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HALLE a. S. 





Preface 1 

Introduction 4 

Words for 'burn, blaze, glitter, shine' 10 

Words for 'grow' : 'glow' 62 

Words for 'glimmer' : 'gloom' 64 

Words for 'separate, distinct' : 'clear, bright' 65 

Words for 'dip' : 'dye' 69 

Words for 'covering' : 'color', and 'covered' : 'dark' 70 

Words for 'marked' : 'colored' 72 

Words for 'sprinkled' : 'speckled' 84 

Words for 'changing' : 'variegated' 87 

Words for 'turbid' : 'dark' 88 

Words for 'dripping, misty' : 'dark' 93 

Words for 'wear away' : 'smolder' 94 

Words for 'disappear' : 'clear up' : 'fade, get dark' 97 

Words for 'faded, faint' : 'dark' 103 

Words for 'sink, droop' : 'become dim' 107 

Words for 'move rapidly' : 'rattle, resound' 109 

Partial Index of Words 123 



In writing this monograph I have referred to the following 

AJP. = The American Journal of Philology, edited by B. 
L. Gildersleeve. Baltimore. 

Berneker, Die preuss. Spr. Strassburg 1896. 

Brugm. Grd. = Brugmann, Grundriss der vergleichenden 
Grammatik der idg. Sprachen. 

— , Griech. Gr. = Griechische Grammatik, in J. Muller's 
Handbuch der klass. Altertumswissenschaft, Bd. 2, 
3. Auflage. 1900. 

Fick, Wb. 4 = Vergleichendes Worterbuch der idg. Sprachen, etc. 

Hirt, Idg. Abl. = Der idg. Ablaut. Strassburg 1900. 

Horn, Npers. Et. — Grundriss der neupers. Etymologic Strass- 
burg 1893. 

IF. = Indogermanische Forschungen. Zeitschrift fiir idg. 
Sprach- und Altertumskunde. 

JGPh. = The Journal of Germanic Philology, edited by 
Gustaf E. Karsten. Bloomington, Ind. 

Kluge, Et. Wb. 5 == Etymologisches Worterbuch der deutschen 
Sprache. 5. Aufl. Strassburg 1894. 

Kluge and Lutz, Eng. Et. = English Etymology, Boston 1898. 

Liden, Ein Balt.-Slav. Anlautgesetz. Goteborg 1899. 

Mod. Lang. Notes, edited by A. M. Elliott, Baltimore. 

Noreen, Urg. Lautl. = Abriss der urgerm. Lautlehre. Strass- 
burg 1894. 

PBB. = Beitrage zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und 
Literatur, unter Mitwirkung von Hermann Paul und 
Wilhelm Braune herausgegeben von E. Sievers, Halle. 



"Das verwandte lat. flavus 'blond, gelb' hat wie viele 
Farbennamen die Bedeutung geandert gegen das germ. Wort", 
says Kluge, Et. Wb. s. v. blau. Similar remarks are often met 
with, indicating that this is the generally received opinion. 
There is no doubt as to the fact that color-names vary in 
their signification. The word 'white' in one language may 
stand for 'red', 'yellow' or 'green' in others; or 'black' and 
'white' may be associated in related words. But what is the 
explanation? Has usage in the several languages changed 
the original application of color-terms? Or were these terms 
used loosely, so that according to the application they might 
mean 'red' or 'yellow' or 'white'? 

In part the latter is true. A word signifying primarily 
'light, bright' might denote any bright color from 'white' to 
'red'. But this does not explain the association of 'red' and 
'green' or of 'black' and 'white'. There must be a reason 
beyond the loose use of such terms as 'bright' or 'dark' to 
explain the great variation found. This reason must lie in 
the origin of the words. 

We must then search for the original ideas from which 
the color-names came. For we know nothing new about a 
word until we have got beyond its present meaning. Most 
words are now token- coins passing current for certain ideas 
more or less fixed. This adds to the exactness of speech 
and is therefore an advantage. Still we feel the need of 
expressing ourselves picturesquely and hence often use terms 
that are descriptive of the object or the act. It is safe to 
say that most words were originally picture-words. It is 

— 5 — 

probable also that many terms which became mere token- 
words were replaced by new picture- words. This explains 
in part why certain words are dropped from use and others 
substituted, and why slang expressions so easily capture the 
popular mind. 

It is important to remember that most words were pri- 
marily descriptive terms. These terms were, of course, not 
exact descriptions of the whole object or the entire act but 
of the most striking peculiarity, and might, therefore, when 
restricted or extended, be applied to the most various objects. 1 
Thus from the root dim- 'shake' come words for 'storm, cloud, 
smoke, darkness; agitation, anger, courage; madness, folly', 
and may others; from the Germ, verb drive come OE. draf 
'drove', E. drift 'impulse, tendency, course, intent, import, aim; 
a mass of matter driven together', MHG. trift 'das treiben, 
schwemmen des holzes; thun, treiben, lebensweise; herde; trift, 
weide', etc.; from the base sqrei-to-, Lith. shresti 'im kreise 
herumdrehen', OE. scripan 'wander, glide, go', ON. sJcrtcta 
'slide, glide', MHG. schriten 'sich schwingen (aufs pferd); 
schreiten', come Lith. 'skrytis 'radfelge', sJcreiste 'mantel', i. e. 
'fold, wrap', OE. scricl 'chariot, carriage', scride 'course, orbit', 
scrad 'ship', ON. slcreid i landslide, avalanche; flock, multitude', 
MHG. schreit 'breit'. 

In this way meanings arise which are totally different 
from the primary meaning. So from lip- 'smear' come 'smeary, 
dirty; oily, shining; be sticky, stick, remain, live; cause to 
remain, leave'. In such cases as these each derived meaning 
becomes a center of new divergence; and as the original 
meaning is entirely lost sight of, it has no influence upon 
the development of the new center. Thus OE. hefig 'heavy, 
grievous' is not affected in its use by its connection with 
Jiebban 'raise' or Lat. capio 'take' or Gk. xafiJirco 'bend' or 
Skt. kdmpate 'tremble'; nor are any of these words affected 
by their relation to each other. 

Again, as words are descriptive terms, the same object 
or act may be described by various synonymous terms. Thus 
the bat may be designated as a 'fluttermouse' : OHG. fledaron 

1 Cf. Br&d, Essai de SSmantique, 118 ff. 

— 6 — 

'flattern' : fledarmus 'fledermaus'.— ME. flateren 'flattern' : E. 
flittermouse. — OE. flicerian 'flutter' : E. flicJcermouse. This may- 
be only a transformation of flittermouse by the substitution 
of flicker for the less usual flitter. But it is none the less a 
remodeled descriptive term. — Lith. Jcrutu 'rlihre mich', Jcrutus 
'rtihrig; beweglich, regsam', ON. hrjocta 'styrte, ryge; kaste 
hen, bortkaste, udstroe', OE. hryptg 'in ruins', *hreopan 'rush, 
fall; stir : hreapemus 'bat'. — OHG. ruoren 'rtihren', OE. hreran 
'move, stir, shake' : hreremus 'bat', E. rearmouse. 

Similarly the grasshopper takes its name from some word 
meaning 'hop, spring' : OE. hoppian 'leap' : gcershoppa 'grass- 
hopper'.— OE. stcepe 'step' : gcersstapa 'grasshopper'.— OHG. 
screcchon 'springen' : hewisJcreMo 'heuschrecke'. — Du. springen 
: sprinMaan.—OS. thrimman 'springen, hlipfen' : Goth. pramstei 
'heuschrecke'. — Russ. prygati 'springen' : ChSl. pragu 'heu- 
schrecke'. Compare also Goth, faurhts 'furchtsam', OE. forht 
'afraid, timid; terrible', etc.— A v. sizar- 'spring', Gk. oxalgco 
'hop' : Lith. slceris 'heuschrecke'. 

From 'rough, scabby, spotted' come words for 'toad, frog' 
: OE. hreof 1 rough, scabby', Lett, hraupa 'grind, warze' Jcraupis 
'kratze, boser hautausschlag : krote', Jcrups 'krGte', Pruss. cru- 
peyle 'frosch' (cf. Noreen, UL. 206; Berneker, Die preuss. Spr. 
301). — Lith. zeriu 'scharre', zarstau 'scharre mehrfach', OHG. 
krazzon 'kratzen', MHG. Jcretze 'kratze' : OHG. Jcrota, Jcreta 
'krote'. — Lat. derbiosus 'grindig, kratzig', Ski dardu 'aussatz' 
: dardurd 'frosch'. — Gk. yoQvvco 'stir, up', cpoQv-acoj 'defile', 
(poQv-xroq 'mixed, stained' : <pqvv7], yQvvoq 'toad'. This is 
usually referred to brown, but Germ, bruna- meant primarily 
'bright' (cf. I, 30). We may, however refer (fgivrj to the root 
bhrU' 'break'. Compare especially ON. bryna 'whet, sharpen' 
(cf. I, 37). — Lat. rumpo, rupes, Lith. rupas 'rauh, holperig', 
raupai 'masern' : raupe'ze 'krote, schildkrote' (cf. VII, 17). — 
Lith. szirvas 'grau, grauschimmel', Skt. gdrvara 'bunt, scheckig', 
galura 'frosch' (cf. VII, 19).— Gk. jizqxvoq 'dark-colored', Skt. 
prgni 'gesprenkelt, scheckig, bunt' : OE. frogga, forsc, ON. 
froskr, OHG. frosh 'frosch' (cf. VIII, 2). Or we may refer 
Germ. frusJca to ChSl. prysnati 'spritzen', Skt prusyati 'spritzt, 
sprenkelt'. Russ. pryskafi 'spritzen', etc. (cf. I, 98), whence 
Germ. *fruska- 'sprinkled, speckled'. In this case OE. frogga, 

— 7 — 

frocca, ON. frauJcr 'frog', ME. f route 'toad' may be derived 
from the simpler base preu-. — Ski dati, dydti 'schneidet ab, 
trennt, teilt', day ate 'zerteilt', diti 'das verteilen', base dei- 
' divide, cut, tear', also in ON. titja 'ragged garment', OE. 
tcesan 'card, comb; wound', OHG. zeisan 'zupfen, zausen', 
zeisala 'distel', ON. Una 'lesen, sammeln', primarily 'pull, 
pluck', whence pre-Germ. ddi-to- 'scratched, scabby' : OE. 
tadie 'toad'. 

Or the frog may be called the 'croaker'. So Skt. dardurd 
has been explained (cf. Uhl., Ai. Wb. s. v.). So also we may 
refer LG. lorh to MHG. lirhen 'stottern'. In some cases the 
frog or toad may be named from its habitat. So perhaps 
OSw. kivaf 'tiefe', OE. cwabbe 'swamp' : OLG. quappa, auappe, 
ChSl. zaba 'frosch', Pruss. gabaivo 'krote'; Lith. prudas 'teich' 
: ME. froute 'frog' (v. supra). 

See also the common underlying meanings in the following: 
'Wave, water', I, 10a. — 'Weak, heavy, sluggish, drowsy, faint', 
I, 51b, c. — 'Burst, crack, split, cut', I, 61a, b. — 'Rough, uneven', 
I, 62 b, 105a. — 'Rime, frost, hail', I, 98 a. — 'Leaf, bark, bast', 
IV, 10a.— 'Juicy, sweet', XIII, 22a.— 'Resound', XVI, 1—62. 

It follows from all this that it is exceedingly unsafe to 
compare words simply because they are synonymous. In fact, 
the more nearly words in related languages correspond in 
meaning, the less likely is it that they are cognate. In any 
case synonymy is of itself no proof whatever of relationship, 
and comparisons that are made on that basis merely are 
utterly worthless. Unless we can establish phonetic corre- 
spondence, we have nothing to depend on. Such comparisons 
as ON. linjosa 'niesen' : OE. fneosan 'schnauben' : ME. snesen 
'sneeze'; Lat. tango : Goth, telcan; MHG. schrimpfen : OE. 
scrincan : crimpan, and the like open the door wide for the 
wildest etymologizing. Even if they were related, nothing 
but established historical evidence could prove it; and if it 
were proved, nothing more would be known about the phonetic 
or semasiological development of language than before. The 
fact is, it is the common idea not the common form that is 
the important element of a group of words. "For it is only 
where we can trace a group of words to their primary meaning 
that we really know anything about those words. To study 

— 8 — 

the outward form, the phonetic changes, is necessary in all 
word-study. But after all the main thing is to know the 
real life-history of the idea in the word. If this is not gained, 
nothing of any practical importance is gained as far as the 
words themselves are concerned" (cf. author, Mod. Lang. Notes, 
XVI, 305). 

Since it is the common idea that is the real soul and 
life of a word, this soul, as we have seen, may be infleshed 
in any form that can give it being. That is, any word that 
is capable of describing a certain object or act or quality may 
be the embodying term for such an object, act or quality. 
Hence we can draw no safe conclusions from the absence of 
phonetic equivalents for the same idea. There is no common 
Germanic word for 'leg'. But that does not prove that the 
Germanic tribes separated from each other before their legs 
were developed or before the legs were an important enough 
part of their anatomy to be honored with a name. 

The meaning of a word, therefore, is a very important 
element. For it is by the comparison of the various meanings 
in a group of related words that we can find the common 
meaning. And this may be something different from any of 
the extant meanings. It is, of course, impossible to discover 
the absolute origin of any particular root, but it is no great 
task to find out some common center of divergence. And by 
following back in this way, we may find that this common 
center is itself a derived signification. 

The more we trace meanings to their origin, the more 
evident it becomes that motion is the underlying idea. Every- 
thing is expressed in terms of motion. Even such terms as 
'rest, sleep, be sluggish, be silent' are from verbs of motion. 
This is what we should expect. It is moving bodies that 
attract our attention ; it is motion that is most easily described. 
We may invent words to express motion. But how should 
we describe 'rest' except in terms of motion? 

How much we may reduce a word we can never decide. 
One thing, however, is evident. Certain combinations of sounds 
have a common element of meaning running through them. 
This may come through association and not from original 
connection. And yet when we consider the readiness with 

— 9 — 

which derivatives are formed, we need not be surprised to 
find related words with various suffix-elements. It often 
happens, too, that the derivative crowds out the primary word, 
so that we can not always make exact comparisons. So Lat. 
fundo, Goth, giutan have crowded out the simpler form seen 
in Gk. yico. Different bases are seen in Goth, sniwan, snium- 
jan, ON. snydja, and it is not at all improbable that sniwan 
represents a derived base sne-uo-, which may be related as 
indicated below, XVI, 51 — 56. 

Now in discussing color-names we must bear in mind 
that they are necessarily secondary. For, being descriptive 
terms, there was a time when there were no color-names as 
such. That is, there was a time, and that not very remote, 
when the present color- words were terms that could be used 
in describing quite different qualities. This earliest stage can 
be seen at all periods, for color-words are continually arising. 
It is represented in English by such terms as 'gay, lively, 
smart, dashy, loud, gaudy; dull, dead, dreary; tarnished, stained, 
spotted, dirty, smeared; faint, faded, feeble', etc. From such 
and similar terms come color-names as such. This happens 
because a community describes a certain color by a certain 
term and by association the term comes to denote that color. 
Different communities, however, may use the same term differ- 
ently. Thus by association 'smeared' may mean to one 'dirty, 
dark-colored', to another 'oily, shiny, bright'. 


Words for 'burn, blaze, glitter, shine'. 

It is evident that many color-names are connected with 
words for 'blaze, burn, shine', etc. The underlying words here 
express rapid motion of the most general character, and are 
widely divergent in their development. We therefore find 
such ideas as 'whirl, vibrate, quiver, tremble; scatter, sprinkle, 
sputter, chatter; spring up, rise, swell, grow, shoot out; burst 
forth, resound; breathe, blow; be quick, violent, strong, eager; 
project, be prominent, appear; be sharp, pierce', etc. producing 
words for 'flicker, twinkle, sparkle, glitter, gleam, blaze, burn, 
shine', etc. 

The same underlying terms are used to express quite 
different ideas. This is because they are of a wide appli- 
cation, not because there is a transference from one to another. 
Thus Germ, spriihen may mean 'sparkle' or 'drizzle', from the 
wider signification 'fly out in small particles'. There is, of 
course, a transference from the concrete to the abstract or 
from the physical to the mental. But when we find a term 
that is used of sight and of sound, we . are not at once to 
suppose that there has been a transference from one to the 
other. In some cases that may be true, that is, there may 
be a secondary transference from sound to sight or from sight 
to sound, as when we speak of loud colors or dark tones. 
But when we consider that all terms describing the objects 
of sense-perception are necessarily transferred terms, it will 
appear more probable that a word signifying both 'shrillness' 
and 'brightness' is a descriptive derivative in both senses. 
That is, one is not derived from the other, but both are 
transferred ideas. Thus Lat. acer 'sharp, pointed' is applied 

— 11 — 

to all the senses and also to mental and moral qualities. Or 
'resound' and 'burn' are often associated from the primary 
meaning ' break forth, swell, burst' or 'shake, rattle', so that 
the same root may give words for 'resound', 'burn', and 'flow'. 
Thus E. break forth may describe the issue of fire, water, or 
noise. Of course, the same terms that are used to form words 
for 'blaze, shine' are applicable also to the most varied objects 
and qualities. 

1. Skt. vdlati 'turn, whirl', Lith. veliu 'entwine, entangle', 
ChSl. valiti 'roll', Lat. volare 'fly', Goth, wulan 'sieden', ON. 
vella 'kochen', OHG. wallan 'wallen', walm 'hitze, glut', OE. 
wielm 'boiling; surging, raging (of fire); flowing, bursting forth'. 

The root uel- is used as a descriptive term of the most 
varied objects, thus giving words for a large number of things 
that turn, roll, whirl, wind, twist, etc. Gk. Ihg 'winding, 
twisted; tendril; curl' may better be taken with eXixTj 'willow', 
Lat. salix. 

2. Skt. vdlati 'sich wenden; sich aussern, zeigen', valana 
'wendung; das wogen, wallen; hervortreten, sich zeigen', Lat. 
voltus 'appearance, expression, looks, face', Goth, wulpus 
' herrlichkeit ', wulfirs ' wichtig, wertvoll ', i. e. ' hervortretend, 
hervorgehoben ', OE. wuldor 'glory, praise', Goth, wulpags 
'herrlich, glanzend, wunderbar'. 

The derived base uele-io-, ull- occurs with a similar 
development of meaning. Skt. valayati 'macht rollen', valaya 
'kreis, rund, runde einfassung', vali, vail 'falte, runzel' : ON. 
litr 'aussehen, farbe, glanz', OE. ivlite 'appearance, form; 
splendor, brightness ', Goth, wlits ' angesicht ', etc. The primary 
meaning 'turn' is prominent in the related verbs: ON. Ma 
'turn one's eyes toward, look toward', leita 'seek, search', 
Goth, wlaiton 'sich umsehen, spahen', OE. wlatian 'gaze', 
wlitan 'look', Gk. iXXi^co 'look awry, look askance' (cf. author, 
Pub. MLA. XIV, 332). 

2a. On the base ult- 'turn; appear' is also formed Goth. 
anda-wleizn 'angesicht'; from 'turn, twist' Skt. vleska ' schlinge ', 
Ir. flesc 'rute', ChSl. lesa 'eine aus ruten geflochtene wand, 
htirde', Goth, wlizjan 'schlagen' (cf. Liden, Ein balt.-slav. 
Anlautgesetz, 25 f.); from 'turn, distort' OE. wlcetan 'defile, 

— 12 — 

debase', a-ivlcetan 'deform, make loathsome, spoil'; from 'turn 
(the stomach), nauseate' OE. me ivlatap 'I feel nausea', wlatung 
'nausea'. Compare OHG. wallan 'wallen, aufwallen', wallon 
'wallen, wandern' : ivullon, willon 'nauseare, ekel empfinden'; 
wdlgon ' sich walzen, sich rollen ' : MHG. mir walget ' mir ekelt ', 
early NHG. wulgeren 'nauseare' (cf. Schade, Wb.). 

3. OHG. walgon 'sich walzen, sich rollen, volvi; ambulare', 
MHG. ivalgen 'sich walzen, sich rollen, sich bewegen; walzen, 
rollen', ivelgen 'rollen, walzen'; Lett, wa'lks 'feucht', wa'lka 
'ein fliessendes wasserchen', Ir. folcaim 'wasche, bade' (cf. 
Fick, Wb. II 4 , 285), ON. valgr, OE. wealg 'lau', base uel-qo-, 
uol-qo- 'turn, roll; fluctuate flow; be active, strong', etc. : Skt. 
vdrcas 'strength, glory, splendor', ulka 'firebrand, meteor', 
Lat. Volcanus, but not the root leuq- 'shine' (v. no. 122 below). 

Compare the synonymous uel-go- : Skt. vdlgati 'bewegt 
sich heftig, springt', ON. valka 'rollen, hin und her bewegen', 
OHG. walkan 'walken; priigeln', OE. wealcan 'roll, fluctuate; 
whirl, twist, wring', wealca 'wave', wlanca 'proud, showy, fine, 
grand', Skt. valgu 'schmuck, lieblich, schon' (cf. Uhl. Ai. Wb.); 
ChSl. vlaga 'feuchtigkeit', Russ. volgnuti 'feucht werden', 
OHG. welc 'feucht, welk, lau', OE. wlcec 'lau', OHG. wolka 
'wolke', etc. 

3a. The base uol-qo-, -uolo-qo- 'turn, twine, twist' occurs 
in Skt. valkd ' bast ', ChSl. vlakno ' faser ', Russ. volokno ' faser, 
faden', Pol. wlokno 'garn', Lith. valaknd 'die obere rinde oder 
faser des Sachses', OE. wloh 'fringe, tuft'. Compare Lith. 
velti 'walken, (haare, faden etc.) in einander verwirren, ver- 
schlingen', velikas 'wer walkt, verwirrt'. These cannot be 
directly connected with Lith. velkii, ChSl. vMkq, ' ziehe, schleppe ' 
unless we regard the latter as derivatives of the former. It 
is more probable, however, that 'draw, drag' came from 'cause 
to roll '. From ' turn, bend, be pliant ' come Skt. vdlga ' schoss- 
ling, zweig', MHG. wilge 'weide', OS. wilgia etc.; from 'twine, 
curl', Av. vardsa-, ChSl. vlasu 'haar'. 

4 Similarly uer- ' turn ' : Lat. vermis, Goth, waurms ' worm ', 
Lith. veriu 'open and close', varan 'drive', OE. werian 'ward 
off', Lat. vereor 'turn from in awe, fear, revere', etc.; Ir. feraim 
,pour', Skt. vdr 'water', OE. wmr, ear, ON. ver 'sea', ur 

— 13 — 

'dampness' : ChSl. varti 'aestus', variti 'cook', Lith. virinu, 
verdu ' cook, boil ', Arm. varem 'kindle', Pruss. urminan, wormy an 
'red'. For other meanings derived from uer- 'turn, roll' see 
author, Pub. MLA. XIV, 327 ff. 

5. ODu. wriven 'rub', OHG. riban 'reibend wenden oder 
drehen, reiben ', Bav. reiben ' reiben, wenden, drehen ', pre-Germ. 
*ureipo-, *uripo- ' wenden, drehen, hin und her bewegen, reiben ' 
: Gk. Qijtza) 'throw about, throw, hurl', qljii) 'rush, swing; 
whir, buzz; twinkling light' (id. ib. 331). 

5 a. Goth, wraton, ON. rata 'wandern, reisen', rota, OE. 
wrotan 'aufwublen' : Gk. Qadavi^o) 'swing', gadtvog 'flink, 
schwank, schlank', (>odavi£co 'twist threads, spin', godavog 
'wavering, flickering'. 

Here also belong Gk. Qadafivog 'young branch, shoot', 
Goth, waurts 'wurzel' etc. The underlying meaning is 'wind, 
twist'. Compare OHG. renhen 'drehend hin- und herziehen' 
: NHG. ranke, ranken; Goth, ivairpan 'werfen', primarily 'twist, 
whirl' : Lith. virbas 'reis, gerte'; OE. wrifian 'twist' : tvrtdan 
'grow, flourish'; Ski vajdyati 'treibt an', Lat. vegeo : Goth. 
wahsjan 'wachsen'; Lith. plasnuju 'klatsche in die hiinde', 
plazdu 'schlage' (vom pulse), plezdu 'flattere', Sw. flard ' eitel- 
keit, tand', OE. fleard 'folly, superstition', fleardian' act wrongly, 
play the fool : grow luxuriantly'. 

6. OHG. winnan ' in heftiger aufregung sein, wtiten, toben, 
heulen, streiten, sich abmlihen', ON. vinna 'toil, strive for, 
win', Skt. vdnati 'wish, desire, win', Goth, wens 'hope', OS. 
wanam 'clear, bright', ON. vcenn 'schon', Gk. i)v-o\p 'glittering'. 

7. Lat. vegeo ' arouse ', augeo ' increase ', Lith. dagu ' grow ', 
Skt. ojas ' strength ', vdja ' speed, strength ', Goth, wakan ' wake ', 
aukan 'grow', etc., base aueg-, aueg- : Alb. agume 'dawn, 
morning', Gk. avyr) 'light, radiance' (cf. Prellw. Et. Wb.; 
Brugm. Grd. 1 2 , 493). See also II, 8, and compare the base 
aueqo-, ue(n)qo- in the following. 

7 a. Skt. vdncati ' wankt, wackelt, geht krumm ', vacydte 
' schwingt sich, fliegt ', vahlm ' fliegend ', Goth, -wahs ' verkehrt, 
krumm ', ON. vangr ' falsch ', OHG. ivanga ' wange ', Lat. vacillo 
'wanke', base ue{n)qp- 'swing, sway, turn', etc., also in Lith. 

— 14 — 

aulmju 'sehaukele', ve'ka 'kraft', ON. vcengr, Sw., Dan. vinge, 
E. wing ' flugel ', Sw. vingla ' wanken, schwindeln ', MHG. ivelien 
'blinken, strahlen', wcehe, OHG. wahi ' glanzend, schon, zierlich, 
schmuck '. 

7 b. With the above base are compared Lith. vingis ' bogen, 
kriimmung ', vengti 'etwas ungern thun', ON. vaMa, OHG. 
wanJwn ' wanken ', winkan ' sich seitwiirts bewegen, schwanken, 
nicken, winken ', OE. wincian L wink, blink '. The same primary 
meaning is also in the base uegho- : ON. vega 'bewegen, wiegen, 
wagen', Goth, gawigan 'schtttteln, bewegen', Ski vdhati 'ftihrt, 
fahrt, fliesst, weht', A v. vazaiti 'ftihrt, zieht, fliegt', etc. 

8. Ski vasantd, Gk. tag, ChSl. vesna 'spring', Lith. vasard 
'summer', root aues- 'spring up, rise', whence 'shine, blaze', etc. 
: Ski ucclidti 'shine', usman 'vapor, glow, heat', osati 'burn', 
Gk. tvco 'burn, singe', Lai uro 'burn', Skt. usrd 'reddish', 
Lai aurum 'gold'. 

Compare aues- 'spring, flow' : OHG. waso 'damp ground', 
wasal 'rain', Gk. avco, Lat. liaurio, ON. ansa 'draw water', 
OHG. wesanen 'become dry, rot', etc. (Pub. MLA. XIV, 313 f.). 

9. Skt. vdpati 'scatter, strew, throw', Lith. vapu, vdpalioju 
'chatter, babble', OE. ivoeflian 'talk foolishly', wafian 'wave, 
brandish', OE. vafa 'vibrate', vafra, MHG. wabern 'waver', 
OE. wcefre 'wandering, restless, flickering (cf. Mod. Lang. Notes, 
XV, 97 f.), ChSl. vapu, Pruss. tvoapis 'color'. Here also ChSl. 
vapa 'pool', E. wave 'welle, woge'. Here may belong Lai 

E. wave seems to be a recent word in this sense, and the 
descriptive force of it is still felt. This shows how easily 
and naturally a descriptive term may arise at any period. 

9a. Gk. drjoi, Skt. vati 'weht', ChSl. vetru 'wind', Lith. 
vetra 'sturm', OS. wedar 'wetter, witterung, sturm', OHG. ivetar, 
Gk. avzfrijv 'breath, vapor', dtrfiov jtvevfia, atTfta' (pXoB, (Hes.). 

The base aue- meant primarily 'wave, move back and 
forth, flutter', etc. From this grew many other meanings as: 
Gk. do^xico 'sleep', i. e. 'nod, droop', dcoQog 'weariness, sleep', 
OHG. wuorag 'intoxicated', OS. worag 'weary', Skt. vata 'matt' 
(cf. Prellw., Ei Wb.; author, Jour. Germ. Phil. II, 214). If we 

— 15 — 

were to assume as many different roots as we have distinct 
meanings, we must needs have strauge ideas of language. The 
proper course to pursue is to seek the common meaning from 
which the others have diverged. When, therefore, we find a 
word like Ski vdhati 'ftthrt, fahrt; fliesst; weht', we know 
that the idea expressed is such as is applicable to various 
modes of motion. 

10. Goth, weipan 'crown', MHG. ivlfen 'swing, entwine', 
Lat. vibro 'brandish, fling, hurl; flicker, glitter, sparkle'. 

The bases uei-bo- in the above and uei-po- in Skt. vepate 
'regt sich, zittert, bebt', O^.veifa ' in schwingender, zitternder 
bewegung sein', OHG. weibon 'schwanken, schweben, unstet 
sein ', etc. are evidently from the root ueio-, ui- in Skt. veviyate 
'flattert', vdyati 'webt, flicht', Lith. vejit 'drehe, winde', etc., 
from which come also many other derived bases (cf. Persson, 
Wz. 49 f., 174 f.). 

10 a. In all the above bases with initial (e)ue-, (a)ue- is 
the primary idea ' turn, roll, wave, whirl ', etc. It is impossible 
to assert that they are all from a common primitive root; it 
is equally impossible to deny it. The common meaning is 
there, however, and that is sufficient for our present discussion. 
And this, as we see, may develop in all sorts of ways, the 
same term being descriptive of various actions and objects. 
An indication of the primary meaning of words beginning with 
ue~, uo- is the recurrence of terms for 'wave, water, wet' in 
this group. 

Skt. vdlati 'sich wenden', valana 'die wendung; das wallen, 
wogen', Lith. vilnts, OHG. wella 'welle'; OE. wielm ' wallung ', 
Pol. welm ' meereswoge ', Skt. urmi ' woge, welle ' : OHG. walgon 
'volvi', Lett. wa'lJca 'ein fliessendes wasserchen'; OE. wealcan 
' roll, fluctuate ', wealca ' wave ', a more recent word than OHG. 
tvelc 'feucht', ChSl. vlaga ' feuchtigkeit '. — Lith. varau 'drive', 
Ir. feraim ' pour ', Skt. vdr ' water ', ON. ver ' sea ' : OE. iveorpan 
' throw, toss ', geweorp ' throwing, tossing, surge '. NHG. ivorpen 
' rolling waves ', a LG. word. — Skt undtti, undati ' quillt, benetzt, 
badet', Lat. undo, 'wave', OE. wast 'wet, moist', uceter 'water; 
sea ', etc. — OHG. waso ' damp ground ', ivasal ' rain ', MLG. wos 
'foam', OE. wos 'moisture, juice', Skt. vdsa 'schmalz, fett', 

— 16 — 

Av. vanha- 'spinal marrow', base uo(n)s-, OHG. waskan 
'waschen', Lat. vena < *uesna-. — Skt. vdhati 'ftihrt, fahrt, 
fliesst, weht ', OHG. wegan ' bewegen, sich bewegen ', Skt. valid 
'fuhrend, tragend; fahrend, fliessend', Gotb. wegs 'woge, flut', 
OE. wceg 'wave', OHG. wag 'flut, woge, strom, fluss, meer', 
base uegh-.— Lith. vagiu 'steal', base uogwh- auegvih- 'move, 
cany off; go, flow' (compare Alb. vjed 'steal' from the base 
uegh-) : Skt. ogha, aughd ' flut, strom ', Lat. uvens, uvidus ' wet, 
moist, damp'.— Skt. ojas 'strength', Lith. augu 'grow', Ski 
ugrd 'strong, violent': Gk. vyQoc, ON. vQkr 'wet, damp', vehja 
*zum fliessen bringen', Skt. uksdti 'betraufelt, besprengt'. — 
Ski vdpati 'scatter, throw', OE. wafian 'brandish, wave', E. 
wave 'welle, woge', ChSl. vapa 'pool'. — Skt. visa 'fliissigkeit, 
gift ', Gk. tog, Lat. virus ' poison ', ON. veisa ' pool ', OHG. wisa 
' wiese ', weisunt ' veins ', OE. wasend ' throat, gullet ', base ueis- 
'roll, flow '. — Lett, vikt 'sich biegen', Gk. dxa> 'weiche', aiccco 
' eile, flattere, schwinge ', Skt. vici ' welle, woge '. 

11. Ski mrnati 'crush', Gk. y.aQvay,ai 'struggle, fight'; 
(ioq[/v(>oo 'murmur', Ski marmara 'roaring' : Gk. fiaQfiaiQco 
'sparkle, glitter', root mer- 'move rapidly; rattle, roar; sparkle'. 
The same root gives also Skt. mdrate 'die'. Compare ON. 
dyja 'shake' : deyja 'die'; ON. star fa 'sich miihen' : OHG. 
sterban 'sterben'; Gk. xdfivco 'work oneself weary ' : olxafiovveg 
'the dead'. 

12. Gk. dfjaovoGco 'shoot forth; twinkle, sparkle', OE. 
bregdan ' brandish, move quickly, weave, change (color) ', brog- 
dettan 'brandish; tremble', broga 'terror', ge-bregd 'change; 
skill, cunning', brcegd 'trick, deceit', OHG. brettan 'ziehen, 
zucken; weben', brutten ' erschrecken ', ON. bregda 'move 
rapidly, brandish, weave, change color', bragd 'rapid movement, 
cunning, twinkle', braga 'glitter, gleam, flash', brja 'sparkle', 
MHG. brelien 'shine', Goth, brahiv 'quick, sudden movement, 
twinkling', Lith. nierkiu 'wink, blink', brekssta 'it dawns' (cf. 
Johansson, Kuhns Zs. 30, 445 ff.). The Germ, words are supposed 
to come from a base mrcq-. In that case compare the root 
mer- above. As far as the meaning is concerned, however, 
they can be equally well from a base bhre-Jco- ' move rapidly ', 
for that and not 'shine' is the primary meaning. In fact, 

— 17 — 

'shine' is never a primary meaning of any word whatsoever. 
In the very nature of things it cannot be (v. infra, no. 33). 

13. Gk. [idgyog ' raging, mad; greedy, lustful', fisgyi^co' 
dO-Qowg to&ieiv (Hes.), Skt. mrgd 'wild animal, gazelle, bird', 
mrgdyate ' chase, hunt, seek for ', Av. nmdyaiti ' wander about ', 
base mer-go- ' move rapidly ' : Russ. morgdtt ' blink ', Lith. mlrgu 
'flicker', mar gas, Ir. brecc, mrecht- 'bunt' (cf. author, AJP. 
XXI, 179 f.; Uhl., Ai. Wb. S. v. mrgds). 

13 a. The derived meaning ' rub, press, strip ' is seen in 
Skt. mrnati ' crush ', Gk. f/ccQaivco ' wear away, quench ', andga), 
dfieQda) ' rob, deprive ', d(iigy(D 'pluck', dftogyog ' squeezing out, 
draining', o^ogyvv^ii 'press out; wipe off'. 

14. Skt. spandate 'twitch, jerk', Gk. 6Jt£vdco 'pour', 
primarily 'scatter, sprinkle', onodog 'ashes', Lith. spendziu 'set 
a snare ': spindziti 'beam, gleam', Lett, spudrs 'bright'. 

15. Skt. sphurdti 'kick, jerk, twitch, tremble; twinkle, 
sparkle', sphurana 'sparkling', Gk. onaigco 'struggle, twitch, 
pant', ojietQco 'scatter, throw about, sow', Lat. sperno etc.; 
MHG. sprayen 'streuen, spritzen, stieben', sprat 'das spritzen', 
NHG. spruhen, base, sp(h)er-, spre- 'move hastily back and 
forth, scatter' : Skt. sphurjati 'break forth, appear; crackle, 
rattle ', Lith. spragii, ON. spraka ' crackle ', Lat. spargo ' scatter, 
sprinkle ', OE. spearca ' spark ', spearcian ' emit sparks ', spiercan 
'sputter; sparkle', spier cing 'sprinkling', MLG. sparse 'spark', 
spranken 'sparkle' (cf. Persson, Wz. 17 f.) Here belong Du., 
ME. sprenkelen ' sprinkle ' etc. (v. VII, 3) and OE. sprecan 
'speak', etc. 

16. LG. spakJcern, spenhem, 'spring about quickly', E. 
spank 'strike, slap', MLG. spakeren 'sprtihen', MHG. spachen 
'bersten machen, spalten', spach 'dtirr, trocken', OE. specca, 
Lith. spogas 'speck, spot', spingeti 'glitter', Lett, spugalas 
' splendor '. 

Here belong OE. specan, OHG. spehhan, 'speak', MHG. 
spehten 'schwatzen', spaht 'geschwatz, lauter gesang'. Germ. 
sprekan and spekan became confused, but there is not suf- 
ficient reason for supposing that they are identical. 


- 18 — 

17. Skt. phdlati 'burst, spring back, split', Lith. spaliai 
'awn from flax' : Skt. phalgu 'small, tiny, weak', Gk. (psXyvvw 
dawETsT, ZqQtt, Lith. spilga 'pin', ON. spjalk, OE. spelc 
'splint' : Skt. phalgu, phdlguna 'shimmering, reddish', Lett. 
spulgut 'sparkle', spulgans, spilgans 'schillernd, rotlich' (cf. 
Uhl., Ai. Wb.). From the same root are Gk. onl^doo, 'ashes', 
Lat. splendeo 'shine', base sple(n)do-. Compare sp(h)el-to- in 
Skt. sphutdti 'springt auf, spaltet sich', MLG. spolden, OHG. 
spaltan 'spalten', OE. speld 'splinter, piece of wood, torch', etc. 
To splend- may belong E. splint, splinter, Sw. splinta 'split, 
splinter', etc. if not from *spleido-, *splindo-, MHG. spllzen 
' spleissen '. 

18. Gk. jtaXla) 'shake', Lat. pello 'drive, beat', ON. 
falma ' waver, tremble ', root pel- ' shake, spring, scatter ', etc. : 
Ch. SI. paliti 'burn, flammare'. 

19. Gk. nlaCp 'drive about', pass, 'wander, roam', ON. 
flakka 'roam about', OE. flacor 'flying' (of arrows), flicerian 
' flutter, hover ', Du. flikkeren ' sparkle, glitter ', E. flicker, MHG. 
vlackern 'flackern' (cf. Prellw., Et. Wb.), NHG. flink 'quick, 
active, bright', flinken (Stieler, 1691) 'gleam', flunkern 'glitter', 
(cf. Kluge, Et. Wb.). With these compare Lith. plaku 'beat, 
whip ', Ch. SI. plakati ' mourn, weep '. Lith. plekiu ' beat, chastise ', 
OHG. flagaron ' flutter ', ON. flengja ' whip ', OSw. flenga ' strike ', 
Sw. fldnga 'hin und her rennen; reissen, abreissen', ME, 
flingen, flengen 'rush, hurl', E. fling, MHG. vlanc (-ges) 'spark'; 
Gk. 3tXrjyrj 'blow', jtArjypvfti 'strike', Lat. plango, etc., root 
pie-, pla-, same as above. 

20. Lith. plasnuju, pleskoju 'clap' (the hands), plastu 
'beat ' (of pulse), ' flap ' (wings), plezdu ' flutter ', plasdu ' beat ' 
(of pulse), plaznoju, plesdenu 'flap, flutter', OE. fleard 'folly', 
fleardian 'grow luxuriantly; play the fool', Sw. fldrd 'vanity', 
Germ, base *flaz-da-, Lak. jzladdiaw ' fasele ', OHG. flistran' palpare, 
blandiri', early NHG. flismen, flispern, flistern 'fllistern', OE. 
fleswian 'whisper', Lat. ploro 'wail', ON. flasa 'hasten', Sw. 
fldsa 'snort', dial, flasa 'burn violently', Norw. flara 'blaze', 
E. flare, flash, base, pies- ' move rapidly, wave, flutter, palpitate, 
pant; flicker, flash'. 

— 19 — 

With these compare plens- : ChSl. plesati 'dance' (whence 
Goth, plinsjan), MHG. vlins ' zitterndes fliessen, schimmern', 
vlinsen 'zittern, schimmern'. Here perhaps also MHG. vlans 
'verzerrtes Maul'. 

20 a. Compare with the above the base ple-t- in OHG. 
flediron, MHG. vledern, vladern ' flutter', vleder 'pennant', 
vleder-mus ' fledermaus ', ON. fladra 'wag'; ple-d- in NHG. 
flattern, OHG. flitarezzan 'palpare, caress', MHG. vlittem 
'whisper, titter', Gk. jtladagoq 'wet, damp, flabby'; ple-p, 
ple-b- in Lith. plepu 'babble, chatter', Lat. palpo, palpito, 
E. flap, flabby, Dan. flcebe 'weep, howl', flab 'mouth', and 
perhaps with secondary ablaut ON. flipe 'lip', fleipa 'babble', 
Norw. flipa 'weep'. 

21. Ski pldvate 'swim, bathe, float, wave; fly away, 
vanish; stretch out, extend; spring, hop', Av. fravaiti 'hasten, 
go', ChSl. plovq, 'flow, float', Lith. plduju 'rinse', Gk. jtXea) 
'swim, sail', xXvvco 'wash; beat', Ir. fo-lluur 'fly', luath 
'quick'; im-luadi 'exagitat', im-luad 'agitatio', con-ludimm 
'go' (with which compare Lat. plaudo 'clap, beat'), OE. 
fleotan 'float, sail', floterian 'float; fly; flutter', Lith. plaudziu 
'wash, cleanse', pluduriu 'float, drift about'; plauMii 'swim', 
OHG. fliogan ' fliegen ', OE. fleogan ' move quickly, fly ', flogettan 
'fluctuate', OHG. flogezen 'flutter, flicker, shimmer', flogaron 
'flit, flutter, flicker, burn', base plu-uo- 'move rapidly, run; 
flow, float; fly, soar; set in motion, drive, strike'. 

21 a. The base pleu- most assuredly did not mean 
primarily 'flow', but rather denoted rapid motion of some 
kind. From this developed 'flow' just as in so many words 
for ' move hastily, run '. From ' flow ' came ' wash '. The base 
ple-uo- sustains the same relation to pel-, pie- as sre-uo to ser-. 
We may therefore refer the base pleuo- to pel- ' shake, spring, 
scatter; pour; drive, thrust, strike', etc., from which are the 
various derivatives given above (nos. 19, 20), and many others. 
In some of these we also find 'pour; flow', etc. So MHG. 
vlceen 'wash', Lith._p^ 'schtitte, giesse, prugele'; Gk. nXadoq 
'moisture, wet', nladaco 'be wet'; ChSl. pldkati 'spiihlen'; 
Skt. palva-ld 'pool', Lat. palus, palu-dis 'swamp', pelvis, Gk. 
jcsUig 'basin' (cf. Prellw., EtWb. s. v.), Lith. pitvas 'belly'. 


— 20 — 

22. Gk. <prj[u 'say', <pr)iir} ' report', Lat. fa-n, fama, Skt. 
bhdnati ' speak ', OHG. bannan ' befehlen, vorladen ', ON. bon, 
OE. ben 'prayer, request', Gk. cpaivco ' show ', < ' appear, 
shine', yavegog 'plain, clear', Skt. bhati 'erscheint, scheint? 
leuchtet', bliana 'das erseheinen, leuchten', Ir. ban 'white', 
hdnaim 'become pale', OE. bonian 'polish', MHG. biienen 
'bohnen', Skt. bhanu 'schein, licht, strahl', bhama 'schein, 
licht, strahl; wut, zorn.', Av. bamya- 'shining, bright', Skt. bMs 
' licht, glanz ', OE. baso ' crimson ', etc. (cf . Uhl., Ai. Wb.). 

The root bha- in the above must have meant ' bring forth, 
show' or perhaps rather 'point out, show', whence indicate, 
say, tell' and ' be shown, appear, shine '. (Compare Gk. dsixvvfii 
'point out, show, display; make knowD, tell'.) Skt. bhala 
'gleam', OE. bcel 'fire', etc., base *bhelo- } probably do not 
belong here. See below, no. 24. 

23. Gk. givm 'bring forth, produce', pass, 'grow, spring 
up, arise', Skt. bhdvati 'arise, flourish', bhuti 'power, thrift, 
growth, ornament', Gk. <pvoig 'nature', cpavoig 'appearance, 
light, splendor', dyvco 'become white', OE. biewan 'polish'; 
Gk. <pvpa ' growth ', Skt. bhuma ' being, world ', OE. beam ' tree, 
beam; pillar (of light)', sun-beam 'sunbeam', E. beam 'balken; 
strahl'; Skt. bMsati 'move about, be active', MHG. bus 'auf- 
geblasenheit, schwellende fiille', NHG. bans, bausen, Norw. 
baus ' hitzig, heftig, iibermutig ', Russ. buelinuU ' schwellen, sich 
werfen ' (for other cognates see Wadstein, PBB, XXII, 238 ff.) : 
Lat. com-buro 'burn'. 

24. OHG. ballo 'ball', bolla 'bud, bowl', Lat. follis, 
folium, etc., root bhul-, hhW- 'burst forth, overflow, swell', 
whence 'resound': ON. belja 'bellow', bylja 'resound, roar'; 
Lith. byla 'speech', ChSl. bleja, MHG. blaijen 'bleat', Lat. 
fle-re 'weep' (cf. Persson, Wz. 87) : Gk. (pUco 'strotze, fliesse 
tiber, lasse fliessen, schwatze', OHG. blajan 'blasen, blahen', 
OE. blawan 'blow, inflate': Gk. <palog 'gleaming', (pdltoc 'light, 
white', Lith. bdlti 'become white', bdltas CHSL belu 'white', 
ON. bal, OE. bcel 'flame', Skt. bhala 'gleam; forehead', Welsh 
bal 'baldfaced', Bret, bal 'weisser stirnfleck'; Lat. fla-re 'blow', 
conflare 'blow up, kindle', fla-men 'blowing, blast', fla-vo-s 'golden 
yellow'; OHG. bluoen 'bltihen', MHG. er-bluejen 'erbltihen; 
bltthend, rot machen', Lat. flos, floreo, florens, floridus. 

— 21 — 

25. OHG. blasa 'blase, harnblase', Hasan 'blasen', OE. 
bices 'blowing, blast', blcest 'blast, flame, glare', blcese 'blaze, 
torch ', Uysa 'fire, torch', a-blysian,blyscan 'blush'; ON.&tese,MHG. 
blasse ' blasse ' (compare Bret, bal ' weisser stirnfleck ', etc. no. 24), 
bias, MLG. blaer, OE. Mere 'bald', ME. balled 'bald', OE. 
*bealled < *balsaida- or -oda- ; NHG. &Zass 'pale'. 

26. Gk. <pXLo), <pXi6a(D ' overflow, flow out from ', <pXoidam 
'cause to swell or ferment, heat, scorch, burn', ChSl. bledu 
'pale', Lith. blaivas 'clear, bright', OE. Mat 'pale, livid'. 
Here the meanings 'clear', 'pale' probably grew out of 'flow 
out' rather than 'shine'. See XIII, 4. 

27. (plico ' swell over, overflow ', zieQupXevm ' scorch, singe, 
char all around', Lat. fluo, fluxi, fluctus, con-flugae, Gk. oivo- 
(plvt- 'drunk', tpXvxrig 'blister': OHG. blugison 'waver, hesi- 
tate ', MHG. blue, bliuc, ' wavering, timid, bashful ', OE. blyegan 
' terrify ', ON. bljugr ' timid bashful ', bases Hhlu-go- and *blilu- 
Jco- 'flow, wave, fluctuate': OHG. blulien 'burn, gleam', MHG. 
ver-bliehen 'burn up, — out, fade away'. 

Here as well as to no. 25 may belong OE. blysa, ON. 
blys, Dan. blus 'flame, torch', blusse, ON. blossa 'blaze, glow'. 

27 a. We have in the above (nos. 24 — 27) the bases 
bMlo-, bJile-; blile-io-, bliVz-; bhle-uo-, bJilu-, in which is the 
underlying idea 'burst forth, swell', etc. Compare the follow- 
ing: Ir. bolgaim 'swell', OHG., OE. belgan ' aufsehwellen, 
zornig sein', OE. ge-belg 'anger; arrogance', bylgan bellow, 
blagettan 'weep'; bealcan 'belch forth, utter', bcelcan 'voci- 
ferate', beelc 'pride', bases bhel-gho-; bhel-go; Lith. balsas 'voice, 
sound ', OE. bellan ' bellen, schreien ', etc., base bhel-so- ' burst forth, 
resound'; OHG. blajan 'blasen, blahen', Gk. <plta) 'gush out; 
babble, chatter', MHG. blcejen 'bloken', etc. (v. supra), Gk. 
g)Xrjvco ' babble, prate ', <pXi6cov ' babbler, foolish talker ', <pX?]6do3 
'babble, chatter', OE. blat 'sound, cry', blcetan OHG. blazan 
'bleat'; Gk. yXlco 'overflow', (pXoto-pog 'roar, din', ON. bllstr 
'whistling', blistra 'whistle'; Gk. <pXva> 'overflow; babble, 
talk idly, talk', Lith. bliduju, blidunu 'brulle, bloke', Gk. 
(pXvagoq 'talkative, silly talker', ODu. bluyster 'blister', 
Lat. fluctus 'wave', Gk. pXvxrlg 'blister, pimple'; Gk. yXvSaw 
'have an excess of moisture, be soft', (pXvdaqoq 'soft, flabby', 

— 22 — 

ON. blautr 'wet, moist, soft, weak', bleyta 'soft wet ground', 
blotna, OSw. Uotna 'become wet', E. bloat, etc.; MHG. Modem 
'rauschen' (cf. Persson, Wz. 35 f., 131 f., 200; author, Mod. Laug. 
Notes, XV, 326 f.). 

28. ON. bldka 'shake; hit, tap; flutter', bldkta 'move to 
and fro, flutter', blakra 'flutter, flicker', Lai flagrum 'whip, 
scourge', MHG. blenken 'unstat umherfahren; schweben, hin 
und her bewegen', blenkeln ' hin und herbewegen ', OE. blencan 
ON. blekkja ' delude, deceive, cheat ' (so also Gk. ^tjXoq 
'delusive, deceitful', Lai fallo), OHG. blanch 'blinkend, weiss, 
glanzend', OE. blanca, ON. blakkr 'schimmel', E. blank, blink, 
NHG. blinken, Du. blaken 'flame', OHG. blic, MHG. Mick 
'gleam, glance, flash', OHG. blecchen 'gleam, lighten', Gk. 
(pXtyco ' burn, shine ', <pZo$, ' flame ' (Skt. bhrajati ' gleam, sparkle ', 
Av. brazaiti 'gleam'), Lat. fulgeo, fulgur, flagro\ Dan. blinge 
'zittern, blinken', Sw. bldnga 'zornig blicken'. 

28 a. This is evidently a very old group of words, and it 
is equally evident that the primary meaning was 'shake, 
waver, flutter', whence 'swell, flow' and 'beat, strike'. In 
the base bhlego- occurs the same variation of meaning as in 
Lat. fluo, fluctus, fluctuo, and as in OHG. blugison 'waver' : 
bluhen 'burn, gleam', etc. There is therefore no more neces- 
sity of connecting the base bhle-go- with bhre-go- than with 
plego- in E. flicker, NHG. flacker n. Confusion may have 
arisen between the two, as is often the case when two like- 
sounding words fall together in meaning. On the other hand 
we may assume relation between bhle-go- and bhlei-go-, 
deriving them from bhW- and bhW-%o-, just as OHG. bluhen 
is from bhle-uo-. These three bases, as we have seen, are 
represented in Gk. <pX£a>, (pXico, yXvw, and many others. 

