor acquainted the Council that the Bill for recording 
Warrants and Surveys, &c a- ' was returned to him, with a Message 
from the House, and a proposal of such Additions and alterations 
as they presumed would take of! all Objections to it, which were 
read in these Words : 

" May it Please your Honour : 

"In pursuance of your Message of the Thirteenth Instant, we 
have taken under our Consideration the Observations your Honour 
has been pleased to Send down with the Bill Entituled ' an Act for 
Recording Warrants and Surveys, &c a, >' and have made the Addi- 
tions and alterations herewith transmitted, which we presume will 
take off all reasonable Objections; and as the Bill is of the utmost 
Importance to the Freeholders of this Province, we return it, and 
desire you will be pleased to give your assent to it as it now stands. 
"Signed by order of the House. 

"ISAAC NORMS, Speaker. . 

" June 14th, 1759/' 

"Amendments to the Bill Entituled 'an Act for Recording War- 
rants and Surveys, &c**' and for rendering the Real Estates and 
Property within this Province more Secure/ 

" Page 4, Line 4. After the Word [aforesaid] insert [the fame 
being first acknowledged by the Surveyor or his Deputy by whom 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL, 355 

made, before one of the Justices of the Peace in this Province, 
which Acknowledgement the said Justices are hereby authorized 
•and empowered to take.] 

"Page -5, Line 13. After the Word [which] insert [ought to 
have been returned and lodged in either of the said offices and.] 

" Page 14, Line 2d. After the Word [shall] insert [deliver a 
true Copy of such Survey to the Person or Persons so requesting 
the same, and.] 

"Page 14. Dele the Word [the] in the 4th line, and Lines 5, 6, 
7, and instead thereof insert after the Word [into] [the Surveyor 
-General's Office, under the Penalty of Fifty Pounds, and the said 
Surveyor General shall, and he is hereby enjoined and requested to 
-examine and correct the Same, and within Twenty Days after he 
shall make or receive such Return shall, under the Penalty of Fifty 
Pounds, transmit and deliver over the same Survey so corrected to 
the Officer appointed by Virtue of this Act, that the same may be 
recorded in manner aforesaid.]" 

These alterations proposed by the Assembly were compared with 
the paper of Observations laid before the House, and It was found 
that they were trifling, and in every material part left the Bill just 
as it was. The Governor desired that the Assembly's Message and 
proposed alterations might be Communicated to Mr. Coleman and 
the other Gentlemen for their Judgment thereon. 

Mr. Chew, to whom tfye Consideration of the Bill for the Relief 
of the Heirs, Devisees and assigns of Persons born out of the 
King's Legience, &c a -> was referred, reported that by Law an Alien 
had a Power to Purchase Houses, Lands and Tenements in Fee, 
and had a Capacity to take but not to hold the same, but they be- 
came escheatable and forfieted on an Office found; and that the 
End of the Bill was to take away the Right of such Forfleture and 
vest the title in the Devisees or Grantees of Aliens' Lands within 
this Province. The Governor alledged that Foreigners had been 
induced to come and settle here in Expectation of having their Es- 
tates, tho' Aliens, made good to them and their Heirs, and that 
such a bill would be a very great Encouragement for them to Con- 
tinue to come over and Settle in the Province, & directed the Sec- 
retary to return the Bill with a Message to the House, that he as- 
sented to it and would enact it into a Law, when it should be pre- 
sented to him for that Purpose. 

The Secretary likewise delivered to the House the Bill Entituled 
u an Act for the more Effectual Suppressing and preventing of Lot 
teries and Plays," with the following Amendments : 

Page 1st. Dele from the Word [Philadelphia] in the 3d line to 
the Word [to] in the 9 th Line, and instead thereof insert the Words 
[which tend]. 

Page 8, Line 5. Dele the Words [passing of this act] and instead 
thereof insert the Words [The first Day of January which will he 
in the Year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred and Sixty]. 



356 MINUTES OF THE 

A Message was delivered to the Governor in Council by two 1 
Members, acquainting him that the House had agreed to the. Amend- 
ments of the Bill against Lotteries and Plays, and that this Bill 
and the Bill in favour of Aliens were engrossed. That the House 
desired to know his Result on the other Bills before him, and that 
all Business might be finished this afternoon, as it was very in- 
convenient at this Season for the Country Members to be absent 
from their Farms. The Governor told the Members it was impos- 
sible to go through the Business before him to-day, but that lje 
would give it all the Dispatch in his Power. 



MEMORANDUM. 

On the Seventeenth of June, Mr Peters reported to the Gover- 
nor that he had made Brigadier General Stanwix acquainted with 
the Injustice that would be done to the Proprietaries by the Assem- 
bly's rejecting the|Governor's Amendments; And that he expressed 
great Concern at the Assembly's Obstinacy. That he had fre- 
quently, both at the time and since General Amherst was here, en- 
deavored to Convince them of the unreasonableness of insisting on 
gaining Points from the Proprietaries, and extorting Rights from 
the Government in their Supply Bills, And that such Conduct was 
an abuse of the Power placed in them by the People. But they 
told him plainly that this would, in all likelyhood, prove the last 
Campaign, and that they should never have such an Opportunity 
again, and therefore let the Consequence be what it would, they 
would not pass a Bill unless they could at the same time obtain 
what they thought just against the Proprietaries, and preserve such 
Powers and Privileges as they knew they were entitled to, and the 
Proprietaries wanted to deprive them of. General Stanwix added 
he was sensible they had no regard to the Crown in what they did, 
and that he always had and would hereafter set this matter forth to 
the King's Ministers in its true Light, that these Acts of Injustice 
(which the Governor was obliged to do out of regard to the King's 
Service) might not be confirmed. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 



At a Council lield at Philadelphia; Monday the 18th of June, 

1,759. 

PRESENT .: 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esquire, Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Stretteli, Benjamin Shoemaker, *] 

Joseph Turner, Richard Peters, (•'-, . 

Lynford Lardner, Benjamin Chew, j "" 

Thomas Cadwalader, J 

The Governor informed the Council that he- was pressed by the 
Assembly for his result on the Re-Emitting Bill. 

That he had collected the Letters of the Secretaries of State and 
of the Several Generals, and he desired they might be read, or such 
parts of them as related to Supplies, and after those were read, the 
Governor observed that he could not help considering himself as 
laid under express Commands by His Majesty to forward, not im- 
pede the General Service. That he had heard at divers Times,, 
much said by the Council in favour of the Proprietaries, But they 
had observed a remarkable Silence as to the King's Letters which 
were sent to him from time to time by the King's Ministers and 
Generals; That the Council ought to Remember that Loyalty and 
-Obedience was due from them to the King, as well as a regard to 
the Proprietaries. 

The Council Expressed much Surprize at such unmerited Treat- 
ment from the Governor r and declared that his insinuations of the 
wanting Zeal for the -King's Service ;had not the least Foundation, 
for they had on all occasions heartily concurred with the Governor 
in pressing the Assembly to pay the most Dutiful Regards to the 
Kings's Commands signified by his Ministers, and in promoting 
,any demands made by His Majesty's Generals, and they had in their 
respective Stations devoted their Time and Trouble without Fee, or 
reward, to forward the Service all in their Power, and this was the 
•first time they were charged, or ever Suspected, of Want of Loy- 
.alty to the best of Kings, and it was the harder as it came from the 
Governor, who they had heard and believed was determined to Pass 
the Bill, not so much from regard to the Letters from the Generals or 
Ministers as from other Causes which were well known. They had 
indeed said, and do still say, that the Governor cannot stand excused 
in establishing Injustice by Law. 

The Governor was pleased to repeat what he said before, and 
then declared he would ; pass the Bill, upon which Mr. Chew read a 
protest in the name of the Council that had been drawn up and 
.approved by the Members before the meeting of the Council, on 
their having heard it wate said, by some of the Members of the 
Assembly, that they were sure of the Governor's Assent, and that 
lie had privately stipulated with them for that purpose on certain 



358 MINUTES OF THE 

Terms agreed on between them, and the Governor Answered 1 that 
the Report was false and Scandalous. 

The Governor was Pleased to take notice of that part of the 
Protest where the Tack is mentioned, and said it was a shameful 
thing, and could wish a proper Message might be drawn to be laid be- 
fore the Assembly, but the Council desired to know if the Governor 
would adhere to such Messsge, and on his Honours answering that he 
could not tell what he should do if it should be rejected by the 
House, The Council declined drawing any Message. 

The Governor demanded of Mr. Chew the Paper of Protest, 
which he had read ; and was Answered that it was only a rough 
Draught, but he would transcribe it and then deliver it to the Clerk 
of the Council after having delivered a fair Copy thereof to the 
Secretary ; the same was read, and it follows in these Words : 

" The Council Protest against the Governor's Assenting to the 
Bill Entituled an Act for Re-Emitting the Bills of Credit of this 
Province heretofore re-Emitted on Loan &c a -' for the following Rea- 
sons, viz t# : 

"1st. Because the great Quantity of Bills of Credit that have 
lately been struck in this- Province for his Majesty's Use, to the 
Amount of Three Hundred and Eighty-five Thousand Pounds, suf- 
ficiently Answers all the Purposes of Trade and Commerce, for 
which End alone the use of Paper Money, was first invented, and 
so great an Addition as Eighty Thousand Pounds at this Time would 
greatly endanger the Credit of our Money. It is well known that 
after the above sum of Eighty Thousand Pounds was first emitted, 
our Money sunk in its Value from Fifteen to Twenty-five ^ C t- ' and 
'tis evident that its Credit must diminish in the Ake Proportion 
upon the Increase in its Quantity. 

" 2dly. For that by the Act of the Nineteenth' of His Present 
Majesty, Part of the Bills of Credit thereby directed to be re- 
Emitted on Loan, will be Current for more than Three Years yet 
to come; and in the Mean Time the Quotas which Yearly ought to 
be sunk by the Trustees, would reduce the Quantity of such Bills, 
and in Case of a Peace within that Term there would be less danger 
of the Rise of Exchange and Depreciation of our Paper Money, to 
the Ruin of Orphans, Merchants, and Trading Part of this Province, 
and Great Injury of the English Merchants, who would thereby be 
very much affected. 

"3dly. Because the Bill for re-Emitting, &c 9 -» hath not a Sus- 
pending Clause till his Majesty's Pleasure shall be signified therein,, 
according to a Royal Instruction sent to the Governor of this Pro- 
vince in the Year One Thousand Seven Hundred and Forty, in Con- 
sequence of the Address of the Honourable House of Commons, 
which said Instruction appears by the Opinion of the late Dr. Dud- 
ley Rider to extend to in and to be yet in Force. 

"4thly. For that by the Bill, the Interest Money arising on the 
Loan of the Eighty Thousand Pounds is to be disposed of by the 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 359 

Assembly only; and the Governor, who is the King's Representa- 
tive here, and a Branch of the Legislature, is excluded from any 
share in the Disposition thereof- We look upon such a Power, 
lodged in the hands of the People's Representatives, to apply and 
•dispose of Publick Money without Controul, to be inconsistent with 
the Principles of an English Government, and to have a most dan- 
gerous Tendency. The Assembly of this Province never exercised 1 
or claimed such a Power till it was granted them by a Law passed 
by Governor Keith, which has been Continued to them by Tem- 
porary Acts down to this Time; But the Assembly have of 
late in so many Instances abased that Power, and Wantonly dis- 
pensed with the Law, that it m high Time to curb them in a Mat- 
ter of so much Importance; naany Instances of their Abuse of this 
Power might be produced ; one is Manifest on the Face of the Pre- 
sent Bill, by which it appears that no more thaa One Thousand 
Six Hundred and Fifty Pounds is to be struck Compleat. The 
Eighty Thousand Pounds re-Emitted by the Act of the Nineteenth 
of George the Second, No more then than One Thousand Six Hun- 
dred and Fifty Pounds has yet been sunk by the Assembly, altho' 
by the First Act the Sum of Twenty-Six Thousand Six Hundred' 
■and Sixty-Six Pounds, Thirteen Shillings and Four pence, ought to 
Jiave been *burnt and destroyed in October last, so that Twenty-five 
thousand and Sixteen Pounds, Thirteen Shillings and four Pence is- 
mow circulating against a Positive Law. 

" 5tk The several Accounts of the Emissions md lie-Emissions 
of our paper Moaey, which are very perplexed, ought to be regu- 
lated and settled fcefore any new Emission, if hereafter it should be 
■necessary, otherwise from Length of Time and the Intricacy of so 
many mixed transactions, smh Confusion must arise as will render 
at impossible to be done. 

" 6th. Because by this Bill no Provision is made to Pay the 
'Troops ^ a yearly Sum out of the Interest Money is a,n equivalent for 
Ms receiving the Bills of Credit at Thirty-Three and one-third for 
hm Quit-Rents due to him in Sterling, as the Assembly have here- 
tofore thought themselves Obliged in Justice to do by the Acts of 
<the Twelfth and Nineteenth of George the Second. 

