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Full text of "Colored Light: The Story of the Influence of Columbia Theological Seminary, 1828-1936"

COLORED 
LIGHT 



LOUIS C. LA MOTTE 



COLORED 
LIGHT 



THE STORY OF THE INFLUENCE OF 
COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 



iaai 



By Louis C. LaMotte, M.A., Th.M., 1 ^ Hfi r *.#.& 




PUBLISHED FOR THE AUTHOR 

PRESBYTERIAN COMMITTEE OF PUBLICATION 
RICHMOND, VIRGINIA 



i • 9 • 3 • 7 



COPYRIGHT 1937 ' LOUIS C. LA MOTTE * CLINTON, S. C. 



PRINTED IN U. S. A. 

3418— (1)— 5355 



Dedicated to 
The Followers, Who Make the Leaders Possible 



To the unknown thousands of faithful 
and devoted Christians whose love and 
loyalty to our King have supported the 
advance of the Church and its institutions. 



PREFACE 



WHEN one knows a good story he wants to tell it. It is beside 
the point here to investigate why that is so. To the writer the 
history of Columbia Seminary seems a wonderfully interesting 
story. Perhaps this may be due to his personal association with the 
venerable school of the prophets. He was born and lived the first 
thirteen years of his life only a block and a half from the campus in 
Columbia, South Carolina. He learned to play tennis as a small lad 
upon that campus. It was while kneeling in prayer in the home of 
one of the members of the Columbia faculty that he made his first 
definite conscious acceptance of and commitment to the Christian 
life. To Columbia Seminary he returned from college and there 
studied three years until graduation. The old campus still well-nigh 
arouses slight nostalgia. The transfer to Atlanta was decided upon 
in the writer's senior year, and he entered into the enthusiasm of 
Dr. R. T. Gillespie. 

The cause for beginning this study was the requirement that a 
thesis be submitted for the Master's degree in English at the Univer- 
sity of South Carolina. At that time it was not planned to publish 
the study. 

The completion of the thesis being delayed for several years, 
much material was gathered. The writer was encouraged to publish 
the manuscript by several friends who had read it. 

Further research and revision have been made and the study re- 
worked to its present form. There is no hope for financial reward 
in publishing. The public has never learned that history may be even 
more fascinating than fiction. As compensation one must accept the 
inner satisfaction that comes from creative accomplishment and a 
sense of having contributed to a worth-while cause. 

Gratitude requires mention of help received from Dr. S. M. Ten- 
ney, the Historical Foundation of the Presbyterian and Reformed 
Churches, Montreat, North Carolina; from Dr. J. McD. Richards, 
President of Columbia Seminary; from Miss Margaret Randolph 
Hitchcock, Curator Morgan Library, Amherst College; from Dr. 



Wm. C. Robinson, Professor of Ecclesiastical History, Columbia 
Seminary; from the Spence Theological Library of Union Seminary; 
and from Dr. Walter L. Lingle, President of Davidson College; 
Dr. Havilah Babcock, University of South Carolina; Dr. L. R. 
Scott, First Presbyterian Church, Valdosta, Georgia; and Mrs. Caro- 
line Miller, Waycross, Georgia. Sarah Hunter LaMotte, M.A., who 
is always my helpmate, has rendered valuable assistance. 



Louis C. LaMotte 



The Manse 
Waycross, Georgia 
July 24, 1936 



ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

The author would acknowledge his debt of gratitude to the many 
authors and publishers of copyright material who have granted per- 
mission to quote. In the footnotes such sources are carefully credited. 



INTRODUCTION 



A SHAFT of light lay athwart the aisle. The bright afternoon sun- 
shine, shaded from all but one window by the manse gables, 
streamed through the stained glass into the cloistered dimness that 
sombered the church nave, and beamed in a wide band downward. 
The rays fell upon one of the empty pews and reached out across 
the carpeted passage. It was colored light. Each various lamina in 
the window transferred its own particular hue to the floor. There 
rested the pattern cast by the window in a tracery of tinted light 
and lacy shadow. 

Another picture: Years ago a Columbia Seminary alumnus led 
in founding a school. 1 It is now a strong college, situated on the 
banks of the lordly Mississippi River. 

Recently a professor was courteously showing a visiting minister 
the beautiful new chapel. "Notice the glass," he said. 

The ample windows were set with alternate pale blue and amber 
panes. 

"The glass is designed to subdue the light and give brightness 
without glare," he explained. 

Light from the sun colored as it passes through a medium! Light 
toned down to suit worshiping students' eyes! Is this not a fit figure 
to illustrate the influence of a venerable theological institution upon 
the social life that has surrounded it? The light from our common 
Christianity has been mediated through the thoughts and acts of 
Columbia Seminary men. These men have more or less clearly per- 
ceived the truth and more or less fully lived it. They have let the 
light shine through, but their own human insight and imperfect 
ethics have colored that light. Sometimes they have toned down the 
ideal to fit the weak eyes of their contemporaries, as, for instance, 
when James Henley Thornwell, on May 26, 1850, said, "Admit, 
then, that slavery is inconsistent with the spirit of the gospel, as that 
spirit is to find its full development in a state of glory, yet the con- 
clusion by no means follows that it is inconsistent with the spirit of 



1 Thomas Cary Johnson. The Life and Letters of Benjamin Morgan Palmer 
(1906), p. 406 forward, p. 614. 



the gospel, as that spirit operates among rebels and sinners, in the 
degraded world, and under a dispensation of grace." 2 

However, even in this question of slavery in the ante-bellum 
South, the ideal did shine through, although subdued to suit the 
eyes of men caught in the net that the institution had become in 
the life of the day. In the sermon mentioned above Thornwell goes 
on, "Upon an earth radiant with the smile of heaven, or in the 
Paradise of God, we can no more picture the figure of a slave." 3 
"That the design of Christianity is to secure the perfection of the 
race is obvious from all its arrangements; and that, when this end 
shall have been consummated, slavery must cease to exist is equally 
clear." 4 "The instinctive impulses of our nature, combined with 
the plainest declarations of the Word of God, lead us to recognize 
in his [the slave's] form and lineaments, in his moral, religious, and 
intellectual nature, the same humanity in which we glory as the 
image of God. We are not ashamed to call him brother." 5 These 
were clear-eyed and heroic words, spoken by a man who saw the 
social and economic revolution that manumission would entail yet 
who held up the Christian ideal of human brotherhood toward the 
black slave. The light was colored by political and economic the- 
ories, but it shone through. 

Columbia Seminary has been a window through which the 
Light of the World has shined into the minds and hearts of men, 
and by this means society has been enlightened and health and heal- 
ing promoted. This study seeks to set forth something of that 
process as it has made its record in history. It will be the story of 
the growth of the kingdom of God, so far as spiritual forces can be 
discerned and set forth through observation of results. We are in- 
terested in this progress of the light of truth without the color, for 
the color is a human contribution. The founders of Columbia Theo- 
logical Seminary desired that the white light of truth might shine 
through it without any human discoloration. The address to the 
public issued by the Seminary committee in 1826 sets forth their 
conception of the function of a theological seminary in society, and 
uses, though with slightly different metaphor from that which we 
are employing, the figure of light shining into darkness — "We are 
conscious 'the ground on which we stand is holy' . . . Andover and 



2 J. H. Thornwell, Thocnwell's Collected Writings, Vol. IV, p. 422. 
Hbid., p. 420. 
4 Ibid., p. 419. 
5 Ibid., p. 403. 



Princeton have already told us what part theological seminaries are 
destined to bear in the illumination and reformation of the present 
age; and when we find another about to rise, almost in the extremity 
of our continent, surely 'the ears of the deaf must begin to hear, the 
tongue of the dumb to sing, and the lame to leap as a hart.' We only 
ask a half-awakened world to assume some eminence of moral and 
scientific height, and trace the rays of light these institutions are 
shooting into the darkest corners of the earth, and gaze upon the 
wonders of reform these rays are effecting, and then say if the arm 
of the Lord be not visible? Should we not feel as though Almighty 
God had called us, and in calling hath honored us, to light up an- 
other sun which shall throw still farther west the light of the gospel, 
to shine upon the pathway of the benighted, and those who have 
long groped in the dim twilight of unenlightened reason? Th? 
pomp and splendor with which regal power for centuries clothed 
the church have almost, and we trust soon will entirely perish, as 
must everything that is not of God. The years of religious intol- 
erance and ecclesiastic tyranny have expired, we hope, forever. Our 
own happy country has since been discovered, and by her mild laws 
and well regulated liberties, hath not only furnished an asylum for 
the oppressed, but a government according with the spirit and con- 
genial to the extension of our Redeemer's kingdom. . . . This insti- 
tution, which we are about to establish, will rise in the splendor of 
its meridian, and shine among those other satellites which have long 
been fed by the light of the Sun of Righteousness." 6 

Our study is not only interested in the pure white light of abso- 
lute truth, but also in the color given that light by its passage 
through the human medium. In other words, we shall follow not 
only the record of the upbuilding of the church through the in- 
fluence of the Seminary and the moral and social reforms that have 
been promoted, but also the personalities, theories, and biographies 
of individual men, and the events, manners, and customs of each 
period. The influence of the institution has left its impress upon 
history, and we are interested in what we may presume to call the 
historic local color. Our study is intended to be literature, not 
merely a comprehensive history or a compilation of statistics. Anec- 
dote may sometimes give clearer insight than labored narration, and 
is far more entertaining. The pertinent will be recounted, the re- 



6 Memorial Volume of the Semi-Centennial of the Theological Seminary at 
Columbia, S. C. (1884), p. 140. 



mainder neglected. Always a clear perspective should be maintained 
in order to assure an accurate perception by the reader of the history. 
Let us study, then, the tracery of colored light cast by Columbia 
Theological Seminary upon the pageant of history. Some of the 
hues are rich and beautiful: Blue, the color of the covenant and 
aptly symbolizing that faithful procession of ministers passing out 
of the Seminary to follow the faith of the Covenanters. Gray, the 
adjective best suited to the reconstruction period following the Civil 
War. Green, emblematic of lusty growth and some naive elements 
in a new country and a new enterprise. Purple, for there are some 
purple patches of worldly glory in the picture. Some mellow golden 
tints, suggestive of prosperous sunny days. Black, typifying that 
ubiquitous malady in human nature that Columbia theology dubs 
original sin. Red, the color of blood, for the upbuilding of the 
church, a redeemed society within a social order, always costs life- 
blood drained out in service and sacrifice, just as the redemption at 
the center of the Columbia Seminary soteriology cost the shed blood 
of the Redeemer. And white, the color of holiness, or rather the 
absence of all color, which marks the spotless garments of the White 
Captain, who ever leads men on to a highroad where even the air is 
pure and the light as clear as the sun. 




CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Preface 

A Personal Word 7 

Introduction 

Colored Light 9 

Chapter I 

Leading Up to the Establishment of the Seminary 15 

Chapter II 

The Seminary in the Old South 48 

Chapter III 

The Ordeal — The Civil War Period 1 04 

Chapter IV 

The Ere of Rebuilding in the South 143 

Chapter V 

From the Semi-Centennial and into the Twentieth Century . . .173 

Chapter VI 

Among Changing Surroundings '216 

Chapter VII 

Things New and Old 242 

Appendixes 

Columbia Seminary and Hopewell Presbytery 256 

Columbia Seminary Men Who Have Served as Moderators of General 

Assemblies 264 

Index to Literary Appendix 266 

Literary Work of the Columbia Seminary Faculty and Complete List 

of Faculty 270 

Literary Work of Columbia Seminary Alumni 281 

Roster of Classes 298 

Bibliography 338 

Index 344 



COLORED LIGHT 



CHAPTER I 

LEADING UP TO THE ESTABLISHMENT 
OF THE SEMINARY (1831) 



Beginnings of Civilization in Columbia 
Seminary Territory 

THE background to the founding of Columbia Theological Sem- 
inary is the story of the transformation from wilderness to flour- 
ishing civilization in the Southland. In 15 15 or 15 16 "a company 
was formed in San Domingo which fitted out two slave ships under 
Lucas Vasquez d'Ayllon, and dispatched them for the (Florida) 
coast. . . . The land they first made was called by its inhibitants Chi- 
quola or Chicora. ... It is probable that the spot where d'Ayllon 
attempted to found his colony is not far from the present site of 
Beaufort [S. C.]." 1 These first settlers were Roman Catholic, but 
the name Chicora was borne for many years by a Presbyterian col- 
lege for women founded by a group of Columbia Seminary men. 2 

Presbyterians made the second attempt at colonization along the 
Carolina coast. The great Huguenot leader Admiral de Coligny, in 
1562, sent Jean Ribault to found a colony as a refuge for Protes- 
tants. The expedition built a fort at Port Royal, and twenty-six 
men remained there until they constructed themselves a ship and 
returned to France. 3 

An English colony landed at Port Royal on March 17, 1670. 
In April they removed to the west bank of the Ashley and planted 
Charles-town. The Lords Proprietors sent from England in 1673 
a law code directing "the public maintenance of divines, to be em- 
ployed in the exercise of religion according to the Church of Eng- 
land; which being the only true and orthodox, is so also of Caro- 
lina. . . ." Two thirds of the settlers were dissenters from the 



George Howe, History of the Presbyterian Church in South Carolina, Vol. I, 
pages 20, 21. 

2 Founded by Dr. T. M. McConnell, Columbia 1875, an <* early conducted 
by Dr. S. R. Preston, Columbia 1874. 

3 George Howe, op. cit., Vol. I, page 24. 



16 COLORED LIGHT 

Church of England, and the laws were very distasteful to them. 
There were 1,000 to 1,200 settlers in 1680, and new families were 
arriving rapidly. 4 

In April, 1680, the first Huguenot refugees arrived on the Eng- 
lish frigate Richmond, given free passage by Charles II. Many 
others soon found an asylum in "la belle Carolina." 5 Rev. Elias 
Prioleau established the Huguenot Church in Charleston in 1686. 

The Scotch and Scotch-Irish Presbyterians 

The Scotch maintained a colony at Stuart's Town at Port Royal 
where a Presbyterian church was ministered to by Rev. William 
Dunlop from 1683 to 1686. In Charleston the Presbyterians and 
Independents worshiped together in a church organized around 
1685. The Scotch and Scotch-Irish became very influential in 
Presbyterian development. In 1732 forty Scotch from counties 
Down and Antrim in Ireland received a grant of land on Black 
River. A great white pine, called the King's tree because white pine 
was reserved for masts for the royal navy, was the identification 
point. The settlement at Kingstree and the establishment there of 
Williamsburg Church is typical. This process was repeated many 
thousand times in the next hundred years. Since this church has 
contributed sixteen daughter churches and many granddaughter 
churches to Presbyterianism, and has furnished from its own mem- 
bership and that of these colony churches many leaders, we may 
well study it in order to clarify our understanding concerning con- 
ditions in the pioneering era. 6 

When the ten men and their families set out for Kingstree, the 
Charleston colony numbered almost 8,000 souls. 7 Oglethorpe 
did not settle Savannah in Georgia until the following year. The 
sturdy Scotch-Irish, after months on the ocean, sailed up Black 
River for a hundred miles and trudged on overland for forty more. 
"Their spare clothing and bedding strapped to their backs, the party 
started out through the trackless forests. No sign of human habita- 



4 George Howe, op. cit., Vol. I, pages 71, 72. 

^Transaction of the Huguenot Society of S. C. No. 35 (1930) , p. 9. 
6 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, History of the Presbyterian Church in South 
Carolina since 1850. (1926.) p. 851. 

7 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 32. 



THE ESTABLISHMENT 17 

tion met their eyes. They were surrounded by the stillness of the 
primitive, broken only by the call of strange birds, the harsh cry 
of a wild animal or the sudden plop of an alligator sliding into the 
river. Strange gray moss hung from the unfamiliar trees, giving a 
cloudy effect of lavender haze. Startled deer darted away at their 
approach. Mottled snakes rustled through the leaves or stretched 
along the low hanging branches. Doggedly the little band plodded 
on, their feet caked with the black swamp mud, their hearts dis- 
mayed by the loneliness of the virgin land. The descendants . . . 
have been told the story of that journey. The children were left 
with the older persons to plod behind the others and sometimes the 
leaders were lost to sight in the dense forest, behind the towering 
trees of which Indian savages might lurk. Whoops would come from 
the stragglers: 'Oo-hoo! Where are you-oo?' Heartening voices 
would call back in their Scotch-Irish tongue, 'Follow the bleezes!' 
(blazes) . When they reached the King's tree, the men hastily cut 
branches of trees and stacked them in rude huts, like the Irish po- 
tato houses, covered with wet sand to protect their women and chil- 
dren that first night." 8 

The Council of South Carolina had not named the new town- 
ship that they had voted to give these Presbyterians. The set- 
tlers named it Williamsburg in honor of the Presbyterian king, 
William II, Prince of Orange. They enjoyed the right to religious 
liberty, and their township never became a parish of the Church of 
England. 9 

John Witherspoon, a descendant of John Knox and Robert the 
Bruce, king of Scotland, came with his seven children and their 
families in 1734. Robert Witherspoon, who came in this group, 
has written of the hazards and difficulties in pioneering: "As the 
woods were full of water, and the weather very cold, it made it go 
very hard with the women and children. When we came to the 
place called the Bluff, three miles below the King's tree, my mother 
and we children were still in expectation of coming to an agree- 
able place, but when we arrived and saw nothing but a wilderness, 
and instead of a comfortable house, no other than one of dirt, our 
spirits sank. . . . My father gave us all the comfort he could by 

8 Nell Flinn Gilland, article in the State (newspaper), July 3, 1932. Also 
quoted by Geo. Howe, op. cit. 

y F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 844. 



18 COLORED LIGHT 

telling us that we would soon get all the trees cut down, and in 
a short time there would be plenty of inhabitants, and that we 
should be able to see from house to house. . . . While we were here, 
the fire went out that we had brought from Bobby Swamp. My 
father had heard that up the River Swamp was the King's tree. 
Although there was no path, nor did we know of the distance, he 
followed the meanderings of the river until he came to the branch, 
and by that means found Roger Gordon's place. We watched him 
as far as the trees would let us see and returned to our dolorous hut, 
expecting never to see him nor any human being more. But after 
some time he returned with fire and we were somewhat comforted. 
We then feared being devoured by wild beasts, as we had neither 
gun nor dog, nor even a door to our house, howbeit, we set to and 
gathered fuel and made a good fire, and so we passed the first night. 
We were also much oppressed with fears of being massacred by the 
Indians, or bit by snakes, or torn by wild beasts, or of being lost 
in the woods of whom there were three persons who were never 
found. The Indians, when they came to hunt in the spring, came 
in great numbers like the Egyptian locusts, but were never harm- 
ful/' 10 

The settlers soon thought of a church where they might wor- 
ship God according to the customs of the Church of Scotland. The 
story is that Gaven Witherspoon offered to pay ten pounds toward 
the minister's living. The canny Scots wanted to know how he 
could get so much money. "Wull, if wus' comes to wus'," he re- 
plied, "I can e'en sell my coo!" 

Giving their own labor and the materials, they built a log church 
in August, 1736, having the month before petitioned the Gov- 
ernor and Council for a tract of land for the minister's residence. 11 
Rev. Robert Heron, from Ireland, formally organized the church 
in August, 1736. Before this they had tried without success to call 
a minister from Scotland. 12 This church was destined to contribute 
greatly to the building up of both church and state, as its hardy 
children wrestled with the wilderness and gained victories for 
Christian civilization. Out of such settlements grew Presbyterian 



10 Nell Flinn Gilland, quoted in article in the State, July 3, 1932. 

1J N. F. Gilland, the State, July 3, 1932. 

12 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. at., p. 845. 



THE ESTABLISHMENT 19 

churches, and from such churches came the need for a theological 
school which could furnish ministers. 

Early Presbyterians 

Early ministers came from the presbyteries of Ireland and from 
Scotland. The Williamsburg Church at Kingstree was originally 
connected with the Presbytery of Edinburgh. The churches in sea- 
port towns retained this connection with Europe and felt less need 
for organization into presbyteries than the inland congregations. 
Presbyteries in the North were as inaccessible as the mother pres- 
byteries abroad. Thus Charleston First Church, which in 1731 
separated from the original joint Congregational-Presbyterian 
congregation, continued generally to be served by ministers secured 
from Edinburgh Presbytery until 1879. The Independent Pres- 
byterian Church in Savannah, organized in 1755, is still not com- 
pletely a member of an American presbytery, though always served 
by a minister who is such a member. The larger churches could 
carry on mission activity through the presbytery without holding 
membership, while the smaller churches and the inland churches 
needed the fellowship and guidance furnished by ecclesiastical con- 
tact. A presbytery was organized in Charleston around 1728, com- 
posed of Rev. Archibald Stobo, Rev. Hugh Fisher, Rev. Nathan 
Bassett, Rev. Josiah Smith, and Rev. John Witherspoon, but all 
minutes were lost. 13 It never connected with other American pres- 
byteries. It is sometimes called the Presbytery of the Province. 
There are frequent references to it between 1724 and 1738, in 
1733-4, I 743 _ 4> etc - R cv - Archibald Simpson was licensed by it, 
and his journal gives us an account of its activity. A letter is pre- 
served that it sent to the Synod of New York and Philadelphia in 
1770, seeking arrangements for admission. The Revolution de- 
stroyed the organization. A new Presbytery of Charleston was 
incorporated by the State in 1790, which considered union in 1800, 
1804, and 181 1. The presbytery disintegrated. Charleston First 
Church did not come into the established presbytery until 1882. 14 



13 George Howe, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 191. 
14 Ibid., Vol. I, p. 672. 



20 COLORED LIGHT 

Organized Presbyterianism in America 

Presbyterian organization in Europe generally came from the 
top down. When Scotland became Protestant in 1560, the Parlia- 
ment set up Presbyterianism. American Presbyterianism grew from 
the bottom up — churches, then presbyteries, then synods, and last 
of all a General Assembly. The territory that felt the influence of 
Charleston in its settlement did not become quickly associated with 
the activities in the Northern colonies, where organized Presbyte- 
rianism began. 

Francis Makemie was ordained by the Presbytery of Laggan in 
Ireland in order that he might come to America. Arriving in 1683, 
he found scattered ministers and congregations ready to be organ- 
ized. The original minutes show that a presbytery was organized 
just previously, and that it ordained a young man on December 29, 
1 706. The necessity for securing ministers seems thus to have caused 
the formation of the first presbytery. In 1 7 1 6 the presbytery di- 
vided into First, Second, Third, and Fourth Presbyteries, which 
constituted a synod above themselves. In 1788 the synod divided 
into the four synods — New York and New Jersey; Philadelphia; 
Virginia; and the Carolinas — and erected the General Assembly. 15 

The Need for Ministers 

Ministerial supply continued to be a pressing problem in the 
colonial period. Some presbyteries in North Ireland made it a 
practice to send out ministers, as in the case of Makemie. But not all 
of them came from the same motives as Makemie, nor were all of 
them men of the same high character. Some evidently were trying 
to get away from the supervision given by a presbytery. In 1735 
a paper was adopted for transmission to the General Synod in Ire- 
land, from which we quote the following; "Seeing we are likely 
to have most of our supply of ministers, to fill our vacancies, from 
the North of Ireland, and seeing . . . that we are in great danger of 
being imposed upon by ministers and preachers from thence, though 
sufficiently furnished with all the formalities of Presbyterian cre- 
dentials, as in the case of Mr. , 

. . . Therefore . . . that the Synod would bear testimony against the 

15 Geo. P. Hays, Presbyterians (1892). p. 137. 



THE ESTABLISHMENT 21 

late too common and now altogether unnecessary practice [of] or- 
daining men to the ministry immediately before they come hither." 16 

Development of Education 

In 1739 an overture seeking the establishment of a seminary of 
learning was presented, unanimously approved, and a committee 
appointed to push the enterprise. The plan by which ministers were 
trained by being assigned as candidates to some well-established 
pastor for direction and instruction was not proving satisfactory. 
The need for raising up a supply of trained ministers was keenly 
felt, and it was desired to follow the example of the old country, 
and of New England at Harvard. Sixteen years after the Puritans 
landed they founded Harvard, and the first class of nine graduated 
in 1642. William and Mary in Virginia had been incorporated in 
1660, and began operating in 1692. Yale was functioning by 
1 70 1. All three institutions expressed in their charters a purpose to 
train men for service in the church. Of the early graduates from 
these institutions a very large proportion became ministers. All the 
students were taught a course in theology, but there was no pro- 
vision for special training for the ministry. 

Before the overture of 1739 some ministers had sought to solve 
the problem by a practical rather than a theoretical approach. Not 
having a seminary, they at least could have academies where some 
degree of education could be obtained. Out of McMillan's Log 
College at Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, grew Washington and Jeffer- 
son College, just as Princeton University grew out of the most 
famous log college, that which had been founded by William Ten- 
nent, Sr., about 1726 at Neshaminy. Whitefield visited Tennent in 
1739 and his diary records: "The place wherein the young men 
study now is in contempt called 'the College.' It is a log house 
about twenty feet long and nearly as many wide. . . . All that we 
can say of most of our universities is they are glorious without. 
From this despised place seven or eight worthy ministers of Jesus 
have lately been sent forth. More are almost ready to be sent, and 
the foundation is now laying for the instruction of many others." 17 



16 Geo. P. Hays, op. cit., pp. 86, 87. 
17 Ibid., pp. 90 and 256. 



22 COLORED LIGHT 

Upon Tennent's death the school was perpetuated by the Synod 
of New York in 1746 at Elizabethtown, New Jersey, and later at 
Newark, and then finally settled at Princeton in 1753. Prince 
was the chief source of Presbyterian ministers in the colonial perlbu. 
Incidentally, Bancroft states that Princeton graduates outnumbered 
those of any other institution in the Constitutional Convention. 

Development of Mission Presbyteries 

One of the causes that brought about the disruption into two 
antagonistic synods from 1741 until their reunion in 1768 was the 
determination on the part of some presbyteries to maintain educa- 
tional standards by refusing to admit log-college graduates to ordi- 
nation. Before the reunion, the Synod of New York had (in 1755) 
organized the Presbytery of Hanover, Virginia, covering the terri- 
tory in Virginia, the two Carolinas, Kentucky, and Tennessee. 
Ministers were sent on preaching tours through this territory. 
There are accounts of such visits to Waxhaw settlement in 1753, 
1 754, and 1755. In the last year Rev. Mr. McAden is named. He was 
a graduate of Princeton, and after being licensed by Newcastle Pres- 
bytery in 1755, he set out on his journey. It was customary for 
licentiates to spend some time in such mission journeys. Dr. Foote 
had access to the Riev. Hugh McAden's journal in writing his 
Sketches of North Carolina. He states, "On this journey, he 
passed through the lands of the Catawba Indians. . . . When they 
stopped to get their breakfast, they were surrounded by a large 
number of Indians, shouting and hallooing, and frightening their 
horses and rifling their baggage. . . . After a ride of twenty-five miles 
[they] were permitted to get their breakfast in peace. ... He 
preached 'to a number of those poor baptized infidels [white men 
grown up in the frontiers], many of whom I was told had never 
heard a sermon in all their lives before, and yet several of them had 
families!' " Dr. Foote goes on to tell about one such pioneer who 
"had never seen a shirt, been in a fair, heard a sermon, or seen a 
minister in all his life." We must remember that cultured gentlemen 
were also to be found in the new settlements, men like Patrick Cal- 
houn and Andrew Pickens. 18 



L8 George Howe, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 287. 



THE EST ABLISH M ENT 23 

After Braddock's defeat, July 9, 1755, there were many settlers 
coming south from the exposed western frontier. At the Waxhaws, 
' r 'Aden found a church building, and the Rev. Robert Miller set- 
tled therein 1756. 

In 1702 the English had passed acts penalizing the practice of 
the Presbyterian faith in Ireland, and before this there had been 
trade restrictions. For some years after the famine of 1 740 about 
12,000 people left Ulster per year for America. It has been esti- 
mated that some 200,000 Protestants, mostly Presbyterians, a 
number equal to a third of the Protestant population of Ireland, 
left that island between 1725 and 1768. At the beginning of the 
American Revolution some 500,000 Scotch-Irish, one sixth of the 
population of the colonies, had found new homes in America. In 
1750 the new settlers began settling in the Piedmont in South Caro- 
lina and Georgia. An itinerant minister found thirty-eight Presby- 
terian settlements in South Carolina and five in Georgia in 1768. 
It is estimated there were some seventy communities in these two 
states by 1776. 19 

A letter written by George Aiken from Londonderry, Ireland, 
in 1 77 1, to one of his sons who was a member of a Presbyterian 
colony in the wilds of Virginia, reveals the situation in Ireland: 
"Times are hard here and getting worse every year. The Crown is 
very oppressive, bread is so costly wc can hardly get enough upon 
which to live, and unless help comes speedily, the end is near. Though 
I am old and poor, I pray constantly that some way may be pro- 
vided by which I can go to America where I can have sufficient food, 
and worship God as my conscience dictates." 20 

Dr. George Howe traces the establishment of Presbyterian churches 
in South Carolina and Georgia. The Palatines in Orangeburg had 
a minister, ordained by the old Presbytery in Charleston in 1738, 
who preached in their native tongue. Catholic Congregation, Long 
Canes, Fairforest, Indian Creek, Grassey Spring, Duncan's Creek, 
Union, Fishing Creek, Nazareth, and others were preaching points 
or churches before the Revolution. The French colony at Abbeville 
was Presbyterian, with preaching in their own tongue. In Georgia, 



19 E. T. Thompson, Presbyterian Missions in the Southern United States, 
pp. ai, 23, 35. 

20 Hon. John H. Caldwell, Historical Sketch of Holston Presbytery, Stated Clerk 
of Holston Presbytery, April II, 1923, p. 2. 



24 COLORED LIGHT 

Darien, or New Inverness, Midway, and Sunbury are mentioned. 
Darien had been settled by Scotch in i 736. 

Little River Church in Laurens County, South Carolina, has a 
record of a visit by William Tennent in 1 775. 21 At Duncan's Creek 
in South Carolina, in 1788, Rev. John Newton was ordained pastor 
of Beth-Salem Church, Oglethorpe County, Georgia. 22 This church 
was the first in upper Georgia. 

During the troublesome period of the Revolution the call for 
more ministers continued and became intensified, especially from 
Kentucky, Tennessee, and the Carolinas. At the first meeting of 
the General Assembly in 1789 four synods were set up. The Synod 
of the Carolinas was composed of the Presbyteries of Abingdon, 
Orange, and South Carolina. 23 Hanover Presbytery had been set 
up in 1755, and from it Orange Presbytery was made in 1770. 
South Carolina was set up in 1784 from Orange Presbytery, and 
Abingdon in 1785 from Hanover. Concord came from Orange in 
1795, and Hopewell from South Carolina Presbytery in 1796. Dr. 
Howe lists the membership in each presbytery. 24 Organized Presby- 
terianism in America in 1789 consisted of one hundred and seventy- 
seven ministers, four hundred and thirty-one churches, in sixteen 
presbyteries. 

Each General Assembly in the colonial period gave much time 
to missionary reports. On one missionary journey of two thousand 
miles, preaching about a hundred sermons, the Reverend Mr. Chap- 
man received forty-five dollars and thirty-two cents. Rev. John 
Lindley served on a mission four months, preaching ninety-six 
sermons, and received twelve dollars and fifty cents. 25 Such men 
were trailmakers and leaders in the mass movement away from 
French infidelity and after-war immorality to Christianity, which 
movement is known as the Great Revival of 1800. 

At the beginning of the War, America had a greater proportion 
of unchurched people than any other so-called Christian land. Only 
about four persons in a hundred were members of a Christian 



21 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. at., p. 113. Geo. P. Hays, op. cit., p. 113. 
22 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., pp. 99% and 2 3 2 - 
23 Geo. P. Hays, op. cit., p. 143. 
24 George Howe, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 694. 

25 Geo. P. Hays, op. cit., p. 143; and E. T. Thompson, Presbyterian Missions 
in the Southern United States, p. 47. 



THE ESTABLISHMENT 25 

church. After the War there was a great spiritual decline. Atheism 
and skepticism were popular. The early demise of the church was 
predicted by its enemies. Moral life was at a low ebb. 26 In the 
revival the change in character and affections was often accom- 
panied by emotional phenomena, sometimes due to suggestibility, 
which most Presbyterians frowned upon; but the result was a de- 
cision in the nation against antireligion and for Christianity. The 
period following was one in which the church made rapid strides. 
As an indication of Southern integration, it is interesting to note 
that the Synods of Virginia and the Carolinas from their organiza- 
tion managed their own missionary activities, while the other 
synods worked through the General Assembly. 27 

The Synod of the Carolinas sent missionaries into the Natchez 
country soon after the Spanish governor evacuated Fort Rosalie on 
March 29, 1798, as a result of a treaty. Rev. Wm. Montgomery 
and Rev. James Bowman were ready to set out October 14, 1800. 
They joined Rev. James Hall and followed the robber-infested 
Natchez trail from Nashville, Tennessee, through the Shawnee, 
Cherokee, Chickasaw, and Choctaw Indian territory. By sharing 
their food with a party of horse drivers their supply became ex- 
hausted several days before they reached the first white dwelling 
on Black River. They aroused that settler at two o'clock in the 
morning to secure a meal of bacon, cornbread, and coffee. At Big 
Black, a few miles farther at Grind Stone Fort, and at Clark's 
Creek they established preaching stations. At Port Gibson (Miss.) 
they held the funeral of Mrs. Gibson, the wife of the settler whose 
name the port bears. The people built a log church at Bayou 
Pierre. At a village called Union Town the remnants of a Congre- 
gationalist church that had been established by Rev. Samuel Swayze 
in 1773, while the territory was under British rule, was gathered. 
A Presbyterian elder, John Bolls, joined this congregation. He was 
a signer of the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence, had 
fought through the Revolutionary War, and while the territory 
was under Spanish rule between 1779 and 1798 had been cast into 
prison in Natchez by the authorities for the crime of holding prayer 



26 E. T. Thompson, op. cit., p. 45, 
27 Geo. P. Hays, op. cit., p. 154. 



26 COLORED LIGHT 

meetings. His name stands first upon the list of the three elders at 
the organization of the first presbytery. 

At Washington (the capital of the territory) , at Natchez, Jersey 
Settlement, and Pinckneyville preaching stations were established. 
On April 15, 1801, the missionaries returned. Five churches sub- 
sequently grew out of these nine stations, which on March 6, 181 6, 
formed the first presbytery in the Southwest, the Presbytery of 
Mississippi, with four ministers. The population within the new 
presbytery's bounds was estimated as "at least 100,000." By 1825 
the population in the States of Mississippi and Louisiana was esti- 
mated as 230,000, and fourteen ministers served them. Thirteen 
churches were enrolled. In 1829 the Synod of Mississippi and Ala- 
bama was erected. In 1834, before the separation, the ministers in 
the synod numbered fifty. 28 

By request from the Synod of the Carolinas a division was made 
in that body in 1813. The Synod of North Carolina was formed 
of the Presbyteries of Orange, Concord, and Fayetteville. The 
Synod of South Carolina and Georgia was composed of the Pres- 
byteries of South Carolina, Hopewell, and Harmony. Not until 
1845 was Georgia a separate synod. 29 The Presbytery of Georgia 
was set off from Hopewell in 1 82 1 . 3 ® 

Educational Progress 

A rapid survey of educational progress, especially in the terri- 
tory of Columbia Seminary, may help us picture the situation at the 
organization of Columbia. The beginning of the nineteenth cen- 
tury found the following educational institutions, in addition to 
those already mentioned: Columbia (N. Y.) ; Brown; Dartmouth; 
Rutgers; Dickinson founded by Presbyterians in 1783; Greenville 
founded by Presbyterians in 1794; Washington (Washington and 
Lee), founded in 1774 as result of action by Hanover Presbytery 
in 1 771; and Hampden-Sydney, opened under the auspices of the 
same Presbytery in 1776. In 1764 George Whitefield decided to 



28 Louis Voss, D.D., The Beginnings of Presbyterianism in the Southwest, 
pp. 1-17. 

29 Bothwell, Graham, Jr., A History of the Synod of South Carolina, in Our 
Monthly, Clinton, S. C, 1930. 

30 Alfred Nevin, Presbyterian Encylopaedia, Chronological Table of Presby- 
teries. 



THE ESTABLISHMENT 27 

turn his Bethesda Orphanage into a college. He obtained a grant 
of land for this project from the Governor and Council of Georgia 
in that year, but the plan was defeated by the friends of the orphan- 
age. 31 Queen's Museum in Charlotte, North Carolina, had been 
chartered by the colonial government in 1771, its charter revoked 
by proclamation from George III, and reissued by North Carolina 
in 1777. Queens is a Presbyterian college for young women at 
present. 313 On the same day in 1785 three colleges were chartered by 
th« legislature of South Carolina: Mount Zion at Winnsboro, 
Charleston College, and Cambridge at Ninety Six. 32 Mt. Zion was 
sponsored by the Mt. Zion Society, composed of leading men in the 
State. The society met in Charleston and was incorporated in 1777 
"for the purpose of endowing and supporting a public school in — 
the District of Camden." The preamble to the constitution is pref- 
aced by Isaiah 60:1 and 61: 3: "Arise, shine; for thy light is 
come, and the glory of the Lord is risen upon thee. . . . To appoint 
unto them that mourn in Zion, to give unto them beauty for ashes, 
the oil of joy for mourning, the garment of praise for the spirit of 
heaviness; that they might be called trees of righteousness, the plant- 
ing of the Lord, that he might be glorified." The first principal 
seems to have been William Humphrey, before 1780. Thomas 
Harris McCaule, a Presbyterian minister, reopened the school in 
1 784. He had been standing beside General William Davidson, for 
whom Davidson College was to be named, when General Davidson 
was killed at Cowan's Ford during the Revolution. From Mt. 
Zion came thirteen of the thirty-four men from the South who 
entered the Presbyterian ministry between the Revolution and 
1800. 33 

Dr. Foote, in his Sketches of North Carolina, has preserved the 
language on the diploma of a graduate in the first class (1787) 
after the Revolution: "Praefectus et Curatores Collegii Montis 
Sionis, Omnibus et Singulis ad quos haec literae pervenerint, Salu- 
tem in Domino. . . ," 34 Presbyterian ministers were influential in 

31 Geo. P. Hays, op. cit., p. 159. George Howe, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 359. 

31a Organized in 1856 as The Charlotte Female Institute. 

32 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 344. 

33 Memorial Volume of the Semi-Centennial of the Theological Seminary at 
Columbia, S. C, 1884, p. 133. F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op cit., pp. 344- 
345- 

34 Georgc Howe, op. cit., Vol. I, page 505. 



28 COLORED LIG H T 

Charleston College and Cambridge at Ninety Six, and some min- 
isters were educated there. 35 Rev. George Buist, D. D., pastor in 
Charleston from i 793 until 1808, served as president of Charleston 
College, and Rev. John Springer, serving as pastor at Ninety Six, 
was first rector of Cambridge. With the establishment of South 
Carolina College by the legislature on December 19, 1801, and 
Franklin College (University of Georgia) on November 23, 1800, 
there came to be less need for small colleges, and a movement toward 
State education began. Academies continued to supply a vital need 
until the era of public high schools. 36 

In Georgia, Midway, near Milledgeville, had an academy seem- 
ingly dating back into the closing days of the eighteenth century. 
This was under Hopewell Presbytery, which had been set up by the 
Synod of the Carolinas in 1796 out of the Presbytery of South 
Carolina at a meeting held at Morgantown, North Carolina. Hope- 
well embraced the ^territory of Georgia and westward. "In 1835 
Dr. C. P. Beman took charge of the Manual Labor School at Mid- 
way. This germ developed under his management into Oglethorpe 
University. Dr. Beman was, the first president of Oglethorpe, and 
guided the interests in the path of great progress and prosperity for 
four years." 37 The school continued to flourish and became famous 
before the Civil .War. Many ministers were Oglethorpe men. 38 For 
an insight into the pedagogical methods used by our forefathers, it 
may be interesting to note Dr. Carlyle Beman's offering his resigna- 
tion as president o^Oglethorpe because the trustees refused to allow 
him to flog students above the sophomore year. 39 The New School 



Z5 Centennial Volume, First Presbyterian Church, Charleston, S. C, 19 15, 
p. 124. 

36 In a letter dated October 22, 1799, the Reverend Mr. Dunlop, the first Pres- 
byterian minister in Columbia, S. C, asks to be excused for absence from presby- 
tery due to his connection with the academy. Columbia Academy was incorporated 
in 1792. Out of it grew the public-school system of Columbia. There is no 
connection between Columbia Academy and South Carolina College. George 
Howe, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 596. The State, newspaper, Sesquicentennial edition, 
March 21, 1936, Part VII, p. 2. Franklin College was chartered January 27, 
1785. It opened in 1801. Clark Howell, History of Georgia (1926), Vol. I, p. 
448, forward. 

'^"'Southern Presbyterian, June 29, 1 876, in obituary notice of Dr. C. P. Beman. 

38 Thornwell Jacobs, The Oglethorpe Story, Oglethorpe University, Atlanta, 
Ga., 1 9 1 6, p. 13. 

3Q Georgia Landmarks, Memorials and Legends, Vol. I. 



THE ESTABLISHMENT 29 

split was the cause of Dr. Beman's severing connection with the 
school. 

Maryville College, Tennessee, was founded in 1819; Centre 
College, 1 821; Franklin (Ohio), 1825; Hanover College (Ind.), 
1828. The Cumberland Presbyterian Church opened Cumberland 
College at Princeton, Kentucky, in 1825. This school was moved 
to Lebanon, Tennessee, and is now Cumberland University. These 
Presbyterian colleges grew ,up from the same expansive movement 
that founded Columbia Seminary. 

Theological Education 

The need for ministers continued a pressing problem in the 
church, and the effort to hold up the standard for ministerial edu- 
cation sometimes caused strain. Frequently the more zealous pres- 
byters were willing to sacrifice educational requirements in order to 
get men into the fields. A large factor in the 1 741- 1768 division 
and in the separation of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in 
1 810 was this dilemma: Vacant fields or untrained ministers. The 
solution for the difficulty was some means for training men. The 
colleges were founded to meet this situation, but although theology 
was taught all the matriculates along with other subjects, the prepa- 
ration was not sufficient to meet the traditional Presbyterian re- 
quirements for ordination. At Princeton, John Witherspoon and 
his successors, in addition to serving as presidents and professors, 
gave some time to helping men prepare for the ministry. Dr. Moses 
Hoge became president and teacher of theology at Hampden-Sydney 
in 1807 and remained until 1820. Hanover Presbytery had estab- 
lished a theological library and trust fund there in 1806, and Dr. 
Hoge was expected to help train prospective ministers, being desig- 
nated for this purpose by the Synod of Virginia. 40 

Most doctors and lawyers in this period received whatever pro- 
fessional training they had by attaching themselves, after taking the 
college course, to some established doctor or lawyer. The same 
method was tried for preparing ministers, and the same poor results 
followed. Only successful ministers were desired as teachers, and 
successful ministers were too busy to teach effectively. So presby- 
teries began designating certain men to teach candidates and com- 

40 Geo. P. Hays, op. cit., p. 503. 



30 COLORED LIG HT 

pensating them for the time so spent. The Dutch Reformed Church 
selected Dr. John Henry Livingston of New York for this purpose 
in 1784. The Associate Presbyterian Church so designated Dr. 
John Anderson of Beaver County, Pennsylvania, where a log build- 
ing was in use by his five to ten students. Friends in Scotland had 
given a library ,of about a thousand volumes. Dr. Anderson served 
for twenty-six or twenty-seven years, resigning in 1819. 41 This 
school was moved several times and developed into Xenia Theo- 
logical Seminary. The Associate Reformed Church designated Dr. 
John Mitchell Mason of New York to prepare candidates in 1804. 
He labored until his death in 1821, having trained ninety-six min- 
isters. 42 

Andover Theological Seminary was founded in 1806 because 
Rev. Henry Ware, of Unitarian belief, had been chosen professor in 
theology at Harvard. The Reformed Presbyterian Church ap- 
pointed Dr. Samuel B. Wylie, of Philadelphia, in 1808 for teaching 
candidates. New Brunswick Seminary opened in 18 10 with five 
students of Dr. John Henry Livingston, who has already been 
mentioned as teaching in New York. He had prepared about a 
hundred and twenty men for the ministry before his death. 

In 1809, Dr. Archibald Alexander, in the retiring moderator's 
sermon, suggested establishing a, theological seminary. The pressing 
need for more ministers had been discussed in the 1805 Assembly. 
In 1809 the presbyteries were asked to vote their choice as to the 
establishment of one central theological seminary, or a Northern 
and a Southern seminary, or a seminary for each synod. The first 
choice prevailed, and Princeton Theological Seminary was founded, 
with the first directors' meeting in 18 12 and the cornerstone laying 
in 1 8 15. The campus and organization were distinct from Prince- 
ton College, or Nassau Hall as it was then called, but there has al- 
ways existed a close ^relationship between the two institutions. 

Maryville College, Tennessee (1819), called itself Southern and 
Western Theological Seminary, but it functioned as a regular college 
and was chartered as Maryville College in 1842. Auburn Seminary 
began in 1 82 1 at Auburn, New York, the enterprise of the Synod of 
Geneva. On January 1, 1824, Rev. John Holt Rice began teaching 



41 Semi -Centennial Volume, op. cit., p. 134. 
42 Ibid. t p. 134. 



THE ESTABLISHMENT 31 

candidates under the appointment of Hanover Presbytery. In 1826 
this seminary was taken under the care of the General Assembly, and 
then passed the following year to the Synods of Virginia and North 
Carolina. The name was changed to Union Seminary. 43 From this 
seminary a large number of Southern Presbyterian ministers have 
come. 

The Theological Seminary of the Associate Reformed Presbyte- 
rian Church at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, with Rev. Joseph Kerr as 
sole professor for four years, began between 1824 and 1829. The 
General Assembly in 1827 decided upon the establishment of a 
seminary for the West at Allegheny, Pennsylvania. Andrew Jack- 
son had been chairman of the commission that selected the site. The 
building was occupied in 1831. Also opening near the same time 
as Columbia Seminary were Lane in Cincinnati, where the theologi- 
cal department was organized in 1832, and McCormick Seminary 
(Chicago) that opened as Hanover Seminary, Hanover, Indiana, 

with one professor in 1830. 
f 

Southern Interest in Theological Education 

The period in which Columbia Seminary was projected and 
founded was one of remarkable growth for the church. In 1815 
there were forty-one presbyteries, and in 1834 there were one hun- 
dred and eighteen presbyteries. From 39,685 to 247,964 was 
the gain in church membership between those same years. The call 
for more ministers was intensified. After the Louisiana Purchase of 
1803, the War of 1812, the Creek Indian Campaign under Jack- 
son, great migration to the new lands took place. The West was 
calling pleadingly for ministers. 44 

"To Hopewell Presbytery belongs the honor of taking the initia- 
tive for establishing a Theological Seminary in the South," says 
Dr. John S. Wilson, in The Dead of the Synod of Georgia. Dr. 
George Howe quotes this in his brief History of Columbia Theo- 
logical Seminary in the Semi-Centennial Volume 45 and most writers 
upon Columbia's history since seem to have followed him. There 
was really no direct connection between this early interest in theo- 



43 General Catalogue of Union Seminary in Virginia, 1924. 
44 Geo. P. Hays, op. cit., p. 169. 
^Semi-Qentennial Volume, op. cit., p. 136. 



32 COLORED LIGHT 

logical education in Hopewell Presbytery and the founding of Co- 
lumbia Seminary. 46 The interest in Hopewell Presbytery was simi- 
lar to the interest elsewhere in meeting the problem of ministerial 
supply and training. The result of their attention to the problem 
was their sponsoring the organization of The Georgia Educational 
Society in 1823, which had three committees in different sections of 
the State and supported candidates for the ministry in Franklin 
College. In 1829 it reported fourteen beneficiaries under its care 
and $1,850 collected during the year. Rev. Thomas Goulding was 
the first secretary of this society. 47 On September 6, 18 19, while 
considering a report upon a proposal to establish a theological 
school, Hopewell Presbytery had two locations proposed, Athens, 
the seat of Franklin College (University of Georgia) and Mt. Zion, 
in Hancock County, seven miles from Sparta, Georgia, where Dr. 
Nathan S. Beman had been conducting a flourishing academy for 
some time. Athens was selected. Possibly the friends of Mt. Zion 
did not approve of the site. The next day further consideration of 
the subject was indefinitely postponed. The next reference to a 
theological seminary in the minutes of Hopewell Presbytery is April 
3, 1830, when a committee was appointed to confer with the Pres- 
bytery of Georgia concerning a proposal to endow a professorship 
in the seminary lately established at Columbia, South Carolina. On 
April 3, 1 83 1, the presbytery voted to unite with the Presbytery of 
Georgia in attempting to raise $25,000.00 to endow a professorship, 
which would be subject to withdrawal in case a theological seminary 
were established in Georgia. 

The interest in theological education in Hopewell Presbytery was 
not unique. Harmony Presbytery formed itself into an Educational 
Society with a constitution on November 15, 1823., In 1820 the 
Synod of South Carolina and Georgia voted to unite with the 
Synod of North Carolina in endowing a professorship at Princeton 
Theological Seminary. 48 

In a paper sent to the General Assembly by the Synod of South 
Carolina and Georgia in 1823 concerning the territory under their 
synod and that under the Synod of Tennessee, we find this: "It may 



46 See Appendix I. 

47 George Howe, op. cit., Vol. II, p. 411. See Appendix I. 

48 Semi-Centennial Volume, op. cit., p. 135. 



THE ESTABLISHMENT 33 

be convenient for the Synod of Tennessee to extend their dominion 
as it will give them facility in collecting funds, and enable them to 
build up their Western Theological Seminary; but we, the Synod 
of South Carolina and Georgia, are attached to the Theological 
Seminary at Princeton — a seminary founded on better principles 
than any other; a seminary that cannot be corrupt until the 
majority of the General Assembly depart from the faith once 
delivered to the saints." 49 By i 825, $10,161.00 had been paid and 
$3,480.00 subscribed to Princeton. Dr. Howe lists other donations 
to Princeton Seminary, which bring the total up to around $42,- 
000.00 given this institution just before the establishment of Co- 
lumbia Seminary. 50 

The need for ministers in the South is expressed in a report of 
the Missionary Society of the Synod of South Carolina and Georgia 
in 1826: "We almost despair of being able to do anything ef- 
ficiently in the Domestic Department of our Society unless mission- 
aries can be raised up at home. We have too long looked to the 
North for a supply. The many vacancies that there occur, and the 
vast openings to the West, are more than sufficient to employ all 
the ministers that can be educated at the North for more than a 
hundred years to come: and there seems to be little in the South in- 
viting to our Northern brethren. They dread our climate — our 
summers are considered as fatal to strangers. They also in general 
exceedingly dislike the domestic circumstances of our country, and 
few can reconcile it to their feelings to settle permanently in the 
South. . . ." 51 

The Classical, Scientific, and Theological 
Seminary of the South 

South Carolina Presbytery, at its forty-ninth session, held at 
Willington Church on April 1, 1824, appointed a committee con- 
sisting of Dr. Wm. H. Barr, Dr. Richard B. Cater, and ruling 
elder Ezekiel Noble to draw up a constitution for the proposed 
"Classical, Scientific, and Theological Seminary of the South." 
Rev. Henry Reid and John Rennie were appointed to prepare an 



49 George Howe. op. cit., Vol. II, p. 425. 

r '"Ibid., Vol. II, p. 413. 

51 E. T. Thompson, Presbyterian Missions in the Southern United States, p. 6 1. 



34 COLORED LIGHT 

address to the public. The constitution was reported and adopted. 
The presbytery was to be ex-officio the board of trustees, and the 
institution was to be located in Pendleton. Students of all de- 
nominations were to be admitted. As soon as $15,000.00 could be 
raised, the institution was to go into operation. Rev. Richard B. 
Cater was made special agent to visit the low country to solicit 
funds. 52 When synod met in November, 1 824, at Augusta, Georgia, 
it adopted the project as its own. The presbytery had made the 
offer, and only made the condition that the location should be 
Pendleton. 53 A site about two miles from Pendleton had been 
offered by Martin Palmer, John Hunter, and Henry Dobson Reese. 
Charleston Union Presbytery agreed to help in the synodical enter- 
prise. In November, 1825, meeting at Upper Cane Creek Church, 
Abbeville District, the synod adopted a constitution for a Literary 
and Theological Seminary for the South, and elected twelve clergy- 
men and twelve laymen upon the Board of Trustees. 54 The theologi- 
cal department was reserved to the direct control of the synod. This 
constitution was published in Charleston in 1826. 55 The Archives 
of the Seminary begin with minutes of the board appointed by 
synod, meeting April 10, 1826. An address to the public was pub- 
lished, which has been quoted at length in the introduction to this 
study. In April, 1826, the Charleston Union Presbytery decided 
to endow a professorship and began securing funds. In 1827 a 
building committee reported plans for a brick building to cost $8,- 
000.00, and the finance committee reported plans for investments. 
However, the Board that year recommended to synod, meeting in 
Charleston, that the scientific and literary features be dropped, to 
avoid "objections now extensively made against the institution, 
that it will interfere with literary institutions now existing within 
the bounds of Synod." 56 Any who wished to withdraw contribu- 
tions were to be allowed to do so. The amount of $1,01 1.40 was 
refunded, leaving $3,173.90 in hand. A sum almost ten times that 
had been pledged, and was now considered cancelled unless the 



52 Semi-Centennial Volume, op. cit., p. 137. 
53 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 418. 

5 *The Seminary — Its Early History, in The Banner of the Cross, Vol. I, No. 
Nov. i f 1834. 

55 Semi-Centennial Volume, op. cit., p. 138. 
56 George Howe, op. cit.. Vol. II, p. 419. 



THE ESTABLISHMENT 35 

pledges were renewed. The change brought in about as much for 
new contributions as the sum lost. 57 

The Theological Seminary of the Synod of 
South Carolina and Georgia 

The next synod, on December 15, 1828, resolved to begin oper- 
ation. Dr. Thomas Goulding was elected Professor of Theology, 
with a salary of $800.00 and permission to continue as pastor at 
Lexington, Georgia, for the time. This synod also adopted the re- 
vised constitution omitting the scientific and literary departments. 
This constitution begins, "Aware of the superior claims of the 
present age to an enlightened ministry, the Synod of South Caro- 
lina and Georgia has resolved to establish an institution of sacred 
learning, to be called 'The Theological Seminary of the Synod of 
South Carolina and Georgia.' " 58 Regulations governing the faculty 
and student body and the affairs of the Seminary were included in 
this constitution. South Carolina Presbytery had released the synod 
from its pledge to locate near Pendleton on October 3 , 1829. Winns- 
boro, South Carolina, made an overture for location there through 
the board of Mt. Zion Academy, and Athens, Georgia, was advo- 
cated. But in December, 1829, the committee on location settled 
on Columbia. The synod of 1829, meeting in Savannah, con- 
firmed the selection of Columbia. The upper part of South Caro- 
lina was not pleased to give up the literary feature and to lose the 
location in that section. South Carolina College then had Dr. 
Thomas Cooper as president, who was a materialist in philosophy 
and antagonistic to historic Christianity. 59 Some churchmen in up- 
per South Carolina thought a church college the only means to 
counterbalance this influence. In addition to this, a college in their 
midst was desirable. This desire eventuated in the founding of 
Davidson College in 1837. One of the committee on location said 
regarding Dr. Cooper's influence in Columbia, "I am not an advo- 
cate for shutting up candidates for the ministry in a convent or a 
cave; and if young men cannot withstand temptations in early life, 



57 George Howe, op. cit., Vol. II, p. 420. 

^Manuscript Minutes of Synod, Vol. I, pp. 247-256. 

59 Dumas Malone, Public Life of Thomas Cooper, pp. 19, 83, 261, etc. 



36 COLORED LIGHT 

I fear that there is but little hope that they will bear the burden and 
the heat of the day, which awaits them in later life." 60 

The synod of 1829, at Savannah, transferred Dr. Goulding, 
with his consent, to the chair of Ecclesiastical History and Church 
Polity and elected Dr. Moses Waddell, who was terminating ten 
years as president at Franklin College (University of Georgia), to 
the professorship of Theology. Dr. Waddell declined the professor- 
ship. Dr. Ezra Fisk of Goshen, New York, was approached about 
the professorship, but discouraged the committee. Rev. Francis 
Cummins, retiring as chairman of the Board, in a letter of January 
31, 1829, said "very considerable theological and biblical, as well 
as popular reputation, should attach to your first professor." 61 This 
synod declined a proposal from Dr. John H. Rice that it unite with 
Virginia and North Carolina in support of one institution. 

The decision to locate in Columbia was influenced by the eligi- 
bility of the site that became the home of the Seminary for ninety- 
seven years. Ansley Hall, a captain of industry in his day, had 
Robert Mills design the building for a home. It was purchased from 
Hall's widow by Colonel Abraham Blanding, a public-spirited 



60 Letters of I. K. Douglas and J. T. Davis under date of May 20, 1929, and 
March 8, 1929, quoted in Columbia Theological Seminary and The Southern 
Presbyterian Church, Wm. C. Robinson, p. 14. 

61 Wm. C. Robinson, op. cit., p. 15. F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., 
p. 419. 




Main Building, Columbia, S. C. 



THE ESTABLISHMENT 



37 



citizen of Columbia, who received gifts for more than half the pur- 
chase price from Columbia people of all denominations to aid a 
"Southern Theological School." The large Southern mansion with 
smaller buildings upon an entire city block offered excellent facili- 
ties to the new enterprise. It faced another mansion that had also 
been designed by Robert Mills, who was an elder of the Columbia 




Birthplace, Manse, Lexington, Ga. 

Church and the famous architect who designed the Washington 
Monument and the United States Treasury building. 62 

While a second professor was being selected and the plant se- 
cured, Dr. Thomas Goulding began teaching a class of five students 
at Lexington, Georgia, in the manse. Two of these students were 





731 


Mmimh J 



Recent picture of Old Lexington Manse. Insert is headstone of 
the Rev. John Newton. 



62 The State (newspaper), Sesquicentennial edition, March 21. 1936, Part III, 
p. 5-0 



38 COLORED LIG HT 

studying preparatory courses for theological work. The Southwest 
was seeking ministers, and young men wished to prepare themselves 
to answer the call that had touched their consciences. Previou&gtp,, 
this, Dr. Goulding had conducted an academy there. 63 

John Newton was born in Pennsylvania in 1759, graduated from 
Liberty Hall in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, on August 
20, 1780. He purchased land and moved his family near Lexing- 
ton, Georgia, in 1786. He organized Beth-Salem Church, which 
became Lexington Church, where Columbia Seminary was begun. 
This church called him while he was still a probationer in 1787. He 
later organized New Hope Church at Puoli, Hebron, and Thyatira 
Churches. His body was removed from old Beth-Salem and is now 
in the churchyard in Lexington. His brother, Thomas Newton, 
was ordained by Hopewell Presbytery at Hebron, March 16, 1799. 
He served Beth-Salem for a time. A son of John Newton, Ebenezer 
Newton, graduated from Franklin College in 1 8 1 1 , and seems to 
have taught an academy in Lexington from before 18 13 until 
181 5, and perhaps longer. He became tutor at Franklin College in 
1818. Rev. Thomas Goulding was present at a meeting of Hope- 
well Presbytery on September 7, 1821, being still a member of 
Harmony Presbytery, and was invited to sit as a corresponding 
member. He was received by Hopewell Presbytery on May 24, 
1822. That year he had purchased a small farm in Oglethorpe 
County, he and his family being in poor health. In 1 824 he moved 
into Lexington and took charge of the academy there and engaged 
in preaching. It is probable that several candidates for the ministry 
were trained in this Lexington Academy, both before and after 
Goulding's tenure of its headship. At the time of his election as 
first professor of Columbia Seminary there seem to have been already 
several young ministerial students under his guidance. However, 
it is probable that no claim to the fact that Lexington Academy was 
a predecessor of Columbia Seminary can be established. 64 

Early in January, 1830, Dr. Goulding moved his family and 
slaves to Columbia, attended by a few students, and occupied the 
First Presbyterian Church manse. He was inaugurated March 17, 



63 List of students in Appendix. See Thornwellian, March 20, 1930. 

64 MS. Minutes of Hopewell Presbytery, pp. 18, 20, 56, 196, 193; John S. 
Wilson, D.D., The Dead of the Synod of Georgia, p. 16; Letter from Miss Vir- 
ginia Newton, Athens, Ga., under date of August 18, 1936. 




DR. THOMAS GOULDING Reproduction from Oil 



40 COLORED LIG H T 

1830, in First Presbyterian Church. Dr. Wm. A. McDowell 
preached the sermon from II Corinthians 1:24, and Dr. B. M. 
Palmer, Sr., as chairman of the Board, inducted Dr. Goulding into 
office. A regular class was organized on January 18, 1831, of six 
members, of whom two were special students; and on January 25, 

1 83 1, the exercises of the Seminary were transferred to the Seminary 
plant. 65 

Dr. Thomas Goulding 

Dr. Thomas Goulding remained with the Seminary until Janu- 
ary, 1835, when he removed to Columbus, Georgia, and labored 
for thirteen years as pastor there, dying June 21, 1848. He was a 
son of old Midway Church, Liberty County, Georgia, which has 
contributed so many ministers to this section, and which has a his- 
tory running back through migrations from Dorchester, South 
Carolina, in 1752, from Dorchester, Massachusetts, in 1695, and 
from England, in 1630. Thomas Goulding studied in New Haven 
and Wolcott, Connecticut, in 1804- 1807, intending to practice 
law. He returned to Sunbury, Georgia, and taught. In 18 10 he 
united with Midway Church. Friends pressed his entering the min- 
istry after he had showed marked ability and interest in conducting 
religious exercises. In 1 8 1 1 he became a candidate of Harmony 
Presbytery. After preaching at Whitebluff and other places he be- 
gan serving Lexington in 1824. In 1829 the University of North 
Carolina conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of Divinity. He 
was a man of fine intellect and cultivated taste. It was a favorite rule 
that he often expressed to his students: "Let every sermon preached 
contain so much of the plan of salvation that should a heathen come 
in who had never heard the gospel before, and who should depart, 
never to hear it again, he should learn enough to know what he 
must do to be saved." 66 



6b Semi-Centenniat Volume, op. cit., p. 143, etc. Thornwellian, March 20, 
1930, quoting The Banner of the Cross, of November 1, 1934. 
GG Ibid., p. 186. 




DR. GEORGE HOWE 



42 COLORED LIG H T 

Dr. George Howe 
While the Seminary conducted classes in Columbia in the manse 
on Marion Street opposite to the Presbyterian Church, Dr. Goulding 
was joined by another member of the faculty, Rev. George Howe. 
Dr. Howe was to continue with the Seminary from January, 183 i, 
until his death fifty- two years later, April 15, 1883. A son of New 
England's Plymouth Rock blood, he was born at Dedham, Massa- 
chusetts, November 6, 1802. His mother's grandfather was Major 
George Gould, who was with Washington at Dorchester Heights. 
With an excellent preparatory training, George Howe entered Mid- 
dlebury College, Vermont, and graduated with first honors in 1822. 
He graduated from Andover Theological Seminary in 1825, re- 
ceiving the appointment as Abbott scholar. At the age of twenty- 
seven he became Phillips Professor of Sacred Theology in Dart- 
mouth College. Being threatened with consumption, he sailed south 
and spent December, 1830, in Charleston. Two classmates at An- 
dover brought him to the attention of the synod of 1830, meeting 
in Augusta that month. At the same time he was invited to become 
pastor of Charleston First Church. He preached before synod, and 
when he likened the fluctuation of faith to the magnetic needle that 
comes to rest at north just as the soul comes to rest in Christ, it is 
recorded Dr. Moses Waddell audibly whispered, "Sublime." He 
agreed to teach that session at Columbia as instructor of languages. 
He returned north after six months' teaching, married in August, 
and brought his wife with him upon his elevation to the professor- 
ship of Biblical Literature by the synod in 1 83 1 . The students had 
commended his election: "Six months' tutelage under him has 
deeply impressed our minds with a sense of his intrinsic excellence as 
a man, and his decided qualifications for this responsible calling." 
Dr. HoWe began his first period as instructor before a matriculation 
had taken place, and it is evident he largely determined the curricu- 
lum and academic practice adopted by the new Seminary. He was 
inaugurated March 28, 1832. He wrote in his history years later: 
". . . their study of Theology proper, which study was not really 
and fully commenced previous to the year 1831, when a three-year 
Theological course after the model of Princeton and Andover was 
introduced." 67 

67 George Howe, History of the Presbyterian Church in South Carolina, Vol II, 
p. 420. 



T HE EST ABLIS H M ENT 43 

In his diary J. L. Merrick, '33, has entered under date of January 
19, 1 83 1 : "About 2:00 P. M. arrived safely in Columbia. Sought 
out Dr. Goulding, the principal of the Theological Seminary. Was 
kindly received by him and by Mr. Howe, the other teacher, and 
affectionately welcomed by the students. The first class was organ- 
ized only two days ago, and consisted before my arrival of four 
regular and two irregular students." 68 

Having lost his wife in 1832, Dr. Howe married Mrs. Sarah 
Ann McConnell, daughter of Andrew Walthour of Walthourville, 
Georgia, who was a great-aunt of Theodore Roosevelt and became 
the mother-in-law of Woodrow Wilson's sister. In 1836 Union 
Seminary, New York, called Dr. Howe to the professorship of Sacred 
Literature. In a letter in answer December 7, 1836, Dr. Howe 
wrote: "I must now say, that it appears still rny duty to cast in my 
lot and earthly destiny with the people of the South, among whom 
I have made my home. When I accepted the Professorship I hold, 
it was with the hope that I might be the means of building up the 
wastes, and extending the borders of our Southern Zion. This mo- 
tive still holds me here. Though our institution must be a small 
one through the present generation, and yours will be large, it is 
important, it is necessary, whatever be the fate of our beloved coun- 
try, that this Seminary should live. If I leave it at the present junc- 
ture, its continuance is exceedingly doubtful. If I remain, though 
the field of my efforts must be small, and I must live on in obscurity, 
we may yet transmit to the men of the next generation an institution 
which will bless them and the world." In his final sickness, years 
later, Dr. Howe asked his wife to read the last two chapters from 
Romans. He took the book and said he would reread those same 
chapters to her. Then he led in prayer, ending his petitions with one 
for "the dear Seminary." This was his last audible prayer. 

Dr. Howe contended for the preservation of standards for min- 
isters. Letting down the educational requirements for ordination 
was adverse to his thinking. Yet he could effectively minister to men 
of all types. He was invited to preach at a camp meeting conducted 
by another denomination near Columbia. Some began to shout and 
he raised his voice to be heard. Shouting and weeping became gen- 



6fe Diary of James Lyman Merrick, deposited with Curator of MSS., Amherst 
College, Amherst, Mass. 



44 COLORED LIGHT 

eral, and when he had finished a minister came up and embraced 
Dr. Howe with weeping. "They made me so ashamed, and I did 
not know what to do," afterward said Dr. Howe. 

The Synod of South Carolina in 1849 requested Dr. Howe to 
prepare a history of the Presbyterian Church in its territory. He is- 
sued the first volume in 1870 and sent the last sheets to the press 
for the second volume just before a broken carriage threw him to 
the ground and caused him to receive the injury that brought on his 
death in a few weeks. Other writings are listed in the appendix to 
this study. He served as president of the interdenominational Co- 
lumbia Bible Society. He advocated foreign missions and missions 
to the colored people. In 1865, the closing year of the Civil War, 
this son of New England served as moderator at the General Assem- 
bly of the Presbyterian Church in the Confederate States. In the 
lean years following, he diligently taught the depleted classes and 
nursed what may almost be called "his seminary." To him Co- 
lumbia Seminary owes a great debt of gratitude. 69 His grave is in 
the churchyard in Columbia, the inscription in Greek, Latin, and 
Hebrew, "He loved God and served his fellowmen." 

The World in 1828 

The Seminary began its existence in a world filled with problems, 
for every age has its stresses. Some of these were destined to affect its 
life greatly. In 1828 the question of high and low tariff was being 
debated in Congress. Stock in the Charleston, Augusta, and Co- 
lumbia Railroad was offered for sale in Columbia in January, 
1828; and next year trains operated from Charleston to Hamburg. 
The Missouri Compromise had already fixed the boundary between 
free and slave States. Webster and Hayne debated in 1830. In 
1 83 1 William Lloyd Garrison established The Liberator. In 1832 
South Carolina attempted nullification of the tariff acts, and the 
Clay compromise was signed in March, 1833. 

Dr. Wm. A. McDowell was called to become professor and fi- 
nancial agent for the Seminary in December, 1832, from his pas- 
torate at Third Church, Charleston. Dr. McDowell declined, writ- 
ing: "In the present awful crisis everything in our state is at this 



^Semi-Centennial Volume, op. cit. , p. 287. 



THE ESTABLISHMENT 



45 



moment in a state of agitation. All is uncertainty. ... I fear God's 
purpose is to scourge rather than bless us at the present moment . . . 
to embark such an undertaking [the raising of a large endowment] 
is appalling. In this situation I cannot materially help you by ac- 




An Oak Tree, Atlanta Campus 

cepting your appointment." 70 A year later Dr. McDowell resigned 
his pastorate and moved to the North to become Secretary of As- 
sembly's Home Mission Committee. 71 



■°Wm. C. Robinson, op. cit., page 22. 
"'George Howe. op. cit., Vol. II, page 454. 



46 COLORED LIGHT 

Economic and social problems were indeed to prove trying, but 
the faith of Dr. George Howe was to be justified. The tender plant 
was to outlive the economic order that caused the political strain in 
1 832, just as Augustine's De Civitate Dei outlived the fall of Rome. 
Dr. Howe and his fellows were able to "transmit to the men of the 
next generation an institution which will bless them and the world." 
Their seedling was destined to become a tree. 




DR. AARON WHITNEY LELAND 



CHAPTER II 

THE SEMINARY IN THE OLD SOUTH 
183 1-1850 



Faculty 

DR. AARON W. LELAND was called to the professorship of Theol- 
ogy by the synod in November, 1833. He began teaching in 
ogy by the synod in November, 1833. He began teaching in 
January, 1834. Like the two other professors, he had New Eng- 
land antecedents. His family had lived there since the middle of the 
seventeenth century. His ancestry shows several ministers, reaching 
back to John Leland, Chaplain to Henry VIII and Royal Anti- 
quary. After graduating at Williams College in 1808, Aaron 
Whitney Leland came to Mt. Pleasant, across the Cooper River 
from Charleston, to teach. In April, 181 1, he became a candidate 
under Harmony Presbytery, and was ordained evangelist May 2, 
181 2. So acceptable was his ministry that he was called and in- 
stalled pastor of the First Church, Charleston, in 18 13. He re- 
ceived an honorary Master of Arts degree from Brown University 
in 1 8 14 and, in 18 15, the Doctor of Divinity degree from South 
Carolina College. He was moderator of the Old School Assembly 
in 1850. In 1856 he was transferred, with his hearty approval, to 
the chair of Sacred Rhetoric and Pastoral Theology, where he 
labored until 1863. 

"Dr Leland was magnificently endowed with natural gifts, both 
mental and physical. In manly beauty, dignity and grace, he was 
the admiration, in his youth and early manhood, of all who knew 
him; and with a mind vigorous and strong, and well stored with 
knowledge, and an imagination vivid and powerful, coupled with 
a heart susceptible of the most intense emotion, he could attract and 
impress all who came within the charmed sphere of his influence." 1 
He served for thirty years in the Seminary until disabled by a stroke 
of paralysis on October 11, 1863. From January, 1834, to De- 
cember, 1 836, the First Presbyterian Church in Columbia was served 



Joseph Bardwell, Semi-Centennial Volume, op. cit., p. 207. 



IN THE OLD SOUTH 49 

by Dr. Leland as minister. He published sermons in the Southern 
Preacher. He succeeded, during the vacation periods, in gathering 
considerable funds for the Seminary, and thus placed it upon a 
sound financial basis. 

Dr. Charles Colcock Jones succeeded Dr. Goulding in 1836 as 
Professor of Ecclesiastical History and Church Polity. He served 
until 1838, returned to the same service in 1848, and continued 
until 1850. Here was a truly great Christian. His pioneer work 
for the slaves gained him, throughout the church, the title "Apostle 
to the Negroes." 

This ministry will be discussed presently. Here let his life be 
briefly noted. Born December 20, 1804, at his father's plantation, 
Liberty Hall, Liberty County, Georgia, he was presented in in- 
fancy by his mother and baptized by Rev. Cyrus Gildersleeve, pastor 
of Midway Church. His mother was a Girardeau, of the South 
Carolina Huguenots. Bereft of father at two, and of mother at five, 
the boy was reared by a godly aunt and his uncle Captain Joseph 
Jones. Sunbury Academy, under Rev. William McWhir, D. D. 
furnished his early education. He began work in Savannah at four- 
teen, continuing to study in the evenings. At seventeen he united 
with Midway Church on profession of faith. The pastor urged his 
considering the ministry. He came to the conviction that he should 
so use his life. At the age of twenty he entered Phillips Academy, 
Andover, Massachusetts, and two years later (in 1826) Andover 
Theological Seminary. After three years there, he went to Prince- 
ton Seminary for eighteen months. In 1 830 he was licensed by New 
Brunswick Presbytery. That year he returned to Liberty County, 
married, and on May 31, 1831, was called as pastor to the First 
Presbyterian Church of Savannah. After eighteen months he re- 
signed his charge, leaving happy memories with his people, and 
gave himself to work for the Negroes in his own section. This was 
an unheard of step for a minster to take. Being wealthy, Jones could 
support himself. He stirred the church to a consciousness of the 
spiritual destitution among the Negro servants. He was the first of 
three men, the others being Adger and Girardeau, who were elevated 
by their brethren to professorial chairs in the Seminary after having 
given their ministries largely to work for the colored slaves. In 
1838 he returned to labor among the slaves for ten years, the prime 
of his life. He organized the Association for the Religious Instruction 



50 COLORED LIGHT 

of the Negroes and was its secretary. His book on this subject and 
his annual reports were extensively read. He wrote a catechism 
widely used throughout the South. 2 It was translated into Ar- 
menian and Chinese. Resulting from his Seminary teaching, a 
volume on the church was issued. 3 He resigned the chair at Colum- 
bia a second time to succeed Dr. William A. McDowell as Secretary 
of the General Assembly's Board of Home Missions, and moved to 
Philadelphia. Exposure in his Negro work had undermined his 
health, and for that reason he resigned and returned to his planta- 
tion in 1853. But he toiled on for the Negroes, and in spite of 
physical weakness, poured forth a plea for them before the first 
General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the Confederate 
States in 1861. With clear mind but steadily weakening body, he 
lived on until March 16, 1863. His body rests in Midway ceme- 
tery. While at the Seminary he often presented the Negro cause to 
the students, and he organized in Columbia a Negro Sunday school 
of two hundred pupils. As a cultured gentleman, as a steward of 
wealth, as a preacher, teacher, and church executive, Dr. Jones ex- 
celled. However, his love for the slave brother-in-black sets him 
among the great heroic hearts who have sacrificed self to service in 
a mission to needy men. This was in an intellectual atmosphere 
that found some leaders attempting "to prove by deductions from 
science that the Bible doctrine of the unity of the races was not true, 
that Negroes belonged to a different species, and were not human — ." 
"While rationalism on the part of the abolitionists rejected the 
scriptures 'because they do not denounce slavery as a sin' ; radicalism 
on the part of the ethnologist attacked the authority of the scrip- 
tures 'because they teach us that the Negroes are human beings, fel- 
low-creatures of God, and that though in God's providence they 
are slaves, God requires that we care for them as brethren'." 4 In such 
an age C. C. Jones resigned the pastorate in a fashionable city church 
to become "the Apostle to the Negroes." 5 



2 Some of his annual reports are preserved at the Historical Foundation of the 
Presbyterian and Reformed Churches, Montreat, N. C. 
See literary appendix. 

4 William Sumner Jenkins, Pro-Slavery Thought in the Old South (1935), 
p. 239. 

''Semi-Centennial Volume., op. cit., p. 195. 



IN THE OLD SOU T H 51 

Physical Equipment and Institutional 
Life of the Period 

Life in the old South has been pictured through a sentimental 
haze. Romantic fiction has found an allure in the splendid, idle 
forties. During these days the Seminary quietly carried on its teach- 
ing. Dr. Howe and Dr. Leland, in 1836, defend themselves for 
avoiding the theological and social debate of the day. "Some will 
not be satisfied until we enter deeply into the agitating questions of 
party . . . until we cause the discordant notes of theological warfare 
to issue from these walls where that quiet should reign in which 
alone the studies of the institution can be successfully pursued. We 
have thus far felt that we have something more important to do." 6 
At first the institution was somewhat crowded in its Southern man- 
sion. Dr. Howe mentions the third-story low ceilings as uncom- 
fortable for tall students. When the professors were housed else- 
where, the students occupied the ground floor also, leaving the 
middle story for lecture room and chapel. J. L. Merrick records 
under date of April 22, 1831 : "Removed from the room which I 
have hitherto occupied in the Seminary in conjunction with a 
brother classmate, to one of the little rooms designed for a single 
student which have recently been fitted up here." 7 The gardener's 
house became a dining room. J. Leighton Wilson, years later, in 
paying tribute to Dr. Howe referred thus to the Seminary plant: 
"If the speaker ever knew what consecration to God meant, it was 
while he and this venerable father were kneeling in prayer in the 
foundation room of the Seminary building. To his memory even 
in the deepest wilds of Africa, that southwest corner room has al- 
ways been a place of peculiar sanctity." 8 

An interesting insight into the life of the students is afforded by 
the following extracts from Merrick's diary: 



^Archives, Vol. II, p. i i 60. Quoted by Wm. C. Robinson, Columbia Theologi- 
cal Seminary and the Southern Presbyterian Church, p. 36. 

7 Diary of J. L. Merrick, op. cit. 

^Semi-Centennial Volume, op. cit., p. 166. This reference must have been to 
Dr. Howe, whose semi-centennial was being celebrated. Howe was born in 1802, 
J. L. Wilson 1 809, and J. B. Adger 1 8 1 o. By error it is taken as a reference to Dr. 
Adger in Seminary Bulletin, Feb., 193 1, and in Memoirs of J. Leighton Wilson, p. 
40. 



52 COLO RED LIG H T 

"Jan. 30, 18 31. Sabbath Eve. Interested highly with the preach- 
ing today. Subject in the forenoon — Growth of moral character — 
afternoon scriptural narrative of John the Baptist and Herod, ampli- 
fied and contrasted. 

"Feb. 6, 18 3 1. Sabbath afternoon. No public worship today in 
consequence of a snow storm. This is the first snow I have seen in 
Carolina. It has been snowing all day and the snow is now two or 
three inches in depth. It is, I am told, rather unusually severe for 
this place. Yet I was astonished after being told, after putting on 
my cloak and hat for the purpose of going to meeting, that there 
would be no public service in consequence of the inclemency of the 
weather. It appears to me very strange that so moderate a storm 
should prevent the public worship of God, especially as the sanc- 
tuary is just at the door of the congregation. 

"Feb. 24. Thursday. This is the day for fasting and prayer for 
Colleges and Seminaries of learning in our land. In the afternoon 
our Professors met us in our chapel room where we enjoyed an. in- 
teresting and I trust a profitable season. I remembered the re- 
vivals of '27 and '28 in Amherst College of which I was then a 
member, and the seasons of refreshing among Christians there about 
this season in the two succeeding years. O that the Lord would bless 
that institution this year also with a glorious and powerful re- 
vival of pure and undefiled religion. O that the prayers offered for 
that college today may be speedily answered, yea, more than an- 
swered for the Redeemer's sake. 

"March 31, 183 1. Our usual prayer meeting this evening was 
very fully attended, solemn and interesting. The pastor of the 
Presbyterian church in this place, and three other clergymen were 
present. Appearances seem more favorable now than for several 
weeks past. May the blessing of the God of Jacob be upon us. 

"April g. At eleven A. M. repaired to the chapel of the college 
in this city to hear the Rev. Dr. Beaman of Troy, N. Y. who ad- 
dressed the young men in college in compliance with an invitation 
received from them requesting him to address them. Dr. Beaman 
took for his text Zech. 2:4: 'Run, speak to this young man'. 

"April 10. Sabbath. Dr. Beaman preached this morning from 
Mai. 3:18, with his characteristic ability and heart reaching power. 
He discusses his subject and unfolds eternal things with all the cool 
deliberation and sound reasoning with which he would demon- 



IN T HE OLD SOU T H 53 

strate a proposition of Euclid, yet with such solemnity and evi- 
dent sincerity and with such peculiar pathos too, that truth in his 
hand appears 'fair as the moon, clear as the sun and terrible as an 
army with banners', 

"Sabbath morn. i7. A most beautiful morning — the very 
youth of summer. All around is brightness and beauty, serenity 
and melody. As the natural sun cheers and enlightens the earth how 
much more may the Sun of righteousness rejoice and illumine the 
souls of His people this day. May the eyes of the impenitent be un- 
sealed this day to behold the glory and loveliness of Jesus and their 
souls adore the King of salvation. 

"May g. Monday. Returned this morning from a Methodist 
Camp meeting held ten miles from Columbia and to which in com- 
pany with some of the brethren of- the Seminary I repaired on Sat- 
urday morning last. A kind friend in town took us in his carriage 
to the meeting, provided for our refreshment during our stay and 
brought us back — all gratis. May God reward him not only in this 
life but give him the reward of the righteous in the world to come. 
The meeting was conducted orderly, and I trust the blessing of God 
will attend it. The presiding Elder stated that there was one hope- 
ful conversion yesterday — others were inquiring. The conversion 
of one soul in the light of eternity will appear to have been a work 
of no less than infinite magnitude and of everlasting glory. 

"May 25, 18 3 1. In the forenoon met in the chapel to pray for 
the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church now in session 
in Philadelphia. In the afternoon the exercises had more particular 
reference to the students in this Seminary. 

"Evening. This evening several of the brethren met in my room 
for prayer. We confessed our faults one to another, and prayed 
one for another. Our hearts flowed together; the Holy Spirit 
seemed present to bless; it appeared to be a little reviving in our 
midst. I think that we are all desirous of living more to the glory 
of God than we have done . . . Lord Jesus, aid us. 

"June 2, 183 1. Last evening attended service in the Catholic 
church. Bishop England of Charleston delivered a lecture prepara- 
tory to the celebration of the Eucharist this day." 9 



°Diary of James Lyman Merrick, op. cit. 



54 COLORED LIGHT 

Before the Seminary's opening, committees from the Board began 
collecting books for the library. Each presbytery appointed such a 
committee in 1829, and about three hundred volumes were collected. 
In Dr. Howe's brief History of Columbia Theological Seminary in 
the Semi -Centennial Volume he recounts the growth of the library. 
Dr. Howe acted as librarian. By 1850 there were 4,582 volumes. 
The library was housed on the third floor. ' 

The endowment grew slowly through these early years. The 
Presbytery of Charleston Professorship came to be called the South 
Carolina Professorship. A Georgia Professorship was early estab- 
lished. Current expenses were provided by contributions, which 
from 1828 to 1848 amounted to $18,763.30 from South Carolina 
and $2,070.83 from Georgia. For buildings during the same period 
South Carolina contributed $10,436.84 and Georgia $105.00; for 
the library South Carolina gave $3,057.35 and Georgia $589.00; 
and for permanent funds South Carolina gave $32,436.81 and 
Georgia $18,419.70. In 1833-35, $12,052 was realized above ex- 
penses from a solicitation in the North. More had been pledged, 
but New York businessmen seem to have had a depression about 
then, which interfered with collections. Boston paid all pledges. 
The Lanneau, Telfair, Joseph Ellison, Sarah Fabian, Nephew, 
Blair, and Douglas Scholarships witness the names of donors. The 
Congregational and Presbyterian Scholarship, founded by the 
Ladies Education Society of Charleston, bears witness to the close 
relation existing between these denominations in the period during 
the existence of the "Plan of Union." Dr. B. M. Palmer, Sr., chair- 
man of the Board of Directors for a time, was pastor of the Circular 
Congregational Church, Charleston. 

The class rosters are given in the appendix. Dr. Howe could 
state that only a few students had failed to enter the ministry. 
It is noteworthy that students came in this period from Nassau 
Hall (Princeton) , Franklin College (University of Georgia) , Union 
College (N. Y.) , Charleston College, South Carolina College (Uni- 
versity of S. C.) , Dartmouth College, Yale College, Miami Univer- 
sity, Washington College (Pennsylvania) , Middlebury College, 
Knoxville College, Oglethorpe University, Davidson College, Uni- 
versity of Alabama. 

In 1832 the synod authorized application for a charter. Decern- 



IN THE OLD SOU T H 55 

ber 20, 1832, the Legislature of South Carolina incorporated a 
board of directors. 10 Charges that the faculty sympathized with 
New School theology, which shaded off into Unitarianism in New 
England, began to be whispered and found publication in the Times 
and Gazette in Columbia. The professors asked the Board to exam- 
ine them in order to silence the rumor. This the Board did and pub- 
lished a vindication of the faculty from the charge of unorthodoxy. 
Dr. William C. Robinson suggests that this action saved the South- 
east to Old School Presbyterianism. 11 About this time the Old 
School-New School question was being contested. The synod of 
1838, meeting in Columbia, adopted a long paper by Dr. J. H. 
Thornwell favoring the Old School position, in which one para- 
graph contains the following: "And for the satisfaction of those 
brethren who have been perplexed with anxiety and doubt in regard 
to the Theological instruction which is given in our Seminary, we, 
the members of this Synod, including the Professors of the Theo- 
logical Seminary, do pledge ourselves that no contrary doctrines 
shall be taught in that Seminary, or in our pulpits." 12 

The synod of 1839 heard Rev. M. Atkinson of the Synod of 
Virginia and Rev. D. McNeill Turner, '37, of the Synod of North 
Carolina regarding a proposed merger of Union and Columbia 
Seminaries. If the institution could be located in the territory of the 
South Carolina and Georgia Synod, the project was favored, but not 
for a location closer to Princeton Seminary. 13 

Church Extension and Evangelism 

Presbyterianism continued to grow rapidly from 1831 to 1850. 
The Southwest was particularly the territory in which there was an 
extension of the Southern culture in which Columbia Seminary had 
a place. Tombigbee Presbytery (Miss.) was organized in 1828; 
St. Louis and St. Charles Presbyteries (Mo.) in 1829; Clinton 
Presbytery (Miss.) in 1831; Good Hope Presbytery (Ga.) in 
1833, which was called Flint River after 1835; Nashville (Tenn.) 
in 1834; Arkansas in 1834; Tuscaloosa (Ala.) in 1834; Louis- 



10 W. C. Robinson, op. cit., p. 23. 
11 Ibid., p. 2 1 . 

12 George Howe, op. cit., Vol. II, p. 570. 
' l3 Ibid, p. 573. 



56 CO LO RE D LIG H T 

iana (from Amite) in 1836; Florida in 1840; Indian (Indian Tcr.) 
in 1840; Holly Springs (Miss.) in 1841; Chickasaw in 1842; East 
Alabama in 1841; Cherokee (Ga.) in 1843; Potosi (Mo.) in 
1843; Upper Missouri in 1843; New Orleans in 1844; Brazos 
(Tex.) received in 1844 (organized April 3, 1840) ; 14 Knoxville 
(Tenn.) in 1846; Creek Nation (Indian Ter.) in 1848; Washita 
[or Ouachita] (Ark.), in 1848; Maury (Tenn.) in 1849; Tus- 
cumbia (Synod of Nashville) in 1849; and Memphis (Tenn.) in 
1850. In this extension Columbia Seminary alumni took an in- 
creasing part. 

In 1 84 1 the Board declared the purpose in the Seminary's estab- 
lishment had been "a desire to raise up a qualified and native minis- 
try to supply the destitute places and to preside over the extant 
churches." 15 Most graduates became pastors and mission pastors, 
and their lives were spent in quiet and routine ministerial labors. 
The first name in the first class is that of James McEwen Hall Adams. 
His life is typical. He wished to become a foreign missionary, but 
on account of his family's health he felt he should remain in America. 
Licensed after his graduation by Bethel Presbytery in 1833, and 
ordained the next year as evangelist, he soon moved to Unity and 
Bethel churches in North Carolina, thence after a time to Third 
Creek Church, Rowan County, North Carolina. For a time he 
served in Asheville, North Carolina, then in Yorkville (now York) , 
South Carolina. He was largely responsible for the organization 
of Allison Creek Church, South Carolina, February 4, 1854. While 
in Yorkville he taught in what his biographer calls Yorkville Col- 
lege (Yorkville Female Academy). There he died, in 1862, aged 
fifty-two years, having labored twenty-nine years as a minister. 