29. Lai fligo 'strike, dash down', OE. blican 'shine, 
glitter, appear', blician 'shine, appear', blicettan 'glitter, 
vibrate', OHG. blihhan 'glanzen, scheinen, blinken', ON. bllkja 
'leuchten, glanzen, erscheinen', bleikr, OHG. bleih, OE. Mac 
'white, pale'; Norw. dial, bligra 'glimte svag under smaa 
viftende eller sittrende bevsegelser ', ON. bltgja, OSw. bligha, 
Sw. bliga 'glotzen, starren' (cf. Tamm, Ei Ordb. s. v.), 
bases bhlei-tfo-, bhlei-gho, to either of which may belong 
ChSl. blesku 'glanz', bliskati 'glanzen', Pol. blyskac 'blitzen, 

— 23 — 

blinken', Lith. blizgeti 'flimrnern', bliksti ' auf leuchten, er- 
glanzen', bUnkseti 'schimmern, blinken', etc. 

30. Lith. beriu ' streue ', Lat. ferio, MHG. bern, ON. berja 
'schlagen', ChSl. borja 'streite', Lith. bariu 'schelte', OE. 
borettan 'brandish, schwingen', Skt. bhurdti 'move unsteadily', 
ON. bara 'wave, billow' : Lith. beras, Lett, bers 'brown', IE. 
*bhero- 'bright, gleaming' : Lat. ferveo- 'be agitated; rage, 
rave; boil, seethe, ferment, glow', Lith. bridutis 'sich mit 
roher gewalt vordrangen', OE. breowan 'brew', Gk. yoQvvco 
'stir up', (paQvvsL ' ZctftJiQvvei, Skt. babhrii 'reddish brown', 
OHG. brun 'glanzend; dunkelfarbig ; braun', brunen 'braun, 
glanzend machen; lustig machen, schmiicken', MHG. bmnsen 
'funkeln', OE. brun 'brown', etc. (cf. Persson, Wz. 238; and 
for other related words, Kluge, Et. Wb. s. v. Bar, Biber, 
braun). Compare also ON. bruna 'run'. 

30 a. Though these color-words are doubtless related, it 
is not at all probable that the base bliruno- 'glowing' is a 
derivative of bhero- ' glowing '. Each term was descriptive : 
one from bMr- 'set in motion, move rapidly'; the other from 
blier-uo- } bhre-uo- 'be agitated, seethe, boil'. The base bher-, 
bhre- is found in Lat. fermentum, OE. beorma 'yeast', LG. 
berme 'barme', MHG, brilejen 'brtihen, brennen', and others. 
The base bhemo-, bhreuo- occurs in Ir. bruthe 'brtthe', bruth 
'glut' (which is certainly move closely connected with Germ. 
bruna- 'gluhend, glanzend', than the latter with Lith. beras), 
OE. brop OHG. brod 'broth', MHG. brodeln etc. (cf. Persson, 
Wz. 126). The same base is found also in a group of words 
for 'break, burst' : Skt. blidrvati 'kaut, verzehrt', OE. brwsan 
'bruise', breotan 'break, kill', MHG. briezen ' hervorbrechen, 
anschwellen, knospen treiben', etc. It is plain from briezen 
that 'burst, break', comes from 'spring apart, scatter'. We 
may therefore give the proportion : Lat. ferveo : Skt. bhdrvati = 
MHG. briezen : OE. breotan. Compare the similar relation 
between the following : Goth, wulan 'sieden', OHG. wallan 
'wallen' : wuolen 'wuhlen', wuol 'niederlage, verderben'; Gk. 
QodavL^co 'spinne', Goth, wraton 'wandern, reisen' : OE. wrotan 
'aufwiihlen'; Skt. vrdjati 'schreitet, geht fort', vrajayati 'lasst 
wandern', ON. rcehja 'vertreiben' : Gk. Q^yvvftt 'zerbreche 
(cf. Brugm. Grd., I *, 148). 

— 24 — 

31. Lat. fretum ' raging, swelling, violence, surge', ON. 
braftr ' sudden, hasty ', OE. brcep ' vapor *, brcedan, OHG. bratan 
'braten', base bhre-to-. 

32. Ir. brennim i sprudele ', Goth, brunna l brunnen, quelle ', 
brinnan 'brennen'. 

33. Skt. bhrga 'gewaltig, stark, machtig, heftig' : bhr agate 
'flanimt, leuchtet', Gk. tpoQxog 'white, gray' (cf. Uhl., Ai. 
Wb.), base bhre-ko- ' move quickly, violently '. Here as well as 
to no. 12 may belong OE. bregdan 'brandish, move quickly, 
change color ', ON. braga ' glitter ', brja , sparkle ', Goth, brahw 
' quick, sudden movement, twinkling' < *bhr6Jcuo-, etc. Compare 
also Skt. bhrdmgate ' fallt, entfallt, kommt zu fall '. 

33a. The meaning 'fall, fall away' comes from 'move 
rapidly, rush'. So in the following : Gk. xgadaco 'wave, 
brandish', ON. hrata 'sway, waver, fall'; Lat. curro 'spring, 
run', ON. hrasa 'hasten, hurry; stumble, fall'; ON. hrapa 
'hasten, rush; fall', hrap 'fall'; OE. hreosan 'rush; fall, perish, 
collapse'; Lat. ruo 'rush; fall'; E. start : NHG. sturzew, Lat. 
peto 'rush at', Gk. jrerofiai 'fly' : ninxm 'fall'; Gk. naXlco 
'shake', Lat. pello 'drive'; OHG. fallan 'fall', and a host of 

34. A related base bher-go- occurs in Alb. bard 'white', 
Av. brazaiti, Skt. bhrajati 'glanzt, strahlt'. To either bher-(jo- 
or bher-ko- may belong; Lith. berszti 'weiss werden, reifen', 
Ir. -bertach, Welsh berth 'glanzend, schon', Goth, bairhts 
'bright, manifest', OE. beorht 'bright; clear, loud; noble, 
glorious', etc. probably the former, if Lith. berzas, OHG. 
bircha 'birch', etc., meant 'white tree'. But 'birch' may 
mean rather 'the peeler, scaler', which seems more likely if 
we connect the word with ON. bgrkr, ME. barke 'bark'. For 
baric certainly was not named from its 'whiteness', but from 
its 'peeling', as in Gk. Xajtco 'schale' : Xsjioq, Zoxog 'rinde, 
schale'. I should therefore connect baric, birch with Lith. 
breziu 'scratch', with which I also combine Goth, brikan 
'break', etc. 

34 a. The base bhere-go-, bher-go-, bhre-go- meant primarily 
'move quickly', whence 'spring apart, burst forth, break', etc. 

1 See different explanation, VII, 17 a. 

25 — 

From 'burst forth', as in Ski giri-bhraj- ' bursting forth from 
the mountains', OE. brecan 'break; burst, burst forth, be 
violent' (of wind), probably came 'beam, sparkle, shine, be 
bright'. From 'burst, break' came 'crash, resound' in ON. 
brak 'crash', braka 'crash, krachen', OE. ge-brec 'noise, clamor', 
bearhtm 'noise', bearhtmian 'resound', borcian, ON. berkja 
'bark' (cf. Skeat, Et. Diet.). Compare also Lith. brezu 'rattle' 
to breziu 'scratch'. 

35. Lat. ferio 'strike'; ford, OHG. boron 'bore', Gk. 
<paQco 'split'; (pagaoq 'piece', Ir. berraim 'tondeo', bris-c 
'fragile', brissim, OHG. bres-tan 'break', OE. berstan 'break; 
resound', brastlian 'crackle, rattle', ge-brastl 'crackling' (of 
flames) (cf. Persson, Wz. 85) : Lith. bruzgii 'crackle', Skt. 
bhrjjdti 'rostet', NPers. beristan 'braten' (cf. Uhl, Ai. Wb.). 
In this and the two following the development in meaning is 
similar to singen : sengen. Compare with Ir. brisc 'fragile' 
Lith. braszkii 'crack, crackle', braszkits 'crackling', E. brash 

36. Lat. ferio, feri-re, ChSl. brija briti 'shear', Skt. 
bhrlnati 'versehrt', Lat. frio 'rub, break'; ON. brik 'board', 
i. e. 'split off', Lat. frigo 'squeak' (primarily 'grate, rattle' 
as in ON. skrapa ' scrape ; crack, rattle ') : frtgo ' roast, parch '. 

37. Skt. bhdrvati 'kaut, verzehrt'. Av. bourva- 'food'; 
ON. bryna 'whet, sharpen'; OHG. brodi ' gebrechlich, schwach ', 
OE. breap 'brittle', with which compare, OE. bread 'morsel, 
crumb; bread', OHG. brot < Hhrou-to-m 'morsel, bit, 
fragment ', from bhreu- ' break ' not bhreu- ' brew ', as is evident 
from OE. bread; OE. breotan 'break', ge-brot 'fragment', 
brytnian 'deal out, distribute', bryttian 'tear to pieces, divide; 
distribute; share, possess, enjoy', ON. brjota 'break, crush, 
compel', brot 'fragment', brytja 'distribute'; OE. briesan 
'bruise, crush', brosnian 'crumble, decay; perish, pass away', 
OHG. brosma, OLG. brosmo 'brockchen, krume'. NHG. brosam, 
ON. breyskr 'gebrechlich, schwach', breysta 'crash, crack', 
MHG. brus, Dan., Sw. bras 'braus, brausen', Du. bruis 'schaum, 
gischt' (these last more nearly related in meaning to Lat. 
fervere 'wallen, sieden', MHG. briezen 'hervorbrechen'), ChSl. 
brysati 'abreiben', bruselu 'scherbe; Lith. braukiu 'scharre, 

— 26 — 

streiche', brukis 'strich, (cf. Persson, Wz. 125 f.); ON. brauk 
'noise', brauka 'larmen, toben' : Gk. (pQvym 'roast, parch'. 
Here we have the developed meaning 'crack, crackle' as in 
so many words for 'break'. Compare with this the base 
*bhrugo- 'break, distribute : share, enjoy, use' : Lat. fruor 
'enjoy', fruges 'fruits', OE. brucan 'eat; make use of, enjoy; 
spend; possess, keep', Goth, brukjan 'partake of, use', etc. 
Compare OE. breotan 'break', bryttian 'tear to pieces, divide; 
distribute; share, possess, enjoy'. From these it is better to 
separate Skt. blmndkti 'geniesst, benutzt', etc., which, as well 
as Lat. fungor, may be connected with Skt. bhujdti 'biegt' 
(cf. Uhl., Ai. Wb. s. v). 

38. Skt. bhrdmati 'ist unstat. dreht sich, schwankt hin 
und her, irrt umher, schweift', bliramd 'wirbelnd', ON. brim 
'brandung', brim 'ocean', ME. brim 'glut'. 

39. Gk. (pQifKxco, (pQifiaaoofiat 'leap and snort, jump about, 
be wanton', ON. brlme 'fire', OHG. brio, OE. brtw 'brei' (cf. 
Persson, Wz. 164), base bhre-io-, bhrt- : Skt. bhresati 'wankt, 
schwankt' (cf. author, AJP. XXI, 182). 

40. Skt. gvd-ya-ti ' swell up, become strong ', gund ' swollen ', 
gura 'strong', Gk. xvgog 'power', xvfia 'wave, fetus', xveco 
'be pregnant', Lat. qnco 'am able', Skt. gotha ' anschwellung, 
aufgedunsenheit ' : OE. hwaperian 'surge, foam' (of sea), 
Goth. Jiwapjan 'foam', Lith. szuntii 'schmore, brtihe; faule'. 
Compare Gk. <pXidam 'overflow with moisture; putrefy', tpAoiddco 
'make to swell : heat, scorch, burn'. 

40 a. The root kue- seems to have meant ' swell '. From this 
developed ' grow large, strong ' and ' overflow, flow out, puff up, 
aufdunsen', whence 'empty, hollow'. Here probably belong 
ORG. hoi, ON. holr'hohV, OE. hoi 'hollow; hole, cave', holian, 
Goth, us-hulon 'hollow out', hulundi 'cave' (cf. Prellw., Et. 
Wb. s. v. xvtco). Compare Lat. cavus 'hohl', caverna, arm. 
sor 'hohle', Gk. xvag 'loch', xooi ' xoiZwfiara, xolXog 'hohl', 
(cf. Uhl, Ai. Wb. s. v. gvdyati). Compare the different develop- 
ment in OE. hivelian 'suppurate; cause to suppurate', Lith. 
szvelniis 'weich, sanft', base kuel- 'overflow, become soft' and 
perhaps also 'gush out, resound' : OE. hwelan 'resound', ON. 
hvellr 'resounding'. 

— 27 — 

' Swell up ' and ' puff out, blow ' are very closely connected 
ideas. We may therefore derive from the root Jcue-, keu- 
Skt. gvdsiti 'atmet, schnauft, seufzt', ON. hvcesa, OE. hwcesan 
' wheeze', Lat. queror 'lament'; and Lith. szaukiu 'schreie, 
rufe'. Compare Gk. <pl£m 'fliesse tiber', OHG. blajan 'blasen, 
blahen', Lat. fled 'weep'. 

41. Germ, huga-, liugi- 'walking, aufwallung : geistige 
erregung' t lith. szunkus 'behende, hitzig'; szaukiu 'schreie': 
Skt. cdcati 'brennt, gliiht, leuchtet, glanzt', Av. saocant- 
' burning', saocayeiti 'kindle', Skt. goka 'flamme, glut, qual, 
schmerz, trauer', Arm. sug 'trauer', Skt. guci 'leuchtend, 
glanzend, blank, rein, ehrlich, tadellos', gukrd, gukld 'klar, 
licht, hell, weiss, rein', gukrd-m 'helle, licht; wasser, saft', 
Av. suxra-, NPers. surx 'rot', Osset. surx 'rot, schon' (cf. 
Uhl. Ai. Wb.). 

That the base ku-qo- meant 'swell up, aufwallen', or the 
like is evident from Skt. gulcrdm 'brightness, light; water, 
juice, semen'. It would be impossible to explain this double 
signification on any other supposition. But with this explanation 
they are as easily combined as the double meaning in OE. 
wielm 'flowing, bursting forth; surging, raging (of fire), 
boiling', OHG. ivalm 'hitze, glut'. After the development 
of the meaning 'burn, glow', the further figurative use of the 
word would naturally follow. In Skt. the word develops in 
two distinct lines represented by gdka 'blaze, flame, suffering, 
pain, grief; guci 'gleaming, shining, beaming (e. g. of a 
smile); light, bright; clear, pure; holy; honorable'. This 
shows conclusively that 'pain, grief is simply a secondary 
development of 'burn'. We may therefore retain the old 
connection with Germ, hugi-, huga- 'wallung; geistige erregung'. 
For it will be seen that the Germ, word did not develop from 
'burn, glow' but, like Skt. gocati, from 'wallen, aufwallen'. 
From this common meaning come two sets of meanings in 
Germ. : 'elation, joy, pleasure, hope' and 'thought, attention, 
care, anxiety'. Compare especially OE. hyge 'mind, heart, 
mood; courage; pride', hycgan 'think, meditate; determine, 
endeavor; hope', hogian 'think about, consider, intend, wish', 
hyht 'hope, joy, pleasure', ge-hyht 'hope, comfort', ON. hugr 
' mind, thought, heart, wish ', hugna ' please, be comfortable ', 

— 28 — 

hyggja ' think, mean', Imgct 'attention, care, anxiety', OE. 
Jiogu 'solicitude, care', hoga 'thoughtful, careful', hog(a)-fidl 
'solicitous, anxious, sad', hygdig 'thoughtful; modest, chaste', 
OHG. hugu, MHG. huge huge 'sinn, geist, andenken; freude', 
huge-, hoge-lich 'erfreulich; freudig, froh, munter', etc. Therefore 
Uhlenbeck's connection of these words with Gk. xvxdco 'stir 
up, mix; disorder, confuse, confound' (cf. PBB, XXII, 541) 
is semasiologically inferior to the old derivation. For in 
any case the Germ, words can not be derived from the 
meaning 'stir up, mix'. That, however, is not sufficient 
reason for discarding an etymology, since the two sets of 
meanings, as is generally the case, may come from a common 
meaning. It is quite possible indeed that Gk. xvxdco comes 
from a base *kuqa- 'swelling, overflowing; pouring out'. The 
further development would then be the same as in Lat. 
confundo. In that case we should add xvxdco to the com- 
parison above. 

41 a. With Skt. cdcati ' shine ' compare Gk. xvxrog 
'swan' < *kuqno- 'white' (cf. author, AJP. XXI, 179). 
Similarly Lat. albus ' white ' : OHG, elbiz, OE. ielfetu, ON. alft, 
ChSl. lebedi 'swan' (cf. Schade, Wb.); Av. xvan- 'shine', Ir. 
fur-sunnud 'illumination', Goth, sunna 'sun'; ON. svanr, OHG., 
OE. swan 'swan' (cf. Uhl., Ai. Wb. s. v. svdnati); OHG. gelph 
'von hellglanzender farbe, glanzend' : Lith. gulM, Pruss. 
gulbis 'swan'. 

42. OE. hudenian 'shake', Skt. gudhand i sdhneW, gundhana 
' reinigend; wegschaffung, reinigung', gundhati 'reinigt, godhayati 
'reinigt, verbessert, bezahlt, rechtfertigt, pruft, untersucht, er- 
ortert ', gudhyati ' wird rein, klart sich, entschuldigt sich, guddhd 
'rein, klar, lauter, fehlerfrei, richtig, normal, einfach', gundhyu 
'rein, glanzend, schmuck', Av. sudu- 'winnowing'. Compare 
OHG. fowen 'sieben', primarily 'shake', Skt. pdvate 'reinigt', 
putd 'rein', Lat. putus, purus. This group belongs properly 
with those given under IV. See IV, 11. 

43. Skt. gumbhate ' gleitet hin, saust vortiber ', gubh ' dahin- 
fahrt, das vorubersausen ', Gk. xovyog ' light, nimble ', xovyi^co 
'be light, be elate; lighten, lift up, raise; alleviate, relieve' : 
Skt. gubha 'ttichtig, recht, wahr; erfreulich, angenehm, schmuck, 
schon', gumbhdti 'bereitet, rtistet zu, putzt, schmttckt', gobhate 

— 29 — 

'ist schmuck, ist stattlich', gubhrd 'schon, schmuck, glanzend, 
klar, weiss', Arm. surb, 'rein, heilig', Ski gobhand 'schmuck, 

43 a. Whether the words given under nos. 40 — 43 are 
from a common root Iceu- or not, it is certain that there was 
no IE. root keu- 'shine'. The bases kuqo-, kudho-, kubho- 
developed the meaning 'shine' independently. In the case 
of kudho- the meaning 'pure bright' comes from 'separate', 
and is therefore entirely distinct in its development from the 

44. Lith. szvaitau 'schwinge, schwenke, fechte : leuchte, 
bestrahle', szvitu 'flimmere, glanze', szvintu 'become bright, 
dawn', szveicziu 'adorn', szvecziu 'shine', szvesd 'brightness, 
light', szvaisa 'gleam', szvesiis 'light, bright', ChSl. svitati, 
svetiti 'leuchten', svetu 'licht, helle', Skt. gvetate 'leuchtet, ist 
hell', gvetd, Av. spaeta- 'white'; Skt. gvitna 'whitish', gvitrd 
'white'; gvindate 'glanzt, leuchtet', Lith. szvidus 'blank, 
glanzend', OE. hwit 'white, clear, bright', Goth, hweits 'white', etc. 

44 a. This group is evidently from a base km- 'swing, 
vibrate'. Such a base may be assumed from ON. hvini 
'sudden movement', hvima 'move unsteadily' (with the eyes), 
E. whim 'schnurre, grille'; ON. hvika 'schwanken', hvma 
'whiz', OE. hwman 'whiz, make a shrill sound', E. whine 
'winseln, wimmern', Dan. hvine 'kreischen, schreien, pfeifen'; 
Sw. hvina 'schwirren, pfeifen', E. whiz 'schwirren, zischen', 
whisk 'schnellen, sich schnell herumdrehen ', Dan. hviske 
'zischeln, flustern', Sw. hviska, ON. hviskra, OE. hwiscrian 
'fliistern', hwiscettan 'squeak', OHG. hwispalon 'wispeln, flustern, 
fein zischen oder pfeifen', OE. hwisprian 'whisper', ON. hvisla 
'flustern', Dan. hvisle 'zischen, zischeln', Sw. hvissla 'pfeifen', 
OE. hwistlian 'whistle', hivolstrian 'whisper, murmur', ChSl. 
svistati 'sibilare'. 

45. Lith. svirus 'schwebend, schwankend, baumelnd', 
svyroti^hm und herschwanken, taumeln':Lat. susurro 'hum, buzz', 
ON. svarra, Dan. surre 'schwirren, summen', NHG. schwirren, 
surren, ON. svarmr 'swarm', svara 'answer', Goth, swaran, 
etc., Skt. svdrati 'tont, erschallt, lasst erschallen; leuchtet, 
scheint', surta 'hell'. 

— 30 — 

45 a. The base sue-ro- meant primarily ' swing, sway 
whirl, vibrate'. From this naturally developed 'whir, whiz' 
and 'glitter, shine'. From 'swing, sway' come Lith. svtrti 
'nach einer seite hin das tibergewicht bekommen', sv&rti 
'wagen', svarus OHG. swar 'schwer', OE. sivcer 'heavy; 
grievous; sad; sluggish; weak', ge-swwre 'afflicted', OHG. 
swero 'leiblicher schmerz, krankheit, geschwiir', sworga, sorga 
'sorge', OE. sorg affliction, grief, anxiety', etc. 

46. OE. swinsian ' make melody ', Lat. sono ' sound ', Skt. 
svdnati 'tont, schallt ', Av. xvan 'klirren : glanzen', base 
sue-no- 'whirl, vibrate : rattle, resound : glitter, shine', whence 
Ir. fur-sunnud 'das erleuchten', Goth, sunna 'sun', etc. 

47. ON. svella, OHG., OE. swellan 'swell', OE. swyle 
'swelling, tumor', base sue-lo- 'swing, sway, swell' : Skt. svar 
licht, himmel, sonne', Av. hvard, Gk. rfsliog, r}lioq, Lat. sol, 
Lith. sdule, Goth, sauil 'sun', etc. To the same base belong 
OE. swelan 'burn, glow', swcelan 'burn', Lith. svtlti 'sengen', 
etc. But here the development of meaning was quite different, 
and, strictly speaking, they can not be called cognate (v. XII, 8). 

48. Lith. svagiu 'tone', OS. sivogan 'roar along', OE. 
swogan, swegan 'resound', Goth, ga-swogjan 'sigh', swegnjan 
' exult ', swiglon, OHG, sweglon ' play the flute ', swegala ' flute, 
pipe, spout' : OS. sivigli, OE. swegle 'bright, beaming', swegl 
'sky, sun', sygel, Goth, sugil 'sun' (cf. Schade, Wb. s. v. 
swegala), base sue-gho- 'swing : whir : glitter'. 

48 a. Compare sue(n)-go- in OHG. swank ' schwung, hieb ', 
swenken 'schwingen, schwenken, schleudern, schlagen; schweifen, 
schweben, sich schlingen', MHG, swanken 'schwanken', swanc 
'biegsam, dtinn, schlank', OE. swancor 'pliant, supple; agile, 
graceful; weak', ON. svak, svakk, sukk 'tumult, noise', Skt. 
svdjate 'umschlingt, umarmt', svajd 'eine art schlange' (cf. 
author, Mod. Lang. Notes, XVI, 24). Here also probably belong 
MHG. swach 'niedrig, armselig, kraftlos, schwach', OE. seoc 
' ill, sad ', Goth, sinks ' krank, schwach ' etc., primarily ' bending, 
yielding, giving way' as in OE. swancor 'pliant, supple : weak'. 
This would be in accord with the comparison of Goth. 
sauhts 'krankheit' with Ir. socht 'das stillschweigen ' (Zupitza, 
Die germ. Gutturale, 165), i. e. 'yielding, subsidence'. Compare 

— 31 — 

the similar change in meaning in MHG. swmxen 'schwanken, 
schweben', swmen 'abnehmen, dahinschwinden, krankhaft ab- 
magern, bewusstlos werden', sweinen 'verringern, schwachen, 
verniehten'; Skt. vijdte 'zittert, eiltdavon', MHG. wichen 'sich 
zurtickziehen, ausweichen, entweichen ', iveich l biegsam, schwank; 
nachgiebig, zart, weich; schwach', OE. wac 'pliant, biegsam, 
schlank; gering, schlecht; schwach'; E. cranio 'krtimmung', 
crinkle 'biegung', MHG. kranc 'schmal, schlank, gering, kraft- 
los, schwach, nichtig', NHG. krank. The explanation given 
by me, Pub. MLA. XIV, 310, though possible, is not so prob- 
able as the one here given. If with Zupitza we further 
connect Lith. saugus 'behutsam', we musst explain it not as 
'sorgsam' but as 'rege, wach, wachsam'. 

48 b. Related to the above is the base sue(n)-quo- : Goth. 
af-swaggwjan ' schwankend machen ', OHG. swingan 'schwingen ', 
OE. swingan, 'swing, flap, beat, strike, afflict', ge-swing 
'fluctuation, swell' (of sea), ON. svangr 'dtinn, schlank, hungrig', 
OE. swangor ' schwerfallig ' (compare Lith. svirus 'schwebend, 
schwankend', sverti 'wagen', svarits 'schwer'; OHG. wegan 
'sich bewegen; bewegen, wagen', MHG. ge-wiht 'gewicht'; 
Lat. pendere ' herabhangen, baumeln, schweben', pendere 
'wagen', pondus 'gewicht'), MHG. sivanger 'schwankend; 
schwanger' i. e. 'gravis, gravida', ChSl. sukati 'drehen, 
spinnen', Lett, stikt 'schwinden, entwischen', Lith. suku 'drehe', 
sulcrus 'agil, beweglich, flink, schnell' (cf. Schade, Wb.) 
sunJcus 'schwer', sufikinu 'beschwere, belastige', sunkiu 'lasse 
abfliessen' (durch neigen des gefasses), saiikiu 'schalle, klinge', 
Skt. svdfic, svdficas 'sich leicht wendend, gewandt' (cf. Mod. 
Lang. Notes XVI, 24). 

49. Lith. siaucziii 'tobe, wtite', siauteju 'wtite anhaltend', 
Gutn. sau^r ' sprudelquelle ', ON. sjoda, OE. seo^an, OHG. siodan 
' sieden, kochen ', OHG. swedan ' langsam dampfend, verbrennen ' 
(cf. Berneker, IF., X, 160), base seue-to- 'swing, swell, seethe'. 
OHG. swedan, though related, does not properly belong here. 
See XII, 9. 

49a. From 'swing, roll' comes 'wrap, envelop' in Lith. 
saucziu 'umgebe, umhtille', sautimas 'das umgeben', OHG. 
swedil, OE. swepel 'bandage', swapian, swospelian 'swathe. 

- 32 — 

swaddle' (v. Mod. Lang. Notes XVI, 27). From 'swing, turn' 
may come Skt. sutd ' wagenlenker ', and also OE. sweep ' track, 
footprint', MLG. sivade, E. swath 'schwaden'. Compare Lat. 
versus 'a turning : row, line'. Skt. sutd may, hewever, be a 
direct derivative of suvdti, savati 'treibt an'. 

50. OHG. siveban 'schweben', Lith. siaubiu 'rase umher, 
tobe', suboju 'schwanke, wiege mich ', subojimas 'das schwanken, 
sick wiegen ', ME. sobbe ' sob ', OHG. suft ' sob, sigh ', sufton 
'seufzen', Lat. subitus 'sudden' : Pali sumbhati 'schlagt, stosst', 
Skt. subhnati, sumbhati 'entziindet' (cf. Uhl., Ai. Wb. s. v.). 
Compare OHG. rase 'scbnell, hurtig', rascezzen 'schluehzen; 
funken spruhen'. 

50 a. In most of the words given under nos. 45 — 50, 
the base seems to be sue- from the full form seue-. With this, 
however, Gk. tjXloq does not agree. We may assume that from 
saue- } sue- was reconstructed seue- after the analogy of other 
eue- verbs or else that the a of qhog is a vriddhi- formation 
(cf. Hirt, Idg. Abl. 423, Anm.). This base sue- 'set in rapid 
motion, swing, sway; move rapidly', etc. is probably in Skt. 
suvdti savati 'treibt an', savd 'anreger, anregung, geheiss, 
belebung', sute 'zeugt, gebart', and also sunoti 'presst aus', 
Gk. vet 'it rains', etc. The divergence in meaning took place 
at a very early period, and became increasingly great as the 
primary meaning was lost sight of. However, it takes but 
little time for a word to change from its primary signification. 
These differentiations, indeed, go side by side and never seem 
strange when we begin in our explanation at the right point. 

51. ON. sveima 'swing, sway', MHG. sweimen 'schweben, 
schweifen', base sui- 'swing, sway, flutter' : ON. svida, Dan. 
svide, Sw. svida 'brennen, sengen, schmerzen', Lith. svidus 
'blank, glanzend', svidu 'glanze'. Lith. svidus may be for 
szvidus, but if not, ON. svida developed as here given. Otherwise 
the indications are that the development of meaning was the 
same as in OHG. swedan (v. XII, 10). 

52a. The base sui- occurs also in ON. svig 'bend, 
curve, circuit', sveigja 'bow, bend', Lith. svaigti 'taumeln, 
schwanken, schwindeln', OE. swican 'schweifen, weichen, 
gehen'; ON. svifa 'sich bewegen, gehen', OHG. sweibon 

— 33 — 

'schweben, schweifen', stveifan 'drehen, schwingen', OE. swapan 
'schwingen, fegen'; Lith. svdicMoti 'irre reden, faseln', svaitytis 
'fechten'; be-svaines 'wahnsinnig'; ON. svire, OE. swtra 'neck'. 

51b. From ' swing, sway' come several words for 'weak, 
heavy, sluggish, drowsy, faint', etc. — Lith. svirus 'schwebend, 
schwankend', sverti ' wdLgen\ svariis 'sehwer', OE. swcer 'heavy; 
grievous, sad; sluggish; weak'.— OE. swellan 'swell', primarily 
'sway, roll' (of water), OHG. sivellan 1 Simchwellen; verschmachten', 
swelzan 'hinschmachten', Goth, swiltan 'langsam hinsterben', 
ME. swelten 'swoon, faint, die' (cf. XII, 8).— Lith. suku 'drehe', 
Lett, sukt 'schwinden', OE. swingan 'swing, flap, beat', geswing 
'fluctuation, swell' (of sea), MHG. swanger 'schwankend; 
schwanger, gravida', Lith. sunlms 'schwer', OE. swangor 
'sluggish', geswogen 'in a swoon; dead; silenced', a-swogan 
'suffocate'. — OHG. swenlcen 'schwingen, schwenken; schweifen, 
schweben', OE. swancor 'pliant, supple; weak', seoc 'ill, sad', 
Goth, siulcs 'krank, schwach', MHG. swach 'schwach', Skt. 
suJisma 'fein, schmal, dttnn, klein'. — Lith. siaucmu 'tobe, write', 
siuntu 'werde toll', MHG. swindel 'schwindel, vertigo', OHG. 
swintan 'schwinden, vergehen, abmagern, bewusstlos, ohn- 
machtig werden', OE. swindan 'waste away; be torpid', swe- 
firian 'cease, subside', swodrian 'be drowsy, sleep heavily', 
Ir. suthan 'dunce', (cf. XII, 9).— MHG. swansen 'hin und her 
schwanken; larmend reden', swatzen 'schwatzen', ON. suta 
4 tan', sut 'sadness', syta 'grieve, lament', Goth, suts 'ruhig, 
behaglich, angenehm', Skt. suddyati 'bringt zurecht, macht 
fertig, tdtet', Gk. svdw 'cease, rest, be still, sleep'. This ex- 
planation does not preclude connection with Skt. svddati 'wttrzt', 
svadu 'suss' etc. With sue(n)to-, sue(n)do- 'swing, sway; cease, 
subside; pacify, quiet' compare suedho- 'swing, beat' : Lith. 
svedMu 'peitsche', ON. svedja 'slash, slit', svedja 'large, knife', 
Skt. svddhiti 'hackmesser, axt, beil'. — NS1. svepati 'wanken', 
ChSl. svepiti 'agitare', Lith. supu 'wiege, schaukele', NE. swefan 
' cease, sleep, be dead ', a-swebban ' make to cease, lull, destroy, 
annul, kill', ON. sofa 'schlafen', svefja 'stillen, besanftigen, 
einschlafern ', Skt. svdpiti 'schlaft, schlaft ein', svapdyati 
'schlafert ein, totet'.— ON. sveima 'swing, sway', MHG. sweimen 
'schweben, schweifen', sivmien 'schweben, schwanken', OE. 


— 34 — 

a-swamian 'cease', swima 'giddness, dizziness; swoon': OHG. 
swman 'schwinden, hinschwinden, welken, bewusstlos werden', 
MHG. siveinen ' verringern, schwachen, vernichten '. — OE. swifan 
' move, sweep ', ON. svtfa ' sich bewegen, gehen ', OHG. sweibon 
'schweben, sckweifen', Goth, sweiban 'aufhoren, ablassen', OHG. 
swifton 'stille sein'. — OE. swlcan 'wander, depart, cease' : ON. 
sveigja 'bow, bend', Lith. svaigineju 'schwanke umher', sivaikstu 
'werde schwindelig ', OE. swlgian, OHG. swlgen 'schweigen' 
(cf. Mod. Lang. Notes XVI, 20 f.). 

From the same primary meaning 'swing' comes 'active, 
agile, strong':— OE. swancor 'supple, agile'; Lith. suJcu 'drehe* 
: sukrus 'agil, beweglich, schnell'; Lith. siaucziu 'tobe' : ON. 
svinnr 'rasch, kraftig', MHG. sivinde 'schnell, gewant, stark', 
Goth, swinps 'stark, gesund'; OE. swifan 'move' or swapan 
'rush, sweep' : swift 'geschwind'; base suei-qo 'swing, move' 
: Lith svetkas 'gesund'. 

51 c. On the development ' schwingen, schwindeln, schwinden, 
schweigen' etc. compare the following: — Skt. dhunoti 'schuttelt', 
dhvan- 'schwinden, erloschen' : dhvamsati 'zerstiebt', dhvasrd 
' zerfallend ', OE. dwms 'dull, stupid, foolish', ON. dtls 'lull, 
dead calm', dusa 'doze', Dan. dvaslc 'indolent, schlafrig', OE. 
dwcescan 'extinguish', Lith. duszinu 'mache ohnmachtig', MHG. 
titschen 'sich still verhalten, verbergen', tusch 'spass, gespott; 
tauschung, betrug; tausch' : tuze 'stille, sanft, ruhig', tuzen 
'sich still verhalten; still trauern', tuzzen 'verbergen; pressen, 
driicken', tiitzen 'zum schweigen bringen, beschwichtigen ', 
OE. dyttan 'shut (ears), stop' (mouth) : OHG. toben 'toben', 
toub 'toll, narrisch, stumpfsinnig , taub', Goth, daufs 'taub', 
dumbs 'stumm' : Lith. dulineju 'gehe umher', OE. dwolian 
'stray, err', OHG. -tivelan 'steif, betaubt werden', tol, Goth. 
dwals 'toricht' : Lat. furo 'rase, wtite', ON. dura 'slumber' 
: Lit. duMneju 'rase umher', duka ein dummer', OHG. tougan 
'heimlich, verborgen', tougal 'verborgen, dunkel' : ON. dyja 
'shake', Skt. dhuydte 'wird geschuttelt', ON. deyja, OHG. touwen 
'decidere, sterben' : Lat. suf-fl-re 'fumigate', OE. dwinan 
' waste, away, dwindle ', ON. dvma ' diminish, cease ' (cf. X, 1). 
— OHG. doson ' tosen ', ON. fiysja ' rush forth ', Av. tusen ' sie 
entleeren sich', Bal. tusag 'ausgehen, erlGschen, verlassen werden', 

— 35 — 

OHG. thwesben 'ausloschen, vertilgen', ChSl. tusti 'leer', Pruss. 
tusnan 'stille', A v. tusna- 'ruhig, still', Skt. tusnim 'stille, 
schweigend', tusyati 'ist zufrieden' (cf. XIV, 4; XVI, 38) : OE. 
fiawian, OHG. douwen 'thaw', Skt. tdya 'wasser', OE.pwman 
'dwindle, fall away', Gk. Ocvoficu 'hurt, damage, waste', aXyaco 
'be silent' (I, 61b).— Skt. tara-ld 'zuckend, zitternd', Ir. tara 
'tatig, lebhaft', OHG. draen 'drehen', Bal. tarag 'umwenden', 
Gk. TQejioo 'turn', Goth, ^aurban 'bedurfen', Lith. tirpti 'zer- 
fliessen'; 'erstarren, fuhllos werden', Lat. torpeo (cf. Brugm., 
Grd. l\ 472), Skt. trpyati 'wird befriedigt' etc.— Skt. duvas 
'hinausstrebend', MHG. zomve 'eile', zouwen 'von statten gehen; 
eilig ziehen', ON. tjon 'loss, injury', tyna 'lose, destroy', tynask 
'pass away, die', Gk. devo[icu 'lack, want', Skt. dosa 'fehler, 
schaden, mangel', OE. teorian 'fail, fall short; be tired', Dan. 
tans 'still, silent, quiet', tyst, ON. tjust 'silently, quietly' (cf. 
Mod. Lang. Notes XVI, 17, 21).— Skt. drati 'lauft, eilt', drdmati 
'lauft' : drati 'schlaft', ChSl. dremati 'schlummern', Lat. dormio. 
— Lat. lobar e 'wanken', ChSl. slabu 'schwach', Goth, slepan 
'schlafen'. — OE. slu-pan 'glide', Lith. slubnas 'matt, schwach', 
Lett, schlu-kt 'glitschen', base slu- 'slip, fall away' : Sw. dial. 
slummen 'sehr mager, schwach', Goth, slawan ' schweigen ', 
OE. sluma 'slumber' (cf. Persson, Bezz. Beitr. XIX, 262).— 
OE. dreosan 'fall, perish', dreorig 'sad', dryre 'fall, cessation, 
loss', drysmian 'become gloomy', drusian 'become languid, 
sluggish', E. drowse, MDu. droosen 'doze', base dhre-uo : OE. 
dreopan ' drop, drip ', perhaps from a base dhero- (cf. X, 2). 

52. ON. gala, OE., OHG. galan 'sing, scream', Goth, goljan 
'greet', OHG., OS. galm 'schall, ton; larm', ON. glama, glamra, 
glumra 'larmen', OSw. glam 'larm', glama 'larmen'; ON. galdr 
'crowing; song; incantation', galdr a 'incantare'; OHG. gellan, 
ON. gjalla, OE. giellan 'scream, sound', root ghel- 'move back 
and forth, move excitedly; be excited, shout, scream; glitter, 
shine' : Lith. geltas, ChSl. Mutu 'yellow', Mutt, zluci 'gall', 
OHG. galla, Lat. fel, Gk. ^oloq 'gall' (cf. Prellw., Et. Wb.). 

To this root belong ON. gelta 'bellen', OHG. gelzon 'auf- 
schreien, delatrare'; OS. gallon 'bellen; prahlen' etc. (cf. Persson, 
Wz. 41).' 

52 a. This explanation of Lith. geltas etc. is somewhat 


— 36 — 

doubtful, since the meaning 'yellow' here may come from 
'fall away, dwindle, fade' (cf. XIII, 19). 

53. Ski gdlbhate 'ist mutig', ON. gjalfr 'larm, brausen, 
gebell', gjalp 'das brausen, platschern', gjalpa 'brausen, 
platschern', OE. gielpan 'boast, exult', OS. galpon 'sich rtihmen', 
MHG. gelfen 'bellen, schreien, pralen, iibermtitig sein', OHG. 
gelph 'lautes schallen, brullen, bellen, geschrei, larm; frohlich- 
keit, lustigkeit, iibermut', gelph 'tibermutig, lustig, frohlich, 
lebhaft : von hellglanzender farbe, glanzend, strahlend', MHG. 
gelfe ' glanz, pracht ' (cf. Uhl, Ai. Wb. s. v. gdlbhate). 

54. ON. gelta 'bellen', Gk. xayla^co 'klatsche, platschere' 
: OE. glceterian 'glitter', ME. glenten, E. glint 'glitter, glance', 
MHG. glinzen 'schimmern, glanzen ', glanz 'hell, glanzend'; 
'glanz, schimmer', ChSl. gledati 'schauen', Serv. gledati 'blicken, 

55. Lat. gllsco 'swell up, rise up, grow up, burst out, 
blaze up', MHG. glien 'cry' (of birds), OE. gllw 'glee', ON. 
glwia 'wrestle', Lett, glaima 'scherz, schmeichelei ', glaimut 
'scherzen, liebkosen', OS. glimo 'splendor', OE. glcem 'splendor, 
brightness, gleam', OHG. gllmo, gleimo 'glow-worm', MHG. 
glimen ' leuchten ', glimmem ' glanzen ', Gk. %Xi(D ' become warm 
and soft, revel, luxuriate', yll6r\ 'softness, voluptuousness; in- 
solence, arrogance', ylidcov 'ornament, show, pomp', ON. glit, 
OHG. gliz 'glanz', glizan, OS. glltan, ON. glita 'shine', glitra 
'glitter', OE. glitenian 'glitter, shine', Goth, glitmunjan k shine'; 
OFries. glisa, OE. glisian 'shine', glisnian 'glitter, glisten' 
(cf. Prellw. Et. Wb.). 

56. Gk. xlzvri 'scherz, spott', xXeva^m 'scherze, spotte', 
OE. gleam 'merriment', ON. glaumr 'larm, frohlichkeit' : Icel. 
glys 'flitter, tand', Sw. dial, glysa 'schimmern, schillern', MHG. 
glosen 'gliihen, glanzen', ON. glys 'glimmer', glyra 'gleam' 
: Lith. glaudas 'sport', E. gloat, MHG. glotzen 'glotzen', ON. 
glotta 'smile derisively' (cf. author, Pub. MLA. XIV, 346) 
: OFries. glupa 'lauernd blicken', MDu. gloepen, gluypen 'in- 

56 a. The root ghel- of nos. 52 — 56 occurs also in the 
sense 'move over, rub, stroke, make smooth' from 'move rapidly, 

— 37 — 

move back and forth'. Compare ChSl. gladiti 'glatten', Pol. 
gladmc ' streicheln ', Lith. glodus 'glatt anliegend', Lat. glaber, 
OHG. glat 'glatt', etc., base *gMa-dJio- : Gk. xtfd°s 'schlamm, 
schutt', base *ghla-do- : OE., OS. gltdan, OHG. glitan 'gleiten', 
base *gMei-dho : Lett, glaums 'schleimig', glu'mt 'schleimig 
werden', Lith. gliaumas 'schleimiger abgang von schleifsteinen ', 
base *ghleu-mo- 'slip, slippery', with which compare ON.gleyma 
'forget', i.e. 'let slip'; Lith. glaudus 'glatt anliegend'; ON. 
gleypa ' verschlingen ' (which has developed as in older LRh. 
slenden 'gleiten' : Goth, fro-slindan 'verschlingen'), Sw. glupsk 
'gefrassig, glupande 'reissender wolf, Dan. glubsk 'bissig, 
reissend, wild', glubende 'gefrassig, wtitend'. Similarly we 
may compare MHG. glinden 'gleiten' : OE. glendran 'ver- 
schlingen' : ChSl. gladiti 'glatten' : gladu 'huiiger', gladosti 
'gier', zludeti 'begehren'. 

56 b. Closely connected with the significations given under 
a are 'slip away, give way, yield; yield to, give to', etc. 
Compare the development in Lat. cedo 'go, go along; go from, 
depart, pass away, disappear, vanish; give place to, yield to, 
grant, yield'. A similar change of meaning we find in the 
following: Gk. xaXaw 'give way, yield to; slacken, loosen, let 
sink', xaZciQoq 'slack, loose, languid', xcoloq 'defective, maimed, 
lame, halt'; Ir. galar 'krankheit, kummer', ON. galli 'fehler, 
mangel, schaden' (cf. Fick, Wb. II 4 , 108), OSw. gylla, E. gull 
'deceive, cheat'; ON. glata 'verlieren, verderben', OE. gylt 
'fault, crime, offense, guilt, sin', pre -Germ. *ghl-di- 'fehler, 
mangel', with which compare pre-Germ. *ghol-tio- 'mangelhaft, 
sterilis', whence OE. gielde 'sterile', OHG. gait 'gelt', OSw. 
galder, ON. geldr 'sterilis', gelda ' castrieren ', i. e. 'cause to 
be sterile'. In all these we have the primary signification 
' give way, yield, fail, become barren ', etc. With these compare 
pre-Germ. *ghel-to- 'yield to, give, pay', whence OE. gieldan 
'give, render; recompense; pay', Goth, fra-gildan 'vergelten', etc. 

57. Lith. zeliu 'grow' : OS., OHG. gelo, OE. geolo, ON. 
gulr 'yellow', Lat. fulvos 'reddish yellow, tawny', helvos 
'light bay', Lith. Mlas 'reddish', Skt. hart 'reddish, golden, 
greenish', etc., OHG. gluoen, ON. gloa, OE. glowan 'glow', 

— 38 — 

gled, ON. gloft, OHG. gluot 'glut, feuer, gltihende koblen', 
ON. glamr 'moon', Sw. glamig 'blassgelb'. 

For the root ghel- of the above we may assume some 
such primary meaning as 'spring up'. From this came 'grow, 
become green ' (v. II, 1), and ' beam, glow '. In Germ, ghel- and 
ghel- have fallen together, so that it is impossible in many 
cases to decide to which of these roots a particular word 
may belong. 

58. OHG. gruoen ' griinen , virere ', ON. groa, OE. growan 
'grow' : Lett, fa'rs 'zweig', farains 'astig; strahlend', fa! rut 
'aste treiben; strahlen werfen', Lith. zeriu 'strahle', zariuju 
'gluhe', zarijas 'gltihend, feurig glanzend', Ck$\.zarja c splendor', 
zireti 'glanzen, sehen', Gk. x^Q 0Jt °Q ' strahlaugig ' (cf. Prellw., 
Et. Wb. s. v.). 

58 a. The root gher- also meant primarily 'spring, spring 
up', whence 'grow, be verdant' : 'beam, radiate, gleam'. From 
this primary meaning came 'strive for, desire; exult, rejoice; 
urge on, encourage', etc. in Ski hdryati 'hat gem, begehrt', 
Goth, -gatrns, OHG. gem 'begierig', geron 'streben, bgehren', 
Russ. zdriU 'lust erwecken, reizen', Gk. xaiqa) 'freue mich', 
Lat. horior ' ermuntere ', hortor ' ermahne ' (cf. Uhl., Et. Wb. 2 
s. v. gairnei). Compare OHG. springan 'springen', Gk. ojieqxco 
'treibe, errege', pass, 'eile', Ski sprhayati 'eifert um, begehrt 
eifrig, beneidet', sprha 'verlangen, begehren, neid'. 

59. Ski halana 'das treiben, antreiben', 7calana-m 'das 
schiitteln, hinundherbewegen ', kaldyati ' treibt, halt ', Gk. xilo- 
(iat 'treibe an, rufe', xeXlm 'treibe', xlovoq 'schlachtgetlimmel', 
Lai celer, OHG. hellan 'ertonen, hallen', MHG. hel 'tonend, 
laut; glanzend, licht' : OHG. halon, holm ' herbeirufen, holen', 
OE. hlowan 'rugire, boare', hlynn 'clamor', OHG. hlamon 
'rauschen, brausen', Lai clamare, calare, clarus 'laut, hell, 
glanzend, klar' (cf. Schade, Wb.; Hirt, Idg. Abl. 261). 

60. Gk. oxaXkco ' stir up, hoe ', Lith. sMUu ' schlage feuer 
an', ON. skella, skjalla 'klatschen, schlagen; schmahen', sheila 
'klatschen, knallen', skjal 'larm', skjala 'schwatzen', skjallr 
'gellend, laut', OE. sciellan 'tonen', OHG. scellan 'schallen, 
tonen, klingen', scellan 'zerschmettern, zerschlagen ', MHG. 

— 39 — 

schellec 'springend, auffahrend; zornig, wild'; OS. skaldan 'fort- 
stossen', OHG. scaltan 'in bewegung setzen, stossen, fortstossen ', 
sceltan 'schelten', Lith. sklendziu 'schwebe, fliege', base sqel- 
1 spring, cause to spring, thrust, strike, shake ', etc. : ON. skelfa 
' schtttteln ', skelfr 'bebend, zitternd, furchtsam', skjalfa, Dan. 
skjcelfe 'beben, zittern', OE. scielfan 'shake', scylfrung 'swinging; 
brightness', scielfor 'yellow'. 

60a. The base sqel- 'spring; thrust, strike', etc. is the 
same as sqel- 'spring apart, burst; split, cut' : Lith. skeliu 
'spalte'; skeldeju 'platze, berate, spalte', sMeta 'spalte'; skelbiu 
'verbreite' (eine nachricht, ein gerticht), i. e. 'scatter, spargere' 
and therefore to be compared with ON. skelfa 'schtttteln'; Lith. 
sklempiu 'behaue, beschneide, polire', Lat. sculpo 'meissele, 
schneide, ritze', scalpo 'kratze, schabe, schneide, ritze', OE. 
scylfe 'shelf, etc. 

60 b. A base sq(li)el- 'wanken, straucheln' is perhaps the 
same as sqel- 'springen, sprengen, trennen'. It is at least 
closely connected in meaning with ON. skelfa etc. : Skt. skhdlati 
'wankt, taumelt, stolpert, geht fehl', Arm. syalem 'wanke, 
strauchle, irre', Lith. skeliu 'bin schuldig', skola 'schuld', Lat. 
scelus ' verbrechen ', Goth, skulan 'schuldig aein', Gk. oxoXwg 
'krumm, unredlich' (cf. Uhl., Ai. Wb.), Gk. oxaXrjvot; 'hinkend, 
uneben, hockerig'. With theae compare ON. skmla 'verdrehen'; 
skolla 'achlenkern, wanken, baumeln', skollr 'betrug'; OHG. 
scalmo 'aeuche', MHG. schelme 'peat, aeuche; die im kampf 
gefallenen', pre-Germ. *sqalmio- 'a bending, falling'; ON. skjalga 
'achtitteln, achwingen; achief machen', skjalgr 'wankend, un- 
aicher; achief, achielend', OE. sceolh 'wry, oblique', OHG. scelah 
'krumm, achief, quer, acheel, achielend'; ON. skelkr 'achreck, 
beaturzung', skclkja 'erachrecken; spotten', skelkinn 'spottisch', 
skulka 'bespotten', Dan. skulke 'sich hinwegschleichen ', Sw. 
skalka 'schwanzen', E. skulk 'sneak, cringe', MLFr. scale 'arg- 
listig, gemein', Goth, skalks 'knecht, diener', MHG. schalc 
' knecht, diener ; ungetreuer, arg-, hinterlistiger mensch ; possen, 
schalkheit', scJielken 'betrugen, beschimpfen, schmahen', pre- 
Germ. base *sqel-go-, *sqol-go- 'schtttteln, schwingen; wanken, 
krumm gehen; niedergebeugt, unterthanig sein'; Lith. skelpiu 
'wolbe', sMlpas ' leichengewolbe ', OHG. scelp 'wolbung', ON. 

— 40 — 

skjolf 'hochsitz', OE. scylf 'peak, crag; pinnacle, turret', base 
*sqele-po- 'swing, bend, round, over'. 

61. Av. slear- 'springen', Gk. cxaiQco 'htipfe', OHG. sceron 
'mutwillig sein, jauchzen', seem 'scherz, spott'; MHG. seherzen 
'htipfen, sich vergniigen', scliarz 'sprung', Ski leurdati 'springt, 
hiipft', Gk. xogdat- 'tanz', xQccdaw 'schwinge, schtitte', Ir. fo- 
cherdaim ' schwinge ', Welsch cerded ' gehen, reisen ', ON. hrata 
'schwanken', Lett, skrederdt 'schiitteln' (cf. Prellw., Et. Wb. 
s. v. xogdag), base sqero-, sqre- ' swing, spring ' : Gk. XQrjpvTjfii 
'sttirze hinab, lasse schweben, hange', xQefzapai 'hange', Skt. 
Jcrdma 'schritt, gang, lauf, kramati 'schreitet, uberschreitet ' 
(id. ib. s. v. xQSfiafiai) , MHG. schrcemen ' biegen , krtimmen, 
schrage machen', OE. serimman 'be drawn up or bent', pre- 
Germ. *sqretn-no- 'bent', OE. seremman 'cause to stumble', 
ON. skreema, Dan. skreemme 'schrecken, erschrecken, ver- 
scheuchen', E. scream 'plotzlich schreien', ON. slcrama 'leuchten, 
strahlen'; MHG. schrcejen 'spritzen, stieben; sprilhen, lodern'. 

