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Full text of "Coloured figures of the birds of the British Islands / issued by Lord Lilford"

c. 



BOUND BY ZAEHNSOORF 



I 



•^o^vhj^'^M^ 



COLOURED FIGURES 



OF THE 



BIRDS OF THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 



c. 



ISSUED BY 

LOED LILFOED, F.Z.S., ETC., 

PBESIDEST OF THE BEITISH OE^^ITHOLOGISTS' TJIflOy, 



VOLUME II. 



LONDON: 

R. H. POKTEE, 7 PRINCES STREET, CATEXDISH SQUARE, W, 
1885 — 1897, 



Jl^-'iSfLI -Jcy, I J 




PRINTED BY TATIOE AND FKANCIS, 
KED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME II, 



Page 

TiTLEPAGE i 

Contents iii 

Collation of Editions v 

List of Plates vii 

Plates I.-LIV. 

Text 1-120 






COLLATION OF EDITIONS. 



This Work was issued in two Editions : the First commenced 
October 1885_, and the Second April 1891^ both Editions ending 
simultaneously ; the Plates in Volume II. appeared as follows : — 



1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 

5, 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12, 

13, 

14. 
15. 

16. 
17. 

18. 
19. 
20. 



Green Woodpecker 
Pied "Woodpecker . . 



1st Edition. 

PARI 

XVI. Sept. 1890. 

VII. Sept. 1888. 

IX. Dec. 1888. 

Barred or Lesser Spot- X. Mar. 1889. 

TED Woodpecker. 

Wryneck XXXIV. Apr. 1897. 

Common Kingeisher . . VIII. Nov. 1888. 

Bee-eater IX. Dec. 1888. 

EoLLBR XII. Jan. 1890. 

Hoopoe VII. Sept. 1888. 

Common Cuckoo XVIII. Apr. 1891. 

Great Spotted Cuckoo, XVI. Sept. 1890. 

American Yellow- XXXIII. Nov. 1896. 

billed Cuckoo. 

Nightjar, Goatsucker, XXII. Dec. 1892. 

or Pern-Owl. 

Eed-necked Nightjar . XXIV. June 1893. 

Egyptian or Isabelline XXXIII. Nov. 1896. 

Nightjar. 

SwiET V. June 1887. 

White-bellied Swift . III. Aug. 1886. 

Needle-tailed Swift . XVI. Sept. 1890. 

Eaven X. Mar. 1889. 

Carrion-Crow „ 5, 



2nd Edition. 

PART 



XVII. 

VII. 

IX. 

X. 

XXXIV. 

VIII. 

IX. 

XXVII. 

VII. 

XIX. 

XVII. 
XXXIII. 



Nov. 1892. 
July 1891. 
Oct. 1891. 
Dec. 1891. 

Apr. 1897. 
Aug. 1891. 
Oct. 1891. 
Aug. 1894. 
July 1891. 
Peb. 1893. 
Nov. 1892. 
Nov. 1896. 



XVIII. Dec. 1892. 

XXIII. July 1893. 

XXXIII. Nov. 1896. 

V. June 1891. 

III. Apr. 1891. 

XVII. Nov. 1892. 

X. Dec. 1891. 



VI 



COLLATION OF EDITIONS. 



1st Edition. 

PART 

21. Geex or Hooded Crow. XI. Sept. 1889. 

22. EooK XXIII. Mar. 1893. 

23. Jackdaw X. Mar. 1889. 

24. Eed-billed Chough . . „ „ 

25. Magpie XII. Jan. 1890. 

26. Jay X. Mar. 1889. 

27. NuTCBACKER IV. Jail. 1887. 

28. Staelixg XXII. Dec. 1892. 

30. „ ■ „ ,, 

31. EosE-coLoim.ED Pastor . VII. Sept. 1888. 

32. Great Grey Shrike . . VIII. Xov. 1888. 

33. Lesser Grey Shrike . . XV. July 1890. 

34. Eed-backed Shrike . . V. June 1887. 

35. WooDCHAT XV. July 1890. 

36. Swallow III. Aug. 1886. 

37. Martijj „ „ 

38. Sais'd-Martis- „ ,, 

39. Spotted Flycatcher . . XXVI. Xov. 1893. 

40. Eed-breasted Fly- XV. July 1890. 

catcher. 

41. Pied Flycatcher XXXU. Apr. 1896. 

42. Waxwisg VI. Apr. 1888. 

43. Bearded Eeedlixg XXIV. Juue 1893. 

44. Great Tit XXXII. Apr. 1896. 

45. Blue Titmouse VI. Apr. 1888. 

46. Coal TiiiiousE IV. Jan. 1887. 

47. British Coal TiTiiorsE „ „ 

48. JMarsh-Titmoitse VI. Apr. 1888. 

49. Crested Titmouse XVI. Sept. 1890. 

50. Loxg-tailed Titmouse , IV. Jan. 1887. 

51. Kuthatch Vni. Nov. 1888. 

52. Tree-creeper IV. Jan. 1887. 

53. Eock-ceeeper XV. July 1890. 

54. Wee>- IV. Jan. 1887. 



2nd Edition. 

PART 

XL Feb. 1892. 

XX. Mar. 1893. 

X. Dec. 1891. 

XXVII. Aug. 1894. 

X. Dec. 1891. 

IV. Apr. 1891. 

XVIII. Dec. 1892. 



VII. July 1891. 

VIII. Aug. 1891. 

XXI. May 1893. 

V. June 1891. 

XXI. May 1893. 

III. Apr. 1891. 



XXV. 


Nov. 1893 


XXI. 


May 1893 


XXXII. 


Apr. 1896 


\I. 


June 1891 


xxni. 


July 1893 


XXXII. 


Apr. 1896 


VI. 


June 1891 


IV. 


Apr. 1891 


5) 

VI. 


55 

June 1891 


XVII. 


Nov. 1892 


IV. 


Apr. 1891 


VIII. 


Aug. 1891 


IV. 


Apr. 1891 


XXL 


May 1893 


IV. 


Apr. 1891 



LIST OF PLATES 

IN VOLUME II. 



To face 
page 

1. Green Woodpecker. Gecinus viridis (Linn.). . 2 

2. Pied Woodpecker. Picus major, Linn. ... 6 

3. Do. Do. Showing changes of coloration of head 

in both sexes 7 

4. Barred or Lesser Spotted Woodpecker. Picus 

minor, Linn 10 

5. Wryneck. lynx torquilla, Linn 12 

6. Common Kingfisher. Alcedo ispida, Linn. . . 14 

7. Bee-eater. Merops apiaster, Linn 16 

8. Roller. Coracias gari'ulus,\Amx 17 

9. Hoopoe. Upupa epops, Linn 20 

10. CoAiMON Cuckoo. CucuIus canorus, Linn. ... 21 

11. Great Spotted Cuckoo. Oxylophus glandariiis 

(Linn.) 23 

12. American Yellow-billed Cuckoo. Coccyzus 

americanus (Linn.) 28 

13. Nightjar, Goatsucker, or Fern-Owl. Capri- 

mulgus eiiropcBUS, Linn 29 

14. Red-necked Nightjar. Caprimulgus 7'uficollis, 

Temm 33 

15. Egyptian or Isabelline Nightjar. Caprimulgus 

eegyptius, Licht 36 



Vlll PLATES IN VOL. II. 

To face 
page 

16. Swift. Cypselus apus (Linn.) ....... 38 

17. White-bellied Swift. Cypselus tnelba (Linn.) . 40 

18. Needle-tailed Swift. Acanthyllis caudacuta 

(Lath.) 42 

19. Raven. Corvus corax, Linn . 44 

20. Carrion-Crow. Corvus corone, Linn 46 

21. Grey or Hooded Crow. Corvus comix, Linn. . 47 
23. E,ooK. Corvus frugileguSflAun 49 

23. Jackdaw. Corvus monedula, Linn 54 

24. Red-billed CHouan. Pyrrhocorax graculus 

(Linn.) 56 

25. Magpie. Pica caudata, Fleming 58 

26. Jay. Garrulus glandarius (Linn.) 60 

27. Nutcracker. Corvus caryocatactes, Linn. . . 62 

28. Starling. Sturnus vulgaris, Linn. Adult (sum-^ 

mer plumage) and young (first plumage) . . . >- 63 

29. Do. Do. Adult (winter plumage) ^ 

30. Do. Do. Purple-headed race (autumn plumage) 

and young (assuming spotted plumage) ... 65 

31. Rose-coloured Pastor. Pastor roseus (Linn.) . 68 

32. Great Grey Shrike. Lanius excubitor, Linn. . 70 

33. Lesser Grey Shrike. Lanius minor, J. Y.Gvaoim. 71 

34. Red-backed Shrike. Lanius collurio, Linn. . . 74 

35. "Woodchat. Lanius rutilus, Latli 75 

36. Swallow. Hirundo rustica, Linn. 78 

37. Martin. Chelidon urbica (Linn.) 80 

38. Sand-Martin. Cotile riparia (Linn.) .... 82 

39. Spotted Flycatcher. Muscicapa grisola, Linn. . 83 

40. Red-breasted Flycatcher. Muscicapa parva, 

Bechst 88 

41. Pied Flycatcher. Muscicapa atricapilla, Linn.. 89 

42. Waxwing. Ampelis garrulus, Linn, 92 

43. Bearded Reedling. Panurus biarmicus (Linn.). 93 

44. Great Tit. Parus major, Linn 97 

45. Blue Titmouse. Parus cceruleus, Linn. . . . 102 



PLATES IN VOL. 11. IX 

To face 
page 

46. Coal Titmouse. Parus afer, Ijinn ^ 

47. British Coal Titmousii;. Partes britannicus,r^Q^ 

Sharpe & Dresser ^ 

48. Marsh-Titmouse. Panes palustris, Linn. . . . 106 

49. Crested Titmouse. Parus cristatus, Linn. . . 107 

50. Long-tailed Titmouse. Acredula caudata (Lmn) 110 

51. Nuthatch. Sitt a C(Ssia,W oli 112 

52. Tree-creeper. Certhia familiaris, Linn. . . . 114 

53. E.OCK-CREEPER. Tichodvoma muray^ia (Linn.) . . 116 

54. Wren. Troglodytes parvulus, Koch 120 



vol. II. 



GEEEN WOODPECKEE. 

GECINUS VIRIDIS {Linn.). 



Picus viridis^ Linn. S. N. i. p. 175 (1766) ; Naum. v. p. 270; 

Macg. iii. p. 91 ;. Hewitson, i. p. 239. 
Gecinus viridis, Yarr. ed. 4, ii. p. 457; Dresser, v. p. 77. 

Pic vert, Frencli; Grilnspecht, German; Pito real, Piio 
verde, Spanish. 

Although sad havoc has been worked upon this fine 
species by dealers and their agents on account of its 
bright plumage, I am glad to say that it is still tolerably 
abundant in most of our wooded districts, becoming 
scarce in the northern counties of England, whilst in 
Scotland and Ireland it is virtually unknown. In the 
spring the Green Woodpecker announces his presence 
by a loud laughing call, and has in some parts of the 
country obtained the nickname of " yaffle " from this 
peculiarity, which is commonly supposed to foretell rain, 
and certainly is more frequently to be heard in showery 
than in fine weather. There is a restless energy and 
determination in all the movements of Woodpeckers 
that is very remarkable ; whatever they do is evidently 
done with all their mind and all their strength, and, 
except when asleep, they are always active. 




J G.KenleTi\aj-vs del. et lil..K . 



G KEEN WO ODPE CKER 
(tb c ir L^l s v i r i di s (Linn) . 



Minl,er,n_ Bros 



5 
The flight of the Green Woodpecker is undulatmg 

and accompanied by loud whirring of the wings ; when 
he taps at a tree he taps with all his might ; no insect- 
food seems to come amiss to him, but he has a very 
marked predilection for ants and their eggs, and his 
actions at an ant-hill are most quaint and grotesque; 
This bird is very wary, and those who wish for his 
intimate acquaintance in his native haunts must be very 
cautious in their advances. 

The five or six beautiful glossy white eggs of the 
Green Woodpecker are laid in holes perforated by the 
birds in more or less rotten trees, without any nest 
whatever. The rapidity with which the Woodpeckers 
work through sound wood till they find the decaying 
heart of a trunk or bough is little short of miraculous ; 
the masses of chips below a hole bear witness to the 
labours of the birds, but not always to the occupation 
of the particular site, for I have several times found 
that the holes have been abandoned without any 
apparent cause, even after the soft wood had been 
reached. 

The young birds leave their nurseries before they can 
fly, and clamber about the boughs of its neighbourhood, 
generally returning to their hole for the night. Star- 
lings frequently take possession of the Woodpeckers' 
labours, and, by placing their nesting-rubbish in the 
holes, disgust the rightful owners, who could certainly 
master the intruders in a fair fight. In captivity the 
Green Woodpecker becomes very tame and is most 
amusing, but requires plenty of room for exercise, as 
much variety of food as possible, and a constant supply 



of pure fresh water. So long as a supply of living 
ants is to be procured the best way of feeding these 
birds is to put a shovelfull of the ants'-hill into their 
cage ; but they may gradually be " trained off " till 
they will feed readily on chopped meat, raisins, carrots, 
nuts, and soft fruit. All the Woodpeckers that 1 have 
kept in captivity invariably roosted at night by clinging 
upright to a bough or to the bars of their abode. 



PIED WOODPECKEE, 

PICUS MAJOR, Linn. 



Picus major, Linn. S. N. i. p. 176 (1766) ; Naum. v. p. 398; 

Hewitson, i, p. 240; Dresser, v. p. 19. 
Picus pipra, Macg. iii. p. 80. 
Dendrocopus major, Yarr. ed. 4, ii. p. 470. 

Pic epeiche, French ; Grosser Buntspecht, German ; Pica- 
maderos, Pico, Carpintero, Spanish. 

Resident and locally frequent in England, less common 
in Scotland, and apparently rare in Ireland, the present 
species is found in all parts of the continent of Europe 
that are suited to its habits. Occasionally very shy and 
difficult of approach, this bird is, on the contrary, at 
times quite fearless of man. 

