Skip to main content

Full text of "Color key to North American birds"

See other formats

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http : //books . google . com/ 


of tbe 

mnfverefti^ of Mieconein 








Author of ** Handbook of Birds of Eastern North America," 
'•Bird-Life," Etc. 

fFith Upward of 8oo Drawings 





1 90^ 




f > 


JAN 15 1906 

P E. 


Co learn to call a bird by its right name is the first step in the 
study of ornithology. We may propose to investigate the 
structure, food, and habits of the birds of the world, or de- 
sire merely a superficial knowledge of the species found in our garden, 
but in either case we are at once confronted by this question of identi- 

From the scientific point of view there is but one satisfactory way to 
identify a bird. A specimen of it should be in hand in order that its 
form, color, and size may be accurately determined, when, with the 
aid of analytical keys, with which most text-books are provided, it is 
a simple matter to ascertain the bird's name. 

Wide experience has shown the writer, however, that where one 
dead bird is identified, hundreds of attempts are made to name the 
living bird in nature. This is to be expected. It is the natural out- 
vcome of the recent remarkable interest in the study of birds which, 
k)stered by Audubon Societies and nature study teachers, has assumed 
an ethical and educational importance of the first magnitude. 

We cannot place a gun in the hands of these thousands of bird- 
lovers whom we are yearly developing; indeed most of them 
would refuse to use it. Specimens, therefore, are rarely available to 
them and we should make some special effort to meet their peculiar 
wants. The present volume has been prepared with this end in view. 
Identification of the bird in the bush is its sole end; an end, however, 
which we trust will prove but the beginning of a new and potent 

interest in nature. 

Frank M. Chapman. 

American Museum of Natural History ^ 
New York City, 1903. 



The illustrations in this volume are designed to aid the student in 
identifying birds in their haunts by giving, in color, those markings 
whick most quickly catch the eye. They do not pretend to be perfect 
reproductions of every shade and tint of the plumage of the species 
they figure, but aim to present a bird's characteristic colors as they 
appear when seen at a distance. It was impracticable to draw all the 
birds to the same scale but all those on the same page are so figured. 
Reference should always be made, however, to the measurements given 
at the beginning of each description. The figures are based on the 
male bird. 




How to Learn a Bird's Name 1 

How Birds Are Named 4 

SYNOPSIS OF Orders and families of north American Birds 9 

Color Key to North American birds 41 

Systematic Table of North American birds 257 

INDEX 291 


c?. The sign of Mars, signifying male. 

?. The sign of Venus, signifying female. 

Ad Adult, a bird in fully mature plumage. 

Yng. Young, a fully grown bird which has not yet acquired the plu-w 

mage of the adult. 
L. Length, the distance from the tip of the bill to the end of the tail. 

This measurement is made from dead birds, birds in life appear 

somewhat shorter. 
W. Wing, the distance from the *bend' of the wing to the end of the 

longest feather 
T. Tail, the distance from the insertion of the tail-feathers to the end 

of the longest one. 
Tar. Tarsus, the distance from the heel to the insertion of the toes, 

or of the so-called *leg.' 
B. Bill, the distance from the feathers at the base of the bill above to 

its tip. 
Norm All measurements are in inches and tenths, and a variation ->{ 
about ten per cent, from the figures given may be expected. The num- 
ber before the name of each species is that of the American Ornitholo- 
gists* Union's *Check-List of North American Birds.* 




"How can I learn to know the birds?" is the first question of the 
seeker after bird-lore. The scientist's reply, **By shooting them and 
studying their structure and markings in detail/* may do for the few 
who, like himself, desire to know the birds scientifically; but it is em- 
phatically not the answer to give the ninety and nine who, while they 
desire to secure an intimate, accurate knowledge of birds, will not gain 
it at the sacrifice of bird-life. 

In the present volume, therefore, an attempt has been made so to 
group, figiu-e, and describe our birds that any species may be named 
which has been definitely seen. The birds are kept in their systematic 
Orders, a natural arrangement, readily comprehend, but, further than 
this, accepted classifications have been abandoned and the birds have 
been grouped according to color and markings. 

A key to the Orders gives the more prominent characters on which 
they are based; telling for example, the external differences between a 
Duck and a Grebe. In comparatively few instances, however, will the 
beginner have much difficuly in deciding to what Order a bird belongs. 
Probably eight times out of ten the unknown bird will belong to the 
Order Passerks, or Perching Birds, when one has only to select the 
color section in which it should be placed, choose from among the 
colored figures the bird whose identity is sought, and verify one's 
selection by reading the description of the bird's characteristics and 
the outline of its range. 


How TO Learn a Bird's Namb. 

In the case of closely related species, and particularly subspecies, the 
subjects of range and season are of the utmost importance. Most sub- 
species resemble their nearest allies too closely to be identified in life 
by color alone, and in such cases a bird's name is to be learned by its 
color in connection with its distribution and the season in which it is 

During the breeding period, unless one chance to be in a region 
where two races intergrade, subspecific names may be applied to the 
bird in nature with some certainty, for it is a law that only one sub- 
species of a species can nest in the same area; but during migrations, 
and in the winter, when several subspecies of one species may be found 
associated, it is frequently impossible to name them with accuracy. 

For example, during the summer one need have no hesitancy in call- 
ing the Robins of the lowlands of South Carolina the Southern Robin 
{Merula migratoria achrtistera)) but later, when the Northern Robins 
{Merula migratoria) begin to appear, it would be difficult, if not im- 
possible, to distinguish them in life from the resident birds. 

If it were possible to impress the student, who proposes to name the 
bird in the bush, with the absolute necessity for careful, definite observa- 
tion he would be saved many disappointing and discouraging experi- 

It is not possible to examine your bird too thoroughly. Never be 
satisfied with a superficial view and a general impression. Look at 
your bird, if you can, from several points of view; study its appearance 
in detail, its size, bill, crown, back, tail, wings, throat, breast, etc., and 
at oncb enter what you see in a note-book kept for that purpose. In 
this way, and this way alone, can you expect to compete with those 
who use the gun. 

It does not follow, however, that because one does not collect speci- 
mens of birds one cannot study them scientifically. While the student 
may not be interested in the classification of birds purely from the 
standpoint of the systematist, he is strongly urged to acquaint himself 
with at least the arrangement of the Orders and Families of Our birds 
and their leading structural characters. 


How TO Learn a Bird's Name. 

To the stiident who desires to prepare himself for his work afield 
such a study may well come before he attempts to name the birds. 
But where the chief end in view is to learn a bird's name, the more 
technical side of the subject may be deferred. In any event, it should 
not be neglected. This orderly arrangement of knowledge will not 
only be of practical benefit in one's future labors but it will bring with 
it that sense of satisfaction which accompanies the assurance that we 
know what we know. 

As one learns to recognize bird after bird it is an admirable plan to 
classify systematically one's list of bird acquaintances under their 
proper Orders and Families. These may be learned at once from the* 
systematic table at the end of the book, where the numbers which pre- 
cede each species are arranged serially, and hence systematically. 

In some instances, as an aid to identification in the field, descrip- 
tions of birds* notes have been included. It is not supposed that these 
descriptions will convey an adequate idea of a bird's song to a person 
who has never heard it, but it is hoped that they may occasionally lead 
to the recognition of calls or songs when they are heard. 

An adequate method of transcribing bird's notes has as yet to be 
devised and the author realizes only too well how unsatisfactory the 
data here presented will appear to the student. It is hoped, however, 
that they may sometimes prove of assistance in naming birds in life. 

As has been said before, the aim of this volume is to help students 
to learn the names of our birds in their haunts. But we should be do- 
ing scant justice to the possibilities of bird study if, even by silence, 
we should imply that they ended with the learning to know the bird. 
This is only the beginning of the quest which may bring us into close 
intimacy with the secrets of nature. The birds' haunts and food, their 
seasons and times of coming and going; their songs and habits during 
courtship, their nest-building, egg-laying, incubating and care of their 
yoimg, these and a hundred other subjects connected with their lives 
may claim our attention and by increasing our knowledge of bird-life, 
add to our love of birds. 



Birds have two kinds of names. One is a common, vernacular, or 

popular name; the other is a technical or scientific name. The first is 

usually given to the living bird by the people of the country it inhabits. 

The second is applied to specimens of birds by ornithologists who 

'classify them. 

Common names in their origin and use know no law. Technical 
names are bestowed under the system of nomenclature established by 
Linnaeus and their formation and application are governed by certain 
definite, generally accepted rules. The Linnaean system, as it is now 
employed by most American ornithologists, provides that a bird, in ad- 
dition to being grouped in a certain Class, Order, Family, etc., shall 
have a generic and specific name which, together, shall not be applied 
to any other animal. 

Our Robin, therefore, is classified and named as follows: 


ORDER PASSERES, Perching Birds. 

Sub-order Oscines, Singing Perching Birds. 

Family Turdidcs, Thrushes, Solitaires, Stonechats, Bluebirds, etc. 

Sub-family TurdincB, Thrushes. 

Genus, Merula, Thrushes. 

Species, migratoria, American Robin. 

The Robin's distinctive scientific name, therefore, which it alone 
possesses, is Merula migratoria. There are numerous other members 
of the genus Merula^ but not one of them is called migratoria^ and this 
combination of names, therefore, is applied to only one bird. 

It should also be observed that, under what is known as the *Law of 


How Birds abb Nahbo* 

Priority/ the first specific name properly cfiven to aa animal is the one 
by which it shall always be known, provided of cotirse» the same name 
in combination with the generic term employed, has never been used 
for any other animal. 

The questions Why use all these Latin terms? Why not call the bird 
**Robin*' and be done with it? are easily answered. Widely dis- 
tributed birds frequently have different names in different parts of their 
range. The Flicker {Colapies auraius), for instance, has over one hun- 
dred common or vernacular names. Again, the same name is often 
applied to wholly different birds. Our 'R^6bm{Merula migraioria) is not 
even a member of the same family as the European Robin (Eriihacus 
rubccola.i If, therefore, we should write of birds or attempt toclassity 
them only by their common names we should be dealing with such un- 
fixed quantities that the result would be ^inaccurate and misleading. 
But by using one name in a language known to educated people of all 
coimtries, a writer may indicate, without danger of being misunderstood, 
the particular animal to which he refers. Among people speaking the 
same tongue, where a definite list of vernacular names of animals has 
been established, they can of course be used instead of the scientific 

Such a list of North American birds has been prepared by the Amer- 
ican Ornithologists* Union. It furnishes a common as well as scientific 
name for each of our birds, and is the recognized standard of nomen- 
clature among American ornithologists. The names and numbers of 
birds employed in this *Color Key' are those of the American Ornithol- 
ogists' Union's 'Check-List of North American Birds.* 

It will be observed that in this *Check-List,' and consequently in the 
following pages, many birds have three scientific names, a generic, 
specific, and sub-specific. The Western Robin, for example, appears 
as Merula migraioria propinqua. What is the significance of this third 

In the days of Linnaeus, and for many years after, it was supposed 
that a species was a distinct creation whose characters never varied 


How Birds are Named. 

from a recognized type. But in comparatively recent years, as speci- 
mens have been gathered from throughout the county inhabited by a 
species, comparison frequently shows that specimens from one part of 
its range differ from those taken in another part of its range. At in- 
tervening localities, however, intermediate specimens will b6 found 
connecting the extremes. 

Generally, these geographical variations, as they are called, are the 
result of climatic conditions. For instance, in regions of heavy rain- 
fall a bird's colors are usually much darker than they are where tlie 
rainfall is light. Song Sparrows, for example, are palest in the desert 
region of Arizona, where the annual rainfall may notreach eight inches, 
and darkest on the coast of British Columbia and Alaska, where the 
annual rainfall may be over one hundred inches. In going from one 
region, however, to the other the gradual changes in climate are ac- 
companied by gradual changes in the colors of the Song Sparrows, and 
the wide differences between Arizona and Alaska Song Sparrows are 
therefore bridged by a series of intermediates. 

Variations of this kind are spoken of as geographic, racial, or sub- 
specific and the birds exhibiting them are termed subspecies. In nam- 
ing them a third name, or trinomial^ is employed, and the possession of 
such a name indicates at once that a bird is a geographic or racial rep- 
resentative of a species, with one or more representatives of which it 

Returning now to the Robin. Our eastern Robins always have the 
outer pair of tail-feathers tipped with white and, in adults, the back is 
blotched with black; while Robins from the Rocky Mountains and west- 
ward have little or no white on the outer tail-feathers, and the back is 
dark gray, without black blotches. These extremes are connected by 
intermediate specimens sharing the characters of both eastern 
and western birds. We do not, therefore, treat the latten as a species, 
but as a subspecies, and consequently, apply to it a subspecific name 
or trinomial, Merula migratoria propinqua^ {propingua^ meaning nearly 


How Birds Akh Named. 

A further study of our eastern Robin shows that in the southern 
part of its breeding range (the Carolinas and Georgia), it varies from 
the northern type in being smaller in size and much paler and duller in 
color; and to this second geographical variety is applied the name 
Merula migratoria achrusieruy {achrusiera, meaning less highly colored). 

It may be asked, Why give names to these geographical races? Why 
not call eastern, western and southern Robins by one name, Merula 
migratoria^ without regard to their climatic variations? 

In reply, two excellent reasons may be given for the recognition of 
subspecies by name; first, because in some cases they differ from one 
another far more than do many species, when it would clearly be in- 
advisable to apply the same name to what are obviously different 
creatures. For example, it has lately been discovered by Mr. E. W. 
Nelson that the small, black-throated, brown-breasted, Quails or Bob- 
whites of southern Mexico, through a long series of intermediates in- 
habiting the intervening region, intergrade with the large, white- 
throated, black-and-white breasted. Bob-white of our northern states. 
It would be absurd to call such wholly unlike birds by the same name, 
nor could we give a full specific name to the Mexican Bob-white since 
at no' place can we draw a line definitely separating it from the northern 
Bob-white. Furthermore, the use of only two names would conceal 
the remarkable fact of the intergradation of two such strikingly differ- 
ent birds; a fact of the first importance to students of the evolution of 

For much the same reason we should name those birds which show 
less pronounced variations, such as are exhibited by the Robin. Here 
we have a species in the making, and in tracing the relation between 
cause and effect, we learn something of the influences which create 
species. Thus, climate has been definitely proven so to alter a species, 
both in size and color, that, as we have seen in the case of the Song 
Sparrows, marked climatic changes are accompanied by correspond- 
ingly marked changes in the appearance of certain animals. In nam- 
ing these animals we are, in effect, giving a 'handle to the fact* of their 
evolution by environment. 


How Birds Are Named. 

The study of the distribution of birds and the mapping of their 
natural life-areas are also intimately connected with this recognition 
by name of their geographical variations, but into this phase of the 
subject we will not enter. 

Since it is evident that a bird may vary much or little, according to 
the governing conditions and its tendency to respond to them, no 
fixed rule can be laid down which shall decide just what degrees of 
difference are deserving a name. It follows, therefore,that in some cases 
ornithologists do not agree upon a bird's claim to subspecific rank. 

In North America, however, questions of this kind are referred to a 
committee of seven experts of the American Ornithologists* Union, 
and their decision establishes a nomeclature, which is accepted as the 
standard by other American ornithologists and which has been adopted 
in this volume. 

Foreign birds of wholly accidental occurrence, most of which have been 
found in North America but once or twice, are included in the systematic 
list of North America birds, but are not described or figured in the body 
of the book, where their presence would tend to convey an erroneous im- 
pression of their North American status. Furthermore, records of the 
presence of birds so rare as these can be properly based on only the 
capture of specimens. 

In the preparation of the following pages both author and artist have 
had full access to the collections of the American Museum of Natural 
History, and they are also glad to acknowledge their indebtednesss to 
William Brewster of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to Robert Ridgway, 
Curator of Birds in the United States National Museum, and to C. 
Hart Merriam, Chief of the Biologic Survey, for the loan of specimens 
tor description and illustration. 



The figures are all life-size, except as stated. 


Order I. Grebes, Loons, and Auks. PYGOPODES. 

(3 families, 32 species, 3 subspecies.) 

Duck-like birds with the bill usually pointed, never wider than high, 
and without fiutings, 'gutters,' or serrations on its side; wings short, 
never with a bright colored patch or 'speculum'; tail rudimentary, not 
noticeable; toes webbed or lobed. Color usually blackish above, white 
below; the throat often dark. The Grebes and Lopns, when pursued, 
dive rather than fly; the Auks usually take wing. 



Toes four, with lobate webs; tipped with a broad nail; tail wanting. 


Synopsis of Orders and Families. 

Family 2.. .LDCKHS. .GAVIFD/E. 

Toes four, webbed; toe-nails not broad and flat; t^il-present. 
Toes three, webbed; toe-nails sharp; tail, present- 

Order IL Gulls, Terns, Jaegers, Etc. LONGIPENNES. 

(.3 families, 42 species, 1 subspecies.) 

Birds generally seen on the wing, as a rule, over water. Bill strong, 
thick; hooked in the Gulls and Jaegers; sharply pointed in the 
Terns; often colored in part yellow or red; wings very long, the outer 
feathers much the longest; tail usually short and square in the Gulls, 
long and forked in the Terns; toes webbed. Color usually pearly gray 
above, white below in adult Gull and Terns; Jaegers and many young 
Gulls are dark. 



Toes four; three front ones webbed; bill with swollen, hooked tip, its. base with a 
scaly shield. 


Synopsis of Orders and Families. 



Family 5. GULLS AND TERNS. Larid^. 

Toes usually four, three front ones webbed; upper mandible curved and hooked; tail 
usually square TGulls, subfamily Laritue), Bill straight and pointed; tail often forked 
C Terns, subfamily SUrnituc), 


Synopsis of Orders and Families. 


Toes four, three front ones webbed; bill thin and blade like, the maxilla longer than 
the mandible; tail slightly forked. 

Order III. Albatrosses, Shearwaters, Petrels, Etc. TUBI- 

(2 families, 30 species, 1 subspecies.) 
Sea-birds keeping, as a rule, well off shore, and flying low, near the 
water, often skimming over the waves. Bill, with upper mandible 
hooked; nostrils opening through tubes; wings long and pointed; tail 
short; feet webbed; hind-toe rudimentary or absent. Color usually 
gray or black and white; no bright markings. 



Nostrils opening through tubes, separated and on either side of the bill. 



Nostrils joined and situated on top of the bill. 


Synopsis of Orders and Families. 

Order IV. Cormorants, Pelicans, Gannets, Man-o'war Birds,. 

(6 families, 19 species, 5 subspecies.) 

Large birds, two feet or more in length, varying widely in appear- 
ance and habits; in external structure agreeing only in having all four 
toes joined by webs. 

yellow-billed tropic bird. 


Bill pointed, somewhat tern-like; central tail feathers much elongated; chin feathered* 


Family lo. GANNETS. SULID.€. 

Bill stout, its tip not hooked; chin and eye space bare; tail pointed, its feathers not 


Synopsis of Orders and Families. 


Biii straight and slender; cliin and eye space bare; tail rounded: tts middle f^tiie 




Bill with a hooked tip; a small pouch at its base; plumage usually black or blackish. 

MAN-O* WAR Bl«a 

Synopsis of Orders and Families. 




Bill hooked at tip, with a large pouch; tail short, square; eye space bare. 


Bill hooked; pouch small; tail long and forked; eye space feathered. 

Order V. Ducks, Geese, and Swans. AN§ERES. 
(1 family, 49 species, 6 subspecies.) 
Birds of familiar form; bill, except in Mergansers or Saw-billed Ducks, 
broad and with rows of 'strainers* or 'gutters* on either side; wings 
short, in the Ducks usually with a bright colored patch or speculum; 
tail generally short; legs short; feet webbed. Most ' species, unlike 
the Grebes, take wing rather than dive when pursued. 


Synopsis of Orders and Families. 



Bill long^, narrow, and rounded with tooth-like projections along its sides. (Mergan- 
sers. Subfamily Mergitue,) 

Bill broad, flattened, typically duck-like; tarsus or leg with transverse scales; hind 
toe without a lobe. (River Ducks. Subfamily ^//a/;//^.; 

Bill and tarsus as in preceding, but hind toe with a broad lobe or flap. (Sea and Bay 
Ducks. Subfamily FuUguUtur.) 

Bill proportionately narrower than in the River or Bay Ducks; gutters on its sides 
less developed; scales on front of tarsus rounded. (Geese. Subfamily Atisetitu^,) 

Large, usually white birds with bare eye space. (Swans. Subfamily Cygnince,) 

Order VI. Flamingoes. ODONTOGLOSS^. 

(1 family, 1 species.) 

Bright red or pink and white birds, standing four feet or more in 
height; side of the bill with gutters, Its end bent downward; wings 
rather short; legs long; feet webbed. 


Synopsis of Orders and Families. 


Characters of the Family similar to those of the Order. 

Order VII. Herons, Bitterns, Ibises, and Spoonbills. 


(4 families, 19 species, 3 subspecies.) 

Long-legged wading birds, generally found along shores or on 
muddy fiats; bill variable; in the Herons straight and sharply pointed; 
in the Ibises, slender, rounded, and curved downward; in the Spoon- 
bill, flattened: wings rounded; tail short; legs long; toes all on same 
level, long, slender, without webs. Herons and Bitterns fly with a 
fold in the neck, the head being drawn in; Ibises and Spoonbills fly 
with the neck straight, the head being extended. 


Synopms of Orders and Families. 

^i^'l jrorxy above. 



Billflattened and much broadened at the end; crown and face bare in adults; toes 
partly webbed. 

Family 18. IBISES. IBIDID>E. 

Bill long and curved down; its side with grooves; toes partly webbed. 


Bill stout, without grooves; tarsus reticulate. 


Synopsis of Orders and Families. 


Bill usually straight and sharply pointtd; lores naked; head feathered; tarsus with 
transverse scales; middle toe-nail pectinate or with a comblike edge. 

Order VIII. 

Cranes, Rails, Coots, 

Gallinules, Etc. PALU- 

(3 families, 16 species, 3 subspecies) 

Birds varying greatly in size and appearance, but all agreeing (and 
differing from Herodiones) in having the hind-toe elevated, that is, leav- 
ing the foot at a higher level than the front toes; tail short; legs 
usually long. All fly with the neck extended, a fact by which Cranes 
in flight may be known from Herons. Rails are short-winged skulkers 
in grassy marshes; Gallinules frequent reedy shores; Coots, which alone 
of the Order have webbed (lobate) toes, are as aquatic as Ducks, fron:. 
which they may be known by their pointed, white bill, nodding motion 
of the head when swimming, and habit of pattering over the water 
when alarmed. 



Synopsis of Orders and Families. 

Family 21. CRANES. GRUIDi€. 

Large birds over three feet in length; head partly bare in adults. 



Bill long and slender; head wholly feathered; toes not webbed. 




Synopsis of Orders and Families. 


Bill variable; toes always long, webbed Clobedj in only one species; wings short and 
rounded; tail short. 

Order IX. Snipes, Sandpipers, Curlews, Plovers, Etc. 


(7 families, 55 species, 4 subspecies.) 

Generally long-legged, slender-billed birds of shores and mud flats, 
and sometimes fields. Most of them are under a foot in length; none 
are so large as the Ibises; wings long and pointed; tail short; toes long 
and slender, usually without webs; color generally brown or blackish 
above, mottled and streaked with whitish and buff. Many species 
utter characteristic piping whistles as they fly or when they take wing. 



Front toes with lobes or webs; tarsus flattened; plumage thick; swimming Snipe. 


Synopsis of Orders and FamiiIies. 



Synopsis of Orders and Families. 


Long legged, wading Snipe; in Avocets toes four, front three webbed; bill recurved; 
m Stilts toes three, almost unwebbed; bill straight 



Toes usually four; tarsus with transverse scales; bill generally long, slender, and softi 
used as a probe. 


Synopsis of Orders and Families. 


Toes usually three, or when four, the fourth rudimentary; tarsus with rounded scales; 
bill, as compared with that of Snipe, short and stout. 


Toes four, tarsus with transverse scales; bill short, rather hard. 


Synopsis of Orders and Families. 



Toes three, webbed at base; tarsus stout, with rounded scales; bill heavy, com- 
pressed, and said to be used for opening shells. 


Family 30. J AC AN AS. t JACANID>E. 

Toes four, with their nails greatly elongated to support the bird while walking on 
aquatic vegetation; wing, with a sharp spur; bill with fleshy lobes at base and, in some 
species, on its sides. 


Order X. Grouse, Partridges, Bob-Whites, Etc. GALLING. 
(3 families, 24 species, 25 subspecies.) 

Ground-inhabiting birds of chicken-like form; bill stout, hen-like; wings 
short and rounded; tail variable; feet strong; hind-toe elevated. Color 
usually mixed brown, black, and buff, or bluish gray. 


Synopsis OF Orders AND Families. 


Characters the same as those of the Order; tarsus naked in Partridges and 
Quails; more or less feathered in Grouse and Ptarmigan. 


Synopsis of Orders and Famiubs. 

Tarsus naked, often spurred, tail remarkably variable* Cfor example, Turkey, Pea- 
cock^ ; head often with a comb, wattles, or other excrescences. 


Large tree-haunting, pheasant-like birds; toes four,. all on same level. 

Order XL - Pigeons and Doves. COLUMB-^. 

(1 family, 13 species, 3 subspecies.) 

Walking birds, feeding both on the ground and in trees; bill slender, 

grooved, nostrils opening in a fleshy membrane; tail variable, short and 

square, or long and pointed; feet stout, often reddish. Color usually 

grayish brown. Call-notes a characteristic cooing. 


Characters those of the Order. 


' Synopsis of Orders and Families. 

Order XII. Vultures, Hawks, and Owls. RAPTORES. 
(4 families, 56 species, 33 subspecies.) 
Generally large birds with hooked bill; strong, heavy feet, and lone:, 
curved nails ; wings large; tail rather Jong, usually square. 



Bill not strongly hooked; toe-nails comparatively weak; nostrils large, piercing 
the bill; head and more or less of neck, bare. 



Synopsis of Orders and Famines. 



Nostrils opening in a cere at the base of tliebiU; book of 
hili nnd claws well developed; plumage firm :ind close; 
tarsus usually largely bare. 


|:l\fdt Siie 


Synopsis of Orbbrs and Pamiues. 

Family 37. BARN OWLS. STRIGIDi€. 

Eyes black, set in a spmewhat triangular facial, disc; bill more or less concealed by 
feathers; nostril opening at the edge of a fleshy cere; inner edge of middle toe-nau 
serrate; no 'ears'; tarsus feathered. 



Eyes yellow or black, set in a circular facial disc; -bill more or less concealed by 
feathers; nostrils opening at the edge of a fleshy cere; tarsus feathered. 

Order XIII. Paroquets and Parrots. PSITTACI. 

(1 family, 2 species.) 

Usually bright green birds with a heavy hooked bill, broad scooped- 
shaped lower mandible; long, pointed wings; tail, in Parrots, general- 
ly square; in Paroquets, pointed; feet heavy, two toes in front and 
two behind. 

Characters the same as those of Order. 




Synopsis of Orders and Families. 

Order XIV. Cuckoos, Trogons, Kingfishers, Etc. COCCYGES. 
(3 families, 8 species, 2 subspecies.) 
A composite Order of several groups of birds bearing no close rela- 
tion to each other. Cuckoos have slightly curved bills, long tails, and 
two toes in front and two behind. Trogons h^ve short, rather broad, 
stout bills, and soft, loose plumage, often green above, red below; moder- 
ately long tails; small feet with two toes in front, two behind. King- 
fishers have long, rather stout, pointed bills; wings, long; tail, medium; 
three toes in front and one behind; middle and outer toes joined for 
half their length. 



Toes two in front, two behind; bill, usually, more or less decurved; tail, long and 
rounded, the outer feathers being, generally, much shorter than the middle pair. 



Toes two in front, two behind; bill, short; upper mandible decurved and dentate; 
tail square; plumage, soft, loose, and generally shining green above. 


Synopsis OF Orders AND Families. 


Le^s short; feet small; toes, three in front, one behind; tiiird and fourtii toes join- 
ed; bill, stout and long. 

Order XV. Woodpeckers. PICI. 
(1 family, 24 species, 22 subspecies.) 
Climbing: birds with stout, pointed bills, bristly nostrils, pointed^, 
stiffened tail feathes, strong feet and nails; two toes in front and two* 
behind, except in Picoides, which has two in front and one behind. 
Prevailing colors, black and white, the males usually with red on the 



Family 43. WOODPECKERS. PlCIDi€. 
Characters the same as those of the Order. 


Synopsis of Orders and Families. 

Order XVI. Goatsuckers, Swifts, and Hummingbirds. 
(3 families, 27 species, 6 subspecies.) 
Bill, in the Goatsuckers and Swifts, small; mouth large; in the Hum- 
mingbirds, bill long, slender, needle-like; wings and tail variable; feet, 
in all three groups, small and weak. Color, in Goatsuckers, mixed 
brown, bufiE and black; in Swifts, black and white; in Hummingbirds, 
usually shining green above with resplendent throat-patches of varied 



Feet usually small and weak; toes, three in front, one behind; middle toe-nail pectin- 
ate or combed; bill small; mouth very large and usually beset by long bristles. 


Family 45. SWIFTS. MiCROSPODlDiC. 

Bill small, triangular when seen from above; mouth large, no bristles; tail variable, 
In Cbcetura with projecting spines; wings long and narrow; feet small and toes short; 
plumage usually dark. 



Bill long and slender; feet slender; wings large and pointed; tail exceedingly variable., 
often assuming the most striking shapes. 


SvNepsis OF Orders AND' Families. 

Order XVIL Flycatchers, Jays, Blackbirds, Finches, Swal- 
lows, Warblers, Thrushes, and Other Perching Birds. PAS- 
. . SERES. 
(18 families, about- 325 species and 226 subspecies.) 
Bill, wings, and tail variable; feet with* four toes not connected, the 
hind-toe as long as the middle one; its nail generally longer than that 
of the middle toe. ' This Order contains more species than the re- 
maining sixteen Orders put together. In it will be found over 80 per 
cent, of the birds commonly seen by field students. It is difficult of 
definition, but almost pny small perching bird may, with more or less 
certainty, be referred to the Passeres. 


Family 48. FLYCATCHERS. Tyrannid/E. ^ , ^ .u 

Bill broad, flat, hooked at tip, its base with bi-istles; wings rather pointed, the sec- 
ond to fourth primaries longest; tarsus rounded behind as well as in front; feathers of 
crown generally somewhat lengthened, forming when erected, a small crest; pose, when 
percliing, erect; food of insects usually captured on the wing; voice generally unmusical. 


Family 49. LARKS. ALAUDID/E. . . t. ... ^ tt 

Hind toe-nail much lengthened; bill rounded, straight; tarsUs rounded behmd as well 

as in front; our species with a tuft of feathers on either side of the head; outer pnmary 

short or rudimentary; walking birds, singing while on the wing. 


Syjnopsis of Ordbes and Families. 



Large perching birds, usually twelve inches or more in length; bill stout; nos- 
trils covered by projecting bristles; feet heavy; outer tail-feathers usually shortest; 
"fourth to fifth primary longest, first about half as long. 



Base of bill, between nostrils, extending back and dividing feathers on forehead; 
nostrils not concealed by bristles; first three primaries of equallength. 



Synopsis of Orders anb Families. 





Billshort, stout, conical; third or fourth primaries longest; first about half an incb 
shoner; the majority are small birds and but few are over eight inches in length. 


Family 54. TANAGERS. TANAGRlDi€. 

Bill somewhat finch-like but more swollen in outline; the upper mandible, in typical 
forms, toothed or dentate. 


Family 55. SWALLOWS. HlRUNDINiDi€. 

Bill short, broad and flat; feet small and weak; wings long and narrow; tail notchedl 
and sometimes forked; birds of the air, feeding while on the wing. 


Synopsis' of Orders and Families. 



Dill sliort, stout, and rounded, its tip notched; wings rather long; head crested. 


Family 57. SHRIKES. LANIID/E. Bill stout, its mandible hooked and hawklike; 
feet truly Passerine; pose, in perching, erect; solitary grayish birds. 


Family 58. VIREOS. VlREONIDi€. 

Bill small butdistinctly hooked; outer primary usually very small and sometimes 
apparently wanting; olive-green gleaners among the leaves. 








Bill, in most of the species, slender, sharply ,pointed, and without a notch or hook at 
the tip; fn the genera IVilsoma and SetopbagOy flat and flycatcher-h*ke; in Ideria s\out\ 
back of tarsus compressed into a thin ridge; three outer primaries of nearly equal 



Hind toe-nail much lengthened; bill slender, nostril not covejred with bristles, as in 
true Larks; back of t^rsuS thin^ not rounded; terrestrial, walking with a wagging 
motion of the tail. . 


Family 62. DIPPERS. CiNCLID/E. 

Thick-set birds with short wings and tail; plumage thick and water-proof; tarsus 
scaled; semi-aquatic in habit, haunting mountain streams. 


Synopsis of Orders and milies. 




Tarsus scaled; tail rounded, the outer feathers being shortest; third to fourth primary- 
longest, the outer half as long; bill in thrashers often decurved. its base with bristlesv 
in Wrens, bill without bristles; brown or grayish inhabitants of lower growth. 


Family 64. CREEPERS. CerTHIID/E. 

Bill slender and much decurved; tail usually pointed and stiffened. 




Fourth or fifth primary longest; first an inch or less in length. Chickadees (sub- 
family Parincv) have a short, stout bill, the nostrils covered with bristles; the tail is 
rather long and rounded. Nuthatches Csubfamily Sittitur) have a long, slender bilU 
short, square tail, and large feet. 


Synopsis of Orders and Famiwes. 



Bill slender and Warbler-like, but first primary only one-third as long as the fourth. 



Tarsus 'booted', without scales, (see foot of Robin under Synopsis of Order 
Passires)\ tail square; mandible notched and slightly hooked; outer primary an inch or 
less in length; second to fourth of about equal length. 






Family 1. GREBES. PoDiciPiDiE. 6 species. 

Family 2. LOONS. Gaviid^. S species. 

Family 3. AUKS, MURRES, and PUFFINS. Alcid^. 21 spe- 
cies, 3 subspecies. 

Grebes are at home in reed-grown ponds or slous^hs where their nests 
are made on raftfe or islets of water-soaked vegetation. Their eggs 
number from four to eight, are dull white in color, and are usually 
covered by the bird with a portion of the nesting material when it 
leaves its home. Grebes occasionally rest on the shore, but are rarely 
found far from the water. When on land they may lie flat on their 
breasts or sit erect on their tails and entire foot, or tarsus. Their 
progress on land," as a rule, is awkward and they may use their wings 
as fore feet to assist them. In diving. Grebes sometimes spring part- 
ly from the water and then plunge downward head first, or they may 
quietly sink with scarce a ripple to mark the place of their disap- 

Loons generally pass the summer on some large lake, and in the 
winter many of them live at sea. They nest, as a rule, on the shore, 
but so near the water that the parent bird may slide off its two dark 
brown, mottled eggs into its favorite element. Like the Grebes, Loons 
are expert divers, and birds of both families so often seek safety under 
the water rather than in the air that it is frequently difficult to make 
them fly. The young of both Grebes and Loons are bom covered with 
feathers and take to the water shortly after birth, often using the back 
of the parent bird as an ever present island on which they may rest 
at will. 

The Auks, Murres, and Puffins are sea birds which nest usually in 
large colonies on isolated islets or rocky, inaccessible shores of the 
northern part of the northern hemisphere. They lay one or two eggs, 
sometimes in an exposed position among the rocks with no attempt 
at nest-building, sometimes at the end of a burrow excavated by the 
birds. In the latter case, the young are reared in the nest; in the for- 
mer, they sometimes enter the water at an early age. 

The one egg laid by Murres is remarkable both in color and in shape. 
In color it varies from bluish green to buff, and is usually heavily 
scrawled with black. In outline it is pyriform or pear-shaped. When 
moved it does not roll away as would a hen*s egg but revolves about 
its own tip. In this manner it retains its place on the narrow 
ledges often chosen by Murres for nesting-sites. 



Grebes and Loons. 

2. Holboll Grebe (Colymbus holb(glU). L. 19. 
j4ds. Crown and hindneck elossy black; back 
blackish; throat, cheeks, ana underparts white; 
foreneck and sides rufous. IVinter, Above blackish 
brown; throat and underparts white; foreneck pale 
rufous. Yng, Similar but no rufous. Notes, "An 
explosive kup'^ and "An exceedingly loud harsh voice 
not unlike that of an angry Crow, out of much greater 
volume. The calls were also given more slowly and 
indeed with singular deliberatioi., car, car^ three or 
four times, sometimes len^hened to caar^ and again, 
broken and quavering like cara-a-r or ca^a-a^a^, 
(Brewster.; I 

Ranee.— North America, eastern Siberia, and Japan; breeds locally 
In the Interior from about Lat. 50? northward; winters from Maine and 
British Columbia southward to South Carolina, Nebraska and 
southern California, chiefly on the coasts. 

^^ 3. Horned Grebe (^Colymbus auritus). L. 13.5. 

^ j4ds., summer. Crown, hindneck. and throat glossy 
black| pjumes behind eye deep buff; back and wings 
blackisli; foreneck, breast, sides, and lores chestnut; 
abdomen white. H^inter. Above grayish black; be- 
low white. 

Ran^.— Northern Hemisphere: breeds largely in the interior from 
eastern Quebec, northern Illinois. St. Clair Flats, North Dakota, and 
British Columbia northward: winters from Maine and British Columbia 
sooth to Gulf States and southern California. 

4. Amerioan Eared Grebe (^Colymbus mgricoUis 
caltfomtcus). L. 13. j4ds. Above, neck all 
around, and t^per breast brownish black: cheek tufts 
yellowish brown; flanks chestnut; belly white. 
IVinter, Grayish brown above; white below. 

Range.— Western North America east to Kansas; breeds locallv 
from Texas and middle California north to Manitoba and British Col- 
umbia; winters from British Columbia, on the Pacific coast, and Texas 

5. Least Grebe {Colymbus domimcus bracbypterus), 
L. 10 j4ds, Throatblacki^r/^/ziii 5/0/^, above blackish; 
below grayish. IVinter. Similar but no black or slate 
on throat or cheeks. Smallest of our Grebes. 

Range.— Lower Rio Grande Valley In Texas and southern Lower 
California south to northern South America. 

i^^ 6. Pied-billed Grebe (7'o^f7^^^^i/:4^5). L. 13.5. 
yfds., summer. Above brownish black; throat and band 
on bill black; foreneck, breast, and sides brownish; 
bdly white. JVinter, The same, but throat white, 
breast more rusty, bill without black band. Notes, A 
loud, sonorous, ^^cow-cow-cow-couhcouhcow-caw-cow-cox/f' 
lih, coft-uhf couMth, covruh,*' 

Range.— Argentine Republic; north through Mexico and West Indies 
to Lat of Hudson Bay; breeds k>cally throughout its range, but chiefly 
northward; winters from New Jersey. Illinois, and southern California 


Grebes and Loone. 

I. Western Grebe; Swan Grebe (j€chmopharus oc 
ddmtalis), L. 26. Adt,^ summer. Crown and hind- 
neck black; back grayish brown; sides of head and un- 
der parts white. Winier, Crown and hindneck like 
back. lioUs, A loud, rattling, grating whistle. 

Range.— Western North America; In summer eastward to Sboal 
Lake, Manitoba; norttiward to southern Alaska; breeds locally from 
northern California and North Dakou northward; winters from British 
Columbia to Central Mexico. 

7. Loon (Gavia imbir), L. 32. Ads.y summer. 
Above, Jjicluding whole neck, glossy black; throat and 
neck with white streaks; back and wings with white 
spots or bars; belly white. IVint&r Above blackish 
margined xvitb grayish; no white spots; below white. 
Notes. A loud, maniacal hnigh. 

Range.— Northern hemisphere; In North America, breeds from 
Maine, northern Illinois, Minnesota, and northern California north to 
Greenland and Alaska; winters from about southern limit of breeding: 
range south to Gulf of Mexico, chiefly on coasts. 

8. Yellow-billed Loon (Gavia adamsu). L. 36. 
'Similar to No. 7, but larger and bill yellowish or whitish. 
Notes. Similar to those ofNo. 7, but harsher. (Murdoch. ) 

Range.— "Arctic America west of Hudson Bay, and oortbem Asia; 
casual in narthem Europe." (A. O. U.) 

9. Black-throated Loon (^Gavia araicus). L. 27; 
W. 12. Ads. J summer. Poreneck and back bluish 
black; throat, neck, and back streaked or barred with 
white; crown and nape fray; belly white. H^inter. 
Similar to No. 7, but smaller. Notes, A dismal ^^toty 
too-e-e.** (Turner.) 

Ranee. — ^Northern part of northern hemisphere; In America breeds 
from Hudson Bay north to Arctic coast; winters south to Brittsb Col- 
umbia, the Great Lakes and, casually, to Long Island. 


Similar to No. 

Pacific Loon {Gavia padficus), 
p, but foreneck in summer reflecting deep blue or n'een; 
hindneck paler: smaller, W. 11. Notes, A harsh ^**oA, 
'' koh,kok.'' (Murdoch.) 

Range.— Western North America; breeds at Point Barrow, Alaska, 
and eastward; winters south along Pacific Coast to Mexico. 

I I . Red-throated Loon (Gavia lumme). L. 25. Ads.^ 
summer. Foreneck chestnut, head and neck ashy. 
IVinter. Similar to No. 7, in winter, but back spotted 
with white. Notes. A harsh ^^gr-r ga, gr-r, gr-r-ga, 
gr-r.** (Nelson.) 

Range.— Northern part of northern hemisphere; In North America 
breeds from New Brunswick to Greenland and Hudson B«y, and 
northwest to Alaska; winters south to South Carolina and southern 


Auk, Murres, and Puffins. 

12. Tufted Puflin(Lundacirrhata). L. 15. j4ds,, 
summer. Cheeks white; a pair of long straw color 
plumes from behind eyes; rest of plumage sooty. 
fVinUr. Cheefes sooty, plumes usually absent Yng, 
Similar to winfer adult, but breast and belly whitish. 

Range.— Northern Pacific; resident locally from Santa Barbara 
Islands north to Alaslca. Accidental In Maine. 

1 3. Pufllri (Fratercula arcUcd). L. 13; W. 6; B. 1.8. 
Ads, Above, and foreneck blackish; cheeks and under 
parts white; bill in summer touched with bright red. 
}^ot$s, A hoarse croak. 

Range.— , North Atlantic; breeds from Bay of Fundy north to Green- 
land; winters south to Long Island. 

1 3a. Large-billed Puffin (F. a. glacialis). W. 7; 
B. 2. I. Similar to No. 13, but larger. 

Range.— Arctic Ocean from Spltxenbergen to northern Greenland. 

1 4. Horned Puffin iFraUraaa cormculata). Simi- 
lar to No. 13, but in summer with the throat blackish. 
Notis. "A hoarse snuffling, rattling note" (Nelson.) 

Range. "Northern Pacific from Kuril Islands to British Colum- 
bia." (A. O. U.) 

1 5. Rhinoceros Aulclet {Cerorhinca monoceratd), L. 
15.5. Ads, y summer, A horn on base of bill; ^tix? pairs 
of white tufts; above blackish; throat and breast gray- 
ish; belly white. PVinter, Similar, but no horn. Yng. 
Similar to winter ad. but no tufts. 

Range. — "North Pacific: breeding south (formerly) to ihe Far- 
allones; in winter south to Lower California and Japan." (A. O. U.) 


Auks, Murres, and Puffins. 


16. Oassin Auklet. {Ptychorhamphus alnUtcus). 
L. 9. Ads. A white spot above eye; above blackish; 
throat and breast grayish; belly white. Noiss. A 
shrill, squealing **CotM bsar-f'f, conu biar-f'T.^^ 

Range.— "Pacific Coast of North America from Aleutian Islands to 
Lower Califomla;breedlnf south to San Geronlmo Island (Lat. 90^ )." 
(A. O. U.) 

23. Marbled Murrelet {Brachyrampbus marmoratuA). 
L. 9.7. Ads.y sumnur. No crest; above dark brown, 
finely mixed with rusty; below white, all feathers edged 
with brown. IVinter, Wholly different; above gray; 
head dark; below white; a nearly complete white 
nuchal collar. Yng, Similar to winter ad. but blacker 
above; sprinkled with blackish below. 

Rang^e.— North Pacific; breeds from Vancouver north to Aleutian 
Islands; winters south to southern California. 

24. Kittlltz Murrelet {Bracbyramphus bnvirostris). 
L. 9.5; B., from feathers on top, .4. Ads, ^ summer. 
Above gray, mottled with buff; breast and sides mottled 
with buff and black; belly white. IVintsr. Sides of head, 
to abovi eye, and lower parts white; above gray; outer 
tail-feathers white. 

Range.— Northern Japan. Kamchatka and Aleutian Islands, east to 
Unalaska. (A. O. U.) 

25. Xantus Murrelet (Brachyramtbus bypoUucus). 
L. 10. Bill slender. Ads. Above slaty black; under 
surface of wing white; inner webs of outer primaries 

Range. — Pacific Coast from Monterey south to Cape St. Lucas; 
breeding as far north as Santa Bart)ara Island. 

26. Oraveri Murrelet (^Bracbyramphus craven), 
L. 10. Bill slender. Ads. Above slaty or brownish 
black; sides slaty; under surface of wings dusky, some- 
times mixed with white. 

Range.— Coasts of Lower California, from Cape St. Lucas north 
to Espiritu Santo Island in the Gulf of California, and to NatMdad 
Island (lat. a8 <>) on the Pacific side. (A. O. U.) 

34. Dovekie (^Alle alle). L. 8. Ads., summer. 
Above blackish; inner wing feathers tipped with white; 
throat and breast blackish brown. IVinter, Similar, 
but throat and breast white or mixed grayish. 

Range— North Atlantic and East Arctic; in America breeds from Lat. 
68 ® northward; winters south to Long Island, rarely to Virginia. Ac- 
cidental In Michigan. 


Auks, Murres, and Puffins. 

17. Paroquet Auklet (Cyclorrbynchus psittaculus), 
L. 10. y^ds.f summ/r. A^o crest; a white plume from 
behind eye; above blackish; throat grayer, rest of un- 
der parts white. IVinter. Throat white. Notts, **A 
low, sonorous, vibrating whistle." (Nelson.) 

RanM. *'Nortb Pacific, from Sitka and the Kuril IsUnds north- 
ward.'*^ (A.O. U.) Rve records for coast off San Francisco In win- 

IS. Crt&ttd AukM (Simarhjmchus cristaUllus). L. 
10. j4ds., surnnur. Bill red; a crest of slender re- 
curved feathers; a pair of white tufts from behind eye; 
above sooty black; below grayer. Yng. Similar but 
bill brown; no crest or tufts. NoUs. ''A chirping 
note," (Nelson.) 

Range.— North Pacific from Kadiak and Japan northward.' 


1 9^ Whitkersd Auklet {Simorhynchus pygmams), L. 
7.^. Ads,<t sumnur. White feathers at base of sides of 
bill and, much lengthened, from above and below eye; 
a crest of slender recurved feathers; above, and throat 
dark slate fading into white belly. Yng, Similar but 
no crest; little or no white on head. Notes, "A low 
chattering note." (Nelson.) 

Range— "North Pacific, from Unalaska through the Aleutian chain 
to Kamchatka." (A. O. U.) 

20. Least Auklet (Simorhjmcbus fusillus). L. 6.5. 
y4ds., summer. No crest; sides of head with white 
feathers; above blackish; chin sooty; throat white; under 
parts white, marked irregularly with sooty. IVinter, 
Little or no sooty on breast Yng. Similar to winter 
ad., but no white plumes. 

Range.— "North Pacific, from Sitka and Japan north to Bering ^ 
StralL*' (A. O. U.) 

21. Anoient Murrelet {Synthliboremphus antiquus). 
L. 10. 5. Ads, , summer. No crest: head and throat black: 
broad white stripes behind eye; back eray; breast and 
belly white. IVmter, Similar but throat white; no 
white head stripes. Notes. "A tow plaintive whistle." 

Range. — North Pacific, from southern Vancouver Island and Janan 
northward; south In winter to Monterey, California; accidental In Wis- 


Auks, Murres, and Puffins. 

27. Black Guillemot {Ceppbus grylle), L. 13. Ads.^ 
summer. Black; greater wing-coverts white, black at 
base; under surface of wings vfhite, tVitUer, Above 
gray or black tipped with white; below white. 

Range.— Coasts of northern Europe and North Atlantic; In Ameri- 
ca breeds from Knox Co., Maine north to southern Greenland; win- 
ters south to Quebec and Massachusetts; rarely to Toronto, Con- 
necticut, and Long: Island. 

28. Mandt Guillemot {Cepphus mandtn). Similar 
to No. 27. but bases of greater wing-coverts tohite, 

Ran?e.— Arctic regions; breeds from Labrador and Hudson Bay 
north to northern Greenland and northern Alaska; In winter migrates 
but little southward; no satisfactory United States record. 

29. Pigeon Guillemot (Slepphus columba). Similar 
to No. 27, but inner surface of wings sooty gray. Notes. 
A squealing, vibrant whistle. 

Range.— North Paclfip; breeds from Santa Catalina Island north to 
Bering Strait, west through Aleutian Islands to Kamctiatka and 
northern Japan; winters In same region. 

30. Murre (^Uriatroile). L. 16; B. 1.7. j4ds.y sum- 
mer. Above and neclc sooty brown; under parts and 
tips of secondaries white; sides with blackish streaks. 
IVinter, Similar, but throat white washed with sooty. 
Notes, A hoarse murre and squawking a-r-r-r-r-r^h. 

Range.— North Atlantic; breeds In North America from Bird Rock. 
Magdalen Islands, north to southern Greenland; winters south to 
Maine and, rarely. Ontario. 

30a. Oalifornla Murre (6^. t. califormcd). Similar 
to No. 30 but larger, W. 8. 2; B. i. 9. 

Range.— North Pacific; breeds from Pribilof Islands south to Farall- 
ones; winters south to southern California. 

3 la. Brunnioh Murre (^Uria lomvid). Similar to 
No. 30, but bill shorter, B. 1.2. In summer, 
head and throat browner, lower mandible swollen at 
sides and grayish at base. 

Range. — North Atlantic and eastern Arctic; breeds in North Amer- 
ica from Bird Rock, Magdalen Islands, north to Greenland; winters 
south to New Jersey and along St. Lawrence to Lakes Champlain and 
Ontario, rarely to Lake Michigan. 

31. Pallat Murre {U, I, arra\ Similar to No. 
31, but larger; W. 8.6; B. i. 5. Notes, **A peculiar 
growling or hoarse chatterine note." (Nelson.) 

Range.— North Pacific: south to Kadink and Kamchatka. 

32. Razor-billed Auk {/Ilea torda), L. 16.5. 
Ads.y summer. Above sooty black, foreneck browner; 
tips of secondaries, line from bill to eye, and under 
parts, white. IVinter, Similar, but foreneck white. 
Yn^, Similar to winter ad. but without eye line. Notes. 
A hoarse grunt or groan. 

Range. — North Atlantic; breeds from Bird Rock, Magdalen Islan Is, 
north to Greenland; winters south to Long Island and, rarely, to On. 
tario and North Carolina. 

33. Great Aulc {Plautus impetmis). L. 20; W. 5. 7. 

y4ds. Above blackish; a large white spot Before the 
eye; secondaries tipped with white; sides of neck and 
the throat seal brown; belly, wh.te. Resembling No. 
J2 in general appearance bat body much larger; wing, 
however, shorter. 

Range.— Formerly, the coasts and islands of North Atlantic, south on 
American side to Florida (in winter?^; now extinct. 




Family 1. SKUAS and JAEGERS. SxBRCORARirDiE. 4 species. 
Family 2. GULLS and TERNS. LARiDi^. 37 species, 1 subspecies. 
Family 3. SKIMMERS. RvNCHOPiDi^. 1 species. 

Sknas and Jaegers are pirates among the birds of the high seas. 
Bold and dashing, they pursue the swift flying Terns or much larger 
Gulls with equal success, forcing them to drop'the fish they have cap- 
tured and catching it ere it reaches the water. 

Gulls (Subfamily Laritup) are usually considered so characteristic! of 
the sea that 'Sea Gull* is the name popularly applied to all members of 
the subfamily to which they belong. Several species, however, are 
equally at home, both in the winter and when nesting, on the larger 
bodies of water in the interior, and one species is rarely or never found 
on our sea coasts. 

Gulls nest on the ground, on drifts of marsh-grass, on cliffs, and 
one species, at least, among American Gulls (the Herring Gull) has as 
a result of persecution, acquired the habit of nesting in trees. 

Gulls feed from the surface of the water, picking up their food with 
their strongly curved bills in passing or while hovering, not by plung- 
ing into the water, as do the Terns. They are, in fact, the scavengers 
of the water, and perform a service of great value to mankind by de- 
vouring the bodies of various forms of aquatic animals which', in dyiiXg, 
come to the surface and, if cast ashore, might, in decaying, prove a 
source of disease. 

For this reason it was especially unfortunate that the plumage of 
these birds became fashionable for millinery purposes, with th^ result 
that thousands of theni were destroyed for their wings and breasts. In 
this country, however, through the efforts of the American Ornitholo- 
gists' Union and the Audubon Societies, laws have been passed pro- 
hibiting the killing of these beautiful and useful birds,"aj^d wardens 
have been placed on their nesting grounds to protect them. / 

Gulls often rest in great flocks on the water, sitting high up , and 
riding the waves buoyantly, but the Terns (Subfamily SicrnincE)^ after 
they have acquiijfed Ae power of flight, are rarely seen on the water. 
They are lighter, more active birds than the Gulls, with longer wings 
and tails, and sharper, more pointed bills. They feed largely on small 


Long-winged Swimmbrs. 

fish (the species called silversides bein^: a favorite) of no value to man, 
which they secure by darting from the air with great speed and direct- 
ness. When looking for food, Terns usually fly with the bill down- 
ward, a habit which will aid in distinguishing them them from the 
Gulls, whose bill is carried in a line with the body. 

Terns usually nest in large colonies on the beach of some isolated 
islet either on our sea coasts or in the interior. The nest is generally 
composed of a few wisps of sea-weed or grass, or. the two or three eggs 
are not infrequently laid in a slight hollow in the sand or among the 
shells and pebbles. 

Like the Gulls, Terns have been slaughtered in enormous numbers 
for millinery purposes; but in this country, at least, effective efforts are 
' now being made to preserve them. 

Skimmers nest *'n numbers on our Atlantic Coast from Virginia 
southward, laying their four eggs in a slight depression in the sand. 
In feeding, their mouth is held open and the longer, thin, lower mandi- 
ble is dropped beneath the surface of the water, when, flying rapidly, 
they readily pick up food. 

In young Skimmers, however, the two mandibles are of equal length 
and the lower mandible does not become appreciably longer than the 
upper one until the birds begin to fly. During the flightless period of 
the bird's life, the bill may be used to pick up food along the shore, 
but when the power of flight is acquired and with it ability to feed in 
the characteristic Skimmer manner, then the peculiar bill of these birds 
becomes fully developed. 

The young of all the Gulls and Terns are born covered with down 
and can leave the nest a few hours after birth. The Noddy, however, 
is said to be several weeks in its stick nest, which, unlike other mem- 
bers of its, group, it often builds in bushes. 

The young are colored to harmonize with their usual surroundings. 
Young Skimmers are pale, sandy brown, of the same color as the sand 
in which they are hatched. Young Terns are darker, and young Laugh- 
ing Gulls bom in nests of reeds or meadow grasses, are the darkest of 
the three. 

All young Gulls and Terns have the habit of squatting low near the 
ground in the presence of danger and remaining motionless until act- 
ually touched when they seem to realize that they have been seen and 
trust to their legs for safety. 


Skua and Jaegers. * 

35. Skua {Megalesiris skua). L. 22. j4ds. Above 
dark, dirty brown; below paler. Yng, Similar, but 
more distinctly streaked with yellowisn, especially on 
head and neck. 

Range.— North Atlantic, chiefly eastern; breeds from Shetland 
Islands northward; winters south to Gibraltar, and rarely Long: Island. 
One specimen from California coast. 

36. Pomarine. Jaeger iSttrcorarius pamarinus), 
L. 20; B. I J. Middle tail feathers rounded. j4ds, 
Hgbi phau. Cap black; throat, breast, and neck, all 
around, white tnged with straw; back, lower belly, 
upper and under tail coverts brownish slate. Ads. 
dark phast. Dark brown, paler below. Yng. Above 
blackish brown margined with rusty; below white 
margined with dusky and buffy. Notes. "A low, 
hoarse, chattering cry.'* (Nelson.; 

Range.- Northern hemisphere; breeds north of Lat. 70®; 
winters, mainly at sea. south to South America, southern Africa and 

37. Paratitic Jaeger iSiercorarius parasiticus'). L. 
17; B. I.I ; its scaly shield longer than distance from 
end of shield to tip of bill. Ads. Both phases simi- 
lar in color to No. 36, but central tail featners pointed, 
3.6 long. Ynf. Similar in color to No. 36 but smaller, 
bill shorter, middle tail feathers more pointed. Notes. 
**Loud wa.ling cries, interspersed with harsh shrieks." 

Range.— Northern hemisphere; breeds tn Arctic regions; winters 
fliainly at sea. from California, Great Lakes, and Massachusetts south 
to South America. 

38. Long-tailed Jaeger (Stercorarius longicaudus). 
L. 21; B. I. its scaly shield shorter than the distance from 
its end to the tip of bill. Ads. in both phases resemb- 
ling No. 36 but central tail feathers pointed and 12 in. 
long. Yng. Like No. 36 and No. 37, but to be dis- 
tinguished by differences in bill measurements. Notes. 
**A hoarse qua, a shrill pJUH-phH-phH-phso, when 
■flying; or a rattling kr-r-r-r-, kr-r-r-r, kr-r-r, kri-kre-. 
kri'kri, the latter syllables shrill and querulous." 

Range. — Northern hemisphere; breeds in Arctic regions^ winters 
foalnly at sea, south to Gibraltar and Gulf of Mexico; one Califomia 






39. Ivory Gull (Pagopbtla alba), L. 17. j4ds. Pure 

white; bill yellow; feet black. Yng. Similar, but wings 
and tail tipped with blackish; throat dusky. 

Ranj^e. — Breeds in Arctic regions; winters south to Great Lakes 
and British Columbia; rarely to Massacliusetts. 

40. Kittlwake (Rissa tridactyla). L. 16. Hind toe 
nail a knob. Ads, Head, neck all around, underparts, 
and tail white; 3 in. or less, of tips of primaries black. 
Yng. Tip of tail, ear-coverts, nape, and win§<overts 
wiUi black; bill black; inner web of primaries with 
white. Not$s, A rapidly uttered kit-a-waJu, kii-a- 

Range.— North Atlantic and eastern Arctic regions; breeds In Amer- 
ica, from Gulf of St. Lawrence to Greenland; winters south to Great 
Lalces, Long Island and, rarely, Virginia. 

40a. Pacific Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla pollicaris). 
Similar to No. 40, but hind toe more developed; black 
tips to 3 outer primaries, 3 in. or nore in length. Not^s, 
"A shrill, harsh cry when disturbed and a low whistle 
when communicating with each other." (Nelson.) 

Range. — "North Pacific and Bering Sea; south In winter, casually 
to southern California." (A. O. U.; 

41. Red-legged Kittiwake (Rissa ortdrostris). Ads. 
Similar to Ad. of No. 40, but legs red, back and inner 
web of primaries darker, bill shorter, 1.2. Yng, Sim- 
ilar to No. 40, but no black on tail or wings. 

Range.— Coasts and Islands of Bering Sea." (A. O. U.) 

54. Ring-billed Gull (Larus delawarmsis), L. 18. 
Ads, , sumrMT. Bill greenish yellow, a black band across 
tip; ends of primaries black, a white spot near tip of 
outer one. Ads, IVinter, Similar, but head and neck 
streaked with grayish. Yng, Tail grayish with a 
broad black band; primaries black; back brownish gray 
and whitish; belly white; end half of bill black. 

Range.— North America, coast and interior; breeds from Newfound- 
land, southern MtnnesoU. and British Columbia northward: winters 
from Nova Scotia and British Columbia south to Cuba and Lower 

55. Short-billed Gull (Larus hracbyrhynchus), L. 17; 
B. 1.50 Ads.^summer, Head, neck, tail, and underparts 
white. Two outer primaries tipped with black, their 
white spaces followed by blackj remaining primaries 
tipped with white. Yng, Grayish brown; basal Mf 
of tail p>earl. Notes, "A sharp querulous kwew^kwewj^ 

Range.— North Pacific; breeds in Alaska and Interior of northern 
British Columbia; winters on coast from British Columbia to southern 



42. Qi\auoou% QuW (Lotus glaucus). L. 28: W. 17. 
i; B. 2.35. No black in plumage. j4ds. Primaries 
white tinted with pearl; bill with red spot at end of 
lo^ver mandible. Yng. Dirty white or gray, mottled 
with dusky and buffy, chiefly above; primaries white; 
outer webs brownish. 

R«ns«.— Northern hemisphere; breeds In Amerloi, from Labrador 
oortiiward: wlaters south to middle CalifomU. Great Lakes and Long: 

42.1. Point Barrow Gull {Larus barrovianus). 
Similar to No. 42, but bill through angle not so deep, 
(.8 as compared with .0 in glaucus); primaries more 
distinctly tipped with white. Notes. ^^kH-kU-kU, kit- 
karkU, U'lii-od, kU'lei-ody U-lii-dd, U-U-ka, ki^ 
h^ku, the hi^ka hoarse, the rest a shrill screaming.'' 

Ranee.— "Berlns: Sea and contiguous waters; northeast to Point 
Barrow, southwest to Japan." (A. O. U.) 

43. Iceland Gull {Lams leucobUrus). L. 2^; W. 16; 
B. 1.75. Similar in coior to Nos. 42 and 42.1, but 

Ranee. — Atlantic; breeds In Greenland; winters south in America to 
Great Lakes, and rarely. Long Island. 

44. Glauoout-winged Gull {Larus glaucescens). L. 
27. Ads.y summer. Head, tail, and underparts white; 
back pearl; primaries pearl, tipped with white. Ads. , 
winter. Head and neck streaked with brownish. 
Yng. Brownish gray, more or less mixed with white, 
including wings and tail. 

Range.— North Pacific; breeds from British Columbia to Bering 
Straits; winters south to southern California. 

45. Kumllen Gull (Larus kumlieni). W. 16.2; 
B. I. 75* Similar to No. 43, but primaries with well de- 
fined ashy gray spaces; outer priniary tipped with white, 
with ashy gray on outer web and shaft part of inner 
web; second primary ashy gray on only shaft part of 
outer web. 


bcrtand Gul^. south In winter to the coast of the Middle States. 

"North Atlantic coast of North America, breeding In Cum- 
" (A. 

46. Nelson Gull (Larus nelsom). ''Wing 
culmen 2.3^. Ads. In plumage exactly like L. 
Item; depth of bill through angle .80; tarsus 
middle toe (without daw) 2.40. ' ' (Ridgway. ) 

Range.— "Coast of Norton Sound* Alaska . " (A. O. U.) 





1»«»^ 6ti')iv«4«r 

47. Great Blaok-baoked Gull (Larus marmus). L« 
29. y4ds,, summer. Back and wings slaty black; wing 
feathers tipped with white, ^ds, , witOsr. Similar, but 
head and neck streaked with dusky. Yng. Back 
grayish brown margined with buffy white; rump whiter; 
primaries black; below white more or less marked with 
dusky. Notes, "A braying A^-ibii-Atf, zdte^keow^heaw^ 
a short barking note, and a long-drawn groan, very 
loud and decidedly impressive." (Brewster.) 

Range.— North Atlantic and northern Europe; breeds In NorO» 
America from Nova Scotia to Greenland; winters south to Graat 
Lakes and South Carolina. 

48. Slaty-baoked Gull (Larus scbistisagus). L. 26. 

j4ds. , summer. General appearance of No. 47; back 
lighter; primaries as figured, ^ds. , mtaer. Head and 
neck streaked. Yng, Above brown margined with 
buff and white; primaries brown; tail brown with little 

^* or no mottling; below brown. 


Ran^.— "North Pacific, chiefly on the Asiatic side; Herald Island. 
Arctic Ocean, and Alaskan coast of Bering Sea." (A. O. U.) 

49. Weatern Gull (Larus occidentalts), L. 24. Ads. » 
summer. Head, neck, tail, and underparts white; back 
slaty ^ray; outer primaries black, a large white spot 
near tip of first one. j4ds. , winter . Crown and hind 
neck streaked with brownish. Yng. Grayish brown 
mixed with white; wings and tail fuscous. Notes. 
Ooeek, ooeik, ooeik; ca-cc^ca^ and other calls. 

Range.— Pad fie coast; breeds and winters from Lower California tc 
British Columbia. 

57. Heermann GulKLartisib^^rffMrMi). L. 17. Ads.^ 
summer. Bill red;head and throat white, shading into slate 
above and below; tail blackish, tipped with white; 
primaries black. Ads. , vnnter. Head and neck streak- 
ed with grayish brown. Yng. Uniform grayish 

Range.— Pacific coast of North America; breeds from Maxatlan, 
Mexico, north to Lower California; occurs regularly north to Van- 
couver Island; winters south to Panama. 



5 1 . Herring Gull (Larus argmtatus). L.£^ Ads. , 
smmnur. White spaces at end of oute/ primaries 
sometimes joined. Ads^^mnier. Similp, but head 
and neck, streaked with grayish. Yng. /Above ashy 
brown, margined and marked with buffy^ wings brown- 
ish blaclq tail the same; sometimes margined with 
buffy; below ashy brown, sometimes lightly barred or 
streaked with dusky. NoUs. Cack-cack-cack; hah, hah, 
hah, and other notes. 

Range.— Northern hemisphere; breeds In America from Maine. 
Great Lakes, Minnesota, and British Columbia northward; winters 
south to Cuba and Lower California. 

52. Vega Quil (Larus vegct). Similar to No. 51, but 
back said to be darker; feet yellow. 

Range.—" Bering: Sea and adjacent waters; south in winter to CaH 
Ubmia and Japan." (A. O. U.) 

53. Oalifornie QuIl (Larus cali/brmcus), L. 20b 
Ads. Similar to No. $4 but larger; a red spot near tip 
of lower mandible; white spot on outer primary, larger 
and nearer end. Yng. Similar to No. 54 but darker, 
tail nearly uniform fuscous. 

Range.— Western North America; breeds chiefly In Interior, froa 
Utah to Let. 66^,y>'; winters from British ColumbU to Mexico. 



58. Laughing QuW (Larus atricilla\ L. i6. y4ds., 
summer. Head dark slate; tail white; bill with red- 
dish. j4ds, , wmUr. Similar, but head and throat 
white with grayish on nape and behind eyes.v Ymg, 
Tail grayish with a broad black band; nape and baoc 
ashy brown; forehead and under parts white. Notas. 
A nasal cow-ow, also cuk-cuk-cuk, and a high, long- 
drawn laugh. 

Rani^.— Eastern North America; breeds from Texas and Florida to 
Maine and Nova Scotia; rare In Interior; winters from South Carolina 
to northern South America. 

59. Franklin Gull (Larus franklim). L. 15. Ads,^ 
summsr. Breast with a rosy tinge; outer primaries with 
wide black spaces near ends, bordered at base and tip 
with white. Ads., winter. "Head mainly white, with 
[its] sides and back grayish dusky." Yng, "Top and 
sides of head and back grayish brown; quills dusky, 
tipped with white; tail with subterminal band of dusky: 
rest of tail, under parts, forehead, and eyelids white. '^ 

Ran^. — Interior of North America; breeds from Iowa and Minneso- 
ta northward to Great Bear Lake; winters from west Gulf Sutes to 
South America. 

60. Bonaparte dull (Larus Philadelphia). L. 14. 
Ads. , summer. Outer web of outer primaries and tip 
black; inner web and shaft white; bill black. Ads., ttitf 
ter. Similar, but throat and head white, its back 
grayish. Yng. Tail white, tipprd with black; outer 
primary black, inner two-thirds of inner web and space 
near tip white; rest of plumage much as in young of No. 

Range.— North America; breeds In Interior from Hudson Bay and 
Manitoba west to the Yukon; winters from British Columbia and 
Maine to Lower Califomla and Gulf of Mexico. 

61. Rom Gull (T^hodostethia rosea). L. 13.5: 
Bill small . 7; middle tail feathers longest. Ads. , summer. 
White areas tinged with pink; a olack collar. Ads., 
winter. No collar; a black spot before eye. Yn^r^. 
Lesser coverts black, margined with whitish; tail 
white, central feathers tipped with black; back pearl; 
ear spot and space about eye dusky; crown white, 
washed with pearl. 

Range. — "Arctic regions; south In autumn and winter to Kamchat- 
ka. Point Barrow. Alaska, and Disco Bay. Greenland." (A. O. U.) 

62. Sabine Gull {Xema sabinti). L. id. Tail 
slightly forked. Ads., summer. Head and throat 
slaty black, margined behind with black; bill black, 
tipped with yellow; outer primaries black, small tip and 
inner half of inner web white. Ads. , winter. Similar, 
but head and throat white; nape region dusky. Yng. 
Tail white, tipped with black; crown and back ashy 
brown; forehead and underparts white. Notes. *A 
single harsh grating note." (Nelson.) 

Range — ^ctlc regions: breeds In America from St. Michaels. 
Alaska and Melville Bay, Greenland, northward: winters south on At- 
lantic coast, rarely to New York; casuaUy to Texas, and 00 Pacific 
coast to Peru. 



64- Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia). L, 21. T, 6., 
forked 1.5. Largest of our Terns. Ads,, breeding. 
Bill red; cap black; above pearl; below while; primaries 
frosty black. After breeding, crown streaked black and 
white; bill more orange. Yng, Similar to last but 
wings and tail with blackish. Notes, A loud, harsh 
^''kajf'atck'* or *'keyrak.** 

Rang:e. — Cosmopolttan; breeds In North America, locally from 
T«x«s to Newfoundland and Great Slave Lake; winters mostly south 
of United States; three California winter records. 

65. Royal Tern {Sterna maxima), L. 19; T. 7, fork- 
ed 3.5; B. 2.5. Ads., summer. Primaries frosty black, 
tchite on inner two-thirds of inner web except at tip, 
where frosty, bill orange red; crown black; above pearl; 
below white. Ads. , winter. The same, but head 
white with black streaks. Yng. Similar to winter ad. 
but wings and tail with grayish. 

Range. — Middle America; breeds from southern Brazil and Peru to 
Oulf States. Virginia, and California; wanders north to Great 
Lalces and Massachusetts; winters from Gulf States and California 

66. Elegant Tern {Sterna elegans). L. 16.5; B. 2.7. 
Similar to No. 65, but smaller; bill longer and more 
slender. Ads. Tinged with shell pink below. 

Range.— "Pacific coast of America from California to Chili." (A. 
O. U.) 

67. Oabot Tern {Sterna sandvicensis acuflavida). 
L, 16; T. 5.5, forked 2.7. Ads., breeding. Bill black, 
ihe tip yellow; crown black; above pearl; below white; 
primaries much as in No. 65. After breeding, head 
white; nape with black streaks. Ynjg. Similar to 
List but with back and tail with blackish; tip of bill 
less yellow. 

Range. — Tropical America; breeds on east side of Mexico north 
along uulf Coast to Florida, and Atlantic coast to South Carolina; 
wanders to Massachusetts; winters south of United States to West 
Indies and Central America. 


(i ::l-. mc.. i 


63. Guil-billed,Tem (^Gdochelidon nOoiica). L. 
14.5; T. 5.5. Ads.^sutnnur, Bill thick, short, black* 
tail short, forked only 7.5; crown black; above pearl; 
below white. Ads. , winter. Head white, with black 
patch before and behind eye. Yng. Similar, but above 
edged with buffy; head and neck streaked with gray- 
ish. Notes. A hi^hjthin, somewhat reedy tee-tee-tee^ 
sometimes suggestmg a weak-voiced katydid. 

Range. — Cosmopolitan; breeds In North America from Mexico to 
Florida and north to Virginia- wanders north rarely to New Bruns- 
wick; winters from southern Texas southward. 

73. Aleutian Tern (Sterna aleuiica), L. 14. T. 
6.7, forked 3. Ads., summer. Above and below pearl 
gray, browner below; throat white; crown black; fore' 
head white; line from bill to eye black. Ads, , winter, 
*'With rather more white on forehead." (Cat. B. M.) 
Notes, "A thin, clear, trilling whistle." (Nelson.) 

Range.— Alaska from Kadlak to Bering Strait, southwest to Japan. 

74, Least Tern (Sterna antillarum), L. 9; T. 3.5, 
forked 1.7. Ads., summer, Bill^^//<w, black at tip; 
forehead white; a black line from bill to eye; crown 
black; above pearl; below white. Ads. , winter. Crown 
white; nape black; bill dark; tail shorter. Yng, Sim- 
ilar to last, but above with buffy or brownish. Notes. 
** A sharp squeak much like the cry of a very young 
pig following its mother." 

Range. — ^Western hemisphere; breeds tocally from northern South 
America northward to Massachusetts. Dakota, and southern Gill- 
fornia; winters south of United States. 

76. %r\6\edJ%rn (Sterna aiuethetus), L. 15. Ads, 
Forehead and line over eye white; lores and crown 
black; nape whitish; back sooty gray or sooty brown; 
outer tail feathers white, except at tip; inner ones 
grayish brown. Notes, A soft qua. 

Range. — Tropical regions; north In Atlantic to the Bahamas; casual 
In Florida. 




69. Forrter Tern {SUrna forsUrt), L, 15; _ 
forked. 4. Ads., sumimr. Inner web of outer 
feather dusky; below ^rtftp^i/^ bill orange, blackish 
at end; crown black; back pearL Ads,, winter* 
Crown white or grayish; a large Black spot about eyesr, 
bill black. Yng, Similar to winter ad. but 
above with brownish. Notes, A long drawn, deep, 
reedy cock and tweet'tweet-tweet-tweet. 

Range.— North America; breeds locally north to California, and 
from Texas along: coast to Virginia and in Interior to Manitoba; wan- 
ders to Massachusetts; winters from southern Califomla and Texas 
south to Brazil. 

70. Common Tern {Sterna hirundo), L. 15; T. 5.5, 
forked, 3.2 Ads. , summer. Outer web of outer tail 
feather dusky; below white, washed with dusky, bill 
r^^, blackish at end; crown black; back pearl. Ads,, 
winter. Forehead and underparts white; bill black. 
Yng, Similar to last, but above with brownish; tail 
shorter. Notes. A vibrant, purring, tearrr, and other 

Range. — Northern hemisphere; In America, chiefly east of Plains; 
breeds locally on coast and In Interior from Gulf States to Barren 
Grounds and Greenland; winters south of United States to Brazil. 

71. Arctic Tern (Sterna paradisa^a'). L. 15.5; T. 
7.2 forked 4.5. Similar to No. 70, but summer ad, 
with bill wholly bright red; tail longer; tarsus shorter, 
.6 instead of .7. Notes. Like tearr of No. 70, but 
shriller, ending in rising inflection, like squeal of a 
pig. (Brewster.) 

Range. — Northern hemisphere; breeds from Massachusetts north 
to Greenland and northwest to Aleutian Islands %i Alaska; winters 
south to California and Virginia. 

72. Roteiie Tern (Sterna dougaiii,.^. I5.5; T. 7.5, 
forked, 5.2. Ads., summer, 'Bill IhcX, reddish only at 
the base; below white tinged with shell pink; tail 
wholly white; crown black; back pearl. Ads. , winter. 
Forehead with white; no pink below. Notes, A reedy 

Range.— Temperate and tropical regions: breeds in North America 
on east coast only, from Rorida north to Nova Scotia; rare north of 
Virginia; winters south of United States to Venezuela. 


Terns and Skimmer. 

75. Sooty Tern {Sidrna fiiliginosa). L. 17. M 
sumtmr. Above black, forehead and underparts wlii 
tail black, except outer feathers which are most 
white. Yng. Sooty slate; linings of wings whi: 
scapulars, upper tail coverts, and tail feathers tippi 
with white, hiotes, A squeaky quack, a nasal ki 
wackj'tcak, and other calls. 

Range.— "Tropical and subtropical coasts of the globe. In Aracj 
lea from Chili to western Mexico and the Carolinas. and casuailv 
New England." (A. O. U.) 

77. Black Tern {Hydroch^lidoti nigra surinatnsnsis'U 

L. 10. Ads., summer. Head and underparts blacky 
back, wings, and tail slate. Ads., winter. Forehead, 
nape, and underparts tfAi/^; head gray. Yng, bimi- 
lar to last, but above with brownish margin. Notes, 
A sharp peek. 

Range. — Temperate and tropical America: breeds In Interior from 
California, Kansas, and Illinois to Alaska; irregular migrant on Atlan- 
tic coast from New Brunswick southward; winters south of United 
States to Chili. 

79. Noddy {Anous stolidus). L. 15. Ads, Crown 

silvery white; rest of plumage sootjf broom, Yng, Sim- 
ilar, but all sooty brown except white line from bill to 
eye. Note^ A low reedy cock increasing to a hoarc i, 
guttural k-f-r-r'T'^'f-f- 

Range —Tropical and subtropical regions: In America from Brazil 
and ChiU north to the Gulf and South AUanuc States." (A. O. \J.) 

80. Black Skimmer [Rmchops nigra), L. 18. Ads. 
Lozcer mandible longer than uf^per; forehead, under- 
parts, part of secondaries, and tail white; rest of plum- 
age black. Yng. Plumage widely margined with 
buffy. Notes, Vnried, nasal, penny-trumpet- like; 
also ca-j'ou, ca-you, like a hound's voice. 

Range.— North America, chi»fly eastern: breeds from southern 
New Jersey southwarJ; wanders nrely to Nova Scotia; winters from 
Gulf Stales to northern South America. 




r " 

'f § Family 1. ALBATROSSES. Diomedeid.b. 4 species. 

CELLARiiD.^. 26 species, 1 subspecies. 

The Albatrosses, of which about ten species are known, are birds of 
far southern seas, where they nest on isolated islands. After the 
young are reared, several species migrate northward and are found oflE 
our Pacific coast. The largest known species, the Wandering Alba- 
tross, which has been made famous by Coleridge's **Rime of the Anci- 
ent Mariner," measures from twelve to fourteen feet in expanse of 
wing, and, like other members of this family, is a tireless ocean wan- 

In the museum of Brown University, there is a mounted Wandering 
Albatross, killed off the coast of Chili by Capt. Hiram Luther, Decem- 
ber 20, 1847. When captured, a small bottle was found tied around the 
bird's neck, containing a slip of paper from which it was learned that 
the bottle had been attached to the bird December 12, 1847, by Capt. 
Edwards of the New Bedford Whaler, ''Euphrates,** when about 800 
miles off the coast of New Zealand,. or about 3,400 miles from the point 
at which, eight days later, the bird was secured. 

The Fulmars, (genus Fu/ ma rus) , are northern birds and nest in im- 
mense numbers on isolated islets, somewhat like certain Gulls. 

Comparatively little is known of the nesting places of our Shear- 
waters, but it is believed that most of them breed on the islands of the 
South Atlantic and South Pacific, and pass their winter, (our summer) 
off our coasts. 

One of the Petrels, (Wilson Petrel), is known to have this habit. It 
has been found nesting on Kerguelen Island, in S. Lat. 49° 54', in 
February, and in May it appears off our coasts for the summer. 

Petrels nest in holes in the ground, laying one white egg. They are 
never seen near their homes during the day, the bird then on the nest 
waiting until night to feed, when the one which has been at sea re- 
turns to assume its share of the task of incubation. These birds are 
therefore both diurnal and nocturnal. 



m^UJS V\tW«.0 V«10«A AttOVV.. 

81. Blaok-footed Albatross iDiomsdea nigripes). L. 
32. /tds. Sooty brown, lighter below; region about 
base of bill whitish; upper mandible broad and rounded 
at its base. Notes. A whining groan, uttered when 
contesting for food. (Turner). 

Range.— North Pacific; north to I-at. 5a « ; south at least to Lower 

82. Short-tailed Albatross (Z>fbm/f(i^tf albatrus). L. 
36. y4ds. White; the head straw; tail and primaries 
gray brown; upper mandible broad and rounded at 

Range.— North Pacific, north to Bering Strait; south, at least, to 
Lower CallfomUL 

82.1. Laysan Albatross (Diomeda immutabais). 
L. ^2. j4ds. Head, neck, rump, upper tail coverts, 
and whole under surface white; lores next to the eye 
sooty black; back, wings, and end of the tail dark 
sooty brown; interscapular region palei^ base of the 
tail whitish. (Cat. B. M.) 

Range. — Laysan Island. Pacific Ocean; casual off the coast of 
Lower California; 

83. Yellow-nosed Albatross {Tbalassogeron cultnin- 

atus), L. 36. Ads. Above slate brown, grayer on 

head^ rump white; below white; neck sometimes 
grayish; tail gray. 

Range — "Indian and southern Pacific Oceans; casual off the 
coast of Oregon; accidental in the Gulf of St. Lawrence." (A. O. U.) 

84. Sooty Albatross [Pbcebetria Juliginosa). L. 35. 
j4ds. Sides of lower mandible conspicuously grooved; en- 
tire plumage sooty brown, except a white eye-ring. 

Range — "Oceans of southern hemisphere, north to the coast of 
Oregon." (A. O. U.) 


Fulmare and Shearwatere. 

86. Fulmw {Fulmarus glacialis). L. 19; W. 13; B. 
1.5. j4ds. Li^ht phase. Head, neck, and under parts 
white; back, wings, and tail slaty gray. ^Dark phase. 
Uniform dark slaty gray. Notes. Silent 

Ranee.— North Atlantic; breeds from Lat. 69^ northward; winters 
south to Lat of Massachusetts, and rarely to Virginia. 

86b. Paoiflo Fulmar {F. g, glupischa). Similar to 
No. 3fS, but nasal tubes light. 

Range.— North Pacific; breeds from Bering Sea north; winters 
south to Mexico. 

86.1. Rodger Fulmar (Fulmarus rodgersU). Sim- 
ilar to light phase of No. 86, but back with white 
feathers; no dark phase. 

Range.— "Bering Sea and adjacent parts of North Pacific.'* 
<A. O. U.) 

87. Slender-billed Fulmar (Prtocella glacialoides). L. 
1S.5. Ads. Head and underparts white; back and tail 
pearl; primaries black, white on inner web. 

Range.— Southern Seas; north on Pacific coast to Washington. 

94. Sooty Shearwater (Ptt/^««sy«/i;^f>fosf«). L. 17. 
Ads. Sooty gray, lighter below. 

Range.^" Atlantic Ocean, breeding in the southern hemisphere: a 
summer visitor off our coast, from South Carolina northward." (A. 
O. U.) 

95. Dark-bodied Shearwater (PM^mis ^ffs/u5). L. 

17. Ads. Above dusky black or brownish, paler be- 
low; under wing coverts white and dusky; bill black. 

Range.— South Pacific; north In summer on the American coast to 

96. 1 . Wedge-tailed Shearwater {Puffinus cuneatus). 
L. 17. T. 5.4, pointed. Ads. Above brown; below white; 
sides of neck mottled with gray; middle tail feathers 
nearly 2. longer than lateral ones. (Cat. B. M.) 

Range.— "North Pacific Ocean, from the Hawaiian Islands north 
to the Bonin Group and Lower California." (A. O. U.) 



88. Copy Shearwater (Puffinus horsalis). L. 21. 
j4ds. Above grayish brown; below, including under 
wing coverts and uncUr tail coverts, white. 

Range.— North Atlantic; recorded only off the coast from Massa- 
chusetts to Long Island. 

89. Greater Shearwater {Tuffinus gravis). L, 20. 
Ms. Above grayish brown or blackish; tips of longer 
upper taif coverts white; below white; middU of belly 
and under tail coverts ashjf gray. 

Range. — "Atlantic Ocean, from Cape Horn and Cape of Good Hope 
north to Arctic Circle." (A. O. L.) 

9 1 . Pink-footed Shearwater (Puffinus creatopus), L. 
19.5. Ads, Above dusky gray or brown; below white; 
sides and lower belly with grayish: longer under tail 
coverts dusky brown; feet, flesh-color; b.ll yellowish. 

Range. — Pacific Ocean north on the American coast In summer and 
fall to middle California. 

92. Audubon Shearwater {Puffinus lherminieri\ L. 
12. j4ds, AlK)ve black or brownish black; below 
white; under tail coverts sooty. 

Range.— M'ddle Atlantic; breeds Jn West Indies and Bahamas; 
wanders nortu to Long l»i.i..d. 

93. Black- vented Shearwater {Tuffinus opisi b o^nelas), 
L. 15. /ids. Above dusky Wa«:^; below white; sides 
of breast grayish; under tail coverts dusky brown; 
bill black. 

Rangf. — " Pacific Ocean, chiefly souihw.ird; coast of Lower Cali- 
fornia north to Santa Ciuz. Oil." (A. O. L.) 

93.1. Townsend Shearwater {Puffinus auricu- 
taris]. Similar to No. 93, but bill and feet smaller, 
B. 1.2; above darker, nearly black; black of head ex- 
tending below eye. (Townsend.) 

Range.— Pacific Ocean (Clarion Island, Lower California). 

96. Slender-billed Shearwater {Puffinus tenuirostris), 
L. 13., bill slender 1.2 y4ds. ** Above dark sooty slate; 
beneath deep sooty grav, paler on throat where some- 
times incfining to whitish.'* (Ridgw.) 

Range.— North Pacific, from Japan and Kotzebue Sound south on 
the American coast to middle California. 



98. Black-capped Petrel (/Estrelata hasitaia). L. 
i6. j4Js, Above sooty brown; back of neck and up- 
per tail coverts wbite; base of tail white. 

Range.— Tropical Atlantic; Irre^Iar In United Stites (Florida. Vir- 
ginia, New York, Kentucky, Vermont, and Ontario.) 

103. Least Petrel (Halocyptnta microsoma), L. 5. 7. 
Ads, Sooty blackish brown, lighter below. 

Ranges— "Coast of Lower California south to Panama." (A. O. U) 

105. Forked-tailed Petrel Occanodroma jurcata). 
L. 8. 7. /tds. Tail forkeJ; bluish gray, wings 
darker; a blackish space about eye. 

Range. — North Pacific: breeds In Aleutian Islands; recorded north 
to Bering Strait; winters south to Cilifornia. 

105.1. Kaeding Petrel [Oceanodroma kaedingi), 
W. 6. j4ds. Similar to O. UucorrJwa, but much 
smaller with much less deeply forked tail. (Anthony.) 

Range.->PacIfic Ocean; (Socorro Islands, Lower California.) 

108. h^hy ?e\re\ {Oceanodroma homocbroj), L. 8. 5. 
Ads, No white on rump; tail forked; sooty black 
above, browner below; wing coverts grayish. 

Range.— "Coast of California; breeds on the Santa Barbara and 
Farallone Islands." (A. O. U.) 



1 04. stormy Petrel ; Mother Carey's Chicken(7»ro- 

cellaria pelagica). L. 5.5. Ads, Sooty black, brown- 
er below; upper tail coverts white, iippsd witb black. 

Range.— North AtianHc; winters south to western Africa and New 

106. Leach Petrel; Stormy Pe\re\ (Ocganodroma 
leucorrboa), L. 8., W. 6.2. Ads, Tail forked; above 
sooty brownish black; below browner; Usser wing cov- 
erts grayish brown; longer upper tail coverts not npped 
with black. Notes. An elfin-like crow of eight notes. 

Range.— North Atlantic and North Pacific; breeds from Maine to 
Greenland and from Faralione to Aleutian Islands; winters south to 
Virginia and California. 

106.1. Guadalupe Petrel {Oceanodroma macro- 
dactyla). L. 8.4; W. 6.4; T. 3.9, fork I in. deep. Ads. 
Similar to O. leucorrhoa, but with much longer and 
more deeply forked tail, larger feet, shorter bill, and 
very broad duskv tips to the upper tail coverts. 
(Ridw. in Cat. B. M.) 

Range.— Pacific Ocean; (Guadalupe Island. Lower California.) 

107. Blaok Petrel (Oceanodroma melam'a.) L. 9. 
;07 Ads. Sooty black, paler below; wing-coverts grayish, 
tail forked. 

Range.— South Pacific, north to Santa Bart>ara Islands; breeds on 
Coronados Islands, southern California. 

108.1 Socorro Petrel (Oceanodroma socorroensis). 
W. 5.5. Ads. Similar to No. 108, but wings longer; 
tail shorter and less deeply forked; sides of rump 
whitish; no white on under surface of wing. (Towns.) 

Range. — Pacific Ocean; (Socorro Island, southern California.) 

109. Wileon Petrel; Stormy Petrel iOceamUs 
oceanicus). L. 7. Ads. Webs of feet with yellow 
patch: tail not forked; longer upper tail coverts not 
tipped with black. Notes. A weak weet, weet, and a 
hoarse c\\2AX.tx\n%patret'tu-cuk-cuk'tu'tu. (Wilson.) 