Biographical information concerning 69 of the 141 graduates 
through 1850 shows that from the 69 there were 36 men who min- 
istered for some time in the Southwest — including Florida but ex- 
cluding South Carolina and Georgia. This was supplying the call 
from the new territory. Of this 69 a good number went as foreign 
missionaries; three went to Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Illinois; 
and one to Ireland. Three were Baptists and became ministers in 
that denomination. Seven became home missionaries in South Caro- 



14 W. S. Red, The Texas Colonist and Religion, p. 10 1. 
15 W. C. Robinson, op. cit., p. 1 1. 



IN THE OLD SOUTH 57 

lina and Georgia. So the number from the 69 who possibly served 
as pastors in only the two States is reduced to less than twenty. 

We are reminded that pioneer conditions still existed by an inter- 
ruption that occurred in the preparation for the ministry of James 
R. McCarter. He attended the Manual Labor School near Laurens- 
ville, Georgia, known as Gwinnette Institute, preparing to enter 
Franklin College (University of Georgia). "In 1836, when the 
Creek Indians raised the war whoop in western Georgia and eastern 
Alabama, he laid aside his books and shouldered his musket and 
knapsack, and, under Capt. Garmany of Gwinnette County, 
marched to meet the dusky foe." 16 He finished his preparatory study 
and college course later, and then graduated from Columbia Semi- 
nary in 1845. 

The missionary urge was strong in these days when a new coun- 
try was being settled. Rev. A. R. Banks, class of 1835, wrote, 
"Having our attention directed to the destitutions of the West, 
Brother Gray [W. A. Gray, 1835] and the writer in the following 
year, 1836, came to the West. After surveying the field thoroughly, 
laboring as a domestic missionary in Arkansas and Mississippi, Mr. 
Gray located finally at Ripley, Miss., where he remained the rest of 
his life, about forty years." 17 

The Reverend Mr. Banks is reported to have spent the night with 
Colonel Shreve, the founder of Shreveport, Louisiana, in 1836, and 
to have preached at Overton in 1838 and Minden in 1 840. 18 Under 
the American Home Missionary Society, A. R. Banks continued to 
work in Arkansas for almost thirty years, traveling on horseback, 
swimming creeks and rivers, sleeping in the open. He organized more 
than twenty churches. 19 In 1837 or 1838 he organized a church at 
Spring Hill, the third church in Arkansas. His son, Harry H. Banks, 
'61, was the first native-born Arkansan to enter the Presbyterian 
ministry. 20 

Joseph D. Porter finished at the Seminary in 1848. He went to 
Alabama and preached for some years. In 1868 Central Texas Pres- 
bytery received him, where he worked among frontier settlements 



1(h Semi-Centennial Volume, op. cit., p. 321. 

17 1 bid, p. 282. 

18 Louis Voss, Presbyterianism in New Orleans and Adjacent Points, p. 17. 

19 E. T. Thompson, Presbyterian Missions in the Southern United States, p. 80. 

20 The History of Presbyterianism in Arkansas, 1828- 1902. 



58 COLORED LIGHT 

and destitute churches. In 1874 he became a member of Eastern 
Texas Presbytery, and spent two years building up the Augusta 
Church and organizing Cochim Church. "In 1876 he became the 
evangelist for the southeastern counties of the Presbytery. In this 
work he continued two years, building up decaying churches, 
searching out isolated saints and preaching at many points never 
before visited by a Presbyterian minister. His extended missionary 
explorations on horseback into the distant and almost inaccessible 
interior were of great value in guiding the work of the Presbytery. 
'. . v While on the way to Presbytery, alone by the wayside, with no 
friend to close his eyes, he was taken ill (probably of heart disease) 
and died in 1879." 21 

Some churches which have become centers of Presbyterian 
strength were organized by Columbia men who went out during 
this period. Meridian, Mississippi, and Birmingham, Alabama, will 
serve as examples. Frequently the pastor in an older church exerted 
a missionary influence by sending out colonies. Of Rev. William 
Banks, '40, pastor of Catholic Presbyterian Church, Chester Dis- 
trict, South Carolina, it is recorded: "During the twenty-nine years 
in his first pastorate he received over 700 persons into the Church, 
baptized over 1,100 infants, was instrumental in bringing into the 
ministry eleven young men, and dismissed five colonies that settled 
in the West and formed churches." 22 Dr. Howe quotes figures from 
the 1880 census showing that 50,195 residents in Georgia were 
born in South Carolina; 35,754 residents in Alabama were natives 
of South Carolina; 1 8,522 in Florida were born in South Carolina; 
31,157 in Mississippi, 2,637 m Missouri, 11,698 in Tennessee, 
22,124 in Texas, and 15,107 in Arkansas were born in South 
Carolina. Only 42,182 residents of South Carolina were born else- 
where, so migration is evident. In the year i860, 277,000 white 
persons lived in South Carolina, while 470,257 born in the State 
lived elsewhere. 23 This movement from South Carolina and Georgia 
was in, flood tide in the thirties and forties. The young ministers ac- 
companied the people. The biographical information available does 
not give a true picture because the information was largely gathered 



21 Semi-Centennial Volume, op. cit., p. 349. 
22 Ibid,p. 228. 

23 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, History of Presbyterian Church in South Caro- 
lina since 1850, p. 40. 



IN THE OLD SO U T H 59 

in South Carolina without complete sources from the more western 
States. 

I. S. K. Axson, D.D., '34, was pastor at Independent Church, 
Savannah, 1857 to 1891, a period of thirty-four years. He married 
Woodrow Wilson and Ellen Louise Axson, daughter of his son, 
Rev. Samuel Edward Axson, '58, at Savannah, on June 24, 1 885. 24 
George H. W. Petrie, D.D., '34, was successively pastor at Williams- 
burg Church in Kingstree, Cheraw, and Darlington, South Caro- 
lina; Marietta, Georgia; the Huguenot Church in Charleston; and 
served a very long pastorate at Montgomery, Alabama. W. C. Dana, 
D.D., '35, served one church in Charleston from 1835 until his 
death in 1 880, a period of fifty-five years. Donald McQueen, D.D., 
'36, served as pastor at Sumter from 1837 to 1879, fifty-two years. 

John Leyburn, D.D., '36, was also a student at Union Semi- 
nary, Virginia. His brother died in Greece after years as a mission- 
ary. Dr. Leyburn was Secretary of the Executive Committee of 
Domestic Missions, 1861-63, an d Secretary of the Publication Com- 
mittee, 1863-65. 

James Caldwell Brown, D.D., '39, settled that year in Val- 
paraiso, Indiana. "Not less than a thousand souls there and in the 
country round acknowledged him as their spiritual father. Nearly 
every Presbyterian church within a circuit of thirty miles was or- 
ganized by him. He was known to ride sixty miles to preach to a 
poor Presbyterian widow and her family, in a destitute neighbor- 
hood." 20 He served as General Agent of Chicago Theological Semi- 
nary, and preached for a time in Dr. McPheeters's church in St. Louis 
and at South Bend, Indiana, until his death in 1862. 

In the gold rush of '49 a Columbia Seminary alumnus went to 
California, not to get gold but to give the gospel. James Woods, 
'41, who became a pioneer Presbyterian minister in that State, is 
probably correctly identified as a Columbia alumnus. James Woods 
organized the Presbyterian church in Stockton, "and has zealously 
labored as a missionary almost over the whole coast, and been in- 
strumental in organizing or assisting a number of congregations." 26 
Neill McKay, D.D., '41, served Terzah, Sardis, and Buffalo 



24 Folder published by Independent Presbyterian Church, Savannah, Ga. 
25 Presbyterian Encyclopaedia, op. cit., p. 105. 
™lbid„ p. 667. 



60 CO LORED LIG H T 

churches in North Carolina for a long pastorate. A. A. Porter, D.D., 
'42, served in Green County, Alabama; in Charleston as assistant 
at Second Church; at Selma, Alabama; as editor of the Southern 
Presbyterian; at Greenville, South Carolina; and upon request of 
the Committee of Domestic Missions made a tour of inspection in 
Texas, which resulted in the Committee's urging him to go to Aus- 
tin, Texas, to take charge of the church there. 

Henry Newton, '45, began his ministry serving New Hope and 
Danielsville churches in Madison County, and Hebron, New Leb- 
anon (later Homer) , and Turkey Creek in Franklin County, Geor- 
gia. Ordained in 1847 at Thyatira, he began in 1852 supplying 
Thyatira, Concord, Sandy Creek, and later Pleasant Grove. He 
preached frequently in private homes and schoolhouses and minis- 
tered to the Negroes. In i860 Jefferson was substituted for Sandy 
Creek, and in 1866 Gainsville for Pleasant Grove. He lived in Union 
Point from 1870 to 1890, and organized the church there in 1872. 
He also organized Oakland in 1874, and Penfield in 1876. From 
Union Point he served Bethany, Woodstock, Monticello, Sharon, 
and Crawfordville. Moving to Athens in 1 890, he served Harmony 
Grove, Danielsville, New Hope, Mt. Hermon, Bogart, and Mizpah 
until his health failed in 1897. 27 

Arnold W. Miller, D.D., '48, served Chester, South Carolina, 
Charlotte, North Carolina, Petersburg, Virginia, and a long pas- 
torate at Charlotte First Church. 

In 1852, Groves H. Cartledge, '48, became minister of Hebron 
and New Lebanon (Homer) churches in Hopewell Presbytery. For 
forty-seven years he continued in that one pastorate, which was 
only about twenty-five miles from the place of his birth. He wrote 
his autobiography and published a volume of sermons. Declining 
other calls, he built up the two strongest country churches in the 
presbytery and became a great influence for good in the lives of the 
people. Two sons entered Columbia Seminary and one grandson 
is, at the present writing, a professor there. His pastorate is proba- 
bly the longest in the history of the synod. 28 

Dr. Thomas A. Hoyt, '49, became pastor of First Church, Louis- 



2T Letter from Miss Virginia Newton, Athens, Ga., under date of August 18, 
1936. 

28 James Stacy, A History of the Presbyterian Church in Georgia, see chanter 
on Incidents. 



IN THE OLD SOU T H 



61 



ville, Kentucky; First Church, Nashville, Tennessee; Detroit, Mich- 
igan; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was moderator of the 
Southern Assembly in 1880. 29 H. \V. Rogers, '50, helped in organ- 
izing Seguin and Cibolo (Rector's Chapel) churches in 1852, San 
Marcos in 1853 — a ll m Texas. 

The Presbytery of Florida was organized in 1840, containing 
Richard M. Baker, '39, as one of its seven ministers. The Presbytery 
of Cherokee, Georgia, was organized in 1843, with I. W. Waddell, 
Lexington Class in 1829, as one of its four ministers. When the 
Synod of Georgia was organized in 1845 with fifty-three ministers, 
we find Columbia alumni as follows: 



Presbytery 

Hopewell 



Ministers 
19 



Alumni 



Georgia 



Flint River 
Florida 

Cherokee 



H. C. Carter, Lexington Class in 1829 

F. R. Goulding, '33 

G. H. W. Petrie, '34 
Homer Hendee, '44 
John Winn, '37 
C. C. Jones (Faculty) 
I. S. K. Axson, '34 
John Jones, '39 
Thomas Goulding (Faculty) 
James Phillips, '39 
R. M. Baker, '39 
W. H. Moore, '44 

I. W. Waddell, Lexington Class in 1829 30 

Seminary graduates organized or served as first pastors for the 
following churches between 1 831- 1850: 

Orangeburg 

Aveleigh, Newberry 

Lancaster 

Mt. Morial 1836 Fraser, M. D., 34 

Smyrna 1838 Ketchum, R. C, '36 

Salem (Union County) 1840 Monroe, A. H. (H. A. Munroe '40) 

Unionville 1841 Monroe, H. A., '40 

Reedy Creek, Pee Dee Presbytery 1841 Brown, Joseph, '39 (J. C. Brown, '39) 

Marion 1 841 -185 2 Frierson, D. E., '42 

Mt. Tabor 1841 Chandler, A. E., '49 

Boiling Springs, Barnwell District 1842 Thornwell, J. H. (Faculty) 

Spartanburg, First 1843 Holmes, Z. L., '42 

Mt. Bether 1846 Gaillard, S. S., 

Mt. Calvary, Enoree Presbytery 1846 Stewart, C. B. 

Glebe St., Charleston 1847 Porter, A. A., '42 

Greenville, First 1848 Gaillard, S. S., '45 

Washington St., Greenville 1848 Gaillard, S. S. 

Manning 1847 and 1856 Reid, W. M., 



i»35 
1835 



Legare, I. S. K., '34 
Ketchum, R. C, '36 

1835 Thornwell, J. H. (Faculty) 

1836 

1838 



45 
'44 



45 



3 3 



29 S. M. Tenney, Souvenir of General Assembly (1924), p. 45. 

30 James Stacy, A History of the Presbyterian Church in Georgia, pp." 41-47. 



"62 CO LORED LIGHT 

-;.i This list is only for South Carolina and contains merely a few 
names culled from the records. 

In 1 8 1 3 the whole territory of the new Synod of South Carolina 
and Georgia contained only 32 Presbyterian ministers. In 1829, 
the year the Seminary first operated, there were 73 ministers in the 
synod, and Alabama had been cut off. In 1850 the Synod of South 
Carolina contained 76 ministers; and the Synod of Georgia, which 
had been made a separate synod in 1845, contained 61 ministers 
in 1850. Many ministers had gone to the West. The Synod of 
South Carolina in 1839 expressed the opinion that the Seminary 
had been a means for bringing twice as many young men into the 
ministry as would have come without its establishment. In 1841 
the faculty reports 41 of the 80 Seminary graduates in the Synod 
of South Carolina, and 21 in near-by synods; and in 1844 they 
report of the 95 who had finished the Seminary that 49 were in 
South Carolina and Georgia and 22 in other synods. 31 

In the territory of the present Synod of Arkansas men located 
as follows from the classes up through 1850: 

James R. Gilland, '40, Camden, Ark., 1869. 

M. A. Patterson, '41, Mt. Holly, Ark., 1860-1881. 

G. W. Boggs, '45, Clarendon, Ark., 1896; Helena, 1 897-1 898. 32 

The Columbia graduates seem to have sought opportunity to 
have Rev. Daniel Baker in their churches during this period. There 
are recorded letters expressing such a desire, and accounts given about 
wonderfully successful evangelistic services. 

"Daniel Baker, '' says Dr. J. M. Wells, was "the Evangelist of 
our Church." 33 He was not a Columbia man and so his eventful 
career cannot be discussed here. Being invited to supply the First 
Presbyterian Church of Columbia during the lack of a pastor, he 
preached there for about three months in 1833. Previously he had 
conducted union services in Columbia. The journal of a theological 
student recounts the services in Columbia, from May 8, 1832, 
through May 27. About a hundred became converts, and some 
forty were received into the Presbyterian church alone. 34 Daniel 



31 George Howe, op. cit., Vol. II, p. 429. Bulletin Columbia Theological Sem- 
inary, Feb., 1931, p. 17-c. 

32 Records at Historical Foundation, Montreat, N. C. 
33 J. M. Wells, Southern Presbyterian Worthies, p. 97. 
34 George Howe, op. cit., Vol, II, p. 498. 



IN T HE OLD SOUT H 63 

Baker resigned the pastorate of Independent Church, Savannah, in 
1 83 i and devoted himself to evangelistic efforts. He preached all 
over South Carolina, Georgia, and the country west to Texas, 
where he was founder of Austin College. Preaching in the Episcopal 
and Baptist churches at Beaufort, South Carolina, in 183 1, he led 
over two hundred to unite with those churches. Twelve of these 
entered the ministry, two of them became Episcopal bishops, one 
of China and one of Georgia. Six of those who became ministers 
had been practicing lawyers. Robert Barnwell, afterwards president 
of South Carolina College, made confession of faith at this time. 35 
While Baker was the mouthpiece, the evangelistic efforts were sec- 
onded by many Columbia men. 

Influence upon Thought, Life, and Literature 

The Southern Presbyterian Review was established by Dr. 
George Howe, Dr. J. H. Thornwell, and Rev. B. M. Palmer, '41, 
in Columbia, June, 1847. J. Leighton Wilson, '33, J. L. Gir- 
ardeau, '48, A. A. Porter, '42, and others were frequent contribu- 
tors. 36 Thomas Magruder, '35, was editor for some time around 
1839 of the Southern Christian Sentinel, which was the organ for 
the protesting ministers in the New School controversy. 37 

The literary work of Columbia men in this period may be ob- 
served by reference to the literary appendix. George Howe and 
C. C. Jones of the faculty published during this period. J. Leighton 
Wilson, '33, contributed to the Missionary Herald, and he and 
Merrick, '33, and Adger (later on the faculty) were extensively 
engaged in literary work on the foreign field. Francis R. Goulding, 
'33, son of the first professor, published his first work in 1848 in 
Philadelphia. He later published several books. The Young Ma- 
rooners required three editions its first year and was reprinted by six 
English firms. It has been translated into several European lan- 
guages and is in print as a children's book, until the present day. Joel 
Chandler Harris in his introduction says, "It has become a classic." 38 

35 George Howe, op. cit., Vol. II, p. 556 and J. W. Mills, op. cit., p. 97 for- 
ward. 

36 J. B. Adger, My Life and Times, p. 229. 

37 George Howe, op. cit., Vol. II, p. 571, p. 578. 

38 F. R. Goulding, The Young Marooners. See Introduction by Joel Chandler 
Harris. 



64 CO LORED LIG H T 

F. R. Goulding served Concord and Harmony Churches in Sum- 
ter County, South Carolina, upon graduation. After a year he be- 
came pastor at Greensboro, Georgia, and after two years was called to 
Washington, Georgia. Later he became an agent of the Bible Society. 
In 1842 in Eatonton, Georgia, he invented a sewing machine that 
was used in 1845 before Howe obtained a patent. In 1843 the 
Reverend Mr. Goulding moved to Bath, Georgia, where he wrote 
The Young Marooners. He moved to Kingston, Georgia, and con- 
ducted a boys' school. Here his wife died. 

In 1855 he married a second time and moved to Darien and 
Baisden's Bluff Churches. There he wrote What Is Light? In 
1862 when Darien was burned by Federal forces, he moved to 
Macon and opened a school for young ladies. There he published 
Soldier's Hymn Book and Self-Helps and Practical Hints for the 
Camp, the Forest, and the Sea. After the War he moved to Roswell, 
Georgia, where he wrote Marooners' Island, Frank Gordon, and 
The Woodruff Stories. He died Aug. 22, 1881. 39 

W. C. Dana, '35, S. R. Brown, '38, Charles A. Stillman, '44, 
and G. H. Cartledge, '48, published something during this period, 
and Girardeau and Palmer graduated, but published no books until 
later. 40 William Edward Screven, '47 (son of Rev. J. O. Screven 
who was pastor of Sunbury Baptist Church and grandson of Gen- 
eral James Screven for whom Fort Screven is named) , published a 
small volume on the Relations of Christianity to Poetry and Philos- 
ophy (1847) and dedicated it to Dr. George Howe. 41 

In the winter of 1833-34 Professor Ebenezer Porter, D.D., of 
Andover Theological Seminary, delivered a series of lectures for the 
Seminary upon homiletics. The lectures were subsequently pub- 
lished and much used as a textbook. After 1841 Dr. J. H. Thorn- 
well preached regularly in the South Carolina College chapel and 
often lectured upon various subjects. In 1845 he published a book 
on the Apocrypha. About 1840 he had issued two pamphlets. 
Thornwell was professor of Logic and Belles Lettres at South Car- 
olina College after 1838. Neill McKay, D.D., '41, became a founder 
of the North Carolina Presbyterian and served as trustee of the Uni- 



39 Mildred Lewis Rutherford, The South in History and Literature, p. 191 

40 See Literary Appendix. 

4l Semi-Centennial Volume, op. cit., p. 358. 



IN T HE OLD SOU T H 65 

versity of North Carolina. 7'he students of the "Southern Theo- 
logical Seminary" began to publish The Banner of the Cross No- 
vember i, 1834, to stimulate interest in the Seminary and the cause 
of missions. 42 

Education 

South Carolina Presbyterians were endowing a professorship in 
Oglethorpe University during this period. The education of chil- 
dren was still often within the province of the minister, and many 
Columbia men taught academies. The preacher was still a "dom- 
inie." I. S. K. Legare, '34, built up a flourishing female college at 
Orangeburg around 1845. A. R. Banks and his wife conducted 
the female seminary at Spring Hill, Arkansas, beginning about 
1838, which furnished the young women of southwest Arkansas 
educational facilities. 43 William Curtis, LL.D., '44, was a Baptist 
and became a Baptist minister. He and his father established Lime- 
stone Female Seminary soon after his graduation. B. M. Palmer, 
D.D., LL.D., '41, was in later years to take a leading part in the 
founding of Southwestern Presbyterian University, now at Mem- 
phis. Charles A. Stillman, D.D., '44, helped to educate a slave 
bought by the Synod of Alabama and went to New Orleans to see 
him embark as a missionary to Africa. Stillman founded the Negro 
Theological School which now bears his name. 44 Thomas E. Peck, 
D.D., entered Columbia Seminary about 1842, during this period, 
but discontinued because of sickness. Later he served Union Theo- 
logical Seminary, Virginia, thirty-three years as professor. 45 B. M. 
Palmer, '41, and John L. Girardeau, '48, were to become future 
professors at Columbia Seminary. William Flinn, D.D., '44, later 
took charge of Stewart College, Clarksville, Tenn., in order to 
organize Southwestern Presbyterian University. E. P. Palmer, 
D.D., '48, was chaplain and professor of English at a college at 
Alexandria, Louisiana, 1 867- 1869. 46 He was president of Austin 
College, Texas, 1882- 1884. He was a brother of the noted B. M. 
Palmer, D.D., '41. 



42 Bulletin Columbia Seminary, Feb., 193 1, pp. 15-16. 

43 77?e History of Presbyterianism in Arkansas, 1 S 28- 1 go 2, p. 21 

44 E. T. Thompson, op. cit., p. 196. 

45 S. M. Tenney, Souvenir General Assembly, 1924, p. 41. 

46 Louis Voss, op. cit., p. 26. 



66 COLORED LIGHT 

Edwin Cater, '37, presided over the Bradford Springs Female 
College in Sumter District for a time, beginning in 1850. Samuel 
Donnelly, '38, served an academy in Greenville, South Carolina, 
for a few years, beginning in 1852. A. M. Egerton, '34, became 
at his graduation chaplain in the Barhamville Female Institute, a 
school near Columbia, South Carolina, and later opened a school 
for girls at Milledgeville, Georgia. S. R. Frierson, '48, conducted 
a school for boys at Columbus, Georgia, for a few years. James R. 
Gilland, D.D., '40, was for five years after 1853 professor of 
Languages at Davidson College. Francis R. Goulding, '33, estab- 
lished a successful school for boys at Kingston, Georgia. Homer 
Hendee, '44, served as head of the Synodical Female College at 
Greensboro, Georgia, from 1 847 for a time, and William L. Hughes, 
'47, had a girls' school in Augusta, Georgia, for a time after 1850 
until his death. John B. Mallard, '35, taught in Chatham Acad- 
emy, Augusta, and was professor at Oglethorpe University. Tele- 
machus F. Montgomery, '35, presided over the Female College at 
Rickersville, Alabama, for two years, and was president of Ma- 
sonic Female College, Auburn, Alabama, just after the War Between 
the States. Albert Williams, '41, a Baptist, became professor of 
languages at Mercer University. Columbia was making some con- 
tribution to education in this period. 

Influence upon Church Organization and Life 

The Old School-New School controversy with the resulting di- 
vision of the church in 1 837 and the debate as to the functions suit- 
able to ruling elders were the chief ecclesiastical questions in the 
Presbyterian Church between 1831 and 1850. Columbia contrib- 
uted its thought to the solution of these problems. 

The "Plan of Union" entered into in 1802 was a sincere effort 
to enable Congregationalists and Presbyterians to join hands in 
supplying the religious destitution in the newly settled country west 
of the Alleghenies. United in doctrine but differing radically about 
methods of church government, the two churches worked together 
effectively for a time. In the South, we have already noted, there 
was practical union of the two churches for establishing Columbia 
Seminary. However, it is difficult for two to walk together unless 
they be agreed. In 1825 the right of committeemen "who were not 



IN T HE OLD SOU T H 67 

ruling elders" to sit and vote in the General Assembly was ques- 
tioned, and in 1827 an action refused longer to allow such com- 
mitteemen a vote. The Congregationalists objected, but consented 
to this distinction adverse to committeemen in 1830. Some repre- 
sentatives sent up to the Assembly from local Congregational-Pres- 
byterian churches were not elders. One who was not even a com- 
mitteeman was admitted in 1826 and again in 1832, but this called 
forth a signed protest each time. In 1832 all committeemen were 
refused the vote in the Assembly on the ground the "Plan of Union" 
did not authorize such voting. 

Linked in with this question concerning representatives in church 
courts was the problem concerning missionary administration. It 
was felt the Congregational- founded American Home Missionary 
Society tended to favor the growth of Congregational churches un- 
der the joint plan. A party in the Presbyterian Church felt the need 
for unscrambling the mission work and setting up its own agency. 
This question was debated for years. The agitation led to the es- 
tablishment of the Southern Board of Foreign Missions in 1833 
by the Synod of South Carolina and Georgia, meeting in Columbia. 
Dr. W. S. Plumer had presented the suggestion, having come from 
Petersburg, Virginia, for that purpose. The Southern presbyteries 
had always directed their own home missionaries, in this respect 
early showing a separate opinion from the older presbyteries. 47 The 
new Southern Board was to co-operate with the old American 
Board of Commissioners. 

Also, a third factor entered into the increasing cleavage. Un- 
orthodoxy in the form of "Hopkinsianism" and "New Haven Di- 
vinity" were in the intellectual atmosphere. Three heresy trials took 
place about this time, two reaching the Assembly by appeals in 
1836. Subsequent history proved the New School Church was 
more loyal to revealed truth than was thought the case, but before 
the separation the New School men were suspected of doctrinal in- 
difference, if not heresy. Perhaps this suspicion was based upon 
criticism by some in that group of the excesses and irregularities 
adopted by some followers of C. C. Finney, the great evangelist. 

In these three factors the dividing line generally found the same 
men on the same side in each of the three problems. A rift was im- 



47 George Howe, op. cit., Vol. II, p. 537. 



68 COLORED LIGHT 

pending. By 1835 the Old School men called a conference. Some 
even this early believed a separation the best solution. The New 
School party wished continued union. The Assembly of 1835 was 
Old School and took steps toward adopting the Pittsburgh Synod's 
Western Foreign Mission Society. The 1836 Assembly was New 
School and declined to approve the measure. Another conference 
was called of Old School men. At the 1837 Assembly they were 
determined to save the church from a drift away from Presbyterian- 
ism. The Old School party had 137 votes to 106 New School 
votes. They abrogated the "Plan of Union," cut off from the 
Church the synods, presbyteries, and congregations organized un- 
der the "Plan of Union," and set up the Assembly's Board of For- 
eign Missions. The Princeton Review questioned the expediency 
in such drastic action, and much discussion followed. The 1838 
Assembly met. It is the custom to elect a moderator and then take 
up any questions concerning credentials. The New School men 
wished to have the representatives from the exscinded synods en- 
rolled so as to vote for moderator. The outgoing moderator re- 
fused on the ground of custom. The two parties were almost equal 
in votes. Legal counsel had advised the New School men not to 
withdraw until they had organized the Assembly. So in the midst 
of confusion the New School men led by Dr. Nathan S. Beman 
(onetime principal of Mt. Zion Academy in Georgia) appointed a 
moderator and organized the Assembly and then adjourned to an- 
other building. Each group claimed to be the true Assembly. 
Synods and presbyteries had to declare allegiance to one group. 
The Synod of South Carolina and Georgia in 1834, through a 
paper drawn up by Dr. Thornwell, declared for the Old School 
branch. Five ministers in Charleston protested, four of whom were 
W. C.Dana, '35, Thomas J. L. Bartlett, '37, W. B. Yates, '33, and 
Thomas Magruder, '35. They constituted the Charleston Union 
Presbytery, which came back into the synod in 1845. Dr. Howe 
of the Seminary faculty, M. D. Fraser, '34, J. Douglas, '35, with 
two others were the committee effecting the reunion. The Old 
School and New School Churches were reunited in 1870 after the 
Presbyterian Church in the United States had been organized. Dr. 
Leland of the Seminary faculty attended the Assembly in 1837 and 
voted with the majority throughout. He served with Dr. Archibald 



IN T HE OLD SOU T H 69 

Alexander and others in drawing up a pastoral letter addressed by 
the Assembly to the churches. 48 It is interesting to note a resolu- 
tion passed in Charleston Union Presbytery protesting the action 
of the Assembly of 1837 and stating a purpose to form "an Inde- 
pendent Southern Presbyterian Synod or Assembly" unless the acts 
considered unconstitutional were remedied. This was in November, 
1837. 49 Dr. W. S. Plumer, later on the faculty of Columbia Sem- 
inary, was elected moderator in 1838 after the New School party 
withdrew. We note a suggestion from Dr. Archibald Alexander 
in 1832 in the Biblical Repertory for regional synods in order to 
preserve the unity of the church from danger of a New School- 
Old School division and from a slavery division. 50 

Dr. J. H. Thornwell attended the Assembly of 1837, but ar- 
rived nine days late. He was only twenty-six years of age. In a 
letter to his wife he says, "I have not opened my mouth — except to 
vote — and I do not expect to do so. I have sought constantly guid- 
ance and direction from the Lord. I have been deeply grieved and 
humbled at the spirit which has been too frequently manifest. The 
best of us are weak and erring mortals. One hour spent in the Gen- 
eral Assembly would convince your mind that the two parties ought 
never to meet again in the same body." 51 Yet they learned to have 
confidence in each other and united after thirty-two years. 

The board question was left for consideration after this Assem- 
bly. Thornwell believed the boards should become mere executive 
committees, entirely accountable to the church judiciaries, and not 
separate agencies. In 1841 he published an article upon this ques- 
tion in the Baltimore Literary and Religious Magazine. His opin- 
ions eventually came largely to be adopted by reorganization of the 
boards in the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America 
and in adoption of executive committees when the Presbyterian 
Church in the United States was organized. 

The Assembly of 1843 decided "the elder question" by declar- 
ing ministers could constitute a quorum of presbytery without elders' 
being present, and that elders properly voted upon the ordination 

48 George Howe, op. cit., Vol. II, p. 568, and G. P. Hays, op. cit., p. 180 for- 
ward. 

*»Ibid., Vol. II, p. 569. 

50 G. P. Hays. op. cit., for general history of Old School-New School division. 

51 B. M. Palmer, The Life and Letters of J. H. Thornwell, D.D., LL.D., p. 
213. 



70 COLORED LIGHT 

of ministers but did not lay on hands. Thornwell and others be- 
lieved this an error, derogatory to the office of ruling elder and a 
step toward prelacy. Elders were members of presbytery and so 
should function in the governmental acts of presbytery. Thornwell 
reviewed a pamphlet upon the subject in the Southern Presbyterian 
Review and wrote several articles. The U. S. A. Church has held 
to the 1843 view with explanations, while the U. S. Church has 
adopted Thornwell's views in its book of order. Thornwell made 
an address before the Assembly of 1845 upon "The Validity of 
Romish Baptism." Thornwell exercised great influence in the Old 
School General Assembly. Henry Ward Beecher wrote of him, 
"By common fame, Dr. Thornwell was the most brilliant debater 
in its General Assembly." 52 He was elected moderator in 1847 
when only thirty-four years of age, the youngest man ever so to 
serve. He did not become professor in the Seminary until 1856, 
but was closely associated with it while pastor in Columbia and 
professor and president at South Carolina College. 

In 1845 the presbyteries in Georgia were set off into a separate 
Synod of Georgia, still retaining the same ownership in the Seminary 
as before. Dr. Thomas Goulding was first moderator of the new 
synod. 53 

Foreign Missions 

Columbia Seminary has always been keenly interested in foreign 
missions. The Evangelical Awakening, which was associated with 
Whitefield, Wesley, Wilberforce, the Tennents, and others, and 
which produced the Methodist Church, the Sunday-school move- 
ment, the Young Men's Christian Association, and other move- 
ments, also gave a great impetus to Protestant missions. Cary and 
the English Baptists organized first in 1 792. In 1 8 1 o, as a result of 
the famous haystack prayer meeting and the enthusiasm among 
Andover Seminary students, the American Board of Commission- 
ers for Foreign Missions began. Dr. Howe was from Andover. A 
student in the first Columbia Seminary class, James L. Merrick, was 
a graduate of Amherst College. "The missionary feelings of John 
Leighton Wilson and James L. Merrick, since missionaries in Africa 



52 J. M. Wells, Southern Presbyterian Worthies, p. 46. 
53 List of moderators in annual minutes Synod of Georgia. 



IN THE OLD SOUTH 71 

and Persia, led to the formation, at the very beginning, of the So- 
ciety of Inquiry on Missions," wrote Dr. Howe. 54 This organiza- 
tion began February 7, 1 83 1, at the first of the monthly gatherings 
for prayer. Dr. Goulding made the motion, after some discussion, 
"That we form ourselves into a society for the purpose of inquiring 
into the subject of missions." 

The diary of J. L. Merrick has entries as follows: 

"Feb. 6, 18 31. In the Seminary we have instituted a Saturday 
evening meeting for prayer and conference among ourselves as 
brethren of the institution. Our first meeting of this kind was at- 
tended last evening — an interesting season. 

"Missionary subjects are becoming familiar topics among us; 
we hope that something good will be effected here. This hope and 
prospect gladdens my heart. Yet I have for a long time been ex- 
ceedingly barren in spiritual things. O Lord, quicken me in the 
divine life. 

"Feb. 7 , 18 3 j. Monthly Concert Eve. As no monthly concert 
was to be observed by the churches in town this evening, it was 
thought advisable that the members of the Seminary should ob- 
serve the meeting and take into consideration the question — What 
can we do to aid the cause of missions? Accordingly Dr. Goulding 
and Mr. Howe, our Professors, brethren Dessausure, Beattie, Wil- 
son, Reid, Goulding and myself, of the Seminary, and Messrs. 
Snowdon and Shear, citizens of the town, convened, and after sing- 
ing the missionary hymn, and after prayer, proceeded to consider 
what we could do in aid of that cause for which the Son of God 
came down to die. 

"Feb. 15, 18 3 1. The brethren who were present at our monthly 
concert in the Seminary Feb. 7th met according to adjournment 
and adopted a Constitution framed by a Committee appointed for 
that purpose. Thus under the blessing of the Almighty, as I trust, 
this Society is fully organized and its operations commenced. May 
the broad seal of Heaven's approbation stand upon it unbroken long 
as the church militant has yet an act to perform. May it be a pillar 
of light till lost in the universal brightness of the New Jerusalem's 
splendor and glory. May countless multitudes hail this Society as 
a well-spring of salvation to their souls. Yes, may I meet in glory 



**Semi -Centennial Volume, op. erf., p. 143. 



11 CO LO RED LIG H T 

thousands from the north and the south, from the east and the west, 
who shall praise God for their salvation accomplished by the instru- 
mentality of this Society. Peace and Prosperity attend it, and the 
blessing of the God of Jacob be its glory and protection. Amen. 
Amen." 55 

Rev. George Howe became first president of the society, followed 
by J. Leighton Wilson in 1831-1832 and James L. Merrick in 
1 832- 1 833. J. Leighton Wilson read a paper in 1831 upon the 
subject "What Has Been and What Ought to Be Done by the 
Southern Presbyterian Churches in Behalf of Foreign Missions." 
James L. Merrick was appointed to speak before the society upon 
this topic during the coming meeting of synod. Publicity for mis- 
sions was sought through the Charleston Observer, which had been 
founded by Rev. Benjamin Gildersleeve in January, 1827. 56 For a 
decade this paper carried the society's contribution of news. 

The mission work to the Indians had begun before this. As early 
as 1 744 David Brainerd was a Presbyterian missionary to the In- 
dians. Dr. Howe prints long letters from T. C. Stewart, one of the 
pioneers in this work, who entered the Chickasaw Nation, June 17, 
1820, as exploring agent for the Missionary Society of the Synod 
of South Carolina and Georgia. In 1826 this work was turned over 
to the American Board of Commissioners. A few years later the 
government began moving the Indians west. 57 

Three from the six graduates in the first class at the Seminary 
volunteered as foreign missionaries: James M. H. Adams, James L. 
Merrick, and J. Leighton Wilson. Adams was prevented from go- 
ing by family considerations. Merrick's diary records the follow- 
ing: "March 10, 1834. Wrote today to my Seminary classmate, 
brother Adams, affectionately inviting him to go with me to Persia. 
Perhaps I ought not to cherish any hope of his doing so, since his 
parents so strenuously opposed his going to Africa. Possibly how- 
ever they may consent that he should go to Persia. May the Lord 
override this matter for His glory and my brother's good. I do de- 
sire that brother Adams should be my associate in this mission. The 
good Lord so order the events of providence that he may, if it be for 
the glory of Christ and the good of mankind." 58 



55 Diary of J. L. Merrick, op. cit. 
r,6 George Howe, op. cit., Vol. II, p. 428. 
57 1 bid., p. 429. 
58 Diary of J. L. Merrick, op. cit. 



IN THE OLD SOUTH 73 

Merrick sailed for Persia on Oct. 6, 1835. He was born Dec. 1 i, 
1803, at Monson, Mass. He prepared for college at Monson Acad- 
emy, and graduated from Amherst in 1830, receiving the M.A. 
degree in 1833. He studied at Princeton Seminary 1 830-1 831 and 
transferred to Columbia Seminary. Under entry of December 23, 
1830, at Princeton, New Jersey, we find in his diary: "Owing to 
the affection of my lungs and the general state of my health it is 
deemed expedient that I leave. Charleston, S. C, has been recom- 
mended as the place of my destination." Under date Jan. 12, 183 1, 
we find: "Called upon Dr. McDowell this morning. He gave me 
encouragement of support at the Theological Seminary at Colum- 
bia in this state." On Jan. 19 Merrick reached Columbia and grad- 
uated in 1833. Charleston Presbytery ordained him as evangelist 
April 14, 1834. A great admirer of Henry Martyn, Merrick offered 
himself to the American Board, provided he be sent to the Moham- 
medans of Persia, evidently purposing to carry out Martyn's plans 
for the evangelization of that bigoted people. It was known that 
every convert would be killed because he had left Islamism. The 
Board finally consented to send Merrick. He became tutor to the 
Prince of Persia and was highly esteemed by him. Seven years he 
remained in Persia, sowing seed and trying to break down prejudice. 
He married an English woman there, Eunice Taylor of Portsmouth, 
who returned with him. The Board finally transferred him to work 
among the Nestorians, where he remained three years, seemingly 
wishing to return to the Persian work. He came back to America 
and was pastor of South Amherst Church 1849- 1864. During that 
time, from 1852 to 1857 he served as Instructor of Oriental Liter- 
ature at Amherst. His literary work was extensive, including a 
volume of poems. 

A few further extracts from his diarv may be of interest. " f Sumter 
County, S. C] May 13, 1834. The precious season of Christian, so- 
cial intercourse fled, as we three brethren in the ministry, classmates in 
the Seminary, walked, conversed, and prayed together. It was a 
happy interview, and many subjects of mutual interest passed be- 
tween us. While talking as if we could forget all time, we rambled 
out a little distance from Brother G's house, to a once towering pine, 
rived, shattered, splintered, by the lightning's stroke. This pine 
about two feet in diameter once held its head some sixty feet on 



74 COLORED LIG HT 

high. There it had stood for many years in forest pride. The storm 
arose. The forky bolts were seen, and Heaven's artillery sounded 
through the wood. The vivid flash and deafening thunder mingling 
descended on the waving pine. The electric fluid traced its way 
down the tree for about twenty-five feet, when it appeared to enter 
and spread itself at right angles through the tree, snapping it off, 
shivering the trunk, tearing out the heart about eight inches in 
diameter and some twelve or fifteen feet in length, and scattering 
large and small fragments all around to the distance of forty-five 
yards. While this terrific work was doing in the trunk, the top and 
branches were broken off, the top descending nearly perpendicularly, 
and it fell, and stood beside the shattered slab that remained a mon- 
ument of what the noble pine once was. Never before have I seen 
such a grand exhibition of the lightning's power in a scathed and 
shattered tree. We stood and looked and talked of the power of 
Him who controls the elements and rules the universe. After din- 
ner we then repaired to Brother Goulding's study, each in succession 
led in prayer, commending ourselves to the care of Him Whose we 
are and Whom we serve. Locked in each other's arms, Brother 
Goulding and I said 'Farewell! God bless you dear Brother.' Our 
hearts were full. It was the most trying adieu I have sighed since 
my face was homeward set. My Seminary classmate, my well-loved 
Brother, with whom I have often prayed — farewell. We meet in 
Heaven. We returned to the house. Sister Mary, Brother G's wife, 
gave me a gold ring set with pearls, the avails of it to be appropriated 
to the tract cause in Persia, or otherwise as I might judge best. 
Brother Goulding gave me Thomson's Seasons as a memento; and 
then again we all said farewell. 

"May 17. In the morning called and took leave of Brother 
Witherspoon. Mr. George Mcintosh insisted on paying my bill 
at the Hotel which amounted to one dollar, the keeper making some 
discount from the regular charge unsolicited. Left Camden in the 
stage coach at 2 P. M. and arrived at Dr. Goulding's in Columbia 
at 9 the same evening. Cheerfully accepted Dr. G's invitation to 
remain in his family over the ensuing Sabbath. Was truly rejoiced 
to meet my kind Mother, Mrs. Goulding, again. With gratitude 
and praise to God for His abounding mercies, and especially for 
bringing me in peace and safety once more to Columbia, retired to 
rest. 



IN T HE OLD SOUT H 75 

"May 1 8. Sabbath. It was sweet and delightful to go up to the 
house of the Lord where I had so often repaired to keep holy day. 
Spoke with a number of friends after service. Dr. Leland who at 
present officiates in this church invited me to preach in the afternoon. 
Declined in consequence of a cold seriously affecting my voice. It 
appeared quite unnatural to pass the Sabbath without preaching. 

"May ig. Made numerous calls during the day; was welcomed 
cordially. Visited the Seminary, and walked familiarly and with 
great satisfaction through the garden; called at my old room, at 
brother Reid's, and at other rooms where in days gone by I was 
wont to find a friend and brother. The dear brethren received me 
in the kindest manner. The Lord bless them all with abounding 
grace. Found several welcome letters waiting my arrival; one from 
brother Adams. He cannot go with me to Persia — the will of the 
Lord be done. A letter from home, all well, with much satisfaction 
expecting my return. Twenty dollars were enclosed in the letter, 
the Lord reward my dear kind father. 

"May 24. Saturday. Last night by invitation, I delivered an 
address (partially "The Missionary Spirit") at the Female Insti- 
tute of Dr. E. Marks, near Columbia; my visit there was quite 
pleasant; the Lord be with the Institution. 

"May 25. Preached in the Presbyterian Church morning and 
afternoon. Probably for the last time I have entered those courts 
where for years I have listened to the glad news of salvation, and 
where in months not long since gone by, I have again and again 
proclaimed the messages of Christ. 

"In the evening delivered a discourse respecting Persia in the 
Lecture Room which was crowded with auditors apparently inter- 
ested. O that Christians here would feel and act for the Persians 
and for all Mohammedans. 

"May 26. In company with Miss Hesse Crawford, Miss Mary 
L.Bratton, and brother John Douglas of the Seminary, visited 
Mr. and Mrs. Young at their beautiful rural retreat on the river 
bank about a mile from Columia. At this delightful place I have 
spent some pleasant social seasons in days gone by. Mr. and Mrs. 
Y. are remarkable for their ever ready and cheerful hospitality. They 
have endeared themselves to many who came as strangers, but who 
were received as relatives. In the conversation of the evening Mr. 



76 CO LO RED LIG H T 

Young and myself fell on the subject of missions. Unhappily our 
views were widely different in regard to this matter. He thought 
I erred in leaving such spiritual desolations in Carolina to engage 
in what he considered a very hopeless enterprise among Mohamme- 
dans. I endeavored to convince him of the imperative importance 
of missions, at the same time candidly professing the utmost readi- 
ness to remain here if duty required it. He made no effort to change 
my present views of duty. Requested me to write him when I should 
reach Constantinople. 

"May 27. Arose reasonably and walked alone a little distance 
up the river where I have often rambled but where probably my 
footsteps will never again trace their unfettered course. Farewell! 
ye rolling, sounding, waters! Flow on in your ceaseless current, and 
murmur your Maker's praise. After breakfast brother Douglas left 
direct for the Seminary. 

"May 2g. Rose early and in company with sisters Hesse and 
Mary, rode down in Mr. Crawford's carriage to the steamboat 
landing on the Congaree about three miles below Columbia. Two 
Steamboats were lying there — went aboard the "John Stoney" and 
visited the different apartments. This is the same boat in which I 
went to the Methodist Camp meeting from Charleston when in 
that city a few weeks since. 

"After breakfast I commenced the task of farewell calls on my 
dear Columbia friends. Kindness and sympathy were shown me 
in every instance, and heartfelt benedictions were pronounced upon 
me. My kind and dear Mother Goulding evinced as deep maternal 
affection as if I had been indeed her son. 

"My highly esteemed brother Fraser dined with me at Mr. G's. 
We walked together to our beloved Seminary, and there with re- 
ciprocal benedictions we parted. He gave me the Memoirs of Robert 
Hall as a keepsake. In my farewell calls Mr. Wm. Cunningham 
presented me a copy of Watts' Psalms and Hymns — beautiful pocket 
edition. Dr. Augustus Fitch inquired if I would take any medicine 
with me: I mentioned a box of Seidlitz Powders; he presented me 
a box. Dr. F. has expressed much interest in my welfare and I hope 
to be able to comply with his request to write him. Dr. Thomas 
Wells also has shown me attentions and desires me to write him 
respecting medical science and practice in Persia. He presented me 
Maddens Travels. 



IN T HE OLD SOU T H 77 

"Attended the precious weekly prayer-meeting, at Mr. James 
Ewart's. My esteemed friend, Mr. Rom. Law, one of the Elders 
of the Pres. Church in Columbia, conducted the meeting in his usual 
judicious manner, and evidently had special reference to me in the 
selection of the hymns sung, and the scripture read — Paul's fare- 
well address to the Ephesian Elders. 

"May 30. Friday morning. Repaired to the Seminary to unite 
once more with the dear loved brethren in their morning devotions. 
For the last time I lifted up my hands and my voice in prayer, in 
the Chapel room, where I have so often attended the evening and 
morning sacrifice. My soul with the deepest sincerity and interest 
commended the beloved Seminary, its Professors, Students, and all 
who have been or who may ever be connected with it, to the special 
protection and blessing of the God of mercies. Soon after my re- 
turn to Mr. G's, brother A. M. Egerton of the Seminary, who stays 
at the Female Institute of Dr. E. Marks, where a few days since I 
delivered a missionary address, brought me as a present from the 
Young Ladies of that Institution, a dressing case which with the 
articles it contained are valued at twelve dollars. It is inscribed in 
engraved letters — Rev. J. L. Merrick — from the Young Ladies of 
the So. Car. Female Institute. Dr. Leland very obligingly gave me 
a number of letters of introduction to Clergymen in several of the 
cities through which I expect to pass, and one to a member of Con- 
gress, the Honorable H. L. Pinckney of this State. After returning 
to Mr. G's, waited for some time for the coach which was to take 
me on my way. Held a long and pleasant conversation with the 
family. 

Left Columbia, the sweet home of my Seminary years, at about 
half past 10 A. M." 

Upon Merrick's death in June, 1886, he left the Seminary a 
scholarship amounting to about $2,000.00. Who can know his 
prayer and devotion for Persia shall not even yet bear fruit? Who 
can tell the strength of his influence in curing some of the bigotry 
in that nation? 59 

John Leighton Wilson, '33, the first American missionary to 
Africa, was born March 25, 1809, in Sumter County, South Caro- 



59 Biographical Sketches in Semi-Centennial Volume, op. cit., pp. 166 and 
337; and information from Library, Amherst College. See Literary Appendix. 



78 



COLORED LIGHT 



lina. He was educated at Darlington and Winnsboro, with one 
year under Rev. Robert W. James, his uncle. He graduated from 
Union College, New York, in 1829 and taught school at Mt. 
Pleasant, South Carolina, for six months. He entered the Semi- 
nary at its opening in Columbia, January, 1830, the third student 
to attend. Graduated in 1833, he spent the summer in studying 
Arabic in preparation for the African mission. He sailed from Bal- 
timore in the autumn of 1833, with Stephen R. Wynkoop, a class- 
mate at Union College, to explore Africa. They selected Cape Pal- 




Home of J. Leighton Wilson, 
Gabon, West Africa 



mas for the mission and returned in the spring. With his bride, he 
sailed in the fall of 1834 for Cape Palmas, where he labored seven 
years, being then transferred to the Gabon River. In the seven 
years, several hundred youths of both sexes were educated, a church 
of thirty to forty members was formed, and the language for the 
first time was reduced to writing. A dictionary and a grammar were 
published. Portions of the New Testament were translated and 
published as well as other books and tracts listed in the literary ap- 



IN THE OLD SOUT H 79 

pendix to this study. This work was turned over to the Episcopal 
Mission when Wilson moved on to the Gabon River, where he la- 
bored from 1842 to 1853, when the health of his family compelled 
their return. At the Gabon River the language was mastered and 
reduced to writing for the first time, and portions of the New Testa- 
ment translated. Schools were established, and a church organized 
that continued to flourish until 1882 and probably still exists. 
From 1 853 until the Civil War, Wilson acted as secretary of Foreign 
Missions for the Presbyterian Church, with headquarters in New 
York. He took a leading part in missionary activity after the or- 
ganization of the young Southern church, which will be recounted 
later. His writings are mentioned in the literary appendix. 

Dr. Henry Alexander White, D.D., says of Rev. Robert James, 
the uncle with whom he spent a year, and who was very active in 
preaching to the Negroes, "The zeal of this consecrated man of 
God, most probably, first kindled in young J. Leighton Wilson's 
soul the desire to give his life in behalf of the spiritual welfare of the 
colored race." 60 However, Wilson seems to credit a correspondence 
with his friend J. B. Adger, then at Princeton Seminary, with a large 
place in developing his interest in missions. Adger says one reason 
Wilson chose Africa was the desire "to exert some reflex influence 
upon the Christian people of his native state in extending and deep- 
ening their interest in the spiritual conditions of their slaves." When 
he was ordained at Mt. Zion Church, his home church, September 
8, 1833, Wilson preached in the afternoon to the Negroes. "After- 
wards an old colored man, eminent for piety, came to me and said 
he believed it was in answer to his prayers that I was going to Africa, 
and he would add to his prayers one dollar (he was very poor) for 
the spread of the gospel in that country," wrote Wilson. He was 
offered the governorship of Liberia, then being colonized by the 
American Colonization Society, which had been founded by Dr. 
Robert Finley, sometime member of Hopewell Presbytery and pres- 
ident of the University of Georgia. 61 This offer he declined because 
it would divert him from preaching. He had sent thirty slaves, in- 
herited by his wife, to Liberia, himself paying their way. 

Wilson became well known through the book he published on 



60 J. M. Wells, op. cit., p. 53. 
61 Georgc Howe, op. cit., p. 309. 



80 COLORED LIGHT 

Western Africa, which Livingstone pronounced "the best book ever 
written on that part of Africa. 62 He was a member of the Royal 
Oriental Society of Great Britain, and made several discoveries as a 
naturalist, chief of which was the discovery of the gorilla. He gave 
that name to the skeleton he sent to Boston. Dr. Wilson's life and 
work in Africa is a thrilling chapter in missionary annals. Dr. H. 
C. DuBose has written his life, Memoirs of John Leighton Wilson. 
His work in stopping the slave trade will be mentioned presently. 63 

Samuel Robbins Brown, A.B., B.D., D.D., '38, has been called 
"A Maker of the New Orient" in the biography by that title, writ- 
ten by W. E. Griffis. 64 He was an educational missionary and a 
pioneer in three nations. China, America, and Japan have felt the 
impress of his great soul. He worked for twenty years to complete 
what became the standard translation of the New Testament in 
Japanese. He established the first American mission school in China, 
the first college for women in the northern part of the United States, 
and the first mission school in Japan. He was one of the founders 
of the United Church of Christ in Japan. Here was a man who may 
be placed among the great missionaries of all ages. 

As is so often the case, a great son had a great mother. Samuel 
Robbins Brown was thirteen days old when the American Board 
of Commissioners for Foreign Missions was formed. His mother 
heard the news of this and took her baby son in her arms and dedi- 
cated him to foreign missions. This was in East Windsor, Connecti- 
cut, where Brown was born on June 16, 18 10. Moving to Elling- 
ton, Connecticut, in 18 13, Mrs. Brown wrote the often-sung hymn 
beginning — 

"I love to steal a while away 
From every cumbering care." 

Later her son Samuel Robbins composed the tune to which it is 
generally sung, and which he called "Monson" after the town where 
most of his childhood was spent, Monson, Massachusetts. Shortly 
after moving to Monson, Mrs. Brown organized the Primary De- 

G *See literary appendix. 

63 H. C. DuBose, Memoirs of Rev. John Leighton Wilson, D.D. (1895), and 
J. M. Wells, Southern Presbyterian Worthies (1936). See table of contents. 

64 William Elliott Griffis, L.H.D., A Maker of the New Orient. Fleming H. 
Revell Co., New York, 1902. 



IN THE OLD SOUTH 81 

partment in the new Sunday school there. Here later the first Chi- 
nese lads ever brought to America for a Christian education were to 
study, being sent by her son, Samuel Robbins. From that Monson 
Sunday school seven missionaries went out, among them J. L. 
Merrick, '33. Mrs. Brown was earnestly interested in foreign mis- 
sions before any missionary society had been established in America. 

S. R. Brown entered Amherst, but after a year changed to Yale, 
where he graduated in 1832. From graduation until 1835 he taught 
at the institution for the deaf and dumb in New York City. Ad- 
vised by a physician to seek a warmer climate in order to recover 
from pneumonia, he came to Columbia Theological Seminary. 
He taught vocal and instrumental music at Barhamville Young 
Ladies' Seminary while studying theology. One of his pupils was 
Martha Bullock, later mother of President Theodore Rosevelt. 
After two years he accepted a position in the New York City Insti- 
tute for the Deaf and Dumb, and completed his theological education 
at the infant Union Seminary. At the same time he directed the 
choir at the Allen Street Presbyterian Church. 

Upon graduation he offered himself to the American Board, 
wishing to go to China; but they could not send him because Amer- 
ica had not recovered from the panic of 1837. Dr. Robert Morrison 
died Aug. 1, 1834. A paper dated Jan. 6, 1835, was circulated 
among the merchants of China calling for the organization of The 
Morrison Education Society. A school was to be established "in 
which native youths shall be taught." "The Bible and books on 
Christianity shall be read in the schools." D. W. C. Olyphant, a 
merchant, acting for the new society, asked recommendations from 
the Yale faculty, and on Oct. 4, 1838, S. R. Brown was offered the 
position as first teacher. He sailed on the ship Morrison on October 
17, having married, on October 10, Elizabeth Bartlett, daughter 
of the manse at East Windsor, Connecticut, and been ordained on 
October 14 by the Third Presbytery of New York at Allen Street 
Church. The trip was around the Cape of Good Hope to Macao. 
The ship Morrison was the same that had been sent by the American 
Christian merchant, Mr. King, to Japan in 1837 to restore ship- 
wrecked natives of that country. The hermit nation, Japan, had 
driven the ship away by cannon fire, refusing to receive its own 
nationals back when they had once traveled afar. 



82 COLORED LIGHT 

Arriving at Macao on Feb. 18, 1839, Mrs. Brown was admitted 
to the country only as freight, for the laws forbade opium and 
foreign women to be landed. Going up to Canton in the gig of the 
Olyphant Ship Roman, Brown passed a frequent barrage of mud, 
stones, and bad names, such as "foreign devil." The Chinese did 
not welcome their would-be benefactor. After learning something 
of the language, the Reverend Mr. Brown opened his school at 
Macao in the fall of 1839. The Chinese suspected his motives, and 
it was difficult to get pupils. He began with half a dozen boys se- 
cured by offering them free board, clothing, and tuition. He con- 
tinued to study the Chinese language and literature, often finding 
his experience in teaching mutes of help in communication with his 
pupils. There was at that time no Chinese grammar published in 
English. He believed his method was the proper way to evangelize 
and educate China. "Our point of attack should be in China itself. 
. . . In this service I am ready to toil until I die." He found it easier 
to teach Chinese to read and write English than their native Chinese. 
Gradually he saw his pupils grasp spiritual truths and become new 
in character. The school was moved to Hong Kong on Nov. 1, 
1842. He had prepared a textbook for his own use. In 1847 he 
published a book in Chinese on political economy for class use. 
Gradually the upper class Chinese began sending their sons to the 
school. 

Once when Dr. D. B. McCartee was visiting in the school, some 
bandits attacked at night. Reverend Mr. Brown, thinking the con- 
fusion due to some quarrel among some workmen, stood in the door 
and commanded quiet. The pirates thrust at him in the darkness 
and one spear entered his right leg. He called to Mrs. Brown to hide 
herself and their five-year-old daughter and baby son. He seized a 
box containing valuables and pushed it over a bluff, where it lay 
concealed in some bushes. He then followed the family to their hid- 
ing place in the henhouse, where his wound was given temporary 
care. Happily the baby did not cry out, and the family escaped de- 
tection. 

In 1847, on account of his wife's poor health, Robbins Brown 
returned to America. After a few years a typhoon wrecked the 
school building and the work was not resumed. One of the students 
taught by Brown was Yung Wing, the first Chinese to graduate 



IN THE OLD SOUTH 83 

from an American college and the man chiefly responsible for the 
Chinese Educational Commission, which sent many scores of Chi- 
nese young men to study in America. Another student, Wong Fun, 
was the first Chinese to finish in medicine in the Occident. 65 Upon a 
return trip to China in 1877 he found many of his old pupils in 
high positions in governmental service and they feted him and pre- 
sented a silver tablet engraved in Chinese: 

"As the bountiful showers of Spring 
Induce rich vegetation 
So what is good in your pupils 
Is due to your early instructions." 

Three Chinese boys returned with him to America in 1847 and 
studied in Monson, Massachusetts. 

In 1848 when a new academy was being opened in Rome, New 
York, S. R. Brown was called to organize it. Three hundred and ten 
pupils attended the first year. In 1851 he became pastor of the 
Dutch Reformed Church of Sand Beach at Owasco Outlet, near 
Auburn, New York. There he erected a church building in 1855. 
He was chairman of the first executive committee of Elmira College, 
one of the first colleges for women in the United States, and also one 
of its incorporators. 66 

On Dec. 11, 1858, Brown applied to the Dutch Reformed Church 
to be sent to China or Japan. He was probably the first American 
missionary to be appointed to Japan, although others reached the 
field first. He was senior missionary of the Reformed Church Mis- 
sion. On the outgoing voyage he and his two companions began the 
study of Japanese and Dutch. No English-speaking person could 
read a Japanese book at that time. They reached Yokohama on 
Nov. 3, 1859. While working with some carpenters, Dr. Brown 
discovered the future tense in Japanese. He printed a book entitled 
Colloquial Japanese, the money for publication being furnished by 
a Scotchman and a Jew. 



65 K. S. Latourettc, A History of Christian Missions in China. The Macmillan 
Co., New York, 1929, p. 222. 

66 "Elmira claims to be the oldest college for women in America." D. A. Rob- 
ertson, American Universities and Colleges, Charles Scribner's Sons, N. Y., 1928, 
p. 411. It was chartered in 1853. Wesleyan College, Macon, Ga. was chartered 
as Georgia Female College in 1836. 



84 COLORED LIG H T 

He preached daily for many months during 1859. In i860 he 
organized a congregation in Yokohama. In 1861 the Yedo gov- 
ernment pressed the missionaries to leave Kanagawa to go to Yoko- 
hama. On Jan. 1, 1862, some friends of Brown presented him a 
house and lot in Yokohama in order that he might move there. This 
was in appreciation of his preaching there since 1859, organizing a 
church, and drawing the plans and specifications of the British Con- 
sular Chapel. Because this church became strictly under the Es- 
tablished Church of England, the Yokohama Union Church was 
organized in 1872, and Brown was called as its first pastor. 

Two former Chinese pupils sent Mr. Brown seventy-five dollars 
each to help educate his son, John Morrison, at Rutgers College. 

For many years Brown contributed articles to American papers, 
especially The Springfield Republican. He was early interested in 
photography, and was one of the first to send pictures of Japan to 
American in 1862, and taught the first native photographer, Renjio 
Shimooka. He carried on work among the sailors, securing pledges 
of total abstinence, and in 1864 reported thirty communicants 
among the men who go down to the sea in ships. 

In 1866 about a hundred young men of the upper classes were 
studying under the mission, and some of the students translated the 
Constitution of the United States. In 1867 there were six Japanese 
students studying at Monson, Massachusetts. The school attached 
to the custom house in Yokohama was the only English school in 
Japan in 1865 taught by native English-speaking people. 

In 1867 the Reverend Mr. Brown returned to America for a 
visit. Rutgers College conferred the Doctor of Divinity degree upon 
him. He served until 1869 as pastor in his old church at Owasco 
Outlet, putting his daughter in school. On June 15, 1869, he re- 
ceived an invitation from some Japanese officials, former pupils, to 
open a school at Niigata with all travel expenses paid and a salary 
of three thousand dollars. The Board gave consent. He crossed the 
continent on the new transcontinental railroad and reached Yoko- 
hama on Aug. 26, 1 869. No less than a score of his former pupils 
were in high office in Japan. He refused an invitation to become 
professor at the new Tokyo University. At Niigata he received ap- 
pointment as American Consul, for the protection of any stray 



IN T HE OLD SOU T H 85 

Americans, but he never had occasion to use the consular powers 
that his friends had secured for him. 

In 1870 he returned to his old field in order to be near his fellow 
translator, Dr. J. C. Hepburn, and so work upon a standard trans- 
lation. He became pastor of another Union Church. On Sept. 28, 
1872, Dr. Brown wrote a resolution adopted by forty-three repre- 
sentative Christians meeting in convention in Yokohama, calling for 
one Church of Christ in Japan. This first effort toward church unity 
is worthy of quotation: 

"Whereas the church of Christ is one in Him, and the diversities 
of denominations among Protestants are but accidents which, though 
not affecting the vital unity of believers, obscure the oneness of the 
Church in Christendom and much more in pagan lands, where the 
history of the divisions cannot be understood; and whereas we, as 
Protestant missionaries, desire to secure uniformity in our modes 
and methods of evangelization so as to avoid as far as possible the 
evil arising from marked differences; we therefore take this earliest 
opportunity offered by the Convention to agree that we will use our 
influence to secure as far as possible identity of name and organiza- 
tion in the native churches in the formation of which we may be 
called to assist, that name being as catholic as the Church of Christ, 
and the organization being that wherein the government of each 
church shall be by the ministry and elders of the same, with the con- 
currence of the Brethren." 

In 1 872 the Asiatic Society of Japan was formed with Dr. Brown 
as vice-president. The first native Protestant Christian Church in 
Japan was organized March 10, 1872. Dr. Brown took part in 
baptizing nine young men, ordaining an elder and a deacon, and 
administering the Lord's Supper for the first time it was ever ad- 
ministered in Japanese. 

In July, 1872, as the oldest missionary in Japan, Dr. Brown 
dedicated the new Union Church in Tokyo. On Nov. 19, 1872, 
he proposed establishing a class to train native ministers and the 
devoting of his spare time to translating. By vote of the church, 
ten young men were selected for the course, and in Dr. Brown's 
house the Meiji Gaku-in, or Hall of Learning, was begun. In 1 877 
the Union Theological Seminary having been begun in Tokyo, the 



86 COLORED LIGHT 

pupils were transferred there. The work of translation proceeded 
in daily sessions. By this time twenty native ministers, trained by 
Dr. Brown, were preaching in Japan. 

Because of bad health Dr. Brown accepted the invitation of the 
Commander of the U. S. S. Alert to sail with him in search of a 
crew marooned upon a Pacific island in 1877. He returned by way 
of China, visiting his old school site. Returning to Japan, he was 
moderator of the second meeting of the new presbytery in 1878, 
which received six of his old pupils and seven other young men as 
licentiates for the ministry. He and his associates completed the 
translation of the New Testament. 

On June 26, 1879, two surgeons examined the worn-out soldier 
of Christ and directed that he see specialists in Philadelphia. In a 
conversation with a fellow minister he said, "If I had a hundred 
lives, I would give them all for Japan." He visited Monson and 
knelt at his mother's grave. In January and February, 1880, he 
visited in the home of his old pupil, Yung Wing, A.M., LL.D., now 
Secretary of the Chinese Legation. At this time the work he had 
begun in sending three Chinese lads to Monson was being carried 
on by the Chinese government with one hundred and twenty stu- 
dents in America at a cost of $100,000 a year. On May nth a 
letter reached Dr. Brown telling of a service in Japan to commem- 
orate the completion of the translation of the New Testament. On 
June 1 8th, spending the night in the home of a friend in Monson, 
Massachusetts, he died in his sleep. Dr. S. Wells Williams, his old 
friend in China, said at the funeral, "When the plan of God for 
these great Eastern nations is fully unrolled, Robbins Brown will 
not be ashamed." 

T. L. McBryde, D.D., '39, sailed for Singapore in March, 1840. 
After almost three years he was forced to return on account of bad 
health. He served as pastor in Abbeville County and later at Pen- 
dleton, South Carolina, until his death in 1863. 67 

William Curdy Emerson, '41, went to Brazil with some emi- 
grants from upper South Carolina at the close of the Civil War. For 
a year he edited an emigrant paper in Rio de Janeiro. He settled in 
Santa Barbara, Sao Paulo. He was not under a board, but was 
faithful as a minister in the new country until his death in 1875. 68 



G7 Semi-Centennial Volume, p. 169 forward. 
**Ibid. 



IN THE OLD SOUT H 87 

Richard Quartman Way, '43, sailed for Siam from Boston No- 
vember 18, 1843. Finding the mission there broken up, he and 
his wife went on to Ningpo, China. He and Dr. D. B. McCartee, 
a physician, founded the Ningpo mission. The church founded here 
was possibly the first Protestant one on soil under the Chinese gov- 
ernment. 69 He and his wife remained for sixteen years until their 
health failed. He had charge of a boys' school and the press and was 
pastor for four years of the native church. Disabled by bronchitis, 
on the advice of other missionaries he served for a time as American 
Consul. He prepared a geography in Chinese that was used not 
only in his school but over China and in Japan. He translated the 
Gospel of Mark into Ningpo colloquial. After his return in 1850 
he preached some in South Georgia. 70 

J. W. Quarterman, '45, a brother of Mrs. R. Q. Way, was or- 
dained by the Presbytery of Georgia and sent to Ningpo in 1847. 
He labored effectively until his death ten years later due to small- 
pox. He translated Dr. C. C. Jones's catechism into Chinese, and it 
was extensively used for years. 

Joseph K. Wight, '47, went to China in 1848. Ill health caused 
his return in 1854. A second trip was made in 1855 and he was 
enabled to remain two years before his health failed again. He 
preached after that in New Hamburg, New York. 

M. A. Williams, '49, was a foreign missionary, but knowledge 
concerning his work is lacking. Later he was a home missionary 
working at Jacksonville, Oregon. 71 

Rev. J. B. Adger, a Princeton Seminary graduate, later became a 
member of the Columbia Seminary faculty. He visited J. L. Wilson 
on the Seminary campus while the latter was a student, and was 
closely associated with the Seminary. In 1833 he was agent for the 
Southern Board of Foreign Missions. He sailed with J. L. Merrick 
from Boston August 2, 1834, on f he ship Padang, their wives ac- 
companying, for Smyrna. He was the third missionary to the Ar- 
menians. He translated the New Testament into modern Armenian, 
which after revision by a colleague became the standard text with 
hundreds of thousands of copies printed. Other translations were 
made by Adger, among them Pilgrim's Progress and Dr. C. C. Jones's 



,!!, K. S. Latourette, A History of Christian Missions in China (1929), p. 248. 
~ Q Semi-Centennial Volume, p. 169 forward. 
71 Ibid., p. 157. 



88 COLORED LIGHT 

catechism. In i860 one of the missionaries in Armenia speaks of fif- 
teen hundred to sixteen hundred in the Sunday schools studying 
Jones's catechism. D'Aubigne's History of the Reformation was 
translated also. He returned home in 1 844 and decided to become 
a missionary to the Negroes in Charleston. Later he became pastor 
at Pendleton and professor at the Seminary. 72 

Problems of the Day 

Temperance and the means for promoting it were brought before 
the Assembly as early as 1 8 1 1 when Dr. Benjamin Rush presented 
the Assembly a thousand copies of his famous pamphlet An Enquiry 
into the Effect of Ardent Spirits on the Human Body and Mind. 
B. M. Palmer, '41, spent his vacation period in 1840 acting as agent 
for a temperance paper The Temperance Advocate and delivering 
temperance lectures. J. H. Thornwell, in 1848, at the Assembly 
after his moderatorship, secured the approval of that body for his 
views concerning the relation that the church should sustain to tem- 
perance and other moral reform societies. Holding the church to 
be a spiritual body, the kingdom of Jesus Christ, he held that it 
cannot league itself to any secular society founded upon human 
policy. Each Christian is free to unite or refrain from uniting with 
such societies. Thornwell himself made temperance addresses and 
favored legal control of drink. 73 

Gradually during this period the slavery problem became more 
and more acute. The nullification threat of 1832 was settled and 
the tariff issue seemed adjusted. In some respects an adjustment 
seemed to have been made by 1850 in the slavery question, but the 
problem was only hushed up, ready to come forth again. The South 
had developed a unified front justifying the slave system. The North 
was swinging more and more to the abolitionist viewpoint. What 
was the attitude of Columbia Seminary upon this problem? The 
sons and grandsons of slaveholders are today among the first to de- 
clare their belief in the freedom of all men, everywhere, white and 
black. There is danger of a failure to understand the considerations 
that induced our forefathers to justify slavery. A glance backward 
may be enlightening. 



72 J. B. Adger, My Life and Times. See table of contents. 

73 B. M. Palmer, Thotnwell's Life and Letters, pp. 303, 225, 376. 



IN THE OLD SOUTH 89 

Slavery was no innovation. It had always existed since the dawn 
of human history. There may even be those today who would 
query as to its actual existence in some form at present in the sweat- 
shops, tenant farms in the South, and even among the government 
relief workers. In the ante-bellum South, domestic slavery was a 
system of economic organization that seemed to the men of that day 
the only feasible plan. Its cessation involved the same kind of prob- 
lems, in some respects even more acute, as would arise were the 
suggestion made today in America to become a socialistic society. 
The same emotional and intellectual defense was made that would 
be made to protect the rights of private property today against the 
radical element. The Greek philosophers, the Roman jurists, and 
the whole feudal system, accepted slavery. Christianity itself made 
no direct attack upon the system, only planting deep principles, like 
the golden rule and the brotherhood of man, which were destined 
first to ameliorate its evils, and then gradually to bring about the 
end of slavery. The Church Fathers could be quoted as permitting 
slavery, and the Bible did not condemn the institution but only its 
attendant evils. 

Jefferson Davis once said "the good Bishop Las Casas with 
philosophical humanity inaugurated the importation of the race of 
Ham." 74 Indeed it is true that benevolent motives moved in this 
first importation by Spain at the prompting of Las Casas. The 
Pope's Bull approved the establishment of a slave market at Lisbon, 
Portugal, and by 1537 slaves were handled there. 75 Slavery in the 
North American colonies began in 1637, when captured Indians 
were enslaved in New England, and it was given legal sanction in 
1 64 1. Roger Williams and John Eliot sought to improve the con- 
dition of Negro slaves in New England, but not to abolish slavery. 
Cotton Mather in 1706 wrote in his diary that he considered the 
gift of a slave to him "a mighty smile of heaven upon his family." 70 
William Penn in 1682 provided that Negro slaves should be set free 
after fourteen years' service. Sir John Yeamans in April, 1672, 
brought the first Negro slaves to Carolina. 77 White bond servants 



74 Jefferson Davis, Speech before Democratic State Convention, Jackson, Miss., 
July 6, 1 850, quoted in Pro-Slavery Thought in the Old South, by W. S. Jenkins, 
1935, p. 205. 

75 H. C. DuBose, Memoirs of J. Leighton Wilson, op. cit., p. 216. 

7G W. S. Jenkins, Pro-Slavery Thought in the Old South, op. cit., pp. 6 and 1. 

""George Howe, op. cit., Vol. I, pp. 68, 70, 215. 



90 COLORED LIGHT 

were there before that, working for a term for wages or maintenance. 
In i 737- 1 738 the colony council considered the care of destitute 
Protestant refugees in Charleston. The upper house advised that 
they enter into service, but the lower house objected to driving free 
men "into a state of servitude," so a tax upon the importation of 
Negroes was imposed for the benefit of the refugees. 78 

The charter of Georgia prohibited slavery but in ten years there 
were requests that importation be allowed. In A Brief Account of 
the Causes That Have Retarded the Progress of the Colony of 
Georgia in America (London 1843) Thomas Stephens said "in 
spite of all endeavors to disguise this point, it is as clear as light it- 
self, that Negroes are as essentially necessary to the cultivation of 
Georgia as axes, hoes, or any other utensil of agriculture." George 
Whitefield advocated admission of Negroes on the ground "The 
Providence of God has appointed this Colony rather for the work 
of black slaves than for Europeans, because of the hot climate, to 
which the Negroes are better used than white people." 79 The Bethel, 
Pon Pon, Presbyterian Church near Jacksonboro, South Carolina, 
was left 1,207 pounds in 1 742 to be used to increase the number of 
slaves belonging to the congregation. They were hired out for the 
minister's support. Other congregations had slaves also. 80 

The attitude of the church at this period may well be summed 
up by a quotation from a letter written to John Wesley by George 
Whitefield in 175 1 : 

"Thanks be to God, that the time for favoring the colony of 
Georgia seems to be come. Now is the season for us to exert our 
utmost for the good of the poor Ethiopians. We are told, that even 
they are soon to stretch out their hands to God; and who knows 
but their being settled in Georgia may be overruled for this great 
end? As for the lawfulness of keeping slaves, I have no doubt, since 
I hear of some that were bought with Abraham's money, and some 
that were born in his house. I also cannot help thinking, that some 
of these servants mentioned by the apostles in their epistles were, or 
had been, slaves. It is plain that the Gibeonites were doomed to 
perpetual slavery; and, though liberty is a sweet thing to such as 



78 Geo. Howe, op. cit., Vol. I, pp. 68, 70, 215. 

79 W. S. Jenkins, op. cit., p. 42, and George Howe, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 247. 

80 George Howe, op, cit., Vol. I, p. 256. 



IN THE OLD SOUTH 91 

are born free, yet to those who may never know the sweets of it, 
slavery perhaps may not be so irksome. However this be, it is plain 
to a demonstration, that hot countires cannot be cultivated without 
Negroes. What a flourishing country might Georgia have been, had 
the use of them been permitted years ago! How many white people 
have been destroyed for the want of them, and how many thousands 
of pounds spent to no purpose at all? Though it is true, that they 
are brought in a wrong way, from their own country, and it is a 
trade not to be approved of, yet as it will be carried on whether we 
will or not, I should think myself highly favored if I could pur- 
chase a good number of them, in order to make their lives comfort- 
able, and lay a foundation for breeding up their posterity in the 
nurture and admonition of the Lord." 81 

In 1764 Dissertation sur la Traite et le Commerce des Negres 
was published in Paris, holding the thesis the golden rule did not 
require emancipation of the slaves, for by bringing Christianity to 
the Negroes, slavery made effective the law of love. 82 

Early it was recognized as a duty to Christianize the Negroes. 
Richard Baxter in 1673 published a chapter upon a master's proper 
use of slaves, and in his book, The Religious Instruction of the 
Negroes in the United States, C. C. Jones, says Baxter's works pos- 
sibly did much good upon the plantations. 83 The king of England 
urged the Christianization of the Negroes in orders to the governor 
of New York in 1686. 84 

The opposition to slavery in the colonial period was largely upon 
social and economic grounds rather than upon ethical and moral. 
The religious opposition among the Quakers and Mennonites and 
Reformed Presbyterians in South Carolina did not exert much in- 
fluence. 8 "' South Carolina in 1760 passed an act prohibiting the 
importation of slaves, but the Crown disallowed the act and re- 
buked the Governor for assenting to it. The Virginia House of 
Burgesses petitioned the Crown, April 1, 1772, to "remove all 
those restraints on your Majesty's governors of this colony, which 
inhibit their assenting to such laws as might check so very pernicious 

81 W. S. Jenkins, op. cit., p. 41. 
B2 Ibid., p. 43. 
83 Ibid., p. 13. 

* A Ibid., p. 14. 
b: 'lbid., p. 7. 



92 CO LO RE D LIG H T 

a commerce" — "long considered as a trade of great inhumanity, and 
under its present encouragement, we have too much reason to fear 
will endanger the very existence of your Majesty's American do- 
minions." 86 

Import taxes were laid by Maryland, Virginia, and South Caro- 
lina, only to have the Crown disallow them. The cause for this 
desire to prohibit importation was fear lest the great number of 
blacks become a danger to white dominance. 

Darien, Georgia, had been settled by a group of hardy High- 
landers in 1736, bringing their Presbyterian Church with them. 
They opposed slavery. In 1739 they petitioned General Oglethorpe 
against the introduction of slaves into Georgia, stating, "It is shock- 
ing to human nature that any race of mankind, and their posterity 
should be sentenced to perpetual slavery; nor in justice can we think 
otherwise of it, than that they are thrown amongst us, to be our 
scourge one day or other for our sins; and as freedom to them must 
be as dear as to us, what a scene of horror it must bring!" Later the 
same convictions had lingered, for on January 12, 1775, are found 
resolutions adopted at Darien, Georgia, stating, "To show the 
world that we are not influenced by any contracted or interested 
motives, but general philanthrophy for all mankind, of whatever 
climate, language, or complexion, we hereby declare our disapproba- 
tion and abhorrence of the unnatural practice of slavery in America, 
(however the uncultivated state of our country, or other specious 
arguments may plead for it) , a practice founded in injustice and 
cruelty, and highly dangerous to our liberties as well as lives, de- 
basing part of our fellow-creatures below men, and corrupting the 
virtue and morals of the rest; and is laying the basis of that liberty 
we contend for (and which we pray the Almighty to continue to the 
latest posterity) upon a very wrong foundation." 87 Thomas Jeffer- 
son listed the enforced slave trade as a grievance against the Crown, 
but it was not approved by the Virginia Convention of 1 774. The 
"natural rights theory" which was so prominent in the thinking of 
the Revolutionary War did much to crystallize opposition to slav- 
ery. 

However, in the South slavery was already established and the 



80 W. S. Jenkins, op. cit., p. 29. 
87 Ibid., p 32. 



IN THE OLD SO U T H 93 

problem was not theoretical but practical. What could be done with 
the Negroes? William Smith of South Carolina stated the case in 
Congress, holding that "slavery was so engrafted into the policy of 
the Southern States that it could not be eradicated without tearing 
up by the roots their happiness, tranquility, and prosperity; that if 
it were an evil, it was one for which there was no remedy, and, there- 
fore, like wise men, they acquiesced in it. . . . We found slavery en- 
grafted into the very policy of the country when we were born, and 
we are persuaded of the impolicy of removing it; if it be a moral evil, 
it is like many others which exist in all civilized countries and which 
the world quietly submits to." 88 In the Virginia Legislature in 
1 830-1 83 i it was said "that slavery in Virginia is an evil and a 
transcendent evil it would be idle to doubt or to deny ... all would 
remove it if they could." 89 The Tennessee Convention of 1834 
adopted in a report, "To prove it [slavery] to be a great evil is an 
easy task, but to tell how that evil can be removed is a question that 
the wisest heads and the most benevolent hearts have not been able 
to answer in a satisfactory manner." The colonization plan was 
the best solution offered. The same Tennessee Convention report 
said regarding that plan, "The ministers of our holy religion will 
knock at the door of the hearts of the owners of the slaves, telling 
everyone to let his bondman — go free — and the voice of these holy 
men will be heard and obeyed." 90 

J. Leighton Wilson, '33, the missionary to Africa, was the ob- 
ject of severe criticism by the abolitionists because he retained two 
slaves. Yet the practical difficulties in manumission are evident in 
the following letter written by Wilson to the American Board of 
Commissioners for Foreign Missions: 

"Mission Station, Gabon River, West Africa. 

January 23, 1 843. 

"Rev. Rufus Anderson, D.D., Secretary A. B. C. F. M.: 

"My DEAR BROTHER: — Your letter of March 17, 1842, making 
further inquiries about my slave-holding, was handed me by Mr. 
Walker, who arrived here December 1st. 



88 W. S. Jenkins, op. cit., p. 32. 
*»Ibid., p. 83 
lJ0 Ibid., see index. 



94 COLORED LIG H T 

"By legal inheritance, I am the legal owner of two slaves. One of 
these is a man of eighteen or twenty years of age and the other, if 
I mistake not, is a girl of twelve or fourteen. Their grandmother 
and her posterity were entailed upon my mother and her posterity 
before I was born. At the age of twenty-one I found myself their 
owner, and this ownership was involuntary. 

"By marriage I became joint owner of about thirty more, but as 
it was repugnant to my feelings, as well as others concerned, meas- 
ures were adopted before I left the country, which have since resulted 
in the emancipation of the whole of these. It was made optional 
with them to go to the North, to Africa, or to any other place where 
they could enjoy their freedom. They made choice of Africa, and, 
though I have had reason since to regret that they did not go else- 
where, it is nevertheless a relief to myself and all concerned that they 
are in a state of freedom. 

"In relation to the other two, who are in voluntary servitude, I 
should remark, that I have used every means, short of coercion, to 
induce them to go where they could safely accept their freedom. 
Some time before I left the United States, I obtained the consent of 
the boy to accompany me to Africa, with the expectation of edu- 
cating him for a teacher. And an application was made to the Pru- 
dential Committee that he be allowed to go, to which they con- 
sented. But before the time of embarkation arrived the boy showed 
a disposition to be vicious, and at the same time manifested a de- 
cided repugnance to going to Africa. He was advised to go to one 
of the free states, and the advantages of this course were distinctly set 
before his mind, but he refused. His sister was at that time too 
young to have any discretion and nothing was said to her. 

"Some time in 1 840, if I mistake not, I wrote to you and requested 
that you would obtain, if possible, a situation for these two slaves, 
where they could be educated and made free. At the same time, I 
requested that you write to my family, and I expressed the hope 
that the slaves might be prevailed upon to accept freedom. By the 
same mail I wrote to my sister. From you I received no answer, but 
from my sister I learned that the slaves were decidedly opposed to 
leaving the place of their nativity, and that the parents and others 
thought the proposition unkind. 

"Subsequently I wrote to Dr. Armstrong, of New York, and my 



IN THE OLD SOUTH 95 

friends at the South, but from neither party have I yet received any 
answer. Lastly, I deputed my wife, who, I presume is now in the 
United States, to prevail on these slaves to move to one of the free 
States. 

"I desire no profit in any form from their labors. Those who emi- 
grated to Africa were brought here at private cost, involving an ex- 
pense of several thousand dollars. The only object I have in allud- 
ing to this fact is to show that I am not a slaveholder for the sake of 
gain, and that, so far as I have funds to dispose of in the cause of 
humanity, they have been appropriated chiefly to promote the hap- 
piness and comfort of those who have been in bondage. I do not 
see it my duty to use force. They have the liberty of choosing for 
themselves, and I have endeavored to communicate such light and 
information as will enable them to choose wisely. This seems to 
me the best liberty that is in my power to confer. If I withdraw my 
protection from them and allow them to become public property, 
it seems to be very questionable whether I am in the line of duty. 

"If my connection with the Board is a source of embarrassment or 
perplexity, I shall feel very sorry for it. When I offered myself to 
the committee I had no other desire than to spend my life in making 
known the unsearchable riches of the gospel to the miserable and 
degraded inhabitants of Africa, and after having spent eight years 
among them, and having, as you know, endured no ordinary trials 
and difficulties, I am still free to say that I have not now any other 
desire than to continue in this good work. But the interests of the 
Board and its widely-extended missions are too precious to come 
into competition with the right of any one individual, and rather 
than be that individual I would welcome the cold clay, which shall 
hide me from the notice of my fellow-men. If, therefore, you feel 
that my connection with the Board is prejudicial to its interests, 
either now or at any future time, I will retire from your service with- 
out any other than feelings of sincere esteem and affection. 
"Very truly and affectionately, 

"J. Leighton Wilson." 91 

The boy mentioned continued to decline his freedom and lived 
on at Salem, under the charge of Mr. Samuel Wilson. He is said 

91 H. C. DuBose. Memoirs of Rev. J. Leighton Wilson, D.D., p. ioo. 



96 COLORED LIGHT 

to have received wages for his services. He grew gray-headed, de- 
lighting to boast that he had "gone through the Seminary with 
Marse Leighton." When the Federal armies passed through the 
country during the Civil War, he helped hide the valuables and 
took care of the horses hidden in the swamps. Several times he was 
left in charge of the whole plantation, including the white family, 
during the forced absence of the master. Uncle John was true as 
steel and it was he who, sent by Dr. J. L. Wilson, skillfully rushed 
with two four-horse wagons laden with bacon and meal from 
Mayesville to Columbia, bringing the first food to the hungry 
women and children who had crowded into the Seminary buildings 
at the burning of Columbia. Dr. Howe had had nothing to eat for 
two days when Uncle John arrived. 92 

To most Southern men it seemed impossible to give the Negroes 
freedom and let them remain in the South. Aside from the racial 
competition and the great question of support, there was fear. There 
were 393,944 colored people to 274,563 whites in South Carolina 
in 1850. 93 Freedom and the vote meant turning over the State to 
the blacks. In 1740, the Spanish had sought to stir up trouble 
among the forty thousand half-savage Negroes in South Carolina. 
A group of Negroes killed several men and captured arms at Stono. 
They marched toward Jacksonboro, killing and plundering. A 
messenger reached the Presbyterian Church at Wilton where Arch- 
ibald Stobo was preaching. By law men were required to carry their 
arms to church. The congregation found the Negroes plundering 
and somewhat drunk. A short battle ended the insurrection. 94 In 
1822 an insurrection was plotted, but a faithful slave revealed the 
plan to his master. The plan was to kill all the whites in Charles- 
ton. Of the one hundred and thirty-one Negroes tried, thirty-five 
were hanged, thirty-seven banished from the United States, and the 
rest acquitted. 95 

The economic problem in connection with manumission was 
very real. The Negroes cared for the land and the land provided 
for the Negroes under the plantation system. In 1857 John L. 



92 H. C. DuBose, Memoirs of John Leighton Wilson, D.D., p. 104. 
93 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 40. 
94 George Howe, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 227. 
})r> J. B. Adger, op. cit., p. 52. 



IN THE OLD SOUTH 97 

Girardeau, '48, as a young man in Charleston argued in favor of 
his church, which was designed especially for Negroes, with only a 
few white members, and in combatting the charge that the plan in- 
volved segregation of rich and poor said, "It seems, too, rather 
strange that the blacks should be emphatically designated as the 
poor, when it is known that their wants are as well provided for 
as those of half the white population and provided for not because 
they are objects of charity, but because they earn their bread by 
their labour. Their security against privation is guaranteed by the 
interest in them which their masters must feel. Let those who urge 
this objection inquire upon whom the charities of the Church are 
mainly expended. Surely, not so much upon the blacks as the poor 
whites." 96 When the Negroes were freed, who would feed them? 
Who would work the land? These questions seemed without an- 
swer to the men in the Old South. 

The final step in the logic by which the South accepted slavery 
was the "positive good" theory. Slavery resulted in more positive 
good than theoretical evil. J. Leighton Wilson saw his freed 
Negroes sink back into barbarism in Liberia. In the West Indies 
abolition had not helped, but hindered, civilization and general 
social well-being. Slavery was seen as a form of paternalism by 
which the wiser and stronger cared for the weaker and less com- 
petent race. The masters were bound to the slaves no less than the 
slaves to the masters. The Christian teaching inculcated mutual ob- 
ligations for the greatest good of all concerned. "The Slave Insti- 
tution at the South increases the tendency to dignify the family. 
Each planter in fact is a Patriarch — his position compels him to 
be ruler in his household. From early youth, his children and ser- 
vants look up to him as the head, and obedience and subordination 
become important elements of education. Where so much depends 
upon one will, society assumes the Hebrew form. Domestic rela- 
tions become those which are most prized — each family recognizes 
its duty — and its members feel a responsibility for its discharge. 
The fifth commandment becomes the foundation of Society. The 
state is looked to only as the ultimate head in external relations, 
while all internal duties, such as support, education, and relative 



0G George Blackburn. The Life Work of John L. Givardcau, D.D., LL.D., p. 48. 