61a. The base sqero-, sqre- 'swing, spring' is the same 
as sqero- 'spring apart, burst; crack; split, cut': — Av. shar- 
'springen', Gk. oxaigoo 'htipfe' : Lith. sMriu 'trenne, scheide'. 
ON. skroema 'startle, frighten' : slcrama 'wound, scratch', MHG. 
schram 'schramme', scJtramen 'aufreissen, offnen'. — MHG. 
seller zen 'hiipfen', seharz 'sprung' : scJierze ' abgeschnittenes 
stuck', schranz 'bruch, riss, spalte, loch, wunde', schrenzen 
'spalten, zerreissen', schratzen 'ritzen, kratzen', ME. skratten 
'scratch', Lith. skerdziu 'risse bekommen, platzen', Lett, sizar dit 
'zerteilen'; OHG. scrintan 'aufspringen, bersten, risse bekommen', 
scrunta 'riss, scharte', scart, OE. sceard 'zerhauen, schartig, 
verwundet'. — Lith. shersas 'quer, schielend', ON. skirra 'turn 
away, remove', skjarr 'shy' : OHG. scerran, MHG. scherren, 
scharrcn 'scharren, kratzen'. — Gk. axogjcl^m 'scatter, disperse', 
ON. slcrefa 'go or spring with long strides', shrcefash 'shrink 
back with cowardice' : OHG. searbon 'in stiicke schneiden', 
screvon 'incidere', OE. scearfian 'shred, scrape'; ON. skreppa 
'slip away, escape', MHG. sclirimpfen 'sich zusammenziehen, 
runzeln', Lith. skreoiu 'werde trocken', ON. skorpr 'shrunken, 
dry', skarpr 'rough, hard, sharp', OE. scearp 'rough, severe, 
harsh, sharp', Gk. oxeg^oXog 'harsh in speech, abusive, scolding' 

— 41 — 

: Lett, skarbit 'splittern', OE. sceorpan, screpan 'scrape', MHG. 
schreffen, schrepfen 'schropfen'. — MHG. schrecken 'springen, 
aufspringen, hiipfen, tanzen', schricken 'springen, aufspringen 
: einen sprung oder riss bekommen'. — Lith. skrejii 'bewege im 
kreise', Lett, skret 'laufen, fliegen', skredinat 'laufen lassen', 
Lith. skraidau 'fliege bin und her, treibe im kreise herum', 
ON. skritinn 'scherzhaft' : Goth, dis-shreitan 'zerreissen'; Lith. 
skrecziu 'drehe', OE. scrtftan 'wander, go, glide', OHG. scritan 
'schreiten', ON. slcrlda 'stride, glide, slide', skrid/inn 'slit, torn', 
skrictna 'slide, slip; become worn, torn'. 

The base qero- ' cut ' is likewise from qero- ' spring, swing, 
shake, move hastily', whence 'snatch, seize, pull, tear; strike, 
break, cut'. The bases sqero- and qero- were perhaps origin- 
ally distinct, but they are now more or less confused. 

Lat. cerno 'sift, separate', primarily 'shake, shake out', 
Skt. krnati 'verletzt, totet', Gk. xeigco 'shear, lop', Skt. karnd 
' stutzohrig ', ChSl. Jcrunu ' verstttmmelt, stutzohrig ', Serv. Jcrnjo 
' splitterig ', Lith. Jcamd ' lindenbast ', Lat. corium, Gk. xegfia 
' schnitzel ', OE. hearma ' spitzmaus '. — Lith. Jcretii ' sich hin und 
her bewegen', Icretalas 'sieb', OHG. redan 'sieben', OE. hradian 
'hasten', hrced, hrce]) 'agile, swift, quick, clever', ON. hraoTa 
'hasten', hrced'a 'startle, frighten', hreda 'quarrel, strife', Lat. 
certo ' fight, struggle ', Gk. xgorog ' a striking, beating ', xqoteco 
'strike beat, rattle', OE. hrindan 'thrust', ON. hrinda 'thrust, 
thrust away, drive off, free from', hrandlan 'a thrusting aside', 
OHG. rettan 'bewegen, treiben; entziehen, entreissen; befreien, 
retten', OE. hreddan 'take away, rescue', Lith. Jcrintu 'falle', 
i.e. 'spring off', Tcertu 'schlage heftig, haue scharf, Jcertus 
'spitzmaus', Imrtus 'bitter', Gk. xgarvg 'stark, gewaltig, hart', 
Goth, hardus 'hart' etc., Skt. krntdti, Jcdrtati 'reisst ab, haut 
ab, zerschneidet, spaltet, schneidet', krtti 'fell, haut', Lat. cortex 
'rinde, schale, kork', cortina 'kessel', OHG. herdo 'vellus', 
whence 'sack, pouch, paunch, stomach' etc. in ON. hredjar 
'pouch, scrotum', OE. her^an 'testicles', lire^per 'womb, breast, 
heart', OHG. Jierdar, Goth, hairpra ' eingeweide '. — ON. hrapa 
'hasten, rush, fall', E. rap 'stark schlagen, klopfen', Du. rapen 
'zusammenraffen', MHG. raffen 'rupfen, raufen, raffen ', Ir. no-s- 
cerband 'cut' : Lat. crepo 'rattle, rustle, clash', carpo 'tear off, 
seize, pluck, separate', Lith. kerpii 'scbneide mit der schere', 

— 42 — 

ON. hrafla, hrofla 'scrape together'. — ON. hrekja ' drive with 
violence, persecute, worry, vex', hrahiing ' violent treatment, 
scolding', Ski Mrjati 'qualt', OFries. hreka 'reissen'. — OE. 
hridder, hriddel ' riddle ', hrtclrian ' sift ', Lat. cri-brum, cri-rnen, 
Gk. ocqlvw 'scheide, entscheide', diaxQidov 'abgesondert', ChSl. 
kroiti 'schneiden'. — Gk. xgi^co 'knarre', xqiyi) 'schwirren', ON. 
hrika ' creak', OE. hrician 'cut, cut to pieces'. — Lith. kreipiu 
'wende, kehre', kraipau 'wende fortgesetzt hin und her', ON. 
hreife 'wrist', hreifa 'move, stir', hrifa 'rake', hrifa 'snatch, 
seize, rob; scratch', ON. ge-hrifnian 'seize, tear'. — OS.hrisjan 
'tremble', Goth, -hrisjan, OE. hrisian 'shake', ON. hrista 'shake', 
Lat. crinis > *crisnis ' hair ', crista ' tuft, crest ', crispo ' swing, 
brandish, wave; curl, make rough', OE. ge-hrespan 'tear', 
OHG. hrespan 'rupfen, raffen', hris 'zweig', hrispahi 'gestrauch'. 
If we derive hrespan from pre -Germ, qres-po- instead of qris-po-, 
then we may compare it with ON. lirasa ' hasten, hurry, stumble, 
fall', OHG. raspon 'eilfertig sammeln, zusammenraffen ', MHG. 
r aspen 'raffen'. — Pruss. krut 'fallen', ON. hrun 'fall, sturz', 
hrynja 'stiirzen', Gk. xqovw 'beat, strike', OE. hreosan 'rush, 
fall', Lith. Jcrutu 'riihre mich' etc. : Jcrusm, kriuszu 'zer- 
schmettere, zermalme', ChSl. hrusiti ' zerbrockeln ' (cf. I, 105; 
XVI, 28, 29, 30). 

61b. From the examples given above it is evident that 
such terms as 'tear, pull off, shear, cut' etc. are often only 
the causative of ' spring off, fly off, scatter ' etc. Compare the 
following : 

Gk. 6jz£qx(d 'treibe, errege', pass, 'eile', OHG. springan 
'springen', MHG. zerspringen, zersprengen, base spere-gho-', 
Ski sprcdti 'dringt bis zu, erreicht, beruhrt, fasst an', Gk. 
(jjiaQccooa* 'zupfe, zerreisse', OjcaQayfia ' abgerissenes stttck', 
base spere-ko-; E. spurt 'spritzen', MHG. spirse(])n, spiirze(l)n 
'speien, spucken', E. sprint 'schnell laufen', ON. spretta 
'springen, aufspringen', Sw. spritta 'zucken', sprattla 'zappeln', 
spratta 'schnellen, spritzen, trennen', Dan. spraztte 'zappeln; 
trennen', MHG. sprenzen 'sprengen, spritzen, sprenkeln, bunt 
schmticken', sprinz 'das aufspringen, aufspriessen ', sprinze 
'lanzensplitter; flimmerndes stttck', spranz 'das aufspriessen; 
spalt', ON. spretta wk. vb. 'losen, los machen, trennen', Lith. 

— 43 — 

sprendziu 'messe eine spanne', base spere-do-; MHG. sprcejen 
'spritzen, stieben; spritzen, sprtihen machen, streuen', Skt. 
spharayati 'zieht auseinander, offnet weit, spannt', base spere-io-, 
spre-io-, whence MHG. spriten 'spreiten', spreiten 'ausbreiten', 
spreide 'ausdehnung, zerstreuung', OE. sprcedan 'spread'; MHG. 
sprizen 'in stiicken oder splittern auseinanderfliegen ', sprize 
'span, splitter', ON. sprita 'sprawl'; Norw. sprikja 'ausspannen, 
aussperren'; OHG. spriu 'spreu', base spreuo-, whence OE. 
spreawlian 'move convulsively', E. sprawl 'sich lang aus- 
strecken'; Goth, sprauto 'schnell', MHG. spriitzen 'spritzen, 
sprossen', spriezen 'spriessen', spriuzen 'sttttzen, spreizen, 
stemmen', spriuze 'sttttze; das sich sperren, spreizen', Icel. 
spreyta 'have et stolt og pralende vsesen', Lith. spriustu, aor. 
spriudau 'entgleiten, entschliipfen'; spriaunas 'stattlich, keck', 
Sw. sprod 'briichig, sprode', Dan. spred 'brocklich, bruchig, 
zerbrechlich, sprode', NHG. sprode (cf. Persson, Wz. 128, 169; 
and see I, 15). 

Skt. phdlati 'springt zuriick, springt entzwei, berstet'; 
sphutdti 'reisst, springt auf, spaltet sich', OHG. spaltan 'spalten' 
(cf. I, 17); OHG. spuolen, OE. spelan, Du. spoelen, Dan. spele, 
Sw. spola 'spttlen', base spole%o- 'swing, shake' (compare Lith. 
slcalauti 'vom wasser fortgesetzt heftig anschlagend waschen, 
spiilen; ein mit Wasser gefttlltes glas durch fortges. schtttteln 
aussptilen, auswaschen'), Skt. sphalayati 'lasst anprallen, schlagt 
auf, zerreisst', whence the base splei-do- in E. split, MHG. 
spllzen 'bersten, sich spalten; spalten, trennen', Dan. splitte 
'zerspalten, zersplittern, zerstreuen', Du. splijten 'split' etc. 

Skt. drdti 'lauft, eilt', Gk. didgaoxa) 'laufe', OHG. zittaron 
'zittern', ON. titra 'beben'; Skt. drdmati 'lauft', Gk. 6Qa[iuv 
'laufen', dgofiog 'lauf, OE. trem, trym 'footstep', Goth, tarmjan 
'losbrechen, platzen'; Skt. drdvati 'lauft, eilt, schmilzt', MHG. 
trinnen (base drenuo- nasalized from dreuo) ' davonlaufen, sich 
absondern', OHG. trennen 'spalten, trennen, scheiden'. These 
are all from a base dero- 'run away, separate, tear' in OE. 
teran 'tear, lacerate, bite', Goth, distairan 'auseinander treiben, 
zerreissen', Gk. deoco 'schinde', Skt. drnati 'berstet, sprengt, 
spaltet', Goth, gatarnjan 'entfremden', -taarnan 'reissen' (intr.), 
Gk. dQtjrco 'breche, schneide' etc. 

OE. pieman 'dwindle, fall away', Gk. otvofzai 'hurt, damage, 

— 44 — 

waste, plunder', OE. a-fiwltan 'disappoint, frustrari', fiivitan 
'cut, shave off' (cf. author, AJP. XXI, 180). 

Lith. lehiu 'fliege', ON. laga 'fliessen', Gk. Xaxrl^co 'kick, 
beat, struggle ' : Xaxi^co ' tear ', axstyxcc ' ajteQQcoya (Hes.), Lai 
lacero 'tear, mangle; rail at, censure', OHG. lahan 'tadeln', 
lastar ' schmahung, schande'. 

ME. flingen 'rush; hurl, fling', ON. flengja 'whip, ride 
furiously', OSw. flenga 'strike', Sw. fldnga 'hin und her rennen 
: reissen, abreissen', flinga 'splitter', Dan. flenge 'fetzen, zer- 
fetzen, zerreissen'; OE. flean, ON. fla < *flahan ' flay ', Lith. 
plesziu 'reisse, raube' (cf. I, 19). 

For other exemples see 1,16, 30 a, 34 a, 37, 60 a, 71b, 
92 a; VII, 25; XVI, 52. 

62. OHG. screclwn 'auffahren, aufspringen, springen, httpfen', 
ON. skrcekr 'schrei', skraJkja 'schreien', shark 'larm, gepolter', 
MHG. schreclcen 'aufspringen machen; in schrecken setzen, er- 
schrecken', schric 'der sprung, das plotzliche auffahren; sprung, 
riss; das erschrecken, der schreck; plotzliches hervorspringen, 
glanz '. 

62 a. With Germ, shruk- ' spring ' compare shrink-, sJcranlc- 
' swing, spring back' etc. in OHG. scranchon 'schwanken, wanken, 
taumeln; in verschrankter stellung sein', NHG. schrenken 'seit- 
warts abweichen; schrag stellen, verschrenken, flechten', scranc 
'was abgesperrt : schranke, gitter, einfriedigung' (compare 
wenden : ivand, i.e. 'was abwendet'); windung; betrug', OE. 
scrincan 'shrink (primarily 'seitwarts abweichen, zuruck- 
weichen'), contract, wither, fade, be dispirited', screncan 'put 
a barrier in the way, trip up, scandalizare', scrence ' withered ', 
ON. slcruMa 'wrinkle', sJcryhker 'surging of the waves', shreh 
'deception', skrekva 'falsify, invent' (story) (cf. Zupitza, Germ. 
Gutt. 158). 

These are from a pre-Germ. base *sqre(n)-go-, with which 
compare *sqre(m)-bo- : MHG. schrimpfen 'einschrumpfen, runzeln', 
Sw. shrumpen 'runzelig', ON. shreppa 'gleiten, springen', skorpr 
'eingeschrumpft, diirr', skorpna 'einschrumpfen', skorpinn 'ein- 
geschrumpft ', Lith. skrebiu 'werde trocken'. 

62b. From the developed meaning 'wrinkle, shrivel' 
come several words for 'rough, uneven', whence 'crust, rind, 

— 45 — 

bark, hide' and then * pouch, sack, stomach' etc. : OE. scrincan 
'shrink, wither', ON. skrukka 'runzel', skrokkr 'ranzen'. — 
MHG. schrimpfen ' runzeln ', ON. skreppa ' ranzen ', Lith. skram- 
blys 'magen' : skrebiu 'werde trocken', ON. skorpr 'shrunken, 
dry', sJcorpa 'crust, bark', OE. sceorp 'dress'. — Dan. slcrante 
'kriinkeln, siechen', Lith. skrdndas 'alter steif gewordener pelz', 
skrafidis ' viehmagen '. — Lith. skrentu 'sich mit einer trockenen 
kruste beziehen', skretlmas 'das trocknen von oben', Lat. scortum 
'skin, hide', scrotum. For other examples of the same develop- 
ment in meaning see 105 a. 

63. Ski rjyati, rnjdti 'streckt sich, verlangt nach', 
rfijasand ' herbeieilend, erstrebend', irajydti 'richtet zu, ordnet 
an, lenkt, gebietet', Av. razayeiti 'ordnet', Gk. ogeyco 'reach 
out, stretch, stride, attack, desire', Lat. rego 'direct, guide, 
govern', rex, Ski raj-, rdjan 'king', Goth, -rdkjan 'stretch 
out', OE. reccan 'stretch, direct, govern, guide', root ereg-, 
oreg- 'stretch out, reach out', whence 'radiate, shine' : OHG. 
erchan 'recht, echt', Goth, -airkns 'rein, echt', Gk. dgyog 
'bright', aQY?]g 'white, glittering', Ski drjuna 'white', rajatd, 
Lat. argentum, Gk. aoyvgog 'silver'. Here also Dan. rank 
'gerade, schlank', Du. rank 'slender', ON. rakkr 'slender, bold', 
OE. ranc ' proud, insolent, brave, showy ', E. rank ' flourishing, 

63a. As we see from OE. reccan 'stretch; direct, guide; 
explain, interpret; narrate, tell; count, reckon', ge-rec 'govern- 
ment, rule; explanation', the same base is in OE. racu 'narrative, 
exposition; explanation; reckoning, account', OS. raka, OHG. 
rahha 'rede, rechenschaft ', rehhanon 'zahlen, rechnen' etc. 
Tbe primary meaning is 'arrange, ordnen'. Here also Lat. 
rogo 'ask, request' from a base *roga- 'a stretching out to, 
going to, seeking, petition, desire'. Compare OE. racian 'rule, 
direct; go, betake oneself to', Gk. ogeyco 'reach out, attack, 
desire', oQexrog 'longed for, desired'. So also Lat. peto 'attack; 
seek : beseech, ask'; Ski eti 'geht', esati 'sucht', icchati 'sucht, 
wttnscht', OHG. eiscon 'fragen, fordern'. 

A synonymous base ereg occurs in OHG. nwchen 'seine 
gedanken auf etwas richten, bedacht, besorgt sein, begehren, 

— 46 — 

wttnschen', OS. rokjan 'care for 1 , Lith. regiu ' sehe, schaue 1 
(cf. Bechtel, Sinnl. Wahrn. 158; author, Pub. MLA. XIV, 335). 
With these compare ereq- : Ski racdyati 'ordnet, verfertigt, 
errichtet, bereitet, bewirkt', ChSl. reka 'sage', raknati 'wollen', 
Goth, rdhnjan ' rechnen ' (cf. Uhl., Et. Wb. s. v.), and also Lat. 
arced 'keep in order, restrain, inclose, shut up', Gk. doxem 
'turn away, ward off', Lith. rakinu 'schliesse', raktas 'schlussel', 
Goth, rohsns 'hof, vorhof (cf. author, Jour. Germ. Phil. II, 229 f.), 
OHG. rigel 'riegel', Lat. orcus; OE. reced, OS. rahud 'haus' 
(cf. Osthoff, IF. VIII, 54). 

64. Skt. ragand ' strick, riemen, ziigel, gurt ', NPers. rasan 
'strick', Skt. ragmi 'Strang, riemen, ziigel : strahl, glanz', root 
erek- 'stretch, draw out, extend : radiate, shine'. Similarly to 
ereg- or ereg- ' stretch ' belong ON. rekendi, OE. racente ' chain, 
fetter', racca 'cord forming part of rigging of ship'. 

65. OE. recan 'go, rush', ge-rec 'tumult', recen 'prompt, 
ready, swift', Skt. rahgati 'schwankt' : ranga 'theater, buhne; 
farbe', rdjyati 'gerat in aufregung, wird entzlickt, farbt sich, 
rotet sich', raktd 'gefarbt, rot', raga 'das farben, farbe, rote, 
leidenschaft ', Gk. Qt^co 'farbe'; Skt. rajas 'dunstkreis, dunst, 
nebel, staub, dunkel', Gk. sQtftog 'dunkel der unterwelt' etc., 
root eregM- ' move, sway, be agitated : glitter, shine ; be agitated, 
dusty, cloudy, dark'. 

QQ. Lat. arcus 'bow', ON. or, OE. earh, Goth, arhwazna 
'pfeil', root erequ- 'set in motion, shoot out, burst out', whence 
'radiate, shine' and 'sing, roar' : Lith. rekiu 'brtille, schreie', 
Arm. erg 'lied', Skt. arkd 'strahl, blitzstrahl, sonne, feuer; lied, 
Sanger', rk 'glanz; gedicht', drcati 'strahlt, lobsingt, ehrt'. 

67. ON. erta ' auf stacheln ', Ir. aird ' eckpunkt ', Gk. aodig 
'pfeilspitze' (cf. Prellw., Et. Wb. s. v.), Skt. rddati 'kratzt, ritzt, 
nagt', rada, radana 'zahn', Lat. radius 'spoke, spur, beam, 
ray ', radio ' beam, gleam, shine ', root ered- ' shoot out, project, 
radiate; be pointed, scratch, tear'. 

68. Lat. erro 'wander', Skt. irasydti 'ztirnt', Goth, airzeis, 
OHG. irri 'irre', OE. yrre 'zornig', root eres- 'spring forth, 
turn aside; run, flow, resound' etc. : Skt. drsati 'fliesst', rsdti 

— 47 — 

'stosst' (compare ChSl. rijati 'stossen : fliessen'), Ski rasa 
1 feuchtigkeit ', rasa 'saft, fliissigkeit; geschmack', rasati 
'schmeckt', with which compare OE. reord 'food, meal', pre- 
Germ. *rez-dha-, Lith. rasa, ChSl. rosa, Lat. ros 'dew'; Skt. 
rasati 'brtillt, heult, ertont', rasate 'heult, schreit', ON. rasa 
' einhersturzen ', ras 'lauf, rennen', MHG. rasen 'toben, rasen'; 
OHG. rase 'schnell, hurtig, kraftig', ON. rc-skr 'bold' < *ros-qito-, 
OE. rmse 'shower of rain', rcescan 'coruscate', rwscettan 'crackle; 
coruscate', OHG. rascezzen 'schluchzen; funken spruhen'. 

69. kv.ra-, Skt. rati 'giebt, gewahrt', rayi 'habe, besitz, 
kleinod', Welsh rhoi, Corn, ry, Bret, reiff 'give', Av. rai- 
' radiance, splendor', raevant- 'radiant, splendid', Skt. revdnt 
'reich, reichlich, prangend, prachtig' (cf. Fick, Wb. II 4 , 225). 

69 a. Derivatives of the root reip-, ret- are : OE. rif 
'abundant, frequent', E. rife 'abounding, prevalent', ODu. rijf 
'copious', LG. rwe ' reichlich ', ON. rifr 'freigebig', base *rei-po- 
or *rt-po- stretching out, prominent; offering, giving', with 
which compare the synonymous base rei-go- in OHG. reihhen, 
MHG. reichen 'langen, sich erstrecken; erreichen; erlangen; 
darreichen', OE. rcecan 'stretch forth, offer, bring, give', ge- 
rcecan 'reach, overtake, take, seize, obtain', Gk. ogcy-vdofiac 
' stretch, reach for, grasp at, gain ', Lith. raizytis ' sich recken ', 
reiz-ti-s 'sich brtisten' (cf. Persson, Wz. 184). With these 
connect Goth. reiJcs 'machtig, vornehm', ON. rlkr 'machtig, 
reich', OHG. rihhi 'machtig, vornehm, herrlich', OE. rice 'power- 
ful, strong, rich'. 

70. Skt. rebhd 'knisternd, tonend', rebhati 'rauscht, britllt, 
jubelt, singt : glanzt', base reiblw- 'move rapidly, whirl', to 
which probably belongs OE. rif 'fierce'. Compare the root 
rei- in Goth, reiran 'zittern', reiro 'erdbeben' : OHG. reren, 
OE. rarian 'roar, bellow'. 

70 a. The root rei- 'move rapidly, whirl' is probably 
the same as rei- 'run, flow'. Compare especially Skt. ray a 
'stromung. strom, hast, drang, heftigkeit'; OE. ge-rls 'fury', 
rcesan 'rush; attack; enter on rashly', rces 'running, rush, 
impetus, attack', risan 'seize', and also rxsan 'rise', Goth. 

— 48 — 

71. Skt. rnoti, rnvati 'erhebt sich, bewegt sich', Gk. ogrvfii 
'erhebe', Skt. drvan 'runner', Av. aurva-, ON. or, OE. earu 
'quick, schnelP, OS. aru 'ready', Gk. 6qov<d 'rise, rush along', 
£(M»(/)»j ' quick, violent motion ', eQmea) ' burst forth, flow, stream', 
Lat. ruo 'rush, hasten, run, fall' (cf. Prellw., Et. Wb.), base 
ereu- 'move quickly', whence 'glitter, be bright' : Arm. arev, 
Skt. ravi 'sun'; arund 'reddish, golden'; arusa 'red, fiery', 
Av. aurusa- 'gleaming, white'; L&Lrutilus 'red, golden'; Goth. 
raufis, ON. raudr, OE. read, OS. rod, OHG. rot 'red', ON. rjodr 
'reddish', OE. reod 'red', Goth, ga-riuds 'ehrbar', OE. rudu 
'red color, rouge, redness, blush, countenance', rudig 'ruddy', 
Lith. randa 'red color', rudas 'brownish red', raudonas 'red', 
ChSl. rudeti se 'sich roten', Ir. ruad, Welsh rhudd, Corn, rud 
'red', Skt. rohita, Av. raoidita 'reddish, red', Lat. rufus 'reddish', 
ruber, Gk. sqv&qoq, ChSl. rudru, Skt. rudhird ' red ', OE. rodor 
'sky, heavens'. 

71a. The same base ereu- 'move quickly, hasten, rush, 
burst forth 5 gives many words for 'roar, resound' : Russ. rev 
'gebrtill', Skt. rdva 'gebrull, geschrei, gedrohne, ton, laut', 
rduti, ravati 'brtillt, schreit, drohnt', ChSl. reva 'brtille', Gk. 
coovofiai 'roar, bellow, howl, lament', Lat. rumor 'noise, report', 
OE. ryn 'roar', rynan 'roar', reon 'lamentation', reonig 'sad, 
mournful', reonian 'mutter', runian 'mutter, whisper, conspire', 
run 'secret discussion, secret, mystery', runen 'whisper', ON. run 
'secret, rune', Lett, runat 'speak'. From ereu- 'roar' come 
ereu-do-, ereu-go-, ereu-qo- 'roar' (cf. Persson, Wz. 13, 40, 243). 

71b. From 'move rapidly' come many words meaning 
'burst forth, fall, pass away; pull off, burst, break': Lat. ruo 
'rush, hasten, rush forth : fall, go to ruin, einstiirzen; cast 
down, dash down; overturn, turn up', Lith. rduju 'ziehe aus, 
raufe' etc., whence many derived bases. 

72. Lat. olesco 'grow', ad-olesco 'grow up; burn, blaze 
up', ad-oleo 'burn, sacrifice'; alo 'nourish', Goth, alan 'grow' 
: OE. celan 'burn, kindle', celed 'fire, firebrand', OSw. eledh, 
ON. eldr 'Are'. The root ulo-, ole- is perhaps reduplicated in 
Skt. Idlati 'scherzt, spielt', lalana 'spielend, schillernd', Bulg. 
lelem 'ich wiege'. 

— 49 — 

73. Skt. lasa 'das springen, hiipfen', lasya 'tanz', lasaka 
'hinundher bewegend', Lat. lasclvus 'wanton', ChSl. laslcati 
' schmeicheln ', ON. elska 'love', Skt. Idsati 'ist lustig; ertont; 
erhebt sich, entsteht, erscheint, glanzt, strahlt '. 

These may be referred to a base eleso-, els-, Ws- 'spring, 
spring about, rise', etc., from which we may derive Lith. lesu 
'picke auf, Goth, lisan 'ernten, lesen', OHG. lesan 'auslesen, 
lesen, vorlesen', etc. This is simply the transitive use of the 
word: 'spring, rise : raise, pick up'. 

74. ON. elfr, Dan. elv, Sw. alv 'stream, river', OE. lafian 
'pour, wash', OHG. lab 'bruhe', labon 'waschen, erquicken', 
base elep- 'spring (forth), gush out' : Skt. Idpati 'babble, 
mutter', lampata 'eager, desirous', primarily 'active, alert', 
Gk. XcuzL^cd 'whistle, swagger', Xdfijtco 'beam, shine', Xafutgog 
'bright', Pruss. lopis 'flame', Lett, lapa 'torch', Ir. lass^ir 
'flame', Welsh llachar 'coruscus, igneus' (cf. Brugm. Grd. I 2 , 
516). Perhaps from a related base elebh- may come Gk. aXcpog 
' weisser fleck auf der haut ', Lat. albus. 

75. Skt. rejate 'hupft, bebt, zittert', Gk. kUXl&o 'whirl, 
shake ', Lith. Idigau ' laufe wild umher ', Goth, laihan ' springen, 
htipfen', ON. leika 'spielen, sich spielend bewegen, ziingeln', 
OE. lacan ' springen, fliegen, wogen, flackern ', MHG. weter-liche, 
-leich 'blitz', weter-lichen, -leichen 'blitzen'. 

76. The base elei-go- in the above is an outgrowth of 
elei- in Skt. lelayati 'schwankt, scbaukelt, zittert', Wayati 
'spielt', Gk. XsXi7]f/ai 'hasten, strive for, long for', ZsXtTifitvog 
'hasty, eager, zealous', XiZaloftm 'long for, desire', Lith. leilas 
'butterfly', i.e., 'flutterer'. From this base also: Lith. lepsna 
'flame', ON. leiftr, leiptr 'lightning', leiptra 'beam, gleam'. 

77. Gk. eXvrai' l^XBtat (Hes.), dkvco ' wander, be excited ' 
: OHG. eh 'yellow'. 

From eleu- comes eleu-dh-: Gk. rjXv&ov 'went, came', 
lXev6o[zcu 'shall go, come', Skt. rodhati 'wachst, steigt', Goth. 
liudan 'wachsen', Westfal. lodern 'tippig wachsen', NHG. lodem 


- 50 — 

77 a. Skt. cdficati 'hiipft, springt', caficala 'beweglich, 
unstat', cdkati 'zittert*, cakasti 'glanzt'. Here may belong 
Goth, hahan 'schweben lassen', OHG. Italian, hangen etc. 

78. Skt. edhate 'wachst, gedeiht, wird gross', ON. id 
'activity', ida 'move restlessly', idinn 'active, busy' : Gk. 
ai&G) 'burn', ai&og 'fire', al&vooco 'move rapidly, quiver, 
flicker', Skt. inddhe 'kindle', OE. ad, OHG. eit 'fire, funeral 
pile '. 

79. Skt. isyati ' setzt in bewegung, erregt ', isnati ' schwingt, 
treibt an', isate 'eilt', esati 'schleicht, gleitet', isti 'antrieb, 
eile', ON. eisa 'hasten, rush' : cisa 'embers', OE. ast 'kiln', 
Skt. islaka, Av. istya- 'brick' (cf. Uhl. Ai. Wb.). 

79 a. ON. eisa, OE. ast, Lat. aestas, aestus may belong to 
78 or 79. Both are probably from the root ex-, as are also 
those given under 80. 

80. Skt. eva 'rasch, eilig' : Gk. alolog 'beweglich, schnell; 
bunt, schillernd' (cf. Prellw. Et. Wb.); Skt. eta 'eilend, dahin- 
schiessend; schimmernd, schillernd, bunt'; Skt. ema 'gang, weg', 
Gk. oipoQ 'pfad, bahn', oifia 'andrang', olfiaco 'stUrze auf 
etwas los', ON. eimr 'steam, vapor', eimyrja, OHG. eimuria, 
OE. wmyrian 'embers'. 

81. Gk. dUfieu 'eile', Lett, de'iju 'tanze', Skt. 
' schwebt, fliegt ' : dideti ' scheint, leuchtet ', Gk. dtarcu ' scheint ', 
Skt. dipyate 'scheint, flammt, strahlt', dina, Pruss. deina 'tag', 
etc. (cf. Prellw. Et.Wb.), OE., ON. tin, OHG. em 'zinn' < 
*dino-m; OE., OS. tlr, ON. tirr 'glory, honor', OHG. zeri, ziari 
'prachtig, schon' (cf. author, Mod. Lang. Notes, XV, 329 f.): 
Skt. divyati 'spielt, wtirfelt, leuchtet', dyu 'himmel', dyumdnt 
'hell, licht', dyuti 'glanz', dyotate 'leuchtet', etc. (cf. Persson, 
Wz. 137 f.). For other derivatives of di- 'turn, whirl' see 
Pub. MLA. XIV, 333 ff. 

82. Skt. drati 'lauft, eilt', Gk. didQdaxco 'laufe', OHG. 
zittaron 'zittern', ON. titra 'beben, zwinkern'. See further on 
this root Pub. MLA. XIV, 338 ff. 

— 51 — 

83. ON. pyrja, pysja ' rush forth ', pausn l tumult ', OE. pys 
'storm', OHG. doson 'brausen, tosen', MHG. diusen 'zerren, 
zausen' : Lith. tvosJcintt 'schlage stark', tvasJcu 'schwatze; 
gliinze, leuchte ', tvosMju ' flackere ' (ef. author, AJP. XX, 268). 

84 Gk. 6dco 'schiittele, schwinge', Skt. tvisdti 'ist in 
heftiger bewegung, ist erregt, funkelt, glanzt', tvesd 'heftig, 
ungesttim, funkelnd, glanzend', Lith. tvysldnit 'klopfe gewaltig 
an', tvlslca 'es flackert, blitzt' (cf. Uhl. Ai. Wb.). 

85. Gk. rvfo] 'swelling, lump', base tu-lo-, tiie-lo- 'swell, 
burst forth ', etc. : Gk. ooiXtjv ' pipe, spout, channel ', OHG. dola 
'pipe, drain' : ON. Jnjlr 'noise', pulr 'speaker', OE. ge-pyll 
'breeze', pyle 'orator, buffoon, jester', Gk. adXog < *tudlos 
'swell, surge, rolling, disquiet', aaXdxcov 'swaggerer, boaster', 
oilaq 'light, brightness', osZtjv?] 'moon' (cf. author, AJP. XX, 
267, where other related words are given). 

86. Skt. jdvate 'eilt', jundti 'treibt an', jtivas 'ruhrigkeit, 
fliukheit', juti 'eile, antrieb', A v. zcward, NPers. zor 'kraft' 
(cf. Uhl. Ai. Wb.) : Skt. jvard 'aufgeregt; hitze, fieber', jvald 
' flammend, leuchtend ', jvdrati ' ist heiss, fiebert ', jvdlati ' brennt, 
flammt '. With these are compared Ir. gual, OE. col, OHG. Jcol, 
Jcolo 'kohle'. From the base guel- we may also derive Lith. 
zvilgu 'glanze', zvelgiu 'blicke'. 

87. Skt. jwd, Lith. gyvas, Lai vivas 'lebendig', etc., Skt. 
jinoti, jinvati ' regt sich, treibt an, erquickt ' : ON. hvikr ' living ', 
Icvika 'move, stir', kvikna 'receive life; be kindled', hveikja 
'give life, arouse, enflame, kindle', kveilcr 'wick'. 

88. OHG. gougaron, MHG. gougcrn ' umherschweifen ', gogel 
' ausgelassen, iippig', gogeln 'sich ausgelassen geberden, hin 
und her flattern', OE. geaglisc 'frolicsome, wanton', geoglere 
'magician', MHG. gougel, goulcel 'narrisches treiben, possen, 
zauberei', gougelcere, OHG. goukalari 'zauberer, gaukler' (cf. 
Kluge, Et. Wb. s. v. GauMer), MHG. gugen ' schwanken ', gilcken, 
gucJcen ' neugierig schauen, gucken ', goncJi, OHG. gonh ' kuckuck, 
thor, narr, gauch ', etc. : Gk. jiai tpdooco ' bewege mich schnell, 
zucke, blicke wild umher ', dtaydcceiv • duxgxxlveiv (Hes.), <pa>rp' 


— 52 — 

<paoq (Hes.), Lat. fax, f acuta, fades, Lith. ivalce 'licht' (cf. 
Brugm. Grd. 1 2 , 312). Of Germ, origin are probably also Fr. 
gogue, E. agog, goggle, etc. 

88 a. The base *ghouqu-, ghuoqu- of the above is in all 
probability from a root gJieuo- ' move rapidly, whirl, turn ', etc. 
From this we may derive Gk. &r}Q 'tier', Lat. ferns 'wild, 
wild animal', Lith. zveris 'wildes tier', with which compare 
OE. gyrle 'girl', LG. gcere 'boy, girl' (compare Lith. veikus 
1 schnell, flink ' : vaiJcas ' knabe '), Lith. Murle ' winde, ranken- 
pflanze', muriu 'sehe hin'; Ski hvdlati, Jivdrati 'geht schief, 
macht krumme wege, strauchelt, fallt, wankt ', Jwdras * krtimmung, 
trug, ranke', to which perhaps belongs Lat. fallo < *(jhudlno, 
though this is capable of other explanations; OE. geap 'crooked, 
curved; deceitful, cunning', pre-Germ. *tfhou-bo-, ON. gaupn 
'hollow (i. e. curved) hand, handful', MHG. goufe 'hohle hand', 
goufler 'der heimlich entwendet, dieb', gouf-lich 'diebisch'; 
Lat. fatuns 'foolish, silly', perhaps from *glmdtuo-s, OE. gydig 
'insane', E. giddy ' schwindelig, taumelnd, betaubt'. In all 
these we can trace the meaning 'move rapidly, whirl; turn, 
bend'. Used transitively the root becomes 'cause to spring, 
scatter, sprinkle, pour' : Skt. juhoti 'giesst, opfert', etc. 

89. Lat. scando ' mount, rise ', Skt. shdndati ' springt, htipft, 
spritzt' : gcandrd, candrd 'leuchtend, glanzend, gluhend', Gk. 
xavdagog 'coal', Lat. candeo 'glitter, shine, glow'. 

90. Lith. ge"ras 'good', primarily 'active', Gk. (peQteQOQ 
' stronger, braver, better ' : ChSl. goreti ■ brennen ', greti ' warmen ', 
Skt. ghrnoti 'leuchtet, gltiht', gharmd 'glut, hitze', Ir. gorm 
'warm, rot 5 , etc. (cf. author, Pub. MLA. XIV, 308). Here 
possibly OHG. grao ' grau ' (but cf. VII, 9). 

91. Gk. xiw ' gehe ', xcvew ' bewege ', Lat. cio, cieo ' set in 
motion, shake, incite, excite, invoke, call'; citus 'quick, swift, 
rapid', cito 'move or drive violently, hurl, shake, incite; urge, 
call to, cite; name, mention'; Gk. xlvdag 'beweglich', ovo- 
xivdiog 'eseltreiber', Goth, haitan 'rufen, einladen; heissen, 
befehlen; nennen, benennen', haiti 'geheiss, befehl, aufgebot', 
hihait 'streit', OE. beot 'promise, vow, boast, threat, danger', 

— 53 — 

ge-Jiatan 'command; invite, summon; promise; call, name', etc. 
(cf. Brugmann, IF. VI, 94) : OE, hat ' hot, fervent, severe, in- 
spiring ', liatian ' become hot; be eager ', hcete ' heat, inflammation ', 
ON. heitr, OHG. heiz 'heiss, zornig', Goth, heito 'fieber'; OE. 
hce])a 'hot weather', Lith. kaitinu 'erhitze, heizen', haitra 
'feuerglut', haitrus 'hitze gebend', haitulys 'schweiss'; Goth. 
hais 'fackel'. These are from a root qei- (or qai-) 'set in 
rapid motion, stir, arouse', etc., and are probably not related 
to Skt. cetati 'nimmt wahr, erscheint', root qMei-, whose primary 
meaning is rather ' arrange, set in order ' (cf. author, Pub. MLA. 
XIV, 337). 

92. OE. caf 'schnell, ktihn', Lith. zaibas 'blitz', zibu 
'glanze, schimmere, leuchte', zibinu 'leuchte', zebiu 'mache 
feuer an ' (cf. Uhl. Et. Wb. 2 p. 177 s. v. balpaba). 

The base *geibho-, *goibho- 'move quickly, twitch, jerk, 
snatch, thrust, strike', etc. is in MHG. Jcip, -bes ' scheltendes, 
zankisches, leidenschaftliches wesen, eifer, trotz, streit', Izxbic 
'zankisch', Mben, Mven, Jcibelen, Mpelen, Jcivelen 'scheltend 
zanken, keif en ', Jcippen ' schlagen, stossen ', NHG. Mppen ' sturzen, 
umstiirzen ', ON. Icippa ' rlicken, haschen, schnappen, berauben ', 
Mppash urn eitt 'um etwas streiten', Sw. hippa efter andan 
' nach luft schnappen ', Jcifva ' zanken, hadern ', Dan. Mv ' zank ', 
hives 'sich zanken, keif en'. 

92a. These are from the root ge{o- 'move suddenly; jerk, 
snatch' : Bal. zinay 'an sich reissen, hastig ergreifen, mit 
gewalt wegnehmen ', Av. zinat, OPers. a-dina ' nahm weg ', 
Skt. jindti ' raubt, beraubt, bedrtickt ', jyana ' bedrtickung ', Av. 
zyana-, NPers. ziyan 'schaden' (cf. Fick, Wb. I 4 , 216; Uhl. 
Ai. Wb.). The same root occurs intransitively: 'spring apart, 
burst; sprout', in OE. cinu 'sprung, riss', cman ' aufspringen, 
bersten, zerplatzen, keimen', Goth. Jceinan, OHG. Jcman 'keimen', 
cliimo 'keim', -Jcidi, OS. Mth, OE. ctp 'schossling, spross'. 
Compare Lat. spargo 'sprenge, spritze', Skt. sphurjati 'bricht 
hervor', Lith. sprageti 'platzen, prasseln', sprokti 'platzen; aus- 
schlagen, knospen', OE. sprcec 'schossling', spearca ' funke ', etc. 

From 'sprout, shoot' may come MHG. Ml, Mdel 'keil, 
pflock'; OE. cceg 'key'; ON. Jceipr 'rudernagel', OHG. hip fa 

— 54 — 

'runge, stemmleiste am wagen, achsennagel', OE. cipp 'log, 
weaver's beam, ploughshare', ME. chippe 'cut into small pieces', 
E. chip. 

Like MHG. token 'keifen' are ON. kima 'spotten'; OE. 
ctdan 'quarrel, complain, blame', cidung 'rebuke', ge-cld 'strife', 
E. chide 'schelten, schmahen, keifen'; ON. ktta ' widersprechen ', 
Jcitaslc 'streiten, zanken'. As these came from 'thrust, snap 
at' we may add to the above ON. kiil 'a tickling' (pre-Germ. 
*gid-lo-m 'a little thrust, a light touch'), hitla, OE. citelian, 
OHG. kizzilon ' kitzeln ' (and Imzzilon, whose u is perhaps due 
to OHG. jucchen 'jucken'). From these I should separate ME. 
tikelen 'tickle', Alem. zicklen 'aufreizen', which are better 
referred to MHG. me, -ekes 'leichte bertihrung, leiser stoss', 
zicken 'stossen, necken', zecken 'einen leichten stoss oder schlag 
geben, reizen, necken; zticken, rauben', and further with Goth. 
tekan 'bertihren', ON. tdka 'nehmen'. 

Like Sw. kippa efter andan are Sw. kikna, MHG. ktchen 
'schwer atmen, keuchen', kiche 'asthma, keichhusten '. The 
primary meaning here was 'make a sudden movement, jerk'. 
From this would naturally develop ' make a sudden turn, bend, 
draw back', etc. This we have in ON. kikna 'bend back, 
give way suddenly', keikr 'bent back', keikja ' bend back ', Du. 
kink 'bend, turn', E. kink 'twist or loop in a rope, caused by 
a spontaneous winding upon itself; whim, caprice'. Here also 
belong Sw. kika ' schielen, gucken ', Dan. kige ' gucken, schauen ', 
MLFr. kiken 'schauen, blicken'. Compare OHG. scelah 'quer, 
schief, krumm, scheel, schielend', MHG. schilhen 'schielen'. 
With ON. keikr etc., Ski jihmd 'schrag, schief is probably 
not related. This is rather from *ghighmo- and connected 
with ON. geiga 'wander at random; do injury to', geigr 'in- 
jury, loss', ME. gigge 'a whirling thing', E. gig. 

93. Av. niaz-, mazant-, Skt. mah-, niahdnt 'gross', mdhas 
'ftille, grosse, macht, glanz, licht', mdhasvant 'gross, machtig, 
glanzvoll', mahasvin 'strahlend, glanzend'. 

94. Skt. dddhati 'setzt, stellt', Gk. ri^?](/c 'setze', etc., 
ftcoftog, &r][iwv 'haufe', Skt. dhaman 'sitz, wohnung, herrschaft; 
macht, kraft, glanz, licht'. 

— 55 — 

95. Skt. Jcirdti { streut aus, giesst aus, bestreut ', "kara l ab- 
gabe; lichtstrabl ', Mr ana 'lichtstrahl'; hiriJcd sprtihend', JcarJid 
' weiss'; harata ' dunkelrot '. For a different development of 
the same root see VIII, 6. 

96. Skt. stara 'streu', strnoti, starati 'streut, streut hin, 
bestreut, wirft hin ', Lat. stemo, Skt. star-, Gk. aarrJQ, Goth. 
stairno 'stern', etc., Gk. crtQoip 'funkelnd', Otsqojuj 'blitz', 
OTQctJiTco 'blitze' : MHG. strcejen 'spritzen, stieben, lodern' 
< *strejan ' streuen ' (cf. ChSl. streti ' ausbreiten '), ChSl. strela, 
OE. sir eel 'pfeil', OHG. strata 'pfeil; blitzstrahl', NHG. straU, 

97. Goth, faran 'fahren, wandern', ChSl. pera, prati 
'fliegen', pariti 'fliegen, schweben', Kuss. preju 'schwitze, 
siede', Gk. jri[uiQ7](ii, ng^d-co 'blase auf, fache an, verbrenne', 
jiq7]6wv ' entzttndliche geschwulst', jigrjOrriQ 'reissender strom, 
sturmwind, blitzstrahl ' : Czech, prseti ' sprtihen, stieben, regnen ', 
ON. forsa 'stromen, brausen, rauschen, schaumen', OSw. frcesa 
' sprtihen, sprudeln ', OE. freest ' breath, blast ' (cf. infra VIII, 1). 

98. Lith. prausiu ' wasche ', ChSl. prysnati ' spritzen ', Sw. 
fritsa 'heftig hervorstromen ', frusta, ON. frysa 'schnauben', 
Skt. prusndti, prasyati ' spritzt, sprenkelt, bespritzt ' (cf. Persson, 
Wz. 163) : Skt. prusva ' reif, gefrorenes wasser ' (compare Czech. 
prseti ' sprtihen, stieben, regnen ' : LRuss. porosa ' frischer schnee 
im herbste'), Goth, frius 'frost', OHG. friosan 'frieren' : Alb. 
prus ' brennende kohlen, glut ', Skt. pldsati ' brennt, versengt ', 
primarily ' macht sprtihen ', Lat. pruna ' live coal ', prurio ' itch ', 
primarily 'burn' : base preu-so- 'hervorstromen, spritzen, 
sprenkeln, sprtihen : reifen, frieren : lodern, brennen'. With 
Persson we may regard the root pre-uo-, pru-, which is also 
in Skt. protliati ' schnaubt ', ON. fraud ' froth ' etc., as an out- 
growth of pero-, pre-. 

98a. The meaning 'rime, frost' in the above comes from 
'scatter, sprinkle'. Compare the following: ON. dyja 'shake', 
OHG. toben 'toben', Gk. rvyog 'smoke', MHG. tuft 'dunst, 
nebel, tau, reif, OHG. tuft ' frost '.—Skt. sphurjati 'bricht 
hervor', Lat. spar go 'sprenge, spritze', Welsh eira 'schnee' 

— 56 — 

(cf. Uhl. Ai. Wb.). — Skt. Mrdti ' streut aus, giesst aus, bestreut ', 
Unkd 'sprtihend', karaka 'hagel' (cf. I, 95; VIII, 6).- Skt. 
kurdati 'springt', Gk. xgadaa) 'schwinge, schtitte'; ON. hrata 
' waver, fall', hret 'rain or snowstorm'. — Skt. hindti, hdyati 
{ setzt in bewegung, schleudert ', A v. zaya- ' waffe ' : zima ' frost, 
winter ', Skt. himd ' kalte, winter ', Lat. litems, etc. — Gk. oxcdga) 
'htipfe', Av. skar- 'springen', MHG. schrcejen 'spritzen, triefen, 
stieben; spriihen, lodern', schra 'hagel, reif, schnee', sclirat 
'spritzendes wasserteilchen ', OHG. scraivunc ' nebelwolkiges 
regenwetter ' (cf. Schade, Wb.). — OE. hreran ' move, stir, shake ', 
OHG. ruoren 'in bewegung setzen, anrtihren, bertihren', Gk. 
xtQavvv[ii, xsga^ai 'mische', Lith. szarma 'reif, Slov. sren 
'reif, gefrorener schnee', Arm. sagn 'eis' : OS., OHG. hrinan 
'bertihren', ON. hrlna 'hang to, stick to, leave a trace or 
mark of, hrim 'soot; rime', OE. hrim 'rime, hoarfrost', OHG. 
hrifo 'reif (cf. VII, 19). — Skt. gdlati 'eilt', galabhd ' heuschrecke ', 
ON. hall, OHG. hali ' schlttpfrig, glatt', base kelo- 'springen, 
spritzen' : Lith. szalna 'reif, szdlti 'frieren', szdltas 'kalt', 
ON. Mia < *hehla 'reif, Skt. gigira 'ktihl, kalt' (cf. Uhl. Ai. 
Wb. s. v.). Here perhaps also OE. hagol, hcegel, OHG. hagal 
' hagel ' < *kdklo- or *koklo-. — Arm. srskem ' besprenge ', NPers. 
sirisk 'tropfen, trane', Av. srasc- 'giessen, tropfen', sraska- 
' hagel' (cf. Horn, Np. Et. 733).— Skt. snihyati 'wird feucht, 
wird klebrig, heftet sich an ', Lat. ningno etc. (cf. XI, 2 a). — 
Lat. pungo 'thrust, sting', base peug- 'shove, drive' : ON. 
fjuka 'drift', fjuk 'snow-storm', fok 'spray, snow-drift', Dan. 
sneefog 'snow-storm', fyge 'stieben, jagen', E. fog 'nebel'. 

In other words 'freeze' is from 'become rough, hard', as 
in ON. hrjosa 'schaudern, rauh, uneben werden', OHG. rosa 
' crusta, glacies ', OE. hruse ' earth, ground ', ON. hrjostr ' uneven, 
stony place ', Lat. crusta ' rind, shell, crust, bark ', Gk. xovoraivco 
'freeze' (cf. Prellw. Et.Wb.). 

99. Gk. jtivo[iai ' arbeite, strenge mich an ', novoq ' arbeit, 
kampf, mtihe', root peno-, pne- 'move quickly about', Skt. 
pdnate 'wunderbar sein, bewundern', pandyati 'bewundert, 
preist', primarily 'waver, hesitate, stand in awe of (as in OE. 
wafian 'waver : be amazed, wonder at'; OE. windan 'turn, 
move, wind, twist, hesitate', gewand 'hesitation', wandian 

— 57 — 

4 hesitate, stand in awe of, ivundor ' wonder', cf. author, Mod. 
Lang. Notes, XV, 95) : Goth, fon l fire ', ON. fune ' flame, blaze ', 
Pruss. panno 'feuer', panu-staclan 'feuerstahl' (cf. Berneker, 
Die preuss. Spr. 310). 

99 a. From l move quickly about ' comes ' pant, puff, blow ', 
as in Lat. palpito and many others. Here therefore belong 
ON. fnasa, OE. fncesettan 'snort', fncestian 'breathe hard', 
fncest 'breath; blast' (of fire), base pne-so-; Gk. jtveco ' breathe, 
blow', jivoitj 'breath, wind, blast' (of fire), ON. fnysa 'snort', 
OE. fneosan 'sneeze', ON. fnjoskr, Sw. fnosJce ' feuerschwamm, 
zunder', base pm-uo-, pneu-so- (cf. author, Pub. MLA. XIV, 312). 