Range. Atlantic Ocean; breeds In Southern seas. CKerguelen Is- 
land In February) , and migrates north to Newfoundland, spending 
summer off coast of eastern United States. 




Family 1, TROPIC BIRDS. Phabthontid^. 2, species. 

Family 2. GANNETS. Sulid^. 6 species. 

Family 3. DARTERS. Anhingid^. 1 species. 

Family 4. CORMORANTS. PHALACROCORACiDiE. 6 species, 5 

Family 5. PELICANS. PBLECANiDiE. 3 species. 

Family 6. MAN-O'-WAR-BIRDS. Frbgatid^. 1 Species. 

The members of this Order agree in having: all four toes comiected 

by webs, but in other respects they differ widely in structure and, con- 
sequently, in habit. The young of all the Steganopodes are bom 
naked, unlike the young of most of the other water birds, which, as a 
rule, are hatched covered with* feathers and can swim or run about soon 
after birth. The nests of the Steganoi)odes are, of necessity, therefore, 
more complex structures than those of birds whose nests are merely 
incubators and not cradles as well. 

Tropic Birds resemble the larger Terns, when in the air, but their 
wing strokes are more rapid. They usually nest in holes in the face of 
cliffs, and lay one whitish egg, marked with chocolate. 

Gannets are true sea birds, but, as a rule, do not live very far from 
the land. When breeding, Gannets are usually associated in great 
numbers. Their nests, as a rule, are placed on the ground or on cliffs, 
and one or two chalky white eggs are laid. At this season the birds 
are exceedingly tame and in localties where they have not been much 
molested, one may walk about among the sitting birds without their 
taking flight. Gannets are powerful birds on the wing. Their vigor- 
ous wing strokes are interrupted at intervals by short sails. They feed 
on fish which they captmre by diving from the air. 

The Darters or Anhingas number four species, distributed through- 
out the tropical parts of the globe, only one species inhabiting America. 
This is generally called the Snakebird or Water Turkey in Florida, 
where it is a common species on the more isolated rivers and lakes. 



The name Snakebird is derived from the bird's habit of swimming: with 
the body submerged, when the long, sinuous neck, appearing above the 
water, readily suggests a snake. At other times Snakebirds mount high 
in the air and sail about, like Hawks, in wide circles. They build a 
large, well-made nest in a bush or tree, generally over the water, and 
lay four bluish white, chalky eggs. 

Cormorants nest in large colonies, generally on isolated islets, but 
sometimes in remote swamps. The nests are placed closely together 
on the ground, in bushes, and less frequently in trees, according . to 
the nature of the bird's haunts. 

Cormorants feed on fish which they catch by pursuing them under 
the water. They dive from the surface of the water like' Ducks, or 
from a low perch, but not from the air, as do the Gannets. 

Pelicans nest in colonies, generally on some small island, building: 
their nests on the ground or in bushes, and laying two or three large, 
white, chalky eggs. 

Brown Pelicans secure their food by plunging on it from the air, gen- 
erally from about twenty feet above the water. The sides of the bill 
are then bowed outward, theopening'widened, forming, with the pouch, 
an effective net in which fish, twelve and fourteen inches long, are cap- 

White Pelicans, on the contrary, feed from the water, scooping up 
fishes as they swim. At times a flock of these birds may surround a 
school of small fish m shallow water and drive them shoreward, at the 
same time actively filling their pouches. 

Young Pelicans are fed on fish which they take from the pouch of 
the parent bird by thrusting their bills and heads well into it and prod- 
ding actively about for the food to be found there. Young Cormorants 
secure their food in a similar manner. 

Frigate Birds, of which only two species are known, have a greater 
expanse of wing in proportion to the weight of their body than any 
other bird. Their power of flight is consequently unexcelled and they 
may spend days in the air without tiring. Their feet are as weak as 
their wrngs are strong, and are of use only in perching. 

The food of Frigate Birds consists chiefly of fish, which they catch 
from near the surface of the water, or rob from Gulls and Terns by 
pursuing them, forcing them to disgorge their prey, and catching it ere 
it reaches the water. 


Tropic Birds and Gannet. 

I 1 2. Yellow-billed Tropic Bird (Thaethon american- 
us), L. 30; T. 19. j4ds. Bill yellow; no bars above; 
middle tail feathers lengthened. Yng. Above barred 
with black; middle tail feathers not lengthened. 

Ranee.— Tropical coasts; breeds In West Indies. Bahamas and Ber- 
mudas; casual in Florida; accidental In western New York and Nova 

113. Red-billed Tropic Bird (Thaithonoftbereus), 
L. 30; T. 20. Ads. Bill red; above barred with 
black; long middle tail feathers pure white. 

RangCw— Coasts of tropical America, north on the Pacific coast to 
Cape Colnett. Lower California; accidental on the Newfoundland 
Banks. Breeds on San Pedro Martir and other Islands in the Gulf of 
California." (A. O. U.) 

I I 7. Cannet (Sula tassana), L. 35. Ads, White; 
head and neck tinged with straw; primaries blackish. 
Yng. Grayish brown with white spots; breast and 
belly white. Not^s, A harsh gor-r-r-rok. 

Range.— North Atlantic; breeds, in America, only on Bird Rock and 
B3naventure Islands. Gulf of St Lawrence; winters off the coast, 
south to Florida. 




1 1 4. Blue-fnoed Booby {Stda ^a$iops). L. 28. Ads. 
Body and lesser wing coverts white; central tail feath- 
ers whitish, others dark brown. Yne. Above plain 
dark grayish brown with some grayish streaks; below 
white; flanks streaked with grayish. 

Ran^.— Tropical seas; north In America to Lower California and 
Bahamas; casual In southern Florida. 

I 14.1. Blue-footed Booby (Sula nsbouxn). L. 33. 
Ads, Head, neck, and underparts white, the first two 
streaked with grayish; back dusky brownish, tipped 
with whitish; legs and feet bright blue. CGossJ 

Ran^e:— Pacific coast of America, from Golf of California to Gal- 
ai>as:os and Chili. (Cat B. M.) 

I 1 5. Booby (St$la sula), L. 30. Ads. Breast and 
belly white; bill and feet yellow. Yng, Entirely 
brownish, lighter below; bill blackish; feet yellow. 
Notes, A harsh, guttural bork, hork. (Audubon). 

Range.— "Atlantic coasts of tropical and subtropical America, north 
to Georgia. Also. West Pacific and Indian Oceans." (A. O. U.) Ac- 
cidental on Long Island. No United States breeding record. 

1 1 5. 1 . Brewster Booby (Sula hrewstert), L. 
30. Ads, Similar to No. 115, but head and neck 
paler, bill blue, feet greenish. 

Range. — ^"Coasts and Islands of the eastern south Pacific Ocean, 
north to Lower California; breeding as far north as Georges Island at 
the head of the Gulf of Califbmia. '^ (A. O. U.) 

1 1 6. Red-footed Booby (Sulapiscator), L. 2S. 
Feet reddish. Ads. White; head and nape straw 
color; primaries boary grayish brown; tail white, Yng. 
Above sooty brown; head, neck, and lower parts light 
smoky gray. (Ridgw.) 

Range.— Tropical seas, except Pacific coast of America (Cat. B. 
M.) ; north In Atlantic to Bahamas and, rarely, southern Florida. 



1 1 9. Cormorant {Thalacrocorax carbo). L. 36; T. 
7.5, of 14 feathers. /4ds. Ghin and sides of throat 
whitish; back glossy brownish, dtstinctly margined 
with black: below uniform shining black. Breeding 
plumage. Head and throat with white plumes; a white 
patch on flanks. Yng, Belly white: above olive 
grayish brown, margined with black; throat whitish; 
neck brownish. 

Range. — North Atlantic; breeds from Nova Scotia to Greenland; 
winters south to CaroUnas. 

120. Double-crested Cormorant (Tbalacrocorax 
dilopbus). L. 30: W. 12.5; T. 6,2. of 12 feathers. Ads, 
Back brownish with distinct black margins; below 
shining black. ' Breeding plumage. With tufts on 
either side of head black, sometimes mixed with white; 
throat pouch orange. Yng, Back browner; head, 
neck, and lower belly brown; breast whitish. 

Range. — Eastern North America; breeds locally from Bay of Fundy, 
Minnesota. North Dakota, northward; west to Asslnlboia; winters 
from southern Illinois and Virginia southward. 

120a. Florida Cormorant (P. ^. y/ortJaifffs). Simi- 
lar to No. 120, but blacker and smaller. L. 25. 

Range. — South Atlantic and Gulf States; breeds north to North 
CaroUna and southern Illinois. 

1 20b. White-ore8ted Cormorant (P. d, andnatus), 
SimiLir to No. 120, but larger, L. 36; nuptial crests 

Range. — Pacific coasts; breeds In Alaska; winters south to Cal- 

1 20c Farallone Cormorant {P, d. alhodliatus). 
Similar to i2Gb., but smaller, L. 28. 

Range. — Breeds on California coast and In interior, south to Socorro 
Island. (Ridgw.) 

121. Mexican Cormorant (Phalacrocorax mexican- 
us), L. 25. W. 10. Ads, Narrow border at base of 
pouch white. Breeding plumage. Neck with white 
plumes. Yng. Head and hindneck brownish; back 
grayish, margined with black: throat, foreneck and 
breast brownish white; belly black. 

Range. — Breeds In West Indies and Central America to west Gulf %wi^tbec 
States; north in summer rately to Kansas and southern Illinois. 



1 22. Brandt Cormorant (Phalacrocorax pemciHa" 
tus). L. 35; T. 6. Chin and sides of throat tuj^v 
xcbite or brownish. Ads, Above blue blackt/asniiy 
margined with black; below green black. Bre^^dinz 
plumage. With white, hairlike plumes from back and 
neck; no white on flanks; throat pouch blue. Yng* 
Above dark brown; throat and belly whitish; breast 
and sides brown. 

Ranj^e. — Pacific coast from Cape St Lucas to Washington; resi- 

123. Pelagic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax pelagict4s). 
L. 28; W. 10; T. 6.2. Forehead feathered\ back 
feathers not margined. Ads, Above glossy green and 
purplish black; below bottle jgreen. Breeding plumage. 
With white plumes on neck and rump and white 
patches on flanks; nape and forehead, crested. Yng, 
Above greenish dusky brown, less green below. 

Ranee. — "Aleutian and Kuril Islands, and Kamchatka, south to 
Japin"' (A. O. U.) 

123a. Violet-green Cormorant (P. p. robustus). 
Similar to No. 123, but larger; bill stouter, W. 10.8. 

Range.— Coast of Alaska, from Norton Sound sooth to Washington. " 
(A. O. U.) 

123b. Baird Cormorant CP. ^. r^5^/^ik/^ff5;. Sim- 
ilar to No. 123, but smaller; bill slenderer; W. 9.5. 
Notes. A croaking, guttural note. 

Range.— Pacific coast from Washington south to Mazatlan, Mexl- 

124. Red-faoed Cormorant (Phalaerocarax urUe). 
L. 34. Forehead as well as lores bare. Ads. Above 
green and purple; head and neck blue black; belly 
green. Breeding plumage. With forehead and nape 
crests and white patches on flanks. Notes. "A low, 
droning croak.'' (Nelson.) 

Range. — "Priblic f. Aleutian, and Kuril Islands, and coast of Kam- 
chatl<a. Souili in winter to northern Japan." (A. O. U-) 


Anhinga, Pelicans, and Man-o'-War Bird. 

118. Anhlnga; Snaicebird; Water Turkey (/fn- 
hmga anhinga). Ad, ^, Black; grayish head 
and neck plumes which, in winter, are absent Ad. 
9. Resembles male but whole head, neck, and 
breast brownish. Yng. Similar to V but black 
parts duller. Notes, A rasping, clattering croak, 
uttered when fighting or in coming to the nest 

Ran 8:6. — Tropical and subtropical America; breeds north to south - 
em Illinois and South Carolina; winters from Gulf States southward. 

125. American White Peiioan (^PtUcanus erytbror- 
hyncbus), L. 6o. Ads, White; primaries black; bill 
in breeding season with a knob. Yng, With crown 

Ransre: — North America; breeds In Interior from eastern California, 
Utah. Yellowstone Park, Minnesota (?) northward to Lat 6x^ ; win- 
ters from Gulf States and southern California, south to Central Amer- 

I 26. Brown Peiioan (PeUcanus occuUntalis). L. 50; 
W. 19.5. Ads, Pouch greenish; head white, rarely 
yellowish; neck brown. In fall, no brown on neck. 
Yng, Bro\vnish gray, white below. Notes, Adults as 
a rule silent; young before flying, very noisy. 

Range: — ^Atlantic and Gulf coast of tropical and subtropical Amer- 
ica; breeds from northern South America to South Carolina; has 
strayed to Illinois and Nova Scotia; winters from Gulf States south- 

1 27. California Brown Pelican (Ptlecanus californ' 

L. 54; w: 

icus). Similar to No. 126, but larger 
pouch in breeding season, red. 


Range. — Pacific coast from Galapagos north to British Columbia; 
creeds north only to Los Coronados Islands. 

128. Man-o'-War Bird; Frigate Bird (Fregata 
aquila), L. 40. Ad, (^, Black, glossy above; 
pouch "scarlet or orange.'* Ad, V. Browner; 
breast and belly white. Yng, Similar to ?, but 
head and neck white. Notes, usually silent; rarely a 
croaking note. 

Range: — ^Troplcal and subtropical coasts; In America north to 
Florida, fexas, and southern California; casually to Kansas. Ohio 
and Nova Scotia; winters from southern Florida and Lower Cal- 
fomla southward. 




Family 1. DUCKS, GEESE, and SWANS. Anatid.^. 49 
species, 6 subspecies. 

The Anatidse of North America are placed in five well-marked sub- 
families, the Mergansers {MergincB)^ River Ducks {Anatina), Sea Ducks 
i^Fuligulines) ^ Geese i^Anserina: ) ^ and Swans (Cygnincs), 

The Mergansers, Saw-bills, or Shelldrakes are fish-eating Ducks and 
their rounded bills, set with toothlike projections along the sides, are 
of evident use to them in holding their prey. 

The River Ducks include such well-known species as the Mallard, 
Black Duck, and Widgeon. They differ from the Bay or Sea Ducks 
in not having a well-developed web or flap on the hind-toe. As a 
rule they feed in shallow water by tipping, standing on their heads, as 
it were, while reaching the bottom for food. 

The Bay or Sea Ducks have the hind-toe webbed. They feed, as a 
rule, in deeper water than the River Ducks, sometimes descending to 
the bottom in water over one hundred feet deep. During the winter 
they gather in flocks often of several thousand individuals, and fre- 
quent the larger bodies of water. 

With both the River and Bay Ducks the sides of the broad, flat bill 
are set with gutters which serve as strainers, retaining the mollusks, 
seeds and roots of aquatic plants on which these Ducks feed, while the 
mud or water taken in with the food is forced out the sides of the bill 
as it closes. 

Geese are more terrestrial than Ducks and often visit the land to nip 
the grass. This is particularly true in the west where large flocks of 
Geese, especially Snow Geese, may be seen feeding on the prairies. 
On the water they feed over shallows by tipping and probing the 

Swans also feed from the surface of the water either by simply im- 
mersing the head and neck or by half submerging the body, when, with 
the tail pointed to the zenith, the length of their reach is greatly in- 

In spite of their comparatively short wings the large muscles attach- 
ed to them give to the Anatidae great power of flight. Not only do 
they make extended journeys, when migrating, wdthout a rest, but they 
attain a speed which is surpassed by but few birds. Some of the 
smaller species, when alarmed, doubtless flying at the rate of one 
hundred miles an hour. 

In common with other diving water birds the Ducks, when molting, 
lose most of their wing feathers all at once, and for a time are there- 
fore unable to fly. During this comparatively helpless period the 
brightly colored males assume in part the plumage of the females and 


Ducks, Geese, and Swans. 

are thereby rendered less conspicuous. With the return of the power 
of flight, however, they regain their distinctive, male plumage, v/hich 
is usually brighter than that of the female. With our Geese and Swans 
there is no sexual difference in color. 

Most of our Ducks and Geese breed in the north, some within the 
Arctic Circle, and winter from the southern limit of frozen water south- 
ward. The American Merganser, Hooded Merganser, Wood Duck, 
Buffle-head, Golden-Eyes, Tree Ducks, and possibly Harlequin Duck 
nest in hollow trees, at times some distance from the water. The 
young of the American Golden-eye and of the Wood Duck have been 
seen to reach the water by jumping from the nest-hole and fluttering 
down in response to the calls of the parent below. It is said that they 
are also brought down in the bill of the old bird, but this statement 
apparently lacks confirmation. 

The remaining species of our Ducks, Geese, and Swans, nest as a 
rule, on the ground generally near water. From five to fifteen and, in 
the case of the Fulvous Tree Duck, possibly as many as thirty eggs are 
laid. In color they vary from white to buffy and pele olive and are al- 
ways uniformly colored. Incubation is performed by the female alone. 
The males at this period among most Ducks deserting their mate to un- 
dergo the partial molt before mentioned. While incubating the females 
surround their nest with soft down plucked from their bodies and when 
leaving the nest to feed, this down is drawn over the eggs with the 
double object, doubtless, of concealing them and of keeping them 

With Eider Ducks this down constitutes the larger part of, if not 
the entire nest. Saunders states that in Iceland the down in each nest 
weighs about one-sixth of a pound. This is gathered by the natives, 
who, however, are careful to afford the sitting bird an opportunity to 
raise her brood without further molestation. 

The collection of Eider down thus furnishes an admirable illustra- 
tion of proper economic relations between man and birds. The down 
is an important source of income to the natives of the comparatively 
barren, northern countries in which the Eiders nest. So long as man 
can remember it has been gathered annually. Still the Ducks con- 
tinue to return in numbers year after year to the same region, per- 
haps the exact spot in which they nested the year before. 

Less intelligent methods would perhaps rob the bird of its second, as 
well as of its first nest and, unable to reproduce its kind, the species 
would become extinct within a comparatively short period. 

The evils which would follow such a course are, however, thorough- 
ly understood. The Ducks, in the first place, are encouraged in every 
way. It is said that should one walk into a peasant^s cabin and pre- 
empt his cot as a nesting-site, the peasant would gladly givQ up his bed 
to so valuable a visitor. 



129. American Merganser (Merganser americanus). 
L. 25; B. from nostril, 1.5; nostril midway between 
eye and tip of bill, ^d, ^, No band of streaks on 
breast; no crest. j4d, 9 • and Yng, Cbin white; crown 
and throat reddish brown j rest of underparts and spec- 
ulum white; above and tail ashy. 

Range.— North America; breeds from New Brunswick, rarely 
mountainsof Pennsylvania, Minnesota, and mountains of Colorado 
and California northward: winters from Maine and British Columbia 
south to South Carolina and southern California. 

1 30. Red-breasted Merganser (^Mergatiser serratoi). 
L. 22: B. from nostril, 1.8; nostril nearer to eye than to 
tip of bill. Ad, c?. Breast with a broad cinnamon 
band streaked with black; head feathers lengthened. 
Ad. $ and Yng. Crown grayish brown, washed with 
rusty. Chin and throat palerj rest of underparts and 
speculum white: back and tail ashy. Notes. When 
alarmed, several low, guttural croaks. (Elliot.) 

Range.— Northern hemisphere: breeds, in America, from New Bruns- 
wickand northern Illinois north to Greenland and Alaska: winters 
from southern breeding limits, south to Cuba and Lower California. 

131. Hooded Merganser (Lophodvtes cucuUatus). 
L. 17.5. Ad. (^, A large, circular black and white 
crest. Ad. ? Yng. A small cinnamon crest, head, 
neck and breast grayish brown: back, blackish; belly 
white. Notes. "A hoarse croak, like a small edition 
of that of the Red-breasted Merganser." (Elliot. ) 

Range.— North America from Cuba and Lower California north to 
Labridorand Alaska; breeds locally throu^out its range, chiefly in 
Interior of British America; winters from British Columbia, Illinois, 
and Massachusetts southward. 

32. Mallard (Anas boschas). L. 23. Speculum 

patch in wing; purple bordered by black and white; 

nder surface of wing pure white. Ad, ^f . Head 

/green; breast chestnut, a white neck-ring. Ad, ?. 

/ Above blackish and buffy, below rusty buff mottled 

with dusky grayish brown. Notes. The familiar 

quack of the barnyard Duck. 

"^ Range.— Northern hemisphere; breeds. In America, from Labrador, 
Indiana, Iowa, and California north to Greenland and Alaska; winters 
from British Columbia, Kansas, and New Jersey to Central America 
^nd West Indies. 

143. Pintail {Dafila acuta) . . L. rj^, 28; 9, 22. 
' ^' ' Ion 


Central tail feathers black, 7.5 Fong, pointed. Ad. 
^. Tail 3.5,; feathers sharply pointed; brownish black, 
with buff bars; under wing-coverts dusky and buffi 
back blackish with internal buff loops. Notes, A loud 
qt^acky less sonorous than that of the Mallard; a low 
niellow whistle, and a harsh rolling note. (Nelson.) 

Range.— Northern hemisphere; breeds. In America, from New Bruns- 
wick, Iowa. Illinois, and British Columbia northward; winters from 
British Columbia, Illinois, and Virginia, south to Central America and 
West Indies. 



133. Black Duok (^nas obscura). L. 22. * Ads. 
Speculum bluish purple tipped with black; no white in 
wing; lining of wing white and dtuky; crown without 
paler margins; throat, usually, without markings; legs 
'•olivaceous brown" bill "greenish black, dusky olive, 
or olive-green." Notis. A qujck resembling that of 
the Mallard. 

Range. — Eastern North America; chiefly east nf Mississippi; breeds 
locally from New Jersey and Illinois north to Labrador and Hudson 
Bay; winters from Maine to West Indies. 

133a. Red-legged Black Duck (/^. o. rubripes). 
Similar to No. 133 but larger; crown edged with Duff 
or gray; throat spotted; lees red: bill yellow. 

Range. — Summer range not definitely known, but breeding speci- 
mens have been taicen in northern Labrador. James Bay. and west 
shore of Hudson Bay; In winter south to Virginia and Arlcansas. 

134. Florida Duck i/tnasfulvigula), L. 20. Ads. 
Throat and front of neck plain buff, usually unmarked; 
speculum sometimes tipped with white; belly rusty 
buff; broadly streaked with black. Notes. A quack sim- 
ilar to that of No. 133, 

Range. — Florida to coast of Louisiana; resident. 

i34a. R^ottled Duck (//./. maculosa). Similar to 
No. 134, butunderparts mo//i<?i with black the mark- 
ings being rounder. 

Range.— eastern Texas; breeds (at least) from Corpus Chrlsti 
noitb to Kansas; winters on west Gulf Coas t. 

135. Qadwall {Cbaulelasmus strepera). L. 19.5. 
Under wing coverts and axillars pure wbiie. Ad. 
c?. Wing-coverts chestnut; breast ringed with 
white. Ad. ? . Head and throat as in cf, back fuscous 
and buffy; breast and sides ochraceous thickly spotted 
with blackish ; speculum ashy gray and white. Notes. 
A quack like that of the Mallard but shriller and more 
often repeated. 

Range.— Northern hemisphere: in America, breeds In the Interior 
from Kansas and California north to Manitoba and Assinibola; winters 
from Maryland to Rorida, rare in northeastern Atlantic States. 

136. Widgeon {Mareca penelope). L. 18.5. Ad. ^. 
Head and neck reddish brown; crown buff; sides with 
wavy black and white lines. Ad. ? . Head and throat 
rusty y finely streaked and barred with black; breast and 
sides rusty; speculum blackish. Notes. Of male, a 
shrill, whistling wbee-j^au] of female, a low, purring 
growl. (Saunders.) 

Range. — Northern hemisphere; breeds in America, only In the 
Aleutian Islands; casual In migrations and In winter In California and 
on Atlantic coast from North Carolina to Greenland. 

137. Baldpate (Mareca americana). L. 19. No 
rusty on head. Ad. c?. Under tail-coverts black; 
streak from eye to nape glossy green. Ad. ?. Head 
and throat whitish finely marked with black; breast and 
sides rusty washed with grayish. Notes, **A low, 
soft whistle." (Elliot.) 

Range. — North America; breeds in the interior from Minnesota and 
British Columbia north to Alaska; winters from British Columbia and 
Virginia south to South America; only a migrant on northeast Atlantic 
coast to Labrador. 



139. Green-winged Teal [Ndtion caroUtunsis). L. 
14.5. Wing-cc verts gray, tipped with buff or white. 
/Id, c?. A white crescent in front of wing; speculum 
•wing-patch) green bordered by black tipped with 
white. Ad, 9. Wings as in cr; throat and sides of 
neck white, finely spotted with black; breast and sides 
washed with rusty, marked with black. Notes. A 
"peculiar chirping almost a twittering" as they fly. 

Range.— North America; breeds from New Brunswick. Minnesota, 
and British Columbia north to Greenland and Alaska; winters from 
Virginia. Kansas, and British Columbia south to Central America and 
West Indies. 

1 40. Blue-winged Teal {Querqusdula discors) . Wing- 
coverts blue. Ad. cf . Chwk patch white. Ad. ? . 
Resembles $ of No. 139, but wing-coverts blue; spec- 
ulum greenish brown not distinctly tipped with white. 
L. 16. 

Range.— North America; chiefly east of Rockies; breeds from New 
Brunswick. Kansas, southern Illinois and northern Ohio, north to 
Alaska, mainly in Interior: winters from Virginia and Lower Mississippi 
Valley to northern South America, Oilifornla. and Lower California. 

141. OXnntLmonJedX {Qusrquedula<^anopiira). Ad, 
c?. Head and neck, breast sna sides reddish brown. 
tj^d. ?. Resembles ? of No. 140, but the underparts, 
including tbraat, are usually suffused with rusty, the 
throat often being blackish or speckled with dusky. 
NoUs, A rather thin, nasal quack. L. 16. 

Range.— Western North America from British Columbia south to 
South America, east to Rockies and southern Texas; rarely to Fkw- 

142. Shoveller (Spatula clypeata). L. 20. Bill 
much broader at tip than at bjise. Ad. c? . Belly chest- 
nut; breast around to back white. Ad. 9- Wing- 
coverts blue; back conspicuously margined with buff. 
Notes. * 'Occasionally a few feeble quacks." (Elliot.) 

Range.— Northern hemisphere; in America chiefly In Interior; breeds 
locally from Texas, and regularly from Minnesota and British Colum- 
bia north to Alaska and Barren Grounds; winters from British Colum- 
bia, Illinois, and Maryland south to northern South America. 

144. Wood Duck M/x 5^t>«5a). L. 18.5. Ad. S". 
Head crested; green,blue, and purple with white stripes. 
Ad. 9. A white streak through and behind eye; crown 
glossy purplish brown; back olive-brown glossed with 
greenish. Notes. A frightened, plaintive, oo-eek. 

Rang^e.— North Amerkra; breeds locally from Rorida to Labrador 
and British Columbia, winters from British Columbia, southern 
Illinois, and southern New Jersey, south tc southern California and 



1 46. Redhead {Ayifya americana). L. 19. y4d, cf. 
Head and upper neck enlirefy bright reddish brown. 
Ad. 9. Throat white; back grayish brown without 
fine bars; speculum gray. Notes. **A hoarse guttural 
rolling sound.'* (Elliot.) 

Range.— North America; breeds chiefly In Interior from Maine. 
Minnesota, and Callfomlji north to Labrador and British Columbia: 
winters from British Columbia and Maryland south to Lower Cali- 
fornia and West Indies. 

147- Canvas-back (/(y^a r<j//««^r/a). L. 21. Ad. 
^. Head and tpAo/^ neck itt// reddish brown. Md. ?. 
Head and neck rusty grayish brown; back grayish 
brown f finely barred with black and white. Notes. **A 
harsh guttural croak.'* (Elliot.) 

Rani^e.— Nortii America: breeds only In interior from Minnesota 
and Oreeon north to Alaska and the Barren Grounds: winters from 
British Columbia and Maryland south to southern California. Mexico 
and West Indies. 

1 48. American Scaup Duck [Aythya marila). L^ 
ff, 18.5; ?, 17-5- ^d' d- Head glossed with green- 
ish; sides without distinct black bars. Ad. ^. Feath- 
ers about base of bill white; breast and back rusty 
grayish brown; speculum white. Notes. "Similar to 
Bie guttural sound made by the Canvas-back, Red- 
head and other diving Ducks." (Elliot.) 

Rang^e. — Northern parts of nortiiem hemisphere: in America, breeds hi 
the interior rarely from Mlnne^ta. and regulariy from North Daicota 
nonhward; winters from Long: island to nonhem South America. 

149. Letser Scaup Duck {Aythya affim's). L. c? 17; 
9,16.5. Ad. (^. Head glossed with purplish; sides 
with distinct black bars. Ad. ? . Similar to $ of No. 
148, but smaller. 

Range.— North America; breeds only In interior from Iowa rarely. 
North Dakota commonlv. and British Columbia, north to Barren 
Grounds: winters from British Columbia and Vlrg^inia south to Guat- 
emala and West Indies. 

16.5. 1 

1 50. Ring-necked Duck {Aytbya collaris). L. 
Ad. c?. A chestnut neck-ring: chin white; back black; 
speculum ^roy. Ad. 9- Feathers about sides of base 
of bill and^throat white, back and breast rusty grayish 1 
brown: speculum gray. Resembles ? of No. 146, but I 
is smaller and rustier. \ 

Range.— North America: bre#dinjf only In the interior from Minne- 
sota northward; winters from Maryland and British Columbia south 
to Guatemala and West Indies: rare on Atlantic coast north of Mary- 



151. American Golden-eye (Clangula americana). 
L. 20. Ad. (^. Head ffreenishy white patch at base of 
b\\\ circular. Ad. 9- Head and throat brown; breast 
and back gray, a white throat-ring; belly and specu- 
lum white. Notes. Rarely a low croak; a high whistle- 
ling sound produced by wings in flight. 

Ranee. — North America; breeds from Maine, northern Minnesota, 
and Alberta, north to Arctic Refrlons; winters from southern Alaska, 
the Great Lakes and Maine, south to Mexico and Cuba. 

152. Barrow Golden-eye (Clangula islandica), L. 
2o. Ad. cf. Head purplish blue; white patch at base 
of bill txcice as high as wide. Ad. 9 . Resembles 9 of 
No. 151. Notes. A high whistling made by wings in 
flight, probably also a low croaking as in No. 151. 

Range. — Northern North America; breeds from Gulf of St.Lawrence. 
and mountains of Colorado north to southern Greenland; winters south 
to Virginia, Illinois, and California. 

153. Buffle-head (Charitonetta albeola). L. 14.7. 
Ad. cf . Head bluef, purple, and green; a white band 
from eye to eye across nape. Ad. 9 . A whitish patch 
on either side of head; throat and upper parl!s grayish 
brown; belly and speculum white. Notes, A single 
guttural note like a small edition of the Canvas-back's 
roll. (Elliot.) 

Ranee. — North America; breeds from Maine. Iowa, and British 
Columbia northward; winters from southern limit of breedinf^ range 
to West Indies and Mexico. 

167. Ruddy Duck (Erismatura iamaicensis), L . 15. 
Tail-feathers narrow and stiff; Sill short (1.5) and 
broad. Ad. c?. Cheeks white» cap black, back red- 
dish brown. Ad. 9. A whitish streak through dusky 
cheeks; back grayish brown with fine buffy bars; 
belly silvery whitish. Yng, c?. Similar, but cheeks 
all white or whitish. 

Range. — ^Western hemisphere from northern South Americi to 
Hudson Bay; breeds locally throughout Its range, but chiefly north- 
ward: winters from New Jersey, southern Illinois and California 

168. Masked Duck (Nomonyx dominicus). L. 14. 
Tail-feathers long, (4.5) narrow, stiff and pointed. 
Ad. cf . Front of head black; behind it reddish brown 
all around; white in wing. Ad. 9. A brownish 
streak through eye: buffy streaks above and below it; 
back blackish regularly barred with buff; below washed 
with rusty- 
Range — Tropical America north to Lower Rio Grande; accidental In 
Wisconsin. Lake Champlain. and Massachusetts. 



154. Old-squaw (Harelda hyemalts). L. cT* 21; ?, 
i6;T. rf, 8; ?,2.5. No colored speculum. Ad. cT- 
CcntraT tail-feathers much lengthened; in winter, 
crown, nape, throat, and neck all around white. In 
summer, black, with rusty markings on back. Ad, 9- 
winter. Cheeks, neck all around, and underparts white; 
breast and sides of neck dusky. In summer, crown, 
chedcs and nape blackish, throat and breast dusky; a 
whitish patch back of eye. Notes. In spring, a rich, 
musical orUedU-a, frequently repeated m deep, reed- 
like tones. (Nelson.) Also ^^(Mmc-o-onc-ougb-egh- 
ougb-€gb, ' * ( Mackay . ) 

Ranee. — Northern hemisphere; breeds from northern Labrador and 
Alentian Islands north to Arctic Ocean; winters south to Vir^nia, 
Upper Mississippi Valley, and California, "rarely to Florida and Tex- 

155. Hw\et\\k\T\ DyxcVi (Histrionicus histrionicus), L. 
17. Ad. (^. Back and breast slaty blue; head darker. 
Ad. ?. Front half of cheeks and spot over ears 
whitish; above blackish brown; below dusky and 
whitish. Notes. "A confusion of low gabbling and 
chattering notes." (Nelson.) 

Range. — "Northern North America, breedings from Newfoundland. 
the northern Rocky Mountains, and the Sierra Nevadas (latitude 
38® ). northward; south In winter to the Middle States and California; 
eastern Asia, Iceland." (A. O. U.) 

156. Lsbrador Duck (Camptolaimus labradorius), 
L. 20. Ad. c?. Primaries blackish; rest of wing 
white. Ad. ?. Ashy gray: speculum white. Yng. 
<^. Like ?, but throat and ends of greater wing- 
coverts white. 

- Range.— Formerly North Atlantic coast; bred from Labrador north- 
ward; wintered south to New Jersey; believed to be extinct; 
last records. Grand Menan, New Brunswick, 1871; Long Island, 1875. 

157. Steller Eider (Eniconetta stellm). L. 18. 
j4d. cf. Throat and neck black nearly divided by a 
white ring; top and sides of head white, forehead and 
nape greenish; breast chestnut. Ad. ?. Above and 
below black and rusty; speculum purple bordered with 
white; tail feathers pointed. 

Range.— "Arctic and cubarctlc coasts of the northern hemisphere, 
Aleutian Islands, east to Unalaska and Kadlak; Kenal Peninsula." 
(A. O. U.) 



158. Speciao\ed Elder i^rctotuttafisch^rs), L.i 
y4d, c?. Front of head plush-like; cushiony p 
around eyes; above largely white; breast slaty bU 
belly black. 

Ranee.— "Alaskan coast cf Berine Sea and north to Point Bamy 
(A. O. U.) ^ 

159. Greenland Eider {Somateria mollissima barea/m 
L. 23. Feathers on sides of bill reaching to nostril 
bare spaces on either side of feathers on culmen pot/iA 
at base (posteriorly.) /4d, cf. Crown black with 1 
white weclge. j4d. ?. Brownish black above mai 
gined with rusty and buff; below dusky finely mal 
gined with buff. Yng. cf . Similar to 9 but moi 
Duffy. Notes, **A sort of cooing sound" in thj 
breeding season. (Elliot.) A raucous, moaninfl 
'ba ho, 7/a Aa; female's like that of Mallard. (Urunnich-i 

Rans^e.— Northeastern North America; breeds from Labrador tt 
Greenland; winters south to Massachusetts. ~ 

160. kmenoan Elder (Somaieriadressen). L. 23. 
Similar in color to No. 159, but bare spaces on either 
side of feathers of culmen rounded at the base (poster- 

Range. — Northeastern North America: breeds from Isle au Haut. 
Maine, to Labrador; winters south to New Jersey and Great Lakes. 

161. Pacific Eider (Soniatma v-nigra). Similar 
to No. 159, but Ad. cf with a black V on throat; sides of 
bill more broadly feathered, distance from end of 
feathers to base of bare space on culmen less than 
distance from same place to end of bill. Notes. "A 
low guttural note.'* (Nelson.) 

Range.— North Pacific from Aleutian Islands north to Arctic Ocean 
east to Great Slave Lake. 

162. King Eider {Somateria spcctabilis). L. 23. 
Feathers at side of bill not reaching nostril. Ad. cf . 
White patch on either side of rump; crown ashy blue. 
Ad. 9 and Yng, Resembling same.plumages of No. 159 
and No. 160. 

Ran^. — Northern hemisphere; breeds from Labrador and St 
Michaels. Alaska north to Greenland and Arctic Ocean; winters 
south to New Jersey (rarely G«.). and Great Lakes; one GilifornU 



163. AmerioM Scoter (OtJ^mia americana) . L. 19. 
[thers at base of bill not extending forward on sides 
op. y4d. rf . Wholly black; bill black, yellow at 
j4d. $. Brpwnish above, lighter below; no 
hite on wing or on sides of head. Notes. A long 
sical whistle. (Elliot.) 

I Range. — Northern North America; breeds from Labrador and Alas- 
t shores of Bering Sea northward; winters south to Virginia, Great 
»s, Colorado, and California. 

165. White-winged Scoter {Oidemia deglandt). 
22. A white patch on wing; feathers extending 
Iforward along sides and top of bill nearly to nostrils. 
'Wd, c^. Black, a white spot about eye; bill orange, 
wlackatbase. Ad. ?. Dusky brown above; lighter 
ftelow. Yng. cT- Similar but sides and front of head 

Range.— Northern North America; breeds from Labrador and North 
Dakota rwrthward; winters south to Virginia, southern Illinois, and 
Lower California. 

' 166. SurfSooter {Oidemia perspicillata) . L. 20. 
• Feathers extending forward on top of bill. Ad, ^. 
Black, nape and crown white; bill orange, yellow, and 
white, a round black patch on its sides. Ad, $. 
Above black, throat and breast paler; belly whitish; 
a whitish patch at base of bill. Yng, Similar but 
with white patches on ears. 

Range.— Northern North America; breeds from Newfoundland 
northw.ird; winters south to Virginia. Florida, Illinois, and Lower Cal- 

177. Biaolc-beiiied Tree Ducic (T>endrocygna au- 
tumnalis), L. 22. Ads, Belly and tail coverts black\ 
foreback and breast gray; greater wing-coverts 
whitish. Notes, A shrill whistle. (Elliot) 

Range.— Tropical America north to southern Texas. 

178. Fulvous Tree DucIc {'Dendrocygna fulva), 
L. 22. Ads, Belly uniform rusty brown; upper tail 
coverts white; a black streak on hindneck; no white in 
wing. Notes. A squealing whistle. 

Range. — Tropical America, north in summer to Texas, Louisiana. 
Nevada and central California. "Casual In North Carolina and 
Missouri." (A. O. U.) 


Geese and Swans. 

1 69. Lesser Snow Goose {Chen hyperbor$d). L. 
25-28, Ads, White, head sometimes rusty; primaries 
black. Yng. Head, neck, and above grayish. 

Range.— "Pacific coast to the Mississippi Valley, breeding In Alas- 
ka: south in winter to southern Illinois and southern California; cas- 
ually to New England." (A. O. U. ) 

1 69a. Greater Snow Goose (C. 

larto No. 169, but larger, L. 30-38. 

h, nivalis). Sim- 

Range. — Eastern North America; breeds In Arctic regions; winters 
from Qiespeake. New Jersey (rarely) south to Cuba; rare on Atlantic 
coast north of Maryland. 

170. Ross Snow Goose (Cbm rossii). L. 21; B. 
1.6. Similar in color to No. 169, but much smaller; bill 
particularly smaller. 

Range. — Arctic America in summer; Pacific coast to soutbem 
Callfbmia and east to Montana in winter. 

180. Whistling Swan (Olor colunibianus), L. $5. 
Nostril nearer to tip of bill than to eye. Ads, White, 
bill and feet black; a small yellow spot before the eye. 
Yng, Head and neck brownish, rest of plumage 
washed with grayish. Notes, ^whoogby ^tokoogb^ very 
loud and shrill. (Nuttall.) 

Range.— North America: breeds within Arctic Circle; winters 
from British Columbia (? ) Lower Mississippi Valley.Chesapeake Bay. 
south to Gulf of Mexico; rare on Atlantic Coast north of Virginia. 

181. Trumpeter Swan (Olor buccinator), L. 65. 
Nostril about in middle of bill. Ads, White, bill and 
feet black; >?a yellow on lores. Yng, Head and neck 
brownish; rest ot plumage washed with grayish. Notes, 
Loud and sonorous in tone like those of a French horn. 

Range.— "Chiefly the interior of North America, from the Gulf Coast 
to the Fur Countries, breeding from Iowa and the Dakotas north- 
ward; west to the Pacific Coast; rare or casual on the Atlantic." (A. 
O. l/.) 



169.1. Blue Gw>te (Cbett carruUsc^ns), L. 28. j4ds. 
Head and neck white; below brownish gray; foreback 
like breast; rump gray. Yng, Similar but head and 
neck grayish brown. 

Ran8:e.— North America; breeds In Hudson Bay region; winters on 
west coast of the Gulf of Mexico; two California records; said to 
have occurred in New Jersey. 

1 7 1 a. American White-fronted Gooae i/4ns^ albi- 
frans gambeli), L. 28. Ads, Forehead and rump 
white; below spotted with black. Yng. Similar but 
no white on head no black below. 

Range.— North America; breeds in Arctic region; winters on Gulf 
Coast. California and Mexico; rare on Atlantic coast. 

1 76. Emperor Goose {Tbilacte catiagica), L. 26. 
Ads. Foreneck blackish; rest of head and neck white 
sometimes tinged with rusty; tail mostly white. Yng. 
Body less distinctly scaled-, head and hind-neck spotted 
with grayish. Notes. When flying, a deep, hoarse, 
strident cla-ha, da-ha^da-ha; when alarmed and about 
to fly, a ringing a-iagh, -aiagh. (Nelson.) 

Range. — ^"Coast and islands of Alaska north of the Peninsula; 
chiefly about Norton Sound and Valley of the Lower Yukon; Com- 
mander Islands. Kamchatka; casually south to Humboldt Bay, Cal- 
tfbmla." (A. O. U.) 


Geese and Brant. 

17 2. Canada Goose {Branta canadensis), L. 38. 
Ads, A white patch on cheeks and throat; rest of 
head and neck black; no whitish ring at base of black 
neck. Yng, Similar but with blackish on white of 
throat. Notes, A sonorous bonk. 

Range.— North America; breeds from Labrador. Minnesota and 
British Columbia, north chiefly in the interior, to Alaska; winters 
from Long Island. Illinois and British Columbia south to Mexico and 
southern California. 

172a. Hutohins Goose (B, c . butcbinsii). Simi- 
lar to No. 172, but smaller; L. 30; tail feathers, 14-16. 

Range.— Western North America; breeds in Arctic regions; winters 
from British Columbia and Kansas south to Lower California and 

172b. White-cheeked Goose {B, c, ocddentalis). 
Size of No. 172, but throat blackish, lower neck with 
white collar. 

Range. — "Pacific coast region, from Sitka, south in winter to Cal- 
ifornia." (A. O. U.) 

1 72c. Cackling Goose CB. c minima). Similar to 
No. 172b, but smaller, L. 24; tail feathers 14-16. 

Range, — Western North America; breeds in Alaska; winters from 
British Columbia southward; east rarely to Wisconsin. 

173. Bnn\ (Brantabermclaglaucogastra). L. 26. 
Ads. Sides of neck with white markings; belly whiiisk. 
Notes. A guttural car-r-rupy or r-r-r-rouk, (Elliot.) 

Range.— Northern hemisphere; breeds in Arctic regions; winters In 
America, from Mississippi Valley east, and from Illinois and Massa- 
chusetts southward; rare in interior. 

I 74. Black Brant CBratita nigricans), L. 26. Ads, 
Sides and frofit of neck with white markings; belly 
nearly as dark as back. Notes. A low guttural gr-r-r- 
r-r; on alarm repeated often with emphasis. (Nelson.) 

Range.— Western North America; breeds in northern Alaska and 
eastw.ird; winiers from British Columbia to Lower California; occas- 
ional on Atlantic Coast. 




Family 1. FLAMINGOES. PncENicoPTERiDiE. 1 species. 

Flamingoes might be called long-legged Ducks. Their feet are 
webbed, and their bill is set with ridges, which serve as sieves or 
strainers, as do the 'gutters' on a Duck's bill. They are, however, 
wading birds and their webbed feet are of use in supporting them on 
the soft mud of shallow lagoons or bays where they search for the fav- 
orite food of small mollusks. In feeding the flat top of the bill is 
pressed into the mud when its tip points upward toward the bird's 
body. Flamingoes fly with the neck and legs stretched to the utmost 
presenting on the wing a picturesque, but by no means so graceful an 
appearance as do the Herons. Their voice is a vibrant honking like 
that of a Goose. 



Family 1. SPOONBILLS. Plataleid^. 1 species. 

Family 2. IBISES. Ibidid^e. 3 species. 

Family 3. STORKS and WOOD IBISES. Ciconiid^. 1 species. 

Family 4. BITTERNS, HERONS, ETC. Ardeid.e. 14 species, 
3 subspecies. 

The Roseate Spoonbill was formerly a common bird in Florida and 
along the Gulf coast, but so many have been killed for their plumage 
that in the United States the species is now exceedingly rare except in 
the most remote parts of southern Florida. 

Spoonbills build a rude nest of sticks in mangrove bushes or small 
trees and lay three to five whitish eggs speckled with shades of brown. 

Ibises are usually found in flocks along the shore of lagoons, lakes, 
etc., or in marshy places. They fly with the neck outstretched and are 
generally silent. Their nests of reeds, weed stalks, etc., are some- 


Herons, Storks, Ibises, Etc. 

times placed in low bushes, at others in grrassy marshes. The eggs 
number from three to five. They are plain blue in the Glossy Ibis, 
greenish white with chocolate markings, in the White Ibis. 

The Storks are largely Old World birds, only three of the some 
twenty known species inhabiting the Western Hemisphere. But one 
of these is found regularly north of the Rio Grande, the so-called Wood 
Ibis which is abundant in southern Florida. It lives in flocks and 
builds a nest of sticks usually in cypress trees, often forty feet from 
the ground, laying two or three white eggs. When flying the neck is 
extended. It progresses by alternate flapping and sailing and occa- 
sionally soars high overhead in circles, like a Vulture. 

The Bitterns and Herons unlike our other long-legged wading birds, 
fly with a fold in the neck. They belong in two subfamilies, the 
BotaurincB and ArdeincSy respectively. The Bitterns are usually soli- 
tary birds inhabiting grassy or reedy marshes where their colors har- 
monize with their surroundings and render them difficult to see. The 
American Bittern nests on the ground and lays three to five pale 
brownish eggs. The Least Bittern usually weaves a platform nest 
of reeds among rushes growing in the water and lays four or five bluish 
white eggs. 

Herons feed along the shore' and are consequently more often 
seen than Bitterns. With the exception of the Green Heron and the 
Yellow-crowned Night Heron, which usually nest in isolated pairs, our 
species gather in colonies to nest. Several hundred pairs occupying 
a limited area in s ome wooded or bushy swamp to which, when imdis- 
turbed, they return :year after year. 

Herons build a rude platform nest of sticks, sometimes placing it in 
bushes, sometimes in the tallest trees, and at others on the ground or 
beds of reeds in marshes. The eggs are greenish blue in color and 
usually -four in number. It is among those Herons, which in nesting 
time are adorned with delicate plumes or aigrettes, that the greatest 
ravages of the millinery hunter have been made. Attacking these 
birds when they have gathered on the nesting ground, they are not 
permitted to rear their young and the species is thus exterminated 
branch and root. 

The voice of Herons is a harsh squawk varying in depth of tone with 
the 9ize^ of the bird. 

Flamingo, Spoonbill and Ibis. 

182. Flamingo (Phctm'copierus ruber), L. 45; from 
toe to bill, 60. /4ds, Rosy red, lighter on back; prim 
arics and secondaries black. Yng, Smaller, grayish 
brown: lighter below. NoUs, A bonk resembling that 
that or a Canada Goose. 

Rjuige.— Atlantic coasts of tropical and subtropical America; resi- 
dent (brMdln;?) In southwestern Florida (Monroe county); casual 
west to Texas, nortli to South Carolina. 

183. Roseate Spoonbill (^/Ijaia ajajd), L. 32. 
^ds. Head and throat bare; sides of breast and end 
of tail rusty buff; lesser wing-coverts, upper and under 
tail-coverts carmine. Yng. Head feathered, buff and 
carmine replaced by pink. 

Ran Ke.— Tropical and subtropical America; north to Gulf States. 

185. Scarlet Ibis (Guara rubra), L. 24. ^ds. 
Scarlet: tips of primaries black. Yng, Grayish brown, 
lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts white; under- 
parts dull white. 

Range. "Florida, Louisiana and Texas, southward to the West 
Indies and northern South America. No record of its recent occur- 
rence in the United States. " (A. O. U.) 




184. White Ibis {Guara alba), L. 25. ^ds. 
While, tips of outer primaries black, face orange red. 
Yng, Grayish brown, rump, breast and belly white. 
NoUs, When near nest, crook, ctoo, cfoo\ when dis- 
turbed, a loud, hoarse, hunk, bunk, hunk. (Audubon). 

Range.— Tropical America; breeds north to Lower California, 
southern Indiana, southern Illinois and South Carolina; winters from 
Gulf southward; accidental In South Dakota. Connetlcut and Lon^ 

186. Giossy Ibis (PUgadis auiumnalis), L. 24. 
^ds. Front of head black with greenish reflections. 
Yn^. Head and neck fuscous brown margined with 
white, rest of underparts fuscous brown; back with 
greenish reflections. 

Ran^. — Tropical and subtropical reeions In America; rare or local 
In southeastern United States; casual north to Massachusetts and 

187. White-faoed Glossy Ibis (PUfodis guarauna). 
L. 24. j4ds. Front of head wbite. Yng, Resembles 
young of 1^0. 186. 

Range. Tropical and subtropical America; north to California, 
(rarely British Columbia), Texas, Kansas, east rarely to Florida; 
winters south of United States. 

1 88. Wood Ibis (Tantalus loculator). L. 40. /ids. 
Head and neck bare; white, primaries, secondaries and 
tail blackish. Yn^. Resembles ad. but head and 
neck feathered, grayish brown. Notf. When alarm* 
ed, a rough, guttural croak. (Audubon.) 

Range.— Tropical and subtropical America; breeds In Gulf States, 
(Lower California?), and latter may stray as far north as NewYcrk, 
Wisconsin, and California. 



190. American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus). 

L. 28. Ads. A glossy black streak on either side of 

the neck. Yng, Similar to ad. but colors much deep- 

, er, more rusty. Notes, Call, quawk\ song, pump-er- 


Rang^e.— North Ameriainorth to Labrador and British Columbia, 
breeding: chiefly north of latitude 3s ^ ; winters from about latitude 35^ 

191. Least Bittern (//rflf<?«a /xi7i5). L. 13. Ad. 
cf. Hindneck rufous, foreneck, underparts, and under 
tail<overts white and buff. Ad, 9 . Similar, but crown 
and back brown, below streaked with brownish. 
Sotes. Call, an explosive quab\ song, a soft coo repeat- 
ed four or five times. 

Range.— North America: breeds from Gulf States to New Bruns- 
wick and Manitoba; winters from Gulf States southward. "Less 
common west of Rocky Mountains; on the Pacific coast north to 
northern California." (A. O U.) 

1 9 1. 1. Cory Bittern {Ardetta neoxend), L. 13. 
Ad c?. Hindneck black, foreneck chestnut, belly 
mixed black and chestnut, under tail-coverts black. 
Ad, ? . Similar, but crown and back duller. 

RanB;e.— Eastern North America; recorded from Florida, Ontario, 
(breeding), Massachusetts, and Michigan; about ao specimens 



192. Qrtai }NMit Heron {j4rdeaacdcUHUlis). j4ds. 
White, no "aigrette" plumes. A white Heron about 
the size of a Great Blue Heron . What is supposed to 
be a gray-biue phase of this bird has been called Ardsa , 
wuerdmanni, a bird which resembles No. 194, but has 
the head and neck whitish. 

Range. Southern Florida. Cuba and Jamaica 

1 96. American Egret {Herodias egretta), L. 41. 
Ads. White, about 50 straight "aigrette" plumes grow 
from the back between the wings; legs and feet black. 
Ads. when not breeding and Yng., the same, but no 

Range.— Tropical and temperate America; breeds north to Virginia, 
southern Illinois, and California; later strays to New Brunswick. 
Minnesota, and Oregon; winters from southern California and Gulf 
States southward. 

197. Snowy Heron {Egritta candidissima). L. 24. 
Ads. White, about 50 recurved "aigrette" plumes 
grow from back between the wings; legs black, 
feet yellow. Ads when not breeding and Yng. The 
same, but no plumes. 

Range.— Tropical and temperate America; bred formerly north to 
^ng Island, southern Illinois and California; now very rare In east- 
em North America; vrinters from Gulf States and southern OUlforaU 




194. Great Blue Heron {Ardea berodias), L. 45; 
W. 18.5; B. 5.j; Tar. 7. Ads. Center of crown white, 
head crested; lees blackish. Yng, Similar, but no 
crest, crown wholly black, plumage more streaked. 

Range .Northern South America north to Arctic regions: breeds 
locally throughout most of North America range; winters from about 
latitude 4a ° Muthward. 

f94a. Northwest Coast Heron (A. b. fanmm). 
Similar to No. 194 but much darker; upperparts bluish 
slate black; tarsus shorter, 5.3. 

Range.— Pacific coast from Vancouver to Sitka. 

1 94b. Ward Heron (A. A. v>ardi). Similar to No. 
194 but whiter below, neck darker; legs olive; larger, 
L. 52; W. 20; B. 6.5; Tar. 8. 

Range.— Rorida; coast of Texas. 

202. Black-orowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nyc- 
ticorax navius,) L. 24. Ads, Crown and back green- 
ish black . lo\ver backj wings and tail ashy; head with two 
or three rounded white plumes, except just after breed- 
ing season. Yng, Grayish brown streaked ' with 
white; below while streaked with blackish ;*'outer webs 
of primaries, pale rufous. Notes. An explosive qilaick. 

Range.— Western hemisphere; breeds In North America north to 
New Bninsirlclc. Quebec, Manitoba, and Oregon; winters from Cal- 
tfomia and Gulf States southward. 

203. Yeliow-orowned Night Heron {Nyctanassa 
violaceus). L. 23. Ads, Blue-gray; crown and ear- 
coverts whitish, rest of head black; scapulars streaked 
with black;head with two or three rounded,white plumes, 
except just after nesting season. Yng. Crown blacky 
streaked with whitish; primaries bluish slate, no rufous\ 
back brownish streaked with white; below whitish 
streaked with blackish. 

Range.~Tro|>ical and subtropical America; breeds north to South 
Carolina, southern Illinois, and Lower California; strays to Massa- 
chusetts and Colorado; winters from Gulf States southward. 



198. RediUlBh Egret {Dichromanassaru/fsc^Hs), L. 
29. Two color phases independent of age. y4ds. 
Dark phast^ Head and neck rufous; back slate; about 
30 "aigrette" plumes. IVhiU phase. White, includine 
plumes; tips of primaries sometimes speckled with 
gray. Yng. Rufous and gray, or white, without 

Rang«.— West Indies and Central America north to coasts of Gull 
States. Illinois .rarely), and Lower Califonila. 

1 99. Louisiana Heron (Hydranassa tricolor ruficol- 
lis). L. 26. Ads, **Aigrette" plumes, short, dirty 
gray: rump and belly white; legs blackish. Yng, 
Head and neck brownish; throat and line down fore- 
neck white; above slaty washed with brownish ; rump 
and belly white. 

Range.— West Indies and Central America north to Gulf States, 
casually to Long Island and Indiana. 

200. Little Blue Heron (Florida cofruUa), L, 22. 
j4ds. Head and neck marroon; rest of plumage slaty 
blue. Yng, White, tips of primaries bluish, Itgr 
grtenisb yellovD, 

Range.— Tropical America and eastern United States; breeds nca 
to Virginia and Illinois, later may stray north as far as Nova Scotia; 
winters from South Atlantic and Gulf States southward. 

201. Little Green Heron {Butoridss virescms). L. 
17. Smallest of our Herons. Ads, Crown, glossy 
green-black: throat and line down foreneCk buffy; rest 
of head and neck purplish chestnut; back green wash- 
ed with bluish gray. Yng, Neck and b»low streaked 
with blackish; back-feathers not lengthened; duller. 
NoUs, A rattling oooc-oc-oc-oc, a. startling scow, and, 
more rarely, a deep, hollow groan. (Brewster.) 

kange.— Tropical and temperate North America; breeds from Gulf 
States north to Nova Scotia and Manitoba; winters from Gulf States 
southward to northern South America. 

201 a. Frazar Green Heron (B. "n, fra^art). Sim- 
ilar to No. 201, but rather larger and darker, neck 
more purplish, light stripings on throat and foreneck 
more restricted. (Brewster.) 

Range.— Lower Califorlna. 

201b. Anthony Green Heron (B, v, antbonyi). 
Similar to No. 201, but slightly largei, and paler, light 
markings of wings, neck, and throat less restricted and 
whiter. (Mearns.) 

Range.— Arid portions of southwestern United States, south Into 




Family 1. CRANES. GRUiDiE. 3 species. 

Family 2. COURLANS. Aramid^e. 1 species. 

Family 3. RAILS, GALLINULES, and COOTS. Rai^wd^. 12 
species, 3 subspecies. ' 

Cranes bear a general resemblence to Herons in that they are long- 
legged, long-necked birds, but when on the wing, they carry the neck 
fully extended, a habit which will readily distinguish them from the 
curved neck Herons. Cranes are less aquatic than Herons and are 
often found feeding on the prairies or pine-barrens where worms, grass- 
hoppers, lizards, roots, etc., form their fare. They nest on the ground 
laying two buffy eggs thickly marked with brown. The young, unlike 
the nearly naked, helpless young of Herons, are bom ycovered with 
down and can soon follow their parents. The Cranes have loud sonor- 
ous voices; the Herons raucous croaks. 

The Limpkin is a singular inhabitant of the more retired Florida 
swamps. It feeds upon the ground largely upon a kind of land shell, 
but also perches in trees. Its nest of twigs is placed in a small tree or 
bush, and it lays from four to seven pale buffy eggs stained and 
speckled with cinnamon brown. 

The Rails (Subfamily Rallinai) are inhabitants of grassy marshes 
where, trusting to their long legs, they more often escape observation 
by running than by flying. One may hear their characteristic notes 
coming from the dense growth only a few yards distant and still be 
tmable to catch a glimpse of their maker. 

Rails nest on the ground laying six to twelve or fifteen buffy eggs 
spotted with reddish brown. The young of all our species are bom 
covered with a shining black down. 

The Gallinules (Subfamily GallinulincB) are more aquatic than the 
Rails and are consequently less difficult to observe. 

The Coots (Subfamily Fulicina) are still more aquatic than the Gall- 
inules, as might be supposed from their lobed toes, in fact are as 
much at home in the water as though they were Ducks. ' Both Galli- 
nules and Coots lay eight to sixteen buffy, thickly speckled eggs in a 
nest of reeds often built on a pile of rushes in the reeds. 


Cranes- and Limpkin. 

204. Whooping Crane (Grus americana). L. 50. 
y4ds. White; skin-of top of head dull red; primaries 
black. Yn^. Head feathered, plumage more or less 
washed with rusty. 

Range.— Interior of North America: breeds from northern Missis- 
sippi Valley north to Arctic regions* winters from Gulf States south- 

205. Little Brown Crane (Grus canadensis) , L. 35. 
W. 18; B. 4. Ads. Skin of top of head dull red; 
plumage brownish gray. Yng. Head feathered, 
plumage with more or less rusty. 

Range.— "Northern North America from Hudson Bay to Alaska, 
migrating south through western United States east of Rocky- 
Mountains to Mexico." (Ridgway.) 

206. Sandhill Crane (Grtis mexicana). Similar to 
No. 205, but larger. L. 44: W. 20; B. 5. Notes, A 
loud, sonorous, grating, krrrow^ repeated five or more 

Range. — North America; breeds locally from Texas, Cuba. Florida 
north through Mississippi Valley to Manitoba, British Columbia, and 
Oregon; winters from northern California and Gulf States southward. 

207. UmpV\f\ {Aramus Piganteus) , L. 28. Ads. 
Glossy olive-brown, striped with white; wings and 
tail more bronzy. Notes, A loud wab-re^ow, repeated 
and the last note prolonged into a wail. 

Range. — Central America and West Indies north to southern Texas 
and Florida. 



208. King Rail {Rallus eUgans). L. 15. Ads, 
Above olive-brown, black, and olive-gray; wing-cov- 
erts reddish brown; neck and breast cinnamon; belly 
and sides blackish, sharply and broadly barred with 
white. Notes. A loud bup, hup, bup, repeated and end- 
ing in a roll. 

Ran8:e.— Eastern United States: breeds from Rorida north to Con- 
necticut and South Dakota; strays to Maine; winters from Virgin- 
ia and Lower Mississippi Valley southto Gulf States. 

209. Beiding Rail {Rallus beldingi). Similar to 
No. 208, but paler; flank-bars narrower. 

Range.— Lower California. 

210. California Clapper Rail (Rallus obsoUtus). 
L. 17. Above grayish olive-brown streaked with 
blackish brown; oreast cinnamon; flanks dusky brown 
narrowly banded with white. Margins to back 
feathers much broader than in forms of crepitans. 

Range.— Salt Marshes of Pacific coast north to Washington. 

212. Virginia Rail {T{allus virginianus), L. 9.5; 
B. 1.5, Ads, Above blackish and grayish brown; 
wine-coverts reddish brown; below cinnamon, flanks 
black and white. Resembling a King Rail in color,but 
much smaller. Notes, Calls, kep or kik\ song, a 
grunting sound and cut, catta-catta'ciitta, (Brewster.) 

Range.- North America: breeds from Pennsylvania, Lone Island, 
northern Illinois, and middle California north to Labrador. Manitoba, 
and British Columbia; winters from about its southern breeding lim- 
its south 10 Cuba and Guatemala. 

215. Yellow Rail. {Porzana noveboracensis) . L. 7; 
B. .5, Ads, Above black and buffy barred with 
white; breast buffy; sides brownish barred with white. 
Notes, An abrupt cackling, ^kr^k, ^krek, *krek, *krek, 
mrk'k'k. (Nuttall.) 

Range.— Eastern North America north to New Brunswick, Quebec, 
and Hudson Bay, west to Manitoba and rarely California; probably 
breeds chtefly north; winters In southern States. 



211. Clapper Rail, Marsh Hen {Rallus crepitans). 
L, 1A.5; W. 5;B. 2. J. j4ds. Above paU olive bor- 
dered by ^ray; wing-co verts pals grayish brown; 
breast ^o// cinnamon; flanks barred gray and white. 
NoUs. Gkak, fkak, gkak, at first loud and rapid, 
ending lower ana slower. 

Rang«.— Salt marshes of the Atlantic coast; breeds from North 
Carolina to Connecticut; winters from Long Island (rarelv) south- 
ward, north casually to Massachusetts; south casually to L 

21 la. Louisiana Clapper Rail (R, c. saturatm). 
Similar to No. 211, but above rich brown edged with 
olive; breast darker cinnamon; bill more slender, 2.3. 

Range. ^Coast of Louisiana. 

21 ib. Soott Clapi^r Rail (7{. c. scoHi), Simi- 
lar to No. 211, but much darker; sooty brown or black 
above edged with olive-brown or olive-gray; breast 
and neck cinnamon, washed with brownish; flanks 
brown and white. Darkest bird of group. 

Range.— Gulf coast of Florida. 

21 io. Wayne Clapper Rail (R.cwaytm). Sim- 
ilar to No. 211, but darker, back rich olive-brown 
edged with gray; breast more ashy. 

Range.— Atlantic coast. North Carolina to eastern Florida. 

2 1 i .2. Caribbean Clapper Rail (7{allus longtros- 
iris cartbofus), L. 14; W. 5.7; B. 2.4. y4cis. Above 
olive-brown edged with olive-ashy; breast cinnamon; 
flanks brown and white. 

Range — West Indies; coast of southeastern Texas (and north- 
eastern Mexico?). 

214. Carolina Rail {Parjana Carolina). L. 8.5; B. 8. 
y4ds. Region about base of bill black. Yng. Simi- 
lar, but no black about base of bill; breast more cinna- 
mon. Notis, Calls, kuk or peep\ song, ker-^cM', and a 
high, rolling xchinny. 

Range. North America; breeds from Long Island. Illinois. Kansas. 
and southern Caiifornia. north to Newfoundland. Hudson Bay region, 
and British Columbia; winters from South Carolina, southern Illinois, 
and northern California south to South America. 

216. Littie Blacic Rail (Porfana iamaicensis) . L. 5; 
B.6. Ads, Head, breast, and belly slate; back blackish 
brown barred with white; nape reddish brown. NoUs, 
Probably, kik-kik-kik, qtiseah, or kik-kt-ki-kt, k$, qtudah, 
or variants. (Brewster.) 

Range.— "Temperate North America north to Massachusetts, north- 
ern Illinois, and Oregon: south to West Indies and Guatemala." (A. 
O. U.) Probably breeds throughout its North American range (Con- 
necticut. Illinois. Kansas). 


Gallinules and Coot. 

218. Purple Qallinule {lonorms martimca)* L. 13. 
j4ds. Crown-plate bluish, bill carmine tipped with 
greenish; back shining green; below purplish blue; 
under tail<overts white. Ynz* Above browner; 
below with; white; no red on bill. 

Ranfi«.-.TroplcAl and subtropical America-; breeds only In eastern 
North America north to southern Illinois and South Carolina* strays 
10 Maine and Wisconsin; winters from southern Florida south to 
Sooth America. 

219. Florida Qallinule (GalUnula galeata), L. 
13.5. j4d. Crown-plate red, bill rea tipped with 
greenish; legs green with a red ring; back olive-brown; 
nanks slate stuaksd with wbiu. Yng, Crown-plate 
smaller with bill brownish; no red on legs; below 
grayish. Noiss, An explosive chuck and many loud 
and varied calls suggesting a disturbed brooding hen, 
the squawking of a struggling hen, etc. 

Range.— Temperate and tropical America; breeds locally north to 
Maine, Montreal, Minnesota, and northern California; winters from 
Gulf States and California southward. 

221. Amerioan Ooot {Fulica amsricana). L. 15. 
Toes with scallops. Ads, Bill whitish; crown-plate 
and two spots on bill brownish; head and neck black; 
rest of plumage slate. Yng, Whiter below, browner 
above, crown-plate smaller. Notes, An explosive 
cuck and noisy cackling notes. 

Range. -North America; breeds In the Interior (chieflv northward) 
north to the Mackenzie and on Pacific coast to British Columbia: 
winters from British Columbia and Gulf States south to Central 
America and West Indies. 




Family 1. PHALAROPES. PHALAROPODiDiE. 3 species. 

Family 2. AVOCETS AND STILTS. Recurvirostrielb. ■ 2 

Family 3. SNIPES, SANDPIPERS, ETC. Scolopacid^, 33 
species, 2 subspecies. 

Family 4. PLOVERS. CHARADRiiDiE. 9 species, 2 subspecies. 

. Family S. SURF BIRDS AND TURNSTONES. Aphrizid^. 4 

Family 6. OYSTER-CATCHERS. H^BMAtOPODiD^. 3 species. 

Family 7; J ACANAS. Jacanid^e. 1 species. 

The Phalaropes are swimming Snipes. The Northern and Red 
Phalaropes, both of which have well-developed lobes or scalloped webs 
on their toes, except when nesting, live at sea a hundred miles or more 
off shore, where they find an abundance of food in small forms of ma- 
rine life. The Wilson Phalarope is a bird of the interior and conse- 
quently, is far less aquatic than the remaining species of the family; 
nevertheless it readily takes to water, swimming buoyantly and grace- 

Contrary to the general rule, the female Phalarope is larger and 
more brightly colored than the male and this difference in. size andJ 
plumage is accompanied by similarly unusual habits; the female tak- 
ing the place of the male in the Phalarope household. The female of ' 
necessity lays the eggSj but they are hatched by the male alone, who it 
is said, cares for the young, also without the assistance o£ hia mate. 

The Avocets and Stilts are wading Snipes- The Stilts secure their 
food by quick thrusts of the bill, but. the Avocets use their singular, up- 
turned member in a more interesting manner. When in water two or 
three inches deep, the bill is dropped below the surface, until the 
curved lower mandible evidently touches the bottom; then walking 
rapidly, or even running, the bill is swung from side to side and the - 
bird thus explores the. mud in its search for food, which, when it is felt, 
is picked up in the usual way. 

Many of the members of the family Scolopacidse are probing Snipe. 
The Woodcock, Wilson Snipe, and Dowitcher are good examples. 


Shore Birds. 

Their bill is long and sensitive and they can curve or move its tip 
without opening it at the base. When the bill is thrust into the mud 
the tip may therefore grasp a worm and it thus becomes a finger as 
well as a probe. 

Though not ranked as song birds, many of the Snipes and Plovers hiave 
pleasing calls and whistles and in the breeding season they become 
highly musical or indulge in singular vocal performances. 

The song of the Bartramian Sandpiper would attract the attention of 
the least observant and the singular aerial evolutions of the Snipe and 
Woodcock lend an unusual interest to the study of these birds in the 
spring. The Pectoral Sandpiper was observed by Nelson in Alaska, in 
May, to fill its oesophagus with air dilating the skin of the neck and 
breast and forming a sack as large as th6 body. Then in the air or on 
the ground the bird produced a series of hollow booming notes, con- 
stituting its love song. 

The Plovers have shorter, harder bills than the true Snipe and sev- 
eral of our species frequent the uplands rather than muddy shore or 
tidal flats. 

The Turnstones are true shore birds. Their home with us is on the 
seacoast where they feed along the beach turning over shells and 
I>ebbles in their search for food. 

The Oyster-catchers are also strictly maritime. They frequent bars 
left bare by the tide and, it is said, use their stout bills to force open 
musselSf oysters, or other bivalves left exposed by the water. This 
belief, however, does not appear to rest on careful, definite observation. 

The Jacana belongs to a small family of birds with representatives 
throughout the tropics. All its members are remarkable for the length 
of their toes, the wide extent of which enable these birds to walk over 
aquatic vegetation. So, for instance, I have seen them running over 
small lily leaves which, sinking slightly beneath the surface, made the 
birds appear to be walking on the water. 

The Limicolae, as a rule, nest on the ground. The Phalaropes, 
Snipes, and Plovers lay four eggs, the Oyster-catcher three, the Jacanas, 
it is said, four in some species to ten in others. The eggs of all are 
proportionately large and pointed or pear-shaped and are usually thick- 
ly marked with dark spots. The young are born covered with down 
and leave the nest just after hatching. 


Shore Birds. 


222. Red Phaiarope {Crjymophilus Julicarius). L. 
&io; B. 9. Bill heavy, wider than deep. y4d. .?. 
Below entirely reddish brown; cap black, back black 
and buff. y4d, c?. Similar, but smaller; crown and 
back streaked with brown, black, and buff. Yng. 
Resemble d^» hut upper tail-coverts plumbeous, un- 
derparts white. H^mter. Crown and underparts white, 
hindneck black, back gray. Notes, A musical dmk, 

RanW-'Northernpartsofnorthera hemisphere, brMdln^ In the 
ArcScregions and migrating south In winter; In the Unlt«a States 
south to the Middle Stales. Ohio Valley, and Cape Sl Lucas; chiefly 
maritime" (A. O. U.) , t a n 

223. Northern Phaiarope (Thalaropus lobatus). 
L 7 7; B. .8. Bill short, slender, sharply pointed, 
/^rf. 2. Breast rufous; above slaty gray mixed with 
ochraceous on back. ^d. c?. Smaller, less rufous 
on throat; above blackish streaked with rusty. Yng. 
Underparts and forehead white; crown sooty; bade 
blackish streaked with straw-color. IVitder. Upper- 
parts gray mixed with white; underparts white. 
Notes. A low chippering, clicking note. 

Ranire.— Northern hemisphere; breeds from Labrador and northern 
BrUlshAmerica north to Greenland and Alaska; winters apparently 
Suth of United States where it Is known as a migrant chiefly off the 

^"^llA. Wilson Phaiarope {Steganotus tricolor). 
L. 0.5; B.I. 3. Bill long. Ad. ?. Sides of nedk 
black and chestnut; crown and back gray. /<*• cf- 
Smaller; chestnut and black much less and duller; 
crown and back blackish, latter sometimes with ni- 
ous Yng. Below white; crown and back black 
margined with ochraceous; nape brownish gray. 
IVitOsr. Above gray, upper tail-coverts white; below 
white. Notes. A soft, trumpeting>w,£jw. 

Ranire North America, chleflv In the Interior; breeds from north- 
eJ?Iinfols (r2J!Jy).Mlnnesota and Central Cfllfonjla north to latitude 
«o : winters south of United States to southern South America. ^ 

283. Turnstone {Arenaria interpres). bimilar to 
283.1 but larger, W. 6., and upperparts in ad. with 
black Drevailine. Yng. Blacker than young of 283. i . 

RangS-EaVter„^hemlsph%^ America, only In Greenland and 

^283. 1. Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria morinella). 
L o.q; W. 5.7. Ads. Reddish brown prevailing m 
upper surface. Yng. Above and breast grayish 
brown margined with buffy, throat, abdomen, rump 
and lone upper tail-coverts white as in ad.; snorter 
upper tail-coverts black. Notes. When flying, a loud 
twittering note. (Nuttall.) ^ , ^ _, ^ , 

Range -Nearly cosmopolitan; breeds In Arctic regions; winters in 
Amcrioi south of United States to Patagonia. . x , <> 

288. Mexican Jaoana {Jacana sptnosa). L. 8. 
Toes over i.$. Ads. Chestnut and black; wings 
mostly greenish. Yng. Forehead, line over eye, and 
below white. Above grayish brown, sometimes >Yith 
rump chestnut, nape black. Notes. A harsh, rapidly 

'""^n^^nt^fXm'e^^a and Mexico north to Lower RloGrande 
Valley. Cuba and Haiti. 
J 02 

Shore Birdt^ 

225. American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana), 
L. i6.$; B. 3.7. Ads, Head and neck rufous; belly 
white; wings black and white. Yng, and j4ds,mvnntsr. 
Similar, but head and neck grayish or whitish. 
NoUs, A rather musical, loud plii-iek hurriedly repeat- 

Rang*.— North America west of Mississippi: breeds from northern 
States, central California and rarely Texas, north in the interior to 
latitude S4^: winters from southern California and western Gulf 
Sutes to Central America and West Indies: casual on Atlantic coast. 

264. Long-billed Curlew (Nummius longirostris) . 
L. 24; B. 6., longest amone our Snipe. y4ds. Above 
black and buffy; tail barred buffy and black; below 
buffy, neck and breast finely streaked with dusky. 
Yng, Similar, but buff deeper. 

Range.— North America; breeds on Atlantic coast from Florida to 
North Carolina; In Interiornorth to Manitoba and British Columbia: 
later strays casualiv to Newfoundland and Ontario: winters from 
Gulf States and southern Caltfom4a southward. 

265. Hudftonian Curlew (Numenius budsomcus), 
; L. 17; B. 3.7. Ads, Less buff than No. 264; above 
^ dark grayish brown and brownish gray; tail barred 

with same: below white, breast streaked; sides barred 

with blackish. 

Ranjfe.— North America: breeds in Arctic regions: winters south of 
south of United States to South America. 

266. Eskimo Curlew (Nwmmus horealis) L. 13. s; 
B. 2. Ads, Tail barred with grayish brown and 
black; above blackish and buffy; Wow buffy, the breast 
thickly streaked; sides barred with blackish. 

Range.' Eastern North America: breeds in Arctic regions; winters 
fouth of United States to South America: migrates chiefly through 


Shore Birds. 

226. Blaok-neoked Stilt {Himantqpus nuxicanus) 
L. 15; Tar 4.10. Ad, J*. Forehead, lower back, 
and underparts white; crown, hindneck, upper back 
and wings black. Ad, $. Similar, but upper back 
and scapulars grayish brown. Yng, Similar to 9» 
but brown and black feathers lightly margined with 
buffy. Notes, A sharp, rapidly uttered ip-ip^ whe 
flying; a hoarse kf-rf-r-ing note when on the ground. 

Range.— Temperate and tropical America: breeds north to Gulf 
States, (locally and rarely In Mississippi Valley to Minnesota) and 
California; winters from southern California and West Indies to 
northern South America; rare east of Mississippi except in Golf 

286. American Oyster-oatoher (Hofmatopus pallia' 
tus), L. 19. Ads, Base of tail and longer upper 
tail-coverts white, shorter coverts and all back black- 
ish brown; white in wings conspicuous in flight. 
Yng. Similar but feathers above with buffy margins. 
Notes, A sharp eep, eep. 

Rftnge.— Temrerate and tropical America: breeds on sea roasts 
only, north to Vir]^nla and western Mexico; winters south of United 
States to South America: casual north to Nova Scotia. 

286.1. Frazar Oyster-oatoher {Hamatopus fra- 
fart) , Similar to No. 286, but darker above, black 
breast passing into white belly through a mottled 
black and white band; upper tail coverts with brown 

Range. -"Lower California (both coasts), norih to Los Coronados 
Islands." (A. O. U.) 

287. Black Oyster-catcher {Hcematopus bachmam). 
L. 17. Ads, Black. Yn^. Somewhat browner. 
Notes, A musical, piping whistle. 

Range.— "Pacific coast of North America from Aleutian Islands to 
La Paz, Low«r California/* 


Shore -Birds. 

* 228. American Woodoook {Pbilohsla minor), L. ii. 
j4ds. Below ochraceous-rufous; no bars; forehead 
slaty, crown black with rusty bars; back mixed 
black, rusty and slaty. Notes, A nasal jft/^rw/ or paip\ 
a whistling of wings and a twittering whistle. 

Range.— Eastern North America: breeds locally from Florida to 
Labrador an J Manitoba, but chiefly northward; winters from southern 
M^w Jersey and southern Illinois to Gulf States. 

230. Wilson Snipe (Gallinago delicata), L. 11.2. 
yfds. • Throat and belly white or whitish; breast rusty 
buff indistinctly streaked; sides barred; above streaked 
black and cream-buff; tail black and rusty; outer 
feathers barred black and white. Notes. When ^tak- 
ing flight several sudden, hoarse scaipes; a tremulous, 
penetrating bleating, thought to be produced by air 
rushing through the birds wings; a ktik-kHk-kak. 

Range.— North America; breeds from northern New England (rare- 
ly .ConnecticuO . northern Illinois and northern California north to 
Labrador. Hudson Bay, and Alaska: winters from Cdlifomia, toutbem 
IlUnois. and South Carolina to northern South America. 

26 1 . Bartramian Sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda). 
L. 1 1.5. Outer primary barred black ana white. 
Ads, Above black, ochraceous, and brownish gray: 
breast and sides with dusky arrowheads; throat and 
belly whitish. Yng. Similar, but more buffy, ' Notes, ^ 
Call, a soft, bubbling whistle; song, a prolonged, f\ 
mournful, mellow whistle, ^^cbr-r-rr-r-ee-e-e-e'e'e-oooo-o- * "(^ 


Range.— North America chiefly Interior; breeds locally from Kansas 
and Virginia 10 Alaslca and Nova Scotia; winters south of United 
States to South America. 

262. Buff-breasted Sandpiper {Tryngites subruficol' 
lis). L. 8.5. Inner border of inner web of primaries 
beautifully speckled with black and white. Ads, 
Above black widely margined with grayish brown; 
l>elow ochraceous- buff; a few black spots. Yng. 
Above blackish brown, finely and evenly margined 
with whitish; below much as in adult. 

Range. "North America especially in the interior; breeds in the 
Yukon district and the interior of British America north to the Arctic 
coast; south in winter as far as Uruguay and Peru." (A. O. U.) 

281. Mountain Plover (Podasocys moniana). L. 9.. 
No black on breast, /ids. Lores and crown-band- 
black ; above grayish brown washed with pale rusty. 
Yng, Similar, but no black, rusty wash deeper, l^in-^ 
Ur. Same as last but rusty paler. 

Range.-^Westem United States; breeds from Kansas to North 
Dakota; winters westward to California, south to Lower California 
and MeJdcoi accktental In Florida. 


Shore Birds. 

231. Dowitoher {Macrorbampbus grisius) L. 10.5; 
B. 2.1, pitted at tip. j4ds. Rump, tail, under 
wing<overts, and axiilars barud black and white; 
above black margined with rusty; rump, white; below 
reddish brown, spotted and barred with black. Yug. 
Similar, but breast gray tinged with rusty; belly white. 
IVinter, Above gray, breast gray mixed with dusky» 
belly white. 

Ran s:e.— Eastern North America; breads chiefly north and north- 
west of Hudson Bay; winters from Florida, to northern South Amer- 

232. Long-billed Dowltcher (Macrorhampbus scolc 
paceus). B. 2.1 to 2.9. Similar to preceding but 
larger, bill longer; in adult spring plumage more barred 
below. Notes, A lisping, energetic musical, put'p€H\ 
pHe'ter-wie-tooy w^e-too repeated. (Nelson.) 

Ran(i:e.— "Western North America, breeding In Alaslca to the Arctic 
coast, micrating: south in winter through western United States (in- 
cluding Mississippi Valley) to Mexico , and less commonly along At- 
lantic coast." (A. O. U.) 

233. Stilt Sandpiper {Micropalama bimantapus). 
L. 8.2; tarsus long, 1.6. Ads, Entire underp^rts and 
upper tail -coverts white barred with black; tail not 
barred. Yn^, Resembles ad. but below white, breast 
lightly streaked; rump white no bars. IVinter. Simi- 
lar to yng. but back gray. 

Range.— Eastern North America; breeds within Arctic Qrcle; win- 
ters from Florida to South America. 

234. Knot (Trin^a canutus^, L. 10.5; B. 1.3. 
Upper tail-coverts with black bars and loops; tail 
feathers without bars narrowly margined with white. 
Ads, Mixed black, gray and reddish brown above, 
reddish brown below. Yng. Above gray, margined 
with cream-white and black; below white; breast 
lightly streaked. IVinter, Similar, but above gray. 

Ran^.— Northern hemisphere; breeds within Arctic circle; winters 
from Florida to South America: migrates chiefly along the coasts, 
rare on Pacific coast of United States. 

244. Curlew Sandpiper (Erolia ferruginea), L. S; 
B. 1.5, slightly curved. Ads, Below chestnut-rufous, 
above rusty and black. Yng. Above brownish gray 
margined with whitish; back blacker; below white. 
IVinter. Above plain brownish gray; below white. 

Range.— "Old Wortd In general; 
America and Alaska." (A. O. U.) 


occasional In Eastern North 

Shore Birds. 

235. Purple Sandpiper {Arquatella maritima). 
L. 9. Ads. Above black, margined with rusty and 
cream-buff; below white, breast and sides heavily 
marked with black. IVinter, Head, neck, and breast, 
slaty; back blacker, margined with siat>'; central sec- 
ondaries largely white. 

Range.— "Northern portions of the northern hemisphere: In North 
Amerloi chiefly the northeastern portions, breeding In the hl|rh north, 
migrating In winter to the Eastern and Middle States (casually to 
Florida) . the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi Valley." (A. O. U.) 

236. Aleutian Sandpiper {Arquatella couest), L. 8.5. 
Similar to No. 23^, but ad, and yng. with more 
ochraceous; in winter grayish margins to back lighter 
and wider. f^oUs, When flying, a low, clear, musi- 
cal twt(ytwe<htweo\ when feeding, clu-cluclu. (Nelson. ) 

Range.— "Aleutinn Islands and coast of Alaska, north to Kowak 
RSver, west to Commander Islands. Kamchatka." (A. O. U.) 

256. Solitary Sandpiper {Helodromas solHarius), 
L. 8.4. Under wing-coverts, axillars, and ail but 
middle tail-feathers barred black and white. Ads, 
Above fuscous with a faint greenish tinge; head and 
neck streaked, back spotted with whitish; below white; 
throat and breast distinctly streaked with dusky. Yng, 
Fewer spots and streaks above; breast markings fused. 
iVinier. Practically no white markings above. 

Range. — Eastern North America; breeds from Northern States 
(rarely and sporadically) northward; little known of breeding habfts; 
winters south of United Sutes to South America. 

256a. Western Solitary Sandpiper (H, s. cinnamam 
eus\ Similar to No. 256, but spots above buffy, es- 
pecially in fallj inner margin of outer primary speckled 
black and white. 

Range.- Western North America; breeds In British G>lumbla (ex- 
act breeding range unxnown) ; winters south of United States. 

263. Spotted Sandpiper {AcUtis macularia), L. 
7.5. Ads, Below white thickly spotted with bl?ck; 
above brownish gray with a faint greenish lustre, 
lightly marked with black. Yng, Similar above but 
faintly margined with dusky and buff; below white, 
breast grayer; no black marks, IVinUr, Same but no 
margins above. htoUs, Veet-weett repeated. 

Range.— North America, north to Hudson Bjy; breeds throughout 
Its North American range; winters from southtrn (California and West 
Indies to South America. 

284. Black Turnstone (Arenaria melanocephala), 
L. 9. No rustv; lower back, longer upper tail-coverts 
ancf base of tail white; shorter upper tail -coverts black. 
Ads. Above and breast brownish black; belly white. 
Yng. Browner margined with whitish. IVinter. 
Same as Yng, but no margins. Notes, A sharp, weet, 
wMty too-fceet, (Nelson.) 

Ranee.— '^Pacific coast of North America from Point Barrow, Alas- 
ka to Santa Margarita Island. Lower California; breeding from Alas- 
ka to British Columbia. ' ' ( A.O. U .) 


Shore Birds. 

237. Pribilof Sandpiper (^ArquOtella pUlocrumis). 
L. 10. Ads, Similar to No. 230 above but crowh 
much lighter; Jr^oj^ with 2l' black patch, Yng. Re- 
semble adult above biit breast gi^ayish inclistinctly 
streaked and with" a pale buff oand; belly white. 
IVwtsr. Similar lo yng. but slaty gray above. 

Range.— "Breeding In 'the Pilbllof Islands, Alaska, and mierat- 
Ing to coast of adjacent mainland south of Norton Sound." (A.O.U.) 

243a. Red-backed Sandpiper (TeUdna alpina pa- 
ciAca), L. 8; B. i.^; slightly curved. Ads, Belly 
black; back chiefly rusty. ' Yng,' Breast buffy, light- 
ly streaked with cfusky; belly white 5/k)«^^ with black; 
back black, rusty, ancf buff. Winter, Above brown- 
ish gray; below white; breast grayish, Indistinctly 

RanjBre.— North America: breeds in Arctic regions and winters from 
Gulf States and California to South America. 

246. Semipaimaied Sandpiper {Erauutes pusilUui). 
L. 6.3; B. .6 to .8. Toes webbed at base. Ads. 
Above brownish gray and black; littls or no 
rusty; below white, breast indistinctly streaked. Yng. 
Above with rusty and whitish margins; below white, 
breast grayish no streaks. IVinter, Above brownish 
gray with black shaft streaks; below white. Notss, 

Range.— Eastern North America: breeds in Arctic regions: winters 
from Gulf States to South America. 

247. Western Sandpiper {Ermwtis ocddmtalis). 
Similar to preceding but bill longer .8 to 1.2; ads. more 
rusty above, breast streaks more distinct, and more 
numerous. Notes, Call, a soft xveet-weet; song, uttered on 
the wing, "a rapid, uniform series of rather musical 
trills." (Nelson.) 

Range, — North America, chiefly west of Mississippi Valley; breeds 
In Arctic regions; winters from Ciulf States to South America. 

248. Sanderling (Calidris arenaria), L. 8. Three 
toes, tarsus scaled. Ads, Above rusty, black and 
grayish; below white, breast spotted with black and 
washed with rusty, Yng, Nape grayish, back black, 
feathers with two white or yellowish white terminal 
spots; below silky white. IVinter. Above brownish 
gray with dusky shaft streaks; below silky white. 

Range. — "Nearly cosmopolitan, breeding in Arctic and Sub- 
Arctic regions, migrating, in America, south to Chili and Patagonia." 


Shore Birds. 

23ft. Sharp-tailed Sandpiper {Adodromas acufmn- 
atfii). L. 8.7« Tail feathers ppi'nied, . Ads, A white 
line over eye; breast buff streaked with blackish. 
yy^. Crown as in ad., back black and rusty; below 
white, breast buffy, no streaks. IVinter. Back gray- 
ish brown streaked with blackish^ below as in yng., 
but breast grayer and with indistinct streaks. Notes, 
A soft metallic plup-pleep. (Nelson.) 

Range. — "Eastern Asia, and coast of Alaska, ml^ating south to 940 

Java and Australia." (A.O.U.) ^^ 

239. Pectoral Sandpiper {^Actodromas maculata), 
L. 9. Ads, Middle tail-feathers longest, pointed, 
blackish margined with. rusty; above black and rusty; 
below white, Dreast thickly streaked; upper tail-coverts 
black, Yng, and in winter muc\\\.\\QS2Snt, Notes, Call. 
a grating whistle; song, a hollow, resonant, musical 
too-u, repeated eiq:ht times, made after filling oesopha- 
gus with air until it is puffed out to size of the body. 