98 COLORED LIG HT 

duties of individuals, are left to domestic regulation." 97 J. L. Girar- 
deau speaks about the beautiful relation supposed to exist in the 
church when "The master looks up into the gallery and sees his 
servant there, and the servant looks down and sees his master 
there." 99 

Of course there were protagonists of slavery who had no regard 
for the moral issue or who sought to be rid of it by declaring Negroes 
an inferior order of man and not due consideration as human 
brothers. Against such conceptions J. B. Adger, George Howe, 
and J. H. Thornwell contended in the periodicals of the time. 99 

Back in 1796 Rev. James Gilleland had memorialized synod 
"stating his conscientious difficulties in receiving the advice of the 
Presbytery of South Carolina, which had enjoined upon him to 
be silent in the pulpit on the subject of the emancipation of the 
Africans, which injunction Mr. Gilleland declares to be, in his 
apprehension, contrary to the counsel of God. Whereupon Synod, 
after deliberation upon the matter, do concur with the presbytery 
in advising Mr. Gilleland to content himself with using his utmost 
endeavors in private to open the way for emancipation, so as to se- 
cure our happiness as a people, preserve the peace of the church, and 
render them capable of enjoying the blessings of liberty. Synod is 
of the opinion that to preach publicly against slavery, in present 
circumstances, and to lay down as the duty of every one, to liberate 
those who are under their care, is what would lead to disorder and 
open the way to confusion." 100 Because of his conviction the 
Reverend Mr. Gilleland moved to Ohio in 1840. 

Stephen Elliott had united with the Episcopal Church when 
Daniel Baker preached at Beaufort, S. C. in 1831. When he had 
become Bishop of Georgia, he summed up the church viewpoint 
concerning slavery as follows: "However the world may judge us 
in connection with our institution of slavery, we conscientiously 



1,7 C. G. Memminger, Lecture before the Young Men's Library Association of 
Augusta, Georgia, Augusta, 1851. Quoted from W. S. Jenkins, op. c.t., p. 210. 

98 George Blackburn, op. cit., p. 43. 

i)9 J. B. Adger, Revival of the Slave Trade, in Southern Presbyterian Review, 
Vol. XII, 100, 1858. J. B. Adger, The Christian Doctrine of Human Rights' and 
Slavery. Columbia 1849. George Howe. A Review, Southern Presbyterian Re- 
view, Vol. Ill, 124, 1849. J. H. Thornwell, Report on the Subject of Slavery 
Presented to the Synod of South Carolina, Winnsboro, Nov. 6, 1851. 

10 "George Howe, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 634. 



IN T HE OLD SOU T H 99 

believe it to be a great missionary institution — one arranged by God, 
as he arranges all the moral and religious influences of the world 
so that the good may be brought out of seeming evil, and a blessing 
wrung out of every form of the curse. We believe that we are, edu- 
cating these people as they are educated nowhere else; that we are 
elevating them in every generation ; that we are working out God's 
purposes, whose consummation we are quite willing to leave in 
his hands." 101 

The Old School Assembly of 1845 took action upon slavery. 
Dr. George P. Hays in his history of the period says, "The anti- 
slavery part of the Church strongly denounced this paper as being 
a pro-slavery document. 102 Instead of allaying the agitation, its 
adoption seemed rather to foment it. It may possibly have been 
true that the real object of the Church was to get rid of the question 
and leave the management, with all its perplexities, to the churches 
and presbyteries located in the midst of slavery. This result was at 
least attained in the sense of keeping the Church together until the 
conflict of war made further unity impracticable." 103 In a letter to 
his wife written from Cincinnati during the Assembly, Dr. J. H. 
Thornwell wrote, "The question of slavery has been before the 
house, and referred to a special committee of seven. Though not a 
member of the committee, I have been consulted on the subject, and 
have drawn up a paper, which I think the committee and the Assem- 
bly will substantially adopt; and if they do, abolition will be killed 
in the Presbyterian Church, at least for the present." 104 In the New 
School Assembly of 1846 resolutions were adopted "condemning 
the actual system as opposed to the princpiles of the law of God, the 
precepts of the Gospel and the best interests of humanity" by a vote 
of 92 to 29. 105 

As we look back upon the attitude of the church in the old South 
are we forced to conclude its approach to the problem of slavery was 
altogether wrong? We rejoice that slavery has been abolished, even 



101 Stephen Elliott, Address to the 39th Annual Convention of the Diocese of 
Georgia, Savannah 1861, p. 9. Quoted by W. S. Jenkins, op. cit., p. 217. 

102 G. P. Hays, Presbyterians, p. 191. 

103 Ibid., p. 281. 

104 B. M. Palmer, The Life and Letters of J. H. Thornwell, D.D., LL.D., 
(1875), p. 286. 

105 G. P. Hays, op. cit., p. 209. 



100 COLORE BLIGHT 

at the so great cost of civil war. We recognize that church leaders 
were sometimes timid in expressing their views and were under great 
constraint to defend themselves from the imputation of abolitionist 
sentiment by the excited feeling in the South. We do not hesitate 
to pronounce slavery wrong. Yet it must be admitted, we believe, 
that never has a race made as rapid strides toward civilization in 
such a short period as the Negro savages made under the institution 
of Southern slavery. A few years ago the writer delivered a com- 
mencement sermon at a college in Georgia the same day a noted 
colored minister preached the graduation sermon for a Negro school. 
The colored minister told of a trip up the Congo inspecting his 
denomination's mission work. He saw the stevedores come out to 
meet the ship, in loin cloths. He told the congregation that he turned 
and said to his wife, "Thank God for American slavery. But for 
that, there I would be." 

Social Service 

Today there is emphasis upon the social gospel. The conviction 
is prevalent that not only should the church inculcate an interpre- 
tation of the universe, present the dynamic spiritual resources in per- 
sonality, hold high the Light of the World, and propound personal 
ethics, but also seek to apply Christian ethics to every realm of hu- 
man life. The Columbia Seminary attitude between 183 1- 1850, 
which was based upon the doctrine of separation between church 
and state, was that activities and utterances by a minister in the field 
of political and social theory should be clearly separated from his 
ministerial functions. As a citizen he was free to function as a citi- 
zen, but as a minister he should not intrude his own speculations into 
the place which should be dedicated to exegesis and propagation of a 
revealed body of truth which transcends human theories. Thorn- 
well advocated this position, called "the spirituality of the Church," 
and on this ground sought to keep temperance agitation and anti- 
slavery discussions out of the courts of the church. 106 It is doubtful 
if the distinctions between secular and sacred activities on the part 
of the ministers were kept clear by the general public. The purpose 
in the emphasis of the spirituality of the church was to keep the 



B. M. Palmer, op. cit., p. 225 and p. 376. 



IN THE OLD SOUTH 101 

church loyal to first things and not let it degenerate into a debating 
society trying to foster various, and perhaps conflicting, projects. 
Columbia Seminary has always held closely to the spirituality of 
the church and sought first to bring about a transformation of char- 
acter and attitude within the individual. This approach makes social 
service secondary and incidental, yet in this period there was not 
lacking a contribution to social betterment. 

In 1832 committees in the Society of Missionary Inquiry were 
appointed as follows: 

1. Seamen and Soldiers. 

2. Colored Population. 

3. Foreign Missions. 

4. Domestic Missions. 

5. Bible and Tract Societies. 

6. Sabbath Schools and Revivals. 

7. Temperance Cause. 107 

William B. Yates, '33, was the committee on work for seamen 
and soldiers. He spent his life in that work, serving over fifty years 
in the Seaman's Bethel in Charleston. 108 

J. Leighton Wilson, '33, was an agent in suppressing the slave 
traffic in Africa. In 1840 he wrote, "Last week Lord Francis Rus- 
sel, commanding the brig Harlequin, anchored at this place, bring- 
ing with him a slave vessel taken on the leeward coast, and while 
here he took a second slaver that was passing by, and chased several 
others. About the same time the corpse of a native boy was washed 
upon the beach near to this place, and the only reasonable conjec- 
ture is that it was thrown overboard by a slaver when pursued to 
avoid being condemned if captured. This is a common piece of 
cruelty in the annals of the slave trade." He described the means 
used in procuring slaves, telling of one incident when "two friends 
(?) came to a slave factory on a mere pleasure excursion, and while 
one was secretly negotiating for the sale of his .companion, the in- 
tended victim had the adroitness to escape with the money and leave 
the other to atone for his duplicity by a life of foreign servitude." 
A movement was begun in England to withdraw the squadron, al- 



(, 'Columbia Theological Seminary Bulletin, Feb. 1931, p. 16-c. 
l(>s Semi-Centennial Volume, op. cit., p. 383. 



102 COLORED LIGHT 

leging nothing was being accomplished. J. L. Wilson prepared a 
paper, which was sent to a wealthy Bristol merchant, who sent it to 
Lord Palmerston. The Premier ordered an edition of ten thousand 
copies to be distributed in prominent circles. It was also printed in 
the United States Service Journal and in the Blue Book. The paper 
presented the squadron's accomplishments and urged that only the 
fastest ships be stationed on the coast. Lord Palmerston informed 
Wilson that the publication of his monograph caused all opposition 
to the retention of the African squadron to cease. In 185 i Wilson 
could write, "The English government has renewed its efforts, and 
sent out a better class of vessels, and has already brought this 
wretched traffic to a stand-still. . . . The year 1851 will probably 
be the historic period of the breaking up of this protracted and 
wicked contest. The English Admiral and a large number of his 
vessels are now at Cape Lopez (the place which has served as an 
outlet for all the secret slave trade carried on in this river for three 
or four years past) , and will, no doubt, effectively abolish it before 
he leaves." 109 

The work for Negroes by Charles Colcock Jones has already been 
touched on when mentioning the faculty. This was a missionary 
activity, yet with social service elements. From his winter home 
called Montevideo and his summer home called Maybank, both on 
Newport River, in Georgia, Dr. Jones carried on his work. 110 There 
were three chief stations, Midway and Newport and Pleasant Grove, 
with Hutchison as an occasional preaching point. He erected three 
houses of worship. Preparing his sermons with scholarly care, 
availing himself of the exceptional educational advantages he had 
enjoyed, he yet made them suitable for the Negroes. Sabbath began 
with a prayer meeting and a watchmen's meeting. Then came the 
regular morning service, in which he led the singing, followed by 
an inquiry meeting for personal instruction and counsel. A Sunday 
school came next, in which hymns and his own catechism were 
taught orally. During the week there were one to three plantation 
meetings at night, sometimes ten miles distant by horseback. The 
fruit of his labor was seen in the increased intelligence, good order, 



109 H. C. DuBose, op. tit., p. 212-227. 

110 The lovely home life is described in Montevideo Maybank, by R. Q. Mal- 
lard, D.D., 1898. 



IN THE OLD SOUTH 103 

neatness, and general morality of the colored people, and from 
1838 to 1842 three hundred were received into the church. The 
synod adopted a paper in 1833 t ^ at sa id in part, "Religion will 
tell the master that his servants are his fellow-creatures, and that he 
has a Master in Heaven to whom he shall account for his treatment 
of them. The master will be led to inquiries of this sort: 'In what 
kind of houses do I permit them to live? What clothes do I give them 
to wear? What food to eat? What privileges to enjoy? In what 
temper and manner and proportion to their crimes are they pun- 
ished?"'"' 

The masters gave more attention to the physical and moral well- 
being of their servants, and plantation chapels and schools began 
to be erected. The Reverend Mr. Jones led in a movement through- 
out the South in which pastors began to give more attention to the 
Negroes, and the duty of systematic religious instruction for the 
colored race was recognized. The Synod of Georgia in 1863, after 
his death, said of C. C. Jones, "And for the manner in which he 
fulfilled his special mission to the colored people his praise is in all 
the churches and his name will be had in everlasting remembrance." 112 



IJI E. T. Thompson, op. cit., p. 184. 

112 Semi -Centennial Volume, op. cit., p. 195-204. 



CHAPTER III 

THE ORDEAL— THE CIVIL WAR PERIOD 
1850-1865 



THE flower and the fall of the economic and social system that 
had supported the Old South took place in the period from 
1850 to 1865. Columbia Seminary participated in the lot of the 
Southland. Its high point of prosperity in the century came just 
as the War Between the States started. Its endowment of $267,324 
in May, 1862, was larger than it has been until recent decades; and 
the largest class was that of 1862, when there were thirty-one men 
in the senior class. 1 

Faculty 

Alexander T. McGill, D.D., LL.D., was professor of Ecclesiasti- 
cal History one year, 185 2- 1853. Born at Canonsburg, Pennsyl- 
vania, Feb. 24, 1807, graduated from Jefferson College in 1826, 
he served as tutor at his college and then went to Georgia and studied 
and practiced law. In 1831 he began the study of theology at the 
Associate Presbyterian Seminary in Canonsburg, and was ordained 
in 1835. After a pastorate, he transferred to the Old School Church ; 
and after another pastorate became professor in Western Theologi- 
cal Seminary at Allegheny. From this chair he came to Columbia, 
only to return to Allegheny the next year, and after one year was 
elected professor at Princeton Seminary. He was moderator of the 
Old School Assembly in 1848 and permanent clerk from 1850 to 
1862, when he became stated clerk and served until 1870, when the 
Old School and New School Churches reunited. He was appointed 
by the Princeton Seminary to represent that institution at the Semi- 
centennial of Columbia Seminary, held in 1 88 1 . Unable to attend, 
he wrote a letter from which we quote: "And we [Princeton Semi- 
nary] rejoice to know that the sunny and fertile South is rapidly 
recovering her own resources, which were once liberally sent here to 



^Semi-Centennial Volume, op. cit., pp. 148, 431. 




DR. B. M. PALMER 



106 COLORED LIG HT 

help this mother Seminary in its infancy and long struggle to secure 
an adequate foundation. Beloved brethren of the South, be of good 
cheer. God will not forget your work of faith and labor of love 
and patience of hope in ministering to the wants of Princeton more 
than half a century since. Your prayers and alms went up as a 
memorial to him in seeking our good at the North, and our hearts , 
are now gratefully with you, and sincerely prompt in agreeing with 
you touching this thing that we implore the God of all grace to give, 
and to hasten it in his time, greater prosperity than ever to the 
Seminary at Columbia/' 2 

Benjamin Morgan Palmer, D.D., LL.D., '41, served as instructor 
for a year, and then from 1854 to 1856 as professor of Ecclesiastical 
History and Church Polity. Dr. Palmer's biography was published 
in 1906. He was born January 25, 181 8, in Charleston, South 
Carolina, son of Rev. Edward Palmer, who had been brave enough 
to begin to prepare for the ministry when thirty-two years of age and 
the father of four children. Leaving his family for a time he went 
to Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts, eighteen months, 
and Andover Seminary for three years. The older brother of Rev. 
Edward Palmer, Dr. B. M. Palmer, Sr., was for many years pastor 
of Circular Congregational Church, Charleston, and was the first 
chairman of the Columbia Seminary Board of Directors. It may 
be noted that the maternal and paternal ancestors of the younger 
B. M. Palmer were from New England. At fourteen he was sent to 
Amherst College, Massachusetts, for almost two years. For a time 
he taught. When seventeen, his cousin, the Rev. I. S. K. Axson, 
Columbia, '34, spoke to him about becoming a Christian. "Before 
reaching the door of his chamber, I took the vow that I would make 
the salvation of my soul the supreme business of my life," afterward 
wrote Palmer. After some months of spiritual restlessness peace 
"came to stay, and through five and fifty years it has deepened in 
the soul to which it came as the balm of heaven." In 1836 he 
united with Stoney Creek Church, and in 1837 entered the junior 
class at the University of Georgia, where he finished with first honors 
in 1839. He decided to enter the ministry, and in 1839 went to 
Columbia Seminary. Licensed by Charleston Presbytery in 1841, 



2 Semi-Centennial Volume, op. cit., p. XXII, and p. 421. Presbyterian En- 
cyclopaedia, op. cit., under McGill. 



T HE ORDEAL 107 

he served as supply at the young church in Anderson, South Caro- 
lina, until called to the First Presbyterian Church of Savannah in 
October of that year. He married Augusta McConnell, stepdaughter 
of Dr. Howe of the Columbia Seminary faculty, and took his bride 
from Columbia to Savannah in the buggy Dr. Howe presented as 
a wedding gift. After fifteen months in Savannah, the First Presby- 
terian Church of Columbia called the young minister to fill the 
vacancy made by Dr. J. H. Thornwell's return to South Carolina 
College as chaplain. Palmer became pastor in 1843. He wrote fre- 
quent articles for the Southern Presbyterian Review, of which he 
was cofounder in 1847. Calls to Baltimore; Glebe Street, Charles- 
ton; Cincinnati; and Philadelphia were not accepted. Danville 
Seminary in 1853 called him to the chair of Hebrew. Oglethorpe 
had conferred the Doctor of Divinity degree in 1852. He was 
elected to the Columbia Seminary faculty and served the first year 
while continuing as pastor at the First Presbyterian Church. In 
1855, the First Presbyterian Church of New Orleans called him, but 
Charleston Presbytery refused to allow him to accept on the ground 
that his "labors as professor in the Theological Seminary are indis- 
pensable to the prosperity of that institution, etc." In 1856 he was 
again called; and this time he requested that he be allowed to accept, 
and began a pastorate in New Orleans of forty-six years, continuing 
until his death, May 29, 1902. 

Only three cities in the world had a greater commerce than New 
Orleans in 1856, and in population it was among the half dozen 
largest American cities. Not only by his preaching, but because he 
refused to flee during the yellow fever epidemic in 1858 and min- 
istered to the sick, he won the hearts of New Orleans people. Dur- 
ing another yellow fever epidemic in 1878 he wrote of his activity, 
"You will form some idea of the trial, when I state that during 
three months, I paid each day from thirty to fifty visits, praying at 
the bed-side of the sick, comforting the bereaved, and burying the 
dead." 3 Other activities of Dr. Palmer will be discussed presently. 
During the Civil War he refugeed in Columbia and supplied the 
pulpit and taught at the Seminary. All his library and papers were 



: T. C. Johnson, biographical material from The Life and Letters of Benjamin 
Morqan Palmer (1906), and J. M. Wells, Southern Presbyterian Worthies 
(1936). 



108 COLORED LIGHT 

burned in the destruction of Columbia. After the evacuation of 
Columbia he returned to help get food for the destitute women and 
children. 

Shortly after the War he preached in New York at the church of 
a friend, Dr. H. J. van Dyke. "An old veteran of the Northern 
army inquired who the wonderful preacher was. He finally learned 
that he was Rev. B. M. Palmer, D.D., of New Orleans, Louisiana. 
'The arch rebel of that name!' he exclaimed. 'He preaches like an 
archangel!' " 

The widow of Jefferson Davis wrote about a trip her husband 
made to New Orleans on a week end about a year before he died. 
He was troubled about something and went, even though there were 
guests in the house. He explained his purpose upon his return, "I 
went to commune with Dr. Palmer, and it has done me a world of 
good." 

In 1 89 1 Palmer was selected to make the opening address in the 
campaign of the Anti-Lottery League. He was introduced by the 
chancellor of Tulane University as "the first citizen of New Or- 
leans." 

Palmer declined invitations to occupy a chair in Princeton Semi- 
nary in i860, to become chancellor of Southwestern Presbyterian 
University in 1874, which institution he was largely instrumental 
in founding, and to return to Columbia Seminary in 1881. 4 

James Henley Thorn well, D.D., LL.D., became professor of 
Didactic and Polemic Theology in 1856, and continued until his 
death in 1862. He was born Dec. 9, 181 2, in Marlborough Dis- 
trict, South Carolina. English and Welsh strains were united in his 
parents. His father died when he was eight years of age. Early an 
insatiable student, he attracted the notice of his teacher and through 
him of friends who made it possible for him to continue in school. 
W. H. Robbins took the youth into his home and law office, intend- 
ing to educate him for the legal profession. "I have determined to 
adopt theology as my profession," wrote young Thornwell to his 
patron upon learning of the plan. This was years before Thornwell 
had made a profession of faith. While in South Carolina College 
he found and purchased a little book in a bookstore. It was a West- 
minster Confession of Faith. He wrote, "For the first time I felt 



Presbyterian Encyclopaedia, op. cit., under Palmer. 




DR. JAMES HENLEY THORNWELL 



110 COLORED LIGHT 

that I had met with a system which held together with the strictest 
logical connection; granting its premises, the conclusions were bound 
to follow." This little book confirmed him as a Calvinist and made 
him a Presbyterian. His mother was a Baptist, one early teacher an 
Irish Roman Catholic, another a Methodist local preacher. One of 
his two early sponsors was a son of a New England divine, but 
neither of the two were professing churchmen until later when they 
became Episcopalians. A phrase in a letter from Mr. Robbins re- 
fers to Dr. Thomas Cooper as "your idol," indicating Thornwell's 
admiration for the brilliant president of the institution, who was 
a philosophical utilitarian and materialist. "Of man in his higher 
nature, as a being of immortal powers, with aspirations reaching 
into a never-ending futurity, he had no just conception." 5 When 
in Thornwell's senior year resolutions were proposed to his class 
vindicating President Cooper from the charge of teaching infidelity 
in his lectures, Thornwell opposed the action and defeated their 
passage. He graduated with highest honors, December, 1831, at 
the age of nineteen. In 1832 Thornwell made a profession of faith 
at Concord Presbyterian Church near Sumter and joined the Sum- 
ter Church. He told friends of his purpose to become a minister. 

From teaching at Sumter he became principal of Cheraw Acad- 
emy, and from there early in 1834 went to Andover Theological 
Seminary, Andover, Massachusetts. Dr. Ebenezer Porter, who had 
delivered a series of lectures at Columbia Seminary, stopped to visit a 
former pupil at Cheraw upon returning North. He met the young 
principal of Cheraw Academy, who had become a candidate of Har- 
mony Presbytery December 2, 1833. Dr. Porter offered him a 
scholarship, so in 1834 we find Thornwell attending Andover. He 
soon transferred to Harvard, where he entered the University but 
also attended the Divinity School. He wrote, "I intend to prepare 
myself for the Senior Class in Columbia [Seminary] next January, 
being deficient only in Hebrew." 6 

He was able to accomplish more, seemingly, for in November, 
1834, Harmony Presbytery licensed him, and in 1835 ordained him 
pastor of the newly organized church at Lancaster, South Carolina. 

South Carolina College called him to the chair of Logic and 
Belles-Lettres in 1838. He became pastor of the First Presbyterian 



5 B. M. Palmer, The Life and Letters of James Henley Thornwell, p. 61. 
6 B. M. Palmer, op. cit., p. 116. 



THE ORDEAL 111 

Church, Columbia, in 1840 for one year, returning to Carolina as 
chaplain and professor of Sacred Literature. His health failing, he 
traveled in Europe about six months. He attended ten General 
Assemblies as representative and was moderator in 1847 at Rich- 
mond, the youngest man ever to hold that office. 

In 1 845 the Second Presbyterian Church of Baltimore called him, 
but the College trustees refused to accept his resignation. That year 
three colleges conferred the Doctor of Divinity degree. He became 
pastor of Glebe Street Church, Charleston, in March, 1851, and 
president of South Carolina College in January of the next year. 
In December, 1855, he became professor of Theology in Columbia 
Seminary. With Thornwell and Palmer added to the Seminary 
faculty, that institution took a leading place in its sphere. Numbers 
of students were attracted from as far as Massachusetts and New 
York. Thornwell died August 1, 1862, and was buried in Elm- 
wood Cemetery, Columbia, South Carolina. 

His literary productions are listed in the literary appendix to this 
volume. He was editor of the Southern Quarterly Review. Among 
his papers was the following written petition: "May the Lord grant 
that I may be guided by His Holy Spirit, that I may contend for 
nothing but the truth, and that in the spirit of the gospel." Dr. 
Addison Alexander wrote of his sermon before the General Assem- 
bly in 1858 in New York, saying it was "as fine a specimen of 
Demosthenian eloquence as I ever heard from the pulpit, and it 
realized my idea of what preaching should be." 7 

John B. Adger, D.D., served as professor of Ecclesiastical His- 
tory and Church Polity from 1857 to 1874. Born December 13, 
1 8 10, and reared in Charleston, Adger came of French refugees who 
had long lived in Ireland and English-Irish who settled in Penn- 
sylvania and moved to South Carolina. At thirteen Adger was sent 
North to school, and later finished at Union College, Schenectady, in 
1828. After a period in Charleston he spent four years in Princeton 
Seminary, and sailed for Smyrna, Asia Minor, August 2, 1834, as 
a missionary to the Armenians. His literary efforts upon the mission 
field are noted in the literary appendix. He traveled in Palestine 
and returned to America for a furlough in 1846. Partly because 



7 Biographical information from B. M. Palmer, op. cit., and J. M. Wells, 
op. cit. 



112 COLORED LIGHT 

of Northern opposition to a missionary who did not hold aboli- 
tionist views, Adger decided not to return, but instead to become a 
missionary to the Negroes. This project to organize separate churches 
for the Negroes met with opposition in the form of newspaper ar- 
ticles and a threat by a mob to tear down the two buildings being 
erected by the Presbyterians and Episcopalians. A city-wide meeting 
finally approved the Negro churches. Dr. Adger labored in Charles- 





DR. JOHN B. ADGER 



ton from 1846 to 1851, when Rev. Ferdinand Jacobs succeeded 
him for a short time. Adger purchased "Woodburn," near Pendle- 
ton, South Carolina, and farmed five years in order to let his 
eyes recuperate, continuing active in church affairs. He purchased 
the Southern Presbyterian Weekly and moved it to Columbia, No- 
vember 1, i860, after he had joined the Seminary faculty. The 
Seminary was practically closed in May, 1861, and Adger returned 
to Pendleton, where he ministered to Mt. Zion and later to Pendle- 
ton Church until after the War. The support of the pastor given 
by the church was refused by Dr. Adger and was directed by him to 
be given to the family of the late deceased minister. In September, 
1865, he and Doctors Howe and Woodrow opened the Seminary. 
He continued as a professor until his resignation in 1874. In 1877 



THE ORDEAL 113 

he began to serve Pendleton again, but relinquished a long and 
fruitful pastorate there on account of health in 1896. He died in 
1899, having almost completed his autobiography. 8 

James Woodrow, Ph.D., M.D., D.D., LL.D., J.U.D., became 
Perkins Professor of Natural Science in connection with Revelation 
upon the creation of that chair in 186 1. He was born at Carlisle, 
England, May 30, 1 828, where his father, Rev. Thomas Woodrow, 
was pastor of Lowther Street Church. (It was here Woodrow Wil- 
son spoke on December 29, 19 18, on his way to the Peace Confer- 
ence. The brief address is called "At His Grandfather's Church." 9 
Wilson's mother was Woodrow's sister.) Graduated from Jeffer- 
son College, Pennsylvania, in 1849, he studied under Louis Agassiz 
at Harvard in the summer of 1853, and graduated from the Uni- 
versity of Heidelberg, with A.M., Ph.D., summa cum laude in 
1856. He had been principal of academies in Alabama, 1850- 185 3. 

Woodrow taught Chemistry, Natural Philosophy, Botany, and 
Geology at Oglethorpe University from 1853 to i860. Sidney 
Lanier graduated there in i860 and his biographer states, "At least 
one genuine impulse was received in his college life, and that pro- 
ceeded from Professor James Woodrow, who was then one of Sid- 
ney's teachers. During the last weeks of his life Mr. Lanier stated 
that he owed to Professor Woodrow the strongest and most valu- 
able stimulus of his youth." 10 When Darwin's The Origin of 
Species was published in November, 1859, with the resulting shift 
in scientific theories, the chair occupied by Dr. Woodrow gradually 
became a focal point of attention, resulting in the evolution con- 
troversy. "I can never forget that it was the lectures in Dr. Wood- 
row's classroom that checked me in a wild, downward career to 
infidelity and atheism and cheerless blank despair," said one of his 
students. 11 The evolution controversy will be discussed in a later 
chapter of this study. Woodrow was discontinued as a teacher at 



8 See literary appendix. Biographical material from J. B. Adger, My Life and 
Times, op. at., p. 956. 

9 Woodrow Wilson, Selected Literary and Political Papers and Addresses of 
Woodrow Wilson, Vol. II, p. 308. 

10 William Hayes Ward in memorial in Poems of Sidney Lanier (1920) and 
Dr. James Woodrow as Seen by His Friends, collected by Marion W. Woodrow 

(19.19). P- J 56. 

1] J. L. Martin, M.D., D.D., quoted in My Life and Times, J. B. Adger, op. 
cit., p. 495. 



114 COLORED LIGHT 

the Seminary in 1 886. He was Professor of Geology at South Caro- 
lina College 1 869- 1 872 and 1880- 1897. He was president from 
1 89 1 to 1897. He was a commissioner to the Assembly in 1866, 
1877, 1879, 1880, 1886, 1889, 1896, and 1899. From 1861 
to 1-872 he was treasurer of Foreign Missions and Sustentation. He 
was president of the Central Bank of Columbia, 1 888-1 891, and 
1 897- 1 90 1 ; president of the South Carolina Home Insurance Co., 
president of Carolina Loan and Investment Co., and vice-president 
or director in a lumber company, a building and loan association, a 
land development concern, two railroad companies, and a phosphate 
company. Upon advice of physicians he was forced to refrain from 
preaching because of a throat ailment. 12 Georgia Medical College 
conferred an honorary M.D. degree, Hampden-Sydney the D.D., 
Davidson the LL.D., Washington and Jefferson the J.U.D. Dur- 
ing the War, Woodrow was chief of laboratory at Columbia, South 
Carolina, in the medical department, manufacturing medicine for 
the Confederacy. Dr. Woodrow became an honored member of the 
Synod of South Carolina by transfer from Augusta Presbytery in 
1894, an< 3 was its moderator in 190 1. He had been moderator of 
the Synod of Georgia in 1879. After his death in 1907 his wife 
erected the Woodrow Memorial Church, Columbia, to his memory. 13 
He was editor and proprietor of the Southern Presbyterian Review, 
1861-1885, an d of the Southern Presbyterian, 1865-1893. He 
held the following memberships: Associate of Victoria Institute, 
London; Isis, Dresden; Scientific Association of Germany; Scien- 
tific Association of Switzerland ; Fellow of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science; and was a member of the Inter- 
national Congress of Geologists. 14 

Bazil E. Lanneau, M.A., '5 1, acted as tutor in Hebrew from 185 1 
until 1856. He was grandson of Dr. B. M. Palmer, Sr., and was 
born March 22, 1830. He graduated with first honors from Charles- 
ton College. He organized and served a church in Lake City, Flor- 
ida, between 1854 and 1856. Then he served as coeditor of the 
Southern Presbyterian and pastor at Summerville, South Carolina, 



12 J. B. Adger, op. cit., p. 632. 

13 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., pp. 192, 316, 471. J. B. Adger, My 
Life and Times, op. cit., pp. 632, 647. 

14 Marion W. Woodrow, Dr. James Woodrow as Seen by His Friends, op. cit., 
Intro. 



THE ORDEAL 115 

for two years. He returned to Lake City and from there was elected 
professor of Ancient Languages at Oakland College, Mississippi, in 
1859. He died in i860. 15 (Oakland College was founded in 1830 
by Mississippi Presbytery, transferred in 1839 to the Synod of 
Mississippi, and suspended 1 861- 1866. It closed in 1867.) 

James Cohen, M.A., was tutor in Hebrew from 1856 to 1862. 
He was a native of Algiers, a Jew by birth, and knew Arabic from 
childhood. He died before many years. About this time Adolphus 
H. Epstein, of Jewish birth in Hungary, student at Lafayette Col- 
lege, and who had united with a Philadelphia church, was a student 
at the Seminary. He died in his senior year, 1856, and is buried in 
Columbia. His tephilim, or phylacteries, which had been given by 
his mother when he became a son of the law at thirteen, were pre- 
served at the Seminary. 16 



Academic Life in This Period 

In 1857 the Synod of Alabama came into joint ownership and 
control of Columbia Seminary with the Synods of Georgia and 
South Carolina. Alabama elected two members of the Board. Dr. 
Adger and Dr. Palmer had traveled into Alabama, and as far as 
New Orleans in January, 1855. seeking to secure funds for a new 
professor, with a view to calling Thornwell. About $28,000 was 
secured. 17 

In 1852 the Board proposed the removal of a small building and 
erection of a large dormitory. This building was completed in 1854 
and called Simons Hall in memory of Mrs. Eliza L. Simons of 
Charleston, who left a legacy of $5,000 to the Seminary. Law Hall 
was largely a gift of Mrs. Agnes Law, in memory of her husband, 
an elder in the Columbia Church and long treasurer of the Seminary. 
This building was completed in 1855. This money she gave away 
was all she saved; everything else was destroyed in the War Between 
the States. When Columbia was burned, Feb. 1 7, 1 865, the soldiers 
she had secured as guards joined with their drunken fellows in loot- 
ing and burning her house. She, an old lady of some threescore and 



15 Semi-Centennial Volume, op. cit., p. 309. 

1G Ibid., pp. 154, 269. 

17 Ibid., p. 150 and J. B. Adger, My Life and Times, p. 137. 



116 



COLORED LIGHT 



ten years, was warned to leave her burning home. On the second 
or third day some friends found her wandering through her old 
ruined garden, in a corner of which she had extemporized a miser- 
able shelter. They removed her to the building she had generously 
given away, on the Seminary grounds, where friends and relatives 
provided for her wants until she followed her husband into eternity 
a short time later. 18 Mr. John Bull, who had been prevented by 
disease from becoming a minister, left a legacy of $10,000. With 
some of this the boarding hall was enlarged and the stable and car- 
riage house converted into a chapel. Of this chapel we shall write 
in a later chapter. The employment of all artisans upon the erection 
of the State Capitol prevented other building. 19 

The library consisted of 5,296 volumes in 1854; and the Smyth 
Library was purchased in 1856, adding 11,520 volumes. In 1863 
there were 17,778 volumes. Through the efforts of Dr. Adger and 
others, all debts were paid and the endowment brought to $262,- 
024.85 in 1864. In 1863 the institution had been tendered the 
Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the Confederate States, 
and was accepted. Some of the seeming prosperity of this period 
was caused by inflation due to Confederate currency. 



Church Extension and Evangelism 

Columbia men organized or were first ministers of the following 
new churches between 1850 and 1865: 



*. 



Liberty Hill 

Marion 

Allison Creek 

Stoney Creek, Received into Presbytery 

Lynchburg 

Clinton, First 

Douglas 

McCall 

Turkey Creek, Congaree Presbytery 

Shady Grove, S. C. Presbytery 

Aiken 

Grindal Shoals, Bethel Presbytery 

Ninety Six 

Union, Harmony Presbytery 



1 85 1 
1852 
1854 
1855 
1855 
1855 
1856 
1857 
1858 
1859 
1859 
1859 
i860 
1863 



Hoyt, T. A., '49 
Frierson, D. E., '42 
Adams, J. M. H., '33 
Dunwoody, J. B., '41 
Wilson, W. W., '46 
Holmes, Z. L., '42 
Harrison, Douglass, '54 
Cousar, J. A., '55 
Wilson, W. W., '46 
Holmes, Z. L., '42 
Smith, A. P., '58 
James, A. A., '5 1 
Willbanks, J. S., '60 
Frierson, E. O., '58 



18 J. B. Adger, My Life and Times, p. 336, and Semi -Centennial Volume, op. 
cit., p. 145. 

^■^Semi-Centennial Volume, op. cit., p. 146. 



THE ORDEAL 117 

The churches organized by Columbia men in other synods can- 
not be readily determined, but for South Carolina most of the new 
churches were organized by Columbia graduates. 20 As an indication 
of the influence of alumni in the more western territory it may be 
noted that Columbia alumni were elected moderators of New Or- 
leans Presbytery thirty-one of the forty-five years between 1855 
and 1900. 21 

From 1 85 1 to i860 the Synod of South Carolina grew from 71 
ministers and 10 1 churches, to 100 ministers and 130 churches. 
The Synod of Georgia had 61 ministers and 95 churches in 1850, 
and 70 ministers and 1 16 churches in i860. 22 

There were 218 students in the Seminary classes from 1851 to 
1865. A. J. Witherspoon, D.D., '51, was a descendant of John 
Knox. His sister became the wife of Dr. J. H. Thornwell. Failure 
of health prevented his accepting his appointment by the Presby- 
terian Church as a missionary to Panama. After the War he organ- 
ized five churches as evangelist of South Alabama Presbytery, among 
them Franklin Street Church, Mobile. In two months in 1870 he 
raised $7,000 for the Confederate Home of the Synod of Alabama. 
In 1873 he became city missionary for New Orleans, and in 1878 
seaman's chaplain for the Seaman's Bethel. He secured a new site 
and the erection of a Seaman's Home. A church was organized in 
connection with the work, and one year it received twelve by pro- 
fession of faith and enrolled 21 2 as associate members. Beds, meals, 
convalescent care, reading rooms, correspondence facilities, weekly 
entertainments, and religious services were provided. The work has 
continued to flourish. 23 

A. J. Loughridge, '51, went to Texas and labored as a home 
missionary. During the Civil War he supported himself by sur- 
veying while he continued to preach. He served and built up several 
churches in Texas. 

Some of the alumni of this period became outstanding pastors. 
J. S. Barr, '52, served Camden, Arkansas, 1856- 1857, Mt. Holly, 
1858, and Scotland Church, 1859- 1860. D. L. Buttolph, D.D., 



20 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., Records of churches by name. 
21 Louis Voss, Presbyterianism in New Orleans and Adjacent Points, p. 135. 
22 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. at., p. 285. 

23 Presbyterian Encyclopaedia, op. cit., p. 1024, and Louis Voss, Presbyterian- 
ism in New Orleans and Adjacent Points, pp. 75, 78. 



118 COLORED LIGHT 

'52, served the Second Presbyterian Church, Charleston; Midway, 
Liberty County; and Marietta, Georgia. R. K. Porter, D.D., '52, 
was pastor of Central Presbyterian Church, Atlanta. James Stacy, 
D.D., '52, was pastor at Newnan, Georgia, for forty-three years, 
stated clerk of the synod thirty-three years, and wrote a history of 
the church in Georgia. 

J. G. Richards, '53, labored for long years in Harmony Presby- 
tery, part of the time as Presbyterial evangelist. William J. Mc- 
Cormick, '53, preached in the courthouse in Gainesville, Florida, in 
1858. He supplied the pulpits of Kanapaha, and Micanopy also, 
and often visited Ocala, Fernandina, Archer, and many other places 
that were then without ministers. "... His influence has been felt 
throughout the state, and had much to do with the upbuilding of 
Presbyterianism in Florida." He was elected to represent the As- 
sembly at Belfast, Ireland, in 1884, but died in 1883. 24 

Samuel Orr, '54, spent his ministry, except for service as a chap- 
lain, in Arkansas, until his death in 1882. He served Princeton, 
1 866- 1 868, Arkadelphia, 1869- 1879, and Dobyville, 1880- 
1882. Henry Martyn Smith, D.D., '54, came to Columbia Semi- 
nary with his former pastor, Dr. A. T. McGill, but declined to fol- 
low him to Princeton Seminary. Dr. Smith served two years as 
assistant to Dr. Thomas Smyth in Charleston, South Carolina, and 
then began his pastorate of thirty-one years at the Third Presby- 
terian Church, New Orleans — his only pastorate. In 1873 he was 
moderator of the General Assembly. 25 Matthew Greene, '54, came 
from Ireland to attend Columbia Seminary, and returned there after 
graduation. 26 T. R. Markham, D.D., '54, served a long pastorate at 
Lafayette Church, New Orleans, beginning as supply Feb. 1, 1857. 27 

William James McKnight, '55, served Danville, Kentucky; 
Avondale Church, Cincinnati; Springfield, Ohio; New Brunswick, 
New Jersey. David H. Porter, D.D., '55, served Augusta, and then 
the First Church of Savannah from 1855 until his death in 1873. 

R. Q. Mallard, D.D., '55, became pastor in 1856 at Walthour- 
ville, Georgia, the place of his birth twenty-six years previously. 
From 1863 to 1866 he served Central Church, Atlanta. In the 



^Semi-Centennial Volume, op. erf., p. 324. 

25 Louis Voss, Presbyterianism in New Orleans and Adjacent Points, p. 275, 

26 Semi -Centennial Volume, op. cit., p. 283. 

27 Louis Voss, Presbyterianism in New Orleans and Adjacent Points, p. 49. 



THE ORDEAL 119 

evacuation of Atlanta, his wife, a daughter of Charles Colcock Jones, 
was thrown from a wagon and injured. In the early gray of a 
December morning in 1864 Dr. Mallard heard troops approaching 
Walthourville and went out to meet and welcome them. To his 
surprise he found they were Federal soldiers. He was captured and 
confined in a warehouse-prison on Bay Street, Savannah, for three 
months. After the cessation of hostilities he returned to Atlanta, 
from whence he accepted a call to Prytania Street Church, New Or- 
leans. Recovering from a period of poor health, he accepted the 
pastorate of Napoleon Avenue Church in the same city in 1879, 
and served until his death, March 3, 1904, a ministry in New Or- 
leans of thirty-six years. His literary work is treated in the ap- 
pendix. He was moderator of the Assembly in 1 896. 28 

J. A. Barr, '57, served Searcy, Arkansas, i860- 1863, and D. C. 
Boggs, '57, served Jacksonport in the same State, 1869- 1874, and 
Bentonville, 1 874-1 901. S. W. Davies, '57, was in Arkansas at 
Augusta, 1 863- 1 868; Cotton Plant, 1869- 1874; and Fayetteville, 
1875. Jethro Rumple, D.D., '57, was pastor at Salisbury, North 
Carolina, many years. His leadership in establishing Barium Springs 
Orphanage is treated in the fourth chapter. 

W. T. Hall, D.D., '58, served Canton, Mississippi, and Lynch- 
burg, Virginia, many years most effectively. 

R. W. Shive, '58, served Searcy, Arkansas, 1867, Center Hill, 
i868-i877,Beebe, 1878, Lonoke, 1879- 1880, Austin, 1884-1892. 

Robert Burton Anderson, D.D., '59, presided at Yorkville Fe- 
male Institute and was pastor at Morgantown, North Carolina. 
Robert Warnock McCormick, '59, was ordained pastor at Henvel- 
ton by the Ogdensburg (New York) Presbytery. Later he served as 
a missionary to the Pennsylvania coal miners; and was then pastor 
at Tuscarora, New York; and then Waddington, New York. J. C. 
Kennedy, '59, served at Des Arc, Arkansas, 1869- 1870, Van Buren, 
1871-1878, Hackett City, 1879-1880. 

J. D. Burkhead, D.D., '59, was an outstanding minister of 
evangelistic gifts and an author. 

J. S. Willbanks, '6o, served Clarkesville, Arkansas, 1867, Dar- 
danelle, 1868- 1876, Russellville, 1877, Austin, 1878- 1889. 



28 Louis Voss, Presbyterianism in New Orleans and Adjacent Points, p. 232. 



120 CO LORED LIG H T 

S. H. Gallaudet, '62, had previously attended Princeton. He 
served Dickson, Maryland, 1864- 1866; Christ Church, Pottstown, 
Pennsylvania, 1868- 1869; was a missionary to Texas in 1870; 
was pastor of St. Andrew's Church, Baltimore, Maryland, and then 
Greensburg, Pennsylvania, until 1894, when he went to Ventura, 
California. Trinidad, Colorado, was served in 1903. 

T. H. Law, D.D., '62, was stated clerk of the Synod of South 
Carolina and permanent clerk of the General Assembly. J. A. 
McConnell, '62, served as evangelist of New Orleans Presbytery in 
1 87 1 and reorganized the church at Centerville. James Hoge Nail, 
D.D., '62, served Tuskegee, Alabama; Columbus, Georgia; Prytania 
Street, New Orleans; and Jefferson, Tennessee. 29 J. M. P. Otts, 
D.D., '62, served Columbia, Tennessee; Wilmington, Delaware; 
Chambers Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia. He founded the Otts 
Lectures at Davidson College. George L. Petrie, D.D., '62, served 
Charlottesville, Virginia, from 1878 to 1928, or fifty years. At 
the Assembly in Charlottesville in 1930 he was honored as the old- 
est living alumnus of Columbia Seminary and only living attendant 
at the first General Assembly in Augusta, Georgia, in 1861. J. F. 
Watson, '62, served Camden, Arkansas, 1867, and Princeton, 
Arkansas, 1868- 1869. Charles S. Vedder, D.D., '62, became pas- 
tor at Summerville, South Carolina, and in 1866 entered upon a 
pastorate of fifty-one years at the French Huguenot Church in 
Charleston, which terminated with his death in 191 7. Franklin 
T. Simpson, '62, born in Wilkes County, Georgia, on May 13, 
1 83 1, returned to live there until April 1, 1906. He preached at 
Lincoln, South Liberty (Sharon) , Bethany in Greene County, and 
supplied Toccoa — all in Georgia. 

Edward M. Green, D.D., '63, was pastor at Washington, 
Georgia, Washington, North Carolina; and at Danville, Kentucky, 
from 1877 to 1922 — forty-five years. George Sluter, '63, left Co- 
lumbia and graduated at Princeton. He served Rensselaer, Missouri; 
Webster St., St. Louis; Duluth, Minnesota; Shelbyville, Indiana; 
Arlington, New Jersey; and produced several books. 30 



29 Louis Voss, Presbyterianism in New Orleans and Adjacent Points, p. 69, 
and p. 208. 

30 Presbyterian Encyclopaedia, op. cit., and F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. 
cit., for biographical information. Semi-Centennial Volume, op. cit. See indexes. 



T H E O RDE AL 121 

The great revival of 1858 seems to have quickened interest in 
the churches through the territory of the Seminary. Charleston 
Presbytery in the narrative for 1858 notes "the outpouring of the 
Holy Spirit, crowded congregations, much solemnity and the con- 
version of many souls. The young were particularly affected. The 
Anson Street Church had one hundred additions." 31 Harmony Pres- 
bytery and South Carolina Presbytery also mention the influence of 
new spiritual life. 

Daniel Baker continued to labor in this period. He wrote con- 
cerning a series of services at Sumter, South Carolina, in 1852, where 
Donald McQueen, '36, served as pastor: "Last night, amid circum- 
stances of very special interest and solemnity, our meeting in this 
place came to an end, and truly, a most delightful, blessed meeting 
it has proved, a soul refreshing season indeed. Thirty cases of hope- 
ful conversions, about two-thirds of whom may be called young 
men. I think I never saw a more interesting set of converts in all my 
life; as one has expressed it, 'They are the pick of the town'; and 
another remarked, 'If it had been left to us to select, we could not 
have made a better selection.' To God be all the praise." 32 

Influence upon Literature and Thought Life 

Reference to the literary appendix will show the published writ- 
ings of the graduates between 1850 and 1865. Not much mere 
literature was produced, as the pressing problems of the day called 
for the best thought available. Periodicals flourished. The Southern 
Presbyterian was founded at Scottsboro, Georgia, in 1847, re- 
moved to Charleston, South Carolina, in 1853, where J. L. Kirk- 
patrick and B. E. Lanneau, '51, were editors. From 1857 H. B. 
Cunningham, '39, was editor and proprietor. In i860 John B. 
Adger, of the faculty of Columbia Seminary, purchased and removed 
it to Columbia. The burning of Columbia suspended publication, 
but James Woodrow, another member of the faculty, determined 
to continue publication; and overcoming great difficulties, he began 
again in 1865, and continued until 1893. Then W. S. Bean, '72, 
moved the paper to Clinton, South Carolina, where J. F. Jacobs, 



:il F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 52, 
**Ibid„ p. 832. 



122 COLORED LIGHT 

'91, and W. S. Jacobs, '93, published it until 1903. Sold to Dr. 
Converse in 1903 and moved to Atlanta, it was consolidated with 
the Central Presbyterian of Richmond and the Southwestern Presby- 
terian of New Orleans and became the Presbyterian of the South, 
and is now published in Richmond, Virginia. From 1847 to 1885 
the Southern Presbyterian Review was published. "Political, edu- 
cational, moral, ecclesiastical and theological discussions were rife in 
those times. The War was coming on, and the ideas that led to it 
stirred men's minds and hearts. The Presbyterian Church, like 
other denominations, was to be divided." All these subjects were 
ably treated by different writers in successive volumes. 33 In 1857 
William Flinn, '44, was cofounder and coeditor of Pastors and 
Peoples Journal, issued for only a little over a year at Macon and 
Milledgeville, Georgia, as a monthly. 34 Thomas L. DeVeaux, '60, 
served as editor of the North Carolina Presbyterian, 35 

Education 

The influence of the Seminary upon education may be exhibited 
by noting educators among the alumni of this period and their ac- 
tivity in education. In a day of slow transportation many insti- 
tutions were needed. In 1857 "The Reidville Female College" and 
"Male High School" were founded by Nazareth congregation at 
Reidville, South Carolina. R. H. Reid, '49, was pastor of the church 
and founder of the school. R. P. Smith, '76, and the founder's son, 
B. P. Reid, '86, were later in charge. The school closed with the 
son's death in 1913. 36 

Douglass Harrison, '54, served as superintendent of education of 
York County. William Banks, '40, taught in connection with his 
pastorate; and his son gained a great reputation as an instructor of 
boys. J. R. Riley, '60, was president of Laurensville Female Semi- 
nary. Samuel Donnelly, '38, was in charge of the boys' section of 
the Presbyterian High Schools of Greenwood in i854. 37 David 
Wills, D.D., '50, was president of Laurensville Female Seminary 



33 J. B. Adger, My Life and Times, op. cit., p. 229. 

34 James Stacy, op. cit., p. 282. 

3C Semi -Centennial Volume, op. cit., p. 256. 

36 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., pp. 352-354. 

37 Ibid, pp. 350, 351. 



THE ORDEAL 123 

in 1857 and was president of Oglethorpe University from 1870 
to 1 872. 38 A great number of ministers taught in the church schools 
during this period. John B. Mallard, '35, had taught Chatham 
Academy and was professor of Oglethorpe University. 39 John F. 
Watson, '62, had charge of a female school at Princeton, Arkansas, 
in 1867. 40 

Isaac J. Long, D.D., '61, before coming to Columbia had pre- 
viously studied two years at Danville Seminary. Dr. J. Leighton 
Wilson sent him to investigate Arkansas in 1866, and he settled 
in Batesville, where he was pastor from 1 867-1 891. He began 
teaching a class of boys, which developed into a high school and 
later, on Oct. 24, 1872, became Arkansas College. The Reverend 
Mr. Long was the first president and served for life. In 1902 there 
were ninety-seven men graduates, of whom thirty-six became min- 
isters. 41 T. D. Witherspoon, D. D., '59, was chaplain of the Uni- 
versity of Virginia, 1 871- 1873, and professor in Central Univers- 
ity, Danville, Kentucky, 1 8 9 1 - 1 8 9 3 . He was in the chair of Homi- 
letics at Louisville Theological Seminary, Kentucky, from 1893 to 
1898. Samuel C. Alexander, '61, was one of the founders of Bid- 
die Memorial University for Negroes at Charlotte, North Carolina. 42 

H. B. Cunningham, D.D., '39, served as president of Oglethorpe 
University from 1868 to 1870. 43 W. P. Jacobs, D.D., LL.D., '64, 
who served in Clinton for fifty-three years, was the founder of 
Presbyterian College at Clinton, South Carolina, in 1880 and of 
Thornwell Home and School for Orphans in 1875. I. S. K. Ax- 
son, D.D., '34, served as president of Greensboro Synodical Female 
High School, Greensboro, Georgia, in 1853, 44 and Homer Hendee, 
'44, presided over the other synodical high school at Griffin, Georgia, 
in 1858. William J. McKnight, D.D., '55, was professor in Austin 
College, 1856-1857, and at Centre College, 1857-1864. R. B. 
Anderson, D.D., '59, was principal of Yorkville Female Institute 
sometime between 1862 and 1871. 45 



38 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 358, and James Stacy, op. cit., p. 142. 
39 James Stacy, op. cit., p. 317. 
40 1 bid., p. 367. 

4l The History of Presbyterianism in Arkansas, Synod of Arkansas, 1828- 1902. 
4 - Presbyterian Encyclopaedia, op. cit., p. 23. See under Long and Wither- 
spoon. 

48 James Stacy, op. cit., p. 142. 

44 1 bid., p. 162. 

^Presbyterian Encyclopaedia, op. cit., see under names. 



124 CO LO RE D LIG H T 

A. M. Small, D.D., '55 » entertained synod at Selma, Alabama, 
in 1864 and proposed to them the establishment of an orphans' 
home. The proposal was approved, and Doctor Small appointed 
to carry out the plan. After his death in the Battle of Selma the 
home was opened by Dr. A. R. Holderby, and is now located at 
Talladega. G. R. Foster, '51, was superintendent of this home from 
1880-1887 and also 1893-1908. 46 

Foreign and Domestic Missions 

Andrew M. Watson, '51, labored in the Choctaw and Chick- 
asaw mission from 1852 for several years. Marcus M. Carlton, 
'54, spent many years in northern India, in founding and main- 
taining Christian colonies. He wrote of conducting regularly as 
many as eight religious services a week. Condor J. Silliman, '55, 
grew up among the Choctaw Indians, to whom his parents were 
missionaries. The board sent him as a missionary in 1855, but he 
lived only a year. Charlton Henry Wilson, '55, was appointed to 
take charge of a Chickasaw mission school at Wapanucka the year 
of his graduation. He returned to South Carolina in 1859, an d be- 
came pastor at Pee Dee and Bennettsville. John A. Danforth, '59, 
went to China but on account of health was soon returned. J. H. 
Colton, '62, went in 1870 to the Choctaw Indians, among whom 
he labored for five years. 47 He reopened Spencer Academy in 1871. 
Robert R. Small, '55, undertook a missionary work among the 
ignorant and destitute "sand-hillers" in the neighborhood of Co- 
lumbia, South Carolina, which was most successful, but cut short 
by his death. 48 

When the War Between the States began, J. Leighton Wilson, 
'33, resigned his position as Secretary of Foreign Missions of the 
Presbyterian Church, U. S. A., and came to South Carolina. "My 
mind is made up. I will go and suffer with my people," he said. 49 
He at once issued a call for the churches to support mission work 
among the Indians, cut off from the North by war. A provisional 
committee was set up in Columbia, South Carolina, before the 



46 77?e King's Business in the Synod of Alabama, by Synod's Executive Com- 
mittee, Birmingham Publishing Co., Birmingham, Ala., 1927, p. 79. 
^Semi-Centennial Volume, op. cit., p. 380. 
48 Ibid., p. 361. 
49 H. C. DuBose, op. cit., p. 247. 



THE ORDEAL 125 

Augusta Assembly. During the War the Indian work was sus- 
tained, and indeed extended. 50 

Work among the colored people was continued and reached its 
greatest emphasis in this period. It was part of proslavery thinking 
that slavery was to Christianize and civilize the Negroes. As Dr. 
J. B. Adger of the Columbia Seminary faculty wrote years after- 
ward, "Now it is true, and will forever remain true, that our South- 
ern slavery was just a grand civilizing and Christianizing school, 
providentially prepared to train thousands of Negro slaves, brought 
hither from Africa by other people against our protest, some two 
hundred years ago. Never was any statement more absurdly false 
than that slavery degraded the Negroes of the South from a higher 
to a lower position."' 1 Most churches seem to have had colored 
members. A great church building was dedicated in Charleston, 
May 26, 1850, which was ministered to by Adger and then Gir- 
ardeau. In 1857 the membership of Charleston Presbytery stood 
1440 colored and 829 whites. In i860 Harmony Presbytery had 
colored members to the extent of 1 743 of a total membership around 
4000. 52 All over the South interest in colored evangelization was 
keen. Others followed the example of C. C. Jones, Adger, and 
Girardeau. Peter Winn, '41, labored for about two years at Port 
Gibson, Mississippi, in a colored mission. Pastors were diligent in 
ministry to the Negroes. 53 

In 1858 the Synod of South Carolina stated "The relation of 
this vast mass of the poor, the ignorant and the dependent to the 
religious bodies entrusted with the care of their souls is, doubtless, 
the chief question of which the answer is demanded of the South- 
ern Church." 54 The first Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in 
the Confederate States of American passed a resolution: "That the 
great field of missionary operation among our colored population 
falls more immediately under the care of the Committee of Do- 
mestic Missions; and that the committee be urged to give it serious 



^Presbyterian Encyclopaedia, op. cit., p. 845. 
51 J. B. Adger, My Life and Times, p. 162. 
52 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., pp. 52, 55. 
~ ,3 Semi-Centennial Volume, op. cit., p. 380. 

54 T. C. Johnson, A History of the Southern Presbyterian Church (1894) - P- 
344. 



126 COLORED LIGHT 

and constant attention, and the Presbyteries to co-operate with the 
committee, in securing pastors and missionaries for this field. 55 

Problems of the Day 

On December 20, i860, the delegates to the State convention 
signed the Ordinance of Secession for South Carolina. The delegate 
from Abbeville, Mr. T. C. Perrin, who became president of the 
Seminary Board in 1 86 1 , signed first. Four years and a few months 
later Jefferson Davis held the last Cabinet meeting in the house of 
that delegate as the Cabinet fled from Richmond and stopped for a 
night at Abbeville. 56 The War Between the States was, of course, the 
problem pre-eminent in this period. It is beside our purpose to trace 
the political development, but Columbia Seminary men were the 
chief actors in meeting the crisis that the political situation developed 
in the church. 

John C. Calhoun died in 1850, Webster and Clay in 1852. 
The Clay compromise of 1850 was an attempt to agree about the 
disagreement between the North and South. The "underground 
railroads" irritated the South. The John Brown raid of 1859, the 
wide circulation of Mrs. Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin, the 
Dred Scott decision in 1857, each intensified the differences between 
the sections. In 1851 the Synod of South Carolina adopted a re- 
port on slavery by Dr. Thornwell. The South had made up its 
mind that there was no quick and easy solution for the slave prob- 
lem, as has been shown in the preceding chapter. Abolitionist at- 
tacks were resented. 57 

The remark attributed to Cyrus McCormick that "the two great 
hoops holding the Union together were the Democratic party and 
the Old School Presbyterian Church" had much truth within it. 
The Baptists and Methodists had divided at the Mason-Dixon line 
long since. The Old School Presbyterians, due in a large measure 
to the leadership of Thornwell, had managed to continue together. 58 
A conciliatory attitude toward the South and appreciation of their 



5 5 J. B. Adger, My Life and Times, op. cit., p. 339. 

56 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 43. Some claim is made by Wash- 
ington, Ga., to the honor of having been the site of the last cabinet meeting. 
57 Ibid., p. 43. 
58 B. M. Palmer, op. cit., p. 286. 



THE ORDEAL 127 

very real problem with slavery had been manifest. In 1818, before 
the New School split, the General Assembly had declared, "We 
consider the voluntary enslaving, of one part of the human race by 
another . . . utterly inconsistent with the law of God . . . totally 
irreconcilable with the spirit and principles of the Gospel of Christ. 
... It is manifestly the duty of all Christians who enjoy the light 
of the present day ... as speedily as possible to efface this blot on 
our holy religion, and to obtain the complete abolition of slavery 
throughout Christendom, and if possible, through the world." 59 
The report admitted the danger in immediate emancipation. In 
1825 the Assembly called attention to religious instruction of 
slaves: "No more honored name can be conferred . . . than that 
of Apostle to the American slaves." 00 The separation of the New 
School group removed the ministers most given to abolitionist sen- 
timent. In 1845, as noticed in the previous chapter, Thorn well 
substantially drew up the action on slavery, taking the position it 
was a civil and not an ecclesiastical matter: "That the General As- 
sembly was originally organized and has since continued the bond 
of union in the church, upon the conceded principle that the ex- 
istence of domestic slavery, ... is no bar to Christian communion." 61 
"That it is purely a civil relationship, with which the church, as 
such, has no right to interfere," wrote Thornwell. 62 In 1849 the 
Assembly refused to propose methods of emancipation, and follow- 
ing Assemblies adhered to the position of nonaction regarding con- 
demnation of slavery. In 1854 the report of the Assembly on 
Negro instruction said, "The position taken by our Church with 
reference to the much-agitated subject of slavery secures to us the 
unlimited opportunities of access to master and slave, and lays us 
under heavy responsibilities before God and the world not to neg- 
lect our duty to either." 03 In November, i860, the Synod of South 
Carolina defeated a motion to "dissolve all connection with the 
northern portion of the Presbyterian Church" and on December 



59 L. G. Vander Velde, The Presbyterian Churches and the Federal Union, 1861- 
1 86g (1932) , p. 25. 
^Ibid., p. 25. 
61 Ibid., p. 25. 

r,2 J. H. Thornwell, quoted by B. M. Palmer, op. cit., p. 286. 
63 E. T. Thompson, op. cit., p. 182. 



128 COLORED LIG HT 

i st passed a resolution by Dr. J. B. Adger that included the state- 
ment "From our brethren of the whole Church annually assembled 
we have received nothing but justice and courtesy." 64 The Old 
School Assembly had not ruffled the sensitive South upon the slav- 
ery problem up through i860. 

Thorn well and Palmer are called "the two greatest Southern 
Presbyterian leaders" in the Old School Church by a recent writer. 65 
A brief notice of the political sentiments of the former as stated by 
the latter in his biography of Thornwell may help us to understand 
the situation that led to secession and a separate church. Thornwell 
had always been an ardent Union man. In the nullification struggle 
in 1832 Thornwell, just out of college, wrote articles in opposition 
to the position taken by his State. In 1850 before the Webster- 
Clay compromise, when secession seemed likely, he defends the 
cause of the South but pleads for the Union. March 28, 1851, he 
wrote Dr. R. J. Breckinridge, a personal friend: "I have been gloomy 
and depressed at the prospect before us; but I see nothing that can 
be done here but to commit the matter to our sovereign God. When 
I trace the successive steps of our national history, I behold at every 
point the finger of the Lord. I cannot persuade myself that we are 
now to be abandoned to our follies, and permitted to make ship- 
wreck of our glorious inheritance. I still hope that the arm which 
has been so often stretched out in our behalf, will be interposed 
again. South Carolina, however, seems bent upon secession. The 
excitement is prodigious. Men, from whom one would have ex- 
pected better things, are fanning the flame, and urging the people 
on to the most desperate measures. From the beginning I have op- 
posed, according as I had opportunity, all revolutionary measures. 
But I am sorry to say that many of our clergy are as rash and violent 
as the rashest of their hearers. Sometime I seem to myself to perceive 
that the tide is beginning to ebb, and that it is possible time may 
bring with it discretion . . . the matter preys upon my spirits. It is 
the unceasing burden of my prayers." 66 

Between 1850 and i860 Thornwell read the events. Dr. Palmer 
records that in 1861 he stated his purpose, while in Europe in the 



64 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., pp. 74, 75. 
65 L. G. Vander Velde, op. cit., p. 43. 
66 B. M. Palmer, op. cit., p. 477. 



THE ORDEAL 129 

summer of i860, "to move immediately upon his return, for the 
gradual emancipation of the Negro, as the only measure that would 
give peace to the country, by taking away at least the external 
cause of the irritation." "But, when I got home, I found it was too 
late, the die was cast." 67 

Southern solidarity was not a new thing. The cleavage between 
North and South had existed since the colonial period. Article IV, 
Section 2, Paragraph 3 of the Constitution provided for the protec- 
tion of the master's right to the labor of the slave, "No person held 
to Service or Labour in one State, . . . escaping into another, shall 
... be discharged from such Service, but shall be delivered up. . . ." 
Thornwell wrote an article appearing in the Southern Presbyterian 
Review, January, 1861, entitled, "The State of the Country." It 
presents the reasons which induced this lover of the Union to favor 
secession. 68 He cites the Constitution and quotes legal deliverances, 
among them the following quotation from Mr. Justice Story: 
". . . it cannot be doubted that it [Section quoted above] constituted 
a fundamental article, without the adoption of which the Union 
could not have been formed." 69 The Constitutional attitude of the 
government to the Southern institution of slavery should be "one of 
absolute indifference or neutrality." "South Carolina made it a 
sine qua non for entering the Union. ..." He denied the proposition 
"that tfye right of property in slaves is the creature of positive stat- 
ute, and, . . . not recognized by the Constitution . . . , and, there- 
fore, not to be protected where Congress is the local legislature." He 
contended "that the Government shall not undertake to say, one 
kind of State is better than the other; that it shall have no preference 
. . . , of any future States to be added to the Union." "What would 
they have done, if the South had taken advantage of a numerical 
majority, to legislate them and their institutions forever out of the 
common territory?" "We shall give them credit for an honest pur- 
pose, under Mr. Lincoln's administration, to execute, as far as the 
hostility of the States will let them, the provisions of the fugitive 
slave law." "But, . . . the Northern mind is one of hostility to 
slavery." "They pity the South, as caught in the folds of a serpent, 



67 B. M. Palmer, op. cit., p. 482. 
68 Ibid., p. 591. 
G9 Ibid, p. 601. 



130 COLORED LIGHT 

which is gradually squeezing out her life." "We — complain, that 
they should not be content with thinking their own thoughts them- 
selves, but should undertake to make the Government think them 
likewise." ". . . The South, henceforward, is no longer of the 
Government, but only under the Government." "The North be- 
comes the United States and the South a subject province." "... 
nothing more nor less is at stake . . . than the very life of the South." 
"This is a thorough and radical revolution. It makes a new Gov- 
ernment; it proposes new and extraordinary terms of union." "The 
oath which makes him [Lincoln] president makes a new Union." 
"The South is shut up to the duty of rejecting these new terms of 
union." "It is too much to ask a man to sign his own death-war- 
rant." "The country must be divided into two peoples, and the 
point which we wish now to press upon the whole South is, the 
importance of preparing, at once, for this consummation." "Such 
a dismemberment of the Union is not like the revolution of a State, 
where the internal system of government is subverted, where laws 
are suspended, and where anarchy reigns. The country might divide 
into two great nations tomorrow, without a jostle or a jar . . . ; if 
the passions of the people could be kept from getting the better of 
their judgments," "the destiny of the Anglo-Saxon race on this 
North American continent, may yet be fully realized. They [the 
visions of greatness] never can be, if we continue together, to bite 
and devour one another." "The cause of human liberty would not 
even be retarded, if the North can rise to a level with the exigencies 
of the occasion. If, on the other hand, their thoughts incline to war, 
we solemnly ask them what they expect to gain?" "Conquered we 
can never be. It would be madness to attempt it." ". . . let there be 
no strife between us, for we are brethren." "Peace is the policy of 
both North and South. Let peace prevail, and nothing really valu- 
able is lost. To save the union is impossible." The South Caro- 
lina Legislature had called a convention, which had passed unani- 
mously the Secession ordinance on December 20, i860. On Feb- 
ruary 4, 1 86 1, the provisional constitution of the "Confederate 
States of America" was signed and Jefferson Davis chosen President. 
The North had been so concerned with other problems that they 
were taken by surprise, and disposed to minimize the crisis. It is 
said one ex-member of Congress offered to drink all the blood that 



THE ORDEAL 131 

was going to be shed. 70 Commissioners were sent from South Caro- 
lina to treat with Washington for the forts in Charleston harbor. 
President Buchanan put them off. "But, Mr. President, you have 
promised," said one., "But, Mr. Barnwell, you don't give me time 
to say my prayers," replied the President. Notice was sent on April 
8th that Fort Sumter would be succored and provisioned. The fleet 
was expected. The Montgomery government ordered Fort Sumter 
taken. April 1 2th the first gun was fired, and the fort surrendered the 
next day. Lincoln called for seventy-five thousand volunteers. 71 The 
mad war fever, which strips men of calmness and judgment and re- 
veals their beastly or fallen nature, took control. 

Thornwell and Palmer, who were typical of other ministers, threw 
their thought and energy into the solution of the political problem. 
Where was the doctrine of the spirituality of the church? Palmer 
had preached a sermon in New Orleans on Thanksgiving Day, Nov. 
29, i860, in which he said: " You who have waited upon my pub- 
lic ministry, will do me the justice to testify that I have never inter- 
meddled with political questions . . . ." "At so solemn a juncture 
. . . , it is not lawful to be still. Whosoever may have influence to 
shape public opinion, at such a time must lend it or prove faithless 
to a trust as solemn as any to be accounted for at the bar of God." 
He went on to urge, "Let the people reclaim the powers they have 
delegated." "Let them, further, take all the necessary steps looking 
to separate and independent existence." "Paradoxical as it may 
seem, if there be any way to save, or rather to reconstruct, the union 
of our forefathers it is this." 72 Thornwell had preached a sermon in 
Columbia, Nov. 21, i860, in which he said, "The Union, which 
our fathers designed to be perpetual, is on the verge of dissolution. 
. . . Our path to victory may be through a baptism of blood." 73 

The mind of the South was made up that there should be politi- 
cal secession. What about continued union in the church? Strange 
as it may seem to say it, there was agreement between the Northern 
and Southern sections of the Old School Church that the church 
should be loyal to the political government. "Fear God, honor the 
king" was a Scripture principle accepted alike. The only question 



70 J. B. Adger, My Life and Times, op. cit., p. 329. 

11 Ibid., p. 329. 

T2 T. C. Johnson, Life and Letters of B. M. Palmer, op. cit., p. 206. 

73 L. G. Vander Velde, op. cit., p. 29. 



132 COLORED LIGHT 

was, where does political sovereignty lie? The North said in the 
Union; the South, in the State. 

The idea of a separate Southern Church was not new. The sug- 
gestion had come up several times. In 1836 the Synod of South 
Carolina complained of petitions denouncing slaveholders, stating 
that "such a course inevitably tends to the dissolution of those bands 
by which the Church is united." 74 Again in the same synod in 
1837, there was defeated a resolution to "take no action . . . either 
of approval or disapproval . . . until the General Assembly shall 
adopt the views on this subject (slavery) which the Synod has af- 
firmed." 75 In 1838 I. S. K. Legare, '34, introduced a resolution, 
which was defeated, "to be an independent Synod." 76 In November, 
i860, Synod met in Charleston. On November 20th, W. B. Yates, 
'33, introduced a resolution: "Whereas, That fanaticism ... at the 
North . . . election Abraham Lincoln." "... this sentiment openly 
or covertly entertained ... by all ecclesiastical bodies at the North ; 
. . . Act of 1 8 1 8. . . ." "Be it Resolved, Second, That fidelity to the 
South requires us to sever all connection with the Northern portion 
of the General Assembly." By Adger's leadership it was voted to 
lay on the table seventy-seven to twenty-one. Adger introduced an- 
other paper Dec. 1 , i860: "It is not for us to inaugurate, as a Synod, 
any movement towards separation from the Northern branch of our 
Church. This is not the time for such a movement, which would be 
in advance of the action of the State. Nor are we the proper body 
to take such a step. It can only begin in the Church Sessions, where 
Presbyterian sovereignty lies, and must issue forth through the 
Presbyteries. 

"With regard to the political duties of our Churches, as com- 
posed of citizens of this Commonwealth, the Synod of South Caro- 
lina, is not called upon, as a Synod, even in the present extremity 
to give advice or instructions. . . . 

"But there is now a great and solemn question before the people 
of this State, affecting its very life and being, and that question has, 
of course, its religious aspects and relations, upon which this body is 
perfectly competent to speak, and if its deliverance thereupon should 



74 W. C. Robinson, op. cit., p. 30. 
75 Ibid.,p. 32. 
7e Ibid., p. 33. 



THE ORDEAL 133 

have a political bearing, that is a result for which we cannot be held 
responsible. There is involved . . . duty to God, ... to ancestors 
. . . , to our children . . . , to our very slaves, whom men that know 
them not, nor care for them as we do, would take from our pro- 
tection. The Synod has no hesitation, therefore, in expressing the 
belief that the people of South Carolina are now solemnly called on 
to imitate their revolutionary forefathers, and stand up for their 
rights. We have a humble abiding confidence that the God whose 

truth we represent in this conflict will be with us "" Harmony 

Presbytery recommended on May 14, 1861, that its commissioners 
to the Assembly not attend. April 18, 1 86 1 , South Carolina Pres- 
bytery took similar action, and then resolved: "That the Moderator 
be requested to offer a prayer of thanksgiving in behalf of the Pres- 
bytery for the manifest favor of God upon the councils and arms 
[Fort Sumter had just surrendered] of the Confederate States of 
America, and to invoke the continuance of the same." 78 

When the Old School Assembly met in Philadelphia, May 16, 
1 86 1 , there were 3 1 presbyteries from the slaveholding States repre- 
sented and 33 unrepresented. The Synods of South Carolina, 
Georgia, Alabama, North Carolina and Arkansas had no repre- 
sentatives from any presbytery. 79 Dr. J. H. Thornwell sent a com- 
munication explaining that sickness and a trip to Europe, and politi- 
cal troubles had rendered it "inexpedient, if not impracticable to 
finish certain committee work: . . . Other issues, much more pressing, 
and much more solemn, are upon us. . . . Brethren, I invoke upon 
your deliberations the blessing of the Most High. I sincerely pray 
that ... He may save the Church from every false step, that He may 
make her a messenger of peace in these troublous times, and that He 
may restore harmony and good will between your country and 
mine." 80 It is indicative of the war strain that the Philadelphia 
press commented, "The last part of the paper created great laugh- 
ter." 81 

On the third day of the session Dr. Gardiner Spring moved for 
a committee "to inquire into the expediency of making some ex- 



77 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 75, 

•*Ibid.,p. 78. 

79 L. G. Vander Velde, op. cit., p. 43. 

™Ibid.,p. 45. 

8l Ibid., p. 45. 



134 COLORED LIGHT 

prcssion of their devotion to the Union of these States." This was 
tabled by vote of 123 to 102. Every effort was being made to hold 
to the established policy of avoidance of political deliverances. But, 
the son of a Revolutionary officer, Dr. Spring could not keep silent 
when soldiers were marching. Saturday, May 19, he was called 
upon for the concluding prayer, which included a petition "that 
our great chieftain [General Scott] might yet, . . . have the joy of 
seeing that flag reestablished, and waving in its beauty and glory 
at every point, from the Lakes to the Gulf." 82 On May 22 Dr. 
Spring offered his famous resolutions containing the words: "... 
recognizing our obligation to submit to every ordinance of man for 
the Lord's sake, . . . the first day of July next be hereby set aside as a 
day of prayer ... to confess and bewail our national sins . . . offer 
thanks for goodness towards us as a nation, to seek his guidance 
and blessing upon our rulers, ... to implore ... to turn away his 
anger from us, and speedily restore to us the blessings of an honor- 
able peace. Resolve 2, That in the judgment of this Assembly, it 
is the duty of the ministry and churches under its care to do all in 
their power to promote and perpetuate the integrity of these United 
States, and to strengthen, uphold, and encourage the Federal Gov- 
ernment." 83 These resolutions, upon motion of Dr. Hodge, were 
put off for discussion until Friday, May 24th. The discussion, be- 
fore packed galleries, continued until May 29, 1861, for five days. 
The press reported the proceedings extensively; feeling was high. 
Dr. Charles Hodge of Princeton sponsored a substitute, designed 
to be less offensive to the South, which was called "milk and water: 
one gallon of milk and five barrels of water" and finally voted 
down. 84 Telegrams from members of the President's Cabinet were 
introduced into the debate. The minority report, carrying Dr. 
Spring's resolution, was passed 156 to 64. Dr. Hodge next day 
presented a protest signed by fifty-eight commissioners. This action 
was taken May 29, 1861. The killing of Colonel Ellsworth of the 
New York Zouaves had taken place May 24th. The Sabbath be- 
fore the passage, in New Orleans, on May 26, Dr. B. M. Palmer 
delivered a discourse from his own pulpit to the Crescent Rifles in 



82 L. G. Vander Velde, op. cit., p. 49. 
83 Ibid., p. 50. 
84 Ibid., p. 54. 



THE ORDEAL 135 

the church in military uniform with their flags against the walls. 85 
The Old School leaders both North and South were perfectly agreed 
that the Christian citizen owed allegiance to the government. They 
only differed as to which government. 

Dr. Adger recognized this fact. In an article in the Southern 
Presbyterian Review, July, 1861, he said: "With regard to the 
question of the right and duty of the General Assembly, or the 
Synod, or the minister in his pulpit, to enjoin upon the people their 
duty to government, we have no doubts whatsoever. . . . Here was, 
on the theory of the North, a sinful rebellion against the Govern- 
ment, gotten up in certain States where the Assembly had many 
ministers and churches; while on the theory of the South, here was 
a wicked war of invasion waging by the Federal Government against 
free and soverign States, . . . ." ". . . the General Assembly were to 
have no moral sense whatsoever on the subject! 

"The very spectacle of it, the confused noise in their ears of the 
battle itself, and the warrior's garments rolled in blood before their 
very eyes, is not to call their attention for a moment from their more 
important affairs of routine and red tape! It seems to us to be the 
absurdest possible notion of our Church Government, that the 
Confession of Faith forbids the Church Court from speaking out 
for justice and right and peace in such a case as this. The very idea 
casts ridicule, yes, reproach, upon the Assembly, as a body of rever- 
end recluses in white cravats and black coats, too sanctimoniously 
busy with their own holy or unholy pursuits ... to turn an ear for 
one moment to the cry of a bleeding country. . . . We know that an 
Assembly constituted like ours could hardly have one opinion. . . . 
That only shows how impossible it would be for a body so con- 
stituted to hold together in such circumstances Southern 

men had no business to be in any such Assembly. It is their [the 
Assembly's] own responsibility if they speak on the wrong side. 
Speak they must. ..." Dr. Adger goes on to speak of the coming 
division in the church. "Were it not therefore that the 'loyalty 
resolutions' of the Assembly must necessarily affect our position 
towards our own government, we would say, unhesitatingly, that 
they do not render necessary, any division of the Church. . . . What 
is it, then, that must and ought to divide the Presbyterian Church, 



85 T. C. Johnson. The Life and Letters of B. M. Palmer, op. cit., p. 237. 



136 COLORED LIGHT 

Old School? It is the division of the country into two separate na- 
tions. No external church organization of a spiritual Church can 
properly perform its spiritual functions within the limits of two 
distinct nations." 86 

Since the "Spring Resolutions" were the actual dividing point 
between those who held allegiance to the Union and those who held 
allegiance to the several States, it was natural that all the presbyteries 
should cite them in their proceedings of separation. 87 

Might the Old School Assembly have avoided passing the Spring 
Resolutions? Is it possible another course would have been wiser and 
more Christian? When the issue was raised, in the way it was, with 
the outside pressure, we need not be surprised that loyal Union men 
felt it necessary to declare the loyalty of the church in no uncertain 
terms. But could another course have been followed? Yes, provided 
there had been in the Assembly more of the attitude of Christian 
forbearance manifested later by Dr. W. S. Plumer. To illustrate the 
point let us notice the resolution passed by the Cumberland Presby- 
terian Church at its Assembly which convened the same day as the 
Old School Assembly. This church had half its membership in 
border States, and more than three fourths in slaves States. 88 Dr. 
Milton Bird, the stated clerk, had preached from the text: "Let 
brotherly love continue." 89 He presented a paper on the state of 
the country, which was adopted: "Resolved, i. That we recognize 
the good providence and rich grace of Almighty God, in bringing 
our General Assembly together in the present fearful crisis, in the 
unity of the Spirit and the bond of peace. ... 2. That while we 
regret the circumstances which have prevented the attendance of 
commissioners from some of the Presbyteries, we do now and hereby 
record our sincere thanks to our heavenly Father, that brethren 
have met from North and South, East and West, and that brotherly 
kindness and love have continued from the opening to the close of 
our present meeting. 3. That, the grace of God assisting us, we will 
always endeavor to cherish the true principle and pure spirit of 
Christianity, knowing that with this enthroned in our hearts, we 



86 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 80 forward. 

87 T. C. Johnson, A History of the Southern Presbyterian Church, op. cit., 

P- 335- 

88 L. G. Vander Velde, op. cit., p. 406. 
8d Ibid., p. 419. 



THE ORDEAL 137 

can and will walk in love, and live in peace. 4. That the Assembly 
do now and hereby recommend in every family and congregation 
composing our Church the observance of Saturday, June 22nd, as 
a day of humiliation, fasting and prayer, to . . . God . . . for the 
deliverance of his Church out of her fiery trials, and for a peaceful 
solution of the troubles and fratricidal war that now curses our 
common country." 90 

The Cumberland Church survived the war without rupture. It 
did vote to hoist the national flag over the meeting in 1864, and 
condemned slavery and declared its loyalty to the Union; and it 
was forced to set up temporary agencies because its Board of Missions 
was inside the Confederacy. But its conciliatory attitude, avoiding 
political deliverances and emphasizing brotherly tolerance, saved 
the unity of the denomination. 91 

Church Organization 

In 1858, in the Old School Assembly, B. M. Palmer, '41, had 
declared: "I believe the Church is panting for union, in spite of all 
the forebodings and warnings which our fathers have given in this 
Assembly. I am glad that I am young ... I hope to live to see the 
day when prejudice will be thrown aside . . . when all branches of 
the Presbyterian Church finally will come together . . . and form 
one united society. " ! ' 2 Three years after he was to be the first 
moderator of a new division. In 1869, 1870, 1873, 1875, 1876, 
1882, 1887, 1889, he was to believe it unwise to take any steps 
toward reunion, and in 1875 to oppose the formation of the Pan- 
Presbyterian Alliance. 93 Not until 1900 did he come to the point 
of saying that in case the Northern Church split on the great ques- 
tions dividing the Calvinist and Arminian schools, "organic union 
might possibly occur with the sounder wing." 94 So are the bright 
expectations of youth blighted by the mania called war. 

The Presbyteries responded to the action of the Assembly in 
passing the "Spring Resolutions." The West and East approved. 
The border States and the South disapproved. The Presbytery of 



90 L. G. Vander Velde, op. cit., p. 419. 

S1 lbid., p. 406. 

92 W. C. Robinson, op. cit., p. 43. 

93 T. C. Johnson, Life and Letters of B. M. Palmer, op. cit., pp. 475, 439. 

™Ibid., p. 546. 



138 COLO RED LIG H T 

Buffalo City "resolved, that we consider the revolt of the so-called 
seceding States a crime against God and the Church, no less than 
an offense against the Government, and that we can have no fel- 
lowship with those Presbyterian ministers or members who have 
given it their countenance and support, until by repentence and 
public confession of their sin, they purge themselves, etc." 95 The 
Presbytery of Memphis, on June 13, 1861, renounced connection 
with the Old School Assembly and requested organization of a new 
Assembly to meet in Memphis the following May. 96 It also sug- 
gested a convention in Atlanta on the 15th of August "to consult 
upon various important matters." Other presbyteries took similar 
action. Thornwell had suggested Greensboro, North Carolina, for 
the convention. A circular published in Virginia, by leading min- 
isters, named Richmond, and July 24 as the time. The Atlanta Con- 
vention was held and made some temporary arrangements for mis- 
sion work and plans for the organization of an Assembly at Au- 
gusta, Georgia, Dec. 4, 1861. 

At the appointed time the Assembly convened. Thirteen of the 
fifty-two commissioners were Columbia alumni. 97 One of the 
oldest ministers present, Dr. Francis McFarland, moderator of the 
Old School Assembly in 1856, called the meeting to order and 
nominated Dr. B. M. Palmer, '41, to preach the opening sermon. 
This he did, emphasizing the "Headship of Christ," Eph. 1: 
22-23. 98 Dr. Palmer, '41, was chosen moderator. Dr. J. H. Thorn- 
well, of the Columbia Seminary faculty, introduced the first reso- 
lutions, stating the name of the church and accepting the Standards 
as the constitution of the body. Church boards were disapproved 
of and executive committees set up to carry on Foreign Missions, and 
Domestic Missions, Education, and Publication. J. Leighton Wil- 
son, '33, became first Secretary of Foreign Missions. Besides furnish- 
ing the moderator, Columbia Seminary furnished Joseph R. Wil- 
son, D.D., later on faculty, as permanent clerk, and D. McNeill 
Turner, '37, as temporary clerk. 99 The young stenographer at the 



!)5 L. G. Vander Velde, op. cit., p. 90. 

<JG T. C. Johnson, A History of the Southern Presbyterian Church, op. cit., 

333- 

97 Bulletin Columbia Theological Seminary, Feb., 1936. 
98 B. M. Palmer, op. cit., p 247. 
"Souvenir General Assembly, Charlottesville, Va. (1930), photostatic copy. 



THE ORDEAL 139 

desk was W. P. Jacobs, later to graduate in '64. He wrote home 
concerning the two outstanding leaders in the Assembly: "Dr. 
Palmer is beautiful, Dr. Thornwell is strong ; Dr. Palmer is polished, 
Dr. Thornwell wonderfully earnest; Dr. Palmer is refined in 
thought; Dr. Thornwell is broad, deep, clear." 100 The Address to 
all the Churches of Jesus Christ throughout the Earth was drawn 
up by Thornwell. This paper set forth the causes that had brought 
about the new Assembly. The "Spring Resolutions" were only 
one of the causes assigned. The desirability of having ecclesiastical 
organization conform to national lines was another. 101 

Social Service 

Service to the soldiers is always popular, as an expression of in- 
terest in their cause and in their spiritual and physical welfare. 
T. R. Markham, D.D., '54, left his pastorate upon the Federal oc- 
cupation of New Orleans. He served as chaplain of Colonel Withers' 
Artillery, a Mississippi regiment, and later until 1865 as chaplain 
of General Featherstone's Brigade. Of his work he wrote: "Op- 
portunities for worship varied as the command moved or camped. 
Sometimes intervals of weeks elapsed during which no resting time 
occurred; and again religious services were protracted through days 
and weeks. One of these continued thirty days when we were hold- 
ing the lines above Atlanta. Two or three services were held daily. 
I did the preaching; and at night when there was little danger from 
the firing interchanged between the pickets, ministers, who were sent 
as army missionaries from the different churches, conducted the wor- 
ship. It was a solemn season, a quiet work of grace, the Spirit of 
God, as 'a still small voice' moving the hearts of men, who, after 
nightfall, thronged these gatherings. 

"A semi-circle of logs formed our audience-room; whose ceiling 
was a canopy of blue set with night's golden stars. A frame resting 
in the forks of poles driven in the earth and covered with clay, on 
which pine knots were piled, was our Astral or Chandelier. Be- 
side this stood the preacher. Our assembling bell was a volume of 



100 J. M. Wells, op. cit., p. 30. 

101 T. C. Johnson, A History of the Southern Presbyterian Church, op. cit., 
p. 348. 



140 COLO RED LIG H T 

praise rolling from a half-hundred manly voices. . . . Psalm and 
hymn rising in resounding chorus, called the men to worship. From 
every quarter, in answer to the call, they came." 

Seeing Chaplain Markham trudging on foot on one occasion, 
an officer at once requisitioned a horse for him. Markham refused 
the horse, saying, "I am with my men in the trenches, and I am with 
the pickets on duty; what do I want with a horse?" 102 

Palmer and Thornwell threw themselves into such work. Palmer 
was with Albert Sidney Johnston before Shiloh. 103 He was re- 
quested by the Governor of Mississippi to stump the State to win 
allegiance to the Richmond government, and did so. He moved his 
family to Columbia in 1862, to the home of his wife's mother, 
Mrs. George Howe. In 1863 he was preaching to the Army of 
Tennessee. Thornwell gave his son to be among the soldier dead, 
and soon after died himself. In 1862 Harmony Presbytery chose 
C. H. Wilson, '55, J. G. Richards, '53, J. B. Mack, '61, H. M. 
Brearley, '60, and T. H. Law, '62, by vote to go as chaplains. 104 
H. H. Banks, '6i, became chaplain of an artillery brigade at Ashe- 
ville, North Carolina. 305 William Banks, '40, served two years as 
chaplain. John Douglas, '35, preached to the soldiers on James 
Island. William Allen Gray, '35, went as chaplain to Virginia with 
a Mississippi regiment and contracted sciatica, which lamed him for 
life. A. J. Witherspoon, '51, resigned his pastorate in Marengo 
County, Alabama, and raised the Witherspoon Guards. Joining the 
2 1 st Alabama Regiment, he became its chaplain. At Shiloh he was 
taken prisoner, but after five months, being exchanged, he resumed 
army service until disabled by disease. 106 Duncan E. Mclntyre, '60, 
enlisted and died of pneumonia in Virginia. J. B. McKinnon, '69, 
left Davidson to join the 1 8th North Carolina Regiment. Wounded 
at Fredericksburg, he returned to the army and remained until the 
end. He left the Seminary in 1868 to have the ball removed from 
his wound. Robert McLees, '55, died from overstrain in hospital 
work. Telemechus F. Montgomery, '35, took up his carpets and 



102 Louis Voss, op. cit., pp. 182-183. 

103 T. C. Johnson, Life and Letters of B. M. Palmer, op. cit., p. 262. 
104 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 107. 