99b. From a base *pon-go-, *pn-go- 'blow, blast' may 
come MHG. vanJce, vurike, OHG. fimcJio 'funke', MHG. vunc 
'funkelnd, glanzend' etc. Compare pneqo-, penqo- in OHG. 
fnehan ' atmen, schnauben ', fnahtente ' schnaubend ', ChSl. paciti 
se 'inflari'. 

100. Skt. dtati 'wandert, lauft', dtya 'eilend', Gk. aaig 
'slime', aoiog 'slimy', OE. adela 'filth, putrid mud' ('run, 
hasten' and 'glide, slide, slip, be slimy' are closely connected 
ideas), OHG. ata-haft ' fortwahrend ', atar 'celer, sagax, acer', 
OS. adro, OE. cedre ' at once, immediately ' : cedre ' vein, nerve, 
sinew', wceter-wdre 'spring, torrent', OHG. adara 'ader' : Skt. 
atmdn 'hauch, seele', OHG. aturn 'atem', OE. cepm 'breath, 
vapor; blast' (of fire), root et- 'move quickly, run : flow : throb, 
pant, palpitare' (cf. Pub. MLA. XIV, 316). 

101. OE. firawan 'turn round, revolve; twist, rack', OHG. 
draen 'wirbeln; drehen, drechseln', dra-ti 'schnell, rasch, eilig' 
Gk. TSQ6W 'drechsele, bohre', tbIqco, Lat. tero 'reibe', tomo 
'drechsele', Skt. tara-ld 'zuckend, zitternd, unstat', Ir. tara 
' tatig, lebhaft ', Skt. tdrati ' setzt iiber, gelangt hinuber, macht 
durch', Av. tar- ' durchdringen ', root tero-, tre- 'move rapidly, 
whirl, turn', from which many derived meanings: OHG. drahen, 
MHG. drcehen, drcejen 'hauchen, duften' (identical with drcehen, 
drcejen 'wirbeln; drehen'), OHG. drasen, MHG. drcesen, drasen, 
drasen 'duften, schnauben, ausschnauben', ON.prasa 'schnauben', 
pralsingr 'heftiger wind' (Icel. firasa 'larmen, streitcn', Goth. 
prasa-balpei ' streitsucht ', Skt. trdsati 'erzittert, bebt', Lat. 

— 58 — 

terreo, etc.), OE. prosm l vapor, smoke ', Lat. torreo ' roast, bake, 
scorch, burn', torrcns 'rushing, roaring, boiling; burning, hot, 
inflamed', Gk. ripGopai 'werde trocken', Ski trsyati 'durstet' 
etc. For other developed meanings of this root see 113 and 
X, 7 below; and Mod. Lang. Notes, XVI, 25 f. 

102. Goth. Mismo 'klingel', Jclismjan 'klingeln', Sw. Idirra, 
Dan. Idirre, NHG. Mirren 'clatter, rattle', Gk. yeXdoj 'lache' 
< *Y£XaOia>, yeAcog, Arm. caXr 'gelachter', OHG. Jcallon 
'sprechen, schwatzen', ON. Italia 'call, name', Lat. gallus 
'hahn' < *<jdlso-s : Gk. ysXtlv XdfiJteiv, dv&tlv (Hes.), Ir. glan 
'rein', ro-glan 'erglanzte', Gk. yXaivoi' Xa^Qvoiiara (Hes.) 
(cf. Prellw., Et. Wb. s. v. ysXdoj), root gel- 'swing, shake : rattle, 
resound; gleam, shine'. 

102a. The secondary meaning 'resound' occurs in a 
number of words that may belong here. Gk. yXd^co 'singe, 
lasse ertonen', ON. Malta ' zwitschern ', OE. cloccian 'cluck', 
OHG. MocJcon 'klopfen', MHG. Mac 'krach, riss' : OE. clacian 
'hurry, hasten', clam 'strife'; OHG. Mingan 'klingen, tonen', 
ON. Mingja 'klingeln', E. clinic, clank — OE. clador 'rattle', 
clidren 'clatter', clatrian, Du. clateren 'clatter'. — Skt. jdlpati 
'murmelt, redet', OHG. Mopfon 'klopfen, pochen', Maphon 
' schallen, tonen ', ON. Mappa ' klatschen, klopfen ', OE. *clceppian 
'clap', closppettan 'throb'; clipian 'call out, call', clipol, clipor 
' clapper '. — OE. clynian, clynnan ' resound '. With these compare 
the root gel- in Skt. jrdyati ' stlirmt an, lauft an ', jrdyas ' an- 
sturm, anlauf, lauf, strom', Av. zyayo 'see, meer', with which 
has been compared Lat. gllsco 'rise up, swell up, burst forth, 
blaze up'. But this may be explained differently, as given 
above, no. 55. 

103. Pali andh- 'gehen', Skt. ddlwan 'weg, reise', Gk. 
ijvdop 'kam' (cf. Johansson, IF. VIII, 182) : Skt. dndhas 'kraut, 
grimes', Gk. av&og 'sprout, flower, bloom', dv&eai 'shoot up, 
sprout, bloom, flourish, shine', dv&rjQog 'flowery, blooming, fresh, 
bright-colored', dvd-gag 'coal; carbuncle'. 

104. Skt. jdnati 'erzeugt, gebart', Gk. yiyvofiai, Lat. 
gigno etc. : ON. Jcynda 'kindle, heat up', hjndari 'kindling, 

— 59 — 

fuel', kyndill 'torch', E.Jcindle 'anziinden', Ski jdftjati ' hitzig ' 
< *gcn-gn-ti, janjanablidvan ' brennend '. 

105. Pruss. krut 'fallen', primarily 'stiirzen', ON. hrun 
'fall', hrynja 'stiirzen, fallen', OE. hreosan 'rush, fall, perish, 
collapse', ON.hrjosa 'schaudern', hrolla 'zittern, beben', OSw. 
rysta 'schtttteln', ruska, E. rush 'stiirzen', MHG. ruschen 'einher- 
eilen, stiirmeu. sausen, rauschen', OE. liryscan 'creak' : Lai 
coruscus 'waving, vibrating, tremulous; flashing, gleaming, 
glittering', corusco 'wave, shake; flash, glitter' (cf. Zupitza, 
Germ. Guti 125). 

105a. From 'wave, tremble' comes 'be rough, uneven' 
as in Lat. crispus. So ON. hrjosir 'rough, stony place', Lai 
crusta etc. To the base qorcu- belong also Lith. krutus 'rtihrig, 
beweglich, regsam', Jcrutu 'rege mich, rtihre mich', OE. hrypig 
'in ruins'; ON. hrjota 'fall, go off suddenly, crash, resound', 
lireyta 'scatter', OE. hrutan 'resound, snore', OHG. ruzan 
'rasseln, schnauben, schnarchen'; ON. hrjoda 'rush; scatter, 
strew', lirode 'refuse; noise, disturbance', lirudr 'scab' < *qrudho- 
'crispus', Ski hrudhyati 'ztirnt'; Lith. Jcraupus 'schauderhaft; 
schreckhaft', krupius 'erschrecke', Jcraupiu 'schrecke auf, Lett. 
Jcraupis 'kratze, boser hautausschlag', OE. hreof 'rough, scabby, 
leprous', ON. hrjufr 'schorfig', hryfe, hrufa 'schorf. 

106. Gk. fraXoG, frallog 'young shoot, branch', ftaXXa) 
'bloom, sprout, shoot out, abound, flourish', &aXsQoq 'fresh, 
blooming, luxuriant, copious', ftaljia) 'warm, heat, burn, scorch', 
fraXvxQog 'warm, hot, glowing' (cf. Prellw. Ei Wb.), OE. dealt 
'proud, exulting, resplendent', pre-Germ. *dhalno-. 

107. Ski migrd 'vermischt, vermengt', ChSl. mesiti 
'mischen, kneten', Lith. maiszau 'mische, menge', maisztas 
'aufruhr', su-misztu 'gerate in verwirrung', OHG. mislcan, Lai 
misceo 'mix', root meik- 'stir, mix' : Lat. dl-mico 'struggle, 
fight', mico 'quiver, shake, tremble; beat, palpitate; twinkle, 
sparkle, glitter ', micans ' twinkling, sparkling, gleaming ', e-mico 
'spring forth, break forth, rush forth, shine forth'. 

108. Lai duco ' lead ', Goth, tiuhan, OHG. ziohan ' ziehen ', 
zuckan, zucchen ' schnell ziehen, zticken \ MHG. zwingcn, zwinken 

— 60 — 

'blinzeln', NHG. &w ink-en, zivirikern, zwinkeln, OE. twinclian 
' twinkle'. Here also OE. hviccian, MHG. ziviclcen 'zwicken, 
zupfen, rupfen'. These are reducible to a root deu- 'move 
quickly' : Ski duvtis ' hinausstrebend, unruhig', MHG. zouwe 
'eile', zouwen, zaiven 'von statten gehen; eilig ziehen, eilen', 
from whicli may be derived OHG. zivizziron 'twitter', MHG. 
zwitzern 'zwitschern; flimmern'. 

109. Dan. tut, LG. tide 'ttite', Norw. tut 'beak, snout', 
ON. tota 'beak, bill; twig', tuta 'anything projecting or sharp- 
pointed ', OE. tytan ' appear, shine ' (of stars). Here the primary 
meaning is 'project, become prominent, appear'. Any word, 
in fact, meaning 'projection, point, ray' might be used in the 
sense of 'ray of light'. So the following. 

110. Skt. gala 'stab, stachel', Gk. xijlov 'pfeil : sonnen- 
strahl'. — Skt. pad 'fuss, schritt', pada 'fuss, reihe : strahl'. — 
Skt. mayulcha 'pflock : strahl'. — OE. beam 'tree, beam : pillar 
of light', sun-beam 'sunbeam' (cf. 23, above).— Lai radius 
'spoke, spur : beam, ray' (cf. 67). So others. 

111. Similarly a word meaning 'point, drop, particle, speck' 
may be used in the specialized sense 'spark, glittering point': 
Skt. drapsd 'tropfen : funke, mond'. — Skt. stolid 'tropfen 
: funke'. — Skt. rigdti, ligdti 'rupft, reisst ab', lega 'teilchen, 
bischen' : legya ' licht '.— Lat. spina, splca, Gk. ojcivoq 'lean, 
thin', OHG. spiz, OE. spitu 'spit', OHG. spizzi 'spitz', base 
sp%- 'thin, pointed' : Gk. ajnvdrjQ 'spark'. — Gk. 0%1£cq 'split', 
oxtvdaXfioQ ' splinter ', OHG. sceidan ' trennen ', sclt ' scheit holz ' 
: Lat. scintilla 'spark, sparkling point'. — Gk. crlXr\ 'drop' 
: cMfia) 'glitter, sparkle', azi X jivoc, 'glittering'. Compare the 
following, nos. 112 — 116. 

112. Gk. oxl^co 'steche', Skt. tejate 'ist scharf, scharft, 
stachelt', tejas 'scharfe, spitze, glanz, stechende hitze, feuer, 
glut, heftigkeit, kraft', tejana 'spitze, das scharfen, anziinden', 
tejasvant ' brennend, glanzend, schon ', tejasvin ' scharf, brennend, 
glanzend, kraftig, energisch, wtirdevoll ', tlksnd ' scharf, stechend, 
heftig, streng', tiksnata 'scharfe, glut'. Here 'heat' and, 

— 61 — 

secondarily, ' brilliancy' were described as they appealed to 
the senses of feeling and of sight, as 'stinging' and 'dazzling'. 
Not a few words for 'burn, shine' are of this character. 

113. Ski tdrati 'setzt uber, macht durch', Lat. tero, Gk. 
tsiqw 'reibeauf, rogog ' schnitzmesser ', xoQog ' durchdringend, 
feinhorend, laut, rasch', Skt. tard 'durchdringend, gellend, 
funkelnd', tard 'stern'. See also above, no. 101. 

114. Skt. dgri 'ecke, kante, schneide', Gk. ccxqoq 'scharf, 
spitz', Lat. acer 'sharp, fine, piercing, pungent, stinging, dazzling', 
acies 'edge; brightness, glittering, twinkling'. 

114a. To the root ak- 'sharp' probably belong Goth, alia 
'sinn, verstand', inahs ' verstandig ', ahma 'geist', ahjan 
'glauben' etc. Compare Lat. acer 'sharp, acute, shrewd, 
penetrating, sagacious', acies 'edge, point; keen look or glance, 
a looking at an object with fixed attention; acuteness of under- 
standing, sense, insight, penetration, genius', acumen 'point, 
sting; acuteness, shrewdness, acumen, understanding, cunning, 
subtlety', acutus 'sharp, pointed; acute, clear-sighted, intelligent, 
sagacious'. This represents a very common and natural 
development of meaning. 

115. Fr. percer 'pierce', per cant 'piercing, sharp; glitter- 
ing ', MHG. perse ' stechender, durchdringender glanz '. 

116. Lith. karsziii 'striegele, kamme', ChSl. Jcrasta 'kratze', 
MLG. harst 'rechen, harke', Skt. Jcasati 'reibt, schabt, kratzt', 
kasaya 'scharf; wohlriechend; rot; rote, leidenschaft ', kasaya 
' braunrot ', Lith. kerszyja ' ziirne ', kirszinu, karszinu ' reize zum 
zorn', hersztas 'zorn, grimm', Jcdrsztas 'heiss', Jcarsztis 'hitze, 
glut', Lett. Jcarsts 'heiss', Jcarset 'erhitzen', OHG. liarsta 
'frixura', OE. hierstan 'rosten\ 

116a. OE. brant 'high, lofty', ChSl. brido 'hugel', NS1. 
brdati 'acuere', Skt. gdta-bradhna : bradhnd 'rotlich, gelb', 
ChSl. bronu 'weiss, weisslich' (cf. Fick, Wb. I 4 , 93). 

117. From 'strike, touch' come several words for 'strike 
fire, anstecken ', as, Gk. oxaXXco ' behacke ' : Lith. skiliii ' schlage 

— 62 — 

feuer an'. So the followiDg :— Litb. scgii 'hafte', CliSl. -segnati 
! beruhren ', Skt. saghan 'geier', Gk. ag)?} 'touching, handling, 
fastening; lighting, kindling' < *snguha-, cljixco 'fasten, fasten 
to, grasp, attack; kindle, set on fire', avOgaxeq rjftfisvoL 'red- 
hot embers', OE. sengan, MHG. sengen 'sengen, brennen'. From 
'touch, strike' come 'ring, resound, sing' : Gk. oftcfrj 'voice, 
tone', Goth, saggus 'gesang, vorlesung', siggivan 'singen, vor- 
lesen ', OE. singan ' sing, resound, recite, narrate ', OHG. singan 
etc. With the base se(n)gwho- compare se(n)gUo- : Skt. sctjati 
'hangt, haftet', and perhaps OE. sine 'treasure, jewels, gold', 
OS. sink 'schatz', primarily 'anhangsel'. 


As many words for 'burn, shine, be bright' are from 'swell, 
burst forth, spring up, rise', etc., we not infrequently find 
united under the same root the ideas 'grow' : 'glow', and 
hence 'green' : 'bright'. Thus Lat. glisco 'grow up, rise up, 
swell up, burst out, blaze up' combines the various meanings 
from which might come 'bright, white, yellow, red' on one 
side, and 'green, verdure, grass' on the other. Again from 
the common meaning may come 'grow, be verdant, green' 
: 'flourish, bloom, become red, yellow'. 

1. Lith. zeliii 'grow', zole 'grass', ChSl. zelije, Gk. xXoi] 
'herb', xXcoqoq 'fresh, green', Welsh gledd 'green turf, Lat. 
holus, Lith. zalias, ChSl. zelenu 'green' : Lat. Jielvos, fulvos, 
OHG. gelo 'yellow', glaoen 'glow', etc. (cf. I, 57). The develop- 
ment in meaning here is 'grow, be fresh, verdant : flourish, 
bloom, glow'. 

2. OE. groivan 'grow', OHG. grnoen 'grlinen, virere', 
griwni, OS. groni, ON. grcBnn, OE. grene 'green', Goth., OHG. 
gras 'grass', MHG. gruose 'verdure', gruot 'verdancy, succu- 
lence', ON. grodr 'growth', OE. greed, Gk. X"Q T0 $ 'grass', Lat. 
gramen, Lett. faWut 'branch out : beam', Lith. zeriu 'beam, 
gleam' (cf. I, 58). 

3. Skt. bhdvati 'arise, flourish', Gk. yvm 'produce, bring 
forth', pass, 'arise, spring up, grow', <fv(ia 'growth', cpvxov 

— 63 — 

'plant, tree', <pv6ig 'nature' : (pavaig 'appearance, light, splendor', 
a<fva) ' become white ' (cf. I, 23). 

4. Skt. vdlati 'turn, appear', valana 'turning, rolling, 
heaving, appearance', Lat. voltus 'appearance, looks, countenance', 
Goth, ivulpus, OE. wuldor 'glory' : Lith. vdltis 'panicle', Pruss. 
wolti 'ear' (of grain), Welsh gwellt 'grass', Eiig. tveld, wold 
'reseda luteola', Du. ivomv, Germ, walda-, Lat. latum < *ulto- 
'weld, yellow weed, yellow color', luteus 'golden-yellow' (cf. 
author, JGPh. II, 220 f.) : OHG. tvallan ' wallen ', ivalm ' hitze, 
glut' (cf. 1,1,2). 

5. Lith. veriii ' open and close ', varau ' drive ', Lat. vermis 
'worm', root uer- 'drehen, rollen, winden; ranken, wachsen', 
lr. ur 'viridis', hurda ' viridarium ', Welsh ir 'viridis, floridus, 
novus, recens, succulentus ', irder 'viror, viriditas' : ChSl. varu 
'aestus', variti 'cook', Pruss. ivormyan 'red', Lith. vdrias 
' copper ' (cf. I, 4). 

6. Goth, wraton 'wandern, reisen', Gk, §adavl£m 'swing', 
gadafivog 'sprout, shoot', Goth, tvaurts 'root', OHG. wurz 'kraut, 
pflanze' : Gk. qodavog 'wavering, flickering' (cf. 1,5,2). 

7. OE. ivinnan 'toil, strive, suffer', OHG. tvinnan 'in 
heftiger aufregung sein, tohen, heulen', Skt. vdnati 'wikischt, 
liebt, gewinnt', vdna 'wald, banm', Goth, winja 'weide, futter', 
OHG. whine 'weide', ON. vin 'grasplatz', Ir. uaine 'grttn', 
base *aunio- : Gk. rjvoip 'glittering', OS. wanam 'bright' (cf. 1, 6). 

8. Lat. vegeo 'arouse', augeo 'increase', Lith. dugu 'grow', 
Goth, wohrs 'zunahme, gewinn, wucher', OHG. ivuohhar 'ertrag, 
frucht, gewinn, wucher', Ir. fer 'grass', Welsh gwair 'foenum', 
base *uegro- : Gk. avy?] 'light, radiance', Lith. duksas 'gold' 
(cf. I, 7). 

9. Skt. veti 'strive after, promote, arouse', vesati 'be 
active', vdyas 'strength', Lat. vis; Skt. vird, Lat. vir 'man' 
(cf. Uhl. Ai. Wb.), Lat. vireo 'flourish, be green', viror 'greenness, 
verdure', viridis 'green, fresh, vigorous', OWelsh guird 'herbida', 
Corn, guirt 'viridis' (cf. Fick, Wb. II 4 , 281) : Lesb. Iqoq 'beggar' 
< uiro- ' turning, striving for ', Gk. Iqiq ' any bright circle, rain- 

— 64 — 

bow'. In the last word ' curve, circle' and not 'brightness' 
seems to be the underlying idea. Compare Ir. fiar 'oblique', 
Welsh gwyr ' bent ', OE. ivir ' wire ', etc. (cf. id. ib. 270). The 
entire group is from the root ueio-, u%- 'turn, twist, whirl', 
whence 'weave, braid'; 'wander, hunt for, seek, desire'; 'exert 
oneself, strive after, arouse, be active', etc. 

10. OHG. blajan 'blahen, blasen', OE. blaivan 'blow, in- 
flate ', to-blcedan i be inflated ', -ge-blced ' blister ', blcedre ' blister, 
bladder', bleed 'blowing, breath; bloom, flower', bleed 'leaf, 
blade', bled 'shoot, branch' : OHG. bluoen 'bltthen', MHG. er- 
bluejen 'erbliihen; bliihend, rot machen', E. bloom; Lat. fla-re 
'blow', conflare 'blow up, kindle', flavos 'golden, yellow, 
reddish' (cf. 1,24). 

11. Pali andh- 'gehen', Ski dndhas 'kraut, grtines', Gk. 
avdog 'sprout, flower, bloom', calico 'shoot up, sprout, bloom, 
flourish, shine', avfrygog 'blooming, bright-colored' (cf. 1,103). 

12. Skt. sphurjati 'break forth, appear; crackle', Lith. 
sproJcshi 'burst, bud', OE. sprcec, spranca 'shoot, twig' : spearca 
'spark', spier can 'sparkle' (cf. I, 15). 


Some words for 'dark, gloomy' are from the primary 
meaning 'glow, gleam, glimmer'. Originally the gloom was 
thought of as a faint- light in the darkness, and then 'faint 
light, gloom, darkness' became the prevailing idea. 

1. OE. glowan 'glow' (cf. I, 57) : glom 'gloom, twilight', 
Lith. zlejd ' damnierung ', zlibas ' blodsichtig ', zlebiii 'sehe 
schwach', zilptmas 'das dunkelwerden der augen', Mlpstit 
'werde dunkel' (cf. Brugm. Grd. I*, 150). 

2. OE. gleem 'splendor, brightness, gleam', MHG. gllmen 
'leuchten', glimmem 'glanzen', NHG. glimmem, E. glimmer 
' shine faintly '. Here the first stage in the development toward 
the meaning 'gloom, darkness' is illustrated. 

— 65 — 

3. OE. soman 'shine', sctma 'light, brightness' : scima 
'shadow, gloom', scimian 'be dark, dazzled', Gk. cxia 
'shadow' etc. 

4. Lith. iibu 'beam, gleam', zaibas 'lightning', ziburys 
'light, torch', ziburiuju 'flicker', zaibariuju 'shimmer' : zebiu 
'see dimly', Gk. %6q>oq 'gloom, darkness' < *giobho-s, £og>£QOQ 
'dark, gloomy' (cf. author, AJP. XXI, 179, and see I, 92 above). 

5. Goth, uhtivo 'dawn', Gk. dxrig 'beam, ray', Ski aktu 
'beam, gleam, glimmer : darkness, night', nakta, Lat. nox, Goth. 
nahts 'night'. 


A number of words for ' bright, clear ' come from ' separate, 
distinct, clean '. These come from various meanings, as, ' wash, 
cleanse'; 'winnow, sift'; 'prune, cut', etc. Compare XIII. 

1. Lat. duo 'purgo', Gk. xlvaic 'washing out, drench', 
base *qlu-ti; xZv^oi 'wash, dash against', xlvdcov 'wave' : 
Germ, hlutra- 'clear, limpid, pure', Goth, hlutrs, OS. hluttar, etc. 
This connection is doubted by Berneker, IF. X, 152, on the 
ground that Gk. xXv^co signifies properly 'anschlagen von 
meereswogen '. But as words for ' flow, wash ' come from such 
meanings as 'move rapidly, run', we may expect to find this 
divergent development. At the same time we may also connect 
the words given by Berneker : Czech. Hiditi ' reinigen ', Mouditi 
'sauber machen', etc., which seem to come from 'arrange'. 
But it is more probable that Germ, hlutra- developed from 
'washed, cleansed' or 'flowing, limpid'. Compare ON. Maut 
'blood of sacrifice', hlaut-boUi 'vessel for the sacrificial blood', 
hlaut-teinn 'branch used in sprinkling sacrificial blood'. The 
base qle-uo- of this group and qle-io- of Skt. Meda 'moisture', 
Medana ' wetting ', Midyati ' become wet ' (cf. Persson, Wz. 188) 
may be referred to the root qal- in Skt. hirdti 'streut aus, 
giesst aus, bestreut ', Osset. Mialyn ' sturzen, giessen ', ON. Jiella 
' ausgiessen ', Lith. Moju 'breite hin', etc. (cf. Uhl. Ai. Wb.). 
Now Germ, hlutra- has developed through 'pour, wash, cleanse'; 
while Russ. Mudi 'ordnung', Czech. Mouditi 'sauber machen', 


etc. represent the growth of meaning ' scatter, spread out' 
(compare Lith. Moju 'breite bin'), 'arrange, put in order'. 

2. Gk. vi^cQ, Skt. nenekti 'wash, cleanse', niktd 'washed, 
sprinkled, pure', Ir. necht 'pure' (ef. Fick, Wb. II 4 , 194). To 
a related base neib- may be referred OPers. naiba 'beautiful, 
good', Ir. noib 'holy', with which compare ON. nipr 'neat'. 

3. Lith. pilu ' pour ', Lett, pilet ' drip ', MHG. vlcejen ' rinse 
cleanse ', vlat ' beauty, neatness ', pre-Germ. *ple-td-, with which 
compare Gk. jtXmrog 'floating', Goth, flodas 'flood', etc. (cf. 
Persson, Wz. 131 ; Schade, Wb.). 

4. Skt. dhdvate, Gk. ftico 'run, flow', Skt. dhavati 'rinse, 
cleanse', dhauta 'washed, clean, bright', dhavald 'white'. 

5. OHG. fowen ' sieben ', Skt. pdvate ' reinigt, lautert ', putd 
rein ', Lat. putus ' cleansed, pure, bright, clear ', putd ' trim, 

prune, lop, clear', purus 'clean, pure', Gk. jivq, OHG. fuir 
' fire '. For other developments of the root pea- see Pub. MLA- 
XIV, 317 ff. 

6. ChSl. Jcroiti ' schneiden ', Gk. xqIvco ' separate, distinguish ', 
Goth. Jirains, OHG. lireini 'rein', etc., base qrei- 'shake, sift, 
separate ' (cf. I, 61 a). 

7. Lat. de-sci-sco 'separate, desert', ON. slceina 'scratch', 
OE. sccenan 'break' : sew 'district, shire', sciran 'distinguish, 
decide; get rid of, primarily 'separate', scir 'clear, bright, 
glittering, white', Goth. sJceirs 'klar, deutlich' : Lat. scindo, 
Gk. o^/gct>, Skt. chindtti 'split', Lith. skedzu 'scheide', at-skaida 
'abteilung', skaidrus 'hell, klar' (cf. Brugm. Grd. I 2 , 177). 

7 a. These contain a base skhi-, which has become con- 
fused with a synonymous base sqi-. Phonetically distinct from 
these are Goth, slmnan, OE. scman 'shine', scima 'light', 
scimian 'shine, glitter', scimrian 'gleam, shimmer', scima, Gk. 
oxid 'shadow', Skt. chaya 'glimmer; shadow', which we may 
refer to a base ski- 'move rapidly'. Compare Gk. oxivaf- 
'quick, nimble', OHG. skeri 'alert, quickwitted', MHG. schier 
'quick', ON. skeid 'running, trot', skeika 'sway, wiggle'. 

— 67 — 

8. Gk. deoco 'flay, tear off', dQtjzco ' pluck, gather ' 
dQcojta^co" tf/ftlejta), 6qcojitco' diaxojtra) rj diaoxojtm (Hes.), 
OHG. zorft 'hell, klar', primarily 'separate, distinct' : Gk. dgag 
'hand, handful', dgccGoofiai 'grasp, seize', dtQxoftai 'behold, 
perceive, see', Goth, ga-tarhjan 'auszeichnen', OE. torht 'bright, 
famous', OHG. zoralit 'distinct, bright, clear' (cf. Pub. ML A. 
XTV, 338 f., and references there given). 

9. Ski mimati 'misst, misst ab', ChSl. mera 'mass', Gk. 
fiEQoq 'share', fioQa 'division', Lat. mora 'space of time', 
primarily 'a measuring off' (compare Goth, mel 'zeit'), and 
hence 'delaying, delay', merits 'pure', OE. mcere 'boundary', 
ge-mceran 'fix limits, mark off, determine', mcere 'glorious, 
famous', OHG. mart 'noted, renowned, splendid', Goth, -mers, 
primarily 'marked out, distinguished', Ir. mar, mor 'gross', 
i. e. ' measured off, having dimension ' (compare Skt. pramita 
'messend : gross'). 

9a. The meaning 'mark, boundary' is implied in Goth. 
marei 'meer', Skt. marydda ' meereskuste, grenze, schranke', 
the sea being thought of as a boundary. It is therefore 
probable that, in the Wess. Gebet, line 5, der mareo seo means 
'das [alles land] begrenzende meer', mareo being here an adj. 
corresponding to OE. mcere 'boundary'. The expression is 
thus equivalent to iventil-seo, iventil-meri 'das meer, das alles 
land . . . begrenzend einschliesst' (Schade, Wb.). So Homer's 
coxeavog is a great stream which compasses the earth's disc. 
Here also belong Lat. margo 'edge, margin', Goth, marka 
'marke, grenze, gebiet', ON. morlc 'wald', OHG. marca 'grenze, 
grenzland, bezirk', OE. mearca 'space marked out', gemierce 
1 boundary '. 

10. Skt. luficati 'rauft, rauft aus, rupft', luk 'abfall, 
schwund', lokd 'das freie, raum, weite', OE. leak 'meadow, 
field', Lith. laukas 'feld', laulzas 'mit einer blasse auf der 
stirn', Gk. Xtvxog 'clear, bright, light', Lat. lux, etc. The 
development in meaning here is 'pull, pluck, clear; fall away, 
become clear, become bright, shine'. Compare Skt. luntiti 
'schneidet, schneidet ab', lava 'schneidend, abschneidend ', 
Gk. aXmr 'clear open space, garden, field', Xsv-go-g 'smooth, 


— 68 — 

level, even, polished'. Another step and we should have had 
'clear, bright'. 

That luncati is from leuqo- and not reuqo- is made probable 
by Pruss. lunkan, Lith. lunkas, Lett, luks, ChSl. lyko 'bast', 
Pruss. luckis, NSlov. luc 'holzscheit', Serv. luc, Russ. luca 'kien', 
Lith. luksztinu 'schlaube aus, schale aus' (cf. Berneker, Die 
preuss. Spr. 305). Moreover we have the synonymous bases 
leu-go- (Lith. lauziu 'breche' etc.), leu-po- (Lith. lupu 'schale' 
etc.), and leu- (Skt. luntiti etc.), to which also MHG. Id 'gerber- 
lohe', lowen 'gerben, lohen'. Compare Sw. barka 'abrinden 
: gerben, lohen'. 

10a. Other words for 'leaf, bark, bast' from 'strip, peel, 
pull off, tear ' are the following : — Lith. breziu ' kratze ', brezyju 
' schale ab, ledere ab ', brazdas ' der ganz junge teil der baum- 
rinde', brazduti 'einem baum den splint abschaben; das laub 
abstreifen', ON. borkr, ME. barlce, E., Dan., Sw. bark 'borke, 
rinde', Lith. berzas, ChSl. breza, Skt. bhurja, OHG. bircha 
'birke', etc. These contain the same base as Goth, brikan 
' brechen ' etc. (cf. I, 34). — ON. skilja, Lith. skelti ' spalten ', skald 
'holzspan', OHG. scala 'schale, htilse'. — Gk. xeiQco 'shear, lop', 
Skt. krnati 'verletzt', karnd ' stutzohrig ', Lith. karna 'linden- 
bast', ChSl. kora 'rinde', Lat. corium 'skin, bark, rind', Skt. 
cdrma 'haut, fell', etc. — Skt. krntdti 'reisst ab', krtti 'fell, haut', 
OHG. herdo 'vellus', herdar 'eingeweide' > *qertro- 'sack, 
pouch' (cf. I, 61a). — Lat. carpo 'pluck', Lith. kerpu 'schneide 
mit der schere ' : Pol. kurp ' bastschuh ', Lith. kurpe, Gk. xorjJilg 
' schuh ', ON. hriflingr ' art schuh ' (cf. Zupitza, Germ. Gutt. 125). 
These are from a base *qerepo- ' bast ', whence also derivatives 
for 'sack, pouch' as above. Compare Lith. kr&pszas 'eine 
grosse tasche, ein bettelsack ', OHG. href ' mutterleib, unterleib, 
leib', OE. lirif 'womb, interior of body, stomach', gehrifian 
' bring forth (young) '. (For other words for ' womb, belly ' 
from ' sack, envelop ' see Mod. Lang. Notes XV, 99.) Skt. krp 
'gestalt, schonheit', Lat. corpus are semantically different. 
Here the primary meaning is ' cut, shape, form '. — Skt. babhasti 
'zermalmt', Lith. bdsas 'barfuss', OHG. bar, OE. beer 'bare', 
Goth, -basi, OHG. beri 'beere', not 'das essbare', as usually 
explained, but 'das gepfliickte' (compare Lat. carpo : Gk. 

— 69 — 

xagjtog ' fruit') : MHG. bast 'rinde, bast; enthautung und zer- 
legung des wildes', buost 'ein aus bast verfertigter strick', 
ON. bast ' bast, lindenbast, bastseil ', OE. bcest l bast ' < *bhos-to- 
' peeled, peeling'. — Gk. XtJtm 'schale ab', Itxog, Xojtoq 'rinde, 
schale', Lith. lapas 'Matt, laub' (cf. Prellw. Et. Wb.).— Lith. 
lupii 'schale, haute ab', Goth, laafs, OHG. loub 'laub, blatt', 
louft ' baumrinde, bast ' (cf. Uhl. Et. Wb. s. v. laufs). — Lith. 
skerdzit 'schlachte', Lett. skardlt 'zerteilen', Pruss. scordo 
1 kopf haut ', scurdis ' birke ', i. e. ' peeler '. — E. splint ' splitter ', 
Dan. splint 'splitter; splint, span', NHG. splint. 

Words for ' bast ' may also be derived from ' twist, twine ' 
(cf. I, 3 a). Words for ' bark, crust, rind, hide ; come also from 
'rough' (cf. I, 62b, 105a). 

11. Av. sudu- 'winnowing', OE. hudenian 'shake', Skt. 
gudhand i sahne\\\ gundhana 'reinigend; wegschaifung, reinigung', 
guddhd 'rein, klar, lauter', gundhyu 'rein, glanzend, schmuck' 
(cf. I, 42). 


From 'dip, wet' may come words for 'dye, color'. 

1. OSw. Jcwaf 'tiefe', ON. Jcvefja ' hinuntertauchen ', Gk. 
[idjzTCj 'tauche', pagrf 'farbung', @ag)evq 'farber' (cf. Prellw. 
Et. Wb.). 

2. OHG. dunkon ' eintauchen ', Gk. rtyyco 'erweiche, be- 
netze', Lat. tingo 'wet, moisten; dye, color, tinge'. 

3. Ir. deoch 'trank, trinken', Lith. damn 'tauche ein, 
netze, farbe ', dams ' tunke, farbe ' (cf. Fick, Wb. II 4 , 146). 

4. Gk. dew 'laufe, rinne', dhdvate 'rennt, fliesst' : OHG. 
tuhhan 'tauchen', E, duck, LG. duiken ' untertauchen ', base 
duka- < *dukka- < pre-Germ. *dhilkn6' : OE. deag * dye, color ', 
deagian ' dye '. This connection is doubtful on account of 
another possibility (cf. X, 1 d). See, however, Zupitza, Germ. 
Gutt. 37. 

— 70 


Various color- words are from the primary meaning ' cover, 
overlay, conceal'. They fall into two general classes: 'covering, 
outward appearance, color'; 'covered, concealed, dark'. 

1. Goth, ivarjan 'wehren, schiitzen', ChSl. vreti 'sehliessen', 
Skt. vrnoti 'umringt, umschliesst, verhiillt, bedeckt', root uer- 
'turn' (cf. 1,4), Skt. vdrna 'uberwurf, decke; aussehen, farbe', 
Lith. vdrna, Pruss. warm 'krahe', ivarnis 'rabe' (cf. Berneker, 
Die preuss. Spr. 329). 

2. OHG., OE. helan, Lat. celo 'hide, conceal', colos, color 
'outward appearance, hue, complexion, color, brilliancy', coloreus 
' colored, variegated ', coloro ' color, tinge, color reddish or 
brownish' : Goth, hulistr 'covering, veil', OE. hclustr, heolstor 
'dark; hiding-place, concealment', heolstrig 'dark', Gk. xelaivog 
'dark, black', xeZaivt<p?jg 'black with clouds' (cf. Fick, Wb. 
I 4 , 386). Perhaps here also Lith. szeszelis 'schatten'. 

3. Skt. skauti, slcunati 'bedeckt', Gk. oxvrog 'haut, leder', 
Lat. scutum 'shield', cutis 'skin', ob-scurus 'dark', OK sJcume 
'shade, dusk', hum 'twilight, dusk', OE. liojpma 'darkness' 
(cf. Klnge, Et. Wb. s. v. Scheucr, Scliote, Scliaum, Haut) : Sw. 
liy ' skin, complexion ', Goth, him ' form, appearance ', OE. hiw, 
Mow 'appearance, form, color', hlwian 'shape, color, paint' (cf. 
Kluge and Lutz, Eng. Et. s. v. hue). 

3a. The root squ- 'cover' is probably the same as squ- 
' hasten; shake, throw'. Compare OE. scuclan 'hasten', OHG. 
scutten ' schutteln, schwingen, schtitten ', MHG., NHG. schutzen, 
NHG. uberschutten. 

4. Pruss. Jcrut 'fallen', hruwis 'fall'; ON. hrun 'fall'. 
lirynja 'fall suddenly'; hrjota 'fall, start off, scatter', hreyta 
'cast away, spread out'; OE. hreosan 'rush, fall', base qru- 
'rush, fall; scatter, spread out; overlay, cover' : Lith. hrduju 
'setze oder lege aufeinander, packe, lade', Jcruvd 'haufen', 
Icruvyju 'haufe', ChSl. hryti 'decken, htillen', Icrovu 'dach'; 
ON. hr joda ' start off suddenly, rush ; cast away, scatter, strew, 

— 71 — 

spread; lay out, put in order', OE. hreodan 'load, fill, adorn', 
hroclen ' reddened ', ON. hrodinn ' colored ' (cf. I, 105). 

4a. The meaning 'pile up, load, cover' comes here from 
'scatter, spread out, strew'. Compare OE. strewian 'strew, 
scatter', bcstreoivian 'bestrew, cover', Lat. struo 'pile up, erect'; 
Skt. liirdti ' streut aus, bestreut ', Lith. Moju ' breite hin ', OHG. 
Jdadan 'laden'; Lith. Jcratau 'schiittele fortgesetzt ', Jcrecmu 
'streue', kre'tinys 'ein gediingtes stuck acker'; Gk. xoaddco 
'wave, shake', xoadi] 'twig', ON. hrata 'waver, fall', ChSl. 
krada 'holzstoss', Goth, hrot 'roof; Lith. krapineju 'stumble 
about', ON. hrafl 'loose layer of anything', snjo-hrafl 'loose 
snow', hrofl 'loose pile, piling up loosely or without order', 
hrofla 'pile up loosely', hrof 'loosely constructed building, 
shed', hrofa 'construct carelessly', hraf 'shed', OE. hrof ' roof, 
ceiling, top', Du. roef 'cabin'; Lith. kreikiu 'streue', kraika 
'streu', kraikas 'dachforste'; Lett, kraitat 'taumeln', OHG. 
rldon 'zittern', ON. hreidr 'order, arrangement', hreidra 'arrange, 
build'; Skt. sphurati 'stosst weg, schnellt, zuckt, zittert', 
spliarayati 'zieht auseinander, offnet weit, spannt', MHG. 
sprcejen 'spritzen, stieben; streuen', MHG. spriten 'sich aus- 
breiten', spreiten 'ausbreiten, uberdecken', OE. sprcedan 'spread', 
E. spread ' extend, extend so as to cover something ' (cf. Brugm. 
Grd.P, 205). 

5. OE. Jiyrst 'ornament, jewel; trappings, equipment, armor', 
OHG. rust ' rustung ', rusten ' riisten, bereiten, schmticken ', pre- 
Germ. base *qrs-ti- 'overlaying, covering', ChSl. hrasiti 
' schmticken ', hrasa 'schonheit', Pol. Icrasa 'farbe, schonheit', 
Lith. krosas 'farbe, farbestoff', Jcrosavoju, krosyju 'farbe' (cf. 
VII, 10). The meaning 'overlay, cover' probably developed 
here also from 'shake, scatter'. In that case compare Lat. 
curro 'hasten, run', MHG. hurren 'sich schnell bewegen', ON. 
hrasa 'hasten, hurry, stumble, fall'. 

6. Gk. eotyoj 'roof over, enwreathe', oooqoq 'covering', 
0Q0(f)ri 'roof, ceiling', EQ<pog 'hide, skin', OHG. hirni-reba 'skull' 
:<Gk. ogcfvoc, OHG. erpf, OE. earp 'dark, dusky', eorp 'swarthy', 
ON. jarpr ' brown ', pre-Germ. *erbhno- and *orbhno- (cf. author, 
AJP. XX, 258, and references there given). 

— 72 — 

A large class of color-names is composed of words meaning 
primarily 'cut, scratched, marked, rubbed, smeared, dotted', 
and the like. Here may be found a large variety of colors 
from 'bright' to 'dark'. For the same word may mean 'white' 
or 'black' according to the basis of comparison. 

1. Skt. limpdti 'smear', lepa 'smearing, filth, spot, stain' 
: Gk. Xljkxqoq 'oily, shiny, bright, white'. 

2. ON. rifa 'tear, rive', OHG. (w)rihan 'drehen, reiben, 
schminken' (v. I, 5). 

3. Gk. dftda) 'rub', Cftmdiz- 'weal, vibex' : Goth, bi-smeitan 
'besmear', OE. smUan 'daub, smear', smitta 'smear, spot', 
ChSl. smedu 'dark-brown' (cf. Persson, Wz. 183), root smei- 
' rub, press ' : Lith. smeigiu ' etwas moglichst spitzes wo hinein- 
stecken ', MHG. smeichen, smeicheln ' schmeicheln ', i. e. ' rub, 
caress', OHG. smeckar, smehhar, OE. smicer 'fine, elegant', 
MHG. smicke, sminke 'schminke' : Lat. mica 'crumb', Gk. 
OfiixQog, filxQog 'small', Skt. mecaka 'dark-blue, dark-colored', 
primarily 'smeared'. For other derived meanings from the 
same root cf. author, AJP. XX, 260 ff. 

4. OHG. fihala, OE. feol, fll 'file', Gk. xebcw 'scratch', 
juxQoq 'sharp', ChSl. pisati ' engrave, write ', Skt. pimgdti 'hew 
out, form, adorn', picas 'form, color', Gk. noixllog 'bunt', 
Lith. paiszas ' schmutzfleck ', paiszinu 'berusse', Goth, -faihs 
'bunt', OE. fag 'pied, adorned; discolored, stained', OHG. 
feh, etc., Lat. ptcus 'woodpecker', base pei-ko-. A related 
pei-go- occurs in Lat. pingo ' paint ', ChSl. pegu ' bunt ', Skt. 
pinga, pingald ' reddish brown ', pinkte ' paint ', piftjdra ' yellow, 
golden '. A natural development of ' variegated, changeable in 
color' is 'deceitful'. This is found both in peik- and in peig-: 
Gk. jioLxllog 'variegated; artful, tricky', Skt. piguna 'treacher- 
ous', Goth, faih 'deceit'; OE. be-fician 'deceive', facen 'deceit, 
injury', ficol 'fickle', ON. feikn 'destruction', OHG. feihhan 
'arglist'; and in the base peiq-: Pruss. -paika 'trugt', Lith. 
peiMu ' makle, tadle ', piktas ' bose, zornig ', pykinu ' argere ', etc 
(cf. Prellw. EtWb.; Kluge, Et.Wb.; Uhl. Ai.Wb.). The bases 
pei-ko-, pei-go-, pei-qo- may be compared with pei-so-: Skt. 

— 73 — 

pindsti ' zerreibt, zerstampft ', pisld * gemahlen ', Lat. pinso, etc., 
and referred to a root pel- 'rub, press, crush, wear away; 
waste away': Ski piyati 'schmiiht', Goth, faian 'tadeln', fijan 
'hassen' (v. XIII, 11). Skt. pita 'yellow', explained below as 
meaning primarily 'faded', may come from 'rubbed, marked', 
and in that case be more closely connected with Skt. pihga 
' yellow ', pigduga ' reddish '. 

5. Goth, malan 'mahlen', Lat. molo, ChSl. melja, etc., 
root mcl- 'crush, rub', whence 'smear, mark', etc.: OE. mcel 
' mark, ornament ', MHG. mal ' spot ', OHG. malm ' mark, paint ', 
Goth, meljan 'write', Gk. (iolvvo) 'stain, defile', Skt. mala 
'filth, sin', malind 'filthy, dark-colored', Lith. melynas 'blue', 
meline, Pruss. melne 'blue spot', Lett, meh is, Gk. fieZaq 'black', 
Welsh melyn, Corn, milin, Bret, melen 'yellow' (cf. Prellw. 
Et. Wb.; Uhl. Ai. Wb.). Here belongs the IE. word for 'honey', 
Goth, milip, Gk. fteXi, etc. (Compare Gk. xpqxoq 'yellowish' 
: OHG. Jionag 'honey'.) It is evident from the great variety 
of color-names from the base mel- that the primary meaning- 
was some general term such as 'marked, stained, dirty', and 
that 'yellow', 'gray', 'blue', 'black' arose through restricted 
usage. This indefinite meaning is seen in Skt. malind and 
probably also in the first part of OHG. mili-toa, OE. mele-deaw 
'mildew'. To this group we may add Germ, blewa- 'blue', 
pre-Germ. *mleuo- (compare Gk. [ioXv-va> 'stain') : OHG. Mao 
'blau', OE. blaw 'blue', bleo 'color, form', ge-bleod 'variegated'; 
OHG. bllo 'blei', pre-Germ. *mli-uo-, Gk. (lofo-ftog 'lead'; OE. 
blmc 'black; ink', LG. black 'ink', pre-Germ. *mlogo- (cf. author, 
Jour. Germ. Phil. I, 297; >Hirt, PBB. XXIII, 295, 307, 354). To 
the same stem may belong Gk. dfioXyog 'darkness', 6 t uoXyqj' 
t.ocfcp (Hes.), Ir. melg 'death', with which are compared Lett. 
milst 'es wird dunkel', Lith. milszti 'zusammenziehen von 
gewitterwolken ', Goth, milhma ' wolke ' (cf. Prellw. Et. Wb.). 
But these words, however, are secondary derivatives from 
'black, dark' and not directly from 'stain' as in the others 
of this group. It is within the possibilities that the base mel- 
is from the root me- 'cut, measure, mark'. 

Hirt's article appeared in Oct., 1898; mine in the preceding Jan. 

— 74 — 

6. OHG. masa ' wound, scar ', MHG. mase ' wundmal, narbe ; 
entstellender fleeken, makel', masen ' verwunden ; beflecken', 
masec 'fleckig', OE. maser 'gnarl', OHG. masar 'gnarl, measles', 
Skt. mdsi 'schwarze' (cf. Uhl. Ai. Wb.). These also may be 
from me- 'cut, mark'. 

7. OE. metan 'measure, mark off, fix bounds', ON. mot 
'impression, stamp, form, model', hence 'spot, place, meeting- 
place, meeting', i.e. 'something marked out, place marked 
out', OE. metan 'draw, paint', a-metan 'paint, adorn', root 
me- 'cut, mark'. 

8. Skt. mimati, mimite 'measure, measure off', mita 
'measured off, scanty, small', mintiti 'diminish, injure', etc. 
: Lith. mailns 'trifle', ChSl. meluku 'small', OWelsh mail 
' mutilum ', Welsh moel ' calvus, glaber ', Ir. mael ' bald, without 
horns' (cf. Fick, Wb. II 4 , 204), Goth, mail 'blemish, wrinkle', 
OHG. meil, meila ' spot, pollution ', MHG. meilen ' verletzen, ver- 
wunden; beflecken, beschmutzen ', meile 'befleckt, schlecht', 
OE. mat 'mark, stain', mcelan 'mark, stain'. 

9. Gk. XQ^ 03 'stroke, graze, scratch', xQalrco 'anoint, 
besmear, stain', XQcd{ia. 'surface, skin, color', xQ^ m 'touch; 
tinge, stain', xQ C0T 'i a) 'color, dye, tint', ygoia 'skin, color', 
XQL03 ' scratch, smear, anoint, color ', Ir. gert ' milk ', Skt. ghrtd 
'butter, ghee', jigharti 'drip, besprinkle', root gher- 'scratch, 
graze; smear, anoint; be smeary, filthy', etc. : Ir. gor 'pus', 
guirin 'pustula', Welsh gori 'suppurate', gor 'pus, sanies', 
OHG., OE. gor 'dirt, dung', ON. gormr, gromr 'filth', Lat. 
gramiae 'viscous humor from the eyes', Lith. grasiis 'disgusting', 
MHG. garst 'rancid' < *ghors-to-, Welsh givrm 'dark, black', 
Ir.gorm 'blue' < *ghors-mo- (cf. Fick, Wb. II 4 , 114), primarily 
'smeared, stained', OE. grceg, OHG. grcio 'gray', perhaps from 
pre-Germ. *ghre-qu6- 'scratched, streaked' (but see another 
possibility I, 90); Gk. y^im 'smear, color, whitewash', y^gloiq 
'anointing, coloring', XQ l t la 'ointment, unguent', Lith. greimas 
'slimy sediment', E. grime, Dan. grim, ODu. grimsel 'grime, 
soot, smut', ON. grima 'mask', OE. grima 'mask, helmet, 
spectre', OS., MHG. gris 'grau, greis', pre- Germ. *ghri-so- 
' streaked ', From ' scratch, grate ', come many words signifying 

— 75 — 
'make a harsh sound, knirschen' (cf. Prellw. Et. Wb. s. v. 

10. Gk. xuqco 'shear, cut', xoqoow 'shear', xoqOt] 'temple', 
primarily 'shorn, thin' (cf. the various Germ, words for 'temple' 
s. v. Schlaf, Schlafe, Kluge, Et. Wb.), Lith. karsmu ' striegele, 
kamme', ChSl. Jcrasta 'kratze', MLG. harst 'rechen, harke', 
Skt. Jcasati 'reibt, schabt, kratzt' (s < rs), Icasa-, Msa 'rubbing', 
kasaya 'sharp, bitter, acrid; red', lasaya 'brownred' (compare 
Lai acer 'sharp, pungent, dazzling') : Lith. herssas 'weiss und 
schwarz gefleckt, brindled', primarily 'scratched, streaked', 
Jcersze 'eine bunte kuh', karszis 'brachsen', Icirszlys, Sw. harr 
' asche ', ChSl. erunu, Pruss. Jcirsna- ' black ', Skt. krsnd ' black, 
dark ' (cf. Uhl. Ai. Wb.). Perhaps here also belong Lith. Itrosas 
'color, paint', Jcrosyju 'paint', Pol. hrasa 'color, beauty', ChSl. 
hrasa 'beauty', Icrasiti 'adorn', OE. liyrst 'ornament, jewel; 
trappings, equipment, armor', OHG. rust 'armor', rustcn 'adorn, 
equip', pre-Germ. base *qrs-ti- (cf. author, Mod. Lang. Notes, 
XV, 329). These, however, are secondary derivatives, and may 
be otherwise explained (cf. VI, 5). 

11. Lith. sveriii 'weigh', svirus 'schwebend, schwankend, 
baumelnd' (cf. X, 4) : OHG. siverban 'schnell hin und her fahren, 
schwirbeln, wirbeln, abwischen', OFris. swerva 'wandern, herum- 
schweifen', OE. sivcorfan 'scrub, file', Goth, -sivairban 'wischen' 
: Ir. sorbaim 'stain, spot', i. e. 'rub, smear', sorb 'dirty', base 
*surbho-. This base is as certainly from suer- as Lith. svarbus 
'wichtig, schwer' from sveriii 'weigh'. The primary meaning 
of the root was ' swing, sway, shake ', a meaning that is found 
at the base of most words with initial su~. The same root 
suer- is in Skt. svdrati 'tont, erschallt' (v. I, 45) from 'move 
rapidly, rattle'. Compare ON. svarf 'filings; commotion, dis- 
turbance, violent behavior, noise', from Germ, siverban 'move 
to and fro, swing, rattle; rub, scrub, file'. The meaning 'swing' 
is also in Lith. svartis 'das gewicht; der schwengel am brunnen; 
der wagebalken', OE. sweord, ON. sverd, OHG. swert 'sword', 
pre-Germ. *suer-to- (or *suer-dho-) 'brandishing, brandished'. 
Compare OE. swapan 'brandish' : swipe 'whip, scourge, sword'; 
swingan 'swing, beat', sivingell 'beating : whip'; NHG. schlagen 
: schldgel, selildger, etc. Compare other derivatives of suer-. 