Ran(^. — North America; breeds In. Arctk: resftons; winters soutti of 
United States to Soutli America; rare on Pacific coast. 

240. Whife-rumped Sandpiper {Adodromas fusd" 
tollis), L. 7.5. Longer upper tail-coverts white. Ads, 
Breast white, distinctly spotted or streaked. Yng, More 
rufous above; breast less distinctly streiked. IVinter, 
Brownish gray above; similar lo yng. below. 

Ran^. — Eastern North America: breeds in* the interior north of 
Hudson Bay: winters south of United States to southern South Amer- 
ica; rare on Pacific coast. 

241. Baird Sandpiper iActodromas hairdit), 
L. 7.5. No rusty in plumage. Ads, Longest upper 
tail<overts hlackishi breast buffy, faintly streaked. 
Yn^, Similar, but back conspicuously margined >vith 
whitish. IVinter, Above **buffy grayish brown,"' no 
white margins. 

Ran^. — ^Interior of North America; breeds in the Arctic reg^ions and 
winters soath of United States to southern South America. 

242. Least Sandpiper {Actodromas minutilla), L. 6. 
Smallest of our Sandpipers. Ads, Above black, buff 
and rufous; below white breast lightly streaked. Yng, 
Similar, but breast less distinctly streaked. IVinter, 
Above brownish gray, often streaked with black, be- 
low white. Notes. Peep-peep. 

Range.— North America; breeds from Sable Island and Magdalens 
northward; winters from Gulf States and California south to South 


Shore Birds. 

249. Marbled Godwit {Limosa/edoa\ L. i8; B. 4; 
slightly recurved. Tail barred, cinnamon and black; 
under wing-coverts cinnamon with more or less fine 
black markings. Ads, Above black and ochraceous; 
below buffy white finely and uniformly barred with 
black. Yng. Similar, but with no or with but fev 
bars below. 

Range.— North America; breeds In the fnterfor from western Mln- 
nesoti. rarely Iowa and Nebraska northward; winters south of United 
States to Central America and West Indies. 

250. V%c\^oQti^^\\{Limosalapp<mcahausr%). L.16. 
B. J. 7, slightly recurved, tail barred black and white; 
unoer wing-coverts black and white. Ads. "Head, 
neck and lower parts, plain cinnamon color. " (Ridgw.) 
IVintsr. Above black, grayish and rusty, former pre- 
vailing; below white; throat streaked, elsewhere with 
irregular, black bars. Notes. "A loud ringing kiHorx^ 

Range.— "Shores and Islands of the Pacific Ocean, from New Zea- 
land and Australia to ICamchatlca and Alaslca. On the American coast 
recorded south of Alaska only from La Paz, Lower Callforaia." (A. 

251. Hudsonian Qodwit (Limosa hafmasiica). 
L. 15; B. 3.2, slightly recurved. Under wing-coverts 
dusky; upper tail-coverts black and white; tail black at 
end, white at base. Ads. Above black, rusty, and 
grayish, below chestnut-red barred with blackish and 
faintly tipped with white. Yug. Similar, but below 
buffy whitish, breast grayer. WnUir. Similar below ' 
but above brownish gray. 

Range.— Eastern North America chiefly Interior, breeds in Arctic 
Regions; winters south of United States to South America. 

270. Black-bellied Plover {Squatarola squatarola). 
L. II. Hind-toe present, small. Ads. Above black 
and white, no yellowish; below black. Yng. Above 
erayish brown spotted with white and some yellowish; 
below white. IVinter. Similar to preceding out near- 
ly uniform brownish above. 

Range.— Northern Hemisphere; breeds in Arctic Regions, wintars In 
America from Florida to Brazil. 

272. American Golden Plover (Charadrms domm- 
cus). L. 10.5; W. 7. No hind-toe; axillars dusky. 
Ads. Above conspicuously spotted with yellow; be- 
low black, sides of breast white. Yng, Duller above, 
below grayish white with dusky marks and yellowish 
wash. IVinter. Similar but no yellow below. Notes, 
Call, a plaintive too-lee-e; song, a marvelously har- 
monious succession of notes. (Nelson.) 

RanK:e. — Western Hemisphere; breeds in Arctic Regions; winters 
from Florida to Patagonia, rare on Pacific coast. 

272a. Pacific Golden Plover (C. d.fulvus). Simi- 
lar to No. 272 but wing shorter, 6.5; yellow richer. 

Range. — "Breeding from northern Asia to the Pribllof Islands 
and coast of Alaska, south In winter through China and India to 
Australia and Polynesia." (A. O. U.) 


Shore Birds. 

254. Greater Yellow-legt {fotanus nulanoleucus), 
L. 14; B. 2.2. No rusty; upper tail-coverts mostly 
white; tail barred with black and white or gray. Ads, 
Above black margined with whitish; below white and 
black. Yng. Above grayish margined with whitish; 
below white, breast lightly streaked. IVinter. Simi- 
lar but white margins less conspicuous. Notes, A 
whistled wheu^ vheu'whm'wh^'whm'wheU'V}heUf when- 

Ringe.—North America; breeds from MinnesoU, rarely northern 
Illinois, end Antlcosti northward; winters from Gulf* State and Cali- 
fornia to southern South America. 

Yellow-legt {Totanus flavipes), L. 10.7; 
Similar in color to preceding but smaller in 


B. 1.4. 

Ran^—Ndrth America; breeds rarely In upper Mississippi Valley 
Init chiefly north of latitude 53^ : winters from Gulf States to southefn 
South America; rare on Pacific coast 

258. Willet {Symphfmia smipalnuUa). L. 15; 
W. 8; B. 2.1. Primaries black with a broad white 
band; upper tail-coverts mostly white. Ads, Above 
brownish gray, black, and a little buff; below white 
heavily marked with black and slightly washed with 
buff. Yng, Above brownish gray margined with 
buffy; below white, breast lightly streaked with dusky. 
IVinUf. Similar, but above plain brownish gray. 
/^otes, Songf pillywill-mlUt, repeated. 

Rangre. Eastern North America; breeds from Florida to southern 
New Jersey, later strays casually to Maine; winters from Gulf States 
to South America. 

258e. Western Willet (5. 5. inornata). Similar to 
No. 258 but slightly larger. W. 8.5; B. 2.4. In sum- 
mer above paler, less heavily marked with black both 
above and below. Yng, and IVinter, Indistinguish- 
able in color from No. 258. 

Rinee —Western United States; breeds from Texas to Manitoba; 
winters from >outhem California and Gulf States southward. A rare 
migrant on Atlantic coast from South Carolina to Florida. 

259. Wandering Tatler {Heteractitis incanus), L. 
II. Tail-coverts plain slaty gray. Ads, Above plain 
slaty gray; below white barred with slaty gray. Yng. 
Above slaty gray more or less margined with whitish; 
breast and sides slaty gray; throat and belly white. 
IVinter, Similar, but no white margins above. 

Ranfce.— Pacific coast; breeds from British Columbia northward; 
winters south to Hawaiian Islands and Galapagos. 

282. Surf Bird (Aphri^a virgata), L. 10; B. i. 
Upj)er tail-coverts and base of tail-feathers white. 
Ads. Above black, slaty, and rusty. Yng. Above 
slaty margined with whitish; breast barred slaty and 
whitish; belly white spotted with slaty. IVinter. The 
same, but no whitish margins. 

Range.— "Pacific coast of Anaric*. from Alaska to ChlU." (A. O. 

u.) • 


Shore Birds. 

273. Killdeer (^Oxyechus vociferus), L. 10.5. Rump 
and upper tail-coverts rusty. Ads, Above grayish 
brown and rusty; below white with two black rings. 
Notes. A noisy kildei, kihUt. 

Range.— North America, north to Newfoundland, Manitoba and 
British Columbia; (r^re on North Atlantic coast); breeds locally 
throughout Its range; winters from Virginia, Lower Mississippi Valley 
and California south to South America. 

274. Semipalmated Plover {/Egialitis semipalmatd), 
L. 6.7. Web between bases of inner and middle toes. 
Ads, One black rin^ around neck; a white ring in 
front of it. Yng, Similar, but black parts brownish; 
back margined with whitish. Winter, Same as last 
but no whitish margins. 

Range. — Breeds from Labrador northward; winters from Gulf 
States to Brazil. 

275. Ring Plover i/Egialitis hiaticula), L. 7.5. 
No webs between toes. Similar to 274 but larger, bill 
yellow at base, black or brown bands wider. 

Ran^. — '.'Northern parts of Old World and portions of Arctic Amer- 
ica, breeding on the west shore of Cumberland Gulf." (A. O. U.) 

277. Piping Plover (^^fa///rs meloda), L. 7; B. 
short, .5. Very pale above. Ads. Above ashy, 
crown and sides of breast black; no rusty. Yng, Sim- 
ilar, but black replaced by ashy gray. Notes, A short 
plaintive, /»>«'«^ whistle, repeated. 

Range. Eastern North America; breeds from Virginia to Newfound- 
land; winters from Florida southward. 

277a. Belted Piping Plover (/^. m. circumcindd). 
Similar to No. 277 but black on sides of breast meeting 
to form a breast band. 

Range. — Mississippi Valley; breeds from northern Illinois and Ne- 
braska north to Lake Winnipeg, east to Magdalen and Sable Islands; 
winters from Gulf southward; casual migrant on Atlantk coast. 

278. Snowy Plover {/Egialitis mvosa). L. 6.5. 
No complete ring. Ads, Black on crown; ear-coverts 
and sides of breast black. Yng. The same, but no 
black; above margined with whitish. Winter, Same 
as last but no whitish margins. 

Range. — Western United States east to Texas and Kansas; breeds 
from Indian Territory and southern California northward; winters 
from Texas and southern California southward. 

280. Wilson Plover (OMhodromus wUsonius). 
L. 7.5; B. .8. No black on hind-neck. Ad. cf. One 
black breast-and crown-band; some rusty about head. 
Ad, ^, Similar but black areas brownish gray. Yng. 
Same as last, but above margined with whitish. 
Winter, No whitish margins. 

Ranee. — ^Tropical and temperate America; breeds north to Virginia. 
Gulf States, and Lower California; winters southward to Braxll; 
casual north to Nova Scotia. 




^Familyl. GROUSE, PARTRIDGES, etc. ^btraontdm. 21 
species, 22 subspecies. ... 

Family 2. TURKEYS, PHEASANTS, etc. PHASiANiDiE.. 1 species. 
3 subspecies. ,:/•'' 

Family 3. CURASSOWS and GUANS. CRACiDiE. 1 species. 

The members of the family Tetraonidse are usually placed in three 
subfamilies as follows: (1.) Perdicinae, containing the true Quails 
and Partridges of the Old World and with no species in America. (2.) 
Odontophorinae, including the Bob-whites and so-called *Quails' and 
'Partridges' of the New World, and with no species in the eastern 
hemisphere. (3.) Tetraoninae, the Grouse, with representatives in 
the northern parts of both hemispheres. All the members- of the first 
two families have the legs bare, while the Grouse have the legs, and 
often even the toes, more or less feathered. 

The application of different names to the members of this family, in 
various parts of the country, often make it uncertain just what species 
is referred to under a given title. Our Bob-white, for example, is a 
'Quair at the north and a 'Partridge* at the south. As a matter of fact 
it is, strictly speaking, neither a true Quail nor Partridge but a member 
of a family restricted to America. 

Again, the Ruffed Grouse is a * Partridge' at the north and a 
'Pheasant' at the south, whereas in truth it is neither one nor the 
other. So far as the application of these local names goes, it is to 
be noted that where the Bob-white is called ^Quail' the Grouse is 
called 'Partridge' and that where it is called 'Partridge' the Grouse is 
known as 'Pheasant'. 

All the Tetraonidse are ground-inhabiting birds, and their plumage 
of blended browns, buffs and grays brings them into such close har- 
mony with their surroundings that, as a rule, we are unaware of the 
presence of one of these birds until, with a whirring of short, stiff, 
rounded wings it springs from the ground at our feet. It is this habit 
of 'lying close,' as sportsmen term it, in connection with their excellent 
flesh, which makes the members of this family the favorites of the 
hunter and epicure and only the most stringent protective, pleasures 
will prevent their extinction as their haunts become, settled. . 


Grousb, Partridges, Bob-whitbs, btc. 

With the Ptarmigan this harmony in color is carried to a remarkable 
extreme, the birds being white in winter and brown, buff and black in 
summer; while during the early fall they assume a grayish, neutral 
tinted plumage to bridge over the period from the end of the nesting 
season, in July, to the coming of the snow in September. 

The Tetraonidae all nest on the ground, laying usually from ten to 
twenty eggs. The young, like those of their relative, the domestic 
fowl, are bom covered with downy feathers and can run about shortly 
after birth. 

The Turkey is the only wild member of the Phasianidae in 
this county, but the family is well-represented in the domesticated 
Chickens, Peacocks,and Pheasants, all of which have descended from Old 
World ancestors. Our domesticated Turkey is derived from the Wild 
Turkey of Mexico, which was introduced into Europe shortly after the 
Conquest and was thence brought to eastern North America. It differs 
from the Wild Turkey of the eastern United States chiefly in the color of 
the tips of the upper tail-coverts. These are whitish in the domesticated 
Turkey, as they are in the Mexican race from which it has descended, 
and rusty brown in the Eastern Wild Turkey. 

Besides the five races of Wild Turkey described beyond, another 
species of Turkey is found in America. This is the Honduras or Yu- 
catan Turkey, now largely confined to the peninsula of Yucatan. • It is 
not so large as our bird, but is even more beautifully colored, its plum- 
age being a harmonious combination of blue, gray and copper. 

Ring-necked and 'English' Pheasants have been introduced into 
various parts of the United States, and in Oregon and Washington and 
in the east, on various private game preserves, they have become 
naturalized. The true English Pheasant (Phasiantis colchiciis) is be- 
lieved to have been introduced into England from Asia Minor probably 
by the Romans. Unlike the Ring-necked Pheasant (Phasianus torquat- 
us) it has no white collar. The last named species, however, has also 
been introduced into England where it freely interbreeds with the ear- 
lier established English Pheasant and individuals without at least a 
trace of white on the neck are now comparatively rare. 

The Curassows and Guans are tropical American birds, only one 
species reaching the southern border of the United States. They are 
arboreal in habit and form an interesting link between the Partridges, 
etc. and the Pigeons. 


Bob-white8 and Partridges. 

289. Bob-white; H)uaii;' 'Partridge' {Colifius vir- 
gimamis). L. lo. /4d. (^, Throat, forehead and line 
over eye white, j4d, ?. Thr^t, forehead and line 
over eye buff. Notes Song, a ringing, whistled 
BoihwkiU or huck-wheat-ripe; calls, a conversational 
quit-quit and a whistled whire-ar$-)fou and Vm herey 
repeatedly uttered when the individuals of a flock are 

Rangfe. — Eastern North America, resident from southern Dakota, 
southern Minnesota, southern Ontario, southern Vermont, New 
Hampshire and Maine, south to Georgia and western Florida: west to 
South Dakota. Nebraska. Kansas. Oklahoma, and eastern Texas. 
"Introduced at various points in Colorado. New Mexico. Utah. Idaho, 
CaUfomU and Washington." (A. O. U.) 

289a. Florida Bob-white (C. r. floridanus). Sim- 
ilar to No. 280, but smaller, L. 8.5, and much darker; 
black bars below more numerous. 

Ranire- — Florida; typical only in southern half of peninsula, 
grading Into No. 389 In northern and western parts of the state. 

289b. Texan Bob-white (C. v, texanus). Similar 
to No. 280, but brown and buff areas paler; black bars 
below wider. 

Ran^. — Texas, except western part, rarely to ¥restem Kansas, 
south to Nuevo Leon and Tamaullpas. Mexico. 

29 1 . Masked Bob-white {Colinus ridgwayf). L. 9. 
Ad, rf. Throat black; breast and belly reddish brown. 
Ad.^, Resembles 9 of No. 289b. Notes, Song, 5o^ 
'ahite-^ call, when the birds are scattered, hoo-we, 
(H. Brown.) 

Rahj^. — Northern Sonora. Mexico, north to Pima County, Arixona. 

296. Mearns Partridge (Cvrtonvx monte^umoF 
mearnsi). L. 9. Ad. c?- Sides with numtrous, 
large, crowded white spots. Ad, ? . Pinkish brown, 
above streaked with buffy and marked with chestnut 
and black, below with a few broken black bars. Notes, 
A low, murmuring whine; a clear dsiup-chiury when 
abrmed, chuk-chuk-chuk, (Bendire.) 

Rani^e.— Northern Mexico, western Texas, southern New Mexico 
andssouthern Arizona. 




292. Mountain Partridge (Or$ortyxpiaui), Ukt^i, 
Ads, Hindhfadaiid nfipe same color as back; inner 
margins of tertials buff. Notss, Song, an explosive 
whistle ending in a throaty tone; calf, a rapwlly re- 
peated cuh-cuh'cuh'cuh, and a sharp pit-pU, 

Ran {^.—Pacific CQASt from Santa Bacbara.CalllbrnJa. north to south- 
em Washington. 

292a. Plumed Partridge (O. />. plumiferus). Hind- 
head, nape, and foreback same color as breast; inner 
margms of tertials whih. 

Range.— Sierra Nevada j(bolh slopes).. east to Panamint Mountains. 
and to Mount MaeruJer, Nevada; south in the coast ranees fTx>in San 
Francisco Bay to Lower California (Campos).' (A. O. U.) 

292b. San Pedro Partridge (O. p. confinis). Sim- 
ilar to No. 292a, but uppcrparts much grayer, the 
back, rump, and upper tail-coverts bein^ gray very- 
slightly tinged with olive; bill stouter. CRidgway. ) 

Rang^e. — San Pedro Mountains. Lower California. 

293. Scaled Partridge {CalUpepla squamata)\ L. 
10. Ads, Belly without chestnut patch; breast and 
foreback grayish blue edged with black; back brown- 
ish gray. Notes, A nasal pe-cos" pe-cos' (Bailey.) 

Range.— "Tableland of Mexico, from the Valley of Mexico, north to 
central and western Texas. Santa Fe. New Mexico and southern Ari- 
zona." (A. O. U.) 

293a. Chestnut-bellied Scaled Partridge (C. s. 

castanogastris). Similar to Ho. 203, but c? with chest- 
nut patch on belly; 9 with belly much rustier than la 
? of No. 293. 

Range.— Lower Rio Grande Valley, northwest to Eagle Pass, Texas; 

south into northeastern Mexico. 

294. California Partridge {Lophortyx cali/ormca). 
L. 10. Ad. c?. Above oHve-broxtm-, belly patch chest- 
nut. Ad, 9. Plumes shorter; throat whitish streak- 
ed with dusky; no distinct chestnut patch on belly. 
Notes, Song, a pheasant like crow and a crowing, em- 
phatic sit-right'dow/r , sit-right-downr ; calls, a sharp 
pit-pit pit, and a note like that of a young Robin. 

Range.— "Coast region of California south to Monterey, introduced 
In Oregon. Washington, and British Columbia." (A. O. U.) 

294a. Valley Partridge (L. c, vallicola). Similar 
to No. 294, but much grayer above; sometimes plain 
bluish gray without brown tinge. 

Range.— "From western and southern Oregon, exctpt near the 
coast, south through western Nevada and the Interior of California tt> 
Cape St. Lucas." (Bendire.) 

295. Gambel Partridge (^Lophortyx gambelit). 
L. 10. Ad, c?. Throat, forehead and belly patch 
black] hindhead chestnut. Ad, ?. Similar, but throat 
grayish buff; forehead gray; no black on belly; hind^ 
head brownish; crest smaller. Notes, Song, yuk-kae- jo- 

Range.— "Western Texas, New Mexico. Arizona, southern Utah, 
southern Nevada, southern California In the Colorado V^ley.aQii 
south into northwestern Mexico." (A. O. U.) 



297. Dusky Grouse CDendra^abus obscurus). L. 
cf, 20; ?, 18. j4d. cf. Gray tail-band over one inch 
wide on middle feather; below slate; above 
blackish with fine rusty and grayish markings. y4d. 
$. With more white below; foreback regularly barred 
with buffy; middle tail-feathers irregularly barred with 
buff or grayish; terminal gray band finely marked with 
black. Notes, A loud, ventriloquial, hooting or boom- 

Range. — "Rocky Mountatns. from central Montana and southeastern 
Idaho to New Mexico and Arizona: east to the Black Hills. South Da- 
kota and west to East HumbolJt Mountains. Nevada." (A. O. U.) 

297a. Sooty Qrouse (D. o. fuUginosus), Similar 
to No. 297, but slightly darker, gray band on central 
tail feather less than one inch wide. 

Rangie. — "Northwest Coast Mountains.from California to Sitka:east 
to Nevada, western Idaho and portions of British Columbia." CA.O.U.) 

297b. Richardson Grouse (D. o, richardsonii) , 
Similar to No. 297a, but no tail band, or, if showing 
indistinctly from above, not visible from below. 

Range. — ^" Rocky Mountains especially on the eastern slopes, from 
centralMontana, northern Wyoming and southeastern Idaho, Into 
British America to LUrd River." (A. O. U.) 

298. Hudsonian Spruce Grouse (Canachites carta- 
densts), L. 15- /4d. c?. TaiJ-feath6rs 'tipped with 
brown; foreback margined with bluish gray, Ad, ?. 
Above, bases of feathers more or less barred with rusty 
especially on foreback; throat and breast barred with 
rusty and black; belly as in male. Notes, A drumming 
sound produced by the beating of the wings. TBen- 

Range.— Labrador and Hudson Bay region. 

298b. Alaska Spruce Grouse (C. c, osgoodi). Ad. 
c?. Similar to Ad. J* of No. 298c, but margins to 
feathers of foreback brownish ashy. Ad. ? . Similar 
to Ad, 9 of No. 298c, but paler, barred with buff in- 
stead of rusty. 

Range.— Alaska. 

2 9 80. Canada Grouse (C. c canace). Ad. cT- 
Similar to Ad, c? of No. 298. Ad, ?. Similar to Ad, 
? of No. 298, but above more rusty, rusty bars deep- 
er and more conspicuous, showing throughout upper 
surface and on flanks. 

Rtnce.— Northern New England, northern New York, New Bruns- 
wick, Nova Scotia and Quebec west to northern Minnesota. 

299. Franklin Qrouse {Canachites frankUnii), Re- 
sembles No. 298, but tail without brown tips, some- 
times tipped with white. 

I^ange. — "Northern Rocky Mountains.from northwestern Montana to 
^e coast ranges of Oregon and Washington\ and northward in British 
Attertca,reachlng the Pacific coast of souUiem Alaska(UiUtude 60 <> ) ." 
(A. O. U.) 


Grouse and narmigan. 


300. RutTed Grouse; 'Partridge;' 'Pheaeanf (Bam- 

asa umbellus), L. 17. Ad. J*. Prevailing color 
above rusty brown; tail rusty or gray. Ad. ?. Sim- 
ilar but neck-tufts smaller. Notes. The male pro- 
duces a drumming sound by rapidly beating its wings; 
the female utters a cluck and when defending her brood, 
a singular low whining sound. 

Ran^.— Eastern United States from jMlnnesota, touthern Ontario. 
southern New Hampshire and southern Vermont, south to Virginia 
and along the Alleghanles to Georgia; west to northwestern Arkansas. 

300a. Canadian Ruffbd Grouse (B. u, iogata). 
Similar to No. 300, but slightly grayer above; tail 
generally gray; bars on breast and belly darker and 
better defined. 

Range.— Spruce forests of New Brunswick* Nova Scotia, Maine/ 
northern New Hampshire, northern Vermont and south to higher 
mountains of Massachusetts and northern New York; west to eastern 
slope of coast ranges of Oregon. Washington and British ColambU; 
north to James Bay. 

SOOb. Gray RufTed GroUte (B, u. umbelMdgs). 
Similar to No. 300a, but grayer; prevailing color of 
upper-parts, including crown, gray; tail always gray. 

Range.— Roclor Mountains, from Colorado north to latitude 65^ In 
Alaska, east to Mackenzie and poplar woods of western Manitoba. 

300c. Oregon RufTed Grouse (B. u. sabim) Sim- 
ilar to No. 300, but much darker, prevailhig color of 
upper parts rusty brown; tail always rusty brown. 

Range.— Pacific coast ranges from Capo Mendocino, California, 
north to British Columbia. 

304.? White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus), 
L. 13. Tail white. Ad. cf, Summer. Breast t)arred, 
black and white. Ad. ?, Summer. Above black 
barred with rich buff; below rich buff barred with 
black. Ads. f Fall. Above and breast rich buff fine- 
ly vermiculated with black. Ads., IVinter. Entirely 
white. Notes. When about to fly and at the begin- 
ing of flight a sharp cackle like that of a frightened 
hen. (Grinnell.^ 

Range.— "Alpine summits of Rocky Mountains; south to New 
Mexico; north Into British America (as far as Fort Halkett. LiarJ 
River); west to higher ranges of Oregon, Washington, and British 
Columbia." (Bendire.) 

304a.? Kenai White-tailed Ptarmigan (L. /. pem'/f 

sularis). Similar to No. 304, but in summer buff 
markings much paler; in fall, colors much grayer. 

Range. — Kenal Peninsula, Alaska. 



301. Willow Ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus), L.15. 
Bill large, more than ,4 deep at base; tail blacky nar- 
rowly tipped with white. y4d. c? Summer, Throat and 
upper breast rusty brown. Ad, ^ Fall, Rustier and 
more finely marked above. Ad, 9 Summer, Above 
black barred with buff and tipped with white; below 
buff barred with black; middle of belly whitish. Ad. 
?, Fall. Much like fall male. Ads., IVinter, White, 
tail black tipped with white; no black before eye. 
Notes. Song, ka-M-M-kU while ascending five or ten 
yards in the air; a hard rolling kr-r-r-r when descend- 
ing. (Nelson.) 

Range. — ^Arctic Regions; in America breeding south to Lat. 5^ ° 
In winter migrating south to Lat. 50^ ; recorded once from Pe- 
nobscot Co. . Maine, and once from Manchester. Mass. 

301a. Allen Ptarmigan {L. I. allent). Similar to 
No. 301, but 9 more finely marked; shafts of primaries, 
at all seasons, strongly black spreading to the web of 
the feather. 

Range.— Newfoundland. 

302. Rook Ptarmigan {Lagopus rupestris), L. 14. 
Bill less than .4 deep at base; tail black. Always to 
be known from No. 301 by its smaller bill. Ad. cf 
Summer, Above irregularly barred and mottled with 
gray and rusty buff; oeiow barred black and white and 
rusty buff. Ad. r? Fall, Above minutely speckled 
black, gray and buff, the prevailing color being gray- 
ish brown. Ad. c? IVinter, White, lores and tail 
black. Ad, 9 Summer. Above black barred with 
rusty and margined with whitish; below rusty barred 
with black and tipped with whitish. Ad. 9 Fall. 
Like fall c?. Ad, 9 IVinter, .Like winter c? J5ut no 
black before eye. 

Range.— North America from Gulf of St. Lawrence and higher 
mountains of British Columbia north to Arctic Regions (except 
northern Labrador) west through Alaska to Aleutian Islands. 

302a. Relnhardt Ptarmigan (/.. r, reinhardti). 
Ad, c? Summer. Similar to No. J02, but **less regu- 
larly and coarsely barred above" (Ridgw.) Ad. 9 
Summer, Resembles 9 of No. 302. Ads. Fall. Much 
grayer than No. 302 in fall. Adi., IVinter, Like No. 
302 in winter. Notes. When courting the male utters 
a growling kurr-kurr. (Turner.) 

Range.— Northern Labrador north to Greenland. 

302b. Nelson Ptarmigan (Z.. t. nelsoni). Ad. (?, 
Summer, Ground color of upperparts deep umber- 
brown, very finely and densely vermiculated; chest 
barred with bright tawny brown and black. Ad, 9 , 
Summer, Similar to 9 of No. 302. (Ridgw.) 

Range.— UnaJaska. Aleutian Islands. 



302o. Turner Ptarmigan (Z,. r. atklunsis). Light- 
er in general hue than 302CI and without black blotch- 
es on upperparts. (Elliot.) Ad. (^y Summer, "Ground 
color of upperparts pale raw-umber brown, mixed 
with pale grayish; chest and neck barred with pale 
brownish ochre and black." Ad. ^^ Summer, Ground 
color of upperparts rusty, mixed with p.ile grayish 
buff, narrowly and irregularly barred with black; chest 
and neck coarsely barred with rusty and black. 

Ran^.— Atka. Aleutian Islands. 

30 2d. Townaend Ptarmigan (L, r. townsends). Ad, 
r?, Summer. Above, breast and flanks raw umber 
finely vermiculated with black on back; with black 
blotches on head,neck and upperpart of back and wings. 
Ad, ?, Summer, Above ochraceous. blotched and 
barred with black; lighter below. (ElHot.) 

Range. — Kyska and Adak. Aleutian Islands. 

302.1 Everman Ptarmigan (La^o/>«s^/fmaiff). L. 

13.9. Ad, c?. Summer. Above and breast black 
slightly marked with rusty. Ad, 9 » Summer, Entire 
body plumage, ochraceous, blotched and barred with 
black and above tipped with white or ochraceous: be- 
low black bars wider and no white tips. (Elliot.) 

Range. — Attn. Aleutian Islands. 

303. Welch Ptarmigan (Lagopus welchi). L. about 
14. Bill and tail as in No. 302; plumage grayer than 
in No. 302. Ad. (^, Summer. Above mack /f«//y and 
irregularly marked with wavy lines of buff and white. 
Ad, ?, Summer. Above black finely and irregularly 
barred with buffy, grayish and white. 

Range. — Newfoundland. 


Prairie Hene and Grouae. 

305. Prairie Hen (Tyntf>a$mchus amificanus), L. 
18. Underparts with distinct brown and white bars of 
about equal width. Ad (f. A neck-tuft of ten or 
more rounded feathers. Ad, ?. Neck-tufts much 
smaller; whole tail barred. Noies, Song, a loud 

Ranfire.-^" Prairies of Mississippi Valley; south to Louisiana and 
Texas; east to Kentucky. Indiana. Oliio. Michigan and Ont^o; 
west through eastern portions of North Diicota, South Dakota, Ne- 
braslai. Kansas and Indian Territory; north to Manitoba; general 
tendency to extension of range westward and contraction eastward; 
mfgration north and south in Minnesota. Iowa and Missouri." (A. 

305a. Attwater Prairie Hen (T. a. atirtaferi). 
Similar to No. 305, but smaller and darker: neck-tufts 
proportionately wide; tarsus not fully featnered. 

Range. — Southwestern Louisiana and eastern Texas. 

306. Hwih Hen (Tympanuchus cuptdo) , Similar to 
No. 305, but smaller; scapulars more broadly tipped 
with buff; neck-tuft of less than ten feathers; obtusely 
pointed; axillars barred with dusky. 

Range. — Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. 

307. Leaser Prairie Hen (Tympanuchus palUdicinc 
ins). Similar to No. 305, but smaller, more buffy 
above; brown bars below narrower than whitish 
spaces between them. Notes. Doubtless the same as 
those of No. 305. 

Range.— Southwestern parts of Kansas and western Indian Terri- 
tory. w«stem (and southern?) Texas. (Bendire.) 

308. Sliarp-iailed Grouae (Pedioecetes phasianellus) . 
L. 17. Breast feathers with internal V shaped loops; 
no neck-jtufts. Ads. Prevailing color above block; 
narrowly barred with rusty and margined with paler. 

Ranre — Interior of British America, east to Rocky Mountains, 
about James Bay (Moose Factory) and the west shore of Hudson 
Bay. northern Manitoba, nonh at least to Fort Simpson. Mackenzie 
Kiver. northwest territory. (Bendire.) 

308a. Oolumbian Sharp-tailed Grouse {P. p. :o- 
lumbianus). Similar to No- 3081 but prevailing color 
above buffy. 

Range. — "Northwest United States; south to northeastern Cali- 
fornia, northern Nevada and Utah; east to Montana and Wyoming, 
wiest to Oregon and Wash! igton; north, chiefly west of Rotky 
Mountains, through British Cloltimbia to central Alaska (Fort Yukon) ' 

308b. Prairie Sharp-tailed Grouse (P. p, camp- 
4stris). Similar to No. 3081, but more rusty. Notes. 
Song, a bubbling crow, a rattling of tail-feathers, and 
stamping of feet. Calls, when disturbed, cack^ cack, 
cock', a soft clear whistle and a erunt of alarm. (Seton. ) 
Call of mother to young and of young in reply a gut- 
tural, raucous croak. (Crinnell.) 

Range —"Plains and prairies of Unltad States, north to Manitoba; 
aast to w'.jcoftsin and northern Illinois; west to eastern Colorado; 
south to eastern New Mexico." (Bendire.) 


Grouse, Turkeys and Chaohalaoa. 

309. Sage Grouse (Cenirocercus urophasianus). Ad. 
cf , L. 29; Ad. ? , L. 22. Similar to c?> but smaller, 
throat whiter; breast barred black and whitish. NoUs. 
When courting, low, grunting, guttural sounds; when 
alarmed, a sort of cackle, kak^ kak. (Bendire.) 

Range.— "Sage refrions of the Rocky Mountain Plateau, and 
.chiefly within the United States, but north to Assiniboia and the dry 
interior of British Columbia; east to North Dakota. South Dakota, 
Nebraska and Colorado; south to northern New Mexico. Utah and Ne- 
vada; west in California. Oregon and Washington, to the Sierra Ne- 
vada and Cascade Range." (A. O. U.) 

Pheasant (Phaslanus torquatus P. colchlcus). An Introduced 
species, see remarks on page 1x4. 

310. Wild Turkey (MeUagrts gaUopcno savssiris). 
(^ Ad, L. about a8; upper tail-coverts and tail tipped with 
rusty chestnut; white bars in primaries entire,crossing the 
webs of the feathers. Notss. Similar to those of the 
domesticated Turkey. 

Range. — Eastern United States from Pennsylvania south to central 
Fk>rlda; west to Nebraska and northeastern Texas. 

3 1 Oa. Merriam Turkey (Af. f. nurriami). Similar 
to No. 310, but tail and upper taii-coverts tipped with 

Range. — "Mountains of southern Colorado. New Mexico. Arizona 
and western Texas; and northern Chihuahua and Sonora. Mexico." 

3 1 Ob. Florida Wild Turkey (Af. ^. osc^la). Sim- 
ilar to No. 310, but smaller; primaries with narrow 
broken bars not reaching across feather. 

Range.— Southern Rorida. 

3 1 Oo. Rio Grande Turkey (Af. g, intemudia). Tips 
of upper tail-coverts and of tail rusty buff intermediate 
in color between those of Nos. 310 and 310a. 

Ranp^.—" Lowlands of southern Texas and northeastern Mexico.*' 
(A.O. U.) 

311. Ch2LCh9\2LCZ (Ortalisvetula maccallt). L. 21. 
Ads. Above olive-brown; tail blacker, all but middle- 
feathers bordered with whitish; belly brownish. NoUs, 
A loud, trumpeting cha^ha-laca^ repeated a number of 

Range.— Tropical portions of eastern Mexico, from Vera Cruz north 
to Lower Rio Grande Valley. 




Family 1. PIGEONS and DOVES. CoLUMBiDiK. 13 species, 3 

Pigeons are distributed throughout the greater part of the globe, but 
their center of abundance appears to be in the Malay Archipelago, 
where about one hundred and twenty of the some three hundred 
known species are found. One hundred or more species have been 
described from the New World but only twelve ot these inhabit North 

The various races of domestic Pigeons, 'Pouters,' *Fantails,* etc. are 
descendants of the Rock Dove of Europe, modified in form and habit 
through the selection by the breeder or 'fancier.' 

Pigeons build a flimsy, platform nest of twigs and lay two white 
eggs. Both sexes incubate, one relieving the other at certain hours 
each day. The young are bom naked and are fed by regurgitation, 
on 'Pigeons' milk,' the parent thrusting its bill into the mouth of its 
young and discharging therein food which has been softened in its own 

Some species of Pigeons nest in isolated pairs, others in large colo- 
nies, but it is the habit of many species to gather in large flocks after 
the nesting season. 

The Wild or Passenger Pigeon, once so abundant in this county, was 
found in flocks throughout the year. Alexander Wilson, the 'father of 
American Ornithology' writing about 1808, estimated that a flock of 
Wild Pigeons seen by him near Frankfort, Kentucky, contained at 
least 2,230,272,000 individuals. Audubon writes that in 1805 he saw 
schooners at the wharves in New York city loaded in bulk with Wild 
Pigeons caught up the Hudson River, which were sold at one cent each. 

As late as 1876 or 1877 there was a colony of nesting Wild Pigeons 
in Michigan, which was twenty-eight miles long and averaged three or 
four miles in width, and in 1881 the birds were still so abundant in 
parts of the Mississippi Valley that the writer saw thousands of birds, 
trapped in that region, used in a Pigeon match near New York City. 

Today, however, as a result of constant persecution, the Wild Pigeon 
is so rare that the observation of a single individual is noteworthy. 


Pigeons and Doves. 

312. Band-tailed Pigeon (Columha fasdata), L. 
15. Ad* cf . Tail-band ashy above, whiter below; 
a white nape-band; tail square. Ad, 9- Similar, or 
in some specimens, nape band absent; pinkish of crown 
and breast dingy. ^ Notes, An owl-lilce hooting, some- 
times a calm whoo-hoo-hoo, whoo-hoo-hooy at others a 
spirited ho<^-ah^hoo, and again whoo-ugh, (Bailey.) 

Range.— "Western United States from Rocky Mountains to the 
Pacific: north to Washington and British Coiumbia; south to Mexico 
and the highlands of Guatemala; distribution Irregular, chiefly In 
wooded mountain regions." (A. O. \}.) 

3 f 2a. Yiosca Pigeon (C. /. viosca). Similar to No. 
312, but paler, more clearly bluish slate above; pink of 
crown and breast with a grayish hhom. 

Range. — Cape Region of Lower California. 

.313. Red-billed Pigeon (Columbaflavirostris). L. 
15. Ads. No tail-band; wings, tail, and belly slate; 
head and neck purplish pink; bo iridescent markings. 
Notes, A fine, loud, coo-vhoo-er-whoo. 

Range.— Costa Rica migrating north to southern Texas. New Mex' 
Ico and Arizona. 

3 f 4. White-crowned Pigeon {Cdumbaleucocephala), 
L. 13.5 Ad, c?. Crown white; body slate; lower 
hindneck iridescent; nape maroon. Ad. $. Much 
paler; crown ashy. 

Range. — Cxreater Antilles and Islands about Anegada 
coast of Honduras, Bahamas and certain Florida Keys. 


Pigeons and Doves. 

315. Passenger Pigeon, Wild Pigeon {EctopisUs 
migratorius), L. i6. Outer tail-feathers chestnut at 
base of inner web. Ad, cT* Chin, whole head, and 
lower back bluish slate. j4d. ? . Browner above, 
breast brownish a&hy; neck feathers less iridescent. 
NoUs, An explosive, squeaky, squawk. 

Ran^e. — Formerly eastern North Aitoerica tiorth to Hudson Bay; 
DOW •xceedlngly rare, less so in the upper Mississippi valley than 

316. Mourning Dove, Carolina Dove (Ztnaidurat 
macroura). L. 11.8. Outer tail-feathers slate color a 
base of inner web. Ad. ^, Chin whitish; sides ol 
head buffy; a black ear mark. Ad. ?. Similar bu 
paler, breast more ashy brown, neck-feathers less^ 
iridescent. Holes, Coo-o-o-ah^coo-O'O-coo-O'O-coo-O'O. 

Range. — North Amerfcji. breedfng: from Wesf Indies and Mexico 
north to southern Maine. Quet>ec. Ontirio. Manitoba and British 
Columbia; winters from southern NewYoric. southern Illinois, Kansas 
and southern California southward. 

317. Zenaida Dove {Zenaida ^enaida). L. 10. 
Ad. cf. Tail short, wilhoul white markings; all but cen- 
tral pah" of feathers tipped with ashy blue; secondaries 
tipped with white. Ad. ?. Similar but pinkish of 
crown and underparts brownish; neck feathers less 
iridescent. Noles. Resemble those of No. 316, but 
arc louder and deeper. 

Ran^.— Greater Antilles, coast of Yucatan and Bahamas, north In 
April to Florida Keys. 

318. White-fronted Dove (Letloltla fidvivenlris 
hrackyptifa) . L. 12. No black ear-mark; under wing- 
coverts rusty chestnut. Ad. cf . Forehead whitish; 
all but central pair of tail-feathers tipped with white. 
Ad. 9. Foretiead dingier; breast brownish ashy; 
neck feathers less iridescent Noles, A short, soft 

Rang«.~CentnU America and Mexico, north In February to valley 
of Lower Rio Grande. 



Pigeons and Doves. 

319. White-winged Dove (Melopelia Itucoptera). 
L. 12. Wing<overts, externally, widely margined 
with white; large black ear marks. Ads, All but cen- 
tral pair of tail-feathers bluish slate with a black band 
and whitish tip. 'Notes. A loud, crowing cook^s^ 
cooherti-coo-ree-coo, crow-co-if-coo^ crow-co-er-coo, 

Rang:^.— Southern border of United States from Texas to Arizona* 
south to Lower California and Central America. Cuba and Jamaica* 
casual at Key West, Florida. 

320^ Ground Dove; Mourning Dove (Columhigal- 
Una passerina terrestris). L. 6.7. Smallest of our 
Doves. Ad, ^, Forehead and underparts deep vina- 
ceous pink; hindhead and nape ashy blue margined 
with dusky; base of bill coral, tip black. Ad. ?. 
Forehead and breast brownish gray; breast feathers 
with dusky centers and margins. Notss. A soft» 
:rooning coo. 

Range.— Atlantic and Gulf States north to northern North CaroQna, 
wrest to eastern Texas; more common near coast. 

320a. Mexican Ground Dove (C t. palUscms). 
Similar to No. 320, but forehead and underparts much 
paler; back grayer. 

Range. — Texas to southern California and south to Central America. 

320b. Bermuda Ground Dove (C. p. bermudiana). 
Similar to 320a, but smaller and paler; bill wholly 
black. (Bangs and Bradlee.) 


321. inca Dove (Scardafslla mca), L. 8. Ads. 
Tail long, outer feathers tipped with white; plumage 
above and below margined with dusky, giving a scaled 

Ranfre.— Southern Texas (San Antonio), southern Mexico and 
southern Arizona south to Lower California and Central America. 

322. Key West Quail- Dove (Geotrygon cbrysia). 
L. 12. Ads, A white line below eye; oelly white; 
back rich rusty with beautiful, metallic, purplish, grum 
and blue reflections; tail rusty with no white. 

Range.— Cuba, Hayti .Bahamas and. rarely, Florida Keys. 

322.1. Ruddy Quail-Dove {Geotrygon montana). 
L. II. Ad, (^, No white line below eye; breast dull 
pinkish; belly deep buff; back rich rusty with purplish 
reflections, tail rusty without white. Ad, ?. Above 
olive-brown with greenish reflections; below rusty 

Ran ire.— Mexico south to Brazil; West Indies; casual at Key West 

323. Blue-headed Quail Dove {Starncmas cyanocep- 
hala), . L. 12. Ads, Crown and sides of throat dull 
blue; middle of upper breast black with white bars 
and pinkish tips; belly rusty brown, lower back as in 
No. 316. Notes, A hollow sounding buruby the fiist 
syllable long, the second short (Gundladi.) 

Range.— Cuba, and rarely Florida Keys. 




Family 1. AMERICAN VULTURES. Cathartid^. 3 species. 

Family 2. FALCON^, HAWKS, EAGLES, etc. Falconid^. 33 
species, 13 subspecies. 

Family 3. BARN OWLS. SxRiGiDiE. 1 species. 

Family 4. HORNED OWLS. Bubonid^b. 19 species, 20 sub- 

In the Raptores we have a g^roup of birds of great value to man but 
whose services for the most part, are so little appreciated that, far from 
protecting these birds, we have actually persecuted them. 

The Vultures, it is true, are given credit for their good work as 
scavengers and they are protected both by law and by public sentiment. 
Every one knows that a living Vulture is infinitely more useful than a 
dead one. As a result throughout cotmtries inhabited by these birds 
they are usually both abundant and tame, entering the cities to feed 
in the streets with an assurance bom of years of immunity from harm. 

But how diflEerently their kin of the family Falconidae act in their 
relations to m^l 'Wild as a Hawk' has become an adage. These 
birds are universally condemned. To kill one is a commendable act. 
Every ones hand is raised against them. In some localities a price 
has actually been set upon their heads. 

A fondness for chickens, it is alleged, is the chief crime of Hawks', 
and in popular parlance all Hawks are 'Chicken Hawks' and as such 
are to be killed on sight. 

Natur^ists have long been aware that only one of our common 
Hawks habitually preys upon poultry while most of our species, by 
feeding largely on meadow mice, are actually beneficial. It was not, 
however, until this matter received the attention of the Biological 
Survey of the United States Department of Agriculture, that the 
economic status of Hawks, as well as of Owls, was placed on a sound 
scientific basis. In Dr. A. K. Fisher's report on the food of Hawks 
and Owls, issued by the Biologic Survey in 1893, the results of 
the examination of the contents of several thousands stomachs of these 
birds is tabulated. It is stated, for example, that only three out of 
two htmdred and twenty stomachs of the so-called 'Chicken' or Red- 


Vultures, Hawks, and Owls. 

shouldered Hawk contained the remains of poultry, while mice were 
found in no less than one hundred and two, and insects in ninety-twO£ 

That the Sparrow Hawk is also wrongly named is clear irom a stud^ ; 
of its food,^9nly fifty-four out of three himdred and twenty stomachs 
examined c<:>ntaining remains of birds, while insects were found in two 
himdred and fifteen.^ 

As a matter, pf .fact, among our commoner Hawks, the Cooper and 
Sharp-shinned are the only ones feeding largely on birds and poultry^ 
and if the farmer will take the pains to ascertain what kind of Hawk it 
is that pays unwelcome visits to his barn-yard, he will be spared the 
injustice of condecini^ig all Hawks for the sins of one or two. 

Feeding after suliset, when the small mammals are most active^ 
Owls are ev^n more beneficial than Hawks. The Great Horded Owl, 
it is tr,U6j has an undue fondness for poultry, but the bird is generally 
so rare.R^ar thickly populated regions that on the whole it does com- 
parat^vejly-liltle h^rm. 

Fortimately^ it is those Owls which are most common in settled 
regions which.^are of most value to man. Thus, our little Screech Owl 
feeds chiefly on mice and insects. Only one of the two hundred and 
fifty-five stomachs examined by Dr. Fisher contained the remains of 
poultry while mice were found in ninety-one and insects in one hundred. 
Of the Short-eared or Marsh Owl, seventy-seven out of one hundred 
and xy^ie' stomachs ' contained mice remains, and the same injurious 
little rodents were found in eighty-four out of one hundred and seven 
stomachs of the Ling^ared Owl. 

The bones and hafr of the small mammals eaten by Owls are rolled 
into oblong pellets in the stomach and are ejected at the mouth. 
These pellets may often be foimd in large numbers beneath the roosts 
in which Owls pass the day. In 200 such castings of the Bam Owl Dr. 
Fisher found the remains of 454 small mammals of which no less than 
225 were meadow mice. 

l5(awks build large bulky nests of sticks placing them usually well up 
in large trees, and lay, as a rule, four eggs which are generally whitish, 
blotched with brown. The Marsh Hawk is an exception. Its nest 
built largely of grasses, is placed on the ground in marshes and the 
eggs, often numbering six and rarely eight, are bluish white unmarked. 

The Owls nest in holes in trees or banks, or, in some instances, an 
old Hawk dc Qrow nest may be occupied. The eggs usually number 
three to five and are always pure white. 


Vultures and Osprey. 

a24. C%\\forn\a yuaun {Gymnogyps caltformanus). 
L* 44-55; Ex. 8 1-2 to nearly 11 feet. (Ridgw.) /ids. 
Head and neck orange, blue, and red, unfeathered; 
feathers around neck and on underparts narrow and 
stiffened; greater wlng<overts tipped with white; 
under wtng-coverts vbiU. 

Ranc*.— "Coist ranges of southern California from Monterey Bay, 
south to Lower California and east to Arizona" (Bailey). Recorded 
I Burrard Inlet, British Columbia (Fannin). 

325. Turkey Vulture; Turkey Buzzard (Cathartes 
aura). L. 30; T. 11. Ads, Head and neck red un- 
feathered; brownish black; no white in plumage; bill 
whitish. Notes, A low hissing sound when disturbtrd. 

Range.— Western Hemisphere from central and northeast New 
Jersey, central Illinois, northern Minnesota, the Saskatchewan ref^n 
and British Columbia, south to Pataeonia; winters from southern 
New Jersey, southerrt Illinois and southern Califurnia southwarJ. 

326. Black Vulture; Carrion Crow (Cathan'sta 
urubu), L. 24. T. 8. y4ds. Head and neck unfeath- 
ered, black, plumage black; under surjace of wings silvery. 
Notes. A low grunting sound when disturbed. 

Range.— Tropical America, north, as a resident to North Carolina, 
soutliem Illinois and southern Kansas; west to the Plains, souta to 
northern South America, strays as far north as Maine and South Da- 

364. American Osprey; Fish Hawk {Pandion balia- 
etus caroUnensis) . L. 23. Nape white; feet large; no 
bars on primaries. j4d. ^. Below white with few or 
no spots on Ad. ?. Simihr, but breast with 
numerou«5 grayish brown spots and streaks. Notes. 
Loud, plaintive, whistles. 

Range.— America: breeds from Rorida, Texas and Lower California, 
north to Labrador. Ureat Slave Lake and northern Alaska; winters 
from Soath Carolina and Lower Mississippi Valley to northern South 


Kites and Marsh Hawk. 

327. Swallow-tailed Kite {Elanoides forficatus) . L. 
24. Ads, Back, purplish black, wings and tail blue- 


Notfs, A shrill, keen, ^^t or 


Range.— Middle America; summers north to Virginia, central Illi- 
nois, northern Minnesota. Manitoba and Dakota: westto centnU Kan- 
sas, rarely to Colorado; winters In Central and South America. 

328. White-tailed Kite {Elanusleucurus), L. 15.5. 
Ads. Shoulders black; back and' middle tail-feathers 
ashy gray; rest of tail-feathers, forehead and underparts 
white. Yng. Upperparts with rusty. Notes. A plain- 
tive, musical whistle. (Barlow.) 

Range.— Middle America north to South Carolina, southern Illinois* 
Indian Territory, western Texas, Arizona and central California; 
south to Argentine Republic; rare east of the the Mississippi. 

329. Mississippi Kite QcUma mississippimsis) . L. 
14. Ads. Head, ends of secondaries, and underparts 
bluish gray; back bluish slate; tail black without bars. 
Yng. Head streaked black and white; back blackish, 
tipped with rusty; tail with three or four broken white 
bars; underparts buffy, streaked with rusty and 

Range.— Middle America: breeds north to Sooth Carolina, southern 
Illinois and Kansas; winters In tropics. 

330. Everglade Kite; Snail Hawk (Rostrhamus so- 
dabilis). L. 18. Longer upper tail-coverts and base 
of tail white. Ads. Slaty black; end of tail with 
brownish and whitish bancfs. Yng. Above blackish 
brown tipped with rusty; below mottled rusty, black- 
ish and buff. 

Range. Tropical America north to southern Florida and eastern 
Mexico; south to Argentine Republic. 

331. Marsh Hawk; Harrier {Circus budsonms). 
L. d^, 19; 9, 22. Upper tail-coverts and base of tail 
white. Ad, c?. Above gray or ashy; underparts with 
rusty spots. Ad, 9f and Yng. Above brownish 
black with more or less rusty, particularly on the nape; 
below brownish rusty with black streaks on breast. 
Notes. A peevish scream and peculiar clucking or 
cackling. (Preston.) 

Range.— North America; breeds locally north to about latitude 60^ ; 
winters from southern New York, northern Illinois, northern I' 
Colorado and British ColumbUi south to Central America. 



332. Sharp-Shinned Hawk (//a;i^/^T'^/(7x). L. c^, 
11.2: 9. 13.5; T. (?, 5.5; 9, 7. Tail square at end. 
Ads. Above slaty gray; crown darker; below barred 
white and rusty brown, Yng. Above blackish brown 
lightly margined with rusty; below white streaked 
with brown. Note the relatively long tail in this and 
the two following species. Notes, Cac-cac-cacf 

Range.— North America: breeds throughout Its range but chiefly 
northward; winters from Massachusetts and Vancouver Island soutb- 

333. Cooper Hawk {Acdtiter cooperu), L. rj^, 
15.5; 9, iq; T. cT, 7-7\ 9, 9. Similar m color to No. 
332, but tail rounded; adult with crown blacker. Notes. 
A cackling or chattering. (Bendire. ) 

Range.— North America; breeds from southern Mexico north to 
British America: winters from Massachusetts. Lower Mississippi Val- 
ley and Oregon southward. 

334. American Goshawk {Accipiter atricapillus) , 
L. ^, 22; 9,24; T. cf, 10; 9, II-5' ^ds. Above 
bluish slate; crown darker; a whitish line over the eye 
to the nape; below finely marked with gray and white. 

Yng. Above blackish brown, rusty and buff; below 
buny white streaked with blackish. 

Range.— North America; breeds chiefly north of United States; 
winters south to New Jersey, rarely Virginia, Illinois, Missouri and 
Kansas; west to Oregon. 

334a. Western Goshawk (A, a. striatulus). Simi- 
lar to No. 334, but Ad» dark plumbeous above, mark- 
ings on lower parts heavier and darker. Stripes on 
lower parts of y>i^. broader and blacker. (Ridgw.) 
Notes. A shrill scream and a frequently repeated 
Aeeab or kreeab. (Bendire.) 

Range.— "Western North America; north to Sitka, Alaska; south to 
California: east to Idaho. Breeds in the Sierra Nevada south to 
latitude 38® •" (A. O. U.) 

346. Mexican Goshawk (Asturina plagiata). L. 
17. Ads, Above slaty gray; below barred slaty-gray 
and white. Yng, Above blackish brown with rusty 
niarkings, particularly on wing-coverts; longer upper 
tail-coverts white with black spots or bars; Uiil brown- 
ish with numerous black bars; below whitish with 
large elongate spots. Notes, A peculiar piping note 
uttered while hovering in the air. (Bendire.) 

Range.— Middle America, from Panama north. In March, to Mexican 
border of United Sutes. 



335. Harris HMVuk . {TarabiOta umcinctus kartm) 
L. c?, 195 ?, 22. Longer upper tail<overts, base and 
tip of tail white. Ms. Shoulders, thighs and under 
wing-coverts, reddish brown; under tail-coverts white. 
Yng. Similar but streaked below with rusty, buft aii4 
black; legs barred with white. Notss. A long, harsh, 
'Buteo-like scream. (V. Bailey.) 

Ran^. — Middle America from Panama north to southern Texas, 
rarely Mississippi and southern Califomia. 

337. fied'\a\\e6HB}Nk (Butgobofgalis). L. J*, 20; 

9,23. Four outer primaries notched. ;4ds. Tail 
rusty brown with a black band, sometimes broken; 
near it^ tip; below buffy white, a band of spots across 
the belly; legs usually without bars. Yng. Tail gray- 
ish brown with a rusty tinge and numerous blackish 
bars; upper tail-coverts barred black and white; below 
less buffy than in adult; le^s more often barred. Not^s^ 
A shrill whistie, suggesting the sound of escaping 
steam. ^ • • . . 

Ranee.— Eastern North America, west .to the Great Plains, nortb to 
•bout latitude 60 ^ ; breeds throughout Its ran^; winters from Mass- 
achusetts, Illinois and Sodth Dakota southwaid. 

337a. Krider Hawk (B, h. kridrnt^. Similar ta 
No. J 37, but neariy or wholly white below. Adi, 
Usually without black tail band. 

Range.— "Great Plains of United States from Minnesota to Texas; 
east irregularly or casually to Iowa and northern Illinois." (Bendire). 

337b. Western Red-tail {B. h. calurus). Very 
variable in color. Ads. Sometimes sooty brown 
above and below with more or less rusty; in light phase 
resembles No. 337, but tail averages paler and some- 
times has more than one bar; the underparts are deeper 
and legs are usually barred with rusty. Yng. Similar 
to Yng. of No. 337. but markings below heavier; 
flanks more barred. 

Range. — Western North America from Rocky Mountains to Pacific; 
north to British Columbia, south to central America; generally resi- 

337d. Harlan Hawk [B. b. barlam). Ads. Above 
sooty brown; tail closely mottled with blackish, rusty 
and whitish; below varying from white, more or less 
spotted on belly to sooty brown. Yng. Similar, but 
tail barred with blackish, gray, rusty or whitish. 

Range. — "Gulf States and Lower Mississippi Valley, nortfau (ca5* 
ually) to Kansas. Iowa. Illinois and Pennsylvania; east to ueorgiac 
and Florida." (Bendire). 



339. Ited^liouldef^ Hawk (SttUo timdus). L, 
c^, -18.3; ?, 20.3. four outer primaries notched. Ads, 
Les^>€r wing-coverts bright reddish brown. Yng, Bc- 
lovsr whitish sinaked with brownish; lesser wing-cov- 
erts less reddish; primaries with ruity buff. Notes, A 
loud screaming kihyer, kee-yet. 

Ram^.— Eastern United States to Oklahoma, eastern Kansas, 
eastern Nebraska and Minnesota, north to Maine, south to northern 
Florida; generally resident. 

339a. Florida Red-shouldered Hawk {B, L allem), 
Sinalierthan No. 339. (W- cf» ii-) ^^' Much 
^ayer above, no rusty on baci<, much paler below. 

Ran g^e.— Florida north along coist to South Carolina: west along 
ctMst to eastern Texas. 

339b. Red-bellied Hawk (B. I. ehgans). Similar 
to No. 339, but rusty of breast usually unbroken. 
Yoting with lower parts deep brownish or dusky pre- 
vailing; less buff on primaries. (Ridgw.) 

Range.— Pacific coast from Lower California north to British 
Columbia; east rarely to Cok>rado and western Texas. 

342. Swainson Hawk (BuUo stoainsom) . L. cf, 20. 
Thru outer primaries notched. /Id, c?. Breast patch 
rusty brown. Ad. $. Breast-patch grayish brown. 
Dark phase. Brownish black more or less varied with 
rusty; tail obscurely barred. Yng, Below rich rusty 
biiff with elongate black spots. Notes. Pi-tick^ pi-tick, 
frequently repeated. (Bendire.) 

Range.— ';Westem North America from Wisconsin.* Illinois, Ar- 
kansas and 'Texas to the Pacific coast; north to Arctic regions and 
south to Argentine Republic, casual east to Maine and Massachu- 
setts. Breeds nearly tliroughout its North American range." (A. O. 

343. Broad-winged Hawk (fiuteo platypterus). L. 
/^, 15.8; ?, 16.7. r/^// outer primaries notched. Ads. 
Tail with two whitish bands and a brownish tip; be- 
low ^arr/ J with rusty brown. Yn^. No buff in prim- 
aries; tail brownish with several black bars; below 
whitish, streaked with blackish. Notes. A high, 
sharp, keen, penetrating whistle. 

Ranse.— Eastern North America, breeds west to Plains, north to 
New Brunswkk and Saskatchewan; winters from southern New 
Jersey south to northern South America. 


Hawks and Caraoara. 

340. Zone-tailed Hawk (^^^o^^^TM/ftf). L.^, 

19; 9,21. j4ds. Tai! with little if any white tip; 
inn^r webs of all but 'noddle fe ithers with black and 
white bars. Yng, Browner; tail grayish brown; white 
on inner webs, with numerous blackish bars. NifUs, 
Not unlike those of Butso barealis. (Belding.) 

Range.— Tropical America north to southern Texas, soathem Ari- 
zona and southern California. 

344. Short- tailed Hawk (Buteo bracbyurus), L. 
17; T. 7. j4ds. Above slaty gray, tail barred with 
black and tipped with white; sides of breast rusty; rest 
of underpants whits. Dark phase. Blackish, forehead 
whitish; tail lighter than back, barred with black. 
Yng, Above blackish brown, below cream buff, 
tw*/X<w/ black markings. Notss, Somewhat resemb- 
ling the scream of the Red-shouldered Hawk, but more 
prolonged. (Pennock.) 

Range.— Tropical America, north to eastern Mexico; rare In Florl- 

345. Mexican Black Hawk {Urubitinga anthradna). 
L. cf , 19; 9,21. j4ds. Tail with a white tip and 
broad white band across all the feathers. Yntr. Above 
brownish black, buff and rustv; below buffy striped 
with blackish; tail with several black and whitish bars. 
Noifs. Piping cries like the spring whistle of Nununms 
longirostris. (Bendire.) 

Range.— "Tropical America in general, north to central Arlxooa. 
and the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas." (Bendire). 

362. Audubon Caracara {Polyborus cheriway). 
L. 22. Tail white with a black end and numerous 
black bars. Ads, Breast and hindneck barred: belly 
black. Yng, Crown, back, and belly dark brown; 
hindneck, breast and belly streaked with buffy. Notss, 
Generally silent, but sometimes utters a prolonged 
cackling note. (B. F. Goss.) 

Range.— Northern South America, north to southern Texas, south- 
em Arizona and Lower California; interior of southern Florida; resi- 

363. Guadalupe Caracara (Tolyborus lutosus). 
Resembles No. 362, but has rump andf upper tail<ov- 
erts dull brown. sh buff broadly barred with dull brown; 
tail brownish buff with broad bars of grayish brown 
bordered by narrower zigzag bars or lines of dusky; 
terminal band less than 2.00 wide. (Ridgway.) 

Range.— Guadalupe Island, west of Lower Callftmila. 



341. Sennett White-tailed Hawk (Buteo albicauda- 
ttts stnmtti), L. c?, 2i; ?, 23. Three outer primaries 
cut. y4ds. Grayish slate above. Yng. Above 
brownish black; breast usually white, throat blackish, 
belly heavily marked with rusty and blackish; some- 
times wholly black below; tail generally suvery gray^ 
Avhite on inner webs with numerous indistinct blackish 
bars. Notes. A cry much like the bleating of a goat 

Range.— From southern Texas and Arizona south to Mexico." 

347a. American Rough-legged Hawlc {Archibuteo 
lagopus sancH'johannis) . B. .7 deep, smaller than in 
No. 348. L. c?*, 21; ?, 23. Legs feathered to 'the 
toes. Ads, Basal half of tail white, end half barred 
with black; belly with more or less black. Yng, No 
black bars on end half of tail; huffier below, more 
black on belly. Black phase. Black more or less 
varied with brown and rusty as it approaches light 

f)lumage of ad. or yng; but to be known by feathered 

Range.— North America; breeds north of United States; winters 
south to Virginia, Missouri and central California. 

348. Ferruginous Rough-Leg {Archtbuteo ferrugi- 
n£us). B. I. deep, larger than in No. 347a; L. (f , 22; 
9, 24. Legs feathered to toes. Ads, Above rich 
rusty streaked with black; legs rusty barred with 
black; tail grayish sometimes washed with rusty. 
Yng. Above blackish brown margined with rusty; 
below white; breast with a few streaks; legs spotted; 
tail with inner webs and base white; outer webs grayish. 
Dark phase. Sooty brown more or less varied with 
rusty; tail as in ad. 

Range.— Western North America from the Plains (east North Da- 
Icou to Texas) . west to the Pacific and from the Saskatchewan region 
south into Mexico; casually east to Illinois. Breeds from Utah, Colo- 
rado and Kansas north to the Saskatchewan Plains." (A. O. U.) 

355. Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus). L. c^, 
17; ?,2o. A blackish patch on the sides. Ad. J*. 
Above including middle tail feathers, grayish brown; 
back with more or less concealed buffy bars. Ad, ?. 
No buffy bars on back. Yng, Above margined with 
rusty and whitish; head much as in ad. Notes. Kn^ 
k/e, kee and a sort of cackle. (Bendire.) 

Range.— "United States from the eastern border of the Plains to the 
Pacific and from the Dakotas south Into Mexico; casual east to Illi- 
nois. Breeds throughout Its United States range." (A. O. U.) 



Eagles and Gyrfaloons. 

J4 9. 

354 b. 

349. Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), L. cf , p- 
35; 9, 35-40; Ex. c?, 78-84; ?, 84-90. (Ridgw.) Legs 
feathere J to toes. j4ds. Back of head and nape paler 
than body; basal two-thirds of tail white. Yng, Base 
of tail with broken grayish bars. NoUs, A shrill, 
kee-kee-kfe^ and» when alarmed, kiah-kiab repeated a 
number of times. (Bendire.) 

Range —Northern parts of nonhem hemisphere; in America south 
into Mexico; rare east of Mississippi, more common in Rocky Mount- 
ains and mountains of Pacific coast. 

352. Bald Eagle (Haliaretus leticocephalus). L. (J, 
33; ?> 35; Ex. cf , 84; 9, 89. Legs not feathered to 
toes. Ads, Hea4, neck and tail white. Yng, Head 
and body blackish, more or less varied with white; 
tail blackish mottled with white. Notes, Of the male, 
a loud, clear cac cac-cac; of the female harsh and brok- 
en. (Ralph.) 

Range. — North America breeding locaHy throughout its range, more 
frequently near the Atlantic coast: resident in United States. 

352a. Alaska Bald Eagle (//. /. alascanus). Simi- 
lar to No. 352, but larger. W. c?, 23.& 9, 24.6; T. 
cf, 11.5; ?, i2;Tar. d", 4.1; 9,3.7. (Townsend.) 

Range.— Alaska. 

353. White Gyrfaloon (Fa/^t5/aifi^fi5). L. cf , 22; 

9, 24. Tarsus feathertnJ in front nearly to toes; only 
outer primary notched. Under tail coverts ^r/ white. 
Ads, Below white with few or no black markings. 
Yng. Dark areas above larger, below with elongate 
blackish spots. 

Range.— Arctic regions. In America south In winter casually to 

354. Gray Gyrfalcon {Falco rusiicolus). L. J*, 22; 
9 , 24. Tarsus feathered in front neariy to toes; only 
outer primary notched. Under tail coverts with dusky 
margins. Ads. Crown usually more white than 
dusky; above barred with blackish and grayish; below 
white, breast streaked: sides and legs barred with 
dusky. Yng. Above dark brown brown with broken 
buffy bars and margins: tail with white and brown 
bars of nearly equal width , below white everywhere 
streaked with blackish. 

Range.— Arctic regions; south in winter to the northern border of 
the United States; casually as far as Kansas and Maine. 

354a. Gyrfalcon (F, r. gyrfalco). Similar to No. 
?54, but head usually with more dusky than white; 
back in ad. indistinctly barred with grayish, Yn^. 
With dark stripes of lower parts usually about equal in 
width to white intersp tees. 

Range.— "Northern Europe and Arctic America, from northern Labra- 
dor and coasts of Hudson Bay to Alasl<a" (Ridgw.); south in winter 
casually . to northern border of United States as far as Long Island. 

354b. Black Gyrfalcon (F. r. obsoUius), Similar 
to No. 3S4, but much darker; above plain dusky with 
few or no buffy markings; below dusky margined wiih 
buffy, the former prevailing. Notes. A chattering 
ke-a^ he-ay ke-a, blending into a rattling scream. 

Range.— Labrador: south In winter to northern New England; cas- 
ually to Long Island. 



356. Duok Hawk {Falco pere^rinus anatum). L. 
<y, i6;'V,i9. Sides of throat black. y4ds. Above 
bluish slate; below buffy. Yn^. Above blackish 
margined with rusty; tail with broTcen rusty bars and 
whitish tip; below d^^ rusty huff streaked with black- 
ish ; under surface of wing uniformly barred. Notss. 
Loud screams and noisy cacklings. (Bendire.) 

Range. — Western Hemisphere; breeds locally from Southern States 
to Arctic Tenons; winters from Northern States southward; more 
common west of Rocky Mountains. 

356a. Pea le Falcon (F./». M^^')- /^^- Crown 
uniform with back; chest heavily spotted with blackish; 
bars of remaining underparts very broad. (Ridgw.) 

Range. — "Pacific coast region of North America from Oregon to the 
Aleutian and Commander Islands, breeding throughout its range." 
CA. O. U.) 

357. Pigeon Hawk (Falco columharius) . L. c?, 
10.5; 9,13. Two outer primaries notched. Ad. c?. 
Above slaty blue; middle tail feather with not more 
than^r black bands. Ad. $ and Yng. Above dark 
blackish brown; bars in middle tail feather five or less; 
below more heavily barred than in c?. 

Range.— North America, east of Roclcy Mountains: breeds chiefly 
north of United States from Rocky Mountains and westward: breeds 
ffom Colorado and California north to Alaslca; winters from Gulf 
States. Colorado and California, south to northern South America. 

357a. Black Merlin (F. c. suckUvi). Similar to No. 
357, but much darker above and more heavily marked 
below; bars on ta|I and under side of wing nearly ob- 

Range. — Pacific coast from northern California to Sitka; east to 
eastern Oregon and Washington. 

358. Richardson Merlin (Falco richardsomi) . Re- 
sembles No. 357» but is paler and has the central tail 
feather crossed by six light bars, counting the terminal 

Range. — Interior of North America from eastern border of Grea^ 
Plains west; rare west of Rockies; north to^t least.latitude 53 ^ ; south 
to Mexico. 

359. Aplomado Falcon (Falco fusco-cceruUscftis) , 
L. (^, 16; ?, 17.5. Middle of belly black. Ads. 
Above slaty gray; breast buff, lower belly rusty. Yttg. 
Similar but grayish brown above, belly paler. 

Range. — South and Central America north to southern border of the 
United Stotes. 

360. Sparrow Hawk (Falco sparverius). L. 10; 
9, II. Ad. (^. Tail with one black bar; below 
spotted. Ad. ?. Whole back barred; tail with num- 
erous black bars; below streaked. Notes. A rapidly re- 
peated kaiykUlykilly, usually uttered while on the 

Raiige.— Eastern North America west to Rocky Mountains; breeds 
from Gulf States to Hudson Bay; winters from southern Illinois and New 
Jersey southward. 


Hawks and Owls. 

3603. Desert Sparrow Hawk {F. s. pbalana). Simi- 
lar to No. 360, but slightly larger and appreciably 
paler; 9 with black bars above narrower; streakings of 
underparts finer and more rusty, d^, L. 10.6; W. 7-5; 
T. 5.3: ?, L. 10.8; W. 7-7'' T. 5.^. (Mearns.) 

Rmge.— "Western United States, north to !«stem British CoiumbU. 
and western Montana south, to Mazatlan in northwestern Mexico.** 
(A. O. V.) 

360b. St. Lucas Sparrow Hawk (F. s. psmnsularis). 
Simil .r to No. 360a, but paler; smaller than No. 360. 
d^, W. 6.4; T. 4.5-. 9. W. 7; T. 4.7. (Mearns.) 

Ran^^e — Lower California (Cape Region only?) 

365. Barn Owl; Monkey-faced Owl (Strix pratin- 
cola). L. 18. No ear-tufts: eyes black. Ads, Above 
gray and yellowish buff; below white more or less 
washed with buff and spotted with black- Yng, More 
buffy below. Notes. A sudden, harsh scream and a 
screa ning cr-r-r-r-e'e^ repeated several times eeneraily 
when flying. ^ 

Range.— United States north to Loni; Island, (rarely Massachusetts), 
soutii^m Ontario. Minnesota and Orejeon; migrates slightly south 
and vklnters south to Mexico. 

366. American Long-eared Owl {Asiowilsomanus), , 
L. 14.8. Ear-tufts long; eyes yellow. Ads, Above 
varied with ^rjy; belly ^arr^^. hioUs, Usually silent 
except during the breeding season when they utter a 
soft toned, slow wi^kunk, wwhunkdrndi 2l low, twittering, 
whistling dicky , dicky, dicky, (Bendire.) 

Range.— North America; breeds from Nova Scotia, Manitoba, and 
British Columbia south Into Mexico. 

367. SYwrX-^w^^OmX {AstoaccipHrinus), L. 15.$. 

Ear tufts short; eyes yellow. Ads. No gray above; 
belly strsaked. Notes. A shrill barking call like the 
ki-yi of a small dog. ( Lawrence. ) 

Range. — ^" Nearly cosmopolitan;" In America breeds locally from 
Virginia, northern Mississippi Valley, and Dakotas northward: winters 
from northern United States southward. 

378. Burrowing Owl ( Speotyto cunictdaria hypogcM) . 
L. 10. Tarsi bare behind. Ads. Spotted above with 
buffy; belly barred; chin and breast-patch white. Yng, 
Less distinctly spotted above; belly without bars. 
Notes. A mellow, sonorous coo-c-o-o', a chattering note 
uttered when flying, and a short, shrill alarm-note, 
t^tp-t^ip. (Bendire.) 

Range.— Western North America from humid coast region east to 
prairies of Mississippi Valley (western Nebraslca. central Kansas, 
western Minnesota); north to about line of Onadlan Pacific R. R.; 
south to Central America. 

378a. Florida Burrowing Owl (5. c. floridand). 
Similar to No. 378, but slightly smaller and whiter 
throughout; spots above white with little if any buff; 
tarsi nearly bare. 

Range.— Interior of southern Florida. 



368. Barred Owl {Syrnmnt varittm). L. 20. No 
car-tufts; eyes black. j4d5. Head, back and breast 
barred*, toes feathered nearly if not quite to the nails. Notes, . 
A loud, sonorous ttboo'whoo-^hoo-too'whoo, io-whoo-ah; 
a long-drawn, whoo-ak; rarely a wild scream; and when 
two individuals meet, a remarkable medley of hoots 
and ba'has. 

Ranee. — Eastern North America except Gulf Coast; north to Nova 
Scotia and Manitoba; west to Colorado; resident, except at northern 
Umitof nuige. 

368a. Florida Barred Owl (5. v. allem). Similar 
to No. 368, but smaller, darker; black bars especially 
on breast, wider; toes, near Ijf if not quite bare. 

Ran(re.— Florida; north alon^ coast to South Carolina; west along 
coast to Texas. 

368b. Texas Barred Owl (5. v, helveolum). Sim- 
ilar to No. 368 in color, but with the toes bare as in 
No. 368a. 

Range.— SoQthem Texas. 

369. Spotted Owl (Syrnium ocddentale). Resem- 
bles No. 308, but has the head and neck spotted with, 
white; primaries with broad, whitish tips. Notes, 
Probably similar to those of No. 368. (Bendire.) 

Range.— Western United States from southern Colorado and New 
Mexico, west to Calllomla.soiUth^ Lower Caltfomtai ana Guanajuato, 
Mexico. . i . \ ' f 

369a. Northern Spotted Owl (5. o. caurinum). 
Similar to No. 3^. l?ut darker; white markings small- 
er: white spots oh head and neck reduced to minimum; 
white tips to primaries neariy obsolete. (Merriam.) 

Range.— Western Washington and British Columbia. • 

370. Great Gray Owl (Scotiapiex nebulosa). L. 27. 
No ear-tufts; eyes yellow. y4ds. Above black finely 
and irregularly marked with white; breast streaked; 
feet feathered to toe-nails. Notes, Said to be a trem- 
ulous, vibrating sound. (Fisher.) 

Range.— North America; breeds north of Lat. $5® ; winters south to 
northern border of United States casually as far as New Jersey. Ill- 
inois, MlnnesoU, Idaho, and northern California. 

371. Richardson Owl (Nyctala tengmalmi ricbard- 
soni). L. 10. Ads, Above ^ramA brown with num- 
erous white spots, particularly on head; feet feathered 
to toes and usually with indistinct, dusky bars. Notes, 
A musical, soft whistle. (Wheelright.) A peculiar 
grating cry. (Nelson. ) (See next page. ) 

Range.— Northern North America; breeds from Gulf of St. Lawrence 
and Manitoba northward; winters south to northern border of 
United States, casually to Massachusetts, Iowa, and Colorado; no 
I^Kliic coast record (?). 



372. Saw-whet Owl; Acadian Owl (Nyctala acadiaa^ . 
L. 8. /ids. Above cinnamon brown; forehead with 
many, hindhead with few streaks; back with white 
spots; feet and legs less heavily feathered than in No- 
371 and without dusky bars. Yng. Breast and back 
cinnamon brown with few white markings; belly' rustjr 
huffyunstreaked, Notes, A frequently repeated whistle; 
sometimes high, sometimes low; generally begins slow 
and ends rapidly; resembles noise of saw-filing- 
( Ralph.) 

Ran^. — North America; breeds from mountains of Pennsylvania. 
Massachusetts (rarelv), northern New York, northern Illfnois;'an*d.'ln 
Rocky Mountains, from Mexico northward; winters south to Vlrginliu 
Kansas and central California. 

372a. Northwest Saw-whet Owl {N, a, scotctd)^ 
Similar to No. 372, but darker both above and below, 
dark markings everywhere heavier; flanks, legs and 
feet more ruf escent. ( Osgood. ) 

Range.— Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. 

379. Pygmy Owl (Glauddium gnoma), L. 7. 
Top of head spotted. Ads. Above grayish brown; 
spots whitish. Yng. No spots on head. Notes. A soft 
cooing coohuh, coobuh, repeated a number of times. 

Range.— "Timbered regions of western North America, from south- 
ern Rocky Mountains in Colorado. New Mexico, and Arizona," west to 
California, Oregon, and Washington, except coast belt, south Into 

379a. California Pygmy Owl (G. g, califomicum) . 
Similar to No. 379, but darker; spots above buff or 

Rang«.— Humid coast region from Monterey, California, north to 
British Columbia. 

379.1. Hoskin Pygmy Owl {Glauddium boskinsii). 
Similar to No. 379a, but smaller and grayer, the fore- 
head and facial disc with more white, the upperparts 
less distinctly spotted. (Brewst.) 

Range. — Southern Lower California. 

380. Ferruginous Pvgmy Owl {Glauddium phaU^ 
tioides). L. 7. Top of head streaked, /Ids. Above 
varying from grayish brown marked with whitish to 
plain reddish brown without marks; below white 
streaked with grayish brown or reddish brown. Yng, 
No streaks on head. Notes. A softly whistled coo re- 
peated many times at intervals of about one second. 

Range.— Tropical America; from Brazil north to Mexican border of 
United States. 

381. Elf Owl {Micropallas whitneyi) , L. 6. Small- 
est of our Owls, /tds Above grayish brown, head 
spotted; back barred with rusty; below mixed rusty, 
white and grayish. Notes. A tremulous cba-cha^ cha- 
cka, in different keys, sometimes low, sometimes dis- 
tinct. (Bendire.) 

Range.— Tableland of Mexico from Pnebla north to Mexican border 
of United States: Lower California, and (rarely) California. 



d73. Sorteoh 0}n\ {MiTfoscops asio), L. 9.4; W* 
6.4; T. 3. Two color phases; with ear-tufts; eyes 
yello^v. j4d. Gray phase. Above buffy gray irreg- 
ularly marked with black; below gray, white, rusty 
and black, ^d. Red phase. Above bright rusty 
brown with a few black streaks; below white streaked 
-with black and barred with rusty brown. Yng. Above 
gray or rusty hatred with black and white; below 
white thickly barred with bl&ckish. Notes- A fre- 
quently repeated tremulous, wailing whistle; often 
followed by a slower refrain-like call; a castanet-like 
snapping of the mandibles. 

Ranve.— Eastern North America from Florida north to New Brun»- 
wide. Ontario and Minnesota, west to the Great Plains; resident. 

373a. Florida Screech Owl (Af. a, floridanus). 
Smaller than No. 37^, W. 6.9; T. 2.8. Two color 
phases. Similar to those of No. 373, but averaging 
darker and more heavily marked below; especially in 37j 
red phase. 

Ran^.— Florida, north along coast to South Carolina; west along: 
coast to Louisiana. 

373b. Texas Screech Owl (Af. a. mccalli). Simi- 
lar to No. 373, but smaller, W. 6.1; underparts, es- 
pecially sides of belly, with more black bars; toes 
barer. I have seen only a gray phase. 

Range. -"From western and southern Texas across east border of 
tablelands of Mexico." (Bailey.) 

373c. California Screech Owl (A/, a, bendirei), 
W . 6.6. A gray color phase only. Resembling No. 
373, but somewhat darker above; less buff about the 
nape; black streakings more regularly distributed; un- 
derparts much as in No. 373b. 

Range. — California and southern Oregon. 

373d. Kennlcott Screech Owl (A/, a. kennicotUi). 
L. 10; W. 7. 25. Ads, Sooty brown prevailing above; 
blackish markings below nearly if not fully as wide as 
white ones; darkest of our Screech Owls. j 

Range.- Pacific coast from Oregon to Sitka. 

373e. Rooky Mountain Screech Owl (M, a, max- 
velliof). W. 7. Similar to No. 373f above but paler; 
pale grayish buff predominating; black markings 
throughout much narrower and less numerous than in 
No. 373g; palest of our Screech Owls. 

Ranee.— "Foothills and adjacent plakis of the east Rocky Moun* 
tains from Colorado north to Montana" (Bendire). 



373f. Mexican Screech Owl (Af. a, cimracsus), 
A gray color phase only. Similar to No. 373b, but 
much grayer above; buff markings of No. 373b airaost 
wholly absent; below black bars more numerous and 
narrower than in No. 373b. 

Range.— "New Mexico. Arlxona. Lower Callfonila. «nd m tiHet n 
Mexico." (A. O. U.) 

373g. Aiken Screech Owl (Af. a. aOum), A grav 
color phase only. W. 6.5. Similar to 373f, but still 
grayer; almost no buff above; black markings wider on 
head, back, and underparts. 

Ranfi:e.— "Plains. El Paso County, Colorado, south probably to 
centner New Mexico and northeastern Arizona." (A. O. 0.) 

373h. MacFarlane Screech Owl (Af. a, macfarUum) . 
A gray color phase only. Ads, Of the size of lunnir 
coHti, but with color and markings of b^dtrn. W- 7.2; 
T. 3.8. (Brewst.) 

Range. — ^"Eastern Washington and Oregon to western Montana 
and prot>^bly intermediate regions, and north to the Interior of 
British Columbia." (Bailey.) 

373.1. Spotted Screech Owl {Megascops trichopsis). 
L. 7.7. Ads, Above mixed black, grayish brown and 
buff; black prevailing on head; feathers of foreback 
with buffy white spots on either side near the end; 
below much as in No. 373f. 

Range.'Southem Arizona and southward into northern Mexico. 

373.2. Xantus Screech Owl {Megascops xantust). 
W. 5.3. Ad. (^, Above drab, back tinged with pink- 
ish rusty and faintly vermiculated with reddish brown; 
breast paler ashy faintly suffused with pinkish or 
rusty; belly whitish; underparts finely barred with red- 
dish brown and streaked with clove-brown. (Brewst.) 

Range.— Cape Region of Lower California. 

374. Flammulated Screech Owl (Mtgascops flam- 
meola), L. 7. Ads, Ear-tufts .small; eye surrounded 
by rusty, then by gray; crown, nape ancl tips of scap- 
ulars largely rusty; neck band rusty. (See p. 141.) 

Range.— Mountains of Guatemala north to Colorado (it speci- 
mens, 7 from Boulder County. Cook), west rarelv to Callfbmia (a 

374a. Dwarf Screech Owl (Af./. idahoinsis). Sim- 
ilar to No. 374, but slightly smaller and paler, es- 
pecially on underparts where ground color is white and 
black markings are restricted. 

Range. — Idaho, eastern Oregon and California (San Bernardino 
Mountains, 3 specimens. Grinnell). 



375. Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginiamss). ^, 
L. 22; W. 15. j4ds. Ears conspicuous; the feathers 
nearly throughout the body rusty basally; facial disc 
rich rusty. Notes, A loud, low, deep-toned tpAoo, hoo- 
hoo-hoo, whooo-whooo, variable, but usually on the same 
note; rarely a hair-raising scream. 

Range.— Eastern North America; north to Labrador, south to Central 
America; resident. 

375a. Western Horned Owl* (B. v, pallescens). 
Smaller and paler than No. 375, W. 13.7; facial disc 
washed with rusty. 

Range.— Western United States, except Pacific coast region, east 
10 Great Plains: casually Wisconsin and Illinois north to Manitoba 
and British Columbia; south to Mexico. 

375b. Arctic Horned Owl {B, v. ardicus). Black 
and white prevailing above; bases of feathers li^t 
yellowish buff; below black and white with 
little or no buffy; facial disc gray. 

Range. — Interior of Arctic America, from Rocky Mountains east to 
Hudson Bay; breeds north of Lat. 51°; In winter strangles south- 
ward to adjacent t>order of United States; rarely to Wyoming and 

375c. Dusky Horned Owl (B, v. saturatus)^ Size 
of No. 375b, but much darker; black bars below equal- 
ling white ones in width; darkest bird of group. 

Range,— "Pacific coast region from Morjterey Bav, California, 
north to Alaska; east to Hudson Bay and Labrador." (/i. O. U.) 

375d. Pacific Horned Owl (5. v. padficus). Some- 
what smaller than No. 375b, W. 13.5; more like No. 
375 in color but less rusty. 

Range.— California, except humid coast region; east to Arizona. 

375e. Dwarf Horned Owl CB.v, elachistus). Sim- 
ilar to No. 375c, but very much smaller. W. c?, 12.8; 
9, 13.4. (Brewster.) 

Range. — Lower California. 

25. Ad. cf. 

Ad.%. Sim- 

376. Snowy Owl (Nyctea nycUa), L. 
White more or less barred with blackish, 
liar, but more heavily barred. 

Range.— Northern parts of northern hemisphere: In America breeds 
from Lat s^^ northward; winters south to northern United States; 
straggles as far as Texas and California. 

377a. American Hawk Owl {Surma ulula caparoch), 
L. 15; T. 7.2 long and rounded. Ads, Above 
brownish black, crown thickly spotted, scapulars con- 
spicuously margined with white; chin blackish; belly 
barred. Notes, A shrill cry generally uttered wliile 
flying. (Fisher.) 

Range.~Northem North America; breeds from Newfoundland and 
northern Montana northward; winters south to northern United 
States, rarely to New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Illinois; rare on 
Pacific coast 




Family 1. PARROTS and PAROQUETS. PsiTTACiDiC. 2 species. 

Parrots are found throughout the warmer parts of the earth. About 
one hundred and fifty of the some five hundred known species inhabit 
America. The Carolina Paroquet, practically the only member 
of this family found in the United States, since the Thick-billed Parrot 
barely reaches our border in Arizona, was once an abimdant bird 
in the Southern States, but it is now restricted to a few localities in 
Florida and possibly Indian Territory, 



Family 1. CUCKOOS, ANIS, etc. Cuculid^. 5 species 2 sub- 

Family 2. TROGONS. Trogonid^. 1 species. 

Family 3. KINGFISHERS. Alcedinid^. 2 species. 

The Cuckoos are a group of world-wide distribution, but are more 
numerous in the eastern than in the western hemisphere where only 
thirty-five of the some one hundred and seventy-five species are found. 
The habit of the European Cuckoo in placing its eggs in the nest of 
other birds is well known. The American species, however, build 
nests of their own though it is true they are far from well made struc- 
tures. With the Anis one nest serves for several females who may de- 
posit as many as thirty eggs, incubation and the care of the young 
being subsequently shared by the members of this singular family. 

Trogons are found in the tropics of both the Old and New Worlds. 
They are quiet, sedentary birds inhabiting forests and feeding largely 
on fruit. So far as is known they nest in hollow trees. 

Only eight of the one hundred and eighty or more known King- 
fishers are found in America, the remaining species being confined to 
the Old World where they are most numerous in the Malay Archi- 


Parrots and Paroquets. 

382. Carolina Paroquet (Canurus carolimnsis) , L. 
12.5. j4ds. Forehead and cheeks deep orange, rest of 
head yellow. Yng, Forehead and loral region orange; 
rest of head green like back; no yellow on bend of 
wing. Nciss. A sharp, rolling kr-r-r-r-r-f. 

Ruis*. — Formerly eastern United States, north to Maryland, Great 
Lakes, and Iowa; west to Colorado. Oklahoma and eastern Texas; 
now restricted to southern Florida and parts of Indian Territory. 

382.1. Thick-billed Parrot (Rhynchopsitta pdchy- 
rhjmcha), L. 16.5. j4d5. Forehead, loral region, 
stripe over eye, bend of wing and thighs red; greater 
under wing-coverts yellow; rest of plumage green. 

Range —Central Mexico north rarely to southern Arizona. 



383. kn\ {Crotophaza am) , Resembling No. 384^ 
but upper mandible without grooves. Notes. A com- 
plaining, whistled oo-eeek, oo-eeek. 

Range.— Eastern South America; north to West Indies mnd Ba* 
hamas; rarely to southern Florida; accidental In Louisiana and Penn- 

384. Groove-billed An! {Crotopbaga suldrostris). 
L. 12.5; B. .7 high\ the upper mandible with ridges 
and furrows, ^ds. Blue-black, many of the feathers 
with iridescent margins. 