105 A11 following references from Semi-Centennial Volume, op. cit., p. 225 
forward. 

106 Louis Voss, op. cit., p. j6. 



THE ORDEAL 141 

cut them into blankets for the soldiers of the Confederacy. Samuel 
Orr, '54, was ordained as an army chaplain. David H. Porter, '55, 
and I. S. K. Axson, '34, took turns preaching to the garrison at 
Fort Pulaski, and Porter was chaplain of the 5 th Regiment, Georgia 
Cavalry, until the end. Joseph D. Porter, '48, was chaplain at 
Mobile. Rufus K. Porter, '52, as chaplain, pillowed on his arm 
the head of his dying commander, General T. R. R. Cobb, at Fred- 
ericksburg. C. M. Richards, entered 1861, enlisted, was promoted 
lieutenant of cavalry. In the battle of Bayou Metre he was shot 
through both knees. He returned to the Seminary and graduated 
in '69, but soon died from the effect of old wounds. A. M. Small, 
'55, was ordered out of Selma to repair trenches and to repel an 
expected raid. It was the Sabbath day. Gathering his family he 
kneeled with them in prayer and then went out to the battle. Late 
in the evening he fell with a bullet in his heart. A. F. Smith, en- 
tered 185 8, ministered to the Army of Tennessee under the Com- 
mittee of Domestic Missions until he died of disease. Robert L. 
Smythe, entered in 1863, but soon went into the army. W. R. 
Stoddard, '60, was a volunteer in James' Battalion. So faithful 
was his private ministry that he was appointed chaplain. John F. 
Watson, '62, was ordained chaplain, and served the 16th North 
Carolina Regiment. S. P. Weir entered in i860, but the bombard- 
ment of Sumter caused him to enlist. He became a lieutenant. At 
Fredericksburg he met death in the act of rendering assistance to a 
wounded officer, Colonel Gilmer. C. H. Wilson, '55, mentioned 
above, served until his death from disease in 1864. Leighton B. 
Wilson left medical study to go to war. Honorably discharged due 
to sickness, he entered the Seminary in 1 86 1 . His health improving, 
he rejoined the army. He was brought home to die, but recovered 
and again joined the army. He was stricken with disease and came 
home, soon dying. J. A. Witherspoon entered the Seminary in 
i860. As a soldier he went to Fort Sumter with the 5th South 
Carolina Volunteers in April, 1861. Resuming his studies in Sep- 
tember, he soon raised a company and as captain joined the 17th 
South Carolina Volunteers. On his way to Virginia he married, 
and after the second Manassas called his bride to his deathbed. At 
his death he was twenty-two years old. 107 

107 A11 references to Semi-Centennial Volume, op. cit., pp. 225, 227, 260, 283, 
326, 327, 330, 338, 342, 347, 348, 349, 353, 360, 362, 363, 367, 370, 376, 
378.382. 



142 COLORED L1G H T 

Dr. B. M. Palmer, in his famous speech against the lottery, New- 
Orleans, June 25, 1 89 1, incidentally said, ". . . the world is ruled 
by ideas, and it is not competent to any isolated community to live 
against the moral convictions of the world. [We have] scarce re- 
covered as a people from the blow inflicted upon us coming in that 
precise way, the moral sentiment of the world, right or wrong, was 
arrayed against the institution of slavery and it went down." 108 



108 T. C. Johnson, Life and Letters of B. M. Palmer, op. cit., p. 561 



CHAPTER IV 

THE ERA OF REBUILDING IN THE SOUTH 

1865-1882 



COLUMBIA SEMINARY was practically closed during the War. 
There was no class of '66. In September, 1865, Dr. Howe, 
Dr. Woodrow, and Dr. Adger reopened the institution. 1 

In 1 867 William Swan Plumer, D.D., LL.D., joined the faculty, 
taking Thornwell's chair of Didactic and Polemic Theology. Dr. 
Plumer is interesting as the nearest approach to a pacifist the church 
produced during the War. Born July 29, 1802, in Beaver County, 
Pennsylvania, educated at Washington College (Washington and 
Lee) and Princeton Seminary, he was ordained evangelist by Orange 
Presbytery in 1827. Until 1829 he served as evangelist, organizing 
the church at Danville, Virginia, and Warrenton, North Carolina. 
After serving as pastor at Tabb Street, Petersburg; First Church, 
Richmond; Franklin Street, Baltimore; Central Church, Allegheny 
City, Pennsylvania; Pottsville, Pennsylvania, he came to Columbia 
in 1867 to take the professorship to which he had been elected in 
1862. He had founded and edited The Watchman of the South in 
1837. In 1838 he was a leader in founding an Institution for the 
Blind, Deaf, and Dumb at Staunton, Virginia. From 1854 to 1862 
he was a professor in Western Theological Seminary. He was prob- 
ably the most voluminous author ever connected with Columbia, as 
the literary appendix will reveal. 2 

Dr. Plumer had turned the tide for separation from the New 
School party in the Assembly of 1837 and was regarded as the 
Moses of the Old School Church. It was said of him, "His speech 
changed the fate of the question, — saving to our country the system 
of Calvinism and the Presbyterian system in church government." 3 
He was elected first moderator of the separate Old School Church 
in 1838. While professor at Western Seminary, he was accused of 



1 J. B. Adger, My Life and Times, op. erf., p. 345. 
^Presbyterian Encyclopaedia, op. cit., under Plumer. 
3 L. G. Vander Velde, op. cit., p. 295. 



144 COLORED LIG HT 

disloyalty to the Union. Serving as pastor at Allegheny City, he 
refused to pray God's blessing upon the Northern armies. His pres- 
bytery considered it his duty so to lead the congregation in prayer. 
"He affirms that he is a Union man. ... He desires the country to 
be as free as it was five or ten years ago. He cannot pray for the 
success of our arms, nor give thanks for our victories, because arms 
and victories produce alienations rather than fraternal feelings; men 
cannot be coerced to love, swords and bayonets can never piece to- 
gether these states in a happy and enduring Union." In a notice in a 
paper Plumer declared he loved the Union, felt it his duty to sus- 
tain the government, and did not believe in the right of secession. 4 
The pressure became so great that Dr. Plumer resigned his pastorate 
and then from the faculty. 

He was moderator of the Southern Assembly in 1 87 1 . In 1 877 he 
received an ovation when he addressed the reunited Old-New School 
Assembly at Chicago. 5 He served at Columbia Seminary almost to 
his death in 1880. 

Joseph R. Wilson, D.D., became professor of Pastoral and Evan- 
gelistic Theology and Sacred Rhetoric in 1870. Born in Steuben- 
ville, Ohio, Feb. 28, 1826, he was graduated with first honor from 
Jefferson College, and studied theology at Allegheny and Princeton 
Seminaries. He served Chartiers Church, Ohio; held a professorship 
in natural sciences at Hampden-Sydney College, 1 851-1854; was 
pastor at Staunton, Virginia, 1854- 185 7; and Augusta, Georgia, 
1 857- 1 870; was professor at Columbia Seminary, 1870- 1874; 
was pastor at Wilmington, North Carolina, 1876- 1885. In 1885 
the theological department of Southwestern Presbyterian Univer- 
sity at Clarksville, Tennessee, was organized and he became the first 
teacher of Theology, serving until 1895. The first permanent clerk, 
he was elected stated clerk of the Assembly in 1865, and moderated 
the Assembly in 1 879. He was editor of the North Carolina Presby- 
terian for a short time after 1876. After retirement he lived with 
his son, Woodrow Wilson, in Princeton, and died Jan. 22, 1903, 
being buried in Columbia, South Carolina. 

John L. Girardeau, D.D., LL.D., was professor of Didactic and 
Polemic Theology from 1876 to 1895. From French Huguenot 



^Presbyterian Banner, July 31, 1862, quoted by L. G. Vander Velde, op. cit., 
p. 296. 

5 L. G. Vander Velde, op. cit., p. 299. 



REBUILDING 145 

stock, he was born on James Island, Nov. 14, 1825, and was pre- 
sented in baptism in the Presbyterian Church. At ten years of age 
he was placed in school in Charleston. In 1840 he experienced con- 
version and united with the Third Presbyterian Church. He gradu- 
ated from Charleston College in 1 844 and from Columbia Seminary 
in 1848. While in the Seminary he conducted a mission to the 
neglected class in the city. Wappetaw Church near Mt. Pleasant, 
South Carolina, and Wilton Church were successively served. De- 
clining a call to Columbus, Georgia, he became minister to the 
Negroes at Anson Street, Charleston. The mission became a sepa- 
rate church in 1854 with thirty-six members. By i860 there were 
over 600 members and regular congregations of 1,500. Girardeau 
was recognized as a great preacher. He refused calls to New York, 
Philadelphia, Baltimore, Wilmington, St. Louis, Louisville, Nash- 
ville, Atlanta, Memphis, and New Orleans in order to serve the 
Gullah Negroes. 6 "I refrained from going on a foreign mission be- 
cause I felt it to be my duty to preach to the mass of slaves on the 
seaboard of South Carolina," wrote Girardeau. 7 A striking revival 
took place in the late fifties under his preaching. His work for 
Negroes was criticized. A mob (from outside Charleston) once 
came to his church to tar and feather him, or perhaps kill him. They 
sat armed in one gallery. In the other sat a group of armed friends. 
Girardeau opened the service with a prayer that they might be re- 
strained, at least until they had heard the sermon. That discourse 
on sin and the Crucifixion so moved the "Charleston Minute Men" 
that no disorder occurred. 8 Dr. Girardeau served as chaplain of the 
23rd South Carolina Regiment. In the retreat from Richmond in 
1865 he was captured and sent to Johnson's Island prison. There 
he taught a class in theology and often preached. In 1865 he began 
a ministry to white people in Charleston, the Federal authorities 
having turned over his old colored church building to a missionary 
from the Freedman's Bureau until 1867. 9 From Charleston he 
was called to the Seminary in 1875. He served as moderator of the 
Assembly in 1874. As a preacher, philosopher, theologian, church 



6 George A Blackburn, op. cit., p. 59 
J Ibid., p. 76. 
8 Ibid., p. 102. 
{) Ibid., pp. 136, 142. 



146 COLO RED LIGHT 

leader, writer, and poet, Dr. Girardeau became well known. He 
died in 1898. 

Charles R. Hemphill, D.D., LL.D., '74, was tutor in Hebrew, 
1 874- 1 878, in 1882 became associate professor, and from 1883- 
1885 was full professor of Biblical Literature. Born in Chester, 
South Carolina, April 18, 1852, educated at University of South 
Carolina and University of Virginia, he graduated from Columbia 
Seminary in 1874, studied at Johns Hopkins 1878- 1879, and, was 
professor at Southwestern Presbyterian University from 1879 to 
1882. Leaving Columbia Seminary in 1885, he held the pastorate 
of the Second Presbyterian Church, Louisville, Kentucky, for four- 
teen years. He was one of the founders of and taught at Louisville 
Seminary before becoming full professor in 1899. In 19 10 he was 
chosen president, in which post he served until his resignation in 
1920, when he became dean. He was moderator of the Assembly 
in 1895. He died sometime in 1932. 10 

Institutional Life 

Dr. S. L. Morris, who entered the Seminary September 15, 1873, 
when only eighteen years and nine months of age, and who claims 
distinction as the youngest man ever to graduate, records impressions 
during his days at Columbia. He states that the faculty consisted of 
Doctors Howe, Plumer, Adger, Woodrow, and Wilson. "The first 
three were superannuated; the last two were great teachers." In this 
year occurred the first of the controversies that did so much to harm 
the Seminary. We recount it here for the sake of historical accuracy, 
and because it helps us understand the later evolution controversy. 
Dr. Morris records: "Professor Joseph R. Wilson was the preacher 
also at the First Presbyterian Church. The officers of the church 
decided they needed a pastor as well as a preacher, and elected Dr. 
John H. Bryson. Dr. Wilson and his friends resented it, and the 
Seminary Faculty appointed preaching at the Seminary Chapel at 
11 A.M., alternating in conducting the services, and made attend- 
ance of the students compulsory. The students opposed this as an in- 
terference with their personal liberty of worshiping where they 
chose. We . . . protested our rights. Thirteen of our number re- 



10 I. S. McElroy, The Louisville Presbyterian Seminary (1929), p. 100, 



REBUILDING 147 

fused to submit and were dismissed from the Seminary. . . . An ap- 
peal was made to the General Assembly (then in direct control) as 
the Faculty, itself, was divided on the subject. The Assembly de- 
cided in favor of the students, whereupon two professors, Drs. Adger 
and Wilson, resigned, and the attendance the next year was reduced 
nearly one-half." 11 

"I graduated from the Seminary on May 10, 1876. Dr. Wm. S. 
Plumer, our venerable Professor of Theology, with long white 
beard reaching down to his waist, delivered our diplomas and gave 
each of us a small Bible, saying, 'By this Book you shall live, by this 
Book you shall preach, and by this Book you shall be judged at 
the last day.' " 12 

The endowment had shrunk to $95,500 at the end of the War, 
and continued to shrink to $70,000, of which only $3,000 yielded 
income. "Yet the Professors felt bound to keep the doors of the 
institution open. Provisions were sent to their relief, their salaries 
were paid in unconvertible coupons, in provisions sent by individuals 
and accounted for at their market value, and some small amounts in 
current coin," wrote Dr. Howe. 13 From 1867 to 1879 South Caro- 
lina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and the Synod of Memphis 
gave $34,311. Nashville, Kentucky, Arkansas, Texas, and others 
gave $2,810. The Persian Scholarship, given by J. L. Merrick, '33, 
netted $1,880; the Martha Waddel Gray Fund; the Wynkoop 
Scholarship; the Charles Jessup Scholarship; the Gresham Scholar- 
ship; the Lawson Williams bequest; and the bequest of Rev. J. W. 
Moore added assets possibly worth $ 1 3,000 to the permanent funds 
in these years. 14 But a crisis could not be avoided. There was a 
limit to the possibility of conducting the institution largely on the 
heroic self-sacrifice of the faculty. The resignations and contro- 
versy had done great harm. The Board in November, 1879, an- 
nounced the likelihood that the Seminary would close. The report 
to the General Assembly said, "Two of the most important chairs 
are vacant, viz., that of Didactic and Polemic Theology and that 
of Ecclesiastical History and Church Polity. These vacancies in the 



n S. L. Morris, An Autobiography, p. 54. 
™Ibid., p. 57. 

13 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. erf., p. 422, and Semi-Centennial Volume, 
op. cit., p. 150. 

14 Semi-Centennial Volume, op. cit., pp. 150, 151. 



148 COLORED LIGHT 

faculty, the decreasing number of students, the insufficient income, 
the unpaid indebtedness, the solemnly expressed unwillingness of 
the large and liberal Synod of South Carolina to give during the 
coming year as during the past, and other things made the temporary 
closing of the Seminary a painful necessity." 15 Dr. Howe was to 
have charge of the plant during the closing at a salary of $1,500. 
Dr. Woodrow's salary was to be discontinued. Dr. W. S. Plumer 
was made professor emeritus at a salary of $1,000. Dr. Girardeau 
had offered his resignation. 16 The Seminary was practically closed 
from 1880 to the reopening in September, 1882. 

The Synod of South Carolina in 1881 was informed that the 
Synod of Georgia had undertaken to raise $15,000 to complete the 
endowment of the chair of Ecclesiastical Polity, and that several 
presbyteries in South Carolina had come to the support of the Semi- 
nary. The synod agreed to raise $20,000 for the Howe Memorial 
Fund, and agreed to have the General Assembly restore the Seminary 
to the Synods of South Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama. It was 
reported that the Seminary was free from debt, the buildings were 
being repaired, and plans were made for refurnishing the dormi- 
tories. 17 

The alumni helped to save the Seminary. A meeting of alumni 
in Charleston on May 25, 1880, prepared a Semi-Centennial Cele- 
bration. The proceedings of this gathering are recorded in the Semi- 
Centennial Volume. The first minutes are dated Columbia, No- 
vember 4, 1 88 1. Dr. B. M. Palmer, '41, called the meeting to order 
and requested Dr. I. S. K. Axson, '34, to take the chair. Rev. James 
Beatty, who studied under Dr. Goulding in Lexington, Georgia, in 
1829, led in prayer. An alumni association was organized. Ninety- 
four alumni were present for the first meeting, among them such 
names as J. Leighton Wilson, '33 ; C. A. Stillman, '44; J. B. Mack, 
'61 ; W. E. Boggs, '62; T. H. Law, '62; W. P. Jacobs, '64; S. L. 
Morris, '76; D. I. Craig, '78. Dr. Howe responded to a congratu- 
latory address by the Rev. James Boyce. Princeton, Western, North- 
west, Danville, Auburn, and San Francisco Seminaries sent letters 
of greetings. Portraits of Dr. Goulding, of Dr. Leland, and of 



15 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 423. 
16 Ibid., p. 423. 
^Ibid., p. 166. 



REBUILDING 149 

Dr. Thornwell had been secured and were presented the Seminary. 
One of Dr. Howe was still in the hands of an artist. Dr. J. B. Mack 
reported $26,200 raised for the Howe Memorial Professorship. 
Addresses were delivered upon various subjects and memorials read, 
all of which are published in the Semi -Centennial Volume. 18 Dr. 
J. B. Mack became financial agent after the Semi-Centennial. In 
1882 the Synod of South Carolina received a report that $14,000 
had been collected and about $15,000 more pledged to the Semi- 
nary. 19 

The Chapel 
An incident that took place in the little chapel building deserves 
to be recorded. This chapel had been built originally as the carriage 
house and stable for the residence, designed by Robert Mills. 20 When 
the Simons Hall and Law Hall were built in 1855, other improve- 
ments were planned, but due to scarcity of workmen because all 
were employed erecting the State capitol, the carriage house was con- 
verted into a chapel. Dr. Howe wrote, "We were comforted by re- 
membering that our Saviour was said to have been born in a stable 
and cradled in a manger; and so sweet have been our seasons of 
religious instruction and enjoyment in that place often since, that 
we have forgotten that it ever was a stable at all." 21 In the winter of 
1 873- 1 874 Frank J. Brooke lived in the home of Dr. W. S. Plumer 
while he was being coached to enter Davidson College as a min- 
isterial student. He and one of the Seminary students conducted a 
class or devotional service for a group of young lads, in somewhat 
the same way that special vespers are today conducted for the young 
people in the churches. The seventeen-year-old son of a member 
of the faculty was one of the young men attending. On one oc- 
casion Brooke asked all who would accept Christ to come to a seat 
on the front bench. Thomas Woodrow Wilson was among those 
who came forward, thus making his first public profession of faith. 22 
Years after, when president of the United States, Woodrow Wilson 



18 See Semi-Centennial Volume, op. cit. 

19 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 167. 

20 The State (newspaper), Columbia, S. C, March 23, 1936, p. 5-c. 

21 Semi-Centennial Volume, op. cit., p. 146. 

22 Manuscript of Memorial to Dr. Frank J. Brooke prepared for Synod of Vir- 
ginia by Dr. A. M. Fraser. Copy in possession of the author. Details from notes 
made by author from address by Dr. A. M. Fraser at Columbia Seminary in 1925. 




u 



U 



REBUILDING 151 

said of this chapel, "I have heard much eloquent speaking, but on 
the whole the best speaking I ever heard in my life was in this little 
chapel." 23 The world hailed Woodrow Wilson as an international 
deliverer as he went to the Peace Conference and then his own na- 
tion repudiated his high dream of peace, but we believe both friend 
and foe will admit that the profession of faith and purpose made by 
the young lad was earnestly adhered to throughout his life. The 
Associated Press dispatch, from Washington on the day of his death 
stated, "He always said grace before meals even in the days when 
life was at a low ebb and he had to steady himself on the back of 
his dining chair and whisper the words. He never failed before clos- 
ing his eyes, for what he knew always might be the last time, to 
read aloud a few verses from the Bible, which lay upon the reading 
table at his bedside." 24 

Church Extension and Evangelism 

In 1865 the churches were prostrate. Charleston Presbytery, as 
early as 1 862, recounted in the Narrative the situation on the coastal 
islands. "The sanctuaries in which they worshipped have either 
been dismantled and occupied by troops, gape in rents which the 
missiles of the enemy have made, or stand ... in solitude." 25 In 
April, 1865, the Narrative stated, "The storm had swept over 
nearly the whole extent of our limits, leaving only a narrow strip 
to escape its ravages. . . . The churches at Orangeburg and Columbia 
had suffered to the fullest extent. . . . The members of our Church 
have borne these terrible afflictions with patience, fortitude and un- 
complaining submission. God has not forsaken them to despair nor 
given them up to rebellion in the midst of their distresses." 26 This 
destitution is typical of the whole South. There was moral and 
spiritual destitution also. The historian records "a deplorable state 



2; TJ)r. Thornton Whaling in the Columbia Record (newspaper), June 18. 
1924. It would seem to the author the occasion of this remark must have been 
June, 191 1. when Wilson was governor of New Jersey and being proposed as a 
candidate for the presidency. He addressed the S. C. Press Association and laid the 
cornerstone of the Y. M. C. A. in Columbia. The writer recalls vividly at that 
time seeing Wilson inspecting the house erected by his father, Dr. J. R. Wilson, 
and meeting the future president. We follow Dr. Whaling's timing of the remark. 

24 Columbia State (newspaper), Feb. 4, 1924, p. 1. 

25 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 104. 

26 Ibid., p. 106. 



152 COLORED LIGHT 

of morals followed the upheaval of the period, worldliness, greed, 
indifference to the religious interests of the church, unbelief result- 
ing from the defeat of the Southern Confederacy, and the spiritual 
evils were as great as the economic evils." 27 

The Reconstruction period was a time of financial hardship. The 
ministers were poorly supported. The unsettled condition of the 
country, under military rule or corrupt carpetbag government, the 
hordes of freedmen who often were bewildered, the Ku-Klux dis- 
orders — all made church activity difficult. 28 Undaunted, the Colum- 
bia alumni took their part in the building up of a new church for the 
new South. 

The early phenomenal growth of the Presbyterian Church, 
U. S., was due in part to the union with other Presbyterian bodies. 
The~~ Independent Church in South Carolina came into organic 
union in 1863. Other unions were as follows: the United Synod 
of the South in 1864, the Presbytery of Patapsco in 1867, the 
Alabama Presbytery of the Associate Reformed Church about the 
same time, the Synod of Kentucky in 1869, the Associate Reformed 
Presbytery of Kentucky in 1870, and the Synod of Missouri in 
1874. About 282 ministers, 490 churches, and 35,600 communi- 
cants were thus added. 29 However, there was active labor toward 
church extension and evangelism. The Assembly of 1866 urged 
every presbytery "to seek out and set apart a minister to the work 
of the evangelist for its own bounds, to take the superintendence of 
its vacant congregations." 30 

Perhaps the best way to illustrate the difficulties and heroisms of 
that period is to recount a life that was typical in many ways, both 
of the period and of all home-mission activity. The home mission- 
ary is the unsung hero of the church. The young man who has 
been mentioned in connection with Woodrow Wilson's first profes- 
sion of faith became a home missionary. Frank J. Brooke was thir- 
teen years old four days after South Carolina seceded. He was a 
native of Richmond, Virginia. His grandfather, great-uncle, and a 
great-uncle by marriage for a time sat together in the Supreme Court 



27 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 115. 
28 Ibid., p. 128. 

29 T. C. Johnson, A History of the Southern Presbyterian Church, op. cit., p. 
358. 

30 Ibid.,p. 360. 



REBUILDING 153 

of Appeals of Virginia. When his father consented to his joining 
the army, the boy did not wait to eat dinner, then ready served on 
the table, but walked a mile and got into a fight. There seem to 
have been few formalities of enlistment in the Confederate army. 
The company he joined was Co. G, 3rd Virginia Infantry, the "boy 
company." Its two ranking officers were eighteen years of age, all 
others in the company were sixteen or under. He was transferred 
to cavalry and became a courier on the staff of General G. W. Custis 
Lee. Once he rode ten miles in thirty-three minutes and delivered 
dispatches to General Robert E. Lee on the platform of a railroad 
coach. He was captured in the retreat from Richmond and sent to 
an army prison. 

When a boy he had hoped to become a minister, but with the 
ruin of the family fortunes by the War he was forced to turn his 
energy to assisting in the family support. After nine years an oppor- 
tunity for continuing his studies came and he turned from lucrative 
business offers to apply for admission to Davidson College. Eleven 
years away from his studies left him unprepared to enter, though 
he had been ready for college when he entered the army. Undaunted, 
he went to Columbia, arranged to live in the home of Dr. W. S. 
Plumer, and then secured a tutor. He entered Davidson College next 
year in 1874 with his young friend Woodrow Wilson, but he was 
conditioned on every subject. At the end of the year he had removed 
the conditions and stood second in the class. In order to economize 
he formed a club of students who employed a cook and lived on five 
dollars each a month. He became superintendent of the village Sun- 
day school. He entered Columbia Seminary in 1877, teaching three 
hours a day on the side to support himself. Graduated in 1880, he 
became pastor at Philippi, Virginia, and also home-mission worker 
for Lexington Presbytery. Before this he had been refused by the 
Committee of Foreign Missions because of doubts concerning his 
health. For the whole of his life, except for a brief period as pastor 
at Alexandria, Virginia, he was devoting all or part of his time to 
home-mission work, refusing calls to churches where he might have 
escaped the more severe hardships. 

He dedicated his life to laying foundations. He was the first 
person to work for the founding of Davis and Elkins College, Elkins, 
West Virginia, now a strong institution with more than $700,000 



154 COLORED LIGHT 

assets. He served on the first committee in Lexington and Win- 
chester Presbyteries when the idea of a college was first conceived. 
He interested Senators S. B. Elkins and H. G. Davis in the project. 
He awakened interest in the presbytery between 1891 and 1899. 
The effort culminated in the opening of Davis and Elkins College 
in 1904. 31 He persuaded the Synod of Virginia in 1889 to begin 
Synod's Home Mission work, which in 1927 used nearly $40,000. 
Usually he conducted about sixteen preaching services regularly each 
month, besides teaching Bible classes. He organized a number of 
churches, some of which have since sent off colonies. In one case 
he won a whole community of foreign Roman Catholics to his in- 
terpretation of Christianity, and organized a church that has sent 
off two colonies and has produced a university president. One of 
his first preaching points was Elkins, West Virginia, then Leading 
Creek. Now there is a handsome stone building there valued at 
$100,000 and a membership in 1935 of 742. He organized Second 
Presbyterian Church, Newport News, Virginia, and helped in the 
organization of the Church of the Pilgrims, Washington. In 1925 
it was stated that five churches from those which he organized could 
be selected which had a combined membership of over 1400 mem- 
bers and which contributed to benevolences the year before nearly 
$25,000, and more than $50,000 to all purposes. 

In 1897 the degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon 
him by Washington and Lee University. He served as moderator 
of synod in 1902. He was appointed chairman of the State board 
of children's guardians in West Virginia. A child once said, "I wish 
Mr. Brooke had been born before Adam, for he wouldn't have 
fallen and then there wouldn't have been any sin or trouble." 

Sometimes his life called for heroic endurance. Eating repulsive 
food; sharing their bunks with miners and lumbermen; sleeping in 
open houses when the thermometer was twenty-five degrees below 
zero; and walking miles in deep snow to fill appointments; crossing 
mountain streams in freshets by kneeling on his saddle; riding 156 
miles horseback to presbytery in order to conduct a case of discipline 
where the honor of the church was concerned, all the while suffering 
from hemorrhages; bearing the burden of care for many churches; 



31 C. E. Albert, president of Davis and Elkins College, in letter to writer, Oct. 
15. 1936. 



REB U ILDING 



155 



and always he was lovingly but frankly condemning evil and preach- 
ing righteousness and redeeming love. He missed only one preaching 
appointment and then died, May 28, 1924. 32 

John Leighton Wilson, '33, took such a prominent part in the 
rebuilding of the church that his biographer calls him "The Chal- 




DR. J. LEIGHTON WILSON 



32 Manuscript copy of memorial written by Dr. A. M. Fraser of Staunton, Va. 



156 COLORED LIGHT 

mers of the Disruption." 33 "In the Southern Synods no one has ever 
equalled him in the power for good he exercised." 34 He was made 
secretary of Domestic Missions in 1863 in addition to the secretary- 
ship of Foreign Missions, and the work for the army was placed 
upon him. This work centered at Columbia Seminary and the per- 
sonnel of the committee included the Seminary faculty. In 1866 
he presented the sustentation plan to the Assembly, saying, "In the 
present prostrated condition — our great work for the present is not 
so much to establish new churches, as to keep life and energy in 
those already organized." Many congregations were scattered. 
Presbyteries were but skeleton organizations. Wilson cheered and 
inspired and raised money for support. In about five years great 
progress toward self-support had been made. It seemed for a time 
the work west of the Mississippi would be lost, but Wilson per- 
suaded five strong ministers to go there. He established the Relief 
Fund for ministers, widows, and orphans and the Invalid Fund. 
In 1 87 1 advance work began again through an evangelistic fund. 
Wilson served until 1882, having had a co-ordinate secretary for 
the last ten years. 35 

Three future secretaries of the Assembly's Home Mission Com- 
mittee graduated at Columbia. J. N. Craig, D.D., '59, served as. 
secretary from 1883 to 1900. T. P. Cleveland, '63, served tem- 
porarily until the election of S. L. Morris, D.D., LL.D., '76, in 
1 90 1. Dr. Morris resigned in 1931. 36 In 1882 S. L. Morris had 
become pastor at Edgefield. One woman living there had hoped 
for a Presbyterian church for years. When she found three other 
Presbyterians, she petitioned Presbytery, and a church of four mem- 
bers was organized with many misgivings in 1877. Out of this 
feeble beginning, within eight years four church buildings had been 
erected, at Trenton, Johnston, Highview, and Edgefield, and by 
1889 when the Reverend Mr. Morris went to Macon, there were 
120 members. 37 

Graduates of this period took an active part in the affairs of the 
church and of life. S. F. Tenney, '68, was a constructive church- 



33 H. C. DuBose, op. cit., pp. 258, 259. 

:i4 Ibid., pp. 258, 259. 

S5 Ibid., p. 258 forward and Alexander's Digest, Revised 1922, p. 241 

36 Alexander's Digest, op. cit., p. 241. 

37 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 656. 



REBUILDING 157 

man in Texas, whose work is treated in Chapter VI. C. M. Rich- 
ards, '69, served Bentonville, Arkansas, 1 870-1 871. W. Cuttino 
Smith, '69, was active in the ministry until past ninety years of age. 
J. L. Caldwell, '70, served Pine Bluff, Arkansas, for a time from 
1894. John S. Moore, D. D., '70, began work at Jefferson, Texas, 
and later served at McKinney, Texas. 38 S. M. Neel, D.D., '70, left 
the Seminary after two years to study in Scotland and Germany. 
His pastorates were at Oxford, Mississippi; Shelby ville, Kentucky; 
and a long service in Kansas, Missouri. Eugene Daniel, D.D., '71, 
served as pastor at Camden, Arkansas; the First Presbyterian Church, 
Memphis; the First Presbyterian Church, Raleigh; and Lewisburg, 
West Virginia. G. T. Goetchius, D.D., '71, served Albany, Georgia; 
Milledgeville, Georgia; the Second Presbyterian Church, Augusta, 
Georgia; and Rome, Georgia. Frank M. Howell, '72, was pastor 
in Princeton, Arkansas, 1873- 1874; Tulip, 1875; Arkadelphia, 
1 876- 1 877. He served in Somerville, Tennessee, when yellow 
fever was brought into the town by refugees from Memphis. He 
devoted himself to caring for the sick. Knowing his danger, he 
wrote farewell letters to his mother and wife. He wrote, "I bless 
my God that, standing as it were face to face with the grim mon- 
ster, I can triumphantly exclaim, O death, where is thy sting?' . . . 
I have no fear of death. Jesus has robbed it of all its terrors." In 
a few days he was stricken and died. 39 Josephus Johnson, '72, la- 
bored in Texas in a noteworthy manner. (Noted under "Contribu- 
tion to Education," in this chapter.) T. C. Johnson, '72, served 
North Little Rock, Arkansas, from 1902 forward for a time. A. R. 
Kennedy, '72, was pastor at Augusta, Arkansas, 1878- 1879; Little 
Rock, 1 883- 1 888; and Batesville, 1889- 1890. J. Washburn, '72, 
served Hamburg, Arkansas, 1 882. C. W. Grafton, D.D., '73, served 
Union Point, Mississippi, from 1873 until his death in 1934, a 
pastorate of sixty-one years. He was called "the grand old man 
of Mississippi" and was chosen moderator of the Assembly in 1 9 1 6. 
A. L. Miller, '74, served Des Arc, Arkansas, 1 886- 1887, and Lovak, 
1888. J. A. Smith, '74, served Tulip, Arkansas, 1878- 1884. Al- 
bert B. Curry, D.D., LL.D., '75, was pastor at Darien, Georgia, 
1874-1877, 1877-1883; Gainesville, Florida, 1883-1894; the 



S8 Presbyterian Encyclopaedia, op. cit., p. i 187. 
i0 Semi-Centennial Volume, op. cit., p. 294. 



158 COLORED LIGHT 

First Presbyterian Church, Birmingham, Alabama, 1894- 1903; 
and the Second Presbyterian Church, Memphis, Tennessee, 1903 to 
the present, where he is pastor emeritus. He was moderator of the 
General Assembly in 1921. Literary work is mentioned in the ap- 
pendix. I. M. Ginn, '75, served Scotland Church, Arkansas, 1877- 
1878, 1880-1893; El Dorado, 1879; Hope, 1895-1900; Nash- 
ville, 1 90 1 forward. J. M. Rhea, '75, served Clarendon, 1895- 
1896. J. J. Johnson, '76, served Powhatan, Arkansas, 1877- 1886. 
R. O. B. Morrow, '76, was pastor at Prescott, Arkansas, 1889- 
1890; Columbus, Arkansas, 1891; and Hope, 1892-1893. An- 
drew W. Wilson, '76, worked in Roebuck, Mississippi. In 1882, he 
removed his' family to safety and then returned in a skiff to help 
those trapped by the flood. The exertion and exposure caused his 
death. 40 R. P. Smith, D. D., '76, rendered a fruitful service as pres- 
bytery's evangelist in the territory of Asheville Presbytery. (See 
Chapter V.) George A. Trenholm, '77, served St. Joseph, Missouri, 
for many years. J. E. Fogartie, D.D., '77, served as pastor at Green- 
wood, South Carolina, and upon the faculty of Southwestern. W. S. 
Plumer Bryan, D.D., '78, served in Randolph County, Virginia; 
Asheville, North Carolina; Second Church, Cincinnati, Ohio; and 
Church of the Covenant, Chicago, from 1895 forward. He was pres- 
ident of the Presbyterian Home, Chicago. He came from his pastorate 
in Chicago to deliver the Smyth Lectures in 1917. H. W. Flinn, '79, 
served as first minister of the church at Carrollton, Louisiana, from 
1884 to 1889, when he removed to Bessemer, Alabama. W. G. 
Woodbridge, '79, served Hot Springs, Arkansas, 1881. J. L. D. 
Houston, '8o, was at Cincinnati, Arkansas, 1882; Springdale, Ar- 
kansas, 1 883- 1 892 ; and Dodd City, 1893 forward. J. T. Plunkett, 
'8o, served Steele Creek, North Carolina; Madison Avenue, Coving- 
ton, Kentucky; Jefferson Avenue, Detroit, Michigan; First Church, 
Augusta, Georgia; South Highland Church, Birmingham, Alabama, 
and moderated the Assembly in 1905. 

Literature and Thought Life 

Columbia men continued to be active contributors to periodicals. 
Dr. James Woodrow was proprietor and editor of the Southern 



10 Semi -Centennial Volume, op. cit., p. 374. 



REBUILDING 159 

Presbyterian Review, published quarterly, and of the Southern 
Presbyterian, published weekly, from 1865 to 1885. The South- 
western Presbyterian began publication in New Orleans Feb. 25, 
1869, with Dr. Henry M. Smith, '54, as editor and Dr. B. M. 
Palmer, '41, as a member of the board and a frequent contributor. 41 
It succeeded the True Witness and Southwestern Presbyterian, 
which began March 1, 1854, and ceased publication upon the Fed- 
eral occupation of New Orleans in April, 1862. 42 Dr. R. Q. Mal- 
lard, '55, was editor of the Southwestern Presbyterian from 1891 to 
1904. 43 Dr. S. I. Woodbridge, '82, served as the English editor of 
Chinese Christian Intelligencer, published by the Pan-Presbyterian 
Conference beginning in 1901, with a great Chinese circulation. 44 
Dr. David C. Rankin, '75, was the editor of The Missionary, 1893- 
1902, while Assistant Secretary and Treasurer of Foreign Missions. 
He began The Children's Missionary. Dr. W. S. Plumer continued 
to be a prolific writer of books, pamphlets, and tracts while upon 
the Columbia faculty. Our Monthly, "A magazine of Christian 
thought and work for the Lord," began to be published by W. P. 
Jacobs, '64, in Clinton, South Carolina, in 1867. It is still pub- 
lished there by the Thornwell Orphanage Press. 45 

R. A. Webb, D.D., LL.D., '80, later became author of several 
books, as reference to the literary appendix will show. Robert A. 
Lapsley, D.D., class of '80, graduated at Union Seminary. He held 
a series of pastorates; in Memphis, Tennessee: Vine Hill and Annis- 
ton, Alabama; Charleston, South Carolina; Bethel, near Staunton, 
Virginia; and Ashland, Virginia. He became the editor of the Sun- 
day-school periodicals of the church, and served the Committee of 
Publication — first as editor and then as lesson writer until his death 
in 1934. He published two volumes. Dr. J. William Flinn, '75, 
edited the works of his father-in-law, Dr. Thomas Smyth, and 
published them in ten volumes in Columbia, South Carolina, 1908. 
Hampden C. Dubose, D.D., '71, was a prolific writer, especially in 
China. The literary appendix lists his publications, as well as those 
of M. C. Hutton, '72; W. S. Bean, M.A., D.D., '72; T. L. Haman, 



41 T. C. Johnson, Life and Letters of B. M. Palmer, p. 335. 
42 Louis Voss, The Beginnings of Presbyterianism in the Southwest, p. 49. 
43 S. M. Tenney, Souvenir of General Assembly, 1924, p. 77. 
44 Samuel I. Woodbridge, Fifty Years in China (1919), p. 205. 
4:j Thornwell Jacobs, The Life of W. P. Jacobs (19 18), p. 99. 



160 COLORED LIGHT 

'73; Charles R. Hemphill, D.D., LL.D., '74; Thomas M. McCon- 
nell, DD., '75 ; William E. Mcllwain, D.D., '75 ; David C. Rankin, 
D.D., '75; Albert B. Curry, D.D., LL.D., '75; Thomas R. Eng- 
lish, D.D., '75; S. L. Morris, D.D., LL.D., '76; D. I. Craig, D.D., 
'78; A. M. Fraser, D.D., LL.D., '80; W. G. Neville, D.D., LL.D., 
'81. 

Carlyle McKinley, '74, married in Columbia and went into 
newspaper writing. He became the Washington correspondent for 
the Charleston News and Courier. He was the author of a poem, 
Crucifer, from which we quote: 

"Then at last there came one through the throng — 
I saw them draw their robes aside and toss 
Their heads as she passed by — who crept along 
Bearing a grievous cross. 

"A hundred hands were stretched at once, it seemed, 
To draw her in; her robe turned strangely white; 
And round her happy head there suddenly gleamed 
A crown of life and light. 



"And so He faded, as the thin, white mist 
Fades in its rising from the wet sea sands; 
But this I saw — a riven side; and this — 
Pierced white feet and hands!" 46 

Contribution to Education 

W. S. Bean, M.A., D.D., '72, was professor at Presbyterian Col- 
lege in addition to his editorial service. Josephus Johnson, D.D., 
'72, actively promoted Christian education in Texas. As trustee of 
Stuart Seminary, the Synodical College, and as member of a com- 
mittee of three that in 1894 reported "we must . . . found a Trans- 
Mississippi Seminary," and as chairman of the committee that in 
1906 transferred Austin Seminary to its present site, he took a lead- 
ing part in the development of Austin Seminary. 47 A. R. Kennedy, 



46 Mildred Lewis Rutherford, The South in History and Literature, p. 628. 
47 W. S. Red, A History of the Presbyterian Church in Texas, p. 315. 



REBUILDING 161 

'72, was professor at Arkansas College, Batesville, Arkansas. 48 J. 
A. Mecklin, '72, founded French Camp Academy in 1866, and the 
following year it was chartered. He was principal until 1904. C. 
W. Grafton, D.D., '73, established in 1884 and conducted to 1894 
the Union Church High School in Mississippi. 49 Dr. Grafton was 
coeditor of the Mississippi Visitor, which began publication Octo- 
ber, 191 1. 

David C. Rankin, D.D., '75, served as professor in the Stillman 
Institute, and as president Plumer Memorial College, Virginia. 50 
J. William Flinn, D.D., '75, was professor of Moral Philosophy 
and chaplain of South Carolina College, 1888- 1905. S.R.Preston, 
D.D., '74, was president of Chicora College, Greenville, South Caro- 
lina. He also had presided at the Female College, Wytheville, Vir- 
ginia, where J. H. Alexander, '52, also served as principal. During 
our present period Donald Fraser, '51, was professor of languages at 
Oglethorpe University, 1870- 1872. W. R. Atkinson, '69, was 
president of Presbyterian College for Women. 51 A. M. Fraser, D.D. , 
LL.D., '80, became president of Mary Baldwin College, Staunton, 
Virginia. 52 W. G. Neville, D.D., LL.D., '81, served as president of 
Presbyterian College, Clinton, South Carolina. R. P. Smith, D.D., 
who attended in 1876, became president of Reidville Female Semi- 
nary around 1877, and in 1885 president of Presbyterian College, 
Clinton, and served for three years. 53 Robert Adams, D.D., '77, 
resigned as pastor at Laurens, South Carolina, to become presi- 
dent of Presbyterian College in 1907, and served until 1910. 54 

T. R. English, D.D., '75, was professor at Union Theological 
Seminary, as was J. F. Latimer, Ph.D., D.D., '70. C. R. Hemphill, 
D.D., LL.D., '74, was professor at Columbia and then professor 
and president of Louisville Seminary. James E. Fogartie, D.D., '77, 
was professor at Southwestern. R. A. Webb, D.D., '80, taught 
theology at the same institution, beginning in 1888. 



4b F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 350. 

49 Notes in Historical Foundation, Montreat; also letter from Mrs. C. W. 
Grafton, Aug. 10, 1936. 

50 S. M. Tenney, Souvenir General Assembly, 1924, p. 151. 

51 W. C. Robinson, op. cit., p. 158. 

52 S. M. Tenney, Souvenir General Assembly, 1924, p. 123. 

53 Article in Christian Observer, Feb. 19, 1936. 

•~' 4 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 409. 



162 COLORED LIGHT 

Luther McKinnon, '64, was president of Davidson College. It 
was in this period that C. A. Stillman, D.D., '44, developed the 
Institute for Colored Ministers at Tuscaloosa, Alabama, which he 
began in i860, and which was adopted by the Assembly in 1876. 
A graduate of this school, W. H. Sheppard, went as the first Negro 
ever sent out as a regular missionary to Africa by an American de- 
nomination, and he helped Lapsley found the Congo Mission. 55 

Dr. B. M. Palmer, '41, was taking a leading part in the founding 
of Southwestern Presbyterian University from 1872 on. 56 

The founding of Thornwell Home and School for Orphans in 
1875 and of Presbyterian College in 1880 deserves more than pass- 
ing notice. There were many widows and orphans for some years 
after the War. W. P. Jacobs, '64, wished that he could help give 
a home and educational opportunity to boys and girls. This had 
been upon his heart and he had been talking about his wish. He 
wrote an account of an autumn evening in 1872: "How cheery and 
bright the fire was! The weather was cold. It was in the early 
autumn, but the leaves were turning yellow and when night came 
there was a touch of frost in the air and the pine knots blazed on 
the hearth. It was a widow's home in the country, ten miles, at 
least, from any town, and I was there for just one delightful eve- 
ning. I had noticed a bright little orphan lad, another ten-year-old 
lad, and I noticed him because his name and mine were the same and 
it was 'Willie.' 

"I had hinted something about a real home for such fellows, not 
a great asylum, with great crowds of children in one big house, but 
cozy homes like Willie's, and with big wide playgrounds with no 
fences to keep the little fellows in, and nothing but love to tie them 
to books and duties. 

"Little Willie drew nearer and nearer, so that he was standing 
by me, and presently he laid his hand on my knee. The little fingers 
were tightly shut over something and his eyes were earnestly look- 
ing into mine. I put my arm around him, and said to him: 'Well, my 
boy, what is that in your hand?' The hand came open at once and 
in it lay a bright silver half-dollar, the boy's treasure store. 'You are 
rich,' I said. 'What are you going to do with that?' 'I am going to 



5 5E. T. Thompson, op. cit., p. 197. 

56 T. C. Johnson, Life and Letters of B. M. Palmer, p. 406. 






REBUILDING 163 

give it to you to build a home for orphans!' 'Keep it, my lad, and 
spend it for Christmas; I do not want to take your money.' But no, 
he left it there and would not have it back. 

"Have you ever read the story of the little boy's five barley loaves 
and a few fishes and how they fed five thousand? That single half- 
dollar grew and multiplied. It built that home for orphans. It has 
brought hundreds of little orphan boys and girls into the path of 
duty, of usefulness and, I trust, of happiness. It has led hundreds 
and hundreds of them to lives of good and of service to their fellow 
man. Men have looked and wondered. Angels have looked down 
and smiled. As for me, that half-dollar bound me to a duty that 
has held me these five and thirty years." 57 

In June, 1874, W. P. Jacobs wrote in his dairy, "I have hereby 
resolved to establish a college in the town of Clinton. ... I do 
it for the glory of God and to show that a poor country pastor, liv- 
ing in the least of villages, can do, if he will, great things for God. 
For this cause I remain in Clinton and to this end will I labour, so 
help me God, and keep me steadfast to this purpose." 58 

Before Presbyterian College was to rise to notice, another venture 
in denominational education in the same territory was to flower and 
fade. In 1877 Newberry College moved from Walhalla back to 
Newberry, from whence it had been removed in 1868. S. L. Morris, 
'76, then pastor at Walhalla, with the support of the whole com- 
munity, decided to open Adger College, named for John B. Adger, 
in the vacated buildings. Forty thousand dollars was subscribed 
and the school opened in the fall of 1877 with almost as large a 
student body as Newberry College had at the same site. Adversity 
set in, and a fire in 1 889 closed the school. 59 

J. N. Craig, '59, solicited subscriptions in 1867 to reopen the 
Yorkville Female Seminary, which had been founded in 1853. In 
1870 Rev. James Douglas, '52, father of Dr. D. M. Douglas, '99, 
took over the institution, but tendered it back in 1873. The school 
closed in 1875. J. A. Mecklin, '72, was founder of French Camp 
Academy, a secondary school. 



^Thornwell Jacobs, The Life of W. P. Jacobs, p. 105. 

r ' 8 Ibid., p. 122. 

59 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 363. 



164 COLORED LIGHT 

Church Organization and Practice 

The actions of the Old School Assembly during and following 
the War served to intensify allegiance to "the spirituality of the 
Church" in the South and to prevent reunion with the Old School 
Assembly, which was itself on the point of the 1870 reunion with 
the New School Church. The Presbyterian Church, U. S., had 
very carefully kept itself clear from political deliverances. Dr. B. M. 
Palmer records an incident to show this zealous adherence to sepa- 
ration of church and state. In the minutes of the Synod of South 
Carolina, when reviewed by the Assembly in 1862, exception was 
taken to the inclusion of the following resolutions passed in Novem- 
ber 1 86 1 : 

"Resolved, 1. By the ministers and elders composing this Synod, 
not in their ecclesiastical capacity as a court of Jesus Christ, but in 
their private capacity, as a convention of Christian gentlemen, that 
our allegience is due, through the sovereign State to which we be- 
long, and shall be rendered, to the Government of the Confederate 
States, as long as South Carolina remains in the number. 

"Resolved 3. That we are firmly persuaded, that the only hope 
of constitutional liberty, on this continent, is in the success of the 
Confederate cause; and that we pledge ourselves, and we think we 
can safely say, the Presbyterian people of these States, to uphold and 
support the Government, in every lawful measure, to maintain our 
rights and our honour." 

The explanation was given that the resolutions had been in- 
cluded by error, as they were not a part of the proceedings of the 
church court but of a convention which had been called of the mem- 
bers of the church court. The letter of the law had certainly been 
adhered to, and also the spirit of the times. 60 

There was no strong sentiment for reunion in the Presbyterian 
Church, U. S. In October, 1865, Harmony Presbytery sent a 
memorial to the Assembly opposing the idea that unity of political 
government called for one church organization among Presby- 
terians. 61 



60 B. M. Palmer, op. cit., p. 5.10. 

61 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 119. 



REBUILDING 165 

From 1867 to 1879 a revision of the Book of Church Order was 
in progress. Dr. J. H. Thornwell was the chairman of the first 
committee in 1861. Dr. John B. Adger was made chairman of the 
new revision committee appointed by the Assembly in 1863, and 
B. M. Palmer was added. 62 The new book did away with some of 
the disparity between minister and elders, thus lifting the office of 
elder. Thornwell had contended for this principle in the Old School 
Assembly. The office of deacon and even deaconess was recognized 
with a more Scriptural emphasis. Girardeau had emphasized this 
point. The control by the church of its own work through com- 
mittees rather than boards had been urged by Thornwell and Palmer, 
and came into the new Book of Church Order. The emphasis upon 
Presbyterianism in government became even more marked. 63 The 
committee met at Columbia Seminary and much of the work of 
revision was done in the Seminary chapel. 64 In the many steps and 
long discussions pending adoption, Dr. Adger took the leading part. 
Dr. B. M. Palmer and Dr. James Woodrow were both active re- 
vision committee members. The book was adopted in 1879. 

E. M. Green, D.D., '63, was appointed chairman of the com- 
mittee to revise the Directory for Worship and its work was ap- 
proved by the church. 65 Dr. B. M. Palmer, '41, was chairman of 
the committee of foreign correspondence that considered the over- 
ture for union from the Presbyterian Church, U. S. A., in 1870, 
and he subsequently took an active part in the discussions of that 
subject. 66 

The church grew from 850 ministers, 1,039 churches, 80,532 
communicants in 1867 to 1,081 ministers, 2,010 churches, and 
123,806 communicants in 1882. 

Missions 

Dr. James Woodrow, Treasurer of the Committee of Foreign 
Missions, accompanied three young men to their ship, Alaska, on 



62 Thornton Whaling in Columbia Record, June 18, 1924. W. C. Robinson, 
op. cit., p. 89. 

tt3 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 414. 

64 Thornton Whaling in Columbia Record, June 18, 1924, and W. C. Rob- 
inson, op. cit., p. 94. 

65 S. M. Tenny, Souvenir of General Assembly, 1924, p. 8 1 . 

66 T. C. Johnson, Life and Letters of B. M. Palmer, p. 318. 



166 COLORED LIGHT 

September 9, 1868, as they sailed from New York to China. 67 
They were the first missionaries to join the Rev. E. B. Inslee, who 
had opened the new mission in China, in September, 1867. J. R. 
Baird, '44, went to Brazil in 1868 with a number of emigrants 
from South Carolina. He organized a church at San Barbara. After 
ten years he returned to America, *and preached in Georgia. 

Hampden C. DuBose, D.D., '71, was born at Darlington, South 
Carolina, Sept. 30, 1845, of Huguenot ancestry. He attended Cita- 
del Military Academy and served three years in the Confederate 
army. He graduated at South Carolina College in 1868 and entered 
the Seminary. He went to Soochow, China, in 1872. He was very 
active as a writer and translator, as the literary appendix shows. 
In 1 89 1, he was elected moderator of the General Assembly. He 
served as a missionary until 1 9 1 o, when he died. 68 

John J. Read, D.D., '71, a native of Hinds County, Mississippi, 
became pastor at Houston, Texas, but upon request of the committee 
sacrificially went to take charge of Spencer Academy in the Choctaw 
country in 1876. This school was forty-five miles from a trading 
center, in the heart of the virgin forest. During the five years he 
taught, the majority of the pupils accepted Christ and went out 
to influence their people. Taking up work as an evangelistic mission- 
ary to the Chickasaws, in three years Read built four churches. In 
1884 Jonas Wolfe, a full-blooded Chickasaw, the Governor of the 
Chickasaw nation, and an elder in the church, was ordained to the 
ministry and took over Read's work. Soon Read had organized 
four more churches over a scattered territory to which he ministered 
until his death, February 4, 1892. 69 

J. G. Hall, '74, was born in South Carolina. He finished in 
Davidson College before coming to the Seminary. In April, 1869, 
a new work had been begun in Colombia, South America. His was 
the third missionary family to reach the new station. Because of 
civil war in that country and lack of receptivity among the native 
population, in 1877 the mission was closed and the Halls moved 
to the Mexican Mission at Matamoros, where they continued to 
labor for years. 70 



GT S. I. Woodbridge. op. cit., p. 33. 

68 S. M. Tenney, Souvenir General Assembly, 1924, p. 67. 

69 E. T. Thompson, op. cit., p. 162. 

70 The Union Seminary Review, Jan., 1936. Article by Dr. D. W. Richardson, 

88. Semi-Centennial Volume, op. cit., p. 176. 



REBUILDING 167 

William LeConte, '72, was from Liberty County, Georgia, and 
was educated at the University of South Carolina and in Europe. 
He was sent by the Committee of Foreign Missions to Brazil in 
1872. He asked not to be assigned to a teaching position in the 
Campinas Institute, wishing to give his time to preaching. Trans- 
ferred to Pernambuco, he was smitten by disease within a year and 
forced to return to his home in 1876, and died in his mother's 
home in Washington that year. 71 

About 1880 J. C. Kennedy, '59, was appointed a missionary to 
the Choctaw Indians, and he labored there for some time. 72 

Samuel I. Woodbridge, D.D., '82, from Kentucky, and an alum- 
nus of Rutgers College, married Miss Jeanie Woodrow and they 
went to China in 1882. Dr. Woodbridge served there until his death 
in recent years. He was very influential as a missionary, as editor 
of the Chinese Christian Intelligencer, and published the book used 
for mission study by the church in 1 9 1 9- 1 920. 73 

David C. Rankin, D.D., '75, was Assistant Secretary and Treas- 
urer of Foreign Missions from 1888 to 1892, and editor of The 
Missionary from 1893 to 1902. 74 

Problems of the Day 

The Reconstruction period found the church strictly adhering 
to its principle of nonparticipation in politics. In the face of the 
disorder and destitution the ministers were seeking to rebuild har- 
mony and peace. In a pastoral letter issued by Harmony Presbytery 
in 1865 the ending is: "Finally, brethren, all that remains for us is 
to go down into the swelling of the floods of this Jordan, bearing 
the ark of Jehovah's covenant; doubtless we shall pass over and 
possess the fair land of our inheritance." 75 The Narrative of the 
same Presbytery in 1868 says, "We feel bound to say that it is 
the privilege of a Christian people to oppose to such onsets of temp- 
tation a noble self-possession, in their patience to possess their 
souls." 76 



'^Semi-Centennial Volume, op. cit., pp. 176, 316. 

;2 Ibid., p. 177. 

r3 S. I. Woodbridge, op. cit., p. 210, etc. 

r4 S. M. Tenney, Souvenir of General Assembly, 1924, p. 151, 

rs F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 1 20. 

:(i Ibid., p. 123. 



168 COLORED LIGHT 

In the Narrative of Bethel Presbytery in 1872, the Ku-Klux 
troubles are referred to as a severe political ordeal that the people 
were undergoing, with many imprisoned and many seeking safety 
in distant regions. 77 

No doubt many ministers were led to participate privately in such 
secret orders from a desire to protect the white people from indignity 
and wrong in a time when families of dead Confederate soldiers were 
exposed to the whims of the former slaves, and when even the courts 
were unfriendly. Dr. S. H. Chester tells his own experience in 
Arkansas where M. A. Patterson, '41, was pastor of Mt. Holly, 
1860-1881: "Our community adopted the Knights of the White 
Camelia, and into that order I was initiated at the age of sixteen 
by the pastor of our church. When the ceremony of initiation was 
finished and my blindfold removed, I looked around and saw all 
the elders and deacons of the church and every important member of 
the community standing around the walls of the room." Where 
such men were leaders, the secret organizations refrained from vio- 
lence and were used for restraining recklessness and promoting order 
and peace. Secrecy, however, tended to play into the hands of those 
who delight in darkness because their deeds are evil. 78 South Caro- 
lina Presbytery set aside a day previous to the general election in 
1876 as a day of fasting, humiliation, and prayer for our country. 
It was this year that Hampton's Red Shirts restored the State of 
South Carolina to white rule. 79 

The relation of the church to the freedmen, as the Negroes were 
then called, was discussed in this period. In this discussion Colum- 
bia Seminary men took a prominent place. Generally, the Negroes 
and Caucasians had belonged to the same congregations before the 
War. There had been a few separate churches, such as Anson Street 
Church in Charleston under Adger and Giradeau, and Ladson 
Chapel in Columbia, which was largely established by George W. 
Ladson, '62, and for whom it was named after his death in 1864. 80 
However, generally the slaves had occupied the galleries of white 
churches. What should be the plan for future work for the Negroes? 
Sometimes there was friction. Girardeau and the session could not 



77 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 139. 
78 S. H. Chester, Pioneer Days in Arkansas, p. 63. 
79 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 137. 
80 Semi -Centennial Volume, op. cit., p. 316. 



REBUILDING 169 

secure their Anson Street Church building until after a long delay. 
At Edisto Island the white people returned to find the Negroes in 
charge of the church building, as well as occupying residences of the 
white people. A Negro preacher from the North presided. The 
money for the necessary litigation called for sacrifice of household 
silver, but the order for white repossession was finally secured from 
Washington and the pastor, with a few men and women and chil- 
dren of the congregation, accompanied by the military commandant, 
marched to the church on the last Sunday in June, 1866. 

"What means this unseemly disturbance of public worship of 
Almighty God?" demanded the Negro minister. 

"In the name of God, and by the authority of the United States 
Government, I demand possession of this building," replied the 
pastor. 

The Negroes vacated peacefully. 81 

"The pernicious effect of a sudden transition from servitude . . . 
to freedom is being painfully felt. . . . Liberty with them is li- 
centiousness, casting off the fear of God as well as men. With few 
exceptions, the sanctuary is deserted and the ballroom is substituted 
in its stead," complained South Carolina Presbytery in May, 1 865. 82 
Harmony Presbytery reported, "They are manifesting some dis- 
position to return to our communion. ..." Several mission stations 
had been established for them. 83 "We can never forget the time 
when they crowded to our sanctuaries, when they listened to the 
Gospel as preached to their owners, and then to the additional dis- 
course designed especially for them. We can never forget the com- 
munion table spread for master and servant; the bread and wine ad- 
ministered to each by the same hand and from the same vessels 
and at the same table. . . . Pleasant memories . . . comfort us amid 
the surrounding desolations . . . that we had attempted to do some- 
thing for this unfortunate race in their highest interests." 84 In 
October, 1866, a petition asking for the organization of a separate 
colored church, with colored officers, was answered by the South 
Carolina Presbytery through a paper drawn up by Dr. J. B. Adger, 
of the Columbia Seminary faculty. Granting that Negro members 



81 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 606. 
82 Ibid., p. 129. 
83 1 bid., p. 121. 
84 Ibid., p. 122. 



170 COLORED LIGHT 

should be allowed to vote for church officers, the paper goes on: 
"The petition is for a 'Freedman's Church,' in other words, for a 
church purely and solely of colored [people] into which white 
people cannot be received. The ground of color is a schismatical 
foundation on which a church may not be built. We are all one in 
Christ Jesus, and there is neither Jew nor Greek in Him. The same 
principle, of course, would admit the organization of a white man's 
church into the membership of which no colored person could be 
received; or the organization of a church of poor men, or of rich 
men, or that of a church composed of farmers, or lawyers, or of 
mariners exclusively. We greatly desire that the colored people 
should continue to hold a fellowship of ordinances with us as of 
old, and that our churches in this Southern country should continue 
to be composed as hitherto of men of both colors. But we cannot, 
of course, control their independent action, and if the freedmen of 
Rock Church should resolve to separate themselves from us, whilst 
we cannot approve the step, they shall still have our best wishes, 
both for this world and for that which is to come." 85 In 1869 the 
same presbytery deplored "that unhallowed and inimical partizan 
spirit which is abroad in our land, and which is brought to bear so 
directly on that portion of our population [colored] as to produce 
in many places, bitterness, alienation and every evil work." 86 

The General Assembly in 1865 urged the continuance of mixed 
congregations, but offered to help the freedmen wherever they 
wished a separate church. In 1866 Dr. Girardeau introduced a paper, 
which was passed by the Assembly, calling for continued joint 
congregations, but holding it inexpedient to license colored men to 
preach except as exhorters. The sentiment for separate congregations 
seemed to be growing, and the Assembly of 1867 revoked the action 
of 1866, and allowed ordination of colored deacons, elders and 
ministers. In 1869 the Assembly suggested colored churches in 
connection with white churches, with representation in church courts 
by white elders only. In 1874 the organization of a separate Col- 
ored Presbyterian Church was approved, recognizing the instinctive 
desire of the colored people for such separation. Sympathetic coun- 
sel and financial support were pledged. Tuscaloosa Institute was 



85 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 131. 
m Ibid., p. 133. 



REBUILDING 171 

established to train ministers. In 1891 the Executive Committee 
of Colored Evangelization was organized to help the four colored 
presbyteries. The Negro work at present is separate in congrega- 
tion, presbytery, and synod, but has equal representation in the 
Assembly. 87 

Social Service 

Two incidents will serve to illustrate the contributions of Co- 
lumbia men to social well-being in this period. At the end of the 
War ministers found themselves without support. In some cases 
they turned to the plow in order to secure food for themselves and 
families. With the Seminary without endowment, Dr. James 
Woodrow was forced to provide support for himself in some way, 
and turned to publishing church papers and also did custom print- 
ing in the same establishment. When the Wade Hampton party 
triumphed in 1876 and restored white government to South Caro- 
lina, it found itself with an empty treasury and the State credit ex- 
hausted. It was difficult to arrange for the government printing be- 
fore the Hampton government had been recognized in Washington. 
Dr. Woodrow patriotically took the risk and provided the neces- 
sary printing, with the understanding that he would receive no 
compensation in the event the government failed of recognition. 88 
To keep the church papers alive, Dr. Woodrow spent of his own 
money some fourteen thousand dollars. 89 

Hampden C. DuBose, D.D., '71, who went out in this period, 
organized the Anti-Opium League of China. In 1904 he appealed 
to President Roosevelt and stirred up the Department of State to 
send American consuls in China a circular of inquiry on the opium 
situation. He appealed to the Rt. Hon. John Morley, to members 
of the British Parliament, and interviewed Governor Chen of Ki- 
angsu Province. Viceroy Tuan Fang, in Nanking, suggested a me- 
morial signed by the missionaries, and promised to present it to the 
Throne. DuBose wrote the memorial and secured 1,333 signatures 
of American and British missionaries. It was presented at Peking 
August 19, 1906. The Imperial Edict was issued on September 



87 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., pp. 378-383. 

S8 Dr. James Woodrow as Seen by His Friends, collected by Marion W. Wood- 
row ( 1909) , p. 173. 

89 Marion W. Woodrow, op. cit., p. 551. 



172 



COLORED LIGHT 



20, almost a verbatim copy of the memorial. This began a new and 
successful effort to deal with the opium traffic. In 1908 Great Brit- 
ain and China agreed to reduce production and importation of 
opium one-tenth each year until cessation at the end of ten years. 
Such progress was made that in 19 13 the Indian Government 
stopped the export trade to China. 90 

The social value of the spiritual message that Columbia alumni 
proclaimed during the dark and unsettled days of reconstruction 
cannot be computed. How many heavy hearts were given new 
courage? How often did counsels of patience and forbearance avail 
to prevent disorder? Wherein did doctrines of human brotherhood 
help the process of readjustment between the races? What con- 
sciences, twisted and seared by war, were touched into new sen- 
sitiveness? Can we number the lives called from disintegration and 
emotional emptiness to a new purpose and a new love? Who can 
measure these things? 




90 K. S. Latourette, A History of Christian Missions in China ( 1929) , p. 659. 
S. M. Tenney, Souvenir of General Assembly, 1924, p. 67. 



CHAPTER V 

FROM THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL AND INTO 
THE TWENTIETH CENTURY 1 882-1 921 



THE reopening of the Columbia Seminary in September, 1882, 
found W. E. Boggs, A.B., M.A., B.D., D.D., LL.D., '62, in 
the chair of Ecclesiastical History and Church Government, which 
position he filled until 1885. Born in Ahmedmeggar (Almednug- 
gar) , India, where his parents were missionaries, on May 12, 1838, 
he returned to South Carolina in early childhood. He received the 
A.B. and M.A. degrees from South Carolina College and entered 
the Seminary in 1 860. He enlisted for the defense of the coast soon 
after the surrender of Fort Sumter, and in 1862 was ordained chap- 
lain of the 6th South Carolina Regiment and served until Appomat- 
tox. He was pastor Columbia, South Carolina, 1 866-1 871; Second 
Presbyterian Church, Memphis, Tennessee, 1 871- 1879; Central 
Church, Atlanta, Georgia, 1879- 1882; professor of the Seminary; 
and then pastor Second Presbyterian Church, Memphis, 1885- 
1889; chancellor, University of Georgia, 1889- 1899; pastor, First 
Presbyterian Church, Jacksonville, Florida, 1900- 1908; and then 
Secretary of Schools and Colleges. He was moderator of the Assem- 
bly in 1 909. * He was first president of the Florida Children's Home 
Society. 

Charles C. Hersman, A.B., M.A., B.D., D.D., LL.D., served 
as professor of Greek and Hebrew Exegesis for one year, 1887- 1888, 
and later became professor of Biblical Introduction and New Testa- 
ment Literature at Union Seminary, Virginia. Born near Lexing- 
ton, Kentucky, June 16, 1838, he received the A.B. and M.A. de- 
grees from Westminster College, Missouri, and graduated at Prince- 
ton Seminary. After service as stated supply and evangelist, he be- 
gan to teach at Westminster College in 1864, becoming president 
in 1880. From the presidency he came to the Seminary, and from 
1888 to 1 89 1 was chancellor of Southwestern Presbyterian Uni- 



] S. M. Tenney, op. cit., p. 103, 



174 COLORED LIGHT 

versity. He served Union Seminary from 1891 to 1908, when he 
became professor emeritus until his death, June 7, 1924. 2 

James Doak Tadlock, A.B., M.A., D.D., LL.D., was professor 
of Ecclesiastical History and Church Government from 1885 to 
1898. He was born in Greene County, Tennessee, August 4, 1825. 
He graduated at Washington College, Tennessee, 1847, and Prince- 
ton College in 1 850. He served as professor at Washington College, 
Tennessee, 1 850- 1858; president Jonesboro Female College, 1858- 
1 863 ; and as stated supply and principal at Jonesboro, 1 863-1867, 
and in the same dual capacity at Bristol, 1 867- 1868; as stated supply 
at Paperville and Cold Spring, 1 877- 1 885 ; president King College, 
1 868- 1 885; from which place he came to Columbia Seminary. 
He died at Bristol, Tennessee, August 26, 1899. One of his students 
speaks of him as a "veritable saint." 3 

Francis R. Beattie, A.B., B.D., Ph.D., D.D., LL.D., was Perkins 
Professor of Natural Science in connection with Revelation from 
1888 to 1893, succeeding Dr. James Woodrow. Dr. Beattie was 
born of native Scotch parents at Guelph, Ontario, Canada, March 
31, 1848. He graduated from Toronto University in 1875, and 
Knox Theological College in 1878. He was pastor of Baltimore 
and Cold Springs Churches, Ontario, for five years, and of Brant- 
ford Church, Canada, for five years. He quickly adapted himself to 
a difficult task at Columbia. He was very versatile, and wrote sev- 
eral volumes. 4 Called to Louisville Theological Seminary in 1893, 
he served effectively upon the faculty until his death, September 3, 
1906. 5 

William Marcellus McPheeters, A.B., B.D., D.D., LL.D., was 
professor of Biblical Literature from 1888- 1893, and continued 
as professor of Old Testament Literature until his election as pro- 
fessor emeritus in 1933, a total of forty-five years. Born at St. 
Louis, Missouri, April 8, 1854, the son of the Rev. Samuel Brown 
McPheeters and his wife Eliza Cassandra Shanks McPheeters, he 
took the A.B. degree at Washington and Lee University, in 1874, 
and then finished at Union Theological Seminary in Virginia in 

2 General Catalogue Union Theological Seminary in Virginia, 1807- 1924, 
p. 43. 

3 Biographical Catalogue Princeton Theological Seminary, 18 15-1932, p. 158. 
F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 426. 

4 See literary appendix. 

5 I. S. McElroy, op. cit., p. 105. 



TWENTIETH C E N T U RY 



175 




DR. W. M. MCPHEETERS 



1878. The D.D. was conferred by the Presbyterian College of 
South Carolina and Washington and Lee University in 1889, and 
the LL.D. by Davidson College in 1905. He married Emma Gold 
Morrison of Rockbridge Baths, Virginia, Oct. 10, 1878. Four 
children survive. Ordained in 1879, he served at Liberty, Virginia, 
1878; Rocky Mount, Virginia, 1879- 1885; Marion, Virginia, 
1 886- 1 888, when he came to the Seminary. His literary work is 
mentioned in the appendix. He was moderator of the Synod of 
South Carolina in 1896, and served as trustee for Presbyterian Col- 
lege and Chicora College. He was a member of Delta Kappa Ep- 



176 COLORED LIGHT 

silon and Phi Beta Kappa. 6 He died on August 14, 1935, and was 
buried in Elmwood Cemetery, Charlotte, North Carolina. 

A memorial service was conducted at the Seminary on May 7, 
1936, and the addresses by Dr. S. C. Byrd, Dr. J. McD. Richards, 
and Dr. John McSween were published in a memorial issue of the 
Seminary Bulletin. A memorial scholarship has been established 
by a son and a nephew of Dr. McPheeters. 

Daniel Johnson Brimm, A.B., M.A., D.D., '90, was professor 
of New Testament Literature and Exegesis from 1893 to 1900. 
Before that for three years he had been adjunct professor of Hebrew 
and Greek. He resigned in 1900, and in 1909 became professor of 
Bible at Presbyterian College, where he continues to the present 
writing. He attended Southwestern Presbyterian University before 
entering the Seminary, and received the A.B. and M.A. degrees. 

Samuel Spahr Laws, A.B., B.D., D.D., Litt.D., succeeded Dr. 
Beattie as Perkins Professor in 1 893. He was born in Ohio County, 
Virginia, March 24, 1824, and graduated at Miami University in 
1848 and at Princeton Theological Seminary in 185 1. He was 
pastor of Westminster Church, St. Louis, Missouri, 1 851- 1853; 
professor at Westminster College, Missouri, 1853- 1855; president 
of Westminster College, 1 855-1 86 1 ; a resident of New York City, 
1 863- 1 875; president of University of Missouri, 1876-1889; a 
resident of Kansas City, Missouri, until he became professor in 
Columbia Theological Seminary, serving from 1893 to 1898. 7 

William Thomas Hall, A.B., M.A., B.D., D.D., LL.D., '58, 
was professor of Didactic and Polemic Theology from 1895 to 
191 1. Born at Reidsville, North Carolina, Dec. 5, 1835, he gradu- 
ated from Davidson College with the A.B. degree in 1854. He re- 
ceived the M.A. degree from Davidson in 1 858. He graduated from 
Columbia Seminary in 1858, and then served Lancaster, South 
Carolina, 1858- 1859; Ebenezer Church, South Carolina, 1859- 
1860; Canton, Mississippi, 1 861- 1872; Lynchburg, Virginia, 
1 872- 1 895. He served Columbia Seminary until his death on 
March 7, 191 1. 8 He was moderator of the Assembly in 1902. 9 



G Who's Who in America, Vol. 12, 1 922-23, p. 2 1 37. 

7 Biographical Catalogue, Princeton Theological Seminary, 1815-1932^. 163 

^Minutes of Synod or S. C, 1 9 1 1 , p. 5 5 . 

9 S. M. Tenney, op. cit., p. 89. 



TWENTIETH C E N T U RY 177 

Richard Clark Reed, A.B., B.D., D.D., LL.D., was professor of 
Ecclesiastical History and Church Polity from 1898 to his death 
July 9, 1925. He was born in Hamilton County, Tennessee, Janu- 
ary 24, 185 1. King College granted the A.B. degree, and he gradu- 
ated from Union Theological Seminary in 1874. He served as 
stated supply at Somerville, Tennessee, 1876- 1877; was pastor 
Smithville, Virginia, 1877- 1885; Franklin, Tennessee, 1885- 
1889; Second Presbyterian Church, Charlotte, North Carolina, 




DR. R. C. REED 

i 889- 1 892; Woodland Street Church, Nashville, Tennessee, 1892- 
1898; and then came to Columbia Seminary. He was editor of the 
Presbyterian Standard in 1905 and associate editor from 1907 un- 
til his death. He was associate editor of the Presbyterian Quarterly, 
1 902- 1 904. His publications are listed in the literary appendix. 
He was moderator of the Assembly of 1922; and gentle and kindly 
as was his nature, yet because of his strong conviction that truth was 
sometimes being sacrificed to avoid offense, chose to preach the retir- 
ing moderator's sermon upon "Hell." He was upon the revision 



178 COLORED LIGHT 

committee that produced the revised Book of Church Order adopted 
in 1925, and upon the committee to revise the hymnal appointed in 

1898. He was active in the Pan-Presbyterian Alliance, and addressed 
that body in Edinburgh, Scotland, and its Western Section in 
Toronto, Canada. He died while serving upon the faculty of Co- 
lumbia, and in his will left the Cantey Venable Reed Memorial 
Scholarship of $3,000 to the Seminary in honor of his wife, whom 
he had married October 17, 1876. 10 

Samuel Macon Smith, A.B., B.D., D.D., taught Homiletics and 
Pastoral Theology for one year, 1 898- 1899. He was later called to 
a professorship, but his death prevented his giving an answer. He 
was born at Hampden-Sydney, Virginia, July 26, 1851, attended 
the University of Virginia and also graduated from Union Semi- 
nary, Virginia. After a year's service as evangelist, he became pastor 
at Washington, North Carolina, where he preached 1877- 1889. 
He was pastor of the First Presbyterian Church, Columbia, South 
Carolina, from 1889 to his death, January 10, 1910. 11 His min- 
istry in Columbia exercised great influence upon the young men at 
the Seminary, both as a pastor and preacher. 

John Wright Davis, A.B., M.A., B.D., D.D., LL.D., was pro- 
fessor of New Testament Literature and Exegesis from September, 
1900, to May, 1902. Born at Salisbury, North Carolina, July 25, 
1849, he received the M.A. degree from Davidson College. Pre- 
viously he had attended the University of Virginia. Union Semi- 
nary, Virginia, granted him graduation in 1870. He went to Soo- 
chow, China, in October, 1873, and served there until December, 

1899. He then became professor at Columbia. He returned to 
Soochow, China, in July, 1902. In May, 1905, he became professor 
in the Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Nanking, China, and 
continued until 1 9 1 1 , when he returned to Soochow, to engage in 
evangelistic work until his death there Feb. 24, 19 17. His literary 
productions were extensive. 12 

Samuel Craig Byrd, A.B., M.A., B.D., D.D., LL.D., '92, was 
adjunct professor of English Bible and of Pastoral Theology and 
Homiletics from 1898 to 1902. He was born in Laurens County, 



30 Bulletin Columbia Theological Seminary, Jan. 1926. 

ll General Catalogue Union Theological Seminary in Virginia, 1807- 1924, 
p. 97. 

;2 See literary appendix. 



TWENTIETH C E N T U RY 179 

South Carolina, Oct. 24, 1868, and received the A.B. and M.A. 
degrees from the Presbyterian College of South Carolina. He at- 
tended Union Seminary and Columbia Seminary. In 1892 he 
served one year as tutor in Hebrew at Columbia Seminary and then 
in 1893 became assistant pastor to Dr. B. M. Palmer at the First 
Presbyterian Church, New Orleans. He served LaFayette Church, 
New Orleans, from 1894 to 1897. In 1898 he was managing edi- 
tor of the Presbyterian Quarterly, and of the Religious Outlook, 
1 898- 1 899. After his connection with the Seminary terminated 
he became pastor of Sion Church, Winnsboro, from 1903 to 1906. 
He assumed the presidency of Chicora College in 1906 at Green- 
ville, South Carolina, and removed the school to Columbia in 1 9 1 5. 
When Chicora was combined with Queen's College in 1930 as 
Queens-Chicora, Dr. Byrd became president emeritus, and continues 
to live in Charlotte in connection with that instiution. 13 

Henry Alexander White, A.B., M.A., Ph.D., D.D., LL.D., was 
professor of New Testament Literature and Exegesis, 1903- 1926. 
Born on April 15, 1 861, in Greenbrier County, then in Virginia, 
he descended from sturdy Scotch-Irish stock. A parochial school 
near Hillsdale Presbyterian Church furnished early education. He 
entered Washington and Lee University and graduated as valedic- 
torian with the Master's degree. In 1885 he received the Ph.D., 
magna cum laude, from Washington and Lee. Union Seminary 
and Princeton Seminary afforded theological training. He gradu- 
ated from Princeton in 1889. On June 18 of that year he married 
Fanny Beverley Wellford, of Richmond, Virginia. The board of 
Washington and Lee created a chair of history in order to have the 
promising young student upon the faculty, where he served from 
1889 to 1902. When thirty-three years of age, Dr. White was 
granted the D.D. degree by Central University, Kentucky, and was 
called at the same time to its presidency. During his teaching at 
Washington and Lee, he served regularly as stated supply, having 
been ordained in 1889. He was taking special work at the Uni- 
versity of Glasgow when called to the Professorship of New Testa- 
ment Literature and Exegesis at Columbia in 1902. 



13 General Catalogue Union Theological Seminary in Virginia, 1807- 1924, 
p. 159, and letter from Dr. S. C. Byrd. 




DR. HENRY ALEXANDER WHITE 



TWENTIETH CENTURY 181 

Dr. White first gained recognition as a historian and author of 
historical books. His literary production both in the field of history 
and theology is extensive. 14 He was an honorary member of Alpha 
Chapter, Phi Beta Kappa; was a charter member and first president 
of the Kosmos Club of Columbia; a member of the executive com- 
mittee of the Scotch-Irish Society of America; a member of the Vir- 
ginia and South Carolina Historical Societies, the American His- 
torical Association, and the Victoria Institute of London. Davidson 
College conferred the LL.D. degree in 191 i. He made the principal 
address at the Tercentenary of the King James Bible, and in 1920 
delivered the Stone Foundation Lectures at Princeton Theological 
Seminary. 

His death was on Oct. 10, 1926. The body rested in state in the 
Seminary chapel with a guard of honor from the student body, 
and after a service in the chapel was transported to Richmond, Vir- 
ginia, for burial. "Though conservative in an age that appears to 
have become radical in its religious thinking, and often very ag- 
gressive in its assaults upon the old faiths, he remained sweet and 
calm and confident of the truth for which his Church stood." 15 

William Erskine Mcllwain, A.B., B.D., D.D., '75, became fi- 
nancial agent of the Seminary in 1909. Born in Union County, 
North Carolina, February 19, 1 841, he attended Erskine College 
and received the B.D. degree from Columbia Seminary. He was 
pastor at Hopewell, North Carolina, 1 875-1 881; evangelist of 
Mecklenburg Presbytery, 1 881- 1883; stated supply at Gastonia, 
North Carolina, 1884- 1886, 1 886-1 891; evangelist Synod of 
Alabama, 1 891- 1894; graduate student Princeton Theological 
Seminary, 1894- 1895; Louisville Theological Seminary, 1895- 
1896; pastor Pensacola, Florida, 1 896- 1 90 1 ; financial agent Synod 
of North Carolina, 1 901- 1902; superintendent of Home Missions, 
1 902- 1 903; founder and president of Alabama Presbyterian Col- 
lege, Anniston, Alabama, 1902- 1908; financial agent Columbia 
Theological Seminary, 1909; stated supply Banks, North Carolina, 
1 9 1 o- 1 9 1 6 ; pastor Knox Church, Pensacola, Florida, 1 9 1 7- 1 922 ; 
president Palmer College, Florida, 1922- 1924; pastor emeritus 
Mcllwain Memorial Church, Pensacola, Florida, at the present 
time. 16 

14 See literary appendix. 

^Memorial Bulletin, Columbia Theological Seminary, Oct. 1927. 

16 Biographical Catalogue Princeton Theol. Seminary, 18 15- 1932, p. 447. 



182 COLORED LIGHT 

Thornton C. Whaling, A.B., B.D., D.D., LL.D., Litt.D., '83, 
came to the Seminary as president and professor of Didactic and 
Polemic Theology in 1 9 1 1 , and continued until he resigned in 1 92 1 . 
Born at Radford, Montgomery County, Virginia, June 5, 1858, 
he received the A.B. degree from Davidson College in 1874 and 
attended Roanoke College in 1879. He attended Union Seminary, 
New York, in 1 879-1 881, and then graduated from Columbia 




DR. THORNTON C. WHALING 

Seminary in 1883. Austin College conferred the D.D. degree in 
1895 and Roanoke College in 1897, Southwestern conferred the 
LL.D. in 191 1, and Davidson conferred the Litt.D. in 1927. He 
married Lucy Muller of Columbia, South Carolina, Dec. 20, 1883. 
He was pastor at Cheraw, South Carolina, 1883- 1890; at Bir- 
mingham, Alabama, 1890- 1892; professor Philosophy and Eco- 
nomics at Southwestern Presbyterian University, 1892; pastor at 
Lexington, Virginia, 1 896- 1 905 ; at the First Presbyterian Church, 
Dallas, Texas, 1905- 19 10; the Second Presbyterian Church, Nor- 
folk, Virginia, 1910-1911; and then came to Columbia Seminary. 
In 1 92 1 he became professor of Theology and Apologetics at Louis- 
ville Theological Seminary, and resigned in 1929. He has been 
lecturing and preaching since his retirement, making his home in 
Columbia, South Carolina. Recently he has been practically an 
invalid. 



TWENTIETH C E N T U RY 183 

Dr. Whaling's literary work is noted in the appendix. He was 
moderator of the General Assembly in 1924. He belonged to the 
Kosmos and Fortnightly Clubs. 17 

Robert Gamaliel Pearson, A.B., B.D., D.D., was professor of 
English Bible from 1 9 1 1 to 1 9 1 3 . His life is unique and worthy of 
special notice. The Pearson family was originally Quaker. The 
father of R. G. Pearson followed the wagon trek from North Caro- 
lina to Mississippi. It is recorded that the Pearsons spent each Sab- 
bath in rest and worship. The result was their reaching their desti- 
nation about the same time as those who traveled on Sunday, but 
with man and beast fresh and strong for the work of unpacking and 
establishing the new home, while those who failed to observe a day 
of rest found themselves and their teams jaded, worn, and weary. 
Upon the farm of his father the third child, the subject of this 
sketch, was born, June 9, 1847. He grew up in the cool, green, 
beautiful country, living a free, simple, joyous life, delighting in 
fishing in the near-by streams and tramping in the woods; happy 
days, with his sister for a companion. "To this day I never hear 
July flies or katydids but I think of those summer days." He made 
a confession of his faith when six years of age at an outdoor meet- 
ing. As a child he had a place for regular prayer under the old hop 
vine on the back of the garden fence. He wanted to become a preacher 
and played the part with the other children. The family altar; the 
ministry of Rev. David Pressley, who preached once a month in his 
neighborhood for forty years and missed only two appointments — 
once when his wife died and once when flood waters blocked his 
coming; and the sturdy manhood of his father, who had, unknown 
to the son until after he had become a minister, taken the new-born 
child in the first hour of his life into an adjoining room and dedi- 
cated him to God for the ministry, and who was of such stern 
rectitude that he worked with his own hands, well-nigh impov- 
erishing his family, until he had paid a debt made by the purchase 
of slaves just before the War — all these were influences in his child- 
hood. Once he threw some peas, which he had been instructed to 
sow, into an old hollow stump and went on with the boys to the 
swimming hole. His father later discovered the stump covered with 
luxuriant pea vines! The boy confessed, and had impressed upon 



1 ~Who's Who in America, Vol. 18, 1934-35, p. 2498. 



184 COLORED LIGHT 

him the truth he later so forcefully expressed in a sermon often 
preached on the text "Be not deceived; God is not mocked: for 
whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap." He was edu- 
cated under New England teachers in the academies of the time, and 
attended Cooper Institute, near Meridian, Mississippi. He began 
to preach when a youth before his ordination, and supplied near-by 
churches in the country while still in college. He graduated from 
the Theological Seminary at Lebanon, Tennessee, in 1876, and 
became pastor of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church of Tupelo, 
Mississippi. Invited to Oxford, Mississippi, to preach a commence- 
ment sermon at the college for women there, he met and later mar- 
ried Mary Bowen, one of the teachers. In 1880 he became pastor 
at Columbia, Tennessee. In the first year of his pastorate he read 
the Bible through once a month, twelve times in the year. After 
some years he became co-pastor at Nashville First Cumberland Pres- 
byterian Church, in an arrangement that allowed much time for 
evangelistic preaching. After a year he obtained permission from 
Nashville Presbytery to labor outside the bounds of Presbytery and 
without any financial backing or ecclesiastical assistance became an 
evangelist. Invitations came to him steadily. Beginning in Evans- 
ville, Indiana, he spent several yearns chiefly in Missouri and Texas. 
He did not emphasize numbers, often saying there was a snare in 
the counting business and that David had sinned that way. He also 
refused to be narrowly denominational, saying he had not been sent 
forth as a denominational recruiting officer but as a worker for the 
kingdom of God. His ministry was greatly used. Rev. J. S. Cozby, 
'62, wrote in 1888 of 800 to 1,000 people at every service, and 
of Pearson as one "who believes with all his soul that men must 
quit their sins or find themselves at last in hopeless perdition," 
and as one who was "fairly abreast with the advanced thought of 
the day." Dr. J. T. Plunkett, '80, wrote of Pearson's preaching in 
Augusta, Georgia, "His audiences, large from the start, rapidly grew 
until . . . the largest building in the city was altogether inadequate 
to accommodate the crowds." Dr. Jethro Rumple, '57, wrote of 
1,400 to 1,500 in congregations and of 350 professions of faith. 
At St. Joseph, Missouri, Pearson preached one Sunday at the theater 
between John L. Sullivan, the prize fighter, on Saturday, and Bob 
Ingersoll, the noted agnostic, on Monday. At Brooklyn, New 



TWENTIETH C E N T U RY 185 

York; Savannah, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; Natchez, 
Mississippi; Montgomery, Alabama; Charlotte, North Carolina; 
Wilmington, North Carolina; Charleston, South Carolina; Balti- 
more, Maryland; and many other places, the special services were 
very effective in popular appeal. 

As an illustration of the moral value of such meetings the follow- 
ing letter may be quoted: "You will find enclosed three $i bills. 
Several years ago I stole a ride on an excursion train of the old East 
Tennessee, Virginia, and Georgia Railroad. After hearing Mr. 
Pearson preach about restitution, I thought I ought to fix it up. I 
suppose the Southern is the successor of the East Tennessee, Vir- 
ginia, and Georgia. If you can tell what to do with it, all right. 

(Signed) "One Who Desires to be Right with God and Man." 

Josephus Daniels, in an editorial in the News and Observer wrote 
concerning Pearson's services in Raleigh, North Carolina: "Raleigh 
has never been so stirred as during the period of the ministrations 
of Rev. Mr. Pearson. . . . That he moves the hearts of the people, 
that he convinces their understanding, that he leads them to realize 
the need of a personal religion, is true beyond question. That he 
inspires faith, creates a desire to lead a Christian life, and brings 
home to the people a sense of their unworthiness is also beyond 
question. . . . Great good must ensue. The people must needs be 
benefitted. The graces of a Christian life, the spirit of our blessed 
religion, with all its loving-kindness, with all its tenderness, with 
all its charity, with all its glorious hopes and steadfast faith will 
assuredly enter more largely into the character of our people than 
before and they will come to perform more perfectly than ever their 
full duty to their neighbor, as well as to their Maker." 

An elder in Charlotte wrote in 19 13 concerning the lasting ef- 
fects of the meeting Pearson held in Charlotte in 1887, "The total 
number of conversions was about 800, embracing men and women 
of all classes and conditions — middle-aged business men, gamblers, 
drunkards, women of the underworld, though a large proportion 
of them were our own people. . . . Being in a position to observe 
the later conduct of these converts, I am able to say that they gave 
evidence in their after life of a great change that had taken place." 