— 76 — 

12. Gk. jiigaq 'end', Horn. jreiQara < *jieQj r ara 'bound- 
aries ', Ski pdrvan ' knoten, gelenk, glied, absehnitt, abteilung ', 
pants 'knoten, gelenk, internodium, absehnitt', parusd 'knotig, 
unebeD, raub, schmutzig, fleckig, bunt', Av. po urusa- ' scheckig, 
bunt'; pre-Germ. *poruo- 'bunt', OHG. faro 'farbig, gefiirbt', 
faraiva 'farbe, sebminke', faraiven 'farben, malen, sebminken' 
(cf. author, Mod. Lang. Notes, XV, 328). 

13. Skt. tejate ' be sharp, sharpen ', Lat. in-stigo ' spur on ', 
Gk. otl^co 'prick, brand, make spotted', ovixxog 'branded, 
marked, variegated ' (Prellw. Et. Wb.). 

14. Skt. Mayati ' waver, swing, tremble ', Ma ' play, sport, 
appearance, grace, charm ', Mayati ' play, be merry ', Lith. leilas 
'butterfly', i.e. ' flutter er', OE. Ml 'twig, whip; bruise, weal', 
loelian 'become black and blue'. 

15. Skt. raya 'violence, pressure, haste, stream, course', 
rinati 'let flow, let loose', Gk. oqlvco 'move'; Skt. nti 'stream, 
course, streak, mark', with which compare OE. rip 'stream', 
ON. rtda ' bestreichen, beschmieren'; ON. rein 'strip of land', 
OHG. rein 'grass-balk', NHG. rain : Lith. rainas 'graubunt 
gestreift', rainutas 'gestreift, streifig'; Lith. r albas 'graubunt, 
gesprenkelt', Lett, rdibs 'bunt, fleckig', Pruss. roaban 'gestreift', 
Ir. riabach ' gesprenkelt, ^rau ' (cf. Fick, Wb. II *, 229), OE. ripe, 
OS. ripi, OHG. riffi 'ripe'. Compare Lith. berszti 'become 
white; ripen'; OE. fealwian 'grow yellow; ripen'. Bipe is 
generally connected with OE. ripan 'reap', rifter 'sickle' etc. 
This would give for the primary meaning 'cut, marked, 
streaked'. In any case we may refer Lith. raibas to the root 
rl- 'run, stream, streak' and connect it with Lith. riba 'run- 
way of game'. Here also Sw. ripa 'schneehuhn' (cf. Noreen, 
UL. 68). 

16. Skt. rdblias ' violence, force ', rambhate, rdbhate ' seize, 
hold', Lat. robus 'vigor, strength, hardness; oak', OE. rof 
'strong, brave', OHG. rap fen ' verharsehen ', pre-Germ. base 
*robhno- 'rough, harsh', MHG. rappe, rapfe 'kratze, raude', 
Du. rappig 'raudig' : ChSl. rebu 'bunt, gesprenkelt', Kuss. 
rjaboj ' bunt ', rjablca, ChSl. jarebi, OHG. reba-huon, Sw. rapp- 

— 77 — 

hona 'rebhuhn' (cf. Persson, Wz. 219). To these Persson adds 
Gk. oQ<pvoq 'dunkel, dunkelfarbig ', OE. earp 'dusky, dark', etc., 
which, however, are probably not from 'streaked, marked', 
but from ' covered ' (cf. VI, 6). If Lat. robus ' red ' belongs 
here, it is from the primary meaning 'violent, strong, glittering', 
as in Skt. tvesd 'heftig, ungestiim : glanzend'. With the base 
erebh- compare erep- in Skt. rdpas ' korperlicher schaden ', ON. 
refsa, OHG. refsen 'strafen, zilchtigen, tadeln', OE. refsen 
' tadeln ', Lat. rapio ' seize ', etc. (cf. Uhl. Ai. Wb.). 

17. OHG. roubon, OE. reafian 'rauben', reofan 'brechen, 
zerreissen', Lat. rumpo, rupes, Lith. rupas 'rauh, holperig', 
raupai ' masern ', raupsat ' aussatz ', raupeze ' krote, schildkrote ' 
(see other words for 'toad, frog', Introd.); Goth, raupjan 
'rupfen', OE. rypan ' ausreissen ', OHG. ronfen 'raufen, rupfen', 
Lat. rubus 'bramble-bush', *rubo-s 'rough' : Lith. e'rube 'hasel- 
huhn', Lett, rubenis 'birkhuhn', ON. rjupa 'schneehuhn' (cf. 
Persson, Wz. 221), from *erubo-, *reubo- 'speckled', root ereu- 
'break'. Compare Lat. ravus 'hoarse' : 'grayish, gray-yellow', 
primarily 'broken, rough, uneven'. To the same root belong 
Lat. rudus 'broken, stones, rubbish', rudis 'rough, rude', etc. 
(cf. Persson, Wz. 8). 

17 a. OHG. barh, barug, OE. bearg, ON. bgrgr 'barch' < 
*bhorqu{o-) 'cut', Lith. broJcas 'brttchig, schadhaft', as noun 
'gebrechen, fehler', Ir. brec 'luge' : Gk. yctQxiq 'runzel, falte', 
(poQxov ' Zevxov, jioXiov, qvOov (Hes.). 

It is probable from this that 'rough, wrinkled' was the 
primary meaning of (poQxoq, for from this could easily develop 
'speckled, gray, white'. The change of meaning 'shining, 
bright, white, gray' : 'shriveled, wrinkled' would be impossible. 
It is better, therefore, to separate it from Skt. bhragate (I, 33). 

18. Skt. rdmate ' steht still, ruht, ergotzt sich ', Ir. fo-rimim 
'setze, lege', Skt r&ma 'lust, freude', ramd 'erfreuend, lieblich, 
reizend', base *remo- 'resting, settling; taking pleasure' : MHG. 
ram 'staubiger schmutz, russ', ramec 'schmutzig, russig', OHG. 
ramac 'furvus', Skt. ramd 'dark-colored, black', ramya 'night', 
base *remo- 'settling, spotting', root ere-, ero-. From this 
comes the base *ro-do- 'resting, taking pleasure : settling, 

— 78 — 

spotting', ChSl. radu 'froh', Pol. rad 'gern, willig, froh', Lith. 
rods 'gern', OE. rot 'cheerful, glad', retan 'cheer, gladden' 
: OHG. ruoz, LG. rot, Du. roet 'russ'. (For other words from 
the same root see Kluge, Et. Wb. s. v. Bulie, Bast; Uhl. Ai. Wb. 
s. v. rdmate) On the development of meaning in *remo-, *rodo-, 
compare Lat. sedeo 'sit', Skt. sadd 'das sitzen', ChSl. sadu 
'planta', sazda, Lith. sodis 'russ', sodna 'brandfleck', Pol. sodza 
'russ, kienruss', ODu. soet, ON., OE. sot 'soot', OE. sotig 
'grimy, dirty'. 

19. Skt. grayati 'cook, roast', grlndti 'mingle, mix, cook, 
roast', Gk. xiQapai, xsgdvw/it 'mix', OE., OS. hror 'active, 
vigorous', OS. hrorian, ON. hrcera 'move, stir', OHG. ruoren 
'move, stir, stir up, touch', OE. lireran 'move, stir, shake', 
hrinan 'touch', OS., OHG. hrman 'touch, take', ON. lirma 
'hang to, stick to, leave a trace or mark of (cf. Fick, Wb. 
I 4 , 43 f.; Uhl. Ai. Wb.) : ON. hrwi 'soot; rime', pre-Germ. 
*kri-mo- 'touching, sticking to, leaving a trace of, ON. hrwaigr 
' covered with rime or soot ', OE. hrlm ' rime, hoarfrost ', OHG. 
riman 'touch, take', MHG. rlmeln 'be covered with rime', 
NHG. (Tyrol) reim 'light frost; mist', Karnt. reim 'mist, dew', 
Bav. reim, reimel, reimen 'rime on shrubbery or walls; bloom 
on fruit'; OHG. hrifo, OLG.hnjw 'reif. From a simpler form 
of the same root come Arm. sclqu ' ice ', Slov. sren ' rime, frozen 
snow', Lith. szarmd, Lett, serma, sarma 'rime'. These Uhlen- 
beck, Ai. Wb. s. v. gigiras, connects with ChSl. srenu ' white ', 
Lith. szirmas 'gray, roan'. It is certain, however, that these 
color- words did not mean primarily 'rimy, frosty, snowy', nor 
did the words for 'rime, snow' mean 'white, gray'. The two 
sets of words are distinct in their development though alike 
in origin. In both cases the primary meaning was 'touch, 
stick to, leave a trace of, whence 'speckled, spotted' and 
'rime, frost'. This common meaning we find also in Skt. 
glisyati ' hangt sich an, klammert sich an ', Av. sraesyeiti ' hangt 
sich an', NPers. sires 'leim', Skt. glesd 'das heften, kleben', 
glesmdn ' klebriger stoff, schleim '. From such a meaning come 
Skt. gard, gdrvara ' bunt, scheckig ', Lith. szirvas, szirmas ' grau, 
blaugrau, grauschimmel', Gk. xiqqoq 'tawny' (with the same 
vowel as in xiQvr][ii), Lith. szerksznas 'schimmelig, ins graue 

— 79 — 

spielend' : 'reif, gefrorener tan', with which compare Skt. 
glaksnd 'glatt, weich, zart', perhaps primarily 'smeary, smooth'. 
From the color-words are named animals with gray, roan or 
mottled skins or hides. So Lith. szirmis 'der blaugraue ochse; 
das grauschimmel-pferd ', Pruss. sirivis, ChSl. sruna 'reh' (cf. 
Berneker, Die preuss. Spr. 320), and also Lith. szarmu, szermu 
'wildcat; ermine', szarmonys 'weasel', OHG. liarmo 'weasel', 
OE. hearma-scinnen 'made of ermine-skins'; Skt. gdri 'a certain 
bird', carika 'magpie', Russ. soroka, Lith. szdrka 'magpie'; 
Skt. galura ' frog ', primarily ' spotted ' (cf. Introd.). See further 
on the above Schade, Wb.; Uhl. Ai. Wb. 

20. Skt. bdbhasti 'zermalmt, verzehrt', psati 'zehrt auf, 
Gk. iprjv 'rub', ipalgoj 'graze, touch lightly' : tpaQog 'ashen- 
gray, speckled, dapple-gray'. Gk. ipaQ 'starling' was named 
from its spots and did not itself give the color-word. So OE. 
steer, OHG. stara 'starling', Lat. starnas, etc. may be derived 
from the root ster- 'scatter, spot'. 

21. ChSl. cesati 'kammen, striegeln', Lith. kasau, kasinu 
'kratze', Gk. geco 'schabe, glatte', j-aiva> 'kratze, kamme', 
OHG. hasan 'politus', hasnon 'polire', hasinunga 'linitio' : Lat. 
canus ' gray, hoary ' < *casnus, Osc. casnar ' senex ', Gk. gav&og 
'blond, yellow'; Lat. cascus 'old'; Gk. gvco 'scrape, smooth, 
polish' : OE. haso 'gray', ON. Iiqss 'yellowish-gray', Gk. 
§ov$6q 'yellowish, tawny' (cf. Schade, Wb.; Hirt, Idg. Abl. 521). 
Hirt assumes IE. kasou and kasen 'blond', from which come 
Gk. govdog and ^av&og. This is altogether improbable. The 
probabilities are that these color-words in Gk., Lat, and Germ, 
developed independently from 'scratch, make streaked, rub'. 
It is certain that OHG. hasan 'politus', hasnon 'polire' (with 
which compare MHG. haseln 'glatten'), are as closely connected 
with Lith. kasinii, Gk. gaivoj 'scratch' as with Lat. canus. 
Moreover, Gk. govdog is used of sound as well as color, as, 
g. avefjoi; rirri^ gov&a ZaZwv, and is interpreted by Hesych. 
and the Gramm. as Zejcrog, ajtaXog, 6$vg, etc., which points 
toward a derivation from gvco. Instructive is also MHG. hesive 
'blass, matt', which must be added to OE. haso 'gray'. We 
have, therefore, really a double development: 'scratched, 
streaked, gray'; and 'scraped, rubbed, worn, weakened, made 

— 80 — 

dim'. Here, in the sense 'weak, thin, slender', we may add 
OHG. haso, OE. Tiara 'hare'. Compare Gk. Xejcxog 'fine, thin', 
Lat. lepidus : lepus; Ir. lag 'weak', Gk. Xayagog ' schmachtig ' 
: Xaycoq ' hase ' (cf. Prellw. Et. Wb.). In this case we must 
separate the Germ, word from Pruss. sasnis, Skt. gaga, which 
are as well connected with Gk. xexfjvaq ■ Xaycoovg. Derivatives 
of the base qesuo-, qsn- are Gk. £vqoq, Skt. Jcsurd 'razor', i. e. 
'scraper', with which compare OE. sore 'mote', i. e. 'scraping'; 
Gk. gvZov 'chopped wood'; Skt. ksodati 'zermalmt, zerstampft', 
hsoda 'mehl, staub', ksudrd 'klein, gering, niedrig', ChSl. 
chudu 'klein', etc. 

22. Lat. stria 'furrow, groove, flute', OHG. stnmo, MHG. 
strim, streim 'streifen', Dan. strime 'strieme, schwiele', Sw. 
strimma 'streifen', OE. strimende 'resisting'; Gk. orgiy^ 'row, 
line', Lat. strix 'furrow, groove, flute', stringo 'press together, 
graze, touch', strigo 'be worn out, weary, lose strength, sink, 
cease', strigosus 'lean, lank, thin', OE. strican 'move, go; rub, 
wipe ', Norw. strike ' streifen, furchen, ritzen ', OE. strica ' stroke, 
mark', E. streak, streaked; Gk. otoifioc, 'weak, fine voice', ON. 
strlpr ' bergspitze ', base *stnbo- 'worn down, thin, sharp', 
MHG. streifen 'streifen, gleiten, ziehen; abbauten', ON. strtprendr 
'striped', ODu. strijpe 'stripe, streak', Dan. stribet, E. striped, 
MHG. stnfeht 'gestreift, streifig'. 

22 a. The base stri- is also in ON. strita ' zerren, reissen ', 
stritask ' sich anstrengen, sich strauben ', streita ' exertion ', Lat. 
strido 'make a harsh grating sound'; ON. s^mT ' streit, kummer', 
strida 'reizen, plagen, streiten', stridr 'hartnackig, streng, 
stark', OHG. strltan 'streiten', OE. stridan 'stride'; Lith. 
strainus ' widerspenstig in worten', etc. Compare the similar 
meanings in MHG. stricken 'sich rasch bewegen, eilen, gehn, 
fliegen; streichen; glatten; streicheln; bestreichen; schlagen', 
OE. strlcan 'move; rub', stric ' plague ; sedition ', gestric ' strife '. 
The primary meaning of the base stri- was probably 'move 
rapidly back and forth'. This gave 'rub, scrape, stroke; 
wander, go, hasten; exert oneself, strive, resist; be violent, 
harsh, strong', etc. As we find a base stru-, stre-uo- with 
meanings parallel with stri;-, stre-io-, we may reduce these to 
a base stcro-, stre- (cf. Persson, Wz. 185; author, Pub. MLA. 

— 81 — 

XIV, 305). Compare the developed meanings of the base 
ster-do : MHG. sterzen 'sich rasch bewegen, umherschweifen; 
steif emporragen ', sterz ' Stengel, stiel; schweif, sturzen ' fallen 
machen, stiirzen, umwenden; umsinken, fallen, stiirzen', ON. 
strceta ' tiberrumpeln ', E. start ' aufspringen, in die hohe fahren; 
in bewegung setzen', Norw. sterta 'sich abmtihen', sterten 
' widerspenstig ', ChSl. strada 'rnuhe, arbeit', stradati, Russ. 
stradaU 'leiden' (cf. Persson as above). 

23. Gk. OTEQtco ' strip, rob, bereave', Lith. strova 'speise, 
kost', strovyju 'verzehre, esse'; OHG. M-strumi 'lucrum', 
striunan 'gewinnen, erwerben', OE. ge-streon 'gain, profit; 
wealth; procreation', strienan 'acquire; beget'; ON. strjulca 
'streichen, bestreichen, tiber etwas hinstreichen ', OHG. struhhon 
'straucheln, stolpern, fallen', Gk. orgsvyofiaL 'reibe mich auf, 
schmachte hin', Lith. strugas ' schnitzmesser ', striugas 'kurz', 
strungas 'gestutzt, mit gekapptem schwanze', striungas, MHG. 
strunc 'strunk', struck 'strauch', Dan. strunh 'stramm, steif, 
ChSl. strugati 'kratzen, schnitzen, qualen', Lett, strugains 
'streifig' (cf. Prellw. Et. Wb.). To the base stre-uo- 'rub, strip 
off, prune, dock' (cf. Lat. stringo 'graze, scratch, strip, pluck, 
clip', etc.), 'pull, resist, be strong, severe, rough', etc. belong 
also: MHG. stroufen 'streifen, abstreifen, schinden', OE. be- 
striepan 'strip, rob, plunder', MHG. strupfen 'streifen, ab- 
rupfen', striimpf 'stummel, stumpf', OHG. struben 'rauh empor- 
stehen, struppig sein, strauben', Gk. axQvcpvoq 'steif, derb, 
herb, sauer' (cf. Kluge, Et. Wb.); OE. strudan 'plunder, ravage, 
destroy', strydan 'rob, deprive', OHG. struten 'mit gewalt 
wegnehmen, rauben'; MHG. struz 'streit', striuzen 'strauben', 
ON. strutr 'projection, peak', OE. strutian 'stand out stiffly, 
be rigid', MHG. strunze 'stummel, stumpf, Bav. strunzen 'ab- 
geschnittenes stiick', Dan. strutte 'starren, strotzen', MHG., 
NHG. strotzen. Here in the sense 'small, compressed' belong 
MHG. strozze, LG. strote 'throat'. Compare Norw. strype 
' zusammenschntiren, -pressen, erdrosseln', ON. strjupe, OSw. 
strupe 'throat'. 

24. Skt. duvds ' hinausstrebend, unruhig', OHG. zawen 
' von statten gehen, gelingen ', MG. zuwen ' sich voran bewegen, 

— 82 — 

wobin ziehen', MHG. zouwe 'eile', zouiven 'sich beeilen; bereiten, 
machen', MDu. touwen 'subigere, agitare, premere, pressare', 
OE. tawian 'prepare, treat ill, afflict', E. taw, teiv 'prepare by 
beating or working, as leather or hemp; beat, scourge, maul, 
pull about, tease, vex', OE. teon 'make, arrange, adorn', Goth. 
taujan ' machen, bewirken ', OHG. zouwen ' bereiten, bearbeiten ; 
farben', zaiva 'tinctura' (cf. Uhl. Et.Wb.; Schade, Wb.) : OE. 
teafor 'red pigment, vermilion', tiefran 'paint', OHG. zoabar 
'zauber', etc., pre-Germ. *doupro- 'pigment', from *dcu-po-, 
*dou-po- 'beat, press, work over, prepare, paint' : Gk. dovjzog 
'thud, crash', dovjitm 'sound with a thud, crash, ring', primarily 
'beat, strike'. The root deuo-, du- 'move on rapidly', whence 
'drive, thrust, beat' and 'pull, haul', etc. is also in Lith. dauziu 
'clash, clink, strike', Sw. dial. dauJc 'schinden', OE. tucian 
'ill-treat; adorn', with double meaning as in OE. tawian. 

25. Skt. ddlati 'berstet, springt auf, dalayati 'spaltet', 
data 'sttick, teil, halfte, blatt', ChSl. dola, Lith. dolts 'teil', 
dalyju 'teile', Ir. fo-dalim 'discerno, sejungo', ON. tal 'zahl' etc. 
(cf. Uhl. Ai. Wb.) : Lith. dalgis 'sense', Ir. dluigim 'scindo', 
OE. telga, ON. tjalga, MHG. zelge 'zweig', OHG. zelga, MHG. 
zelge 'pflugarbeit zur saat', ON. telgja 'schneiden, verschneiden ', 
talgakmfr ' schnitzmesser ', Dan. tcelge 'schnitzen, schnitzeln' 
(cf. Fick, Wb.II 4 ,158) : OE. telg 'dye, color', primarily 'mark', 
telgan 'dye'. 

26. Lat. glaber, ChSl. gladuM 'glatt', gladiti 'glatten', 
Lith. glodus 'glatt anliegend', glostau 'streichele sanft', OHG. 
glat 'glatt, glanzend', ON. gladr, OE. glmd 'glad, bright, clear'. 

27. OHG. gnitan, OE. gntdan ' rub ', gnidel ' pestle ' : Lat. 
nitor 'smoothness, sleekness, luster, brightness', niteo ' be sleek, 
glisten, shine'. Here belong also ON. gmst 'gnashing' (of 
teeth), gnista 'fasten together; gnash; howl', OE. *gnastian, 
ME. gnaste 'gnash', MHG. gmst 'scab, scurf. To the base 
ghni- may belong Lith. gnybiu, gndibau 'pinch', or these may 
be from a synonymous base gni- (cf. Kluge, Et. Wb. s. v. Jeneipen). 

27 a. With the base ghm-, ghne-%o- compare ghnu-, ghne-uo- 
: ON. gnua 'rub, crush', Gk. %vavco 'gnaw off, nibble', xva\[ia 

— 83 — 

'piece cut off', yyooq 'down, flock, foam', x vav Qo<S 'dainty'; 
Lith. gniduzau 'squeeze', gniduziu 'close, clench'; OE. gneap 
'niggardly', gniefte 'scanty'; ON. gnufa 'bend over, droop'. 
Here also we find the development 'rub, crush, crash' : ON. 
gnyja ' be noisy ', gnydr ' noise ', gnydja ' growl, murmur ', gnaud 
'growling, howling', gnaust 'clashing together'; gnyr 'noise', 
OE. gnyr an 'creak', gnym, gnorn 'sorrow', gnornian 'grieve, 
lament', OS. gnomon 'mourn', base ghnu-ro- 'rubbing, creaking, 
resounding' : Gk. xvav^oo, 'dainty', i. e. 'nibbling'. 

With ghne-io- and ghne-uo- compare ghno- : OHG., OE. 
gnagan, ON. gnaga 'gnaw', gnata 'strike together', gnat 
'collision', MHG. gnaz 'schorf; knauserei' (cf. Persson, Wz. 136 l ). 

27 b. Synonymous roots gno-, gne-io-, gne-uo- occur : OE. 
cnedan, OHG. knetan 'kneten', ChSl. gneta 'zerdrucke, knete'; 
MHG. knullen 'schlagen', er-Jcnellen ' erschallen ', OE. cnyllan 
'sound bell', E. knell; MHG. zer-kniirsen 'zerdrucken, zer- 
quetschen', knirren, knarren 'knarren, knurren'; Gk. yvdfiJtra) 
' crook, bend ', Pol. gnabic ' drucken ', NHG. knuffen, ON. knefan 
'zwang', knappr 'knopf, OHG. knopf 'knoten' : ON. knla 
'discuss'; OE. cnidan 'beat'; cnif 'knife', MHG. knifen ' kneifen, 
kratzen', Gk. yviqxnv 'niggard, pinch-penny', Du. knijpen ' kneifen, 
zwicken' : OE. cnuwian 'pound' (in a mortar), ON. knyja 'drive, 
press hard, beat'; knosa 'strike, beat', knuska 'beat', LG. 
knusen ' press ', NHG. knauser ' niggard ', OE. cnossian ' strike ', 
ge cnos 'collision'; OHG. knoto, knodo, OE. cnotta, ON. knutr 
'knot', OE. cneatian 'dispute'; cnocian, ON. knoka 'knock', 
knochen 'knuffen', knoche 'knochen, astknorren', and many 
others (cf. XV, 4). 

Notwithstanding the similarity in meaning, the roots ghno- 
and gno- are distinct in origin though they are somewhat 
confused in some of the derived forms. If we should connect 
these two roots, we should have equal reason for combining 
with them the roots qne-, cpie-io-, qne-uo- 'rub, scrape, beat' 
(cf. Prellw. Et. Wb. s. v. xvtjv, xvi^m, xvooq, etc.; and XV, 
1, 2, 3). 

28. OHG. slihhan, ME. silken ' schleichen ', MHG. slich, 
slicli 'schlick, schlamm', slich 'schleichweg; list', OE. she 
'cunning, listig', ON. slikr, ME. silk 'sleek, glossy'. These 


— 84 — 

are from the base sir. OHG. slifan 'gleiten, sinken, glatten', 
ON. slipa 'sharpen', sleipr, MHG. sleif, OE. slipor 'slippery', 
slipig 'slimy'; slidor 'slippery', slidan, MHG. sliten 'slide, 
glide'; ON., OE., MHG. slim 'slime'. Here also occur the 
bases sle-, sle-ip-, sle-uo- (cf. Persson, Wz. 189). 

29. Gk. yXoioc, 'any sticky, clammy stuff', ylia, yllvr\ 
'glue', ChSl. glina 'clay', glenu 'slime', ON. Etna, MHG. Henen 
'stick, smear', OE. clcene 'clean, pure', OHG. Meini 'zierlich, 
glanzend, sauber; sorgfaltig, gering' (cf. Persson, Wz. 49). 

29 a. The meanings ' clean ' and ' small ' are entirely 
distinct in their development. The former is from 'smooth', 
the latter from 'sticking close, clinging'. Compare Skt. Idya 
'das sichanheften, ankleben; das sichducken, niederhocken ' 
: Lith. lainas 'schlank', leilas 'diinn, schlank', lesas 'mager', 
Idibas 'schlank'; E. cling 'stick to' : OE. clingan 'shrink, 
contract \ 

30. Lat. unguo 'anoint', Skt. andkti 'salbt, bestreicht, 
schmuckt', aflji 'salbe, schmuck, farbe'. 

31. Skt. snihyati 'wird feucht, wird klebrig, heftet sich', 
snelia 'fett, klebrigkeit, glatte, glanz'. These are connected 
further with the IE. root sneigwh- ' snow ' (cf. Uhl. Ai. Wb.), 
whose primary meaning is 'drip, spurt', and not 'shine'. 'Shine' 
developed, as given above, from the secondary meaning 'sticky, 
oily ', and this from ' flow, drip ' (cf. XI, 2 a). 


A considerable class of color-words comes from the primary 
meaning 'sprinkled, spattered, speckled, spotted'. These are 
closely related in their development to those given under VII. 

1. ChSl. para 'steam', Russ. preju 'sweat, boil, become 
heated', Lith. periii 'bathe', Gk. jilfiJtQ7]fn 'kindle, burn', 
jiqtj&g) 'blow up, inflate; blow out, spout out; fan kindle' (cf. 
Prellw. Et.Wb.); OSw. frcesa 'spruhen, sprudeln', OE. freest 
'breath, blast', ON. fors 'violence, rage; waterfall', forsa, Dan. 

— 85 — 

fosse 'stream, gush out, roar, foam', Lith. pursla 'froth from 
the mouth', Czech, prseti 'sprtihen, stieben, regnen', ChSl. 
prachu 'dust', LRuss. porosa 'fresh snow in autumn', Skt. 
prsva ' coming from dew or frost ', pr sat, prsatd ' drop ', prsita 
'rain', prsant, prsatd 'spotted, speckled' (cf. Persson, Wz. 163; 
Uhl. Ai. Wb.). We have here the root per o-, pre- 'move rapidly, 
spring, fly, go'. Compare OE. fair 'sudden danger, calamity', 
fceran 'startle, terrify', OHG. fara 'danger', ChSl. pera, prati 
' fly ', pariti ' fly, soar ', Goth, faran ' wander, go ', etc. To the 
same root belong the following. 

2. Gk. jcqoj§ 'drop', jisqxvo^ 'dark-colored, livid', jioaxvov 
(islcuva (Hes.), Jieoxr] 'bass', Skt. prgni 'speckled, spotted', 
prksd 'pied, mottled', Ir. ere 'variegated, red', Welsh erch 
'fuscus, aquilus', OHG. forhana 'forelle' (cf. Prellw. Et. Wb.; 
Uhl. Ai. Wb.); ON. freknor, Fris. friakan 'freckles', Sw. frakne, 
E. freckle (Kluge and Lutz, Eng. Et.). 

2a. The base per-k- is also in Lat. precor 'beseech, 
entreat ', proco ' demand ', procax ' forward, bold, insolent ', OHG. 
f ergon ' demand ', fragen ' ask ', etc. These are easily combined 
under the common meaning ' spring '. This would give ' spring, 
sprinkle' and 'spring, rush toward, seek, beseech' as in Lat. 
peto 'rush at, assail; entreat, beseech'. This explanation is 
made probable by the related OE. free 'bold, greedy', ON. 
frekr ' violent, severe, eager, zealous, importunate ', frdkn ' brave, 
bold', OS. frocni 'brave, bold, insolent, wild', OE. frecne 'daring, 
bold, severe, wicked, terrible', base pre-tf- (cf. author, JGPh. 
I, 465; Hirt, PBB. XXIII, 352). Here the primary meaning is 
'move rapidly, rush forward'. Compare the like development 
in: Gk. xooftog 'foremost', ON. framr 'prominent, brave, bold, 
shameless ', OE. fram ' vigorous, bold, brave ', fremman ' further, 
urge, incite' : firmettan 'ask, request', with which compare 
Lat. premo 'press, crowd, urge, importune' (so also ON. fergja 
'press' : OHG. f ergon 'demand'); OHG. furdir 'further', furdiren 
'vorwarts bringen, fordern', fordoron 'fordern, verlangen'. 

3. Skt. sphurjati 'burst forth', Lat. spar go 'scatter, spatter, 
sprinkle', OE. spiercan 'sparkle, sputter', ME., Du. sprenkelen 
'sprinkle', MHG. sprinkel, sprenkel 'spot', ON. sprekla, Sw. 

- 86 — 

sprdkla 'spot, fleck', Dan. sprekler 'spots, freckles', sprehlet 
1 speckled, spotted '. These are from the root sp(h)er-, and are 
not related to the preceeding or to the following. For a 
different development of meaning see I, 15. 

4. MHG. spach 'dry', primarily 'cracking open', spachen 
'burst, split', LG. spakkem 'spring about quickly', MLG. 
spakeren 'spriihen', OE. specca, Lith. spogas 'speck, spot', E. 
speck, speckle, speckled (cf. I, 16). 

5. Gk. (pXem 'overflow, gush; babble', yXidcov 'babbler', 
(pX?]6dco 'babble, chatter', OE. blat 'sound, cry', blcetan, OHG. 
blazan 'bleat', etc., Gk. jza<pXdC,G> 'bubble, froth, foam, splutter' 
: ON. blettr 'blot, blemish', E. blot. 

6. ON. hella 'ausgiessen', Osset. khalyn 'sturzen', Ski 
kirdti 'streut aus, giesst aus' (cf. Uhl. Ai. Wb.), root qal- : Skt. 
kildsa 'gefleckt, aussatzig'; Ir. clam 'aussatzig'; Skt. kalmasa 
'fleck, schmutz, stinde', kalmasa 'bunt'; kdlusa 'schmutzig'; 
kdlkd 'teig, schmutz, siinde', kalanka 'fleck, make!', nearest 
akin to kirikd 'sprtihend'; kulungd, kurangd 'antelope', primarily 
'speckled' (compare Skt. prcni 'speckled' : Gk. xQexvov 
jiolxiXoxqoov IXayov [Hes.]); ChSl. kalu 'kot', Skt. kala 
'schwarz, blauschwarz ', Gk. xrjXig 'spot, stain', xrjXdg 'wind- 
cloud; bald-faced goat', Lat. caligo 'mist, darkness', caligare 
'emit vapor, be dark, darken', calidus 'bald-faced'. 

7. ON. hrapa 'sturzen, fallen' : Ir. coirbim 'besudele, be- 
flecke ', corbud ' pollution, corruption ', Lith. kirba ' swamp ', Skt. 
karbu, karbard 'gesprenkelt, bunt' (cf. Uhl. Ai. Wb. 366). These 
may be referred to the base (s)qer- ' spring ' (cf . XVI, 28). 
Compare Lith. krapinu 'besprinkle, bespatter', ChSl. kropiti 
'sprinkle, drip, besprinkle', Lat. crapula 'drunkenness' (cf. 
author, A JP. XXI, 178); ON. hrata 'waver, fall', hrat 'refuse, 
excrement', Lat. mus-{s)cerda (cf. Persson, Wz. 222 3 ), ON. hret 
'rain or snowstorm', Skt. kardama 'schlamm, schmutz'; Lat. 
curro 'run, flow', ON. hrasa 'hasten, fall', hrgnn < *hraznu, 
OE. hrcen, hcem 'wave'. 

8. Skt. galati 'drip', OHG. quellan 'quellen, scaturire', 
Gk. ftdXXco 'throw, hit, touch', (laXiog 'spotted, dappled, striped' 

— 87 — 

(cf. Prellw. Et. Wb.). Perhaps here Russ. golubyj, Pruss. 
golimban 'blue', Lith. gelumbe 'blue cloth', with which have 
been connected Russ. golubi, ChSl. golqbi, Lith. gulbis, Lett. 
gulbis, OE. culfre, E. cwZver 'dove' (cf. Holthausen, IF. X, 112). 

9. ON. dyja, Skt. dhundti 'shake', Lith. duja 'dust', Skt. 
dhvdmsati 'zerstiebt, zerstreut', OE. dust 'dust', Skt. dhusara 
'dusty, gray', dhvasird 'besprengt, bedeckt, bestaubt' (cf. X, 1, f.). 

10. Lith. dasgau 'slam', ME. dascJie 'dash', Dan. daslce 
'klopfen, schlagen; baumeln, schlenkern', Sw. daska 'schlagen', 
daskig ' schmutzgrau, schmutzig '. The base *dhoz-go- is doubt- 
less a derivative of the root dhoso- in ME. dase, E. daze 
'stupefy, stun', ON. dasash 'become weary', dasadr 'weary'. 

11. We may assume a color- word 'spotted, speckled' as 
the basis of Skt. prdaJcu 'natter, schlange' : 'tiger, panther', 
NPers. palang 'leopard', Gk. jidgdog, Jtagdalog (cf. Uhl. Ai. 
Wb.), and of Gk. jiegdit- 'rebhuhn'. Compare especially Gk. 
jtagdaxog, jtogdaxog 'feucht, nass'. Here also Skt par date, 
Gk. jttQdoftai, OHG. ferzan, etc., base per-do- ' blow out, spout 
out, spurt, sprinkle', root pero- 'move rapidly'. See 1 and 
2 above. 


We saw above (cf. VII, 16, 17) that various color- words 
come from the primary meaning 'rough, uneven'. Like these 
are others which start from such meanings as 'waving, curving, 
turning, changing, mixing', etc. Thus: Lat. crispo 'curl, crisp, 
make rough, uneven, variegated'; variiis 'diverse, different, 
changing, particolored, variegated'. 

1. Lith. Jcampas 'ecke, winkel', Jcumpas 'krumm', Gk. 
xafuiTco 'bend, crook, curve', Skt. Mmpate 'tremble', i. e. 
'curl, wave, waver', root qamp-, qap- 'crook, curve, curl, waver' 
: Skt. Jcapota 'grau, bleigrau'; 'taube', NPers. Jcabud 'grau, 
blau', Jcabutar 'taube'. These are in form nearest related to 
Lat. caput, ON. liofod ' head ', primarily ' shell ', so named from 
its curved form. So Skt. Icapdla 'schale, hirnschale, schadel', 

— 88 — 

OE. hafola 'kopf ' ; Skt. Jcaparda 'eine gewundene kleine muschel, 
aufgewundenes haar'. To the same root belong Ski Jcapild, 
Jcapigd 'braunlich, rotlich'; ftapifijala ' haselhuhn ', NPers. leablc 
'rebhuhn'; OHG. hdbuh, OE. ha foe, ON. hauler 'hawk', pre- 
Germ. *qapugd- 'the gray bird' (cf. Horn, Np. Ei; Uhl. Ai. Wb.). 

2. Ski mlayati 'erschlafft, wird schwach', Gk. fiiZeog 
'vergeblich, ungltieklich ', Lai mains 'schlecht', Lith. m&las 
'ltige', milyju 'verfehle, irre mich', Lett, ma'ldit 'irren, sich 
versehen', mu'ldet 'herum irren', ChSl. blqditi, blesti k irren', 
blqdu 'irrtum', bledi 4 betrug', Goth, blandan 'mischen', OE. 
blandan 'mix, disturb, corrupt', blanden-feax 'gray-haired'. 
Here perhaps also Germ. *blunda-, MLai blundus, blondus 
'blond' (cf. Uhl. EiWb.). Goth, blinds 'blind' is from the 
same root but through an entirely different development of 
meaning (cf. XV, 6). With the above bases mel-, meldh-, 
mlendh- compare mels- in ON. milsha 'mischung', Lett, me'lst 
'verwirrt reden, phantasieren ', Ir. mellaim 'betriige', mell 
'stinde, fehler'; meluo-, mlu- in ME. melwe 'mellow', Skt. malvd 
'unbesonnen, toricht', Gk. dfiplvq 'blunt, dull, dim, faint, weak', 
OHG. Modi ' ge-, zerbrechlich, schwach, zaghaft ', etc. (cf. author, 
Mod. Lang. Notes, XV, 327); mel-ta- in OHG. melda 'verrat, 
verlaumdung, angeberei', MHG. ane melde 'ohne verrat, ohne 
luge, ftirwahr', etc. 


Many words for 'dusk, dark, black' are from 'stir up, 
confuse, agitate', from which also, in many cases, come 'cloud', 
'mist', 'storm', 'smoke'. 

la. ON. dyja 'shake', Gk. frvw 'storm, rage', Lai fumus, 
Skt. dhumd 'smoke', dhum-aJcsd 'dim-eyed', dhumrd 'dim, gray, 
brownish red', Lett, dums, dumjsch 'dark-brown'. 

lb. OE. dofian 'rage', OHG. toben 'rasen, toben', MHG. 
tuft 'dunst, nebel, tau, reif, OHG. tuft 'frost', Gk. rv<pa>Q 
'whirlwind, storm', xvyog 'smoke, mist, folly', Tv<ploq 'blind, 
dim, dark', Ir. dub, Corn, duv 'black', Goth, -dubo 'dove', 
daufs 'deaf, dumbs 'stumm', Icel. dumba 'dark color', base 

— 89 — 

dhu-bho-, with which compare dM-po- in Ski dhupa ' smoke, 
incense', dhupdyati ' fumigate, perfume' (cf. Prellw. Ei Wb. 
s. v. dvw, ftvfiog rv(pm etc.; Fick, Wb. II 4 , 153; author, Pub. 
MLA. XIV, 301). 

lc. Lith. dulineju 'wander about', OE. divolian ' stray, 
err', dwelian 'lead astray', Goth, dwals, OE., OS. dot, OHG. 
tol 'stupid, dull', E. dull 'stupid, blunt, dim', Gk. doXoq 'mud, 
dirt', dolsQog 'muddy, turbid, thick, dark', Lith. dulis 'smudge', 
Ir. dall 'blind', Ski dhuli 'dust, pollen', dhulika 'mist', Lat. 
fullgo 'soot, black paint' (cf. Brugm. Grd. I 2 , 439; Uhl. Ai. Wb. 
s. v. dhulis). 

Id. Lith. dukineju 'rase umher', dukinu 'mache rasend', 
duka 'ein dummer', dukis 'tollheit', dukas 'feiner dunst; geist, 
sinn ', dvokti ' stinken ', Lett, dukans ' dunkelfarbig, braun ', OE. 
deag 'dye, color', deagian 'dye', deagung 'dyeing, color', deagol, 
diegle 'secret, hidden', OHG. tougal 'dunkel, verborgen', tougan 
' verborgen, heimlich '. 

le. OE. deor 'bold, severe, fierce', Pol. durny 'narrisch', 
Lith. durnas 'rasend, toll', Gk. ftovgoq ' anstiirmend ', ON. dura 
' slumber ' i. e. ' be dull ', Lat. furo ' rase, wttte ' (cf. Persson, 
Wz. 59), furvos ' dark, dusky, gloomy, black '. 

1 f. Lith. dusiu ' pant, sigh ', dvesiu ' breathe, expire, die ', 
dusas 'vapor', OE. dwces, dysig, OHG. tusig 'toricht', Sw. duska 
'rieseln, nebeln', duskig 'triibe und regnerisch', dusk 'trtibes 
und regnerisches wetter ', OE. dose ' dark ', E. dusk, dusky, Lat. 
fuscus 'dark, dusky', OE. dtvwscan 'extinguish', Lith. duszinu 
'mache ohnmachtig' (cf. Persson, Wz. 81). To the same base 
but with a differently developed meaning are OE. dust 'dust', 
Ski dhusara 'dusty, gray' (v. VIII, 9) and Skt. dlivamsati 
'zerstiebt', dhvasrd 'zerfallend, welk', dhvasmdn 'verdunkelung' 
(v. XIV, 8). 

lg. ON. dyja 'shake', Gk. Lesb. dvlco 'storm, roar', Skt. 
dhuydte 'be shaken', Lat. suf-fio 'fumigate', suf-fi-men, suf-fi-tus 
'fumigation' (cf. Brugm. Grd. I 2 , 323) : Lith. pri-dvejas 'dumpfig', 
dvylas 'schwarz oder schwarzkopfig ' (vom rinde), dvylys 'ein 
schwarzer oder schwarzkopfiger ochse'. To the secondary 
base dhui- belong OE. dtvinan 'waste away, dwindle', ON. 
dvma 'diminish, cease', LG. dwinen l Du. dwijnen 'vanish', 

— 90 — 

pre-Germ. *dhui-no- 'scattering, falling off, dwindling'. Here 
the development is like that in Skt. dhvdmsati 'zerstiebt, 
zerstreut'. From 'shake, agitate', comes 'beat, strike' in Lith. 
dvailiii 'schlage'. Compare Lat. q/imtio 'shake, agitate, drive; 
beat, strike ' (cf. I, 51 c). 

2. Gk. &Qc6(jxa), e&oQov 'leap, spring, spring upon, attack', 
&6qvv{u ' copulate ', froQoq ' semen ', OHG. tart, OE. darop, ON. 
darr 'dart, javelin', E. dart 'missile weapon', dart 'throw, 
hurl; fly or run rapidly', Skt. -dhara 'strom, guss', dhara 
' strom, guss, erguss', base dhuro- (dliero-) 'spring, move, stir' 
: Lith. ddrbas 'arbeit', darbiis 'arbeitsam', dirbu ' arbeite ', OE. 
ge-deorf < *dhcr-bho- 'labor, effort, hardship', dcorfan 'labor, 
perish', dierfan 'injure', dearf, ON. djarf, djorf ' ktthn, dreist', 
OS. derbi 'kraftig, feindlich, bose', Dan. djcerv 'derb, ktthn, 
dreist', Sw. djarf 'ktthn', OFries. derf 'heftig', NHG. derb, 
base dher-bJio-, dhor-bho- 'move rapidly, exert oneself, toil; be 
active, bold'. With these compare dhre-bho-, dhru-bho- 'stir 
up, agitate, trttben' : Gk. raQCfvq 'thick, close', raocpoQ 'closeness, 
thickness', TQeyco 'thicken, curdle, congeal', ON. draf, OE. 
drcef 'draff, dregs', OHG. trebir 'traber', OE. drof 'turbid, 
muddy', OS. drobi, OHG. truobi 'trttbe', Goth, drobjan 'ver- 
wirren, trttben', OHG. truoben 'verwirren, aufregen, trttben'. 
From the same root comes the group in no. 3. 

2 a. The base dhero- here is probably the same as in Skt. 
dhardyati 'tragt, halt', primarily 'carry, bear', hence 'support, 
hold', etc. (cf. author, AJP. XX, 258 f.). 

3. OE. dreccan ' trouble, annoy, vex ', Gk. raQayjj ' trouble, 
disorder, confusion', &q<x<jOcq 'trouble, disquiet', Lith. dtrgau 
'disorder', dergia 'be bad weather, storm', dargiis 'rainy', 
ddrgana 'rainy weather', OE. deorc 'dark' < *dherghno-, 
OHG. tarclianjan, terchinen 'verbergen, verstecken', MHG. terlcen 
'dunkel machen, besudeln', Ir. derg 'red', ON. drcgg, Pruss. 
dr agios 'dregs' (cf. Fick, Wb. II 4 , 149; Uhlenbeck, PBB. 
XXII, 536). 

4. Lith. sveriu 'weigh', primarily 'sway, swing', svirus 
'schwebend, schwankend, baumelnd', sverdu 'schwanke, taumele', 

— 91 — 

Lat. surdus 'indistinct, stupid, dull', ab-surdus 'senseless, stupid, 
dull, rude ', sordes ' mud ', Goth, sivarts, ON. svartr, OE. siveart, 
OS. swart, Dan. svart, sort 'dark, black', ON. sorte 'black 
cloud', sorta 'black pigment, black color' : *suer-go- 'swing, 
agitate', OE. ge-siveorc 'cloud, mist', sweorcan 'become dark, 
sad, grievous', swear can 'get dark', OS. giswerlc ' finsternis ', 
giswerhan 'finster werden', swerlcan 'traurig werden', OHG. 
giswerc ' verfinstrung durcb gewolk, finstres wettergewolk ', 
MHG. swarc 'finster', Ger. dial, schwarh 'raincloud, thunder- 
cloud ', Du. zwerh etc., base suero- ' sway, swing ' (cf. I, 45). 

4 a. Germ, siverka- may be connected with Svarogu, the 
Slavic god of the sky (cf. Uhlenbeck, PBB. XXII, 199 f.), but 
hardly with Skt. svargd 'zum himmel gehend oder fiihrend, 
himmlisch; himmel, aufenthalt der seligen'. 

5. Skt. dhdmati ' blast, facht an, wirft blasen, gart ', ChSl. 
dumq,, Lith. dumiu 'wehe, blase', NPers. dam 'atein', damtdan 
' wehen, blasen ', Osset. dumun, dymyn ' blasen, wehen, rauchen ' 
(cf. Horn, Neupersch. Et. 572) : Ir. deim 'diister', deme 'dunkel- 
heit', OE. dimiin) 'dim, dark', dim-nes 'darkness; mist; dimness' 
(of eye-sight), ON. dimmr 'dark', dimma 'darkness', OHG. 
timber 'dunkel, finster; dumpf, timberl 'caligo', Gk. &e^EQoq' 
otfivog (Hes.), d-t^egwjiiq 'ernst blickend' (cf. Prellw. Et. Wb.; 
Fick, Wb. II 4 , 147) : MHG. dimpfen 'dampfen, rauchen' < 
*dhem-bo-, dampf, tampf 'dampf, rauch', E., Du. damp 'feuchtig- 
keit', MHG. dump fen, dumpf en 'dampfen, dampfen', NHG. 
dumpf, E. dump 'sadness, melancholy', Du. dompig 'feucht, 
finster'. Here perhaps Gk. rayoq, frdf/Poq 'staunen', ftafiptco 
' staune '. 

6. E. dank 'damp', Sw. dial. danJc 'a marshy piece of 
ground ', ON. deJcJcr ' dark ', OHG. tunchar, tunclial, MHG. tunkel 
'dunkel, trUbe, dumpf. These are from a base * 'alien- g%o-, 
which is perhaps from the root dhema- of the above. 

6 a. Another possibility is to connect the base dhembo- 
with dhe(m)bho-: Skt. dabhnoti 'beschadigt, versehrt', dabhrd 
'gering, schwach', dahara 'klein, fein', Gk. xi(pQa 'asche, 
staub, sand' (cf. XII, 11). In this case compare also Goth, 
afdobnan ' verstummen ', dumbs 'stumm' etc. 

— 92 — 

7. OHG. dr alien 'breathe, exhale; smell', drasen 'exhale, 
snort ', MHG. dras ' exhalation, odor ', ON. ]>rasa ' snort ', prces- 
ingr 'violent blowing', OE. prosm 'vapor, smoke', OS. gi- 
tlimsmod 'dark'. We may derive these from the root stero-, 
(s)tre- 'stieben, spriihen, spritzen' (cf. author, Pub. ML A. XIV, 
305) or better from tero-, tre- 'tremble, shake', whence ' throb, 
pant, puff'. In the latter case compare ON. firasa 'bustle, 
bluster, quarrel' (which in fact is the same as^rasa'schnauben'), 
Goth. ]>rasa-bal])ei ' streitsucht ', Skt. trdsati ' tremble ', etc., and 
OHG. draen 'wirbeln; drehen', etc. 

8. Gk. dovtco 'shake, agitate, disturb', ali-dovog 'sea- 
tossed' : dvoyog 'darkness, dusk', dvoyeQog 'dark, dusky, 
murky'. We have the same root in Gk. dvo-naXiCp) 'swing, 
toss about' (compare dovico and nalXco) and in dev-diXXco 
(author, Pub. ML A. XIV, 333). Gk. 6v6q>og has no connection 
with yvo<pog, xvscpag, or tytrpog. 

9. Lith. Jcrapineju 'stumble about', Skt. Jcrpand 'wretched, 
miserable', Jcrpate 'mourn, beseech', Lat. crepo 'rattle, clatter, 
clash', primarily 'shake' : creper 'wavering, doubtful, uncertain; 
dusky, dark', creperum 'darkness', crepusculum 'dusk, twilight'. 
Compare with these the base qrobo- in ON. hrapa 'hasten, 
rush, fall', lirap 'fall', hrapad-ligr 'in haste, hasty, violent; 
unlucky, unfortunate', -liga 'noisily, boisterously'. 

10. OE. recan 'go, rush', ge-rec 'tumult', Skt. rahgati 
'schwankt', rdjyati 'gerat in aufregung', rajas 'dunstkreis, 
dunst, nebel, dunkel', Gk. sgtfiog 'dunkel der unterwelt', 
tgepevvog 'finster', Arm. erek 'abend', ON. rekkr 'finsternis, 
dammrung ', Goth, riqis ' finsternis ' (cf. I, 65). 

11. In this group belong many words for 'dark' whose 
primary meaning is 'thick, dense'. Thus E. thick is used in 
the sense of 'turbid, muddy, misty ', like OE. ])icnes 'thickness; 
darkness'. So: Lat. crassus 'thick, dense, heavy' (atmosphere); 
densus 'dense, thick' (clouds, shade, night); spissus 'crowded, 
compact; dense, thick' (mist, darkness); Skt. ghand 'firm, 
compact, hard, thick; dark', and as noun 'mass, heap, cloud', 
sd-ghana 'dense, cloudy'. 



Closely connected with these are other words for 'misty, 
cloudy, dark', in which the primary meaning is 'flow, rain, 
burst forth' and the like. 

1. OE. to-sltpan 'zergeken', OHG. slifan 'gleiten, sinken', 
Lat. libo 'take a little from; pour out', Gk. Isifico 'pour, pour 
forth', ZtpQog 'dripping, wet : gloomy, dark' (cf. Brugm. Grd. 
1 2 , 507). These are from a base sli- in OE. slim ' slime ' etc. 
(cf. VII, 28). The bases sli- and li- fell together in form and 

2. Lat. nimbus 'rainstorm, black raincloud, thunder-cloud', 
OE. ge-nip 'mist, cloud, darkness', nipan 'grow dark', Goth. 
ga-nipnan 'become gloomy, sad', base nei-bo- 'drip, flow' (cf. 
IV, 2), root wet- in Skt. nird 'water'; nedati 'flow, stream'; 
nenekti, Gk. r/gco 'wash, cleanse'; niha-ka, nihard 'mist', Lat. 
niger 'dark, gloomy, black' (cf. author, AJP. XXI, 179). 