Range.— Northwestern South America, north through Mexico t» 
Lower California and southeastern Texas; casually Arizona. Louisi- 
ana, and Florida. 

385. ^o%6'rMinnw(Geo€occyxcalifomianus). L. 23. 
Toes two in front, two behind. Ads, Above z^ossy 
olive-brown with whitish and rusty margins; tail 
much rounded, outer tail-feathers tipped with white. 
Notes. A soft cooing and a low chittermg note produc- 
ed by striking the mandibles together. Bendire men- 
tions a note like that of a hen calling her brood. 

Range.— Central Mexico north (rarely) to southwestern Kansas. 
southern Colorado, and Sacramento Valley. California, rarely to 
southern Oregon. 

386. Mangrove Cuokoo (Co^^mmor). L. 13. 
j4ds, Underparts uniformly rich buff; above grayish 
brown, crown grayer; ear-coverts black; tail black, 
outer feathers broadly tipped with white. 

Range.— Northern South America, north through Central America, 
Mexico and Greater Antilles (except Porto Rico?) to Florida an<t 
Louisiana; migrating south In fall. 

386a. Maynard Cuokoo (C. m. mayuardi). Simi- 
lar to No. 380, but underparts paler, the throat and 
forebreast more or less ashy white. 

Range. — Bahamas and (eastern?) Florida Keys. 

387. Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccy^ americanus). 
L. 12.2. Ads, Below white; lower mandible largely 
yellow; tail black, outer feathers widely tipped^ with 
white. Notes, Tut-tut, tut-tut, tut-tut', tut-tut, d-uck^ 
cl'Uck, cl-ucky cl-uck, cl-ucky cl-uck, cote, covf, cow, coa, 
cow, cow, usually given in part. 

Range. — Eastern North America; breeds from Florida to New 
Brunswick and Minnesota; winters In Central and South America. 

387a. California Cuckoo (C. a. ocddetUalis) . Sim- 
ilar to No. 387, but somewhat grayer and larger; the 
bill slightly longer, 1.05. 

Range. — Western North America; north to southern British Col- 
umbia; east to Western Texas; winters south into Mexico. 

388. Black-billed Cuckoo {Coccy^ erythropbthal- 
mus), L. II. 8. Ads, White below; bill black\ tail, 
seen from below, grayish narrowly tipped with white: 
above, especially on crown, browner than No. 387. 
Notes, Similar to those of No. 387, but softer, the «w 
notes connected. 

Range. — Eastern North America; west to Rocky Mountains; breeds 
north to Labrador and Manitoba; winters south of United States to 


Trogon and Kingftthert. 

389. Coppery-tailed Trogon {Trogon ambiguus). 
L. 12. /4(i, cf . Wing-coverts finely vermiculatol; tail 
coppery tipped with black; outer web and end of outer 
feauiers white, mottled with black. /4d, 9 . Ear-cov- 
erts gray; back grayish brown; middle tail-feathers 
rusty Drown tipped with black; breast brownish; upper 
belly grayish; ventral region pink. NoUs. Resemble 
those of a hen Turkey. (Fisher.) 

Range.— Southern Mexico north to Lower Rio Grande and Arizona. 

390. Belted Kingfisher [Ceryle alcvon), L. 13. 
j4d. cf. Breast-band and sides like back. y4d. ?. 
Breast-band and sides rusty. Notes. A loud, harsh 

Range.— North America; breeds from Florida, Texas, and California 
north to Arctic regions; winters from Virginia, Kansas and southern 
CaUfbmia south to northern South America. 

391. Texas Kingfislier (CeryU americana septen- 
Irionalis), L. 8.7. /Id, J*. Breast rusty brown; back 
greenish; a white collar. y4d, 9- Throat and breast 
white, sometimes tinged with buffy; a breast and belly 
band of greenish spots. Notes. When flying, a sharp, 
rattling twitter; when perching, a rapid, excited ticking. 

Range.— Tropical America, from Panama north to southern Texas. 




Fkmily 1. WOODPECKERS. PiciDiB. 24 species, 22 sub- 

The some three hundred and fifty known species of Woodpeckers are 
distributed throughout the wooded parts of the world, except in Aus- 
tralia and Madagascar, nearly one half of this number being found in 
the New World. Feeding largely upon the eggs and larvae of insects, 
which they can obtain at all seasons, most of the North American 
species are not highly migratory but are represented in the more north- 
em parts of their range at all times of the year. 

Woodpeckers nest in holes in trees generally excavated by them- 
selves. The eggs, four to eight or nine in number, like those of most 
birds that lay in covered situations, are pure white. The young are 
bom naked and are reared in the nest. 

In few birds is the close relation between structure and habit more 
strikingly illustrated than in the Woodpeckers. Their lengthened toes 
placed two before and two behind (except in one genus) and armed 
with strong nails enable them readily to grasp the bark of trees up 
which they climb. Their stiffened, pointed tail-feathers are also of 
assistance to them in retaining their position on tree trunks, serving as 
a prop on which they may rest while chiseling out their homes or lay- 
ing bare the timnels of the grubs of wood boring beetles. For this 
purpose they use their bill, a marvellously effective tool with which 
some of the large Woodpeckers perform astonishing feats. I have 
seen an opening made by a Pileated Woodpecker in a white pine tree, 
twelve inches long, four inches wide, and eight inches deep, though 
perfectly sound wood to reach the larvae at work in the heart of the 
tree. The bill is also used as a musical instrument, the *song* of 
Woodpeckers being a rolling tatoo produced by rapid tappings on 
some resonant limb. 

As might be supposed the Woodpeckers are great of economic value. 
Professor Beal states that at least two-thirds to three-fourths of the 
food of our common Downy and Hairy Woodpeckers consists chiefly 
of noxious insects. 


Woodpeckers. J 

392. Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephtlus princi- 
palis). L. 20; B. 2.7, ivory white. Ad, c?. Crest 
scarlet Ad. ?. Similar to the J*, but crest black. 
hhUs, A sharp, penny trumpet-like ^a/K>;^^. 

Ran s:e.— Florida west to eastern Texns: north to southern Miss- 
ouri and Oklahoma; formerly north to North Carolina, Illinois, and 

400. Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker {Picaides arc 
ticus). L. 9.5. Back shining black tw'/Acw/ white; toes 
two in front, one behind Ad,^. Crown yellow. Ad, ?. 
Crown black. Notes, A sharp, shrill, cbirk, chirk, 

Ran^re. — "Northern North America, from the Arctic rejirlons south to 
northern United States. (New Eneland. New York. Michii^an, Minne- 
sota and Idaho), and In the Sierra Nevadas to Lake Tahoe." (A. O. 

40 1 . American Three-toed Woodpecker {Picoides 
atmricanus), L. 8.7. Back zcilk while: toes two in 
front, one behind. Ad, c?. Crown yellow; white bars 
on back broken, detached not confluent. Notes, A 
prolonged squealing, rarely uttered. (Turner.) 

Range.— Northern North America: west to Roclcy Mountains; 
breeds from Maine, mountains of ^ew Hampshire, northern New 
Yoric, and northern Minnesota nonhward; south i 1 winter, rarely to 
Massachusetts, central New York, and norihorn Illinois. 

401a. Alaskan Three-toed Woodpecker {P, a, 

fasciatus). Similar to No. 401, but white bars on back 
confluent forming a more or less continuous white 

Range.— "Alaska Territorjr; casuallv? south through western 
British Columbia to northwestern Washington (vicinity of Mt. 
Balcer); east Irregularly to Great Bear Lake and the Mackenzie 
River valley. Northwest Territory." (.Bendire.) 

40 1 b. Alpine Three-toed Woodpecker {P. a, dorsa- 
lis). Similar to No. 401a, but larger. W. 5; bill 
narrower. Notes, A harsh, nasal cry; a sudden, 
sharp whip, whip, whip, ( Mearns. ) 

Range.— "Rnclcy Mountain region from British Columbia and 
Idaho south into New Mexico." (A. O. U.) 

405. Pileated Woodpecker {Ceophlcpus pileatus), 
L. 17. W. 8.9. Ad. (J. Crown, crest, and streaks 
on sides of throat red; sides of neck and patch on wing 
white. Ad, 9 . Forehead brownish, no red on sides of 
throat Notes, A sonorous cow-cow-caufy repeated slow- 
ly many times and a xdchew caW when two birds meet; 
both suggesting calls of the Flicker. 

Range.— Southern United States north to South Carolina. 

405a. Northern Pileated Woodpecker {C. p. Me- 

ticola). Similar to No. 405, but slightly larger, W. 9; 
T. 6.2. 

Range.— Locally distributed throughout more heavily wooded 
regions of North America, except in southern United States, north to 




393. Hairy Woodpecker (Do'oda//5 villosus), L. 
p; W. 4.7 Outer tail-feathers white witbotu terminal 
black marks, ^d. c?. Wing-coverts spotted, under- 
parts white; nape with a red band. Ad, ?. Similar 
but nape band white. Notes, A sharp puk and a King- 
fisher-like rattle. 

Ran^.— Eastern United States from North Carolina to Canada. 

393a. Northern Hairy Woodpeclcer (D, v. Isucowu- 
las). Similar to No. 393, but larger; L. 10; W. 5.2. 

Rang:e.— British America north to Alaska. 

393b. Soutliern Hairy Woodpecker (D. v. audu- 

honit). Similar to No. 393, but smaller; L. 8; W. 4.2. 

Range.— South Atlantic and Gulf States, north to South Carolina. 

393c. Harris Woodpecker (D. v, barrist), Simi- 
hr to No. 393, but wing-coverts usually ipt'tboui white 
spots; underparts dirty, dusky, brownish. 

Range.— Pacific coast from northern California to British Colum- 

393d. Cabanis Woodpecker (D. v. byloscopus). 
Similar to No. 393c, but whiter below. 

Range.— California, east to Ariiona. 

393e. Rocky Mountain Hairy Woodpecker (D, f>. 

monticola). Similar to No. 393c, but pure white below; 
larger, size of No. 393a. 

Range.— Rocky Mountain region from northern New Mexico nortfc 
to British Columbia. 

393f. Queen Oharlotte Woodpecker (D. t;. picoidems) 
Similar to No. 30 jc, but middle of back barred and * 
spotted with Black; flanks streaked with black. 

Range.— Oueen Charlotte Islands, British Cohimbla. 

394. Soutliern Downy Woodpecker {DryobaUs 
pubescms), L. 6; W. 3.5. Outer tail-feathers white 
with terminal black marks. Ad, J*. Nape-band red; 
smallest of group, underparts <iingier than m No. 594c; 
white of less extent; wing-coverts spotted. Ad. V . 
Similar but nape-band white. Notes. A sharp p^^k 
and a rattle similar to that of No. 393, but not so loud. 

Range. -South Carolina, Georgia, and Gulf States to Texas. 

394a. Gairdner Woodpecker (D. p. gairdnerit). 
Similar to No. 3p4b, but underparts sooty gray; the 
darkest below of any form in the group. 

Range. —Pacific coast from northern California north to British 


394b. Batclielder Woodpecker (D. p. bomorus). 
Similar to No. 394c, but wing-coverts with few or no 
white spots, under tiil-coverts without dusky streaks. 

Ringe.— "Rocky Mountain region of the United States." (A. O. 

394c. Nortliern Downy Woodpecker (D. p, median- 
us), L. 6.5; W. 3-7- Similar to No. 394, but larger; 
whiter below; white markings of greater extent. 

Range.— Eastern North America south to South Carolina. 

394d. .^laskan Downy Woodpecker (D. p. wlsom). 
W. 4. Similar to No. 394c, but still larger and whiter; 
largest of the group. 

Range.— Alaska. 



3946. Willow Woodpecker (D. p. furaH). Simi- 
lar to No. 394a, but smaller, W. 3.8. superciliary patch 
and underparts whiter; tertials always more or less 
spotted with white. (W. K. Fisher.) 

Rann.— "California, except: desert ranj^s and eastern slope of 
Sierrm Nevada, coast region north of Marlon Co.. and region north of 
upper endof Sacramento Valley." (W. K. Fisher.) 

395. Red-oookaded Woodpecker (DryobaUs bore- 
alts) . L. 8.4. Sides of head and neck white bordered 
by black below. j4d. (^, A nearly concealed red tuft 
on 'either side of the hindhead. ^d. 9- Similar, but 
no red on head. Notes, A loud y hoarse, j^ankjjfank. 

Range. - Southern United States; west to eastern Texas; north to 
Vlrs:inia and Arlcansas. 

396. Texan Woodpecker (Dryobates scalaris bairdt). 
L. 7.5, Outer tail-feathers barred to their base; nasal 
tufts brownish. Ad, (^. Ail crown feathers tipoed 
with red; back barred: below broumish whiUy spotted 
and streaked with black. Ad. $ . Similar but top of head 
wholly black. 

Range.- Northern Mexico, north to Texas boundanr. New Mexico, 
southern Colorado, southern Nevada, southwestern Utah, and soutb- 
i California. 

396a. Saint Lucae Woodpecker (<D. 5. lucasatms). 
Similar to No. 396, but outer tail-feather barred with 
black only on terminal half or less, except sometimes 
on inner web. (Ridgw.) 

RAnge.— Lo««r CaUfomla, north, ranly to Colondo Desert, Call- 

397. Nuttall Woodpecker (Dryobatss mataUu). 
L. 7.5. Below white only sUghilv soiled; outer tail- 
feather barred only on end half. Ad, ^, Crown 
^lack streaked with white; nape red. Ad, $. Similar 
but top of head entirely black, usually with a few 
white spots. Yng. Top of head dull red. Notes, A 
sharp quee-auee-quee'queep; a diminutive chittah, (Bail- 
tey.) Loud rattling notes. (Henshaw.) 

Range.— Northern Lower California, north locally, to southern 

398. Arizona Woodpecker {Dryobates ari^oncc), 
L. 8.2. Above brown, below spotted. Ad, ^. A red 
nape band. Ad. ?. Similar but no red on nape, 
brown of crown continuous with that of back. Yng, 
Whole crown red. 

Range.— Northwestern Mexico north to southern Arizona and 
southwestern New Mexico. 

399. White-headed Woodpecker (Xenopicus Mo- 
Jarvaius)m L. 9. Whole head and part of wings 
white. Ad, cf. Nape red. Ad, ?. Nape white. 
NaUs, A sharp, clear vn'tt-witt; a rather silent bird. 

Range — .Monntains of western United States from southern Cnll- 
Ibmla north to southern British Columbia; east to western Idaho and 


402. Yellow-bellied Sapsucker (Sphyrabicus varius). 
L. 8.5; W. 4.8. Ad, c?. Crown and throat red; a 
vbitish band from eye to eye across nape; belly washed 
with yellow; breast patch black Ad. 9- Similar, but 
throat white; crown rarely black. Yng. Breast gray- 
ish with internal dark rings or bars; crown dirty yel- 
lowish margined with dusky; red feathers soon appear 
on thr6at and crown. Notes. A clear ringing cUw re- 
peated; a low snarling cry resembling mew of Catbird. 

Range.— Eastern North America; breeds from Massachusetts and 
northern Illinois north to about Lat. 6)^ 30'; south In Alles^hanies 
to northwest Georeia; winters from southern Illinois and southern 
Virginia to Central America. 

402a. Red-naped Sapsuoker (5. v. nucbalis). Sim- 
ilar to No. 402, but slightly larger. W. 5; the nape 
band red; red of throat encroaching on black bordering 
streaks; ifemale the same but chin white. 

Range. — Rocky Mountain reeion; breeds from Colorado and north- 
eastern California (?), north t) British Columbia; winters from south- 
ern California south to northwestern Mexico. 

403. Red-breasted Sapsuoker (Sphyrapicus ruber), 
L. 9. Ads, Crown, whole throat and breast dull red; 
in other respects resembling No. 402. Notes, Jay or 
chaet peeye, ptnck, and peurr. ( Bend i re. ) 

Range.— Breeds in mountains from northern Lower California north 
to southern Oregon. 

403a. Northern Red-breasted Sapsuoker (5. r. 

notkensis). Similar to No. 403, but colors deeper, red 
brighter; belly yellower. 

Range.— Pacific coast region from Santa Cru2 Mountains. Cali- 
fornia, north to southern Alasl<a. 

404. Williamson Sapsuoker (Spkyraticus thyrot- 
deus). L. 9. Belly brtgbt yellow; rump wnite. Ad, c?. 
Above black; a red stripe on throat; lesser wing-cov- 
erts white. Ad. 9. Crown and throat brownish; 
back and lesser wing-coverts barred black and whitish. 
Yng. Similar to ? , but breast barred like sides. Notes, 
A shrill ib«t/-ibtt«/ uttered when flying. (Bendire.) The 
roll of this Woodpecker is not continuous, but is brok- 
en or interrupted. 

Range.— Higher mountain ranges of western United States; breeds 
from northern New Mexico, Arizona, and southeastern Caltfomia 
north to Wyoming and southern British Columbia; winters from 
southern California and western Texas into Mexico. 

408. Lewis Woodpecker {Asyndesmus torquattes). 
L. II. Ads, Breast and a collar around the neck 
gray; region about base of bill dark red; belly pinkish 
red; above shining green black. Yng, No gray 
collar; crown suffused with red. Notes, A weak, 
peeping twitter. (Lawrence). Generally a silent 

Range.— Western United States: breeds from New Mexico, Arlxo- 
na, and southern California north to southern Alberta and BrMsb 
Columbia; winters from southern Oregon aud Colorado south » 
western Texas and southern California. 



406. Red-headed Woodseoker (Mslanerpts eryihro- 
cepbalus). L. 9.7. Ads. Whole head and breast red; 
end half of secondaries white. Yng. Whole head and 
breast grayish streaked with blackish; back black 
margin^ with grayish; end half of secondaries white 
with black bars. Notes. A tree-toad-like ker-r-ruck, 

Ranre,— Eastern United Staies west to Rockv Mountains: breeds 
from Rorlda and Texas north to New York and Manitoba; local and 
Irreeular In northern parts of range; winters from Virginia, and oc- 
casionally from New York, southward. 

407. Striped-breasted Woodpecker (Melamrpes 
fortmdDorus), L. 9.5. Breast band s/r^aJ^fnYAtpAfi^/; 
rump white. Ad. ^. Forehead, white, cr&wn, nape, 
and breast-spot red. Ad. $. Center of crown with a 
black band of same width as white band on forehead. 
Notes. A loud tcburr, tcburr. 

Range.— Mexico north to southwest Texas and Arizona. 

407a. Oalifomian Woodpecker (M. /. Jiairdt). 
Similar to No. 407, but black oreast-band with white 
only on its posterior margin. 

Range.~Peclfic coast region from northern California to southern 

407b. Narrow-fN>nted Woodpecker (Af. /. angust- 
ifrons). Ad. cf . Similar to No. 407, but smaller, W. 
5.2; the throat brighter yellow. Ad. ?. With black 
crown-band wider than white forehead band. 

Range.— Cape Region of Lower California. 

409. Red-beliied Woodpecker {Centuruscarolmus), 
L. 9.5. Center of belly reddish. Ad. J*. Top of 
head and nape entirely red. Ad. $ . Nape red. crown 
grayish, forehead tinged with red. Notes. A noarse, 

Range.— Eastern United States, west to the Plains; breeds froo 
FlorldaandTexas to Maryland. Ontario, and South Dakota; winters 
from Virginia and southern Ohio southward; casually north as far as 

410. Golden-fronted Woodpecker (Centurus auri- 
frons). L, ia5; center of belly yellow. Ad. ^. Fore- 
head yellow, crown-patch red, nape orange. Ad. ?. 
Forehead and nape yellow, crown entirely gray. 
Notes. Loud and penetrating. (Bailey.) 

Range. — ^Mexico. north to central Texas. 

411. Gila Woodpecker (Oyi/f#rff5 Mre>^fa/i5). L. 
la Center of belly yellow. Ad. c?. Top of head 
and nape sootj^ gray; a red-crown patch. Ad. ?. Top 
of heaci and nape entirely sooty gray. Notes. Dchurr 
dcburr; when flying, a shnll huit like call-note 
Phainopepla. (Bendire.) 

Range.— Northwestern Mexico, north to southwestern New Mexico, 
and Lower Callfomta. 





412. Southern Flicker {Colaptes auraius). Small- 
er than No. 412a, W. 5.6. 

Range.— Southeasteni United States north to South Carolina. 

4 1 2a. Northern Flicker (C. a. luUus). L. nr W. 
6.4. Crown bluish gray; throat pinkish brown; a 
scarlet nape-band; lining of wings and tail yellow. Ad. 
c?. With black patches on the sides of the throat. 
j4d. 9. Without black throat patches. NoUs. Aloud, 
emphatic ke^-yir; a low chuckle when taking flight; a 
tcfUhiw repeated and used only when two or more birds 
are together; and a mellow cHh-cM-dUk-cOb, repeated, 
doubtless a song. 

Rang^e. — Eastern North America west to the Rocky Mountains and 
Alaska; rare on the Pacific coast; apparently hybridizing with No. 413 
at the western border of Its range. 

413. Red-8hafted Flicker (Co/a/>//5 cafir collaris). 
L. 13. .No red nape band; crown brownish; throat 
bluish gray; lining of wings and tail reddish. j4d, c^. 
Patches at side of throat red. j4d. ? . No red throat 
patches. Notgs. Resemble those of No. 412. 

Range.— Western United States, except northwest coast region; 
east to the Rocky Mountain region; apparently hybridizing with No. 
4x3 at the eastern border of its range. 

413a. Northwestern Flicker (C. c, saturaiior). 
Similar to No. 413, but much darker throughout, back 

Range.— Pacific coast region; breeds from Oregon north to south- 
em Alaska; winters south to northwest California. 

414. Gilded Flicker (C(7/a^^/5 <;Af>'50f^5). L. 12; 
W. 5.7. Crown cinnamon: under surface of wings 
and tail yellow. y4d. c^. No red band on nape: throat 
bluish gray, its sides with a red patch. j4d, 9. No 
red on sides of throat. Notes, Resemble those of No. 
412. (Bendire.) 

Range. — ^"Central and southern Arizona from Lat. )4® to southern 
Sonora, and Lower California south of Lat. 30® ." (A. O'. U.) 

414a. Brown Flicker (C. c, brunnesuns). Simi- 
lar to No. 414, but slightly smaller; upperparts darker. 

Range. — Lower Oiiifomia north of Lat. 30® . 

4 1 5. Guadalupe Flicker {Colaptes rufipiUus). Sim- 
ilar to No. 413, but bill 1.6 or more^ more slender, 
wing averaging less than 6.2; crown cinnamon-brown; 
rump vinaceous-white. (Ridgw.) 

Range.— Guadalupe Island, Lower California. 






Family 1. GOATSUCKERS. CAPR^MULGiDiE. 6 siJecies, 6 sub- 

Family 2. SWIFTS. jyiiQROPODiDi^, 4 species. 

Family^. HUMMINGBIRDS'! Trochilid^. 17 species. 

The Goatsuckers are birds of the dusk and early moming. They 
live chiefly on insects which they capture on the wing, their enormous 
mouths being especially well adapted to this kind of hunting. Our 
species build no nest but lay their two mottled eggs on the bare grotiud 
or leaves. The young are hatched covered with down and can follow 
their parents about long before they acquire the power of flight. Goat- 
suckers are noted for their singular calls, most of the species uttering 
loud, characteristic notes which, heard at night, are especially effective. 

Swifts are birds of world-wide distribution; about half the seventy- 
five known species being found in America. They are pre-eminently 
birds of the air with wings so well developed that few birds caa sur- 
pass them in power of flight, but with feet so weak and small that 
many species cannot perch as do most birds, but, when resting, cling to 
a vertical surface and use their tail to aid their feet in supporting 
themselves. Their nests are often marvels of architectural skill and 
constructive ability. The eggs, four to six in number, are white. 

Hummingbirds are found only in America where they range from 
Patagonia to Alaska, but the larger part of the some five hundred 
known species are found in the Andean region of Columbia and Ecua- 
dor. Only one species is found east of the Mississippi, and nine 
of our sixteen western species advance but little beyond our Mexican 

Hummingbirds nests are the most exquisite of birds* *homes. 
Their eggs, so far as is known, number two, and are pure white. . The 
young are bom naked and, in the case of our Ruby-throat, at least, 
spend about three weeks in the nest. 

The notes of some tropical Hummingbirds are sufficiently varied to 
be classed as songs but our species utter only sharp squeaks and ex- 
cited chipperings. 



4 1 6. Chuck-wiirs-widow {Antrostomus carolitunsis) . 
L. 12. Mouth bristles with fine, hair-like branches 
near their base. Ad, ^. End half of outer tail- 
feathers white, rusty y and black on outer wehs\ chin chiefly 
nis/^; throat-patch buffy. Ad. ?. No white in tail. 
Notes, A loudly whistled cbuck-vfUr s-widow, repeated 
many times. 

Range.— South Atlantic and Gulf States; breeds north to VIrfrinia 
and Illinois; west to ICansas and central Texas; winters from southern 
Florida southward. 

417. Whip-poor-will (Antrostomus vociferus). L. 
9.7. Mouth bristles without branches. Ad, ^, Three 
outer tail-feathers broadly tipped with white; white on 
inner vane of outer feather 1.4 or more wide; throat 
patch white; chin chiefly black. Ad, ?. Three outer 
tail-feathers narrowly tipped with rusty buff; throat 
patch rusty buff. Notes, A rapid, vigorous, whistled 
whip-poor-will^ repeated many times. 

Ranee. — Eastern North America, west to the PLiins; breeds from 
Gulf States north to New Brunswicic and Manitoba; winters from 
Gulf States southward. 

417a. Stephens Whip-poor-will (^A, v, macromy- 
stax). Similar to No. 417, but slightly larger, W. 6.5; 
mouth bristles much longer; male with throat-patch 
rusty; white on inner web ot outer feather less than 1.3 

Range.— "Arizona, New Mexico, and southwestern Texas, south 
over mountains bordering: tablelands of Mexico to GuatemaUu" 

418. Poor-will {Phala^noptilus nuttallis), L. 7.7. 
Primaries rusty barred with black. Ad, c?. Three 
outer tail-feathers evenly tipped with white; a large 
white throat patch; plumage above suggesting in color 
the wings of certain moths. Ad. ?. Similar, but tail- 
tips buf5^. Notes. Variously rendered poor-will, cow- 
day » pearl-rob-ity puir-whee-er. 

Range.— Western United Sutes; breeds from Kansas. Nebraska, 
and Uakota west to eastern slope of Sierra Nevadas: north to Mon- 
tana and British Columbia; winters from Mexican border southward. 

418a. Frosted Poor-will (T, n, m'tidus). Similar 
to No. 418, but paler, the upperparts especially whiter, 
more frosty, 

Ranpe. — "Texas to Arizona and from western Kansas south to 
northern Mexico." (Baljfy.) Lower Callfon ia. 


(*P. n. californicus) , 

41 8b. California Poorwill 

Similar to No. 418, but darker. 

Range. —Breeds on coast of California, north to Butte Count>-; 
winters from southern California southward. 



4 1 9. Merrill Parauque {Nyctidramus alhicollis nur- 
rtUs)' L. 12; T. 6.2. Outer tail-feather without 
white. Two color phases, one gray, one rusty. y4d, 
cf. Outer tail-feather black with sometimes a little 
rusty, next feather white on inner web, third feather 
white except at base. j4d. $. Outer tail-feathers 
brownish with broken rusty bars; next two with white 
at tip. Notes, A vigorous ker-whee-you repeated and 
sometimes running into a whit-whit-whit, ker-whee-you, 

Ran^.— Mexico north to southern Texas; winters chiefly south of 
Rio Grande. 

420. Night hawk {CbordsCes virgirUanus). L. 10; 
W. 7.8. Primaries blackish with a white bar and no 
rusty spots; darkest of our Nighthawks. Ad, c?. 
Above black with white and buff markings; throat and 
band near end of tail white. Ad, 9- Throat rusty, no 
white band in tail. Notes. A nasal peent] and in the 
breeding season, a booming sound produced by diving 
from a height earthward. 

Range. — Eastern United States, west to the Plains; breeds from 
Florida to Labrador, west and northwest to northern California, British 
Columbia, and Alaska; winters south of United Sutes. 

420a. Western NIghthawli (C. v, henryt). Simi- 
lar to No. 420, but markings above rusty and more 
numerous; belly washed with rusty. 

Range.— Western United States, east to the Plains, wintering south y, 
of United States; exact distribution unknown. 

420b. Florida Nighthawk (C, v, chapmam). Simi- 
lar to No. 420, but smaller (L. 8.6; W. 7.1;) and 
paler; white and buff markings above larger and more 

Range. Ftorida. west ak>ng Gulf Coast to eastern Texas; south In 
winter to South America. 

420o. Sennett Nighthawk {C,v, senrutti). Simi- 
lar to No. 420b, but still paler, white and buff prevail- 
ing on back and scapulars; palest of our Nighthawks. 

Range.— Great Plains north to Saskatchewan; winters south of the 
United States. 

421. Texan Nighthawk {ChordeUes acutipennis tex- 
ensis). Wing quills xcith rusty spots; outer primary 
shorter than one next to it; belly conspicuously washed 
with rusty buff. Ad, J^. Throat-patch and band near 
end of tail white. Ad, ?. No white band in tail. 
Notes, A mewing call and a tapping accompanied by a 
humming sound. (Merrill.) 

Range.— Central America: breeding north to southern Texas, south- 
ern New Mexico, southern Utah, southern Nevada, and Lat 38 ^ in 
California; winters south of United Sutes. 



. 422. B\wk Svilfi {Qfsehid^sni^^bQrealis). L. 7? 
W. 6,5. Tail Without spines, slightly forke4. ^ds. 
Sooty black, paler below; a black spot before the eye; 
forehead whitish. Notes. Generally silent (Ben- 

Range.— Breeds from Central America north, fn mountains of 
western United States, to British Columbia; east to Colorado: wtntera 
south of United States; more common in Pacific coast states. 

423. Chimney Svtin {Choftura pelagica). L. 5.4; 
W. 4,9. Tail with protruding spines. Ads, Above 
sooty, rump and underparts palei; throat whitish. 
Nates. A rolling twitter. 

Ranice. — Eastern North America, west to the Plains; bre ad s froB 
Florida to Labrador and Manitoba; winters south of United States, to 
Central America. 

424. Vaux Svtlfi (Cbaiura vaiixu). L. 4-5; W. 4-4- 

Ads. Similar to No. 423, but smaller and somewhat 
browner. Notes. Resemble those of No. 423, but are 
less frequently uttered. (Bendire.) 

Range. — Western United States; breeds on Pacific coast, locally, 
north to British Columbia; east casually to Montana and Arizona; 
winters south of United States to Central America. 

425. White-throated Swift [Aeronautes melanoUu- 

cus). L. 6.5. Tail forked, without spines. Ads. 

Above sooty brownish black; breast, middle of belly 

and flank patches white. Notes. A sharp, metallic 

. twitter. 

Ranee.— Western United States; east to western Nebraska and 
^^^ Black Hilts; breeds In Rocky Mountains north to MonUna; on Pa- 
cific coast north to Lat. 38 ^ ; winters south of United States to Cen- 
tral America. 



426. Rjvoll Hummingbird (Eugenes fulgms), L. 
5.1. A small white spot behJRd eye. j4d. J*. Crown 
purple, throat bright green, back bronzy green; tail 
somewhat more bronzy. j4d. ?. Above bronzy green. 
a\\ but central tail-feathers with blackish ends and 
narrow griayish tips; below grayish, all but throat 
feathers green centrally, Yng, 5*. Throat with more or 
less green, belly and above more bronzy than in $ . 

Rang«. — Nlcaniuguji. north In mountains to mountains of southeast- 
ern Ari«>na.and southwest New Mexico: winters south of United 

429. Blaolc-ohinned Hummingbird (Trocbilus alex- 
andri). L. 3.5; W. 1.7. Ad. ^. Chin and upper 
throat black, lower throat amethyst; tail forked, 
feathers pointed. j4d. 9- Throat grayish white; 
cbin huffy\ tail feathers more rounded, three outer ones 
tipped with white. Yng. c?. Similar to 9 , but throat 
with dusky spots. 

Range.— Western United States; breeds from San Antonio. Texas. 
NewMexIco. Arizona, and California north to Montana and British 
Columbia: rare on Pacific coast north of southern Califomla; winters 
south of United States. 


L. 3.1. 

Co8ta Htimmingbird (CaMie costce). 
No rusty in plumage. Ad, J*. Crown, throat and 
lengthened neck-feathers amethyst, back dull green. 
Ad. 9. Below grayish white; above grayish green; 
outer tail-feathers gray at base, then black and at tip 
white. Yng, c?. Similar to 9 , but throat usually with 
some amethyst spots; tip of outer tail-feather grayish. 

Range.— Northwestern Mexico: breeds north throug:hout Lower 
California, to southern California, northern Nevada, southwestern 
Utah, and southwestern New Mexico; winters from Mexican border 

437. Luolfer Hummingbird (Calotborax lucifer.) 
L. 3.6; B. .8. Ad. (^. Throat purplish pink, feathers 
at its side much lengthened; tail feathers very narrow, 
the outer ones less than .05 in. wide on end half. 
Ad. 9. Below nearly uniform rusty buff, above bronzy 
green; tail-feathers white-tipped. 

Range.— "From western Texas and southern Arizona south to the 
-city of Mexico and Puebla." (Bailey.) 

440. Xantus Hummingbird (Bastlmna xantusi)* 
L. 3.6. A white streak behind eye. Ad. c?. Chin, 
forehead and cheeks black; throat green; tail rusty 
brown. Ad. 9« Below uniform rusty, above green; 
outer tail-feathers rusty brown. 

Ranee. — Lower California, north to Lat. 99 ^ ; most common In 
Cape Region. 



427. Blue-throated Hummfngbird (CtBligsna 
tncia), L. 5.2. A white 5/rf># behind, and a sma 
one before eye. Ad. cf . Throat blue; belly craytsl 
back green; tail blue-black, outer feathers Droad| 
white tipped. Ad. 9 . Similar but throat dusky gra| 

Range.- Southern MeKico north. In mountains to moontalns i 
southwestern New Mexico and southern Arizona; winters south 
United States. 

438. ReifTer Hummingbird {Ama^ilis t^acail). 
4.1. Ads, Above, tbrocU and breast shining greecj 
belly grayish; tail square, rusty brown, narrowly ma 
gined with coppery. Yng. Similar but more rust; 

Rang:e.— Northern South America; north, rarely, to Lower RM 
Grande Valley, Texas. 

439. Buff-b«llied Hummingbird (Ama^is c^rvim- 
ventris cbalconota). Similar to No. 438, but belly rustr 
gray, tail forked and broadly margined with coppery 

Rans:e.— Central America, north, lo spring, to Loww Rio Grande 
Valley, Texas. 

440.1. White-eared Hummingbird (BasiUmta' Uu- 
coUs), L. 3.7. A white line behind eye. Ad. ^. 
Chin, forehead and cheeks bhuy throat and breast 
green, tail blackish bronzy green. Ad. ?. Crown 
rusty, back bronzy green^ below gray spotted with 
green; outer tail-feathers tipped with gray. Yng, ^. 

Range.— Nlcaraugua north, in spring, through mountains to south- 
em Arizona. 

441. Broad-biiied Hummingbird {lacbe laiirostris). 
L. 4. Ad. cf . Above green; below darker; throat 
purplish blue; tail darker. Ad. ?. Below gray; outer 
tail-feathers green at base, then bluish black tipped 
with gray. Yng. (?. Similar to Ad. 9 , but tail blue 
black with faint gray tips; throat with metallic green 

Range. — Southern Mexico; breeds north through mountains to 
southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico. 

428. Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Trochilus col- 
ubris). L. J. 5; W. 1.5. Ad. cf . Throat ruby, chin 
blackish; tail forked, the feathers pointed. Ad. ?. 
Throat grayish, tail-feathers rounded, three outer ones 
tipped with white. Ynp. c?. Like $ but throat with 
dusky spots. (See next page.) 

Range.— Eastern North America, west to about Long. 100^ ; breeds 
from Florida and eastern Mexico, north to Labrador and Hudson Bay 
region: winters from southern Florida to Central America. 



.-im- 431^ AnnaHumminobird (Cj/i;^/#<ufiur). L. ^6. 
jjB^iLi^. CrawnajiA throat glittering purplish pink; 
visr feathers at sides of throat much lengthened. Ad. 9 • 
iafr Above green; below, grayish washed with green; throat 
:r2i. usually with pink feathers; tail with a narrow white 
asV tip. Yng, Similar but browner above. 

{t r Rancc-r^estern Unhed States, from nonhern Lower OUifomla 
north to northern Califomla: east to southern ArUona; south in winter 
I to Mexico; recorded fron Guadalupe Island. 

^1 432. Broad-tailed Hummingbird (S^laspborus pfaty- 
j^urcus), L. 4. Ad, (^. Outer primary very narrow, 
^ end sharp; crown green, throat /i«rfJ^ tail green above, 
-'. piirplish below without white tips. Ad, 9 • Outer 
^ tail-feathers rusty at base, then black with a broad 
' white tip; middle feathers entirely green; above bronzy 
^j green;tnroatfeathers with dusky centers; sides rusty. 

Range.— Rocky Mountains; west, rarely to eastern CaUfomia; 
I north to southern Wyoninn: and Idaho: winters south of United States. 

433. Rufous Hummingbird {Selaspbcrus rufus). 
Z. L. 3.6. Ad,^, Next to middle pair of tail-feathers 
" «)/<:*«/ near tip of inner web; back r^^wibifcnwi some- 
times washed with green. Ad, 9- Sides rtt5(y, back 
green, throat spottra with green and sometimes ruby, 
outer tail-feathers rusty at base, then black and a 
white tip, the feather mor^ than .12 wide; middle tail- 
feathers green at base, end black. Yng, c?. Similar to 
9 hut «// tail-feathers rusty at base. 

Range.— Western United States; breeds from tfie higher mountains 
of southern Caiifomla and Arizona, north to Lat. 6x ^ in Alaslca; dur- 
ing migrations east to Montana, Wyoming. Colorado, New Mexico, 
and western Texas; winters in southern Mexico. 

434. Allan Hummingbird (5^/a5/>i&ortf5a//^f1. L. 
3.6. Ad, c?. Crown and hack green^ and tail rusty 
tipped with dusky, no notch in tail-feathers; in other 
respects like No. 433. Ad, 9 ««^ Yng, c?. Like the 
same of No. 433, but outer tail-feather less than .12 in. 

Range.- Pacific coast, from Monterey, California, north to British 
Columbia; migrates south through Arizona, and southern California 
i to Mexico. 

I 435. Moroom Hummingbird {Attbis morcomt), 
. L. 2.9. Ad. 9« Above bronzy green; middle tail- 
feathers bronzy green tinged with rusty on basal half; 
rest of tail-feathers rusty orown, then green, then black 
and tipped with white; below white, sides rusty, 
throat spotted with bronze-green. (Ridgw.) Made 

Range. Huacbuca Mountains, southern Arizona, (Icnown from one 

436. Calliope Hummingbird {SUllula calliope).- 
L. 3. Ad, (^, Throat purplish pink, white at base 
showing tbrougb; abovt green. Ad,. 9« Sides rusty, 
throat with green spots, above green, outer tail-feathers 
gray at base, then black, then white in nearly equal 
amounts, Yng, ^, Similar to 9« 

Range.— Mountains of western United States; breeds north to 
Montanaj^ Idaho, and British Columbia: west to eastern Oregon and 
eastern Califbrnia: winters south of United States; rare on Pacific 
coast of United Sutes. 




Family!. FLYCATCHERS. TYRANNiDiS. 32 species, 7 sub- 

Family 2. LARKS. Alaudid^. 1 species, 13 subspecies. 

Family 3. CROWS AND JAYS. Corvid.e. 21 species, 14 sub- 

Family 4. BLACKBIRDS, ORIOLES, ETC. Icterid^. 18 
species, 14 subspecies. 

Family 5. FINCHES, SPARROWS, ETC. Fringillid^. 87 
species, 92 subspecies. 

Family 6. TANAGERS. Tanagrid^. 4 species, 1 subspecies. 

Family 7. SWALLOWS. HiRUNDiNiDiE. 9 species, 2 subspecies. 

Pamily 8. WAXWINGS. AMPELiDige. 3 species. 

Family 9. SHRIKES. LANUDiE. 2 species, 3 subspecies. 

Family 10. VIREOS. Vireonid^e. 13 species, 10 subspecies. 

Family 11. WARBLERS. MNioxiLTiDiB. 55 speciesi 18 subspecies. 

Family 12. WAGTAILS. MoTACiLLiDiS. 3 species. 

Family 13. DIPPERS. Cinclid^. 1 species. 

Family 14. WRENS, THRASHERS, ETC. Troglodytid^. 26 
species, 24 subspecies. 

Family 15. CREEPERS. CERTHiiDi^. 1 species, 4 subspecies. 

Family 16. NUTHATCHES AND TITS. Parid^e. 21 species, 
20 subspecies. 

Family 17. KINGLETS, GNATCATCHERS, ETC. Sylviid^. 
7 species, 3 subspecies. 

Family 18. THRUSHES, BLUEBIRDS, ETC. Turdid^. 13 
species, 14 subspecies. 

The North American members of the Order PASSERES are placed 
in two Suborders, the Clamatores, or so-called Songless Perching Birds, 
which includes all the Flycatchers, and the Suborder Oscines^ or Sing- 
ing Perching Birds , which includes all our remaining Perching Birds. 
While the Flycatchers are therefore technically classed as songless 
birds, it does not follow that they have no songs. Sing they do, but 
because of the less developed condition of their voice-producing organ, 
they cannot give utterance to the longer and more musical songs of 
the Oscines, which are supplied with a better musical instrument. 


.Pbrching Birds. 

The Flycatchers, (Family Tyrannida) number somewhat over 
three hundred and fifty species, and are found only in America, where 
•fliey are most abundant in the tropics. Feeding almost exclusively on 
insects, those species which visit the United States are of necessity 
migratory, not more than half a dozen of the thirty species which nest 
with us, remaining in the United States during the winter, and these 
are found only on our southern borders. 

Flycatchers as a rule, capture their prey on the wing. When perch- 
ing, their pose is usually erect and hawk-like. They often raise their 
crown feathers, which in many species are somewhat lengthened, a 
habit giving them a certain big-headed appearance. 

Flycatchers are most useful birds. The food of the Kingbird, for 
examj^le, a species which is erroneously believed to destroy honey bees, 
has been found to consist of 90 per cent, insects, mostly injurious spe- 
cies, while only fourteen out of two himdred and eighty-one stomachs 
contained the remains of honey bees; forty of the fifty bees found be- 
iiig drones. 

The true Larks, (Family y4/aj^/^) are chiefly Old World birds, the 
Skylark being the best known member of the Family. In America we 
have only the Homed or Shore Larks, one species of which shows so 
much climatic variation in color throughout its wide range, that no less 
than thirteen subspecies or geographical races of it are recognized in 
the United States. 

The Homed Lark is a bird of the plains and prairies and is less 
common in the Atlantic States than westward. Like the Skylark it 
. sings in the air, but its vocal powers are limited and not to be com- 
pared with those of its famous relative. 

The Crows and Jays, (Family Corvidce) number about two hundred 
species of which some twenty-five inhabit the western hemisphere. 
To this family belong the Raven, Rook, Magpie and Jackdaw, all birds 
of marked intelligence; and our Crows and Jays are fully worthy of 
being classed with these widely known and distinguished members of 
their family. 

The Crows and Jays, by varying their food with the season, are rare- 
ly at loss for supplies of one kind or another and most species are repre- 
sented throughout their ranges at all times of the year. In the more 
northern parts of their homes, however, some of these birds are 


Pbrching Birds. 

migratory, and Crows, as is well known, gather in great flocks durinsT 
the winter, returning each night to a roost frequented, in some 
instances, by two or three hundred thousand Crows. 

While the Crows and Jays are technically *Song Birds' their voices 
are far from musical. Nevertheless they possess much range of 
expression and several species learn to enunciate words with more 
or less ease. 

The Starlings, (Family SturnicUe) are Old World birds represented 
in America only by the European Starling which was introduced into 
Central Park, New York City, in 1890 and is now common in the sur- 
rounding country. 

The Blackbirds, Orioles, and Meadowlarks, {Family Icterida) number 
about one hundred and fifty species and are found only in the New 
World. The Blackbirds are most numerous in North America, where> 
migrating in vast armies and often living in large colonies, they be- 
come among the most characteristic and conspicuous of our birds. 

The Orioles are most numerous in the tropics, where some thirty 
species are known. Apparently all of them are remarkable as nest 
builders, the large Cassiques, nearly related, great yellow and black 
birds, weaving pouches three and four feet long, several dozen of 
which, all occupied, may be seen swinging from the branches of a 
single tree. 

The Finches, Sparrows, Grosbeaks, etc., (Family /Vzw^zV//^/^) number 
nearly six hundred species, a greater number than is contained in any 
other family of birds. They are distributed throughout the world, 
except in the Australian region, some ninety odd species inhabiting 
North America. 

Varying widely in color, the Fringillidae all agree in possessing- 
stout, conical bills, which are of service to them in crushing the seed^ 
on which they feed so largely. 

The streaked, brownish Sparrows, often so difficult of identification,, 
are usually inhabitants of plains, fields, or marshes, where they are 
rendered inconspicuous by their dull colors. The more gayly attired 
Grosbeaks, Buntings, Cardinals, etc., frequent trees or bushy growths, 
where their plumage either harmonizes with their surroundings or 
where they have the protection afforded by the vegetation. 

Most of the members of this family are good singers, some of them 


Pbrching Birds. 

indeed beins: noted for their powers. of song. They are less migratory 
than insect-eating birds and some species are with ns at all seasons. 
Their abundance, musical gifts, and constant presence render them, 
from the field student's point of view, highly important members of 
the great class Aves. 

From an economic standpoint the Fringillidae are no less deserving 
of our esteem. Some species are of incalcuable value as destroyers 
of the seeds of noxious weeds. Fifteen hundred seeds have been 
found in the stomach of one Snowfiake or Snowbunting, and it has 
been estimated by Professor Beal, of the Biological Survey of the 
United States Department of Agriculture, that during the winter 
season, in the single State of Iowa, where his studies were made. 
Tree Sparrows devour no less than 875 tans of weed seeds, chiefly 
of the ragweed. 

The Tanagers, (Family Tanagrida) are found only in the New 
World, where they are most numerously represented in the tropics. 
As a family they are remarkable for the brilliancy of their colors; the 
common, but mistaken idea that most tropical birds are brightly clad 
being in no small part due to the abundance of Tanagers and beauty of 
their plumage. 

Only five of the some three hundred and fifty known species reach 
the United States and these are migratory, coming to us in the spring 
and returning to the tropics in the fall. Tanagers, as a rule, are not 
possessed of much vocal ability, our species ranking high in their fam- 
ily as songsters, the notes of many species being far less musical. 

Like most gaily costumed birds the plumages of many Tanagers un- 
dergo striking changes in color with age and season. The male of our 
Scarlet Tanager, for example, is olive-green with black wing-coverts 
during his first winter, the scarlet plumage not being acquired until the 
following spring. It is worn, however, only during the nesting season 
after which the less conspicuous olive-green dress is again acquired, 
the wings and tail, however, remaining black. 

Swallows, (Family Hirundinidcs) are of world-wide distribution, and 

" as might be expected in birds possessing such remarkable powers of 

flight, many of the species have unusually extended ranges. Our Bam 

Swallow, for example, is found throughout North America in summer, 

and in the winter it migrates as far south as southern Brazil. 

Birds of the air, the aerial habits of Swallows are reflected in their 


Perching Birds. 

long wings and small, weak feet; while their small bills and broa3, 
widely opening mouths indicate their manner of feeding. ^ . ' 

In spite of their poor equipment of tools, pwfijlows take high ranJc 
as nest builders, and it is interesting to observe that although tlie birds 
are .structurally, mugl^ alike, their nests often differ widely ^n character. 
Compare fo;* instance, the mud-made dwellings of the Ba^n aod Cliff 
Swallows with the tunelled hole of the Bank Swallow, am'd one realizes 
how little the character of a bird's home may depend on th^ structnr^ 
of it's builder. 

ThQ food of Swallows, remarks Professor Beal, * 'consists pf many' 
small species of beetles which are much on the wing, many speoies of 
diptera (mosquitoes and their allies), with lar^e quantities of flyipg: 
ants and a few insects of similar kinds. Most of them are either inju- 
rious or annoying, and the numbers destroyed by Swallows are not 
only beyond calculation, but almost beyond imagination." 

The tru.e Waxwings, (Fs^mily Ampelida) number only three species 
with representatives in the northern parts of both hemispheres. Thw 
notes, as a rule are limited 4:o*. a few unmusical calls, which, with our 
Cedar Waxwing, are usually uttered when the bird is about to fly. 

Waxwings ^re found in, small .flocks during the greater part of the 
year and roam about the country as though they were quite as much.. at 
home in one place as in another, provided food be plenty. Small fruits^ 
chiefly wild ones, constitute their usual fare, but they also feed oa 
insects, the injurious elm beetle being among their victims. 

The Shrikes, (Family Laniidai) are represented in America by only 
two species, the remaining two hundred or more members of this family 
being found in the Old World. Shrikes are noted for their singular habit 
of impaling their prey on thorns or similarly sharp-pointed growths, 
or occasionally they may hang it in the crotch of a limb. This proceed- 
ing enables them to tear it to pieces more readily, for it will be observ- 
ed that while Shrikes have a hawk-like bill, their feet are comparatively 
weak and sparrow-like and evidently of no assistance to them iir.di»-^ 
secting their food. 

Our Northern Shrike, or Butcherbird, feeds chiefly on small birds 
and mice, while the southern species, or Loggerhead, is a great de- 
stroyer of grasshoppers and he also Cjats lizards and small snakes. 

The Vireos, (Family Vireonida:) number fifty species, all American. 


Pbrching Birds. 

^bey search the foliage carefully for leaf-eatuiST insects and their 
esg:s, and examine the crevices in the bark for eggs of the injurious 
-wood-boring insects. They are therefore unusually beneficial birds. 

^ea^-ing a general resemblance in size and color to many of the 
"Warblers, Vireos are sometimes confused with members of that family. 
They are, however, as a rule, more deliberate in their motions and not 
such active flutterers as are many of the Warblers. They are also 
rnore musical, all the Vireos having characteristic songs, which if not 
always highly musical, are generally noticeable, pronounced and unmis- 

The nests of all our Vireos are pendant, deeply cup-shaped struct- 
ures usually hung between the forks of a crotch, to the arms of which 
they are most skilfully woven. 

The Warblers, (Family MniotiltidcB) like the Vireos are distinctly 
American birds, indeed they may be called characteristic North Amer- 
ica birds since most of the one hundred odd species are found north of 
Me3iico. Between thirty and forty species 6f these active, beautiful 
little creatures may be found in the course of a year at a single local- 
ity in the Eastern States and they therefore constitute an exceedingly 
important element in our bird-life. Most of-them come in May at the 
height of the spring migration, when the woods often swarm with them 
as they flit from limb to limb in pursuit of their insect iood. The larg- 
er number of them pass onward to their northern bodies and in Sep-' 
tembef they return to us in increased numbers. 

The beauty of their plumage, the briefness but regularity of their 
visits, the rarity of certain species, combine to make the Warblers es- 
I>ecially attractive to the field student and their charms are' heightened' 
by the difficulty with which many of them are identified. Study them 
as we may there are still species which have escaped us. 

By far the larger number of Warblers may ,be described as flutterers 
that feed agilely about the terminal branches, (genera Dendroica and 
Helminthaphila)\ others are true flycatchers, so far as feeding habit is 
concerned, (genera Setophaga and Wilsonia^) while others still feed in 
the undergrowth or on the ground, (genera Geothlypis and Seiurus). 
Insects constitute almost their entire fare and they are among our 
most beneficial birds. 

Most of the Wagtails (Family i1/^/ar////<i^), are inhabitants of the 


Perching BikDS. 

bid World, only three of the sixty odd species being found in this 
country. Our Pipit or Titlark is our best known, ntost widely distrib- 
uted species. 

Like other members of its family it has the habit of wagging: or tip- 
ping its tail both when walking (for it should be noted'that^hese birds 
are ground-inhabiting and walkers) and at rest. 

The Dippers (Family Cinclida:) though numbering only twelve 
species are distributed throughout the larger part of the world from 
the Andes of South America to the mountains of Alaska, Europe, Asia 
and Africa. 

- Everywhere they are haunjters of streams, usually dashing mountain 
torrents, over and under which they seem equally at home. Darting 
into the rushing waters they fly beneath the surface or feed on the 
bottom with perfect ease, their thick, dense plumage evidently forming 
a waterproof covering. Their nests are great balls of moss often 
placed so near some boiling cascade as to receive frequent showers of 
spray. The opening, however, is at the side, and the eggs and young 
are well protected by an effective roof. 

The Wrens, Thrashers, and Mockingbirds, (Family Troglodyiid^) 
form two well defined subfamilies. The Wrens, (Subfamily Troglady- 
tina) number about one hundred and fifty species all but a dozen of 
which are confined to America. The Thrashers and Mockingbirds, 
(Subfamily Mimince) number some fifty species, all of which are con- 
fined to America. 

As their dull, neutral colors would lead us to suppose, both Wrens 
and Thrashers are inhabitants of the lower growth rather than of the 
tree-tops, and while they may seek an elevated perch whence tt) deliver 
their song, their food is secured and their time consequently largely 
passed near or on the ground. 

Few families of birds contain so many noted musicians, nearly every 
member of this family being a singer of more than usual ability. 

The Creepers, (Family Certhiidcs) number twelve species, only 
one of which is foimd in America. This, however has a wide range 
and, presenting more or less climatic variation in color, is recognized 
under several subspecific names. Its habits, nevertheless, are much 
the same everywhere. It climbs the trees of the mountains of Mexico 
or of California with the same ceaseless energy it shows in Maine. 

The sharply-pointed, stiffened tail-feathers of the Creeper are of 
evident use to it as it ascends trees and pauses here and there to pick 


Perching Birds. 

out an insect's egg: from the bark. The same type of tail feather is 
shown by Woodpeckers, an excellent illustration of similar structure 
accompanying: similar habits in birds not at all closely related. 

The Nuthatches and Titmice, (Family Parida), like the Wrens and 
Thrashers, belong: in two well marked Subfamilies; The Nuthatches, 
(^xxhi^Lvmlj Sittina) number about twenty species, only four of which 
inhabit America; the Titmice, (Subfamily Parina) number some seven- 
ty-five species, of which thirteen are American. 

Nuthatches are tree-creepers, but climbing: up or down with equal 
ease, their tail is not employed as a prop, and consequently shows no 
special development of pointed or stiffened feathers. Their toes, 
however, are long:, and their nails large and strong, evidently giving 
them a firm grip on the bark of trees. 

The Chickadees are generally resident birds and, as a rule, whatever 
^species we find in a given locality are apt to be there throughout the 
year. We therefore become better acquainted with some of these 
hirds than with others which are with us only a short season. This is 
-especially true of our eastern Black-capped Chickadee, which comes 
familiarly about our homes in winter to partake of the feast of nuts and 
suet which we spread for him at that season. 

Feeding largely on the eggs or larvae of insects particularly injurious 
to trees, the Nuthatches and Titmice are of great value to men. 

The Kinglets, Gnatcatchers, and Old World Warblers, (Family Syl- 
viida) number about one hundred and twenty-five species, which are 
divided among the following well-defined subfamilies: The Kinglets, 
(Subfamily Reguiince) seven species, three of which are American; the 
Gnatcatchers, (Subfamily /*(^//(^///m^^) some fifteen species, allAmer- 
can; the Old World Warblers, (Subfamily SylvivKs) about one hundred 
species, all Old World except one which inhabits the Bering Sea coast 
of Alaska. 

The Kinglets are small, olive green birds which may be mistaken for 
Warblers but, aside from structural differences not evident in the field, 
they may be known by their smaller size, greater tameness, and habit 
of nervously flitting their wings at frequent intervals. One of our 
species, the Ruby-crown, possesses a remarkably loud, clear, and musi- 
cal rong, a surprising performance for so tiny a songster. Kinglets 
build large nests of ^moss and feathers and lay as many as ten eggs. 
The Gnatcatchers are small, slender, grayish birds which once well 
seen will not be confused with other species. The Gnatcatchers, like 
the Kinglets, are architects of more th§in u§ual ability, building a nest 
beautifully covered with lichens. 


Perching Birds. 

The Thrushes, (Family Turdidai) are variously classified by different 
ornithologists, but under the ruling of the American Ornithologists' 
Union they are grouped in the same family with the Bluebird, Solitaires^ 
and Stonechats. This family numbers about three hundred species^ 
of which about one-half are true Thrushes (Subfamily lurdiruB). The 
members of this subfamily are, as a rule, fine singers, many of them 
being among the best known song birds, and from a musical point of 
view the group, as a whole, is usually given the first place among birds. 
If, however, all the fifteen known species of Solitaires sing as well 
as the four species it has been my privilege to hear, I am assured that 
no one would dispute their claim to the highest rank which can be 
awarded singing birds. 

In the succeeding pages, the five hundred and fiffy odd species and 
subspecies included in the preceeding families of the Order Passeres 
are grouped according to some obvious color character in order to 
facilitate their identification in life. A satisfactory arrangement of this 
kind is out of the question. Lines sharply separating the groups pro- 
posed do not exist and some species appear to fit in one section as well 
as in another. Nevertheless, it is hoped that in most instances, the 
system will be found to serve the purpose intended. Under its ruling: 
our Perching Birds are grouped as follows: 

1. With red markings. 

2. With blue markings. 

3. With orange or yellow markings. 

4. With reddish brown or chestnut markings, chiefly in the form of 

patches or uniformly colored areas. 

5. Brownish, generally streaked birds. 

6. Dull, inconspicuously colored birds, without prominent markings. 

7. Gray, black, or black and white birds. 

While the first object of the bird student is to learn to name birds I 
would again urge him to acquaint himself with at least the arrange- 
ment of the Orders and Families of our birds and their leading struct- 
ural characters, (see page 2.) 

Having identified a bird, its family may always be determined by re- 
ferring to its number in the systematic list of birds at the end of the 
book; and the more important characters of its Order and Family will 
be found in the synopsis of Orders and Families beginning on page 9. 


Perching Birds Marlced With Red. 

607. LouiMna Tanager (Tiranga ludovidana), L. 
7.5. j4d, cf . Yellow; back, wings, and tail black, head 
more or less red. Ad. $. Above olive-ereen, head 
rarely red-tinged; below dusky greenish yellow; wings 
and tail brownish edged with greenish, two yellowish 
white wing-bars. Yng. cf. Like $, but head and 
rump greener, underparts yellower. Notes. Call, clii- 
tuch; song, resembles that of No. 608. 

Ranc:«.'Western United States from the Plains to the Pacific; 
breeds from Arbcona to British Columbia; winters in Mexico and Cen- 
tral America. 

608. Scarlet Tanager {Piranga erythromelas). L. 
7.4. Ad. (^. Scarlet; wings and tail black. Ad, ^. 
Olive-green, yellower below, win^s and tail blackish 
brown, no wing-bars. Yng. c?* Like ?,but brighter, 
wing-coverts black. Ad. 3^, IVinter, Like Yng. $, but 
wings and tail black. Notes, Call, chijy-ckurr; song, a 
rather forced whistle, suggesting a Robin's song, but 
less musical. Look-up, toay-up, look-at-me, tree-top; re* 
peated with pauses. 

Ranc:e.— Eastern United States, west to the Plains: breeds from 
Virginia and southern Illinois north to New Brunswick and Manitoba; 
winters in Central and South America. 

609. Hepatic Tanager (Piranga hepatica). L. 7.8. 
Bill large. Ad. (^. Vermilion, back grayish;taildulf red. 
Ad. 9 . No mng-bars; above grayish olive; crown and 
tail greener; below dusky yellow. Yng. ^, Like ? 
and variously intermediate between it and ad. c?. 
Notes, Call, clut-tuck\ song, like that of No. 608, but 
somewhat more robin-like. 

Ran^.— From Guatemala north in sprine to New Mexico and Ari- 
zona; winters in Mexico and Central America. 

610. Summer Tanager (Ptran^a rubra) L. 7.5; 
W.3.8. //J. cf . Rosy red. Ad. ?. Olive-yellow 
above, dusky saffron below, Yng. cf . Variously in- 
termediate between Ad. c? and ?. Notes, Call, 
chicky-tucky-tuck\ song, resembles in form that of No. 
608 but is more musical and less forced. 

Ran^.— Eastern United States, west to the Plains; breeds from 
Florida and western Texas north to southern New Jersey, southern 
Illhiois, and Kansas; winters in Central and South America. 

610a. Cooper Tanaaer (P. r. coopert). Similar 
to No. 610, but larger; W. 4; hill more swollen, colors 

Range.— "Breeds from southwestern Texas to the Colorado Valley, 
California* and from Arizona and New Mexico to northwestern Mexico: 
•outb In winter to western Mexico; casually to Colorado." 


Perching Birds Marlced With Red. 

593. Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis). L. 9; W. 
.7;T. 4.1. Ad. c?. Forehead with a well-defined 
lack band; feathers of back (except in worn plumage) 

tipped with olivd-brouftt or olive-gray. Ad, 9- Above 
olive-brown; crest, wines and tail dull red edged ^vith 
olive-brown; throat and region at base of bill gray; 
breast buffy, sometimes tinged with red; belly whiter. 
Notes, Call, a sharp, insignificant tsip\ song, a rich, 
sympathetic whistle, vjhe-e-e^ou, whe-e-e, kurry-hurtx- 
hurry, quick-quick-quicky and other notes. 

Ranee.—Eastern United States: resident from northern Florida and 
Mstem Texas north to southern New York and Iowa. 

593a. Arizona Cardinal (C. c superbus). Largest 
of our Cardinals, L. 9.5; W. 4; T. 4.9. Ad. c?- 
Pal«r, more rosy, than No. 503; margins to back 
feathers usually gray; black on forehead usually sep- 
arated by base of culmen. Ad. 9. Gray above like 
No. 593c, but breast richer, much as No. 593d; gray of 
throat more restricted and often confined to the chin. 

Range.— Southern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico. 

\ 593b. Saint Lucas Cardinal (C c. tgneus). Siml- 

\larto No. 593a, but smaller; W. 3-6; T. 4; r? with 

Wen less, sometimes almost no black on forehead; 9 

paler; gray on chin and about base of bill less defined. 

^ans^.— Southern Lower California. 

^93o. Gray-tailed Cardinal (C. c. canicaudus). W. 
3.1. Ad, cf . Red bright as in No. 59 jd, but black on 
forehead narrower, usually separated by base of cul- 
mtn. Ad. 9. Grayer than $ of No. 593, the edgings 
of .wings and tail usually gray without an olive tinge. 

Rangre.— Texas, except western and northeastern parts, and north- 
stem Mexico. 

593d. Florida Cardinal (C. cfloridanus). Smaller 
than No. J93, W. 3-4; c? averaging deeper red; ? 
darker and richer in color, particularly on breast 

Rangfe. — Southern half of Rorida. 

594. Arizona Pyrrhuloxia (Tyrrhuloxia sinuata). 
L. 9: W. 3.6; T. 4.1. Ad. cf. Gray; in fresh plumage 
washed with brownish; crest, wings and tail externally 
dull red; under wing-coverts, center of breast and of 
belly, throat, and region about base of bill, rosy red. 
Ad. 9 • Usually little or no red about bill or on under- 
parts. Notes. Call, several flat, thin notes; song, 
a clear, straight whistle. ( Bailey. ) 

Range.— Northwestern Mexico, north to western Texas, southwest- 
em New Mexico, and Arizona. 

594a. Texas Cardinal (P. s. texana). Similar to 
No. 594, but bill larger; upperparts averaging slightly 
grayer; red before eyes averaging duskier. 

Range. —Northeastern Mexico, north to southern Texas. 

594b. Saint Lucas Pyrrhuloxia (P. s. peninsula). 
Similar in color to No. 594, but decidedly smaller, with 
the bill larger; W. 3.4; T- 3-7- (Ridgw.) 

Range.— Cape Region of Lower California. 


Perching Birds Marlced With Red. 

5 I 5. Pine Grosbealc {Pinieola enudeator leucura), 
L. 8.5; W. 4.6. j4d. (f. Rosy red in varying amounts; 
beity gray; wings, tail and center of back feathers 
blackish brown,* two white wing-bars. y4d, ?. Gray, 
head and rump greenish; breast tinged with greenish. 
y^' (^- Like 9, but- with head and rump reddish. 
Not^s, Song, sweet; in winter strong and cheery; in 
spring tender and plaintive. (Chamberlain. ) 

Range.— Northeastern North America; breeds from New Brunswick 
and nonhem New England northward: winters south, irregularly, to 
southern New England, Ohio, and Manitoba, and casually to District 
of Columbia and Kansas. 

5 1 5a. Roolcy Mountain Pine Grosbealc (P, e, mon- 
tana). Similar to No. 515b, but decidedly larger, W. 
4.8, and coloration slightly darker; the adult male with 
the red of a darker, more carmine hue. (Ridgw. ) 

Range.— "Rocky Mountains of United States, from Montana and 
Idaho to New Mexico. ' ' (Rldgway. } 

515b. Califoria Pine Grosbealc (P, $, californica). 
Similar to No. 515, but c? with red much brighter; 
feathers of back plain ashy gray without darker centers; 
9 with little if any greenish on rump. 

Range. — Higher parts of "Central Sierra Nevada, north to Placer 
County and south to Fresno County. California " (Grinnell.) 

5l5o. Alaskan Pine Grosbealc (P. e. alascensis). 
Similar to No. J15, but decidedly larger with smaller or 
shorter bill and paler coloration, both sexes having the 

fray parts of the plumage distinctly lighter, more ashy. 

Range. "Northwestern North America except Pacific coast, breeds 
Ing In interior of Alaska; south. In winter, to eastern British Colum- 
bia, Montana (Bltterroot Valley) . etc." (Ridgway.) 

5^5d. Kadiak Pine Grosbealc (P, e, flammula). 
Similar to No. 515, but with much larger, relatively 
longer and more stronely hooked bill; wings and tail 
grayish brown instead of dull blackish. 

Range.— "Kadiak Island and south on the coast to Sitka. Alaska.' 

521. American Crossbill CIoxiVi curvirostra minor), 
L.6.i:W. 3-4; B. .66. Tips of mandibles crossed. 
/Id. cf. Red, more or less suffused with greenish or 
yellow. j4d. ?. Olive-green, rump and underparts 
yellower. Yng. Resemble Ad. ?. NoUs. Calh, 
when feeding, a conversational twittering; louder and 
more pronounced when flying; song, sweet, varied and 
musical, but of small volume. 

Range.— Northern North America, chiefly eastward; breeds from 
northern New England (in Alleghenies from Georgia) north and west 
to Alaska: winters south irregularly to Virginia and Nevada: casually 
to South Carolina and Louisiana. 

521a Mexican Crossbill {L c stricklandi). Simi- 
lar to No. 521, but larger; W. 4; B. .78. 

Range. — "Mountains of Wyoming and Colorado, west to the Sierra 
Nevada, and south through New Mexico, Arizona and the tablelands 
of Mexico to Guatemala." (A. O. U.) 


Perching Birds Marlced With Red. 

522. White-winged Crossbill {Loxia leucoptera). 
L. 6. Tips of mandibles crossed. Ad. c?. Rose- 
pink; middle of back black; wings with two tohiu bars. 
Ad, ?. Olive-green and dusky; rump and under- 
parts yellower; xcings with two white bars, Yng, Like 
Ad. V. Notds. Resemble those of No. 521. 

Range.— Northern North America; breeds from northern New 
England, northern New York and northern Michigan northward: 
winters south irregularly to Virginia. Illinois, British Columbia, and 

595. Roee-breasted Grosbeak (ZamOodia ludovtcia- 
na). L. 8. Ad. c?. Black; rump, belly, tips of 
nner vanes of outer tail-feathers and patch in wing 

hite; under wing<overts and breast rose. Ad. 9. 

nder wing<overts saffron; above streaked brown and 

ick; below whitish streaked with blackish; a whiU 
like over e^e; two white wing-bars. Yng, cf . Resem- 
bles 9 , but under wing-coverts rose; breast more or 

s rose-tinged. Notes, Call, a sharp, steely ^i^ 

ng, a rich, fluent, joyous carol. 

Range.~Eastem United States, west to the Plains; breeds froa 
northern New Jersey, northern Ohio, and northern Indiana (and 
south In Alieghanles to North Carolina), north to Nova Scotia and 
Manitoba; winters in Central and boutti America. 


7. Purple Finch {Carpodacus purpureus) . L. 6.2; 
3.2. Bill swollen and rounded; nostrils large. 

partially covered by projecting, grayish, bristly feath- 
ers; tail slightly forked. Ad. (f. Dull rose, head and 
rump brightest; back brownish; lower belly white. 
Ad, 9. Above grayish brown, slightly edged with 
whitish and brownish ashy; below white streaked with 
dark brownish; a more or less distinct whitish stripe 
over the eye. Yng, Resemble Ad. 9 • Notes, Call, 
creak, creak, and a Querulous whistle; song, a sweet, 
rapidly flowing warble. (See page 175. ) 

Range. Eastern North America, west to the Plains; breeds from 
northern New Jersey, the mou.itains of Pennsylvania, and northern 
Illinois northward; winters from the northern States to the Gulf of 

5 1 7a. California Purple Finch (C. p, californicus). 
Similar to No. 517, but cf duller and darker; V decidsd- 
ly olive greenish above. (See page 175.) 

Range.— Pacific coast region; breeds In the mountains of Califor- 
nia; west of the Sierra north to British Columbia; winters fron cen> 
tral Oregon to southern Arizona. 


Perching Birds Marlced With Red. 

5 18. Casftin Purple Finch (Carpodacus cassini). L. 
6.5, j4d. (^, Similar to Ad. c? of No. 517 and No. 
517a, but back fnuch blacker, streaks more sharply 
defined; crown as bright but appearing like a cap\ be- 
low much paler. Ad, ?. Similar to Ad 9 of No. 
^ 17a, but larger and more sharply streaked with black. 
both above and below. NoUs, Resemble those of 
No. 517. 

Ran^. -Western United States, east to the eastern base of the 
Rockies, west to the Pacific; breeds In the mountains from New 
Mexico north to British Columbia. 

519. House Finch {Carpodacus mexicanus frontalis) . 
L. 6.1; W. 3.1. Ad, cf. Ihroat, breast, /or^/kfo^, line 
ov^r eye, and rump, bright rose-red; back grayish 
brown tinged with red; bellv white, streaked with 
brownish. Ad, ?. Above brownish gray obscurely 
streaked with brownish, no olive tint; below white 
streaked with brownish. Ad, cT in IVinter, Red 
areas dull purplish pink tipped with grayish. Yng, 
Resemble Ad. $. Notes, Call, nasal, in chorus, 
chattering; song, a musical cheery, variecl warble, re- 
minding one of ttiat of No. 517, but recognizably diff- 

Ran ?e.— Western United States, east to the Plains, west to the 
Pacific, and from northern Mexico north to southern Wyoicin|{r and 

519b. St. Lucas House Finch (C. m, ruberrimus). 
Similar to No. 519, but smaller, W. 2.8; red more ex- 
tended, always showing in males on under tail-coverts. 

Range.— Southern Lower California. 

5 1 9o. San Clemente House Finch (C. m. dementis) to No. 519, but wing and tail averaging short- 
er, the bill decidedly, and feet slightly larger; colora- 
tion somewhat darker. W. 3; B. .48. (Ridgw.) 

Range.— Sanu Barbara Island, California; Todos Santos Island. 
Lower California. 

520. Guadalupe House Finch (Carpodacus amplus). 
Similar to No. q 19, but red deeper; back dark brown 
without red suffusion. 

Range.— Guadalupe Island, Lower California. 

520.1 San Benito House Finch (Carpodacus mc 
gregori). Similar to No. 519, but much larger with 
relatively shorter wings and tail; above much grayer 
and more distinctly streaked; red areas paler, more 
flesh-colored, often dull yellow; W. 3.2; T. 2.5: B. .5. 

^ nge.— San Benito Island, Lower California. 


Perching Birds Marked With Red. 


527. Greenland Redpoll {Acanthis hortumamm). 
L. 6.1; W. 5.3. A red crown-patch. Ad. ^, Runip, 
lower breast, sides and belly vohiU^ generally unstnaked; 
breast and rump sometimes faintly tinged with pink. 
In winter. Throat, breast, and above washed with 
buff. Ad. 9. Similar to (^, but no pink on breast or 
rump, sides sometimes lightly streaked. 

Ran^. — Breeds in Greenland: winters south to Labrador. 

527a. Hoary Redpoll (A. h, exilipes). Similar to 
No. 527 but smaller and darker; rump still white j but 
with sides more apt to be streaked; L. 5; W. 3; T. 2.3: 
B. .3. 

Ran^.— Breeds in Arctic re^ons; in America, winters south Irreg- 
ularly to Massachusetts, Ontario, northern Illinois, and Michigan. 

528. Redpoll (Acanihis linaria). L. 5.3; W. 2.8; 
T. 2.3. B. .36. Crown-cap red. Ad, cf. Above 
blackish brown edged with yellowish brown and some 
whitish; rump fuavily streaked with blackish edged 
with whitish and tinged with rose; breast rose; sides 
heavily streaked. Ad, ?. Similar, but no pink on 
rump or breast. Yng. c?. Like female. hJotes. Call 
like that of Goldfincn or Siskin and chit\ song like 
that of American Goldfinch but distinct. (Minot.) 

Range.— Breeds In northern parts of northern hemisphere; In Amer- 
ica, winters south to northern United States. Irregularly to Virginia. 
Alabama. Kansas, Colorado, and northern California. 

528a. Holboell Redpoll (A, I, holhalln). Similar 
to No. 528, but larger, the bill longer; W. 3.2; T. 2.3; 
B. .38. 

Range.— Breeds In northern parts of northern hemisphere; in Amer- 
ica, winters south, casuallv to northern United States. [Quebec. On- 
tario, and Massachusetts.) 

528b. Greater Redpoll {A, I, rostrata). Similar to 
No. 528, but larger, above darker; L. 5.5; W. 3.2; T. 
2.5; B. .35; depth at base, .28. 

Range.— "Southern Greenland in summer, migrating south in 
winter, through Labrador to (sparingly) the northern bortler of the 
United States. (New England, lower Hudson Valley, northern Illinois, 
etc.) . and west to Manitoba." (Ridgway.) 

749. Ruby-crowned Kinglet {Regultts calendula), 
L. 4.4. A conspicuous whitish eye-ring. Ad, cf . A 
more or less concealed vermilion crown-patch; back 
olive-green; underparts soiled whitish more or less 
tinged with buffy; two white wing-bars. Ad, 9 ^>^ 
Yng, Similar, but no* crown-patch. hJoies, Call, a 
wren-like cack; song, a surprisingly loud, rich, musical, 
varied, flute-like whistle. 

Range.— North America; breeds from the northern border of the 
United States northward and south In the Rocky Mountains to Arizo- 
na and on the Sierra Nevadi of California; winters from South Car- 
olina and Oregon southward to Central America. 

749a. Sitkan Kinglet {R. c, grinnelli) , Similar to 
No. 749, but more olive-green above, more buff y below. 

Range.—Paclfic coast; breeds in southern Alaska: winters sooth- 
ward to California. • 


Perching Birds Marked With Red. 

750. Dusky Kinglet {Re^ulus obscurus). Similar to 
No. 749f but above sooty olive, ^d, cf . With crown- 
patch pinkish or purplish vermilion-red. (Ridgw.) 
(Seepage 176.) 

Range.— Ouadalupe Island. Lower California. 

— European Goldflnoh (CardueUs cardtulis) , L. 5.^0. 
Feathers at base of bill red; crown and neck-stnpe 
black; back brownish; wings with a yellow band; 
inner webs of tail-feathers tipped with white; below 
white tinged with brownish. Notes, Call, twit\ song, 
«*sweet and varied." (See page 176.) 

Range. — Introduced In this country near Hoboken. N. J., in 1878; 
now not uncommon near New York City. 

443. Scissor-tailed Flycatcher (Muscivora farfica- 

/a>. L. 14.5. y4d. c?. Above gray, back washed 

with red or yellow; crown-patch red. j4d. ?. Similar, 

but tail shorter, red less bright, back grayer. NoUs, 

Loud, harsh, chattering notes uttered on the wing. 

Range.— Central America and Mexico: breeds through Texas north 
to southern Kansas and western Louisiana, and winters south to Cen- 
tral America: accldenul in Florida and as far north as Connecticut 
and Hudson Bay. 

471. Vermilion Flycatcher {Pyrocephalus rubineus 
fMxscanus). L. 6. y4d. cf . Crown and underparts 
red; back grayish brown, /id. ?. Above brownish, 
below white, breast streaked with dusky, belly red or 
yellow. Yng. c^. Similar to ? but spotted with red 
below and on crown. Notes, A shrill ^i-brie^ ^i-breiy 
uttered while the bird hovers twenty or thirty feet up 
in the air. (Bendire.) 

Range. — Central America and Mexico, breeding north to southern 
Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, southwestern Utah (rarely) ; "winter vis- 
itant to southern California." (Grinnell.) 

688. Painted Redstart (^Setophaga picta). L. $.a. 
Ads. Black; center of breast and belly deep red, patch 
in wings and outer tail-feathers white. 

Range— Mexican plateau north to southwest New Mexico and Arizona 

690. Red-faced Warbler (CardelUna rubrifrons). 
L. 5.2. Ads, Forehead, face, throat and sides of neck 
red. crown and ear<overts black, nape band and rump 
whitish; back gray; no white in wings or tail. Notes. 
A prolonged, very clear, whistled song. (Scott.) 

Range.~From Guatemala north over the Mexican Plateau to south- 


•m Arixona and western New Mexico. 



With Red. 

498. Red-winged Blaclcbird {Ag$latus phctmcMs). 
\ L. cf , 9.5; W. 4.7; B. .88: depth at base, .5. yid. ^. 
\ Black, in winter more or less tipped with rusty; lesser 
wing-coverts scarlet; median wmg<overts buff, tips in 
summer whitish. Ad, $. Above brownish black, 
widely margined with buffy and rusty; below whitish 
heavily streaked with black; throat tinged with orange 
or yellow; lesser wing<overts tinged with red. Yng, 
(?. Similar to Ad. cf , but heavily margined with rusty 
above and less so below; lesser wing-coverts duller and 
narrowly edged with black. NoUs. Call, chm, chikk, 
a reedy cack\ song, a chorus song, a liquid kongquS^r-rei; 
alarm note a shrill cbee-e-e-^e. The notes of this species 
are subject to much variation with locality, but 1 find 
it impossible to express on paper differences perfectiy 
apparent when heard. 

Ran^.—Eastem North America; breeds from Gulf of Mexico north 
to New Brunswick and Manitoba; winters from Vlr^nia and sootbera 
Illinois southward. 

498a. Sonoran Red-wing (W. p. sonoriensis). Sim- 
ilar to No. 408, but larger, bill more slender; 9 paler, 
streaking below browner. W. ?, 4.8; B .95; depth at 
base .5. 

Range.— Lower Colorado Valley In California and Arizona, sootbeni 
Arizona and south over coast plain of Sonora; Cape St. Locas. 

498b. Bahaman Red-wing {A. t. bryanti). Simi- 
lar to No. 498, but bill slightly longer, the female 
streaked below with brownish instead of black. 

Ran^. — Bahamas and southern Rorida. 

498c. Florida Red-wing {A. p. floridanus). Simi- 
lar to No. 498, but smaller, the Dill longer and more 
slender; cf 1 W. 4.2; B. .9; depth at base .4. 

Ran ^.—Florida, except extreme southern portion; vttt aloof 
Gulf coast to Texas. 

49 8d. Tliiclc-bilied Red-wing (A, p. fortis)% Simi- 
lar to No. 498, but larger, bill shorter and proportion- 
ately thicker. W. 5; B. .8; depth at base .5. 

Range.— Breeds on Mackenzie River. Athabasca, and other Interior 
districts of British America; during migrations Great Plains, from 
Rockies to Minnesota, Iowa, western lillnols. northern KentuclQr, and 
southwest to western Texas and Arizona. (Ridgway.) 

498e. San Diego Red-wing {A. p, neutralis). Sim- 
ilar to No. 498a, but slightly smaller, the ? with 
streaks below wider. W. 4.7; B. .95; depth at base .5. 

Range.— Great Basin regton from southern British Columbia south 
to Mexico, western Texas, to southern California and northern Low«r 
California; In winter as far east as Brownsville, Texas. (Ridgway.) 

498f. Northwestern Red-wing (A, p. caurmum). 
Similar to No. 498, but slightly larger, bill somewhat 
longer and more slender, the 9 with median wing- 
coverte deeper buff, the ? much darker, streaks be- 
low wider, darkest ? of group. W. 48; B. .9; depth 
at base .45* 

Range.— Pacific coast from north California to British Colombia; 
south In winter to southern California. 


Perching Birds Marked. With Red. 

499. Bioolored Blackbird (Agelaius guberruUor 
^aliformcus), Ad. cf . Similar to No. 498, but median 
wing<overts darker and broadly tipped -with black, 
concealing as a rule, their brownish bases. Ad, ?. 
Very different from $ of No. 498; above and below 
blackish slightly edeed with rusty. Notts, Similar in 
character lo those of No. 498, but with easily recogniz- 
able differences. (See page 178.) 

Rang:«.— Pacific coast; breeds from northern Lower California 
northward, west of Sierra Nevada and Giscade ransres, to Washing- 
ion; migratory at north part of range. 

500. Trioclored Blackbird [Agelaius tricolor). 
Ad, c?. Similar to No. 498, but glossier, lesser wing- 
coverts darker, median wing<overts v}hitg\ in winter 
black more or less edged with grayish brown; median 
wing-coverts dingy. Ad, ?. No rusty; above black- 
ish edged with grayish; below black bordered with 
whitish. Notes, "Said to be quite different" from 
those of No. 498. (Bendire.) (See page 178.) 

Range.— Northern Lower CaUtomUi north to southern Oregon; local 
In valleys of Interior. 

523. Aleutian Leucosticte {Leucosticte griseonuchaS. 
Like No. 524a, but much darker, breast chestnut- 
chucqbte; larger, W. 4-4. 

Range.~Islands of Bering Sea (resident); In winter, Shumagin 
Islands, lower portion of Allaska Peninsula and Kadlak Island. 

524. Gray- crowned Leucosticte (JLeucostici$ tephro- 
4x>tis). L. 6.7; W. 4«i. ^d- cf- Reddish brown 
more or less tipped with grayish; rump, upper tail- 
<overts, lesser wing<overts, outer edges of primaries, 
and lower belly tipped with pink; forecrown black; 
hindhead gray; cheeks down to blackish throat brown. 
Ad, ?. oimilar but duller. Yng. Nearly uniform 
brownish; margins of primaries showing some 
pink. Notes. A quick alarm note, qui, qui. (Siiloway.) 

Range.— Western United States; breeds In higher parts of Sierra 
"Nevada of Calltornla. from Ml. Shasta south to Mt. Whitney, and on 
^hite Mountains (Grinnell); north In Rocky Mountains to British 
Columbia; In winter east to Manitoba. Colorado, and NebrasKa. 

524a. Hepburn Leucosticte (L, t. Uttoralis). Sim- 
ilar to No. 524, but cheeks graj^ like hindhead; throat 
often grayish. 

Range.— Higher mountains of Washington and British Columbia; 
north to Alaska; winters south to Cotorado and, on Pacific Coast, as 
•Ur north as Kadlak Island. 

525. Black Leucosticte {Leucosticte atrata). Simi- 
lar to No. 524, but brown replaced by brownish black 
in Ad, cf . or dusky slate brownish in Ad, $ and Yng. 

Range. — Breeds on higher mountains of Idaho and Wyoming; 
-winters south to Colorado and Utah. 

526. Brown-capped Leucosticte {Leucosticte aus- 
tralis). Resembles No. 524, but little or no gray on 
hindhead, the black of forehead passing gradualryr into 
brown of nape and back. 

Ranee. — Breeds In mountains of Colorado at about xaooo feet altl- 
tude^ winters at lower altitudes and south to New Mexico. 


Perching Birds Marked With Blue. 


599. Lazuli Bunting (Cyanospt^a amana), L, 5.$. 
Ad, cf. Jwo white wing-bars; breast cinnainon, 
throat and upperparts light blue; back blacker. In 
winter more or less tipped wth rusty. Ad, ^, Middle 
wing-coverts tipped w'\\h whitish; above grayish brown 
with generally a blue tinge, strongest on rump and 
le-ser wing-coverts; below whitish, oreast buff. Yng. 
Like 9, but browner, no blue. Nates. Suggest those 
of the Indigo Bunting. 

Rinfi^e.— Western United States, east to western fCansas; breeds 
north to Montana and British Columbia; winters In Mexico. 

600. Varied Bunting (Cyanospi^a versicolor). L. 
5.5. Ad, c?. Reddish purple, crown and rump blue, 
nape red. Ad, $. Above brownish gray: below 
whitish washed with buff; a slight tinge of blue on 
rump, wings and tail. Much like $ of No. 598, but 
less brown above and no streaks below. Yng. Re- 
semble ?. 

RanK:e.~Mexico; breeding: north to southern Texas and southern 
Arizona; winters south of United States. 

600a. Beautiful Bunting {C. v, pulchra). Similar to 
No. 600^ but slightly smaller, rump more purple, 
throat With less red. 

Range.— Southern Lower Caiifomia. 

601. Painted Bunting; Nonpareil (Cyanospi(a 
ciris), L. 5.4. ^d, (^, Below red, rump duller, 
back green, head dark blue. Ad, ?. Bright^ shining 
olive-green above; greenish yellow below. Yng, cf. 
Like ? ; second year variously intermediate between 
Ad. c^. and ?. Notes. Resemble those of the Indigo 
Bunting but possess less volume. 

Range. — Southern United States; breeds north to North Carolhu. 
southern Illinois, and Kansas, and west to southern Arizona; win- 
ters in Mexico and Central America. 

654. Black-throated Blue Warbler (Dendroica 
cwrulescens). L. 5.2. A white patch or spot at base of 
primaries. Ad, r?. Throat and sides black; belly 
white; above dark grayish blue; outer tail-feathers 
with white. Ad, ?. Grayish olive-green; below 
yellowish white; a narrow white line over eye; white 
wing-patch small, sometimes barely showing above 
coverts; tail with a bluish tinge. Yng, cf. Like Ad. (^, 
but greenish above; black areas smaller and tipped 
with whitish. Notes, Call, a sharp, characteristic 
chip] song, usually, ^ee-^ee-^ee in an ascending 

Range.— Eastern North America; breeds from northern Connecticut, 
mountains of Pennsylvania, southern Michigan, and northern Min- 
nesota, north to Labrador and Hudson Bay region; winters tn Central 
and South America. 

654a. Cairns Warbler (D. c. cairnsi). Similar to 
No. 654. but c? darker, the back with more or less 
black; $ darker and duller. 

Range.—Breeds in higher portions of southern Alieghenies; winters 
south of United Sutes, 


Perching Birds Marlced With Blue. 

658. Oerulean Warbler (Dnidroica cofrula). L. $. 
^d, cf . A gray-blue breast band; above bright grajr- 
blue streaked with black; wing-bars and spots in tail 
ivhite. jid. 9 and Yng. c?. Above blue-gray washed 
^th greenish, below yellowish white; a whitish line 
over eye. Not^, Call, a warbler lisp and ichtp of the 
Myrtle Warbler; song resembling that of Parula 
AYarbler. (Brewster.) (See page 180.) 

Range.— Mlsslssfppl Valley, breeding north to Minnesota and east 
to Cayuga G>unty, New York, Maryland, and West Virginia; gener- 
<ally rare east of Alleghanies: migrates south through Texas and 
irtnters In Central and3outh Aaerica. 

597. Blue Qrosbeak (Guiraca aerultd), L. 7; W. 
3-4. ^d. cf. Deep, dark blue, back blacker and 
sometimes with brownish edgings; lesser wing-cov^rts 
broadly, greater win^-coverts narrowly tipped with 
Chestnut. In winter more or less tipped with brown- 
ish above and below. /Id. $. Above grayish brown, 
deepest on head; below grayish white washed with 
buffy: wing-bars buff. Some specimens show more or 
less blue, particulariy abi>ut head. Yng, c?. Like 9 , 
but browner. NoUs. Call, a strong^ harsh, ptchick\ 
song, a beautiful but feeble warble, somewhat like 
that of Purple Finch and with a slight resemblance to 
that of Rose-breasted Grosbeak. (Ridgw.) 

Range.— Eastern United States; breeds from the Gulf north to 
Maryland and southern I'linols; wintrrs south of Unltei States into 
Mexico and Central America; casually north as far as Maine and 

597a. Western Blue Grosbeak (G. c. la^ula). Sim- 
ilar to No. 597, but larger, W. 3.6. male bri^hler blue; 
back blacker; tips of wing-coverts paler, those of greater 
coverts usually decidedly paler than those of lesser 
coverts and averatjins: wider than those of No. 597. 
Female averaging paler, less brown. 