Pearson was with Dwight L. Moody at the World's Fair in 
Chicago. When he had finished preaching one Sunday at the Em- 



186 COLORED LIGHT 

pire Theatre, Moody came in and said, "Pearson, you go over to the 
Hay Market [theater] and preach for my congregation, and I will 
preach to yours here." The exchange was made while the choirs 
sang, and they spoke to about 7,000 people, two continuing ser- 
vices in the two theaters. 

Asheville, North Carolina, was selected as a home. Developing 
heart trouble, Dr. Pearson went to Palestine and Egypt in 1891, 
and continued his evangelistic services upon his return. In 1903 he 
became professor of English Bible and Evangelistic Methods in the 
Theological Department of Cumberland University, Lebanon, 
Tennessee. When the Cumberland Church united with the Presby- 
terian Church, U. S. A., the theological school was combined with 
Lane Seminary, in 1909. Dr. Pearson continued teaching in the 
independently established Presbyterian Theological Seminary of 
the South for the one year of its existence. In 19 10, 191 1, and 
19 12 he taught Bible at the Montreat Conference. Dr. Thornton 
Whaling was so impressed that Dr. Pearson was elected to the 
chair of English Bible in Columbia Seminary in 1 9 1 1 . He died 
in Columbia, and was buried in Starkville, Mississippi, March 
19, 1913. 18 

James Overton Reavis, A.B., M.A., B.D., LL.B., D.D., LL.D., 
followed Dr. Pearson as professor of Bible and Homiletics and 
Pastoral Theology, serving from 19 13 to 1920. Born Dec. 8, 
1872, upon his father's farm in Monroe County, Missouri, he was 
graduated from Westminster College with the A.B. degree in 1896, 
and M.A. in 1897. Louisville Theological Seminary granted the 
B.D. degree in 1899. He took the M.A. degree at the University of 
New York and the B. D. at Princeton Theological Seminary in 
1 90 1 . He received the LL.B. from the University of South Carolina 
and in 1 9 1 3 was admitted to the bar. Austin College conferred the 
D.D. degree in 1908 and Presbyterian College of Alabama the 
LL.D. in 19 1 7. He married Eva Fulton Witherspoon, daughter of 
T. D. Witherspoon, '59. He was pastor of the First Presbyterian 
Church, Louisville, Kentucky, 1901-1902; the First Presbyterian 
Church, Dallas, Texas, 1902- 1905; was secretary of Foreign Mis- 
sions, 1905-1911; pastor First Presbyterian Church, Columbia, 



18 R. G. Pearson, Evangelistic Sermons by the Rev. R. G. Pearson, D.D., with 
Life Sketch by His Wife. 



TWENTIETH C E N T U RY 187 

South Carolina, 1911-1914; professor at Columbia Seminary, 
1913-19 20; field secretary of the Foreign Mission Committee, 1920 
to the present time. He visited missions in the Congo, Africa, 19 10, 
and in Japan and Korea in 1918. 19 




DR. E. D. KERR 

Edgar D. Kerr, A.B., B.D., D.D., '07, has served as instructor 
and professor of Greek and Hebrew, and later professor of Hebrew 
and Cognate Languages since September, 19 15, until the present 
time. A graduate of Davidson College and Columbia Seminary, he 
was pastor of Highland Park Church, Montgomery, Alabama, May, 
1907, to February, 19 10; pastor Waynesville, North Carolina, 
February, 19 10, to September, 191 1 ; Princeton Seminary, Septem- 
ber, 191 1, to May, 19 12; pastor Newberry, South Carolina, July, 
1 912, to October, 1927. 20 




DR. MELTON CLARK 



Melton Clark, A.B., B.D., D.D., '98, served as professor of 
English Bible, Homiletics, and Religious Education from 1920 to 
1 93 1, when he resigned to become pastor of the First Presbyterian 



l9 Who's Who in America, Vol. 12, 1922-23, p. 2568. 
20 Ibid., p. 694. 



188 COLORED LIGHT 

Church, Anniston, Alabama. Dr. Clark was born in Columbia, 
South Carolina, April 19, 1874, son of W. A. Clark, a prominent 
elder and friend of Columbia Seminary. He graduated from South 
Carolina College, with the A.B. degree in 1895, and Columbia 
Seminary with the B.D. degree in 1898, married Mary Charlotte 
Woodrow in 1896, was pastor in Florence, South Carolina, from 
1 898- 1 906, and of the First Church, Greensboro, North Carolina, 
in 1 906-1916; of the Second Presbyterian Church, Charleston, 
South Carolina, 191 6-1920. As vice-president of the Seminary, 
he acted as president from 1930-193 1. His second wife was Sarah 
Broome King. 21 

Dr. George Summey was appointed financial agent by the Synod 
of South Carolina in 189 1 to raise funds for the Seminary, but this 
was a synodical office and not a connection under the board of 
the Seminary. 22 Rev. T. M. Lowry received the same appoint- 
ment. 23 

Hugh Roderick Murchison, A.B., B.D., D.D., '97, taught Mis- 
sions and acted as secretary to the Board and business manager, from 
1920 to 1926. A graduate of Davidson College with A.B. degree, 
he received the B.D. degree from Columbia Seminary in 1897, and 
was ordained and installed pastor of Blackville and Richland 
churches in 1897. He was pastor at Bishopville, South Carolina, 
and served Lancaster, South Carolina, 19 12-1920, when he began 
his services at the Seminary. The Synod of South Carolina elected 
him moderator in 19 19. In 1926 he was chosen chaplain and pro- 
fessor of English Bible at the University of South Carolina, where 
he now serves. 24 



Academic Life and Physical Equipment 

The synods received the Seminary back from the General As- 
sembly and elected directors in 1881. The reopening took place 
in September, 1882. Twenty-two students from nine States were in 

21 Who's Who in American, Vol. 12, 1922-23, p. 694. Who's Who in the 
Clergy, 1935. 

22 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 281. 
2S Ibid., p. 284. 
24 Ibid., pp. 540, 264. 



TWENTIETH CENTURY 189 

attendance. Provision had been made for the study of the whole 
Bible in the English version. 25 In 1883 thirty-three students were 
enrolled and $17,000 had been collected. The death of Dr. George 
Howe had occurred in April. 26 The faculty consisted of Drs. Wood- 
row, Girardeau, Hemphill, and Boggs. 

Every prospect seemed pleasing, but there was the faint rumbling 
of the thunder that heralded the approach of a storm which was 
to bring great damage to the Seminary, and the effects of which 
would be felt for some twenty or thirty years. In May, 1883, upon 
motion of the secretary of the board and financial agent of the 
Seminary, the Board of Directors called upon Dr. Woodrow to set 
forth his views upon evolution in order that the church might have 
the benefit of his opinions. The famous evolution controversy 
followed. This will be treated later in this chapter. At least the 
church was four decades ahead of Dayton, Tennessee, and the 
debate was pitched upon a higher intellectual plane and conducted 
in a more gentlemanly manner. Debated in the controlling synods 
in 1884, the question was decided by the Board's action in 1884 
in declaring Dr. Woodrow removed from his professorship. The 
justice of this action was appealed in 1885 and the debate dragged 
on in various ways, attracting great popular attention and hurting 
the Seminary. Bethel Presbytery in 1884 sent up to the synod an 
overture introduced by R. A. Webb, '80, stating: "It having come 
to our knowledge that the doctrine of the probable evolution of 
man's body from the lower animals has been or is to be not only 
maintained but taught in the Columbia Theological Seminary, and 
that the Board of Directors at a recent meeting, without recognizing 
this fact and expressing its nonconcurrence in the doctrine, took no 
steps looking to the prevention of such instruction; Bethel Pres- 
bytery does hereby respectfully overture the Synod ... to take such 
steps as shall prevent the teaching of this hypothesis; not only be- 
cause it is yet but an hypothesis, and because many view with great 
alarm the teaching and prevalence of an idea, which, even under 
careful definitions and much limitation, is regarded by them as 
tending to undermine the foundation of our precious faith, but be- 



2r, F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 167. 
2G Ibid., p. 168. 



190 COLORED LIGHT 

cause the teaching in our beloved Seminary is its practical endorse- 
ment ... by the Synods controlling it/' 27 

Made the tug-of-war between the factions, the Seminary suf- 
fered loss of financial support and student patronage. The result 
was the reclosing of the school in 1886 until 1887. The Board took 
action: "That in view of the present incomplete equipment of the 
institution, the Board does recommend that . . . defer the resumption 
of the exercises of this institution until the third Monday in Sep- 
tember, 1887." 28 

At the appointed time fourteen students were matriculated for 
the reopening in 1887. The Synod of South Carolina in 1886 had 
appointed Dr. Girardeau and Dr. George Summey a committee to 
revise the constitution of the Seminary. 29 The faculty consisted at 
this time of Drs. Girardeau, Hersman and Tadlock. An era of 
quiet and steady recuperation began; and while the attendance was 
not large, a steady stream of select young men went out into the 
ministry having been taught by capable and godly men. 

The Synod of South Carolina in 1887 took action opposing a 
suggestion to remove the Seminary to Atlanta, Georgia. 30 Twenty- 
two students were reported to synod in 1889, with Drs. Gir- 
ardeau, Tadlock, Beattie, and McPheeters upon the faculty. 31 In 
1890 Dr. J. B. Shearer visited and placed before the synods a plan 
for the establishment of a university by the Synods of North Caro- 
lina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. There is no other refer- 
ence to this project. The revised constitution of the Seminary was 
adopted in 1890. 32 It was reported to synod in 1891 that the 
Seminary had $235,900 invested, yielding an income of about 
$13,000 per year. All serious trouble had disappeared. The title of 
the fifth professorship was suggested as Professor of Pastoral Theol- 
ogy and Sacred Rhetoric and Instructor in the English Bible. 33 
Forty-five students were enrolled. 34 In 1895 a committee of con- 
ference was appointed by the South Carolina Synod, without com- 



27 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. tit., p. 220. 

28 Ibid., p. 425. 

2Q Ibid., p. 232. 

30 Ibid., p. 233. 

31 Ibid., p. 233. 

32 Ibid., p. 235, 236. 

33 Ibid., p. 281. 

3 Hbid., p. 283. 



TWENTIETH C E N T U RY 191 

mitting itself, to consider a proposal from the Synod of Georgia to 
relocate the Seminary and combine with the theological department 
of Southwestern. 35 In 1896 the committee reported that no call 
for a conference had been received. Dr. W. M. McPheeters and 
Dr. J. H. Thornwell, '74, were appointed to visit the associated 
synods in reference to the needs of Columbia Seminary. 36 In 1900 
Dr. D. J. Brimm brought before his presbytery a paper expressing 
his belief in miracles of healing in the present day. Presbytery com- 
mended him for his frankness but disapproved of the doctrine he 
held. Testimony to Dr. Brimm's faithfulness and efficiency as a 
teacher was recorded. To avoid any criticism of the Seminary, Dr. 
Brimm unselfishly resigned. 37 

In 1900 the Board reported need of larger funds. The Seminary 
must either be closed or $2,000 per year additional must be pro- 
vided to meet the deficit. 38 But the Twentieth Century Fund 
changed deficits to balances in a few years. The Assembly of 1900 
proposed to raise $1,000,000 for the educational institutions of 
the church. The goal for Columbia Seminary was set at $100,000 
increase in endowment. 39 

On this fund reports showed $6,220.58 raised in 1901; $18,- 
438.14 in 1902; $2,922.45 in 1903; $2,029.17 in 1904; $1,- 
838.99 in 1905; $1,268.31 in 1906; and $1,434.00 in 1907. 

Again in 1903 a plan for a union of Southwestern's theological 
department and Columbia Seminary in Atlanta, Georgia, was pro- 
posed. Conference committes were appointed. In 1901 a motion 
by Dr. James Woodrow that the Seminary be not removed from 
Columbia had unanimously carried. In 1904 the South Carolina 
Synod voted 96 to 52 for the removal to Atlanta, and two directors 
for the proposed consolidation were appointed. 40 The plan failed to 
materialize. 

In 1 9 1 o the office of president of the Seminary was created, to 
take the place of the chairman of the faculty. Dr. A. M. Fraser, '8o, 
was called to the position but declined. Dr. Thornton Whaling, '83, 



ao F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 285. 

™Ibid., p. 186. 

37 Ibid., p. 257-262. ' 

38 Ibid., p. 426. 

39 Ibid., p. 297. 

40 Ibid., p. 426. 



192 COLORED LIGHT 

was called. Under his direction a new impetus was given the Semi- 
nary. 

In 1 9 1 9 the Million Dollar Campaign was launched, to raise that 
sum in South Carolina for the Presbyterian educational institutions. 
The Seminary was to reecive $125,000 of this. In 1921 it was re- 
ported that $1,162,692.82 was subscribed to the Million Dollar 
Campaign. By 1 925 not quite one fourth of these pledges had been 
paid. 41 Under Dr. Whaling's administration the dining hall had 
been enlarged and improved. 

The Seminary library continued to increase. Besides the Smyth 
Library, there were added the personal libraries of Rev. John Doug- 
las, Dr. George Howe, Dr. S. Beach Jones, Dr. S. M. Smith, and 
Dr. J. W. Flinn. 

Columbia s Contribution to Church Extension 
and Evangelism 

One of the most outstanding examples of church extension was 
the work accomplished under the guidance of Dr. J. B. Mack, '61, 
who acted as synodical evangelist for Georgia. In his report of 1898 
Dr. Mack said: "Since coming to this Synod in the Fall of 1890, it 
has been my privilege to participate in the organization or reorgani- 
zation of forty-four churches. Of these, two have been dissolved; 
one is in another Synod; and one composed mainly of Northern 
emigrants, has preferred to be with a Northern Church; of the re- 
maining forty (or about one-fifth of the churches upon the roll of 
the Synod) thirty-two have houses of worship; five are either build- 
ing, or have secured desirable lots, and only three as yet have taken 
no definite steps in securing a house. These results show what might 
have been accomplished if Synod had put three or four men in the 
field and continuously kept them there." 42 

Another illustration of Columbia's contribution to church ex- 
tension is the work of Dr. R. P. Smith, '76, in Asheville Presbytery. 43 
Having served as president of Presbyterian College, Clinton, S. C, he 
became pastor at Gastonia, North Carolina, in 1893. In 1897 he 



41 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 305-306. 
42 Minutes of Synod, quoted by James Stacy, op. cit., p. 260. 
43 Walter L. Lingle, Christian Observer, Feb. 19, 1936, p. 4. D. I. Craig, A 
History of the Development of the Presbyterian Church in North Carolina, p. 90. 



TWENTIETH CENTURY 193 

became evangelist of Mecklenburg Presbytery, and later when Ashe- 
ville Presbytery was set up he continued as superintendent. He was 
also superintendent of Synodical Home Missions. "He organized 
churches and schools, fostered them with his personal care, and 
found preachers and teachers to take charge of them." He was the 
leader in founding Mountain Orphanage, near Black Mountain, 
North Carolina, which opened January 4, 1904; and he took part 
in the establishing of Maxwell Farm School for Boys. From 1897 
to 193 1 the Asheville Presbytery increased from one self-supporting 
church to eleven, and the mission churches grew in membership from 
853 to 4,500. Some 2,500 young people were trained in mission 
schools. According to his reports Dr. Smith traveled 282,000 miles 
through the mountains of North Carolina. He labored until his 
death February 4, 1936. 44 

The information that is available about the contribution of alumni 
from this period has come largely in response to personal letters. 
No doubt many notable contributions to church extension, thought, 
and education are omitted. 

G. G. Woodbridge, '83, was pastor at Russellville, Arkansas, 
1 898- 1 900, and Black Rock, 1901 forward. Malcolm Black, '84, 
served Sylvania, Arkansas, 1896- 1899. J. R. Howerton, D.D., 
'85, was pastor at Little Rock, 1889- 1894. His work in securing 
Montreat and in education is mentioned elsewhere in this chapter. 
J. C. Williams, '85, served Arkadelphia, Arkansas, 1 886-1 891; 
Malvern, 1892- 1895 ; and Junction City, 1896. 

William Henry White, B.D., '86, served Greenville, Hayne- 
ville, and Sandy Ridge, South Carolina, 1886; Troy Alabama, 
1887; Marion, Alabama, 1 891-1900; Lockhart and Mt. Tabor, 
South Carolina, 1900- 1906; Richmond, Pleasant Hill, and Ber- 
lin, Alabama, 1906- 1907; Cuba and Oxford, Alabama, 1907- 
19 16; Clanton, Tuskegee, and Woodland, Alabama, 19 17-1922; 
and Calebee, Alabama, 1921. He was the editor of a county news- 
paper for three years. 

John C. Williams, M.A., D.D., '86, served Arkadelphia, Ar- 
kansas, 1 885- 1 892; Malvern, 1893- 1905; Junction City, El- 
dorado, and Scotland, 1905- 1906; DeQueen, 1 906-191 3; Pres- 
cott, 19 13-1926; and Washington, Columbus, and Nashville, 



44 R. P. Smith, D.D., Experiences in Mountain Mission Work, p. 1 18. 



194 COLORED LIGHT 

Arkansas, 1926 to the present. He was moderator of the Synod of 
Arkansas in 1894 and in 19 13, and is the author of several 
pamphlets. 

Of the class of 1889, R. M. Latimer, a lineal descendant of Francis 
Makemie, served as pastor in North Carolina, Tennessee, South Caro- 
lina, and Virginia. S. J. Cartledge, D.D., was pastor of four churches 
before he entered the present pastorate in Athens, Georgia, where he 
has served twenty-five years. 

Thomas S. Clyce, D.D., LL.D., '90, served as pastor, as president 
of Jackson Agricultural College, 1896- 1900, and of Austin College, 
1 900- 1 930. At the observance of his silver anniversary as president, 
it was noted the school had developed under his administration from 
one to five permanent buildings, assets from $100,000 to $750,000, 
and attendance from 1 04 to 425 . He was moderator of the Assembly 
in 1912. 45 

John P. Anderson, M.A., B.D., D.D., '90, served as pastor in 
Georgia, Alabama, and North Carolina. He was commissioner to 
six General Assemblies. Henry W. Burwell, D.D., '90, served as 
pastor in South Carolina, Florida, and Texas. He was an evangelist 
in Texas. J. F. Jacobs, D.D., '91, was connected with Presbyterian 
College for a time, and later edited the Southern Presbyterian. He 
built up Jacobs and Company, a leading church-paper advertising 
agency, at Clinton, South Carolina. C. H. Maury, D.D., '91, served 
three years in Jasper, Alabama, at Tupelo, Mississippi, 189 2- 1893, 
and twenty-six years in Arkansas pastorates, dying in active service at 
Bastrop, Louisiana, January 13, 1928. T. F. Banks, '91, served as 
pastor in Arkansas and Mississippi until his health failed in 19 14. 
Newton Smith, '92, writes: "In the twenty-eight churches to which 
I have preached the Lord has saved souls, and in the seven times I 
have moved I have not missed an appointment, not even a prayer 
meeting on that account. This is my longest pastorate and I have 
baptized about two hundred here." He attended four Assemblies 
and organized two churches. He wrote some tracts. C.O'N. Martin- 
dale, Ph.D., '92, has served pastorates in South Carolina, Georgia, 
Tennessee, has traveled in Europe and Asia, was delegate to the Jeru- 
salem World Sunday-School Convention and Pan-Presbyterian 
Council, Liverpool. He was professor in the Presbyterian Bible 



45 Mrs. G. T. Ralls, Oklahoma Trails, p. 145. 



TWENTIETH C ENTU RY 195 

Training School, Nashville, Tennessee, 1 909- 1 9 1 2. He has written 
several books and is an associate member of the Victoria Institute, 
Great Britain. W. S. Hamiter, B.D., B.Ph., '91, served Blacksburg, 
Seneca, Iva, Blackstock in South Carolina; Dallas and Pineville in 
North Carolina; and Richburg, South Carolina. He built a church 
building at Iva, and erected several manses. 

In the class of 93, B. R. Anderson served in Georgia — a long and 
useful ministry. D. A. Blackburn served Huguenot Church, Charles- 
ton, for a time, and the Church of the Strangers in New York City 
for the balance of his ministry. Wm. States Jacobs, LL.D., Ph.D., 
D.D., became the pastor of the Houston, Texas, church when that 
church was the largest Presbyterian church in the South. G. T. 
Bourne, D.D., was a church organizer and builder, having some eight 
churches to his credit. He was commissioner to three Assemblies. 
The educational contribution of Richard O. Flinn, D.D., '94, has 
been mentioned. 

The class of 1895 furnished George H. Cornelson, D.D., who took 
postgraduate work at McCormick Seminary and in Scotland. He 
was pastor at Malvern, Arkansas; Aiken, South Carolina; Concord, 
North Carolina; Nashville, Tennessee, and for fifteen years at the 
First Presbyterian Church, New Orleans. Alfred L. Patterson, D.D., 
is stated clerk of the Synod of Georgia and pastor in Savannah, 
Georgia. C. M. Richards, D.D., was long pastor at Davidson, North 
Carolina, and since 1926 has been professor of Bible at Davidson 
College. W. F. Hollingsworth, A.B., B.D., '93, served Mt. Zion 
Church in South Carolina, 1893- 1895; studied in Edinburgh, 
1 895- 1 896; served Cartersville, Georgia, 1897; Brunswick, Georgia, 
1 898- 1 905; and Morganton, North Carolina, 1 905-191 1. He 
was president of Glade Valley High School, Grove Institute, Mitchell 
College, and Lucy Cobb Institute. 

The class of 1896 produced LeRoy G. Henderson, D.D., a faithful 
and successful pastor in Americus and Griffin, Georgia; Knoxville, 
Tennessee; and long at Albany, Georgia. J. H. Henderlite, D.D., 
finished at Louisville Seminary. He has held important pastorates 
and is at present at Gastonia, North Carolina. Wm. M. Hunter served 
in the pastorate, and then in financial campaigns. He is located at 
Davidson, North Carolina, at present. R. G. Matheson, served in 
the pastorate in Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina in 



196 COLORED LIGHT 

such a way as to leave a deep impression. J. I. Norris occupied im- 
portant pulpits in Arkansas. 

From 1897 came Wm. Hayne Mills, A.B., B.D., D.D., who has 
been professor of rural sociology at Clemson College since 19 18. 
He served in the American Expeditionary Forces in France and has 
done some writing. He was moderator of the Synod of South Caro- 
lina in 1936. Hugh R. Murchison has been mentioned under 
faculty. C. A. McPheeters, Ph.D., was president of Missouri Synod - 
ical College, 1906- 1909, and is at present head of the department 
of Psychology in Westminster College, Fulton, Missouri. F. K. 
Sims, D.D., was pastor at Dalton, Georgia, and secretary of the 
Board of Columbia Seminary. James H. Taylor, D.D., has been 
pastor of Central Presbyterian Church, Washington, District of 
Columbia, since 1906 and was Woodrow Wilson's pastor. He has 
been delegate to the Pan-Presbyterian Council four times and has 
published some pamphlets. 

David Johnson Blackwell, A.B., B.D., '98, was pastor at 
Smyrna, South Carolina; Dahlonega-Nacoochee, Jefferson-Com- 
merce, Georgia; Eufaula, Alabama; Quincy, Florida; and Leaksville, 
North Carolina. He served as trustee upon several institutional 
boards and as Home Mission chairman of Athens Presbytery was a 
prime mover in establishing Nacoochee Institute. He built a church 
at Quincy, Florida, and organized and built a church at Havana, 
Florida. 

The work of Melton Clark, D.D., '98, has been given under 
faculty. Frank E. Rogers labored in Alabama, building up weak 
churches and building churches. D. M. Douglas, M.A., D.D., '99, 
was pastor of Maryland Avenue Church, Baltimore. He became pres- 
ident of Presbyterian College, Clinton, South Carolina, in 191 1. 
In 1926 he became president of the University of South Carolina, 
serving until his death in 193 1. Francis W. Gregg, D.D., '99, has 
been at the First Presbyterian Church, Rock Hill, South Carolina 
since 19 10. The manner in which he and Dr. Alexander Martin, 
'00, co-operated to provide a colony church in the city is unique and 
worthy of careful study. Four times he has been commissioner to 
the Assembly, and he has moderated the Synod of South Carolina. 
Joseph T. Dendy, '99, served Kershaw, South Carolina; Ebenezer, 
near Rock Hill, South Carolina; Belmont, North Carolina, and 



TWENTIETH CENTURY 197 

Grover, North Carolina, accomplishing outstanding results. Robert 
P. Walker, D.D., '99, in 1903 went to Oklahoma where in six 
years he led in building four churches and one manse. He has served 
effectively in Texas, Tennessee, South Carolina, Georgia, and is 
now pastor at Waynesville, North Carolina. 

From the class of 1900, Frank D. Jones, D.D., after a pastorate 
at Clinton, South Carolina, became connected with the faculty of 
Presbyterian College, where he has since served. Henry Lewis Pais- 
ley, D.D., '00, had done outstanding work in Arkansas, serving 
Mt. Holly, Scotland, Hamburg, and San Marcos and Gatesville in 
Texas. He served Fayetteville and Prairie Grove, Arkansas, and has 
been commissioner to six Assemblies and moderator of the Synod 
of Arkansas. Frank H. Wardlaw served effectively in the pastorate 
until his recent death in South Carolina. Hart Maxcy Smith, D.D., 
has served in the China mission since 1 90 1 . W. F. Harris has built 
or remodeled six churches or manses in Alabama and Florida. J. K. 
Roberts, '01, has been effective as an evangelist and superintendent 
of missions. A. E. Miller, '02, returned to his home State, Arkansas, 
and has labored there and in New Mexico and Texas. He has built 
several churches. J. P. Marion, D.D., '03, served Sumter, South 
Carolina, seventeen years and Greenwood, Mississippi, for the past 
thirteen years. Bunyan McLeod, '03, was pastor at Lexington, 
Kentucky. Paul S. Rhodes, '03, writes, "There has been nothing 
out of the ordinary in my work as pastor. Have simply tried to be 
faithful, having no ambition save to preach the gospel as best I 
could and do the will of my Lord in all my work. I shall never fail 
to feel a deep gratitude to old Columbia Seminary for the high type 
of instruction and preparation I received there." 

F. A. Bradshaw, '04, after fourteen years in Tennessee, Alabama, 
Missouri, and Arkansas, went into the Young Men's Christian As- 
sociation in 19 1 8. At Camp Bontanezou, near Brest, fourteen 
months, and at Warsaw, Poland, seven months, and at London tor 
six months, he returned and began work in the pastorate at Benton- 
ville, Arkansas, in 1921, where he continues to serve. J. B. Branch, 
'04, served as vice-president at Thornwell Orphanage and later as 
superintendent of De La Howe Institute in South Carolina. 

From the class of 1 905 came C. P. Coble who founded the Effing- 
ham Church in South Carolina, and served Vineville Church, 



198 COLORED LIGHT 

Macon, Georgia, and at High Point, North Carolina, built up a large 
church membership and erected one of the most beautiful church 
plants in the Southland. Geo. O. Griffin died of influenza in 
World War service. J. E. Hannah has been pastor at Newnan, 
Georgia, since 1906. Carl Wilson McCully, B.D., '05, served Cam- 
den, Alabama; Central Steele Creek, North Carolina; and Sharon, 
South Carolina. A. Linton Johnson, B.D., has served at Beckley, 
West Virginia; Madison, Georgia; as associate at the First Presby- 
terian Church, Atlanta, Georgia; Rock Springs Church, Atlanta, 
Georgia; at Blackshear, Georgia, for seventeen years. He was with 
the Y. M. C. A. in France. T. E. Simpson, D.D., was editor for a 
time of Intetchutch, a religious paper. He is now pastor at Darling- 
ton, South Carolina. Thomas Hugh Spence, A.B., B.D., served 
Cleveland, Unity, Smithfield, Rocky River and Patterson churches 
in North Carolina. J. E. Ward and A. E. Spencer have done ef- 
fective work in the pastorate. E. D. Kerr, D.D., '07, is upon the 
Columbia Seminary faculty at present, and R. T. Gillespie, D.D., 
'08, was president. 

A group of pastors came from the class of 1909. T. D. Bateman 
is at Columbus, Mississippi, J. E. Coker, D.D., at Aberdeen, Missis- 
sippi, G. M. Hollingsworth, Augusta, Kentucky, J. E. Wallace, 
D.D., Oxford, Mississippi, and G. M. Wilcox, D.D., is in Macon, 
Georgia. S. H. Hay, D.D., ' 10, is now at Morristown, Tennessee. 
He has written several pamphlets. L. T. Wilds, A.B., B. D., D.D., 
' 1 1 , was in the first class to receive an earned D.D. degree from 
Union Theological Seminary, Virginia, in 1920. Pastorates have 
been at Plant City, Florida; Highlands Church, Fayetteville, North 
Carolina; Lexington and Hendersonville, North Carolina. He has 
published leaflets. T. W. Griffiths, '11, was Regional Executive of 
the Boy Scouts, and is now director of Camp Rio Media for Boys, 
near Kerrville, Texas. Will J. Roach, B.S., '11, served Glenn 
Springs, South Carolina; Gastonia, North Carolina; and Lowell, 
North Carolina. Wiley Rankin Pritchett, A.B., B.D., '11, served 
Ridgeway, Indiantown, and Olanta churches in South Carolina. 
He organized and built a church at Mouzon, South Carolina. 

J. A. McMurray, '12, was stated clerk of the Synod of Florida 
from 1 930- 1 935. He has been pastor at Ocala, Florida, since 
1926. F. D. Vaughn, '12, served pastorates in South Carolina and 



TWENTIETH C E N T U RY 199 

became a chaplain in the World War, dying in one of the camps. 
John McSween, D.D., '13, served as president of Presbyterian 
College and is now pastor at Chester, South Carolina. F. Ray Rid- 
dle, A.B., B.D., '13, is pastor at Shandon, Columbia, South Caro- 
lina. 

John Richards Hay, A.B., B.D., '14, served Wedgefield, South 
Carolina; Brevard, North Carolina; Clover, South Carolina; and 
Hickory, North Carolina. He is president of the Board of Regents 
of Barium Springs Presbyterian Orphans' Home. His two grand- 
fathers, S. H. Hay and J. G. Richards, graduated at Columbia Semi- 
nary as did his two brothers, S. H. and F. J. Hay, Jr. Three uncles, 
T. P. and S. H. Hay and C. M. Richards, are Columbia alumni, as 
was his grandfather's brother, Charles M. Richards. Several cousins 
are alumni, S. B. Hay, T. B. Hay, J. McDowell Richards, and J. E. 
Richards. T. A. Beckett, A.B., B.D., '15, has been pastor at John's 
Island for some years. Bruce Bridwell Shankel, A.B., B.D., '15, 
served Indian Trail, Monroe, and Lenoir, North Carolina. Y. P. 
Scruggs, A.B., B.D., '15, served Washington and Hamburg in 
Arkansas; Belmont Church, Roanoke, Virginia; Callaway, Vir- 
ginia; and as principal of Shooting Creek Mission School and pastor 
of a mission. John Frank Ligon, A.B., M.A., B.D., '15, served 
Woodruff, Moore, Roebuck, Mount Calvary, and Reidville in South 
Carolina; Hendersonville and Tenth Avenue, Charlotte, North 
Carolina; and Columbia, Tennessee. In 1928 he was professor of 
Religious Education at Queens College. Robert Franklin Clayman, 
A.B., M.A., B.D., '15, served Lawson, Missouri; Bartow, Florida; 
Demopolis, Alabama; Capitol View, Atlanta; and Elizabethtown, 
Kentucky. Articles have appeared in the Christian Observer and 
Expositor, John William Stork, A.B., B.D., D.D., '15, has served 
Clayton, Alabama; Chinquapin, North Carolina; and Mt. Gilead, 
North Carolina. He has built two brick church buildings and built 
up a membership at his present field from 165 to 525. H. C. Car- 
michael, B.S., M.A., B.D., '15, served Marengo County, Alabama; 
Piedmont and Elmira at Burlington, North Carolina; Williams 
Memorial, at Charlotte; Unionville, North Carolina; Cleveland; 
Greensboro Methodist Protestant Church; and Bethlehem Group at 
Unionville, North Carolina. 

C. Darby Fulton, A.B., M.A., B.D., S.T.D., D.D., '15, has 



200 CO LORED LIG HT 

been mentioned as a missionary and Secretary of the Executive 
Committee of Foreign Missions. J. M. Lemmon, A.B., B.D., '15, 
is pastor at Rowland, N. C. J. Sprole Lyons, Jr., A.B., B.D., '15, 
served in the World War as chaplain and later upon the lecture 
platform. G. A. Nickles, A.B. B.D., D.D., '16, has recently been 
moderator of the Synod of South Carolina. His present pastorate is 
in Charleston, South Carolina. Before that he served Black Moun- 
tain, North Carolina; as assistant at Greenville, South Carolina; 
and as chaplain in the World War. 

J. W. Currie, M.A., B.D., '17, taught at Hampden-Sydney, 
Texas Presbyterian College, and Mississippi State Teachers' Col- 
lege. Alton Riley Cates, '17, has given his life to the home-mission 
field, being at present in Mobile Presbytery. James Samuel Garner, 
A.B., M.A., B.D., '16, served Mullins, South Carolina; Mebane 
North Carolina; and Benncttsville, South Carolina. P. W. DuBose, 
D.D., '17, organized the church at Williston, South Carolina. He 
served Arcadia, Florida; Westminster Church in Miami; as president 
of Palmer College in Florida; and in 1934 established a high school 
for missionaries' children in Columbia, South Carolina. In 1935 he 
moved the Hampden DuBose Academy to Orlando, Florida, where 
it continues. F. M. Grissett, '17, sailed for Africa July 1, 1920, 
and has continued to serve there. S. Browne Hoyt, ' 1 7, has recently 
led in erecting a new Sunday-school building at Gilwood Church, 
Concord, North Carolina. W. S. Hutchison, '17, says; "No part 
of American life has changed more rapidly than here in Western 
North Carolina. And now the Tennessee Valley Authority is to 
carry the change a great deal farther. From the backwoods to the 
best in American rural life we are to go within the compass of a 
single generation. I am trying to strengthen my people's spiritual 
foundations, to interpret the new life, and to aid them in making 
the profound readjustments which they must make." J. S. Land, 
D.D., '17, was ordained pastor St. Charles Avenue Branch of the 
First Presbyterian Church, New Orleans, and has led in the erection 
of a handsome edifice and built up a membership of 663. Neil Mc- 
Innis, '17, organized Community and Fairview Churches in Gran- 
ville Presbytery. W. T. Riviere, A.B., M.A., B.D., D.D., '17, 
served in a machine gun company in France, the land of his fore- 
fathers. He received a degree from the University of Bordeaux, 



TWENTIETH C E N T U RY 201 

Faculte des Lettres, Diplome d' Etudes Superieures de Philosophe. 
Washington and Lee University granted the D.D. degree. He was 
professor of Bible at the University of South Carolina for a yeai. 
From the pastorate at Cleburne, Texas, he moved to Victoria, one 
of the oldest churches in Texas. He has been in demand as a lec- 
turer and has published many articles. George Hampton Rector, 
A.B., B.D., '17, transferred to Union Seminary. He served churches 
in West Virginia. E. M. Shepard, ' 1 7, is pastor at Batesville, Missis- 
sippi. Howard D. Smith, '17, died in 1921 while pastor at Mis- 
sion, Texas. J. O. Van Meter, '17, is president of Lee Junior Col- 
lege at Jackson, Kentucky. It has grown greatly under his super- 
vision. W. G. Harry, '17, served Manchester, Georgia; Lakeview 
and Palmer Park churches, New Orleans; Carrollton, Louisiana; 
and Newton, North Carolina. Daniel Iverson, '18, has built a 
great church in Miami, Florida, beginning the work himself. A. H. 
Key, '19, has been in considerable demand as an evangelist. L. D. 
King, '19, served McDonough, Georgia. He died some time ago. 
John Rupert McGregor, Th.D., '19, pastor at Burlington, North 
Carolina, is director of Synod's Young People's Conference at 
Davidson College. Irby D. Terrell, A.B., M.A., B.D., Th.M., '19, 
served as assistant pastor, First Church, Norfolk, Virginia; pastor 
Ocean View Church; stated supply, Kinston, North Carolina; pas- 
tor Buena Vista, Virginia. John W. Davis, A.B., B.D., '20, has 
been pastor of historic Williamsburg Church, Kingstree, South 
Carolina, since graduation. Other members of these classes are men- 
tioned under faculty or elsewhere. 

Education 

Winthrop College, the South Carolina College for Women, 
from which 40,000 young women have already graduated, had its 
birth in the little Columbia Seminary Chapel. A Presbyterian and 
an elder in the church for many years, Dr. David Bancroft John- 
son organized the city school system in Columbia in 1883 and be- 
came first superintendent of schools. Needing trained teachers, he 
determined to open a training school in Columbia. He paid his way 
to Boston and induced the Peabody Board to give him $1,500, 
later increased by another $2,500. The Seminary was closed at 
the time due to the evolution controversy. On November 15,1 886, 



202 COLORED LIGHT 

nineteen students enrolled in the Winthrop Training School con- 
ducted in the little chapel that had been built a stable. 

Many years on Founders' Day the senior class has come from Rock 
Hill to visit the chapel. In 1925 the Winthrop Alumnae Associa- 
tion petitioned the Board of the Seminary to allow them to re- 
move the chapel, after Columbia Seminary was moved, and to 
erect it, probably over the grave of David B. Johnson, on the Win- 
throp Campus. On May 7, 1936, the Board of Directors officially 
presented the old chapel building to Winthrop College for re-erec- 
tion upon its campus in connection with the celebration of the semi- 
centennial of the founding in the fall of 1936. A condition of the 
gift is that a memorial tablet shall set forth the relation to Columbia 
Seminary and such historical facts as the Seminary faculty shall 
ask to have inscribed. 46 

Chicora College was organized in the First Presbyterian Church, 
Greenville, South Carolina, on Aug. 12, 1893. Dr. T. M. Mc- 
Connell, '75, was pastor. The school became the property of the 
presbyteries in 1907, and in 19 15 was moved to Columbia. In 
1930 it was combined with Queens College at Charlotte, North 
Carolina. Dr. S. C. Byrd, '92, was president during most of its 
separate existence. 

Presbyterian high schools were organized extensively about the 
beginning of the century. The Rev. George Blackburn, '86, or- 
ganized one in Columbia that flourished for a time; and the Rev. 
Melton Clark, '98, organized one in Florence, South Carolina. 

Dr. Richard O. Flinn, '94, organized North Avenue Presbyterian 
Church, Atlanta, in 1899, and out of that church grew the organi- 
zation of the North Avenue Girls' School. He has been very promi- 
nent in all departments of church work. 

In 1888 the Synod of North Carolina appointed Dr. Jethro 
Rumple, '57, chairman of a commission to formulate plans for the 
establishment and conduct of Synod's Orphan Home. The resolu- 
tion calling for the appointment of the commission had been intro- 
duced by Dr. W. E. Mcllwain, '75, who later established two schol- 
arships of $1,000 each in the orphanage. Dr. Rumple was the first 
president of the Board of Regents appointed in 1889. The synod 



46 Leila A. Russell, Alumnae Executive Secretary, Winthrop College, in letter 
to writer, February 10, 1936. 



TWENTIETH CENTURY 203 

took over a work previously conducted in Charlotte. "For fifteen 
years the management of this institution was the burden of the great 
heart of Dr. Rumple, and to this work he gave his best thought, his 
wise counsel, his noble efforts, and its success was the joy of the 
closing years of his life. The institution is at present located at 
Barium Springs, and provides a Christian home and educational 
training for over three hundred children. 47 R. William Boyd, M.A., 
B.D.,' 77, was the first superintendent of this work. 

As Secretary of Home Missions, J. N. Craig, D.D., '59, spon- 
sored the school at Goodland, Oklahoma, in 1894, which later be- 
came Goodland Indian Orphanage. 48 William States Jacobs, '93, 
while pastor at Columbus, Mississippi, established Palmer Orphan- 
age in 1898/ It is now the sy nodical home of Mississippi and Louis- 
iana. 

Southwestern Presbyterian Home and School for Orphans began 
in Dallas in 1903. Dr. J. O. Reavis, faculty of 19 13-1920, when 
pastor at Dallas, was called by a dying mother and asked to care for 
her four little children. She remarked, "The Presbyterians have no 
orphans' home in this section." He assured the dying mother that her 
little ones would have Christian care and training. He and the 
women of the church rented a cottage, employed a matron, and soon 
were caring for several other children also. Synod decided to es- 
tablish an Orphanage in 1903 and appointed Dr. Reavis chairman 
of the committee. He selected a site at Files Valley, and twelve 
children were moved there May 1, 1906. 49 

Joseph H. Lumpkin, D.D., '86, served as Secretary of the As- 
sembly's Executive Committee of Education for the Ministry from 
1897 to 1904. 50 

T. D. Witherspoon, D.D., LL.D., '59, was the first professor in 
Louisville Theological Seminary at its founding in 1893, and 
served until his death in 1898. 51 

Edwin Muller, D.D., '84, became associate professor of Church 
History in 1893, and two years later full professor at Louisville 

47 D. I. Craig, A History of the Development of the Presbyterian Church in 
North Carolina, p. 113. 

48 Mrs. G. T. Ralls, Oklahoma Trails, p. 126. 

49 W. S. Red, A History of the Presbyterian Church in Texas, p. 336, and 
Mrs. G. T. Ralls, op. cit., p. 158. 

5U S. M. Tenney, Souvenir of the General Assembly, ig24, p. 183. 

51 I. S. McElroy, The Louisville Presbyterian Seminary (1929), p. 91. 



204 COLORED LIGHT 

Presbyterian Theological Seminary. J. R. Howerton, D.D., '85, 
was at Stillman Institute for colored ministers for a time as profes- 
sor, later teaching philosophy at Washington and Lee University. 
The income from the Smyth Lectureship was allowed to ac- 
cumulate with the principal until 191 1. Lectures have been given 
since then in the period we are treating as follows: 

191 1 Francis Ladley Patton, D.D., LL.D., 
The Theistic View of the World. 

19 12 Casper Rene Gregory, D.D., LL.D., 

Theological Movements in Germany During Nineteenth 
Century. 
1 9 13 Robert E. Speer, LL.D., 

Some Missionary Problems Illustrated in the Lives of 
Great Missionary Leaders. 
1 9 1 4 Robert A. Webb, D.D. , LL.D. 

The Doctrine of the Christian Hope. 

1 9 1 5 William Hoge Marquess, D.D., LL.D., 

The Period from Abraham to Joshua as Illustrated by 
the Results of Archaeological Discovery. 

1 9 16 J. Campbell White, M.A., LL.D., 
Missions and Leadership. 

19 1 7 W. S. Plumer Bryan, D.D., 

The Grace of God. 
19 1 8 Benjamin B. Warfield, D.D., LL.D., 

Counterfeit Miracles. 

19 1 9 Francis Ladley Patton, D.D., LL.D. 
Christianity and the Modern Man. 

1920 A. H. McKinney, D.D., 

Guiding Girls to Christian Womanhood. 

Foreign Missions 

Robert Eugenius McAlpine, A.B., B.D., '85, was appointed to 
the Japanese Mission in the spring of 1884. He opened our Japa- 
nese Mission. After forty-eight years of service he retired in 1932. 
During five furloughs he visited churches all over the Assembly, and 



TWENTIETH CENTURY 205 

since retirement has supplied, for six months each, Elkins, North 
Carolina, and Winston-Salem mission, North Carolina. He has 
one son and two daughters who are now missionaries of our Church 
in Japan and China, and three other daughters who have married 
missionaries of other denominations in Japan. Other missionaries 
in this period are: 

Walter E. Shive, '84, Mexico. 

S. R. Hope, '85, Japan. 

S. P. Fulton, '87, Japan. 

W. G. White, '91, China. 

H. S. Allyn, '93, Brazil. 

Alexander Waite, '99, Siam. 

James Waite, '99, Siam. 

J. T. Butler, 'oo, Central America. 

Khoshaba Shimmon, '00, Persia. 

H. Maxcy Smith, '00, China. 

L. O. McCutchen, '01, Korea. 

P. C. DuBose, '05, China. 

R. D. Daffin, '06, Brazil. 

John McEachern, '11, Korea. 

S. H. Wilds, '12, Congo Beige, Africa. 

W. P. Mills, '12, Y. M. C. A., China. 

C. Darby Fulton, '15, Japan. 
J. N. Montgomery, '16, China. 
H. L. Reaves, '16, China. 

F. Mc. Grissett, '17, Cameroun, W. Africa. 
A. L. Davis, '18, Brazil. 

D. A. Swicord, '18, Korea. 

Hoyt Miller, Special '19, Congo Beige, Africa. 

Geo. Hudson, '23, China. 

W. G. Neville, '23, Brazil. 

C. Reece Jenkins, '23, Japan. 

V. A. Crawford, '25, Japan. 

Walter S. Swetnam, '25, Brazil. 

J. Knox Johnston, '28, Brazil. 

H. H. Bryan, '29, Japan. 

W. A. Linton, '30, Korea. 



206 COLORED LIGHT 

Dr. J. O. Reavis, of the Seminary faculty, returned to a field 
secretaryship for the Executive Committee of Foreign Missions in 
1920 and continues to serve in that capacity. Charles Darby Ful- 
ton, A.B., M.A., B.D., S.T.D., D.D., '15, was recalled from Japan 
in 1925 to become field secretary of the same committee, and since 
1932 has been executive secretary. S. P. Fulton, A.B., B.D., D.D., 
'87, took two years at Columbia and graduated at Union Seminary. 
He has long been president of the theological seminary in Japan and 
has been characterized as one of the great missionary statesmen of 
our day. He was a teacher of the famous Kagawa. 

Problems of the Day 

The evolution controversy had considerable effect upon Columbia 
Seminary, because the faculty of Columbia Seminary divided upon 
the issue and took the leading parts in the long-drawn-out and 
blighting debate. The Seminary was closed temporarily; and it 
was years before the institution recovered from the contention. It 
would be naive to consider this controversy an academic debate upon 
the evolutionary theory. There were other factors in the contro- 
versy and in the result. Temperamental differences in the faculty 
should be considered. Dr. John L. Girardeau was a man of sweep- 
ing intellect and strong emontional drive. He was an orator who 
carried his hearers along, entranced. Dr. James Woodrow was a 
man of exact and detailed thinking, with emotions disciplined and 
always subjected to intellect. He was accustomed to careful plan- 
ning and efficient practical procedure. He moved men by calm rea- 
soning and intellectual depth and clarity. Dr. Girardeau's avoca- 
tion was poetry. Dr. Woodrow's was chemistry. With the passing 
of Dr. Howe, these two men came into leadership of the affairs of 
the Seminary. They might have proved a wonderful balance each 
to the other, but instead of being drawn closer together, they were 
pulled apart. Dr. Woodrow became more and more engaged in 
secular affairs, in editing the church papers, and at the University. 
Dr. Girardeau helped organize a mission Sunday school which grew 
into Arsenal Hill Church, of which he became first pastor. This 



i2 W. C. Robinson, op. cit., p. 14 



TWENTIETH C E N T U RY 207 

church received the stamp of Dr. Girardeau's strong Calvinism and 
strict ideas of church discipline. No musical instrument was al- 
lowed in the worship, and members who worked on Sunday were 
not desired. A wonderfully pure and devout way of life was de- 
veloped within the clearly drawn doctrinal and ethical bounds. The 
two sincere and great Christian men were developing along diverse 
lines. In the General Assembly of i 880 in Charleston, South Caro- 
lina, the two were upon opposite sides in the debate upon in thesi 
deliverances. Dr. Girardeau is reported to have held the Assembly 
with transfixed attention and admiration for over two hours with 
logic set on fire. Dr. Woodrow and Dr. H. M. Smith spoke as long 
with simplicity and clearness. 53 Dr. Adger wrote a summary and 
compromise, which was presented by Dr. Woodrow, seconded by 
Dr. Girardeau, and adopted. 

The discussion of Darwin's theory brought the subject of evolu- 
tion much to the fore. It was popularly connected with a natural- 
istic philosophy that ignored final causes. Therefore, many preach- 
ers delivered an undiscerning broadside against naturalistic phil- 
osophy and labeled the object of their attack "Evolution." 

It was seen as conflicting with the concept of inspiration. On 
May 9, 1883, Dr. Girardeau said before the alumni, "May the day 
never come when that fundamental truth shall be shaken in this 
institution. Better would it be that its invested funds should be 
withered up, its doors be bolted, and that the youthful seekers of 
truth should repair for instruction to the pastors of Christ's flock 
who remain faithful to his word." 54 

That same May the Board adopted a resolution, introduced by 
Dr. J. B. Mack, requesting Dr. James Woodrow to write out fully 
and publish his views as taught in the institution regarding evolu- 
tion. Dr. Woodrow delivered an address before the Alumni As- 
sociation in May, 1884, upon the subject, and submitted a copy to 
the Board. There was no special opposition to the address, and Dr. 
Girardeau expressed himself as doubting that it would provoke 
much public discussion. 55 The Board resolved: "Second, that in the 



53 George A. Blackburn, op. cit., pp. 223-225 
b4 Semi-Centennial Volume, op. cit., p. 408. 
5 5Marion W. Woodrow, op. cit., p. 64. 



208 COLORED LIGHT 

judgment of this Board, the relations subsisting between the teach- 
ing of Scripture and the teachings of Natural Science are plainly, 
correctly, and satisfactorily set forth in said address. 

"Third, that while the Board is not prepared to concur in the view 
expressed by Dr. Woodrow as to the probable creation of Adam's 
body, yet in the judgment of this Board there is nothing in the doc- 
trine of Evolution, as denned and limited by him, which is incon- 
sistent with perfect soundness in the faith." 56 

Our limitations of space will not allow a full discussion of the 
controversy. There is a large literature upon the subject. 57 There 
was adverse criticism of Dr. Woodrow throughout the church, as 
well as some commendation. Dr. Woodrow complained that he 
was classed among the "disciples of Darwin," which he denied. 5i 
Dr. J. B. Mack states that he came to agree with Dr. W. E. Boggs 
that Dr. Woodrow's chair was not of much help to the Seminary. 
Discussing the matter, it was agreed that Dr. Boggs should person- 
ally approach Dr. Woodrow upon the subject of his resignation. 
Dr. Woodrow would not take the suggestion and offer his resigna- 
tion. Did he believe he would be surrendering under fire? On June 
19, 1884, he had written in his paper in answer to discussion in 
other papers, "We have the best reason to know that the Perkins 
Professor regards his teaching on the subject of Evolution as nevei 
so remotely contradictory of any truth in God's word, in the ac- 
curacy of every syllable of which he believes with all his heart." 59 
Did he believe he was merely the object of personal dislike on the 
part of some? In 1871 he had asked the Assembly to vindicate his 
conduct of the treasurership of the Foreign Mission Committee 
against derogatory remarks published in several church papers under 
different noms de plume by one who had been a candidate for the 



56 Quoted by F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 169. 

57 The literature includes: Evolution, the pamphlet in which the address was 
published, James Woodrow, Presbyterian Publishing House, Columbia, S. C. 
(1884.) 

Dr. James Woodrow as Seen by His Friends, collected by Marion W. Wood- 
row, op. cit. 

J. B. Adger, My Life and Times, op. cit.; George A. Blackburn, op. cit.; F. D. 
Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., James Stacy, op. cit., W. C. Robinson, op. cit. 
Minutes of presbyteries, synods and the General Assembly. S. L. Morris, An 
Autobiography. 

58 Marion W. Woodrow, op. cit., p. 676. 

59 Ibid., p. 656. 



TWENTIETH C E N T U RY 209 

chair of Chemistry at South Carolina College, to which Dr. Wood- 
row had been elected. In an address before that Assembly he had 
exposed and severely reprimanded his critic, no doubt creating en- 
emies among the friends of the critic. In the same article on June 
19, 1884, he wrote, "No Presbyterian tribunal will listen to whis- 
perers, backbiters, slanderers, who go about in the dark bringing 
accusations which they cannot prove." 60 One of those who led the 
Woodrow defense up to the Assembly, Dr. S. L. Morris, has writ- 
ten that the controversy "had its origin in the personal unpopularity 
of Dr. James Woodrow." 61 Did he believe he must protect the 
church from a tendency toward error? In the Review for July, 
1873, he had undertaken an "Examination of Certain Recent As- 
saults on Physical Science," stating: "Believing that Dr. D 's 

views respecting physical science . . . are not only not true, but also 
dangerous, because certain to lead to the rejection of the Sacred Scrip- 
tures so far as he is here regarded as their true interpreter, the writer 
feels impelled to utter his dissent. To one who believes firmly in 
every word of the Bible as inspired by the Holy Ghost, as the writer 
does with all his heart, its truth is too precious to allow him to be 
indifferent to a professed defense of this truth which is based upon 
principles which must inevitably lead to its rejection." 62 

Dr. Robert L. Dabney had been elected teacher of theology at 
Clarksville and Dr. Mack felt he would draw all the patronage 
from Columbia since Dr. Woodrow was in popular disfavor in the 
church at large. 63 The religious papers precipitated the contro- 
versy and virtually tried and condemned Dr. Woodrow without giv- 
ing him a hearing before the church courts. 64 

With this setting we can rapidly trace the development. The 
synods in 1884 gave much time to the debate of the reports of the 
committees on the Theological Seminary. After six days the Synod 
of South Carolina took action disapproving of the teaching of evo- 
lution in the Seminary "except in a purely expository manner with- 
out intention of inculcating its truth," and also expressed its "sin- 
cere affection for Dr. Woodrow's person, its appreciation of the 



''"Marion W. Woodrow, op. at., pp. 548. 150. 

(il S. L. Morris, An Autobiography, p. by. 

'•'-Ibid., p. 409. and W. C. Robinson, op. at., p. 179. 

G3 W. C. Robinson, op. at., p. 179. 

b4 S. L. Morris, op. at., p 68. 



210 COLORED LIGHT 

purity of his Christian character, its admiration of his distinguished 
talents and scholarly attainments both in Theology and Science, 
and its high estimate of his past services. 65 The vote was 51 to 45. 
The Synod of Georgia adopted a majority report 60 to 2 1 that "the 
action of the board be disapproved" and "directs the board to 
take whatever steps may be necessary to prevent it," that is, the 
teaching of evolution in the Seminary. 66 The Synod of Alabama 
rejected a report simply disapproving the teaching of evolution ex- 
cept in an expository manner and adopted, 41 to 19, a report call- 
ing upon the Board to take steps to prevent such teaching. The 
Synod of South Georgia and Florida, 22 to 13, took similar action. 67 
Other synods, not having any control of Columbia Seminary, ex- 
pressed themselves concerning evolution. The Synods of Kentucky, 
Nashville, Memphis, Arkansas, and Texas all condemned the pro- 
mulgation of the theory of evolution. The helpless professor had 
become the focus against which a widespread attack was being made 
upon naturalistic philosophy, conceived of as being implied in evo- 
lution. A called meeting of the Board was convened December 10, 
1884, and requested Dr. Woodrow's resignation. He respectfully 
declined on the ground he was not guilty of teaching anything con- 
trary to the creed of the church, and asked for a full trial. The 
Board held he had received a full hearing in person before three of 
the controlling synods and had his views disapproved. They, there- 
fore, removed him as professor by a resolution. As soon as this ac- 
tion was taken, Dr. W. E. Boggs and Dr. C. R. Hemphill offered 
their resignations and they were accepted. 

Dr. Woodrow gave notice of appeal to the synods from the ac- 
tion of the Board. He asked his own presbytery (Augusta) to try 
him for heresy, which they refused on the ground there were no 
charges and none to institute the process. Before the Synod of 
Georgia, in 1885, Dr. Woodrow came with an appeal against the 
action of the Board and a complaint against the action of Augusta 
Presbytery in refusing to try him. The synod approved the action 
of the Board 45 to 23. The synod sustained the complaint against 
the Presbytery of Augusta and returned the case to them. The 



ti5 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 175. 
G0 James Stacy, op. at., p. 220. 
v'Ibid., p. 224. 



TWENTIETH CENTURY 211 

Synod of South Carolina disapproved the action of the Board, 79 
to 62. The Synod of Alabama, 27 to 15, sustained the action of 
the Board. The Synod of South Georgia and Florida, 15 to 11, 
disapproved the action of the Board. The consolidated vote was 
129 to 145 against Dr. Woodrow's removal. When the Board met 
in December, 1885, it passed a resolution stating their previous ac- 
tion had not been approved by a majority of the synods. Since such 
approval was necessary, according to section 2, article 11, of the 
constitution, to make the action final, "therefore, 

Resolved 1 . That the Board recognizes the said Professor James 
Woodrow as the lawful incumbent of the Perkins Professorship." 

Dr. Woodrow replied to a question of the Board by stating his 
willingness to accord with the expressed wishes of the synods "by 
omitting Evolution from the subjects taught." He asked advice 
as to how this was to be done. The Board then sent a committee 
to ask for his resignation "to secure the best possible results in be- 
half of the Seminary." The request was refused. Since the consti- 
tution of the Seminary only allowed the Board to remove a professor 
for unfaithfulness or incompetency, the majority of the Board re- 
fused to remove him. They adjourned. 

The General Assembly of 1886 took action in which it "does 
. . . earnestly recommend ... to the Synods ... to dismiss the Rev. 
James Woodrow." On Sept. 15, 1886, Dr. Woodrow asked per- 
mission from the Board to "abstain from teaching, for the present, 
I, during such time, relinquishing my salary." He had been tried 
by Augusta Presbytery the month previous and declared "Not 
guilty." The Board granted the request and took action closing 
the Seminary until September, 1887. 

The dicussion had by this time become so widespread in the 
church and secular papers that it was even causing bitterness. Two 
satires, A Dream and The Modern Play of Julius Caesar, were pub- 
lished by Dr. S. L. Morris, a Woodrow protagonist, but with the 
authorship concealed. 68 One editor had been charged with duplicity 
and falsehood and tried before presbytery. A paper signed by 104 
ministers and elders even threatened division. Almost every church 
court had taken some action upon the matter. Even the Northern 



*S. L. Morris, op. cit., p. 68. 



212 COLORED LIGHT 

Assembly had expressed itself. Dr. Girardeau had placed his resig- 
nation before the Board. 

The synods met in 1886. The Synod of South Carolina wired 
Dr. Woodrow, asking for his resignation to the Board. He declined 
by wire. The synod then voted, 78 to 42, "that the Board be di- 
rected to remove him from office and declare the Professorship va- 
cant." The three other synods took substantially the same action. 
The Board, in view of these actions, on December 8, 1886, asked 
again for Dr. Woodrow's resignation. Being refused, they, the 
Board, then took action removing him. 69 Dr. Morris was absent 
from the Board meeting because of the birth of a daughter at home. 
He named the child "Hattie Woodrow" in protest against the action 
taken. 70 

The repercussions dragged on. The Augusta Presbytery trial was 
appealed to the Assembly of 1887. The Baltimore Assembly in 
1888 did not sustain Dr. Woodrow's complaint. "Now, therefore, 
it is the judgment of this General Assembly, that Adam's body was 
directly fashioned by Almighty God, of the dust of the ground, 
without any natural animal parentage of any kind. The wisdom 
of God prompted Him to reveal the fact, while the inscrutable mode 
of his action therein He has not revealed." Living in Columbia and 
not serving his presbytery there, it was logical that Dr. Woodrow 
transfer to the local Charleston Presbytery. But when he applied, 
he was refused admission because of his disagreement with the ma- 
jority in the presbytery upon many matters, and other reasons. 
South Carolina Presbytery received him. Dr. James Woodrow was 
never personally sentenced in any way by the church. He continued 
an honored member of the Synod of South Carolina, and was 
elected its moderator in 1901. Upon his death his family erected 
a church as a memorial. 

One of his students, Dr. S. L. Morris, has recorded this tribute: 
"He was a universal genius; one of the greatest scholars the South 
ever produced. He taught me more than all the other professors 
combined, and so grounded me in the truth of the Bible that no 
power on earth can successfully assail my faith. Many a time have 



69 James Stacy, op. cit., p. 210 forward. 
70 S. L. Morris, op. cit., p. 69. 



TWENTIETH C E N T U RY 213 

I heard him say, 'I fear God, and in fearing him I have nothing else 
to fear'." 71 

Social Service 

The part taken by Dr. B. M. Palmer in the Anti-Lottery League, 
which helped destroy the Louisiana Lottery, is an illustration of the 
type of social service rendered by Columbia alumni. He opened the 
campaign in an address before a great assembly on June 25, 1891. 
Colonel Wm. Preston Johnston, son of Albert Sidney Johnston, 
introduced Dr. Palmer as "the first citizen of New Orleans." A 
Jewish rabbi said of this address: "I give you my word, sir, that 
night Dr. Palmer did not permit me to think for myself, nor to 
feel for myself, nor to will for myself, but picked me up and car- 
ried me whithersoever he would. It did not seem to me that it was 
Palmer who was speaking. He spoke as one inspired. It seemed to 
me that God Almighty was speaking through Palmer. He had filled 
him with His Spirit and Message as He filled the Hebrew prophets 
of old." 

The next morning the same rabbi was in conversation with one 
who owned large stock in the lottery. 

"You had better draw out of the lottery. It is doomed." 

"Why do you think so, Rabbi?" 

"Dr. Palmer has spoken." 

"Ha, the speech of one parson cannot kill the lottery, we have the 
money." 

"Your lottery is doomed, your holdings will soon be worthless 
chaff. Not one parson has spoken! Ten thousand parsons have 
spoken! Every man, woman, and child that heard that address last 
night is today a missionary against your lottery and its doom is as 
certain and as inexorable as death." 

The event proved the end of the lottery. 72 

This period saw religious work in the cotton-mill villages begin. 
W. H. Mills, '97, began his ministry in this service. The alumni 
helped in promoting temperance and condemning mob violence, and, 
of course, in myriad services in the regular parish duties. 



71 S. L. Morris, op. cit., p. 70. 

72 The World War service of Alumni has sometimes been mentioned in con- 
nection with their names. T. C. Johnson, Life and Letters of B. M. Palmer, op. 
cit., p. 562. Quotation condensed. 



214 



COLORED LIGHT 



In 1905 Dr. J. R. Howerton, '85, secured an option on Mon- 
treal North Carolina, from Mr. John S. Huyler, of New York. 
The Synod of North Carolina appointed Dr. Howerton chairman 
of a committee to attend to all matters in making the property a 
summer conference ground. He financed the proposition through 
stock and lot sales. He was elected first president of the Mountain 
Retreat Association in 1906. This religious assembly ground has 
become an important feature of the church's life and is now the 
home of the General Assembly and the seat of Montreat College. 




CHAPTER VI 

AMONG CHANGING SURROUNDINGS 
1921-1936 



IT IS popular to attribute many changes to the World War. Cer- 
tain it is that America's tempo of living was different after the 
events of those days. Changing conditions were to bring about a 
new era in the life of the venerable and conservative Columbia Semi- 
nary. 

John Miller Wells, M.A., Ph.D., D.D., LL.D., succeeded Dr. 
Whaling as president in 1921 and continued until his resignation 
in 1924. He served as professor of Pastoral Theology also. Born 




DR. JOHN MILLER WELLS 

in Hinds County, Mississippi, July 16, 1870, he graduated from 
Southwestern Presbyterian University with the M.A. degree in 
1890, and received the Ph.D. degree from Illinois Wesleyan Col- 
lege later. He served as an abstractor of land titles in Kansas City, 
Missouri, for a time and entered and later graduated from Union 
Seminary, Virginia, in 1893. Ordained by Lexington Presbytery, 
October 29, 1893, he served at Buena Vista, Virginia, 1893- 1896. 



CHANGING SURROUNDINGS 217 

He was pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church, Staunton, Vir- 
ginia, 1 896- 1 901; pastor of the First Presbyterian Church, Wil- 
mington, North Carolina, 1 90 1- 1 92 1. After the term as president 
of the Seminary he became pastor at Sumter, South Carolina, where 
he continues to the present. Davidson College and Washington and 
Lee conferred the D.D. degree, and Southwestern conferred the LL.D. 

Dr. Wells was moderator of the Assembly in 1 9 1 7. He has taken 
a leading part in advocacy of church benevolences and in 1933 repre- 
sented the Assembly at the international gathering of Presbyterians 
at Belfast, Ireland. He served as chairman of the Assembly Com- 
mittee on Federal Union in 191 8. In 1936 he delivered the Sprunt 
Lectures at Union Seminary, Virginia. 1 

James Benjamin Green, A.B., D.D., has served as professor of 
Systematic Theology since 1921. He was born at Lexington, Ala- 
bama, May 10, 1 87 1. In 1893 Peabody Normal College, Nash- 
ville, Tennessee, granted him the Licentiate of Instruction de- 
gree; and he graduated from Union Theological Seminary, Virginia, 
in 1 90 1. The Presbyterian College of South Carolina conferred 
the D.D. degree in 19 14. He was pastor at Columbia, Tennessee, 
1901-1903; at Fayetteville, 1903- 1907; Greenwood, South Caro- 
lina, 1 908- 1 92 1. Dr. Green has been in great demand as a lecturer 
at summer conferences. 2 

Richard Thomas Gillespie, A.B., B.D., D.D., LL.D., '08, was 
elected president of Columbia Seminary November 24, 1924, and 
took up his duties January 1 , 1925, being inaugurated May 3, 1927. 
Born October 23, 1879, at Tirzah, near Rock Hill, York County, 
South Carolina, he received the A.B. degree from Davidson College 
and the B.D. degree from Columbia Seminary in 1908. Pastorates 
included Florence, South Carolina, June, 1908, to January, 191 7; 
Maxwell Street Presbyterian Church, Louisville, Kentucky, 19 17 
to 1 921; the First Presbyterian Chijrch, Louisville, Kentucky, 
1 92 1 to Jan. 1, 1925. His death occurred May 30, 1930. 

Young Gillespie went to Columbia Seminary as a student in its 
darkest hours. Dr. McPheeters has recorded his conversation with 
Gillespie before he entered, showing his motive in attending Co- 
lumbia rather than a larger seminary was loyalty to the institution 



1 S. M. Tenney, Souvenir General Assembly (1924), p. 119, and other sources. 
2 Whos Who in America, Vol. 18, 1934-35, P- 1008. 



218 COLORED LIGHT 

of his own people, and a desire to lend it his patronage. As a stu- 
dent he promoted the plan for a guest room at the Seminary and he 
was the mover in fitting up a special room for the Society of Mis- 
sionary Inquiry. In urging young men to select definite objectives 
in life and steadily work toward them, he once confessed his early 




DR. RICHARD T. GILLESPIE 

purpose to fit himself to take an active part in the development of 
Columbia Seminary. When elected by the Board he visited Co- 
lumbia Seminary and conferred with the faculty and Board con- 
cerning his purpose and ideas. He refused to accept the presidency 
until the pending question of location had been settled by the 
synods. He threw himself into the plans for removal and with won- 
derful energy guided the erection of the new plant in Decatur, 
Georgia, and the campaigns for money incident thereto. He was a 
man of action, and a leader who compelled co-operation by his un- 
selfish devotion and winsome personality. He literally poured out 
his life into the new Columbia Seminary. Said the member of the 
Board who had been chairman of the building committee: "I see 
him now as he stood at the beginning of his Presidency ... a young 



CHANGING SURROUNDINGS 219 

man with a strong, agile, and alert body, and a quick and steady 
step; with a clear, keen and logical mind; with a vision that was 
brilliant with the richest hopes; and an enthusiasm that was freely 
fed from the exuberance of youth, ... I see him as he called me to 
the rear of the chapel, just after the graduating exercises of this 
Seminary in 1930, and threw his head on my shoulder and poured 
out the inner feelings of his heart to me. His task W3S done and he 
had sacrificed all for his ideals and he stood like a wounded veteran." 
In less than a month he was dead. 

His students will always remember him for his human under- 
standing. One of the members of the faculty wrote: "He had the 
wonderful gift, as his Master had, of seeing men better than they 
were and, because he saw them better than they were they in his 
fellowship actually became better. In the depths of his great soul 
Dr. Gillespie was a lover of his fellowman." 

Almost at its founding Columbia Seminary was blessed with a 
great unselfish and devoted leader in the person of Dr. George Howe. 
At the crisis of its existence a great soul was raised up to be the 
Joshua of the removal, Richard T. Gillespie. 3 

Charles Chamberlain McNeill, A.B., B.D., D.D., acted as pro- 
fessor of Ecclesiastical History after the death of Dr. Reed, 1925- 
1927. Born Sept. 25, 1879, at Fayetteville, North Carolina, he 
graduated from the high school at Staunton, Virginia, received the 
A. B. degree from Washington and Lee in 1903, and the B.D. from 
Kentucky Theological Seminary, Louisville, in 191 3. As a 
Y. M. C. A. Secretary he served the colleges of Virginia, the Uni- 
versity of Texas, and eighteen months in the World War service. 
After pastorates in Tennessee and Texas he was engaged in the 
campaign conducted by the Committee of Christian Education and 
Ministerial Relief, associated with Dr. S. W. McGill. After serving 
at the Seminary, he spent two years with A. Earl Kernahan in re- 
ligious survey and personal evangelism campaigns in St. Louis, 
Kansas City, Salt Lake City, New Orleans, etc., and has since acted 
as stated supply in Waycross, Georgia; Savannah, Georgia; Win- 
ston-Salem, North Carolina; and Mobile, Alabama. He married 



^Bulletin Columbia Theological Seminary, Nov., 1930. 



220 COLORED LIGHT 

Miss Elizabeth Butler of Savannah in 1908. Washington and Lee 
conferred the D.D. degree in 1926. 

William Childs Robinson, A.B., M.A., B.D., Th.M., Ph.D., 
D.D., '20, has served in the chair of Ecclesiastical History, Church 
Polity and Missions since his election in 1926. Born in Lincolnton, 
North Carolina, Dec. 4, 1897, he is the son of David Wallace and 
Edith Childs Robinson. Reared in Columbia, South Carolina, he 
graduated as valedictorian from high school there in 191 3. He re- 
ceived the A. B. degree from Roanoke College, Salem, Virginia, in 
1 917, and the D.D. in 1928. Columbia Theological Seminary 
conferred the B.D. in 1920; the University of South Carolina the 
M.A. in 19 19; Princeton Theological Seminary the Th.M. in 
1 92 1 ; and Harvard University the Th.D. in 1928. He was pastor 
of the Presbyterian Church of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, 1921- 
1 926, when he was elected professor at Columbia. He married Mary 
McConkey on June 22, 1 921, in Salem, Virginia, to which union 
two children have been born. His publications are listed in the lit- 
erary appendix. He is a member of the editorial council of The 
Religious Digest, Grand Rapids, Michigan. 

Dr. Robinson has issued several books and recently gave a special 
course of lectures at Westminster Theological Seminary, Philadel- 
phia, Pennsylvania. He is regarded as one of the outstanding 
younger theologians of the country. 

Walter P. Taylor, Ph.D. was instructor in Public Speaking in 
1925 and 1926. He was from Boston, Massachusetts, spending 
only a portion of the year in residence. 

Hunter Bryson Blakely, A.B., M.A., B.D., Th.D., D.D., was 
professor of New Testament Literature and Exegesis from 1928 to 
1930, when he resigned to become pastor of the First Presbyterian 
Church, Staunton, Virginia. He was born at Lancaster, South 
Carolina, April 27, 1894. He received the A.B. degree from 
Erskine College in 19 14, and the M.A. degree from Princeton Uni- 
versity in 191 8. He graduated at Princeton Theological Seminary, 
and received the B.D. degree from Louisville Presbyterian Seminary 
in 1920. He earned the Th.D. at Southern Baptist Theological 
Seminary, Louisville, Kentucky, in 1925. As Princeton Seminary 
fellow he studied at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, 1921- 
1922, and also was a student at Oxford, 1927; University of 



CHANGING SURROUNDINGS 221 

Berlin, Germany, 1927- 1928. Hampden-Sydney College con- 
ferred the D.D. degree in 1932. As a student before ordination he 
preached at Alberta, Canada, and at Wrens, Georgia. He was pas- 
tor of Associate Reformed Church, Louisville, Kentucky, 1919- 
1925; pastor Presbyterian Church, Harrodsburg, Kentucky, 1925- 
1927; and was acting pastor American Church, Berlin, Germany, 
1 927- 1 928. He has recently published Religion in Shoes or 
Brother Bryan of Birmingham, and With Christ Into Tomorrow. 
He lectures in philosophy at Mary Baldwin College. 

Samuel Antoine Cartledge, A.B., M.A., B.D., Ph.D., '29, was 
chosen professor of New Testament Literature and Exegesis in 
1 93 1 . In 1 928 he had served as instructor and in 1 930 as associate 
professor. He is a grandson of Rev. G. H. Cartledge, '48, and a son 
of Dr. S. J. Cartledge, '89, and was born at Chester, South Carolina, 
during his father's pastorate there. He graduated from the Uni- 
versity of Georgia with the A.B. and M.A. degrees and received the 
B.D. from Columbia Seminary in 1929. The Ph.D. degree was 
granted by the University of Chicago. 

James McDowell Richards, A.B., M.A., B.D., D.D., '28, be- 
came president in the summer of 1932. His father and grandfather 
were alumni of Columbia Seminary. Born at Statesville, North 
Carolina, November 6, 1902, he graduated as valedictorian of his 
class from Davidson College in 1922. He received the Master's de- 
gree in English at Princeton University in 1923 and was appointed 
Rhodes Scholar for the State of North Carolina. At Oxford he 
worked in the field of Modern History with specialization in Ec- 
clesiastical History. He received both the Bachelor's and Master's 
degrees from Oxford University. He completed his theological edu- 
cation at Columbia Seminary in the class of 1928. After serving 
at Clarkesville and Thomasville, Georgia, he was called as president 
of Columbia Seminary to succeed Dr. Richard T. Gillespie. He was 
awarded the D.D. degree by Davidson College in 1933 and is a 
trustee of that institution. 

Patrick H. Carmichael, B.S., Ph.D., D.D., was elected to the 
professorship of English Bible and Religious Education on May 
9, 1933, and serves at present. Dr. S. L. Morris had supplied in 
this chair during the fall of 1932. Born at Goodwater, Alabama, 
Dr. Carmichael attended Mercer University and received the B.S. 



222 COLORED LIGHT 

degree from the University of Alabama in 19 15. He graduated at 
Princeton Seminary in 1 9 1 8 and received the Ph.D. from New York 
University in 193 1. Southwestern bestowed the D.D. degree in 
1930. Ordained in 191 8 by the Presbytery of Tuscaloosa, he 
served as pastor of the Alabama Avenue and Valley Creek Churches 
at Selma until 1920, when he began a pastorate at Montevallo, Ala- 
bama, which continued until he came to the Seminary. After 1921 
he was professor in Alabama College at Montevallo. 

He is a Phi Beta Kappa, Pi Gamma Mu, Kappa Delta Pi, and Phi 
Delta Theta, and member of Professors' Professional Advisory Sec- 
tion of the International Council of Religious Education. 

Henry W. McLaughlin, A.B., D.D., Director of Country Church 
and Sunday School Extension Work of the Executive Committee 
of Religious Education and Publication, has been a visiting instructor 
in country church work since 1926. Joseph H. Cudlipp, A.B., B.D., 
has served as visiting instructor in Religious Education and Theory 
of Worship since 1933. W. M. Alston, A.B., M.A. ; T. H. Grafton, 
A.B. ; D. M. Mounger, A.B. ; John D. Cotts, A.B. ; and G. Thomas 
Preer, A.B., M.A., have been student instructors in recent sessions, 
at various times. 4 

John Shaw Foster, A.B., M.A., B.D., D.D., acting professor of 
Homiletics and Practical Theology, was born at Mobile, Alabama, 
November 17, 1870, a son of William Story and Margaret Shaw 
Foster. Barton Academy, Mobile, furnished his preparatory edu- 
cation. Southwestern Presbyterian University granted the M.A. de- 
gree in 1 89 1 and the B.D. in 1894. Hampden-Sydney conferred 
the D.D. in 1906. He married Miss Bessie Goss, of Hartwell, 
Georgia, June 20, 1894. Pastorates have been at Senatobia, Missis- 
sippi; Franklin, Tennessee; Tabb Street Church in Peterbsurg, Vir- 
ginia; First Presbyterian Church in Birmingham, Alabama; First 
Presbyterian Church, Anderson, South Carolina; and First Pres- 
byterian Church, Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Dr. Foster was 
called twice to the chair of Theology at Southwestern, then to 
Clarksville, Tennessee, but he declined. He has also declined calls 
to the First Churches of Augusta, Georgia; New Orleans, Louisiana; 
Macon, Georgia; Savannah, Georgia; Sherman, Texas; Columbia, 
Tennessee; and Florence, Alabama. 



4 See recent catalogues. 



CHANGING SURROUNDINGS 223 

He served upon the Board of Education in Petersburg, Virginia, 
and as trustee of Southwestern and Barium Springs Orphanage. 
For fifteen years he was a member of the Executive Committee of 
Home Missions and was chairman of the Assembly's Systematic 
Beneficence Committee. In 1927 the Synod of North Carolina 
elected him moderator. He is a Pi Kappa Alpha, Mason, and Ci- 
vitan. 5 

Rev. Russell F. Johnson, '32, served as instructor in Public Speak- 
ing in i935-i936and 1936-1937. 

Academic Life and Physical Equipment 

When Dr. J. M. Wells came to the presidency in 1921 he found 
an increasing enrollment of students and inviting prospects for more 
extensive service. The class that entered in September, 1922, was one 
of the largest ever to enter the Seminary. However, the question of 
adequate financing still pressed, and the larger student body only 
served to make the need more acute. A suggestion was made in 1922 
that Columbia and Union Seminaries be consolidated or that Co- 
lumbia be moved to Atlanta, Georgia. The controlling synods be- 
gan to discuss the matter with favor. In 1923, the Synod of South 
Carolina, at Spartanburg, by a vote of 1 00 to 44 took the following 
action: "That we recommend that the controlling Synods shall 
empower the Board to survey the territory within the bounds of 
the controlling Synods and locate the Seminary where, in its judg- 
ment, based on all the facts, the Seminary can secure a sufficient 
measure of financial assistance, and where it may render the largest 
service to the church. The Board shall be further empowered, 
should this seem to be the wisest step, to negotiate and complete a 
merger with Union Seminary, Richmond, Virginia, in such way as 
shall most efficiently serve the controlling Synods." 6 

The committee on the Seminary had reported to this synod 
"that the attendance for the past year has been the largest in the his- 
tory of the institution. This increase of students has presented a 
serious problem in the finances of the Seminary, for the income is 



^Who's Who in America, Vol. 18. 

6 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 306. 



224 



COLORED LIGHT 




m^. 



Breaking First Ground, Atlanta, Sept. 13, 1 g26 



not sufficient to meet the expenses. Last year we lacked $9,687.00 
of doing this." 7 

At the meeting of the Synod of South Carolina in Clinton, 1 924, 
by a vote of 97 to 35, the following resolution was adopted: 
"That the Synod of South Carolina notes the action of the Board 
of Directors of Columbia Theological Seminary, taken in Augusta, 
June, 1924, and the response of the Synod of Georgia thereto. The 
Synod believes that the Board has fully considered the situation, 
and has taken this step to preserve this institution and its great ser- 
vice to the Southeastern States. Realizing that conditions must be 
met as they arise, and that we now face the necessity of some radical 
action to enable our Seminary to continue to serve this section of the 
Church adequately, this Synod does hereby approve the action of 
the Board of Directors at Augusta, and the plan adopted by the 
Synod of Georgia and communicated to this body, and authorizes 
the transfer of the Columbia Seminary to Atlanta on the conditions 
named as soon as the Board receives official notice that the proposed 
campaign for $500,000 for equipment and endowment shall have 

7 F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 307. 



CHANGING SU RROU N DI NGS 225 

been carried to a successful conclusion, and a site acceptable to the 
Board has been secured without cost to the Seminary." 8 Dr. Wells 
had been forced to express his views before the decison as to location 
was made, and having favored a merger with Union, he felt he was 
not the proper one to lead in the move to Atlanta and so very 
graciously resigned. Dr. Gillespie moved to the Seminary February 
i, 1925- 

February 11 to 17, 1925, was the period of the campaign in 
Atlanta. Dr. Benjamin Lacy, later president of Union Theological 
Seminary, was chairman of the organization committee and secured 
350 workers from the various churches. In a leading hotel the Vic- 
tory Dinner was held on Feb. 17th. Subscriptions totaled $314,- 
400 besides a forty-acre site. The campaign in the synod at large 
was postponed until April. Headquarters were opened at 1 7 Poplar 
Street. Dr. S. W. McGill of Louisville, Kentucky, had charge of the 
campaign, with an organization that had been working upon the 
Million Dollar Campaign. The Synod of Georgia's Committee of 
Christian Education had general oversight of the effort. The per- 
sonnel of this committee was Dr. J. Sprole Lyons, Chairman, Dr. 
Neal L. Anderson, Dr. J. T. Brantley (LL.D.), long chairman of 
the Columbia Seminary Board, Mr. J. Bulow Campbell, Rev. S. J. 
Cartledge, Rev. F. G. Hartman, Dr. E. R. Leyburn, Dr. W. O. 
Hooper, Dr. J. H. Patton, Rev. R. F. Simpson, and Mr. Edgar 
Watkins. December 17, 1925, was set as the closing day. In the 
"Victory Number" of the Presbyterian Viewpoint, it was reported 
that $272,753.57 had been pledged. Including the value assigned 
the site, the total pledged was stated as $625, 309. 62. 9 

In the ninety-seventh year of the Seminary's existence, com- 
mencement, May 5, 1925, twenty-three finished the course. This was 
the largest class since 1875. The annual directors' meeting amended 
the charter to allow twenty-one directors and the official name became 
Columbia Theological Seminary. The new charter allowed $5,000,- 
000 in property holdings. Dr. Gillespie wrote after this statement 
in the bulletin, "We hope our friends will help us secure this 
amount." The same Board meeting announced that the Synod of 



S F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, op. cit., p. 308. 

"Bulletin of Columbia Theological Seminary, July, 1925. Presbyterian View- 
point, published by Columbia Theological Seminary in Atlanta, Vol. I. No. 33, 
Dec. 25, 1925. 



226 



COLORED LIGHT 




Simons Hall 



Dormitory 



Law Hall 



Mississippi had accepted the invitation to adopt the Seminary and 
had elected directors. This gave the Seminary a territory from the 
Mississippi River to the Atlantic Ocean and from the North Carolina 
line to Key West, about six hundred miles each way. 10 

In 1925 Mrs. T. S. Bryan of Columbia, South Carolina, gave 
a deed to a $35,000 apartment house in Columbia to the Seminary, 
with a provision that an annuity be paid during her life. Mr. E. B. 
McEachern gave $2,128 for the Peter G. McEachern Memorial 
Scholarship. 

In 1926 it was reported that Messrs. Edwards and Sayward of 
Atlanta had been chosen architects and were proceeding with plans. 
The class admitted in September, 1926, had thirty-nine members, 
the next to the largest entering class in the history of the Seminary. 
The first session on the new campus in Decatur, Georgia, began 
September 14, 1927. Beginning in Lexington, Georgia, the Semi- 
nary had returned to that State, near the center of its territory, and 
in the largest Presbyterian center in the Presbyterian Church, U. S. 
It was situated upon a beautiful campus of some sixty acres. Camp- 
bell Hall, in which were classrooms, the chapel, the library, the 
dining hall, and the administrative offices, and the four units of the 
First Dormitory, in which were accommodations for as many as a 



10 Bulletin Columbia Theological Seminary, July, 1925. 



CHANGING SURROUNDINGS 



227 




Campbell Hall 

hundred and twenty-five students, had been completed. Homes had 
been built for four members of the faculty. Campbell Hall bears 
an inscription as follows: 

Erected in Loving Tribute to 
A Devoted Consecrated Christian Mother 
Virginia Orme Campbell 
"There is No Higher Calling on Earth 
Than that of the Christian Ministry." 

It was erected by Mr. J. B. Campbell of Atlanta as a tribute 
to his mother, who had dedicated him in infancy to the ministry, 
and whose dedication of her son was thus probably a means for 
supplying the physical plant for training possible generations of 
ministers. 

The General Assembly met in Atlanta in 1928 and took part in 
the ceremonies celebrating the Centennial of the Columbia Seminary. 
The following program was carried out: 

Sunday, May 20, 1928. 1 1 o'clock A. M. 

Baccalaureate Sermon by Rev. A. M. Fraser, D.D. 

Sunday, May 20, 1928. 5 o'clock P. M. 

Sermon before Society of Missionary Inquiry, by Rev. 
A. B. Curry, D.D. 

Monday, May 21, 1928. 6 o'clock P. M. 

Alumni Banquet — Honoring Rev. Wm. M. Mc- 
Pheeters, D.D., LL.D. (1888- 1928) 



228 COLORED LIGHT 

Tuesday, May 22, 1928. 2:30 o'clock P. M. 

Centennial Address, by Rev. J. Sprole Lyons, D.D. 
Dedication Services of the Virginia Orme Campbell Me- 
morial Building. 

Tuesday, May 22, 1928. 8 o'clock P. M. 

Inauguration of Rev. Wm. Childs Robinson, Professor 
of Ecclesiastical History and Church Polity. 

"Columbia Theological Seminary and the Southern 
Presbyterian Church" — Inaugural Address by Rev. 
Wm. Childs Robinson. 

"Columbia Theological Seminary and the Missionary 
Enterprise of the Church" — by Rev. S. L. Morris, 
D.D., Executive Secretary of Home Missions, Pres- 
byterian Church, U. S. 

Wednesday, May 23, 1928. 10:30 o'clock A. M. 

Graduating Exercises at the Seminary. 
Address to Graduating Class. 

Delivery of Diplomas and Award of Prizes, by Mr. J. T. 
Brantley, President of the Board. 

A debt of $202,500 remained after the relocation. Efforts were 
made in 1930 to remove this debt, and, largely through gifts from 
Atlanta, it was reduced almost by $100,000. The report of the 
Board to the General Assembly in 1930 stated the net worth of 
the institution was $805,495. The report of 1929 had stated 
thirty men were expected to graduate, and added "This is the largest 
graduating class in our history." The class of 1862 had thirty-one 
members, but some of the men went to the War and did not complete 
their work. In 1930 the report mentions that three years before 
there were twenty-seven courses offered and in the next year fifty-one 
courses were to be provided. 

In 1 93 1 the students gave the chapel pulpit and chair as a me- 
morial to Dr. Gillespie. The faculty of the Chandler School of 
Theology of Emory University gave the communion table. Def- 
icits were beginning to trouble again. Rev. J. McDowell Richards 
was called as president in 1932. In 1933 the Board reported a def- 
icit of $15,398.51, but stated the faculty and other employees had 



CHANGING SURROUNDINGS 229 




Students' Lounge 




Ladies' Parlor 



230 



COLORED LIGHT 



assumed a self-sacrificing attitude and the budget for the new year 
promised a reduction of some forty per cent. The land and build- 
ings of the Seminary were valued at $486,628.10 and the value of 
other holdings was $405,246.18, a total of $891,874.28 against 
which there stood a debt of $106,520.65. The depression had 
lessened gifts to support. 

Dr. McPheeters was retired as professor emeritus in 1933. The 
degree of Master of Theology was provided for in 1934. An ex- 
tension school had been conducted. A credit of $1.00 instead of a 
deficit was reported in 1934 and the debt had been reduced to $99,- 
813.94. The first granting of the Th.M. degree was at the 1935 
commencement. Another extension school was conducted in 1935. 
A pastors' institute was conducted also. The balance for the year's 
operation was $14.09 and the debt cut over $2,000. The financial 
crisis seems to have been passed and a period of steady progress be- 
gun. The alumni in recent years have personally made subscriptions 
for the Seminary, and the Alumni Sharing Fund has helped over the 




Library Interior 



CHANGING SU RROUN DINGS 231 

lean depression years. A balance of $15.35 appeared at the end of 
1936 financial year, with a debt of $98,190.47. 

Another invitation, from the directors of Union Seminary in 
Virginia to the Columbia directors, to unite the two Seminaries at 
Richmond was received in 1936. The whole faculty of Columbia 
was to join the faculty at Union on an equal basis. The name of 
the new institution would preserve the names of both Columbia and 
Union. The Columbia Board of Directors appointed a committee 
to make an effort to remove Columbia's debt, before acting upon 
the Union Seminary invitation. At a conference of the Atlanta 
Presbyterian ministers a unanimous vote expressed the conviction 
"that the Seminary must be kept in Decatur." The committee to 
raise the debt received a conditional offer of $100,000 provided that 
$200,000 additional be given. Efforts were made to secure $150,- 
000 by July 5, 1936. 