Lastly. These Protestors cannot help observing on the Extraor- 
dinary Conduct of the Assembly in lately rejecting, by a great Ma- 
jority, the Proposal of Sending to the Agent, and to the Contract- 
ors, to the Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of His 
Majesty's Treasury a Sum of Money for His Majesty's Service, and 
their now tacking a Bill Purpose to the Above re-Emitting Act j 
The Assembly seem determined to take Advantage of the present 
Distresses of the Province and the Critical Situation of the Publick 
Affairs, and will not Send the Money required for His Majesty's 
"Service unless they can at the Same time gain an undue Power to 1 
themselves. These Protestors should most Zealously and chearfully 
concur in advising the Governor to Pass aseperate bill to lend any, 



360 MINUTES OF THE 

Sur»"of money to the Contractors to forward tbe present- Expedition? 
to the Westward, but they conceive the tacking of Bills to be un- 
parliamentary and of very evil Tendency, and think themselves for 
the above Reasons obliged in Duty to advise the Governor to reject 
the whole Bill/ 7 

In the afternoon the Governor returned the Bill with a Message 
that he withdrew his Amendments, and would pass it when pre* 
sented to him for that Purpose. 

Mr. Chew reported that the Message- of the Assembly and the 
Altercations proposed by them relating to the Bill for recording. 
Warrants and Surveys,. &c, had been Considered by My. Coleman). 
Mr. Ross and himself, Mr. Stedrnan not being in Town, and Mr, 
Moland not coming to them according to his appointment, and they 
were clearly of Opinion that the prosed Amendments did not re- 
move any of the material Objections, and were trifling' and imma- 
terial. 

The Governor remanded the Council that he had soms time ago 
mentioned Mr. Moland as a proper Parson to> be called to the 
Board. The Members said theye remembered it well, and as they 
all of them then expressed their good Opinion of that Gentleman's- 
Abilities and Integrity, expected he would have been again men- 
tioned by the Governor before now ; He was therefore proposed 
and unanimously approved, and Mr. Peters was desired to acquaint 
him therewith, and to request his Opinion on the Assembly's. Mes- 
sages- and proposed Alterations to the aforesaid. Bill*. 



At a Council' held* ate Philadelphia, Tuesday the l&th. of June r 
1759. 

PRESENT : 

The HoaouraMe WILLIAM-- PENNY, Escf* Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor, 

Robert Strettell,... Benjamin Shoemaker, \ 

Joseph Turner, William Logan, 

Lynford- Lardner,.. Richard Peters, j- Esquires, 

Benjamin Chew,, Thomas Cadwalades,, f. 

John Moland. j! 

Mr. Logan expressed his satisfaction at Mr. Moland? s being made- 
a Member of Council. 

Mr. Moland took the Oaths and made and subscribed I'be-Dec"" 
laration enjoined by Act of Parliament, and likewise took the Oath, 
for the faithful Discharge of his Duty as a Member of Council for 
the Province of Pennsylvania, and Counties of Newcastle, Kent,, 
and Sussex., iu Delaware. 

Mr. Moland acquainted the Governor that he had carefully pe- 
jiised the Message and Papers of proposed alterations, sent by th^ 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 361 

Assembly with the Bill for recording of Warrants and Surveys, &c., 
and had, together with the other Gentlemen, given his Judgment 
in Writing thereon; Which was produced by Mr. Chew, and read 
in these Words : 

" We have carefully considered the Assembly's Amendments to* 
their Bill Entituled ' an Act for recording Warrants and Surveys, 
&c a ->' and are all clearly of opinion that the Amendments made do 
by no Means satisfy the Defects of the Bill taken Notice of in 
our late written report to the Governor, and that in the most Mate- 
rial Points mentioned in our said Report, the House has not made 
the least Corrections or offered any Amendments at all. 

"WILLIAM COLEMAN. 

"BENJAMIN CHEW. 

"JOHN MOLAND, 

"JOHN ROSS. 
"June 19th, 1759." 

Mr. Peters observed that both by the Commission of Govern- 
ment and Property, the Surveyor G-eneral and Secretary were put 
under the G-overnor's immediate Protection; And therefore, as they 
had never misbehaved, and there was such a Confidence reposed in 
his Honor by the Proprietaries, towards them and all other Propri- 
etary Officers, he requested, and hoped the Governor would be 
pleased to extend to them, on this and all Occasions, that Protec- 
tion and Countenance which by his Commissions they had just 
Cause to expect. 

Many objections were made by Mr. Chew and Mr. Moland r 
besides those contained in the Paper of observations, to almost 
every part of it, and in the Course of their Arguments they de- 
clared that the faults of the Bill were so many, and the plan so 
unjust to the present Officers, who were acknowledged to have be- 
haved well in their Offices, so injurious to the just Rights of the 
Proprietaries, and might prove so destructive to the Estates and 
Property of the Inhabitants, that it was not possible to amend the 
Bill ; but that if another was drawn at more leisure, and on the 
plan of the Observations, it might be considered and made a very 
useful Bill, And therefore advised the Governor to reject the Bill, 
and to desire the House to form another. The Members concur- 
ring in Sentiment with the Governor, the Bill was sent to the 
House with the following Message : 

A Message from the Governor to the Assembly. 

" Gentlemen : 

"I have Considered your Amendments to the Bill Entituled 'An 
Act for recording Warrants and Surveys, &c a -> and conceive they by 
no means Answer to remove the Objections I laid before you, some 
of the most Material of which, I must observe, you have passed 
over without taking any Notice of them. The Bill, as it now 



362 MINUTES OF THE 

stands, is so very exceptionable, that it is hardly possible to amend 
it, without framing it anew ; Therefore, I am under the Necessity 
of refusing my Assent to it, and recommend it to you, when it 
suits your leisure, to make a new Draught on the Plan of the Obser- 
vations I lately laid before you. 

"WILLIAM DENNY. 
"June 19th, 1759." 

MEMORANDUM. 

On the Twentieth the Governor ordered the Secretary to compare 
the three Bills to which he had given his Assent as they were en- 
grossed, with the Originals, and this being done the Governor sent 
a Message to the House requiring their Attendance in the Council 
Chamber, where they came, and three Bills respectively entituled 
as foliows, viz. : " An Act for re-Emitting the Bills of Credit of 
Thi? Province heretofore re-Emitted on Loans, and for sfriking the 
further Sum of Thirty-Six thousand Six Hundred and Fifty Pounds, 
to enable the Trustees to lend Fifty Thousand Pounds to Colonel 
John Hunter, Agent for the Contractors with the Right Honour- 
able the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury, for His 
Majesty's Service:" " An Act for the Relief of the Heirs, Devi- 
sees and Assigns of persons Born out of the King's Legience, who 
have been Owners of Lands within this Province, and died unnatu- 
ralized '" and " An Act for the more effectual suppressing and pre- 
venting of Lotteries and Plays," were enacted into Laws. 

The Speaker presented the Governor with an Order for One 
Thousand Pounds on the Trustees of the General Loan Office, for 
which his Honour returned thanks to the House, and acquainted 
his Honour that the House inclined to adjourn to the second Day 
of July next, to which the Governor made no objection. 

Mr. Lardner and Mr Logan were of opinion as the Bill for re- 
cording Warrants and Surveys very much concerned the Proprie- 
tary Rights and Estate, that it should be sent to the Proprietaries 
and detained by the Governor till he was furnished with their Sen- 
timents upon it. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Thursday, the 5th of July r 
1759. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq r - Lieutenant Gover- 
nor. 

Benjamin Shoemaker, William Logan,") 

Richard Peters, Benjamin Chew, > Esquires. 

Thomas Cadwalader, John Moland, J 

The Governor laid before the Council a Bill presented to him 
yesterday for his concurrence, Entituled " An Act for recording 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 363 

Warrants and Surveys, and for rendering the real Estates and pro- 
perty within this Province more secure/' together with a Message 
from the Assembly and a Paper signed by Mr. Joseph Galloway, 
all which was read. 

A Message to the Governor from the Assembly. 

u May it Please your Honour : 

" We have carefully considered the Observations sent down with 
the Bill entituled " An Act for recording Warrants and Surveys, 
&c a '" and have framed a new One upon the Plan of that formerly 
laid before your Honour. In this Bill we have taken in such parts 
of those Observations as we Judge reasonable and necessary, and 
we cannot but observe that the other parts of them appear to us 
contradictory to each other, or inconsistent with the Usage of a 
British Parliament, our own Province, and that of a neighboring 
Government. We herewith Send such Remarks made upon those 
Observations by a Gentleman of the Law, a Member of our House r 
in Point of Law and Reason, as we hope will prove Satisfactory to 
your Honour, and obviate all Objections, and that upon Considering 
the great Importance of this Bill to the Freeholders and Inhabi- 
tants of this Province, you will be pleased to give your Assent to 
it as now sent up by the House. 

" Signed by order of the House, 

"ISAAC NORRIS, Speaker. 

« July 4th, 1759." 



Remarks on the Observations on the Bill entituled "An Act for 
recording Warrants and Surveys, &c a -:" 

"Remarks on Observa"- 1st. 

u The Surveys, Maps, Charts, &c a -' directed to be recorded by the 
Bill, are those made by the Surveyor General or his Deputies, Offi- 
cers appointed by the Proprietaries for that Purpose, who give se- 
curity to them for the faithful Discharge of their Duty, and ever 
have been deemed Publick Officers. Their Handwriting is generally 
well known, and must be certainly so to an Officer who is constantly 
receiving Surveys from them. These Papers have ever been re- 
turned to the Surveyor General's Office, without any proof of their 
being genuine or Authentick, or made under a proper Power and 
Authority, unless the Care Certificate or Signing of the Deputy 
may be esteemed a Proof; if so, 'tis what the Bill implicitly re- 
quires, so that the real Estates of the Inhabitants will not be either 
so insecure or precarious as they at Present are, the Officer to whom 
such Surveys, &c a> ' are to be brought and returned in order to be 



364 MINUTES OF THE 

recorded, being under the Sacred Tye of a Legal Qualification, and 
good Security to the Publick to execute his Trust with Fidelity, 
which the present Officer does not do, but on the Contrary gives 
private Bond to the Proprietaries, who in this respect can only be 
Considered as private Persons, whose Interest is as incompatable 
with the People's, as that of any Buyer or Seller whatsoever. 

" Nor will the Surveys, &c a ' directed to be recorded, be more sub- 
ject to Forgery without being detected, from the Originals not be- 
ing preserved, than Deeds enrolled in Great Britain or in this Pro- 
vince, the Originals whereof are not diiected to be secured in any 
Office, but delivered back to the Owners thereof after the enrollment. 
However, if a Proof by Witnesses, or the Acknowledgement of the 
Surveyor, will render the real Estates of the People more Secure, 
and the Securing them in the office when recorded may tend to de- 
tect Forgeries, as it cannot injure the Bill, and only put the people 
to the unnecessary Expence of a Copy, perhaps rather than lose the 
Advantage the Public will receive, it will be best to amend the Bill 
accordingly. 

" Remarks on Observa a - 2d. 

" This Observation contains an evident Contradiction to the first, 
which insists that the Originals ought t© be secured in some office, 
and in this and the fourth Observation that Exemplications of 
them bj/ no means ought to be admitted as Evidence while the 
Originals are in being. Now none can conceive how an Original 
Survey, or other Paper which is to be secured in some certain Of- 
fice, can be made use of in evidence in the several Courts of Jus- 
tice in this Province, some of which are an hundred miles distant 
from one another, Unless they can conceive it possible for the 
same thing to be in two different Places at the same time. But 
further to show the Mischief of this Position, some Surveys con- 
tinues the Lands of many different people, who are equally inter- 
ested therein ; to^rust the Originals out of the Office to either of 
the Persons interested would be rendering the Rights and Title of 
the others precarious and insecure. If not lost, by frequent carry- 
ing about, they must in time be worn out, or so defaced as not to be 
legible, and therefore rendered of no use. 

Warrants and Surveys are two of the most Essential Links of 
the chain, upon which all the real Estates in the Province depend, 
Many of them singly are absolutely necessary to make out the titles 
of many different Persons, and many of them have been lost or 
destroyed by their remaining in the Proprietaries private Office 
without being recorded. And it being highly unsafe and incon- 
venient, that the Originals in which so many are concerned should 
longer remain in this loose and precarious Situation, The Legis- 
lature intended by this Bill to remedy these Inconveniences by in- 
stituting an Office or Common Repository for them, where they 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL 365 

may remain on Record in Custodia Legis, under the Care of a sworn 
Officer empowered to give exemplifications of them, and such exem- 
plifications are declared to be as good Evidence as the Originals. 
But if in no Case under this Law Maxim, an Exemplified Copy is 
to be admitted in Evidence, but in Case of the loss of the Original, 
and that Original is to be by Law secured in some office, What 
method shall a IVlan take to Prove his title in the different Courts of 
Justice in this Province, or before the King and Council in case of an 
Appeal? Has not the necsssity of the Case prevailed on our Judges 
since the settlement of the Colony to admit even Certified Copies by 
the Surveyor General without Seal, who is not under Oath or Autho- 
rized by Law for that Purpose? Are not proved Copies or Exempli- 
cations of the inrolment of Deeds by the Stat, of Enrollments, and 
Several othtfr Statutes made for registering of Deeds, &c a- ' in the sev- 
eral Parts of England, declared to be sufficient Evidence ? Is not the 
Chyrograph of a fine good Evidence ? The Chyrographer being by 
Law appointed to give out Copies of the Agreement between the 
Parties, that are lodged of Record. 