2 a. With nei- compare the synonymous snei- in Skt. 
snihyati 'wird feucht, wird klebrig', Lat. ninguo 'snow', etc.; 
OE. snlcan 'creep, crawl, schleichen', Dan. snige sig 'sich 
schleichen', ON. snikja 'begehren; schmarotzen', snikinn 'gierig, 
begierig', Sw. sniken 'geizig', bases snei-guho- and snei-go- 
'drip, be moist, snow; be slimy, slip, slide; be sticky, cling to, 
desire'. This double meaning is in Skt. snihyati 'wird feucht, 
klebrig; heftet sich an, empfindet neigung zu', sneJidyati 
'macht geschmeidig, unterwurfig, uberwaltigt '. Compare Skt. 
limpdti ' beschmiert ', ChSl. lipeti 'anhaften, ankleben' : Gk. 
Ujitco 'begehre', Lith. lepiu 'befehle' (cf. Prellw. Et.Wb.). 

3. Skt. ndbliate 'berstet', dblwd 'wolke', Gk. ayQoq 'foam', 
Lat. imber ' rain ', Skt. ndbhas ' dunst, gewolk, nebel ', Gk. vitpoq, 
vtyeZr] 'w r olke, nebel', Lat. nebula, OHG. nebul 'nebel', MHG. 
nebel 'nebel, dunkel', nebel-var 'nebelfarb, duster ', ON. njol 
'nacht', base enebJw- 'sw T ell out, burst forth, mist' (cf. Prellw. 
Et. Wb.). 

4. ON. hella 'ausgiessen', Skt. Urdti 'streut aus, giesst 
aus', Lat. callgo 'vapor, mist, fog; darkness, dimness', caligare 

— 94 — 

'emit vapor, steam, reek; be dark, gloomy; be dimsighted '. 
Other words for ' dark, black ' in this group have a differently 
developed meaning (cf. VIII, 6). 


Several words for 'dust, ashes, smoke, vapor, smoldering 
fire' etc. come from such meanings as 'crush, wear away, rub 
off, consume'. With these are often connected color-words of 
various kinds. 

1. Skt. bdbhasti 'zermalmt, verzehrt, frisst', OE. ge-bered 
'crushed; afflicted', Skt. bhds-man 'asche', Ir. boimm 'bissen, 
stuck', Gk. (pttyalog 'spruhasche, qualm' < *bhebh(o)solo-, 
<pe\pal6(D 'aschere ein', ipoXog 'soot, smoke', (poloeig 'sooty, 
smoky; dirty, dusky'. Compare the following. 

2. Gk. ipo<pog 'crash, noise, sound' < *pso-bho- 'crushing, 
grating, crashing', ips<pag 'vapor, smoke, darkness', tyfcp?]v6g 
'dark, obscure', ysrpaQog 'cloudy, gloomy, dark'. Compare 
*psd-bho- in Gk. iprjtpog 'pebble', \pa(i[iog 'sand, powder, meal', 
ifm<paQog 'friable, powdery, dusty', Lat. sabulum. Perhaps 
here Russ. sobole, Lith. sabala 'sable'. Compare the following. 

3. Gk. ipo&og 'noise' (i. e. 'grating, crushing'); 'soot, 
smoke', tyodtog' ipoloeic (Hes.), ipaOvQog 'friable, crumbling', 
base *pso-dho-, with which compare pse-do- in Gk. ipsdvog 
'rubbed off, thin, bald', tyadvgog 'friable, crumbling'. 

3 a. Other derivatives of pse-, psa- are: Gk. ipexag, tyaxag 
'grain, crumb, morsel, bit, drop', ipaxa^co 'drizzle, drip'; ipsyaj 
'make smaller, lessen, disparage, blame', ipoyog 'blame, censure', 
ON. saka 'injure, harm, accuse', sakadr 'wounded, injured, 
harmed', sakna 'miss', OHG. salihan 'schelten, tadeln', Goth. 
sakan 'streiten' etc.; Goth, sair 'schmerz', ON. sar 'wound', 
OE. sar 'wound, sore, pain, grief, Ir. sdeth 'leid, mtthe, krank- 
heit', base sai- (cf. Uhl. Et. Wb.) from psai- : Gk. ipaico 'rub, 
crush', ipla) 'rub to pieces', t/;/£ 'crumb, morsel, bit', iploig 'a 
rubbing to pieces', yiXog 'bare, naked', etc.; Lat. saucius 
'wounded, hurt, injured, sick' < *psaiikio- : Gk. tyavm 'touch, 

— 95 — 

graze', ipavxQog ' swift', primarily ' grazing, skimming' (the 
surface of the ground). 

4. Gk. a^am 'rub, wipe off', Cfirjlco' Oftaco, Cfi^Xrj 'oint- 
ment', OE. smcel 'small; fine (powder); slender, narrow', OHG. 
smal 'klein, gering, schlank, schmal', MHG. smelhe 'schmal, 
gering', Lett, smalks 'fein, diinn', smalknes 'feilstaub, sage- 
spane', Lith. smulkus 'fein, klein', smidkinu 'mache klein oder 
fein', smalkai 'rauch, dunst, dampf, smilkau 'rauchere', pa- 
smalkis 'dunst vom nassen holz', smelkiii 'ersticke', smilkti 
'einen schwachen rauch oder dunst von sich geben'. Here 
may belong, as some think, Goth, milhma 'wolke'. For a 
different explanation see VII, 5. 

5. Gk. Cf/vyoo ' cause to smolder or waste away ', s6fivy?]i> 
'smoldered away', base smu-gho-, smu-go- 'rub away, wear 
away, consume', OE. smeocan, Du. smoken 'smoke', smook, OE. 
smoca 'smoke'. Lith. smdugiu 'wtirge' comes from the primary 
meaning 'rub, press' rather than from 'smother'. 

6. OSw. smola 'small particle', Sw. smula 'brosame, 
krume, brocken', Dan. smule 'brocken, bissen', smuld 'staub', 
smulre, smuldre 'zerfallen, verwittern', Du. smeulen, LG. smcelen, 
ME. smoldere ' smolder ', base smu-lo- ' wear away, consume '. 

7. LG., Du. smoren 'dampfen, ersticken; schmoren, rosten', 
OE. smorian 'choke, suffocate', ME. smorther 'stifling smoke, 
smother', Czech, smouriti 'umwolken, triiben', Russ. smuryj 
' dunkelgrau ', base smu-ro- 'wear away, consume; smolder, 
smoke '. 

7a. The base smu- 'rub, smear' occurs also in the sense 
'slip, creep, glide, penetrate': Lith. smukti 'rutschend oder 
gleitend sinken', ChSl. smykati s§ 'slip, creep', OE. smugan 
'creep, penetrate gradually', MHG. smiegen etc. (cf. author, 
AJP. XX, 262 f.). 

8. OE. swyle, ge-swell 'swelling, tumor', swellan 'swell', 
OHG. sivellan ' anschwelleu, intumescere; vor hunger und durst 
verschmachten', ON. svala 'loschen, ktthlen', Dan. svale 'ktthlen, 
abkiihlen', MHG. swelc 'welk, mlirbe', base siwlo- 'sway, swell; 

— 96 — 

weaken, give way, droop, waste away' : ON. svcela 'rauch, 
qualm', svcela ' ausrauchen ', OE. forswcelan 'burn up, scorch', 
sivelan 'burn, glow', OHG. sivilizzon 'langsam verbrennen', 
Lett, sivelt 'sengen', Lith. svilti 'schwelen', svilus 'glimmend', 
svildinu 'lasse sengen', OHG. swelzan ' hinschmachten, sich in 
liebesglut verzehren, wegbrennen ', Goth, swiltan ' langsam hin- 
sterben', OS., OE. siveltan 'die', ON. svelta 'hungern, ver- 
hungern, sterben', svelta, sultr, Dan. suit, Sw. svalt 'hunger', 
ODu. sivelten 'fail, hunger', ME. sivelten 'swoon, faint, die', 
E. swelter 'be overcome and faint with heat', sweltry, sultry 
'schwiil, driickend heiss und feucht' (cf. Schade, Wb.; Brug- 
mann, Grd. II, 1052). 

9. Lith. siaucziu 'tobe, wtite', OHG. sivintan 'schwinden, 
vergehen, abmagern, bewusstlos, ohnmachtig werden', MHG. 
swindel 'schwindel, vertigo', swenden 'ausreuten, fortschaifen, 
vertilgen, verbrauchen, verzehren', OE. sivindan 'waste away; 
be torpid', sivodrian 'be drowsy, sleep heavily' : OHG. sivedan 
'abdampfen, langsam dampfend verbrennen', MHG. sivadem, 
OE. swafiul 'dampf, dunst', Sw. sveda 'sengen, versengen', 
svedja 'abbrennen, abschwenden' (cf. 1,49). 

10. ON. sveima 'swing, sway', MHG. stveimen 'schweben, 
schweifen', OE. swima 'dizziness, swoon'; ON. svina 'nach- 
lassen', OHG. swinan 'schwinden, hinschwinden, abnehmen, 
sich nach und nach einziehen durch austrocknung oder innere 
auflosung, welken, bewusstlos werden', MHG. siveinen 'ver- 
ringern, schwachen, vernichten' : ON. svida, Dan. svide, Sw. 
svida ' brennen, sengen, schmerzen ' (cf. I, 51). 

11. Skt. dabhnoti, ddbhati 'beschadigt, versehrt, betriigt', 
dabJird 'gering, schwach, wenig', clahara 'klein, fein' : Gk. 
Tt<pga ' asche, staub, sand ' (cf. Prellw. Et. Wb.). See X, 6 a. 

12. Lett, grdust 'nagen, knaupeln', ChSl. gryzq,, Russ. 
gryzu 'nage', Lith. grduziu, griduziu 'nage', Gk. Pqvx<x> 'knirsche 
mit den zahnen' : Lith. griauzdu 'schwele', gruzdu 'schwele, 
glimme'. The root gureu- 'crush' is also in Goth, hiustan 
'knirschen', OSw. Jcrysta 'quetschen', OHG. Irouwon 'kratzen', 
OE. cruma, ODu. crume 'krume' (cf. Prellw. Et. Wb.). 

- 97 — 

The starting point of a large number of color-words is 
'flow, flow out; vanish, disappear; fall away, dwindle ' and the 
like. This gives (1) 'clear up' or (2) 'fade'. From (1) develops 
'clear, serene, bright'; from (2) 'pale, sallow, livid, dark- 
colored '. 

1. Skt. ksdrati 'fliesst, zerrinnt, schwindet', Lat. serum 
'whey, serum', serenus 'clear, fair, bright' (cf. Brugm. Grd. 1 2 , 
791). Or we may equally well derive Lat. serum, serenus 
from the root sero-: Skt. sisarti, sdrati 'eilt, fliesst', sard 
' fliissig ' (cf. Uhl. Ai. Wb. s. v.). Here perhaps also Lith. sartas 

2. Skt. Txsinati 'destroy', ksiti 'destruction', Gk. yd-ivm 
'waste away', (p&ioig 'decay, wasting away', Lat. situs 'wasting 
away, rust, mold, mildew ' (cf. Brugm. as above). Another step 
would give us 'gray' or 'pale'. 

3. MHG. vlceen 'spiilen, waschen', Lith. pilu 'schiitte, 
giesse', root pelo- 'pour; flow' : Lith. peleti 'schimmeln', Arm. 
aliJch 'waves; white beard, white hair', alevor 'gray', ChSl. 
plavu 'white', pelesu 'gray', lAth. pdlszas 'faded, pale', palvas 
'pale-yellow', ON. folr 'pale', OHG. falo 'fahl, falb', OE. fealo 
'dull-colored, yellow, yellowish-red, brown', Lat. pullus 'dark- 
colored, blackish-gray, blackish ', palled ' fade, be sallow, yellow, 
pale', pallor 'pale color, wanness; mustiness, moldiness', pallidas 
'pale, pallid; musty, moldy', Gk. jreXXog 'dark, dusky', jteZwg 
'black and blue, livid', jioXiog 'gray, white, clear, serene', 
jtsXizvoQ, jttlidvoq 'livid', Skt. palitd 'gray, hoary', fern. 
pdlihii, Lith. pilkas 'gray', plikas 'bald', plike 'baldness; bare 
meadow', plekti 'moderig werden' (cf. Schade, Wb. s. v. falo; 
Prellw. Et. Wb. s. v. xelidvfe Kluge, Et. Wb. s. v. fahl; Uhl. 
Ai. Wb. s. v. palitds). 

3 a. The great variety of meanings in the above comes 
from 'flow out, fade; clear up, become serene'. In most cases 
' fade ' is the underlying meaning. So also in the derived root 
pleuo-, plu-: Skt. pldvate 'swim, float; vanish', Lith. plaulciu 
'swim', pluriku, plukti 'fade', OE. fleah 'albugo'. 


— 98 - 

4 Gk. ylico, <plidaco ' overflow, flow out from', ChSl. bledu 
'pale', Lith. blaivas 'clear, bright; sober', OE. blat 'pale, livid', 
blatian 'be pale', OHG. pleiza 'livor' (cf. 1,26). Here also 
the double meaning 'clear, bright' and 'pale, livid' is con- 
clusive evidence for 'flow out' : 'clear up'; 'fade'. 

5. Gk. <pXem, (pZva) 'overflow, flow out', Germ, blewa- 
' livid, blue', OHG. blao 'blau' etc. Even with this explanation 
we cannot directly connect Lat. flavos, which has a differently 
developed meaning (cf. I, 24). And Germ, blewa- is perhaps 
rather from pre-Germ. *nileuo- (cf. VII, 5). 

6. Ski liyate, Idyate 'withdraw, shrink, disappear', Gk. 
Zsiqoq ' thin, pale, sallow ' (cf. Prellw. Et. Wb. s. v.), Lat. luror 
< Hoiros 'paleness, sallowness, yellowish color', luridus 'pale 
yellow, sallow, ghastly, wan'; Lat. ob-livio, ob-lwium, primarily 
'slipping away, vanishing', liveo 'be bluish', livens, lividus 
'bluish, leaden, livid', livor 'bluish color' (cf. author, AJP. 
XXI, 178 f.), Ir. li, Welsh lliw 'color' (cf. Fick, Wb. II*, 251); 
Gk. Xotrog' loifiog (Hes.), i.e. 'a slipping away, dwindling', 
Germ. lt]>an 'slip away, depart, go', Goth, af-leipan 'weggehen', 
bi-leipan 'verlassen', OHG. leid 'betrubend, verhasst' (cf. 
Persson, Wz. 15), Ir. liath 'grau', Welsh llwyd 'canus', OBret. 
loit 'chenue'. 

7. Lith. leja 'giesse', Skt. Idyate 'slip away, shrink' etc. 
(cf. Uhl. Ai. Wb. s. v. rinati, linati for cognates) : Skt. limpdti 
'beschmiert, besudelt', Lat. lippus 'dropping, running; blear- 
eyed', limpa 'water', limpidus 'clear, limpid'. 

8. Skt. rindldi 'let go, let free, leave', Gk. Ztijzco, Lat. 
linquo 'leave', liquet 'is fluid; is clear, is apparent', liquidus 
'fluid, liquid; clear, transparent, limpid; calm, serene'. A 
common meaning and probably a common root may be assumed 
for 6, 7, 8. 

9. OHG. wanon, ON. vana, OE. wanian 'wane, diminish', 
wan, OHG. wan, ON. vanr, Goth, wans 'ermangelnd, fehlend', 
Gk. evviQ 'bereft' : OE. wann 'dark', wanniht 'pale', a-wannian 
'become pale', E. wan : Lith. vanagas, Lett, wanags, Pruss. 
wanax 'hawk'. 




10. Skt. mddati 'rejoice, frolic; intoxicate', Lat. madeo 
'be wet', Gk. ftadaa) 'be wet, melt away; fall off (of hair), 
be bald', fiadagog 'melting away; flabby, loose; bald', ChSl. 
modru 'livid' (cf. Uhl. Ai. Wb. s. v. madirds). Here 'bald' and 
'livid' represent the slightly divergent development 'fall away, 
fall off' : 'become faint, languid'. 

11. Lat. pejor 'worse', Goth, faian 'tadeln', Skt. piyati 
1 schmaht ', Gk. jretva ' famine, hunger ' (cf. Prellw. Et. Wb.), 
root pel- 'waste away, diminish, verschmachten; klein machen, 
schmahen' (cf. OHG. smaJien 'klein machen' : NHG. schmdheri), 
Skt. pita, pitaTca ' yellow ', primarily ' faded '. The root pei- 
' waste away' is probably the same as pel- 'flow, flow out; 
overflow, swell'. 

12. OHG. waso 'damp ground', wasal 'rain', ON. ausa, 
Lat. haurio, Gk. avco 'draw water, drain out' (cf. Prellw. 
s. v.) : OHG. ivesanen ' become dry, rot ', ON. visenn ' withered ', 
OE. wisnian 'dry up, wither', iveornian 'fade' (cf. author, 
Pub. MLA. XIV, 314). 

13. Skt. giyate 'fall off, fall away, vanish', gesa 'left, 
remaining ', gindsti, gisydte ' be left, remain ', gikate ' drip ', root 
kei- 'fall away, disappear, leave, be left', which is perhaps 
the same as kei- 'settle down, rest' in Skt. gite 'lie, rest', etc. 
From this root in the sense 'disappear, vanish' come words 
for ' clear, bright, white ' and others for ' vanished, faded, dark- 
colored ' : ON. heidr ' clear, serene ', heid ' clearness, clear sky ', 
lieida 'clear up', OE. liador 'clear, bright; clearness, brightness', 
OHG. heitar 'heiter, hell'. These we may compare with Skt. 
giti, which is used in the sense ' white ', primarily ' clear ', and 
also ' dark-colored, blue, black ', i. e. ' faded '. Here belongs 
ON. heidir ' hawk '. So Skt. gyetd (fern, gyeni) ' reddish white ', 
ChSl. sini 'dark-blue' : Skt. gyend 'eagle, hawk' (cf. Uhl. 
Ai. Wb. s. v.). From ' faded ' come Skt. gyamd ' dark, black ', 
Lith. sz&mas 'aschgrau, blaugrau', szyvas ' schimmelfarbig ', 
ChSl. sivu, Pruss. sywan 'gray', OE. Jicewe 'blue', Skt. gyavd 
'dark, dark-brown' (cf. Uhl. Ai. Wb. s. v.). To these add Lat. 
caesius < *kdit-tio-s 'bluish gray', and probably OE. Jiar 'gray, 
hoary; old', ON. Mrr 'hoary', OHG. her 'hehr'. This last is 


— 100 — 

a derived meaning. In this group we have the same double 
development as in Lith. blaivas 'clear, bright' : OE. Mat 'pale, 

14. Ski gvdyati 'swell', whence 'overflow, flow out' in 
Lai cavus 'empty, hollow', Skt. guna-m 'emptiness, absence, 
want', gunyd 'empty, vacant, vain' : Gk. xvavog 'dark-blue 
substance; blue corn-flower', in comp. xvavo- 'dark-blue', 
xvdvsog 'dark-blue, dark-colored', to which are added (cf. 
Prellw. Et.Wb.) Lith. szvinas, Lett, svins 'lead'. 

15. Skt. sundti 'press out', Gk. vet 'it rains', OHG. sou, 
OE. seaw 'sap, juice', seap 'cistern, pond', etc., root su- 'swell, 
overflow, flow out' : Skt. gusyati 'dry, wither', Lith. saiisas 
'dry', OE. sear 'dry, withered', E. sear, etc. (cf. Prellw. Ei 
Wb. s. v. avog). Though not exactly a color- word, E. sear, 
when applied to leaves or vegetation, implies a yellow or 
brown color. The opposite development, 'flow out, become 
dry : clear' is seen in Skt. suda 'cistern, well, swamp', base 
*su-do- ' flowing ' (with which compare the synonymous * sou-to- 
rn OE. seap), Lai sudus ' dry (i. e. ' emptied '), cloudless, bright, 
clear', OE. sutol, sweotol 'clear, distinct, evident'. A still 
different development of meaning occurs in OE. be-sutod 'dirty', 
MHG. swaz 'ausguss, ausschutt, schmutz'. For 'flow out' 
: 'dry' compare no. 12 above, and the following: OE. seap 
'cistern, pond', *seopan 'flow' : for-soden 'withered'; Lai 
spar go 'scatter, sprinkle' (OE. spier can 'sputter, sparkle') : for- 
spier can 'dry'. 

16. Root n%- 'flow, flow out' (cf. IV, 2 and XI, 2), Skt. 
nxrd 'water', nila 'dark-colored, dark-blue', mil 'indigo-plant'. 

17. Gk. df/aco 'rub, wipe off', 6{/r/?.a>' 6{/aa), Ofii^Xrj 'oint- 
ment', ChSl. smola 'pitch', Lith. smala 'tar'; OE. smcel 'small; 
fine (powder); slender, narrow', smale 'finely (ground); softly, 
quietly', OHG. smal 'klein, gering, schlank, schmal', Goth. 
smals 'small', pre-Germ. *smolo- 'rubbed, ground down, slim, 
thin' : Lith. smelus 'falb, aschgrau', pa-sme'lys 'falb, braunlich, 
von der sonne verbrannt', pa-sme'limas 'die falbe farbe', Pol. 
smalic ' schwarzbrennen, sengen'. From the same base come 

— 101 — 

MHG. smelhe 'schmal, gering', Lett, smdlks 'fein, dlinn', 
smalhies 'feilstaub, sagespane', Lith. smilhinys 'die schlafe 
am kopf, i. e. 'thin place ', smullcus 'fine, finely powdered', 
whence smalJcai ' dunst, dampf, rauch ', smalJrimi ' dunsten oder 
rauchern machen'; OHG. smelzan 'schmelzen', smalz 'schmalz', 
etc. (cf. Persson, Wz. 6Q). 

17 a. The root sme- (and sma-) occurs in many other 
derivatives with a similar development of meaning. Thus: 
OHG. smahi 'klein, gering, niedrig', gi-smaldeon 'schwinden', 
MHG. ver-smahten 'verschmachten'; base sme-ro- 'rub, strike, 
stroke, smear, wear away' etc., OHG. smero 'schmeer', Goth. 
smarna 'schmutz', Lai merda 'dung', ChSl. smradu 'filth, 
stench', etc., OHG. smerzo 'schmerz', OE. smeart 'causing pain', 
*smer-do-, *smor~do- 'rubbing, smearing; rubbing away, tearing; 
wasting away', Sw. smart 'slender', E. pro v. smartle 'waste 
away', Lith. smerdyju 'be on the point of dying'; smertis 
'death'; smarJcus 'grausam, heftig' (cf. Gk. OfieQ-dvog 'grass- 
lich', etc.), smarlcata 'schleim, rotz'. The base smolo- shows 
the same development of meaning: Lith. smilkti 'become numb; 
mortify'. Compare Lith. tirpau 'schmelze', tirpti 'schmelzen, 
zerfliessen : einschlafen oder erstarren, fiihllos werden', Lat. 
torpeo 'be stiff, numb, torpid', torpor 'numbness, torpor'; OE. 
swillan 'wash', swellan 'swell', MHG. swellen 'schwellen, an- 
schwellen; verschmachten', base *suel-no- 'flow, overflow, swell; 
flow out ', with which compare *suel-do- in OHG. sivelzan ' hin- 
schmachten, wegbrennen', Goth, swiltan 'hinsterben', ON. svelta 
'starve', sultr 'hunger', OE. sweltan 'die', ME. swelte 'swoon, 
faint, die', Lith. svildina 'lasse sengen' (cf. Schade, Wb.; 
Brugm. Grd. II, 1052; and v. XII, 8). 

18. Goth, slaw an 'schweigen', OE. sluma 'slumber', Norw. 
dial, sleyma 'dttnn werden', Sw. dial, slummen 'sehr mager, 
schwach ' (cf. Persson, Bezz. Beitr. 19, 262), base soluo-, slu- 
'slip away, subside; fall away, become thin; fade' : OE. salo 
'dark-colored', salwian 'darken, blacken', salnes 'darkness', 
E. salloiv 'bleich, fahl', ON. solr 'yellowish', OHG. salo 'dunkel- 
farbig, fuscus, furvus, niger', ChSl. slavo 'glaucus' (cf. Uhlen- 
beck, PBB. XXII, 536). The same base occurs in OE. slupan 
'glide, slip', Goth, sliupan, etc., and is probably from the root 

— 102 — 

sel- 'flow, glide' : Gk. eXog 'swamp, pool, lake', Pruss. solas 
' regenbach '. 

19. Gk. xalaa) 'give way, slacken, loosen, let sink', 
XdXaQoq 'slack, loose, languid', ym^S 'defective, maimed, 
lame ', Ir. galar ' krankheit, kummer ', ON. galle ' fehler, mangel, 
schaden' (cf. I, 56 b): Lith. gele 'gelbsucht', gdtas 'fahlgelb', 
gelta 'gelbheit', ChSl. Hutu 'gelb'. 

This explanation seems more probable than to derive the 
meaning 'yellow' here from 'bright, shining', which is, how- 
ever, a possibility (cf. I, 52). 

20. Lith. gedrus 'trocken, wolkenlos, heiter', gaidrus 
'wolkenfrei, heiter', gaidrytis 'sich aufklaren, aufheitern', 
Pruss. gaydis 'weizen', Gk. <paLdi{iog 'shining, radiant', gxxidQoc; 
'bright, beaming', <pcudQvvco 'make bright, cleanse'; <paix6q' 
(pcudgoQ, laf/jiQoc; Pruss. gaylis 'weiss', gaylux 'hermelin'; 
Lith. gaisas, gaisras 'ferner lichtglanz am horizont', Lett, ga'iss 
' luftraum, luft ', ga'ischs ' hell, klar ', ga'isma ' licht ', with which 
compare ON. geisla 'strahlen' (cf. Prellw. Et. Wb.; Berneker, 
Die preuss. Sprache, p. 289). Perhaps here also Gk. <pol$oq 
'klar, rein'. 

21. Gk. cbxQoq 'paleness, wanness', wxqoq 'pale, wan, pale- 
yellow, sallow', mxQcoiia, or/Qorrjg, coxQia 'paleness', ctf/(u«c0, 
coxQaco 'turn or be pale', wxqoco 'make pale'. The primary 
meaning here is 'absence or loss of color'. They may there- 
fore be derived from m- 'from, off', Skt. a 'hither from, all 
the way from; as far as, up to', OE. a-, ce- 'from, away, out' 
(e. g. a-dcelan 'separate', a-drcefan 'drive away, expel', a-feallan 
'fall down, fall off, decline', a-ferian 'carry away, remove', 
ce-hnv ' want of color, paleness ', ce-mod ' out of heart, dis- 
couraged', ce-note 'useless', etc.), and the base of Gk. XQ 0La i 
XQcl>iicc 'skin, color' (cf. VII, 9). Hence cb-XQog means 'lack 
of color, colorless' like OE. ce-Mw 'paleness'. 

21a. A compound of this kind might develop in two ways: 
'colorless, pale', as in Skt. apa-raJcta 'entfarbt, bleich'; or 
'discolored, dark-colored', as in Lat. de-color 'discolored, 
dulled, brown'. 

— 103 — 

22. Gk. yXevxog 'new wine', yXvxvq 'sweet', primarily 
'juicy' : yXavxog 'pale-green, grayish, blue-gray', primarily 
'flowing out, faded'. 

22 a. On the change of meaning 'juicy ' : ' sweet ' compare 
the following. Gk. %vXoq, %vy.6q 'juice, liquid : taste, flavor', 
XVfioco 'impart a taste or flavor'. — Skt. rasa 'saft, flussigkeit 
: geschmack', rasati 'schmeckt', OE. reord 'food'. — E. sop, sup 
: OHG. soffon, Goth, supon ' wurzen ' (cf. Mod. Lang. Notes XV, 
97). — Icel. lyshra 'moisture in hay', E. lush 'full of juice or 
succulence' : luscious (cf. MLN. XV, 329). — Skt. sdras 'saftig, 
feucht : schmackhaft ', Lith. sdlti 'suss werden', saldus 'suss'. 


Closely connected with the above group in the development 
of meaning are several words for 'dim, dark, black' which 
have grown out of the primary meanings 'fade', 'faint', 'be- 
come weak', 'waste away', 'daze', 'stun', etc. They differ 
from the above in producing only dark colors. 

1. Skt. jinati 'grow old, become weak', OE. a-cwman 
'dwindle, become extinct', Gk. deielog 'evening', Ir. be 'night' 
(cf. Brugm. Grd. 1 2 , 593). The root gvM- ' give way, waste 
away' is the same as gut- 'oppress, overpower' in Skt. 
jinati, etc. 

2. ON. sveima 'swing, sway', MHG. sweimen 'schweben, 
schweifen', OE. sivima 'dizziness, swoon', a-swceman 'wander 
about', a-sivamian 'cease', sivamian 'become dark'. To the 
same root belong OHG. swman 'dwindle, pine away, swoon', 
ON. svina ' nachlassen '. (See further on this root Persson, 
Wz. 192; author, Mod. Lang. Notes XVI, 20 f.) 

2 a. The primary meaning of the root sue-io-, su-%- was 
'set in motion, swing, sway'. Hence we may compare the 
root su- in Skt. sdvati, suvdti ' urge on ' and in sunoti ' cause 
to flow out, press out'. With sui compare dhu-i- from dhu- 
in Skt. dhuydte 'be shaken', Gk. Lesb. &vi<o 'storm, roar', 
Lat. suf-fio 'fumigate', suf-fi-tus, -fi-men etc., in which the 

— 104 — 

suffix -io- has become a part of a new base dhui-, also in 
pre-Germ. *dhui-no- 'shake, scatter, fall off, dwindle', OE. 
dwman 'waste away, dwindle', ON. dvma 'diminish, cease', 
LG. dwinen, Du. divijnen 'vanish'; and tu-i- from tu- 'swell, 
flow out' in OE. ]>winan 'dwindle', fiwttan 'cut off', Gk. 
aivofica ' waste, plunder, damage ' (cf. author, AJP. XXI, 180). 

3. Skt. tdmyati 'stockt, wird starr, kommt ausser atem, 
ermattet, vergeht, schwindet hin, schmachtet', ChSl. tomiti 
'abmuhen, qualen, zwangen', Lai temetum 'intoxicating (i.e. 
stupefying) drink', NHG. ddmisch : ChSl. twia 'darkness', 
timinti 'dark', Lith. temti 'get dark', tamsd 'darkness', Ir. 
temen 'dark', temel 'darkness', OS. thimm 'duster', OHG. 
demar 'dammerung', Skt. tdmas, tamisra 'darkness', Lat. 
tenebrae, Lith. timsras 'dunkelrot, schweissftichsig ', OHG. 
dinstar, MDu. deemster 'finster', Skt. tamrd 'erstickend, ver- 
dunkelnd', tamrd 'dark-red', etc. (cf. the Et. Wbb.). The 
primary meaning of the root tern- was 'strike, thrust, press' 
or the like. We may therefore compare ChSl. tima 'haue, 
schlage', Gk. rtfivco 'cut', to which belongs Lat. temno 'scorn, 
contemn '. 

3 a. Compare the similar development in Skt. tuddti 'stosst, 
sticht', Lat. tundo, Goth, stau tan 'stossen', Lat. studeo 'pursue, 
strive after, be zealous about, study' (cf. Shannon, Words of 
Will and Desire), MHG. stutzen ' zurtickscheuen ', NHG. stutzcn, 
NSlov. studiti ' verabscheuen ', ChSl. stydeti se 'sich schamen', 
stiidu 'kalte', primarily 'stockung, stiffening', Norw. stuta 
'sink, drop suddenly', ON. stuta 'slay, kill'; Skt. tujdti 'drangt, 
stosst, treibt an', ONorw. stauJca 'stossen', Sw. stuka 'platt 
schlagen, niederschlagen, niederdrticken; demiitigen', NHG. 
stauelxen, stocken (intensive of preceeding as stutzen to stossen), 
OHG. stoc 'stock, trunk', pre-Germ. *stugno- 'shrunken, stiffened, 
stiff', Russ. stugnuU 'gefrieren', Gk. otv/Ioj 'verabscheue, 
hasse'; OHG. stiooan 'rennen, stieben', MHG. stouben 'auf- 
scheuchen, verjagen', OE., ON. stofn 'stem, trunk', ON. stufr 
' stump ', Gk. CTVJiog ' stock, stiel ', azvjid Jet? ' beat, strike ', Lat. 
stuped 'stutze, staune, bin betaubt'; OHG. storan 'zerstreuen, 
zerstoren', OE. styrian 'move, stir up', OHG. stiuren 'lenken, 
leiten, stlitzen', OE. stleran 'steer, guide, govern, restrain, 

— 105 — 

reprove, punish, check', Goth, sthirjan ' feststellen, behaupten', 
Lett, sturs 'bartnackig', Norw. sture 'schweigsam sein', ON. 
slura 'niedergeschlagen, betrtibt sein'; Lith. stumiu 'stosse', 
OHG. stum 'stumm', pre-Germ. *stumno- 'niedergeschlagen, 
unterdruckt'; Skt. stauti, stdvate 'tragt vor, singt, preist, lobt', 
pra-stu- 'vorbringen, anfangen, erwahnen', Gk. orevzcu ' stellt 
fest, behauptet, verheisst, droht ', otvco ' starre ', OHG. stouiven 
'anfahren, schelten, einhalt bieten', NHG. stauen, staunen, E. 
stun, etc., root steu- 'in bewegung setzen, stossen, sehlagen 
: zuruckprallen, zuriickscheuen, stutzen, stocken, verstocken'. 
Compare Prellw. Et. Wb. This root may be written ste-uo- 
and compared further with ste-io- and their common base ste-, 
in which also we find a similar development in meaning. 

4. Av. titsen 'sie entleeren sich', Bal. tusag 'ausgehen, 
erloschcn, verlassen werden, gemieden werden', tosag 'aus- 
loschen ' (with which compare OHG. thwesben ' ausloschen, ver- 
tilgen, verderben'), ChSl. tusti 'leer', Skt. tucchyd 'leer, ode, 
nichtig' (cf. Uhl. Ai. Wb.), Lai tesqua > *tuesqiia 'desert, 
waste' (Brugm. Grdr. I 2 , 321) : Russ. tusklyj 'dark', OE. ge- 
fiuxod 'dark' < *])uscod (cf. Uhl. PBB. XXII, 536, who compares 
Russ. tusMyj with the following), OE. peostre, piestre 'dark, 
gloomy ', peostrian ' darken, dim ', OLG. piustri ' dark ', NHG. 
duster, dial, dusper (cf. Schade, Wb. s. v. dwesberi). The base 
teues-, tens-, tues- of the above is from the root teu 'swell', 
probably in the sense 'overflow, flow out', in which case 
compare ON. fiysia, fiyria ' rush forth ', fiausn ' tumult ', OHG. 
doson 'tosen', whence ChSl. tusti 'empty', is-tustiti 'evacuare', 
tusteta 'damnum', etc. For further discussion of this root cf. 
author, AJP. XX, 263 ff. 

5. Skt. adhrd 'schwach, arm, gering', Gk. vcoO-qoc, 'weak, 
sluggish, dull', vcod?]q 'stupid, dull' (cf. Brugm. Grd. I 2 , 421) 
: Skt. andhd ' blind, dark ', dndhas ' darkness ', etc. These are 
probably further connected with Skt. adhds 'below', comp. 
ddhara, Goth, undar, E. under, etc. 

6. Gk. vivco 'nod, bend down, decline', vsvara^a) 'nod, 
fall asleep', Lith. snudd 'sleeper, drowser', snustu 'drowse' 
(cf. Prellw. Et. Wb.) : Gk. rv&og 'obscure', vv&Mjg 'dark'; 

— 106 — 

and also Welsh nudd 'mist', Lat. nubes, niibilus 'lowering, 
dark' (cf. Brugm. Grd. I 2 , 536). 

7. ChSl. iz-mudeti 'become weak', Gk. duvSgog 'weak, 
dim, dark' (Prellw. Et.Wb.). These are from a base mu-d- 
' spring, flow ', whence ' damp, soft, weak \ Compare Gk. uvdog 
'damp, wet', uvdaco 'drip, be damp', Ir. mnad, Skt. mudird 
'cloud', Lett, mudet 'weich, schimmelig werden', Lith. mdudau 
'bathe', root mu- in Lett, maut 'swim, swill', ChSl. myti 
'wash', E. mud, Sktmutra 'urine' (cf. Uhl. Ai.Wb.). To the 
same root belong Gk. afiavgog 'dim, indistinct, blind, dark', 
f/avgog 'dark, invisible'. Here also may belong Skt. mddate 
'exult, rejoice', primarily 'spring'. Compare the same change 
in meaning in Skt. mddati 'exult, rejoice' : Lat. madeo. 

8. Skt. dhunoti 'schtittelt, schiittelt ab, aus, entfernt' 
: dlwan- 'schwinden, erloschen, dunkeln', dhvantd 'dunkel', 
root dhu- 'shake, scatter'; Skt. dhvdmsati 'zerstiebt, zerstreut, 
zerfallt', dhvasta 'zerfallen, vernichtet, zerstreut', dhvamsd 
'zerfall, verfall, untergang, schwund', dhvasti 'das verschwinden', 
dhvasrd 'abfallend, zerfallend, welk ', dlwasmdn ' verdunkelung ' 
(cf. X, If.). 

9. Skt. mlayati 'erschlafft, wird schwach', Lith. Uogas 
kraftlos, schwach, krank ' : Ir. melg ' death ', i. e. 'a falling 

away', Gk. afioXyog 'darkness', oftolycp' t>6<pcp (Hes.). Whether 
these words developed as here given or from 'dark' (in which 
case they would belong to Gk. [teXag, etc., VII, 5), they are 
from the root mel- 'crush'. 

10. Lat. marceo 'wither, droop, shrink, shrivel', marcidus 
'withered, wasted, decayed; weak, feeble, languid; faint, pale, 
dull', Lith. mirhti 'eingeweicht sein', Skt. marcdyati 'versehrt, 
beschadigt', Av. mdrdncaiti 'versehrt, zerstort', mahrJca- 'tod' 
: Skt. markd ' verfinsterung ', ChSl. mralm ' finsternis ', mruknati 
'dunkel werden'; ON. morJcna 'zerfallen, verwittern, hin- 
schwinden ' : myrhr, OE. mirce, OS. mirki ' finster ', OK myrkve 
'murk, darkness'; Lat. morbus 'wasting disease' : Gk. (ioQ<pvog 
'dark-colored'. These are all from the root mer- 'rub, wear 
away' (cf. I, 13a). 

— 107 — 

Like the above are words for 'dim-sighted, blind' and 
'dim, dark' from such meanings as 'bend down, sink, droop, 
drowse' or 'rub, press, press together, close', etc. 

1. Gk. xvaiptvg 'carder', xvajtzco 'scratch, scrape', Lith. 
Icnabu 'peel' (potatoes), hnebenu 'klaube', Jsnebiu 'kneife', OE. 
hnceppan 'strike' (against), ON. hneppa 'squeeze', lineppr, OSw. 
napper 'knapp' : OHG. hnaffezen 'slumber', OE. hnappian 
'doze, sleep', E. nap, pre-Germ. base *qnobhno- 'press down, 
pinch, rub; bend down, droop, drowse' : Gk. xvecpag 'dusk, 
twilight', xretpalog 'dark'. The base qne-bho- is from the 
root sqeno-, (s)qne- in Gk. xvdm, xvr'ftco 'scrape, scratch', 
xvrjg)/] 'itch', etc. 

2. E. nip, Du. nijpen 'kneifen', LG. mpe 'knapp, genau', 
Lith. Jcnybau 'press, annoy', MHG. nip fen 'gleiten, stiirzen; 
einnicken', ON. hnippa 'thrust, shove', hnipna 'be cast down, 
sad', hnipa 'hang the head, look down, be sad', OE. hnipian 
'droop, bend down; be dejected, sad; doze, drowse', Gk. xvutog, 
xvupog, oxvutog 'pinching, niggardly', Oxvijtrw 'pinch, nip; 
be niggardly' : oxvupog 'overcast, dark, dim; dim-sighted', 
6Jcvi(p6(o 'darken, make dim', oxvijzalog 'dark, in the dark', 
base (s)qn%- from sqne-%o-. From the same base come Gk. 
xvi£a> 'scrape, grate', ON. hmta 'strike, wound', hnit 'collision', 
OE. Itmtan 'clash together, collide', ON. hneita 'overcast, 
darken' : Goth, hneiwan, OE. hnigan 'sich neigen, sinken', 
linag 'bowed down, prostrate; contemptible; niggardly', Lat. 
co-nweo 'close the eyes, blink, be drowsy; be darkened, 
obscured' (of sun). 

3. Gk. xvvm 'scratch', OHG. hniuivan 'crush, squeeze', 
ON. hnQggva 'stossen', OE. Jineaw niggardly, stingy', knot 
'bald-headed; close-cut', ON. hnjota 'stumble', base qne-uo-, 
qnu- 'press down, rub, strike; bend down, droop' : Gk. *xvv£og 
'dim, dark', xvvtpm 'darken'. To the same base belong OHG. 
hniotan, QiB.hnjoda 'hammer', OE. hnossian 'beat'; a-hneopan 
'pluck', Goth, dis-hniupan ' zerreissen ', ON. Imupl 'seizing', 
OSw. njupa 'kneifen', Lith. hnubu 'bend over', hniupsau 

— 108 - 

'cower', Jcnupoju 'kneel; lie prostrate', ON. hnufa 'buckel, 
hocker, knoten ' ; JmuJca ' be bent ', hnuJcr ' mountain-top ', hnauh 
'pressing, pressure', hneyhja 'suppress, break; make ashamed', 
OE. hnocc 'hook', etc. On the base qne cf. Persson, Wz. 177; 
Prellw. Et. Wb. s. v. xvrjv etc. 

3a. From qnu- 'press, scrape' come 'grate, creak, snarl, 
snort' : Gk. xvvco 'schabe, kratze', xvoog 'das kuarren des 
rades', xvv^aco 'knurre, winsele', Lith. Jcniaulciu 'miaue', 
Jcniditlca 'miauer, murrkopf (cf. Prellw. Et. Wb.) : ON. hnjosa, 
OHG. niosan 'niesen', ON. hnjos At' schwammzunder' < *qneusqo- 
with the developed meaning 'sputtering, crackling' or else 
'crushed, soft' : OE. gehnyscan 'crush', gelmyst 'contrite'. 
Compare OE. screpan 'scrape', ON. skrapa 'scrape, grate, 
creak'; OE. scearfian 'scrape', ON. skrafa 'creak, crackle', 
skrafa 'chatter', Lith. skrepw, MHG. scharrcn 'scharren, kratzen; 
schnarchen', Sw. skorra 'schnarren' (cf. XVI, 28 a). ON. hnjosa 
has no connection with OE. fneosan (I, 99 a) or with E. sneeze, 
OE. *sneosan (XVI, 56). 

From qni- 'scrape, grate' come in like manner OE. hncegan, 
MHG. neigen 'neigh'. 

4. Gk. yafityog 'bent, crooked', yva[iuiTw 'crook, bend', 
Pol. gnqbic 'drucken', Sw. dial. Jcnova ' zusammendrucken ', 
ON. hnefan 'zwang', MHG. hnubel 'knochel', hiebel 'knebel, 
knochel', OHG. knopf 'knoten', ON. Jcnappr 'knopf, OE. cncepp 
'top, mountain-top; brooch', NHG. foxapp < pre-Germ. *gnobhio- 
'bent, bent down, pressed together, pressed down' : Gk. yvotpog 
'darkness', yrocptgog 'dark'. These are from a root gno-, gne- 
from which gne-io-, gn$-\ gne-uo-, gnu- (cf. VII, 27b). 

5. OHG. loscen 'lurk, lie hid', Dan. luske 'slink, crawl', 
lyske 'flank', i. e. 'the part that falls in', 'weiche' : Lat. luscus 
'hollow-eyed, purblind, one-eyed', lusciosus 'dim-sighted, pur- 
blind, moon-eyed', luscinus 'one-eyed', base lu-sqo- 'fall, bend, 
stoop, crawl'. Compare the base lu-do- in OE. lutan 'turn, 
bend, bow, fall', ON. lata 'bend, incline', OE. lutian, OHG. 
lusen 'lie hid, lurk', etc. We might, of course, derive the 
base lusqo- from lud-sqo- and compare it with OE. lutan, etc. 
But the probabilities are that each is derived from the root 

— 109 — 

la- 'fall away, sink, bend; pull off, pluck' in Skt. lunati 'pluck, 
tear, cut ', Czech, leviti ' nachlassen ', etc. Compare Gk. Xevgog 
'open, smooth, level', base leu-ro- 'fall away, fall in', Xavga 
'narrow passage', Lat. lura 'mouth of a leathern bag' (cf. 
Prellw. Et. Wb.) : MHG. lur(e) ' lauer, hinterhalt ', lure ' schlauer, 
hinterlistiger niensch', luren 'lauern', ON. lura 'slumber', ME. 
loure, E. lower 'duster blicken, sich verfinstern ', ME. lurke 

6. Skt. mlayati 'welkt, wird schwach, erschlafft', Gk. 
f/aX&axog 'soft; weak, cowardly; gentle, mild', Goth, -milds 
'mild', etc. : *mlendho~ 'weaken, cause to droop, let fall', ON. 
blunda ' die augen schliessen ', blundr ' schlummer ', Goth, blinds 
'blind', OE. blind 'blind, dark', Lith. blandau 'schlage die 
augen nieder, blinke', blendMus ' verfinstere mich ', blista 'wird 
abend', priblista 'fangt an finster zu werden', pryblinde, 
priblindimas ' abenddammerung ' (cf. Uhl. Et. Wb. s. v. blandan), 
blesta 'vom feuer schwacher oder kleiner werden', blesteriu 
'plotzlich aufhoren', bVestre'dinu 'verlosche plotzlich'. 


As we have seen, 'shine, sparkle' and 'resound, roar' are 
ideas that are frequently combined under the same word or 
group of words. This is because both ideas are from words 
expressing rapid motion. And as it is no explanation to say 
that a certain word is from a given root meaning 'to shine', 
so it is also unsatisfactory to refer to a root meaning 'to 
resound'. Nor is it sufficient to say that a word is onomato- 
poetic. There are but few such words. That is, there are 
very few imitative words. Most so-called onomatopoetic words 
are secondarily so. They seem to express a certain sound, 
but it is merely mental association not a real imitation. For 
example rattle, from loDg association, seems to imitate the 
sound we think of on using the word, but it meant primarily 
'shake'. It may happen, therefore, that such a word may be 
the starting point of a large number of words for 'sound'. 
These embrace most so-called onomatopoetic words. 

— 110 — 

In the examples given below I have confined myself 
mainly to words that give or might give terms for 'shine'. 
These examples might be easily multiplied. For others with 
a differently developed meaning see VII, 9, 27 a, b; XII, 2, 3; 
Mod. Lang. Notes XVI, 23 ff. 

1. OE. winnan 'toil, suffer', ON. vinna 'toil, strive for, 
win ', Skt. vdnati ' wish, desire, win ', OHG. winnan ' in heftiger 
aufregung sein, sich abmtihen, streiten, wttten, toben, heulen' 
(cf. I, 6). 

2. Skt. vapati 'scatter, strew, throw', OE. ivafian 'wave, 
brandish ', wceflian ' talk foolishly ', Lith. vapu ' chatter, babble ' 
(cf. I, 9). 

3. OE. wapol 'wandering', wapum 'wave' : Skt. vdtati 
'versteht', apa-vatdyati 'regt geistig an', OE. wop 'voice, song'. 

4. Goth, fit 'out', Skt. ud 'up, out', undati 'spring up, 
gush out, wet ' : vddati ' resound, sing, speak ', Gk. vdtm ' sing, 
praise', OHG. far-wazan 'curse'. Here the primary meaning 
is 'burst forth; utter'. 

5. Lith. verm 'offne oder schliesse; fadele ein', varau 
' treibe ', base uer- ' turn, twist, whirl ' (cf. I, 4) : Gk. egvo&ca 
'bewahren, ziehen, hemmen', Skt. varvara 'kraus', Lith. vervenu 
'belfere'; Skt. vrdnati 'tont', OE. wrcene 'lecherous', wrcenna 
'wren', OS. wrenno 'hengst'; Sw. vrdla 'brullen'; Gk. Qaaaco 
'strike, smite, push', yaxog 'rag', OE. wregan 'stir up; accuse', 
wroht ' quarrelling, accusation ', Goth, wrohjan ' anklagen ', Lith. 
verlciu 'weine'; base uri- 'twist, whirl' : ON. reine 'hengst', 
OSw. vrenskas, Dan. vrinshe 'wiehern', vrinsk 'brtinstig'; OHG. 
rtban 'reibend wenden oder drehen', Gk. Qutt} 'rush, swing; 
whir, buzz ' (cf. I, 4, 5). 

5a. From 'twist' may also come 'torture, afflict; writhe, 
suffer'. For examples of this cf. author, Mod. Lang. Notes 
XVI, 22 ff. 

6. Gk. fiagvaftai 'struggle, fight'; fioQfioQog- <f6(tog, 
fioQfivQco, Lat. murmuro 'murmur', Skt. marmara 'rauschend' 
(cf. I, 11). 

— Ill — 

7. Skt. spMrjati 'bricht hervor; drohnt, prasselt', Lith. 
spragu, ON. spraka 'crackle', OE. sprecan, OHG. sprehhan 
'sprechen' (cf. I, 15). 

8. LG. spdkkem 'spring about quickly', MLG. spakeren 
'sprtihen', MHG. spachen 'bersten machen, spalten', spaht 'ge- 
schwatz, lauter gesang', spehten ' schwatzen ', OE. specan 
'speak' (cf. I, 16). 

9. ON. flasa 'hasten', Litb. plasnuju 'clap', plastu 'beat' 
(of pulse), 'flap' (of wings), OHG. flistran 'palpare, blandiri', 
NHG. fliistem, OE. fleswian ' whisper ', Lat. ploro ' wail ', Sw. 
flasa ' schnaufen, schnauben ' (cf. I, 20). 

10. Lat. palpo, palpito : Lith. plepu 'schwatze'; E. flap 
: Dan. flwbe 'weep, howl', base ple-p-, ple-b- 'move quickly, 
flap'; OE. fiocan 'clap', Lat. plango, Goth, flokan, base pla-g- 
'beat'; OHG. flitarezzan 'palpare', MHG. vlittem 'fltistern, 
kichern' (cf. 20 a). 

11. Skt. pldvate 'schwimmt, weht, springt, htipft', Av. 
fravaiti 'hasten, go', Lith. plduju 'spttle' : pliauna 'schwatzer', 
pliaunyju 'schwatze'; pliaupiu ' schwatze '; plaudziu 'wasche', 
pludziu 'schwatze', Goth, flautjan 'prahlen'; Lith. plautis 
' schnupfen ', plur. plaucziai ' lunge ' (with which compare MHG. 
vlodem, vludern 'flattern'), Gk. jtlsvpmv 'lunge' (cf. I, 21). 

11a. Lat. pulmo, which is generally connected with 
jtXevficov, I should combine rather with ON. falma 'sich 
schwankend bewegen, zittern '. The primary meaning as above 
was 'panter, puffer'. Compare Lith. krolciii 'rochele' (v. 28 
infra) : Pruss. hraclan 'brust'; OE. hrc&can 'sich rauspern' 
: hraca 'rachen'. 

12. OHG. blajan 'blasen, blahen', Gk. <pZeco 'strotze, fliesse 
tiber, schwatze', Lat. flere 'weep', MHG. blcejen, ChSl. Ueja 
' bleat ', Lith. bylja ' speech ', ON. belja ' bellow ', bylja ' resound, 
roar', Gk. g)X?]rw 'babble, prate', <plr}daa) 'babble, chatter', 
OE. blcetan, OHG. blazan 'bleat'; Lith. balsas 'voice, sound', 
OE. bellan ' bellen, schreien ', etc. (cf. I, 24, 27 a, where other 
examples of the same development are given). 

— 112 — 

13. Lat. ferio, ON. berja 'schlagen', ChSl. borjq, 'streite', 
Lith. bariu 'schelte' (cf. I, 30). 

14. Goth, brikan 'brechen', OE. brecan 'break; burst, 
burst forth, be violent', ON. braJc 'crash', braka 'crash', OE. 
ge-brec 'noise, clamor', bearhtm 'noise', borcian, beorcan, ON. 
berkja ' bark ' (cf. I, 34 a). 