On July 14 $125,000 had been subscribed and prospects were 
bright for securing the remainder by Sept. 1, to which date the cam- 
paign was extended. The sum pledged would pay the debt and add 
almost $50,000 to endowment. The continuance of the Seminary 
at its present location has been announced by the president. Efforts 
are being made to secure another $ 1 50,000 in order to put the Semi- 
nary definitely upon its feet. 

The library, of some 32,000 volumes in 1926, many of which 
are rare books, was transported to Decatur and housed in the 
Campbell Hall. The library of Dr. R. C. Reed, some 2,000 books, 
was presented by the family of the deceased. Dr. Thornton Whal- 
ing gave his library of about the same size. New books are con- 
stantly being purchased. In the fall of 1936 the library was being 
fully catalogued, and an expert librarian assumed charge. 

Contribution to Church Extension, Evangelism, Literature, 
Education, and Church Organization. 

Though sufficient time has not yet elapsed for the graduates of 
this period to make major contributions to life, still many of them 
have rendered worth-while services. The largest contribution is of 
course in the pastorate. In the class of 1921 John Blanton Belk, 
A.B., M.A., B.D., D.D., served Piedmont, South Carolina; Clover, 
South Carolina; Orlando, Florida; Huntington, West Virginia; and 



232 COLORED LIGHT 

Grace-Covenant Presbyterian Church, Richmond, Virginia, where 
he is pastor at the present time. C. F. Allen, A.B., M.A., B.D., 
served Newton County, Jefferson, and Tattnall Square, Macon, in 
Georgia; and Kenly, North Carolina. He has been very active in 
many forms of church work and began and long directed the Young 
People's Conference of Macon Presbytery. J. T. Gillespie, A.B., 
B.D., Ph.D., is a teacher at Agnes Scott College. R. S. Woodson, 
A.B., B.D., is pastor at Starkville, Mississippi. Q. N. Huneycutt, 
A.B., B.D., Th.D., is pastor at Indian Trail, North Carolina. 

In the class of 1922 E. L. Barber, A.B., B.D., served Carrollton, 
Georgia; Bethesda Church, Aberdeen, North Carolina; and or- 
ganized a mission church out from Aberdeen that in six months 
had 112 members. H. B. Dendy, A.B., B.D., built a beautiful 
church at Weaverville, North Carolina. F. B. Estes, A.B., B.D., 
is pastor at Orangeburg, South Carolina. E. S. Campbell, A.B., 
B.D., Ph.D., is pastor at Lookout Mountain, Tennessee. 

From the class of 1923, George Washington Belk, A.B., M.A., 
B.D., served several successful pastorates and died while pastor of 
the influential Evergreen Church, Memphis. A. R. Batchelor, A.B., 
B.D., acted as college pastor at Gainesville, Florida, and is at present 
at Marion, North Carolina. J. V. Cobb, A.B., B.D., served rural 
churches in South Carolina and Mississippi and then Parkview in 
Memphis, Tennessee, and Graham Memorial, Forrest City, Arkan- 
sas. H. R. Foster, A.B., B.D., serves Commerce, Georgia, having 
come from Fairview, Birmingham, Alabama. S. Hewitt Fulton, 
A.B., B.D., is pastor at Laurinburg, North Carolina. S. B. Hay, 
A.B., B.D., is pastor at Auburn, Alabama. C. Reece Jenkins, A.B., 
B.D., after a period of service in Japan as a missionary is now at 
Littleton, North Carolina. W. G. Neville, A.B., B.D., is a mission- 
ary in Brazil and has begun an orphanage there. A. T. Taylor, 
A.B., B.D., serves Marston, North Carolina. M. R. Williamson, 
A.B., B.D., is pastor at Signal Mountain, Tennessee. M. S. Wood- 
son, A.B., M.A., B.D., Th.D., served Oakhurst, Atlanta; then 
Thomasville, Georgia; and is at present at Salisbury, North Caro- 
lina. The doctorate thesis was "The Kingdom of God." 

H. N. Alexander, A.B., B.D., from the class of 1924, serves 
Tallulah, Louisiana. C. D. Brearley, A.B., B.D., is pastor at 
Conway, South Carolina. A. W. Dick, A.B., M.A., B.D., Th.M., 



CHANGING SU RROUN DINGS 233 

served West Point, and Moultrie, Georgia; and Fayetteville, North 
Carolina. John D. Henderson, A.B., B.D., went to the Second 
Presbyterian Church, Spartanburg, South Carolina, and built up 
a church of over 400 members within a few years and also erected 
a large church plant. C. W. McMurray, A.B., M.A., B.D., Ph.D., 
after doing a fine piece of work at Morningside Church, Atlanta, 
resigned to study in Europe. M. B. Dendy, after three years 
work at Columbia, did postgraduate work at Princeton Seminary. 
He is at Acworth, Georgia. E. A. Dillard, finishing the course at 
Columbia, went to the large Tenth Avenue Church in Charlotte. 
D. H. Dulin, A.B., B.D., did outstanding work in home missions 
at Effingham, South Carolina, and at Linden, North Carolina. 

In the class of 1925 R. T. Baker, B.S., B.D., has taken a leading 
place in country church work and written a pamphlet upon finances 
in rural churches. T. C. Bryan, A.B., B.D., is pastor of Maryland 
Avenue Church, Baltimore, Maryland. V. A. Crawford, A.B., 
B.D., is serving as a missionary in Japan. S. W. Dendy, A.B., 
B.D., built up a congregation to about five times its former size and 
erected a brick building at Cairo, Georgia. He is at present at 
Dalton, Georgia. C. K. Douglas, A.B., B.D., served Manning, 
South Carolina, and is at present at Seneca, South Carolina. J. H. 
Dulin, A.B., B.D., serves Armstrong Memorial Church, Gastonia, 
North Carolina. T. B. Hay, A.B., B.D., D.D., is at Westminster 
Church, Memphis. J. W. McFall, A.B., B.D., is at Mt. Airy, 
North Carolina. William Epps Smith, A.B., B.D., was president 
of this class. He was attempting to save the lives of two boys when 
the tide carried all three of them to death. He gave his life in an 
effort to save life. He was serving Douglas, Georgia. The class pre- 
sented a set of books to the Columbia Seminary Library in his mem- 
ory. G. F. Swetnam, Ph.D., serves Wickliffe, Kentucky. W. S. 
Swetnam, also a Ph.D., is a missionary of our church in Garanhuns, 
Brazil. Parks W. Wilson, A.B., B.D., is pastor at the First Presby- 
terian Church, Harrisonburg, Virginia. M. A. DuRant, A.B., com- 
pleted the Seminary work and served Good Hope, South Carolina; 
Natchitoches, Louisiana; and Upper Long Cane and Greenville 
Churches in South Carolina. W. D. Mclnnis, after finishing at the 
Seminary, served Mt. Holly and Washington, North Carolina. 
Ryan Lee Wood, A.B., B.D., served Rockmart, Georgia; Marion, 



234 COLORED LIGHT 

Alabama; Wauchula, Florida; and is at present at Hyde Park, 
Tampa, Florida. C. E. PiephofF, A.B., B.D., has done an out- 
standing work in Monaghan Church, Greenville, South Carolina. 
The class of 1926 produced M. C. Dendy, A.B., B.D., who be- 
came superintendent of home missions for Augusta Presbytery upon 
graduation. He was pastor of Aveleigh Church, Newberry, South 
Carolina, and is at present pastor at Gainesville, Georgia. In South 
Carolina and Georgia he has been director of the synod's young 
people's conference. B. S. Hodges, A.B., B.D., served Batesburg- 
Leesville and Union, South Carolina. He was instructor in English 
Bible at the University of South Carolina, 1926- 1933. Sam P. 
Bowles, of Clemson College and Columbia Seminary, served as 
Treasurer of Thornwell Orphanage and as pastor at Palma Ceia 
Presbyterian Church, Tampa, Florida. 

F. B. Mayes, A.B., B.D., of the class €>f 1927, has served Beau- 
fort, South Carolina, continuously and has been director of the 
synod's young people's conference. John Benson Sloan, A.B., B.D., 
Th.M., served Waynesboro, Georgia, and Walhalla, South Caro- 
lina. Joseph W. Conyers, of Clemson College and Columbia, serves 
Ware Shoals, South Carolina. E. G. Beckman, A.B., B.D., '28, is 
pastor at Paris, Texas. Charles Cureton, A.B., B.D., Th.M., is 
a pastor in New Jersey. M. A. Macdonald, A.B., B.D., is pastor at 
Moultrie, Georgia. Angus G. Mclnnis, A.B., B.D., served Wash- 
ington, Georgia, and Waycross, Georgia. The record of James 
McDowell Richards is given under faculty. E. T. Wilson, A.B., 
B.D., is pastor of Peachtree Road Church, Atlanta. R. W. Oakey, 
of Millsaps College, is pastor at Milledgeville, Georgia. L. B. Gibbs, 
A.B., of Davidson College, and B.D., is doing a strategic work in 
the mountain section of north Georgia. 

The class of 1929 produced R. L. Alexander, A.B., B.D., pastor 
at Lumberton, North Carolina, and Harry H. Bryan, A.B., B.D., 
S.T.M., missionary in Japan. The record of S. A. Cartledge has 
been given under faculty. J. M. Garrison, A.B., M.A., B.D., was 
university pastor at the University of Missouri and pastor at Co- 
lumbia, Missouri. Stephen T. Harvin, A.B., B.D., served Williston 
and Summerville Churches and taught English Bible at Bishop 
Cummings Memorial Seminary, Summerville, South Carolina. H. 
K. Holland, A.B., B.D., serves Plaza Church, Charlotte, North 



CHANGING SURROUN DINGS 235 

Carolina. John S. McFall, Jr., A.B., B.D., was pastor at Alice- 
ville, Alabama, and lost his life teaching football to a group of high- 
school boys. He died from the effects of an injury. C. F. Monk, 
A.B., B.D., is at Ingleside, Atlanta. W. C. Sistar, A.B., B.D., served 
Log Cabin, Macon, Georgia, and Fort Valley, Georgia. C. L. Smith, 
A.B., B.D., serves Inman Park, Atlanta. O. E. Sanden, A.B., B.D., 
serves Alamo Heights Church, San Antonio, Texas, and has en- 
gaged in fifty-four evangelistic campaigns. He has built two church 
buildings and written several poems. Most of the men from this 
and the other recent classes are active in the pastorate. I. M. Bagnal, 
A.B., B.D., Th.M., is pastor at Honea Path, South Carolina. A. C. 
Moore, B.Ph., B.D., was pastor of the church at Thomasville, 
Georgia, and has recently moved to Clearwater, Florida. J. G. 
Kirckhoff, after completing the Seminary course, took work at 
Calhoun, Georgia. K. C. Seawright, A.B., B.D., served Philip, 
Louisiana, and Jonesville, Louisiana, as pastor. M. B. Prince, A.B., 
B.D., served Peachland, North Carolina; Polkton, North Carolina, 
and Williams Memorial, Charlotte. Wallace M. Alston, A.B., B.D., 
is Director of Young People's Work of the General Assembly. In 
the same class, 1931, Peter Marshall, Mech. E., B.D., served Cov- 
ington, Georgia, and Westminster, Atlanta, and is in great demand 
as a conference preacher. H. F. Petersen, Jr., A.B., B.D., is pastor 
at Cedartown, Georgia. C. A. Thompson, A.B., B.D., S.T.M., 
was co-pastor at Marietta and pastor at Menlo, Georgia. A. M. 
Gregg, A.B., B.D., '32, has served Mullins, and McClellanville, 
South Carolina. H. E. Russell, A.B., M.A., B.T., '33 is pastor at 
McDonough, Georgia. He recently made a tour inspecting the mis- 
sions of our church in South American. B. H. Dickson is in Sa- 
vannah; R. T. Gillespie at Rock Springs Church, Atlanta; W. J. 
Hazelwood at Dublin, Georgia; J. W. McQueen at Brunswick, 
Georgia; John W. Melton at Rome, Georgia; J. R. Smith at Park- 
side, Waycross; D. L. Wood at Dade City, Florida; M. D. Agerton 
at Preston, Georgia — showing how the members of a class scatter 
through the church. From the class of 1934 Jack G. Hand is at 
Cartersville, Georgia; W. N. Bashaw at Carthage, Arkansas; C. L. 
Landrum at Tattnal Square Church, Macon, Georgia; Laurence 
Williams at Live Oak, Florida; John E. Talmage at Winder, 
Georgia; W. H. Pruitt is at Holly Grove, Arkansas. From the class 



236 



COLORED LIGHT 



of 1935 we may mention W. M. Mclnnis, Dermott, Arkansas, and 
S. J. Sloop, Canton, Georgia. Reference to the Minutes of the 
Assembly will show the location of the men of recent classes almost 
without exception, for the graduates of Columbia are going out 
into the church in a steady stream, each, we trust, to be found faith- 
ful in the ministry of the Cross. 

The Smyth Lectures have continued through the period 1921- 
1936: 

1 92 1 Louis Matthews Sweet, S.T.D., Ph.D., New York, "The 
Origin and Destiny of Man in the Light of Scripture 
and Modern Thought." 

1923 Address on various aspects of preaching by six outstanding 
ministers: 

J. Sprole Lyons, D.D., "Sermonic Sources." 
L. E. McNair, D.D., "Passion in Preaching." 
W. McF. Alexander, D.D., "The Man and His Message." 
J. B. Hutton, D.D., "Regulative Ideas in Preaching." 
James I. Vance, D.D., "Sermonizing." 
Dunbar H. Ogden, D.D., "The House in Which the 
Minister Lives." 




Faculty Residence 



CHANGING SU RROU N DINGS 



237 




Faculty Residence 

1924 Egbert W. Smith, D.D., "The Call of the Mission Field." 

1925 A. M. Fraser, D.D., "Church Unity." 

1926 Samuel L. Morris, D.D., "The Fact of Christianity." 

1927 J. Gresham Machen, D.D., "The Virgin Birth." 

1928 C. R. Erdman, D.D., "The Life of D. L. Moody." 

1 929 W. T. Ellis, "Explorations and Adventures in Bible Lands." 

1930 W. C. Covert, D.D., LL.D., "Worship and Spiritual Cul- 

ture." 

1 93 1 W. P. Paterson, D.D., LL.D., "The Christian Interpre- 

tation of History." 

1932 Melvin Grove Kyle, D.D., "In the Footsteps of Bible 

Characters." 

1933 W. Taliaferro Thompson, D.D., "The Psychology of 

Christian Growth." 

1934 Frazer Hood, Ph.D., Litt.D., "The Christian's Faith." 

1935 Samuel M. Zwemer, D.D., "A Study in the Origin of 

Theistic Ideas." 

1936 Cornelius Van Til, D.D., "God and Human Knowledge." 



238 



COLORED LIGHT 



The Thotnwellian, published by the students of the Seminary, 
made its bow to the public as a quarterly in October, 1929. The 
March 20, 1930, issue had increased to sixteen pages. 

In 1 93 1 W. C. Robinson, Th.D., D.D., '20, published Columbia 
Theological Seminary and the Presbyterian Church. This is an 
excellent study in important aspects of the life of the Seminary. 

Missionary Interest 

The list of missionaries in the previous chapter extends through 
this period. The celebration of the Centennial of the Society of 
Missionary Inquiry was held February 9, 10, and 11, 193 1. Dr. 
C. Darby Fulton, '15, Dr. J. O. Reavis, onetime member of the 
faculty, and Dr. S. L. Morris, '76, delivered addresses, and a pageant 
was presented by the student body. The bulletin published at the 
time carried extensive information in extracts from Dr. Robinson's 
book mentioned above. 11 



r 




Recreation 

Social Service 

County Agents and Home Demonstration Agents are compara- 
tively recent factors in American rural life. The country minister 
has for generations been doing some of this work. In the period 



^Bulletin Columbia Theological Seminary, Feb., 193 1 



CHANGING SURROUNDINGS 239 

we are at present discussing the General Assembly in 1925 created 
a Committee on Country Church Work. Dr. Henry W. McLaugh- 
lin, Director of the present Department of Country Church Work 
and Sunday School Extension, lectures annually at the Seminary. 
The service in this field rendered by Columbia Seminary alumni may 
be illustrated by noticing the life of a graduate who died in 1925. 
Samuel Fisher Tenney, '68, descended from Thomas Tenney who 
left Rowley, England, because of petty persecution due to his Puri- 
tanism and helped settle Rowley, Massachusetts, in 1638. Born in 
1840, S. F. Tenney worked his way through the University of 
Georgia by keeping books for Henry Grady's father. After serving 
through the Civil War as a soldier, officer, and also as reporter for 
the Athens Banner, he completed his theological training and set- 
tled in Marshall, Texas, in 1868. In December, 1870, he became 
pastor at Crockett, Texas, and remained until April, 1925, a period 
of fifty-four years, the longest pastorate in the Synod of Texas. 
He subscribed to scientific farm journals and passed on to the farm- 
ers the ideas about corn, cotton, truck farming, cattle, and new de- 
velopments in agriculture. He purchased and experimented with 
the new farm machinery. Farmers came to look to him for advice 
and suggestions. He wrote weekly articles upon many subjects for 
the county paper, and contributed to the daily papers of the State 
and to the church papers. He contributed an average of more than 
an article a week for sixty-five years. 

He stumped much of Texas in 1887 speaking for prohibition, 
often with eminent political figures on the same platform. He toured 
the North, East, and portions of Canada to raise funds, with which 
he erected a large Negro church and employed a teacher to open a 
day school for the colored people. He led a reckless Negro to a new 
life and educated and helped direct his education until he had become 
a prominent and useful minister. A colored presbytery grew out of 
Dr. Tenney's work for Negroes. He led the movement which re- 
sulted in the establishment of Mary Allen Seminary in Crockett. 
He rode horseback over the territory from Beaumont and Orange 
to Teneha and Marshall, preaching and organizing churches. He 
promoted the erection of several church buildings, reorganized some 
churches, and organized about fifteen new congregations. For thirty 
years he served as chairman and treasurer of the presbytery's home 



240 COLORED LIGHT 

mission committee, directing the securing and locating of ministers. 
He was moderator of the synod in 1887 and was seven or eight 
times commissioner to the Assembly. Until the last ten years of 
his life he received not more than $750 a year salary, upon which he 
and his wife reared a family and he carried on his great ministry. 

In one of his journeys he got lost in the woods. An Indian found 
him and sheltered him overnight. Thus Dr. Tenney discovered the 
Alabama Indians of Polk County, who had never heard of Jesus 
Christ. He induced the church to send out a missionary. He re- 
ceived many of these Indians into the church. Many rural ministers 
have rendered similar services. 12 

Mention could be made of local relief activities during the de- 
pression and of religious ministry to the Civilian Conservation 
Corps. There is a tendency always to recount the unusual. Yet the 
greatest service rendered is generally in the path of accepted duty, 
where there is nothing unusual. There is no doubt that the greatest 
good Columbia Seminary has rendered the world has been by its 
training of 1,125 men w h° have ministered to their fellows in the 
regular pastorate. When all the words they have spoken and all 
the good deeds they have done or inspired are summed up in the 
eternal record, we doubt not the total service will bulk large in the 
life of the South. 

"May I, as one of the oldest living alumni, pay tribute to my 
worthy Alma Mater," wrote Dr. S. L. Morris in 1932. "During 
the first century of its existence Columbia played a worthy part, 
matching in the spiritual realm the attainments of the South in 
economic development, in scientific achievement, and in national 
expansion. Statistics show that its distinctive territory contained 
at the time of its birth 73 Presbyterian ministers and 8,560 com- 
municants. Today largely as the product of its life and work, this 
territory boasts 700 ministers and 142,000 communicants. It has 
grown from one teacher and five students to a dozen instructors and 
seventy students; and from no physical equipment whatever to a 
million dollar plant, including its endowment funds and material 
assets. 



12 T he, Christian Observer, August 18, 1926. Letter from son of S. F. Tenney, 
Dr. S. M. Tenney, to writer, April 18, 1936. 



CHANGING SU RROU N DINGS 241 

"The greatest forces and influences, however, are the spiritual, 
the silent and the unseen. Spiritual achievements cannot be judged 
by visible results, nor estimated in the mathematics of earth. In like 
manner Columbia Seminary makes its appeal to intangible results 
in the spiritual realm, which cannot be reckoned in human terms. 
Adopting the thought of another: 'Statistics are cold, deceptive 
things, when used to compute the growth of an invisible kingdom. 
Numericals do not voice the strong things of religion.' Undoubtedly 
the grandest result of our Seminary's work has been the creation of 
a current of beneficent influence, 'like the Gulf Stream, deep, strong, 
immeasurable, which will increase in volume till it sweeps upon the 
shore of Eternity.' " 13 



l3 S. L. Morris, op. ctt., p. 158. 



CHAPTER VII 
CONCLUSION 

THINGS NEW AND OLD 



" npHEREFORE every scribe who hath been made a disciple to the 
JL kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is a householder, 
who bringeth forth out of his treasure things new and old." — 
Matthew 13:52. 

The future of Columbia Seminary will no doubt be wrought 
out by the interaction of past and present factors with unknown 
quantities that will appear. Since those unknown quantities are un- 
predictable, the future is, of course, in the hands of Providence. 
The devout man thankfully says, "Thou hast brought me hith- 
erto" and erects a banner upon which are the words "Jehovah- 
jireh." However, we may sometimes discover foreshadowings of 
coming events. We have been studying the past. What of the fu- 
ture? 

The dream for the future as held by two men who have given their 
best to Columbia may be set forth by quoting the words of Dr. 
McPheeters in which he gave the vision as held by Dr. Gillespie: 
"He saw the immense possibilities in every way of that great tier 
of states that Columbia Seminary was founded to serve. He saw 
that in the opening years of the twentieth century they stood merely 
at the threshold of a material development that promises to be of 
unprecedented magnitude. He saw the possibilities of an institu- 
tion like Columbia Seminary for moulding and shaping both the 
present and the eternal destinies of the great population that, in the 
not distant future, will fill this magnificent territory and develop its 
amazing material resources. He saw the strategic advantage of an 
institution located at a center of life like Atlanta, and so, capable 
of reaching out, both east and west and south and north, until it 
came in contact with territory in which other institutions had al- 
ready found their natural spheres of service. He felt that it was 
worth while patiently to expend his best life energies in building 
up an institution that would be a mighty and a lasting influence in 



N EW AN D O L D 243 

shaping the future of the people of this great empire. He planned 
for an institution that would be worthy of such a vast constituency. 
His vision was not limited merely to training men for the ministry; 



but it was in his mind to establish for this section of the country, 
when in the providence of God the time was ripe for it, a training 
school for what, for lack of a better name, I shall call, lay- workers; 
and also to link up the activities of the Seminary, not only with the 
home field in all of its departments, from the Sunday School to the 
pulpit, from the city to the village and country church, but also 
with the work in the foreign mission field, by establishing here a 
home for missionaries, who by their presence and personal contact 
with the students would keep alive in the hearts of the latter a sense 
of the duty and privilege of going out to the uttermost parts of the 
earth with the gospel of Christ. He thought that it was worth 
while, if necessary, for a man to lay down his life, to lay the foun- 
dations of such an institution and start it upon its career, and he 
was right. 

"God has set this Seminary in a great section of our common 
country, a section with many noble traditions and whose history is 
adorned with many names illustrious in science, literature, states- 
manship, war, law, medicine and theology; a section with an amaz- 
ing future before it. Let us by God's help make Columbia Seminary 
a source of blessing to it — an institution to which our choicest young 
men will throng, where they can be fully equipped intellectually to 
grapple with the grave problems with which the Church of God is 
even now confronted, and where their own hearts may be thor- 



244 



COLORED LIGHT 



oughly leavened with the gospel of Christ, as set forth in the writ- 
ings of the evangelists and apostles, so that they will go forth to 
proclaim that gospel that is the only glad tidings for sinful men and 
women, and that alone can save our people from the fatal dangers 
of that material prosperity with which God seems certain to trust 
them and to test them." 1 

The future seems bright. With an excellent situation and a 
beautiful plant, Columbia is functioning and ready to serve. There 
must be a period of strict economy until sufficient endowment is 
secured, and the faculty has risen loyally to this situation. The 
Seminary will be kept before the mind of the church so that young 
men may know of it and the church not forget to furnish it ade- 
quate support. Extension schools, pastors' institutes, radio ad- 
dresses, and the publication of books will have part in this. The 
group of young men upon the faculty will diligently give them- 
selves to their task of intellectual and spiritual service to the church 
and Christ's kingdom. They will gradually come into a place of 
larger influence and ecclesiastical recognition, thereby incidentally 
helping build a greater Seminary. 

What are some of the probable factors in Columbia Seminary's 
future? The Presbyterian Church, U. S., will no doubt tend to 
become less sectional, either by a union with some other Presbyterian 




DR. J. MCDOWELL RICHARDS 
1 Bulletin of Columbia Theological Seminary, Nov., 1930, pp. 17, 24. 



NEW AND OLD 245 

body or by extending its work into strategic northern centers and 
assuming some responsibility for the underchurched population 
in the northwestern States. Either of these developments would 
strengthen Columbia in its national influence without lessening its 
field in the southeastern States. 

A factor of more importance is a probable revival of interest in 
theology. In the conclusion of his book Present Theological Tenden- 
cies, a member of the Divinity School of the University of Chicago 
states: "Here the question of relative values assumes primary import- 
ance, and the formulation of standards of value is precisely the re- 
ligious task. To find adequate basis for judging relative values is the 
aim of theology. T-heology will therefore enjoy a revival of import- 
ance in human affairs." 2 

Indeed there are many indications that we are at the end of an era 
in our civilization. Perhaps future historians will mark the beginning 
of a new cultural period from the close of the World War. Some of 
the old intellectual and emotional movements seem to have lost their 
strength. Western secular culture suffers from uncertainty of aim, 
weariness, and loss of esprit de corps. Many thinkers are questing for 
new presuppositions and premises for their systems. A new vitality 
has appeared in theological discussions. The tragic World War; the 
Russian, Fascist, and Nazi experiments; the fact that some eighteen 
countries have cast off democratic government; the world-wide eco- 
nomic collapse; and the shifts in scientific thinking have destroyed 
some of the easy assumptions upon which Western culture rested. 

Secularism's sufficiency is being questioned today. The Renais- 
sance was in part a revolt against an oppressive asceticism and dog- 
matic authoritarianism that burdened man. It had elements of pagan 
hedonism. It resulted in a humanism somewhat estranged from the 
church, and a new freedom of spiritual and intellectual life. Francis 
of Assisi glorified God's natural creation. And a Franciscan monk, 
Roger Bacon, developed the method of inductive thinking. Men re- 
joiced in discovering new lands and propounding new theories. 
Tycho Brahe, Copernicus, and Kepler in astronomy, and Galileo and 
da Vinci in physics, with Harvey and Newton, destroyed the old 
naturalistic conceptions that had become entangled with the dogma 
of the church, and laid the foundations of naturalism. Hume pro- 



2 E. E. Aubrey, Present Theological Tendencies (1936), p. 229, 



246 COLORED LIGHT 

nounccd all writings except those of mathematical and experimental 
subject matter as worthy to be burned. 3 The Positivism of Comte 
followed. Darwin made a suggestion and Herbert Spencer elabo- 
rated a philosophy of naturalism. It was assumed the world was 
automatically getting better and better as an evolutionary process 
proceeded. The inductive method, the approved method of natur- 
alism, was alone considered worthy of serious use. Gradually it 
was employed to study not only the inanimate world, but living 
forms, man himself and his intellectual and, finally, spiritual life. 
The scientific method rendered man great service, in that it has given 
a more adequate conception of the physical universe and has furnished 
such religious knowledge as may be derived from observation of 
human religious experience. But recently it has received criticism. 
What began as a means for freeing the human spirit from oppressive 
Scholasticism has itself become an oppressive naturalism that bars 
man from freedom to satisfy his soul's deep need of the supernatural. 
The scientific method begins by limiting its field to the natural, and 
consequently ends by having only the natural in its field. But so 
great has become its prestige that modern man fears to pass outside 
its fold, just as medieval man feared to get away from Scholasticism. 
So your modern sits inside the man-made method and will not be 
free to find truth by any other means. Metaphysics, intuition, spir- 
itual experimentation, and revelation are taboo. 

The prestige of naturalism and its child, secularism, has been 
weakened recently. Naturalism is not rightly identified with the 
scientific method. Naturalism is a philosophy built exclusively upon 
that method and refusing knowledge by any other method. How- 
ever, as a matter of fact, naturalism does receive much of its content 
by acts of faith — faith in the sufficiency of its method, faith in its 
evaluations and syntheses, faith in many unproved hypotheses, 
faith in its own metaphysics, its premises. Recently, the new physics 
has, as it were, reduced matter to a mathematical formula concern- 
ing electrical energy. There has been introduced a new view regard- 
ing mathematical certainty, elaborating the contention of Kant that 
mathematical description cannot reach ultimate reality. The result 
of the scientific method is a selected abstraction. The new astronomy 



3 At end of "Enquiry Concerning the Human Understanding," in Hastings' 
Encyclopaedia of Religion, Vol. IX., p. 195. 



N EW AN D OLD 247 

has taught men to wonder again. The realization which the War 
forced upon men, that scientific knowledge can be prostituted to 
antisocial purposes, did something to destroy the popular prestige 
of science. Familiarity with the mechanical contrivances that were 
popularly recognized as the wonders of science, the impotence of 
science to deal with the depression, and sometimes the knavery of 
camp-followers of science who sullied the word by their use of it, 
have helped break the popular faith in naturalism. 

Modern man is bewildered. Naturalism has failed to give him 
any clear objective in living, but it has made life more complex and 
tended to destroy the old authority of the church and the Bible in 
the thinking of many. Having learned to think objectively modern 
man cannot concentrate his loyalties and develop a drive, a dynamic 
in life. The scientific method makes one a good observer of life but 
does not fit one to live life. Naturalism has tended to degrade man's 
sense of his own importance, to make him a fortuitous conglomera- 
tion of dust rather than a son of God. He finds himself in a flood 
of naturalism and secularism and without a ladder upon which he 
can climb out. In life's swirling values where can he find integra- 
tion? 

What is the way out? Metaphysical and theological thinkers are 
proposing various answers today. Naturalistic theism is an attempt 
to apply the scientific method to all of life, and so find nature's God 
through nature. Henry N. Wieman and Alfred N. Whitehead are 
examples of this school. They would construct life upon a theism 
based upon a keener observation of the witness to God in his created 
world. Columbia Seminary has traditionally recognized the con- 
tribution of this method but it has also recognized the limitations 
and insufficiency of such natural theology. 4 

Modernism has been a strong force in recent theological thought 
and continues to be. Modernism is not really a theological system. 
It has no recognized creed. It is really a method of approach, a cer- 
tain outlook upon truth, and an opportunist adaptation of religious 
truth in an effort to be all things to all men. It seeks to cut the bread 
of life to suit the fashion demanded by the moment, in order that 
choosy moderns, suffering from malnutrition, may be induced to 



4 Charles Hodge, Systematic Theology (1907), p. 22. A textbook at Colum 
bia Seminary. 



248 COLORED LIGHT 

eat and live. Modernists do not agree among themselves in doctrines, 
but only in method. They want to bring religious truth to meet the 
present need. But in doing so they often throw away or neglect 
truth, and substitute for bread some synthetic food prepared in their 
own imaginings. Conservative Columbia objects to any adulteration 
and serves good, plain, old-fashioned bread. Self-expression needs 
to be checked by an objective standard, and adaptations of religion are 
necessarily tentative because the human knowledge to which adap- 
tation is made is subject to change. Again, to identify religion with 
some prevailing Zeitgeist, as modernism has so often identified the 
Kingdom of God and Democracy, is to degrade theology and destroy 
its power to judge that very Democracy, and to invite the same sort 
of trouble that came in the Middle Ages when the church had 
adopted the feudal system. Modernism may serve a good purpose 
in stirring us up from a dead orthodoxy and helping us preach to 
the present-day needs of men; but modernism is of today, while 
theology is, we believe, of eternity. 

Neo-Thomism is the name applied to the new intellectual move- 
ment in the Roman Catholic Church. Holding that the world went 
astray at the Renaissance, this school would have culture go back 
to Thomas Aquinas and bring certain values down to the present 
day. Modern society is severely criticized because of its disunity. 
The revolt at the Renaissance led to the breakdown of monarchy, 
then to the overthrow of feudalism, then to the various revolts of 
the people, and to individualism. Anarchy is the final outcome of 
violation of the fifth commandment. Protestantism, with its va- 
rious sects, is seen not as a family composed of separate units in 
the common Christianity but as a disintegration and disunity. Art 
and education suffer from internal conflict. Human life is caught in 
self-contradiction. Philosophy, based on science, rests on shifting 
sand, and is too tentative to take itself seriously, and yet it furnishes 
the only stability for current life. 

"Coherence and unity are lost in a confused atomism which ap- 
pears to the critic like the fragments of a picture puzzle in the hands 
of a child that will not believe in pictures. Man's hunger for mean- 
ing and direction in life satisfactory to his highest aspirations is 
fed with a stone for bread: a view of nature, of human society, and 
of his own personality which reduces these to a naturalistic level 



N EW AN D OLD 249 

where the hunger itself is argued out of existence but the ache is 
left. Bewildered, unhappy, restless, the modern man bemoans his 
own confusion; and yet smiles bitterly at all proposals for relief be- 
cause his faith in human thought has been demoralized." 5 

For the cure of the world's ills this school suggests an adaptation 
of the principles of the Scholastics. A comprehensive metaphysic 
will recognize the fact of change and the relation of change to an 
essence or nature which governs change. An acorn changes in be- 
coming an oak, but its change is governed by the nature of an acorn. 
Change presupposes a cause, an uncaused, self-existent and deter- 
minative pure essence. This is God the First Cause, who is mani- 
fest in the world that He has made, both as the necessary condition 
of order and of existence. Here is reality. Here is a metaphysic 
offered for our thinking. Upon this rock we may build us a house 
of life. Since the essence of man is not material but spiritual, man 
is related to the Divine Essence in a peculiar way. Man is a citizen 
of two worlds, the natural and the supernatural, and man's freedom 
consists in his realization that he lives in the world of nature but is 
not altogether of it. 

In relation to the natural world, the Neo-Thomist is an inductive 
thinker and follows the scientific mode of the hour, taking pride in 
calling his school "the new intellectualist." However, two assump- 
tions are held: the theistic interpretation and the possibility of reve- 
lation. Revelation does not contradict nature, but supplements it. 
Faith does not contradict reason, but completes it. Nature manifests 
God to man but not God's nature. We can know God as He is only 
because He revealed Himself. He is supra-rational as well as supra- 
natural. Upon this metaphysic the Neo-Thomist proceeds to fit a 
Christian system and to propound a propaganda for the Romanist 
Church. The Columbia thinking has never deserted a theistic meta- 
physical basis. 6 One of the principles wrought out by Dr. James 
Woodrow was that of noncontradiction between nature and revela- 
tion. Columbia Seminary has always been very careful that human 
error shall not be introduced into the Christian system that is con- 
structed upon that metaphysical basis. The Neo-Thomists bring in 
the Fathers, the Councils, and Aristotle, not only to help under- 



5 E. E. Aubrey, op. cit., p. 126. 
6 Charles Hodge, op. cit., pp. 24, 191. 



250 COLORED LIGHT 

stand the Scriptures, but as an authority along with the Scriptures! 
Columbia holds to the sufficiency of Scripture as a source for 
Christianity. 

The Dialectical or Crisis Theology has attracted the theological 
world in our day. Karl Barth was trained in the smugly rationalistic 
theology of prewar Germany, with some pietistic influences from 
Wuerttemberg. Against the disillusionment of postwar Europe 
he published his The Epistle of Romans, which saw modern life 
through Paul's conceptions. It contained the soul struggle of the 
young preacher to find theological assurance against the background 
of skepticism, and to deliver the vital message for his congre- 
gation. It was much like the thought of Kierkegaard, in Denmark, 
1813-1855. The book was widely received. It was a new slant 
upon the theological problem. It called men back to the Bible as a 
record of God's revelation of Himself. It frankly debunked the 
intellectual and spiritual pretensions of man, and urged the abso- 
lutely desperate condition of our lives. It presented religion as a 
crisis, but in the crisis God speaks a positive word. That Word is 
Jesus Christ. But Jesus Christ can only be perceived in the crisis 
and as the Paradox saving us in our crisis. Faith leaps from self- 
confidence into the abyss and lands in the arms of God. It is all a 
gift of God. This theology is much like a return to the doctrine of 
the Reformation. It brings men personally face to face with God 
somewhat as Calvinism does. Yet it differs from Calvinism and 
the Columbia tradition in many respects. In the first place it comes 
out of a higher-critical skeptical background. Again, it begins with 
negation; and in utter negation finds personal faith. Columbia 
theology begins with affirmation, the message from God. This 
message works negation, or conviction, within man by its majesty 
and holiness. In this self- emptiness man finds Christ. In Barth's 
teaching not only the individual but the whole Christian truth seems 
to be in the crisis. In Calvinism the truth stands unaffected, and 
only the individual is in the crisis. Both agree in explaining the 
process as an activity of God's grace. The Barthian neo-Calvinism 
has much in common with Columbia's traditional teaching and al- 
ready has been given attention at Columbia, but there are differences, 
as Dr. W. C. Robinson points out in his recent book, in the doctrines 
of inspiration, history, reason, and common grace. 7 



'W. C. Robinson, The Certainties of the Gospel (1935)' P- IO - 



N EW AN D O L D 251 

The First Century Christian Fellowship has recently, through 
its groups, emphasized personal religion and certain practical ele- 
ments in the Christian life, such as the quiet time of devotion, will- 
ingness to do the will of God, sincere repentance of all known sin, 
and unselfish sharing with others. This is a movement not attached 
to any particular theology. It simply emphasizes practices long ad- 
vocated at Columbia, but sometimes the new emphasis may be 
brought in such a way as to distort these practices. Its vogue shows 
the need in our culture for definite commitment and integration of 
life toward God, in reaction against the attitude of the scientific ob- 
server. 

The social gospel seems to conflict with the great Columbia em- 
phasis upon the spirituality of the church, yet a closer study may 
show a way to adapt this social emphasis to the time-honored Co- 
lumbia position. The antecedents of the social gospel are not very 
congenial to the Columbia thinking. The social gospel came out 
of modernism. In fact, it came from the secular side of modernism, 
the sociological thinkers. It is traced through Saint-Simon, Comte, 
Mill, Spencer, Ritchl, Charles Kingsley, and Carlyle. Ruskin and 
Karl Marx were closely related to the type of thinking that has pro- 
duced the social gospel of today. Washington Gladden and Walter 
Rauschenbusch were exponents of the social emphasis in the church. 
Sometimes the Utopia of sociological thinking has been lugged into 
the church and christened as the kingdom of God. Some of the 
chief exponents of this type of thinking seem to have become secu- 
larized, as Norman Thomas. Some of the experiments in social con- 
trol by the churches, as prohibition, for instance, have not proved 
very encouraging to those who are urged to make the churches agen- 
cies for social control. All this is enough to anathematize the social 
gospel except for the fact that historic Christianity has ever been 
willing to sacrifice and endure in the support of even a seemingly 
hopeless cause, if that cause were recognized as righteous. And it is 
true that the general aims for social justice and betterment, which 
are the aims of the social gospel, are authentic Christian aims. The 
social gospel is serving to put inherited mores in crisis and demand- 
ing a rethinking of ethical adjustments. Calvinism in Geneva was 
distinctly a social gospel. John Calvin attempted to keep a line 
drawn between the temporal and spiritual affairs, but there is no 



252 COLORED LIGHT 

doubt that the molding of temporal life was due to Calvin's preach- 
ing. So thinking today continues to modify temporal affairs. The 
voice of the church sows seed that bear fruit. We are confronted to- 
day with just the problems that met Thornwell, Palmer, and Adger 
before the War Between the States. They felt their responsibility to 
their fellow men. They must, under God, give their opinion upon 
the temporal problems of the day or be self-condemned in their own 
consciences. Yet they realized that they had no right to insert their 
own temporal theories, their sociological and political opinions, into 
the place of revealed truth. They met the problem by ruling out 
such theorizing in church and then as individuals taking an active 
part in the problems of the day. Sometimes they did not quite live 
up to their theory of the spirituality of the church. As we look 
back now, such failures seem blots upon their records. Perhaps the 
only safe thing is for us to stick close to theology in the church and 
then seek to apply our theories, as all other men must, in the socio- 
logical and political realms. There can be no objection to men's 
becoming political and social reformers when they feel led to such 
steps, but within the church they should confine their preaching to 
clear deductions from theological truth. They should fearlessly 
preach the implications and applications of Christianity to life, but 
they should strictly avoid introducing man-made schemes and pro- 
grams that are not directly drawn from theological truth. 

Back in 19 13 Dr. James R. Howerton, '85, professor of Philos- 
ophy at Washington and Lee University, published a book on The 
Church and Social Reforms. He summarized the position suggested 
above : 

"The Church, therefore, as an organization, cannot and ought 
not to engage in secular reforms, political or economic. She always 
makes mischief when she does so. She turns aside from her own 
proper mission, and, at the same time, violates the freedom of con- 
science of her members. The only real good the Church has ever 
done in promoting such reforms is by her influence in forming the 
character, the principles, and the motives of the men and women 
whose real business in life is to engage in such service to business, to 
society, and the State. She can reform politics by reforming poli- 
ticians, she can reform business by reforming the business men, she 
can reform society by reforming social leaders, and in no other way. 



N EW AN D OLD 253 

But she cannot do this if she makes it merely incidental to the saving 
of the souls of lawyers, politicians, business men and social leaders, 
in another world. As long as they regard her message merely as a 
means of escaping the punishment of sins committed in these re- 
lations the Church will never do society any good through such 
members — even if she should finally succeed in keeping them out of 
hell. She must regard it as one of the main purposes of her insti- 
tution to equip them for service here in this world, and in just those 
relations; and she must deliver her message in such a way that they 
so understand it. Let her preach the Gospel as a rule of justification; 
but she must preach the law as a rule of life, and insist that obe- 
dience to it in all the relations of life is the only valid evidence of a 
saving faith. The epistle of James must be preached as well as those 
of Paul. Too much of 'other world hedonism' has crept into the 
ethics of our Christian pulpits. Selfishness is none the less selfishness 
because the pains it shuns and the pleasures it seeks are those of an- 
other world. The separation of Church and State does not mean 
that morals and religion must be kept out of politics. That the 
Church herself must not engage in secular reforms is not to be 
interpreted to mean that her preachers and her members shall have 
nothing to do with such reforms. That the ecclesiastical organiza- 
tion itself cannot be used to promote such reforms must not mean 
that preachers and church members may not form voluntary and 
interdenominational organizations in order to unify and systema- 
tize their work for social reforms. It is true that, if they do it, all 
those who exploit vice for political and financial ends, will raise a 
howl because 'the churches and the preachers are meddling in poli- 
tics.' Let them howl!" 8 

In the examination of the probable relation of these various 
theological tendencies to Columbia Seminary, it has appeared that 
Columbia Seminary has a definite theology. Of course, this is well 
known because it is a confessional theology, a creedal theology, ex- 
pressed in the constitution of the church. The Westminster Stand- 
ards were an attempt to express with some fullness the Calvinistic- 
Augustinian-Pauline interpretation of the message of God to men. 
Since this message, culminating in clarity and fullness in the Word 
made flesh, is the same yesterday, today, and forever, it follows that 



8 Jas. R. Howerton, The Church and Social Reforms, pp. 82, 94, 



254 COLORED LIGHT 

the nature of Christianity does not change, and a statement that 
presents it in the seventeenth century continues to present it in the 
twentieth century. Of course our intepretations of words change 
and the categories of our thinking change, and from time to time 
there may need to be verbal changes and explanatory notes added. 
No statement, being human, can be perfect, and none can contain all 
truth, for then it must be all-inclusive. The confession serves as a 
fence to keep those who are within safe upon a rock in the midst of 
the surging waves of human thinking. It is not intended to be 
repressive, for all are at liberty to strive to change it in an orderly 
manner through the church courts. It is not a substitute for per- 
sonal conviction nor for individual thinking. It is an intelligible 
statement of faith. 

One of the more recent publications from the Columbia Seminary 
faculty is entitled The Certainties of the Gospel. 9 The chapter head- 
ings are: 

Introduction — Certainty, The Lost Chord in Modern Protes- 
tantism. 

i. The Certainty that God is the Author of the Gospel. 

2. The Certainty of Jesus Christ, the Substance of the Gospel. 

3. The Certainty of the A-B-C's of the Gospel. 

4. The Certainty of Grace, the Fundamental Characteristic of 
the Gospel. 

5. The Certainty of Justification by Faith, the Gospel Way of 
Salvation. 

6. The Certainty of God's Love and Care, the Comfort of the 
Gospel. 

Conclusion — For the Gospel! And Unashamed! 

The book is a scholarly and intellectual presentation of the 
Christian faith. It is abreast of the most recent scholarship but it 
holds firmly to the timeless message. It is written in a chaste and 
pleasing style. It glows with a clear faith, bright hopes, and radiant 
love. 

The Light still shines through Columbia Seminary. 



(J See literary appendix. 



NEW AND OLD 255 



One Hundred and Fiftieth Psalm 

Paraphrase in verse by: 
John L. Girardeau 

"Praise ye the Lord, sing praise to God, 
Within His holy place; 
And in his firmament of power, 
Unto Him render praise. 

"O praise Him for His mighty acts; 

His glorious greatness praise; 
Praise Him with sound of trumpet blast 
With harp and psaltery praise. 

"Praise Him with timbrel and with pipe; 
With tuneful strings Him praise; 
With organs, and on cymbals loud — 
On clashing cymbals praise. 

"Let every creature that hath breath 
To utter forth His praise, 
Jehovah's glory celebrate; 

Praise ye Jehovah; praise." 10 




10 G. A. Blackburn, op. cit., p. 364. 



APPENDIX 
Hopewell Presbytery and Columbia Seminary 



A CAREFUL reading of the minutes of Hopewell Presbytery, now 
deposited with the Historical Foundation, Montreat, North 
Carolina, makes it clear that there was no direct connection between 
the discussion in Hopewell Presbytery and the establishment of Co- 
lumbia Seminary. Also it is clear that the Mt. Zion considered for a 
proposed location was Mt. Zion, Georgia, not Mt. Zion Academy, 
Winnsboro, South Carolina. Dr. Howe may have misunderstood 
the writing of Dr. John S. Wilson, in which he refers with pardon- 
able pride to the interest of his own presbytery in a theological semi- 
nary at an early date; and other writers have elaborated upon Dr. 
Howe's statement. The following will make this clear. In History 
of Columbia Theolgical Seminary, by Rev. Geo. Howe, D.D., Ph.D., 
printed in the Semi-Centenniat Volume, page 136, the author states: 
"Dr. John S. Wilson, in his necrology, The Dead in the Synod 
of Georgia, says that 'to Hopewell Presbytery belongs the honor of 
taking the initiative for establishing a Theological Seminary in the 
South/ In 1817 a committee was appointed by that body to draw 
up a plan for a theological school. The early death of Dr. Finley 
soon after his election to the Presidency of Athens College prevented 
the report of that committee, he being one of its prominent members. 
In 1 8 1 9, a new committee having brought in the report, the Presby- 
tery proceeded to the choice of a location for the same, when Athens 
and Mt. Zion were put in nomination. The vote was carried for 
Athens. No further progress was made in the enterprise. Of this Dr. 
Wilson suggests that the conflict as to the location was the cause." 
Since Dr. Howe had just recounted the history of Mt. Zion Academy 
in Winnsboro, and its contribution of ministers, it seems that he 
thought the Mt. Zion mentioned by Dr. Wilson was the same insti- 
tution as that at Winnsboro, South Carolina, and that Hopewell 
Presbytery had begun a movement for a seminary which had con- 
cerned all the Synod of South Carolina and Georgia. This interpre- 
tation is followed by Dr. R. C. Reed in Bulletin of Columbia Theo- 
logical Seminary, March, 1922, and by the unnamed author in Bui- 



APPENDIX 257 

letin of Columbia Theological Seminary, October, 1 9 1 8. The same 
interpretation and identification is found in History of the Presby- 
terian Church in South Carolina, by F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills, 
page 417. It seems clear from the following extracts from the minutes 
of Hopewell Presbytery that this consideration was a local proposi- 
tion, possibly suggested by the request of the General Assembly in 
1809 for a vote upon a proposal to establish a Northern and a 
Southern seminary. See page 159, Presbyterians, by George P. Hays, 
D.D., Ph.D. These constitute the pertinent references to theological 
seminaries in the Hopewell minutes: 

(Extracts) 

Notes from Manuscript Records, Vol. 1 

of 

Hopewell Presbytery, Georgia 

(Now at Montreat, N. C.) 

"Madison, Sept. 6, 181 7. 

"Presbytery taking into consideration the destitute state of the 
churches in our bounds; knowing that many of our people have 
been obliged to join other religious societies, or remain in a great 
measure bereaved of the enjoyment which arises from the com- 
munion of saints in gospel ordinance: Believing that our churches 
might be increased, and many new congregations formed, provided 
we could give reasonable assurance that they would be supplied with 
pastors; the members feel it their duty to pray the Lord of the har- 
vest to send forth more labourers. And whereas, our prayers ought 
always to be accompanied with dutiful endeavors for the attain- 
ment of the blessings for which we pray, And whereas, there is 
but little opportunity for young men to acquire the knowledge of 
those things which are necessary to qualify for the discharge of 
ministerial duty; presbytery feels it incumbent on it to endeavor to 
make some provision for the continuance and increase of a gospel 
ministry in this part of the vineyard, when those who now officiate 
in holy things shall have rested from their labors. And believing 
that a Theological School in this part of the world might be sub- 
servient to that end, unanimously resolved to take that subject into 



258 APPENDIX 

consideration, and to use such ways and means as God in His provi- 
dence may seem to open up to view, as likely to be conducive to the 
end. And the Reverend Francis Cummins, Dr. Brown, and Dr. 
Finley were appointed a committee to draft a plan for a Theologi- 
cal school, to be laid before Presbytery at the next session, together 
with a statement of their views of the best means for carrying the 
measure into effect." 1 

"Mount Zion, April 6, 1 8 1 9. 

" (At ''Female Academy" 4 o'clock) 

"Mr. Douglas stated to Presbytery that he found it extremely in- 
convenient to make desirable progress in his theological studies 
whilst engaged in teaching a school; that he had for some time 
thought of going to Princeton to become a member of the Theologi- 
cal Seminary, and wished the advice of the Presbytery in the case. 
Presbytery unanimously and warmly recommended that he should 
go on to Princeton ; and the clerk is directed to give him a certificate of 
his good standing with us, provided he should go to complete his 
studies at that institution." 

"In consequence of the death of Dr. Finley, the committee ap- 
pointed in September 1 8 1 7 to draft a plan for a Theological school 
did not report. Mr. Cummins, Dr. Brown and Mr. Beman are 
appointed a committee to report on that subject at our next." 2 

"Siloam Church, September 6, 18 19. 

"On the subject of a Theological school, a report of considerable 
length was brought in and read, and in part considered; but not 
adopted. Presbytery then proceeded to the choice of a site for this 
institution. Athens and Mount Zion were put in nomination. On 
taking the vote it was carried in favour of Athens. 

"Siloam Church, September 7, 18 19. 

"On the subject of a Theological school, another report was 
brought in and read; but not adopted. The further consideration 
of the subject was indefinitely postponed." 3 



1 Minutes Hopewell Presbytery, pp. 149-150. 
2 Ibid., pp. 166-167. 
3 Ibid., pp. 1 70-1 7 1. 



APPENDIX 259 

"Washington, 3d. April, 1830. 

"A resolution was offered proposing the endowing a professor- 
ship in the Theological Seminary lately established by the Synod 
of South Carolina and Georgia, and located at Columbia, South 
Carolina. After much discussion, the matter was referred to a com- 
mittee consisting of Messrs. Stiles, Talmadge and Mills; and to 
report before the rising of the present sessions." 4 

"The committee to whom was referred the subject of endowing 
a professorship in the Southern Theological Seminary presented 
their report, which was adopted, and is as follows: 

"Highly sensible of the great importance to the Southern Church 
of a Theological Seminary within the bounds of the Synod of South 
Carolina and Georgia: Therefore, 

"Resolved. That the Hopewell Presbytery cordially approve 
of the effort of the Synod of South Carolina and Georgia, to establish 
a Theological Seminary at Columbia; and they warmly recommend 
the institution to the benevolence and the prayers of the churches 
within our bounds. 

"The same committee was directed to confer with the Presbytery 
of Georgia, and ascertain whether that body feels a willingness to 
unite with this Presbytery, should circumstances hereafter indicate 
the propriety of attempting the establishment of a professorship in 
said Seminary, and make report of their doings at our next session. 5 

"Lexington, Saturday, April 2, 1831. 

"The order of the day, that is, the subject of endowing a pro- 
fessorship in the Theological Seminary of the Synod of South Caro- 
lina and Georgia was taken up; and the following resolutions 
adopted : 

"Resolved. That this Presbytery highly approve the efforts of 
the Synod to establish a Theological Seminary within its bounds, 
and that we most cordially recommend to the churches under our 
care to patronize this infant institution. 

"Resolved further. That in a particular manner we recommend 
to the members of our churches, and those friendly to its doctrines 
and discipline, to unite with the Presbytery of Georgia, so far as 

4 Minutes Hopewell Presbytery, p. 384. 
5 Ibid, pp. 386-387. 



260 APPENDIX 

they may be willing in raising at least the sum of $25,000.00, to 
endow a professorship, to be called 'the Georgia professorship' and 
to be under the control of these presbyteries, and at any time liable 
to be withdrawn and devoted to an institution which may be es- 
tablished in this state/' 6 



That the Mt. Zion referred to was near Sparta is clear from the 
following considerations: The minutes for April 6, 1819, are 
headed "Mount Zion (at Female Academy 4 o'clock) ." The larg- 
est church of the presbytery in 181 7 was Mt. Zion, having forty 
communicant members, and Dr. Nathan S. S. Beman, pastor. He 
afterward became famous as a preacher at Troy, New York, and an 
author. He led the New School split in 1838. His brother, Carlyle 
P. Beman, became first president of Oglethorpe. In Vol. I, Georgia 
Landmarks, Memorials and Legends, p. 659, we read, "Mt. Zion 
was seven miles from Sparta." It offered educational opportunity 
for boys and girls. Dr. A. W. Simpson of Washington, Georgia, 
who is a student of Georgiana, in a letter to the writer October 26, 
1932, states, "I have been looking through my papers and the only 
school I can find by that name located near here was Mt. Zion school, 
located near Sparta, Georgia, in Hancock County." In Statistics of 
Georgia, by White, 1 849, we find that Mt. Zion was settled in 1 8 1 1 . 
In Georgia Landmarks, etc., Vol. I, page 428,' we read, "Dr. Nathan 
S. S. Beman, who founded the famous academy at Mount Zion, near 
Sparta, was chosen to succeed Dr. Finley, etc." In the same volume, 
page 20, quoting Miscellanies of Georgia, by Colonel Absalom H. 
Chappell, 1877, we read: "One morning in the month of June, 
1 8 16, during the summer vacation of Mt. Zion Academy . . ." 
Dawson s Digest, p. 15, records that Mt. Zion was incorporated and 
named December 20, 1823. Georgia Landmarks, etc., Vol. II, page 
123, "Mt. Zion Academy. . . In 1 819, had been already for a 
few years, under Dr. Beman, later famous as preacher at Troy, New 
York." This is a quotation from the autobiography of William H. 
Seward, of Civil War fame, who made a trip to Georgia shortly after 
his graduation from Union College. In Statistics of Georgia, by 
White, we read, "The Missionary was published at Mount Zion by 
Rev. Mr. Gildersleeve, — commenced about 1819-20 — afterwards 

6 Minutes Hopewell Presbytery, pp. 416-417. 



APPENDIX 261 

published in Sparta, then Charleston, and since incorporated with 
The Watchman and Observer in Richmond." This shows some- 
thing of the prominence of Mt. Zion Academy. It seems to have 
continued for many years and been absorbed into the public-school 
system. William Lowndes Yancey, born August 10, 1814, went to 
school at Mt. Zion. Rev. Nathan S. S. Beman was received into 
Hopewell Presbytery, April 3, 18 13, from Cumberland Congre- 
gational Association. He had lately been pastor in Portland, 
Maine. 7 

The minutes of Hopewell Presbytery show that several candi- 
dates for the ministry were studying at Mt. Zion under the direction 
of Dr. Beman. On page 1 86 of the minutes we read, "Mr. Nahum 
Nixon . . . lately of Mt. Zion . . . has been under the direction and 
patronage of a member of this body since October last." 

Eli Smith, a graduate of Dartmouth College, became a candidate 
April 1, 1 815. Benjamin Gildersleeve, a graduate of Middlebury 
College, Vermont, became a candidate May 6, 18 16. He was then 
engaged in teaching in connection with Rev. Nathan S. S. Beman. 
Ira Ingraham, Middlebury College graduate and rector of an acad- 
emy at Powelton, was received as candidate April 4, 1816. David 
Root, graduate of Middlebury College, became a candidate Novem- 
ber 9, 1 8 16. Alonzo Church, Middlebury College, became a candi- 
date in September, 1 8 1 j.* 

From the minutes we learn that in 1826 the Georgia Educational 
Society was supporting four young students for the ministry in 
Athens. Franklin College, now the University of Georgia, had been 
organized with Josiah Meigs as first professor, in 1801. 9 Dr. 
John Brown, of Hopewell Presbytery, served as president of Frank- 
lin College for a time after 1 8 1 1 and was then pastor of Mt. Zion 
Church, in Hancock County. 10 Dr. Robert Finley, of Hopewell 
Presbytery, was president of Franklin College at the time of his 
death in 1 8 1 7. In 1 8 1 9 Dr. Moses Waddell became president. Says 
Dr. Alonzo Church, who himself later became president, of his fel- 
low presbyter, "Dr. Waddell induced several families in the town 
and adjoining country each to board one poor young man who was 



f George Howe, op. cit., Vol 11, p. 305. 

8 Ibid., Vol. 11, p. 308. 

9 See note in Chapter I, p. 28. 

10 Presbyterian Encyclopaedia, op. cit., under John Brown. 



262 APPENDIX 

preparing for the ministry. God poured out his spirit upon the in- 
stitution, and many, in a few years, were hopefully converted, and 
went forth as teachers of academies and preachers of the gospel. 11 
Clearly the contest over location was between Athens and Mt. Zion, 
near Sparta, Georgia. 

On October 3, 1936, the writer visited Sparta and drove out to 
Mt. Zion. Miss Kate Beman, a granddaughter of Dr. C. P. Beman, 
gave access to papers that shed interesting light upon Mt. Zion Acad- 
emy. The Southern Presbyterian of June 29, 1876, states that 
Mt. Zion Academy opened the first Monday in Dec, 1812. For 
a time it was the leading classical school in up-country Georgia, 
Athens being in disorganization. In 1820 C. P. Beman took charge 
of the male department, while his brother, Dr. N. S. S. Beman, con- 
tinued to preside in the Female Academy for several years before 
selling his slaves and moving to the North to become an abolitionist 
leader. Dr. C. P. Beman remained in the South and opposed his 
brother's views. After being rector of Eatonton Academy, he took 
charge of the Manual Labor School at Midway in 1835 and devel- 
oped Oglethorpe University. The New School split caused his 
resignation, and after teaching in LaGrange he returned to Mt. Zion 
and opened Villa School, two miles west of Mt. Zion. He continued 
teaching here until a short time before his death, December 12, 1875. 
The old Mt. Zion Academy was burned and a new building erected 
on the site, which became a part of the public-school system. The 
ancient school bell was sent to be made into bullets in the War Be- 
tween the States, but was returned and now calls the farm hands on 
a near-by plantation. 

The Constitution, Atlanta, Georgia, October 2, 1904, informs 
us that Joseph Bryan invited N. S. S. Beman to settle at Mt. Zion 
and that Beman organized the Presbyterian Church there. Rev. J. 
R. Thomas, LL.D., onetime president of Emory College, was a 
student at Mt. Zion. 

The writer visited the old Mt. Zion Church, which was bought 
by the Methodists in 1903 and is now conducted as Mt. Zion Meth- 
odist Church. Dr. C. P. Beman's headstone is in the graveyard. 
Local people point out the site of the academy beside the church, and 
remark with pride that Mt. Zion once was more wealthy than At- 



1:l John N. Waddell, D.D., Ph.D., Memorials of Academic Life, p. 99. 



APPENDIX 263 

lanta. The ruins of old houses are in various stages of dissolution, 
but even the naked chimneys bear witness to the pretentiousness 
of the old settlement. A tannery, shoe manufactory, tailor shop, 
barroom, doctor's office, and a Baptist and a Methodist Church 
once clustered at Mt. Zion. Dr. Beman's house had twelve rooms, 
we were told, and beside it he had a large dormitory for his scholars. 
In one of the old houses there had been a hall of mirrors with two 
mantelpieces imported from Germany, according to the words of a 
descendant of one of the old families. Time was when forty ex- 
pensive carriages drove up to Mt. Zion Church upon a Sunday 
morning. What were once spacious gardens of the big houses are 
now thickets of cedars and rose bushes gone wild. Dr. Beman's 
colored carriage driver is reported to have died in Sparta some fifteen 
years ago. 



264 APPENDIX 

COLUMBIA SEMINARY MEN WHO SERVED AS 
MODERATORS OF GENERAL ASSEMBLIES 



Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, 
Before 1837 

1833 William A. McDowell, D.D., Secretary of the Board. 

( Old School Branch, 1838-1869) 

1838 William Swan Plumer, D.D., LL.D., later on faculty. 

1 847 James H. Thornwell, D.D., LL.D., later on faculty. 

1848 Alexander T. McGill, D.D., LL.D., later on faculty. 
1850 Aaron W. Leland, D.D., faculty. 

Presbyterian Church in the United States, 1865-1936 

1 86 1 Benjamin Morgan Palmer, D.D., '41 and faculty. 

1865 George Howe, D.D., LL.D., faculty. 

1 87 1 William Swan Plumer, D.D., LL.D., faculty. 

1873 Henry Martyn Smith, D.D., '54. 

1874 John Lafayette Girardeau, D.D., LL.D., later on faculty. 

1877 Charles Allen Stillman, D.D., '44. 

1878 Thomas E. Peck, D.D., LL.D., entered Columbia. 

1879 Joseph Ruggles Wilson, faculty. 

1880 Thomas A. Hoyt, D.D., '49. 

1884 Thomas Dwight Witherspoon, D.D., LL.D., '59. 

1 891 Hampden Colt DuBose, D.D., '71. 

1895 Charles Robert Hemphill, D.D., '74 and faculty. 

1896 Robert Quarterman Mallard, D.D., '55. 

1897 George Thomas Goetchius, D.D., '71. 

1898 Edward M. Green, D.D., '63. 

1902 William Thomas Hall, D.D., '58 and faculty. 

1904 Samuel Monroe Neel, D.D., '70. 

1 905 J. T. Plunkett, D.D., '80. 

1907 James Robert Howerton, D.D., LL.D., '85. 

1909 William Ellison Boggs, D.D., LL.D., '62, and faculty. 

19 12 Thomas Stone Clyce, D.D., LL.D., '90. 



APPENDIX 265 

1 91 6 C. W. Grafton, D.D., '73. 

19 1 7 John Miller Wells, D.D., LL.D., later on faculty. 
1 919 A. M. Fraser, D.D., LL.D., '80. 

1921 A. B. Curry, D.D., '75. 

1922 Richard Clark Reed, D.D., LL.D, faculty. 

1924 Thornton C. Whaling, D.D., LL.D., '83, and faculty. 



266 APPENDIX 



INDEX TO LITERARY APPENDIX 



Name Class 

Adams, W. H. 1 1863 

Adger, J. B. Faculty, 1857-74 

Alexander, S. C. , 1853 

Alston, W. M. Faculty, 1930 

Atkins, A. H. 1890 

Baker, R. T. 1925 

Banks, A. R. 1835 

Bean, W. S. 1872 

BQattie, F. R. . Faculty, 1888-93 

Blackburn, G. A. 1886 

Blackburn, J. C. 19 18 

Blakely, H. B. Faculty, 1927-30 

Boggs, W. E. 1862. Faculty, 1882-85 

Bourne, G. T. 1893 

Brackett, G. R. 1862 

Brimm, D. J. 1890. Faculty, 1893-1900 

Brimm, W. W. 1869 

Brown, S. R. 1 838 

Bryan, W. S. P. 1878 

Burkhead, J. DeW. . 1859 

Byrd, S. C. 1892. Faculty, 1 898-1902 

Carmichael, P. H. Faculty, 193 3 -present 

Cartledge, G. H. 1 848 

Cartledge, S. J. 1 889 

Clark, Melton 1898. Faculty, 1920-32 

Clayman, R. F. 19 1 5 

Clyce, T. S. 1890 

Craig, D. I. 1878 

Craig, J. N. 1859 

Cudlipp, Joseph H Visiting Instructor, 193 3 -present 

Curry, A. B. 1875 

Curtis, William 1 844 

Dana, W. C. 1835 

Daniel, Eugene '- 1 87 1 

Davis, J. W. Faculty, 1900-02 

Deveaux, T. L. i860 



APPENDIX 267 

Name Class 

Douglas, D. M. 1 899 

Douglas, John 1835 

DuBose, H. C. 1 87 1 

English, T. R. . 1875 

Flinn, J. William 1875 

Foster, J. S. Faculty, 1936-present 

Fraser, A. M. 1880 

Fulton, C. D. 1 9 1 5 

Gillespie, R. T. . 1908. President, 1925-30 

Girardeau, J. L. 1848. Faculty, 1876-95 

Goulding, F. R. 1 833 

Grafton, C. W. 1873 

Green, E. M. 1863 

Green, J. B. Faculty, 1 921 -present 

Hall, W. T. 1858. Faculty, 1 895-19 " 

Haman, T. L. 1873 

Hay, S. H. 19 1 o 

Hemphill, C. R. 1874. Faculty, 1874-78, 1882-85 

Henderson, L. G. 1 896 

Howe, George Faculty, 1831-83 

Howerton, J. R. 1885 

Hoyt, T. A. 1 849 

Hutton, M. C. 1872 

Jacobs, J. F. 189 1 

Jacobs, W. P. . 1 864 

Jacobs, W. S. 1893 

Johnston, R. Z. 186 1 

Jones, C. C. Faculty, 1836-38, 1848-50 

Jones, F. D. 1900 

Lanneau, B. E 1851. Tutor, 1851-55 

Lapsley, R. A. 1 880 

Latimer, J. F. 1870 

Law, T. H. 1862 

Laws, S. S. Faculty, 1893-98 

Leland, A. W. \ Faculty, 1833-63 

Leyburn, John 1836 

Long, I. J. 1 86 1 

Mack, J. B. 186 1 

Mallard, R. Q. 1855 

Markham, T. R. 1854 

Martindale, C. O'N. 1 892 



268 APPENDIX 

Name Class 

McAlpine, Robert E. 1885 

McConnell, Thos. M. 1875 

McGill, Alex. T. Faculty, 1852-53 

Mcllwain, W. E. 1875 

McKinley, Carlyle 1 874 

McLaughlin, H. W. -____Visiting Instructor, 1926-present 

McPheeters, W. M. Faculty, 1888- 193 5 

McS ween, John 1 9 1 3 

Merrick, J. L. 1833 

Mickle, R. A. 1853 

Miller, Arnold W. 1848 

Mills, H. J. 1902 

Mills, W. H. 1897 

Morris, S. L. 1876 

Murray, E. C. 1885 

Neely, R. L. 1856 

Neville, W. G. 1 8 8 1 

Neville, W. G. 1923 

Otts, J. M. P. 1862 

Palmer, B. M. 1841. Faculty, 1853-56 

Pearson, R. G. Faculty, 1911-13 

Peck, T. E. Entered about 1842 

Petrie, G. L. 1862 

Porter, A. A. 1 842 

Porter, David H. 1855 

Plumer, W. S. Faculty, 1867-80 

Quarterman, J. W. 1 845 

Rankin, D. C. 1875 

Rauschenberg, Fritz 1908 

Reavis, J. O. 1 Faculty, 1913-20 

Reed, R. C. Faculty, 1898- 1925 

Red, W. S. 1886 

Richards, James McDowell President, 1932-present 

Riviere, W. T. 19 1 7 

Robinson, W. C. 1920. Faculty, 1926-present 

Rockwell, E. F. 1 840 

Rumple, Jethro 1857 

Screven, W. E. 1 847 

Shot well, Albert 1 849 

Sluter, George 1863 

Smith, H. M. 1854 



APPENDIX 269 

S mith, Newton 1892 

Smith, R. P. 1876 

Smith, S. M. Faculty, 1898-99 

Stacy, James 1852 

Stillman, Charles A. 1 844 

Tadlock, J. D. Faculty, 1885-98 

Taylor, J. H. 1897 

Thornwell, J. H. Faculty, 1856-62 

Vedder, C. S. 1862 

Webb, R. A. 1880 

Wells, John M. President, 1921-24 

Whaling, Thornton C. 1883. President, 1911-21 

White, H. A. Faculty, 1903-26 

Wilds, L. T. 191 1 

Williams, John C. 1885 

Wilson, B. F. 1887 

Wilson, J. Leighton , 1833 

Wilson, J. R. Faculty, 1870-75 

Witherspoon, T. D. 1859 

Woodbridge, S.I. 1882 

Woodrow, James Faculty, 1861-86 

Workman, W. A. 1887 



270 APPENDIX 

LITERARY WORK of 
COLUMBIA SEMINARY FACULTY 

And Complete List of Faculty 



THOMAS GOULDING (A.B.), D.D.;* Professor 1827- 1834 
GEORGE HOWE (A.B., B.D.), D.D., LL.D.; Professor 1831-83 

History of the Presbyterian Church in South Carolina, Vol. II, 1883. 

.Theological Education. 243 pages. Published in 1844. 

An Appeal to the Young Men of the Presbyterian Church in the Synod of 
South Carolina and Georgia. 48 pages. Issued in 1836. 

Thy Kingdom Come. A missionary sermon preached before Presbytery of 
Harmony, Salem, S. C., 1833. 

A Sermon Occasioned by the Death of Rev. Robert Means of Fairfield Dis- 
trict, S. C. Preached on second Sabbath in June, 1836. 

A Eulogy on the Rev. Joshua Bates, D.D., Former President of Middlebury 
College. Delivered on commencement day, Aug. 9, 1854. 

Early History of Presbyterianism in South Carolina. A sermon preached at 
opening of Synod of South Carolina, Charleston, S. C, Nov. 15, 1854. 

The Early Presbyterian Immigration into South Carolina. A discourse de- 
livered before General Assembly in New Orleans, May 7, 1858, by 
appointment of the Presbyterian Historical Society. 

The Value and Influence of Literary Pursuits. An oration delivered before the 
Eumean and Philanthropic Societies of Davidson College, N. C, com- 
mencement, August 13, 1846. 

The Endowments, Positions, and Education of Women. An address before 
Hemans and Sigourney Societies of Female High School, Limestone 
Springs, July 23, 1850. 

Introduction to the Works of the Rev. Robert Means, with a Note on the 
Genuineness of Pentateuch. 

The Secondary and Collateral Influences of the Sacred Scriptures. A pamphlet. 

Articles published in Southern Presbyterian Review: 

On the Holy Spirit, 1847; Ethnography, 1849; Unity of the Race, 
1849; The Mark of Cain and the Curse of Ham, 1850; On Notts' Lec- 
tures, 1850; Genuineness of Pentateuch, 1850; Unity of the Human 



*Parentheses are used where sources do not indicate the degree but only state 
that individual graduated, or as in the case of Union Seminary, Virginia, which 
only began to confer the B.D. degree in 1900. Before then the students simply 
graduated, although work equal to the present requirements was done. 



APPENDIX 271 

Race, i 851; Types of Mankind, 1855; The General Assembly of 1858; 
Renan's Origins of Christianity, 1866; Jean Calas, the Martyr of Tou- 
louse, 1874; Dr. Charles Colcock Jones's History of the Church, 1868; 
Treatise on Church Government, Philadelphia, 1888. 
One of three founders in 1 847 and editors of the Southern Presbyterian Review. 

AARON WHITNEY LELAND (A.B.). M.A., D.D. ; Professor 1833-63 
Sermons in The Southern Preacher. 

CHARLES COLCOCK JONES (A.B., B.D.) , D.D. ; Professor 1836-38, 
1848-50 

History of the Church of God during the Period of Revelation. 

A Catechism of Scripture Doctrine and Practice for Families and Sabbath 

Schools for the Oral Instruction of Colored Persons, Philadelphia. Third 

Edition, 1852. 
The Religious Instruction of the Negroes in the United States, Savannah, 1 842. 
Yearly Reports of Negro Work, 18 3 3- 1 8 58. Copies now at the Historical 

Foundation of the Presbyterian and Reformed Churches, Montreat, N. C. 
Ninth Annual Report of the Asociation for the Religious Instruction of the 

Negroes in Liberty County, Georgia; together with the address to the 

association by the President. By Rev. Robert Quarterman, Savannah, 1844. 

BAZILE E. LANNEAU (A.B., B.D.), M.A.; Tutor 1851-55 
An editor Southern Presbyterian, 1856-58. 

ALEX. T. McGILL (A.B., B.D.), D.D.; Professor 1852-53. 
Treatise on Church Government, Philadelphia, 1888. 

BENJAMIN MORGAN PALMER (A.B., B.D.), D.D., LL.D.; Professor 
1853-56 

The South: Her Peril and Her Duty. A discourse delivered in the First Pres- 
byterian Church, New Orleans, La., Thursday, Nov. 29, i860. 

A Vindication of Secession and the South from the Strictures of Rev. R. J. 
Breckinridge, D.D., in the Danville Quarterly Review. Reprinted from 
Southern Presbyterian Review for April, 1 861. New Orleans, 1861. 

The Theology of Prayer, Presbyterian Committee of Publication, Richmond, 
Va., 1894. 

Formation of Character. Twelve lectures delivered in 1889. 

The Broken Home or Lessons in Sorrow, 1890. 

Slavery a Divine Trust, New Orleans, i860. 

National Responsibility Before God, New Orleans, 1861. A discourse before 
the General Assembly of South Carolina, December 10, 1863. Columbia, 
1864. 



272 APPENDIX 

Hindrances to Union with the Church: A Letter to an Aged Friend, in 1874. 
1891. 

The Threefold Fellowship and the Threefold Assurance, Presbyterian Com- 
mittee of Publication, Richmond, Va., 1902. 

Contributed to Southwestern Presbyterian: Christian Paradoxes, Leaves from 
a Pastor's Portfolio. 

The Life and Letters of James Henley Thornwell, D.D., LL.D., Whittet and 
Shepperson, Richmond, Va., 1875. 

The Family, Civil and Church Aspects, 1876. 

The Church a Spiritual Kingdom. 

The Physician. 

The Lawyer. 

The Love of Truth. An address before Erskine College. 

Man's Religious Nature. Address before University of North Carolina. 

History of First Presbyterian Church, 1873. 

Contributed to Southern Presbyterian Review and its successor, Southern Pres- 
byterian Quarterly: 

The Jews; The Hebrew Commonwealth Enshrined the Fundamental 
Principles of Political and Civil Liberty, April, 1898; The Import of 
Hebrew History; Mormonism; Relation between Work of Christ and the 
Condition of the Angelic World; The Doctrine of Imputed Sin; Doctrine 
as the Instrument of Sanctification; Grounds of Certitude in Religious Be- 
liefs; Baconianism and the Bible. 

Review of The Sensualistic Philosophy of the Nineteenth Century. 

Church and State. 

The Proposed Plan of Union. 

Fraternal Relations. 

Lay Evangelism. 

The Claims of the English Language. 

The Art of Conversation. 

JAMfiS HENLEY THORNWELL (A.B., B.D.), D.D., LL.D.; Professor 

1856-62 
Book on Apocrypha, 1845. Arguments of Romanists, Discussed and Refuted. 
Discourses on Truth. Sermons preached in chapel of South Carolina College. 

New York, 1855. 
Hear the South! The State of the Country: An article republished from the 

Southern Presbyterian Review. Columbia, 1852. 
A Review of J. B. Adger's Sermon on the Religious Instruction of the Colored 

Population. Charleston, 1850. 



APPENDIX 273 

The Rights and Duties of Masters. A sermon preached at the dedication of a 
church erected in Charleston, S. O, for the benefit and instruction of the 
colored population. Charleston, 1850. 

Thornwell's Collected Writings, published posthumously. Vols. I and II, 
J. B. Adger, D.D., editor. Vol. Ill, J. B. Adger and J. L. Girardeau, edi- 
tors. Presbyterian Committee of Publication, Richmond, Va., 1889. 

The Life and Letters of James Henley Thotnwell. By B. M. Palmer, D.D., 
LL.D., Whittet and Shepperson, Richmond, Va., 1875. 

Tracts: Extract from Writings of Traill, about 1840. Election and Reproba- 
tion, about 1840. 

Sermons Published: The Vanity and Glory of Man, Oct. 9, 1842; The 
Necessity of the Atonement, Dec, 1843 ; Death of Calhoun, April, 1850; 
Sermon before the Legislature, Dec, 1854; Letter to Governor Manning 
on Education, 1853. 

Editor for a time Southern Review, published in Charleston, S. C. Co- 
founder, June, 1847, and contributing editor, Southern Presbyterian Re- 
view. 

The State of the Country. An article republished from the Southern Presby- 
terian Review. Columbia, 1861. 

Tracts and Cards. In collection of Presbyterian Historical Society, Philadel- 
phia, some used for wartime distribution. 

JAMES COHEN (A.B., B.D.), M.A.; Tutor 1856 

JOHN B. ADGER (A.B., B.D.), D.D.; Professor 1857-74 

My Life and Times, J. B. Adger, D.D., Presbyterian Committee of Publica- 
tion, Richmond, Va., 1899. 

Translated the ancient Armenian New Testament into modern Armenian, 
with aid of native helpers, 1834-46. 

Translated catechism of C. C. Jones into Armenian. 

With Professor Andrew Papaseau translated D'Aubigne's History of Refor- 
mation into Armenian. 

Proceedings of the Meeting in Charleston, South Carolina, May 13, 15, on 
the Religious Instruction of the Negroes, Charleston, 1845. 

The Christian Doctrine of Human Rights and of Slavery. In two articles from 
the Southern Presbyterian Review for March, 1849. Columbia, 1849. 

JAMES WOODROW (A.B.), M.A., Ph.D., M.D., D.D., LL.D., J.U.D.; Pro- 
fessor 1861-86 

Inaugural Address, Southern Presbyterian Review, Jan., 1862. 

Address on Evolution, Southern Presbyterian Review, Vol. XXXV. Deliv- 
ered May 7, 1884. Published in July, 1884, issue. 



274 APPENDIX 

Editor and proprietor of the Southern Presbyterian Review, 1861-85, an d 

of Southern Presbyterian, 1865-93. 
Dr. James Woodrow, His Teachings, as Contained in His Sermons, Addresses, 

Editorials, Etc., being Part 2 of Dr. James Woodrow, Character Sketches 

and His Teachings. Collected and Edited by His Daughter, Marion W. 

Woodrow. R. L. Bryan Co., Columbia, S. C, 1909. 

WILLIAM SWAN PLUMER (A.B., B.D.), D.D., LL.D.; Professor 1867-80 
Published about twenty-five volumes. 
Commentary on the Psalms, 1,200 pages. 
Commentary on Epistle to the Romans. 
Commentary on Epistle to the Hebrews. 
Vital Godliness. 

The Rock of Our Salvation, American Tract Society, N. Y., 1867. Trans- 
lated into Chinese by Hampden C. DuBose about 1880. 
The Grace of Christ, Presbyterian Board of Publication, Philadelphia, Pa., 

1853. 
The Bible True and Infidelity Wicked. 
The Saint and the Sinner. 

The Law of God as Contained in the Ten Commandments. 
Sermons for the People. 

The Person and Sinless Character of Our Lord Jesus Christ. 
Jehovah- J ireh. 
Pastoral Theology. 

Founder and sole editor of The Watchman of the South, Richmond, Va., 
1837-45. 

JOSEPH RUGGLES WILSON (A.B., B.D.), D.D., LL.D.; Professor 1870-74 
Editor North Carolina Presbyterian, 1876. 
Stated Clerk of General Assembly, 1865-98. 

Teacher at Hampden-Sydney College and professor of theology at South- 
western Presbyterian University. 

CHARLES ROBERT HEMPHILL (A.B., B.D.), M.A., D.D., LL.D.; Tutor 
1874-78, Professor 1882-85 
In Moses and His Recent Critics, author of chapter entitled Validity and Bear- 
ing of the Testimony of Christ and His Apostles to the Mosaic Author- 
ship of the Pentateuch. 
Member International Sabbath School Committee, 1902-14. 
Member Ad Interim Committee on new Book of Church Order, 1921-25. 

JOHN LAFAYETTE GIRARDEAU (A.B., B.D.), D.D., LL.D.; Professor 
1876-95 
Thornwell's Collected Writings, Vol. Ill, J. B. Adger and J. L. Girardeau, 
editors. Presbyterian Committee of Publication, Richmond, Va., 1889. 



APPENDIX 275 

Calvinism and Evangelical Arminianism, W. J. Duffie, Columbia, S. C. The 

Baker and Taylor Co., New York, 1890. 
The Will in its Theological Relations, W. J. Duffie, Columbia, S. C. The 

Baker and Taylor Co., New York, 1 89 1 . 
Discussions of Theological Questions, Geo. A. Blackburn, editor, Richmond, 

Va., 1905. 534 pages. 
Discussion of Philosophical Questions, Edited by G. A. Blackburn, Presby- 
terian Committee of Publication, Richmond, Va., 1900. 
Long extracts in Life Work of J. L. Girardeau, by G. A. Blackburn, Columbia, 

S. C, 1916. 
Sermons on Important Subjects by J. L. Girardeau. Edited posthumously by 

G. A. Blackburn, The State Company, Columbia, S. C, 1907. 
Instrumental Music in the Public Worship of the Church, 1888. 
Pamphlet, The Substance of Two Speeches on the Teaching of Evolution in 

Columbia Theological Seminary. Delivered in Synod of South Carolina 

at Greenville, S. C, Oct., 1884. 

WILLIAM ELLISON BOGGS, A.B., M.A., (B.D.), D.D., LL.D.: Professor 
1882-85 
Chancellor University of Georgia. 
The Boggs Family, 19 16. 

CHARLES C. HERSMAN (B.D.), A.B., M.A., D.D., LL.D.; Professor 
1887-88 

JAMES DOAK TADLOCK (A.B.), M.A., D.D., LL.D.; Professor 1885-98 
The Relation of the Standards to Other Creeds, in Memorial Volume of the 
Westminster Assembly, Presbyterian Committee of Publication, Rich- 
mond, Va., 1897. 

FRANCIS R. BEATTIE (A.B.), B.D., Ph.D., D.D., LL.D; Professor 1888-93 

An Examination of Utilitarianism. 

Utilitarian Theory of Morals. 

The Methods of Theism. 

Radical Criticism: An Exposition and Examination of the Radical Critical 
Theory Concerning the Literature and Religious System of the Old Testa- 
ment Scriptures, Fleming H. Revell Co., New York, 1894. 

The Presbyterian Standards, Presbyterian Committee of Publication, Rich- 
mond, Va., 1896. 

Calvinism and Modern Thought. 

Christianity and Modern Evolution. 

Apologetics, or The Rational Vindication of Christianity, Presbyterian Com- 
mittee of Publication, Richmond, Va., 1903. 

Editor and review writer. 



276 APPENDIX 

WILLIAM MARCELLUS McPHEETERS, A.B. (B.D.) , D.D., LL.D.; Pro- 
fessor 1888-1935 

Articles, reviews. Editor of Religious Outlook. Later changed to The Religious 
Outlook and Bible Student. In 1900 changed to The Bible Student, 
Bryan Printing Co., Columbia, S. C, until 1904. 

Associate editor of The Bible Student and Teacher, 86 Bible House, New 
York, 1906. 

Stone Lecturer, Princeton Theological Seminary, 19 12. 

Pamphlets on Science of Interpretation for class use. 

Lecturer at Wilbur W. White Bible School, Montclair, N. J., 1900. 

DANIEL JOHNSON BRIMM, A.B., M.A., D.D., '90; Professor 1893-1900 
Coeditor The Religious Outlook, which was changed to The Religious Outlook 

and Bible Student. 
A Syllabus for Bible Students. 
Pamphlets. 

SAMUEL SPAHR LAWS (A.B., B.D.), D.D.; Professor 1893-98 
The Atonement by the Christian Trinity, 19 19. 

WILLIAM THOMAS HALL, A.B., M.A., B.D., D.D., LL.D., '58; Professor 
1895-191 1. 
Sermons. 

Religion in the Army of Tennessee, in The Land We Love, December, 1867, 
Vol. IV, pp. 127-13 1. (The Land We Love was published monthly at 
Charlotte, N. C.) 

RICHARD CLARK REED (B.D.), A.B., D.D., LL.D.; Professor 1898-1925 
The Gospel as Taught by Calvin. 
Historical Sketch of Presbyterian Church in United States in Schaff-Herzog 

Encyclopedia. 
History of the Presbyterian Churches of the World, The Westminster Press, 

Philadelphia, Pa., 19 17. 
What Is the Kingdom of God, Richmond, 1922. 
Associate Editor the Presbyterian Standard, 1905-24. 
Historical Sketch of the Presbyterian Church in the United States. 
Life of Athanasius, Presbyterian Committee of Publication, 1904. 
Religious History of the Southern Negroes, in American Society of Church 

History, Section 2, Vol. 4. 
Member Assembly Committee to revise Hymnal. 
History of Presbyterian Church, Charlotte, N. C, 1923. 
John Knox, His Field and Work, Richmond, 1905. 

SAMUEL MACON SMITH (A.B., B.D.), D.D.; Professor 1898-99 

The Standards in Relation to Current Theology in Memorial Volume of the 



APPENDIX 177 

Westminster Assembly, Presbyterian Committee of Publication, Rich- 
mond, Va., 1897. 

JOHN WRIGHT DAVIS (A.B., B.D.) , M.A., D.D., LL.D.; Professor 1900-02 
Commentary on Gospels and Acts in Soochow colloquial. 
Hymnbook with Notations in Mandarin dialect. 

Member of Committee on Translation of New Testament in Soochow col- 
loquial and Chinese literary style. 
Political Geography in Chinese. 

SAMUEL CRAIG BYRD, A.B., M.A., B.D., D.D., LL.D., '92; Tutor. 1893, 
Professor (Adjunct) 1898- 1902 
President Chicora College. 
Articles. 

HENRY ALEXANDER WHITE, A.B., M.A., Ph.D., D.D., LL.D.; Professor 
1903-26 

Public-School Histories: History of the United States; The Making of South 
Carolina; A Beginner's History of the United States. 

John C. Calhoun, in Library of Southern Literature. 

Articles in The South in the Building of the Nation. 

Robert E. Lee and the Southern Confederacy in Heroes of the Nations Series, 
G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 1897. 

Stonewall Jackson in American Crisis Series, 1907. 

The Scotch-Irish in America. 

The Origin of the Pentateuch in the Light of the Ancient Monuments, B. F. 
Johnson Publishing Co., Richmond, Va., 1894. 

Harmony of the Gospels. 

The Gospel of Comfort, Stone Foundation Lecture, Princeton, N. J., 1920. 

Southern Presbyterian Leaders, 191 1, New York. 

Address at Tercentenary of King James Bible, 191 1. 

Political History of the Time in Memorial Volume of the Westminster As- 
sembly, Presbyterian Committee of Publication, Richmond, Va., 1897. 

WILLIAM ERSKINE McILWAIN (A.B.,), B.D., D.D., '75; Financial Agent 
1909 

A pamphlet on early Presbyterianism in West Florida. 

Historical Sketch of the Presbytery of Mecklenburg, Hirst, Charlotte, N. C, 
1884. 

Twenty-Three Years of Home Mission Work in the Presbytery of Mecklen- 
burg, N. C, Dispatch Printing Co., Birmingham, Ala., 1893. 

THORNTON C. WHALING, A.B., B.D., D.D., LL.D., Litt.D., '83; President 
and Professor 191 1-2 1 
Questions on Theology, Columbia, 19 16. 



278 APPENDIX 

The Church and Education. 

Jesus and Christian Doctrine. 

Science and Religion Today. 

McNair Lecturer, University of North Carolina, 1928. 

Associate editor Central Presbyterian, 1890-98. 

Review editor, Magazine of Christian Literature, 1890-93. 

Avera Bible Lecturer, Trinity College, North Carolina, 19 13. 

ROBERT GAMALIEL PEARSON (A.B., B.D.), D.D.; Professor 1911-13 
Life Sketch and Evangelistic Sermons of R. G. Pearson, D.D. Life sketch by 
his wife, Richmond Press, Inc., about 19 14. 