Rani^. — Western United States: breeds from Mexico north to 
Kansns. southern Nt-br.iskn. Colorado, and northern California; 
"Winters in Mexico and Central America. 

598. Indigo Bunting (Cranos/>i'{^n'an/<2). L. 5.4. 

No white wing-bars. Ad. cT. Deep blue, darkest 
on head. In winter brown, paler below, more or less 
mixed with blue. Ad. $. Above brown; below 
whitish washed with brown with a sufrgesUoti o/streaks; 
lesser wing-coverts and margins of tail-feathers usually 
tinged with blue. Yng. Similar to 9 but below more 
streaked; browner, and generally without blue tinge. 
Notes. Call, a sharp /n/; song, a tinkling, unsympa- 
thetic, rapid warble, Julv, July, sumnur-sumnur^ s here\ 
ntorning, noontide, evening, list to me. 

Range.— Eastern United States, west to the Plains, casually to Col- 
orado; breeds north to Nova Scotia and Manitoba; winters in Central 


Perohing Birds Marked With Blue. 

766. Bluebird (5ia/Mjia/f5). L. 7. /^^. cf. Above^ 
including wings and tail, bright blue; throat and breast 
rusty brown, belly whitish. Ad, 9. Above grayer, 
below paler. In winter specimens of both sexes ^ have 
upperparts tipped with rusty. NoUs, Call, tur-ws^, 
tur-w44\ song, a rich and sweet but short warble. 

Ranre. — Eastern United States; breeds from the Gulf States to 
Nova Scotia and Manitoba; winters from southern New Engtand and 
southern Illinois southward 

766a. Azure Bluebird (5. 5. aptrea). Similar to 
No. 766, but breast paler, upjJerparts less deep, more 

Range. — Mountains of eastern Mexico north to southern Arfioiuu 

767. Western Bluebird [Sialia tnexicana occidentalis) . 
L. 7. Ad. cf . Above bright blue,forebackwith more or 
less rust-brown, but rarely wholly chestnut; throat 
Wtt^, breast rust-brown, belly bluish gray. Ad. ?. 
Above grayish blue; rust on foreback faintly indicated; 
throat bluish gray, breast paler than in rf. Notts, 
Call, suggests that of No. 766, but is louder and 

Ranf^e. — Pacific coast region from northern Lower California north 
to British Columbia, east to western Nevada and casually, during mi- 
grations, to New Mexico. (Rldgway.) 

767a. Chestnut-baoked Bluebird (5. m. hairdi). 
Similar to No. 767, but foreback wholly rust-brown. 

Range.— Roclcy Mountain region from Wyoming south into Mexico. 

767b. San Pedro Bluebird (5. m. anabeke). 
Rust-brown of back and breast greatly reduced in ex- 
tent, usually wholly wanting or barely indicated on 
back, and divided into two patches on breast by back- 
ward extension of blue of throat; W. 4-2. (Ridgw.) 

Range. — San Pedro Martir Mountains. Lower CalifomU. 

768. Mountain Bluebird {Sialia arctica). L. 7.5. 
Ad, cf . Above beautiful cerulean blue, throat and 
breast paler, belly whitish. Winter specimens are 
more or less tipped with brownish. Ad, ?. Above 
brownish gray, rump blue, throat and breast gray- 
ish buff; belly whitish. Notes, Call, suggests that 
of No. 766, but in fall is merely a feeble chirp. 

Range.— Western United States, except Pacific coast; breeds from 
the Sierra Nevada east to the Plains and from New Mexico north to 
the Great Slave Lalce region; winters from the Mexico boundary 
states south into Mexico. 


Perching Birds Marked With Blue. 

477. Blue 4My (Cyanociitacnstata), L. 11.7. j4ds, 
Lt>ove ^ray-blue, breast and sides washed with grayish; 
/^hite tip to outer tail-feather rarely less than one inch 
>ng. Not^. Varied; commonly a loud harsh jay jay\ 
ften whistling calls and imitations of the notes of 
ther birds, particularly of common Hawks. 

Ranee.— Eastern North America, west to the Plains; breedt fmtu 
■eorgw and northern Texas north to Labrador and Hudson B^^y 
tgfloni resident, except at northern part of range. 


4.77a. Florida Blue Jay (C. c, florincola). Simi- 
ar to No. 477, but smaller, L. 10; blue above with a 
>urplish tinge; greater wing-coverts more narrowly 
>arred with black and tipped with white. 

Range. — Rorlda and Gulf Coast to southeastern Texas. 



482. Arizona ^My (/ipbelocoma siebmi ari^ofug). L* 
13; W. 6.3; T. 5.8. /tds Above grayish blue, head, 
wings and tail brighter than back; below unstreaked, 
gray breast tingedwith bluish; belly whiter. NoUs. 
Noisy, harsh, and far-reaching. (Bendire.) 

Range.-rNorthem Mexico, north to southern New Mexico &M 

482a. Oouoh Jay (/^. 5. 
482, but smaller; W. 5.8; T. 

coucht). Similar to No* 
5.3; bluer above, tlimat 

Range.— "Eastern Mexico, extending to western Texas In theChlMui 
Mountains." (Bailey.) 

492. Plnon Hy {Cyanoc^pbalus cyanocephalus) . L. 
11; T. 4.8. ^ds. Above nearly uniform gr.-fyish blue, 
head slightly darker; below slightly paler, throat streak- 
ed with white. Notes. Variable, some as harsh as 
those of No. 491, others like gabble of Magpie; others 
like Jays* common call a shrill, querulous, puh^ p,rh\ 
when on ground maintain a constant chatter. (Ben* 

Range.— Western North America, from New Mexico and Lower 
California north to southern British Columbia; east to Rockies, west 
to Sierra Nevada and Cascade Ranges. 


Perbhing. Birds Marked With Btae. 

479. Florida Jay {Apbdocoma cyatua). L. ii.c 
j4ds. Foreback day^olor or pale brownish ^y: heai^ 
nape, wings, tail, sides of throat and faint breast 
streaks Wue; a grayish line over eye; throat 
belly dingier; forehead usually hoary. Noiss. 
and unmusical calls. 

Range.— Florida; confined mostly to coast of the middle portions of 
the peninsula. I 

480. WoodhouseJay {AphelocomatDoodbous^t^. L 
12; W. J. Ads, Back grayish or brownisb blwy usual- 
ly not sharply defined from nape; crown, nape, wings 
and tail blue; throat gray; belly dingier; breast streaked 
with blue; f#m/^ tail- coverts blue; a narrate wbiU line 
over eye. Resembles No. 479, but is larger, back 
bluer, forehead not hoary; line over eye sharper. 

Range. — Western United States (chiefly Great Basin region) . froa 
northern Mexico north to southeastern Oregon and southern Wyoming; 
east t3 western Texas and Colorado; west to California, east of the 

480. 1 . Blue-eared Jay {Apbelocoma cyanotis) . Re- 
sembling No. 480, but larger; W. 5. j; under tail-cov- 
erts wbite: back slaty-gray tinged with blue; white line 
over eye less evident. 

Range. — "Mexican tableland north casually to Sotton County. 
Texas"' (Bailey.) 

480.2. Texan Jay {Aphelocoma texana\ Similar to 
No. 480.1, but white line over eye more distinct, below 
paler and browner gray, lower throat and chest with 
obsolete grayish streaks instead of blue streaks. 
Differs from No. 480 in having pure white under tail 
coverts and in other respects. (Ridgw.) 

Range.— "Southeastern Texas, from Concho and Kerr Counties 
west to the Davis Mountains." (Bailey.) 

481. C9\\iorn\^ }2Ly {Apbelocoma califomica) , Sim- 
ilar to No. 480. but back brown; usually sharply de- 
fined from nape; blue areas brighter, throat and belly 
whiter; breast less streaked with blue. Notes, Varied, 
usual call a harsh, metallic squawking. 

Range. — Pacific coast from northern Lower California, north to 
southern Wa'hington, east, in California, to the Sierra Nevada. 

48 I a. Xantus Jay (A. c, hvpoleuca). Similar to No. 
481, but blue areas somewhat lighter, underparts de- 
cidedly whiter. 

Range.— Lower California, north to Lat. 98® . 

481b. Belding Jay {A. c. obzcura). Similar to No. 
481, but darker and with smaller feet; W. 4.7. (An- 

Range. — San Pedro Martir Mountains. Lower California. 

481.1. Santa Cruz Jay (Abhelocoma instUaris). 
Similar to No. 481, but larger; W. 5.6; blue area*^ 
much deeper, back much darker, grayish sooty 
tinged with blue. 

Range. — Sanu Cruz Island. California. 


Perohing Birds Marked With Blue. 

478. Steller Jay {Cyanodita sMlm). L. 13. Ads. 
Orest, back and upper breast sooty brown; rump and 
belly dark, (Antwerp) blue; forehead more or less 
streaked with blue. Notes. Varied, usual call a loud, 
harsh squawking; the bird is a mimic and also a 

Range. — Pacific coast from Monterey. CalifomU, north to near 
Cook Iniet, Alaska. Including Vancouver Island. 

478a. Blue-fronted Jay (C s. frontalis). Similar 
to No. 478, but back paler, grayer, rump and belly 
turquoise, forehead with more blue which sometimes 
extends to the crest 

Range. — "Southern coast ranges and Sierra Nevada of California 
«nd western Nevada, from Fort Crook south to northern Lower Cal- 
ifornia." (A. O. U.) 

478b. Long-orested Jay (C. s. diademaia). Simi- 
lar to No. 478, but paler, grayer above, blue turquoise, 
as in No. 478a; crest longer, the forehead with pale, 
bluisk white streaks; a white spot over the eye. 

Range.— "Southern Rocky iMountalns; north to southern Wyoming; 
west to Uintah Mountains, in eastern Utah, and the higher ranges of 
northwestern Arizona; south to New Mexico." (Bendire.) 

4780. Blaok-headed Jay (C. 5. annectens). Be- 
tween No. 478 and No. 478b. Forehead streaks, and 
spot over eye much as in latter; color of body dark as 
in former. 

Range. — Northern Rocky Mountain reelon from northern Utah and 
southern Wyoming north to Alberta and British Columbia. 

478d. Queen Charlotte Jay (C. s. carlottce). Sim- 
ilar to No. 478, but darker,sooty slate above,blue deeper. 

Ranee.— Queen Charlotte Islands. British Columbia. 

483. Green Jay {Xanthoura luxuosa glaucescens) . 
L. II. Ads. Crown and patches at side of throat 
blue; back, wings, and central tail-feathers green; 
outer tail-feathers yellow; throat black, breast and 
belly greenish yellow, hiotes. Noisy and harsh often 
suggesting certain of the Blue Jay's calls. 

Range.— Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas, and south Into north- 
eastern Mexico. 



Perching Birds Marked With Yellow or Orange. 

503. Audubon Oriole {Icterus audubomi). L. 9.5. 
j4ds. Head, breast, wings and tail blaci<; belly yellow; 
back greenish yellow. Yng. Greenish yellow below; 
olive-green above. Notes, See No. 507. 

R.] n)^.— Mexico Borth to the Lower Rio Grande: CMiially as fur as 
San Aritonio. Texas; resident. 

504. Soott Oriole (Icterus parisonem). L. 8; B. .95; 
^J. f. Lesser wing-coverts, base of taiL rump and 
belh- yellow, rest of plumage black. j4d. 9- . lellow- 
\<h I elow, olive-green above, two white wing-bars. 
Vtig d' Like female, but throat black. NqUs. See 
Na. '^07. 

R CI nsfe —Mexican tableland, migrating north to western Ttxms, 
noTihvrn New Mexico, southern Nevada and southeastern Callfomi«; 
wjFUtrs in Mexico. 

505. Hooded Oriole {Icterus cucullatus sennetti). 
L. 8; B. .75. /Id, (?. Orame; forehead, face, throat, 
forei ack, wings and tail black; lesser wing-coverts and 
lips to greater ones white, ^d. ?. Yellowish below, 
brou nish olive-green above, X}\'0 white wing-bars* 
Ytt-. d. Like ?, but throat black. Notes. See No. 

R 1 ri]{:e.— Mexico; migrating north to the Lower Rio Grande; winters 

in M ^ko. 

505a. Arizona Hooded Oriole (/. c. tulsatU), Sim- 
L*r 1 ) No. 505, but head, rump, etc. yellow instead of 

' ■ ;e. 

re.— Northwestern Mexico and Lower California, migrating 
southwestern New Mexico, Arizona, and southern California, 
V V ■' t Sierra Nevada; winters in Mexico. 

507. Baltimore Oriole (/^<rf2<5 ^if/^ffAi). L. 7.5. 
.>r,/ f. Throat, whole head, foreback, wings and 
mid J ie tail-feathers black; breast, belly, rump, lesser 
win^<overts and ends of outer tail-feathers oranee; 
w in 1; -coverts and tertials margined with white. Ad. V. 
Head and foreback olive-yellow spotted with black; 
tump and tail brownish yellow; below dull yellow, 
rtiroit generally blackish. Notes. The notes of all 
ihc^ ^ange and black Orioles known to me are mellow, 
ni J :al, querulous whistles generally given in detach- 
ed hagments, all much alike in character but dis- 
tinguishable when one becomes familiar with them. 

T^.L, re.— Eastern North America west to the Rocky Mountains; 
> r ! . from Rorida and eastern Texas north to New Brunswick and 
t iskatchewan; winters in Central and South America. 

!30B. Bullook Oriole (Icterus buUockt). L. 7.5. 
A.i. f. Cheeks, most of underparts, forehead and line 
OM I eye orange; rump and outer tail-feathers yellower; 
centir of throat, crown, foreback and middle tail-feath- 
ers black; a large white wing-patch. Ad. ^. Above 
olive grayish brown; below yellowish, belly 
whikT; tail olive-yellow; wings blackish, median cov- 
erl.-- tipped, greater coverts externally margined with 
\^ hite; chin sometimes blackish. Yng, cf . Like 9» 
but center of throat and lores black. Notes, See No. 

l^.ing;e.— Western North America, from Mexico north to Asslnibola 
and L^ritish Columbia; east to western Texas: west to the Pacific; 
wlRtvrsIn Mexico. 


Perohing Birds Marked With Yellow or Orange. 

637. Prothonotary Warbler iProtonotaria cHr$a). 
L. 5.5. Tail-fealhers with large white areas. Ad. (f. 
Whole head and underparts orange-yellow; back 
greenish yellow; rump gray. Ad, ?. Crown green- 
ish like back; yellow paler; belly whitish; less white in 
tail. Notss. Call, a shirp, metallic chink; song, a 
**high pitched, penetrating and startling" "*#rf, tswi^t, 
istcMt, tsxBssty tswMty tsweet,^^ (Jones.) 

Ran^. — Eastern North America: breeds from the Gulf Stuiefi north 
to Virginia, Ohio, and southern Minnesota; winters In »he tropics, 

651. 0\\y%yNwb\tr {Dendroica olivacea), L. 5.2. 
j4d. cJ. Head and breast orange brown, a black band 
through the eye; back olive-gray; belly jjrayisii; wing- 
bars white; outer tail-feathers largely white. Ad. f. 
Above olive-eray, head yellower; eye- band dusky; 
breast yellow; belly white. Notes. Song, a liquid quirt 
quirt ^ quirt, in a descending scale. (Price.) 

Range. — Highlands of Guatemala and Mexico north to mounUJns cf 
Arizona and New Mexico. 

662. Blaokburnlan Warbler {Dendroica blj^kbitr- 
niof). L. 5.2. Ad, (f. Throat, line over eye, center 
of crown, and sides of neck bright orange; baci^ black 
with a few whitish streaks; wing-bars broadly white; 
tail-spots white. Ad. ?. Yellow areas paler; above 
grayish streaked with blackish. Yn^. and Ad. M l^Vm- 
Ur. Similar to Ad. 9, but throat paler, back browner; 
wing with two distinct baf$- Noteu Song, wa-^ee-^it- 
suy tseo'tsee, isee^ tsee-tsu^ tses, tsee, in an asc tending 
scale, the last shrill and fine. 

Range.— Eastern North America; breeds from northern N>w Eng- 
land ^nd in Berkshire and Worcester counties. Massat tig setts f, 
And northern Minnesota, north to Labrador and Hudson Bu region, 
(and south In Alleghanies to South Carolina); winters In trnpEcs. 

687. Rednari {Sstophagaruticilla), L. 5.4. Ad. 
C?. Black; sides of breast, band in wings and in tail ric 
salmon. Ad. ^, Sides of breast, band in wings an 
in tail dull yellow; back olive-brown, crown gray: bi 
below whitish. Yng. cf . Intermediate between <idul 
Notes. Song, ching^ chingj chee\ ser-wee, swes, svo.^-e. , 

Range.~North America: rare on the Pac-lfic coast; brei-Js fitim 
North Carolina, and Kansas north to Labrador and Alaska . winters 
In the West Indies. Central and South America. 

748. Qolden-orowned Kinglet C^egulus s^jtm^a). 
L. 4.1. Ad. (^. Crown orange and yellow bordfred 
by black; a whitish line over eye: back grayish o \vt?- 
freen; below soiled whitish. A blackish band in wti^e 
bordered basally by yellowish white. Ad. V ■ No 
orange in crown, its whole center yellow. NoUs. 
Call, a fine, high ii'ti\ song, five or six fine, shdll 
high-pitched notes ending in a short, rapid, rather ex- 
plosive warble. **/f/^, t^es^ t^ee^ tzee, ti. ti, ter, ^Hi-ii,'^ 

Range,— North America; breeds from nortnern United State's north- 
ward, and southward along the Rockies Into Mexico and in 'I10 AlTe- 
ghenies to North Carolina; winters from about Its southern brm^Jing 
limit to the Gulf Sutes and Mexico. 

748a. Western Golden-orowned Kinglet {R. jf. 

olivacms). Similar to No. 748, but upperparts brighter 
olive-green; underparts with a brownish tinge. 

Range.— Pacific coast region: breeds from the higher Si-.rfj Ne* 
vada or Callfbmia north to southern Alaska. iQy 

Perching Birds Marked With Yellow or Orange. 

666. Golden-oheeked Warbler {Dsndroica ckryso- 
porta), L. 5. j4d. ^. Throat, crown and back 
Dlack; cheeks and spot m forehead yellow; a narrow 
black line through eye; wing-bars and tail-patches 
white, ^d, 9. Above olive green with Wot:* streaksx 
cheeks duller than in cf , eye-streak dusky; throat 
yellow, breast blackish; belly wbiu. Notes. Song, 
tser, weasy-weasy, twia, resembling song of No. 667. 

Rang*.— Western central and southern Texas and south throu^ 
eastern Mexico to highlands of Guatemala. (Ridgway.) 

667. Black-throated Green Warbler {Dendroica 
virms). L. 5. ^d, c?. Throat and breast black; 
cheeks greenish yellow; back olive-green; winjj-bars 
and tail patches white. Ad, ? and Yng, (f. Similar, 
but throat yellowish; black breast tipped with yellow- 
ish; belly tinged with yellow; back without black streaks. 
Yng, ? . Throat and breast yellowish white, little or 
no black. Notes, Song, a droning j^/, ^eiy ^i-ii^ ^ii. 

Range.— Eastern North America; breeds from Connecticut and 
northern Illinois north to Nova Scotia and Hudson Bay. and south in 
Alleghanies to South Carolina; winters In Central America. 

668. Townsend Warbler {Dendroica townsendt), 
L. 5.1. Ad,(^. A black eye-patch bordered by yel- 
low stripes; crown and throat black; back olive-green 
spotted with black; wing-bars and tail-patches white. 
/4d. 9. Eye-patch olive; throat yellow, indistinctiy 
blackish; crown and back olive-green, with few Wack 
streaks. Yng, Similar, but yellower. Notes. Song, di-ds^ 
de-de, de, like that of No. 677. (Merrill.) 

Range. —Western North America; breeds from mountains of south- 
ern California north to Alaslca. east to western Colorado; In migr^i- 
tlons to western Texas: winters in Mexico. 

669. Hermit Warbler {Dendroica occidentalis), L. 
5.1. Underparts without streaks. Ad, c?. Crown 
and cheeks yellow; throat black; back gray spotted 
with black; wing-bars and tail patches white. Ad, 9. 
Crown less yellow; throat yellowish; back olive-gray, 
usually without spots. Yng, ^, Similar, but yellow- 
er. Yng, (^, Throat dusky; forehead and cheeks 
yellow; Dack olive-green with concealed black spots. 
Much like Yng of No. 667. but forehead yellower, no 
streaks below. Notes, Song, ^eegle-^eegle-^eegU-^uk, 

Range.— Western United States; breeds In high mountains 
from British Columbia to California, and from Pacific Coast 
district of United States to Roci<y Mountains; migrates to Low- 
er California. Mexico, and Guatemala. (Bailey.) 

684. Hooded Warbler {IVUsonia mitrata), L. 5.7. 
Outer tail-feather with white patches. Ad. (J. Fore- 
head and cheeks yellow; hindhead extending to breast 
and throat black; belly yellow; back olive-green. 
Ad, 9 . Throat yellow, hindhead olive-green usually 
with black. Notes. Call, a sharp chup; song, a 
gracefully whistled >'(w#mtt5/ coim to the woods^ or you 
wont see me. 

Range.— Eastern United States: breeds north to southern Connectl« 
cut. central western New York, and southern Michigan; winters in 
Central America. 


Perching Birds Marked With Yellow or Orange. 

531. Laynrenoe Ooldfinoh (j4 sir agalinus lawrenat). 
L. 4.7. j4d. (^, Crown, throat and front of cheeks 
black; body gray\ breast, rump, wings and, to a less de- 
gree, back with yellow; outer tail feathers with large 
white spots near the end. ^d, 9. Similar, but no 
black, back browner and without yellow. Notes. 
Suggesting those of the Goldfinch, but weaker. 

Range— California, west of the Sierra: breeds from northern Lower 
California north to Chico. California; winters to Arizona and New 

642. Golden-winged Warbler (Helminihophtla chry 
soptera), L. 5. Ad. c?. Crown yellow, wing-bars 
broadly yellow; above bluish gray; below grayish 
white; throat-patch and eye-stripe black. Ad, ?. 
Crown duller; throat-patch and eye-stripe gray. No/«. 
Song, a lazy ^ee-^ee-^ee'^ee all on same note. 

Range. — Eastern United States; breeds from northern New Jersey 
and northern Indiana north to Vermont, southern Ontario, and Mich- 
l8:an. and south along Alleghanies to South Carolina; winters in Cen- 
tral America. 

678. Oonneotlout Warbler (Gtothlypis agilis). L. 
5.5. Eye- ring white; no white in wings or tail. Ad, 
c^. Crown and cheeks bluish slate; throat and breast 
paler, the latter with no black; above olive-green: be- 
low yellow, sides greenish. Ad. ? and Yng, Throat 
and breast olive brawn\ belly yellow; back brownish 
olive-green; crown browner. Notes, Call, a sharp 
peek] song, suggesting that of Maryland Yellowthroat 
and also that oiOvtnb\x(i^free'chapple,firee'chapple,free' 
chappie i whoit, (Seton.) 

Range.— Eastern North America, north to Maine and Manitoba; 
known to breed only In Manitoba; winters in northern South America. 

679. Mourning Warbler {Geothlypis Philadelphia). 
L. 5.4. No white in wines or tail. Ad, (f. No white 
eye-ring; crown and cheeks bluish slate: throat black- 
ish: breast black more or less veiled by slaty; belly 
yellow; back olive-green. Ad, ?. Head slaty; throat 
and breast grayish; an inconspicuous white eye-ring. 
Yng, Similar, but browner above; throat more yellow. 
Notes, Song, clear and whistled, tee te-o te-o te-o we-se, 
the last couplet accented and much higher pitched. 

Range.— Eastern North America; breeds from northern New Eng- 
land, northern New York and eastern Nebraska north to Nova Scoua 
and Manitoba, and south along the Alleghanies to West Virginia; 
winters In Central and South America. 

680. Maoglllivray Warbler {GeothlvMs tolmet), 
L. 5.4. Ads. Similar to No. 679, but with an incoml 
plete white eye-ring showing above and below eye, 

Range. — Western North America from the Rocky Mountains to the 
Pacific: breeds from western Texas and mountains of southern Cal- 
ifornia north to British Columbia; in migrations ranges east to Ne- 
braska and middle Texas; winters in Mexico and Central America. 


Perching Birds Marked With Yellow or Orange. 

656. Audubon Warbler {Dendroica audubom), L. 
5.6. Crown, sides of breast, rump, and tbroat usually 
with yellow. j4d. J*. Throat bright yellow; breast 
black; back blue-gray streaked with black; wmg-bars 
broadly white; outer tail-feathers with white. Ad, 9 • 
Similar to male^ but breast grayish; yellow less bright; 
less white in wings. c?» IVinter. Like same plumage 
of No. 655, but throat yellowish: more white in taiL 
9 , IVintsr. Similar, but less yellow, throat sometimes 
without yellow^ when like No. 655. but white on four 
or five outer tail-feathers instead of on two or three. 

Ran^.— Western United States; breeding In higher mountains 
from southern California and New Mexico north to British Columbia; 
winters south into Mexico. 

656a. Blaok-fTonted Warbler (D. a, nigrifrons). 
Similar to No. 656, but Ad. ^ with forehead, sides of 
crown, and ears black; back black, narrowly margined 
with bluish gray. In tointer. Bluish gray, not brown- 
ish above. Ad, 9 darker, more heavily streaked with 
black above. ( Ridgw. ) 

Range. — ^Mountains of northern Mexico north to southern Arizona. 

657. MagnollM Vil Mrbler {Dendroica maculosa). L. 
5.1. Rump yellow; seen from below a white band 
across middle of tail. Ad, ^, Crown ashy, back 
black; wing-coverts broadly white: below yellow 
streaked with black. Ad, $ . Duller; fewer black 
stripes below; wing-bars separated, narrow. Yng, and 
Ad in winter. Crown and sides of head brownish ashy, 
back olive-green; below yellow, sides occasionally 
streaked. l^oUs, Song, a loud, clear whistle, chee-to, 
chfe-to, chee-Us-ee^ utter^ rapidly and with a falling in- 
flection. CLangille.) 

Range. Eastern North America, west In migrations, to the Rock- 
ies; breeds from northern New England, northern Michigan (And 
south along the Alleghanles to Pennsylvania), north to Quebec and 
Hudson Bay region; winters In Central America. 

663. Yellow-throated Warbler {'Dmdroica domtm- 
ca), L. 5.2. Ads, Throat and /in^ from bill to eye 
yellow; cheeks and forehead black; back bluish gray; 
two broad white wing-bars; tail-patches white, l^otes. 
Song, loud, ringing and ventriloquial; suggesting that 
of Indigo Bunting out shorter. 

Range.— Southeastern United States; breeds from Rorida north to 
Virginia and winters from Florida south Into West Indies. 

663a. Sycamore Warbler (D. d, alhUora), Simi- 
lar to No. 663, but bill smaller, line from eye to bill white 
or with but traces of yellow. 

Range.— Mississippi Vallev; breeds from Texas north to Kanis. 
southern Indiana, southern Illinois, and West Virginia; winters In 
Mexico and Central America. 

664. Graoe Warbler {^endroica grades), L. 5. 
Ad. (?. Throat and line over eye yellow; cheeks gray; 
above gray, crown and back with black streaks; wing- 
bars and tail-patches white. Ad. ?. Similar, but 
duller, back sometimes brownish. 

Range.— Northwestern Mexico, north to New Mexico, soQthwesttm 
Colorado, and Arizona. 


Perching BirdslMark^d With Yellow or Orange. 

686. Canadian Warbler {IVUsoma canadensis)^ 
L. 5.6. No white in wings or tail. //J. rf . A neck-' 
lace of black spots on breast; back gray; belly yellow; 
forehead black. Ad. ? and Yng, (7. Black areas 
smaller. Yng. ?. Slightly yellowish above; necklace 
slightly Indicated by dusky spots. Notes. Song, tu-tu, 
tswe, iuy tu. longer or shorter and suggesting in style of 
utterance both the Yellow Warbler and Goldfinch. 
(Jones.) (Seepage 190.) 

Rang*.— Eastern North America; breeds from Massachusetts, cen- 
tral New York, and northern Michigan north to Labrador and Manlto- y 
ba. and south alone the Atleghanles to North Carolina; winters in 
Central and South America. 

L. 4.2. 

Baohman Warbler {HelmmtbophCahachmami). 
Outer tail-feathers usually with a white patch 
more or less distinct. j4d. cf . Breast-patch and 
crown-band black; forehead, chin and belly yellow; 
back olive-green, hindhead grayish. j4d. ?. Above 
grayish olive-green, head grayer; below din^y grayish 
with a yellow tinge. Notes. Song, when migrating,re- 
sembles that of Parula Warbler, (Brewster); when 
breeding, that of Worm-eating Warbler, Junco or 
Chippy. (Widmann). 

Range.— Southeastern United States, west to Louisiana, north to 
Virginia and southern Indiana; rare on Atlantic coast; known to breed 
onlv In Missouri; winters south of United States. 

641. Blue-winged Warbler (Helmtnthopbtla pmus). 
L. 4.8. j4d. (?• Crown and underparts yellow; back 
olive-green; a black stripe through eye; two whitish 
wing-bars ; outer tail-feathers with white patches. Ad. 
9 . Similar, less yellow on head, duller below. Notes. 
Song, a wheezy, swee-chee^ the first inhaled, the second 
exhaled; also, later, zdH, chi-chi-chi-chi^ chur, chie-chur. 

Ranee.— Eastern United States; breeds north to southern Connecti- 
cut and Minnesota, occasionally wanders to Massachusetts; winters 
south of United States. ,r. , , t-^, ^-v t 

670. Kirtland Warbler {Dendrotca ktrtlandi). L. 
5.7. /fd. cj. Above bluish gray streaked with black; 
below pale yellow, sides streaked with black; wing- 
bars grayish; tail-patches white. Ad. ?. Similar, 
but browner. Notes. Song, said to resemble that of 
Maryland Ydlow-throat and also that of Yellow-throat- 

Ranee.— Eastern United States; has been found from April to Oc- 
tober In United States as follows: In Florida. South Carolina. Virgin- 
la. Missouri, Illinois, Indtona. Ohio, Minnesota. Michigan, and On- 
terio. In all some twenty odd specimens; found breeding In summer 
of XO03 In Oscoda County, Michigan; winters in Bahamas where 
some fifty specimen^ have been taken. ..... 

671. Pine Warbler {Dendrotca vtgorstt). L. 5.5. 
j4d. c?. Throat and breast greenish yellow; above 
bright yellowish green; wing-bars and tail-patches 
white. Ad. ?. Similar, but breast duller, back 
browner. Yng. ^. Similar to Ad. cT, but browner. 
Yng. 9. Below buffy white, breast slightly or not all 

yellowish; back ohve-brown. Notes, bong, sug 
zesting a Chipping Sparrow's but more musical. 

Range.— Eastern North America; breeds from Gulf States north to 
New Brunswlclc, MInnesoU. and Manitoba; winters from Virginia and 
southern Illinois to Gulf States. 


Perching Birds Marlced With Yellow or Orange. 

rins: Sea portion of 

696. Siberian Yellow Wagtail {Budytcs flavus lew 
costriatus), L. 6.5. Ad, J*. Crown bluish slate, a 
white line over eye; back olive-green; below yellow; 
wing-bars yellowish; outer tail-feathers largely white. 
Ad, $. Similar, but duller, head and wing-bars 
browner. NoUs, Call, a sharp, pU-pli-plr, song, a 
low, dear, medley of jingling notes uttered on the 
wing. (Nelson.) (See page 191.) 

Ran^.— China, Eastern Siberia, and Berlni 

529. American Goldfinch {Astragalmus iristis). 
L. 5.1; W. 2.8. Ad, c?. Yellow, cap, wings and tail 
black; wing-coverts, secondaries and inner margins of 
tail-feathers tipped with white. Ad, 9 , Above gray- 
ish olive-brown; below buffy whitish; throat yellowish; 
wings and tail duller than in male; white tips to 
tail not distinct. Yng. r? and Ad, c? in winter. Simi- 
lar to 9 but wings and tail black; wliite markings 
prayer than in summer. Notes. Calls, when perch- 
mg, hear me j bear me, dearie, soft and sweet, when fly- 
ing, per-chic-o-ree; per-chic-o-ree\ song, sweet, rapid, 
varied and canary-like. 

Ran^.— Eastern North America west to the Rockies; breeds from 
Virginia and Missouri north to Labrador and Manitoba; winters from 
northern United States to the Gulf States. 

529a. Western Goldfinch {A. t.pallidus). Similar 
to No. 529, but larger, W. 3.05. Ad, c?, in summer^ 
similar in color to No. 529. ? and c?, in winter. 
Much paler, the white areas greater in extent. 

Range.— Rocky Mountain region from northern Mexico north to 
British Columbia. 

529b. California Goldflnoh {A, U salicamans). 

Similar to No. 529, but wings and tail shorter and 
color darker. Ad, ^ in summer. With back always 
(?) tinged with pale olive-green; in winter darker than 
No. 529, but with white areas as large as in 5203 
(Ridgw.) ^^' 

Range.— California, west of the Sierra, south to Lower California, 
norih 10 Washington. 

530. Arlcansas Goldfinch (Astragalinus psaltria). 
L, 4.1. Ad. cT- Cap, wings, and tail black, most of 
primaries and tail white basally; back and cheeks olive- 
green, often marked with black; below yellow Ad. 9. 
No black cap; above olive-green; below dull yellowish; 
wings and toil brownish black, former with white 
much reduced, latter with little or no white. Yng. Re- 
semble female. Notes. Call, se-e-e-ep; song, sweet, 
varied and musical. 

Range.— Western United States, from the Plains to the Pacific- 
breeds from northern Lower California and western Texas, nonh to 
Colorado, southern Idaho, and Oregon; winters from the southern 
part of its breeding range southward. 

530b. Mexican Goldfinch [A. p. mexicana). Re- 
sembles No. 530, but cheeks and entire upperparts black; 
¥ as in No. 530. 
Range. — Mexico, north to southern Texas. 


Perching Birds Marked With Yellow or Orange. 

685. Wilson Warbler (IVilsoma pusUU). L. 5. 
No white in plumage. Ad, ^, Crown shining bl :ck; 
forehead, cheeks and underparts yellow; back olive- 
green. Ad, 9. Similar, but crown-patch often 
smaller, sometimes absent. Yng, ?. Crown-patch 
absent. Notes. Song, Hsh-'tsh-Ush-tsbea. (Nuttall ) 
Suggests that of Redstart or Yellow Warbler. (Minot.) 

Rang«. — Eastern North America; breeds from Nova Scotia, north- 
eastern Maine, and Ontario north to Ljibrador and Hudson Bay re- 
gion; winters In Mexico and Central America; "occasional during mi- 
ration In Colorado . . . and other parts of the Rocky Mountain dis- 
trict " (Rid^w ) (See piee 193.) 

685a. Pileolated Warbler (IV, p, pileolata). Sim- 
ilar to No. 685, but yellow deeper, olive brighter. 

Range. — Western North America; breeding throughout the Rocky 
Mountain district from western Texas In higher mountains, north- 
ward to Alaska, coast and Interior; westward to eastern Oregon and 
Queen Chark>tte Islands; in migrations over all of western North Amer- 
ica and east to Minnesota; In winter south to Central America. 
(RIdgw.) (See page xoa.) 

685b. Golden Pileolated Warbler (^. p, chryseo- 
la). Similar to No. 685a, but still brighter, richer 
yellow; forehead nearly orange; back brighter green. 

Range.— Pacific coast; breeds from southern California north to 
British Columbia; In migration east to eastern Oregon; south to 
Chihuahua and Lower California. (Rl Jgw.) (See page xga.) 

677. Kentucky Warbler i^Geothlypis formosd). L. 
5.6. No white in plumage. Ad. c?. Cheeks and 
crown black the latter tipped with ashy; back olive- 
green; a yellow line over eye; below bright yellow. 
Ad, 9. Similar, but less black in crown and on cheeks; 
yellow duller. Notes, Song, a loud musical whistle, 
turdle, turdli, turdU^ suggesting notes of Carolina 

Range.— Eastern United States; breeds from Gulf States north to 
lower Hudson Valley, southern Michigan and eastern Nebraska; 
winters in Ontral and northern South America. 

681. Maryland Yellow-throat {Geothlypis trichas). 
L. 5.2; W. 2.1. Ad. (?. Forehead and cheeks black, 
bordered behind by ashy; back olive-green; throat and 
breast yellow, belly whitish washed with yellow, sides 
brownish. Ad. ?. No black mask; above dull olive- 
green, forehead brownish; throat and breast more or 
less washed with yellow, belly whitish, sides brown- 
ish. Yng. (f. Similar to Ad. 9, but browner; breast 
yellow: cheeks and forehead with more or less half- 
concealed black. Notes, Calls, pit, chit, or cback; 
song, variable, often wicbitj/, tDichity^wichity, 

Range.— "Atlantic Coast district of United States; breeding In Vir- 
ginia. District of Columbia. Maryland and southern Pennsylvania 
(Carllsle),probably also In Delaware and southern New Jersey and 
in upland portions of Carollnasand Georgia; .... south In winter to 
Bahamas . . . . " (Rldgw.) 

681a. Western Yellow-throat (G.t. occidmtalis). 
Similar to No. 68id, but yellow below richer, border of 
mask whiter and broader. 

Range. — Arid western United States; east to western portions of 
Great Plains, north to Montana and eastern Washington (?) ; west to 
southern California: breeding southward to northern Chihuahua and 
northern Lower California: southward In winter to western Mexico and 
Cape St Lucas. (Rldgw.) 


Perching Birds Marked With Yellow or Orange. 

08 lb.' Florida Yellow-throat (G. /. igtwta). Simi- 
lar to No. 68id, but yellow below more extended and 
deeper, sides browner; black mask wider; upperparts, 
especially hindhead, browner. 

Range.— South Atlantic and Gulf Coast districts of United States 
fiom southeastern Virginia to Florida and westward along Gulf knr- 
Kinds to eastern Texas; winters from at least coast of South CaroHna 
southward; also In Cuba. (Rldgw.) 

68 1 0. Paolflo Yellow-throat (G. /. arirela). Sim- 
ilar to No. 68ia,but bill smaller, wings and tail shorter, 
color duller, whitish margin of mask narrower, yellow 
usually less orange; W. 2.2; T. 2.1. (Ridgw.) 

Range.— "Pacific Coast district, from British Columbia soothwaLrd; 
breeding southward to Los Angeles County, California, and eastward 
to Fort Klamath, Oregon; during migration to Cape St. Lucas." 

68 1 d. Northern Yellow-throat (G. /. hrachidactyla). 
Similar to No. 681, but averaging larger; W. a^z. 
Ad, cf . More yellow below, more olive-green above. 
Ad, 9. Usually with yellow below brighter and 
more extended. (Ridgw.) 

Ran8:e.~Northeastem United States from northern New Jersey to 
Newfoundland; west to northern Ontario and eastern Dakota, and 
south through Misslssslppi Valley to upland districts of the Gulf 
Slates and east central Texas; in winter Bahamas. Mexico, and Cen- 
tral America. (Rldgw.) 

6816. Salt Marah Yellow-throat (G. /. sitmosa). 
Similar to No. 68ic, but much smaller and slightly 
darker, especially on sides and flanks; W. 2.1. 

Range.— Salt Marshes of San Fnnclsco Bay, California. 

682. Balding Yellow-throat (Geoibljfis heldingi), 
L. 5.7. Ad. (^, Black mask crossing head diagonally 
bordered behind by yellow; rest of plumage much as in 
No. 68ia. Ad, ?. Similar to $ of No. 681, but 

Range.— Lower California. 

682.1. RIo Qrande Yellow-throat {Geotblyp's pol- 
iocsphala), L. 5.7. Ads, Lores and forehead black, 
crown gray, back olive-green; underparts yellow. 

Range.— Lower Rio Grande Valley In Texas and southward Into 


Perching Birds Marked With Yellow or Orange. 

645. Nashville Warbler {Helminthopbilaruhricapaia). 
L. 4.8. No wing-bars; no white in tail. j4d, (f, A 
chocolate crown-patch; rest of head and cheeks bluish 
gray; a white eye-ring; back olive-green; below bright 
yellow. j4d.^. Similar, but little or no chocolate in 
crown; yellow duller. Yng. Head brownish; under- 
parts washed with brownish, particularly on throat 
and flanks. NoUs, Song, ki-tsee-ks'tsu-ki-isu-cbip-es. 
chip-ee-ckip-u-chip, first half like Black and White 
Warbler's, second half like Chipping Sparrow's. 

Range.— Eastern North America; breeds from southern New York. 
Connecticut, and northern Illinois, north to Labrador and Hudson 
Bay region; winters south of United States. 

645a. Calaveras Warbler (//. r. gutturalis). Sim- 
ilar to No. 645, but rump brighter; underparts richer 

Range.— Western United States; breeds on high mountains, from 
the Sierra Nevada to British Columbia, east to eastern Oregon, 
northern Idaho; south in migration to Lower California and Mexico; 
southeast to Texas. (Ridgw.) 

648. Parula Warbler {Campsotblypis annricana), 
L. 4.5; W. 2.3. Ad, c?. Above grayish blue, a 
yellowish patch in the back\ breast yellow washed with 
chestnut and with an indistinct blackish band; belly, 
wing-bars, spot near tip of outer tail-feathers white. 
j4d, 9. Paler, breast without black, sometimes no 
chestnut Noiss. A short, little, guttural, lisping 

Range.— Breeds In south Atlantic and Gulf states east of Texas 
north near the Atlantic coast to the District of Columbia and Mount 
Carmel. Illinois (Brewst ); winters from Gulf States southward. 

648a. Northern Parula Warbler (C. a, usnsof). 
Similar to No. 648, but bill averaging slightly smaller, 
the wing longer, 2.4; black breast-band averaging 
wider; the chestnut wash stronger. 

Range.—Breeds In New England, New York and west along the 
northern tier of states, north Into Maritime Provinces and Canada; 
¥flnters from Gulf states southward. 

649. Sennefft Warbler (Campsothlvpis nigrilora). 
L. 4.5. Similar to No. 648. but yellow below reaching 
to belly; breast without black and with only a slight 
brownish wash; lores and ear-coverts black. Notes. 
Song probably Resembles that of No. 648. 

Range.— Lower Rio Grande Valley south Into eastern Mexico. 

746. Verdin {j4uriparusflaviceps). L. 4.2; W. 2.2; 
T. i.o. Ad. cf- Head and throat yellow; forehead 
usually with some concealed orange-brown; lesser 
wing<overts reddish chestnut; back brownish gray; 
belly whitish. Ad, 9, Similar, but less yellow. 

Range.~Southem border of the United Sutes and northern Mexico 
from southern Texas to southern California; north to southwestern Utah 
and southern "Nevada. 

746a. Baird Verdin (/^./. /am^o^^/115). Simi- 
lar to No. 7a6, but tail shorter; wing somewhat short- 
er; yellow ot head brighter; W. 2.0; T. 1.6. (Ober- 

Range.--Lower California. 

, 195 

Perching Birds Marlced With Yellow or Orange. 

650. Cape May Warbler {Dendroica tigrina), L. 
5.1. Ad, ^, Ear-coverts and wash on throat chest- 
nut; crown blackish; back olive-green with black spots; 
below yellow streaked with black; wing-coverts broad- 
ly white; outer tail-fenthers with white. Ad, 9 and 
Yng, r?. Duller; crown like back; no chestnut. Yng. 
9. Above olive-gray; below whitish faintly tinjied 
with yellow; wing-bars narrow. NoUs. Song, a wiry 
^^a-wit, awitf a-vit, a-wit, repeated. (Butler.) 

Ran^e.— Eastern North America; breeds from northern New Eng"- 
land. rarely, and Manitoba north to Hudson Bay region: winters sootb 
of United btates. 

652. Yellow Warbler (D^yfJfof^ a?5/tvtf). L. 5.1. 
Inner vanes of tiil-feathers yellow. Ad, J*. Crown 
^ yellow^ back bright yellowish green: below yellow- 
thickly streaked with reddish brown. Ad, ? atui Yng, 
rf . Duller above, crown like back; below much paler, 
few or no streaks. Yng, ?. Similar to last but still 
duller. Notes, Song, a rather loud wee-chuy cfue^ chs^y 
cber-wee, variable in form but recognizable in tone. 

Range.— North America, except Alaska. Pacific coast from Van- 
couver north, and southwestern United States, (western TexAS to 
Arizona. (RlJgw.); breeds throughout most of Its range, and win- 
ters In Central and South America. 

652a. Sonora Yellow Warbler (D. or. sanorana). 
Similar to No. 652, but cf much yellower, less green 
above, the crown and rump bright yellow; below 
brighter yellow, reddish brown streaks narrower, fewer 
sometimes almost wanting. Ad, ?. Similar to Ad. 
9 of No. 6$2, but grayer above and whiter below. 

Range.— Northern Mexico; breeding north to western Texas and 
southern Arizona; winters south of United Sutes. 

652b. Alaskan Yellow Warbler (D. of, rubiginosd). 
Similar to No. 652. but cf darker above, the crown of 
about the same color as oack; 9 duller. 

Range.— Breeds on Pacific coast from Vancouver northward and In 
Alaska; winters south of United States. 

Mangrove Warbler (Dendroica hryanti castan- 

L. 5. Inner vanes of tail-feathers yellow. 

Whole head reddish chestnut; back olive- 

below yellow lightly streaked with reddish 

Ad, $, Olive-green above; yellow below. 

Range.— Cape Region of Lower California and Pacific coast of Cen- 
tral America and Mexico. 

672. Palm VilMrbler {Dendroica palmarum). L. 5.2. 
No white wing-bars; tail patches white. Ads, Crown 
dark chestnut; line over eye, throat, and breast yellow; 
breast and sides with reddish brown streaks; belly 
much paler, often grayish washed with yellow; back 
olive-brown; rump orighter. Ad. in IVinter and Yng, 
No crown-patch; above grayish olive-brown Indis- 
tinctly streaked; rump yellowish; below grayish white 
washed with yellow and streaked with brownish; 
under tail coverts bright yellow. Notes, Call, a recog- 
nizable chip; song, a short, simple trill. 

R-inge— Eastern North America; breeds In interior of British Amer- 
ica west of Hudson Bay; migrates south tnrough Mississippi Valley 
and rarely north Allan Uc States; winters In Florida and West 'ndies. 




Perching Birds Marked With Yellow or Orange. 

672a. Yellow Palm Warbler (D. p. hypocbrysea^. 
Similar to No. 672, but underparts entirely bright yel- 
low; upperparts yellower. Winter specimens are 
v^hiter below but are still conspicuously yellow. 

Range. EAstem United States; breeds from Nova Scotia north - 
-ward, east of Hudson Bay; migrates through Atlantic States and 
winters in Florida and west to Louisiana. 

673. Fn\r\B}Narb\er{Dendroica discolor). L. 4.7. 
Wing-bars yellowish; tail-patches white. j4d. cf. 
Above bright olive-green with reddish chestnut spots 
in the backj below yellow, sides with black streaks. 
j4d. 9. Similar, but usually duller; chestnut spots 
smaller, sometimes absent. Yng, Similar to 9 Ad., 
but browner. NoUs. Song, a nigh, thin ^ee, ^ee, ^ee, 
^ee, ^ee-Sj Tee, the next to last highest. (See page igfe.) 

Range.— Eastern United States: breecR from Rorida to Massachu- 
setts, southern Ontario, and southern Michigan; winters froq south* 
«rn Florida intoth'S West Indies. 

Lawrence Warbler {Helminthophila lawrettcet). Re- 
sembles No. 641, but has a black breast patch and 
a broad black stripe through the eye as in No. 642. 
It is believed to be a hybrid between the two. Some 
15 specimens are known. Its notes are said to re- 
semble to those of both No. 642 and No. 641. 

Brewster Warbler {Helminthophila leucobronchialis) , 
Resembles No. 642 above, but is white usually 
tinged with yellow below, this type being connected 
with No. 641, by specimens showing more green above_ 
and yellow below. Hybridism and dichromatism are 
believed to account for these birds of which somewhat 
over a hundred specimens are known, chiefly from the 
lower Hudson and Connecticut Valleys. Some songs 
resemble those of No. 642, others those of 641. 

644. Virginia Warbler {Helmintbophila virgimai), 
L. 4-5. No white in wings or tail. Ad, cf . Above 
gray, crown-patch chocolate; upper tail-coverts yelf- 
lowish; below whitish, breast-patch and under ta\\ 
coverts yellow. Ad. ? . Similar, but less (sometimes 
no) chocolate in crown and yellow on tail-covertsj 
duller below. Yng, No crown patch; below washed 
with buff, little or no yellow on breast. Notes, Very 
musical, with a song of remarkable fullness for so 
small a bird. (Aitken.) 

Range.— Rocky Mountain region from Nevada and Colorado (rarely 
Wyoming) south Into Mexico. 

655. fAyrW^ ^ wb\w {Dendroicacoronata), L. 5.6. 
Crown, sides of breast and rump yellow. Ad. cf • 
Above blue-gray streaked with black; throat white, 
breast largely bhck; two white wing-bars; outer tail- 
feathers with wiiite. Ad, $ . Browner above, less black 
on breast, c? *'« vnnter. Above brown, back indis- 
tinctly streaked with black; below whitish^ breast and 
sides streaked with black. Yng, 9 . Similar, but less 
yellow on crown and sides. Notes, Call, a character^- 
istic tchip; song, a trill. 

Range.— Eastern North America, west In migrations, to the Roclcles; 
breeds from northern New England and northern Minnesota north to 
Labri1orand Alasl<a: winters from Massachusetts and Kansas sbuth 
loto ^V^st Indies and Central America. \ 

■ ^- 197 \ 



Perching Bird^ Marked With Yellow or Orange. 

659. Chestnut-sided 

Warbler (Dendroica p^nsj^i- 
vanica). L. 5. ^d. c?. Sides chestnut, crown yel- 
low; back streaked black and greenish yellow; cheek- 
patch and sides of throat black. j4d. ?. Crown dull- 
er; chestnut and black reduced. Yng, Above bright 
yellow-green, back with or without black spots; bc- 
low grayish white, sides sometimes with traces of 
chestnut; wing-bars yellowish white. Notss, Song, 
resembles that of Yellow Warbler. (See page 197.) 

Range. — Eastern North America; breeds from northe n New Jc 
ajvd Central Illinois norch to Newfoundland and Manitoba (and s _ 
jin the Alleghenles to South Carolina) : winters in Central America. 

604. Dickcissel iSfn^a atMricana), L. 6.2. Ad, 
(f. Breast, bend of wing, line over eye and at side of 
tnroat yellow; throat-patch black; lesser wing-coverts 
reddish chestnut; no white in tail. y4d. ?. Less 
yellow and chestnut, no black on throat. Not^, 
Song, an earnest, but unmusical dick, dick.che^chs-du, 

Range.— Middle United Sutes east of the Rocldes. west of Alle- 
gfhenies. breeds from Alabama and Texas to Minnesou; casual In 
Atlantic States; winters in Central and northern South America. 

6 1 8. Bohemian Waxwina (^Amp^lis garrulus). L. 
8. Crested. y4ds. Brownish gray; under tail-coverts, 
fore-crown and sides of throat chestnut-rufous; throat 
and eye-stripe black; wing-quills and primary coverts 
tipped with white or yellow; secondaries usually with 
red tips; tail tipped with yellow. 

Range. — Northern parts of northern hemisphere; breeds In tar 
north; winters south irregularly to northern United States, casually 
to Pennsylvania. Illinois, Kansas, and northern California 

619. Cedar Waxwina (Ampelis c^drorum), L. 7. 
Crested. y4ds. Grayish brown; belly j^tllowish; un- 
der tail-coverts white; no white tips on wing-quills; 
secondaries with red tips; tail tipped with yellow and 
rarely with red tips. Not^, A fine, lisping note; a 
string of notes usually uttered when taking flight 

Range. — North America: breeds from Virginia and the highlands of 
South Carolina, Kansas, and Oregon, north to Labrador and soutb^n 
Alaska (?); winters from northern United States to Central America. 

628. Yellow-throated Vlreo (l/ir^o flavi/rons) . L. 
5. J.- Ads. Throat and breast bright yellow, belly 
white: above bright olive-green, rump gray; two white 
wing-bars. Notes, Call, a scolding cock; song like 
Red-eye's but richer, more deliberate, sat me; Pm bsrt; 
where are you? in varying forms; also a mellow trill. 

Range.— Eastern United States; breeds from Florida and Texas to 
Newfoundland and Manitoba; winters in tropics. 

683 . Yellow-breasted Chat Qcteria virsus). L- 7.5; 
T. 3.07. Ads, Throat and breast bright yellow; low- 
er belly white; above olive-green; line over eye and at 
side of throat white. Notes, Call, a gasping, mew- 
ing kei-yuck and chut, chut; song, of whistles, caws and 
chucks, sometimes uttered in flight. 

Range. — Eastern United States; breeds from northeastern Mexico 
(but not In Florida?) north to South Dalcota. southern Minnesota, and 
Massachusetts (locally) ; winters in Mexico and Central America. 

683a. Long-tailed Chat (/. V. lon^icauda). Simi- 
lar to No. 683, but grayer above; tail slightly longer. 

Range.— Western United States, east to Plains; breeds from Mexloo 
north to North Dakota and British Columbia; winters in Mexici 



Perching Birds Marked With Yellow or Orange. 

497. Yellow-headed Blackbird (Xanthoctphalus 
xanihocephalus). L. lo. Ad. cf. Black; head and 
breast orange yellow; outer wing-coverts white, 
black tipped. Ad. ?. Brownish, line over eye, throat 
and breast. dull yellow, lower breast streaked with 
white; ear-coverts rusty. Notes. Call, a hoarse chuch\ 
song, a variety of hoarse grunting, guttural whistles; 
usually uttered with apparent great effort and bodily 
contortion. The young utter a rolling, whistling calf. 

Rangfe. —Western North Amerloi, east to Kansas, northern Illinois, 
and northwestern Indiana; west to the Pacific coast ranges; breeds 
locany from Texas (?) , New Mexico. Arizona, and Southern Californ- 
ia north to the Hudscm Bay region, and southern British Columbia; 
winters from southwestern Louisiana, and California southward. 

50 1 . Meadcwiark (Sturnella magna) . L. 10.7; W. 
4.8. Ads. Above black varied with chestnut and buff; 
below yellow, a black breast-crescent: bars on midfile 
tail-feathers fused along shaft, yellow of throat not 
spreading on to its sides. Notes. Calls^ a nasal note 
and a rolling twitter: song, a high fife like whistle of 
rarely more than eight or ten notes; without gurgles or 
grace notes. 

Range.— Eastern Nortii America west to about Long, xoo^ , north to 
New Brunswick and Minnesota; winters from Massachusetts and Illinois 

501a. Texas Meadcwiark (5. m. hoopest). Similar 
to No. 501b, but yellow not spreading on to sides of 
the throat Notes. Resemble in character those of 
No. 501. 

Range.— Not well determined; known from Corpus Chrlsti, Texas, 
west along Mexican boundary to southern Arizona and northern Son- 
ora. Mexico. 

50 1 b. Western Meadcwiark (5. m. neglectd). Sim- 
ilar to No. 501, but bars on middle tail-feathers usually 
distinct, not confluent along shaft; yellow of throat 
spreading on to Its sides; general color paler. Notes, 
Calls, a liquid cbUck and a wooden, rolling h-fr-r-f-r'T-r^ 
song, rich, musical, flute-like with intricate gurgles 
and grace notes; wholly unlike that of No. 501. 

50 1 c Florida Meadcwiark {S. m. argutula). Sim- 
ilar to No. 591, but smaller and darker; W. 4.4. 

Range.— Florida and Gulf coast to Louisiana. 
514. Evening Grosbeak (Hesperipkona vespertina). 
L. 8. Ad. c?» Brownish yellow; wings, tail, and 
crown black; exposed part of tertials white. Ad. ? . 
Dingy brownish gray, more or less tinged with yel- 
lowish; throat and belly whitish; tail-coverts and tail- 
feathers, on inner web, tipped with white. Notes. 
Call, loud; song, short, but melodious, resembling that 
of Robin or Black-headed Grosbeak. (Cooper. ) 

Range.— Rocky Mountain region of British America, south. In win- 
ter, to the upper Mississippi Valley, rarely to Ohk> and casually 
through New York to New England. 

5 1 4a. Western Evening Grosbeak (//. v. montana), 
C? not distinguishable from c? of No. 514; ? more buffy, 
esperfally below. 

R' ' ^.— Mounulns of western United States from New Mexico 
nor . British Columbia. 

1 199 

Perohing Birds Marked With Yellow or Orange. 

# ♦ 

474*. Horned Lark {Otocoris alpesiris). L. 7.7, W. 
f^i 4-3; ? » 4-'' Hind toe-nail much the longest. Ad, 
"(f ^winter. Throat and line over eye distinctly j^^iiotr, 
black feathers over eye lengthened, forming when raised 
little tufts; breast-patch, sides of throat, line over eye 
•and forecrown black, more or less tipped, especially on 
head, with yellowish or brownish; back brownish in- 
distinctly streaked with blackish; nape, wing and tail- 
* coverts pinkish brown; belly white, lower breast dusky, 
sides pinkish brown; tail mostly black, outer margin of 
outer feathers white, cf » summer. Yellow areas whit- 
er; black areas more distinct; back pinker. Ad. $, 
xfflnUr. Similar to c?, but throat and line over eye less 
yellow; black areas smaller; back more distinctly 
streaked. ? , summer. More distinctly streaked above. 
Notes. Call, a tseep, tseep; song, an unmusical, twit- 
tering warble sung during soaring flight. 

Ran^.— Eastern North America* breeds In Labrador and regloo ••st 
of Hudson Bay: winters south to South Carolina (chiefly on comst) 
and in the Mississippi Vailey to Illinois. 

474b. Prairie Horned Lark (O. a, praticola), W. 
cT 4; 9,3.8. Line over eye tDhite, Similar to No. 
474? but smaller, line over eye and forehead generally 
white, the throat often white and never so yellow as 
in winter specimens of No. 474. 

Ranee.— Breeds In the Mississippi Valley, south to southern lUtaois 
and Missouri west to eastern Nebraska and Assinibola; east throucli 
northwestern Pennsylvania and central New York to western and 
northern New Engfland; north to Quebec and Ontario; winters soncb 
to South Carolina. Kentucky, and Tex is. 

474d. Texan Horned Lark (O. a, giraudt), W. cT 
3.9; 9, 3.6. Similar to No. 474b, but somewhat 
smaller and paler; throat, forehead and line over eye 
yellow; breast, in males, generally tinged with yellow. 

Range.— Coast of Texas from Galveston to the Rio Grande. 

474a. Pallid Horned Lark (O. a, arcticola), W. 
c?, 4,4; ?, 4.2. Largest of our Horned Larks; no yd' 
low in plumage; throat, forehead and line over eye 
white; back brown with grayish edgings. 

Rang:e.— "In summer. Alaska (chiefly In the interior) with the Val- 
ley of the Upper Yukon River;. in winter south to Oregon. Utah, and 
Montana." (Oberholser.) 

474k. Hoyt Horned Lark (O. a, hoyii). W. cf. 
4.4; ?, 4.2. Throat tinged with yellow; line over eye 
white; back darker, pink areas richer than in 474a. 
An intermediate form between Nos. 474 and 474a 

Ran^e. "In summer, British America from the west shore of Hud- 
son Bay to the Valley of the Mackenzie River, north to the Arclk: 
Coast, south to Like Athabasc t; in winter, southward to Nevada. 
Utah. Kansas, ani M chigan, casually to Ohio and New York (Lone 
Island)." (Oberholser.) 

♦ Fourteen subspecies of this wide- ran gins:, variable form are now 
recognized in America, north of Mexico. Many of thera are too 
c osely related to be distinguished even by detailed descriptions. When 
breeding, they may be identified, in life, by a knowledge of the area 
which each form alone inh.ibits at this season. But during their mi- 
grations, and in winter, when several forms may be associated. It is 
usually not possible to Identify them in the field. The reader Is re- 
ferred to adfnirable monographs of this group by J. Dwlght, Jr. H^ 
Auk. VI T. i8q). pp. i)8-zso). and H. C Oberholser (Proc. U. S. v^mSl 
Mus.. xxzv, 190a, pp. 801-884;.* 

200 V 

P^rroMng Birds Marked With Y«Uow or^ Orange. 

.4740. D6«ert Horned Lark (O. a. leucolcema). W. 
<:?,4.i; ?, 3.8. Forehead and line over eye very 
slightly, often not at all, tinged with yellow; throat 
yellow; back brown edged with pinkish gray; resem- 
bles No. 474b, but is paler and less distinctly streaked 

Range. — ^"In summer, western United States from centtal Dakota, 
western Kansas and western Nebraska to Idaho and Nevada, north on 
the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains to Alberta; in winter, south 
to Texas, Chihuahua. Sonora, and southeastern California." (Ober- 

474e. California Horned Lark (O. a, actio). W. 

<?> 3.9; 9, 3.6. rf, summer. Back of head and nape, 
spreading on to sides of breast^ pinkish cinnamon; back 
distinctly streaked with brownish black; throat always, 
f oreheaa and line over eye usually tinged with yellow. (}, 
xointer. Less distinctly streaked above; cinnamon areas 
paler and with grayish tips; black areas more or less 
tipped with yellowish. V » summer. Crown and back 
uniformly streaked with blackish margined with pink- 
ish gray. 9 » vnnter. Less distinctly streaked; black 
areas tipped with whitish. 

Range.— Northern Lower California north, west of the Sierra, 
to Marin and San Joaquin Counties, California. 

,474f. Ruddy Horned Lark {0.a.rubea), Similar 
to No. 472e, but nape region, sides of breast, etc., 
much deeper in color, deeper than in any other of our 
Horned Larks; back less distinctly streaked with 
blackish and more ruddy in tone, not sharply defined 
from nape; yellow areas richer in color. 

Range.— Sacramento County, California. 

474g. Streaked Horned Lark (O. a. strieata). 
Cinnamon areas less extensive but nearly as deeply 
colored as in No. 474f; back distinctly and widely streak- 
ed with blackish; forehead, line over eye, throat and 
^f^as/ washed with yellow. 

Range —"In summer, the states of Oregon and Washlnf^ton west 
of the Cascade Mountains; in winter, to eastern Oregon and Wash- 
ington, south to northern California." (Oberholser.) 

474h. Soorohed Horned Lark (O. a. adusta). W. 
dP» 4; ?» 3/8. Nearest to No. 474l> but the male 
differs in being nearly uniform pinkish brown above, 
back with only a few indistinct brownish streaks; 
color deeper, browner, more ruddy. 

Range.— "In summer, the central part of extreme southern Arizona; 
In winter, northern Sonora and Chihuahua. Mexico." (Oberholser.) 

474l Dusky Horned Lark (O. a. merrilli). W. d*, 
4: 9» 3-8. Similar to No. 474b, but somewhat darker 
above, the line over the eye usually tinged with yel- 

Range.— "In summer, northwestern United States, and southern 
British Columbia, from northeastern California and northwestern 
Nevada, northward through Oregon ani Washington east of the Cas- 
ca'*'* Jtilnuntains to British Columbia and extreme northern Idaho: In 
yt9 A h\o cwitnU CaUfomla." (Oberholser.) 

" •' 201 

Perohing Birds Mtrked Wtth Yellow or Orange. 

474j. Sonoren Homed Lark {O, a, pallida), W 
c?f 3-8j 9f3'6. Nape very pale pinkish; b^ck paJh 
grayish brown edged with grayish; forehead, line ovo 
eye. and throat tinged with yellowish. Resembles N«i 
474I, but is still paler. 

Rang*.— "Region Immediately adiacent to the bead of the Golf ol 
California. Mexko." (Oberlkolser.) 

4741. Montezuma Horned Lark (O. a. ocddsfUalis) , 
W. c?, 4; ? , 3.8. No dibtinct blackish streaks above; 
back pale brownish edged with pinkish gray; throat 
yellow, forehead and line over eye tinned with yellow- 
Similar to No. 474h, but paler, less ruddy above; differs 
from No. 474c in being browner and less streaked 

Range.— In summer, central New Mexico, west to central Arizona; 
In winter, south to northern Sonora and Chihuahua. Mexico aod 
southeast Texas." (Oberholser.) 

474m. Island Horned Lark (O. a. insularis). Sim- 
ilar to No. 474g, but slightly darker above, breast 
usually without a yellow tinge. 

Range.— Santa Barbara Islands. California. 

446. Couch Kingbird (Tyrannus nuUmcholicus 
couchii). L. 9.5. ^ds. Throat white, breast and belly 
yellow, tail dark brawn; crown gray with an orange 
patch, back grayish green; Yng, Similar, but no 

Range.— Guatemala, north In spring as far as Lower Rio Grande. 

447. Arliansas Kingbird (7>faimff5tvr^^a/f5). L. 

9. y4ds. Throat light gray spreading over breast to 
yellow belly; tail black, outer margin of outer feather 
wholly white; above resembling No. 446. Yng. With 
no crown -patch. Notes, Squeaky, rattiing, rolling 
notes; a noisy bird. 

Range. — Western United States; breeds east to about Long. 100^ . 
nonh to Asslnibola, southern Alberta southern British CoIuroMa. west 
to the Pacific; winters south of United States, to Central America. 

448. Cassin Kingbird (Tyrannus vod/erans). L. 
9. y4ds. Throat and breast dark gray, belly yellow; 
tail blackj outer web of outer feather not wholly white; 
above as m No. 447. Yng, With no crown-patch. 
Notes, Less noisy than No. 447. (Bendire.^ 

Range.— Western United States, northwestern Mexico and north 
through Rockies, from western Texas. New Mexico and Ariaona, to 
southern Wyoming; in California north to San Benito County; win- 
ters south of United States to Central America. 

449. Derby Flycatcher (Pitangus derbianus), L. 
II. j4ds. Back brown, wings and t<^ii externally 
rusty; a yellow crown-patch; forehead, line over eye 
and across nape white; throat white, below yellow. 
Notes, Kiskadee, reptaXed, (Richmond.) 

Range.— Northern South America; breeds north as far as Lower 
Rio Grande, Texas. 


Perching Birdv Marked WKIrYeHow or Orange. 

451. Sulphur-beHied Flyoatoher {MjnodynasUs Iw 
MwMiris), L. 8. Below sulphur streaked with 
black; tail largely rusty brown; a yellow crown-patch; 
inner wing feathers widely margined with whitish; 
back grayish brown streaked with dusky. Yng, With 
no crown-patch. NoUs, A screech, like squ^dcing 
of a wagon wheel, and a single note. (Poling.) 

Range— Central America; breeds north as far as southern Arlmna. 

452. Crested FlyoBioher {Mytarchuscrinitus), L. 

g Inner webs of all but middle tail-feathers rust- 
rown. y4ds. Throat and breast gray, belly bright 
sulphur; back grayish olivi-green; greenest above and 
yellowest below of our larger Myiarchu Notes, Loud, 
chuckling, grating whistles. 

Range -Eastern North America; west to the Plains: breeds from 
Rorlda and Texas north to New Brunswick and Manitoba; winters 
from southern Florida south to northern South America. 

453. Mexican Crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus mex- 
icanus), L. 9.2;W. 4* Inner webs of all but middle 
tail-feathers rust brown. Ads, Throat and breast 
gray, belly sulphur, both paler than in No. 452; back 
grayish brown, with little or no green tinge. Notes, 
Resemble those of No. 452. (Merrill. ) 

Range— Central America; breeds north as far as Lower Rio Grande, 

453a. Arizona Crested Flycatcher {M, m. magts- 
ter). Similar to No. 453, but larger, L. 9.4, W. 4.2, 
and averaging slightly paler. 

averaging slightly pal 

nge.-—" Western Mexico ; noi 

Range.— "Western Mexico ;~ north to southern Arizona and south- 
west New Mexico; south in winter to Tehuantepec. Mexico." 

454. Ash-throated Flycatcher (Myiarchus cineras- 
cens). L. 8.;W. 4. Inner webs of all but middle 
tail-feathers rust-brown, outer pair dusky at tip of 
inner web. Ads. Throat and breast pale grayish 
white, belly white tinged with yellow, above grayish 
brown, outer web of outer tail-feather whitish. Palest 
below of our Myiarchi, Notes, A rather resonant but 
wooden chuck-pr-r-r-r. 

Range.— Western United States: breeds from western Texas and 
Lower California north to Colorado and Oregon; winters In southern 
Mexico and Central America. 

454a. Nutting Flycatcher (Af. c, nuttingt). Simi- 
lar to No. 454, but smaller, W. 3.6, outer margin of 
outer tail-feather not whitish, tip of its inner web 
rusty, not dusky. 

Ran^. —Breeds in southern Arizona and western Mexico; winters 
n Central America. 

454b. Lower California Flycatcher (Af. c. pertinax). 
Similar to No. 454a, but bill larger and stouter; above 
grayer; below less yellow. (Brewster.) 

Ranee.— Lower California. 

455a. Olivaceous Flycatcher {Mjnarcbus lavtrencet 
olivascens). L. 7. Ads, Inner webs of tail-feathers 
like outer webs; tail-feathers margined with rusty; 
breast and belly as in No. 452; crown brownish, back 
grayish olive-green. Notes. A short mournful peeur, 

p^ .- Breeds from western Mexico north to southern Arlxona; 
vi^V }uth to southern Mexico; casual in Colorado. 


Perohffiig Birds Marked With Chestnut or Reddith Brown. 

587. Towhee; Ohewink {Tipilo irythrophthalnms). 
L. 8. Three outer tail-feathers with white; iris red. 
Ad. cf . Above and breast black; skies reddish chest- 
nut; belly white. Ad. $. Above and breast brown. 
Call^ cbewink or tcwhsi; song, a loud, not over 
musical swe$t bird sin-n-ng, and a tremulous refrain Pll try. 

Range. — Eastern North Ameilai. west to the Plains; breeds froa 
Georgia and Louisiana north to Maine. Ontario, and Manitoba: win- 
ters from Virginia and southern Illinois to Florida and eastern Texas. 

587a. White-eyed Towhee (7*. $. allem). Similar 
to No. 587. but iris whitish; only two outer tail-feath- 
ers with white tips, or if on third, a mere spot l^oUs. 
Call, tcwheey much sharper thanihat of No. $87. 

Range.— Florida, north along coast to^uth Carolina. 

588. Arctic Towhee (Pipilomaculatus arcticus). L. 
8.7. Ad. (^, White tip of outer tail-feather more than 1.3 
long; scapulars and back marked with white; bick 
black more or less tipped with brownish. Ad. 9 . 
Breast and back grayish brown; fewer white markings 
than in (^. NoUs. Call, a Catbird-like nuw; song, 
suggesting that of No. 587, but shorter, more wooden, 
less musical. 

Range.- Great Plains; breeding from southern Monuna and west- 
em North Dakota, north to Saskatchewan; winters south and west to 
Colorado. Utah. New Mexico, and Texas; east to eastern Kansas. 

588a. Spurred Towhee (P. m. megalanyx). Simi- 
lar to No. ?88, but blacker above, no brownish edgings 
on front of back; white markings on back less num- 
erous; white tip to outer tail-feather /^isthan 1.3 long. ^ 

Range. — Rockv Mountain region and west to the Pacific; breeds 
from Mexico to British Columbia; migratory In the northern part of 

588b. Oregon Towhee (P. m. oregottus). Similar 
to No. 588a. but darker; practically no brownish edg- 
ings on back of male; sides much deeper; white mark- 
ings much reduced, the white tip to outer tail-feather 
less than i. long; sides much deeper. 

Range.— Pacific coast from San Francisco to British Colombia; 
winters south to southern California. 

588c. San Clemente Towhee (P. m. cUnuntof). 
Similar to No. 588a, but adult male with black duller or 
grayer; female lighter brown. (Ridgw.) 

Range. -"San Clemente. Santa Cruz. Santa Rosa, and Santa Cat- 
alina Islands," southern California. (Grinnell.) 

288d. San Diego Towhee (P. m. atratus). Similar 
to No. 588a, but decidedly darker, with white markings 
of wings, tail, etc., more restricted; rump deep black. 

Range.— The southern coast district of southern California, south 
Into Lower California. (Ridgw.) 

588e. Mountain Towhee (P. m. magmrostris). Sim- 
ilar to No. 588, but bill much larger, rufous below pal- 
er, above browner and tinged with olive. (Brewster.) 

Range.— Cape Region of Lower California. 

589. Guadalupe Towhee (Pipilo consobrinus). Sim- 
ilar to No. 588b in restriction of white markings, but 
wines and tail much shorter, W. 3.1; T. 3.2, hind claw 
much larger; Ad. ^ sooty rather than black (Ridgw.) 

Range.— Guadalupe Island, Lower California. 



Perohrng Birds Marked WHti Chestnut or Reddish Brown. 

457. Say Phoebe {Sayorms saya). L. 7.5. Ads. 
Breast rusty gr^y changing to rusty on belly; above 
gray with a brown tinge; tail black. Notes, A plaintive 
phu-eur^ a short, plaintive, twittering warble. (Bendire.) 

Ranfce.— Western North America, east to about Long. xoo° : breeds 
from southwestern Texas, southern California, north to the Yukon, 
Alaska; winters in Mexico; accidental in Wisconsin. Illinois, and 

501. Canon Jo}Nhee (Pipilo /uscus mesoleucus), L. 
9.;W. 3. 7. Ads, Crown cinnamon-brown; back 
brownish gray; throat buffy bordered by blackish 
spelts; lower belly and under tail-coverts cinnamon. 
Notes, Calls, a loud, metallic chip repeated four times; ^ 
in flight a robin-like screep-eep-eep. 

Range. — Northern Mexico north to western Texas. Arlcansas Valley, 
Colorado, and Arizona; resident. 

591a. St. Lucas Towhee (P,f, albigula), W. 3. 3. 
Similar to No. 591, but smaller; abdomen whiter, with- 
out cinnamon. 

Range — Southern Lower California. 

591b. Califbrnia Towhee (P, f, crissalis) W. 3. 9. 
Similar to No. 591, but much browner above; throat 
and under tail<o verts rusty brown; breast brownish 
gray; scarcely lighter on the belly. 

Range. — California, west of the Sierra. 

5910. Anthony Towhee (P./. senicula), W. 3. 7. 
Similar to No. 591b, but smaller and grayer, the abdomen 

Range.— Northern Lower California north to southern California. 

592. Abert Towhee (Pipilo ahertt), L. 9. Ads, 
No crown-cap; lores and chin blackish; below pinkish 
cinnamon; above grayish brown. Notes, Call, a loud, 
clear, sharp chirp. Song, resembling that of the Spurr- 
ed Towhee group. (B. B. and R;) 

Range.— Southern California. Arizona, and northwestern New 
Mexico, north to southern Nevada and southwestern Utah. 



Perehing Birds Marked WHh Chestnut or Reddish Brown. 

506. Orchard Oriole {IcUrus spurms) L. 7. 3. Ad. 
c?. Black: breast, belly, rump, and lesser wing<ov- 
erts chestnut. Ad. ?. Above olive-green, below 
jsreenish-yellow; two white wing-bars. Yng, MaU. 
First fall like 9; first spring like ?, but throat Wack. 
Notts, Song much richer and more finished than that 
of the orange and black Orioles; the difference is inde- 
scribable but easily recognizable. 

Range.— Eastern North America, west to the Plains; breeds ttoa 
Florida and Texas north to Massachusetts, Onurio. Michl|^aii. and 
North Dakota: wlntersln Central America and northern South / ~ 

592.1. Green-tailed Towhee {Oreaspi^a ehlorura), 
L. 7. Ads, Center and sides of breast grayish, 
middle of throat and abdomen white; above olive-greeo 
more or less washed with grayish; crown reddish 
chestnut. Notss. Call, a high, thin kitten-like mew; 
song, musical, suggesting that of the Thick-billed 

Range.— Mountahis of western United States, from more eiMtern 
Rockies to Coast Ranre In California; north to central Monuaa. 
Idaho, and eastern Washington; south, at least In winter. Into M^tx- 
Ico. (Ridgw.) 

643. Lucy Warbler {Hslmmthopbila lueia), L. 4.2. 
Ad. (^. Above gray; crown-patch and upper tail<ov- 
erts chocolate; below whitish. Ad. ?. Chocolate 
areas smaller. Yng. No Chocolate in crown; upper 
tailcoverts cinnamon. 

Range.— Northwestern Mexico; breeding north to Arisona and 
southwestern Uuh. 

660. Bay-breasted Warbler {Dendroica cAstamsa). 
L. 5.6. Ad. c?. Throat, sides and crown rich chest- 
nut; cheeks black; sides of neck buff; back black and 
gray; wing-bars and tail-spots white. Ad. ?. Less 
chestnut; cheeks grayish. Yng. and Ad. in H^inUr. 
Above olive-green streaked with black; below bi^j^ 
white, the flanks usually with a trace of chestnut 
Notes. Song, a very soft warble, tse-cbesj repeated five 
times, too liquid to admit of exact spelling. (Langille.) 

Range.— Eastern North America; breeds from northern New Eng- 
land and northern Michigan north to Labrador and Hudson Bay re- 
gion; winters in Central and northern South America. 



Perching Birds Marked With Cheetnut or Reddish Brown. 

596. BIsok-headed Grosbeak (Zanuhdta nutatuy 
esphala), L. 8.1. Ad, t^. Black; neck-ring, rump, 
back-streaks and underparts bright cinnamon; center 
of belly and under wing-coverts yellow; patch in wing, 
wing-bars and tips of inner vanes of outer tail-feathers 
white. In winter tipped with brown above and on 
breast below with black spots. Ad, 9* Under wing- 
coverts yellow as in cf ; above as in No. 505; below 
less streaked, breast buff. Yng, cf . Like $ but 
breast deeper buff; few streaks below: sides of crown 
blacker. l^oUs, Call and sons like those of the Rose- 
breasted Grosbeak, but the latter more fluent. 

RAnfi:e.— Western United Sutes. east to the Plains; breeds from 
Mexico north to Dakou and British Columbia; winters south of 
United States Into Mexico. 

761. American Robin {Mnula rmgraioria). L. 10; 
W. 4.9; T. 3.8. Outer tail-feathers with white tips. 
Ad, cf . Breast and belly rkh rust-brown; above dark 
slaty, head and spots in back black. Ad, $. Similar 
but paler below, little or no black above. H^inUr, 
Underparts margined with whitish; black above more 
or less concealedby ashy. NoUs. Calls, varied and 
characteristic song, a loud, hearty, cbttr-up cburiljf^ 
charily J cbarily, repeated and varied. 

Range.— Eastern North America, west to the Rockies, northwest to 
Alaska; breeding south to Virginia and, In the mounUins. Georgia; 
winters from northern States southward. 

761a. Western Robin (Af. Iff. ^o^Vfjfia). Similar 
to No. 761. but no white tips to tail-feathers. Ad, cf . 
Without black spots in back. 

Range.— Western United States, from the eastern base of the Rocky 
Mountains west to the Pacific: breeds from the southern end of the 
Me;(lcan tableland north to British Columbia; winters from Oregon 
«nd southern Cotorado southward. 

761b. Southern Robin {M,m, acbrustera). Simi- 
lar to No. 761, but smaller and in general much lighter 
and duller; W. 4.7' T. 3.5. (Batcnelder.) 

Range. — Carolinas and Georgia except mountainous districts, 
lowlands of Virginia. 

762. St. Lucas Robin {Merula conflnis) . Resemb- 
ling No. 761 in plan of coloration but everywhere 
much paler; breast and belly buff; no black in head. 

Range.— Cape Region of Lower California. 

763. Varied Thrush {Ixoreus navius). L. 10; W. 
4.7. Ad, (^, Below rust-brown, belly whiter, a 
broad black oreast-band; above slaty, line behind eye 
and bars in wing rusty; outer tail-feathers with white 
tips. In winter washed with brownish above; breast 
band with rusty. Ad, ? . Paler below, breast-band 
faintly indicated; above washed with brownish. 7^0/^5. 
Son^, a weird vibrant, long-drawn whistle repeated 
on different notes. 

Range.— Pacific coast from higher mounUins of northern California 
north to Alaska: south in winter along the coast. 

763a. Pale Varied Thrush (/. n, meruloidss). Sim- 
ilar to No. 763, but wing longer, 5.1; 9 paler and 
grayer. (Grinnell.) 

Range.~Interlor of British Columbia north to north Alaska; south 
i'^ winter, through Interior, to southern California. 

/ 207 


Perohing Birdg Chiefly Dull. Colored. 

456. Phoebe {Sayorms pbctbe), L. 7. Ads. 
Above grayish olive, crown blackisb; outer web of , 
outer tail-feather wbittsb; below white tinged with yel- 
low, sides of breast grayish; bill black. Yng. Green- 
er above, yellower below. Notes. Pewit-pbcsbe, pewd- 
pbcebe; call, pee, pee, rarely a flight song. 

Ranfre. — Eastern North America, west to the Rockies; breeds froa 
South Carolina and western Texas north to Newfoundland and Man- 
itoba; winters from North Carolina and northern Texas south to Cuba 
Aid Mexico. 

459. Olive-sided Flycatcher {Nuttalornis borealis). 
L. 7.4. ^ds. Throat and middle of belly white with a 
yellow tinge; sides and most of breast grayish; above 
brownish gray with an olive-tinge, crown darker, the 
feathers lengthened. Notes. Hip-bip or quilp-qudlp, 
less often a loud, emphatic wbip-phc-bip. (Head.) 

Ran ^.— North America; breeds from Massachusetts (rarely), 
northern New York, and Minnesota, northward to Alaska, south 
throujs:h the Rockies and Coast Range to Mexico; winters In Central 
and ^uth America. 

460. Coues Flycatcher (CotUopus pertinax palHdt' 
ventris). L. 7.7. Ads, Below nearly uniform gray, 
belly paler; above gray, crown slightly darker, the 
feathers lengthened. Notes, A plaintive musical four 
or five noted whistle with regular intervals and a 
singularly human-like quality. 

Range.- Western Mexico, north to central Arixona; winters sootii 
of United Sutes. 

461. Wood Pewee (Coniopus virens). L. 6.5; W. 
3.3. Ads. Above dark olive, crown blacker; below 
dusky grayish, throat whitish, belly yellowish; lower ^ 
manclible yellowish. Yng, Greener above, yellower 
below. Notes Pee-a-wee, peer and pu; all plaintive 
and musical. 

Range.— Eastern North America, west to about Long, xoo® ; L 

from Florida and Texas north to New Brunswick and manltoba; win- 
ters in Central America. 

462. Western Wood Pewee {Contopus ricbardsomt). 
Similar to No. 461, but above with usually no green- 
ish tinge; below less yellow; under mandible brownish. 
Notes. A nasal, rather emphatic ^(f-a. 

Range.— Western United States, east to about Long, zoo^ ; 
from western Texas and Lower California north to Manitoba. Alberta, 
and British Columbia; winters In Mexico and Central America. 

462a. Large-billed Wood Pewee (C. r.penmsulm). 
Similar to No. 462, but smaller, W. 3»3; the oiU larger, 
length from nostril .42, width at nostril, ,31; upper- 
parts grayer. (Brewster) 

Range.— Cape Region of Lower California. 



PQrohing Birds Chiefiy Dull Colored. 

466. Traill Flyoatoher (Empidonax traillii). Simi- 
lar to No. 466a, but uppefparts browner with little if 
any real greenish tinge; bill averaging narrower, 

Ran^.— Western United States; breeds from western Texas and 
southern Califomia north to Alaska and Great Slave Lake, east to 
ICansas, Missouri and Illinois; winters In the tropics. 

^ 466a. Alder Flycatcher (£. /. alnorum), L. 6.1; 
W. 2.8. Ads, Lower mandible horn color; below 
white, breast grayish; breast and sides faintly washea 
with yellow; above hrownish olive-green; wing-bars 
usually buffy. Like No. 467, but larger. l^oUs, 
Pip of alarm, and an explosive ii-^eS-e-tip with stress 
on the rasping ^^^. (Dwight.) 

Ran^e.— Eastern United States, west to Michigan; breeds from 
northern New Jersey (rarely) north to New Brunswick; winters In the 

467. Least Flycatcher (Empidonax minimus), L. 
5.4; W. 2.5. y4ds. Similar in color to No. 466a, but 
smaller, tail slightly forked. Yng. Wing-bars more 
buffy. NoUs, 3L vigorous chebec, cJubec; rarely a flight 
song, ^^chebec, tooral-ooral.*' 

Ranee. — Eastern North America, west to western Texas and east- 
em Colorado; breeds from Pennsylvania (North Carolina, In the Alle- 
(hanies) north to New Brunswick and Great Slave Lake; winters in 
Central America. 

468. Hammond Flycatcher {Empidonax bammondi), 
L. 5.5. Ads, Bill smallest of our Empidonaces, lower 
mandible broum\ throat and breast grayish, breast and 
belly slightly washed with sulphur; above grayish with 
a slight olive tint Like No. 467, but bill smaller, 
lower mandible browner, throat grayer. 

Range. -Western North America; breeds from the mountains of 
New Mexico. Arizona, and southern Athabasca, east to Colorado; 
winters In Mexico. 

469. Wright Flycatcher {Empidonax wrightit). 
Similar to No. 468, but underparts whiter; bill much 
longer, longest and narrowest of our Empidanaces\ 
lower mandible whitish at base, brownish at tip; outer 
web of outer tail-feather white. 

Range.— Western United States, east to eastern sk>pe ol Rockies; 
breeds from mountains of New Mexico, Arizona, and southern Cal- 
ifomia north to Montana and southern Oregon; winters In Mexico. 

469.1. Gray Flycatcher {Empidonax gristus), L. 
6. Ads, Above gray with a slight brownish tinge; 
below grayish white with little or no yellow. Grayest 
of our Empidonaces, 

Range.— Western Mexico and Lower California north to southern 
C^l^omla and Arizona, (Fort Verde.) 


46ft. f 

Perehing Birds Chiefly Dull Colored. 

463. Yellow-bellied Flycatcher {Empidonax flm- 
ventris), L. 5 6. Ads, Below distinctly greenish 
yellow, belly brighter; above bright olive-green. Yng. 
Brighter, wing-bars buffy. hJoUs, PsMk in one harsh 
explosive syllable; a plaintive ^Aii-^^-^ CDwight.) 

Range. Eastern North America, west to the Plains; breeds ffoa 
northern New England (south In Alleghanies to PennsvlvaoU*. 
northern NvW York, and MInni sota, north to Labrador and Northwest 
Territories; winters In Central America. 

464. Western Flycatcher {Empidonax difftcOis). 
v^imilar to No. 463, but brighter yellow below, breast 

washed with brownish instead of greenish; above 
yellower. Notes, A soft low note, and a wailing >*#-#». 
(C. A. Allen.) 

Ranre.— Western North America; east to about Long. xooO ; breeds 
from Mexican border north to southern Alaska; winters In Mexico and 
Central America. 

464. 1 . St. Lucas Flycatcher (Empidonax cmsritius). 
Most like No. 464, but much duller; scarcely a tinge of 
green above; no decided yellow below except on throat 
and abdomen . ( Brewster. ) 

Range. - Lower California, from Cape Region north, rarely, id 
southern California. 

464.2. Santa Barbara Flycatcher {Empidonax insul- 
icola). Similar to No. 464, but above darker and 
browner; below paler. (Oberholscr.) 

Range. — Santa Barbara Islands. California. 

465. Green-crested Flycatcher {Empidonax vtres- 
cms), L. 5.7. Ads. Throat and belly whit$, breast 
grayish: sides, breast and sometimes belly, washed 
with sulphur; baok olive-green, a tint lighter than in 
No. 463; lower mandible whitish; wing-bars buffy. 

Notes, Spee or peet and pee-e-yuk. 

Range.— bastem United States, west to the Plains; breeds from the 
Gulf States to southern Connecticut and Manitoba; winters In Ceotnl 

646. Orange-crowned Warbler {Helminthqphila c*- 
lata). L. 5. No white in wings or tail. Ad, (^. 
Above olive-green more or less washed with grayish; 
a concealed, reddish orange crown-patch; below dusky 
yellowish green. Ad. ?. Similar, but grayer, crown- 
paich smaller or wanting. Yng. Like 9, but no 
crown-patch. Notes, bong full and strong, not very 
high pitchtrd and ending abruptly on a rising scale, 
chee, chee^ chee, chw\ chw\ (Jones.) 

R nfre. Interior of North America, breeding from Manitoba and 
mountains of New Mexico to Alaska; winters in Gulf States and 
southward; rare in Atlantic states north of South Carolina. 

646a. Lutescent Warbler r//. <;. lutescens). Simi- 
lar to No. 646, but greener above, yellower below; un- 
derp.irts distinctly yellow with a dusky wash. 

Range. — Pacific coast, breeding in mountains from southern Cal- 
ifornia to Kenai Peninsula. Alaska; winters from California south 
Into Mexico: east to Colorado In migrations. 

646b. Dusky Warbler (//. c, sordida). Similar to 
No. 646a. but decidedly darker, bill and feet larger, 
wing shorter and tail longer. (Ridgw. ) 

Range.—Breeds In Santa Barbara Islands. California; later ocmis 
on adjoining mainland. ' 



Perching Birds Chiefly Dull Colored. 