15. OHG. brestan 'brechen, bersten', OE. berstan 'break; 
resound', byrstan 'roar', brastlian 'crackle, rattle', Lith. braszkii 
' crack, crackle ' (cf. I, 35). 

16. OE. briesan 'bruise, crush', ON. breyskr ' gebrechlieh, 
schwach', breysta 'crash, crack', MHG. brus, Dan., Sw. brus 
'braus, brausen'; ON. braulca 'larmen, toben', base bhreu- 
' burst, crush' (cf. 1,37). 

17. Lith. szunkus 'behende, hitzig', suszunku 'schreie 
plotzlich auf, szaukiu 'schreie, rufe laut' (cf. I, 41). 

18. ON. hvim 'sudden movement', hvima 'move unsteadily', 
base ku%- 'swing, shake' : ON. hvina 'whiz', hvtsla 'whisper', 
and many others (cf. I, 44 a). 

19. Lith. svirus 'schwebend, schwankend' : Lat. susurro, 
ON. svarra 'schwirren', Ski svdrati 'tont, erschallt', Goth. 
sivaran, etc. (cf. I, 45), base sue-, su- in suvdti, sdvati 'treibt 
an', savd 'anreger, anregung', sunoti 'presst aus' : Lat. sono 
'sound', Skt. svdnati 'tont, schallt' (cf. I, 46); OE. swellan 
'swell', OHG. swellan 'schwellen; verschmachten ', i.e. 'swell 
up, overflow : flow out, pine away', ON. svalla 'verschwenden; 
schwarmen', MHG. swalm 'schwall des w^assers; bienenschwarm', 
Swab, schwdlmen 'schwarmen', OHG. swalawa 'schwalbe'; 
MHG. sivanken 'schwanken', swenJcen 'schwingen, schwenken, 
schleudern', ON. svakk, sukk 'noise', sukka 'be noisy'; Lith. 
svagiu ' tone ', OS. swogan ' roar along ', OE. swogan ' resound ', 
Goth, ga-swogjan 'sigh', swegnjan 'exult', siviglon 'play the 
flute' (cf. I, 48); OHG., OE. sivingan 'swing', Lith. sukii 'drehe', 
suknis 'agil, flink, schnell', saukiu 'schalle, klinge' (cf. I, 48 b); 
Lith. siaucziii 'tobe, wtite', MHG. swaderer 'schwatzer', swateren 
'rauschen, klappern', swatzen 'schwatzen' (cf. I, 49); OHG. 

— 113 — 

sweban 'schweben', Lith. siaubiii 'rase umher, tobe', suboju 
'schwanke, wiege mich', Lat. subitus 'sudden', ME. sobbe 'sob', 
OHG. sufton 'seufzen' (cf. 1,50); OHG. suson 'sausen, summen, 
zischen, knarren', ON. sus 'rauschen des wellenschlages '. 

20. Base ghel- 'move rapidly, be excited' : ON. gala 
'sing', galdr 'crowing; song; incantation', gjalla 'yell, sound', 
gjalfr 'noise, barking', gjalp 'splashing, roaring', gelta 'bark' 
(cf. I, 52, 53, 54). 

21. Lat. glisco 'swell up, burst out', ON. glima 'wrestle', 
MHG. glim 'schreien', OE. gliw 'glee', ON. gleipa 'chatter' 
(cf. I, 55). 

22. Gk. xXevrj ' scherz, spott ', OE. gleam ' merriment ', ON. 
glaumr ' larm, frohlichkeit ' (cf. I, 56). 

23. Ski Mldyati 'treibt, halt', Jcalanam 'das schutteln, 
hinundherbewegen ', Gk. xiXofiai 'treibe an, rufe', xXovoq 
'schlachtgetiimmel', OHG. liellan 'ertonen, hallen', Mamon 
' rauschen, brausen ', Lat. clamo, etc. (cf. I, 59). 

24. Gk. 6xaXXa) 'stir up, hoe', Lith. skiliu 'schlage feuer 
an', ON. slcella, skjalla 'klatschen, schlagen; schmahen', sheila 
' klatschen, knallen ', slcjala ' schwatzen ', OHG. scellan ' schallen, 
tonen'; scaltan 'stossen', sceltan 'schelten' (cf. 1,60). 

25. Lith. skeris ' heuschrecke ', Gk. axaiQco 'hiipfe', OHG. 
sceron 'mutwillig sein, jauchzen', seem 'scherz, spott', Bav. 
gesclier 'geschrei, larm' : ON. slcrcema 'schrecken, erschrecken, 
verscheuchen ', E. scream 'plotzlich schreien'; Sw. slcrdna 
' schreien ' (cf. I, 61). 

26. OHG. screcJcon 'springen, hlipfen, aufspringen, auf- 
fahren', ON. shrcekr 'schrei', sJcrcekja 'schreien', skark 'larm, 
gepolter' (cf. 1,62). 

27. The base sqre-ip-, sqr%- 'move rapidly, whirl, spring' 
shows the same change of meaning: Lith. skreju 'fly about, 
whirl', Lett, skret 'laufen, fliegen', ON. skrja 'start in terror', 
Bret, skrija 'tremble with fear', OHG. scrian 'schreien', screi 
'schrei, geschrei'; ON. skrika 'sway, totter', skrikja 'titter, 


— 114 — 

peep', Sw. skrika, Dan. skrige 'schreien', skrig, Sw. shrik 
'schrei, geschrei', ME. schriJce 'shriek', OE. scric 'shrike', Sw. 
skriha 'haher, holzsehreier '. 

27 a. To the same base belong Lith. skreezu 'drehe', 
skrytis 'radfelge', OE. scrid 'carriage, chariot', scride 'course, 
orbit', scrlpan 'glide, go, wander', ON. slmda 'glide, stride', 
OHG. scntan ' schreiten ' (cf. Persson, Wz. 106 3 ). 

27 b. From sqre-uo-, sqru- come several words for ' sound ', 
in which the primary meaning seems to be 'scrape, grate, 
creak, crash': — OE. screawa 'shrew-mouse' (compare Gk. xelqcd 
'cut', xegfia 'anything cut into small parts' : OE. hearma 
'shrew-mouse'; sceorfan 'gnaw' : scierfe-mus 'shrew-mouse'; 
Lith. Jcertu 'haue scharf : Jcertus, JcertuJcas 'spitzmaus'; NHG. 
schermaus, spitzmaus), ME. schrewe 'wicked, malicious', E. 
shrewd 'sharp', shrew 'brawler, scold', beshrew 'curse', OHG. 
scrouwezen 'garrire, gannire', MHG. schrouwel, schrowel 'peiniger, 
teufel'; ON. slcruma 'shout, boast, chatter', slcraum 'boasting'; 
Lai scruta 'broken stuff', OE. scread ' shred, paring ', screadian 
'pare', OHG. scrotan 'hauen, schneiden' (cf. Persson, Wz. 127); 
Lith. sJcraudus 'rauh, briichig', ON. skmdningr 'noise, rumbling', 
Dan. shryde 'schreien, prahlen', sJcryd 'eselsgeschrei'; Sw. dial. 
skryta 'snore'; Lat. scrupus 'rough, sharp stone', ON. slerof 
'broken or loose ice', slcrufr 'tuft of hair', sJcryfa 'roughen, 
curl', Sw. slcroflig 'rauh, uneben'; Norw. slcryp, Dan. skrebelig 
' zerbrechlich, verganglich ', ON. slcrjupr ' fragile, brittle, weak ', 
as noun 'crashing noise, crash'. These are closely related to 
the development 'rough, harsh' : 'harsh sounding'. 

28. Parallel with sqer- develops the base qer-\ — Skt. 
hurdati 'spring, hop', Ir. fo-cherdaim 'swing', Welsh cerdded 
'go, travel', Gk. xgadaco 'wave, brandish, shake', ON. hrata 
'sway, waver, fall', OE. hratian 'rush, hasten', MHG. razzen, 
razzeln 'winden, drehen; toben, rasseln', E. rattle. — Skt. hrndtti 
'dreht, spinnt', Lith. hretii 'sway, shake', OE. hradian 'hasten', 
hrae]), hrced 'agile, swift, quick, clever', ON. hrada 'hasten', 
hrceda ' startle, frighten ', hreda ' quarrel, strife ', Lat. certo ' fight, 
struggle', Gk. xqotoq 'blow', ocgortm 'strike, smite; rattle, 
applaud, chatter', xgoraXi^a) 'rattle, applaud', Lith. Iretoju 
'laugh boisterously' : Jcertu 'strike, hew', OE. hrindan, ON. 

— 115 — 

lirinda 'thrust', Skt. krntdti, Jcdrtati 'cut', Gk. xsqto[ioq 
'stinging, mocking', xsgrofieco 'taunt, mock, sneer at'. In the 
above we may have several bases qer-to-, qre-to- formed in- 
dependently from qer- 'swing, shake', etc. — ON. hrapa 'rush, 
hasten', hrapad-ligr 'hasty, violent', -liga 'noisily, boisterously', 
Jirop 'derision', hropa 'deride, defame, shout', OE. hrop 'clamor, 
lamentation ', hropan ' shout, howl, scream ', Goth, hropjan, etc. — 
Lith. krapineju 'stumble about', Lat. crepo 'clash, clatter, rattle', 
Skt. krpate 'jammert, fleht'. — Skt. Jcdrjati 'qualt', OFries. hreka 
' tear ', ON. hrekja ' drive with violence, persecute, worry, vex ', 
hrakning 'violent treatment, abuse, scolding', hraldigr 'wretched, 
unfortunate '. — Gk. xqbxco ' strike, beat, play on an instrument ', 
OE. hringan, ON. hringja 'ring', hringla 'clink, clang, ring', 
lirang ' noise, disturbance, quarreling ' : Lith. krankiu ' krachze, 
rochele, schnarche', krokiii 'rochele, grunze', ChSl. krektati, 
Lat. crocio 'croak'; Gk. %Qa£<x> 'croak, scream, call', xqco^go 
'croak', Lett, krdzu 'snore, croak', Lith. Jcre'gu 'grunt', ON. 
hrokr 'sea-gull', OHG. hruoh, OE. hroc 'rook' (cf. Persson, 
Wz. 13), OE. hrcecan 'clear the throat, spit', hraca 'expectoration, 
phlegm ', hrcecetan ' eructate ', ON. hralce ' spittle ', hrcelcja ' spit ', 
OHG. rahhison 'sich laut rauspern, laut aufhusten und aus- 
spucken ', rahho ' rachen ', OE. hraca ' throat ' (cf. Schade, Wb.). 

28 a. In some of the above the primary meaning may be 
'scrape, grate', as in Skt. Jcharju 'jucken, kratzen', Icharjati 
'knarrt', ON. harka ' zusammenscharren ', Dan. harlce 'harke', 
JiarJce 'sich rauspern', ON. hark 'tumult, larm'. Compare the 
same development in OE. screpan 'scrape', ON. skrap 'a 
scraping, creaking', skrapa 'scrape, grate, creak, crash', Lith. 
skrebii 'raschele', ChSl. skrobotu 'gerausch'; OE. scearfian 
'scrape, shred', scearflian 'scrape', sceorfan 'gnaw', OHG. 
scarbon 'in stticke schneiden', screvon 'incidere', scorf 'schorf, 
etc., ON. skrafa 'creak, crackle', skrafa 'chatter, talk', Lith. 
skrepu 'rede leise', skreplenu, skrepliuju 'schleim aufhusten 
und auswerfen'; MHG. scherren 'scharren, kratzen, graben', 
scharren 'scharren, kratzen; schnarchen', Sw. skorra 'schnarren' 
(cf. I, 61 a). 

29. The base qr%- 'shake : rattle' appears in the following: 
ON. hrinr 'resounding noise', hrma, hreina 'squeal, squeak', 


— 116 — 

hreimr * noise'. — OE. hrisian, Goth, -hrisjan 'shake', OS. hrissian 
' tremble ', ON. hrista ' shake ', OE. hristende ' creaking* ', hristung 
'rattling' (in the throat), hristlian 'rattle, creak'.— OE. hrician 
'cut, cut to pieces', ON. hrika, Gk. xqi^co 'creak'. 

29a. The primary meaning 'move hastily; shake; snatch' 
may be inferred from Lith. kreipiii 'turn', ON. hreifa 'move, 
stir', hrifa 'snatch, seize, rob, scratch', OE. ge-hrifnian 'seize, 
tear'; OE. hrisian 'shake', Lat. crispo 'swing, brandish', OHG. 
hrespan 'pull, tear'; Lett, kraitat 'reel', OHG. ridon 'tremble'; 
Lith. kreikiii 'strew, scatter'; Gk. xqivcq 'separate', etc.; ChSl. 
krivu, Lith. kreivas 'turned, crooked'. 

30. Pruss. krut 'fallen', ON. hrun 'fall', hrynja 'stiirzen', 
hruma ' schwach werden ; schmerzen', Gk. xqovco 'beat, strike', 
xQovfxa 'stroke, beat, note', OE. hream 'cry, shout, uproar', 
lineman 'shout; wail, lament; exult'. — ON. lirjosa 'schaudern', 
OE. hreosan ' rush, fall ', OSw. rysta ' schutteln ', ruska ' stiirzen \ 
MHG. ruschen ' einhereilen, stiirmen, sausen, rauschen', OE. 
liryscan 'creak', ge-hruxl 'noise'. — Lith. Icrutu 'riihre mich', 
OE. hry])ig ' in ruins ', hreape-mus ' fledermaus ', ON. hrjoda ' cast 
away', hrode 'refuse; noise, disturbance'. — ON. hreyta ' scatter ', 
hrjota ' fall, go off suddenly, crash, crack, resound, snore ', OE. 
hrutan 'resound, snore', OHG. ruzan 'resound, rattle, snort, 
snore'. — Lith. kriusziu 'crush, shatter', Ski Jcrdgati, Av. xraosaiti 
'shout, cry'. — Gk. xgavyrj 'shout', Goth, hruhjan 'crow'. — OE. 
hreof 'rough, scabby', primarily 'waving, uneven' like Lat. 
crispus, Lith. Jcraupus ' schreckhaft ', Jcraupiu ' aufschrecken, 
anfahren, kurz schelten' (cf. 105, 105 a). 

31. ON. rasa 'einherstiirzen', ras 'lauf, rennen', MHG. 
rasen 'toben, rasen', Skt. rdsati 'briillt, heult, ertont'; OHG. 
rase 'schnell, hurtig', rascezzen ' schluchzen ', OE. rmscettan 
'crackle' (cf. 1,68). 

32. Goth, reiran 'zittern' : OHG. reren, OE. rarian 'roar, 
bellow', base rei- : Skt. rebhati 'rauscht, briillt, jubelt, singt' 
(cf. I, 70). 

33. Gk. ogovco 'rise, rush along', Lat. rud 'hasten, rush, 
run, fall' : Skt. ravati, rduti 'briillt, schreit, drohnt', ChSl. 

— 117 — 

reva 'brtille', Lat. rumor ' noise', OE. rynan 'roar'; Goth, raus, 
OHG. ror 'rohr', Skt. rosati 'ist unwirsch, zttrnt' (cf. Uhl. Ai. 
Wb. s. v.), ON. rausa ' chatter, babble'; Gk. eoevyofiat 'belch 
forth, shout', eovyelv 'bellow', Lat. rugio 'roar', ructo 'belch, 
emit, utter'; OE. rotian 'rot, ulcerate', primarily 'break out', 
reotan 'weep', Lat. rudo 'brtille, schreie'; Goth, raupjan 
'rupfen', ON. raupa 'prahlen' (cf. I, 71a; Pub. MLA. XIV, 
308 f., 314 f.). 

34. Skt. lasa 'das springen, hupfen', Idsati 'erhebt sich, 
ist lustig, ertont' (cf. I, 73). 

35. ON. elfr 'stream', OE. lafian 'pour, wash', Skt. lapati 
'schwatzt, flllstert, wehklagt' (cf. I, 74). 

36. Skt. diyati 'fliegt', divyati 'spielt, wtirfelt', devana 
'spiel, wurfelspiel', devati 'wehklagt' (cf. I, 81). 

38. ON. pysja 'rush forth', fiausn 'tumult', OE. ]>ys ' storm ', 
OHG. doson ' brausen, tosen ', Lith. tvaslm ' schwatze ', base teu- 
' swell, burst forth' : Gk. tvXtj 'swelling', acolrjv 'pipe, spout', 
OHG. dola 'pipe, drain', ON. pylr 'noise', ])idr 'speaker', OE. 
pjle 'orator, jester'; OHG. diozan 'quellen, schwellen, zucken; 
rauschen, laut tonen ', MHG. dozen ' schallen, wiederhallen ', dies 
'schall; wirbel; zucken', OE. ])eote 'torrent, waterpipe', fieotan 
'howl, resound'; Lat. tumeo 'swell, burst forth', tumultus (cf. 
I, 83, 85). 

39. OE. caf 'schnell, ktihn', OHG. Mben, lewen 'scheltend 
zanken, keifen', Sw. hifva 'zanken, hadern', base (je%o- 'move 
suddenly; jerk, snatch' : ON. lama 'spotten'; Mta 'wider- 
sprechen', Mtask 'streiten, zanken'; OE. cidan, E. chide 'schelten, 
schmahen, keifen'; ON.lcihia 'bend back, give way suddenly ', 
Sw. Mkna, MHG. Jctchen ' schwer atmen, keuchen ' (cf. I, 92 a). 

40. Czech, prseti 'spruhen, stieben, regnen', OSw. frcesa 
'sprlihen, sprudelu', ON. forsa, Dan. fosse 'strbmen, brausen, 
rauschen' (cf. I, 97). Perhaps from the same root pre- are 
ChSl. predati 'springen, zittern', Sw. dial, frunda 'surren'. 

41. Lith. prausiii 'wasche', Sw. frusa 'heftig hervor- 
strbmen', frusta, ON. frysa 'schnauben'; fraud 'schaum', Skt. 
prothati 'schnaubf (cf. 1,98). 

— 118 — 

42. Gk. Jtavoftai ' arbeite, strenge mich an ' : OHG. fnehan 
'atmen, schnauben', fnahtende 'schnaubend'; ON. fnasa, OE. 
fncesettan 'schnauben', fncestian 'keuchen'; Gk. nvico 'atme, 
wehe, keuche', ON. fnysa 'schnauben', OE. fneosan 'sneeze' 
(cf. I, 99 a). 

43. MHG. drcejen 'wirbeln; drehen' : drcejen 'hauchen, 
duften ', drasen, OHG. drasen ' duften, schnauben ', ON. firasa 
' schnauben ', Icel. firasa ' larmen, streiten ' (cf. I, 101). 

44. ON. strita 'zerren, reissen', stritask 'sich anstrengen, 
sich strauben', streita ' anstrengung ', Lat. strldo 'zische, 
schwirre'; OE. stridan 'schreiten', OHG. stntan 'streiten' (cf. 
VII, 22 a; PBB. XXIV, 532). 

45. OHG. streno ' strahne, flechte ', base stre- ' whirl, twist ' 
: Lat. stremms ' quick, active, vigorous, restless, turbulent ', Gk. 
OTQTjvrjQ 'strong, hard, harsh', OE. styrne 'stern'; Norw. dial. 
sterta 'sich abmiihen', ChSl. strada 'mtihe, arbeit', stradati 
'leiden'; OE. strcec, strec 'violent, mighty, stern', stearc 'rigid, 
rough, violent, strong', OHG. stare 'stark', MHG. strac 'straff', 
Lith. stregin 'erstarre, friere'; ON. stjarfe 'starrkrampf, staff 
' miihe, anstrengung ', MHG. straf ' straff, strenge ', streben ' sich 
heftig bewegen, sich abmiihen, ringen', Gk. orgtepco 'drehe'; 
otqo^oq 'das herumdrehen ', orgc-fiea) 'treibe herum', orgo^oq 
'kreisel; wirbelwind', orgs^Xog 'gedreht', Du. strompelen 
'stolpern, straucheln'; Lith. stropus 'fleissig', Lat. strepo 'rattle, 
rustle, roar', MHG. straf en 'schelten, zuchtigen, bestrafen' (cf. 
Persson, Wz. 185). 

»46. Skt. dhunoti ' schiittelt ', Gk. &vvcq 'sturme einher', 
&VG) 'sttirme einher, tobe', ON. dynja, OE. dynnan 'larmen', 
Skt. dhunayati 'rauscht', dhvdnati 'tont'; Gk. rv<pmq 'wirbel- 
wind, ungewitter', OE. dofian, OHG. toben 'rasen, toben'; Lith. 
duMneju 'rase umher'; Lat. furo 'rase, wiite' (cf. X, 1). 

47. OHG. storen ' zerstreuen, zerstoren ', OE. styrian ' move, 
stir up, agitate, excite', storm 'storm; uproar', styrman 'be 
stormy; make noise, shout'. 

48. Skt. yudhyati, yodhati 'kampft', Lith. judinu ' bewege, 
schtittele', jundu 'gerate in zitternde bewegung, rege mich', 

- 119 — 

jundulas 'aufruhr, aufstand', Lat. jubilum 'wild cry, shout' 
(cf. author, AJP. XXI, 178). 

49. Lith. szdnju ' schiesse ', szdudau i schiesse umher ', OE. 
sceot 'quick', sceotan 'move quickly, rush, shoot', ON. shota 
'shove', shuta 'taunt', E. scout 'reject with contempt', ME. 
schoute ' shout ' (cf. Webster's Diet. s. v. shout). 

50. Skt. juhoti ' giesst, opfert ', Gk. ytw, Lat. fundo ' pour 
out, scatter, utter' : Skt. hdvate, Av. zavaiti 'ruff, ChSl. zova 
'rufe', ON. geyja, Dan. gjee 'bellen'; Gk. %vX6^ 'saft', MHG. 
gul 'mannliches tier' : ON. gaula 'heulen' (cf. Mod. Lang. 
Notes, XVI, 19 f.). 

51. OE. snieran 'hasten', ON. snara 'set in rapid motion, 
throw, whirl, hasten', snarr 'quick, rapid, bold', MLG. snar 
'quick', MHG. snarr en 'schnarren, schmettern, schwatzen'; 
snarchen ' schnarchen ', ON. snarlca 'flicker, sputter'; snerta 
'move, stir', snertr 'movement, stirring, rapidity', Sw. snarta, 
Dan. snerte 'schmitzen, schlagen, auf einen sticheln', MHG. 
snarz 'das zwitschern der schwalbe; spottwort, schelte, spott, 
hohn', Skt. ndrdati 'briillt, schreit'; LG. snerpen 'scharf 
schlagen, scharf durch die luft rauschen', Goth, at-snarpjan 
' anruhren '. 

51a. The underlying meaning here is 'move rapidly, 
whirl'. From this developed 'twist, draw together, bind to- 
gether' in the following: OHG. snerfan ' zusammenziehen, ver- 
ziehen', ON. snarpr 'uneven, hard, sharp, painful, keen, bold, 
violent', Dan. snerpe 'zusammenziehen, zusammenschnuren ', 
Sw. snorpa 'schlecht nahen'; OHG. snerhan, MHG. snerhen 
'zusammenziehen, binden, knupfen'; ON. snerhja 'draw together, 
contort, wrinkle', OE. sneorcan 'draw together, shrivel', Dan. 
snerke 'die haut des gekochten rahms', NHG. schnerlcel, 
schnorkel', ON. snarla 'close with a twist', E. snarl 'entangle', 
Dan. snerle 'winde'; OHG. snuor 'schnur, band, seil', OE. sner 
'string', Goth, snorjo 'flechtwerk, korb'. These all go back 
to the root sne-, snu- 'whirl, twist' : OE. snod, Scotch snood 
'fillet', Gk. vjjoig 'spinning', vfJTgov 'spindle', vrjfia 'thread', 
Ir. snathe 'faden', Lett, snat 'locker zusammendrehen'; Skt. 
snayati 'umwindet, bekleidet'. 

— 120 - 

52. MHG. sndben, sneben 'schnelle und klappende be- 
wegung machen, schnappen, schnauben; hiipfen, springen, eilen; 
stolpern, straucheln, fallen, wanken; schupfen, stossen', MLFr. 
sneven ' fallen', snevelen 'sturzen', ON. sndfr 'quick, swift, 
unsteady', Sw. snabb 'schnell, geschwind', snafva 'stolpern, 
straucheln', MHG. snappen ' wanken, straucheln; schnappen, 
plaudern, schwatzen ', ON. snapa l snap up, catch ', Dan. snappe, 
Sw-. snappa 'schnappen, haschen', E. snap 'a sudden, sharp 
motion or blow; the noise made by such a motion; a sudden 
breaking; a sudden seizing'. 

53. ON. sndka 'stir around in; flash', snalcinn 'quick, 
swift', Dan. snage 'wtihlen, umherwiihlen ', OHG. snalihan 
' kriechen, schleichen ' : Sw. snaclca, Dan. sndklce, MHG. snacken, 
Du. snakTcen 'schwatzen, plappern', base snogo- 'turn, curve, 
crawl; whirl, move rapidly, rattle'. 

54. OHG. snel ' schnell, behende, tapfer ', OE. snel ' quick, 
swift; active, strong; bold, brave', MHG. snal 'rasche, schnellende 
bewegung und der dadurch entstehende laut', Snellen 'schnellen, 
fortschnellen; schnalzen', snalzen 'schnalzen', bases snel-no-, 

55. LG. snater 'schnabel', snateren 'schwatzen, prahlen', 
MHG. snateren 'schnattern, quaken, klappern, schwatzen', Skt. 
ndclati 'ertont, brtillt, schreit', naddyati 'macht ertonen, er- 
schtittert', Av. nad~ 'schmahen'. 

56. Skt. ndvate, nauti ' wendet sich, kehrt sich ', ON. snua 
'turn, twist', Sw. sno 'drehen, zwirnen; sich beeilen, laufen', 
Goth, sniwan, OE. sneowan ' hasten ', sneome, OHG., OS. sniumo 
'quickly', OLG. gi-sniumian, OHG. sniumon, Goth, snnimjan 
'hasten' : Skt. ndvate, nauti 'tont, jubelt, preist', Lett, nauju 
' schreie ', MHG. snawen, snouwen ' schnauben, schnaufen ', MLG., 
MLFr. snauwen 'schnappen', Dan. snue 'schnauben'; OE. sniid 
'sudden; speed', ON. snydja ' hasten ' : OHG. snuden 'schnauben, 
schnarchen'; snuzen, OE. snytan, ON. snyta, Du. snuiten 
'schneutzen', snute 'schnauze', Du., E. snot 'rotz'; Sw., Dan. 
snus 'schnupftabak', Sw. snusa 'schnupfen', Dan. snuse 
'schnobern, wittern, schntiffeln', OE. *sneosan 'sneeze'; MHG. 

— 121 — 

snufen 'schnaufen', snub en 'schnarchen', MLG. snuven, Du. 
snuiven ' schnauben ', OSw. sniuva, MHG. snupfe 'schnupfen', 
snap fen 'schnaufen; schluchzen ', ON. snoppa 'schnauze', OSw. 
snuppa ' schlaclizen ', OE. snofl 'rotz', E. snuff, snuffle] Sw. 
snoka 'schnuffeln, stobern', NHG. sehnueken 'sob', Lith. snukis 
' snout '. 

56 a. The above are derivatives of the base sne-uo- * turn, 
whirl, twist; move rapidly', which may be connected with the 
bases sno-ro-, sno-lo-, sno-po-, sno-bo-, sno-go-, sno-do-. 

57. Lith. skalduju 'sptile, wasche', sJcalbiii 'wasche', Sw. 
shvala 'fliessen, stromen, giessen', Dan. shvale 'platschern, 
schlagen, sprudeln, hervorquellen ', sJcylle 'spiilen, abspulen; 
stromen', shvalpe 'schutteln; wanken, schwanken', shvulpe 
'platschern. schlagen', skvaldre 'schwatzen, plaudern', Sw. 
shvallra ' klatschen, schwatzen ', shvalpa ' platschern ', ON. shvala 
'schreien, larmen', shvaldra 'schwatzen', E. squall, squeal. 

58. Skt. cUpati 'bewegt sich, riihrt sich', hupyati 'wird 
erschtittert, wallt auf, ziirnt', ChSl. hypeti 'sieden, wallen', 
Lat. cupio 'begehre', Goth, liiufan 'wehklagen' (cf. Uhl. Et. 
Wb., who quotes this etymology with disapproval). 

Another point of contact between words for color and 
sound is seen in such terms as 'harsh, sharp' and the like. 
So Lat. acer is used of all the senses (cf. I, 114). Compare 
the following. 

59. Lat. tero, Gk. tsiqco 'reibe auf, roQog ' schnitzmesser ', 
roQoq ' durchdringend, feinhorend, laut, rasch ', Skt. tard ' durch- 
dringend, gellend, funkelnd' (cf. I, 113). 

60. OHG. rimpfan ' zusammenziehen, runzeln', MHG. 
rumphen 'rumpfen, runzelig machen', OE. gehrumpen 'wrinkled', 
hrympele 'wrinkle', Gk. zQafiftog 'shriveled, dry, parched : shrill, 
loud, ringing', xQafiftaZtog 'dried, parched, roasted', xQaftpaAid^cQ 
' laugh loud ' (cf. Prellw. Et. Wb.). These may be related to 
the following. For meaning compare Gk. xajcvQog 'dry, 
parched : loud, clear'. 

61. ON. shreppa 'gleiten, entschliipfen ', MHG. sehrimpfen 
'runzeln', NHG. sehrumpfen, Sw. skrumpen 'runzelig, hutzelig', 

— 122 — 

E. shrimp 'knirps', Lith. slcrebai 'die krampe am hut', skrebiu 
'werde trocken', ON. skorpinn 'shrunken', sJcorpr 'shriveled, 
dry', skarpr 'rough, shriveled, harsh, hard, sharp', OE. scearp 
'rough, severe, harsh, sharp', E. sharp 'keen, penetrating, 
acute; pungent, acid, sour; piercing, shrill; brilliant, dazzling' 
etc., Lett, skarbs 'scharf, streng, rauh, widerhaarig, zankisch', 
Gk. (jx£Q@oZog 'harsh in speech, scolding' (cf. I, 61a; Schade, 

The base sqere-bo- is from sqero- ' spring ', whence ' spring 
apart, crack; scratch, cut' : 'spring aside, recoil, shrink, shrivel, 
dry'. Germ, skarpa- has the double development 'shriveled, 
rough, harsh' : 'cracking, cutting, keen'. The meaning 'sharp', 
however, might come from 'shriveled, rough'. Compare OHG. 
snerfan ' zusammenziehen, verziehen' : ON. snarpr 'rough, un- 
even; hard, sharp, keen; bold, violent' (cf. 51a above). 

62. ON. skrcela 'dry up', skrcelingr, Dan. skrcelling 
' schwachling, weichling', skral 'schlecht, elend', Sw. shral 
' schlecht, kranklich ', E. shrill, LG. schrell ' schrill ' < *sqrel-no- 
' shriveled, dry, rough, harsh, sharp', OE. scrdlleitan 'sound 
loudly, shrill', Sw. slcrdlla 'gellen, schmettern', sJcrdla 'schreien, 
larmen', Dan. skraale 'heulen', skralde 'schallen, knallen', MHG. 
schrul 'bose laune, schrulle', Du. schrollen 'schelten, un- 
zufrieden sein\ 


The Roman numerals refer to chapters, the Arabic to paragraphs 
in the chapters. 

aktu III, 5. 
anji Vir, 30. 
dtati I, 100. 
city a I, 1 00. 
adhds XIV, 5. 
ddhvan I, 103. 
andhd XIV, 5. 
dndhas I, 103; II, I 
arund I, 71. 
aru§d I, 71. 
arkd I, 66. 
drcati I, 66. 
rtVvari I, 71. 
dr§ati I, 68. 
atmdn I, 100. 
atf/ira XIV, 5. 

incZd/ie I, 78. 
i?taka I, 79. 
i$yati I, 79. 

uk$dti I, 10 a. 
w#ra I, 10 a. 
ucchdti I, 8. 
tindtti I, 10 a. 
wgra I, 8. 


£/ya*i I, 63. 
pwti 1, 71. 
fptfft I, 68. 

Ha I, 80. 
mate I, 78. 
ema I, 80. 
6va I, 80. 

5^/ta I, 10 a. 
d?a£i I, 8. 

kaparda IX, 1. 
kapild IX, 1. 
kapota IX, 1. 
kdmpatl IX, 1. 
karaka I, 98 a. 
karata I, 95. 
ftar&a I, 95. 
karbard VIII, 7. 
kaldyati I, 59. 
kalmd$a VIII, 6. 
&tf«a I, 116; VII, 10. 
fcato VIII, 6. 
fciraft I, 95; IV, 1; 
VIII, 6. 

HZasa VIII, 6. 
kulungd VIII, 6. 
kurdati I, 61. 
kpnati I, 61a. 
kgntdti I, 61a. 
fcfjnd VII, in. 
kramati I, 61. 
krudhyati I, 105 a. 
^rd^i XVI, 30. 
klidyati IV, 1. 
Zrpurrf VIT, 21. 
k§ddati VII, 21. 

ghand X, 2. 
gharmd I, 90. 
gftpfet VII, 9. 

caAwta I, 77 a. 
cakdsti I, 77 a. 
cdncati I, 77 a. 

jdnjaii I, 104. 
jdnati I, 104. 
jdlpati I, 1 02 a. 
jdvats I, 86. 
jindti I, 92 a. 

1 Wherever possible words are omitted. Such words can be found 
by referring to their cognates. So Av. skar- from Gk. axaiQw. 

— 124 

jwoti I, 87. 
jivd I, 87. 
jvard I, 86. 
jvald I, 86. 

tdmas XIV, 3. 
tdrati I, 101, 113. 
tar aid I, 101. 
tdmyati XIV, 3. 
f« 1,113; XVI, 59. 
tara I, 113. 
tu$yati I, 51 c. 
*$as I, 112. 
tvi$dti I, 84. 

ddteft VII, 25. 

cfc'na 1, 81. 
dfcfctf I, 81. 

dipyate I, 81. 
diyati I, 81. 
divyati I, 81. 
<fyv.*a£i I, 61 b. 
deyatfz XVI, 36. 
dosa I, c 1 c. 
dyotate I, 81. 
drapsd I, 111. 
aVa^i I, 82; 61b. 
db&t 'schlafV I, 51c. 
dhdmati X, 5. 
dhavald IV, 4. 
dhaman I, 94. 
dhara X, 2. 
dhumrd X, la. 
dhusara VIII, 9. 
dhauta IV, 4. 
dhvan- XIV, 8. 
dhvdnati XVI, 46. 
dhvasmdn XIV, 8. 
dhvantd XIV, 8. 

nddati XVI, 55. 
ndbhas XI, 3. 
ndrdati XVI, 51. 
wavaJg XVI, 56. 
wiMa IV, 2. 
wim XI, 2; XIII, 16. 
nlla XIII, 16. 
nihard XI, 2. 

pdnate I, 99. 
paru$d VII, 12. 
pdrdate VIII, 11. 
jwiltfa XIII, 3. 
pdvatB IV, 5. 
j?ada I, 110. 
pifngdti VII, 4. 
/w'/aa VII, 4. 
pind$ti VII, 4. 
into VII, 4; XIII, 11, 
piyati VII, 4. 
^>tlfa IV, 5. 
prdaku VIII, 11. 
jprpwi VIII, 2. 
prsant VIII, 1. 
^pas VII, 4. 
pru$noti I, 98. 
pr\{§vd I, 98. 
prothati I, 98. 
pldvatE I, 21. 
plo$ati I, 98. 
phdlati I, 17, 61b. 
phalgu I, 17. 
phdlguna I, 17. 

bdbhasti IV, 10 a; VII, 

20; XII, 1. 
babhru I, 30. 
bradhnd I, 116a. 
bhdnati I, 22; II, 3. 
bhdvati I, 23. 
bhdrvati I, 30a, 37. 
Maft I, 22. 
bhama I, 22. 
Ma7a I, 22, 24. 
6/2 as I, 22. 
bhurdti I, 30. 
6/imM I, 23. 
bhu§ati I, 23. 
6/i^a I, 33. 
bhrdmgate I, 33. 
bhrdmati I, 33. 
bhrajati I, 28, 34. 
bhr agate I, 33. 
bhrinati I, 36. 
blirtsati I, 39. 

mdratB I, 11. 
warfrd XIV, 1 0. 
marcdyali XIV, 10. 
marmara XVI, 5. 
malind VII, 5. 
mdsi VII, 6. 
mdhas I, 93. 
mimati IV, 9 ; VII, 8. 
mifra I, 107. 
mrgdyate I, 13. 
wruati I, 11, 13 a. 
micaka VII, 3. 

rangati I, 65 ; X, 1 0. 

racdyati I, 63 a. 

r«/as I, 65; X, 10. 

rdjyati I, 65; X, 10. 

rddati I, 67. 

ra&te VII, 16. 

r«i/a I, 70 a; VII, 15. 

rayi I, 69. 

rdva I, 71a. 

ravi I, 71. 

rap??/ I, 64. 

rasa^ I, 68; XVI, 31. 

rasatfi I, 68. 

raj aw I, 63. 

ra£i I, 69. 

ra»w VII, 18. 

ritf VII, 15. 

rudlwd I, 71. 

re/a£c I, 75. 

reMa^ I, 70; XVI, 32. 

revd??£ I, 69. 

rosa/i XVI, 33. 

raufi I, 71a; XVI, 33. 

Zopdtfi I, 74; XVI, 35. 

lampata I, 74. 

Zdfatfi I, 72. 

lalana I, 72. 

ZdsaJi I, 73; XVI, 34. 

luncati IV, 10. 

tepa VII, 1. ' 

Ze%a£i 1,76; VII, 14. 

Zgp/ya I, 111. 

fofca IV, 10, 

125 — 

vdncati I, 7 a. 
vdtati XVI, 3. 
vddati XVI, 4. 
vawa II, 7. 
vdnati I, 6 ; II, 7. 
vdpati I, 9, 10 a, 

v areas I, 3. 

vdrna VI, 1. 

ratetf 1, 1,2, 10 a; 11,4. 

vaZM I, 3 a. 

vdlgati I, 3. 

va^w I, 3. 

vaJfa I, 3 a. 

vasantd I, 8. 

vasa I, 10 a. 

vdhati I, lb, 9 a, 10 a. 

vata I, 9 a. 

rati I, 9 a. 

var I, 4, 10 a. 

vtpa I, 10 a. 

vici I, 10 a. 

rnra II, 9. 

veti II, 9. 

vepate I, 10. 

veviyatE I, 10. 

vrdnati XVI, 5. 

fara VII, 19. 
fan VII, 19. 

faZitra VII, 19. 
giti XIII, 13. 
gindsti XIII, 13. 
££&a£g XIII, 13. 
giyats XIII, 13. 
fwei 1, 41. 

guddhd 1,42; IV, 11. 
gundhati I, 42. 
gundhana 1,42; IV, 11. 
gundhyu I, 42; IV, 11. 
gubhrd I, 43. 
gilmbhate I, 43. 
gudhand I, 42; IV, 11. 
f#e XIII, 13. 
£dca£i I, 41. 
gyamd XIII, 13. 
pz/am XIII, 13. 
f!/e£a XIII, 13. 
gyend XIII, 13. 
grinati VII, 19. 
glaksnd VII, 19. 
glisyati VII, 19. 
gvdyati I, 40; XIII, 14. 
gvdsiti I, 40 a. 
gviixdaU I, 44. 
£ i'g£a I, 44. 

subhnati I, 50. 
suksma I, 51b. 
siUa I, 49 a. 

! swda XIII, 15. 
suddyati 1, 51b. 
sitrfa I, 45. 
skdndati I, 89. 
skhdlati I, 60 b. 
s£a>- I, 96. 
sfoM I, 111. 
snihyatil, 98 a; VII, 31; 

XI, 2 a. 
spandate I, 14. 
8px$ati I, 61 b. 
spharayati I, 61 b. 
sphcilayati I, 61b. 
sphutdti I, 17, 61b. 
sphurdti I, 15. 
sphurjati I, 15-, II, 12. 
svq/d I, 48 a. 
svdjate I, 48 a. 
svdnc(as) I, 48 b. 
svddhiti I, 5 1 b. 
svdnati I, 46; XVI, 19. 
svdpiti I, 51 b. 
si;ar I, 47. 

svdrati I, 45; XVI, 19. 
svaow I, 51b. 

hdryati I, 58 a. 
hvdlati I, 88 a. 

ctexfjia. I, 9 a. 
dexfjiov I, 9a. 
a<#a> I, 78. 
alo'Aog I, 80. 
«#x7s III, 5. 
afllXQVGGO) I, 12. 
dfieiQio I, 13 a. 
d/Li£Qy(D I, 13 a. 
djutpdaj I, 13 a. 
dfiokyoq VII, 5; XIV, 9. 
dfivdQoq XIV, 7. 
aV#£w I, 103; II, 11. 
uv&rjQog II, 11. 


«V#()a£ I, 103. 
«7trft> I, 117. 
ccQyrjq I, 63. 
apyo's I, 63. 
aQyvQoq I, 63. 
£(>&£ I, 67. 
aQxto) I, 63a. 
<"a^ I, 100. 
avyjj I, 7 ; II, 8. 
ccvTfttjv I, 9 a. 
avco I, 8. 
a^a> I, 23 ; II, 3. 
ao)Qoq I, 9 a. 

/Sa^o'g VIII, 8. 

pCCTtTO) V, 1. 

/?a^?/' V, 1. 

yccftipoq XV, 5. 
yfAaw I, 102. 
yeXstv 1, 102. 
yA«£a> I, 102 a. 
ylaivoi I, 102. 
ykavxoq XIII, 22. 
yAv#vs XIII, 22. 

yvafinto) XV, 5. 
yv6(pog XV, 5. 

deaxai I, 81. 
SeieXoq XIV, 1. 
diacpaoaeiv I, 88. 
Sleftai I, 81. 
6vonaWC,co X, 8. 
6vd<poq X, 8. 
doveco X, 8. 
dQbita) IV, 8. 

6QOJ7tTO) IV, 8. 

la? I, 8. 
iXtvGo/ucu I, 77. 
&*§ I, 1. 

tA^e I, l. 

sXvxai I, 77. 
ep^oe I, 65. 

£pl>#po'e I, 71. 

eycpoq VI, 6. 

bQ(l)60) I, 71. 

fi'tfw I, 51b. 
cvw I, 8. 

t,o(p8Qog III, 4. 
"Qucpoq III, 4. 

rjiXioq I, 47. 
7>#ov I, 103. 
^voi/> I, 6; H, 7. 

&aXeQoq I, 106. 
#«AAa> 3, 106. 
#«Av#pds I, 106. 
&d(.i[ioq X, 5. 
9C[/SQ0Q X, 5. 

#>?(> I, 88 a. 
#oAe Qoq X, 1 c. 
&Qaooa) X, 3. 

tAA/£a> I, 2. 
Iqoq II, 9. 

I()/e n, 9. 

xdvSaQoq I, 89. 
#a;(A«£<tf I, 54. 

— 126 — 

xsIqco I, 61a; VII, 10. 
xeXaivoq VI, 2. 
x£XXa> I, 59. 
X£QXO[M)q XVI, 28. 
jo/A^ VIII, 6. 
xfjXov I, 110. 
*<Wa£ I, 91. 
xt(o I, 91. 

xAo'vo? I, 59; XVI, 23. 
xXv^co IV, 1. 


xv dm a) XV, 1. 
xviyaq XV, 1. 
*r/£o> XV, 2. 
xviTtoq XV, 2. 
xvicpoq XV, 2. 
xvv£,6(d XV, 3. 
xryw XV, 3. 
XOQG7] VII, 2. 
xovcpoq I, 43. 
areadaw XVI, 28. 
*(>«£«> XVI, 28. 
xQUfifioq XVI, 60. 
xgavyr] XVI, 30. 
*pe'*a> XVI, 28. 
XQSfia^ai I, 61. 
xQr\iivriiiL I, 61. 
xQrptlq IV, 10 a. 
*p/£w XVI, 29. 
*£/™ I, 61a; IV, 6. 

xpovfta XVI, 30. 
*uavos XIII, 14. 
*i;ta> I, 40. 
xvxvoq I, 41 a. 

Xd/mco I, 74. 
Xani'Qa) I, 74. 
Af^de XIII, 6. 
XsXiriiMu I, 76. 
Afi;*ds IV, 10. 
Afi^o's IV, 10. 
A</2(>ds XI, I. 
XiXaLoiiai I, 76. 
XmuQoq VII, 1. 

/xadccQoq XIII, 10. 

ftaQcciva) I, 13 a. 
/uccQyoq I, 13. 

(ICCQfiatQQ) I, 11. 
[xavQoq XIV, 7. 
(ueXaq VII, 5. 
p&< VII, 5. 
lieQyiQeo I, 13. 
luepog IV, 9. 
fioXiftoq VII, 5. 
fioXvva) VII, 5. 
//d()a IV, 9. 
/UOQ/J.VQO) I-, 11. 
<ui;cfog XIV, 7. 

ve i'o> XIV, 6. 
™#dg XIV, 6. 
™#a>(% XIV, 6. 

£«/*>w VII, 21. 
£av&6q VII, 21. 
£ov£o's VII, 21. 
£vo) VH, 21. 

o?^a« I, 80. 
oljuoq I, 80. 
o/ucpt] I, 117. 
oQtyu) I, 63 a. 
d()f^rd? 1, 63 a. 
OQiyvdo/ncu I, 69 a. 

OQVVfll I, 71. 
opot;ft> I, 71. 
oQotpoq VI, 6. 
d()<pvds VI, 6. 

TiaapaGGO) I, 88. 
7r«AAa> I, 18, 33 a. 
nt-XXoq XIII, 3. 

718VO/J.CCI I, 99. 

?!<!(><&! VIII, 11. 
nzgdoiuai VIII, 1 1. 
n&zo/jiai I, 33 a. 
7lifX7lQ7]fAL I, 97; VIII, 1 

nlnxiti I, 33 a. 
7rAatfapde I, 20 a. 
nXaddtdo) I, 20. 
7rA«£o> I, 19. 
nXevfxvjv XVI, 11. 


nXeco I, 21. 
nXriyJ] I, 19. 
nXivo) I, 21. 
nvEco I, 99 a. 
noixlXoq VII, 4. 
noXioq XII T, 3. 
7rp?7'#a> 1,97; VIII, 1. 
7rvp I, 117. 

Qctdaiivoq II, 5. 
(jadaviQa) I, 5a; II, 5. 
padtvo's I, 5 a. 
Qi-Qa) I, 65. 

pt7l?| I, 5. 
Q171XO) I, 5. 

potf«vo's I, 5 a; II, 5. 

odXoq I, 85. 
GEXaq I, 85. 
oivo/icu I, 01 b. 
axaiQO) I, Gl. 
GxaXr\voq I, COb. 
gxccXXco I, GO. 
GxtQpoloq I, 01 a; XVI, 

a#m III, 3 ; IV, 7 a. 
axivu^ IV, 7 a. 
gxvltcoq XV, 2. 
Gxvupoq XV, 2. 
a#oAto's I, 60 b. 
gxoqtclQo) I, 61a. 
a,u«ft> VII, 3. 
g/iwSi^ VII, 3. 
GfxV/u) XII, 5. 
GTtaiQO) I, 15. 
GUELQiD I, 15. 

GTievdco I, 14. 
omvSriQ I, 111. 
GTiXrjdog I, 17. 

GX&QOXp I, 96. 

ar^rog VII, 13. 
GtlXfta) I, 111. 
GXQO.71X0) I, 96. 

GtQEvyofjiai VII, 23. 
Gxgecpo) XVI, 45. 
GXQlpoq VII, 22. 
orp/^ VII, 22. 
<jrpo/2o? XVI, 45. 
Gxvylo) XIV, 3 a. 
crrvw XIV, 3 a. 
GOiXr\v I, 85. 

te/pw I, 101; XVI, 59. 
xifivo) XIV, 3. 
XEQbO) I, 101. 
xtQGOfAca I, 101. 

T£<££CC XII, 11. 

TiU?7 I, 85. 

(pcadgoq XIII, 20. 
(paixoq XIII, 20. 
(paiva) I, 22. 
(paXoq I, 24. 
(pCCQVVEL I, 30. 
cpavGiq I, 23 ; II, 3. 
(peXyvvei I, 17. 
cptQXEQoq I, 90. 
(plxpaXoq XII, 1. 
(pqXoq I, 28. 
yiftuJ I, 22. 
(pXtyo) I, 28. 
tpXeva) I, 27. 
#>;ia> I, 24, 27 a. 
^rf«wl,27a; VIII, 5; 

XVI, 12. 
^Vo> I, 27 a; XVI, 12. 
?>Ai(?«w 1,26; XIII, 4. 
(pXoidaco I, 26. 

(pXoiGpoq I, 27 a. 
(fXvdaaj I, 27 a. 
(pXvxxiq I, 27. 
</>Ai;ft> I, 27, 27a. 
^o?/9os XIII, 20. 
yoQxoq 1,33; VI f, 17 a. 
(pQifxcca) 1, 39. 
(povycD I, 37. 
<pvw 1,23; II, 3. 
#>cui/J I, 88. 

X«A«o> I, 56 b; XIII, 19. 
ya'iQO) I, 58a. 
Z«()07ro£ I, 58. 
^Aew/ I, 56. 
yXfjdoq I, 56 a. 
xXid(6v I, 55. 
#A/a> I, 55. 

xA^ n, i. 

yXa)Qoq II, 1. 
yvava) VII, 27a. 
X()«ft> VII, 9. 
/p/a* VII, 9. 
/pom VII, 9. 
XQ&fia VII, 9. 

ipci&vpoq XII, 3. 
i/;«p VII, 20. 
i/;«po£ VII, 20. 
tyavxQoq XII, 3 a. 
^fc'ycy XII, 3 a. 
ipedvoq XII, 3. 
ipExccq XII, 3 a. 
i/>ttyas XII, 2. 
V>0#og XII, 3. 
ipoXoq XII, 1. 
i/wV°S XII, 2. 

w^o? XIII, 21. 

absurdus X, 4. 
acer I, 114. 
aestas I, 79 a. 


aZo I, 72. 
arcus I, 66. 
augeo I, 7; II, 8. 

aurum I, 8. 

caesius XIII, 13. 

— 128 — 

calidus VIII, 6. 
caligo XI, 4. 
cancleo I, 89. 
cawws VII, 21. 
caput IX, 1. 
cascws VII, 21. 
celer I, 59. 
ceZo Vl, 2. 
cio I, 91. 
clamo I, 59. 
clarus 1, 59. 
cofor VI, 2. 
comburo I, 23. 
conflare 1, 24. 
coniveo XV, 2. 
corusco I, 105. 
crapula VIII, 7. 
creper X, 9. 
crepo X, 9; XVI, 28. 
crusta I, 105 a. 
ciwto I, 33 a. 

dormio I, 51c. 

/acies I, 88. 
/aZfo 1,28, 88 a. 
/an I, 22. 
fatuus I, 88 a. 
/asc I, 88. 
ferio I, 30, 36. 
fermentum I, 30 a. 
/ems I, 88 a. 
ferveo I, 30, 30 a. 
flagro I, 28. 
flagrum I, 28. 
/Zare I, 24; II, 10. 
flavos I, 24; II, 10. 
pre 1,24; XVI, 12. 
fligo I, 29. 
/fos I, 24. 
/Zwo I, 27. 
folium I, 24. 
f return I, 31. 
/W> I, 36. 
/no/o I, 36. 
frio I, 36. 
fruges I, 37. 

/wZa/eo I, 28. 
/Wyos II, 1. 
furo X, le; XVI, 46. 
furvos X, le. 
fuscus X, 1 f. 