JAMES OVERTON REAVIS, A.B., M.A., B.D., LL.B., D.D., LL.D.; Pro- 
fessor 1913-20 
Author missionary literature. 

EDGAR D. KERR, A.B., B.D., D.D., '07; Professor 1915-present 

HUGH RODERICK MURCHISON, A.B., D.D., B.D., '97; Professor and 
Business Manager, 1920-26 

MELTON CLARK, A.B., B.D., D.D., '98; Professor 1920-32. 

Article in James Woodrow, Character Sketches and His Teachings, collected 
by Marion W. Woodrow. (p. 126,) 

JOHN MILLER WELLS (A.B.), M.A., Ph.D., D.D., LL.D.; President and 
Professor 1921-24 
Southern Presbyterian Worthies, James Sprunt Lectures, Union Theological 
Seminary, 1936, Presbyterian Committee of Publication, Richmond, Va. 

JAMES BENJAMIN GREEN, A.B., D.D.; Professor 1921-present 

Studies In the Holy Spirit, Fleming H. Revell Co., New York, 1936. 
Lectures. 

RICHARD THOMAS GILLESPIE, A.B., B.D., D.D.; President and Professor 
1925-30 
Article Columbia Theological Seminary in The King's Business in the Synod 

of Alabama. 
Articles, etc. 
Editor Bulletin Columbia Theological Seminary. 

CHARLES C. McNEILL, A.B., B.D., D.D.; Professor 1925-27 

WALTER P. TAYLOR, Ph.D.; Instructor in Public Speaking 1925-26 

WILLIAM CHILDS ROBINSON, A.B., M.A., B.D., Th.M., Th.D., D.D., '20; 
Professor 1926-present 
Columbia Theological Seminary and the Southern Presbyterian Church, 
Dennis Lindsey Printing Co., Decatur, Ga., 193 1. 



APPENDIX 279 

The Theology of Jesus and the Theology of Paul, Bulletin Columbia Theo- 
logical Seminary, Feb., 1937. 

The Theocenttic Theology Implicit in the Name of the Trinity, London, 1935. 

The Gospel of the Forty Days, Richmond, Va., 1934. 

The Holy Spirit In Holy Writ, Atlanta, Ga., 1935. 

The Certainties of the Gospel, Zondervan Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, 
Mich., 1935. 

Our Lord, An Affirmation of the Deity of Christ in the Face of Modern Un- 
belief, W. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, Mich., 1937. 

HENRY W. McLAUGHLIN, A.B., CD.; Visiting Instructor 1926-present 
The New Call, Presbyterian Committee of Publication, 1926. 
Christ and the Country People, Presbyterian Committee of Publication, 1928. 
The County Church and Public Affairs, The Macmillan Co., 1930. 
Religious Education in the Rural Church, Fleming H. Revell Co., New York, 

1932. 
Articles for the Expositor and other magazines. 

HUNTER BRYSON BLAKELY, A.B., M.A., B.D., Ph.D., D.D.; Professor 
1927-30 
Religion in Shoes or Brother Bryan of Birmingham, Presbyterian Committee 

of Publication, Richmond, Va., 1934. 
With Christ Into Tomorrow, Presbyterian Committee of Publication, Rich- 
mond, Va., 1936. 

SAMUEL ANTOINE CARTLEDGE, A.B., M.A., B.D., Ph.D.; Instructor 
1928-29, Associate Professor 1930, Professor 193 1 -present 

WALLACE McPHERSON ALSTON, A.B., B.D., M.A.; Instructor 1930 
Staff editor the Earnest Worker and the Program Builder. 
Pamphlets on Young People's work. 

THOMAS HANCOCK GRAFTON, A.B.; Instructor 1930 

D. M. MOUNGER, A.B.; Instructor 193 1 

STEWART HOLDERNESS LONG, A.B.; Assistant Professor 193 1 

J. VERNON McGEE, A.B.; Instructor 1932 

PATRICK H. CARMICHAEL, B.S., Ph.D., D.D.,; Professor 1933-present 
The Church and Higher Education, Seminary Bulletin, August, 1935. 
Articles in Homiletic Review, etc. 



280 APPENDIX 

JAMES McDOWELL RICHARDS, A.B., M.A. (Oxford), B.D., D.D.; Presi- 
dent and Professor 1932-present 
Editor Bulletin Columbia Seminary. 

JOSEPH H. CUDLIPP, A.B., B.D.; Visiting Instructor 193 3 -present 
Onetime editor and publisher the Brigade Boy. 
Articles. 

JOHN D. COTTS, A.B.; Instructor 1933 

G. THOMAS PREER, A.B., M.A.; Visiting Instructor, 1933 

JOHN SHAW FOSTER, M.A., B.D., D.D.; Acting Professor 1936-present 
Articles. 



APPENDIX 281 

LITERARY WORK of COLUMBIA ALUMNI 
By Classes. Indexed on page 266 



1829 
1833 

J. LEIGHTON WILSON (A.B.), B.D., D.D. 

Editor The Home and Foreign Record, while Secretary in New York City, 
1853-61 

Established and edited The Missionary Herald, 1846-52. 

Thirty or more articles and reviews in Southern Presbyterian Review and 
other publications. \ 

Western Africa — Its History, Conditions and Prospects, 1854. A book highly 
commended by David Livingstone. 

Pamphlet reprinted by Lord Palmerston in the British Blue Book, 10,000 
copies, and was instrumental in ending slave trade. Reprinted in United 
States Service Journal. 

During seven years at Cape Palmas, Africa, 1834-42, reduced Grebo language 
to writing; a grammar, dictionary, Matthew, Luke, and six or seven other 
small volumes were published. 

At Gabon River, 1942-43; elementary books; a small hymnbook of forty- 
eight pages; volume of sermons of seventy-two pages; volume of extracts 
from the New Testament of eighty-two pages; and a volume of Old 
Testament History, in Moongwe language. 

The Foreign Slave Trade — Can it be revived without violating the most sa- 
cred principles of honor, humanity, and religion. No publisher given, 

1859. 
Memoirs of Rev. John Leighton Wilson, D.D., by Hampden C. DuBose, D.D., 
Presbyterian Committee of Publication, Richmond, Va., 1895. 

FRANCIS R. GOULDING (A.B., B.D.) 

The Young Marooners, Philadelphia, 1852, a story for young people trans- 
lated into several European languages and still popular. Reprinted by 
Dodd, Mead and Co., New York, 193 1. 

Little Josephine, Philadelphia, 1848. 

Confederate Soldier's Hymn Book, a compilation, 1863. 

Marooners' Island, 1868. 



282 APPENDIX 

What Is Light? 

Self -Helps and Practical Hints for the Camp, the Forest, and the Sea. 

Frank Gordon, or When I Was a Little Boy, 1869. 

The Woodruff Stories, 1870. 

Sapelo, or Child Life in the Tide-Water. 

Tahlequah, or Life Among the Cherokees. 

Nacoochee, or Boy Life from Home. 

JAMES LYMAN MERRICK, A.B., M.A., B.D. 
Tutor to Prince of Persia, Tabriz, 1835-42. 
Instructor of Oriental Literature, Amherst College, 1852-57. 
Translated from the Persian The Life and Religion of Mohammed, 1850. 
Translated a number of books into Persian. 

An Astronomy, compiled and translated into Persian. Persia, 1849. 
History of Persia. No title page. Ms. written in 1832. 
Evidence of Prophecy Derived from the Fulfilment of the Predictions of the 

Hebrew Prophets and Apostles, 1849. 
Persian translation of Keith's Evidence of Prophecy. Ms. 
Passion of Christ. Translation at Oroomiah, Persia, 1845. 
Merasalah-e-Mahrebany, or Friendly Tract, written for the Persians. 
Persian Traditions, 1844. 

Risalah-e-Mahrabanee, or a Friendly Tract. Translated from Persian. 
Treatise on the Orthography and Grammar of the English Language. Tabriz, 

Persia, 1842. 
The Pilgrim's Harp, a book of poems. Crocker and Brewster, Boston, 1847. 

1834 

1835 
A. R. BANKS (A.B., B.D.) 

Contributed to Christian Observer under name "Pilgrim." 

JOHN DOUGLAS (A.B., B.D.) 

Pamphlets: History of Purity Church; History of Steel Creek Church. 

W. C. DANA, A.B., B.D., D.D. 

Published translation of Fenelon on Education of Daughters, 1 83 1 . 
A Transatlantic Tour, 1845. 
The Life of Rev. Dr. Daniel Dana, 1866. 

Compiled a volume of hymns for use of his church, Central Church, Charles- 
ton, which he served for 45 years. 



APPENDIX 283 

1836 

JOHN LEYBURN, A.B. (B.D.), D.D. 
Secretary of Publication. 
Editor The Presbyterian until 1861. 
Soldiers of the Cross. 
Hints to Young Men. 

1837 

1838 
SAMUEL ROBBINS BROWN (A.B., B.D.), D.D. 

A translator of New Testament into Japanese, between 1869-79. 
Author many Chinese and Japanese publications. 

Wrote autobiography in 1880 while sojourning in house of Yang Wing, 
Minister Plenipotentiary of China to United States. Not known if pub- 
lished. 
His lifework recorded in A Maker of the New Orient, by W. E. Griffis, Fleming 
H. Revell Co., 1902. 

1839 

1840 
ELIJAH F. ROCKWELL, A.B. (B.D.), D.D. 

Professor Davidson College, 1850-68. Principal Statesville Female College, 

1868-72. 
Author several pamphlets and contributed to North Carolina Presbyterian and 
Presbyterian Review. 

1 84 1 
B. M. PALMER (A.B., B.D.), D.D., LL.D. (Sec under faculty.) 

ALBERT WILLIAMS, Professor at Mercer, Penfield, Ga. 

1842 
ABNER A. PORTER, A.B., B.D., D.D. 

A cofounder and editor Southern Presbyterian. Editor for years just before the 
War Between the States. 

1843 

1844 
WILLIAM CURTIS (A.B., B.D.), LL.D. (Baptist.) 
Founder of Limestone Female Seminary. 



284 APPENDIX 

CHARLES A. STILLMAN (A.B., B.D.), D.D. 
Founder of Stillman Institute. 
Published number of sermons and essays. 
Coeditor, Southern Presbyterian. Articles in Presbyterian Quarterly Review. 

1845 

THOMAS E. PECK, A.B., D.D., LL.D. (Entered Seminary about 1842 but 
dropped course because of sickness. Studied privately.) 

Peck's Ecclesiology. 

Miscellanies of Rev. Thomas E. Peck, D.D., LL.D., edited by T. Cary John- 
son. 

JOHN WINN QUARTERMAN (A.B., B.D.) 

Translated portions of Scripture into Chinese language and also Dr. C. C. 
Jones's Catechism, at Ningpo, China, 1846-57. 

1846 

1847 
WILLIAM EDWARD SCREVEN (A.B., B.D.) 

Relation of Christianity to Poetry and Philosophy, 147 pages, dedicated to 
Dr. George Howe, 1847. 

1848 
JOHN L. GIRARDEAU (A.B., B.D.), D.D., LL.D. (See under faculty.) 

ARNOLD W. MILLER, (A.B., B.D.), D.D. 

Status of the Baptized Child, A Discourse, preached by appointment of the 
Synod of Virginia, Oct. 8, 1859. Published at synod's request, by Rev. 
Arnold W. Miller, Petersburg. Printed by A. F. Crutchfield and Co., 
Bond St., i860. 

G. H. CARTLEDGE (A.B., B.D.), D.D. 

The Perpetuity of the Abrahamic Covenant, Richmond, 1890. 

1849 
THOMAS A. HOYT (A.B., B.D.), D.D. 

Member Board of Publication Presbyterian Church, U. S. A. during part of 

period 1884-1902. 
Pamphlet on Confirmation. 



APPENDIX 285 



ALBERT SHOTWELL (A.B., B.D.) 
Editor. 
Published Songbook. 

1850 

1851 
B. E. LANNEAU, A.B., B.D. (See under faculty.) 

1852 
JAMES STACY (A.B., B.D.), D.D. 

A History of the Presbyterian Church in Georgia, Westminster Co., Atlanta. 

Press of Elberton Star, 19 12. 
Water Baptism. 

Essay on the Christian Sabbath. (The $200 prize essay.) 
Handbook of Prophecy. Brief Outline of the Prophecies of Daniel and John, 

Presbyterian Committee of Publication, Richmond, Va. 
History of the Midway Congregational Church, Liberty County, Ga., S. W. 

Murray, printer, Newnan, Ga., Aug. 1, 1899. 
The Published Records of Midway Church, Vol. I, S. W. Murray, printer, 

Newnan, Ga. 

1853 
S. CALDWELL ALEXANDER (A.B., B.D.), M.A., D.D. 
History of Black Creek Church, 1857. 
The Gospel in Genesis, St. Louis, 1895. 
The Covenant, Its Seals, St. Louis, 1885. 
The Stone Kingdom. 
Miracles and Events, or Some Things that God Wrought During Fifty Years 

of My Ministry, 1853-1 903, Pine Bluff, Ark. 

ROBERT A. MICKLE (A.B., B.D.) 

Editor Sunday-School Notes for Christian Observer. 

1854 
H. M. SMITH (A.B., B.D.), D.D. 

Founder and editor of the Southwestern Presbyterian, founded Feb. 25, 1869. 
Edited a paper for circulation among the troops in the Trans-Mississippi De- 
partment under General Kirby Smith. 

THOMAS R. MARKHAM (A.B., B.D.), D.D. 

Author of five articles in Southwestern Presbyterian in 1890, while pastor in 
New Orleans, 1858-94. 



286 APPENDIX 

1855 

ROBERT QUARTERMAN MALLARD, A.B., B.D., D.D. 

Editor Southwestern Presbyterian, 1 891- 1904. 

Montevideo- May bank or Family Life of C. C. Jones, D.D., Presbyterian Com- 
mittee of Publication, Richmond, Va., 1898. 

Plantation Life Before Emancipation, Whittet and Shepperson, Richmond, 
Va., 1892. 

DAVID H. PORTER (A.B., B.D.), D.D. 

Published a sermon on the relation of the state to religion. 

1856 
R. L. NEELY (A.B., B.D.) 

Sketches of the Presbytery of the Western District (prepared by Rev. R. L. 
Neely and published by authority of the presbytery) , R. W. Merrin, 
printer, Hernando, Miss., 1883. 

1857 
JETHRO RUMPLE (A.B., B.D.), D.D. 
History of Rowan County, 1881. 
History of Presbyterianism in North Carolina. 

1858 
WILLIAM THOMAS HALL, A.B., M.A., B.D., D.D., LL.D. (See under 
faculty.) 

1859 
THOMAS DWIGHT WITHERSPOON (A.B., B.D.), D.D., LL.D. 
Children of the Covenant. 
Letters on Romanism. 

JOHN NEWTON CRAIG, A.B., B.D., D.D. 

A Brief History of General Assembly and Home Missions. 
Secretary of Home Missions, 1861-98. 

J. DeWITT BURKHEAD (A.B., B.D., D.D.) 
Theology for the Masses, Atlanta, 1888. 

i860 
THOMAS LOCKWOOD DeVEAUX (A.B., B.D.) 

Editor North Carolina Presbyterian, about 1874-75. 

1861 

JOSEPH B. MACK (A.B-., B.D.), D.D. 
Rocky River Church. 



APPENDIX 287 

ROBERT Z. JOHNSTON (B.D., A.B.) . 

Editor The Monthly Bulletin, 1884-92, Lincolnton, N. C. 

ISAAC J. LONG, A.B., B.D., D.D. 
Founder Arkansas College. 
Outline of Ecclesiastical History, St. Louis, Mo., 1888. 

1862 
J. M. P. OTTS (A.B., B.D.), D.D., LL.D. 
Founder of lectureship in Davidson College. 
Articles in Southern Presbyterian and Princeton Review. 
Unsettled Questions, Touching the Foundations of Christianity, Fleming H. 

Revell Co., New York. 
At Mother's Knee. 
The Southern Pen and Pulpit. 
The Fifth Gospel. 
The Gospel of Honesty. 
Christ and the Cherubim. 
Interdenominational Literature. 
The Land Where Jesus Lived, Revell, 1 893. 
Nicodemus With Jesus. 
Light and Life for a Dead World. 
Laconisms. 

CHARLES S. VEDDER (A.B., B.D.) , D.D. 
Pamphlet on Huguenots. 

GILBERT R. BRACKETT (A.B., B.D.), D.D. 

Articles and important actions passed by Charleston Presbytery. 

THOMAS HART LAW (A.B., B.D.), D.D. 

Stated Clerk of General Assembly, 1910-22. Published minutes. 

W. E. BOGGS, A.B., M.A. (B.D.), D.D., LL.D. (See under Faculty.) 

GEORGE L. PETRIE (A.B., B.D.), D.D., LL.D. 

Jacob's Sons, Neale Publishing Co., Washington, D. C, and New York, 1900. 
Israel's Prophets, Neale Publishing Co., New York, 19 12. 
Several pamphlets. 

1863 
EDWARD MELVIN GREEN (A.B., B.D.), D.D. 
Editor Southern Presbyterian, 1873-74. 
Chairman committee that revised and prepared Directory for Worship. 



288 APPENDIX 

WILLIAM HALL ADAMS (A.B., B.D.) 

Seven Words from the Cross. 
Walks to Emmaus. 

GEORGE SLUTER, A.B., M,A. (Graduated at Princeton after attending Co- 
lumbia.) 
Articles in Herald and Presbyter. 
History of Shelby County, Indiana. 
Historical and Critical Essay on the Acta Pilata. 
History of Our Beloved Church. 
Memorial of Joseph Hamilton. 
Life and Character of Mrs. Jane Major. 
Resources of our Country in 1876. 
Christian Home Life. 
The Religion of Politics. 
Plea for Religious Literature. 
Life of the Emperor Tiberius. 

1864 

WILLIAM P. JACOBS (A.B., B.D.). D.D., LL.D. ' 
Founder of Presbyterian College, Clinton, S. C. 
Founder Thornwell Orphanage, Clinton, S. C. 
Founder of Our Monthly. Until his death was editor. 

Life of William Plumer Jacobs. (Diary edited by Thornwell Jacobs.) Flem- 
ing H. Revell Co., New York, 19 18. 

1865 

1866 

1867 

1868 

1869 
WILLIAM WALDO BRIMM, A.B., B.D. 

Man and the Bible in the Light of Reason, Franklin Printing and Publishing 
Co., Atlanta, Ga., 1894. 

1870 
JAMES FAIR LATIMER (A.B., B.D.) , Ph.D., D.D. 

Professor Ecclesiastical History and Polity, Union Seminary, Virginia. 
Articles. 



APPENDIX 289 

1871 
EUGENE DANIEL, A.B., B.D.. D.D. 

The Polity and Worship of the Standards in Memorial Volume of the West- 
minster Assembly, Presbyterian Committee of Publication, Richmond, 
Va., 1897. 
Some Reminiscences on Dr. James Woodrow, Character Sketches and His 

Teachings, Marion W. Woodrow, Columbia, S. C, 1909. 
In Memory of Rev. B. M. Palmer, D.D., Memorial Address, New Orleans, 
1902. 

HAMPDEN COLT DuBOSE (A.B., B.D.), D.D. 

Tracts in Chinese: The Street Chapel Pulpit, Illustrated Life of Christ, 
Twelve Pictorial Sheet Tracts. 

In English: The Dragon, Image, and Demon. 

Volume in English: Memoirs of Dr. J. Leighton Wilson, D.D., Presbyterian 
Committee of Publication, Richmond, Va., 1895. 

Preaching in Sinim, or the Gospel to the Gentiles. 

Anti-Opium Report. 

The Greater Year of Anti-Opium. 

The Last Days of the Poppy. 

A Catechism on the Three Religions of China. 

Translated into Chinese: Rock of Our Salvation by W. S. Plumer. 

In Chinese: A Sketch of the Life of Dr. Plumer. 

Conference Commentaries on Judges; Ruth; I Samuel; II Samuel; I Kings; 
II Kings; Psalms; Proverbs; Song of Solomon; Luke; Acts; Romans; 
Ephesians; Philippians; Colossians; II Thessalonians; I, II, and III John. 

Christian Apologetics. 

Guide to Soochow. 

Almost completed a Systematic Theology. 

Organizer of Anti-Opium League of China and author of memorial signed by 
1,333 missionaries presented to Chinese Throne. The imperial edict was 
issued "an almost verbatim copy of the memorial written by Dr. Du- 
Bose." 

In Chinese: Introduction to the Bible, the Gospels. The Gospel 1,000 Char- 
acter Classic. 

1872 
MILTON C. HUTTON (A.B., B.D.) 

Early Dew. Short Sermons for Children. Presbyterian Committee of Publi- 
cation, Richmond, Va., 1886. 

WILLIAM S. BEAN (A.B.. B.D.), M.A., D.D. 

Teaching of the Lord Jesus, with an introduction by C. R. Hemphill, D.D., 
LL.D., Presbyterian Board of Publication and Sunday School Work, 1903. 



290 APPENDIX 

Editor the Southern Presbyterian. 

Part 2, The Presbyterian Church in S. C, 1 8 30-1 goo in History of Presby- 
terian Church in S. C. Since 1850, by F. D. Jones, D.D. and W. H. Mills, 
D. D., published by the Synod of South Carolina, R. L. Bryan Co., 
Columbia, S. C, 1926. 

1873 
C. W. GRAFTON (A.B., B.D.), D.D. 

Coeditor of Mississippi Visitor from founding in October, 19 1 1. 

THOMAS L. HAMAN (A.B., B.D.) 

Pamphlet published by Mississippi Historical Society. 

1874 
CHARLES R. HEMPHILL (A.B., B.D.), D.D., LL.D. (See under faculty.) 

CARLYLE McKINLEY 

In 1879 Washington correspondent for Charleston News and Courier. 
An Appeal to Pharaoh. 
Poems: Sapelo, Crucifer. 

1875 
T. R. ENGLISH (A.B., B.D.), D.D. 
Articles 

J. WILLIAM FLINN (A.B., B.D.), D.D. 

Complete Works of Rev. Thomas Smyth, D.D., ten volumes, reprinted by 
R. L. Bryan Co., Columbia, S. C, 1908. 

THOMAS M. McCONNELL (A.B.), M.A., D.D. 
Editor Sunday-School Notes in Christian Observer. 
The Last Week with Jesus, Southern Methodist Publishing House, Nashville, 

Tenn., 1886. 
Messages for Men, King Printing Co., Bristol, Tenn., 1921. 

WILLIAM E. McILWAIN (A.B.), B.D., D.D. (See under faculty) 

DAVID C. RANKIN (A.B., B.D.), D.D. 

President Plumer Memorial College, Va., 1883-84. 
Editor The Missionary 1893- 1902. 
Founder The Children's Missionary. 

ALBERT B. CURRY (A.B., B.D.) , D.D. 

Relation of Presbyterians of Present Day to the Westminster Standards. An 
address delivered before the Synod of Alabama, 1897. 



APPENDIX 291 

Historic Churches of West Tennessee. Written for Presbyterian Pastors' As- 
sociation of Memphis, Tenn., March 19, 1923. Read before Memphis 
Presbytery, April, 1923, and ordered printed. 

Practical Lessons from the Early Ministry of Jesus. 

Pamphlets and articles. 

1876 
SAMUEL LESLIE MORRIS (A.B., B.D.), D.D., LL.D. 
At Our Own Door. 
The Task That Challenges. 
Presbyterianism ; Its Principles and Practice. 
The Records of the Morris Family. 
The Romance of Home Missions. 
Christianizing Christendom. 

The Fact of Christianity, Smyth Lectures, 1925. 
The Country Church, Its Ruin and Remedy. 
The Drama of Christianity, 1928. 

Samuel Leslie Morris, An Autobiography, Presbyterian Committee of Publi- 
cation, Richmond, Va., 1932. 
Editor The Home Mission Herald, 1908-12. 
Member Hymnbook Revision Committee of 1898 Assembly. 
Many pamphlets and leaflets. 

R. P. SMITH (A.B.), D.D. 

President Presbyterian College, Clinton, S. C. 

Experiences in Mountain Mission Work, Presbyterian Committee of Publica- 
tion, Richmond, Va., 193 1. 

1877 

1878 
W. S. PLUMER BRYAN (A.B., B.D.), D.D. 
Pamphlet concerning Carnegie Fund. 
The Grace of God, Smyth Lecture, 1 9 1 7. 

An Inquiry into the Need of the Grace of God. Published posthumously. 
Presbyterian Committee of Publication, Richmond, Va., 1937. 

D. I. CRAIG (A.B., B.D.), D.D. 

A History of the Development of the Presbyterian Church in North Carolina 
and of Synodical Home Missions, Whittet and Shepperson, Richmond, 
Va., 1907. 

1879 



292 APPENDIX 

1880 

A. M. FRASER (A.B., B.D.), D.D., LL.D. 
President Mary Baldwin College. 
Dr. Thornwell as an Ecclesiologist. 
Shall Flags be Displayed in Church? 
Suppose the Tithe Law Were Repealed. 

Dr. Fraser and His Sermons. Published by First Presbyterian Church, Staun- 
ton, Va. 

R. A. LAPSLEY (A.B., B.D.) , D.D. 

Editor Sunday-School Publications of Presbyterian Church, United States, 

1903-22, 
Lesson writer Adult and Home Department Quarterly, 1922-34. 
The Songs of Zion, Presbyterian Committee of Publication, Richmond, Va. 
The Book of the Witnesses for Jesus, Presbyterian Committee of Publication, 

Richmond, Va. 
Articles and pamphlets. 

R. A. WEBB (A.B., B.D.), D.D., LL.D. 

Professor of Systematic Theology at Southwestern Presbyterian University, 

Clarksville, Tenn. 
The Theology of Infant Salvation, Presbyterian Committee of Publication, 

Richmond, Va., 1907. 
The Doctrine of the Christian Hope, Smyth Lecture 19 14, Jackson, Miss., 

19 14, published by Presbyterian School of Christian Workers, Belhaven 

College. 
Christian Salvation, Its Doctrine and Experience, Presbyterian Committee of 

Publication, Richmond, Va., 1921. 

1881 
WILLIAM G. NEVILLE (A.B., B.D.), D.D., LL.D. 
President Presbyterian College. 
Volume of Sermons, Richmond, Va., 1908. 

1882 
SAMUEL I. WOODBRIDGE (A.B., B.D.), D.D. 

Fifty Years in China, Whittet and Shepperson, Richmond, Va., 19 19. 
Editor Chinese Christian Intelligencer. 

1883 
THORNTON C. WHALING, A.B., B.D., D.D., LL.D., Litt.D. (See under 
faculty.) 

1884 



APPENDIX 293 

1885 

JAMES ROBERT HOWERTON (A.B., B.D.), D.D., LL.D. 

The Church and Social Reforms, Fleming H. Revell Co., New York and Chi- 
cago, 19 13. 
Freedom and Causality. By J. R. Howerton, Professor of Philosophy, Wash- 
ington and Lee University, Presbyterian Committee of Publication, Rich- 
mond, Va., 1888. 

ROBERT EUGENIUS McALPINE (A.B., B.D.), D.D. 

Japanese tracts and articles. 

English tracts and articles. 
EPHRAIM C. MURRAY 

Articles. 

1886 
JOHN C. WILLIAMS, A.B., M.A., D.D. 
Office and Duties of Ruling Elder. 
Spirit of the Times. 

W. STUART RED (A.B., B.D.), D.D. 
Editorial service. 
Texas Colonists and Religion, 1 821-1836, E. L. Shettles Co., Austin, Texas, 

1924. 
A History of the Presbyterian Church in Texas, The Steck Co., Austin, Texas. 

1936. 

GEORGE A. BLACKBURN (A.B., B.D.), D.D. 

Edited Sermons on Important Subjects by John L. Girardeau, D.D., LL.D., 

The State Co., Columbia, S. C, 1907. 
Edited The Life Work of John L. Girardeau, D.D., LL.D., The State Co., 
Columbia, S. C, 19 16. 

1887 
B. F. WILSON (A.B., B.D.) 
Pamphlets. 

First President of Converse College. 
W. A. WORKMAN (A.B., B.D.) 
One book. 

1888 

1889 
S. J. CARTLEDGE (A.B., B.D.), D.D. 

Published Autobiography of Rev. Groves H. Cartledge with Sermons and 

Discussions. 
Author of The Gospel of All Ages. Never published. 



294 APPENDIX 

1890 

THOMAS STONE CLYCE (A.B., B.D.), D.D., LL.D. 
President Austin College. 
Articles. 

D. J. BRIMM, A.B., M.A., D.D. (See under faculty.) 

A. H. ATKINS (A. B., B.D.) 

Published two books. (The Fundamentals?) 

1891 
J. F. JACOBS, A.B., B.D., D.D. 

Editor The Southern Presbyterian. 

1892 
S. C. BYRD, A.B., M.A., B.D., D.D., LL.D. (See under faculty.) 

1 892 
C. O'N. MARTINDALE, A.B., M.A., B.D., Ph.D. 
The World's Greatest Need. 

Protestantism vs. Romanism, Morgan City Daily Review, Louisiana. 
Baptism by Sprinkling vs. Immersion, Kentwood Chronicle, Louisiana. 
Heart to Heart Talks on Jesus, Nashville Graded Union. 
What Do Presbyterians Believe? 
The Coming of Our Lord, Our Hope. 
The Church and the World — Southern Social Congress. 
The Normative Church Government. 
God's Sovereignty and Man's Liberty, Whittet and Shepperson, Richmond, 

Va., 
The Land of Promise — To and From, Newnan News, Newnan, Ga. 
The Understanding of Christianity, 1934. 

What It Means to Be Christian, Neely Printing Co., Chicago, 111., 1927. 
The Promised Outlook: First Corinthians Fifteen. 

NEWTON SMITH (A.B., B.D.) 
Redeeming the Time. (Tract.) 
Are You a Christian? (Tract.) 
Sketches of churches in county papers. 

1893 
W. S. JACOBS (A.B., M.A., Ph.D.), D.D. 
Booklets and articles. 
Editor The Southern Presbyterian. 

GEORGE T. BOURNE (B.D., A.B.), D.D. 

The Mode of Christian Baptism, DeFuniak Springs, Fla., 1928. 



APPENDIX 295 

1896 

LEROY G. HENDERSON, A.B., B.D., D.D. 
Pamphlets. 

1897 
WILLIAM H. MILLS, A.B., B.D., D.D. 

Coeditor with F. D. Jones, D.D., of History of Presbyterian Church in South 
Carolina Since 1850. Published by Synod of South Carolina, R. L. Bryan 
Co., Columbia, S. C, 1926. 
Cotton Mill Work. 
Professor of Clemson College. 
South Carolina Agriculture and Industry, 1925. 
The Taxation System of South Carolina, 1926. , 

JAMES H. TAYLOR (A.B., B.D.), D.D. 

The Membership of President Woodrow Wilson in the Central Presbyterian 

Church. 
The Spirit and Tradition of the Huguenots. 
Contributions of Calvinism to Thought and Life. 
Other pamphlets and articles. 

1898 
MELTON CLARK, A.B., B.D., D.D. (See under faculty.) 

1899 
DAVIDSON M. DOUGLAS, A.B., M.A., B.D., D.D. 

President of Presbyterian College. President of University of South Carolina. 
Articles. 

1900 
F. D. JONES, A.B., B.D., D.D., 

Coeditor with W. H. Mills, D.D., of History of Presbyterian Church in 
South Carolina Since 1830. Published by Synod of South Carolina, 
R. L. Bryan Co., Columbia, S. C, 1926. 

1901 

1902 
HENRY J. MILLS (A.B., B.D.). 

Contrary Winds and Other Sermons, Presbyterian Committee of Publication, 
Richmond, Va., 19 19. 

1903 
1904 



296 APPENDIX 

1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 

RICHARD T. GILLESPIE, A.B., B.D., D.D. (See under faculty.) 

FRITZ RAUSCHENBERG, A.B., B.D. 

Editor Mountain Work, Asheville, N. C, Vol. I-III, 1925-29. 

1909 

19 10 
S. H. HAY, A.B., B.D., D.D. 

Booklets: The Drink Evil; Why We Believe the Bible is the Word of God; 
Our Heavenly Father; Why We May Believe in Life After Death; The 
Meaning of the Christian's Sorrow; What is a Christian!' 

1911 
LOUIS T. WILDS, A.B., B.D., D.D. 

Articles in Christian Observer, Presbyterian of The South, and Homiletic Re- 
view. Leaflet by the Presbyterian Committee of Publication, Richmond, 
Va. 

19 12 

1913 
JOHN McSWEEN, A.B., B.D., D.D. 
President Presbyterian College. 
Articles. 

1914 

1915 
ROBERT F. CLAYMAN (A.B.), M.A., B.D. 

Sermons and articles in Christian Observer and The Expositor. 

CHARLES DARBY FULTON, A.B., M.A., B.D., S.T.B., D.D. 
Author of missionary reports, leaflets, articles. 

19 16 



1917 
WILLIAM T. RIVIERE, A.B., M.A., B.D., D.D. 

Lecture in Bulletin of Austin Theological Seminary. 



APPENDIX 297 

Articles in Union Seminary Review, Bibliotheca Sacra, Evangelical Quarterly 
(Edinburgh) , Christian Observer, and Homiletic Review. 

i 9 i 8 
JOHN C BLACKBURN. 

Founder and Editor Old Paths. 

1919 

1920 
WILLIAM C. ROBINSON, A.B., M.A., B.D., Th.D., D.D. (See under faculty.) 

1921 

1922 

1923 
W. G. NEVILLE, A.B., B.D. 

Editor The Firing Line, Brazil. 

1924 

1925 
R. T. BAKER, A.B., B.D. 

Financing the Country Church, pamphlet. Presbyterian Committee of Pub- 
lication, 1935. 



298 APPENDIX 

COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 
ROSTER OF CLASSES 

The names of all students are listed irrespective of their graduation. In cases where 
students dropped out and re-entered, they are listed in two classes. 

Five Students of Dr. Thomas Goulding in Lexington, 
Georgia, 182Q 

Beatty, James Jones, Farwell 

Carter, H. C. Reid, William Moultrie 

Waddell, Isaac W. 

Class of 1833 

Adams, James M. H Franklin College South Carolina 

Beattie, James Scotland 

Goulding, F. R Franklin College Georgia 

Keeney, John C 

Merrick, James L Amherst College Massachusetts 

Reid, W. M South Carolina 

Wilson, J. Leighton Union College South Carolina 

Yates, William B South Carolina 

Class of 1834 

Axson, I. S. K Charleston College South Carolina 

DuBose, Julius J South Carolina College South Carolina 

Dwight, Theo. M Franklin College Connecticut 

Egerton, A. M Dartmouth College New Hampshire 

Fraser, Malcolm D South Carolina 

Legare, I. S. K Yale College South Carolina 

Peden, Andrew G South Carolina 

Petrie, George H. W Charleston College South Carolina 

Class of 1835 

Banks, Alexander R South Carolina 

Carwile, J. H 

Cassels, John B Georgia 

Dana, W. C Dartmouth College Massachusetts 

Douglas, John South Carolina South Carolina 



APPENDIX 299 

Gray, William A South Carolina 

Hooker, Richard Yale College Massachusetts 

Magruder, Thomas Franklin College Georgia 

Mallard, John B Franklin College Georgia 

Martin, Charles W Miami University Ohio 

Montgomery, T. F Franklin College Georgia 

Pelton, Charles B 

Class of 1836 

Cozby, James C Franklin College _ South Carolina 

Hobby, Thomas South Carolina 

Johnson, Angus South Carolina 

Ketchum, R. C Franklin College Georgia 

Legare, T. H South Carolina 

Leyburn, John Princeton College Virginia 

McQueen, Donald South Carolina College South Carolina 

Class of 18 3 7 

Bartlett, Julius L Williams College South Carolina 

Cater, Edwin Franklin College South Carolina 

Gibert, James F Franklin College South Carolina 

Saye, James H Franklin College Georgia 

Turner, D. McNeill Charleston College South Carolina 

Winn, John Amherst College Georgia 

Class of 18 38 

Auld, Donald J Charleston College South Carolina 

Brown, S. R Yale College Connecticut 

Donnelly, Samuel South Carolina College South Carolina 

Eells, W. W Yale College Connecticut 

Peden, Mitchel South Carolina 

Rosamond, James Miami University South Carolina 

Class of 18 3Q 

Bacon, Augustus O Franklin College Georgia 

Baker, Richard M Princeton College Georgia 

Brown, J. C Jefferson College _ —Pennsylvania 

Cunningham, H. B Williams College Pennsylvania 

Curtis, L. W Union College New York 



300 APPENDIX 

Finley, David .Franklin College , Georgia 

Jones, John Franklin College Georgia 

McBryde, T. L Franklin College South Carolina 

Phelps, James T Middlebury College 

Theobold, W Union College . 

Class of 1840 

Banks, William Franklin College South Carolina 

Gilland, James R Jefferson College Pennsylvania 

McCleskey, M. W Knoxville College 

McCoy, George W Franklin College Georgia 

Munroe, Hugh A North Carolina 

Newell, T. M .Washington College, Pa Pennsylvania 

Rockwell, E. F Yale College Connecticut 

Class of 18 41 

Dunwody, James B Yale College Georgia 

Emerson, W. C Madison College, Ala South Carolina 

Gregg, George Cooper South Carolina College South Carolina 

Harrison, Wm. P Franklin College Georgia 

Hay, Samuel H South Carolina College South Carolina 

Mclver, John L North Carolina 

McKay, Neill Union College North Carolina 

McNabb, Peter North Carolina 

Palmer, B. M Franklin College South Carolina 

Patterson, M. A Princeton College North Carolina 

Shaw, Colin University of N. C North Carolina 

Williams, Albert Franklin College Georgia 

Wilson, J. B South Carolina College South Carolina 

Winn, Peter Franklin College Georgia 

Woods, James 

Class of 1842 

Frierson, David E South Carolina College South Carolina 

Holmes, Z. L Knoxville College New York 

Porter, A. A Princeton College Alabama 

Class of 1843 

Logan, George H Charleston College South Carolina 

Way, Richard Q Franklin College Georgia 






APPENDIX 301 

Class of 1844 

Anderson, Edmund Franklin College South Carolina 

Baird, James R Davidson College South Carolina 

Curtis, William ., South Carolina 

Flinn, William Davidson College North Carolina 

Gibert, Joseph Franklin College South Carolina 

Hendee, Homer Oglethorpe Univ New York 

Hyde, Ezekiel F Union College Canada 

Moore, Wm. H Davidson College South Carolina 

Smith, William H Union College New York 

Stewart, Clarke B South Carolina 

Stillman, Charles A Oglethorpe Univ South Carolina 

Class of 1845 

Be ggs, G. W , South Carolina 

Firming, Julius J Charleston College South Carolina 

Gaillard, Savage S r South Carolina 

Henderson, H. W South Carolina 

Hillhouse, J. B South Carolina 

Lafferty, R. H Washington College, Pa Ohio 

McCarter, James R Franklin College Georgia 

McLees, John South Carolina 

Newton, Henry .Franklin College 1 Georgia 

Quarterman, J. W Franklin College Georgia 

Sherrill, R. E Davidson College North Carolina 

Special Student 
Peck, T. E South Carolina College Columbia, S, C. 

Class of 1846 

Calhoun, P. C South Carolina College South Carolina 

Purse, Joseph ■. . 

Savage, William T -Davidson College South Carolina 

Terry, Norman 

Wilson, Wm. W South Carolina College South Carolina 

Winn, Thomas S . .Franklin College Georgia 

Class of 18 4 J 

Crawford, T. C Davidson College North Carolina 

Hughes, William L South Carolina 

Roberts, William H North Carolina 

Screven, William E Franklin College Georgia 

Thompson, William H Georgia 

Wight, Joseph K Princeton College Connecticut 



302 APPENDIX 

Class of 1848 

Cartledge, G. H Oglethorpe Univ Georgia 

Frierson, S . R Princeton College Tennessee 

Girardeau, John L Charleston College South Carolina 

Hadden, Robert W Princeton College Alabama 

Miller, Arnold W Charleston College South Carolina 

Palmer, Edward P -Franklin College South Carolina 

Porter, Joseph D . Alabama 

Class of 1849 

Beall, B. L Oglethorpe Univ North Carolina 

Blanchard, S. M Dartmouth College Connecticut 

Chandler, A. E Davidson College South Carolina 

Hall, William H Oglethorpe Univ Georgia 

Hoy t, Thomas A Franklin College Georgia 

Johnson, A. G Mar. College Georgia 

Matthews, William Georgia 

Reid, Robert H South Carolina College.. South Carolina 

Shotwell, Albert Georgia 

Singletary, Wm. H Davidson College South Carolina 

Ware, Edward R University of Ala Alabama 

Williams, M. A Jefferson College Pennsylvania 

Class of 1850 

Quarterman, J. M Oglethorpe Univ Georgia 

Rogers, H. W Princeton College Mississippi 

Telford, Wm. B South Carolina College South Carolina 

Wills, David Tusculum College Tennessee 

Class of 18 51 

Agne w, Robert University of Glasgow Ireland 

Bowman, John R Princeton College Georgia 

Enloe, Ashahel Davidson College South Carolina 

Foster, Gurdon R Oglethorpe Univ Alabama 

Fraser, Donald Oglethorpe Univ Georgia 

James, Albert A Davidson College South Carolina 

Lanneau, B. E Charleston College South Carolina 

Loughridge, A. J Oakland College South Carolina 

Peace. Washington Princeton College Pennsylvania 

Rogers, James L Jefferson College Pennsylvania 

Watson, A. M Davidson College South Carolina 

Witherspoon, A. J South Carolina College South Carolina 



APPENDIX 303 

Class of 1852 

Alexander, J. H Oglethorpe Univ 

Barr, James S Davidson College North Carolina 

Boozer, John J . South Carolina 

Buttolph, D. L Williams College South Carolina 

Douglass, James Davidson College South Carolina 

Morris, F. C Oglethorpe Univ Alabama 

Porter, R. K South Carolina College South Carolina 

Roane, Wm. H Oglethorpe Univ . Alabama 

Stacy, James Oglethorpe Univ Georgia 

Waite, James T New York 

White, James Evans South Carolina College South Carolina 

Class of 1853 

Alexander, S. Caldwell Davidson College North Carolina 

Baker, Wm. E Princeton College Georgia 

Carson, Wm. B Alabama 

Corbet, Wm. B Charleston College South Carolina 

Cowan, I. N Erskine College South Carolina 

Frierson, J. Simpson Hanover College Tennessee 

Girardeau, T. J South Carolina College South Carolina 

Hardie, Henry University of N. C North Carolina 

McCormick, Wm. J Oglethorpe Univ New York 

Mickle, Robert A South Carolina 

Richards, J. G Oglethorpe Univ. Alabama 

Ryburn, Peter M Charleston College South Carolina 

Smith, D. F Georgia 

Class of 1854 

Bardwell, Joseph Princeton College North Carolina 

Carlton, Marcus M Amherst College Vermont 

Greene, Matthew Q. C. B Ireland 

Harrison, Douglass South Carolina College South Carolina 

Markham, T. R Oakland College Mississippi 

Martin, C. B. H Hanover College Kentucky 

McBryde, D. D Davidson College North Carolina 

McQueen, Martin Davidson College North Carolina 

Neill, Thomas B South Carolina College South Carolina 

Orr, Samuel Oglethorpe Univ Georgia 

Smith, Henry M Jefferson College Pennsylvania 



304 APPENDIX 

Class of 1855 

Cousar, James A South Carolina 

Davies, James A Davidson College South Carolina 

Edmunds, Nicholas W South Carolina College South Carolina 

Krider, B. Scott Davidson College North Carolina 

McAllister, Robert S Mississippi 

McKnight, W. J Hanover College North Carolina 

McLees, Robert South Carolina 

Mallard, Robert Q —Franklin College Georgia 

Porter, David H South Carolina College Alabama 

Silliman, C. J Oglethorpe Univ Alabama 

Simonton, L. A ^Oglethorpe Univ Georgia 

Small, Arthur M Oglethorpe Univ South Carolina 

Small, Robert R Oglethorpe Univ South Carolina 

Wilson, Charlton H Oglethorpe Univ South Carolina 

Class of 1856 

Alcorn, William University of Pa Ireland 

Boyce, S. C Erskine College South Carolina 

Brearley, Robert M South Carolina College-. South Carolina 

Davidson, Thomas J Oglethorpe Univ. South Carolina 

Epstein, A. H P. I. V Hungary 

Hall, William .Oglethorpe Univ Alabama 

Harris, John S Davidson College - North Carolina 

Kinder, Elmore Oglethorpe Univ *. South Carolina 

Kline, A. L South Carolina 

McDowell, James South Carolina College South Carolina 

McQueen, James Davidson College North Carolina 

Neely, R. L , Tennessee 

Parks, George D Davidson College North Carolina 

Phelps, J. C Mississippi 

Wilkes, Warren D Erskine College South Carolina 

Wood, M. D Oglethorpe Univ South Carolina 

Class of 1857 

Barr, John A Davidson College North Carolina 

Bingham, S. J Oglethorpe Univ Alabama 

Boggs, David Chalmers Oglethorpe Univ South Carolina 

Davies, Samuel Wilson Hampden-Sydney College Virginia 

Dunlop, James E University of Va South Carolina 

Humphry, John C -New York 



APPENDIX 305 

Lane, Gilbert C Middlebury College Vermont 

Rumple, Jethro Davidson College North Carolina 

Wood, William A Davidson College North Carolina 

Class of 1858 

Axson, Samuel Edward Oglethorpe Univ Georgia 

Coit, George Henry Amherst College Rhode Island 

Fairley, David Davidson College North Carolina 

Frierson, Edward O Oglethorpe Univ South Carolina 

Hall, Wm. T Davidson College North Carolina 

Liddell, Andrew R Oglethorpe Univ Georgia 

McNair, John C -University of N. C North Carolina 

Morrison, Hugh M .University of Miss Mississippi 

Parsons, Levi H ^ Alabama 

Pearson, Wm. F South Carolina 

Shive, Rufus W University of Miss Mississippi 

Smith, A. Pickens Oglethorpe Univ. Alabama 

Smith, Thoedore E Oglethorpe Univ Georgia 

Walker, James A S. C. Military Academy South Carolina 

Class of 18 5Q 

Alexander, James C Davidson College North Carolina 

Anderson, Robert B Princeton College North Carolina 

Bradley, Robert Oglethorpe Univ. South Carolina 

Bridgman, Chester Amherst College Massachusetts 

Burkhead, J. DeWitt Davidson College North Carolina 

Craig, John N Washington College Virginia 

Danforth, John A Oglethorpe Univ. Alabama 

Darroch, John Princeton College North Carolina 

Dickson, Henry R Charleston College South Carolina 

Gaillard, James H University of Miss Mississippi 

Harvey, Holmes L .Oglethorpe Univ Alabama 

Hoyt, Henry F Franklin College Georgia 

Kennedy, James C South Carolina 

McCormick, Robert W Oglethorpe Univ Ireland 

McQueen, Archibald -Davidson College . North Carolina 

Mayes, J. F. B Furman Univ South Carolina 

Witherspoon, T. D University of Miss Alabama 

Wrenn, Arthur McD .Princeton College Alabama 

Class of i860 

Brearley, H. M University of N. C South Carolina 

Curry, William L Furman Univ South Carolina 



306 APPENDIX 

Davidson, Edward C University of Miss Tennessee 

DeVeaux, Thomas L Charleston College South Carolina 

Gregg, Wm. A Oglethorpe Univ. South Carolina 

Hunter, Benjamin T Oglethorpe Univ. South Carolina 

Humphreys, David W Davidson College South Carolina 

Keigwin, Henry Hanover College Kentucky 

Mclntyre, Duncan E Oglethorpe Univ. South Carolina 

Mullaly, Francis P Ireland 

Park, John S University of Miss Tennessee 

Riley, John R South Carolina College South Carolina 

Stoddard, Wm. R Erskine College _ South Carolina 

Thomas, J. S. N Davidson College North Carolina 

Thompson, Phillip H University of Nashville ._! Tennessee 

Underwood, J. L Oglethorpe Univ Alabama 

Willbanks, John S Erskine College South Carolina 

Class of 1861 

Alexander, Samuel C Jefferson College Pennsylvania 

Banks, Henry Howard Davidson College Arkansas 

Boggs, W. L Oglethorpe Univ South Carolina 

Buist, Edward H South Carolina College South Carolina 

Carter, Wm. A Oglethorpe Univ _' Alabama 

Coleman, W. M .University of N. C North Carolina 

DuBose, John E Oglethorpe Univ Georgia 

Hutton, C. M University of Ala Alabama 

Johnston, Robert C University of Va. South Carolina 

Johnston, Robert Z Davidson College North Carolina 

Long, Isaac J Centre College Kentucky 

McDuffie, Duncan Oglethorpe Univ South Carolina 

Mack, Joseph B Jackson College Tennessee 

McLure, Daniel M Oglethorpe Univ _._.South Carolina 

Nicholson, R. P University of N. C North Carolina 

Robinson, J. M South Carolina 

Roudebush, G. S Jefferson College 

Salter, Isaac H Alabama 

Watts, W. D Davidson College North Carolina 

Wiley, William Centre College Missouri 

Woodruff, John Centre College Kentucky 

Class of 1862 

Blackford, R. A Washington College, Pa Pennsylvania 

Boggs, Wm. E South Carolina College South Carolina 



APPENDIX 307 

Brackets Gilbert R Massachusetts 

Brooks, Wm. H Washington College Virginia 

Brown, J. Douglass A Oglethorpe Univ South Carolina 

Carpenter, Orin .Cumberland Univ Tennessee 

Colton, James H University of N. C North Carolina 

Cozby, James S Oglethorpe Univ Georgia 

Dixon, J. Edgar Jefferson College 

Douglass, Robert L Davidson College South Carolina 

Fallis, John T. Centre College Kentucky 

Frierson, M. W University of Miss Mississippi 

Gallaudet, S. H Jefferson College 

Hogan, Wm. J University of Ala Alabama 

Ladson, George W Oglethorpe Univ Georgia 

Law, Thomas H S. C. Military Academy South Carolina 

McConnell, James A Jefferson College Pennsylvania 

McDonald, Wm University of N. C North Carolina 

McLees, Hugh Davidson College South Carolina 

Nail, James H Oglethorpe Univ Alabama 

Otts, J. M. P Davidson College South Carolina 

Petrie, Geo. L Oglethorpe Univ Alabama 

Pratt, S. Parsons Union College New York 

Simpson, F. T Princeton College Georgia 

Smith, A. F .Oakland College Mississippi 

Todd, David A South Carolina College South Carolina 

Vedder, Chas. S Union College New York 

Watson, John F Davidson College South Carolina 

Wells, Thomas B Yale College Connecticut 

White, Charles H Jefferson College 

Woodburn, John A University of N. C North Carolina 

Class of 1863 

Adams, William H Harvard University Massachusetts 

Baker, C. A Oglethorpe Univ Georgia 

Cleveland, Thomas T Princeton College Georgia 

Cooper, Robert E University of N. C South Carolina 

Ferguson, A. N Davidson College North Carolina 

Green, Edward M Oglethorpe Univ Georgia 

Hartfield, H. M Oakland College Mississippi 

Hunter, Theodore Oglethorpe Univ South Carolina 

Liddell, C. G LaGrange College Mississippi 

McDufSe, William Davidson College South Carolina 

Mclntyre, K. M Univ. of Virginia JSforth Carolina 



308 APPENDIX 

Mecklin, A. M LaGrange College Mississippi 

Mister, A. D 

Porter, George J Lafayette College Pennsylvania 

Quarterman, N. P Oglethorpe Univ Georgia 

Sluter, George Westminister College Missouri 

Smith, H. C Oakland College .-Mississippi 

Weir, Samuel P University of N. C North Carolina 

Witherspoon, John A South Carolina College South Carolina 

Class of 1864 

Arbuthnot, J. S Cumberland Univ Tennessee 

Ditmars, John V. H Oglethorpe Univ Florida 

Fay, W. H Oglethorpe Univ Alabama 

Gouger, James H Davidson College North Carolina 

Jacobs, William P .Charleston College South Carolina 

McCallum, James B University of N. C North Carolina 

McKinnon, Luther Davidson College North Carolina 

Class of 1865 

Chandler, Samuel E South Carolina 

Kennedy, John J Davidson College North Carolina 

Stratton, Wallace H Louisiana 

Strong, Hugh Univ. of N. C South Carolina 

Wilson, Leighton B Oglethorpe Univ South Carolina 

Class of 1866 

No graduates. (Seminary Closed.) 

Class of 18 6 j 

Gaston, A. W Emory and Henry College Georgia 

Smythe, Robert L Oglethorpe Univ South Carolina 

Class of 1868 

Mills, William W South Carolina College South Carolina 

Tenney, S. F Univ. of Georgia Georgia 

Class of 18 6 g 

Atkinson, Wm. R South Carolina College South Carolina 

Baker, Benjamin L Oglethorpe Univ Georgia 

Brimm, W. W Georgia 

Davis, A. J 

Dickey, Wm. N Davidson College North Carolina 



APPENDIX 309 

Gowan, Peter South Carolina 

McKinnon, John B Davidson College North Carolina 

Nicholson, A. P South Carolina College South Carolina 

Richards, Chas. M South Carolina 

Smith, Wm. Cuttino University of Va South Carolina 

Wilson, John Lowrie Stewart College Tennessee 

Class of 1 8 jo 

Caldwell, John L Davidson College South Carolina 

Douglass, James H Davidson College South Carolina 

Glasgow, L. K South Carolina College South Carolina 

Ingram, W. N LaGrange College Tennessee 

Latimer, James F South Carolina 

Law, John G Tennessee 

Martin, James L South Carolina 

Moore, John S University of Mississippi Alabama 

Neel, S. M LaGrange College Tennessee 

Swoope, F. M Washington College Virginia 

Class of i8j i 

Daniel, Eugene Oakland College Mississippi 

DuBose, Hampden C South Carolina College South Carolina 

Evans, W. W Centre College Kentucky 

Goetchius, George T University of Ga Georgia 

Heath, J. W Newton University Alabama 

Leeper, Frank L Alabama 

McBryde, John T South Carolina College South Carolina 

Read, John J Oakland College Mississippi 

Smart, Richard D WofFord College South Carolina 

White, J. Spratt University of Va South Carolina 

Class of i8j2 

Bean, Wm. S Univ. of Georgia Georgia 

Green, O. M JPrinceton College Pennsylvania 

Grow, J. C Georgia 

Handley, L. S University of Miss Alabama 

Howell, Frank M University of Miss _ Mississippi 

Hutton, Milton C University of Miss Alabama 

Johnson, Josephus University of Miss Mississippi 

Johnson, Thos. C University of Miss Tennessee 

Kennedy, A. Ross Davidson College South Carolina 

LeConte, Wm South Carolina College South Carolina 



310 APPENDIX 

Ligon, T. C .Erskine College South Carolina 

Mecklin, Jas. A University of Miss : Mississippi 

Query, Jas. W JBrskine College North Carolina 

Thompson, W. T Virginia 

Washburn, Jos .Williams College Georgia 

Class of i8y 3 

Bell, S. Henry Davidson College North Carolina 

Boggs, Samuel D South Carolina College South Carolina 

Chichester, C. E South Carolina 

Garrard, Samuel N Alabama 

Grafton, C. W University of Miss Mississippi 

Haman, Thos. L University of Miss Mississippi 

McAlpine, Robert B Davidson College Arkansas 

McFarland, Daniel K University of Miss Mississippi 

McKay, Wilson J Davidson College North Carolina 

Milner, Wm. A Davidson College Georgia 

Class of 1874 

Ansley, Harry C Univ. of Georgia Georgia 

Briggs, Edward H ._ .Univ. of Georgia Georgia 

Carothers, Jos. C Mississippi 

Cunningham, Thos. H University of Ga South Carolina 

Dodge, Wm. H Davidson College Georgia 

DuBose, R. Means South Carolina College South Carolina 

Duncan, J. DeWitt Kentucky 

Hall, John G Davidson College South Carolina 

Hemphill, Chas. R University of Va South Carolina 

Jacobs, Jas. R South Carolina 

Johnston, Thos. T Knox College, Toronto Canada 

Kirkpatrick, Robt. M Davidson College Alabama 

Long, Nicholas M King College Tennessee 

McAllister, David S Davidson College North Carolina 

McCormick, Leslie R South Carolina College South Carolina 

McKay, P. M Knox College, Toronto Florida 

McKinley, Carl Georgia 

McMillan, Geo. W Davidson College North Carolina 

Miller, Alfred L Davidson College South Carolina 

Miller, Robert A Davidson College South Carolina 

Newton, Jas. K. P University of Miss Mississippi 

Perry, Robert D South Carolina 

Preston, Samuel R King College Virginia 



APPENDIX 311 

Smith, James A Davidson College North Carolina 

Spratt, James W Davidson College South Carolina 

Thornwell, Jas. H South Carolina College South Carolina 

Class of i8y 5 

Anderson, Julius J Davidson College Alabama 

Black, James S , North Carolian 

Byers, David O King College Tennessee 

Crawford, Wm. B Davidson College Arkansas 

Curry, Albert B Georgia 

Dabney, Wm A . Georgia 

English, Thos. R Davidson College South Carolina 

Erwin, Erasmus E Davidson College South Carolina 

Fair, James Y South Carolina 

Flinn, J. Wm University of Miss Mississippi 

Gariss, H. B. S North Carolina 

Ginn, I. M Oglethorpe Univ Georgia 

Hammet, J. Harvey Davidson College South Carolina 

Harris, O. J , South Carolina 

Jones, Jas. E Georgia 

Ligon, Richard C Erskine College South Carolina 

McConnell, Thos. M King College Virginia 

Mcllwain, Wm. E Erskine College North Carolina 

Rankin, D. C Tennessee 

Reid, Robert A Erskine College South Carolina 

Rhea, John M King College Tennessee 

Smith, Robt. N Oglethorpe Univ Georgia 

Witherspoon, Jerry University of Miss Mississippi 

Class of 1 8 J 6 

Allison, Jos. Y North Carolina 

Caldwell, Samuel C University of Miss Mississippi 

Hassell, A. M Texas 

Henderson, John Canada 

Hollingsworth, W. T Oglethorpe Univ Georgia 

Johnson, J.J Georgia 

Killough, W. W Arkansas 

Kirkpatrick, M. R Davidson College Alabama 

McRae, D. A North Carolina 

Morris, S. Leslie Erskine College South Carolina 

Morrow, R. O. B University of Miss Alabama 

Rogan, Jas. W King College Tennessee 



312 APPENDIX 

Smith, R. P 

Stratton, W. M Louisiana 

Wallace, W. G. F Davidson College Alabama 

Wilson, Andrew W Davidson College South Carolina 

Class of i8jj 

Adams, Robert Univ. of Georgia Georgia 

Boyd, William Austin College Texas 

Britt, M. C Davidson College Georgia 

Bruce, J. Tallulah Georgia 

Davis, Edward P Davidson College Georgia 

Fogartie, Jas. E .Davidson College South Carolina 

Henry, J. J University of Toronto Canada 

McQueen, Donald South Carolina 

Newell, Samuel W .University of Miss Mississippi 

Newton, E Univ. of Georgia Georgia 

Trenholm, George A South Carolina 

Class of i8j8 

Brownlee, J. L Erskine College South Carolina 

Bryan, W. S. Plumer Davidson College T South Carolina 

Craig, D. Irwin North Carolina 

Gilland, Henry G Stewart College North Carolina 

Graves, Zebulon B University of Miss Missouri 

Hay, Thos. P South Carolina 

Home, T. J Arkansas College Arkansas 

Lowry, Thos. M Erskine College South Carolina 

McMullen, John C Davidson College South Carolina 

Mundy, Frank J , New Jersey 

Norris, Alex. E Davidson College South Carolina 

Williamson, Jas. L Davidson College South Carolina 

Class of i8jg 

Cavitt, Clarence V Roanoke College Texas 

Fennel, H. C Erskine College South Carolina 

Flinn, Harvey W University of Miss Mississippi 

Robinson, Chas. W Davidson College North Carolina 

Rowe, John D North Carolina 

Smith, E. Geddings Davidson College South Carolina 

Whaling, Horace M , Virginia 

Woodbridge, Wm G Mississippi 



APPENDIX 313 

Class of 1880 

Bishop, Samuel E Davidson College South Carolina 

Brooke, Frank J Davidson College Virginia 

Brown, J. R. C, Jr Roanoke College Virginia 

Craig, Thos. B Davidson College South Carolina 

Fraser, A. Mclver Davidson College South Carolina 

Frierson, David E South Carolina 

Greer, Baxter D. D Davidson College Alabama 

Houston, J. L. D Arkansas College Arkansas 

Lapsley, Robt. A Davidson College Alabama 

Lee, Thos. J Central University Kentucky 

McLees, John A Davidson College South Carolina 

Mayne, John F Davidson College Alabama 

Plunkett, J. T S. W. Presbyterian Univ Tennessee 

Robinson, L. H Erskine College South Carolina 

Seabrook, J. McL Davidson College South Carolina 

Shepherd, Chas. M Tennessee 

Simpson, L. A JDavidson College Georgia 

Stewart, Calvin L Davidson College South Carolina 

Webb, Robert A S. W. Presbyterian Univ Tennessee 

Wilson, Samuel L Davidson College South Carolina 

Wycough, W. H Arkansas College Arkansas 

Class of 188 1 

Davis, Wm. Y Princeton College Kentucky 

McClure, Jas. W Kentucky 

McLin, Jas. L Erskine College South Carolina 

Matthews, Wm. T Erskine College North Carolina 

Neville, Wm. G Adger College South Carolina 

Williams, Jas. L Davidson College North Carolina 

Class of 1882 

Lindsay, Henry D Erskine College South Carolina 

Miller, James P Adger College South Carolina 

Sale, Alex. M Georgia 

Woodbridge, Samuel I Rutgers College Maryland 

Class of 1883 

Boozer, Thos. F Adger College South Carolina 

Fleming, Wm. C Virginia 

Whaling, Thornton C Roanoke College Virginia 

Zernow, Horace B Davidson College South Carolina 



314 APPENDIX 

Special Students 1883 

Brockinton, J. S South Carolina 

Dixon, John H South Carolina 

Henderson, Milton A University of Miss Mississippi 

Mc Alpine, John R South Carolina 

Sample, Elam A North Carolina 

Woodbridge, Geo. G Mississippi 

Class of 1884 

Black, Malcolm Texas 

Hooper, Milton M University of Miss Mississippi 

Muller, Edwin Union College South Carolina 

Shive, Walter E Davidson College Texas 

Class of 1885 

Bailey, Edward S. W. Presbyterian Univ Georgia 

Caldwell, Wm. A .Charleston College South Carolina 

Foster, John H Oxford College Alabama 

Grigsby, Sherwood L S. W. Presbyterian Univ Tennessee 

Hope, Samuel R Davidson College South Carolina 

Howerton, James R S. \V. Presbyterian Univ Tennessee 

Lloyd, John F Arkansas College Arkansas 

Lowry, Wm. S S. W. Presbyterian Univ Tennessee 

McAlpine, Robert E S. W. Presbyterian Univ Alabama 

McCullough, Wm. M Austin College Texas 

McLees, John L A.dger College South Carolina 

Murray, Ephraim C Union College South Carolina 

Neel, William H Davidson College North Carolina 

Newman, Henry H Tennessee 

Thompson, Geo. W S. W. Presbyterian Univ Tennessee 

Williams, John C Arkansas College Arkansas 

Class of 1886 

Blackburn, Geo. A S. W. Presbyterian Univ Tennessee 

Burgess, Thos. P Davidson College South Carolina 

DeGraffenreid, T. H Davidson College South Carolina 

Lumpkin, Jos. H Davidson College Georgia 

Mebane, Wm. N Davidson College North Carolina 

Oehler, Jas. C Davidson College North Carolina 

Plowden, James M . South Carolina 

Red, W. Stuart Austin College Texas 



APPENDIX 315 

Reid, Benjamin P Davidson College South Carolina 

White, Wm. H South Carolina 

Wilson, Jas. A Davidson College South Carolina 

Witherspoon, Elias B University of Miss Mississippi 

Class of 1887 

Amis, E. H University of Va Arkansas 

Boggs, W. L Adger College South Carolina 

Fraser, Chalmers Davidson College Georgia 

Fulton, S. P Clinton College South Carolina 

Hoffmeister, C. C King College Tennessee 

Hyland, C. A S. W. Presbyterian Univ Mississippi 

Lafferty, J. D Davidson College North Carolina 

Lapsley, James University of Ala North Carolina 

Moore. Chalmers Davidson College North Carolina 

Pharr, John F Erskine College Georgia 

Riley, S. R Adger College South Carolina 

Scott, Samuel Davidson College Georgia 

Trawick, Corydon W S. W. Presbyterian Univ Louisiana 

Wilson, B. F JDavidson College South Carolina 

Workman, W. A Wofford College South Carolina 

Class of 1888 • 

Seminary Closed. 

Class of i88g 

Cartledge, Samuel J University of Ga Georgia 

Latimer, Robert M Newberry College South Carolina 

Class of 1 8 go 

Abraham, Ryston N Arksansas College Arkadelphia, Ark. 

Anderson, John P King College Bristol, Tenn. 

Atkins, Alexander H University of Ala Greensboro, Ala. 

Brimm, Daniel J S. W. Presbyterian Univ Columbia, S. C. 

Burwell, Henry W Emory Univ Sparta, Ga. 

Cartledge, Thos. D University of Ga Bold Spring, Ga. 

Clyce, Thos. S King College Kingsport, Tenn. 

Ferguson, Henry A Washington College, Tenn Leesburg, Tenn. 

Knobel, Abraham Central Presbyterian Univ Louisville, Ky. 

Leonard, Charles A Parks College Ponca, Neb. 

McLure (McClure) H. E.— ..Davidson College Waynesburg, Ga. 

Wallace, Wm. S Davidson College New York City 

White, Wm. B S. W. Presbyterian Univ Winnsboro, S. C. 



316 APPENDIX 

Special Students 

Hay, Samuel H S. W. Presbyterian Univ Boiling Springs, S. C. 

McLeod, Coleman B S. W. Presbyterian Univ White Oak Spring, Ala. 

Mebane, James E University of N. C Madison, N. C. 

Ponder, Thos. J Oxford College, Ala Quitman, Georgia 

Class of i8gi 

Banks, Fitzhugh Normal College of Tenn Rocky Mount, Miss. 

Hamiter, William* S S. W. Presbyterian Univ Houston, Miss. 

Jacobs, Jas. F Presb. College of S. C Clinton, S. C. 

Maury, Chas. H King College Marion, Va. 

Meily, Richard L LaFayette College Mechanicsburg, Pa. 

White, Willis G S. W. Presbyterian Univ Winnsboro, S. C. 

Williams, Charles B .College of New Jersey Uniontown, Pa. 

Class of i8g2 

Baird, Reynolds P Campinas International College Sao Paulo, Brazil 

Brannen, Denton W Presb. College of S. C Atlanta, Ga. 

Byrd, Samuel C Presb. College of S. C Tylersville, S. C. 

Jennings, Clark A .Presb. College of S. C Clinton, S. C. 

Martindale, C. O'N University of S. C Columbia, S. C. 

Smith, Newton._» Pelham, S. C. 

Special Students 

Calhoun, John College of New Jersey Connellsville, N. J. 

Scrogin, Geo. B LaFayette College Versailles, Ky. 

Trenholm, Thos. B University of S. C Columbia, S. C. 

Waddell , John M 

Way, Louis T Savannah, Ga. 

Class of 18Q3 

Anderson, Barnwell R Laurens, S. C. 

Blackburn, Daniel A Lebanon College Columbia, S. C. 

Bourne, Geo. T King College Stevens Creek, Va. 

Hollingsworth, Wm. F Davidson College Atlanta, Ga. 

Jacobs, Wm. S Presb. College of S. C Clinton, S. C. 

McGillivray, Malcolm Bruce Model School Goderich, Canada 

Noland, James H .Citadel Columbia, S. C. 

Special Students 

Allyn, Horace S University of Michigan Gainesville, Ga. 

Lake, John .Citadel Columbia, S. C. 

Kildow, Geo. W Central Univ Chattanooga, Tenn. 



APPENDIX 317 

Class of 18Q4 

Alexander, Ralph W Hampden-Sydney College Pineville, N. C. 

Arrowood, Milton C Old Furnace, N. C. 

Bradshaw, Harvey S .King College Mt. Horeb, Tenn. 

Brown, Evander D Arkansas College . .-JFordyce, Ark. 

Brown, Robert L Erskine College Cottonwood, N. C. 

Crockard, Joseph University of Toronto Lucas, Ont., Canada 

Currie, Daniel J University of N. C John Station, N. C. 

Flinn, Richard O S. W. Presbyterian Univ Macon, Ga. 

Ford, Joseph F Oxford College Goodwater, Ala. 

Groce, Wm. O Davidson College Atlanta, Ga. 

Keahey, Neal B Arguta, Ala. 

Kegley, Henry C King College Blanoch, Va. 

Lansborough, James University of Toronto Seaforth, Ont., Canada 

Milner, John E Presb. College of S. C Clinton, N. C. 

Moore, Jos. M Davidson College McConnellsville, S. C. 

Robertson, Chas E Montgomery, Ala. 

Class of 18Q5 

Anderson, Andrew J King College Brick Church, Tenn. 

Bailey, Ephraim Clark Presb. College of S. C Charleston, S. C. 

Beattie, Wm. E McGill Univ Guelph, Ont., Canada 

Cornelson, George H. Davidson College Orangeburg, S. C. 

Fulton, Darby Mulrow Presb. College of S. C Clinton, S. C. 

McLaughlin, Duncan B Presb. College of S. C Florence, S. C. 

McLaurin, Laughlin A Davidson College McCall, S. C. 

McNaul, Aughtery McD .Presb. College of S. C Winnsboro, S. C. 

Matheson, John F Cheraw, S. C. 

Munn, John M Augusta, Ga. 

Norris, Joseph J .Arkansas College Mabelvale, Ark. 

Owings, Wm. Rapley Presb. College of S. C Clinton, S. C. 

Patterson, Alfred Lewis King College Sale Creek, Tenn 

Richards, Charles M Davidson College Liberty Hill, S. C. 

Takada, Tozi Imperial Univ., Tokyo Tokyo, Japan 

Templeton, Nathaniel M Laurens Male Academy Laurens, S. C. 

Walker, Wm. L Davidson College Huntersville, N. C. 

Wallace, Benjamin E King College Soddy, Tenn. 

Wallace, James D King College Chattanooga, Tenn. 

White, Osmund A Davidson College Concord, N. C. 



318 APPENDIX 

Wylie, Jesse E S. W. Presbyterian Univ Milan, Tenn. 

Wynne, Wm, Allen Jvlercer Univ Nashville, Tenn. 

Special Students 

Hatch, W. L Columbia, S. C 

Macnab, James University of Edinburgh Edinburgh, Scotland 

Moorer, W. D Columbia, S. C. 

Smith, S. M Columbia, S. C. 

Woolley, Wm. H Emory Univ Covington, Ky. 

Class of i8g6 

Barber, Wm. L Private School, Athens, Ga Bascobel, Ga 

Belk, D. P. R JErskine College Dixie, S. C. 

Culcough, Benjamin D Presb. College of S. C Smithville, S. C. 

Gaston, Virgil R Davidson College Greenville, S. C. 

Hall, Arnold Hampden-Sydney College Jacksonville, W. Va. 

Henderlite, James H Hampden-Sydney College Marion, Va. 

Henderlite, Peter B Hampden-Sydney College Marion, Va. 

Henderson, LeRoy G Davidson College Waterboro, S. C. 

Hill, Elmer T Sharpsburg, Ky. 

Hunter, Wm. Mayher Davidson College Huntersville, S. C. 

Jennings, F. Cornwell Presb. College of S. C Clinton, S. C. 

Lacy, George H Arkansas College Eldorado, Ark. 

Matheson, Robt. G , Camden, Ala. 

Montgomery, Charles Davidson College Sumter, S. C. 

Norris, Joseph I Arkansas College Camden, Ala. 

Class of i8gy 

Dick, John A Davidson College Sumter, S. C. 

Dorritee, James A Savannah, Ga. 

Hafner, Wm. Alexander Davidson College Blairsville, S. C. 

McPheeters, Colin Allen Westminster College Fulton, Mo. 

Mendenhall, Edward B Guthriesville, S. C. 

Mills, Wm. Hayne Davidson College Camden, S. C. 

Minter, Wm. R Davidson College Laurens, S. C. 

Murchison, Hugh R Davidson College Columbia, S. C. 

Ratchford, Chas. B S. W. Presbyterian Univ Bullock Creek, S. C. 

Rogers, Robert L Presb. College of S. C Fountain Inn, S. C. 

Sadler, Weston W Erskine College Due West, S. C. 

Shive, James C Hampden-Sydney College Batesville, Ark. 

Sims, Frank K Presb. College of S. C Lowryville, S. C. 

Taylor, James H Yale Univ Charleston, S. C. 



APPENDIX 319 

Vass, Lachlan, C, Jr Davidson College New Bern, N. C. 

Wilkinson, Thos. G South Carolina College Claussen, S. C. 

Special Students 

Junkin, Tinsley P Columbia, S. C. 

Kirkland, W. D Columbia, S. C. 

Class of i8q8 

Blackford, Benjamin B Windsor College, Maryland Washington, D. C. 

Blackwell, David J Erskine College Due West, S. C. 

Clark, Melton South Carolina College Columbia, S. C. 

Clotfelter, Joseph A Davidson College Conyers, Ga. 

Harris, Joseph M Davidson College Harrisburg, N. C. 

Higdon, Frank L King College Daysville, Va. 

Rusk, Robert H Davidson College Woodstock, Ga. 

Postgraduates 

Marshall, Thomas G LaFayette College Palatka, Fla. 

Rogers, Frank E Oxford College Alabama 

Special Students 

Hintz, Fredrick K. M Teachers' Seminary Hamburg, Germany 

Pederer, May California 

Class of i8gg 

Allison, Wm. B Davidson College Yorkville, S. C. 

Bailey, Wm. L Martin's Institute, Ga Jefferson, Ga. 

Dendy, Joseph T Presb. College of S. C Richland, S. C. 

Douglas, Davidson M Davidson College Blackstock, S. C. 

Gregg, Francis W S. C. Military Academy Claussen, S. C. 

Harris, Wm. F Erskine College Union Springs, Ala. 

Patterson, Howard L S. W. Presbyterian Univ New Orleans, La. 

Scott, Joseph C Presb. College of S. C South Carolina 

Waite, Alexander -Waynesburg College Reynoldsville, Pa. 

Waite, James B -Waynesburg College Reynoldsville, Pa. 

Walker, Robert P Presb. College of S. C McClellanville, S. C. 

Postgraduates 
Safford, Daniel McG Erskine Seminary Salem, N. Y. 

Special Students 
Strickland, Walter Freeman. S. W. Presbyterian Univ Edgefield, S. C. 



320 APPENDIX 

Class of i goo 

Berry, James A Washington College White Store, Tenn. 

Butler, John T S. W. Presbyterian Univ Wallace, Ga. 

Harris, Wm. F Erskine College Union Springs, Ala. 

Iverson, Andrew J King College Montgomery, Va. 

Jones, Frank D Davidson College Wrightsboro, Texas 

McCeckill, Kenneth Presb. College of S. C South Carolina 

Paisley, Henry L Arkansas College Gordon, Ark. 

Pierce, Albert W Stetson Univ Eustes, Fla. 

Smith, H. Maxcy Hampden-Sydney College Reidville, S. C. 

Smyth, Frazier D S. W. Presbyterian Univ New Orleans, La. 

Wardlaw, Frank H Davidson College Columbia, S. C. 

Wyly, Wm. James Presb. College of S. C Retreat, S. C. 

Special Students 

Butler, Mrs. J. T '_ Clifford Seminary Easton, Ga. 

Carson, Charles C University of Ga Brunswick, Ga. 

Latimer, Robert S —.Southern Univ Greensboro, Ala. 

Martin, Prof. Alexander Davidson College Columbia, S. C. 

Parker, Thomas Northwestern Univ Columbia, S. C. 

Rice, J. A., D.D S. C. College (Methodist Ch.) Columbia, S. C. 

Shimmon, Khoshaba Oroomiah College Oroomiah, Persia 

Thomas, Dr. E. O Columbia, S. C. 

Class of i go i 

Drennan, Frank A Davidson College Richburg, S. C. 

Harris, Wm. F Erskine College Union Springs, Ala. 

McCutchen, L. O Davidson College Bishopville, S. C. 

McRee, J. R King College Soddy, Tenn. 

Martin, Alexander Davidson College Columbia, S. C. 

Paisley, H. L Arkansas College Gordon, Ark. 

Roberts, J. K King College Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Class of i go 2 

Atwood, J. W Austin College Cooper, Texas 

Edge, Walter W Presb. College of S. C Mt. Tabor, S. C. 

Haney, Thos. H Davidson College Rock Hill, S. C. 

Kimbrough, Thos. T S. W. Presbyterian LTniv Scooby, Miss. 

Miller, Alva E Arkansas College Russellville, Ark. 

Mills, Henry J Davidson College Mayesville, S. C. 

Stewart, Eugene M S. W. Presbyterian Univ Crystal Springs, Miss. 



APPENDIX 321 

Class of 1903 

Bradshaw, E. N Austin College Scranton, Texas 

Henerey, J. Dawson Thornwell College '. Clinton, S. C. 

Ireson, A. J King College Montgomery, Va. 

McLeod, Bunyan Gates College Columbia, S. C. 

Marion, J. P Presb. College of S. C Hickory Grove, S. C. 

Rhodes, P. S Middle Ga. Military College Siloam, Ga. 

Simpson, J. A Presb. College of S. C Toccoa, Ga. 

Stewart, J. W Public Schools of Ireland Wilkinsburg, Pa. 

Wallace, I. E Kings College Sale Creek, Tenn. 

Class of 1 904 

Bayless, Robert Price Washington College Jonesboro, Tenn. 

Bradshaw, Frank Ashby King College Mt. Horeb, Tenn. 

Branch, James Bennett Thornwell College Clinton, S. C. 

Bridgeman, A. C Columbia, S. C. 

Brown, John Jackson Presb. College of S. C Yorkville, S. C. 

Brown, Lowry Wilson Presb. College of S. C Yorkville, S. C. 

Doak, Alexander Hunt King College Russellville, Tenn. 

Furguson, Robt. P. Lamar S. W. Presbyterian Univ Sandersville, Miss. 

Meacham, Thomas Hugh Davidson College Davidson, N. C. 

Otts, Robert Franklin Roanoke College Greensboro, Ala. 

Rountree, J. D High School Selma, Ala. 

Special Students 
Freed, Rev. C. A Columbia, S. C. 

Class of 1905 

Bradley, James Monmouth College Sardinia, S. C. 

Coble, Charles Paul University of N. C Columbia, S. C. 

DuBose, Palmer Clisby Davidson College Columbia, S. C. 

Griffin, George Oswell University of Ga Augusta, Ga. 

Hannah, Joseph Eggleston.___Davidson College Thomaston, Ga. 

Johnson, Asa Linton Presb. College of S. C Hartwell, Ga. 

McCully, Carl Wilson Erskine College Bowling Green, S. C. 

Simpson, Thos. Ellison Presb. College of S. C Clinton, S. C. 

Spence, Thos. Hugh Davidson College Davidson, N. C. 

Spencer, Arthur Ernest Davidson College Dalton, Ga. 

Ward. James Edward Davidson College Fayetteville, N. C. 

Class of 1 906 
Knox, Hubbard Allen Davidson College Statesville, N. C. 



322 APPENDIX 

Received Certificates 
Boyd, William Harper Presb. College of S. C Clinton, S. C. 

Special Students i go 6 
Allen, William Clark Columbia, S. C. 

DuBose, Warner Harrington-Davidson College Columbia, S. C. 

Matheson, Robert Gordon Louisville Theol. Sem Max Meadows, Va. 

Brown, James Castle Catawba College Gastonia, N. C. 

Bradley, James Monmouth College Sardinia, S. C. 

Damn, Robt. Dale, Jr Davidson College Marianna, Fla. 

Class of i go j 

DuBose, Warner Harrington-Davidson College Columbia, S. C. 

Kerr, Edgar Davis Davidson College Charlotte, N. C. 

Moore, Paul Homer Erskine College Yorkville, S. C. 

Class of igo8 

Ervin, C. Witherspoon Davidson College Indiantown, S. C. 

Gillespie, Richard Thomas.— Davidson College Rock Hill, S. C. 

McChesney, Paul Stanley King College Bristol, Va. 

Rauschenberg, Fritz Atlanta High School Atlanta, Ga. 

Rowan, Jesse Colin Davidson College Carthage, N. C. 

Graham, Ennis University of Ga Athens, Ga. 

Harrison, Allen Reece Davidson College Huntersville, N. C. 

Special Students 

Allen, William Clark Columbia, S. C. 

Parker, Clarence Prentice Wittenburg College Marion, S. C. 

Rodrigues, F. A Campinas, Brazil 

Wayne, Edward Anthony University of S. C Columbia, S. C. 

Wilkins, Walter Eugene Furman Univ Columbia, S. C. 

Woodson, Albert Robert... McCormick Theol. Sem Columbia, S. C. 

Class of igog 

Bateman, Thomas Whitworth Institute, England Winster, England 

Benyamin, Yosiph Urumiah Mission College Urumiah, Persia 

Bridgman, Arthur Coleman-Coleman High School, Paxton, 111 — Columbia, S. C. 

Coker, J. Edward Alabama Normal School . Jacksonville, Ala. 

Grant, Robert .Strathspey Academy, Scotland Atlanta, Ga. 

Hollingsworth, Geo. M Conyers, Ga. 

Hutchison, Thos. J Davidson College Rock Hill, S. C. 

McPheeters, Joseph C .Washington and Lee Univ Columbia, S. C. 



APPENDIX 323 

Norwood, Ernest H Orphan Work Sch., London__Winston-Salem, N. C. 

Wallace, Joseph E Presb. College of S. C Sale Creek, Tenn. 

Wilcox, Geo. Marshall .Davidson College Elberton, Ga. 

Yeargan, Chas. B ■- -Davidson College Buffalo, Ala. 

Special Students 

Parker, Clarence Prentice Wittenberg College Marion, S. C. 

Woodson, Albert Robert McCormick Theol. Sem Columbia, S. C. 

Smith, Fredrick Bruce Gainesville High School Norcross, Ga. 

Class of igio 

Chandler, Wm. Bratton Davidson College Mayesville, S. C. 

Clark, David Myers Presbyterian College Jefferson, S. C. 

Hamilton, Wm. Hugh .Davidson College Greenwood, S. C. 

Hay, Samuel Hutson Davidson College Farm School, Va. 

Hutchison, Thos. Johnston-Davidson College Rock Hill, S. C. 

McLean, Malcolm James Davidson College Cameron, N. C. 

Smith, Fred. Bruce Gainesville, Georgia, Schools Atlanta, Ga. 

Wallace, John Quincy Maryville College Soddy, Tenn. 

Wildman, Charles Edgar .Colgate Academy Atlanta, Ga. 

Special Students 

Boss, Samuel R Columbia, S. C. 

Calclosure, Charles H Columbia, S. C. 

Shealy, Luther S Columbia, S. C. 

Class of igi i 

Chalmers, Palmer Erskine College Charlotte, N. C. 

Griffiths, Thos. W S. W. Presbyterian Univ Mansfield, Ga. 

MacEachern, John Davidson College Savannah, Ga. 

Pritchett, Wiley Rankin Guilford College Greensboro, N. C. 

Roach, Wm. J Clemson College Rock Hill, S. C. 

Wallace, Albert E Soddy High School St. Elmo, Tenn. 

Wilds, Louis Trezevant Davidson College Columbia, S. C. 

Class of I QI2 

Linley, Samuel Archibald Davidson College Anderson, S. C. 

McMurray, John Addison.-— Davidson College Sharon, S. C. 

Mills, Wilson Plumer Oxford Univ., England Camden, S. C. 

Ratchford, Wm. Davis Davidson College Sharon, S. C. 

Wilds, Samuel Hugh University of S. C Columbia, S. C. 



324 APPENDIX 

Received Certificates 

Brown, Robert Roy Prcsb. College of S. C Seneca, S. C. 

Roseborough, James W., Jr. .Stetson Univ DeLand, Fla. 

Vaughan, Fleming DuBignonGeorgia Military College Milledgeville, Ga. 

Special Students 

Fulmer, A. E New Brookland, S. C. 

Hawkins, Thomas H Columbia, S. C. 

Kennedy, Arthur B T Columbia, S. C. 

Mills, Wilson Plumer Oxford Univ., England Winnsboro, S. C. 

Whilden, Frank F Columbia, S. C. 

Class of 19 1 3 

Chandler, William Bratton....Davidson College Columbia, S. C. 

Holland, Chas. Dean Davidson College Atlanta, Ga. 

McSween, John Davidson College Timmonsville, S. C. 

Pullen, Ovid Davidson College Davidson, N. C. 

Riddle, Franklin Ray Erskine College Bowling Green, S. C. 

Marion, Robert Newton S. W. Presbyterian Univ , Houlka, Miss. 

Class of 19 1 4 

Bailey, Charles Robert Purman University Greenville, S. C. 

Hay, John Richards Davidson College Farm School, N. C. 

Latham, William Luther Presb. College of South Carolina Sharon, S. C. 

Class of 191 5 

Beckett, Theodore Ashe Davidson College Johns Island, S. C. 

Carmichael, Herbert Gorwin.Davidson College Fork, S. C. 

Clayman, Robert Franklin King College Bristol, Va. 

Fulton, Charles Darby Presb. College of S. C Kobe, Japan 

Lemmon, John Mills Presb. College of S. C Winnsboro, S. C. 

Ligon, John Frank Fredericksburg College - Greenville, S. C. 

Lyons, John Sprole .Central Univ., Ky. Louisville, Ky. 

Received Certificates 

McMahon, A. E. S University of S. C Columbia, S. C. 

Scruggs, Y. Perry Presb. College of S. C Columbia, S. C. 

Shankel, Bruce Bridwell ..King College Bristol, Tenn. 

Stork, John William University of S. C Columbia, S. C. 

Watts, Thomas G Goodwater, Ala. 



APPENDIX 325 

Special Students 

Brown, Edwin S Waycross, Ga. 

Harden, William Sumner Private tutor Walthourville, Ga. 

Wicker, Charles Leonidas Raeford Institute West End, N. C. 

Class of i g 1 6 

Corbett, Henry Dickerson Davidson College Mayesville, S. C, 

Currie, John William University of Miss Mt. Olive, Miss. 

Garner, James Samuel Presb. College of S. C Darlington, S. C. 

Green, Daniel Brown Presb. College of S. C Lancaster, S. C. 

Head, Homer Wood Presby. College of S. C Atlanta, Ga. 

Montgomery, James Nelson.Washington and Lee Univ Birmingham, Ala. 

Nickles, Geo. Andrew Presb. College of S. C Hodges, S. C. 

Reaves, Henry Lide Davidson College Alcolu, S. C. 

Watson, Earl Stacy South Carolina 

Class of 1 9 1 7 

Cates, Alton Riley University of S. C Memphis, Tenn. 

Currie, John Wm University of Miss Mt. Olive, Miss. 

DuBose, Pierre Wilds Davidson College Soochow, China 

Grissett, Finley McCorvey..__Ala. Pol. Institute Albany, Ga. 

Hutchison, Wm. Samuel University of S. C Rock Hill, S. C. 

Land, John Samuel Presb. College of S. C Yorkville, S. C. 

Mclnnis, Neil Davidson College Dillon, S. C. 

Phillips, Rufus Martin Davidson College Sanford, N. C. 

Riviere, Wm. Thurmond Washington and Lee Univ New Orleans, La. 

Shepard, Edwin Malcolm S. W. Presbyterian Univ New Orleans, La. 

Van Meter, Jesse Oliver State University of Ky Columbia, S. C. 

Received Certificates 

Harry, Woodfin G University of N. C Grover, N. C. 

Hoyt, Samuel Browne Davidson College Atlanta, Ga. 

Rector, Geo. Hampton Hampden-Sydney College Plumtree, N. C. 

Smith, Howard Davis Presb. College of S. C Smyrna, S. C. 

Watson, Earl Stacy -Presb. College of S. C Yorkville, S. C. 

Special Students 

Epperson, Wm. Sherman Forth Worth Univ Columbia, S. C. 

Shepard, Edwin M S. W. Presbyterian Univ New Orleans, La. 

Class of igi8 

Bailey, Henry McLelland Daniel Baker College Atlanta, Ga. 

Brown, James Walker Davidson College Clio, S. C. 



326 APPENDIX 

Davis, Augustus Lee Presb. College of S. C Robinson, Ga. 

Davis, Watson Emmett Presb. College of S. C Salters, S. C. 