But this sacred Law Maxim seems to be both misunderstood and 
Misapplied. It never was extended that I can find, to Exemplifi- 
cations of a Deed inrolled, or other Record, by the Officer under 
Oath, and appointed for that purpose. The Rule will hold good 
where a person who is presumed to have an Original deed in his 
Possession, and without Proof of its being lost, destroyed, or out of 
his Power, Offers a Copy of it in Evidence. Here the Copy is not 
the best Evidence the nature of the Case will admit of, for the Ori- 
ginal is better, which for aught that appears, the Party might pro- 
duce, and that not being, it induces a Suspicion that the Original, if 
produced, would make against him, and therefore the Copy is ever 
rejected. But to apply this Maxim to Exemplification of Deeds or 
other things Examined and recorded by a Sworn Officer, and en- 
trusted to give out such Exemplifications, is so far from being the 
Opinion of the best Judges, that it strikes at and Contradicts the 
Policy and Wisdom of the Legislature of our Mother Country, as 
well as our own. 

Remark on Observa"- 3d. 

'Tis true the Common Law has provided a Remedy for Persons 
whose Papers and Title Deeds are in the Possession of another. 
But that Remedy is no. adequate to the Mischief by this Bill in- 
tended to be avoided. There are many particular Warrants and 
Surveys under which different Persons claim, and to which many 
different people have an equal Right, and yet it is impossible all 
should possess them. And it is by no means consistent with that 
Security which should ever attend Real Property, That another 
should keep the Muniments of my Right who may loose or even 
destroy them at his pleasure, to my great Prejudice. Beside, there 
are sundry particular papers belonging to the Publick, in which no 



366 MINUTES OF THE 

/ 
Individual is separately concerned, for which no Action of Detei- 
nure can be brought, and which ought to be recovered and entered 
on Record. To remedy these Inconveniences, the Assembly, by the 
Bill, have appointed a Publick Officer to Collect, sue for, and recover, 
and when recovered, to record all such Papers, that the Publick and 
all the Parties concerned, may have free access to and full Benefit 
and Advantages from, whenever his or their Title is impeached or 
called in Question, which End and purpose the Action of Deteinure 
at Common Law could never answer. And therefore the Legisla- 
ture of New Jersey, a Province with respect to the recording War- 
rants and Surveys lately very much in our Circumstances, have in- 
vested their Publick Officer with the same Powers invested in the 
present Bill. 

As to the new and very extensive Power (as 'tis called) of the 
Officer appointed in the Bill. It is expressly confined to Warrants 
granted by the Proprietaries and Surveys, Charts, &c, made and 
xiyned by a publick Surveyor or his Deputy. Many of which 
have never been returned to any Office, nor has the Subject a power 
by any Law to oblige and enforce such a Return, by which means 
numbers of Purchasers, for a valuable Consideration, have been 
rendered incapable of showing their Right., and of course deprived 
of it. These Officers, under the Proprietaries, gives Security to 
them for the faithful Discharge of their Duty, and therefore there 
can be little Danger of their making and signing Surveys without 
due Warrant, and Authority. Nor can there be any doubt but the 
Court where the Suit is brought, in this Case as in all others, will 
Oblige the Party to Prove the Papers Authentick, and that they 
were made and signed as the bill directs by the Proprietaries or 
their Publick Surveyors, without which the Offieer, as the Bill 
now stands, could not be entituled to recover. The Power given the 
Officer by this Bill is much more confined and limitted than in the 
like Case in New Jersey, where that Multiplicity of suits and end- 
less Scene of Confusion, so much dreaded as the Consequence 
thereof, has never yet happened, nor is it reasonable or indeed 
Charitable to think this abuse will ever happen, as it cannot be 
done without the Officer's incurring the Penalties of Perjury and 
forfeiting his Bond, the greatest Security the Law know of, without 
receiving the least Benefit from this henious Offense and great 
Risque. 

And as to the saving Clause mentioned in this Observation, no 
good reason can be offered for inserting it in the Bill, as the remedy 
thereby given, extend no further than that before mentioned at 
Common Law, with respect to the recovery of the thing sued for, 
and never could be construed to abridge a court of equity (had we 
such a one at first) of its power to favor an innocent Purchaser for 
a Valuable Consideration without Notice. For if a Person has the 
Deed of another, and a suit or action of Deteinure is brought at the 
Common Law for it, it is no good plea that he is a Purchaser for a 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 367 

valuable Consideration without Notice, but the Plaintiff will either 
recover the Deed or full Damages for the Detention. To insert 
such a clause would take away even the Subject's Remedy at Com- 
mon Law. 

Remarks on Observa"- 4th. 

" The Secretary's and Surveyor General's Offices were originally 
instituted by the Proprietary, as his Private Offices and private Se- 
curity has been ever taken from the respective Officers for the faith- 
ful Discharge of their Trust, and I have been informed they like- 
wise are under oath for that Purpose. To oblige by Law the same 
Persons to give Security to the Publick, and to take an Oath for 
the Discharge of their Duty to the People who are under the like 
ties and Solemn Obligations to private Individuals, which the Pro- 
prietaries as to matters of property certainly are, would be a Strange 
and novel piece of Legislative Policy. It would be imposing on 
him the hard task of Serving Two Masters, whose Interests in this 
respect are as diametrically opposite as the Interests of any Buyer 
or Seller whatsoever : For whatsoever Surveys of Land are lost or 
destroyed, or the Purchaser thereby rendered incapable of making 
out his Right, The Land of Course reverts to the Proprietaries, 
who may sell the same to another, while the Heirs and Representa- 
tives of the first bona fide purchaser are deprived of their Property. 
Of this there has been many Instances, and some of them may be 
readily shown to any impartial Judge; From whence it is evident 
that the real Properties of the People cannot be Safe and Secure, 
but in having the Muniments and Evidences which concern their 
Possessions and Inheritances in the Hands of Officers under the 
more coercive obligations to preserve them, and perfectly free and 
disengaged from /the Interest and Influence of the Proprietaries or 
any other Persons whatsoever. Of this Opinion was the late and 
present Chief, /Justice and one of his Brother Judges, when they 
advise the annexing a Power of recording Warrants and Surveys 
not in the Surveyor General's but in the master of the Rolls. 3 
votes, p. 261." 

Remarks on Observation 5th. 

"It is the constant practice with the Proprietaries, before a war- 
rant is granted, to oblige the person to pay down part of the Con- 
sideration Money, and for the Residue they charge Interest until the 
whole is paid. A Warrant and Survey returned into the Surveyor 
General's Office, without more has ever been adjudged by all our 
Courts of Justice, to give a good Title as well against the Proprie- 
taries as all Subsequent Purchasers, and this is founded on an 
Original Covenant on Record with the people. It has therefore 
been declared by very good Judges, and particularly the late Chief 



368 MINUTES OF THE 

Justice John Kinsey, That the Right vested in the People on the 
Payment of the Money and granting of the Warrant, and that the 
Proprietaries having an adequate Remedy at law both for the Pur- 
chase Money unpaid and the Rent agreed for, could have no right to 
vacate their Warrants granted to the People for a Valuable Con- 
sideration. But Suppose Argumenti Gratia, That these Contracts 
are Executory, and that the Proprietaries have the Mischievous and 
unreasonable Power of Vacating them at Will, tho they are possessed 
of a part of the Consideration, Is it possible that the Recording the 
Evidences of an Executory Right can injure any person whatsoever ? 
Will not the Condition appear on record, and the true Right and 
Interest of the parties be thereby rendered more easy and secure 1 
"By the Clause directing the Deputy Surveyor to return the 
Surveys as soon as made into the office instituted by the Bill, The 
House, I conceive, intended to prevent an Innocent Purchaser from 
being deprived of his Prior Right of Discovery of Vacant Land, 
and to guard against the Mischiefs which the Delays of the Deputy 
Surveyors in making their Returns often occasion, by giving Oppor- 
tunities to others of discovering the same Land, and to himself or 
the Surveyor General, or Commissioner of Property, of favouring a 
favourite in prejudice to the first Discoverer, against which Act of 
Injustice the Subject has no kind of Security, as neither the Com- 
missioner of Property or the Surveyor General or his Deputies are 
under any legal Tye or Qualification to do Justice to the People 
agreeable to the Policy of all good Laws; But as these Mischiefs 
may be in a great measure avoided, and the Objection made to this 
Part of the Bill removed, by directing the Deputy Surveyor to re- 
turn his Survey as soon as may be after it is made into the Surveyor 
General's Office, where it may be revised and examined by the* Sur- 
veyor General and the Proprietary's Commissioner of Property, and 
afterwards returned into the Office appointed by the Bill, within a 
Convenient Time, It may be prudent to amend the Bill accordingly. 

" General Remark. 

u Upon the whole, as the present insecure and precarious state of 
the people's real Estates and Inheritances is fully acknowledged in 
Observation 4th, and that the Officer who is to be intrusted with 
the Evidences of their Titles ought to give good security, and be 
under an oath for the faithful Discharge of his Duty ; and as it 
seems evident, from the plainest Convictions of Reason, that that 
Officer should be free and perfectly disengaged from any Interest 
or Influence whatsoever, and particularly from that of the Proprie- 
taries, That he should be invested with a Power of suing for War- 
rants aud Survey, recovering and recording them, and that his Ex- 
emplifications thereof should be admitted as Evidence in our Courts 
of Justice. 'Tis hoped the Governor may be prevailed upon, on 
further Consideration of this reasonable and necessary Bill, and the 



PKOYINCIAL COUNCIL. 369 

Amendments which shall be made therein by the House, to enact it 
into a Law. 

" Submitted with all due Respect to the House by 

"JOSEPH GALLOWAY." 

Mr. Galloway's remarks were read a Second Time, together with 
the Observations to which they are said to be an answer, and the 
Council observed that it must be Evident to every one that in the 
material Points the Observations were either misunderstood or per- 
verted, evaded, or insufficiently answered, and would Introduce the 
utmost Confusion in the titles of the Estates of the Inhabitants, 
and were particularly injurious to the Just Rights of the Proprie- 
taries and their Officers, and as to the second Bill, it differed very 
little from the first, and none at all in the most exceptionable parts, 
and was upon so bad a plan, and so defective, that it could not be 
amended. And it was surprising to all the Council that the House 
should pay so little regard to the Governor's Message when he re- 
jected the last Bill. 

Mr, Moland acquainted the Council that he had, at the request 
of the Governor, put down in writing the Heads of a Bill which he 
thought would fully answer all the good Purposes intended by the 
Present Bill. And on its being read, it was the unanimous opinion 
of the Council that it should be transcribed and recommended to 
the Assembly, which was done with a Verbal Message delivered by 
the Secretary in these Words : 

"The Governor Commands me to return the Bill entituled " an 
Act for recording of Warrants and Surveys, and for rendering the 
real Estates and Property within this Province more secure," and to 
inform the House that he cannot give his assent to it as it now 
stands. But if the House desires it, he will Communicate by the 
Secretary, the Heads of such a Beneficial and reasonable Bill 
as he is willing to Pass, the necessary amendments being too nu- 
merous to be inserted in the present Bill. And at the request of 
the House, the Paper was delivered to the Speaker, and is in these 
Words : 

" Heads of an act for erecting the officer of Secretary and Sur- 
veyor General of the Province of Pennsylvania into Publick Officers, 
and for erecting a new Office for entering and recording Warrants, 
Surveys, Draughts, Papers, and Vouchers relating to the Lands of 
the Inhabitants of this Province. 

"It may be Inconvenient for the People of this Province of 
Pennsylvania in general, that the Offices of Secretary and Surveyor 
General, so far as relates to the title of Lands, should remain Pri- 
vate Offices, considering the great Interest of the People therein 
respectively, and in case of accidents by fire or otherwise, it will be 
very beneficial for the Province to have Duplicate Entrys of all 
Warrants, Surveys, Draughts, Maps, Minutes of Property relating 
vol. viii. — 24. 