472. Beardless Flycatcher {Ormtbion imberht), 
L. 4.5: W. 2.10. Ads. Bill small, narrow, upper 
mandiDle decidedly curved; above gray tinged* with 
olive, below grayish white with a yellow tinge. 

Range.— Ceotral America; north in spring to Lower Rio Grande' 

472a. Ridgvvay Flycatcher (O. i. ridgwayt)* Sim« 
liar to No. 472, but larger, W. 2.2; grayer, little if any 
sulphur tinge on underparts. (Ridgw.) Notes, Call, 
a shrill piir repeated; song, from the tree-tops, yoop, 
soop^yoopeideedltdee, (Stephens.) . 

Range.— Southern border of Mexican tableland north in spring to 
southern Arizona. 

6 1 6. Bank Swallow {Riparta riparia). L. 5.2. Ads. 
Below white, a broad grayish brown band across the 
breast; above grayish brown. Yng. Similar, but 
brown areas more or less tipped with rusty. 

Range.— Northern hemisphere: In America, breeds from northern 
New Jersey. Kansas, and southern California, north to ILabrador, and 
Alaslca: winters south to Brazil. 


617. Rough-winged Swallow {Stelgidopteryx serri- 
penms). L. 5.5. Ads. Above grayish brown; below 
grayish white, whiter on belly; barbs on outer vane of 
outer primary recurved. Yng. Plumage more or less 
tipped with rusty. 

Range.— United States; breeds from Mexico north to Massachusetts. 
Alanitoba, and British Columbia; winters In Central America. 


Perching Birds Chiefly Dull Colored. 

623. Black-whitkered Vireo (^yireo calidris barha- 
Mus), L, 6, Ads, A dusky streak on eithir sids ofHu 
throat, crown slate without a black border; back olive- 
green; below white, lower belly, under tail- and under 
wing-coverts yellowish; no wing-bars. Notss, Re- 
semble those of No, 624 but song more emphatic and 

R^^ri^e — Bree^fi^ In Cuba, Bahamas and southern Florida; winters 
InCantral AmeTti:.! 

624, R6d-eyed Vireo {yireo olivaceus). L. 6.2. 
Ads. Crown slate, on either side a narrow black 
border; a wfilte line over eye; above olive-green; bdow 

• white; under wing-coverts sulphur; no wing-bars; 
ino dusky streaks on throat Notes. Call^ a petulant, 
icomplaining v:hans\ song, a broken, ramblmg recitative 
*V^Li ^e^ it—you Know it — do you hear m^— do you 
believe it?" 

Patijj^.—EisifiTTi Unite J States, west to the Rockies and Brftish 
Columbia, cdsi of Oscades; breeds from the Gulf States to Labrador. 
Manitoba, and British Columbia; wlnteis In Central and South Aaicr- 

632, Hutton Vireo {yireo huttom) . L. 4.a Ads, 
Underparts dusky grayish white with a faint yellow 
tinge; above dusky olive-green; lores and eye-ring 
grayish, not conspicuous; two white wing-bars. NoUs, 
A piping whistle like the call of a ^oung ^bird, p^l^tr^ 

pet*-v/n and a hoarse whistle oh-tny, oh-my^ ohtny. 
R/in]?c.— CairfomSa, west of Sierra; resident. 

632a< Stephen Vireo (y. h. stepbensi). Similar to 
No. 622, but grayer above, whiter below, wing-bars 
broader*^— Mexican boundary from western Texas to soatbeastem 


632c. Anthony Vireo (K. h. ohscurus). Similar to 
No, 6j2, but darker, and averaging slightly smaller. 

Rjnije.— 'PacFtic coast, from Oregon to southern British Columbia; 
^ulh In winter w CallforTiia." (A. O. U.) 

647. Tennestee Warbler (Heltmnthophilaperegrma ) . 
L. 5. No wing- bars; little or no white in tail. Ad. cf. 
Head bluish gray; a whitish line over eye; back olive- 
green; below grayish white. Ad, ?. Gray of head 
with more or less olive-green; stripe over eye and un- 
derparts yellower. Yng. Similar to 9, but entirely 
bright olive-green above; yellower below. Not^. 
Song scarcely distinguishable from that of the Chip- 
ping Sparrow, but first two syllables /ttwjft instead of 
chH>. (Jones.) 

lOinge.— Eastern North America, west In migrations to the Rocky 
Mountains; breeds from New Brunswick, northern New Ensiand. 
northern New York, and Minnesota, north to Quebec and Alaska; 
winters in Central and northern South America. 

747. Kennicott Willow Warbler (PfylhpsMsMs 
horealis) . L. J. J^ds, Above olive-green; belo *r 
white tinged with yellowish, sides greenish; a whitish 
line over eye; a narrow whitish wing-bar; no white i a 
tail. Notes, Call, a monotonous d^\ song, resemble "s 
trill of Redpoll. (Seebohm.) 

Range.— Asia, east to western AUska. 


Perohing Birds Chiefly DuH Colored. 

M5. Y€>llow-jreen VIreo (Hr/o flavoviridis), L. 
6.4. Resembling No. 624, but greener above, the 
sides heavily washed with greenish yellow. 

Rante.— Noithern South America, north to the Lower Rio Grande. 

626. Philadelphia Vireo (yiuo philadelphicus), L. 
4.8. Ads. No distinct crown-cap; above olive-green; 
below yellowish; a whitish line over eye; no wing-bars. 
Notts, Resemble those of the Red-eyed Vireo but gen- 
erally higher pitched; also a very abrupt, double-syll- 
abled utterance with a rising inflection which comes in 
"With the song at irregular intervals. (Brewster.) 

Range. — Eastern North America: breeds from Maine, New Ham- 
shlre and Manitoba northward; winters in the tropics. 

627. Warbling Vireo (^ff/d^7t7M5). L. 5.4; W. 
2.8. j4ds. Above grayish olive-green, crown slightly 
grayer but without distinct cap as in No. 624; a whit- 
ish line over eye but no black line above it; below 
white, the sides washed with yellowish: no wine-bars. 
Notes, Call, resembles that of the Red-eyed vireo; 
song; a rich, firm, unbroken warble with an alto un- 

Ran^e.— Eastern United States, west to the Plains; breeds from 
Gulf States north to Hudson Bay region; winters In Mexico. 

e27a. Western Warbling Vireo (V, g, swainsont). 
Similar to No. 627, but averaging smaller, W. 2.6, the 
bill more slender; upperparts, particularly crown, 

Range. — Western United States, east to the Rockies; breeds from 
Mexico to BritlshColufflbia; winters In Mexico. 

631. yNhWe-eye^ M\reo {yireo novehoracensis), L. 

5; W. 2.4.; B. .4. Ads, Eye-ring and lores yellow; 
iris white; above olive-green more or less washed with 
grayish; below white, sides yellowish; two whitish 
wine-bars. Notes, Calls, varied, often harsh and 
scolding; song, an emphatic whistle who are you, eh? or 
nbat^s that you say?, and a low medley often including 
imitations of the notes of other birds. 

Range.— Eastern United States; breeds from Florida and Texas 
north to New Hampshire and Minnesota; winters from Florida to Cen- 
tral America. 

631a. Key West Vireo ( K. n, maynardt) , Similar 
to No. 631, but bill heavier, sides averaging less yel- 

Range.— Southern Florida; resident. 

621b. Bermuda White-eyed Vireo CK. n, bermud- 
ianus). Similar to No. 631, but wing shorter, 2.30; no 
yellow on sides. (Bangs and Bradlee.) 

Range. — Resident in Bermudas. 

631c. Small White-eyed Vireo (K. n, micrus). 
S^Mller than No. 631, W. 2.2; averaging grayer above; 
sf\ts with less yellow. 

r •^ange. — Northeastern Mexico, north to southeastern Texas. 


Perohing Birds Chiefly Diill Coiored.^ 

629. ilue-hMdadVlreo(K^tf0 5olfltorwf). L. $.5; 
W. 2.9; B. .d. j4ds. Lores and eye-ring white ;crowo 
and cheeks bluish slate-color; back olive-green; bdo«r 
white, sides washed with greenish yellow: two whitish 
winz-bars. NoUs. Resemblinz in form those of Red- 
eyed or Yellow-throated Vireos out more varied, some- 
times acontinuous warble; a musical chatter, like that of 
the Yellow-throated and a trilled whistle. (Torrey.) 

Rang*.— Eastern North Amerioa; breads from G>nnectkut (and 
south along Aileghanles) north to New Brunswick and Manftoba; 
winters from Florida to Cmtral America. 

629a. Oattin Vlreo (K s. cassim). Above wholly 
plumbeous-gray with scarcely, if any, olive tinge; 
below white, the sides gray /a£M//i^ tinged with green- 
ish yellow; size of No. 629c. 

Range.— "Breeds from British Columbia and Idaho south along F^- 
clfic coast region and Nevada to Lower California; migrates to Aria»- 
na. New Mexico, and northern Mexico." (Bailey.) 

629b. Plumbeous Vlreo (y. 5. plumbms). Like 
No. 629, but back washed with the color of the head; 
white on breast and throat less pure. 

Range.— Rocky Moun'ain region; breeds from northern Mezice 
north to southwestern Dakota and Wyoming; winters south to south- 
ern Mexico. 

6290. Mountain Solitary Vlreo (F. s. aliicoU). 
Larger than No. 629, W. 3.15, B. .46; head darker, its 
color extending over most of the back. 

Range.— Breeds in Alleghanles from North Carolina to Geofgia; 
winters In Florida. 

629d. St. Luoat Solitary Vlreo (K. 5. lucasatms). 
Smaller thaii No. 629a, but bill longer and stouter, 
sides and flanks much yellower; young without 
brownish below, and resembling young or No. ^9. 

Range.— Cape Region of Lower California. 

633. Bell Vfreo (yirgo b^llu). L. 5. Above olive- 
green j crown grayer; lores and eye-ring white; two in- 
conspicuous whitish wing-bars; below white, sides 
tinged with yellowish. Most like No. 627, but back 
greener, no white line hack of eye. Notes, Resemble 
those of the White-eyed Vireo, but less harsh, song 
less emphatic. • (Goss.) 

Range. Interior states from Illinois west to Plains; breeds fron 
Texas to Minnesota; winters In Mexico. 

633. 1. Least Vireo (.yireo pusillus), L. 4.8. j4ds. 
Above gray, slightly tinged witn greenish toward rump; 
belovv white, sides with little if any greenish tinge; 
one inconspicuous whitish wing-bar; lores and eye- 
ring inconspicuously grayish. 

Range.— Northwestern Mexico and northern Lower CalMorBla; 
breeds north to Arizona and middle California. 

634. Gray y\reo ^yireo viciftior), L. ^,f. Above 
slaty gray; below white tinged with grayish; one in- 
conspicuous wing- bar; lores and eye-ring gray; bill 
short. Notes, Song may be compared with the finest 
efforts of the Blue-headed Vireo with the added charm 
and mellowness of the song of the Yellow-thraited 
Vireo. (Henshaw.) 

Range.— Northern Mexico, north to western Texas, soath«astert 
Califoinia. and southern Nevada; winters in Mexico. 



Perching B rds Chidfly Dull Co I cred 

749. Ruby-orowned Kinglet {Rfi^ulus cal^nJmla^, 
L. 4.4. A conspicuous whi tish eyg-rmg. Ad* ^. A 
more or less concealed croWn-paiLtli| ""Back olive-green; 
undeiparts soiled whitish more or less tinged with 
buffy; two white wing-bars. Ad. ^ ^nd Yng, (Here 
figured.) Similar, but no crown-patch. 

Range. — North America; breeds from the nonhem 1»rdtr of the 
United States northward, and south in the Rcicky Mauntiilns IP Arizo- 
na, and in the Sierra Nevada of California; winters from south Ctto- 
Una and Oregon southward to Central Amertc;!. 

749a. Sitkan Kinglet (/?. c. grinmUi), SimUar to 
No. 749, but more olive-green above; more buffy below. 

Range. — Pacific coast; breeds in southern Alaska; winters south- 
ward to California. 

470a. BulT-breasted Fiycatcher iEmptdonax fuivi- 
frons pjfgnutus), L. 4.7. Ads. Below rusty buff; 
above grayish brown. 

Range. — Western Mexico; north in spKng to southwesiem Kew 
Mexico and Arizona. 

586. Texas Sparrow (Arr^manops rufivirgata), L. 
6.5. Ads, Above olive-green, sides of crown brown- 
ish, its center grayish; below wlutish; bend of wing 
yellow. Notes. Song resembles that of the Chipping 
Sparrow but with somewhat of the sweetness and 
modulation of that of the Yellow Warbler* 

Range.— Eastern Mexico, north to southeastern Texas; casually to 

638. Swainson Warbier {Hdinaiaswaimomi). L. ^. 
Bill large; no white in wings or tail. Ads, Crown 
brown, back, wings and tail olive-brown; a whitish 
line over eye; below whitish tinged with yellou-. 
Notes, Song, **a series of clear, ringing whistles, the 
first four uttered rather slowly and in the same key, 
the remaining five or six given more rapidly and in an 
evenly descending scale. " (Brewster . ) 

Range. — Southeastern United States^ breeds from Gulf Slates 
north to southeastern Virginia, southern tnd3^na and southern Mis- 

639. Worm-eating Warbler {Hilmiiheros vermi- 
vorus), L. 5.5. Bill large; no white in wings or tail 
Ads. Crown black with three buff stripes; back, 
wings and tail olive-green; below buffy white deeper on 
breast Yng, Buff everywhere richer, Noks. Call, 
a sharp chip; song, resembles that of Chipping Spar- 
row but is somewhat weaker. 

Range. — Eastern United Statts: breeds north to southern Connect- 
icut, southern Illinois and southern Wisconsin; winters south of 
United Sutes. 

742. Pallid Wren-tit {Cham.ra fasdata), L. 6.7; 
T. 3.4. Outer tail-feithers shortest. Ads, Above 
brownish gray; below buffy obscurely streaked with 
gray. Notes, Song wooden and unmusical, beginning 
deliberately and ending in a roll, chick: chick; chick, 
chick' chick'chick-chick'chick-chick, 

Rane^U7-''Interlor of California, Incluafug the western slope of the 
'" 4*1 from the head of the Sacramento VaJJey south 10 


3^' 'erCaUfornia." (A. O. U.) 


Perohing Birds Chiefly Dull Colored. 

742a. Ooa«t Wren-tit (C. /./>*»«). SimilartoNo. 
742, but much browner above and deeper more pink- 
below; sides as dark as back. 

Range.— Pacific Coast from Monterey County. California, 
southern Oregon. 

north t3 

707. Curve-billed Thrasher ( Toxostama curvirostri^. 
L. 1 1.2. Ads, Above brownish gray; below mottled 
with brownish gray; lower belly buffy; four outer pairs 
of tail-feathers tipped xHth white; two narrow white 
wing-bars. Notes, Call, a sharp, wbit-ztbit; one of the 
most silent of song Thrushes. (Merrill.) Song, re- 
markably melodious and attractive. (Couch.; 

Range. — ^Mexican boundary region of Texas and New Mexico south 
over the Mexico tableland to Oaxaca. 

707a. Palmer Thrasher {T, c palmeri). Similar to 
No. 707, but wing-bars less evident; outer tail-feathers 
without white tips. 

Range. — "Southern Arizona, from about fiftv miles northwest of 
Phcenlx, south to Guaymas. Sonora." (A. O. U.) 

708. Bendire Thrasher (Toxostoma bendiret). L. 
10.2. Ads, Above brownish ashy; below soiled 
whitish washed with buffy apd lightly spotted with 
dusky, chiefly on breast; outer tail-feathers narrowly 
tipped with whitish. Notes, Call, tirup^ tirup, tirap, 

Range.— Desert regions of southern Arizona south Into Sonora. 
Mexico: west rarely to southeastern California; resident except it 
extreme northern limit of its range. 

709. St. Lucas Thrasher (Toxostama dfureum). 
L. 10. Ads, Above gravish brown; below white with 
numerous wedge-shaped spots; outer tail-feathers 
tipped with white. 

Range.— Southern Lower California. 

709a. Mearns Thrasher (7. c. mearnst)* Differs 
from No. 709 in much darker upperparts, more rusty- 
flanks and crissum, much larger and more intensely 
black spots on lower parts and less curved bill. (An- 

Range. — Northern Lower California, south to about Lat. 30^ 


Perching Birds Chiefly Dull Colored. 

7 1 0. Califofrtiaii Thrathdr ( Toxostoma ridivwum), 
L. 12. j4ds. Above grayish brown; belly distinctlv 
buff; breast grayish, throat whitish, washed with buff; 
no white in wings or tail. NoUs, Song suggesting 
both that of the Brown Thrasher and the Mockingbird. 

Range.— California west of the Sierra Nevada, north to about Lat. 
35® ; south Into Lower California. 

7 1 Oa. Pasadena Thrasher ( T. r.basadgmnse). Sim- 
ilar to No. 710, but grayer above; belly paler, throat 

Range.— Southern California. 

711. Leoonte Thrasher (Toxostoma Ucontet). L. 
10.5. j4d5. Above brownish ashy, below creamy 
white, under tail-coverts buff. NoUs. Call, a sharply 
reiterated wbit or quit; son^, remarkable for its loud 
rich tone; can be heard distinctly for more than a nlile. 
(Meams.) Call, low and musical, hufe-e, whistled 
through the teeth. (Stephens.) 

* Range.— "Desert region of southern California. Nevada, and ex- 
tfeme southwestern Utah, from Benton. Cal. (Lat. 38 ^ J, southeast- 
ward through Arizona to Sonora (Lat. v>° ). Local In San Joaquin 
Valley." Ci-O.U.) 

71 la. Desert Thrasher (7. /. arftticola). Differ- 
ing from No. 711 in having upperparts darker and 
grayer, tail blacker, and breast gray. (Anthony.) 

• Range.— Northern Lower California. (Rosalia Bay.) 

712. Crissal Thrasher (Toxostoma crissalis). L. 
12. ^ds. Under tail-coverts reddish chestnut; upper- 
parts brownish gray; underparts ashy, chin white. 
M?/«. No loud call note; song of remarkable scope 
and sweetness. ( Mearns. ) 

Range.— "Southwestern United States, from western Texas to the 
Crlor^do Desert. California, and northern Lower California: north to 
f^ eston Mountains, Nevada, and St. George. Utah." (A. O. U.) 




Perching Birds Chiefly Brown or Streaked. 

538. Ohestnut-ooliared Longapur {Calcarius othm- 
tus). L. 6.2. Hind toe-nail as long as toe; all but* 
middle pair of tail-feathers (and sometimes these) with 
white, two outer pairs white to the tip, j4d. c?. Throat 
and cheeks buff; breast and belly black; crown black, 
nape chestnut: lesser wing-coverts black tipped with 
white. Ad. V. Above grayish browfl streaked wift 
black; below pale buff. 5* «'« vfinhr. Like summer cf 
but black and chestnut areas more or less tipped wiQi 
grayish brown. Notes. Song, short, shrill, but very 
sweet, often uttered on the wmg. CAllen.) 

Range. — Great Plains: breeds from central Kansas and eastern 
Colorado north to the Saskatchewan; winters from eastern Colorado 
and Nebraska south Into Mexico. 

539. MoOown Longspur (Rhyncbopkams mccowtm) . 
L. 6. Hind toe-nail as long as toe; all but middle pair 
of tail-feathers with white, the outer one white to M/ 
/i>, the others tipped with black; lesser wing-coverts 
chestnut. Ad. (f. Throat and belly white, breast and 
crown black: back grayish brown streaked with 
black. Ad. $. Below white washed with brownish; 
above grayish brown streaked with black, c? »« v^inter. 
Like ? but a partly concealed black breast patch; tail 
with more white. Notes, Call, a dlfip at each stroke 
of the wing; song, of soft, twittering, pleasing notes. 
(Goss.) A twittering, hurried chant, suggestive of 
the Horned Lark's performance, but terminating in de- 
creasing power." (Silloway.) 

Rang:e. — Great Plains; breeds from northwestern Kansas to Mon- 
tana and the Saskatchewan; winters from eastern Cok>rado and Kmh- 
sas south into Mexico. 

552. Lark Sparrow (Chotidestes grammacus). L, 
6.2; Ads, Sides of the crown and ear<o verts chest- 
nut; all but middle tail-feathers tipped with white; back 
broadly streaked with black; sides of throat and spot 
on breast black. Notes. Song, loud and musical sug- 
gesting both a Song Sparrow's and a Canary's. 

Range.— Interior of North America from the Plains east to Illinois: 
casually east of the Alleghanies; breeds from Texas to Manitoba; 
winters south into Mexico. 

552a. Western Lark Sparrow (C. g. strigatus). 
Similar to No. 552, but streaks on uppejparts- generally 

Range—Western United States from the Plains to Pacific; 
from Mexico to Manitoba and British Columbia; winters south te 
Central America. w^ 



Perohing Birds Chiefly Brown or Streaked. 


536. Lapland Longspur (Calcarius lapponicus), L. 
6.2 Hind toe-nail as long as or longer than toe; two 
outer tail-feathers with white at ths end. Ad. rj*, sum- 
mer. Nape chestnut: crown, cheeks, throat and upper- 
breast black; back black margined with rusty brown. 
Ad. ^f summer. Crown and back black margined 
with rusty ; nape brighter; below whitish; breast feath- 
ers dusky at base; sides streaked with blackish, ^m- 
ier, (^. Black areas and nape veiled with whitish or 
buffy tips; $ , like 9 in summer. 

Range.— Breeds In northern Europe and nortfieast North America 
south to northern Labrador; In America, winters south. Irregularly, to 
South Carolina, Kentucky, Kansas. Texas; west to Manitoba. 

536a. Alaskan Longspur (C. /. alascensis). Simi- 
lar to No. 536. but margins to back feathers much 
paler, brownish gray or Duffy; nape in winter more 
buffy. Notfs. Song, uttered on wing as bird with up- 
stretched wings floats downward, sweet, liquid, tink- 
ling, of same general character as that of Bobolink, 
but shorter, less powerful. ( Nelson. ) 

Range. — Breeds In Alaska, A eutlan and Pribllof Islands east to Fort 
Simpson; winters south to eastern Oregon, G>k>rado, and western 
Kansas. (RIdgw.) 

553. Harris Sparrow (Zonotrtchia querula). L. 
7.5. Ad. summer. Throat and crown black; nape 
chestnut, cheeks brownish: two white wing-bars. 
Ads, winter. Throat mottled with white, crown tipped 
with grayish. Notes, A Queer, chuckling note; song 
of pleasing, plaintive whistling notes in musical tone 
like those of No. 558, but delivered in a different song. 

Range.— Interior of North America; from Illinois west to the Dako- 
tas; in summer, the region west of Hudson Bav (exact breeding range 
unknown) ; south In winter to Texas (and Mexico?) ; accidental in 
British Columbia, Oregon and California. 

565. Black-chinned Sparrow {Spiulla atrogularis) . 
L. 5.7. Below slaty gray. Ad. ^. Throat and 
front of face black; rest of head and underparts slaty 
gray, the belly whitish; back reddish brown narrowly 
streaked with black. Ad. 9 , Throat with little or 
no black; crown washed with brownish. Yng. Simi- 
lar to Ad. ? , but never with black on throat; crown 
more heavily washed with brownish. Notes, Song 
said to resemble that of No. 563. (Bailey.) 

Range.- Mexico and southwestern United States: breeds from 
southern New Mexico and southern California southward; winters 
south Into Mexico and southern Lower California. 

—English Sparrow (Passer domesticus), L. 6.3. 
Ad.^. Throat and upper breast black; crown slate\ 
bana behind eye ana on nape chestnut. Ad. ?. 
Below dirty white; crown and rump dingy grayish 
brown; back streaked with black and rusty brown; a 
buffy stripe behind eye. Ynt. c?. Similar to Ad. 
but throat and head tipped with brownish gray. Notes. 
Harsh and discordant. 

Range. -Introduced into America from Europe hi 1851 and later 
dates; now distributed throughout the greater part of the United 


parching Birds Chiefly Brown or Streaked. 

537. Smith Longtpur (Calcarius pictus) , L. 6.6. 
Hind toe-nail as lone as toe; two outer tail-feathers 
mostly white. Ad. ^. Throat, breast and belly buff; 
nape buff; crown and cheeks black; ear-coverts and 
line over eye white; lesser wing-coverts black margined 
with white. j4d. ? . , Above brownish black mar- 
gined with buff and rusty brown; below pale buff, 
sides of breast and flanks streaked with brown. (^ in 
vDtnter, Like 9 but lesser wing-coverts black and 
white. Notes. Call constantly chirrup as they fly. 

Range.— Middle western United States: breeds fn northern Britisli 
America; winters south over the plains and prairies to Texas; east «• 


579. Rufous-wlnaed Sparrow (Aimophila cartalis). 
L. 5.7. Outer tail-feathers shortest Ads, Lesser 
wing-coverts bright reddish brown; crown reddish 
brown or chestnut margined with gray; back streaked 
with black and margined with jgrajnsb brown; below 
whitish; txco black streaks from either side of the base 
of the lower mandible. NoUs, Call, pb, pb, pb. 

Range. — Southern Arizona, north to Tucson and Camp Lowell ami 
south through Sonora to northern Sinaloa. (Ridgw.) 

5 80. Rufous-crowned Sparrow {AimophiU ruficsps) . 
L. a; T. 2.6. No yellow at bend of wing; outer tail- 
feathers shortest. ..^<i$. Above reddish brown marg- 
ined with buffy gray (no black streaks); below, in- 
cluding middle of belly, brownish; sides of throat with 
black lines. Notes, Song, very sweet, resembling 
that of Lazuli Bunting, but distinguishable. (C. A. 

Range.— Northern Lower CaIIforfll4 north to Marin Ownty an4 
Sacramento Valley, California; local.' 

580a. Scott Sparrow {A, r, scottu). Similar to No. 
580, but above brighter reddish brown, the margins to 
the feathers grayer, the underparts much paler, the 
breast grayish, the throat and middle of the belly 

Range.— Northwestern portion of Mexican plateau and adjacent 
portions of Arizona. New Mexico and western Texas (El Paso Co.) 

580b. Rook Sparrow {A. r. eremaca), L. 6. 
Ads, Crown reddish chestnut, back olive-brown 
margined with gray. Similar to No. 580a, but back of 
a different color from crown, the grayish margins 

Range.— Limestone Hill districts of middle Texas, from Kinney and 
Maverick counties on the Rio Grande, nonheastward to Cook County 
and westward at least to Tom Green County; south in winter to Mex- 
ico. (Rldgw.) 

580c. Laguna Sparrow (A. r. sororia). Similar 
to No. 580a, but bill somewhat stouter, reddish brown 
above averaging brighter and wider. 

Range. — Southern Lower California. 



540. Vesper Sparrow (TocmUs graminmsi, L, 
6.1. Outer tail-feather mostly white; hind toe-nail 
not longer than toe; Usssr wing-coverts rediiish brown* 
Ads. Above grayish brown streaked with black and 
chestnut; below whitish, breast and sides streaked with 
black and chestnut. Notts, Call, chip. Song, loud 
and musical Look'look, su-s4iytM-ni^m/-tm~nt^mi-smg^ 
followed by a confusion of notes. 

Rang*. Eastern North America; breeds from Vlrgf^nlit, MHnois an<] 
Missouri north to New Brunswick and Manitoba; winters fmoi Vir- 
ginia and southern Illinois to theGulf of Mexico. 

540a. Western Vesper Sparrow {f\ g, amfimis). 
Similar to No. 540, but paler, less black above; bill 
somewhat more slender. 

Range.— Western United States from the Plains to the Sltrm: 
breeds from Arizona and New Mexico north to the S as bite he wan jina 
British Columbia; winters south into Mexico. 

540b- Oregon Vesper Sparrow {P. g, ^Jfims). 
Similar to No. 540a, but smaller, W. ?; bill still more 
slender; plumage browner, more buffyj browner even 
than No. 540, the underparts, including belly, suffused 
with buff. 

Range. -Pacific coast; breeds In western Orcc^in (arJ north?}; 
winters southwest of the Sierra to San Diego, OlJ fornix. 

575. Pine-woods Sparrow (P^tt^a irstn\ilh), L. 
5.8; T. 2.5. Bend of the wing yelion- duX^t tiil- 
feathers much shorter than the middle pair* Ads, 
Above reddish chestnut, head and streaked with 
black and margined with gray; below whitish, breast 
faintlytinged with buff. Nous. Song, exceedingly sweet 
and plaintive. 

Range.— Floi Ida and southern Georgia; winters In souEliert] FToriaa, 

575a. Bachman Sparrow {T. ce, b^/mumi), Sim- 
ilar to No. 575, but abov^ brighter reddish chestnut, 
black streaks fewer and usually confined to back; 
breast and sides deeper buff. 

Range.— Lower Mississippi Valley, west to smtlierr ImltanJ* Attd 
southern Iliinois. east to Geor^a. South CaroMni, t^^ortti Camllnj, 
and Virginia (rarely); west to Concho County, Texas, winters som^ in 
Atlantic Sutes. to southern Florida. 

576. Botteri Sparrow {Peucofa boti^i). L, 6^ T, 
2.8. Bend of wing yellow; outer tail-feathers shortest. 
Ads, Above bright rusty brown (about the color of a 
Field Sparrow), head and back streak t*d with black 
and marpned with gray; below buffy, the center of the 
belly whitish. Notes, Song, begins with a faint trill 
followed by a succession of disjointed syllables, chj, 
cheeweiy wee, wee, wee, toir. (Henshaw*) 

Rangt*- Entire plateau of Mexico north to Low«r Rio Gmnda Val- 
ley in Texas and southern Arizona. (Ridgw.) 

578. Cassin Sparrow (T'^ova cassttif). L. 6; T, 
2.8. Bend of wing yellow; outer tail-feathers shortest, 
their ends with distinct grayish patches. Ads. Above 

fray streaked with dull recidish brown and spaUz-d or 
arred with black; below grayish white. NoUs. Sung, 
lengthened and pleasinz, usually sung on wing, 

Range.—Texas and southern Kansas west to southern \ev«dA ^nd 
Arizona south, into Mexico. 

Perching Birds Chiefly Brown or Streaked-^ 



>■ n MiCD 


perching Birds Chiefly Brown or Streaked. 

559. Tree Sparrow 

{Shigella monticola), L. 6.). 
A black spot in the center or the breast Ads, Cap 
reddish brown, no black on head; two white wing-bars; 
back streaked black, reddish brown and buff; below 
whitish; upper mandible black, lower yellowish. 
Notes. Call, a musical, tinkling, too-lay-it^ song, '"a 
loud, clear and powerful chant.'* 

Ranife.— Eastern North America, west to the Plains; breeds In 
Labrador and regrlon west of Hudson Bay; winters south to Soatb 
Cilrolina. Tennessee and Indian Territory. 

559a. Western Tree Sparrow (5. m. ochracsa). 
Similar to No. 559, but back with much less reddish 
bro\Vn, largely brownish buff streaked with black. 

Ranc^e.— Western North America east to the Plains; breeds In 
Alaskit: winters south to Mexican border. 

5C|0. Ohippina Sparrow (5/>fY^//a 5o^/f5). L. 5.3. 
Ads. Crown reddish chestnut, forehead blackish; a 
black line from eye to nape; back streaked with black, 
f/^f Sib ^rotwf ancl grayish brown; wing-bars not con- 
spfcuous: below grayish white; bill largely black. Yng. 
Crown like back; cheeks brownish. Notes. Call, 
chtp\ song, an unmusical chippy^ chippy^ chippy, repeated. 

F<anj^.— bastern North America, west to the Plains; breeds from 
Gulf States to Newfoundland and Great Slave Lake; winters In the 
Gulf States and Mexico. 

560a. Western Chipping Sparrow (5. 5. ari^omf). 
Similar to No. 560, but much grayer above; back with 
little or no reddish brown. 

Range. — Western North America; breeds from Mexican border 
states to Alaska; winters from California and Mexican border states 
to southern Mexico. 

563. Field Sparrow (5/>i':f<f//a/w5f7/a). L. 5.6; T. 
2.5. Bill entirely pinkish brown. Ads. Crown red- 
dish brown, a gray line over the eye, a reddish brown 
stripe from behind it to nape; back reddish brown 
streaked with black; below whitish, no streaks, breast 
washed with buffy; two white wing-bars. Notes. Call, 
chip', song, a musical whistle, chcr-wei^ cher-^e^her^cei^ 
cbei-o, dee-e-e'e-e', with many variations but usually end- 
ing in a trill. 

Range. — Eastern North America; breeds from South Carolina. 
Alabama and central Texas north to Quebec and Manitoba; winters 
from Virginia and Illinois to Gulf States. 

563a. Western Field Sparrow (5. p. arenacsa). 
Similar to No. 563, but much paler above; crown large- 
ly grayish; back with but little reddish brown, breast 
with little or no buff; tail longer, 2.7. 

Range — Great Plains of interior; breeds from Nebraska and South 
Dakota to eastern Montana; winters south to northeastern Mexico: 
casually to Louisiana. (Ridgw.) 

584. Swamp Sparrow {Melospi^a georgiana). L. 
5.8. Ads. Forehead black with a gray median line; 
crown bright chestnut; below grayish white: sides 
brownish, nape gray; back grayish, black, and buff. 
Yftg, Crown streaked chestnut and black; gray line 
over the eye sometimes tinged with yellow; oSier parts 
deeper in color. Notes. Call, a sharp cheep; song, a 
simple tweet-tweet-tweet, etc., all on one note. 

Range. — Eastern North America, west to the Plains: breeds from 
New Jersey. Pennsylvania, and northern Illinois, north to Labrador 
and Manitoba; winters from Kansas, southern Illinois, and Massa- 
chusetts to Gulf States. 



Perching Birds Chiefly Brown or Streaked. 

542. Sandwich Sparrovn {Passrrculussattdwicbensis), 
L. 5.7; W. 2.9 A yellow line from the bill passing 
ovtr the eye; bend of wing usually tinged with yellow. 
Ads. Above streaked with black, chestnut and brown- 
ish gray; below white, (buffy in fall and winter), 
breast and sides streaked with black, the streaks nar- 
rowly margined with chestnut. Notes. Doubtless re- 
semble those of No. 542a. 

Range.— Northwest coast; breeds In western Alaska; winters south 
to northern Callfomla. 

542a. Savanna Sparrow (P. s. savantM). Similar 
to No. 542, but smaller, W. 2.7; yellow line over eye 
shorter and less pronounced; bill smaller. NoUs. Call 
a sharp tsip, frequently uttered; song, a weak, musical 
little trill following a grasshopperlike introduction, 
isijb, tsip, tsip, si-e-e-s^r-r-r. (Dwight.) 

Range. — Eastern North America, west to the Plains; breeds from 
northern New Jersey (rarely), eastern Long Island, and Missouri 
north to Labrador and western Hudson Bay; winters from Virginia 
and southern Illinois to Cuba and Mexico. 

542b. Western Savanna Sparrow (P. 5. alaudinus). 
Similar to No. 542a, but bill more slender, color aver- 
aging paler, the yellow line not passing aver the eye, 
less evident before it and often wholly wanting. 

Range.— Western North America from the Plains west to the Si- 
erra; breeds from Mexico City north to Alaska; winters from south- 
ern California southward. 

542c. Bryant Marsh Sparrow {P. s. hryanti). 
Similar to No. 542b, but smaller, W. 2.6; colors much 
darker, streaks below heavier; yellow over eye more 
pronounced. A darker bird even than No. 542a, but 
with the bill slender as in No. 542b. 

Range.— Resident in salt marshes about San Francisco and Mont- 
erey Bay: winters south to San Pedro .Grinnell); casually to Mexico 
City. CRidgw.) 

543. Belding Sparrow {Passerculus beldingi^. L. 5; 
W. 2.5. Ads. Similar to No. 542c, but somewhat 
smaller, above darker and with a slight olive caste; un- 
dcrparts more heavily streaked. 

Range.— Pacific Coast; salt marshes from Todos Santos Island, 
Lower California, north to Santa Barbara. 

544. Large-bilied Sparrow (Passerculus rostratus). 
L. 5.5; W. 2.6. Bill stout, upper mandible curved-, no 
yellow before eye or on bend ot wing. Ads, Above 
grayish brown marked with brown and blackish but 
witkout well-defined streaks; below white, breast and 
sides streaked with grayish brown, the streaked 
feathers centrally blackish. 

Range. — Coast of southern California north to Santa Barbara; win- 
ters south to Cape St. Lucas and northwestern Mexico. 

544a. St. Lucas Sparrow (P. r. guttatus). Simi- 
lar to No. 544» but smaller, W. 2.5; bill more slender; 
uppeiparts brownish gray with an olive tint and streak- 
ed with darken similar to No. 544c, but smaller, upper- 
parts more olive and more widely, but less sharply 

Range.— Cape Region of Lower California in winter breeding 
range unknown. 


542 A 


Perohing Birds Chiefly Brown or Streaked. 



544b. Lagoon Sparrow {P. r. balopkUus). Simiia 
to No. 544a, but larger. W. 2.7, and darker; streaks of 
chest with little if any brown edging; differing from No 
54), in more uniform coloration of upperparts, in lesa 
narrow and decidedly blackish streal^ on chest, etc 

Ran^e.— -Salt marshes, Abreojos Point. Lower California. 

5440. San Benito Sparrow (P. r, sanctorum). Sin^ 
ilar to No. 544, but bill more slender; above g:rayei 
(brownish gray) distinctly streaked with blackish, th^ 
streaks margined with brown; below streaked witli 
blackf the streaks narrowly margined with brownish. 

R.tnge. Breeds on San Benito Island, Lower California; In winta 
to Cape Resion of Lower C&lifomla. 

545. Baird Sparrow (Co/f#nfM3f/fi5^afy^'). L. 5.7. 
Tail-feathers pointed, middle ones shortest, j4ds. 
Crown yellowish brown, streaked with black; hack 
black margined with cnestnut and grayish; below 
whitish, breast and sides streaked with black. In 
fall and winter, colors richer. Notes. Song, ^^trick-f 
trik-eeeee-cbiky'le-roit^ with a peculiar tinkling utter- 

Rang^e.— Great Plains; breeds from western Minnesota. North 
Dakota, eastern Montana, north to Manitoba and Asslnlbola; winters 
south to Texas, Arizona and New Mexico. (RIdgw.) 

546. Grasshopper Sparrow {Coturniculus savaftna- 
rumpasserinus), L. 5.3. Line before eye orange; bend of 
wing yellow; tail-feathers pointed. Ads, Crown black 
with a buffy central stripe; nape chestnut and gray; 
back black, chestnut buff and gray; below buffy, un- 
streaked, belly whiter. Notes, Call, a sharp cb^-, 
song, a weak, insect-like ^'/-/Mdi, ^ee-e-e-e-e'e'e, 

Ran^.— Eastern North America, west to the Plains; breeds fron 
the Gulf States to Massachusetts. Vermont, and Minnesota: winters 
from North Carolina to Cuba and Mexico. 

546a. Western Grasshopper Sparrow (C. s. hi- 

maculatus). Similar to No. 546, but paler below and 
with less black and more chestnut above. 

Range.— Western United States from the Plains to the Pacific; 
breeds from Mexican border states north to Montana and British Col- 
umbia; winters south into Mexko. 

546b. Florida Grasshopper Sparrow (C. s, florid' 
amis). Similar to No. 546, but smaller, W. 3; darker 
above, paler below; sides of crown almost solid 
black; chestnut above largely replaced by black. 

Range. — Kissimmee Prairies. Florida. 

547. Henslow Sparrow (Ammodramus henslowu), 
L. 5. Bend of wing yellow; tail-feathers pointed, the 
outer ones much the shortest. Ads, Crown and 
nape pale olive-green streaked with blackish; back 
bright reddish brown streaked with black and gray; 
below white; breast and sides washed with buff and 
streaked with black. Notes, Call, te4'wick\ song, sis- 
r rrit-srii-srit, (Jouy.) 

Range.— Eastern North America; breeds locally, from Virginia and 
Missouri, north to New Hampshire, southern Ontario and Minnesota; 
winters from Virginia and Missouri south to the Gulf of Mexico. 

547a. Western Henslow Sparrow {A, h, acddenia- 
lis). Similar to No. 547* but paler, in summer little or 
no buff below. 

Range.— Central western states; breeding, so far as known Jn Sootb 
Dalcota: In winter south to Texas. 


5l2^ Parohing Birds 

aksi' 548. Leconte Sparrow (Ammodramus lecantet), 
m.Nt. 5. Noyellusvon wing; tail-feathers pointed, outer 
ieines much the shortest Ads. Broad fine over eye. 
U d^iroat. breast and sides rich buff; nape chestnut and 
fcray; back black narrowly margined with chestnut and, 

*yt the sides, broadly with buff; sides streaked; breast 
^•Tarely with a few streaks. NoUs, Call, a thin, sharp, 
? ^^W, and a long-drawn hi{{; song, a tiny, husky, 

*V^/5/, reisi. (Seton.) 

S^- Range.— Great Plains and more western prairies; breeding from 

ra4>akota, Minnesota, etc., to Manitoba, migrating south and east. In 

winter, through Illinois, Iowa. Kansas, etc., to South Carolina and 

; • Gulf States from Florida to Texas." (Ridgw.) 

j. 533. ?\ntJr\no\%{Spinuspmus). L. 5. Bill sharp- 
vjo ly pointed; a tuft of brislly feathers ovtr the nostril; 
' V tail slightly forked. Ads, Base of tail, of inner wir.g- 
;• feathers and outer edges of primaries yellow; above 
i^ brownish; below whitish streaked with black. Notes, 
f.'. Call, a metallic note; song, tinkling and musical often 
sung on the wing as with No. 529, the song of which 
yt it resembles. 

■i' Range. — North America: breeds from northern boundary states to 
' Alaska; In the Alleghanles south to North Carolina; and In the Rock- 
rj- les anJ Sierra south to Mexico; winters from the northern states to 
Gulf states and Loiter California. 

54 1. Ipswich Sparrow (Passerculus princfps) . L. 

6.2. Ads, Above pah brownish ^ray streaked with 

. brown; below white, breast and sides streaked with 

Wownish; spot above eye and bend of wing often pale 

ulphur yellow. Notes. Resemble those of No. 542a. 

Range. — Breeds on Sable Island, Nova Scotia, winters south along 
coast, regularly to Virginia, rarely to Georgia. 

549. Sharp-tailed Sparrow (Ammodramus caudacu- 
lus), L. 5.8. Tail-feathers sharply pointed, outer 
ones shortest Ads, Below white, breast and sides 
washed with buff and distinctly streaked with black; 
nape olive-green; cheeks orange-buff; ear<overts gray; 
crown olive-chocolate with a blue-gray central line; 
back olive, buff^ black and jgray. Notes. Call, chip; 
song, an unmusical, sh^rt, husky," * 'gasping* 'effort, 
uttered from a perch or on fluttering wings above the 

Range.— Atlantic coast: breeds from South Carolina to New Hamp* 
shire; winters from North Cirollna to Florida. 

549.1. Nelson Sparrow (Ammodramus nelsont). 
L. 5.5. Tail-feathers pointed, outer ones shortest. 
Ads. Similar to No. 549, but breast and sides much 
deeper buff, the former with few or no streaks; upper- 
parts more richly colored. Notes, Resemble those of 
No. 549- 

Range. — Breeds in Interior from northern Illinois to Manitoba and 
South Dakota: migrates east to New York and winters south to South 
Carolina and Texas; accidenul In California. 

549.1a. Acadian Sharp-tailed Sparrow {A. n. sub- 

virgatus). Similar to No. 549.1, but breast and sides 
pater, the former lightly but di^^tinctly streaked with 
grayish; upperparts less richly colored. 

Range.— Atlantic coast; breeds in marshes of eastern Maine, 
soutfiem New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island; winters south to 
South Carolina. 


Chiefly Brown or Streaked. 



Perching Birds Chiefly Brown or Streaked. 

550. Seaside Sparrow (Ammodramus maritimms\. 
L. 6: W. 2.5. Tail-feathers pointed, Die outer oner 
shortest: spot before eye and bend of wing yello« 
j4d5. Above olive-green and gray (no black) ; bdo- 
white, breast and sides grayish and, in first pluma^t 
streaked with buff. Notes, Similar in character i: 
those of No. 549. 

Ran g|«.— Atlantic coast: breeds In salt marshes from North Cavo^ 
to southern Massachusetts; winters from Virginia to Georgia. 

550a. Scott Seaside Sparrow (j4, m. pminsuUr 
Similar to No. 550, but smaller, W. 2.3; above black 
margined by olive-brown and olive-green; below whit- 
ish, breast and sides heavily streaked with blackish. 

Range.— Atlantic coast from northeastern Florida to South Caro- 
lina: Gulf Coast of Florida. 

550b. Texas Seaside Sparrow (A. nu semutti . 

Similar to No. 550, but greener above; the feathers 0! 
head and back usually, those of nape always, with 
black centres. 

Range. — Coast of Texas. 

550c. Fisher Seaside Sparrow (A. m. fisbertX 

Similar to No. 550a, but darker above, the breai>t an*: 
sides heavily washed with rusty buff and streaked 
with black. 

Range— Coast of Louisiana, south In winter, at least as far 15 
Corpus Chrlsti. Texas: casual on Gulf coast of Florida. 

550d. Macgiliivray Seaside Sparrow (A, m. mj.- 

gillroraii). Similar to No. 550c, but above gray«r. 
less black, breast and flanks but faintly washc: 
with buff and streaked wilh dusky grayish. Gra>tr 
above thah No. 550a, and less heavily streaked below. 

Range.— Local on coast of South Carolina. 

55 1. Dusky Seaside Sparrow (Ammodranms tdgra- 
cms), L, 5.9. Above black lightly margined wilh 
gray; below white heavily streaked with black; spot 
before eye and bend of yellow. NoUs. Similar in 
character to tiiose of No. 550. 

Range. — Marshes at head of Indian River. Florida, from Banana 
River to Hauiuver Canal. 

583. Lincoln Sparrow {Melospi^alincolms). L. 5.7. 
Ads, A broad buff band across the breast; center of 
crown with a gray stripe, its siJes striped chestnut and 
black; back grayish brown streaked with black and 
chestnut, below streaked with black except on middle 
of white belly. Notes, Call, a sharp chirp; song, 
suggests bubbling, guttural notes of House Wren com- 
bined with rippling music of the Purple Finch. 
(Dwight. ) (See, also, Brewster, Bird-Lore II, P. 1 1 1. ) 

Range.- North America: breeds from northern New York, «iorthem 
Illinois and higher parts of Roclcies and Sierra north to AKiska: 
winters from southern Illinois and southern California Into Mexico: 
rare east of Alleghanies. 

583a. Forbush Sparrow (Af. /. striata). Similar 
to No. 583, but browner above, crown-stripe and line 
over eye more brown than gray. 

Range.— Pacific coast from British Columbia to CallfomUi: breed- 
ing range unknown. 



Perching Birds Chiefly Brown or Streaked. 

554. White-crowned Sparrow (Zonoirichia leu- 
copbrys), L. 6.9. No yellow before eye. Ads, 
White stripe over eye not reaching to bill; lores black; 
breast gray, throat but little paler; back ffoy streaked 
with brown, rump browner, Yn^. Black crown- 
siripes replaced by chestnut, the white ones by buff; 
back much browner, no gray. Notes, Call, a sharp 
cb^; song, a plaintive, musical whistle usually of five 
or six notes, the first two longest. 

Range.— North America; 'breeds from northern New England and 
On the higher Rockies and Sierra) New Mexico. Arizona, and Cal- 
Ifomia north to Labrador and Hudson Bay region; winters from 
southern United Sutes Into Mexico. 

554a. Intermediate Sparrow (Z. /. gambelt). Sim- 
ilar to No. 544, but the lores wholly gray or whitish, 
the white line over the eye reaching the bill. 

Range. — Western North America; breeds from Montana and eastern 
Oregon northeast of Coast Mountains, to lower Maclcenzie and north- 
em Aiasica; winters from southern United States Into Mexico; casual 
In migrations east to Mississippi River States. 

554b. Nuttaii Sparrow (Z. /. nuttalli). Similar to 
No. 554a, but smaller, L. 6.5, margins to feathers of 
back browner, underparts browner, bend of wing 

Range.— "Pacific coast district, breeding from Monterey. Califom- 
ta. to Ml Simpson. British Columbia, south in winter to San Pedro 

Martir Mountains, Lower California." (Rldgw.) 

557. Golden-crowned Sparrow (Zonoirichia coron- 
ata). L. 7-2. Ad. J*. Center of crown yellow, its 
sides black; below grayish white, sides brownish; 
back brown streaked with black; two white wing-b^; 
bend of wing yellow. Ad, ?. Crown like back v its 
front tinged with yellow; breast washed with brownish. 

Range.— Pacific coast; breeds in Alaslca; winters from Oregon 
south to northern Lower California. 

558. White-throated Sparrow ^Zonoirichia attncol- 
lis). L. 6.7. A yellow mark beforethe eye and on 
bend of wing. Ads, Crown black, a narrow white 
stripe through its center and bounded by white bthind 
the eye; throat white sharply defined from gray breast; 
back reddish brown streaked with black. Yn^, Less 
yellow before eye, crown browner, its stripe gray; 
throat grayer, sometimes like breast. Noies. Call,, a 
low iuep, and sharp chink\ song, a musical, clearly 
whistled sottMoheat peverly, peverly, peverly; or peabody, 
peabody, peabody. 

Range.- Eastern North America, west to the Plains, casually to the 
Pacific; breeds from Massachusetu (locally) . northern New York, 
northern Michigan, and eastern Montana, north to Labrador and West 
Hudson Bay rcgfon; winters from Massachusetts (rarely) and Illinois 
south to the Gulf. 


Perching Birds Chiefly Brown or Strealced. 

561. Clay-oolored Sparrow {Spi^ella pallida). 
L. 5.4. No reddish brown. Ads, Above grayish 
hr<m>n streaked with black; sides of crown largdj 
black, a grayish line through its center, sides of head 
brownish', below white. Notes, Song, three notes, 
and a slight trill. (Coues.) 

Range.— Interior of North America, from Hlinols to th« Rockies, 
breeds from e;istern Colorado, and northwestern Illinois north to Sas- 
katchewan; winters from southern Texas into Mexico. 

562. Brewer Sparrow (5/«>^//a *r«pm). L. 5.4. 
No reddish brown. Ads, BacK and crown brownish 
gray, uniformly and narrowly streaked with black 
sides of head grayish; below white. Grayer than No. 
561, the sides of the head m?/ largely black. Ncrf/s. 
Call, chip\ song, a reedy warble resembling in tone 
that of a Long-billed Marsh Wren. 

Ran g^e.— Western United States, from the Roclcies to central Cal- 
ifornia; breeds from Mexican border States north to British Coluai- 
bla; winters from southern California south into Mexico. 

574. Bell Sparrow (Amphispira belli), L. 6. i ; W. 
2.7. Ads. Siaes of throat with black streaks; center 
of breast with black spots; above grayish brovm, usual- 
ly without distinct streaks, no white in tail. 

Range.— Pacific coast, from northern Lower California northwest of 
Sierras, to Warren county, California; resident. 

574a. Sage Sparrow (A. h, nevadensis). Similar 
to No. 574, but larger, W. 4.2; back brownish gray, 
usually finely but distinctly streaked with black; less 
black at sides of throat, usually a white stripe ovrr the 
eye. Notes. Call, a chipping^ twitter; song, feeble, 
but sweet and sad. (B. B. & R.) 

Range.— Great Basin region; breeds from New Mexico, Arizona, 
and southeastern Cailfomia north to Idaho and eastern Oregon; win- 
ters south to western Texas and southern California. 

574b. Gray Sage Sparrow {A. b, dnerea). Simi- 
lar to No. 574» but paler above, throat-stripes narrower, 
more Interrupted, breast-spot smaller, both stripes and 
spot dull grayish instead of blackish. (Ridgw.) 

Range.— Lower California. 

564. Worthen Sparrow (Spi^lla wortbens). Re- 
sembles No. 563a, but sides of nead plain • gray, no 
brownish streak behind eye; tail shorter, 2.9. 

Range.— Southern New Mexico (Silver Qty) , southward over east- 
ern l>order of Mexican plateau to southern Puebla; breeding ffron 
Tamaullpas northward. (Ridgw.) 


Perching Birds Chiefly Brown or Streaked. 

581. Song Sparrow {Melospi^a cimrea melodia) . L. 
6-2. Ads, Above reddish brown and gray with black 
streaks; tail with a decided rufous tinge; black streaks 
below conspicuously margined with reddish brcwn, 
those of center of breast forming a patch. Notes, 
Oall, a characteristic cbimp or trink; song, too variable 
in form to admit of brief description but unmistakable 
in tone throughout the whole group. 

Ranee.- Eastern North America west to the Plains; breeds from 
Virginia and northern Illinois north to Quebec and Manitoba; winters 
from southern Illinois and Massachusetts to Gulf States. 

581b. Mountain Song Sparrow (Af. c, montana). 
Similar to No. 581, but grayer; reddish brown not so 
bright: bill smaller. 

Rang^e.— Rocky Mountain district of United States west to. and In- 
cluding Sierra Nevada in California; north to eastern Oregon, south- 
em Idaho, and southern Montana; south in winter to western Texas 
and northern Mexico. (Ridgw.) 

58 1 k. Merrill Song Sparrow {M. c merrillt). Sim- 
ilar to No. 58ib« but slightly darker and more uniform 
above, with grayish edgings to interscapulars and 
scapulars less strongly contrasted with the darker 
mesial streaks, the latter usually with more brown 
than black. (Ridgw.) 

Rang^e— Breeds from northern California (Shasu County) in 
mountains and through Oregon and Washington east of Cascade 
orthwi ... ....... 

Mountains, to 

hwestem Idaho; winters south into Mexico. 

Dakota Song Sparrow (M. cfuddt). Simi- 

C Ridgw.} 

lar to No. 581, but above paler, especially line over 
eye and sides of neck; white below clearer: interscap- 
ulars with black center broader, reddish brown por- 
tions narrower: dark markings on breast restricted and 
more sharply defined. (Bishop.) 

Range.— "Turtle Mountains and vicinity. North Dakota." (A. O. 

581a. Desert Song Sparrow (Melospi^a dnerea 
fallax), W. 2.5. Above reddish brown and gray; 
below white with reddish broum streaks; usual^ no 
black in plumage. 

Range.— Lower Sonoran district of southwest Arizona, southern Ne- 
vada, southeast California and northwest Lower California and Son- 
ora. (Ridgw.) 

58 1 g. Brown Song Sparrow (M, c rivularis). Sim- 
ilar to No. 581a, but larger, W. 2.7, with longer, more 
slender and more compressed bill; still less strongly 
contrasted markings, and duller, less rufescent colors. 

Range.— Mountain districts of southern Lower California. (Ridgw. ) 

58 1 0. Heermann Song Sparrow (Melospi^a dnerea 
heermannt), L. 6.5; W. 2.5. Ads, Above chestnut 
olive-gray with usually distinct black streaks; tail 
xnthout a decided rufous tinge; black streaks below not 
conspicuously bordered by rufous. 

Range. — Central valleys of California Including lower levels of 
Sacramento and San Joaquin basins. (Ridgw.) 


Perching Birds Chiefly Brown or Streaked. 

581m. San Diego Sparrow (M. c, cooperi). Simi- 
lar to Ncr. 581C, but slightly smaller, W. 2.4, much 
lighter and grayer. 

Rang^c.— Southern coast district of California north to Monterey 
Bay, east to Ft. Tejon. San Bernardino, etc., and north Pacific coasz 
district of Lower California south to San Quentin Bay. (RIdg-w.) 

58 Id. Samuels Song Sparrow {M. c sanmeUs). 

Similar to No. 581c, but smaller, W. 2.4, bill more 

Rang^e — Coast slope of central California (except salt marshes of 
San Francisco Bay), from Santa Cruz County to Humboldt Couoty. 
north, at least In winter, to Humbolt Bay. (RIdgw.) 

581 I. Alameda Song Sparrow (Af. c, pusaiuia). 
Similar to No. 581a, but smaller, W. 2.3, less rusty, 
underparts more heavily streaked, usually more or less 
suffused with yellowish, 

Ranf?e.— Salt marshes of San Francisco Bay. California. (Rid^v.) 

5821. San Clemente Song Sparrow (Af. c, clr- 
mentce). Similar to No. 581m, but larger and grayer. 

Range.— San Clemente. Snn Mleuel. and Santa Rosa Islands. 
Santa Barbara Group, California; Coronados Islands. Lower Cali- 
fornia. (Ridgw.) 

58 1 h. Santa Barbara Song Sparrow (M. c, gram- 

ima). Similar to No. 581!, but much smaller, W. 2,4. 

Rang:e.— Santa Barbara Islands, California mainland in Ddnter. 

58 I e. Rusty Song Sparroynt {M.c. morphna), W. 
2.7. j4ds. Above without clear gray and not distinct- 
ly streaked; prevailing color dark reddish brown; be- 
low heavily streaked with same. 

Rang^e. Northwest coast region, Oregon to British Colombia: 
south In winter to southern California. 

58 If. Sooty Song Sparrow (Af. <;. rufina). Simi- 
lar to No. 58ie, but larger, W. 2.9, more sooty above 
and below, underparts more heavily streaked, 

Range.— Pacific coast region from British Columbia north to south- 
em Alaska. 

58 In. Yukutat Song Sparrow (Af. c, caursna). 
Similar to No. 58if, bill longer and more slender, color 

Range. — Coast of Mt. St. Ellas district of Alaska, from Yakutat 
Bay to Lituya Bay. 

58 1 o. Kenal Song Sparrow {M, c h^nai^nsis). 
Similar to No. 582, but smaller, W. 3, plumage darker, 
more sooty, less rufous. 

Range. Coast of Kenai Peninsula. Alaska, from east side of Cook 
Inlet to Prince William Sound. (Ridgw.) 

581.1. Kadiak Island Song Sparrow {M. c, iusignis) . 
Similar to No 5810, but larger, W. 3.2, bill longer, 
color grayer. 

Range.— Kadiak Island and opposite coast of Alaska. (Ridgw.) 

582. Aleutian Song Sparrow {Melospiza cirurea). 
Similar to No. 581. i, but larger and grayer; largest and 
grayest bird of group; L. 8: W. 3.4. 1 

Range. -"Western portion of Alaska Peninsula CStepovak Bay. I 
opposite Shumagin Islands). Shumagin Islands, and Aleutian Islands, 
from Unalaska to Atka. Adak. and Attu. " (Ridgw.) 


Perching Birds Chiefly Brown or Streaked.. 

585. Fox Sparrow (Passerella iliaca). L. 7.2. 
Back streaked, gray and reddish brown; tail and spots 
below bright reddish brown. Notes, Call, a weak 
tse€p\ song, loud, sweet, varied, ringing and joyous. 

Hange.— Eastern North America; breeds from Magdalen Islands and' 
Alanltoba. northwest to Alaska; winters from Virginia to the Gulf 

585a. Shum^gin Fox Sparrow (P. 1. unalaschm^ 
s^). Back not distinctly streaked, much paler than 
No. 585; spots below grayish brown; palest of prest:nt 

Range.— Alaska. Shumagin Islands, and Alaskan Peninsula to Cook 

— Kadiak Fox Sparrow (P. i, insularis). Similar. 
to No. 585a, but browner above and below; tail nearly: / 
same as back; breast spots larger. ""^J 

Range. — 'Kadlaklsland. Alaska, In summer; In winter south along^''^^ 
tlie coast slope to southern California." (Ridgw.) >^ 

— Sooty Fox Sparrow (P. i, fuHginosa), A^, 
Above, including wings and tail, uniform brownish 
umber, utistreaked; below heavily spotted with i»am^. 

Range —Coast of British Columbia and northwest Washingiork 
souih in winicr to San Francisco. CallfornU. (Ridgw.) \ 

—Townsend Fox Sparrow {P, u townsnidi). Sim- 
ilar to fuligsnosa but more rufous. 

Range. Southern Alaska north to Cross Sound; south In winter to 
northem California. (Rldgw.> 

— Yakutat Fox Sparrow {P. i. annectens). Similar 
to toxtnsendi but less rufous; very near fuliginosa, but 
not quite so deeply colored. 

Range.— Coast of Alaska, from . Cross Sound to Prince William 
Souud (to Cook Inlet?); In winter, soiith to California. ^Rldgw.) 

585b. Thiok-billed Sparrow (P, i. megarhyncba) , 
L. 7-3i W. 3'3; depth of B. at base, .4. ^ds. Above 
and spots below gray\ wings and tail light brown; 
bill large, Notes. Song, resembles that of No. 585, 
but is recognizably different. 

Range.— Breeding In the Sierra Nevada (both slopes) from Mt. 
Shasta southward; In winter beyond Sierras as far as Los Angeles 
County. California, (Ridgw.) 

5850. Slate-oolored Sparrow {P, i. schistacea). 
Similar to No. s85b, but smaller, bill smaller; W. 3.2; 
depth of B. at base, .35. 

Range.— Rocky Mountain district of United States and British Co- 
lumbia; breeds from more eastern ranges of Colorado west to White 
Mountains In southeastern Colorado, mountains of northeastern CZa I - 
Ifomla and eastern Oregon; north to Interior of British Columbia: In 
migrations. New Mexico, Arizona, western slopes of Sierra Nevada, 
western Kansas. (Ridgw.) 

585d. Stephens Sparrow {P, i. stephetist). Similar 
in coloration to No. 585b, but larger, the bill conspicu- 
ously so; W. 3.4; depth of B. at base .6. (Ridgw.) 

Range.— Breeding on San Bernardino and San Jacinto Mountains; 
southern California. (Ridgw.) 


PiM^ohing Birds Cliiefly Brown or' Streaked. 


674. Oven-bird (Saurus durocapUlus) . L. 6.1. 
j4d5. No Wing-bars; no white in tail; above brownish 
olive-green; crown orange-brown bordered by blade 
below white streaked with black. NoUs, Call, a 
weak chup\ song, a crescendo Uachsr repeated about 
five times; also a wild, ecstatic flight song. 

Rang«.— bastern North America, west (o the Rockies; breeds fftw 
Virginia and Kansas north to Labrador and northwest to Alaska: wIb- 
ters from Rorlda south to West Indies and Central America, (^sid to 
^ breed In Bahamas.) 

V 675. Water-Thrush (Seiurus noveboracMsts), L, 
\ 6; W. 3. A whitish line over eye; above olive; below 

pale sulphur jfdlow heavily streaked with blackish: 

hroai spotted', no wing-bars or tail-patches. NoUs. 

Opil, a sharp chink\ song, a high-pitched, liquid 
L whistle, sweet, sioeet, sweet, cbU'chu^^Me chu, (Jones. ) 

Also a flight song. 

^ Range.— Eastern North America; breeds from northern N«w Eng- 
land and nosthenr Illinois, north to Newfoundland and Hudsmi Bay. 
and south along llie Alleghanies to West Virginia; winters from Fkv- 
Ida to northern South America. 

$75a. Qrinnell Water-Thrush (5. «. noUMbitis). 
Similar to No. 675, but larger, W. 3.1; upperparts 
darker, less olive: underparts less yellow. 

Range.— Western North America; breeds from Minnesota, ipasieiu 
Nebraska, and probably more northern Roc Icy Mountain district or 
United States, north to Alaska; winters from southern United 
States southward; In migration east to Mississippi valley, imraly to 
Atlantic States from New Jersey southward. 

676. Louisiana Water-Thrush {Semrus motacOU), 
L. 6.2. Ads. A white line over eye: above grayish 
olive; below buffy white; breast and sides streaked; uc 
spots on throat; no wing-bars or tail-patches. Mi^. 
Call, a sharp, metallic chink\ song, a sudden outburst 
of loud wild, ringing notes; also a flight song. 

Range.— Eastern United States; breeds from Gulf Statas to 
G>nnectlcut. lower Hudson Valley, and Minnesota; winters In trapicSi 

697. American Pipit: Titlark CAntkuspmsavamutis), 
L. 6.4. Hind toe-nail much the longest. Ads, Outer 
tail-feather largely white; next one only tipped witfi 
white; upperparts grayish brown indistinctly streaked; 
underparts rich buff, breast and sides streaked with 
blackish. Yn^, and Ads. in IVinier, Less gray above, 
paler below. Notes, Call a soft dee-dee usually utter- 
ed in flight; a flight song. 

Range.— North America breeding In Arctic regions and In the high- 
er parts of the Rockies from Colorado northward (also on Ml 
Shasta?); winters from southern California, Nevada and Gulf States 
south throueh Mexico to Central America. 

700. Sprague Pipit {Antbus spra^ud). U 6.2. 
Hind toe-nail much lengthened; two outer tail-feathers 
largely white. Ads, Above streaked with buff and 
blackish brown; below white tinged with buff; breast 
streaked. In winter, similar, but less brown above, 
less buff below. Notes, Song, uttered on the wing 
when several hundred feet above the earth, sweet and 
far reaching, resembling at beginning song of Skylark. 

Range.— 'interior plains of North America, breeding from plains of 
the Yellowstone northward to Saskatchewan district and from the R«d 
River westward (probably to the Rocky Mountains): south In winter 
on the tablelands of Mexico to Puebia; accidental In South Carolina. 


Perohkig Birds Ciiiefly Qrown or Streaked. 

702. Sage Thrasher (Oroscoptes montanus), L. 
S.7. Ads, Above brownish gray; below whitish 
heavily streaked with blackish; outer tail-feathers 
/f>/>#J with white. Notes, Call, a low chuck; song, 
deficient in power but possessing sweetness, vivacity 
and variety; resembling song of Ruby-crowned King- 
let. (Rideway.) 

Range. ~ Western United States from western South DakoLi. west- 
•m Nebraska and eastern Colorado, north to Montana, west to the 
Cascades and Sierra Nevada, south into northern Mexico and Lower 
California. (A. O. U.) 

705. Brown Thrasher ( Toxo5/(7ma rf0«m) . L. 11.5: 
W. 4.i;B. .95. Ads, Above, wings and tail rufous 
or rusty brown; below white heavily streaked with 
blackish; two white wing-bars. Notes. Calls, a sharp 
kissing note and a clearly whistled wheew, song, loud, 
musical, varied, finished and rich in tone. 

Range. — Eastern North America; breeds from the Gulf States nortl^ 
to Maine and Manitoba; winters from Virginia and the lower Mississ- 
ippi Valley southward. 

706. Sennett Thrasher {Toxostoma longt'rosire sen-\ 
netii), L. 11.5; W. 4; B. i.i. Ads. Similar to No. \ 
705, but wing shorter, bill longer, upperparts less \ 
bright, streaks below blacker. Notes, Resemble those \ 
of ^Io. 705, but song even finer. 

Rang^e.— Southeastern Texas from Corpus Christ! south Into north- j 
eastern Mexico. / 

713? Texan Cactus Wren (Heleodytes brumietca- 
pillus cottesi) , L. 8.5. Largest of our Wrens. , Ads,! 
Above brown, head darker, back streaked with white; I 
below, including cbin, heavily marked with black. \ 
Notes. A loud, harsh cack-cack-cack-cack. 

Range.— "Rio urande region of Texas .ind adjoining: Mexican 
states, west to the eastern Desert Tract, south over the Mexican 
tableland." (Meams.) 

713a. Bryant Cactus Wren {H. b. brj'anti). Dif- 
fers from No. 713b, in heavier spotting below, and in 
perfectly barred tail and slight wash ot rufous on belly 
and flanks. (Anthony.) 

Range. — "Northern Lower California and southern California, west 
of the Coast Range. ' ' ( Mearns. ) 

7 1 3b. St. Lucas Cactus Wren (//. b, affinis). Re- 
sembling No. 713c, but all the tail-feathers, except 
middle pair, barred with white for their whole length; 
flanks white or very pale buff, with large rounded or 
tear-shaped spots. ( Ridgw. ) 

Range. —Southern Lower California. 

7l3c? Desert Cactus Wren (//. b, anthonyi). Sim- 
ilar to No. 713, but paler above; chin without spots. 

Range.— Interior deserts of the southwestern United States, south 
into Mexico and northeastern Lower California. (Mearns.) 

755. Wood Thrush {Hylocichla mustelitia). L. 
8.2. Ads, Above bright cinnamon, brightest on head\ 
below white with largc^ rounded black spots. Notes, 
Calls, a sharp /)«/-/«■/, a liquid quirt ^ and a soft tut tut- 
tut\ song, both flute-like and bell-like; sung with fre- 
quent pauses and low notes. 

Range. — Eastern United States; breeds from Virj^inia and Kansas 
to Vermont, Quebec, and Minnesota; winters In Central America. 


Perching Birds Chiefly Brown or Strealced. 

715. Rook Wren {SalfmuUs obsoUtus). L. 5.7. 
^ds. Rump rusty; tail tipped and outer feathers 
barred with pale rusty; above grayish brown lightly 
speckled with blackish; below, including belly, whiti^; 
breast obscurely streaked with brownish. NoUs, 
Calls, Wren-like; song, sweet, varied and Mockingbird- 

Rang^e.— "Western United States, from the western border of the 
Plains to the Pacific, north to Dakota, Montana, and British CoIubi- 
bla; south on the tablelands of Mexico and Guatemala to Salvador: 
breeds throughout its range, and Is resident from about the southern 
border of the United States southward." (A. O. U.) 

716. Guadalupe Rook Wren {Salpinctes guadelou- 
pensis). Resembling No. 715, but darker and browner, 
with chest, etc., more distinctly speckled; wings and 
tail shorter; bill and tarsi longer; W. 2.6; T. 2.2. 

Range.— Guadalupe Island, Lower California. 

717. White-throated Wren (Catberpfs tmxscamus 
albifrons), L. 6; W. 2.7. Ads, Belly , rump, and all 
tail-feathers rusty; tail barred with black; throat white; 
back rusty brown. 

Range.— Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas and southward in» 
northeastern Mexico. 

717a. Canon Wren (C m, cotispersus). Similar to 
No. 717, but smaller, W. 2.9; tail-bars narrower. 
Notes, Call, a "ringing difik\^^ song, a series of about 
seven, loud, ringing whistles uttered in a regularly de- 
scending scale. 

Range.— "Great Basin and Rocky Mountain region, from the Si«m 
Nevada and Cascades eastward to southern Idaho. Wyoming. Color- 
ado and western Texas: south on the tableland of Mexico to Aguas 
Callentes: breeds nearlv throughout its range; resident in soutBem 
parts of Its United States distribution." (A. O. U.) 

717b. Dotted Canon Wren (C. m. pundulatus). 

Similar to No. 717a, but darker; more nearJy resemb- 
ling No. 717 in colors, but smaller in size. 

Range.— Pacific coast from Lower California north to Oregon; resi- 

7 1 8. Carolina Wren ( Tbrvotborus ludovictatms). 
L . 5 . 5 ; W . 2. J ; B . .6. Ads, Above bright rust-brown ; 
below washed with same, throat and line over eye 
white. Notes, Calls, Wren-like; song, a great variety 
of loud, musical whistles, wbee-udel, vbu-udel^ vhes-udei 
or tea-kettle, tea-kettle, tea-kettle, etc. 

Range — Eastern United Stites; breeds from the Gulf States norlfi 
tothelowerHudson Valley (and casually Massachusetts), nonbcni 
Illinois, and southern Iowa; resident. 

718a. Florida Wren (T. /. ffffaift/ffsts). Similar to 
No. 718, but darker above, more deeply colored below; 
larger, W. 2.4; B. .7. 

Range.— Florida, from Pasco and Brevard counties southward. 

718b. LomitaWren {T , I, lomitensis) , Similar to 
No. 718, but browner, less rufous above, rump with 
more white spots; below paler, the flanks usually 

Range.- Southeastern Texas. 


Perching Birds Clfiefly'Brown or Streaked. 

719. Bewick Wren {Tbryoniatus hewickii), L. $; 
W. 2.2; T. 2.1. Ads, Above rich, dark cinnamon- 
brown, tail grayer, below grayish white; all but middle 
pair of tail-feathers" WiJkr>fr, outer ones barred, others 
tipped with grayish. Notes, Call, "a soft, low, ^/«/;" 
song, strongly suggesting that of Song Sparrow. 

Range.— Mississippi Valley west to the Plains, north to Lat 40^. 
east to Alleghanles and locally to Atlantic States from southern New 




7 1 9a. Vigors Wren ( T. b, spilurus). Similar to No. 
710, but smaller, W. 2; upperparts less cinnamon or 

Range. — Califomia. west of Sierra Nevada and south to Santa 
Cruz Island. (Bailey.) 

719b. Baird Wren ( 7*. ^. leucogaster) , Similar to 
No. 719c, but upperparts grayer. 

Range.— "Western Texas to southeastern California, and from 
southern Nevada. Utah, and Colorado south over ubielands of Mex- 
ico to Zacatecas." (Bailey.) 

7 1 9c. Texas Bewick Wren ( T, h, crvptus) . Simi- 
lar to No. 719, but graxer, brown of upperparts not so 
rich; slightly larger, W. 2.3. 

Range.— "Texas, except the extreme western comer, sutesof Nuevo 
L«on and Tamaulipas. In Mexico, with probably Kansas. Indian Ter- 
ritory and Oklahoma; migratory north of Texas." (Oberholser.) 

7 I9d. Southwest Bewick Wren (T. b, cbarienturus). 
Similar to No. 710b but flanks and upper surface dark- 
er, eye-stripe rather broader, under tail<overts more 
heavily barred, wing shorter, 2. (Oberholser.) 

Range.— Coast region of southern Califomia. north to about Pasa- 
dena, south to Lat. «8^ , Lower California, Sanu Catalina Island; 
resident. (Oberholser.) 

729e. Northwest Bewick Wren (T. b, calophonus). 
Similar to No. 719a, but bill larger, upper surface 
usually rather deeper and richer brown, flanks some- 
what more rufescent; W. 2.1; B..6. (Oberholser.) 

Range. — Pacific slope from Oregon north to southern Vancouver 
Island, valley of the Fraser River, and slightly farther along the 
mainland coast; probably resident. (Oberholser.) 

7 1 9. 1 . San Ciemente Wren ( Thryomatus leucophrvs) 
Similar to No. 7i9d, but flanks and upperparts rather 
grayer and paler, bill longer, under tail<overts less 
heavily barred. (Oberholser.) 

Ransre.— San Ciemente Island, California. 

720. Guadalupe Wren (Tbryoniatus brevicaudus) . 
L. 4.5; W. 1.9. Ads. Resembling No. 719a, but 
rump with few or no concealed white spots; tail dull 
grayish brown, narrowly and indistinctly barred with 
dusky, two or three outer feathers with brownish gray 
tips, (Rkigw.) 

Range. — Guadalupe Island. Lower Califomia. 


Percbing Blrda Chiefly Brown. or Streaked. 

721. House Wren {Troglodytfs aedon), L. 4.7; T. 
1.7. j4di. Above cinnamon brown, sometimes ob- 
scurely barred; tail the same, all the feathers barred; 
below grayish with a brownish wash, lower belly and 
flanks usually more or less barred. Notes, Call, a 
scolding krrritig\ song, a bubbling, rippling, irrepress- 
ible little melody. 

Rang:e.— Eastern North America; breeds north to Maine. Montreal, 
and Manitoba; winters from South Carolina and the Lower Missis- 
sippi Valley southward into Mexico. 

721a. Parkman Wren (T, a, parkmanu). Similar 
to No. 721, but less cinnamon above; intermediate in 
color betwe^ No. 721 and No. 721b, 

Range. — Pacific coast; breeds from southern California norui to 
British Columbia: winters from southern California southward. 

721b. Western House Wren (7*. a, a^tecus). Sim- 
ilar to No. 721, but much grayer above and paler be- 
low; back more frequently oarred. 

Range.— Western United States from the Sierra Nevada east to the 
Mississippi Valley; winters south Into Lower California and Mexico. 

722. Winter Wren {Olbiorchilus hiemalis), L. 4; 
T. 1.2. Ads, Above cinnamon, much brighter than 
in No. 721; below pale cinnamon, sides and belly 
heavily barred with blackish. Notes, Call, chimf- 
chimp, resembling call of Song Sparrow; song, tink- 
ling, rippling, full of trills, runs and grace notes. 

Range. — Eastern North America; breeds from northern New Eng^ 
Lind and northern New Yori< northward, and M)uthward along the Al- 
leghanies to North Carolina; winters from Massachusetts and Illinois 

722a. Western Winter Wren (O. A. padficus) 
Similar to No. 722, but much deeper colored both 
above and below, and more heavily barred. 

Range.— Breeds on the Pacific coast from southern California north 
to Alaska; east to Idaho; winters south into Mexico. 

722b. Kadiak Winter Wren (O. h, hellers). Slight- 
ly larger and paler than No. 722a. (Osgood.) 

Range. — Kadial< Island, Alaska, 

723. Alaskan Wren (^Olbiorchilus alascmsis). Re- 
sembling No. 722a, but paler and larger, W. 2.1, B. .6 

Range— Breeds on Kadi.ik Island. Alaska; winter range unknown. 

723.1. Aleutian Wren (^Olbiorchilus nuligerus). Sim- 
ilar to No. 723, but darker, less reddish; rump and up- 
per tail-coverts more evidently barred; bars on belly 
heavier. ( Oberholser. ) 

Range.— "Westernmost part of the Aleutian group. Alaska." (Ober- 

724. Short-billed Marsh Wren (^Cistotborus stel- 
laris), L. 4; T. 1.4; B. .4. Ads, Crown and back 
streaked with whitish: breast-band, sides and under 
tail-coverts rusty; wing-coverts tipped with whitish. 
Notes, Call, like sound produced by striking two 
pebbles together; song, cbap — cbap -cbap-cbap, cbap-cbap- 
cbap p'p-rrr. ( Seton . ) ( See next page. ) 

Range.- E« stern North America, ranging west to Utah; breeds 
from the (iulf States north to Massachusetts and Manitoba; winters 
from the Gulf Sutes southward. 


Pdrohing Birds Chfefly Brown or Streaked. 

725. Long^illed Marsh Wren (TelmatodyUs palus- 
iris). L. 5.2; T. 1.6; B. .5. Ads, Crown and fore- 
back largely black, the latter with white streaks; a 
white stripe over eye; rump cinnamon; below white, 
sides washed with cinnamon; outer tail-feathers black, 
broadly barred with pale cinnamon. Notes. Call, 
scolding, a characteristic Wren-like cocking', song, a 
reedy, guttural, bubbling trill often sung in flight. 

Rang^e.— Eastern North America wett to the Rocky MountalDs; 
breeds from the Gulf States north to Massachusetts and Manitoba; 
winters locaUy from Massachusetts, south into Mexico. 

725a. Tule Wren (7. p. paludicola). Similar to 
No. 725, but upper tail-coverts barred, middle tail- 
feathers more distinctly and broadly barred; underparts 
usually browner. 

Range. - Pacific coast : breeds from southern California to British 
Columbia: winters from Washington to Guatemala. 

725b. Worth ington Marsh Wren (7*. />. griseus). 
Similar to No. 725, but with less black above; upperparts, 
sides and flanks pale ^^rayish; dark markings of under 
tail-coverts, flanks, sides and breast, faint, confused 
and inconspicuous, sometimes practically wanting. 

Ranee. -Coast of South Carolina'and Georgia. 

725o. Interior Tule Wren (T. p. pUsius), Similar 
to No. 725a, but paler. 

Ranee. — "Western United States, except the Pacific coast; north to 
British Columbia and Alberta, east to the Kocky Mountains and Tex- 
as, south into Mexico." tOberholser.) 

725.1. Marian Marsh Wren ( Telmatodytes mariana) . 
Similar to No. 725, but upperparts darker; sides and 
flanks of about same color as rump; under tail-coverts 
and sometimes breast barred or spotted with black. 

Range.-<julf coast of Florida. 

726. Brown Creeper ( Certhia fimtliaris americatia ) . 
L. 5*6; B. .63. Tail-feathers stiffened and pointed. 
y4ds. Rump rusty, a buffy white band in the wing; 
back and crown sireaked with whitish, black and 
rusty; below white. Notes. Call, a faint, high, thin 
tseep\ song, **an exquisitely pure, tender song of four 
notes." (Brewster ) 

Range.— Esstern North America; breeds from Maine and Minnesota 
(casually Missouri) norittward: winters from about the southern 
breeding limlU to the Gulf Sutes. 

726a. Mexican Creeper (C./. aMifs^^if5). Similar 
to No. 726, but rump rich rusty brown, back black, 
crown War* streaked with white, band in wing white. 

Range.— Mexican plateau region north to southern Arizona. / 

726b. Roclcy Mountain Creeper (C. /. montana), j 
Similar to No. 726, but bill longer, .7; band in wing 
averaging whiter. 

Range.— Rocky Mountains from New Mexico and Arizona north- 
ward to Alaska. 

726o. Californian Creeper (C. /. occidentalis) , 
Similar to No. 726, but much rustier; prevailing color 
of upperparts yellowish rusty. 

Rangie.— Pacific coast; breeds from Santa Cruz Mountains, Cat* 
Ifomla. northward to Alaska. 


P^rohing Birds Chiefly Brown or Strealced 

726d. Sierra Creeper (C. /. isloUs). Similar to 
No. 726c, but colors more dusky and less rufescent; 
similar to No. 726b, but much darker; light centers of 
feathers on head and back much reduced. (Osgood.) 

Range.— "Southern Cascade Mountains of Oregon and Sierra 
Nevada of California." (Osgood.) 

756. Wilton Thrush; Veery {Hylodcbla fuscssc^ns). 
L. 7.^. Ads, Above, wings and tail, uniform cinna- 
mon brown; below white, sides grayish, breast and 
throat buff rather faintly marked with triangular spots 
the color of the back. Notes. Call, a clearly whistled 
nhehyou and a softer ioo'tobes; song, a weird, spiral of 
bknded alto and soprano tones largely on one note. 

Range.— Eastern North America; breeds from northern New Jersev. 
the mountains of Pennsylvania, and northern Illinois north to New- 
foundland and Manitoba; winters in Central America. 

756a. Willow Thrush //./. salicicola). Similar to 
No. 756, but more olive above. 

Range.— Rockv Mountains north to British Columbia, east to 
Dalcota; In migration, casually to Illinois and South Carolina: winters 
as far south as southern Brazil. 

759. Alaskan Hermit Thrush (Hylocichla guttata), 
L. 6.5. W. 3.5; tail rufous, much brighter than back. 
Ads, Eye*ring whitish, not deep Duff; back olive- 
brown; breast tinged with buff and heavily spotted 
with large, wedge-shaped marks. 

Range.— Breeds In northwest coast region from British Colunbb 
to Alaska; In winter south to Mexico. 

g, auduhom). 

759a. Audubon Hermit Thrush (H. 

Similar to No. 759, but larger. W. 4; back" grayer, tail 
paler, flanks less heavily washed with gray. 

Range. — Rocky Mountain regton of United States south to Guat 

759b. Hermit Thrush (//. g, pallasit). Similar to 
No. 759, but back and sides browner. Notes, Call, a 
low cbuck\ song, highly musical and probably exceed- 
ing in spiritualquaTity that of any of our birds. 

Range.- Eastern North America; breeds from Mlchlnin, Alleghan- 
les In Pennsylvania, Catskllls, higher mountains of Massachusetts 
(rarelyat sea level), north to Labrador; winters from New Jersey to 
Gulf Sutes. 

759o. Dwarf Hermit Thrush {H. g, nana). Simi- 
lar to No. 759, but smaller, W. 3.2, back slightly 

Range. — Pacific coast; breeds from Washington south throufrh 
Sierra Nevadas; east, In migrations, to Nevada and Arliona; south to 
Lower California and western Mexico. (A. O. U.) 



Perohing Birds Chiefly Brown or Streaked. 

757. Gray-cheeked Thrush (//r/<M;iV// /a j/fiTfidr). L. 
7.5; W. 4. ^ds. Tail and back the sam^ color, olive 
without brownish tinge; eye-ring and lores tobitish^ 
cheeks and breast only sUgbilj^ tinged with buff, breast 
with wedge-shaped spots. hJoUs, Doubtless like 
those of No. 757a. 

Rade«.— Breeds In Labrador and west to Alaska: misrrates throug:h 
eastern North America and winters In Central America. 

757a. Bicknell Thrush (H. a. hickmlU). Similar 
to No. 757, but smaller, L. 7; W. 3.5. J^otes, Calls, 
pbeu like that of Veery; a low cluck like that of Hermit 
Thrush.andrarely, apipor/>^tf«A like that of Olive- 
backed Thrush; song, like that of Veery but more in- 
terrupted. (Brewster.) 

Ran^.— Breeds In the high parts of the Catsklllls and north to 
White Mountains and Nova Scotia; winters in tropks. 

758. Russet-baoked Thrush (^Hylodcbla ustulcta). 
L. 7.2; W. 4. Tail not decidedly more rufous than 
back. ^ds. Eye-ring, cheeks, sides of neck and 
breast distinctly huffy\ breast with wedge-shaped spots; 
back and flanks olive-brown; tail slighty browner. 
The most deeply colored bird of the ustulaia group. 

Ran^.— Pacific coast; 
south to Guatemala. 

breeds from Oregon to Alaska; winters 

758a. Olive-baoked Thrush (H, u. swainsonii). 
Similar to No. 7s8, but back, tail, and flanks without 
brownish or rufescent tinge. Notes. Call, a liquid 
puit; song, suggesting both that of Hermit Thrush and 
the Veery. 

Range.— Eastern North America; breeds In Alleghanies from Penn- 
sylvania and the Catskiils. north to New Brunswick and Manitoba; 
winters in Central and South America. 

758b. California Olive-backed Thrush (H. u, 

4Fdica). Differs from 758 and 758a, in more rufescent 
coloration on the flanks; sides and upper surface 
usually paler than No. 758. (Oberholser.) 

Ranee.— Calttorala, except north coast; north In Interior to southern 
Oregon; south. In winter to Arizona and southern Mexico. (Ober- 

7580. Alma Thrush (H. w. alma). Similar to No. 
758a, but back and flanks grayer. The palest bird of 
the ustulata group. 

Range.— Alaska, except Yukon Basin, south In Rocky Mountain 
region? and west to Utah and eastern Nevada. (A. O. U.j 


Perching Birds Chiefly Gray, Black, or Black and White. 


566. White-winged Junco (/tt/f^ooii^f). L. 6.$; 
W. 3.30. ^ds. Resembling No. 567, but larger, 
paler, wings generally with two white bars; thm outer 
tail-feathers mostly or entirely white; fourth partly 

Range — Breeds in Wyoming nnd. western North Dalcota: winters in 
Colorado, western Kansas, casually to Indiana and Wisconsin. 

567. Siate-oolored Junoo(/fiii^A;'m^i/is). L. 6.2. 

W. 3. y4d, c?, summer. Head and back gray, the 
crown sometimes slightly darker, the feathers usuaHy 
more or less tipped with brownish; breast and sides 
gray; belly white; third outer tail-feather with white. 
j4d, ^jsummer* Similar, but brown wash stronger. 
j4ds., xcinter. Brown tips to feathers longer, sides 
sometimes brownish. Notes. Calls, a sharp, kissing 
note and a rapid chevc-chewchew] song, a simple, twit- 
tering trill. 

Range.— Eastern North America, breeds from northern New Eng- 
land, northern New York, and northern Minnesota north to Labraitor 
and northwest to Alaslca; and southward along the Alleghanie> to 
Pennsylvania; winters south to the Gulf States. 

567e. Carolina Junco (J, k, carolinensis), Simibr 
to No. 567, but slightly larger, W. 3.2, the upperpart^ 
and breast uniform slate-gray xtitbout a brownish wasti 
the bill horn color. 

Range. — ^Alleghanles from Virginia to Georgia. . 

568. Pink-sided Junco (Junco mearnsi). L. 6.2. 
Ad, (^y summer. Sides broadly brownish pink, center 
of belly white; breast pale slate-gray, crown darker, 
back washed with brownish. Ad, 9 in summer. Sim- 
ilar to the cf , but with less pink on sides, the crown 
washed with gray. Ads. xtinter. Similar to summer 
Ads., but with more brownish. 

Range.- Breeds in southern Idaho and south-central Montana: 
winters south through Wyoming and Colorado u> northern Mexico. 

567 I. fiionXzn^ ^unco {Junco montanus) . Similar 
to No. 568, but with less pink on the ^ides, the throat 
and breast darker slate. 

Range. -Breeding from northwestern Montana and northern Idaho 
north to northwest Territory and Alberta; In winter south to Mexico. 
east more or less irregularly to the Mississippi. Massachusetts, and 
Maryland. (Ridgw.y 

571. %9\r6 ^unoo {Junco bairdi) . Back and sides 
rusty cinnamon, head gray, throat and breast grayish 
white, belly white. 

Range.— Cape Region of Lower California. 

572. Guadalupe Junco (Junco insularis). Similar 
to m/jr«si but smaller, W. 2.7, bill longer, head and 
breast darker. 

Range. — Guadalupe Island. Lower California. 
5711. To wsend Junco (y^if^ t&wsendi). Similar 
to No. S67.1, but with the back grayer, the brownish 
wash much reduced. 