Gibbs, Chas. Mitchell Davidson College Cornelia, Ga. 

Ingram, Archibald Clarence— S. W. Presbyterian Univ Mize, Miss. 

Swicord, Donald Augustus— University of S. C Climax, Ga. 

Zimmerman, Elias Austin College New York City 

Received Certificates 

Blackburn, John C University of S. C Columbia, S. C. 

Brown, Edward Sequard McDonough Institute Waycross, Ga. 

Downing, Wm. Alexander French Camp Academy West, Miss. 

Gardien, Roger Bacon .Ga. School of Technology Atlanta, Ga. 

Littlejohn, Angus Nuckles. Davidson College Jonesville, S. C. 

Patrick, Paul Dickson -Davidson College Greenville, S. C. 

Toomer, Arthur Prioleau Porter Military Academy Campobello, S. C. 

Belk, John Blanton Davidson College Charlotte, N. C. 

Gillespie, John Darrington Davidson College Florence, S. C. 

Iverson, Daniel University of Ga Savannah, Ga. 

Johnston, Wm. Hamilton University of S. C York, S. C. 

McDonald, Donald McLean_JDavidson College Carthage, N. C. 

Stephen, Walter Willison___.__Presb. College of S. C Oxford, Ala. 

Class of igig 

Hay, Frederick Jay Davidson College Liberty Hill, S. C. 

McGregor, John Rupert Davidson College Dillon, S. C. 

Miller, David Alvin Erskine College Rock Hill, S. C. 

Terrell, Irby D Presb. College of S. C College Park, Ga. 

Received Certificates 

Gardner, Jason Howard College Birmingham, Ala. 

Graham, Iverson Presb. College of S. C Clinton, S. C. 

Key, Alford Hal Comer, Ga. 

King, Lemuel David Covington, Ga. 

Special Students 

Attaway, D. H Brookland, S. C. 

Harrison, Wm. A Columbia, S. C. 

Hartley, Andrew. Columbia, S . C. 

Strickland, James H Brookland, S. C. 

Beall, Herbert Wharton Davidson College Mayesville, S. C. 

Cowain, Sidney S Rutgers College Charleston, S. C. 

Graham, Iverson Presb. College of S. C Clinton, S. C. 



APPENDIX 327 

Key, Alford Hal Comer, Ga. 

Swindelear, Jas. Lancelot -Newberry College Newberry, S. C. 

Turner, Robert P University of S. C Pageland, S. C. 

Class of IQ20 

Davis, John William S. \V. Presbyterian Univ Choudrant, La. 

Johnson, Wm. Henry South Carolina 

Martin, Louis Key University of Ga Athens, Ga. 

Offield, John Rutledge King College Emmett, Tenn. 

Robinson, Wm. Childs Roanoke College Columbia, S. C. 

Simpson, Richard Franklin— University of S. C Laurens, S. C. 

Received Certificates 

Brown, James Findley Ensley, Ala. 

Gillespie, John D Davidson College Effingham, S. C. 

Stevenson, Thos.McLelland-.-Statesville Male Academy Loray, N. C. 

Class of I Q2I 

Baker, Benjamin Wilfred S. W. Presbyterian Univ Selmer, Tenn. 

Belk, John Blanton Davidson College Montreat, N. C. 

Gillespie, Jas. T Davidson College Effingham, S. C. 

Woodson, Robert Singleton Presb. College of S. C McDonough, Ga. 

Received Certificates 

Allen, Charles Fredrick Davidson College, 

Johns Hopkins Univ Atlanta, Ga. 

Bird, Eldred H Davidson College Jackson, Miss. 

Clontz, Ralph Clayton Davidson College Unionville, N. C. 

Evans, Charles Stuart Presb. College of S. C Abbeville, S. C. 

Huneycutt, Wm. Jerome Davidson College Stanfield, N. C. 

Huneycutt, Quincy Newton..Davidson College Stanfield, N. C. 

Lack, Joseph Samuel University of S. C Mize, Miss. 

Class of IQ22 

Barber, Ernest Lowry Presb. College of S. C Rutherfordton, N. C. 

Beckman, L. Armstrong, Jr._.Presb. College of S. C McClellanville, S. C. 

Dendy, Henry Benson Davidson College Hartwell, Ga. 

Estes, Frank Bigham Presb. College of S. C South Carolina 

Miller, James Wm Davidson College North Carolina 



328 APPENDIX 

Received Certificates 

Campbell, Edward Stephen__.Maryville College Columbia, S. C. 

Davis, John Sidney Lebanon Univ. Gulfport, Miss. 

Mickel, Philip Alexander S. W. Presbyterian Univ Union Point, Ga. 

Utts, Lyle Douglas English Univ. and Johns Hopkins. .Davenport, Iowa 

Class of 1923 

Anderson, James Weldon S. C. Military Academy Lowryville, S. C. 

Batchelor, Alexander R Pittsburg Bible Institute and 

Presb. College of S. C Geneva, N. Y. 

Belk, George Washington University of S. C Montreat, N. C. 

Cobb, James Venner S. W. Presbyterian Univ -Weir, Miss. 

Foster, Harry Robert .Presb. College of S. C Westminster, S. C. 

Fulton, Samuel Hewitt Presb. College of S. C Darlington, S. C. 

Hay, Samuel Burney Davidson College Estill, S. C. 

Hudson, George China 

Jenkins, Chas. Reece Davidson College and 

Johns Hopkins Univ Charleston, S. C. 

Neville, Wm. Gordon Presb. College of S. C Clinton, S. C. 

Park, Russell White Presb. College of S. C Winnsboro, S. C. 

Taylor, Arthur T Presb. College of S. C Clinton, S. C. 

Williamson, Malcolm R Presb. College of S. C Lancaster, S. C. 

Woodson, Marshall Scott Presb. College of S. C Columbia, S. C. 

Received Certificates 

Ayers, Stephen Edward University of S. C Charleston, S. C. 

Stogner, Daniel Coppedge Davidson College Roberdell, N. C. 

Yandell, Benjamin F Moody Bible Institute Charlotte, N. C. 

Loven, R. E Davidson College Plumtree, N. C. 

Shannon, J. L University of N. C Gastonia, N. C. 

Stephens, W. F Washington and Lee Univ Charlotte, N. C. 

Stevenson, W. A Young Harris College Carnesville, Ga. 

Class of 1 924 

Alexander, Hasell Norwood-Davidson College Belmont, N. C. 

Beaty, Ernest Albert Davidson College Lancaster, S. C. 

Beaty, Walter K Moody Bible Institute Lancaster, S. C. 

Blake, Wm. Kennedy University of S. C Rock Hill, S. C. 

Brearley, Cecil DuBose University of S. C St. Charles, S. C. 

Copeland, Wm. Creecy Davidson College Rocky Mount, N. C. 

Dick, Anthony White Presb. College of S. C Oswego, S. C. 






APPENDIX 329 

Dickson, Robert Malcolm..— N. Ga. Agric. College Seneca, S. C. 

Dulin, Davidson Hafner Presb. College of S. C Bowling Green, S. C. 

Henderson, John Daniel Presb. College of S. C Little Rock, S. C. 

McMurray, Carl Walker Presb. College of S. C Lancaster, S. C. 

Received Certificates 

Dendy. Marshall Bertand University of S. C Hartwell, Ga. 

Dillard, Edgar Archer Presb. College of S. C Columbia, S. C. 

Langham. Frank Wyman United States Xavy Montgomery, Ala. 

McMahon, Albert E. S Tusculum College Columbia, S. C. 

Medlin, Connie Nathaniel Presb. College of S. C Unionville, N. C. 

Morris, Woodward Dale Cumberland Univ Memphis, Tenn. 

Polk, Lucius Eugene L^niversity of Tenn St. Louis, Mo. 

Smith, Wm. Theodore University of S. C Charlotte, N. C. 

Wilson. Charles Leroy Presb. College of S. C Florence, S. C. 

Bradshaw, L. B University of N. C Graham, N. C. 

Copeland, Wm. C Davidson College Wilmington, N. C. 

Teal, Lucas J Chesterfield Co., S. C 

Class of 1925 

Baker, Richard Thomas Young Harris College Danielsville, Ga 

Bryan, Thos. Claudius Hampden-Sydney College Birmingham, Ala 

Crawford, Vernon Allen The Citadel Georgetown, S. C 

Dendy, Samuel Wilkes Presb. College of S. C Seneca, S. C 

Douglas. Charles Kirkpatrick.Presb. College of S. C Columbia, S. C. 

Dulin, James Haskell Presb. College of S. C Clover, S. C. 

Hay, Theodore Beckett Presb. College of S. C Martins Point, S. C. 

LaMotte, Louis Cossitte Presb. College of S. C Columbia, S. C. 

McFall, Jas. Wm Ala. Pol. Institute Anderson, S. C. 

Piephoff, Clarence Eugene Presb. College of S. C Spartanburg, S. C. 

Smith, William Epps Presb. College of S. C Cades, S. C. 

Swetnam, Geo. Francis University of S. C Columbia, S. C. 

Swetnam, Walter Stafford University of S. C Columbia, S. C. 

Wood, Elmer Donovan Presb. College of S. C Valdosta, Ga. 

Wood, Ryan Lee Presb. College of S. C Valdosta, Ga. 

Wilson, Parks W Presb. College of S. C Due West, S. C. 

Received Certificates 

Coates, Edwin S Union Theological Sem Angier, N. C. 

Durant, Marion Aston Presb. College of S. C Alcolu, S. C. 

Elsberry, Arthur Tarrant University of S. C Marion, Ala. 

McGehee, Jas. Clayborne Roanoke College Charlotte Court House, Va. 



330 APPENDIX 

Mclnnis, Wm. Donald Presb. College of S. C Little Rock, S. C. 

White, Robert DuRant University of S. C —Sardinia, S. C. 

Wiggins, Birl Herman University of S. C Cuthbert, Ga. 

Doty, A. F S. C. Medical College Birmingham, Ala. 

Ellis, I. M Mercer Univ Chicago, 111. 

Leppard, L. D U. S. Naval Radio School Greenville, S. C. 

Class of IQ26 

Dendy, Marshall Coleman Presb. College of S. C Seneca, S. C. 

Hodges, Bob Shiver University of S. C Hodges, S. C. 

Porter, Wm. Salter Presb. College of S. C Georgetown, S. C. 

Received Certificates 

Bowles, Samuel Pressly Clemson College Jacksonville, Fla. 

Flanagan, John Arthur Presb. College of S. C Bowling Green, S. C. 

Meeks, Benjamin Alford University of S. C Pine Bluff, Ark. 

Neville, John Coffee Presb. College of S. C Clinton, S. C. 

Scott, Wm. Simpson Presb. College of S. C Columbia, S. C. 

Brannon, J. D Spartanburg Co., S. C. 

Gamble, W. A Davidson College Macon, Ga. 

Grier, Thomas F Erskine College Gastonia, N. C. 

Stauffer, Edison King College Buckingham, Va. 

Strickland, L. C Edgewood Schools Columbia, S. C. 

Class of 1927 

McMahan, Edgar Donald. Presb. College of S. C Piedmont, S. C. 

Mayes, Francis Borel Presb. College of S. C Winnsboro, S. C. 

Sloan, John Benson Davidson College Ninety Six, S. C. 

Received Certificates 

Alsworth, Robert Emmett. Chickasaw Junior College Purvis, Miss. 

Conyers, Joseph Watts Clemson College Timmonsville, S. C. 

Adams, James E Kinston, Ala. 

Hollingsworth, E. L Davidson College Atlanta, Ga. 

Hutchinson, J. F University of N. C Rockingham, N. C. 

Ward, J. B Vienna, Ga. 

Class of 1928 

Beckman, Eugene Griffin Presb. College of S. C McClellanville, S. C. 

Crofton,WalterMontgomery_.Rice Inst, and Union Theol. Sem — Memphis, Tenn. 
Cureton, Charles Furman Univ Pickens, S. C. 



APPENDIX 331 

Dendy, Wm. Harper Presbyterian College Hartwell, Ga. 

Dorn, Robert Clifton Olgethorpe Univ. and 

Princeton Theological Sem Atlanta, Ga. 

Hamilton, Chas.GrenvilleT—Berea College and Princeton Theol. Sem.__Berea, Ky. 

Johnston, John Knox Presbyterian College Chester, S. C. 

Lovell, Robert Plympton Emory Univ. and University of Ga. -Savannah, Ga. 

MacDonald, Malcolm A Presbyterian College Blackstock, S. C. 

Mclnnis, Angus Guy Southwestern Leakesville, Miss. 

Mcintosh, Claude Davidson Col. and Univ. of S. C — Charlotte, N. C. 

McRaney, Ralph Leon Southwestern Collins, Miss 

Richards, Jas. McDowell Davidson College, Princeton, 

and Oxford Univ Davidson, N. C. 

Wilson, Eugene Thomas -Presbyterian College Clinton, S. C. 

Received Certificates 

Arnold, Walter Daniel University of Ga Philomath, Ga. 

Luck, Angelo James College of Immaculate Conception— Asheville, N. C. 

Mansfield, Joseph Samuel Georgia 

Boss, R. D University of S. C Scranton, S. C. 

Gibbs, L. B Davidson College Commerce, Ga. 

Montgomery, R. W .University of S. C Bishopville, S. C. 

Moore, A. M Jones Co., Miss. 

Troth, H. H Vanderbilt Univ Williston, S. C. 

ClaSS of I Q2Q 

Alexander, Remus Legette Mississippi 

Bryan, Harry Haywood University of S. C Birmingham, Ala. 

Burney, Leroy Perry Davidson College Clarkston, S. C. 

Cartledge, Samuel Antoine___University of Ga Athens, Ga. 

Garrison, Joseph Marion Davidson College Covington, Ga. 

Gibbs, Leonard Burns Davidson College Commerce, Ga. 

Harvin, Stephen Thomas Presb. College of S. C Manning, S. C. 

Holland, Harry Keller Presb. College of S. C Savannah, Ga. 

Hooker, William Bernard Hampden-Sydney Edwards, Miss. 

Keller, Hal Cooper Presb. College of S. C Savannah, Ga. 

McFall, John Swilling, Jr. —Presb. College of S. C Anderson, S. C. 

McLeod, Wm. Lasater Elon College Broadway, N. C. 

Monk, Chester Franklin Davidson College Moultrie, Ga. 

Plexico, Joseph Lee Presb. College of S. C Sharon, S. C. 

Prince, Marcus Brown, Jr.—Presb. College of S. C.__ Anderson, S. C. 

Sanden, Oscar Emanuel Louisiana State Univ DeRidder, La. 



332 APPENDIX 

Seawright, Kenneth Cowin_.£rskine College Donalds, S. C. 

Simmons, John Preston _.S. W. Presbyterian Univ Pass Christian, Miss. 

Simpson, Alex. Mcllwain Presbyterian College Waxhaw, N. C. 

Simpson, John David University of S. C Columbia, S. C. 

Sistar, Wra. Clarence Presbyterian College Ft. Mill, S. C. 

Smith, Chas. Lawrence Presbyterian College Bennettsville, S. C. 

Smith, Thomas Art, M.D North Carolina 

Wallace, Thomas Francis Presbyterian College Heath Springs, N. C. 

Woods, F. D University of Chattanooga Harrodsburg, Ky. 

Yeargan, M. C Davidson College Buffalo, Ala. 

Received Certificates 

Avery, Melrose Selkirk Brunswick, Ga. 

Bryson, Jasper Wm Gray-Court Owings School Owings, S. C. 

Carleton, Lynn Wheeler Alabama 

Cooper, Wm. Creed Ala. Pol. Institute Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Gordon, Vance Asbury Atlanta Theological Sem Fayetteville, Tenn. 

Harris, Charles Jackson Presb. College of S. C Winder, Ga. 

Hyde, Donald Achilles Buchanan, Va. 

Allen, Robert James Greelyville, S. C. 

Bracey, John Welter Davidson College Rowland, N. C. 

Franklin, Forrest Treadw;elL_ Davidson College Atlanta, Ga. 

Hamilton, Charles G. T Princeton Theological Sem Homestead, Penna. 

Holler, A. Cornwell Wofford College Cornwell, S. C. 

Kennedy, Alexander George..Presb. College of S. C Blackstock, S. C. 

Mansfield, Joseph Samuel Cordele, Ga. 

Marlowe, Herman Oliver Bucksport, S. C. 

Class of 1930 

Bagnal, Isaac Moultrie Presb. College of S. C Manning, S. C. 

Linton, Wm. Alderman Korea 

McCarty, Chas. Raymond Davidson College Augusta, Ga. 

McCaskill, Ralph Emerson._..S. W. Presbyterian Univ Bainbridge, Ga. 

McClure, Chas. Goddard University of Tennessee Albany, Ga. 

Moore, Ansley Cunningham Emory Univ Atlanta, Ga. 

Neff, Elmer Earle Shenandoah College Long Glade, Va. 

Received Certificates 

Bridges, John Carl Earl, N. C. 

Hartsell, Winston Locusts, N. C. 

Kennedy, Alexander George South Carolina 



APPENDIX 333 

Kirckhoff, John Gilbert Atlanta Theological Sem Baltimore, Md. 

Lothry, Espy Franklin Cornelius, N. C. 

Lowe, Reginald Shaw Millsaps College Varden, Miss. 

McElroy, Frank Hamilton___ Asbury College Cuba, Ala. 

Nelson, William Ozi George Washington Univ Havana. Ark. 

Plexico, James Clyde Georgia 

Sanden, Oscar Emanuel, Jr Louisiana 

Sapp, Robert Vick Presb. College of S. C Jacksonville, Fla. 

Young, James Russell i Park Bible School, N. Y Decatur, Ga. 

Special Students 

Boyce, William Moore Erskine College Lancaster, S. C. 

Carleton, Lynn Wheeler Troy State Normal Columbiana, Ala. 

Darn, R. Clifton Oglethorpe Univ Atlanta, Ga. 

Davis, Augustus L .Presb. College of S. C . Robinson, Ga. 

Gordy, Wm. Percy Thadeus..Gordon, Barnsville, Ga Columbus, Ga. 

Miles, Edward Oscar Oglethorpe Univ Decatur. Ga. 

Wildsmith. Chas. Robt. Seay_. Birmingham-Southern Elyton, Ala. 

Class of 1 93 1 

Allen, Charles Frederick Georgia 

Alston, Wallace McPherson... Emory Univ Decatur, Ga. 

L'heureux, Henry Peter J Presbyterian College Chattanooga, Tenn. 

McElroy, Frank Hamilton Alabama 

Marshall, Peter Technical College, Scotland Birmingham, Ala. 

Mounger, Dwyn Milton Millsaps College Collins, Miss. 

Oakey. Rufus William Millsaps College Georgia 

Petersen, Harry Frederick, Jr. Davidson College Atlanta, Ga. 

Stewart. James Walton, Jr._._Ala. Pol. Inst, and Presb. College Atlanta. Ga. 

Thompson, Cecil Asbury University of Fla Gainesville, Fla. 

Received Certificates 

Cox, Archie Franklin Kentucky 

Metts, Lewis Belton University of S. C Blacksburg, S. C. 

Russell, Robert Young Presbyterian College Bullock, Creek. S.C. 

Williamson, Malcolm C Presbyterian College Hanover, S. C. 

Special Students 

Arlinton, H. Wm Presbyterian College Tbomasville, Ga. 

Clary, Ernest G. Union Theological Sem China Grove, N. C. 

Garrison, Pinckney Jefferson Davidson College Covington, Ga. 

Gregory, Wm. G Oglethorpe Business College Blackshear, Ga. 



334 APPENDIX 

Grissett, Finley McCarvey Ala. Pol. Inst Garland, Ala. 

Hawk, Ira Tapper University of Iowa Atlanta, Ga. 

Mclntyre, J. A Elberta, N. C. 

Miller, A. Hoyt Presbyterian College Carnesville, Ga. 

Piper, Fred S Washington and Jefferson Col Dry Run, Penn. 

Plexico, J. C.i Waynesboro, Ga. 

Stoddard, R. M Presbyterian College Lickville, S. C. 

Thrower, Paul P Davidson College Pineville, N. C. 

Williams, Calvin Brice Erskine College Atlanta, Ga. 

Class of 1932 

Campbell, Timothy Rogers ..Presbyterian College Hamer, S. C. 

Carter, James Daniel King College 1 Decatur, Ga. 

Grafton, Thomas Hancock— .Presbyterian College Hai Chow Ku, China 

Gregg, Alva Mayes Presbyterian College and 

Princeton Theological Sem Rock Hill, S. C. 

Johnson, Russell F Birmingham Southern College and 

Princeton Theological Sem Birmingham, Ala. 

Keels, John Theo. Nissen Presbyterian College Columbia, S. C. 

Long, Stewart Holderness .Davidson College Little Rock, S. C. 

MacQueen, Mack CarmichaeLDavidson College Little Rock, S. C. 

Nelson, James Boyce .University of Louisville Louisville, Ky. 

Ramage, Edward Vandiver.— .Davidson College Decatur, Ga. 

Russell, James Lewis Presbyterian College Sharon, S. C. 

Special Students 

Barrett, James H Atlanta Seminary . West Point, Ga. 

Bond, Bennie Lee Mercer Univ Lovett, Fla. 

Dean, A. Clarke University of Fla Coatesville, Penn. 

Foushee, Clyde Elon College Broadway, N. C. 

Jarman, Cecil Albert Atlantic Christian College Richlands, N. C. 

Mclnnis, William Massey Presbyterian College Lamar, S. C. 

Pruitt, Wm. Hoyt Presbyterian College Anderson, S. C. 

Shepherd, David W Elon College Elon College, N. C. 

Class of 1933 

Dickson, Bonneau Harris Camden, Miss. 

Floyd, Carlyle Devon Wampee, S. C. 

Gillespie, Richard Thomas Presbyterian College Decatur, Ga. 

Glasure, Alton Henley North Georgia College Commerce, Ga. 

Hazelwood, William James-J?resbyterian College Woodruff, S. C. 

Jackson, Walter Harvell Presbyterian College Muscogee, Fla. 

Kann, Herbert Ellis Hampden -Sydney College Harrisburg, Pa. 



APPENDIX 335 

Littleton, Rassic D La. Pol. Institute Chaudvant, La. 

McGee, J. Vernon Tennessee 

McQueen, John Wilber Presbyterian College Clio, S. C. 

Melton, John W Davidson College Decatur, Ga. 

Parnell, Stanford S. W. Presbyterian Univ Chaudvant, La. 

Russell, Henry Edward Davidson College Russell, Ga. 

Smith, John Raymond .Hampden-Sydney College Norfolk, Va. 

Spencer, James Grafton S. W. Presbyterian Univ Port Gibson, Miss. 

Stroud, Fred Arthur Lincoln College Taylorsville, 111. 

Wood, David Lorenzo Presbyterian College Valdosta, Ga. 

Received Certificates 

Agerton, Milard Dixon Wrens Institute Waynesboro, Ga. 

Aiken, Jefferson Kirksey Presbyterian College Sunset, S. C. 

McNair, John Moody S. W. Presbyterian Univ Clio, Ala. 

Potts, Warren Niles University of Miss Kosciusko, Miss. 

Stewart, Kenneth Mackenzie 

Special Students 

Cox, Archie F Birmingham Southern College Birmingham, Ala. 

Floyd, Carlyle Devon Presbyterian College Wampee, S. C. 

McCain, James Herndon Arkansas College Monticello, Ark. 

Rhodes, Elliott Richard Presbyterian College, Hemingway, S. C. 

Warren, Alex McLean Davidson College Allendale, S. C. 

Class of 1934 

Bashaw, William Niles University of Fla Gainesville, Fla. 

Dickson, John Butt Gettysburg College Gettysburg, Penn. 

Fleece, George Allen Washington and Lee Univ Louisville, Ky. 

Hand, Jack Guy Davidson College Charlotte, N. C. 

Jackson, Erskine Lewis Presbyterian College Marion, Ala. 

Landrum, Charles Logan Union Theological Sem Kenly, N. C. 

Love, James Erskine Davidson College Huntersville, N. C. 

Pruitt, William Hoyt Presbyterian College Anderson, S. C. 

Rhodes, Elliott Richard Presbyterian College Lake City, S. C. 

Riddle, George Lafayette Presbyterian College Clover, S. C. 

Sessions, Carroll Walker Presbyterian College McClellanville, S. C. 

Simpson, John Mecklin King College Winona, Miss. 

Williams, Laurence -Washington and Lee Univ Jacksonville, Fla. 

Special Students 

Fletcher, Clifford J Caterham College, England— -Queensland, Australia 

Nelson, Earl Lee Bryson College Jacksonville, Fla. 

Norris, Joe M Tulsa Univ Reform, Ala. 



336 APPENDIX 

McGee, J. Vernon S. W. Presbyterian Univ Hillsboro, Texas 

Talmage, John E .Maryville College Mokpo, Korea 

Talmage, William Samuel — Maryville College Atlanta, Ga. 

Class of 1935 

James, William Adolphus Moody Bible Institute Columbia, S. C. 

Letson, Clarence Lemuel Erskine College Atlanta, Ga. 

Mclnnis, William Massey Presbyterian College Red Springs, N. C. 

McMillan, Malcolm Cook___ _.S. W. Presbyterian Univ Stockton, Ala. 

Preer, George Thomas -Davidson Col. and University of Va.__Columbus, Ga. 

Robinson, Henry Seymour__„Davidson College- Lincolnton, N. C. 

Sloop, Stephen Jamison .Columbia Bible College Morgantown, N. C. 

Smith, Robert McNair Centenary College Shreveport, La. 

West, Charles Conner Presbyterian College Macon, Ga. 

Wilkinson, Edgar Bert .Davidson College Jacksonville, Fla. 

Special Students 

Bishop, Weston M Bowdon State College Mt. Zion, Ga. 

Ketchum, William Benjamin._Presbyterian College Anton, Ala. 

Stewart, Kenneth Mackenzie.Bangor Theological Sem Dundee, Scotland 

Class of 1936 

Boozer, David Eugene .Newberry College Newberry, S. C. 

Bradley, James Boyce Erskine College Clinton, S. C. 

Chapman, Homer Stevens Lincoln Memorial Univ. and 

University of Ga Covington, Ga. 

Colquitt, Llewellyn Brooks— Davidson College Columbus, Ga. 

Cotts, John Dangremond Hope College Holland, Mich. 

Daniel, Eugene Lewis Georgia School of Technology Atlanta, Ga. 

Frampton, William McLeodJPresbyterian College Charleston, S. C. 

Hamilton, Kenneth L Presbyterian College Spartanburg, S. C. 

Hough, Robert Spencer Millsaps College Jackson, Miss. 

Howard, John Robert Davidson College Atlanta, Ga. 

Hutton, Charlton Dobyns Millsaps College Jackson, Miss. 

Lemly, Robert Morrison Presbyterian College Jackson, Miss. 

Parker, Freeman Benson Presbyterian College Macon, Ga. 

Parker, Joseph Kenton, Jr — Davidson College Mt. Mourne, N. C. 

Pepper, Claude Gillespie, Jr.-.Presbyterian College Hamlet, N. C. 

Richards, John Edwards, Jr.-Davidson College Liberty Hill, S. C. 

Shafe, Charles Chamberlain._.South Georgia Teachers' College Atlanta, Ga. 

Special Students 
Blue, David Fairley Union Seminary Parkton, N. C. 



APPENDIX 337 

Hendley, Jesse M Montgomery, Ala. 

Donaldson, Roy Jefferson Atlanta, Ga. 

Pritchard, Claude H Union Seminary Blacksburg, Va. 

Class of 1937 

Barron, Narciso Gonzales Presbyterian College Columbia, S. C. 

Cox, Wm. Ellsbury -Milsaps College Jackson, Miss. 

DuPree, Robert B Erskine College Owings, S. C. 

Gregg, Moses Elmore Presbyterian College Florence, S. C. 

Morse, Frank Rogan Lincoln Memorial Univ Eatonton, Ga. 

Murphy, Marvin Thrasher-_XJniversity of Chattanooga Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Nelson, Raymond L Arkansas College Havana, Ark. 

Talmage, W. S Mary ville College Korea 

Taylor, Franklin Davidson College Atlanta, Ga. 

Special Students 

Arwood, Jesse Curtis Bob Jones College Atlanta, Ga. 

Dunn, Horace Horton Atlanta, Ga. 

Lowe, Wm. Vernon Millsaps College Vaiden, Miss. 

Mareau, Wm. Edward Union Theological Sem Fayetteville, W. Va. 

Class of 1938 

Arnold, Van M Presbyterian College Sylacauga, Ala. 

Boyd, Robert F College of Charleston Mt. Pleasant, S. C. 

Bradwell, Marion G Bob Jones College Bainbridge, Ga. 

Elmore, Leonard O Presbyterian College Rock Hill, S. C. 

Fite, Hugh S University of Miss Jackson, Miss. 

Graham, James E Presbyterian College Rock Hill, S. C. 

Jordan, Furman E Presbyterian College Whitmire, S. C. 

Lawter, Cecil B .Wofford College Spartanburg, S. C. 

McMichael, Jack B. E. Tex. Normal College Boligee, Ala. 

Magee, J. H Maryville College Mt. Olive, Miss. 

Nobitt, Albert S Duke University Marion, N. C. 

Rhodes, John Presbyterian College Cramerton, N. C. 

Smith, James R Maryville College Meridian, Miss. 

Stewart, William D University of Ga Athens, Ga. 

Storey, E. L., Jr Maryville College Mt. Olive, Miss. 

Talbot, A. A. Jr Bob Jones College Bowling Green, Ky. 

Underwood, Boyd B Presbyterian College Clinton, S. C. 

Walker, William Lowry Austin College Cleburne, Texas 

Special Students 
Nichols, Hoyle Gordon, Barnesville, Ga Macon, Ga. 



338 APPENDIX 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 



ADGER, JOHN B., D.D., My Life and Times, 1810-1899. Presbyterian Commit- 
tee of Publication, Richmond, Va., 1899. 

Alexander's Digest, Revised 1922. A Digest of the Acts and Proceedings of the 
General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States. Revised 
down to and including the acts of the General Assembly of 1922. By G. F. 
Nicolassen. Presbyterian Committee of Publication, Richmond, Va., 1923. 

Archives of the Seminary, Vol. I, Vol. II, Shelf 481, No. 14, 15. Quoted by 
W. C. Robinson, Columbia Theological Seminary and the Southern Presby- 
terian Church, 18 31- 1 931. 

ARKANSAS, SYNOD OF, Presbyterianism In Arkansas. Published by Synod, 1902. 

AUBREY, EDWIN EWART, Present Theological Tendencies. Harper 8 Brothers, 
New York, 1936. 

BARDWELL, JOSEPH, D.D., Memorial of Aaron Whitney Leland, D.D., in Semi- 
centennial Volume, p. 205. 

Biographical Catalog of Princeton Theological Seminary, quoted by Dr. S. M. 
Tenney, Curator of Historical Foundation, Montreat, N. C, in researches 
for this study. 

BLACKBURN, GEORGE A., D.D., The Life Work of John L. Girardeau, D.D., 

LL.D. The State Company, Columbia, S. C, 19 16. 
Bulletin of Columbia Theological Seminary. Issued from time to time from Co- 
lumbia, S. C, and Decatur, Ga. Quotations from July, 1 925 ; January, 1926; 

November, 1930; and February, 193 1. Student Roster compiled from file 

at Montreat, N. C, and records at Columbia Seminary. 
CHAPPELL, COLONEL ABSALOM H., Miscellanies of Georgia, quoted in Georgia 

Landmarks, Memorials and Legends. 
Christian Observer, Presbyterian Family Newspaper. Founded September 4, 18 13. 

Converse and Company, Louisville, Ky. 
CHESTER, S. H., D.D., Pioneer Days in Arkansas. Presbyterian Committee of 

Publication, Richmond, Va., 1927. 
CRAIG, D. I., D.D., A History of the Development of the Presbyterian Church in 

North Carolina and of Synodical Home Missions. Presbyterian Committee of 

Publication, Richmond, Va., 1907. 
CRAIG, E. M., Highways and Byways of Appalachia. Kingsport Press, Kingsport, 

Tenn., 1927. 



APPENDIX 339 

DAVIDSON, ROBERT, D.D., History of the Presbyterian Church in the State of 

Kentucky. New York, 1867. 
DAVIS, JEFFERSON, Speech before the Democratic State Convention, Jackson, 

Mississippi, July 6, 1859. Quoted by W. S. Jenkins, p. 206. 
Dawson's Digest, quoted in Georgia Landmarks, Memorials and Legends, Vol. II, 

p. 123. 

DUBOSE, HAMPDEN C, D.D., Memoirs of Rev. John Leighton Wilson, D.D., 
Missionary to Africa and Secretary of Foreign Missions. Presbyterian Commit- 
tee of Publication, Richmond, Va., 1895. 

ELLIOTT, STEPHEN (Bishop of Georgia), Address to the 39th Annual Conven- 
tion of the Diocese of Georgia, Savannah, 1861. Quoted by W. S. Jenkins, 
p. 218. 

FRASER, A.M., D.D., LL.D., Manuscript Memorial of Reverend Frank J. Brooke, 

D.D., prepared to be read before Synod of Virginia. Copy in possession of 

writer. 
General Catalogue of Union Theological Seminary in Virginia, 1 807-1924. 

Edited by Walter W. Moore, William R. Miller, and John A. Lacy, Richmond, 

Va., 1924. 

Centennial General Catalogue, 1807- 1907. Edited by Walter W. Moore and 
Tilden Scherer, Richmond, Va., 1907. 

Georgia Landmarks, Memorials and Legends. See Knight, L. L. 

GlLLAND, NELL FLINN, Article in The State (newspaper), Columbia, S. C, 
July 3, 1932. 

GOULDING, F. R., The Young Marooners on the Florida Coast, with introduc- 
tion by Joel Chandler Harris. Dodd, Mead and Company, New York, 193 1. 

GRAHAM, BOTHWELL, JR., A History of the Synod of South Carolina, in Our 
Monthly, Clinton, S. C, September-October, 1930. 

HASTINGS, JAMES, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. Quoted by E. E. Aubrey, 

P- 155. 
HAYS, GEORGE P., D.D., LL.D., Presbyterians, A Popular Narrative of Their 

Origin, Progress, Doctrines, and Achievements. New York, 1892. 

HODGE, CHARLES, D.D., Systematic Theology, three volumes. New York, 19 17. 

HOWE, GEORGE, D.D., LL.D., History of the Presbyterian Church in South 
Carolina, Vol. I, 1870; Vol. II, 1883. History of Columbia Theological 
Seminary, in Semi-Centennial Volume, p. 129. 

HOWELL, CLARK, History of Georgia. Chicago- Atlanta, 1926. 

HOWERTON, JAMES R., D.D., LL.D., The Church and Social Reforms Fleming 
H. Revell Co., New York and Chicago, 19 13. 



340 APPENDIX 

JACOBS, THORNWELL, M.A., LL.D., The Life of William Plumer Jacobs. Flem- 
ing H. Revell, Co., New York and Chicago, 191 8. 

The Oglethorpe Story, Oglethorpe University Bulletin, Vol. I, No. 8, July, 
19 1 6. Published by Oglethorpe University, Atlanta, Ga. 

JENKINS, WILLIAM SUMNER, Ph.D., Pro-Slavery Thought in the Old South. 
University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, N. C, 1935. 

JOHNSON, THOMAS CARY, D.&., LL.D., A History of the Southern Presbyterian 
Church. The Christian Literature Co., New York, 1894. 
The Life and Letters of Benjamin Morgan Palmer. Presbyterian Committee of 
Publication, Richmond, Va., 1906. 

JONES, F. D., D.D., and W. H. MILLS, D.D., History of the Presbyterian Church 
in South Carolina Since 1850. Published by the Synod of South Carolina. 
R. L. Bryan Co., Columbia, S. C, 1926. 

KNIGHT, LUCIUS LAMAR, Georgia Landmarks, Memorials, and Legends. Byrd 
Printing Co., Atlanta, Ga., 19 13-14. Three volumes. 

LANGTREY, WALTER M„ Stated Clerk Synod of Missouri, One Hundred Years, 
The Synod of Missouri, Presbyterian Church, U. S., 183 2- 193 2. Clayton, 
Mo., 1932. 

LATOURETTE, KENNETH SCOTT, A History of Christian Missions in China. The 
Macmillan Co., New York, 1929. 

Letters to the writer in answer to a questionnaire sent out to two members of 
each class before 1921 and to each alumnus. 

LINGLE, WALTER S., D.D., in Christian Observer, Feb. 19, 1936, p. 4. 

McELROY, ISAAC STUART, D.D., The Louisville Presbyterian Theological Semi- 
nary. The Presbyterian Standard Publishing Co., Charlotte, N. C, 1929. 

MALLARD, R. Q., D.D., Montevideo-Maybank. Presbyterian Committee of Pub- 
lication, 1898. 

MALONE, DUMAS, The Public Life of Thomas Cooper, 1783-1839. New 
Haven, 1926. 

Manuscript Diary of James Lyman Merrick, deposited with Curator of Docu- 
ments, Amherst College, Amherst, Mass. 

Manuscript Minutes of Hopewell Presbytery, on deposit Historical Foundation, 
Montreat, N. C. 

MARTIN, J. L., M.D., D.D., in debate before Synod of South Carolina, October, 
1884. Quoted by J. B. Adger, My Life and Times, p. 495. 

MEMMINGER, C. G., Lectures before the Young Men's Library Association of 
Augusta, Georgia, showing American slavery to be consistent with moral and 
physical progress of a nation, Augusta, 1851. 

MILLS, W. H., D.D. See F. D. Jones and W. H. Mills. 



APPENDIX 341 

MORRIS, S. L., D.D., An Autobiography. Presbyterian Committee of Publication, 

Richmond, Va., 1932. 
NEVIN, ALFRED, D.D., LL.D., Encyclopaedia of the Presbyterian Church in the 

United States of America: Including the Northern and Southern Assemblies. 

Philadelphia, 1884. Quoted in this study as Presbyterian Encyclopaedia. 
Ninety-First Session of the Synod of Georgia, A. L. Patterson, D.D., Stated 

Clerk, Savannah, Ga. 
PEARSON, ROBERT G., D.D., Life Sketches and Evangelistic Sermons of R. G. 

Pearson. Richmond Press, Richmond, Va. 
Presbyterian Banner, Pittsburg, Pa., July 31, 1862. Quoted by Lewis G. Vander 

Velde, p. 297. 
Presbyterian Encyclopaedia. See under Nevin, Alfred, D.D., LL.D. 
PALMER, BENJAMIN MORGAN, D.D., LL.D., The Life and Letters of James 

Henley Thornwell, D.D., LL.D. Richmond, 1875. 
Presbyterian Viewpoint. Published by Columbia Theological Seminary in Atlanta. 

Vol. I, No. 33, December 25, 1925. 
RALLS, MRS. G. T., Oklahoma Trails. Atoka Press, Atoka, Okla., 1927. 
RED, WILLIAM STUART, The Texas Colonists and Religion, 1821-36. E. S. 

Shettles, Publisher, Austin, Texas, 1924. A History of the Presbyterian 

Church in Texas. The Steck Co., Austin, Texas, 1936. 
REED, RICHARD CLARK, D.D., LL.D., Bulletin of Columbia Theological Semi- 
nary, March, 1922. 
RICHARDSON, DONALD W., D.D., Article A Great Heritage in Union Seminary 

Review, January, 1936. 
ROBINSON, WILLIAM CHILDS, M.A., Th.D., D.D., Columbia Theological Semi- 
nary and The Southern Presbyterian Church, A Study in Church History, 

Presbyterian Polity, Missionary Enterprise, and Religious Thought. Dennis 

Lindsey Printing Co., Inc., Decatur, Ga., 193 1. 

The Certainties of the Gospel. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, 

Mich., 1935. v 

RUSSELL, LEILA A., Alumnae Executive Secretary of Winthrop College, Rock 
Hill, S. C, in letter to writer, February 10, 1936. 

RUTHERFORD, MILDRED LEWIS (Chair of Literature, Lucy Cobb Institute, 

Athens, Ga.), The South In History and Literature. The Franklin-Turner 

Co., Atlanta, 1907. 
SEWARD, WILLIAM H., Autobiography quoted in Georgia Landmarks, Memorials 

and Legends, Vol. II, p. 123. 
SIMPSON, A. W., M.D., in letter to writer dated Washington, Ga., October 26, 

1932. 



342 APPENDIX 

SMITH, R. P., D.D., Experiences in Mountain Mission Work. Presbyterian Com- 
mittee of Publication, 1 93 i. 

Semi-Centennial Volume. Memorial Volume of the Semi-Centennial of the Theo- 
logical Seminary at Columbia, South Carolina. The Presbyterian Publishing 
House, Columbia, S. C, 1884. 

Southern Presbyterian, Religious Journal, June 29, 1876. 

Souvenir General Assembly, Charlottesville, Va. Souvenir presented in Compliment 
to George Laurens Petrie, the sole surviving attendant of that historic Assem- 
bly which gave birth to The Presbyterian Church in the United States, at 
Augusta, Georgia, in the year 1861, by The Executive Committee of Religious 
Education and Publication, Richmond, Va., May, 1930. 

STACY, JAMES, D.D., A History of the Presbyterian Church in Georgia. Westmin- 
ster Company, Atlanta, Press of Elbert on Star, 19 12. 

TENNEY, S. M., D.D., Souvenir of The General Assembly of The Presbyterian 
Church, U. S., The Presbyterian Historical Society of the Synod of Texas, 
U. S., May 15, 1924. Manuscript Sketch of Rev. Samuel Fisher Tenney, 
D.D., in possession of writer. 

The State, daily newspaper published in Columbia, S. C, by The State Company. 
Notes give dates. 

THOMPSON, E. T., Presbyterian Missions in the Southern United States. Presby- 
terian Committee of Publication, Richmond, Va., 1934. 

THORNWELL, JAMES HENLEY, D.D., LL.D., The Collected Writings of James 
Henley Thornwell, D.D., LL.D., late professor of Theology in the Theologi- 
cal Seminary at Columbia, South Carolina. Volumes I and II edited by John 
B. Adger, D.D. Volume III edited by John B. Adger, D.D., and John L. 
Girardeau, D.D. Presbyterian Committee of Publication, Richmond, Va., 
1889. 

Thornwellian, quarterly magazine published by students of Columbia Seminary, 
Vol. I, No. 1, dated October, 1929. 

Transactions of the Huguenot Society of South Carolina, No. 55. Published by 
order of the Society, Charleston, S. C, 1930. 

VANDER VELDE, LEWIS G., The Presbyterian Churches and the Federal Union, 
1 86 1-6 g. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1932. 

VOSS, LOUIS, D.D., The Beginnings of Presbyterianism in the Southwest. Pres- 
byterian Board of Publication of the Synod of Louisiana, New Orleans, 
La., 1923. 

Presbyterianism in New Orleans and Adjacent Points (1818-1930). Presbyter- 
ian Board of Publication of the Synod of Louisiana, 193 1. 



APPENDIX 343 

WADDELL, JOHN N., D.D., Ph.D., Memorials of Academic Life. Presbyterian 
Committee of Publication, Richmond, Va., 1891. 

WARD, WILLIAM HAYES, author of Memorial in Poems of Sidney Lanier, edited 
by his wife. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1920. 

WELLS, JOHN MILLER, D.D., LL.D., Southern Presbyterian Worthies. Presby- 
terian Committee of Publication, Richmond, Va., 1936. 

WHALING, THORNTON, D.D., LL.D., quoted in The Columbia Record, June 18, 
1924, a newspaper published in Columbia, S. C. 

White's Statistics, quoted from Georgia Landmarks, Memorials and Legends. 

Who's Who in America, the well-known biographical reference work. Editions 
mentioned in notes. 

WILSON, JOHN S., D.D., The Dead of the Synod of Georgia. Atlanta, Ga., 1869. 

WILSON, WOODROW, Selected Literary and Political Papers and Addresses of 
Woodrow Wilson. Grosset and Dunlap, New York, 1926. 

WOODBRIDGE, SAMUEL ISETT, Fifty Years in China. Being some account of 
the history and conditions in China and of the Missions of the Presbyterian 
Church in the United States there from 1867 to the present day. Presbyterian 
Committee of Publication, Richmond, Va., 19 19. 

WOODROW, JAMES, Evolution. An Address Delivered May yth, 1884, Before 
the Alumni Association of the Columbia Theological Seminary, by James 
Woodrow, Perkins Professor of Natural Science in Connexion with Revela- 
tion, in the Theological Seminary at Columbia, S. C. Presbyterian Publish- 
ing House, Columbia, S. C, 1884. 

WOODROW, MARION W., Dr. James Woodrow as Seen By His Friends. Character 
Sketches by His Former Pupils, Colleagues, and Associates. His Teachings as 
Contained in His Sermons, Addresses, Editorials, etc. Collected and Edited by 
His Daughter, Marion W. Woodrow. R. L. Bryan Co., Columbia, S. C, 1909. 



INDEX 



Abbeville, S. C, 23. 

Abingdon, Presbytery of, 24 

Abolitionists, 88, 262. 

Academic life, 115, 222. 

Academic life and physical equip- 
ment, 188. 

Academies, 28. 

Adams, J. M. H., 56, 72, 1 16. 

Adams, Robert, 161. 

Address to all the Churches of Jesus 
Christ throughout the Earth, 139. 

Address to public, 10, 34. 

Adger College, 163. 

Adger, J. B., 49, 79, 87, 98, ill, 115, 
116, 121, 125, 128, 135, 143, 
146, 147, 165, 169, 207, 252. 

Agassiz, Louis, 113. 

Agerton, M.D., 235. 

Aiken, George, 23. 

Alabama Presbyterian College, 181. 

Alabama Presbytery of A. R. P. 
Church, 152. 

Alabama, Synod of, 115. 

Alert, U. S. S., 86. 

Alexander, Addison, 1 1 1 . 

Alexander, Archibald, 30, 69. 

Alexander, H. N., 232. 

Alexander, J. H., 161. 

Alexander, R. L., 234. 

Alexander, S. C, 123. 

Alexander, W. McF., 236. 

Allegheny Seminary, 31, 144. 

Allen, C. F., 232. 

Allison Creek Church, 56. 

Allyn, H. S., 205. 

Alston, W. M., 221, 235. 

Alumni, 148. 

Alumni Sharing Fund, 230. 

American Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign Missions, 93. 

Amherst College, 52, 70, 73, 81, 106. 

Anderson, B. R., 195. 

Anderson, John, 30. 

Anderson, J. P., 194. 

Anderson, Neal L., 225. 

Anderson, R. B., 119, 123. 

Andover Theological Seminary, 10, 30, 
42, 64, 70, 106, no. 

Anson Street Church, 145. 

Anti-Lottery League, 108, 213. 

Anti-Lottery Speech, 142. 

Anti-Opium League, 171. 



Aquinas, Thomas, 248. 
Archives of Seminary, 34. 
Arkansas College, 123, 161. 
Asiatic Society of Japan, 85. 
Assembly of 1861 (U.S.A.). 133. 
Associate Reformed Presbyterian 

Church, 152. 
Association for Religious Instruction of 

the Negroes, 49. 
Athens Banner, 239. 
Athens, Ga., 35. 
Atkinson, W. R., 161. 
Atlanta Convention, 138. 
Auburn Seminary, 30. 
Augusta Assembly, 138. 
Austin College, 123, 182, 194. 
Austin Seminary, 160. 
Axson, I. S. K., 59, 61, 106, 123, 

141, 148. 
Axson, S. E., 59 

B 

Bacon, Roger, 245. 

Bagnal, I. M., 235. 

Baird, J. R., 166. 

Baker, Daniel, 62, 98, 121. 

Baker, R. M., 61. 

Baker, R. T., 233. 

Baltimore Assembly, 212. 

Baltimore Literary and Religious 

Magazine, 69. 
Bancroft, 22. 
Banks, A. R., 57, 65. 
Banks, F. L., 194. 
Banks, H. H., 140. 
Banks, William, 58, 122, 140. 
Banner of the Cross, The, 65. 
Barber, E. L., 232. 
Barhamville Female Institute, 66, 75 
Barium Springs Home, 199, 202. 
Barr, J. A., 1 19. 
Barr, J. S., 117. 
Barr, W. H., 33. 
Bartlett, T. J. L., 68. 
Bashaw, W. N., 235. 
Bassett, Nathan, 19. 
Bateman, T. D., 198. 
Batchelor, A. R., 232. 
Baxter, Richard, 9 1 . 
Bean, W. S., 121, 159, 160. 
Beattie, F. R., 174, 190. 
Beatty, James, 148. 
Beaufort, S. C., 15. 



346 



INDEX 



Beckett, T. A., 199. 

Beckman, E. G., 234. 

Beecher, Henry Ward, 70. 

Beginnings of Civilization in Columbia 

Seminary Territory, 15. 
Belk, G. W., 232. 
Belk, J. B., 231. 
Beman, C. P., 28, 260, 262. 
Beman, N. S. S., 32, 52, 68, 258, 

260, 261. 
Bethel Pon Pon Church, 90. 
Bethesda Orphanage, 27. 
Beth-Salem Church, Ga., 24, 38. 
Biblical Repertory, 6g. 
Black, Malcolm, 193. 
Blackburn, D. A., 195. 
Blackburn, George, 202. 
Blackwell, D. J., 196. 
Blakely, H. B., 220. 
Blanding, Col. Abraham, 36. 
Board question, The, 69, 165. 
Boggs, D. C, 1 19. 
5, G. W., 62. 
5, W. E., 148, 173, 189, 208, 

210. 
Bolls, John, 25. 

Book of Church Order, 165, 178. 
Bourne, G. T., 195. 
Bowles, S. P., 234. 
Bowman, James, 25. 
Boy Company, The, 153. 
Boyce, James, 148. 
Boyd, R. W., 203. 
Bradshaw, F. A., 197. 
Branch, J. B., 197. 
Brainerd, David, 72. 
Brantley, J. T., 225, 228. 
Brearley, C. D., 232. 
Brearley, H. M., 140. 
Breckinridge, R. J., 128. 
Brimm, D. J., 176, 191. 
Brooke, F. J., 149. 
Brown College, 26. 
Brown, John, 258, 261. 
Brown, J. C, 59, 61. 
Brown, S. R., 64, 80. 
Bryan, H. H., 205, 234. 
Bryan, Joseph, 262. 
Bryan, T. C., 233. 
Bryan, Mrs. T. S., 226. 
Bryan, W. S. P., 158. 
Bryson, J. H., 146. 
Buchanan, President, 131. 
Buist, George, 28. 
Bull, John, 116. 



Burkhead, J. D., 119. 
Burwell, H. W., 194. 
Butler, J. T., 205. 
Buttolph, D. L., 117. 
Byrd, Milton, 136. 
Byrd, S. C, 176, 179, 202. 



Caldwell, J. L., 157. 

Calhoun, John C, 126. 

Calvinism, 250. 

Cambridge College, 27. 

Campbell, E. S., 232. 

Campbell, Hall, 227. 

Campbell, J. B., 225, 227. 

Cape Palmas, 78. 

Carlton, M. M., 124. 

Carmichael, H. C, 199. 

Carmichael, P. H., 221. 

Carolinas, The Synod of the, 20, 25, 

26, 28. 
Carpetbag government, 152. 
Carter, H. C, 61. 
Cartledge, G. H., 60, 64, 220. 
Cartledge, S. A., 220, 234. 
Cartledge, S. J., 194, 220, 225. 
Cater, Edwin, 66. 
Cater, R. B., 33, 34. 
Cates, A. R., 200. 

Catholic Congregation, S. C, 23, 58. 
Centennial, 227. 
Centre College, 29, 123. 
Central Presbyterian, 122. 
Certainties of the Gospel, The, 254. 
Chandler, A. E., 61. 
Chandler School of Theology, 228. 
Chapel, The, 149, 165, 181, 201, 202, 

228. 
Chaplain, 139, 140, 145, 199, 200. 
Charleston, S. C, 15, 16 (2), 145. 
Charleston College, 27 (2), 54, 114, 

145. 
Charleston, First Church, 19 (2). 
Charleston Minute Men, 145 (2). 
Charleston Observer, 72. 
Charleston, Presbytery of, 19. 
Charleston Union Presbytery, 34, 68. 
Charter, 54, 225. 
Cheraw Academy, no. 
Chester, S. H., 168. 
Chicora, 15, 161, 179, 202. 
Children's Missionary, The, 159. 
China, 124. 

Chinese Christian Intelligencer, 167. 
Church, The, 12. 









INDEX 



347 



Church of Christ in Japan, The, 85. 
Church of England, The, 15, 16. 
Church and Social Reform, The, 252. 
Church Extension and Evangelism, 55, 

151, 152, 192, 231, 239, 257. 
Church Organization, 137, 164, 231. 
Church Union, 152 (2). 
Clark, Melton, 187, 196, 202. 
Classical, Scientific, and Theological 

Seminary of the South, 33. 
Clay, Henry, 126. 
Clay compromise, 126. 
Clayman, R. F., 199. 
Cleveland, T. P., 156. 
Closing of Seminary, 190. 
Clyce, T. S., 194. 
Cobb, J. V., 232. 
Coble, C. P., 197. 
Cohen, James, 115. 
Coligny, Admiral, 15. 
Coker, J. E., 198. 
Colored Evangelization, 44, 49, 50, 

79, 102, 125, 127, 145, 169, 170, 

204, 239. 
Colton, J. H., 124. 
Columbia, S. C, 35, 36, 75, 115. 
Columbia Theological Seminary, 29, 

225, 238. 
Columbia University, 26. 
Committee on Country Church Work, 

239. 
Concord Presbyterian Church, no. 
Concord, Presbytery of, 24, 26. 
Confederate States, 130. 
Constitution, The, 129, 262. 
Constitution of Columbia Seminary, 

35, 190. 
Controversies, 146. 
Conyers, J. W., 234. 
Cooper Institute, 184. 
Cooper, Thomas, 35, no. 
Cornelson, G. H., 195. 
Cotts, J. D., 221. 
Country minister, 239. 
Cousar, J. A., 1 16. 
Covert, W. C, 237. 
Cozby, J. S., 184. 
Craig, D. I., 148, 160. 
Craig, J. N., 156, 163, 203. 
Crawford, V. A., 205, 233. 
Crisis Theology, 250. 
Crucifer, 160. 
Cudlipp, J. H., 221. 
Cumberland Presbyterian Church, 29, 

136, 186. 



Cumberland University, 29, 186. 
Cummins, Francis, 258. 
Cunningham, H. B., 121, 123. 
Cureton, Charles, 234. 
Currie, J. W., 200. 
Curry, A. B., 157, 160, 227. 
Curtis, Wm„ 65. 



Dabney, Robert L., 209. 

Damn, R. D., 205. 

Danforth, J. A., 124. 

Dana, W. C, 59, 64, 68. 

Daniel, Eugene, 157. 

Daniels, Josephus, 185. 

Darien, Ga., 24, 92. 

Dartmouth, 26 ,42, 54, 261. 

Darwin, Charles, 113, 207. 

Davidson College, 27, 35, 54, 153, 

176, 195- 
Davidson, Gen. William, 27. 
Davies, A. L., 119. 
Davies, S. W., 205. 
Davis and Elkins College, 153. 
Davis, Jefferson, 89, 108, 130. 
Davis, J. W. F 178, 201. 
d'Ayllon, Lucas Vasquez, 15. 
Day of rest, 183. 
Deacons, 165. 
Decatur, Ga., 226. 
De La Howe, 197. 
Dendy, H. B., 232. 
Dendy, Joseph T., 196. 
Dendy, M. B., 233. 
Dendy, M. C, 234. 
Dendy, S. W., 233. 
DeVeaux, Thomas L., 122. 
Development of Education, 21, 26. 
Development of Mission Presbyteries, 

22. 
Dialectical Theology, 250. 
Dick, A. W., 232. 
Dickinson College, 26. 
Dickson, B. H., 235. 
Dillard, E. A., 233. 
Directory of Worship, 165. 
Donnelly, Samuel, 66, 122. 
Douglas, C. K., 233. 
Douglas, D. M., 163, 196. 
Douglas, James, 163. 
Douglas, John, 68, 75, j6, 140. 
Dream, A, 211. 
Dred Scott decision, 126. 
DuBose, Hampden C, 80, 159, 166, 

171. 



348 



INDEX 



DuBosc, P. C, 205. 

DuBose, P. W., 200. 

Dulin, D. H., 233. 

Dulin, J. H., 233. 

Duncan's Creek Church, 23, 24. 

Dunlop, William, 16. 

Dunwoody, J. B., 116. 

DuRant, M. A., 233. 



Early Presbyterians, 19. 

Early Settlers in Carolina, 23. 

Edinburgh, Presbytery of, 19. 

Edisto Island, 169. 

Education, 160, 201, 231. 

Educational progress, 26. 

Edwards and Say ward, 226. 

Egerton, A. M., 66, 77. 

Elder question, 69. 

Elders, 165. 

Eliot, John, 89. 

Eliott, Stephen, 98. 

Ellis, W. T., 237. 

Emerson, W. C 86. 

Emory University, 228. 

Endowment, 32, 34, 54, 147, 148, 
149, 171, 188, 190, 191, 192, 
228, 230, 231, 259, 260. 

English, T. R., 160, 161. 

Epstein, A. H., 115. 

Erdman, C. R., 237. 

Estes, F. B., 232. 

Evangelist, -ism, 184, 192, 231. 

Evolution Controversy, 189, 201, 
206. 

Ewart, James, yj. 



Fairforest, 23. 

Fayetteville, Presbytery of, 26. 
Finley, Robert, 79, 256, 258, 261. 
First Century Christian Fellowship, 

251. 
First Presbytery, 20. 
Fisher, Hugh, 1 9. 
Fishing Creek, 23. 
Fitch, Augustus, 76. 
Flinn, H. W., 158. 
Flinn, J. W., 159, 161. 
Flinn, R. O., 195, 202. 
Flinn, William, 65. 
Fogartie, J. E., 158, 161. 
Fort Sumter, 131. 
Foster, G. R., 124. 
Foster, H. R., 232. 



Foster, J. S., 222. 

Francis of Assisi, 245. 

Franklin College, 29. 

Fraser, A. M., 160, 161, 191, 227, 

237. 
Fraser, Donald, 76, 161. 
Fraser, M. D., 61, 68. 
Freedman's Bureau, 145. 
Freedman's church, 170. 
Freedmen, 152, 168, 169. 
Frierson, D. E., 61, 116. 
Frierson, E. O., 116. 
Frierson, S. R., 66. 
Fulton, C. D., 199, 205, 206, 238. 
Fulton, S. H., 232. 
Fulton, S. P., 205, 206. 
Fun, Wong, 83. 



Gabon River, 78, 93. 

Gaillard, S. S., 61. 

Gallaudet, S. H., 120. 

Garner, J. S., 200. 

Garrison, J. M., 234. 

General Assembly, 20, 24. 

Georgia, 90. 

Georgia Educational Society, 32, 261. 

Georgia Medical College, 114. 

Georgia, Presbytery of, 26. 

Georgia, Synod of, 70. 

Georgia, University of, 54. 

Gibbs, L. B., 234. 

Gildersleeve, Benjamin, 72. 

Gilland, J. R., 62, 66. 

Gilleland, James, 98. 

Gillespie, J. T., 232. 

Gillespie, R. T., 198, 228, 235, 242. 

Ginn, I. M., 158. 

Girardeau, J. L., 49, 63, 65, 97, 125, 

144 (2), 145, 146, 148, 165, 170, 

189, 190, 206. 
Glade Valley High School, 195. 
Goetchius, G. T., 157. 
Goodland Indian Orphanage, 203. 
Goulding, F. R., 61, 63, 66, 74. 
Goulding, Thomas, 32, 35, 36, 37, 

38, 40, 43, 61, 70, 71, 74, 148. 
Government, Duty to, 134, 135. 
Grafton, C. W., 157, 161. 
Grafton, T. H., 221. 
Grassey Spring, 23. 
Gray Fund, Martha Waddel, 147. 
Gray, W. A., 57, 140. 
Great Revival of 1800, 24, 25. 
Green, E. M., 120, 165. 



INDEX 



349 



Green, J. B., 216. 
Greene, Matthew, 118. 
Gregg, A. M., 235. 
Gregg, F. W., 196. 
Greenville College, 26. 
Gresham Scholarship, 147. 
Griffin, Geo. O., 198. 
Griffis, W. E., 80. 
Griffiths, T. W., 198. 
Grissett, F. M., 200, 205. 
Grove Institute, 195. 
Gullah Negroes, 145. 
Gwinnette Institute, 57. 

H 
Hall, Ansley, 36. 
Hall, James, 25. 
Hall, J. G., 166. 
Hall, W. T., 119, 176. 
Haman, T. L., 159. 
Hamiter, W. S., 195. 
Hampden DuBose Academy, 200. 
Hampden-Sydney, 26, 29, 144. 
Hampton, Wade, 171. 
Hand, Jack G., 235. 
Hannah, J. E., 198. 
Hanover College, 29. 
Hanover, Presbytery of, 26. 
Hanover Seminary, 31. 
Harris, Joel Chandler, 63. 
Harris, W. F., 197. 
Harrison, Douglass, 116, 122. 
Harry, W. G., 201. 
Hartman, F. G., 225. 
Harvard, 21, no. 
Harvin, S. T., 234. 
Hay, F. J., 199. 
Hay, John R., 199. 
Hay, S. B., 199, 232. 
Hay, S. H., 198, 199 (2). 
Hay, T. P., 199, 233. 
Hays, Geo. P., 99. 
Hazelwood, W. J., 235. 
Headship of Christ, 138. 
Hebron Church, 38. 
Hell, 177. 
Hemphill, C. R., 146 (2), 159, 161 

1 89, 2 10. 
Hendee. Homer, 61, 66, 123. 
Henderlite, J. H., 195. 
Henderson, J. D., 233. 
Henderson, L. G., 195. 
Hepburn, J. C, 85. 
Heron, Robert. 18. 
Hersman, C. C, 173, 190. 



Hodge, Charles, 134. 

Hodges, B. S., 234. 

Hoge, Moses, 29. 

Holland, H. K., 234. 

Hollingsworth, G. M., 198. 

Hollingsworth, W. F., 195. 

Holmes, Z. L., 61, 116. 

Home Missions, 57. (See Missions and 

Church Extension.) 
Hong Kong, 82. 
Hood, Frazer, 237. 
Hooper, W. O., 225. 
Hope, S. A., 205. 
Hopewell, Presbytery of, 24, 26, 28, 

31, 32, 256. 
Houston, J. L. D., 158. 
Howe, George, 41, 42, 43, 51, 63, 64, 

68, 72, 96, 98, 107, 112, 143, 

146, 147, 148 (2), 149, 189, 219, 

256. 
Howe Memorial Fund, 148. 
Howe, Mrs. George, 140. 
Howell, Frank M., 157. 
Howerton, J. R., 193, 204, 214, 252. 
Hoyt, S. B., 200. 
Hoyt, T. A., 60, 116. 
Hudson, Geo., 205, 
Hughes, William L., 66. 
Huguenots, 16. 
Humphrey, William, 27. 
Huneycutt, Q. N., 232. 
Hunter, W. M., 195. 
Hutchison, W. S., 200. 
Hutton, J. B., 236. 
Hutton, M. C, 159. 
Huyler, John S., 214. 

I 

Independent Church in S. C, 152. 

India, 124. 

Indians, 18, 22, 25, 57, 72, 124, 166, 
203, 240. 

Ingersoll, Bob, 1 84. 

Integration, 69. (See Southern Integra- 
tion.) 

Interchurch, 198. 

In thesi deliverances, 207. 

Ireland, 20, 23. 

Iverson, Daniel, 201. 



Jacksonboro, S. C, 96. 
Jacobs, Ferdinand, 112. 
Jacobs, J. F., 121, 194. 



350 



INDEX 



Jacobs, W. P., 123, 139, 148, 159, 

162. 
Jacobs, W. S., 122, 195, 203. 
James, A. A., 116. 
James Island, 145. 
James, Robert, 78, 79. 
Japan, 204. 

Jefferson College, 104, 113, 144. 
Jefferson, Thomas, 92. 
Jenkins, C. keece, 205, 232. 
Jessup, Charles Jessup Scholarship, 147. 
John Brown raid, 126. 
Johns Hopkins, 146. 
Johnson, A. L., 198. 
Johnson, D. B., 201. 
Johnson, J. J., 158. 
Johnson, Josephus, 1^57, 160. 
Johnson, R. F., 222. 
Johnson, T. C, 157. 
Johnston, Col. Wm. Preston, 213. 
Johnston, J. Knox, 205. 
Jones, C. C, 49, 61, 87 (2), 91, 

102, 125. 
Jones, F. D., 197. 
Jones, John, 6 1. 
Jonesboro Female College, 174. 

K 

Kennedy, A. R., 157, 160. 

Kennedy, J. C, 119, 167. 

Kentucky, Presbytery of, 152. 

Kentucky, Synod of, 152. 

Kerr, E. D., 187, 198. 

Ketchum, R. C, 61. 

Key, A. H., 201. 

King College, 174, 177. 

King, L. D., 201. 

Kirckhoff, J. G., 235. 

Knights of the White Camelia, 168. 

Knox College, 174. 

Ku-Klux, 152, 168. 

Kyle, M. G., 237. 



Lacy, Benjamin, 225. 
Ladson, George W., 168. 
Laggan, Presbytery of, 20. 
Land, J. S., 200. 
Landrum, C. L., 235. 
Lane Seminary, 31, 186. 
Lanier, Sidney, 113. 
Lanneau, B. E., 114, 121 
Lapsley, R. A., 159. 
Las Casas, Bishop, 89. 



Latimer, J. F., 161. 

Latimer, R. M., 194. 

Laurensville Female Seminary, 122. 

Law, Mrs. Agnes, 115. 

Law, Rom., 77. 

Law, T. H., 120, 140, 148. 

Laws, S. S., 176. 

Lebanon Seminary, 184. 

LeConte, William, 167. 

Lee, General G. W. Custis, 153. 

Lee, General Robert E., 153. 

Legare, I. S. K., 61, 65, 132. 

Leland, A. W., 47, 48, 68, 75, 77, 

148. 
Lemmon, J. M., 200. 
Lexington, Ga., 35, 37, 38, 226. 
Leyburn, E. R., 225. 
Leyburn, John, 59. 
Liberia, 79. 

Library, 54, 116, 192, 231. 
Ligon, J. F., 199. 
Limestone Female Seminary, 65. 
Lincoln, Abraham, 131, 132. 
Linton, W. A., 205. 
Literature and Thought Life, 158, 231. 
Little River Church, 24. 
Livingston, J. H., 30. 
Long Canes, 23. 
Long, Isaac J., 123. 
Loughridge, A. J., 117. 
Louisiana Lottery, 213. 
Louisville Theological Seminary, 146, 

174, 186, 203. 
Lowry, T. M., 188. 
Lucy Cobb Institute, 195. 
Lumpkin, Joseph H., 203. 
Lyons, J. Sprole, 225, 228, 236. 
Lyons, J. Sprole, Jr., 200. 

M 
Macao, 82. 

Macdonald, M. A., 234. 
Machen, J. G., 237. 
Mack, J. B., 140, 148, 149, 192, 

207, 208. 
Magruder, Thomas, 63, 68. 
Makemie, Francis, 20, 194. 
Mallard, J. B., 66, 123. 
Mallard, R. Q., 118, 159. 
Manumission, 10, 96. 
Marion, J. P., 197. 
Markham, T. R., 118, 139. 
Marks, E., 75, yj. 
Mary Allen Seminary, 239. 
Mary Baldwin College, 161. 



INDEX 



351 



Maryville College, 29, 30. 

Marshall, Peter, 235. 

Martin, Alexander, 196. 

Martindale, C. O'N., 194. 

Mason, J. M., 30. 

Mather, Cotton, 89. 

Matheson, R. G., 195. 

Maury, C. H., 194. 

Maxwell Farm School, 193. 

Mayes, F. B., 234. 

McAden, Hugh, 22. 

McAlpine, R. E., 204. 

McBryde, T. L., 86. 

McCartee, D. B., 82, 87. 

McCarter, J. R., 57. 

McCaule, T. H., 27. 

McConnell, T. M., 160. 

McCormick, Cyrus, 126. 

McCormick, R. W., 119. 

McCormick, W. J., 118. 

McCormick Seminary, 3 1 . 

McCully, C. W., 198. 

McCutchen, L. O., 205. 

McDowell, W. A., 40, 44, 50. 

McEachern, John, 205. 

McEachern Memorial, Peter G., 226. 

McFall, J. S., 235. 

McFall. J. W., 233. 

McFarland, Francis, 138. 

McGill, A. T., 104, 118. 

McGill, S. W., 219, 225. 

McGregor, J. R., 201. 

Mcllwain, W. E., 160, 202. 

Mclnnis, A. G., 234. 

Mclnnis, Neil, 200. 

Mclnnis, W. D., 233. 

Mclnnis, W. M., 236. 

Mclntyre, D. E., 140. 

McKay, Neill, 59, 64. 

McKinley, Carlyle, 160. 

McKinnon, J. B., 140. 

McKinnon, Luther, 162. 

McKnight, W. J., 118, 123. 

McLaughlin, H. W.. 221, 239. 

McLees, Robert, 140. 

McLeod. Bunyan, 197. 

McMurray, C. W., 233. 

McMurray, J. A., 198. 

McNair, L. E., 236. 

McNeill. C. C, 219. 

McPheeters, C. A., 196. 

McPheeters. W. M., 174, 190, 191, 

218, 227, 230, 242. 
McQueen, Donald, 59, 121. 
McQueen, J. W., 235. 



McSween, John, 176, 199. 

Mecklin, J. A., 161, 163. 

Meiji Gaku-in, 85. 

Melton, J. W., 235. 

Memphis, Presbytery of, 138. 

Mennonites, 91. 

Merger, 55. 

Merrick, J. L., 43, 51, 52, 70. 72, 

73» 87, 147. 
Miami University, 176. 
Middlebury College, 54, 261. 
Midway, Ga., 24, 28, 40, 49, 50, 102. 
Miller, A. E., 197- 
Miller, A. L., 157. 
Miller, A. W., 60. 
Miller, Hoyt, 205. 
Million Dollar Campaign, 192. 
Mills, Robert, 37, 149. 
Mills, W. H., 196, 213. 
Mills, W. P., 205. 
Miracles, 191. 

Missionary Journeys, 22, 24, 25. 
Missionary Society of the Synod of 

South Carolina and Georgia, 33, 72. 
Missionary, The, 159, 167. 
Missions, Domestic, 156. 
Missions, Foreign, 70, 75, 76, 78, 80, 

124, 156, 159, 165, 178, 187, 

188, 197, 199, 200, 204, 238. 
Missions, Home, 152. 
Mississippi and Alabama, Synod of, 26. 
Mississippi, Presbytery of, 26. 
Mississippi, Synod of, 225. 
Mississippi Visitor, 161. 
Missouri Compromise, 44. 
Missouri, Synod of, 152. 
Missouri Synodical College, 196. 
Mitchell College. 195. 
Moderators of Assemblies, 264. 
Modernism, 247. 
Modern Play of Julius Caesar, The, 

211. 
Monroe, H. A., 6 1. 
Montgomery, J. N., 205. 
Montgomery. T. F., 66. 140. 
Montgomery. W., 25. 
Montreat, 186, 193, 214. 
Montreat College. 214. 
Monk. C. F.. 235. 
Monson. Mass.. 73, 80, 86. 
Moody, D. L.. 185. 
Moore. A. C, 235. 
Moore. J. S., 1 57. 
Moore, J. W., 147. 
Moore. W. H., 61. 



352 



INDEX 



Morris, S. L., 146, 148, 156, 160, 
163, 209, 212, 221, 228, 237, 
238, 240. 

Morrison Education Society, 8 1 . 

Morrison, Robert, 8 1 . 

Morrow, R. O. B., 158. 

Mounger, D. M., 221. 

Mountain Orphanage, 193. 

Mt. Pleasant, S. C, 78. 

Mt. Zion College, S. C, 27. s 

Mt. Zion, Ga., 32, 256. 

Mt. Zion Society, 27. 

Muller, Edwin, 203. 

Murchison, H. R., 188. 

N 
Nacoochee Institute, 196. 
Nail, J. H., 120. 
Natchez Country, 25. 
Naturalism, 246. 
Naturalistic theism, 247. 
Nazareth congregation, 23. 
Need for Ministers, 20, 21, 24, 29, 

30, 33- 
Neel, S. M., 157. 
Neo-Thomism, 248. 
Neville, W. G. (Sr. and Jr.), 160, 

161, 205, 232. 
Newberry College, 163. 
New Brunswick Seminary, 30. 
New Hope Church, 38. 
News and Observer, Raleigh, N. C, 

185. 
New School (party and church), 28, 

55, 66, 104, 143, 144, 164, 260, 

262. 
Newton, Ebenezer, 38. 
Newton, Henry, 60. 
Newton, John, 24, 38. 
Newton, Thomas, 38. 
New York and New Jersey, Synod of, 

20. 
Nickles, G. A., 200. 
Niigata, Japan, 84. 
Norris, J. L, 196. 
North Carolina Presbyterian, 122, 144 

(2). 
North Carolina, Synod of, 26. 
Nullification, 128. 



Oakey, R. W., 234. 
Oakland College, 115. 
Ogden, Dunbar H., 236. 
Oglethorpe, General, 92. 



Oglethorpe University, 28, 54, 65, 

123, 260, 262. 
Old School, 66, 70. 
Orangeburg, S. C, 23. 
Orange, Presbytery of, 24, 26. 
Organic Union, 137, 152, 164, 216. 
Organization of Presbyterian Church in 

United States, 125, 165. 
Organization of Presbyterianism in 

America, 20. 
Orr, Samuel, 118, 141. 
Otts, J. M. P., 120. 
Our Monthly, 159. 
Owasco Outlet, N. Y., 83. 
Oxford Groups, 251. 



Pacifist, 144. 

Paisley, H. L., 197. 

Palmer, B. M., 9, 63, 65, 88, 106 (2), 

115, 128, 134. 137. 138, 139- 

140, 142, 148, 159, 162, 164, 

165, 213, 252. 
Palmer, B. M., Sr., 40. 
Palmer College, 181, 200. 
Palmer, Edward, 65, 106. 
Palmer Orphanage, 203. 
Palmerston, Lord, 102. 
Pan-Presbyterian Alliance, 137, 178, 

196. 
Patapsco Presbytery, 152. 
Paterson, W. P., 237. 
Patterson, A. L., 195. 
Patterson, M. A., 62, 168. 
Patton, J. H., 225. 
Pearson, R. G., 183. 
Peck, Thomas E., 65. 
Pendleton, S. C, 34. 
Penn, William, 89. 
Perrin, T. C 126. 
Petersen, H. F., Jr., 235. 
Petrie, G. H. W., 59, 61. 
Petrie, G. L., 120. 
Philadelphia, Synod of, 20. 
Phillips, James, 61. 
Physical Equipment and Institutional 

Life, 5 1 . 
PiephofF, C. E., 234. 
Plan of union, 54, 66. 
Plumer Memorial College, Va., 161. 
Plumer, W. S., 69, 143, 146, 148, 

149, 153, 159. 
Plunkett. J. T., 158. 
Port Gibson, Miss., 25. 
Porter, A. A., 60, 61, 63. 



INDEX 



353 



Porter, D. H., 118, 141. 

Porter, Ebenezer, 64. 

Porter, J. D., 57, 141. 

Porter, R. K., 118, 141. 

Port Royal, S. C, 15, 16. 

Preer, G. T., 222. 

Presbyterian Church in the Confederate 

States, 116, 1 25, 138. 
Presbyterian Church, U. S., 70. 
Presbyterian Church, U. S. A., 70. 
Presbyterian College, 123, 162, 163, 

192, 196, 199. 
Presbyterian College for Women, 161. 
Presbyterian College of Alabama, 186. 
Presbyterian Home, Alabama, 124. 
Presbyterian of the South, 122. 
Presbyterian Quarterly, 177, 179. 
Presbyterian Standard, 177. 
Presbyterian Theological Seminary of 

the South, 186. 
Presbyterian Viewpoint, 225. 
Presbyteries, List of, 55. 
Presbytery of the Province, 19, 23. 
Present Theological Tendencies, 245. 
Pressley, David, 183. 
Preston, S. R., 161. 
Prince, M. B., 235. 
Prince of Orange, 17. 
Princeton (College and Seminary) , 11, 

21, 22, 29, 30, 32, 54, 73, 79, 
IO4, 108, III, 143, 144, 173. 
176, l8l, 258. 

Princeton Review, 68. 
Prioleau, Elias, 16. 
Pritchett, W. R., 198. 
Problems of the Day, 167, 206. 
Provisional Missionary Committee, 

124. 
Pruitt, W. H., 235. 

Q 
Quakers, 91. 
Quarterman, J. W., 87. 
Queen's College, 27, 202. 



Rankin, David C, 159, 160, 161 

167. 
Ravages of war, 151. 
Read, J. J., 166. 
Reaves, H. L., 205. 
Reavis, J. O., 186, 203, 206, 238. 
Reconstruction period, 152, 156. 
Rector, G. H., 201. 



Red Shirts, 168. 

Reed, R. C, 177. 231. 

Reform, 1 1 . 

Reformed Presbyterians, 9 1 . 

Regional synods, 69. 

Reid, B. P., 122. 

Reid, Henry, 33. 

Reid, R. H., 122. 

Reid, W. M., 61. 

Reidville College, 122. 

Relief Fund, 156. 

Religious Outlook, The, ijg. 

Removal of Seminary, 190, 191, 223, 

225, 226, 23 1. 
Revival, 145. 
Revival of 1858, 121. 
Rhea, J. M., 158. 
Rhodes, P. S., 197. 
Ribault, Jean, 15. 
Rice, J. H., 30, 36. 
Richards, C. M., 141, 157, 195, 199. 
Richards, J. E., 199. 
Richards, J. G., 118, 140, 199. 
Richards, J. McD., 176, 199, 221, 

228, 234. 
Riddle, F. R., 199. 
Riley, J. R., 122. 
Rio de Janeiro, 86. 
Riviere, \V. T., 200. 
Roach, W. J., 198. 
Roberts, J. K., 197. 
Robinson, W. C, 55, 219, 228, 238, 

250. 
Rogers, F. E., 196. 
Rogers, H. W., 61. 
Roman Catholic Church, 15, 53. 
Roosevelt, Theodore, 43. 
Rumple, Jethro, 119, 184, 202. 
Rural life, 239. 
Rush, Benjamin, 88. 
Russell, H. E., 235. 
Rutgers College, 26, 84, 167. 



Sanden, O. E., 235. 
Savannah, 16. 
Scotch-Irish, 16, 23. 
Screven, W. E., 64. 
Scruggs, Y. P., 199. 
Seaman's Bethel, 117. 
Seawright, K. C., 235. 
Secession, 126, 129, 130, 13 
Secularism, 245. 
Semi-Centennial, 148, 149. 
Shankel, B. B., 199. 



354 



INDEX 



Shearer, J. B., 190. 

Shepard, E. M., 201. 

Sheppard, W. H., 162. 

Shimmon, Khoshaba, 205. 

Shive, R. W., 119. 

Shive, W. E., 205. 

Silliman, C. J., 124. 

Siloam, Ga., 258. 

Simons Hall, 115, 149. 

Simpson, Archibald, 19. 

Simpson, A. W., 260. 

Simpson, F. T., 120. 

Simpson, R. F., 225. 

Simpson, T. E., 198. 

Sims, F. K., 196. 

Singapore, 86. 

Sistar, W. C, 235. 

Slavery, 9, 69, 88, 99, 126, 127, 129, 

132, 142, 262. 
Slave trade, 101. 
Sloan, J. B., 234. 
Sloop, S. J., 236. 
Small, A. M., 124, 141. 
Small, R. R., 124. 
Smith, A. F., 141. 
Smith, A. P., 116. 
Smith, C. L., 235. 
Smith, Egbert W., 237. 
Smith, H. D., 201. 
Smith, Henry M., 159. 
Smith, H. M. ( 118, 207. 
Smith, H. Maxcy, 197, 205. 
Smith, J. A., 157. 
Smith, Josiah, 19. 
Smith, J. R., 235. 
Smith, Newton, 194. 
Smith, R. P., 122, 158, 161, 192. 
Smith, S. M., 178. 
Smith, W. C, 157. 
Smith, W. E., 233. 
Smith, William, 93. 
Smyth Lectures, 204, 236. 
Smyth, Thomas, 159. 
S my the, Robert L., 141. 
Social gospel, 25 1. 
Social service, 139, 171, 213, 238. 
Society of Missionary Inquiry, 71, 

238. 
South Carolina and Georgia, Synod 

of, 26. 
South Carolina College, 28, 108, no, 

114, 146. 
South Carolina Female Institute, 77. 
South Carolina, Presbytery of, 24, 26, 

33- 



Southern Board of Foreign Missions, 

Southern Christian Sentinel, 63. 

Southern Church, 259. 

Southern Integration, 43, 125, 129, 
132 (3), 259. 

Southern Interest in Theological Edu- 
cation, 31. 

Southern Presbyterian, 114, 121, 159, 
194, 262. 

Southern Presbyterian Review, 63, 70, 
107, 114, 122, 129, 135, 159. 

Southern Presbyterian Weekly, 112. 

Southern Quarterly Review, in. 

Southern Theological Seminary, 259. 

Southwestern Presbyterian, 122, 159. 

Southwestern Presbyterian Home and 
School for Orphans, 203. 

Southwestern (Presbyterian Univer- 
sity), 65, 108, 144, 173, 191 (2), 
2 16. 

Sowing and reaping, 184. 

Spanish rule, 25. 

Spence, T. H., 198. 

Spencer, A. E., 198. 

Spencer Academy, 166. 

Spirituality of the church, 164, 167, 
172, 251. 

Spring, Gardiner, 133, 134. 

Spring Resolutions, 134, 136. 

Springer, John, 28. 

Stacy, James, 118. 

State of the Country, 129. 

Statistics, 24, 26, 27, 31, 62, 117, 
125, 152, 165, 193, 240, 241. 

Stewart, C. B., 61. 

Stewart College, 65. 

Stewart, T. C, 72. 

Stillman, C. A., 64, 65, 148, 162. 

Stillman Institute, 161, 162, 204. 

Stobo, Archibald, 96. 

Stoddard, W. R., 141. 

Stoney Creek Church, 106. 

Stono, 96. 

Stork, J. W., 199. 

Story, Justice, 129. 

Stuart Seminary, 160. 

Summey, Geo., 188, 190. 

Swayze, Samuel, 25. 

Sweet, L. M., 236. 

Swetnam, G. F., 233. 

Swetnam, W. S., 205, 233. 

Swicord, D. A., 205. 

Synodical Female College, 66. 



INDEX 



355 



Tadlock, J. D., 174, 190. 

Talmage, J. E. f 235. 

Tariff, 44. 

Taylor, A. T., 232. 

Taylor, J. H., 196. 

Taylor, W. P., 220. 

Temperance, 239. 

Tennent, William, 21, 70. 

Tennessee Convention, The, 93. 

Tennessee, Synod of, 32. 

Tenney, S. R, 156, 239. 

Terrell, I. D., 201. 

Territory of the Seminary, 226. 

Theological Education, 29. 

Theological Seminary of the A. R. P. 
Church, Pittsburgh, Pa., 31. 

Theological Seminary of the Synod of 
South Carolina and Georgia, 35. 

Thomas, J. R., 262. 

Thompson, C. A., 235. 

Thompson, W. T., 237. 

Thornwell Home and School, 123, 
162. 

Thornwell, J. H.. 11, 55, 61. 63, 64, 
68, 69, 70, 88, 98, 99, 100, 107, 
ro8, 115, 117, 126, 127, 128, 
129, 131, 133, 138, 139, 140, 
149. 165. 252. 

Thornwell, J. H., 74, 191. 

Thornwellian, The, 238. 

Thyatira Church, 38. 

Toronto University, 174. 

Trenholm, G. A., 158. 

True Witness, The, 159. 

Turner, D. McNeill, 138. 

Twentieth Century Fund, 191. 

U 
Uncle John, 96. 
Uncle Tom's Cabin, 126. 
Underground Railroads, 126. 
Union Church, 23. 
Union College, 54, 78, m. 
Union Seminary, 31, 174, 223, 225, 

231. 
Union Seminary, N. Y., 43, 8i, 182. 
United Synod of the South, 152. 
University of Georgia, 28, 36, 79, 106, 

256, 261. 
University of Glasgow, 179. 
University of Heidelberg, 113. 
University of New York, 186. 



University of S. C, 54, 146, 161, 
173, 186, 196, 234. (See S. C. 
College.) 

University of Virginia, 146. 



Vance, J. I., 236. 
van Dyke, H. J., 108, 
Van Meter, J. O., 201. 
Van Til, Cornelius, 237, 
Vaughn, F. D., 198. 
Vedder, C. S., 120. 
Virginia, Synod of, 20, 25. 

W 

Waddell, I. W., 61. 

Waddell, Moses, 36, 42, 261. 

Waite, Alexander, 205. 

Waite, James, 205. 

Walker, R. P., 197- 

Wallace, J. E., 198. 

War Between the States, The, 126. 

Ward, J. E., 198. 

Wardlaw, F. H., 197. 

Washburn, J., 157. 

Washington and Lee, 26, 143, 154, 

174, 179, 204, 252. 
Washington College, Tenn., 174. 
Watchman of the South, The, 143. 
Watkins, Edgar, 225. 
Watson, A. M., 124. 
Watson, J. F., 120, 123, 141. 
Waxhaws, 23. 
Way, R. Q., 87. 
Webb, R. A., 159, 161, 189. 
Webster, Daniel, 126. 
Weir, S. P., 141. 
Wells. J. M., 216, 222, 225. 
Wells, Thomas, 76. 
Wesley, John, 70, 90. 
West, The, 11, 31, 38, 55, 57, 58, 

156. 
Western Culture, 245. 
Western Theological Seminary, 104, 

143. 
Westminster College, 173, 186, 196, 
Westminster Standards, 108, 253, 254. 
Whaling, Thornton, 182, 186, 191, 

192, 231. 
White, Henry A., 79, 179. 
White, W. G., 205. 
White, W. H., 193. 
Whitefield, George, 21, 26, 70, 90. 
Wight, J. K., 87. 
Wilberforcc, 70. 



356 



INDEX 



Wilcox, G. M., 198. 

Wilds, L. T., 198. 

Wilds, S. H., 205. 

Willbanks, J. S., 116, 119. 

William and Mary, 2 1 . 

Williams, Albert, 66. 

Williamsburg Church, 16, 17, 18, 19, 

Williams College, 48. 

Williams, J. C, 193. 

Williams, Laurence, 235. 

Williams, Lawson Williams Bequest, 

147. 
Williams, M. A., 87. 
Williams, Roger, 89. 
Williams, S. W., 86. 
Williamson, M. R., 232. 
Wilson, A. W., 158. 
Wilson, C. H., 124, 140, 141. 
Wilson, E. T., 234. 
Wilson, John Leighton, 51, 63, 72, 
77' 93' 97. 101, 123, 124, 138, 
148, 155. 

J. R., 

J. S., 

L. B., 

P. W 



Wilson, 
Wilson, 
Wilson, 
Wilson, 
Wilson, 
Wilson, 
149, 
Wilson, 
Wilton, 
Wing 
Winn 



138, 144, 146, 147. 
31, 256. 
141. 
233. 
Samuel, 95. 

Woodrow, 43, 59, 113, 144 
151, 152, 196. 
W. W., 116. 
S. C, 96. 
Yung, 82. 
John, 61. 



Winn, Peter, 125. 
Winnsboro, S. C, 35. 
Winthrop College, 201. 
Witherspoon, A. J., 117, 
Witherspoon, J. A., 141 



[40, 



Witherspoon, John, 17, 19. 
Witherspoon, Robert, 17. 
Witherspoon, T. D., 123, 186, 203. 
Wolfe, Jonas, 166. 
Wood, D. L., 235. 
Wood, R. L., 233. 
Woodbridge, G. G., 193. 
Woodbridge, S. I., 159, 167. 
Woodbridge, W. G., 158. 
Woodrow, James, 113, 121, 143, 146, 

148, 158, 165, 171, 174, 189, 

191, 206. 
Woodrow Memorial Church, 114. 
Woodrow, Thomas, 113. 
Woods, James, 59. 
Woodson, M. S., 232. 
Woodson, R. S., 232. 
World War, 245. 
Wylie, S. B., 30. 
Wynkoop Scholarship, 147. 
Wynkoop, Stephen R., 78. 



Xenia Theological Seminary, 30. 



Yale, 21, 54, 81. 
Yancey, W. L., 261. 
Yates, W. B., 68, 10 1. 
Yeamans, Sir John, 89. 
Yellow Fever, 157. 
Yokohama, 84. 
Yorkville College, 56, 163. 
Young Marooners, The, 63. 



Zwemer, S. M., 237.