370 MINUTES OF THE 

to Lands, in a proper Office to be erected for that Purpose : There- 
fore, be it enacted, &c a> that the said respective Offices known by 
the respective names of the Office of Surveyor General and Secre- 
tary's Office, so far as relates to Lands or the Title thereof, in this 
Province of Pennsylvania, And the Officers executing the same 
respectively, shall be and shall be deemed and taken to \}e to all 
.intents and Purposes, Publick and Provincial Offices and Officers, 
and the said Office respectively hereafter shall be kept in the City of 
Philadelphia, where all Person and Persons shall have free access at 
:he times hereafter appointed for that Purpose, and shall be called 
by the respective Name and Names aforesaid ; and that all War- 
rants from the Surveying, Locating, and laying out of Land Sur- 
veys, Maps, Charts, Minutes of Property, and other Papers or 
Writings whatsoever, relating to any lands in this Province, which 
have heretofore been drawn, made, or Written, and are or ought to 
be in the said Offices, or in the Custody or Power of the said Offi- 
cers, or either of them, shall be and shall be deemed and taken to 
be to all intents and Purposes, Public Writings, Records or Papers, 
wherein as well the Proprietaries as the People of the said Pro- 
vince respectively are interested ; And that all Warrants, Surveys, 
Maps, and Charts, and other Papers or Writings whatsoever, (ex- 
cept Minutes of Property) relating to Lands as aforesaid, have 
heretofore or which shall hereafter be drawn, made, or written by 
virtue of or under any Person or Authority from the Proprietaries 
aforesaid, shall be lodged and deposited in the said office of Sur- 
veyor General, and the said Minutes of Property in the said Office 
of Secretary, as heretofore hath been used. And be it further 
enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That any Copy or Copies of 
such Warrant or Warrants, Survey or Surveys, Maps, Charts, or 
other Writings, or any and every of them, Signed and Certified by 
the said Surveyor General for the Time being, and proved to be a 
true Copy or Copys of such Original Warrant or Warrants, Sur- 
veys, Maps, Charts, or other Writing or Writings, or any of them, 
shall be a good Evidence in all Courts of Judicature of this Pro- 
vince and elsewhere, as such Original or Originals may or can be. 

u And be it enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That the 
paid Surveyor General and Secretary (who are to be appointed 
and give such Security as hereinafter is mentioned) shall forth- 
with provide proper Books respectively of good Parchment, or 
ihe best paper that may be had, in which Books, so to be pro- 
vided by the Surveyor General for the time being, shall be 
lodged and entered by him or his Deputy, or Deputies, all such 
Warrants, Surveys, Maps, Draughts, Charts, and other Papers and 
Writings as aforesaid, in a fair and Legible Hand Writing; And 
the Pages of every such Book and Books shall be numbered, as well 
as every several Writing Copied therein ; And in every such Book 
and Books shall be made and Written an Index, in an Alphabetical 
Manner, of the Name and Names of the respective Townships and 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 371 

Counties in this Province where the Lands respectively lay, to 
which each and every Writing, Draught, or Paper, entered or to be 
entered in every such Book & Books shall relate, and each and 
every Denomination shall refer to the Page where each and every 
respective parcel of Land in each respective Township is or are 
entered »in such Book and Books; And, also, there shall be made 
and Written in every such Book and Books an Index, in an Alpha- 
betical order, to each and every of the name and Names of every 
first Purchaser of each and every Tract, Piece, or Parcel of Land 
whereto any of the said Draughts, Writings, or Papers do or shall 
relate respectively; and each of the said names shall refer to the 
Page or Pages where such Name or Names are respectively men- 
tioned in any of the said Entries, for the more Speedy and ready 
finding out each and every distinct and Seperate Writing, Draught, 
or Paper so to be entered in such Book or Books as aforesaid (and 
the same for the Secretary's, &c a- ) 

"And be it enacted by the Authority aforesaid, that the said offi- 
cers respectively shall, upon application made to either of them 
respectively for such purpose, make such Diligent Searches for each 
and every of the said Warrants, Surveys, Draughts, Maps, Charts, 
Writings, and Papers whatsoever as aforesaid, as shall be required 
of them, or either of them respectively, by any Person or Persons 
whatsoever, for each of which Searches the said respective Officers 
shall receive and be paid them Sum of , and 

no more; and the said Secretary and Surveyor General respectively 
shall, upon demand, give a Certificate or Certificates of such Search 
or Searches being so made; and that they or either of them have 
or hath not found (as the truth shall be) such Warrant, Survey, 
Draught, Map, Paper, or Writing, so Searched for as aforesaid; 
and for such Certificate the said Officers respectively shall take and 
receive , and no more. And in case they or 

either of them, the said Secretary or Surveyor General, shall give 
a false Certificate or Certificates, he shall forfeit to the Party or 
Parties grieved treble Damages, to be recovered by Action on the 
Case in the County where such Offence or Offences, Default or Ne- 
glect; shall be so committed." 

" How the Officers are to be appointed or Nominated. 

" To be sworn. 

" To give security for the faithful Discharge of their respective 
Duties. 

¥ In case of Death, Officers how to be appointed. 

<• Officers making false or Fraudulent Entries, to be punished as 
for Forgery under the Stat. 

" And every Person Forsworn in any of the Cases aforesaid, shall 
be liable to the same Penalties as if the Oath had been taken ia 
any Court of Judicature in this Province. 



372 MINUTES OF THE 

" Then Erect a Duplicate Office. 

" The Entries in the Duplicate Office all to be sworn to 'be true 
Copys of the respective Originals and Papers from whence Copied. 

" The. Same Clauses and Regulations as to the Duplicate Officers 
far as applicable, as Drawn respecting the Offices and Officers. 

" Certificates from the Duplicate Officer to be as good Evidence as 
the Originals, Where they cannot be had, or Copys immediately 
from them. 

"Fees to be taken by the Officers respectively, and Compensations 
for their respective Services under this Act. 

" Nothing herein contained shall be Construed so as to effect, alter, 
confirm, or invalidate any Contracts with the Proprietaiies, which 
are or shall be unperformed, but that the same shall remain and be 
in such State and Condition as if this Act had never been made." 

A Letter of the Twenty-Seventh of June, from the Judges of the 
Supream Court of the Lower Counties, was read, acquainting the 
Governor that a certain John Willey, who had shot William Out- 
ten, the Sub-Sheriff of Worcester County, in Maryland, had been 
indicted of manslaughter, and plead guilty, and was burnt in the 
Hand. 

It was recommended to the Governor to write a Letter to Gover- 
nor Sharpe, and to Send him a Copy of the Judge's Letter. 

The Secretary desired his Minutes might be read of the prece- 
ding Councils, he having wrote them fair, on separate Sheets, in 
which all was put down that was said, on each Bill, distinct by it- 
self. The Governor was pleased to say he would appoint a Time 
on Purpose to have the Minutes read over, and appointed Mr. 
Chew and Mr. Larduer a Committee, with the Secretary to revise 
them. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Saturday the 7th of July, 
1759. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq'-' Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

William Logan, Richard Peters, ~> p s • 

Benjamin Chew, Thomas Cadwalader, 5 - 

The Governor informed the Council that having received a Letter 
from General Stanwix, dated at Lancaster the Second Instant, he 
had yesterday sent an Extract thereof to the House, with the fol- 
lowing verbal Message : 

"Sir: 

"I am Commanded by the Governor to lay before the House, an 
Extract of a Letter he has just now received from Brigadier Gene- 
ral Stanwix, and his Honour most earnestly recommends the 
General's request to their most immediate Consideration." 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 373 

Extracts from General Staiiwix's Letter to the Governor. 

u For God's Sake, Sir, press the Assembly for the same Law as 
last Year, with the Penalty of Twenty Pounds, tho' it be but for 
four or five months J it will be of infinite use to us. 

" The Light Horse must not be forgot ; to grant which, I hope 
the Assembly will Comply, if the Commissioners cannot do it of 
themselves; every Body tells me that the Service on the Commu- 
nication will go on very heavily without them. 

" A Post was regularly kept last year by the Assembly for the 
Communication; hope they will not treat me worse than they did 
General Forbes." 

And then His Honour laid before the Board the following Mes- 
sage, which he received this morning by Two Members, who ac- 
quainted him that the House desired to know his final result on the 
Bill for recording Warrants and Surveys, now before him, as soon 
as possible, as they design to adjourn this afternoon to the Tenth 
day of September next : 

A Message to the Governor from the Assembly. 

* ( May it please your Honour : 

" We have considered the Several Requests of General Stanwix 
sent down by your Honour, and are of Opinion that had the late 
General Forbes complied with his Contract in furnishing Forage 
and paying the Inhabitants for their Waggon and Horse Hire last 
year, there had been no use or occasion for a further Law to 
impress Carriages, nor would such Occasion Continue, were those 
Contracts even now paid off and discharged, as both His Majesty's 
Service and Justice to the People loudly demand ; For there can 
be no doubt but the same People, who, with so much chearfulness 
entered their Waggons and Horses into the King's Service last 
year, were they rendered capable by receiving their just Due from 
the Crown, would with the same Readiness enter into the like 
Service again. We, therefore, request the Governor would recom- 
mend to the General, as the most effectual Method of procuring Wag- 
gons and Carrying on the present Expedition, to order immediate 
Payment of the Sums so long due on the Old Contract; without 
which, many people who have Waggons and are desirous of serving 
the King are not able to fit them out. We cannot doubt the Gene- 
ral's Compliance, as his Majesty's service is so essentially concerned 
therein, and as this Government has lent the Crown the Large Sum 
of Fifty Thousand Pounds for this very purpose. We must fur- 
ther remark, that it will but little avail for the Legislature to make 
Laws respecting the Hire of Carriages, since we have found those 
theretofore made have been in a great measure disregarded by the 
General, and Terms by no means so beneficial to the People as 
directed by Law forced upon them ; this must certainly not only 



374 MINUTES OF THE 

discourage the Service, but the Legislature from complying with the 
General's request until they have reason to believe the Laws they 
shall make will be executed and obeyed by him. 

" We know from late Experience that the Expence of two Troop 
of Light Horse will be very considerable, and the aids granted to 
the Crown for current Year's Service, being nearly expended, it is 
not in our Power to Comply with the General's Request relating 
thereto. 

11 It is true the Assembly, at the Desire of General Forbes, did 
Establish a Post, and the Provincial Commissioners Post Horses, 
for carrying Dispatches to and from the Communication ; but upon 
Experience they found that tho' it was attended with an extraordi- 
nary and heavy Expence, yet it did not Lessen the Charge which 
before accrued on that Article, the Business being principally done 
by Special Expresses. 

" Signed, by order of the House, 

"ISAAC NORMS, Speaker, 

"July 7th, 1759." 

The Governor acquainted the Council that he had received from 
the House the Bill for recording Warrants and Surveys, with a 
Message, in these Words : 

" May it Please your Honour : 

" However unprecedented it may be for Governors to send down* 
Heads of Bills to the Assemblies of this Province, we have in. 
order, if possible, to obtain a Bill so important and necessary to 
the Security of the Property of the People, as that for recording 
Warrants and Surveys, &c a ' considered those laid before us by your 
Honour therewith, but as the approach of Harvest renders the 
Presence of the Country Members immediately necessary at home, 
we have not Time now to point out all the Numerous Contradictions^ 
Defects and Mischiefs a Bill formed agreeable to them would intro- 
duce, one j however, we cannot help taking Notice of. 

" With Respect to Matters of Property, our Proprietaries must 
ever be considered in the Light of private individuals as much as 
any of the King's Subjects in the Province j and as they are the 
Landlords, of whom the People hold their real Estates, their In- 
terest in this respect is diametrically opposite to that of the People. 
To prove this, many Instances may be given where, by some means, 
the Securities and Evidences of the People's Rights have been lost 
and destroyed, and their Lands have been sold over again, to the 
great Prejudice of the true Owners. To form a Bill, therefore, for 
securing the Evidences and Vouchers of the Rights of the Inhabi- 
tants, and to prevent future Impositions and Frauds that may be 
perpetrated by the Proprietaries Officers on the Property and Pos- 
sessions of Persons beyond Sea, Orphans and Minors ; and by the 
same Bill to entrust those Evidences and Vouchers in the Hands 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 375 

and Power of those very Officers, who, we are informed, are under 
private Oaths and Securities to the Proprietaries, would be such an. 
Instance of Legislative Inconsistency as no good Policy can justify, 
for by this means that very state of Insecurity of the Peo- 
ple's Rights, which have been occasioned by the Want of Law, 
would be established and confirmed by the Law itself. 

" Against this Mischief, with many others, the Bill late presented 
to your Honour was attended, and does equitably provide, without 
doing any injury to the Proprietaries; we, therefore, again entreat 
the Governor to re consider it, and give his Assent thereto, as it iu 
a Bill of the greatest Importance to the Welfare of the People com- 
mitted to his Care. 

" Signed, by order of the House, 

" ISAAC NORRIS, Speaker. 

"July 6th, 1759." 