I have adopted the name of '' Fied" as the shortest 
and most appropriate, but Greater Spotted Woodpecker 
seems to be the designation adopted by most writers. 
The bird is known commonly in various parts of 
England as " French Pie," " Whittle," and " Hacker " 
to my own knowledge, besides by other nicknames 
which may be discovered in other works. 




Litho. W. Greve, Berlin . 



PIED WOODPECKER. 
Picus major. Li>m. 









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PIED WOODPEGKER 

PICUS MAJOR, Linn. 



Mr. J. G. Keulemans has furnished me with the 
accompanying Plate, showing the change of colour in 
the feathers of the head in both sexes of this species : 
the original drawings were taken from a pair of living 
birds in his possession, and he has very obligingly 
supplied me with the following explanatory refer- 
ences : — 

Illustrations of changes of colour in the feathers of head in 
both sexes. 

Fig. 1. Type of nestling plumage. 

Fig. 1a. Type of young bird ( ^ ) prior to the first indications 
of change. (Sketched from life on Nov. 5.) 

Fig. 2. Young female of the same age (five months). 
(Sketched on Nov. 5.) 

Fig. 3. The same individual thirty-seven days after; repre- 
senting type of adult female. (Sketched Dec. 12.) 

Fig. 4. Young male (same individual as represented in 
fig. 1a) at the age of six months and five days. 
(Sketched Dec. 12.) 

Fig. 5. The same individual at the age of about ten months. 
(Sketched April 24.) 

Note. — The change of colour in the plumage of the head 
first showed itself in the female. In August I noticed that 
several black feathers had made their appearance amongst 



the red feathers on the top of its head. On examining the 
bird^s head I found that some of the feathers were black at 
base, leaving only a small margin of red^ whilst others were 
still almost entirely red. A few days later the thin red 
margins of the feathers previously examined had almost 
entirely disappeared, and a great many of the others, viz. 
the red crown-feathers, were now likewise black at base. 
Great care was taken to ascertain whether any feathers were 
shed, but none were found in the cage, nor was there any 
sign of fresh feathers developing themselves in any part of 
the bird's head. 

By November 5 only a few red crown-feathers remained 
(fig. 2). In the young male no change had, at that date 
(Nov. 5), been noticed, and I found, on lifting up the 
feathers of the crown, that all except a few were still red, 
without any markings of black. Some, however, at the 
anterior part of the crown were mottled with black. 

By December 12 all red had disappeared in the female 
bird. The male now began to moult the feathers at the nape, 
several being found in its cage. By comparing the extent of 
red on the crown as it now appeared with that in my sketch 
taken on November 5, it was found that the change into 
black had made some progress, the red crown now seeming 
somewhat smaller than before. 

The male bird changed the black feathers on the nape 
by moult; but the red crown-feathers turned black by the 
gradual progress of the black colour beginning at the base of 
each feather. The female did not change colour by moult, 
but by a gradual change of coloration in the feathers them- 
selves, the first regular moult taking place at the age of ten 
months, at which time the male shed some wing- and tail- 
feathers. It died during that process, having been killed 
by a cat. 



BARRED OR LESSER SPOTTED WOODPECKER. 

PICUS MINOR, Linn. 



Picus minor, Linn. S. N. i. p. 176 (1766) ; Naum. v. p. 334; 

Hewitson, i. p. 241 ; Dresser, v. p. 53. 
Picus striolatuSj Macg. iii. p. 86. 
Dendrocopus minor, Yarr. ed. 4, ii. p. 477. 

Pic epeichette, French; Klein- Sp e cht , German; Picama- 
deruj Pipo, Spanish. 

This little Woodpecker is tolerably common in almost 
all the woodland districts of England, but from its small 
size and habit of frequenting the dead boughs of our 
tallest trees, often escapes notice, and is considered as a 
rare bird even in many parts of the country where it is 
in reality by no means uncommon. In Northampton- 
shire I consider it as the most abundant of our three 
species of Woodpecker, and in February and March its 
"jarring" is as constantly to be heard, in fine weather, 
as the laugh of the better-known and far more conspi- 
cuous Green Woodpecker. The nesting-holes of this 
bird are made in almost any species of tree, and it does 
not seem to be particular as to the height of its nursery 
from the ground. The eggs are generally from five to 
seven in number, of a pure glossy white ; the young 
birds appear amongst the branches in the neighbour- 
hood of their home about the middle of June. 




J. Smit del. et litK. 3. MircteiTL Bz-os . imp. 

BABRED,, OR LESSER SPOTTED WOODPECKER. 
Picus mirLOi-, Lvmv. 



WEYNECK. 

lYNX TORQUILLA, Linn. 



Yunx torquilla, Linn. S. N. i. p. 172; Naum. v. p. 356; 

Macg. iii. p. 100 ; Hewitson, i. p. 342. 
lynx torquilla^ Yarr. ed. 4, ii. p. 487; Dresser, v. p. 103. 

Le Tor col ordinaire, French ; Hormiquero, Torcecuelo, 
Spanish; Der Wendehals, German. 

A regular spring visitor to England, arriving about 
the beginning of April, when its loud familiar call at 
once announces its presence. 

Lord Lilford's own observations on this bird will 
be found in his ' Birds of Northamptonshire ' (vol. i. 
p. 273). [O. S.] 



r 



i"S 



COMMON KINGFISHEE. 

ALCEDO ISP ID A, Lmn. 



Alcedo ispida, Linn. S. N. i. p. 179 (1766) ; Naum. v. p. 480; 
Macg. iii. p. 671 ; Heivitson, i. p. 255 ; Yarr. ed. 4, ii. 
p. 443; Dresser, v. p. 113. 

Martin Pecheur, French ; Gemeine Eisvogel, German ; 
Martin pescador, Spanish. 

This very beautiful species is well known throughout 
our islands, and would be exceedingly common in many 
districts were it not for the brutal persecution it meets 
with for the sake of its feathers, for the personal adorn- 
ment {?) of ladies, and for the making of artificial flies. 
I most heartily wish that any words of mine could bring 
any of my fair readers to use their utmost efforts to 
discountenance the wearing of any feathers, except those 
of the Game Birds and Wildfowl to be met with in 
abundance, great variety, and beauty in the game- 
dealers' shops during the season. 






^ * 





J- G-Keulemans dd.etlitit. 



COMMON KIN&FISHER. 
i\lcedo ispicla,Zwm,. 



Mmt-ern- Bros . imp. 



BEE-EATEE. 

MEROPS API ASTER, Linn. 



Merops apiaster, Linn. S. N. i. p. 182 (1766) ; Naum. v. 
p. 462 ; Macg. iii. p. 685 ; Heivitson, i. p. 254 ; Yarr. 
ed. 4<, iii. p. 435 ; Dresser, v. p. 155. 

Guepier vulgaire, French ; Europdische Bienenfresser , Ger- 
man; Abejaruco, Spanish. 

The Bee-eater is a somewhat rare straggler to our 
islands from the south. In many parts of S. Europe 
it is exceedingly common as a summer visitor ; and 
Colonel Irby, in his work on the ' Ornithology of the 
Straits of Gibraltar,' has given some very interesting 
details of the regularity of its annual transit from Africa 
to Europe. It abounds in Andalucia and most parts of 
Spain south of the great central sierras in summer, and 
beeds in holes excavated by itself in almost every bank 
soft enough to be bored into, as well as occasionally in 
open, uneven, sandy w^astes, in a round chamber at the 
end of a tunnel of several feet in length. These birds 
lay from four to six eggs, of a glossy pure white. The 
food of this species consists entirely of flying insects, 
and it is very destructive to the honey-bee. 




Ke>Jeman.s del-elHlK. 



BEE-EATER. 
Mei'Ops apiascex', Xut?^. 



Ijliniern- Hroa , :.TAp 













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EOLLEE. 

CORACIAS GARRULA, Linn. 



Coracias garrula, Linn. S. N. i, p. 159 (1776) ; Naum. ii. 
p. 158; Macg. iii. p. 540; Hewitson, i. p. 253; Yarr. 
ed. 4_, ii. p. 428 ; Dresser, v. p. 141. 

Rollier, French ; Mandelkrdhe, Blauracke, German ; Car- 
lanco, Carraca, Spanish. 

This brightly plumaged bird, although a rare visitor 
to our country, is exceedingly common in summer in 
Spain and many other parts of Southern and South- 
eastern Europe, becoming rarer towards the north of the 
continent, but breeding sparsely in Sweden. 

The food of the Roller consists almost entirely of 
large beetles, grasshoppers, and other insects, which it 
takes on wing and from the ground ; the flight is 
buoyant and well sustained, and the bird has a curious 
habit of turning somersaults in the air somewhat in 
the fashion of a " tumbler" Pigeon, from which it has 
derived its common English and French names. 

The nests of this species are generally situated in 
hollow trees, in holes or clefts of sandy cliffs and river- 
banks, or not infrequently in the walls of abandoned or 
even inhabited buildings. The eggs are glossy white, 



somewhat rounded in shape, and four or five in 
number. 

The notes of the Roller consist of a variety of more or 
less harsh screams and ejaculations, all discordant and 
unpleasant to the human ear. 

I have had frequent opportunities of closely observing 
the habits of this bird in Southern Europe ; he seems 
to avoid closely- wooded localities, and generally selects 
isolated tree-tops or telegraph-posts in an open country, 
from which to watch for and capture his prey ; if several 
individuals are about, they chase one another with loud 
outcries, and seem eminently quarrelsome and unsociable ; 
on the ground as might be expected, their actions are 
very clumsy and grotesque. I have at this time of 
writing two young Rollers alive at Lilford, one of 
which is tame enough, and will take food from the 
hand, whilst the other is wild, stupid, and a bully to its 
more amenable companion. 



HOOPOE. 

UP UP A EPOPS, Linn. 



Upupa epops, Linn. S. N. i. p. 183 (1766) ; Naum. v. p. 437; 
Macff. iii'. p. 41 ; Hewitson, i. p. 249 ; Yarr. ed. 4, ii. 
p. 419; Dresser, v, p. 179, 

Hujjpe, French; Wiedehopf, German; Abubilla, Spanish. 

The Hoopoe is a regular spring migrant to the 
eastern and southern coasts of England, and has occurred 
frequently in Scotland and Ireland. The instances 
recorded of the nesting of this species in this country 
are but few, though I am glad to say that I have several 
authentic unpublished notices of such occurrences ; but 
in most cases the beauty and conspicuous plmnage of 
the bird, to say nothing of its tameness, lead to its 
immediate destruction by the first armed idler who sees 
it, as the senseless craving for British-killed specimens 
induces bird-stuffers to give long prices for any (so- 
called) rarity, and causes the murder of many harmless 
and ornamental species besides the subject of this 
protest. 




"'-iu.. 



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:u:^M: 



HOOPOE. 
Upupa epops. Xmw. 



Litbo. W. Greve, Berlin 




.l.G.Ke.ulemaris del.eiULh. 



COMMON CUCKOO. 
Ciiciiliis carionas , Luav. 



MintKrn. Bros . imp. 



COMMON CUCKOO. 

CUCULUS CAN onus, Linn. 



Cuculus canorus, Linn. S. N. i. p. 168 (1766) ; Naum. v. 
p. 196; Macg. iii. p. 109; Hewitson, i. p. 251; Yarr. 
ed. 4, ii. p. 387 ; Dresser, v. p. 199. 

Coucou gris, French ; Kuckuk, German ; Cuco, Cuclillo,, 
Spanish. 

Although I for some time flattered myself in the 
delusion that I was, from close and constant obser- 
vation, acquainted with certain facts in connection with 
the habits of this well-known but very eccentric visitor, 
that were but little known to my fellow-lovers of birds, 
I must frankly confess that I find every scrap of my 
supposed " private information " set admirably before 
the public by my friend Professor A. Newton, in his 
article on this species in the 4th edition of Yarrell's 
' British Birds,' vol. ii., with many additional details of 
which I was previously ignorant. As I imagine that 
all those who care sufficiently for ornithology to sub- 
scribe to my book are either possessed of, or have 
ready access to, the work to which I have referred, and 
as I do not profess to write a history of my subject, I 
will merely state for the information of those to whom 
birds are interesting only as beautiful creatures, and 
not as objects of study or observation, that the male 



Cuckoos arrive in our country as a rule during the first 
three weeks of April, and are shortly followed by the 
females, the stronger sex always, however, largely 
predominating in number. Tlie Cuckoo cannot be 
correctly called polygamous, but the females admit the 
amorous advances of many males. 

The eggs are invariably placed in the nests of other 
species (seventy-eight of v^hich are enumerated at 
p. 394 of the volume above alluded to) ; the nests 
generally selected in the part of England with which I 
am best acquainted are those of Reed- Warbler, Pied 
Wagtail, Hedge-Sparrow, Spotted Flycatcher, Tree- 
Pipit, and Redstart ; the old Cuckoos generally dis- 
appear early in July, whilst the young birds occasionally 
linger with us till the third week of September. It is 
perhaps superfluous to add that the ancient myth of 
the Cuckoo's sucking the eggs of other birds has no 
foundation on fact, and probably originated from the 
now well-ascertained habit of this species of carrying 
its own egg in its beak to deposit it in nests where it 
could hardly be laid in the natural manner. It is 
difficult, but by no means impossible, to keep the 
Cuckoo in confinement through the winter in this 
country ; but it is not an attractive cage-bird, and, in my 
experience, becomes so restless at the seasons of migra- 
tion that, however tame and quiet it may be at other 
times, it invariably, when urged by the travelling in- 
stinct, ruins its plumage and appearance by breaking 
the feathers of its wings and tail in attempting to 
escape. The general demeanour of my captives of this 
species has been sulky, greedy, and spiteful. 




J/%;^** 



■ .Kculema^riS del . et liiK 



Mirtbern. Bros . imp. 



GREAT SPOTTED CUCKOO. 
OxylopKus iglsLndarius (Linzo.). 



2.^ 



GREAT SPOTTED CUCKOO. 

OXYLOPHUS GLAND ARIUS [Linn.). 



Cuculus glandariuSj Linn. S, N. i. p. 169 (1766) ; Nauni. v. 

p. 237. 
Coccystes glandarius, Yarr. ed. 4, ii. p. 408; Dresser, v. 

p. 219. 