Range.— San Pedro Martir Mountains, northern Lower Olffomk. 


Perching Birds Chiefly Gray, Black, or Black and White« 


569. Gray-headed Junco {Junco camccps), L. 6.5; 
W. 3.2; T. 2.9. j4ds. Head, breast and sides gray; 
back reddish brown; «o reddish brown on wings; three 
outer tail-feathers with white; upper and lower mandi- 
bles pinkish. 

Ran^.— Breeds In mountains of southern Wyoming, Colorado, 
Uuh, Nevada, and northern New Mexico. (RIdgw.) 

570. Arizona Junco (Junco pbceonotus palliatus), 
L. 6.5; W. 3.2; T. 2.9. Ads. Head gray; underparts 
grayish whiU\ back, and to a greater or less extent, 
wing-coverts and tertials^ redJish brown; three outer 
tail-feathers with white; iris ,rellow; upper mandible 
blackish, lower yellowish. Notes, Calls, resemble 
those of No. 567; song suggests that of Song Sparrow. 

Range.— Breeds in mountains of southern Arizona and southward. 

570a. Heil'backed ^unco {Junco dorsalis) L. 6,7; 
W. 3-3; T. 3. y4ds. Head gray; underparts grayish 
vbite; back reddish brown; no reddish brown on wings; 
three outer tail-feathers with white; upper mindible 
blackish, \oweT flesb-color\ iris **brown.*' 

Range,— Breeds on high mountains of New Mexico and central 
Arizona; winters south to nortliern Mexico and western Texas. 

567a. Oregon Junco {Junco oreganus), L. 6.2; 
W. 3. Ad, cT* summer. Head, neck, throat and 
breast black sharply detined from the mahogany brown 
back, third outer tail-feather with little or no white; 
sides washed with pinkish brown. Ad, ?, summer. 
Head and breast grayer, back paler. Ads, winter. 
Back deeper ,the head and neck more or less tipped with 
brown, the breast with gray, these areas less sharply 
defined from the back and belly. 

Range.— Pacific coast; breeds from northern British Columbia to 
Alaska; winters south to California. 

—Shufeldt Junco (/. o, sbufeldti). Similar to No. 
567a, but larger, W. 3.1, brown of back less intense. 

Range.— -Pacltic coast; breeds from Oregon north to British Colum- 
bia (and eastward in humid regions to Montana?^: winters south to 
northern Mexico. 

567b. Coues Junco (J. 0, connectens). Similar to 
sbufeldti^ but back paler, brownish gray, breast grayer, 
sides With less pinkish brown, head and breast still 
sharply defined from adjacent areas. 

Range.— Breeds In the interior of British Columbia and probably in 
arid districts southward (breeding areas not definitely knownK winters 
southward doubtless to Mexican boundary. 

567c. Thurber Junco (/ 0. thurberi). Similar to 
No. 567, but back much p.iler, a bright pinkish brown; 
head and breast black as in No. 567. 

Range.-rBreeds in mountains from southern Oregon south to 
southern California; east to western Nevada. 

567d. Point Pinos Junco (J. o, pinosus). Similar 
to No. 567c, but throat and breast sl.ite-color. 

Range.— Santa Cruz district of California : breeds from King 
Mountain, south at least to Point Sur, Countv; wanders eastward 
In winter Into Santa Clara and San Benito Vallev s. (Grinnell.; 


Perching Birds Chiefly Gray, Black, or Black and White. 

733. Plain Titmouse (Baiolophus ittornatus), L. 
5.5- ^ds. Head crested; above grayish ^roaw; Mow 
grayish white, belly white, sides often buffy. Nates. 
Similartothoseof the Tufted Titmouse, but weaker 
and less varied. (Ridgw.) 

Rang:e.— Callfornta, west of the Sierra; north to Oregon. 

733a- Gray Titmouse {B, u griseus). Similar to 
No. 733, but above gray, below whitish gray, no bujf 
on sides. 

Range — Southeastern United States, from southeastern Caltfbmia 
and Nevada to Colorado and New Mexico. 

733b. Ashy Titmouse {B. t\ dmraceus), Simflar 
to No. 733a, but underparts grayish white, not whitish 

Range.— Cape Region of Lower California. 

743. Bush-Tit {P salt ripar us minimus), L, 4.2; T. 
2.1. ^ds. Crown 500/^ brown; back grayish brown; 
below brownish white, sides darker. 

Range.— Pacific coast from northern California to Washington. 

743a. California ^u%Yi'T\X(p, m. calijornicus). Sim- 
ilar to No. 743, but crown much lighter, brighter brown, 
quite different from the brownish gray back; under- 
parts paler. Notes. When feeding, a faint tsit, tsit, 
tsit, tsit, when moving about, tsit, tsit, tsit, sre-e-e-f; tsit, 
sre-e-e-e; when a bird is separated from its companions, 
same as last but uttered more hurriedly; alarm note, a 
zreatly intensified tsit'- tsii; tsit; tsit': in presence of 
Hawk or Owl a shrill, quavering trill, sre-e-e'e-e^. 

Range.— California, except the north coast region . 
743b. Grlnda Bush-Tit (P. m. grinds). Similar 
to No. 743, but back bluish ash-gray. (Ridgw.) 

Range. — Cape Region of Lower California. 

744- Lead-oolored Bush-Tit (Psaltriparus plumbeus) . 
L. 4.5. y4ds. Cf(w« and back bluish gray, sides of 
head brownish; below dingy white with a buffv lint on 

Range.- Western United States from eastern Oregon and eastern 
California east to Wyoming. Colorado, and western Texas. 

744. 1 . Santa Rita BuBh^TWlPsaltriparus santarit^). 

Similar to No. 744, but smaller, sides of head paler, 
male with a more or less distinct blackish line along 
sides of head as in female of No. 745. (Ridgw.) 

Range.— Santa Rita Mountains, southern Arixona. 
745. Lloyd Bush-Tit (Tsaltriparus llqydt). L. 4.2. 
Ad. c?. Sides of head shining black, crown blue-gray, 
back browner; chin blackish, underparts whitish, the 
belly and sides buffy. Ad, ?. Sides of head brown- 
ish, ear-coverts bordered above by a narrow black line; 
no black on chin. Yng. Similar to 9, but no black 
in head. 

Range.— "Mountains of western Texas, between the Pecos and Rio 
Grande Rivers" (Sennett), south into Mexico. 


Perching Birds Chiefly Gray, Black, or Black and White. 

731. Tufted Titmouse {Barolopbushicolor), L. 6. 
i4ds. Head crested; forehead black\ above eray; below 
whitish, sides rusty. NoUs. A clearly whistled pHo, 
pitoy and a hoarse de-dt-de. 

Range.— Eastern United States; resident from the Gulf States north 
to northern New Jersey and southern Iowa: straying somewhat 
further north In summer after breeding. 

731a. Texan Tufted Titmouse {B. b. texensis). 
Similar to No. 731, but forehead rusty, upperparts 

Range. — Southeastern Texns. 

732. Blaok-crested Titmouse {Barolopbus atricrist- 
atus), L. 6.1. ^ds. Head with a black crest; fore- 
head white or tinged with rusty; back gray; below 
whitish, sides rusty. Notes. An abbreviation of the 
call of No. 7 3 1 » pite-pite-peie-peie. ( Bailey. ) 

Range.— "From southeastern Texas west to El Paso, south to east- 
em Mexico." (Bailey.) 

751. Blue-gray Gnatoatoher (PoUopUla aerulda). 
L. 4.5;T. 2. Outer tail-feathers with white, white 
tip of next to outer one at least i.oo long. Ad* c?. 
Above bluish gray, forehead narrowly black; below 
erayish white. y4d. ?. Similar, but lighter p-ay; no 
black on forehead. Notes. Call, a twanging ting; 
song, sweet and varied but of small volume. 

Ran^pe.— Eastern United States, west to Colorado: breeds from the 
Gulf Mates north to southern New Jersey, and Ontario; wanders cas- 
ually as far north as Maine and Minnesota; winters from the Gulf 
Sutes southward. 

751a. Western Gnatoatoher (P. c. o^5<:f<ra). Simi- 
lar to No. 751, but slightly grayer above; white tip to 
next to outer tail-feather less than i.oo long. 

Range.— Western United States from western Texas west to Cal- 
ifornia and Lower California. 

752. Plumbeous Gnatoatoher (Polioptila plumbed). 
L. 4.4. Outer wing of outer tail-feather wholly white, 
inner web black except at tip. j4d. c?. Crown shin- 
ing black, back blue-gray; underparts grayish white. 
Ad. 9 and Yng, cf . similar, but no black on head. 
Yng. 9. Back and sides with a brownish wash. 
Notes, Call, a faint mew; song, "a harsh ditty of five 
notes, something like a Wren's song with notes like 
those of a Swallow. (Cooper.) 

Range. — Mexican boundary region, from western Texas to south- 
eastern California and Lower California. 

753. Black-tailed Gnatoatoher (Polioptila calijorn- 
tea). L. 4.5; T. 2.1. Similar to No. 752, but outer 
vane of outer tail-feather black margined with white; 
back darker, underparts much grayer, flanks brownish. 

Range.— Pacific coast region of southern California and northern 
Lower California. 


Perching Birds Chieffy Gray, Black, or Black and NAOiite. 

734. Bridled TitrrtOUslB (Baolophus voUwebert,. 
L. 5.2. Ads, Head crested, black and gray; throat 
black; hind neck with a white band bounded by black: 
back olive-gray; below whitish. NoUs. Chickadee- 
like but fainter. (Henshaw. ) 

Range. — Tableland of Mexico north to western Texas and souttten: 

738. Mountain Chickadee (Paru5^am^^/0- L. 5.5. 
Ads, A white line over the eye and a black through 
it; back gray; belly whitish. Notes, A hoarse, dicdtt- 
dee, a two or three-noted pbe-be whistle exactly like 
that of the Chickadee and an exceedingly sweet three- 
noted whistle of regular intervals, dy c, a. 

Range.— "Mountainous porllonsof the we* tern United States fron 
the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains to the Sierra Nevada, north 
to British Columbia. Idaho, etc.. and south to northern Lower Cal- 
ifornia." (A O. U.) 

740. Hudsonian Chickadee (Parus budsomcus), 
L. 5.2; W. 2.6. Ads, Crown hair-brown, back a 
more yellow brown; sides of head and neck grayish 
white; throat black, belly white, sides rusty. SoUs. 
Tscba-dee-dee-dee-deex the dee-dee notes repeated with 
almost incessant volubility. (Brewer. ) 

Range.— British America, from the west side of Hudson Bay north- 
westward to the Lower Yukon. 

740a. Kowalc Chiclcadee (P. b, stontyt). Similar 
to No. 740, but larger, W. 2.7, above grayer, crown 
much paler. 

Range.— Kowak River region, Alaska. 

740b. Columbian Chiclcadee (P, b, cdumbiamts). 
Similar to No. 740, but grayer above, crown slaty-drab. 

Ringe. Rocky Mountains from Montana northward; ICenai Pen- 
insula. Alaska. 

— Canad*an Chickadee {P. b. Httoralis), Similar to 
No. 740, but smaller, W. 2.5, crown duller brown. 

Range.— British America east and south of Hudson Bay; nortbeni 
New York, northern New England. New Brunswick, Nova Scotia. 

739. Alaskan Chickadee (Parus dnctus alascensis). 
L. 5.2. Ads. Crown broxtn, back hrigbter, sides of 
head and ntck pure wbite] throat blackish; belly whit- 
ish, sides buffy. 

Range.— "Northern Alaska and eastern Siberia." (A. O. U.) 

741. Chestnut-backed Chickadee (Parus rufesctns), 
L. 4.6. Ads, Back and sides rusty chestnut, crown sooty 
brown, throat black. Notes, A lisping tbe-tbe-tbe-le-U, 

Range.— Pacific coast from Oregon to southern Alaska. 

741a. California Chickadee (P. r. if^^/^ctttf). Sim- 
ilarto No. 741, but with only a tinge of rusty on 

Rnge.—' 'Coast of California from Monterey County northward.' 
(A. O. U.) 

74 1 b. Barlow Chickadee (P, r, barlotn). 
to iNu. 741a, but with no rusty on flanl^. 

Range. — Vicinity of Monterey. Ollfomla. 



Perching Birds Chiefly Gray, Black, or Black and White. 

735. Black-capped Chickadee r/'jrM5 atricapiUus). 
L. 5.2; T. 2.5. j4ds. Cap and throat black; back 
gray with a brownish tinge; outer margins of wing- 
co verts gravisb wbih; flanks, cream buff. Notes, Chick- 
adee- J/e, liquid gureles and chuckling notes and a 
sweet, clearly whistled, pbe-be or pbe-be-t. 

Range.— Easttm North America; breeds from southern Illinois and 
Pennsylvania north to Labrador, and south along Alleghanies to 
North Carolina; migrates a short dist:ince below Its southern breed- 
in|; limits. 

735a. Long-tailed Chickadee {P. a. sept^itrionalis) . 
Similar to No. 735, but tail longer, 2.7, flanks paler, 
white edgings broader. 

Range.— Rocky Mountain region north to British Columbia; east to 
Manitoba and the Plains. 

735b. Oregon Chickadee {P. a, occidentalis) , Sim- 
ilar to No. 735, but much darker; flanks grayish. 

Range.— Pacific coast from northern California to Sitka. 

736. Carolina Chickadee {Parus caroUmnsis), Sim- 
ilar to No. 735, but smaller, L. 4.6; T. 2., the greater 
>ying-coverts not margined with whitish. Notes. 
W histle * 'tswee-deey twsee-dee, ' * 

Range.— Southeastern United States north to middle New Jersey. 
and southern Illinois; resident from southern New Jersey southward. 

736.a Plumbeous Chickadee {P, c. a^ilis). Similar 
to No. 736, but paler above, whiter below. 

Range. — "Eastern and central Texas (Bee. Victoria, Cook, and 
Concho Counties, etc. ") (A. O. U.) 

737. Mexican Chickadee {Parus sclateri) . Simi- 
lar to No. 735, but sides broadly gray like back, black 
more extended. Notes, A rapid, vigorous double- 
noted whistle repeated three times, wholly unlike that 
of the Chickadee. 

Range. — Mountainous portk>ns of the Mexican tableland north to 
southern Arizona. 

630. Black-capped Vireo (l^ireo atricapiUus), L. 
4.5. /Id, rf . Crown and cheeks shining black; lores 
and cye-ring white; back olive-green; below white, 
sides tinged with greenish yellow; two whitish wing- 
bars, /id, ?. Similar, but black of head duller. 
Yng. "Top and sides of head dull grayish brown; 
lores, orbital ring and lower parts dull buffy white or 
palebuffy." (Ridgw.) Notes. "Of the general char- 
iKter of the White-eye or M/« type." (Bailey.) 

Range.— Breeds In central and western Texas; north to southern 
Kansas; winters in southern Mexico. 

^ 245 

Perching Birds Chiefly Gray, Black, or Black and White. 

727. White-breasted Nuthatch {Siiia carolinensis), 
L. 6. Ad, c?. Crown and foreback hluisb black; 
sides of head and neck grayish white; tertials with 
distinct black marks rounded at end. Ad. $ . Similar 
but black of head and shoulders washed with ^ay. 
Notes, Call, a nasal yank-j^ank and conversational 
notes; song, a tenor, ba-ba-ba-ba-ba-ba, all on the same 

Range. — Eastern North America west to the Rocky Mountains, 
breeds from the Gulf States to Minnesota and New Brunswick; resi- 

727a. Slender-billed Nuthatch (5. c, aadtaU), 
Similar to No. 727, but head usually greenish black; 
black of tertials less deep and on next to inner one 
usually pointed at end. 

Range.— Western North America west of the Rockies: breeds froa 
Lower California north to British Columbia: residenu 

727b. Florida White-breasted Nuthatch (5. c, 

atkinsi). Similar to No. 727, but somewhat smaller, 
wing<overts and tertials not tipped with grayish; ? 
with head black as in c?. 

Range.— Florida and north along the coast to South Carolina. 

7270. Rooky Mountain Nuthatch (5. c nslsont). 
Similar to No. 727a, but larger, W. j.7, with some- 
what more white in tail and more rusty on flanks and 
lower belly. 

Range. — Wooded mountains of northern Chihuahua and Sononu 
Arixona. New Mexico, Colorado, and northward. (Meams.) 

727d. St. Lucaa Nuthatch (5. c, laguna). Simi- 
lar to No. 727a, but with the wings and tail shorter, 
the black tips of the outer tail-feathers more restricted; 
W. 3.2; T. 1.7. (Brewster.) 

Range. — Higher mountains south of La Paz, Lower Callfomia. 

728. Red-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta canadsnsis). 
L. 4.6. Ad, c?. A stripe through the eye and crown 
black; line cw^ eye white; underparts rusty. Ad, f. 
Similar, but crown gray like back, line through the 
eye blackish, paler below. Notes, A fine, thin, nasal, 
penny-trumpet like, draw\edi^'na-yna, 

Range.^North America, breeding from the northern portions of the 
northern tier of States northward, and southward In the Alleghanies 
to Virginia, In the Rocky Mountain* to Colorado, and In the Sierra 
Nevada In California; winters Irregularly southward to the Golf 
States and Arizona. 

729. Brown-headed Nuthatch (Sitta pusiUa,) L. 
4.3. Ads, Crown brown; a white patch on nape; 
back bluish gray; below grayish white, sometimes 
tinged with buff. Yn^, Crown whitish. Notss, A 
conversational, twittering tnee-twe. 

Range.— South Atlantic and Gulf States north to Virginia, acddent- 
ally to New York and casually to Missouri. 

730. Pygmy Nuthatch (SUta f^fmaa). L. 4.3. 
Ads, Crown grayish olive; a whitish patch on nape; 
a dark brown line through eye; below white tinged 
with buff. Yng, Crown gray like back. Not^s, A 
metallic, clinking c/t/ZiV:*, cUttick, 

Range.— Western North America, east to the Rocky Mountains; 
breeds from Mexico to British Columbia. 


Perching Birds Chiefly Gray, Black, or Black and White. 

730a. White-naped Nuthatch (S. p. liuconucba). 
Similar to No. 730, but bill larger, crown grayer, back 
less bluish gray, nape patch more conspicuous, under- ^*+^ 
parts white with scarcely more than a trace of buffy. 

Ran^. — Lower California. 

444. }^\x\%h\rd (Tyrannus tyr annus), L. 8.$. Tail 
tipped with white. Ads, Above slaty, crown blacker 
^vith an orange patch. Yng. Similar, but no crown- 
patch. Notes. An unmusical, steely chatter. **A 
soft and very pleasing song," heard only in the early 
morning (O. T. Miller.) 

Rang:e.— North America, breeds from Florida north to New Bruns- 
wick and Manitoba, and from eastern Texas northwest to Utah. Ne~ 
vad^. northeast California and western British Columbia; winters 
south of United States, to Central and South America. 

445. Gray Kingbird (Tyrannus dominicensis,) L. 
9- Ads. No white tip on tail; an orange crown-patch; 
under wing-coverts sulphur; ear-coverts black; above 
gra^ below white. SoUs, A loud, chattering, 

Range.— West Indies, breeding north through Florida along the 
coast to South Carolina; winters in Lesser Antilles. Mexico, and Cen- 
tral America. 

701. American Dipper; Water Ouzel {Cinclus nuxi- 
canus). L. 8. Ads, Slatv gray, head and neck 
browner. In winter more or less tipped with whitish. 
Notes. Song, remarkably sweet and lively, in modula- 
tion resembling somewhat that of Brown Thrasher, 
but less powerful though sweeter in effect. (Rldg- 
way.) Call, a sharp, pebbly cack-cack-cack. 

Range.— "The mountainous parts of central and western Nor»h 
America, from the Yukon Valley and Unalaska to Guatemala; east In 
the United States, to the eastern base of the Rocky mountains. 
Apparently resident throughout Its range." (A. O. U.) 

704. Oatbird {Galeoscoptes carolinensis). L. 8.9. 
Ads, Slaty gray, cap and tail black, under tail-coverts 
reddish chestnut. Notes, Call, a whining, nasal tchay; 
song, rich, musical, and varied. 

Range.— North Americ« ; west to British Columbia and rarely Pa- 
cific coast states: breeds from the Gulf States north to New Bruns- 
wick and the Saskatchewan; winters from Gulf States southward. 

754. JovtMendSoWiBire (Mjfodestes tottmsendii)' L. 
8.5. Ads. Brownish gray; eye-ring, tips of outer 
tail-feathers, a narrow wing-bar white; wing with a 
buff band showing in flight. Notes, Son^, a rich, 
flowing, GrosbeaTc-like warbling, sung with great 
vigor and freedom and often for comparatively long 

'^ange. — "Western United States, from the Plains westward to the 
[yO. "io 1st. nonh to British Columbia and south in winter to the 
order of Arizona and noithem Lower Callfomla; breeds 
7/>,. )untainsof New Mexico, southern Arizona, and central 

'^^ lorlhward." 


\ I 

Parching Birds Chiefly Gray, Black, or Black and White. 

621. Northern Shrike (Z.i7/iffi5 6or/«7/i5). L. loj 
Lores grayish. ^ds. Above bluish gray; til 
black, outer featers tipped with white; below whijj 
usually with wavy bars. Yng. Above washed u-ffl 
brown; below more distinctly and more heavily banei 
Notes, Song, not unlike that of the Brown i hrashe 
but more disconnected, less loud. 

Range.— North America; breeds from Labrador to Alaska ; vintm 
south, trreguUiily. to Virginia. Kansas, Arizona, and California. 

622. Loggerhead Shrike (Lamus ludovictanus). 
9. ' Lores black. Mds, Underparts white t^lV^cw/ bar^ 
above bluish gray; rump and upper tall-coverts little H 
any paler; tail black, outer feathers tipped with white. 
Yng, Underparts, head, and rump more or less nar- 
rowly barred. Notes, Call, harsh and discordant; 
song, a series of guttural gurgles, squeaky whistles. 

Ringe.— Eastern United States; breeds from Rorlda to Virginia. 
In Mississippi Valley, northeast to western Pennsylvania, central and 
nonherti New York, Massachusetts, western New Hampshire. Maine, 
and British Columbia; migrates down Atlantic States, as well as Mis- 
sissippi Valley, and winters in southern States. 

622a. White-rurpped Shrike (L, I, excubitorides). 
Similar to No. 622, but paler above, rump and upper 
tail-coverts whiter: bill less deep. 

Range. -"Western North America, from eastern border of the Plains 
to the Pacific, except coast of California, and from Manitoba and the 
Plains of the Saskatchewan south over ubielands of Mexico." 

622b. California Shri|ce (L. /. gambeli). Similar 
to No. 622, but rump paler, breast usually with indis- 
tinct wavy bars and tinged with brownish. 

Range.— Pacific coast, from Lower California to British Columbia. 

. 622c. Island Shrike (L,l. anthonyi). Similar io 
No. 622b, but darker and smaller, W. 3.7. 

Range. — Santi Barbara Islands. Caiifornli. 

703. Mockingbird {Minit$s polvglottos), L. las. 
/Ids, Above ashy gray; below soiled whitish; outer 
tail-feathers with white; wing-coverts narrowly tipped 
with, white; primaries white basally. Notes, Call, a 
harsh, kissing note; song indescribable. 

Range.— Southeastern United States and Bahamas, west to north- 
eastern Texas; breeds north to southern New Jersey (rarely 
Massachusetts), and southern Illinois; winters from Virginia and 
lower Mississippi Valley southward. 

703a. Western Mockingbird (M, p, leucopterus) , 
Similar to No. 703, But with a very slight brownish 
tinge below and white areas in wing averaging larger. 

Rangje.— Southwestern United States and northern Mexico from 
IndianTerrltorv and eastern Texas west to Callfbmla. 

765. yNneaXeiir iSaxicola (Bttantbe) , L. 6; W. 3.7. 
/4d. cf . Back gray, upper tail-coverts and base of 
tail white; below white more or less washed with buff. 
y4d. $. Browner above and below, no black through 
eye. j4ds. in u^nter and Yng, Similar to ?, but ;inna- 
mon brown above, cinnamon below. 

Ranj^e. — Asia; mi{;ratlnK:in summer to Alaska. 

765a. Greenland Wheatear (S, ae, leucorboa). Sim- 
ilar to No. 765, but larger, W. 4. A 

Rang^e. — Western Europe; breeds in Greenland .ind on adji 
mainland; rarely south to St. Lawrence; casually to Loulslan^Q^. 

248 ' 

Pe)*ohing Birds Chiefly Gray, Black, or Black and White. 

573. Blaok-throated Sparrow {Amphispi^a hilin^ 
Ota), L. 5.3. Ads. Throat, upper breast, and front 
•" of face black; a white stripe over eye and another at 
the side of the throat; above grayish brown unstreaked; 
outer web of outer tail-feather white, except at tip; at 
least half an inch of tip of inner web white. Notes, 
Song, simple but sweet, three ascending and three 
descending notes. 

K Range.— Middle and eastern Texas (except along coast?}, north to 
<" Oklahoma and western Kansas; winters from centnU Texas south Into 
>: northeastern Mexico. 

573a. Desert Sparrow {A. h, cUseriicola), Similar 
to No. 573, but above grayer, the white tip to outer 
. tail-feather Uss than half an inch long. 

Range.— Western United Sutes and northern Mexico, from western 
Texas to southeastern California; breeds north to southern Colorado, 
- and western Nevada: winters south Into Mexico. 

602. Morellet Seed-eater (Sporophila morellefi). 
L. 4.6. Ad. c?. Entire upperparts, cheeks, tall, 
wings and breast-band black; bases of wing-feathers, 
tips to coverts and underparts, except breast-band, 
whitish. Ad. 9. Above grayish brown, below uni- 
form buffy. Yng. c?- Variously intermediate be- 
tween Ad. (^ and Ad. cf . At least two years evident- 
ly required to reach mature plumage. 

Range.— Eastern Mexico, north to sootheastem Texas. 

636. Black and White Warbler (MmatUta varid). 
L. 5.3. Ad. cf . Above streaked black and white; 
throat black or white; belly white; sides streaked 
black and white. Ad. $. Less black; whiter below; 
throat always white. Notes. Song, a thin, wiry, 

Range.— Eastern North Amtilca: breeds from Virginia, Louisiana, 
and northern Texas, noflh to Hudson Bay region; winters from Gulf 
States south to northern South America; accidental In CallfDmla. 

661. Black-poll Warbler {Dmdroica striata). L. 
5.6. Ad.(^, Crown black, cheeks white; back streaked, 
gray and black; below white streaked with black; 
wing-bars and tail-spots white. Ad. ?. No black 
cap; above olive-green streaked with black. Yng, and 
Ad. in wintsr.' Above olive-green lightly streaked with 
black; bt\ow yillowisb white; breast obscurely streaked. 
Notis, Son^, a slender, wiry tree-trei-tre&'tree-tre&'trsi- 
ine-trut rapidly uttered. (Langille.) 

Range.— Eastern North America, west to the Rockies: breeds from 
northern New England, northern New York, northern Michigan, and 
Colorado, north to Labrador and Alaska; winters in Wcst Indies and 
northern South America. 

665. Black-throated Gray Warbler {Dendroica nig" 

rtsans). L. 5. Ad. cf . Crown, cheeks and throat 

black, a white stripe at sides of throat, a yellow line 

before eye; back gray streaked with black; wing-bars 

and tail-patches white. Ad. ?. Similar, but crown 

not always wholly black. Yng. Above washed with 

brownish, black areas tippecT with white. Notes. 

Song, ree-ee-zee-ee, ^<f, ^e, {^, with the quality of the 

:siig o\ Dendroica vtrens or D. cutruUscens. 

I Range.— Western Unltfd States: breeds in mountains from Arizona 

' id northern Lnwer Callforrla, north to Colorado and Vancouver 

,4and; winters In Mexico. 


i'^rohing Birds Chiefly Gray, Black, or Black and White. 


611. Purple Martin (Prague subis), L. 7.8. yfd. 
c?. Shining blue-black, all feathers wiih dusky 
bases. /Id. ?. Above dull blue-black; breast 
ish edged with white; belly whitish. Yng, r^. 
iously intermediate between 9 and Ad. (f. 

Range.— North America, except Pacific coast; breeds north to New- 
foundland and the Saskatchewan; winters in tropics. 

6 M a. Western Martin (P. 5. hesperia). (^ similar 
to cf of No. 61 r; V belly whiter; forehead grayish. 

Range.— Pacific coast from northern Lower California to Washing- 
ton (.md BriU>h Columbia?): winters In tropics. 

6 1 I . I. Cuban Martin {Progne cryptolmca). W. 5.50. 
/Id. (^. With feathers of ventral region basally mark- 
ed with white. y4d. ? and Yng. cf . With breast 
and flanks sooty grayish brown, belly /wr/ whsU. 

Range.— Cuba, north In spiine to southern Florida. 

6 1 2. Cliff Swallow IPetrocbelidon lunifrons), L- 
5.5. Mds. Throat chestnut, forehead and rump cin- 
namon-buff; nape gray; crown and back glossy blue- 
black, the back streaked with white. Yng. Throat 
dusky, often mixed with chestnut; back blackish 
brown; rump cinnamon-buff, forehead usually with 

Ran^. — "North America, north to the limit of trees, breedlnj^ 
southto the valleys of the Potomac and Ohio, southern Texas, 
southern Arizona, and California; Central and South America in win- 
ter; not recorded from Florida or W< st Indies.'* (A. O. U.) 

612.2. Mexican Cliff Swallow (Petrochilidon mt- 
lanogastra). Similar to No. 6r 2, but smaller, W. 4.1, 
forehead deeper, usually chestnut, like throat, rump 
darker, more rusty. 

Ranee. — Mexico, north to southern Arizona. 

613. Barn Swallow (Hirundo erythrogastra) . L. 
cr» 7.5; 9 > 6.5. Tail deeply forked. Ad. cT. Above 
glossy blue-black, forehead chestnut: throat and upper 
breast chestnut, belly paler. j4d. ? . Forehead, and 
underparts paler; tail less deeply forked. Notes. Song, 
a sweet, twittering, warbling song. (The notes of all 
our Swallows, while simple, are dignostic but difficult 
of description.) 

Range.— North America, north to Greenland and Alaslca; breeds 
through most of range; winters south to southern Brazil. 

614. Tree Swallow {Iridoprocne bicolor). L. 6. 
Ads. Above steel-blue or steel-green; below^ white. 
Ytig. Sooty gray above; white below. 

R.inge.-North America: breeds locally from Lat. 41° on Atlantic 
coast and Lat. ^S^ on Pacific coast north to Labrador and AIaj»ka; 
winters from South Carolina and southern California to the tropics. 

6 1 5. Northern Violet-Green Swallow ( Tachydmta 
thalassina lepida). L. 5.2; W. 4.5. Ad, c?. Above 
bronze-green; upper tail-coverts greener; an indistinct 
nape- ring; mark above eye, cheeks and underparts 
wiiite; flank-patches white, often showing from above. 
Ad. 9. Much duller, the head browner, Yng. 
Above brownish sooty with a greenish tinge; a wbjl^ 
ish mark above and behind eye; below white. 

Range.— Western United States, from eastern base of Rockies to 
Pacific; breeds from Mexico north to British Columbia; winter<i in 
Mexico and Central America. 



Perching Birds Chiefly Gray, Black, or Black and White. 


6 1 5a. St. Lucas Swallow (7. i. hrachypiera) . 
Similar to No. 615, but wing shorter, <^, 4.1, 5, 4. 

Range. — Lower California. 

458. Black Phoebe (Sayornis nigricans), L. 7-2/^ 
j4ds. Breast and head black, back grayer; outer weD 
of outer ta 1-feather white; belly black, under tail-cov- 
erts white streaked xcitb dusky. Notes, A liquid /»>, a 
rising kee-ree, and a falling kee-wray. (Bailey.) 

Ranjfe.— Mexico, except Yucatan and Pacific coast from Coliraa 
northward, north Into Texas, New Mexico, and southeastern Ari/oi.a. 

458a. Western Black Phoebe (5. //. sewiaira). 
Similar to No. 458, but under tail<overts white w ith- 
out dusky streaks. 

Ranj^e — Pacific coast of Mexico and United States, frcJm Colirra to 
Oregon. Including mobt of Arizona. (Nelson.) 

494. Bobolink; ReedblrcJ {Dolichonyx ory^ivorns). 
Ad, d^, summer. Black; nape buffy, lower back, 
scapulars and upper tail<overts white. Ad. ^ . 
Above yellowish brown streaked with buff, and black; 
t>elow yellowish white, sides streaked with black. 
iV inter ylumage^ Ads and Yng. Like ? but yellower. 
M7//5. Song, an irrepressible bubbling outburst of 
**mad music ' often given on the wing; calls, a black- 
bird-like chuck and a metallic, far carrying, chink, 

Ran^.— Eastern North America, west to Utah; breeds from north- 
em New Jersey. Illinois and Kansas, north to Nova Scotia, Manitoba, 
and Montana: mlR:rates south through Florida and West Indies, and 
winters south 01 Amazon. 

534. Snowflake (Pa55^maffrra/f5). L. 6.9. Hind 
toe-nail twice as long as shortest toe-nail. Ad, S\ 
summsr. Head, rump, secondaries, outer tail-feathers 
and below white; rest of plumage largely black. Ad, 
9, summer. Similar, but crown blackish, back edged 
with rusty or grayish. JVinter, Above rusty and 
black, below white, breast tinged with rusty. Notes, 
Calls, a clearly piped whistle, and a peculiar chirr, 
often uttered when taking wing; song, short, simple, 
but rather sweet. ( Minot. ) 

Range.— Breeds In northern parts of northern hemisphere; irregu- 
larly to Georgia, southern Indiana, Kansas. Colorado, and eastern 
Oregon; in winter south to northern states. 

534a. Pribilof Sno%vflake (P, n. tatcnsetidf). Sim- 
ilar to No. 534, but larger, with relatively longer bill; 
c?, W. 4.7; B .5. (Ridgw.) 

Range. — ^Aleutian and Commander Islands, Pribilof Island. Shuma- 
gin Islands. (RIdgw.) 

535" McKay Snowflake (Passerina hyperborcus), 
L. 7.5; W. 4.6; B .4. Similar to No. 534* but with 
more white. Ad, c?, summer. Back and scapulars 
entirely white. Ad, 9, summer. Crown and hind- 
nfCk white. Yng, Not certainly distinguishable from 
y-'/ng. of No. 534. (Ridgw.) 

Range.— Breeds on Hall and St. Mathews Islands, Bering Sea; In 
winter west coast of Alaska. 



Pi^rohing Birds Chiefly Gray, Blaolc, or Blaolc and White. 

605. Lark Bunting {Calamosfn^a nulanccor^s), L. 
7.2. y4d. c?. Black, patch in wing white, outer tail- 
feathers tipped, tertials margined with white. y4d. ?. 
Above grayish brown streaked with blackish; below 
white conspicuously streaked with black; all but cen- 
tral tail-feathers with white tips; broad winfi:-bars buff. 
y^g' c?« Variously intermediate between Ad. c? and ?. 
(See page 251). 

Rangfe. — Western United States, chiefly east of Rockies; breeds 
from western Kansas and eastern Colorado, north to western Minne- 
sota and Asslnlbola; winters In Mexico; irregular west In mJgrations 
to Idaho and southern California. 

484. Canada Jay; Whiskey Jack (Perisoreus cana- 
densis), L. 11.5. Ads, Black of hindhead reaching 
to back of eye; back, wings, and tail gray, belly lighter, 
throat white; forehead buffy white. Notes, ca-ca-ca 
and a number of peculiar sounds impossible to repro- 
duce on paper. (Bendire.) 

Range.— Eastern North America; Nova Scotia. New Brunswick, 
northern New England, northern New York, northern Michigan: 
northern Minnesota, north to Newfoundland and Hudson Bay region, 
west to the Rockies In Alberta. 

484a. Rocky Mountain Jav (P. c, cabiialis). Sim- 
ilar to No. 484, but head white, black of hindhead 
grayer and not reaching to eye. 

Range. - Rocky Mountain region from New Mexico and Artxona 
north to Montana and Idaho. 

484b. Alaskan Jay (P. c, fumfrons) . Very near to 
No. 4S4, but forehead averaging more yellowish. 

Range. - Alaska; Interior and west to Cook Inlet, north -of southern 
coast region. 

484c. Labrador Jay (P. c. nigricapUlus), Similar 
to No. 484, but black of hindhead deeper and reaching 
forward as a well defined ring around the eye; below 

Range. — ^Labrador. 

485. Oregon Jay (Perisoreus obscurus). Similar to 
No. 484, but back feathers with light shaft streaks, fore- 
head less white, underparts nearly uniform white. 

Range.— Pacific coast from northern California to southern British 

485a. Gray Jay (P. o. griseus). Similar to No. 
485, but lareer and grayer; back, etc.. deep mouse 
gray, instead of brown: below grayish white instead of 
brownish white. (Ridgw.) 

Range.— British Columbia, Washington. Oregon, and northern 
California, east of Coast and Cascade Ranges. (Ridgw.) 

491. Clarke Nutcracker (Nudfraga columhiaua). 
L. 12. Ads, Gray; wings and middle tail-feathers 
black, tips of secondaries and outer tail-feathers white. 
Notes, A loud, harsh, car-r-car-r. 

Range. - Mountains of western North Amerlco. from northern Low 
er California. Arizona and New Mexico, north to northern Ala&Ra-. 
casually east to Mississippi Valley. 


Perching Birds Chiefly Gray, Blaolc, or Black, and White. 

475. Amwlomi MttgplB (Pica pica hudsonui). L. 
20. y4ds. Bill black; scapulars, belly and most of 
Inner margins of prfmarles white; wings glossy blue 
black, tail externally greenish; back and oreast vel- 
vety black. NoUs. Cack^ cack^ also garrulous gabble 
intermixed with whistling notes. (Bendire.) 

Ran{^— Western North America, east to the Plains, west to Cas- 
cade and Sierra Ranges; breeds from northern New Mexico and 
northern Arizona north to Alaska strays farther east In winter. 

470. Yellow-beNied Magpie {Pica nuttali). Simi- 
lar to No. 475, but bill and eye-space yellow; smaller, 
L. 18. Notes, A harsh, rasping, cac-cac-cac; and a 
low, rich whistle, audible only at a short distance. 

Range. California, west of Sierra Nevada, "north to Red BlufF 
and south to Santa Paula." (Grinnell.) 

493. Starling (Sturnus vulgaris). L. 8.5; T. 2.5. 
Ad, summer. Metallic green and purple spotted above 
with buffy; bill yellow. Ad. winter. Similar, but 
above heavily spotted with brownish buff; below 
heavily spotted with white; bill blackish. Notes, A 
long-drawn, two-noted whistle, the second lower; and 
a chattering, metallic call when in flocks. 

Range.- Europe and northern Asia; accidental In Greenland; In- 
troduced Into New York City In zSgo; now common, extending east 
to New Haven. Connecticut, north to Osslnlng, New York, south to 
Staten Island and Bayonne, New Jersey. 

495. QoH4h\rd (Molotbrus ater), L. 7.9; W. 4.2. 
Ad. cT. Head and neck coffee-brown, body greenish 
black. Ad. ^, Brownish gray, throat lighter. Yttg. 
Like $. Notes. A metallic twitter, and by the male, 
along-drawn, glassy kluck-tse-e-e; and watery gurg- 
ling notes uttered with spread wings and tail. 

Range. -United States: rare west of Rockies; breeds from Ftorlda 
and Texas north to New Brunswick and Little Slave Lake; west to 
eastern Oregon, Nevada, and southeastern California; winters from 
southern New Jersey, scuthem Illinois, Indian Territory, northern 
Texas, and southeastern California, southward. 

495a. Dwarf Cowbird (Af. a. obscurus). Similar to 
No. 495, but smaller. L. 7.5; W. 4- 

Range.— Southwestern tJnl ted States; from Gulf Coast of Texas 
west along Mexican boundary to Arizona and Lower California; win- 
ters south of United States. 

496. Red-eyed Cowbird (Callothrus robustus). 
L. 9. Ad. cf . Velvety bronze-black: wings and tail 
shining blue-black. Ad. ?. Dull black, wings and 
tail with slight greenish reflections. 

Range. — Southern and eastern Mexico north. In spring, to Lower 
Rio Grande, Texas. 

620. Phainopepla (Pbainopebla nitens), L. 7.^. 
Crested. Ad. c?. Shining black; inner vanes of 
primaries largely white, showing in flight. Ad. ?. 
Dark gray, tail blacker, wing-coverts and quills nar- 
rowly margined with whitish. Yng. Like 9. Notes. 
Calls, commonest, like call of young Robin; male 
has also a scold, a Meadowlark-like note and a 
harsh ca-rack or ca-racack; song, a jumble of flute- 
like tones and weak, squeaky notes. (Bailey.) 

Range. — Mexico north to western Texas, southern Utah and south- 
em California; winters from Mexican border southward. 


Perching Birds Chiefly Gray, Black, or Black and White. 

509. Rusty Blackbird {Scoiecopbagus caroltttus). 
L. 9.5. j4d, cf. Nearly uniform greenish black, 
sometimes with rusty edgines. j4d. 9. Slaty gray, 
generally with some rusty edgings. Winter plumage 
of both sexes similar to summer but widely tipped with 
rusty above and yellowish rusty below. Notes. More 
musical than those of other Blackbirds; calls, Uback or 
turalee repeated several times. (Bendire.) 

Range.— kastern North America west to the Plains; breeds fro«j 
New Brunswick, northern New England, northern New York, and 
Manitoba, north to Labrador and Alaska; winters from Virg:fnla. 
southern Illinois, and Kansas, southward. 

5 1 0. Brewer Blackbird (Scolecophagus cyanocepha- 
lus). L. 10. j4d. (^. Whole head violet-purple, rest 
of plumage bright greenish black. j4d. ^. Grayish 
brown, throat paler, wings and tail greenish black; no 
rusty. Winter plumage with light grayish brown 
edgings to the feathers of the interior part of the body. 
Notes. Chock and a loud, shrill whistle. (Bailey.) 

Range.— Western North America from the Plains to the PacHic; 
breeds from Texas and northern Lower California north to the Sas- 
katchewan and British Columbia; winters In the southern parts of its 
range; casually east to Mississippi River states. 

511. Purple Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula), L. c?, 
12. Ad. (^, Head, purple, steel-green or steel blue; 
back purple, brassy green or greenish; the feathers 
always with iridescent bars. Notes. Tchak and a short 
unmusical call uttered with spread wings and tail. 

Range.— Eastern United Statesj^ breeds In lower Mississippi Valley 
and east of Alleghanies, from Georgia to Massachusetts; winters 
from Virginia souttiward through lis breeding range. 

5 11 a. Florida Grackle ({p. 9. aglams). Similar to 
511, but slightly smaller, head always violet purple; 
back always bottle-green, with iridescent bars. 

Rnn^e.— Florida, north oa the Atlantic coast to Vliginia. virest on the 
<julf Coast to Texas. 

; 511 b. Bronzed Grackle (Q. q. cenms). Head as in 
Ho. 511, back and belly bronze, the feathers v)hoUy 
tvitbout iridescent bars. 

Range.— Eastern United States west to the Rockies; breeds from 

■ southern Texas to Great Slave Lake, east to Alleghanies, and. in 

, New York, east and northeast to Conn-ctlcut. Massachusetts, and 

LibraJor: winters chiefly in lower Mississippi valley; migrates in part 

' east of the Alleghanle*:. 

5 1 3. Boat-tailed Grackle {Megaquiscalus major^, L. 
c?, 16; W. 7.5; T. 7. Ad. c?. Head and neck glossy 
purple; back and belly glossy greenish blue. Ad. $. 
Much smaller, T. 5.2; above blackish brown; below 
soiled rusty buff. Notes. Tcback, a variety of hoarse, 
rather forced whistles and a gurgling roll as of a Coot 
pattering over the water. 

Range —Florida, north along the coast to Virginia;- west along 
coast to Texas. 

5 1 3a. Great-tailed Grackle {M. m. macrourus). Simi- 
lar to No. 513, but larger, (^, L. 16; T. p. Forebackand 
breast, as well as head and neck, purple, only rump and 
lower belly greenish blue; ? blacker both above and be- 
below than ? of 513. Notes. Tcback^znd a, greater 
varriety of squeaky calls, and hoarse whistles, than in 
my experience, is uttered by No. 513. 

Range. — Eastern Texas and south Into Mexico. 


Perching Birds Chiefly Gray, Black, or Black and White. 

486- American Hiiyen {Corvus corax sinuaius) , L. 
24:W. i^ B. 2.7. /Ids. Resembling No. 488, in 
color but glossier below and with the feathers of throat 
narrow and lengthened; nape feathers gray at base. 
Notes. A hoarse, croaking, craack-craack, sometimes a 
deep, grunting koeer-koe^-, a clucking, and a metallic 
klunk, (Bendire.) 

Range.— Western North America, from Guatemala north to British 
Columbia; east to the Rockies, west to Pacific. 

486a. Northern Raven (C. c principalis). Similar 
to No. 486, but larger, L. 25; W. 17; B. 3. 

Range. — Eastern North America, from mountains of northern 
Georgia and coast of Maine, north to Greenland; west to the Rocky 

487. White-necked Raven {Corvus cryptoleucus) . L. 
18.5. /Ids. Blue-black; feathers of throat narrow 
and lengthened and with feathers of neck all around. 
white at the base. Notes. Kwatik-kwank^ less loud ana 
penetrating than those of No. 486. (Bendire.) 

Range.— Northern iMexlco. north to western Kansas, eastern Color- 
ado (rarely) . and southern California; east to western Texas. 

488. kft\w\ctLX\ CroYt (Corvus americanus^. L. 19.3; 
W. 12. i; B. 2.00. Black with steel-blue or deep, 
purplish reflections; below duller, neck feathers not 
lengthened. Notes. Caw, caw, with many variations; 
song, car-r-r-uck, oo-oo-oo-oo-ah. 

Range.— North America, north to Arctfc Circle; winters from north- 
em United States southward; local In west. 

488a. Florida Crow (C. c pasams). Similar to 
No. 488, but wings and tail somewhat shorter, bill and 
feet slightly larger, W. 12; T. 7.3; B. 2.1. 

Range. — Florida. 

489. Northwest Crow {Corvus caurinus). Similar 
to No. 488 in color but smaller; L. 16; W. 11; B. 1.7. 

Range.— Northwest coast, from Oregon to Kadlak Island, Alaska. 

490. Fish Crow (Com<5 ossifragus) , L. 16; W. 
11; B. 1.5. Wi/5. Resemble No. 488, in color, but back 
feathers are uniform blue-black xoithout dull margins; 
underparts are nearly as bright as upperparts. Notes. 
A hoarse, nasal, reedy car resembling the call of the 
young of No. 488. 

Range.— Atlantic coast north to Connecticut, (casually Massachu- 
setts), west along Gulf coast to LouUlanna; resident, except at north- 
ern limit of range. 



Of the Birds of America north of Mexico, arranged according 

to the American Ornithologists' Union's 'Check-List of 

North American Birds.' 

(7*fie presence ofbraekeU, [ J. indicates that the species is an accidental visitant,) 

Order PYGOPODES. Diving Birds. 



1 Western Grebe iCchmophorus occidentalis 44 

2 Holboell Grebe Colymbusholboellii 43 

3 Horned Grebe " auritus 43 

4 American Eared Grebe ** nigricollis californicus. . 43 

5 Least Grebe *' dominicus brachypterus 43 

6 Pied-billed Grebe Podilymbus podiceps 43 

Family GAVIID>e. LOONS. 

7 Loon Gavia imber 44 

8 Yellow-billed Loon '* adamsii 44 

9 Black-throated Loon '• arctica 44 

10 Pacific Loon " pacifica 44 

1 1 Red-throated Loon " lumme 44 


12 Tufted Puffin Lunda cirrhata 45 

1 3 Puffin Fratercula arctica 45 

1 3a Large-billed Puffin ** " naumanni. . . 45 

14 Horned Puffin ** corniculata 4S 

1 5 Rhinoceros Auklet Cerorhinca monocerata 45 

16 Cassin Auklet Ptychoramphus aleuticus 46 

17 Paroquet Auklet Cyclorrhynchus psittaculus 47 

18 Crested Auklet Simorhynchus cristatellus 47 

19 Whiskered Auklet " pygmaeus 47 

20 Least Auklet ** pusillus 47 

21 Ancient Murrelet Synthliboramphus antiquus 47 

23 Marbled Murrelet Brachyramphus marmoratus ... 46 

24 Kittlitz Murrelet ** brevirostris 46 

25 Xantus Murrelet ** hypoleucus 46 

26 Craveri Murrelet " craveri 46 


Systematic Table of North American Birds. 

^S>^- COMMON name. scientific NAME. Pace 

27 Black Guillemot Cepphus grylle 48 

28 Mandt Guillemot " mandtii , . . . . 48 

29 Pigeon Guillemot " columba 48 

30 Murre Uria troile 48 

30a California Murre " '* californica 48 

31 Brunnich Murre " lomvia 48 

31a Pallas Murre " '' arra 48 

32 Razor-billed Auk AIca torda 48 

33 Great Auk Plautus impennis 48 

34 Dovekie Alle alle , 46 

Order LONGIPENNES. Long-winged Swimmers. 


35 Skua Megalestris skua 51 

36 Pomarine Jaeger Stercorarius pomarinus 51 

37 Parasitic Jaeger ** parasiticus 51 

38 Long-tailed Jaeger " longicaudus 51 


39 Ivory Gull Pagophila alba 52 

40 Kitti'wake Rissa tridactyla 52 

40a Pacific Kittiwake *' " pollicaris 52 

41 Red-legged Kittiwake '' brevirostris 52 

42 Glaucous Gull Larus glaucus 53 

42.1 Point Barrow Gull " barrovianus 5 

43 Iceland Gull " leucopterus 5 

44 Glaucous-winged Gull " glaucescens 5 

45 Kumlien Gull " kumlieni 5 

46 Nelson Gull " nelsoni 5 

47 Great Black-backed Gull .... " marinus 5 

48 Slaty -backed Gull *' schistisagus 5 

49 Western Gull " occidentalis 5 

[50] Siberian Gull " affinis A.V 

51 Herring Gull '* argentatus 5 

52 Vega Gull '* vegse 5 

53 California Gull '* californicus 5 

54 Ring-billed Gull '* delawarensis 52 

55 Short-billed Gull '* brachyrhynchus 52 

[56] Mew Gull " canus A.V. 

57 Heermann Gull " heermanni 54 

58 Laughing Gull " atricilla 56 

59 Franklin Gull " franklinii 56 

60 Bonaparte Gull " Philadelphia 56 


Systematic Table of North American Birds. 




scientific NAME. 



6i Ross Gull 

Sabine Gull 

Gull-billed Tern 

Caspian Tern 

Royal Tern 

Elegant- Tern 

Cabot Tern . . . / 

Trudeau Tern 

Forster Tern 

Common Tern 

Arctic Tern 

Roseate Tern 

Aleutian Tern 

Least Tern 

Sooty Tern 

Bridled Tern 

Black Tern 

White-winged Black Tern. 
















Larus minutus A. V. 

Rhodostethia rosea 56 

Xema sabinii 56 

Gelochelidon nilotica 58 

Sterna caspia 57 

" maxima 57 

** ^legans 57 

" sandvicensis acuflavida. . 57 

*' trudeaui A. V. 

" forsteri 59 

*' hirundo 59 

" paradis^ea 59 

" dougalli 59 

" aleutica 58 

'* antillarum 58 

'* fuliginosa 60 

" anaethetus 58 

Hydrochelidon nigra surinamensis6o 

" leucoptera AV. 

Anous stolidus 60 

So Black Skimmer Rynchops nigra 60 

Order TUBINARES. Tube-nosed Swimmers. 


81 Black -footed Albatross Diomedea nigripes 62 

82 Short-tailed Albatross Diomedea albatrus 62 

82.iLaysan ** Diomedea immutabilis 62 

£83] Yellow-nosed Albatross Thalassogeron culminatus 62 

84 Sooty Albatross Phctbetria fuliginosa 62 


£85] Giant Fulmar Ossifraga gigantea A.V. 

86 Fulmar Fulmarus glacialis 63 

86b Pacific Fulmar '* '* glupischa ... 63 

86c Rodgers Fulmar " rodgersii 63 

%7 Slender-billed Fulmar Priocella glacialoides 63 

S% Cory Shearwater Puffinus borealis 64 

89 Greater Shearwater '* major 64 

£90] Manx Shearwater " puffinus A.V 

91 Pink-footed Shearwater " creatopus 64 


Systematic Table of North American Birds. 


92 Audubon Shearwater PuflSnus Iherminieri 64 

[92.i]AUied Shearwater ; " assimilis ..A. V. 

93 Black-yented Shearwater *' opisthomelas 64 

93.1 Townsehd Shearwater ** auricularis 64 

94 Sooty Shearwater " fuliginosus 63 

95 Dark-bodied Shearwater * * griseus 63 

96 Slender-billed Shearwater ** tenuirostris 64 

96. 1 Wedge-tailed Shearwater ** cuneatus 63 

96.2 Buller Shearwater '* bulleri A.V. 



Black-tailed Shearwater Priofinuscinereus .A.V. 

[98] Black -capped Petrel i€strelata hasitata 65 

[99] Scaled Petrel " scalaris A.V. 

100 Fisher Petrel ** fisheri A.V. 

rioi]Bulwer Petrel Bulweriabulweri A.V. 

[ i02]Pintado Petrel Daption capensis w ... A.V. 

103 Least Petrel Halocyptena microsoma 65 

104 Stormy Petrel Procellaria pelagica 66 

105 Forked-tailed Petrel Oceanodroma furcata 65 

105. 1 Kaeding Petrel " kaedingi 65 

106 Leach Petrel '. " leucorhoa 66 

106 I Guadalupe Petrel " macrodactyla ... 66 

[ io6.2]Hawaiian Petrel " cryptoleucura. .A.V. 

107 Black Petrel " melania 66 

108 Ashy Petrel " homochroa 65 

108. 1 Socorro Petrel '* socorroensis 66 

105 Wilson Petrel Oceanitesoceanicus 66 

[ 1 10] White-bellied Petrel. Fregetta grallaria A. V. 

[i I i]White-faced Petrel Pelagodroma marina A.V. 

Order STEGANOPODES. Totipalmate Swimmers. 


112 Yellow-billed Tropic Bird Phaethon mericanus 69 

113 Red-billed Tropic Bird " . aethereus .69 

[ 1 1 3. 1 ] Red-tailed Tropic Bird * * rubr icaudus A.V. 

Family SULID>e. Gannets. 

[ I i4]Blue-faced Booby Sula cyanops 70 

1 14. 1 Blue-footed Booby " nebouxii 70 

1 1 5 Booby " sula 70 

1 1 5. 1 Brewster Booby *' brewsteri 70 

[i i6]Red-fopted Booby *' piscator 70 

1 17 Gannet — " bassana 59 


Systematic Table of North American birds. 

1 18 Anhinga Anhinga anhinga 73 


1 19 Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo 70 

i 20 Double-crested Cormorant. . . *' dilophus — - 71 

1 20a Florida Cormorant 

1 20b White-crested Cormorant 

1 20c Farallone Cormorant 

121 Mexican Cormorant 

122 Brandt Cormorant . . : • 

123 Pelagic Cormorant 

1 23a Violet-green Cormorant 

123b Baird Cormorant 

124 Red-faced Cormorant 

floridanus 71 
'* cincinatus 71 
** albociliatus7i 

mexicanus 71 

penicillatus 72 

pelagicus 72 

" robustus 72 

*' resplendens72 

urile 72 

Family PELECANID>e. Peucans. 

125 American White Pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchos 73 

126 Brown Pelican '* occidentalis 73 

1^7 California Brown Pelican — ** calif ornicus 73 

Family FREGATID>e. MaN-O'-War BIRDS. 

128 Man-o'War Bird Fregata aquila 73 

Order ANSERES. Lamellirostral Swimmers. 

Family ANATID>e. Ducks, Geese, and Swans. 

1 29 American Merganser Meganser americanus 76 

1 30 Red-breasted Merganser " serrator 76 

131 Hooded Merganser Lophodytes cucullatus 76 

[131.1] Smew Mergusalbellus A.V. 

1 32 Mallard. ... Anas boschas 76 

1 33 Black Duck " obscura jy 

1 33a Red-legged Black Duck " " rubripes yy 

1 34 Florida Duck " fulvigula. .... yy 

1 34a Mottled Duck *' '* maculosa yy 

1 35 Gadwall Chaulelasmqs streperus yy 

1 36 Widgeon Mareca penelope yy 

137 Baldpate " americana yy 

[138] European Teal Nettion crecca yy 

1 39 Green-winged Teal " carolinensis yS 

140 Blue-winged Teal Querquedula discors 78 

141 Cinnamon Teal '* ' cyanoptera 78 


Systematic Table of North American Birds. 


142 Shoveller 

143 Pintail 

144 Wood Duck. 

[i45]Rufus-crested Duck 

146 Redhead 

147 Canvas-back 

148 American Scaup Duck 

149 Lesser Scaup Duck 

1 50 Ring-necked Duck 

1 5 1 American Golden-eye 

1 52 Barrow Golden-eye 

1 5 3 Buffle-head 

1 54 Old-squaw 

1 5 5 Harlequin Duck 

1 56 Labrador Duck 

1 57 Steller Duck 

1 58 Spectacled Eider 

1 59 Northern Eider 

160 American Eider 

161 Pacific Eider 

162 King Eider 

163 American Scoter 

[164] Velvet Scoter 

165 White-winged Scoter 

166 Surf Scoter 

167 Ruddy Duck 

[i68]Masked Duck 

169 Lesser Snow Goose 

169a Greater Snow Goose 

16). I Blue Goose 

170 Ross Snow Goose 

[171] White-fronted Goose 

171a Amer. White-fronted Goose . 
[i7i.i]Bean Goose 

172 Canada Goose 

172a Hutchins Goose 

172b White-cheeked Goose 

172c Cackling Goose 

173 Brant 

174 Black Brant 

[175] Barnacle Goose 

176 Emperor Goose 

177 Black-bellied Tree-duck 



Casarca casarca A.V. 

Spatula clypeata 7S 

Dafila acuta 76 

Aix sponsa jS 

Netta rufina A.V. 

Aythya americana 79 

" vallisneria 79 

" marila 79 

" affinis 79 

" collaris 79 

Clangula clangula americana . . 80 

'* islandica 80 

Charitonetta albeola 80 

Harelda hyemalis 81 

Histrionicus histrionicus 81 

Camptolaimus labradorius 81 

Eniconetta stelleri 81 

Arctonetta fischeri S2 

Somateria mollissima borealis.. . S2 

** dresseri S2 

" v-nigra 82 

*' spectabilis 82 

Oidemia americana 8^ 

'' fusca A.V 

" deglandi. 83 

*' perspicillata 83 

Erismatura jamaicensis 80 

Nomonyx dominicus 80 

Chen hyperborea 84 

" nivalis 84 

" casrulescens 8; 

'* rossii 84 

Anser albifrons 

gambeli 85 

" fablalis A.V. 

Branta canadensis 86 

hutchinsii 86 

** " occidentalis .. 86 

" " minima 86 

" bernicia glaucogastra. . . 86 

" nigricans 86 

" leucopsis A.V. 

Philacte canagica 85 

Dendrocygna autumnalis 8j 


Systematic Table of north American Birds. 

^'Si^' COMMON name. Scientific name. pagh 

1 78 Fulvous Tree-duck Dendrocygna fulva 83 

[ 1 79] Whooping Swan Olor cygnus A. V. 

180 Whistling Swan *' columbianus 84 

181 Trumpeter Swan " buccinator 84 

Order ODONTOGLOSSi€. Lamei.lirostral Grallat- 



182 American Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber 89 

Order HERODIONES. Herons, Storks, Ibises, etc. 


183 Roseate Spoonbill Ajaiaajaja 89 


184 White Ibis Guara alba 90 

[i85]Scarlet Ibis '* rubra 89 

186 Glossy Ibis Plegadis autumnalis 90 

• 187 White-faced Glossy Ibis " guarauna 90 


188 Wood Ibis Tantalus loculator 90 

[i89]Jabiru Mycteria americana A.V. 


190 American Bittern Botaurus lentiginosus 91 

191 Least Bittern Ardetta exilis 91 

191. 1 Cory Least Bittern " neoxena 91 

192 Great White Heron Ardea occidentalis 92 

194 Great Blue Heron ** herodias 93 

194a Northwest Coast Heron ** *' fannini 93 

194b Ward Heron " *' vvardi 93 

[i95]European Blue Heron " cinerea A.V. 

196 American Egret Herodias egretta 92 

197 Snowy Heron Egretta candidissima 92 

198 Reddish Egret Dichromanassa rufescens 94 

199 Louisiana Heron Hydranassa tricolor ruficollis 94 

200 Little Blue Heron Florida c^rulea 94 

201 Green Heron Butorides virescens 94 

20ia Frazar Green Heron *' " frazari 94 

20ib Anthony Green Heron " " anthonyi .... 94 


Systematic Table of North American Birds. 


202 Black-crowned Night Heron. . Nycticorax nycticorax naevius. . 93 

203 Yellow-crowned Night Heron . Nyctanassa violaceus 93 

ORDER Paludicol^e. Cranes, Rails, Etc 

Family GRUID>e. CRANES. 

204 Whooping Crane Grus americana 96 

205 Little Brown Crane " canadensis 96 

206 Sandhill Crane " mexicana 96 


207 Limpkin Aramus giganteus 96 

Family RALLIDit RAILS, Gallinules, AND COOTS. 

208 King Rail Rallus elegans 97 

209 Belding Rail Rallus beldingi 97 

210 California Clapper Rail ** obsoletus 97 

21 1 Clapper Rail " crepitans 98 

21 la Louisiana Clapper Rail " *' saturatus 98 

21 lb Florida Clapper Rail '* '* scottii 98 

2 lie Wayne Clapper Rail *' " waynei 98 

[21 1, 2] Caribbean Clapper Rail •' longirostris caribaeus 98 

212 Virginia Rail " virginianus 97 

[2 1 3] Spotted Crake Porzana porzana A.V. 

214 Sora ** Carolina 98 

21 5 Yellow Rail " noveboracensis 97 

216 Black Rail " jamaicensis 98 

216.1 Farallone Rail ** coturniculus A.V. 

[2i7]Corn Crake Crex crex A.V. 

218 Purple Gallinule lonornis martinica 99 

219 Florida Gallinule Gallinula galeata 99 

[22o]European Coot Fulica atra . A.V. 

221 American Coot *' americana 99 

Order LIMICOLi€. Shore Birds, 

Family PHALAROPODID>e. Phalaropes. 

222 Red Phalarope Crymophilus fulicarius 102 

223 Northern Phalarope Phalaropus lobatus 102 

224 Wilson Phalarope Steganopus tricolor 102 


225 American Avocet Recurvirostra americana 103 

226 Black-necked Stilt Himantopus mexicanus 105 


Systematic Table of North American Birds. 



[227]European Woodcock 

228 American Woodcock 

[229] European Snipe 

230 Wils6n Snipe 

[230.i]Great Snipe 

231 Dowitcher 

232 Long-billed Dowitcher 

233 Stilt Sandpiper 

234 Knot 

235 Purple Sandpiper. .• 

236 Aleutian Sandpiper 

237 Pribilof Sandpiper .' 

238 Sharp-tailed Sandpiper 

239 Pectoral Sandpiper 

240 White-rumped Sandpiper 

241 Baird Sandpiper 

242 Least Sandpiper 

[242.1] Long-toed Stint 

[243] Dunlin 

243a Red-backed Sandpiper 

244 Curlew Sandpiper 

[245] Spoon-bill Sandpiper 

246 Semipalmated Sandpiper 

247 Western Sandpiper 

248 Sanderling 

249 Marbled Godwit. 

250 Pacific Godwit. 

251 Hudsonian Godwit • 

t 252] Black-tailed Godwit 
2 5 3] Green Shank 

254 Greater Yellow-legs 

255 Yellow-legs 

256 Solitary Sandpiper 

256a Western Solitary Sandpiper . . 
[2 57] Green Sandpiper *. . .. 

258 Willet 

258a Western Willet 

259 Wandering Tatler 


261 Bartramian Sandpiper. ..:... 

262 Buff-breasted Sandpiper 

263 Spotted Sandpiper 

264 Long-bflled Curlew 

Scolopax rusticola A. V. 

Philohela minor 105 

Gallinago gallinago - A. V. 

" delicata 105 

'* major A.V. 

Macrorhamphus griseus 106 

" scolopaceus 106 

Micropalama himantopus 106 

Tringa canutus 106 

Arquatella maritima 107 

" couesi 107 

" ptilocnemis 108 

Actrodramas acuminata 109 

** maculata 109 

" fuscicollis 109 

" bairdii 109"^ 

*' minutilla.. 109 

" damacensis A.V. 

Pelidna alpina A.V. 

" " pacifica 108 

Erolia ferruginea 106 

Eurynorhynchus pygmaeus. . . .A.V. 

Ereunetes pusillus 108 

" occidentalis .108 

Calidris arenaria 108 

Limosa fedoa no 

" lapponica baueri no 

" haemastica no 

*' limosa A.V. 

Totanus nebularius A.V. 

* ' melanoleucus in 

'* flapvipes ni 

Helodromas solitarius. 109 

'* '* cinnamomeus. 109 

•** ochropus A.V. 

Symphemia semipalmata in 

*' " inornata 

Heteractitis incanus in 

Pavoncella pugnax A.V. 

Bartramia longicauda 105 

Tryngites subruficollis 105 

Actitis macularia 109 

Numenius longirostris 103 


Systematic Table of North American Birds. 


265 Hudsonian Curlew Numenius hudsonicus 105 

266 Eskimo Curlew " borealis 105 

[267] Whimbrel " phaeopus A.V- 

[268] Bristle-thighed Curlew *' tahitiensis A.V. 


[269]Lapwing Vanellus vanellus A.V. 

[269.1] Dotterel Eudromias morinellus A. V. 

270 Black-bellied Plover Squatarola squatarola no 

[271] Golden Plover Charadrius apricarius A. V. 

272 American Golden Plover '* dominicus no 

272a Pacific Golden Plover ** '* fulvus no 

273 Killdeer Oxyechus vociferus 112 

274 Semipal mated Plover >Egialitis semipalmata 112 

hiaticula 112 

dubia A. V. 

meloda. .' 1 12 

circumcincta 112 

nivosa 112 

mongola A. V. 

wilsonius 112 

275 Ring Plover. 

[276] Little Ring Plover. . . . 

277 Piping Plover 

277a Belted Piping Plover . 

278 Snowy Plover 

[279] Mongolian Plover 

280 Wilson Plover 

281 Mountain Plover Podasocys montanus 105 


282 Surf Bird Aphriza virgata in 

283 Turnstone Arenaria interpres 102 

283. 1 Ruddy Turnstone *' morinella 102 

284 Black Turnstone " melanocephala 107 

Family H^MATOPODIDi€. Oyster-Catchers. 

[285] Oyster-catcher Haematopus ostralegus A.V. 

286 American Oyster-catcher ** palliatus 104 

286. 1 Frazar Oyster-catcher " frazari 104 

287 Black Oyster-catcher ^ . . '* bachmani 104 

Family JACAN1D>E. Jacanas. 
[288]Mexican Jacana Jacana spinosa 102 

Order GALLINy€. Gallinaceous Birds. 


Systematic Table of North American Birds. 





289 Bob-white 

289a Florida Bob-white 

289b Texan Bob-white 

291 Masked Bob-white 

292 Mountain Partridge 

292a Plumed Partridge 

292b San Pedro Partridge 

293 Scaled Partidge 

293a Chestnut-bellied Scaled Part- 

294 California Partridge 

294a Valley Partridge 

295 Gambel Partridge 

296 Mearns Partridge 

297 Dusky Grouse 

297a Sooty Grouse 

297b Richardson Grouse 

298 Canada Grouse 

298b Alaskan Grouse 

298c Hudsonian Spruce Grouse.. . . 

299 Franklin Grouse 

3CX) Ruffed Grouse 

300a Canadian Ruffed Grouse 

300b Gray Ruffed Grouse 

300c Oregon Ruffed Grouse 

301 Willow Ptarmigan 

301a Allen Ptarmigan 

302 Rock Ptarmigan 

302a Reinhardt Ptarmigan 

302b Nelson Ptarmigan 

302c Turner Ptarmigan 

302d Townsend Ptarmigan 

302.1 Evermann Ptarmigan 

303 Welch Ptarmigan 

304? White-tailed Ptarmigan 

304a.^Kenai Ptarmigan 

305 Prairie Hen 

305a Attwater Prairie Hen 

306 Heath Hen 

307 Lesser Prairie Hen 

308 Sharp'tailed Grouse 


Colinus virginianus 

*' ** floridanus. 

'* texanus. . 


Oreortyx pictus 

** " plumiferus.. 

" " confinis 

Callipepla squamata 


'* " castanogastris 

Lophortyx californica 


*' gambelii 

Cyrtonyx montezumae mearnsi 

Dendragapus obscurus 

** " fuliginosus 

" " richardsonii 

Canachites canadensis 

*' *' osgoodi. 

*' *' canace.. 

" franklinii 

Bonasa umbellus 

" " togata 

*' " umbelloides . . 

" " sabini 

Lagopus lagopus 

** alleni 

" rupestris 

*' " reinhardti 

" '* nelsoni 

" " atkhensis 

" *' townsendi 

*' evermanni . . . 

** welchi 


" peninsularis 

Tympanuchus americanus 

** " attwater i.. 

" cupido 

*' pallidicinctus — 
Pedicecetes phasianellus 









Systematic Table of North American Birds. 


308a ColumbianSharp-tailedGrouse Pedioecetes phasianellus columbianus 

308b Prairie Sharp-tailed Grouse. . " *' campestris . . 121 

309 Sage Grouse Centrocercus urophasianus 122 


310 Wild Turkey Meleagris gallopavo silvestris. . . 122 

310a Merriam Turkey ** ** merriami...i22 

310b Florida Wild Turkey '* ** osceola 122 

310C Rio Grande Turkey " " intermedia. .122 


31 1 Chachalaca Ortalis vetula maccalli 122 

Order COLUMB/C. Pigeons. 


312 Band-tailed Pigeon Columba fasciata 124 

312a Viosca Pigeon '/ ** vioscae 124 

31 3 Red-billed Pigeon " flavirostris 124 

314 White-crowned Pigeon " leucocephala 124 

[314.1] Scaled Pigeon " squamosa A.V. 

315 Passenger Pigeon Ectopistes migrator ius 125 

316 Mourning Dove Zenaidura macroura 125 

317 Zenaida Dove ** zenaida 125 

318 White-fronted Dove Leptotila fulviventris brachyp- 

tera 125 

319 White-winged Dove Melopelia leucoptera 1 26 

320 Ground Dove Columbigallina passerina terres- 

tris 1 26 

320a Mexican Ground Dove ** " pallescensi26 

320b Bermuda Ground Dove *' '* bermudianai 26 

321 Inca Dove Scardafella inca 126 

; 322] Key West Quail-Dove Geotrygon chrysia 126 

'322.1] Ruddy Quail-Dove " montana. 126 

'323] Blue-headed Quail-Dove Starnoenas cyanocephala 126 

Order RAPTORES. Birds of Prey. 


324 California Vulture Gymnogyps calif ornianus 129 

325 Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura 129 

326 Black Vulture Catharista urubu 129 


Systematic Table of North American Birds. 



327 Swallow-tailed Kite 

328 White-tailed Kite 

329 Mississippi Kite 

330 Everglade Kite 

331 Marsh Hawk 

332 Sharp-shinned Hawk 

333 Cooper Hawk 

3 34 American Goshawk 

334a Western Goshawk 

335 Harris Hawk 

[ 3 36] European Buzzard 

337 Red-tailed Hawk 

337a Krider Hawk 

337b Western Red-tail 

337d Harlan Hawk 

Socorro Red-tail 

339 Red-shouldered Hawk 

339a Florida Red-shouldered Hawk 
339b Red-bellied Hawk 

340 Zone-tailed Ha^k 

341 Sennett White-tailed Hawk . . 

342 Swainson Hawk 

343 Broad-winged Hawk 

344 Short-tailed Hawk 

345 Mexican Black Hawk 

346 Mexican Goshawk 

[347] Rough-legged Hawk 

347a American Rough-legged Hawk 

348 Ferruginous Rough-Leg 

349 Golden Eagle 

[350] Harpy Eagle 

[35a] Gray Sea Eagle 

352 Bald Eagle 

352a Alaskan Bald Eagle 

353 White Gyrfalcon., 

354 Gray Gyrfalcon 

354a Gyrfalcon 

354b Black Gyrfalcon 

355 Prairie Falcon 

356 Duck Hawk 

356a Peale Falcon 


Elanoides forficatus 130 

Elanus leucurus 1 30 

Ictinia mississippiensis 1 30 

Rostrhamus sociabilis 1 30 

Circus hudsonius 130 

Accipiter velox 131 

" cooperii 131 

'* atricapillus 131 

" " striatulus 131 

Parabuteo unicinctus harrisi 132 

Buteo buteo A. V. 

" borealis 1 32 

** " kriderii 132 

*' *' calurus 132 

*' *' harlani 132 

'* ** socorroensis 1 32 

** lineatus 133 

" *' alleni 133 

" " elegans 133 

*' abbreviatus 1 34 

'* albicaudatus senetti 135 

" swainsoni 133 

** platypterus 1 33 

'* brachyurus 135 

Urubitinga anthracina 1 34 

Asturina plagiata 131 

Archibuteo lagopus A. V. 

** ** sancti-johannis 135 

" ferrugineus 135 

Aquila chrysaetos 1 36 

Thrasaetos harpyia A.V. 

Haliaeetus albicilla A.V. 

" leucocephalus 1 36 

*' " alascanus . . 1 36 

Falco islandus 136 

" rusticolus 136 

" " gyrfalco 136 

*' '* obsoletus 137 

" mexicanus 135 

" peregrinus anatum 1 37 

" " pealei 137 


Systematic Table of North American Birds. 

^Ni^' COMMON name. 

357 Pigeon Hawk Falco 

357a Black Merlin '* 

358 Richardson Merlin '* 

[358.i]MerIin " 

359 Aplomado Falcon *' 

[359.a] Kestrel •* 

360 American Sparrow Hawk '* 

360a Desert Sparrow Hawk *' 

360b St. Lucas Sparrow Hawk ... ** 
[361] Cuban Sparrow Hawk 

scientihc name. 

columbarius it 

'* suckleyi i' 

richardsonii i 

regulus A.Sr^ 

fusco-coerulescens i 3J 

tinnuncuius A. Vj 

sparverius 1 3JI 

** »pha!oena 13I 

** peninsularis 13IJ 

dominicensis A. V. 

362 Audubon Caracara Polyborus cheriway 1 34J 

363 Guadalupe Caracara " lutosus 1 34 

364 American Osprey Pandion haliaetus carolinensis . . 129 


365 American Barn Owl Strix pratincola 


Family BUBONID>E. 

366 American Long-eared Owl. . . 

367 Short-eared Owl 

368 Barred Owl 

368a Florida Barred Owl 

368b Texan Barred Owl 

369 Spotted Owl 

369a Northern Spotted Owl 

370 Great Gray Owl 

[370a]Lapp Owl 

371 Richardson Owl 

372 Saw-whet Owl 

372a Northwest Saw-whet Owl — 

373 Screech Owl 

273a Florida Screech Owl 

373b Texas Screech Owl 

373c California Screech Owl 

373d Kennic©tt Screech Owl 

373e Rocky Mountain Screech Owl 

373f Mexican Screech Owl 

373g Aiken Screech Owl 

373h MacFarlane Screech Owl 

373 I Spotted Screech Owl 

373.2 Xantus Screech Owl 

374 Flammulated Screech Owl.. . . 
374a Dwarf Screech Owl 

Horned Owls, etc. 

Asio wilsonianus 138 

" accipitrinus 138 

Syrnium varium 139 

*' " alleni 139 

" " helveolum 139 

" occidentale 139 

** " caurinum . . . 139 

Scotiaptex nebulosa 139 

" " lapponica. . A.V. 

Nyctala tengmalmi richardsoni. .139 

" acadica 140 

*' " scotaea 140 

Megascops asio 141 

" " floridanus 141 

'' ** mccalli 141 

'' " bendirei 141 

" '* kennicottii 141 

maxwelliae 141 

cineraceus 142 

aikeni 142 

** macfarlanei 142 

trichopsis. . . .. .142 

xantusi 142 

flammeola .142 

" idahoensis 142 








Systematic Table of North American Birds. 


375 Great Horned Owl Bubo virginianus 143 

375a Western Horned Owl " " pallescens 143 

375b Arctic Horned Owl " " arcticus 143 

375c Dusky Horned Owl ** " saturatus 143 

375d Pacific Horned Owl " " pacificus 143 

375e Dwarf Horned Owl ** *' elachistus 143 

376 Snowy Owl Nyctea nyctea 143 

[377]Hawk Owl Surnia ulula A.V. 

377a American Hawk Owl ** ** caparoch 143 

378 Burrowing Owl Speotyto cunicularia hypogsea . . 1 38 

378a Florida Burrowing Owl ** *' floridana. . 1 38 

379 PyS^y Owl Glaucidium gnoma 140 

379a California Pygmy Owl, '* '* californicum 140 

379.iHoskins Pygmy (Jwl " hoskinsii 140 

380 Ferruginous Pygmy Owl '* phalsenoides 140 

381 Elf Owl Micropallas whitneyi 140 

Order PSITTACI. Parrots, Macaws, Paroquets, etc. 


382 Carolina Paroquet Conurus carolinensis 145 

382. 1 Thick-billed Parrot Rhynchopsitta pachy rhy ncha ... 145 

Order COCCYGES. Cuckoos, etc. 

Family Cuculidas. CuCKOOS, ANIS, ETC. 

[383] Ani I Crotophaga ani 146 

384 Groove-billed Ani " sulcirostris 146 

385 Road-runner Geococcyx californianus 146 

386 Mangrove Cuckoo Coccyzus minor 146 

[386a]Maynard Cuckoo ** ** maynardi 146 

387 Yellow-billed Cuckoo *' americanus 146 

387a California Cuckoo ** '* occidentalis 146 

388 Black-billed Cuckoo *' erythrophthalmus 146 

£388.i]Kamchatkan Cuckoo Cuculus canorus telephonus. . . A.V. 

Family TROGONID>E. Trogons. 

389 Coppery-tailed Trogon Trogon ambiguus 147 


390 Belted Kingfisher Ceryle alcyon 147 

[391.1] Ringed Kingfisher *' torquata A.V. 

391 Texas Kingfisher " americana septentrionaIisi47 


Systematic Table of North American Birds. 
Order PICK Woodpeckers, Wrynecks, etc. 



392 Ivory-billed Woodpecker Campephilus principalis 149 

393 Hairy Woodpecker Dryobates villosus 1 50 

393a Northern Hairy Woodpecker.. ** '* leucomelas. . . 1 50 

393b Southern Hairy Woodpecker.. ** '* audubonii. ... 1 50 

393c Harris Woodpecker ** ** harrisii 150 

393d Cabanis Woodpecker •* ** hyloscopus ... 1 50 

393e Rocky Mt. Hairy Woodpecker *• ** monticola 1 50 

39 3f Queen Charlotte Woodpecker ** *' picoideus 150 

394 Southern Downy Woodpecker ** pubescens 1 50 

394a Gairdner Woodpecker •* ** gairdnerii ... 1 50 

394b Batchelder Woodpecker *• " homorus .... 1 50 

394c Downy Woodpecker ** *' medianus — 150 

394d Northern Downy Woodpecker **. *' nelsoni 1 50 

3946 Willow Woodpecker ** *' turati 151 

395 Red-cockaded Woodpecker ... ** borealis 151 

396 Texan Woodpecker " scalaris bairdi 151 

396a Saint Lucas Woodpecker " " lucasanus. ..151 

397 Nuttall Woodpecker *' nuttallii 151 

398 Arizona Woodpecker *' arizona 141 

399 White-headed Woodpecker . . . Xenopicus albolarvatus 151 

4C0 Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker Picoides arcticus 149 

401 Amer. Three-toed Woodpecker " americanus 149 

401a Alaskan Three-toed Woodpkr. " " fasciatus. . . . 149 

401b Alpine Three-toed Woodpecker '* '* dorsalis 149 

402 Yellow-bellied Sapsucker Sphyrapicus varius 152 

402a Red-naped Sapsucker " '* nuchalis 152 

403 Red-breasted Sapsucker " ruber 1 52 

403a Northern Red-breasted Sap- 
sucker '* " notkensis. .. 152 

404 Williamson Sapsucker " " thyroideus. . 1 52 

405 Pileated Woodpecker Ceophloeus pileatus 149 

405a Northern Pileated Woodpecker " " abieticola . . . 149 

406 Red-headed Woodpecker Melanerpes ery throcephalus 153 

407 Ant-eating Woodpecker " formicivorus 153 

407a Californian Woodpecker ** " bairdi 153 

407b Narrow-fronted Woodpecker.. " '* angustifrons-i53 

408 Lewis Woodpecker Asyndesmus torquatus 152 

409 Red-bellied Woodpecker Centurus carolinus 153 

410 Golden-fronted Woodpecker . . " aurif rons 153 


Systematic Table of North American birds. 


411 Gila Woodpecker •. Centurus uropygialis 153 

412 Southern Flicker Colaptes auratus 154 

412a Northern Flicker " " luteus 1 54 

41 3 Red-shafted Flicker " cafer collaris 1 54 

41 3a Northwestern Flicker " " saturatior . 1 54 

414 Gilded Flicker " chrysoides 154 

414a Brown Flicker " " brunnescens.i 54 

41 5 Guadalupe Flicker " rufipileus 1 54 

Order MACROCHIRES. Goatsuckers, Swifts, etc. 


416 Chuck-will's-widow Antrostomus carolinensis 1 56 

417 Whip-poor-will '* . vociferus 156 

417a Stephens Whip-poor-will " " macromystax.156 

418 Poor-will Phalanoptilus nuttallii 1 56 

418a Frosted Poor-will '* " nitidus. ... 1 56 

418b Dusky Poor-will *' " californicus.156 

419 Merrill Parauque Nyctidromus albicollis merrilli ..157 

420 Nighthawk Chordeiles virginianus 1 57 

420a Western Nighthawk '* " henryi 157 

420b Florida Nighthawk '* '* chapmani. . . .1 57 

420c Sennett Nighthawk " " sennetti 1 57 

421 Texan Nighthawk " acutipennis texensis. . 1 57 


422 Black Swift Cypseloides niger borealis 1 58 

423 Chimney Swift Chaetura pelagica 158 

424 Vaux Swift " vauxii 158 

425 White-throated Swift Aeronautes melanoleucus 1 58 


426 Rivoli Hummingbird Eugenes fulgens 1 59 

427 Blue-throated Hummingbird . . Coeligena clemenciae 160 

428 Ruby-throated Hummingbird. Trochilus colubris 160 

429 Black-chinned Hummingbird. . '* alexandri 1 159 

430 Costa Hummingbird Calypte costae 1 59 

431 Anna Hummingbird ** anna i6i 

[431. i]Floresi Hummingbird Selasphorus floresii A.V 

432 Broad-tailed Hummingbird. ... " platycercus 161 

433 Rufous Hummingbird " rufus i6i 


Systematic Table of North American Birds. 





434 Allen Hummingbird Selasphorus alleni i6i 

435 Morcom Hummingbird Atthis morcomi i6i 

436 Calliope Hummingbird Stellula calliope 161 

437 Lucifer Hummingbird Calothorax lucifer 1 59 

438 Rieffer Hummingbird Amazilis tzacatl 169 

439 Buff-bellied Hummingbird '* cerviniventris chalconota. 160 

440 Xantus Hummingbird Basilinna xantusi 1 59 

440. 1 White-eared Hummingbird ... '* leucotis 160 

441 Broad-billed Hummingbird lache latirostris 160 

Order PASSERES. Perching Birds. 

[441. 1] Xantus Becard Platypsaris albiventris 






[442] Fork-tailed Flycatcher 

443 Scissor-tailed Flycatcher 


Gray Kingbird 

Couch Kingbird 

Arkansas Kingbird 

Cassin Kingbird 

Derby Flycatcher 

[450] Giraud Flycatcher 

451 Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher... 

452 Crested Flycatcher 

453 Mexican Crested Flycatcher.. 
453a Arizona Crested Flycatcher.. 

454 Ash-throated Flycatcher 

454a Nutting Flycatcher 

454b Lower California Flycatcher. 

[455]Lawrence Flycatcher 

455a Olivaceous Flycatcher 


Say Phoebe 

Black Phoebe 

Western Black Phoebe » 

Olive-sided Flycatcher 

Coues Flycatcher 

Wood Pewee 

Western Wood Pewee 



Muscivoratyrannus A.V. 

*' forficata 177 

Tyrannus tyrannus 

*' dominicensis 

" melancholicus couchii202 

*' verticalis 202 

" vociferans 202 

Pitangus derbianus 202 

Myiozetetes similis superciliosusA. V 
Myiodynastes luteiventris . . .... 202 

Myiarchus crinitus 202 

" mexicanus 202 

" '* magister. .203 

" cinerascens 202 

" '* nuttingi ..202 

" *' pertinax.. 202 

" lawrencei A.V. 

" " olivascens.202 

Sayornis phoebe 208 

" saya 205 

" nigricans 251 

'* '* semiatra 251 

Nuttallornis borealis 208 

Contopus pertinax pallidiventris 208 

" virens 208 

" richardsonii 208 


Systematic Table of North American Birds. 

"^HoY' COMMON name. 

462a Large-billed Wood Pewee. . 

463 Yellow-bellied Flycatcher . . 

464 Western Flycatcher 

464. 1 St. Lucas Flycatcher 

464.2 Santa Barbara Flycatcher. . 

465 Green-crested Flycatcher . . 

Traill Flycatcher 

Alder Flycatcher 

Least Flycatcher 

Hammond Flycatcher 

Wright Flycatcher 

Gray Flycatcher 

[470] Fulvous Flycatcher 

470a Buff -breasted Flycatcher. 


Contopus richardsoni peninsulas 208 

Empidonax flaviventris 211 

'* difficilis 212 

" cineritius 210 

'* insulicola 210 

" virescens 210 

" traillii 209 

*' ** ainorum 20^ 

" minimus 209 

" hammondi 209 

" wrightii 209 

'* griseus 2c6 

" fulvifrons A. V. 

'* ** pygmaeus. 115 

Vermilion Flycatcher Pyrocephalus rubineus mexican- 

us 177 

472 Beardless Flycatcher Ornithion imberbe 199 

472a Ridgway Flycatcher " " ridgwayi . . . 199 







Family ALAUD1D>E. LarKS. 

t473]Sl<ylark Alauda arvensis . . 

474 Horned Lark Otocoris alpestris, 

474a Pallid Horned Lark 

474b Prairie Horned Lark 

474c Desert Horned Lark 

474d Texan Horned Lark 

4746 Californian Horned Lark 

474f Ruddy Horned Lark 

474g Streaked Horned Lark 

474h Scorched Horned Lark 

474i Dusky Horned Lark 

474j Sonoran Horned Lark 

474k Hoyt Horned Lark 

474I Montezuma Horned Lark 

474m Island Horned Lark 



arcticola 200 

praticola 200 

leucolama. ..201 

giraudi 200 

actia 201 

rubea 201 

strigata 201 

adusta 201 

merrilli 201 

pallida 201 

hoyti 200 

insularis 201 

Family CORVIDi€. CROWS, JAYS, MaGpies, ETC. 

475 American Irtagpie Pica pica hudsonia 

476 Yellow-billed Magpie Pica nuttalli 

477 Blue Jay Cyanocitta cristata 181 

477a Florida Blue Jay '• " florincola 182 

478 Steller Jay " stelleri 185 

478a Blue-fronte d Jay " " frontalis 182 


Systematic Table of north American Birds. 