His Honour was pleased to speak to the Council as follows : 
" Gentlemen : 

" I have heard with attention the Reasons that have been urged 
against the Bill, and, also, on the other side, have weighed the Im- 
portance of it to all the Inhabitants of this Province. You, Gen- 
tlemen, are of one Opinion, and the Representatives of the People 
are unanimously of another. If the Lords of Trade have any ob- 
jections to this Act it will be laid before his Majesty in Council, 
who is the most equal as well as Supreme Judge of the Rights of 
the Proprietaries and the People." 

He then delivered the Bill to the Secretary, and desired him to 
read it over, to see if it was the same that was sent to him and re- 
turned to the House, who, after reading it over, told the Governor 
that he observed no Razures nor Interlineations in it, but it was 
impossible for him to carry in his memory the Contents of so Long 
a Bill, as to say whether it was or was not the same. 

The Governor observed to the Council that he had no Intention 
to hurt the present Secretary or the Surveyor General, in their 
Lawful Perquisites, and would be glad to add a Provise to the Bill, 
to make a Compensation to them for the Loss of such perquisite* 
and Fees in their Offices as might be occasioned by this Bill. He 
asked Mr. Peters what he thought the Loss would be to him, and 
likewise to the Surveyor General, if the present Bill should pass. 
To which Mr. Peters answered that the Bill was in itself unjust, 
and it was impossible for him to say in what manner his or the Sur- 
veyor General's Office might be affected by it. He was, therefore, 
desired to consult the Surveyor General, and having done so, he re- 
ported to the Governor that the Surveyor General said the Bill 
would be very injurious to him and his Deputies, but could not as- 
certain the Loss. And he doubted much if he or they would ven- 
ture to accept Warrants at the Risque of paying Fifty Pounds, if 



376 MINUTES OF THE 

they did not execute them within the limited time by the Act. 
This, however, he was pretty sure of, that all further applications 
for searches and Copies of Papers would now be made to the Popular 
Officer, And. at present he received above fifty Pounds a year in 
those two Articles? 

The following additional Clause was, at the Instance of the Gov- 
ernor, inserted in the Bill respecting the present Secretary and Sur- 
veyor General : 

And then the Governor sent a Message to the House that he 
was ready to give his assent to the Bill. And it was according the 
same Day enacted into a Law, And the great Seal affixed thereto 
by the Governor, in the Presence of two Members. 

The Speaker presented to the Governor an Order for One Thou- 
sand Pounds, on the Trustees of the Loan Office. 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Monday the 20th of August 
1759. 

PRESENT I 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq r >- Lieutenant Gover- 
nor. 

Hichard Peters, Lynford Lardner, Esquires. 

Several Letters from Brigadier General Stanwix, of the thirteenth 
and sixteenth Instant, to the Governor, were read, wherein he de- 
sires Two Companies of Artificers for the Building of the Forts 
and erecting Vessels on Lake Erie, &c a- ' which were ordered to be 
entered. 

A Letter from General Stanwix to Governor Denny. 

Bedford, the 13th August, 1759. 
"Dear Sir: 

" f am sorry to be under a Necessity of acquainting you that 
after exerting my utmost Endeavors and all the active Assistance 
you was pleased to give me, I cannot yet procure a Sufficient Num- 
ber of Waggons to transport the Provisions necessary for the Main- 
tenance of the Army under my Command. 

" The County of Lancaster, our Chief Dependance, is the most 
Backward, and Bucks and Chester have given us only Nominal 
Assistance, by sending us impressed Waggons, unfit for this Ser- 
vice, by the Weakness of the Horses and Carriages. The Mana- 
gers meet with more opposition in these two Counties than in any 
of the others, as the Magistrates seem unwilling to disoblige them ; 
and unless they are spurred by the fear of incuning your Displea- 
sure, I am afraid they will not Exert their Authority in such a 
manner as will Answer the Purpose. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 377 

" It is with reluctance that I must trouble you again upon this 
Subject, but being stopped in my march, for want of a Sufficient 
and Certain Succession of Carriages, I am obliged to have recourse 
to you to extricate me out of this Difficulty. 

" I have wrote the Inclosed Circular Letter to the Managers of 
each County, to spirit them up, and Endeavour to make the best 
use of this most favourable Opportunity. 

" Exclusive of the great Supply of Provisions necessary for Troops, 
Waggons, Horses, Drivers, &c a- ' there has constantly been hundreds 
of Indians to Feed at Pittsburgh, which has sunk that Magazine 
as fast as it could be Supplied, and the demand for Carriages for 
Indian Goods, Cloathing for Provincial Troops, and other Necessary 
Stores, has also contributed to prevent any considerable Magazine of 
Provisions being formed at that Post. 

" I must beg you will make Application to the Assembly for the 
immediate furnishing me with two Companies of Shipwrights, and 
other Necessary Artificers to be employed, as soon as possible, in 
building proper vessels on Lake Erie, to secure the Command of 
that Water, the Trade and friendly Interest with the over Lake 
Indians, and preserve the Communication with Niagara. 
" I am, Sir, 

" your most obedient and most hum 6. Servant, 
"JOHN STANWIX." 



Circular Letter from General Stanwix to Managers for Waggons. 

"Camp at Fort Bedford, the 13th August, 1759. 
" Gentlemen : 

" The Glorious Success of His Majesty's Arms in the Beginning 
of this Campaign, must fill the Heart of every good Subject with 
Gratitude, Zeal, and Activity for His Service. The People of this 
Province have it now more particularly in their Power to shew their 
Loyalty, by exerting themselves in furnishing without Delay the 
Waggons wanted for this Expedition. 

" All the Difficulties are removed. The Communication with 
Pittsburgh is intirely clear of Enemies. The Roads are good, 
having been repaired by the Troops with great Pains and Fatigue. 
The Harvest is now over. Ready Money is regularly paid for 
every Service done, and indeed I cannot suppose that the Inhabi- 
tants of this Province would so far forget their Duty and the signal 
Favours they have lately received, by the Blessing of Providence,, 
upon all our Enterprises, as to Express the least Sign of unwilling- 
ness or Backwardness on this Occasion. 

"The Season advances fast upon us, and our Magazines are not 
half full. All our Delays are owing to Want of Carriages. The 
Troops are impatient to dislodge and drive the Enemy from- their 



378 MINUTES OF THE 

Posts on this side the Lake, and by Building a respectable Fort 
upon the Ohio, secure to His Majesty the just Possessions of that 
rich Country, encroached upon as by a Troop of Murderers, who 
for many years have laid your Frontiers waste, murdered and Capti- 
vated your Inhabitants without Distinction of Age or Sex. Would 
not this be the Case again, if we don't Seize this favourable Oppor- 
tunity to extirpate them intirely. 

"I expect, Gentlemen, from your known Zeal and Consciousness 
of the necessity of taking at this Juncture the most Active Mea- 
sures, that you will exert yourselves in a particular Manner to 
Spirit up the People in your Departments, and engage them to assist 
us with their Waggons, and avoid the Eternal Blame and heavy 
Charge that would lay at their Doors, If by an unwarrantable In- 
difference for the Good of their Country, this Expedition should 
miscarry for want of a few Waggons, when they have it in their 
Power by a Month or two of labour to secure themselves and to 
their Children a lasting and undisturbed Peace, and the free Posses- 
sion of their Liberties and Properties, and remove their Enemies at 
such Distances as never to be able to disturb them again. 

"I desire this Letter maybe communicated to the Magistrates of 
each County, and I depend upon their ready Concurrence and Au- 
thority to assist you, and remove any frivolous Objection tending 
to Delay the Execution of this Important Service. 

" Numbers of the Waggons furnished hitherto are bad; The 
Horses too weak, and as they can do no Service, I expect that they 
will be replaced by Sufficient Ones, as I cannot admit such disabled 
Teams to be part of the Proportion of a County. 

" Please to inform me Speedily of your success that I may take 
my measures accordingly. 

" I am, Sir, 

" Your Most Obed'' Humble Servant, 

"JOHN STANWIX. 
" To the Managers for Waggons in each County." 



Another Letter from General Stanwix to Governor Denny. 

"Camp at Fort Bedford, the 16th August, 1759. 
" Sir : 

"I inclose you herewith the Copy of my Intelligence from Colo- 
nel Mercer and Captain Croghan, to which I refer you. 

" As your Assembly now Sitts, as I am informed, must again beg 
you would lay before them the necessity of passing a Law for 
Three Months as Last Year, with a Penalty of Twenty Pounds to 
be levied upon those who refuse to send their Waggons to Fort 
Bedford, when thereto called upon by the Lawful Magistrate to 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 379 

make good the Quota at every Township in the Different Counties 
of the Provinces for the Transporting Provisions; And without 
such a Law the Service of this (which in all probabilit ywill be the 
Last) Campaign cannot be carried on, not having yet got one-half 
of the Waggons Wanted ; they value not the present Penalty (as 
the Magistrates writes me) of forty Shillings. 

" and they pay with ease to get Clear of the Service. I have no 
doubt but you will use your utmost Influence with the Assembly to 
Pass this Law, from whi^h I shall receive so much assistance as to 
be able to furnish every Service this Way before the Winter comes 
on. 

" I rejoice with you sincerely upon all the good News we have so 
lately received from Niagara and Ticonderoga, and hope to have the 
Continuance of it from General Wolf. 

" I am, S r -' with great truth, 

a Your most Obed u Hum 6, Servant, 

"JOHN STANWIX." 



Intelligence received from Pittsburgh inclosed in the last Letter. 

u August 12th. Two Shawanese came here from Maguck, and 
informed me that the Cherokees had lately sent three Speeches to 
their Nation, acquainting them that they intended to make War on 
the English, desiring them to assist in the War, and to send the 
Speeches to all the Nations of Indians from the Sun Rising, invit- 
ing them to take up the Hatchet and Join with them, but as their 
Nation had promised me at the late Conference whenever they heard 
any Bad news to acquaint me with it before they determined upon 
anything, that they were sent to acquaint me with this, and to 
know how I should have them act in regard to their Speeches. 

" In the Evening a Delaware Indian informed me that Nine In- 
dians of their Nation from Venango had been in the road below 
Legionier, and taken an Englishman Prisoner, but that he had made 
his Escape from them in the Nighi. 

" 13th. By two Indians who have arrived here this morning from 
Niagara, I have the following Intelligence : That on the fifth, the 
French made a Sally from the Fort, that all the Indians they had 
with them at the Fort deserted them, that the English drove the 
French back into the Fort and took possesion of it. That during 
the Siege, Deliniery, who formerly Commanded on this River, was 
shot through the thigh and taken Prisoner, the Officer that Com- 
manded the Fort at Niagara taken, The Officer that Commanded 
the Troops from Di Troit killed, the Priest killed, and all the rest 
of the officers killed and taken except four, who run away during 
the action on the Fifth. That the French Indians often attempted 
to speak to the Six Nations, but as the Six Nations constantly kept 



380 MINUTES OF THE 

hallooing to them, threatening to put every Indian they found with 
the French to Death, they were afraid to stay, so that they had no 
opportunity of speaking to them, for which reason they can give 
no account of what Number of the English and Six Nations were 
killed. 

"That the French at Presque Isle had sent away all their Stores 
to Detroit, and was waiting when they came by for the French from 
Beuf River and Venango to join them, to get off for Detroit. That 
on an Indian Path leading from Presque Isle to a Delaware Town, 
they met a Frenchman and some Indians, who informed them that 
the French set off from Venango the Day before, which is Six Days 
ago. 

" Seven o'clock in the Evening those Indians came here from Ve- 
nango, and Confirm the above Intelligence of the English taking 
Niagara the fifth Instant by Storm, and say the Indians from over 
the Lakes are very much displeased with the Six Nations, as they 
had a number of their People killed at Niagara; That the French 
had burnt their Forts at Venango, Presque Isle, and La Beuf, and 
gone over the L ikes ; that the French at Venango, before they set 
off, gave the Indians living nigh there Large Presents of Goods, 
laced Coats, and Hatts, and told them they were obliged to run 
away, but that they expected to be in Possession of this River be- 
fore next Spring. They were obliged to Burn every thing they 
had, and destroy their Battoes, as the Water was so low they could 
not get up the Creek with them." 

Then were read two Letters to the Governor from General Am- 
herst, which were ordered to be entered. 

A Letter from General Amherst to Governor Denny. 

" Camp at Crown Point, 8th of August, 1759. 
H Sir : 

" On the Twenty-Seventh Ultimo, I had the pleasure of Com- 
municating to you, that the Enemy had, on the Evening before, 
abandoned the Fort at Ticonderoga, to which I have now the fur- 
ther Satisfaction to add that they have likewise withdrawn them- 
selves from this Place, after having also attempted to blow up the 
Fort, in which they have succeeded only in Part ; and that I am in 
possession of the Ground ever since the fourth, where I propose 
building such a strong Hold as shall most effectually cover and 
Secure all this Country. 