Coucou-geai, Coucou tachete, French ; Eichel - heher , 
German ; Cuco real, Spanish. 

Two instances only of the occurrence of this species 
in our Islands are on record : the first of these was 
taken alive off the coast of Connemara in 1842, and is, 
according to Mr. Saunders (' Manual of British Birds,' 
p. 279), still preserved in the Museum of Trinity 
College, Dublin; the same authority {loc. supra cit.) 
informs us that a second was shot near Bellingham, 
Northumberland, on August 5th, 1870, and is now in 
the Newcastle Museum. This Cuckoo is by no means 
a common bird in any part of Europe as politically 
defined, with the exception of Spain and Portugal ; in 
certain districts of the former country it was, in my 
experience, abundant as a summer visitor, and as I only 
once saw the bird at large elsewhere, the following 
notes, from personal acquaintance, refer exclusively to 
Spain. The Spotted Cuckoo is extremely local in its 



Spanish haunts, common in New Castile, La Mancha, 
and certain parts of Estremadura and Andalucia ; whilst 
in the eastern provinces it is comparatively scarce, and 
to the north of the Sierra de Guadarrama decidedly 
rare. In the neighbourhood of Madrid these birds 
arrive about the end of March or early in April, and 
at once commence to lay their eggs in the nests of the 
Common Magpie ; the first two eggs found by us were 
taken from a nest of this bird in a high oak tree in the 
grounds of the Casa de Campo, a royal demesne just 
outside the walls of Madrid, on April 12, 1865; 
this nest contained no other eggs. It is, of course, 
impossible to discover how many eggs go to form 
the usual complement laid by this Cuckoo; I quote 
on this subject my notes on the ornithology of 
Spain, in ' The Ibis,' referring to the neighbourhood of 
Aranjuez : — On April 29, 1865, we found three nests 
of Magpie all containing eggs of this Cuckoo, which is 
extremely common in this locality; in one nest were 
eight eggs of the Magpie and three of the Cuckoo, in 
another one of the former and three of the latter bird, 
and in the third two of each species. In almost every 
case in which we found eggs of both species together 
the Cuckoo's eggs were more advanced towards hatching 
than those of the rightful proprietors of the nest. We 
took altogether some forty or more eggs of the present 
species near Aranjuez, and might certainly have trebled 
the number. On one occasion only did we find a 
Cuckoo's egg elsewhere than in a Magpie's nest, this 
exception was a single egg found in a Raven's nest with 
five of those of that species ; the greatest number of 



Cuckoo's eggs found by us in any one nest was eight, 
with five of the Magpie. I am assured that in a certain 
district of Andalucia this Cuckoo lays commonly in the 
nests of the Blue-winged Pie [Cyanopica cooki) ; but, 
although I have no reason to doubt this story, I have 
as yet no proof of its truth. 

The eggs of this species vary but little in ground- 
colour and markings — pale greenish blue with red- 
brown and purple spots ; but the variation in size 
frequently met with in eggs from the same nest is 
very remarkable. Colonel Irby writes : — " The egg can 
be easily distinguished by its elliptical form, those of 
the Magpie being pointed at one end ; " and as a 
general rule this distinction holds good. The shell of 
the Cuckoo's egg is also much smoother and far more 
strong than that of the Magpie. 

The difference of plumage between adults and birds 
of the year is so singnlar and noticeable that more 
than one writer on ornithology has treated of the latter 
as a distinct species ; for this reason, and because the 
adult has been more frequently figured than the young 
bird, I have given the prominent place in the accom- 
panying Plate to a bird of the year. The Spotted 
Cuckoo is a noisy, restless bird, constantly during the 
spring and early summer engaged in pursuing and 
being pursued by its own species and the Magpies. 
In flight it much resembles our Common Cuckoo ; 
both sexes are very vociferous, their notes consisting of 
a harsh barking chatter and a loud rolling cry, which 
Mr. Saunders renders not inaptly by the word " hurroo- 
burroo," rapidly repeated. 



So far as we were able to ascertain from dissection 
the diet of these birds consists entirely of large insects — 
locusts, grasshoppers, dragonflics, beetles, and moths, in 
every stage of their development. This Cuckoo is not 
able to support captivity (in our English climate at 
least) for any length of time. I never observed the 
Great Spotted Cuckoo taking or attempting to take 
insects on the wing ; but on the ground it is, for a 
Cuckoo, remarkably agile and rapid in movement. The 
nests in which we found the eggs of this bird were 
generally at a considerable height from the ground ; in 
the few exceptions to this rule that came under my 
own observation the nest was situated in a dense thorn- 
thicket, and could not be got at without a considerable 
amount of work with the bill-hook. The Spanish 
country-folk eat this Cuckoo, and declare it to be good 
food ; but in this matter I went no further than sucking 
the contents of a few of its freshly-laid eggs through a 
blowpipe. 



iT 



AMERICAN YELLOW-BILLED CUCKOO. 

COCCYZUS AMERICANUS {Linn.). 



Cuculus araericanus, Linn. S. N. i, p. 170. 
Coccyzus americanus^ Macg. iii. p. 137; Yarr. ed. 4, ii. 
p. 414; Dresser, v. p. 227. 

Four or five occurrences in the British Islands of 
this American Cuckoo have been recorded, and a few 
on the continent of Europe. 

Its true home is North America, where it resides 
during the summer months and where it breeds as well 
as in some of the West-Indian islands. In winter it 
migrates to South America, where it has been traced 
as far south as Argentina. [0. S.] 




> 1. 



*9 



NIGHTJAR, GOATSUCKER, on FERN-OWL 

CAFRIMULG US E UR OP^ US, Linn. 



Caprimulgus earopseus, Linn. S. N. i, p. 316 (1766) ; Naum. 

vi. p. 141 ; Macg. iiL. p. 633 ; Yarr. ed. 4, ii. p. 377 ; 

Dresser, iv. p. 621. 
Caprimulgus europeaSj Hewitson, i. p. 270. 

Engoulevent ordinaire, Frencli; Ziegen-melker , NacM- 
Schwalbe, German ; Zumaya, Chotacahras, Papa- 
vientos, Enganapastores, Spanish. 

This remarkable bird, although a common summer 
visitor to all districts of the United Kingdom that are 
adapted to its requirements, is very locally distributed 
during its sojourn with us, and in many parts of England 
is virtually unknown. The favourite haunts of our bird 
are shady woods, commons overgrown with fern and 
heather, and it is occasionally to be found also on rocky 
hill-sides amongst brambles ; but I have never found it 
established at any considerable distance from more or 
less extensive patches of the common fern or bracken. 
On passage, in May and September, it may, to use a 
common expression, be found " anywhere," and at the 
latter season I have known of several occurrences of the 



"Pern-Owl" in turnip-fields far away from its accus- 
tomed abiding places. The food of this species consists 
chiefly, if not entirely, of night-flying insects taken in the 
air. During the daytime the Nightjar remains dozing, 
generally, in my experience, on the ground, very often 
basking on bare sandy spots or flat ledges of rock, but 
often also upon low horizontal boughs, upon which it 
squats, as a sailor would say, " fore and aft," or length- 
ways. Soon after sunset in districts frequented by these 
birds the air suddenly appears to be full of them, although 
in reality there may not be more than two or three pairs 
on wing together ; this illusion is produced by the mar- 
vellous rapidity and silence of their flight, and their 
continual twists and evolutions over some food-producing 
spot, also, no doubt, in many cases by the active pursuit 
of the moths disturbed by the observer in his evening 
stroll. 

I have mentioned the silence of the flight of this bird, 
and in fact the actual aerial progression of the Nightjar 
is as noiseless as that of the Owls ; but in the case of 
the present species is frequently varied by a curious 
" swishing " sound when the bird suddenly turns ; the 
only vocal note that I have heard uttered by the Nightjar 
whilst on wing is a sharp squeak, the well-known jarring 
note being only produced, as I am fully convinced, 
whilst the bird is on the ground or seated on a bough. 
In common with many nocturnal bird-notes this remark- 
able cry is most deceptive with regard to the locality 
from which it proceeds ; but, although not musical, it is 
always a delightful memory to me, associated with calm 
summer nights whose silence was only broken by it, the 



call of the Corn-Crake, the music of the Nightingale, 
and the occasional trill of the Grasshopper Warbler. 

The Nightjar makes no nest, but generally deposits 
its two eggs (which are, in my opinion, about the most 
beautiful of British productions of their kind) on a bare 
spot amongst ferns, stunted heather, or brambles, not 
uncommonly upon open wastes strewn with fragments of 
flint and chalk, with barely any vegetation near the 
breeding-place. I hope and believe that the advance of 
education has eradicated the ancient superstition that 
gave the name of Goatsucker to this bird, but to my own 
personal knowledge it has been, and is still I fear, looked 
upon by game-keepers as a bird of prey, called a Night 
Hawk, and treated accordingly. I need hardly tell those 
who have had patience enough to read this dissertation, 
that the Nightjar is not only a perfectly harmless, but 
also a most useful bird. 




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EED-NECKED NIGHTJAE. 

CAPRTMULGUS RUFICOLLIS, Temm, 



Caprimulgus ruficollis, Temm. Man. d^Orn. p. 438 (1820) ; 
Yarr. ed. 4^ ii. p. 386 (note) ; Dresser, iv. p. 633. 

Engoulevent a collier roux, French ; Zumaya, Papavientos, 
Enganapastores , Chotacabras, Spanish, 

One specimen only of this very beautiful bird has 
been recorded as having occurred in England ; the 
individual in question was found in the flesh by the 
late John Hancock, of Newcastle, in a shop in that 
town, and was stated to have been killed on the pre- 
vious day, October 5th, 1856, at Killingworth ; it is now 
in the Newcastle Museum. 

This bird is common, but exceedingly local, in Spain. 
We found it in abundance in the swampy willow-groves 
in the neighbourhood of Aranjuez on its first arrival 
early in May, and it is very common in most parts 
of Andalucia during the summer months, especially 
frequenting the sandy pine-woods, though by no means 
infrequently met with also in the scrub-grown wastes. 



I did not meet with it to the north of the Guadarrama 
range, but know that it occurs sparingly in the neigh- 
bourhood of San Ildefonso in Old Castile. 

In general habits this bird appeared to us to resemble 
the Common Nightjar, but there is a very perceptible 
difference between the " churring " notes of the two 
species ; their eggs are not to be distinguished by any 
constant diversity of size or markings. 



35 



EGYPTIAN OE ISABELLINE NIGHTJAE. 

CAPRIMULGUS JEGYPTIUS, Licht. 



Caprimulgus segyptius, Lichtenstein, Verz. Doubl. p. 59; 
Dresser, iv. p. 629; Whitaker, Zool. 1883, p. 374; 
Saunders, Man. Br. B. p. 260. 

One occurrence. The gamekeeper of Mr. J. Whitaker, 
of Rainsworth Lodge near Mansfield, Nottinghamshire, 
shot a Nightjar on 23rd June, 1883, his attention 
having been attracted to it by its light colour. This 
specimen, on examination, proved to be a Caprimulgus 
cegyptius. 

The bird has also occurred on Heligoland, but its 
home is Turkestan, Baluchistan, Egy[)t, and Nubia, 
whence it probably migrates further south in the winter 
season. [0. S.J 



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SWIFT. 

CYPSELUS APUS {Linn.}. 



Hirundo apus, Linn. S. N. i. p. 344 (1766). 

Cypselus apus^ Naum. vi. p. 123; Yarr. ed. 4, ii. p. 364; 

Dresser, iv. p. 583. 
Cypselus murarius^ Macg. iii. p. 614; Hewitson, i. p. 267. 

Martinet de muraille, French ; Thurmsegler , German ; 

Avion, Vencejo, Spanish. 

A more or less common summer visitor to all parts 
of the British Islands. 




SWITT. 

Cypsel-Qs apiis {Lin'TL'j 



H.anh.art Ciircmi 



^^ 



WHITE-BELLIED SWIFT, 

CYPSELUS MELBA {Linn.). 



Himndo Melba, Linn. S. N. i. p. 345 (1766). 

Cypselus melba, Naum. vi. p. 115 ; Macg. iii. p. 611 ; Yarr. 

ed. 4, ii. p. 372; Dresser, iv. p. 603. 
Cypselus alpinus^ Hewitson, i. p. 269. 

Martinet a ventre blanc, French ; Alpensegler, German ; 
Avion, Spanish. 

A locally common summer visitor to Central and 
Southern Europe, rarely visiting the British Isles. 




WHITE-BELLIED SWIFT. 
Cypselus inelba 'Luirt) 



Ai 



NEEDLE-TAILED SWIFT. 

ACANTHYLLIS CAUD ACUTA {Lath.). 



Hirundo caudacuta, Lath. Synops. Suppl. ii. p. Ivii (1801). 
Acanthyllis caudacuta, Yarr. ed. 4, ii. p. 371 ; Dresser, iv. 
p. 613. 

I find only two records of the occurrence of this 
species in Great Britain : the first at Great Horkesley, 
near Colchester, on July 8th, 1846, and the other 
towards the end of July 1879, near Ring wood, Hants ; 
in this latter instance the bird had been observed flying 
over the river Avon, with a companion of its own species, 
for a few days before its capture. Mr. H. Saunders, 
from whose work I am quoting, states that at the time 
of the publication of his * Manual ' this bird had not 
been noticed in any other part of Europe ; that during 
the summer it inhabits South-eastern Siberia, Mongolia, 
Manchuria, Japan, and the mountainous regions of 
China and Tibet, also the Eastern Himalayas, migrating 
as far southwards as Eastern Australia and Tasmania in 
the cold season. As this is a species which would 
probably be impossible to keep alive for any length of 
time in captivity, I hold that the well-authenticated 
instances of its occurrence in England above men- 
tioned fully entitle it to a place amongst British birds. 



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EAVEN. 

CORVUS COR AX, Linn. 



Corvus corax, Linn. S. N. i. p. 155 (1766) ; Naum. ii. p. 43; 
3Iacg. i. p. 498 ; Hewitson, i. p. 230 ; Yarr. ed. 4, ii. 
p. 259; Dresser, iv. p. 567. 