478b Long-crested Jay Cyanocitta stelleri diademata. . .185 

478c Black-headed Jay '* *' annectens. . . 185 

478d Queen Charlotte Jay " " carlottae 185 

479 Florida Jay Aphelocoma cyanea 184 

480 Woodhouse Jay ** woodhouseii 184 

480. 1 Blue-eared Jay *' cyanotis 184 

48o.2Texan Jay " texana 184 

481 California Jay " californica 184 

481a Xantus Jay ** " hypoleuca.184 

481b Belding Jay ** *' obscura.184 

481.1 Santa Cruz Jay '* insularls 184 

482 Arizona Jay. '* sieberii arizonae. . 183 

482a Couch Jay ** *' couchii . . 183 

483 Green Jay Xanthoura luxuosa glaucescens. , 185 

484 Canada Jay Perisoreus canadensis 252 

484a Rocky Mountain Jay '* " capitalis 252 

484b Alaskan Jay *' " fumifrons. . .252 

484c Labrador Jay " " nigricapillus. 252 

485 Oregon Jay ** obscurus 252 

485a Gray Jay " *' griseus 252 

486 American Raven Corvus corax 255 

486a Northern Raven '* " principalis 255 

487 White-necked Raven " cryptoleucus 255 

488 American Crow *' americanus 255 

488a Florida Crow *' *' pascuus 255 

489 Northwest Crow " caurinus 255 

490 Fish Crow ** ossifragus 255 

491 Clarke Crow Nucifraga Columbiana 252 

492 Pinon Jay Cyanocephalus cyanocephalus . . 183 


[493] Starling Sturnus vulgaris 253 


494 Bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus 251 

495 Cowbird Molothrus ater 253 

495a Dwarf Cowbird " " obscurus 253 

496 Red-eyed Cowbird Callothrus robustus 253 

497 Yellow-headed Blackbird Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus 199 

498 Red-winged Blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus 178 

498a Sonoran Red-wing ** '* sonoriensis . . 178 

498b Bahama Red-wing '* " bryanti 178 




498c Florida Red-wing Agelaius phoeniceus floridanus. . 178 

498d Thick-billed Red-wing " " fortis 178 

4986 San Diego Red-wing " *' neutralis 178 

498f Northwestern Red-wing " *' caurinus 1 78 

499 Bicolored Blackbird ** gubernator californicus.. 179 

500 Tricolored Blackbird ** tricolor 1 79 

501 Meadowlark Sturnella magna 199 

501a Mexican Meadowlark " '* hoopesi 199 

501b Western Meadowlark " ' * neglecta 199 

501C Florida Meadowlark ** " argutula 199 

[ 502]Troupial Icterus icterus A. V. 

503 Audubon Oriole " audubonii 186 

504 Scott Oriole " parisorum 186 

505 Hooded Oriole *' cucullatus sennetti. . . 186 

505a Arizona Hooded Oriole " '• nelsoni 186 

506 Orchard Oriole " spurius 206 

507 Baltimore Oriole " galbula 186 

508 Bullock Oriole " bullocki 186 

509 Rusty Blackbird Scolecophagus carolinus 254 

5 10 Brewer Blackbird " cyanocephalus. . . 2 54 

5n Purple Crackle Quiscalus quiscula 254 

511a Florida Crackle " *' aglaus 254 

511b Bronzed Crackle " '* seneus .254 

513 Boat-tailed Crackle Megaquiscalus major 254 

513a Creat-tailed Crackle " " macrourus.254 


514 Evenmg Crosbeak Hesperiphona vespertina 199 

514a Western Evening Crosbeak. . " '* montana 199 

515 'Pine Grosbeak.. Pinicola enucleator leucura 171 

51 5a Rocky Mt. Pine Grosbeak. . . " " montana .... 171 

515b California Pine Crosbeak .. . . " " californica . . 171 

515c Alaskan Pine Grosbeak '* " ^ alascensis. . . 171 

5 1 5d Kadiak Pine Grosbeak *' *' flammula. . ..171 

[5i6]Cassin Bullfinch Pyrrhula cassini A. V. 

517 Purple Finch Carpodacus purpureus 171 

517a California Purple Finch *' ** californicus. 171 

518 Cassin Purple Finch " cassini 175 

519 House Finch " mexicanusfrontalis. . 175 

519b St. Lucas House Finch " " ruberrimus : 175 

519c San Clemente House Finch . . " ** dementis 175 

520 Guadalupe House Finch *' amplus 175 

520.1 San Benito House Finch *' mcgregori 175 

521 American Crossbill Loxia curvirostra minor 173 


SYSTfeMATic Table of North American Birds. 

COMMON name. 



521a Mexican Crossbill 

522 White-winged Crossbill 

523 Aleutian Leucosticte 

524 Gray-crowned Leucosticte. . 
524a Hepburn Leucosticte 

525 Black Leucosticte 

526 Brown-capped Leucosticte... 

527 Greenland Redpoll 

527a Hoary Redpoll 

528 Redpoll 

528a Holboll Redpoll 

528b Greater Redpoll 

529 American Goldfinch 

529a Western Goldfinch 

529b Willow Goldfinch 

530 Arkansas Goldfinch 

530b Mexican Goldfinch 

531 Lawrence Goldfinch 

[532] Black-headed Goldfinch 

533 Pine Siskin 

534 Snowflake 

534a Pribilof Snowflake 

535 McKay Snowflake 

536 Lapland Longspur 

536a Alaskan Longspur 

537 Smith Longspur * 

538 Chestnut-collared Longspur . . 

539 McCown Longspur 

540 Vesper Sparrow 

540a Western Vesper Sparrow 

540b Oregon Vesper Sparrow 

541 Ipswich Sparrow 

542 Sandwich Sparrow 

542a Savanna Sparrow 

542b Western Savanna Sparrow.. . 
542c Bryant Irtarsh Sparrow 

543 Belding Marsh Sparrow 

544 Large-billed Sparrow 

544a St. Lucas Sparrow 

544b Abreojos Sparrow 

544c San Benito Sparrow 

545 Baird Sparrow 

546 Grasshopper Sparrow 



Loxia curvirostra stricklandi 17} 

** leucoptera 171 

Leucosticte griseonucha 179 

'* tephrocotis 179 

" ** littoralis 179 

'* atrata 179 

** australis 179 

Acanthis hornemannii 176 

** " exilipes. ...176 

" linaria 176 

" holboellii 176 

" *' rostrata 176 

Astragalinus tristis 192 

*' '* pallidus 192 

*' '* salicamans.. 192 

" psaltria 192 

*' " mexicanus.. 192 
" lawrencei 189 

Spinus notatus A. V. 

*' pinus 225 

Passerina nivalis 211 

" '* townsendi....2ii 
" hyperboreus 21 1 

Calcarius lapponicus 219 

" " alascensis.219 

" pictus 220 

" ornatus 218 

Rhynchophanes mccownii 218 

Pooecetes gramineus 221 

" '* confinis.. .221 
" " aflSnis 221 

Passerculus princeps 225 

'* sandwichensis 22} 

" " savanna .22} 

" " alaudinus223 

" *' bryanti. .223 

" beldingi 223 

" rostratus 22} 

'* " guttatus ..22} 

** " halophilus.224 

" '* sanctorum.224 

Coturniculus bairdii 224 

" savannarum passerinus.224 


Systematic Table of North American Birds. 


546a Western Grasshopper 


546b Florida Grasshopper Sparrow. 

547 Henslow Sparrow 

547a Western Henslow Sparrow. . . 

548 Leconte Sparrow 

549 Sharp-tailed Sparrow 

549.1 Nelson Sparrow 

549a Acadian Sharp-tailed Sparrow 

550 Seaside Sparrow 

550a Scott Seaside Sparrow 

550b Texas Seaside Sparrow 

550c Fisher Seaside Sparrow 

55od MacGillivray Seaside Sparrow 

551 Dusky Seaside Sparrow 

552 Lark Sparrow 

552a Western Lark Sparrow 

553 Harris Sparrow 

554 White-crowned Sparrow 

554a Gambel Sparrow 

554b Nuttall Sparrow 

557 Golden-crowned Sparrow 

558 White-throated Sparrow 

559 Tree Sparrow 

559a Western Tree Sparrow 

560 Chipping Sparrow 

560a Western Chipping Sparrow. . 

561 Clay-colored Sparrow 

562 Brewer Sparrow 

563 Field Sparrow 

563a Western Field Sparrow 

564 Northern Sparrow 

565 Black-chinned Sparrow 

566 White-winged Junco 

567 Slate-Colored Junco 

567a Oregon Junco 

567b Shuleldt Junco 

567c Thurber Junco 

567d Point Finos Junco 

567e Carolina Junco. 

567.1 Montana Junco 

568 Pink-sided Junco 

569 Gray-headed Junco 


Coturniculus savannarum bima- 

culatus 224 

*' " floridanus.. .224 

" henslowii 224 

** *' occidentalis.224 

'* leconteii 225 

Ammodramus caudacutus 225 

" nelsoni 225 

" " subvirgatus225 

*' maritimus 226 

'* " peninsulaB.226 

" '* sennetti...226 

*' " fisheri 226 

" " macgillivraii 226 

" nigrescens 226 

Chondestes grammacus 228 

'* '* strigatus..228 

Zonotrichia querula 229 

** leucophrys 227 

" " gambeli..227 

'* " nuttalli..227 

" coronata ^^27 

" albicollis 227 

Spizella monticola 222 

'* " ochracea 222 

" socialis 222 

** arizona 222 

" pallida 228 

'* breweri 228 

" pusilla 222 

*' *' arenacea 222 

'* wortheni 228 

*' atrogularis 219 

Junco aikeni 240 

" hyemalis 240 

** " oreganus 241 

'* " shufeldti 241 

" " thurberi 241 

** " pinosus 241 

** " carolinensis 240 

" montanus 240 

*' mearnsi 240 

" caniceps 241 


Systematic Table of North American Birds. 


570 Arizona Junco Junco phseonotus palliatus 241 

570a l^ed-backed Junco ** " dorsalis 241 

571 Baird Junco '* bairdi 240 

571. 1 Townsend Junco " townsendi 240 

572 Guadalupe Junco " insularis 240 

573 Black -throated Sparrow Amphispiza bilineata 249 

573a Desert Black-throated Sparrow ** ** deserticola 249 

574 Bell Sparrow ** belli 228 

574a Sage Sparrow " *' nevadensis 228 

574b Gray Sage Sparrow *' " cinerea 228 

575 Pine-wo(xl Sparrow Peucaea aestivalis 221 

575a Bachman Sparrow " " bachmanii 221 

576 Arizona Sparrow ** botteri 221 

578 Cassin Sparrow " cassini 221 

579 Rufous-winged Sparrow Aimophila carpalis 220 

.580 Rufous-crowned Sparrow " ruficeps 220 

580a Boucard Sparrow " " scotti 220 

580b Rock Sparrow ** " eremoeca. .. . 220 

580c Laguna Sparrow *' " sororia 220 

581 Song Sparrow Melospiza cinerea melodia 229 

581a Desert Song Sparrow '* '* fallax 229 

581b Mountain Song Sparrow " " montana 229 

581C Heermann Song Sparrow .... " " heermanni . . . 229 

58id Samuel Song Sparrow " " samuelis 230 

58ie Rusty Song Sparrow '* *' morphna 230 

58if Sooty Song Sparrow.' '* '* rufina 230 

58ig Brown Song Sparrow '* " rivularis 229 

58ih Santa Barbara Song Sparrow. " " graminea 230 

581 i San Clemente Song Sparrow. " " clementae 230 

581 j Judd Song Sparrow " " juddi 229 

581k Merrill Song Sparrow " *' merrilli 229 

581 1 Alameda Song Sparrow " " pusillula 230 

581m San Diego Song Sparrow " " cooperi 230 

58 in Yakutat Song Sparrow ** " caurina 230 

5810 Kenai Song Sparrow " " kenaiensis 230 

58i.iBischoff Song Sparrow '* '* insignis 230 

582 Aleutian Song Sparrow " cinerea 230 

583 Lincoln Sparrow " lincolnii 226 

583a Forbush Sparrow " " striata 226 

584 Swamp Sparrow *' georgiana 222 

585 Fox Sparrow Passerella iliaca 231 

*The species of Junco are here given as In the *Che6k-List'. the A. O. U. not having: as yet acted on Run- 
way's revision of this group which Is followed, essentially. In the body of the book. 


Systematic Table of North American Birds. 


585a Townsend Sparrow Passerella iliaca unalaschcensis . 231 

585b Thick-billed Sparrow " " megarhy ncha . . .231 

585c Slate-colored SparroA^. '* " schistacea 231 

585d Stephens Sparrow '* " stephensi 231 

586 Texas Sparrow Arremenops rufivirgata 215 

587 Towhee Pipilo erythrophthalmus 204 

587a White-eyed Towhee " " alleni . . . 204 

588 Arctic Towhee " maculatus arcticus 204 

588a Spurred Towhee " " megalonyx 204 

588b Oregon Towhee ". " oregonus 204 

588c San.Clemente Towhee " '* dementi 204 

588d San Diego Towhee *' " atratus 204 

588e Mountain Towhee '* '* magnirostris . . .204 

589 Guadalupe Towhee " consobrinus 204 

591 Canon Towhee ". fuscus mesoleucus 205 

591a Saint Ljucas Towhee " *' albigula 205 

591b California Towhee " " crissalis 205 

591C Anthony Towhee '* " senicula 205 

592 Abert Towhee " aberti 205 

592.1 Green-tailed Towhee Oreospiza chlorura 206 

593 Cardinal... • Cardinalis cardinalis 172 

593a Arizona Cardinal " " superbus. . .172 

593b Saint Lucas Cardinal " " igneus 172 

593c Gray-tailed Cardinal " " canicaudus .172 

593d Florida Cardinal " " floridanus. . 172 

594 Arizona Cardinal Pyrrhuloxia sinuata . .^ . *. 172 

594a Texas Cardinal " " texana 172 

594b Saint Lucas Cardinal " " peninsula. .172 

595 Rose-breasted Grosbeak . Zamelodia ludoviciana 174 

596 Black-headed Grosbeak '* melanocephala 207, 

597 Blue Grosbeak Guiraca oerulea 181 

597a Western Blue Grosbeak ** " lazula i8i 

598 Indigo Bunting Cyanospiza cyanea 181 

599 Lazuli Bunting " amoena 180 

600 Varied Bunting '* versicolor 180 

600a Beautiful Bunting " " pulchra..i8o 

601 Painted Bunting " ciris 180 

602 MoreHet Seed-eater Sporophila morelleti 249 

E6o3]Grassquit Tiaris bicolor A.V. 
603.1] Melodious Grassquit *' canora A.V. 

604 Dickcissel Spiza americana. 198 

605 Lark Bunting Calamospiza melanocorys 251 


Systematic Table of North American Birds, 


Family TANAGRID>E. Tanagers. 

[606] Blue-headed Euphonia Euphonia elegantisslma A.V. 

607 Louisiana Tanager Piranga ludoviciana 171 

608 Scarlet Tanager " erythromelas 171 

609 Hepatic Tanager " hepatica 171 

610 Summer Tanager ** rubra 171 

6ioa Cooper Tanager " '* cooperi 171 


61 1 Purple Martin Progne subis 250 

61 la Western Martin *' " hesperia 250 

61 I.I Cuban Martin '* cryptoleuca 250 

612 Cliff Swallow Petrochelidon lunifrons 250 

[612. 1] Cuban Cliff Swallow '* fulva A.V. 

612.2 Mexican Cliff Swallow *' melanogastra 250 

61 3 Barn Swallow Hirundo erythrogastra 250 

614 Tree Swallow Iridoprocne bicolor 250 

61 5 Violet-green Swallow Tachycineta thalassina lepida . . 250 

615a St. Lucas Swallow « . . « brachytera250 

[615. i]Bahaman Swallow Callichelidon cyaneoviridis.... A.V. 

616 Bank Swallow. Riparia riparia 211 

617 Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx serripennis 211 

Family AMPEL1D>E. WaxWINGS. 

618 Bohemian Waxwing ..... Ampelis garrulus 198 

619 Cedar Waxwing '* cedrorum 198 

620 Phainopepla Phainopepla nitens 


621 Northern Shrike Lanius borealis 248 

622 Loggerhead Shrike " ludovicianus 248 

622a White-rumped Shrike " ** excubitorides248 

622b California Shrike " *' gambeli 248 

622c Anthony Shrike " " anthonyi . . . .248 


623 Black-whiskered Vireo Vireo calidris barbatulus 21^ 

624 Red-eyed Vireo " olivaceus 212 

625 Yellow-green Vireo " flavoviridis 233 

626 Philadelphia Vireo " philadelphicus 213 

627 Warbling Vireo '* gilvus 213 

627a Western Warbling Vireo .... '* '* swainsoni 215 


Systematic Table of North American Birds. 


628 Yellow-throated Vireo Vireo 

629 Blue-headed Vireo ' *' 

629a Cassin Vireo " 

629b Plumbeous Vireo " 

629c Mountain Solitary Vireo " 

629d St.'Lucas Solitary Vireo " 

630 Black-capped Vireo. " 

631 White-eyed Vireo " 

631a Key West Vireo " 

631b Bermuda Vireo " 

631C Small White-eyed Vireo " 

632 Hutton Vireo *' 

632a Stephens Vireo " 

632c Anthony Vireo " 

633 Bell Vireo " 

633a Least Vireo " 

634 Gray Vireo " 


flavifrons 198 

solitarius 213 

'* cassinii 213 

" plumbeus 213 

" alticola 213 

'* lucasanus 213 

atricapillus 245 

noveboracensis 213 

micrus.... ..213 

huttoni ..212 

" Stephens! .. • 212 

" obscurus 212 

belli ^ 213 

pusillus 213 

vicinior *. .. ... .213 


635 Bahama Honey Creeper Coereba bahamensis. . 


636 Black and White Warbler . . 

637 Prothonotary Warbler 

638 Swainson Warbler 

639 Worm-eating Warbler . 

640 Bachman Warbler 

641 Blue-winged Warbler . . 

642 Golden-winged Warbler 

643 Lucy Warbler 

644 Virginia Warbler 

645 Nashville Warbler 

645a Calaveras Warbler 

646 Orange-crowned Warbler . . 
.646a Lutescent Warbler 

646b Dusky Warbler 

647 Tennessee Warbler 

648 Parula Warbler 

648a Northern Parula Warbler . . 

649 Sennett Warbler 

650 Cape May Warbler 

651 Olive Warbler 

652 Yellow Warbler 


Mniotilta varia 249 

Protonotaria citrea 187 

Helinaia swainsonii 215 

Helmitheros vermivorus 215 

Helminthophila bachmanii 191 

" pinus 191 

*' chrysoptera . . ..189 

*' luciae 206 

*' virginiae 197 

*' rubricapilla — 19S 

" " gutturalis 195 

" celata 210 

" " lutescens.2io 

'* " sordida.. .210 

" peregrina 212 

Compsothlypis americana 195 

" " usneaBi95 

" nigrilora 195 

Dendroica tigrina. 196 

" olivacea 187 

** aestiva.... 196 


Systematic Table of North American Birds. 


652a Sonora Yellow Warbler , 

652b Alaskan Yellow Warbler 

653 Mangrove Warbler 

654 Black -throated Blue Warbler. 
654a Cairns Warbler 

655 Myrtle Warbler 

656 Audubon Warbler 

656a Black-fronted Warbler 

657 Magnolia Warbler 

658 Cerulean Warbler 

659 Chestnut-sided Warbler 

660 Bay-breasted Warbler 

661 Black-poll Warbler 

662 Blackburnian Warbler 

663 Yellow-throated Warbler 

663a Syca,more Warbler 

664 Grace Warbler 

665 Black-throated Gray Warbler 

666 Golden-cheeked Warbler 

667 Black-throated Green Wblr. 

668 Townsend Warbler 

669 Hermit Warbler 

670 Kil-tland Warbler.. 

671 Pine Warbler 

672 Palm Warbler 

672a Yellow Palm Warbler 

673 Prairie Warbler 

674 Oven-bird 

675 Water-Thrush 

675a Grinnell Water-Thrush 

676 Louisiana Water-Thrush 

677 Kentucky Warbler 

678 Connecticut Warbler 

679 Mourning Warbler 

680 Macgilli vray Warbler 

681 Maryland Yellow-throat 

68 1 a Western Yellow-throat 

68ib Florida Yellow-throat 

68ic Pacific Yellow-throat 

68id Northern Yellow-throat 

68ie Salt Marsh Yellow-throat. . . . 

682 Belding Yellow-throat 

scientific name. 


Dendroica sestiva sonorana 196 

" '* rubiginosa — 196 

" bryanti castaneiceps. 196 

*' caerulescens 180 

*' . " cairnsii.. 180 

" coronata 197 

" auduboni. . , 190 

" " nigrifrons .190 

'' maculosa 190 

'* caerulea p.. 181 

'* pensylvanica 198 

" castanea 206 

" striata 249 

" blackburniae 187 

" dominica: 190 

" " albilora 190 

" gracise 190 

" nigrescens 249 

" chrysoparia 188 

*' virens 188 

" townsendi 188 

" occidentalis 188 

'* kirtlandii 191 

" vigorSii . .... 191 

'* palmarum 196 

" " hypochrysea 197 

*' discolor 197 

Seiurus aurocapillus 232 

" noveboracensis 232 

" " notabilis 232 

" motacilla . . . .* 232 

Geothlypis formosa 193 ' 

'* agilis 189 

" Philadelphia 189 

" tolmei 189 

" trichas ^193 

" " occidentalis.. 193 

" *' ignota .. 194 

'/ " arizela 194 

" " brachidactylai94 

'* " sinuosa ..... 194 

" beldingi 194 


Systematic Table of North American birds. 


682.1 Rio Grande Yellow-throat. . . . Geothlypis poliocephala 194 

683 Yellow-breasted Chat Icteria virens 198 

683a Long-tailed Chat " ** longicauda 198 

684 Hooded Warbler Wilsohia mitrata 188 

685 Wilson Warbler '* pusilla 193 

685a Pileolated Warbler '* " pileolata 193 

685b Golden Pileblated Warbler. . . a n chryseola 193 

686 Canadian Warbler " canadensis 191 

687 American Redstart Setophaga ruticilla* 187 

688 Painted Redstart " ptcta 177 

[689]Red-bellied Redstart '* miniata A.V. 

690 Red-faced Warbler Cardellina rubrifrons 177 

"69i]Red Warbler Ergaticus ruber A.V. 

'692] Brasher Warbler Basileuterus culicivorus A.V. 

:693]Bell Warbler "" belli A.V. 


[694]White Wagtail Motacilla alba A.V. 

[695]Swinhoe Wagtail " ocularis A.y. 

696 Siberian Yellow Wagtail Budytes flavus leucostriatus. . . .192 

697 American Pipit Anthus pensilvanicus 232 

[698]Meadow Pipit '* pratensis ^...A.V. 

[699] Red-throated Pipit *' cervinus A.V. 

700 Sprague Pipit " spragueii 232 


701 American Dipper Cinclus mexicanus 247 


702 Sage Thrasher Oroscoptes montanus 233 

703 Mockingbird Mimus polyglottos 248 

703a Western Mockingbird ** '* leucopterus . . . 248 

704 Catbird Galeoscoptes carolinensis 247 

705 Brown Thrasher Toxostoma rufum 233 

706 Sennett Thrasher '* longirostre sennetti. 233 

707 Curve-billed Thrasher " curvirostre 216 

707a Palmer Thrasher. " " palmeri..2i6 

708 Bendire Thrasher " bendirei 216 

709 St. Lucas Thrasher '* cinereum 216 

709a Mearns Thrasher '* " mearnsi. . . 216 

710 California Thrasher '* redivivum 217 


Systematic Table of North American Birds. 

^Si^' COMMON name. scientific NAME. Paoh 

710a Pasadena Thrasher Toxostoma redivivum pasadenense2i7 

711 Leconte Thrasher " lecontel 217 

711a Desert Thrasher " *' arenicola — 217 

712 Crissal Thrasher " -crissalis 217 

71 3 Cactus Wren Heleodytes brunneicapillus 233 

71 3a Bryant Cactus Wren 'V " bryanti . 233 

713b St. Lucas Cactus Wren *' " affinis. . 233 

71 5 Rock Wren Salpinctes obsoletus 234 

716 Guadalupe Rock Wren ** guadcloupensis 234 

717 White-throated Wren Catherpes mexicanus 234 

717a Canon Wren *' " conspersus..234 

717b Dotted Canon Wren " *' punctulatus.234 

718 Carolina Wren Thryothorus ludovicianus 234 

718a Florida Wren " " miamensis 234 

7'i8b Lomlta Wren *' ** lomitensis. 234 

719 Bewick Wren Thryomanes bewickii 235 

spilurus 235 


cryptus 235 

calophonus .235 

719a Vigors Wren. 

719b Baird Wren 

719c Texas Bewick Wren 

7i9d Sout|;iwest Bewick Wren., 
7i9e Northwest Bewick Wren. . . 
719. 1 San Clemente Wren ** leucophrys 235 

720 Guadalupe Wren " brevicaudus 235 

721 House Wren Troglodytes aedon 236 

721a Parkman Wren ** " parkmanii . . .236 

721b Western House Wren ** ** aztecus 236 

722 Winter Wren Olbiorchilus hiemalis 236 

722a Western Winter Wren *' " pacificus ... 236 

722b Kadiak Winter Wren '* '* heller i 236 

723 Alaskan Wren " alascensis 236 

723.1 Aleutian Wren " meligerus 236 

724 Short-billed Marsh Wren Cistothorus stellaris 236 

725 Long-billed Marsh Wren Telmatodytes palustris 237 

725a Tule Wren " " paludicola237 

725b Worthington Marsh Wren '* " griseus. . .237 

725c Interior Tule Wren " " plesius . . .237 

725.iMarian Marsh Wren " marianae 237 


726 Brown Creeper Certhia familiaris americana. . . 237 

726a Mexican Creeper " " albescens 237 

726b Rocky Mountain Creeper " " montana 237 


Systematic Table of North American Birds. 



726c California Creeper Certhia familiaris zelotes 238 

726d Sierra Creeper '* " occidentalis. .237 


727 White-breasted Nuthatch .... 

727a Slender-billed Nuthatch 

727b Florida White-breasted Nut 


727c Rocky Mountain Nuthatch. . . 
727d St. Lucas Nuthatch 

728 Red-breasted Nuthatch 

729 Brown-headed Nuthatch 

730 Pygmy Nuthatch 

730a White-naped Nuthatch 

731 Tufted Titmouse 

731a Texan Tufted Titmouse 

732 Black-crested Titmouse 

733 Plain Titmouse 

733a Gray Titmouse 

733b Ashy Titmouse 

734 Bridled Titmouse 

735 Chickadee 

735a Long-tailed Chickadee 

735b Oregon Chickadee 

736 Carolina Chickadee 

736a Plumbeous Chickadee 

737 Mexican Chickadee 

738 Mountain Chickadee 

739 Alaskan Chickadee 

740 Hudsonian Chickadee 

740a Kowak Chickadee 

740b Columbian Chickadee 

74 1 Chestnut-backed Chickadee. . 

741a California Chickadee 

74lb Barlow Chickadee 

742 Coast Wren-Tit 

742a Pallid Wren-Tit 

743 Bush-Tit 

743a California Bush-Tit 

743b Grinda Bush-Tit 

744 Lead-colored Bush-Tit 

744.1 Santa Rita Bush-Tit 

745 Lloyd Bush-Tit 

Sitta carolinensis. 246 

" " aculeata 246 

" '* atkinsi 246 

" " nelsoni 246 

" " lagunae 246 

'* canadensis 246 

" pusilla 246 

" pygmaea 246 

" " leuconucha 247 

Baeolophus bicolor 243 

" " texensis 243 

" atricristatus 243 

" inornatus 242 

" " griseus — 242 

" /" cineraceus.242 

" wollweberi 244 

Parus atricapillus 245 

septentrionalis . 245 
occidentalis.... 245 

" carolinensis 245 

" *' agilis .245 

" sclateri 245 

" gambeli 244 

" cinctus alascensis 244 

" hudsonicus 244 

" '* stoneyi 244 

" " columbianus .244 

" rufescens 244 

" " neglectus 244 

'* " barlowi 244 

Chamaea fasciata 215 

" " phea 215 

Psaltriparus minimus 242 

" " calif ornicus. 242 

" " grindae 243 

" plumbeus 242 

Psaltriparus santaritae 242 

" lloydi. 242 



Systematic Table of North American Birds. 


746 Verdin Auriparus flaviceps 

746a Baird Verdin " '« lamprcxrephalus 

Family SYLVIID>E. WARBLERS, KINGLETS, Gnatcatchers. 

747 Kennicott Willow Warbler.. . . Phyllopseustes borealis ....:... 2ri 

748 Golden-crowned Kinglet Regulus satrapa \i] 

748a Western Golden-crowned 1 

Kinglet " " olivaceus 18) 

749 Ruby-crowned Kinglet *' calendula 176 

749a Sitkan Kinglet " *' grinnelli 17^ 

750 Dusky Kinglet " obscurus 177 

751 Blue-gray Gnatcatcher Polioptila caerulea 24J 

75 la Western Gnatcatcher '* " obscura ...... 241 

752 Plumbeous Gnatcatcher " plumbea 243 

753 Black -tailed Gnatcatcher " californica 243 


754 Townsend Solitaire Myadestes townsendii 247 

755 Wood Thrush Hylocichla mustelina 233 

756 Wilson Thrush " fuscescens. 238 

756a Willow Thrush " " salicicola.238 

757 Gray-cheeked Thrush " aliciae 239 

"'"■*" " " bicknelli 239 

" ustulata 239 

" " swainsonii ..259 

" " oedica 239 

" " almae 239 

" guttata 238 

" " auduboni 238 

" " pallasii 238 

*' " nana 238 

Turdus iliacus A.V. 

Merula migratoria 207 

" " propinqua 207 

" " achrustera . . . 207 

762 St. Lucas Robin '* confinis 207 

763 Varied Thrush Ixoreus naevius 207 

763a Pale Varied Thrush " " meruloides 207 

[764] Red-spotted Bluethroat Cyanecula suecica A.V. 

765 Wheatear Saxicola oenanthe .248 

765a Greenland Wheatear. ...... " " leucorhoa .248 

766 Bluebird Sialia sialis .182 


757a Bicknell Thrush 

758 Russet-backed Thrush. . . 

758a Olive-backed Thrush 

758b Monterey Thrush 

758c Alma Thrush 

759 Alaska Hermit Thrush. . . 
759a Audubon Hermit Thrush. 

759b Hermit Thrush 

759c Dwarf Hermit Thrush. . . 

[760] Red-winged Thrush 

761 American Robin 

761a Western Robin 

761b Southern Robin. 

^' Systematic Table of North Ameican Birds. 

^* *^N^"- COMMON name. scientific NAME. Page 

^66a Azure Bluebird Sialia sialis azurea 182 

oc^jp^y Western Bluebird " mexicana occidentalis 182 

767a Chestnut-backed Bluebird " '* bairdi 182 

^^ 767b San Pedro Bluebird ... " " anabelae 182 

;.. 768 Mountain Bluebird " arctica 182 




Acanthis hornemannii 176 

*• cxilipes 176 

linaria , 176 

** holboellii % 176 

** rostrata 176 

Accipiter atricapillus 131 

** striatulus 131 

cooperii 131 

velox 131 

Actitis macularia 197 

Actodromas acuminata 109 

bairdii 109 

f uscicollis 109 

maculata 109 

minutlla 109 

iCchmophorus occidentalis 144 

>£gialitis hiaticula 112 

meloda 112 

** circumcincta 112 

nivosa 112 

semipalmata 112 

ACronautes melanoleucus 1 58 

>Estrelata fisheri 260 

hasitata 65 

scalaris 260 

Ageiaius ^ubemator calif ornicus 179 

phoeniceus 178 

** bryanti 178 

** caurinus 178 

" floridanus 178 

** fortis 178 

** ' neutralis 178 

" sonoriensis 178 

tricolor 179 

Aimophila carpalis 220 

ruficcps 220 

** cremoeca 220 

" scottii 220 

" sororia 220 

Aixsponsa 78 

Aiaiaajaja 89 

Alauda arvensis 275 

Alaudidae 34, 163 

Albatross, Black-footed 62 

Laysan 62 

Short-tailed 12, 62 

Sooty 62 

Yellow-nosed 62 

Alcatorda 48 

Alcedinidae 32, 154 

Alcidse 10 

Allealle 46 

Amazilis cerviniventris chalconota — 160 

tzacatl 160 

Ammodramus caudacutus 225 

henslowii 224 

" oaidentalis 224 

leconteii 225 

maritimus 226 

" fisheri 226 

" macgiUivraii 226 

** peninsulae 226 

** sennetti 226 

nelsoni 225 

** subvirgatus 225 

nlgrescens 226 

Ampelidae 37, 166 

Ampelis cedrorum 198 

garrulus 198 

Amphispiza bellF 228 

** nevadensis 228 

" cinerea 228 

bilineata 249 

** deserticola 249 

Anas boschas 76 

fulvigula 77 

** maculosa ^^ 

obscura 77 

** rubripes 77 

Anatida 16, 74 

Anhinga 14, 73 

anninga 73 

Anhingidae 14, 67 

Ani 146 

Groove-billed Jd6 

Anous stolidus 60 

Anser albifrons. 262 

** gambeli 85 

fabialis 262 

Anseres 15, 74 

Anthus penstivanicus 232 

spragueii. 232 

Antrostomus carolinensis 1 56 

vociferus 156 

" macromystax 156 

Aphelocoma californica« 184 



Aphelocoma califomica hypoleuca 184 

** obscura 184 

cyanea 184 

cyanotis : 183 

insularis 184 

sieberii arizonae 183 

** couchi 183 

texana 184 

woodhouseii 184 

Aphriza virgata 1 11 

Aphrizidae 24, 100 

Aquila chrysaCtos 103, 136 

Aramidae 20, 95 

Aramus giganteus 96 

Archibuteo ferrugineus 135 

lagopus sancti-johannis 135 

Arctonetta fischeri 82 

Ardea herodias 93 

" fannini 93 

" wardi 93 

occidentalis 92 

Ardeidse 19,87 

Ardetta exilis 91 

neoxena 91 

Arenaria interpres 102 

melanocephala 107 

morinella 102 

Arquatella couesi 107 

maritima 107 

ptilocnemis 108 

Arremonops rufivirgatus 215 

Asio aaipitrinus 138 

wilsonanus 138 

Astragalinus lawrencei, 189 

psaltria 192 

** mexicanus 49 

tristis 192 

** pallidus 192 

" salicamans 192 

Asturina plagiata 131 

Asyndesmus torquatus 152 

Atthis morcomi 161 

Auk, Great 48 

Razor-billed 9, 48 

Auklet, Cassin 46 

Crested 47 

Least 47 

Paroquet 47 

Rhinoceros 45 

Whiskered * . . . 47 

Auriparus flaviceps 195 

" iamprocephalus 195 

Avocet 22, 103 

Aythyaaffinis 79 

americana 79 

collaris 79 

Aythya marila 7S 

vallisneria 79 

Baeolophlis atricristatus 243 

bicobr 243 

** texensis 24} 

inornatus 242 

*' cineraceus 242 

" griseus 242 

woll weberi 244 

Baldpate*. i 77 

Bartramia longicauda 105 

Basilinna leucotis 160 

xantusi 159 

Bittern, American 91 

Cory 91 

Least 91 

Blackbird, Bicoiored 179 

Brewer. 254 

Red-winged 1 78 

Rusty 254 

Tricolored 179 

Yellow-headed 199 

Bluebird 182 

Azure 182 

Chestnut-backed 182 

Mountain 182 

San Pedro 182 

Western 182 

Bobolink 251 

Bob-white 26, 115 

Florida 115 

Masked ,....115 

Texan 115 

Bonasa umbellus 1 18 

** sabini 118 

** togata 118 

" umbelloides 118 

Booby 70 

Blue-faced 70 

Blue-footed 70 

Brewster 70 

Red-footed 70 

Botaurus lentiginosus 91 

Brachyramphus brevirostris. 46 

craveri 46 

hypoleucus 46 

marmoratus 46 

Brant *.. 86 

Black 86 

Branta bernicla glaucogastra 86 

canadensis 86 

" hutchinsii 86 

'* minima 86 

*' occidentalis 86 

leucopsis ..,, 262 



Branta nigricans 86 

Bubo virginianus 143 

^* arcticus 143 

" elachistus 143 

*' pacificus 143 

** pallescens 143 

" saturatus 143 

Bubonidae 30, 127 

Budytes flavus leucostriatus — 192 

Buffle-head 80 

Bulweria bulweri 260 

Bunting, Beautiful 180 

Indigo _. 181 

Larl< \ 221 

Lazuli 180 

Painted... 180 

Varied 180 

Bush-Tit 242 

California 242 

Grinda 242 

Lead<olored 242 

Lloyd 242 

Santa Rita 242 

Buteo abbreviatus 134 

albicaudatus sennetti 135 

borealis 132 

** calurus 132 

" harlani 132 

** kriderii 132 

brachyurus 134 

lineatus 133 

" alleni.. 133 

elegans 133 

platypterus 133 

swainsoni 133 

Butorides virescens 94 

" anthonyi ; 94 

** frazari 94 

Buzzard, Turkey 129 

Calamospiza melanocorys 251 

Calcarius lapponicus 219 

" alascensis .219 

ornatus .218 

pictus 220 

Calidris arenaria 108 

Callipepla squamata 116 

** castanogastris.. .116 

Gallothrus robustus 153 

Calothorax lucifer 159 

Calypte annas 161 

costae 159 

Campephilus principalis 149 

Camptolaimus labradorius 81 

Canachites canadensis 117 

** canace 117 

** osgoodi — ....117 

Canachites franklinii , 117 

Canvas-back 79 

Capri mulgidae 33, 155 

Caracara, Audubon. 134 




Cardellina rubrifrons 177 

Cardinal 36, 172 

Arizona. 172 

Florida * 172 

Gray-tailed 172 

St. Lucas 172 

Texas * 172 

Cardinalis cardinalis 172 

** canicaudus 172 

'• floridanus 172 

*• igneus 172 

*' superbus .172 

Carduelis carduelis 177 

Carpodacus amplus 175 

cassini 175 

mcgregori 175 

mexicanus dementis 175 

** frontalis 175 

" ruberrimus 175 

purpureus 174 

^* californicus 174 

Casarca casarca ..:... 262 

Catbird 247 

Catharista urubu 129 

Cathartes aura 129 

CathartidsB .28, 127 

Catherpes mexicanus albifrons 234 

** conspersus — 234 
" punctulatus — 234 

Centrocercus urophasianus 122 

Centurus aurifrons 153 

carolinus 153 

uropygialis 153 

Ceophlceus pileatus 149 

** abieticola 140 

Cepphus columba 48 

grylle... 48 

mandtii 48 

Cerorhinca monocerata 45 

Certhia familiaris albescens 237 

" americana 237 

" montana 237 

** occidentalis 237 

" zelotes 238 

Certhiidae 39, 168 

Ceryle alcyon 147 

americana septentrionalis 147 

torauata 271 

Chachalaca 27, 122 

Cha?tura pelagica 158 

vauxii 158 



Chamaea fasciata 215 

** plisea 215 

Charadriidae 24, icx) 

Charadrius dominicus no 

" ful^us .no 

Charitonetta aibeola 80 

Chat. Long-tailed 198 

Yellow-breasted 38, 198 

Chaulelasmus streperus 77 

Chen caerulescens 185 

hypoborea 84 

** nivalis 84 

rossii 84 

Chewink 204 

Chickadee 39 

Alaskan 244 

Barlow 244 

Black-capped 245^ 

Califorina 244 

Canadian 244 

Carolina 245 

Chestnut-backed 244 

Columbian 244 

Hudsonian 244 

Kowak . 244 

Lone-tailed 245 

Mexican .245 

Mountain 244 

Oregon 245 

Plumbeous ... .235 

Chondestes graramacus 218 

** stri^atus 218 

Chordeiles acutpennis texensis 157 

•< virginianus 157 

*• •* chapmani . ...157 

*« *' henryi 157 

** *^ scnnetti 157 

Chuck-will's widow 156 

Ciconiidae 18, 87 

Cinclidae 38,168 

Cindus mexicanus 247 

Circus hudsonius 130 

Cistothorus stellaris 236 

Clangula dangula americana 80 

islandica 80 

Coccyges 3i,i44 

Coccyzus americanus 146 

occidentalis ; . . . .146 

minor 146 

** maynardi , 146 

erythrophthalmus 146 

Coeligena demenciae 100 

Colaptes auratus. 154 

" luteus 154 

cafer collaris 154 

Colaptes cafer saturatior 154 

chrysoides 154 

^ ., " brunnescens 154 

rufipileus 154 

Colinus ridgwayi 115 

virginianus 115 

^* floridanus 115 

" texanus 115 

Columba fasciata 124 

** viosca^ 125 

flavirostris 124 

leucocephala 124 

Columbae 27,123 

Columbidas 27,123 

Columbigallina passerina bennudiana.126 
'' pallescens. 126 

'* terrestris . . 126 

Colymbus auritus 43 

dominicus brachypterus 43 

holboellii 43 

nigricollis califomicus 43 

Compsothypis americana 195 

'* usneflB 195 

nigrilora 195 

Condor 120 

Contopus borealis 208* 

pertinax pallidiventris 208 

richardsonii 208 

" peninsula? 208 

virens ao8 

Conurus carolinensis 145 

Coot, American • 9I>99 

Cormorant 71 

Baird 71 

Brandt 72 

Double-crested 71 

Farallone 71 

Florida 71 

Mexican 71 

Pelagic 7» 

Red-faced 72 

V iolet-green 14,72 

White<rested 71 

Corvidae 35»i03 

Corvus americanus , 255 

'* pascuus 255 

caurinus 255 

corax principalis 255 

" sinuatus 255 

cryptoleucus 255 

ossifragus 255 

Coturnicuius savannarum passerinus .224 
* ' b imaculatus .... 224 

" floridanus 224 

Cowbird 253 

Dwarf ; 255 

Red-eyed 27, 255 



Craddas 27, 113 

Crane, Little Brown 96 

Sandhill 9,96 

Whooping .. 96 

Creeper. Brown 39,237 

California 237 

Mexican 237 

Rocky Mountain 237 

Sierra 238 

CrossbiU, American 173 

Mexican 173 

^hite-win^ed ija 

Crotophaga am.. 146 

sulcirostris 146 

Crow, American 255 

Carrion 129 

Fish 255 

Florida 125 

Northwest 255 

Cuckoo, Black-billed 146 

California ^ '4^ 

Mangrove 146 

Maynard I46 

Yellow-billed 146 

Cuculidae 3i*i44 

Crymophilus fulicarius 102 

Curlew Eskimo 103 

Hudsonian 23, 103 

Long-billed 103 

Cyanocephalus cyanocephalus 183 

Cyanocitta cristata 183 

" florincola ...183 

stelleri 185 

** annectens 185 

" cariottae 185 

" diademata 185 

" frontalis 195 

Cyanopiza amoena 180 

cins 180 

cyanea i8i 

versicolor 189 

" pulchra 189 

Cydorrhynchus psittaculus 47 

Cypseloides niger borealis i$8 

Cyrtonyx montezumae meamsi 11$ 

Dafila acuta 76 

Daption capensis 260 

Darters 67 

Dendragapus obscurus 117 

'* fuliginosus....ii7 
'' richardsonii....ii7 

Dendrocygna autummalis 82 

fulva 83 

Dendroica aestiva 190 

'^ rubiginosa 196 

Dendroica a^tiva sonorana 196 

auduboni 190 

** nigrifrons 109 

blackbumiae 187 

bryanti castaneiceps ... 106 

cserulea 181 

csernlescens 189 

" cairnsii ...180 

castanea 206 

chrysoparia 188 

coronata 197 

discolor 197 

dominica 190 

" albilora 190 

graciae 190 

kirtlandi 191 

maculosa 190 

nigrescens 249 

occidentalis 188 

olivacea 187 

palmarum 196 

" hypochrysea 107 

pensylvanica 188 

striata ', 249 

tigrina .'. 196 

townsendi 188 

vigorsii 191 

virens 188 

Dichromanassa rufescens ' 94 

Dickcissel 198 

Diomedea albatrus. 62 

immutabilis • 62 

nigripes 62 

Diomedeidae 12, 61 

Dipper 38,247 

Dolichonyx oryzivorus 251 

Dove, Bermuda Ground 126 

Blue-headed 126 

Ground 126 

Inca 126 

Key West Quail 126 

Mexican Ground 126 

Mourning 27, 125 

Ruddy Quail 125 

White-fronted 125 

White-winged 126 

Zenalda 125 

Dovekie 46 

Dowitcher 106 

Long-billed 106 

Dryobates arizonae 151 

borealis 151 

nuttallii isi 

pubescens 150 

*' gairdnerii 150 

" nomorus 150 



Dryobates pubescens medianus 150 

" nelsoni 150 

" turati 151 

scalaris bairdii 151 

" lucasanus 151 

villosus 150 

** leucomelas 150 

*' auduboni 150 

" harrisii 150 

** hyloscopus 150 

** monticola 150 

" picoideus 150 

Duck, Black 77 

Black-bellied Tree 83 

Florida 77 

Fulvous Tree 83 

Harlequin 81 

Labrador 80 

Lesser Scaup 79 

Masked 80 

Mottled 77 

Red-legged Black 77 

Ring-necked 79 

Rucfly 80 

Rufous-crested 262 

Scaup 79 

Wood 78 

Eagle, Alaska Bald 136 

Bald 136 

Golden 136 

Ectopistes migratorius 125 

Egrets American 96 

Egretta candidissima 92 

Elder, American 82 

Greenland 82 

King 82 

Pacific 82 

Spectacled 82 

Steller 81 

Elanoides forficatus 130 

Elanus leucurus 130 

Empidonax cineritius 2 lO 

difficilis 210 

flaviventris 210 

fulvifrons pygmseus 215 

griseus 209 

nammondi 209 

insulkola 210 

minimus 209 

traiilii 209 

** ainorum.' 209 

virescens 210 

wrightii 209 

Eniconetta stelleri 8P1 

Ereunetes occidentalis 108 

Ereunetes pusillus 108 

Erismatura jamaicensis 80 

Erolia femiginea 109 

Eugenes fuigens 109 

Falco columbarius 137 

suckleyi 137 

fusco<oerulescens 137 

islandus 136 

mexicanus 135 

peregrinus anatum 137 

" pealei 1 37 

richardsonii 137 

rusticolus 136 

** gyrfalco 136 

" obsoletus 136 

sparverius 137 

" peninsularis 138 

** phal»na 138 

Falcon, Aplomado 137 

Peale 137 

Prairie 135 

Falconidse 29, 127 

Finch, California Purple 174 

Cassin 17s 

Guadalupe House 175 

House 175 

Pine 225 

Purple 174 

San Benito House 175 

San Clemente House 175 

St Lucas House 175 

Flamingo 7,89 

Flicker. Brown 154 

Gilded. 154 

Guadalupe 154 

Northern 154 

Northwestern 154 

Red-shafted. 154 

Southern 1 54 

Florida cffirulea 94 

Flycatcher, Alder 209 

Arizona Crested 293 

Ash-throated 203 

Beardless 211 

B uff-breasted 21$ 

Coues 208 

Crested 203 

Derby 202 

Fork-tailed 274 

Giraud.. 274 

Gray 209 

Green-crested ...210 

Hammond 209 

Least 209 

Lower Callfomia 203 



Flycatcher, Mexican Crested 203 

Nutting 203 

Olivaceous 203 

Olive-sided 208 

Ridgway 21 1 

banta Barbara. 210 

Scissor-tailed I77 

St. Lucas 210 

Sulphur-bellied 203 

Traill 209 

Vermilion. — i77 

Western 209 

Wright 209 

Yellow-bellied 209 

Fratcrcula arctica y^-- 45 

** naumanni .y^ — 45 

corniculata . 45 

Fregata aquila 73 

Fregatida 15. 67 

Fregetta grallaria 260 

Frigate Bird 73 

Fringillidse 36, 164 

Fulica americana 99 

Fulmar 12, 63 

Giant 259 

Pacific 63 

Rodgers 63 

Slender-billed 63 

Fulmarus glacialis 63 

^* gluplscha 63 

rodgersi 63 

Gadwall 77 

Galeoscoptes carolinensis 247 

Galiinae 25,113 

Gallinago delicata 105 

Gallinula galeata 99 

Gallinule. Florida. 99 

Purple 99 

Gannet. i3» ^ 

Gavia adamsii 44 

arctica 44 

imber 44 

lumme 44 

pacifica 44 

Gaviidae 10 

Gelochelidon nilotica 58 

Geococcyx calif ornianus 146 

Geothlypis agilis 189 

beldingi 194 

formosa 193 

Philadelphia 189 

poliocephala ^194 

tolmiei 189 

trichas 193 

" arizela 194 

Geothlypis trichas brachidactyla 194 

*^ ignota 194 

" occidentalis 193 

** sinuosa 191 

Geotrygon chrysia 126 

montana 126 

Glaucidium gnoma ... 149 

** califomicus 140 

hoskinsi 140 

phalaenoides 140 

Gnatcatcher, Black-tailed 243 

Blue-gray 243 

Plumbeous 243 

Western 243 

Godwit, Hudsonian no 

Marbled no 

Pacific no 

Golden-eye, American 180 

Barrow 180 

Goldfinch, American 191 

Arkansas 192 

California 192 

European 177 

Lawrence 189 

Mexican 192 

Western 192 

Goose, Barnacle 262 

Bean 262 

Blue 85 

Canada 86 

Cackling 86 

Emperor 85 

Greater Snow 84 

Hutchins 86 

Lesser Snow 84 

Ross Snow 84 

White-cheeked 86 

White-fronted. 85,262 

Goshawk, American 131 

Mexican 131 

Western 131 

Grackle, Boat-tailed 254 

Bronzed 254 

Florida 254 

Great-tailed 254 

Purple... 35,254 

Grebe, Eared 43 

Holboell 43 

Horned 43 

Least 43 

Pied-billed 9, 13 

Western 44 

Grosbeak, Alaskan Pine 173 

Black-headed 207 

Blue 181 

Evening 36, 199 



Grosbeak, Kadiak Pine 173 

Pine — 173 

Rocky Mountain Pine 173 

Rose-breasted 174 

Western Blue 181 

Western Evening 199 

Grouse, Alaska Spruce 117 

Canada 117 

Canadian Ruffed 118 

Columbian Sharp-tailed 121 

Dusky 117 

Franklin 117 

Gray Ruffed 118 

Hudsonian Spruce 117 

Oregon Ruffed 118 

Prairie Sharp-tailed 121 

Richardson . . 117 

Ruffed 26,118' 

Sage 122 

Sharp-tailed 121 

Sooty 117 

Gruidae 20, 95 

Grus americana 96 

canadensis 96 

mexicana 96 

Guara alba 00 

rubra 80 

Guillemot, Black 48 

Mandt 48 

Pigeon 48 

Guiraca caerulea 181 

*• lazula 181 

Gull, Bonaparte 56 

Black-backed 54 

California 55 

Franklin 56 

Glaucous 53 

Glaucous-winged 53 

Heermann 54 

Herring iii 55 

Iceland ..-53 

Ivory 52 

Kittiwake 52 

Kumlien 53 

Laughing 56 

Little 259 

Mew 258 

Nelson 53 

Point Barrow 53 

Ring-billed 52 

Ross 56 

Sabine $6 

Siberian 258 

Slaty-backed 54 

Short-billed 52 

Vega 55 

Gull, Western 54 

Gymnogyps califomianus 129 

Gyrfalcon 136 

Black 136 

Gray 136 

White 136 

Hsematopodidae 25, 100 

Haematopus bachmani 104 

f razari 104 

palliatus 104 

Haliseetus leucocephalus 136 

Halocyptena microsoma 65 

Harelda hyemalis 81 

Harrier 13a 

Hawk, American Rough-legged 135 

Broad-winged 133 

Cooper 131 

Desert Sparrow 138 

Duck 137 

Ferruginous Rough-legged 135 

Fish 129 

Florida Red-shouldered 133 

Harlan 132 

Harris 132 

Krider 132 

Marsh 130 

Mexican Black 134 

Pigeon 137 

Red-bellied 133 

Red-shouldered 133 

Red-tailed 29,28,132 

Sennett White-tailed 135 

Sharp-shinned- 131 

Short-tailed . . .* 134 

Snail 130 

Sparrow 137 

St. Lucas Sparrow 138 

Swainson 133 

Western Red-tail 132 

Zone-tailed 134 

Heath Hen 121 

Heleodytes brunneicapillus 233 

'* affinis 23) 

** anthonyi . . • 233 

** bryanti... .233 

** couesi . /. . . 233 

Helinaia swainsoni 215 

Helminthophila bachmani 191 

celata 210 

" lutescens 210 

" sordida 210 

chrysoptera 189 

lawrencei 197 

leucobronchialis 197 

luciae.... ....206 

• 298 


Helminthophila peregrina 212 

pinus 191 

rubricapilla 195 

** gutturalis 195 

virginlae 197 

Helmitheros vermivorus 215 

Helodromas solitarius 107 

•* cinnamomeus ... 107 

Herodias egretta 92 

Herodiones 17, 57 

Heron, Anthony Green 94 

Black-crowned Night 93 

Frazar Green 94 

Great Blue 9? 

Great White 92 

Little Blue 94 

Liltle Green 19, 84 

Louisiana 94 

Northwebt Coast 93 

Snowy 92 

Ward 93 

Yellow-crowned Night 93 

Hesperiphona vespertina 199 

** montana — 199 

Heteractitis incanus in 

Himantopus mexicanus 104 

Hlrundinidae 36, 165 

Hirundo erythrogastra 250 

Histrionicus histrionicus 81 

Hummingbird, Allen 161 

Anna 161 

Black-chinned 159 

Blue-throated 166 

Broad-billed 160 

Broad-tailed ....'. 161 

Buff-bellied 160 

Calliope 160 

. Costa .... 189 

Lucifer 159 

Morcom 161 

Rieffer 160 

Rivoli 159 

Ruby-throated 33, 160 

Rufous 161 

White-eared 160 

Xantus 159 

Hydranassa tricolor ruficollis 94 

Hydrochelidon nigra surinamensis ... 60 

Hylocichla aliciae 239 

** bicknelli 239 

guttata 238 

** auduboni 238 

" nana 238 

" pallasii 238 

fuscescens 238 

** salidcola 238 

Hylocichla mustelina 233 

ustulata 239 

'* almse 239 

** oedica — 239 

** swainsonii 239 

lache latirostris 160 

Ibidida 18, 87 

Ibis, Glossy 00 

Scarlet 80 

White 90 

White-faced Glossy 18, 90 

Wood 18, 90 

Icteria virens 198 

** longicauda 198 

Icteridae 35, 164 

Icterus audubonii 186 

buUocki 186 

cucullatus nelsoni 186 

** sennetti 186 

galbula 186 

parisorum 186 

spurius.... 206 

Ictinia mississippiensis 130 

lonornis martinica, 99 

Iridoprocne bicolor. 250 

Ixoreus naevius 207 

^ " meruloides 207 

Jabiru 263 

Jacana, Mexican 25,102 

spinosa 102 

Jacanidae 25, 100 

Jaeger, Long-tailed 51 

Parastic 10, 51 

Pomarine 51 

Jay, Alaskan 252 

Beldine 184 

Black-headed 185 

Blue...... 35,183 

Blue-eared 184 

Blue-fronted 185 

California 184 

Canada 252 

Couch 183 

Florida 184 

Florida Blue 183 

Gray ..252 

Green 185 

Labrador 252 

Long<rested 185 

Oregon 252 

Pinon 193 

Queen Charlotte 185 

Rocky Mountain 252 

Santa Cruz 184 



Jay Steller 185 

Texan 104 

Woodhousc 184 

Xantus 184 

Junto aikeni 210 

Arizona 241 

Baird 240 

bairdi 240 

caniceps 241 

Carolina 240 

Coues 241 

dorsalis 241 

Gray-headed 241 

Guadalupe 240 

hyemalis .. 240 

** carolinensis 240 

insularis 240 

mearnsi 240 

Montana 240 

montanus 240 

oreganus 241 

* connectens 241 

" pinosus 241 

" shufeldti...." 241 

" thurberi 241 

Oregon — 241 

phseonotus dorsalis 241 

Palliatus 241 
ink-sided 240 

Point Pinos 241 

Red-backed 241 

Shufeldt 241 

Slate-colored 240 

Thurber 241 

Townsend 240 

townscndi 240 

White-winged 240 

Killdeer 24, 1 12 

Kingbird 247 

Arkansas 202 

Cassin 202 

Couch 202 

Gray 247 

Kingfisher, Belted 31, 146 

Kinged 271 

Texas 146 

Kinglet, Dusky 177 

Golden-crowned 40, 187, 2 1 5 

Western 187 

Ruby-crowned 176 

Sitkan 176, 205 

Kite, Everglade 130 

Mississippi — ; 1 30 

Swallow-tailed 130 

White-tailed 130 

Kittiwake 52 

Kittiwake, Pacific 52 

Red-legged 52 

Knot 106 

Lagopus evermani 120 

lagopus 119 

^* alleni 119 

leucurus 118 

** peninsularis. . , 118 

rupestrls 119 

atkhensis 120 

** nelsoni 120 

** reinhardti 120 

" townscndi 120 

Laniidae 37, 166 

Lanius borealis 248 

ludovicianus 248 

anthonyi ... 248 

*• excubitgrides 248 

" gambeli 248 

Laridae 1 1» 50 

Lark Bunting 252 

California Horned 201 

Desert Horned 201 

Dusky Homed 201 

Horned 34, 200 

Hoyt Horned 200 

Island Horned 202 

Montezuma Horned 202 

Pallid Horned 200 

Prairie Horned 200 

Ruddy Horned 201 

Scorched Horned 201 

Sonoran Horned 202 

Streaked Horned 200 

Texan Horned 200 

Larus affinis 258 

ar^entatus 55 

atncilla 56 

barrovianus 53 

brachyrhynchus 52 

californicus 55 

canus 258 

delawarensis 52 

franklinii 56 

glaucescens 53 

glaucus 53 

neermanni 54 

kumlieni 53 

leucopterus 53 

marinus S4 

minutus 259 

nelsoni 53 

occidentalis $a 

Philadelphia 50 

schistasagus 54 



Larusvegac 55 

Leptotila fulviventris brachyptera — 125 

Leucosticte, Aleutian 179 

atrata 179 

australis 179 

Black 179 

Brown-capped 179 

Gray-crowned 179 

griseonucha 179 

Hepburn 178 

tepnrocotis 179 

** littoralis 179 

Limicolse 21, 100 

Limosa fedoa 110 

haemastica i to 

lapponica baueri no 

Limpkin 20, 96 

Longipennes 10 

Longspur, Alaskan 219 

Chestnut-collared 218 

Lapland 219 

McCown 218 

Smith 220 

Loon 10, 44 

Black-throated 44 

Pacific 44 

Red-throated .... 44 

Yellow-billed 44 

Lophodytes cucullatus 16 

Lophortyx calif ornicus 116 

•* vallicola 116 

gambelii no 

Loxia curvirostra minor 173 

" Strickland! 173 

leucoptera 174 

Lunda cirrhata 45 

Macrochires 33, 154 

Macrorhamphus griseus 106 

scolopaceus n6 

Magpie American 253 

Yellow-billed 253 

Mallard 6, 76 

Man-o'-War Bird 73 

Mareca americana 77 

penelope 77 

Marsh Hen 98 

Martin Cuban 250 

Purple 250 

Western 250 

Meadowlark, 199 

Florida 199 

Texas 199 

Western 199 

Megalestris skua 51 

Megaquiscalus major 254 

Megaquiscalus major macrourus...'. ..254 

Megascops asio 141 

** aikeni 143 

** bendirei 141 

" cineraceus,, 142 

** floridanus 141 

" kennicottii 141 

** macfarlanei 142 

** maxwelliae 141 

** mccalli 141 

*^ flammeoia 142 

" idahoensis 142 

trlchopsis 142 

xantusi 142 

Melanerpes erythrocephalus 153 

formiciviorus 153 

jl angustifrons 153 

" bairdi 153 

torquatus 152 

uropygialis 153 

Meleagris gallopavo intermedia 122 

merriami 122 

" osceola 122 

** silvestris 122 

Melopclia leucoptera 126 

Melospiza cinerea 230 

" caurina 230 

" cooperi 230 

" dementae .• 230 

" fallax 229 

" graminea 230 

" neermanni 229 

" insignis 230 

•* juddi 229 

** kenaiensis 230 

** melodia 229 

** merrilli 229 

** montana 229 

** morphna 230 

" pusiUula 230 

" rivularis 229 

*• rufina 230 

" samuelis 230 

georgiana 222 

lincoTnii 226 

** striata 226 

Merganser, American 76 

americanus 76 

Hooded 76 

Red-breasted i5, 76 

serrator 76 

Mergus albellus 261 

Merlin, Black 137 

Richardson 137 

Merula confinis 207 

migratoria. . . 207 



Merula migratoria achrustera 207 

** propinqua 207 

Micropalama himantopus 106 

Micropallas whitneyi 140 

Mimus Micropodidae 33> i55 

polyglottos 248 

** leucopterus 248 

Mniotilta varia 249 

Mniotiltidae '. 38, 167 

Mockingbird 248 

Western 248 

Molothrus ater • -253 

** obscurus 253 

MotacillidsB 38, 167 

Murre 48 

Brunnich 48 

California 48 

Pallas A 48 

Murrelet, Ancient 47 

Craveri 46 

Kittlitz 46 

Marbled 46 

Xantus 46 

Muscivora forficata 177 

tyrannus 247 

Myadestes townsendi 247 

Mycteria americana 263 

Myiarchus cinerascens 203 

" nutting! 203 

" pertinax 203 

crinitus 203 

lawrencei oiivascens 203 

mexicanus 203 

" magister 203 

Myiodynastes luteiventris 203 

Myiozetetes sirailis superciliosus 274 

Neocorys spragueii ^32 

Netta rufina 262 

Nettion carolinensis 78 

crecca 261 

Nighthawk 157 

Florida 157 

Sennett 157 

Texan 157 

Western 157 

Noddy 60 

Nomonyx dominicus 80 

Nonpareil 180 

Nucif raga columbiana 252 

Numenius borealis 103 

hudsonicus 103 

loneirostris 103 

Nutcracker, Clarke 252 

Nuthatch Brown-headed 246 

Florida 246 

Nuthatch, Pygmy 246 

Red-breasteci 39» 246 

Rocky Mountain 246 

Slender-billed 246 

St. Lucas 246 

White-breasted 246 

White-naped 247 

Nuttallornis borealis 208 

Nyctala acadica ..' 140 

** scotaa 140 

tengmalmi richardsoni 1 39 

Nyctanasssa violacea 193 

Nyctea nyctea 143 

Nycticorax nycticorax naevius. . 93 

Nyctidromus albicoUis merriili 157 

Oceanites oceanicus 66 

Oceanodroma cryptoleucura 260 

f urcata 65 

homochroa 65 

kaedingi 65 

leucorhoa 66 

macrodactyla 66 

melania 66 

socorroensis 66 

Ochthodiomus wilsonius 112 

Odontoglossse - 16, 87 

Oidemia americana 87 

deglandi 83 

fusca 262 

perspicillata 83 

Olbiorchilus alascensis 236 

hiemalis 236 

'* helleri 236 

pacificus 236 

meligerus..' 236 

Old-squaw 81 

Olor buccinator 84 

columbianus 84 

cygnus ....263 

Oreortyx pictus 1 16 

** confinis 116 

" plumiferus 116 

Oreospiza chlorura 206 

Oriole, Arizona Hooded 186 

Audubon 186 

Baltimore 35, 186 

Bullock 186 

Hooded 186 

Orchard 206 

Scott 186 

Sennett 186 

Ornithion imberbe 211 

** ridgwayi 211 

Oroscoptes montanus 233 

Ortalis vetula maccalU 122 



Osprey, American 129 

Ossifraga gigantea 259 

Otocoris alpestris 200 

" actia 201 

** adusta 201 

** arcticola 200 

" giraudi 200 

** hoyti 200 

** insularis 201 

" leucolaema 201 

" merrilli ..201 

** occidentalis 201 

** pallida 201 

** praticola 200 

" rubea 201 

" strigata 201 

Ouzel, Water 247 

Oven bird 232 

Owl, Acadian 140 

Aiken Screech 142 

American Hawk 143 

American Long-eared 1 38 

Arctic Horned 143 

Barn 29, 138 

Barred 139 

Burrowing 138 

California Pygmy 140 

California Screech 141 

Dusky Horned 143 

Dwarf Screech 142 

Elf 140 

Ferruginous Pygmy 140 

Flammulated &reech 142 

Florida Barred 1 39 

* Burrowing. . 1 38 

** Screech 141 

Great Gray 139 

Great Homed 143 

Hoskin 140 

Kennicott Screech 141 

Long-eared 138 

MacFarlane Screech 142 

Mexican Screech 142 

Monkey-faced 138 

Northern Spotted 139 

Northwest Saw-whet 140 

Pacific Horned 143 

Pygmy 140 

Richardson 139 

Rocky Mountain Screech 141 

Saw-whet 140 

Screech 30,141 

Short-eared 138 

Snowy 143 

Spotted 139 

** Screech 142 

Owl, Texas Barred 139 

Texas Screech. 141 

Western Homed 141 

Xantus Screech 142 

Oxyechus vocifems .• 112 

Oyster-catcher, American 25, 104 

Black 104 

Frazar 104 

Pagophila alba $2 

Paludicolae.. I9i 95 

Pandion halia^us carolinensis 129 

Parabuteo unicmctus harrisi 1 32 

Parauque, Merrill 156 

ParidsB B9t i^ 

Paroquet Carolina. 30, 145 

Parrot. Thick-billed 145 

Partridge 1 18 

Califomia 1 16 

Chestnut-bellied Scaled 1 16 

Gambel 116 

Meatns 123 

Mountain no 

Plumed 116 

San Pedro 116 

Scaled 116 

Valley 116 

Parus atricapillus 245 

** occidentalis 245 

** septentrionalis 24$ 

carolinensis 245 

** agilis 245 

cinctus alascensis 244 

gambeli 244 

hudsonicus 247 

** columbianus 244 

" littoralis 244 

** stoneyi 244 

inornatus 242 

*• griseus 242 

rufescens 244 

** barlowi 244 

" neglectus 244 

sclateri 245 

wollwebre 244 

Passer domesticus 219 

Passeculus beldingi 223 

princeps 225 

sandwichensis 223 

** alaudinus 223 

** bryanti 223 

*' savanna 223 

rostratus 223 

" guttatus 223 

** halophilus 224 

" sanctorum 224 



Passcrella iliaca.. 241 

" annectens 231 

** fuliginosa 231 

** insularis 231 

" me^arhyncha 231 

" schistacea 231 

" Stephens! 231 

" townsendi 231 

" unalaschensis. ... 231 

Passeres 34,162 

Passerina hyperboreus 251 

nivalis 251 

" townsendi 25 1 

Pedioecetes phasianellus. 121 

'* campestris 121 

" columbianus...i2i 

Pelagodrama marina. 260 

Pelecanidae I5> 67 

Pelecanus californicus 73 

erythrorhynchus 73 

occidentalis 73 

Pelican, American White 73 

Brown 15, 73 

California Brown 73 

Pelidna alpina pacifica 108 

Perisoreus canadensis 252 

** capitaiis 251 

** fumifrons 252 

** nigricapillus — 252 

obscurus. 252 

" griseus 252 

Petrel, Ashy 65 

Black. 66 

Black-capped 65 

Bulwer 260 

Fisher 260 

Fork-tailed 65 

Guadalupe 66 

Hawaiian 260 

Ka^ing 65 

Leach 12, 66 

Least 65 

Pinitado 260 

Scaled 260 

Socorro 66 

Stormy 66 

White-bellied 260 

White-faced 260 

Wilson 66 

Petrochelidon lunifrons 250 

melano^astra 250 

Peucaea aestivalis 221 

** bachmanii 221 

botterii 221 

cassini 221 

Pewee, Western Wood 208 

Pewee, Large-billed Wood 30S 

Wood 20S 

Phajthon americanus 60 

a?thereus 69 

rubricaudus 260 

Phsethontidae 13, 67 

Phainopepla 253 

r.itens 253 

Phalacrocoracida? 14, 67 

Phalacrocorax dilophus 71 

*' albociliatus ... 71 

" cincinatus 71 

" floridanus 71 

mexicanus 70 

pelaeicus 72 

resplendens 72 

" robustus p 

penicillatus 72 

urile 72 

Phalaenoptilus nuttallii 156 

** californicus 156 

S nitidus 156 

Phalarope, Northern 21, 102 

Red 102 

Wilson 102 

Phalaropodidae 21, 100 

Phalaropus lobatus 102 

Phasianidae 27,113 

Phasianus colchicus 113, 122 

torquatus 113,121 

Pheasant English 113, 122 

Ring-necked 123, 122 

Philacte canagica 85 

Philohela minor 105 

Phoebe 34, 208 

Black 251 

Say 205 

Western Black 251 

Phoebetria fuliginosa 62 

PhcEnicopteridae 17, 87 

Phoenicopterus ruber 89 

Phyllopseustes borealis 212 

Pica pica hudsonia 253 

nuttalli 253 

Pici 32, 148 

Picidae 32, 148 

Picoides americanus 149 

** dorsalis 149 

" fasciatus 149 

arcticus 149 

Pigeon, Band-tailed 124 

Passenger 125 

Red-billed 1 24 

Viosca 124 

White-crowned 124 

Wild 125 



Pinicola enucleator alascensis 173 

" californica 173 

" flammula 173 

** leucura 173 

" montana 173 

Pintail 76 

Pipilo aberti 205 

consobrinus 204 

erythrophthalmus 204 

** alleni 204 

fuscus albigula 205 

** crissalis 205 

** mesoleucus 205 

" senicula 205 

maculatus arcticus 204 

" atratus 204 

** clementse 204 

** magnirostris 204 

" megalonyx 204 

" oregonus 204 

Pipit 38, 232 

Sprague 232 

Piranga erythromelas — 171 

hepatica 171 

ludovicianus 171 

rubra 171 

** cooperi 171 

Pitangus derbianus 202 

Plataleidffi 18, 87 

Platypsaris alblventris . .• 274 

Plegadis autumnalis 90 

guarauna 90 

Plover, Belted Piping 1 12 

Black-bellied 24, no 

Golden 110 

Mountain 105 

Pacific Golden no 

Piping 112 

Ring 112 

Semipalmated 1 12 

Snowy 1 12 

Wilson 112 

Plautus impennis 48 

Podasocys montana 105 

Podicipida? 9 

Podilymbus podiceps 43 

Polioptila cserulea 243 

" obscura 243 

californica 243 

plumbea 243 

Polyborus cheriway 143 

lutosus 1 34 

Pooecetes gramineus 220 

" affinis 221 

" confinis 221 

Poor-will 156 

Poor-will, California 1 56 

Frosted 156 

Porzana Carolina 98 

coturniculus 124 

jamaicensis 98 

noveboracensis 97 

Prairie Hen 121 

Attwater 121 

Lesser 121 

Priocella glacialoides 63 

Priofinus cinereus 260 

Procellaria pelagica 66 

Procellariidas 12,61 

Progne crypoleuca 250 

subis 250 

** hesperia 250 

Protonotaria citrea 187 

Psaltriparus lloydi 242 

minimus 242 

" californicus 242 

** grindae 242 

plumbeus 242 

santa ritae 242 

Psittaci 30, 144 

Psittacidae 30, 144 

Ptarmigan, Allen 119 

Everman 120 

Kenai White-tailed n8 

Nelson 119 

Reinhardt 1 19 

Rock 119 

Townsend 120 

Turner 120 

Welch 120 

White-tailed n8 

Willow 1 19 

Ptychoramphus aleuticus 46 

Puffin 45 

Horned 45 

Large-billed 45 

Tufted 45 

Puffinus assimllis 260 

auricularis 64 

borealis 64 

buUeri 260 

creatopus — 64 

cuneatus 64 

fuliginosus 63 

gravis 64 

^riseus 63 
lerminieri 64 

opisthomelas 64 

puffinus 259 

tenuirostris 64 

Pygopodes 9 

Pyrocephalus rubineus mexicanus 177 



Pyrrhuloxia, Arizona 172 

sinuata 172 

" peninsulas 172 

" texana 192 

St. Lucas 172 

8uail 116 
uerquedula cyanoptera 78 

discors 78 

Quiscalus quiscula 254 

** aglsBus 254 

** ajneus 254 

Rail, Belding 97 

Black 98 

California Clapper ' 97 

Caribbean Clapper 98 

Carolina 98 

Clapper 20, 98 

King 97 

Louisiana Clapper. 98 

Scott Clapper 98 

Virginia 97 

Wayne Clapper 98 

Yellow 97 

Rallidse 21,95 

Rallus beldingi 97 

crepitans 98 

** saturatus 98 

" scotti 98 

** waynei 98 

elegans * 97 

longirostris caribaeus 98 

obsoletus 97 

virginianus 97 

Raptores 28, 127 

Raven, American 255 

Northern 255 

White-necked 255 

Recurvirostra americana 103 

Recurvirostrida? 23, 100 

Reedbird 250 

Redhead 79 

Redpoll 35, 176 

Greater 176 

Greenland 176 

Hoary 176 

HolbcEll 176 

Redstart, American 38, 187 

Painted 177 

Red-wing, Bahaman 178 

Florida 178 

Northwestern 178 

San Diego 175 

Sonoran 178 

Thick-billed 178 

Regulus calendula 176, 215 

** grinnelli 176, 215 

obscurus 177 

satrapa 187 

" olivaceus 187 

Rhodostethia rosea 56 

Rhynchophanes mccownii 218 

Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha 145 

Riparia riparia 211 

Rissa brevirostris 52 

tridactyla 52 

** pollicaris 52 

Road-runner 146 

Robin 34, 207 

Southern 207 

St Lucas 207 

** Western 207 

Rynchopidaj 12, 52 

Rostrhamus sociabilis 1 30 

Rough-leg, Ferruginous 135 

Rynchops nigra 60 

Salpinctes obsoletus 234 

guadeloupensis 234 

Sanderiing 108 

Sandpiper Aleutian 107 

Baird 109 

Bartramian 105 

Buff-breasted 105 

Curlew 106 

Least 109 

Pectoral 109 

Prybilof 108 

Purple 107 

Red-backed 108 

Semipalmated 23, 108 

Sharp-tailed 109 

Solitary — 107 

Spotted 107 

Stilt 106 



Western Solitary 107 

White-rumped 109 

Sapsucker, Northern Red-breasted — 152 

Red-breasted 1 52 

Red-naped 152 

Williamson 152 

Yellow-bellied 152 

Saxicola cenanthe 248 

" leucorhoa 248 

Sayornis nigricans 251 

" semiatra 251 

phoebe 208 

saya 205 

Scardafella inca 126 



Scolecophagus carolinus 254 

cyanocephalus 254 

Scolopacidae 23, 100 

Scoter, American 83 

Surf : 83 

Velvet 262 

White- winged 83 

Scotiaptex nebulosa. 139 

Seed-eater, Morellet 248 

Seiurus aurocapiilus 232 

motacilla '. 232 

noveboracensis 232 

** notabilis 232 

Selasphorus alleni 161 

platycercus. 161 • 

rufus 161 

Setophaga picta 177 

ruticilla 187 

Shearwater Allied 64 

Audubon 260 

Black-tailed 260 

Black-vented 64 

Buller 260 

Cory 64 

Dark-bodied 63 

Greater 64 

Manx i 259 

Pink-footed 64 

Slender-billed 64 

Sooty 63 

Townsend 64 

Wedge-tailed 64 

Sheldrake . 2fe 

Shoveller 78 

Shrike,- California 248 

Island *. 248 

Loggerhead 248 

Northern 37, 248 

White-rumped 248 

Sialia arctica — 182 

mexicana anabels 182 

** bairdi 182 

sialis 182 

** azurea 182 

Simorhjfnchus cristatellus 47 

pusillus 47 

pygma^us 47 

Siskin, Pine 225 

Sitta canadensis 246 

carolinensis 246 

'* aculeata 246 

" laeunsB 246 

" nelsoni 246 

pusilla 246 

pygma?a 246 

leuconucha 246 

Skimmer, Black 11, 60 

Skua $1 

Snakebird 7} 

Snipe, Wilson 105 

Snowflake 25 1 

McKay 251 

Pribilof 251 

Solitaire, Townsend 247 

Somateria dresseri 82 

molissima borealis 82 

spectabilis 82 

v-nigra 82 

Sora 20 

Sparrow, Acadian Sharp-tailed 225 

Bachman 220 

Baird 224 

Belding Marsh 223 

Bell 228 

Black<hinned 219 

Black-throated 249 

Botteri 22 1 

Brewer 228 

Brown Song 229 

Bryant Marsh 223 

Cassin 220 

Chipping 22i- '-'• 

Clay-colored 228 

Desert — 249 

Desert Song 229 

Dusky Seaside 226 

English 219 

Field 222 

Fisher Seaside 622 

Florida Grasshopper 224 

Forbush 226 

Fox 231 

Golden<rowned 227 

Grasshopper 224 

Gray Sage 228 

Henslow -...224 

Harris 219 

Heermann Song 229 

Intermediate 227 

Ipswich 225 

Kadiak Fox .. 231 

Lagoon 224 

Laguna 220 

Laree-billed 223 

Lark 218 

Leconte 225 

Lincoln 226 

Mac^illivray Seaside 226 

Memll Song 229 

Mountain Song 229 

Nelson .225 

Nuttall 227 



Pine Woods 221 

Vesper 221 

Rock 221 

Rufous-crowned 220 

Rufous-winged 220 

Rusty Song 230 

Sage 228 

Salt Marsh Song 230 

Samuels Song 230 

San Benito 224 

San Clemente Song 230 

San Diego Song 230 

Sandwich 223 

Savanna 223 

Scott 220 

Scott Seaside 226 

Seaside 226 

Sharp-tailed 225 

Shumagin Fox 231 

Slate-colored 231 

Song 229 

Sooty Fox 231 

Stephens 230 

St. Lucas 223 

Swamp I .222 

Texas 215 

Texas Seaside 226 

Thick-billed 231 

Tree 222 

Townsend 232 

Vesper 221 

Western Chipping 222 

Western Field 222 

Western Grasshopper 224 

Western Henslow 224 

Western Lark 218 

Western Savana 223 

Western Tree 222 

Western Vesper 221 

White-crowned 227 

White-throated 227 

Worthen 228 

Yakutat Fox 232 

Spatula clypeata 78 

Speotyto hypoga?a cunicularia floridanai38 

Sphyrapicus ruber 152 

** notkensis 152 

thyroideus 152 

varius 152 

** nuchalis 152 

Spinus pinus 225 

Spiza americana 198 

Spizella atrogularis 219 

breweri 228 

monticola 222 

Spizella monoticolao chracea 222 

palljda 228 

pusllla. 222 

" arenacea 222 

socialis 222 

" arizona?.. 222 

wortheni 228 

Spoonbill, Roseate 189 

Sporophila morelleti 249 

Squatarola squatarola 1 10 

Starling 250 

Starnoenas cyanocephala 126 

Steganopodes 13, 67 

Steganopus tricolor — 102 

Stelgidopteryx serripennis 211 

Steliula calliope 161 

Stercorariidae 10, 50 

Stercorarius longicaudus 51 

parasiticus 51 

pomarinus 51 

Sterna anaethetus 5^ 

antillarura 58 

aleutica 58 

caspia 57 

dougalli 59 

elegans 57 

forsteri 59 

fuliginosa 60 

hirundo 59 

maxima 57 

paridisaea 59 

sandvicensis acuflavida 57 

trudeaui 259 

Stilt, Black-necked .22, 104 

Strigidne 127 

Strix pratincola 1 38 

Sturnella magna 199 

*^ argutula 199 

" hoopesi 199 

** neglecta 199 

Sturnidae. 164 

Sturnus vulgaris 250 

Sula bassana 69 

brewsteri 70 

cyanops 70 

nebouxii 70 

piscator 70 

Sulidas 13,67 

Surf Bird iii 

Surnia ulula caparoch 141 

Swallow, Bank 215 

Barn 250 

Cliff 250 

Mexican Cliff 250 

Northern Violet-green 250 

Rough-winged 211 



S^vallow, St. Lucas 250 

Tree 36, 250 

White-bellied 250 

Swallow-tailed Kite 130 

S>van, Trumpeter 84 

Whistling 84 

Whooping 263 

Swift, Black 158 

Chimney 33> 158 

Vaux 158 

White-throated 158 

Sylviida? 40, 169 

Symphemia semipalmata. in 

** inornata in 

Synthliboramphus antiquus 47 

Syrnium occidentale 139 

** caurinum 139 

varium 139 

*• alleni 139 

. " helveolum 139 

Tachycineta thalassina lepida 250 

** brachyptera. . . . 250 

Tanager, Cooper 171 

Hepatic 171 

Louisiana 171 

Scarlet 171 

Summer 36, 171 

Western 171 

Tanagridse 36, 165 

Tantalus loculator 90 

Tatler, Wandering in 

Teal, Blue-winged. 78 

Cinnamon 78 


Green-winged 78 

Telmatodytes marianae 237 

palustris 237 

" griseus 237 

" paludicola 237 

** plesius 237 

Tern, American Black 60 

Aleutian $8 

Arctic 59 

Bridled 58 

Cabot 57 

Caspian 57 

Common ii> 59 

Elegant 57 

Forster 59 

Gull-billed 58 

Least 58 

Roseate 59 

Royal 57 

Sooty 60 

Trudeau 259 

Tetraonidse 26, 113 

Thalassogeron culminatus 62 

Thrasher, Bendire 216 

Brown 39, 233 

Californian 217 

Crissal 217 

Curve-billed 216 

Desert 217 

Leconte 217 

Mearns 216 

Palmer 216 

Pasadena 217 

Sage 233 

Sennett 233 

St. Lucas 216 

Thrush, Alaska Hermit 238 

Alma 239 

Audubon Hermit 239 

Bicknell 238 

California Olive-backed 239 

Dwarf Hermit 238 

Gray<heeked 239 

Hermit 238 

Olive-backed 238 

Pale Varied 207 

Russet-backed 238 

Varied 207 

Willow 238 

Wilson 238 

Wood 40, 233 

Thryomanes bewickii 235 

" calophonus — 235 
" charienturus .. 235 

" cryptus 235 

** leucogaster 235 

" spilurus 235 

brevicaudus 235 

leucophrys 235 

Thryothorus ludovicianus 234 

" lomitensis.. .234 
** miamensis ....234 

Titlark.. 232 

Titmouse, Ashy 242 

Black<rested 243 

Bridled 244 

Gray 242 

Plain 242 

Texan Tufted 243 

Tufted 243 

Totanus flavipes in 

melanoleucus in 

Towhee 204 

Abert 205 

Anthony 205 

Arctic 204 

Californian 205 



Towhee, Canon 205 

Green-tailed 206 

Guadalupe 204 

Mountain 204 

Oregon 304 

San Clemente 204 

San Diego 204 

Spurred 204 

St. Lucas 205 

White-eyed 204 

Toxostoma bendirei 216 

cinereum , — 216 

** nrearnsi 216 

" crissalis 217 

curvirostre 216 

** palmeri 216 

lecontei 217 

** arenicola 2t7 

longirostre sennetti 233 

redivivum 217 

" pasadenense 217 

rufura 233 

Tree Duck, Black-bellied 83 

Fulvous 83 

Tringa canutus 106 

Trochilida? 33> i55 

Trochilus alexandri 159 

colubris 160 

Troglodytes afidon 236 

" parkmanii 236 

** aztecus 236 

Troglodytida? 39, 168 

Trogon ambiguus.; 147 

Coppery-tailed 31, 147 

Trogonidae 31,144 

Tropic Bird, Red-bellied 69 

Red-tailed — 260 

Yellow-billed. 13,69 

Tryngites subruf icollis 105 

Tubinares 12 

Turdidae 40, 170 

Turkey Florida 122 

Merriam 122 

Rio Grande 122 

Water 73 

Wild 27, 122 

Turnstone 24, 102 

Black 107 

Ruddy , 162 

Tympanuchus americanus 121 

** attwateri ....iii 

pallid icinctus 121 

Tyrannidae 34, 163 

Tyrannus j^ 202 

dominicensis melancholicus couchl 247 
tyrannus 247 

Tyrannus verticalis 202 

vociferans 202 

Uria lomvia 48 

** arra 48 

troile 48 

** califomica 48 

Urubitinga anthracina 134 

Verdin 195 

Baird 195 

Vireo, Anthony 212 

atricapillus . . 245 

Bell 214 

belli. , 214 

Bermuda 213 

Black-capped 245 

Black-whiskered 212 

Blue-headed 214 

calidris barbatulus 212 

Cassin 214 

flavifrons 1^8 

flavoviridis 213 

gilvus 213 

" swainsoni 213 

Gray 124 

Hutton 212 

huttoni 212 

*• obscurus 212 

** Stephens! 212 

Key West 21) 

Least 214 

Mountain Solitary 214 

noveboracensis 212 

" bermudianus 21) 

" maynardi 213 

" micrus 213 

olivaceus 212 

Philidelphia .213 

philadelphicus 213 

plumbeous 214 

pusillus 214 

Red-eyed 37, 212 

Small White-eyed ii3 

solitarius 214 

** alticola 214 

** cassinii 214 

" lucasanus 214 

" plumbeus 214 

St. Lucas 214 

Stephens 212 

vicinior 214 

Warbling 213 

Western Warbling 213 

White-eyed 213 

Yellow-green 213 



Vireo, YeUow-throated 198 

VireonidsB 37> 166 

Vulture, Black 129 

California 129 

Turkey 28,129 

Wagtail, Siberian Yellow 192 

Warbler, Alaskan Yellow 196 

Audubon 190 

Bachman 191 

Bay-breasted 206 

Black arid White 249 

Biackbumian 187 

Black-fronted ; — 190 

Black-poll 249 

Black-throated Blue 180 

Black-throated Gray 248 

Black-throated Green 188 

Blue-winged '. 191 

Brewster 197 

Cairns 180 

Calaveras i95 

Canadian 191 

Cape May 196 

Cerulean 181 

Chestnut-sided 198 

Connecticut 189 

Dusky 210 

Golden-cheeked 188 

Golden Pileated 193 

Golden-winged i^: 

Grace 190 

Hermit 188 

Hooded 188 

Kennicott Willow 212 

Kentucky 193 

Kirtland 191 

Lawrence 197 

Lucy 206 

Lutescent 210 

Macgillivray 189 

Magnolia ... 190 

Mangrove 196 

Mourning 189 

Myrtle 197 

Nashville 38, 195 

Northern Parula 195 

Olive 187 

Orange-crowned 210 

Palm 196 

Parula i95 

Pileolated i93 

Pine 191 

Prairie 197 

Prothonotary 187 

Red-faced i77 

Warbler, Sennett 195 

Sonora 196 

Swainson 215 

Sycamore 190 

Tennessee 212 

Townsend 188 

Virginia 197 

Wilson... 193 

Worm-eating 215 

Yellow 38, 196 

Yellow Palm 196 

Yellow-throated 190 

Water-Thrush ^ 

Grinnell 23^ 

Louisiana *. 232 

Waxwing, Bohemian 198 

Cedar 37> 198 

Wheatear 248 

Greenland . .' 248 

Whip-poor-will 33, 156 

Stephens 156 

Whiskey Jack 252 

Widgeon 77 

Willet HI 

Western 111 

Wilsonia canadensis 191 

mitrata 188 

pusilla 193 

** chryseola 193 

" pileolata — 193 

^Woodcock, American 23, 105 

' ' Woodpecker, Alaska Downy 150 

Alaskan Three-totd 149 

Alpine Three-toed 149 

American Three-toed 32, 149 

Arctic Three-toed 149 

Arizona 151 

Batchelder 150 

Cabanis 150 

California 153 

. Downy 150 

Gairdner 150 

Gila 153 

Golden-fronted 153 

Hairy 150 

Harris 150 

Ivory-billed 49 

Lewis 152 

Narrow-fronted 153 

Northern Downy 150 

Northern Hairy 1 50 

Northern Pileated 32, 149 

Nuttall 151 

Pileated 149 

Queen Charlotte 150 

Red-bellied 155 



Woodpecker, Red-cockaded 150 

Red-headed 153 

Rocky Mountain Hairy 150 

Saint Lucas 151 

Southern Downy 150 

Striped-breasted 153 

Texan 151 

White-headed 151 

Willow 151 

Wren, Alaskan 235 

Aztec 230 

Aleutian 235 

Baird 235 

Bewick 235 

Bryaift Cactus 233 

Cactus 233 

Canon 234 

Carolina , 234 

Desert Cactus 233 

Dotted Canon 234 

Florida 234 

Guadalupe 235 

Guadalupe Rock 234 

House 39, 256 

Interior Tule 237 

Kadiak Winter 236 

Lomita 234 

Long-billed Marsh 237 

Marian Marsh 237 

Northwest Bewick 235 

Parkman 236 

Rock 234 

San Clemente 235 

Short-billed Marsh 235 

Southwest Bewick 235 

St. Lucas Cactus 233 

Texas Bewick 235 

Texan Cactus 233 

Wren, Tule 237 

Vigors 235 

Western House 235 

Western Winter 236 

White-throated 234 

Winter 236 

Worthington Marsh 237 

Wren-Tit, Coast 216 

PaUid 215 

Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus 199 

Xanthoura luxuosa glaucescens 185 

Xema sabinii 56 

Xenopicus albolarvatus 151 

Yellowlegs 1 1 1 

Greater 11 1 

Yellow-throat, Belding 194 

Florida 194 

Maryland 193 

Northern 194 

Pacific 194 

Rio Grande 194 

Salt Marsh 194 

Western 194 

Zamelodia ludoviciana 1 74 

melanocephala ... 207 

Zenaida zenaida 125 

Zenaidura macroura 125 

Zonotrichia albicollis 227 

coronata 227 

leucophrys ; .227 

" gambeli .'.227 

" nuttalli 227 

querula i . . . 219 

Press of A. M. Eddy, Albion, N. Y. 



i . 





tiiolo<y Librarj 
Biol. Bide. U. W 

^Q^^ » 

r*? ;