" The Night of my arrival here, I received Letters from Sir Wil- 
liam Johnson, with the additional good new3 of the Success of his 
Majesty's Arms at Niagara, which surrendered by Capitulation on 
the Twenty-Fifth to Sir William, upon whom the Command had 
devolved by the Demise of poor Brigadier General Prideaux, killed 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 38 

in the Trenches on the night of the Twentieth. The Garrison con- 
sisting of Six' Hundred and Seven Men, being Prisoners of War, 
and now on their March to New York, together with Seventeen 
Officers and One Hundred and Sixty Men more, Part of a Corps of 
Twelve Hundred assembled at Detroit, Venango, and Presque Isle, 
under the Command of Mess rs - Aubry and Delignery, for raising the 
Seige; but Sir William Johnson having Intelligence of their ap- 
proach, provided so properly for their reception, that on the morning 
of the Twenty-Fourth, when they meant to March strait to the 
Fort, they met with such an Opposition as they little expected, be- 
ing- intirely routed, with the Loss of all their Officers, and a great 
Number of their Men killed, whilst the Loss on our side was incon- 
siderable. 

" This Signal Success, added to the other advantages, seems an 
happy Presage of the intire Reduction of Canada this Campaign, 
or at least of Circumscribing the Enemy within such narrow Bounds 
as will ever after deprive them of the Power of Exercising any more 
Encroachments, on which I hope I shall have the Satisfaction of 
Congratulating you, as I now do on these late great Events, and 
am, with great Regard, Sir, 

" Your Most Obed'- Hum 6 - Servant, 

"JEFF. AMHERST." 



Another Letter from General Amherst to Governor Denny. 

" Camp at Crown Point, 14th August, 1759. 
"Sir: 

" Yesterday I received from the War Office Sundry Copies of the 
Cartel concluded and agreed upon between our Court and that of 
France, for the Exchange and Ransom of Prisoners, of which I 
here enclose you One j and am, with great regard, Sir, 

"Your Most Obed'- Hum 6 - Serv f -> 
"JEFF. AMHERST." 

The Council, on Considering the Contents of the above Letters 
and Intelligence, advised the Governor to Summons the Assembly, 
and the Secretary was directed to prepare a Writ for their being 
summoned to meet on the Twenty-Ninth Instant. 



MEMORANDUM. 

The Twenty-Ninth of August, 1759, The House being to meet 
this Day by Summons, the Governor called the Council, but none 
attending by reason of Sickness or absence, except Mr. Peters, the 
Governor directed the Secretary to deliver to-morrow morning the 



382 MINUTES OF THE 

following Message to the House, with a Copy of the Writ by which 
they had been summoned, together with the Letters referred to in 

the said Message. 

A Message from the Governor to the Assembly. 

" Gentlemen : 

"I was obliged to call you together before the Day of your ad- 
journment, to lay before the House Letters I have received from 
General Stanwix. 

" I desire you will be pleased to take into your Serious Conside- 
ration the peculiar advantages that will arise to this Colony by your 
Complying with the General's request. Extending our Indian 
Trade, Securing the lives of the Inhabitants, and improving the 
many advantages lately gained over the Enemy, are motives that I 
flatter myself will excite your Zeal and Loyalty in promoting His 
Majesty's Service on this Important Occasion. 

" Having had the Pleasure of receiving from General Amherst 
a particular Account of his late successes, I send you His Excel- 
lency's Letter, with some other Papers of Intelligence from the 
Westward. 

"WILLIAM DENNY. 

"August 30th, 1759." 

The Governor having received several Letters from Colonel Mer- 
cer, with a Copy of a Treaty with the Indians, held by George 
Croghan and Colonel Mercer, in July last, and some Intelligence 
inclosed in the said Letters, all which were ordered to be entered 
in the Council Minutes and delivered to the House, with the afore- 
said Message. 



Minutes of Conferences held at Pittsburgh, in July, 1759, By 
George Croghan, Et,qr., Deputy Agent to the Honourable Sir 
William Johnson, Bart., His Majesty's Agent and Super intend- 
ant for Indian affairs in the Northern District of North Amer- 
ica, With the Chiefs of the Warriors of the Six Nations, Dela- 
wares, JShawanese, and the Wyentotts, who represent the Eight 
following Nations: Ottawas, Chepawas, Putewatimies, Twight- 
wees, Kushkuskies, Kecopes, Shockeys, and Musqiiakces. 

"At a Meeting held at Pittsburgh, on the 4th of July, 1759. 

PRESENT : 

" George Croghan, Esq 1 " Deputy Agent to the Honourable Sir 
William Johnson. 

" Colonel Hugh Mercer, Commandant at Pittsburgh. 
" A number of the Officers of the Garrison. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 383 

" Captain William Front, Captain Thomas McKee, Assistants to 
George Croghan. 

" Captaiu Henry Montour, Interpreter. 

" The Beaver, the Delaware King, arrived here from over the 
Lakes, with a Number of the principal Counsellors and Warriors of 
the Delaware Nation. On their arrival they saluted the Fort with 
a Discharge of their Small Arms, which was returned by a dis- 
charge of the Canuon from the Fort. They then came in. After 
being seated, the Beaver said he only came over the River to shake 
Hands with us • that he was not prepared to speak on any Business, 
and desired we would not, as the Wyondotts, and other Indians, 
who came with him, was over the River. After Drinking a Glass 
of Wine round, we parted. 



" At a Conference held at Pittsburgh on the 5th of July, 1759. 

PRESENT : 

" George Croghan, Esq" - Deputy Agent to the Honourable Sir 
William Johnson, Baronet. 

" Colonel Hugh Mercer, Commandant at Pittsburgh. 

" A Number of the Officers of the Garrison. 

" Captain William Trent, Captain Thomas McKee, assistants to 
George Croghan, Esq r " 

" Captain Henry Montour, Interpreter. 

u Indians. 
" Six Nations Delawares. 

" Tagouuseday, ) p, . - The Beaver, King of the Dela- 

" G-uywsuday, ) * ' ■■' wares, 

" Grandondawe, and Shingas, 1 n , . f \ n 

te '«• T " : ,m i- h - f Chiefs and Cap- 

il Sixteen Warriors, G-eorge, y , . l 

xr . , ° 7 , . ( tains. 

Kickeuskmg, J 

" Shawonese. Killbuck, 

Windohale, 
u Keicenwekhe, John Peters, 

< 4 Louthenia, The Pipe, 

" Opeiwa, and Johnny, 

" Fourteen Warriors Gooshamaqua, 

Mottacha Peter, and a great num- 
ber of other Capt TO - 



384 MINUTES OF THE 

"Wyondotts. 

u ,p v (Deputies Representing their own & eight other 

"SanTegC' J Nati0DS - 

" Sonongua, 

" Terondea, and Twenty-two Warriors. 

" Captain Croghan opened the Conferences with the following 
Ceremonies, addressing himself to the Indians present, of every 
Nation. 

" 'Brethren: 

" ' It gives me Pleasure to see you, The Representatives of so many 
different Nations, at this Council Fire. I bid you all heartily Wel- 
come. 

" ' Brethren : 

" ' With this String I wipe the. Dust and Sweat off your Bodies, 
pick the Bryars out of your feet, and Clear your Eyes, that you 
may see your Brethren's Faces and look Chearful.' 

" Gave a String. 
" < Brethren : 

" ' With this String I clear your Hearts and Minds, that you may 
speak perfectly free and open to us.' 

" Gave a String. 
" l Brethren : 

" * With this String I wipe the Blood from off the Council Seats, 
that your Cloths may not be stained nor your minds disturbed/ 
" Gave a String. 

u As soon as we had done they performed the same Ceremonies 
on their Parts. 

,,The Beaver then got up and desired to know when they might 
Expect the Peace to be confirmed, as the Deputies from the Several 
Nations had fixed a time for their return. Colonel Mercer and 
Captain Croghan appointed a private meeting next morning to fix 
on the time. 



" At a Private Conference held at Pittsburgh on the 6th of July, 
1759. 

" present: 

"George Croghan, Esq r - Deputy Agent to the Honourable Sir 
William Johnson, Baronet. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 385 

u Colonel Hu2;li Mercer. Commandant at Pittsburgh. 

" Captain William Trent, ) . . , , , n n . „ , 

"Captain Thomas M'J&e, j Asslstants to GeOT § e Croglian, Esq'- 

" Captain Henry Montour, Interpreter. 

"The same Indian Chiefs as before. 

" When they were seated Colonel Mercer and Captain Croghan 
proposed to them their going to Philadelphia, in order to Ratify 
and Confirm the Peace ; they refused, saying they would not go to 
Philadelphia while the English and French were at War in their 
Country ; that they would go and see their Brethren when their 
Women and Children would sleep in Peace ; they then proposed to 
the Indians their Waiting the arrival of the General, but they re- 
fused, saying a delay might be attended with bad Consequences at 
this Time, and then insisted on the Peace being confirmed, saying 
that as soon as it was proclaimed through the Nations that the 
Warriors of the several Nations, whose Deputies are now here, 
would abandon the French, on which a Time was fixed to hold a 
Conference with them for that Purpose. 



"July 7th. 

" The Deputies from, the Several Nations waited on Captain Cro- 
ghan, and desired to know the Prices of Goods and skins, which he 
acquainted them with - } they Complained of the Prices of Stroud 
and Skins, saying Stroud was dearer than what they formerly gave 
for it, and that the Prices of Skins and Furs was also less than 
what the Traders formerly gave for them ; and desired that he 
would Write the Governor to have the Prices settled. 



"This Morning the Indians called Captain Croghan to a private 
Conference. 

" Pittsburgh, July 8th, 1759. 

" PRESENT : 

" George Croghan, Esq r - Deputy Agent to Sir William Johnson. 
" Captain Henry Montour, Interpreter. 

" Indians : 
" The Deputies from the Several Nations as before. 
" When we were seated, these Deputies fourteen Belts and 
two Large Bunches of Strings of Wampum, which they said was 
the Wampum of the nine following Nations : Wyondotts, Ottawas, 
vol. viii. — 25. 



386 MINUTES OF THE 

Chepawas, Putawatinies, Twightwees, Kushkushkies, Keopas, Shoe- 
keys, and Musquakes, impowering the Wyondott Deputies to act in 
behalf of their Nations, and to confirm the Peace between them and 
the English, as was agreed upon in a Council held over the Lakes 
by the Beaver King with their Nations, and a Road Belt, by which 
these Nations have cleared the Road to the Sun Rising, that they 
may travel in Peace to see their Brethren, the English, as formerly. 
They then replied, we have now shewed you the Powers by which 
we act in favour of the Several Nations just mentioned to you, and 
we desire to hear what you have to say to us to-morrow, as we are 
impatient to return Home; And a meeting was appointed in the 
Morning for that Purpose. 



"At a Conference held at Pittsburgh, July 9th, 1759. 

"present : 
'- George Croghan, Esq 1 "-' Deputy Agent to the Honourable Sir 
William Johnson, Baronet. 

" Colonel Hugh Mercer, Commandant at Pittsburgh. 



" Captains. 


Lieuten ts< 


Ensigns. 


" Waggoner, 


Matthews, 


Crawford, 


" Woodward, 


Hydler, 


Crawford, 


"Prentice, 


Bedde, 


Morgan, 


" Morgan, 


Conrod, 


Mr. Vixan, 


"Smallman, 


Kennedy, 


Ormshy, 


" Clayton, 


Sumner, 


Allen, 


"Ward. 


Anderson, 


Gibson, 




Hutchins, 


Lightfoot. 




Dangerfield, 






Wright of the Train. 





" Captain Henry Montour, Interpreter. 

"Indians: 
" Six Nations Chiefs, with Sixteen Warriors. 

" Tagauusaday, Guyusuday, 

" Grandendawe. 
" Delawares Chiefs and Captains, with great numbers of others. 

"The Beaver, King of the Delawares. 

" George, John Peters, 

" Keckenskung, The Pipe, 

" Killbuck, Johnny, 

" Wendshale, Gooshamaqua, 

"Shingas, Mattacka Peters. 






PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 387 

"Shawonese Chiefs and Fourteen Warriors. 
" Kieccnnochthe, Louthema, 

" Opeiwa. 
"Deputies, representing their own and eight other Nations. • 
"Wyondotts, Sonongua, 

" Dixeatea, Terondea, and 

"Tanondany, Twenty-Two Warriors. 

" Sandegho, 
"As soon as the Indians had taken their seats, Captain Croghan 
made the following Speech : 
"'Brethren: 

"'The Wyondotts, Deputies of the Nine Western Nations of In- 
dians, give attention to what I am going to say to you. 

" 'We are this clay met in Council to renew and brighten the 
Ancient Chain of Friendship between us and you, in behalf of the 
Nine different Nations of Indians you represent; with this String 
of Wampum I scatter the dark Clouds that hang over your Heads, 
Open your ears that you may hear, and your Eyes that you may 
see the sun that shines over us. And I desire that what I shall say 
to you this Day, that you publish it immediately through: all the 
Nations.' 