Corbeau, Frencli ; Kolk-Rabe, German ; Cuervo, Grajo, 
Spanish. 

This most sagacious of birds, though formerly well 
known in almost all parts of the three kingdoms, is now 
uncommon in cultivated and game-preserving districts, 
and its breeding-places in England, except on our coasts, 
are few and far between. Entertaining, as I do, a great 
admiration for the Raven, and fully aware of his value 
as a most efficient destroyer of small four-footed vermin, 
I fear that it is impossible to deny that he is a formid- 
able enemy to the shepherd, the poultry-keeper, and 
game-preserver ; but, admitting his natural delinquencies 
to the fullest extent, I must yet plead for mercy for him 
on account of his beauty, courage, marvellous intelli- 
gence, and comparative scarcity at the present time in 
our country. 

The Raven is an early breeder. I have seen well- 
feathered young birds oflFered for sale in London in the 
latter end of March. This bird rears its young year 
after year in the same spot, generally in a hole or crevice 
in the face of a cliff, but also often in a tall and 
" difficult " tree. The old birds will drive off almost 
any bird from the neighbourhood of their nest, and their 
great wing-power and strength render them most for- 
midable antagonists, even to the Ealcon. No birds are 
more easily tamed than Ravens, and certainly none more 
amply repay in all ways the small amount of care and 
attention that they require. 




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CAEEION-CEOW. 

CORVUS CORONE, Linn. 



Corvus corone^ Linn. S. N. i. p. 155 (1776) ; Naum. ii, p. 54; 
Macg. i, p. 516; Hewitson, i. p. 222; Yarr. ed. 4, ii. 
p. 274; Dresser, iv. p. 531. 

Corneille noire, French ; Krdhen-Rahe , German ; Graja, 
Grajo, Grajillo, Spanish. 

Professor A. Newton, in the 4th edition of Yarrell's 
* British Birds,' has given such cogent reasons for con- 
sidering this Crow as specifically inseparable from the 
Grey Crow {^Corvus cornio)), that I will not say more 
than that my principal reason for not wholly accepting 
his conclusion is the difference of note between the two 
birds. I may at once state, as a well-known fact, that 
in districts in which both forms are resident they inter- 
breed freely. 

The Black Carrion-Crow is only too well known in 
most parts of England and the lowlands of Scotland as 
a thorough " detrimental," and I know of nothing to be 
recorded in defence of this common malefactor. 




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GEEY OR HOODED CEOW. 

CORVUS CORNIX, Linn. 



Corvus cornix^ Linn. S. N. i. p. 156 (1763) ; Naum. ii. p. 65 ; 
Macg. i. p. 529 ; Hewitson, i. p. 224 ; Yarr. ed. 4, ii. 
p. 275 ; Dresser, iv. p. 543. 

Cur beau mantele, Coimeille mantelee, French ; Nebelrabe, 
German. 

I must refer my readers to my remarks upon the 
Black, or Carrion Crow, for my principal reason for 
treating of the present bird as at all events presenting 
one very important difference from that species besides 
that of plumage ; and although I am fully disposed to 
bow to the opinion of my friend Professor Alfred Newton 
and other distinguished ornithologists, I feel sure that I 
shall not be blamed by the majority of my subscribers 
for the few following notes relating to this form. The 
most curious part of its history is its capricious (if I 
may be allowed the term) distribution. It breeds in all 
parts of Ireland and throughout Scotland and its islands, 
very rarely in England, abundantly throughout Scandi- 
navia, sparsely in Western or Central Germany, very 
seldom, if ever, in France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, 
Spain, and the Balearic Islands. On the other hand, it 



is the Common Crow of the whole of Italy and its islands, 
as well as of most of the islands of the Greek Ai'chipelago, 
Cyprus, Syria, and Egypt. From my own experience I 
am inclined to look upon the Grey Crow as a somewhat 
scarce winter visitor to the Ionian Islands and the shores 
of the adjacent mainland, but it is more than probable 
that it may breed in the Morea. In England the subject 
of this article is generally known as an autumnal visitor 
from the north-east, frequenting by preference open 
country and our eastern coasts, but making itself quite 
at home in the large woods of our midland counties 
during the winter months. In the south-western 
counties this bird is by no means a common visitor ; 
I have been assured, I do not know with what amount 
of truth, that it is virtually unknown to the westward of 
Poole Harbour. 

The Grey Crow, in common with most of its con- 
geners, is a most destructive enemy to both eggs and 
young of all our Game-birds. 




Litho. W. Greve, Berlin. 



ROOK. 

Corvus frugilegus, Linn. 



^9 



EOOK 

CORVUS FRUGILEGUS, Linn. 



Corvus frugileguSj Linn. S. N. i. p. 156 (1766) ; Naum. ii. 
p. 78; Macg. i. p. 535 ; Hewitson, i. p. 226; Yarr. ed. 4, 
ii. p. 289; Dresser^ iv. p. 551. 

Corbeau-Freux, French ; Saat-Kr'dhe, German ; Graja, 
Spanish. 

It is not probable that I can tell any of my country- 
men, who care sufficiently about birds to look at this 
work, anything that they do not already know about 
this well-known and most respectable of British Crows, 
although I confess that I am myself anxious for infor- 
mation upon certain points concerning his little ways 
and customs. Why, for instance, do the very great 
majority of old Rooks, with their young that escape the 
annual shooting, leave their breeding-localities altogether 
for several weeks during the summer ? and whither do 
they betake themselves ? At Lilford a very large number 
of Rooks breed in scattered colonies within a short 
distance of the house, and, from the beginning of October 
till the nesting-time arrives, one of our coverts is the 
roosting-resort of many thousands of these birds that 



flock in trom a radius of several miles, but from the 
latter end of June till the time of corn-liarvest it is a 
very exceptional event to see more than from fifty to 
sixty Rooks together. One of the most remarkable of 
the many authentic Rook-stories that has come to my 
knowledge was communicated to me by a friend resident 
in Rutland, and relates to that county ; it runs thus : — 
Some few years ago the wife of a gamekeeper, whose 
cottage was close to a large wood containing a well- 
stocked Rookery, observed, one evening towards the end 
of May, a great commotion amongst the Rooks, of whose 
community all that were capable of flight appeared to 
be circling in the air above the tree-tops with deafening 
cries, but without any apparent cause; the woman, 
suspecting that some trespasser was wandering in the 
wood, or that the disturbance was caused by some large 
bird of prey, summoned her husband, who was engaged 
at his pheasant-coops at a short distance ; he at once 
explored the covert, but could discover no cause for the 
disturbance of the Rooks, which continued till dark ; 
the next morning not a Rook was visible, the Rookery 
was deserted, and many young left to perish, for their 
parents did not return during the year in which this 
event occurred. Several stories of a similar nature have 
come to my knowledge, but none, in my opinion, so 
extraordinary or so authentic as the above. I am not 
inclined to enter into the controversy as to the merits of 
the Rook as a friend to the farmers ; there is no doubt 
that these birds destroy enormous numbers of noxious 
insects, both upon arable and pasture-lands ; it is equally 
indisputable that they are extremely fond of wheat in 



5i 

grain ; this is abundantly proved by the number of 
Rooks that are annually destroyed by feeding upon 
newly-sown wheat steeped in poisonous compounds to 
preserve it from the attacks of insects. 

The Rook is an eminently sagacious and observant 
bird, and, whether he has learned of late years by infor- 
mation from other members of the genus Coi'viis, or 
acquired by intuition, the knowledge that the eggs of 
other birds are excellent food, I am unable to say, but, 
well within my recollection, our Rooks have become 
most determined egg-stealers, and it is no exaggeration 
to say that, in dry spring-times, when covert is scanty, 
we are annually robbed of hundreds of eggs of game- 
birds and wild-fowl by these otherwise comparatively 
respectable neighbours. This branch of petty larceny 
on the part of the Rooks was virtually unknown in our 
neighbourhood forty years ago, though we liad many 
more Rooks breeding therein than at present. After all 
this, I am fond of the Rook, from old associations of 
happy summers gone by, and from long and close 
observation of its pecuhar habits, but in a woodland 
and agricultural district I am convinced that an annual 
pretty close thinning down of the yonng birds by fair 
means is an absolute necessity in the interests of all 
classes of the human community. I could relate many 
other facts to the advantage, and a few to the prejudice, 
of the Rook, but the question of the preservation or 
destruction of the bird chiefly touches our unfortunate 
agriculturists, who, as a rule, are not disposed to neglect 
their own interests. I conclude by quoting from my 
article on the Rook, contributed to the * Northampton- 



shire Natural History Journal ' : — '*' One of the most 
curious ornithological sights to be witnessed in this 
neighbourhood is a Rook's parliament, or meeting, which 
generally (though by no means invariably) takes place in 
the autumn in one of three special places, about an hour 
before roosting-time ; in one of these spots, a meadow 
close to the house at Lilford, we have seen some ten 
acres so thickly occupied by Rooks, that scarcely a sign 
of the grass upon which they were assembled was 
discernible from rising ground at a few hundred yards' 
distance, whilst great numbers were collected in the 
adjoining trees, and many plunging headlong from great 
heights and darting and twisting in all directions ; those 
upon the ground were comparatively silent, but the 
occupants of the ' gallery,' if I may so call the trees, 
were, as is usual in assemblages of another order of 
bipeds, very vociferous. We have seen many such 
meetings, but never such a densely packed one as that 
observed on a certain afternoon in October, and followed, 
as is generally the case, by a heavy gale. Here is 
another of the habits of the Rook, which has doubtless 
been observed by many, but, so far as I know, never 
satisfactorily accounted for or explained." 



Si 



JACKDAW. 

CORVUS MONEDULA, Linn. 



Corvus monedula^ Linn. S. N. i. p. 156 (1766) ; Naum. ii. 
p. 93 ; Macff. i. p. 552 ; Hewitson, i. p. 232; Yarr. ed. 4, 
ii. p. 305; Dresser, iv. p. 523. 

Choucas gris, Frencli ; Dohlen-Rabe, German ; Grajo, 
Grajo chico, Spanish. 

The Jackdaw is resident, and so abundant and easily 
observed, in almost all parts of the United Kingdom, 
that I feel that any description of its well-known habits 
would be superfluous in a work of which the main 
object is to present the most life-like figures obtain- 
able. 






'-/. 




JACKDAW. 
Corvus monedula, Linn. 



La tho. W. Greve Berlin. 



55 



EED-BILLED CHOUGH. 

PYRRHOCORAX GRACULUS {Linn.). 



CoYvus graculuSj Linn. S. N. i. p. 158 (1766) ; Naum. ii. 

p. 1]4. 
Fregilus graculus, Macg. i. p, 587; Hewitson, i. p. 218. 
Pyrrhocorax graculus, Yarr. ed. 4^ ii. p. 252 ; Dresser, iv. 

p. 437. 

Crave, French ; Stein-Krdhe, German ; Chova, Choya, 
Grajilla, Spanish. 

The Chough, in spite of the high prices given for the 
young birds, still holds its own on certain parts of our 
coasts, its habit of nesting in the crannies and fissures 
of precipitous sea-cliffs being greatly in favour of the 
preservation of its species. This bird is almost exclu- 
sively insectivorous, and its great beauty and harmless 
habits should ensure to it the protection of man. 

Choughs reared by hand from the nest become 
exceedingly tame, and once accustomed to any given 
locality, may be allowed complete liberty ; indeed I have 
found that they will not thrive for any length of time 
unless permitted to roam at will. The flight of this 
species is remarkably buoyant and graceful, and differs 
remarkably from that of the true Crows. I never saw 
any one of the many tame Choughs that have had their 
liberty at Lilford alight on a tree or bush ; they kept 
entirely to the top of the house and the stone balus- 
trades that surround the flower-garden as perching and 
roosting-places, and preferred the gravel-walks to the 
turf for their promenades, and very frequently made use 
of my head, arms, and shoulders as means of carriage to 
their favourite bathing-place on a pebbly shelf of our 
river-bank. 




X 

o 

D 
O 

X 

o 

Q 
W 
h4 

5 
I 

Q 
W 



Oh 



n 



MAGPIE. 

PICA CAUDATA, Fleming. 



Pica caudata^ Fleming, Hist. Brit. Animals, p. 87 (1828) ; 

Hewitson, i. p. 234. 
Corvus pica, Linn. S. N. i. p. 157 (1766) ; Naum. ii. p. 101. 
Corvus rusticusj Scop. Ann. I. Hist. Nat. p. 38. 
Pica melanoleuca, Macg. i. p. 562. 
Pica rustica, Yarr. ed. 4, ii. p. 312; Dresser, iv. p. 509. 

Pie, Pie ordinaire, Frencli ; Elster, German ; Picaza, 
Urraca, Marica, Pega, Spanish. 

This bird is too well known, and has been too often 
treated of by friends and foes, to need any detailed 
remarks from me. Gamekeepers, with good reason, 
wage war to the death against " Mag," and in some 
parts of England the bird has become scarce, whilst in 
unpreserved districts it is still abundant, and in many 
parts of Ireland is decidedly the typical bird of the 
country. Apart from its misdeeds as a poacher, the 
Magpie, though useful in ridding cattle of the grubs 
generally known as "bots," frequently in so doing 
causes hideous sores in the backs of the afflicted beasts ; 
and, averse as I am to the extermination of any bird, 
especially to that of such a very beautiful and amusing 
species as the present, I must confess that, on the 
whole, T look upon the Magpie as a decided " detri- 
mental," whose increase should be carefully kept within 
reasonable limits. 




o ^ 
< p 



ff<^ 



JAY. 

GARRULUS GLAND ARIUS {Linn.). 



Corvus glandarius, Zmw. S. N. i. p. 156 (1766); Naum. ii. 

p. 122. 
Garrulus glandariuSj Macg. i. p. 576 ; Hewitson, i. p. 237 ; 

Yarr. ed. 4, ii. p. 323; Dresser, iv. p. 481. 

Geai ordinaire, French ; Eichel-Heher, German ; Arren- 
dajo, Gayo, Spanish. 