#Zaoer I, 56 a; VII, 26. 
oiisco I, 55. 
gramiae VII, 9. 

haurio I, 8. 
/ieZvos II, 1. 
horior I, 58 a. 

jubilum XVI, 48. 

lascivus I, 73. 
limpidus XIII, 7. 
liquidus XIII, 7. 
Ktw XIII, 6. 
htror XIII, 6. 
Zuscus XV, 5. 
lutum II, 4. 
htcc IV, 10. 

marceo XIV, 10. 
merus IV, 9. 
wico I, 107. 
misceo I, 107. 
mom IV, 9. 
morbus XIV, 10. 

mo/er XI, 2. 
nimbus XI, 2. 
nto VII, 27. 
mi&es XIV, 6. 

oblivio XIII, 6. 
obscurus VI, 3. 
oZesco I, 72. 

i?aZ/;o I, 20 a; XVI, 10. 
pello I, 18, 33 a. 
picus VII, 4. 
pingo VII, 4. 
plango I, 19. 
i?Zoro XVI, 9. 
premo VIII, 2 a. 

prima I, 98. 
prurio I, 98. 
pwZwo XVI, 1 1 a. 
purus IV, 5. 
^wfats IV, 5. 

radius I, 67. 
rauws VII, 17. 
reo/o I, 63. 
rex I, 63. 
ro6«s VII, 16. 
rogo I, 63 a. 
ros I, 68. 
rw&us VII, 17. 
ructo XVI, 33. 
rudis VII, 17. 
rwdo XVI, 33. 
rudus VII, 17. 
ru/Vts I, 71. 
rugio XVI, 33. 
rumor I, 71a. 
rutilus I, 71. 

saucius XII, 3 a. 
scando I, 89. 
scindo I, 119. 
scintilla I, 111. 
scortwn I, 62 b. 
serenus XIII, 1. 
sta XIII, 2. 
soZ I, 47. 

sowo I, 46 ; XVI, 1 
spar go I, 15. 
sperno I, 15. 
6^iwa I, 11 J. 
splendeo I, 17. 
strepo XVI, 45. 
sfrifZo VII, 22 a; : 

sM#0 VII, 22. 
stringo VII, 22. 
rtrte VII, 22. 
s^deo XIV, 3 a. 
stupeo XIV, 3 a. 
swous XIII, 15. 
surdus X, 4. 
susurro I, 45. 


temno XIV, 3. 
tero I, 101. 
tesqua XIV, 4. 
tingo V, 2. 
for^eo XIII, 17 a. 
torreo I, 101. 
tumultus XVI, 38. 

imda I, 10 a. 
uro I, 8. 
wrens I, 10 a. 

vacillo I, 7 a. 
vapor I, 9. 
ve#eo I, 7 ; II, 8. 

vena I, 10 a. 
vereor I, 4. 
vibro I, 10. 
vireo II, 9. 
virus I, 10 a. 
FoZc«wws I, 3. 
voltus I, 2 ; II, 4. 


fom I, 22. 

fer aim I, 4, 10 a. 

-luad I, 21. 

-bertach I, 34. 

/iar II, 9. 

ZitaM I, 21. 

bolgaim I, 27 a. 

/tesc I, 2. 

6recc I, 13. 

folcaim I, 3. 

mael VII, 8. 

brennim I, 32. 

fo-lluur I, 21. 

mety VII, 5; XIV, 9. 

6ntfft I, 30. 

gaZar I, 56 b. 

mrecht I, 13. 

clam VIII, G. 

glan I, 102. 
<jror VII, 9. 

nec/tf IV, 2. 

coirbim VIII, 7. 

woifc IV, 2. 

deim X, 5. 

gorm I, 90; VII, 9. 

sorbaim VII, 11. 

derg X, 3. 

<7wa£ I, 86. 

suthan I, 5 lb. 

dw& X, 1 b. 

U XIII, 6. 

uaine 11, 7. 

fer 11, 8. 

Hath XIII, 6. 


wr II, 5. 

afdobnan X, 6 a. 

/fota xvi, io. 

hulundi I, 40 a. 

a/ia, a/twa I, 114 a. 

fon I, 99. 

hwapjan I, 40. 

air zeis I, 68. 

frius I, 98. 

hweits I, 44. 

arhwazna I, 66. 

-gairns I, 58 a. 

keinan I, 92 a. 

bairhts I, 34. 

-gildan I, 56 b. 

laikan I, 75. 

blandan IX, 2. 

lisan I, 73. 

ftZiwds XV, 6. 

hahan I, 77 a. 

liudan I, 77. 

fcra/iw; I, 12, 33. 

/irtis I, 9 1 . 

brikan I, 34. 

haitan I, 91. 

waiZ VII, 8. 

brinnan I, 32. 

7iei£o I, 91. 

malan VII, 5. 

brukjan I, 37. 

Mm VI, 3. 

mam IV, 9 a. 

Jilutrs IV, 1. 

marka IV, 9 a. 

disskreitan I, 61 a. 

hrains IV, 6. 

meljan VII, 5. 

dwaZs X, 1 c. 

hropjan XVI, 28. 

-mers 1, 21. 

ftntf VI, 4 a. 

mtJAma VII, 5; XII, 4 

faran 1,97; VIII, 1. 

/was I, 41. 

fiautjan XVI, 11. 

AwZisJr VI, 2. 

wa/ifs 111, 5. 


-rdkjan I, 63. 
raupjan VII, 17. 
raups I, 71. 
reiks I, 69 a. 
reiran XVI, 33. 
riqis X, 10. 
rohsns I, 63 a. 
rwwa I, 71b. 

saggws I, 117. 
sair XII, 3 a. 
sakan XII, 3 a. 
sinks I, 48 a, 51 b. 
skalks I, 60 b. 

skeirs IV, 7. 
slawan XIII, 18. 

stairno I, 96. 
stautan XIV, 3 a. 
sw#iJ I, 48. 
sunna I, 46. 
swfs I. 51b. 
-swaggwjan I, 48 b. 
swaran I, 45; XVI, 19. 
swarts X, 4. 
swegnjan 1, 48 ; XVI, 19. 
sweiban I, 51b. 
swiglon I, 48; XVI, 19. 
swiltan XII, 8. 
swinps I, 51 b. 
-swogjan 1, 48 ; XVI, 1 9. 

-tarhjan IV, 8. 
fg&aw I, 92 a. 

wakan I, 7. 
waurts II, 5. 
we#s I, 10 a. 
wens I, 6. 
-wigan I, 7 b. 
winja II, 7. 
wlaiton I, 2. 
wleizn I, 2 a. 
wZite I, 2. 
t(;5A;rs II, 8. 
wratm I, 5a; II, 
wrohjan XVI, 5. 
wulan I, 1. 
wulpags I, 2. 
ivulpus I, 2 ; II, 4. 

Old, Middle and New High German, 

aianz I, 100. 

ofafo/i i, ioo. 

afar I, 100. 
a£wm I, 100. 

oaMo I, 24. 

bast IV, 10 a. 

belgan I, 27 a. 

fori IV, 10 a. 

oirc/ia I, 34; IV, 10 a. 

blajan I, 24; II, 10. 

May en I, 24,27 a; XVI, 

Mao VH, 5 ; XIII, 5. 
blanch I, 28. 
bias I, 25. 
blasan I, 25. 
Mazan I, 27 a; XVI, 12. 
bleih I, 29. 
blecchen I, 28. 
blihhan I, 29. 
Mio VII, 5. 
Modern I, 27 a. 
Modi IX, 2. 
Mwc I, 27. 
blUgisUn I, 27. 

bluhen I, 27. 
Mwoen I, 24; II, 10. 
bratan I, 31. 
briezen I, 30 a. 
ono I, 39. 
brodeln I, 30 a. 
brodi I, 37. 
6ro£ I, 37. 
briiejen I, 30 a. 
bvun I, 30. 
orws 1,37; XVI, 16. 
bus I, 23. 

dampf X, 5. 
demar XIV, 3. 
diwstar XIV, 3. 
diozan XVI, 38. 
dola I, 85 ; XVI, 38. 
doson 1,82; XVI, 38. 
aYaera I, 101; X, 7. 
drcejen I, 101. 
drasen I, 101 ; X, 7; 

XVI, 43. 
thwesben XIV, 4. 

elbiz I, 41 a. 

erchan I, 63. 
erpfYI, 6; VII, 16. 

fallan I, 33 a. 
/aZo XIII, 3. 
vanAre I, 99 b. 
farawa VII, 12. 
/aro VII, 12. 
vladem I, 20 a. 
<fen IV, 3 ; XIII, 3. 
flagardn I, 19. 
vlackern I, 19. 
vZawc I, 19. 
vlans 1, 20. 
rZa£ IV, 3. 
vledermus I, 20 a. 
flediron I, 20 a. 
flink{en) I, 19. 
vlins(en) I, 20. 
fliogan I, 21. 
flistran I, 20. 
flitarezzen I, 20 a. 
bittern 1, 20 a; XVI, 1 
vlodern XVI, 2. 
flogarm I, 21. 
flogezen I, 21. 

— 1S1 — 

flurikem I, 19. 
fnehan I, 99 b ; XVI, 42. 
/bwew IV, 5. 
friosan I, 98. 
funcho I, 99 b. 

</aZ«w I, 52. 
#ars£ VII, 9. 
gel fen I, 53. 
$re^aw I, 52. 
gelo 1,57; II, 1. 
gelph I, 53. 
#em I, 58 a. 
glanz I, 54. 
glat VII, 26. 
<jto I, 55; XVI, 21. 
glimen I, 55. 
glitan I, 50 a. 
glizan I, 55. 
glosen I, 56. 
glotzen I, 56. 
gluoen I, 57; II, 1. 
£tti*t VII, 27. 
gnitan VII, 27. 
gogeln I, 88. 
^or VII, 9. 
#ow/e I, 88 a. 
#ow/Zer I, 88 a. 
gougaron I, 88. 
gowcft I, 88. 
goukalari I, 88. 
#rao I, 90; VII, 9. 
<jrras II, 2. 
#m VII, 9. 
gruoen I, 58; II, 2. 
gruoni II, 2. 
.</rwo£ II, 2. 
#it<7ew I, 88. 
gucken I, 88. 
#wZ XVI, 50. 

habuh IX, 1. 
ZiaZon 1, 59. 
harmo VII, 19. 
hasan VII, 21. 
AaseZw VII, 21. 
hasnm VII, 21. 

haso VII, 21. 

heitar XIII, 13. 

fteiz I, 91. 

hel I, 59. 

helan VI, 2. 

fterdar I, 61a; IV, 10 a. 

hesive VII, 21. 

Mamow I, 59 ; XVI, 23. 

hniotan XV, 3. 

hniuwan XV, 3. 

hoi I, 40 a. 

hreflY, 10 a. 

7»n/b VII, 19. 

kallon I, 102. 
fe&ew I, 92. 

klchen I, 92 a; XVI, 29. 
&ip/'a I, 92 a. 
kippen I, 92. 
kizzilon I, 92 a. 
frZewi VII, 29. 
klingan I, 102 a. 
klirren I, 102. 
klockon I, 102a. 
Mop f on I, 102 a. 
fcne&eZ XV, 4. 
-knellen VII, 27 b. 
knopf XV, 4. 
fcoZo I, 86. 

lab I, 74. 

Za6o?i I, 74. 
-leiche, -liche I, 75. 
lesan I, 73. 
lodern I, 77. 
Zoscew XV, 5. 
lowen IV, 10. 
Jwren XV, 5. 

mareo seo IV, 9 a. 
mdsa VII, 6. 
wmsec VII, 6. 
militou VII, 5. 

nebel-var XI, 3. 

perze I, 115. 

rahha I, 63. 
mm VII, 18. 
ramac VII, 18. 
rap fen VII, 16. 
rasen XVI, 31. 
rascezzen 1, 68; XVI, 31. 
razzeln XVI, 28. 
rebahuon VII, 16. 
reihhen I, 69. 
rem VII, 15. 
n&an 1, 5; VII, 2. 
Hjfi VII, 15. 
n<7eZ I, 63 a. 
riman VII, 19. 
rimeln VII, 19. 
rimpfan XVI, 60. 
ro£ 1,71. 
roubm VII, 17. 
ruochen I, 63 a. 
ntoren VII, 19. 
ruoz VII, 18. 
rusten VI, 5. 

saZo XIII, 18. 
sengen I, 117. 
singan I, 117. 
siodan I, 49. 
sc/iafo I, 60 b. 
scalmo I, 60 b. 
scaltan I, 60. 
scarbon 1, 61a; XVI, 

28 a. 
scharren I, 61a; XVF, 

28 a. 
scharz I, 61 a. 
scelah I, 60 b. 
schellec I, 60. 
scelp I, 60 b. 
sceltan I, 60; XVI, 24. 
skeri IV, 7 a. 
sceron I, 61 ; XVI, 25. 
scherze I, 61 a. 
scher -zen I, 61. 
schrasjen I, 61, 98 a. 
schramien 1,61. 
scranchdn I, 62a. 
scrcckon I, 62. 

— 132 — 

scrian XVI, 27. 
schrul XVI, 62. 
sllfan VII, 28; XI, 1. 
slihhan VII, 28. 
slim VII, 28. 
sliten VII, 28. 
smal XII, 4; XIII, 17. 
smelhe XII, 4. 
smiegen XII, 7 a. 
sminke VII, 3. 
snaben XVI, 52. 
snahhan XVI, 53. 
snacken XVI, 53. 
snalzen XVI, 5. 
snappen XVI, 52. 
snarchen XVI, 51. 
snarren XVI, 51. 
fftOf* XVI, 51. 
snateren XVI, 55. 
sndwen XVI, 56. 
MteBen XVI, 54. 
snerfan XVI, 51a. 
snerhan XVI, 51 a. 
schnorkel XVI, 51a. 
snuden XVI, 56. 
sww/ew XVI, 56. 
schnucken XVI, 56. 
snupfen XVI, 56. 
snuzen XVI, 56. 
swwor XVI, 51a. 
spaM I, 16. 

spach(eri) I, 16; VII, 4. 
spaltan I, 17, 61b. 
spehhan 1, 16. 
s^eMm I, 16; XVI, 8. 
spiz I, 111. 
spZin* IV, 10 a. 
sptew I, 17, 61b. 
sprcejen I, 15. 
sprinkel VIII, 3. 
spruhen I, 15. 
spuolen I, 61b. 
store XVI, 45. 
sterzen VII, 22 a. 
sfrac XVI, 45. 
strcejen I, 96. 
sfra/'ew XVI, 54. 

s£raZa I, 96. 
streben XVI, 45. 
streifeht VII, 22. 
s£reno XVI, 45. 
sinmo VII, 22. 
stritan XVI, 44. 
striunan VII, 23. 
stroufen VII, 23. 
struben VII, 23. 
struhhon VII, 23. 
strumpf VII, 23. 
s£rw£ew VII, 23. 
s£mz VII, 23. 
»«/! 1,50; XVI, 19. 
stlscw XVI, 19. 
swade I, 49 a. 
swach I, 48 a, 51 b. 
swalawa XVI, 19. 
swa/w XVI, 19. 
swan I, 41 a. 
swanger I, 48 b. 
swank I, 48 a. 
swar I, 45 a. 
sttfarc X, 4. 
swateren XVI, 19. 
swatzen XVI, 19; I, 

swaz XIII, 5. 
swe&an I, 50; XVI, 19. 
swedan I, 49 ; XII, 9. 
swedil I, 49 a. 
swegala I, 48. 
sweibon I, 51 a, b. 
sweifan I, 51 a. 
sweimen I, 51 ; XII, 10; 

XIV, 2. 
sweZc XII, 8. 
swellan XII, 8. 
swelzan XII, 8. 
swenken I, 48 a. 
swero I, 45 a. 
swlgen I, 51b. 
swilizzon XII, 8. 
swlnan XII, 10; I, 51 b. 
swingan I, 48 b. 
swintan XII, 9. 
sworga I, 45 a. 

terken X, 3. 
terchinen X, 3. 
timber X, 5. 
*o&era X, lb; XVI, 46 
tougal X, 1 d. 
trennen I, 61b. 
trinnen I, 61b. 
truobi X, 2. 
tu/Z I, 98a; X, lb. 
tuhhan V, 4. 
tunchal X, 6. 
falsc/i I, 51 c. 
ftlzew I, 51c. 

wabern I, 9. 
u-tl^r I, 10a. 
t0£&t 1 , 7 a. 
ivalgon I, 2 a, 3, 10 a. 
walkan I, 3. 
wallan I, 1, 2a; II, 4. 
2£aZm I, 1 ; II, 4. 
wanga I, 7 a. 
wankon I, 7 b. 
wasaZ I, 8, 10 a. 
tuaso I, 8, 10 a. 
waskan I, 10 a. 
wehen I, 7 a. 
iveibdn I, 10. 
weisunt I, 10 a. 
wdc I, 3, 10 a. 
weZJa I, 10 a. 
wesanen I, 8. 
wetar I, 9 a. 
weter-leiche I, 75. 
trf/fen 1, 10. 
winkan I, 7 b. 
winnan I, 6; II, 1 

XVI, 1. 
wisa I, 10 a. 
wolka I, 3. 
worpen I, 10 a. 
wulgeren I, 2 a. 
wullon I, 2 a. 
wuorag I, 92. 

2aw>a VII, 24. 
zawew VII, 24. 
zecken I, 92 a. 


ziari I, 81. 
Ziehen I, 92 a. 
zicklen I, 92 a. 
zin I, 81. 

zittarm I, 82. 
zoraht IV, 8. 
zorft IV, 8. 
zoubar VII, 21. 

zouwen VII, 24. 
zucchen I, 108. 
zwinken I, 108. 
zivizziron I, 108. 

galpon I, 53. 
<7^mo I, 55. 
gftfrm I, 55. 

ra&a I, 63 a. 
raftttd I, 63 a. 

Old Saxon. 

rokjan I, 63 a. 

sink I, 117. 
swigli I, 48. 
swogan I, 48. 

Mimw XIV, 3. 
gi-thrusmod X, 7. 

ivanam I, 6; II, 7. 
t(;edar I, 9 a. 
wora# I, 9 a. 

adf I, 78. 
cedre I, 100. 
celan I, 72. 
«Zed 1, 72. 
cemyrian I, 80. 
«/>m I, 100. 
ast I, 79 a. 

bcel I, 22, 24. 
bcelcan I, 27 a. 
bealcan I, 27 a. 
6sam I, 23. 
bearhtm I, 31a. 
6eWan I, 27 a. 
beorma I, 30 a. 
fceorM I, 34. 
ge-bered XII, 1. 
fcmta XVI, 15. 
besutod XIII, 15. 
blewan I, 23. 
feZac I, 29. 
blcec VII, 5. 
fckese I, 25. 
blast I, 25. 
blcetan I, 27 a. 
blagettan I, 27 a. 
blanden-feax IX, 2. 
6te< 1,26; XIII, 4. 

Old English. 

6Zaw, bleo VII, 5. 
blencan I, 28. 
Mere I, 25. 
frfocan I, 29. 
blysa I, 25, 27. 
blyscan I, 25, 27. 
bmian I, 22. 
borcianl, 34a; XVI, 14. 
borettan I, 30. 
bradan I, 31. 
6nSj6 I, 31 
&raw£ 1, 116 a. 
brastlian XVI, 15. 
fcread I, 37. 
6rga£ I, 37. 

#e-6rec I, 34 a; XVI, 14. 
bregdan I, 12, 33. 
breotan I, 30 a, 37. 
breowan I, 30. 
briesan I, 30 a, 37. 
trim I, 38. 
briw I, 39. 
fcntya 1, 12. 
brucan I, 37. 

cceg I, 92 a. 
ca/" I, 92. 

cldan I, 92 a; XVI, 39. 
dnaw 1, 92 a. 
cipp I, 92 a. 
citelian I, 92 a. 
clacian 1, 102 a. 
cZacw 1, 102 a. 
clador I, 102 a. 
ctae VII, 29. 
clceppian I, 102 a. 
clatrian I, 102 a. 
encepp XV, 4. 
coZ I, 86. 
cwZ/re VIII, 8. 

dsag V, 4; X, 1 d. 
deagol X, 1 d. 
deaW I, 106. 
dearf X, 2. 
deor X, 1 e. 
deorc X, 3. 
deorfan X, 2. 
dim X, 5. 
dose X, 1 f. 
dro?/" X, 2. 
dreccan X, 3. 
rfrof X, 2. 
dweescan X, 1 f. 
dynnan XVI, 46. 


dyttan I, 5 1 c. 

Bar I, 4. 

earp, eorp VI, 6; VII, 

facen VII, 4. 
far VIII, 1. 
/Sflf VII, 4. 
/icoJ VII, 4. 
firmettan VIII, 2 a. 
/facor I, 19. 
pah XIII, 3 a. 
fleard(ian) I, 21. 
fleswian I, 20; XVI, 9. 
flicerian I, 19. 
/tan XVI, 10. 
fnasettan I, 99 a; XVI, 

fneosan I, 99 a; XVI, 42. 
for-soden XIII, 15. 
/W&rf I, 97. 

geaglisc I, 88. 
#eap I, 88 a. 
geolo I, 57. 
gieldan I, 56 b. 
pieZde I, 56b. 
#Za?d VII, 26. 
glcem I, 55 ; III, 2. 
glceterian 1, 54. 
#Jgam I, 56 ; XVI, 22. 
glendran I, 56 a. 
glisian I, 55. 
glitenian I, 55. 
gliw 1,55; XVI, 21. 
#to III, 1. 
glowan I, 57; III, I. 
gnagan VII, 27 a. 
gneap VII, 27 a. 
gnyran VII, 27 a. 
gydig I, 88 a. 
gylt I, 56 b. 
#2/ We I, 88 a. 

hador XIII, 1 3. 
hapa I, 91. 

/i^we XIII, 13. 
hagol, hcegel I, 98 a. 
har XIII, 13. 
haso VII, 21. 
hearma XVI, 27 b. 
heolstor VI, 2. 
herpan I, 61 a. 
to, Tigow VI, 3. 
hlowan 1, 59. 
/ifo/mi 1, 59. 
hnagan XV, 3 a. 
hnceppan XV, 1. 
hnappian XV, 1. 
torn*; XV, 3. 
hneopan XV, 3. 
hmgan XV, 2. 
hnipian XV, 2. 
Tmttaw XV, 2. 
hnossian XV, 3. 
7mo£ XV, 3. 
7io#it I, 41. 
7iraca XVI, 28. 
hracan XVI, 28. 
hream XVI, 30. 
Imape-mus XVI, 30. 
hreddan I, 61a. 
hreodan VI, 4. 
/ireo/" I, 105 a. 
fcreosaw VI, 4; XVI, 30. 
-hrespan I, 61 a. 
hreper I, 61a. 
hricianl, 61 a; XVI, 29. 
hrlddel 1, 61 a. 
-hrifnian I, 6 1 a. 
hrim VII, 19; I, 98 d. 
hrman VII, 19. 
hrindan I, 61a.- 
hringan XVI, 28. 
hrisian I, 61 a; XVI, 29. 
hristlian XVI, 29. 
fcrDc XVI, 28. 
hroden VI, 4. 
/iro/" VI, 4 a. 
7inifcm 1, 105 a; XVI, 30. 
hryscan XVI, 30. 
7in/./% XVI, 33. 
hudenian I, 42; IV, 11. 

hwasan I, 40 a. 
hwastrian I, 44 a. 
hwaperian I, 40. 
hwelan I, 40 a. 
hwelian I, 40 a. 
hwlnan I, 44 a. 
hwisprian I, 44 a. 
hwistlian I, 44 a. 
7hm£ I, 44. 
hyht I, 41. 
%rs£ VI, 5. 

lacan I, 75. 
Z^(ian) VII, 14. 
lafian I, 74. 
teaft IV, 10. 

malan VII, 8. 
m«re IV, 9. 
mal VII, 8. 
metan VII, 7. 
mefam VII, 7. 
mierce XLV, 10. 

mpaw XI, 2. 

racente I, 64. 

r^can I, 69 a. 

rcescan I, 68. 

rawc I, 63. 

r avian I, 70. 

recan I, 65 ; X, 1 0. 

refsen VII, 16. 

reord 1,68; XIII, 22 a. 

reofcm XVI, 33. 

rice I, 69 a. 

n/" I, 69 a, 70. 

ripan VII, 15. 

risan I, 70 a. 

rip VII, 15. 

rodor I, 71. 

rof VII, 16. 

rot VII, 18. 

rofo'an XVI, 33. 

rudu I, 71. 

rl/wan 1,71a; XVI, 33 

salo XIII, 18. 

— 135 — 

scanan IV, 7. 
scearfian I, 61 a; XVI, 

28 a. 
scielfan I, 60. 
scielfor I, 60. 
scima IV, 7 a; III, 3. 
scima IV, 7a; III, 3. 
scir IV, 7. 
scrallettan XVI, 62. 
screadian XVI, 27 b. 
scrtowa XVI, 27 b. 
scrimman I, 61. 
scrincan I, 62 a. 
scripan I, 61 a. 
sear XIII, 15. 
sea/) XIII, 15. 
sengan I, 117. 
sircc I, 117. 
slupan XIII, 18. 
smeocan XII, 5. 
smicer VII, 3. 
smitan VII, 3. 
smorian XII, 7. 
sneorcan XVI, 51a. 
sneowan XVI, 56. 
swgr XVI, 51a. 
snlcan XI, 2 a. 
swod XVI, 51 a. 
swwd XVI, 56. 
sore VII, 21. 
spear ca I, 15; II, 12. 
specan I, 16; XVI, 8. 
specca I, 16; VIII, 4. 
speZc I, 17. 
speld I, 17. 

spiercan I, 15; IT, 12; 

VIII, 3. 
sprcec II, 12. 
steer VII, 20. 
strldan VII, 22 a; XVI, 

styrian XVI, 48. 
styrmian XVI, 48. 
swcelan I, 47; XH, 8. 
sicamian XIV, 2. 
swan I, 41 a. 
swancor I, 48 a. 
sicangor I, 48 b. 
swapan I, 51 a. 
swapian I, 49 a. 
sivearcian X, 4. 
swebban I, 51 b. 
sz^e^rZ I, 48. 
sivelan I, 47 ; XII, 8. 
sweorfan VII, 11. 
sweotol XIII, 15. 
swican I, 51 a, b. 
sicindan XII, 9. 
sivinsian I, 46. 
sivodrian XII, 9. 
ge-swogen I, 51 b. 
s^eZ I, 48. 

*ea/br VII, 24. 
teZflr VII, 25. 
£%a VII, 25. 
teorian 1, 51c. 
tin I, 81. 
8* I, 81. 
torht IV, 8. 

tiviccian I, 108. 
twinclian I, 108. 
ft/fan 1, 109. 

/jgosfre XIV, 4. 
plotan XVI, 38. 
prawan I, 101. 
j&rosm I, 101; X, 7. 
ge-puxod XIV, 4. 
jtyfe 1,85; XVI, 38. 
j&j/s 1,83; XVI, 38. 

iveeflian I, 9; XVI, 2. 
iv&fre I, 9. 
wcer I, 4. 
i*;a?£ I, 10 a. 
ivceter I, 10 a. 
ivafian I, 9. 
ivasend I, 10 a. 
wealcan I, 3, 10 a. 
toeaZgr I, 3. 
weorpan I, 10 a. 
wieZm I, 1, 10 a. 
wincian I, 7 b. 
toff II, 9. 
ivisnian XIII, 12. 
wtec I, 3. 
wlcetan I, 2 a. 
wlanca I, 3. 
wlatian I, 2. 
wlitan I, 2. 
t<;Zo/i I, 3 a. 
wos 1, 10 a. 
w?q£ XVI, 3. 
wuldor I, 2. 

6aJd I, 25. 

6aWc 'rinde' IV, 10 a. 

bloat 1, 27 a. 

blot VIII, 5. 

oas/i V1I1, 10. 
daze VIII, 10. 


/Zap I, 20 a. 
/fare I, 20. 
flash I, 20. 
fling I, 19. 

glimmer III, 2. 
^ifftt I, 54. 

arime VII, 9. 
kindle 1, 104. 
lower XV, 5. 
raw/: I, 63. 

— 136 

rattle XVI, 28. 
rife I, 69. 
rush I, 105. 

scream I, 61; XVI, 25. 
shout XVI, 49. 
shrill XVI, 62. 

skulk I, 60 b. 
smolder XII, 6. 
swarZ XVI, 51a. 
sneeze XVI, 56. 
spanfc 1, 16. 
splint(er) I, 17. 
sprinkle I, 15. 

StfitaM XVI, 57. 

tickle I, 92 a. 

wave I, 9, 10 a. 
weld II, 4. 
wing I, 7 a. 

fcaZ I, 24. 

bara I, 30. 

belja I, 24. 

fceWya I, 34 a; XVI, 14. 

blaka I, 28. 

Ma&ra I, 28. 

blautr I, 27 a. 

bletr VIII, 5. 

bllgja I, 29. 

Wi#ra Norw. I, 29. 

bllkja I, 29. 

blistr I, 27 a. 

feZossa I, 27. 

blotna I, 27 a. 

blunda XV, 6. 

bgrkr 1,34; IV, 10 a. 

bradr I, 31. 

&ra#a I, 12, 33. 

braka I, 34 a; XVI, 14. 

ftrawk 1,37; XVI, 16. 

bregma 1, 12. 

breyskr I, 37. 

fcret/sta I, 37; XVI, 16. 

fcnA; I, 36. 

brim I, 38. 

fcnwe I, 39. 

brja I, 12, 33. 

brjota I, 37. 

&nma I, 30. 

bryna I, 37. 

&n/£/a I, 37. 

dasask VIII, 10. 
dtlra I, 51 c. 
dekkr X, 6. 

Old Norse. 

eimr I, 80. 
eimyrja I, SO. 
eisa I, 79 a. 
eldr I, 72. 
eZ/V I, 74. 
elska I, 73. 
erfo I, 67. 

falma I, 118. 

#wfca I, 98 a. 

fladra I, 20 a. 

flakka I, 19. 

/fasa I, 20. 

fleipa I, 20 a. 

flengja I, 19, 61b. 

flipe I, 20 a. 

fnasa I, 99 a; XVI, 42. 

fnjoskr I, 99 a. 

/V^sa I, 99 a; XVI, 42. 

fok I, 98 a. 

forsa I, 97; VIII, 1; 

XVI, 40. 
fraud 1,98; XVI, 41. 
freknor VIII, 2. 
/re&r VIII, 2. 
/h/sa 1,98; XVI, 41. 

gala 1,52; XVI, 20. 
0aBe I, 56 b; XIII, 19. 
gaula XVI, 50. 
gaupn I, 88 a. 
#eisZa XIII, 20. 
geldr I, 56 b. 
geyja XVI, 50. 
#/d/V I, 53; XVI, 20. 

gjalla I, 52. 

gjalp 1,53; XVI, 20. 

glama I, 52. 

#Jamr I, 57. 

<jrZafa I, 56 b. 

glaumr I, 56; XVI, 22. 

gleipa XVI, 21. 

gleyma I, 56 a. 

gleypa I, 56 a. 

glitra I, 55. 

#foa I, 57. 

glotta I, 56. 

</Z?/ra I, 56. 

glys I, 56. 

gnata VII, 27 a. 

#naw(J VII, 27 a. 

gnist VII, 27. 

gnua VII, 27 a. 

#wl/a VII, 27 a. 

gnyr VII, 27 a. 

gorm VII, 9. 

#nma VII, 9. 

grvmr VII, 9. 

heid XIII, 13. 
Zieidir XIII, 13. 
hela I, 98 a. 
hlaut IV, 1. 
hnauk XV, 3. 
hneita XV, 2. 
hneppa XV, 1. 
hneppr XVI, 1. 
Anlpa XV, 2. 
hnippa XV, 2. 

— 137 

hnjoda XV, 3. 
hnjosa XV, 3 a. 
hnjoskr XV, 3 a. 
hnjota XV, 3. 
hnufa XV, 3. 
hniika XV, 3. 
hnupl XV, 3. 
Ara/ VI, 4 a. 
hrafl VI, 4 a. 
hrapa I, 33 a; XVI, 28. 
hrasa I, 33 a. 
Arata I, 33 a, 61. 
hreidra VI, 4 a. 
7im/a I, 61a; XVI, 29 a. 
hreima XVI, 29. 
hrekja I, 61 a; XVI, 28. 
hrifa I, 61a; XVI, 29 a. 
hrlka XVI, 29. 
/mm VII, 19. 
hrlna VII, 19. 
Zimta I, 61a; XVI, 29. 
hrjuda I, 105a; VI, 4. 
hrjosa I, 105. 
hrjustr I, 105 a. 
ftrjsta I, 105a; VI, 4; 

XVI, 30. 
hrjufr I, 105 a. 
hrodinn VI, 4. 
ftrof VI, 4 a. 
hropa XVI, 28. 
Arwdr I, 105 a. 
hrun I, 105; VI, 4. 
hum VI, 3. 
/ii'e^r I, 40 a. 
hvika I, 44 a. 
hvim(a) I, 44 a. 
hvina I, 44 a; XVI, 18. 
hviskra I, 44 a. 
/n;^a I, 44 a; XVI, 18. 
hvcesa I, 40 a. 

itia I, 78. 

fcei&r I, 92 a. 

keipr I, 92 a. 

kikna I, 92. 

kima I, 92 a; XVI, 39. 

Ma I, 92 a; XVI, 39. 
kitla I, 92 a. 
klina VII, 29. 
/mapi?r VII, 27b; XV, 4. 
&we/an VII, 27 b; XV, 4. 
knxa VII, 27 b. 
knoka VII, 27 b. 
knosa VII, 27 b. 
knuska VII, 27 b. 
teJr VII, 27 b. 
kvefja VI, 1. 
kvikna I, 87. 
fonAr I, 87. 

leiptr(a) I, 76. 
Zei£a I, 2. 
Ma I, 2. 
Ztfr I, 2. 
lura XV, 5. 

morkna XIV, 10. 
myrfcr XIV, 10. 

?iipi* IV, 2. 

ra& I, 63. 
ras I, 68. 
rasa I, 68. 
rata I, 52. 
rattpa XVI, 33. 
rausa XVI, 33. 
rein VII, 15. 
n#a VII, 15. 
rlfr I, 69. 
n&r I, 69. 
rgskr I, 68. 
rota I, 52. 

saZca XII, 3 a. 
sakadr XII, 3 a. 
s<7Jbia XII, 3 a. 
sjoda I, 49. 
skark I, 62 ; XVI, 26. 
skarpr I, 61a; XVI, 61. 
skeid IV, 7 a. 
skeika IV, 7 a. 
skelkja I, 60 b. 

sMa 1,60; XVI, 24. 
sfceZ/a I, 60, 60 a. 
skjalfa I, 60. 
skjalga I, 60 b. 
sfcjaMa I, 60 ; XVI, 24. 
skorpa I, 62 b. 
skorpr I, 62 a, b ; XVI, 

skrafa XVI, 28 a. 
skrafa XVI, 28 a. 
skrdma I, 61. 
skrefa I, 61 a. 
skreppa I, 62 a, b ; XVI, 

skrWa XVI, 27 a. 
skridna I, 61 a. 
skrika XVI, 27. 
s/m/ya XVI, 27. 
skrjupr XVI, 27 b. 
skrof XVI, 27 b. 
skrokkr I, 62 b. 
skrudningr XVI, 27 b. 
skrukka I, 62 a, b. 
skruma XVI, 27 b. 
sfcrf/a XVI, 27 b. 
skr&fask I, 61 a. 
sto&r 1,62; XVI, 26. 
s&r^a XVI, 62. 
skrCBma I, 61; XVI, 25. 
sArflZu I, 62 a. 
s/otme VI, 3. 
skuta XVI, 49. 
skvala XVI, 57. 
skvaldra XVI, 57. 
s^Ar VII, 28. 
swa&a XVI, 53. 
snakinn XVI, 53. 
snikja XI, 2 a. 
sn^/r XVI, 52. 
spjalk I, 17. 
spraka I, 15. 
sprefcZa VIII, 3. 
strida VII, 22 a. 
sfrifa VII, 22 a; XVI, 44. 
stura XIV, 3 a. 
sfttfa XIV, 3 a. 
sut I, 51 b. 

— 138 

suta I, 5 1 b. 
svakk I, 48 a. 
svangr I, 48 b. 
svarra I, 45. 
svedja I, 51 b. 
sveigja I, 51 a. 
sveima I, 51; XII, 10. 
st«3a I, 51 ; XII, 10. 
svifa I, 51a. 
svire I, 5 1 a. 

taka I, 92 a. 
titra I, 82. 

f/ns^ I, 51c. 
tota I, 109. 
tfwfa I, 109. 
£?/wa I, 51c. 

vafa I, 9. 
va/ra I, 9. 
vakka I, 7 b. 
valgr I, 3. 
va/A;a I, 3. 
wm#r I, 7 a. 
vei/a I, 10. 
vekja I, 10 a. 

ver I, 4, 10 a. 
viwwa I, 6. 
vgkr I, 10 a. 
vcengr I, 7 a. 
mbmw I, 6. 

pausn I, 83 ; XVI, 38. 
prasal, 101; X,7;XVI, 

pralsingr I, 101. 
/wZr I, 85. 
jfa/Zr I, 85. 
pyrja, pysja I, 83. 

ia OSw. I, 29. 
Miwflre I, 28. 
Manga I, 28. 

a*as&a VIII, 10. 
das/a# VIII, 10. 

flenga OSw. I, 19, 61b. 

fldsa XVI, 9. 

/fefce XVI, 10. 

flanga I, 19, 61b. 

flard I, 20. 

/rasa OSw. 1,97; VII, 1. 

Swedish and Danish 

frunda XVI, 39. 

#Zama OSw. I, 52. 
glupsk I, 56 a. 
glupande I, 56 a. 
gylla OSw. I, 56 b. 

kifva 1,92; XVI, 39. 
7dfca I, 92 a. 
kippa I, 92. 

raw& I, 63. 


r^sta OSw. 1, 105; XVI, 

smuldre XII, 6. 
smtse XVI, 56. 
splinta I, 17. 

vinge I, 7 a. 
vingla I, 7 a. 
vrenskas OS) 
vrinske XVI, 5. 
vrdZa XVI, 5. 

Om#w I, 7, 10 a; II, 8. 
aukuju I, 7 a. 
auksas II, 8. 

fcofeos I, 27 a; XVI, 12. 

fca'ttas I, 24. 

bdlti I, 24. 

fearm I, 30; XVI, 13. 

b'eras I, 30. 

beriu I, 30. 

berszti I, 34. 

6er2as 1,34; IV, 10 a. 


blaivas I, 26; XIII, 4. 
blendlius XV, 6. 
bliduju I, 27 a. 
blizgeti I, 29. 
blogas XIV, 9. 
braszku XVI, 5. 
braukiu I, 37. 
brazdas IV, 10 a. 
fcr&Hw I, 34 a; IV, 10; 
brefyju IV, 10 a. 
ftresie I, 34 a. 
briautis I, 30. 

6rw/as I, 37. 

damn's VII, 25. 
daKs VII, 25. 
ddrbas X, 2. 
dargus X, 3. 
tfaw2w VII, 24. 
dazgau VIII, 10. 
aa^as V, 3. 
dazau V, 3. 
dergia X, 3. 
dirgau X, 3. 

— 139 — 

dukineju X, 1 d; XVI, 

dulineju X, 1 c. 
dvailiu X, 1 g. 
dvejas X, 1 g. 
dvylas X, 1 g. 

gaidrus XIII, 20. 
#a?sas XIII, 20. 
flfcttos I, 52; XIII, 19. 
#eras I, 90. 
glaudas I, 56. 
glaudus I, 56 a. 
gliaumas I, 56 a. 
glodils I, 56 a. 
gnididau VII, 27 a. 
grasiis VII, 9. 
greimas VII, 9. 
griauzdit XIII, 12. 
griduHu XIII, 12. 
gwZoe I, 41a. 
flwZ&is VIII, 8. 

jwdim* XVI, 48. 

&ai£ra I, 91. 
tatfiw I, 116; VII, 10. 
kdrsztas I, 116. 
Arasaw VII, 12. 
kerszas VII, 10. 
kerszyju I, 116. 
jfcer£w I, 61a. 
knabu XV, 1. 
knebiu XV, 1. 
/mw&tt XV, 3. 
knupoju XVI, 3. 
krapineju X, 9 ; XVI, 28. 
krduju VI, 4. 
kraupiu XVI, 30. 
kraupus I, 105a; XVI, 

kreikiic XVI, 29 a. 
kreipiu I, 61a; XVI, 

29 a. 
&mv s XVI, 29 a. 
fcrep&z s IV, 10 a. 

fcrefcf/it XVI, 28. 
fcnnta I, 61 a. 
kriusziu XVI, 30. 
fcrosas VI, 5 ; VII, 10. 
kruva VI, 4. 

Zaita IV, 10. 
Zeta I, 76; VII, 14. 
lesii I, 73. 
lepsna I, 76. 
luksztinu IV, 10. 
lunkas IV, 10. 

mar gas I, 13. 
melynas VII, 5. 
merkiu I, 12. 
mirgu I, 13. 

paiszas VII, 4. 
pdlszas XIII, 3. 
paivas XIII, 3. 
peikiii VII, 4. 
p£//cas XIII, 3. 
j^iato I, 19. 
plasnuju I, 20. 
plaucziai XIII, 11. 
plduju I, 2 1 . 
plaukiii I, 21. 
pl'ekiu I, 19. 
j?Zepi« I, 20 a; XVI, 10. 
pl'esziu I, 61b. 
plezdu, plazdu I, 20. 
pliauna XVI, 11. 
pliaupiu XVI, 11. 
pZwd2iw XVI, 11. 
plunku XIII, 3 a. 

raibas VII, 15. 
rainas VII, 15. 
raizytis I, 69 a. 
rakinu I, 63. 
ra'iy'w I, 71b. 
reTcm I, 66. 
ri&a VII, 15. 
rods VII, 18. 

saftas XIII, 1. 

saacZiu I, 49 a. 
.sa«fcwl,48b; XVI, 19. 
sausas XIII, 15. 
siaubiu I, 50; XVI, 19. 
siancZiu I, 49 ; XII, 9 ; 

XVI, 19. 
skaidrics IV, 7. 
skalduju XVI, 57. 
skalbiu XVI, 57. 
skdldau I, 60 a. 
skelbiu I, 60 a. 
sMizl I, 60 a, b. 
skerdziu I, 61 a. 
s&em XVI, 25. 
s&irm I, 6 1 a. 
sklempiil I, 60 a. 
sklendziu I, 60. 
sklepas I, 60 b. 
skraidafi I, 61 a. 
skrdndas I, 62 b. 
skraudus XVI, 27 b. 
sA;re6ai XVI, 61. 
sfcreoiw XVI, 61. 
skrentu I, 62 b. 
skreplenu XVI, 28. 
sArepw XVI, 28. 
skrecZib I, 61 a. 
sArejw I, 61a; XVI, 27. 
smalkai XII, 4. 
smeigiib VII, 3. 
smelkiu XII, 4; XIII, 

17 a. 
smelus XIII, 17. 
smulkus XII, 4. 
spaliai I, 17. 
spendMu I, 14. 
sp%a I, 17. 
spindziu I, 14. 
spingeti I, 16. 
spcfyas I, 16; VIII, 4. 
strainus VII, 22 a. 
sfrova VII, 23. 
strugas VII, 23. 
swfcw I, 48 b. 
sunkus I, 48 b, 51b. 
swpw I, 51b. 

— 140 

svagiii I, 48. 
svdiczioti I, 51a. 
svaigti I, 51a. 
be-svaines I, 51a. 
svagiu I, 48. 
svarus I, 45 a. 
svetkas I, 51b. 
sveriw I, 45 a; VII, 11; 

svidu I, 51. 
svilti I, 47 ; XII, 8. 
svirti I, 45 a. 
svirus I, 45; VII, 11; 

szarmd VII, 19. 
szarmu VII, 19. 
szaukiu I, 40 a, 41 ; XVI, 

szemas XIII, 13. 
szerksznas VII, 19. 
szeszelis VI, 2. 
szirmas VII, 19. 
s^trms VII, 19. 
szyvas XIII, 13. 

szunkus 1,41; XVI, 17. 
szuntu I, 40. 
szvaitaii I, 44. 
szvelniis I, 40 a. 
szvesws I, 44. 
szvidus I, 44. 
szvitu I, 44. 

firpta XIII, 17. 
foasM I, 83 ; XVI, 38. 
tviska 1, 84. 
tvyskinu I, 84. 
tvoskinu I, 83. 
tvoskdju I, 83. 

ra#w I, 10 a. 
valaknd I, 3 a. 
vapw I, 9; XVI, 2. 
varaft I, 4, 10 a; II, 5. 
vdrias II, 5. 
t*an?a VI, 1. 
vasard I, 8. 
wyw I, 10. 
v<?&a I, 7 a. 
velikas I, 3 a. 

veM^ I, 1, 3 a. 
veZkw I, 3 a. 
vengti I, 7 b. 
verdu I, 4. 
veriw I, 4; II, 5. 
verkiu XVI, 5. 
vetra I, 9 a. 
vilnis I, 10 a. 
vingis I, 7 b. 
virinu I, 4. 

M>as 1,92; 111,4. 
Mas I, 57. 
Mias II, 1. 
Miu 1,57; II, 1. 
zeriu I, 58 ; II, 2. 
&&$ III, 4. 
ziurle I, 88 a. 
IZe&m III, 1. 
Me II, 1. 
gt&fcrf I, 88. 
zvelgiii I, 86. 
zve'ris I, £8 a. 
zvilgu I, 86. 

dukans X, 1 d. 

glaima I, 55. 
glaums I, 56 a. 

kraupis I, 105. 

Zapa I, 74. 


Zilfe IV, 10. 

skarbit I, 61a.'. 
s/mrfo XVI, 61. 
skardit I, 61a. 
skrzderdt I, 61. 
spulgans I, 17. 
spulgut I, 17. 

spudrs I, 14. 
spugalas I, 16. 
strugains VII, 23. 
/aVs I, 58. 
/aYw£ 1,58; 11,2. 

iva'lka I, 3, 10 a. 

^rai/Zis XIII, 20. 
golimban VIII, 8. 
gulbis I, 41 a. 

fcritfl, 105; VI, 4; XVI, 



Zwc&is IV, 10. 
lunkan IV, 10. 

panno I, 99. 
scordo IV, 10 a. 

scurdis IV, 10 a. 
urminan I, 4; II, 5. 
wormyan I, 4; II, 5. 


bledu I, 26 ; XIII, 4. 
blesku I, 29. 
briti I, 36. 
brysati I, 37. 

gladiti I, 56 a. 
#Zad-u I, 56 a. 
gtydati I, 54. 
^fore^i I, 90. 

ft&Zttt Cz. IV, 1. 

klouditi Cz. IV, 1. 
krada VI, 4 a. 
krasa VI, 5. 
krasiti VI, 5. 
AroiJi I, 61a; IV, 6. 
kryti VI, 4. 

laskati I, 73. 
Zesa I, 2 a. 

mera IV, 9. 


ChSl. not marked. 

modru XIII, 10. 
morgaM Russ. I, 13. 

^aZi^i I, 18. 
pariti I, 97. 
2)lakati I, 19. 
pl$sati I, 20. 
^r^atfi XVI, 40. 
^re/w Russ. I, 97. 
prysnqti I, 98. 

raknati I, 63 a. 
re/ra I, 63 a. 
revq I, 71a. 
re&w VII, 16. 

skrobotu XVI, 28 a. 
smedu VII, 3. 
smuryj Russ. XII, 7, 
srenu VII, 19. 
sfrada VII, 22 a. 
strugati VII, 23. 

sfr/d&i XVI, 3 a. 
sukati I, 48 b. 
svetu I, 44. 
svistati I, 44 a. 
smouriti Cz. XII, 7. 

tusklyj Russ. XIV, 4. 
fcOfl XIV, 4. 

wz/££i I, 1. 
vapa I, 9, 10 a. 
variti I, 4; II, 5. 
vesna I, 8. 
t'etfrw I, 9 a. 
vlaga I, 3, 10 a. 
vlakno I, 3 a. 
vlasu I, 3 a. 
vleka I, 3 a. 

zar/a I, 58. 
zireti I, 58. 
Zludeti I, 56 a. 

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Grundriss der englischen Philoiogie von Prof. Dr. Karl Elze. 

Zweite Auflage. 1888. VIII u. 386 S. gr. 8. A 8,— 

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A 12,50 
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Bd.II. 1. Die Zeit von 1350—1500 umfassend. 1879. IV u. 323 S. Jb6 — 
Bd. II. 2. Die Zeit von 1350—1500 umfassend (Glossar). 1880. V u. 95 S. 

Jb 2, — 
Neuenglisches Lesebuch. Zur Einfuhrung in das Studium der 

Denkinaler selbst nach den Handschriften und den altesten Drucken 

herausgegeben von EwaldFliigel. Bd. I : Die Zeit Heinrichs VIII. 

XIII u. 547 S. gr. 8. Jb 10 — 

Pseudo-Shakespearian Plays. 

Revised and edited with introduction and notes by- 
Karl Warlike und Ludwig Proescholdt. 

I. The Comedie of Faire Em. 1883. XV u. 63 S. Jb 2,- 

II. The merry Devil of Edmonton. 1884. XVII u. 61 S. A 2,- 

III. King Edward III. 1886. XXXIV u. 92 S. Jb 2,- 

IV. The birth of Merlin. 1887. XI u. 86 S. Jb 2,- 
V. Arden of Feversham. 1888. XXVII u. 86 S. Jb 3,- 

Materialien fiir das neuenglische Seminar. 

Mit bibliographisclieni Material, litterarisclier Eiuleitung und sachlichen 
Anmerkungen fiir Studierende. 

Herausgegeben von Ernst Kegel. 


No. 1. Thackeray's Lectures on the English Humourists of 

the eighteenth Century. I. Swift. Herausgegeben von 

Ernst Regel. 1885. IV u. 79 S. Ji 1,20 

No. 2. Thackeray's Lectures on the English Humorists of 

the eighteenth Century. II. Congreve und Addison. 

Herausgegeben von Ernst Kegel. 1S87. 96 S. Ji\,20 

No. 3. — III. Steele. Herausgegeben von Ernst Regel. 188(5. 

84 S. .A 1,20 

No. 4. — IV. Prior, Gay und Pope. Herausgegeben von Ernst 

Regel. 1891. 104 S. ^ 1,20 

No. 5. — V. Hogarth, Smollet und Fielding. Herausgegeben 

von Ernst Regel. 1889. 88 S. Ji 1,20 

No. 0. — VI. Sterne und Goldsmith. Herausgegeben von Ernst 

Regel. 1885. 100 S. Ji 1,20 

No. 8. Byron's Prisoner of Chillon und Siege of Corinth. 

Herausgegeben von J. G. C. Schuler. 18S6. VI u. 94 S. Ji 1,20 

Studien zur englischen Philologie 

herausgegeben von 
Lorenz Morsbach. 
gr. 8. 
I. Spies, H., Studien zur Geschichte des englischen Pronomens im 
XV. und XVI. Jahrhundert. Flexionslehre und Syntax. 1897. 
XIX, 311 S. Ji8 — 

II. H erzf e Id , Georg, William Taylor von Norwich. Eine Studie iiber 
den Einfluss der neueren deutschen Litteratur in England. 1897. 
VIII, 71 S. Ji 2 — 

III. Tamson, George J., Word-Stress in English. A short Treatise 
on the Accentuation of Words in Middle -English as compared 
with the Stress in Old and Modern English. 1 898. XIII, 1 64 S. Ji 4 — 

IV. Roeder, Fr. , Die Familie bei den Angelsachsen. Eine kultur- 
und litterarhistorische Studie auf Grund gleichzeitiger Quellen. 
Erster Hauptteil: Mann und Frau. Mit 1 Abbildung. 1899. 
X, 183 S. Ji 6,00 

V. Schmeding, O., Ueber Wortbildung bei Carlyle. 1899. 352 S. 

Ji 10,— 

VI. Cushmann, L. W., The Devil and the Vice in the English 

Dramatic Literature before Shakespeare. 1 899. XVI, 148 S. Ji 5 — 

VII. Bjorkman,Erik, Scandinavian Loan -Words in Middle English. 

Part I. 1900. 191 S. Ji 5 — 

VIII. MacGillivray, H. S., The Influence of Christianity on the 

Vocabulary of Old English. Parti. 1902. XXIX, 171 S. Ji 6,— 

IX. S chucking, L. L., Studien iiber die stofflichen Beziehungen der 

englischen Komodie zur italienischen bis Lilly. 1901. 109 S. JiS, — 

XI. Bjorkman, Erik, Scandinavian Loan -Words in Middle English. 

Part II. 1902. 167 S. Ji 5,— 


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