" Gave a String. 
" ' Brethren : 

" ' The Complaints which your People made three years ago to the 
Governor of Pennsylvania about their Lands, was settled last fall 
at the Treaty at Easton, and a Line settled by your People and the 
Six Nations to their Satisfaction, all which you were made acquain- 
ted with last fall by the Deputies of the Six Nations, sent with 
your Deputies from that Treaty for that Purpose, and you may de- 
pend on it that your Brethren, the English, will never violate any 
of their Engagements to you or any of your Brethren of any other 
Nation, but hold fast of the Chain of Friendship; and we make 
no doubt but you on your side, will take the same Care. To Con- 
firm what I have said, I give you this Belt.' 

"Gave a Belt. 

" ' Brethren : 

" ' As soon as all Disputes between us were ended last Fall at the 
Treaty at Easton, the Peace was confirmed in the Presence of the 
Six Nations, and we, in Conjunction with the Six Nations, imme- 
diately dispatched Messages to assure you of the truth thereof; and 
the Peace Belt was sent to our Brethren, the Delawares, that they 
might send it through all the Nations living towards the Sun set- 
ting in Friendship with them, that they might know what was done 
and take fast hold of it. 

" ' Last fall, when the French destroyed their Fortifications here, 
and run away, a Number of your Brethren, the English, under the: 



388 MINUTES OF THE 

Command of Brigadier General Forbes, took Post at this Place; at 
that time I went to see our Brothers, the Delawares, at the Mouth 
of Beaver Creek, and 'gave them an Invitation to come and Confer 
with the General j when we came here we found the General's bad 
state of Health had obliged him to set off, but that he had left 
Colonel Boquet, who was second in Command, to receive them and 
treat with them in his name at that Conference ; they promised to 
perform all the Engagements their People had entered into with us 
at the Treaty at Easton, acquainting all Nations with what passed 
there, and invite all Nations in Amity with them to go to Philadel- 
phia early this Spring to Ratify and Confirm the Peace, but as your 
own Business, or the Season of the year did not permit you, the 
General has sent me % to Transact the Publick Business with you, 
and all Nations towards the Sun setting, in his Name, till his 
arrival. 

"'Our Brothers, the Delawares, have performed their Engage- 
ments by taking a long Journey over the Lakes to make known to 
the Westward Nations what passed at the Treaty at Easton, and 
I assure your Brethren I am heartily glad to see the Deputies of 
so many of the Western Nation at this Place met in Council, and 
as you have already informed me that your affairs will not permit 
you waiting the arrival of the General, I have, with the Consent 
;and approbation of Colonel Mercer, the Commanding Officer here, 
agreed to hold this Conference, and you may be asured that the 
Business transacted with you at this Conference, the King's Gen- 
eral, and all the Governors on this Continent will* Ratify and Con- 
firm in the first General Meeting you have with them. 
"'Brethren: 

" ' As the Design of this Meeting was to assure each other that we 
would keep fast hold of the Chain of Friendship, and perform our 
mutual Engagements made to each other at Easton, we on our parts 
shall punctually perform ours, and in order to our enjoying the 
Blessings we expect from that Peace, it is necessary, and we do in- 
sist, that you also perform these made on your parts, by restoring 
to us our flesh and blood that yet remain among you, as we can 
never taste true Satisfaction till that is done ; we do not think it 
practicable for you to deliver up at once, or in any Place, all our 
People who yet remain Prisoners amongst you, but we place the 
greatest Confidence in the sincerity of your Intentions of perform- 
ing all your Engagements made to us at that Treaty, and that you 
will loose no time in performing this Article of it. In Confidence 
of which I give you this Belt of Wampum. ' 

" Gave a Belt. 
•" ' Brethren : 

" ' You have often requested your Brothers, the English, to carry 
on a Trade with you in your Country, as formerly. The Enemy, 
you know, were in Possession of your Country at that Time ; which 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 389 

obliged us to bring out an armed Force to drive them away, but be- 
fore we got here the French burnt the Fort and run away up the 
River, where they yet stay and carry on the War against us. 

"' You are Sensible, Brethren, that while the Enemy are in Pos- 
session of your Country, we cannot Trade safely with you, as for- 
merly. The General is on his Way here to build a Trading House, 
to secure the G-oods brought by the English Traders for your use, 
from the Insults of the- French, which will be performing all our 
Engagements to you 5 you must be convinced of the Sincerity of 
our Intentions, as 3011 see already a Number of Traders here, and 
more on their Way, the better to supply you with such necessaries 
as you may want. And I assure you, as soon as the Enemy are 
drove out of your Country, which I expect you will be assisting in, 
that the General will depart your Country after securing our Trade 
with you and our Brethren to the Westward. In Confirmation of 
what I have said, I give you this Belt/ 

4 'Gave a Belt. . 

u ' Brethren, Chiefs and Warriors of the Delawares : 

" 'As you are our Near Neighbours, and now going to return to 
your several Towns, I take this Opportunity of desiring you not to 
go far abroad, nor think long till you hear from us, for I assure by 
this String of Wampum, that as soon as the General arrives here 
with his Majesty's Troops, I shall call you together, as the General 
will have something to say to you, and be glad to see all his 
Brethren of the Several Nations to the Sun setting/ 
" Gave a String. 

" The Beaver, the Delaware King, then got up, addressing him- 
self first to all the Indians present, desiring them to listen to what 
he was going to say, which was from his Heart, and to take exam- 
ple by him, then addressing himself to all the White People pre- 
sent, made the following speech : 

•" < Brothers : 

"'I have brought with me some of your ilesh and Blood; there 
they set. One is my Mother, the other my Sister. I deliver them 
up to you, in the presence of all here ; do not think I am tired of 
them; no, I love them as well as I do my own' Mother and Sis- 
ter. When they go to the Inhabitants do not hide them ; when I 
go down, I shall Call and see them. Then delivered up the two 
Women. 

"The Beaver, then addressing himself to Colonel Mercer, with a 
String of White Wampum, made the following Speech : 
" « Brother : 

" ' When I was here in the fall, I desired our People might have 
Liquor, but sparingly ; but now I desire the Bung may be knocked 
out of the Keg, and when the Liquor comes, we may have Liberty 
to purchase, and then returned thanks for the Speeches we had 
made them, which he said he believed come from our Hearts.' 

" Gave a String. 



390 MINUTES OF THE 

" Captain Montour, by order of Colonel Mercer, acquainted Mm 
that the first Liquor that came up, they should have Liberty to buy 
part of it ; Then returned thanks for the Speeches they had made 
us. and the Colonel gave the whole an invitation to dine with him 
next Day." 



" At a Private Conference held at Pittsburg, the 11th July, 1759. 

PRESENT : 

" George Croghan, Esq r- Deputy Agent to the Honourable Sir 
William Johnson, Baronet. 

u Captain Henry Montour, Interpreter. 
Indians. 

" The Chiefs and Warriors of the Delawares and Shawanese, and 
the Deputies and Chief Warriors of the Wyondotts. 

" Diccatea, the Chief of the Wyondott's Deputies, spoke as fol- 
lows, in behalf of his own, and the other eight Nations they repre- 
sent : 
iC ' Brothers : 

{ "By this String of Wampum, we assure you that as soon as we 
get home we will call a general Council of all Nations over the 
'Lakes, and lay before them what you have said to us, and you may 
depend on a large Body of our people being here in about two 
Months, in order to Confirm the Peace on our parts. And we shall 
use all the Influence we have to withdraw such of our young Men 
as the French have stole from us this Spring, as soon as Possible. 
As to your Flesh and Blood, that is amongst us, we can assure 
;you that you will see them again ; but Brothers, we have not many 
of them, nor never had.' 

" Gave a String. 

" The Beaver made the following Speech in behalf of the Dela- 
wares and Shawanese : 
u l Brothers : 

" ' We are very well pleased with what you have said at this Con- 
ference. Ever since the Treaty at Easton and what passed here 
last fall, we have looked on the Peace to be Confirmed between you 
and us; And it gives us great Pleasure to see it now in a manner 
confirmed between you and all our Friends, the several Nations to 
the sun-setting As to your flesh and Blood, a little Tjme will 
convince you that we are sincere and will perform our Engagements 
in restoring all them that is in our Possessions/ 

u Gave a String. 

u During the Time of the Conference, there was near five Hun- 
dred Indians here." 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 391 

" July the 16th, 1759. 

ic At the Request of the Indians here and with the approbation 
of Colonel Mercer, Captain Croghan sent the following Speech to 
Venango by two Wyondott Messengers, for the Warriors of the 
Western Nations who had joined the French before this Conference : 
" ' Brethren : 

" ' The Wyondotts, Chepawas, Ottawas, Putawatimes, Twight- 
wees, Kushkushkies, Kecopas, Shockcys and Musquakes, hear what 
I am going to say to you : your Brothers, the English, are not 
Come here to War with the Indians, but to carry on Trade and 
Commerce with all Nations of them as far as the Sun setting. 
" < Brothers : 

" ' As the Peace is now Confirmed between your Deputies and 
u,s, I expect you will abandon the French and leave them and us to 
fight our own Battles. The Beavers who were present at this Con- 
ference can tell you what passed between your Deputies and us ; 
with this Bunch of Wampum I take you by the Hands, and lead 
you to your own Country, where I desire where I desire* you would 
sit and smoke your Pipes till I give you a call j I assure you the 
English have no intention of Injuring you, and I must insist on 
your paying due regard to this Message and immediately quitting the 
French, which will confirm me in the good opinion I have of the sin- 
cerity of your professions made in your behalf by your Deputies at 
the Conference I held here with them, and will be convincing your 
Brothers, the G-overnors of the several Provinces, that you are de- 
termined to renew, and remain steadfast in your antient friendship 
with all His Majesty's Subjects. 

w Sent twelve fathoms of white Wampum. 

" The Indians of the several Nations here sent Speeches to in- 
force the above speech. The Beaver, the Delaware Kiug, spoke in 
behalf of all the the Nations who were present at the Conference 
held here, and desired that the General might be made acquainted 
with what passed here between them and us, and desired that the 
General might bring none of the Southward Indians with him; if 
he should, there would be no perswading some of the Indians but 
we intend to deceive them." 



A. Letter to Governor Denny j rom Colonel Mercer. 

" Pittsburg, the 6th of August, 1759. 
"Sir: 

" My last letter to your enclosed Minutes of Conferences held 
here upon Ratifying the Peace with several Nations of Indians, 



892 MINUTES OF THE 

upon signifying what was transacted here to the Indians collected by 
the French at Venango, they readily consented to what was agreed 
on by their Deputies ; only two Delawarcs, a Brother of Teedy- 
uscung and a Nephew of Cutfinger Peter, apposed their Measures 
of Leaving the Enemy and coming here immediately to signify 
their Peaceable intentions. These assured the others that no Peace 
was intended by us, neither had any Indians joined in sending the 
Messages, which were contrived only to deceive and lull asleep the 
Indians till we had Cut their Throats. 

" The settling this affair has kept a number of Indians still about 
us, for all the Wyondotts have come here from Yenango, to hold a 
Conference with the Chiefs of the Delawares, who are assembled 
to satisfy the Western Tribes, & to take the Hatchet out of their 
Hands. 

" We hear of a Number of the Distant Tribes being at Hand, 
upon their first Visit, so that there is no appearance of our being 
able to avoid a vast expence of Provisions j this lays the General 
under great difficulties in supplying us, and throwing in a sufficient 
stock for the Support of his arms. 

" I have been obliged to reduce the Garrison to Three Hundred 
and Fifty, and even with this Number, can scarcely save an ounce 
between the Convoys. 

u We are likely to have little Trouble from the Enemy this Way, 
for their Indians have dropt off to a very few, who, in small parties, 
lye about Legonier, and this Place, serving as spys, and now and 
then, taking a Scalp or prisoner. I inclose the Intelligence we have 
received lately from Presque Isle ) how far it may be depended 
upon, I will not pretend to say; we expect further Accounts every 
Minute. 

" Some Taway Indians, that had been entertained here some 
Days, and met with equally kind Treatment of others, took off two 
Highlanders, One of them a Centinel from his Post, and we find, 
since killed them both, and were seen proceeding to Venango with 
their Scalps. 

" Captain Gorden, Chief Engineer, is arrived, with most of the 
Artificers, but does not fix on a Spot for Constructing the Fort. 
'till the General comes up. We are preparing the Materials for 
Building, with what expedition so few Men are capable of. 

" I am, Sir, your Honour's most Obed'- Hum 6, SeiV-' 

"HUGH MERCER." 



Intelligence enclosed in the foregoing Letter. 