This beautiful bird is tolerably common in the wood- 
lands of England, less so in Scotland, and somewhat 
rare and very local in Ireland. Very large numbers of 
Jays occasionally visit this country in late autumn and 
winter from the continent, but such visits are very 
irregular in their occurrence, and I am not acquainted 
with any evidence in favour of a return migration. 

The Jay is a most crafty and wary bird, and though 
sufficiently noisy and conspicuous in autumn and winter, 
in the breeding- season it is almost mute and very 
cautious about showing itself. The nest is generally 
well concealed; the eggs, generally five or six, are laid 
in April, and many young Jays are flying before the end 
of May. Our bird is almost omnivorous, but I like him 
so well that I will leave the record of his offences to 
other writers. No British bird of my acquaintance is so 
imitative of sounds of all sorts as the Jay, and often I 
have been entirely deluded and misled by one of these 
wily and most amusing impostors. 

A very large number of Jays breed in the district of 
Northamptonshire with which I am best acquainted, 
but whenever we have an abundant crop of acorns or 
beech-mast, we are visited by flocks of foreign-bred birds 
of this species in October and November. 




< § 

^ -to 



a 



Ck 



NUTCEACKEE. 

CORVUS CARYOCATACTES, Linn. 



Corvus Caryocatactes, Linn. S. N. i. p. 157 (1766). 
Corvus caryocadactes^ Naum. ii. p. 130. 
Nucifraga caryocatactes, Macg. i, p. 583 ; Yarr. ed. 4, ii. 
p. 330; Dresser, iv. p. 451. 

Casse-noiao, French ; Tannen-Heher^ Nusskrdhe, German. 

An uncommon and irregular visitor to Great Britain, 
breeding in the coniferous districts of Scandinavia and 
Central Europe, as far southwards as the Maritime 
Alps. 

The figure was taken from a living specimen in my 
possession. 




NUTCRACKER. 
Corvus carjocalactes. Lvrvtv. 



]iaxiha.ri Clu'omo JatK. 





N> 



Litho. W. Grare, Berlin. 



STARLING. 

Sturnus vulgaris, Linn. 
Adult (summer plumage) and Young (first plumage). 



'"^ 




^^ 



LiHiO. W. Grere, Berlin. 



STARLING. 

Sturnus vulgaris, Linn. 
Winter. 



<% 



STAELING. 

STURNUS VULGARIS, Linn. 



Sturnus vulgaris, Linn. S. N. i. p. 290 (1766); Naum. ii. 

p. 187 ; Hewitson, i. p. 216 ; Yair. ed. 4, ii. p. 228 ; 

Dresser, iv. p. 405. 
Sturnus guttatus, Macg. i. p. 595. 

UEtourneau vulgaire, Frencli ; Staar, German ; Estornino, 
Spanish. 

This deservedly favourite bird is so common in almost 
all parts of our country and many of our towns, and 
affords such constant opportunities for the observation 
of its ways and habits, that it would be superfluous to 
recapitulate details concerning them to those of my 
readers who keep their eyes open. I will only say that 
personally I love this bird beyond most, and consider 
him as a true friend to man from the enormous amount 
of noxious insects that he devours in all stages of their 
existence — aerial, arboreal, terrestrial, and subterranean. 
The only accusations that can be urged against the 
Starling with truth are those of a certain amount of 
fruit-pilfering and the destruction of thatching, and 
these delinquencies are most amply compensated by the 



consumption of wire-worm, turnip-fly, daddy long-legs, 
and countless other animals of wliose scientific designa- 
tion I am as ignorant as of those just mentioned. 
Besides from the direct benefit to man to which I have 
alluded, the Starling from its beauty, its sprightly 
manners, its cheery notes, and its pleasant familiarity is 
worthy of protection and encouragement. Pew more 
interesting " bird-shows " are to be seen in our Islands 
than a vast assemblage of Starlings wheeling over their 
roosting-places in the reed-beds of our fen-districts, or 
the small coverts that they generally select as dormitories 
in more elevated localities. In this connection I may 
mention that several instances have come to my know- 
ledge of the sudden desertion of a favourite roosting- 
resort of Starlings without any apparent cause, and on 
the other hand I am assured by a friend who resides in 
the extreme west of Devon that although some forty 
years ago the Starling was a somewhat scarce bird in his 
neighbourhood, one of his plantations has now become 
the nightly resort of many thousands of these birds 
during the autumn and winter months. There has been a 
considerable amount of discussion and controversy as to 
the number of broods yearly reared by a pair of Starlings, 
some observers maintaining that only one brood is 
reared, whilst others say that three broods are not 
infrequently brought to maturity in the spring and 
summer of a single year by the same parents. From 
my own personal observation, I am inclined to think 
that two broods is rather the rule than the exception ; X 
cannot recall any instance of three having come to my 
knowledge. The imitative powers of the Starling in 



V 



X 




Litlio. W. Creve, Bcrl'i. 



STARLING. 

Sturnus vulgaris, Linn. 
Purple-headed race, Autumn plumage and Young assuming spotted plumage. 



captivity are famous, but the fact of tlieir exercise in a 
wild state is perhaps not so widely known. I find in 
my note-books that at and about our home in North- 
amptonshire I have frequently been deceived by the 
Starling's exact imitation of the cry of the Kestrel, the 
chatter of the Fieldfare, and the whistling of the Alpine 
Chough and Golden Plover. The great majority of the 
Starlings that breed and are bred in our county usually 
join the migratory flights that pass southwards in late 
October or November, but a considerable number 
remain with us throughout the cold weather, and in a 
mild winter we do not notice much diminution in the 
number of these birds, although 1 have no doubt that 
the gaps caused in our home forces are constantly filled 
up by migrants from the north. With regard to the 
accompanying Plates, I may say that the purple-headed 
race of Starling, of which Mr. Keuleman's figure is a 
most excellent and certainly by no means over-coloured 
represeutation, usually appears in England on the 
autumnal migration ; I have seen but few specimens of 
this race, but amongst them one or two in which the 
purple colour extended to the sides of the head behind 
and below the eyes. The young bird represented in the 
background of this Plate is of the typical British form. 
In those parts of Europe and North Africa that border 
the Mediterranean our bird is a winter visitor, but we 
found it breeding in Central Spain ; in the south of that 
country, and various localities in the Mediterranean, the 
resident Starling is the very beautiful Sturnus unicolcr, 
a species that has not yet obtained any satisfactory 
English name. 



^l 



EOSE-COLOUEED PASTOR 

PASTOR ROSEUS {Linn.). 



Turdus roseus, Linn. S. N. i. p. 294 (1766). 
Merula rosea, Naum. ii. p. 206. 
Thremmaphilus roseus, Macg. i. p. 613. 
Pastor roseus, Hewitson, i. p. 217; Yarr. ed. 4, ii. p. 243; 
Bt'esser, iv. p. 423. 

Martin roselin, French ; Rosenstaar, German. 

An occasional and irregular straggler to our islands. 
It is somewhat difficult to assign a fixed home to this 
beautiful species, as it has often appeared and bred in 
vast numbers in certain spots in Europe and Western 
Asia, in which it was previously considered a rare 
visitor. It is extremely common in Northern India in 
the winter; but, although I have been informed of its 
breeding in Afghanistan, I am inclined to believe that 
the centre of its regular breeding-districts is on the 
upper valley of the Euphrates. 

Enormous flights of this species follow the movements 
of the locusts, and wherever that disastrous animal 
appears in swarms, more or less of these birds are pretty 
certain to follow. In captivity the Pastor is very noisy, 
quarrelsome, and dirty, a great devourer of all sorts of 
fruit, especially cherries and mulberries. 

The drawings for the Plate were taken from life in 
the aviary at Lilford. 




Litho. W. Greve. Berlin- 



ROSE-COLOURED PASTOR. 

(Pastor roseus.) 



6'^ 



GEEAT GEEY SHEIKE. 

LANIUS EXCUBITOR, Linn. 



Lanius excubitor, Linn. S. N. i. p, 135 (1766) ; Naum. ii. 
p. 7; Macg. iii. p. 492; Hewitson, i. p. 69; Yarr. ed. 4, 
i. p. 199; Dresser, iii. p. 375. 

Pie Grieche p'ise, Frencli ; Grosse Wilrger, German ; 
Alcaudon, Spanish. 

An irregular and not very common winter visitor to 
onr islands. Several circumstantial accounts of its 
breeding in England have been published, but have, on 
critical inquiry, been discovered to lack authentic foun- 
dation ; this is somewhat remarkable, as the bird breeds 
not vmcommonly in Holland, Belgium, and Rhenish 
Prussia. 

The singular habit of the Shrikes of fixing their prey 
(which, for the most part, consists of beetles, small birds, 
mice, earthworms, and lizards) on thorns is well known ; 
it is, perhaps, not so generally well known that, although 
these birds are most ravenous feeders, they consume but 
very little at each meal. I have kept many of this 
species in confinement, and used them with some success 
as sentinels in Hawk-catching. The present species has 
a low, but by no means an unpleasant, song. 




J. G KeiJernans del etlith. 



GREAT GRKV SIIHIKE, 
Lam lis exciilii i ot\ liufi . 



Minterri Bros . imp . 






5 
LESSER GREY SHRIKE 

Lanius minor, JF.GwiUn,. 



71 



LESSEE GREY SHRIKE. 

LANIUS MINOR, J. F. Gmelin. 



Lanius minor_, Gmelin, S. N. i. p. 308 (1788) ; Naum. ii. 
p. 15 ; Yarr. ed. 4>, i. p. 205 ; Dresser, iii. p. 393. 

Pie-Grieche d'ltalie, French; Grauer Wiirger, German. 

This species, which is a common summer visitor to 
many parts of Southern, South-eastern, and Central 
Europe, is recorded by Mr. Howard Saunders (from 
whom I quote as the latest authority) to have occurred 
in four instances in our country; the first of these 
occurrences was that of a female, killed in November 
1851 in Scilly, two others were obtained near Great 
Yarmouth in 1869 and in May 1875 respectively, and a 
fourth was taken near Plymouth in September 1876. 
My own acquaintance with this Shrike is very small, 
and I may here state that I was completely in error in 
my statement in ' The Ibis' article on the birds of Spain, 
that this species was not uncommon in that country, 
where, indeed, I never personally met with it, though I 
have reason to believe that it has occurred in Catalonia, 
and perhaps in Valencia. 

A friend, who is well acquainted with this species. 



informs me that in the neighbourhood of Darmstadt it 
is a regular but not very abundant summer visitor, that 
it breeds very late, generally placing its nest of twigs 
and dry roots lined with wool, hair, and feathers either 
in fruit-trees or in the poplars so common along the 
roadsides in Germany, at a height of from 20 to 25 feet 
from the ground. The eggs, generally five or six in 
number, are of a greenish white, spotted and blotched 
with brown and grey ; in habits this bird resembles the 
other European Shrikes, its food consisting principally 
of insects. I have kept one or two of these birds in 
captivity, but cannot recommend them as cage-birds, as 
I found them wild, sulky, and very fastidious feeders. 



7^ 



EED-BACKED SHEIKE. 

LANIUS COLLURIO, Linn. 



Lanius collurio, Linn. S. N. i. p. 136 (1766) ; Naum. ii. 
p. 30 ; Macg. iii. p. 505 ; Hewitson, i. p. 70; Yarr. ed. 4<, 
i. p. 209; Dresser, iii. p. 399. 

Pie-grieche ecorcheur, French ; der Rothriickige W'drger, 
German ; Alcaudon, Verdugo, Spanish. 

A common summer visitor to most parts of England 
south of Trent ; less frequent in our northern counties ; 
scarce in Scotland ; very rare in Ireland. 





R?:d-backed shrike 

I. am us collurio Lijin^ . 



Kanharfc Chrome "litli 




3 

4- 

WOODCHAT. 
Lanius rutilus, Loiham. 



WOODCHAT. 

LANIUS RUTILUS, Lath. 



Lanius rutilus, Latham, Ind. Orn. i. p. 70 (1790) ; Macg. 

iii. p. 502. 
Lanius rufus, Naum. ii. p. 22; Hewitson, i. p. 72. 
Lanius auriculatus, Yarr. ed. 4, i. p. 215 ; Dresser, iii. 

p. 407. 

Pie-grieche rousse, French ; Rothkopfiger Wilrger, German ; 
Alcaudon, Spanish. 

This bird is a rare visitor to England, though it is 
common as a summer visitor to France and Germany, 
and exceedingly abundant in most parts of Southern 
Europe. Li Spain it is perhaps as common in Anda- 
lucia as the Red-backed Shrike is in the most favoured 
localities in our country. I have met with it in the 
open plains, where its brightly contrasted colours render 
it a very conspicuous object, as it darts from the top of 
a tall thistle or from a telegraph-wire to the ground in 
pursuit of beetles or grasshoppers ; but it is equally 
frequent amongst the olive-groves, the pine-woods, and 
scrub-grown hills of almost all parts of Spain south of 
the great northern Sierras. 

The Woodchat is a very confiding and fearless bird, 



very frequently nesting, without any attempt at conceal- 
ment, within a few feet of human habitations. The nest 
is generally placed at the end of a branch, at from four 
to six feet from the ground, visible to every passer by ; 
a young or old olive-tree is in Spain a very favourite 
locality : the eggs much resemble those of our common 
Red-backed Shrike or Butcher-bird, but I have never 
met with the red variety which so frequently occurs in 
those of the latter species. When alarmed or excited 
the note of the Woodchat is a harsh grating cry, but it 
has besides this a peculiar low and not unpleasant song, 
and the country-people in Spain declare that it imitates 
the notes of various small birds with a view to luring 
them to their destruction ; of this story, however, I have 
no proof, and am inclined to think that our bird as a 
rule confines itself to an insect-diet. In captivity the 
Woodchat becomes very tame, but I have only once 
succeeded in keeping any of these birds through the 
moult ; in common with most of the Shrikes that I have 
kept caged, the Woodchat thrives admirably up to the 
time of the autumnal migration, when most of them 
become very restless, and after a day or two succumb to 
fits. As long as house-flies are procurable alive, these 
birds do well, but when that supply fails we have found 
it difficult to "train them off" upon other food less 
natural to them ; mealworms are readily devoured, but 
are much too rich to be given as the staple diet, and the 
same may be said of that most off'ensive insect the cock- 
roach, or black beetle of the British housekeeper. 



77 



SWALLOW. 

HIRUNDO RUSTIC A, Linn. 



Hirundo rustica^ Linn. S. N. i. p. 343 (1766) ; Naum. vi. 
p. 49; Macg. iii. p. 558; Hewitson, i. p. 257; Yarr. 
ed. 4j ii. p. 340; Dresser, iii. p. 447. 

Hirondelle de cheminee, French ; Rauchschwalbe, German ; 
Golondrina, Spanish. 

Common summer visitor to Great Britain and Ireland. 




S W A L L W. 
Hirundo rustic a Lxnn. 



Hanliart ChroinD -lith . 



~^'=) 



MARTIN. 

CHELIDON URBICA {Linn.). 



Hirundo urbica_, Linn. S. N. i. p. 344 (1766) ; Naum. vi. 

p. 75; Macg. iii. p. 573; Hewitson, i. p. 261. 
Chelidon arbica, Yarr. ed. 4, ii. p. 349; Dresser, iii. p. 495. 

Hirondelle de fenetre, French; Haus-Schvjalbe, German; 
Vencejo, Spanish. 

Common summer visitor to the British Isles. 




Kanhart Cliromo -ifk . 



M A RTIN . 
Chelidon urbica [Lirm 



Si 



SAND-MAETIN. 

COTILE RIP ARIA {Linn.) 



Hirundo riparia, Linn. S. N. i. p. 344 (1766) ; Naum. vi. 

p. 100; Macg. iii. p. 595; Hewitson, i. p. 264. 
Cotile riparia, Yarr. ed. 4, ii. p. 355. 
Cotyle riparia, Dresser, iii. p. 505. 

Hirondelle de rivage, French ; Vferschwalhe, German ; 
Golondrina de ribera, Oroneta, Spanish. 



A summer visitor to the British Isles : locally abun- 
dant. 



,mJ 



/ 1 1>^ 






■jtm» 




v£>A. 



Hsnhact Chromo -liti 



SAND -MARTIN". 
Co tile ripapia. (Lvrvti.) 




Litlio. W. Greve, Berlin. 



SPOTTED FLYCATCHER. 

Muscicapa grisola, Linn. 



8^ 



SPOTTED FLYCATCHEE. 

MUSCICAPA GRISOLA, Linn. 



Muscicapa grisola^ Linn. S. N, i. p. 328 (1766) ; Naum. ii. 
p. 216; Macg. iii. p. 518; Hewitson, i. p. 74; Yar7\ 
ed. 4_, i. p. 220; Dresser, iii. p. 447. 

Gohe-mouche gris, French; Gefleckter Fliegenf anger, Ger- 
man; Papamoscas, Spanish. 

This charming bird is probably too well known to my 
readers to require any lengthy description at my hands. 
In every part of England with which I have any 
acquaintance it is one of the most common and most 
observable of our summer visitors, although of course, 
as is the case with all our migratory birds, it is much 
more abundant in some years than in others; I may 
mention that I never remember to have noticed so many 
Flycatchers in iVorthamptonshire as there are at the 
present time (July 1893) about Lilford. One of the 
most remarkable sites for a nest of this bird that has 
ever come to my knowledge was a battered old hat of 
the " chimney-pot " order that was stuck on a pea-stick 
by one of our cottagers in his garden to terrify the 



marauding Sparrows. In Nortliamptonshire this bird 
is generally known as " Cobweb " ; " Beam-bird " is 
another common local name for it ; and in Kent it goes 
by the name of " Cherry-sucker," a singular misnomer, 
as I need hardly say that om^ bird is exclusively insecti- 
vorous. In this connection it is somewhat remarkable 
that Morton, in his ' Natural History of Northampton- 
shire' (1712), in alluding to the Tree-Creeper states: 
"At Desborough 'tis said to build in walls and to feed 
on cherries in cherry-time, and so is called Cherry-bird 
by some, — ^this I look upon as a mistake ; its proper food 
being insects." The author no doubt here applied a 
local myth to the wrong species, as I think that it is 
sufficiently obvious that the " Cherry-bird " of Des- 
borough was the subject of the present writing. 

I believe that the Flycatcher often rears two broods, 
as, although our pleasure-grounds swarm with young 
birds almost throughout July, I have frequently found 
fledglings in the nests late in August. 

The pleasant familiarity of this species, and the 
enormous number of pestilential house-flies and other 
insects that it destroys, should ensure its protection 
and render it a general favourite ; as a proof of its 
fearlessness of human beings, this summer a Flycatcher 
sat steadily on her eggs and hatched out her brood on 
the branch of a yew-tree, within three or four feet of 
my favourite shade-resort in our flower-garden, my 
head as I sat in my wheeled chair being constantly at 
the distance mentioned from the nest. Gardeners, 
gamekeepers, and others are apt to bring charges of 
depredation against afl sorts of perfectly innocent birds ; 



«5 

but the only misdemeanour that I have ever heard 
attributed to my friend the Flycatcher is that of dirtying 
garden-seats, certainly not a very serious or irremediable 
offence. 

My readers must pardon my prolixity with regard to 
one of my most favourite birds, associated as it is with 
many happy summer-times in English gardens and 
pleasure-grounds, good company, and good books. I 
have met with the Spotted Flycatcher as a migrant in 
every part of Europe that I have visited. 



n 



EED-BEEASTED FLYCATCHEE. 

MUSCICAPA PARVA, Bechst. 



Muscicapa parva^ Bechstein, Naturg. Deutschl. iv. p. 505 
(1795) ; Naum. ii. p. 241 ; Yarr. ed. % i. p. 224 ; 
Dresser, iii. p. 465. 

Gobe-mouche rougedtre, French; Kleiner Fliegenf anger, 
German. 

Several examples of this very pretty little bird have 
occurred in England, but as 1 have no personal acquaint- 
ance whatever with it in a state of nature, I must refer 
my readers, for details as to its habits and occurrences 
in this country, to the standard works on British orni- 
thology. It is an Eastern species, and only occurs 
irregularly in Western Europe. The only specimen of 
this bird that I ever saw in the flesh I procured in the 
market at Nice in the autumn of 1858. 




'"S^ 



^ 



.iTHO ART STUD'O ,.C%'DO 



RED-BREASTED FLYCATCHER 

Muscicapa parva,i3ee/z5il;. 




Lltho. W. Greve, Berlin. 



PIED FLYCATCHER. 
Muscicapa atricapilla, T,inn. 



19 



PIED FLTCATCHEE. 

MUSCICAPA ATRICAPILLA, Linn. 



Muscicapa atricapilla, Linn. S. N. i. p. 326 (1766) ; Hewitson, 

i. p. 75 ; Yarr. ed. 4>, i. p. 229 ; Dresser, iii. p. 453. 
Muscicapa luctaosa, Naum. ii. p. 231 ; Macg. iii. p. 524. 

Gobe-mouche noir, French ; Schwarzgrauer Fliegenf anger, 
German; Papamoscas, Cerrojillo, Spanish. 

This pretty little bird is a vernal migrant to our 
country; but although not by any means very un- 
common, its breeding-haunts in Great Britain are so 
restricted that in the greater part of England it is 
virtually unknown. Although nests of the Pied Fly- 
catcher are said to have been found occasionally in 
several of the midland and southern counties, I believe 
that I am correct in stating that it is only known to breed 
annually and regularly in certain counties of Scotland, 
and south of the Tweed only in Northumberland, West- 
moreland, Cumberland, Durham, Lancashire, Cheshire, 
and Yorkshire, and three or four of the counties of Wales. 
In the other counties of England this Flycatcher (I write 
under correction) is only known as an accidental bird 
of passage, or, as I have said above, is not known at 
all. A few specimens have been obtained in Northamp- 
tonshire on the vernal migration ; but my personal 



acquaintance with this bird in Great Britain is confined 
to having once seen it in Merioneth. I am, however, 
intimate with this species from personal observation in 
Spain, where it is very common in certain localities 
during the summer months. 

In general habits the Pied Flycatcher closely re- 
sembles our well-known Common or Spotted Flycatcher, 
but is less addicted to the neighbourhood of man, and 
frequently to be found in the wildest mountain soli- 
tudes. In my experience I have found this bird 
specially partial to old oak-woods in the vicinity of 
running water. It is by no means shy or wary, and 
very frequently nests close to a frequented footpath 
or bridle-road. The nest is generally built in the 
hole of an oak or other tree, frequently within reach 
from the ground, and as frequently at a considerable 
height ; often, also, in old walls, now and then in the 
cranny of a rock. The materials usually consist of 
moss, dead leaves, and feathers ; but the nest is less 
compact and considerably shghter in bulk than that of 
the Common Flycatcher. The eggs, from 5 to 6 in 
number, are of a beautiful very pale blue, and are 
hardly to be mistaken for those of any other British 
bird. 

The Pied Flycatcher has a pleasant low song, very 
distinct from the rarely heard musical efforts of our 
other Flycatcher in the pairing-season. The present 
species is widely distributed during the summer 
throughout the Continent of Europe, and abounds in 
Algeria. 



^1 



VAXWING. 

AMP E LIS GARRULUS, Linn. 



Ampelis Garrulus, Linn. S. N. i. p. 297 (1766) ; Yarr. ed. 4, 

i. p. 523 ; Dresser, iii. p. 429. 
Bombycilla garrula, Naum. ii. p. 143; Macg. iii. p. 533. 

Jaseur de Boheme, French ; Seidenschwanz , German. 



This handsome bird is an irregular winter visitor to 
our islands from the extreme north of Europe, where it 
breeds ; it has been recorded as occurring more or less 
frequently in every county of England, also in Scotland 
and Ireland. Eive hundred and eighty-six examples of 
this species were reported in the ' Zoologist ' as having 
occurred between November 1849 and March 1850. 

The breeding-habits of this species were quite un- 
known to ornithologists before 1856, in which year 
the late Mr. John Wolley discovered nests and eggs in 
Lapland ; a condensed account of this discovery is to 
be found in the 4th edition of Yarrell's * British Birds ' 
(Newton), vol. i. 




West, Newman & Co., Chromo-lith. 



WAXWING. 

Ampelis garrulus, Lmn. 




> 



l,itho. W. Gi'eve; Berlin 



BEARDED REEDLING, 
Panurus biarmicus iLimu). 



BEAEDED EEEDLINa 

PANURUS BIARMICUS (Linn.), 



Parus biarmicus^ Limi. S. N. i. p. 342 (1766) ; Naum. iv. 

p. 98. 
CalamopLilus biarmicus, Macg. iii. p. 694 ; Hewitson, i. 

p. 161 ; Dresser, iii. p. 49. 
Panurus biarmicus, Fa?T. ed. 4*, i. p. 511. 

Mesange a moustaches, French ; Bartmeisej German ; 
Bigotudo, Chahuet, Valencian, 

This specieSj probably better known to my readers as 
Bearded Titmouse than by the name given above, was 
formerly abundant in many of the reed-grown districts 
of England, but from the general drainage and recla- 
mation of marsh-lands, and also in no small degree from 
the ravages of collectors, has now become, comparatively 
speaking, a rare and very local bird. 

My personal acquaintance with the ^' Reed-Pheasant " 
(as this species was commonly called in East Norfolk) 
in a wild state, is limited to that part of England, where 
I met with it many years ago frequenting the reed-beds 
in small parties during the winter months. I found 
that these birds were by no means shy, and by keeping 
still, I was enabled on more than one occasion to observe 



their habits pretty closely. They are very Tit-like in 
action, though they have very little, if any true affinity 
to that family. I noticed that they climbed the reeds 
from the water or crust of earth to the top, rapidly 
examining the joints and insertions of the leaves for 
insects, and lingering at the seed-bearing tops of the 
plants, constantly uttering a very peculiar and bell-like 
single note that in no way resembles that of any other 
bird with which I am acquainted. After a close 
examination of a certain seed-patch the parties would 
fly off in a sort of single file with a jerking flight to 
another spot, calling as they flew, and, except in the tone 
of their calls, reminding me much of the Long-tailed 
Titmouse. 

In captivity these little birds become very tame, and 
in a few instances I have succeeded in keeping them 
alive for a considerable time ; but although in some 
respects hardy enough they require a great deal of care. 
I never could induce any of my captives to make a nest, 
though more than one laid eggs in their cages. At 
roosting time, and indeed often during the day, my 
Reedlings would sit closely huddled together in a hne 
on the same perch, constantly examining the plumage 
of their next neighbour, and in every way showing a 
love of close company. 

I have never seen the nest of this species in situ, 
but one in my collection from Holland was taken 
from the crust from which a thick patch of reeds was 
growing, and was composed of leaves of that plant, with 
a few blades of sedge and a lining of the feathery reed- 
tops. The principal food of this species consists of 



small insects and the seeds of the reed ; but in cap- 
tivity I found that ordinary soft-billed bird's food suited 
them well, and that dried ants' eggs were very favourite 
morsels. 

The eggs are said to be generally five or six in 
number, and are white, with irregular streaks and 
speckles of black or very dark brown. 

The Bearded Reedhng is to be met with in suitable 
localities almost throughout Central and Southern 
Europe, and was formerly exceedingly abundant in the 
vast reed-fens of the Netherlands. I noticed a habit in 
this species that in my experience with caged birds is 
by no means common — that of hanging suspended by 
one foot to the wires at the top of their prisons for 
sometimes several minutes without any apparent cause ; 
the only other bird that I have observed to adopt this 
practice as an ordinary habit is the Grey Struthidea of 
Australia, Struthidea cinerea, Gould. 



GREAT TIT. 

PARUS MAJOR, Linn. 



Parus major^ Linn. S. N. i. p. 341 (1766) ; Naum. iv. p. 9; 

Heivitson, i. p. 149; Yarr. ed. 4, i. p. 479; Dresser, iii. 

p. 79. 
Panis fringillago^ Macg. ii. p. 425. 

Mesange charbonnier, French ; Kohl-Meise, German ; 
Quive-vive, Carpintero, Carbonei^o, Guerrero, Spanish. 