" Pittsburgh, August 4th, 1759. 
"By two of my Spies, who returned this Day from Venango, I 
am informed that the French at Venango are in the utmost Confu- 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 393 

sion, on account brought by some Indians, of the news from Nia- 
gara, who say the English landed in sight, of the Fort, without 
much interruption, intrenched themselves, and raised Batteries ; 
that the French and Indians made a Sally, and were repulsed, with 
the Loss of Twenty -Eight Officers killed and taken; a great num- 
ber ot Soldiers killed and taken, and twelve Indians killed. Amongst 
the Prisoners is Mr. Delinery, who Commanded at this Place, shot 
through the thick of the Thygh. What Number of the English 
and Six Nations were killed, they eould not tell ; that the place 
had not surrendered when they came away ; but it is the Opinion 
of all the Indians, that the English are in Possession of it by this, 
as the Commanding Officer of Niagara sent Letters by these In- 
dians, to the Commanding Officer at Presque Isle, to acquaint him 
that he should be obliged to deliver up the place in a few Lays, 
and as Sir William Johnson threatened to cross the Lakes with the 
Sis Nations, and cut off the Settlements at Detroit, desired him to 
forward an Express to Detroit, with orders for all the Women and 
Children, with their Effects, to be removed to the E^ead of Scioto, 
that they might be ready, upon the first Notice of the Six Nations 
crossing the Lakes, to remove to their Settlements down the Mis- 
sissippi. 

" Forty-Five Indians arrrived here this Day, amongst which were 
two Delawares sent from Tuskerawas to acquaint me that there -was 
forty Indians of the Twightwees and Kushkuskee Nations on their 
way here, sent by their Chiefs to know in what manner the Peace 
was settled between us and the Western Indians, that they might 
know how to act. The two Messengers tell me I may expect them 
here in two Days. 

"the 5th. Two Shawanese came here from Presque Isle, and 
Confirm the Intelligence brought by my two Spies yesterday, with 
the Addition that the Indians who brought the Intelligence from 
Niagara to Presque Isle say the French attempted several times to 
drive our People out of their Trenches ; that great Numbers were 
killed on both Sides, but most of the French ; that most of the 
French Officers that were on this river were killed or taken, par- 
ticularly the blind Captain (called so by the Indians by his being 
blind with one Eye), who Commanded at Venango, killed, one 
Neverville, a great Partisan, who used to go frequently with the 
Indians from this Place, against the Frontier Settlements of Penn- 
sylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, killed j that when they left Pres- 
que Isle the French every moment expected to hear of the Surrender 
of Niagara to the English. " 



394 MINUTES OF THE 

Another' Letter to Governor Benny from Colonel Mercer. 

tt p ITTS burgh the 12th August, 1759. 
" Dear Sir: 

" We have at last got rid of our Neighbours at Venango, who, 
to render their memory grateful among the Indians, made a virtue 
of necessity, and what they could not carry off ; *very liberally dis- 
tributed to their Friends. 

"Croghan's Letter contains all the particulars of our Conquest at 
Niagara come to hand as yet, and of the Enemies abandoning their 
Posts in the Ohio. 

u Like true Frenchmen they went off with a gasconade, telling 
the Indians, tho' they must run away at present, yet this River 
would be in their Possession before the Eud of the Year. We can 
now talk to our new Allies in a proper Stile, as their Services are 
not Necessary, tho' the Consistency of our Plan in bringing them 
entirely over -to the British Interest, ought to be preserved by 
treating them with a great kindness, but suffering none of their 
insults. 

"I am, with great Esteem, Dear Sir, 

"Your most Obed'- Hum 6, Servant, 

" HUGH MERCER." 



Another Letter to Governor Denny from Colonel Mercer. 

u Pittsburgh, 13th August, 1759. 
"Sir: 

" I had the pleasure of receiving a Letter from your Honour a 
few days go, and now enclose for your perusal the latest Intelligence 
from Niagara, and the Enemies' posts upon the Ohio, which last 
they have found it necessary to evacuate and burn. 

" The publick Transactions with Indians at this Place, I flatter 
myself will be agreeable to the Plan laid by your Honour for se- 
curing these Western Tribes to the British Interest. 

" As I have taken every Opportunity of enforcing the Invitation 
given them, to go to Philadelphia to ratify the Peace, I am per- 
swaded they are resolved upon going there as soon as the Circum- 
stances of their Country will render their leaving it safe and Con- 
venient. 

" There is at present a great Scarcity of Goods here, and as 
numbers may soon be expected with Indian Traffick 'tis pitty they 
should be disappointed; if it is proposed to the Trade from Phila- 
delphia. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 395 

"The Garrison is not yet reinforced; the Convoys with Provis- 
ions come in so heavily that we are, tho' a small number, scarcely 
supplied from one to another. 

" I am, S r -' Your Honour's Most 

" Obedient Hum 6 - Servant, 

"HUGH MERCER." 



Intelligence enclosed in the Last Letter. 

" August 12th. Two Shawonese came here from the Meguck, and 
inform me that the Cherokees has lately sent three speeches to their 
Nation acquainting them that they intended to make War on the Eng- 
lish desiring them to assist them in the War, and to send the Speeches 
to all the Nations to the Sun Setting, inviting them to take up the 
Hatchet and join with them; but as their Nation had promised me 
at the Late Conference, whenever they heard any bad news, to 
acquaint me with it, before they determined upon any thing, that 
they were sent to acquaint me with this, and to know how they 
would have me Act in regard to these Speeches. 

" In the Evening, a Delaware Indian informed me that nine In- 
dians of their Nation, from Venango, had been on the road below 
Ligonier, and taken an Englishman Prisoner, but that he had made 
his Escape from them in the Night, the 13th. By two Indians, 
who arrived here this Morning from Niagara, I have the following 
Intelligence : That on the Fifth the French made a great Sally 
from the Fort, that all the Indians they had with them at the Fort 
deserted them, that the English drove the French back into the 
Fort, and took Possession of it; that during the Seige, Delinery, 
who formerly Commanded on this River, was shot through the Thigh 
and taken Prisoner ; the Officer who Commanded the Fort at Niagara 
taken ; The Officer who commanded the Troops from Detroit, killed ; 
the Priest killed, and all the Officers killed or taken except four, 
who ran away during the action on the fifth ; that the French In- 
dians often attempted to speak to the Six Nations, but as the Six 
Nations constantly kept hallooing to them, threatening to put every 
Indian they found with the French to Death,, they were afraid to 
stay, so that they had no Opportunity of speaking to them for 
which reason they can give no Account of what Numbers of the 
English and Six Nations were killed. 

" That the French at Presque Isle had sent away all their Stores 
to Detroit, and was waiting when they came by for the French at 
Beuf River and Venango to join them, to sett off for Detroit; that 
in an Indian path leading to Presque Isle to a Delaware Town, 
they met a Frenchman and some Indians who informed them that 
the French set off from Venango the Day before, which is six days 
ago. 



396 MINUTES OF THE 

" Seven o'clock in the Evening three Indians came here from 
Yenango and Confirmed the above Intelligence of the English 
taking Niagara, the fifth, by storm, and say the Indians from over 
the Lakes are very much displeased with the Six Nations, as they 
had a number of their People killed at Niagara ; that the French 
had burnt their Forts at Venango, Beuf River, and Presque Isle, 
and gone over the Lakes ; that the French'at Yenango, before they 
set off, gave the Indians living nigh there, large presents of Goods, 
laced Coats and Hatts, and told them they were obliged to run 
away, but that they expected to be in Possession of this River be- 
fore next Spring; they were obliged to burn every thing they had, 
and destroy their Battoes, as the. Water was so low they could not 
get up the Creek with them/' 

Mr. Peters then desired the Governor to appoint a Time to read 
and settle the Minutes of Council. 



MEMORANDUM. 

The Thirtieth, seven Members from the House waited on the 
Governor to acquaint, him that the late Speaker, Mr. Norris, being 
unable to attend the Public Business thro' Sickness, the House had 
chose another Speaker, and requested to know when his Honour 
would be pleased to receive the House, in order to present the 
Speaker for his approbation. 

The Governor was pleased to appoint to-morrow at Twelve o' Clock, 
in the Council Chamber. -Accordingly the Governor, by the Se- 
cretary, sent a Message desiring the attendance of the House in the 
Council Chamber. The whole waited on the Governor and pre- 
sented Mr. Thomas Leech, their Speaker, and the Governor was 
pleased to approve their choice. 



MEMORANDUM. 

September the first, Two Members waited on the Governor with 
the following Message, and acquainted him that the House had 
adjourned to the tenth Instant : 

A Message to the Governor from the Assembly. 

" May it please your Honour : 

"After the Explicit answer of the Seventh of July, given by 
this House, through your Honour, to General Stanwix's application 
for a Law to enforce the procuring of Carriages, we are Surprized 
he should renew it without taking the least Notice of our reason 
for declining such a Measure. 



PROVINCIAL COUNCIL. 397 

"The most effectual Mode of procuring Carriages for the Crown 
we then informed him, and still apprehend, is to order immediate 
Payment of the Sums due on the Old Contract, the Want whereof 
must have been a very Considerable Obstruction to that Zeal and 
Readiness which have been shewn on every Occasion by the People 
of this Province, to promote the Service of the Crown, and indeed 
has rendered it impracticable for many, who are willing and desi- 
rous to fit out Carriages for the Expedition. Besides we are of 
Opinion the Prices the General Offers for Carriages and Drivers are 
by no means adequate to the Risque and Service expected from them, 
and are much inferior to the terms fixed and Established by a Law 
made for that purpose; this manifestly appears from long Expe- 
rience, the several Townships which have fitted out Carriages being 
abliged to give large Bounties for their Waggons and Drivers over 
and above the Wages offered by the General for that Service, which 
has been a very great additional Burthen to our present Taxes, and 
an heavy Contribution on the People. 

" We must beg leave to remark to your Honour, that while the 
General shall continue entirely to disregard the Law already made 
for the procuring of Carriages, we can have little Encouragement 
to frame another for that Purpose. We, therefore, request your 
Honour will be pleased to. recommend it to the General to pay off 
the old Contracts, and to Comply with the said Law, and give 'the 
People such a reasonable Price as will enable them to serve the 
Crown without Loss, which will be the only method of procuring 
the Carriages wanted for the present Expedition. 

" As to the General's Demand of two Companies of Ship 
Wrights and Necessary Artificers we cannot agree to it, as the large 
Supplies we have already granted are nearly expended, and the 
Province has fully complied with the Requisitions of the Crown 7 
by the Secretary of State's Letter. 

''Signed by order of the House, 

"THOMAS LEECH, Speaker. 

"September 1st, 1759." 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Thursday the 20th of Sep- 
tember, 1759. 

PRESENT : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq"' Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor. 

Robert Strettell, ■ Richard Peters, ") 

Lynford Lardner, Thomas Cadwalader, C Esquires. 

John Moland, ) 

The Bill Entituled " a Supplement to the Act Entituled ' an Act 
for the Re-Emitting the Bills of Credit of this Province, heretofore 



398 MINUTES OF THE 

re-Emitt(;d on Loan, and for striking the further Sum of Thirty- 
Six Thousand and Six Hundred and Fifty Pounds, to enable the 
Trustees to lend Fifty Thousand Pounds to Colonel John Hunter, 
Agent for the Contractors, with the llight Honourable the Lords 
Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury for His Majesty's Ser- 
vice/ " presented to the Governor yesterday by two Members of 
the House for his Concurrence, was laid before the Council for 
their Consideration • and it appearing on reading the Bill, that on 
the Death or removal of the Trustees of the Loan Office, there was 
a Clause Empowering the Assembly to appoint new ones, tho' it 
was in the lie-Emitting Act, to which it is a Supplement, expressly 
in the General Assembly, which always means Governor and As- 
sembly, Two Amendments were made to the Bill to insert the 
Word Governor in the places where the Assembly only was men- 
tioned, and sent to the House with the Bill. 

" Amendments to the Bill Entituled l a Supplement to the Act 
Entituled ' an Act for the Re-Emitting the Bills of Credit of this 
Province, heretofore Re-Emitted on Loan, and for striking the fur- 
ther Sum of Thirty-Six Thousand Six Hundred and fifty Pounds to 
enable the Trustees to lend Fifty thousand Pounds to Colonel John 
Hunter, Agent for the Contractors, with the Right Honourable the 
Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury for His Majesty's 
Service.' 

"Page 9, Line 11. Instead of the Words [by the Assembly] in- 
sert the Words (~By the General Assembly.] 

"Page 10, Line 6. Before the Word [Assembly] insert the Word 
[General.]" 



At a Council held at Philadelphia, Tuesday the 25th of Septem- 
ber, 1759. 

present : 

The Honourable WILLIAM DENNY, Esq'- Lieutenant Gover- 
nor. 

Richard Peters, Thomas Cadwalader, Esquires. 

The Governor mentioned that he had received from the House 
the Supplement to the Re-Emitting Act, with an Answer to his 
proposed Ame