This bird is so widely distributed throughout the 
British Islands, so conspicuous in plumage, so noisy, 
and so generally well known under various nicknames, 
that I feel it almost unnecessary to go into details 
concerning it. I have met with it in every part of 
England, Scotland, and Ireland that I have visited, 
but in many of these localities it would not be 
recognized by its legitimate name. In our district of 
Northamptonshire it is generally known as " Blackcap " 
or " Tom Tit," and I have heard the names " Ox-eye," 
"Sawyer," "Saw-bird," and "Billy-biter" applied to 
it elsewhere. It is a lively, restless bird, very quarrel- 
some and bold. I know of many instances of its 
killing and picking out the brains of small birds, and 



in captivity it cannot be trusted with any bird less 
powerful than itself. I know of one instance in which 
the evidence was all but conclusive of a Great Tit's 
having killed a Long-eared Bat, upon whose brain it 
■was seen to be busily engaged whilst the body of the 
little beast was still warm. 

The sites selected by this bird for nesting are 
sometimes very remarkable. At Lilford a pair took 
possession of a disused iron hand-pump in our kitchen- 
garden, and reared a brood in the space between the 
junction of the handle with the piston and the top of 
the pump, in spite of the constant inspection of visitors, 
who removed the said top to look in. On such occa- 
sions the sitting bird only retired into the spout— the 
only means of ingress and egress, and would sit therein 
hissing and chattering till the top of the apparatus was 
replaced. Another pair of this species in 1895 reared 
a brood in a large circular Indian leather-bottle, sus- 
pended at about 3 J feet from the ground in a coniferous 
tree in our flower-garden ; the orifice of this vessel is 
only just large enough to allow the birds to enter. A 
brood of Redstarts were reared in this curious vessel in 
the summer of 1894. 

This bird may fairly be called omnivorous, for 
although its staple diet consists of insects in all stages 
of their existence, it is very fond of seeds of many 
kinds, and is sure to be amongst the first visitors to 
kitchen-scraps thrown down for the birds in severe 
weather. I believe that the Great Tit frequently rears 
two broods in the year, but in my experience it does 
not often use the same nest twice. The nest is com- 



«59 

posed of moss, dry grass, wool, hairs, and dead leaves. 

I should fix the average number of eggs at from 
7 to 10. I have met with the present species in almost 
every locality suited to its habits that I have visited in 
Europe, and, although not abundant, it frequents the 
gardens in the suburbs of Algiers during the winter 
months. We also met with it in Cyprus. 



BLUE TITMOUSE. 

PARUS CjERULEUS, Linn. 



Parus ceeruleus, Linn. S. N. i. p. 341 (1766) ; Hewitson, i, 

p. 151 ; Yarr. ed. 4, i. p. 483; Dresser, iii. p. 131. 
Parus coeruleus, Naum. iv. p. 62; Macg. ii. p. 431. 

Mesange hleue, French ; Blaumeise, German ; Herrerillo, 
Spanish. 

More or less abundant, and resident tliroughout Great 
Britain and Ireland. 



n 










West, Newman & Co., Chromo-litli. 



BLUE TITMOUSE. 
Parus caeruleus, Linn. 



, J-t, 



COAL TITMOUSE. 

PARUS ATER, Linn. 



Parus ater, Linn. S. N. i. p. 341 (1766) ; Naum. iv. p. 34; 
Dresser, iii. p. 87. 

Mesange noire, French -, Kohlmeise, German. 



This race of Coal-Titmouse is common on many parts 
of the continent of Europe, but apparently scarce in our 
islands, in which the Parus britannicus of Messrs. Sharpe 
and Dresser is the common representative form of the 
species. 

I give figures of both races ; the latter is locally 
common and resident in the British Islands. 




COAL TITMOUSE, 
Parus ater, Linn. 




BRITISH COAL TITMOUSE. 
Parus br-ita^Tinicus, Sharp-e- & Dress e^r. 



Hanhart CliToro o ]i hi - 



\ 05 



MAESH-TITMOUSE. 

PARUS PALUSTRIS, Linn. 



Parus palustris, Linn. S. N. i. p. 341 (1766); Naum. iv. 
p. 50 ; Macg. ii. p. 445 ; Hewitson, i. p. 157 ; Yarr. 
ed. 4j i. p. 495 ; Dresser, iii. p. 99. 

Mesange nonnette, French ; Sumpfmeise, German. 

This bird, though known as the Marsh-Titmouse, is 
by no means exclusively, or indeed especially, addicted 
to marshy districts, but may be found in the same varied 
localities as the other British species of the genus Parus ; 
it is locally common throughout England and in some 
parts of Scotland, but appears to be rarely met with 
in Ireland. Resident in all the localities in which it is 
found. 




# 




"West, Newman & Co., Chroino-lith. 



MARSH TITMOUSE 

Parus palustris, Lmn. 



§^^3 




G Ke.ulemaji.s deleLlitK. 



CRESTED TITMOUvSE 
Pams cristatias.XrMM . 



Miittern Bros . imp . 



I >>•/ 



CEESTED TITMOUSE. 

PARUS CRIST ATUS, Linn. 



Parus cristatus, Linn. S. N. i. p. 340 (1766) ; Naum. iv. 

p. 42 ; Macg. ii. p. 450 ; Hewitson, i. p. 154 ; Yarr. 

ed. 4, i. p. 499. 
Lopliophanes cristatus, Dresser, iii. p. 151. 

Mesange hujjpee, French ; Hauhen-Meise, German ; Capu- 
chino, Spanish. 

Although there are several records of the occurrence 
of this pretty and remarkable little bird in England 
and Ireland, some at least are not clearly or satisfac- 
torily proven, and from a British point of view we may 
fairly consider it to be virtually restricted to certain 
districts in the Highlands of Scotland. My friend 
Lieut.-Colonel Irby, who has very recently visited a 
breeding-locality of this species, has furnished me with 
the following remarks : — " The Crested Titmouse is 
common in the Spey district, where there are old and 
decayed pine-trees, but is very local — found in one 
small valley and absent in the next. A hole about 
eight inches deep and enlarged at the bottom is exca- 
vated vertically in a rotten fir-stump or decayed alder, 
and the nest, which is very scant, consists of moss lined 



with hair or felt ; the usual complement of eggs is 
four." 

I have never been in any of the Highland breeding- 
localities of this bird at the nesting-season, but I may 
here mention that a nest now in my possession, sent to 
me from Scotland many years ago, tallies exactly with 
Col. Irby's description, being decidedly scanty in 
material as compared with nests of other species of the 
family, composed of fine green moss and lined with 
hairs of the Squirrel. I found this Titmouse in con- 
siderable abundance during the winter months in the 
fir-woods of the Canton de Vaud, near Lausanne ; it 
certainly breeds there, but was comparatively scarce in 
April and May, probably retiring as a rule to higher 
ground for nesting purposes. I met with this species 
on the Spanish side of the Pyrenees in Aragon and 
Navarre, and Col. Irby informs me that it is common 
..in the cork- and pine-woods in the neighbourhood of 
Gibraltar and Algeciras. 

The Crested Titmouse in habits resembles the other 
members of the Tit family, being an active restless 
bird, constantly on the move in search of food; the 
ordinary call is a jarring monosyllable, followed by 
three or four prolonged ringing notes. This bird, in 
my experience, does not long support confinement in a 
cage. 



1C<] 



LONG-TAILED TITMOUSE. 

ACRED UL A CAUDATA {Linn.). 



Parus caudatus^ Linn. S. N. i. p. 3J^2 (1766) ; Nuum. iv, 

p. 82. 
Acredula caudata, Dresser, iii. p. Q7 . 

Mesange a longue queue, French ; Schwanz-Meise , Ger- 
man. 



Very common throughout the British Islands, except 
in the extreme north. The form Mdth the dark head- 
streak is the most common in our country, and has been 
treated as a distinct species by several ornithologists, 
under the name of Acredula rosea. 

The White-headed is the prevailing form in Northern 
and Central Europe. 




LONG-TAILEi:> TITMOUSE 
Acredu]a ceLxidaita. (Ltrbr/y) 



Haxibapt Chroma lith , 



NUTHATCH. 

SITTA CyESIA, Wolf. 



Sitta caesia^ Wolf, Taschenb. deutsch. Vog. i. p. 128 (1810). 
Sitta europsea, Naum. v. p. 377; Macg. iii. p. 48; Hewitson, 

i. p. 247. 
Sitta csesia^ Yarr. ed. 4^ i. p. 473; Dresser, iii. p. 175. 

Torche-pot, French ; Spechtmeise, German ; Trepatroncos, 
Spanish. 

This lively and most amusing little bird is well known 
in most parts of England ; but, according to Yarrell, is 
not found in Ireland, and uncommon in Scotland. 

In its habits of climbing and hammering with its 
beak it resembles the Woodpeckers, but in structure is 
much more closely allied to the Tree-Creeper and Tits. 

Our English Chestnut-bellied Nuthatch has been 
separated by modern naturalists from the race prevalent 
in N. Europe {SUta europaa of Linnseus), in which the 
underparts of the body are pure white. 




J. i3.Keulemax\£ del. et litK. 



NUTHATCH. 
Sitta ceesia.T\Wf. 



tl^ 



TREE-CKEEPER. 

CERTHIA FAMILIARIS, Linn. 



Certhia familiaris^ Linn. S. N. i. p. 184 (1766) ; Naum. v. 
p. 398; Macg. iii. p. 33; Hewitson, i. p. 243; Yarr. 
ed. 4j i. p. 468; Dresser, iii. p. 195. 

Grimpereaufamilier,¥renc]i; Baumlaufer, GerWiSin.; Barba- 
jelena, Trepa-troncas, Spanish. 

Resident and abundant in suitably wooded localities 
throughout the United Kingdom. 




TREE-CREEPER, 
Certhia farniliaris, Linn. 



Mr 



EOCK-CKEEPEE. 

TICHODROMA MURARIA {Linn.). 



Certhia muraria, Linn. S. N. i. p. 184 (1766). 
Tichodroma muraria, Naum. v. p. 421 ; Yarr. ed. 4, iii. p. ix; 
Dresser, iii. p. 207. 

Tichodrome echelette, Grimpereau de inurailles, Pic 
d'araignees, French ; Mauerldufer, German ; Araftero, 
Pela rocas, Spanish. 

Two instances only of the occurrence of this remark- 
able and very beautiful bird in our country have hitherto 
been recorded ; with regard to the first of these I quote 
from a most interesting correspondence between Robert 
Marsham of Stratton-Strawless in Norfolk and Gilbert 
White of Selborne, communicated to the Transactions 
of the Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' Society by the 
Rev. H. P. Marsham and Professor Bell, and published 
in the Journal of that Society, vol. ii. pp. 133-195 : at 
p. 180 of the volume to which I refer, under the date 
of October 30, 1792, Marsham writes to White as 
follows : — " My man has just now shot me a bird, which 
was flying about my house : I am confident I have 
never seen its likeness before. But, on application to 
Wilughby, I conclude it is the Wall-Creeper, or Spider- 



■^>^ 




Litho. W. Gi-e-ve, Berlin. 



ROCK-CREEPER. 
Tichodroma muraria iLhm.i. 



"1 

catcher. I find he had not seen it in England. It is 
very beautifully coloured, though the chief is cinereous ; 
but the shades of red on the wings, and the large spots 
of white and yellow on the quill-feathers, are uncommonly 
pleasing. You see Wilughby does not mention them." 
With reference to the second occurrence, I quote from 
' The Birds of Lancashire ' by Mr. F. S. Mitchell, who, 
at p. 56 of his work, informs us that one of this species 
was shot at Sabden, a village at the foot of Pendle Hill, 
on May 8, 1872 ; it was too much mangled to allow 
of the determination of its sex, but was preserved by 
Mr. W. Naylor of Whalley, and is now in Mr. Mitchell's 
possession. 

To make the acquaintance of this species in its 
native haunts during the summer months, we must 
visit limestone-cliffs at a considerable height above the 
sea. My own acquaintance with the Wall-Creeper was 
first formed high up in the Italian Alps during the 
month of August ; I found it in small family-partieSj 
generally frequenting precipitous faces of rock ; the birds 
examine every nook and crevice, not, as in the case of 
the Woodpeckers, by continuous climbing, but by a 
series of short hops in some degrees resembling the 
method of progression of the Nuthatch : the birds thus 
observed by me appeared to be perfectly fearless of man, 
probably from their small acquaintance with him, and 
permitted of a very close observation of their habits ; 
they seemed to find abundant food in the crannies and 
small fissures of the limestone upon which I could hardly 
bear my hand in the full blaze of noon ; after carefully 
examining one of these localities the bird would flit with 



a very peculiar butterfly-like flight to the lower end of 
another crevice in the rock. I never saw one of them 
progress head downwards or sideways, and the only 
sound that I heard from them was a rapidly repeated 
single note somewhat resembling that of the Wryneck. 

In the winter months the Wall-Creeper may often be 
met with on old buildings and in gorges near the sea in 
Southern France and along the Italian Riviera ; I have 
known of its occurrence at that season within a very 
short distance of Toulon, in the towns of Nice, Mentone, 
Albenga, and Genoa. I once had the ofl'er of one of 
these birds alive from a London dealer, but, as the price 
was excessive and the bird in Switzerland, I declined to 
run the risk. With regard to the occurrence of this 
species in England, I consider that the chances of 
escape from captivity are in these instances so infini- 
tesimal that the bird is fairly entitled to rank in our 
British list. 



WEEN. 

TROGLODYTES PARVULUS, Koch. 



Troglodytes parvulus^ Koch, Syst. d. baier. Zool. p. 161 
(1816) ; Naum. iii. p. 725 ; Yarr. ed. 4, i. p. 460 ; 
Dresser, iii. p. 219. 

Anorthura troglodytes^ Macg. iii. p. 15. 

Troglodytes vulgaris, Hewitson, i. p. 244. 

Roitelet, Troglodyte mignon, French ; Zaun-Schlupfer, Ger- 
man; Cucito, Ratilla, Spanish. 

Very common and resident throughout the British 
Islands. 




WREN, 
Troglodytes parvulus^ Koch. 



Just ready, Demy Syo. Price 2s., post-free. 

BRITISH BIRDS: 

KEY LIST. 

BY 

LlEUT.-COLONEL L. HOWARD IRBY, 

AUTHOR OP ' ORNITHOLOGY OF THE STRAITS OP GIBRALTAR.' 




This attempt at a " Key List " of British Birds is not 
intended to be of use to scientific ornithologists ; but the 
compiler hopes it may be useful to those having a slight 
knowledge of birds, so as to enable them to determine a 
species without having to search through bulky volumes. 

Every endeavour has been made to avoid scientific terms 
and to be as concise as possible. 

Those American land-birds hitherto included in " British ■" 
lists have been omitted^ and others might with propriety be 
struck out — such as specimens escaped from captivity, or 
included without sufficient inquiry as to their authenticity. 

» As far as possible, the nomenclature and arrangement of 
the ' Ibis ' List have been adhered to. 




LONDON 



R. H. POETER, 6 TENTERDEN STREET, HANOVER 
SQUARE, W. 

1888. 



Q-: 



(f 



PART VII.] 



^ 



[SEPTEMBER 1338, 



COLOURED FIGURES 



OF THE 



BIEDS OF THE BEITISH ISLAIDS. 



ISSUED BY 



LORD LILEOED, E.Z.S. &c., 

PRESIDENT OF THE BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' ITNION. 



LONDON: 

R. H. POKTER, 6 TENTERDEN STREET, W. 

1888. 



a 






-3 



iJ 



PHINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS.] PrlCC QS. 6d. 



[red lion court, fleet street. 



I 



CONTENTS or PAET VII. 




BLACKBIRD. 

TuRDUs MERULAj Linn. 

ALPINE ACCENTOR. 

Accentor collaris {Scop.). 

COMMON OR BROWN LINNET. 
LiNOTA CANNABiNA {Linn.). 

ROSE-COLOURED PASTOR. 
Pastor roseus {Linn.). 

PIED WOODPECKER. 
Picus MAJOR^ Linn. 

HOOPOE. 

Upupa epops^ Linn. 



NIGHT-HERON. 

Nycticorax griseus {Linn.) . 

BITTERN. 

BoTAURUs sTELLARis {Linn.). 

BLACK GROUSE. 

Tetrao tetrix, Linn. 

WOODCOCK. 

ScoLOPAx rusticula, Linn. 

SOOTY SHEARWATER. 

PuFFiNus GRISEUS {Gmel.) . 

BULWER'S PETREL. 

Procellaria bulwerii, Jardine 

[6f Selby. 




Just ready. Demy %vo. Price 2s., post-free. 

BRITISH BIRDS: 

KEY LIST. 

BY 

LlEUT.-COLONEL L. HOWARD IrBY, 

AUTHOR OF 'CRNITIIOLOGY OP THE STSAITS OF GIBRALTAU.' 





This attempt at a " Key List '^ or British Birds is not 
intended to be of use to scientific ornithologists ; but the 
compiler hopes it may be useful to those having a slight 
knowledge of birds, so as to enable tbem to determine a 
species without having to search through bulky volumes. 

Every endeavour has been made to avoid scientific terms 
and to be as concise as possible. 

Those American land-birds hitherto included in '^ British^' 
lists have been omitted, and others might with propriety be 
struck out — such as specimens escaped from captivity, or 
included without sufficient inquiry as to their authenticity. 

As far as possible, the nomenclature and arrangement of 
the ' Ibis ' List have been adhered to. 

" This little work, compiled by one of our best practical Ornitho- 
logists and sportsmen, is intended for the use of those who aheady 
have a slight knowledge of birds, but require a handy guide to the 
diagnostic characters of the species as a companion when travelling. 
It promises to be most useful, and certainly represents a great deal 
of research in a small compass — ^teaelt perfect." — Athenceum. 



LONDON: 

K. H. PORTER, 6 TEJSTTERDEI^ STREET, HANOVER 
SQUARE, W. 

1888. 




(W 




PART VIII.] 



[NOVEMBER 1888. 



COLOURED FIGURES 



OF THE 



BIEDS OF THE BKITISH ISLAIDS. 



ISSUED BY 



LOED LILFOUD, P.Z.S. &c., 

phesident of the British oenitholo gists' union. 



LONDON: 

11. H. POETEE, 6 TENTEEDEX STEEET, W. 

1888. 



O" 



^. 



'3^ 



PBIKTED BX TAYLoB AND rBAXCIS,] 



Price 9s. 6d. 



[reu jliox covkt, fleet street. 



I 




CONTENTS OF PAET VIIL 



NUTHATCH. 

SiTTA CjESIAj Wolf. 

GKET-BACKED WAGTAIL. 
MoTACiLLA ALBA, Linn. 

PIED OR COMMON WAGTAIL. 
MoTACiLLA LUGUBRiSj Temm. 

GEEAT GREY SHEIKE. 
Lanius excubitor, lAnn. 

CHAFEINCH. 

Fringilla Calebs, Linn. 

BULLFINCH. 

Pyrrhula vulgaris, Temm. 



COMMON KINGEISHEE. 
Alcedo ispida, Linn. 

COMMON HEEON. 

Ardea cinerea, Linn. 

MALLAED or WILD DUCK. 
Anas boschas, Linn. 

TEAL. 

Anas crecca, Linn. 

EED-LEGGED PAETEIDGE. 
Caccabis rufa {Linn.). 

GEEAT SHEAEWATEE. 
PUFFINUS MAJOR, Fttbev. 




Now ready y Lemy 8yo. Price 2s., post-free. 

BRITISH BIRDS: 

KEY LIST. 

BY 

LlEUT.-COLONEL L. HOWARD IRBY, 

ArTIIOR OP ' ORNITnOLOGY OF THE STRAITS OF GIBRALTAR.' 



This attempt at a "Key List" of Britisli Birds is uot 
intended to be of use to scientific ornithologists ; but the 
compiler hopes it may be useful to those having a slight 
knowledge of birds, so as to enable them to determine a 
species without having to search through bulky volumes. 

Every endeavour has been made to avoid scientific terms 
and to be as concise as possible. 

Those American land-birds hitherto included in " British ^' 
lists have been omitted^ and others might with propriety be 
struck out — such as specimens escaped from captivity, or 
included without sufficient inquiry as to their authenticity. 

As far as possible, the nomenclature and arrangement of 
the ' Ibis ' List have been adhered to. 

" This little work, compiled by one of our best practical Oruitho- 
logists and sportsmen, is intended for the use of those who already 
have a slight knowledge of birds, but require a handy guide to the 
diagnostic characters of the species as a companion when travelling. 
It promises to be most useful, and certainly represents a great deal 
of research in a small compass — nearly perfect." — Athenceum. 




LONDON 



II. H. POIiTEU, G TENTERDEIn" STREET, HANOVER 
SQUARE, W. 

1888. 



n 



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^ 



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PART IX.] 



[DECEMBER 1888. 



4i 



COLOURED FIGURES 



OF THE 



BIEDS OF THE BEITISH ISLAIDS. 



ISSUED BY 



LORD LILEOED, P.Z.S. &c., 

PBESIDENT OF THE BEITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 



LONDON: 

E. H. PORTEE, 6 TENTEEDEN STEEET, W. 

1888. 



U 






i) 



u 



PRINTED BT TATLOB AKD FEAXCIS,] PviCB OS. 6d. i-RBX) LIOK COURT, FLEET STREET. 



CONTENTS OF PAET IX. 



NIGHTINGALE. 

Daulias luscinia (Linn.). 

AQUATIC WARBLEE. 

ACROCEPHALUS AQUATICUS 

[{GmeL), 
GRASSHOPPEE WAEBLEE. 

LOCUSTELLA N^VIA {Bodd.). 

MEADOW-PIPIT. 

Anthus pratensis {Linn.). 

GOLDEN OEIOLE. 

Oriolus galbulAj Linn. 



TEEE-SPAEEOW. 

Passer montanus {Linn.). 

PIED WOODPECKEE. 
Picus MAJOR, Linn. 

BEE-EATEE. 

Merops apiaster, Linn. 

COMMON OE GEEY PAETEIDGE. 
Perdix cinerea, Lath. 

PTAEMIGAN. (3 Plates.) 
Lagopus mutus {Montin). 



Now ready. Demy 8vo. Price 2s., post-free. 

BRITISH BIRDS: 

KEY LIST. 

BY 

LlEUT.-COLONEL L. HOWARD IRBY, 

AUTHOE OP ' ORNITHOLOGY OF THE STRAITS OF GIBRALTAR.' 



This attempt at a " Key List " of Britisli Birds is not 
intended to be of use to scientific ornithologists ; but the 
compiler hopes it may be useful to those having a slight 
knowledge of birds^ so as to enable them to determine a 
species without having to search through bulky volumes. 

Every endeavour has been made to avoid scientific terms 
and to be as concise as possible. 

Those American land-birds hitherto included in " British '' 
lists have been omitted, and others might with propriety be 
struck out — such as specimens escaped from captivity^ or 
included without sufficient inquiry as to their authenticity. 

As far as possible^ the nomenclature and arrangement of 
the ' Ibis ' List have been adhered to. 

" This little work, compiled by one of our best practical Ornitho- 
logists and sportsmen, is intended for the use of those who already 
have a slight knowledge of birds, but require a handy guide to the 
diagnostic characters of the species as a companion when travelling. 
It promises to he most useful, and certainly represents a great deal 
of research in a small compass — jteaext pekfect." — Atheyiamm. 

" This work, written by an excellent practical ornithologist, is 
likely to prove of great service, owing to the large amount of infor- 
mation compressed into a small compass." — Ihis. 

" Has supplied a real want — a hand pocket-book giving just the 
diagnostic characters of every species. It is a desirable supplement 
to the ' List of British Birds,' published by the British Ornithologists' 
Union, which dealt with the nomenclature of the various species, but 
which might also with advantage have contained diagnoses, such as 
Colonel Irby's industry has now supplied." — Nature. 

" Many boys, and many men also, who are lovers of the country, 
have felt the need of a guide to our native birds, which, whilst 
neither prolix nor technical, should yet contain sufficient infor- 
mation to enable them to identify birds when in doubt. This handy 
little book of sixty pages wiU suit such inquirers." — BelVs Weekly 
Messenyer. 

LONDON: 

E. H. PORTER, 6 TENTERDEIS" STREET, HANOVER 
SQUARE, W. 

1888. 




I 



% 

PART X] [MARCH 1889. 



D 




COLOURED FIGURES 



OF THE 



BIEDS or THE BEITISH ISLAIDS. 



ISSUED BY 

LOED LILEOP.D, P.Z.S. &c., 

PRESIDENT OF THE BRITISK ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 



) ii^=^ ^ 



LONDON: 
E.. H. PORTEK, IS PRINCES STREET, CAYEXDISH SQUARE, W 

1889. 

^ ^1^ 



PRISTKB BT TATtOR AXl) iEANCIS,] P/'tCG QS. 6(1. [UKD LION COL'RT, FLKET STlUtii'r. 



CONTENTS OF PAET X. 




GOLDEN EAGLE. 

Aquila CHRYSAETos [Linn.). 

EAVEN. 

CoRTUs coRAX, Linn. 

cakeio:n"-crow. 

CoRvus coRONE, Linu. 

JACKDAW. 

CoRvus MONEDULA, Linn. 

JAY. 

Garrulus glandarius {Linn.), 

EED-EILLED CHOUGH. 

Pyrrhocoras graculus {Linn. 



EICHAED'S PIPIT. 

Anthus richardi, Fieill. 

BAEEED OR LESSEE SPOTTED 
WOODPECKEE. 
Picus MINOR, Linn. 

PUFEIX. 

Fratercula arctica {Linn.) . 

WHITE-FEONTED GOOSE. 

AnSER ALBIFRONS {Scop.). 

SHOVELLEE. 

Anas clypeatAj Linn. 

EED-CEESTED POCHAED. 
Fuligula rufina {Pall.). 



Demy %vo. Price 2s., post-free, 

BRITISH BIRDS 

KEY LIST. 



BY 

LlEUT.-COLONEL L. HOWARD IRBY, 

AUTHOR OF ' ORNITHOLOGY OF THE STRAITS OF QIBEALTAE.' 




This attempt at a " Key List " of Britisli Birds is not 
intended to be of use to scientific ornithologists ; but the 
compiler hopes it may be useful to those having a slight 
knowledge of birds, so as to enable them to determine a 
species without having to search through bulky volumes. 

Every endeavour has been made to avoid scientific terms 
and to be as concise as possible. 

Those American land-birds hitherto included in " British ^' 
lists have been omitted^ and others might with propriety be 
struck out — such as specimens escaped from captivity, or 
included without sufiicient inquiry as to their authenticity. 

As far as possible, the nomenclature and arrangement of 
the ' Ibis ' List have been adhered to. 

" This little work, compiled by one of our best practical Ornitho- 
logists and sportsmen, is intended for the use of those who already 
have a slight knowledge of birds, but require a handy guide to the 
diagnostic characters of the species as a companion when travelling. 
It promises to be most useful, and certainly represents a great deal 
of research in a small compass — neaely peepect." — Atlienmum. 

" This work, written by an excellent practical ornithologist, is 
likely to prove of great service, owing to the laeqe amount oe infoe- 

MATION COMPEESSED INTO A SMALL COMPASS." Ibis. 

"Has SUPPLIED a eeal want — a hand pocket-book giving just the 
diagnostic characters of every species. It is a desirable supplement 
to the ' List of l^ritish Birds,' published by the British Ornithologists" 
Union, which dealt with the nomenclature of the various species, but 
which might also with advantage have contained diagnoses, such as 
Colonel Ieby's industey has now supplied." — Nature. 

" Many boys, and many men also, who are lovers of the country, 
have felt the need of a guide to our native birds, which, whilst 
neither prolix nor technical, should yet contain sufficient infor- 
mation to enable them to identify birds when in doubt. This handy 

LITTLE BOOK OF SIXTY PAGES WILL SUIT SUCH INaUIEEES." BclVs WceMy 

Messenger. 





LONDON: 

E. H. PORTER, 18 PRII^CES STREET, CAVENDISH 
SQUARE, W. 



AMNH LIBRARY 



100013815 



ft 





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